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ifWonummta ^Ritualia (Catoiae 











The ^:,v^ "^'o^k 





My Loed, 

[HERE are obvious reasons why I 
should neither venture, nor presume, 
to obtrude more than the mere ex- 
pression of my earnest sense of the 
many benefits which have followed your Lord- 
ship's unwearied labours in the Diocese, over 
which, by the Divine Permission, you have been 

I was made deacon, and ordained to the 
priesthood, by your Lordship : since that time, 
with the exception of a very brief interval, I have 
exercised the duties of my office, and resided, 
in this Diocese. And now, as an acknowledg- 
ment, at least most sincere, of gratitude for 
much and long continued kindness, I gladly 
avail myself of the permission which has been 
given me, and would humbly dedicate these 
volumes to your Lordship. 


1 should be rejoiced to hope, that this work 
may seem to approve itself to your Lordship's 
judgment, as answering in some degree, though 
imperfectly, the end at which I have aimed ; 
namely, the illustration of our Common Prayer 
Book from ancient documents, and its original 

I pray that it may please God, long to bless 
your Lordship with every spiritual and good 
gift : and I am, with feelings of deep respect 
and attachment. 

My Lord, 

Your most faithful and obliged servant, 

May 10th, 1847. 




jRELIMINARY Dissertation j 

I^IStfi The Order of Coronation iij 

Royal Obsequies Ixvj 

Offices of Ordination Ixxvij 

Consecration of Bishops cxx 

Office of Intbronization cxxxj 

Reception of the Pall cxxxiv 

Royal and Episcopal Receptions . cxlj 

Reconciliation of a Church cxlv 

Form of Degradation . . • . ^ clj 

Forms of Healing, and of blessing Cramp-rings .... civ 

De Benedictione et Coronatione Regis ........ 1 

Offidum Coronationis Regin» 49 

Appendix to the Order of Coronation. 

First rubric of the Liber Regalis 63 

The Order of Coronation according to the pontifical 

of Egbert, archbishop of York 74 

The Order of the Coronation of her Majesty Queen Vic- 
toria 83 

The Coronation of a Queen Consort 139 

Modus faciendi Tonsuras 143 

Celebratio Ordinum 153 

Appendix 226 

Decretum de electo Episcopo 238 

Consecratio electi in Episcopum 241 

Intbronizatio Episcopi 281 

De Pallio Archiepiscopi 291 

Ordo ad recipiendum Prtelatum, etc 303 

Reconciliatio Ecclesise pollute, Tel Coameterii 307 


IksMsdietig vexUkraai 

— ^ aori B^ epbeo|»ltt S22 

Ad df^^rdbndHi sMEf^otet 324 

Ad rertiteoidn ^ndatom 327 

lumnrHaiii^ 330 

^ •* — Bi««innf CnflDp-rbiga 335 

— "-^BiddiB^tiieBedes 341 

ExbortAtioo b^DK CoBMiiiiaii 348 

J-'urti) of EKbortstMHi al vistiiig the Sick 350 

l>t '\'iiihat«aie I nfii m omm 353 

^iqifikaeiit to liie fint two TolonMs 359 

ludex , 397 


^reUminarp Msmtttation upon ttnt 

iDf&ttfi Of Coronation, flDrHination, 

Consecration of IBisbops, 




i&reliminar? Dfegertatton. 


I HE consecration of sovereigns by the minis- 
ters of religion, reaches to an antiquity 
higher than the Christian sera : but I need 
not enter here into the history of the unc- 
tion and coronation of the ancient Jewish kings. The 
accounts which we have in the Sacred Scriptures will 
readily occur to the recollection of the reader ; ^ and 
if he would enquire further, there are many writers 
who, having investigated that part of the subject, will 
afford him very full information upon it.' 

S. Augustine has declared that the anointing of kings 
was a rite always peculiar to the people of God : and 
not adopted at any time by the heathens. ^^ Unctus 
est," he says, ^^ Deus a Deo : unctum audis, Christum 
intellige : etenim Christus a chrismate. Hoc nomen 
quod appellatur Christus, unctionis est : nee in aliquo 
alibi ungebantur reges et sacerdotes, nisi in illo regno, 

^ The reader will not forget the 
remarkable parable of Jotham, in 
the Book of Judges: and the 
speech given to the bramble. 

* Besides the authors more 

usually referred to, the student 
will do well to consult the 8th ch. 
§. 1. of Selden*8 Titles of Honour, 
and the third book of Scacchus, 
Sacrorum eUeochrismatan fiiy- 

.'> i^reliminarp £)i00ettation« 

u>; CbrUtus prophetabatur et ungebatur, et unde ven- 
turt;ai ent Christi nomen : nusquam alibi omnino, in 
juu'la genta, in nullo regno."* 

We know not who was the first Christian prince, 
either anointed or crowned by the bishops of the 
Church. Theodosius the younger is supposed to have 
been the first, who was crowned by the patriarch of 
Constantinople ; and Habertus acknowledges that he 
cannot find any authority for such a solemnization be- 
fore his time : a. d. 408. " Nemo mihi a patriarcha 
coronatus legitur ante Theodosium jun. de quo Theo- 

dorus Lector, lib. 2. o vm &eoioa-io; o-Ti^Qs); inro rou UfofO^ou 

TTarfia^xoy"* Shortly after the time of that emperor 
there appears to be little reason to question the fact, 
in the case of the emperor Justin : concerning whom 
Baronius quotes an epistle from John, the then patri- 
arch of Constantinople : " Ideo coronam gratiae super 
eum coelitus declinavit, ut affluenter in sacrum caput 
ejus misericordia funderetur : omnique annuntiationis 
ejus tempore cum magna voce Deum omnium Princi- 
pem glorificaverunt, quoniam talem verticem manibus 
meis tali corona decoravit."^ 

But before this date, we have the famous history of 
Clovis in the West, of whom it has been asserted, that 
he was both crowned, and anointed.^ And more thau 

* JSnarrat, cit. Habert. Pon- dence, that in the earliest corona- 
Hf. Grac, p. 626. tions of the Greek emperors, unc- 

* Pontif. Grac, p. 627. tion formed a part of the solemnity. 
^ AnnaL an. 519. Compare It has been supposed so : but the 

the account of the second corona- proof appears to rest upon an ex- 
tion of the same emperor^ by pope pression of Onuphrius, cited by- 
John I. in the Liber pontif. torn. 1. Selden. ^ ConstantinopoU, vel sub 
p. 192. Justiniano, vel post ejus statim 

* For there seems to be no evi- obitum, electioni imperatoris addi. 

©met of Coronation- v 

this : that the sacred oil was brought down by an angel 
from heaven^ for that purpose. The story however 
would prove too much, and as a result which may 
rather have been anticipated, the enquiry which has 
been made into the truth of the miracle, has cast more 
than doubt upon even the coronation of Clovis. For 
the evidence in proof of the miraculous oil, must be set 
down as worthless : the best authors of the sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth centuries, men who, one or the other, 
would have undoubtedly spoken of it, if it had been 
true, say not a word upon the matter : and until, at 
last, the legend begins to be heard of, the oil is men- 
tioned in connexion, not with the coronation^ but with 
the baptism of Clovis J The writers of those ages im- 
mediately succeeding the supposed miracle, speak fre- 
quently of the chrism with which Clovis was anointed, 
and call it "holy" or " sacred chrism:" but this, in 
the same sense in which they would have spoken of all 
chrism, and not as having been in any way miracu- 
lously provided. Thus, to quote one of them, and 

turn, ut qnum primum imperator Leo IV. In which latter case we 

renantiatus esset, a patriarcha have very coDsiderahle authority : 

ConstantiDopolitano in raagpaa By- viz. his contemporary Asser, 

zantii basilica oleo unctus dia- Malmesbury,Hoveden, and others. 

demate aureo redimeretur." De But still it must be referred to his 
eomitUs Imperatoriis. cap, 2. . confirmation, which they relate 

did also take place: for it is 

^ The whole legend of the coro- scarcely credible that he should 

nation of Clovis may be probably so long beforehand, as a child, 

attributed to a perverted tradition with two elder brothers, and in 

of his baptism and confirmation : his father's life-time, be anointed 

in the same way as it has been for a king. See Selden, Titlei 

asserted, that our king Alfred of Honour, p. 115. and the au- 

was anointed king at Rome, by thors cited by him. 


Ipceliminarp £)i00ertation« 

almost a contemporary : ^' Rex omnipotentem Domi- 
nam in Trinitate coi^essus, baptizatus est a sancto 

Remigio, in nomine Patris, etc. et sacro chrismate 

delibutus cum signaculo crucis/'^ 

But towards the end of the ninth century, nearly 
four hundred years after the baptism of Clovis, an 
archbishop of Rheims, Hincmar, claimed for the holy 
oil the honour of having been miraculously sent down 
from heaven. I place his account in the note below :* 
and extract here from his Capitular the assertion, also 
first made by him, that Clovis was anointed with this 
to be emperor ; he is speaking of Charles the Bald. 
" Sanct8B memorise pater suus Hludowicus pius, impe- 
rator augustus, ex progenie Hludowici {Clodaveum in- 
telligit) regis Francorum inclyti, per beati Remigii 
Francorum apostoli catholicam praedicationem cum 
integra gente conversi, et cum tribus Francorum mil- 
libus, vigilia sancti Pasch® in Remensi metropoli bap- 

' Rorico Monacbus. in Chro' 
nico, lib, 2. 

* Hincmar in vita S. Remigii. 
** Cum vero penrenigsent ad bap- 
tisterium, clericus, qui chrisma 
ferebat, a populo est interceptus, 
ut ad fontem venire nequiverit. 
Sanctificato autem fonte, outu 
divino cbrisraa defuit. Et quia 
propter populi pressuram ulli non 
patebat egressus vel ingressus ec- 
clesisB, sanctus pontifex, oculis ac 
manibus proteusis in coBlum, coepit 
tadte orare cum lacrymis. Et 
ecce Bubito columbanive candidior 
attulit in rostro ampuUulam cbris- 
mate lancto repletam, cujus odore 

miriOco super omnes odores, quos 
ante in baptisterio senserant, om- 
nes qui aderantinestimabili suavi- 
tate repleti sunt. Accipiente autem 
sancto pontificeipsam ampullulam» 
species columb» disparuit. De 
quo cbrismate fudit venerandus 
episcopus in fontem sacratum. 
Viso autem rex tanto miraculo, 
abnegatis diaboli pompis et operi- 
bus ejus, petiit se a sancto ponti- 
fice baptizari, etc, Et susceptus 
ab ipso pontifice de sacro fonte, 
perunctus est sacro cbrismate, cum 
signo sanct» crucis Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi.'* Apud Suriutn, Id 

iDtHtt of Coronation. vii 

tizati, et coelitus sumpto chrismate, unde adhuc babe- 
inus, perimcti, et in regem sacrati, exbortus, etc.'' 

Now, not only would we naturally look witb some 
suspicion upon a history of an event, wbetber miracu- 
lous or not, so long after its supposed occurrence, but 
with that suspicion encreased, if it came from a quarter 
likely to be personally interested in the matter. Hincr 
mar was archbishop of Rheims: and sixteen arch- 
bishops had occupied that see between S. Remigius 
and himself, of not one of whom can it be proved, 
that he had ever heard of such a miracle. But more 
than this : the account he gives us is full of errors : 
Hincmar says that Clovis was baptized in the metro- 
politan church ; a contemporary of the king, Nicetius 
bishop of Treves, declares that it took place in the 
church of S. Martin :^^ — and again, that it was on the 
vigil of Easter Day; but another contemporary, 
Avitus, bishop of Vienna, declares that it was upon 
Christmas Eve. 

So that, as the supposed history of the oil used at 
the coronation of the kings of France' (that it was first 
provided from heaven for Clovis, and afterwards no less 
miraculously preserved, without wasting, at Rheims), 
rests upon no better or earlier authority than that of 
Hincmar in the ninth century, who was ignorant of 
the fiicts of the case, we must conclude that the whole 
is a mere story, unworthy of the least credit. Nor 
should I have delayed to examine it, even so shortly, 
had it not been for the general reception with which it 

^ Epiti. €id Clodonoindam, ont other errors Id the ar<^- 

dt. Chifletio, de ampulla Remef^ bishop's story, which are scarcely 

n nova di$qvmtio, A learned required to satisfy the reader, and 

treatise ; in whidi the writer points I have omitted them. 

viii Prettminaci» Viggatatimi. 

has been received, and the attempts by some to prove, 
that on account of this miraculous oil, the French 
kings have a precedence over other sovereigns. 

There appears to be sufficient evidence, that the rite 
of anointing, can be traced higher with respect to the 
kings and princes of England, than of any other coun- 
try. And I do not see, how it could be disproved, if 
one was inclined to assert that the ceremony took its 
origin from our own forefathers ; and was from them 
adopted into the ceremonial of other churches. For, 
not only are the coronation of Clovis, and his unction 
with any oil, though not miraculous, incapable of being 
substantiated, but it has been confessed by very learned 
writers, that Pepin, in the eighth centur}-, was the first 
French king who was anointed. Thus, Selden says ; 
" the first testimony that is worthy of credit for any 
unction of their kings, is that which the stories have 
of king Pepin. So say Regino, Sigebert, Sifliidus, 
and enough others of the antients." " And Chifletius ; 
** Rpinus omnium Franciae regum primus, imitatus 
Judaeomm reges, ut so sacra unctione venerabiliorem 
angnstioremque faceret^ scmel atque itcrum ungi volu- 

" TUUm Qfhmmir, p» 1 10* piwe videntur, quippe ante Pippi- 

*• P. 30. diiog^ ** Faur}t€iu9 num qui Suessione a Moguntino 

in Pernor Pq#iji0»<^« probably arehiepiscopo Bonifacio unctus est 

1 the ArtzAy ^xad ewfiom in regem, nuUus ab episcopis be- 

of the Anglo'caxoo Cburcb. nedictus legitur: sed omnes ut 
IeiinctaLftoi(M;^/lU/wingfrom regni imperium adepti erant, a 
Mtttaie» whote jiidgoMroi, UMrn* populis clypeo evecti, reges con- 
ing, and candour, itpooer^rjrqaet' ftituebantur. Observat Mabillo- 
^011 nUdb be bae t»r««iigai«d, oius, post Valesium, solitos turn 
•re eqoaOf to be praised. ^Longe faisse Francorum optimates ad 
^lfjlii^ jp Galiiis reipe§ folefboem constituendum regem convenisse, 
^MfUMTUOi beoedki«^yfM!fn sosce* singulosque in electi verba jurasse, 

iDcoet of Coronation. 


But before the coronation of Pepin, the pontifical of 
archbishop Egbert was the service-book of at least 

traditaqne in manum hasta pro 
sceptro, ezoelso in solio honorifice 
imposuisse." De ant. ecc. rit, 

D'Achery, in the Spicilegiumy 
has printed an ancient treatise 
upon the office and duties of kings, 
addressed to Pepin by Jonas, 
bishop of Orleans at that time. 
It is entitled '* Opusculum de in- 
Btitutione regia." Tom. \,p.S27. 
In the same collection, is another 
treatise of a like kind, written by 
Smaragdus, an abbot, in the viij th 
century: the " Via regia." ibid. 
f>.238. Both these deserve the 
attention of the student. 

About the same time, in Eng- 
land, «A. D. 785, the famous coun- 
cil of Chalcuith devoted two canons 
to the exposition of the duties in- 
cumbent upon kings: viz. the 
xith '* De officio regum:" and 
the xij th '* De ordinatione et ho- 
nore regnm." Concilia, torn* 1 . />• 

There is a book which has ob- 
tainedy most unworthily, the cre- 
dit of a considerable reputation, 
namely, a history of the ceremo- 
nies of French coronations by 
** Monsieur Menin, counsellor to 
the parliament of Metz." 8vo. 
1727. I r^ret to have seen it 
mentioned, without condemnation, 
by so respectable an author, as 
Mr. Taylor, in the preface to hb 
"Glory of Regality:" a work 

which exhibits some amount of 
enquiry. However, this M. Me- 
nin sums up his history in these 
words: and I need scarcely ex- 
plain to the reader that he has ex- 
pressed his belief in the miraculous 
oil of Clovis. " The kings of 
France have not only the happi- 
ness of being the first converts to 
the Christian faith, but they have 
likewise the advantage to derive 
only from God himself the insti- 
tution of the ceremony of "their 
anointing, which has been con- 
veyed down to other Christian 
princes, many ages after, from 
their pattern." />. 20 1 . 

I cannot conclude this note, 
without extracting upon the sub- 
ject of it, important as it is, the 
opinion of the learned ritualist, 
Catalani : and I the rather do so, 
as the reader's attention will be 
drawn by the passage, to another 
case, upon which I do not think it 
necessary to enter further; I 
mean, the benediction of Aidan, 
by S. Columba. Catalani says: 
" Certe Edmundus Martenius, 
ubi agit de solemni regum bene- 
dictione, floccipendens fabulosam 
Clodovei unctionem, ingenue fa- 
tetur, antiquissimam omnium be- 
nedictionem regrum, quas inter le- 
gendum ipsi reperire licuit, earn 
fuisse, qu» a Columba facta est 
jussu angeli m Aidanum Scoto. 
rum regem, cujus meminit Cunie- 

thac iKM^ »c "£.ti^'-ai«u jv;-r wiiiii iff- was fdaoed, and 
^in» vne' J4 iitvi^ lu Sfc* Tie T^ruftyg- wtlZ see lielo^w', la | 
c^i»<v«v4-S >%>L\.r^*^ >\ \ >. i.nx * loir: :c ibe solemnity | 
^>^ 4 vNH-»Uv4i'v»a urn vii^c 3^v».'r-? f »f»L"^5at rinMS during , 
ihoo\5<vttvv k '-v .--u^ivr 3i^ni<i Ci-=rvrh* wre liave 

^v» lV<u«^ >*,>vl ^vu ,-^v«->. ir-nutfiic^fs exstarent ; et 
|MuU» iK»^ .u> jiitv^i'vlHiss. T*-it "jfi -ti-ri esamiiuiitioiiey 

V*.\ux v»uvx^ u v:.v..*^K >- ^^f^-m.n.j &> Selden urges) | 

uv^ ^'l*^'** '^^' ^^*> vvV.vx-Aa % :.v,!i :n.^t be brought, '; 

(iskMfc ihv'^ ub^v v^v a yai-^te^ >v '.a:*:fr <ti>>.-irpcation and I 

UH\^*^*'^i^ '^^^^^* ^ K^ '*uv\ '>;*u.i>i j^ l-x ^be relatioo by 

\t J\uv\vN.u\ v.^; .:>^v o^ iviia.A tt ,»c r^-vr^h. in the year 

T(^\ vW '.uxv' N%^xW .i:t>. j)Co:a:ic bis come down to 

^,, Us^ \\ I iivvv A U i ,xrtv» •v>dL ^aa^i ^eccosie a settled part 

^a vW xA 4UUII X : .vivi s.v>»^ >^-xraiJ :Jir .^c 0&. the &ther 

vii V-K^Vvvh V - vlvi\^ sxtt^unrW^ cckv « Egfertum 

U\vvvvvvx Auivv uvvuvv^^^ nUvImu ^n rtx^ut l:r:a!Ctum, sncces- 

.vvvouv v\uu w^ - ^. y^^^^ ^., ^.^.^ 3^ r^J^J^-ii^ ^his erpression 

MM vvmhV \\\ Mu\\unv^u> V \i ^ Jiat ;jLr^*x:ii^at of very great 

i""' "*^-^*^^^ ^ nvvuu "" *^^ ^'^ ^^^"^"^ t*^.«»«iio fccDe con. 

<<<♦«. !«'»♦ ^^^U^^ xs ^ ''' ^^^^'^' ^''^^^ ^"^ ^** *^ epKcopo conse- 
♦mih. wtilih I ii^V?^^'*' ^^^**^^ ^*«^«^ c»ten>s Wfw »cro oleo imgi cc&- 

♦»fiMM ♦♦ la \ ^'*^^*^\uul con- tvm. I. p. 3^. 
ni f ^.^rf I irilUu VrT i^''*''^*^ «^^'^«^ "* ^***' ^- -^* 

iDcliet of Coronation. xi 

weight, in favour of its strict interpretation, that the 
Saxon Chronicle employs the same phrase : and de- 
clares that Egferth was " hallowed to king :'' " *] 
6c3vejiS ro cynmje 5ehal3ot)." This is the earliest 
coronation alluded to in that chronicle ; in other in- 
stances the accession only is mentioned ; " and I do 
not see any reason why we should not conclude that 
unction, in its proper sense, as ordered hy the pontifical 
of Egbert, formed one of the solemn rites of the first 
known English coronation. 

Having thus spoken somewhat of unction, as con- 
nected with the records, real or pretended, of the most 
ancient coronations, it will be as well to collect here 
some more observations bearing upon that important 
part of the solemnity. 

We have a very remarkable proof of the view in 
which the anointing of kings was regarded in the thir- 
teenth century, as explained and insisted on, by the 
highest ecclesiastical authority at that time recognized 
in this country, in a letter from pope John XXII. to 
Robert Bruce, king of Scotland. After speaking of 
some of the duties incumbent upon kings, he thus pro- 
ceeds : " — ^ qu8B utique perfectius exercenda, iidem 
r^es unctionis sacrse virtute, quam per venerabiles 
Dei ministros antique more suscipiunt, donum gratis 
recipiunt potioris, ut et in prosecutione justi regiminis 
fortius convalescant, et tarn in se, quam in eorum sub- 
ditos prudentiori et sanctiori spiritu dirigantur. Ve- 
hemens namque est in iisdem regibus hujusmodi effi- 

^ Taylor. Glory of regality* Egferthus, ejusdem regis natus, 

/). 228. Who remarks also, that rex est oonsecratus." Sub an, 

FloreDce of Woveesler notioes the 785. 
same event, in shnilar words : '* Et 

xii l^celiminacp K>U»ttttition. 

cacia unctionis. Nam inuncto Saule, insiliit Spiritus 
Domini super eum, et in virwn alteram est mutatus ; 
et in David, unctione suscepta, Spiritus Domini est 
directus: ad insinuandum quoque, quod in regibus 
esse debeat plenitudo virtutum, et integra dominii tem- 
poralis auctoritas." *• 

Before this, archbishop Thomas Becket had written 
to king Henry II, to this effect : " Inunguntur reges 
in capite, etiam pectore et brachiis, quod significat 
gloriam, sanctitatem, et fortitudinem." " And not long 
after, Robert Grossetest, bishop of Lincoln, to Henry 
in. " Quod autem in fine literse vestras nobis man- 
dastis, videlicet quod intimaremus quid unctionis sacra- 
mentum videatur adjicere regiae dignitati, cum multi 
sunt regcs qui nullatenus unctionis munere decorentur, 
non est nostne modicitatis complere hoc. Tamen non 
ignoramus quod regalis inunctio signum est prseroga- 
tivse susceptionis septiformis doni Sacratissimi Pneu- 
matis, quo septiformi munere tenetur rex inunctus 
prsaeminentius non unctis regibus omnes regias et 
regiminis sui actiones dirigere: e/c." Selden, who 

^ WUkins: Concilia* torn. 2. bishop of Prague in the preceding 

p, 555. The same bull speaks century. But this does not affect 

also of the crown : ** Capiti prin- the reason for which I have quoted 

dpis sub circulari forma honora- it. 
bile imponitur diadema, ut ab eo, 

qui talibus fuerit decoratus insig- " A pud Matt, Paris, cit. SeU 

nils, et titulis prsesignitus, tan- den. />. 109. 
qttamacapite,subditi8,yelutmem- A very great canonist says: 

bris, recte yivendi modus et mo* " Effectus unctionis regalis est» ut 

destie regula indicatur.'^ I must augeatur ei gratia ad officiuro, 

add» that this bull is not the com- quod ei oommittitur exeroendum : 

position of John XXIL as it oc- et ut honorabilior habeatur.*' Hos- 

curs, almost word for word, in an tiensis, tfi ntmma, lib, 1. tit. de 

epistle from Alexander IV. to a sacr. unct. 

iDrtiet of Coronation* xiii 

quotes this from a MS. observes, and not rightly, that 
the bishop was answering as if his mind had been only 
on the unction given in confirmation. 

It was from having been anointed with the sacred 
oil that our kings have received the style " Dei 
gratia:" which, as an old author of the 14th century, 
cited by Selden,'® tells us, could not be given to any 
one else of the laity. ** Nota, quod nullus potest pro- 
prie uti isto verbo Dei Gratia, qui in laicali positus est 
dignitate, nisi sit imperator vel rex vel alter qui sui 
capitis recepit unctionem. Nam tales unguntur oleo 
sancto ; et in rege potest dici evidentissime per exem- 
plum." And this affords an additional, though inci- 
dental, proof how early the rite of unction had become 
a fixed form, in the coronation of the Saxon kings, not 
only in the north, as is shewn by the pontifical of 
archbishop Egbert, but in the west of England. For 
Ina's ecclesiastical laws, a.d. 700, commence with 
this style : ^^ Ego Ina Dei gratia occiduorum Saxonum 
rex." '^ 

Selden also cites and remarks upon the rule laid 
down in the " old Provinciale Romanum," as to the 
number of sovereign princes, who were entitled to be 
anointed : and although the copies vary, some having 
four kings named, and others less, yet, as he con- 
cludes, the true reading of the rule was, that the kings 
of England, Jerusalem, France, and Sicily, were 
alone so entitled. It would seem from Hostiensis, 
(who, by the way, names only England and France,) 
in the place just cited in the note, that when the kings 

» TUles of honour, p. 92. ^ Wilkins. Concilia. Tom. 1. 

The " Bosula Novella" of Petrus p. 58. " re Ine mi^ Xm^x^ jipe J>. r- 

^A cKber couatnes desired to be anointed, special per- 
mi^ifm tras to be obtained firom the see of Rome : ^* si 
quiii Ae novo innngi relit, consuetndo obdnnit, quod a 
}^pa petatar, sicut fecit rex Aragonimi, et quotidie 
imtat rex Scotiae.^ Regarding the case <^ the king 
of Scotland, the boll mentioned aboTe, was directed to 
him, on sach an occasion : and we hare in Matthew 
Parii( an instance of a legate sent to anoint Haoo» king 
of Norway, in 1247- *^ Applicuit dmiliter in Anglia 
eyiM'jipus Sabinensis, itums in partes boreales legatus, 
— et regem Norwegise Haconem in regem inonctums 
et coronatums." * 

The anointing was always held to ctNufier sacredness 
uytm the person of the soTereign: and for this we 
have the authority of S. Augustine, who speaks how* 
evi^r of the earlier unction of the Jewish kings : but 
the argument is the same. '' Qusero, si non habebat 
Haul sacramenti sanctitatem, quid in eo David vene- 
raliatur? Si autem habebat innocentiam, quare in- 
nrx^entem persequebatur ? nam eum propter saero- 
•anctam unctionem, et honorayit Tivum, et vindicavit 
iH'jnnum : et quia vel panniculum ex ejus veste praes- 
dilitf percusso corde trepidavit. Ecce Saul non ha- 
l>i;bat innocentiamy et tamen habebat sanctitatem, non 

•• I/Ut Angl. p. 637. Mat- Norwegiie Haco." Fhres HUU 

lli«»w Parif mentioni this again, edit. 1601. p. 340. Either this 

^' Anno fub eodem — coronatus was then thought an unusual case, 

#»«i fv^ Haco, et in regem inunc- or the king of Norway is to be 

tii« m>lmnniter apud Bergas.'* p. added to the number of the an- 

(KD* And the tame mode of ex- cient anointed kings : which last 

l^rnNiilim is used by Matthew of is scarcely probable, from the 

Wii«tnilnfiter x •' Die vero sane- fact of the legate, who was sent 

liinitn I'Vllcit 9tc^ inunctui et to crown him. 
I'ormmttis cwt In regem princeps 



vitoB suae (nam hoc sine innocentia nemo potest) sed 
sacrament! Dei, quod et in malis hominibus sanctwn 

The reader will observe that S. Augustine calls the 
regal unction in the above passage, a sacrament : nor, 
relying upon his authority, does there appear to be 
any objection to the use of so high a term, in the same 
wide sense in which we speak of the sacrament of 
orders, or of marriage. So also S. Gregory the Great 
says expressly : *^ Quia vero ipsa unctio sacramentum 
est, is qui promovetur, bene foris ungitur, si intus vir- 
tute sacramenti roboretur."^* ^^Rex unctus,'' says 
Lyndwood, ^^ non mere persona laica, sed mixta se- 
cundum quosdam."" But this anointing must not be 

^ CofUra UH. PetUianL fib. 
ij. cap. 112. 

^ Expos. Hb. 1 . Regum cap. x. 

Balsamon, in fiis scfiolifl on the 

12tli canon of the council of An- 

cyra, has not feared to go much 

forther, as to the effects of this 

unction. But his interpretation 

of the canon is condemned, and 

Terj justly, by all later writers 

on the subject. He says : *' Pne- 

lenti canone usus ille sanctissi- 

mus patriarcha dominus Polyene* 

tus: — dixit cnim cum sancta sy- 

nodo, in synodafibus actis quae 

tunc habita fuerunt, qu« in Char- 

taphylacio reponuntur, quod quo- 

niam sancti bapUsmatis unctio 

enmia, qu» ante baptismum fue- 

nmt^qualia et quantacunque sunt, 

peccsta delet ; omnino imperatoris 

quoque unctio caedem delevit." 
Bevereg. Pandect. Tom, 1. />. 
385. The case alluded to is that 
of the Emperor John Tzimisches, 
who had slain his predecessor. 

Upon the distinction laid down 
in the 12th century, between the 
regal and sacerdotal unction, see 
Baifnaldus, Tom. 1. ad. an. 1204. 
xlj. And on its effect, Hostien- 
sis, SumnuB. lib. 1. rubr. xv. 
11. Scacchi, Siaochr. Sacr. p. 

*• Lib. 3. tit. 2. Ut clerica- 
lis. verb, beneficiati : cited by 
archdeacon Wilberforce, Church 
CofirtSyp. 93. and see a remarka- 
hie assertion, made by Charles 
the Bold, [Bald?] 859, upon the 
sanctity of kings, in consequence 
of their consecration by bishops. 
ibid. p. 20. 


IpceUminacp IDiwttmion. 

looked upon, neither ever has it been, as conferring 
any sacerdotal right or privilege : the sovereigns of 
England are supreme in all cases whether ecclesiastical 
or civil, as in the one, so in the other,** both before 
and after the solemnity of the coronation; nor are 
their prerogatives increased by its performance, or 
hindered by its delay: and as before they have no 
power, so neither after the. regal unction have they 
any right or authority, to minister the sacraments, or 
the Word of God.*^ 

Before we proceed to other matters connected with 
the service of the coronation, I must take notice, that 
in this country also as well as in France, the posses- 

^ One of the ecclesiastical laws 
of S. Edward the Confessor is 
entitled, ^* Quid sU regis offici- 
urn:** and begins, ''Rex autem, 
qui vicarius summi regis est, ad 
hoc est constitutus, ut regnum 
terrenum, et populuni Domini, et 
super omnia sanctam veneretur 
ecclesiam ejus, et r^at." Wil- 
kins. Concilia Tom. I. p. 312. 
And compare the 2nd of the 
Anglo-Saxon lustitutes : *^ Of an 
earthly king." Thorpe, Ancient 
Laws and Institutes. Vol. 2. p, 

^ It was an ancient custom, 
now omitted in the Roman pon- 
tifical, that the emperor, after his 
consecration, should attend upon 
the pontif, as a subdeacon, during 
the celebration of the mass. Thus 
the old '* Liber sacrarum csrimo- 
niarum** directs, after the coro- 

nation is over, and the offertory 
concluded: ** Imperator pontifi- 
cem ad altare descendentem se- 
quitur, et illi in locum subdiaooni 
calicem, et patenam cum hostiis 
offert, deinde aquam infunden- 
dam in vino.** Lib. I. p. 25. edit* 
Rom. 1560. But this would 
seem to be a relic from those 
earlier times when actual offer- 
ings and oblations were made by 
all the laity, at the celebration of 
the Holy Eucharist. The reader 
should consult however Thomas- 
sin, de Benef, Pars. 1. lib. 3. 
cap. Ixiv., in which place he will 
find full information about ano- 
ther custom, introduced and com- 
mon in many nations, that the 
newly consecrated prince should 
be admitted a canon of some ca- 
thedral church. See also Du- 
cange. verb. **Caoonici hono- 

©tuer of Coronation. xvii 

sion of a miraculous oil has been claimed, and use 
made of it upon at least one occasion. If it should be 
thought that the evidence for this miracle is little 
better than that, before examined, of K. Clovis, I shall 
not argue against such an opinion, but leave the reader 
to form his own conclusion. 

The facts, if they may be so called, are as follows, 
in the words of Walsingham. "Die translationis 
sancti Edwardi regis et confessoris, coronatus est rex 
Henricus IV., — unctus est illo ccelesti unguento, quod 
olim beata Maria, mater Dei, commisit beato Thomae 
martyri arch. Cantuar. dum esset in exilio conservan- 
dum, praedicens eidem, quod reges Anglorum, qui un- 
gerentur hoc unguento, pugiles essent ecclesiae, et be- 
nigni. Hoc unguentum in aquila aurea et ampulla 
lapidea conservatum latuit per multa tempera, sed 
tandem miraculose manifestatum< Dum dominus Hen- 
ricus primus dux Lancastrise bella gereret regis sui in 
partibus transmarinis, ipsi nempe tradita fuit praedicta 
aquila per quendam sanctum virum, qui ilium invene- 
rat revelatione divina. Qui dedit eam nobilissimo 
principi Edwardo, ut in ea unctione post mortem pa- 
tris ungeretur in regem. Qui posuit in turri Lon- 
doniarum unguentum praefatum, recludens in cista 
multis firmata securis, latuitque ibi vel per oblivioncm, 
vel per negligentiam, usque ad tempus Richardi regis 
n. Anno Domini prsedicto 1399» praedictus rex lli- 
chardus curiose perscrutatus res a progenitoribus sibi 
relictas, inopinato reperit aquilam et ampuUam, et 
scripturam B. Thomae. Et cum didicisset virtutem 
talem unctionis, rogavit dominum Thomam Cant, 
arch, ut eum denuo ungeret hoc unguento. Qui hoc 
facere omnino recusavit, dicens sibi suflScere, quod se- 
mel per manus suas sacram suscepit in coronatione 

VOL. iir. c 


pmiMJiiarf PifgUAltoiu 

yn<i:lnz uiKtir>n«m, qoae habere nan detmit iteratio- 
fk^fft$. IlaiK: aqailam cum ampalU rex Ridiardos por- 
Unt in HUjerniam, profectnn» €t denno rediens in 
y^rtf: Urram. Qoam pet«iti archiepiscopo tndidit, 
4\f'.p;m «e jam patenter clarescere, quod non firit volun- 
um diTins, ut ungcretur iDo ungnento, sed alteri de- 
f>«ri tam nobile sacramentom." ^ 

In this story an assertion is said to have been made 
ly the archbishop, which, supposing there was any 
truth in the matter, all parties must have known to be 
a fiilsehood : ^' quod semel per manus snas sacram sus- 
cepit unctionem, quae habere non debuit iterationem." 
For there is no fact more certain than that many of 
our early kings were crowned more than once.*' To 
name no more, Henry II., of whom Hoveden tells us, 
speaking of his third coronation, " Anno gratiae 1 159, 
idem rex Henricus tertio fecit se, et Alienor uxorem 

» Hist Angl, p. 360. Cf. ments. p. 200. Weever may ge- 

Ypodigma Neustrue, p. 555. Derally be relied on, as to hb 

And a MS. in the Cotton 1i- quotations, but be is both an ig- 

brary. Faust B. ix. It is ob- nonnt and an imsafe writer whc» 

Ttoui Uiat this legend was in- he does not refer to, or transcribe 

vented in order to supply an he- his authorities, 
reditary defect, and give addi- The rabbinical writers declare, 

tional sacredness to the character that the ancient Jewish kings 

of K. Henry IV. : whose doubtful were, in like manner, anointed 

title required something of that with a holy oil, which had origi- 

kind : and the assertion that his nally been consecrated by Moses, 

unfortunate predecessor had not and kept without diminution about 

been able to obtain unction with 900 years, until the captivity, 
the same oil, is a curious circum- ^ Pepin also, of France, was 

stance in the tale. I may add, anointed twice : first by S. Boni- 

that another version of the same face, the legate ; and again, by 

l(«gt'nd is given by Weever, from the pope himself, Stephen 11. : 

nn old Leiger Book, of the ah- Charlemagne, five times, and 

bey of Whalley. Funeral Manu- Charles the Bald, four times. 

iDtHer of Coronation. 


suam coronari, in solemnitate paschali apud Wireces- 
tre : " and he adds, (as if the king was fearful of again 
being tempted) ^^ubi cum ad oblationem venirent, 
de posuerunt coronas suas, et eas super altare obtu- 
lerunt; voventes Deo, quod nunquam in vita sua 
de ceetero coronarentur." ^ Henry III. ako, first at 
Gloucester, in the year 1216 : concerning which Mat- 
thew Paris, though he begins by speaking ^* de prima 
regis Hen. UI. coronatione, quae per quendam circulum 
aureum facta sit ; " expressly declares, that there was 
no distinction made as to the anointing : ^^ Et his ges- 
tis/' he continues, ^^ episcopi, ipsum in regem ungen- 
tes, coronaverunt solemniter."*^ And the mass, and 
royal banquet followed, as was always customary. His 
second coronation was performed at Westminster, by 
the archbishop^ in 1220: ^^preesente clero et populo 
totius regni."*' 

* AnnaL pars posterior, edit. 
Savile./). 281. See also Alford*B 
Annds : who remarka : ** Est 
hoc illastre pietatis eiemplum, 
quo reges Regem regum, et Do- 
minum dominantium pietissimo 
cultu agnoscunt, ad Christ! pedes 
coranam projicientes." Tom, IV. 
p. 92. pars posterior. A some- 
what similar instance of homility 
is that of Canute, who, after the 
well-known rehoke of his courtiers 
at Southampton, would not wear 
his crown : ** Sed super caput 
crucifixi Wintoniae posuit." Henr. 
de Knjghton de event, Anglic. 
Lib. 1. cap. V. The same is stated 
by Henr. Huntingdon,/?. 364, cit. 
Alford. Annal Tom. 3. p. 492. 

" Super imaginem Domini, quae 
cruci affixa erat." In the account 
given by Gervase, of the second 
coronation of Richard I., it would 
seem that the unction was omit- 
ted. Script, z. Tom. 1. p. 1587. 

» Hist. Angl. p. 243. And 
again, especially, a letter of the 
king himself, printed in Rymer, 
concerning this first solemnity; 
'' in ecclesia beati Petri Glouoes* 
trise, — invocata Spiritus Sancti 
gratia, publice fuimus in regem 
Angliee inuncti et coronati." 
Tom. I. pars. I. p. 72. 

» md. p. 260. Holinshed, 
Chronicles. Vol. 3. p. 202. 

There was also a tale attached 
to a ring of S. Edward: which 


Ipteltmiiiatp DUwttation* 

It is probable that oor kings ancientlj knelt during 
the rite of unction, though I do not remember any ex- 
press order to this effect earlier than the time of Henry 
VII. " The cardinal sitting, shall anojnte the king, 
kneeling."" So also, in the " devyse" for the coro- 
nation of Henry VIII. ^ which I shall have firequent 
occasion to quote : " The seid cardynall sittyng shall 
annoynte the king knelyng on quysshyns." On the 
other hand, it is to be remarked, that in the magnifi- 
cent MS, of tho coronation senrice of Charles V. of 
Franco,'* tho illuminations represent the king, stand- 
ing, at tho anciinting of the breast : whilst he kneels, 
with Win \mUmmt unlaced, during the prayers which 
imnio<liitto1y precede, and kneels again to be anointed 
on tho ImndH. 

After the anointing of the head, a linen coif or 

was taken from his finger by the 
Confessor, says the Golden Le- 
gend, on an occasion when he 
had no other alms to bestow, *' ne 
hys amener was not present,'* and 
given to a poor man, who after- 
wards proved to be 8. John the 
Evangelist, and who returned the 
ring. This is gravely related by 
Ailred, Script x» Tom. 1. p, 
398, and by Hoveden in his An- 
nals, edit. Havile. p. 256. Some 
writers make this ring to have 
been the one anciently uncd at 
coronations: but I do not see 
upon what grounds. For not 
only is it certain that such a ring 
was not always used, if ever ; but 
also that the coronation ring was 
sometimes afterwards but little 

regarded. Thus, a royal order 
of Henry VI^ concerning some 
jewels, mentions, " A ryng of 
gold, gamyshed with a fayr rubie, 
sometyme geven onto ns by our 
bel oncle the cardinal of £ng- 
lande, with the whiche we were 
sncred in the day of our corona- 
cion at Parys, delivered unto 
Matthew Phelip, to breke, and 
thereof to make an other ryng 
for the Queue's wedding ring.*' 
Rymer, F^pderoy Tom. 6. pars. 

•* Ives* Select Paper's. 

^ Cotton MS. 

» Cotton MS. 

Tiberius. £. 

Tiberius. B. 

jJDtHet of Coronation. xxi 

chrismale was put on : and, as the reader will see in 
the notes to the Service below, this was ordered to be 
worn for seven days, and on the eighth to be removed 
by a bishop, or the abbot of Westminster, with the 
celebration of a proper mass. Ducange does not seem 
to have been aware of this use of the chrismale, as he 
explains its purpose only as another name for am- 
pullae, or coverings for relics, besides its more common 
acceptation with respect to the newly confirmed : of 
which I have already spoken in another part of this 
work.^ In the old account of the coronation of Henry 
VI. we find, after the anointing : " And then they leyd 
a certeyn softe thynge to all the places so annojoited. 
And on his hede dyd a white coyfe of silk, and so he 
went and lay viij dayes. And thfe viijth daye they 
shuld wasshe it of h3nn." Also in the " Devyse" for 
Henry VIII. " He shall put vpon the kyng's bed a 
cojrfe, the same to be broughte to the grete chamber- 
layne : whiche shall cont)muelly abyde on the kings 
hed to the viijte daye next folowing, at whiche viij. 
dayes, after a solempne masse seyd by a Bisshop be- 
fore the king, the seid Bishop shall take the coyf from 
the kyng's hed." 

The consecration of chrism having, since the re- 
formation, been discontinued, holy oil only has been 
used in succeeding coronations. I am quite unable to 
say by whom, or according to what office, the benedic- 
tion of this oil has been performed, on late occasions. 

** Vol. 1. p. 36. Mr. Taylor * h»r ejupaAyr-wz pter «c v^*waoji: 

cites an early example of the that is, hi» chrismal was taken off 

chrismale from the Saxon chro- a* Wedmore." Giory of rega- 

nicle : (an. 878.) " Guthrum the %• P- 193. 
Dane was baptized at Aire, and 

xxii ipteliminan» Oiwettatfon. 

Handford asserts in his account of James II. '« cOTonar 

tion,** that the dean of Westminster, "early in the 

morninf^, with the assistance of the prebendaries, con- 

iM'cratcd the holy oil for their majesties anointing : " but 

ho supplies no particulars. Mr. Taylor* gives his de- 

<:i»ion, unsupported by any proof, that "it is of conr^ 

iMJt apart for the purpose to which it is designed with 

nuitable acts of reverential solemnity: '* and somewhat 

quaintly adds, "The formulary of its consecratiou 

httth not I believe been published.'' I do not feel 

iibli(((Ml to offer any guesses upon what has hitherto, 

siiicx* the sixteenth century, been the practice : nor to 

utate whether I believe or not, with Mr. Taylor, that 

the holy oil has been always beforehand set apart with 

** liuiUible acts of solemnity." I hope such has been 

the Cttne. But I would express a wish, that when any 

future occanion demands a revision of our coronation 

onUtf, — (from the necessity of which I earnestly trust 

mu\ pray that God, of His goodness, may long pre- 

w^rv« w) - a prayer of benediction of the oil may be 

Utm*.rUul^ Ui be said by the archbishop, or some bishop, 

after the nervice itself has commenced. It is not 

Si^emly, nor according to any ancient precedent, that 

it should be entrusted to the dean of Westminster, 

being an episcopal prerogative and duty.*' 

•* //. 91. And with thii agrees he says the prayer "O Lord, holy 

another account, printed in 4to. Father/' and *' lays his hand 

1700. p, 6. upon the ampulla." I do not 

^ Glory of regality, p. 352. mean to say that a designation of 

^ I would observe that the the oil to its particular purpose 

whole of the above paragraph, is does not then take place, but that 

founded upon the supposition that there is scarcely, what both theolo- 

the consecration of the oil is not gians and ritualists would call, a 

performed by the archbishop when consecration of it. The oil is 

iDrner of Coronation. xxiii 

Here seems to be the proper place to remark upon 
a ceremony, which, in the late coronations of Queen 
Adelaide, and her present Majesty, has not been ob- 
served. I mean the anointing of the breast. This 
rite had been practised for nearly 800 years, for it 
does not appear to have been introduced until after 
the Conquest. The Rcmian pontifical did not adopt 
it : and for this reason, if for no other, it is to be re- 
gretted that it has been, for a season, omitted ; namely, 
because it appears to have been a solemnity peculiar 
to the Queens of England and France. I have been 
informed that it was not observed from a feeling of 

I would describe the mode of its ancient performance, 
from the illuminations in the coronation book of Charles 
V. of France. The second represents the Queen kneel- 
ing, with her robe laced ; in the third, she is standing, 
surrounded and concealed by her ladies, whilst they 
unlace it ; in the fourth, she kneels, her robe unlaced, 
before the archbishop ; who anoints her, not with his 
finger, but with a golden reed or pencil ; and in the 
mean-time, the ladies hold a thin veil before her. 

It was from this anointing, whether upon the head or 
breast, or upon both, that our queens-consort are said, 
no less than kings, to be consecrated. As for example, 
Bromton in his chronicle, says of the queen of Henry I. 
^^ quam Ansehnus die sancti Martini coronavit, et in 

afterwards called ** holy qU," bo cration of the oil, that it ooeun 

that I do not correct my obsenra- in the same plaee in the order 

tioDs and argument in Vol. 1. for K. James II. when, as Sand* 

p* oclv. It is a strong evidence ford expressly states, the solem- 

Bgunst this prayer being to be nity of the consecration had pre- 

considered the Form of Conse- yiously been completed. 

xxiv ipreUminarp Di00ertation. 

reginam Anglias consecravit/'* This was so, from 
the earliest times of which we have any record : for, 
although it is well-known that for some period the 
Anglo-Saxon queens were deprived of their dignity, in 
consequence of the crimes of Eadhurga, in the beginning 
of the ninth century, yet there is reason to suppose that 
before that date they were crowned and anointed, as it 
is quite certain that from the time of Judith, the qaeen 
of Ethelwulf, and of the Order of K. Ethelred, they 
always have been.*^ 

We find frequent allusion made in the old chronicles 
to the anointing of the queens of England, as well as 
of our kings, upon the breast : which evidently shews 
that it has been, since its adoption, looked upon as a 
very significant and solemn part of the ceremony. 
Thus, Grafton, in his account of Richard III. and 
queen Anne ; " After diverse songes solemply song, 
they both discended to the high altare, and were shifted 

* Script X, tonu 1. jd. 998. the same view with the very 

Also Hoveden, edit. Savile. />. learned writers Spebnan, and Sel- 

268. '* Qoam Ansebnus Doro- den : who both understand the 

bemenns arcbiepiscopus reginam actual coronation of the Saxon 

consecravit.'' queens to have been an established 

^ Mr. Taylor» in bis appen- ceremony, and for a season inter- 

dix, disputes the fact of the Anglo- rupted. The strongest argument 

saxon queens bavbg been crown- in favour of Mr. Taylor's view, is 

ed, before the time of queen Ju- one which he has not stated ; viz. 

dith : arguing from the circum- that the pontifical of Egbert does 

stance, that no mention of their not give the Order for a Queen. 

'* coronation *' is to be found, and I own this to be a difficulty, and 

that all the writers who relate the leave the question to the judgment 

guilt of Eadhurga, and the con- of the reader. He roust consult 

sequent abhorrence of the people, the original passages in Asser, 

sp^ only of the royal ^gnity, Florence of Worcester, Matthew 

and the title of Queen in general of Westminster, and the Poly, 

terms. But I would rather take chronicon, &c. 



from tbeir robes, and had diverse places open from the 
middle vpward, in whiche places they were anointed."*® 
So, of the coronation of Anne Bolejoi : *' After she 
had rested a while, she descended down to the high 
altar, and there prostrate hir.selfe, while the archbishop 
of Canturburie said certeine collects : then she rose, 
and the bishop annointed hir on the head, and on the 
brest, and then she was led vp again." *^ 

^ Continuation of Harding ^ 
p. 617. See the same, in HoUn- 
shed, vol. 3. p. 733. and Hall, p. 
376. And compare Grafton's 
Chronicle, voL 2. p, 1 15. 

** Holinshed : vol. 3. p. 933. 
Hall : p. 803. Compare also, the 
archbishop's own account of this 
coronation, in the Arch8Bologia,t;o/. 
18. p. 80, and in Ellis's Original 
Letters, 1st Series, voL 2. p. 39. 
The coronation of Anne Boleyn 

was performed in a very magnifi- 
cent manner, at a lavish expense. 
Hence, the details of it are im. 
portant. An original paper of 
Cromwell, in the treasury of the 
Exchequer, cited by Weever, 
(Fun. Mon.p. 5 12,) states, among 
the extraordinary expenses of the 
reign : '^ Item, his Highnesse hath 
been at a most costly chaige for 
the coronation of Queen Ann^" 

xxvi Ipteltminatp Dimtertadon. 


I SHALL now extract some accounts of the early 
coronations of our kings : if two or three of these 
seem to he long, the reader will be repaid by the light 
which they throw upon the Service itself, which will 
follow ; and by the force of the evidence which they 
furnish to the constant observance of the more im- 
portant parts of the solemnity. I shall not give notices 
of every reign, but those only which will be sufficient 
to bring down the facts, in one unbroken line, from 
the eighth to the sixteenth century. 

The coronation and anointing of Egferth have been 
already spoken of: in the year 795, the Saxon chronicle 
relates that Eardwulph, king of Northumberland, was 
"consecrated and raised to his throne by Eanbalde, 
archbishop, and other bishops." ^ In the next century, 
we have a very important account, by a contemporary, 
of the coronation of Edmund, king of the East Angles : 
^ Anno dominicae incamationis 856, Nunberchus an« 
tistes unxit oleo, consecravitque in regem Eadmundum 
gloriosissimum."* In the succeeding century, Wal- 
lingford in his chronicles relates the celebrated story 
of Dunstan and K. Edwin ; which he thus prefaces : 
" Verum in ipsis primordiis regni, videlicet ipso die 
unctionis ejus, qualis futurus rex foret, demonstravit. 

* " And Gan'^ptilF pens to Nop- •« ctneietl ** is more properly a 

5an-hymbpaa cmebome. -] he peep throne. 

ry««an jebletroto. t to hif cine-rtole « Asser, de uElfredi rebus ges- 

ahopen." p. 81. edit. Ingram: ^i». edit. Camden. />. 4. 

tt>tntt of Coronation* 


Cui enim post coronationem et missarum solemnia, ut 
tantee solemnitati congruit, e/c.'" Once more; the 
coronation of king Ethelred, the Ordo of which will 
be so frequently referred to below, is thus spoken of: 
^* Cui frater ejus Ethelredus, in regnum successit, et a 
sancto Dunestano aliisque Anglorum episcopis, inun- 
gitur et consecratur."* 

Reminding the reader that accounts of the inter- 
mediate inaugurations and consecrations are to be 
found in the various chronicles, some giving one detail, 
some another,^ I shall pass on to the coronation of K. 
Richard I. : of which we have full descriptions in both 
Matthew Paris, and Hoveden. The following is from 
the latter author, a contemporary. 

» Scriptores XV. p. 542. 

^ Ailred Abbas : script. X. torn. 
1. p. 362. " A Sanctis archiprae- 
suUbas Danstaoo et Oswaldo, et 
decern episcopis, in Kjrngestune 
ad regni fastigium est consecra- 
tus." Flo. Wigom, p. 60S. 

^ Tbe historians tell us of omens 
vhich were observed at the coro. 
nation of king Stephen : ** Fertor 
quod cum rex commnnionem cor- 
poris Christi die coronationis suae 
ore esset percepturus, Eucharistia 
inter manum archiepiscopi et os 
regis subito elapsa disparuit.*' 
Bromton. Chron. Script. X. torn. 
1. p, 1023. Gervase in his chro- 
nicle relates another: ''In cujus 
coronatione inter missarum solen. 
nia triste contigit presagium fu- 
turoram; Nam cum prsefatus ar- 

chiepiscopus post Agnus Dei cor- 
poris et sanguinis Salvatoris sacra- 
menta conficeret, osculum pacis 
quod in populo dare sacrosancta 
consuevit ecclesia oblivioni penitud 
traditumest.*' Ibid. p. 1340. Both 
these authors relate the following, 
which may not improperly be added 
here, though it is not said to have 
occurred at his coronation. <' Rex 
autem Stephanus sub tantis ssti- 
bus missam interim solempnem 
audiebat, Alexandre episcopo tunc 
celebrante ; in cujus manibus ce^ 
reus quem rex ex more solito ob. 
tulit, confractus est; quod signum 
fuit confractionis regis. Pixis 
etiam cum eucharistia fracta ca- 
thena super altare cecidit, et hoc 
fuit signum regiaa ruins." Ihid. 
1030. 1352. And in Hoveden. 
Annals, edit. Savile. p, 278. 

- - :■.— •-"-> -«x *.>3, i-»r-- ** *^"- 

> .: - r — .-^ ,J^^*^9^«daltan 

'» . ^^ '* .. ..«.-T V ?^"*^ can- 

- — -• ^-'-^-as dox Xor- 

; '•^ ^ ^ - -^ '^^"^ ^ -^.-«^ supra eos 

^»K « .».„, y\.„ 


iDtQer of Coronation* xxix 

dewinus Cantuarensis archiepiscopus infundens oleum 
sanctum super caput ejus, unxit eum in regem, in 
tribus locis, videlicet in capite, in pectore, et in bra- 
chiis ; quod significat gloriam, et fortitudinem, et sci- 
entiam, cum orationibus ad hoc constitutis. Deinde 
posuit idem archiepiscopus supra caput ejus consecra- 
turn pannum lineum, et pileum desuper. Deinde in- 
duerunt eum cum vestimentis regalibus. - Deinde tra- 
didit ei idem archiepiscopus gladium regnim. Deinde 
duo comites calciaverunt ei calcaria. Deinde indutus 
est mantea. Deinde ductus est ad altare, et ibi prsedic- 
tus archiepiscopus prohibuit ei, ex parte omnipotentis 
Dei, ne hunc honorem sibi assumeret, nisi in mente 
haberet, supradicta sacramenta et vota quse feeerat 
inviolabiliter servare ; et ipse respondit, se per auxilium 
Dei omnia supradicta servaturum sine fraude. Deinde 
ipse cepit coronam de altari, et tradidit eam archie- 
piscopOy et archiepiscopus posuit eam super caput illius, 
quam duo comites sustinebant propter ponderositatem 
ipsius. Deinde tradidit ei archiepiscopus sceptrum 
regale, in manu dextra, et virgam regalem, in manu 
sinistra; et rex sic coronatus ductus est ad sedem 
suam, a prsedictis Dunelmensi et Bathoniensi episcopis, 
praecedentibus eos ceroferariis et preedictis tribus gla- 
diis. Deinde inchoata est missa dominicalis, et cum 
perveniretur ad offertorium, preedicti episcopi duxerunt 
eum ad altare, et ipse obtulit unam marcam auri puris- 
simi. Talis enim oblatio decet regem in singulis coro- 
nationibus suis. £t prsefati episcopi reduxerunt eum 
ad sedem suam. Celebrata autem missa, et omnibus 
rite peractis, praedicti duo episcopi, unus a dextris, et 
alter a sinistris, reduxerunt eum coronatum, et portan- 
tem sceptrum in dextra, et virgam regalem in sinistra, 
ab ecclesia usque in thalamum suum, preecedente ordi- 

XXX pttttmlttan» DtiMttatJon. 

nata prooessione, at superius. Ddnde reTersm e?r 
priHH'ssio in chorum, et dominiis rex deposoit cotoiue: 
rt'^Hlom et Testes r^ales ; et leTiores, coronam et Tester 
w\nU et 810 coronatus \eiiit prandere ; et ardiiepiscap: 
et episiH>pi sederunt cum eo in mensa, unusqoisqn'' 
necundum ordinem et dignitatem suam* Comites auteiB 
et bai\>nes senriebant in domo regis, prout d]gnitate^ 
iHtrum exi^ebant. Gives vero London, servierant de 
piiuHTnurta» et cives Winton. de coquina." ^ 

Tlie ivremonies which took place at the coronation 
i»r Uii hard 11. are so fully described by Walsinghani. 
tluit he «iH'nis but to have made an abridgment of tb€ 
•* LiU^r Uojralis/* The following is the substance of 
\m aiHH>unt of the solemnity: and I can assure the 
utiulontt who wishes to understand the office itself. 
which I have edittnl, that he will do well to read if 
ctuvfuHy, and iH>mpare the two. Walsingham men- 
tiouti Koino imrtieulars which the Ordo does not : and 
^:ivtn^ un A statement of what actually took place, be 
(tiqipliett ixUo tin admirable commentary and testimony 
to tlio Form which was appointed to be observed. 

" Die Jovis, id i*st, 10 die Julii, vigilia sancti Ke- 
«i^lmi n^jfin» convenientibus archiepiscopo et episcopis, 
nyiU(|Uo procoribus ad Wostm. summo mane, ordinata 
pri)008Hione monachorum in capis, episcopi cum mo- 
niichiH ad ostium rejrii thalami pervenerunt, et paratutn 
ro^em reporicntos ibidem per manus qui ejus lateribus 

^ Jidit. Savilo. p. 874. Tho John Bromton, CTiron, in Script. 

Cotton MS. Claudius. E. viij. con. X. torn, 1. p. 1158. The Chro- 

tains a transcript of this, of the nicle of Genrase relates the second 

fourteenth century : headed, *' de coronation of Richard, after his 

modo coronationis regis, et de co- return from captivity, at Winches- 

ronatione regis Ricardi.** Com- ter; and has an incidental notice 

pare Matt. Paris, p, 128, and, of K. Stephen's. Ibid, p, 1587. 

HDtHet of Coronation. xxxi 

astiterunty perduxerunt in ecclesiam S. Petri, cantantes 
antiphonam in honorem apostoli, cum oratione compe- 
tenti adjuncta, et hac oratione : ' Deus humilium' Rex 
vero mox ut altare pervenit, prostravit se solo tenus 
ante altare, pavimentum autem stratum fuit palliis et 
tapetis. Prosecuta, ut diximus, oratione archiepiscopus, 
cum episcopis qui aderant, prostravit se super pavi- 
mentum circa regem. Interim duo episcopi litaniam 
devote cantarunt. Qua expleta erectus rex ductus est 
ad sedem suam : chore hanc antiphonam decantante, 
* Firmetur^ Tunc episcopus sermonem fecit de ma- 
teria regis et regni ad populum, qualiter rex se haberet 
in populo, et in quibus populus sibi debuit obedire. 
Quo completo juravit rex coram archiepiscopo, et pro- 
ceribus qui ibi aderant, quoniam ipsi soli ejus juramen- 
tum audire potuerunt. — Quibus expletis, archiepiscopus 
— convertit se ad omnes plagas ecclesise, indicans po- 
pulo regium juramentum, et quaerens si se tali principi 
ac rectori subjicere, et ejus jussionibus obtemperare 
vellent. Et responsum est a plebetisono clamore, quod 
libenter sibi parere vellent. Archiepiscopus regem his 
orationibus benedixit, videlicet : * Omnipotens.' Ista 
prsemissa benedictio post primam orationem ad modum 
praefBitionis ab archiepiscopo cantabatur, qua cantata 
dicta est et alia oratio super eum, scilicet, ' Deus in- 
effabiliSf* cum antiphona, * Confortare* Tunc archi- 
episcopus accessit ad eum, et vestimenta sua discindens 
manib. suis a summo usque ad imum, exuit eum praeter 
camisiam vestimentis suis. Custodes vero. v. portuum 
ex officio tam in processione, quam in unctione et missae, 
et post missam dum iret ad palatium ab ecclesia, sem- 
per tenuerunt umbraculum sericum magnum, coloris 
aerii, iv* hastis per quatuor angulos colligatum. Sed 
non obstante umbraculo supradicto, mox antequam 

xxxii iptelimiitarp Diflwertation* 

archiepiscopos eum suis vestibus exuisset, allatas est 
pannus aureus a comitibus, sub quo latuit, dum uncti* 
onis perciperet sacramenta. Archiepiscopus (ut dixi* 
mus) eo nudato unxit manus ejus de oleo sanctiBcato, 
unde uncti fuerunt reges et propbetse, et sicut unxit 
Samuel Davidem in regem. — Item dixit orationem 

* Prospice.' Post hffic unxit archiepiscopus caput ejus, 
et pectus, et scapulas, ambasque compages bracbiorum, 
dicens : ' Unguantur caput istud.'* £t interim chorus 
cantavit antipbonam, ' UnxerunC Postquam sub- 
junxit metropolitanusy ^ Deus Dei FUiusJ Mox finita 
oratione archiepiscopus cum episcopis hymnum, ^ Veni 
Creator Spiritus, rege interim prostrate in longa venia, 
et circa eum metropolitano cum suffiraganeis suis. 
Expleto hymno erectus est rex ab archiepiseopo, et in- 
dutus est prime tunica S. Ed. et post ejusdem dalmatica, 
projecta circa collum ejus stola, archiepiscopo orationes 
competentes interim prosequente. Post hsec archiepis- 
copus cum episcopis tradidit ei gladium, ita dicens : 

* Accipe gladium.' Tunc duo comites cum gladio ac- 
cinxerunt : quo facto archiepiscopus armillas dedit ei, 
dicens : * Accipe armillas*' Postea induit eum archi- 
episcopus regali pallio, ita dicens : * Accipe pallium J" 
Interim dum archiepiscopus benedixit coronam regiam, 
duo comites calcariaverunt, ad quorum officium perti- 
nebat. Benedicta corona, archiepiscopus imposuit 
super caput, dicens : * Coronet te' Tunc dedit ei 
archiepiscopus anulum, cum his verbis : ' Accipe anu- 
lum' Statim post haec accessit dominus de Fumival, 
ex officio offerens ei rubeam chirothecam, quam archi- 
episcopus benedixit, et imposuit manui regisB, dans ei 
sceptrum his verbis, dicens : * Accipe sceptrum.' Tunc 
dedit ei archiepiscopus virgam in alia manu, habentem 
in summitate columbam, nam sceptrum quod suscepe- 

jiDmer of Coronation* xxxiii 

rat, consurrexit de rotundo globo aureo, quern tenebat 
in manu chirothecata, et habebat in summitate signum 
crucis, et accepit virgam preedictam cum verbis his : 
' Accipe virtutisJ" Post hsec benedictus est rex ab archi- 
episcopo ita dicente : * Benedicat te' His itaque per- 
actis, osculatus est rex episcopos omnes et abbates, a 
quibus statim ductus est postea ad regale solium, epis- 
copis inchoantibus h3annum, ' Te Deum laudamus^ 
Finito hymno, archiepiscopus ita eum allocutus est : 
^ Sta et retineJ His itaque peractis, inchoata est missa 
congruens coronationi regiae. — Lecto evangelio, rex de 
regali solio ductus est ad offerendum. Primo igitur 
obtulit archiepiscopo gladium suum, quem susceperat, 
et postea aurum quantum placuit, sed non minus marca 
propter consuetudinem : nam plus potest offerre Deo 
et sancto Petro si placuerit. Post oblationem pecunise 
obtulit archiepiscopo panem et vinum ad modum mo- 
nachorum, unde postea, tam metropolitanus, quam ipse 
rex, communicati. fuerunt. Quo facto, comes, ad cujus 
officium pertinebat portare gladium coram rege, gla- 
dium quem obtulerat dato pretio redemit, et assumens 
eum, portabat coram illo. Percelebrata missa usque 
ad communionem, reductus est rex ad altare, et genu- 
flexo coram archiepiscopo, dixit, * Confiteor.' Quo 
absoluto, communicatus est, et iterum reductus est ad 
sedem suam. — Illico post decessum militis,® {Joannis 
Dymok] praeequitantibus regem dominis supradictis 
super dextrarios sues, necnon praecedente magno nu- 
mero diversi generis histrionum, portatus est in humeris 

' The champion, it seems, came, tem, dicens non debere eum ea 

at an improper time, to the abbey : hora venire, sed quod usque ad 

and was desired to go away, and prandium regis differret adventum 

appear at the banquet. ** Hen- suum." 

ricos Percy venit ad dictum mill- For some account of the family 

VOL. HI. d 

xxxiv iptettminati? Df0»cttatian* 

militum usque ad regale palatium, ductus quoque in 
cameram, paulisper quievit: debilis enim faerat prae 
labore paruni comedens.'^' 

Of succeeding coronations there are few particulars 
which would iUustrate farther the Service which I 
have printed : three very curious and valuable ma- 
nuscripts, in English, are extant, and preserved in the 
British Museum, from which I have made, as the 
reader will observe, many extracts in the ^^tra, to 
elucidate the text. These manuscripts are entiUed, 
1 St « The maner and forme of the kyngis and queues 
coronacion in Englonde ; ""^ which it is not improbable 
was prepared for some particular occasion, but it does 
not appear what that was. 2nd. An account of the co- 
ronation of Henry VI." And, 3rd, the «Devyse" 
for the coronation of K. Henry VHI. This last is 
especially valuable; having been carefally examined 
and approved by the king himself, who has made 
many corrections with his own hand in the oath which 
he was to take." 

of the Dymocks, and before them, 
of the Kilpecs, see the ArchtBO- 
logia, vol 20, p. 207, note b. 
and, for the oath which champions 
were to toke in case of a duel, 
iM,p. 170, note b. It has been 
supposed, from the error related 
above by Walsingham, that either 
the representative of the family of 
Dy mock for the first time discharg- 
ed the office at that coronation; 
or, that the ceremony had been 
omitted during some preceding 
reigns. It is a curious circum- 
•tance, that the widow of this Sir 

John Dymock was obliged many 
years after, to petition King Hen- 
ry IV. for the fees due upon this 
occasion: and that the original 
petition is still extant Cotton 
MS. VitelUus. C. XIV. 49. It b 
written on a slip of vellum. 

» Hist. Angl edit. Camden,/?. 
195. Compare Holinshed, roL 3, 
p. 416. 

^ Lansdown MS. 285. 

" Cotton MS. Nero. C. ix. 

" Cotton MS. Tiberius. E. 
viij. An excellent fac-simile of 
the oath, with its interlineations, 

2)tDet of Coronation^ xxxv 

There are some remarkable circumstances relating 
to the coronation of K. Edward VI., and I do not see 
any reason to doubt the assertion of bishop Burnet, 
that the Form was shortened ; although it is not cor- 
rect, unless mere omissions made it so, that '^ a new 
form was ordered to be drawn." The chief document, 
of authority, which describes at length the order in 
which the coronation was to be obseryed, is ^'the 
Order" printed by Burnet in his records. Book 1. No. 
4 : from the council book. It cannot be denied that 
there were in the ancient service some few and short 
passages, which, after the dissolution of the abbeys, 
would necessarily call for some alteration; but the 
reason which the coimcil gave for shortening the ce- 
remony, was not true, viz. : that he was too yoimg to 
bear the fatigue of so long a ceremony: for he was 
older than his predecessors, Henry III. and Henry VI., 
and about one year younger than Richard II. Whatever 
the true cause may have been, the fact, tha.t the service 
was mutilated and curtailed, does not seem to admit of 
dispute : and to a very considerable extent, if we place 
any reliance on the order of the council. For among 
other things omitted, it does not appear that Edward 
received investiture with the royal robe, or ring ; or 
that he was even oflFered or presented with the scep- 
tres of the realm of England. If one would object 
that this record from the council books is not to be 
interpreted so strictly, because it is not credible that 
so solemn a part of the ceremonies, as that regarding 
the sceptres, would have been struck out, I do not 

has been given by Sir Henry ters:" a work of very great value 

Ellis, in the Ist volume of the se- and interest 

cond series of his *' Original Let- " Hist. Reform. voL 3. p. 26. 

xxxvi ipieUiiiiiiat; IDimertattoiu 

then see how he would prove that Edward VL was not, 
as he ought to have heen, completely crowned after 
the ancient manner and custom of his fiaithers. I leave 
the matter to the consideration of the reader/^ 

Queen Mary was crowned according to the old and 
fall form of die Liher Regalis: Holinshed gives a 
^ery long description of the pageants, as she went to 
the Ahbey ; hut of the service itself he merely states, 
th^t ''the coronation and other ceremonies and so- 
leflsnities were according to the old custome."^ ^ Arch- 
bii^bop Parker corroborates this, and says; ''regina 
l^aria missationibus sacrisque pontificiis, uncta reg- 
iioque initiata est."*^ Queen Elizabeth was also crowned 
according to the old rites, and with the celebration of 
the mass, omitting only the elevation of the host." 

u Holinshed, in a general way, 
«fferUtbat ^bis coronajdon was 
folemnixed in due forme and or- 
Agr^ with M the roialtie and 
buiumr which therevnto apper- 
teined-" ro/.8.p-979. 

I am indebted to a friend for a 
transcript also of a contemporary 
account of this coronation, (Har- 
leian MS. 3504.) possibly drawn 
up by an eye-witness, in which it 
i/asserted that the sceptres were 
delivered to the king, by two no- 
blemen: and also, that he wa. 
anointed on the soles of his feet. 
on this document, where It d^ers 
from the council-mmute; and the 
writer, without intendingit, might 
J"ve both misUken and misrepre- 
sented facts. 

*« De antiquitate Brit. Sec- 
p. 509. 

" Bamet, voU 3. p. 762. It 
seems certain however that there 
was only one bishop present, 
Oglethorpe, of Carlisle : and Col- 
lier, speaking loosely, says that 
the solemnity ** was performed ac- 
cording to ancient custom, and 
directed by the Roman pontifical." 
vol. 2.p, 412. The ancient cus- 
tom was very different from the 
Roman order. But some modifi- 
cation of the old rubrics of the 
Liber Regalis must have tina- 
voidably taken place, in conse- 
quence of the refusal of the bi- 
shops to attend. It has been 
said that the queen never forgot 
or forgave their resolution in this 
matter : see Ellis, Original LeU 
teriy 3rd Series, vol. 2. p. 324. 

iDtnet of Coronation. 


The new Form, new, that is, in its language more 
than in its order and details, was first used upon the 
occasion of the coronation of King James in 1603; 
and this, with some alterations, has been ^^ the Corona- 
tion Service," up to the present day. 

By a careful examination of the notes below, the 
reader will be able, I trust, to trace sufficiently for 
himself, the principal changes which have been mad^, 
from time to time, during the last two centuries : and 
for more exact enquiry, (these modern services being 
rather incidentally than truly within the proper limits 
of my subject) I must refer him to the Forms them- 
selves, all of which are, I believe, still extant in our 
great libraries." 

^ Besides the Bodleian and the 
British Maseum, several Fonns, 
not to be foand elsewhere, are in 
the libraries of Lambeth, and of 
the dean and chapter of West- 

I do not enter into any account 
or history of the regalia: much 
information may be obtained from 
common books respecting them, 
such as Sandford, or Taylor, in 
the "Glory of regality." The 
r^alia now used are not the an- 
cient ones: those having been 
destroyed, and melted down, by 
order of the Long Parliament: 
among them, it is said, the ge- 
nuine crown of K. Alfred. The 
modem crowns, sceptres, &&, 
were made for Charles IL 

There is however one monu- 
ment of antiquity remaining, the 
Coronation Chair. The legend 

is, that it is the stone on which 
the patriarch Jacob laid his head 
in the plain of Luz; that it was 
brought from Egypt to Spain 
from thence to Ireland a. c. 700 
carried to Scotland a.c. 300 
and at last offered at the shrine 
of Edward the Confessor at West- 
minster by K. Edward L What- 
ever amount of truth there may 
be in this, the remark is just, that 
^'this is the antientest respected 
monument in the world, for though 
some others may be more antient 
as to duration, yet thus supersti- 
tiously regarded they are not.^* 
Toland, Hist of the Druid», p. 
104. The stone was reckoned 
among the Jewels of Scotland: 
thus, in the Wardrobe account of 
Edward the first, we find ; " Joca- 
lia remanentia in fine anni xxvij '°*. 
de jocalibus quse fuerunt quon- 

xxxviii PtHuMMt p gfaMHttli on. 

Tho eort^iatioii l>i:h* &n i the bistory of it, have 
btHMi M Hivumt^ly invesrl^ite'l and explained by va- 

dam ivifi» Scochn m^vetl* b 
tro de Kdwt^bunrh aeao ht •, 
videlie«t, Ci^hu« »ivt'utu tft\ Is* 
petra mai;im $u|ht ^ujia» rv*^?* 
8ooi>ie aoWlMiut corvitAn,'* I.J'.^ 
ifUotidiaHUSt 4 to. p. ^V^d. Se« 
alto Chalnier** i\tUtiomMM. rxL I. 
/>. 468, cit. i^ioiy o/ rtrit ry. 
p. 58, The Brut chair wa$ nuuie 
by KuniuHh of Si^otUud^ io kh^ 
ninth century: and Edward I. 
ordered a new chair» for the jvit- 
roent of which a PiWisiidoraMe sum 
i« entered in tlie Wartirt^be ac» 
coimti of the year UUH>, 

There ii no record of the first 
coronation at wiiioti the «tone was 
utfid in EnKland { prohnhiy by Kd- 
ward II. And even if Kdward Ldid 
not specify the purpove to which 
it wan, in after aj(c«, to be put, it 
if not lilcely that hin nuccctisiors 
would either forj(ct the old tradi- 
tions about it, or nep^iect to secure 
to themselves the blcHsinffs which 
were promised to tiioMO, who 
should have the power and bo 
entitled to be crowned on it. But 
it is not to be denied, (and tho 
writers upon the regalia have not 
noticed this circumstance) that an 
early authority, Thomas Walsing- 
ham, says that Edward deposited 
it at Westminster, for the use of 
the celebrant at the Confessor's 
shrine. His statement is; '<In 
redcundo autem transivit per ab- 

bd^Luaa de Scooe, obi sublalo la- 
7 .f« ^)ao reees Scotoram tempore 
ccr-.Tiarkfiis solefaomt oti pro thro- 
&x trac>ti:]it fllom usque West- 
cc=x«teriam, jobens idem fieri 
c«^^cbn=:iuvi cathedram sacerdo- 
max.'* Yp'Miigma Netutria. p. 

Before the refonnation, all the 
r^^snlLfc. it is said, were kept at 
Westminster, under the care of 
the abbot and coDTent: and now, 
thoujrh deposited in the Tower, 
they an? bnyi^ht the evening be- 
fore the coronation to the dean 
of Westminster, and are left after 
the ceremony in his chai^, at 
the shrine of the Confessor. Ris- 
hanger in his Chronicle, speaking 
of the two sceptres being carried 
in procession by the abbot of 
Westminster, adds : " Hoc offi- 
cium fecit abbas, non quia primus 
est inter abbates, sed quia rega- 
Hum insignium est repositorium 
locus sous.** cit, Taylor. />. 92. 
But compare an order "tbesau- 
rario et camerariis de scaccario*' 
to delirer up the golden eagle 
with the ampulla. An. 8. Henr. 
VI. Rymer. Faedera. 
4. p. 151. And again in 1220, 
a similar order " Petro de malo 
lacu," to bring the " regale, quod 
penes ipsum est apud Corff." 
Tom. I. pan. I. p. 81. 

There is, however, one rem- 



rious authors/^ that I shall merely add one or two 
observations upon points, which I do not remember to 
have seen noticed elsewhere. Either in the rituals, 

11 ant of the ancient r^alia, if I 
may so entitle it, still entrusted 
to the custody of the dean of 
Westminster: viz: the Liher 
Regalis. This most valuable vo- 
lume, so often to be referred to 
below, is a thin folio, of 38 leaves 
of vellum. There are four illu- 
minations in it, each occupying 
nearly a page, prefixed to the 
offices which correspond. 1. Of 
a king being crowned. 2. Of a 
king and queen crowned together. 
3. Of a queen alone. 4. Of a 
king lying in state. These illumi- 
nations are executed upon a very 
rich ground of highly burnished 
gold, with scrolls, according to 
the fashion of that time, repre- 
sented by minute punctures upon 
the snifkce. A fac-simile, with a 
description of the book is given 
by Mr. Westwood, in his Palseo- 
graphia Sacra, The date of the 
manuscript cannot be later than 
the reign of Richard IL, for 
whose coronation it has been sup- 
posed to have been written ; but 
the illuminations represent a mo- 
narch much older than he was on 

that occasion, and the likeness 
must either therefore be conven. 
tional, or intended for his prede- 
cessor, Edward III.» or for him- 
self in after-life. Whatever the 
(act may be, the intrinsic value 
and importance of the Liber Re- 
galis is not affected; it still re- 
mains, *'the Royal Book," the 
Book of the Royal Offices, to be 
performed and observed accord- 
ing to the Use of the Royal Church 
of Westminster, in the fourteenth 

I would observe here, that an 
ancient privilege of the king, at 
his coronation, was to nominate 
a nun to be received into certain 
abbeys ; for example, Shaftsbury, 
Wilton, and Barking. -The forms 
are given in the Ftedertu Tom. 4. 
pars.'w.p, 152. 166. 

^ The student should consult 
Rymer, Fadera : Blackstone, 
Commentaries^ vol. 1. Prynne, 
Signal Loyalty: Wharton, Trou- 
bles of Archbishop Laudy p. 
818. Taylor, Glory o/Regalihf, 
p. 329—844. 

^ In which case, the book would 
have been written in his reign. 
And it is remarkable, that the 
chair in which the sovereign sits, 

is not of that character, which is 
attributed to the later years of 
Edward III., as being made by 
him, for the stone. 

xi ipteliminarp Dimsettation* 

or in the historians, (in the first exactly, in the last in 
general tenns) we can trace the oath and its successiye 
changes, from the time of K. Ethelred^ to the present 
day. The promises and oath of William the Con- 
queror, are thus related. In the chronicle of Walter 
Hemingford: **Requisitus Ehorum archiepiscopus — 
ad tuenda, conservandaque jura et privilegia eccle- 
siastica eum solemniter sacramentis astrinxit.*' ** More 
fully, hy Hoveden : " — consecratus est honorifice, sed 
prius, ut idem archipraesul ah eo exigehat, ante altare 
S. Petri coram clero et populo, jurejurando promittens 
80 velle sanctas Dei ecclesias, ac rectores earum de- 
fendere, necnon et cunctum populum sibi subjectum 
juste, ac regali providentia regere, rectam legem sta- 
tuere, et tenere, rapinas injustaque judicia penitus 
interdicere." *' 

According to the modem Orders, it is expressly 
directed that the sovereign should sign the oath : and 
there is a remarkable passage in an epistle of Thomas 
a Becket to king Henry, which would seem to refer to a 
subscribed declaration or oath at his coronation. The 
archbishop is particularly alluding to that solemnity, 
and to the rite of unction. He reminds the king; 
" Inunguntur reges in capite, etiam pectore et brachiis, 
quod significat gloriam, sanctitatem, et fortitudinem. — 
Audiat, si placeat, dominus meus, consilium servi sui, 
commonitionem episcopi sui, castigationem patris sui, 
ne cum schismaticis habeat de caetero aliquam fami- 

» Script. X. torn. 2. p, 457. referred to below) Knyghton, de 

^ Edit. Savile. p. 258. Con- event Angl Script, xv. torn. 2. 

ceming William Rufus, see £ad- p. 2396. and Giraldus Cambren- 

mer^Zfift. 1. an. 1087. Of Heni*y sis, de instr. Principum. Anglia 

I. (whose " Ordo" will be often Christiana, p, 43. 

£Dttiet of Coronation^ xii 

liaritatem vel communionem, nee contrahat aliquid 
cum eis. Memoresque sitis professionis quam fecistis 
et posuistis scriptam super altare, de servanda eccle- 
siae Dei libertate, quando in regem consecrati fuis- 
tis/*^ And, a little before this time, Peter Damian 
has an observation, which will undoubtedly admit of 
an interpretation in support of the meaning, which the 
language of the archbishop appears to convey. He 
says, ^' inaugurandum regem manu propria jurare 
libertatem ecclesiarum." ** 

Among the riches of the library of the British Mu- 
seum is a manuscript, (Cotton, Tiberius A, ij.) of the 
highest interest. It contains a Latin version of the 
four Gospels : and the tradition is, that it originally 
belonged to K. Athelstan, and is the identical copy, 
upon which, for several centuries, the kings of Eng- 
land took the coronation-oath. A full account of the 
volume, with the evidence in its favour, has been ably 
drawn up and published by Mr. Holmes :^^ I cannot 
say the proof is very satisfactory; but one fact is cer- 
tain, that, in consequence of its renown at that time, 
and after some enquiry (we must conclude) into its 
history, this book was used at the coronation of Charles 
I.^ I think there is clear evidence, that in the 15th 
and 16th centuries, the coronation-oath was not taken, 
as perhaps very anciently, and now in modern days, 
only upon the Holy Evangelists. The English MS. 
Order, which I have before mentioned,^ thus directs. 
" Moreovir the kjmg shall make his ooth, in his co- 

» Matt ParU. Hist AngL p. May, 1838. 

^« c, . ^ .. ^. 7 " El^» Original Letters, vol 

*• Serm. m dediccUume eccle- , ^i^ 

«kP. 1. 

•* Gentleman $ Magaaine. " See above, p.xxxiv, note 10. 

> iM. ..^ rpnn tiie aummmt of tbe auter, laideipra 
:•». :.^ r ainer of tbe drircbe befiore the people.^ .V 

:»». * i^r^-nvsi" fnr Heorr \TIL «**.^ all these 

v"^ A^*. Mwry tif therm, I, Henry, King of Eng- 

:-' .: •.-.ijr-rT: and ronferme to kepe and <A8erue,sf 

> *^ rv iVfiiL and thise holv Euangelists by meix)- 

? .. -» ,: y-ny\im this hooly awter.' And then tlw 

•^ *. ^*— ! *• -ai vp of his diayer, and by the seM 

».-<^v' n^ ,v fAi^four and Ely shall be ledde to the 

^ * . • - ITnor he shall make a solempne oth 

'•:. sji "^iuitt'n; levde rpon the same aulter, in 

. . V. \ -' i^: n.NK)lr. to ohdeire all the premisses.' 

-* ■. .^.^^ m \^. : in the cirdcsr of the council, cited 

, \. ^ •*\ ■;%: :^ r^^ ortronaricm ot Edward VI., we 

N. s , * • :N. xji,--nm<^TiT''and ^ the book "mentioned. 

.\\m ^\«/ ;v Kinr ri!¥» out of his chair, and by 

-*v >a .* . v^* x'^ jft^jsr^N^ him, be led to the high altar, 

^Vx\ K x.\u*. n-.uvr a ?*cVi^mB oath opon thesacra- 

v.v v,x^ ;,.. »,.v\i ;*>, ^^.; ftlrjir, in the sight of all the 

.vw.v.^ •, ,\h< '»'«-<■ ;V n'^omijises; and laying his hand 

%'VxN V * ^ ,K^..?^ )r ^*v.?rv^r ftense the reader ma j 

- \^ "^K ^ , Vw^ , \^\ ^ • h^^ h i? pnDted. 

"■* \v I. ^.t ,vv>^s^s iK* iV TV Fr^udi oath of K. Edward 

^■•» >\ \^,s» j.^ «V ^sx»x ^ n ♦/> «,'«. fcs «$ ^f^Dovs; firom Rjmer: 

»*-»i Mv,.*,^ A^^ N\v».^ >,,♦. '^«^'^••iX Voksi TOQs graimter et 

1 ^^" . ..u,v •• ^ «sxN '^««v ^*%»«^tL, « jtMT Tostre sermeut 

. ^*^*»Av» ^M f>s» «.N,%sv>^ <i\w H Au.t-^mrr^ «c poeple d'Eng^leteire 

T' '^! ****' ^"^1^'^ *'^- '"^ 'V A,N"* lii^ K-^Nt M J« costumes a eux 

MsC ^""^ ^''' '**^ ^'^ ^"^ C'^nrwy^ |«ir 1« «onciens mjs 

>M^lK I ..^'^^^'^ ^^ ^^ l\>,^^»:>fc w; i .'^-^•^^rnp Toi firedecessotirs, 

^ctiet of Coconattbn« 


choose to regard the term, must have heen " a cor- 
)oral oath." From the extracts below it will be seen 

^y et au poeple, par le glorioas 
roj Seint Edward yestre prede- 

" Regpons, Jeo les grante et 

" PeHt. Sire, garderez vouz a 
Dieu et seint Eglise, et au clerge 
et au poeple, pees et acord en 
Dieu entierment, 9elonc vostre 

^ Respans. Jeo les garderai. 

" PeHi* Sire, freez vous faire en 
touz voz jugements ovele et droit 
justice et discretion, en miseri- 
corde et verite, a vostre poair? 

'* Respons. Jeo les frai. 

" Petit. Sire, grauntez vouz a 
tenir et garder les leys et les cus- 
tumes dreitureles, les quiels la 
communaute de vostre roialme 
aura esleu, et les defend rez et 
afforterez al honure de Dieu, a 
vostre poair? 

^^ Retponin Jeo les grannie et 
promette.** Ftedera, torn. 2. 
pars» 2. p. 172. 

I extract also the form of the 
oath as it is appointed in English, 
to be taken, according to the ^^ De- 
vyse" for Henry VIU. And 
with this, generally, agrees the 
"Order" in the other English 
MS. 285. 

** The sermon ended, if any 
such be, the cardynall and the 
kyng that is to be corowned so 
sittyog as is abouesayd, the car- 

dynall with an open and distincte 
voyce, shall aske the king vndre 
this forme : 

' Will ye graunte and kepe to 
the people of England, the lawes 
and the custumes to theym, as of 
old tyme rightful! and deuoute 
kings graunted, and the same ra- 
tefye and conserue by your othe, 
and the spirituall lawes, cus- 
tumes, and libertees graunted to 
the clergy and people by your 
noble predecessor and glorious 
kyng Seint Edward ? ' 

** The king shall aunswer, * I 
graunte and promytte.' 

''And when the kjmg before 
all the people hath promytted 
truly to graunte and kepe all the 
premysses. Then shall the seid 
cardynall open vnto hym the spe- 
ciall Articles, whereunto the kyng 
shall be sworn : the same cardy- 
nall seyng as foloweth : 

' Ye shall kepe after your 
strength and power to the Church 
of God, to the clergy and the 
people, hoole pees and goodely 

'* The kyng shall aunswer : * I 
shall kepe.' 

** Ye shall make to be done 
after your strength and power 
equall and rightful! justice in 
all your Domes and Jugements, 
and discrecion with mercy and 


jPtrtiaMMttg PuBOTftirton^ 

that the chief aathorities all refer diis '^ corporal oatb^ 
to the toaching of the consecrated host, or the cor- 
(Kiral within which it was placed.* Bat in thus limit- 

** TV king fball annswer: 

^ l>o ye graante the ngfatfnll 
Uw4!% and custames to be holden, 
itftd promjtte after your strength 
Mttd power such lawes» as to the 
honor of God shall be chosen by 
your people, by you to be strength- 
ed and defended.'* 

" The kyng shall annswer : * I 
grauQte and promytte/ " 

In the Cotton MS. Vespasian. 
C. xiv. is a copy of the oaths of 
fealty and homage to be taken by 
the spiritaalty and temporalty of 
the realm; in French and Eng- 
lish, of the latter end of the 14th 
<:entury, the date of the Liber 
B^galis. I extract the English 

** Pour Ui 9eigneurs espiri* 
tueU. Foiaultee. * I shall be 
trewe and feythefull, and feith 
*nd trowth shall here to yow our 
liege lord, y* kyng of England, 
And to yowre heires, kynges of 
England, of erthely worship, for 
^ leue and deye ayeins all maner 
Wcand ♦ • ♦ ♦ shallebe 
^tendant to yowr nedis aftir my 
'^oonyng and power, and kepe 
y^Mir oonseil, and trewly knowlech 
*'i4 do the seruioes due of the 
•^''wporaltees of my Bisshopricke 
^*" Abbaye of N. whiche I clayme 
*'"' U) hold of yow, and to yow and 
^ y^wr comaundements as my- 

kel as hJMk to me lor my tern- 
porahces, I shall he obeissant: so 
hdp me God, and all his halwes. 

"Powr iet senf^. tewtpwrel 
Homage. * I become yowr liege 
man of lifand of leaie,nDd erthely 
worship, lieithe, and trowth, shall 
here to yow, ayeins a! maner of 
men y' may lieue and deye. So 
help me God, and all his halwes/ 

**Pour let Dames. Homage. 
*l do yow hom^e, hege, sDd 
fiuth, trowth and erthely worsh^^ 
y shall here to yow, a fore all 
other creatures, for y* landes and 
tenements the whiche I clayme to 
hold of yow my li^^e lord. So 
help me God, and all his hal- 

*• Johnson (Todd*s edition) 
cites Brand's popular antiquities. 
** The phrase corporal oath is 
supposed to have been derived — 
not from the touching of the New 
Testament, or the bodily act of 
kissing it, but from the ancient 
use of touching the corporalej or 
cloth which covered the conse- 
crated elements.** 

Richardson, in his very valua- 
ble dictionary, first dtes Junias : 
*^ Corporalcy quo Domini cor- 
pus, i, panem consecratum tege- 
bant,** and adds ^ corporal oath, 
from the custom of touching this 

S>tttt of Coronation. xlv 

ing the meaning of it, they cannot but be in error, as 
may be proved from many passages in the mediaeval 
English writers. For example, the following from 
Thorn's chronicle. " Forma Jidelitatis facienda. Ego 
N. de C. juro ad hsec sancta Dei evangelia prsestito 
corporaliter sacramento, quod fidelis ero, ete."*^ This 
may not be so clear as other examples : viz. : ^' £t hii 
omnes et singuli recognoscebant eundem ordinarium, 
— et ipso instanti sponte canonicam obedientiam in 
scriptis, et inspectis sacrosanctis evangeliis eidem ab- 
bati corporaliter fecerunt."*^ Once more, the case of 
a certain vicar of Faversham, who refused to perform 
his duty, ^^post canonicam obedientiam pro vicaria 
sua ad sancta Dei evangelia corporaliter prsestitam.''^^ 
Nor are there wanting numerous examples in the 
chronicles of the other form of taking the " corporal 
oath." I quote two of these from Walsingham. " Ce- 
lebrata solemni missa, dictoque ter Agnus Dei, adjecto 
Dona nobis pacem, dictus Carolus in prsesentia prae- 
dictorum et aliorum plurium, dexteram super pate- 
nam, cum corpore dominico, et laevam super missale 

^ 7ft Script, s* Tom. 2. p* Suicerus in Thesauro eccles. y. 

1966. fvay^eXfOK, ubi antiquum et usi- 

* Ibid, p, 1976. Upon *' in- tatum per proposita evangelia ju- 

spectig sacrosanctis evangeliis** it randi morem probat ex Palladio 

is well to quote Ducange : *^ id ad Lausum. eto.*' Glossarium. v. 

est, non tactis, sed coram ipsis, Jurare inspectis sacrosanctis,** 
quemadmodum jnrare solebant '^ Script* x. torn. 2. p. 1979. 

episcopi et sacerdotes : nam epis- To these I may add a foreign 

copi supra sacra furare vetan- constitution cited by Mr. Dansey, 

tur, in condlio Meldensi, an. in his book on Rural Deans, p, 

845." I cite also the following 135. *' Tactis corporaliter sacro^ 

from the same author : ^ Per Sanctis evangeliis in publico cor- 

evangelia juraturqs manus prius poraliter subeant sacramenta.*' 

abluisse ex Chrysostomo refert Const. Sicula, Zr. 1. tit, lix. 

xivi iprettminatp Di00ertation. 

posuit, hsec verba proferens : Nos Carolus juramus 
ad sacrosancta corpus Domino et evangelia firmiter 
servare, ete."^ The missal in this instance was evi- 
dently sworn upon, not as a missal or with any re- 
ference to the Te igitur^ or Canon, but as containing 
the Gospels : and I cannot but conceive that other 
cases which have been produced of swearing ^^ super 
Te igitur," or " super librum missalem/' are to be un- 
derstood in the same way, although Ducange seems to 
have supposed the contrary. A^ain, from Walsing- 
ham; a Carmelite friar, in the reign of Richard II. 
'* obtento aditu ad regale colloquium, porrexit schedu- 
1am, jurans in sacramento corporis Christi, quod ipse 
eodem die celebrando confecerat, nullum verbum fore 
falsum, etc:'^^ 

I cannot agree with the authorities whom I have 
quoted in the note above, that the term '* corporal 
oath " is to be traced to the corporate : because there 
is no evidence that that ornament was the thing 
touched, but, on the contrary, that it was removed, 
and the consecrated eucharist itself was touched. The 
two examples from Walsingham, especially the first, 
would have induced us to have concluded this : and I 
am able to refer to an illumination, of the very time 
of the reign of K. Eichard II., which sets the ques- 
tion at rest. In the British Museum, among the Har- 
leian MSS.** is a French metrical history of the depo- 
sition of, that prince: in the course of it, the earl of 
Northumberland oflers to take his corporal oath: 
** Then replied the earl, * Sire, let the body of our 
Lord be consecrated. I will swear that there is no 

» Hist. AngL p. 176. » Ibid. p. 309. 

»* MS. 1319. 

fl)tDet of Coronation. xivii 

deceit in this afiair ; and that the duke will observe 
the whole as you have heard me relate it here.' Each 
of them devoutly heard mass : then the earl without 
farther hesitation made oath upon the body of our 
Lord."^ There is a representation of this circum- 
stance. The earl is kneeling before the altar, upon 
which are placed a gilt chalice, and below it the host, 
exposed; upon which last the earl places his right 
hand.^ I hope that the reader will pardon this di- 
gression, and consider it not altogether foreign to the 
subject of my dissertation. 

^ This is from the translation ^ The celebrant is vested in a 

of the history, printed in the Ar- violet coloured chasuble, with nar- 

chaeologia, VoL XX.^ with many row gold stripes, 
illustrative notes. 

xiviii Is^rrUmfnatp DfiscctatmL 


IN ihu til»! ruhrio of the Liber R^^alis, wlndi ibrms 
the hr»l «ip|HMuH\ ht'U)w to the Order of CkHnnadoiL 
ilurc OLi urn iho folUmin); jMissage : '* proTideatnr quod 
in aula n gia iiiHJori «tNK>« eminens sit, pannis sericis 
et iiiaunitiii iltucnitor onintJi, super quam' dictas lex 
re^jimluruii cuiu uiuni manduetudine et reverentim ele- 

'I'hiti t*ureiuuny haa Wn 6up)X)6ed to ha^e been de- 
riveil frtiin tha uuu^ mu iont customs of the northern 
imtiuuti, am! many curimw i>articulars, especially some 
relating tn Swtulon, have Uhmi a>Uected by Mr. Taylor: 
who continued thut» : ** lVrha|>s the point in our Eng- 
lish eerenumy h hit h ia nu^t analogous to the Gothic 
elevatiuna U that of our kings being anciently placed 
upon a seat in Weatnnnater Hall, which was thence 
denominated tha King'a Bench. This ancient seat, 
which occupied tha upper end of the great hall, was 
appropriated to tlia administration of justice by the 
sovereign in person, or by the judges of his court, to 
which it gave the title of the Court of King s Bench."* 

* " At the upper end of thia built over by the two courts of 
ball, it a long marble ttone of chancery and king Vbench." Stow: 
twelve feet in length and three *V«rtvy of London, cit. Glory of 
feet in breadth* And there also it K^f^aHiy^ p. 303, The chief 
a marble chair, where the kings point is here omitted in Stow*s 
of England formerly sate at their statement about the coronation- 
coronation dinners ; and, at other feast : the seat was used, as a 
solemn times, the lord chancellor: ceremony, before, not after, the 
but now not to be seen, being procession to the Abbey. It was 

Dmer of Coronation. xiix 

The same writer gives the following examples of the 
sovereign being placed in this chair. Of Richard II. 
from Rymer:* of Richard III, who according to Speed 
and Stowy went in great pomp unto Westminster hall^ 
and there in the kingVbench court took his seat : as 
the Croyland chronicle relates ; ^^ se apud magnam 
aulam Westmonasterii in cathedram marmoream im- 
misit/' And Grafton says more plainly of the same 
king, '^ he came downe out of the white hall into the 
great hall at Westminster, and went directly to the 
kings-benche."* To these I would add one more from 
Rastell, of Edward IV. " He was brought into West- 
myster, and there toke possessyon of the realme. And 
syttynge in the seate royall, in the great hall of Westr 
myster, with his septer in his hande, a question was 
axed of all the people, yf they wolde admitte hym to 
continue as kynge : to the whiche, with one voyce, all 
the people cryed there, Ye.'** 

And these from the MSS. before cited, in the British 
Museum. " The King's see. Also it must be ordeyned 
that in the day of the kyng's coronacyon in the grete 
halle of Westmynster, the kyng's see bee rially or- 
deyned and tressid with clothis of silke and golde, and 
ryall quysshyns and tapets : — in the whiche the prynce 
shall sit abydyng the procession."* Again, the " De- 
vyse" for Henry VIII. " He shall come yerely, as it 

used at the feast, doubtless, but dictam magnam aulam :—et, se- 

not as a circumstance of the so- denteregeinsedesuaregaliyibidem 

lemnity, properly so called. See paraverunt processionem suam." 

Hall» CkronkUy p. 105. Tom. 8. part iij. p. 63. 

* I extract the passage iteelf ^ Vol. 2, p, 1 15. 

from Rymer : " Mane autem facto * Chronicle^ p. 274. 

surrexit rex, et— egrediens de • " Maner and forme of a coro- 

camera sua, descendebat in prse- nadon.*' Lansdoum MS. 285. 

VOL. 111. e 

1 PteUminacf Oinstttation. 

is founden in presidents by vj. of the clok from his 
chambre into Westm. hall. Where he shall sjrtte vnder 
cloth of estate in the marble cheyer apparelled with 
clothes and quysshjnns of clothe of golde baudekyn, 
as it apperte^oieth. — And it is to remembre, that the 
king's benche and all the place of the chauncerye be 
apparailed vndre feete vppon the raylls and along 
vppon the walls, with rede worsted."^ 

The actual communion of the sovereign, after the 
coronation, in the Abbey, requires one or two brief 
remarks. One point has been long doubtful in the 
modem coronation services : namely, whether the crown 
was to be removed before receiving the Holy Eucharist 
In the order for Geoi^e 111. there was no rubric : and 
it is said, nor do I see any reason to doubt the fact, 
that when the king approached the altar, in order to 
receive the sacrament, he enquired of the archbishop, 
* Whether he should not lay aside his crown?' That 
the archbishop asked the bishop of Rochester, but 
neither of them knew, nor could say, what had been 
the usual form. And the king, with his usual piety, 
determined within himself upon the fitting course 
which he should pursue : he took off his crown, and 
humbly laid it aside during the administration of the 
Sacrament. The archbishop (Seeker) possibly had 
not examined any other Order than that immediately 
preceding, of George II. where, in like manner, no 
direction was given upon this matter : at least, it is 
certain that he took, and naturally, that Order for his 
guide ; because the copy which he used is preserved 
at Lambeth, interlined and corrected with his own 

• Cotton MS. Tiberius E. viij. 

SDtDer of Coronation. H 

Ihave not been able to learn what was really the 
fact, at the coronations of K. George IV, and of Wil- 
liam IV. and Queen Adelaide : there is no rubric in 
their Services regarding the removal of the crown be- 
fore communion ; and it is a curious circumstance, that 
some personages who were present, and close by, upon 
both occasions, assure me that they do not recollect 
whether the crown was laid aside or not J But in the 
Order for the coronation of her present Majesty, as the 
reader will see below, there are these rubrics : and, at 
whose wish or recommendation soever they were at 
length introduced, we cannot but admire the reverence 
and religious feeling which thus set the question at rest, 
we may hope, for the future. " The Queen^^^ says the 
rubric, " descends from her throne — and goes to the steps 
of *the altar y where, taking off her crown, she kneels 
down.'^ And again, the Holy Eucharist having been 
received, before the post-communion ; " The Queen 
then puts on her crown, and taking the sceptres in her 
hands again, repairs to her throne'' 

As regards the coronations before that of George II. 
we know that there was no celebration of the holy 

' A thin folk) volume was pub- what authority this document had, 
Ibhed in 1821, with the official in opposition to the order of the 
*' imprimatur** of the lord " How- Service itself. But, upon the sec- 
ard of Effingham, acting for the tion headed " The holy sacra- 
earl marshal of England,*' en- ment," it says '^ — his majesty will 
titled, ^ The Ceremonies to be then descend from the throne, and 
observed at the royal coronation go to the altar, where, taking off 
of his most excellent majesty, K. his crown, his majesty, etc^ And 
Geo. IV." I should be inclined again : " — at the conclusion — 
to suppose that these ceremonies the king will put on his crown, 
were, as much as possible, ob- etc'* 
served, but I cannot state exactly 

b<va ^VTTn. tf»i "v* ••: ••: u '••ta «inife» iT:»«n 

;he 'si.ii/uiaii* «i* n r ■■*•;:.;: ^s- .:: : "•r'i3Ui:L7 tii:^ 
whicii -las II lU'^-^—t Mtn^ *•- : -r.i-.-r . ••li.f't i3«:a a? 

bui a cv*o:.iiian\>»* %i-. ? % •. , :• • -si5r nivrmrri»>n 
in their CH2!<\ i .k.i l.v.. ;.^: -v. -.r ^:rTr ^riicfe all 
ChrUtuuis oiKr* v^^i;»^ -«1. X ■ i>» *!:%• Jin ^^^ tmh^p- 
pily lakeu frvHu :>cui. ■ ;• v \ :::!!& 'ir^ir :afs privi- 
legts tWm the l^*v^t'a n» "T*e ^\:i*-ni!i r-nnnr, was 
olaimiH) bv the S^i^r^^sv^t l:\t-;,\-:nL tTe •^'lieai.if seems 
agaiuiit it, llnir>o«» :« i.s ,-*'iu::in:.i: it »t ELirdyn^, 
fluyu {if UU'kirvl II L a ivi is ^^^'^n "" Tie ijrx:! and 
tho i)Uom^ Uisi*tHKk\u aM»t bea r? "iie 'li^a ilnre, ihey 
woro K>th hiviis%.*K\l ^^ch ojk» *i\>if. ii'uyied Wrween 
thoin,"** No mtHitiou u> wK^ie H -^e caa^.-e. Wal- 
sini^ham in his acvxHiuc ot l\xiia.-r V <a;^r •* Obculit 
archiopisiH>po i>auem ec >!:rartu :ini:e r^^^oftw tarn me- 
tropolitanus, qaam i^^se rt*v i.vHrriiajxjrI fiienml.''" 
This would appear to tu>oar t?e ir^rMoiect ia prt>of of 
hoth kinds. The MS* a^.\xHinc. so crva v;ii«>teit of K. 
Henry VI, speaks of the coiututirrv^a ot the Body of 
our blessed Lord, but not of the BI^.vd: and then of 

" •* Tandem post unctionem apo^o^caa rnerita. Clirisliaaiissi- 
receptam commanicare po6se inH mis regibus poCe$tatCB fecisse, sub 
peratorem sub utraque specie pne- utraque specie* qumdocunque id 
cipue in die inaugurations sus, et c^tarent, comzuunicandi ; eos ta- 
in articulo mortis, ex bulla Cle- men ilia potestate raro, nee nisi 
mentis VI. refert Carrier tomo. dieiDaugurationissa»,etinTiatico 
a." CaUlani, in pontif. Bom. mortis, uti consneTisseu" IhitLp. 
totti. I. ;*. JIHH, " Tradit Spon- 400. 

dnnun ad annum lt)52» Clomen- 
tiMU VI. potitKImn miixitnum, ob 

» P. 617. 

iiiKMUtln iMiruiiit» l«"rniirlin in nv(\vu\ " See above, p. xxxiii. 

€>ItatrCCC«HttML h 

^ the wyae* in a iiaiirT whkh cam only mean ibai ii 
was takcB, mooogecratedL as aa ablunon. "* And than 
kneljmg with hunTlite and gret deiKxion* nece yuing the 
Tnyrde parte of the holy sacrament rpon the patent of 
the arcfaefatssfaoppes faandes. Then come the btssboppe 
of London with the srete ^solempne cfaaks of seynt 
Edwaid, and served hym with wyne.^ In the same 
mamier, tht ^ DeTT«* for Henry VIIL ^"^ After the 
cardynall hath ooannoiied his self, he haain^ h ct a cc ne 
his handes the saaae chalice whmippon the holy sacra- 
ment shall be leyed, shall tome hymselfe Tnto the kii^ 
and die qnene. And theye lying prostrate before hym 
shall sey their Cmfiteor^ all the prelates answering, 
Afi4atreaiur. And the cardynall, seying, .4Ajcr</re. Thai 
d<Niey the kii^ and the qnene shall sumwhat ar}-^ 
knelyng, and with grete humylitee and denodon re- 
ceyne the sacramoit by the handes of the seid cardy- 
nall. This so done» the kinge and the quene shall 
stande Tp, and take wine of the abooe reherced chalice, 
by the hands of the abbot of Westminster.**^ 

I may observe that the fatigue of the sovereign, as 
not nnfineqaently noticed in the old histories and 
records, is to be referred to the obligation under which 
he was, to receive the holy communion, (asting. And 
'* the Devyse" has an especial reference to this ; suc- 
ceeding the conclusion of the mass. *^ And also it is to 

" So^ this directaon prmously whiche he shall use m the dialice 
m the same MS. " The k3riig after he b howselde. And as well 

shall ofte an obUey of hrede the seid patent with the ohleve, 

lajed TppoD the patent of Seint as the cnice with wyne, shall be 

Edwardes chalice, with the whiche delyuered unto him by the Gos* 

obleye after consecrate, the king peller, at the tyme of his of- 

shall be howseUL Also he shall lynge." 
offre in a cruet of golde, wj-ne. 

1* * 


\s iM- , tuat ^ oiSTUnv plaot uert- tt» «aid «faryae mnst; l>e 
I^4:*par4:^l %N itii tHiueiiE^ «ud cunrrn^ by thp ■■■jJl- 1 ■■ ^ 
tU» KlUjir't eiiaiubre. WtyyTimn iminRdiiile}T ifae IjPiT 
fciidli jiuc», and there brekt* 11»» iaate, id lirin lyste.* 
Vt Msaru aibu Innn TiTTiier, xbsz Hitihiird IL iiad 
^ir^Sitiy iieard nmtins and mas^ iiefore he left Ms 
CiiaiaiMir : ** burrexh r«L «t «udiik «erritik Dii, et 

uiAft*>a, -u^^oeudebai/*^ He had urn of ccmrse 
uiuui<;awd ; tliouj|rli, acoordinr lo the xbecilc^nr tif the 
di:iy, c^5i;eptioii \A the t;im8»tTaM»d Endhanst would not 

j'Wtf iir^ Imt taae cr two «ibjaott remarnTng:, before 

^ fc^vuid <;iub^ itiy rwuarks upon lie Caranfirian 8«-- 

k'i<>fc/' Aitd iirbt ; » u> tl>e pWie wh«>e it «SxMild be 

yi-4i^iXkiA, Tiiifc lufc8 Ueen, t^moe tLe reign of Edward 

tiii' 4>^;a»w^, (iiAjd ^ Westminster, a rule wiiidi was 

>AA^-UyC 1// ^-^^ ^'-'/'H <ibi)* «bkb 

f^.*M A^^ ^^''* '^^* ^^ OTito/* 

l^y/, *' >'i** ^^i^i»/' tHJi It I» citfftr 
rf//^« ^\m W^4 l»w, tlwit thli wan 
^\^ti umt' m^U ih mnrti imul title, 

If) tliM »♦♦»»♦>* »'»<l ♦'•** micccwding 
KMMlMryi llitf pi»l»IU'Hil«n of thii 

MImImi' )iiilii of i«iooiiinnmlo«tlon, at 

certuB periods of tbe Tear, becsme 
frequent. SeieKnjghum^deerettL 
An^liat. Script. X. lorn. 2. /?. 
2356. Horedem Amm. p. 843. 
Wilkins, torn. 1. /». 5^5. Ljnd- 
wood. lib. V. /lY. xvij. Aoctoritate 
DeL rerb. Paoem. TTic usual pe- 
riods specified, were finom Advent 
to the octave of the Epiphany; 
from Septuagesima to the octave 
of Easter ; from Ascension-day to 
the octave of Pentecost ; the Em- 
ber-weeks; from vespers on all 
Saturdays, until the Monday ; on 
the greater Saints-days, and their 
Vigils ; in parishes, on the feasts 
of their patron-saints ; and upon 
all occasions of going to dedica- 
tions of churches, to synods, or 

Druer of Coronation. ivH 

only broken upon extraordinary occasions, or when 
the ceremony, as we have seen above, was repeated. 
But in more ancient times, other places received that 
distinction : Kingston-on-Thames, and Winchester ; 
concerning which last-named city I would quote a 
passage from the Winchester annals, as it testifies to a 
very early coronation which I did not mention before, 
namely of K. Egbert. " Revertens inde Wintoniam,- 
mandavit omnibus majoribus regnorum quee conqui-^ 
sierat, ut convenirent ad ilium die certo Wintoniam : 
veniunt Wintoniam clerus et populus, et assensu om- 
nium partium coronatus est Egbertus in regem totius 

Next, as to the right of consecrating the new sove- 
reign. This has always been claimed by the archbi- 
shops of Canterbury. In proof of this, and of the 
allowance of it, the evidence of an historian, who was 
probably bom before the Conquest, has been appealed 
to by almost every writer on the subject. He is re- 
lating the coronation of William I. and that it was not, 
as according to ancient usage, performed by Stigand, 
archbishop of Canterbury. His words are : " In na- 
tivitate Domini unctus est in regem apud Westmo- 
nasterium a beatse memorise Ealredo archiepiscopo 
Eboracensi, et nonnullis episcopis Angliae. Quam 
consecrationem licet ipse rex et omnes alii optime nos- 

^ Cotton MS. Domitian. A. tion has been credited by some 

13. Dngdale* Monasticon.voLl. writers, but rejected by others: 

p. 205. The annals go on to say. whether true or false, it does not 

^ Edixit, ilia die, £gbertus ut in- affect the fact of the coronation of 

sula in postenim vocaretur An- K. Egbert at Winchester. A 

glia, et qui Tuti vel Saxones dice- charter in the Textus Roffmsia 

bantor, omnes communi nomine gives Egbert the title, <* rex An- 

Angli vocarentur." This asser- glorum." p. 97. 

<*?cc :«-o%fr- '=c»f*:'ii2'35r ierL « prpprie a pondfice Can- 
ruiritfc^L :uai«f!i ijiia si'ilra malA ct borrenda criiniiu 
prt'iic-aittnnr ie Sr ^ui«L: vjii «o leip off e ibi p<Hitifex 
enc. n^.c-Lit t?.iai aj :.:«?o >ui?«.:p<re, ne maledictionem 
▼'jit^nf^ir raiiii^rv rr> beoi^iijti-xie-'"'^ In the suc- 
I'^^f^Iiz^i: ovcnry, «:a •x'v-as* a or the coranation of K. 
J ci :ie rcj^: «.t :::<? ar.-hbcsh»-^ of Canlarbiiry was 
no ie<s nfcr c^iiieu : w':i:..!i is cl«?ar from the fcct that 
a pnxest VIS made oa thnf part of the archbishop of 
York* th*i: :Iie stlemnin' j^couid not be, imkss he also 
was prvrsent. lUiivh pivcest w^ disregarded. *' Hu- 
bemis CazlruaneI]b^s^ arcbiepiscopie corooaTit, et con- 

secravit in iv^ta An^lia? prjtninun Johannem, 

Philippo DunelmeDsi epi>c. appellante, ne coronatio 
ilia fierce in absentia Gaufridi Eborac^ns archiepis- 
copi, totitts An^lije primatisw"^ 

I must extract a document of the reign of Richard 
IL which does not plainly acknowledge the right of the 
archbishop. This is the royal mandate to the primate 
to attend at the coronation. ^*' Richardus» Dei gratia, 
eic^ Tenerabili in Christo patri Simoni, eadem gratia 
archiepiscopo Cantuar. totius Anglise primati salatem. 

^ IfUi* AW. p. 6. I am not archblsbop of York to have been 

eMicAgmed with the tme reason, caused by the king, yet speaks of 

why Htigand was not permitted to Stigand's disability as haying been 

f^mMfcrate the king: the '^hor- produced only by censures from 

rimrla crimina'' of Eadmer, might the court of Rome: which had 

pfofmbly without much difficulty, favoured the Conqueror's inva- 

)m madi) to shrink down into less sion. The reader may consult 

iM*rimiM pfilitical oflenees. Bromp- Collier. £cc, HisU voL I. p. 237. 

f orif in hiM chronicle, declares that And, I am bound to add, for an 

Hti((Aml himiMilf refused to per- uufavourable character of Stigand, 

torm ttio oin'mnmiy : and Malms- Malmsbury, de gestU. p. 46. 

iMiryi who follows Eadmer in re- ^ Hoveden. AnnaL p. 451. 

jiri'fiPtitlfiK thi' liH««rfert!fice of the edit. Savile. 

fl)rliet of Cotonation. Ux 

hiia firmiter credimus et speramus, quod, accepto 
oronationis et consecrationis munere, surnmi regis 
otentia virtuosa in regimine populi regni nostri de 
K>no semper in melius diriget actus nostros, ac nos 
lie Jovis in crastino translationis sancti Swythini prox. 
utur. apud Westm. proponimus, auctore Domino, co- 
*onari; vobis mandamus, firmiter injungentes, quod 
lujosmodi coronationis nostrae solenniis, dictis die et 
ioco celelM'andis^ personaliter intersitis. Et hoc, sicut 
DOS, et honorem nostrum diligitis, nullatenus omittatis. 
Teste meipso, rtc." *' This " breve regium " is interest- 
ing and important in several respects ; but the reader 
will hesitate, I think, before he attributes much weight 
to the omission of which I have spoken. For there 
was no likelihood at that time that the archbishop 
would not be able to attend, and personally exercise 
his right ; nor is it the kind of document in which, 
necessarily, this privilege would be specially noticed 
and acknowledged. Again, there is an earlier sum- 
mons, A. D. 1308, Edward IL, in a case where the 
archbishop was abroad, and the right is not only clearly 
enough acknowledged, but, if he could not return, he was 
required to nominate his deputy. " Et, si forte, aliquo 
casu contingente, vos, quod Bhsity contigerit impediri, 
ita quod die et loco praedictis, non poteritis vestram 
prsesentiam exhibere, tunc vices vestras alicui de ves- 
tris suffraganeis committatis, qui officium, quod in co- 
ronatione nostra praedicta vobis incumbit, exequatur, et 
exerceat vice vestra."" 

^ Wilkins : Concilia, torn. 3. the following from a royal letter 

p. 119. to the pope, upon this same case 

^ Ryme»: Padera, torn. L of archbishop Winchelsey: **£t 

pars, iv. /1. 111. I cannot omit quia regum Anglis coronatio ad 


?^« lfc^ h i> w< »««3B*rv to he^ up evidence ^ 

. -- M-rr XT*: ^^ (^ ^ setropcditan see, I shall mffrf. 

f^ • : \.4- «r. z rttsibcy Fufcer strcmgly insists upon ^ 

-^^ ..- :ru' n ■' ■■tr to aj^int a deputy: and k 

•^ r ^ ,^fc^ .c arcbbkhop Winchelsey» but withor. 

"^ :.- ■ >.. iwrirr. After enomerating' other pri- 

-v-s^ V ^Mr.nrues: **pneler dictas emineDtias e^ 

x ^x^^' ^^^ man Ttscs a Loudinensibos et Winti^- 

• s->vN.>^ ,^»-<.vcc>. ancjiieiiisoopis Cantuariensibo: 
*- V . >^ . * ^S^Tir'SBs^ tanquam eorum yicariis, in 
X . ^ *.*v I *\r^ rz SMcmi solebant. Qua ratiou? 

'• • > - .V * \ i' tt^ iKoiclDe ^tfcundus ab Henrico Wood- 
»N V * ' x-.v !>c o:i:^vw consecratus fuit, absenti? 
^ . * s s .>.- vx r.fcT\.".$,r,- : q:iiid Robertus Winchelsey 
•s .* *»> * N .^<- v'ujv iiV <»\il:4\ in qood ab Edwardo 

• -N -«s .T^ .'^ -»*,. n ni,^»,ij: reveireiis fberat ; ut in vita 
. x*s^ V .v^- *%' T^.^*:^ declaraKtur.''*' The pas- 

-N^ *- ^ . >. «v<v^uj..A iinr^^ to the same purpose: 

> ' .. N % ^»* .4?v ><.vn;p.;u> coivwaar^a consecrandus 

fc \- :,xx v*.vx%.-v:v ^^ i^^vous tunc archiepiscopi vice, 

Vxx.. sN ^ . x«:v^\ safyvvju*: mandato, in r^ conse- 

> XV V*. ^ ^v ^>>«i speaking of the coro 

^ .vw \ * ^ . \^ S:>i.>p Gardiner, without a 

V > ' »-^* ^^»» •^v :Kr oAcn </ Rome: a bull of pope 

•* X >^ ,,> *vx*- \«r\M>i<T IIL in 1170, com- 

' ^ , «\ >»« «^«'* iivMv>r$ vhk tlie assertion, *'qaod 

^'^ N' \ »"x K »^*« wvk^'Aiu 4/" n^ Ai^s, et inanc- 

^ ' ^' * * \ * \ . < *v ♦i vWnur, arcfakptsc. de an- 

^^ * > * •• ., ,^ ^>%vK -'v»»ik ^v>f*ir s«HB coDsiuetudioe 

'" ^ ' '» ^ s , • • ..V *v»^ ^^ <iuiJ. i$a^ "penxoeaL^ Quoniam 

:^ I ^»*' r-t.A'ir^rSffi». BaUanmi. Coll. 

m^ \ r ^^^"^^- ^^^ ^*-" " ^^^* ^*r,r«^ Bra. Ecci 

£Drliet of Coronation. 


legated authority from archbishop Cranmer : " Re- 
la Maria — a Gardinero Winton. episcopo, sine 
presso jure aut exemplo, quoniam ea res ad metro- 
litanum spectabat, uncta regnoque initiata est."'^ 
I must not omit to mention, that archbishop Parker 
aiiins as another privilege of his see, the right to 

** Ihid. p. 509. Holinshed re- 
tes a case very much to the 
lint, but he does not state his 
ithority, and I do not see that it 
noticed either by Matthew of 
iTestminster, or Malmsbury, or 
[untingdon. But thus it is. 
Some write, that EInothus, the 
rchbishop of Canterbury, a man 
ndued with all virtue and wis- 
iom, refused to crown him : [ Ha- 
old, A. D. 1086] for when the 
ung required the said archbishop 
hat be might be of him conse- 
crated, — to whom only it did ap- 
pertein to invest him with the 
crowne and scepter, — the archbi- 
shop flatlie refused, and with an 
oth protested, that he would not 
consecrate anie other for king, so 
long as the queen's children lived. 
The sceptre and crowne I here 
lay downe vpon the altar, and 
neither do I denie nor deliuer them 
unto you: but I forbid by theapos- 
tolike authoritie all the bishops, 
that none of them presume to take 
the same awaie, and deliuer them 
to you, or consecrate you for 
king."CAro«ic/e*. vol Up. 182. 
As soon as archbishop Parker s 
book was finished, there was pub- 
lished a little volume by the Pu- 

ritans, with this title. '* The life 
off the 70. Archbisshopp off Can- 
terbury, presentlye settinge, eng« 
lished, and to be added to the 69, 
lately sett forth in Latin. This 
numbre off seuenty is so compleat 
a number as it is great pitie ther 
shold be one more: but that as 
Augustin was the first, so Matthew 
might be the last." Then follows 
the Life of Parker, as written by 
himself, translated. But to our 
present subject, I extract what the 
puritan author says of this privi- 
lege just spoken of in the text. 
'* From this steppe he clymeth 
vppe another, yet higher, that the 
kinges off this realme are crowned, 
and made by him, as that which 
off right is properlie due unto 
him." Sign, D. v. Thus merely 
repeating the archbishop's state- 
ment, without an attempt to dis- 
prove it. Some idea of this pub- 
lication may be gathered from 
the title that it gives to the first 
archbishop, namely, *'the hellish 
Augustine." It is a matter of 
congratulation that this, and many 
more of the same kind, written 
by the Elizabethan puritans, are 
among the most rare books of the 


-I:Ii."l^ • — ii--^ -^ - — -^ -■ 

' -^..^i^ ^- ^* 

: ■• KIT i^r^in ^^zdvunque, 
i ^ J. if:»?*irzr. Nam 
1 n 'zmifTizis^ aula pcr- 

--*^> vory much „,odify the 

itsuTTs ac ti* esse, «s giTCD by 

t.TiL ** i,f^ K**iricas con- 

sLii ;^c:a§ Asrbip apod Wynde- 
fon cccrry^Tiio. Adelinam filiam 
Gcoefnii diish soiemniter in ax- 
ofrem : utH Radalphus Cantuaiien- 
sis archiepisoopus «d iracundiam 
et paralisim plariinum incUnatus 

fl)tfter of Coronation. ixiii 

This privilege, if correct, would entitle the archbi- 
>bop, I presume, to the oblations made by the sovereign 
Lt a coronation. I understand, however, that these 
>blation8 were not claimed by the archbishop at the 
ate solemnities : perhaps, from not remembering the 
statement made by archbishop Parker ; perhaps from 
1 desire not to assert claims which might possibly be 
iisputed, or to insist upon matters of secondary, al- 
though, in their kind, of considerable importance. 
The only memorial (or " fee" as it is called) allowed 
to the archbishop, was the chair he sat upon. For my 
own part, I regret, that the right to the oblations was 
not also remembered, and, at least, duly considered, if 
not ultimately pressed. 

Lastly, I would observe upon the various Orders, 
which, either in the text or notes, the reader will find 
in this volume, that they will enable him to trace the 
Coronation Service of the Church and Realm of Eng- 
land, from the present time back to the eighth century : 
a period of eleven hundred years. No other church 
or country can produce a series so complete. Selden^ 
regretted that although he had found many particulars 
in our old historians, he yet could not venture upon their 
warrant to construct the Ceremonial. He appears to 
have known of no ancient coronation ritual of the 
English Church, except the imperfect volume in the 
Cotton library, containing the order of K. Ethelred. 
This, though a fragment only, he printed : and he at- 
tempted to compensate for what he wanted by the 

episoopam Saraberiensem ad offi- cium delegaTit." Script, x. tanu 

dam desponsatioms peragendnm \, p. 1014. 
sacris ▼estimentia cedere ooegit 

indntaniyeiWeDtaDoepiscopooffi- ^ Titles of honour, p, 149. 


Furm appocnred in the modem pontifical of the churcb 
of Rome* abi.KziiiiLxr. as the stadent nay easily assure 
himself by a o:»mparisoiu with Tery nameroas and im- 
portant TariarloQs firx>m the old English Use ; and by 
the coronation serrice of K. Chaiies V. of France, also 
haling many <ii^reni.-es. I trust» that the deficiencies 
of which that learned writer complained, are now fully 

It would not be right to speak of the coronation 
serrice which I hare edited in this Tolume, as '^ of the 
Use of Sarum ;" ahhough taken fivm the p<mtifical of 
that church : nor, in like manner, of the same service, 
as acoHding to the Use of Winchester, or Elxeter. 
Those chmrches, at the periods when the particular 
copies of their pontificak were written, now at one 
time now at another, adopted and included, according 
to its then state, this office, which formed one of the 
chief duties of the bishops of the church. The coro- 
nation-service was always '' according to the Use of 
the Church of England *\* or, on account of its high 
privilege as the place where the solemnity was to be 
performed, " according to the Use of the Church of 
Westminster/* So also, in modem times, the coro- 
nation service must be regarded as '^ according to the 
Use of the Church of England."" 

The earliest state in which we find the Order, as it 

"* It is to be wished that the as a religious solemnity: and 

coronation-service was attached would regard their sovereign not 

to our Common Prayer Book : only as a Person crowned, but as 

and in the authorized Form, ac- a Person sacred and anointed, 

cording to which it had last been At present it is so difficult to 

used. People would then consider obtain a copy of the Service, that 

a coronation, more justly than it is scarcely probable they can 

many now do, not as a civil, but know much about the subject. 

iDrner of Coronation. ixv 

was in the pontifical of Egbert, archbishop of York, in 
the eighth century, is different indeed from that in which 
it was last left, upon the occasion of the coronation of 
her present Majesty. The alterations, whether of 
omission or addition, have been made very gradually • 
and it is probably true, that there has never yet been 
a coronation, without the service being subjected to 
some change, either for the better or the worse. The 
records of Ethelred, Henry I. Edward II. and Richard 
II. prove this, no less than those of James I. or George 
I. or Queen Victoria, 

With respect to the authority, by which the Coro- 
nation Service from time to time has been revised and 
approved, I am able to state as to the late occasions, 
upon information derived from the highest source, that 
an order of council is directed to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, who, according to his own judgment, pre- 
pares a " Form and Order." On the one hand, doubt- 
less, due attention must be paid to the expressed wishes 
of the sovereign on particular points ; upon the other, 
those wishes must be well considered, lest rites and 
ceremonies should be too hastily omitted, which, from 
a constant observance of them through a long series of 
generations, may claim the character of being essential 
to the right performance of a solemnity so high and 
sacred. I cannot in candour pretend to conceal my 
regret, that some changes, scarcely called for, were in- 
troduced upon the occasion of K. William I V. But that 
was a time when the outcry was extreme against any 
thing which bore the impress of antiquity ; and it is 
moreover probable that there were then reasons, why 
certain alterations should be made, which now might 
not be regarded as of much weight or value. 

VOL. III. f 

UC "J^ J^ ".:-s- ^:^ si^^ :c :^ Oz^xmatiaiA Service, 
^ * w .. T* ^ "n*..» - ii in»; T^psJiriLs upon another 
,.^v, ».^ ^ ' •-.• ^ :...i T» r Tufrrc'aeiitly is found in I 
.v^^ ^xv ^> -..^ T^inx: - i -^r^ eTL«jTaiis regalibns : '' 
^ ; t^ ,^.N.vC \i ::t5 ?-^vlji=c«n MS. c- 425, in the 
v^^ v^^^t» * oun :rti^^ ^v i%>r saK^iik) migrare conti- 
. • "^ t.\ 't i\ fc ^«^:i-v*£ iris.* which consists solely 
^ ^ X. vv ""*^v'*v. J6^ -i:^ rY*ftSer will find it in the 
vnt XV -»^^^^ *^ ^-^ ^.rs».Tu^ 1:T- The paragraph 
V . w "^ C Vv»;>ivi -s: .--cirrc:? re^ris inuncti fiieril^" 
A vi >^-^ '>^ "" >v itv^z.'rjsrsCTi^? TTnijiaT sepultnTae,'' IS the 
V Ju>- V. ^ ^"^^ svVvv -^^ rv <i.^xi:iiis regahhus,*' when 
\v Nv^^ \/ ^>vv^ >^X'dL'-iv".\ rr ibe pontiBcals. In the 
vw^ww^v^*;^ *"v»<>*."vy tbe ifv^xvpal services, edited 
\\\ \W^v" \nv\ ^^^ ^^ T.u.«v. t^.is office is inserted upon 
^ \v\,v\\V V^Vs A^ vV cxxl c« tr.e KxAl, hy a somewhat 
\,su V V N^^^^ ^^ ^'^ -^ * V^^* ^^ ^^ ^^^^ Regalis, pre- 

A yNSW VN^sx* ^xx\\ \ VaxaW oopder, in Unghsh, has been 
\\\\i\\\»Vo\^ VV\ \W Xt\ V,*\Av>p* ;* winch I transcribe. 
^* \\\\i\V *»^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ demyse of a king an- 

,, \V\\oU ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^S wwoynted is decessed, aft nis 

\m\\ \^ ^V^^'^"^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ washed and clensed hy^ 

h\M <^'^' ^^^'^ ^^^'^y uwumitem\ than the body must 

h« \uuiu*a, v^vwv\hh\ in hum, or reynez yf it may be 

Eopsl fl)&0eQitie0. ixvii 

^otjm, than hosyn cherte, and a perer of shone of rede 
lather, and do on his surcote of cloth, his cap of estate 
on his hed, and then ley hym on a fair horde cou'ed 
vfrith cloth of gold^ his on hand on his bely and a 
sep'r in the toder hande, and oon his face a kerchief, 
and so shewed to his nohlez by the space of ij. dayez 
and more yef the weder will it suffice. 

^^ And when he may not godely longer endur, take 

hym away and howell hym, and then eftones bame 

bym, wrappe him in raynez wele trameled in colrds of 

silke, than in tarseryn tramelled, and than in velvet, 

and so in clothe of gold well tramelled, and than led 

hym and cofre hym, and in his leed w' hym a plate of 

bis stile, name, and the date of our Lord gravyn, and 

yef ye cary hym^ make an jonage like hym clothed in 

a surcote w* a mantell of estate, the laces goodly lying 

on his bely, his sept'r in his hande, ^d a crown on 

his bed, and so cary hym in a chare open w* lights and 

baners, accompanyed with lords and estates as the 

counseil can best devyse, having the hors of that chare 

trapped with diu'se trappers or elles w' blake trappers 

of blake with scochons richely betyn, and his officers 

of armes aboute hym in his cotes of armez, his hemeysz 

upon hym, his salet or basenet on his bed crowned, a 

shylde and a spere till he come to the place of his 


There appears to be but little difficulty in under- 
standing this Order, whether in the Latin or English ; 
except upon one point : as to the covering of the face : 
^' oon bis face a kerchief," says the latter ; and the 
former, ^^ postmodum caput cum facie ipsius sudario 
serico cooperiatur/' But a chief object of the ancient 
lying in state, certainly was, that the sovereign might 
be known to be dead, by his subjects ; and an English 


^xwurr A* TSf o^v^nSe» rf K. Edward IV. attached 
5u- ;!v s^ftonr V5^ T-,iit wiiA I hmTe just extracted, 
ivv .u-*^ rMs: -i^f .-,"r3i» «ms exposed, not only with 
•^ V 'HOT >u^ ^* ;r rSf rrrttxst part of the body naked, 
"^ .w*t.N X /r V. . K^mrx. that aD Ac lordes both 
>iN ' Lv -'; jw^ wir^rV-^ $avY bjvi so leying, and then 

V*^ f*^^ i*kt ^^ VjK^np ^vi^wQi reference in the 
>vvl v^^^,^.vVs^ CoBKvr^T^ Rk^iard II., it is not 
^c^y.'-*^ '';i :>jb: ttj^j writ^ers notice it ; as it was pre- 
lv^iN>s\l AV.r^x^.is^ r>da l>e w^as sriD aliTe. Four con- 
K^-ijxYH^^x ** \*fs <^yt&k ot It r CHterboume,* Walsing- 
Kiuw* lUrvlxr^* Ar>d FrvissarL The last says, that 
lh< i^.v^ ^Ax dkt i'SMjtsi.le. fiill two hours, his head 
\^ « KavK c^^xvx. aisi hb Cice uncovered.* So 
>i^iih r^\ys^ K^ Henrr VI. we are told that afker 
hU \K\Aii^ ^^ \>ii the uKsrrvfcw he was chestyde [cof- 
HiuhI] atnl K^H^ht K» St. Fiul^s, and his face was 
0|Hn^ ihAl <^xvTV uwui murht see him.-* Again, Ras- 

• *^ K4 |»*r* «AtHHH wvvon** not bdieTe that it was, «Iter all, 
^r \\\\\>\\ *H^»u«\*^ |H*ttsMrt» <KM the body of the king. See, fwr 
m^ll hU \\\\^ |w*iiv (W^li» tt^ue ad example» the F^rench metrical his- 
yutt^U'/* /»« li'^^ ^<^ ^ Richard's deposition, 

• /> MX quoted aboTe ; where the author 
^ ' declares, ^ 221, " I certainly do 

• P, 857. ,^ beKere that it was the old 
« At poulet his ma»»e was done ^.^^ . but I think it was Maude- 

and diryff*» \^^ i^ chaplain, who so exactly 

In hers royall wmely to royalte. .^^^led him : &c'' But this 

The kyng and lordes clothes of ^audelain was known to have 

grolde there offerde, ^^^ puWicly executed before in 

Some vuj. some ix. upon hw hers j^^^^ Walmngham. p. 363. 

were proferde.'' 

» Vol. ii. p, 762. In spite of • Chronicles of the White 

these proofi, other people would Rose./>. 181. 

iaopal iDhiequitsi. 


tell leads us to conclude that such was the case even 
with the neglected corpse of Richard III/ 

But the reasons for exposure which were of import- 
ance in these cases» could not have heen considered 
with regard to Edward IV. already mentioned, and 
others, incidentally noticed presently : we must sup- 
pose, therefore, that the covering of the face direct^ 
in the rubric, was not to take place, until after suffi- 
cient time had previously elapsed for recognition by 
the people. We have no difficulty in proving that the 
other parts of the Order were generally observed, and 
I select a few examples. 

Of Edward the confessor his biographer tells usi 
^' Parantur interim regales exequise, pretiosis lintheis 
et optimis palliis corpus involvitur, pauperes Christi 
eleemosynis sullevantur."" And before his time, we 

' P. 299. 

* Ailred Abbas. Script, x. 
Two. L />. 402. And in the ac- 
count <^ the first translation of 
the body, we have some further 
particulars : ^ Primum deinde 
paltium quo sacratissima membra 
liierat involuta, pristinam venus- 
tatem et integritatem reservasse 
conspiciunt. — Extracto palHo cs- 
tera omamenta vestesque consi* 
derant, et omnia solida invenerunt 
et Integra." iHnd. p. 407. In al- 
most modem times, (in the rdgn of 
James II.) his tomb was broken, 
It was said accidentally, and the 
i^ead of the corpse was found to 
^ lurronnded with a narrow dia- 
dem of gold. A crucifix of pure 
gold was also, it was asserted, 

found under the shoulder blades, 
with a gold chain : this was taken 
away by the person who disco- 
vered it, and given to K. James. 
A pamphlet was published, relat- 
ing the circumstances ; but there 
is very much in it that is suspi- 
cious, and I cannot help disbe- 
lieving the whole history. It is 
said by the author, <* Chas. Tay- 
lour, Gent," (the plunderer him- 
self), ^^ it is highly remarkable, 
that the crucifix should have been 
found on that day whereon the 
late rebellion began in the West, 
and much abont the same hour in 
the afternoon when they landed.'' 
This was Monmouth's enterprise. 
The pamphlet is a 4to« London* 


• \ 

•-'* \ 


5V K 

-* * ^ ^ - '-^ aim- 
■•'^'^ ^^***^ of 


Eopal fl)&$eqtiie0« 


lortaretor ad sepeliendum, regio indutus apparatu, 
^oronam in capite habens auream, et chirothecas in 
oanibusy calceamenta auro texta in pedibus et cal- 
^aria, annulum magnum in digito, et in manu scep- 
xum, accinctusque gladio, discooperto yultu jace- 

Concerning the younger Henry, who died during 
his fathers lifetune» Matthew Paris says: '^Corpus 
autem in lineis yestibus, quas habuit in consecratione 
sacro ohrismate delibutas, regaliter involutum."^^ Of 
K. John we learn, from the same historian, not only 
that his body, ^'regio schemate omatum, ad Wigomiam 
delatum est ; *' but also that, '' abbas canonicorum Cro- 
kestoniae peritissimus in medicinis, facta anatomia de 
corpore regio, ut honestius portaretur, viscera copioso 
sale conspersa, in sua domo transportata, honorifice 
fecit sepeliri."** 

" HiH. Angl p. 126. Giral- 
dus, 1 may add» positively asserts 
in another work» that the king 
was buried without any regal or- 
naments. De vita Ga^ridit 
Archiep. in Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra. Tom. 2. p. 382. 
"^ Ibid. p. 117. 
" IhitLp. 242. I cannot say 
that the reader of the old chro- 
nicles will be amused, for the 
mbjeet is too solemn, but he will 
be interested with the various 
'pecolatimis which he will find in 
many of them, as to the condition» 
after death, of the soul of K. 
John. At least» they tell us a 
^Bufbl tale of the miseries and 
ca^anuties of his subjects» and the 

popular accusation of himself, as 
the immediate cause. Even con- 
cerning K. Stephen» of whose 
reign the Saxon chronicle has 
given us such a terrible descrip- 
tion» I do not remember to have 
met with any similar remarks. 
Matthew Paris' own opinion is 
dottbtfiil: '^Sperandum est au- 
tem» et oertissime eonfidendum» 
quod quflddam bona opera» quae 
fedt in hac vita, allegabunt pro 
eo ante tribunal Jesu Christi;" 
and he specifies the good deeds 
which he could recollect; *'oon- 
struzii enim abbatiam Cisterden- 
ns ordinis de Bello loco; et mo- 
riturua domui de Crokestnna 
decern librarnm terram contuUt 


piiluMiM itg Z>i»ettation. 

ll v;^ ift<uad als^t to maove the brain ; and therv 
is A ry«%Arijib> cinruAstance recorded, conceming 
Hottr\ L I t*kif the account fipom Henry of Hnn- 
luxajvUnK •'Rex namqoe Henricus obierat: cujns 
<\vr)Ht^ ;iiViAtuitt fK4 RiHcunasrum» et ibi viscera ejus et 
oorohnim el oeuli ci>a^pulla sunt Reliquum autem 
cxvr^ms^xvKb t;jiurim$ nevonditum est causa fcatcms 
ex iuihIu ^ui niultxi^ et inhnitns jam circumstantes infi- 
ciel>Al. Vinie et if^!^\ qui magno pretio conductus 
^vun CA^mi eiu^ di^leniu at fioHidissimum cerebrum 
e\lr«^her^^u qu^mvb linte«niinibus caput suum obvol- 

%^H\WlAMir ^ d^« lie fy^tcs 

^iNf^ iW \^*KNtt \Vf « WKHik «one 
It"» Ntsftr» *l>^; h> «hom tlie 

iu«> ^«\hh\ ^mnl iw^m^ P^j^^ 
Nmu) h«(H' ni«yi q\i» xkW« iinhi^ 

d«^n>«i ut umIUi» qui in sieculo 
vivit» ilia Uixgt'rt» »uttcerel pn» 
ardorr, Tel prt^pttr potuiercfesitalfvft 
porUr^» quiu prolinos iDoreretur. 
Sed Uroen per Dei rleueotiam 
•pero et gratiam ineflfabilem — me 
qnandoque mtsericordiam adep* 
turum.*' Ibid. p. 280. The 
▼ision of another monk, recorded 
hy Walter Hemingrfbrd, gires a 
contrary view of the matter. 
Chron. cap, cvij. 

I have mentioned this suhject, 
as heing curious and important in 

WBBT rcspcc Aa : and I would ako 
lake this opportonity of directiiig 
the readcf^s attmtion to the fre- 
quent deecrqptions which he will 
find in the middle-age historians, 
of TtsMBs of poigatory. Some 
of these are as hornhle in their 
details, as the imagination can 
eoQcetTe. One thing is shewn; 
thai the doctrine of poigatory in 
thosc^days had not arriTed at its 
full uatority of correctness, as 
afterwards expressed in its sere- 
ral details. Thus, we find in 
Matthew Pkris, the soul of a 
certain clerk» enduring punish- 
ment : ** et cum inquirerem, utrum 
misericordiam se aliquando conse- 
cuturum speraiet, respondit : ▼» 
mihi, wm nuhi, scio quod ante diem 
judicii omnino misericordiam non 
merebor : an autem vel tunc, incer- 
tumhabeo."/».l57. But this igno- 
rance could not be, according to 
the doctrine, as it is now settled, 
of the church of Rome. 

Eopal iS>b»t(lUit». Ixxiii 

visset, mortuus tamen ea causa pretio male gavisus 

I must not omit to quote a part of the will of K. 
Richard II. ** Item volumus et ordinamus quod cor- 
pus nostrum in velveto vel sathano blanio, more regie, 
^estiatur, et etiam interretur, una cum corona et scep- 
tre regiis deauratis, absque tamen quibuscumque lapi- 
dibus: quodque super digitum nostrum, more regio, 
annulus cum lapide pretioso ponatur." ^^ 

The English order quoted above, directs an image 
of the dead king to be made : thus, for example, it 
was done for Henry V. " Superposita namque fuerat 
cistse, in qua corpus ejus habebatur, qusedam imago 
staturae et faciei regis mortui simillima, clamyde pur- 
piirea satis longa et larga cum forrura de ermyn in- 
duta, sceptrum in una manu, et pila rotunda aurea 
cum cruce infixa in altera, corona aurea in capite, 
super capellum regni, et sandalis regiis in pedibus 
impositis/'" Among the records in the Chapter- 
house at Westminster, is an original minute of coun- 
cil for the ceremonial of the funeral of queen Cathe- 
rine of Arragon : in which, among other matters, it is 
ordered that there should be provided, "a cast or 
puffed Ymage of a princesse apparailled in her robes 
of estate, w' a cronall uppon her bed in her heare, 
w* rings, gloves, and juells upon her handes."^^ 

These ** effigies " were commonly placed upon the 

^ Htstoriarunu Lib. yuy edit. Tom. 2. p. 479. Matt. Paris, 

Samle. p. 221. b. The arch- Hist. p. 61. 

deacon of Huntingdon rather un- " Rymer. Fcedera. Tom, 8. 

kindly adds, '' Hie est ultimus e p, 75. 

mnlUs, quern rex Henricus ooci- ^ Walsingham, Hist. Angl. p. 

dit.'' See also, ibid. p. 276. 407. HoUnshed, Fo/. 3. />. 584. 

Hemmgford, chron. Angl. script. ^ Printed in the Archsologiay 

ixxiv preUmiiiatp Duatertation. 

tomb afterwards, coloored to represent life» and ha- 
bited in the proper costume and vestments of the day. 
Or, they were replaced by others, of a more lasting 
inaterial, which, where they have been spared to us, 
still furnish some of the most Taluable records of their 
kind to which it is possible for us to refer. Who is 
there, having once seen it, who does not rraoember the 
most noble and beantifiil figure of queen Eleanor, 
upon her tomb in the confessor's chapel, in West- 
minster abbey ?■• 

When it was necessary to bring the royal corpse 
from a distance, to the place of sepulture, it was cus- 
tomary at the various places, commonly abbies, where 
it rested, to meet it with solemn processions : and 
also, in the towns through which it passed. Thus, 
for instance, when Edward I. died. '* Post prindLpis 
preedicti decessum, venerabilis pater dominus Petrus 
cardinalis, et clerus Anglise, cunctique regni nobiles, 
qui interesse poterant, obviam corpori undique occur- 
rerunt, solemnes processiones, ad quas venerat, per 
ecclesias, faciendo/"^ And it is most probable, that 
it was not moved on, upon the succeeding day, until 
after mass had been said. We may conclude this, I 
think, from Walsingham's statement as to Richard 11. 
" Cujus corpus per loca celeberrima — ubi contigit per- 
noctare, monstratum est post officium mortuorum, et 
in crastino post missam peractam/'^ 

I cannot close these remarks upon the Order '^ de 

VoL 16. />. 23. The ceremonial numental Effigies : a work admi- 

)# rfiraeied, not for <* queen " Ca- rably executed, and of much 

MtHne» but for ** the right excel- value. 

Iiifti and noble Princesse the Lady « «r i • r rr- x a , 

('.MMdine,-latewieftothenoble ""^^^alnngham. Hist Angl. 

himI WKsellent prince Arthur, etc,* ^' 
«• Knfrraved in Stotbart's Mo- " Ibid. /i. 363. 

IRopal i^hfttinie», ixxv 

exequiis regalibus," without reminding the reader, that 
in Y&rious antiquarian pubHcations, there are accounts 
printed of the opening and examination of royal tombs, 
which fully prove that the rubric was generally both 
c^arefully and accurately observed. One of the most 
interesting of these accounts, is that of the opening of 
the tomb of K. Edward I. in the year 1774. In which, 
passing by the state of the body itself, we find that it 
^^ was wrapped up tnthin a large square mantle, of thick 
linen cloth, diapered, and waxed on its under side. 
The head and face were entirely covered with a suda- 
riunif or face cloth, of crimson sarcenet, — ^formed into 
three folds. When the folds of the external wrapper 
were thrown back, and the sudarium removed, the corpse 
was discovered richly habited, adorned with ensigns of 
royalty. — Its innermost covering seemed to have been 
a very fine linen cerecloth, dressed close to every part 
of the body, and superinduced with such accuracy and 
exactness, that the fingers and thumbs of both the hands 
had each of them a separate and distinct envelope of 
that material. — Next above the cerecloth was a dalma- 
tic, or tunic, of red silk damask ; upon which lay a 
stole of thick white tissue, about three inches in breadth, 
crossed over the breast, and extending on each side 
downwards, nearly as low as the wrist, where both ends 
were brought to cross each other. [This stole is mi- 
nutely described to be jewelled and embroidered.] — 
Over these habits is the royal mantle, or pall, of rich 
crimson satin, fastened on the left shoulder with a mag- 
nificent ^^{^/^ of metal gilt with gold. — The corpse 
from the waist downwards, is covered with a large 
piece of rich figured cloth of gold, which lies loose 
over the lower part of the tunic, thighs, legs, and feet, 
and is tucked down behind the soles of the latter. 
There did not remain any appearance of gloves : but 

'■ *^=v 3i.i!j :. « n.r 

■-sn dfew i^ - i nf d in or- 
Hfc-r ^af^ larrr 

•^ ^ *. zr^v 

r^»- -C" rsr tear:: r lit *.••■*« 

«nL r r » mricnn-t wia lu- 

idle cimasrv iufliie.liiiiix coifiea» 

is ^^eiT oetaJn; tbst ptrvni^ ano 
fniviiiDOlof Boden date, bm 

ir mr Ai^im Sftom. 7m». 2. 
f;^ ±ir. K jeitaec ikt uiiriil ac- 
cfmis^ OTWi: ixp lit tbe tuDOy of 
xxir m«(9iii>£ iif ibe9Cf»po9edtoiiib 
flf srcubssbc^ OsBStui, al Can- 
vs^Hixy, in tbr yoar 130d. There 
«ere iboid «aae Woes; ainT an 
jBScripdcau wliidi tboiigh much 
x«£ed OB by ardibisliop Warfaam, 
ID proof d tbe ideoti^ of the re- 


iDf&tt» of flDtDination. ixxvii 


THE Services, in this volume, after the Order of 
Coronation, are those which relate to the ordina- 
tion of priests, deacons, suhdeacons, &c., and to the 
consecration of hishops. We have here a subject of 
enquiry before us, so vast, and branching out into so 
many collaterate questions, that I almost fear to enter 
upon it at all, in the necessarily confined limits within 
which I must keep myself. I shall propose therefore 
to do little more, than lay before the reader some col- 
lections from the English councils, and canonists, much 
in the same way as in the Dissertation in the first vo- 
lume, bearing upon and illustrating the rubrics iemd 
ceremonies of the services themselves. Other matters, 
of no little interest, will be found discussed in the notes 
attached to those services. 

I shall scarcely even approach the question, how far 
and in what sense we are justified in considering 

mains, seems to me to cast very will be repaid by a careful perusal 
considerable additional doubt upon of tbe wbole matter. It is an un- 
tbe fiict, and somewhat more than happy exposure of ignorance and 
a suspicion of collusion. The superstition on the part of the 
inscription was ^'Hic requiescit country-people, of something very 
saoctus Dunstanus archiepisco- like deceit in the monks, and par- 
pus ^' and it was argued that the tiality in the archbishop : who set- 
tomb had never been disturbed, tied the dispute by declaring, if 
A correspondence followed be- the convent of Glastonbury would 
tween the archbishop and the not withdraw their claim, that he 
monks of Glastonbary, who had would excommunicate all persons 
claimed, for some centuries, pos- who should presume to visit their 
session of thebody : and the reader pretended relics. 


** Orders'*^ to be •aa criiiit : in some sense it is unde- 
niable tbat it mast be so regarded, as ako are confir- 
mation, and matrimoDT by the homilies of the church 
of England. We cannot receiTe the Ordinal of onr 
Church, without acknowledging the truth of this, and 
echoing the words <^ S. Ambrose, ^ Homo imponit ma- 
nam, Deos largitor gratiam : sacodos imponit sup- 
plicem dexteram, Deus benedicit potenti dextera.'^ 

^There is no lack oi eridence that before the l6th 
century» the English charch r^arded orders in the 
same light; and I am not now concerned with the proof, 
if any such were needed, that she also ranked this 
rite too highly, and not according to the more just mea- 
sure and rule of the Holy Scriptures, and the primitiye 
ages. Thus, a synod of Durham, in the year 1220, in 
its canon, '^ de numero sacramentorom" first specifies 
five, and then continues : '^ Duo yero sequentia sunt 
ordo et conjugium, nee omnium Ucet quorundam, nee 
per eorum virtutem peccata dimittuntur, sed in eorum 
altero, scilicet in conjugio, peccatum fomicationiB vita- 
tur; in altero, scilicet ordine, quorundam virtutes au- 

" <* Ordo" when we meet with 
the term in the Fathers, may be 
understood in at least two ways, 
according to the context: either 
for the sacred rite itself of ordi- 
nation, or for the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy, and various degrees of 
the ministers of the Church, 
which would seem to be its origi- 
nal and most strict interpretation. 
In this last sense, S. Augustine 
declares : '* Ordo est parium dis- 
puriumque rerum sua cuique loca 
trlbuens dbpositio." De civiU 
Ihi Lib. xix. 13. 1. In the for- 
U4^r we are to understand the La- 

tin Ordinatio, or Sacra Ordi- 
natioy and the Greek \ftporoyia 
or j(itpo9t9ia. The definitions of 
which by the canonists may be re- 
duced to this : ^ Ritus sacer seu 
sacramentum, quo spiritualis po- 
tastas confertur sacramenta con- 
ficiendi et ministrandi, csteraque 
ecclesiastica munia pro jure ob- 

^ De dignitate sacerdotali. cap, 
5. see also his treatise, de Spiritu 
Sancto. lib. 1. cap. 5. 1. ; S. Cbry- 
sostom, de sacerdoHo^ lib. 3. § 4 ; 
and S. Augustine, coyi^.Parm^ff. 
lib. 2. cap. 13. 

S>fBtt» of iDtHtnatton. ixxix 

gentur.'' *^ Again, the fEunoos synod of Exeter» in the 
year 1287 ; '^ Est et septimum sacramentum, so. ordo ; 
nam, sicut in veteri testamento sacrificia offerebantur, 
non per quoscunque, sed vocatos a Domino ; ita nee in 
novo, nisi per ipsos, qui ad hoc sacros susceperint or- 
dines, ecclesiastica sacramenta poterunt dispensari.''^ 
So also Lyndwood in his gloss upon a constitution of 
archbishop Peckham : ^^ Ordo. Istud est unum de duo- 
bus sequentibtts [i : e : sacramentis] et sextum in nu- 
meroy alias connumeratis praecedentibus : et nota quod 
Ordo, prout est sacramentum ecclesiee ut hie, est sig- 
naculum quoddam, per quod spiritualis potestas tradi- 
tur ordinate. Secundum Thomam istud sacramentum 
pertinet ad generationem spiritualem."*® And once 
more, the " PupiUa Oculi :" which commences with 
the enumeration of seven sacraments, of which the 
fifth is ^^ Ordo :'' and presently has several chapters 
"de Sacramento Ordinis."^ 

' Wilkins. Concilia Tom. 1 . tents; and the value of them, as a 

p* ^74. record of the practice and opin- 

" Ibid Tom, 2. p. 130. cf. p. ions of the clergy of the English 

295. a canon of a synod at Win- church, during the middle ages : 

Chester, A. D. 1306. and cardi- *\ |[ Pupilla oculi, omnibus pres- 

nal Pole, Reform. AngLfoL 9. h. byteris preecipue Anglicanis sum* 

fdxL Aldus, 1562. me necessaria : per sapientissi* 

" Lib. 1, Tit. 7. Ignorantia. mum divini cultus moderatorem, 

tfri.Ordo. Johannem de Bnrgo, quondam 

* The '* Pupilla oculi,'* once a dmsB universitatis Cantabrigien. 
very famous book, is now exceed* cancellarium : et sacrse pagine pro- 
nigly rare, and but little known ; fessorem, necnon ecdesise de Co- 
nor do I believe that it has been lingam rectorem ; compilata anno a 
printed since the reformation. As natali Dominico, M.ccc.lxxxv. In 
^ is the first time that I have quatractatur de septem sacramen- 
quoted it, the reader will not ob- torum administratione, de decem 
ject, probably, to sedng its inll ti- prseceptis decalogi, et de reliquis 
tie : from which he will be able to ecclesiasticorum officiis, quae opor- 
form some judgment as to its con- tet sacerdotem rite institutum non 

r.iiimuiu.a. i^ .^.^ - • S rai^ nsBri TirKer 
f :na.. T-^ - :ti3>-. r-v --r i".^ '.-la: p%ir xtm» c»*- 

xTUtt "lit* jne luaiu :iiir -zzk mi i^au^juniRr m «ri^ ccber ; 
5e»:^:ec; ir rjsom^ie. luw naa^ mil voac ^^aese —cc- 


ic^ :t ::iif s^rzire of 
<^;'sallv im- 

[h-iTJcwr T::*:a 'itf T«;r5<-a cr-iaiaied ; and 

pre» » ^' 

hiTJum e«i^ta. Impens bni#scs- 
ftimi «e WeEasom BHTatars Wl^ 

gan/K H&p^lhu. \b\0. wmu Foim. 
Am/ihcr edition before me, is bj 
Hagnfiult, Parity 4to. 1514. 

I fiuy add that a ««PkipilU" is 
referred to» earlier than this of De 
Hurgo, in a sentence of excom- 
munii^Atlon settled by a provincial 
council At York, A.D. 1311. See 
Wllklns, ('mr. Trm. 2. p. 414. 

Another IkmiU of the lamo kind 

sissa est bn? Ti£«r peftiwtutiir J 
This vas frequeotlj printed by 
both WvokTB de Wordeand IHn- 
soo. It treats of the sacfaments, 
the articles of the fiutk» and tbe ten 
commandments. I shall have ooca- 
Bon to refer to it» as we proceed. 

» Sess. XXIII. Can. 2. Comp. 
Cap. II. of the same session. 

" The '' Catechismus ad paro- 
chos" however, does not speak 

iDffice» of iDrHtnation. ixxxi 

They, who denied that there were seven orders only, 
encreased the numher sometimes to eight, by adding 
the Episcopate; sometimes to nine, by adding the 
T'onsure ; and others would even make a tenth, by dis- 
tinguishing the archbishops of the church.^ The chief 
difficulty rested with the episcopate : whether bishops 
"were to be considered as distinct from priests, not 
merely in the degree of their office, but in its nature* 

There are so many duties common to both bishops 
and priests, that we may regard the two degrees as 
but one Order : ^'both are ministers of Christ and stew* 
ards of the mysteries of God ; both are invested with 
the cure of souls : both are sent to teach and preach 
the Gospel of Christ: to baptize: to celebrate the 
eucharist : to bless the congregation :" ^ but there still 
remains the very high power, attached to the one only, 
of sealing with the Holy Spirit in confirmation, and 
of conferring orders. The balance of authority, even 
from the earliest ages, certainly inclines to consider 

with 80 much hesitation: *'Do- sure,) as illustrating the term 

oendam erit, hosoe omnes ordines clericus. ** Omnes qui in eccle- 

septenario numero contineri» sem- siastici ministeriigradibus ordinati 

perque ita a catholica ecdesiatra- sunt, generaliter clerici nominan- 

ditnm esse, quorum nomina haec tur/' Deeccles. off. lib, 2. cap. 1. 

sunt, eie*** And it accurately dis- " Palmer, Treatise of the 

tinguishes between the greater Church, vol. 1. p. 374. I can- 

and the minor orders, p. 199. not agree with Mr. Palmer how- 

EdiU Aldus. 1566. ever in including confirmation 

^ Morinus, de eacr. Ordm. within the offices common to 

Pare. 8. ExerciU 3. cap. 1. both: because, although ais Ha- 

Wliere are collected tbe various bertus says, Pontif. Grac. p. 

uithorities on the different points 709, the Gre^ church permits 

of the question. 1 dte a place her priests to confirm, yet it is 

from S. Isidore, (who appears by only by special commission, and 

it, also, to have included the ton- with chrism previously hallowed. 

VOL. III. g 

^•^^.x;» ..»£. -~ - ^ ide«»cal with 

^^ ^tLiT ,5;^ '^-"'«•=- ■««>■»<* to the fart 

^^' - t5. - ii,.'r_*r ■'*™^** ** ^**^ as that one 
, zz - _- 7 -- -» 3*.- • sk^at. that of cxmsecnt- 


it?r=^ .f.' ^^ ""^ ?i*scca fanh»; I must ncver- 
.:^l^ ' '^"^^ ^ «acre» «>:« iwrdiatelT within 

'T^«? 'r^' «I jx ru» Ar^^Io-saxoo age generaDy, 
^^^^^^ V ^^vf Shsi 12« the number of orders was 
]^vi^ '^ sitT^c. Lare in the seventh century we 
^^ ^ cv'BJCipirca. Vg rTTTTT^g : «* Septem snnt dona 
^j^jj^^ixj? saxKt;» « sercem gradixs sont ecdesiasticoruiii 
^^j^iiiun ^ sacrannn functioninn.'' *• Again, in the 
^^jior^ ^ JE15ric : •- Seven degrees are established in 
^ church — the sixth diaeonns, the seventh presby- 
j^ - » Once more, in the pasic^^ epistle of the same 
^Ifric : ** Beloved, seven ord^s are appointed in books 
Ton bocnm] for God s ministries in Cbrist's church." * 
j^ar^Dsi these, we have the following in the Ecclesias- 
tical Institutes, about the same period, in the chapter 
" De munere et dignitate sacerdotum." " Ye ought 
also to know, that your orders are the second orders 
after our orders, and the next to us ; like as the bi- 
shops are in the stead of the apostles in the church of 
the holy^ so are the mass-priests in the stead of Christ's 
disciples/' ** 

w S7 

*< Wilkins. Condom, l.p- 62. undentandthat bothareof oneor- 

** Thorpe. Ancient Laws and der, the bishop and the mass- 

Institute». voL 2. p. 347. priest, that is, of the seventh 

** Rid, p* 379. Again, al- church order, as holy books tell 

most immediately after, in the us.'* 

lame, in plain words; "Beloved, ^ Ibid. p. 408. 



For later opinions; I shall content myself with quot- 
ing, first, the Fupilla Oculi. '^ Septem sunt ordines 
sive gradus : et sic loquendo de ordine, ut est sacra- 
mentum,et characterem imprimit; — prima tonsura non 
est ordo sed dispositio qusedam ad ordinem. — Episco- 
patus autem non est ordo proprie» sed dignitas, sive ex- 
cellentia in ordine, turn quia non imprimit characterem, 
turn etiam quia omnis ordo ordinatur ad sacramentum 
eucharisti»/'* And secondly, Lyndwood : " Ut vo- 
lunt theologi quasi omnes, solum sunt septem ordines. 
Unde secundum eos, tonsure, quae vocatur psalmistatus, 
non est ordo sed solum dispositio ad ordines : sic etiam 
episcopatus, secundum eos, non est ordo in quantum 
sacramentum, sed dignitas. Ordo namque sumitur 

* Pars, yij. cap^ 1. C. The au- 
thor of the " Manipulus curaio- 
ruiD,** is decided against reckon- 
ing the tonsure as an order, but 
he continues ; " De episcopatu 
Tero utrum sit spiritualis ordo du- 
bito." Lib. 5. Cap, ij. And Guil- 
lermus Parisiensis, de vij, sacra' 
mentisj draws a distinction similar 
to that laid down in the Pupilla, 
saying also, that the episcopate 
presupposes the priesthood* and 
depends upon it. JbL zij. b. But 
he doea not clearly decide the 
point, that is, in his opinion. I 
quote this book, as it was also in 
much estimation among the Eng- 
lish clergy of the 15th century. 
Compare also, the ''Parochiale 
cnratomm," Tit, 9. cap. vj. edit. 

T later opinions of the Ro- 
man theologians seem to incline 

to consider the episcopate as a 
distinct order : see Perrone, Pra- 
led. Theol. vol. yiij./>. 126. Dens 
Theologia. torn. 7. p. 39. But 
Thomas Aquinas plainly said, 
''episcopatus non est ordo.'* Jn 
4. sect. dist. 24. g, 2. art. 2. 
And Bonaventure, '' EpJ^copatus, 
prout distinguitur contra sacer- 
dotium, non est proprie nomen 
ordinis, nee novus character im- 
primitur, nee nova potestas da- 
tur, sed potestas data ampliatur." 
Opera, tarn. 5. p. 369. Bellar- 
min takes a middle line between 
the two extremes. He reckons 
seven orders, and dividing the 
priesthood, declares that ordina- 
tion to the episcopate is a sacrap 
ment, confers grace, and im- 
presses a character. Opera, torn. 
3. p. 609. Compare Bonacina. 
torn, 1. Disp. viij. p. 219. 


nvHTZ-jber. Xsxi 2Z»«-EX2kS.> est iiCMw.n dignitatis, et 
5£c ccfi^'vcans ^•.iirxr :r*Sr : alSqnaado est nomeQ ei- 
£v.-£i. et s* * Tt^siu^xosCirK ^:rnsr ec^ : aliqaando est 
so^Mi S7£rrnjl?s r«.Cif<c;i:& ct sic diaconatus didtor 

As 9M c&c^. tbere 2» w> erioetice thai the ^* Modus 
ficiendi toosisr»»" c;ia Ke cnced fai^^bcr than the se- 
Tenth cimTaiy. Ileooe we do not find any prayers or 
^mns in the ol-iest M:^. and sacramentaries, 'Me 
ckrico £iciendvv" Not that it can be disputed, that 
the |Hactice of dSstiii^rakiiinff the clergy by their hair, 
is of Terr high antiquity: fii^ probably introduoed to 
a moderate and seemly extents for the sake of outward 
decency and griTity, according to the admonition of 
the Apo^les; afterwards restricted within the limits 
ci a certain fashion, and shape. And it is not diffi- 
ctilt to trace the prc^rress of these restrictions, in the 
canons of successiTe councils» as time went on.^ The 
reason why, about the time that I have mentioned 
aboTe, the conferring of the tonsure came to be a se- 
parate and distinct office, probably was, because parents 
were then accustomed to dedicate their children to the 

«» Lib.S. ru. 1. Utderiolis. foi.29. And ardibishop Becket, 
verb» Ordmit. But compare Ztfr. before bia murder: ^^Clamayit 
1. J%i.A* EotqnLver^. Sacroe alkpus, ubi est ille proditor? — 
ordioet: wbere be enamermtes aliqais alius; ubi est arcbiepisco- 
ciflfbt* I may add bere, tbat it pus? Ille; ecoe ego, non pro- 
was not simply tbrougb bnmility, ditor, sed presbyter DeL" VUa 
but probably as claiming their S. ThonuB Caniuar. edit 
hi$(best privUegei tbat we find Sparkes. p, 86. Compare Ralph 
Mffhopi anciently styling them- de Diceto. apud AngL Sacr. 
iMilvas priefts,and minbters. Thus Pars. 2. p. 691. 
a UiDr of a bishop of Durham ^ Cf. Carth. IV. Can. 44. 
to king Henry V. is subscribed Barcinon. c. 3. Toletan. 4. c. 40. 
** Your humble Freest of Dures- And others, cited by Morinus, />. 
nm." Cotton MH. Vesp. F. xiij. 203. 

iDlBcesofiDtDtnatlom ixxxv 

sacred ministry, and to leave them in monasteries, at 
an age too yoimg to permit of their performing even 
the lowest Unctions of ostiarius or lector : when, ne- 
vertheless, it was desirable that a mark should be set 
upon them, that they were no longer merely secular/^ 
As to the shape, and fashion of the tonsure, many 
writers have not hesitated to trace it up to the autho- 
rity of S. Peter himself. For instance, Rabanus Mau- 
rus. ^^ Sunt quidam doctorum, qui asserunt, diversas 
oh causas Petrum apostolum hunc ritimi primimi 
sumpsisse primitus."^ But long before his time, Bede 
records an epistle of the abbot Ceolfnd, about the 
year 710, to whom an application had been made, for 
an opinion, concerning the variety of tonsures : who 
says ; ^^ inter omnes tamen, quas reperimus tonsuras, 
nullam magis sequendam nobis amplectendamque jure 
dixerim ea, quam in capite suo gestabat ille, cui se 
confitenti Dominus ait, *Tu es Petrus/ — Neque vero 
ob id tantum in coronam attondemur, quia Petrus ita 
attonsus est ; e/c."^ And such would seem to be still 

^ Whence the definitions of the The excerpts however of his cou- 

canonists may he reduced to this: temporary Egbert, although they 

'^ Tofuura; caeremonia ab eccle- recognize the tonsure of 8. Pe- 

sia instituta, qua laicus baptiza- ter, follow another common view 

toB, et Sacramento confirmationis taken by the early canonists : 

consignatus, sacro ritu in clerum " Exordium tonsure a Nazarasis 

instituitnr." incepit, qui crine servato post vitse 

^ De instit. Cleric, lib. 1. cap, magnsB continentiam caput rade« 

3. BibL Patrum, AucU torn. 1. bant, ut devotionem Domino oon- 

p. 546. See also Alcuin, cop. de secrarent" Wilkins. Cane. torn. 

tonsura; Amalarius, de dw. Off, l./i. 111. I am not speaking of 

Uh. 2. Cap. 5. Compare also the varieties of the tonsure in 

the prayer or exhortation in the that age, but of its supposed 

office below, beginning, " Ore- original. The disputes which 

mus, dilectissimi." took place in the eighth century 

^ HUt. Ecc, Lib. 5. Cap. 21. as to the proper shape of the ton- 

re i.-r^Hir*^ ?5w:r3C ^ 



Z.r "^t •! «- 


beiice Aere- 
m fene tliati 

s 11XL7 ^.i.'-^ d» limits of 
^rm. l*.^f3Ee. Si Boc apply to 

r. ^la:"! li ixar .u^errj^ a^ it was liieR- 
n^-mi*»!* I ▼TiLji : ctemt dbal one of 
irt --"iixiil it Tree, ac fret agiit» ap- 
^r=^. v.-:*i -:n> irv-iy^ ^«i the bidiops 
• cuBiiint a ^Xxlli «piscopo Hoeat, 
-•> v-*-l:vri irtifxru ptnciScalia in allmiis 
:>x rv '^.T***. Xix ie irriarE jxx cxpreasa Hoen- 
r a r^rv. iiofc- ii Itoi jriLiiiri; ^obmtas tantnm."^ 
::\* ^vvr .MnintfonxcLr^ :x30ersca]id this to have 
T'^^'v*-? xi :::e -70,:!:^ w^jrmr :c ^e pootifical Test- 
Ti\.v:.:v .a ^a^i xj: ■A.-vus?i«:a; aai Kat if perfonned 
"yc-'-ja- . -iie cva.vrrjiy: cc c» tca^a^e is still per- 

:t a. ^*- 

ttar ««. c^« a* ?*s< 9C a* 

'' v«s a dsstia^tMD of 

Vm<L mttst dep^wd of 

MQn the cttstoou of ikm 

a coHBmdiMe ml» though not 
^ ^^•^^mJ R mg to knowledge, and it 
itcttTtd the sanction of eocIe« 

«Bboritj. Rcmonbering 
b:wrer the aigumcBts which 
cttL-h portT produced, and the heat 
wiiJt «^Kh the controTersy was 
pcnwd. ti is to he hunent^l that 
sach a sahfed should have been 
thousrht soiidentlj weighty, to 
diride the Church. 
^ p. MO. Edii. Aldus. 

• Sessio VLD^r^rm. Cap.5. 

* Cf. Bonacina. torn, I. Dis^ 
put. viij. p, 224. And the expo- 

Dffices of fl)tiitnatfon« ixxxvU 

I would remark here that not only bishops, but 
pxdestSy by special permission, or privilege, as in the 
of abbots, were permitted to confer the tonsure : 
id even the minor orders. Thus, the Pupilla laid 
down : ^'Episcopus et nullus inferior eo, potest ordines 
<M3iiferre auctoritate propria et ordinaria potestate. 
-Alii vero non episcopi, ut abbates, ex privilegio vel 
speciali permissione possunt minores ordines conferre. 
Sax^ros autem solus episcopus/' *^ 

At a very late period we find the tonsure ordered 
to be given to those scholars, who were to be educated 
a.t the expense of the cathedral establishments through- 
out the realm. The legadne constitutions of car- 
dinal Pole divide these scholars into two classes, ac- 
cording to their age : and further direct : *^ Incedent 
autem omnes, utriusque sint classis, cum tonsura et 
vestitu clericali, eodemque vivendi modo utentur, et 
divinis in ecclesia officiis inservient."^ And that this 
was not a new custom, we may conclude from what 
Knyghton says of the early years of archbishop Ed- 
mund, in the reign of Henry U. ''In primis annis, 
capitis dolore ita acriter vexatus est, ut in Uteris de- 

sitions of Balsamoa and Zonaras has been a great perplexity to the 

upon the 14th and d5th Apos- later canonists, and some deny 

toUcal canons: Bevereg. Pan^ that the privilege was really 

deci* iom. 1./». 9. 24. granted. See Henriquez, Siunma, 

^ Pars. vij. Cap. 2. A. Com« in add. ad Ub. X tie Ord. Vui- 

pare Cap, 1. C. Modem writers tasse de Ord. pars. 1. 5. 2. Mo« 

of the Roman charch limit this, rinus. ExercU, xi. Cap. 2. Hal- 

to cases of special dispensation lier. de Ord. tarn. 2. p. 27 A. 
from the court of Rome. . There ^ Wilkins. Cone : torn. 4. p. 

is a privilege extant, of pope In- 125. The same archbishop, also, 

Decent VIII. in 1489, giving to in the " Reformatio Angliae," or- 

some Cistercian abbots power to ders the like habit and tonsure, 

ordain to the diaconate. This for the poor scholars, p. 24. 


^*^**^ * -"^ ^ '^■•^ ^ ^ac n^rnar nraos. There are 

T-*- •• T .'siiy ^,-^"^ "'*'^ *r«is: MtrifCT. or cmoeat 
TT • . :. - V r:. j. iix ^ ^bl zr brfy ixrdm 
. .- -Ai :.- r cs:r-. * sr i» ^^:a: it aif csaoos midcr 
^ ^ ^"^* -^- • 2 ^^ ; Tti r«iniry.. sane sv- 

r«*.- • -^ :.:.^ t ::f ili %/-s« ftXrrvkii: «Cle- 
-r. 1-- > ^ ^-rt r. -;u rii r-jram^raes Awrint in 
t .=?w--w u A^ -;^>^. r-^ it-daiss. mbr ad beneficiiim 

^•-**<-^ •• . z:"^-t.-.::t»it r^iu -iir^i'^gw; xietariti tem- 

^, •^•^- -«.•YLr..-*.;;n '^•*i*uiis6«. * ^' Aaii lie pomis (so- 

,^;.v j\ '\ i^r^r V.a«;.. sh;r£j ^ dib time, 

11.^-;. • :>. .M::t.u:::r »f -zx xossirv. -op token of the 

i-*^»':^-\ xi> 7fn.x. - :l\ ^nw.-^rc r:c»3am despidt, 

AJ*^*^ -J»^ .xr^v :ivawa ^n.^a::^.'* like sooie men 

:tc«*>*^>iii >v -Ji.># jf'eijCs' *c lie s^idie ages, desired 

V V vt irr«fis. jsj- ^•iC j^ ::r u»Kr vxx'Tspatian and pur- 

• IV <«vtK. \i^ij«w ^-r^A. mjer^ primes fi£L At^lm X^ana. 

* />•^^:^4J5§. S^^::»^» "^ Ti^og^ Am€ieni iams. kc 

•-AnMUtu*.Z^.T«j,r.lS.«irfi. « Wilkias. Come. iam. I. p. 

a note to GirakiiB CMlir. de 73^ 

fDf&ct» of SDrDination^ ixxxix 

iits, as little different from laymen as they could be ; 

Sic inter laicos clerus defloruit."^' Lastly, one of 
He visitation articles for the diocese of London, in Q. 
clary's reign, enquires: "Item, whether they and 
very each of them doth go in priestly apparel and 
labit, having their beards and crowns shaven? or 
whether any of them doth go in laymen's habits and 
ipparel, or otherwise disguise themselves, that they 
cannot easily be discovered or known from laymen ? " ^ 

There was a difference, it is quite clear from the 
English councils, between the " tonsura'' and the " co- 
rona": although the two are frequently confounded, 
and sometimes both meant by the use of either term 
alone. When both are named, one must doubtless be 
understood to relate to the length of the hair, the other 
to the bare circle on the top of the head : the shaven 
crown. I shall cite some canons directed to this 
point. Of York, in 1195. " Statuimus etiam, ut cle- 
rici, qui ab episcopo coronam susceperunt, tonsuram 
habeant, et coronam." Of the provincial council at Ox- 
ford, in 1222 : " ut nee ipsi, nee alii clerici comam 
nutriant, sed honeste tonsi et coronati convenienter 
incedant." Of a synod at Lambeth, in 1261 : " Item 

statuimus, quod onmes qui privilegio clericali 

gaudere voluerint, tonsuram decentem, et coronam rasi 
capitis deferant competentem."^ The following sup- 

^ Apocalypsis Golis. L 329. ' the tonsure : and early in the 
^ WilkiDB. Cane. torn. 4. p. eighth century, we find this spe- 
107. Compare the Injunctions of dfied, among the excerpts of Eg- 
ctfdinil Pole for the diocese of bert, (citing Fructuosus,) in the 
Gloaoester ; ibidL p. 146. It is case of a criminous monk : ^ co- 
veil known that to be reduced ronam capitis, quam gestat, amit» 
to a lay condition, as a punbh- tat." Ihid, torn. 1. p. 105. 
inent, involved the removal of ^ Wilkins* Cone. torn. 1. p. 

xc ]^reUminarp Di00ettation« 

port the distinction which I have suggested : a consti- 
tution of hishop Cantilupe, in 1240 : *^ De ckricarum 
tonsuris. nee crines, nee comam nutriant, sed de- 
center et circulariter tondeantur, coronam habentes 
decentis amplitudinis, secundum quod exegerit ordo, 
quo fiierint insigniti/* And a pastoral epistle of 
archbishop Morton : ^* Incedent etiam omnes et singuli 
presbyteri, et clerici ejusdem nostrse provincial, coro- 
nas et tonsuras gerentes, aures patentes ostendendo/'^ 
Lyndwood has a gloss upon the provincial constitution 
cited above. *^ Tansi; htec tonsura sic fiet, ut aures 
sint patentes. Et hoc, si religiosus sit, altius : si sse- 
cularis, dimissius. Et sic, quod inter presbyterum et 
alios inferiores sit differentia. Coronati; rasura supe- 
rior, et tonsura inferior, faciunt de circulo capillorum 

Before I proceed to other matters connected with 
this great subject of ordinations, I must again remind 

502. 589. 755. Compare p. 626. Quoniam de habitu. verb. Tonsu- 

716. torn. 2. p, 4. and torn. S,p. ram. 

60. Also " coroDS patentes ;" If the student desires to inves- 

/Of». 1. /1.382 and 551. tigate accurately the subject of 

the Tonsure, its history, various 

'^ Ibid, torn, 1. p. 670. torn. 3. fashions, the mystical reasons pro- 

p, 620. cf. p. 658. The corona posed for it, the laws and canons 

''decentis amplitudinis" refers to of the Roman church directed 

the dimensions which, according towards its proper observance, and 

to the use of some churches, were other details, he should consult 

encreased, with each successive Thomassin, Sec, discipL Pars. 1. 

step in the sacred ministry: at lib, 2. Duraadus. Rationale. 

least, as Lyndwood remarks, in Uh,2,cap,\, Saussajus, Panop- 

the text, the corona of the priest- Ua Cleric, Lib. 1. 2. and the less 

hood was distinguished from that common ritualists, Alcuin, Ama- 

of any lower order. larius, or the Gemma Anims, in 

Hittorpius' collection, or in the 

" Lib. Z.tU.\. Ut clericalis. Auctarium to the BibL Pktrum, 

And compare J. de Athon. cap, torn, 1. 

fDf&tt» of iDtDination. xci 

the reader, that I shall be anxious to furnish him with 
a selection of extracts from the councils and authori- 
tative books of the English Church only, in number 
and in variety sufficient to enable him, not merely to 
understand the offices which I have edited, but also 
the doctrines which were to be held, and the practices 
which were to be observed regarding the clergy in ge- 
neral, from the Anglo-Saxon age, down to the sixteenth 
century. I shall but very rarely refer to authors who 
have treated the subject at large, such as Thomassin, 
or Saussajus, or Martene, or Morinus, or Catalani, 
and many others ; not to mention the canonists. Van 
Espen for example, or those who have directed their 
enquiries more particularly towards the Eastern 
Church, as Gear and Habertus : but I seek rather to 
supply the deficiencies which they have left, respecting 
the decisions and observances of that branch of the 
Church of Christ, with which we are the more inti- 
mately concerned, namely, of the Church of England. 
First, as to the preliminary examinations which were 
to be had, before admittance into any of the Orders, 
whether the greater or the minor. In the middle of 
the eighth century, the 6th canon of the council of 
Cloveshoo is addressed to this point : ^* De ea'amina" 
tione eorum qui ordinandi sunt. Sexto statuitur de- 
creto ; ut episcopi nullum de clericis seu monachis ad 
sacrum presbyteri gradum ordinent, nisi prius ejus 
vitam, qualis extiterit, vel tunc quee morum probitas, 
ac scientia fidei existat, manifesto perquirant." In the 
same century, later, about the year 785 ; at the coun- 
cil of Chalcuith : ^^ Sextum decretum : ut nuUus epis- 
coporum presbyterum aut diaconum ordinare praesu- 
mat, nisi probatae vitse fuerint, et officium suum recte 
implore possint." I pass over the intermediate time. 

xcii ]^reltmtnarp DtjBijBiettatton. 

until the provincial council at Oxford, in 1222 : which, 
in its canon ^*de ordinibus et ordinandisj^ prohibits, 
upon the authority of the ancient ecclesiastical sta- 
tutes, ^*ut nuUus ad ordines accedat aut admittatur, 
nisi qui fuerit canonice examinatus." Shortly after, 
the famous legatine 'constitutions of Otho were pub- 
lished : of which the sixth is : " De scrutinio erdinan- 
dorum. Sacer ordo eo est digno dignius conferendus, 
quo ah ordinato sacramenta ceetera conferuntur. Quare 
cum periculosum sit, minus dignos ordinari, statuimus, 
ut ante coUationem ordinum per episcopum indagatio 
diligens haheatur."* 

And we find the same care taken up to the period 
of the reformation. The statutes of a provincial coun- 
cil in 1529 direct: ^^ Statuimus et ordinamus, quod 
nuUus clericus saecularis de caetero admittatur ad sa- 
cros ordines, nisi habuerit Uteres testimoniales curati 

. ^ Wilkins Cone. torn. 1. p. 95. care is taken in ordaining fit per- 

147.595.651. Johnson, having sons to the sacred ministry; or 

translated this last constitution in from the charge given hy S. Paul 

his Ecclesiastical Laws, adds a to Timothy, that even in that early 

very senseless remark below it : age, men commonly were no less 

1 notice it, because the same mode hastily ordained. 
of reasoning is occasionally em- This constitution of Othobon is 

ployed, when other means fail, by further remarkable, for the fol- 

persons who have neither the lowing provision : *' ne reprobatis, 

learning nor the usual discretion qui fuerint reprobandi, approbatis, 

of that writer. He says : '' here se clanculo immiscere valeant re- 

we may see the great carelessness probati, in examinatione scribattir 

which then prevailed in ordaining numerus, et nomina probatorum ; 

clergymen." It just shews the et qui scripti fuerint postmodum 

very contrary. And if his infer- in ordinationis limine, perlecta 

ence is correct, we ought to con- scriptura discretione solita requi- 

elude in a similar way from the rantur ; ipsaque scriptura apud 

canons of the Church of England episcopum vel ecclesiam cathe- 

now, and the often repeated ad- dralem couservetur." 
monitions of her bishops, that no 

flDfficejBi of flDtDinatton. xciii 

et (Bconomorum vel parochise, in qua natus, beneficia- 
tus, vel per triennium proxime prsecedens commoratus 
fuerit, sub sigillo archidiaconatus jurisdictionem har 
bentis ; seu, si in aliqua universitate studens fuerit, sub 
sigillo commissarii universitatis Oxon. seu yicecancel- 
larii Cantabrig. cum testimonio superioris loci sui. 

Exacte etiam cureut episcopi, ut neminem de 

caetero ad subdiaconatus ordinem promoveaut, nisi eum 
qui adeo sit exercitatus in evangeliis et epistolis sacris, 
saltern in missali contentis, ut eorundem sensum gram- 
maticalem examinatori prompte et expedite reddere 
valeat: sitque eorum quilibet sufficienter instructus 
etiam in aliis ad ordinem ilium, quem tunc assumptu- 
rus est, per sacros canones requisitis, et in officiis di- 
vinis secundum morem ecclesise et loci consuetudinem 
promptus et expertus ; habeatque praeterea in presby- 
tenim ordinandus caetera ad ipsius officium et ordinem 
ipsis sacerdotibus necessario requisita."^ 

The provincial canon cited above^ of the year 1222, 
was repeated in almost the same words, under archbi- 
shop Walter Reynold, one hundred years after : and 
upon this examination I extract Lyndwood's gloss* 
"De hac examinatione quando, per quos, et de quibus 
fieri debet, babes 24 di. c. quando : debet enim exami- 
nator inquirere de vita, genere, patria, setate, institu- 
tione sive titulo ordinandi. Item de loco ubi conver- 
satus est, de conscientia, fide et hujusmodi. Item de 
his quae concemunt regulam Apostolicam, efc."** " Hie 

• WSkint. Cane. torn. 8. p. •* Lib. 1. tit, 5. verb. CaDonice 

718. Compare the canon of the examinatas. The "Pupillaoculi" 

convocation of 1557. ibid. torn. 4. says : *< Ordinandi non sunt rigide 

P' 159. And^ the sixth decree of ezaminandi, sed snmmatim cum 

cardinal Pole's " Reformatio An- quodam temperamento, et non re« 

glic." quiratur niroia perfectio. Tria 


l^tttndnm DiMiettation. 

nota, quod in ordinibus celebrandis primo fit examina- 
tio, 8C. per ires dies ante diem mdinum celebrandorum. 
Et tunc in die ordinum celebrandorum archidiaconus, 
▼el examinator alius ad hoc deputatus, in actu cele- 
brationis ordinum preesentabit episcopo ordinanti ipsos 
ordinandos/' ^ Upon the l^aline constitution of O the, 
his comm^Atator J. de Athon, has a very ample gloss, 
of great importance, to which I am forced to refer the 
student :^ citing only this, upon the word '^ periculo- 
sum/' '' Sc. ordinanti^ cum ordinat indoctum loco 
docti : magistrumque &cit qui yix discipulus esse po- 

Tero in ordinandi» podsaune re- 
quinmtiir: scliteratarasaffidens» 
etas legitima» momm honestas.** 
Party vij. cap, 3. G. 

^ MtL rerh. P^nsentatores. 
See Hostiensis m tMwina. tap. 
De acnitimo in ordine fiiciendkk 
This canonist was of high autho- 
rity in the Church of England, as 
appears from the firequent rder- 
eooe to himnot only by Lyndwood, 
hut also by the rubrics of the old 
9enrioe4xM>k8 of the church. See» 
for example, in the Ordo Span" 
saUmnj ro/. 1. p. 59. and note 32. 
p. 60. The Piipilla, I must add, 
speaks of a doable examination, 
in a passage, of which the kst 
part is worth the reader's atten- 
tion : ^ Duplex scrutinium fieri de- 
bet ante ordinis coUationem : prir 
mum debet fieri per archidiaoo- 
num. Vel per alios sacerdotes et 
▼iros pmdentes, quos a latere sno 
mittet episoopns ad locum ubi ce- 
lebrandi sunt ordines. AKnd 

scratiniam fit in ipsa ordinatione, 
quando ordinandi prssentantur 
episcopo ante altare, cum archi- 
diaoonus dicit : Postulat tancta 
mater eeeleeioj etc [See below, 
p. 160.] £t talis prssentator hu- 
jusmodi responsione non peccat, 
dum tamen non loquatur contra 
consdentiam, nam quem nescit 
indignom debet sstimare dignum : 
quod si aichidiaoonus sciverit ali- 
quem indignum vel consdentia 
sua de prsesentando talon renior- 
deat, tunc antequam veniatur ad 
ordinationem secrete stndeat epis- 
oopo intimare. Et si ^isoopus 
nolit desistere, archidiaoonua debet 
eom subtrahere: et si hoc non 
potest sine scandalo, debet ilia 
verba dicere, tanquam minister 
eodenae, quae non judicat de oc- 
eultis : sed nullo modo dxhet cri- 
men fratris puUicare." JParsjnj. 
cap» 3. £• 

AKnd ** Cap. Saoerordo. 



tait Is enim culpse est reus^ qui tali indigo ordinem, 
curam, vel officium committit. Unde episcopus scien- 
ter ordinans indignum dicitur peccare mortaliter. Ra- 
tio est, quia infidelis est, etc. Item periculosum est 
decentiee ecclesise in scandalo populari." 

Not only were strict examinations insisted on, pre- 
viously to the conferring of orders, but there were cer- 
tain disabilities which either barred altogether the re- 
ception of them,^ or, at least, required a dispensation. 

^ There are numerous canons, 
and deosions of canonists, against 
the conferring of any orders upon 
women. Very anciently there were 
undoubtedly heretics, such as the 
CoUyridians, who practised such 
ordinations, but the Catholic 
Gmrch instantly and unhesitat- 
ingly condemned them. Compare 
also the Conttit. Apo^U Ub. 3. c. 
ix. Some have argued that never- 
thelesB, in the first centuries, wo- 
men were ordained, and appeal to 
the ** presbyter»," and ^ epis- 
copfB," whom we meet with in 
many records. But these were 
the wires of priests and bishops, 
either before or after their ordi- 
nation : in the former sense, ac- 
cording to the 19th canon of the 
council of Turin : cited by Bing- 
ham : {vol 1. p. 338.) « Si in- 
Tentus fuerit presbyter cum sua 
presbytera, aut diaconus cum sua 
diaconisaa, ant subdiaoonus cum 
foa subdiaconissa, annum inte- 
grum exoommonicatus habeator.'' 
Labbe. CandL Tom, 5. p. 858. 

Nor can the deaconesses of the 
primitive ages be taken as any 
precedent for such a custom : for 
independently of their functions 
being strictly kept separate from 
any matter appertaining to the 
priesthood, or to the public ser- 
vice of the Church, and being 
limited to the performance of mere 
secular duties, such as visiting the 
sick, and catechizing women, &c. 
it is very doubtful whether they 
received imposition of hands. I 
cannot enter into this question, 
but would refer the reader to Ba- 
ronius, $ub an. zxxiv. and to the 
19th canon of the council of Nice, 
with the notes of Balsamon and 
Zonaras, in Bevereg. Pandect 
Tom. 1 .p. 82. And even if after 
all, there may seem to be a ba- 
lance of evidence in favour of some 
imposition of hands, yet this was 
in the way of a benediction, and 
not of ordination. See Justellus, 
BibL Jur. Canon, tom. I. p. 75. 
Casalius, de tacr. Chrigt riHbus: 
pan. 2. cap. xxix. 

IPreltmtnarp Di00ettation. 

them were the following. Illegitimacy : as 

lifted by the Winchester canons, in 1308 : ** De 

"^»£riiM^ ' — ejus quanta sit virtus in Dei ecclesia, 

^^ hoe Betcile cemitur, quod sola proles, qu» in fide 

iho^ g^S^tur, ad dignitates ecclesiasticas admittitur ; 

^ gjiter genita, sine dispensatione canonica, ab hujus- 

modi» reprobatur."** And by a provincial canon of 

^^i^^hbishop Edmund, in the preceding century : upon 

which I quote Lyndwood. " Tales, [i: e: qui de non 

Witimo matrimonio nati sunt,] ordinari non debent. 

Pieitur enim communiter per doctores, quod illegitime 

nati non possunt ordinari ad sacros ordines sine dis- 

pensfttione Papse, nisi ingrediantur religionem, quo 

casu possunt ad omnes sacros ordines promoveri etiam 

^XiC dispensatione. Possunt tamen illegitime nati 

jlnti^' Book, 2. Chap, xxij. I 
quote also this from the Manipu- 
|u« Curatorum : ^ £t si forte in 
tUquo capitulo mulier inveniatur 
Ypeari diaconissa vel presbytera, 
intelligendum est quod ilia yoca- 
lur diaconissa, supra quam fun- 
dabatur aliqua benedictio: pres- 
bytera autem vocatur, quia secun- 
dum morem primitive ecdesi» 
^rat uxor presbyteri: vel forte 
aliqua vidua de rebus ecclesiie 
ouram babens ad instar matrisfa- 
milias vocabatur presbytera. Et 
lU exponenda sunt omnia capitula 
qum loquuntur de ista materia.'* 
/«it. 5. cap, T. Compare also 
Uttillermus Farisiensis: «f^nyjo- 
riYimtiiiw.yb/. xiy. 

It is not necessary to dwell upon 
the analogy sometimes insisted on, 
iVom the circumstance that civil 

power and jurisdictioh are exer- 
cised by women : for the nature 
of the ecclesiastical ministry, in- 
stituted by our Blessed Lord, is 
in fact so different, that the two 
cases are not analogous. Some- 
times the example of abbesses is 
appealed to, but the decision upon 
this point of the canonists is una- 
nimous: ** iUarum potestatem non 
esse versd jurisdictionis, qus vi- 
delicet ex auctoritate clavium de- 
scendat ecclesise concessa, sed ea- 
rum munus ad vigilantiam referri, 
ad curam quandam domesticam, 
matemam et osconomicam." 

Upon the whole question com- 
pare the decision of Lyndwood. 
Lib. I. TU.7. Sacerdotes. verb. 

•• Wilkins, Cone, Tom. 2. p. 

flXBceiK oi 2)tliination« xcvii 

promoveri ad ordines minores ex dispensatione epis- 

The children of serfs or villeins : of which we have 
frequent examples in the earlier centuries. The 16th 
of the famous articles of Clarendon decides, " Filii 
rosticorum non debent ordinari absque assensu domini, 
de cujus terra nati esse dignoscuntur." In the next 
century, 1256 ; a canon of the diocese of Chiches- 
ter: ^< Ut nuUus se nobis o£Ferat ordinandus, nisi 
libera conditionis existens ; de legitimo matrimonio 
natus, et examinatione canonica examinatus, et appro- 
batus."^ From an allusion in a canon of the Exeter 
synod of 1287, we learn, that in spite of all precau- 
tions, such persons, by pretending that they were free, 
and suborning witnesses, obtained ordination; to which 
falsehood the penalty of excommunication was attached : 
and some years before this time, it was ordered by ano- 
ther council, that such persons should be suspended : 
" Praecipimus itaque, quod sacerdotes, qui se noverint 
filiossenrorum, et praeter conscientiam dominorum suo- 
nim ordinatos — non exequantur sacerdotis officium, 
donee nostrum super hoc ab eis fuerit consilium requi- 
situm."^ I shall only add further upon this head, the 
82nd of the apostolical canons, upon which probably, or 
&t least upon similar reasons, the apparently harsh 

" Lib. 1. Tii. 4. Eos qui. verb, the Concilia, torn. 2. p. 434. 496 : 

Doo legitimo. Compare J. de the first of which excepts those 

Athoo. cap. Sacer ordo. verb, il- illegitimates who were horn of 

legitimos. Bulls are extant, con- adultery or incest, 

ferring power upon hishops to ^ ^.,^j^^^ ^^^^ j.^ j 

grant dispensauons, even to re- ^«g ggg 
ceive the higher orders : as, for 

example, two to the archbishop of •' Ibid. Tom. 2. p. 137. Tom. 

Canterburj, in the year 1313; in /. p. 658. 

VOL. III. h 

xcviii Ptettniiistip DuMttation. 

regalation was originally foimded. ^^ Servos in cle— 
rum provehi sine yenia dominorom non permittlmiis 
ad possessorom molestiani. Domorum enim eversi- 
onem illud efficit/'* 

Bat, that we may not delay to particularize all the&e 
disqualifications separately, I shall cite two authorities 
in which they are joined and named together. One 
of these, of a very early date : firom the dialogue of 
archbishop Egbert: the xvth interrogation. ^^ Pro 
quibus criminibus nuUus sacerdos potest fieri, vel pro 
quibus jampridem ordinatus deponitur? Rcsponsio. 
Hujusmodi tunc ordinatio episcopi, presbyteri, vel dia- 
coni, rata esse dicitur : si nullo gravi facinore probatur 
infectus, si secundam non habuit [uxorem] nee amarito 
relictam; si pcenitentiam publicam non gessit, nee 
uUa corporis parte vitiatus apparet ; si serrilis aut ex 
origine non est conditionis obnoxius ; si curiae proba* 
tur nexibus absolutus ; si adsecutus est literas ; hunc 
elegimus ad sacerdotium promoveri. Pro his vero 
criminibus nullum licet ordinari, sed promotos quosque 
dicimus deponendos; idola scilicet adorantes; per 
aruspices incantatores captives se diabolo tradentes ; 

^ I cannot refrain from quoting same purpose : <' Fideles decet ea 

Balsamod upon this : "Hie autem fiigere, quae scandala generent all- 

canon nolens nostris fratribus ali- quibus. Alienum yero servum 

quid a nobis offendiculi afferri, contra domini sententiam clericum 

non permittit ut alienus servus in fieri, causa est scandali, atque mo- 

clerum promoveatur, etiamsi sit lestise. — Quod si senrus gradu sa- 

prudentissimus et dignus ; — ad cro dig^us existimetur, episcopum 

exemplum autem scriptum est et de eo negotio cum domino com- 

quod factum est in Onesimo. — municare oportet.*' Bevereg. 

Quare nee tibertas, nee sacerdo- PandecU Tom* 1. /». 54« The 

tium, neo aliquid aliud dominum canon itself, I should observe, re- 

ignorantero a servi sui dominio fers to the oase of Onesimus ; 

abalienant.** And Zonaras to the " noster quoque Onesimus." 

iDtBim of iSDminatlon. xdx 

fidem 8uam fsiso testimonio expugnantes ; homicidiis 
vel fomicationibus contaminatos ; furta perpetrantes ; 
sacrum veritatis nomen perjurii temeritate yiolantes/'^ 
The other, a canon of the proyincial council under 
Stephen Langton : '' Minores clerici ad inferiores gra- 
das non admittantur, nisi idoneos habeant procuratores, 
et per testimonium eorundem admittantur. NuUus 
simoniacus, homicida, excommunicatus, aut suspensus, 
fararius, sacrilegus, incendiarius, aut falsarius, aut 
aliter hujusmodi canonicum impedimentum ad quos- 
cmique ordines praesumat accedere«"^^ 

I believe that it may be asserted, that at no time 
after Christianity became fixed, and spreading, among 
the Anglo-saxons, was the necessity overlooked of a 
dtle^^^ that is, of a nomination to some post of duty, 
previously to the actual reception of Holy Orders. 
The council of Calcuith, in the eighth century, decreed, . 
that all priests and deacons ^^ in illo titulo perseverent, 
ad quern consecrati sunt.'* And before this, the ex- 
cerpts of Egbert, (citing a Chalcedonian canon) say ; 
'' Ut nullus absolute ordinetur, et sine pronunciatione 
loci, ad quem ordinandus est." The term absolute is 

* Thorpe. Ancient Laws, Vol, oculi,** cap. De setate et qualitate 
2. p. 93. ordinandorum. 

^ *^ Nota, quod titidus, in jure 

* Wflkina. Cone- Tom* Lp. diversimode sumiiur. Est enim 
595. See Lyndwood, Lib, 1. Tii, Htulus quandoque idem quod de- 
o; upon the aimilar coDBtitution tentatio. Et quandoque ponitur 
of Walter Rejrnold : and the com- pro causa qua dominium trans- 
raentary, already mentioned, of fertur. Quandoque tiitdiu did- 
John de Athon, on Otho's con- tur signum, alias apsum henefid- 
nitntion, De ecrutinio ordinan- um, alias ipse ordo ecclesiasticus, 
dorum. A very long and detailed vel quslihet dignitas, vel prselatio. 
aecoant of the canonical unpedi- etc.'* Lyndwood. lib* 1. tit. 8. 
Qkeots is given in the *^ Pupilla Cum a jure. verb. uUo Utulo. 

c Ipteliminarp Z>t00ettatjon. 

explained by its use in the following canon from thi 
council of London, 1126. "Nullus in presbyterum 
nullus in diaconum, nisi ad certum titulum ordinetur 
qui vero absolute fuerit ordinatus, sumpta careat dig 
nitate.** This is not to be so interpreted as to mean 
timt his orders, so received, were invalid ; but that h 
wiu) not to enjoy the dignities and privileges attaches 
to his degree. Again, the sixth of the council of Lou 
don, in 1200; " Firmiter observari prsecipimus, ut s 
opiKcopus aliquem sine titulo certo in diaconum, ve 
piH^shytorum ordinaverit, tamdiuei subministret, done 
oi iu aliqua ecclesia convenientia stipendia militis 
olorioali a^siignet, nisi forte talis, qui ordinatur, extite 
int» qui do sua vel patema hs^editate subsidia vits 
|uvui\t habore. Item in subdiaconi ordinatione statu 
iuuin I adjungenteS) ut si archidiaconus citra specials 
uuuKhUum episcopi sui aliquem praedictorum ordina 
tioni prcesentaverit, et is ad ejus prsesentationem ordi 
niitug fuorit, praxiict» poense subjaceat." Once more 
tho »ynod of Exeter, in 1 287 : " Caveant ad sacroi 
iM\Unoa promovendi, ut titulum habeant sufficientem 
nine quo omnibus ad sacros ordines accedere interdici 
u\uii fat'ultatem/'^* 

The possession of a title, by every candidate foi 
or<U>i's, as insisted on so universally, sprung not onl] 
(mi boforo said) from the desire that he should hav( 
mnuo iwmtHliate field or scope for his labours, but als( 
to vhwk the enerease, which was becoming excessive 
about tho seventh and following centuries, of unem 
ployed clergy. Unemployedi because they eithei 
would not seek for, or could not obtain, cures or bene 

w Wilkint. Cone. Tom, 1. p. 147. 104. 408.506. Tom. 2. p 


iDf&ce» of 2)rDination. ci 

fices. There were so many privileges, and exemptions 
from civil jurisdiction, which at that time began to 
be attached to the spiritualty, tiiat men were eager to 
receive orders, merely that they might enjoy its pri- 

A title, also, conveyed with it the customary sti- 
pend, sufficient to provide the usual and proper ne- 
cessaries of life. Otherwise, the Church would have 
been overrun not only with idle, but with indigent 
clei^. This is a point already touched upon in one 
of the canons just quoted : and so also the Pupilla 
oculi : '' Inquirant etiam examinatores de titulo ordi- 
nandi, et si habeat patrimonium proprium unde poterit 
sifitentari competenter : — quia si ordinetur sine titulo 
tenetur episcopus sen praesentator ei necessaria provi- 
dere/'^' And John de Athon justly says, that any 
arrangement with a bishop, or patron, not to press or 
in^t upon this claim, would be of the nature of simony : 
^ Ordo namque sacer sine titulo, i: e: beneficio dare 
Hon debet, etc. — Nee tamen potest ordinandus repro- 
mittere ordinanti, vel praesentanti, de non inquietando 
eos in forma, absque specie simoniae ex utraque parte.*' 
The title also, must not be a feigned one. " Et vero. 
i: e: non ficto, alias ordinans talem, se obligat. Sed 
nanquid sufficiat ad excusationem ordinantis quod or- 
dinandus hujusmodi suo titulo oblato asserat se conten- 
tom ? quia volenti non fit injuria, etc. Tu die contra, 
cum ibi hoc praecavendum sit indecentiae clericali. 

^ Par»' vij. cap. 3. H. Some ledge, but upon his saooessor. See 

?o w &r as to say that a person Bonadoa. Disp. viij. Tom. I. p. 

«0 ordained, has a like claim, in 229. Hostiensis does not think 

cue of death, not only upon a In- the successor is liable, cit. ibid. 
^iop's heirs, which all acknow- 

cii IpreUminarp IDifimtsMon. 

Item hujusmodi remissio expressa simoiiiam inducere 
ergo tacite non censetur subintelligi. £t mtellig< 
quod de hnjusmodi titulo certo ordinandus debet facei 
fidem per aliqua sufBicientia documenta, sc. per teste 

Upon the much disputed question of the propriet 
of conferring orders, whether two or more, at on 
time, I must content myself with extracting one coi 
stitution only, a long one, of archbishop Peckham, s 
Lambeth, a. d. 1281. *^ Cum secundum doctores ci 
tholicos militia clericalis septem muniatur ordinibu 
singulorum characteribus in anima consignatis, pe 
tingulos etiam augmentum recipiens gratise, nisi ordi 
nati ficte ordinem suscipiant crimine irretiti, expedi 
plurimum ipsos ordines minime recipere inculcates 
quoniam inculcatio reverentiam minuit, et gratian 
per ctmsequens, quae per irreverentiam repercutitur a1 
ingratia. Contra dignitatem igitur tarn reverentissim 
OMO dignoscitur sacramenti, quinque simul ordines 
iicilicot ordines non sacros cum uno sacro, alicui un: 
homiui exhibere ; unde in nonnullis aliis provinciii 
((uatuor minores ordines non simul faciliter conferun 
turi ut aacondentos clerici ad Christi ministeria quas 
graduuui canticum continentia, cum probati extiterim 
in nihioribus oflSciis, gradatim demum procedaat ac 
ln^jura. Quia igitur ex singulis ecclesiis, quae pia 
quff) religiosa, qua>que honesta sunt, tenemur eligere 
et ea tanquam fasciculum in Anglorum mentibus col 
Hgaret pro^cipirous, ut episcopi in his sequantur ca- 
nonical aunctioncs ; minores etiam ordines, quando id 
potent fieri, bono modo, pro sacramenti reverentia sen 

^ In oonilit. Othonis. Z># tcruHnio ardinand. Verb, titulo et 

fl)iBce0 of fl>rMnation. 


necessitate dentur saltern aliqaoties combinati, et re- 
cipientes eos, sen simnl, sen sigillatim, in vulgari lin- 
gna pnblioe instrnantur de distinctione ordinum, offi- 
cionun et charactemniy ac de profectu gratise, quae in 
singulis ordinibus continetur, et digne accedentibus 
angmentatur/' ^* 

I have placed in the note below, some important 
obserrations of Lyndwood, bearing upon the same 
point. And to the like purpose is the following from 
the Pupilla. ^^ Potest quis omnes minores ordines 
recipere eodem die nisi consuetude esset repugnans, 
cujus contrarium forte scandalum generaret. Sed 
onus ordo sacer cum minoribus vel duo sacri nuUo 

* WHkins. Cone. Tom. 2. p. 
5d. Lyndwood says, upon the 
words Cananicas sanctUmes: 
^ Hie ant qiueris de solis roinori- 
bos ordinibus oonferendis, aut de 
conferendis solis majoribas, aut 
de conferendis tarn minoribus 
qnam majoribos. Et scias, quod 
diTersis et separatis personis sin- 
gnlariter possont singuli ordines 
eodem die conferri. Sed qusestio 
nostra prooedit, an plures ordines 
possont simul eodem die conferri 
imi personse ? et quantum ad ma- 
jores ordines die breviter, quod 
Don licet omnes, nee etiam duos 
simul eodem die conferre. An 
antem omnes minores ordines pos- 
sont sinml uni persons conferri, 
dicont doctores» quod quatuor pos- 
suDt simul conferriy si talis sit 
consnetodo patriae. — Sed an prima 
tODsora possit cum aliis quatuor 
nrnnl eodem die conferri, sunt 

opiniones. — Mibi videtur, quod 
opinio Hostiensis intellig^ potest 
vera, ut scilicet in generali cel6- 
bratione ordinum prima tonsura 
non detur cum aliis quatuor in 
aperto: potest tamen eodem die 
ante inchoationem misss celebra- 
tionis ordinum private conferri. 
Sed nunquid cum uno de minori- 
bus ordinibus possit eidem perso- 
nse eodem die conferri ordo sul- 
diaconatus ? Hostiensis dicit plane 
quod non: et videtur hoc satis 
decisum in capit. Cum H, ubi 
delictum talis patet ex tribus. 
Primo, quia recipient! ordinem 
subdiaconatus cum miuore ordine 
eodem die imputatur temeritas. 
Secundo, quia ejus excessus mag- 
nusetmultusessejudicatur. Ter*-^ 
tio, quia ab executione ordinis bus- 
cepti suspenditur, ut ibi patet.*' 
Ub.b. Tit. 11. 


IpreUminarp Ditctcettatton. 

modo uni eodem die conferantur. £t qui contra banc 
formam furtive ordines receperit debet deponi."^* 

From these, and other testimonies, if it was neces- 
sary to appeal to them, not omitting that of the oflSce 
below, p. 157, it is quite clear, that long before the 
reformation, the minor orders, whatever the theory 
may have been, had, in fact and practice, fallen into 
dkuse, in the church of England, as now they also 
have in the church of Rome. The names were 
retained, and the clergy required to pass through 
them," before the reception of the diaconate or priest- 
hood : but as the names and titles were all which had 
survived the long lapse of time, it was a wise course 
to remove so unserviceable a remnant from the revised 
ordinal of our church. These minor orders, and I 
now include the subdiaconate, were not of divine in- 
sfttution ; ^® claiming, (and truly, it is not to be de- 

* Pars, vij. cap. 3. B. 

" See the Pupilla: Pars. vij. 
cap. 1. F. "An superior ordo 
possit recipi inferiore non recepto ? 
Isti perfect! ordines secundum in- 
stitutionem ecclesise recipi debeant 
secundum quendam ordinem inci- 
piendo." And it is decided that if 
this rule had not been followed, 
the person so transgressing would 
require a dispensation. It would 
appear also, that if a priest had 
not received the diaconate (for 
example), he was to receive or- 
dination to it, but without itera- 
tion of the priesthood. 

^ Cardinal Bona confesses this : 
" Tertia classis ministrantium cle- 
ricos minorum ordinum complec- 

titur; acolythos, etc: quos anti- 
quissimos esse, et ab apostoUs» 
vel ab immediatis eorum succes- 
soribus institutos doctores scho- 
lastici asserunt, sed non probant. 
Rerum Hturg, lib. 1. cap, 25. 17. 
Peter Lombard also, speaking oi 
the higher orders, acknowledges : 
" Hos solos primitiva ecclesia le- 
gitur habuisse, et de his solis pi«- 
ceptum apostoli habemus. Sub- 
diaconos vero et acolythos, P»^ , 
cedente tempore, ecclesia sibi con- 
stituit." Sent, lib, iv. Dist^^- 
And once more, before his time 
Amalarius : " Notahdum est, eos 
ordines, qui potissimum necessani 
sunt in ecclesia, apostolum Pa*^' ; 
lum denominasse et eorum roori'S 


tXBtts Of iDtHiiuition. cv 

nied) a Teiy high anUquity, they nevertheless fell 
short of the apostolical age. Scripture is silent about 
them : nor do I remember that eiUier S. Clement, or 
S. Ignatius, in his genuine epistles, or S. Polycarp, or 
S. Justin, or S. Irenseus alludes to, or mentions them 
m any way, and fieir less therefore do they insist on 
them. When they were at last adopted, various coun- 
tries differed as to the number, and the offices, and the 
dignity of the several minor orders. Nor can Uiere 
be refused to any branch of the Catholic Church, the 
same right and power to lay aside these orders, as to 
receive and institute them. If again, the necessities 
of any time should call for it, there can be no just 
reason why one or more of them should not be re- 
sumed, wi^ newly defined duties, not merely nomi- 
nal, but to be actually performed. This would be a 
real and not an idle folloMring of the practice of an- 
tiquity, by an acknowledgment of the peculiar wants 
and requirements of the age, and an energetic endea- 
roor to meet and supply them. It is not reasonable 
to suppose that always the same divinely instituted 

defnnxisse, sine qoibus non potest Compare the statements laid down 

rite immolatio altaris celebrari, in the ** Necessary Doctrine ; ** 

scilicet, sine sacerdote et diacono. art. Of Orders, " To these" of 

Ut siue retractatione sacerdos vi- priests and deacons " the primi- 

vkt circa hostias, necessarius est tiue churche dyd adde and con- 

Saconus ad ministrandum ea, qu» jojne certaine other inferiour and 

sunt sacerdoti : caeteri lower degrees, etc" foL xxxvj. 

ordines his adjecti sunt. Cres- So also, in its corresponding place, 

oraCe ecclesia, crevit officium ec- " The Institution.'* Bishop Bon- 

riesiasticum : ut multitudini ec ner, in hb '' Necessary Doctrine/' 

Gtesiae subveniri posset, adjiciuntur does not in his exposition upon 

i&feriores in adjutorio prseposito- ^* the sacrament of orders," notice 

Tran/' De off. eccL Lib. 2. cap. 6. the minor orders* 
BAL JPatr, Auct torn. I. p. 880. 


*z£ SKC^rw. prwsew mad elfin iwr . would be 
e §a&:xcz i:r ibe wck «f c^ nnkliy: once it 
i:^fti ttrc 2k> be ax jai Jiot^er aid. «pon the au- 
tbicrrraDi vaSfr ibe wisiMB cc oe cfcarciu was giren : 
^<> s&Ltonntis^ smeraiioiis. But 
rbl-^ «kiirioaal aaastaBce had 
or wixa. br ^radvai decay, the <»igiiial 
pvrpose azad ead <{ siach appccmsniis had either been 
coQTcned icio the egi e nRase of an alreadj too great 
cxces of c^remonv. and Tain $apcr§titi<MU or into the 
idle recaining^ of the naaaes oobr without the offices ; 
it woold hare been eqnally onreasonaUe to haTe con- 
tinued, as it were^ in mockety* so mere a shadow of 
what had once be» good. 

Before we leaxe the minor orders altogedier, I wonld 
take firom .£Ifiic's pastoral epistle, an account of their 
duties» as ther were regarded in the Ai^lo-saxon age. 
^ Ostiaritts is the doorkeeper, who holds the keys of 
the clrarch« Lect<H* is the reader, who reads in church. 
Exoreista is an adjutcnr, who reads over men diseased 
in mind, and the infirm. Acoluthus is he, who bears 
the light at God s ministries. Subdiaconus is the 
under deacon, who bears the chalice and the dish at 
the mass, and ministers to the deacon/'^ 

^ Thorpe. Ancient Laws. roL vas superius, unde lavandis ma- 

2. p» 379. tubus aqua infunditur.** EpisU 13. 

Archbishop Lanfranc explains And Joan, de Janua. *' Aquima- 

the distinction of the aquamanile, nile, dicitur res, super quod cadit 

which was given, at their ordina- aqua, qua abluuntur dig^ti sacer- 

tlon, to the subdeacons. " Vas dotum post sumptionem corporis 

InferiuB, in quod manibus infusa Christi.** cU. Ducange, Glossa- 

•qua dclabitur. Urceolus vero, rium. 

iDiBce0 of iDtHtnation. evil 


WE proceed now to deacons, concerning whom, 
the excerpts of archbishop Egbert, quoting a 
Carthaginian canon, decree: ^^nacuit at ante xxy. 
annos setatis, nee diaconus ordinetur, nee virgines 
consecrentur, nisi rationabili necessitate cogente."^ 
But as time went on, an earlier limit was allowed : as 
is clear from the Pupilla, in a place which specifies 
also the ages at which the inferior orders might be re- 
ceived: and I therefore quote it ^Ordinandus in 
exorcistam, lectorem, sen ostiarium debet esse major 
infante, i. major septennio. Et similiter ille qui pri- 
mam tonsuram suscipit ordinandus in acolytum debet 
esse major xiiij. annis. Item major xvij. annis potest 
ordinari in subdiaconum. Major etiam xix« annis po- 
test ordinari in diaconum : et major xxiv. annis in sa- 
cerdotem : et major xxx. annis potest esse episcopus." ' 
As to their disabilities, the chief assumption by dea- 
cons seems to have been, the heariug of confessions : 
this is complained of and prohibited by the Norwich 
canons of 1257. ^^Audivimus quoque, quod quidam 
sacerdotes faciant sues diaconos audire confessiones 
parochianorum suorum ; quod quam sit absurdum non 
opus est dicere, cum evidenter yerum sit, quod diacouis 
Don est tradita potestas, nee quaerat ex hoc nisi occa- 
sionem aut spatium intendendi negotiis secularibus. 
Propterea firmiter inhibemus, ne diaconi confessiones 

1 Thorpe. Ancient Laws. vol. 2./>. 110. xciij. 
* Lib, vij. Cap. 4. A. 


ftL&V». vV 


wu. jur 7«9mt;eiicS;» inimiguit, aut alia sacra- 
uvn^k ti t.>ir-^ar^ ^fiae cocKCism sunt solis sacerdotibus 
It t,>vr>u^v ' rie rvifcier will observe, that in the 
%.s ■ w :'c >.>te^ tt .f A i«(ftftcvxi's presuming to hear con- 
VXSS.X iftv >- i.'.— ou.v^I rKber to the idleness or secular 
**^N>..vit vi -U^ :so*fr5or prifftst : which nevertheless 
^ xi V. ^A >'v.*t?^ Sf J2:rrti!cir^r deacon: in the following 
,^v\^ V^\cv^-^ ,.c -{i^ <\:]iod of Exeter, a,d. 1287f we 
Ktv. : V n-iv vv irtv'Kr^^lSrr torbidden, without the as^ 
N:.^ »»t»v>tv ^K jut* si>*vuil v^ta:!^ for the offence: " Et 
it .vv\^vi t.Vi> ^$«tv%2^I^<;:w inlmores et superiores 
^•''tv^%^tKa >iJtv ir^taocOL. nee inferior usurpet offi- 
vxUv%* v.i^vx'v'x-^s. ^c ^,tui5vai> aclibos contingant ec- 
vA^xvviv,% >^nv'vjk ^^.ur^Hjci; dnniter iohibemus, ne 
v\%v\^t. >\M.v>5>iv 4tvs ij:jr..i::x5^ |t«nitentiasve injungant, 
vv"^ viv<ri it .i.5v;.'v<tv^ J6J.; ;jil\viuai odSlcla exerceant, quae 
vv- V vtvvsvvv vuK >u^; wix-y^ssfc."* And we learn 
iK^4* >v ^ ,,,^^^ ^ . ,^ ^ttxi«B$5wy of Burton, that this 
v^^xu 4iv . tvv v^^ti^^; ^v^jj^K ^^* ^>5^ diocesan articles of 
s K^^ . \, v,,^ ^.^, ^ \^ >i>Xv \.irv\j^cs;e in 1252 : " An 
yv *s\v:4v ^ w. .< >^ N\v:\>5>^,*a!C^ x^ ^i;ji miuistrent sacra- 

\\* V ..vx V .*vx • ,»^ *, 5p^ :$ett:^ itt vbuv-li deacons could thus 

' ^^ Vr ^a£^ ^^ W curates Bi that age, 

\ : s*» * .,. \\ ^ ^ ^v » iw^ OJferaM from that in 

^ H^ '* ^ V^v>\v >s»»i>^ I'rtt^ %^v^ Wfc^ aie «ow so often, and 

^ ^ ,^v \ x.Kv V\\v^ >N^ ^u%Hj^ 5tiilu^vi.l\ &v«a the force of cir- 

^<vvs4V^^^'>^ '^ >i'^vv*»\ s»4 X\kwMivN>i. v-tiJte^jtav-yrj $o oftexu styled cu- 

Nv^vv^v^ ^^^^' ^vv-Vvv^o\, MkSi^^ \vV>\H»* n>ftjk I ik» ttol lemember» nor 

Uvv^KvH^ ^^ ^^ siv^'^s Wvv t^ <^M»<yt>f^ tktt k vould be easy, to 

uv>vAoh \ ^ vvWK ^w^^vvs<^ %u; W wv^ibce aa ia$tance of a deacon 

U\A\W v^ vH^AvS^\»x ^ ^-cMt>A\x^ i "* ^j^^xa^^ the sv4e charge of a pa- 

VsU^v^uV ^^^^^^^' ^^^^^ ^kmtHa^v* *r- tv^ » the tune of Ljudwood, 

»v\^S ^^^*^ ^^"^^^ '^v^^t*^^<" ttKt «^wv^ Ik* that short time, after 

Mu ht h^"*^^' vHH^tW^Kux$. IW^ th^ p«v««tttaiii» lo a benefice» before 

fl)ffice0 of 2)tUntition« cix 

But, after all, these various canons must have been 
directed to the unwarranted hearing of confessions: 
because, in certain cases of great necessity, and in 
those only, power to do so was given to deacons, by a 
provincial constitution of archbishop Edmund. " De 
poenitentia prsecipimus : quod diaconi pcenitentias dare 
non praesumant, nisi in his casibus : cum sacerdos non 
potest, vel absens est : vel stulte, vel indiscrete non 
vult : et mors imminet segroto." It would seem to be 
allowed only that the confession should be heard ; no 
power of giving absolution was granted, or the sem- 
blance of it ; and in fact» these extreme cases did not 
place a deacon in a higher position, than, under the 
same circumstances, a mere layman. For thus Lynd- 
wood says, upon the word " aegroto" in the above : 
'* Qui desiderat confiteri. Tali namque casu potest 
non solum diaconus, sed etiam laicus confessionem 
aegroti audire ; immo et mulier hoc potest. Et hoc 
verum, ad ostendendum fidem sacramenti. Sacra- 
mentum tamen deficit, quia nuUus potest vere absol- 
vere nisi sacerdos." ^ 

I shall add one more particular only, directed towards 
the proper administration of the blessed Eucharist to 
the sick : in which the blame must be attributed, it 
would appear, altogether to the negligence or careless- 
ness of the parish-priest. *^ Caveant presbyteri, ne 
ad visitandum infirmos se exhibeant difficiles ; 

reeeption of priest's orders. The mite oT which they might exercise 

term curacy is to be understood, the privileges and functions of 

as regards deacons, in the sense their order, 

of ** title'' or place of ministra- * Lib.S, Tit. 24, Baptisterium. 

tian to which they were ordained Cf. Lib, 5. Tii, 16. De poni- 

or appdnted, and within the li- tentia. 

ex iptettminatp Dumettatiom 

necy sicut a quibusdam hactenus est prsesumptum» mit- 
tant cum eucharistia diaconos ad infirmos.'^ This is 
one of the canons of a diocesan synod of Chichester, 
A.D, 1289.^ 

We must now proceed to some matters connected 
with the duties and qualifications of the next and 
higher order, the priests. As to the age, earlier than 
which they were not to be ordamed, 1 have already 
spoken, p. cvii. In the middle of the eighth century, 
the council of Cloveshoo, gives the following admoni- 
tion : ** Octavo monuerunt capitulo : ut presbyteri in- 
desinenter reminiscant, ad quod divina ordinatione 
prae cseteris promoti sint ; quod Dei videlicet ministri 
et dispensatores mysteriorum Christi vocantur ; et 
tunc 'quaeritur inter dispensatores, ut fidelis quis in- 
veniatur ; ' undo sciant se necessario pro Dei intuitu 
debere a secularibus negotiis causisque, in quantum 
praevaleant, vacare ; altaris officium divinique cultus 
obsequium summa intentione persolvere ; oratorii do- 
mum, et cuncta ad cultum ipsius pertinentia, sub sua 
cura conservare ; lectioni, orationi, missarum celebra- 
tioni, psalmisque canendis invigilare." " The canon 
then proceeds to some particular duties in the case of 
priests attached to monasteries: and is followed by 
several other canons of no little interest, to which I 
must be content to refer the student. Extracting one 
particular only : namely that priests were to learn and 
be able to expound, in the vulgar tongue, the solemn 
part of the Liturgy: not only the Creed, and the 
Lord's Prayer, *^ sed et sacrosancta quoque verba, quse 
in misssB celebratione, et officio baptismi solenniter 

' WUkins. Cone. torn. 2. p. 170. 
" Ibid. torn. 1. p. 96. 

S>fBtt» of jDtHinatiom cxi 

dicuntur." This rule is of much importance^ in its 
bearing upon the Anglo-saxon doctrine of the celehra- 
tion of the holy Eucharist. 

Before we pass on to other details, I would here 
make an observation on the rite, practised in the Eng- 
lish church from the most remote antiquity, of anoint- 
ing the hands of persons, to be ordained priests. The 
reader will see in the notes below, frequent remarks 
upon certain parts of the ordinal, which appear to 
have been originally introduced into the Anglo-saxon 
pontificals, from the more ancient Forms of the Bri- 
tish church. There is no manuscript extant, of any 
foreign church, with the exception of the sacramentary 
of S. Gregory, older than the pontificals of archbishops 
Egbert and Dunstan, in which this rite is prescribed : 
in both of those it is ordered, together with unction of 
the head, which last is not noticed in the sacramen- 
tary just named. In some pontificals of the Galilean 
church, of the 10th century^ examined by Martene, it 
also occurs, and probably was adopted from the al- 
ready established Anglo-saxon practice. And it is 
further a very remarkable circumstance, that between 
the time of S. Gregory and the tenth century, the 
unction even of the hands was discontinued according 
to the use of the church of Rome. For in the ninth 
century, pope Nicolas I. says «in an epistle ; " Prsete- 
rea sciscitaris utrum soils presbyteris, an et diaconibus 
debeant cum ordinantur manus chrismatis liquore per- 
ungi. Quod in sancta hac Romana, cui Deo autore 
deservimus, ecclesia, neutris agitur."* 

* EpUt. 39. ConeiL GalL tonu portance, the arguments of Mo- 
3. The student should consult rinus» de sacria ordin. Exerc. vi. 
upon this point, one of some im- Cap. 2. of Menard, in his notes 

T H i r B iffti fwPr 

^ irin^ in^ Jiau} ■'HWhih of ^figKA councils, di- 
:TP-*c-i Tj -s«f nreTtHitiiJii ot sa afaoBe^ not unlikelT to 
rDT^^ . oaane-;^ -ne juunng of rectories by persons 
:i^t M jTzv^ ^ ip-iers. Eence it was ciijoiiiedy that all 
T^r».'rafc. tnd -^it-ar?*. javintr cure of souls^ siioiild be or- 

Lumri ^rre^^s^ -rimm a oenain tune after presenta- 
-I- a 1» "He >^e?icr«. nr ihe presentation would be void. 
3iic -I -^^TSiv *iiar iome. jirhoo^ they so far obeyed 
-tie^* .-MK'Osv K -Xi tf^*ape Jeprivadoo, yet neglected 
-trv=r L;::t-5% uid r^HLstiti j^ culebrate the holy Com- 
Tiii:::- .:• I ^jOi^ juoie x scinite of the diocese of Ex- 

=1*-; a ::i^ '•^-ur li*^r, wiii.a fallT states this practice, 
fciia -• -rrr- t^ in •* t^tiuniaxn aatilTrimuSy qaod qaan- 
*.;iua "»*-'vr-^ :?»vlesiarini inec«i pcena^ statati infra 
^i.::iuxtk ^ vuia^'H? ^sUstrOTti rvgiminis» se fecerint in 
,,^.^,^«^ -v'^^ irdnarr ;. miasanon tamen solennia dif- 
xr-im .-ttorin* Ter ^nnrrora diutnma; p«r hoc ex- 

„^^^ ~ .t atv's. latJ^L in ^nfcicto statuto nihil cautum 
it» :n:^!5?^r^^tt sjicaiuis- rvwrimr: banc excnsationem, 

iia ^!^ K\ui>i£n;. ^xUliOl p»'ci:K excitant, firivolam re- 
-•^vufttv's^ ^cictn nu& :ir aa^::wn inSra dimidium annum 
-^>^ ^ri rtion sui^vrrxiKai nii eanonicnm habuerint 

:tt v^r ttcTium :iu;ssBS^ cvLebcire non omittant. Alio- 
*vt t Hr«t\**K'*.'rrLTi <ucrxat firoiotns decreyimus, sibi 
^i>v--$'v«x^.^ ii rtvv s;tck\i iicram est devote comple- 


s^ V.V s;tv^^.mn- :t.- V S O-^ ^ V:s :r» imctioii was not ob- 

.,^ f ^ ;?^ »* ^*^*^ **^ ^ ^^ s^nneNi: ^y the other, to prove 

h^.hk m r»-* ♦•-•* ^ ** ^^ ^^ CK»«rr. The passage is 

Wf ^^-«t^^ a-* ^ :s vVit<tti* -^ X«f cnim et ordo clarior le- 

,v*^ x --V ^'•v^ v*» ^' '•^ >^^-^i v,s«cm. et dignitas amplior se- 

^M 'V^^ ^ * ^- «^"^ *» ^^ ^**^^ xv«»» «t sacratior est uDctio 

W* v^ S Iv^ ^^vV <*TV*<V sMniMum, quia crux tua om- 

^^^HVi^. V* *-«»*W w^ Vt K^c^ B:«iKv=sheocdictiooinii." Serm. 

2)ffice0 of £Drtitnation* cxlli 

verint; nee postquam semel celebraverint, incipiant 
tunc cessare ; sed sub pcena prsedicta frequenter stu- 
deant celebrare/'** 

But except in the cases of persons thus presented 
to benefices, a very wise rule, if it was fully carried 
out, (which I should doubt could have been at any 
time) prohibited priests from undertaking the sole 
cure of a parish, for one year after their ordination. 
I again quote the same synod of Exeter. " Cum sit 
ars artium regimen animarum, illud juvenibus et inex- 
pertis committere valde reputamus absurdum, donee 
per merita virtutum et experientiam diutinam digni 
efficiantur ad tanti oneris sarcinam supportandam. 
Quapropter statuimus, ne quisquam presbyterorum 
primo ordinationis suse anno ad curam parochialem 
oUatenus admittatur; illis tamen duntaxat exceptis, 
qui tenentur propriis ecclesiis deservire." And, once 
more upon this point, in the year 1308, a synodical 
constitution of Henry Woodloke, bishop of Winches- 
ter: *''Inbibemus etiam, ne quis sacerdos, exceptis 
rectoribus aut vicariis ecclesiarum, qui propriis tenen- 
tur ecclesiis deservire, primo ordinationis suae anno, 
euram parochialem admittat."" 

Very early in the ecclesiastical history of the 
church of England, we find steps taken to prevent 
priests, wandering about from place to place, and ce- 
lebrating wheresoever they would. The Dialogue of 
archbishop Egbert has the following passage. " In- 
krrogaiio. Si permittendum est presbyteris sive 
peregrinis, sive nostri generis, passim ministrare 
absque conscientia episcopi loci, in cujus dioecesi in- 
terim demorantur, maxime sub laicis, nusquam sta- 

• Ihid. torn. 2. p. 145. " Ibid, torn, 2. p. 149. 297. 

VOL. in. i 

vel B\y 

i^'wri j%- a. 

t^fasaeoaaL episoopi 
T^ears. die same pre 
$79i»i of die diocese oi 
T- -Firadter praeci- 
jimlwanattis, ni 
A Mv^vni Teniens^ 
prhis nobi^ 
vobis mstmnient^ 
Tsr:r:ist sos ordmatioiii! 

^fysTrnZ.^ wm. T?=n3*-T 11 iJ. XROBS III ofders, thi 
m^ rs^ -vas ^^^ L^^nr^:^ his a title '* dc 
r^:^ z^sr^Z^'^^^ "* *^ -^ i»XL-«e die eonstitution ol 
z^ii^CM^i- ^isier iif^rniuL 3l IS22, vliich he cites, 

' ^\^tm. II -ait ±-SI. CBBOK rf 

<-4; « ^xis»- «pt«». rf rue 
-«ic3i^ Fr^ «nam die 

sttbL sfic T^ preceding canon h 

Ti5v aZ tkiags necessary foi 
1^ SKnHMBt. SecoDdly, firon 
1^ pautental of Egbert : *' Qois 
qTie presbrter debet esse, sicu 
Tocatas est, sacerdos." ibid, p 
903. Upon wbkh a remark o 
Lyndw o od is apposite: when 
^^•■Vwig of a certain canon, h^ 
sap : ^ Et nota, quod ilium quen 
infta Tocat presbyterum, hie vocal 
sacerdotem. Et (Ucitur sacerdoj 
quasi sacra dans. Et sic hae dic< 
tiones, presbyter et sacerdos, sy- 
nonima sunt." Lib. 1. tit. 6 
Sacerdotis. verb, sacerdotem loci 

S>f&tt»of ©ruination* cxv 

and portions of his gloss. "Ordinati in Hibemia, 
Wallia," sen Scotia^ ^el alibi, sine Uteris ordinari- 
orum suorum commendatitiis vel dimissoriis non ad- 
mittantur a quocunque infra provinciam nostram ad 
ordinis sic suscepti executionem, nisi magna necessitas 
inducat : et tunc quod cum eis auctoritate sufficienti 
fiierit dispensatum super executione ordinis memorati, 
vel alias a suis ordinariis ordo sic susceptus ratificetur. 
Proviso nihilominus quod nuUo modo admittantur, 
nisi prius constiterit de eorum legitima ordinatione, 
vitae munditia, pariter et literatura." " Ordinariorum 
suorum. sc. episcoporum quorum sunt subditi. Com- 
mendatitiis. Sic dictis quia continent testimonium 
siye commendationem de vita, honestate, et moribus 
ordinandorum. £t tales literse si essent perditse, pos- 
sunt probari per testes. Et has non possunt concedere 
inferiores episcopis, nisi hoc habeant de consuetudiiie 
sive privilegio. Vd dimissoriis* Hae dicuntur, per 
quas aliquis dimittitur a jurisdictione sive potestate 
sui prselati, et dicuntur quandoque licentiales, quando 
viz. licentia datur ad aliquid faciendum, utputa ordi- 
nes ab alieno episcopo suscipiendos. Et has possunt 
episcopi suis subditis concedere, sc. ut ipsarum vigore 
ipsas obtinentes valeant ab aliis episcopis ordinari. 
Vita munditia. Quae consistit in pluribus. Primo, 
viz. quod eorum vita et conversatio sit casta : secundo, 
quod sit in cibo et poj;u temperata : tertio, quod non 
sit tabulis et commessationibus dedita : quarto, quod 

^ Johnson observes '^ Sure the officiating in a diocese, by the 

archbbhop had forgot that Wales bishop of which he was not ori- 

«is part of his province." But ginally ordained, without license, 

the object of the constitution is and examination, 
general; to prevent any clerk 

«\ «nrtJoiulHis «ssueU: quinto, quod se non immiBce- 
«nt ca<it«us. vi» cantantur amatoria, vel exercentuT 
tn>KO<«» : sex*»» qp^ «^ ebrietate omnino se a.l3sti< 


I ^^Yl th>t delay to extract any of the canons w^bieZi 

n^Uw^ to the iluty <rf preaching, from the time wlien 

iW iXMxncil of Cloveshoo, a, d. 747, in its ninth eaj[ioii 

%><\\t-nsl oxxT>' P"^^ «irefully and diligently to fulfil 

iu ViH>i\ a l>^^^^ which the Church has always so 

w^wh uxso^uxl on. it does not seem necessary to heap 

\\\\ ^xuhtxriiit^ : 1 would rather quote the opinion of 

Ou'^ iiixNdt o^K^ust^ as to some restrictions with r^ard 

U\ iu ** Ni^a. <4^od non omnis qui vult praedicare^ 

Uob«^ A\l h\V admiui. Nam mere laicus nee pnblice 

^uv )>riv*w* p^^>s4 preedicare, nee etiam mulier. 23. 

^,>|, *^A*\^\ quod inteUigas ascendendo pulpitum, et 

(^cUn^U^ $iertnoxH>m ad populum : loquendo de clericis 

h^iW ^cir^x qxunl )>apa ubique potest prsedicare ; epis- 

tH^|n >\MV mWu)\u> jH^^unt praedicare, nisi per dioeces- 

luu^ ^\^^^hiU^AW^ur exproisse, juxta illud Alat. Euntcs 

i$4 i#sM>*\,,N»'^ •ivnn\<fi'ii pradicaiey quod dictum fuit 

api^ti^i^ iw quonuu loco suecedunt episcopi. Auc- 

ttmtatt^m tauunx praxlicandi aliis dare non possunt, 

ui^ iu pix^jmw diaH.x>siibus, Inferiores vero praelati, 

give ourati, isiwbiUtisi sibi oommissis praedicare possunt^ 

otiamai fuorint diacoui tantum: aUis etiam offieium 

prfcdieaudi innumittere possunt in cura eis commi^sa, 

dum tamon tales sint» qui ad hoc approbati et vocati 

fuerint, ut sunt doi^tores in theologia, vel alias per 

episcopum approbati* Hi vero qui nee prselati nee 


^ Lib, 1. tit. 9. Cam quanta. Compare the next ch. of the same 

i)ffice0 of £Drtiination« cxvii 

curati sunt, non possunt prsedicare nisi mittantur ab 
his, qui hoc fisu^ere possunt."'* 

It may appear scarcely necessary to state that severe 
penalties were attached to the performance of priestly 
functions by men who had not received the order of the 
pri^thood : but I would quote two examples, in neither 
of which, however, the punishment is specified. One 
was brought before the convocation, sitting in S, 
Paul's, in 1463. " Die sabbati, toto concilio, ut prius, 
insimul congregate, adductus fuit coram domino et 
confi^tribus suis quidam Simon Harrison, apparatu 
fratris praedicatoris indutus, in ecclesia parochiali de 
Lamehith, Winton. dioec. per familiares domini sus- 
pecte in dicenda missa captus, qui solum, ut publico 
asseruit et fatebatur tunc ibidem, in ordine acolytus 
constitutus missas per longum tempus celebravit, ido- 
latriam comjnittendo. £t hoc audito, dominus com- 
misit eum confratri suo Willielmo Wintou. episcopo 

The other example to which I alluded is a very 
carious one, related in the chronicle of Henry de 
Knyghtoif. ^' Hlis diebus (1391) erat quaedam ma- 
troua in civitate Londoniensi quae habebat unicam 
filiam quam instruxit ad celebrandum missam, et^ 
erexit altare in cubili suo secrete cum omatu suo, sic- 
que fecit filiam suam multis diebus vestire se more 
sacerdotis et ad altare accedere, et pro suo mode 
missam celebrare : sed cum venisset ad verba sacra- 
menti, prostravit se ante altare et sacramentum non 
confecit, sed csetera misssB surgens usque ad finem 

" Lyndwood. lib. 3. tit. 4. verb, auctorizatus est. 
Praeterea. rerb. pnedicant. Cf. " Wilkina. Cone» torn, 3. p. 

lib. 5. tit» 5. Reverendissimae. 585. 

■r? mrxrx^ dbnee per 



iwiu et de 
aiMWJ c a» eomae 
i:ts :3cnr axmB flafarosmn 
L ^e^ 'eiBe«.*~~'ux- -■ .^ rm^ ^nius. ec epxlans de 

^-"X zii -.:** r n.^* ^^^» tsiit mxn any cause, 

..pirr^iir^v zrrr'— i^TT-* n "Ili* rwMving of their 

-^isr*. I -^^' -EiTT-^r "Ti? n liiiwTniT consdtutioii of 

^^ :--:■ ^ - — -r^ n zjt 7*ar lir*:^ •* Omnes qui 

r-^ "^'''^•^-^iT. iL OTdnr iOff^TPrr.*. t^J ante, vel post 

jf^^^:^:^ '^Sj*' »^r.'A. Triesar -•mnxaaee. nisi com eis 

.Zs3-w<iji5r.jii fit*;rr enirts^ itr <*» tj^ cam eis dis- 

^j^^jj^iT^ >.»'-*miiu ui a&-i '^^.'TuiiicBedcnimaanmsesse 

^-r:tx&»*i a.oifr'. ^^mrf cii «CUT hoe legitinie fuerit 

£cs:fei«=^=3L" l't^'il "ii^ Lj^£"»^ocd says : " Irregu- 

,^;::r»L Qlje: u-mHO. Jki-ufcr; a rvgula, qnam statuit 

x^^'^l'^ 4i^r7az*^i2L is crdhzanooe dericomm, cujus 

^-^.^;^^:^ c^frr^:^ irre^daritas. Et nota quod irre- 

,--^^*7ta§ €?it qaoddam impedimentiim proveniens ex 

^Q5^7i£</De cxD^nncZj et non extenditnr, nisi quate- 

^^i inTenhur jure inflicta. /n ordine suscepto. In 

•^^,r^,r^,^ frHMnpieDdi ordines ; pone exemplum in sci- 

^cwr ofdinato ab haeretico vel schismatico. Q^c/i 

H nxTiiLone. Intelligas de solenni executione ; tali 

xtvWUcet quae pertinet ad ordinem quem obtinet et 

I' Script. X. torn. 2. p. 2738. 

SMttst of iDtDinatton* cxix 

sub radone ipsius ordinifi. Unde taHs irregularis de 
quo hie loquitur, se inmiiscere non potest officio eccle^ 
siastico, ut videlicet publico et solemniter ministret in 
ordiue suo tempore quo* dicuntur vesperse, matutinse, 
msssdj yel alias hor» canonicse. Privatim tamen, et 
per modum suffira^ potest dicere boras suas ad quas 
tenetor ratione ordinis assumpti : et boc puto verum 
» extra ecclesiam boc faciat : secus si in ecclesia quse 
ad taiia deputatur. Potest talis tamen audire Divina 
in ecclesia : boc verum si boc non faciat ex contemptu, 
sed ex devotione. Et boc quod bic dicitur, viz. quod 
in'egularis debet abstinere ab executione officii donee 
fuerit cum eo dispensatumy non solum babet locum in 
ordinato ad majores ordines, sed etiam ad mipores/'** 
The constitution proceeds to specify several ways 
in which irregularity and consequent suspension were 
incurred : for example, homicide, advocacy in causes 
of Uood, simoniacs, schismatics, &c. The whole title, 
with Lyndwood's gloss, is well worth the considera- 
tion of .the student, bearing as it does upon the pe* 
^ties attached to mera suspension, which is not also 
accompanied with the further penalty of excommuni-^ 
^on. The PupiUa has a chapter ^^ de suspensione ab 
executione ordinis,'' in which the whole subject is very 
Mly and accurately discussed.^^ The different severities 
^f the degrees of suspension are explained ; as being 
either perpetual, or temporary : from a benefice, or 
from execution of spiritual functions, or from entrance 
into any church : and I regret that my space will not 
^ow me to do more than thus barely refer to that 
part of the book. 

Lib. 1. tit 4. Imprimis. ^^ Pars vij. Cap, 6. 

cxx ipteUminat? Dusectatioiu 

I Mhould have been glad also to have giTcn, although 

^»ot MO iminediately connected with my snhgeot, yet il- 

luM trail ve of it, some account of the various restrictaona 

»*«4 rul«u laid down in the English councils, rrfating 

*^> th« daily habit» and pursuits and occapalioos of the 

i'U^ryry . y,\^^^ they might both properly and lawfully 

^^"K'iKo in, and what they might not: also, some «rf the 

tiiiitiy c!anons which were passed regulating the dress 

^inc'h tlioy should wear. These, however, I must 

\niHm by ; jjut in the note below are references to some 

pUirciM ill Wilkius, where the matter is entered into :^ 

*^**<i if tlio rtittiler examines them, he will certainly ac- 

l^HiiwUulKo, that on the present occasion, I could not 

Uiivu cloyo justice to a subject so extensive, and of im- 

l^^H'tuueo suttloiont to justify a detailed consideration in 

^ ^^^\mvaio tioutiso, 

I «Imll, thorofore, now proceed to some particulars, 
^t^lttting to bishops. As to their consecration, it was 
•^Iwiiyu inaistiul on, in the church of England, that 
tboro should not be less than three bishops present, 
*^nd usfeiistin);. And this from the time, when arch- 
bishop Egbert, in his excerpts,^* quoted the Nicene 
t^anon \ or up to that earlier age, when British 
bishops, pronent at the council of Aries, agreed to this 
J^ule, <* Ut shw tf'ibus tpiscopis nuUus episcopus ordi- 

•0 Concilia, iom. 1. />• &74, Lih. vij. cap, 10. It would be 

609, 652. 670. 706. 716. 732. an endless task to attempt to refer 

Tom. 2. p. 4. &^« ^^^- ^^*^- ^^* ^ the foreign canonists. Van Es- 

7 am. 8. p. 29. 61. 70. 586. 619. pen, Bonacina, Thomassin, Saus- 

7om.4. p. 164. See Lyndwood sajus, &c: all of whom treat very 

also, /•*. 3. '*'• ^- ^^ clericalis. li^ly of the subject 

John de Athon. Cap. Quoniam " Wilkins. Cone. T<m. I. p. 

fie habitu. The PiipiUa oculi. 107. 

Con$ejcration of 3i0iiop0* cxxi 

ftetur. De his qui usurpant sibi, quod soli debeant 
episcopos ordinare^ placuit ut nullus hoc sibi prsesumat, 
nisi assumptis secum aliis septem episcopis : si tamen 
non potuerit septem, infra tres non audeat ordinare."^ 
I extract the following form of citation of a bishop 
to consecrate and to assist, in the year 1293. " Ve- 
nerabili in Christo patri, domino. R.^ Dei gratia 
London, episcopo, devoti sui H. permissione divina 
prior ecclesiae Christi Cant, et ejusdem loci capitulum, 
salntem, et ad sinceree devotionis obsequia se paratos. 
Quanto majorem devotionem erga nos et ecclesiam 
nostram Cantuar. geritis, quam frequenti experimento 
didicimus, tanto vobis honorem facere satagimus pras 
cseteris ampliorem. Quia igitur discretus vir magister 
W. de Marchia Bathon. electus, die dominica in festo 
Pentecostes prox. ventur. in ecclesia nostra Cantuar. 
prout scitis, Deo propitio, est in episcopum consecran- 
dus, patemitati Testrae supplicamus, quatenus dictis die 
et loco, omni excusatione remota, tantae solennitate per- 
sonaliter interesse velitis, munus consecrationis electo 
propriis manibus impensur. Quid autem super his 
facere decreverit sanctitas vestra, per bajulum praesen- 
tium nobis literatorie significetis. Dat. e/c."** 

^ MajuL Cone. Tarn. 2. p. ^ Richard de Gravesend. con- 

474. seer. 1280. Ob. 1308. Le Neve. 

The clauae in the Act 25 Hen. ** Wilkins. Cone. Tom. 2. p. 

VIII. cap. 20, which required 195. Other documents of much 

foar bishops, was in case the cer- interest are printed in that place^ 

tificate of the 'election had not relating to the same consecra- 

been sent to an archbishop; tion. The see of Canterbury 

otherwise, two bishops, with the was at that time vacant: but it 

archbishop, were to consecrate, was not upon that account only 

See Gibson, Codex Juris Ecc. that the letter of summons runs 

p. Ill, in the name of the prior and con* 

"^ xxii iHiiiiHfiif Dte(ctation« 

A;s^ to :b* rfmis». aac k. (he periods of the year, at 
>«hivh iT^Hxenl ordinadoos were to take place, both 
l$)u:umu2^'^ .lod Eie-Jii&niuxie' hare attempted to prove 
that cutf ^ Joiimia ^^osicuor tempomm"' as fixed for that 
^»ur^M$e% .irv ^> be acrribated to the days and the 
^ttthortc^i of thi» spoetles^ Bat there is no evidence 
>fchalv^vT. of *tty w*?brit. in feTour of this opinion, 
vbhttst oa ih«» %^€aer haai» there is mach in contra- 
vhvc^Mi to X Noc ouly k there no mention of this 
tnol itt rac <tirl:^r suhers,. but there is very ancient 
4uchv^i^it> chviC Civ'Uls^i'J2^ w;ft$ the first who limited the 
>«^^\iQ4.^^ts^ \>f ^'ttcnu onlinudon to certain times of the 
\\\it\ \tArvWu2> :sa\^: ^ G^lasios papa constituit, 
Ui vMxlttMiiouv^ prv^xtervrtim» et diaoonomm nonnisi 
wuix i\nu^vrt>a;s riio;.^' ^ So ako Rabanns Maurus ; 
^^ SsWttis. o*\l.Uvi::oae^ ^^'ia:aor Kemporam diehus jopor- 

\>^a» ^N^*<*«».^ '% t^n»\>Ars^ "'rvm 4 Situot^ and in tbe further con- 

ss^»m»AV\m ijiHiKvNi >* •-•K'ut,. 4 ir3ui£»a of the privflege. — '* 

U w \ ssi» * %i N'4 * <w MS* • u • 'V ofcw vt •*' ^-In Cranmer*s register, among^ 

sKc U^^vy v^vv4 g4 t^i{{vrx V *>f tlhr lK«s due to ^ archbishop 

xsku^s\4«^VN\l v^Nc^^^tVw x.u; vjv^ 4ini *ii:$ «dkcrs» for confirmation 

vUuussi vhv ^<\(\xv vc ^^«tti^ «ivi cooaccrataoo, we find the fol* 

«^U b^\hvv^v* v4 vSs* wv^'itvv vvtt^ Ie«u:^ «ntrr. 'Memoruid. that 

•i>\Us4Vv\l vu v^^a vw^NNikti* Sjys. »> be?iiop maj be eoosecrated 

^r.i. kK ^'. vicaoosibechinrhofCanterbuijy 

^* iW v^v^MA A"4 s^u/ivr ^* b*u by the sfseciil license of the 

WuU^i^iSx^ x\\A Kxi^vV V^ V o^fiiA 4id chapcciT ondeT their 

»v>kK ^ \ U'Att A M AU ji»K^vtK r^vi'^c ccarcer seal the fee whereof is 

i\f ihAi cKuiv h^ ^hvii <r\i\Nr^ >i?Ov»t^ i*?*- SL** ChiV-t «/writ £cc. p. 

v4r tW ^vivNiXKV U t» W cvHic-^f* HK ^wAf rr. 

Cfwwd iu IK vv»* iik< 45vhS*Xy tv » j^ *^; ^^^ ^^^^ 

cott9MTat« «^>*W^N Ami ib^* * ^^^*!^,.*^^*" 1. ^ 82. De 

belw«««i the \v*wt li!^^ aad '^^*^ ^^ ^*^ -*- ^/^- ^ 

1300 that pi>iut was cvntx^Tmvd « Cntp. d4. ^. 44S. €^i^ Hit- 

with the clMq>ter« it ended in th^ toryitts. 

Consectation of IBis^oitf/ cxxiii 

ere fieri, decreta Glelasii papffi testantor."" There 
i no doubt, however, that the appropriation of certain 
times of the year, to the solemnities of general ordi- 
oadons, is of an antiquity reaching, if not to iq[>06- 
tolical, at least to almost primitive times. And there 
are so many reasons, which will easily occur to the 
reader, why a role so general and ancient should be if 
posnble obs^ved, that it cannot but be a subject of 
sincere gratification to every member of the church of 
England to observe, not only that it is distinctly 
repeated by the canons of 1604, but that, during the 
I^ few years, the practice of our bishops has been 
liDim exactly, than at one period) in accordance with 
that rale. 

Bat, to return to my more immediate purpose, I 
proceed to extract some orders upon the point, previous. 
to the sixteenth century. First, the 99th of the often- 
qiioted excerpts of archbishop Egbert : " Presbytero- 

" De lostit Cleric, lib. 2. cap. extant that Amalarius was mis- 

*^- J>* 338. ibid. See also the taken : and that the custom in the 

'^ of Qnesnel, upon the 10th primitive ages, at Rome as in all 

^Meof&Leo: where he attri- other parts of the Catholic Church, 

botes to that pontiff the first re- was to ordain at any time of the 

^ioD laid upon the ancient year, when it was judged desirahle 

^'^^^oaa, Amalarios says, that or necessary. Mabillon in his 

^ ^ popes, fit>m Clement to Museum Italicum, torn* 2, p. 103, 

^pBdas, ordained only in the supposes that the frequent cus- 

°^th of December. De Off. lib. torn, certainly ohserved by some 

' ftjp. 1. «< Simplicius primus popes, to ordain only in the winter, 

^^cnvit in Februario, ni &llor, was on account of the great heat 

toWain ob aliam causam, nisi in- of the summer, and the numerous 

^^ottodoGonjangendospropinquius duties to be fulfilled in the au- 

^"S^ corpori, qui per sacrum tumn: but Catalani derides this 

*nusterium proTehuntur." Bdit. idea. Comment, in Pontif tofn. 

^iWoTpiua, p. 157. But there is 1. p. 47. 
^ple evidence from records still 

cxxiv pteliminati» £Mffmation« 

mm Tero el diacooonun in qoatnor temporom sabbati 
scilicet, at dam haec ordinatio coram popalo agitu 
sab oomiam testificatione electoram ordinatorumqi] 
opinio discutiatur/*^ Again, of a cooncil at Wii 
Chester, soon after the Conqaest, in which canon tli 
*^ certain times "* most be interpreted of the Cmbc 
days. **4. Qaodordinationescortistemporibusfiant."^ 
And lastly, the Papilla oculi. ^ Celehrari possux 
sacri ordines g^eneraliter in sabbatis quatuor temp< 
ram, et in sabbato ante dominicam in passione at ii 
sabbato sancto paschse: in aliis autem temporibu 
nemini licet sacros ordines conierre nisi soli papae : c 
si aliis temporibas conferantur ordinati recipiunt ordi 
nem ; sed non executionem ordinis. Minores auten 
ordines licite conferuntar ab episcopis in diebus dozni 
nicis et in aliis diebas solennibas, aut festis aliquibus 
sed non yalde multis, ut non Tideator generalem ordi 
nationem £atcere/*" 

Having, in a previoas dissertation, {Vol. 1. p. cci.] 
remarked apon the strict rales which were anciently 
enforced, that all the sacraments should be freely 
administered, without charge or demand of .money, 1 
shall refer the reader to that place, and to the places 
from the Concilia which are there cited.^ These 

* MHlkins. Cone. torn. 1. p. TlioTpe. Ancient LawSy vol. 2./>. 

107. And the same archbishop 235. 

in his penitential : *' Hi sunt 1^- * Wilkins. Concih ionu 1. />. 

timi quataor temporum dies, qui 365. 

legitime obsenrari debent: id est, ^ Lib. Tij. cap, 3. 

Kal. Martii, prima hebdomada; ^ An ancient political song of 

et Kal. Junii» secunda hebdoma- the time of Henry HI^ alter com- 

da ; et KaL Septembr. tertia heb- plaining of some vices and immo- 

domada; et Kal. Decembr. hebdo- ralities of the clergy, proceeds : 

madaproximaantenataleChristL'* ^* Donum Dei non donatur, 

ODon^ectatioh of 15i0iiop0. cxxv 

enactments, as regarded the conferring of Holy Orders, 
were grounded (as it is expressly stated in the 43rd of 
the excerpts of Egbert) upon the very ancient (so 
called) apostolical canon. ** If any bishop, presbyter 
or deacon, shall obtain possession of that dignity by 
money, let both him and the person who ordained him 
be deposed, and also altogether cut off from commu- 
nion, as Simon Magus was." And here I would re- 
mark, having just cited these excerptions, that the 
45ih adopts an African canon, ^^Episcopus absque 
concilio presbyterorum clericos non ordinet," 

Few injunctions were more frequently repeated, or 
of earlier date, than that every bishop should confine 
bimsel^ in the discharge of his duties, strictly to his 
own diocese : I shall now extract a few orders relating 
to this, which bear upon the power of celebrating 
•>rdinations. The second canon of the council of 
Hertford (Herutford) in the year 673, is general in 
its object, but important from its early date : " Ut 
nollus episcoporum parochiam alterius invadat, sed 
contentus sit gubematione creditae sibi plebis." " Arch- 
bishop ^bert inserts in his excerpts part of a canon 
(the 16th) of the council of Nice, to the same effect : 
but I pass on to the 11th canon of the synod of Chal- 

^w gratis oonferatur ; " Wilkins. Cone, torn. 1. p. 43. 

Qood qui vendit vel mercatur, But compare a canon, said to be 

^^^l Syri Tulnerator, of a council in Ireland, two hun- 

qoem sic ambit ambitus, dred years before this : " Episco- 

ydolorom servitus, pus quilibet, qui de sua in alteram 

toplo Sancti Spiritus, progreditur parochiam, nee ordi- 

Noa oompaginatur.** nare prsesumat, nisi permissionem 

MS. Cott<m. Jul. D. vij. fol. 133. acceperit ab eo, qui in suo princi- 

^nated m the publications of the patu est." Ibid. p. 3. 

^^^*BMien Society. 

cxxTi ptdimlnatii IDisunmmiL 

ri.::i. ** Undecimo pnecipimusi sicat priscis temp 
r !«s a saacds patribns traditum ease repmtur ; i 
Ti..r <otdK«ponim liceat alterius parochiam invaderi 
^\'C fCiUfe aliquid alterius ministerii ad se pertraha 
;r. j^icisa «\>ii9ecraU<Mie ecclesianim, vel presbvten 
r^i.m. i:^^N>Doraaiq«e, nisi solus archiepiscopiis, qui 
,1,70:^ f^ $Mrui episcoporum." In the year 112^ 
•;hf >fT:i ouMBi of a council at London. " Nullu 
-^:cJ^^'o.'«;al jiJimos parochianum ordinare, vel judi 

1j6<\»x Us^ X^^owing provincial of archbishop We 
-^^>i^^i. ^x :bl^ \T«r 1229, as given by Lyndwood 
^ ^*,^ ^*.x>fiBi cWioi desperantes ab episcopis sui 
v>-^*^ tarr rcvc^vr imperitiam, aut setatem minorem 
cv '^iL yr\^« ^:^.t.JL3l $uam a transmarinis episcopis ordi 
^.vf^xT. ^vv *v\l:3Mimttr* vel ordinatos se mentiuntur, 
;^ i\^-H^ 5;::^Cji er^>pis suis deferentes : statuimus 
^v^<tt A^,l ra;x^C5<« irTitam esse habendam, sub inter- 
^» ..t. vvic j5^^a:S«swiiis inhibentes, ne a quoquam ad 

^* ••*„. K ^"^ ^*«N iX fk sixteentli century. The chronicle 

^ :^K \*» ^ ftvHihC AK^TTLxiVj» of W. Thorn, an ardent partizan 

^.:. ..•vv ^« A fc.v •^v V w«iji>5i^- of the naonks of S. Augustine of 

svH .^»v «\s-»vM» N • tev ;JJt: :>rtr Canterbury, is not a little instruc- 

*.vx«..Vnx t.^a^u V A>;ix,VNi by tire upon this point. However, 

v.> VvVv\ v.v. iv'i >rx\>f«!5jjLr»S br upoD the privilege of that abbey, 

• K ..>vNN>x«»iv ^t ^^v^iw^aa K.Yexaniple,as regards ordinations, 

vx^s. v*s. Kw\s^'-vv>i»^vf>«wwv I quote the following : "I^-aBterea 

^^«^^.^^..^Vs^»<«oli^^^»^H^j^^W:W5 ^ood cffinna, et oleum aanctmn, 

^^ «vw>«, V> k^v •*^^ v^vsoiK fr\\>f« <\Hi»cratioiie8 aitariom, ordina- 

«•V ^V>NS ^^ ^V aNftsKT» IV» tk>iM« aBODaehorum et clericorum 

>k VsCk «^..x Vt^J? V>i^ *wl tV i^ * quoctmqiie vohierimus episcopo 

>^«^^« ^4.«-iNv\ %-^v4t iw>y4 tft^^ rasholko poterimus susdpere, nee 

>s4v^>v«» ^v wo«K%x^^4rtii*« afeKi iW «a Bohb aodeat aliquatenus dene- 

K*v^vx ^^v >».^ v>>^»^i*>^ tK»i g*r*w" ScHpi. X. Tom. 2, p. 

Conssecration of TBi»h09%, cxxvii 

sui officii executionem suscipiantur. Ej^copnm quo- 
qne nostrs jurisdictionisy qui talem sciens et perpen- 
dens ordinaverit vel susceperit, ab illius ordinis collar 
done^ ad quern eum susceperit vel ordinaverit, usque 
ad condignam satisfactionem se noverit esse suspen- 
sum."** And the dictum o^ the Pupilla oculi ; " Epis- 
eopus non debet ordinare clericum alterius dioecesis 
praeterlicentiam sui superioris, id est, episcopi in cujus 
difficesi iste qui ordinari vult fiiit oriundus."^ 

Bat as in the majority of these irregular ordinations, 
the persons receiving were, probably, oftener alone in 
^t, and always must have been themselves conscious 
of, eren though the bishop might possibly have known 
also, the existence of some canonical impediment, we 
find very frequent penalties levelled against such 

"" LA. 1. tii. 4. 

"AirfTij,c«;>.2.F. The same 
chapter gpeci6es various other re- 
^tnctioDs upon the power of con- 
ferring orden. 

A remarkable mandate is ex- 
tant, of a bishop of Bath and Wells, 
wlricbdeierves our attention. «• Ra- 
<i°i|*u«, episcopus Bath, et Well. 
»cttdiacono nostro Well, salntem, 
P**™, et benedicdonem. Abn- 
*|^"^ qtioTiindain episoopos se 
T^timn-— qui jjcet non missi offi- 
^«a epiicopale in nostra diosc 
^ primam tonsuram et minores 
^^ QODferendo, calioes et sa- 
P^nkaria oonsecrandoyTestimenta 
^'^^^«^•«tica benedicendo,--ut lu- 
^^ ^xtorqueant temporale, in 
^Tm opprobrium, et contemp- 

^ ^ aliorom pemidosum ex- 

emplum, absque auctoritate seu 
licentia aliqua exercere prsesu- 
munt, occurrere cupientes, vobis 
— sub poena excommunicationis — 
mandamus, quatenus nullum epis- 
copum, prseterquam fratrem Jo- 
hannem de Langebrugge Buduen» 
episcopum, suffraganeum nostrum 
ad hujusmodi speciale officium ex- 
ercend. sine nostris Uteris Tobis 
ostensis — admittatis. Inhibeatis 
insuper — omnibus rectoribus, vi- 
cariis, et capellanis*— ne tales epis- 
copos recipiant — Citetis insuper, 
seu citari fiiciatis peremptorie 
quemoanque hujusmodi episcopum 
prsptensum, quod coropareat co- 
ram nobis vel nostro commissario 
receptnr. quod justitia suadebit. 
Dat. x?i. Jul. 1862.'* Wilkins. 
Cone, torn. 3. p, 49. 

jsL.>i-c- -ne^ -^"sr 1 1*1. a canon of Richard , 
T^ :*-: 1 -r I «iins ' »tii ' : •* AaMHi» oftcimD samii 

-■^izs** -^Ki^-'-^^rTni.' A^rnn* * ^^nixlal statute €jf thci 
^.*— ?r^ z 'jL.ji-s^tf ai 1j.<-' 'zin& eoncliides r ** Sii 
'-JLs- T*^ rrT*-»* ~- ^aniiiiiiaft» nuirrc ordimtiiSy veil 

-►--as- * : * v -m.zi.tag- -iani-iiim*^ ni:a esequatixr offi^ 

"'.IS. r:i--jS2* "am tk*» nuarrc ih^piinsaniiiL.^ And 
•r.*?- ^.^^ rir -i^-Ti^t ii ZLskfnfT. ji I±S7> bggring' upon 

r"-:ri= -^^ •^^.m.^. ^ le tus^ii iii5*re<i. ae serri se Hberc^ 
zrar mi imid, jjr:b tt mfeini ccmdiicti- 

^ T-^ii'a- TT'-^ou-'Tmr i 3i:e turn ipeosy qiiam 
11^ ^Hv'i^fci miiitiiiiiiiiSk. "* 

•f. «."-^ r «- i. «^ •-'^' ^:i ksouu ic C JDCerovr. tke bishop 

r Mk * «. i<*»^ wi* ^*». * r jr IjntiyiL 4k ^if irti» and Win- 

\ . tr-^ T-*^ •«.-»- a t* *w3»- ::M!«fr anss tt York. If the 

• ^ * t'^ i::-j.^i: ."'r^.r^t. cr»*^ «rrjcisomi rf Y«rk «is not pre- 

jj. V t>- •rr-t'sHa'cv»» ir *>o\«v*^ «on. iitfa ■in? ai^soup of London 

^. ^ ^.«•m. *^- in» 4i. i**- n- i>^r Tivit lis nacv. C^imtiL iamu 1. 

„-,Y^*--ir,-,5^ Tr.i> n :v acwn f^ 4tr^ I^ius G < ma e in his 

•.r^H -Mwi »■ s-^'^iX'r'K^ n iw -imiiu*.!*^ «D^a^Lia^ of a coQBeil 

^,-*r,:l ,'5-r.tir*' * .>-»~im» ir iv.ii nnnsr rworr II. ssrs; "Ad 

^j '^^5^ rt-.^*. '.'^■niii "^ 3r«-v*TC Qr:::nnL j l -jikis"?» 9r£t cptscopus 

>t«« «v^~ »nvV'^'^^*n» ^^*<- imin»^ l^maimiRBSBw^dBiKtcrcpiscopos 

^^ .41* v»ir,'u>^ ^ fl*nm!*n .-mi- Cail *n:»Jisap scfrvraneos deca- 

<^:vu»«f ^w * ^*'" x»wp? iJtf Turjs^ n Jgui .TMt ^irutate. Ad 

. .»-^5;. T*-— a-^cr*. liw: Jv<et iun>cr«t «cs «!7bcopns Winto- 

»^r V -«Atm ^!*iv*.. vr II A 'xt%;*isic<i^ <>ij& ct=Mns ««CIO prae- 

• .m.t.»- ••«^ *'<»^- •'^» • •"-*^ ^wl;**^ C JPCK^ »■ eotseopi quam 

t u i: ivv'^WK tt'v^* ^vanitMr* ^^coc» «ira=sc=ai pmnogeDita 

->*«•: A.'vv»"*'^ ^*^ JuvwTC «^-rtTi^^mrr^'-iri* sa» ronscdenmU*' 

^. V *-^>i s^X**? if Y«i. sOwu. v£ ^--w.::. X. juai- !• ^ 1430. Com- 

Coniaiecration ofTBinto^fi. 


I am not aware that if, in contradiction to these 
caxLons, a bishop ventured heedlessly or criminally to 
confer orders, he would incur the following penalty ; 
but I mention it, as being worth notice, and having 
reference also to the solemnity with which, at his con- 
secration, the proper vestments were put on by the 
newly elected bishop, and regarded in some degree as 
conveying a distinctive character. The two cases to 
which reference is made, are, neglect of consecrating 
churches, and of punishing criminous clerks : in the 
first, from the time that he has refused to perform it, 
being properly required, and not lawfully hindered, 
*' a dalmaticee, tunicse, et sandaliorum usu, donee cam 
daxerit consecrandam, noverit se suspensum : quae in 

pore the ** Ymagines histonarum ** 
of Ralph de Diceto, ibid. p. 671. 
And Geirase again, for an ex- 
ample, when the archbishop of 
York was present, and occupied 
liis proper position in a proces- 
KOQ. Ibid.p, 1587 : andheadds ; 
" Roffensis vero qui Cantuariensis 
vduepiaeopi capellanos est, prope 
arduqriaoopnm snbseqnetur a ter- 
ror" The statement of the chro- 
nicler as to the office of the bishop 
of Rochester, and above, as to the 
ofioe of the bishop of Winchester, 
B cootnry to the rule laid down 
U Lyndwood, (and followed by 
arthbisbop Parker, DeAnU Brit. 
Ect. p.32, and later authorities,) 
"Hsbet arehiepiscopus Cant in 
coQegio epiaooporum episcopos, 
Londmenaem decanum, Wintoni- 
VOL. 111. 

ensem cancellarium, Lincolnien- 
sem yicecancellarium, Sarisburi. 
ensem praecentorem, Wigomien- 
sem capellanum, Roffensem cru- 
dferariuro." Lib. 5. Tit. 15. 
Etems. verb, tanquam. And it 
appears that a dispute did arise 
about this matter, between the 
bishops of London and Rochester, 
in the time of Richard 1. See 
Chron. Gervcu. Script. X. torn. 
\.p. 1586. and Abp. Parker, p. 

I had made some collections 
respecting^ the disputes between 
the archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, which so frequently are 
mentioned in the old chronicles, 
and the councils. But the subject 
is so extensive, that 1 have been 
obliged to pass it over altogether. 

Tfi9 t>iBee73ZiL*iii& Mrm 'Hiiro 

ttT'-i^^a^ vittsiiiniiL'TH- ir I tiui,* 

r'jtfTf* iRbs- L TiiLilirc- "vama gessoiB anciently mig 
^'•'^•nl ~:irs&i4^i^~i^ «d ioin^piixiiniELy tt> €>bla]n ordei 

,r"^*u lunu^fiT «i Tt;r5f*ife van were oniained. I hai 
mil irui£«ii-7 Tn^iJaa a rriiiirtfiiiie &> ooe of the Cottc] 
-is^Anm^rro- JL "He Bmsm ^la&eank in wfaic^ I s^ 
i^'UQi Aii££ rjnn^mpvrar^ oscs ot orrimations» wil 
-uinif:!^ UM iiiit-r TsiT^iiuiorsi. in cae £»]teaUh cei 
lur'' 3m TLLs > 1 >inc ip«ni «uica easilv ample ii 
A r-it;ui% a niiiii ^ jcniumtL I iuubc boC firom existip 
-^•'jnijt n Xtf iDiiroJual r«^^««rs^oif the Tarious di^ 
•;'»s'^. uwi I siu-l i\:rii:r ^e iiZowin»^ only firom th 
A."* r.c* •* cOi. "- In -£ie -f^usirt pure of bish^ Brantyng 
tuau w »a jrilaara^ii :^ii-'cr^aeti in TiTcrttm churci 
>^ *^ .::;;;n Jjamfoaj. Tt^cti-u ct Hereford, on the 8tl 
J' ; n.\ 1'^ * -iifrj vfr?* jriiizieti tliree hundred am 
sv*''»Tr ^luir Tvrsvois'i ^it vsjcou ooe hundred an< 
>ivv -►-.rr^v ^^^ivvi. :m ir5« coD^ure; one hundred 
jinl r^vrti- iwvnf .rriiinsed avx^lTth?; dnrty, subdea 
vVf*s; c^ •*t- "^rv. i»rjcv£ssc and unrtv. 

"^ r»V ;^ «TU X rWnr 2^ i;»- «mr nwiil s in Uie dissertatioi 

t^i'tit vt ttt)vmi»rof It JVroa ^ ca jvrfw books» as to the numbei 

V«V.>iti^ ^vi» x"Vtt £i«« yfts- cc cSLi^nr^esiBthiscoimtiy, befori 

«4tcv^ uv ivfonnaaioD. roil 1. p, clxviij 

^ I '»N Ix »^414. C««njii^ ».v-#, S3;. 

Dfiice of 3nt&rom5atloti« cxxxi 


Office of Inthronization. 

THE ofBce, which I have placed next to the service 
of the consecration of a hishop, is that of his in- 
ihronization. This will not require of me many ohser- 
rations. Several forms relating to the inthronization 
>f a bishop of Bath and Wells, in the 13th century, 
bave been printed by Wilkins : to which I must refer 
the student : and another, a letter of summons to cer- 
tain abbots by archbishop Winchelsey, to attend the 
solemnity in his own instance/ 

The dispute which I have already noticed between 
the bishops of London and Rochester, had regard to 
the right of inthroning the archbishop : I quote the 
iccount given by archbishop Parker, which shews 
that the controversy once opened, there was no lack 
of claimants of the privilege, and that it ended in a 
c-oTDpromise. '^ Inthronizandi enim jus Londinensis 
ut decanus, Roffensis ut capellanus, archiepiscopi sibi 
^endicavit. His autem litigantibus interponunt se 
monachi^ suumque jus asserunt esse. Tum totus epis^ 
eopomm coetus instabat, et ad se tam inthronizationem, 
quam consecrationem, spectare affirmabant. Hac dis- 
^entione turbata aliquantulum pallii suscipiendi cere- 
monia fuit. Tandem sic composita lis est; ut, in 
throno sedentis episcopus Londinensis, pallium autem 
>uscipientis episcopus Roffensis, archiepiscopi dextras 

' Coac torn, 2. p. 196. 214. * De antiq. Brit. Ecc. p. 226. 

iCT c ^Mt 11 iiuiiHiipai TO followi 

^ -fiEcrrzL: 1& 29ic. X' ^TTi T SHBT of tlie diief p< 

-Or I. I* i.izr-flc jtsT^nTmrc ix i LULUi senrioes, as 

^-ci.^ X i^z-^irta* -PHiis- .««umcc w pnTileges aq 

.. '.': .i:?- €^ ^- zs- rciLiii.*Bfe^ nunc "«dDcfa tfaey he 

^Lzi "? r 7^s^;:esr x^n. ^an*eij TemxBd die rea4 

z itr ^.,:jr £ ^-•'^x^ r^* ffi vindi a pnticiilar a 

1 ..ii. i- rr.T.:*v •' ^fizTss. *• nn: rf as old pap 

^^ Mu, ^M^^Lhn ^^'jul'^' m^psmxHL. of ardibishc 

"^r £ z>» ^^ jcmtri lekw, (see pa| 
i:^ . ^ I ur ^««L u 4 ncaiini^ Tiiesp after the 

-:-. » r^ -ir. :'-: osc^.v-^il. A: ;^ cod of one i 

_*? -T :,r-.j-r j: t.; .^t-^ TrmnrL T^ ^ Smtees societj 
-. >- -i.i\:'v • .: -r r-. rv'JL J^Miisr^ ^TT cpiscoj 
r>i. i ^r'-^r. 1*:. s^"- ^Mit^aeiE.' * a. i>. 1315. Th 

• «^ ^*^ 5s a: jL* '.^^% r Ck* a^ nmnoar ms i 

1*^ «<*>.'. :««^-.ftt f> «.fi^x-^ i..:fijcn * ^K lie md jaakmA in cunef 

•*%u* >•«. A '«^sc'-vft ^»'^^». BMv^ US rmim WTiMfli pe£biis con 

>^«^ vx- "•- "^v >^v:e m» swsanasiT' /U. p. 765. Hi 

to>«»>% v*%s<vv\ A 4-un:v^tir j»mscvvw ^^ ^» ma^kmr cf the Fliilobib 

<%vx^«ai .>rtt»%tf;> ,^Ma umiTiMs^ ^aiss»* msw t.^^«^«m. deprmmLp. 748. 

** vttHA^ iMi^^iaat;>^ o.»r* r^racsK • WiSs «ad iBrentories, p. 26 

^^ ^ ^>gm uiiuQMf^ mmiitsaann H ^i» jBsftsBoe tke bn^en sealj 

^N«>»aht»nt£)i:iN*^ ik ^ ^;K$^ I ^aos v«t smAe imo a sQTer^t cha< 

^l«^^ >K«« .^uwco^ ji:^ ^ i^»i^ Ikit ier t^ akw of S. John th€ 

w<x ^' iW «<iw i»dw. *is«r BwKi. OwortbecoDstitations 

«ttw«wA^i^?«ji>u«^jrjft^ ^ ObJkk Qmmmm iahellianum, 

k^Tvcww. I'^fe^^^ttsK i^iivwkft- 6 £rKted to the subject of lu- 

2)fBce of 3[ntlitont?ation« cxxxiii 

present custom is to send the seals of a deceased bishop 
to Lambeth, where they are broken up. 

The pontifical ring was also anciently sent to the 
archbishop of Canterbury : in the year 1310, upon the 
decease of one of the bishops of £ly, the ring was not 
deliyered as it ought to have been ; and archbishop 
Winchelsey issued a writ directed to one Richard de 
Oteringham, who was administering the spiritualties of 
the see during its vacancy, in order to obtain possession 
of it. It begins, *^Robertus,e/c. Salutem. Cumnuperad 
nostram audientiam pervenisset, quod fratres Amisius 
et Robertus, monachi filienses, annulum, qui pontifi- 
ealis vulgariter appellatur, quondam domini Roberti 
Elien. episcopi defuncti, qui de jure et consuetudine 
uostrae ecdesiae Cant, ad nos dignoscitur pertinere, 
post mortem ejusdem episcopi auctoritate propria oc^ 
cupassent, et detinerent occupatum ; vobis dedimus, 
efc."* The monks of Ely, it appears, argued, that the 

tbestic seals : it orders that all electas, confirmatus, nondiim ha- 

xrthbuhops, bishops, abbots, &c., beat sig^lluxn hujusmodi paratum 

fboold procure them, with the ad manus, habet tamen sigillum 

proper legend and distinctions: armonim velsignetum,an sufficiat 

md that great care should be alterum eorum talibus literis ap- 

Ukenoftheiii,lest they should fall ponere? Tidetor qtiod sic, dum 

bto nnfoithful hands, or be used tamen tale sigillum sit notnm/' 

ht Uae pwirposes. The student Lib. 5. tit, 5. Reverendissimsp. 

thoukl oovwolt John de Athon verb* sigiUo. Compare as to the 

(tpoo this constitution, but I ^un use of seals, attached to letters of 

Dot aware that dther he^ or Lynd- orders, the fifth canon of a council 

vood, anywhere explains what the at Westminster, a. d« 1 175. WH" 

practice was with regard to the kins. torn. I, p. 477. 
leals, after a bishop's or other ' Wilkins. Cone. torn. 2. p. 

ifignitarj's decease. Lyndwood 408. It is possible that the rings 

in one place, speaking of an au- of the deceased bishops of Ely 

thentic seal, says ; *' Sed quid si alone, were due to the archbishop: 

episcoposdenovoconsecratusyvel and it seems certain that in the 


TJi^Si'V. HA-n XL^ iaasu Jt»! prcn ibe ring to thei 

• T*^"--r 

J^ ii'T'i: c :.T ZTKE Fall. 

>;. -•:•:": r^ iit n&:^ :c znt irrhivkiiixation of a b 
-V** ;*^ :x :::> • rune. Tit; rfuiifr «iZl find the ordc 
^ :.v X i;^ I» H- jiT^^ir-ff^ ifi»fa the archbishop i 
vT-ur.t— ^-ir- :*---» *I X.J;' ^iiZl Tbe origin of this oi 
Tcui;vnu Jfc- li:^"! :* ur.Li :iis:» «risw 5> fiiTolTed in hopelei 
vO^'iT-'- . !-• tsj ne ▼ ri :c Vin Espen, " Quand 
,^ ;u m* v^' l^ai- 111 u- iniiJi>;c:£ izAVEperit, sat obsci 
^1.11 ^*<^ K : ^r^-r^iji ^-^i Ia-"t;^t3 eccksiam specie 
iiois '" !^^,r- if*5 TT\» rxrH ii:c^s35eais, which if thc^ 
'*\»r*r ^ *iv. •♦v^v i^u 11.C ^ 5:*L^ r^gfrains that neithc 

V >^= * % ;u.\i; Va 'i iir^^vt sea» !i^i upon this ques 
':\ku v^iv* i- £:*; iCTv^ ii.2n;as I>:ait£on of Constai 
r tvv --iJv» ,i !vr .::%» 1- >^r T:c*ii:xii5w in the life of S 

V t. -K ^v rv i .\ >>." A> >: :iii lasL it is the ear 
^v>4: ^i %.Vk ^.«ri.'w .X :r«:c pfcxiDe. vhich has beel 
>v^ ^r\v\iv\\L \*r vivr ir":»^x:jr cc ihe pall: and th 
J^v^^ vvw^i v:r. .a r::;^ ir^jri i::jsser:inv-n upon the Libe 
IN ii n jiv >. c ^^tf . ;* ^'ix c^ :; JK^ v£ a:^:boritT, but con 
t\«*\tN. v\i^ l.risv £r< :3iwx^5?5cr v< S. Peter, «iginall 
.tv\v^\v\t ":.* Hs*^ ^ <i^.'5vxc:!y cxxiesi indeed, to ex 

V v< K sWt ^>c >c«nc xr-lrt',^r:jL:e ji::U:ore of the 12t\ 

\ ' \ wviK*«r%s i>^ >uv>> ^iMim ^:» sus«c iv** ^ <c eJ b«Bdtd with tht 
*v<*v^%.vvi;w H ihf >w<K»x»tt ^*^ ^l\*ii-iir;ftl"enHMBlT 90 called 

\v. K\ sV i* V X^M S*cr*. ^wATtm.* h vaT^nblework 
Vs. <N. V' ^ i^w vK ^v :LNt:\ «ic 1 Srornt tW best cdhioD « 

♦ xVax vsv W • ^. V ^ :;^>\ ^ ^/««m*^ I-feWib^ with va 

?»?«» jy*£ir^ Ibt. 3 vob. Rom 

Reception of ^t Pall. 


centary,^ who have attributed the use of it to S. Peter 
hiiiKel£ It seems however to have been introduced 
about the fifth or sixth century into the Latin church 
from the East : and Thomassin has not been able to 
produce any example before the time of Caesar of Aries 
about the year 500.**^ 

The form of the pall is thus described by Innocent 
in. <^ Pallium fit de Candida lana contextum, habet 
desuper circnlum humeros constringentem, et duas 
Uneas sive Coscias ex eodem panno ab utraque parte 
dependentes: quatuor autem cruces purpureas, ante 
et retro, a dextris et sinistris : sed a sinistris pallium 
est duplex, simplex a dextris ; cui in tres partes con- 
ciso tres acus infiguntur (spinas vocant alii) quibus 

* Rupertas Abbas: for exam- 
ple. De dUf. off. lib. 1. cap. 27. 
BibL Pktmm. Auct. torn. 1. p. 
863. Catalam, nevertheless, does 
not fear to support him. In C^e- 
rem. Epiic. torn, \. p. 256. And 
be dtes an epistle of Leo the 
Great, and a passage from Libe- 
ntus, to shew that S. Mark re- 
cciTed the pall from S. Peter, and 
vith it his patriarchal authority. 
In the numerous works of that 
aotboTy «e scarcely know which 
to admiie the most ; his learning, 
or his prejndiee. 

^ Compare Alberti, de ectcris 
«leiuiiiftttf, torn. l.p. 6. 

n De Myst. Miss. lib. 1. cap. 
63. The reader who wishes ac- 
curately to examine the subject, 
as to the first adoption of the 
pall, bow it was originally a royal 

habit, the office of the benediction, 
its mystical signification, and other 
particulars, must consult not only 
the middle-age ritualists, and our 
own historians, who very briefly 
notice it, but Van Espen, Jus. 
Eccles. Pars. I. Tit. xix. de 
Marca, de concord. Sacerd. et 
Imper. lib, 6. cap. 6. Thomassin, 
de Benef. Para. 1. lib. 2. liij. 
Catalani: in Pontif. torn. 1. p. 
235. and, in Cflerem. Episc. tonu 
l.p. 244. Ferraris. Bibl. verb. 
Pallium : Benedict XIV. de Sy- 
nodoy lib. 3. and Georgius, de lit. 
Rom. ponHf. lib. 1. cap. xxv. 

I quote the following from the 
third dissertation attached to the 
Liber Diurnus, before noticed. 
" Vox pallii apud Latinitatis au- 
tores vestem illam longam signi- 
ficat, quie aliis indumentis impo- 

iisniii). XTaasuoesLa^m mg -gee im iHBuhfr^ wag ohligg i 
"n iDui^ jd "iie rjnrr jr jLame iir a ikw^ poll : diis ymra 
•MI ititrninr )f :ne Jtrr'^'/iui liianiiriEr wnich w»s atftjri 
biite^i ID iuir urumiism Hiau^e Ctfiksdn HL dead^^cl 
in '21& mssw^s- oi ja imiuiry in "ne jiiDjiict;^ ^ qpod xioi 
Tuieanxr -?:^e riin^^enususb. * :xr DailiiinL annii aficid csozra 
inii«ies .!miL aaZium. in tmxsuhsuie da transeaty s^&i 
•iTiistiTie letH^ar *uiiL eti ^trnc ^xa nuvic discredo) sepei 
lirL'*'-^ Tois a» inm^imtHt imu ae rubric of tli^ 
rnKtem. Raman gmrrnfi'aA. Tjore are muacrous a.o 
coanB if ihe buryour .jt jriiiai^ope rn their TcstmezitSj 
til be QLami oi iheir Avis^ azui in the BoCandisIs : liul 
I ranonoer only one EntTTsh esaxnpLe in which tfac 
paH is ex:}r«sslv mencuneiL Cacalani sajs that 'we 
are &> ci:acLiiie tiiat S. Doii&can was buried in his patll, 
because we are ^ui zis^ ac the rranslAdon of his body, 
it was &>iizk1. upon esamizodoiL. that the ring was upon 
hia finger : and there5:>re the other Testments proper 
to his dignity. Tbs» seems a somewhat hastr infer- 
ence-^ HoweT«r, the following k clear enough : arch- 

Bstnr, m mhindt a wwi i mUH cum vcni wrrj aacieak fitmmla.' are 

prwi^muiixni m pobEcnm; depo- gi^rcn be tke dnxraal, vpoo occa- 

aator^ qnaiKio qixiMiQe doai apod suns wbca tbe pall was sent from 

mtM^ la MCTM oraaaMBtis wk Ramt to archbiskops» ji. 125. 

ilU am^^sr*Hua haUt ^iiificatk>- TVeae also akoold be refemd to. 

t$*fm i %imitaT emm, aliqnando ^ Cap dw x, dW oadoriiteiSe ^/ 

f^Of^i^nikcr^qtaRm^madrntuTj usm paiiiL Yaa Eqpen. lorn. I. 

iii qfi/id i^loriak dicitor, qaodqoe ^. 171. See also Castaldus, 

cspfi* at casola; aliqaando pro Pnuris Cttrem. 0. 1. §.x. cap. 

iniii((ni qnodam dignitatis eximiae, 12. 

qwid ifmi «tiam capp» casula»- ^ Commeiit. in pontif. Rom. 

qua impfrti'iUiff ficot pallium re- torn. 1.^.248. Martene. /om. 2. 

liqui» r«niiif7U»^ rel est pallii orna- p, 368. 

ntfitiim qtioddam et dccus." Se- Martene dies the following from 

deception of ^t l^all cxxxvii 

bishop BedLet, the day after he was murdered, was 
hastilj buried : still with regard had to certain solem- 

a manincnpt of some anonymous 
«liter, entitled the Specnlam £c- 
Gksie. ** Sigillmn oereiim in mo- 
dam emids oompacium et aquam 
beoedictam oontinens saper caput 
defiiBcti ponimasy quod est signum 
baptKnai et christianitatb suae, et 
testiiiioiuiun quod ipse fidem 
Christi habuit in mente. Clerici 
Tiero ordinati cum illis indumentis 
IB qmbus iberunt ordinati debent 
et sepeliriy et sacerdos cum illis 
aim qiubos asaistit altari, mona- 
<^as yero cam cuculla sua, quod 
est profesaioDis suae signum. Su- 
per pectus yero sacerdotis debet 
poni call:! loco sigilli, quidquid sit 
de oblata : quod si non babetur, 
istannena aaltem Samius» id est 
fictifis. Episcopos debet habere 
anulum, quia sponsus est : casteri 
sacerdotea non, quia sponsi non 
sunt, aed amid sponsi vel yicarii. 
Item capilli debent clerioo tonderi, 
conma fieri, barba radi." Tom. 
2. p. 368. 

A Tery detailed and interesting 
aceoimt of the andent manner of 
burying and performing the obse- 
quies of the abbots of S. Albans is 
giren in Matt. Paris' lives, at- 
tached to his History. Speaking 
of one he says, after explaining 
the way in which the corpse had 
been previously prepared: ** Por- 
tabatur igitur corpus a camera 
qos ^dtur abbatis, ubi expirave- 
nt, in infirmariam; et ibidem 

pontificalibus est indutum : mitra 
capiti appositum, manibus chiro- 
thecsB, cum annulo, et dextro sub 
brachio baculus consuetus, mani- 
bus cancellatis, sandalia in pedibus 
decenter aptata.** P. 1064. 

In the above, there is a refer- 
ence to a custom or distinction, 
upon which I take this opportunity 
of making a remark, as I am not 
aware that it has been noticed by 
writers upon the subject. Matthew 
Paris says, that the pastoral staff 
was plaoed under the abbot's right 
arm. It is well known, that one 
distinguishing mark, between the 
mode of carrying this staff, by a 
bishop or by an abbot, was, that 
the first turned the crook outwards 
to denote his jurisdiction over a 
diocese, the other inwards, to- 
wards himself, to denote that his 
jurisdiction reached over the mem- 
bers only of hb own House. But 
the first moreover carried his staff 
in his left hand, the latter in his 
right. And according to this rule, 
we find many effi^es. For ex- 
ample, there is an early monument 
of an abbot of Westminster, in 
the cloisters, with his staff in the 
right hand: (the crook, by the 
way, outwards.) Ag^n, there is 
a very interesting account, with a 
plate, in the Archseologia, of the 
discovery lately of the body of an 
abbot of Evesham, who died in 
1263 : it was found vested, with a 

cxxxviii prelimiiUKp OiflRctatton. 

nitios : ^* amotis distributisque ejus «potidiaiuB TeBdbi 
»uperioribu0, sepultus est in ipso, in qoo inTentus & 
cilicioy et famularibus interius cilicinis» exterius linei 
t^t in eisdem caligis, et in ipso qno erat habitn monachal 
Kt supra hcec, in ipso eodem in qno ordinatus fait vest 
numto, alba quce GrsBce poderis dicitnr, saperhumeral 
«hnplici» chrismatica, mitra, stola, mappula : supr 
qiuo kabuit archiepiscopaliter tonicam, dalmaticam 
casulani» pallium cum spinulis, calicem, chirothecas 

ch«)K^ «ud pftten ; and reaching 
i^vi>w»!i tW Wly» with the crook 
lv\riuHl iuwanls, over the right 
•hvmUWr «wil clasped by the right 
,11 n^ U\ tht» )«$loral sUff. Vol. 
vHV f^ M^^^. S*H> also the figure 
va' AsUw WnK in Strutt*s Regal 
V^hvj 5 and am>ther, in pL lx, 
{\\s iho wutrarv, the seals and 
^i|H<*\^ v^t' bixho|vii rvpn>sent them 
^so * \ »H|5 th%» stuff in the left hand : 
^«, (u S*\Uxlmry cathedral» the 
^m\ lvi»h^»js aud bishop JcKx^lyn. 
\V s^aMj^ov lhvv>e in Stothard*s 
uua»\*^^^^'*^t*l c*K**'*- Before I 
vUiW ihi* wolts I >»A>uld remark 
S\\ \\ y\ h.^ ^"^'^^ **^^* ^y some, that 
4u ibSv^x a7 Mf-»itHtH9m^ had a 
^^ v\ u^^^uvt bv^ ^tatf ; this may have 
^u I u u Us* »^> %N^m\^s bwivh*>s abroad, 

»u»4 *.^ms^ ^^*'» ^^ *^^' church of 
Stilus V\^ \bu ^nn|Kv***: bnt I 
vaui^^k 4AS \\bv^»M it vasob- 

\\\\i\ \^K\\^ s\^^\^g ** \s^lAi«* that 

{\ \\ \N S • ^V ^^ ** ^*^'* \SV»krtu\sl to 

^itli a » . b\ X -u^^s' *bv «^»W«\bd ciK^v 

of bishop John de Sheppj, in Ro 
Chester cathedral, has the stai 
surrounded with a vefl. ArcJue 
ologiay vol. 25, p. 122. Neithei 
probably was it the case with ex- 
empt abbots. 

Matthew Paris relates also the 
funeral solemnities of S. Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, in the year 
1 200. The kings of England and 
Scotland, three archbishops, and 
thirteen bishops, with a multitude 
of cleigy, met the corpse. ^ Quod 
ipsi reges, cum oomitibus et cete- 
ris principibus portayerunt in bu- 
meris suis, usque ad atrium cathe- 
dralis ecclesie. Ad ostium autem 
ecclesisB susciperunt illud arcfai- 
episcopi prsfati et episcopi ; et sic 
per ministerium pnelatorum per- 
latum est usque in chorum, ubi 

est honorifice pernoctatum. 

Dum ipse more pontificum disco- 
operta facie jaceret, mitram habens 
in capite, chirothecas in manibus, 
annulum in digito, cum ceteris 
poutificalibus omamentis, etc.'* 
lli^tp. 172. 



annolam, sandalia, pastoralem baculum ; quo consue- 
turn est more, quo dignmn est honore." ^^ 

William of Malmesbory s account of the reception 
of his pall by archbishop Anselm is important : ^' Data 
ei puUice potestate, ut per totum regnum primatus 
m jus exerceret libere, dies prsefixa, qua Albanensis 
episcopus cum pallio Cantuariam veniret, yenientiy et 
»cnuD insigne in vase argenteo deferenti vulgo applau- 
sum, ab au'chiepiscopo nudipede, sed sacerdotalibus ves- 
timentis indutus occursum. Inde super altare Domini 
salvatoris pallium assumptum sacratus pontifex beatis 
humeris composuit, et ad divina celebranda processit/^ *' 

Vita, a W, Stephanide. ajJud 
J^parke«.jD. 89. 

" De gestis Pontif, Ang. Edit. 
S»nle,;>.125. The historian adds; 
** Erat tunc dies Dominica, 4. Idus 
Jtmii, fiutque nonnullis iogenti 
mwoJo, quod idem evangelium 
^^^eoccurrit, quod ante prog- 
DosticoD ejus fuerat," See below, 
P- *2o7, note 25. And compare the 
account in Eadmer, Hist. lib. 2. 
Mp,5, who adds; «* Pater etiam 
9« cpiscopis, qui oh hoc Cantu- 
'"^ ▼enerant, dextra laevaque 
stipatos ae sustentains, sacro beat! 
"etri muneri nudis pedibus de- 
motes occnrrit. Tali devotionis 
cJto, pallium assumptum est, at- 
1^ ab omnibus suppliciter deos- 

_b, as I have already 
aid above, the origin of the pall, 
^Hs first adoption, as an eccle- 
****tical ornament, cannot be dis- 
^ered, yet there is ample evi- 
<lence, if it was necessary to go 

into it, proving how eagerly in 
the middle ages, the bishops of 
Rome employed it, as an instru- 
ment to extend and support their 
usurpations, and to obtain reve- 
nues. Having steadily, as time 
went on, added now a little and 
then a little to the unjust claims 
which they made over the origi- 
nally independent metropolitans of 
the English Church, among which 
the privileges which they pre- 
tended to convey or withhold with 
the pall, were not the least fla- 
grant and unfoanded ; our histo- 
ries, as Dr. Inett has said, " from 
the reign of Innocent III. down- 
ward, are very full of the oppres- 
sions and most horrible abuses 
and exactions, which were the 
consequences of such doctrines." 
And he rightly characterizes them 
as '* bold insuhs (to say no worse) 
on the rights and authority of the 
whole catholick church ." Origines 
Anglic. roL I. p. 166. 

cxi preUmmarp Dt00ettatton. 

I shall further cite the following from the chronici 
of Grervase : relating to the reception of his pall b 
archbishop Hubert, a. d. 1193. " Archiepiscopu 
Cantuariam veniens ab episcopis Angliae et convent 
Cantuariensi honorifice et in osculo pacis vij. idus No 
vembris susceptus est. Deinde alba indutus et cappa, se 
quente conventu, nudus pedes incedens, pallium susce 
pit per manum nuntii Coelestini papae. Quo redimitu 
pallio cum cseteris episcopalibus indumentis, inthroni 
zatus est, et missam celebravit."^^ 

In the collection of Wilkins are several forms of the 
oath anciently taken by the archbishops on receiving 
the pall:*^ and in the year 1293, is the following 
^ Forma petitionis pailiL Postulat devota vestra filia 
ecclesia Christi Cantuar. concedi pallium de corpore 
beati Petri sumptum electo suo consecrate, ut habeat 
plenitudinem officii; et pro hoc instanter et fortiter 
supplicat sanctitati vestrae." In the same place is a 
" Forma traditionis pallii,*' differing from that in the 
office below : this is said to be taken from the registers 

" Script X. torn. I. p. 1586. oopum." Scr^tX. torn, L/>.671. 

^^ Concil./om.2.j9. 199: torn. The engagement entered into 

3. p. 154. 647. See also, Anglia to visit the see of Rome personally 

Sacra, ^011». 1. p. 372. and Gibson, or by deputy, within a certain 

Codes. Jurii. Eec. p. 105. It number of years, was deferred 

is quite dear from what Ralph often by leave from the pope: 

de Dioeto says, of the nuncio, in and, in some cases, the sovereign 

describing the ceremony on the himselfinterfered,andin theform 

occasion of archbishop Hubert, ofa humble supplication, requested 

that the oath frequently varied: the time to be prolonged: this was 

^ Qui veniens ante majus altare, backed by a similar missive ^' 

triplici Sacramento quod ab anti- rected to the cardinals for their 

quis temporibus introductum est, interposition. See Rymer, Fas- 

adauctis quibusdam novis verbo- dera^ torn. 2. pars 2. p. 84. and 

rum formulis involvit archiepis- again,/». 127. 

Eeceptifm of t^e IPalL 


of Canterbury. << Ad honorem Dei ommpotentis, et 
B. Mariffi Yirginis, et beatomm apostolonmi Petri et 
PauK, et domini papse CcBlestiiii, et S. Romanse ecde- 
sis, necnon ecclesiae tibi commissae, tradimus tibi pair 
liom de corpora Petri smnptum, plenitadinem scU. 
pontificalis officii ; ut utaris eo infira ecclesiaiii tuam 
certis diebus, qui exprimuntar in privil^iis ab apoa- 
tolica sede concessis.'*^* 

RoTAL AND Episcopal Receptions. 

The next Order, edited in this yolmne, is that which 
was appointed to be used upon the occasion of solemnly 
receiving either at a city, or cathedral, or abbey, any 
sovereign, legate, cardinal, or bishop. The custom 
of the clergy of the place, at which such a personage 

^ Cancil^ torn. 2. p. 199. I 
most refer the refer the reader to 
the ktterg of the pope, on the in- 
thraaiation of Simon de Mepham, 
A. D. 1328, ** et de pallii recep- 
tknte." Ihid* p. 544. 

The frequent reference which 
the student will find, to the pall 
being *'de corpore heati Petri," 
reUtea to the circumstance that 
they were not made (if I may so 
call it) at the high altar of the 
church of S. Peter, hut at the 
alur over the supposed tomh of 
the apostle: and the benediction 
being completed, the pall was left 
one night upon that altar. As to 
the doctrine of the plenitude of 
the episcopal office being con^ 
Teyed by it, I extract the follow- 
mg important obserrations of Van 

Espen. ^ Id tamen nequaquam 
hoc sensu accipiendum est, quasi 
ipsum pallium aliquam reyera or- 
dinis potestatem ipsi consecrato 
tribueret ; cum nt merum exter- 
num aliquod omamentum; sed 
quod ante illius rieceptionem ex 
jure mere positivo, sen consuetu- 
dine jam recepta, metropolitan! 
nee suas functiones obire, nee no- 
men archiepiscopi assumere que- 
ant; quae <hsciplina quo prsecise 
tempore invaluerit, incertum est; 
▼idetur autem tempore Cone. viij. 
GBcuroenicisaltem in orientefuisse 
nota: et ex oriente ad Latinam 
ecclesiam transiisse." Jut. JSc" 
cles, torn. 1. p. 171. Compare 
Ferraris. Prampta BibL verb, 
Arehiepiscopus. art iij. 

cxlii yifllPHIMtg 9>is0(ctatton« 

to anriTe» to go fordi in procession to meet him, 
awl to CQwhict Urn to die churchy is of very high an- 
liquity^ at say be wen by numy accounts of it, to be 
foond in die Acta Sanctonraiy or in the collection of 
Ut«» by Sorios : and i^ain, the well known reference 
aMKik by S. Gn^gory Nazianaen to the reception of 
S. Athan»!»!. after bis retom firom exile, or the pro- 
ce^>n with which S. Chrysostom met Epiphanius, in 
the ^uocee^lini! century.** 

AmL as of bishops* so also we find, in later times, 
m^iuiy examples of legates, received with the due* so- 
lemuities : 1 quote the words of Matthew Paris, relating 
the arrtval of the legate Otho, whose constitutions 
^i^rVsrw^irvU published are so fsonous, and of such high 
;iu:hvurv:\ . ^^ iVeumeront ei episcopi et clerici famosi 
usvjue ad Urtv;;^:— rex autem ei usque ad confinium 
uxstrts OKVurrtt ; et inclinato ad genua ejus capite, 
tts^)iie a\l tuu^riv^ra regni deduxit officiose. Et adven- 
tiiutx>!^ episcopi* cum abbatibus, et aliis ecclesiarum 
)\m'latis» eum cuiu omni honore et reverentia, cum 
iMTi^cessuimibtt^ et cumpananun classico, receperunt."*^ 

** SoMiiMNi. //i*#, AV. fcbk ;^ ejus oppefieotes." Apud Sw 

K^\K xW* • Kuui iii^rifdienteai rtna», Aug. xxvij. 

Jciaunf* iHxariii clert lotitts hooo- • iKf#. AmgL p. 371. a. d. 

i^vit^'' A a«rk of rv$p«ci« of 1237. Tliis is not the place for 

MiKiohk iu thi» partKuW ««si\ the me to enter upon the history, and 

bi^i^ «IWrw«rds shewed hiBKelf lunctionsY and dignity, of the ie- 

MiinvW woHhy. 1 «ouM «dd gmtes of the church of Rome ; I 

thi» iUu^tmtMMi idM» fVon the Ute shall merely remind the reader 

ofC»Mr Arelatensis: ^^ Thi an- that the canonists make three 

tern pertHrebuil hominem Dei re- distinctions of l^ates : viz. (to 

rerti» jamque earn urhi propin* adopt the words of Van Espen) 

quare» omne» utriusque sexiis cum ^ Legati a latere Tocantur legati 

crucibus et cereis ei processere cardinales: quia assumuntur de 

obviam» psallentes» et ingressum latere pape. — ^L^ati missi sunt, 

I would give the following early example in the 
English church) of the recepticm of a bishop: the 
Hi^taria EliensiSj gpeaking of S. Wubtan, says : '^ qua- 
ils denique vir iste apud Deum semper extiterit, circa 
vitae finem evidenter apparuit, quodam enim tempore 
contigit eum hanc ecclesiam orationis causa Tisitare, 
cui firatres loci processionaliter cum magna ut decuit 
reverentia occurrerunt, cumque jam in ecclesiam fiiisset 
deductus, et in capite processionis episcopali more ba- 
culo pastorali staret innixus ; subitOy etc.*'^ Nor does 
the reader probably forget the account given us by 
Bede, of Ethelbert's reception of S. Augustine in the 
open air, for fear of some magical influence : ^* at illi 
Don daemonica, sed divina virtute^ praediti veniebant, 
crucem pro yexillo ferentes argenteam, et imaginem 
Domini Salvatoris in tabula depictam."*' 

From about the twelfth century it was usual to 
receive all bishops, on their visitations and progresses 
through their dioceses, with ringing of bells : and there 
are frequent entries in ancient parish records of pay- 
ments on that account. A foreign canon gives a just 
reason for this observance. ^^ Mandamus, et statui- 
mus, quod quptiescunque episcopi per civitates suas, 
et diceceses transierint, rectores, sen clerici ecclesi- 
vam, qui sdverint, eos per suas parochias transire, 

()ui mittuDtar ad aliquam provin- Eccles. Pars !• tit. zxi. The 

ciain,8ednoD sunt cardinales: et whole title should be consulted: 

kajos generis esse solent hodierni and Thomassin, de Bene/, II. Uh. 

««a/u, et intemunHiy apud reges 1, 52. 

« prinope^ Uaqu«n l^ti pon- „ ScripUXV. tom.S.p. 606. 
tinos reaidentes. — Legati tmU vo- ^ ^ 

cantur, qui dignitaU sus ecclesir ^ Hist. Eccles. Ub. 1. cap. 25. 

aides officium et munus legati Compare the end of the same 

spottotid annexum habent." Jw. chapter. 

^^i'f P naauMtt» IMfiBettatton. 

OHK^ntta» 7^Ti^>nt, scm psbui &ciaiity ita quod popu- 
ais^ 4auir« pusit «t cadre, et genua flectere ad benedic- 
tL^HKQi :stfescipw«iaaL**^ I most refer the reader to 
:2tf ipmnaoiA to Diigdale*s history of S. Paul's cathe- 
iru»"^ >ir tt& ^Ordo ad recipiendmn episcopaTn," ac- 
cvnlin^ ^ :htt ^» of that chut^, but he does not state 

T^wnt ;ftr« 5ev«Tal notices in the chronicles of royal 

r^vvcsoQ&^ . I exsract one only ; the place was S. Al- 

>>^ff^>^ III :^ time of Richard II. ^* Finitis vesperis 

cum T^nxv^uiK solmnu obTiam regi processum est ab 

4bM(tf et cunv^aox ad occidentale ostium monasterii, 

;^xwCM^U!e ««t hooorifiee c«m polsationibus campa- 

tK^itsu c^uacu^use tajtt debtto qnam devoto."** These 

^^^,j ^^^ ^^'^ ^^ alwmys so acceptable, it would 

utt» *^ '^"^ otfci^c to haTc been: the same author 

iv;V*^ ^vtt 4-W; *" Dum h«c aguntur, rex Anglise 

^^. ui cuu :^ui^ FocauK abbathias r^ni circuunt 

^*^.::^:tvlvs. ^tt*\Hj5> wtt^> tretior fnmt eonun adventus, 

^^^^vj;vi^^vr.v;ala^acc«ss«imtinexcessivonumero, , 

^^t I ^^^^ ^"^ ^^^ ^''^ ^ ^^ latest examples 
%hWh ^^ ^**^^ Sr^x^w the reformation, after which 

•^ iVK^. ^*^^ ^ *^ <. Ju». » f^Urf by R. de Grajstanes ; 

. Am^^M Smermy fom. 1. p. 760. 
*^^^ • iML^a02. In this **niin- 

t4 f^ ^;?«^ ^4-* ^'^^^ A»* •w*pwff«S8, the abbey of Bury 

^^ ^^ a wv-^ «tv>« ^ a» » «pwially mntioDed aa having 

bu!« v>f :s A^^^^«w- " ^w<^tjsk>*«JK ««pwd the scYere infliction of a 

* - \Utt lVt%*. » •-^^ ••WMftfci^^ tea ^p* ▼»* ; at an expense, be- 

^' ^ * ^ sidn etho^ losses, of 800 marks. 

'^ ^^ ^ The lustorian does not tell us 

» W«fci«l*«^ "^* •*'^* ^ ^^ IMfocesaons took place, on 

274. Acttnott»cifttt«slMKei^ the oocaaoD o£ the royal de- 

p^rfi^qtteenPhilipp**H>«*« paitme. 

lElopal anD episcopal Reteptioiw. c^iv 

period the ancient religions oerCTOonies on sndi occa- 
sions were, of course, no longer obeerred. In the 
summer of 1541, Henry VlJJ. kept Ins progress, and 
a contemporary account has been preserred of his 
entry into Lincoln. We are concerned only with one 
part of the ceremony, at his approach to the cathedraL 
'*• Item, the bushoppe of lyncohie w^ all ihole Queere 
and crosse were readye, and stodde in the mynster 
alonge on bothe sy des the bodye of the churche, gyvinge 
attend'unce, and when his grace was alyghtid at the 
weste ende of the mynster, where were ordenyd and 
spred as well carpett as stooles w^ quyssheons of clothe 
of golde, for the kyng's hyghnes, wheron was a crucyfyx 
laid, and one other on the queenes grace's stoole. 
Item, afixe his grace was kneelid downe the busshoppe 
came forthe of the churche and gaue the crucyfyx to 
the kinge to kysse, and then to the queene, and then 
censyd them, hys myter beinge on hys heade, and thus 
proc^aded they into the churche, the kinge and queenes 
grace goinge vndre the Canape to the Sacrement, where 
they made theyre prayers, thole queere synginge me- 
lodyouslye Te Deum, and aftre this don, his grace 
went strayght to his lodginge."^ 

Reconciliation of a Church. 

We come now to the Form which was used at the Re- 
conciliation of a Church or Churchyard : which was 

^ Archaeologia,vo/. 23.j9*dd8. evidence of the hial night she 

Commanicated by Sir F. Madden : passed at Linoohi.*' Compare also 

v)m> obaerres, as giving a farther the very interesting account of a 

Bterest to this instance ; ** the reception of Henry VI. at Bury 

qoMD's guilt (Catharine Howard) S. Edmund's, from a reg^ter of 

^vill be remembered^ with Tho- that abbey: also printed in the 

aas Coipeper, was established by Archcol. vol 15. p. 66. 

VOL. III. 1 

.-iteiv:vr=»i ^ xe :M^»awry vtfecm mhappily the sacred 
>\i:\art:i tmI '>«rti ^iluoeil by Uoodshed, or the com- 
*ti.>^ua ii ^UK liuifirJY vnt prafrnatioiif or, by the 
>umu ji xa *x'-vininimic:t3eti pnsoo ; or again, when 
A ^-viC 7^»r^va Jt inf %:iar.-i might happen to have 
i^^^tt i%.>ir*»vv%£ jy Tnr ir cc»r accident.^ Durand 
>a'-^ -ttui %na -n^r* riaa ii^ iK^iial judgment; " Fif 
r^vov *':vui%i jd «j^ufaiCkUitt et t qimem , ut videliceti 
\>xtvt«^ ^"V'.evttiau vtas itt n'^Jo peccaTit, propter pec- 
v-^.Mitt xltvf'xs^ ii'-:irT «ft TOT^jJ^mri. existiment quantus^ 
^i^^>(^»cvr <Qvrujtt ic'VLv:a>raaL expiadonem sit laboran 

jj^^»vvtte!^rii.:ctt^ la: :ie» c;fe»s^ aevcr was permitted 

4^ tvt i^^ ^^ ^*^*^ >ft»i ^t^Hi &e rnvstical resemblance 

i^N.v^fc vv«»ivr^c:vat w,» :surrv^ed to have to Holi 

^t-K.^=5ittt *s^ c bs^ ^iiixSr :^a^^i in the Decretum, Disi 

k:^ V •"- ^^ xtoec rS? iaicxriiT of a pseudo-Nicem 

vdi*t\*« ^ "^ ^ ** ^^^* iriia^ a qoalicimque sacerdot 

iy^ ^^HbbL V l^itm!^ hIV. 5««t bapcizatuss non debet itc 

ru^tit Ni^^ ^'^^'^-'^ ^^^ ^^^*^"^ Vv«? IVo dioatos itennn conse 

^.^^>VkV?^ v^."^ T^S> v;«v tt i? quoied« after Gratian, b; 

^^itv^ ^xvrx %rr.^x oc th^ ^ubjievt. wherefore I hav 

^^.^rvVvUv'xN^^ ^* i *^^^^ ji*:^vH;t^ iKH gmuine^ as attribute 

Iv^ 5Bk^ hx^^ * ^sxrvvw xvt the principle of it was univei 

$aUv *v J<xk^^ A\U\\i trvHtt a very ranole antiquity. Fo 

S. ittx^^'^y i^ ^^^^^ ^"^ ^^ epi$iles places together case 

U*^ d\^\h<tul Wi^i^^ ixHiilnnaiioa. and consecration c 

a churvh; docidio^ thai each is to be performec 

^ 1V<»»«^<^^<^^ v^'*^^*^ c«sscd ID the tuknis canonisti 

as givvn in tW l\i(>ilU iVuU : li» sbouM especially consult Hoi 

ANtr«.UL.«^i»^)*«H^<*<^^*^^^^ tieiiab,M Smmuma. LiLS, Bubi 

of « Ymriely of nodificatkNis» «hidi xl. 

the $Ui(lHit may find luUy db- * JRalioMi/«. Ii&. 1. cap. vj. 4^ 

Eeconctltatidn ef a €buut^ cxivii 

" qucmiam non monstratur iteration quod non certis 
indiciis ostenditur rite peractum."*^ And long before 
his time, in the year 398, the 6th canon of the 5th 
council of Carthage, after speaking of doubtful bap- 
tism, continues : " Similiter et de ecclesiis, quoties su- 
per earum consecratione haesitatur, agendum est, id est, 
Dt sine ulla trepidatione consecrentur/'^^ 

I quote from Matthew Paris, {ad an. 1173) the ac- 
count of the suspension of the celebration of Divine 
Service in the cathedral of Canterbury, after the mur- 
der of archbishop Becket. " Post mortem beati Tho- 
mae martyris fere anno integro, ecclesia Cantuariensis 
a divinis cessans obsequiis, continuis perstitit in la- 
mends, subversum est ecclesiae pavimentum, sonus est 
campanarum suspensus, nudati sunt parietes omamen- 
tis, et sic quasi in cinere et cilicio exequias in tristitia 
et mcerore persolvit Sed tandem ad matris suae Do- 
robemensis ecclesise vocationem, in festo sancti Thomas 
apostoli, suffiraganei convenerunt episcopi, ut eccle- 
siam, longa suspensione consternatam, juxta manda- 
turn domini papee, in statum pristinum reformarent. 
Bartholomaeus igitur Exoniensis episcopus, ad petitio- 
nem conventus, missam celebraturus solennem, et ser- 
moDem ad populum habiturus, sic exorsus est : ^ Se- 
cundum multitudinem dolorum meorum in corde meo, 
consolationes tuse Isetificant animam meam.' " 

Upon the question how far a church and its church- 
yard were mutually influenced in regard of a desecra- 
tion, I quote Van Espen. " Polluta ecclesia, coemete- 
rium si ei fuerit contiguum, censebitur quoque pollu- 

' Lib, 12. EpiH. xzxj. that in some copies of this council, 

^ Mansi. Condi, torn. 3. p. this final clause is omitted. 
^d' It most, however, be added, 


tmn ; 9ec«> si i ie iKiui fiMfil mb eadem. At e con 
Terso poQato ccHBftmoiMa oenseCiirpropterea pollute 
eix k^iji. tuwtsi OMitifua : et, a duo ant coemeteri^ 
qosp piriete medio sbi jangimtiir, uno pollute, aliuc 
poUotum ceiism Don debeal.*^ 

There were some difficulties in dedding whether, i] 
the altar was destroyed or mnoTed, a reeonsecratioii 
of the church would be required. The later practice 
(as now ohserred, I belieTe, by the church of Rome] 
was against it. This appears to have been the re* 
ceived opinion in the time of the author of the Pupilla 
who adopts the ruk; ^'propto* altaris fractionem a.ut 
destnicti<mein rel mensae amotionem, non reconsecra.^ 
tur eccleaay sed solum altare/*" But S. Anselm 
thought otherwise, and the practice of the church oi 
England, we must conclude, in his day was also con* 
trary. He is replying to a question upon the point, 
put to him by an abbot : ^' In hoc omnes concordant 
quod violato principalis tota ecclesia cum altari iterum 
consecranda est : nee ecclesia consecranda est sine 
consecratione altaris, aut principalis, aut alicujus al- 
terius in eadem ecclesia."** 

" Jtu. eeelet. Pars. iL 2. Hi. cited the passage, as inustrative 

1. (tarn, l.p.6d2«) His opinion of the then practice of the £ng- 

is of coarse hased on the decisions bsh church. S. Ansebn not only 

of the canon law. The ^ame rale however gives his dedsion, but 

is laid down in the Papilla, loc. the reason of it : he continues in 

cit. T. the same epistle: "^ Altare non fit 

J, . . p propter ecclesiam, sed ecclesia 

propter altare: et ideo violate 

^ Epist Lib* 3. clix. Opera, prindpali altari, jam non videtur 

p. 423. Van £spen says that the esse ecclesia quia non est illud, 

archbishop was deceived in his propter quod ecclesia construitur 

judgment, owing to his reliance et consecratur. Quapropter cum 

upon a false decretaL I have illud fit novum, recte videtur cum 

Eeconciltation of a Cfturcft* cxiix 

The archbishop further says : " Si aliqua pars eccle- 
sise destructa reficitur, aut nova sit altari immoto, aqua 
tantum ab episcopo benedicta aspergendam dicunt/' 
And upon this point, I shall also quote the Pupilla. 
*^In tribus casibus debet ecclesia dudum consecrata 
itenim consecrari. Primus casus est quando dubitatur 
an fuerit consecrata, an non : et hoc quia non apparet 
aliqua scriptura aut instrumentum de dotatione ipsius 
eoclesise : in libro yel columna vel tabula marmorea, 
Tel hujusmodi : nee ad hoc apparet aliquis testis qui 
deponere possit de visu vel etiam de auditu. Secun- ' 
dam est si ecclesia exusta fuit ita quod parietes sint 
combusti et disrupti, vel notabiliter etiam decrustati 
sen devastati, in toto vel in majori parte. Secus si to- 
torn tectum exustum fuerit. Tertius est si ecclesia 
funditos sit dirupta et deinde ex toto reparata : sive 
ei eisdem lapidibus sive ex aliis. Si vero non simul 
sed successive omnes parietes ruerent, vel dirimeren- 
tar, et etiam non simul sed successive et particulatim 
reparati sive renovati essent : non esset de novo con- 
secranda ecclesia. Quia eadem ecclesia intelligitur 
ante reparationem et post : sed tunc debet reconciliari 
per aspersionem aquae exorcisatae. — Item si ecclesise 
eonsecratae quid addatur ad longitudinem vel ad lati- 
tudinem non ideo reconsecrabitur : quia sacrum trahit 
ad 88 non sacrum. Sed sufficit si aqua exorcisata 
aspergatur." ^ 

«0 eoDsecrui, per quod recipit at chaiist. Thiers. Dissert, de Al- 

St ecdesia." tar. cap. 2. 

The separate oonsecratioii of ^ Pars. ix. cap. 1. F. 
altars was of late introdaction ; Bishop Gibson cites several 

£or manj eenturies they were held examples of reconciliation of 

to be nude snffidently sacred by churches from the archiepisoopal 

tbe coDtact of the Blessed Eu- registers in the 17th century: I 

lTl^v^L mf^nrSaar to the use o1 
aamt i:iiiir::ii£?5v "nur a. ir*>f!5C volIh ygfoi i B this office 
aC Tyi'im/'iin.iL Tiic I TTTTTik i Turvifaible that in th^ 
jsaar v^farmr^i^ ic "i-ft=w rr»* Enirbsi church observed 
-^ mnr* r^TifriJ rLk- mlj.i T^esTncwd it to the bishop 
fif iiif ili.«:'f«f. ;r *: tji cbfr tcji* >p with his licens^ 
Tbf .ifii:^ r;i»:.i. fti liK r«i5«- wiL c^bscrre, suppose! 
liif prrs^D!^ re xiif riisiinr*. eruZiT &!^ in the solemnitj 
kC & ivQ5^:r*,zJ.<r, ^.c i> h Lkt-Zj thai the express de 
cs^.iB I.C Gr^ 1X-. iii ibe l.^rh c^ennny, would hav< 
beiea iLsnp^rij^Sei : • Acia per eris^copom benedict 
e^xje^&r:! T^.'Co.iLAr: p.-«s^f per alium episcopum nol 
i>:*ri^^s> i 5*er 5;fc.«^5.tws sinj -v>es hoc fieri de cseteri 
prvcibetnus : — qTLai Hc« fPa'-i^-xx^iis committere valeal 
qu2^ j;]iisdiw'i:i:e:i> «dsTiiiiu q::iJe crdinis tamen episcc 
paJis £:iiiii, noQ pc^ie^ inferioris grftdus dericis de 
nuLDdanf .*~ * 

qiMC« tW fxj^vi^ v^-^ be 
gTT«B. of rero n>€ii* boBk is tbe 
time of ardibisliap Abiiioc * IMw* 
die diizrcli of Sombauliiair had 
not oolj beea poSIoted {^r ^t^ 
tiat et amimalia dirrrt^rmm ge^ 

naid) but vas also nev-built» and 
tlien ofed for ifirine offices vitli- 
ont new oonaecntioD ; archbishop 
Abbd interdicted the minister, 
churchwardensy and panshiooers, 
ab ingretnt ecciesu^ — donee ec- 
cUtia prirfata^ et ccemeterium 
ejuedem^ per noe, aut alinm anc- 
toritate noetra munitunij ca- 
nonice el legitime coneecrata 
fuerint: proui jura et sane- 
twnei eccteMue in ea parte ediUE 

pfi^hJ^xmiS^ Codex juris £c< 

" /■ cap, £r„ X, de cunsevrai 
wWrM>. Ct Castaldiis. I^rajri 
Crrvm. lib. 2. §. xL The Pu 

piUa in the extract aboYe, doei 
not appear to make any distinc 
tk>n bet w ee n the "aqna bene 
dicta" to be used for tids, or ani 
ochn* coemoDj. Bui from wha 
Van Espen sajs, in the place clte< 
before, §. xx, this ought to bav< 
been ^aqoa oonsecrata:" that is 
by a bishop, and mixed with ashes 
a view which is home out by the 
rubric of the office below. 

To what extent priests might 
confer benedictions, has been al- 
ready discussed in a previous dis- 

laetaaciltfltion of a Cftatdb* ^i^ 

The offices of benediction of a processional or mi- 
iitary banner, and of an episcopal seal will sufficiently 
explain themselves. The practice of consecrating mi- 
litary standards is very ancient: Charles Martel is 
said to have received one, consecrated and sent to him 
by pope Gregory III. William the conqueror, says 
Ingulph, "praepropera [f. proposita] querela papam 
consuluit, et ab eo animatus etiam vexillum legitimae 
victoriae pro munere accepit-"^ The prior of Hex- 
ham, in his history of the battle of the Standard, in 
1135, not only relates how the holy banner of S. Peter 
was delivered to the barons by the archbishop of York, 
but also as follows : ^^ Mox autem aliqui eorum in me- 
dio cujusdam machinse quam ibi adduxerant, unius 
navis malum erexerunt, quod Standard appellaverunt : 
unde Hugo Eborac. archidiaconus : 

' Dicitur a stando standarduniy quod stetit illic 
Militias probitas vincere sive tnori.* 

In summitate vero ipsius arboris quandam argenteam 
pixidem cum corpore Christi, et sanctorum Petri apos- 

sertation: (voU 1. p. ccl. etc,) and que ita episcopi propria sunt, ut 

I diink it of sufficient interest to ab eo cedi non possint alii quam 

add the following passage from episcopo; coepiscopoque cedan-* 

Catalan!, in which the opinions of tur, non ut alii, sed ut alteri ip- 

the later canonists are briefly sum- simet propter vinculum et neces- 

med up. ^ Ratio differentisB cur situdinem sacerdotii, quae epis- 

episoopns posnt inferiori presby- copos omnes velut unum habet, 

teroy ea qns sunt jurisdictionis omnesque ecclesias velut unam 

eomiiiittere, non yero ' ea quae colligit." In Pontif, Rom, torn* 

sunt ordinisy ilia est: quia ea 11.jd.229. Compare Lyndwood. 

quae rant jurisdictionis non ita lib, 2. Hi, 1. Excussis. verb, com- 

haerent personae episcopi, ut ea missarii. 

qn» sunt ordinis, quae episoopus ^ Hist, p, 69. Script. Anglic, 

in consecratione assequitur ; quas- torn, 1. 


toll, et Joanw BererboeDBis, et WDfridi Ripensi 
confeiBonim ac pontificiini Texilla saspcndemiit.'** 

Form of Degradatiox. 

The antiquity of the pmnshmeiit of Degradation, th<l 
order of which is edited in the present Tolmne, is s< 
well known to every reader of eccleaastical history 
that I need not delay upon it. The Apostolical cal 
nons, and those of Nice, of S. Baal, and of Peter oj 
Alexandria, all prove the universality of the practice 
and although the severity of it differed at various timd 
and in various churches, some degm/£ng altogether, 
some only from a higher to a lower order, yet as a modri 
of punishment, it seems everywhere and at all times to 
have been acknowledged and inflicted.^ 

Both theologians and canonists not unfrequently 
confound deposition, and degradation: and indeed in 
one sense, perhaps the most ancient one, they may be 
regarded as the same ; but strictly, in later practice, 
there was a difference between the two. Simple de- 
position prohibited a clerk either from exercising the 
powers of his order, or any ecclesiastical office; or 
from receiving the revenues of his benefice : but it did 
not remove him from the spiritual and subject him to 

** Ricardus HaguUtald. de ges- pecially Van Espen, Jus Eccles. 

tis R. Stephani. teripi, z. torn. 1. par. 3. tit, xj., and the notes of 

p* 322. Balsamon and Zonaras, Bevereg» 

** A good general account may Pandect,; upon the conflicting 

be found in Bingham, Antiquities^ canons of Nice and Chalcedoa : 

Book vi. cap, 2. But the stn- the latter of which would not per- 

dent will do well to consult Mar- mtt the more modified form o( 

tene, de ant, ecc, fit. 2. p. 317, degradation, from a higher order 

and to examine the canonists, es- to a lower. 

iTotmofDegraliation. ciiu 

ay jiirigdiction. On the contrary, degradation in- 
Joded the infliction of all the penalties which accom- 
lanied deposition, and committed the offender also to 
he power of the temporal courts ; depriving him of 
lU the privileges and immunities attached to the 

The settled form as it is below, was but of late in- 
troduction: and we have no records in the earliest 
pontificals which are extant, of the manner in which, 
very anciently, this solemnity was performed : still, it 
is scarcely probable, that no form or order was ob- 
serred. I quote the following from Catalani. " Con- 
suevisse depositionis sententiam calamo Christi san- 
guine intincto desumpto k sacro calice scribi, duo ex- 
tant msignia exempla apud scriptores ecclesiasticos. 
Alteram refert Theophanes, ubi ait, Theodorum pa- 
P^ 60 ritu sententiam depositionis contra Pyrrhum 
^psisse : alterum narrat Nicetas in vita S. Ignatii 
P&triarchae Constantinopolitani, ubi depositionem Pho- 

I shall therefore, to be as brief as possible, confine 
myself to one or two illustrations of this office, relating 
to the English church. Upon the necessity of a cer- 
^ number of bishops to be present on the occasion, 
^^ have in Wilkins a bull directed to cardinal Wol- 
^h dispensing with it; and that, on account of the 
iificnlty of collecting the proper number, he might 
^iitborize one bishop to degrade criminous priests, 
"munctis secum sen sibi assistentibus duobus abba- 
^bos, sea dignitates seculares in cathedralibus sen col- 
'^tis ecclesiis obtinentibus." *^ In the same coUec- 

* Comment, in. ponUf. Rom. *^ ConciL tarn, 3. p. 713. Bj 
'^'" ^p. 138. the <' Reformatio legum/' the bi- 

ciiv l^aMmtntBcg Dtwectatfon. 

tHm, is the iuU order, as it was to be obaerred at d 
d^gradatioa of archbishc^ Graniner : ending with t) 
usual formula, upon delivery to the civil power, ^'D 
mine judex, rogamus vos cum omni adSectiiy quo po 
sumus, ut amore Dei, pietatis et misericordxee intuit 
et nostrorum interventu precaminum, miserrimo hu 
nullum mortis, vel mutilationis periculum inieras/' 
I must say, that notwithstanding the constnictic 
which is justly and properly to be put upon this clan! 
in many cases, evidencing the fulness of mercy aii 
(uiy whidi befits the Church of Christ, yet in die i^ 
$»uire of archbishop Cranmer, and many others i 
ihai day« it was nothing but a bitter and disgraced 
UK^^ken\ The ministers and rulers of the Churcl 
WHild mil canonically themselves infiict the punis) 
INHHU i^ tkttth ; but they knew well, what would be th 
3^un^ HKvi of their delivering up of men, whom they ha 
«x^ihk'ttiued as heretics, to the civil power. They wer 
\k^i\wr«NiK not lobe iiugiven, not even to be mercifbll; 
\UnaU miiK but to receive at the hands of others a mos 
ȴiv aiH) barbarous punishment. We can look upoi 
»U\ h a riKXWimendatiQn, in no other light than w 
\\>mUI «K^w re$:ard the conduct of a judge, who, bavin) 

•V>y ^a' iW ^tKHN^ mii^t alone, nun autboritate et decreto star 

v^^^H Iv^M |H^*^5»l«. 4<^Te w de- placet" Dedepriv. cap. 3. Thi 

^\>Ayks^ 'M^iu^^ mi^ttam vel di- maxim upon which the anden 

\\^^ x^W^\u% \t^ *vK|H benc^dum rule was founded, was: "Spin 

v\^^^*»A«<^^H«« tfxM^mU depriva- tualia ftidlius construuntur, quaa 

»\\^\su ^WlvU jvm^Hj^^ proprius iU destniuntur; quia solus episcopus 

\\\\\\ \^y>\^\^\\\\\^ ik\\ Pt^ ntt evocet : dat ordinem, quern solus tollere 

\\\M\\\\^ t^^\ \yA\y\\\\\\\\ omwe wigo- non potest" Gibson. Codes. P' 

\\\\\\\ \\\^\\\^\\M\\\\\\\\ \^\\m\\\mt ad* 1068. 
«It« i^S s\\\w «d «1» dtH'ti^ ot in* 

\\^\\\% \\\\^%\\\\\^\y\ii aiioiMNit^ quo* ^ Ibid, torn. 4. p. 136. 

inn^or£)(p»nwciiiu civ 

«assed sentence, should render the criminal into the 
lands of the executioner, and with every outward sign 
if solemn supplication, entreat that that sentence might 
Jot take effect, which he had himself decreed. Let 
he reader examine a writ " de h«reticis comburendis," 
!o\r it speaks of the church having done all that was 
n her power: and therefore "quod sancta mater ec- 
rlesia non habet ulterius, — tibi praecipimus firmiter 
injungentes, quod prsefatos, ete., statim post receptio- 
nem praesentium apud villam nostram de B, co- 
ram populo igni committi, et in eodem igne realiter 
comburi facias, in hujusmodi criminis detestationem, 
alionunque christianorum exemplum manifestum." Or 
^gain, let him remember that about the year 1521, 
among a number of doctrines condemned as heretical 
and pestiferous, was this ; " Haereticos comburi est con- 
tra volnntatem Spbitus." ^ 

In the chronicle of John, abbot of Peterborough, we 
wve the following cases under the year 1222 : he is 
speaking of the famous council at Oxford ; " In con- 
^0 illo sacerdos quidam et diaconus sunt degradati 
^ domino Cantuariensi archiepiscopo : sacerdos pro 
w«niddio, diaconus pro sacrilegio et furto. Diaconus 
^os, qui ad Judaismum a fide apostataverat, et se 
^««erat drcumcidi, extra ecclesiam degradatus fiiit a 
™»ino Cantuar. coram populo, et post degradationem 
™itus judicio laicalis curiae, igne comburitur. In 
^^gradando, cum archiepiscopus casulam, vel stolam, 

^. torn. 3. p. 693. Be- verb. De^ndaiio. Benedict xiv. 

p'^^autboiities above named, de Synodo. lib. vij. Hostiensis, 

'voqM recommend the reader to in Summa. Ub. 5. rubr, 7. and 

^ ^ to Alberti, de eacr. to the later canonists, Bonadna, 

"^- c. xvj. 2. Ferraris, Bibl. Devoti, &c. 

¥el a^mi ximi boctu paHttrnTiH ga Liremita te snUev^ando 
aau^nvc k^ oenifnB «bbs cat : Exaatonunns te.*^ ^ 
FnxK an oKGuiee reiafiHi q£ die dcpoatioii of an ab- 
bijc or W.M£Giii!Kttr. hj Maxdiev Fauris, we may con- 
clTnie* thac ii suh caaes» the breakiii^ of his official 
seal ixToed a part of die solcHiiitT. '^ IDis diebus 
pa* practiictsia Le^ruaia depoatas est Radolphus abbas 
WesCBL p«r .A1 abbatem de Wasdiam, miflBnm ex 
pane legas. firaicto ipais agillo in capitnlo."^ 

As ti> resdr^azoo, after depodtion or d^radation, 
>Iarteiie in the place aboTe cited, qaotes a canon of 
the 4ch ctxmcil of Toledo: ^Episct^os, presbjrter, 
aat diatomzs^ si a grada saa injoste dejectas in se- 
cimda sTDodo innocens reperialnr, non potest esse 
qaod foerat. nisi gradiB amissns redpiat coram alta- 
rio^ de mana episo^ orarinniy anmdaniy et baculum ; 
d presbyter, orariom et planetam; si diaconus, ora- 
rimn et albam; d snbdiaconiis, patenam et calicem. 
Sic et reliqiii gradns ea in reparationem soi recipiant^ 
quae com ordinarentur percepenmt.'^ 

Form of Heauxg, etc. 

The remaining offices which are given in this volume, 
are, the Form of *' bidding the bedes," as it was ob- 
served in the cathedral church of Salisbury; the Form 

^ JSdiL Sparkes. p. 100. Two Mariam nominabat, et dtxerat, 

other examples of impiety were quod missam poterat oelebrare» 

brought forward on the same oc- ad quod calicem et patenam ha- 

casion» which I quote, on account bebat : hii duo in muris lapideis 

of the punishment which was in- inclusi, vitam terminarunt, non 

flicted. ** Ductus est etiam in cum Domino resurgentes." 

condlio laicns quidam, qui se pro- ^ Hist. AngL p. 210. a. d. 

miserat crucifigi, etc* Adducta 1214. 
est etiam qusodam mulier, quae se 

iTotnt of |^eaUii0, ttc civii 

of Healing ; die Form of Coiisecratiiig Cramp-rings ; 
and some English Forms of Exhortation before com- 
munion, and at the visitation of the sick. These will 
require only a few brief remarks. 

As r^ards the ^' Forms of bidding prayer/* I would 
refer the reader to a little volume, published in Oxford 
a few years ago, under that tide, in which he will 
find a large collection of them, of various dates, from 
the 14th century down to the present time. These 
have been obtained, by much research, from very cu- 
rious sources ; and an useful introduction is prefixed by 
the editor, the Rev. H. O. Coxe. The Form which I 
have now printed is not only different from any hi- 
therto published, but it is especially valuable and im- 
portant, as being that which was used in the cathedral 
itself of the diocese of Sarum. I have thought it right 
to retain some of the names, of bishops and others, 
which add a further interest to the form, and serve to 
identify it. 

The form of Healing is the Latin form, with an 
English title, and English rubrics, published ^^ by his 
majesty s command," in 1686. It is stated to be that 
which was " used in the time of King Henry VU.'* I 
am not aware that it has since that reign been printed, 
nor do I know any edition except the one now lying 
before me, in 4to. The form entirely in English, 
prayers as well as rubrics, occurs Qften in the Com- 
mon Prayer books of the reigns of Charles I. and II., 
James II., and queen Anne : it was also printed se- 
parately, in 12mo., in the reign of James II. These 
English forms all vary: and a new one appears to 
have been drawn up for each sovereign. Bishop 
Sparrow reprinted that of the reign of Charles 11.^ 

^ Collection of Artidesi etc. p. 165. 

the year l6So, 

icz- 1 am ik.c avare oi sr acker eopr cxisdng oi 
tLk cfi'.e. IB Ea;rii^ azbi u ii 1 1 il t ha c iw e desira- 
Ue to preaerre » mad of 9d cncms a cermnony< 
TbeLadm ion ai drara npfarqaecB Mary, in 1554^ 
B prinml br Bsraec^ a^ br Wilkn&* 

On the §fitai oi tbe \cl:nmtci whkh I bare spokei^ 
k the foTkmiE^ memarmndwoL ** In aadeiil times i^ 
«as a c«stir4n wizii die kinss of Eu^laiid on Good Fri^ 
dftT« to bai^>v« viih ^nreat ccranoDT, ccrtam rings, th^ 
marh^ of viiidi «as believed to preTenl die £gdliiig 
skkacsK. Hiese rinss were caDed cranq^rings» an^ 
tbe MS. in v:J&T.:^iame is tbe service dedicated to theii 
coosHmxa. la Borde s Breriarie of bealth [1 547]. 
speaking of ibe damp, ve are told that "" the kynge's 
maaestie bath a smie faeipe in tbe matter, ia halowing 
cramp-rincrs, and 50 given without money or petition/ 
Lord Berners, the translator of Froissart, when am- 
bassador to the emperor Charles V. wrote firom Sara- 
gossa ''to my lorde caidinalls grace," ^ 1518, for 
some " crampe rynges, with trust to bestowe theyme 
well, with God s grace.'' 

In the appendix to the very valuable collection of 
Acooonts rf Churchwardens, etc.y printed in the year 
1797, is a list of the New-years gifts presented by 
queen Mary in 1556 : among which we find ; ** Item, 
deliuerid by the Queins commandement — to the said 
Robert Raynes, in broken golde, to make crampe 
rings: etc. Item, more deliuerid the same time, to 

« Hist Reform. Records, Par/. • CondL torn. 4. p, 103. 

ti. B. ij. No. 25. 

iTormofl^eaUng, etc. 


make cramp ringes, in broke plate of silu' theise 
parcelles, ete." ^ 

I have only now to add, that all the offices in this 
Tolume, except where otherwise stated in the notes be- 
low, are edited from the same manuscript, a Pontifical 
of the Use of Sarum, described in the first volume of 
this work (p. cxviij) and from which several of the 
Offices in that volume, have also been taken. (See p. 
ccxcvij.) ** 

** p. 27. It is much to be re- 
gretted that this excellent work 
is most difficult to be met with, 
for there are few books which 
more correctly answer to the pro- 
fession of their title-pages. The 
title is ^ Illustrations of the man- 
ners and expences of antient times 
in England, in the 15th, 16th» 
aod 17th centuries, deduced from 
the acoompts of churchwardens 
and other authentic documents. 
London, 1797." 4to. The whole 
Impression, except about eight or 
ten copies, is said to have been 
destroyed by fire. Nicholls, the 
compiler, speaks thus of it him- 
self; <*I have no hesitation in 
nying, in a case where it can 
Dehher promote my interest, nor 
hazard my veracity, that this vo- 
lume is not only one of the 
Karoest publications of the eigh- 
veenth century, but, in its way, is 

also one of the roost curious." 
Literacy anecdotes, vol, ix. p, 
196. Copies are in the Bodleian 
and Museum libraries. 

In the accounts of the 7th year 
of Henry IV., occurs the follow- 
ing entry *' Die parasceves — in 
denariis solutis pro eisdem obla- 
tionibus reassumptis, pro annulis 
medicinalibus inde faciendis. xxv. 
s." cit. Archseol. Journal. voL 4. 
p, 78. Bishop Gardiner is said, 
in a letter to Bishop Ridley, to 
have spoken of such rings, as 
endued **by the special gift of 
curation ministered to the kings 
of this realm." ibid, vol. 3. p. 

^ I must except also the first 
of the benedictions, p, 320: 
namely, of a standard: which is 
taken from the Evesham ponti- 
fical in the library of the British 
Museum. Lansdown MS. 451. 

6leetio et Con^ecratio atque Coro< 
natio noti laegt^. 


S>vho iI?otum iaegem in laegno 

\ONSTITUTO hujusmodi actionis dicy sum- 
mo mane dominus metropolitamiSj et cceteri 
prcesuleSy^ cum clero in ecclesia congregen- 
tur, ut grtx Christiy quid popuh suo Chris- 
iu^ inspiraveritj cum mentis devotione prcestolantes. 

In curia Regis comites^ procereSy cives, nobilesque 
ciincti convenianty ad disponendum sagaciterque tractan- 
dum, tarn de principis novi electione quam de legum atque 
consuetudinum regni confirmations 

' The order of the Coronation 
of K. Ethelred, a. d. 978, pre- 
served b the British Museum, 
Cotton MS. Claudius, A. iij., has 
tlte following short rubric at the 

** Inctpit consecratio regis, quern 
de amventu seniorum per manus 
pndacaot duo episcopi ad eccle- 
^ni, et clerus hanc decantet an- 
tiphonam duobus episcopis prae- 
cbentibus. « Firmetur/ etc" f 

In the same volume is contain- 
ed Ibe order of the coronation of 
K. Henry I. This b^ns with 
^ following rubric, and with it 
Ifree another MS. in the same 
«^^«ction, Tiberius, B. viij. ; the 
Winchester pontifical; an imper- 
fwt SaruTO MS. in the Bodleian, 
W C. 450 ; and a MS.pontifi- 
^also hnperfect, in Trinity Col- 

•«ge^DubUn. MS. B. 3. 6. 

^'Incipit consecratio regis. Con- 
secrandum regem de conventu se- 
niorum duo episcopi per manus 
producant ad ecclesiam, et chorus 
decantet antiphonam : ' Firmetur' 

ITie order for Edwd. II. (Bodl. 
MS. Rawl. C. 425.) has a longer 
rubric, viz. " Ordo novum regem 
in regno constituendi. 

^' Die quo consecrandus est no- 
vus rex, summo mane conveniant 
prselati et nobiles in palatio regali 
apud Westmonasterium, tractaturi 
de novi consecratione principis, et 
delegibus et consuetudinibus regni 
confirmandis, et firmiter statuen- 
dis: ita quod provideatur aliquis 
locus in dicto palatio, super quern 
haeres regis regnaturus, cum omni 
mansuetudine et reverentia, eleve- 
tur, ipso tamen prius, ut moris est, 
balneato, et induto mundissimis 

4 De iBeneOicttone et 

Quibus cansentientibuSf et id idem in omnibus cansona 
voce acclamantibusy cum omni mansuetudine ac reveren- 

yestibus, et caligis tantummodo 
calciato. His peractis, ordinetur 
in ecclesia per archiepiscopos, 
episcopofl, abbatem, et conventum 
Westmonasterii, et alios, proces- 
sio in cappis sericis, cum textis, 
et thuribalis, et aliis quse proces- 
sioni conveniunt Et sic ioduti 
processionaliter regi futuro occur- 
rant in palatio antedicto» et sic 
ipsum processive in ecclesiam da- 
cant, ipsoque introducto atque in 
pulpito in sede sibi apta collocato, 
haec antipbona ab omnibos decan- 
tetur: * Finnetur/ etc." 

With this agrees the Exeter 
pontifical : except in its title ; which 
is somewhat singular. **Coro- 
natio regis secundum cansuetU' 
dinem ecclesia Westmonasteri- 

And an imperfect English pon- 
tifical in the British Museum, 
Harleian MS. 561, beg^ins with 
a still more particular reference 
to the Westminster' muniments. 
'* Hie est ordo secundum -quem 
res debet coronariy panter et 
inungif secundum cronicas et re- 
gistra in ahhathia Westmontu- 
terii inventa.** 

I have no doubt that the '' tex- 
tus" spoken of above, was some 
splendid copy of the Four Gos- 
pels, or of the selected Gospels, 
which was specially preserved at 
Westminster to be used either on 
this great occasion only of a co- 

ronation, or at other very solemn 
processions. Or possibly, it was 
the copy of the Gospels, upon 
which the coronation-oath was to 
be taken. I have made some re- 
marks upon thb, in the preliminary 
dissertation : and I would also re- 
fer the reader to the dissertation 
on Service Books, Vol. I. p. lij., 
and to the extract from Giraldos, 
in the " Supplement** to p. Ivij 

* The custom of assembling the 
archbishops and bishops of the 
realm is as ancient as the office 
itself of a Coronation: it has been 
always held to be necessary not 
only that the new sovereign should 
be crowned by the Primate, or a 
Bishop appointed by him, but also 
with as large an attendance of the 
clergy, more especially of the 
highest degree, as could be ob- 
tained. Peter Damian proves 
that this was not confined to Eng- 
land only: he says, in a passage 
of his Ixixth Sermon, cited by Ca- 
talani: "Cum enim tants nobili- 
tatis sanguis vel genere, vel no- 
bilitate consecratur in r^em, re- 
ligio cum nobilitate totiua regni 
viribus convocatur. Astat hinc 
primatum, metropolitanorum, et 
episcoporum gloriosa societas : il- 
linc ducum, comitum, castellano- 
rum, non spemenda nobilitas. 
Procedit medius homo super 
homines regnaturus constitutus 
agmine personali." 

Coronattone JBiesifi. 5 

tia, ut mas regni exigitj exattent illum^ eogue exaltato et 
in sede principi apta locato^ in ecclesia metropolitano et 
c(Btero clero cum summa tranqmllitate sedentiy per qua- 
tuormbiliores comites nuncieturyfaciantque iidem legati 
coram clcro post electionis reprasentationem, ex parte 
populi cum supplicatione petitionemy ut sicut ab omnipo- 
pub electus est, ita et in ecclesia a clero benigne susci- 
piatur,^ et in regem consecretur. Quorum legatione 
paiienter audita, metropoUtanus quatuor quos elegerit 
prasules, totidemque abbates, dirigat ad populum, in- 
^uirens quce a quatuor nunciis audivit^ si populus testari 
votuerit^ Et illis regressis, si concors fuerit priorum 
nunciorum vox sequentium^ tunc demum, metropolitano 
inchoante, cierus Deogratias et laudes refer at. 

Moxqtte missi duo prasules a metropolitano cum parte 
ckrij cum cereis et crucibus, introducant in ecclesiam 
consecrandum regem electum, cum vocis emissione, banc 
concinentes antiphonam : 

finnetur manus tua, et e3Laltetur dextera tua ; jus- 
titia et judicium praeparatio sedis tuae, misericordia et 
Veritas prsecedent faciem tuam/ 

* '* redpiatnr," in the Evesham voce coram Deoy ommque po- 
pontiacaL Lansd. MS. 451. puh, dicit: 

* The order for K. Ethelred, **HaectriapopuloChri8tiano,-et 
<fter the antiphon, and ^ Gloria mihi subdito in Christi promitto 
Pittri," thus continues : nomine. In primis ut ecclesia 

**" PerveiUefu rex ad ecclesiamy Dei» et omnis populus Christianus 

prottemai le coram aiiare^ et veram pacem nostro arbitrio in 

^jmair^hfTy Te Deum laudamus, omni tempore servet. Aliud* ut 

Te Dominum confitemur. Qtio rapacitates et omnes iniquitates 

Jtniienue hjfmnizatOf re* eriga- omnibus gradibusinterdicam. Ter- 

^T de iolof et ah epiecopie et a tium, ut in omnibus judiciis aM^ui- 

f^ electusy lujee tria se servor tatem et misericordiam prsedpi- 

^rum jura promiUatf et cUvra am, ut mihi et vobis indulgeat 


In temporf Paschali. Alleluia. 
Ps. ^fisericordias Domini. 

tuam miserioordiaiD demens et 
iui»ericon Deoa» qui Tivit 

*• //*» yrtnctisf otnnes dicant^ 
AxMXkn Et A^r stqmantur ora- 
tiimts <i stM^r^is tpucopis #m. 
It^itw^ smptr rt^mm dice$id€t. Te 
invoounutt tit* 

^* A (in omfio, Deus, qui po- 
pulU tuis virtute consuli^, et amore 
dominans» da buic lamolo tuo HL 
•IMritum sapieiitMB cum regiouDe 
ditcipUnr» ut tibi tolo corde de« 
YDtua iu rfgni reginune xoaneat 
•en)))er idoaeus> tuoque munere 
iptui* tf roporihus securitas eccle- 
%m diri(nitur« et in tranquiltitate 
devotio ChrisUana pennaneat, ut 
In bonis operibus peraeverans, ad 
feteruum it^num te duce valeat 
pervenire> per Dominum. 

** CoHSfCiHiiio re^ ab epit* 
capo qui aivew ienuerii super 
9um tiicendn* 

** Omnipoteiis seropiteme De- 
utt* etc^ as below» with some im- 
portant differences, noted there. 

In the order for K, Herfry I., 
after the antiphon, we have: 

" Pen*eniens ad ecclesiam 
prostemat se super pavimen- 
turn ante altars. Pavimentum 
autem stratum sit tapetibus et 
paUiis. Finita antiphona Jiat 
litaniat et episcopi prosteimant se 
supra pavimentum hinc et inde 
drca electum regem. Expleta 
autem lUania erigant se. Erec- 

tus autem ab episcofn» elechu\ 
rexy fuse tria servUurum se esfej 
promittaty dicens: 

** In Christi nomine promitta 
hsec tria popalo Chiistiaiio mihi 
subdito. In primis me prsecepi 
tunim et opem pro viribus im^ 
pensurum, ut ecclesia I>ei, etd 
[ttf supra, in ord. Ethelr.J J^i 
respondeant omneSf Amen. Ifi^ 
exjdetisy unus episeoporusn ailo^ 
quatur populumf si taii principi 
ac rectori se subficere, etc jussi^ 
onibus ejus obtemperare velint. 
Tunc a circumstante ciero et po- 
puh respondeatur; Volumus et 
concedimus. Postea vero eo de- 
vote incUnatOi dicantur a metro- 
poiitano seguentes orationes. 

" Omnipotens steme Deus, 
creator onmium, etc* 

** Benedic, Domine, hunc re- 
gemi etc. 

** Deus ineffabilis, auctor, etc. 
" Tunc demum ab ipso metro- 
politano unguantur sibi manus 
de oleo sancti/icato. 

** Unguantur manus istse. etc J" 
This order is the same, (as be- 
fore mentioned,) in the Winches- 
ter pontifical ; the imperfect Bod- 
ley MS.; the two Cotton MSS. 
'Hberius. B. 8, and £.8; and the 
Dublin MS. B. 8. 6. 

The order for Edward II., fol- 
lowed by the Exeter MS., after 
the Antiphon, continues : 

Coronatione Ke^ltf. 7 

Gloria Patri- 

Repetatur antiphona. Firmetur. 

Appropinquans vera Rea^ altariy ejus imitando impe- 
rium qui dixit, Non appareas vacuus in conspectu Do- 
mini, Dei tui, pretioso tegat patlio,^ Ubramque auri 
tntegram DeOy Sanctoque Petro apostolorum principty 
princeps ipse consecrandus desuper ponendo offerat. Con- 
tinuoque^ super pavimentum tapetis stratum coram altari 
« prostematy dicatque super ilium metropolitanus hanc 


Deus humilium visitator, qui nos Sancti Spiritus il- 
lostratione consolaris, praetende super hunc famulum 
tuum N. gratiam tuam, ut per eum, tuum in nobis 
adesse sentiamus adventum. Per Dominum ; in unitate 

Oratione^ campletay injungat metropolitanus cui vo- 
*^^it pantificumy plebi de prasenti negotio congruum 
breviter dicere sermonemy sciscitarique^ ab eis ut palam 

** Gloria Ritri. Sicut erat. »« Oblatio regis." Marginal 

Etot». Rrmetur. Po$tea re- note in Pontif. Sar. 

^^^^atur archiepiscopus vel epis' • «* Prostratio regis prima," 

'^f^ qui missam ceiebraturus Marginal note in Pontif. Sar. 

^yftcumaliU prtelatU prind- ' The Royal MS. 12. D. iij. 

P^^omecrandumhonorificeper (British Museum) has by an evi- 

(hori medium ducat usque ad dent mistake " Coronatione com^ 

■^ttw altare, euper quod te- pletaJ' 

*^*'* offerre pallium tintim, et • The following sentence " scis- 

"^^** ^ihram auriy ijus com- citarique — — „ interrogati" 

P*fnio pTiBceptum qui dixity is omitted in the order for K.. Ed- 

^^ appareae vacuus coram ward II., and added in the margin 

^**^ Domini Dei tui.' Conti" in a later hand. The Sarum Pon- 

^**9^ tuper pavimentum" etc, tifical notes in the margin " brevis 

* w the text, with some unim- sermo." 

^^t variations: the chief of The Liber Regalis omits the 

*°Wi the reader will find below, sentence " scisdtariqne in- 


De IBeneHtctione et 

dicant si hunc cuncti sibi in r^em eiiguntj et ut illis rtr 
cansecretur si veraciter et unanimiter poscunt. Quod 
postquam se velle acclamaverint interrogatij metropoli- 
tunus eiectum mediocriter distinctaque intert^oget voce? 
si leges et consuetudines ab antiquis justis et devotis re- 
gibus pkbi Angbrum cancessaSj cum sacramenti confir- 
matione^ eidem plebi concedere et servare voluerit, et 
prasertim leges et consuetudines et libertateSy a gloria- 
sissimo^^ rege sancto Edwardoj clero populoque conces- 
sas. Si^^ autem omnibus his assentire se velle promi- 
serit, ejponat ei metrapolitanus de quibus jurabitj ita 

Servabis ecclesise Dei cleroque, et populo, pacem ex 
integro et concordiam Deo, secundum vires tuas ? 

terrogati/' and inserts instead of 
it, the following» which is intro- 
duced as far as the word ^'ser- 
mone,'* into the margin of the 
Sanim pontifical, and the sen- 
tence as it stands in the text 
above, is bracketed. '* Metropo- 
litano interim in cathedra sua re- 
sidente ante altare more episco- 
pali. Coram ipso residebit prin- 
ceps coronandus in cathedra de- 
centi sibi prsparata ex adverso. 
Finito quidem sermone ad plebem, 
metropolitanus vel episcopus eun- 
dem mediocri distinctaque voce 
interroget, si leges et consuetu- 
dines. etc^ 

* " Sessio regis.** Mai^al 
note. Sar. Pontif. I may re- 
mind the reader that the Roman 
pontifical appoints here a set ser* 
mon or admonition to be made, 
not to the people in order to ask 

their consent, but to the king con- 
cerning the duties of his stadon. 
^ Quibus sic sedentibus, postquam 
aliquantulum quieverint, metropo- 
litanus coronandum regem admo- 
net, dicens, 'Cum hodie,' etc*" 
Pontif. Rom. The latter part of 
this admonition is similar to the 
««admonitio episcoporum ad re- 
gem*' of the text, presently. It 
is probable that the rubric imme- 
diately following that admonition 
" Adjiciantur pr^edictis" etCp, 
was intended to give scope for a 
more exact imitation of the Ro- 
man use, if it was thought de- 

w <' Glorioso.*' Liber Begalis: 
and the order of Edward II. 

u " Dicto autem prindpe se 
promittente omnia prsemissa ooa- 
cessurum et servaturum, tunc ex- 
ponat ei metropolitanus, etc»' IMf» 

Cotonatione RegiiB!. 9 



Facies fieri in omnibus jadiciis tuis sequam et rectam 
justitiain, et discretionem, in misericordia et in veritate, 
seenndum Tires tuas ? 

Respondebit : 


ConceiUs justas leges esse tenendas, et promittis eas 
per te ease protegendas, et ad honorem Dei roboran- 
das, quas vulgas elegerit, secundum vires tuas ? 

Respondebit : 

Concedoy et promitto. 

Sequitur admonitio episcoparum ad regem^ et legatur 
ah uno episcopo coram omnibus clara voce, sic dicendo : 

Domine Rex," a vobis perdonari petimus, ut unicui- 
que de nobis et ecclesiis nobis commissis, canonicum 

* Tbe Exeter PoDtifical, very 
strangely^ omits from hence down 
tothemlnic ** Adpciantur pra- 
dicHs inierrogatiomhiu" etc. 

^ This petition has been omitted 
in the late Forms. It was ob- 
•erred in the coronation of King 
James I. (of Charles I. according 
to the Tery obscure and confused 
ttcoont in Prynne, Signal Loy- 
<%, p. 270) and of Charles II. 
I extract the form from the hst 
moitioned Order, as it is given 
bj Walker. *" After which [i. e. 
the promises] the B'. of Roches- 
ter read the Petition of the Bishops 
m these words* 

* Our Lord and King wee be- 
seech yon to grant and preserve 
vnto vs. and the Churches Co- 

mitted to our Charge all Canoni- 
call priviledges, and due Law and 
lustice, and that you would protect 
and defend vs as every good King 
in his Kingdome ought to be a 
Protector and Defender of the 
Bishopps and Churches vnder 
their Government. 

'' The King Answered : 
'' With a willing and devout 
heart I promise and grant my 
pardon, and that I will preserve 
and mayneteyne to you, and the 
Churches comitted to yo'. Charge 
all Canonicall Priviledges and due 
Law and lustice, and that I will 
be yo'. Protectour and Defender 
to my power by the assistance of 
God as every good King in his 
Kingdome ought in right to pro- 


JOe OSeneOicttone et 

privilegium ac debitam legem atque justitiam conser 
vetis, ot defensionem exhibeatisy sicut rex in suo regni 
debet unicuique episcopo, abbatibus/^ et ecclesiis sib 

Respondebit : 

Animo libenti, et devoto, promitto vobis et perdono, 
quia unicuique de vobis et ecclesiis vobis coxninissis, 
caiionicum privilegium et debitaip legem atque justi^ 
tiam sorvabo, et defensionem quantum potuero, adjui 

toct and defend the B^*. and 
Churches under their GoTem« 

This petition does not occur in 
the earlier Forms of K. Ethelred, 
Henry I. and Edward IL 

I extract the following from the 
important " Devyse " for K. Henry 
Vni. so often alluded to in the 
dissertation. ** Then fbloweth the 
petioions of the hisshoppes to the 
kyn|t, which hy the hisshop of 
lincoln shall he openly redde in 
good and distinct Toice, seying: 
IMtmm0 i'tjt. Sir King» we aske 
of you to per6tely geven and 
graunted ynto vs» that je shall 
ke)>e Ynto vs and eche of ts, and 
to all the churches that heth geven 
and comvtted rnto vs and eche of 
vs« the priuileges of the lawe canon 
and of hooly church, and due lawe 
and riglitfulnesse» and vs and 
them defende as a doughty and 
Christen King ought to do» And 
id like wise to graunte and do 
thurgh all your Reame to euery 
hishop, abhot, and all the churches 
■ to them commytted. 

" The kyng shall aunswer. Zi- 
henfe animo. \^th gt>od will 
and deuoute soule, I promjtte 
and perfitely graunte that to you 
and euery of you, and to all the 
churches to you commytted, I 
shall kepe the priuileges of the 
lawe of canon and of holy Church : 
and lawe and rightfulness : and I 
shall in as moche as may be, by 
reason and right defende you and 
euery of you hisshoppes and ab- 
botts thurgh my Reame : and all 
the churches to you and them 
commytted. All these things and 
euery of theym, I Henry king of 
Englande, promytte and conferme 
to kepe and obserue, so helpe we 
God, and thise holy Euangelists 
by me bodily touched upon this 
hooly awter." 

^ This word is erased in the 
text of the Sarom pontifical, 
doubtless after the suppression of 
the monasteries, and inserted in 
the margin in a hand of the time 
of Queen Mary. The same erasure 
ooeors almost immediateiy belov. 

Cotonatione Ee9i0« 


rante Domino, exhibebo, sicut rex in suo regno uni- 
coique episcopo, abbatibus, et ecclesiis sibi commissis, 
per rectum exhibere debet/* 

Adjiciantur pradictis intei^ogationibus qtue justafu^ 
erini. Prcenunciatis omnibus supradictisj dictus prin- 
ceps canfirmet se omnia pradicta esse servaturunij Sacra- 
mento^^ super altare coram cunctis protinus prcestito. 
His itaque peractis^ metropolitanus vel episcopus genu- 
flectendo cum devotione incipiat excelsa voce hymnumy 

Veni Creator, 
ado rege^^ interim ante altare supertapetis et quissi- 
nisj per regios ministros decenter ibidem collocatisy hu- 
mititer prostrato. 

Finito vero hymnOj sequatur hcec oratio : 

" la the modern Roman pon- 
tifical, among the other duties ex- 
^Vuned to the new sovereign in 
the '* admonition'* before spoken 
of, note 9, is this : " Christtanam 
religionem, ac 6dem catholicam, 
qnam ab incunabulis professus es, 
ad finem usque inviolatam retine- 
bis, eamque contra omnes adver- 
santes pro yiribus defendes/' And 
how ancient this practice was, may 
be concluded from the iij rd. ca- 
non of the sixth council of To- 
ledo. ** Qnisquis succedentium 
tempomm regni sortitus fuerit 
^cem, non ante conscendat re- 
giam sedem, quam inter reliqua 
conditionum sacramenta poUicitus 
faerit, banc se catholicam non 
pennissurum eos (nempeJutkeos) 
violare fidem. etc.** And it thus 
concludes* ^' Ergo postquam or- 
dioe praemisso, ad gubemacuUi 

accesserit regni, si ipse temerator 
hujus extiterit promissi, sit anath- 
ema, maranatha, in conspectu sem- 
pitemi Dei, et pabulum efficiatur 
ignis aetemi." 

There is certainly no express 
stipulation to this effect in the an- 
cient English forms ; nor is there 
in the modem Roman use: al- 
though Catalani (who quotes also 
the above canon), rather hastily, 
as it seems to me, concludes that 
it is to be gathered from the pro- 
mise of the new sovereign, in the 
** professio regis" which imroedi* 
ately succeeds, and which is 
couched in very general terms. 
Cf. Comment, in Pontif. Rom. 
torn. i. 878. 

^ " Juramentum regis." Mar- 
ginal note in Sar. Pontif, 

" •* Prostratio regis secunda." 
Marginal note. 

1 2 S)e iBeneHictione et 

Te invocamusy Doniine sancte. Pater omnipotens 
teteme Deus, ut hunc famulum tuum. N. quein tua 
divinse dispensationis proyidentia in primordio plas 
matum, usque hunc prsesentem diem juvenili flora lae 
tantem crescere concessisti, eum tuse pietatis don< 
ditatum plenumque gratia et yeritate, de die in diem 
coram Deo et hominibus, ad meliora semper proficen 
facias, ut summi regiminis solium, gratise supema 
largitate, gaudens suscipiat, et misericordiae tuae mure 
ab hostium adversitate undique munitus, plebem sibi 
commissam, cum pace propitiationis et yirtute yictoriae. 
feliciter regere mereatur. Per Christum Dominum. 

Post orationem^ incipiant duo episcapi vel duo caih 
tores Utaniamj^^ metrapoUtano vel epUcapo et ccateris 
episcopis cum eo prostratisj et septem psalmas posniten" 
tiaks ex corde cantantibus : infra litaniam htec adjun- 

Ut preesentem famulum tuum in tua pietate, justitia, 
et sanctitate, confirmare et conseryare digneris. 

Te rogamus audi nos. 

Postea sequantur ha orationts. 

^ '* Litania cam septem psal- cwn episcopis, et presbyterisy hinc 

mis.*' Marginal note, inde prostratis, caeteris in cboro 

litaniam breviter psallentibus«** 

^ The position of the litany The ^'breviter" refers to the re- 
in this Office has differed much, striction which is afterwards en- 
at various times and in various joined, that only twelve AposUes, 
countries. But the antiquity of and as many martyrs, confessors, 
its use at some period or other of and virgins, should be invocated. 
the ceremony is proved by the The phrase "totus in cruce" 
very ancient Ordo JRamanust would appear to mean, with arms 
which commands: '* ut cuncto ec- extended. The student will ob* 
clesise pavimento tapetibus et pal- serve that in the text, only the 
liolis contecto, ibi rex humiliter bishops are directed to prostrate 
totus in cruce prostratus jaoeat themselves with the king. 

Cotonatione Viesin. 1 3 

Dominiis vobiscum. 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, Creator omnium, Im- 
perator angelonmi, Rex regnantium, Dominusque do- 
minantinm, qui Abraham fidelem famulum tuum de 
hostibos triumphare fecisti, Moysi et Josuse populo 
praelatis multiplicem victoriam tribuisti, bumilemque 
David puerum tuum regni fastigio sublimasti, et Salo- 
monem sapientise pacisque ineffabili munere ditasti ; re- 
^ice, qosesumus,^ ad preces humilitatis nostrse, et super 
hone fiBunulum tuum, quern, supplici devotione in regem 
consecramus,^^ benedictionum tuarum dona multiplica, 
eumque dexterse tuae potentia semper et ubique cir- 
cmnda, quatenus prsedicti Abrahse fidelitate firmatus, 
Moysi mansuetudine fretus, Josuae fortitudine munitus, 
David humilitate exaltatus, Salomonis sapientia deco- 
ratus, tibi in omnibus placeat, et per tramitem justitiae 
inoffenso gressu semper incedat, ecclesTamque^ tuam 
deinceps cum plebibus sibi annexis ita enutriat ac 
doceat, muniat et instruat, contra omnes visibiles et 
invisibiles hoetes idem potenter regaliterque tuoe vir- 

* " Respice propitius." Order is omitted. The prayer is very 

of K. Elhelred* ancient : not only to be traced to 

^ In tlie earlier orders of K. the earliest MS. which we now 

Belied, Henry L and Edward have of the Anglo-Saxon cere- 

IL (followed by the Exeter MS.) monial, but it is also in the old 

^ form runs, " quern in re; ** Ordo Romanus.'' I may add, 

gm eKgimos.'* The alteration is that in some early foreign pon- 

cnrions. tificals, this prayer is to be said 

** " Hie totitts regni Anglo- aloud by the archbishop, and 
Suonmn ecclesiam deinceps cum *' voce snbmissa " by the other 
plebibas sibi annexis, etc,** Or- bishops : ** ad toUendam scilicet 
dn of Eihelred. The reader confusionem (observes Catalani), 
vill fold that in the modem Ro- non vero quod in ea vocis sub- 
nun Use, from hence to the missione aliquid arcani mysteriive 
vords ** toas quoque protectionist contineatur." 


De IBenenicttone et 

tutis regimen administret,^' et ad verae fidei pacisq| 
concordiam eorum animos, te opitulante, reformet, i 

^ *' administretf ut regale soli- 
um, videlicet Angloram vel Sax- 
onum Bceptroy non deserat, sed ad 
pristine fidei, pacisque, etc.** ibid. 
This passage is remarkable: and 
it is a very curious drcumstance, 
that the famous manuscript, (now 
in the British Museum, Cotton, 
Tiberius B. viij.) of the corona- 
tion service of Charles V. of 
France, contains the same sen- 
tence, with not a less plain refer- 
ence to the Anglo-Saxons. The 
words are these : " ut regale soli- 
um videlicet Saxonum, Merdo- 
rum, Nordanchimbrorum sceptra 
non deserat." This fact has been 
remarked by Seloen in his Titles 
of Honour, p. 177. 189. and he 
argues very justly that the French 
Order owes its origin to the more 
ancient Forms used in this coun- 
try. It nevertheless is somewhat 
more than strange, that they who 
adopted and revised to suit their 
own circumstances our English 
Office, should have omitted to 
correct this passage in the prayer. 
The numberless instances of agree- 
ment, even verbal, which occur 
between the ancient English forms 
and the French, would have proved 
a common origin : such an argu- 
ment as the present proves more; 
vi2. this : England cam claim the 
honour of having given her Order 
of Coronation to the kings and 
people of France. 

In the Appendix to the sad 
mentary of S. Gregory ( Op&>\ 
totn. 3. p. 238,) Menard 1| 
printed the '* Ritus oUm obs« 
vatus in unctione r^^m Fran^ 
rum: ex codke RatoMi Ahbatii 
In that Order, this prayer occut 
and after the words ^ semper i 
cedat'* above, is the following, m 
less worthy of notice than tl 
corresponding reference in t| 

Service of Charles V. " i| 

cedat, et totius Albionis ecclesia^ 
deinceps cum plebibus sibi ai 
nexis, etc** The reader will a 
once see, that the argument in thi 
preceding paragraph of this noti 
is strongly confirmed by this re 
ference to England : but it would 
not be just to omit Menard's ovni 
remarks upon it. Probably hci 
was not aware of the existence o\ 
the Cotton MS. or he would bare 
argued doubtless that Charles V. 
was also crowned King of Eng- 
land ; as indeed, he does seem to 
pretend with respect to Henry IV. 
if I understand him rightly : even 
although, as he quaintly says, he 
could discovei^ no record of the 
original fact extant. He says, 
'* QusB quidem verba (Albionis 
ecclemun) satis manifestant ali- 
quem Francorum r^em id tem- 
poris in Anglorum regem unctum 
fuisse: quod tamen est difficile 
scitu, cum nihil tale in hbtoricis 
antiquis cum Francorum, tum An- 

Coronatione KegijBL 


lomm populonim debita subjectione foltus, tuo digno 
more glorificatus,^ ad patemum decenter solium tua 
oiseratione conscendere mereatur, tuse quoque protec- 
ionis galea monitus, et scuto insuperabili jugiter pro- 
ectus^ armisque coelestibus circumdatus, optabilis yic- 
oriae trininphum feliciter capiat, terroremque suae 
wtentise infidelibus inferat, et pacem tibi militantibus 
^etanter reportet, ^per Dominum nostrum, qui virtute 
rmcis tartara destruxit, regnoque diaboli superato ad 

glomm repereris, per quos huic 
difficoltati lucem afferre quis poB- 
sit. Nemini aatem dubium est 
qnin AlbioD, cujus hie mentio est, 
nt Britannia major. Id testantur 
veteres omnes reoentioresque geo- 

grapbi* Quis fiierit autem ex 

regiboB Francorum sub hac for- 
nmla in regem Anglorum unctas, 
dicere obacumm est. £x hoc 
tamen apparet antiquum jus regi- 
bos Francorum in regnum Anglis 
fmsse.** And the same writer 
adds in a note, a suggestion in 
proof of his theory, which is de- 
molished by the Order of K. 
Ethebed; ** Forte consecratio 
ba^c in Lndovid IV. inauguratione 
fuit adhibita, qui cum oh Ogivam 
matrem» ex Angliae regum stirpe 
esset orinndus, in spem hnjus regni 
Tocatus potnit simul ungi in r^em 
Angtise et Franciae. Quibus non 
plaoebit conjectura h»c, meliorem 
nippeditent; doceantque quis ex 
GalliflD regibns ante mortem Ra- 
toldi abbatis qui ann. 986 obiit, 
potiore jure in regem Angliae ungi 
eteonsecraripotoerit/' This would 

indeed be difficult: but it is not 
necessary that those who are dis- 
satisfied with the conjectures of 
so very learned a person as Me- 
nard, are bound to propose better. 

^* ^^glorificatusiperlongumvitse 
spatium patemae apicem glorise 
tus miseratione unita, stabilire et 
gubemare mereatur." Order of 
K. EtheU^d. 

^ " reportet. Virtutibus,Christe, 
hunc quibus prsefatos fideles tuos 
decorasti, multiplici honoris bene- 
dictione condecora, et in regimine 
regni sublimiter colloca, et oleo 
gratis Spiritus Sancti perunge, 
per Dominum, in unitate ejus- 
dem." ibid. Immediately after 
this prayer in K. Ethelred's Order, 
follows the anointing, of which the 
rubric, &c. is given below. It may 
be added that the French order 
of K. Charles V. (just spoken of) 
gives the concluding sentences of 
both the Anglo-Saxon and the 
Sarum orders: putting the Sarum 
last, and of course omitting the 
" Per Dominum*' of the first. 

1 6 Z)e iBeneWctione et 

coelos victor ascendit, in quo potestas omnis regui 
consistit, et victoria, qui est gloria humiUum, et vit 
salusque populorum. Qui tecum. 

Alia oratio. 

BenediCy Domine, hunc regem nostrum, qui regn; 
omnium moderaris a ssbcuIo, et tali eum benedictionj 
gloriBca, ut Davidicse teneat sublimitatis sceptrum, e 
glorificatus in ejus, te propitio, reperiatur merito. D\ 
ei tuo inspiramine cum mansuetudine ita regere popu 
lum, sicut Salomonem fecisti regnum obtinere pacifij 
cum. Tibi cum timore semper sit subditus, tibiqw 
militet cum quiete ; sit tuo clypeo protectus cum proce 
ribus, et ubique tua gratia victor existat; honorific^ 
eum prse cunctis regibus gentium, felix populis domi 
netur, et feliciter eum nationes adorent. Vivat intei 
gentium catervas magnanimus, sit in judiciis sequitatis 
singularis, locupletet eum tua prs^ves dextera, frugi- 
feram obtineat patriam, et ejus liberis tribuas profu- 
tura; prsesta ei prolixitatem vitse per tempora, ut in 
diebus ejus oriatur justitia ; a te robustum teneat regi- 
minis solium, et cum jocunditate et justitia setemo 
glorietur in regno. Per Dominum. 

Deus ineffabilis, auctor mundi, conditor generis hu- 
mani, gubemator imperii, confirmator regni, qui ex 
utero fidelis amici tui patriarcbae nostrae Abrahae prse- 
elegisti regem saeculis profuturum, tu praesentem regem 
hunc cum exercitu suo per intercessionem omnium 
sanctorum uberi benedictione locupleta, et in solium 
regni firma stabilitate connecte. Visita eum, sicut 
Moysen in rubo, Jesum Nave in prselio, Gedeon in 
agro, Samuelem in templo, et ilia eum benedictione 
siderea ac sapientiee tuee rore perfunde, quam beatus 
David in psalterio Salomon filius ejus, te remunerante, 
percepit e coelo. Sis ei contra acies inimicorum lorica, 

Cotonatione ]Reg;t0« 1 7 

in adversis galea, in prosperis patientia, in protectione 
chpeos sempitemus ; et praesta ut gentes illi teneant 
fidem, proceres sui habeant pacem, diligant caritatem, 
abstineant se a cupiditate, loquantur justitiam, custo- 
diaDt Teiitatem ; et ita populus iste pullulet^ coalitus be-- 
nedictione setemitatis, ut semper maneant tripudiantes 
in pace yictores. Per Christum Dominum nostrum, 


Deus, qui populis tuis virtute consulis et amore 
dommaris, da huic famulo tuo .N. spiritum sapientise 
nnn Famine disciplinae, ut tibi toto corde devotus, in 
regni regimine maneat semper idoneus, tuoque munere 
ipsius temporibus securitas ecclesiee dirigatur, et in 
tranquillitate devotio Christiana permaneat, ut in bonis 
operibus perseverans, ad fletemum regnum, te duce, 
uleat pervenire. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum Filium tuum. Qui tecum. 

Hie mutet dominus metropolitanus^ vel episcopuSj vo^ 
c(m suam^ more prafationis^ hoc modo : 

Per omnia ssecula sseculorum. Amen« 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, 
Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus. Electorum fortitudo, 
^t humilium celsitudo, qui in primordio per effusionem 
diluvii crimina mundi castigare voluisti, et per colum- 

* The Order for K. Edw. 11. say : " Hie mutet „ ro- 

<nd the Liber Regatis, merely cem guanu Per omnia, eic.^ 

VOL. m. c 

1 8 S)e iBeneHicttone et 

bam ramum olivse portanteniy pacem terns reddita 
demonstrasti ; iterumque Aaron famulum tuum pi 
unctionem olei sacerdotem sanxistiy et postea per huji 
unguenti infusionem, ad regendum populum Israelii 
cum, sacerdotesy ac reges, et prophetas perunxisti, vu 
tumque ecclesiae in oleo exhilarandum per prophetica 
famuli tui yocem David esse prsedixisti ; ita quflesumi 
omnipotens Pater, ut per hujus creaturae pinguedine 
hunc servum tuum .A^, sancti^^ficare tuabene^dl 
tione digneris, eumque in similitudinem columbee p 
cem simplicitatis populo sibi subdito praestare, et e: 
empla Aaron in Dei servitio diligenter imitari, regniqu 
fastigia in consiliis scientiee et eequitate judicii sempc 
assequiy vultumque hilaritatis per banc olei unctionei 
tuamque benedictionem,*^ te adjuvante, toti plebi par^ 
tum babere facias : Submisse dicat. Per Dominum. 

Finitis orationibus istiSy^ ascendat electus in cathedr 
coram metropoUtano appositay cui vcro cum ad eui 

^ " Bene "i* dictionem." Lib. chioram : aperturis tunicas et a 

Reg, misis sibi invicem connexis ai 

" The Sarum Pontifical has in sulis argeuteis. Tunc vero a n» 

the margin ; *' surgat rex." The tropolitano vel episcopo dissect 

rubric of the Liber Regalis is ansulis iu apertura tunic» et cam 

different from the text, and is as Bi£supradicts,pallio super dictui 

follows. " Finitis orationibus is- principem extenso, manus princi 

tis, surgat princeps, et resideat in pis oleo inungantur, dicente me 

prsedicta cathedra coram metro- tropolitano vel episcopo orationen 

poUtano vel episcopo, modo quo « Ungantur,' etc^ ITiis variatid 

prselibatum est. In qua cathedra of rubric is introduced in a late 

princeps paululum quiescens ite- hand into the margin of our text 
rato resurgat, et vadat ad altare, I would remind the student, tha 

deponatque ibi vestes suas, prseter he must compare the many varia 

tunicam sericam et camisiam aper- tions of the modem Roman poa< 

tas profundius usque subter pectus tifical : here I think it only nece» 

et inter scapulas, et in scapulis, et sary to quote a part of the rubri< 

etiam apertas in compagibus bra- preceding the unction, accordiD| 

Cotonatione IBit^n. 


accesserit metrapolitanuSj vestem^ qua indutus fuerit 
rtr ekctusj pallio super eum interim extenso^ scindat 
prapriis usque ad cingulum manibus. Deinde mafius 
regis ekcti sa^icto ungantur oko, dicente metropolitano : 
UngaBtur^ manus istse de oleo sanctificato, unde 
uncti fiierunt reges et prophetse, et sicut unxit Samuel 

to that Use. ** Post hac — „— 
nwtropolita&as intingit pollicem 
dexters manus in oleum catechu- 
meoonmi, et inungit in modum 
cnida, fllius brachium dexterum, 
mter jancturam manus, et junctu- 
nm cobiti, atque inter scapulas/' 
• From the note just above, 
transcribed from the Liber Re- 
i^y this vestment was the " ca- 
miaa.»» The student should con- 
«Jt the glossary of Du Cange for 
^« «vera! meanings of this word ; 
D€ariy all of which are to be re- 
fined to some ecclesiastical use, 
^ nwst frequently it seems to 
^^e signified the albe. Thus he 
Timica, tinea vestis erat inte- 
nor, qoam camisiam dicimusy vel 
«PParum." And Peter Blesen- 
^: "^ Indutus camisia linea«qu8e 
«wuDuni nomine dicitur Alba-'' 
Serm. 41. However, in the text, 
^ " camisia" is to be token to 
^^ the under garment, or 
"^> of the sovereign : of which 
*««iiag there are many exam- 
P*«8 bold writers. A% Isidore ex- 
V^ins the word: " Camisias vo- 
^us quod in his dormimus in 
I *^ id est, in stratas nostns." 
% Paul the deacon: " Sup- 

parus, vesttmentum puellarum, 
quod et subucula, id est, camisia 
dicitur." In Epii. Fesfi. And 
once more, Victor Uticensis: 
'* De palliis altoris, proh nefas, 
camisias sibi et femoralia facie- 
bant." De persec. VandaL L 1. 
To these it cannot be amiss to 
add an example of this vestment, 
as a royal present to an English 
prince, in the early part of the 
seventh century, from pope Boni- 
face: who thus concludes his 
epistle to K. Edwin. '' PrsDterea, 
benedictionem protectoris vestri 
beati Petri apostolorum principis 
vobis direximus, id est, camisiam 
cum omatura in auro una, et lena 
Ancyriana una : quod petimus, ut 
eo benignitatis animo gloria vestra 
suscipiat, quo a nobis noscitur 
destinatum." Beda Hist. Ecc, 
lib. 2, cap. xj. 

* The following is the Order 
in K. Ethelred's book; immedi- 
ately succeeding, as was before 
remarked, see note 4, the prayer, 
" Omnipotens sempiteme Deus.*' 

" Hie unguaiur oleo^ et hac 
cantetur antiphona: Unxerunt 
Salomonem Sadoch sacerdos et 
Nathan propheto regem in Gion : 


Z)e IBeneHictione et 

David in Regem, ut sis benedictus et constitutus rex 
in regno isto, super populum istum, quern Dominus 

et accedentes dixerunt, Vivat rex 
in eternum. 
" Quam sequaiur orcUio, 
" Christe, perunge hunc regem 
in regimen, unde unxisti sacer* 
dotes, reges, et prophetas, ac mar- 
tyres, qui per fidem yicerunt regna, 
et operati sunt justitiam, atque 
adepti sunt repromissiones. Tua 
sacratissima unctio super caput ejus 
defluat, atque ad interiora descen- 
dat, et cordis illius intima penetret, 
et promissionibn8,qua8 adepti sunt 
Tictoriosissimi reges, gratia tua 
dignus ef&ciatur, quatenus et in 
praesenti saeculo feliciter regnet, 
et ad eorum consortium in coelesti 
regno perveniat. Per. 

Alia. Deus electorum forti- 
tudo, et humilium celsitudo, qui 
in primordio per effusionem dtluvii 
crimina mundi castigare voluisti, 
et per columbam ramum olivs 
portantem pacem terns redditam 
deraonstrasti, iterumque Aaron 
famulum tuum per unctionem olei 
sacerdotem sanxisti, et postea per 
hujus unguenti infusionem ad re- 
gendum populum Israheliticum 
sacerdotes ac reges et prophetas 
pnefecisti, vultumque ecclesi» 

." The MS. is here most 

unhappily imperfect : a folio hav- 
ing been torn out. See below, 
for the whole prayer, in Appendix 
No. 2. note 4, from the Leofric 

The order in the later MSS. va^ 
ries considerably, nor is it difficult 
to trace the alterations as thei 
were introduced. The following 
is the Service as appointed for K 
Henry I. which, generally, is the 
same also in the Winchester pon< 
tifical and the Dublin MS.witl 
the exception that these last hav< 
the prayer " Prospice omnipoteni 
Deus,** after the unction of Hu 

" Tunc demum ah ipso metra 
politano unguantur sibi manm 
de oleo sanctificato : Unguantui 
manus istse, eto. (Oremus. Pros 
pice, omnipotens. Winchester 
and Dublin MSS J Postet 
vero pectus et scapul^t^ ambaqv^ 
compages hrachiorum ipsius vn 
guantur de supradicto oleo, e 
de eodem crux fiat super capv 
efuSf et postea de chrismate, e 
dicantur sequentes orationei 
Deus Dei filius Jesus. (Oremm 
Deus, qui es justonim gloria 
Hen. /.) Postea ah episcopi 
ensem recipiat" 

In the Cotton MS. Tiberius 
B. viij. (which enables us to traa 
the prayer, " Prospice onanipo 
tens," to the early part of tbexjtl 
century), and in the Bodl. MS 
Rawl. C. 400, we have: 

" Tunc demum ah ipso metro» 
politano unguantur sihi fnanm 
de oleo sanctificato: Unguantui 

Coronatione fBitiia. 


Deus tuns dedit tibi, ad regendum et gubernandum. 
Qood ipse prsestare dignetur, qui cum Patre. 

Chora interim concinente antiphonam : 

Unxerunt Salomonem Sadoc sacerdos et Nathan 
propheta regem, et accedentes Iseti dixerunt, Vivat 
rex, vivat rex, vivat rex, in eetemum. 

In tempore Paschali. Alleluia. 

Ps. Domine in virtute. 


Prospice,'^ omnipotens Deus, serenis obtutibus hunc 
gloriosum regem .N. et sicut benedixisti Abraham, 
Isaac, et Jacob, sic ilium largis benedictionibus spiritu* 
alis gratiae cum omni plenitudine, tua potentia irrigare 
atque perfundere dignare. Tribue ei de rore coeli et de 
pinguedine teme, abundantiam frumenti, vini, et olei, 
et omnium frugum opulentiam ex largitate divini mu« 

manas istse. etc. Oratio. Pros- 
pice, omnipotens Deus. Posteave- 
ro capuiy pectus^ et scapuUe^ am- 
h^gque eompagee hnMchiorwn ip" 
eius tmguantur a fnetropolitanOf 
ita dicente: Unguator caput is- 
tad« etc» Interim cantcUur resp. 
Denm time. Poet unctionem, ora- 
tio : Dens Dei fillns Jesus. Alia. 
Dens, qui es justorom. Poetea 
ab epiecopie eneem recipiat** I 
most remark, that the rubrics in the 
order of Edward II. vary in some 
▼erfaal omieeione from the above. 
For example, it says simply, 
•* Oratio^ not prefixing " Post 

The Cotton MS. Tiberius E. 
riij. is the same with MS. Tibe* 
rius, B. Tiij, except that it omita 

the prayers " Prospice omnipo- 
tens,** and *' Deus, qui es justo- 

The order for K. Edward II. 
with some unimportant variations, 
follows that of Uie text, as far as 
the anointing of the head. 

^ The Sarum pontifical has 
'' Respice,'' but, upon the autho- 
rity of all the MSS. (the Exeter 
alone excepted) which have the 
prayer, viz. of Henry I. Edward 

11. and the Liber Regalis ; of the 
Winchester pontifical ; the Lans-^ 
down MS. 451; the Royal MS. 

12. D. 8; and the Cotton, Tibe- 
rius B. viij ; of the Bodl. MS» 
Rawl. c. 400, and the Dublin 
MS. I have introduced *^ Pros- 
pice" into the text. 

22 IDc IBcndiictiinic ct 

neris kmga per tempora ; at illo regnante sit sanitas 
in patria, et pax inviolata sit in regno» et di^itas 
gloriosa regalis palatii maximo splendore r^s potes- 
tatis ocnlis intuentiam fiilgeat, luce clarissima corus- 
care atqae splendescere, quasi splendidissima fulgura 
maximo perfosa lamine Tideatur. Tribue ei, omnipo- 
tens Deus, ut sit fortissimus protector patriae, et con- 
solator'^ ecclesiaram, ac ccenobiorum sanctorma maxi- 
ma cmn pietate regalis mmiificentise; atque ut sit 
fortissimus regmn, triumphator hostium, ad opprimen- 
das rebelles et paganas nationes. Sitque suis inimicis 
satis terribilis prsB maxima fortitudine regalis potenti^e. 
Optimatibus quoque atque pnecelsis proceribus atque 
fidelibus sui regni munificus, et amabilis, et pius ; ut 
ab omnibus timeatur atque diligatur. Reges quoque 
de lumbis ejus per successiones temporum futurorum 
egrediantur regnum hoc regere totum, et post gloriosa 
tempora atque felicia praesentis vitee, gaudia sempiterna 
in perpetua beatitudine habere mereatur. Per Domi- 

Postea vero pectus^ et scapula^ ambceque compages 
brachiorurn ipsius ungantur de supradicto olcoy et de 
eodem crux fiat super caput ejus^ et postea de chrismate, 
metropolitano dicente:^ 

Ungatur caput istud» pectus, scapulae, et compages 
brachiorurn de oleo sanctificato, unde uncti fuerunt 

** This sentence, ** eoclesiarum the Liber Regalis proceeds, as 

^,— > munifieentie,'' is erased in follows : 

the Sarum pontifical, and restored " £t pnsvideatur a sacrista 

IVom the text of the Liber Re* quod ampuUe tarn de oleo quam 

galit» de chrismate, quarum una deaura- 

" ** Inimctio Regis*" Margi* ta est et in se continens sanctum 

nal not«» dirisma, altera Tero solum argen* 

^ Afterthe\Tord <' chriamate»*' Itaet in se oontiiiais oleom sane- 

Cotonatione EegisE* 2 3 

r^ges et prophetse, et sicut Samuel unxit David in 
regem ut sis benedictus, et constitutus rex in regno 
isto, saper popnlum istum quern Dominus Deus tuus 
dedit tibi ad regendum et gubemandum. Quod ipse 
prxstare dignetnr. 
I Sequatur oratio^ cum^ Oremus. 

Deus, Dei Filius, Jesus Christus, Dominus noster, 
qui a Patre oleo exultationis unctus est prse participi- 
bos suis, ipse per prsesentem sacri unguenti infusionem 
Spiritus Paracliti super caput tuum infundat bene^- 
dicdonem, eandemque usque ad interiora cordis tui 
penetrare faciat, quatenus hoc visibili et tractabili 
done invisibilia percipere, et temporali regno justis 
moderaminibus executo, aetemaliter cum eo regnare 
merearis, qui solus sine peccato Rex regum vivit, et 
gloriatur cum Deo Patre, in unitate Spiritus Sancti, 
Deos, per omnia saecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Deus, qui es justorum gloria, et misericordia pecca- 
torum, qui misisti Filium tuum pretioso sanguine suo 
genus humanum redimere, qui conteris bella, et pro- 
pugnator es in te sperantium, et sub cujus arbitrio 
omnium regnorum continetur potestas, te humiliter 
deprecamur, ut praesentem famulum tuum .N. in tua 
niisericordia confidentem, in prsesenti sede regali be- 

tum, unt ad altare praeparatae. Sarum pontifical. 

Hege ^tur sic oncto, connectan- The reader will obsenre that 

tor ansulfle aperturarum, propter the benedicdon *' Ungatur caput," 

uictionem ab abbate Westm. vel etc, is omitted : nor b it in the 

noem ejiu gerente: et dicantur order of K. Edward II. Hence 

a metropolitano yel episcopo se- it was doubtless introduced be- 

qaentes orationes. ' D^us, Dei tween the date of the Liber Re« 

fiUos.' < Deus, qui es.' '' galis, and'of the MS. from which 

This variation is (as before) our text is taken, 
iatroduoed into the margin of the 


De ^enditcttone tt 

ne^i^dicas, eique propitius adesse digneris^ ut qm 
toa expetit protectione defendi, omnibus sit hoetibiis 
fortior. Fbc eiim, Domine, beatum esse, et victorem 
de inimicis sui& Corona eum corona justidse et pie- 
tatis, ut ex toto corde et tota mente in te credens, tibi 
deserviat, sanctam tuam ecclesiam defendat et subli- 
met, populumque sibi commissum juste regat, nullis 
insidiantibus malis eum in injustitiam convertat. Ac- 
cende, Domine» cor ejus ad amorem tuae gratise per 
hoc unctionis oleum, unde unxisti sacerdotes, reg-es, et 
prophetas, quatenus diligens justitiam, per tramitem 
similiter justitiae populum ducens, post peracta a te 
disposita in regali excellentia annorum curricula, per* 
venire ad aetema gaudia mereatur. Per. 

Post hcec^ vero induatur sindonis colobio,^ capite 

^ ^* Post hsec induatur sindonis 
colobio, ad modum dalmaticse for- 
inato, capite amictu operto propter 
unctionem. Qui amictus per sep- 
tem dies continuos circa regium 
caput indesinenter permanebit Oc- 
tava yero die post dicti regis con- 
secrationem, unus episcoporuro» 
dicto rege in ecclesia sive capella 
sua prssente, missam de Trini- 
tate celebrabit. Missaque finita, 
idem episcopus amictum prsefatum 
auferet de capite regali, dictum- 
que caput regium aqua caiida cum 
omni diligentia lavabit: quo loto 
et exsiccatO) crines regios reve- 
irenter componet : deinde drculum 
aureum capiti dicti regis imponet 
honorifice. Quern quijem drcu- 
lum memoratus princeps, ob re- 
verentiam suae dealbationis, ipso 
die feret continue capite denudato. 

Hiis taliter peractis, a metropo- 
litano vel episcopo benedicantur 
regalia ornamenta. ' Deas, rex 
regum.* etc" Lib. Regalis : and, 
in the margin of the Pontifical. 

An ancient pontifical of the 
church of Sens, the order of which 
is the vijth of those printed by 
Martene, has this rubric: *' sci- 
endum quod ejus camisia, prop- 
ter sanctam unctionem debet com- 
buri." De ant ecc. rit. torn. 2. 
p. 227. 

^ '* Tunica absque manicis, yel 
certe cum manicis, sed breviori- 
bus, et qufle ad cubitum vix perti- 
nerent: ex Graeco jcoAo/3oc, cur- 
tus." Du Cange. Glossarium. 
He cites various authorities: 
among them, Isidore : ** Colo- 
bium dictum, quia longum est, et 
sine manicis." Zi6. 19. cap, 32* 

Cotonattone Stegiief* 


jmktu^ propter unctionem operto^ eo quidem per septem 
lies in alb'u ita existente; pedibus ejus sandalia coapten- 
'ur^ et calcaria ; postea induatur regalibus. 

/ohan. de Janua^ in Catholico : 
'* Notum quod non solum yirgines, 
sed etiam diaconi utebantur colo- 
bio, loco cajus postea usi sunt 
dalmatica.'' And that this was 
originally a female garment, ap- 
pears from another old authority, 
^lio also gives ns a different ety- 
mology : " Colobium, pallium vir- 
giiule,ut quod ad talos descendens 
sine manicisy et dicitur colobium, 
quasi colubium, a collo depensum, 
Tel quod sit longum." This seems 
quite as probable a derivation as 
the first: for if the colobium was 
short in one respect, it was long 
io another. 

Mwnri says : " Hoc tunic» ge- 
nere mduebantur Apostoli :" and 
his reason for this statement is 
Aort, if not satisfactory ; *' con- 
cervabatur enim in basilica apos- 
tolonun colobium D. Thomse 
•postolL" HieroUjncon. Ferra- 
Hm* argues (de re vestiaria, 1. 
^P* 7), against all the authorities 
&We, that the colobium had short 
sleeves, rather than none at all : 
^ his only proof is a doubtful 
I»«age in Tertullian. 

In the « Liber ponHJkalU,"* in 
^e acts of S. Eutychian, we are 
^<i; ^ Qui et constituit, ut qui- 
<^nque fidelium defunctum mar- 
tyrem sepeliret, sine dalmatica aut 
colohio puipnrato nulla ratione 

sepeliret" 7W. \.p. 65. Edit. 
Vignoll. The editor explains in 
a note : ^* Hie vero purpuratum 
esse oportere dicitur, ut scilicet 
martyres cum eo sepultos pro 
t^hristo sanguinem fudisse, indicio 
id esset." 

^ The amice was an ecclesi- 
astical vestment, worn only by 
the clergy who were in 'sacred 
orders. Hence the use of it in 
the present case is important, in 
its bearing upon the mixed charac- 
ter which attached to an anointed 
sovereign. For its. ancient pur- 
pose, it was a covering for the 
head ; a square piece of linen, em- 
broidered (or apparelled as it was 
technically termed) upon one 
edge. In the rubric in the text, 
it is directed to be applied, as 
originally intended. But at that 
time by the clergy of England, as 
now by the clergy of the church 
of Rome, the amice was only 
placed for an instant upon the top 
of the head, and then lowered 
upon the shoulders, to be left 
there, and adjusted round the 
neck. So that the use of it be- 
came merely symbolical. 

Not that this was an alteration 
of late date: because Amalarius 
says, (and explains its meaning,) 
*^ Amictus eat primum vestimen- 
tum nostrum, quo collum undique 


StfUiimr kamLcu» gay i way t rrgmus < 

HoL Rfmim cc Ikniius A MMi i liH in, pe^ 
e^BanCp cc kevB coBdhncs jm decer^ 
otiitt, di^nare propcdiB bow-^diccre hoc regale oma^ 
wtfmvxxny ec pnesta st CuhixIib tms rex noster, qui 
ni'id pcAtatarxB esc omaziiexiio boaorvni nKNnmi e| 
faoetarom actionmn in coospecm too fblgea!, et post 
femporaleni Tham, aetemam ghmaoi, qps tenqpus nop 
habet, sine fine poeadeat. Per Doannmii.* 

Bcnedictio auu. 

^iLSLMhdl^ qvaesumus Domine, preces nostras» et hunc 
eueiB, quo fiunolos tuns .A', se drcnmcbigi desiderat, 
niajestatis tnse dextera bene »1« dkere etsancti»{«ficare 
dignare, qoalenns defensio ac prolectio possit esse 
ecclesianun, Tidnannn, orphanomm, omninniqae Deo 
ferrientiom, contra saeyitiam paganonnn, aliisque in- 
ffidiantibus sit paT<Mr, terror, et fmmido. Per Domi- 
ntnn nostrnm. 

Postea ab episcopo eiisem acclpiatj^ et cum cnse totum 

dogimas: ineoUoestiiaiiiqiieTozy Saoerdolilis. part^ 1. and Geor^ 

idaoqoe per oollom loqnendi asas gimi. de liL Rom. Pootif. lorn. 1. 

tzprimttar* Per amictom iotelfi- " *^ Dieds Haque onuunentis 

gimttf cofltodiam Tods/' Ub. 2« bene^ctis, prs&tiis rex a Westm. 

cap. 17« I woold again refer the abbafte yel alio loco ipsios, ut pras- 

•tudent, who wishes to know more habitam est, indoetur Yestimentis. 

of these mystical meanings, to Et prius induetur saper pnedio- 

Ihiranduif lib* 3. cap* 2 : where turn cololnum tunica longa, et ta- 

be will find many of them, not lari intexta magnis imaginibos au« 

omitting those which were founded, reis ante et retro, simul caligis, 

if we may use such a term, upon sandariia, et calcaribus tibiis ejus 

the strings also of the amice« But et pedibns coaptatis. Tunc se- 

he will obtain much more solid quetur benedictio ensis. * Exau- 

information from Bonot Rer. Lit. di,' etc,*' Lib. Regalis, and the 

lib» I. cap. 24. with Sala's notes margin of the Pontifical 

on the place : Sauaajui^ Panopl. ^ The Anglo Saxon order of 

Coronatione Ee0i0. 27 

tgnum sibiJideUter ad regendum secundum subscripta 
trba sdat esse cammendatumy dicente metropolitano : 

Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum, licet in- 
lignas, yiee tamen et auctoritate sanctorum apostolo* 
urn consecratas, tibi regaliter impositum, nostrseque 
benedictionis ^ officio in defensionem sanctae Dei 
^lesiae divinitus ordinatum: et esto memor de quo 
pealmista prophetavit dicens, Accingere gladio tuo 
super femur tuum, potentissime, ut per eundem, vim 
fiequitatis exerceas, molem iniquitatis potenter destruas, 
et sanctam Dei ecclesiam ejusque fideles propugnando 
protegas, nee minus sub fide iPalsos quam Christiani 
iK)iDini3 bostes execreris et destruas, viduas et pupillos 
clementer adjuves, ac defendas, desolata restaures, 
^taurata conserves, ulciscaris injusta, confirmes bene 

K'Ethelredy immediately succeed- pitiare Christianissimo regi nos- 
ing the prayer *' Deus electormn/' tro, ut omnis hostiucp suorum for- 
sceabove, note 30, proceeds; titudo, virtute gladii spiritualis» 
[*" Hie detur gladius. Accipe frangatur, ac te pro illo pugnante 
ooQc gladium cum Dei benedic- penitus conteratur. Per. 
tione tibi oollatum, in quo per vir- " Hie coronetur Rex, etc.'* 
^i^to Sancii Spiritus resistere et See below. 
gioer eomnes inimicos tuos va- Without specifying all the vari- 
^] et cunctos sanctae Dei eccle- ations, of which the chief is the 
fi>« adversarios» regnumque tibi omission of the antiphon, *' Con* 
^'^"x^oussiuntutariyatqueprot^ere fortare/' it will be sufficient to 
^stri Deiy per auxilium invictis- state here» that from hence, to the 
im tnumphatoris Domini nostri benediction *< Sta et retine," with 
<^^ Christi, qui cum Patre in which the earlier Forms conclude, 
^i^t« Spiritus Sancti vivit et all the other MSS. follow the 
^^P***** order and prayers of the text: 

, „ except that one of them only, via. 

^^ quiprovidentia tuacQslestia that of K. Edward II., gives the 
sunol et terrena moderaris, pro- benediction of the ring, and that 

* 'Hm 6v8t part of this prayer, within brackets, b supplied from 
^ Cotton MS. Hberius B. viij. 


De 15tnttiUttimt et 

disposita, quatenus hsec in agendo, virtutum triumpl i 
gloriosusi justitiaeque cultor.egregius, cum mundi Sal 
vatore, cujus typum geris in nomine, sine fine mer&l 
lis regnare. Qui cum Pati^e. 

Accinetus autem tnst^ similiter armillas*^ accipiai 
dicente metropolitano vel episcopo : 

the Dublin MS. omits also the 
benediction of the crown. The 
Dublin MS. is moreover imper- 
fect, ending with the delivery of 
the sceptre. 

* *' Et mox rex accinetus sur- 
git» et eximit ensem de vagina, 
illumque viriliter vibrat, deinde 
super brachium sinistrum tergit, 
ac iterum coram metropolitano 
genuflectit." Pontif. Ronu Of 
this somewhat absurd ceremony, 
we do not find any trace in the 
English Forms. The student 
should compare however the form, 
« De benedictione novi militis" in 
the same pontifical; from which 
it seems to have been introduced. 

^ There is certainly some diffi- 
culty about the " armillaa :*' not 
as regards the shape, and purpose, 
and mode of being put on, for all 
these points are cleared by the ru- 
bric presently cited from the Liber 
Regalis; but with respect to the 
name. There can be little doubt 
that the '' armilla" was originally 
a bracelet ; as Ducange explains 
the word in his glossary, dting 
Strabo, lib* 4. and Polybius, Ub, 2. 
The same learned writer adds: 
'' Has denique armillas, quas et 
Baugas vocabant, ut prsdpua 

regis dignitatis omamenta hab^ 
isse Francos nostros, plnribus d^ 
cuimus ad Alexiadem pag. 261 
quod etiam de Danis ac 'AngU 
testatur Simeon Dunelm. iid. i 
cap. Id. et Thorn. Walsinghand 
p. 196.- 

A late writer, Mr. Taylor, hai 
observed, (on the correctness oi 
which I cannot venture an opi 
nion,) '* the word baugtts identic 
fies the * armillse' here spokeci 
of with the Islandic baugrr, and 
armbaugr the bea; and eajim-befl^ 
of the Anglo - Saxons ; — their 
bracelet or arm-ring." Glory oj 
regality y p. M. 

But I do not think the difficulty 
above spoken of, is so great as 
some would make it : who argue 
that anciently the stole and the 
armil were two different thingSi 
put on separately : first the stole, 
then the armil or bracelet. I do 
not see that there is any reasonable 
ground to suppose this: but ra- 
ther, that the armil was always 
made in the shape of a stole, and 
answered the purpose of it It 
was called armil, because after be- 
ing put about the neck, it was tied 
to the arms. Mr. Taylor, above 
mentioned, appeals to Thomas 

Coronatidne Hegfff. 29 

Accipe annillas sinceritatis et sapientise, divinsBque 
eircnmdationis indicium, ^uibus intelligas omnes ope- 
rationes tuas contra hostes visibiles et invisibiles posse 
e^e momtas : per Dominum.^' 

Wilsingbam, as '* a triumphant 
tuthority" to prove that the two 
vere, andently» different things: 
Int the place he refers to is by no 
■eiM so clear to that effect : for 
the historian says, that first the 
ttole was put on, then that the 
archbishop delivered the armills. 
**Proiecta drca collom ejus stola, 

tunc duo comites eum gladio 

•conxenmt, quo facto, archiepis- 
tcfus annillas dedit ei, dicens: 
Acdpe annillas, «fc," HistAngL 
f . 196. This may well be under- 
stood to signify that these armill» 
*ere first laid upon the shoulders 
of the king " in modum stolae :" 
>od when about to be tied to the 
*"n9i the archbishop repeated the 
prescribed form. Nor would there 
^ any obscurity in Walsingham's 
•^ant, if he had not inserted the 
•aomit of the sword. The two 
«ids however of the armillsB might 
during that time have been pen- 
^lit, and untied. But in short : 
*" this ai^gument rests upon the 
«i??08itiou that Walsingham is 
«<>>Tect in every detail : he might 
)^]?« been so : but whether or not, 
< » impossible that he can be so 
^terpreted as to be made to say, 
^t the armill» and the stole 
^ere two different things: for the 
^^\ Fonn and Order of that 

coronation which he describes b 
the Liber Regalis, from which I 
have transcribed in the following 
note a rubric, which settles the 

This is a long note, yet I would 
add the following from " the Little 
Devise of the coronacion of Hen- 
rie VI 1 ." " And it is to wit that 
armyll is made in manner of a 
stole woven with golde and set 
with stones, to be put by the car- 
dinall about the king^s neck, and 
comyng from bothe shulders to 
his bothe elbowes, where thei shall 
be fastenid by the abbot of West- 
minster, with lace of silke to euerie 
side the elbowe in two places; 
that is to say, aboue the elbowes 
and beneth." Ives^ select papers, 
p. 110. 

^ The Liber Regalis, and the 
margin of the Pontifical, have the 
following rubric : 

" Ists quidem armillse, in mo- 
dum stolsB, circa coUum et ah utra- 
que scapula usque ad compages 
brachiorum erunt dependentes, in 
ipsis brachiorum compagibus la- 
queis sericis connexae, prout ple- 
nius per ipsarum poterit discern! 
compositionem. Deindepalliore- 
gali induetur; quod quidem pal- 
lium quadnim est, et aquilts aureis 
per totum contextum. Et dicat 


De T5mttiittiimt et 

Deinde tradatur ei palliumy^ metrapolitam dkente sic i 

Accipe pallittm quatuor initiis formatum, per quo<l 
intelligas quatuor mundi partes divinse potestati es»! 
subjectas, nee quemquam posse felieiter regnare iii 
terris, nisi cui potestas regnandi fiierit collata de coelis i 
Per Dominum. 

Sequatur benedictio coroncSy hoc modo : 

Deus, tuorum corona fidelium, qui in capitibus eorum 
ponis coronam de lapide pretioso, bene ^ die et sane- 
ti^fica coronam istam, quatenus sicut ipsa diversis 
pretiosisque lapidibus adomatur, sic famulus tuus ges- 
tator ipsius multiplici pretiosarum virtutum munere, 
tua largiente gratia, repleatur : per Dominum nostrum, 
Jesum Christum, Filium tuum, Regem sBtemum. Qui 

metropolitanus vel episcopus : 
' Accipe pallium,' etc. 

The order of K. Ethelred does 
not notice the armills or the pal- 
lium. See above, note 39. 

" ** Pallium quadrangulumy 
cujusmodi etiam fuit Romanorum 
paludamentum, regum noatrorum 
proprium fuit : sic autem describi- 
tur a monacho Sangellensi, lib, 1. 
cap. 33. Gloriosissimus Caro- 
lus ad noctumas laudes pendulo 
et prqfundissimo pallio utehatur. 
Cap, 36. Ultimus habitus eorum 
erat pallium canumveU sapphi' 
ricum quadrangulumy duplex^ 
ncformatum^ ut cum imponere- 
tur humeris, ante et retro pedes 
tegeretf de lateribvs vero vix ge- 
nua contegeret. Quod quidero pal- 
lii genus etiamnum retinent prin- 

cipes nostri in suis inaugnrationi- 
bus." Ducange: glass, in verb. 
The open pall, as worn by K. 
James II. is figured in Sandford's 
account of that coronation: he 
calls it also the Dalmatic: by 
which we may suppose that the 
" robe royal " of modem days, or 
Dalmatic, is the ancient palL But 
they were properly distinct vest- 
ments, and of different shapes. 
The Dalmatic, was a super-tunic, 
proper to deacons ; and originally 
restricted to bishops. The first 
mention of it as an ecclesiastical 
garment is in the life of S. Cy- 
prian, by his deacon: who, de- 
scribing his martyrdom, says; 
'* Cum se dalmatica exspoliasset, 
et diaconibus tradidisset, in linea 
stetit.** I need scarcely remind 

Coronatione Eegrfiei* 31 

Tunc asptrgatur aqua benedicta** super coronam^ et 
incense^r ; deinde imponatur corona capiti regis a me" 
tropoUtano, dicente hoc modo : 

Coronet** te Deus corona glorise, atque justitise 
honorey et opere fortitudinis, ut per oflScium nostrse 
bene^ dictionis, cum fide recta et multiplici bonorum 
operum fiructu, ad coronam pervenias regni perpetui, 
ipso largiente, cujus regnum permanet in saecula seecu- 

AUa oratio. 

Dens perpetaitatisy dux virtutuiDy cunctorum hostium 
Tictor, bene ^ die hunc famulum tuum .N. tibi caput 
snum inclinanteiDy et prolixa sanitate et prospera fe- 
licitate eum conserva, et ubicumque auxilium tuum 
invocaverit, cito adsis, et protegas ac defendas. Tri- 
boe ei, quaesumus Domine, divitias gratise tuae, comple 
in bonis desiderium ejus, corona eum in misericordia 
tua, tibique Domino pia devotione jugiter famuletur: 
Per Dominum. 

Postea cantetur hac antiphona : 

Confortare, et esto vir, et observa mandata Domini 
Dei tuiy ut ambules in viis ejus, et custodias cseremo- 
nias ejus, et preecepta ejus, et testimonia, et judicia, et 
quocunque te verteris confirmet te Deus. 

Ps. Dominus regit. 

the reader, that this ** pall" is a quity,in this place: occurring af* 

very different thing from the pall ter the rubric ." Hie coroneiur 

ofan^archbishop. rejF^ eigue dicaturi* (see Note 

^ *< — minutatim super coro- 39,) in the Anglo-Saxon order 

Dim, atque a metropolitano vel of K. Ethelred. Between the two 

episcopo incensetur : etc*^ Lib. prayers in that manuscript is this 

Regalia. The rubric is the same rubric, *' Oratio super regem, 

in the order of K. Edward II. postquam coronafueriiimponta 

^ This and the succeeding super caput efue. Deus perpe- 

praver are of very high anti- tuitatis. ete.** 

32 De iBenebictfone et 

Sequitur benedictio annulu 

Deus, ccBlestium terrestriumque conditor creatur 
rum, atque humani generis benlgnissime reparato 
dator spiritualis gratiae, omniumque benedictionai 
largitor, qui justitiam tusB legis in cordibus crecLentiui 
digito tuo, id est, Unigenito tuo seribis, cui ma^ i 
Sgypto resistere non valentes concinebant, dicentes 
digitus Dei est hie, immitte Spiritum Sanctum Para 
clitum tuum de ccelis super hunc annulum arte fabri] 
decoratum, et sublimitatis tuae potentia ita eum emiyi 
dare digneris, ut omni nequitia lividi venenosique ser 
pentis procul expulsa, metallum a te bono Conditor^ 
creatum immune a cunctis sordibus inimici maneati 
Per Christum. 


Bene ^ die, Domine, etsancti^fica annulum istum, 
et mitte super eum septiformem Spiritum tuum, quo 
famulus tuus eo fruens, annulo fidei subarratus, yirtute 
Altissimi sine peccato custodiatur, et omnes benedic- 
tiones quae in scripturis divinis reperiuntur super eum 
copiose descendant, ut qusecumque sanctificaverit sanc- 
tificata permaneant, et quaecumque benedixerit spiri- 
tuali benedictione benedicantur : Per Dominum: in 
unitate ejusdem. 

Deinde detur ei annulusj metropoUtano dicente: 

Accipe regiae dignitatis annulum, et per hunc in te 
catholic8D fidei signaculum, quatenus ut hodie ornaris 
caput et princeps regni ac populi, ita perseveres auc- 
tor ac stabilitor Christianitatis et Christianae fidei ; ut 
felix in opere, locuples in fide, cum Rege regum glo- 
rieris, cui est honor et gloria per eetema saeculorum 
seecula. Amen. 

Deus, cujus est omnis potestas et dignitas, da iamulo 
tuo suae propriae dignitatis effectum, in qua, te remune- 

Coronatione WitQis. 


rante, permaneat, semperque te timeat, tibique jugiter 
placere contendat. Per Dominum. 

Ddnde accipiat ensem unde accinctus fuerat^ et eum 
tuper aUare Deo offeratj quern comes aliis superior re- 
dimety et redemptum ante eum deferet nudum.^ Cum 
idur ei sceptrum^'' dicat metropoiitanus : 

Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis insigne, virgam 
scilicet regni rectaniy virgam virtutis, qua teipsum 
bene regas, sanctam ecclesiam populumque videlicet 
Christianum, tibi a Deo commissum, regia virtute ab 
improbis defendas, pravos corrigas, rectos pacifices, et 
Qt nam rectam tenere possint tuo juvamine dirigas, 
quatenus de temporali regno ad eeteraum regnum per-» 
venias, ipso adjuvante cujus regnum permanet in see-* 
cula ssBculorum. Amen. 

Post^ datum sceptrum^ oratio. 

^ The Liber Regalis and the 
zoargin of the Pontifical add: 
" Cujus ensis pretium dicto altari 
I*rtinet Delude dabitur ei scep- 
tnim in mani> dextra, quod qui- 
^ Bceptram aureum est, in 
rajus snmmitate crux parva col- 
locator, prias cbirothecis de re- 
g^bas manibus ejus applicatis, a 
i&elropolitano vel episcopo di- 
^tc: 'Accipe sceptrum* etc.* 

In the order of K. Ethelred, 
the rubric immediately succeed- 
^? the prayer (see Note 45.) 
"Deus perpetuitatis" is, ''Hie 
^^tur regi sceptrunif eique dica' 
'«'•.•• Accipe sceptrum* e/c." The 
f«ader will observe that all this 
p2rt of the Office can be traced in 
the same order, up to the Anglo- 
^uon age. 
VOL. in. 

^ There cannot be a better 
distinction laid down between the 
two sceptres, the '' sceptrum" and 
the " virga," than that in the ru- 
bric from the Liber Regalis in the 
note above, compared with the suc- 
ceeding one from the same book, 
in note 49. Namely, that the 
one was surmounted by a cross, 
the other by a dove. And Hove- 
den, in his account of the corona- 
tion of Richard L, gives the same 
explanation. We learn from the 
Ethelred order, that there was a 
distinction in the Saxon age, be- 
tween the two sceptres : and I do 
not see any reason to suppose, but 
that it was of the same kind then, 
as in after years. 

** " Oratio super regem^post- 
quam datum fuerit ei sceptrum; 


1 te abt prss 

-sii^'^rp !*Jiisoiiiia. visit 
••insxEsa Titae» in diebu 

??r CIinbiiuiL. 

I •« * 

j-:fc * :ni -r* **■ <* •" sfTTfT^ Tip^ymous: erranles vian 
.. - .r^'^-*:** T^inzr ^-rrr^*. liswriasu ae snperboe 
. ^- . -^ -.zi^ .-^ :r x^rT^-T "ibi i^cum J^sob Chris 

-.iz. v^ T»* - 'iiir rrr» -rrrr sL-Tflirur. Et ipse qa 

*i • ^ -> Ti -.. •" '^-'-Tiai uiiniis L?aeL qm aperi 

* •?.'i'' k-j^ * .j.-:i.i: -^ nflio laerrc* set dbi adjutor 

'.:: ♦•..^'-: ^r:?.-^:::r ^ :.:=u ar.t«r!s sedenlem in te 

Tc-r-^ e =L«rr* aur^?^ ir jr iiaaibifc agqm merearii 

-CX iji- t:. ^ — .r:'^ 7^*^ :«mra Sedes tna, Deus 

:r ^i;3^-'i..z:2: s2>.'^. ~nrt "^^ta ^sst ^irga regni tui: e 

:- ::<:t* ^;:^ ;-.u. c. a\. Z^2iX» jnsciim ct odio ha 

N^ ni^^unavm.. ^p-.TmT» \\i\\ «f I>mis» Dens tuus 

^if» £i?^r:r:e ii£ ,♦• «n-^rtmL iZZis qofsi ante ssecul^ 

trrv.'**«* TPv j ai ;- L > •::•** us attis». IX'cdiiuni nostrum, Je^ 

«^tnntmt^ I^iwimK inn^ }wixk*nii&. xai tbe sai^ of Sar. Pontif 

^' -* K. l^ jv»i'V'G* TSe mbric in the order of K- 

* "* Objt < r i.'vnt ^.Tx« Arrwi Etbdred, preoeding the " Accipc 

<^. KxSrvi» -r. 'iQmiirhar^ <vfe»- Tir^am,** is: ** Hie regi tirga 

Coronatione 810010. 


Tunc dicatur^ super eum benedict io sequenf: 
Benedicat tibi Dominus, custodiatque te, et sicut te 
Yoluit super popjilum suum esse regem, ita in prsesenti 
^eculo feliceiDy et setemae felicitatis tribuat esse con- 
sortem. Amen. 

* Tins benediction is appointed 
ia the order of K. Henry I., and 
m the very ancient Cotton MS. 
Tiberias. B. yiij : also of the xjth 
ceotarj. But in the Anglo- 
Saxon Form of K. Ethelred we 
htfe the following: 

^Benedictio ad regem. 

"Extendat omnipotens Domi- 
BUS dexteiem suae benedictionis, 
et effnndat super te donum suae 
protectionism et circumdet te muro 
fitUcitatis, ac custodia suaa protec- 
tionis: Sancts Marias, ac beati 
Petri Apostolorum principis, sanc- 
tiqae Gregorii Anglorum apostoli 
atque omnium sanctorum interce- 
dentibas mentis. Amen. 

** Indnlgeat tibi Dominus om- 
nia mala quae gessistiy et tribuat 
tibi gratiam et misericordiam quam 
hnmiliter ab eo deposds^ ut liberet 
te ab adyersitatibus cunctis, et ab 
omnibus visibilium et invisibilium 
ininiicoram insidiis. Amen. 

** Angelos suos bonos semper et 
ubique qui te prscedant, corai- 
teotur et subsequantur, ad custo- 
£am tui ponat, et a peccato seu 
gUdio, et ab omnium periculorum 
discrimine sua te potentia liberet. 

Inimicos tuos ad pads caritatis- 
^ benignitatem convertat, et 
boDis omnibus te gratiosum et 

amabilem &ciat, pertinaces quo- 
que in tui insectatione et odio con- 
fusione salutari induat : super te 
autem sanctificatio sempitema flo- 

" \^ctorio8um te atque trium- 
phatorem de invisibilibus atque 
visibilibus hostibus semper efficiat, 
et sancti nominis sui timorem pa- 
riter et amorem continuum cordi 
tuo infundat, et in fide recta ac 
bonis operibus per^everabilem red- 
dat,et pace in diebus tuis concessa» 
cum palma victorise te ad perpe- 
tuum regnum producat. Amen. 

*' £t qui te Yoluit super popu- 
lum suum constituere regem, et in 
praesenti saeculo felicem, et aetemae 
felicitatis tribuat esse consortem. 


*' Beiiedic, Domine, hunc prae- 
electum principem, qui regna om- 
nium qui regna omnium regum a 
saeculo moderaris. Amen. 

'* Et tali eum benedictione glo- 
rifica, ut Davidica teneat sublimi- 
tate sceptrum salutis: et sancti- 
ficae propitiationis munere repe- 
riatur locupletatus. Amen. 

'' Da ei tuo spiramine regere 
populum sicut Salomonem fe- 
cisti regnum obtinere pacificum. 

" Dengnatio status regis. 

" Sto et retine. etc'' 


De IBenenicttbne et 

Clerum ac populum, quern sua voluit opitulatioi 
tua sanctione congregari, sua dispensatione et tua a> 
ministratione per diutuma tempora faciat feliciter g 
bemari. Amen. 

Quatenus divinis monitis parentes, adversantibi 
omnibus carentes, bonis omnibus exuberantes, tao in 
perio fideli amore obsequentes, et in praesenti saecu^ 
pacis tranquillitate fruantur, et tecum setemorum c 
vium consortio potiri mereantur. Amen. 

Quod ipse prsestare dignetur.** 

Coronatus autem osculetur episcopos^ a quibus vero i 
etiam aliis regni proceribus ducetur ad regale so/iun 
choro canente: 

Te Deum laudamus. 

Quo hymno adjinem producto^ dicat metropolitan us: 

Sta et retine amodo locum, quem hucusque patem 

° In the Liber Regalia, and in 
the margin of the Pontifical, the 
rubric is : 

*' Et prsBvideatur a sacrista 
Westm. quod omamenta regalia 
cum magna corona prius sint su- 
per magnum altare honorifice 
oollocata: ut omnia fiant sine im- 
pedimento, propter maximam ple- 
bis confluentiam, quae in hujus- 
modi coronationibus indubitanter 
solet eyenire. Coronatus autem 
rex, et regalibus prius indutus per 
abbatem Westm. caligis, sanda- 
His, et calcaribus coaptatis, oscu- 
labitur episcopos, a quibus, etcJ* 

There is sufficient evidence in 
history, that the caution in this 
rubric, as to the throng of peo- 
ple, was not uncalled for: thus. 

Walsingham tells us, in his ac 
count of the coronation of Edw 
II., '* Fuit autem ibi tanta com 
pressio populi, ut quidam mile 
Johannes de Blackwel, sine via 
tico ezpiraret." HistAngL p. 96 
And again, incidentally, as to thi 
coronation itself of K. Richan 
II., *' Adveniente die praefizo, coo 
veniunt de cunctis regni partibuf 
in tanta quidem copia, ut nume 
rus Londonise confluentium mul 
titudinem eorum, qiu ad regis co 
ronationem paucis annis ante con 
fluxerant excessive (multorum tes 
timonio) superaret." p, 237. Se< 
also HoUnshed, Vol. 3, p. 319. 

dicat consecram 

regemr Ruhr. Lib. Regalis. 

Cotonatione Witslsi. 


saccessione tenuisti hsereditario judicio, tibi delegatum 
per aactoritatem Dei omnipotentis, et prsesentem tra- 
didonem nostram et omnium episcoporum c8Bterorum- 
qae Dei servorum : et quanto clerum sacris altaribus 
propinqaiorem perspicis, tanto ei potiorem in locis 
congruis honorem impendere memineris; quatenus 
mediator Dei et hominum,^ te mediatorem cleri et 
plebis in hoc regni solio confirmet, et in regnum seter- 
nam regnare faciat, Jesus Christus, Dominus Noster, 
Rex regum, et Dominus dominantium: Qui cum 
Patre et Spiritu Sancto, vivit et regnat in saecula ssecu- 
lorum. Amen.** 

" Catalan! has some observa- 
tions, strange enough, as if the 
attributing the Mediatorial office 
to oar Blessed Saviour required 
explanation. Rather, whenever 
the term *^ mediators'* is applied 
to the clergy of ihe Church of 
^nst, it requires an explanation; 
aodthat we should remember the 
]Qst md proper sense, in which 
it was used by the older Fathers : 
^ot as suggesting any inter- 
^^n^ice with the incommunica- 
ble prerogative of our Blessed 
I^ by which He is the alone 
ttd sole Mediator between God 
*nd man, but as referring simply 
to an mfinitely lower degree of 
^''^^torship, which is ministerial 
only, and nothing more. It is in 
^is sense that the authors of the 
Apostolical Constitutions wrote, 
^^en they thus addressed the 
Bishops of that primitive age:— 
*M'*s TOit ty vfAiv XaiKoit iar§ 

ntpo^riTai^-oi fiitnrai Qtov Kai 
TOfv rifrrur ayrovJ* Lib. 2. Cap. 
XXV. And the very learned edi- 
tor, Cotelerius, refers to many si- 
milar passages in the Fathers, 
summing up the whole with this 
remark: ^ Solus Christus, aiunt 
theologi, mediator est naturae ac 
redemptionis ; sacerdotes autem 
mediatores sunt ministerii et in- 
tercessionis." So also S. Basil 
interpreted the text of S. Paul to 
the Galatians, not explaining away 
the real mediatorship (in its li- 
mited sense) of Moses, where he 
writes; " Toy yap fitorirriy Qtou 
Kai ayQpuirwy li tavrov rore 
TpoawBTVTfov iy Ttf Tov yofjLov Sia- 
Koyifj^, Ou yap tov Tlytvfiaroi 
rvTro£ rjy Mwi/vi/c, ra rpot roy 
&EOV T^ Xau fitffiTBvoy" De 
Spiritu Sancto, Cap. xiv. 33. 

** The reader will remember, 
see Note 39, that with this ''de- 
signatio status," as it is termed in 




Onmipotens sempitenie Dens det tibi, de rore cceli 
et de pinguedine terrsB, abandantiaiii frmneiiti et Tini 
et olei, et serviant tibi popoli, et adm^nt te tribiis. 
Esto dominus fratntm taorum, et inconrentiir ante te 
filii matris toae. Qui benedixeiit tibi benedictionibus 
repleatur, et Dens erit adjat(»r tans. Onmipotens 
Deas benedicat tibi benedictionibns ccbU desuper, et in 
montibus et in collibus, benedictionibas abyssi jacentis 
deorsum^ benedictionibiis ubemm et fimmeiitonnn, be- 
nedictionibus uvarum pomonunque ; benedictiones pa- 
trum antiquorum, Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob» confir- 
matae sint super te, per omnia saecula saeculorum. 

Bene ^ die, Domine, fortitudinem hujus principis, et 

K. Ethelred*s order, the earlier 
Forms conclude. And in fact 
the two succeeding prayers would 
seem to belong properly to the 
mass which follows, and where 
they are ordered in the Pontifical 
to be said, as the student will ob- 
serve. Hence they are not placed 
here in the order of Edward II., 
nor in the Liber Regalis, nor in 
the MS. in the King's Library. 
(Brit. Mus.) 12. D. iij. In the 
Evesham pontifical, however, 
(Lansdown MS. 451) we find 
them placed as in the text. But 
what is very remarkable, they are 
appointed to be said here, in the 
very ancient Anglo-Saxon order 
of K. Ethelred, with which that 
Form concludes. Thus : 
'* Sta et retine, etc. 

^ Sequitur oratio. Onmipo- 
tens Deus det tibi, etc* 

" Alia oratio. Benedic, Do- 
mine, fortitudinem, etc» 

Finit consecratio regUJ* Then 
follows the Order for a Queen: 
and the proper mass. In my re- 
mark above, that these two pray- 
ers would seem to belong more 
properly to the mass, I am borne 
out by a marg^inal note in. the 
Pontifical, in a somewhat later 
hand: viz.: "Istse duse orationes 
sequentes debent dici super re- 
gem infra missam, postquam ob- 
lationem fecerit." But the reader 
will not fail to perceive that the 
text, below, of the Pontifical itself 
leaves it doubtful : merely saying, 
" vel dicantur loco quo intitulan- 
tur, secundum quosdam.** 

Coronatione laegitf. 39 

>pera manuum illius suscipe; et benedictione tua 
:erra ejus de bonis repleatur» de fructu cceli et rore, 
Uque abyssi subjacentisy de fructu soils et lunae, de 
rertice antiquorum montium, de pomis aetemorum col- 
iimn, et de finigibus terree et plenitudine ejus. Be- 
ne^i^dictio illius qui apparuit in rubo veniat super 
caput istius, et plena sit benedictio Domini in filiis 
ejus, et tingat in oleo pedem suum. Comua rhino- 
cerontis comua illius, in ipsis ventilabit gentes usque 
ad terminos terrse, et Ascensor cceli auxiliator suus in 
sempitemum fiat. Per Dominum : qui tecum vivit. 

Rege itaque in solio suo taliter collocatOj pares regni 
Return regem undique circumstanteSy manibus palam 
(stensis in signum JidelitatiSy afferent se ad dicti regis 
rt dkUt coronue sustentatianem.^ 

Deinde sequatur coronatio regina^ si eodem diefuerit 

Sin autenij incipiatur officium missa^ a cantor ibus de 

* The Liber Regalia and the Either before, or after, or mixed 

™«gmof the Pontifical add: up with the rites and ceremonies 

*^Et illi praecipue qui stirpe re- of the solemnity itself. Nor has 

P^ sunt propinquiores in susten- it been otherwise with other Chris- 

^«^em corons, sceptr», et vir- tian nations. Thus Baronitu 

gSi regies labores alleviabunt: (ad annum 816) speaks of the 

^ prius dicto regi, ab omnibus coronation of Louis the Pious and 

proceribus regni tunc prsesenti- his queen. " Postea pontifex ho- 

^ pubVice super dictum pulpi- noravit eum magnis honoribus, et 

^ homagio." multis, et reginam Irmingardam, 

There is scarcely an instance et omnes optimates, et ministros 

^POQ record, from the time that ejus: et in proxima dominica, 

^ ^Tooation of our sovereigns ante missarum solenmia, coram 

«came an office especially to be clero, et omni populo, consecravit 

WW by the Church, that the eum, et unxit ad imperatorem, 

celebration of the Holy Commu- etc.** Again, the same historian, 

^^ did not also form part of it. describing a coronation by Pope 

40 De iBendrtctione et 

sokmnitate diei^ si contigerit dlctam fieri coronationein 
in festo solenmi. Si vera evepierit quod dicta cormatic 
Jiat in simplici die^ dicatur, missa prius de daminica a 
conventu debito modo cekbrataj missa speciaiis pro rcge: 
videlicet^ Officium: 

Protector noster aspice Deus, et respice in faciem 
Christi tui : quia meliof est dies una in atriis tuis super 

Ps. Quam dilecta tabemacula tua, Domine virtu- 
tum : concupiscit et deficit anima mea in atria Domini. 

Etquocumque tempore anni dicta coronatio fait facia ^ 
dicetur ad missam : 

Gloria in excelsis Deo. 


Quaesumus^^ omnipotens Deus, ut famulus tuus rex 
noster, qui tua miseratione suscepit regni gubemacula, 
virtutum etiam omnium percipiat incrementa, quibus 
decenter omatus, et vitiorum* voraginem devitare, 
et hostes superare, et ad te, qui via Veritas et vita es, 
gratiosus valeat pervenire : Per Dominum. 

Et si regina fuerit eodem die coronata^ dicetur ad 
missam pro rege quam pro regina, ista oratio. 

Stephen II. in the precedmg cen- tion with the Eucharistic Service, 
tury, says : " Inter celehrationem "^ The " Missa pro rege ordi- 
consecrationis altaris, et ohlatio- nato," in K. Ethelred's Office, 
nem sacratissimi sacrifieii, unxit commences with this collect, the 
in reges Francorum florentissi- same, except the variation noticed 
mum regem [Pipinum] et duos just below. This mass gives a 
filios ejus, Carolum et Carloman- proper collect, secret, preface, and 
num." Ad annum 714. The benediction: there was a post- 
reader will also see, by reference communion also, or '* eid com- 
to the Appendix to this office. No. plendum^ but the MS. ends, im- 
2, that in the viijth century, accord, perfect, with those words, 
ing to the pontifical of archbishop ^ *' Et vitiorum monstra de- 
Egbert, it was the custom to mix vitare, et ad te, qui via, etc^ Or- 
up the solemnities of the corona- ^er of K. Ethelred. 

Cotonatione IKegijaf. 4^ 

Dens, in cujus manu eorda sunt regum, qui es hur 
milium consolator, et fidelium fortitude, et protector 
>nuiium in te sperantium, da regi nostro .N. et re- 
tinae Bostrse .N. populoque Christiano, triumphum 
rirtutis tuae scienter excolere, ut per te semper repa*» 
rentur ad veniam. Per Dominum. 
Lectio epistola beati Petri Apostoli. 
Carissinu; subjecti estote omni humanse creatures 
propter Deum, sive regi quasi prsecellenti, sive duci- 
bus tanquam ab eo missis, ad vindictam malefactorum, 
laudem vero bonorum. Quia sic est voluntas Dei, ut 
benefacientes obmutescere faciatis imprudentium ho- 
minmn ignorantiam. Non quasi velamen habentes 
malitise Ubertatem, sed sicut servi Dei. Omnes hono^ 
rate, fratemitatem diUgite. Deum timete, regem ho- 
Dorificate. Servi subditi estote in omni timore do- 
minis* Non tantum bonis et modestis; sed etiam 
discolis. Haec est enim gratia in Christo, Jesu, Do- 
mino nostro. 

Gr. Dirigatur oratio mea sicut incensum in con- 
spectu tuo, Domine. 

Vers. Elevatio manuum mearum sacrificium vesper- 
tmum. Alleluia. 

Vers. Domine, in virtute tua leetabitur rex : et super 
salutare tuum exultabit vehementer. 

Si dicta caronatio Jiat infra Septtmgesimamj dicatur 
Kquens Tractus: 

Desiderium animi ejus tribuisti ei, et voluntate la- 
biorum ejus non fraudasti eum. 

Vers. Quoniam prsevenisti eum in benedictione 

Vers. Posuisti super caput ejus coronam de lapide 
Secundum MattJueum. 
In illo tempore : Abeuntes Pharissei consilium ini- 

42 De IBeneOictione et 

erunt, ut caperent Jesum in sermone. Et mittunt e| 
discipulos 8U08 cum Herodianis dicentes; Magisterj 
Bcimus quia verax es, et viam Dei in veritate doces, el 
non est tibi cura de aliquo. Non enim respicis per^ 
sonam hominum. Die ergo nobis quid tibi videtur 
Si licet censum dari Ceesari an non? Cognita autei^ 
Jesus nequitia eorum ait; Quid me tentatis, hyp<^ 
critSB ? Ostendite mihi numisma census. At illi ol^ 
tulerunt ei denarium. Et ait illis Jesus, Cujus e^ 
imago hsBc et superscriptio ? Dicunt ei, Caesarifl 
Tunc ait illis : Reddite ergo qu» sunt Ceesaris Caesari 
et quse sunt Dei Deo. i 

Lecto evangelioj dum symbolum a chore cantatur\ 
major inter archiepiscopos sive episcopas tunc assisten^ 
librum evangelii accipiet^ et tarn ad regem quam ad re\ 
ginam deportabit ad osctUandum. Deinde referet a4 
archiepiscopum she episcopum qui missam cekbrat. Qi^ 
vera evangelistario a dicta pontifice deosculato, symbo- 
loque a choro decantato^ incipiatur Offertorium. 

Intende voci orationis meee, rex meus et Deus meus^ 
quoniam ad te orabo, Domine. 

Dum canitur offertorium^^ precedent rex et r^ina de, 
soliis suis coronati ad altare^ dictique metropolitani ma- 
nibus vel missam celebrantis oblationem panis et vini, 
imitando Melchisedechj [rea;?] imponet. Deinde offeret 
marcam auri^ et postea regina offeret oblationem suanij 
et capite regis ante altare paululum inclinato, dicat pan- 
tifex qui cekbrat missam orationes sequentes. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Omnipotens Deus det tibi de rore coeli. 

Benedic, Domine, fortitudinem hujus principis. 

» " Oblatio panis, et vini, et unius marca9." Marginal note in 
the Pontifical. 

Corotiatione IBitti». 43 

Ul suproj^ vel dicantur loco quo intitulanturj secun- 
m quosdam. 

His orationibusJinitiSj reducantur ad sedes suas. 
Sequatur Secretum. 

Munera, qusesumus Dominey oblata sanctifica, ut et 
bis Unigeniti tui corpus et sanguis fiant, et famulo 
regi nostro ad obtinendam animse corporisque sa- 
tern, et ad peragendum injunctum officium, te lar- 
mte, usquequaque perficiant. Per eundem. 
Allud secretum pro rege et regina.^^ 
Sascipe, Deus, preces et hostias ecclesiss tuse, pro 
kte Bamuli tui regis nostri .A^. et reginse nostrse 
(. et protectione fidelium populorum, supplicantis ut 
idqua brachii tui te operante miracula, superatis ini- 
Kis, secora tibi serviat Christianorum Ubertas. Per 
'ominum nostrum, Jesum Christum, Filium tuum. 
Prtefatio^ in coronatione regis. 
Sterne Deus, qui es fons immarcessibilis lucis, et 
ngo perpetuse bonitatis, regum consecrator, bonorum 
muium attributor, dignitatumque largitor. Cujus 
neffabilem clementiam votis omnibus exoramus, ut 
teulum tnum .N* quern r^alis dignitatis fiastigio 
^luisti sublimari, sapientiae cseterarumque virtutum 
mamentis facias decorari. Et quia tui est muneris 
pod regnat, tuae sit pietatis quo id feliciter agat, qua- 

^ See abore, p. 38, and the Evesham pontifical. The Liber 

Me there. It may be added Regalis reads: '^ Suscipe, Do- 

^ that the mass in the text mine, preces," etc 

pees, generally, with that ap- " The order of K. Ethelred 

pointed in the order of K. Ed- appoints this Preface; and it is 

>ard II. somewhat remarkable that the 

^ This does not occur in the Evesham pontifical, unless I am 

Royal MS. D. 12. iij.,nor in the mistaken in my note of it, has no 

«fier of Edward II., nor in the proper Preface. 

44 Oe iBeneOicttone et 

tenus in fundamento spei fidei caritatisque fundatu 
peccatorum labe abstersus, de visibilibus et inyisibil 
bus hostibus triumphator effectus, subject! populi auj 
mentO) prosperitate et securitate exhilaratus, cum e 
mutua dilectione connexus, et transitorii regni gube 
nacula inculpabiliter teneat, et ad aetemi infinita gai 
dia, te miserante, perveniat. Per Cbristum Domina 

Sequatur ante Agnus Dei, Benedict io^ super rege 
et populum. 

Omnipotens Deus carismatum suorum vos locuplefc 
jocunditate, et regem nostrum ecclesiastical pacis pe 
frui faciat tranquillitate. Amen. 

Angelum sanctum suum ubique ei custodem tribui 
et defensorem, tamque vobis quam et illi yirtutu] 
sanctarum conferat vigorem. Amen. 

Ambitum regni sui in diebus ejus pax circuind< 
honesta, et quocumque se vertet, adversariorum vi 
enervetur infesta, omnisque in vobis religio abund< 
modesta. Amen. Quod ipse prsestare. 

Dum canitur Agnus Dei, accepto asculo pacis 
pontifice missam cekbrante^ is qui librum evangelii an\ 
detuleraty deftret pacem regi et regina in soliis suis r< 

^ The following is appointed perio, ut culmina regni sagacity 

in K. Ethelred's Form. prevideas, et hostinm machiiu 

** Benediction Providentia et menta fortiter repugnes. Amen» 
gubematio Dei omnipotentis, quae *' Quatenus lorica fidei munitu! 

te in regale dignitatis solium ho- ense trophsei stipatus, galea qu<: 

diema die mirifiee disposuit or- que salutis redimitus, securus vi 

dinare, dignetur te benedicere, t» tempora subtiliter et perspica 

sublimare» et triumphabiliter con- citer possideas, ut cum Christc 

finnare. ^^gc regum et Domino domino 

" Faciat te pmdentem consilio, rum, in sterns felicitatis reffn 

audaoem ingenio, prsdanun im- felidter regnare valeas. Amen* 

Cotohattone IRegi». 45 

identibus. Osculo autem pads a rege et regina accepto, 
hcendentes rtx et regina de soliis suis, et accedentes 
\umililer ad altarCj percipient corpus et sanguinem Do- 
nini de manu archiepiscopij vel episcopi missam cele- 
Srantis.^ Perceptis tarn a rege quam a regina corpore 
*t sanguine Christie ad dicta solia redibunt immediate. 
Quibus in sedibus suis residentibus, incipiatur a canto- 
nbus Communio. 

Intellige clamorem meum^ intende voci orationis 
meas, Rex meus et Deus meus, quoniam ad te orabo, 


Haec noSy Domine, communio purget a crimine, et 
bmolum tuum .N. regem nostrum ab omnibus tuea- 
tor adversis, quatenus et ecclesiasticee paeis obtineat 
tranquillitatem^ et post istius temporis decursum ad 
«ternam perveniat haereditatem. Per Dominum.^ 

Alia postcommunio pro rege et regina. 

Praesta, quaesumus omnipotens Deus, ut per haec 
mysteria quae sumpsimus, rex noster et regina nostra 
A. et populus Christianus semper rationabilia medi- 
tantes, quae tibi sunt placita et dictis exequantur et 
fectis. Per. 

** ^ Corpore vero Domini a foadere conjogali, sic etiam de 

^ reoepto, ministrabit ei yi- uno calico participare debent* 

Qom ad utendom post perceptio- Perceptis tarn, etc.** Liber Re- 

oem sacramenti abbas Westm. vel galis, and tbe margin of tbe Pon- 

^ qni vicem ejus pro tempore ge- tifical. 

nt, prout dictum est, de calice la- ^ The order for K. Edwd. II. 

pideo de regalibus; ac etiam re- ends here: with the rubric: *' Fi- 

i^oae post regem de eodem calice nit consecratio regis/* Nor is 

pnedictus abbas ministrabit, in this second post-communion in 

^ignoin videlicet unitatis. Quia the Royal MS. 12. D. iij., or, in 

Mcut in Christo sunt una caro the Evesham pontifical. 


De IBenentctione et 

Ejcpkta missaj descendant rex el regina de soUis suis^ 
et precedent ad magnum altare^ pantificibus et magna- 
tibus ipsos conjitantibus. Qui max ad altare cum per- 
venerintj dictus pantifex qui missam celebravitj et eisdem, 
vestimentis quibus fuerat prius pontificaliter induUUi 
altaris ministrisy ut prius indutiSy cum cerqferariis ei 
thuriferariis reverenter ipsum pracedentibus, usque aci 
feretrum sancti Edwardi est devote incessuruSy rege ei 
regina suis indutis regalibuSj cum dictis pantificibus ei 
proceribuSy dictum episcopum subsequentibus. Quo cmi« 
pervenerint ante altare dicti feretri, dictus pantifex dt* 
ponat coronas de capitibus eorum^ ponetque eas super 
altare prafatum : et catera.^ 

" The following long note is 
introduced into the text of the ru- 
bric of the Liber Regalis, and 
concludes in that MS. the Office 
of the Coronation of a King. 
Being too long to be written, as 
usual, on the margin of the Sa- 
rum Pontifical, an extra folio has 
been inserted» upon which it is 
written, not in red, but in black : 
with marginal notes, which are 
introduced also below. 

'* Deinde magnus camerarius' 
Angliae exuet regem regalibus an- 
tedictis, qase per dictum camera- 
rium singillatim, sicut a rege au- 
feruntur, tradentur abbati West- 
monasteriensi, yel vicem ejus 
agenti, ut ssepius prsBscriptum est. 

super dictum altare reponenda* 
Eritque ibi locus ^ clausus, jaxti 
altare, cum curtinis, per regitM 
ministros praeparatus, in quo rei 
de suis ut prsedictum est exntui 
regalibus, usque ad tonicam 8eri« 
cam et camisiam, ac caligas re- 
gales et sandaria, a dicto magno 
camerario^ aliis yestibus de novo 
erit reindutus. Regina interim 
coram dicto altare regem expcc 
tante, deponet etiam rex dictaa 
caligas et sandaria, que a dicto 
camerario praedicto abbati West^ 
monasteriensi yel locum ejus te* 
nenti integre restituantnr, et aliis 
caligis et sandariis induetur a ca- 
merario prsefato. 

" Rex* igitur ut prwdicium est 

Camerarius miagnus AngUs ' Camerarius reinduit regem< 
t regem. •* Processus regis ad altare fe- 

exuit regem. 

^ Locus clausus, juxta altare, 


Coronattone Eegis. 


i£is Testibna bonorifice reindatug, 
pnxxdet hcuniliter ad altare fere- 
tri antedictL Quo cum advene- 
rit, dietus archiepiscopus, sive 
episoopus, revestitus eodem modo 
qao fuerat qnando missam cele- 
tyrant» alias coronas* capitibus re- 
gis et reginae reverenter imponet. 
Qui sic a dicto pontifice coronati» 
et soeptra' tantum de regalibus 
in manibus portantes, a dicto fe- 
letro per magnum altare, et die 
torn pulpitom ascendentes, per 
medium cbori eadem via qua ve- 
oerant in ecclesiam, prsenomina- 
tb comitibos' prsedictos gladios 
coram rege deferentibus, cum 
magna gloria sunt reversuri. 

**' Et sciendum quod exterius 
indamentum, quo dictus rex illo 
£e ante coronationem fuerat in- 
datus, pertinet ad monacbum qui 
babet pro tunc custodiam vestibuli 
dicti monasterii. 

Rt providebitur illo die conven- 
toi Westmonasteriensi per regios 
ministros, quod dictus conventus 
percipiet* die eodem centum si- 
miks, et modium vini, ac etiam 
de piscibus, quantum convenit 
dignationi regali. Quid vero sit 
modios vini, et quae mensura, ex 
verbis P^iiae in suo elementario 
in .M. litera hac dictione modius, 
et in .S. litera bac dictione sex- 
tariom manifeste declaratur. 

*' Dicta vero sceptra^ libera- 
bnntur, statim finito prandio et 
rege tbalamum ingresso, abbati 
Westmonasteriensi sive alio mo- 
nacbo ad boc assignato, per ma- 
nus dictorum regis et reginse, ut 
una cum aliis regalibus in dicto 
monasterio, prout per bullas pa- 
pales, et regum cbartas, ac anti- 
qua et semper observata consue- 
tudine, plenius habetur; quod sit 
locus regisB institutionis et coro- 
nationis, ac etiam repositorium 
regalium insignium in perpetuum, 
sub bac enim ratione in rescriptis 
papalium privilegiorum et rega- 
lium cartarum, ecclesia prsefata, 
scilicet ecclesia beati Petri West- 
monasterii, diadema regni nomina- 
tur, caput pariter et corona, tan- 
quam ea quse sola inter ceteras 
Angliae ecclesias speciali prs^ro- 
gativa preefulget. 

^ Servit ea die senescallia comes 
Leceystrise, licet comes Norfol- 
cbiae illud sibi vendicaverit obse- 
quium. De mappario serviet .N. 
de Hastyng, qui extractas post 
prandium mappas tanquam suas. 
recipiet. Salarium et cultellos 
apponet JV. de Bello Campo de 
Dumely, cujus est officium pane- 
tariae. De officio pincemaris ser. 
viet comes de Arundell." 

In tbe above tbe word "pin- 
cema'* or " pincemarius** is thus 

* Impositio alterius coronas ca- 
pita regis. 
' Sceptrum. 
' Comites ut prius. 

^ Conventus babet illo die de 
rege, etc. 

^ Deliberatio sceptronim. 
' Domini servientcs in die. 

48 De IBenentctione tt Cotonatione i&egis. 

explained by Docange. ^Qui 
vinum convivis miscet. Catho- 
licon parvum, Pincema^ Bouteil* 
lev. Joan de Janua. Pincema 
dicUur vini dispensiUory vel pO' 
tius propinaior^ qui porrigii ex 
officio poculum domino 9uo.** 

The word *' simila'* also occurs^ 
which is thus expkined by Du- 
cange. "Simila, ut simenellus^ 
panis ex simila, vel edam placen- 
tulse species, quse d!\}\Afoliata di- 
citur." ^' Panis similaceus, ex 
SitniUit Grsecis atfuSaXirrfc^ cui 
secundum inter panes bonitatis 
locum assignat Galenus lib. 1. 
de aliment. Anglis simnelhread^ 
Inde regiis mensis ministrari olim 
solitus. Liber de situ ecclesiae 
Belli in Anglia. Constitueru in 
primo monachit efusdem ecclesicB 
ad cotidianos usus panem regies 
fnens€B aptum^ qui Simenel vulgo 
vocatur, Bromptonus ann. 1044. 
*< £o die prsBcentor loci recipiat 
de (isco regio dimidiam marcam, 
et conventus centum simenellos, 
et unum modium vini." Glona- 
rium in verb» 

Spelman in his glossary says 
that the simnels were made of the 
best, and not of any inferior 
wheat: " Panis purior, sic diclus, 
quod a simila, hoc est, purioii fa- 
rins parte efficitur." This cer- 
tainly would have been a reason 
why the simnels should be espe- 
cially given to the monks oi 
Westminster, on the festival of a 
coronation. At any rate it is to 
be hoped that, whatever tbej 
were made of, they were more 
tempting to look at, (of the taste 
I cannot speak) than sinmels of 
the present day, which are really 
offensive in their i^pearanoe ; * and 
cannot but be, as another old 
writer, Constantinus Africanus, 
has described them, "very mdi- 
gestible/* although possibly "very 
nutritious." We must commi- 
serate the daily fare of the con- 
vent of Westminster, when sim- 
nels, such as these, were an ex- 
traordinary treat. 

• The town of Devizes, in 
Wiltshire, has long been famous 
for these ** simnels:" and at pre- 
sent, I am told, they are made of 

flour, yeast, saffron, currants, and 
spice. They are first boiled, and 
afterwards baked. 

Dfflictttm Coronattoni^ laegtnae* 

VOL. Ill- 

j^fSeium Coronattonte Vitsinat. 

\lE quo regina^ sola coronanda esty canveni- 
ant in palatio regali apud Westmonasterium 
pralati et nobiles regniy et ordinetur proces- 
sio per archiepiscopoSy episcoposy et pralaioSj 
abbatem et conventum Westm. in capis sericisy et atiis, 
quia processus requirunt honorificentiam: et sic induti 

^ The Pontificals differ in the 
first rubric of this office : the ear- 
lies books are very^hort in their 
directions; and some refer to an 
" Ordo Romanus/* not now fol- 
lowed by the pontifical of the 
Church of Rome, for the bene- 
diction **ad introitum/* or, "ad 
ostium ecclesie. " Thus the 
imperfect Salisbury pontifical in 
the Bodleian, the Cotton MS. 
Tiberius E. viij, and B. viij, (of 
the xijth century), commence:* 
" Benedictio regirue dicenda m 
ingreasu ecclesue secundum or» 
dinem Romunum: Omnipotens 
sempiteme Deus, fons, etc,** It 
may be as well to give here, in 
brief, the full order as it conti- 
nues in those MSS. 

" Pont hanc sequUur benedic^ 
Ho dicenda ante altcur^i Deus, 
qui aoUu habcs." (Here the Bod* 
leian MS. is imperfect.) "Item 
post hanc in sacri olei unctione 
sequitur Iubc oratio: Spiritus 
Suicti gratia humilitatis. Hicun' 
guatur oleo sancto: In nomine 
Patris et Fllii. Hie detur anntf- 
lus, Accipe annulom. Sequitur 
oratio. Deus cujus est. Bene' 
dictio coron^e. Deus tuorum cO' 
rona. Item in eodem ordine, 
ad coroncB impositionem. Post' 
quam henedicta fuerit^ coronahi' 
tur. Accipe coronam. " The 
MS. Tib. B. viij. alone adds: 
" Alia. Officio mdignitatis nos- 
tr». Oratio. Omnium Domine 
fons bonorum." 

* To these may be added, the 
Evesham Pontifical, before cited : 
which has the same rubric: but 
the authority of that MS. (an a^ 
hatial pontifical, it must be re- 

membered) is very much lessened 
by its constant mixture of, and 
reference to, in many offices, 
other Uses : not only the Roman, 
but the Galilean. 

2)fficium Cotonationf IReginae. 5 1 

r^ifia coronanda processionaliter occurrant in palatio 

In the Order of K. Edwd. II. 
we find this beoedicdoxiy but, m 
IB the text, no reference is made 
to the " Ordo Romanus,- It 
KciDs DOW to have become a set- 
tled part of the English Office, 
nd not requiring any longer an 
«xtemal anthority. " Ad bene- 
^ictUmem swe consecrationem re- 
g^9 ^Ueeiur ah epheopo ad m- 
r«niw eeeiedm oraiio* Om- 
B'poteos sempiteme Deus, fons 
«^•" This Order generally cor- 
responds, except in the shortness 
«f iu rubrics, with the text: and 
I shall mark the chief variations 
tt we proceed. 

in the Order of K. Henry I., 
with which, generally, agrees the 
Winchester pontifical, this bene- 
Uon is omitted altogether: 
vbeaoe we may condude that it 
»M introduoed very shortly after 
U tune: the earliest MS. in 
which I have seen it, being that 
"^ above, Tiberius B. viij. It 
^ be well, m this case as before, 
^ give at once the whole arrange- 
aieot at this date. a.d. 1100. 

** Benedietio reguur qua ab 
'P^^cop0 m eeelenoy coram op* 
^^»^ihuif ante aliare facienda 
^ Oraiio. Deus qui solus ha- 
^ ffic effundaiwr oleum HmC' 
^ fuper vtrtkem ^ut m mo- 
^ erudi^ dkenU epiteopo.* 
IaiioaiioePatris.«ie. Sequaiur 

oratio* Omnipotens sempiteme 
Deus, affluentem. Hk detur an- 
nulus, dicente episcopo: Accipe 
annulum. SeqwUur oraHo* Deus 
cnjus est omnis. Benedietio co- 
rona regia, Deus tuorum oo* 
rona. Hie coronetur. Accipe 
coronam. Sequatur oratio. Om- 
nium, Domine, fons bonorum.** 

Lastly, we have the very va- 
luable Mid important order of K. 
Ethelred, which has a rubric at 
the beginning of somewhat greater 
length, and of no little interest. 

** Finit consecratio regi$r 
See above, Note 54. " Quam se- 
quUur coneecratio regvuBf qua 
propter honortficentUan ab epie- 
copo eacri unguinU oleo euper 
vertieem perfundenda est, et m 
eccleeia coram optimatUnu cum 
condigno honore et regia celti" 
tudmCf in regalie thori coneor» 
tium, benedicenda et consecranda 
est ; qua eiiam annuh pro inte- 
gritatejidei, et corona pro ater. 
niiaiii gloria decoranda est 

IncipU consecratio regina: 
ab episcopo dicenda est.* In no- 
mine Patris etc. Oratio. Omni- 
potens sempiteme Deus, affluen* 
tern* Hie detur ei annulus. Ac- 
cipe annulum. Alia. Deus cu- 
jus est Hie coronetur. Aedpe 
coronam. AUa. Omnium, I)o- 
mine, fons bonommb'* 

52 DfBcium Cotonationifl! IReginae. 

Qua quidem regina induta erit tunica^ et cyclade^ can 
fimbria hnga et deftuenti; qua quidem tunica et cy- 
alas unius erunt coloris^ videlicet purpurei^ et unius ttr 
tura^ sine opere aliquo alio artificiali desuper intexto . 
eapite nudato, laxatos circa humeros decenter habem 
crineSf geslabit circulum aureum gemmis omatumy ui 
hanestius crines capiti ejus constringantur. 

Hanc sic ornatam pracedet res regalibus suis indu* 
tusj si prasens esse placueritj tunc subsequentur dm 
magnates J quorum primus prcecedens portabit seeptrum 
regina. Alius vera regina portabit coronam^ guos sub 
sequetur regina, quam reverenter hinc inde sustenta- 
bunt duo episcopi ad hoc per regem assignati: et ihi 
erunt barones quinque portuum^ qui pannum sericum 
quadratum ac purpureum^ qui alias umbraculum nami- 

• •* Cyclas, Vestis undiqoe 
claasa per extremum ambituniy 
BiDuosa» et dam terram yerrebat, 
circulum quempiam efficiens, un* 
de nomen a Greco rvrXoc iodi- 

tnm Tidetur. Cyclas propria 

feminarum (bit. Britannicus ad 
Sat. 6. Juven. CycUu vettii 
est muUehrit tenuusima et ro* 
tunda. Hanc pronubis tribuit 
Sidonius. L 1. epUt. 4. R^no 
an. 753. Sed et Bertradam 
eonjugem tpsius regis, indutam 
eycladibus regiis. Et Monachua 
Pegaviensis, an. 1096. Juditha 
comUissa, fXia Wratislai JBoie- 
mid regisf coronaia^ et auro 
testis induviis regaliier odor* 
naUnj proeessiit et eoranam auro 
gemmisque insignitatn, et cy« 
cladem auro textam, instar dot- 

matiem, et pretiosissimi operitf 
quam suh manteUo ferehat, etiam 
auro texto induta. Cosmas Plra- 
gensis an. 1086. Et impost 
diadema super caput ^sius^ et 
efus eonjugis cyclade regia amc- 
t€sr Ducange, tn verb. 

" "These 'barons' are the 
Free men of the ports, and the 
number deputed by each of th< 
towns is as follows: — for Hast* 
ings, 8$ Dover, 2; Hithe, i| 
Rye, 2; Sandwich, 3; RomnejPi 
2; Winchelsea, 2 ; the same wid 
either canopy.** Taylor's Gto^ 
ry of Regality, p. 139. 

The same writer toys, "d^ 
claim of the dnque-ports is foooo 
ed on a prescriptive right, recc^ 
nised by the charter of Kii^ 
Charles II., in which ' consideMJ 


fDf&tium Cotonarionf0 IRe^inae* 53 

natur, quatuar hastis deargentatU smtentatum^ cum 
quatuar cdmpanellis argenteiSj et deauratis^ ultra regem 
incedentem quocunque ierit gestabunt. Ad quamlibet 
hastam quatuqr assignatij per diversitatem portuum^ ne 
videatur partus portui praferri. Eodtm modo ultra 
reginam coronandam a totidem baranibus partabitur 
pamus consimilisj cum totidem hastis et campanellis aliU 
Patmum vero stragulatum^^ prostemendum sub pe- 

tkm is had' of ' the most pleasing 
«id acceptable service which the 
bsroDS of the Cinque Ports and 
of the antient towns aforesaid 
have performed and paid to us at 
our inaogoration to the crown of 
this oar kingdom of England, ac- 
cording as in times past they did 
and were bound to do, to our 
progenitors the kings and queens 
of England at their respective 
coronations^ the time of the con- 
tnry heing never remembered to 
Ittve heen."' Great and antient 
charter of the Cinque-Ports» 

The barons are said to have 
carried the '' umbraculum" at the 
eonmation of K. Kichard I.: 
Matthew Paris speaks of them at 
tbe coronation of Henry III. — 
"Custodibus vero quinque por- 
taom, pallam super regem cum 
qoataor hastis supportantibus ; 
tpiod tamen tunc scrupulo oon- 
tCDtionis penitus non carebat** 
BitL Angl p. 855. Whence we 
■ty condttde that they then 
froMtf their right I shall only 

quote further from Holinshed's 
Chronicle, in the account of the 
coronation of Henry YHL and 
Katherine of Arragon : " this 
noble prince with his queene at 
time convenient, under their ca- 
nopies borne by the barons of 
the five ports, went from the said 
palace to Westminster Abbaie 
upon cloth, called vulgarly cloth 
of raie ; the which cloth was cut 
and spoiled by the rude and com- 
mon people, immediately after 
their repaire into the abbaie.** 

Henry de Knyghton states, 
that the privileg^es of the cinque- 
ports were first granted to them 
by K. John, on condition of their 
providing at all times, upon rea- 
sonable notice, ships for him to 
pass over into Normandy, or else- 
where: "Causa cujus dbtationis 
adhuc clamant liberiores esse pra 
caBteris portubus omnibus regni 
AnglisB." Chronica. Hist. Angl. 
Script. Tom. ^.coL 2424. 

^ ** Stragulattts pannus; di-' 

54 HXScium Coronationt0 IReginae. 

dibus regis et regitUBj incedentium ab aula vel camera 
sua usque in pulpitum^^ stertdfaciat qui habet afficium 
ekemosjfnariiB regime et regtim et reginarum ccranaiioni' 
bus ab antique. Pars autem panni ilUus qu4B est in 
eccksia semper cedet in usus sacristtB locij et retiqua 
pars tota extra eccksiam distribuetur pauperibus per 
manus dicti eleemosynarii. 

Hiis sic ordinatis et dispositis, regem et reginamprth 
cessianaliter in eccksiam ducant : ad cujus eccksia in- 
troitumj ab archiepiscopo vel episcopo reginam corona- 
turOf dicetur super eandem reginam hac oratio : 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus^ fons et origo totius 
bonitatis, qui feminei sexus fragilitatem nequaquam 
reprobando avertis, sed dignanter comprobando potius 
eligis, et qui infirma mundi eligendo fortia quseque 
confundere decrevisti^ quique in gloriae yirtutisque 
tuae triuniphum in manu Judith feminse olim Judaicee 
plebi de hoste saevissimo designare voluisti, respice 
qusesumus ad preces humilitatis nostree, et super hanc 
famulam tuam, quam supplici devotione in reginam 
eligimus, bene^dictionum tuarum dona multiplica, 
eamque dextera tu» pietatis semper et ubique cir- 
cumda, sitque umbone tui muneris undique firmiter 
protecta, quatenus visibilis hostis nequitias triumpha- 
liter expugnare valeat, et una cum Sara atque Rebecca, 
Lya, Rachele, beatisque reverendis feminabus, fiructu 
uteri sui foBCundari seu gratulari mereatur, ad decorem 

Teno cobre yariatos. Chart an. opere facta.** Ducange: Glot- 

3. Henr. VL Reg. Angl. apud wrium. 

Madox in fonn. Anglic, p. 145. This» in short» was the *' doth 

Et pr^kUctui Ricardus hahehU of raie'* of Holinshed» in the 

— 'pannimn straguUUum conti' place, dted in the preceding note. 
fientem xx rayes^ etc.** " Stra- ^ " Infra ecclesiam Westm." 

gulum» Testis discolor plumario Lihtr lUgtdit. 

totias r^^, statumque sanctse Dei ecclesiae r^^i- 
dum, per Christum Domiiiaia noBtnmi, qui ex interne- 
rats Mariffi beat» yirginis alvo nasci, et visitare et 
renovare hunc dignatus eet mundum, qui tecum vivit 
et gloriatur Deus, in unitate Spiritus Sanctis per im- 
mortalia soecula 8»culorum. Amen. 

Oratione finita, pracedet regina'^^ ut primitus incede^ 
batj processionaliterj per medium chori usque ad gradus 
magni altaris^ pradictis duobus episcapis ipsam interim 

" ** Oratione bac finita, pro« 
eedcot res et regina, ut primitiu 
mcedebantt prooessionaliter per 
medium chorly usque in pulpitum 
quo cum ascenderint residebit 
rex, regaltbus amictus, in sede re- 
gdi nbi praoparata. R^^ vero 
prooedet ad gradus magni altaris. 
fkr lib. JRegalii. As it hi^ 
been observed in tbe preliminary 
disgertation, tbis MS. supposes, 
throngbout tbe Office, tbe pre- 
tence of tbe king. 

The imperfect HarUian .MS. 
06 1, before referred to, (see 
Note ^) baa bere a long rubric 

** Oratione eompleta, procedant 
rei et regina per ecdesiam modo 
qao supra dictum est, usque ad 
pulpUum et ad solia eis praeparata, 
>crege pro sua sancta unctione 
^ coronatione usque ad altare 
(iesoendente, praiata regina dictis 
prooenbua cum sceptro, vii^ et 
corona ipsam prsecedentibus, pre* 
^ episoopis illam» ut prsddictum 
estjhine inde sustentantibus, us- 
que ad diclum altare regem sqb- 
s^qnetur. Cut fiildistorium a 

parte sinntra dicti altaris erit 
prepantum, in quo ipsa residebit 
dum de legibus et regni consue- 
tudinibus et aliis, ut supra dictum 
est, per metropolitanum sive epis- 
copum dictos regem et reginam 
consecraturum fuerit requisitum : 
dictis requisitionibus actis, sacra* 
mentoque, ut supra dictum est, 
super altare prsesdto, regina ge- 
nuflectet, pro rege domino suo et 
pro seipsa bundles Deo fundens 
preces, incipiente metropoUtano, 
vel episcopo, bymnum: 'Veni 
Creator Spiritus,' cum nota. Rege 
itaque inuncto et coronato, atque 
coronationis suse solemniis cele- 
bratis modo et forma quibus pr«- 
dictum est, in solio suo residente, 
regina procedat ad gradus magni 
altaris, et prostemet se super ta- 
petum et quissinos prius per re-? 
gios ministroB, modo quo prs&dic 
tum est, et boneste, prseparatos : 
super quam ita solo prostratam 
dicetur a metropolitano sive epis- 
copo ipsam consecraturo oratio- 
nem sequentem. [nc,] * Deus 
qui solus.' ** 

56 £[>!Bciom CotonadoniflE Restoae^ 

9Uitentantibus; qtue cum ad gradus magm altaris per^ 
vmeritf prasternet se super tapeta et qmssinas^prius ibi- 
dem per regies ministros koneste praparatas^ archiepis^ 
capo vel episcopo incipiente : ^* 

Ps. Veni Creator. Spiritus. 

Deinde super ipsam ita prastratamj dicatur hat 
oratio : 

Deusy qui solus habes immortalitatem, lucemque id- 
habitas inaccessibilemi cujus providentia in sui dis- 
positione non fallitur, qui fecisti quse fiitura sunt, et 
Tocas ea qu» non sunt tanquam ea qus& sunt, qui su- 
perbos aequo moderamine de principatu dejicis, atque 
bundles dignanter in sublime provebis, inefiabilem 
misericordiam tuam supplices exoramus, ut sicut re- 
ginam Hester, causa Judaicse salutis, de captivitatis suse 
compede solutam, ad regis Assueri thalamum regni- 
que sui consortium transire fecisti, ita banc famulam 
tuam .N. humilitatis nostras bene^dictione, Chris- 
tianae plebis gratia salutis, ad dignam sublimemque 
regis nostri copulam misericorditer transire concedas, 
ut in regalis foedere conjugii semper manens pudica, 
proximam virginitati palmam continere queat, tibique, 
Deo vivo et vero, in omnibus et super omnia jugiter 
placere desideret, et, te inspirante, quae tibi placita 
sunt toto corde perficiat : per Dominum. 

^ The Order of K. Edwd. 11^ datur oleum tancium super ver- 

and the Exeter pontifical, omit ticem efue in tnodum crucis, di- 

the Ps. Veni Creator, and the cente epiecopoi In nomine Patris. 

first thus continues after the etc. Omnipotens sempiteme De- 

prajer ^ Omnipotens." *' Item us affluentem." The Exeter MS. 

alia henedictio efuedemy coram also mentions only the anointing 

optimoHbus^ ante altare dicen^ of the head. The Bodley MS. 

da: DominusTohiscum. Oratio. RawL C. 425. reada ^eifimdetur 

DeuB qui solus habes. Hie effun» sanctum chrisma." 

fl)fficiitm CotonatimUti Reginae^. s7 

Terminata autem^^ hoc orationCy eriget se regina ct 
gem^ctet; super agus verticem effundetur sanctum 
oUurn^^ in modum crucis^ Pastea de eodem oleo ung^ur 
inpectorcj modo consimilij in mo^m crucis; ad utram- 
jue unctionem tarn capitis quam pectoris^ dicetur a pan- 
ti^e consecrante : 

In nomine Patxis ^, et Filii^, et Spiritus ^ Sancti, 
prosit tibi hsec imctio olei in honorem et confirmation 
Dem aetemam, in ssecula sceculormn. Amen» 

Circulo quern in capite gestaverat prius deposito. 

Tunc subfungetur oratio sequens: 

Omnipotens sempiteme Dens, affluentem spiritum 
tiuebene^^dictionisy super famulam tuam, nobis oran- 
tibosy propitiatns infunde, ut quae per manus nostrse 
imporitionem bodie regina instituitur, sanctificatione 
toa digna et electa permaneat, ut nunquam postmo- 
dnm de tua gratia separetur indigna. Per* 

Hoc proviso^^ quod tunica regina sic fiat quad per 
consecrantemj ante sanctam pectoris unctionem^ facile 
fossit aperirij et a nobiliori daminaj qua dicta regina 

^ The Eyesham pontifical has operari queas, auziliante Domino 

kre an additional prajer. nostro Jesn Christo. Qui cum 

"" Item past hanc in tacri olei Deo Patre. etc. 

^nctione eeguiiur h^ec araiio : ** Hie unguatur oleo eancto. 

" Spiritus Sancti gratia, humi- In nomine Patris, etc. Oratio. 

litatifl nostr» officio» in te oopiosa Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, af- 

^etcendat, at sicat manibus nos- finentem, etc." 

tris mdignis oleo materiali oblita ^ ^ — — . in modum crucis : di- 

prngnesda exterius, ita ejus in- cente episcopo." Lib. Regali». 

mibQi ungnine delibuta inpin. ^ From hence to '^Accipean. 

gun merearis interins, ejusque nulum** is omitted in the Liber 

«piritali nnctione perfectissime Regalia, in the Order for the oo- 

wmper imbnta, et illidta decli- ronation of a queen alone: but 

ove tota mente, et spemere dis- in the Office which precedes» yis.: 

ctt tea yaleas, et ntiUa animie of a king and queen» the whole 

^ jvgiteroogitare» optare» atque occurs as in the text. 

58 fl&fBdum Cotonattotii0 Reginae. 

temper adharebitj post diet am unctionem recludi : dtindc 
detur ei anmUus a consecrante^ dicente sic^ sipriusfuerU\ 
benedictus: sin autem^ benedicatur modo subscripto sic: 

Dominus vohiscum. 


Creator, et conservator humani generis, dator grai 
tisd spiritualisylargitor fletemse salutis, tu, Domme,mitte 
benedictionem tuam sanctam super hunc annulum, ut 
qite ilium gestaverit sit arinata virtute coelestis defen-i 
sionis, et perficiat illi ad fletemam salutem. Per Chris' 
turn Dominum nostrum. 


Bene ^ die, Donune^ hunc annulum, quern nos iq 
tuo sancto nomine bene^dicimus, ut qusecunque eumi 
portaverit in tua pace consistat, et in tua voluntate 
permaneat, et in amore tuo vivat et senescat, et mul- 
tiplicetur in longitudinem dierum : per Christum. 

Tunc aspergatur annulus aqua benedicta^ et detur ab 
episcopo regina^ sic dicente: 

Accipe annulum fidei, signaculum sinceritatis,^ quo 
possis omnes hsereticas pravitates devitare, et barbaras 
gentes virtute Dei premere, et ad agnitionem veritatis 

Deinde sequatur oratio. 

Dominus vobiscum. 


Deus cujus est omnis potestas. 

Ut supra in coronatione regis. 

Postea benedicetur corona ab eodem prasule, dicente: 

Deus tuorum corona. 

Ut supra in coronatione regis. 

^ Signaculum sanctfo Trioitatis." Order ofK. Ethelred. 

S>a[citmt CDotonatiimt0 Utsimt. sr 

Ddnde imponatur corma capiti rtgifue ab feodem 
fiscopoy dicente: 

Accipe coronam glorise, honorem jocimditatis» at 
iplendida fulgeas et setema exultatione coroneris. 

Prhnitus pileo Uneo capiti regirut appasitOy ob sancta 
mctioms canservationemj qiiodpostea comburetur» 

Tunc subinferet episcaptis. Oratio. 

Officio noBtne mdignitatis^ in r^pbiam solemniter 
lenedicta, accipe coronam regalis excellenti», qu». 
licet ab indignis, episcopalibus tamen manibus capiti 
no imponitar : ande sicut exterius auro et gemmis re- 
limita enites, ita et interius auro sapientiae, virtutiun-. 
|Qe gemmis decorari contendas, quatenus po6t occasum 
hajus sseculi cmn pradentibug virginibus sponso pe- 
renni Domino nostro Jesu Christo digne et laudabiliter 
occurrens, regiam coelestis aulse merearis ingredi ja- 
ouam, auxiliante Domino nostro Jesu Christo, qui 
eum Deo Patre, et Spiritu Sancto, vivit et regnat per 
infinita saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Et tradendo ei sceptrum in dea^trOj et virgam in sinis- 
troj dicat hanc arationem sequentem: 

Omnium, Domine, fons bonorum, et cunctorum da- 
tor profectuum, tribue famulse tuse .N. adeptam bene 
iBgere dignitatem, et a te sibi prsestitam bonis operi- 
W corroborare gloriam : per Dominum. 

Coranata autem reginOy'^^ sceptrumque in dextra ft- 

^ The Pontifical reads *^ dig- The prayer occurs in the Office 

oititifl:" Imt I have introduced or the coronation of a queen, in 

"^ mdignitatis*' into the text, upon the old ^' Ordo Romanus ;" which 

^ authority of the Royal MS. reads also <' indignitatis.'' 
12. D. iij., the Liher Regalis» the • ^ *' Finit consecratio regin»." 

Order for K. Edwd. ij. and the Order of K. Edwd. II. "£x- 

^rl7 MS., Cotton, Tiberius B. plidt consecratio reginas.'' Royal 

'ii|. MS. 12. D. Uj. 

6o jDIBciutti CotottationljK Vitsinae. 

rensj a duobus pradictis q>iscapis honorifice ducetur m 
solium sibi ex parte regis sinistra praparatum^^ chon 
interim cantante hunc hymnum : 

Te Deum laudamus* 

Statim hymnojinitoj incipiatur officium missa^ etpos 
officium ejusdem missa^ procedet regina coronata ai 

Deinde ad sedem suam revertetur^ ibiquc continui 
usque adjinem missa residebit. 

Completa tandem missa et omnibus rite peractiSj pra 
fati duo episcopi, unus a dextris, alius a sinistris, redu 
cent reginam coronatam et sceptrum in manu dextn 
ferentemj ab ecdlesia usque in thalamum sive aulam^ 
pracedente processionej si commode ^ri poterit. 

The Exeter pontifical adds, ^ << Regina vero ad pradic 

^ Tunc detur ei sceptrum di- turn solium venienSf ante efui 

cendo: ascensum modicum regi incUna* 

Acdpe yirgam virtutis et aequi- hit, efus majestatem ut decet ado^ 

tatis, et esto pauperibus miaeri- rando. Chorointervnhunchym* 

cors et a&bilis; viduis, pupillis, num» Te Deum laudamus: to- 

etorphanisdiligentissimamcaram lemniter concinnente. Statim^ 

exhibe, ut omnipotens Deas adau- etc.** Liber Regalia, 
geat tibi gloriam suam, qui vivit. 

etc:* . « « Post qfertorium ejusdem 

With which the office in that miss€B.** Ibid. 
MS. concludes. 

T^pttMx to tl^t S>vhtt tf Coro< 

I. First Rubric of the Liber Regalis. 
II. The Order of Coronation according to the Pontificals of 
Egbert, Archbishop of York, ▲• d. 740, and of Leofric, 
Bishop of Exeter, a. d. 1060. 

III. The Order of the Coronation of her Majesty, Queen 


IV. The Order of the Coronation of her Majesty, Queen 

Adelaide, as Queen-consort. 

iDfficid in Coronationem 

»♦ lEUcj^atm II. M.CCCLXXVII.* 

|IC est ordo, secundum quern rex debet co- 

ronari pariter et inungi. 

In primis preeporetur pulpitum» aliquant 

tulum eminens, inter ma^um altare et 
chorum ecclesise beati Petri Westmonadterii, videlicet 
contiguum ex onrni parte quatuor columnis principalis 
oribus, infira crucem ecclesise prselibatae; ad cujus 
qnidem pulpiti ascensum fiant gradus de medio chori a 
parte occidentali, per quos princeps coronandus, hi 
adventn suo transiens per cbori medium, dictum pul- 
pitum possit ascendere : ac etiam fiant alii gradus a 
parte orientali, per quos princeps prsefiaitus descendere 
possit yersus majus altare, ibidem ante gradus dicti 
altaris, sacrosanctse unctionis ac suae coronationis so« 
lemnia a metropolitano, sire episcopo ipsum conse- 
crando, debita cum devotione acoepturus. In medio 

^ This first appendix is tlie first almost every respect it agrees with 

rnbric of the ** Liber Regdis." the ** Liber regalisy** and esped- 

In the library of the Dean and ally in having this long mbric at 

Canons of Westminster there is a the commencement. But it has 

noble msnnscript missal, probably not the title ^'Offida» eie.** b^ 

the most beautifnl copy, of Eng- ginning simply with the usnal for^ 

fish Use, now extant, of a large mula ** Hie est ordo secundum 

siae, and richly illuminated ; and quern* e<c/' 
vbich was given to the church Hie Lansdown MS. 278» is a 

there, by Abbot LHlington, about modem and apparently a correct 

the year 1870. This contains tmiseriptofthe<< Liber Regalia:" 

terenl royal services; among written in the 17th century, 
than that of the corooatiott : in 

64 appennir to Utt 

vero dicti pulpiti erit prsparatus thronus excekus, u 
in eo princeps residens, clare ab omnibus possit in 
tueri. " • . ' ^ 

Ungere enim et coronare reges Anglise atque re 
ginas, ex antiqua consuetudine et hactenus usitats 
principaliter competit archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, f 
praefiens fuerit, et si compos extiterit. £t si contigc 
rit quod propter corporis debilitatem, aut infirmitaten 
illud officium non poterit in sua persona rite peragen 
But forte aliqua tunc causa impeditus in hujusmod 
coronatione non queat prsesentialiter interesse, hajus 
modi unctionis ac coronationis solemnia supplebit alius 
qui inter episcopos tunc prsesentes dignior reperitui 
aut cui dictus metropolitanus dictum officium veli 

Rex autem preecedenti die coronationis suae, d 
turri Londonensi per mediam civitatem versus pah 
tium regium West, in cultu decentissimo equitabil 
plebi occurrenti se offerens intuendum, capite denu 

£t prsvideatur semper quod coronatio tarn regi 
quam reginee, fiat in die dominico, yel in festo aliqu 

' The ** Dies Dominica '' is the posuit super caput ejus/' An 

day which is specified for this high Henry of Germany was crowne 

solemnity in most of the ancient in the yea» 1014, upon the sam 

lis: and on that day we day. 

know that many sovereigns were There are very early example 

crowned. Thus, in the year 816, also of coronations upon festivals 

Baronius says of Pope Stephen V. Charlemagne waa crowned upoi 

^ tMe dominica in ecdesia S. Christmas4ay, A. d. 801 : and,ai 

Petri, coram clero et omni populo^ Hoveden tells us, K. Stephen o 

ante tnissanuH solemnia conse- England was crowned upon S 

crayit et unxit Lndoyicum ipsum Stephen's day, and, not to nain< 

— others, Henry I. upon the fesst o 

Cotonation Semite. 6s 

Memoratns vero prmceps nocte praecedente corona- 
donis suse diem yacabit contemplatioiii diyinae et ora- 
tioni intimsey' consideraiis ad quern apicem sit Tocatus 
qualiter is per quern r^^ r^nant, ad populi sui ac 
plebis christians gubemationem, ipsum specialius prae- 
elegit Et cogitet illud sapientis : ^ Principem te con* 
stitaeront noli extolli, sed esto in illis quasi unus ex 
illis.' £t cogitet dignitatem regalem sibi a Deo prses- 
titam, tanquam homini mortali, et ipsum idcirco ad 
tantam sublimitatem Tocatum a Deo, ut ecclesi» catho- 
licaB sit defensor, fidei Christian» dilatator, ac regni 
sui, et patriae sibi a Deo commissae, secundum vires 
protector. In oratione autem Salamonis imitetur pru^ 
dentiam, cui in sui regno primordio pro cultu Creatoris 
ab ipso Creatore praeceptum est, ut ea peteret quae sibi 
Tcllet conferri. Qui non aurum, non argentum, neque 
divitias, nee de inimicis victoriam, ut homo juvenis, 
dbi dari deprecatus est. Sed magis ea postulavit quae 
et Deus gratis praeberet, et utiliter homo perciperet. 
' Redde mihi,' inquit, ^ Domine, mentem sanam et pru- 
dentiam bonam, ut circa populum justum possim ve- 
nmique proferre judicium.' Deprecetur igitur princeps 

the assumption. " Consecratus detur, ut rex ad sui inauguratio- 

est in regem apud Westmonas- nem, non modo per religiosa jeju- 

teriom in die assumptionis B. nia se prsparet, sed etiam per 

Mariae.** . alia pia opera. Unde ex MS. 

' The modem Roman pontifical pontificali insignia ecclesie Seno- 

directs : ^ Rex triduanum jeju- nensis, debet rex sabbato prsece- 

««m devote peragii per hehdo- dente diem Dominicam, in qua 

madam profcedentem^ videlicet est consecnndns, intempeeta noc- 

ftarteh ^ eexta firiay et eab^ Us tHentio venire in ecclesiam 

koto J* Upon this Catalani re- oratianemjucturusy et ibidem in 

narks : *' Fateor, de hoc ritu nihil oratione aUquantulumi si volu- 

me inrenisse apod antiquos scrip- erity vigUaturue.*' Comment, in 

tores: conveniens tamen esse vi- Pontif. torn. I. p. 372. 


66 appenntr to t^e 

ut divinitatis providentia, qpse ipsum ad tanti regimen 
ordinavit imperii, sibi largiii dignetur justitiam, pieta- 
tem, et prudentiam. Jostitiam circa subjectos, pieta- 
tern circa Deum, et prudentiam circa regni gubema- 
tionem, quatenus nullo favore moUitus, nullis inimicitiis 
commotus, nulla concupiscentia iUectus, nuUaque alia 
passione constrictus, in semitis harum virtutum inof- 
fenso pede valeat pertransire. 

£t quia oportet principem antedictum de hiis et 
aliifi observantiis, quse ad dictam spectant coronationem, 
plenius informari, abbas Westm. qui pro tempore fiierit, 
in hiis et consimilibus principis erit eruditor, ad ipsum 
yero hoc officium solummodo spectat. £t si dictus 
abbas de medio fiierit sublatus, et alius in abbatem 
ejusdem loci nondum fiierit confirmatus, qui dictum 
officium rite non poterit adimplere, aut dictus abbas 
aliunde fuerit impeditus quominus illud officium valeat 
exequi, tunc eligatur unus ex assensu prions et con- 
ventus dicti monasterii, qui per omnia sit idoneus, 
dictum principem in hujusmodi observantiis informare, 
secundum modum et consuetudinem ab antiquissimis 
temporibus hactenus usitatum/ 

Die vero prsefinito, quo novus rex consecrandus est, 
summo mane conveniant prselati et nobiles in palatio 
regie apud Westm. tractaturi de novi regis consecra- 

* '* The AhhotofWettmynster and to dense theire conscience be- 

thaU enforme the kynge. Also fore the hoolyanoynting." Lans- 

it is to wit that the Abbot of doum MS. 285. 

Westmynster, which is for the " The abbote of Westm. ought 

tyme, two dayes othir before the alwey to be nere the kyng for his 

coronacyon shall enform them of informadon in such thyngs as 

dyuers obsenraunces that they concemeth the solempnitee of the 

shall doo and kepe in their coro- Coronacion.'' Devyse for Hen. 

nadon, and wame them to shryue VIII. 

Coronation ^emice. 


tione, et electione, et de l^bns et consaetadinibos 
regni confirmandis, firmiter statuendis. 

Hiis sab universorum concordia peractis, provide- 
atur quod in aula regia majori sedes eminens sit, pannis 
sends et inauratis decenter omata, super quern dictus 
rex regnatums cum onmi mansuetudine et reverentia 
eleyetoTy ipso tamen prius ut moris est balneato et 
indato mundissiniis vestibus, et caligis tantummodo caL 

Hoc modis omnibus observato» quod sicut in principe 
per actoalem lotionem et vestimentorum decorem cor- 
pus nitescity sic per veram et prsBviam confessionem 
ac compunctionis dolorem anima ipsa splendescat. 

Hiis debite peractis, ordinetur in ecclesia per archi- 
episcopos, episcopos, abbatem, et conventum Westm. 
processio in capis sericis, cum textibus,^ et thuribulis, et 
aliis quse processioni conveniunt ; et sic induti processio 

' Henoe we learn the proper 
maniiigof tlie term *^ barefooted" 
in the old chronicles, when applied 
to this royal procession; which 
hi been much mistaken by Tari- 
OQs writers. Thus, for example, 
in a modem popular, and raUier 

ve are told of Richard the Third's 
<^oraiuition, that *' perhaps the 
iBost strikmg feature of the event, 
is Richard's exhibition of humility, 
—be actually walked barefoot 
into the Abbey." Vol 4. p. 91. 
No authority is given for this state- 
ottQt, hut it is to be traced to 
GiaftoB : who says, ** from thence 
te king and the queene g^yng 
^pon raye cloth barefooted, eicJ* 

Vol. 2. />. 115. But the meaning 
both of Grafton and of the rubric 
in the text is, that the king was 
not to wear sandals, or soles, but 
buskins only. Prynne, in his 
Signal Loyaltyf has printed a 
" Forma coronationis regum et 
reginarum Anglis," said to have 
been extracted from the Liber Re- 
galis, but whether by himself or 
not, does not appear : it certainly 
differs from it. However, one sen- 
tence explains the meaning of 
** barefoot." '' Item dicto die 
prinoeps coronandus tantum- 
modo caligis sine sotularibus cal- 
detur." p. 242. 

* See above : p. 4, note 1. 


appehHir to tbt 

naliter occurrant in palatio antedicto.^ Etenim regj 
preelatis et conventui Westm. solam pertinet r^futixr 
cum processionis solempnitate occurrere, et ipsum in ^c 
clesiam preedictam psallendo antecedere, ea decantaotc 
quae in receptione regum debent decantari. £t facie 
dominus . N. de Bellocampo Bedefordiae, qui ab antiqu 
eleemosynarise regise babet officium, pannum virgula 
torn,' sive burellum, prostemi sub pedibus regis inec 
dentis a palatio usque pulpitum antedictum infra eccle 
siam Westm., ut prsBtactum est, pneparatum. 

Quod quidem pulpitum una cum gradibus, ex utra 
que parte ejusdem existentibus, tapetis^ per regio 
ministros ad hoc praeparatis stemi debet per totuin 

^ In the letter of archbishop 
Crannicr, mentioned above in the 
dissertation, giving an accbunt of 
the coronation of Anne Boleyn, 
is the following : ** In the mom- 
ynge ther assymbled withe me at 
Westminster Churche the by sshop 
of Yorke, etc, the abbote of West- 
minstre with x or xij moo ab- 
bottes, whiche all revestred our- 
selfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo 
fumysshed, with our crosses and 
crossiers, prooedid oute of th' 
abbey in a procession vnto West- 
minstre Hall, where we receyved 
the Queene, etc.*" Archaologia^ 
vol. 18./>. 80. 

* See above, note 70» p. 53. I 
may here add the following. ** The 
prynoe shall follow the procession 
into the chirche. And he shall 
go vpon newe ray cloth laide vnder 
his fete.*' Lansdown MS. 285. 

" The way from thense ^the 

Hall} to the pulpytt in Westm 
chirche arrayed vnder foote witi 
raye cloth by the king's gret< 
Awmoner of England, to be ha< 
of the king's greate Warderobe.' 
Devyse for Hen, VIH. 

^ The Lansdown MS. 285, con 
tains *' The maner and forme o1 
the kyngis and queues ooronacioi 
m Englonde." I shall have occ» 
sion to cite this again, and shali 
refer to it, as before, by its nunabci 
in the catalogue. Upon '* ihepul 
pile" it directs: 

" Also in Westmynster chirche 
must be ordeynde a pulpit witb 
grees on euery side. And that 
must be faire araide with clothes 
of silke, of golde, and aboute on 
the grounde both. The Kynges 
Trone. Also in that pulpit shall 
be a Roiall trone. And a Roiall 
see in the which the kyng shall 
sit And it shall also bee roialfy 

Cotbnation ^ettttce* 69 

In circuitu yero somniitatis pulpiti dependentur panni 
serici et inaurati. Thronus vero in quo rex ipse resi- 
dere debet, de quo praetactum est, palliis seiicis ae 
pretiosissimis predict! regis camerarios^^ per totum 
erit coopertus, quissinis etiam per nominatos camera- 
rio6 in prsefato throno repositis. 

Pars autem panni illius yirgulati, sive burelli, qu» 
per dictum eleemosynarium, ut prsefatum est, sub pedi- 
bos regis incedentis extenditur, infra ecclesiam cedet 
semper in usus sacristae loci, et reliqua pars tota quae 
est extra ecclesiam distribuetur pauperibus per manus 
eleemosynarii supradicti. 

Regem igitur coronandum, dictis praelatis ac mo- 
Qachis praecedentibus, episcopus Dunelou videlicet et 
Bathon. ex antiqua consuetudine, si praesentes affue- 
rint, dictum regem hinc inde sustentabunt. Cancel- 
larius yero, si fuerit episcopus,^ tum calice lapideo 

araide with qujsshyns, and clothes '' And than he was leyde upon 

of gold and silke." the high scaffolde ; and that was 

The ''Devyse" for K. Henry couered all with red say, betwen 

VIII. states : ** The pulpit is to the high autere and the quere.*' 

be couered with rede worsted. In ilfiS'. Cotton. Nero. C. ix. Jbl, 

the middes wherin must be two 172. 

sieges royall" [for himself and ,„ « j. .. . • »» 

^* xr li. • -I « -xi. 1 *!. i? P«r dicti regis cameranos. 

qoeeo KathermeV^ with cloth of ... ,S-.,,. , . . , 

^ ,, J ,"" -., Abbot LUungtons nussoL 

golde and quysshyns of the same. ° 

Save it is to wite, that the king's ^^ The order respecting this, in 
siege shall be made a good deal the *' Deryse" for Henry VIIL, 
higher than the queues, whiche furnishes ti curious specimen of 
than be on the lyfte hande of the confusion of language. ** Next 
kmgis, and lower than it." before the king the bishop chaun- 
A very ancient, if not contem- celer of England, then being Wil- 
porary, English account of the liam Warham bishop of Canter- 
coronation of Henry VI. also bury, yf he be a bishop, shall here 
speaks of the pulpit to be covered the chales. And in case he be 
in the same way, with red doth, noo bisshop, some other bisshop 


cimif ;* M , HUL 3iiiiiH«asB22' -sc iK^xcBEBT^ Qucni cm I 
j*cHna. -ragsa oA; 4f ' jik ^ ^ f»nBg*.rcqgfpgg%L. iRd a h iwi« ^ mod ] 

'^^csm^ras- -sazksfxaBox. 2iiiDinii:« cioideaB iBodo tiene1>iiil 

ri sk:i«-^ Sc Tcr» cvfltigcri^ dieted 
':ztisa:zr'acri3B r y a a c o p as iMm esse, all 

cks3« caiice ct paioia r^^gen 

V. t«^i^7«s-rx£e<i ^1 ^«5^ :ie J». • T» a^^Mt of Wcsftm. sball 

^"^^" » %Aaa g i to fa^m tke wme of 21 

rf«aaii3«ii*csyassk»c£« XamI:..*» MS. 26S. 
««i • ^^«* » bone «a W Ike 

fc^>>*^= B iBBstrafertliemderioiDj 

•* Tfcf irry^ ^/^ ^^^^ ^;^ ^^,^ on tlie « Andeni Liturgy," 

ward»» ckaJU. Ako ibe Can»- ^ 58, JV'oIr 73 <2iid edit.) From 

ccucr of EogUma, tI be be a ibe irfe tcn ce m ibe test above, it 

bUftbo^inbispontific^ai^^^t^^ ^00]^ seem ibat, at least in the 

bcie before tbe kyag in i^ ^^^ cbonb of WesUniosler, the cus- 

cetstoD the aeide CbaHa, for a ton of tbe snbdearon to receive 

pcfte riahee and «demp^itee. aod bold tbe paten, was then ob- 

^ The heryng^ ©f the Paten, aenred io England. 

AUo die Treaonrer of Engloiide, Among the ornaments and fur- 

y if be bee a btssbop, in the pon- niUire given by Abbot Godfrey to 

ligcaU anij' «ball here tbe patene bis cbnrch at Peterborough, a. d. 

before the kyng in procession, and 1316, were, " magno altari quin- 

bee t^^ S^ before the Chann- que veUmina de albo serico cum 

cetterr lantdoiwi MS. 285. anrifrigio ornata, pro patenario 

u « The grete solempne cbales in principalibus festis patenam de- 

of leynt Edward, the which cbales portandam." WaUer de Why tie- 

\.« tcvnte Edwardis daycs was le^fe: Coenobii Burgensis Hist 

.LetcdxxxM».marc." Account (Edit. Sparkes. Lond. 1728.;^. 

prey»» ^rtr^ yr 169.) 

Coronation ^ettiice^ 7 1 

sastratent, si dicti episcopi Dunelmensis et Batho- 
oeosis non fuerint tunc pnesentes. 

Post hoe vero qui dictos calicem et patenam gerunt, 
duo duces sive comites regni excellentiores, et maxime 
qni jnre propinquitatis stirpi regiae proximius videntur 
pertinerey immediate subsequentur, quorum unus seep- 
tnim return, in cujus summitate crux parva collocatur, 
portabity alter vero eorum virgam auream, habentem 
in summitate columbam. Quae quidem, calicem, pate- 
nam, sceptrum^ et virgam, tradet abbas Westm. vel 
fnor, si abbas non fiierit, dictis dominis infra pala- 
dom antedictum. Qui domini ilia omnia in proces* 
aone gestabunt, modo quo prseostensum est. 

Deinde sequentur tres comites gladios gestantes in- 
dnd serico, comes quidem Cestrise, qui primatum yen* 
£cat deferendi, portabit gladium qui vocatur curtana. 
Et alium portabit comes Huntyngtoun. Tertium vero 
portabit comes Warwyk. Hos prsecedet unus de mag- 
natibus, ad hoc per regem assignatus, portans calcaria 
magna et deaurata. 

Pannum de serico quadratum purpureum, quatuor 
^lastis deargentatis sustentatum, cum quatuor campa- 
Tiellis argenteis et deauratis, ultra regem quocunque 
i«rit, gestabunt barones de quinque portubus, ad quam- 
^bethastam quatuor assignati pro diversitate portuum, 
De videatur portus portui praeferri. Et similiter ab 
^isdem baronibus portabitur pannus de serico, ultra 
feginam post regem incedentem, si ipsa die debeat 
^ronari. Quos pannos iidem barones de jure consue- 
^duus obtinebunt, sed hastae cum campanellis deben* 
tai* ecclesiae Westm. : ac pulpitum, et omnia tapeta 
^^ eundem, una cum pannis sericis et quissinis ibi, 
^ praedictum est, per ministros regis collocata, rema- 


fliuwiiDiir to tffit 

nebant penes ecclesiam, in qua dictos rex OGronatm 
ex jure antiqao et oonsoetadine. 

Hiis omnibus, in qoo'* latins pnetactnm est, qo] 
processioni conveniunt rite ordinatis, eptscopi et al 
praelati, una cum regni proeeribus et pnedicto conreiit 
Westm., praeSaitum r^em coronandum, a palatio su 
Westm. in ecclesiam beati Petri Westm. ducant ; ips< 
que introducto per medium diori, atque in pulpito i 
sede sibi apta coUocato, metropolitanus siTe episcopi 
regem coronaturus, per quatuor partes dicti pulpit 
plebem alloquatur, ipsorum inquirens Toluntatem ( 
consensum de dicti principis consecratione ; rege ii 
terim in sede sua stante, atque ad quatuor partes die 
pulpiti, dum pontifex plebem alloquitur, se vertente ; 
quibus ut moris est consentientibus, atque voce magn 

** " modo quo.*' Liliingtan's 

^ " 71m archebisshope $hall 
a»k€ the will of the people. Also 
when the prynce hath rested hym 
a litel in his chaire, othir [or] 
Throne ordeynde in the seide pul- 
pit, than the archehisshop of Can- 
terbury at iiij parties of the pulpit, 
with an high voice, shall enquere 
the will of the people, as touchyng 
the kynges coronacion. And that 
while shal the prynce stonde in 
his Trone or Chaier, and tume 
hym also to the parties of the 
people. And aftir that questyon 
shall an anteme be soong of JFVr- 
metur manue.** Lamdown MS. 

** And he was set in his astate 
in the myddes of the scaffold, 
there beholdynge the people all 

abowte sadly and wysely.* Ths 
made the erchbishi^ of Cauntei 
bery a proclamation on the ii 
quarters of the scaffold, seyeingi 
this wyse: Sirs, heere comyt 
Henry, kyng Henrye's sone tl 
Vth, on whos sowle God hau 
mercy. Amen. He hombly th hji 
to God and to holy cherche, ask 
yng the crowne of this reame h 
right and defence of herytage : i 
ye hold ye pays (?) with hym saj 
yea, and holde vp handes. Ad( 
than all the people cried with ooi 
voyce, ye, ye." Account of co 
Ton. of Henry VL 

" This done, the cardynall Bi 

♦ Henry VI. was not ten years 
old. For the meaning of ** sad'* 
in this place, see voL 2. p, 29. 
note 75. 

Coronation ^etttice. 


t unanimi proclamantibus ^ fiat fiat' et ^ vivat Rex/ 
lomen dicti regis gratissime nominantesy tunc a choro 
lecantetur heec antiphona. * Finnetur manus tua et 
xaltetur dexterai tua. etc' 

fchbisshop of Caunterbury, shew- 
Bg the king to the people at the 
ij parties of the aeid pulpyt, shall 
eye in this wyse. Sirs, here pre- 
lent Henry, rightfull and vn- 
kmbted enheritour by the lawes of 
Bod and man, to the coronne and 
npll d%iiite of England, with all 
iings ihenmto annexed and ap- 
^cftejning: Electe, chosen, and 
rnjuired by all the thre estates 
9f this lande, to take vppon hym 
Aie waA coronne and royall (hg- 
■itic. Whenrppon ye shall vn- 

derstonde, that this daye is pre- 
fixed and appoynted by all the 
Pyers of the lande, for the conse- 
cration, envnction, and coronacion 
of the seid moost excellent Prince 
Henry. WoU ye seme at this 
tyme, and geve your wills and 
assents to the same consecration, 
envnction, and coronacion? Wher- 
unto the people shall say with a 
grete voyce : Ye, ye, ye. So be 
it, Kyng Henry. King Henry," 
Devysefor Henry VIIL 


appennir to tbe 

iS^ma pro xtsihns in hit mmttit^^ 
Uonis tins.' 

K^'^'fJiVT". Justus es, Domine, et rectum. 
^WiBUffi Psal. Beati immaculati. 
ir i^sl^ Deus regnorum omnium et Christiani 
h^JiuRiS maxime protector imperii^ da servo tuo, 
regi nostro N. triumphum virtutis suae scienter exco- 
lere, ut cujus constitutione sunt principes, ejus semper 
munere sint potestates. 
Lectio libri LeviticL 
Haec dicit Dominus Deus : Dabo pacem in finibus 

^ This coronatioD service is 
probably not only the most ancient 
of English Use» but the most an- 
cient extant in the world. It is 
foond in the pontifical of Arch- 
bishop Egbert, and now reprinted 
from the collection by Martene^ 
in his great work, *' De antiquis 
ecclesiae ritibus." Tom. 2. p. 214. 
In the notes will be given a suffi- 
ciently complete collation of the 
Coronation Service, as it is in the 
famous (so called) Leofric missal, 
preserved in the Bodldan library. 
So that I believe I may now ven- 
ture to assure the student, that he 
has before him in this volume, a 
series, to be unequalled by the 
collections of any other country, 
of the Orders of Coronation. They 

extend over a period of more than 
eleven hundred years. By means 
of the pres^it appendix, giving 
the earliest and the latest Forms, 
he will be able to discover the 
changes which took place previous 
to the coronation of Ethelred ; he 
will observe that even after that 
time, according to the Use of some 
Churches in England, the new 
form had not been adopted, or, to 
speak perhaps more correctly, had 
not been authorised or s|>proved; 
and he will trace its gradual q>- 
proach to the finished Order of 
the Liber Regalis, through the in- 
termediate stages of its growth in 
the respective ages of the Win- 
diesler and Exeter pontificals. 

Coronation detoice. 75 

restris; donnietis et non est qui extereat; auferam 
nalas bestias, et gladius non transibit terminos vestros: 
Perseqnimini inimicos yestrosy et corruent coram vobis ; 
It persequentur qoinque de vestris centum alienos, et 
^ntom ex vobis decem.millia ; cadentque inimici vestri 
n conspectu vestro gladio ; respiciam vos, et crescere 
kciam^ et multiplicabiminiy et firmabo pactum meum 
robiscum, dicit Dominus omnipotens. 

Grad. Salvum fac servum tuum. 

Vers. Auribus percipe, Domine. 


Magnus Dominus. VeL Domine in virtute tua. 

Sequentia S. Evangelii secundum Matthseum. 

In illo tempore. Abeuntes Pharissei consilium. 

Benedict io super regem naviter electum ;* 

Te invocamus, Domine sancte. Pater omnipotens, 
aeterne Deus, etc. ut supra, p. 12. 

Alia : 

Deus qui populis tuis. ut supra, p. 17. 

Alia : 

In diebus ejus oriatur omnibus aequitas,' etc. 

' Here the Order in iheLeofric libus solatium, eleyatis correptio» 

Ms. begins: omitting the preced- divitibus doctrina, pauperibus pi- 

^? coHect, gradual, kc which be- etas, peregrinis auxilium, propriis 

longed to the service of ihe com- in patria pax et securitas, unicui- 

nuDion. Its first rubric is, "^«- que secundum mensuram suam 

*fdieHone9 wper regem noviter moderate gubemans se ipsum se- 

'Itfcfum. Te invocamus, etc,*^ dulus discat, ut tua irrigatus com- 

' ^aWene refers for this prayer punctione toti populo tibi placita 

^^ an ancient French Order of prsbere vits possit exempla, et 

Pronation : I give it now from the per viam veritatis cum grege sibi 

WricMS. subdito gradiens, opes fragiles 

'^Indiebus ejus oriatur omnibus abundanter acquirat, simul et sa- 

^^tas et justitia, amicis adjuto- lutem non solum corporum sed 

^^ inimids obstaculum, humi- etiam cordium a te concessam 


Zppmntx to tbt 

Hie verget okum cum cornu super caput ipsius cum 
antiphona : Unxerunt Salomoneniy et PsaL Domine 
in virtute tua- Unus ex pontiftcibus dicat oratianem^ et 
alii unguant.^ 

Deus electorum fortitudo, etc. 

Hie omnes pontifices cum principibus dant et sceptrum 
in manu.^ 

cunctUaccipiat. SioqueTijt8e[?]co. 
gitatum animi consiliumque omne 
componens, plebis gubernacola 
cum pace simul et sapientia semper 
invenire videatar, teque auxiliante 
pnraentis yitae prolizitatem perci- 
piat, et por tempora bona uaque 
ad summam senectutem perveniat, 
liujusque fragilitatis finem perfec- 
tom, ab omnibus vitiorum vinculis 
tus pietatis largitate liberatus, et 
infinit» prosperitatis praemia per- 
petua, angelorumque sterna com. 
mercia consequatur. Per." 

This prayer occurs also in the 
*' Benedictional*' or, as it should 
rather have been caUed, *' Ponti- 
fical" of Archbishop Robert of 
Canterbury ; and of which an ac- 
count is given in the ArcJueolo- 
gia, vol. 24. p. 118. This MS. 
is preserved in the public library 
at Rouen. 

* The Leofric MS. omits this 
rubric, and proceeds at once to the 
prayer ''Deus electorum:" with 
the title, **AUa'* I again tran- 
scribe this prayer from that manu- 
script. It has been abready stated 
that it occurs in the Form of King 
Ethelred, but in a part of that 
MS. unhappily imperfect. 

" Deus electorum fortitude et 
humilium celsitudo, qui in primor- 
dio per effnsionem diluvii crimina 
mundi castigare, et per columbam 
ramum olivs portantem pacem 
terns redditam demonstrasti, ite- 
rumque Aaron famulum tuumper 
unctionem olei sacerdotem sanx- 
isti, et postea per hujus unguenti 
infusionem ad reg^ndum populum 
Israeliticum sacerdotes, r^;es, et 
prophetas perfecisti, villtumque 
ecclesie in oleo exhilarandum per 
propheticam famuli tui vocem Da- 
vid esse prsedixisti : ita qussumus, 
omnipotens Pater, ut per hujus 
creature pinguedinem hunc ser- 
vum tuum sanctificare tua bene- 
dictione digneris, eumque in simi- 
litudinem columbae pacem simpli- 
citatis populo sibisubdito prsestare, 
et exempla Aaron in Dei servitio 
dilig^nter imitari, regumque ves- 
tigia in consiliis scientiae et squi- 
tate judicii semper assequi, vul- 
tumque hilaritatis per banc olei 
unctionem tuamque benedictio- 
nem, teadjuvante, commisse plebi 
paratum habere fEtcias. Per/' 

* The Leofric MS. has merely 
'' Benedictior 

Coronation ^ettiice. ^^ 

Benedicy Donuney hunc prsesulem principem, qui 
regna regum omnium a sseculo moderaris. Amen. 

Et tali eum benedictione glorifica, ut Davidicum 
teneat sublimitatis sceptrum salutis, ut sanctificatus 
protinus reperiatur in merita. Da ei a tuo spiramine 
com mansuetudine ita regere populum sicut Salomonem 
fecisti regnum obtinere pacificum. Amen. 

Tibi semper cum tremore sit subditus, tibique milir 
tet, cum regno sit tuo clypeo protectus cum proceribus, 
et ubique maneat sine pugna victor. Amen. 

Sis ei contra acies inimicorum lorica, in adversis 
galea, in prosperis patientia, in protectione clypeus 
sempitemus. Amen. 

Vivat inter gentium catervas magnanimus. Sit ei 
in judiciis sequitas singularis. Amen. 

Locupletet eum tua prsedita dextra, frugalem conti- 
neat patriam, et suis liberis tribuat profutura. Amen. 

Da ei prolixitatem vitae per tempera, et in diebus 
ejus oriatur justitia. Amen. 

A te robustum teneat regiminis solium, ut cum 
jocunditate et justitia aetemo glorietur in regno. 

£t praesta ut gentes illi teneant fidem, proceres sui 
habeant pacem, diligantque caritatem. Amen. 

Tu ejus mentem benignus inlabere, ut amore te 
timeat, et timore diligat. Amen. 

Tu ei honor sis, tu gaudium, tu voluntas, tu in mce- 
rore solatium, in ambiguitate consilium, in itinere con* 
solator. Amen. 

Tu in injuriis defensor, in tribulatione patientia, in 
ae^tudine medicina. Amen. 

In te habeat omne, consilium, per te tuam discat a 
te commissam sapientiam regni gubemacula moderari, 
ut semper felix^ semper a te gaudens, de tuis mereatur 

78 appennir to tbt 

beneficiis gratulari, et «etemis valeat commerciis copu- 
lari. Amen. 

Ut quern tu nobis hodie tua misericordia jocondum 
praesentare dignatus es, tu facias multorum curriculis 
annorum protectione securum. Amen. 

Et ita popuUs iste pullulet coalitus benedictione seter- 
nitatis, ut semper maneat tripudians in pace victorio- 
sus. Amen. 

Quod ipse praratare digneris, qui cum aetemo Patre 
simul cum Spiritu Sancto, vivis et regnas Deus, per 
omnia ssBcula sseculorum. 

Hie datur ei baculum in tnanu sua.^ 

Omnipotens det tibi Deus de rore coeli et de pingue- 
dine abundantiam terrse, frumenti, et vini, et serviant 
tibi populi, et adorent te tribus ; esto dominus fratrum 
tuorum, et incurventur ante te filii matris tuae, et qui 
benedixerit tibi benedictionibus repleatur, et Deus erit 
adjutor tuus, et Omnipotens benedicet tibi benedictio- 
nibus coeli desuper, in montibus, et in collibus, bene- 
dictionibus abyssi jacentis deorsum, benedictionibus 
uberum, et uvarum, pomorumque; benedictiones pa- 
trum antiquorum Abraham, et Isaac, et Jacob portatas 
sint^ super te. 

Hie omnes pontijiees sumant galeum tt ponant super 
caput ipsius.^ 

Benedicy Domine, fortitudinem regis principis ; ^ et 
opera manuum illius suscipe, et benedictione tua terra 
ejus de pomis**^ repleatur, de fructu coeli et rore atque 

• In the Leofric MS. the ruhric " Alia." 

is : " Item super regem," » « principis nostrL" Missal 

^ " Confortatffi sint." Missal Leoftic. 

Leofric. ^ '^depomis^desunt in 3fma/. 

* In the Leofric MS. merely Leafric» 

Coronation ^etDice. 79 

abyssi subjacentis, de fructu soils ac lunse, de vertice 
antiquorum montium, de pompis setemorum coUium, 
et de frugibus terrse et plenitudine ejus: benedictio 
illius qui apparuit in rubo veniat super caput N. et 
plena sit benedictio Domini in filiis ejus, et tinguat in 
oleo pedem suum ; comua renocerotis comua illius, in 
ipsis yentilabit gentes usque ad terminos terrse, quia 
ascensor coeU auxiliator suus in sempitemum fiat. 

Et dicat omnis popultis tribus vicibus cum episcopis 
et presbyteris ; Vivat rex N. in sempitemum. Tunc 
con/irmabUur^^ cum benedictUme omnis populusy et oscu- 
landum principem in sempiternum dicit. Amen. Amen. 
Amen. Tunc dicunt orationem septimam supra regem. 

Deus perpetuitatis auctor, dux virtutum omnium, 
cunctorumque hostium victor, benedic hunc famulum 
tuum tibi suum caput inclinantem. Effunde super 
eum gratiam firmam, et in militia in qua probatus 
consistit, prolixa sanitate eum, prospera felicitate con- 
serra, et ubicumque, vel pro quibuscumque auxilium 
taom invocaverit, cito adsis, protegas, et defendas. 

Offert. Exaudi Deus orationem meam. 

Super oblata. 

Suscipe, Domine, preces et munera ecclesise tuse 
pro salute famuli N. supplicantis, et protectione fide- 
lium populorum antiqua brachii tui operare miracula, 
ut superatis inimicis, secura tibi serviat Christiana 
libertas. Per. 

^ Et confirmahUur cum hene- promise, is omitted in the Leofric 

iicti(me onmi populo in solio MS. as it is part, not of the Coro- 

rtgmJ* Rabr. Missal. Leofiric nation Office, but of the mass. 

" From hence to the oath or 

So appenttr to tbt 


«Ku^rae Deus» qui providentia toa codesda smul et 
hH^HM luiKlerariSi propitiare regi nostro .N. et rebus 
HN>N(ris« ut counis hostium fortitude, te pro nobis pug- 
iMMtw fran^tur. Per. 

Usiuo i^ritur oblationeni, Domine, famuli tui N.| 
v^.cvuu tiM in mysterio officii sacerdotalis offerimus,| 
I'iv %v \(UvhI in ipsum potestatem regni confenre dig- 
u^i'x^ \Xv ^v^^pitius et benignus assume, et exoratus 
iK<««.t't^ v'i^vr^iitioiK' concede, ut majestatis tuae pro- 
iwx.v^tK^ wuiitvlons» et wvo augeatur et regno. Per 
V"*^ ♦jviumx vlu^ue nostros. 

\ i^\rtt\\isjk tuvieui tuam* 

I Vuv N^ui jkI ju^^xlioandum setemi regni evangelium 
vN^v\r>u u u^^^vrtum pneeparasti, preetende famulis 
\^^ X Hs**K^ witK't^ubu;^ niic>tris arma justitiae coelestia, 
uv iM\ s\\ vv>^.As\tujt nulla turbetur tempestate bello- 

VS»* t vKsvtui 5a^^uij»u\TU<^ Deus, nostri regni defende 
vnXn *»* v^A^UN^ r\vcv*r\*tis. ut in lua dextera confidentes, 
*K4'*; tK\xi ^ux Nuist ^^nkn'^ uuiversis. Per. 

^'*»* .♦.• '» ' viu' uiU.An rr^:<f ad pcpulum hie videre 

Ks\t uvK»» ^x>i»5^ ^"«4 Uv>\iter ordinati, et in solium 
\u*^' uM'^x hv<v uU ^u-i^v^^ca populo christiano sibi 
x^ibvi iv^ ^^i\<vi*^v<v : iu prtttiirsv ut ecvlesia Dei et omnis 

^ '^'^ A^t.wi.'^uli» #>j^*s .'«^ *y<»4«*t^ aut/ jmrnyvrr.* Rnbr. Missal. 

Coronation ^etfaitt. 8i 

populus chrlstianus veram pacem servent in^^ omni 
tempore. Amen. 

A/ia : 

Aliud est, ut rapacitates et omnes iniquitates omni- 
bus gradibus interdicat. Amen. 

Tertium est, ut in omnibus judiciis aequitatem et 
misericordiam prsecipiat, ut per hoc nobis indulgeat 
misericordiam suam clemens et misericors Deus. 

*« '' omnipotenti Deo." Leofrie MS. 




C|)e Coronation of W S^ajtsitv 
SXutm Wiittoxia, 

In the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, on Thursday, 
the 28th of June, 1838. 

€bt Contents/ 

L The Entranu into the Church 85 

II. rA€ Recognition 86 

III. The First Oblation 88 

IV. The Litany • • • ^ 

V. The beginning of the Commnmon^ernc^ . • 97 

VI. TAe Sermon 102 

VII. The Oath» 103 

VIII. TAe Anointing 106 

IX. The Presenting of the Spurs and Sword, and 

the * Oblation of' the said Sword • . • • HI 
X. The Investina with the «Royal Robe, and the 

Delivery of the Orh # . . 114 

XL The Investiture per Annulum et Baculum . H^ 

XIL The putting on of the Croyvn 118 

XIIL The presenting of the noW Bible H» 

XIV. The Benediction and Te Deum 120 

XV. 2%e Inthronization 123 

XVL The Homage* 124 

XVIL The Communion . 127 

XVIII. The final Prayers 136 

XIX. The Recess 137 

> I do not propose in these notes, * This is called ** The Declaration 

as I have already observed in the pre- and Oath " in the Order for K. 

liininary dissertation, to do more than George II. 

notice a few of the most important ' ** The Girding and OblatioD^' 

variations which occur in the Offices in the Orders until K. William IV- 

which lie before me. The student must compare the aote 

These are, the Offices of the coro- in the place below, 

nations of her present Majesty, re- * " The Investing with the ArmiU 

printed in the text : of William IV. and the Royal Robe :" until K. Wil- 

and Q. AdeUide : of George IV. : of Ham IV. 

George II. and Q. Caroline. For * The Order of K. George IV< 

any remarks on the variations of the adds here " xvii. The final Anthem;' 

preceding and intermediate reigns, I which is also the arrangement of the 

am obliged to rely upon the authority, Order for K. George II. As in thij 

scarcely to be doubted in such respect, last instance, and in that also of K. 

ofrepnnts and accounts of the offices: William IV., a Queen was also 

for example, by Prynne, Sir £. Walk- crowned, both these orders add '* xviij. 

er, and Sandford. the Queen's coronation." 

fonn anU iDxhtt of ftet Si^ajtsifs 

[iV/Ae Morning upon the Day of the Coro- 
nation earljfj Care is to be taken that the 
Ampulla be filled with Oily and, together 
with the Spoon, be laid ready upon the Altar 
in the Abbey-Church. 

SECT. L — The Entrance into the Church. 

The Queen, as soon as She enters at the West Door 
of the Church J is to be received with the following An- 
them, to be sung by the Choir. ^ 


I WAS glad when they said unto me, We will go into 
the House of the Lord. For there is the Seat of 
Judgement, even the Seat of the House of David. O 
pray for the peace of Jerusalem ; They shall prosper 
that love Thee. Peace be within thy walls, and pros- 
perity within thy Palaces. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the 
Holy Ghost; 

As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall 
be: world without end. Amen. 

' ^ by the choir of Westmin- side of the middle aisle, and stay 

Iter." William IV. And the there to attend the coming of Aw 

culler forms add : ^' who, with Majesty , [their Majesties'] and 

^ Dean and Prebendaries of that then going next before the regalia 

clmreh, are before to fall off from [the Queens regaUa,] to sing :" 
^ procession a little to the left 


appenuii: to tbz 

The Queen in the mean time passes up through the 
Body of the Churchy intOy and through the Choir^ and 
so up the Stairs to the Theatre ; and having passed by 
Her Tfirofte^ She makes Her humble Adoration, and 
then kneeling at the Faldstool'' set for Her before Her 
Chair, uses some short private Prayers; and after ^ 
sitting down (not in Her Throne, but in Her Chair be- 
fore, and below, Her Throne,) there reposes Herself. 

SECT. II.— The Recognition." 

The Queen being so placed, the Archbishop turneth ti 
the East part of the Theatre, and after, together with 

^ According to the pictares of 
the late coronations, this *^ fald- 
stool" has changed much firom its 
original and proper shape : it woald 
now seem that a desk to kneel at 
is placed before the chair, upon 
which it would not be possible to 
sit, which was one end and object 
of the proper faldstooL The name 
however has been retained, and 
we have only to regret that the 
thing itself has been changed. 
Very probably this has been owing 
to the interference of subordinate 
officials: who, very ignorant of 
the purpose and meaning of many 
parts of the Service, and of the 
proper ornaments and the furni- 
ture to be provided, have never- 
theless obtruded themselves into 
matters beyond their office. 

The same alteration has taken 
place in France: and there also 
the proper faldstool has been sup- 

planted by a cushioned desk U 
kneel at. How long this has beei^ 
I know not, in either case: bul 
the faldstool was not used at th< 
coronation of Louis XV. in \72rl 
See the plates, in the account of it 
Le Sacre de Louis X Vj JRoy d 
France* foL And see below, not 

Du Cange explains the Jhildu 
tovium to be> " Sella plicatilis, 
which in fact it was: Bomethin] 
like the common camp-stool of th 
present day. The same write 
quotes various etymologies whici 
have been proposed for the name 
the most probable of which, as i 
is the most obvious, derives it *< \ 
Longobardico Falden, plicare, e 
Stoul, sedes." In the coronation 
service of Charles V. of France 
so often cited above^ the faldstoo 
occurs in many of the illumina 
tions ; one is placed for the king 

Coronation ^etttice. 87 

the lAird Chancellor^ Lord Great Chamberlain^ Lord 
High Constable and Earl Marshal {Garter King of 
^rms preceding them\ goes to the other th^ee sides of 
the Theatre in this Order, South, West, and North, 
and at every of the four sides, with a loud Voice, speaks 
to the People : And the Queen in the mean time standing 
up by Her Chair, turns and shetvs Herself unto the 
People at every of the four sides of the Theatre, as the 
Archbishop is at every of them, and while He speaks 
thus to the People : 

SIRS, I here present unto you Queen VICTORIA, 
the Undoubted Queen of this Reakn : Wherefore 
All you who are come this Day to do your Homage, 
Are you willing to do the same ? 

The People signify their Willingness and Joy, by 
loud and repeated Acclamations, all with one Voice cry- 
ing out, 

God save Queen VICTORIA. 

Then the Trumpets sound.^ 

aoother for the arehbishopy and example» in the chronicle of John 

both alike. A low crossed, or Bromton: ^'DefunctoregeEthel- 

foldiog-stool, which might be used redo, episcopi, et abbates, et qui- 

either to kneel at, or to sit upon : que terraB nobiliores omnem ejus 

examples of both of which occur progeniem abnegantes, Kanutum 

io the manuscript. pro rege apud Suthamptoniam re- 

* This title is of modem in- cognoTerunt." Script, », p. 903. 
troduction, having been for the 

first time applied to this part of * *^ And the Choir sing this 

tbe Senrice, by Sandford, in his Anthem: The king shall rejoice, 

aocomt of the coronation of James etc." PealrnxLy Order of Geo. 

U. But the term is ancient ; for II. 

88 flyytiiHu to ttft 

SECT- in.— The First Oblatiox. 

The Bibkj Paten^ and Cup being brmght by the 
Bishops who had borne iheniy and placed upon the Altar ^ 
the Archbishop goeth to the Altar and puts on his Cope, 
and standeth on the North Side ofU: And the Bishops, 
who are to read the litany^ do also vest themselves. 
And the Officers of the Wardrobe, kc- spread Carpets 
and Cushions on the Floor and Steps of the Altar. 

Which being done, the Queen^ supported by the two 
Bishops, of Durham and Bath and Wells, and attended 
by the Dean of Westminster, the Great Officers, and 
the Lords that carry the R^alia going before Her, goes 
down to the Altar, and kneeling upon the Steps of it 
yir»t obifttioD, makes her First Oblation ; Which is a Pall, or Altar- 
WrdgfTofGoid. Cloth of Gold, delivered by an Officer of the Ward- 
robe to the Lord Great Chamberlain, and by Him, 
kneeling, to Her Majesty : and an Ingot or Wedge of 
Gold of a pound weight, which the Treasurer of the 
Household delivers to the Lord Great Chamberlain, and 
He to Her Majesty, kneeling : Who delivers them to the 
Archbishop, and the Archbishop standing (in which 
posture he is to receive all other Oblations) receives from 
Her, one after another, the Pall to be reverently laid 
upon the Altar, and the Gold to be received into the 
Bason, and with the like Reverence put upon the 

Then the Archbishop saith this Prayer, the Queen 
still kneeling : 

^ In those Orders where a the Queen ariseth from her chair, 

queen was crowned with a king, and heing likewise supported by 

here is inserted the ruhric for her two Bishops, and the Lords which 

m^tsty's oblation ako. <<Then carry her regalia going before her, 

Coronation ^etttice. 89 

OGOD, who dwellest in the high and holy Place, 
with them also who are of an humble Spirit, 
Look down mercifully upon this Thy Servant, VIC- 
TORIA our Queen, here humbling Herself before 
Thee at Thy Footstool, and graciously receive these 
Oblations, which in humble Acknowledgement of Thy 
Sovereignty over all, and of Thy great Bounty to 
Her in particular. She hath now offered up unto Thee, 
through Jesus Christ our only Mediator and Advo- 
cate. Amen. 

The Queen having thus offered^ and so fulfilled his 
Commandment^ who saidy Thou shalt not appear before 
the Lord thy God empty ; goes to Her Chair set for 
Her on the South side of the Altar^ where She is to kneel 
at Her FaldstooP^ when the Litany begins. 

In the mean time, the Lords who carry the Regalia, 
except those who carry the Swords, come in Order near 
to the Altar, and present Every One what He carries to 
the Archbishop, who delivers them to the DeanofWestr 
minster, to be by Him placed upon the Altar, and then 
retire to the Places and Seats appointed for Them. 

goeth down to the altar, and kneel- Litany, has been observed since 

ing apon the cushions there laid the time of K. James I. 

for her, on the left hand of the The Sermon was appointed to be 

king's, maketh her Oblation, which preached here, followed by the oath, 

is a Pall, to be received also by the ' Veni Creator' and a prayer, 

tile Archbishop, and laid upon the in the orders of K. James I. and 

^tar." Charles II. In James II/s the 

K. James I. offered ** a Pall and Litany preceded the sermon : but, 

twenty pieces of gold." as will be remarked again pre- 
sently, at that coronation there 

" The use of this term *• fald- was no communion. The present 

«001," for the pkce at which the order began with K. William HI. 

Soverdgn is to kneel during the and Queen Mary. 

SECT. R'.-The LlTANF. 

r^,_ """-*-■**-* t^f Litany, to be read by two BUhops, 
^'J^ '.- y'^ii'"'^ ^"^^ng at a Faldstool above tk 
^^.> .- 'V/^:'^""^' <»« 'Af f»iddle of the East side 
— . ^ . -.' C« v- nfA/;,^ rtir Responses.'* 

J^«v*^u^.nt ^^ S"**™^' "f *« ^«rfd: have 
menj upon us Bu»«ble siiuiers. 

«nnefs. ^^^ "P°° "« miserable 

« 1 ,«w»*r JV^ glonous Tnmty, three persons 

oTu?^ ' ^^^ T"^-'' "P*»*» "« «^^We Inner.. 
aW 0/^ (,a^. A«.^ ,«^rry i.;«„ .„ Arable sinmrs. 

Remember not, Wd, our oflFences, nor the offences 
of our forefathers, neither take thou vengeance of our 
ans : qpare us, good Lord, spare thy people whom thou 
hast redeemed with thy most precious blood, and be not 
angry with us for ever. 

Spare us, good Lord. 

From all evil and mischief; from sin, from the crafts 

» « The Choir sbgiDg the responses to the OTgan." Geoi^ II. 

Coronation <^etttice« 9 1 

and assaults of the devil ; from thy wrath^ and from 
eyerlasting damnation. 
Good Lordj deliver us. 

From all blindness of heart ; from pride, vain-glory» 
and hypocrisy ; from envy, hatred, and malice, and all 
uncharitableness, . 
Good Lordj deliver us. 

From fornication, and all other deadly sin; and 
from all the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the 

Good Lordy deliver us. 

From lightning and tempest; from plague, pesti- 
lence, and famine ; from battle and murder, and from 
sudden death. 

Good Lordy deliver us. 

From all sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebellion ; 
from all false doctrine, heresy, and schism ; from hard- 
ness of heart, and contempt of thy Word and Com- 

Good Lordy deliver us. 

By the mystery of thy holy Incarnation ; by thy 
holy Nativity and Circumcision ; by thy Baptism, Fast- 
ing, and Temptation, 
Good Lordy deliver us. 

By thine Agony and bloody Sweat ; by thy Cross 
and Passion ; by thy precious Death and Burial ; by 
thy glorious Resurrection and Ascension ; and by the 
coming of the Holy Ghost, 
Good Lordy deliver us. 

In all time of our tribulation; in all time of our 
wealth ; in the hour of death, and in the day of judge- 
Good Lordy deliver us. 
We sinners do beseech thee to hear us, O Lord God, 



u^i .iistt :c «HKT puBBe dice to rule and goTern thy 
>. .*• vTllxir-ii onivwaal in itat right way ; 

T. 't^trr'-i vtr rj i*:tir msy good Lard. 

r^rjLt r 71S13* ^itfm» thee to keep and strengthen in 
iN^ r-w w;»r«uinoiii^ of thee, in righteousness and 
K ,. n^^ »c i:v. zij Serrant VICTORIA, our most 
^C'-nv us^ ^neea imi Governor ; 

T %-*cr-. t :it,n 31 it*s^ tLS^ good Ijord. 

r*\u 1 ^na^^ piinfe&e tiiee to rule her heart in thy 
^ . u v-iT. imi jj*»*«. Aad rhat she may evermore have 
u?,**n V tt **\»^. iad en?r $«A thy honour and glory ; 

1 H>tr* -r lit ■'/ ic'jcr %s^ g'joj Jjord. 

r^.u t ^av ^Ie)»f »» to he her defender and 
vv\'*^ ^' ^'n^ ^T rj%f ^^-tMcy oT«r all her enemies; 

VVu v tni< ^itntesi^ tbwe to Uess and preserve 
VVo - VlVy .-TV* v^iwa IX>«ager, and all the Royal 

V*Kiw < ^ay ^icuKs^ rSf^ to illuminate all Bishops, 
V^^v^N. Ji'^i. Anj».vttsk wi:i tr*e knowledge and under- 
v^^ »V'' ♦^ ^*f -^^^ ^'^ -«^^ **^ *^ ^^^^ ^>y their preach- 
^".«;^ sVtvl ^'^^^ W^ w^y ^a« it Ibitht «nd shew it 

V>^x ^4 ^*ii>i r^<n»f :>iey' to «Kloe the Lords of the 
\\s^^Kit^ *^l Jul »^ N-^Tvt^ipr. with grace, wisdom, 

U , Ax^v't , Kv *v Knc" «^ 4r.vJ Lord. 

X^^\ \t ^t^\ ivwv^ tbee n> Kess and keep the Magis- 
Ii>aU*^ j^i^^'-"'?: ^biew ^nRlo^ n> execute justice, and to 
w^AUUi^iu tni;h ; 

II V )<4i^\x^t ^Kv U ki>tr iiA ^.W Lord. 

Cotonation ^etttice. 9 3 

That it may please thee to bless and keep all thy 

We beseech thee to hear us^ good Lord. 
That it may please thee to give to all nations, unity, 
peace, and concord ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to give us an heart to love 
and dread thee, and diligently to live after thy com- 
mandments ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to give to all thy people 
merease of grace, to hear meekly thy Word, and to 
receive it with pure affection, and to bring forth the 
fruits of the Spirit ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to bring into the way of 
truth all such as have erred, and are deceived ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to strengthen such as do 
stand, and to comfort and help the weak-hearted, and 
to raise up them that fall, and finally to beat down 
Satan under our feet ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to succour, help, and com- 
fort all that are in danger, necessity, and tribulation ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 
That it may please thee to preserve all that travel by 
land or by water, all women labouring of child, all sick 
persons and young children, and to shew thy pity upon 
I all prisoners and captives ; 
i We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. 

That it may please thee to defend and provide for the 
btherless children and widows, and all that are desolate 
' and oppressed ; 


CO IttTe mercy upon a| 

• r «c- •'*: ; cc u tescr mJL ^^M^ Lsrd^ 

-^* . ^s. «r^ -fc-Lri:trr*5r^ jad tt> tuiii their hearts ; 

* t -^n •: T'^1 I H. ir 4ak zmmi Ltund, 

~*ii •. Ki*- "•.t^5fc« in» ^ iiTe awl preserve to oua 
.^« : ^ ^ ^ .. r*ii:s «i :aif <ttrdv so as in due time w< 
tr •• • ii.'a « 

» r«>;- ••- ic •"• ic-.T* is^ ^im£ Land. 

T ik •. r-^- ^if^** itfif Tu iiTe tts true repeata]i< 
X \ '4.* -• B^ w «or sas. K^u^fenccs, and ignorances] 
u-.v V r..:., ^ 1 in -zw z^^ifc» %rf ihj Holy Spirit, t^ 
i.-^— -. ,ir : -v iuvvrxLi^ v lir lic4y Word; 

I - ^ ^'- -% •A.r: o icsr uf^ ^j^m Lani, 

S-a V >.\w 11^ Msis^a :a»e to hear OS. 

^" ^ajLn\> j\ v^-^ £r*u; «i^je^t away the sins of tb^ 
%• %'*^ ^ 

v^ ^ juii^ ^^ vV>£ '£2[U£ ^<5( may the sins of the 

lv<\i bij^xv^ «wtxx luvc: asu 
C Ti^t s^^:tW Ks^.y^ rfWrte Ptopk with them, say 

Coronation %ett»ice* 95 

OUR Father, which art in Heayen ; Hallowed be 
thy Name. Thy Kingdom come. Thy Will be 
lone in Earth, As it is in Heaven. Give us this day 
ywr daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we 
Torgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not 
into temptation ; But deliver us from evil. Amen. 

Bishop. O Lord, deal not with us after our sins. 
Answer. Neither reward us after our iniquities. 

C Let us pray. 

060D merciful Father, that despisest not the 
sighing of a contrite heart, nor the desire of such 
as be sorrowful ; Mercifully assist our prayers that we 
make before thee in all our troubles and adversities, 
whensoever they oppress us ; and graciously hear us, 
that those evils which the craft and subtilty of the devil 
or man worketh against us, be brought to nought, and 
by the providence of thy goodness they may be dis- 
persed, that we thy servants, being hurt by no perse- 
cutions, may evermore give thanks unto thee in thy 
holy Church, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

O Lardy arise, help usj and deliver us, /or thy Name's 

OGOD, we have heard with our ears, and our 
fathers have declared unto us, the noble works 
that thou didst in their days, and in the old time before 

Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for thine 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the 
Holy Ghost; 

Answ. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever 
shall be : world without end. Amen. 

CD appenUr to tde 

Fna av eneniias defend us, O Christ. 

iv *:a'/.4w/if look ypon our afflictions. 

PltLrmllv bdioU the sorrows of our hearts. 

y£c^.:;\^f forgive the sins of thy people. 

TsLr-^iETsiAx with mearcj hear our prayers. 

%.^ Srit M-y DmriJj have mercy upon us. 

Knci «c^w and ct»" vouchsafe to hear us, O Chnst. : 

V- -A i/ii^i i^tfT «s» O Christ ; graciously hear usj 

iwi. O Lord, lei Uiy mercy he shewed upon us. 
«x«A% JU v« do put our trust in thee. , 

C Let us pray. | 

^m ^r VxatKr be«ech thee, O Father, mercifully W 
1 w \,vi xTcoi oar infirmities ; and for the glory oi 
:^> Xtottfv Txnt frv«a «s all those evUs that we mosi 
^w ^.wxc<\ Va'^y' «desmmed ; and grant that in all oui^ 
?\\i NI.V %^ TTdky Toa «ar whole trust and confidence in^ 
** • tfv«r -^ «vj ^*yr»osne serve thee in holiness andj 
>v»x-Mvs$. /c J -7^> tv> t>y honour and glory, througij 
,Nu^ ^:. . V^.Niij^'T as^i Advocate, Jesus Christ ouij 

Ov >^^^ ^ V ^*^>i^5t frr Ay people by thy power, 
wi>;^ n t,^ ^^^fc xbntt in V>ve, grant unto this thy 
>*.> * ^.-x Ml- vX VTX ^^ §firii of wisdom and govern- 
ixyxiv» .>v%v K^ '^ ic^\"Q^ ^r::v^ thee with all her heart, 
N»V Hxv* • T^»^ % z<i\ ^.-xyMt ths kingdom, that in her 
■ N.v ?^> o> *»\^> t^tvl ^^rie r::jiy continue in safety and 
svxvv^ ^* X 4uixi '\i ^^fr$e^\rriri^ in good works unto 
, V nv»v N.V t.vx * :>rv<i;^> ;>.r tuervy come to thine 
v\v^ 'v«v ,5^ V ;;\x^t^ vrrwH;::^^ Jesus Christ thv Son our 

> vN5\N .V sv •%* 

Coronation ^emice* 97 

rHE Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Love 
of God, and the Fellowship of the Holy Ghost, 
le with us all evermore. Amen. 

The Bishops who read the Litany will resume their 

SECT. V. — The beginning of the Communion 

Holy ! Holy 1 Holy, Lord God of Hosts ; 
Heaven and Earth are full of thy Glory ; 
Glory be to Thee, O Lord most High ; 


Then the Archbishop beginmth the Communion Service. 

OUR Father which art in Heaven ; Hallowed be 
thy Name. Thy Kingdom come. Thy Will be 
done in Earth, As it is in Heaven. Give us this day 
our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we 
forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not 
into temptation ; But deliver us from evil. Amen. 


ALMIGHTY GOD, unto whom all hearts be 
open, all desires known, and from whom no 
secrets are hid ; Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by 
the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may per- 
fectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name, 
tlirough Christ our Lord. Amen. 

C Then shall the Archbishop^ turning to the People^ 
rehearse distinctly all the Ten Commandments; and 

" This rubric occurs for Uie first time. 

98 dppeioiir to tbt 

the PfoplCy still kneeling^ shall after evay Command 
ment ask God Mercy far their transgression thereof for 
the time pasty and Grace to keep the same for the timt 
to comej asfolloweth. 


GOD spake these words, and said, I am the Lord th} 
God : thou shalt have none other gods but me. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline oui 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not make to thyself any gravet 
image, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heavei 
above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water undei 
the earth. Thou shalt not bow down to them, noi 
worship them : for I the Lord thy God am a jealooj 
Gody and visit the sins of the fathers upon the childrei 
unto the third and fourth generation of them that hati 
me, and shew mercy unto thousands in them that lov^ 
me, and keep my commandments. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline ouj 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not take the name of the L«orc 
thy God in vain : for the Lord will not hold him guilt 
less that taketh his name in vain. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline oui 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath- 
day. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all that thou 
hast to do ; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the 
Lord thy God. In it thou shalt do no manner oi 
Work, Ihou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy man- 
servant, and thy maid-servant, thy cattle, and the 
stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days iBe 
Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in 

Coronation ^enitce* 99 

hem is, and rested the seventh day; wherefore the 
^rd blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
learts to keep this law. 

Archb. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy 
lays may be long in the land which the Lord thy God 
[iveth thee. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
learts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt do no murder. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not steal. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
bearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
fliy neighbour. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our 
hearts to keep this law. 

Archb. Thou shalt not covet thy. neighbour s house, 
Aoa shalt not covet thy neighbour s wife, nor his ser- 
vant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any 
thing that is his. 

People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and write all 
these thy laws in our hearts, we beseech thee. 

€ Then shall follow this Collect for the Queen^ the 
'Archbishop standing as before^ and sayings 

Let us pray. 

\LMIGHTY God, whose kingdom is everlasting, 
and power infinite ; Have mercy upon the whole 

loo flppenuir to tte 

Church, and so role the heart of thy chosen Serrant 
VICTORIA our Queen and Governor, that she 
(knowing whose Minister she is) may ahove all tlungs 
seek thy honour and glory; and that we and all her 
subjects (duly considering whose Authority she hath) 
may futhfiilly serve, honour, and humbly obey her, 
in thee, and for thee, according to thy blessed word 
and ordinance, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who 
with thee and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth 
ever one God, world without end» Amen. 

The Epistle, 
To be read by one of the Bishops. 1 Pet. ii. 13. 

SUBMIT yourselves to every ordinance of man for 
the Lord's sake : whether it be to the King as 
supreme ; or unto Governors, as unto them that are 
sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and foi 
the praise of them that do well. For so is the will ol 
Gocl, that with well-doing ye may put to silence thJ 
ignorance of foolish men : As free, and not using youi 
liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants 
of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood 
Fear God. Honour the King. 

The Gospel, 

To be fxad by another Bishop, the Queen with the Peo 
pie standing. S. Matth. xxii. 15. 

THEN went the Pharisees, and took counsel hoi 
they might entangle him in his talk. And the; 
sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodiaa^ 
saying, Master, we know tfiat thou art true, an( 
teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thoi 

Cotonatton ^erttice. i o t 

br any man : for thou regardest not the person of 
nen. Tell us therefore. What thinkest thou ? Is it 
awful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not ? But Je- 
(us perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt 
fe me, ye hypocrites ? Shew me the tribute-money. 
And they brought unto him a penny. And he said unto 
them, Whose is this image and superscription ? They 
iaid unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, 
Render therefore unto Caesar, the things which are 
Caesar's : and unto God, the things that are God's. 
When they had heard these words they marvelled, and 
left him, and went their way. 

TTien the Archbishop readeth the Nicene Creed; the 
Queen with the people standings as before. 

I BELIEVE in one God the Father Ahnighty, 
Maker of heaven and earth. And of all things 
risible and invisible : 

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten 
Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, 
God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, 
Begotten, not made, being of one substance with the 
Father, by whom all things were made : Who for us 
meo, and for our salvation, came down from heaven. 
And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin 
Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for 
OS under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried,. 
And the third day he rose again according to the 
Scriptures, And ascended into heaven. And sitteth on 
the right hand of the Father. And he shall come 
again with glory to judge both the quick and the 
dead : Whose kingdom shall have no end. 

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord and 
giier of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the 

I02 appetintr totiie 

Son, Who with the Father and the Son tc^ether is 
worshipped and glorified. Who spake hy the prophets. 
And I believe one Catholick and Apostolick Chorch. 
I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of ^s. 
And I look for the resurrection of the dead, And the 
lite of the world to come. Amen. 

Tke Service being concluded, the Bishops who assisted 
^ui rctmm to ihdr Seats.^^ 

SECT- VI.— The Sermon. 

At the end of the Creed one of the Bishops is readi/in 
the Pti/;*i/, fUacfd against the Pillar at the North-East 
Corner of the Theatre^ and begins the Sermon^ which is 
to be SHitable to the great Occasion ; which the Queen 
kcxtrs sitting in Her Chair on the South side of the 
Ait^r^ ootr again^ the Pulpit.^^ 

On Her right hand stands the Bishop of Durham, 
and beyoKd himy on the same side^ tlie Lords that carry 
the ik\ifds: On Her lefi hand the Bishop of Bath and 
WelK and the Lofd Great Chamberlain. 

On the Xorth side of the Altar sits the Archbishof 
in a p$irfu'e IV/tW Chair : Near the Archbishop standi 
Ciafier King of Arms: On the South side, East of thi 
Queens Chair^ nearer to the Altar^ stand the Dean am 
Prtbemtaries of Westminster. 

^ ThU mbnc occurs lor the uncovered duriug the offering anc 

ftr*t tiiii«« The«e Mftts, accord* service following; when the ser 

ii>|f h> a nibric in another place vice begins, he puts on lus cap oj 

tu luHV Il.'sordcrt are lobe** OD crimson velvet turned op witfa 

\\\^ North side of the wall be* ermins, and so continues to the 

l\xxH^> the Archbishop and the end of iu" Orders of Wm. IV. 

\\\\\\\\\:' Geo. IV. &c. 

^ '' Alu) whereas the king was 

Cotonaiion ^Maitt. 


SECT. VIL— The Oath. 

The Sermon being ended^ and Her Majesty having on 
Monday the 20M Day of November 1837, in the pre- 
tence of the Two Houses of Parliament j made and 
signed the Declarationj^^ the Archbishop goeth to the 

^ This alterati(Hi, a very pro- 
per one, that the sovereign should 
preyiously in another place, be- 
fore the two Houses of Parlia- 
menty make and sign *'the De- 
daration," was made after the 
reign of K. Geo. II., from whose 
** Order," as the subject is im- 
portant, I shall transcribe the 

"Sect. vij. The DecLiration 
and Oath. 

Sermon being endedj the Arch' 
Ushop goeth to the JGng^ and 
ftandifig before Atm, a^keth him; 
^ h your Majesty vrilllng to 
make the Declaration ? 
" The King answers; 
" I am willing. 

" The Archbishop being ready 
^cith the said Declaration writ- 
tfn in a roll of parchment^ cmd 
I reading it asfoUoweth: 
' ** I George the Second, by the 
grace of God King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, De- 
fender of the Faith, &c., do so- 
Imnly and sincerely, in the pre- 
soHx of God, profess, testify, and 
^lare. That I do believe, that 
Q the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper there is not any Tran- 
nbrtantiation of the Elements of 

Bread and Wine into the Body 
and Blood of Christ, at or after 
the consecration thereof by any 
person whatsoever: and that the 
invocation or adoration of the 
Virgin Mary, or any other Saint, 
and the Sacrifice of the Mass, as 
they are now used in the Church 
of Rome, are superstitious and 
idolatrous. And I do solemnly, 
in the presence of God, profess, 
testify, and declare, that I do 
make this declaration, and every 
part thereof, in the plsdn and or- 
dinary sense of the words read 
unto me, as they are commonly 
understood by English Protes- 
tants, without any evasion, equi- 
vocation, or mental reservation 
whatsoever, and without any dis- 
pensation already granted me for 
this purpose by the Pope, or any 
other authority or person what- 
soever, or without any hope of 
any such dispensation from any 
person or authority whatsoever, 
or without thinking that I am, or 
may be acquitted before God or 
man, or absolved of this declara- 
tion, or any part thereof, although 
the Pope, or any other person 
or persons, or power whatsoever, 
should dispense with, or annul 


flppennir to tbt 

Queen^ and standing before Her, says to the Queen 

Is Your Majesty willing to take the Oath ? 
And the Queen answering, 

I am willing. 

The Archbishop ministereth these Questions;^ aiu 

the same, or declare that it was 
null and void from the beginning. 
*^ The Sjng mdkes^ and au^ 
dihly repeaU and subscribes the 
same upon the top of his fold- 
stoolf a silver standish being 
brought out of the traverse for 
that purpose. Then the Arch" 
bishop administers the Corona- 
tion Oath, etc.*" 

^^ It does not seem improper 
to transcribe the questions and 
promises preceding the oath, as 
they were appointed, (with some 
unimportant verbal alterations) in 
the orders for K. James I.9 Chas. 
II. and James II. 

" The Archbishop ministreth 
the three first questions, and the 
King answereth them severally : 
" Archbishop, Sir, mVL you 
grant and keep, and bj your oath 
confirm to the people of England 
the laws and customs to them 
granted by the Kings of England, 
your lawful and religious prede- 
cessors, and namely the laws, 
customs and franchises, granted 
to the clergy by the glorious 
king, St. Edward, your predeces- 
sor, according to the laws of God, 
the true profession of the Gos- 
pel established in this kingdom, 

agreeable to the prerogative d 
the kings thereof, and the ancien 
customs of this realm? 

** King. 1 grant and promi^ 
to keep them. 

** Archbishop, Sir, will you ked 
peace, and godly agreement (ac 
cording to your power) both t 
God, the Holy Church, tl^ 
clergy, and the people? 
" King. I wiU keep it. 
" Archbishop. Sir, will you (t 
your power) cause law, justice 
and' discretion in mercy and truti 
to be executed to your judgment 
« King. I will. 
" Archbishop. Sir, will yo 
grant to hold and keep the law 
and rightful customs which th 
commonalty of this your kingdoi 
have: and will you defend ao< 
uphold them to the honour 
God, so much as in you lieth ? 

" King. I grant and promisi 
so to do." 

After these questions, foUowi 
in those " Orders" the " petitioi 
of the Bishops;" which has beer 
already noted and transcribed 
see above, p. 9, Note 13. I nee< 
scarcely refer the student to th( 
whole corresponding portion ol 
the ancient Service. 

Coronation ^ettiice* 1 05 

ie dueen^ having a Copy of the printed Form and Or- 
^r of the Coronation Service in Her Hands, answers 
vich Question severally, as follows. 

Archb. Will You solemnly promise and swear to 
ovem the People of this United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and the Dominions thereto be- 
onging, according to the Statutes in Parliament agreed 
m, and the respective Laws and Customs of the same? 
Queen. I solemnly promise so to do. 
Archh. Will You to Your power cause Law and 
Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all Your Judge- 

Queen. I wilL 

Archb. Will You to the utmost of Your Power 
maintain the Laws of God, the true Profession of the 
Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion esta- 
blished by Law ? And will You maintain and pre- 
serve inviolably the Settlement of the United Church 
of England and Ireland, and the Doctrine, Worship, 
Discipline, and Government thereof, as by Law esta- 
bUshed within England and Ireland, and the Terri- 
tories thereunto belonging ? And will You preserve 
unto the Bishops and Clergy of England and Ireland, 
and to the Churches there committed to their Charge, 
all such Rights and Privileges, as by Law do, or shall 
appertain to Them, or any of Them ? 
Queen. All this I promise to do. 

Then the Queen arising out of Her Chair, attended 
hy Her Supporters, and assisted by the Lord Great 
Chamberlain, the Sword of State being carried before 
Her, shall go the Altar, and there make Her Solemn Th«Bibi«to 
Oath in the sight of all the People, to observe the Pre- b. brought. 
mises: Laying Her right hand upon the Holy Gos* 

io6 amieaiitr re tbe 

pel^ in the Great Bibkj which was before carried in ike 
Procession^ and is now brought from the Altar by the 
Archbishopy and tendered to Her as She kneels upon the 
Steps^ saying these Words : 

The things which I have here before promised, I 
will perform, and keep. So help me God.^^ 
And a siircr Then the Queen kisseth the Book, and signeth the 

SECT. Vm.— The Anointing. 

The Queen having thus taken Her Oathj returns 
again to Her Chair on the South Side of the Altar; 
and kneeling at Her Faldstool^ the Ardibishop begin- 
neth the Hymn^ Veni, Creator Spiritus, and the Choir 
singeth it out. 


COME, Holy Ghost, our Souls inspire, 
And warm them with thy Heavenly fire. 
Thou who th' Anointing Spirit art, 

To Us thy sevenfold Gifts impart. 
Let thy bless'd Unction from above 

Be to Us Comfort, Life, and Love. 
Enable with Celestial Light 

^ There is certainly some ob- James I. speaks of 'Ube Bible:'' 
scurity about tbis tend, ^'tbe tbat for K. Cbarles 11^ which 
Holy Gospel in the Great Bible." was followed by James IL di- 
It Bugfat eidier mean the New rects the King to take the Oath 
Testament in that Book, or the '^ laying his hand upon the Evan- 
proper Gospel appointed for the gelists.*' 

day, or simply be taken as a pe- ^ *' So help me God, and the 

riphrasis for the Bible itself: the contents of this book.** James I. 

whole Scriptures .being in a sense, Charles IL and James II. 
a 6oq>eL The -order for King 

Coronation 9etioice« 1 07 

The weakness of our mortal Sight : 
Anoint our Hearts, and cheer our Face, 

With the abundance of thy Grace : 
Keep far our Foes, give Peace at Home ; 

Where thou dost dwell, no 111 can come : 
Teach us to know the Father, Son, 

And Spirit of Both, to be but One. 
That so through Ages all along, 

This may be our triumphant Song ; 
In Thee, O Lord, we make our boast. 

Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

This being endedy the Archbishop saith this Prayer : 

OLORD, Holy Father, who by anointing with 
Oil didst of old make and consecrate Kings, 
Priests, and Prophets, to teach and govern thy People 
Israel: Bless and Sanctify thy Chosen Servant VIC- 
TORIA, who by our Office and Ministry, is now to 
Here the Areh- bo auoiuted with this Oil, and consecrated 
IS7«S the Queen of this Realm: Strengthen Her, O 
Ampulla, Lord, with the Holy Ghost the Comforter; 
Confirm and Stablish Her with thy free and Princely 
Spirit, the Spirit of Wisdom and Government, the 
Spirit of Counsel and Ghostly Strength, the Spirit of 
Knowledge and true Godliness, and fill Her, O Lord, 
with the Spirit of thy Holy Fear, now and for ever. 

This Prayer being endedj the Choir sing : 


ZADOK the Priest, and Nathan the Prophet, i Kingn i. 39, 
anointed Solomon King ; and all the People re- 
joiced, and said ; God save the King, Long live the 
King, May the King live for ever. Amen. Hallelujah. 


«r Cftf Amikfrn^ the Queen rUing 
- - /. - Z*^^z, «K. j^» ji^*;-r the A/taty attended by 

• «^ .^.^^^^ ^n^ d i^ccx >ji tie Lord Great Oham- 
r-^.:. -' ?v».-^ --■ ^JT^ MtijL£ Carried before Her^ 

- ii •* -^ . ^v J i*. r-iOf^ .f Her Crimson Robes. 

, fL-T »- . .-zj» -■•r x'^«v in King Edward's 

I.. -^. ."CL «u^c tr rhf Area orrr against the 

-.. • 1^ • . ••- ^'.-^ f^ r^:riietjv 5Ifce is to be 

iz*^ .• . ^ il _ : -r iitf Gcrter hold over Her 

- • " . . ' X. .* -■• J.. ..I t" G.^'d; the Anthem be- 

^ .^^-^ .-^ I^rji-ji if Wesacinster taking the 

• •*. . .-•* ^^-«.a ^' « «jf :t<e AJar^ holdeth them 
-'. . « - * m *--'c .Tc -^«v 0;7 into the Spoon, 
.•w . * . ^ - '- ..*. ■-• sntitnczti the Queenj in the 

• ^ « t ^ -«.T. :.:. i£L^i£^ xxuf «jv lAe Palms of 

I k. Tel Uie second 
jf tfe bnast) has 

«•««•N^^ ^ -'^ '^«^ wiiifa^-MM. )iMK :7HBvi ikrs^gli with a pen, 

^ . s** «»» *> «i.-v^ ^^?«ft«b^ sku I 'ftK«« ■• dvibtvas in fact 

<• ^ *^i «i.^mss «•«%' «.vi. -.«:^k JttiAlIti^ 

% ft» »-«p7^ *kT»--v> ^ « ^5 •■^y t»*ce the sub- 

^ ■ ^ ^«<«&< «Nt^x^^ %i%t3t xo 9^i«anc i^EKCiCaaKi.» first for King" 

^ ^ :.:mm : V^ «Hi iblkmcd by the 

->>s V «* ^-««fr ' ^-'% ^ vVjKriir ^tfr praent Majesty: 

%..«« ^ ^<»— H.^ .'^ ( ^ u«-v^ '7i«r jQuincn^ wA odIt being 

^^•^- ^^ %. ■-. x-^ ^^ 4«ttitZK%L boa tW tvo mictions 

^ V«s. w. ><%.%«M*^ •« * ii*>mTu as :a wwe. together, and 

V^ ,\v% ,x iK x>i\%^ w Vr. 'iv ^:&cttvt l^ntArtioa appointed 

vXns . • «^ ^s,\*^x^<«« #r ft «<««> vr iMKftk TVse Ganges and 

^^«•* ^ ««^ ^%N«c«. -««. ^« thr ^itti^ii^sMiiis. w W i cfaie d to the 

'•V,>A \,^^ .< xH*vi» v\ v^ \ ^^»»»K- .Mr«fcics«^ aciWWT, of Geo- IV. 

^"^* %ra V M^a,>» .Mu» aVftk ji^ «Kw I rt.nk. 9» Ve l e g ie tl ed. 

^«^"K^V^ )ft «V Si^N« V&«io; Stir Ifcia^ae — a» i.— pir e the Fonn 

Coronation ^emice. 


Be Thou anointed with Holy Oil, as Kings, Priests, 
and Prophets were anointed : 

as it stood in tbe 17th century: 
I shall quote from the Order of 
K. James I., which was followed, 
generally, by Charles I. and II., 
and James 11^ except that in the 
case of Charles II. the oil having 
been consecrated previously, the 
proper preface and benediction 
were of course omitted. 

'* The Litany beings endedy 
the Archbishop beginneth to say 
a2ott<{. Lift up your hearts. Answ. 
We lift them up unto the Lord. It 
'is very meet, right, and our boun- 
den duty, that we should at all 
^mes, and in all places, give 
thanks unto thee, O Lord, Holy 
Father, Almighty and Everlast- 
ing God, the strengrth of thy cho- 
sen and the exalter of the hum- 
ble, which in the beginning, by 
the pouring out of the flood, didst 
chasten the sins of the world, 
and by a dove conveying an olive 
branch, didst give a token of re- 
concilement unto the earth, and 
again didst consecrate thy servant 
Aaron a priest, by the anointing 
of oil, and afterward by the efiu- 
sion of this oil, didst make kings, 
and priests, and prophets, to go- 
vern thy people Israel, and by 
the voice of the prophet David, 
didst foretel, that the countenance 
^^ thy Church should be made 
cheerful with oil: We beseech 
thee, Ahnighty Father, that thou 
«ill vouchsafe to bless and sane» 

tify this thy servant James^ that 
he may minister peace unto his 
people, and imitate Aaron in the 
service of God. That he may 
attain the perfection of Govern- 
ment in counsel and judgment, 
and a countenance always cheer- 
ful, and amiable to the whole 
people, through Christ our Lord. 

'' This done, the king ariseth 
from his devotion^ and reposeth 
himself a while in his chair of 
estate. After a whiles he goeth 
to the Altar, and there disrobeth 
himself of his upper garments, 
his under apparel being made 
open, with loops only closed, at 
the places which are to be 

** The archbishop undoeth the 
loops, and openeth the places 
which he is to anoint» 

" The archbishop first anoint^ 
eth his hands, saying, 

** Let these hands be anointed, 
as kings and prophets have been 
anointed, and as Samuel did 
anoint David to be king, that 
thou may*st be blessed, and es- 
tablished a King in this kingdom 
over this people, whom the Lord 
thy God hath given thee to rule 
and govern, which he vouchsafe 
to grant, who with the Father and 
the Holy Ghost etc* 

** The mean while the quire 
singeth the Anthem : 

*< Sadock the Priest etc. 

no appenniK to tiie 

And as Solomon was anointed King by Zadok the 
Priest, and Nathan the Prophet» so be You anointed, 
blessed, and consecrated Queen over this People, 
whom the Lord your God hath given you to rule and 
govern, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Then the Dean of Westminster layeth the Ampulla 
and Spoon upon the Altaj\ and the Queen kneekth down 
at the Faldstool^ and the Archbishop standing on the 
North side of the Altar ^ saith this Prayer or Blessing 
over Her : 

OUR Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who by 
his Father was anointed with the Oil of gladness 
above his fellows, by his Holy Anointing pour down 
upon your Head and Heart the Blessing of the Holy 
Ghost, and prosper the Works of your Hands : that 

** The Archbishop Miih this '' God, which art the Glory of 

prayer : Look down, Almighty the righteoas, etc. 
God, with thy favourable coun- '< The prayers being ended, 

tenanoe, etc First a shallow * Quoif is pui 

*^ The prayer ended, the Ardk» on the king*s head, because of 

bishop proceedethwithhisanoint' the anoinHngr: if his Majesty's 

ing. I . €fthe breast 2. Be- hair be not smooth after it, there 

tween the shoulders. S. Cf is King Edwards ivory comb 

both the shoulders. 4. Of the fir that end. 
* boughes of both his arms. 5. ** Then the colobium or dal- 

Cfhis head in the crown. matiea is put on hkn. etc** 

" The anointing being done. In the Forms for K. James I., 

the Dean of Westminster closeth Charles II., and James IL, after 

the loops again which were the anointing, before the present- 

opened. The Archbishop s€u^ ing of the spurs, the ^* Colobium 

these prayers. Sindonis," the "^ Supertunica," 

«*God the Son of God, Christ and the "Tynsen" or "Tissue 

Jesus our Lord, which was Hose and Sandalls," were, in due 

anointed by His Father, etc order, to be put on. 

Coronation 9etDice« 1 1 1 

by the Assistance of his Heavenly Grace you may 
preserve the People committed to your charge in 
W^ealthy Peace, and Godliness ; and after a long and 
^lorions Course of ruling this Temporal Kingdom 
Wisely, Justly, and Religiously, you may at last be 
made Partaker of an Eternal Kingdom, through the 
Merits of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

This Prayer being endedj the Queen arises^ and sits 
dawn again in Her Chair}^ 


The presenting of the Spurs and Sword," and the 
Oblation of the said Sword* 

The Spurs are brought from the Altar by the Dean ibe spurs, 
of Westminster, and delivered to the Lord Great 
Chamberlain^ tvhoy kneeling downy presents them to the 
Queen f who forthwith sends them back to the Altar. 

^ There li considerable va- Dean will invest his majesty with 

rietjy in the later Forms, in this the supertunica of cloth of gold, 

place. The order for K. William and a girdle of the same for the 

IV. adds ; '' When ^ Dean of ftword." 

Westmmeter will invest his Ma" The order for K. George II. 

jes/y with the supertunica" appoints also : 

The orders for George IV., ** Tlien this short nnthem is 

and George II., adds, after tlie sung. 

word "Chair:- "And the Dean « Behold, O God our Defen- 

of Westminster wipes and dries der, and look upon the face of 

all the places anointed^ wi^Jine thine anointed. Great prosperity 

Unen^ or fine homhast wool, de* givest tkon unto thy King, and 

liveredto him hy the Lord Great wilt shew losing kindness to thine 

Chamberlain.'* anointed for evermore. HaiMn^ 

This sentence has been how» jah,** 
ercT erased, by the York Herald, 

m the copy before me : and this " As before remarked, see 

inserted widi a pen. "When the above. Note 9. the earlier mo» 


112 appetiDir to tiie 

iiie Sword of Then the Lord^ who carries the Sword of State, re- 

" ' tutm the said Sword to the Lord Chamberlain (who 

gives it to an Officer oftlie Jewel House j to be deposited 

in the Traverse in King Edward's Chapel)^ and re- 

^"broughr"* ce/wM in lieu thereof, from the Lord Chamberlain, 
another Sword, in a Scabbard of Purple Velvet, which 
he will deliver to the Archbishop, who, laying it on the 
Altar, saith the following Prayer : 

■"EAR our prayers, O Lord, we beseech thee, and 
so direct and support thy Servant Queen VIC- 
TORIA, that She may not bear the Sword in vain ; 
but may use it as the Minister of God for the terror 
and punishment of Evil-doers, and for the protection 
and encouragement of those that do well, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 
^•K^^'f^ to Then the Archbishop takes the Sword from off the 
Altar, and (the Archbishops of York and Armagh^ and 
the Bishops of London aitd Winchester, and other 
Bishops, assisting, and going along with him) delivers 
it into the Queen's Right Hand, and She holding itj the 
Archbishop saith : 

ECEIVE this Kingly Sword, brought now from 

the Altar of God, and delivered to You by the 

hands of us the Bishops and Servants of God, though 

Unworthy.** With this Sword do Justice, stop the 

tho Queen. 


dern Forms, until the order of the exact cause for the first ex- 

K. William IV. appointed the ample in the case of K. William 

sword to be '* girded»" as well as IV. 

presented. If there were any ^ In the previous orders to 

reasons why this omission should that of K. William IV. the Form 

have been continued in the order of delivery of the sword ended 

for her present Majesty, it is ne- here, and was followed by this 

vertheless not easy to perceive rubric and admonition : 

Cotonation derttice« 1 1 3 

xrowth of Iniquity, protect the holy Church of God, 
lelp and defend Widows and Orphans, restore the 
hings that are gone to decay, maintain the things 
hat are restored, punish and reform what is amiss, 
md confirm what is in good Order : that doing these 
hings. You may he glorious in all virtue ; and so 
aithfiilly serve** our Lord Jesus Christ in this life, 
hat You may reign for ever with Him in the Life 
^hich is to come. Amen. 

Then the Queen j rising upy and going to the Altar j ofl«redand 
)fftrs the Sword there in the Scabbard, delivering it to '•^••"*^- 
he Archbishop, who places it on the Altar ; the Queen 
Iken returns and sits down in King Edward's Chair : 
And the Lord who Jirst received the Sword offereth the 
Price of it,^ and having thus redeemed it, recdveth it 
from off the Altar by the Dean of Westminster, and 
draweth it out of the Scabbard, and carries it naked 
before Her Majesty during the rest of the solemnity. 

The Archbishops and Bishops who had assisted during 
this Oblation will return to their Places. 

** The king standing up, the with thine honour, ride on pros- 

nrord is girt about him hy the perously, because of truth, meek- 

Lord Great Chamberlaiih or ness, and righteousness;' and be 

Mne other peer thereto by him thou a follower of Him. With 

appointed^ and then the King this sword do justice, e^c.:*' as in 

fitting down, the Archbishop the text. 

«RememberHimofwhomthe /* "and JofiuthMy represent." 

mal Psalmist did prophesy, say- ^^"^ J^- ^^ "^ represent" 

ing, 'Gird thee with thy sword ^«®'«« "' 

opoQ thy thigh, O Thou most ^ '< namely, a hundred shil- 

sughty, good luck have Thou lings" George IV. and George II. 

VOL. 111. 


appcnliir to tbe 


SECT. X.** 

The InTesdng with the Royal Robe,^ and the Deliver 
of the OrA. 

Thcff the Quftn arising^ the Imperial Mantle, c 
Dalmatic Robe, of Cloih of Gold, lined or furred vrJt 

* Witli a £pv Tvrinl differ- 
fDces of no imporUnce, this 
vhole sectioD agrees with the 
eomspoadinsr one in the order 
dnvn op for K. William IV^ 
and in hoth Forms «e hare to 
regret the entire *imicgin«, ^«s in 
the case abo of Q. Anne?) of 
"^the investi]^ with the AimilL** 
It will he well first to tran- 
scribe this omitted part, as ap- 
pointed in the order of Geoige II. 
*« Sect z. The inrestn^ with 
the ArmilJ and Royal Robe^ and 
the delivery of the Orb. 

** Tl^a the kimg^ aritM^, the 
Dean of JVettminster takes the 
Armill from the master of the 
great wardrobe^ and puiteth it 
about his majesty s neckj and 
tyeth it to the bourings of his 
armsy above and below the el- 
bowSf with silk stris^s ; the arch- 
bishop standing before the kingy 
and saying; 

Receive this Armill as a to- 
ken of the Divine Mercy embrac- 
ing you on every side." Then 
follows the putting on of "the 
Robe Royal," or •• Imperial Man- 
In the printed copies of the or- 

do- of K. George IV. this secdc 
is the same as in that of Geor^ 
II.: hot in the copy, before me^ 
tioned as corrected by the Yor 
Herald, it would seem that fi 
some cause or other, after tl 
book was printed for use, an ^ 
teration was made, and, (I ai 
bound to add) a blunder was ¥ef 
carefully arranged. For it w^ 
so managed (by whose advice 
know not) that contrary to al 
precedent, the Armill was put o 
after the Dalmatic The corre< 
tion reads thus: 

** Sect. X. The investing wit 
the Royal Robe and the Armiii 
and the delivery of the Orb. 

** l^hen the king arising^ th 
Dean of Westminster takes th\ 
royal robe or dalmatic robe ^ 
statsy of cloth of goldy delireret 
to him by the master of the grea 
wardrobe, and puts it upon thi 
king, standing, the crimson robi 
which he wore before being Jirs\ 
taken off by the Lord Greai 
Chamberlain, and then the Ar 
mill, with which the dean teili 
also invest his majesty, standing 
be/ore the king, and saying: 
Receive, etc.' 

Cotonation ^ertJice. 1 1 5 

^rminsy is by an Officer of the Wardrobe delivered to 

Se Dean of Westminster, and by him put upon the 

heen^ standing; The Queen having received itj sits 

TttUy and then the Orb with the Cross is brought from The Orb. 

\e Altar by the Dean of Westminster, and delivered 

Ho the Queen's Right Hand, by the Archbishop^ pro- 

ouncing this Blessing and Exhortation : 

;jECEIVE this Imperial Robe, and Orb, and the 
\ Lord Your God endue You with Knowledge and 
Wisdom, with Majesty and with Power from on High ; 
lie Lord clothe You with the Robe of Righteous- 
less, and with the Garments of Salvation. And when 
Tou see this Orb set under the Cross, remember that 
he whole World is subject to the Power and Enr- 
nre of Christ our Redeemer, For He is the Prince 
*f the Kings of the Earth; King of Kings, and Lord 
if Lords : So that no man can reign happily, who de- 
lves not his Authority from Him, and directs not all 
Ins Actions according to His Laws. 

The mvesting with the Armill, last named order, is similar some- 

B before remarked, was observed what to the form in the text : but 

n the coronations before that of in the orders of Charles II. and 

K. William IV. : but the form James I., the ancient words of 

of words varied ; for example, in delivery were still used : 
King James I/s time: ** Then the mantle or open 

^ Receive the Armill, as a to- Pall is put on b^ the Dean of 

^ of God*8 embracing, whereby JVeetmineter : the archbishop 

^ thy works may be defended saying: 

^siost thy enemies, both bodily " Receive this Pall, which is 

^d ghostly, through Christ our formed with four comers, to let 

^^" thee understand, that the four 


This now called ** Royal quarters of the world are subject 

^he" is the ancient pallium : the to the power of God, and that 

''^ I«ll,** as it is called in the no man can happily reign upon 

^^ of Charles IL and James earth, who hath not received his 

^^ The form of words in the authority from heaven." James I. 

1 16 ^bUttUtK to tbf 

The Queen delivers Her Orb io ike Dean of West- 
minster, to he by kim laid on the AUar. 

The loTeslitare per Anmdum el BaculumJ^ 

Then an Officer of the Jewel House delivers io the 
TW Rmc. Ljord Chamberlain the Queens RiBg, who delivers tki 
same to the ArchbUhop^ in which a Table Jewel is en- 
chased; the Archbishop puts it on the Fourth Fifiger oj 
Her Majesty s Right Handj^ and saith ; 

RECEI\T; this Ring, the Ensign of Kingly Dig- 
nity, and of Defence of the Catholic Faith ; ani 
as You are this day solemnly invested in the Goveni 
ment of this earthly Kingdom,^ so may You be sealed 
with that Spirit of Promise, which is the Earnest oi 
an heavenly Inheritance, and reign with Him who if 
the blessed and only Potentate, to whom be Glory foi 
ever and ever. Amen. 

TiM ficrptre Tkcu thc Dcan of Westminster brings the Sceptre 

"** "^' awrfRod to the Archbishop; and the Lord of the Ma 

** In the orders of the xvij. forms of words in the orders d 

century» the patting on of the the xvijth centurj, differ verj 

crown preceded the delivery of oonsiderahly in the whole of thx 

the ring and sceptre. " The in- part of the service, hat I do no 

vestiture per annulam et baco- think it necessary to transcribi 

lum/' 6r8t appears as a title, like the whole of them. 
** the recognition/' in Sandford's ^ This sentence stood thus il 

account of the coronation of the order for George II. '* Tha 

James II. as you are this day consecrates 

^ In James I. : ^* Then he head of this kingdom and peopleJ 

puiteth the ring an hit wedding I do not see why it should havi 

Jingett iayingy been altered. 

*' Receive the ring, etc** The 

Coronation detttice. 1 1 7 

ur o/" Worksop (who claims to hold an Estate by the 
rvice of presenting to the Queen a Right Hand Glove 
the Day of Her Coronation^ and supporting the 
uevCs Right Arm whilst She holds the Sceptre with 
t Cross) delivers to the Queen a Pair of rich Gloves, 
\d upon any Occasion happening afterwards^ supports 
fcr Majesty's Right Arm^ or holds Her Sceptre by 

The Gloves being put on, the Archbishop delivers the TheGioTc». 
"xptre, with the Cross, into the Queen's Right Hand^ 

[J ECEI VE the Royal Sceptre, the Ensign of Kingly 
lV Power and Justice. 

\nd thai he delivers the Rod with the Dove^ into the 
Queen's Left Hand, and saith, 

aECEIVE the Rod of Equity and Mercy: and 
God, from whom all holy desires, all good coun- 
iBk, and all just works do proceed, direct and assist 
f ou in the Administration and Exercise of all those 
Powers which he hath given You. Be so merciful, 
Biat You be not too remiss ; so execute Justice, that 
^ forget not Mercy. Judge with Righteousness, and 
Kprove with Equity, and accept no Man's Person. 
Abase the Proud, and lift up the Lowly; punish the 
kicked, protect and cherish the Just, and lead your 
People in the way wherein they should go: thus in all 
things following His great and holy Example, of whom 
tbe Prophet David said ^^ Thou lovest Righteousness, 
^d hatest Iniquity ; The Sceptre of thy Kingdom is a 
right Sceptre ;" even Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 


appaiiir m tbe 


Tbe patxiiiff oo of the Crown. 
Tfi{ A'^siy^r :^ K^nSuig before the AUar^ iakt\ 
t 2>«:-rf* t\t Cruris ;^r:. Li$ Hcndj^^ and laying it again befoi 

GOD, wbo CTx^wnest thy fiuthful Servants wil 
Mersey ani loxin^ Kindness ; Look down upon 
fv, :ir ^^ this thy Serrant \lCTORI A our Queei 
!*»< u J^J^ who now in lowly DeTolion boweth Hi 
^'•^ Head to thy Divine Majesty; and as tho 

dost this day set a Crown of pure Gold upon H< 
Head, so enrich Her Royal Heart with thy heaven! 
Grace; and crown Her with all Princely Virtue 
which may adorn the high Station wherein thou bai 
placed Her, through Jesus Christ our Lord, to who/ 
be Honour and Glcnry for ever and ever. Amen. 

Tlien the Queen still sitting in King Edward s Chaii 

the Archbishop, assisted with the same Archbishops, an 

Bishops as before, comes from the Altar; the Dean cj 

Westminster brings the Crown, and the Archbisho\ 

The Que» taking it of him, reverently puiteth it upon the Queen 

crowned. Jjeod. At the sight whereof the PeoplCj with loud an\ 

repeated Shouts, cry, God Save the Queen, and th 

Trumpets sounds and by a Signal given, the great Gun 

at the Tower are shot off. As soon as the Queen i 

crowned, the PeerSy S^c. put on their Coronets am 


The Acclamation ceasing, the Archbishop goeth ow, am 


^ ** B1e«8 and Banctify this thy " This, (with some alterations) 
wrvant." George IL the ancient henediction, was pre- 

Coronation demice* 1 1 9 

BE strong and of a good Courage : Observe the 
Commandments of God, and walk in His Holy 
^ways : Fight the good Fight of Faith, and lay hold on 
Sternal life ; that in this World You may be crowned 
^vvith Success and Honour, and when You have finished 
Your Course, receive a Crown of Righteousness, which 
God the Righteous Judge shall give You in that Day. 

Tlien the Choir singeth this Anthem : 


THE Queen shall rejoice in Thy Strength, O Lord : 
exceeding glad shall She be of Thy Salvation. 
Thou hast prevented Her with the Blessings of Good- 
ness, and hast set a Crown of pure Gold upon Her 
Head. Hallelujah. Amen. 

The presenting of the Holy Bible.'* 

Then shall the Dean of Westminster take the Holy The BiWe. 
Bible, which was carried in the Procession^ from off 
the Altar J and deliver it to the Archbishop^ who with the 
same Archbishops and Bishops as before going along 
with himj shall present it to the Queen^ first saying these 
Wards to Her: 

ceded in the orders of the xvijth prompted by a truly religious spi- 

eentary, by two other sentences, rit, and is to be much approved 

It was restored to its former state of upon sound and Christian prin. 

in the Form for George IV. ciples. The form of words was 

^ This part of the ceremony, considerably longer before the 

was introduced (I believe for the order for George IV. But I do 

first time,) at the coronation of not think that the present one 

K. William III. and Queen Mary, has omitted anything to be de» 

Whensoever introduced, it was sired. 


^UR Gndfii» Q*ttnn : wv pnacBt Yo« with liiis 
Bt^'i* ihe 3b:«t t^i^l}:^ t ll^g dnl tins worid 
aftris^. R-rr^ k Wi5,i:.«i : 1^5* fe lije Royal Law ; 
T\x9t sre die H^-^> C¥acLe< of God. Blned is he 
ciat nea^*:^. s=«i ihiey tr:as !ttar the Words of thb 
Bork ; that t?«pw azfi o.v :!ae tr^y c eontaiiied in it* 
For tb^e are the W.xt^ of Ecwittl Life, able to make 
roa wise anfl h-^pcj hi try world, nay wise unto sal- 
Taii«jiu and so happr £jr ereniMre, througfa Faith 
which i§ in Cfcriit Jesus ; to whom be Glory for ever, 

Then iht Qneen dc.'irer$ ^^vk the Bible io the Arch- 
buhop^ who girts it to the Dean of Westminstm*, to be 
reverently jdactd azdin upon the Holy Altar, the Arch-- 
bhhops and Bishops who had assisted retarmng to their 

The Benedictioii, and Te Deum, 

And now the Queen having been thus anointed and 
crowned, and having received all the Ensigns of Rojf^ 
ally^ the Archbishop solemnly blesseth Her: And all the 
Bishops^ with the rest of the PeerSj follow every part of 
the Benediction, with a loud and hearty Amen. 

u««n«dic- nr^HE Lord bless and keep you : The Lord make the 

X light of his Countenance to shine for ever upon 

you, and be gracious unto you : The Lord protect you 

in all your ways, preserve you from every evil thing, 

and prosper you in every thing good. Amen. 

The Lord give you a faithful Senate, wise and up- 
right Counsellors and Magistrates, a loyal Nobility» 
and a dutiful Gentry; a pious and learned and useAil 
Clergy; an honest, industrious, and obedient Com- 
monalty. Amen. 

Cotonatf on ^emtce* 1 2 1 

In your days may Mercy and Truth meet together, 
ind Righteousness and Peace kiss each other; May 
liV^isdom and Knowledge he the Stability of your 
rimes, and the Fear of the Lord your Treasure. Amen. 

The Lord make your Days many, your Reign pros- 
[>erous, your Fleets and Armies victorious : and may 
jrou be reverenced and beloved by all your Subjects, 
ind ever increase in Favour with God and man. 

The glorious Majesty of the Lord our God be upon 
yon : may He bless you with all temporal and spiritual 
Happiness in this world, and crown you with Glory 
and Immortality in the world to come. Amen.^ 

Then the Archbishop tumeth to the People, and saith : 

AND the same Lord God Almighty grant, that the 
Clergy and Nobles assembled here for tliis great 
and solemn Service, and together with them all the 
People of the Land, fearing God, and honouring the 
Queen, may by the merciful Superintendency of the 
Divine Providence, and the vigilant Care of our gra- 
cious Sovereign, continually enjoy Peace, Plenty, and 
Prosperity, through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, 
with the Eternal Father, and God the Holy Ghost, be 
Glory in the Church world without end. Amen. 

** Then the Choir begins to sing the Te Deum, and Te Deum. 

* The order of K. George IV. why the following rubric was 

adds : omitted in the order for her pre- 

** The Lord give you a religi- sent Majesty ; but, if it was not 

00s and virtuous posterity to rule unseemly that former sovereigns 

tW kingdoms in all ages, should have vouchsafed so great 

Amen.*' a token of* respect and of religi- 


There were proper reasons ous fellowship and love, it is not 

122 appetioi]; to ti)e 

the Qhctm goes to the Chair on which Her Afq/esty 
^fi'^ w/r OH the East Side of the Throne, the Two Bi- 
sk.i\$ Her Supporters J the Great Officers j ami other 
P^rs^ ^ttcmiiMg Her, every one in his place, the two 
S^x^^ds hdng carried before Her^ and there reposes 

Te Deum. 

^¥ ^E pndse thee, O God : we acknowledge tliee to 
V f be the Lord. 
All the fNurth doth worship thee : the Father eTer- 

To ihee ;idl angels cry aloud : the heavens, and all 
t V ^v^ei^ thennn. 

To thee Cherubin and Seraphin: continually do 

Hv4\\ Ik>1\\ holv : Lord God of Sabaoth. 

% « « 

HvNAxvu aiKl e«rth are full of the majesty : of thy 

TS^ ^l\vrt\Hi$ c\Mnpany of the Apostles : praise thee. 
The j:\xxUy fellow^ship of the Prophets : praise thee. 
rhe tK^le arutv of >Iartyrs : praise thee. 
The bsxU Church throughout all the world : doth 
^^i\H^>^ Vsli^v thee ; 

rtH" V\;lHMr : of an infinite Majesty ; 
ThuH"^ b\UHHirabU\ true : and only Son ; 
AKo iW Holv GhoK^ : the Comforter. 
Thv^u Avt the Kixur of Glorv : O Christ. 

^^^ ivk ^\ >kH> iW V\>cvmi dmYft duir, Toudisalelh to kiss the 

Vku l<^^ K^ WxUuiM l\\ «IkhaU «cdibisliop and bishops assisting 

^^\^Ikx>u iK^ Ai^ \u >iiWh « v«s si his coTODstioD. They kneel- 

%V vwoi ^>^^ ^ bdbre him one after another." 

x^ (1\«^ UUviA4^£ V^M)^ ihtt» ir^ The kneeling would be, of course, 

\\^\i 0^^ ^^ «Atuii^ ti^wn in his «sin the aftor act of doing homage. 

Coronation ^emtce. 1 23 

Thou art the everlastitig Son : of the Father. 

When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man : thou 
didst not ahhor the virgin s womb. 

When thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death : 
thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all be- 

Thou sittest at the right hand of God : in the glory 
of the Father. 

We believe that thou shalt come : to be our Judge. 

We therefore pray thee, help thy servants : whom 
thou hast redeemed with thy precious blood. 

Make them to be numbered with thy saints : in glory 

O Lord, save thy people : and bless thine heritage. 

Govern them : and lift them up for ever. 

Day by day : we magnify thee. 

And we worship thy Name : ever world without 

Vouchsafe, O Lord: to keep us this day without 

O Lord, have mercy upon us : have mercy upon us. 

O Lord, let thy mercy lighten upon us : as our trust 
is in thee. 

O Lord, in thee have I trusted : let me never be 

SECT. XV.— The Inthronization. 

The Te Deum being endedj the Queen will ascend the 
Theatre^ and be lifted up into Her Throne by the Arch- 
bishop and Bishopsj and other Peers of the Kingdom^ 
and being Lithronized, or placed therein, all the Great 
Officers, Those that bear the Swords and <^e. Sceptres, 
and the rest of the Nobles, stand round about the steps of 

- "^ r^^:* fii.^ !• Til is: from henceforth the 
^^ * -:r^ >-:v «c 1.^*1 joi Imperial Dignity, 
> ^*.:- -:-*■ -^ 1 vsr^L imv yc4i in the Name, and 
•^ : V -^.' z ^., nrzTirr G.-ii and hv the Hands 
^ . ^ ^ --W.- -^ iirtL Str^'tnii of God, though nn- 
- ' . *- ^ -iL-r 1% 1. izcroach nearer to God^s 
^ . ..- -va-.i iTc -w n rr^.'S^Tisly to continue to 
'.^ '.. T-w ' • v:r Li\i rr*xe«5o«i. And the Lord 
^ ^: ^ * . * r -sc "ir:ii^=c«r5 ^T^ are, and the Stew- 
's \* -it''^^ *?;uoili=i Tr:»xT Throne in Righte- 
•= ^^ . !• -. r- siSi^I iftsc 5:r eTermore, like as the 
>i > : .-. -i-M. ^ u« itriinJ Witness in Heaven. 

>OCT XT-— TiJt Homage. 

«. . ■•-,•:.•• \-:9^ ^tut:'£. ^^ :kc Peers then pre- 

* . • ' 4^" ■- -*^^* J ^'*^ suncmnhf unto the 

•- * V % ■• ■ » * x-.i.^-. 4.'U n zt-f mccm time the Trea- 

K • *.'^\ -* jL^'^'y cwiKC the Peopk Jlfedais 

>-.-.. N V-. .? .?c ^'ic'zr^s Pr:nct/y Largess or 

\ V ' c. ,^. .' : >^ % .^t .> *J«r« hcrore Her Majes- 
V V .<; X . u x xs. / . i< Ksk^ps kneel on either 
«, .Aw I. n . -riu ;k;5i ^.' their Homage toge- 
;v s:v . c ••.:!:. V -'- CVnrwi^w, the Archbishop 

1)1 : : .' ' I V Arv>>^^T ^ Canterburtf [And so 
,,\ '^x > • •'^ •^^^ ^ -^- Bishop of N. repeating 
^\ sKi N> ^ N*' ^^ ,4n'*fti>Aop] will he faithful 

Coronation ^etttice. 1 25 

Sovereign Lady, and your Heirs Kings or Queens of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 
And I will do, and truly acknowledge the Service of 
the Lands which I claim to hold of you, as in right of 
the Church. So help me God. 

Then the Archbishop kisseth the Queen's Handy and 
so ike rest of the Bishops present after him. 

After which the other Peers of the Realm do their of the other 
Homage in like manner ^ the Dukes first by themselves y ^^^' 
and so the Marquesses^ the Earls, the Viscounts, and the 
Barons, severally ; the first of each Order kneeling be- 
fore her Majesty, and the rest with and about him, all 
putting off their Coronets, and the first of each Class be- 
ginning, and the rest saying after him : 

IN. Duke, or Earl, Sgc. of N. do become your Liege 
man of Life and Limb, and of earthly worship, and 
Faith and Truth I will bear unto you, to live and die, 
against all manner of Folk. So help me God. 

Note, That Copies of this Homage must be provided by 
the Heralds for every Class of the Nobility. 

The Peers having done their Homage, stand all 
together round about the Queen; and each Class or 
Degree going by themselves, or (as it was at the Coro- 
nation of King Charles the First and Second) every Peer 
one by one in Order, putting off their Coronets, singly 
ascend the Throne again, and stretching forth their 
hands, do touch the Crown on Her Majesty's Head, as 
promising by that Ceremony to be ever ready to support it 
with all their power, and then every one of them kisseth 
the Queens Hand. 

While the Peers are thus doing their Homage, and 

: W M:Sj^ n-ymrm ahomt. tke Queen, if She thinks good, 
XL.,:xr^ Her ^<eptn with the Cross to the Ixprd of the 
.i;*u..A- . •" Worktop, to hold; and the other Soeptre, 
/r Ksvl fc-,:i :u Dove, to the Lord that carried it in the 

Jvi :l< Ksi i4i that support the Queen in the Pro- 
^tx.'t.Mit w-i ^>!;^ ^ujs^' Hcr^ hjf supporting the Crown y as 

Da'-^.xj: :k^ :yi\ -«^'xr of the Homage the Choir sing 


'TIHIS k ihe day whiA the Lord hath made, we will 
X iv;v>iiv am) be glad in iu 

lx«\i grant ibe Queen a long life : that her years 
may endure lhi\H:^hout all generations. 

She $hall dwell before God for ever : O prepare thy 
loving niervy and £uthAihiess» that they may preserve 

Ble$sei) be the Lord thy God, who delighted in Thee 
to set Thee on the throne* 

When the Uonu:^ is ended, the Drunts beat, and the 
Trumpets sound, and all the People shout, crying out, 

God save Queen VICTORIA. 
Long Uve Queen VICTORL\. 
May the Queen live for ever. 

The Solemnity of the Coronation being thus ended, the 
Archbishop leaves the Queen in Her Throne, and goes 
down to the Altar. ^ 

* This Anthem has varied in ^ Here follows "the Qneens 
the different Orders. CoronatiaQ*' in those Orders, for 

Cotonatton ^ettiice. 1 27 

SECT. XVIL— The Communion. 

Then the Offertory beginSy the Archbishop reading these 


LET your light so shine before men, that they may The offertory. 
see your good works, and glorify your Father 
which is in Heaven. 

Charge them who are rich in this world, that they 
be ready to give, and glad to distribute ; laying up in 
store for themselves a good foundation against the 
time to come, that they may attain eternal life." 

The Queen descends from Her Throne^ attended by 
Her Supporters f and assisted by the Lord Great Cliam- 
berlain, the Sword of State being carried before Her^ 
and goes to the Steps of the Altar, where taking off Her 
Crown, which She delivers to the Lord Great Chamber- 
lain to hold. She kneels down.^ 

And first the Queen offers Bread and Wine for the The Queen 
Communion^ which being brought out of King Edward's Lid'vyinc.' 
Chapel, and delivered into Her Hands, the Bread upon 
the Paten by the Bishop that read the Epistle, and the 
Wine in the Chalice by the Bishop that read the Gospel, 

example, of George II. and Wil- ^ I have already made some 

liam IV., where it was required, remark upon this rubric in the 

The reader will find it at the end preliminary dissertation : and shall 

ofthe present Order in the text. merely repeat here, that its in- 

" '^ Then the organ playsy troduction was most praiseworthy. 

and the choir eingethf Anthem, In the earlier forms of William IV. 

Let my prayer come up into thy George IV. etc. it stood thus ; 

presence as incense, and let the '* The king descends from his 

lifting up of my hands be as an throne, supported and attended as 

evening sacrifice." Order of before ; and goes to the steps of 

George II. the altar, and kneels down there.'' 

J r rr 

v^ r^r V* z.i#_- ^ur^Ai.-r?' •: ar 3»»i^ snl Eu:««i of 

I- "T. T r r»i?=i=- rirr-ss - ^jl^x.-. lur /1117 Xe*Eiir.:r anJ 

3ilin.i*t;ii.iiL u .*--—: /1 vc L-ir-£ J^mr C^Tiim '7iH"\^:yi, 

JLUr • 

▼irn liiini ili?i; vii; ir« :c m i-ni'Tuf sccr:; Look 
<<','n 3i#*r*::riZj TTt.n. :ii:s rij Nnnri;in VICTORL\ 
^yjT <!^-i*»^T:- btr? !:iii::"'T'X E:»r5eif b*»!5:re T5»e at thv 

#yT*T aTL an4 of iifcr ^reas Bion-rx a> H^pt in pvticiilan [ 

Coronation ^eriolce. 129 

She has now offered up unto thee, through Jesus Christ, 
our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen. 

Then the Queen goes to Her Chair on the South Side 
of the Altar y and kneeling down at Her Faldstool^ the 
Archbishop saith : 

Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church 
militant here in earth. 

ALMIGHTY and everliving God, who hy thy Communion 
holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers and ^' 
supplications, and to give thanks for all men: We 
humbly beseech thee most mercifully to receive these 
our prayers which we offer unto thy Divine Majesty, 
beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal 
Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord ; 
and grant that all they that do confess thy holy Name, 
may agree in the truth of thy holy Word, and live in 
unity and godly love. We beseech thee also to save 
and defend all Christian Kings, Princes, and Gover- 
nor; and specially thy Servant VICTORIA our 
Queen, that under her we may be godly and quietly 
governed : and grant unto her whole Council, and to 
all that are put in authority under her, that they may 
truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punish- 
ment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance 
of thy true religion and virtue. Give grace, O hear 
Tenly Father, to all Bishops and Curates, that they 
may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy true 
and lively Word, and rightly and duly administer thy 
holy Sacraments : And to all thy people give thy hea- 
venly grace, and especially to this Congregation here 
present, that with meek heart and due reverence they 
may hear and receive thy holy Word, truly serving 


ISO anpemiir to tiie 

thee in boliiien and rigbteoosness all the days of iheir 
Hfe. And we most humbly beseech thee of thy good- 
ness, O Lord, to comfort and sacconr all them who in 
this transitory life are in troable, sorrow, need, sick- 
ness, or any other adversity. And we also bless thy 
holy Name, for all thy servants departed this life in 
thy &ith and fear ; breeching thee to give us grace so 
to follow their good examples, that with them we may 
be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom. Grant this, O 
Father, for Jesus Christ s sake, our only Mediator and 
Advocate. Amm. 

The Exhortation. 

Y£ that do truly and earnestly repent you of your 
sins, and are in love and charity with your neigh- 
bours, and intend to lead a new life, following the 
Commandments of God, and walking from hencefortb 
in his holy ways ; Draw near with faith, and take this 
holy Sacrament to your comfort; and make your 
humble confession to Almighty God, meekly kneeling 
upon your knees. 

The general Confession. 

ALMIGHTY GOD, Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Maker of all things, Judge of all men ; 
We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and 
wickedness, Which we from time to time most griev- 
ously have committed. By thought, word, and deed, 
Against thy Divine Majesty, Provoking most justly 
thy wrath and indignation against us. We do earn- 
estly repent, And are heartily sorry for these our mis- 
doings ; The remembrance of them is grievous unto 
us ; The burden of them is intolerable. Have mercy 
upon us, have mercy upon us, most merciful Father ; 

Coronation dertiice. i 3 1 

For thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's sake, Forgive us 
all that is past, And grant that we may ever hereafter 
serve and please thee, In newness of life, To the honour 
and glory of thy name. Through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

The Absolution. 

ALMIGHTY GOD our heavenly Father, who of 
his great mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins 
to all them that with hearty repentance, and true faith, 
turn unto him ; Have mercy upon you, pardon and 
deliver you from all your sins, confirm and strengthen 
you in all goodness, and bring you to everlasting life, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

After which shall be said^ 

Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith 
imto all that truly turn to him. 

COME unto me, all that travail, and are heavy 
laden, and I will refresh you. S. Matth. 11. 28. 
So God loved the world, that he gave his only be- 
gotten Son, to the end that all that believe in him, 
should not perish, but have everlasting life. S. John 

Hear also what Saint Paul saith. 

This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to b^ 
received. That Christ Jesus came into the world to 
save sinners. 1 Tim. 1. 15. 

Hear also what Saint John saith. 
If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the pro- 
pitiation for our sins. 1 S. John 2. 1. 

After which the Archbishop shall proceed, saying. 

m tbe 

-^ '"■ - — rr -nr '^tm 

- * "^ . I^rf^ !:& X — ^* T^V^^- «nto our Lord God. 
•— ^>"^« -' i r.zfz^. CHL '^^Kt J» io do. 

~- ' • .- :.'r. ±-ri:'. ^ : turm io the Lord's Tabic, 

1^ V "^** Tit*-^ r^r^ sad oar bounden duty, that 
^ ^ -I. . IT aX oms^ and in all places, give 
7*- 'N->- r.v.T -::w^ ^» L.-ri holy Father, Almighty, 

A ^^* ^ .* r.ifcc ir :i:^ ime ^iwn us thy Servant our 
^ ^ S •- ^i ^iH-a A^CTORIA to be the De- 
'^ V-- . :: y^ I. j^£ ibi^ Protector of thy People; 
*" ..* 1 r .-; <" :rvr w-f twt jr^d a quiet and peaceable life 

^IX^": X :>VXT ^--i AT-2ek and Archangels, and 

1, % :i i.t iix? ^vor^jtry cf heaven, we laud and 

"^^x^^i.:^ I* ^* fvos NjLrsei. evermore praising thee, 

*--v; >^> rtv^. V i; . xN. Kvv, Lord God of hosts, hea- 

'^v^t i.ivi ^-.w-:T j.^ rJI X T^^y clofT, Glory be to thee, 

I /t, rSm-" :f Acdrtu. 
X^^v i,> ^>5 ^c^aane IO cane to this thy Table, 
1 ^ V^ t»xfcv*:?^ VkW. mfesdng: in our own righte- 
^^<fe>iiN>!;^ V*<^ "-^ ^J tewirdtxvd and great mercies. We 
^v> ^^ %v^.^> ^"^ utt'^rh %$; to gather up the crumbs 
^^kW \^x r*^i^ t*^t ihoa ait the same Lord, whose 
\^HSH\\ i^ ^^*y^ ^> ^^^ »«^y; Grant us there- 
'^^^K ^^^^-ixHWt I A>rd^ ^^ Io eat the Flesh of thy dear Son 
"^^^\^ i^'ht^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ drink his Blood, that our sinful 
Vh\\v^ u^v ^ UMidt^ ckan by his Body, and our souls 

Coronation ^emice. 1 3 3 

washed through his most precious Blood, and that we 
may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. Amen. 

The Prayer of Consecration. 

ALMIGHTY GOD, our heavenly Father, who of 
thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus 
Christ to suffer death upon the Cross, for our redemp- 
tion, who made there (by his one oblation of himself 
once offered) a fiill, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, 
oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole 
world, and did institute, and in his holy Gospel com- 
mand us to continue a perpetual memory of that his 
precious Death, until his coming again ; Hear us, O 
merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee, and 
grant that we receiving these thy creatures of Bread 
and Wine, according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus 
Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his Death 
and Passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body 
and Blood : who in the same night that he 
was betrayed {a) took bread, and when he atMx^u 'to 
had given thanks (i) he brake it, and ^^^^J^^"" 
gave it to his disciples, saying. Take, eat, "^ ^^'^ lnd}^.u> 
(c) this is my Body which is given for hrtakxu bread: 
vou, do this in remembrance of me. Like- , ^^^, AnAhertto 

* , ' \a\t hu nana upon 

wise after supper {d) he took the cup, and ait th$ bnad, 
when he had given thanks, he gave it to (^) ^«"'^' «• 

1 . Tx - 1 \% n 1 ' fi to take th§ eup 

them, saying, Dnnk ye all of this, for imohishand: 

this (e) is my Blood of the New Testa- . ^®)^"''*'^*'** 

ment, which is shed for you and for many every vemi (te u 

for the remission of sins : Do this, as oft ^„ whuk'^fn^u 

as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of ^If^J'^^^,*'' ** 
me. Amen. 

When the Archbishop, and Dean of Westminster, 
^ith the Bishops Assistants, namely^ the Preacher, and 

1 34 

appetiDir to t^ 

The Queen 


those who read the Litany, and the Epistle and Groepel, 
have communicated in both kinds^ the Queen advances to 
the Altar and kneels down^ and the Archbishop shall 
administer the Bread j and the Dean o/* Westminster the 
Cupf to Her. 

At the Delivery of the Bread shall be saidy 

THE Body of our Lord Jesus Christ» which was 
given for thee, preserve thy hody and soul unto 
everlasting life. Take and eat this in remembrance 
that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart 
by faith with thanks^ving. 

At the Delivery of the Cup. 

THE Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was 
shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto 
everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that 
Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful.*^ 

The Queen then puts on Her Crown, afid taking the 
Sceptres in Her Hands again^ repairs to Her Throne.^' 

Then the Archbishop goeth on to the Post-Com- 
munion, sayings 

OUR Father, which art in heaven ; Hallowed be 
thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be 
done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day 
our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses. As 

** In all the Orders which pre- 
ceded that of K. William IV. we 
find this ruhric, or to the same 
effect. " While the king receives, 
the Bishop (Bishops, Geo. II. etc.) 
appointed for that service, shall 
hold a towel of white silk, or fine 


Order of 

linen, before 
Geoi^ IV. 

I must again confess, that I do 
not perceive the reason why it 
should have been, of late, omitted. 

^ Introduced for the first time 
in the Order of the text. 

Cotonation ^ettiice. 1 3 5 

we fbrgiye them ihat trespass against us. And lead us 
not into temptation ; But deliver us from evil. For 
thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory» 
For ever and ever. Amen. 

Then this Prayer. 

OL.ORD and heavenly Father, we thy humble 
servants entirely desire thy Fatherly Goodness, 
mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and 
thanksgiving ; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, 
that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, 
and tlirough faith in his Blood, we and all thy whole 
Church may obtain remission of our sins, and all other 
benefits of his Passion. And here we offer and pre- 
sent unto thee, O Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies, 
to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee ; 
humbly beseeching thee, that all we, who are partakers 
of this holy Communion, may be fulfilled with thy 
grace and heavenly benediction. And although we be 
unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee 
any sacrifice ; yet we beseech thee to accept this our 
bounden duty and service ; not weighing our merits, 
but pardoning our offences, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord ; by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the 
Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O 
Father Almighty, world without end. Amen. 

Then shall be said^ 

GLORY be to God on high, and in earth peace, 
good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless 
thee, we worship thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks 
to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly 
King, God the Father Almighty, 
O Lord, the only begotten Son Jesu Christ ; O Lord 

is^ 2ipptiatiK to tbt 

God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away 
the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that 
takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. 
Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our 
prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the 
Father, have mercy upon us. 

For thou only art holy, thou only art the Lord, thou 
only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in 
the glory of God the Father. Amen. 

The Choir then sing the following Anthem.^ 

HALLELUJAH : For the Lord God Onmipotent 
reigneth. The kingdom of this World, is become 
the kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. And he 
shall reign for ever and ever. King of Kings, and Lord 
of Lords. Hallelujah. 

After the Anthem the Archbishop reads the final 

SECT. XVIIL— The final Prayers. 

ASSIST us mercifully, O Lord, in these our sup- 
plications and prayers, and dispose the way of thy 
servants towards the attainment of everlasting salva- 
tion ; that among all the changes and chances of this 
mortal life, they may ever be defended by thy most 
gracious and ready help, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

LORD our God, who upholdest and govemest 
all things in Heaven and Earth; Receive our 


^ Introduced for the first time in the Order in the text 

Coronation ^ertiice. x 37 

humble prayers, with our thanksgivings, for our Sove* 
reign Lady VICTORIA, set over us by thy good pro- 
vidence to be our Queen : And so together with her 
bless ADELAIDE the Queen Dowager, and the rest 
of the Royal Family, that they ever trusting in thy 
goodness, protected by thy power, and crowned with 
thy favour, may continue before thee in health and 
peace, in joy and honour, a long and happy life upon 
earth, and after death may obtain everlasting life and 
glory in the kingdom of Heaven, through the merits 
and mediation of Jesus Christ our Saviour; who 
with thee, O Father, and the Holy Spirit, liveth and 
reigneth ever one God, world without end. Amen. 

ALMIGHTY GOD, who hast promised to hear the 
petitions of them that ask in thy Son's Name ; 
We beseech thee mercifully to incline thine ears to us 
that have made now our prayers and supplications unto 
thee, and grant that those things which we have faith- 
fully asked according to thy will, may effectually be 
obtained, to the relief of our necessity, and to the 
setting forth of thy glory, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

THE peace of God, which passeth all understand- 
ing, keep your hearts and minds in the know- 
ledge and love of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord : And the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be amongst you, and 
remain with you always. Amen^ 

SECT, XIX.— The Recess. 

THE whole Coronation Office being thus performed ^ The Proceeding 
the Queen attended and accompanied as before^ l^rf'/chap51 
^hefaur Swords being carried before Her, descends from of the Quee»- 

13» flppoMrtttie 

Her Thrmtt Crawmed, md cmrrfimg Her Scepire and 
Rod in Her Hamds^g^aid» iktArtm EaOwmrd cf the 
Theatre, and pastes am tkromgk the Door am the South 
tide of the Altar into Kimg Edward's Chapel ; and as 
She passes by the AUar^ the rest of the Regalia, lying 
upon it, are to be delivered by the Dean ^ Weatminster 
to the Lords that carried tkeoi im the Pr ace sn om, and so 
they proceed in State into the Chapel^ the Organ and 
other Instruments all the while plaofimg. 

The Queen being came into the Chapel, and standing 
before the Altar, will deliver the Sceptre with the Dove 
to the Archbishop, who will lay it upon the Altar there. 
The Queen will then be disrobed of Her Imperial 
Mantle, and arrayed in Her Royal Robe of Purple 
Velvet by the Lord Great Chamberlain. 

The Archbishop, being still vested in his Cope, will 
then place the Orb in Her Majesty's Left Hand. And 
the Gold Spurs and King Edward's Staff are given into 
the hands of the Dean of Westminster, and by him laid 
upon the Altar. Which being done, the Archbishop and 
Bishops will divest themselves of their Copes, and leave 
them there^ proceeding in their usual Habits. 

Then Her Majesty will proceed through the Choir to 
the West Door of the Abbey, in the same manner as She 
came, wearing Her Crown, and bearing in Her Right 
Hand the Sceptre with the Cross, and in Her left the 
Orb ; all Peers wearing their Coronets, and the Arch- 
bighops apid Bishops their Caps. 

Coronation ^ettitce. 1 39 

C|)e Coronation of a £lueen 

SECT. XVIL— The Queen's Coronation. 

\HE Queen having reposed Herself in Her 
Chair on the South side of the Altar, while 
the King was Crowned and Inthronized, as 
soon as the Anthem is ended, ariseth and 
goeth to the Steps of the Altar, supported by two Bishops, 
and there kneekth down, whilst the Archbishop saith the 
following Prayer : 

ALMIGHTY GOD, the fountain of all goodness ; 
Give ear, we beseech thee, to our prayers, and 
multiply thy blessings upon this thy Servant, whom in 
thy Name, with all humble devotion, we consecrate 
our Queen : Defend her evermore from all Dangers, 
ghostly and bodily; Make her a great Example of 
Virtue and Piety, and a Blessing to this Kingdom, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth 
with thee, O Father, in the Unity of the Holy Spirit, 
world without end. Amen. 

Tliis Prayer being ended, the Queen ariseth, and 
Cometh to the Place of Her Anointing : Which is to be Tiie Anointing. 
at a Faldstool set for that purpose before the Altar, 
between the Steps and King Edwards Chair. And 
landing there, the Chief Lady that attends Her, takes 

^ From the Fonn and Order for King William IV. and Queen 

HO appennir to t^e 

off Her Circk of Gold,* and She kneekth down, and four 
Peeresses appointed for that Service, holding a rich Pall 
of Silkj or Cloth of Gold, over Her, the Archbishop 
poureth the Holy Oil upon the Crown of Her Head, 
saying these Words : 

IN the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost : Let the anointing with this Oil 
increase your honour, and the grace of God s Holy 
Spirit establish you, for ever and ever. Ainen? 

After the Anointing the Archbishop saith this Prayer: 

OMOST merciful God, pour out abundantly thy 
grace and blessing upon this thy Servant Queen 
ADELAIDE, that as by our Office and Ministry she 
is this day anointed, and solemnly consecrated our 
Queen; so being sanctified by thy Holy Spirit, she 
may continue thy faithful and devout Servant, unto her 
life 8 end, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

^ Among the '^ Necessaries to Caroline : with which the Orders 

be provided by the M'. of the for George III.'s Queen, and for 

Jewell House the daye of the king the Queen of James II. generally 

and queen's coronation," the first agree. 

is : '^ A circle of gold for the queen *< Then the chief lady assistant 

to wear when she goeth to her openeth her apparel, for the 

coronation." MS, Cotton. Vesp. anointing her on the hre€ist ; 

C. xiv. which the archbishop also per- 

^ The reader will find in the formethy using the same words : 

preliminary dissertation, some re- Let the anointing with this oil, etc, 

marks on the ancient manner of After the anointing the arch- 

anointing the Queens of England, bishop saith this prayer : O most 

and which was observed until the merciful, etc. Then the same 

Order for King William IV. and lady closeth the Queen* s robe at 

Queen Adelaide. The following the breast (having Jirst dried the 

is the rubric, &c. which follows phice anointed) and afterwards 

the anointing of the head, in the putteth a linen coif upon her 

Order for George II. and Queen heady because of the anointing.*' 

Cotonation ^ettiice. 14^ 

Then the Archbishop receiveth from the Master of 
the Jewel Office the Queens Ring, and putteth it upon The Ring. 
the Fourth linger of Her Right Hand, sayings 

RECEIVE this Ring» the seal of a sincere Faith ^ 
and Gody to whom belongeth all Power and 
Dignity, prosper you in this your honour, and grant 
you therein long to continue, fearing him always, and 
always doing such things as shall please him, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen^ 

Then the Archbishop taketh the Crown from off the xheCroirn. 
Altar into his handsy and reverently setteth it upon the 
Queens Head, ^(^yi^gi 

RECEIVE the Crown of glory, honour, and joy ; 
and God the Crown of the faithful, who by our 
Episcopal hands (though unworthy) doth this day set 
a Crown of pure Gold upon your head, enrich your 
Royal heart with his abundant grace, and crown you 
with all princely virtues in this life, and with an ever- 
lasting Crown of glory in the life which is to come, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

The Queen being crowned^ all the Peeresses put on 
their Coronets. 

Then the Archbishop putteth the Sceptre into the TheSceptre 
Queen's Right Hand, and the Ivory Rod with the Dove ^^ '^^'^ ^°^- 
into Her Left Hand; and sayeth this Prayer: 

OLORD, the giver of all perfection, Grant unto 
this thy Servant ADELAIDE our Queen, that 
by the powerful and mild Influence of her Piety and 
Virtue, she may adorn the high Dignity which she 
bath obtained, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

The Queen being thus Anointed, and Crowned, and 

tt tie Cotonation decttice. 

•raaarieimL' Her OrmmaOs, the Choir ting tkit 


YT ALIXirjAH : For the Lord God Omnipotent 

A X wsrwciL TV kmgdom of this World, is be- 

^^ a,? ta^Sroi of oar Lord, and of his Christ. 

> ,"* ^uZ r*^ fcr erw «nd ever, King of Kings, 

U *.„ X» :U Andwn begins, the Queen arueth 
--.u .-'^'»-'n,z,^A-^^s,,pp,n1ediyHertwoBishcps, 

V. .« «. .-.^ n-.,^,,. 5ie hcncth Herself reverently to 

J.U .:.j.,.ur u^j yrti<r Ceremony taketh Her pirn 
n * v,,v*.,^. ^^^ 4^ She eomee dawn, with tk 

sa^ohnsi fatitnhi Con^ura^. 



\ pruiui ir UAutMnii' cu^ricoruwiy qua potest 
if.ri crtrti nu^kuru futiciin^/ae kora ante 
p. 'J itiLimS' prLno ^<utf/iuum €:fiy et diligenter 
d'^ fiou 4ijii Locri et legitimi 

^ hk tlie 3or«9 to diis Cnffrr, 
ami diac wtucn. 9accte*h^ of coo- 
fiwrixie Orierv I «hall j->e d» 
tx^ti Tapiarinmi rf tiie fi: «Towing 
■laimserfpc poctidicaL» : ¥iz. tix« 
Bantror; — tiie ^Inciieater ;^ — and 
the Execer. Tbe int oT xJ^tat u 
anhappilT mntOatcii in maiiT parts 
i)f these cyfliccs; tnitial IcCtcn ka:ve 
been eat out, and of coarse with 
them much of the text apoo the 
rererse of the leares: and be- 
tides, the mbrics hare been moch 
rubbed and defaced. 

As regards the arraogement of 
this ilrst office, ** ad elerieum Ja- 
eumdum^*' the Exeter pontifical 
di}e§ not place it immediately be- 
fftre the senrices of Ordination, as 
in the text and the other MSS. 
but immediately succeeding the 
** (!onfirmatio puerorum," and be- 
fore the ** Dedicatio ecclesiarum." 
'Ilifl reader will see this by refer- 
ring to the table of the contents 
of that pontifical, in the first vo- 
lume of thii work, p. cxxiij. Such 
an arrangsroont ii unusual: for 

altaoaeh die ochcr MSS. do not 
aeree in pladag it next after the 
order of cao^rmatioQ fas do the 
poDti^cal from which the text is 
tokauaBd aaodier m Trinitj Col- 
lege. Dublim MS. a Tah.a No. 
7)^ jet they do not separate this 
irst office, frooi the other forms 
of Onnnatzoo» 

The title of this Office in the 
Exeter pontifical is, ^ CoUatio 

* This rubric, and the socoeed- 
ing paragraph are omitted by the 
Bangor, Wiudiester, and Elxeter 
pontiticals. The second paragraph 
has reference to those cases in 
which confirmation had been neg- 
lected at its proper period, early 
childhood; and some particulars 
relating to females are mixed up 
with it, not concerned with the 
giving of the tonsure. 

* This b contrary to the order 
of the present Roman pontifical, 
the rubric of which allows that, 
" Clericatust seu prima tofuura, 
quocumque die^ hora, et loco con- 

^oliu0 factenni Con0ura0. 


diactm svuK^ et ab episcopo confirmati^ non cofffugati^ 
ncc aliqua irregularitatU aut inhabilitatis^ hota respersL 
Tn quibus vera casibus epUcapus potest dispensare primo 
aum eis dispensetj et si non sunt confirmati, confirmet 
€€^ ut supra^ 

fiTTi potettr And in bis com- 
mentary upon this, CataUini has 
fallen into an error» where be says 
tliat the Tonsure, ^ ex omnium 
seriptonim sententia, et ex recepta 
^ecclesiae praxi, quovis anni tem- 
pore, qualibet die, et bora, et loco 
conferri potest." Comment in 
J^antif. Rom, Tom. 1. p. 49. 
That the modem Roman Use 
knows no limit as to time for the 
oooferring of the Tonsure, is eyi- 
dent from a comparison of the ru- 
bric at the commencement of the 
office ** De minoribus ordinibus,'' 
concerning which bst it is ex- 
pressly stated to be lawfully con- 
ferred *^ in mane tantum." 

* The general opinion of the 
canonists seems to be, that a bishop 
might have conferred the tonsure 
(but not other orders, even the 
minor) out of his own diocese, 
^ sobditb suis.** This however 
would be influenced by the custom 
of the time. The reader will find 
more remarks upon this subject 
in the preliminary dissertation. 
. ^ Under this head would fdSX 
ignorance, such as of the rudi- 
I ments of the Faith, or to be unable 
to read or write. As to the first, 
from the earliest ages a know- 
ledge of the creed was required 

of those who were to be baptized, 
and much more therefore of can- 
didates for the mmistry: as to 
the second, whatever the practice 
might have been,the theory in Eng- 
land always was, that every clerk 
should be able at least to read : and 
this was the well-known test by 
which men were allowed ^' benefit 
of cleigy." In the thirteenth cen- 
tury, it was strictly forbidden by 
Boniface VIII, *' Nequis episco- 
pus infanti, vel illiterato tonsuram 
clericalem conferret, ita ut qui con- 
trafecerit, in eo in quo peccaverit 
puniatur, per unum annum a col- 
latione clericalis tonsur» dum- 
taxat noverit se suspensum." De 
temp. Ordin. cap, ulL 

• See Vol. I. p. 34. 

That confirmation should pre- 
cede ordination to any rank or 
degree in the ministry of the 
Church, is a very ancient rule, 
and, I doubt not, apostolic. To 
this effect it would certainly seem 
that we should interpret the viij th 
canon of the council of Nice: 
" Tlfpi Tuy ovofiaZoyruy fityiath' 
Tovi ILaOapovQ rore^ rpotrepy^ofif' 
yuy it Ti^ KoOoXiKp ra« aVooroXf riy 
iKKXtfiri^, iio^t rp dyt^ xat fiS" 
yaX[| (Tuyoif, wrre \upodtTOVfit- 
yovc avTOvt fifytiy ovru^ tv rf 


9fiiam fiitieiaA €omuts». 

Et debet hoc sacramentum et omnia alioj ejxepta 
causa necessltatisj a jejuna etjejunis ministrari. Mas- 
culi vera teneant masctUoSy et femina femeUaSy mUlus 
tamen aut nulla proprios. Si sint aduUi aut dob ca- 
paceSf prius tenentur conjiterij quia olim etiam sokbani 
postea communicare. Et si sint ita magni quod nequeant 
brachiis portarij stent appodiando super pedem compatris 
aut cotnmatriSj quia hoc sacramentum datur ad robuVj 
sicut Spiritus Sanctus dabatur de ccelo apostolis ad pie- 
nam constantiam Christum confitendi et pradicandi. 
Episcopus autem stando cum stola^ aut lassatus sedendoj 
sed nunquam equitandoy officium conjirmathnis exe- 

Kkrfpf** Some hare interpreted 
this sentence of the canon to mean, 
an imposition of hands by way of 
reconciliation only, or penance: 
others, that it enjoined a reordi- 
nation. But the first is impossible, 
because the canon is speaking of 
some certain rite to be used only 
with regard to the Novatians, and 
none others : which was not true 
of penance or reconciliation. The 
suggestion as to reordination is 
equally erroneous : for the council 
expressly recognised the Novatian 
Orders, leaving (as Beverege in 
his Notes says) their bishops, 
bishops : and their priests, priests : 
and this learned writer appeals to 
the ancient scholiasts, Balsamon 
and Zonaras, upon the point. Cf. 
Beverege, Pandect. Canon. Tarn, 
hp. 68. Annott. Tom. 2. p. 67. 
and Rouik. Script £cc. Opusc 
Tom. 2. p. 437. There is more- 
over no doubt that denial of the 

grace of confirmation was a chief 
heresy of the Novatians. S. Cor- 
nelius in his epistle to Fabios 
charges it against their leader, in 
a particular case: Theodoret de- 
clares the same : and as if to set 
the question, as to the Niceue 
canon, completely at rest, we have 
the contemporary order of the 
synod of Laodicea, in the year 
820. ^ Quod ii, qui ex heeresibus^ 
hoc est, NoTatianis, — ,, — con- 
▼ertuntur, — ,, — non sunt admit- 
tendi priusquam omnem hseresin 

anathematizaverint, et tunc 

deinoeps eos, qui apud illos fideles 
dicebantur, fidei symbols discentes, 
et sancto Chrismate inunctos, sic 
sancto mysterio communicare." 
Compare the vijth canon of the 
2nd General Council, and the 
scholia of Balsamon and Zonaras : 
Bevereg. Pandect Tom. 1. jd. 97. 

S0tm» Uuitm^ Con0ttsa0t 


Jfadusfaciendi tamuras^ vel coronas primaSy et ordi- 
landi clericos gentiflectentes^ coram episcopo^^ hoc modo : 
Sit nomen Domini benedictum. 
£x hoc. 

Adjtttorinm nostrum in nomine Domini. 
Qui fecit. 

' The Winchester and Bangor 
MSS. hegin this office with the 
exhortation, " Oremus, dilectis- 
nmi,** &c« called by the finit, the 
" Praefatio;" by the second, the 
** BenedicUo ad clericum facien- 
dum.** In the Exeter pontifical 
we hare a commenoement different 
from the other three. " Prafatio 
ad coronam fadendam, Hf, Ad- 
jotorium nostrum, etc. R. Qui 
fedt. Dominus vobiscum. Ore- 
mi». Oremns, dilectissimi. etc.*' 
* " Ita vero necessariam ordi- 
nandis duxerunt genuflexionem 
antaqni patres, ut etiam Domiuicis 
diebus, ac toto Paschali tempore, 
quo in genua procumbere nefas 
est, prohibitumque ex canone xx. 
Nicaeno, suscepturos Ordinesvolu- 
erint nonnisi genuflexione iniUari. 
Qoamobrem Alexander III. Ponti- 
^ Maxtmns relatus in Cap. 11, De 
Periisy ita inqnit : * In consecra- 
tioDibus autem episcopomm, et cle- 
ricorom ordinationibus, consecrans 
ct consecratums tantum genua 
ileetere possunt, secundum quod 
cooiecrationis modus requirit' 
Qiue verba referenda sunt ad dis- 
crimen jam superins expUcatum. 
*-<-n— ^ Meminit denique me- 

morati ritus et S. Ambrosius Lib. 
vj. Hesamerony Cap. ix. ubl 
[aliam] reddit rationem his plane 
verbis : ' flexibile genu, quo prse 
caeteris Domini mitigatur offensa, 
ira muloetur, gratia promovetur : 
unde ordinator, et ordinandus 
genua flectunt, ut divinam gratiam 
uterque digne promoveat, unus 
recipiat, alter conferat."' Ca4a* 
lani. Comment in Pontif. Rom. 
torn. 1 . p. 62. Cf. Goar. EuchoL 
p. 279. note 10. 

* It does not appear that the 
bishop was of necessity to be fully 
vested, except he was about to 
perform this office, during the 
celebration of the Eucharist; when 
of course, on account of that holy 
service, and not on account of the 
conferring the tonsure, it would 
be required. A MS. in the Va- 
tican, cited by Catalani ( Comment, 
in Pontif. Rom* torn. \. p. 56), 
has a rubric very important on 
this point *' Prima tonsura po- 
test dari omni tempore, sive in 
missa, sive extra missam, sive in 
mane, sive sero, dummodo epis- 
copus habeat stolam, et ordinatus 


9fitXitt» facietiDt Coti0ura0« 


Oremusy dilectissimi fratres, Dominum noetmin Je- 
sum Christum^ pro hoc £amulo suo, qui ad deponendsm 
comam capitis sui pro ejus amore^ et exempio beati 
Petri apostoli festinat, ut donet ei Spiritum Sanctum, 
qui propositum religionist in eo perpetue conservet, et 
a mundi impedimentis vel seecularibus desideriis cor 
ejus defendat^ ut sicut immutatur yultu, ita manus 
dextera sua ei virtutem perfectionis*et boni operis 
tribuat incrementum, et abjecta pmni csBcitate humana, 
spirituales illi oculos aperiat, et lumen ei setern» glorise 
concedat. Per Christum. 

Sequitur psaimus.^^ 

* The other pontificals read: 
^ qui habitmn religionis.'' 

^ The Sannn pontifical varies 
▼ery eonsiderably irom hence 
down to the conclusion of the 
office, from all the other MSS. I 
shall extract the remainder as it 
is in the Bangor Use, with which, 
except some unimportant differ- 
ences, the Winchester and the 
Exeter agree. 

^* — etems gloris* eoncedat. 
Qui yivit. 

^ Deinde super tonsurandos 
ponatur superpelUceum^ et dicat 
pantifex hanc orationem : * 

'' Adesto, Domine, supplicatio- 
nibus. etc. 

** Tunc omnee tonsurandi si- 
mul dicant : 

* This rubric occurs only in 
the Bangor MS. 

** Dominus pars haereditatis 
mes. etc. 

** Tunc mc^naiur pe. Con- 
serva me, Domine. etc, et repe- 
tatur psahnue ueque ad ilium 
vertumf Dominus pars hsiedi- 

*^ Tunc quilibet toneurandorum 
per ee dicat eundem vereum: 
Dominus pars. 

" Interim pontifex ter incidat 
aliquam partem de capillu^ pri- 
mo dicene: In nomine Patris; 
secundo: etFiIii; tertio: etSpi- 
ritus Sancti. 

" Omnibus vero sic tonsis^ di- 
catur residua pars psaJmiy cum 
Gloria Patri. Quojinito^ omnes 
tonsurati dicant simul hunc rer- 
sum : Dominus pars. 

" Postea incipiatur anHpho- 
na: Hie accipiet benedictionem, 

^oiiu0 factenni Con]B(uta0* 1 49 

Conserva me, Domine, quoniam speravi in te ; dixi 
Domino, Deus mens es tu ; quoniam bonorum meorum 
non eges. 

Sanctis qui sunt in terra ejus: mirificavit omnes 
voluntates meas in eis. 

Multiplicatse sunt infirmitates eorum : postea accele- 

Non congregabo conventicula eorum de sanguini- 
bus : nee memor ero nominum eorum per labia mea. 

Hie quilibet ordinandus per se dicat : 

Dominus pars hssreditatis mesB, et caiicis mei : tu es, 
qui restitues haereditatem meam mihi. 

Interim episcopus incidat ter aliquam partem de ca- 
pillUy primo dicensj 

In nomine Patris, 




£t Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Tune dicitur residua pars psalmi. 

Funes ceciderunt mihi in pneclaris : enim hssreditas 
mea prseclara est mihi. 

Benedicam Dominum qui tribuit mihi intellectum : 
insuper et usque ad noctem increpuerunt me renes 

^ Pf . Domini est terra. The Bangor MS. adds a rubric 

^ Seauiiur ortUio, Omnipo- similar to the last of the office in 

tens sempiteme Deus, etc. the text ** Deinde pontifex as- 

" Oratio, Pnesta, quesu- pergat tonsuratos aqua benedic^ 

mas." <«, et roget eos ut orent pro eo. 

The M^chester pontifical omits et pnscipue n superstUesfuerimi 

from the psalm ^ Consenra ** down die ohUus etaJ* 
to the antiphon, ** Hie accipiet" 

P^:«o5;«ni3£ IV.-vbEzxm in coo s pecta meo s^nper; 
^riT.ATT a ^a:n^ est mZri Be coounoFesr. 

Pr:cc^ b:ic lfe-u.ixm ea car Hieiini, et exultaTit 
IsiTBA IBM : iasKTifr « caro mea reqniescet in spe. 

l^rr'.KTf 2i:c ^fr^jisq^fs t^imimi "»*^wi in inferno : 
BK Cikio» sft3:T:3& r£^3 vSoere coiTii|ilioiiem. 

N :c» niri iev^<i vi^s Titaew JMlimplebis me laetitia 
CUE v-^rx tac" : oe^^xs^oes in dextera tna usque in 

Gj:rsa P*sv S«c::it. 

Tm es. Eke^Kw qai resdtnes hareditatem meam 

Fkvsta. q:aes«mB> omnipoms Dens» nt hi famuli 
tci. qnomm bc^e comas capitnm pfo amore divino 
depa^cimos; in ma dilecdone perpetno maneant, ut 
ecs ane macula grana toa in sempilanum custodial. 
Ver Chrtstum. 

TinIU om:^:'fS€ ^ti^ar psalmms. 
Domini est terra» et plenitudo ejus. 
Gloria Patri 
AMt:f hona. 

Hie aecipiet benedictionem a DominOi et misericor* 
diam a Deo salutari soo : quia hsc est generatio quae- 
rentium DcMninum. 

Adesto, Domine, supplicationibus nostris, et bos 
£amulo6 tuos benedicere dignare, quibus in tuo nomine 
sancto babitum sanctae religionis imponimus, ut te lar- 
^ente deyoti in ecclesia tua persistere, et yitam per- 
cipere mereantur stemam. Per Cbristum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen. 

^oiiu0 facienni Con0ara0. 1 5 1 

Tunc Si habeatur superpelliceumj sumat episcopus illud 
in manu sua, et ponat circa colla singulorum dicensi 

Induat te Dominus novum homineniy qui secundum 
Deum creatus est, in justitia, et sanctitate veritatis. 

Et si non habeatur superpellicium, ilia induitio omit" 

Et episcapus prosequatur hoc modo : 

Pax vobis. 

vel tecum. 



Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, propitiare peccatis 
nostris, et ab omni servitute saecularis habitus hos 
famulos tuos emunda, ut dum ignominiam saecularis 
habitus deponunt, semper in aevum gratia perfruantur, 
et sicut similitudinem coronae tuse eos gestare facimus 
in capitibus, sic tua virtute hsereditatem subsequi me- 
reantur aeternam in cordibus. Per Dominum. 

HisJinitiSj aspergat episcopus tonsuratos aqua bene- 
dicta, et roget eos orare pro eo aliquid certum, et praci- 
pue si superstites fuerint die obitus suiy et sic data bene^ 
dictione recedant. 

Celebratio j©rtrtnum* 

CrMratio OrtitnomJ 

\ ctLti^itj.m ordinum in adrcntm Domini, 
tt CrUtrU t<:7npf)r:5'u anm^ mam vel ante 
prcE "U/i.iiJitur ordlnamdi^ qu*:kl pure de pec- 
cdt^ 4iJii coti/es^iy et qui in sacerdoiaU or- 
crt. Ci4i rK u^rint prcfjkiroft jf communioni. Omnts 
cTi^n f^.riittint de te4t.bus sacris sibi ntcessariis, d 
f^j-i l.n^itr'im hdbtaM OjinptUnUm. 

Q^ir^i-j ordln^s agantur primo jiat strmo si phceat, 
^r.^'^2 f.jzni iakijUiomts stqutmiiSj si sini gcncraks or- 
c r.T^ et ez 4rop') placuerit^ ad terrorem male subintran- 
t m"^ $ .J h ic forma. 

Elx pane Dei omnipotends, Patris, et Filii, et Spi- 

> Tbe thL». as veil as the be- 
f ~^-f < o^ this office, titt cod- 
s««L>£?ic«T in the M!^S. The Ban- 
^3t poctiical is rerj sliort : and 
aI:so K=iZL2:ed in this plaee. Bat 
«o i&r as it can be read, il is as 

•* QmaUter ordimes agantur. 

„ dicat arckidiaconui : 

Accedant qui ordinandi sunt os- 
liariL Tmmc acctdami immedi- 

mtf w w • tradat 

€if episciypus dares ecclesug di^ 
crms: Sic agite, quasi reddituri 
IVo rationem pro iis rebus, quae 
i^tU daYibus redndnntur. Tunc 
^^Mt f%^ ttrchidiaamus ad os- 
>>«»«% ts^^tsu^^ et tradat eii os- 

timwu Praefigiio oHiariomtm, 
Deum Palrem etc. Oremus. Et 
diaconus. Flectamus genua. Le- 
Yate. (hraHo. Domine sancte 

The following is the order of 
the Winchester MS. 

^ Hoc modo ordinandi sunt 
ostiarU : lectores : exordsta : 
acolyti : suhdiaconi .* diaconi : 
sacerdotes. Mense pnmo : quar- 
to : septimo : dedmo, Postquam 
chorus ojfidum et kyrieV ei 
more Jinierit, introducantur am' 
nes ordinandi^ ah archidiacono^ 
vocati ex nomme^ ante domnum 

** Tunc his verbis unus ex ar- 

Celettatfo ^minum. 155 

itils Sanctis et sub poena excommunicationis majoris, 
[iliibemus ne aliqais ligatus impedimentis infra scriptis, 
oxitra decreta sanctorum patrum, ingerat se ad ordines 

Primo ergo, secundo, et tertio, monemus et inhibe- 
nns sub pcena anathematis, ne quis se ingerat ordinan- 
lum, nisi prius examinata persona cum titulo matricu- 
Atus et infra scriptus fiierit et vocatus. Ne quis etiam 
nortalis peccati conscius, vel excommunicatus, aut 
suspensus, ordines recipiat, nisi prius potestatem ha- 
benti confiteatur et debite absolvatur. Ne autem ig- 
Qorans ignoretur irregulares, qui secundum sacros 
canones ab ordinibus prohibentur, duximus seriatim 
et per ordinem specificandos. 

Quicunque homicida. Item ecclesiarum incendi- 
arius, seu earum fractor violenter. Item advocatus 
in causa sanguinis, vel notorie peijurus. Item executor 
saevorum tormentorum in publicis administrationibus. 
Item simoniacus, qui quodcumque beneficium aut titu- 
lum illicite adeptus, vel religionem taliter est ingressus. 

chidiaeoms dicat ad prandem : Posiea publics omnibus qui 

**' Postolat hsBC sancta ecclesia, ad sa>cros ordines convemuntj 

etc, Responsio episcopi: Vide dicat: Auxiliante Domino, etc.* 

ut, etc. Archidiaconus : Quan. The Exeter pontifical begins : 

torn, «to. " QuaUter ordines generales 

Tune fiat sermo ab episcopo a>ganiur. Primo fiat sermo si 

communiter ad omnes de casti- est dicendus. Posteafiant inhi- 

tate, de abstinentia^ et his simili- bitiones sequentes in generalihus 

hus virtutibus : terribiliter inter- ordinibus, si episcopo placuerit, 

dicens, ne quis ad sacros ordines ad terror em male subintranHum. 

tenire profsumaif qui pecuniam Ex parte Dei omnipotentis. etc,** 

dare vel promittere pnesump- The chief variations of this 

terit; ne cum Simone Mago pontifical will be noticed as we 

non benedictionem sed maUdic proceed. 
^fmem inveniai. 


Item lAvent/jr vel Lunar sm^macarmm pactioniim. 
Item apostata a fide xti re^i^coe^ mo leeonciliatiis. 
Item qui ab episoopis facredok. trHirMi l i fifT. gratiam 
Mxli» apostolicae dod habennbus. scienter alias ordines 
reeepit. Item qui sob £ako tindo Tel ficto, ant alias 
pacto inito cnm soo pneseDtatore de irajoaiiodi titalo 
postqaam ordinatiis fiieriu eidem resdfnaido rel alias 
occasione hajosmodi eandem hod inqoietaiido, Tel qai 
aminam peiisi<Hiem Tel qaodcanqiie emolamentaiii 
temporale pnesentanti, Tel pramodonem procuranti, 
sub qnocimqiie {MiomiserU ooloie* Item per saUnm 
ad aUoB or^nes promotus. Item priiis omjogatos, 
nbi hoc fi^ciat in caaa a jure pCTmisBO. Ifem nallus 
qui excommuBicatus scienter ordiDes reo^it alias, et 
in gUBceptb ministrare pnesmnpsift. Item bigamas, 
vel corruptamm maritus. Item Deo sanctamm vir- 
ginum violator. Item nuUos sordlegos, vel nigroman- 
ticua, vel prohibitarum artinm doctor, dve fautor. 
Item morbo aontico, vel caduoo, vel lunaticoy vel alio 
incurabili laborans, vel corpore vitiates. Item illegi- 
timua, nisi fuerit cum eo sufficienter dispensatum. 
Item aorvus nativus^ prseter conscientiam et volunta- 
tom domini sui. Item nullus alterius dioecesis, nisi 
litoraa dimissorias habuerit, ac etiam titulum sufficien- 
tom. Item inhibemus quod nullus ordinem subdiaco- 
natua recipiat, nisi sit aetatis octodecim annorum, dia- 
conatua viginti, presbyteratus viginti quatuor, et vi- 
(loaimum quintum annum attigerit. Item nullus. re- 
ligioHua do jure vel facto non professus. Item nullus 
curatuB beneficiatus, qui infra annum non fuerit or- 
(liuatuB in prosbyterumy a tempore curae susceptae et 
paeifico possossionis adeptae, nisi ex dispensatione, qua 
otiatn rite sit usus juxta constitutionem cum ex eo. 
Item nulluB sine vero titulo, vel cujus titulus ad non 

Celelitatio SDrHinum. 157 

itulam est redactus, nisi in gratia speciali/ Quibus 
omnibus et singulis, durantibus impedimentis supra- 
lictis, ut ab hujusmodi ordinum susceptione se absti- 
leant, quousque cum eis sufficienter fuerit dispensa- 
:uin, praecipimus sub poena excommunicationis ma- 
oris superius annotata. 

jEt bene caveatur de omni mutilatione membrorum 
yrdinandorum in sacris. Ne sint etiam gibbosi, vel 
fnamij vel alias corpore vitiatiy propter scandalum cleri 
et eccksia evitandum.^ 

Sciendum est quod episcopus^ per totum annum in do- 
minicisy vel festis apostolorumj et aliis duplicibuSy cum 
missam celebrate si voluerit et necesse fuerit^ potest or- 
dinare acolytos, unum vel duosj etpaucos vel raro. Sed 
nan de jure potest j nee debet , eundem acolytum et sub- . 
diaconum eadem die ordinare. Quia nunc in ecclesia 
quatuor minores ordineSj scilicet j ostiarii, lectoreSj exor- 
cista^ et acolytatus simul conferunturj quod olim in pri- 
mitiva ecclesia separatim Jiebant. Et tunc licuit unum 
illorum minorum ordinum^ scilicet^ acolytatumj eadem 

' ^ Nisi es nostra graHa spe» ** Exaudi, quaesmnns Domine, 

aalL" Pontif. Exon. supplicum preces, et devoto tibi 

pectore famulantes perpetua de- 

' ^ PriBfnuniantur omnes or- fensione custodi : ut nullis per- 

dinandi quod non recedant ante turbationibus impediti, liberam 

Jinem migs€e" Pontif. Ezon. servitutem tuis semper exhibea- 

The Exeter pontifical omits mns officiis. Per Dominum. St^ 

the next three long paragraphs, uno. Per Dominum. 

and proceeds immediately to the " Tunc aedeat episcopus ante^ 

Office : with the Mass proper to medium altariSf et introducan- 

it: as follows. tur omnes ordinandi, et stent 

'* Statuto die ordinum gene- similiter ante'episcopum. Tunc 

Talium, dicto mtroitu misses cum unus archidiaconus voce sonora 

Kjrie eleison. Et in orations per modum lectionis versus ad 

^ ordine pro ordinandis qui episcopum dicat : 

tequitur. Postulat sancta mater, etc," 

- .. .- .'• ^^-' rtiM.mijm prm magmo dice- 

: - .- --U. rA-^t*: J/^T )^j0^ cMm btaiiu 

. > . .V ■ :. 4c ..-.^^ f.. n i^t.u grmdm rtpmtam, 

-iK.- jc :. -1 z^ J- ^#ifA4i/. ZTjiA wiAfc 

t^ r r 1.^ . ^ ^:u^ /7. ; «. 4«^^ iii^ Hebus M statu 

..• . ' . ^ ? 4^ «;;^r& 1 Atc^i^dJur presbyferii 

. ^- .. :r- r- \« ig iHtitgrum in cmni 

• • • — : *->.'.% rt se ejcercert ut 

' ^* - ■ t~ rz xvr'-crir mercantur^ cum 
- r :. ' .. \ ^:y> ccoljiftatum et sulh 

■-r . •; . n.u rr z\zconaium^ nee diaah 

* ' '.r^m Jc.j^iu^TL cccrtta^frimum qw(^ 
'-.'-.T-r zmzdi ordinatus sint pa- 

• * 4,. f 

^ . - . • . -, zrr'- A... .rt sabbato in hebd(h 
,. ^.. ^- - ^ r.- . -- *. /'V-; lit hebdomada prima 
... , f L;**: Tfisda PeutccosttSj quod 

.. -_ ...4 >k - .^ r- ^^-' .* rC i^l-bato ilio in Septembri 
1^.1.«. * •-'•'* ^ •■ • * t.i'T :-::.> bcatit Maria post 
-. f-i/1 «./K r /-... . J^ 't^* :i^ pU€st eplscopus sacros 
/.-»:.«- ^*. ~^^- ^ ^ •"" ^-' temporibus impeditus 
' r « -^ /c ^ •< -*- •« **" * *'**^ • .U dominicam Passionis 

„u. ^^ '*.* * > c / :.0 ir z imy:uto quod est in vigiH^^ 
-\u-c c'. *a.-^A* 7t«s.< fr^Ltc^ ^/.nisinrt. Alias autem 

e\ *. * i '/ ''""-: "A^ i<^ Srr.v/i quatnor tanporum. 

4x n idiin^^ i^v\>i-ii. 

^ f^^ <u W 8«^ ^^«stk« coniBniiig of Holy Order» ha» 
Vxs» Cv y*^^ -vcy *j^^ ife* alifajs been accompanied bv, and 

Cele&tatio dDtolnttm* 



^exii et ostende nobis faciem tuam, Domine 
les super Cherubin, et salvi erimus. 
f^s. Qui regis Israel intende: qui deducis velut 
em Joseph. 

T>um officium canitur^ vocentur nominatim illi qui 
dinandi sunt acolyti^ quihus vocatiSj et introductisj se- 
at ur oratio sine Dominus vobiscum, sed tantum cum 

rmed a part of, the administra- 
>n of the Eucharist. Not to 
ention the 8th Book of the 
post. Constitutions, it has heen 
pgued that we have the authority 
T tbe sacred Scripture for the 
ecessitj, if I may say so, of this 
b&errance. We read in the 
Vets of the Apostles, " As they 
ninistered to the Lord, and fasted, 
:he Holy Ghost said, Separate 
ine Barnabas and Saul for the 
work whereunto I have called 
them. And when they had fasted 
and prayed, and laid their hands 
on them, they sent them away.*' 
Our translators followed the Vul- 
gar Latin, but the original is 
** XitTovfyyovyruy : " a term which 
not only in the other parts of the 
New Testament, but in the Fa- 
thers, is always used, unless qua- 
lified by the context, '^ pro minis- 
terio sacriBdi:" and hence the 
name itself of " Liturgy." In 
the translation by Erasmus, Xfi- 
Tovpyovvruy is rendered ** sacri- 

An obvious reason for this 
vould of course be, from the pro- 
bability of the presence of large 
uambers of both people and cler- 
gy : which in the primitive Church 

even during the times of persecu- 
tion, was looked upon as neces- 
sary. Thus S. Cyprian says that 
Cornelius was consecrated, **de 
clericonim pene omnium testimo- 
nio, de plebis, quae tunc affuit, 
suffragio, et de sacerdotum anti- 
quorum consensu." Eput 52. 
And again he explains why this 
should be : " Coram omni syna- 
goga jubet Deus constitui sacer- 
dotem : id est instruit, et ostendit, 
ordinationes sacerdotales nonnisi 
sub populi assistentis conscien- 
tia fieri oportere, ut plebe prs- 
sente, vel detegantur malorum 
crimina, vel bonorum merita prsB- 
dioentur, et sit ordinatio justa, 
et legitima, qu» omnium suffra- 
gio et judicio fuerit examinata." 
Epiat. 68. 

^ I may remark, that very an- 
ciently in the Latin Church, as 
we learn from the sacramentary 
of Gregory, the greater orders 
were conferred before the reading 
of the Gospel, and the minor 
after the communion. But the 
later practice is of high antiquity, 
as is shown by Menard from an 
old Ordo Romanus, and other 
early MSS. in his notes to that 
sacramentary, p. 271. 

1 6o Celebtatio iDtHf num. 

Orefliiis» €t amnes orationes sine Dommus Yolnscma 
«uvjifirr, pntter uUimam ante epistalam. 


IVnis. qui conspids quia ex nostra pravitate affligi- 
Kur« cimccde pit^tius» at ex tua visitatione cxmoh- 
iKur. Qui Tivis. 

Ari.^eJif sakai e/nscopus ante altare conversus ad or- 
i, rcjTKo.v^ ft afxkidiaamus^ capa indutus humilUer m- 
t/ACA-xs it epif^y^fmrn cum his verbis alloquatury ita dicens, 
iisyu»j ^ {j^:si fjHscopu9n saluiandOj cum notOj et quasi 

l\>?c,:lii b*c sancta ecdesia, reverende pater, hos 
^ jT»,^ oc\i;nlb«s apios consecrari sibi a yestra pater- 

V>iK' ^: 3uaunu sdentia, et moribus, tales per te in- 
•.rvciv^iuxr^. iuimo tales per nos in domo Domini or- 
i 'ivtt:xr ^<r5v«wi\ per quas diabolus procul pellatur, 
v^ svcrus!^ IV> «K^^tn> multiplicetur. 

\j^t^^:vk^ ;fed hum^num spectat examen, natura, 
>\^vNtv v^ c< ».>ctbiftSi diimi habentor, ut probi coopera- 
A^\^ >Niki iat V5$^ IW Tv>)eiite« possint 

^"^i.^^ici > . V4<.\ ..<^ iiowrf eiijcopus hone ordtionem 

V*v vctix»^ lVtti£:N\ el Salxaiore nostro Jesu Christo, 
v.< .<>^J^H^ AS. '*^:rxr^ tK<^m in sacnun ordinem electi simt 
^ vvvScv <^ v'vcrtvb bak" sauctse sedi famulantibus. 

» ^^ 

l\\vu4 uoMi >^>h»w cutt lW*fiNtt«Di3iiiictioDeXX/V^^ 
»^\N>» V»*sSAi». ^H^«?<'\atit IW k «ip. Ct masirmm, extra, de 

^i, vA,^ v««^ *i*uit<«j!t «Kvit^ittvcg^ M I^fmAtl Bwm. Tom. 1- p- ^^\ 

CeUbratto Dtlrinum. 


Alii ad officium presbyterii, diaconii, vel snbdiaconiiy 
quidam vero ad caeteros ecclesiasticos gradus. Proinde 
admonemus et postulamus, tarn vos clericos quam cas- 
terum populum, ut pro nobis et pro illis, puro corde et 
sincera mente apud divinam clementiatn intercedere 
dignemini, quatenus nos dignos faciat pro illis exaudiri: 
et eos unumquemque in suo ordine eligere, et conse- 
crare per manus nostras dignetur. Siquis aatem 
habet aliquid contra hos viros, pro Deo et propter 
Deum, cum fiducia exeat et dicat, verumtamen memor 
sit communionis suee.^ 

* '* Demde pontifex et qui ah 
eo consecrandi sunt prosternan- 
(ur super pavimentum: et sic 
agatur Hiania ; et inter c^etera 

''Ut fraires istos, ad sacrum 
ordinem electos, in vera religione 
coDsenrare digneris : te rogamu5> 
audi Doe. 

" His ita expletis^ exeant om- 
nes. Deinde postquam episco- 
put foUerit prunam oratianem 
fniisa, finita quogue prima lee- 
^one et gradaliy iterum introdu- 
cantur qui ordinaniU sunt osti- 
arU, vocati ex nomine. JSt tunc 
fat sermo ab episcopo ad eosy 

^'Ostiarius fieri dignatus est 
Christos, quando conclosit et 
aperoit archam Noe: vel cum 
poitas iaferni aperuit, et electos. 
SQos inde abstulit, reprobos autem 
reli<)uit. Unde modo ostiarii di- 
cuntar, eo quod prssint ostiis 
^lesiae, ut sciant recipere fideles, 
ct infideles respuere. Psalmists 

vocantur a psalmis canendis : ipsi 
enim canunt ut excitent ad com- 
punctionem mentes audieutium. 

** Tunc episcopus postquam 
ab eis requisierit, sub testimonio 
ecclesicPy si talem ordinem subire^ 
et in eo Deo humiliter servire 
voluerinty tradat eis claves ec- 
clesice : scilicet potestatem clau- 
dendi et aperiendi ostia ecclesia. 
Ita dicens : 

" Sic agite,e/c." Pontif. Win- 
ton. With these, and the suc- 
ceeding exhortations, which will 
be cited in tke notes, compare, 
S, Isidore Hisp, Originum. Lib. 

The reader has already seen, 
note 1, that the Bangor MS. has 
no general exhortation, &c., for 
all .who were to be ordained to 
whatever order, but commences 
at once with the *' ostiarii.'' 

In the Exeter pontifical, the 
notice ^' Auxiliante," is followed 
by, *' Tuncfiai sermo, si est dicen* 
dus. Sermons dicto fiat pro- 


Cclc&nttio 4)itfiiBBi« 


ThJK cleat afxkufh 

Accedant qxd ordnmidi sunt oedarii. 

TwK acctccni imrncdiaU amtejuam lectio legatary rel 
fraddle^ ad c^ntecrafitium^ 

Ef^4c^:zas «dens cum miira eo$ instruendo dicat^ sine 

Osdarinm oportet * p crc ute re ermbaluni, aperire ec- 
cledanu et sacrarimn, et libmm tenere ei qui praedicat. 

Ei cum ordlnaniur^ surgens tradai eis epucopus 
claret ecvlesiity ei ipsi eas enmbabus manibus recipiant, 
ei dicai eh plane episcopuSj stando et tine nota. Et si 
tint mulfu ttcftt in cirmitu, ei epUcapus circueat eoSy 
Siipius idem repeiendo. 

kAitiot me aiiqmis recipi^t or. 
dimes misi enwtimatms et admiissu» 
per ejramimatores iegiiime Jepm^ 
tatos: etc. Qmikm» pr^emissisj 
exenmt omme» ordimamdi, qmAm$ 
egressis dicat archidiacomus : 

** Aeccdant qui ordinandi sunt 

•* Tvmc aeeedamt. tteS* 
* Besides the laiger and more 
general admonitioiis which were 
addressed according to the judg- 
ment of the bishop, to eadi order 
of the candidates, previously to 
the commencement of the senrice 
itself, it has always been the prac- 
tice from the earliest ages, of 
whidi any rituals remain, to ad- 
monish also in some set form 
before the actual conferrii^ of 
each Order. Thus it was the 
subject of the drd canon of the 
drd council of Carthage. a.d. 
^ Item placoity at ordinan- 

di ep is cop is , vd clericis, piiai 
ah ordinatoribos suis decrete 
coDcilionrai aoribas eomm idcqI* 
eentnr, ne se ahqoid contra sta- 
tota eondfii fedsse assersnt" 
CameiL edit. MansL Tom. 3. roJ. 
880. And again, a few years 
after, in the famoas 4th Councfl 
of Carthage^ which forms a basis 
vpoa whidi socceeding Ordinab 
have been framed, the ixtb canoo 
has espedal reference to this potDt, 
as concerned the ** ostiarii,'* the 
lowest order ordained by a bishop : 
'^Ostiarius cum ordinatnr, post- 
quam ab arcbi<Uacono instnictus 
ftierit, qualiter in domo D« de- 
beat conversari, ad suggestioneni 
archidiaconi, tradat ei episcopus 
claves ecclesise de altario, dicens: 
Sic age, quasi redditurus Deo 
rationem pro his rebus, qus his 
clavibus recluduntur." IHd, Col 

Celebratio HDrOinum. 


Sic agite, quaai reddituri Deo rationem pro iis 
ebus,^^ quse istis clavibus recluduntur. 
Tunc ducat eos^^ archidiaconus ad ostium ecclesue,^* 

*• ** rebus, qu» ecclesi» 

obis oommiss» clavibus inclu- 
untur," Pontif. Winton. 
" ** Demde archidiaconus du- 
It eof ad ostium ecclesue: et 
nciat eos claudere et aperire, 
^ostquam iterum ante domnum 
rcesulemfuerint introducti, di' 
at episcopus hanc orationem : 
)eum Patrem» etc" Pontif. 

" St archidiaconus ducat eos 
id ostium ecclesii^y quod clau- 
iant et aperiant^ et revertentes 
fient ante gradus sicut prius. 
Cum autem redieriniy episcopus 
rtansjusFta comu altaris, versus 
tuitrumj extendens manum supra 
ordintrndaSf dicat orationem : 
Deum Patrem, etc" Pontif. 

^ This ceremony was of later 
mtroduction than the delivery of 
the keys: although of such an- 
nuity that it was introduced 
bto the ordinal of the Western 
Charch, before the conversion of 
tltt Saxons by S. Augustine. 
Hence there is no pontifical ex- 
tet, of English use, in which it 
ioes not occur. Neither the 
Carthaginian Council» just cited, 
>or the Gelasian sacramentary, 
Bentions it: but it is found in 
^ Gregorian sacramentary, and 
in lome very ancient MSS., still 

extant. A MS. pontifical, cited 
by Marteney (de Ant. Ecc. rit. 
Tom. 2. p. 18.) directed the bi- 
shop not to deliver the keys to 
the candidates, but only to shew 
them to them. I need scarcely 
perhaps remind the reader, that 
these keys were not the keys 
which were afterwards to be used, 
in the particular churches, to 
which the ostiarii were to be or. 
dained, but any keys: and of any 
material: provided only, say the 
canonists, that in shape and form 
they were keys, apt and able to 
open some lock. 

The modem Roman pontifical 
has introduced another ceremony 
in this place, one which is allowed 
to be modern, and for which no 
authority can be found in the 
earlier rituals. " Tradit etiam 
eis funem campanarum, faciens 
eos campanas pulsare." It was, 
doubtless, the duty of the ostiarii 
to ring the bells of the church, 
but not in the earliest ages : for 
then it was part of the office of 
the priest: as Amalarius says: 
" Ne despiciat presbyter hoc opus 
agere, ut in isto sit imitator filio- 
rum Aaron»" De ecc. off. Lib, 
3. Cap, 1. And in Charlemag- 
ne's Capitular is an express or- 
der; "Ut sacerdotes signa tan- 
gant horis canonicis.*' Lib, vj. 

1 64 Cdebratto iDthinam. 

et tradat eis ostium pnrfero ostiario^ quibus revenii, 
dicat episcoptis cum nota^ standOj pra/at'umem ad co$ 
conversusy hoc tnodo. 

Deum Patrem omnipotentemy fratres carissimi, 
suppliciter deprecemur, ut hos famulos suos beiie>I*di- 
cere dignetur, quos in officium ostiarioruin eligere 
dignatus est, ut sit eis iidelissima cura diebus ac noc- 
tibus ad distinctionem horarum certarum, ad inTocaih 
dum nomen Domini nostri Jesu Christi. 


Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, fleteme Dens, 
bene^dicere dignare hos famulos tuos in officio ostia- 
riorum, ut inter janitores ecclesise tuse pareant otee- 
quip : et inter electos tuos partem tuae mereantur han 
bere mercedis. Per Dominum." 

Omnes lectiones cum suis titulis legantur. 

Lectio Isaice prophetcB. 

Cap. 168. But long before the ^* Accedant qui ordinand.— >, 

reformation, this duty, as I bave „ Accipite et estott 

Bidd, bad devolved upon tbe os- verbi, etc"* 

tiarii ; and there is a very plaro The Exeter pontifical does no( 

reference to it in the Prefiice include the particulars of the pn^ 

which almost immediately follows per mass : it proceeds therefore, 

in the text. Probably the cere- '* Tunc sedeat episcopitSj e\ 

mony of giving them the bells, legatur lectio primes cum gra* 

(if I may so call it) was added in dually quibus dictis sequihir, 

the revised Roman pontifical, in Oremus. Et dicitur secunda 

order to supply what appeared to oratio^ qua dicta diccU archi' 

be an omission. diaconus: Recedant qui ordinati 

^^ ** Tunc exeant omnes os- sunt ostiarii: accedant qui ordi- 

tiarii** Ruhr. Pontif. Winton. nandi sunt lectores. Tunc epis- 

The Bangor MS. is both de- copus sedens dicit eis : Lectorem 

faced and mutilated : no more can oportet. etc" 
be read here, than. 

Celedratio DtOinum. 165 

In diebus iUis: Clamabunt ad Dominum a facie 
ibulantis : et mittet eis aalvatorem et propugnato- 
tm qui liberet eos. Et cognoscetur Dominus ab 
^gypto : et cognoscent ^gyptii Dominum in die ilia. 
t colent eum in hostiis et muneribus, et vota vovebunt 
omino, et solvent. Et percutiet Dominus iEgyptum 
[aga : et sanabit earn. Et revertentur ad Dominum 
I placabitur eis et sanabit eos : Dominus Deus noster. 

Gr. A summo coelo egressio ejus ; et occursus ejus 
sque ad summum ejus. 

V. Coeli enarrant gloriam Dei, et opera manuum 
jus annunciat firmamentum. 


Concede quaesumus omnipotens Deus, ut qui sub 
^eccati jugo ex vetusta servitute deprimimur, ex pec- 
atis unigeniti Filii tui nova nativitate liberemur. 
Qui tecum. 

Dicta orationej statim dicat archidiaconus : 

Accedant qui ordinandi sunt lectores. 

Tunc immediate accedant antequam lectio legatary et 
tplscopus sedendo sine nota eis dicat : 

Lectorem" oportet legere quae praedicat, et lectiones 

^* Post luBCy finita secunda autem exordium a veteri testa- 
orations, et iecunda lectione cum mento. Legitur vero ita : Stetit 
gradalif vocentur ex nomine qui Esdras scriba super gradum lig- 
f*rdinandi sunt lectores. Tunc neum quern fecerat ad loquea- 
erponat eis episcopus offidvm dum ; et universum eminebat po- 
wdinissui, quod sunt suscepturi: pulum. Stat super gradum lig- 

Lectoribus in ecclesia verba neum, unde infimos supereminet, 

ttcrae legis et prophetarum le- qui dominicam passionem imi- 

gendi datur potestas. Horum tando, caeteros morum probitate 

Ulis debet esse vita, ut quod ore transcendit Et quicunque ali- 

unmiciant, bonis operibus com- quem bonis moribus instruit, lec- 

pleant. £t in his qus pnpdicant, toris officio fungitur. Hoc vero 

csteros superemineant. Habent Dominus noster functus est offi- 


ff clf fffflfio Byrtyiinmii 

cantare disdnde, el b»iedicere ponrai et amnfis fruc- 
tus noToe. 

£t siandOf vet drcuaado, iradai eis codicem Svm- 
rum lecisonum quern recipieni imier manuSj dicenie epii- 
capo sine notCj el sapius eos repeiendo, ei hoc siando^ sic: 

Accipite,^ et estote Terbi Dei relatores, habitnri, si 
fideliter et devote impleTeritis officium vestrom, par- 
tem cum lis qui Terbimi Dei ministraTerint.'^ 

ciOy com ingFenos lyiuif^ogiiii 
traditufl est ei liber Isaie pro- 

^ Pastea tradai eis lectumari- 
um t» quo lecturi nmt, dieens: 

^ Acciptte et estote. eur Pirn- 
Hf. WinUm. 

^ The Bangor use, in this form, 
is the same as that in the text : but 
both the Winchester and Exeter 
pontificals have the following; 
after the word *' ministraverint :" 
according to the Wmchester text. 

** Eligunt vos fratres vestri: 
nt sitis lectores in domo Domini 
Dei vestriy et agnoscads offidum 
▼estnim, et impleatis illud. Po- 
tens est enim Deus, ut aageat vo- 
bis gratiam, qui cum Patre: etc** 

'* We again have the authority 
of the primitive ages for this part 
of the ofBce. The following is 
the viijth canon of the 4th council 
of Carthage. 

** Lector cum ordinatur, faciat 
de illo verbum episcopus ad ple- 
bem, indicans ejus fidem, ac vitam, 
atque ingenium. Post haec, spec- 
tante plebe, tradat ei codicem, de 
quo ledums est, dicens ad eum: 

Accipe, et esto lector verfai Dei, 
habitanis, » fideHter et ntiliter 
impleveris officiom, partem com 
eis qm verbiim Dei ministniTe- 
rint.** MamsL ConciL Tom. 3. 
CoL 951. 

The student will observe, that 
in this canon, the form is in tbe 
sii^lar number; as also above, 
see Note 9. But this variatioa 
in the earliest ages was, in a man- 
ner, optional : and in MSS. of the 
same date, we find the forms of 
ordination sometimes in the sin- 
gular, sometimes in the pluraL K 
only one person was to be or- , 
dained, the plural form was o( 
course to be changed into the 

S. Cyprian in his 3drd epistle, 
alludes to the address which was 
previously to be made to the peo- 
ple. " Ad clerum et plehem de 

Aurelio lectore ordinate. 

In ordinationibus clericis, fratres 
carissimi, solemus vos ante con- 
sulere, et mores, ac merits sin- 
gulorum communi consilio ponde- 
rare." Opera, p, 46. 

Although the general vessels 

Celebtatio iDtOinum* 


Se^aitur prafatio *^ lectorum cum nola. 
Oremusy dilectissimi, Deum Patrem omnipotentem, 
t super hos famulos suos, quos in ordinem lectorum 
ignatur assumere, bene^^dictionem suam clementer 
Bimdat: quatenos distincte legant quse in ecclesia 
>ei legenda sunt, et eadem operibus impleant. 


Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Leyate. 


Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus, 
>ene^dicere dignare hos famulos tuos in officio lec- 
M>ruin, ut assiduitate lectionum distincti ^^ sint atque 
drdinati,'^ et agenda dicant» et dicta opere compleant. 

and oniimento of the church were 
AeUvered to the care of the '' 09- 
tiarii,'' yet it would seem from the 
Acts of the African persecution, 
under Diocletian, that the Holy 
Scripturea were given into the 
custody of the '' Lectores.** For 
the answers of several bishops, 
who were required to surrender 
the sacred books, is there said to 
have been, ''Scripturas lectores 
habent.'' And another remarka- 
ble reply of two subdeacons: 
^ Plus non habemus, quia subdia- 
coni sumus, sed lectores habent 
codices." Cf. Catalan. Com- 
ment. Tarn. 1. p. 84. Therefore, 
probably, the diief ignominy of 
the term " Traditores" would 
bave lain against the " Lec- 
tores:" although Bingham in his 
Antiquities, upon a wide inter- 
pretation of a canon of the first 

council of Aries, extends it to all 
who betrayed any of the goods or 
utensils of the church. Book, 
xvi. Cap. vj. ( Vol 6. p. 125.) 

" ** Prafatio lectorum.'' Ruhr. 
Pontif. Bangor. 

" Sequitur Oration Ruhr. 
Pontif. Winton. 

" Tunc rediens ad comu al- 
tarts, gicutpriua versus austrum 
super ordinandos dicatr Ruhr. 
Pontif. Exon. 

^* The modem Roman use 
reads *' instructi." But the Eng- 
lish pontificals retained the term 
as it had been derived anciently 
from the Gregorian Sacramentary. 

J» " ordinati, earum mo- 

dulis spirituali devotione gratiam 
resonent ecclesise. Per." Pontif. 

1 68 Celebratio HDroinum. 

ut in utroque sanctse ecdesiee exemplo sanctitatis suse 
consulant. Per Dominum.'^ 

Lectio Isaice propketa. 

HsBC dicit Dominus, Isetabitur deserta et invia, et 
exultabit solitudo, et florebit quasi lilium. Germinans 
germinabity et exultabit Isetabunda et laudans. Gloria 
Libani data est ei : decor Carmeli et Saron. Ipsi vi- 
debunt gloriam Domini : et decorem Dei nostri. Con* 
fortate manus dissolutas : et genua debilia roborate. 
Dicite, pusillanimes confortamini : et nolite timere. 
Ecce Deus vester ultionem adducet retributionis : 
Deus ipse veniet et salvabit vos. Tunc aperientur 
oculi csecorum, et aures surdorum patebunt. Tunc 
saliet sicut cervus claudus : et aperta erit lingua mu- 
torum. Quia scissse sunt in deserto aquae : et torren- 
tes in solitudine. Et quae erat arida in stagnum : et 
sitiens in fontes aquarum. Dicit Dominus : Omni- 

Gr. In sole posuit tabemaculum suum, et ipse tan- 
quam sponsus procedens de thalamo suo. 

V. A summo coelo egressio ejus, et occursus ejus 
usque ad summum ejus. 


Indignos nos, qusesumus Domine, famulos tuos, quos 

^ ** Tunc exeant lectores, Et Accedant qui ordinandi sunt ex- 

postquam tertia oratio misstsBj et orcists.*' Pontif. Bangor. 

tertia lectio cum gradali finie- " Tunc sedeat episcopus : et 

rinty vocentur ex nomine omnes legatur eecunda lectio cum gra- 

qui ordinandi sunt exorcists" dualiy et sequitur tertia oratio : 

Pontif. Winton. qua dicta^ dicat archidiaconue : 

** Tunc ,» lectione Recedant qui ordinati sunt lec- 

responsorio et ora- tores : et accedant qui ordinandi 

tione [?] dicat archidiaconus : sunt exorcistce." Pontif. Ekon. 

Cele&ratio Dminum. 


actionis propriae culpa contristat, unigeniti Filii tui 

adventu Isetifica. Qui tecum. 

Dicta tertia orationej dicat archidiaconus : 
Accedant qui ordinandi sunt exorcistee. 
Et episcopus sedens dicat eis sine nota ; ** 
Exorcists competit abjicere daemones, et dicere po- 

pulo, qui non communicate det locum, et aquam in 

ministerio fundere. 

Et tradat eis episcopus stando Ubrunij in quo scripti 

sunt esorcismi, modo quo supra^ dicens : 

^ " Tunc dicat epucopus : 
** Mysterimn itaqae ordinis hujus 
quern ^petitis, vobis aperire de- 
bemus. Exorcists^ adjuratores di- 
cuntur. Per hoc vero ofBcium, 
potestatem ponendi manus super 
energumenos, super catechumenos 
sive baptizatos, et ejiciendi spiritus 
immundos accipids: sicut Domi- 
DOS Jesus Christus potestatem de- 
dit suis discipuUs calcandi super 
serpentesy et soorpiones, et omnem 
Tirtutem inimici. Hoc ergo do- 
num gratias Dei, ad fidem perti- 
Det. Per fidem enhn fit expulsio 
dsmonnm, et omnia subjiciuutur 
Tobis, ut Dominus ait. ' Amen, 
dico Yobis, si habueritis fidem et 
non haesitaveritis, si dixeritis monti 
huic, tolle hinc, et jactare in mare : 
fief Tmiere etiam debent exor- 
dste, ne dsemonibus, quibus ti- 
mori esse debent per meritum re- 
ligiosae vit», despecti fiant : et de 
eis accidat quod de septem filiis 
Soevse Judari Actus Apostolorum 
oarrant. Qui cum in nomine 

Pauli dsmonibus imperarent, re- 
spondit dsemonium : * Jesum novi, 
et Paulum sdo: vos autem, qui 
estis? Et insiluit in eos homo 
qui habebat dsemonium, et dilace- 
ravit eos : ita ut nudi et vulnerati 
effugerent.' Siquis vero oratione 
sua vel prsedicatione vitium ab 
aliquo expulerit, spiritualis exor- 
cista est. Hoc etiam officio Do- 
minus fungebatur: dum ab ipso 
dsemones ex obsessis corporibus 

'* Deinde tradat ei$ episcopus 
lihellumy id est, ojicialem in quo 
scripti sunt exorcismi: ita di* 

'' Accipiteetcommendate : etc** 
Pontif, Winton, 

The Bangor pontifical has no 
admonition to the exorcists, but 
proceeds at once to the delivery 
of the book of exorcisms, with the 
usual form. 

The Exeter MS. agrees, gene- 
rally, with the text. 


Celedratio iDtiitntttti* 

Accipite et commendate memoriae^ et habetote potes- 
tatem imponendi manus super energumenos, sive bap- 
tizatosy sive catechumenos.^ 

Sequitur prafatio exorcistarum. 

Deum Patrem omnipotentemy fratres carissdmi, sup- 
plices deprecemur, ut hos famulos suos bene^i^dicere 
dignetur in officium*' exorcistarum, ut sint spirituales 
imperatores ad abjiciendos daemones de corporibus ob- 
sessisy cum omni nequitia eorum multiformi. 


Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Domine sancte. Pater omnipotens, 8&teme Deus, 
bene^l^dicere dignare hos famulos tuos in officium'* 
exorcistarum, ut per** impositionem manuum et oris 

^ We retam again to the Car- 
thaginian canons. '^ vij. Exorcista 
cum ordinatur, acdpiat de manu 
episcopi libellum» in quo scripti 
sunt ezorcismiy dicente sibi epis- 
copo: Accipe et commenda me- 
moris, et habeto potestatem im- 
ponendi manus super energume- 
num, sive baptizatum, sive cate- 
chumenum." Mansi. ut supra. 

The Church of Rome, although 
in practice she has suffered the 
office of exorcists to become ex- 
tinct, yet preserves the ceremony, 
for it is nothing more, of their 
ordination. And it is remarkable, 
that with a strange disregard both 
of every ancient precedent, and of 
the reason of the Uiing,her modern 
pontifical has this rubric : — " Li- 
ber exorcismorum, cujus loco dari 

potest pontificale^ vel missale.** 
Morinu$ (de Sacr. Ordin. p. 1B5) 
upon this merely observes, and 
Catalam (Comment tarn. 1. P' 
86) has nothing more to say, " De 
formis istis et materiis ^ispooit 
ecclesia, ut aequum esse judicat" 
The argument and the alteratioo, 
appear to be equally satis&ctory. 

» " In officio." Bangor, et 

** " In officio.** Bangor. 

^ " Ut per impositionem ma- 
nuum et oris offidum eos eligere 
digneris, ut potestatem et impe- 
rium habeant spirituum immun- 
dorum ad coercendum, et proba- 
biles sint medici ecclesias gratia 
curationum, et virtute confirmati." 
Pontif. Winton, 

Celebtatio Otoinum^ 1 7 ^ 

officium, potestatem et imperium habeant spiritus im- 
muados^ coercendi^ ut probabiles sint medici ecclesise 
tuaB, gratia curationum virtuteque coelesti confirmati. 
Per DomiDum.*' 

Lectio Isaia propheta. 

Hsec dicit Dominus. Super montem excelsum as- 
cende tu, qui evangelizas Sion : exalta in fortitudine 
vocem tuamy qui evangelizas Hierusalem. Exalta : 
noli timere. Die civitatibus Judse, Ecce Deus vester. 
Ecce !Qominus Deus in fortitudine veniet : et brachium 
ejus dominabitur : ecce merces ejus cum eo : et opus 
iUius coram illo. Sicut pastor gregem suum pascet : 
in brachio suo congregabit agnos, et in sinu suo levabit 
eos : Dominus Deus noster. 

Gr. Domine Deus virtutum converte nos, et ostende 
faciem tuam, et salvi erimus. 

V. Excita Domine potentiam tuam et veni, ut salvos 
facias nos. 

Praesta, quaesumus omnipotens Deus, ut Filii tui Ven- 
tura solemnitas, et prsesentis nobis vitae remedia con- 
ferat, et praemia aetema concedat. Per eundem. 

Dicta quarta orationey dicat archidiaconus modo quo 
9upra : 

Accedant qui ordinandi sunt acolyti. 
Tunc accedant qui ordinandi sunt acolyti^ et dicat eis 
episcopus^ sine nota : 

* ** immundos nequitifle, qua dkta^ dicat archidia^ontis : 

per verbum Christi, Filii tui, Do- " Recedant qui ordinati sunt 

mini nostril coercendi ; atquepro- exorcist»: accedant qui ordinandi 

babiles, etc." Pontif. Exon. sunt acolyti." Pontif. Exon : 

" " Tunc sedeat episcopus, et with which a^ree, generally, the 

legatur tertia lectio cum gradu- Winchester and Bangor MSS. 

a/i, et sequatur oratio quarta^ * With this agrees the Exeter 

174 Celebcado 

Sequitur prafatio acolytorunu 

Doura Patrem omnipotenteiiit fralres canniiiii, sup- 
plicitor doprecemur, ut ho6 fiunnkw sow bene>{«dioae 
dignetur in online acolytorom :^ qaatenns Imnen 
vinibile manibus prsferentes, Imnen qooqoe spiritoale 
moribus pra^beant, adjavante Domino noatro Jesa 


DiacofiNS. Flectamus genua. Levate. 


I)t>nuno sancte,^ Pater omnipotens, seteme Dens, 
qui |HT Josum Christum Filium tuum^et apoetolos cjus,^ 
in hunc mundura lumen claritatis tuse misisti, qnique 
ut niorti» nostr» antiquum aboleres chirographum, 
^loriu^^tssiniA^ ilium crucis vexillo affigi, ac sanguinem 
ot aquani ox latere illius pro salute generis humani 
otHuoit» Yoluisti: bene^dicere dignare hos famulos 
tui>«i in ofilcio acolytorum, ut ad accendendum lumen 
«HvUvniiv tu^iN ot ad suggerendum vinum et aquam ad 
^^^iticioiuUun siuiguinem Christi Filii tui in offerendo 
ouoluM Utium»^ Sanctis altaribus tuis fideliter subminis- 
tivut i aiHHnuUs Domine, mentes eorum et corda, ad 
ttUUMvm tfrarn^ tutt\ ut illuminati vultu splendoris tui, 
lU\o\uvr tiW in sancta eci*lesia deserviant. Per eun- 


IVmuuo ^nch\ I\itor omnipotens, eeteme Deus, qui 
<^\l M\%\*tM* ot Aar\m liKUtus es, ut accenderentur lu- 

^^ '^ UvhM^uM iHMuiiM Kic rMV threes in Uie Winchester MS. 
lAMlufv A«" l\'^f%/JU^f\^ 80 * "^ Etipostolos ejus,*' omitted 

(f^ttkx^ lu ih^ ^vnxH^r v\vptY< |H »dioy in Foatif. \\ inton. 
|M>c^\vnk in iKai NtSs * ^ In ollerenda euchanstia.*' 

^ riu» |Mr«} vr tf\MiiM« IftH of I)m Bm$^^r. «I Exom. 

Celefitatio Dtninam^ 175 

cemae in tabemacalo testimoniiy bene^i^dicere et Sanc- 
tis ficare dignare hos famulos tuos, ut sint acolyti in 
ecclesia tua. 

Alia oratioj cum Oremus. 

Onmipotens sempiteme Deus, fons lucis et origo 
bonitatis, qui per Jesum Christum Filium tuum, lumen 
veram, mundum illuminasti, ejusque passionis mysterio 
redemisti, bene^dicere et'sancti^ficare dignare hos 
famulos tuos, quos in officio acolytorum consecramus, 
poscentes clementiam tuam, ut eorum mentes et lumine 
scientise tuee illustres, et pietatis tuse rore irriges, ut ita 
perceptum ministerium te auxiliante peragant, qua- 
tenus ad aetemam remunerationem pervenire merean- 
tur. Per eundem Dominum nostrum.^ 

Lectio Isaue propheta. 

Haec dicit Dominus christo meo Cyro^ cujus appre- 
hendi dextram, ut subjiciam ante faciem ejus gentes, et 
dorsa regum vertam : et aperiam coram eo januas, et 
portse ei non claudentur. Ego ante te ibo, et gloriosos 
terrae humiliabo. Portas sereas conteram, et vectes fer- 

^ '* Item post quintam ora- suhfungat: Accedant qui ordi- 

tionem mUsa et lectionem Ange- nandi sunt subdiaconi." Rubr. 

lus Domini, et responsoriwn Be- Pontif. Bangor. 
nedictus» vocentur ex nomine euh " Tunc sedeat episcopusy et 

diligenti cuetodia^ ne aliqui se legatur lectio quarta cum gra- 

latenter ingerant: nisi quiordi' dually et sequatur oratio quinta 

nandi sunt subdiaconi'* Ruhr, cum lectione et tractu ; quibus 

Pontif. Winton. finUie^ epiecopus convertat se ad 

" Tunc lecta lectione quarta, chorum, et dicat : Pax vobis, etc. 

et dicto responsorio, et oratione^ Sequitur oratio : quajinita^ di^ 

legatur lectio quinta, Angelus cat archidiaconus a^colytis^ quod 

Domini. Deinde oratio missa, quiUbet eorum dicat tria psaU 

et pro ordinaHsy Exaudi, sub uno teriapro statu ecclesiat, regni, et 

per Dominum. Qua expleta di- episcopi; et subfungat: Rece- 

cat archidiaconus : Recedant qui dant, etc,'* Rubr* Pontif. Exon. 
ordinati sunt acolyti: et statim 

1 76 Cetebratio fl)iiiiiiitin« 

reoB confringam. £t dabo tibi tbesanroB abeoonditos et 
arcana secretorom, ut scias quia ego Daminas qui in- 
voco nomen tuum, Deus Israel. Proptor servuMn menm 
Jacob et Israel electum meam, et Tocavi te nomine tuo : 
assimulavi te, et non cognovisti me. Ego Dominns, et 
non est alius extra me Dens. Accinxi te, et non cc^- 
novisti me : ut sciant hi qui ab ortu solis, et qui ab 
occidente, quoniam absque me non est Deus. Ego 
DominuSy et non est alter, formans lucem et creans 
tenebras : faciens pacem et creans malum. Elgo Do- 
minus : faciens omnia haec. Borate coeli desaper, et 
nubes pluant justum, aperiatur terra et germinet sal- 
vatorem ; et justitia oriatur simuL Ego Dominus : 
creavi eum. 

Gr. Excita Domine potentiam tuam et veni^ ut sal- 
vos facies nos. 

V. Qui regis Israel intende, qui deducis velut ovem 
Joseph, qui sedes super cherubin appare coram Eph- 
raim et Benjamin et Manasseh. 


Procos populi tuiy qusesumus Domine, clementer ex- 
audi, ut qui juste pro peccatis nostris affligimur, pie- 
tatis tuQB visitatione consolemur. Qui vivis et regnas 
cum Doo Patre, etc. 

Lectio Danielis propheta. 

Angolus Domini descendit cum Azaria et sociis suis 
in fornacom, et excussit flammam ignis de fomace, et 
fecit medium fomacis quasi ventum roris flantem. 
Flamma autem diffusa est super fomacem cubitis qua- | 
draginta novem : et incendit quos reperit juxta for- ! 
nacem de Chaldeeis ministros ejus qui eam incendebant. 
Illos autem omnino non tetigit ignis neque contristavit ; 
noc quicquam molestiae intulit. Tunc hi tres quasi 

Celebratto S)tlitnum. 177 

I uno ore laudabant et glorificabant et benedicebant 
^eum : in fomace dicentes. 
Gradale. Benedictus es, Domine Deus patrum nos- 
orum, et laudabilis, et gloriosus in ssecula. 
Chod^us idem repetat. 

Vers. £t benedictum nomen glorise tuse quod est 
Chorus. £t laudabile et gloriosum in ssecula. 
Vers. Benedictus es in templo sancto gloriae tU8e. 
Chorus. Et laudabile. 

Vers. Benedictus es super tbronum sanctum regni tui. 
Chorus. Et laudabile. 

Vers. Benedictus es super sceptrum regni divinita- 
is tuae. 
Chorus. £t laudabile. 

Vtrs. Benedictus es qui sedes super cherubin in- 
tuens abysses. 

Chorus. Et laudabile. 

Vers. Benedictus es qui ambulas super pennas ven- 
Chorus. Et laudabile. 

Vers. Benedicant te omnes angeli et sancti tui. 
Chorus. Et l&udent te et glorificent in ssecula. 
Vers. Benedicant te coeli, terree^ mare, et omnia quae 
in eis sunt. 
Chorus. Et laudent. 

Vers. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. 
Chorus. Et laus et honor, potestas et imperium. 
Vers. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et 
in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 
Chorus. Et laus. 
Deinde repetalur resp. 
Benedictus es. 



Pax Tobis. 

wiirigafiri flauninna ignillin : 

fwm^Vpft tuo6 non eanurat 

TTfcTir, qoescnns Doaune, sii{ipliciiixn preees, et 
^5rT\x«^ r.>t pecsiare fiM«UnU i p«petiia def<»[isioDe 
<*ihC;A£ : n x£[Ik penaiUi t io D iK os impeditiy liberam 

taidbmmaa officiis. Per Do- 

£: £jc£iSMr a# mtm Per DoBunum. 

/fXr /A.*xirj£r w$rmma^ consmdit. 

Djc:m iTr£:j:'VC^ net wfcmoriis ^finitisj episcopus convo- 
o^i^ M itc ^^^«.i/M, ixsintsi eo$ de eorum afficioj exhor- 
u\uu Ml XTfu/ifcicniKm^ ft pro eo orandum aliquid certum 
si rvft.urnA fin7i.MKWyj«, ft UffMmgat eis haras btai(t 
^fjrijT r*-^. tw «fMi^itfie dicfudus ad terminum vitiBy et 
h^ Mc^^\jCjk^ n^.Kiiim fjuSy ft bemedicat cos in recessu. 

iV:.«cV •i.o-cl arc\:J^4Xcmus : 

Re\>edaiit qui onfinati sunt acolyti : 

Accedant qui ordinandi sunt subdiaooni. 

JIoM ^M> supra. Dcindf fpiscopus sedefis dicat eU 

de q0kw nd orJmif Migtnier 
uutrmamtmr ah epiMCopOy hoc 

^ nii fnftres qui hoc officio qaod 
appetitis utuntary sabdiaooni to- 
cantar* Officiis enini leYitamm 
obediunt : eiaque vasa coqwris et 

sangimus Chnsti ad altaie offe- 

** De quibos placuit sanctifl pa- 
tribus, at quia ministeria sacra 
contractaDt, non solum ab omni 
immonditia, sed etiam a conjugiO) 
quod caeteris usque ad banc ordi- 
nem pro bumana fragilitate per- 

Celeliratto 2)tiitnum« 


Subdiaconum oportet prseparare necessaria ad minis- 
I'a.tioDem altaiis, et diacono humiliter ministrare.** 

nis^wn est, omnino se contineant. «mm scriptura» ' MundomiDi, 
[ui ferds vaaa Domini.' Vasa 
^rgo Domini ferentes, ab omni 
atmali yolontate debent esse im- 
nunes. Vasa vero Domini mun- 
ianty et diaconibos offerunt, qui 
mentes fideliom yitiis expurgant, 
St bonis moribus instruunt Et 
uc ad majora capienda, moribus 
iuis offemnt. Scyphum aqusB, et 
aqoaiDy manile cum manutergio 
ab archidiaoono accipiunt. De 
his Yero levitis et sacerdotibus 
ministrare debent. 

** Si enim sacerdotes et levity 
aliquoties bumanius quam decet 
vixerint, tunc subdiaconi aquam 
oonferont, dum verba sacrae lec- 
tionia dsdem ut quod admissum 
est dUtiant, ad memoriam redu- 
cunt. Per aquam enim sacra 
scriptura aliquoties designatur. 
Hanc vero monitionem non argu- 
endo, sed cum omni humilitate ut 
pii filii patrem monendo, facere 
debent. Ne cum Cham patris 
inebriati pudenda denudata deri- 
dente, sterna maledictione dam- 
nentnr: sed cum piissimo filio 
opprobrium occultante benedic- 
tionem mereantur. 

" Per manutergium, quod ex 
lino cum nimio labore conficitur, 
bonorum kbor exprimitur : a quo 
omne peccatum confessione mun- 
datum omnino deletur. Ait enim 
scriptoniy * Sicut aqua extinguit 

ignem, ita eleemosyna extinguit 
peccatum.' Hoc vero Dominus 
functus est officio, quando pedes 
apostolorum aqua lavit, et linteo 

" Deinde cum ordinantur^ 
quia manu^ impositionem non 
acdpiuntipatenam de manu epis- 
copi €u:cipient vacuam^ et call- 
cem vacuum^ dicente episcopo : 

" Videte cujus. etc:' Pontif. 

** This is more accordant to the 
practice of the earlier ages, than the 
long admonition to, and consequent 
supposed duties of, the subdeacons 
at present in the church of Rome. 
Thus Alcuin says : " Subdiaconus, 
subroinister, eo quod sub diacono 
sit, id est sub ministro ; illius minis- 
terium est, ut ministret diacono, 
id est, deferat ei linteum, super 
quod consecrandum est corpus et 
sanguis Domini. Deferat ei pater- 
nam cum oblatis, et calicem in quo 
vinum, et aqua habeatur. Per- 
acto sacrificio, mysteria corporis 
et sanguinis Domini, quae super* 
fuerint, a diacono colligenda vel 
deportanda suscipit." De div, 
off. Bibl. Patrum; Auctariutn. 
torn. 1. p. 270. And Araalarius : 
" Subdiaconus ideo dicitur, quia 
sub diacono est : ad unum myste- 
rium consecrantur ; subdiaconus 
vasa altaris ad eum defert, ipse 
vero ad altare, ut in eo disponat, 
quae disponenda sunt, atque inde 

: ?•- ^ 

JLr:sia£a irtsr smUMComi cum ardimmturf qm 
jLCttu .ffp».w.: .xitm mom mcdpau^ paUmtm de mam 
r?.. • ■ Ti -^-Am z^' ::i J- jt/, ft calicem vacuum :** de mam 

siaaDd ZoDS», under ctti.3ai. I 
bimWhIiwI die sobdeacoo] *" not 
to kim the doors." WbeDoeve , 
lena tloi andendy thb was a 
povtioii of tkeir duties : as Zooaiss 
Sfs: "^andquis teaqMiibos ad 
for» rrriwig eoosistere, SHqae 
otcckoBeois, el iis q[ni in pcm- 
tentiua ordiae censebantor, cum 
ofvs forv^ emittendis openm dare 
Inrpodaoooisolitisiint.** Beravg. 
Fkmdfri. hm. l.p. 463. 

* ^ Sobdiaeoous cum ordiiulor, 
q=ia vutos impositioneBi doq ac- 
€sziL iHtctiam de eptsoopi maoQ 
aocspiat Tacoam, et calicem va- 
caoik De maaa yono archidi- 
aoooi, areeolniii com aqua, et man* 
tile, et manutergium." Gondii 
Cartk^ cam. t. Tbere is not beir, 
nor in tbe text, any mention made 
of tbe book of tbe Epistles; which 
is now ordered to be delivered 
also, by tbe revised Roman ordi- 
nal. But for several centuries in 
tbe churcb of EngUmd it had be- 
come customary for tbe subdeacon 
to read tbe epistle, instead of the 
" Lector." Upon tbis point I 
must refer the reader to my work 
on tbe "Ancient Liturgy,"/?. 41. 
Note 50 (2nd edit.) where be will 
find some remarks upon tbe sub- 
ject. I will add here, that one of 
tbe earliest canons which bear 
upon it, is the ivth of the council 

ant fiOKr nff^EacKs » ^e dea- 
ru ir jr-YfA. Asziizsaiine ev^ 
jcTi mt sacarizm. I vo;^ o^ 
«r-r«. •■* * prTTiieine vhidi rri^ 
ur n «a^'T da r$ than the ooodcl 
«c lA^naa: which in iu Slat 
«siv,-w «cdciIt prohibited it to the 
^xva.-^ou^ CflaIioGoar.£WA<^ 
j^ i«r. ^C€ 1:2. If we eoold in- 
«..-"Tk-^ UkT aCDocibon of the Eog. 
i:vt V V«CJ*a^ SDctir. we might ooo- 
vuvae Uus ilkedicies of sobdeaooos 
^. . ^xirisiMd to be. as of old, up 
%f :.i^ uzae of the refionaation. I 
uus4 hfSY mnind the reader that 
.•K i^^ne of siibdeacoo b taken, 
u 'j^ Bft.^ni church of Rome, 
,x».^ Jc^ * ^««''P ^o the higher orders 
,^^ A>K\» and priest; in the same 
^«« j^i^chiemicor orders are taken, 
^.; ) 'j(s« iuteotioQ of remaining in 

>v«^^'^ mentioiied the council 
^ '. «^s^v^ 1 mar add, that ito 
^%.j >N*^«** vyNkHf^ the '' mmb- 
['^ ^b^.> Mk^ivik wwd both Balsa- 

Celedratto flDrliinum. 1 8 1 

*ra archidiaconi^ accipiunt urceolum plenum cum 
juumamlij id estj manutergioy dicente illU episcapo sine 
/in, stando: 

Videte cujus ministerium vobis traditur. 

Jnjine concludat legendOy sic : 

Ideo si usque nunc fuistis tardi ad ecclesiam ; amo- 
o debetis esse assidui. Si usque nunc somnolenti; 
modo vigiles. Si usque nunc ebriosi ; amodo sobrii. 
i nunc usque inhonesti; amodo casti. Ideo vos 
ioneo, ut vos ita exhibeatis ut Deo placere possitis. 

Prafatio subdiaconorum cum nota, stando. 

Oremus Deum ac Dominum nostrum, fratres caris- 
imi, ut super servos suos quos ad subdiaconatus offi- 
ium vocare dignatus est, efl^dat bene^I^dictionem 
uam et gratiam, ut in conspectu ejus fideliter servi- 
^ntes, prsedestinata Sanctis preemia consequantur, adju- 
rante Domino nostro Jesu Christo. 

Diacanus. Flectamus genua. Levate. 
Benedictio subdiaconorum. 
Domine sancte. Pater omnipotens, aeteme Deus, be- 

of Rhemes, in the year 813. " De agrees, with the addition ** urceo- 

ojicio ntbdiaconi, resi- olum vacuum.*" And in the ad- 

dentibus cunctis lect» snnt epis- dress just above, Note 40, we have 
toUe Pkuti, qualiter subdiaconi the candidates reminded that they 
ministerium est enmdem aposto- were to receive ** manile cum ma- 
lam l^ere, ut officium sibi com- nutergio ab archidiacono." The 
missum implere rectius potuisset.'* Exeter pontifical gives another di- 
C<mciL Mansi. i&m. xiv. col. 77. rection ; vi«. " Tunc surgens 
^ There is considerable variety episcopusytradatcuUtbeteaUcem 
here between the pontificals. The ooctitcm cum patena ad tangen- 
Winchester directs : " Postea ve- rfwn, quern sequatur archidiaco- 
ro accipiant ah archidiacono «r- nus cum urceolo et manutergio 
r^olum cum aquamanili ac ma- et aqua^ dicente episcopo eircum- 
nutet'gio." With this the Bangor eundo.** 

1 82 

Celebratio iDrdtnttin^ 

ne^dicere dignare hos famnlos tuos, quos ad sabdia- . 
conatus officium vocare^ dignatus es, ut eos in sacrario 
sancto tuo strenuos solicitosque coelestis militise insd- ' 
tuas excubitores, sanctisque altaribus tuis fidellter sub- 
ministrent, et requiescat super eos spiritus sapientiae et 
intellecttts, spiritus consilii et fortitudinisy spiritus sci- 
entis et pietatis ; et repleas eos spiritu timoris tni, et 
eos in ministerio di^ino confirmes,^ ut obedientes fiacto 
atque dicto parentes, tuam gratiam consequantur. Per 
Dominum, in unitate ejusdem. 

T$tHC tradat^ eis singulis in sinistra brachio episcopus 
manipHloSj^ dicausine natUy et eos circueundo: 

«• *Faigere,' inii/oiiet£r<m. 
^ ^ ConlbraMS.'* Wmion et 

^ Tbe MTinchester pontifical, 
taking no notice of tlie maniple or 
tanic% bere condudes the office of 
onlainin^ subdeacons: with this 
n»bnc« ^ T\mc ^Jttant nMHa- 

j^H^tiii kiMmr Cf!^liecinm^ Deus 
^ui IrihMSk jM^ ^pishUam et ky- 
ri^ Laudal^ mir0^§metiniur qui 

llie n^adiM^ mutt not forget that 
this Winchteter M& is oarlierthy 
nearly two hundred years, than 
the Bangor pontifical; being of 
the early part of the twelfth» if not 
of the latter part of the elcTenth 
century* See VoL I. jp. 1. Sote 

^ It has been stated in the pre- 
ceding note» that the Winchester 
ponti6cal does not direct either 
the maniple or the tunic to be 

deliyered. And in fact both of 
them were o£ late introdnctioD 
into the Church» as part of the 
▼estments of subdeaoons. We 
might have argued that not only 
the tunic but the maniple was 
added in the English Church 
(from the £sct of neither being 
spoken of in the Winchester, and 
both in the Bangor MS.) about 
the twelfth century. But it is a 
curious foct» that the very ancient { 
pontifical of Archbishop Egbert of 
York» from which Martene bas 
printed extracts» has this ruhric, 
in the ordination of a subdeacon. 
** Et tradat ei ealkenh et paU- 
nam^ et mam/Mf/ttOk" De ecc. 
ant. rit. torn. 2. p. 34. Whether 
it was afterwards omitted^ between 
the eighth and the eleventh cen- 
turies, we cannot say. 

But in £ict» the maniple in that 
early age had not dc^nerated 
from its real and proper purpose, 

Celetiratio flDrothum. 


Acdpe mampulum, imple mmisterium tuum ; potenB 
est enim Dominus, ut augeat tibi gratiam : qui vivit et 

Injine dicat episcopus singulis : 
Pax tecum. Et ilk ardinandm respondeat : 
£t cum spiritu tuo. 
Ad induendam tunicam dicat episcopus: 
Induat te Dominus vestimento salutis, et indumento 
justitiae drcumdet te semper*^ 

into a mere omasaent: and some 
ancient pontificals, when the de- 
liyery of it first solemnly formed 
a part of the ordering of snhdea- 
C01189 expressly referred to its con- 
tinued and actual use. ** Accipe 
manipolnm,'* was the form of 
words, ** in manibus tuis ad ezter- 
gendas sordes cordis et corporis, 
in nomine Patris, etc."* IHd. p. 
20. In which form, we find the 
same mixture of symbolical mean- 
ing as in these passages. '* Map- 
pula quae in sinistra parte gestatur, 
qua pitoitam oculorum, et narium 
detergimus, praesentem vitam de- 
signate in qua superfluos hnmores 
patimnr.** Alcuin* de Div. Off. 
** Sudarium ad hoc portamus, ut 
eo detergamus sudorem. Inmanu 
sinistra portatur, ut ostendatur, in 
temporali vita tsedium nos pati 
superflui humoris." Amalarius. 
IJb. 2« Cap. xxiy. 

With regard to the tunic, it 
seems to be agreed on, that it was 
introduced after the xith century: 
and was first used in the case of 

those who) being already monkst 
were to be ordained subdeaoons. 

• " Et Ule oscvlari debet nM" 
num epiacopi. Tunc episcopu» 
det ilU qui lecturus est eptstolanij 
tunicanif dicens: Induat, etc/* 
Pontif. Exon. 

The Bangor MS. is the same, 
as in the text. 

* '* Qua indutus etatim legat 
epistolantf £t sequatur kyrie. 
Demde vocentur qui ordinandi 
sunt diaconi" Pontif. Bangor. 
From this rubric it may be con- 
cluded that the tunic was delivered 
only to the subdeacon about to 
read the Epistle. 

** Tunc lecta epistola cum trac^ 
tuy injungatpsalteria sicutpriusy 
et postea dicat: Recedant qui 
ordinati sunt subdiaconi : et acce- 
dant qui ordinandi sunt diacom. 

^ Hie aliqui pralati Jaciunt 
simul vocari ea$ qui ordinandi 
sunt diaconi et sacer dotes : qui* 
bus singillaHm vocatisy et itUro' 
ductisy episcopus cum mmistris 
prostemat se ante altars dum 

VMT iuc£ ttcm kfdMr^ FpiwiA ad Thcudani- 

JncT*^ . n^BE^ Tos per adrcntmi Domini Dostri 

r»^*^ riTb^ <c ii.ifc?v tt^ipiif .«tinmg in idipsuiD : at 

T -x /r.. n ^-fUEzcI a tcsszx» snsn. Deque terreamiiii, 

^^/ur >:r rCi-'vnzL^ 3c»q-5<' per sennoneiiiy neqiie per 

-^' -^ — Ti 'raaicriiKa per ims misRifn, quasi inslet di^ 

!1 z.TT. N^:i:^ txi& seciKtt cHo nodo. Qaoniam 

:ii*x •■-•:«rr-r -^rrmxii 5a3Ptt>x « lerelatiis fuerit homo 

^^ -.-i.!* ill ifr i^jrilTli.cifi. c= adTersamr et extollitur 

s^:^>Er .tune ; ii.*£ ii.-irzr 6essw ast qiiod colitar, ita ut 

:* t^v ■• r«:i s^^tfss clsSlf^Ses^ se tiffMpiaiin dt dens. 

>* -x "•r'liiTCi' ri»:o. ^hrzii «irra escm ^ad tos, haec 

^ •: r*4ia " 1^ Ei XI2JC ^i:«i leciaeal scitis : at rcTe- 

z ^'jr a -uu *fcinr«-'r«. Xx3t sLTsteHuiii jam operatur 

::. ^ 1. .. ^^ Z LiLLXL ic ^jii t.r!Kt !i:inc, teneat, donee de 

•rr«^j T^» Et time rf^uiiinr ille iniquns, quem 

7 ji^nos Jf??iis interficiet ^girici oris soi, et destruet 

..uicnr-'C* adventus guL 

S.'.'i-^i^r tract us. 

v^ui regis Israel intende, qid dedacis Telat OTem Qni sedes saper cfaamlnu appare coram 
y^<L:r;ftiT]i* Benjamin, et Manasseh. 

(\n^ Excita D<Hnine potentiam tnam, et yeni, ut 
^J\g^ &cias nos. 

CMitJtofue tracttij episcopus injungat as horas cano- 
^^\is qnKtldlt dkxndas ad totum terminum vita. Et 

..^ a ch»/ro eamtatwr : ahqm the note there, from the Bangor 

^K^Mi^iiamMmsalrnmimor^ MS. The student should r^er 

^ .«c- y/v^^/«^rorttM.*' Pon« also to the Roman pontifical, in 

^xsMk CvHuparethe rubric of the order for subdeacons. 

Celebratio S)rliinunu 1 85 

rchidiacontis injungat eis aliquid certum pro statu uni- 
ersniU ecclesiiPf et tranquiUitate regis et regnij et pros- 
eritate domini episcopi. Et pro animabus patrum et 
tatrum^ et pro animabus omnium Jidelium defunctorum, 
^t eiiam dominus concedat indulgentias viginti dierum 
mnibus eorum primas epistolas audientibus. 

F^ostea statim dicat : 

Recedant qui ordinati sunt subdiaconi; accedant 
jui ordinandi sunt diaconi, et sacerdotes. 

JDeinde^ accedentes qui ordinandi sunt diaconi et sacer- 
dotes cum vestibus suiSj et prostrato episcopo ante altare 
cum sacerdotibus et levitis ordinandisy postea duo clerici 
incipiant litaniam. 

Kyrie eleison. 

Christe eleison. 

Christe audi nos. 

Pater de coelis Deus : miserere nobi?. 

Fili, redemptor mundi, Deus : miserere nobis. 

Spiritus Sancte, Deus : miserere nobis. 

Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus : miserere nobis. 

Sancta Maria : ora pro nobis. 

Sancta Dei genitrix : ora. 

Sancta virgo virginum : ora. 

Sancte Michael : ora. 

Sancte Gabriel ! ora. 

Sancte Raphael : ora. 

Omnes sancti angeli^ et archangeli, orate. 

* ** Demde accedentes qui or- cantor Utaniam.** Ruhr. Pontif. 

dmandisuntdiacanietsacerdotesy Bangor. 

cum vestibue euie et titulu, et The "V^chester MS* agrees 

itantUnu cunctis, prostrato epis- with the Exeter (see above, Kote 

copo ante altare cum sacerdoti- 46) in calling up the deacons and 

^u# et levitis ordinandis^ incipiat priests separately. 


^ '^ .1 ' * - ^ •"Tpn -ai t^fs ^ ' ms . 

Cetedtatio 9)tpinum. 187 

Ouiiies sancti Martyres : 
Sancte Silvester : 


Sancte Leo : 


Sancte Jeronyme : 
Sancte Augustine : 
Sancte Isidore : 


Sancte Juliane : 


Sancte Gildarde : 


Sancte Medarde : 


Sancte Albine : 


Sancte Eusebi : 


Sancte Swithune : 


Sancte Birine : 


Omnes sancti confessores : 


Onmes sancti monachi, et eremitae : or 

Sancta Maria Magdalena : 
Sancta Maria iEgyptiaca : 
Sancta Margareta : 
Sancta Scholastica : 


Sancta Petronella : 


Sancta Genoveva : 


Sancta Praxedis : 


Sancta Sotheris : 


Sancta Prisca : 


Sancta Tecla : 


Sancta Affira : 


Sancta Editha : 


Onmes sanctae yirgines : 
Omnes sancti : 


Propitius esto : parce nobis, Domine. 
Ab omni male : libera nos, Domine. 
Ab insidiis diaboli : libera. 

A damnatione perpetua : libera. 


Ccie&catio OtHimtnu 

Ab immineotibiis peccatomin nostromm periculis : 


Ab infestatioiiibus cbemonom : libera. 

A spiritu fomicatioiiis : libera. 

Ab appedtu inanis gloriae : libera. 

Ab omni immunditia mends et corporis : libera. 

Ab ira, et odio, et omni mala volontate : libera. 

Ab immondis cogitationibns : libera. 

A caecitate cordis : libera. 

A fulgore et tempestate : libera. 

A subitanea et improvisa morte : libera. 

Per m jsteriom sanctae incamationis tuse : libera. 

Per nativitatem tnam : libera. 

Per sanctam circomcisionem tuam : libera. 

Per baptismom tuum : libera. 

Per jejuniom tuom : libera. 

Per crucem et passionem tuam : libera. 

Per pretiosam mortem tuam : libera. 

Per gloriosam resurrectionem tuam : libera. 

Per admirabilem* ascensionem tuam : libera. 

Per gratiam Sancti Paracliti : libera. 

In bora mortis : succurre nobis, Domine. 

In die judieii : libera. 

Peccatoresy te rogamus audi nos. 

Ut pacem nobis dones. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut misericordia et pietas tua nos custodiat. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut ecclesiam tuam catholicam regere et defensare 

Te rogamus. 

Ut apostolicum donum, et omnes gradus ecclesiae, in 
sancta religione conservare digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Cele&tatio i)rliiniim. 


Hie surgat episcopus et sumat baculum in menu sua^ 
€t conversus ad ordinandos dicat :** 

Ut electos istos bene y^ dicere digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut electos istos bene ►I^ dicere, et sancti ►I^ ficare 

Te rogamus. 

Ut electos istos bene^j^cjicere, sancti ^ (icare, et con- 
se ^ crare digneris. 

^ Upon the use b this place, 
so many times, of the sign of the 
cross, I extract a passage from 
Catalani. " Hue certe spectare 
videtur, quod ait sanctus Augusti- 
nos sermone clxxxj. de tempore, 
et tractatu cxviij. in Joannem, ita 
inquiens : ' Signo crucis conse- 
cratur corpus Dominicum, et om- 
nia quascumque sanctificantur,cum 
iDvocatione Christi nominis, in hoc 
signo consecrantur.' Ideo in or- 
dinibus prsesertim sacris confe- 
rendis crucis semper signaculum 
afiiilget : ' Unicuique eorum,' in- 
quit S. Dionjsius de ecclesiastica 
Hierarchia, * qui consecrantur, 
signum crucis a consecrante pon- 
tifice imprimitur.' Ibidem vero 
subdit, crucis consignationem com- 
monem esse ordinationi episcopo- 
nim, sacerdotum, et diaconorum. 
Id quod etiam testatur memoratus 
Augustinus sermone xix. de Sanc- 
tis, ubi ita ait : ' Sacerdotes et 
Levit» per signum crucis ad sa- 
cros ordines promoventur.' Tan- 
dem, S. Joannes Chrysostomus 
luxmilia W. in Matt. alMoIute in- 

quit, in quacumque ordinatione 
signum hoc salutis adhiberi: 
' Crux adest, cum ordinandi sta- 
tuimur.' '' In pontif, Horn. torn. 
I. p. 100. 

The question however fairly is, 
not whether the just and proper 
use of this holy Sign, upon solemn 
occasions, is to be objected against, 
— testified to (as it undoubtedly 
is) by the practice of very early 
ages, and authorized in the admi- 
nistration of the sacrament of Bap- 
tism by the church of England, — 
but whether it had not come to 
such an excess, and to be regarded 
also with superstition, that the 
wisest if not the only course left 
to the revisers of our formularies, 
was to remove it, except upon the 
occasion of that sacrament alone, 
entirely from our Offices. I would 
refer the reader to some further 
remarks upon this subject, in my 
work on the Ancient Liturgy : 
2nd edit, p, 4. 5. and p. 98. 

Upon its use and acceptation in 
the Greek Church, see Goar, 
Eucholp. 297. and j9. 255. NoUl. 


Hoc fcracU^ zotuntdM ykujwu am aderis minis' 
trisj aufwe ad^^mtm StoMUt. Ciaid prottfuantur tita- 
niam sic : 

Ut epbeopoB» ct abhrtw nostras» in sancta religione 


Ut rcgi iiostro, ct prnidpibvs nostra, pacem et reram 
coocor d iam atque Tictoriam donare digneris. 

Xe ragamos. 

Ut ooogr^atiofnes ommnm sanctomm taomm in tuo 
sancto seiritio cooservare digneris. 

Te rogamns. 

Ut cnnctnm popnlmn Christianum, pretioso sanguine 
too redemptnm, oonseiTare digneris. 

Te rogamns. 

Ut omnibns benefactoribns nostris sempitema bona 

Te r(^amiis. 

Ut animas nostras, et parentum nostrorum, ab aetema 
danmatione eripias. 

Te rogamos. 

Ut fructus terrae dare atque conserrare digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut oculos misericordiae tuse super nos reducere 

Te rogamus. 

Ut obsequium servitutis nostrse rationabile facias. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut mentes nostras ad ccBlestia desideria erigas. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut miserias pauperum et captivorum intueri et rele- 
vare digneris. 
• Te rogamus. 

Ceieficatio fl)tiiinum* 1 9 1 

Ut omnibus fidelibus defimctis requiem detemam 

Te rogamus. 

Ut nos exaudire digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Fili Dei, te rogamus audi nos. 

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi^ exaudi nos, 

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, parce nobis, 

Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. 

Kjrie eleison. 

Christe eleison. 

Kyrie eleison. 

I^nita litaniay redeant sacerdotes ekcti ad loca sua^ 
remanentibus levitis ad consecrandum, et episcopus dicat 
eis sine nota^ sedendo : 

Diaconum oportet** ministrare ad altare," evange- 
lium legere, baptizare, et prsedicare.^ 

" The admonitioii to the dea. tor. In novo vero ab apodtolis 

cons in the Winchester pontifical, ordinati, divini verbi prftcones, et 

immedialriy follows their approach mensarum dispenaatorea constitn- 

to the Biahop, nor doea there aeem untur. Per ipaoa enim debent 

in that age, according to the Use atipendia eocleaiae viduis et pau- 

of that Church, to have been a periboa erogari. Hii vero candi- 

Litany appointed. The admo- diaTeatibnaindutialtario assistant, 

nition ia thk ; quibua caatitatem cspteramque 

**' Qvot mttruent^ epUcaput mentia pnntatem ae habere debere 

dkat: oatendunt. Pauloa enim scribens 

*' Diaoonatus yero officium in ad Timotheum, cum prsemisisset 

veteri teatamento aumpait exor- de aacerdotum electioiie, continue 

dium: m novo accepit incremen- aubjunxit: ^Diaconea [mc] simi- 

tom. In veteri enim teatamento liter sint irreprehenaibilea, id eat, 

^▼ite Yocabantur, et ab eia taber- aine macula, et pudici, aicut epia- 

nacolum et ejoa vaaa euatodieban* copna. Non bilingnea, non multo 


r qpiscopus qui eos benedidt, 
.-xr.-x ^"^uionm ponaty dicens^ solu$ 

«en.r*^ rr.ji Tjamm& urn «sc 

^^v-: •-?■.! cnnc^ {lov n |r*«r 
-». *x% *:iWM5' A -mini 'p-zu-Owcup* 

'Si\nV\5» a^j^rnss 5*tr^^f^c a w^ 

«^fM >*%/•«>* ^*^sf*f* ^t'%M» P*fnifT; 

iHMw the Wiochester Use did not 
ccjoin also (as afterwards the Ex- 
cfeer, Safisbury, and Bangor pon- 
tiicak), the ** Accipe Spiritom 
SiBctnm.** See the note below. 
* Upoo the question whether 
^■C M Ss anciently were permitted 
t^Kfaainister the Cup, in the Holy 
EJBchaiist, I must rdler the reader 
to ST obsertations, in the ** Ab- 
CK^rUtnrgrr 2nd edit/i. 127. 
^ The admonition does not no- 
rm 'Ja any way, a privilege which 
at tke sftiddle ages the church of 
Ez^wskL IB extreme cases, allowed 
a» bcr deacons: namely, that of 
HK^McilLs? penitents. And it is 
umiflillf^that the same restnc- 
aja b laid upon the exercbe of 
b«ch dib power of reconciliDg, 
«id oe' bapriiing. Thns the 5th 
iauwa oC the conndl of York, in 
11:^: ^^De cr e iim ns etiam, ut 
naa mki saHoaa, et grari urgente 
■jtmitiim &conas baptiiet, vel 
cwrpvs Christi cniqnam eroget, Tel 
pissitcBciam conitenti imponat" 
\V;.kia$. CinmKw, imm. l.pkBOl. 
Xsfi ive years afterwards, in the 
prvTiace of Canterbury, the drd 
<:iron of the coondl of London : 
^*' Ut Bon bceat diaoonibos bapti- 
sarev Tel poHiitcntias dare, nisi 
duphci necessitate ; viz. quia sa- 
ceffdoE$ non potest, Tel absens, vel 
sitthe non tuIi, et mors imminet 

Celebtatio fl)rlitnum. 


Accipe Spiritum Sanctum." Quia nan ad sacerdo- 
'ium sed ad ministerium consecrantur.^ 

>uero, Tel «Bgro." Ibid. p. 505, 
The same was repeated in the year 
1236, in a provincial constitution : 
ibid. p. 606, 

Lyndwood has a gloss upon this : 
t>oth with respect to baptizing and 
bearing confessions. As regards 
the latter, his explanation is more 
oiysteriouB than the permission 
which we are considering. ** De 
haptismate et poBniienticu Quae 
duo quoad ministrationem eonin- 
dem parificantur, ut scilicet non 
ministrentur nisi a saoerdote ; qui 
dictorom sacramentorum est de- 
bitus minister, excepta causa ne- 
cessitatis. Deprimo,8dlicet quoad 
baptismum, sic scribunt commu- 
niter omnes theologi, qui dicunt, 
qaod alius non sacerdos baptizans 
praeter articulum necessitatis pec 
cat. De secundo, scilicet poeni- 
tentia, quod sit proprium officium 
sacerdotis et non alterius, qui non 
est sacerdos, patet ex hoc ; quod 
iolam sacerdotibus Dominus dedit 
potestatem ligandi et solvendi.'' 
Hh. 3. lit. 24. Baptisterium ha- 
beatur. verb, poenitentia. 

The Liber pcenitentiali» of 
archbishop Theodore, in the 7th 
ceDtury, has a notice upon the 
object, but expressed in such 
^neral terms, that it leaves the 
question where it was before: 
^ Non licet diaconum laico pce- 
niteotiam judicare, sed episcopi 
^ presbyteri judicare debent." 


Thorpe, ^n^/o-^ojTon Lawe. Vol. 
2. p. 57. But a passage in the 
12th epistle of S. Cyprian is much 
to the point, and possibly it was 
in reliance upon his authority that 
the English Church published the 
above canons. '< Quoniam tamen 
video fecultatem veniendi ad vos 
nondum esse, occurrendum puto 
fratribus nostris ; ut qui libellos a 
martyribus acceperunt, et prsro- 
gativa eorum apud Deum adjuvari 
possunt, si incommodo aliquo et 
infirmitatis periculo occupati fue* 
rint, non expectata prsBsentia nos- 
tra, apud presbyterum quemcum- 
que praesentem, vel si presbyter 
repertus non fuerit, et urgere exi- 
tus coeperit, apud diaconum quo- 
que exomologesin facere delicti 
sui possint ; ut manu eis in poeni- 
tentiam imposita veniant ad Do- 
minum cum pace quam dan mar- 
tyres litteris ad nos factis deside- 
raverunt." Opera, p. 22. 

An interpretation may be put 
upon these canons, as regards 
confession, that that office, when 
performed by deacons, came under 
the class of what was then called 
Sacramentals ; and so possibly 
the English councils might have 
looked on it. See Natalis Alex- 
ander: TheoL Dogm. Lib. 2. 
Art. viij. This certainly some- 
what reconciles the difficulty under 
which these canons lie; whether 
the councils were correct in limit- 


ccitiRsno vtointiiiu 

Seqmtmr frafatio super mcUnatos diaconos, 

inf ihtt povcr of iVa reai to bap- 
tiae, to cbms cbI j wbere frai 
resisted, it 
Uch I hav« not 
enter. I lUl oohr add, dnt the 
bier RonaBcuMoistBdoBotalWw 
that the '^aamtAogmm'* cf S. 
Cjimui, b to be oBdentoad cf 

aiiit Ihf J rill " iiml 

fessioii:" hst a lower kind, which 
might, in theahacnee of botfi prieat 
and biahop, anthoiiae a deaooa 
simplj to r ut or t the penitent to 
the nght of oonunnnion» 

* ThiafonnisaafbQDvaintifte 
modem Roman Use. ^Aedpe 
Spiritnm Sanetom, ad rdboTy et 
ad lesntendnm diaboloy et tento- 
tioniboB ejna. In nomine Dond- 
nL" And it is interpolated in the 
long prayer, whidi ia called in the 
text, "^ Prefktio,'* beginning "^ Ho- 
nonun dator." 

The schoolmen have called 
these words ** Aodpe e$e" the 
Form: but there is this difficnity, 
that (as we have already aeen in 
the case of the Windiest^ MS.) 
it u of late introduction ; Martene 
says of about the Idth century : 
and probably the Bangor pontifical 
is as early as any manuscript in 
which it can be found. Hence 
others, as Catalani, and Martene, 
say that ''the Form'' is contained 
in the prayer which begins " Emitte 
quaesumus Dominey eici^ which 
clause was asciently, as the reader 

win obaenre, in the middle, axkd ^ 
not at the beginniiig' of a pnyer. ll 
It waa to obiiate all these objec- ^ 
tions, and make the public lituab 
with tlie «^inioDS of the 
doctors^ tiiat at the re- 
vision 1^ the pontifical, the old 
prayer waa diinded, and the new 
danae apdy fitted in, to supply 
what was wanted. Unfortunatelj, 
whilst the modem pontifical is 
sufficiently complete^ the testimoDj 
of the earher hooka remains » 
firm aa ever, against the truth of 
thenew doctrines wliich»after their 

time, had been introduced. 

«• We retora again to the im- 
portant canons of the 4th coudgI 
of Carthage, to which ao many of 
theandentmbricaof the £ng&^ 
ordinals are to be traced. *' i^* 
Diaconos cum ordioatur, solus 
epiaoopos, qui eom benedicit, v»- 
num Biq)er caput iUius pooat : qoi^ 
non ad saoerdotium, sed ad minis- 
terium oonaecratur." Mansi, vt 
iupra. The same words are id- 
troduoed into the sacramentary of 
S. Gregory, and the old Ordo 
Romanus. Still the rule was not ! 
exactly observed in all Churches, 
for in some pontificals (and among | 
them the very early English MS. 
preserved at Rouen) we have the ; 
fDllowing rubric, which probably 
is to be traced to an age esrZter 
even than the Carthaginian coan- 
cil, as it is to be found in the ^^' ! 

etietiratfo fl>tMtmm; 


Oremus, dilectiJssimiy Deum Patrem omnipotentem, 
ut super hos famulos suos,^ quos ad officium diaconatus 
assumere dignatus est, bene^l^dictionis 8U8Q gratiam 
clementer efFundati et consecrationis indultsB propitiiis 
dona conservet, et preces nostras clementer ezaudiat : 
at quae nostro gerenda sunt ministerio, siio benignus 
prosequatur auxilio, et quos sacris mysteriis exequendis 
pro nostra intelligentia credimua offerendos, sua elec- 
tione sanctificet. 


Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Exaudi, Domine, preces nostras, et super hos famu- 

lasian Sacramentary. '' Diaconus 
cum ordinatur, solus episcopus, 
qui earn benedidty manum super 
caput iUius ponat, reliqui ornnes 
sacerdotes juxta manum episcopi, 
caput illius tangant, quia non ad 
Bacerdotium, sed ad ministerium 
consecratur.*' And there is a re- 
markable place inDurand, where, 
after dting the first rubric, he ob* 
jects : ** In actibus tamen Aposto- 
lorum ita legitur : ' Hos statue- 
nmt ante conspectum Apostolo* 
nun, et orantes iraposuenint ma- 
nus super eos.' In quo ostenditur, 
non solum episcopum Terum etiam 
presbyteros tunc adstantes debere 
manum super diaooaum, dum or- 
dinatur, imponere." Ration. Lib. 
2. IX. 14« And he goes on to 
argue that a bishop could not have 
more power than an Apostle. 
Amedarius also, some centuries 
before, makes the same objection, 

upon the same ground. But as 
Menard argues in his notes on 
this place of the Sacramentary of 
S. Gregory, it was not strange, 
that being together, the Apostles 
should all have laid their hands 
upon the deacons : " quamvis id 
minime esset necessarium, cum 
unicussufficerepotuisset" 7V)m.d. 
p. 498. I suppose that this point 
must therefore be left entirely to 
the discretion of each church, ac* 
cording to her own judgment. 

^^ '' quorum nomina hie reci- 
tantur, quos in sacrum ordinem 
dignatur assumere, benedictionis 
su« gratiam clementer infundat, 
eisque donum consecrationis in- 
dulgeat, per quod eos ad gaudia 
sterna perducat. Qui vivit, ete." 
Pontif. Winton : and followed by 
the Exeter MS. except that the 
latter reads '' quos ad offidum di* 

X 96 Cele&tatto iDtiitnnm* 

lo6 tnoB spiritmn tuse bene^dictionis emitte: ut ccb- 
lesti munere ditati, et tuse gratiam possint majestatk 
acquirere, et bc^e vivendi aliis exemplum praebere: 
terminando secrete: Per Dominam nostnim, Jesum 
Christum^ Filium tuum, qui tecum. 

Per omnia ssecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo noetro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justum est, SBquum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine saDCte, 
Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus. Honorum^ dator, 
onlinumque distributor, ac officiorum dispositor, qui, 
in te manens, innovas omnia et cuncta disponis, per 
Verbum, virtutem, sapientiamque tuam, Jesum Chris- 
tum, Filium tuum, Dominum nostrum, sempitema 
providentia prseparans, et singulis quibusque tempori- 

** Some MSS. in this place nos illis, ut sciatis.** ^u/. 34. 

read ^^bononim/* which is followed '' Fungeris circa earn potestate 

by the Kxeter pontifical : but honoris tui, ut earn vel depooas, 

wrongly. For as Menard has vel abstineas." Epist, 65. 

observed in his notes to the sacra- So also we have the canons of 

mentary of S. Gregory, " hsec vox councils : thus the 2nd of the 4t}i 

honor dicitur de tribus exoellenti- council of Aries : '* Sed nee reliqui 

oribus ordinibus» diaconatu, pres- pontifices presbyterii, vel diacona- 

byteratu» et cpiscopatu.** S. Greg, tus honorem oonferre prsesumant, 

Opera. 7Vmi, d. p. 499. And he etc."" And the 8th canon of the 

cites several passages to this pur- council of Nice, before quoted (p* 

pose firom Ennodius, Optatus Mi- 145. Note 6} ; ^^ 6 h oyofiaio- 

levitanus, and others. With these fitvo^ rapa roic XtyofXivoK Ka- 

from S. Cyprian. ** Cseterum Bapot^ hriaKowof, rriv rov ttp^' 

presbyterii honorem designasse fivrtpov rtfAtfy i^ti" 

Celebratto i^Drliinum. 197 

bos aptanda dispensas. Cujus corpus, ecclesiam vi^ 
lelicet tuam ccelestium gratiarum varietate distinctai&i 
morumque connexam distinctione membrorum per le- 
^em mirabilem compaginis totius unitam, in augmen- 
tum templi tui crescere dilatarique largiris, sacri 
nuneris servitutem in trinis gradibus ministrorum no- 
mini tuo militare constituens. Electis ab initio Levi 
Sliis, qui in mysticis operationibus domus tuse fidelibus 
excubiis permanenteSy hsereditatem benedictionis seter- 
nae sorte perpetua possiderent. Super bos quoque 
famulos tuosy qusesumus Domine, placatus intende, 
quos tuis sacrariis servituros in officium diaconii suppU- 
citer dedi ^ camus. Et nos quidem tanquam homines, 
divini sensus et summae rationis ignari, horum vitam 
quantum possumus estimamus. Te autem, Domine, ea 
quse nobis sunt ignota non transeunt, et occulta non 
fallunt. Tu cognitor es secretorum, tu scrutator es 
cordium, tu eorum vitam ccelesti poteris examinare 
judicio, qui semper prsevales et commissa purgare et 
ea quae sunt agenda concedere. Emitte in eos, quse- 
sumus Domine, Spiritum Sanctum, quo in opus minis- 
terii (ideliter exequendi, septiformis gratise tuae munere 
roborentur : abundet in eis totius forma virtutis, auc* 
toritas modesta, pudor constans, innocentiae puritas, et 
spiritualis observantia disciplinae. In moribus eorum 
praecepta tua fulgeant, ut suae castitatis exemplo imita- 
tionem sancta plebs acquirat, et bonum conscientiae 
testimonium praeferentes, in Christo firmi et stabiles 
perseverent, dignisque successibus de inferiori gradu 
per gratiam tuam capere potiora mereantur. 

Terminando secrete: Per eundem Dominum nos- 
trum, Jesum Christum, Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit 
et regnat in unitate ejusdem. 

Tunc ponat singulis, super sinistrum humerum, st(h 


Celeftratio iDtOtoitm. 

tarn usque ad asccUam^ dexteram subtus, dicens sim 

In nomine Sanctse Trinitatis, accipe stolam immor- 
talitatis: imple ministerium tuum, potens est enim 
Deus ut augeat tibi gratiam, qui vivit et regnat.^^ 

Nan dicUur uUerius^ &ed statim subjmigat : 

Pax tecum. 

** i: e: axillam. 

^ " 7\ific ponat nngulUf #u- 
per humerum nnistrum stolas, 
dicens:^' Ruhr, pontif. Bangor. 

^ Fkuta pr€efiitione^ tunc epie- 
caput tradai cuiUbet diacono- 
rum Mtolamy dicens :" Rubr. 
pontif. Exon. 

* The Winchester pontifical 
has a considerable addition after 
the words " qui vivit et regnat." 

*' Per hoc signum, vobis dia- 
conatus ofScium imponimus, ut 
firmamentum mens» divinae tan- 
quam sustentaculum columnanim 
litis, et prsBcones regis coslestis 
irreprehensibiliter existere merea- 

'^ Addat etiam hanc episcopua 
ora4tonem : 

'<In nombe sanct® Trinitatis 
et Unic» Divinitatis, accipite sto- 
lam quam vobis Dominus per hu- 

militatis nostrs famulatum et per 
manus nostras accipiendam prae- 
paravit; per quam aciatia aarci- 
nam Domini Dei vestri cervicibus 
vestris impositam, et humilitatem, 
atque in administradonem voa esse 
connexos, et per quam vos cog- 
noscant fratres vestri ministros 
Dei esse ordinatoa : ut qui in dia- 
conatus ministerio estis constituti, 
levitic» beuedictionis ordine cla- 
rescatis, et spirituali conversatione 
prsefulgentes, gratia sanctificatio- 
nis eluoeatis, sed et in Christo 
Jesu stabiles perseveretis, ac firmi ; 
quatenus hoc quod per hanc sto- 
lam significatur, in die district! 
judidi ante tribunal Domini sine 
macula reprsesentare valeads : ip- 
so auxiliante» cui est honor et 
gloria in saecula sadculorum.'* 

" Postea tradat episcopus 
eanctum evangeUum^ dicens c 

potestatem legendi 

♦ This prayer seems to have 
been peculiar to the early English 
Church, and probably was retain- 
ed from the primitive British sa- 
cramentary. It occurs in two 
very ancient English pontificals ; 

one of the 8th century, formerly 
preserved at Jumi^es, and the 
other, once S. Dunstan's, now in 
the royal library at Paris. Cf. 
Martene. de ant. ecc. rit Tom. 

Ceiedtatia i>minunu 


Et ordinandus respondeat : 
Et cum spiritu tuo.^ 

Past hac tradat eis Ubrum evangeliorumy^ diceni 
sine not a : 

evangelium in ecclesia Dei, tarn 
pro vivis quam erdefunctis, in 
nomine Domini. Amen. 

*' Commune votum communis 
proseqoatur oratio, ut hii totius 
ecclesi» prece, qui in diaconatus 
ministerium pneparantur» levitica 
benedictione et spirituali conver- 
satione prsfulgentes, gratia sanc- 
tificationifl eluoeant Per eum qui 

'* Oremui. Domine sancte. Pa- 
ter spei, etcJ* 

An exhortation similar to the 
last, C Commune votum,**) is still 
used in the Roman pontifical : but 
placed at the beginuingr, immedi- 
ately after the admonition to the 
deacons. I take the opportunity 
of noting this, and of reminding 
the student of the numberless va- 
riadons which existed between the 
old English uses and the Roman. 
This last he must carefully exa- 
mine for himself. 

• Neither the " Pax tecum" 
nor its response, is ordered in the 
Bangor or Exeter MSS. 

^ The modem Roman pontifi- 
cal delivers the dalmatic before 
the book of the Gospels. This 
rite of delivering the Gospels, was 
for many ages peculiar to the 
English Church: nor is it men- 
tioned by any of the early ritual* 

ists, S. Isidore, Amalarius, or Al- 
cuin. Martene says that it is not 
to be found in any pontifical be- 
fore the 10th century, those of 
English use alone excepted : and 
he continues, " Cum ergo solem* 
ms fuerit in Anglia evangelii tra- 
ditio, reperiaturqoe in omnibusi 
quos inde viderimus libris rituali. 
bus, ah ea ecclesia hunc ritum 
initium traxisse facile colligitur." 

Catalani (Comment, in pontiff 
Tom, I./9. 119.) rather hastily 
accuses Martene of an error in 
this statement, referring to the 
old Ordo Romanus, printed by 
Hittorpius, for a similar direction 
as to the book of the Gospels, to 
be delivered to the deacons. But 
in fact, that Ordo does not men- 
tion the Gospels : neither in the 
edition by Hittorpius himself, in 
1568; nor in the first vol. of the 
'* Auctarium'* to the Bibl. Pa^ 
trum. Even if some other Ordo 
Romanus might give such a di- 
rection, it would yet remain to be 
proved that it was of an earlier 
date than the ixth century: for 
there is no doubt, that about that 
time, it was introduced into the 
churches of France, and from 
thence would rapidly pass over 
into Italy. 

But it seems best, upon a pomt 
of so much interest, to give the 


Celebratio iDtHinuntt 

In nomine Sanctse Trinitads, accipe potestatem le- 
pnKii evangeliom in ecclesia Dei, tarn pro vivis quam 
(wv defunctis, in nomine Domini. Amen. 

CW.a.vmJm respondeat: 

Dm» gndas, 

vV^;»,;jiir hcmdictio^ cum nota. 

IV^iinus Tobiscum. 

IV^ne sancle^ Pater fidei, spei, gratiae, et perfec- 
luum muneralor* qui in coBlestibus et terrenis angelo- 
nim ministeriis ubique dispositis per omnia elementa 
w^luQUm tu^ diffundis efRe^ctum : hos quoque famulos 
luvx$ $pevi;jdi dignare illustrare aspectu,^ ut tuis ob- 

vv^jmJ «ssi f^HWst nibric^ as it 
kjunI» w iW Enflt5h pontificals 
W' tW ^ centunr, 

jM ^-cik m tfsi %^» I» « ilicfs : Ac- 

1.^1:^ <rt iut«r'I^pN M all» trade» 

U tW saNnf airiN and renr pos- 
»i^i\ \ksri\rd (Kheu the same Bri- 
tUh *^HMVi\ tkere was another re* 
«larkahk» ntx^ ob^erred in the 
lax^lUh ChuTvK as is proved bj 
the MUBtte pontifical», in the ordi- 
nation of deacons: thb was the 
anointiniT of the hands» After 
the benediction we hare the ibi» 
lowing: rubric, and Form, ** Con- 
tfcnnHo mtiMMMm <^4<i<n»ni tie oleo 
nHfU0 chrismate. Consecrantur 
manus ist»> quesumus Domino» 
et sanctificentur, per istam sanc- 
tam unotionem nostraroque bene- 
dictionem, ut qusecumque bene- 
dixerint, benedicta sint ; et que- 

cumque sanctificaverint, sanctifi- 
caU sint. Per." 

There is evidence that this rite 
also was for a short time adopted 
from England into France: as 
appears from a letter of Pope 
Nicolas I. to an archbishop in 
that country: *' Prarterea scisci- 
taris utrum solis presbyteris an 
diaconibus debeant, cum ordinan- 
tur, manus chrismatis liquore per- 
ungi." Coitc. Gall. Tom. S. 
Upon this Menard*s observation 
ts ; ** Quod non interrogasset 
P^tifioem Maximum Rodulphus, 
nisi id moris esse in diaconorum 
ordinatione alicubi in Gallia com- 
pertum habuisset.** NoUBin Sacr. 
Greg. Opera. Tom. S.p. 502. 

•• " Segniiur eommunis bene- 
dktio.** Ruhr. Pontif. Bangor. 

* ** Hos quoque famulos tuos 
propitius digneris aspicere." Pon- 
tif. Winton. et Ejron. 

Celebtatio fl)tliinum. 


sequiis expediti, Sanctis tuis altaribus ministri puri 
accrescant, et indulgentia puriores, eorum gradu, quos 
apostoli in septenario numero^ beato Stephano duce 
ac prsBvio, Sancto Spiritu auctore, elegerunt, digni ex- 
istant, et virtutibus universis, quibus tibi servire opor- 
tet, instructi poUeant.^ Per Dominum. In unitate 

Tunc tradat singulis eos circueundo dalmaticam^y 
dicens sine not a :^ 

Induat te Dominus vestimento salutis ; 

Ultimo condudendo ei qui lecturus est evangelium : 

Et sit in corde, et in ore tuo, ad pronunciandum 
sanctum evangelium pacis. In nomine Patris. 

" " Instracti complaceant." Pon- 
Hf Wintan. et Exon* ** In structi, 
tibi complaceant." Pantif. Mom. 

• As above, (Note 47.) it was 
obseired that the tunic was of 
late introduction in the ordination 
of snbdeacons, so the dalmatic 
was also adopted, first in the case 
of monks, about the 12th century. 
The Winchester pontifical does 
not notice it, as the student will 
see in the note below: and the 
English churches probably ad- 
mitted it into their ordinals, early 
in the ISth century, as it is or-» 
dered in the Bangor MS. 

^ ** Tunc unus diaconorum le- 
gat evangelium. Quo finUo^ 
exeant diaconi: ei introducan- 
tur qui ordinandi sunt ad ordi' 
nem sacerdotih induH more dia^ 

coniy ferentee in manibus suie 
casulam eingulL" Pontif Win" 

*' Tunc ilUi qui lecturus eat 
evangelium benedictionem per 
tat : * cui episcopus dalmaticam 
ti'adatt dicens: Induat te, etc" 
Pontif, Bangor, 

*' Tunc det episcopus dalmati- 
cam uni illorum cui vult^ qui 
leget eifangeliumy dicens : In- 
duat te, etc, Perlecto evangelic^ 
et libro evangeliorum ab episco* 
po osculaiOy dicat episcopus^ Do- 
minus vobiscum. Et offertorium 
et omnia in missa peragat usque 
ad lotionem mdnuum; interim 
archidiaconus injungat cuilibet 
diaconorum^ tria psalteriay sicut 
prius, et dicat: Recedant, etc.** 
Pontif, EjFon. 

♦ See the ** Ancient Liturgy." Edit. 2nd. p. 44. Note 51. 


tetnrelia lUiraeae 

Abflens tetrar- 


Zfiimin: scuer J:-baimeiii, Zacharis 

«cs«r«r:-. X.: ^fnc ix «■omii regiooem Jor- 

lag E^ djc inresiissioDeiii 
L Isai» 
ir cMjuu x puate Tiam Do- 
1..^ ^^ vii^ 2*.:i& -svmKK- -fMii^ O-nnis Tallis impl^ 
:. :iir f -c=i2- ]b>iii2^ c r;uii$> 1 1"^' iliiiiH» et enxnt 
T \ n j-T^ z^ -=- A>i«erL ZL TJjff ^^^nas. Et videbit 

/ - ■ _" K ^^rr.^',ar'tuu >."*— ^jf eis aliquid 

. ."^ .— r .- • «^ -'-\-!:-i-^ ;tuu^^rfir'i£m trifuda dierum 

^.•— — ^:-- ^^ i.-dmai. suae ia:*:cd; accedant qui 
. --* r - .r f . e n-.m/t/hv Taoarr.^nnB, ^ maximc 



iflB «d iUos per 

I ofdxnstio z chris* 

I et oDuuiun 

>«^«f^^ • v^ n ' Kjj i mc jcv^K^J^ rVsi. an II ■!■ mim «rlwiap benedic- 
a .^^rs^^^^v^vue c^ir-Mrs. ic sa»- t» : at pMas eonfimiatio. Ca- 

Ceiebratio fl)tiilnum« 


Sacerdotem oportet offerre,^^ benedicere,^^ preeesse, 
edicare, conGcere»^' et baptizaxe. 

n I>ei quod annunciant, pravis 
ibus vel moribus corrumpant: 
de eis merito fiat, quod Domi- 
s ait per prophetam, ' cum ipsi 
ipidi3simam aquam biberitis, re- 
uam pedibus yestris conculca- 
tis; et oves mese quae concul- 
Uk pedibus vestris fuerant pas- 
bantur, et quae pedes vestri 
rbaverant, hsec bibebant.' Hi 
km in sacerdotio ordinantur, 
erum acdpiunt manus impositio- 
em, caeteris presbyteris astanti-' 
us, manosque super eos orando 
^vantibus. Manus vero eorum a 
aero chrismate et oleo ab epis- 
opo unguuutur, ut digusa slut 
lostias Deo immolare, et langui- 
los corpore et spiritu curare : et 
plenae sint misericordiaB. Per 
oleum enim quod infirmitatem 
fugat, salutem et lucem ministrat, 
caratio et misericordia et bono* 
nun operum lux designatun De- 
bent enim sacerdotes tantis pol- 
lere virtutibus, ut quoscumque 
orando tetigerinty vel pro quibus- 
comque oraverint, saluti restitu- 
ant, eorumque bona opera coram 
bominibus ad eos accendendosy 
juxta Dominicam vocem, luceant. 
Halsamum quod miro odore fra- 
frraty Tirtutum odorem designat. 
Ait enim apostolus» ' Cbristi bo- 
nus odor sumus/ Saoerdos enim 
Dominus fuit, cum seipsum, in 
cruce pendens» vivam hostiam 

summo Patri pro salute populi sui 
obtulit. De ipso enim ait pro- 
pbeta : ' Tu es sacerdos in ster- 
num, secundum ordinem Melcbi- 

" Postea episcopu8y incUnatis 
humUiter coram se, imponcU 
manum super capita eorum ; et 
omnes preahyteri qui adsufitypo' 
riter cum eos solo pontifice di' 
cente : 

Oreraiis, dilectissimi, etc" Pon- 
tif. Winton, 

'^ This is a duty which has 
been, since the beginning of the 
Christian Church, always appro- 
priated to the priesthood : nor is 
it within the power of the Church 
to extend it to any inferior order, 
much less to permit it to the 
laity. Upon a subject which has 
been so frequently discussed in 
all its details, I shall do no more 
than remind the reader of the 
15th canon of the 1st Council of 
Aries in the year 314, directed 
against the unhallowed usurpa- 
tions of certain deacons. " De 
diaconibus, quos cognovimus mul- 
tis locis offerre, placuit minime 
fieri debere." Mansi, Tom. 2. 
coL 473. And the irrefragable 
authority of the Council of Nice : 
" ^HXQtv €ic rriv dyiav Kat fit- 
yaktiv trvvd^v^ hri iv ntn roiroic 
Kai iroXfflTi, ro«c irp«flr/Ji/T6poec rriv 
cvvaptoriav oi ^iOKOvoi Siioaaiv, 

'=jEr . 'Sbc «fTo 

<^ -• f ■■■gr^ 

«- rwsr- 

1.:» X :^Ti 

3. X ^«ux. 

-?r::ir -^f^ n^r: 

V-*r' ~ ' ■ ""^" ^ ■■» » - sf ^i^ ikis feiJovis^ cmoo of 
x^a ««auMoi «Bier Loois L: whicb 

of tliis admoni- 

nbB, sicat 

«Sy ^ wiMi MTrterionun 


Onti: ct in eonfecdooe 

^£▼fla conani ct sueuiius ooo'* 

vwc«<»* *••***' 

Celebratio fl)rlitnum. 


ngcnle^ et omnes presbyteri qui prasentes sunty manus 
a^ super capita coram Icvatas tcncantJ^ 
Se^uitur prof alio sacerdotum^ cum notaj stando. 
Oremus, dilectissimi, Deum Patrem omnipotentem, 
super hos famidos suos,^^ quos ad presbyterii munus 
e^t, coelestia dona multiplicetj^ et quod ejus digna- 
Dne suscipiunt, ipsius consequantur auxilio. 

rtes cam episcopis sunt; simili- 
r et in doctrina populorum, et 
I officno praedicandi." Synodus 
{quisgranentis. Can. vij. 

^ Again, we find almost these 
ame words, in the often quoted 
!!arthaginian council. **Presby- 
er com ordinatur, episcopo eum 
»enedicente, et manum super ca- 
put ejus tenente, etiam omnes 
presbyteri qui praesentes sunt, 
manus suas juxta manum episcopi 
super caput illius teneant." Can, 
»3* I need scarcely remind the 
reader of the charge given to Ti- 
mothy by S. Fkul: and the allu. 
sion to hb own ordination. The 
imposition of the hands of the 
attendant priests, together with 
the bishop's, is thus to be traced 
to the primitive and apostolic ages ; 
but not as an essential rite : never 
baving been considered in any 
other respect than as adding to 
the solemnity of the ordination, 
and as a mark of reception into the 
sacred brotherhood of priests. 

It has been asked, however, 
^ith regard to the imposition of 
haods by the buhop, why this is 
i^ecessary, having already been 

observed in the ordination to the 
diaconate. Catalani {Comment 
inpaniif. Tom, I, p. 130) says 
this is an ancient difficulty, and 
we certainly find it met not only 
by Durand, but by Amalarius as 
early as the 9th century : I quote 
the answer of this last author, 
who, it may be remarked, is fol- 
lowed by Durand (Lib. 2. iz. 15) 
almost word for word. '' Quare 
hoc? nisi quia per consecratio- 
nem de opere ad opus transit, si- 
cut de ministerio diaconi transit 
ad immolationem sacerdotalem. 
Quoniam nee illud opus, nee illud 
possumus agere, nisi dono gratiae 
Dei adjuti, ut ait apostolus. Re- 
petitur manus impositio, ac sic 
deprecatio primi operis transit ad 
deprecationem secundi.*' De ecc. 
off. Lib. 2. cap, 12. 

^* " Postea episcopus populum 
commoneat^ dicens sine nota: 
Commune votum communis ora- 
tio, etc.** Pontif. Exon. See 
above, Note 61. 

^ "quorum nomina hie reci- 
tantur." Pontif. Winton, 

•" « Per Christum." PonHf. 

2o6 Cetebtatio iDcHiriont. 



Flectamus genua. Levate. 


Exaudi nos, qusesumus Domine, Deus noster, et 
super ho8 famulos tuos bene^^^dictionem Sancti Spi- 
ritus, et gratiae spiritualist' e£Funde virtutem : ut quos 
tuse pietatis aspectibus offerimus consecraados, perpe- 
tua muneris tui largitate prosequaris : non temunando 
secrete: Per Dominum nostrum, Jesum Christum, 
Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate. 

Per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, 
Pater omnipotens, seteme Deus : Honorum dator, et 
distributor omnium dignitatum, per quem proficiunt 
universa, per quem cuncta firmantur, amplificatis sem* 
per in melius naturae rationalis incrementis, per ordi- 
nem congrua ratione dispositum. Unde et sacerdotales 
gradus, atque officia levitarum, sacramentis mysticis 
instituta creverunt, ut cum pontifices summos regendis 
populis prsefecisses, ad eorum societatis et opens ad- 
jumentum, sequentis ordinis viros et secundse dignitatis 
eligeres. Sic et in eremo per septuaginta virorum 
prudentium mentes, Moysi spiritum propagasti; qui- 
bus ille adjutoribus usus in populo, innumerabiles 

" " Et gratis sacerdotalis.*' PonUf. Winton. et Exon. 

Celebtatlo t)tl}{nttm. 207 

multitudines facile gubernavit. Sic et in Eleazarum 

et Ithamar filios Aacon» patemae plenitudinis abun* 

dantiam transfudisti ; ut ad hostias salutares et fre- 

quentioris officii sacramenta, ministerium sufficeret 

sacerdotum: hac providentia, Domine, apostolisr Fi- 

lii tui doctores fidei comites addidisti; quibus illi 

orbem totum secundis praedicationibus impleverunt. 

Quapropter infirmitati quoque nostrae, Domine quse- 

sumus, baec adjumenta largire, qui quanto firagiliores 

sirmus, tanto his plaribus indigemus. Da, queesumus 

omnipotens Deus, in hos famulos tuos presbyterii dig- 

nitatem;. et innova in visceribus eorum spiritum sane- 

titatisy ut acceptum a te, Deus, secundi meriti munus 

obtiiieant, censuramque morum exemplo suee conver- 

sationis insinuent. Sint providi^^ cooperatores ordinis 

nostri, et eluceat in eis totius forma justitiae, ut bo- 

nam rationem dispensationis sibi creditae reddituri, 

aetemse beatitudinis praemia consequantur : temdnando 

secrete : 

Per eundem Dominum. In unitate ejusdem. 
Hie reflectat episcopus stolarn super humerum eorum 
destrum adpectus^^ dicefis eis per singulosy sine nota : 

^ ^ Sint probi cooperatores.*' nen$ super dexterum hufnerwOi 

PornHf. Wmton. The earlier, aptat earn ante pectus, in mo- 

and probably the true reading, dum crucisJ* 

The modem Roman use has The stole, in the ordination of 

adopted *' providi.** priests, is not noticed in the Gre- 

^ As the corresponding rubric gorian sacramentary, or in other 

of the Roman pontifical explains of the early pontificals of foreign 

the meaning of the somewhat ob- churches : and Martene*» conjee 

score one in the text, I insert ture is probably correct, that it 

it here, .^^ Poni^» reflectU was considered unnecessary to 

orartum, awe stolarn cUf humero repeat this rite. But it would 

sinistro cujuslibety capiens par^ seem that in this case also we 

tern qum retro pendet, et impo" have another remnant of the pri« 

2o8 Celebratio fl)tlitnttm« 

Accipe jugum Domini : jugum enim ejus suave est, 

mitiTe Use of the British Church : 
for in those very andent pontifi- 
cals of Egbert and S. Donstan» 
which I before spoke of, we find 
the stole appointed to be deliTered 
again to priests : and it most be 
remembered that these MSS. carry 
us up to almost the time when 
the first Saxons were cooYerted, 
and communion again sought for 
with the British Church. The 
first rubric in those pontificals, is : 

•* Prethyter cum itrdimaimr, 
ctrcwuitffififr huwMTt 9fu9 ciitn 
ttola ah episecpo.** 

On account of the importance 
of it, and the great authority of 
these English pontificals, I ex- 
tract here also the rest of this 
rubric: ** Et ibidem Hiuleiur 
speciaiiier ctd qnalem ecciesiam 
deheat ministrare, et henedicente 
eum episcopoy manum tuper ca- 
put efui panai. Simiiiter et 
preihyterif qui preeeentes sunt, 
manue euas juxta manum epie- 
eopi super caput Uliue teneant 
et componantT 

But to return to the stole : it was 
not long before the custom of the 
English Church was introduced in- 
to France, and from thenoe proba- 
bly into other countries. For we 
find the stolerecognised as a pecu- 
liar part of a priest's yestments, as 
eariy as the beginning of the 9th 
century; and this, not only when 
engaged in the performance of 
hb duties, but as a distinction to 

be attached to hb constant dress : 
and it would naturally follow, that 
a solemn iuTestiture should form 
a part of the solemnities of ordina- 
tion. Thus we hare these ca- 
nons: (cited by Martene, Tom. 
2. p. 23.) '^Presbyteri sine in- 
termissione utantur orario prop- 
ter differentiam sacerdotii digni- 
Utis." Conef Mogunt, eem. 28. 
A.D. 813. ** Presbyteri non t^ 
dant nisi stola vel orario induti." 
Cam:. Tribur, can. 26. And 
John ci Salisbury teU us, in his 
life of Thomas a Becket, ^ sto- 
1am jugum Christi sustc circa col- 
lam diebus ac noctibus habebat.** 
That this was the general sym- 
bolical meaning of the stole, is 
dear from many writers. Alcuin 
says : ** Orarium, id est, stola, di- 
dtur eo quod oratoribus, id est, 
pnedicatoribus concedatur. Ad- 
monet ilium, qui illo induitur, ut 
memor sit, sub jugo Christi, quod 
leve et suave est, esse se oonsti- 
tutum." Cap. ** Quid significent 
vestimenta." JSdit. Hittorpius. p. 
77. Again, Amalartus: '<Per 
stolam designatur onus leve ac 
suave, de quo Dominus dicit: 
Tollite jugum meum^ etc Per 
jugum, evangelium intelligimus. 
— In eo quod stola ad genua 
tendit, qus solent curvari causa 
humilitatis, hoc intelligimus, quod 
Dominus dicit: Disdte a^mej 
quia mitis eum et kumili» corde, 
Sdat se dtaconus in stola super- 

Cefebratio 8>tlitaum. 209 

3t onus ejus leve." Stola innocentisB induat te Do- 

Pax tecum. 

Resp. £t cum spiritu tuo. 

Hie vestiat eos casula circa humeras^ tantum dicens 
id unumquemque : 

Accipe vestem sacerdotalem, per quam caritas in- 
telligitur : potens est enim Deus augere tibi caritatem, 
et opus perfectum.^ 

posita colloy ministram evangelii 
esse, noD prflepositam." De ecc. 
off. Lib. 2. Cap. 20. To the 
same poipoee also, Duiand, in his 
Rationale^ Uh, 3. Cap.Si whom 
it is unnecessary to qnotd : except 
thb sentence : ** stola ab humero si- 
oistro saoerdotis in dextram dum 
ordinatury reflectitar, quia cum 
obedientia indpist ab activa per 
dilectionem proximi, transit in 
contemplativam yitam per dilec- 
tionem Dei." §. 3. But the 
reader who wishes to discover 
more of the mystical significations 
of the stole, and other ecclesias* 
tical vestments, will find enough 
to repay (?) his labour in this 
third book of Durand. 

^ The Winchester MS. places 
this sentence, after the investing 
with the chasuble, and the form, 
" Accipe vestem.'' 

The Bangor MS. omits the 
fonn " Accipe vestem." 
The Exeter pontifical reads : 

*' „ onus ejus leve. 

Pax tecum. JRe^, Et cum spi* 
nta tuo. Pasiea imponai cuiU» 
VOL. iir.* 

bet successive cdsulam usque ad 
scapulas, quam quiiibet teneat 
sic compUcatam a parts anteri' 
ori dearsum dependsntem^ dicens 
cuilihet: Stola imiocentise induat 
te Dominus. Resp. Deo gratias. 
Episcopus subfungii in fines 
Accipe vestem, etc.** 

" The form in the pontificals 
of Egbert and Dunstan was: 
'^ stola justitis circumdet Domi- 
nus cervicem tuam, et ab omni 
corruptione peccati purificet Do- 
minus mentem tuam." 

^ In the Dunstan and other ear- 
liest English ^ntificals, the cha- 
suble was not put on until after 
the anointing had been completed. 
The following, in some MSS., 
are the rubric and form of words: 
** Et induat casula^ et didt epis- 
copus: Per hsec indumenta sto- 
1am et casulam salutis indui me- 
rearis etemse perpetuitatis pleni- 
tudinem, cum Sanctis sacerdotibus 
Christo ministrantibus : ut pr9- 
mia feliciter capessere valeas re- 
promissa. Per." 

M «< Casula que super omnia 

2IO Cclcbtatio fl)tlitiiiitn* 

Resp. Deogntias. 

Sequitur comecraiio cum^ 

Dcnniiiiis ▼obiscom. 


Oratio. Dens, sanctificationiim'^ omnimn auctor, 
cnJQs vera consecratio, plenaqae benedicdo est, ta, 
Domine, saper hos Amnios taos, qaos presbyterii ho- 
nore dedicamas, muniis tuee benedictioDis effunde : ut 
grayitate actuum et censura Tivendi probent se esse 
senioregy his institati disciplinis, quas Tito et Timotheo 
Paolus exposait, at in lege toa die ac nocte meditan- 
tesy quod legerint credant, quod crediderint doceant, 
quod docuerint imit^itur ; justitiam, constantiaiii, mi- 
sericordiainy fortitudinem, caeterasque virtutes in se 
ostendant, exemplo probent, admonitione confirment, 
ac purum et immaculatum ministerii sui donum cij^ 
todiant : et per obsequium plebis tuse, panem et vinum 
in corpus et sanguinem FilH tui sancta et immaculata 
benedictione transforment, et inviolabili caritate, in 

indnmeiita ponitDr, ngnificat cba- sacraTeriiit, sacrentur, Salvator 

ritatem» qos alias virtates excel- mundi: Qui vivis et regnas, Dens. | 

lit." Alcmn. ut supra. And see Per. 
Durand. lAh, 3. ** ConsecraUo manuum sacer- 

^ ** BenedicHOf vel ctmsecra- dotia de oleo et chrismaie : 
iiOfmanunmsacerdoiisantewuy ** Cousecrare et sanctificare, 

Honem chrumtUi» ; etcC* Pontif. Wmion, 

''Benedic,DomiDe,et8aiictifica ^ This prayer is in the sacra- 
has manus saoerdotam tnorum mentary of S. Gregory, and other 
N. ad consecrandas hostias, qu» MSS. In the pontificals cif 
pro delictis atque negligentiis po- Egbert and Dunstan it is en- 
puli offeruntur ; et ad cstera be- titled ** ConsummaHo presbyU- 
nedicenda qu» ad nsus populi n;*' which, in sense, is retained 
necessaria sunt; et praesta, quas- in the Winchester pontifical, as 
Rumus, ut qufficunque benedixe- the reader will obserye in the note 
rint, benedicantur, et quaecunque below. 

Celefttatio S)tlitnum. 


Lrum perfectum, in menBuram eetatis plenitudinis 
'liristiy in die justi et aetemi judicii, conscientia pura, 
de plena, Spiritu Sancto pleni persolvant. Per eun- 
em. In unitate ejusdem. 

JEjpplete aatem hao oratUme^^ genufiectendo coram 
Uare incipiat episcoptM hymnum, 

Veni Creator Spiritus. cte ." 

^ ^ Qua dictaj epiicopui cum 

unnihus ministrii stUs ante al" 

'arc in medio genu/leetaty can* 

Inndo hjfmnumj Veni Creator 

Spiritus. Et chorus prosequatur, 

Et incipictt episcopus cum suis 

nuni^tris quemUbet vereum ilUut 

hytnnii et chorus prosequatur, 

Jfytnno dicto sedeat episcopus^ 

sicut prius, et perungat oleo 

sancto chrismate mixto in par 

ienOi maniM cufusUbet sacerdotis 

ordinandi^ a pollice dextro ad 

indicem manus sinistra: deinde 

ab indice dextro ad polUcem si' 

nistram, dicens: Consecrare et 

sanctificare, etc.'^ Pontif. Exon. 

The Bangor MS. after the 

hymn " Veni Creator," directs : 

** Postea acdpiat oleum sane- 
him, cui misceatur chrisma, pro 
eo quod in consecratione chris- 
mails fit menOo de ordinibus ec- 
clesiasticis per ipsum perficien- 
diss et Jhciens crueem super 
ambtu manus, dicat singulis; 
Conse «{"crare, et sancti «{"ficare, 

" This hymn is not appointed 
in the Winchester pontifical, and 

it would appear that it was intro- 
duced into this part of the offices 
of the Western Church late in 
the xith century. The earliest 
MS. in which it has heen found, 
is (I helieve) a pontifical "ad 
usum ecclesi» Suessionensis,** of 
about that date, and from which 
Martene has printed his " vij. 
ordo." Tom. 2. p, 50. That 
manuscript seems to have been 
remarkably defident in rubrics, 
but after the form ** Consecrare'* 
is added " Veni Creator Spiritus." 

" Hymno <Veni Creator' quo 
Spiritus Sanctus invocatur, ex ve- 
terum sententia singularis que- 
dam vis inest. Pneterea S. Tri- 
nitati tam gratus est ut, si mens 
concordet voci, Spiritus Sanctus 
non possit quin cum septem suis 
muneribus cantantibus adveniat. 
Septem dona Spiritus Sancti sunt 
timor, pietas, scientia, fortitudo, 
consilium, intellectus, sapieatia. 
Unde versus : 

" Sap. Intel, con. for. sci. pi. ti. 
coUige dona." 

DanieU Thes. Hymnol. Tom. 
\.p.2\b. Cf. Clichtoveus. Elu- 
cidatorium. p. 40. 



/>/.^» kymmu^ ummkms u u g adi bmSj tpiscapus stai^ 
iem:iLrei Monur orHmmmionam crpamsMj cum noia. 

IXc^niniis roinscsm. 


BeDe*x"<£<^ ec siiMrti«7<fica, Dammey has manns sa- 
ceTd^<iaii taomm ad ooBsecrudas hostias, qos pro 
delicds atque negligendis popufi ofl^nntiv: et ad 
caetera beDediccnda, qme ad osos ejus necessaria sunt. 
Per Chrismm. 

Qua q-Midam oratio poiai did vet dimiUi ad placitum 

Po4tea^ cpifcopMs^ deposiiis ckirotheci^ et resumpte 


mdr m tbe preliainarT 
tioo iipoa toe rite rfwictini 
I shaJH observe that tbe 
pnctke «r tbe Eogiisli Chmdi, 
» Aevm bj the pontiieili d 
Eebert and Dunstao» «as to 
aiKMDt tbe Iwad abo: tiie older 
€f the fim is : ^ Cowccrslw MO. 

tifica has naaos» etc. J^adetu 
uUL*m Mitutam de ckrimmaie m 
wtamibma epu^ diei$: dmaeerat- 
tor manns ister eie. Camaeera-' 
Ho eapitu aho: Ungnatnr et 
eoDsecretnr c^Nit taum oolesti 
benedictiuDe in ordine saon^iotali, 
in nomine Furis, et FHii, et Spi* 
litiis 8ancti. Amen. Put tibL 
Et cum spiritn too." Witb which 
in that MS. the ordinadon of 

The Dnnstaii 
pontifical, as I have jost said, also 
anoints the head, with the same 
Ibcm of words : bat it omits the 
mbric as to the sign of the crossr 
and proceeds afterwards to direct 
the investing with the chasuble, 
and some other prayers. From 
the omission ni all notice of this 
rite in the Winchester pontifical» 
we may conchide thai it waB 
omitted by the English Church 
about the 10th w 11th century.* 
In the same way with the other, 
if I may so say, primitiTe customs 
of the English Church, above 
spoken of, this rite also seems to 
have been introduced for a time 
into some of the churches of 
France. Two early MSS. (of 
about the 9th century,) are shewn 

* This however admits of 
doubt, if a manuscript, said by 
Martene, Tom. 2. p. 23. to have 

belonged to Archbbhop Thomas 
a Becket, really was bis : for in 
that also, the same rite is ordered. 

Celelnratio fl)tlitnttm. 2 1 3 

annulo sedeat, et expanse tobalUa super genua accipiat 
oleum sanctum^ cm misceatur chrisma^ pro eo quod in 
consecratione chrismatis Jit mentio de ordinibus ecclesi^ 
asiicis per ipsum perficiendis : scilicet j quando episcopus 
incipitj Conse^crare et sancti^ficare digneris. Do- 
mine Deus, manus istas, facial cruces singulas ad ilia 
duo verba^ super tnanus sacerdotisy et intingat pollicem 
manus dextercB su€e in oleo et chrismate commixtis su- 
per patenam in bombace seu cotone; dicendo hac verba^ 
Per istam unctionem, facial crucem super tnanus sacer- 
dotis cum dicto oleo et chrismalCj el ungendos incipiendo 
crucem unctionis intra manus sacerdotis a pt^incipio pol- 
licis manus dexter (B presbyleri^ usque ad Jinem manus 
sinistrie indicis sacerdotis. Item incipiendo in secunda 
unciionCj complendo crucem a principio indicis manus 
dexlra presbyteri usque ad Jinem pollicis manus si- 

Sequilur consecratio manuum sacerdotis. 
Conse^i^crare et sancti^ficare digneris, Domine, 
manus istas per istam imctionem et nostram bene>{^ 
dictionem, ut quaecunque consecraverint conse^i^creii- 
tuTy et qusecunque benedixerint benedicantur, et sane- 
ti6centur^ in nomine Domini nostri, Jesu .Christi. 
Postea^ lavet manus suas si valuer it , vel imponatur 

by Marteae» in his extractB from cipe potestatem, etc^ Pontif. 

them, to have adopted it. Bangor. 

^ ** Demde peUenam cum oh- '' Etjungat manut eorum^ et 

latUy et ceUkem cum vino det etc teneant manus suas junciae 

nnguUsf dicens {id eos lenta voce: tuque in Jinem misea^ quibui 

Aocipite {sic) potestatem, etc." taUter espeditis^ epiecoput ma- 

PonUf. Wtnion, nue lavetf et post tradet cuUihet 

** Hod /aeio, accipiat patenam calicemy cum vino et aquoy et 

cum ohtatisf et caUcem cum vino, patenam euperpositam cum hoe- 

ft det einguUe^ ita dicens ; Ac- tia, quern €iccipiant inter indices 


il^^TMn L 9«rrr.A.«^. "^ ptmufmc UomU manus suas. Quo 

/a.tu mrz^jc z^cumtm cmm obUuis d caUcem^ cum 

f .m^ i: Oft SLr:f:L^.K iaUr i»dica d medics digUaSj cup- 

Mm r^^ ^ .-aan g4 :?tf<rf , rrwmmemiilmg manibus Junctis^ 

Anrrx >xie!SCftsm ofierre sacrificiiim Deo, missam- 
<'iif ^tiiecnrr fcfto pni> vhis q[iiam ^t> defimctis. In 
Kczae IKflii::^ J«sm ChmlL 

Ajjic nr-'u:-'^ ^Mrpto, d dkr^ offeriorium. 

ir mt^niM Kyv*/*. pb-xw ffWs^ainrf 

t» v^ck I vast refer bim: 
«si awmr mu>i biaa. tkat w> 
■secHMDi of tiLs me b mile m 
tW EB«tbk pottdftcdkbefove tke 
xitk ««nnvT. Nm- b it to W 
fouai ift iW MriT viUMeu taries 
«1^ G«l»ns or Grefovy: or m 
tbe cA«n quoted canons of the 
ivth Caitbagixuuft coandL 

** * Tmmc dicmi f fwc o ^t Do- 

dUdtfonMt." Pontif. Btngor. 

Pontif. Ezon. 

The Winchester pontifieal is 
veiy different frooi the other 
throe, from henoe to the end of 

and I extract the re- 
cntiret as it is iA that 
MS. It thus proceeds, 
after the fonn ** Aodpite potesta- 
te&T see aboTe, Note 90. 

** Ad eomsmmmuindum presby- 
iermhu €^kitan* 

** Sd nobis» frmtres» oommanis 
oratn» at hi qni in adjatorium et 
titililatffn nostrs salutis eligim- 
tor presbyteri, benedictione Di- 
mdnlgentiam conse- 
ci gratia Sanoti Spiri- 
saoerdotalia dona priTilegio 
» ne impares loco honoris 
deprehfndantnr, obtineant Per 
com qui viTit. 

Itemaraiio. Oremas» 
Dens sanctificationani omniam 
anctor, cnjos vera oonsecratio, 
He. {mi tfipra*) 

** Seqmiur uiHma hemedietio, 
^ Benedictio Dei Patris, et Fi- 
lii, et Spiritus Sancti descendai 
super ToSy ut sttis benedicti in or- 
dinem sacerdotalem ; oflerentes 
placalnles hostias pro peocatiB et 

Celebtatfo ^rDinum. 


Dominus vobiscum. 


OBert. Exulta filia Sion : pFsedica filia Hierusalem : 
ecce Hex thius venit tibi sanctus^ et Salvator. 

Vers. Loquetur pacem gentibus, et potestas ejus a 
mare usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos 
orbis teirae. 

T>um cantatur offertorium^ ponantur tot hostia quot 

offensioiiibuB Testrisy et populi, 
omnipotenti Deo, cai est honor 
et gloria in ssecula sseculorum. 

'^ Paz Domini sit semper vo- 

'* Et asculeiur aingulos, Et 
omnes qui ordinandi aunty (sic) 
obiaHones deferant ad manus 
episeopif nee aliquis ahacedatf 
donee mieea perfiniatur. 

** Benedietio in mieea ordina- 
tumis eleiricorumf in quocunque 
tempore on^men/v r. 

** Dens, qui de diversis ordini- 
Ini8 sanctam suam ecclesiam col- 
locavit in unius fidei fundamiBito» 
oorda vestra ad ezequenda man- 
datorum saonim prascepta oon- 
sociare dignetnr unitatis vinculo. 

** Sioqua vos altaris sui minis- 
tros eificiat, ut bonorum operum 
forma aliis effecti, et de ejusdem 
servittttis obsequio remuneramini, 
et ejus templum jugiter esse me- 
reamioi. Amen. 

^ Qoatenus corpore et mente 
in Gonspectu illius placentes, et de 
animamm lucro sanctanam gau- 

deatis, et ab eo premium vit» 
aetemae perdpere valeatis. Amen* 
** Quod ipse. Benedietio." 
^ I must remind the student, 
that the whole of the office of the 
mass, including the secrets, and 
the canon, b now said in the Ro- 
man Church, so that the newly 
ordained priests may hear: not 
as is ususd, in^a tone so low, that 
none can hear except the priest 
who celebrates. The modem 
pontifical has a rubric to thb ex- 
press effect: ** Secretae morose di- 
eaty ut ordinandi ad eacerdotium 
poeeini illae cum eo dicere, de" 
bent enim ex coneuetudine con^ 
celebraref et etiam verba coneer 
crationi» proferrer I mention 
this, because the points involved 
in this practice, though it be an 
exception, are of very high im- 
portance: more especially, the re- 
petition, by all, of the words of 
Consecration. There is more- 
over evidence, that in the early 
ages, priests not only at their or- 
dination, but at other times, and 
throughout the Christian world, 
celebrated the Divine Service to- 


^ele&tatio 0>t]ijimiit« 

Quid retribaam Domino : more salUo. 

getber with the BUhop. See Mo 
rmu9 de ncr. ordin. Part. iij. 
/)iMer/. 8. Cap. 1. Cate/oni in 
Pontif. Rom, Tom. 1. ^. 45, and 
Martene. Tom. 2. p. 24. 

The chief point, as I need 
•caroely remind the student* in- 
ToWed in this matter, is ite bear- 
ing upon the question of the con- 
secration of the sacred elements, 
by the mere repetition of the 
words of Institution. I must re- 
fer him to my Pk^ace to the An- 
cient Liturgy, (p. c et seqq: 
2nd Edit) where he will find this 
subject discussed. There can be 
no doubt that both in the Eastern 
and Western Churches, the prac- 
tice of *> ooncelebralion,'* as I have 
stated above, was on certain oc- 
casions allowed ; nor are any dif- 
ficulties involved in it, until we 
are asked to consent to that no. 
vel figment, that by the mere 
words of Institution only, and by 
them alone, the Holy Eucharist 
is consecrated. Then certainly, 
steps in this question : one, which 
the Roman doctors see the force 
of, but fail to explain : the doubt 
is this ; (I use the words of Cata- 
lani) " An presbytero cum epis- 
copo ooncelebranti adscribi debeat 
consecratio, si ante episcopum 
verba consecrationis protulerit?" 
In pontif Bom. Comment. Tom. 
I. p. 142, He answers it, by 

"*kinfir the Wilde efleet depend 
npon Intention: and cites Pope 
Jinocent HI. whose words «rei 
Sane did, et responderi proba- 
bibter potest, quod aive prius, sive 
P<wterius proferant sacenlotes, ns 
fern debet eorom intentio adm- 
«tar prolationis episcopi, eai con- 
celebrant." LH. IV. de mjsteriis 
=J»W- It will be observed that 
the pope speaks doubtlbUj: and 
as Catalani is himself obliged to 
aUow, many great writers attenpt- 
ed to get rid of the diflliculty, by 
proposing the entire abrogation of 
the custom: or at least, that the 
words of Institution should be re- 
peated by the celebnmt alone. 
Among these were Dmrand (in 
IV. Distinct, xiij. Qusest. iij\,) who 
plainly says that Innocent decides 

•• ut doctor, et non ut papa :'* 

Cajetan in iij, part S. Thom». 
Qusest Ixxxij. and Gabriel Biel^ 
in Canon Missae: lect. vj. To 
these may also be added Mori- 
nus, who declares that the gene- 
ral practice once allowed had very 
properly been restricted, **pr». 
sertim cum mos ille fuerit doctori- 
bus scholasticis innumeTarum dif- 
ficultatum seges amplissima, non- 
nullis asserentibus hoc fieri posse, 
aliis negantibus, aliis certos quos- 
dam possibilitatis modes et ter- 
minos excogitantibus; omnibus de- 
inde utsese ab adversariorum teUs 

Celebtatio i)tliinum« 


J^ostea episcopus fricet digitum suum cum pane, de- 
inde abluat manus. Ablutis manibus, episcopus rever- 
tat se altare^ ad divinum officium exequendum. 


Super has hostias fidelium, Domine qusesumus, pro- 
pitio yultu respice, et quia nostris mentis non vale- 
musy his potius muneribus tuo occursui commendemur. 

Aliud secretum. 

Tuis, qusesumus Domine, operare mysteriis, ut haec 
tibi mmiera dignis mentibus offeramus. Per Domi- 
nuni nostrum. 

Prafatio quotidiana. 

Deinde dicat episcopus totam missam usque ad bene- 
dictionem dandam:^ post Per omnia saecula saeculo- 
rum, Ante Agnus Dei dicat diaconus : 

tuerentur, novas et involutas re- 
culas, vrriyifjLiovQ rac avtfio^opri- 
rove cudeotibos et recudentibus." 
And he proceeds to cite a whole 
host of schoolmen, and others. 
De S. Ordm: pars. iij./>. 126. 

** After the Cup was denied to 
the laity, and to all in fact except 
the officiating priest, for some 
time it was usual at ordinations to 
communicate all who had been 
ordained, in both kinds. Thus a 
pontifical cited by Martene di- 
rects the communion to be given : 
and the next restriction seems to 
have been, that in both kinds 
was to be allowed only when the 
Pope himself ordained. I think 
it well to quote this from a MS. 
Roman pontifical in the Colber- 
tine library, as printed by Mar- 
tene, Tom. 2. p. 85. 

** Pott communionem vero 
pontificUf ante perfusionemy or-- 
dinati flexis genibusy facta con- 
Jhssioncy et osculata dextra pon- 
ti/iciSf sacram communionem re^ 
eipiunt de manu ponti/icis^ re* 
eipiendo osculum pads ah eoy 
scilicet preshyteri et diaconi: 
sanguinem autem recipient de 
manu diaconi qui cantavit evan- 
geliumf et redeunt ad loca sua 
circa altare. Si cUius a papa 
ordinationem Jaciant^ eommu- 
nicabunt omnes sacer dotes pri- 
ma^ diaconi secundo, et subdia- 
coni tertio de corpore Domini 
tantumt et non de sanguine" 

^ *' Ad benedictionem dicat 
diaconuSf Humiliate, etc.'* Pon* 
tif. Bangor* 

" Seguatur solemnis benedic- 
tion* Pontif. Eson, 

2 1 s Celebtatio fl)tliiiuinL 

Humiliate vos. 

TunCj dimisso corpare Christi super patenam, conver- 
tat se ad papuium, et accepto baculo det benedktionem 
istamj vet aliam tempori campetentem : 

Omnipotens Deus sua vos dementia benedioat,^ et 
sensum in vobis sapientiee salutaris infundat. Amen. 

Catholicse fidei vos documentis enutriat, et in Sanc- 
tis operibus perseverabiles reddat. Amen. 

Gressus vestros ab errore convertat, ^t yiam vobis 
pacis et caritatis ostendat. Amen. 

Quod ipse praestare dignetur, cujus regnum et im- 
perium sine fine permanet: in ssBcula sseculorum. 

Benedictio Dei omnipotentis, Patris ^ et Filii ^ et 
Spiritus ^ Sancti, descendat super vos et maneat sem- 
per. Amen.^ 

Deinde dicat episcapus : 

£t pax ejus. 

Post communionem episcopij sacerdotes accedant ad 

Postea dicatur communio. 

* " Bene •(• dicat." Pontif. voluerii: et poiteainduat chtro- 

Bangor. thecaa et mUram^ et teneai m 

manu sinistra haculum peutora-^ 

^ " Data benedictioney acce- /em, et ponat manum dextram 

dant ad pacemy et communionem super caput cujusUhet saeerdo- 

sacerdotes et levity si voluerint: tis, dicenss Accipe Spiritiuii, efo." 

antequam dicatur collecta ad Pontif, Espon, 
complendum, ponat episcopus 

manus super capita singulorum^ ^ We cannot conclade from 

dicens : Acdpe Spiritum, etc.** this obscure rubric, whether the 

Pontif. Bangor. communion was to be adminis- 

" Dicto Agnus Dei, et post- tered in one, or in both kinds. 

quam ^fnscopus fiierit communi- Nor does the Engtish pontifical 

catuSi communicet sacerdotes si make any mention of a custom, 

Celedratio 0)tliinum* 


Exultavit ut gigas ad currendam viam : a summo 
coelo egressio ejus, et occursus ejus usque ad sum- 
mum ejus. 

Antequam^ dicatur postcommunioy ponat episcopus 
manus 9uas super capita singutorum, dicens : 

Accipe Spiritum Sanctum : quorum remiseris pec- 

which was probably nevertheless 
obeerved, of kisshig the hand of 
the bishop» before communion. 
The modem pontifical of the 
Church of Rome has inserted a 
rubric to that efleot, and Durand 
in his Rationale speaks of it as 
the common practice in his time. 
JM. 2. Cap. X. But with this 
difference; and it would be cu- 
rious to discover whether such 
was the practice continued in the 
Church of England: viz.: that 
the bishop kissed each newly or- 
dained priest, but the others, dea- 
cons, &c., kissed the bishop^s 
hand. And the reason he gives 
for this, is important, and will 
excuse^ I trust, the length of this 
note. '^ Quia pontifex osculando 
saoerdotem denotat, quod ille ad 
asqualitatem Ordinis redpitur, 
quantum ad sacramentum Eucha- 
ristiae consecrandum, quod est 
sacramentum amoris, quod per 
osculum sigttificatur. Diaconus 
vero, et subdiaconns non recipi^ 
untnr ad talem sqnalitatem, sed 
ad imitationem bonae operationis, 

^ In this place, the modem 

Roman pontifical has inserted this 
mbric. *^ Incepto responsorio^ 
pontifejTf €tceepta miUra^ vertU 
se ad presbyteros ordinatosy qui 
ante aUare coram ipso stantea 
profitentur fidem^ quam prcgdi" 
eniwri sunt dicentes : Credo in 
Deum. etc." This does not ap- 
pear to be an improper addition 
to the old office, although the rea- 
son why it should have been 
placed here, is not very obvious. 
There is no ancient authority 
whatever for its introduction, ex- 
cept one pontifical of the 13th 
century, cited by Catalani, (Com- 
ment . in Pontif, Ro^n* Tom. 1. 
p. 148.) in which the Creed is 
ordered to be said, before the or- 
dination service commenced. But 
there is a canon of the eleventh 
council of Toledo : '* Ut unusquis- 
que qui ad ecclesiasticos gradus 
est accessurus, non ante honorem 
consecrationis accipiat, quam pla- 
citi sui innodatione promittat, ut 
fidem catholicam sinoera cordis 
devotione custodiens, juste et pie 
vivere debeat, et ut in nullis operi- 
bus suis, canonic» regulis contra- 
dicat." ConcU. Mamu Tom. xL 
coL 143. 


Cdebtatio fl)tliiniiin. 

cala, remittimtiir eis: et qoorom retinaeris, retesta 

^ TUi Tery i n ip or UB t put of 
tbe ofiee of ordanaiiaa of priests» 
is» oooqisntiTdj» of late intiodiie. 
tkm. I doubt wbether any ex- 
ample of it is to be «fiseovered 
oariier than die xijlh oentuiy: 
and ahhoc^ it bad been adopted 
into die vse of tbe Cbnrdi of 
Bailor, beiofe tlw end of tbe 
next centniy, we bave no trace of 
it in die Wincbester pontificaL 
AO die great ritnalists bave foiled, 
and acknowledge it, in dkeir searcb 
after earfier antbority. Martene 
bas dted an undoubtedly very re- 
markable passage, from tbe IHe of 
a bisbop of Cambrai, wbo lived 
in tbe lOtb oentary: wbere tbe 
writer is speaking of tbat bisbop 
being ordained priest, and among 
otber circumstanoes remarks ; 
^^Cumque ad manns impositionem 
pontificalia dioeretur novo pres- 
byteroi 'Acdpe Spiritom Sane- 
turn, quorum remiseris peocata, 
eie.** Martene's most just cri- 
ticism is : ** Verum quid unicum 
testimonium tot pontificalibus li- 
bris oppcmendum?" Tom. 2. 
p. 23. 

For all the early pontificab 
omit this second imposition of 
hands;, and explicit delivery of 
the power to remit or retain sins. 
It is not in the early English 
MSS. of Egbert or Dunstan, or 
the Winchester Use : it is not in 
any of the foreign Orders» printed 

by Martene^ before the 12th cen- 
tury : it is not in the old Sacra- 
mentaries of S. Gregory, or Ge- 
lasius: nor, lastly, does one of 
tbe andent ritualists, Isidore, or 
Amalaritts, or Strabo, Alcuin, Mi- 
crologns, or Ivo Camotenas, al- 
lude to it in the moat distant 

With regard to the controver- 
sialists of the Roman Church, 
this &ct places them in a consi- 
derable difficulty: and really I 
cannot help observing, how very 
numerous the difficulties are which 
an appeal even to the documents 
of <*the dark ages," (not to say, 
the primitiye ages,) thrusts them 
into. Because, unhappily, the 
Tridentine Council has authori- 
tatively declared : ^* Si quia diie- 
rit, per sacram ordinationem non 
dari Spiritum Sanctam; ac pro- 
inde, frostra episcopos dicere, ' Ae- 
dpe Spiritum Sanctum ; ' ana- 
thema sit." Sess. 23. Canon. IV. 
BeUarmm does not shrink from 
the undeniable conclusion which 
must be drawn from this canon : 
(the reader will not foiget that 
the first imposition of hands was 
given in silence; see above, p. 
204.) and he plainly says : '^ Con- 
cilium dedarat, tunc ordinari 
presbyteros, et tunc dari illis gra- 
tiam Spiritus Sancti, cum eis did- 
tur: Accipiie Spiritum Sanctum, 
At cum hoc dicitur, manus impo- 

Celettatio fl)rDmum. 


Tunc trahat unicuique casuiam in sinu per scapulasj 
as€:ulans tum^ et dicens:^ 

nuntur, ut patet ex pontificali> et 

ecclesise consoetudine ; ergo sen- 

tiebat concilium jt7/am impontuh 

9t^m manus esse de essentia.*' 

Opera. Tom. 3. p. 613. De 

•Sturr. Ord. Lib, 1. Cap. ix. 

Goar takes the same view. JBu- 

choL p. 279. note 11. It is not 

necessary to qaote other writers 

to the same effect : hecause in this 

case, it is not what a single doc- 

tor, or ten doctors have said, hut 

what the Coundl of Trent has not 

feared seemingly to set its seal to : 

namely, this : that for 1000 years 

the service for the ordination of 

priests wanted an essential part. 

The true explanation is, that, 

there heing inherent in the 

priestly office, power over hoth 

the mystical and the eucharistical 

body of Christ, power, that is, to 

consecrate the sacred elements of 

Bread and Wine, and power to 

rule and to absolve the living 

members of the Church militant, 

this power was g^ven entirely and 

at once, by the single and first 

imposition of hands. It was very 

wise in the revisers of our ordinal 

not to omit this lately added 

clause, ''Whose sins thou dost 

forgive, they are forgiven; and 

whose sins thou dost retain, they 

are retained:'' but it was still 

more wise and accordant with all 

ancient precedent both of opinion 

and practice, by uniting the two 

Forms, and restoring the one im- 
position of hands, to remove all 
doubts and difficulties upon the 

^ See above Note 98. 

^ The Roman rubric somewhat 
explains this : ** Deinde explicans 
ceuulam, quam unusguisque ha- 
bet super humeros compUcatam^ 
induit ilia quemlibet, singulis di- 
cens: Stola innocenti» induat te 
Dominus." The form does not 
seem very appropriate. 

Also in the modem Roman use, 
there here follows, as in our own 
ordinal in another place, an oath 
or promise of canonical obedience. 
The rubric is " Et mox unusguis- 
que iterum adpontificem aecedit^ 
et genufiexus ponit manus suae 
functas inter manus pantificis 
dicentis cuilihety si suus est or- 
dinariuSi Promittis mihi, et suc- 
cessoribus meis reverentiam et 
obedientiam? et ille respondet: 
Promitto.*' Both Martene and 
Catalani agree in the fact that 
this is a ceremony of late intro- 
duction, at least in this place, af- 
ter communion. But for the act 
of promising obedience, by the 
priest to his bishop, at some time 
before, and generally immediately 
before, the rite itself of ordina- 
tion, we have sufficient evidence. 
And the present ordinal of the 
Church of England, in this mat- 
ter also, has returned to a most 

ift PC oraiumibus eorum sin- 

.:-.-:. -— i:-«Biir-r rxm ncia siandoj et ad cos 

>trr-i^-iii Thi 7'jcrk^ ^ ct FIHi t^ et Spiritns ►{< 

>»i2*.-i^ «K^v^^iusff ^dwr v:i5^ tt sitis benedicti in or- 

41 ^ -«.t-**. .z-*L fT iifer'si2> piUcabiles hostias pro pec- 

•..:> -.* *•*: ft!Kt^ HIATUS Tvc-z^ omnipoteiifi Deo : cui 

r-i r -• r t* c- r^*u :rL ssi:T£sa ssculoniiiL. Amen/ 

^ ^- . - ^ .J. jr-fCTiiifr OS fpiscopiu Hondo shK 

fent «liqiH^B sibi 

led obedientum 

raiHft cx%il, etkin ipse depen> 

«L^ CmaL Jfoiut. Tarn. xi. 

i « a^ ,:sa- *** * » ^^imf.- On pro me» Inter. 

^ ^^ g „ -«n- .. - ^» HR* 3US *^- »*^ ^***' «^ a/faire, e* J»- 

%^-«-i«t «^«r wivrtc «sa J^ t'^^^^ mcerdoies dicat 


V -t* M*W^V^ V «IV 9HIDK «auwmi 

\^ *-3^ » -v» I ««-* "^ »"«« MS. agms with 

w^^-i<«a*u m«a .:>*l b«ti j^^» Rtti^. pontif. Exon. 
[L Sir l^^*» ««tMi : Qn scii 
J]i^' ,^;>tr-lf^ «» pnepofiku». • It doe» not appetf that this 

Celebtatio iiDtninum. 


Quia res quam tractaturi estis satis periculosa est, 
fratres carissimi, moneo ut diligenter et honeste totius 
missse ordinem, et consecrationem, et fractionem, atque 
<;oinmimicatioiiemy ab aliis jam doctis sacerdotibus dis- 
oatis, priusquam missam cantare prsesumatisJ 

Deinde^ archidiaconus injungat eis novem mmas; 
"Videlicet, tres missas de Trinitate^ tres de sancta Maria, 
pro statu universalis ecclesia, et tranquillitate regis et 
regniy et prosperitate domniy et tres missas de Reqmem, 

admonition can be traced earlier 
than to tbe Idth century. Still 
there are many evidences which 
shew that the practice of diligently 
learning the duties of their office, 
before actually entering upon 
them» was common long before. 
Nor could the necessity of it be 
light, when we remember the in- 
tricacy and multitude of the ru- 
brics which the newly ordained 
priests were to observe. 

^ ^* Hie injungatur eis aUqua 
quotidiana pcenitentiay ps. Ad te 
levavi .* vel aUquu alms psalmus. 
Hie incipiatur posteommunio. 
Hestat ui dieatur eoUeeta missa 
ad eompiendum." Ruhr. Pontif. 

** Quo dietOy dieatur posteam- 
munio" Rubr. Pontif. Exon. 

* None of the early pontificals, 
or the ancient sacramentaries, 
have any notice to this effect ; it 
is therefore of late introduction. 
The utmost, which appears in any 
of them to lead to it, is a simple 
and religious request by the bi- 
shop that the newly ordained 

should pray for him. But these 
directions to say certain prayers, 
psalms, or masses, which as the 
reader has seen, has been divided 
in the office in our text, into se- 
veral admonitions by the arch- 
deacon to each degree in the mi- 
nistry, hare been coHected by the 
modem Roman pontifical, into 
one set form, to be solemnly pro- 
nounced by the bishop, after the 
postcommunion, and the blessing. 
I think it right to extract it, bear- 
ing, as it does, on much that has 
gone before. 

'' Singuli ad primam tonsuram, 
vel ad quatuor minores ordines 
promoti, didte semel psalmos poe- 
niteotiales, cum litaniis, versiculis, 
et orationibus. Ad subdiacona- 
tum, vel diaconatum, noctumum 
talis did. Ad presbyteratnm vero 
ordinati post primam vestram mis- 
sam, tres alias missas, videlicet, 
unam de Spiritu Sancto, aliam de 
beata Maria semper virgine, ter- 
Uam pro fidelifous defunctis di- 
cite, et omnipotentem Deum etiam 
pro me orate.** Pontif. Bom 

r^ ^mMmatur watris a wmtris H pn mlute omnium 

1-. .^-« 4tj-umcianp^ vtl mfmmgaUaras aliqua alia quo- 

.vuieiiotipmimat Ad te leTayi velali- 

£r dammms ^itca/ms concedat in- 

^ _ -...«a ruodi'nas'inui dicrmm omnibus audienlibus 

^ ' - "-.-Mb? muauuL 

..' c.r«A L^tc nmocffnu pottconuuuuoiittnm 
^i^s^-^jsist- r»(nBe.Di0K BOBter^Qt sacrosancta mys- 
T^^-i^ cat jr\ .'ty . m ifpg Bartnp ■wnriinine contnlisti, 
• --^ts^-^ naib' 'iiBMiiTniM esBe fiots et fiitunun. 

jC ">- ^^ rtcmnKi. ivfick sacnmaitis, oontmuis 

r *f .^c^.s^ .-smuons A trltwL Per Domimmi.' 

S -'v* ■-:ri\;i- T^ionnif..'' 

\: .« .*«. .-^» r*v-.jMib^ *» 

». « ...«« Ac^ «.; ^^^ MSQA * nb «f ciane would not be 

^. -^w^. .««.^«..-M % «sfefnak aMic«aBS«baidie ''Iteyinissa 

ift^. N.^ » ««.M^A »Kfi«4«ai ^MTMK. 46^^ w& aoDar&i^ to Uie me of 

te « t ^ 'v>v >fclff*tigT> die lyiinle d form. 

.^'i^^i ...>v^st.cs tt.t Aif!^ rW jtAi si w l d refer to** the 

^..«..v-iK «•. .^»K J ADO. ."«^ ^** J^mim^e Mj^mMg^^ (secoDd edit :} 

J 4^..>v %>^v*.>i«>^^ «•.««^«■lev « >. "i^ mt^ SO» And here I 

«V ^ » h« V ^.^ <«.«». .««i.^ .^Mi^«s*b^ «tnuk «p«B I LB aid lum, that mil 

«... ^ « ^^»^.».«..A ft^' -«^^^ *«K niiiiir i«ets «f die text, which 

■^,- ^ «kw*- .% >w ^"x** -^^^->^ ^ >i<iir V dir MOHHMBioB aerrioe of 

^^*^ *x :w-**.s»»«u^ ■** H»rt*n<«>. ait w-x ll» c el le c ti , gndoal, 

^»4 'v'%*^ >^.i%i%* t.^^ ^^vh^ *wwk «MKts^ &e^ wonhi also 

%. »., i^ >«c'%»^ X*.-** a ,jw»^^ ^i i a n ip r «Mwdfaig to die proper 

««'kN*»^ .;m «K^uuft luiv 4«n9«^f«^ ^^KOiMaMM» «f die season at 

.,.», 4«.%^ »..?w ^N^^v^ ^v^>K* ^ ma»;* dw «^fisatMiat took plue. 

Celebtatio HDtHinum. 


Postea dicat episcoptis : Placeat tibi Sancta Trini- 
is : et cateray more solito. Mtssa completa, recedant 
icerdotes ad lavandum manus}^ 

Iste modus pradictu^s servetur in omnibus aliis ordini- 
us subsequentibus.^^ 

^ This washing of the hands 
f the priests, is directed to be 
one according to the modem 
ise of the Church of Rome, in 
he middle of the office, ''/n- 
erecL dum offertorium cantaiur^ 
"el etiatn priusy ordinati sacer- 
ioteM poterunt lavare mamu auas 
cum medulla pants, et aqua bene 
mufidare, atque extergere map- 
pulis illiSf guibus Ugata erant, 
et aqua ahlutionie hujusmodi 
projiciatur in sacrarium.'* Ruhr. 
Pontif. Rom. No direction to 
this effect is to be found in the 
early pontificals, and it was intro- 
duced, as a conseou^ce of the 
extreme reverence which began 
in the middle ages to be paid 
to the consecrated oil, whether 
chrism or not, which was used in 

the unction. To the same pur- 
pose, were the careful directions, 
which were so frequently repeated 
as to the unction at confirmation ; 
see VoL 1. p. ccziv: and above, 
as to coronations, p. 24. 

13 That is, at the other Ember 
days, or seasons of general or- 
dinations. The Salisbury pon- 
tifical, from which the text is 
taken, contains, which is not the 
case with all pontificals, the va- 
riations of lections, epistles, gos- 
pels, collects, &c., according to 
the di£ferent times of the year. 
Each of them, as it occurs in its 
place in the manuscript, referring 
back to this office of the Ember^y 
in Advent, for those portions of 
it which related to the ordination 
itself, and were unchangeable. 


amnonitio toCormatorta episcopi an ptimam 

toniBuram reciptentesE, et an omnes 

attoiK ornineiBE. 

Imfonnatio de prima tonmra dericaliy et sumitur dt 
vrrbis nuigistri Hugonis de Sancto Victore^ Ubro 
de mKramentis} 

I RIMUM signaculmn clerici est corona, quia 
per boo signum eligitur in partem sortis 
iBinislerii diTini, coi servire regnare est, 
amt dicit Petrus, * Vos estis genus elec- 
TLiTw TTC^i^ sacerdotium/ Propter hoc et coma ei b 
x*>ri.3: corv«Me roamdae tonditur, et caput draper 
xuiiiZir. «x per bcc et se ad regiam in Christo digni- 

%. •* 


, ^ ^-^ %*.i*ii,^ of a 
^ ^ ^ «.«.^iKUx to the 
, . .vv wOi^ iftKiTabe reader 
^«.^ ^ xMtpftraf tliem 
,^* - 2t»^»n^ ^«t similar 
^^.» ^hkW >5 Martene, 
.^^ •CVS.. UAmtEcc. 
.^ .< ♦. :^ He speaks 
^.> ittvNiW»» occur- 
,^v. A.x<p^*»^ rwKider- 

MKiica] of thechardi oi Rooen: 
imperfect, not ffflitinjing* the ad- 
monition to the ^ ostiariiy* as he 
himself remarks ; nor die ^ infbr- 
matio de prima toosora,** of the 
existence of which, as a prelimi- 
nary admonition of the same kiod, 
he was prohably not aware. 

This " informatio"' is stated id 
the text to have been derived from 
Hugh S. Victor on the Sacra- 
ments. But it differs much from 
the chapter on the subject, Lib. 
1. Cap. 82. as given in the Auc- 
tarium to the Bibl. Patrum. Tom* 

3|nfotmatio He ptima ton^uta. 227 

;atein assumi intelligat, et quia inter ipsum et Deum 

irelamen desuper nullum esse debeat, sed revelata facie, 

secundum apostolum, Domini sui gloriam contemple- 

:ur. Clericus enim non sicut laici secretorum Dei 

gnarus esse debet, quia nuntius ejus est ad laicum 

populum. Unde et usque ad apertionem oculorum et 

murium amoventur crines quasi superflui, ut eum ab 

atudiendo et intelligendo verbo Dei occupatio saecularis, 

Bt terrena ambitio non impediat. Extunc vero debet 

ecclesise stipendiis sustentari, et Seriptura Sacra in- 

strui, et in officio ecclesiastico institui : ut cum ratio 

poposcerit, et setas, ac scientia, et mores suppetunt, 

ad ordines sacros assumi possit sub titulo certo, sine 

quo non sunt ordinandi, ne potius acephali quam 

clerici efficiantur. Hujus tonsurae ritus ex veteri 

Testamento a Nazareis, ut dicitur, sumpsit exordium, 

quoniam crines diu crescentes, ob vitae continentiam 

tandem rasos in ignem sacrificii, consumebant. Sed 

et in Actibus Apostolorum, Priscillam et Aquilam, 

atque beatum Paulum, et quosdam alios, idem fecisse 

legimus, significando in corde et opere puUulantia 

vitia praecidenda. 

Admmiitio ad ostiarios^ qui primi sunt ordinis. 

OSTI ARII in veteri Testamento janitores diceban- 
tur. Quorum officium est claves ecclesiee custo- 
dire, et competentibus horis claudere et aperire, et quae 
intus sunt custodire, fideles Christianos recipere, ex- 
communicates vero et infideles excludere, sicut patet 
partim ex verbis episcopi ordinantis. Hoc officium 
Christus per se ipsum exercuit et constituit, quando 
ementes et vendentes in templo, per quos omnes hae- 
retici et infideles figurantur, cum flagello de funiculis 
ejecit de templo. 

^^etztoMtf pro- 
JL anr3i^ populi 

...r l: esc -fis» ^aK=^ ztv^ ioEcracti, ut 
'^r .^ zcns;. ^ lsfiB^ a.-r=3]nBn;. « dkdncte 

tc I jxSi indica- 

:sr im. ^^*^^» et ubi 

^ms^ JiEtr ^Baie ofaser- 

-^^ ^~ •^'^ ^ -SH^ r^-^ T*>> Tiiit 7>y*' 'i*^* aTTTinng 

^^^ **• • •i-..rTzr s^z ^^ rtm utrnunrirrcs oaoca dis* 
^: -T^ -^ii.— ^- ^ -:i2- /j^iin nuurors sltc fiiciant: 

^ i3^ ^r--:"'.i::i__ L^.': r— 5« tunr ^raEfcxaae» Tel pro- 

"^^ .r '^*^ "^ • i^ :cr.Tir .£ • c ifiiLiuni tekt^'ii^ et insti- 

'"^^. z^JTJSv »-::jj2»u» iui «.f nus or seuio doeconmi et 

"^' ,.-t» '^irTrsv 'rmm Is=ar.p jg %H c uIi > « ibi legit, 

^ ' ^ j^.tLP-s- ,r*ii^i» T^aiTTuai cisimir debenl, qui po- 

, ,... .... li w ±z:r:i:iCXK rii tertii smni ordinis. 

^ -- "^.CI"^"^ ^ sc LTV. Ji ll bonwia ct mmidiiin intra 

Vt ^ j^bere iieb^n^ i^^iia imperium spirituale acci- 

c >:irvr waI-^^ spiriuB «t iimattiidos, nt eos de cor- 

.9Dmonitto ad erorcijBEtaiB!. 229 

poribos obsessis ejiciant. Habent etiam facere in cate- 

oliumenis officium apertionis. Hi in ordine et officio 

ecclesise constituti sunt secundum hoc, quod in templo 

Salamonis dispositi erant primo, sed postea ab Esdra 

dictinctius ordinati. Hoc officium exercuit et instituit 

IDominus, quando cum saliva sua tetigit aures et lin- 

gxuun surdi et muti, dicens, Ephphatha, quod est, adar 

I>erire ; docens nos per hoc spiritualiter aperire aures 

et ora cordium, ad recte intelligendum et confitendum 

Ohristum. Hoc etiam officium exercuit saepius, sed 

specialiter expellendo septem deemonia de Magdalena. 

Admonitio ad acolytos^ qui in quarto ordine 

ACOLYTI Greece, ceroferarii dicuntur Latine. 
Qui dum evangelium legitur, vel sacrificium 
offertur, vel caeterum ministerium sacrum perficitur, 
cereos accensos deferunt, non ut hujus aeris tenebras 
illuminent, sed ut spiritualiter lucis opera proximis 
ostendant, et errantibus more lucis ducatum prsestent. 
Accipiunt et urceolum vacuum de manu episcopi, quia 
nondum digni sunt tenere plenum ; in signum quod 
vasa templi tangere quidem possunt, sed nondum per- 
fecti sunt ad sacri ordinis officium ministrandum. Hoc 
officium se habere testatur Dominus, dicens, ' Ego sum 
lux mundi. Qui sequitur me non ambulat in tenebris, 
sed habebit lumen vitse.' 

Admonitio ad suhdiaconoSy qui quintum locum 


UINTO loco, ordo est subdiaconorum, qui apud 
Grsecos hypodiaconi vocantur. Isti sunt qui in 


in quo 

ct vasBa GOT- 


IT 1^11 IS.: n 3iy~ r^fc s ji . r timn trann, iLfUB otaMii «ent 
r^jidiinnjt. ^1 ^xr ^«rrnfniK si;;. - Xus^nai qui fertis 
^aba. Z^.imiiL 'EL IE ignnui Ztnuic ncJiiliif n snsci* 
^iTmr 1 It oiJ^ A c. fn.rai -n^ jTTnaaueak perti- 

^H^ii&^ -^. *:Li?=crL:i.r*^'^ ji^ir«. « Sk^iasr in haptismiim 
'-ir^l'ir^ irt*:»;^!!::. TTr^^finL iriiit^n* ec ^^'^^■muldn^ ^^ 
3iaaiiitrjrTnL 7f*iiir? ^ia;!-x»x « TresSivxra, el leTitis, 
ir; i^-^^Tiij^ £zrf z.ji£rs 3lj2l:i]&. acBm pndione. Hi 
•iTEiL ;r':-^;i,Tnr ^lo:: sa£ien:«B& ct ircit» Bams impo- 
iui^rixfsni n.ti ii:i:f^ciz:i. »d szrr=i3 caliccHi TacmoDy 
cc pKiinaaft ^v^apfnaBu iff sbub cfttsdcipt ; de vana Tero 
arr:£i>fL<i>:i:c£. e^»:Lzb ess acpaBaidle ct manutar- 
^'^^SL» r^^y<2<^ nTZfl^Tp «S^^i^c? aiams iiaiculuj el leTiiSf 
tni.XAt;:ri dirLsa sicraiaK;:a. Hoc oScio QgQS est Do- 
Bincs» qujndo £i.csa cooia esm discipalis, linteo se 
prsEx-inxh, ct minens aquam in pdTim, pedes discipu- 
lonxm laTU, et linteo cxtersit. 

Admonitio ad diaconoSj qui stxtum hewn obtinent. 


lACOXORU^I ordo sexto sequitnr loco» non sine 
allquo senarii mysterio. In quo, propter perfec- 

* ** HubftratorioiD, mappa aharis, mi corporale instenutur.** 2)«- 

aDtnonitio aD Dtacono0. 23 1 

tionem sui, significatur operum perfectio. Hie ordo in 
vetori Testamento a tribu Levi habet exordium. Pr8&- 
cepit enim Dominus Moysi; ut post ordinationem 
^aron et filiorum ejus, rursus tribus Levi ad divini 
eiiltus ministeria ordinaretur et consecraretur Domino, 
et servirent pro Israel, coram Aaron et filiis ejus, in 
tstbemaculo Dei. Ipsique gestarent arcam et taber- 
naculum, et omnia yasa ejus, et in circuitu tabemaculi 
eastra constituerent, et in transportando tabemaculo 
ipsi deponerent. A viginti autem annis et supra, jussi 
sunt servire in tabemaculo. Quam regulam sancti 
p&tres et in novo Testamento constituerunt, quoniam 
haec aetas ad portanda onera robusta est, quod illi ordini 
a Moyse institutum est. Quod et in novo Testamento 
representatur, cum diaconibus supra sinistrum hume- 
rum stola imponitur, et casula in diebus jejunii supra 
eundem humerum complicatur, quia quicquid laboris 
et sustinentiee in hac vita toleramus, tanquam in sinistra 
portamus, donee in dextra, hoc est, in setemitate, re- 
quiem habeamus. Hie ordo in novo Testamento ab 
Apostolis sumpsit initium, quando, sicut legitur in 
Actibus Apostolorum, septem viros boni testimonii, 
plenos Spiritu Sancto, ad hoc elegerunt officium. £t 
oratione preemissa, manus eis imposuerunt. £t exinde 
Apostoli, et eoriun successores, decreverunt ut in omni 
matrice ecclesia septem diacones circa aram Christi 
sublimiori gradu, tanquam columns^ altaris, assiste- 
rent, non sine aliquo septenarii mysterio. In quo figu- 
ratnr, ut septiformis gratiee spiritu fulgentes, sancti 
sunt corpore ac spiritu. Hi sunt septem angeli in 
Apocalypsi tuba canentes. Hi sunt septem candelabra 
aurea. Hi voces tonitruorum. Ipsi enim clara voce, 
in modum prseconis, admonent cunctos sive ad oran* 
dum, sive ad genua flectenda, sive ad psallendum, sive 

i I>fiL Ipei CTUge- 

I^ nJTyTTwit. Sine ipeas sa- 

Nam acat 

ejus, id est 


licet calicem 

I. .1. =: zf^TH^ i'ili^!rs^ ms ck tnditos fuerit a 

aluTp pooont; levitae 
qma boo onmes videre 
1 qa« operionlur a 
*>. .^ ^* 'r:- Twinr ^«cTtvis ^^«tiiiit altariy ut 
. «• . -- . *.ic- r:j2ti:iu ^lut ^rid&ccar, mtidiqiie ad 

- ^. >- - r--,n- ^u jL-^^ham TfikscnbaDominimi 

- ■ \..»?'^ r_.i::^r-5y ru. hlZJi* earns oormmpantur I 

•_ • ^'•v ^ -*- < -^ xii-ni:^ A r^arrfeons casdtate splen- i 
. . v^—*.^ '^^^^ d.iLriw^ ircjsaiidi sinL apostolus 

^ ^ .- -- s. -*'>«^ a£ T^^A^Hoa. Nam cum \ 
^ - -. -s.-*^ .: syL-r^a.\uiit f*Wirs5v-teie. coDthiiio sub- 
' .^ .^^ -<-?■; Titar xrnine^xBsibiles, hoc est, 
^ r .".-..-: ^- •• -"-^< ^'s^: 7«nia:\K>. hoc est, a libi- ' 
. - - r^ r. \i vlLcrnfiN. 5^£5«t ne perturbent I 

.,v ' .^-i ^*^ ? -1 n;*;: riiio deditoSy quia nbi i 
• - -za^ .•-. *. i-* ^iT-r o.oLisanzr; non torpe 
-. . ^. ,-*• r'^v -^ :>^ -n It Of ^:ilfsn militia lacra | 
- •^ .. >f :r.* r-^ r 'sr r*2v ^:j«ci. Hi aatem pro- | 
%i . . •" . V - ^- ii.:zu>rvac xxH^LOi crimen ha- | 
V . ::^ ^ *". ..A, at: -ti ;-^ iTtso-Tcc Aiiie ofdiiiationem 
^» • ,"..^- ••. x.-"..^ ^"^ s. r:^Ti n'^mzi TDeraxL sic demiim ^ 
*- >j< -v ". V *>vv^.;.:u iJ /•!!.. "c^ HJ^ vSLm ordinantuTy , 
Nc,>v • :^s.■ vu.^ iu-i;«s US,:* suc c^st ad mhiisterium, 
*\wi ^. xa*. -.•".•. v:.t:u» »».'*'fc:».xj»rir^ Pochar cis curarinm, -< 
V. ^x ^» '..>i. >ci;«x-- >^ I >xm*tt iiatsersza ab ^aso^po, ut 
•vx Kv >^ 1VX i.n s* ^vr^^css^r ;*^ir=m Domini, quo 
.xiiiuu jA«s :vu42s: ^iai» .%;. j^ ^ctftgic gj >f< m Txtam» pertinentia 

.9Dmonitio an Uaconois. 233 

sLdversa fortiter tollerenty et divino amore subjiciant. 
^^ccipiunt et textum eTangeliorum de manu episcopi, 
X>^r quemintelligant se esse prsecones evangelii Christi. 
T^SLjn sicut lectoribus vetus Testamentuniy ita diaconibus 
novum praedicare pra^ceptum est, prsecipue eTangelium, 
quod solis ipsis in ecclesia pronunciare licet. Ad ipsos 
^pertinet assistere sacerdotibus, et ministrare in omnibus 
quae aguntur in sacramentis Christi ; in baptismo sci- 
licet, et in chrismate, in patena et calice, oblationes 
etiam inferre et disponere in altari, componere etiam 
mensam Domini atque vestire, crucem ferre, evange- 
lium preedicare et apostolum. Ad ipsos quoque per- 
tinet officium precum, et recitatio nominum. Ipsi 
prsBmovent aures ad Dominum; ipsi hortantur orare; 
ipsi clamant, et pacem ipsi annunciant. Hoc officio 
usus est Dominus, quando post ccenam proprio ore 
et propriis manibus sacramenta confecta dispensavit, 
et quando apostolos dormitantes excitavit ad oratio- 
nem, dicens, Vigilate et orate ut non intretis in tenta- 

Admonitio ad sacerdoteSj qui septimum locum 

SEPTIMO loco subsequitur ordo presbyterorum, qui 
in veteri Testamento a filiis Aaron sumpsit ini- 
tium. Nam qui tunc sacerdotes Tocabantur, hi sunt 
qui nunc presbyteri, et qui tunc dicebantur principes 
sacerdotum, nunc episcopi nominantur. Presbyteri 
autem interpretantur seniores, quia seniores Greeci 
presbyteros vocant, Debent enim presbyteri seniores 
esse populo Dei, non tantum aetate temporis, quantum 
prudentia morum, et maturitate bonae conversationis, 
sicut scriptum est, Senectus venerabilis est non diu- 

peOMtio. ^>=B3C3f err:- sftar<iv<^Hi £H|KaaKta Mieirvo 
fiDinilanter reserrjtt fsizx ; 
rita» prj^fBtiTH ab cKsTr^ ] 
er^ scprapogfv» ns^i^ates redderct* ct sotnto obedi- 
enxvK TiDC^x fcaifeiftlziB scwnnet. Piebb«icri sac- 
ee^ iT» «t Txarii stni spp(M«iiita diadpnlonnu qoi 
praEcedcbm Docnniiia Joib in oHueat aTitatcm, et 
locim quo ipse cna unuufaK. Its qvippe prei^yten, 
fjai adjatores sunt epescoponmL mdes popolos eatechi- 
zando initiant, bapiixando onitati eccksis inoorporuit, 
ut in omnibus sacmnends osqpe ad maims impositio- 
noin populo Dei mimstTaiil. Episoopi Tero successores 
iunt eiKWtolorum, qui ex necessitate adjatoriiun et sup- 
plomontum sui officii^ in tanta moltitudine populorum 
rogondoruni, ministerium sibi cxpetnnt sacerdotum, 
0i(mt Moyscs in cremo septuaginta viros el^t pru- 
dentos, quorum consilio et auxilio, multitudinem tantam 
filcilius gubernaret. Sive ergo inferioris sive supe- 
rioris sint ordinis sacerdotes, id est, sive presbyteri, 
sive qnscopi, vicem genint summi pontificis, dum po- 
pulos delinquentes ad pcBnitentiam vocant, et oratio- 
nam suarum medicamento sanant, unde dicit apostolus, 
Deus erat in Christo mundum reconcilians sibi, et 
posuit in nobis verbum reconciliationis. Obsecramus 

aomonitio eit isacetQoteiat. 235 

cr^o pro ChristOi reconoiliamini Deo. In hoc igitur 
vice mediatoiis fimguntur sacerdotes, quod Deum pro 
peccatis populi exorant, et poenitentes abBolvendo Deo 
recoiiciliant. Qoafffopter convenit ut tanquam boni 
mediatores inter homines et Deum, et prsecepta Dei ad 
populum deferanty veritatem preedicando, et preces 
populi Deo offerant, pro peccatoribus intercedendo. 
Mediator autem, ut ait apoBtolud, unius non est, quia 
discordes reconciliare non potest, qui utrumque socie^ 
tatis pace et amicitise vinculo censors non est. Et id- 
ciroo sacerdotes cum Deo pacem habere, per eminen-^ 
tiam sanctitatis, et cum proximis concordiam servare 
debent, per affectum compassionis. Quales ergo de- 
beant esse presbyteri, apostolus scribens ad Titum in- 
sinuat, dicens, Hujus rei gratia reliqui te Crete, ut 
constituas per civitates presbyteros» quemadmodum tibi 
disposui. Siquis sine crimine est, unius uxoris virum, 
habentem filios fideles, non in accusatione luxuriee, aut 
non subditus. Oportet enim episcopum sine crimine 
esse. Qua sententia ostendit etiam presbyteros sub 
episcoporum nomine taxari. Undo ad Timotheum de 
ordinatione episcopi et diaconi scribit, de presbyteris 
tacens, quos sub nomine episcoporum intelligendos 
relinquit. Quapropter tales etiam in ecclesia presby- 
teros constituendos esse sicut episcopos, et apostolus 
asserit, et canones apostolicam auctoritatem secuti tes- 
tantur. Presbyteri cum ordinantur, episcopo eos bene- 
dicente, et manus super capita eorum tenente, omnes 
presbyteri qui prsesentes sunt, manus juxta manus 
episcopi, super capita eorum levant, et Spiritum Sanc- 
tum super eos qui ordinantur, invocant. Unguntur 
presbyteris manus sicut episcopis, ut cognoscant se hoc 
Sacramento gratiam consecrandi accipere, et opera 
misericordise pro viribus exercere debere erga omnes. 

portinet, ut^:r^ ^ -inM' un ^mt iliiK of -^u» saiplum est \ 

Hiy post 

hoc intelli- 
ct a siiiistris 

«*=* -Ta: — -.a» :z ** :»*: ar-ssss. irsKizc aec prospera 
•ir. li=. .jxMn:= ^r SiZi<sB. raaK^f^x ctpatenam 
Txzr j.asus» jr riu:si ^BEvmu oisosns his instm- 
sifziis- ^* •£?:t=£:'c -s^ a.-.-*;«i*t29e« vuscuit plscabiles 
Z-^? ^.s^ijft- :g!7-y.:, .tu. Di»^ sHBgne pertiiiet, sa- | 
^ nftini'iiiiib> ZtfTTT in share Dei 
ii:^*5«^ 4? MKeiEfov dooa Dei. 

^ t juim la cofpos suum 
■^ ^iinc^mt^xi T^iuzn. rj umim ar^iu. <c s in nemoriam 
s;=£ : A-^ - THa- -tu:m ?u:^sr-nr ossciaiLjJifr nooois instituit. 
Ei t: xuL«;jjif iJui^zZiswsr iilii"iini fnrrtfCBS exhibuit, 
rxigTiiu :3^ fou^s-'iL'^ fr j»i«c& » beca Deo Patri in 
sn ^TTiJiik ir rnsr i^-rinca xesuc^ ^TTiam. obtolit, et 
2%^ ir v:r-'i2iL saa^mmiflK saai:^ stem in^rediens, 
:-.zIt;!£ca -f^ a *i LyjA 7ia=Lii::tTis. bt q^ti aqppuei quanta 
sr •fx.rti-Iifnrii sarerL.-ciIEs cfic£* per quod qaotidie 
Ea i2rar; pisg:»: Cir^rd c^ttfir«nr. ct fcas qaisqae a 
p«M^:x=s .-*:iiTef^3s I>^? reoxadl^inir. Qoibus om- 
ailriis ie 5uc«r5:c£i oc&i:^ terTiwr pertraclads, admo- 
aie!i«il 5;nc C^:r^:sc£ sftcinroxis.. quatenos sicat excellunt 
>-ir>;~-?^ if^£Ti£:;ue. sic cxeellam mie sanctitate, at plebs 
e£> cvxxui^asa arq^se eonnn dkcipGnis edocta, gratanter 
<«$ oM%i£.u* ec ecnnn imitadoiie de die in ^em pro- 
&'iu» ec ad premia penr^iiat sempitema. 

soeeretum ht eleeto €pi0eopo. 
Con^eeratio eleeti in .CpijB^eopum. 

^Dtattam He eletto Cpttfcopo. 

j ICRETU3I quod clerus et populusjirmart 
tbct de electo episcapo.^ 

Vencraiido sancto Cantaariensis eocle- 
-is metropolitano N. clems et popoltis ec- 
cle^ae \. debitani snbjectioneni : yestrae paterzrita.ti 

^ Manj exsmples of fbraa of 
this ^ decRtnm'* are to be found 
m the historiazis azid ntsafists of 
the mukile ares» Al ^e cad of 
the SalbboTT pontilScal, that is» 
tile maBoscripc from viiich oar 
text b taken, there occurs the 
fo^jDviar short ofice; vkidi I 
insert here, as it docbtless is to 
he lefe ri ed to the occaskm of an 
election bj the der]gT of a nev 

** Confirmatio electL 

^ Camtato Te Denm, dicahKr^ 
Fiter noster. 

^ EpUcopu» dicat .- £t ne nos. 

** SalTnm faiC sennnn tnom. 

^ DomiQus custodiat introhom 
ejus, et exitnm ejus. 

** Dominos costodiat earn ah 
omDi male 

^ Mittat ei Dominos aoxiliuni 
de sancto. 

** Exsorge, Domine, adjora nos. 

«« Dominns Tobiscam. Etcom. 

*' Concede, qossumos, omnipo- 
tens Deusy at fiunolom tauniy quern 

ad regimen animamm el^imas, 
^mam toae dono proseqaaris, nt, 
te largiente, cum ipsa tibi ikostra. 
electioBe placcamns. Per Chrid- 
torn DoDunum nostrum. 

Inu ncd at ely preceding the ** de- 
cretam," there is a short iarm^ 
which I salijoin. 

" QiMP episcofms, m cansecra^ 
tiame sua, profUetur se ohserva- 

^ Omnem pmdentiam, quan- 
tum natura sua capax est, divinse 
scriptorae sensihus accommodare. 
Ea» qus ez divinis scripturis in- 
telligit, plebi cui ordinatus est 
Terbo dooere et exemplo. Tradi. 
tiones orthodoxorum patrum, et 
decretaks ac constitudones sedis 
apostolicae, reverenter soscipere, 
docere, et senrare. Beato Petro 
apostolo, ejuaque Ticariis summis 
pontificibos, Tel eorum archiepis- 
copis, fidem et subjectionem per 
omnia exhibere. Castitatem et so- 
brietatem, cum Dei auxilio, custo- 
dire et docere. Mores ab omni 
malo temperare, et quantum pes. 

Decremm eiectionis. 239 

8t cognitum, quantum temporis est ex quo accidentia 

lus variis eventibus ecclesia N. suo sit viduata pastore 

ic destituta rectore. Quod, non solum ad nostrum, 

^erum et ad vestrum ac omnis hujus dioeceseos detri- 

tnentum pertinere dignoscitur ; cum totius proyinci» 

Bolicitudinem metropolitano constet esse commissam. 

Propterea elegimus illius nostrae ecdesiae presbyterum 

iV. nobis sufficientissime cognitum, natalibus et mori- 

bus nobilem, apostolica et ecclesiastica disciplina im- 

butum, fide catholicum, natura prudentem, docibilem, 

patientem, moribus temperatum, vita castum, sobrium, 

humilem, afiabilem, misericordem, literatum, in lege 

Dei instructum, in scripturarum sensibus cautum, in 

dogmatibus ecclesiasticis exercitatum^ et secundum 

scripturarum tramitem traditionemque orthodoxorumi 

et canonum ac decretorum sedis apostolicse prsesulum 

constitutiones, sano sensu ecclesiasticas regulas intelli- 

gentem, sanoque sermone docentem atque servantem, 

amplectentem eum qui secundum doctrinam est fidelem 

sermonem, et cum modestia corripientem eos qui re- 

sistunt, et qui sanse doctrinae adversantur, eis resistere 

et redarguere prsevalentem, hospitalem, modestum, 

suae domui bene prsepositum, non neophytum, haben- 

tern testimonium bonum in gradibus singulis, secundum 

traditionem ecclesiasticam ministrantem ad omne opus 

bonum, et ad satisfactionem omni poscenti rationem 

de ea quae in illo est spe paratum : quem nobis quan- 

nbile est. Domino auxiliante, ad tem et patientiam custodire in se- 

omne bonum commutare. Semper ipso, et alios idem docere. Pau- 

in divinis negotiis mancipari, et a peribus et peregrinis omnibusque 

terrenis negotiis et lucris tuq>ibu8 indigentibus, propter nomen Do- 

alienari, quantum humana fragili- mini, esse affubilis et misericors." 
tas coDsenserit posse: bumilita- 

triru^. I-Tt 


omttxatio eleett in €pt0eopum. 

ROVIDEAT electus cum suisj quod mane 
diet dominica^ parata sint et in promptu 
omnia sibi necessaria in consecrationej vide- 
licet^ caligcey sandaliUy amictusy alba^ cingU' 
i£m, stoUiy manipuluSj tunicellay dalmatica^ planetUj et 
>lt€viale albi colorisj chirotheccSy annulus pontificalisj et 
%lit^ annulus parvus^ mitra, baculus pastoralis, duo 
btxcilia^ tobalia pro manibus tergendisj tobalia ad ponen- 
dum coram consecratore^ tobalia et pecten ad pectinan- 
dum^ mica panis ad tergendum manus et caputs duo 
hrachia teUe de cortina^ ad circumligandum caput in 
unctione^ duo magni panes involuti duobus tobaliisj dua 
magna phiaUe plena viriOj et duo magna torticia ad 
offerendum^ libri missalis et pontificalis, faldistorium et 

* Ducange says : " Pecteth in- 
ter ministeria sacra recensetur, 
quo scilicet sacerdotes ac clerici 
antequam in ecclesiam procede- 
rent, crines pecterent." And he 
cites several examples, proving 
that a comb was among the ordi- 
nary furniture of chapels. In the 
earlier pontificals there is no ex- 
press mention of it, although it is 
clear that in Durand's time, the 
use of it was general ; Raiionale^ 
lib. 4, cap. 3: and Ducange quotes 
a will .of a bbhop in the 10th cen- 
tury, who, among other effects, 
specifies, '' Pectinem ebumeam 

So in the old inventories we 
find them mentioned; thus, in 
that of S. Paul's, a. d. 1295: 
" Tres pectines ebumei, spissi et 
magni, et tres tenues et usuales 
de ebore. Item, unum pecten 
ebumeum pulchrum. Item, duo 
pectines ebumei sufficientes." 
Dugdale. S. Paul\p. 206. 

* ''Brachium,mensur8e species, 
cubitus." " Cortina, panni vel 
serici species, sic dicta, ut pallium, 
pro pallii materia." Ducange. 




24^ CMirniiitt cicctiiii qpotoopmiL 

tspa.Mm.q^iistiMi€i iauim. Saccrdai€M im sMperpeiUdk 
l-Ai tcrvLi^ eltcio de lihro. ■ 

Jmr.pii* oMtttrmim daii im eyiw r i i^wjb, qwut eti ^g€Mi. \ 

tLn M:n.'\:a. €t mm im alia ftsiiritaiej^ antcquam missi I 

hmM WMiikmM mdmalmr f^^Hirr €m^ 
smlamy ei pr^ easmlm 

ifMfTOrfa«mcrf7v«J^eCk Tmme 
dicmi metropoiiimmuMi 

• ABtiqnsHMtonnD,«fe.** Pon- 

As bcAm fliated, ike Exeter 
M& does Dot eootun the *«de- 
«t^Huoh* nor Ins it Ae nAtie re- 
Ifwduijr the neceassiy prepan- 
^HHks: its fifst Tvhnc, after the 

of the <M 

in strict acv 

widi the caston of pr^ 

gcs. Tkmtmassm sajs: 

Tolet. IV. C, 18. prae- 

■t si metnpoGtanns in ciritate 

itrapoGtana ocdinetnr: — dies 

tantmii ab eodeiD 

A» pneacrilBtiir.P— Abdica- 

«idetiu Leo M. in- 

EpL 89. c 3. si qno alio 

*p«scapi» pr»- 

ite sabbato, 

die." Be 

&./i.6a.) So, in later years, this 
ms a rale geaenllj agreed upon. 
AkoiB, in stating the fact, ex- 
pbinsAeFsasott. ^' Episoopi rero 
CMuecratio, tpn est marins apes- 
tokmiBiy immo et Chnstiy fit in 
IXymittica, quia in eodem die per 
donuui Sptntus Sancti dignatns 
est flhistrsie eorda apostoloram." 
He dip, ^ Hittorpios. p. 69. 

Consectatio elect! in eiHsteopom* 243 

Tpse t^ero electus sacerdotalibus vestibus induatury pra-^ 
* casidiamy et pro casula induatur capoj et sic duo 

id Hugo S. Victor: '' Presby. 
i et diaxH>ni sabbato consecrandi 
iBcopo prsBsentantar ; benedic- 
vnes vero pontificam diebus tan- 
kin dominicis celebrandaa esse, 
icri canoneg sanxenmt." De 
icr. lib. 2.ij. 20. 

** But the rubric now of the 
louian pontifical is this : '* Sta- 
Ufa die consecrationiis qtuB de- 
>e< esse dofmnica^ vel naiaUtium 
apostolorwn^ vel etiam /estiva^ si 
tummMs pontifes hoc specialiier 

^ Mabillon has printed in his 
Analecta, from a manuscript of 
the lltb century, a " ritus ordi- 
nandi eptsoopi»" which waa ob- 
served anciently in the church of 
Konen. On account not only of 
this Order throwing much light on 
many of the particulars which will 
follow in the text, but of the fre- 
qusat intercourse in that age kept 
between the churches of Nor- 
mandy and England, I shall tran- 
scribe the first rubric of that MS. 
^ In die ordinationis episcopi 
msDissine pulsetur, et cantetur 
prima, postquam eatur ad capitu- 
lum; ibique a deoano, arcfaidia- 
oon<s oantore et canoellario ordi- 
nentur qui debent prsecedere mi- 
niitri, sicut in majoribus mos est 
fesdvitattbus: hoc est, duo aco- 
lythi com thuribulis, duo subdia- 
coni cum crucibus, septem acoly thi 

cum candelabris et cereis, septem 
subdiaconi cum evangeliorum U- 
bris, septem diaconi cum suis reli- 
quiis, dnodedm presbyteri induti 
planetis, aeolydius indutus podere 
cum yaseulo aureo chrismatis. 

*' Tertia pulsetur temporane^i 
et interim prsBparet se domnus 
archiepiscopus, sandaliis et caete- 
ris omnibus usque ad dalmaticam. 
Tune indutus cappa, et tenens 
baeulum pastoralem in mana, pro- 
oedit e sacrario. Simililer omnes 
episcopi exeaat mdutL Ipse au- 
tem electus necdnm induatur san* 
daliis, sed tantnm alba, et stola, et 
cappa; nee ferat baeulum, sed 
ponatur super altare cum anulo^ 
usque dum eonsecratus accipiat de 
manu archi^piflcopi. 

*^ Venientes autem in eodesia 
ponantur sedee ita. Domnus aa- 
tropolifeanus sedebit Terso dorso 
ad altare. Sedilia yero caterorum 
episcoponim ponantnr ante oculoa 
metropolitani. Sedes autem ipsius 
electi ponatur in medio, non tamen 
ad majuB altare. Comproyindales 
autem episcopi offerant tectum 
domno metropolitano his verbis : 

*^ * Reverende pater, postulat 
0tc.'" Vetera Analecta. p. 2S&. 

The ^poderis" in the above 
extract was a vestment, of much 
the same kind as the '' camisia ;*' 
(see above, p. 19. note 29.) Du. 
cange in his glossary cites JBiicA«- 

i'OLso.iiKB «EzftMT» ante; 

ConiBtectatio electi in epi^copum. 245 

Ligentissime examinetur cum omni caritate, de fide 
i.xictse Trinitatisy et interrogetur de diversis causis 
^\ moribus, quae huic regimini congruunt, et neces- 
jris, sunt retineriy secundum apostoli dictum, manus 
t^o nemini imposueris ; et ut etiam is qui ordinandus 

r^xdens, si docibilis, si moribus 
!imperatiiiSy si yita castas, si so« 
riuB, si semper suis negotiis ca- 
exis, si httmilisy si affitbilis, mise- 
icors, si literatus, si in lege Do- 
nini instructus, si in scriptoranim 
^enaibus cantusy si in dogmatibus 
ecclesiasticis exerdtatus : et ante 
omnia, si fidei documenta verbis 
simplicibus asserat : id est Patrem 
et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum, 
etc.** And Uien follows an exact 
exanunation, gnnmded on the 
Apostles* creed. Again, in the 8th 
century, the second Nicene comi- 
dl, in its second canon, which 
Martene appeals to, ordered, ^' — 
decemimuB quemlibet, qui ad 
episcopalem gradum est provehen- 
dus, — a metropolitano bene ex- 
aminari, an ad sacros canones di- 
ligenter, ac cum perscrutatione, 
prompto sit animo, et sacnim etiam 
eyangeliom, etlibrum divini apos- 
toli, ornnemque divinam Scriptu- 
ram, et in Ovinia prseceptis ver- 
sari, et populum suum docere." 
Mand. Tom. xiij. col. 748. 

Bat, remembering the ill re- 
ception whteh the decrees of this 
council met with in the West, I 
would rather attribute Uie inser- 
tion of this examination to canons 
ofodier synods in Gaul or Spain: 

thus, we have one, to name no 
more, of the eleventh council of 
Toledo, in the preceding centurj, 
A. D. 675. ** Placuit huic sancto 
conciiio, ut unusquisque qui ad 
ecclesiasticos gradus est accessu- 
rus, non ante honoris eonsecratie- 
nem accipiat, quam placiti sui in- 
nodatione promittat, ut fidem ca* 
tholicam sincera cordis devotione 
custodiens, juste et pie vivere de- 
beat.** Ihid. Tom. xi. coL 143. 

It is very probable that the par- 
ticular interrogations regarding the 
change of the Bread and Wine in 
the Eucharist, were in consequence 
of the teaching of Berengarius, 
and inserted into the English pon- 
tificals by the influence of Arch- 
bishop Lanfranc, his great oppo- 
nent. In which case, the Win- 
chester MS. is jpossibly as early 
as any manuscript in which they 
are to be found: being nearly 
contemporary with that arch- 
bishop. The student will observe 
presently, that those particular 
questions are not in the pontifieak 
of Bangor and Exeter. With re- 
spect to the first, this is very re- 
markable, and much more so with 
regard to the other, a manuscript 
of the latter part of the 14th cen- 
tury, in the time of Bishop Lacy. 


-«t Hi- 


wiA*F^A*«*»^^"'™- «■«fafckadfilio.iDtlikpboe: 

^" '^ •«\libMlQlVllO«pQ6lQl<NCIll« 

Dm> Deo date «I potestes l^;iBdi at- 

M^ qiieflohrendi,goflqiieYiearii8,Ro- 

Aiigliaui^, i- mtnia pontificibiis, a^1le sancts 

ct obedkn- ecekaiae Caotoariensi, «fe." 

? Volo.'' " "tanctsDorobernensieode- 

^ fMifd Aogitcaoe, mx^ PonHf. WmUm. i:e:Caii- 

ID rod inky by tuariensi. I extract the wbole in- 


Coiutecratio electi in eptocopom. 247 

iihi» meisque guccessoribus subjectioDem, et obedi- 
it^iam per omnia exhibere, secundum canonicam auo- 
iritatem, et decreta sanctorum pontificum ? 

Jtesp. Volo. 

Tunc dicat pontifex : 


JFIic legat professionem^ ut patet per bullam si habe- 
tidrj ac super eandem bullam subscribat cmcem manu 
r^€>pria ; sin autem^ exigetur pro/essio modo subscripto : 
In Dei nomine. Amen. Ego .N. talis ecclesise 
dectusy et a te, reverende pater, nomine N. Cantuar 
niensis archiepiscope, totius Anglise primas, consecran- 
lus antistesy tibi et sanctse Cantuariensi ecclesisB me- 
tropoliticse, tuisque successoribus in dicta ecclesia 
Oantuariensi canonice substituendis, debitam et cano- 
nicam obedientiam, reverentiam, et subjectionem, me 
per omnia exhibiturum profiteer et promitto, secundum 
decreta Romanorum pontificum tuorumque jurium,^ et 

ierrogatioii from that early MS. Ail three pontificals omit the 

** VU sanctae Dorobemensi ec- form in which the profeaaion is to 

clesiie fidem et mibjectionem per be made, passing on immediately 

omnia exhibere P' to the next interrogation: ''Vis 

The Bangor Use agrees with mores, etc/* 

the text: in the Exeter pontifical The reader shonld cenaak W3- 

the question runs : kins, ConciUa^ for the forma of 

'* — Cantuariensi» mihique mi- some later oaths, about the period 

nistro et suocessoribus meis,fidem, of the reformation : for example ; 

subjectionem, et obedientiam, se- in 1540, Tom. 8, p, 855 : — in 

cundam canonicam auctoritatem 1544. p, 870.— in 1550. Tom. 4. 

exhibere?" p. 67. And again, for several 

^* '* Ek erigatur profsMtio.* early examples, a ooUectian printed 

Winton. by Heame, at the end of the Tex- 

^ Retp, Volo. Profitere." Ban- tus RofRensis, p. 245. etc. and 

gor. others, in the Anglia Sacra, torn. 

"Volo. Profitere. Hie pro- Lp.78. 
JUeatwr" Exon. ^ This sentence ^* secundom 

et coBBorfandniii, sals^ 
} 9c mt D«nB aE§iiTetr et sancta I>ei ersn- 
piaiiiisa OHoia aaiiBcnbeDdo pnipr^ 


r^T.-n..!: r*vrtf «Mini mbKribaij fademdo 

J k:."^^^ j^zkk Vs flURs tDM ab omm Biala tempe 

^nn\ « ::si2iniB piiiEE& Dbamio adjirraiite, adi cjmiie 

H/t.l:» r^iamaxarer 

' %z''^''**u^ ,i:..K V^ oastxtsteiii ct sofaneCatem, chid 
' *#• rtaulivv -•eaHcre. et docere ? 

' iz'-'^'^'.z:.-^ ^^ JM4IIBI «aae <£tiii]s ncgoti i s man- 

■:^AUs^y « I vrtsns aesv^tns ^el lams tnrpibus esse 

vx-:\;>v r;;imtt]K *t» aamana ftagi Eta s concesserit 

. » «c'***v<^*"^« ^« > iumilbciGeak et patientiaiii, in te- ^| 

'' sC'**-:^-.:.\ • T'larvrrms et pveregriiiis^ oomibiisqae 
itvi^^i^r t:i:*M^ ■* V «i^^w ^rvccKr ]a»Mii DcMnini, aflEibilis 

:^<tx ^mtitl^ >»% .veivm >vixsl irircas ubi Dommas, et 

A ^c^Mut^^i yi-f/fts J2vfi:/?f(vy :• Amen* 

J.•at•-*J:^.!*^^ O-wT^j^ ^^fvoajCT» intdfigcntiaiii et 

-ur-um^ W^ Vm» «fCKM .ttiiDL;urm«til«MakBJQiregiiL'' 

Conisecratio electi in eptocopum. 249 

i-X^Mi^'^^^™ sensus tui, Sanctam Trinitatem, Patrem, 

t TFilium, et SjHritiun Sanctum^ unum Deum onmipo- 

^xm tem, totamqueinTrinitate Deitatem, coessentialem et 

oxisubstantialemy coaetemam et eoomnipotentemy unius 

oluntatisy potestatis, et majestatis, creatorem omnium 

ireaturarum, a quo omnia, per quern omnia, in quo 

^ronia, quae sunt in coelo et in terra, visibilia et invisi- 

^ilia, corporalia et spiritualia ? 

Resp. Assentioy et ita credo. 

Interrogatio. Credis ipsum Filium Dei, Verbum Dei, 

aetemaliter natum de Patre, consubstantialem, coomni- 

potentem, et cosequalem per omnia Patri in divinitate, 

temporaliter natum de Spiritu Sancto et Maria semper 

virgine, cum anima rationali, duas habentem nativi- 

tates, unam ex Patre eetemam, alteram ex matre tem- 

poralem, Deum verum et hominem verum, proprium 

in utraque natura atque perfectum, non adoptivum ne- 

que phantasticum, unicum et unum Filium Dei in 

duabus naturis, sed in unius personse singularitate, 

impassibilem et immdrtalem in divinitate, sed in hu- 

manitate, pro nobis et pra salute nostra, passum vera 

camis passione, et sepultum, ac die tertia resurgentem a 

mortuis, vera camis resurrectione, die quadragesimo 

post resurrectionem, cum came qua resurrexit et 

anima, ascendisse in coelum, sedere ad dexteram Dei 

Patris, inde venturum judicare vivos et mortuos, et 

redditurum unicuique secundum opera sua, sive bona 

fuerint sive mala ? 

Resp. Assentio, et per omnia credo. 
Interrogatio. Credis etiam Spiritum Sanctum, ple- 
num, atque perfectum, verumque Deum, a Patrte Filio- 
que procedentem, posequalem et coessentialem, coom- 
nipotentem et cosetemum per omnia Patri et Filio ? 
Resp. Credo. 


inBitaruD et 

^«r» ■dOns alterius. 


cc caaeniuditer 

BiUtis de 

i^-r «Kir •» " 

ioBKf^ Vk ^k» 4ocs not duy- 

A »r a tike Wiacaesier pon- 
feoL te «» owned by the 
Exeter MSS.: the 

We> «Mv>£ Uie "«ICC 

ConiBtectatio eiecti in epiiscopum. 251 

Uentem se adversus hanc ganctam ecclesiam catho- 
Resp. Anathematizo. 

Interr ognt io. Credis etiam veram resurrectionem* 
jusdem camis quam nunc gestas, et vitam eetemam? 
Resp. Credo. 

Interrogatio. Credis etiam novi et veteris Testa- 
aentiy legis» et prophetarum, et apostolorum, unum 
^sse auctorem Deum ac Dominum omnipotentem ? 
Resp. Credo. 
Et dicat ei : 

Hsec tibi fides augeatur a Domino, ad veram et 
setemam beatitudinem, dilectissime frater in Christo. 
Et respondeant omnes : Amen.*' 
Tta igitur examinatus et bene instructuSj^ cum con- 

" A marginal nole is intro- 
duced here : yis. 

** Hie petatar a oonsecrante 
bnlla jnramenti, et consecrandos 
earn legat, ei «econdnm tenorem 
ejosdem prastet domino papie 
snum jnrameutum. This note 
18 in a eontemporarj hand and 
eharaeter of writing» and poenbly 
may bare been an acodentd amis* 
•ion: but I have not tfaonght it 
figbt to iotert it in the text. 

^ This rubric is to the same 
effect, sod in nearly the same 
words, in both the Winchester 
sodBsDgorMSS. The first pro- 
ceeds St the end of it; 

^ Qualiter ordmetur epiico- 
put, Pontifejc cmn ordmaiury 
jmmo pragreditur damnfu me* 
tropoUtamu cum cuneto cUro ad 

eceUaiam: -mhi ip$am vuU JSeri 
ordinaimnmn. Vemens auiem 
ante aUare mos ut vohurit nuU' 
cat primo cantorum^ et statkn 
cantor levai afU^honam ad m- 
troitum: BenedixittehodieDeus. 
Ps. Deus Deoram. Cumquejt" 
nierint mtroitum non dicant^ 
Kyrieleison : ged damnui metro' 
poiiianus incipiat •• Gloria in ex«- 
celsis Deo. Hoc Jimto dicat: 
Pax Tobis. Pastea orcOUmem 
hanc: Adesto supplicationibus, 

The Bangor pontifical merely 
adds : <* Deinde cantor inc^nttt 
antiphonam ad introitum et cm" 
tera ex more: sequUur oratio. 
Post orationem mUea immedi^ 
ate: Adesto, eU^ 

The -Exeter pontifiGal proceeds, 


Ar^ ••♦ »* 




Ami I add the 
: "Ju- 
IV. cxnc C. 5. 
propm in 
ordinetar: si 
BOB Boat per temporis 
in proTiDcia 
ft db epiwopis ordinetar 
pnnaite» ▼. authorita- 
I mam aooommodaote 
De bene/. ParU 
t- ilk.i.A^XTiij.(/om.5./>.93J 

Coiuiectatto electi in epi0copum. 253 

JOeinde cantor incipiat officium missa de die. 

Hcec sequens oratio dicatur cum oratione de dicj et 
cantur sub uno per Dominum. 


Adesto supplicationibus nostris, omnipotens Deus, 
t quod nostrse humilitatis gerendum est ministerio, 
aae virtutis impleatur effectu. Per Dominum. Et 
cetera ex more cantentur usque ad repetitionem Alleluia, 
;e/ usque ad ultimum versum tractus vet sequentia. 
fnterim autem^^ dum hacjiunt, innuat dominus metro- 
politanus archidiaconOj et ipse descendens cum acolytis et 
subdiaconis vadat extra chorum, ubi espectat qui ordi- 

^ The Winchester pontifical 
thus proceeds : 

** Interim autem innuit doni' 

nus metropolUanus archidia' 

cono: et ^se descendens vadit 

extra chorumy ubi expectat qui 

ordinandus est : etacdpiensves- 

timentum induat eum. Etfinito 

gradalij dotnnus metropoUtanus 

ascendit ad altare. Et archidi- 

aconus adducitelectum ad altare^ 

ubi domnus metropoUtanus stat, 

EtincUnatse idem ehctus pon- 

tifex ad terram^ et dicit domnus 

metropoUtanus : 

** Clems et plebs de civitate 
ilia, cum adjacentibus parochiis 
suis, rogat sibi episcopum conse- 

^ None autem a piissimo do- 
mino nostro Anglorom rege con- 
sentiente, clero et populo electus 
est venerabilis frater noster .iV. 
10 hoc opus. 
"Oranus itaqae pro eo, ut 

Deus et Dominus noster Jesus 
Christus tribuat ei cathedram 
episcopalem ad regendam eccle- 
siam suam, et plebem universam. 

'* Et tunc schola incipiat U- 
taniam ; et inter aUa dicat : 

*' Ut fratrem nostrum .iV. elec- 
tum pontificem, in vera religione 
conseryare digneris : Terogamus, 
audi nos. 

" Episcopi vero interim proS' 
temantse super stramenta coram 
altare, et ordinandus humUius 
post pontifices usque dum dica- 
tury Agnus Dei. Finita autem 
litanioy elevet eum domnus me^ 
tropolitanus incipiens hymnum 
Veni Creator. Quo cantato, po- 
nat caput electi episcopi super 
altare* Et duo alii episcopi 
ponant et teneant evangelium 
super verticem ejus, EeUqui 
vero omnes qui euUunt episcopi 
manus super caput ejus ponanU 
Et domnus metropoUtanus tfi- 

254 ConiOTratto ctecti to epimytaiL 


nandus est, et accipiens vestimenta induet eum cum saxt- 
daiiiSf albCf Hakif manipuio^ tunica^ dalmatka^ et camk, I 
sine mitra, et absque baado vel annuUo. Etjimto gradak^ . 
dominus archiepiscopus ascendat ad altare^ et dtso qns- I 
copij capis indutiy deducant electum superius ante aitare } 
ubi dominus archiepiscopus sedet, et ilk sedendo cum 
mitra dicit : \ 

Episcopum oportet judicare, interpretari, conae- 
crare, confirmare, ordinare, offerre» et baptizare. 

Deindej deposita mitra^ canvertet se archiepisc/fptss ad 
circumstantes^ et dicat hanc exhortatianem : 

Oremus, dilectissimi nobis, ut huic viro ad utilitatem 
ecclesise proyehendo, benignitas omnipotentis Dei gra- 
tiae SU8B tribuat largitatem. Per Dominum. 

Et statim a duobus episcopis incipiatur : 

Junden* benediciionem mper eum 
dicat tenia voce : 

** Oremus» dilectissimi nobis, 

" Oremut. Etdiaconue: Flee* 
tamus genua. Legate. 

** Propitiare, Domine, auppli- 
cationibaa. etc.^' 

In the Bangor pontifical we 

** Interim dum hacjiuntt egre- 
diatur archidiaconus cum ojco^ 
fytis et etMiaconis: et induai 
ipeum electum dalmaticam pla^ 
netam: et duo episcopi eoiuiie 
uututi deducant eum euperiue 
ante aitare* Et convertenm^ee 
arMepiecopue ad circumetttnteif 
dieat exhortaOonem: 

** Oremoa» dilectisaimi nobis, 

In tbe Exeter MS. it is aa fol- 

lows ; after the oolieot '' Adesto :" 

** Et eeetera omnia canientur 
uefue ad repetitionem alleluiat 
vel aduUimum vereum tradut ^ 
tune eedente epiecopo deducemi 
electum ante aliare corean con^ 
eecraiorey et dicat coneecrmiar 
electo : 

" Episcopum oportet, eie. 

*^ Et statim incipiatur liiania» 
et interim tarn consecraior ^fuam 
electus accumbani vereue edtare^ 
ita quod electms maneat a «mtir- 
tri$ coneecratoriSf poetguam die^ 
turn Juerit^ Ut obseqaiuBi servi- 
tutis nostr». Tunc eurgat com- 
eecratoTy et ad coneecremdum se 
vertensj baculum paeioralem m 
«MMiii situstra tenene, dicat pri^ 

^ Ut hunc praraentem eleetan, 

Coiweccatio deed in epfecopom . 255 

Cum litania ; et prostemat se ordlnator simul cum 
^l^cto et ceteris episcapis ante altare super faldistoria ; 
sj^iscopus electus desuper stramenta^ ad basim attaris; 
^t dicatur litania sicut in ordinibus^ et cum ventumfuerit 
€Md versum qui pro domino episcopo cantatur, surgat con- 
^^cratory et dicat conversus ad electmn sic: 

Ut hone electmn bene^fidicere digneris. 

Hesp. Te rc^amus. 

Ut hunc electmn bene^dicere, et sancti»][<ficare 

Resp. Te rc^amus. 

Ut hunc electum bene^dicere, sancti^ficare, et 
coiise»^crare digneris. 

Resp. Te rogamus. 

Fimta litania^^ surgant ormies prater electum. Et 
duo episcopi ponant et teneant evangeUorum codicem^ 

^ I would dte a canon of a of an abuse which crept m about 

coondl of London, in the year the 11th century, and spoken of 

1 126, referring to these : ** Sta- in a succeeding note, I shall trans- 

toimas pneterea et apostolica au* cribe the corresponding rubric, 

thoritate decemimus, ut in conse» agreeing in both, of the Bkngor 

crationibus episcoporum, non cap- and Exeter pontificals. 

pa, non tapetae, non manutergium, ** Finita vero litania^ surgant 

non baccinia, et nil omnino per ovnnes prater electum: et duo 

yiolentiam, nisi sponte oblatum epiecopi ponant et teneant librum 

fuerit, penitus exigatur." Wil' eeu codicem evangeUorum super 

kins: Concilia* torn, 1. p. 408. cervicem ejus et inter scapulas 

The reader may compare a canon clausum.*^ 

passed atWestminster.a few years ^ Amalarius, in his day, argued 

after, to the same purpose. Ibid, that this was a newly invented ob- 

p. 415. servance, and not founded upon 

** It has just been seen, that primitive authority : " quod neque 

the Winchester pontifical does not vetus auctoritas intimat, neque 

specify whether the book was to apostolica traditio, neque canonlca 

be open or closed : and on account auctoritas." De off, ecc. Lib, ij. 

256 CmuKCtatio electi in epiMopum. 

tuptr carvicem gtu et inter scapulas ciaiuum,^ et crir 


Cap. 14. But his statement must 
be somewhat corrected, for if this 
rite may not be traced up to the 
apostolic age, yet it has the prac- 
tice of a very high antiquity to 
plead in its bdialf. As the reader 
has already seen (note 21.) it was 
a part of Uie office in the pontifi- 
cal of Egbert : it is in the sacra- 
mentary of S. Gr^ory : and en- 
jcnned by the 2nd canon of the 
often-quoted council of Carthage : 
** Episcopus cum ordinatur," are 
its words, ^'duo episcopi ponant 
et teneant eyangeliorum codicem 
super caput et cenricem ejus : et 
uno super eum fundente benedic- 
tionem, reliqui omnes episcopi, qui 
adsunt, manibus suis caput ejus 

Palladius in his life of S. Chry- 
sostom mentions it ; where speak- 
ing of a consecration bjr heretics, 
he says, ** Non horruerunt evan- 
gelium scelesto capiti imponere." 
And Menard in his notes to the 
passage in the sacramentary, cites 
S. Chrysostom himself, alluding 
to the practice. But I would add, 
earlier than all these above cited, 
the testimony of the author of the 

Apostolical Constitatkna» where, 
speaking of the order of the cob- 
secration of a bishop» he sap: 
" 9t«#n|c yeyofuytfc, iic T»y t^ 
Ttty iwietmrtty dfia Kat. Zwatyinr 
pott, rXif^iOF rov Ovaiaeniptm 
itrrmtf rtty Xoir^y ertcmarttr cm 
TfiiofivTiptiy 9tury wpoaMtr^ofu- 
v«F, Ttiy ^€ ZiOKoymy ra Sua fy- 
ayycXca iwi rifc rov \f»poroyoy- 
fuyov ca^aXifc avewrvypLtya at- 
n^oyrtiy, Xtyerti wpo^ 0cor ." JLik* 
8. cap, iv.* 

It does not seem uncalled for, 
to add some of the mystical reasons 
which have been given for the ob- 
servance of this very ancient rite. 
Peter Damian tells us : ** Ponitur 
et evangelica pagina super caput 
illin recumbentis, ut verbo vitae 
sentiat excedere rationem, et ocuH 
ejus deficiant in eloquium Domi- 
ni." Sermo, 1. de Dedicatione, 
Amalarius also, although, as Ca- 
talani remarks, he had been ob- 
jecting to the reasonableness of 
the observance, yet immediately 
adds : ** Potest tamen evangelii 
positio super caput, monere tenen- 
tes, ut quo Dominus idem evan- 
gelium firmet in corde ejus, de- 


* It will be observed that here 
the book of the Gospels is directed 
to be held by deacons: and the 
student should consult the obser- 
vations of Haberttu: though I 

scarcely suppose he will agree 
with that writer in the very sum- 
mary condemnation which he 
passes on it. Pontif. Graff, p, 


Con0ectatio electi in epi0copum. 257 

^atare^ super eum fundente benedictionem, reliqui epis- 

>recentur, aut, ut moneant, eum, 
\\il consecratur, recordari se am- 
pliua esse sub jugo Evangelii, 
quaxn foret." Lib. 2. cap, xIy. 
But all these must be referred to 
the judgment of S- Chrysostom; 
vrho, cited by Hahertusy (p. 79.) 
has said: *'Dum ordinantur sa- 
cerdotesy Eyangelium capiti impo- 
nitar, quo discat ordinatus ▼eram 
se accipere Evangelii tiaram : dis- 
cat etiam, tametsi omnium sit ca- 
put, se tamen esse sub legibus, et 
quum omnibus dominetur, legis 
imperio subjici : cumque omnibus 
legem ponat, a lege gubemari. — 
Quod igitur Evangelium accipiat 
pontifez» significat eum esse sub 
potestate constitutum." Homil. 
de laude EvangeUL 

Nor can I pass by, witbout re- 
mark, anotber matter whicb, tbere 
is undeniable evidence to prove, 
wa8.connected with this placing of 
the Book of the Gospels upon the 
head of the new bishop. I shall 
extract the observations of Cata- 
lanL " Reliquum est, ut illud 
notemus, consuevisse olim cum 
Evangelii codex super caput im- 
poneretar, ex occurrenti in prima 
pagina sacri textus sententia faus- 
tum inftiustumque omen de futura 
episcopi administratione praanoscL 
Certe, in ordinatione Athanasii 
patriarchse Constantinopolitani, 
tradit Pachimera lib, 2. cap, xv. 
yerba ilia occurrissc : Qui para- 
VOL. in. 

iw est diaholoy et angelis ejus, 
Quodimprobis ejusdem patriarchs 
actis comprobatum est, eamque ob 
causam sede ilia depulsus. Con- 
tra, in consecratione Lanfranci 
Cantuariensis archiepiscopi appa- 
ruerunt verba: Date eUemosy- 
nam^ et ecce omnia munda sunt 
vobis. Qui prssul in largiendo 
eleemosynas valde fuit insignis. 
Alia id generis exempla multa ec- 
clesiastici scriptores produnt; ex 
quibus perperam quidam arbitrati 
sunt, ad inquirendas sortes evan- 
gelium in ordinatione episcoporum 
adhiberi consuevisse." Comment* 
inpontif, torn, I. p. 196. 

With respect to all this, the ob- 
vious wish b, that these state- 
ments as to the ^t may be un- 
founded : or at least that such a 
superstitious and objectionable 
practice was never recognized or 
allowed in this country. The case 
of Lanfranc, we must nevertheless 
confess, is unhappily supported by 
other examples : one, in the reign 
of Edward the Confessor, of Wul- 
Stan, bishop of Worcester: of 
whose consecration this circum- 
stance is related ; ** Nee vero sine 
divino nutu credi fas est prognos- 
ticon hoc ei fuisse, ' Ecce vero Is- 
raelita, in quo dolus non est.'" 
Vita S, Wlstani, Anglia Sacra, 
torn. 2. p,25l. And another, the 
successor of Lanfranc : for ilfa/- 
thew Paris has told us of Arch* 

250 ff BlgffCTnfW ClCCIl ID ffffytTl rl llll • 

€9pi qm adsunt numilnu mis capmi ejus tai^amiy et JkA 



biflbop Atttelm: ^ Inter 
dom, pro rito ecclesiae, codex 
eraogelii ab episoopb taper eum 
Mpetixu teDebaior: cooaecratiooe 
aatem peracta, cam codex inspi- 
oeretofy 10 paginal summitate bapc 
•ententia e«t reperta; *VocaTit 
nultof, et misit serTum faum, et 
corpenitit omnes te excasare,'*' 
Hist p. 15. As it has been al- 
ready shewn, the English pontifi- 
cab are unanimous, after this time, 
in directing the book to be closed : 
and I think it can scarcely be de* 
nied, that this particular order was 
wisely and religiously intended to 
put a stop to such a practice ; one, 
which there are few who would 
not condemn at all times, and much 
more, on the occasion of so great 
a solemnity. 

"• '• Consecratore imponente 
utramque manum super caput 
ihcti, dicens ei : 

^ Accipe Spiritum Sanctum. 

•* Idemque faciant et dicant 
omnes episcopi adstantes^ quofi* 
nito incipiat consecrator hym- 
num: Veni Creator, etc. Et 
eantetur usque injinem, et con» 
secraior mediocri voce : 

*^ Oremus, dilectissimi nobis, 

** Propitiare, Domine, supplica- 
tionibus. etc.'' Pontif, Exon. 

« '«tV/nm apertum:' Ruhr, 
pontif. Rom. 

* The rubric in the Robbb 
pontifical, after the deHwery of the 
Book of the Goepels, is, similar to 
that in the Exeter M&: ^ IXeindt 
consecrator^ et aseiaieniet» epi*c<y 
pi amhahus manibus capmt comse- 
crandi tangun /, dicentes r A ccipe 
Spiritum Sanctum."* 

This is a remarkable difference. 
as the reader will presently see. 
For the later schoolmen liare 
placed the ** Form" in these words. 
** Accipe, &c.'* To quote the 
statement of Catalani : ** Omnes 
prope scholastici, qui de materia, 
et forma episcopatus disputant, 
illius formam in his verbis eonsti- 
tuunt: Accipe Spiritum SanC" 
turn, quae a consecratore, et assis- 
tentibus episcopis, posito evan^Iii 
codice super ordinandi caput, et 
illud tangentibus, statim proferun- 
tur.*' Comment, in pontif. tom<, 
] . />. 1 97. But none of the Eng- 
lish pontificals, except the Exeter, 
contuns this "Form": and Mar- 
tene acknowledges, "verba ilia 

toti antiquitati ignota lue- 

runt: adeo ut vix in ullo pon- 
tificali annos 400. attingente re* 
periantur. Nam ex omnibus quae 
percurrimus, tria tantum ilia ha- 
bent, Arelatcnse, Andegavense, 
et Guillelmi Durandi." Thecoun- 
dl of Trent however has declared ; 
" Si quis dixerit, per sacram ordi- 
nationem non dan Spiritum Sane- 

Contrmatfo electf in episcopum. 259 

Voni Creator, ut supra in ordinibus. 
Sequatur : 

am; ac prande, fnistra episcopos 
icere; ' Accipe, #^c,'— anathema 
it.'* The difficulty therefore is 
he same as that already spoken 
>t, />. 194. note 55. and the Ro- 
man eontroversialista are equally 
oQSUGcessful in this case, as in 
the former. The later school- 
nven, who had the altered Ro- 
man Ordinal before them, did not 
know, what more accurate en- 
quiries proved, that these words 
were of late introduction: they 
therefore not unwillingly seized 
npon them, to round off, if I may 
say so, the peculiar opinions of 
their day: and the council of 
Trent adopted their decisions. 

It would however be unjust not 
to quote the argument by which 
Morinusy in his famous work, de 
facris ordinationibu», attempts to 
evade the Tridentine canon : and 
1 the more willingly do this, be- 
cause it shews that the point of 
that canon has -neither been mis- 
taken, nor unjustly urged against 
Oie peculiar doctrine of the Church 
of Rome in this matter : the rea- 
der will scarcely think it is more 
than an evasion, even if it amounts 
to that. For the question is not, 
whether the grace of the Holy 
Spirit is given at ordination, but, 
u both matter and form have 
heen accurately laid down as es- 
^tials, and defined, whether the 

council of Trent has or has not 
decided that the '* Form " consists 
in certain words, which for more 
than a thousand years, the Church 
had not admitted, or used. He 

'* Neque huic universi traditioni 
contradicit concilium Tridenti- 
num. Certum est quod ait per 
sacram ordinationem tradi Spiri- 
tum Sanctum, neque frustra epis- 
copos dicere, Accipe SpirUum 
Sanctum, cum ordinationis vir- 
tute detur Spiritus Sanctus. Al- 
ludit concilium ad ea verba qu» 
ah aliquot saeculis non tantum in 
episcopatus, sed etiam in presby. 
teratuB et diaconatus collatione 
dicuntur. Non frustra igitur di- 
cuntnr ista verba, cum catholids 
certum sit ordinationis ritu obicem 
noB ponentibus SfHritum Sanctum 
dari, et gratiam produci. Prae- 
terea ah antiquissimis temporibus 
tam apud Latinos quam apud 
Gi*8eco6, invocatur Spiri- 
tus Sanctus. — — ^— Sed aliqui 
ah annis, paulo plus minusque 
quadringentis existimantes invo- 
cationem Spiritus Sancti non 
sufficere, addere voluerunt tra- 
ditionem Spiritus Sancti modo 
imperative. Verum conci- 
lium Tridentinum declarato ordi- 
nationis sacras principali effectu, 
inde verba ilia ah episcopis non 
frustra did tantum coUigit, et me- 

26o dwtfccttttto dccti in fpfeupoip^ 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Propitiare,^ Domine, supplicationibiis ncstris, ciW \ 
clinato super hunc fiunulum tQum ooroii gratiae sact;- 
dotalis, bene»][4dictioiii8 tas in eom effunde rirtule&i 
per Dominum noetruiiit Jesum Christam, Jrilimn taozB* \ 
qui tecum vivit et regnat, in unitate Spiritus Sancc 

Per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Dominus vobiscom. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Sursum corda. 

Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 

Dignum et justum est. 

Vere dignum et justum est, sequum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte. 

rtto ; de fomui antem in qua ordi- 
nationis specie hsereat, ne yerlHini 
quidem. 8i his verbis fonnam 
definire Toluissent Patres, cam 
ires stilt ordinatioDb sacre gra- 
dusy sive species, et in anaqoaque 
dicatur, Acdpe Spiritum Sanc- 
tum, ant nnam saltern cui conve- 
niret, definire debuerunt, quod ab 
iis non est fiictum ; aut tribus 
specicbus conveniet, quod nemo 
admittit. Sed rem ita se non ha- 
bere ex argumento praaoedente in- 
dubitanter constat/* Part. III. 
Exerc, 2. cap. ij. 

It will not fail to be observed, 
how Morinus has here confused 
the whole subject: and as he has 
mixed up with his argument the 
same *' Form" as it is in the ordi- 

nation of priests, I woald rder 
the reader to my note on thai 
place, adding this plain extract 
from the CaUehiMmu» ad paro- 
cho9m Speaking of the rite a£ or- 
dination of priests, that aathori^ 
states : " Ad extremum vero, wsr 
nibns iterum ejus capiti impositis; 
Acdpe, inqnit, Spuritum Sanc- 
tum: quorum remiseris peocats, 
remittuntur eis; et quorum reti- 
nueris retenta sunt ; eiqne cceles- 
tem illam, quam Dominus diaci- 
pulis suis dedit, peccata rednendi, 
ac remittendi potestatem tribuit" 
p. 205. edit. Aldus. 1566. 

^ This prayer, with the suc- 
ceeding proper Preface, or prayer, 
is in the pontificals of archbishops 
Egbert and Dunstan. 

Con0ecratio electf in epf0copum. 261 

Ltei* omnipotens, ceteme Deus : Honor omnium dig* 
ta^tum, quse glorias tuse sacris fiimulantur ordinibus. 
ewsy qui Moysen famulum tuum secreti familiaris 
QPatUy inter csetera coelestis documenta cultursB, de 
abitu quoque indumenti sacerdotalis instituens, eleo- 
Jim Aharon mystico amictu yestiri inter sacra jussisti, 
it intelligentise sensum de exemplis priorum caperet 
ecixtura posteritasy ne eruditio doctrinse tuee ulli dees- 
et eetati : cum et apud yeteres reyerentiain ipsa signi- 
icationum species obtineret, et apud nos certiora essent 
3xperimenta rerum, quam aenigmata figurarum. Illius 
namque sacerdotii anterioris habitus, nostr» mentis 
oraatus est, et pontificalem gloriam non jam nobis ho^ 
nor commendat yestium, sed splendor animarum : quia 
et ilia, quae tunc camalibus blandiebantur obtutibus, 
ea potius quae in ipsis erant intelligenda poscebant. 
Et idcireo huic famulo tuo, quem ad summi sacerdotii 
ministerium elegisti, banc, quaesumus Domine, gratiam 
largiaris, ut quicquid ilia yelamina in fulgore auri, in 
nitore gemmarum, et in multimodi operis yarietate 
signabant, hoc in ejus moribus actibusque clarescat. 
Comple, Domine, in sacerdote tuo ministerii tui sum- 
mam, et omamentis totius glorificationis instructum, 
coelestis unguenti rore sanctifica* 

Tunc consecrator/^ depositis chirothecisj et annulo 

^ ^ Hie effundatur oleum *^ Et cum spirita tuo. 
tKrUmaU mper caput ejui in « Tunc omnes episcopi perun-- 

modum cruet». Hoc, Domine, gant caput efus mar^huf suU. 

copiose, etc.'* Pantif. Wmton. Metropolitanue vera dkat quod 

*" Hie mittatchruma in caput eequiturmorepntfatiome. Hoc, 

ejutf m modum erucia : leniter Domine, copiose, etc." Bangor, 
dieent : Unguator, et consecretur, ** Hie mittat chritma in coro* 

etc, nam capitis electi cum poUiee m 

^ Fto tibi. modum cruciSf leniter drcumli" 

262 ConKtcratio (Itcti ni tpi0copiitn« 

pontificali resumpto^ sedeaty et liget caput ejus qui amu- 
cretur cumfasciola de parmo lineo mundo ad hoc prtepsr 1 
rata J ita quod fasciola circumdet caput sub corona j qua. 
tota debeat remanere libera: et expansa super genua I 
consecrantis toballia, mittat chrisma cum oko mixtum \ 
super caput ejus cum pollice dextroj dicens :'^ ' 

gato prku eapUe Uneo retorto^ 
ne chritma defluat in capUlot ex 
more Romance curue^ cum pol- 
lice dextrdB manus totam toneu- 
ram, dicene: Unguatur, et conse- 
cfetur, etcJ* Exon» 

I must add, that both the Exe- 
ter and the Bangor MSS. omit 
the sentence, '* per sacri chrisma^ 

tis benedictionem,'' in the 

Form, at anointing. 

^ I must refer the student for 
the ancient forms and prayers, as 
they were in the pontificals of Eg- 
bert and Dunstan, to Martene, 
torn. 2. where the ordinals are 

Menardy in' his notes to the 
Sacramentary of S. Gregory, cites 
an Englbh pontifical in which the 
head was to be anointed twice: 
** Porro in pontificali, quod Angli- 
canum esse creditur, duplex est 
unctio capitis, prior cum oleo et 
chrismate, secunda post manuum 

unctiooem cum oleo tantum. 

Qu» non sunt in editis et aliis co- 
dicibus nostris." p. 517« Nor 
does Catalani, or Martene seem 
to have known any other example 
of this practaoe. 

It would therefore seem to have 

been peculiar to the Ordiiial of 
some of the English churches. 
The reader, by a careful compari- 
son of the note below, p. 265. 33- 
and 30. will see that the WiiM^ies- 
ter MS. exactly agrees with that 
which Menard speaks of; — ^that 
the Exeter and Bangor pontificals 
anoint the head once only ; — and 
that the Salisbury Use was to 
anoint the head twice, but first 
with the mixed chrism and oil, and 
afterwards, before the unction of 
the hands, with chrism only. 

I r^ret that my space preTents 
my entering, at length, into the 
subject of the ancient unctioii of 
priests and bishops: but, referring 
the student to the chief writers 
on the subject, I would sum up 
the intention and meaning of the 
rite, in the words of a Tery learned 
writer. ^^ Concludo, sacerdotum 
tam superioris, quam inferioris 
ordinis manus inungi; primo, ut 
ad laborem, ad ministerium, ad 
diligentem et sedulam operam 
utrorumque manus mdurentur et 
confirmentur: secundo, ut ad mi- 
serioordise opera charitatis oleo 
diffloentes manus habere monean. 
tur, non aridas, non contractas, non 

Consectatio tltcti in eptocopum« 263 

TTnguatur et consecretur caput tuum coelesti bene- 
lictione, in ordine pontificali, per sacri chrismatis et 
»lei unctionem, et nostram benedictionem. In nomine 
J^ Psitrisy et ►J^ Filii, et ►J^ Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Wlberales: tertio, ut ad benedi- 
cendum, et sacramenta conficienda 
Ldonei reddantur: quarto, ut ad 
li^andum et solvendum habiliores 
efficiantur. Item, non sufficere 
episcopis, quod eorum in inferiori 
sacerdotio manus inunct» fuerint, 
sed iterum cum consecrantur, in- 
ungi debere; turn quia ad bene- 
dicendum manus eorum sanctiores 
efficiends, turn quia sacerdotum 
consecratio, altarium, ecclesiarum, 
et caeteromm benedictio, sacra- 
mentonimque quorundam con- 
fectio tunc ipsis confertur: tum 
quia ad operosius ministerium, et 
honorificentius officium consecran- 
tur : tum denique quia cum opes 
ecclesisB in ipsorum potestate con- 
sistant, majorem largiendi babent 
occasionem, et ex suo statu ad pie- 
tails, et supererogationis opera 
arctius devinciuntur. Chrismate 
vero epiacopales manus, oleo pres- 
byterales inungi; tum quod per- 
fectionem ills operentur, quae 
chilsmate bene olenti significatur : 
bx illuminandis prsesertim menti- 
bus incumbant, quae illuminatio 
oleo, quod ignis pabulum esse so- 
let, coQvenienter exprimitur : tum 
quod in corpus Cbristi mysticum 
epbcopi presbyteris majorem ba- 
beant potestatem ; utrique vero in 
corpus Cbristi Terum per se aequa- 

lem virtutemjiabeant: qus scili- 
cet praesertim conscientiae puritate 
et nitore indiget : si quid proinde 
detrahi debet presbyterali unctio- 
ne, quo praecellere ipsi possit epis- 
copalis, non oleum, quod con- 
scientiae puritatem designat, sed 
balsamum, quod famae claritatem 
significat, detrabendum, illudque 
episcopalis unctionis materiae ad- 
jungendum. Denique infero, ca- 
put solius episcopi inungi, quia 
solus regiminis perfectam sden- 
tiam, solus gratiae praesidendi per- 
fectionem, solus regendi absolu- 
tam auctoritatem, solus perfectae 
ecclesiae caput est episcopus, solus 
tandem caput ecclesiae Cbristum 
perfectius exbibet : presbyteri nee 
pleniludinem omnem sacerdotii 
sibi mendicant, nee sine episcopis 
aliquid gerendi auctoritatem, nee 
perfectae ecclesiae capita sunt, nee 
Cbristi perfecta ezemplaria.'* 
HalUer: de $acri$ Electionibut^ 
Pars. III. viij. 10. />. 464. 

Mucb more information as to 
details may be found in tbe decre» 
tal epistle of Innocent III. de sa- 
cra Unci: the Gemma Animce^ 
cap. 181. Hugo S. Victor, de 
ecurram. lib, 1. cap. 40. Morinu?» 
de eacris ordin. Exercit. ▼]• and 
Habertus, Pontif. Ecc. Graca^ 
cap. 28. 


•-cJi^ *r nil».:- 'iiiiunt? «t'Tn 

♦r (mrr-niL frniTHgrJ;. ^x nair 
^*. 31: Hif su^^iirasi <sc xoi 
ri'ixiL*iis ' — rnTmr ^ic :n^£s2$ 

"tente sint, 
Qai vakdixerit 
ei, benedic- 
d prwiens^ qaem 
fimifHaiB tmm; ut det 
Hi^f iLrimL ix mzgure -.xpcrtazMx ft exhibeat omneni 
YumisuRSL Twrif^TxiL. Xi sixicxtiMfiiie impiger, sit spi- 


ISl Eeoe qonn boouiii* Etpost 
fm em fme rersumrepetaiftr 

Un g u a iUu n : qua compleia per- 
JSdai etnueeraior pr^tfaHonem : 
arit Dami- Hoe, Domioe, copiose, eteJ* 

Con0ectatio electi in epi0copum. 265 

L forvens. Oderit superbiam, humilitatem diligat, 
: ea^in unquam deserat, aut laudibus aut timore 
^er^ktUB. Non ponat lucem tenebras, nee tenebras 
^exxi : non dicat malum bonum^ nee bonum malum. 
b sa-pientibus et insipientibus debitor, ut £ructum de 
ofectu omnium consequatur. >i< Tribuas ei, Do* 
ine, cathedram episeopalem, ad regendam eeelesiam 
.^tn, et plebem sibi eommissam. Sis ei auctoritas : 
s ei potestas : sis ei firmitas. Multipliees super eum 
ene^^dictionem^ et gratiam tuam : ut ad exorandam 
smper miserieordiam tuam tuo munere idoneus, et tua 
p^atia possit esse devotus : 

Terminando secrete : Per Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum Filium tuum, qui teeum vivit et regnat, in 
nmtate Spiritus Sancti Deus. Per omnia saecula S8&- 

Et respondeant omnes : Amen. 
Et tunc sequatur^ oratio elevata aliqtiantulum voce, et 
manu super eum dextera externa. Oratio. 

^ There is great yariety here ** Hie impotMtur mUra capiH 

between the pontificals. I shall efus: 

first state the order of the Win- ^* Benedictio annulu Sancti- 

Chester MS. fica, qosBSumas Domine, annulum 

" AUa. Pater sancte, omnipo- istum, ut famulus tuus, Ny gesta* 

tens Deus, etc. tor illius, quem in ordinem epis* 

*' Benedktio de tepHJwrmi copalem electum sacravimus, fide 

•%>tn(tt. sit plenusy operatione sinceros, in 

*' Spiritus Sanctus septifonnis, revelandis atque claudendis sacris 

etc. mysteriis, salubri semper conside- 

^ Consecratio manuum epis» ratione, discretus. Pen 

copiabarchiepucopOfOUosancio Cum datur annultu. Accipe 

e/ chrismate: Unguantur manus annulum discretionis, et honoris, 

iits, etc. fideisignum; ut quae signanda sunt 

^ Hie miUatur oUum super signes, et qu» aperienda sunt pro- 

caput epu : Unguetur et couse- das» qu» liganda sunt liges, que 

cretor caput, etc. solvenda sunt solvas, atque creden- 

268 Consecratio electf in epljeicoptttn. I 

sfficuli. Ecce quam bonum et quam jncandmn haU^ 
firatres in unuin. I 

Repetatur antiphona past unumquemque ver-sum^ \ 

Sicut unguentam in capite, quod descendit in ^» 
bam, barbam Aaron. I 

Quod descendit in oram vestimenti ejus, sicut r^^ 
Hermon, qui descendit in montem Sion. 

Quoniam illic mandavit Dominus benedictionefiiL «i 
vitam usque in saeculum. 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. 

Sicut erat in prindpio, et nunc, et semper, et in »^ 
cula seeculorum. Amen. 

Hie mttatur solum chrisma super eaput ejus. 

Unguatur et consecretur caput tuum coelesti bene- 
dictione in ordine pontificali, per sacri chrismatis 1227^ 
tionem et nostram benedictionem. In nomine i^ Fa- 
tris, et Filii ^, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Unguantur manus istse,^ et sanctificentur, et in te 

* There is no mention of any 
unction of the hands in the sacnt- 
mentary of S. Gr^ory: and I 
think it may he asserted that the 
pontifical of archbishop Egbert 
is the earliest MS. in which it is 
to be found. From England it 
was however adopted not long 
after into the foragn churches, as 
appears from several ancient or- 
ders printed by Martene. There 
are frequent references also in 
several authors to this practice, 
reaching up to nearly the time of 
Egbert. Peter Damian speaks of 
it, in immediate connexion with 
the consecration of bishops : <' Li« 

niuntur et manus, ut quicquid be- 
nedixerint benedicatur, et aeoep- 
turn sit divinse majestatis aspee- 
tuL" Serm. 1. de Ecc. dMca- 
Hone. And Pope Innocent III. 
** Hoc unguento caput, et manus 
episcopi consecrentur." De sacr. 
VnctUme. cap. I. Menard cites 
also a synodical epistle, (conciL 
Carisiacum, Quiercy oit Que) 
A. D. 888, in which the unction of 
the hands is spoken of. 

The student will see below that 
this unction was ordered to extend 
from the right thumb : and from 
note dS, that in the Bangor use, 
the thumb is still more particularly 

aDon0ecratio electi in epi0copum. 269 

> Deorum ordinentur. Unguo manus has oleo sano- 
;sLto et chrismate unctionis purificato : ut sicut unxit 
yses verbo oris sui manus sancti Aaron germani 
, et sicut unxit Spiritus Sanctus per suos flatus ma- 
^ sanctorum apostolorum ; ita unguantur manus istsB 
sanctificentur et consecrentur, ut in omnibus sint 
rfectoe in nomine tuo, Pater, Filiique, atque setemi 
>iritu8 Sanctii qui es unus summus Deus omnium 
vorum et mortuorum, manens in s»cula sseculorum. 

HU peractisj ipse qui consecratur extendat manus 
las ambas^ unamjtuvta alteram^ ante consecratorem : 
t consecratorfundens chrisma super manusj cum pollice 
aciat crucem unguendo a pollice dextro usque ad indi- 

specified. Both Menard and Ca- 
taUni have observed this, from 
some manuscripts which they had 
collated: and remark upon it, 
proving that there was, in some 
churches, a separate unction of the 
thumb: and in fact, an ancient 
ordinal of the church of Rouen, 
before referred to, has an express 
prayer "ad pollioem consecran- 
dum." Although, (upon the other 
aide,) it does not make any men- 
tion of an unction of the hands* 
MMXou. Analeeta. p. 229. But 
it is doabtfiil whether thb separate 
unction of the thumb was adopted 
at any time by the church of Sa- 
Usbary : and it is further not im- 
possible, that the variations of the 
fiaglish MSS. consist only in the 
obscurity of the rubrics, all mean, 
ing the same thing, as is clearly 
enough expressed ia the text 

above, that the unction of the 
hands should begin from the right 
thumb. Menard cites a passage, 
not very clear, in support of his 
view, from GuUelmus Parmen^ 
^^ Quemadmodum in conse- 


cratione pontificum perfectio, et 
plenitude legitur; sicut in unctior 
nibus capitis, manuum, et pollids, 
pinguedo intern» unctionis.** Cap. 
de extr. UncU A short rubric 
has been inserted into the margin 
of the pontifical, in a later hand, 
which would however seem to di- 
rect, that a separate unction of the 
thumb was to be performed : but 
I would not rely upon the autho- 
rity of such an interpoktion. 
'*Hic prius consecrator, et post 
alii episcopi, chrismate confirment 
poUicem dexterum electi, sic dicen- 
do: 'Oremus.'" 

fiftff in f p fjw o ptf fit T 



TifiGv it T'Wir IXjakfui aoslii Jesa Christi, q^ te 
^%mii.n :trjs ^i^ouri rc^t dignitatem, ipse te chii^ 
naof i? sy^^ic» iecSirioQis liqpore po^iiiidaty et ^ I 
^•10!:^ ">nw~ c^"o:itii aberttte fbcimdet, nt quicqinA ' 
jvm^i: \ fr^ MMci>.':u:Lr -r^ et qmcqmd sanctificaveri? 
^:n r ^ ii-^fnr : «c vXiKi^»^cnl» numus tuae, vel pot 
.:v.*.2v nt;»ic«; ctoic^ prvociat ad salntem. ^men. 

^n'm*n>uai •'>*m>»r^--t?w mam rogamos, oiDoi{K>tem 
n 7i >i^;*tm r%fa:$,. x? 3U]i3i> kliiis fiunnli tui, scilicet 
tr-i..m^ 3%>cr* >cc« «sertiis obdocimtiir chirothecis 


;:ctfrr:&> ,fc>9erv;uitar nre tme benedictioiii^ 

•^ :>voi .K *.» ^ a ^•Mw^^ae »fr 
Wta i ^ IV^tt^ woej« <M»e» 

ex^aur* tfci^ nett$«w whtj tb*T w«* 
pc« ttp^>« ibe Kandb. Itt cW bs<>- 
liw« K^VftftB piMICUMk b«Hli the 
sitre aihl thi^ itWtv» are solemDlj 
de&T^red «nd put 00« after the 
serrke ctf tlie coamttiik» is fin- 
isked : and a special prarar is ap- 

>:cited to be said with each, h 
tW MHI adent Ordinals, therr 
is ao Bcatiaa made of the g^Ioves. 
aar« as ^be reader «ill observe, in 
tbe W iatb e ate r, Bangor, and Ex- 
eter MS& We may, therefore 
c«ai(lade.tbal ahboiigii sometimes 
p«e «a. bgfct t ^bb prayer, yet that 
tbe lolfam investing with them 
aas scarcely introdnced into the 
Ot«rclifirEa!glaad:and that the 
aicaicit appr oach was a prayer, 
alhi^Sag to Aem, like that in tbe 
lest. I do not mean to say, that 
tbe ase of gloves, as a pcntion of 
tbe proper episeopal Testments, 
was not of Tety h%b antiqnity is 
Ee^rknd. as in other of the Wes- 
teni cborebes : bat that the put* 
tins: them solemnly upon the hands 
of tbe new bishop, did not form 
an especial part of the office of 

For there can be no qnestkm 

CDomcectatio electi in epiiscopum. 271 

qusecunque per eas sint benedicenda, sanctificanda, 
consecranda, per te benedicentur, sanctificentur. 

their constant and universal 
by bishops for centuries in 
» country : this is certain from 
testimony of illuminations, and 
isses, and sculptures.* It is a 
narkable circumstance also, that 
Is very prayer in the text, " Im- 
ensam clementiam " is appointed 
be said in the ancient " Ordo" 
Tinted by Hittorpius, p, 99, 
quando episcoptu induitur ma^ 
icis ; ** for so, as was not unusual 
1 that age, the " chirothec»'* 
rere termed. Therefore we can- 
iot refuse to the *'chirothecae" 
be authority of long use, though 
we need not give credit to Hugo 
Victorinus, Innocent III., or Du- 
rand, who, following the author of 
the ** Gemma," have not hesitated 
to say, ^ Chirothecarum usus ab 
apostoUs est traditus.** Gemma 
Anima. Uh. I. cap^ 215. 

The position in which this 
prayer occurs in the text, is cer- 
tainly more natural than accord- 
ing to the modern Roman cus- 
tom; by wbich, the gloves are 

made a chief ornament, not re- 
ferred to the unction, and that they 
may be put on, the ring is of course 
ordered to be removed. It is pro- 
bable, I think, that the allusion, 
and a mere allusion only, to them 
in the Sanim pontiBcal, is to be 
traced to that earlier age, when 
they were worn by priests as well 
as bishops. Saussajus asserts that 
even then there was a difference 
observed : '^ nam presbyterales ex 
corio erant, episcopales ex serico, 
aureum circulum (teste Innocen- 
tio III.) desuper habentes, Sacer- 
dotales erant consut», pontificise 
textiles ac inconsutiles, ad unitatis 
ecclesiae quse in episcopo residet 
mysticum indicium.** PanopL 
Episc. p. 354. With respect to 
this last point, there is the testi- 
mony of the ** Gemma,'* in the 
chapter above cited : " chirothecsB 
sunt inconsutiles, quia actiones 
pontificis debent rectse fidei esse 

I transcribe the prayer which is 
now in the Roman Pontifical : and 

* To these may be added In- 
ventories: for example of S. 
Paul's, A.D. 1295. *' Item, duaa 
cbirothecie, in quibus deficiunt 
multi lapillL Item duo paria chi- 
Totbecarum, omata laminis argen- 
teis deauratis, et lapidibus inser- 
tis." Dugdalt. S. Paul's p. 205. 
And, of Canterbury : " Chirothe. 

cse : cum perlis et gemmis in plata 
quadrata. Item par unum cum 
tasselis argenteis et parvis lapidi- 
bus. Item, quatuor paria cum 
tasselis argenteis. Item, par unum 
de lino, cum tasselis et perlis/' 
Dart's Canterbury, Append. 

-1 V 

■i cpttcopmn. 

<K iWBas com Deo Bam 





simi: ddndtiBtff.- 

^'i ' : 1 -c. _ rzmiet JjnjeLi'fllw% aistersu msKr\ 

« t— "^ - MTuum ptaitrmiam, sic : I 

^.zsL r rjiiHBiK 3Diiccii!itatis Deos, bene^dii } 

ex 2C3IIL X AM. in <ii csfierras designator, ht i 

:x TO. r*I^«£fr Tuim.i rai propidatioiiis clementu \ 

"^ MLU^um TaKOirus oCcn: et sis in corn! 
■ ••ids ;p;e sar^ia^ jmncxm sine ira tenens, in 
i> r*TUi'«?iis jomiumia uxbos d^n ulceus, in ^ 
I.u.v ^'^'frauas .nnssa wn deserens. 

TA^vrrMOi 3«iw^*t:uQi!B^ Maw 

. ae ct isle, oblaU pe 
flBtia salntari, gnt2£ 
not bcac&tnon impetrare me \ 
!>MBEr. IVr** Pami^. Horn. 
TWSvi^pnjer was better than , 

"^ TfepoBUicib of Egbert and 
IViKtaK ^e&rer the psstond staff: 
SBii tlKve are DomenNis early wii- 
it. as a |>art of 

^ittTiu t mnv 'ii fttsahduKs; 
l»c (snas ledl aft putaRmr essae 
quiaott etat : si aatcaa koc £Mtina 
ad Uhid propCiiT quod s%iiifican- 
dam ra rna ftctina est lelefatiir; 

pdks peocata, per 
qui eb 86 opemit, ille 
s%aiicatas est» qui Don sua, sed 
afiena peccita portaTit. Verax 
ei^ significatio dqUo modo mea- 
dadum recte did potest.** Contra 
wtem^iacmmu 24. Oper<u Tom, TJ. 

CoitjBiecratio electi in episcopum^ 273 

Creator et conservator humani generis, dator gratise 
irittialis, largitor setemae salutis, tu Domine, emitte 
^nedictionem tuam super hunc annulum, ut qui eum 
(sta^verity armatus virtute ccelestis defensionis proficiat 
1 salutem mentis et corporis. Per Dominum. 

I^ost hac consecrator mittat annulum^ in digit urn an- 
ularem dextrcB manus consecratij dicens : 

le office of consecration. Isidore 
lispalensis says ; ^* Huic auteniy 
um ccmsecratur, datnr baculos, 
it ejus indicio subditam plebem 
el regat, vel corrigat, yel infirmi- 
ties infirmorum sustineat.'' De 
Ut\ off. lib. 2. V. (Hittorpius edit. 
^. 20.) Venerable Bede also, the 
contemporary of Egbert: ^'Bacu- 
lum habet episcopus» at subditos 
regat, infirmos sustineat." De 
rij. ardinihus. Martene cites also 
the following from a life of S. Caesar 
Arelatensis : *' Cum ergo vir Dei 
Caesarius per eamdem pergeret 
ecclesiam, dericus cui cura erat 
baculum illias portare, quod nota- 
riorum officium erat, oblitus est'' 
Tom. 2. p» 28* Once more : 
Hugo St Victor explains other 
meanings attached to the pastoral 
staff: "Episcopo, dum regimen 
ecclesis committitur, baculus qua- 
si pastori traditur, in quo tria 
notantur, qu» significatione non 
carent, recuryitas, virga, cuspis; 
ftignificatio hoc carmine contine- 

Collige, sustenta, stimula, — i^aga, 

morbida, lenta : 
Hoc est pastoris, hoc virga figurat 




Attraho peccantes, justos rogo, 

pungo vagantes, 
Officio triplici servio pontifici.** 

De Sacram. cap. xl. 

* The delivery of the ring also 
forms a part of the ceremonial of 
Egbert : and before that time, Isi- 
dore Hispalensis, in the place be- 
fore cited, note 37, immediately 
adds : *' Datur et annulus propter 
signum pontificalia honoris, vel 
signaculum secretorum." Neither 
Amalarius, Alcuin, or Rabanus 
M aurufl make any mention of it ; 
and Catalani supposes that it was 
not until after their time that it 
was generally introduced into the 
churches of Germany. Comment, 
torn. I. />. 208. The author, how- 
ever, of the *' Gemma Animse'* 
speaks of it, and says : *' Annul! 
usus ex evangelio acceptus credi- 
tur, ubi saginati vituli conviva 
prima stok vestitur, annulo insig- 

nitur. Pontifex ergo annu- 

lum portat, at se sponsum ecclesis 
agnoscat, ac pro ilia animam, si 
necesse ftierit, sicut Christos po- 
nat" Cap. 216. Bibl. Patrom. 
Auct. torn. 1. col 12d5. 

274 CoiiMctatio decti in qMjKopttm. 



Accipe annulum fidei scificet signaculum, qllate!Si^ 
Dei sponsam, sanctam Dei videlicet ecclesiam, inteoie- 
rata fide ornatos, illibate custodias. 

JEt repetatur pro quolibtt si plures sint. k 

Benedictio mitra. I 

Deus, cujus providentia statuit ut mitra pontificis * 
caput omarety misericordiae bu» dono concedat, ut hoc 
capitis omamentum ministerio bononun operom ad 
omatom aDimae convertatur. Per Dominum. 
Cum datur mitra^^ dicat ordinator : 

^ This ceremony is of very late 
introductioa : Catidani supposes 
that there is no trace ci it in any 
pontifical before the 1 2th century ; 
but as the reader has already seen» 
note 33, the Winchester MS, has 
a reference to it, but without an 
express prayer: ** Hie imponaiur 
mUra capiti efus.** The bene- 
diction and prayer both occur in 
the Bangor pontificaL 

I do not think it requisite to 
enter here into the controversy, 
as to the date at which mitres 
began to be used in the Western 
Church. The great authorities 
for an extreme antiquity are Sans- 
sajus, Panoplia EpiscopaUfy lib. 
1. and Joseph Vicecomes, de app, 
Missa, cap. xxix. Cardinal Bona 
takes a middle view of the ques^ 
tton» by drawing a distinction be- 
tween the mitre, properly so call* 
ed, and some other ornament of 
the head, which, of some kind, 
was always worn from the primi- 
tive ages. Rerum lit. lib, 1. cap. 
xxiv. Martene, tie ant ecc, rii. 

Ub, 1. cap. iv. following Mabilloe. 
Prcef. S«c. iv. Bened. p. 11. 
clxxxij. takes another grmrod : 
that the mitre was always an 
episcopal ornament, but tbat for 
many centuries it was made the 
subject of an especial grant and 
privilege from the Pope, l^titlr 
Menard, in his notes to the Sa- 
cramentary of S. Gr^ory, deelar» 
that it was not introduced until 
the 10th century; and he relies 
upon the fact that there is no men- 
tion made of it in the ancient pon- 
tificals, nor in the ritualists b^Dre 
that time; either by Alcuin, or 
Araalarius, etc. This is undoubt- 
edly a very powerful argument, 
and the only fact by way of evi- 
dence which is brought upon the 
other side, is an account of the 
examination of some supposed re- 
mains of pope Leo the Great: **m 
quibus super ejus caput mitrtp 
genus inventum est." GeorgiMS. 
torn. 1. p. 231. So that the ques- 
tion, as regards facts, is still where 
Menard has left it. The most 

Con^ectatf electi in episcopum. 275 

"Deus qui mitrse pontificalis honore te voluit insig- 
Lre olementer annuat, ut quae per mitree comua figu- 
mtur, ad tutelam et salutem animae fortiter et pru- 
enter corde tractes et ore. Per Christum. 

Et Tepetatur pro quolibet si plures sint. 

Posted det eis codicem evangeliorum^ dicens :^ 

>robable opinion seems to be that 
9f cardinal Bona. 

But I would add an extract from 

Innocent III. as to the mystical 

meaning and signification of the 

mitre. *' Mitra pontificis scien- 

tiam utriusque testamenti signifi- 

cat: nam duo comua, duo sunt 

testamenta, du» fimbriae spiritus, 

et Utera : circulus aureus, qui an- 

teriorem et posteriorem partem 

complectitury indicat, quod omnis 

scriba doctus in regno cGelorum 

de tbesauro suo nova profert, et 

Vetera. Caveat ergo diligenter 

episcopus, ne prius velit esse ma- 

gister, quam norit esse discipulus, 

ne si caucus caecum duxerit, ambo 

in foveam cadanf Lab, 1. cap» 

xHv. The student can consult 

also the '^ Gemma Aninudy" cap. 

214. Hugo Victorinus, de sacr* 

Uh. 1. cap. 55 1 both these in the 

Auctarium to the Bibl. Patrum. 

torn, 1. And Durandus, lib. 3. 

cap. xiij. 5. 

The mitre is a very frequent 
item in the old Engli^ invento- 

^ There is not any notice of 
this ceremony in the Anglo-saxon 
pontificals : the unction, the ring, 

and the staff are appointed in all 
of them, but not the mitre or the 
book of the Gospels. None, also, 
of the earlier ritualists mention it : 
Isidore, or Alcuin, or Amalarius : 
and as it is not enjoined in the 
Winchester MS. although we find 
it in the Bangor, we may con- 
clude that it began to be generally 
adopted in England, soon after the 
mitre, in the 12th or Idth cen- 
tury. Some writers of the Roman 
communion have argued that this 
delivering of the Gospels is " pars 
materis episcopatus : " to this 
Morinus objects, that the new 
bishop is after the unction, styled 
by the rubrics *^ consecratus," and 
not '* electus." De sacr, Ordin. 
p. ] 8. And CataUmi agrees with 
him : Comment torn. 1. />. 210. 
But as far as the argument is con- 
cerned, it is somewhat curious, 
that in this particular place, the 
rubric of the Sarum pontifical does 
call the bishop, "electus.'' Never- 
theless we may consent to the 
judgment of Catalani, (however 
he may have arrived at it, or to 
serve what end) that all these 
parts of the ordinal, the staff, ring, 
mitre, &c., are neither necessary. 


276 Conyecratio electi in e^istcajftaa. 

Accipe evangeliam, et Tade, praedica popnlo €i 
commisso : potens est enim Deos augere tibi gratisL I 
suain, qui vivit et regnat Dens, per omnia saecida ss- { 
culonim. ^ 

Pax tibi. 

Resp. Et com spiritu tuo. 

Et repetatur pro quolibet si plures sint. 

Et dominus metropolitanuSj vet consea^ator^ peragd 

Electus autem^^juxta prascriptum ordinem conxcra- 
tuSf inclinet se metrapolitano vet consecratori gratias re- 
ferendoj quern duo episcopi adducent in locum ubiprovisuhi 
esty ubi missam de sancta Maria celebret. 

Secretunij cum secreto de die : 

Suscipe, Domine, munera quae tibi offerimus pro 
femulo tuo, ut propitius in eodem tua dona custodias. 
Per Dominum nostrum. 

Infra canonem. 

Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostrse, sed et 
cunctae familiae tuae, quam tibi offerimus, etiam pro 
famulo tuo quern ad episcopatus ordinem promovere 

DOT essential; to use his words, ^ Et tunc legatur evangeUum ; 

resting on his argnment from the quo lecto, episeopus navus tx 

term cofw^erato^y ^ Qnod quidem mort Romatue ecclesiof ex tnttt' 

indidum est minime obscunim, tutiane papa Melchiadi» hahet 

nostrum Romanum pontificale, offerre duos nutgnos panes, duos 

traditiones illas bacali, annoli, et amphoras twi, et duos magnos 

eyangelii habere, ut meras caere- cereos, sed istas obiaHones non 

monias consecrato episcopo acce« ohservat ecclesia AngHcana : sed 

dentes." Ibid. lecto evangelio^ recedai episco* 

^* The rubric in this place of pii#, de novo consecratus, quern 

the Exeter pontifical throws some deducant duo episcopi ad locum 

light upon that in the text, but it ubi missam est celebraturus. Pot- 

does not specify the mass which tea dominus consecrator mcep- 

was to be said. tarn missam peragat" 

Con0ea:atfo electi in epi0copum. 277 

;xkstt;iis es, qusesumus Domine, ut placatus accipias, 
piropitius in eo tua dona custodias ; ut quod divino 
xnere consecutus est, divinis effectibus exequatur: 
esque nostros : Et catera omnia sicut continentur in 
n€me missa. 

Plenum, qusBsumus Domine, in nobis remedium tu» 
iserationis operare ; et tales nos esse perfice propi- 
us, et sic foveriy ut tibi in omnibus placere valeamus. 
^er Dominum. 
Alia missa in ordinatione episcopi. 
Deus, qui ad ineffabilis observantiam sacramenti 
Pamulorum tuorum preeparas voluntates, donis tuis 
3orda nostra purifica, ut quod sancta est devotione 
tractandum, sinceris mentibus exequamur. Per. 

Heec hostia, quaesumus Domine, «mundet nostra 
delicta: et sacrificium celebrandum subditorum tibi 
corpora mentes sanctificet. Per Dominum. 
Infra canonem. Hanc igitur. 
Rtsp. ut supra in alia missa. 
Post communio. 

Heec nos communio, Domine, purget a crimine, et 
coelestis remedii faciat esse consortes, per Dominum. 
Item alia missa episcopi pro se in die ordinatianis sua. 

DeuSy qui non propriis suffi'agantibus mentis sed 

Bola ineffiibilis gratis largitate me familise tu» praeesse 

voluisti: tribue me tibi digne persolvere ministerium 

sacerdotalis officii et ecclesiasticis convenienter servire 

mysteriis, plebemque mihi commissam, te in omnibus 

protegente, gubemare concede. Per Dominum. 


Ad gloriam, Domine, tui nominis, annua festa re- 

278 Consecratto electt in t»itimum. 

petentes sacerdotalis officiii hostiam tibi laudis ofknr 
musy suppliciter exorantes, ut cujus ministerii Tice tibi 
servimus immeriti, suffiragiis reddamur accepti. Yer 

Infra canonem. 

Hanc igitur oblationem quam tibi offero ego famulus 
tuuB et sacerdosy ob diem in qua me dignatus es in 
ministerio sacro constituere sacerdotem, obsecro, 1^ 
mine, placatus accipias, unde majestatem tuam exoro 
ut quod in me largiri dignatus es, propitius custodire 
digneris : diesque nostros. 

Bcfiedictio super populum. 

Deus, qui me indignum et peccatorem ad pontificale 
officium dignatus est promo vere, sua vos illustret atque 
sanctificet benedictione. Amen. 

Donet mihi per gratiam suam bene operandi facul- 
tatem : etvobis sui famulatus promptissimam obeditio* 
nem. Amen. 

Sicque vos doctrinis spiritualibus et operibus bonis 
repleri in prsesenti vita concedat : ut ad pascua vitse 
eetemae cum caeteris ovibus suis yos pariter introducat 

Quod ipse prsestare dignetur. 


Repleantur consolationibus tuis, queesumus Domine, 
tuorum corda fidelium, pariterque et de ecclesise pree- 
sule, et de suorum votorum plenitudine, gratiarum 
tibi referant actiones. 


Sacerdotes Dei benedicite Dominum : sancti et hu- 
miles corde laudate Deum. 

In tempore paschali : Alleluia. 

Psalmus. Benedicite omnia opera Domini Domino ; 
laudate et superexaltate eum^ in ssecula. 

Pax vobis. Oremus. 


Con0matto electt in episcopum* 279 

Dens, cnjus arbitrio omnium sseculorum ordo de- 
cirrrit, re^ice propitius ad me famulum tuum, quern 
ad ordinem episcopatus promovere dignatus es, et ut 
tibi mea servitus complaceat, tua in me dona miseri- 
corditer conserva. Per Dominum« 
Epistola ad Hebraos. 

Fratres : Omnis pontifex ex hominibus aBsumptus, 
pro hominibus constituitur in iis quae suiit ad Deum, 
ut offerat dona, et sacrificia pro peccatis. Qui condo- 
lere possit iis qui ignorant et errant, quoniam et ipse 
circumdatus est infirmitate. Et propterea debet quem« 
axlmodum pro populo, ita etiam et pro semetipso o£ferre 
pro peccatis. Nee quisquam sumit sibi honorecl : sed 
qui Yocatur a Deo, tanquam Aaron, quemadmodum 
scriptam est : Tu es sacerdos in aetemum, secundum 
ordinem Melchisedech. 

Graduate. Sacerdotes ejus induant salutare, et sancti 
ejos exultatione exultabunt. 

Versus. Iliac producani comu David, paravi lucer- 
nam Christo meo. Alleluia. 

Versus. Posui adjutorium super potentem, et exal- 
tavi electum de plebe mea. 

In Septuagesima dicatur tractus. 
Beatus vir qui timet Dominum, in mandatis ejus 
cupit nimis. 

Versus. Potens in terra erit semen ejus, generatio 
rectorum benedicetur. 

Versus. Gloria et divitiee in domo ejus, et justitia 
ejus manet in sseculum sseculi. 
Secundum Johannem. 

In illo tempore: Dixit Jesus discipulis suis. Ego 
sum pastor bonus. Bonus pastor animam suam dat 
pro ovibus suis. Mercenarius autem qui non est pastor, 
cujus non sunt oves propriee, videt lupum venientem. 


- .... -^xt «iii.^-^i.%t acvjiisb. ui -micrms -z:^ms pro- 

r. ri- irfi.r» v>«» a:^ b.mrrmir .jaiei inaK propoaro 
^«!27<rris:vL a ^jr^^^fTMO^joe carsLL •;? ft^ —rr.nndiaa 
jL'.uani ^rr&r^^-xn iz;f:i<ia g"— " «siinas asL-tfiaie dis- 
rrxitt» ss <«0zria terPEna <iespc%^ss. ca^sca ^ipelaiii. 

C-'T^dnio. TideVis ienns ei pmdeos. qoem eonsd- 
u.r I>:czfi]iii f uper familiann siuaD, wt det lEis in tem- 
-n^nf irmci mensaram* 

Jc u-^jrtpa$chali: Alleluia. ADdnia. 

Mjisennn tuomiii, Domine, largitatem samentes 
^^liv-^s deprecamiiry at qaibm donasti hajus minis- 
vr^j^ ^^rriratpni, exeqaendi gratiae tiue tribuas facul- 

3nt|)roni5atto €pismi cum aH 

athtm eptoeopattttf mi 



jBDe 3lnti)roni5atione Cptsfeopi.' i 

\IE inthromzationU statutOj omnes pralau 

episcopatuSj literatorie vocatij intersint hu- , 
I jusmodi solemnitati. I 

Decanus cum cateris dignltatlbus et ca- \ 
nonicis ecclesia occurrant episcopo extra civUatemy et co 

^ I shall not offer any apology 
for the length of the note which I 
iniert here : as the importance of 
it will amply justify its introduc- 
tion. It contains firM, the order 
of receiving and inthroning the 
Bishop of Salisbury in his own 
cathedral, about the middle of the 
fifteenth century. Although bear- 
ing a close resemblance to the 
order printed in the text, from the 
manuscript which has supplied so 
many of the offices edited in these 
volumes, yet there will be found 
some important variations. The 
Order in the text is that which 
was used in the cathedral to which 
the pontifical originally belonged, 
and whibh very probably retained 
in such an office, as the inthroni- 
zation of its bishop, some ancient 

In the same way, there are 
variations between the Form of 
the Greater excommunication as 
it was said on some occasions in 
the cathedral of Salisbury, and the 
same Form, as it stands in the 

editions of the Manuale ad 
Sarum. See VoL 2, p. 286. 
And again, the Form o£ btd£]^ 
the bedes, printed below, will he 
fbond to <ttfer finom those in the 
printed manuals. 

The order which now follows, 
is taken from a manuscript in the 
possession of the dean and chap- 
ter of Salisbury. There are care- 
ful erasures in many parts, some 
of which occur below : rendering 
the words quite illegible. It is 
unfortunately much rubbed and 
defaced in other places. 

" Sequitur hie modus recipi- 
endi novum episcopumj post mu- 
nvs conaecrationis tideptum^ an- 
iequam inthronizetur in ecclesia 
cathedrali Sarum, In prinM 
ordinabUur processio per illos 
quorum interest more duplicis 
festiy in qua pracedere dehent 
quatuor pereon^e ecclesuE pro- 
cessionaliter. Primo ex parte 
decaniy post cruces et alios m- 
nistros ecclesue ad hoc speciali' 
ter deputatosyprcecedat domnus 

3lntiH;oiii?atio €|ki0copl. 


^^€tato revertantur^ ita quod commode possit revestiri. 
h^saurarius sive subthesaurarius ordinet servientes ad 

Cyrdinetar processio per cantorem vel succentorem : 
^4^lati obvient ei in medio ccemeterii cum dicta proces- 
one. Tamen si alius episcopus fuerit^ aspergat cum 

l^canus ; deinde amcellariust et 
yasi eum duo archtdiaconi f 
DorsetUie videlicet etSarwn: et 
tztnc aUi cananici saeerdotes^ de- 
inde cananiei diaconif et poet eos 
cnnonici euhdiacom^ prout etare 
9olent in ckoro ex parte decani. 
Deinde vicarU majoree et mi» 
nores er parte dondni decani. 
Aliam vero partem proeeesioms 
teneat prtjecentor piimoy et poet 
eum iheeaurariusy et duo archi- 
diaconi : videlicet Barokehire et 
Wiltshire, Deinde canonici et 
vicarOf ut dictum eet de parte 
decani: quiomnes procedantho^ 
ncsto et lento [fjpaeeuper mag- 
num ostium oecidentale eccleeue, 
. ueque ad magnam portam clausi 
canonicorum borealem „ 

„ cantando inte- 

rim reep» Gives apostolonnn. 
Et cum pnedicH tres^ episcopus 
tiz. decanusy et prtgcentor^ ad 
prafatum ostium pei^venerinty 
wiusdiins canonicusy procurator 
decani et capitulisuficienter cof^ 
tHtvtus,pr€efatum episcopum ad 
juramentumjidelitatis eidem ec- 
cUsiee prastandum requiret con. 
suehm, ac adfoAsiendum ulterius 

in ea parte quod neeessarium 
Juerity seu etiam opportunumy 
prout clarius dictant sacra et 
consuet€B pradictm ecclesice sane- 
tionee. Quo factoy prafata pro- 
cessionis diaconus tectum evan» 
geliorumy dictum Juramentum 
oonHnentemy eisdem offerre tene- 
Htur sine mora. Cujus quidem 
juramenti tenor sequitur sub hdc 

^' In Dei Domine. Amen. Nos 
.N. permisnone divioa ecclesis 
SaresburieDsis episcopus, promit- 
timus et juramus ipsi ecdesie 
Saresboriensi fidelitatem, et quod 
consuetudines ejusdem ecdesisB 
antiquas, approbatas» ilbesas ob- 
servabimus, ac pro ipsius ecdesiae 
juribus, libertatibus, et dignitatis 
bus fideliter defensandis» opem et 
operam iropeodemos* Sic Deus 
nos adjuvet, et bsec sancta. 

'' Et consequenter teaeium oj- 
culabitur supradictum. Quibus 
peractis pngcentor inc^fiet asUi» 
phonamy Beata Dei genitrix. Et 
pradicti duo episcopum usque 
ad supremum gradum sumsni aU 
taris adducenty choro interim ca- 
nente antiphmam supradietam. 
Ipsoque qHscopo ibidem coram 


3nt^toni58tio ^p iK up L 

aqua benedicta decanus^ el cantoTj she ilk qm ed 
in chore, cum alio canonico sM asiociato^ tkmrifa^ 


aUari prottrtUo^ deeamu Wcv 
§MC€lUnHar prece» dkat^ emm no- 
te solemnUeTf nth$0quente$* 
** Et oe oot indacas in tenta* 

^ R0ip. 8ed Kbenu 

** SalTum fac Mnrain tamii. 

*^ Rttp. Deofy fperaBtem in 

'* Mitte eiy Domine, anxilium 

d« MHCtO. 

^ Ne$p. Et de 8j<m toere eom. 

^ Nihil proioiat inimicus in eo. 

** R§9p* Et filiui iniquitatis non 
apponat nooere ei. 

^ Esto ei, Domine, turrit forti- 

" R9$p. A facie inimiei. 

*' Domine, exaudi orationen 

*' Rf9p. Et damor meus ad te 

^ Dominiu tobiioanu 

^ R0§p* Et oum tpiritu tuo. 

*' Oremut. 

*' OrtiHo. 

^ Conoede» quKtmnui Domine, 
(kmulo tuo JV. epiioopo nostro, ut 
prt^oando eteieroendoque recta 
•unl» exeropto bononim operum 
antroai tuorttin iattruat lubdito- 
runiy et »teni» remunerationit 
mereedem a te piinimo pastore 
peroipiaii Per Chriatum Domi- 
num noetrum* 

^* JMmU 0tUue0h$r per pr€t^ 

odsedem epiacopalem^ et9m^\ 
per arckuUaetmmm Ckmimary^ I 
MM mihraminMimr reiperam- 
mtaarimm «mmi, letta immt ^sv 
liee cammuteume, si a k tem s £etu | 
arehidiaeomms hoc tvmmiffnt ft ' 
ipso imihronMzatOySiatimmc^i^* | 
praeentor hgmsnan : 

f* Te Demn landamna. 

^ Et noiandum est qmod dif^ 
decanus et pr€tcenior set^r 

— „ dommo episeapo » 

sede sua pr^edietOy quoutf^ 
hymnus Te Deum landatnus to- 
taUter percantetur, QuaJSmiU, 
dicant amnes : 

** Kyrie eleyson. Chriate elev- 
•on. Kyrie eleyaon. Pater no»- 

** Tune decanus stans a dsx* 
trts episcopi, dicat solenmUer 
cum notOy versum: 

^ Et ne no8 induces in tenta- 
tionem. Sed libera noe. 

** Ostende nobis Domine mise- 
rieordiam tuam. 

** Et «alutem. 

** Salvum fit servum trnim. 

** Deus meus, sperantem in te« 

** CouTortere Domine usque- 
quo. ^ 

** Et deprecabilis esto super 
servum tuum. 

** Sit splendor Domini Dei nos- 
tri super eum. 

** Et opera manuum suarum di« 

3[ntf)tontifatio $pt!Scopt« 285 

J et osculatis textis interius revertatur processioy 
loribus pracedentibus^ et sic processianaliter procedant 

Domme» ezaudi oratk>nem 

^ £t clamor meus ad te veniat. 
* Dominus vobiscum. 
'^ Ct cum spiritu tuo. 
'* Oremus. 

*^ Deus, omnium fidelium pastor 
rector, famulum tuum N, quern 
istorem huie ecclesise tus pr»- 
^se voluisti, propidus respice; da 
, qussumusy verbo et exemplo 
uibus praeest ita proficere, ut ad 
itam una cum grege sibi credito 
tenreniat sempiternam: per Do. 
oinum nostrum Jesum Christum 
Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et 

^ Tunc dicat domintu epis' 
caput : 

^ Sit nomen Domini benedic- 

'* £x hoc, nunc, et usque in 

^* Adjutorium nostrum in no- 
mine Domini. 

" Qui fedt cesium et terram. 

** Benedictio Dei Patris omni- 

potentu, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, 

descendat super tos et maneat 


^* Chorut respondeat : Amen. 

" Data inauper henedictione, 

prafati decanus et pracentor 

) iptum episcopum in vestibulum 

adducenty pro mis ponti/icalibus 

ad celehrandvm nUssam induen^ 

dit : quibus mdutisj ut maris est 

infestis dupUcibuSf cum quinque 
diacanis et quinque subdiaconis^ 
tam pra pracessiane tunc fad» 
enda si pra miultitudine papuli 
fieri paierity quam pra officio 
missa sic peragendo ; in qua 
quidem missa quatuor erunt rec- 
toresy cum alOs ministris infestis 
duplicibus consuetis*' 

The Bangor pontifical does not 
contain this Order. In the Win* 
Chester and Exeter MSS. there is 
an entirely different service ap- 
pointed, and in both, it is attached 
to the office of consecration of a 
bishop, immediately after the cor- 
responding rubric to that above, 
p, 276. " Quern duo episcopi ad- 
ducantj etc" and without any se- 
parate title or heading. 

I shall now transcribe this Or- 
der as it is in the Winchester 
pontifical, which the Exeter MS. 
follows, almost in every word. 

^< Cum ad sedem episcopU sui 
consecratus episcapus venerity 
priusquam in cathedra pomUuTy 
ab aUquo episcopo cui a metro» 
poUtano injunctum fuerity hofc 
oratio ante ipsam cathedram di- 
catur : 

** Deus honorum omnium, Deus 
omnium dignitatum, que gloris 
tuae sacris famulantur ordinibus, 
huic famulo tuo JV. quem aposto- 
lic» sedis pnesulem et primatera 
sacerdotum, ac ecclesia tusB doc- 


3ntbtonf?fltto ^^^Kopl* 


ad ecclesiamy ut in die nativitatis Damini, pnelatiM «Mi 
mis. EpiscapM incedat inter duos digniares praiaUs, \ 
vel pralatis absentibus inter decanum et prircentarem, | 
pracentore sive succentore incipiente responsumj Suinmb \ 
Trinitati. Et sic eadem via quoque qua accesxnat, \ 
usque ad gradum altaris adducant. 

Et cum venerit ante magnum altarcj episcopus inclimt 
se super sedilcy cum quarello substrata tapeta, genufkc- 
tendo. Response percantato^ cum sua versuy a tiOo choro, 
sequatur : 

Kjrrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleyson- 

torem dedisti, et ad summi aacer- 
dotii miniaterium elegisti, banc» 
qufeaimraa Domioe, g^ratiam lar- 
giaria, ut cathedram pontificalem 
ad r^«odam eoclesiam tuaxn, et 
plebem aniTersam, asoendat. Per. 
** Hie fnitttUur in eathedram 
episcopalem s et luee aratio di* 

" Omnipotens |>ater, sancte 
Deas SBterne, tu omnem ordinem 
dignatas es in ccelestibus sedibus 
ordinare, in ooelo, Domine, in ster- 
num permanet verbum tnum, ubi 
angelos et arcbangeloa, suo tibi 
ordine mancipasti; et in veteris 
testamenti privilegio, Moysen et 
Aaron in saoerdotibus tuis, et Sa- 
muel inter eo8 qui invocantnomen 
tuum, patriarcbas et propbetas ad 
consulendum populo too ordinasti ; 
et in novo, per Filium tuum, Je« 
sum Christum, apostolos sanctos, 
et prsMsipue Petrum apostolum, in 
catbedram honoris universs eocle- 

sis prflsposuisti} et Mattliiani ejus- 
dem consortem in apostola t nm J^ 
que cathedram honoris emmierasti, 
et in numero sanctOTuin oiauaam 
apostolorum evocasti ; qnaesomiB' 
pro tua immensa misericordia, is 
nostris tanporibus da tuam grsr 
tiam fratri nostro JVl ad instar 
sanctorum apostolorum tuonim 
sedentium in cathedra honoris et 
dignitatis, ut in conspectu majes- 
tatis tue dignus honore appareat 

'^ Domine Jesu Christe, tu pne* 
elegisti apostolos tuos, ut doctnoa 
sua nobis prseessent, tu etiam vice 
apostolorum hunc episcopum doc- 
trinam docere, et benedicere, et 
erudire digneris, ut immaculatam 
vitam et illaesam conserved Per 

**• JBenedictio efusdetn epitcopi: 

" Populus te honoret, etc" ut 

There seems to be but little 

3[nt5toni?atto (Bvi»mt 


^ine nota. 
I^ater noster. 

I^einde super ejmcopum^ cum prosternat se in oratione 
^ S^'odum altarisj dicat diaconuSy vel qui est major in 
oroj capa serica indutus : 

Et ne nos. 

Salvum fac servum tuum, Domine, Deus meus. 

!Mitte ei Domine auxilium de sancto. 

Et de Syon. 

Nihil proBciat inimicus in eo. 

Et filius. 

loubt that these two pontificals 
contempkte the consecration of 
the bishop in his own cathedral : 
in which case the inthronization 
would take place at once, and form 
a part of the great solemnity. Or, 
according to the Uses of those 
churches in the office of consecra- 
tion, the ceremony still retained 
in the church of Rome, might 
have been intended : namely, the 
placing of the new hishop in a 
"seat" or "throne" either pre- 
pared for him, or that in which 
the consecrating bishop had sat. 
It may not be improper to extract 
the rubric on this point from the 
modem Roman pontifical, as it 
illustrates what I have just said. 
The rubric after the putting on 
of the gloves, proceeds : '* Turn 
surgit consecratoVf et accipit con- 
tect^atum per manum dexteram^ 
et pnmui ex aseistentibus epie- 

copis per etnistraniy et inthroni- 
zant eUfHy ponendo ipeum ad 
sedendum in Jaldigtorto, de quo 
surrexit consecrator: velf si id 
fiat in ecclesia propria conae^ 
cratiy inthronizant eum in sede 
episcopaU conaueta^ et consecra' 
tor tradit ei baculumpaatoralem 
in sinistra" Ruhr. Pontif. Rom. 

The pontifical of Egbert in- 
cludes the inthronization, in the 
Order of Consecration : appoint- 
ing two prayers only : 

'* Ilfodo nUttatur in cathedram 
episcopalemt et hcec oratio di' 
cenda est: 

" Omnipotens Pater, sancte : 

" Domine, Jesu Christe, tu 
praeelegisti : etc" ut supra. 

This pontifical doubtless sup- 
posed the consecration to be in 
the new bishop's own cathedral. 

288 3[ntiitoni5atio ®pi0copi. 

Esto ei Domine turns fortitudinis. 

A facie inimici. 

Domine exaudi orationem meaiii. i 

Et clamor meus. \ 

Dominus vobiscum. 1 


Oratio. I 

Concede, qusesumus Domine, famulo tuo N. episcopo 
nostro, ut praedicando et exercendo quse recta sunt, 
exemplo bonorum operum animas suorum instruet sub- 
ditorum, et setemse remunerationis mercedem a te piis- 
simo pastore percipiat. Per Dominum. 

Etosculato altar ij dicat episcopus bemdictionem stando 
ante aUare conversus adpopulum. 

Sit nomen. 

Adjutorium nostrum. 

Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus. 

Postea admittat pralatosj et decanum, in osculum pacis^ 
cum capitulo. Postea archidiaconus Cantuariensisy vel 
alius vice sua installet euniy ut mos est ; et dum instal- 
latuvy incipiatur a cantore : 

Te Deum laudamus : 

et percantetur a chorOj episcopo sedente in sede sua : et 
tunc post Te Deum laudamus, dicat diaconu^ istas ora- 
tiones sequentes^ cuntj 

Dominus vobiscum : 

ety Oremus. 


Deus, cui omnis potestas et omnis dignitas famulatur, 
qui de summo ccelorum fastigio cuncta creatagubemas, 
da famulo tuo pontifici nostro, quern ad pastoralis 
honorem cathedrse sublimasti, prosperum suae digni- 
tatis effectum; fac eum, queesumus, virtutum titulis 

3[nti)toni7atio ®pt0copi. 289 

>TSBpollentem^ illostrante gratia tua, sic morum et 
xieritorum splendore clarescere, ut servus tibi fidelis 
3t prudens his quibus praeest proficiens, verbo pariter 
3t exemplo multiplicatum tibi fructum valeat opportuno 
tempore reportare. 
Alia oratio. 

Rege eum, queesumus Domine, dextera ccelestis aux- 
ilii et in tua semper protectione conserva, ut te timendo 
super omnia perfecte diligat, et ab omnibus tuo muni- 
mine liberatus adversis^ temporalibus non destituatur 
auxiUis, et sempitemis gaudeat institutis. 

Fidelium, Deus, omnium rector et pastor, famulo tuo 
pontifici nostro quern pastorem ecclesise tuae esse vo- 
luisti, tribue ccslestium propitius incrementa caris- 
matum, et ei concede commissum sibi gregem digne et 
fideliter gubemare, quatenus eosdem pastor bonus ad 
pascua perennis vitse deducens, a te bonorum omnium 
retributore mercedem et regnum sine fine mansurum 
simul cum, illis percipere mereatur. Per Christum. 
Et dicitur sub uno Per Christum. 
Si aliquis episcopus prasensfuerit^ dicat super ipsum 
istam benedictionem. 

Populus te honoret, adjuvet te Deus, quicquid peti- 
eris prsestet tibi Dominus, cum honore, cum castitate, 
cum scientia, cum largitate, cum caritate, cum humili- 
tate: dignus sis, Justus sis, sincerus sis, apostolus 
Christi sis : accipe benedictionem ac apostolatum, qui 
permanet in die ista, et in die futura : angeli sint ad 
dexteram tuam et ad sinistram tuam : ecclesia sit mater 
tua, sit Deus Pater tuus, sint angeli amici tui, sint 
apostoli fratres tui, et apostolatus tui gradum custodi- 
ant: confirmet te Deus in justitia, in sanctitate, in 

VOL. III. u 

290 Sntiicotiifatio CpUfcopi. 


ecclesia Bancta : angeli recipiant te, et pax tecum i&- 
separabilis per Redemptorem, Dommuin nostrum, Je- i 
sum Chrigtum, qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sascto titix | 
et regnat in saecula seeculorum. ( 

Re^. Amen. 1 

Benedictio Dei omnipotentisy Patris >^ et Bllii ^j et 
Spiritos Sancti, super te descendat, et maneat sem* 
per. Amen.* 

* This last benediction is omitted in the Elxeter pontificaL 



S>e int|)roni5dttone ;^rc|)iepi0eopi, 

0i pallium a mt apo0tolica 
per0onautet tecepettt. 


iltem De intt)ront5dtione ZxtUtpis< 

mU Quanoo iihi pallium mittitut a wnt 

apo0toUca pet nuncio0 ]Bipeciale0, 

tt nt ptofe00ione 


iS>Btinm tnt|)ront5attoni0 ax^imi^ ) 

copi, 01 pallium a 0elie apoiBEtoUca 
per0onalitet tecepettt' 

]0NVENT1/S a summo manej totum sari- 
tium usque ad magnam missam celebrab'U. 
Cum enim archiepiscopus civUatem in- 
gressus fuerit, prior et conventuSj capis in- 
dutij u^sque adportam cosmeterii cum solemni processmt 

^ Both the Bangor and the Exe- 
ter pontiBcals contain this office : 
and I think the most simple method 
will be to transcribe the order, as 
it stands ih those MSSsi, referrmg 
to the prayers which are to be 
found also in the text. The reader 
will thus the better understand 
the full order, as it was in the 
ktter part of the fifteenth century, 
after various alterations and addi- 
tions had been made. 

First, the Bangor MS. 

*' In consecraHone arehiepis- 
copi quando ipse archiepiscopus 
defer t pallium a sede Romana. 

'* Dominus vobiscum. £t cum 
spiritu tuo. 

** Oratio. Deus qui de excelso 
ccelorum, etc. 

*' Omnipotenssempiteme Deus, 
qui cum sis altissimus, etc. 

" Omnipotenssempiteme Deus, 
qui e summo coeli, etc. 

" In consecraiione arcMepit- 
copi [priusquam paUio circnm- 
detur, diciUur ah aliquof]* 
episcopo JuBc oratio : 

'* Domine Deus, Pater omnipo- 
tens, qui sola ineffaibili, etc, 

" Qiia dicta» ponatur ei pal- 
lium super humeroSf dicente epis- 

'* Accipe pallium, summi sacer- 
dotii, etc. 

" Post hac cum fesHva pro- 
cessions, ducatur ad altars Do- 
mmt Sahatoris, choro psallente 
ant: Firmetur manus tua, vel 
resp. Dominumtime. QuoJinitOf 
dicatur h^ee oratio, cum Domious 

** Nostris, qusesumns Domine, 
officiis clemens adesto, et famuio 

* The rubric here, and below, is much rubbed and defaced. 

De l^allio ZttUtpiaco^t 


i^^em occurrant^ et accepta aqua benedicta, et archiepis- 
7€>j>o incensatOj cruces et textus osculetur. 

JOeinde prior pallium archiepiscopi de manu ckrici 
'liidd porlantis recipiat, et dictum pallium capellano 

tuo .N, archiepiscopo nostro, be- 

oe<]ictioiib tu» gratiam concede, 

qTftein anctoritate apostolica, et 

xnjrstico munere sacri pallii in- 

diiere dignalos es, et ad summum 

saceTdotium promovere : &c, Do- 

xnine qufl&somusy ut sicut caeteros 

in ecclesia gradus'lienore pmeel- 

lit, ita meritu et Tirtutibus auge- 

atiir. Per. 

^ Demde ducatur ad cathe- 
iiratn panti/kalemy etin earn cum 
hanore mittatur, Uhi, eo se- 
d^nUy decantetur afratribus sex 
vel octo stantibus ante solium, 
nufdico in eorum medio existente 
spatio. Quorum una medietas 
dicat hujus antiphonce hanc par- 

^ Benedictus Deas, etc. 
** Respondeat altera medietas^ 
*^ Quajinitaf dicatur ab uno 
episcopo hac oratio : 

** Deus, qui ecclesiam tuam 
multiplici mimenim tuonim largi- 
tate Isetificas, concede famulo tuo 
.N. quern hodiema die apostolicse 
dignitatis sublimitate et sacratis- 
simi pallii benedictione confirmasti, 
virtutum titulia pollere, morum 
et meritorum gratia clarescere, 
gregemque sibi creditum digne ac 
fideliter regere, qiiatenus cum eo 
mereatur, devicto saeculo, ad pas- 
cua Title perennis feliciter perre- 

nire. Per Dominum. 

" His dictisy missa celebretur^ 

In the Exeter pontifical» the 
Order is as follows. 

*' In in^ronizatione archi" 
episcopi antequampallio circum' 
detur^ dicUur ah uno episcopo : 

^ Domine Deus, pater omnipo- 
tens» qui sola ineffabili, etc, 

^ OroHone dicta^ panatur et 
pallium super humerosy dicente 
episcopo : 

** Accipe pallium, etc, 

** Post Juec, cum /estiva pr^ 
cessioney ducatur adnltare^ choro 
psallente antiphonam : Firmetur 
numus tua : vel resp. Domini est 
terra: quo dicto, dicitur Jubc 
oratioy cum Dominus yobiscum, 
et cum Orerous. 

" Nostris, quaesumus Domine» 

" Deinde dicitur a priore : 

*' In Dei nomine. Amen. Anc- 
toritate ejusdem, etc, 

** Deinde ducatur ad cathe- 
dram pontificalemy et in ea cum 
honore collocetur^ ubi^ eo sedente^ 
decantetur altematim afratri- 
bus coram eoy Ant, Benedictus 
Deus : quajinita dicatur : Ore- 

" Deus, qui ecclesiam tuam, etc, 

** His dictis, celebretur missa 
cum omni solemnitafe,** 


294 fl)e ^allio Sittbi^intopt 

archiepiscopi reve^tito^ si manacbus fuerit Cantamd, 
tradat deferendutn. Si vera archiepUcapus capeUanum 
de canventu Cantuaria nondum habuerity prior tradai \ 
hujusmodi pallium alicui semori monacho Cantuariit ^ 
deferendum. Qui in vase argenteOj panno serico albo | 
coapertOy pallium depUcatum^ manu erectCy convetUu \ 
pracedefitej coram archiepiscopo et priore ad magnum 
altare sokmniter portabitj et super altare pond. 

Conventus vero in choro manebit^ decantans responso- 
rium inceptum ; archiepiscopus vero ante magnum aliart 
interim prostratus orabit, 

Fmito cantu in choro^ subjungat prior : 

Salvum fac servum. 

Deus mens sperantem. 

Mitte ei, Domine. 

£t de Sion. 

Dominus vobiscam. 


Deus Pater, et pastor ecclesise triumphantisy iamn- 
lum tuum, quem pastorem ecclesiae tuae militanti prs^ 
esse voluisti, propitius respice ; da ei verbo et exemplo 
quibus preeest ita proficere, ut ad illorum consortium, 
quorum vicem gerit in terris, una cum grege sibi ere- 
dito valeat feliciter pervenire. Per Christum. 

Finita coltecta, archiepiscopus erigat se^ etdata populo 
benedictione, cantor incipiat : 

Te Deum laudamus* 

Interim vero archiepiscopus ad sedem suam ligneam 
in choro declinabit, pallio super altare remanente. 

Finito Te Deum, jprior, deinde singulifratres per ordi- 
nem ad altare accedentes pallium osculentur: deinde 
archiepiscopum^ si tamen archiepiscopus post consccra- 
tionem suam tunc primo ecclesiam Cantuaria intra- 

De IpalUo arcftiepi0copi 295 

C fH^ peractis pallium in vesHarium departetur^ et 
trchiejnscopus in cameram suam declinet. 

C Adveniente hora celebranda misstej archiepiscopus 
wlemnibus vestimentis pantificalibus in vestiario indutusy 
zt pallia redimituSf cum pri(n*ej tribus diaconis^ et ttibus 
fubdiacanis cardinalibusy chorum intrabit; presbyteros 
vera cardinales non habebitj propter pressuram populi 
circa altare. 

Ad introitum vera ckori cantor incipiat resp. Deum 
time, quod solemniter chorus decantabit. 

C Interim vero archiepiscopus et prior et prMticti 
ministri altaris, faciant stationem coram sede marmarea 
archiepiscopi sub feretro sancti Blasii versa ad ori^ 

Finito responsoriOy prior subfungat collectam : 
Deus, qui ab excelso ccelorum habitaculo, oorda 
fidelium Spiritu Sancto corroborando illustras, archi- 
prsesulem nostrum quern sanctitatis paUio decorasti^ 
virtutum quoque ccelestium robore confirma, ut ejus 
exemplo nos et documento iter vitse ccelestis ingredi, 
et cum eo regni tui consortes fieri mereamur. Per 
Dominum. In unitate ejusdem. 

Dicta colkcta, prior perducat archiepiscopum ad ca^ 
thedram suam pontificalem^ et facta modica statione 
coram cathedra^ prior dicat banc orationem : 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui cum sis altissinras 
humilis ad nos descendere dignatus es, te suppliciter 
exoramus, ut fastidio sacerdotii huic famulo tuo a te 
collate humilitatis dignitate promoveatur, et sicut in 
ministerio regiminis sui banc sedem pontificalem ascen- 
surus aggreditur, ita sedem pectoris ejus tu8e inhabita- 
tionis visitatione aggrediaris, quatenus solium tuae 
sessionis largiente gratia tua existere mereatur : per 
te, Jesu Christe, qui cum SBtemo tibi Patre, et Spiritu 

296 iDe ^alUo 9tcbtepi0copL 

Sancto, vivis et regaas Deus. Per omnia 88bcii1& 
saeculomm. Amen. 

Dicta vero colkctOy priory ad quern pertinet archiepis- 
capum inthranizare^ eundem archiepiscopum inter brachia 
sua recipiat reverenter* et archiepiscopum in cathedra 
pontificaU inthranizetj et verba subscripta legat hoc 

In Dei nomine. Amen. Auctoritate ejusdem ego 
•N. prior hujus ecclesiae Ohristi Cantuarise, inthronizo 
te dominum arqhiepiscopum in hac Cantuariae eccle- 
sia, in qua idem Dominus noster, Jesus Christus, cns- 
todiat introitum tuum ex hoc, nunc, et usque in saecu- 

His peractis, et archiepiscopo in throno suo sedente^ 
octo monachi coram archiepiscopo^ sub feretro sancti 
Biasii, altematim content cantum : 

Benedietus Deus. 

Finito cantUf prior subjungat hanc orationem. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui de summo coeli 
fastigio omnia regnorum gubemacula regis, archiprse- 
suli nostro, dominium hujus cathedrae a te bonorum 
omnium largitore suscipienti, coelestium tribue incre- 

* It is possible that this was a but in France. *^ Ibique statim 

relic of a very ancient custom, conventio ma^a facta est, non 

once obseired in the Gallic, and minus quam duodecim episcopo- 

probably in the British churches, rum catholicorum, e quibus unus 

Before enthronization, the newly erat iEgelbercthus episoopus, qui 

consecrated bishop was carried by eum propter fidem suam indicatam 

the other bishops present, to his in sella aurea sedentem more 

seat : or to one prepared for the eorum sursum elevaverunt, por- 

occasion. Eddius relates the ob- tantes in manibus soli episoopi 

servance of it, in the case of Wil- intra oratoria, nullo alio attin- 

frid, archbishop of York, the pre- gente, hymnosque et cantica in 

decessor of Egbert: who was con- choro canentes.** Vita S. Wil- 

secrated, not in his own cathedral, fridL cap. 12. 

IDt pailto 9rc5iepi0copL 297 

xnenta carismatuniy quatenus oves sibi commendatas 
ita gubemet) ut cum fructu bonorum operum ad reg- 
nuin sine fine mansurum cum illis, te donante, perve- 
niat. Per Dominum. 

Dicta collecta^ cantor incipiat solemniter qfficium 
missa de Trinitate. Cantato officioy et Kyrieleyson, 
archiepiscopus coram throno, versus ad orientcrn^ in- 
cipiat : 
. Gloria in excelsis. 

Deinde collectam missa: et kcto evangelio, dicat 
Credo. Et post Credo, Dominus vobiscum dicet 

Cantato offertorio in choroj archiepiscopus de throno 
suo descendet^ et ante magnum altare venietj et oblatUh 
nem panis et vini a cantore^ prout maris estj recipiet. 
Et ex tunc totam missam ibidem compkbitj nee ad thror 
num suum illo die redibit. 

Missa celebratay archiepiscopus et omnes episcopi 
prasentes indulgentias populo concedantj prout eis pla- 

Deinde sacris vestibus in vestiario exutttSy archiepis- 
copus ad earner am suam declinabitj pransurus cumprde- 
latis et proceribus ad solemnitatem hujus invitatis. 

Die inthronizationis archiepiscopi quando pallium 
suum mittitur a sede apostolica per nuncios speciales^ ad 
hoc destinatosy convent us summo mane primam et totum 
servitium usque ad magnam missam celebrabit. 

His peractisy ordinetur solemnis processio in choroj et 
procedent qui cruceSy cereosy thuribulUy textuSy et alia 
sanctuaria portant. Deinde sequatur archiepiscopus 
pontificalibus indutuSy nudis pedibus. Deinde prior et 
convent us capis induti ; et procedant omnes obviam pal- 

298 lOt Pallio atcftiepi0copu 

Hum pofiantiy usque adpartam civitatis per quam intra- 
bit J si serenitas temporis hoc permittat. 

lUe vera qui pallium defert de sede apostolicay alba et 
capa chori erit indutus, et pallium in aliquo vase aureo, 
vel argenteoj inclusum hanorijice partabit. 

Cum vero pallium partanti occurrerintj revertetur 
processiOj et procedant qui cruces et alia portant. Deinde 
minores et omnes alii Juita ordinem suum. Et ultimo 
sequatur archiepiscopus, et post ilium pallium portans. 
Et reversi in Chorum^ ponatur pallium super magnum 

Interim vero archiepiscopus coram magno altari pros- 
tratus orahit. linito vero cantu in choro, surgat epis- 
copus et data benedictione super poptUum^ accedat ad 
attarcj et faciat professionem suam in saiptis sub hac 

Ego N. archiepiscopus Cantuariee ab hora 

fidelis et obediens ero' «« „ 

>j » » » »» 

successoribus canonice intrantibus. Non ero in con- 
silioy aut consensu» vel £Bu;to, ut vitam perdant aut 
membrum, aut capiantur mala captione. GonsiHum 
quod mihi credituri sunt, per se, aut per nuntios suos, 
sive litteras, ad eorum damnum, me sciente, nulli pan- 
dam. Papatum Romanae ecclesise et regalia sancti 
Petri, adjutor ero, ad defendendum et retinendum, 
salvo ordine meo, contra omnem hominem. Legatum 
sedis apostolicse eundo et redeundo honorifice tractabo, 
et in suis necessitatibus adjuvabo. Vocatus ad syno- 
dum veniam, nisi prsepeditus fuero canonica prsepe- 
ditione. Apostolorum limina singulis trienniis, aut 

' This sentence has been completely erased in the mannscript 

IDe Tallin 9tjr|^iepi$copi/ 299 

per me aut per nuntios meos, visitabo^ nisi apostolica 
absolvar licentia. Possessiones ad mensam mei archi- 
episcopatus pertinentes non vendam, neque donabo, 
neque impignorabo^ neque de novo infeodabo, vel ali- 
quo modo alienabo, incongulto Romano pontifice. Sic 
me Deus adjuvet^ et hsec sancta evangelia. 

JLecta veroprofessione^ archiepiscopus accipiat pallium 
in manibus suis^ et statim incipiat cantor : 
Te Deum. 

Interim vero stet archiepiscopus coram altarij tenens 
pallium plicatum in manu sua, et accedant omnesfratres, 
a priore incipientes; et osculentur pallium cum reve- 

Quibus expletisj et lotis pedibus archiepiscopij pr(E'' 
paret se archiepiscopus ad mssam celebrandam^ et in- 
dutus pontijicalibus in vestiario, antequam pallio circum- 
detur, dicatur ab illo qui pallium detulit a curia Romana 
si episcopus fuerity alioquin ab alio episcopo solemniori 
tunc prasente, ha^c or alio :* 

^ The Leofric MS. in the Bod- eum lumine sapientitB» manda eum 

leian contains : ^* Orationes qua et sanctifica, da ei consilium rec- 

dicencUg sunt super archiepis- turn» doctrinam sanctam, ut qui 

copoj antequam palliam acci' eum inter summos sacerdotes vo- 

piat" I place them here» on luisti numerare, concede ut quod 

account of the age and value of humano ore eum Toluisti vocari, 

that manuscript. hoc in conspectii tuo per gratiam 

" DeuSf omnipotens Pater, qui tus pietatis possit fieri, ut cum 

non propriissuffragantibusmeritisy electis tuis astenuB vitse beatitudi- 

sed sola inefiabili, etc* nem percipere mereatur. 

^' Alia. '* SequUur aroHo postquam 

*' Deus, innocentise restitutor acceptumfuerit* 
et amator, dirige hunc famulum " Domine sancte, Pater omni- 

tuum, ill. Spiritus tui fervore, ut potens» ssteme Deus, Rex regum 

in fide inveniatur stabilis, et in et Dominus dominantiiun, demen- 

operibus fuis efficax. lUuroina tiam tuam humiliter exoramus . 


De Palbo Zttbitpincopt 

Domine Deus, Pater omnipotens, qui sola inefiabifi 
gratifle tu» largitate hunc famolum tuum .A^. populo 
tuo prseesse jusgisti : tribue ei, queesumiiSy per gniiam 
Sancti Spiritus tui, digne tibi persolyere mimsterium 
officii sacerdotalisy ecclesiasticis convenienter servire 
sacramentisy plebemque sibi commissain ad ^loriam 
toi sancti nominis digne gubemare. Per Daminuin. 
In unitate. 

Qua dicta, ponatur ei pallium super humeroSj dicente 
episcopo : 

Accipe pallium summi sacerdodi Domini Dei tui sig- 
num, per quod undique yallatus atque munitus, valeas 

necnon et Unigeniti Filii tui Do- 
mini noBtri Jesu Christi, qui om- 
nes aBterno pontificatu superemi- 
oenSySoluB sine macula sacerdotale 
ministerium implevit; simulque 
Sancti Spiritus, cujus septiformi 
gratia coBlesti virtute cuncta sano- 
tificas, ut hunc famulum tuum, 
ill. divins providential gratia lar- 
giente, a minoribus usque ad ma- 
jora per gradus ascendentem, su- 
pemsB pietatis tuae gremio gratan- 
ter Buscipias, et quianobis indignis, 
quo8 sedis apostolic» summsque 
ministros servitutis, non exigen- 
tibus mentis sed dono dementi» 
constituisti, salutaribus indumen- 
tis ad sacri altaris officium foras 
Testitus in prsesenti apparet, ab 
omnibus criminum contagiis casti- 
gatus, perpetua spiritus tui sanc- 
tificatione intus impleri mereatur, 
viTique fontis fluentibus irrigatum, 
virtutum fructibus crescere, et co- 
ram omnibus claresoere conceiias, 

nt ejus vita aliis possit exenapJa 
prsbere. Sit ei honor pallii or- 
namentum anim», et unde advenit 
fastigium visibile, inde florescat 
amor invisibiUs. Tua divina po- 
tentia eum corroboret, tui Filii 
virtus viscera ejus foscundet, tui 
Spiritus gratia interiora ejus im- 
pleat, per te firmitatem fidei ca- 
tholic», non solum sibimet ser- 
vandi sed etiam alios docendi 
causa, conservet Pertecathedr» 
episcopalis et ecclesi» universalis 
scutum non solum a spiritualibus, 
sed etiam a corporalibus hujus 
s»culi adversitatibus, habere me- 
reatur. Per te apostolic» digni- 
tatis, in cobUs et in terris solvendi 
et ligandi, non solum corpora sed 
et animas, divina ditatus gratia, 
dominium suscipiat ; nt ita dignis 
successibus devote degens, ad des- 
tinata Sanctis prsmia perveniens, 
»temam accipiat beatitudinem. 

De IpalUo atclifepi0copi: 


hofitis humani tentamentis resistere, et omnes insidias 
ejus a penetralibus cordis tui, divino munimine fultus^ 
procul abjicere : preestante Domino nostro, Jesu Christo, 
qui yivit et regnat Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. 

His peractisy archiepiscopus pontjficalibus indutus in 
vestiarioy et pallio redimitus cum tribus diaconis^ et 

^ In this form, we find no no- 
lice of that extraordinary claim 
which has been introduced into 
the modem pontifical of the church 
of Rome. Whatever may have 
*been the .actual practice of the 
primate of the English Church 
during the two or three centuries 
immediately preceding the refor- 
^lation, the office appointed at the 
reception of the pall, did not re- 
cognize any other signification 
of it, in the Form at its delivery, 
than the ancient one of a mark of 
honour and dignity. But that the 
reader may the better see the dis- 
tinction, which I am remarking, it 
will be well to transcribe the cor- 
responding part of the present 
order of the church of Rome: 
which, although not adopted in 
England, is to be traced, it is said, 
to Uie authority of Innocent III. 

^ Ad honorem omnipotentis 

Dei, et beat» Marias, ^ 

tradimus tibi pallium de corpore 
beati Petri sumptum, in quo est 
plenitude pontificalis officii, cum 
patriarchalis vel archiepiscopalis 
nominis appellatione, etc»^ 

With respect to this, the Roman 
theologians are obliged to confess. 

that there is not a shadow of any 
proof of such a claim, or pretence, 
as that the jurisdiction of a me- 
tropolitan depends upon his recep- 
tion of the pall, to be found in the 
first centuries after its adoption at 
all, in any way : not to speak of 
the ages preceding, during which 
we hear nothing of the pall. And 
to such an extent is this usurpa- 
tion of the court of Rome now 
pressed, that an archbishop or me- 
tropolitan, although consecrated, 
cannot perform any of those du- 
ties, which are peculiar to, or 
characteristic of, his office: he 
cannot consecrate a church (for 
example,) or confer orders. In 
fact, if he has been previously a 
bishop, and is translated to this 
higher dignity, the effect is, that 
for a time, until he has obtained 
his pall, he is suspended: and so 
far from obtaining at once in- 
creased power and authority, even 
that which he had is certainly 
taken from him for a season, and, 
if any difficulties are interposed, 
it can be regained only after a 
long delay, and trouble, and ex- 

-& €jr tunc omma 
^^^piscopus pal- 

"tipaUia^ cum 

ti fmmrtaferUi ^ 



X-::- -\-.:i ;*;-"•.': .•fixrofzjr Bupiittup^ 
r-^'-s "L,-*:.: *-i.'ur J/x-k^^ 

•.•••»'4rf /l>c:r:rjr:ju» eorksia sua. 

the KiNKMi pnocfi^ (bitr^ i» « 
i^r««K v^irwiT gMMrv«lMi m die 
^\9 apoA vitick ilfei^T €QiK«4e4 
to varitfus setnpMicMs^priTi» 
fege of ««««if tW paiL Sqm 
of these ocnsHMB vonki be *^|iio- 
p^** to tlie diurdi or penoD in 

«We frronr tbej were granted : 
fcr ciniple, m Uie present case, 
the pradpal fcasts of the chorch 
of 0Mlerbar7,aiHlthe anni^enary 
of the archbbhop's coDsecration, 
or " natal day," as it was some- 
times called. 

SXmlittv }^xott6&iontfi Sunt tanea 

I9enei:attont0> $ciUcetai)0U$cipienl)um ZtttU 

ept$copum, ptoptium ^piiscopum, le* 

gatum tiel Catoinalem, Hegem 

tiel lEleginam. 

<«**'' ^- >^^:a„ :^:''* ---- ^C^*^ **' ''-'^ 

,^,,idev^«. Chn^teleT^^ Krriele,^ 
V time U frt^^'^ «^^-'w, cioa t^^^jrus « an^JlsZ!^ 

iDtoo an tedpieniium# etc. 3^5 

Salvum fac servum tuum^ Domine. 

Mitte eiy Domine^ auxilium de sancto. 

!Nihil proficiat inimicus in eo. 

Csto ei, Domine^ turns fortitudinis. 

Domine exaudi. 

Dominus vobiscum. 


Concede, qusesumus Domine, famulo tuo metropoli- 
tano nostro, vel episcopo, vel prselato, ut praedicando 
et exercendo quae recta sunt, exemplo bonorum operum 
animas suorum instruat subditorum, et aetemae reniu- 
nerationis mercedem a te, piissimo pastore, percipiat : 
per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Super regetHf vet reginam, in prostratmic adgradum 
altariSf dicat episcopus in capa serica : 

Et ne nos. 

Esto nobis, Domine, turris. 

Domine, salvum fac regem, vel^ ancillam tuam. 

Mitte eis Domine. 

Nihil proficiat. 

Domine, Deus virtutum, converte nos. 

Domine exaudi. 

Dominus vobiscum. 


Deus, in cujus manu corda sunt regum, qui es hu- 
milium consolator et fidelium fortitudo, et protector 
omnium in te sperantium : da regi nostro, et reginae, 
populoque Christiano, triumphum virtutis tuae scienter 
excolere, ut per te semper reparentur ad yeniam. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. 


iaeeonciUdtto €ttMiat poUutae, 
siiU Coemeterti* 

aetonctUatto eultsiat tiel 

|JV recanciliatiane eccksuE^ sive ctprntttr:,. 
vel alterius loci sacrl, ubi umgms fucrt 
effusus, aut homicidium factum^ aui alu^uu 
_ spurcitia publice perpetrate. 
Primo ordinentur vasa cum aqucj et attera r^vj 
copwepncfUia ad defcrendam aquam^ sal, cinU, vinum: d 
imlnat se eatra ut supra in dedicatione aemeterii, dkenCK 
psalmos qui in consecratione ecclesice intitulantur, cum 
j^recibus et oratiane : 

1 Doth the Bangor and the 
Kxater pontificals contain thb 
office I ^^th few and not impor- 
unt variation! : aome of which I 
ihall notice, aa we proceed. 

The Ant nihrio of the Bangor 
MH* conimencea aa in the text: 
It ii much defaced and rubhed. 
Ai\er the word «« perpetrata," it 
continues : ** IVimo ante omnia 
nui^te prff>cedente recondliatio- 
uem eci'lesitt) Yel altaris, aapor- 
loiUur reUquiiD cum caDteris sacris 
,ab tHH'leiiia proiVmata, et serventur 
In teiUorio tota nocte cum vigiliis 
ct excubiit dignis. Sed si coune- 
terivun sit tantum profknatum, 
\\\\\\\ \>rt>pter hoc ab ecdeaia aa- 
\K»rtotur, Ipsa autem die recon- 
oiHutioui», primo veniat episcopus 

ante ipsam ecclesiainy com dero 
et populo ant. canendo sonon 
voce, ' Dens in sancto/ ** 

The Exeter MS. begms. "* In 
reoondliatione ecdesise seu «f- 
meterii fiat tentorium honestum 
extra coameterium, si eodesis 
fiierit polluta, a parte ocddentsli : 
si vero coemeterium fnerit poUa- 
tum, paret se episcopus infira ec- 
clesiam pontificalibus : et pro re- 
oondliatione ecdesiae prspareo- 
tur sal, aqua, dneres, vinum, 
ysopus, scopa ad spargendum 
aquam. Episcopo vero induto 
pontificalibus, sicut in dedicatio- 
nibus ecclesiarum solet indui, et 
egrediente de tentorio, cantetur 
a chore antiphona : ' Deus in 
sancto.' ** 

laeconciUatio ^altsAat ntl Coemeterti. 309 

Oeus,^ qui paterna'^fc. ' 

Post hac vmhtfpMcopus cum bactUo pastaralif oma- 
ts amictUj alba^ stola, pluvialij et capa de bisso i. e. 
7keramj et mitra simpUch et baeulo^ sine manipulo. 

In eundo versus ecclesiam vel cameterium cantatur 
cec antiphona: 

Deus in sancto via tua; quis Deus magnua sicut 
!)eus noBter ? tu es Deus qui facis mirabilia solus. 
Psalmus : Yiderunt te aquae. 
JEt ante ipsam ecclesiam veniensj vel ccemeterium^ de- 
oosita mitra^ dicat episcopus hanc orationem. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, qui sacerdotibus tuis 
prae casteris tantam gratiam contulisti, ut quicquid in 
tuo nomine digne perfecteque ab eis agitur, a te fieri 
credatur, quaesumus inunensam clementiam tuam, ut 
quod modo visitaturi sumus visites, et quicquid bene- 
dicturi sumus bene^dicas, sitque ad nostras humili- 
tatis introitum, sanctorum tuorum mentis^ fuga daemo- 
num, angeli pacis ingressus^ per Christum. 

Aufer a nobis, Domine quaesumus, omnes iniqui- 
tates nostras, ut ad loca nomini tuo purificanda puris 
mereamur mentibus accedere, per Dominum nostrum. 
Tunc intret episcopus ecclesiam^ si sit reconcilianda^ 
vel c(emeteriumy choro canente hanc antiphonam : Pax 
huic domui, vel loco,' et omnibus habitantibus in ea, vel 
eo, pax ingredientibus et egredientibus. Alleluia. 
Et veniens coram cruce in ecclesioy vel infra ccsme- 

* **Si solum coemeterium sit gor MS. does not state this, but 

reconcOiandum, omittenda est ilia evidently contemplates that the 

antiphona, * Fbj. ' cam psalmo.'' antiphon should be said only at 

Evkr, paniif. Exon, The Ban- the reconciliaUon of a church. 

3IO necdndtfatio «BccMae tiel Coemetent* 

terium in occidente^ accumbat ibi super faldhUmm. 
dum dicitur litania^^ ut supra in ordinibus. j 

Et cum ventumfuerit ad versuMy qui pro damim cph ' 
copo cantatuTj surgat episcapus^ et dicat : 

Ut ecclesiam istam vel ccemeterium istud recon- 
ciliare digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut ecclesiam istam vel ccemeterium istud recon- 
ciliare et mmidare digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Ut ecclesiam istam vel ccemeterium istud recon- 
ciliare, mundare, et sauctificare digneris. 

Te rogamus. 

Interim prastemat se episcopusy et cantares percan- 
tent titaniam usque injinem. Quajinitay surgat episco- 
pusy ibidem deposita mitroy et dicat : 


Diaconus. Flectamus genua. Leyate. 

Oratio : 

Deus, qui peccati veteris haereditariam mortem, id 
qua posteritatis genus omne successerat, Christi, Filii 
tui» Domini nostri passione solristi, dona propitius, ut 
conformes ejusdem facti, sicut imaginem terreni pa- 
rentis naturce necessitate portavimusy ita imaginem 
coDlestis gratise sanctificatione portemus ejusdem 
Christi Domini nostri. Qui tecum vivit. 

Postea dicat episcaptis ter : 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende. 

Chorus respondeat sic : 

Domine ad adjuyandum me festina. Gloria Fatri 
it Sicut erat, sine Alleluia. 

' Th» Bangor pontifical does not direct the litany. 

laeconciUatio ^ttltsAtLt ttel Coemetetit. 3^ < 

J^asteajiat benedictio salisy aquuBy cinerum^ et vini. 

J^inita benedictione^ 91 ecclesia sity circumcat episcapus 

tj^ibu9 vkibus intrinsecuSy ter spargendo aquam benedic- 

tarn cum saky cinerCy et vino primo per pavimentum : 

sccundo in medio; tertioy in summitate parietisy ut supra 

in dedicatione ecclesia^ ac pracipue in loco contaminato^ 

incipiens qualibet vice ab occidenteper boream ad partem 

ar^ientakm^ usque dum redeat per sinistram in occiden- 

terjiy ad locum quo inceperit. Eodem modojiat estrinse- 

cus. Si fuerit ceemeteriumy primo de remotiori parte, 

secundo in medio j tertio juxta ecclesiam circumeundOj 

et haaxime in loco delicti^ spargat aquam benedictam. 

Znterim cantetur bac antiphona a choro» 


Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo et mundabor : laya- 
bis me, et super niyem dealbabor. 

Psabnus. Miserere mei Deus. Et dicatur sine^ 
Gloria Patri. 

Et post unumquemque versum repetatur antiphona, 
Asperges me. 

Deinde rediens ad locum primum ubi litaniam dix* 
eritj dicat istam ordtibnemj sine Oremiis. 

Deum indultorem criminum, Deum sordium mun- 
datorem, Deum qui concretum originalibus peccatis 
mundum adventus^ui nitore puriiicavit, supplices de- 
precemur, ut contra diaboli furentis insidias fortis 
nobis pugnator assistat, et quicquid ejus virosa callidi- 
tate quotidianisque infestationibus maculatum hie cor- 
ruptumque fuerit, efficiatur coelesti sanctificatione ac 
mundatione purgatum ; quia sicut illius est solidum 
perfectumque quassare, ita auctoris nostri est lapsa 
restaurare et corrupta purgare ; cujus majestatem 
precamur, ut hie locus fiat ab omni poUutione purga- 

Ofl CoctnctcttL 


fnoremstatum restitiitas, 
: tarwummdo suhmssc, pa > 
▼iTh, et gloriatiuv Deos: \ 

\ :<*! «:::rxunt <? iassaa» «■!, «qmiu et salutare^ nos 
i'h t^i^p*^^ "«^ umciM' rnsiifi jyic^ DcHnine sancte, 
T*.t:r 4uui..*v\«*msw «iiR^^ IW9& Ciyiis bonitas^ nee 
'K*:iv\'v*in ittv xa«« i2ii>R. csLpBesI poUuta pui^gare, 
^^ o.^ ^«rsSKuni^v^ »cii» laedificare : exaudi gtb- 
>.ix%.^ ix.>c^it!^ ic ixiiK kxi receptecaliim placatos 
«L\ ..i'«^ ^ »^:xtrt nnaa m e nrlnaani taam, vel oce- 
^j^,i:c«i^]t 74 1^1« a:i)>^ izift^amis diaboU frande est 
^ui *^^» ^ :£r."42wixMK pmx2» cfldestis sancti ^ fices, 
-.^-1 ~ iviis. >4-^.x,iroiKiiie pcHsideas. Nihil hie, 
*Hkje<aixr:t:s^ 1\W' ^v TviscaMiicai wweat pneteriti culpa 
c\-c:x>;iti^ X.: I 5-m ^^>i «kummI ininttci firande poUu- 
v,- ff- K;^^a.-^:Ja ^vtv i::.;:a$ kvi pum simplicitaSy et 
oi:;»^^ i:t:3Kvyc:3ir ^rb^cisr ii— lirnhtn'^i et dum reci- 
f^t sT^^iK^^-ifcai^ TV'x»^;!^»^ ad gkviaBL Quatenns hie 
p^>^^CA^j;3t tt^irla vva^rvsiMks^ doa pedtionis ingerit 
^vh;»» Twvmwi :se smx^Ut ohdnuis» soffiragia : Ter- 
i»w.wW<^ 4^^c^« IVr Donunimi noGtnmi, Jesum 

* TW pc'Of^r f««6we «ff«wM(4 yulk* ! » brt as a prayer : the 

m ^ Bmrwr and Exet«r p«ab- Baagor after and die Exeter be- 

fink b didm«t f rcaa Uus» and foi«, tbe pretee. 
much longer: and both tlMse The pontificals vary also in 

manoscripu agree in sajing» tbeir arraogement of the prayers 

^ Cit]as bonitas» ^** not as a vUoh i 

- laetonciUatio ^cclesiae ttel Coemeterii; 31 3 

ChristaiQ, Filium tuum^ qui tecum vivit et regnat in 
unitate Spiiitus Sancti, Deus, per omnia sseculk ssecu- 
lonim. . 

JPostea circumeat episcopus tcclesiam intrinsecus ter 
cum incensoj eodem modo incemando quo asperserit 
aquaniy incipiens qualibet vice db occidente per boream 
ad partem orkntalemy usque dam redact per sinistram 
in occidentem ad locum ubi inceperiL Sifuerit cosmete- 
riumy ter circumeat episcopus cum incenso^ primo in re- 
motiori partCy secundo in media, tertio jurta ecclesiam 
et maxime in loco delicti. 

Interim cantetur hac antiphona a choro : 

Exui^t Deud, ad nostri famulatus obsequium, et in 
loco sancto ejus fiat benedictionis augmentum. 

Psabnus. Exurgat Deus. 

Totus psahnus dicatur, et repetatur antiphona post 
unumquemque versum psalmij si necesse fuerit. 

His peractisy eat episcopus ad primum locum, et ibi- 
dem stando dicat hanc orationem : 

Deus qui in Sanctis habitans» supemse moderamine 
pietatisy terram mundus mundam formasti, quam etiam 
primi prsevaricatoris de supemis ejecti sedibus sug- 
gestione maculatam priseis misertus paradisi quos 
creasti accolis» pii effusione cruoris ac proprii ab omni 
antiquse preevaricatioms contagio mundare et abster- 
gere dignatus es : quaesumus immensam pietatem tuam^ 
ut hanc ecclesiam^ vel, ut hoc coemeterium, quod, vel, 
quam, prius tua sanctificatione sanctificare voluisti» 
quamvis jam ejusdem nsevo prsevaricatoris maculatam, 
tua coelesti bene^dictione bene^dicas: ut qui sub 
timore et amore tui nominis, ad hoc oratorium pro 
impetranda suorum venia peccatorum convenerint, vel, 
in hoc coemeterio sepulti fiierint, se in perpetuum om- 

.^ ---""mi t7fc" t%» OfcT- 

«* ^mut »fc- 

kKC ^at toa 



r <f It ijihiips 

t» be song) 


sjtsvr-TTift "xa-TTXii 3C*»-T:i*:tKr tt- jQar: v^mcv ^ rScs are di- 
-va iit«i''2« *inixarfr-. rwrun r-«wi£ » Vr Jcxa depodted bj 
^^^nni> TMtnana m ■ win rm> » b^biow «U ^e «soil pray- 
>K^ r*?r. «5^ 1^« swwb ^e prayer 

«. f^«is^- '««wnr r^ltimajf rsK "^ Dhb» yn t ii.lniiM : * IbDoired 
^m^fr-t ^ »vmian» : rmm <rm-»- br aocber. (the Prc^cc repett- 
H «roiLM- <^ ^ vMtfkmdw .* tft 4tf^ cc > *^ Deas» cojos booitas,** with 

vkick the Ofice io that luou- 
^ C^BW lipnK^ttse csJbiCBk scnpt ciMMiiides. 

laeconciUatio ^ttitfAw nti Coeme tetii* 3 1 5 

Confirma hoc, Deus, quod operatus es in nobis, a 
templo sancto tuo quod est in Jerusalem. 

Psalmus. Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis : in 
xnedio ecclesiae laudabo te. 

Qui timetis Dominum, laudate eum: universum 
semen Jacob glorificate eum. 

Timeat euin omne semen Israel : quoniam non spro- 
ut neque despexit deprecationem pauperis. 

Nee avertit faciem suam a me : et cum clamarem ad 
eum exaudivit me. 

Gloria Patri. 

Repetatur antiphona. 


Deus, qui ecclesiam tuam de omnibus mundi finibus 
congregatam, per tui lateris admirabile sacramentum 
cunctarum gentium matrem esse dixisti, quam etiam 
populorum varietate depictam martyrum tuorum me- 
ntis decorasti : benedic ►!<, Domine quoesumus, sanc- 
torum tuorum opitulante suffiragio, tam altare quod 
eorum exomatur, te juvante, reliquiis, quam ecclesiam, 
atque fidelium tuorum vota o£ferentium sanctifica : qui 

Sequitur benedictio elevata manuy per longum et la- 
tum loci J dicens : 

Benedictio Dei ►!< Patris omnipotentis, ingeniti Fi- 
liique >i< ipsius unigeniti, necnon Sancti >h Spiritud 
Paracliti ab utroque procedentis, maneat jugiter super 
ecclesiam istam, t;e/, coemeterium istud, in ssecula sse- 
culorum. Amen. 

Postea dicat episcopus missam de reconciliatione. Si 
coemeterium sity dicatur missa : 

Requiem eetemam. 

Si ecclesia sit, dicatur hcec missa. 


314 la^conciUatio eccl^iae tiel Cdemet^ 

nium veniam peccatorum impetrare gaude^' ^" 
oia percipere sempiterna leetentur. Per/" ^ 

Deiiwfe «If pontifex in ecclesiam, et^% %^ 
hac ataiphanoy licet ccemeterium tantim Ir «^ ^ 

* The Bangor pontifical ap- 
pomts various ceremonies here, /« ^ ^ S ^ -^ r 

^bicb the other MSS. do not r > ' %* % ^* ^- % 

notice. i A 1: rf* V" ^ 1 

*< 7\»fic tUvata manu hmiedi'\ 
cat sanctam ecclesiamj vel «or 
turn ccemeterium, 

** Benedictio D^ etc. 

**Demdereportentur r 
ad ecclesiam peaUendo 
nam: f 

" Sanctum est verv | 

« Deinde eat pif- 
elero etpopulo «^2 | C 
guo reUguia fif\ 4 . ^j. • • 

introitu tentof' \ 9 ' ^J^- 

« Aufer a; j ^ -^us con4ensa, et in templo 

sumuB, inicf' ^^m. Alleluia. | 

sancta sar^ .o ad templum sanctum tuum, et con- 1 

mereami tuo. f 

*;.^' Septuagesimam evenerit, dicatur t? actus. 
^ ate Dominum onmes gentes, et coUaudate eum 

, ^^populi. 


Quoniam confinnata est super nos misericordia ejus, 
. Veritas Domini manet in setemunu 

Secundum Lucam : 

In illo tempore ; dixit Jesus discipulis suis, non est 
arbor bona qusB facit fructus malos. 


Oravi Deum meum ego Daniel dicens, exaudi. Do- 

sg^ ^^nctttatio ^ccleisiae tiel Coemetetit. 317 

^^ ^ seryi tui, illumina faciem tuam super sane- 

^^ ^ \ et propitius intende populum istum su- 

> ><d ^ atum est nomen tuum, Deus. 

f^^h^^ ^^ halx: Alleluia. 

^ ^^ '^ o^ ^ ^us Domine, et locum istum ab 

•^ ^ ^^%^ ^ft^ '®^ patrat» offensionis expur- 

"^^ ^-JV*^ ^IL *^ ^^ ^* ^^iq^® tibi reddat 

^5,. •' 4., i<. ^:, obis et ab hoc templo 

^ ^ ^; y \p ac su8e super vos 

\ '^ \ '*^ 'at. Amen. 

^Q^ ^ '^ ^nciliationem ef- 

"%. -^ 


^ao possint repleri be- 

aa intelligenteSy et intellecta exe- 
«jbdversa mundi ab omm sorde pecca- 
.iticati invemamini incolumes, et beatorum 
.aum efficiamini in coelesti regno cohseredes. 
Quod ipse. 

Acceptabis sacrificium justitise, oblationes, et holo- 
causta, super altare tuum, Domine. 
In tempore paschali : Alleluia. 

Percipientes, Domine,munera salutis eetemae, te sup- 
plices exoramus, ut templum hoc vel coemeterium a 
barbarorum vel iniquorum inquinamentis emundatum, 
tua benedictione maneat sanctificatum, et pectora nos- 
tra, ab omni sorde vitiorum alienata, tibi devota sem« 
per assistant. Per Dominum. 

3i6 Eeconcittatio OEcdeBiiae tiel Coemeteru. 

DuiD sanctificatas fiiero in vobis, congregabo vos de 
universis terris, et effundam super vos aquam mundam, 
et mundabinuni ab onmibus inquinaa^entis vestris, et 
dabo vobis spiritum noYum. 

In tempore paschali : Alleluia. 


Beuedicam Dominum in onmi tempore : semper laus 
ejus in ore meo. 


Deusy qui dixisti, domus mea domus orationis vo- 
cabitur, domum istam alienis offensionibus contamiua- 
tam mundare et sanctificare digneris, ut omnium pre- 
ces et vota in hoc loco ad te clamantium clementer 
exaudias, et benigne perficias : per Dominum. 


Ecce ego Johannes. 

Resp. in dedicatione ecclesia. 

Graduak. ToUite hostias et introite in atria ejus : 
adorate Dominum in aula sancta ejus. 

Versus. Revelavit Dominus condensa, et in temple 
ejus omnes dicent gloriam. Alleluia. 

Versus. Adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum, et con- 
fitebor nomini tuo. 

Si infra Septuagesimam evenerit^ dicatur tractus. 

Laudato Dominum omnes gentes, et collaudate eiun 
omnes populi. 


Quoniam confirmata est super nos misericordia ejus, 
et Veritas Domini manet in setemum. 

Secundum Lucam : 

In illo tempore ; dixit Jesus discipulis suis, non est 
arbor bona quae facit fructus males. 


Oravi Deum meum ego Daniel dicens, exaudi, Do- 

EeconciUatfo ^ccleisiae tiel Coemetettt 317 

mine^ preces servi tui, illmnina faciem tuam super sanc- 
tuaiium tuum, et propitius intende populum istum su- 
per quern invocatum est nomen tuum, Deus. 
In tempore paschali : Alleluia. 

Heec hostia, qusesumus Domine, et locum istum ab 
immunditiis iniquorum vel patrat» offensionis expur- 
get, et supplicationes nostras hie et ubique tibi reddat 
acceptas. Per Dominum. 
Benedictio episcopalis. 

Omnipotens Deus universa a nobis et ab hoc templo 
vel coemeterio adversa excludat; ac suae super vos 
benedictionis dona propitiatus infundat. Amen. 

Gorda convenientium ad banc reconciliationem ef- 
ficiat sacris intenta doctrinis, quo possint repleri be- 
neficiis sempitemis. Amen. 

Quatenus exequenda intelligentes, et intellecta exe- 

quentes, inter adversa mundi ab omni sorde pecca- 

torum purificati inveniamini incolumes, et beatorum 

: spirituum efficiamini in coelesti regno cohseredes. 

^: Quod ipse. 
y, Acceptabis sacrificium justitise, oblationes, et holo- 
^^ causta, super altare tuum, Domine. 
In tempore paschali : Alleluia. 
jj^ Percipientes, Domine, munera salutis setemae, te sup- 
plices exoramus, ut templum hoc vel coemeterium a 
barbarorum vel iniquorum inquinamentis emundatum, 
^- tua benedictione maneat sanctificatum, et pectora nos- 
tra, ab omni sorde vitiorum alienata, tibi devota sem« 
per assistant. Per Dominum. 

VHntUtttonts Ditier^ae. 



Inclina, Domine Jesu, Salvator omnium 
et Redemptor, aures tuse pietatis ad preces 
noetrse humilitatis, et per interyentum beati 
Michaelis, archangeli tui, omniumque coelestiom vir- 
tutum, preesta nobis auxilium dexterse tuae, ut sicut be- 

^ T\» IbQowmg is firom a 
printed form, paUished in 4ta^ 
London, 1B38: but I am not 
aware under what aatbority. 

* Players nsed at the oonse- 
oration of regimental standards 
and colours. 

« The Lord's Prayer. 

" Our Fatlier, etc. 

^ Almighty and most merciful 
Father, our shield and buckler, 
our protector and preserrer, the 
strength of all that put thdr trust 
in thee. With profound rever- 
ence and humility, and under a 
deep sense of our unworthiness, 
but in an entire dependence upon 
thy compassion and loving kind- 
ness, we prostrate ourselves at 
thy footstool. 'Justice and Judg- 
ment are the habitation of thy 
seat, and Mercy and Troth go 
before thy Face.' 

•* We approach thee, O Father, 
and pray unto thee for the light 

of thy countenance upon us : and 
we beseech thee to incline thine 
ear unto oar petition, and to 
hearken to the voice of our hum- 
ble supplications. 

** We implore thy blessing upon 
[^Mi Standardly or these Colaursy 
€u the case may hel^ to be pre- 
sented, this day, by „ 

to „ and, with aU low- 

liness of mind, and humility of 
spirit, we now consecrate \Uj or 
them"] in thy Holy Name, to the 
cause of Peace and Happmess, 
Troth and Justice, Religion and 

" We pray that „ 

may always be borne by this Re- 
giment as a token and pledge of 
their duty, fidelity, and honour ; 
of their loyalty and zeal, their 
fbrdtude and valour, in the ser- 
vice of our most gracious Qaeen ; 
and in the maintenance of our 
Holy Religion, our constitution, 

T&mtnictiontu ninetmt. 


nedixisti Abraham adversus quinque reges triumphaD- 
tem, atque David r^em in tui nominis laude tri- 
umphales congressus exercentem, ita bene^dicere et 
sanc^tiBcare digneris hoc vexillum, quod ob defen-p 
sionem sanctse ecclesise, contra hostilem rabiem de- 
fertur, quatenus in nomine tuo fideles et defensoreg 
populi tui illud sequentes, per virtutem sanctse crucis 
triumphumy et victoriam, se ex hostibus acquisisse 
laetentur. Per te, Jesu Christe, qui cum Patre et Spi* 
ritu Saacto vivis et regnas Deus, per omnia seecula 

and laws: and we beseech thee, 

O Father» that m niay 

be as the enngn and banner of 
their Christian profession; and 
that they may put their hope, and 
trust, and confidence in thee the 
Liord of Hosts, without whose aid 
Tain is the help of man. 

** Finally, we pray that thy 
seryants now before thee, and 
that all the forces of our Queen, 
throaghoat her dominions, for 
whom we are also bound to offer 
np prayers and supplications, may 
follow Che example of the devout 
centurion; who, amidst the tu- 
mult of anns, " feared thee, with 
aU his house ;" and may not, at 
any time, be led aside fi'om the 
path of duty by the crafty devices 
of the ungodly; but that in all 
their words and actions, and in 
their different ranks and stations, 
they may continually set thee be- 
fore them, and bear in mind the 
solemn injunction, *^to honour 
all men," to "love the brother- 
hood," to "fear God'* and "ho- 


nour the Queen." 

^ All this we ask through the 
merits ef Jesus Christ our Lord. 

'* O Almighty God, by whom 
Kings reign and Princes decree 
justice, bless, we beseech thee, 
our most gracious sovereign lady, 
Queen Victoria, Adelaide the 
Queen Dowager, and all the 
Royal Family, with health, pros- 
perity, and happiness; give them 
, lengUi of days, in peace, joy, and 
honour, here on earth ; let thine 
arm be their protection, and thy 
wisdom their counsel and guide; 
and when, by the aid of thy Di- 
vine Spirit, they have walked ac- 
cording to thy righteous will, and 
finished their course in this world, 
crown them, we beseech thee, 
with everlasting life and glory in 
the kingdom of Heaven ; we ask 
all in the name, and through the 
mediation of Jesus Christ, our 
Lord and Saviour. Amen. 
« The Peace of God, etc" 

322 OBenenictiooes lidieciae. 

Alia orotic. 

Dominey Dens omnipotens, cni onmia possibilia sunt 
et nihil difficile est, bene ^ die vexiUum istud, racml 
benedixisti serpentem seneum in eremo hasta eleyatxnB, 
quern quicunque vulneribus sauciati aspexerunt sal- 
vabantur, quia Unigenitum tamn post longs saecola 
cruce elevandum hoc portendebat mysterium ; et prae- 
sta ut omnes qui illud super se elevaii yidermt, a qua- 
cunque infirmitate et periculo et occursu malo liber- 
entur. Bene ►^ die etiam, Domine Deus, vexiUmn 
istudy sicut benedixisti dilectum puerum tuum David, 
cum adversus Philisten in funda et lapide congressus 
est, et Unigeniti tui virtutem, mundo quandoque Ten- 
turam, suo preemonstravit prselio ; adfauc te pedmus, 
omnium dominator Domine, ut bene ^ dicas illud, si- 
cut benedixisti fluvium Jordanis, in quo Unigenitus 
tuus descendens, totius mundi maculas abolevit, et per 
baptismum omnes salvandos esse prseostendebat, et 
quae petere non presumimus aut quae petendo impe- 
trare non meremur, tu nobis concede. propitius. Per 



BENEDIC, Domine Jesu Christe, istud sigillum, 
in testimonium veritatis paratum, et concede per 
intercessionem beatse Mariae virginis et matris tuae, 
et sanctorum apostolorum tuorum Petri et Pauli, ut 
et ipse in cujus officium et usum exercebitur, et qui 
ejus nomine eodem utentur, sic justitiae et veritatis 
regulam teneant, et turpis lucri nemini respuant, ut 
pro temporali labore perpetuam a te mercedem con- 
sequi mereantur. Qui vivis. 

2U^ re^tituetUtttm begraDatum* 


T i^ JC^" 

emOmiim mi t crrar e m foci- 


xdaOe cum wis 

€i /Mjmfu sUh assUtentc 

uurrdoialibus, cum 

e^seoftts super. 

capa chori» chiro- 

ei Bilrm indatisy et 

bttcukis pastorales, de- 

'.is^ prtT*<« ^'f^wiMS ab < 
oftcio K b€«6do 
^^g^KStia proimitar, cnm decreto 
^^radatioiin a siisc«plis ordmibus 

m oocidentali 
pneaentetor. £t» 
Inent, episoopis cam 
Mcalonim sobleTantibus 
£cai dicDoesanas ; '&- 
ezniinns, et dera- 
te. N. ab ordine saoerdo- 
tdi:' MMi a lr i» totaliter casulam 
gitraWntibos, Postmodum ut 
soblerata stola dicatur ; 
EnpactoriaamoB etc. ab ordme 
Demde sublevato ma- 
dkatnr; * Exauctorixamas 
Hhr« ab oidiiie sabdiaconali.' De- 
inde sableTatis alba et amictu 
dkatur ; *• Ezanctorizamus etc. aco- 
Ijtalus.' Deinde sublevato super- 
pdficio dicatiir; ' Exanctorisamus 
«fe. ab oidine psahnistatus.' " Fol 

Then follow various references 
to tbe canon-law : witb the usual 

9D QefftaDanDum sacetooteiB!. 3^5 

dalmatica^ tunica^ cum caliccy et patena^ quam tenet in 
m€inibus coram episcopo^ 
Dicat episcopus : 

Auctoritate omnipotentis Dei, Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus Sancti, et beatorum apostolorum Petri et 
Pauli et ecclesiee nobis commissa, auferimus tibi. N. 
liabitum clericaleniy et te ab omni sacerdotali et alio quo* 
vis ordine deponimusi et etiam degradamus, et exuimus 
te omni honore^ et habitu, ac tonsura, et privilegio 

In ablatione calicis et patena^ dicat episcopus : 
Auferimus tibi calicem et patenauiy teque exuimus 
et privamus officio et potestate offerendi Deo sacrifi-* 
eium, et missam quamHbet celebrandi. 
In remotione casula, dicat episcopus ^ 
Auferimus tibi orarium, sive stolam sacerdotalem, 
cum jugum Domini, suave ab eo reprsesentatum, por^ 
tare contempseris, et stolam innocentise observare. 
In remotione dalmatica^ dicat episcopus : 
Auferimus tibi dahnaticam, diaconalis officii oma-* 
mentum, cum ipsam non portaveris, indumentum 
laetitise, et vestimentum salutis. 

In remotione tunica j dicat episcopus : 
Auferimus tibi tunicam, subdiaconalis officii oma- 
mentum, cum ilia usus non fueris, ad justitiam et sa- 

In remotione manipulij dicat episcopus : 

form of recommendation to the sence and by the office of the 

mercy of the secular power : and archbishop of Canterbury, and the 

a statement that according to the bishops of London, Winchester, 

above form, a priest was degraded Worcester, Bath and Wells, Exe- 

in London, for forgery, upon the ter,Chichester, Llandaff, S. Asaph, 

feast of S. Fabian and S. Sebas- and Bangor. 

tian, in the year 1277, in the pre- 

326 9DMJrCttBatl]miltMCi(D0t»« 

Auferimas tibi mampulum, sabdiaoonatos officii 
omamentaiii, teque exoimus et priTamiis ministerio 
demgnato in iUo. 

In ramtitme calicis et paUtuBy urceoii aqu^j manu- 
tergii^ dicat episcopus: 

Aoferimus tibi calicem, et patenam, ixrceofaim, aqoa- 
maniley manaterginm, subdiaconatus officii instmmenta, 
teque illorum usu exaimns et privamiis ministerio de- 
signato in illis. 

In remotiane libri epistolarunij dicat episcopM : 

AofOTimus tibi librum epistolarum, teque exuimus 
et privamus officio luminaria in ecclesia Dei accen- 

In remotiane urceoii^ dicat episcapus : 

Auferimus tibi urceolum, ne de caetero iUo utaris ad 
suggerendum vinum et aquam in Eucharistiam san- 
guinis Christi. 

In remotiane libri erarcismorumy dicat episcapus : 

Auferimas tibi librum exorcismorum, teque priva- 
mus et exuimus potestate super energumenos, sive 
baptizatoS) sive catediumenos, manus imponendi. 

In remotiane cadicis, dicat episcapus : 

Auferimus tibi codicem, quem cum lectoratus officio 
suscepisti, teque exuimus et privamus potestate ilium 
legendi in ecclesia sancta Dei. 

In remotiane clavium^ dicat episcapus : 

Auferimus tibi claves ecclesisB^ teque exuimus et 
privamus officio et potestate custodiendi res quae ipsis 
clavibus recluduntur» et portas etiam ecclesise aperi- 
endi» sive claudendi. 

In remotiane prima tonsura, dicat : 

Auferimus tibi tonsuram et habitum clericalem, et 
exuimus et privamus te, et degradamus, ab omni ho- 
nore, beneficio^ ac privilegio clericali. 

. an irefi(cai»minim. mtmstm. 327 

Et si sit tradendus brachio saculari, dicat episco- 

Pronunciamus et dicimus nobili viro A. de B. ut te 
miaerum recipiat degradatum, ^t eum reqjairiinus et 
i^ogamus in visceribus Jesu Christi, ut citra mortis 
periculum et membri mutilationem, suam circa te sen- 
tendam habeat moderare. 

Ad resHtuendum degradatum. 

EPISTOLA cujusdam episcopi ad primatem mum 
ad restituendum degradatum. 
Sancto ac venerabili primati suo L. F. episcoporum 
humillimusy fidelitatis affectum et obsequium. De 
presbytero nostro ab alio episcopo pro pecunia ordi- 
natOy ex auctoritate sanctorum canonum tale vobis 
consilium dono : primum degradetur, deinde ab eccle- 
sia separatus duobus annis severa poenitentia mulctetur, 
ut honoris gradus quos pretio taxaverat, lachrymis con- 
querere et reparare contendat. Postea si digne poeni- 
tuerit, restauretur. Hoc vero diximus, cum in aliis 
locis sacris expresse invenietis, in concilio Toletano 
undecimo capitulo. Caeterum rebaptizationes, et re- 
ordinationes canones vetant: propterea depositum 
non reordinabitisy sed reddetis ei suos gradus per in- 
strumenta et vestimenta, quae ad ipsos gradus perti- 
nent ; ita dicendo : ^ Reddo tibi gradum ostiarii, etc. 
In nomine Patris, et Filii^ et Spiritus Sancti. Amen/ 
Novissime autem benedictione Isetificabitis eum, sic 
concludendo: ^ Benedictio Patris omnipotentis, etFilii, 

328 an te0tttneniitttn Degitaiiatum. 

et Spiritus Sanctis saper te descendat, ut sis confirma- 
tus in ordine sacerdotali, et oflferas ei placabiles hostias 
pro peccatis, atqne offensionibus, populi omnipotentis 
Dei, cui est honor et gloria in saecula sseculonun. 

C|)e jForm of ^talins. 

W^t Dffliee of consecrating 
Cramp rings. 

C|)e €eremonfe0 for i^t l^ealinir, of 

tbtm tbtA bt Iii0ea0eii Mtb tbt ifting'^ 

OBttiU M ^ts tnete ptacttseD in tbt 

time of sung fl^mvji vii/ 

! IRST, the king J kneeling^ shaU begifh ond 

In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus 
Sancti* Amen. 
And so soon as he hath said thaty he shall say : 

The chi^lain kneeling before the kingy having a stole 
about his neckj shall answer and say : 

Dominus sit in corde tuo et labiis tiiiis, ad confitendum 
omnia peccata tua ; in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spi- 
ritus Sancti. Amen. 
Or else to say : 

Jesus nos exaudiat, in nomine Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Then by and by the king shall say : 
Confiteor Deo, beatse M arise virgini, omnibus Sanc- 
tis, and vobis, quia peccavi nimis in cogitatione, locu- 
tione et opere, mea culpa. Precor sanctam Mariam, 
omnes sanctos Dei, et vos orare pro me. 

^ The full title of the hook is ; his Majesties command. London. 

*' The ceremonies us'd in the time Printed by Henry HiUsy Printer 

of King Henry VII. for the Heal- to the King's most excellent Ma- 

ing of them that be diseased with jesty for his houshold and chappel. 

the King's Evil. Published by 1686." 4to. 


Ct^ iTotm of Ideating. 33 < 

The chaplain shall answer and say : 

Migereatur vestri ommpotens Deus, et demittat 
▼obis omnia peccata vestra, liberet tos ab omni malo» 
salvet et confirmet in bono, et ad vitam perducat aeter* 
nam. Amen. 

Absolutionem et remissionem omnium peccatorum 
▼estrorum, spatium verse pcenitentiee et emendationem 
yitae, gratiam et consolationem Sancti Spiiitus, tribuat 
Tobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus. Amen. 

This done, the chaplain shall say : 

Dominus vobiscum. 

The king shall answer : 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

The chaplain : 

Sequentia sancti evangelii secundum Marcum. 

The king shall answer : 

Gloria tibi, Domine. 

The chaplain shall read the Gospel: 

In illo tempore. Recumbentibus undecim discipu- 
lis apparuit illis Jesus : et exprobravit incredulitatem 
eorum, et duritiem cordis : quia iis, qui viderant eum 
resurrexisse, non crediderunt. Et dixit eis ; euntes 
in mundum universum, prsedicate evangelium omni 
creaturse. Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit, salvus 
erit : qui vero non crediderit, condemnabitur. Signa 
autem eos, qui crediderint, hsec sequentur ; in nomine 
meo dsemonia ejicient : Unguis loquentur novis : ser- 
pentes toUent: et si mortiferum quid biberint, non 
eis nocebit. Super eegros manus imponent, et bene 

W/iich clause^ Super segros, etc. the chaplain re- 
peats as long as the king is handling the sick person. 
And in the time of the repeating the aforesaid words. 
Super segros, etc. the clerk of the closet shall kneel be- 

332 Cte iPorm of l^eattng. { 

fwe the kingj having the sick person upon the right 
handy and the sick person shall likewise kneel before the 
king : and then the king shall lay his hand upon the sore | 
of the sick person. \ 

This donCj the chaplain shall make an end of the J 
Gospel; and in the mean time the chirurgeon shall lead 
away the sick person from the king. 

Et Dominus quidem Jesus, postquam locutns est eis, 
assumptus est in cceluniy et sedet a dextris Dei. Illi 
autem profecti pnedicaverunt ubique, DomiBo coope- 
rante, et sermonem confirmante, sequentibus signis. 

Then the chaplain shall begin to say again : 

Dominus vobiscum. 

The king shall answer : 

Et cum Spiritu tno. 

7%e chaplain : 

Initium sancti evangelii secundum Joannem. 

The king shall say : 

Gloria tibi, Domine. 

The chaplain then shall say this Gospel following : 

In principio erat Verbum, ^in hunc mundum. 

Which last clauscj Erat lux vera, etc, shall still be 
repeated so long as the king shall be crossing the sore of 
the sick person with an Angel Noble : and the sick per- 
son to have the same Angel hanged about his neck, and 
to wear it until he be full whole. 

This done the chirurgeon shall lead away the sick per- 
son as he did before; and then the chaplain shall make 
an end of the Gospel : 

In mundo erat, et mundus per ipsum factus est; 
„ ^plenum gratis et veritatis. 

Then the chaplain shall say : 

Sit nomen Domini benedictum. 

Ci)e iFotm of i^ealin^. 333 

The king shall answer : 

Et hoc nunc et usque in seeculum. 

Then shall the chaplain say this collect /ollowingj 
praying for the sick person or persons : 

Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

The king shall answer : 

Et clamor mens ad te veniat. 


Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, salus setema creden- 
tiuin, exaudi nos pro famulis tuis, pro quibus miseri- 
cordisB tuse imploramus auxilium, ut reddita sibi sani- 
tate, gratiarum tibi in ecclesia tua referant actiones. 
Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

This prayer is to be said secretly after the sick persons 
are departed from the king, at his pleasure. 

Dominator Domine, Deus omnipotens, cujus benig- 
nitate, coeci vident, surdi audiunt, muti loquuntur, 
claudi ambulant, leprosi mundantur, omnes infirmo- 
rum curantur languores, et a quo solo donum sanationis 
humano generi etiam tribuitur, et tanta gratia pro in- 
credibili tua erga hoc regnum bonitate, regibus ejus- 
dem concessa est, ut sola manuum illorum impositione, 
morbus gravissimus foetidissimusque depellatur, con- 
cede propitius ut tibi propterea gratias agamus, et pro 
isto singulari beneficio in nos collate, non nobis ipsis, 
sed nomini tuo assidue gloriam demus, nosque sic ad 
pietatem semper exerceamus, ut tuam nobis donatam 
gratiam non solum diligenter conservare, sed in dies 
magis magisque adaugere laboremus, et praesta, ut 
quorumcunque corporibus, in nomine tuo manus im- 
posuerimus, hac tua virtute in illis operante et nobis 
ministrantibus, ad pristinam sanitatem restituantur, 
eam conservent, et pro eadem tibi, ut summo medico 

334 ^c ^fim if iKiling^ 

et oDudiun morbomm depukorv perpetao nobiscum 
gratias agant: skqne dcmcepB TitaB inrtitiiaiit ut non 
corfMB aolimi ab infinutale, sed aanmm edam m peocato 
omnmo sanata Tideatiir. PcrDoinniiiiiiiortnmi Jesiim 
Chiistiim, FQium tBum, qoi tecmii ^^t et regnat in 
unitete Sancti Spiritas per ouauk sBCvlft ancaUxnm. 

%l^t Ceremonies of ble00{n9 Cramp^^ 

rm00s on ^^oon^iFtinass U0eli iip tbt Ca^ 
tbolitk ]IUn00 of en0lanlit 

|i/£ psalme " /)et« misereatur nostrij etc^** 
with the " Gforifl Pflf/ri." 

May God take pity upon us and blesse 
us : may he send fordi the light of his face 
upon us, and take pity on us. 

That we may know thy ways on earth : among all 
nations thy salvation. 

May people acknowledge Thee, O God: may all 
people acknowledge Thee. 

Let Nations reioice and be glad, because thou 
iudgest people with equity : and doest guide Nations 
on the Earth. 

May people acknowledge Thee, O God, may all 
people acknowledge Thee : the Earth has sent forth 
her fruit. 

May God blesse us, that God who is ours : may that 
God blesse us : and may all the bounds of the Earth 
feare him. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the 
holy Ghost. 

As it was in the beginning, and now, and ever : 
and for ever, and ever. Amen. 

Then the King reades this prayer: 

Almighty eternal God, who by the most copious 
gifts of thy grace flowing from the unexhausted foun- 
tain of thy bounty, hast been graciously pleased for 
the comfort of Mankind, continually to grant us many, 


3c:aL 11 

lear^ mr ijiayias ant LwjijMr vecciTe 
diuae TOW» we powre iirii wiiil aanilicT^ du Thoa 

!2ie iiyfnr. wimia tiar \ iwm?rtiHs W saebr kopes in 
tiiv luercv have ootBiiKvu itmveft Cfeist «or LoctL 

ut ti) bi: 4tna mtr ::tdm : 

O <St]4L :iie >Likiar of aes^renly «id cntkh- crea- 
toRs» ami die most gncio«s Resmrcr of MaBkiiid» the 
THs^eoBer of spirrcaal Graee» «id dbe ori^m of all 
hlessjuri i semi dowi» 6:q!k beaTOK Ay holj Spirit, 
the GxiLi>3iter. irp«n ^ese Bines^ juifcaft T framed 
by t&e worknaxu and b j thj greace povcr panfy them 
m^ that all the maUce of the fewle» and tcmmdoiis 
Ser penl be drireii oat ; azid so the HetaL vbidi by 
Thee was created^ mar icaiaiBe pore and free trom 
all dregs of the Enemy, tfaroogli Christ our Lord. 

The blessing of the Ririgs^ 

O G^ of Afarahain, God of Isaac, God id Jacob, 
heare mercifaDy our prayers. Spare thoee, who feare 
Thee. Be propitioos to thy Suppliants, and graci- 
ously be pleased to send downe from heaven thy holy 
Angel ; that he may sanctify fi* and blesse ^ these 
rings ; to the end they may prove a healthy remedy 
to such, as implore thy Name with humili^, and ac- 

Cramp^rinff0* 337 

cuse themselves of the Sins, which ly upon their con- 
science ; who deplore their crimes in the sight of thy 
divine Clemency, and beseech with eamestnes, and 
humility, thy most serene Piety. May they in fine 
by the invocation of thy holy name become profitable 
to all such as weare them, for the health of their soule 
and body, through Christ our Lord. Amen. 

A Blessing. 

O God, who hast manifested the greatest wonders 
of thy Power by the cure of diseases, and who were 
pleased that Rings should be a pledge of fidelity in 
the Patriark Judah, a Priestly Ornament in Aaron, 
the mark of a faithful Guardian in Darius, and in this 
Kingdom a remedy for divers diseases: graciously be 
pleased to blesse ^ and sanctify ^ these Rings, to 
the end that all such, who weare them may be free 
from all snares of the Devil, may be defended by 
the power of celestial armour, and that no contraction 
of the nerves, or any danger of the falling-sickness 
may infest them, but that in all sort of diseases by thy 
help they may find relief. In the name of the Father, 
>h and of the Son v^i and of the holy Ghost >i<. Amen. 

Blesse, O my Soule, the Lord : and let all things 
which are within me praise his holy name. 

Blesse, O my Soule, the Lord : and do not forget all 
his favours. 

He forgives all thy iniquities: he heales all thy 

He redeemes thy life from ruin : he crownes thee 
with mercy and commiseration. 

He fils thy desires with what is good : thy youth 
Uke that of the eagle shal be renewed. 

The Lord is he who does mercy : and does iustice 
to those, who suffer wrong. 

VOL. III. z 

338 c^e iDiBce of coiuEectattng I 

The merciful and pitying Lord : the long suffsrer, 
and moBt mighty mercifiil. 

He will not continue his anger for ever : neither i 
wil he threaten for ever. 

He has not dealt with us in proportion to our sins : | 
nor has he rendred unto us according to our offences. 

Because according to the distance of heaven firom 
Earth : so has he enforced his mercies upon those who 
foare him. 

As far distant as the East is from the West : so far 
has he divided our offences from us. 

After the manner that a Father takes pity of his 
sons ; so has the Lord taken pity of those, who feare 
him : because he knows what we are made of. 

He remembers that we are but dust; Man like 
hey such are his days : like the flower in the field, so 
wil he fade away. 

Because his breath wil passe away through him, 
and he wil not be able to subsist : and it wil find no 
longer its owne place. ^ 

But the mercy of the Lord is from all eternity : 
and will be for ever u(>on those, who feare him. 

And his iustice comes upon the children of their 
children : to those who keep his wil. 

And are mindful of his commandements : to per- 
forme them. 

The Lord in heaven has prepared himselfe a 
Throne : and his kingdom shall reign over all. 

Blesse yee the Lord all yee Angels of his, yee who 
are powerful in strength : who execute his commands, 
at the hearing of his voice when he speakes. 

Blesse yee the Lord all yee Vertues of his : yee Mi- 
nisters who execute his wil. 

Blesse yee the Lord all yee works of his throughout 

Ctamp^tin^jBE. 339 

all places of his Dominion : my Soule praise thou the 

Glory be to the Father, and to the 6on : and to the 
holy Ghost. 

As it was in the beginning, and now and ever : and 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

Wee humbly implore, O merciful God, thy iniinit 
clemency ; that as we come to Thee with a confident 
soule, and sincere faith, and a pious assurance of mind; 
with the like devotion thy Beleevers may follow on 
these tokens of thy grace. May all superstition be 
banished hence, far be all suspicion of any diabolical 
fraud, and to the glory of thy name let all things sue- 
ceede ; to the end thy Beleevers may understand Thee 
to be the Dispenser of all good ; and may be sensible 
and publish, that whatsoever is profitable to soul or 
body, is derived from Thee : through Christ oui* Lord. 

These prayers being saidy the Kings highnes rubbeth 
the Rings between his handsy saying : 

Sanctify, O Lord, these Rings, and graciously be- 
dew them with the dew of thy benediction, and conse- 
crate them by the rubbing of our hands, which thou 
hast been pk^ased according to our ministery to sane* 
tify by an external effiision of holy oyle upon them ; 
to the end that what the nature of the mettal is not 
able to performe, may be wrought by the greatnes of 
thy Grace : through Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Then must holy water be cast on the Rings^ saying : 

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the holy Ghost. Amen. 

O Lord, the only begotten Son of God, Mediatour 
of God and men, Jesus Christ, in whose name alone 
salvation is sought for, and to such as hope in Thee 

340 Cte ilHBce of cottfectating Cramp^ttngs* 

giyest an easy acces to thy Father ; who when coih 
versing among men, thyself a Man, didst promise by 
an assured Oracle flowing from thy sacied Mouth, 
that thy Father should grant whatever was asked him 
in thy name ; lend a gracious eare of pity to these 
prayers of ours; to the end that approaching with 
confidence to the Throne of thy grace, the Beleevers 
may find by the benefits conferrd upon them, that by 
thy mediation we have obteined, what we have most 
humbly beg'd in thy Name ; who Uvest and reignest 
with God the Father, in the unity of the holy Ghost, 
one God, for ever and ever. Amen. 

Wee beseech thee, O Lord, that the Spirit, which 
proceedes from Thee, may prevent and follow on our 
desires ; to the end that what we beg with confidence 
for the good of the Faithful, we may efficaciously oh- 
teine by thy gracious gift : through Christ our liord. 

O most clement God; Father, Son, and holy 
Ghost; wee supplicate and beseech Thee, that what is 
here performed by pious Ceremonies, to the sanctify- 
ing of thy Name, may be prevalent to the defense of 
our soule and body on Earth; and profitable to a 
more ample felicity in heaven. Who livest and reign- 
est God, world without end. Amen. 

a iTorm of Bi))Din9 t|)e mma. 


C|)e /orm of IBtHtiing ti^e BeHetf^ \ 

anciently uttti in tfft Catlieiiral dwccti ( 
of tbt Diocese of ^alisbntp. 

\EINDE eat processio hoc ordine: proctdai 
minister virgam manu gestans locum foci- 
em processioni. Deinde puer in super- ^ 
pellicio cum aqua benedicta; deinde catteri 
ministri juxta ordinem pnedictum. Deinde pueri et 
clerici de secunda forma juxta ordinem quo disponuntur 
in capituloj habitu non mutato ; et exeat processio per 
ostium presbyterii septentrionale^ circunuens preslnfte- 
rium. EpiscopuSj si pnesens fueritj mitram gerat et 
baculum. Injine processionis sacerdos veroy sive q^is- 
copus prcesens fueritj sive non^ in anteriori parte cum 
puero aquam deferente procedaty et in eundo singula < 
altaria aspergat. In duplicibus tamen festis^ qtuB in 
dominicis contingunt^ in procedendo altaria non aspergat. , 
Deinde in australi parte per f antes venientes procedant 
ad crucem, sacerdote cum suis ministris prcedictis in 
medio stante sue ordine^ ita quod puer deferens aquam et 
acolytus stent ad gradum ante crucem. Quilibet autetn 
clericus interesse potest processioni totius anniy licet nulli 
horcB diei prcecedentis interfuit. 

We shalle make oure prayers to God besechyng his 
mercy for alle holy churche, that god hit kepe in 
goode estate. In especial oure mother churche, this 

churche, and alle other in cristendome, „ 

„ „ „ For 

archybysshopes, and bysshopes, and in especial for my 

IBfiiliinff tte IBmzfi. 343 

lorde the bysshop of this see, that god hym kepe in his 

holy seruise : For my lorde y^ dean, my masters the 

clianonsy vikers, prestes, and clerkes, and alle other 

xnynysters that this churche seruyth: For the holy 

la.iid that god hit deUuer owte of hethen handes : For 

oure souerayne lorde the kyng, the queene, and alle 

lier children, and alle other lordes, dukes, merkeises, 

lierles, and barons, and alle tho that have this lond to 

^oueme: For the pees of thes landes yngland and 

Fraunce, that god make perpetual pees by twix henu 

And for the goode estate of the lord verdon, now my 

lord therl of shrowysbury, that fyndyth contjmuelly 

lyght at the hie auter „ „ 

And for y* welfare of „ and alle this 

churches frendes, oure brethem and sustem, and alle 
oure paresshens, wy th alle tho that any good dooth to 
this chirche, and alle trewe crystyn pepUl: Pater 

Hie revertat se sacerdos et dicat : ps. 
Deus misereatur nostri. Ea^ utraque parte ehori^ 
cum Gloria patri. et Sicut erat. 

Sequator: Kyrieleyson. Christeleyson. Kjrrieley- 

Pater noster* 

Deinde dicat sacerdos in audientia^ sine nota: 
£t ne nos. 

Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam. 
Sacerdotes tui induantur justitianu 
Domine, salvum fac regem« 
Salvos fac servos tuos, et ancillas tuas. 
Salvum fac populum tuum, Domine, et benedic 
hsereditati tuse. 

Domine, fiat pax in virtute tua. 
Domine, exaudi orationem meam. 


Or:: 0, 

t'^.n^ra r.i.rii/rA^A ftltrli-ixn f^.^---ii"»f, da£ftiaiEl2»cc ^aia- 

«^ilutem inen:L^ et corpifi:^. at te Ci>a Timte drfiganu 
et qu2e tl'^/i placita iunt tcca dijectivxie fmlkJjB ty et 
parrem tnam n-Mri» concede tempijnbtts: Per CkrkonB 
DominuiD w^.trum. Ameo. 

liem coitKti 4UA ad poffulanL, d'icai uMctrJo» : 
We shalle praVf and besecfae ^od cC fak flKrcy for 
alle trewe cr)':n-n sowles. In especial for aDebysdiopes 
sonles, whos bodyes resteth in this holj place : For the 
bysefhopes sowle Robert, the bysshop» sowle Joeelyn, 
the byadhops sowle Herbert, the bysehops sowle Ri- 
charde, whiche bygan this chirche here, and first or- 
dainid onre lady masse. Fch* the bysdiops sowle 
Robert, the bysehopes sowle WiDiam, die byssbops 
sowle Gyle, the bysshops sowle Water, The bjshopps 
soule Robert, the bysshops sonle Water, the bisdiops 
sowle Uerry, the bisshops soule William, the bisshops 
sonle Nichol, the bisshops soule Symon, the bisshops 
soule Rogger, the bisshopes soule Robert, and for the 
bisshops soule William Edyngton that was bisshop of 
Wynchester, the bisshops soule, John Waltham, and 
for William's soule Wykham, that was bisshop of Wyn- 
chester : for the bysshop's soule Richard Medeford, 
for Thomas soule Arundelle that was archebishop of 
Canterbury, and for the Byschop sowle Robert Halum, 
the Byschop sowle Nichol Bubwyth that was Byschop 
of Bathe* And for herrys sowle Bewfort late Bysshop 
of Wynchester and Cardinal of Rome : for the Bysshop 
Bowle John Chaundeler. And for the Bysshop sowle 

IBimiingf tbe TBtntti. 345 

William Ayscogh, and for the Byschop soule Rycharde 
Bewchamp, the Byschop soule James Goldwel, the 
Byschop soule John Bly the, the Byschop soule Thomas 
Langton that was hysshop of Wynchester, the Bischop 
soule Leouelly the Bischop soule Harry Shere, And for 
the Bysshop soule Edmunde Awdeley. 

Whych Byschopys have in ther tyme wurchipped 
thys churche wythe precyous vestymentys, and many 
other Jewells. 

For the soules of all deanes, chanons, vicars, prestos, 
and clerks, that thus churche served in ther liff. In 
especiall the deane soule Robert. The deane soule 
M. Gilbert Rymer, etc. 

M. Thomas Holes. M. Rycharde Dudley. 
M. John Baker. M. John Pryce. 
And for the soules of all other mynysters of thus 
churche, which have served hit, or done eny gode 
therto in her dayes. 

And on the secunde parte, we shall pray for all 
kyngis soules patrones of thus churche, and alle other 
lordes that have worshypped hit w* her bodyes, Rentes 
or eny other iowels. And in especiall for the soules 
of the kyngis William Rowse, Herry the firste, king 
Stevyn, Herry the secunde, Richard the firste, Eynge 
John soule, and the kynge sowle Herry the thridde, 
the kynge soule Edward the firste, Edward the se- 
cunde, Edward the thridd. And for edwarde soule 
prynce of walys : Which yaflF moche gode to the table 
of the hyghe auter : for the soule of kyng Richarde the 
secunde. And for the soules of the kynges Herry the 
fourthe, Herry the fifte, Herry the sixte, for the soule 
of kyng Edwarde the fburthe. And for the soule of 
king Henry the sevynth, Henry the eyghte, Edwarde 
the syxte. 

346 IBiWftlfft^ 

For the Erles goule of Sanun WiDiflB 
for Jamys Boule sam tyme knrde of AwUka^ z ft-r 
Johnys soule lorde Loael : Thomas aoule MoafieagiL 
erlo of Sarum : for the Mule of faabert of faurgli* for 
water sowlo lord hungerford. etc. 

And for alio soules whos honya reslytli in tkls 
churcho and churche yerde. And all tho ihat hath 
yovo to this churche, rentys, vestimentisy or odwne 
goodyH ; whoroby God is the more worshipped in this 
churche : and the mjmysters thereof betto* snsteyned : 
for all ouro Brethem and Sistren soules, alle onr pare- 
iihons soules. And for alle the soules that hath done 
ony ^ood to this churche, and for alle crysten soules. 
Piitor no8tor. 

///(• nvtrtat se sacerdos^ et dicatur a choro alternatim 
wpradicto mode hicpsaltnuSf videUcet: 

Do profundis : sine Gloria Patri. 

Std mm : 

Kyrio oloyson: Christe eleyson: Ejrrie eleyson. 
Pator noBtor. 

Dehide dicat sacerdos^ sine nota : 

Kt no not inducas in tentationem. 

lloiiuiom feternam dona eis, Domine. 

A porta infori. 

ChmIo vidore bona Domini. 

Doniinus vobiscum. 


Ab^olvo, (iua>8umu8 Domine, animas famulorum tuo- 
rum, pontificum, regum, famulorum famularumque 
tuarum» ot animas omnium fideUum defunctorum, ab 
omni vinculo delictorum; ut in resurrectionis gloria 
inter sanctos ot electee tuos resuscitati respirent. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Requiescant in pace. Amen. 


€jcDattat(ort before Communion» 


jrormfif of €jcDottat(on in mieitation 

of tDe »icft« 

€jr][)ortation before Communion/ 

|00D men and women, y charge yow by 
the Auctoryte of holy churche, that no 
man nother woman that this day propoeyth 
here to be comenyd {communicated^ tfiat 
he go note to Godds bord, lase than he byleue sted- 
fastlychy that the sacrament that he ys avysyd here to 
rescue, that y t ys Godds body, flesche and blode, yn the 
forme of bred; & that \whicli\ he receyvythe afterward, 
ys no thyng ells but wyne & water, for to dense yowr 
mowthys of the holy sacrament. Furthermor, y charge 
yow that no man nother woman go to Gknids borde, 
lase than he be of ys synnys clen confessyd, & for hem 
contryte ; that ys to sey, hauyng sorow yn yowr herts, 
for yowre synnys. Furthermore, I charge yow yf ther 
be eny man or woman, that beryth yn his herte eny 
wrothe or rancor to eny of his evencristen [fellow- 
christian'] that he be not ther howselyd, ther to the 
tyme that he be with hym yn perfyte love & cheryte, 
for ho so [whoso] beryth wrethe or evyll wyll yn herte, 
to eny of hys evencristen, he ys note worthy hys Gt)d 
to receyue ; and yf he do, he reseyyythe his dampna- 
cyon, where he schuld receyue his saluacion. Fur- 
thermore, y charge yow that none of yow go to Godds 

^ From Harleian MS. 2383. in and other miscellaneous matters, 
the British Museum. This ex- The reader will observe the re. 

tract is preceded by a form of markable similarity of several of 

private confession ; and followed the sentences in this exhortation, 

by a long form of absolution in with that ordered in our present 

Latin : after which come a homily, Liturgy. 

^jcfiottation before Communion. 349 

horde to day, lasse than he he yn full wyll & purpose 
for to sese and to withstond the deds of syn. For who 
proposyth now to contynue yn syn a3ene after hys 
holy tyme, he is note worthy to receyue his God ; & 
yt he do hyt ys to hym grete perell. Furthermore, I 
charge all strangers hothe men and women, that none 
of yow go to godds horde, yn to tyme that 30 haue 
spoke with me, other [or] with myn asynys. Further- 
more, y charge yow hothe men and women that havythe 
servants, that 3e takythe hede that they he well y go- 
uemyd yn takyng of mets & drynks, for the perell that 
may he fall, thorow forfeytyng of mets & drynks, for 
yf he hrakythe or castythe hit owte with yn a day & a 
ny3the that he take hit yn to a vessell and do hit yn 
the fyyr. Also I charge hym that he he confessyd therof 
a-morow. Also 3e shall knell adown apon yowr kneys, 
seyyng after me, y cry God mercy, and our lady seynt 
mary, & all the holy company of hevyn, & my goste- 
lyche fadjrr, of all the trespasse of syn that y have don, 
in thowte, word, other [or] yn dede, fro the tyme that 
y was hore, yn to this tyme ; that ys to say in Pryde, 
Envy, Wrethe, Slowthe, Covetyse, Gloteny, & Lechery. 
The V. Commawndements, d)ruerse tymys y hroke. 
The works of mercy, note y fulfyllyd. My v. wytts 
mysse spend, etc. Misereatur vestri omnipotens Deus. 

Absolution^ fomia. 

Deus noster Jesus Christus, pro sua magna miseri- 
cordia, etc. 

Z form of €jr|)ortat(ott at tifftting 

jo comfort a man or a woman, yn her laste 
ende, a priste scholde sey3e th js. My dere 
frende, hit semyth that thou hyest faste 
owte of thys worlde, that ys so wrediyde, 
to the hlysse of euer lastyi^ joy3e ; th«efore put 
onlyche all thyn herte, & all thy mynde, yn Almy3ty 
Gode that made the, & hathe y hou3te the wythe his 
preciouse hlode ; and he glade that thou schalte com 
to heuen; there ys all maner joy3e; where thou schalte 
se almy3tty Gode our Saueour yn hys Godhede, sothe- 
faste Gode & man ; and ye schalte y fynde & y se all 
blessyde seintts, that prayeth for vs euer more, and 
principally our lady seint Marye, and holy angels, the 
apostelys, martyres, & confessours, & virgins & all 
hlessyd men and wemen, that buthe y passyde to heuen 
a fore vs; the whych Cryste our Saueour bou3te whyth 
hys preciouse hlode apon the roode tree, and therefor 
they louyde all my5tty Gode our Saueour aboue all 
thynges ; fore as the holy doctor seint Austyn telluthe, 
all thyngs that Cryste suffrede fore loue of mankjude, 
hyt was for loue that he hadde to saue mans soule. 
So as he sauyde the by loue, & for the sufirede an 
herde pascion, ware by thou schalte be sauyde, loke that 
thou haue hys pascion yn mynde, and loue allm3ty 
Gode aboue all thyngs ; for as seint Austyn sey the, so 

^ From M.S. Harleian. 2383 : in the library of the British Museum. 



(ZEsiiottatfon at titisiting tte ^icfc^ 35 < 

as Cryste suflrede all thys for loue of the, thou arte 

moste y holde of all thyngs to loue hym ; and therfor, 

ray dere frende, loke that thou be yu stydfaste fey, 

^what euer thou hyre or 8e ; and put the onlych in to 

t;he mercye of Gode our Saueour, & drede the nou3te 

of no thyng that thou haste y do: be sory for thy 

synned, & schreue the clone, & thynke to sjmne no 

more. For seint Austyn sey5t, the goodnesse & the 

mercy of all myg3ty Gode our Saueour ys so meche, 

that throw sorow of herte & schrj'fte of mouthe, wyl- 

l^Tig to do no more amysse, he for3eue the clen his 

syn, for God hym sylfe seythe thus ; what tyme that 

eny man ore woman for sakythe his sjoines, and ma- 

kuthe hym clen therof, he schall be sauyd : and holy 

doctours & blessyd seintts seythe, that God all my3tty 

ys mor redy to 3eue mercye than eny man or woman 

be for to axy. Austjoi seythe, be the synne neuer so 

grete ne neuer so foule, and y wolde axe mercye of all 

my3tty God our Saueour, thou schalte se saue [sic] 

thou3e thou schulduste dey anon : therfor my der 

worthe frende, drede the nou3te of dethe, but be glade 

as seint Austyn was when he schulde dey3e ; whan he 

seyde, welkome be thou dethe, for thou art ende of all 

wykkydnes of sjoines & care & all wrechydnesse ; and 

thou artt the begynnyng of all goodnesse of ever last- 

y^g® joy3e, & blysse, & all blessydnes. And so he was 

glade to passye owt of thys wrechyd worlde, to the 

ioyfuU blysse of heuen, there ys all blessyde company. 

And therfor, my dere brother, be gladde to passy to 

the blysse of heuen, for the thou my33ttyste be lorde 

of all this wrechyd worlde, thou shuldyste be glad to 

passy to the blysse of heuen : for then thou schalt y se 

all my3tty God our Saueour, and all blessyd company, 

& ther thou schalt y fynde all goodness : for as seint 

352 ^rt drtation at titisttf ng tbt 

Paule seythe, that is no herte that may tfaenke, 
no tonge may telle, all the goodnesse that God all 
my te our Saueour hathy ordeynyd to alle thukke men 
and wemen^ that with all hur herte clen fonsakiitbe 
hur synnes, and loueth all myjtty God our Smeoor 
abouo all thyng : therefor, my dere frende, do thou so, 
and thou Bchalt com to the grete blysse of henen, that 
euor schall laste, wythe owte ende. Amen, for charite. 


2De Wiisitationt JInffrmorum»' 

|Y dere sone in God, thou hiest fast thi wai 
to Godward ; there thou shalt see alle thi 
former faderis, apostils, martiris, confes- 
sorisi virginis, and alle men and wommen 
that he sauid. And therfor he of gode comfort in 
God^ and thou must leyen a ston in the wal of cite of 
heuen witouten ani noise or stri£ And therfor ar 
thou wenden out of this world, thou^must make thi 
ston redi, and than shalt thu nou3t he lette. C- The 
ston is thi soule wiche thou makest clene ; the noise 
that thu must make here is the thinking of thi sinne, 
wyche thou must telle the prest; the stroke is pe- 
naunce, that thou shalt be sori for thi sinne, and 
smithe thiself on thi brest ; and whan thou hast made 
redi thus thi ston, than may thou go thi wai in God, 
and lai thi ston sykerlie [surely] witoute noise in the 
cite of heuene ; and therfor I counsail the, that thou 
schriue the clene, and make the redi. And this is 
nou3t only to seke men but also to hole, for everi dai 
a man nehieth {approachetK] his deth ner and ner ; 
and of a man it is seid, the more he wexith the more 
he unwexith, and therfor seith the gospel, Awake, for 
thu west never whan oure God wil come ; and therfor 
loke thu alwai be redi. And thu shalt wite, [know] 

^ From a manuscript (No. 117, reader to compare this with the 

foL 123. h.) in the library of St. exhortations in our present Form 

John's College, Oxford. of Visitation of the Sick. 

I need scarcely desire the 

354 De Qtottatione 3ttfitmorum. 

gode man, that God visiteth mani man for his sinnes 
diversly ; some wit prisonrng, some wit diverse seke- 
nes, and if the sinne were awai, than his sekenes 
shuld aslake. Hereof herith witnes the Gospel, that 
God seith thus to ten mesels [lepers], whan he had 
helid hem of here lepre, go, he said^ and sinne no more 
on aunter thow falle wors, as who seith, for thowre I 
smne the had this sekenes. And therfor it is ordeined j 
he the law, that ther shal no leche 3eve no bodili | 
medicine to a seke man, til he be heUd gostli ; and 
that he have take gostli medicine, that is to sai, schrift 
and housel ; and if 3e he wel schrive and veray re- 
pentaunt I drede nou3t that the sekenes shal aslake 
wiche he hath for sinne, or ellis it shal tume him to ' 
more blisse after his deth ; and therfor if his sekenes | 
aslake nou3t thou shalt comfort him on this maner. 

How thou shall comfort a man that he grucche 
[grudge] now^t whan he is seke. 

Sone loueste thou thi Lord God? he wil sai, 3e. 
Than thus, 3f thou loue God, thou louest that He ^ 
doith, and He skorgeth the, and therfor thou shalt 
gladli suflfre it. Here of spekit Salamon, and seith, , 
Sone speke nou5t a3en the chastising of thi fader, for 
it is no sone whom the fader chastisith nou3t, and it 
acordith wit commine maner of speche. For if a man 
see anotheris child do schreudeli in his feder presence, 
and the fader chastised himnou3t, than wold that othir 
man seie, it is iiou3t his sone, or ellis he loueth him 
nou3t for if he were his child or ellis loued him, he 
wold chastise him: and therfor be nou3t evil afraide 
of thi Fadirs chastising of heuene, for he seith him- 
self • whom I loue, him I chastise. Also sekenes of 
bodi makith soule hele [healthl and soule hele is 
nou3t but of God; therfor despice nought Godis 

De Ot«ttatione 3lnfirmotum. 355 

scorge, but whan God ponissche the, thanke him and 
loue him, that he emendith the, and undememith 
[Judgeth] the, and blameth the, and ponisohe the 
nou3t in his wrath ne in his wodnes \Jury']j but in his 
grete mercy. Thank thi God, and thinke that his 
merci passeth alle his grete wreche; he is jugge, [?], 
he wil nou3t damne the, but he wil haue merci on the. 
Mercifulli he chastise the, and ther [where] thou hast 
deservid for to have his wrath, and be damned for 
ever, he puttith ouer his veniaunce, and suffirith of his 
grete mercy, and ponische the here but awile, and 
therfor despice nou3t his 3erde [rod'] of merci, ne 
grucche nou3t ther a3ens, but suffi'e it gladli, for al 
the domis [judgments] of God ben rithful. Now 
sethen [since] sekenes of God is hele to the soule, and 
wille thou or nilt, thou shal haue hit, 3if thou grucche 
a3en God, and wit thi grucching thou makist thi soule 
more feble, and so thou profitist nou3t to thiself wit 
thi grucching a3en thi Fadir, wiche is thi leche, but 
greuist thiself on diuerses maners ; on [one] is, that 
thou greuist thi God : another thou shalt nou3t haue 
so miche gostly mede [reward] as thou shuldest, 3if 
thou suffired deth pacientliche. And thou shalt knowe 
that God Fadir of heuene ponissche nout o [one] thing 
tuyes, and therfor wit a glad hert thou shalt suflfre 
sekenes that God hathe sent the here, for it shal 
alegge [allay] the of the peyne of purgatorie, so that 
thou the more soner shal come to the kingdome of 
heuene. Thinke that if the king to whom thou hast 
ben tretour, for3euith the thi deth and ponische the 
but awile in esi prison, thou art michil hold to him. 
So thou art to God, to whom thou hast ben tretour, 
and he hath for3iue the euerlasting deth, and ponisch- 
inge the wit a litul sekenes here. 

v>tf jedi. «esc oa kim 4s ikis 

'1.JL '^ :i* T. "no a ^liig c and wel ^nr "j«»r^ the 

d** ir J' •»- ^ ?i*^ "in V^rmnn^ ot dii E£. csre and 

-*> TTL f iii^ Ta 1± y»»w ▼afiOBr i& X bctfier. fie wel 
•r I: :?^Dfc-c^ ' ?'aT^Jk^ _T-i*7~ nu w«L tarn moist 110031 

ir : i ^:^ sir'-tii. Mia^ sm is a iear. diat is to seie, 
^nr.ii . ic^i^ liis^ T seiHL *nac ^evsi. scihs in die dai 
i^Jiia 4 Ttirnilniuxi :. jmi iiac ^ciin. Sems FooL tbat no 
-TTJSL lotf^ v^«»«r sam feniim* : and scsdt dtas to 
J,'.{ - I itfs%r» 13 X ii*De siii w wit God» ior the 
-1^1 ki*ia«* It ms v^r^L ^isit an nan tteHe. Here is 
Vinger "wi 'iiir^^ ^JLiI hul iftne* cramil and wen- 
zre^^ :!oiiiis mii wrvn» x*^ rnxDe and kciMTie, pride 
ami i^« iirfie- --JU»?rn5e imi ^^aia»^. ■ivIiBjIIh i and 
tieO:?» 13*^ 3iim"^ jcier : aaii miae k no aan viioiite 
iZe riese* :£nii: ie tk ici ^em :c ^iese* fcr cneri man 
25. iiarii- mi fiisr5:r rm-'ee cii* £loi5«^nrs maden 
^ui!r =cr« ▼^en e« dulcr^t were bore, and ioie 
woua ^*if iiei^ laii Mssoi c^xi rf die wo of this 
wr-»L Ai«i S*fi:rt: Aisol wbis be sbiild be ded, he 
^Tuk :^' ^*^^i -0^ - r^ aiazier : A r:-:a deth end o[ alle 
wi.:k:*i::*i^ ^»-^^ ^— *™^ '-'^ Tr»=;a£L bezinning of ese 
ami alltf >:«* wear 1^" ^.k t«be-ie the profitis and 
♦!:if rinses ihiz, rr»:a rcir:p55 w^ the? thoo art dedre- 
^-2 :^ ee-. 5:r a Credzi cay iK^i^t eml die, but wel 

ni-rx t:;^ i^fi t.\^ ^'n *;-> this^ or dlis yif thou 
\:i\< »: --^^ ^-' *-^ ^^/r i£fi c/deik, b^im hcrty and 

De C{i0ttatione 3lnfirmorum. 357 

speke to him on this maner^ whan thou seest that he 
neiheth [neareth] the deth : 

Brother, art thou glad that thou shalt die in Cristin 
feith? Resp. 3e. 

Knowleche that thou hast nou3t wel liued as thou 
shuldest? Resp. 3e. 

Art thou sori therfor ? Resp. 30. 

Hast thou wil to amend the, 3if thou haddist space 
of lif? Resp. 30. 

Leuist thou in God, Fader AUnighti, Maker of 
heuene and of erthe ? Resp. 30. 

Leuist thou in the Fader and Sone and Holi Gost, 
thre persons and on [^one] God ? Resp. 30. 

Leuist thou that oure Lord Jesus Crist Godis Sone 
of heuene was conseiuid of the Holi Gost, and toke 
flesche and hlode of oure ladi seint Marie, and was 
borne of hir, she being moder and mayde? Resp, 

Leuist thou that he suffiid pine and deth, for oure 
trespas, and nou3t for his gilt under Pounce Pilate, 
and that he was don on the cros, and died for the on 
god Fridai, and was buried ? Resp. 30. 

Thankest thou him therfor ? Resp. 30. 

Leuist thou that thou may nou3t be sauid but throw 
his deth ? Resp. 30. 

Tunc dicat sacerdos : 

Wil [while] thi soule is in thi bodi, put alle thi trust 
in his passion and in his deth, and thenke onli theron, 
and on non other thing. Wit his deth medil the, and 
wrappe the therinne, nou3t thinking on thi wif, ne on 
thi children, ne on thi rychesse, but al on the passion 
of Crist, and haue the crosse [crucijis] to fore the, and 
sai thus : — I wot wel thou art nou3t my God, but thou 

^r^ u:!:;4j*^q«K ^dxr^ aia^ «nA sakest me haue more 
^- - X : .u utt--r v*iimi: iima art imagened. Ixiffd 
'. A,%- . -t-rt-n-. :m imi /c «v>^ Lord Jhu Crirt» tbi 
S j-t> ^ \ ^*t ^ tv«>! mittstnKiL I set betwene the and 
IS -^: *\•..^v ttiu. a%» ittSKR jmtriis] of Jhu Crist I 
ittuii .aesmniL and have noa3t. 

l.-v^*» :^ .111 a' Air^ Lftfni Jira Crist the Sone 
% V :x %ra5- x\-: .1 -^«ut XUri?^ «MdcT and maiden, I 

'!::\t,- ill r.utv.v>^ ^jr^f» I Mak]e mv soale, for thoa 

>.\v \ P-ru:!v >vu U>i :mf. 

N •: * ;c%: • t^ .=. t* o"W m ::iuf mtmer: 

V ^i; 'Ipjf*! v^AT» 'tt- ^wrrry^ wjr rdute» the I de- 

s.:-f. V :i\i ;i fc. ^ aiu -x/ .*v«w x^ die* Lord despice 

"iv a ^c -iiv\ .K •% I >r ^rrfwoei jai ^infuL but be to 

»^ iv :xr :t :>v«^ ^ ;» jrv?>j 3(^^2§*. fcr I may iiou3t 

J^cvv i:ixL 4^<ii>ku :« ^»i: ^:c ary dedks but thou 

Lv'riv» r*teic Vii^< ^ttv\ iivu. Jcti« aae ««it of care» and 

jaae ^vr*.v ,>£t :i,x». I -msc 3»;<t^ ca mv dedis, but 

^a:t ^^ '^iv* i:>yvijr ^c uij ^xiseJL «Kifasv Thou art 
^ r bctVv V.xa irt: ^ii;^ iA\i. t2x?fr art fal of mercy, 
;j-l»Lx '-i^ I aa-if $li:tc\I :ix»r» ary ^^rcte definite. I 
^^ute i^ V^^aI^^:c^ x^ t-^^ 1 Vf«cfi» die of merci. 


Supplement to t^t CtDO first 



\AGE xij. /. 20. " Misit etiam papa Gre- 
gorius, Augustinoepiscopo.tunc temporis 
ab urbe Boma cooperatores ac verbi minis- 
tros pluresy in quibus erant Mellitus, etc. 
misit et per eos vasa et indumenta, codices, et omamenta 
ecclesiis necessaria." H. Huntingdon. Hist. lib. iij. 
edit. Savile, p. 184. b. 

P. xiij. /. 12. Bede also in his work, "de remediis 
peccatorum,'' cap. 1. says : " Nunc ergo, o fratres, qui 
voluerit sacerdotalem auctoritatem accipere, in primis 
cogitet propter Deum, et preeparet arma ejus, antequam 
manus episcopi tangat caput, id est, psalterium, lectio- 
narium, antiphonarium, missale, baptisterium, martyr- 
ologium, homilias in anni circulo ad prsedicationem 
bonis operibus, et computum cum cyclo, hoc est jus 
sacerdotum. Fostea autem suum poenitentialem." This 
work is printed at the end of Augustinus, Epitomejuris 
pontif. whose notes should be consulted ; and in Wil- 
kins, torn. A. p. 751. 

P. xiv. /. 3. Compare, Wilkins, torn. 1. p. 628; 
torn. 3. p. 61. Annal. Burton, apud Script. Anglic. 
torn. 1. jp. 318. It was the duty of the archdeacon at 
his visitation to enquire into this matter : for example, 
in the year 1291. ^^ Item statuimus, quod archidiaco- 
nus, qui secundum apostolum non, quae sua sunt, quse- 
rit, sed quae Jesu Christi, in sua visitatione provideat, 

iUM ^uiua -ttUMB MMBiecur.'" Wilkins, Tom. 2. p. 

i' V*;. . iv Si jamxttr ciflEUBidnr» either adopt- 
tur 3«i^:'U I-^^c^i^Q > jctflMHD^ «r «dug a common 
iu;:x»r*r . Vds Ttmsvrr&^id ^ s^utie wwJs. Hen. de 
xt* V-'' It- - ■ '••<• ^'^pc. X. :um^'i^p^ 2352. 

^^ V .. • i^. r^iw «^ a^ MSw copies of the 

Sifutt ,, I! ae ibnurw^ a£ Ae dnn and chapter 

u Sili>oim ;. jaii n CvnrMs Chnsd coflc^, Oxford. 

?^ v^ ::« . K A;»iiu :» Vm^;:^ ioraerly belong- 

it^ V ii%f «um. ii ii iw Tun^ ^c I^iraagtiiiii^ in Devon- 

>aip^v jLwr^iiint ^ ^tt ^ii«i lavviufeinr pv^crred among 

uiit >arrs<i >;vks. ^vre ^ i pc bu^ie&^ There were 

iljj^ iv rl>v sumr im» :i^fre^•* uir «tponasfadbrs noted. 

; M -jv^nas^ Vk.' ^ :ixu^ \L \\ yiimmh^. a scnc [?] 

X»kv\ ij ^u^^ >;k^>?. :i 4T^v:y>s^ J^ Pssisiier bokys. 

t > tuwr >wk} ^ be 3v«iL * •* Imb ; j jniifeim> an olde 

V'^^^tc. ; ^«^a^r^^ U!isif «miioiil ■■ iiiitiim i also 

vm^c^t -ft t ac-x^^K ^«1 •* >;r»»clv.^ See EI&w Or^. ict^ 

^. J i. .. X W Ji :ttaca v?«tfr ^^vmr pble and oma- 
mettu^ $;iLvI x' Ju^e been ^r • en ^.^ :bie abber nf Glaston- 
vKxr\ S i jii: fcrdk weret *^ cvvpe Kuc it HhronHiETan- 
^^ci iie n i^ns."* MjLmescmry m: jnt. GCuimu Script. 
Atiiil :r'/K w^^ 7. ;<ll. Axiis the^eiur lilKXinlhetime 
v>f sibocc Jc4r:tv :lrete ^ece Ui&ie tcr :ae chureli of S, Al- 
Kci^ '^ viuo rx>vra:> ^.^? 4^J3^ttr.* $ttpentixati> ; in qnorom 
tL!2tv> crttx ctt^t cru!C£jis.\x «ft Mvu Johasne %«rantur ; 
Aliv^ ^erv^ Mjtnftsta^ ctmi cctamor erHBcel£^ct§^ eiegantis- 
^im^ c«iu:urW iflBScoIvtrttr." Ma:^. Pans^ I7,«if A Alb. 

i>. h;;. L l< Of ^itch a kind protttUv was the 
iknoiis p^;er cf S. Kenehau i>»ceniui^ which Giral- 
dife^ Tela(e$ a ttira^Ie. said u> hare occwrred in hk own 

Supplement* 363 

days : by which the sin of a criminous monk was dis- 
covered ; ^^ qui die crastino ad processionem psalterium 
praedictum inter reliquias sanctorum ferre prsesumens, 
completa processionis solemnitate reversus in chorum, 
idem manibus suis firmiter adherens deponere non pree- 
valuit." Itinerarium. edit. Camden, p. 824. 

P. lix. note 9- Compare the rules laid down by 
archbishop Winchelsey, as regarded chaplains and 
assistant priests, in the year 1305 : ** quod debeant 
interesse cancello matutinis, vesperis, et aliis divinis 
officiisy horis debitis, induti superpelliciis, de quibus pro- 
priis expensis sibi providebiint." Wilkins. ConciL torn. 
2. p. 281. cf. torn. 3. p. 214. With regard to the attend- 
ance of a clerk, at Divine Service, besides the priests, 
in even the smallest parishes, this was frequently in^ 
sisted on : and we find it often specified in the ordina- 
tions of vicarages, Cf. Script, x. torn. 2. p. 2098. 2099« 

Among the presentments at the visitation of the 
archdeacon of Colchester, in 1540, was this. " Notatur 
per rectorem dictse ecclesisB, that there is nother clerke, 
nor sexten, to go withe him in tyme of visitacion, nor 
tQ helpe to say masse, nor to rynge to servyce." Arch- 
deacon Hale. Series of precedents^ &c. N"*. cccxlviij. 
compare N**. cccL 

P. Ixxix. /. 28. ^^ Forma testamenti." I would insert 
here the form as it was appointed to be used by curates, 
when sent for, for that purpose, by their parishioners. 
^^ Forma testamenti. In nomine Domini. Amen. 
Universis prsesentes Uteres inspecturis. Curatus pa- 
rochialis de — salutem in Domino. Notum facimus 
quod in nostra preesentia ac testium infira scriptorum 
ad hoc specialiter vocatorum et rogatorum propter 
hoc personaliter constitutus honestus vir Petrus .N. 

^, rl^ hrrTniff ^.rprxv. scnB ubkb Bcate : AtM/tad- 
ecA « tnct^jitnzs 'suj/i ^rix boKas est fare^ saoxr 

vii^ ec ati r^^ili ^Il.fi4d^ xtenut pcnrcnire : testa- 

«• •■ • 1 « ^ ^ * 

e: 'L.^jtTJz» is z:fe>i::a ec f'.raam fieqpmlaBL In pri- 

nS» «:::ia arV;tn s^iaa igc*.^ ag a da^it aldsamo Deo, 

erta-Vyri *^x cz:z. de cr^rpore cxierit, « beatas Mariae 
Tlrjrzii* tx:^-e c^uiae ooeliesd. CorpiK tcto samn 
UTTZ: Tenz;Ib<isw Tclieas ill:3d inhomari in oaemeterio vel 

erxi^jsEa de dicto , Dnnde Toloit et ordi- 

naTit cnxmia ^iia debita soM : fore£icta et male aoqni- 
§ita per eom si qoae ant reddi et rfeduii lods et per- 
coDis qoibos fberit Ciciendiim. Item dictos testator de 
bonis a Deo sibi coUalis ob lemediom animae suae kga- 
Tit fabric» rel lominaiis {Kaedictae eoclesiae. y. soL t. 
Item corato : totidenu Item Ticario. xij. d. t. Item 
clerico. rj. d. t. Item fabiicae ecclestae beatae Mariae. 
ij. soL Tj. d« t. Item eleemosrnae cgnsdem ecclesiae. 
xij. d. t. Itembospitalibiis .X. coilibet. tj. d. t. Item 
oonveutui fratrum praedicatoram. xij. d. t. Item I^^- 
\it filiolis, coilibet xt. d. t. Item confratriae .N. xij. d. 
t £t ad praemisBa omnia et singula tenenda dictns 
testator nominavit execatores suos Petrum N. ejus pa- 
trem, et Xieolamn N. ejus firatrem. Quibns execu- 
toribns pro praemissis omnibus et singulis adimplendis 
dictus testator obligavit omnia bona sua quaecunque et 
ubicunque, revocando omnia alia testamenta si quae 
sint alias per eum facta. Volens hoc suum robur obti- 
nere firmitatis melioribus^ via, modo, et forma, quibus 
valere potest et debet. In cujus rei testimonium signum 
mcum manuale ego N. praefatus curatus una cum sigillo 

Supplement 365 

pTsetibato parochialis ecclesise de „ apposui 

huic praesenti testamento. Acta fuerunt in domo dicti 
testatorisy Anno Domini — „ — die vero iV. mensis 
-AT. praesentibus Johanne N. Jacobo N. et pluribus 
a^liis testibus ad hoc rogatis et Tocatis." Manuak San 
eciit. 4to. 1543. /o/. clxyj. 

I extract from the English councils a few canons 
Ijearing upon this matter. First of a council at Dur- 
liam^ in the year 1220 : ^^ Prsecipimus quod laicis fre- 
quenter inhibeatur, ne testamenta sua faciant sine 
prsDsentia sacerdotis, sicut diligunt, ut eorum ultimae 
voluntates adimpleantur. Sacerdotibus similiter inhi- 
bemus, ne testamentum suum per manum ordinent 
laicalem." Wilkins, torn. 1. p. 583. The synod of 
Exeter, in 1287, has a long constitution directed to 
this pointy to which I must refer the reader, quoting 
only its conclusion : ^^ In fine autem cujuslibet testa- 
menti banc clausulam adjici volumus generalem : Cee- 
tera omnia bona mea, sive in rebus, sive in manibus 
fuerint debitorum,' in hoc testamento non expressa, 
Yolo, ut pro animae mese salute per manus executorum 
meorum in pios usus distribuantur ; et quod credito- 
ribus meis per manus eorundem similiter sit satisfac- 
tum." Ibid. torn. 2. p. 157. Again, shortly after, the 
31st canon of a synod of the diocese of Sodor : " Prae- 
cipimus et statuimus, quod quilibet languens in extremis 
agoniis, cum testamentum condere voluerit, vocet capel- 
lanum ecclesiae, et clericum ; et ipsis praesentibus, du- 
obus vel tribus viris adhibitis bonis et fide dignis, testa- 
mentum suum ore suo ordinet; e/c.'* Ibid. p. 179. 
Compare also the monition of archbishop Bouchier, in 
1455 ; torn. 3. p. 575, and Lyndwood, lib. iii. tit. 13. 
de testamentis. The Pupilla Oculi has also a chapter 
on the same subject. Pars. ix. cap. viij. 

366 ftupptement 

Archbishop Parker records a remarkable and dread- 
ful case of a dean of S. Paul's, and treasurer of the 
king. He had plundered, it seems ; and lying at last 
on his death bed, he refused to receive the holy Eucha- 
rist ; putting it off until the morrow. " Interea ad 
testamentum condendum monitus est. Ad quod para- 
tus, exire, prsBter unum scriptorem, cseteros voluit. 
Is testamentum scripturus, expectans quid decanns die- 
taret, ex more testamentorum sic orsus est ; ' In no- 
mine Patris, etc' Quod cum decanus comperisset, 
iratus jussit id deleri, et hsec verba tantum scribi. 
* Lego omnia bona mea domino regi, corpus sepul- 
tur», et animam diabolo.' Quo dicto expiravit. Rex 
cadaver illius jussit curru exportari, atque in amnem 
projici et demergi." Antiq. Britan. ecc. p. 228. ad an. 

P. cix. Processions. The collections of Wilkins 
contain very many orders for processions, and for vari- 
ous purposes: sometimes for thanksgivings; some- 
times to appease the Divine wrath; and for other 
causes: on these occasions the inferior clergy were 
generally directed to wear surplices. Not unfre- 
quently the consecrated Eucharist was carried in the 
procession : as, for example, Walsingham says : ^^ Per 
idem tempus, [1389], Cantabrigiee in festo commemo- 
rationis S. Pauli, occurrebat et festum dedicationis 
sanctse Marise ibidem, ad quod festum amplius hono- 
randum, in processione per parochiam deferebatur 
corpus dominicum, super duos humeros sacerdotum in 
feretro non ponderoso, etc.'' Hist. AngL p. 339. Wal- 
ter de Whytleseye also, mentions among other gifts 
made by abbot Geoflfry to his church of Peterborough, 
" unum vas argenteum et deauratum ad modum turris 

Supplement. 367 

cum lapidibus impressis, et imaginibus sanctorum cir- 

cuTHstantibus pro corpore Ghristi in principalibus festis 

ante processionem deportandum." Edit. Sparkes, p. 

163. cf.p. 170. And once more, the following from 

M^atthew Paris, concerning Simon, abbot of S. Albans, 

who gave a splendid shrine to his abbey. << £t ad 

perpetuendam ipsius cumbenedictionememoriam, con- 

stitnit ut in dominica palmarum, corpus Dominicum in 

ipso scrinio veneranter reponeretur, et ab aliquo fra- 

trum moribus et setate venerabili, in casula alba usque 

ad papilionem in ccemeterio de pretiosissimis pallis 

compositum, nisi inclementia aurae impediatur, et tunc 

in capitulum deportaretur, duobus fratribus in cappis, 

brachia bajulantis dictum vas, honorifice sustentan- 

tibus. Et eodem modo, sequente processione, ad ec- 

clesiam venerantissime reportaretur." Vita S. Alb. 

abbatum. p. 1038. 

With regard to the processional banners, which were 
carried in some solemnities, there is a curious question 
in some diocesan enquiries, published in the year 1253 ; 
** An aliqui laici — decertaverint de praeeundo cum 
yexillis in yisitatione matricis ecclesise." Annal. Bur- 
ton. Script. Anglic, torn. 1. p. 324. On some occasions, 
the maniple was ordered to be worn : I mention this, 
as the question has been much debated, whether that 
ornament was to be used at any other office, than the 
celebration of the Eucharist. Roger Hoveden speaks 
of a procession appointed, ^^ cum sacerdote induto alba, 
et manipulo, et stola, et clericis in superpelliciis cum 
aqua benedicta, et cruce, prsecedentibus candelabris, et 
thuribulo, cum igne, et incenso." Annal. edit. Savile, 
p. 348. To walk in processions with bare feet was 
frequently directed : for example, in the laws of king 

368 Supplement 

Ethehred ; ^^ eat omnis presbyter cum pc^iiilo soo ad 
procedsionem tribus diebus nudis pedibns.'' Bromum. 
CkroH. Script x. torn. 1. p. 902. 

Penances were appointed to be dqpe, in procca&ions : 
I quote two or three cases, from archdeacon Hak*3 
lately published extracts from the act-hoc^ of the 
ecclesiastical courts of the diocese of London, a. d. 
1480, N\ XV. " — penitentia injuncta, quod in toga et 
camisia, nudis pedibus, precedat crucem procesaonali- 
ter» cum candela precii unius denarii, et quam offi^rret 
priHH'ssione finita." a. d. 1476. N*. xlj. ^' Johanna 
Talbot- habet 3 dominicis precedere processionem 
nudis poiHbus, in kirtela, capite flammiola nodata co- 
ojH>rttH in parochia S. Dionysii." a. d. 1496. N^ cctj. 
^' — dominus injunxit sibi quod praecedat processionem 
in eix'Iosia cath. S. P. sequentem le vergears, crucem 
li|;utnim manu ejus deferendam et secularem praedica- 
ttUHmi usi]ue crucem, et ibidem maneat, quousque sermo 
fiuctur» crucem hujusmodi manus ejus tenendam/' 
(Merjfymen also were presented, for neglecting to at- 
tend pnH'ossions : for example. ^^ Clericus parochie 
ibidem uotatur, quod non pergit in processionibus ge- 
neralibus ut tenetur, juxta antiquum morem." N"". 
cc\j. Compare, N*. ccccx. 

A Syon monastery processional is preserved among 
the manuscripts of S. John's college, Oxford: this 
volume has English rubrics, for the use of ^^ the sus- 

P. cxix. A 8. There are two imperfect MSS. which 
contain a few of the episcopal offices : one of these, 
Rawlhisonf C. 425, belonged to some abbey : the other, 
RawHnsoHy C. 400, is valuable, as it was the property 
of a bishop of Salisbury, and has a memorandum on 
the first page. " Hunc librum legavit dominus Rogerus 

ftupptement 369 

de Martivale, Sarisbirien. episcopus ecclesise cathedral! 
\>eat8e Mariae Sarisbirien. Ita quod loci episcopus, qui 
pr-o tempore fuerit, habeat usum ejus si ilium habere 
\roluerit, cui tradatur per bonam memorandam, pro- 
prietate ipsius penes dictam ecclesiam remanente. Et 
mortuo quoUbet episcopo loci qui ejus usum habuerit, 
clictse ecclesiae fideliter restituatur." Bishop Martivale 
died in 1329. 

The Exeter pontifical (spoken of in the same page^ 
bas since been printed by permission of the dean and 
chapter. I congratulate myself on having been the 
first to point out its value, and rescue it from the 
neglect in which it had so long been permitted to 
remain. It would be well if the edition just published 
might be useful to the student ; but I am bound, how- 
ever unwillingly, to warn him against relying upon 
the accuracy of its text : and to acknowledge, that^ in 
my judgment, the care and learning which have been 
shewn in the. performance of the work, scarcely corres- 
pond to the zeal, worthy of all praise^ which prompted 
the undertaking. 

P. cxxxiv. note 30. Compare also, Matt. Paris : " in 
loco qui fuit inter altare sancti Oswini^ ubi scilicet 
consuevit missa matutinalis celebrari, e/c." Hist. p. 
809- And the chronicle of W. Thorn : " — quod 
tunc — omni die celebraretur missa matutinalis." Script. 
X. torn. 2. p. 1910. 

P. cxl. /. 3. From a hasty examination, I am in- 
clined to think that a ^^ capitularium" is bound up 
with a ^^ collectare," among the manuscripts of Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford. (N^ 192.) 

P. cxliij. /. 5. Since the two first volumes of this 
work were published, I have satisfied myself that an- 
other book, the " Liber coUationum,' ought also to be 


37^ dnpplciiiciit. 

included among the ancient service books of the cfanrdi 
of England. I had not then been able to see any 
copy of such a volume, or meet with one referred to 
or even mentioned by any ritualist A copy faowever 
had boon found among the MSS. which formerly be- 
longtHi to Ford abbey, in Devonshire. It is a thick 
M\K\, upon vellum, written in a bold hand of the middle 
i\( the fifteenth century ; and it is remarkable also, as 
hnving many English rubrics. It contains the short 
lections and homilies which were read, at various 
time^ of the year, chiefly during Lent, after collation ; 
x^heni^e doubtless its name : which in later years came 
to be u^ for any sermon or homily. 

l>u Cunge says : <* CoUatio, apud monachos prse- 
^niivi^ dicitur sacrorum librorum lectio, qu» statis 
)u\n;(^ nmxime post coenam, coram iis fiebat :" and he 
|M>H^Hfe t\> cite various orders of foreign councils to 
(hiiK cM^^t* But that these lections, at least in Eng- 
U^hi. x^frt^ not limited to extracts from sacred writers, 
i« «"x uleni (W\m the Ford abbey manuscript, which has 
mW ^^ert^h^i» or homilies. 

WilU^m of Malmesbury, speaking of bishop Wul- 
*IA^^ *W\>njr \^her things saj-s : " coUationem quoque 
tUs^uewt^r iwu^rebat/* De gcstis pontif. Angl. edit. 
Sax \U\ ¥. I v\K K About the same time, we learn from 
b>^u))4K tb^l $^Mne classes of the monks of Croyland 
xvxHV )mMU>^\Hl w re^fiurded the Collation : ^' omnes 
\lo «iv^UxUx ^r^lu ^nt absoluti de lectura martyr- 
o\v\^\^ ^ ^vlUiu\ixt$ in capitulo, — et omnibus talibus 
Mw^uvuSu* \hxMrt et cUu:«itri laboribus." Hist. p. 105. 
\ ^^HvV x\UN^x\ tlh^rx^ i^re ^vrinied in the Auctariumj' sA the 
\Mhl \xt' tWh\vt\vr\ \\f M^tihew Pkris, some monastic or 
KxVN|N\tA\ 5P^tAtuUNs: «uH^XiT tbouu one, ** de kctione /e- 
^^:. >N^i4 IX *^ x<x\K Vt firtitrt^ §acepdotes dum in mensa 

ftitpptement 371 

fuerint consedentes, nedum corporum sed etiam ani- 
taarum capiant alimenta, preecipimus quod dum fratres 
sa.cerdotes in mensa fuerint congregati, legat unus lite- 
ra.tus coram eis per aliquod competens temporis spa- 
tium, aut de Biblia aut de scriptura sacra alia, lectio- 
nem ; quern dum in legendo fuerit, fratres silentium 
tenendo, attente audiant et auscultent." P. 1164. 

Cardinal Wolsey, in the year 15 19» drew up some 

statutes for the regular canons of S. Augustine : of 

which one is directed to the collation : Wilkins, Can- 

ciL torn. 3. p. 686. In the royal injunctions of 1536, 

there is an order referring to ^^ all sermones, and other 

collations." Ibid. p. 814. Again, in the same year, 

a royal letter to the bishops, commands each ^^ to travel 

from place to place in all his diocese, and endeavour 

himself every holiday to make a collation to the people." 

Ibid. p. 825. Once more, the bishop of London, in 

1542, admonished his clergy what they were to teach, 

in their ^^ preachings, open sermons, and collations." 

Ibid. p. 866. I have quoted these, as illustrative of 

the meaning of the term, down to the period at which 

it became, in such a sense, obsolete. 

Dr. Oliver, in his work, the ^^ Monasticon dicecesis 
Exoniensis," mentions a manuscript, formerly belong- 
ing to the priory of S. Andrew s, Cornwall, containing 
several books bound together: among them thirty- 
three homilies, which from the description given by 
the learned author, seems to have been the ^^ liber col- 
lationum" of that priory. He says: " One of these 
was read at the collation or evening refreshment 
granted to the community before complin, on most of 
the weekdays in Lent : viz. from the first Monday 
until the last Wednesday inclusively ; for no collation 
was allowed on the four first days, nor on the last three 

;^^ %iippfemeiit« 

Ajiys^<ifdiat penitential season."^ P. 36. ThiswooU 
vyttjuhIt account for the number thirty-three in this 
oiK?^; b«t die use of Ford abbey was different: as 
t V\ KjnI ^ collations*' not only at other times of the 
^^''J;r. jis^ I hare already mentioned, but the manuscript 
\ cr-rj^^^ns^ ^ On asdie wedensday a collacdn :" followed 
^ . ^ V,v tbc fyrst weke of clone Lent a coUacian.'' 

.'". ^-xV.x. L 4. While Kennett has plainly confused 
'V r%vr Sx4& in ^ glossary prefixed to his paroc^iial 
" * v u T3ies< The day of the " obit*' was not always 
;V> ^.t^ ^it tSc dmdi of the individual, as Dr. Todd 
^tis^ «\^. ,0%5«r!PKV^ in his learned prefatce to the Dublin 
^ v^' -«^ ^K^!- '^ xux: whence care must be taken in 
*' *^v ^«K :3sf r7>o«Bd of such entries only, the-date 


* :N .vvx\fes^ .^" an indiTidual. Thus in a very early 
-*vvi* :^v '"•i v/ ^ council of Cloveshoo, in 747» 

^^ Vtv. :v r;o /c rSf Vurial Ordered to be observed as 

' N. . x,iM\i;<r< ^* axy ^ w iiii i' bo oks, where regular 
*VN • ^ X. X vv m-,^^ >,■< ^a^T^ u^nrp osed fin- the purpose < 
V K*xt— .%^ vv.^s «t»A iescrak to be observed» Wil- 
' ^ X V x\v>^t.r ^:3: ^ Inncrarv mentions manv 
\ ^N '^ ><x:^ \ \-- ^ vutiSc^ jk 1,7: and numberleas ma- 
^^.>^ .vN >v..l ^v^i^iiv ^cv^Y ;he sanK thing. In the 

* N* .,*v N>*N 11 -onvv^ TTCTK^ in ^ Archeologia, 

V .Nav^K.\«/ati:*i^x>$irJolBiFKtoIfe,inthe 

^ V ^*x , * v> •u's^ Kv/u^n^ » hi$ ckttpel, "^* j. Mor- 

^ >x> ^ V ^s^ixtir ^*v7^ii.-3i^ uisc in a nole, to have 

\\xx .\ ^v*. H. •'x^xc ^ ^^*vi I mach doubt: and 

nN ••« 

«i^o< -v liv iv>*f^^ sbt W ^ gT m the 

dupplemenr. 373 

should decide it to have been the book of obits, observed 
in tliat family. It is scarcely probable that the read- 
ing' of the martyrology would have formed a part of 
tlie services and devotions of a private household. 

JR. clxx. /. 20. In the year 1535, the archbishop of 
York writes to the king : " Opon good Fridaye last 
past, I charged the treasorer of Yorke, that he sholdo 
leave ouzt the colett pro papUj lykewies I charged the 
deacon that songe the hjrmne Exultet angelica in the 
halowinge of the paschall, that he sholde leave ouzt 
mention therein made de papa^ Ellis. Orig. Letters. 
3rd Series. 2, 329. 

With respect to the ridiculous citation of archbishop 
Becket, I must correct an error in the note. (85.) The 
date which I hav« ascribed there to a diary, occurs in 
an official letter from a public officer, Penison, to the 
prime minister, Cromwell. As to the fact however, I 
would remark further, that archbishop Parker, a con- 
temporary, appears to have believed it. De ant. ecc. 
p. 209. 

In the year 1555, there was published an order by 
cardinal Pole, that all these rased names should be 
restored. ^^ Id etiam curent, ut sacrorum canonum 
instituta in omnibus observentur, et nomen divi Thomse 
martyris, necnon sanctissimi domini nostri papae ex 
libris dispunctum, in illis restituatur, et pro eo secun- 
dum morem ecclesisB, ut ante schisma fiebat, oretur.*' 
Wilkins. torn. 4. p. 139. 

P. clxxviij. note. Besides authors, whose prejudi- 
ces, some might say, led them to condemn the whole- 
sale confiscation by Henry viij th of sacred property, 
other writers speak no less plainly. Selden condemns 
it, in his history of tithes, p. 471, 486. {edit. 1618.) 
White Kennett also, in his history of Impropriations, 

374 Supplement 

p. 186. 438. and to name no more; in his parochial 
antiquities, vol. 2. p. 64. and/?. 51. 

P. clxxxj. note. 97. Richard Lay ton writes thus 
to Cromwell, in a letter in which he invites him to his 
house. " Simeon was never so glade to se Chryst his 
master, as I shalbe to se your Lordeshipe in this your 
owne house, and all that ever shalhe in hit for my lyffe.* 
Original letters, series. 3. vol. 3. p. 71. 

I am not an advocate for the restoration in this 
country of the old monastic system, and, I confess, 
regard with some suspicion and dislike the arguments 
which have, lately, heen produced in favour of it. Nor 
do I wish to varnish over the abuses which prevailed 
in it, at the beginning of the sixteenth century. But, 
if we would desire to arrive at a just judgment, as to 
the state and morals of the monks and nuns of England 
at that time, — neither listening too much to exaggera- 
ted statements of vice and profligacy upon the one 
hand ; nor to flattering descriptions of faultless excel- 
lence and purity upon the other ; — we must not forget 
to enquire, as accurately as possible, into the personal 
character of those witnesses, upon whose evidence 
mainly, an unqualified condemnation has been pro- 
nounced against them. 

" P. ccvj. /. 25. Fonts were ordered to be kept 
locked : thus ; by a constitution of archbishop Ed- 
mund, A. D. 1 236. " Pontes sub serura clausi ten- 
eantur." Concil. torn. \. p, 636. In the province of 
York also, among the necessary furniture of churches, 
there was ordered in the same century, "fons sacer 
cum serura.*' Ibid. p. 698. cf. torn. 2. p. 280. In some 
churches, the remains of the ancient fastenings may 
still be seen. 

There is an abuse, too generally prevalent in mo- 

Supplement 375 

deim times, upon which I must make a brief remark : 

Tiaamelyy that clergymen should suffer a common and 

small bason to supply the place of a font. It is a fact 

scarcely credible (remembering the doctrine of the 

eliiirch of England in this matter, and the rubrics of 

her office of public baptism), that in many churches, 

of large and populous parishes, there actually is not 

a. font. I cannot conceive a reason, why any person 

ca.n permit so scandalous an indecency : and it is much 

to be wished, that the ordinaries both had the power, 

and would exercise it, of enforcing obedience to the 

rules of the church in this respect. I would quote one 

or two directions regarding it, since the reformation. 

From the " Booke of certaine Canons,*' in 1 57 1 . " They 

shall see, that in euery churche there be a holy founte, 

not a basen, wherein Baptisme may be ministred, and 

it be kept comely and cleane." Edit. J. Daye. 4to. 

Again, the visitation articles of Bancroft, bishop of 

London, in 1601 : " x. Whether doth your parson 

baptize in your parish church or chappel, any in&nts, 
not in the fonte^ according to the ancient custom, but 
in a bason ? " 

I would add here, a rubric, in an early pontifical 
(imperfect, and apparently English), preserved in the 
library of the university of Cambridge. (LI. 2. 10.) 
After the third dipping ; " £/ tertio dicensj et Spiritus 
Sancti, Amen, tunc pro; iciens eum infontem discedat: 
dans lo^um hominibus eum elevandi deforUe^ dicens ora- 
tiontm hanc : Deus omnipotens, ete." 

P. ccix. /.17. Upon this whole subject, the student 
should consult a work, in which there is much curious 
learning, by Cangiamila, ** Embryologia sacra, sive de 
officio sacerdotum, medicorum, et aliorum circa aeter- 
nam parvulorum in utero e&istentium salutem." Pa- 

n-r^.. !*;•> 5.-5x Ami Benedict, xiv. opera, torn. 12. 
7. i^" - ^ 3ms^ il. r^ 42. Compare, Ellis. Or/^. 

i^. ,-«.^. . I \ ''^ >c qns haiptiiat pro temeritate, 
^im if*rjstirt&. j^ibrsnufhe est extn ecdesiam, et nun- 
v^am m£'iifnr.^ HiMilori, Mtr pttnit. cap. 38. 4. 
I M -^ AJ'-niJ^ iKue ^«.'iBe rastt^s in other parts of 
:::.:> *vri^ Tn^'u: :2^ rcvtlbitioo eTen to deacons to 
>»i^*irje. *?i;v«:t la .skk of neceseitT. There is a re- 
vorsoOiif ^TK^ itr<»y*ivr. PNVfded in Matthew Paris : 
"tv W^'^^s» :c Tr*iw Ei^w«A eldest son of Henry III. 
** v"i.^VviVa5iG> .":i^vc«K rr.£irwm catechizarit, l^atns 
^oixuvm >u r..»-! -r^ loet 3cc eaaet sacerdos ; archiepis- 
.*^ cu:s sifvot CJ;:x^:3ife^>?tt3^ qiecm eonfirmaTit." Hisi. 
y. ^ «^ T^ >.l^aTTusl exrcvsECs his own astonishment 

.^ ,x V ^ * iSw ^ a: Wcitmrix'* ** i. e. loco in ec- 
^•i.>ia^ :i>i it W:c::^atl1S^ X,a «ma debes intelligere 
^«iv\^ >c:i u^ ijiv Tui: b: leci^ kipdsHalit nee de aqua 
\it.'^ :!^ ioSft i?rt ii Vxv abi scitnatur fons, viz. 
;^v-\'u ^s.•^aat icnvm.'* L^i-siiwvxxL U>^ 1. tii. 6. Sacer- 
ii,\ 2v v\r *inf .*cJSfr liMii :ikefi^ ts a constitation, in 
: ^^^ v^ev>^L^ -n^ vvttirxry^ ct » *So<«se of Wwcester : 
-^ ^jL^ vx^tt.fmrari fwrtK* p:^ iridanm portentur 

j^ <v\ie!staaiw ut vcv Kjcc^^ttsk ahhiendL'* Condi. 

z^ svxv. .^ t^. T!ise xCowb^ is die Ibm of certi- 
lvcl>^ i^.**ic^ bt «e Sama Manuals. ^^ Fwrma 

^viuxf .>/>u » v/K ••u'A U^\\rra> rcaesentes litcras inspec- 
r.u»5s c<tru:'i2^ ^^x^!e5i^ rarvvfiia£s de -N*. dioecesis — 
vur-H'A^ ^1^«- A\ etu:?*.5ettt dt\jev>ftj^ stluiem in Domino. 
Nv^am r<tvrjurjfts v*'j^\i Kxhjtrvl^jfts A'L purocfaianas noster 
>K'U ^c<( iu rvx'^^trt^ iixxstrt2> al^oa excf—nicatiopis 

Supplement* 377 

sententia innodatus. Nee scimus in eo aliquod impe- 
dimentum canonicum propter quod ecelesiastiea sacra- 
menta sibi debeant denegariy seu etiam retardari. In- 
super tria banna per tres dies dominicos, sive festivos 
solennes, ad eolemnizationem matrimonii futuri de ipso 
cum Margareta N. in ecclesia nostra praedicta, palam 
et publico proclamavimus seu proclamari fecimus : qui- 
bus nuUus so opposuit seu contradixit. Rogamus igitur 
discretionem vestram, quatenus dictum N. parochia- 
num nostrum cum Margareta N. parochiana vestra 
per verba de praesenti, in ecclesia vestra, vel matrimo- 
nialiter copuletis : nisi quod ex parte vestra sit aliquod 
aliud impedimentum quod obsistat. £t heec omnibus 
quorum interest aut interesse poterit in futurum tenore 
praesentium certificamus. Datum sub sigillo ecclesise 
nostrse preefatse. Anno, N. die, N. mensis, iV." 
Edit. 1543. 4io. fol. clxvij, 

P. ccxxiv. /. 12. The synod of Exeter, in 1287, 
specifies the penalty upon neglect. ^^ Quodsi quen- 
quam juvenem vel senem culpa, negligentia, vel ab- 
sentia sui sacerdotis (quod absit) absque baptismo, 
confessione, dominici corporis perceptione, ac extrema 
unctione praeveniri morte contigerit; sacerdos super 
hoc convictus, a celebratione divinorum protinus sus- 
pendatur; cujus suspensio minime relaxetur, donee 
tam grande crimen poenitentia condigna meruerit ex- 
piari.'* Concil. torn. 2. p. 135. 

P. ccxxviij. /. 2. The old histories and chronicles 
are fiill of proofs of the popular belief, as regarded the 
necessity of the viaticum. For example, see Matthew 
Paris, pp. 6. 156. 183. 306. 503. But still it was not 
believed, or taught, that mere reception of the holy 
Eucharist, upon a death-bed, was alone sufficient to 
secure salvation. Arnold, in the curious miscellany 

calLed hk chnsKfde, has am extract wlddi I wonlu 
qiBoof : c«]iieeniizi«r a pMBp bus ^bo ^ was bowsled 
aod aaeoi ami iix> died, aad a Sewe daies after he 
acwnd — aod seid he was duapned, far he had will if 
he aLTz!!! haae hnmtd u> hawe taonied to his sfnne 
ae^*yTi : — dMne^.^re* he sajd, aHe bt confesBJon and all 
vuu I iid hi rvasaaTiiie ibt m ■ if lUi^j it ana jled me 
AK ; — ft>r oar Lu^ni sejth in the gospel of Jdbn, qui 
alam'a'at ec hibit indi^ne jutti^rxaB afai wiandiicat et 

Tlaere are insciaees in which die term ^ Tiaticom** 
k ace oo be loiierstiMd of the 1st coammmm of the 
:sbck. Tjloisi. ia CLecooBtimQoiisQf Otho; ^Prsdictae 
^ien> cv^Dcabiaae clericonm. ah ingraasa ecde^ae, dum 
c%r«iecraiit:ar ci^iiiai. pmiras arccantar, aec eis pasfhali 
Qemporv crTcruasur rLadcnm. cma jadiciamsihi mandii- 
CULC et bibtuc q*xi iHjd indigiie a^bamua L^ ConciL 
Mfu i. 9. gi. Compare alax the coiBtitatioi» of arch- 
bisfC^.'c P^'khsuB. :a*u^ p^ 42« in which oar Biased Lord 
k $d^ :o rssiLTe ^rm HisKel^ *" infinito amwe, in Tiati- 
com eccJesML*^ 

rhirlo^ pe$cil«r ace. permksioa was soaaetinies granted, 
tv> n^retve :he Tidkriv-iun at the hsuid> of a deacon : hat 
mH extreme astcdoa: ^ saeraBMitvia eocharistiae in 
a&i$ea:iiii pry^^-tert pocerit per diaconam ministrari. 
Si vet» aoa sit prv^ v^r. qui saaaaaaitum onctionis 
extretnae miui2>cn*c debet, sicut in aliis^ fides soffioere 
;SK'C5Mtt!ett:u" /au^ p^ 746. See abore, p. dx. and, 
CiM\ U p^ >\:\ 

The t%hc. $o ArequenclT ordered in earlier times^ was 
tk^rbiddeii ta I34i^. "* Item, tha: going to the sick with 
ike $3MrruQem the atiiUfrter haTe not with him either 
K^l or belU." But. in the rei^ of Q. Mary, the old 
rakt» were ^ivHued once more, as appears firom oae of 
v^^urdiui^ l\>ie s visitativ^n articles, of 1557 : ** Whether 

Supplement 379 

the sacrament be carried devoutly to them that £bl11 
sick, with light, and with a little sacring bell ? *' Ibid. 
torn. 4. p. 33. 170. Compare the 12th decree of Pole s 
Reformatio Angliae. 

At the administration of the communion to the sick 
a. candle was to be always lighted, according to some 
constitutions of the diocese of Sodor, in 1291 : and 
this is a rule which was, I have little doubt, generally 
observed, as appears from illuminations in manuscripts. 
^' Cum ad infirmos accesserint, moneant eos salubriter, 
nee aliquos sine candela accensa de cera communicet/* 
Concil. torn. 2. 175. Clergy, whilst carrying the Holy 
^Eucharist to the sick, were privileged from arrest ; and 
an infringement of this^ formed one of the grounds of 
complaint of the convocation of 1399. Ibid, torn, 3. p. 
245. Foreign canonists have extended this privilege 
80 far^ as to assert that persons might avail themselves 
of the protection of such a procession : ^^ sacerdos eu- 
charistiam deferens ad se confugientibus asylum prae- 
Stat." Cf. Devoti. Instit. Canon, torn. 2. p. 333. Fer- 
rarius. Bibliotheca. verb. Immunitas. Giraldus. Expos. 
Juris, pontif. 1. §. 637. 

P. ccxxxiv. /. 33. From a remark in Matthew 
Paris, Hist. p. 707, it would seem, that after the rite 
of extreme unction all ornaments were removed from 
the person : and from the same author, that in some 
monasteries, certainly in S. Alban's, the sick members 
were conveyed to the infirmary to receive it. " Sus- 
tentantes eum hinc inde fratres, duxerunt eum prout 
preecepit in inBrmariam, ubi solemniter super lapidem 
ad hoc consuetum, oleo sancto infirmorum est inunctus, 
et salutis viatico communitus." p. 1045. 

P. ccxl. /. 5. A payment or fee was due for this. 
Lanfranc says, in an epistle to a bishop of Chichester : 
<' Chrisma tamen a vobis accipiant, et ea, quae antiqui- 

380 Supplement 

tus instituta sunt, in chrismatis acceptione persolvant.** 
These fees were sometimes granted to the support of 
monasteries: ''ego Ernulphus, episcopus, concessi in 
perpetuum ad eedificandas et sustentandas domos mo- 
nachorumy denarios, quos presbyteri parochiani soIent 
reddere, quando chrisma accipiunt" Textus Roffen. 
p. 192: and the same manuscript has an account of 
the various payments which were to be made by each 
parish and chapelry in the diocese, p. 228. A dn- 
gular use also appears very anciently to have been 
made of these periodical attendances upon their dio- 
cesan by the parochial clergy. '' We enjoin, that 
every priest be able to declare, when he fetches chrism, 
what he has done in prayers for king and bishop." Ca- 
nons under K. Edgar. Thorpe, vol. 2. p. 259. Pro- 
bably it was an opportimity for the purpose of making 
other enquiries, into the condition of the people and 
clergy. Hence, there were frequent rules passed for 
the residence of bishops at their cathedrals, on the 
stated times of the year for the consecration of chriEon : 
compare the Concilia : torn. 2. p. 10. torn. 3. p. 613. 

Monasteries frequently obtained the privilege of ap- 
plying to any bishop, (to the prejudice of their dio- 
cesan) for chrism. See above, p. cxxvi, and Thorn s 
chronicle. Script, x. torn. 2. p. 1835. 

P. ccxlj. /. 15. The penitential of archbishop Theo- 
dore says : ^^ si quis sepulclirum violaverit. vij. annos, 
iij. in pane et aqua." Thorpe, Anglo-saxon kws. voL 
2. p. 28. And the excerpts of Egbert add to this rule; 
" Si clericus in demoliendis sepulchris fiierit depre- 
hensus, a clericatus ordine pro sacrilegio submovea- 
tur." ibid. p. 108. In later years, one of the canons 
under king Edgar, laid upon penitents the especial 
duty of burying the dead. ibid. p. 283. Compare the 

duppiement 381 

laivs of Keneth of Scotland, in 840: '* Sepulchmm 
omne sacrum habeto, idque crucis signo adomatoi 
quod ne pede aliquando conculces, caveto." ConciL 
torn. \.p. 180. 

In the year ISIS, some constitutions of the pro* 
^ixice of York, reenacting earlier canons, decreed: 
^^ IFirmiter inhibemus, ne cuiquam communio corpo- 
ris Christi, vel morienti ecclesiastica sepultura, prsB- 
textu cujuslibet debiti, denegetur." ConciL torn. 3. 
p. 672. 

P. ccxlij* /. 4. Among the fragments and capitula 
of archbishop Theodore, is the following, both interest- 
ing and important : ^^ Queesitum est ab aliquibus fra- 
tribus, de his qui in patibulo suspenduntur pro suis 
sceleribus, post confessionem Deo peractam, utrum 
cadavera illorum ad ecclesiam deferenda sint, an non? " 
Thorpe, vol. 2. p. 73. And it is said, that the Holy 
Eucharist might be given, but nothing is decided as 
to burial : unless that might be supposed to follow, 
after receptibn of the communion, as a matter of 
course. Some centuries later, ^Ifric, in his homily 
of "the Greater Litany," laid down more strictly, 
'^ the possessions of no sinful man are to be received at 
his end, nor let his corpse be buried in a holy place." 
vol. 2.J9.345. 

P. ccxliv. /. 29. It was usual to carry lighted can- 
dles, before the corpse, to the church ; and omens were 
drawn from their continuing lighted. Many allusions 
to this occur in the chronicles : I take one from Mat- 
thew Paris : upon the burial of an earl of Salisbury, in 
1226. " Contigit autem, quod dum de castello ad no- 
vam ecclesiam corpus ejus ad tumulandum portaretur, 
cerei qui cum cruce et thuribulo de more portabantur 
accensi, inter pluviarum effiisiones, et ventorum tur- 

382 ^npplcment 

bines, lumen contmamn in itinere ministrabant ; ut 
aperte ostenderent comitem tarn ardne poenitentem, ad 
lucis filios pertinere.'* Hist. Angl. p. 277. Compare 
an order about the funeral taper, in tbe Concilia, twn. 
3. p. 567. 

P. cclv. /. 20. There was anciently a small fee at- 
tached to the hallowing of water : this was called the 
'^ beneficium aquae benedictse,'* and was usually given 
to some poor scholar or clerk. I have not met with a 
similar rule in foreign churches ; and it seems to have 
been peculiar to England. Thus it was ordered in 
some constitutions of the diocese of Salisbury, in 1 256 : 
" Person» vel vicarii dabunt beneficium aquae bene- 
dictae clerico pauperi scholari, ita quod veniat omnibus 
solennibus diebus ad ecclesiae serviendum, de qua habet 
dictum beneficium. "Concil. torn. \.p. 714. This dis- 
posal of it was occasionally disputed by the parishion- 
ers ; and the synod of Exeter, 1287, repeats the or- 
der, adding, <' si parochiani malitiose subtrahere velint 
eleemosynas consuetas, ad ipsas sibi largiendas solicite 
moneantur, et, si necesse fiierit, compellantur." ibid, 
torn. 2. j9. 147. In a constitution of the diocese of Win- 
chester, in the year 1308, it is spoken of as the " be- 
neficium aqusB portandae,'* which, in like manner, is 
to be applied to the support of poor scholars, ibid. p. 
297. And from a decree of archbishop Courtney, in 
1393, it would seem, that a part of the duties of these 
"clerici aquaebajuli," was to carry the holy water, 
into various parts of the neighbouring parishes : and 
sprinkle houses with it ; that is, doubtless, if they were 
required to do so : as it is plainly expressed in a dio- 
cesan canon of the bishop of Coventry, in 1247; 
** quia plerique scholares carent necessariis, quorum 
scientia multi per gratiam Dei potuerunt aedificari; 

dttpplement 3^3 

volumus, ut scholares ferant aquam benedictam per 
villas rurales, si sint qui postulent et indigeant." ibid, 
torn. 1. p. 641. 

When this office was wisely abolished, at the begin* 
ning of the reformation, the unavoidable loss of pro- 
vision which it occasioned to poor scholars, was made 
up, or at least it was intended it should be so, from 
other sources: and among the injunctions published 
by the king's visitors in 1548, was this; "forasmuch 
as the parish clerk shall not hereafter go about the 
parish with his holy water, as hath been accustomed, 
he shall instead of that labour, accompany the church- 
wardens," in registering the sums of money collected 
for the poor, ibid. torn. 4. p. 29. 

P. cclvj. /• 12. In limiting the introduction of the 
use of holy water to the ixth century, I cannot but 
have been in error : which I am ready to take this op- 
portunity of acknowledging. In the seventh century, 
archbishop Theodore says, in his penitential : " Aqua 
benedicta domes suas aspergant, quotiens voluerit, qui 
habitant in eis. Et quando presbyter consecraverit 
aquam, primum orationem dicat." Thorpe, vol. 2. p. 
58. And there is a remarkable place in Bede, in an 
epistle from S. Gregory to Mellitus, where the pope 
directs the heathen temples to be sprinkled and pu- 
rified with holy water. Hist. Ecc. lib. 1. cap. 30. 

P. cclx. /. 1. That such an abuse prevailed, is 
clear : and the reader may compare a proclamation, 
in the year 1538, which, speaking of the holy bread, 
says, among other things, that it was intended, not to 
supersede, but " to put us in remembrance of the 
howsell, which in the beginninge of Christe church 
men did oftener receive, than they use now to doe." 
Concil. torn. 3. p. 842. 


384 dttpptement 

p. ccxciv. /. 1. Abeolutioii was occasionally granted 
to persons after death ; chiefly, as it would seem, t&at 
they might obtain the rites of Christian bmial. A 
commission from the archbishop of Canterbury for 
this purpose, is printed in the Concilia. A certain 
man had died excommunicate, and not only an abso- 
lution is ordered to be pronounced, but prayers and 
psalms, usual at such solemnities. What these were, 
does not appear, torn. 2. /^.531. This was in the year 
1326. Another was granted, in 1369. Also by the 
archbishop. Some years ago a stone coffin was dis- 
covered in the cloisters of Chichester cathedral, and 
close by it, was found a thin plate of lead, with a form 
of absolution upon it, granted to Geoffi-y bishop of 
Chichester in 1088. Archaeol. vol. 23. p. 419. It is 
not improbable^ that in such cases, of persons absolved 
from ecclesiastical censures after deadi, the absolution 
was buried with them. 

P. 42. ^^ante ostium ecclesia.'* It appears almost 
needless to remind the reader of Chaucer s Wife of 

^^ Slie w«8 a woTtby woman all hire live, 
Hottsbondes at the chirche dore had she had fiTe." proL 461. 

And compare the account of the marriage in the 
merchant's tale : 

^ Forth Cometh the pieest, with stole about his nekke. 
And hade hire be like Sara and Rebekke; etc^ L 9577. 

There is a remarkable passage, in the evidence re- 
lating to Sir William Plumpton's second marriage, 
taken before the Ecclesiastical Coui:t in the year 1472, 
which shews, that marriages were performed some- 
times, not at the door of the church, but at the door 
of the chancel ; that is, I suppose, of the rood-screen. 

^upplemenn 385 

♦* Richard Clerk, parish clerk of Knaresborough, de- 
posed — that very early in the morning of the said 
Friday came the said Sir William and Joan to the 
parish church of Knaresborough — , and, they standing 
at the door of the chancel of the said church within 
the said church, the aforesaid John Brown, [then vi- 
car,] came from the high altar in his vestments and 
solemnized marriage between them in .the presence of 
the deponent; etc'* Plumpton correspondence, pre/, 
p. Ixxvj, 

VOL. 11. 

P. XXXV. Since the publication of the two first vo- 
lumes of this work, I have found two other manuscript 
Prymers. One of these is in the library of Queen's 
college, Oxford: (S. 20. in arch.) imperfect, of about 
the year 1420. It has the word ** corinnice'* in the 
version of the two psalms, vol. 2. p. 22 : but the " hours 
of the cross," are in rhyme, thus agreeing with the 
manuscripts in the Bodleian, and at Cambridge. 

The other is in the Ashmolean library at Oxford : 
No. 1288. which I have not yet had an opportunity 
to examine. The kindness of a friend enables me to 
state that its contents are much the same with those 
of the other copies. 

P. xliv. /. 10. About the year 1459, a monk at 
Bolton Abbey is requested in a letter to send a prymer : 
" as ever I be saved, she praied me write for either 
Salter or primmer." Plumpton Correspondence, pre/, p. 
xxxix. In the year 1500, among the presentments to 
the commissary of the diocese of London, occurs: 
" Avicia Godfrey notatur officio quod subtraxit quen- 
dam librum, vocatum a premar Elisabetha Sekett ser- 

VOL. HI. c c 

3^6 0ll|pplCIIICIlC« 

▼ieate W. Waid utra eodenam, ete.** Arthdtaam 
Hab?s Precedents, No. cczliij. The learned editor 
leems to haTe been in error, in stating this to hare 
been a case of '* taking a book from the church.'^ I do 
not remember any example of a prymer, among the 
service books of a church ; nor would there have been 
any need of soch a book, for the pnrpose of pobKc and 
general prayer, 

P. xlix. /• 8. The Prymer was not confined to the 
Chorch of England ; it was authorised abroad also, 
for the use of the laity. These books are however of 
great rarity. The Dutch copies the most frequently oc- 
cur : and I know one, in French, in a private library. 
A very remarkable printed Spanish Prymer, (Simon 
Vostre, 8vo.) has lately been purchased for the library 
of the British Museum, 

1BeneDi(tu0 Dotntnu0 Deu9 : a 0ae(ulo et in 

Sfntitjc to tf)e Cf)iTti molume. 

3ti^tx to ti)e Cl)trli imolume. 

|BS0LUT10N: power, 
given to priests. 220. 
Granted after death. 


Admonitions: at ordinations. 162. 
Age, at which orders might be 

received, cvij. 
Aldan : his coronation, ix. note. 
Altars: not anciently consecrated. 

cxlviij. note. 
Amice. 25. 

Anne Boleyn : her coronation, xx v. 
* Aqua benedicta/ different from 

* consecrata.' cl. note. 
Aquae bajulus. 382. 
Archbishop of Canterbury: his 

right to crown the kings of 

England. Ivij. To marry them. 

Ixij. By whom, to be inthroned. 

cxxxj. Buried, with the pall. 

Archdeacon, to present candidates 

for orders. 160. 
Armills. 28. 

Baculus. 272. 

Banns, form of certificate. 376. 

Barons of the cinque ports. 53. 

Barefooted ; its meaning at coro- 
nations. 67. 

Bells, to be rung at bishops* visi- 
tations, cxliij. Delivered to 
the ostiarii. 163. 

fiible, at coronations. 119. 

Bishops, styled themselves an- 
ciently, priests. Ixxxiv. note. 
Might confer the tonsure any- 
where. Ixxxvj. 145. Bound to 
support clergy, whom they or- 
dained without titles, cj. To 
be consecrated by, at least, three, 
cxx. To ordain, not without 

priests, cxxv. To confine them- 
selves to their dioceses, cxxv. 
Ancient rules of precedence, 
cxxviij. note. Forbidden cer^ 
tain vestments, for neglect of 
duties, cxxix. Summoned to 
coronations. 4. note. One, 
without priests, might ordain 
deacons. 195. Cf. 205. On 
what day, to be consecrated. 
242. Anciently consecrated in 
their own churches. 253. 

Burial, of criminals executed. 381 . 

Byry: bishop of Durham; his 
seal, and books, cxxxij. 

Camisia. 19. 

Canterbury, dean and chapter 
claim to have all bishops of the 
province consecrated in their 
church, cxxj. note. 

Chair, used at coronations, xxxvij. 

Chalice of S. Edward. 69. 

Champion, xxxiij. note. 

Chirothec». 270. 

Chrism at coronations : Chris- 
male, xzj. 

Citation to consecrate a bishop, 

Clovis : his anointing, etc, iv. 

Clergy: habits, dress, employ- 
ments, &c. cxx. 

CoUationum liber. 369. 

Colobium sindonis. 24. 

Communion: at coronations. I. 
39. In both kiqds. liv. 217. 
Of the sick. 378. 

Concelebration. 215. 

Confessions : not to be heard by 
deacons, cvij. 192. 

" Conficere." 204. 



Confimiatioii» must precede ordi- 
natioii. 145. 

Corona: different from the ton- 
sure. Izzzfau 

Coronation : of Jewish kings, iij. 
Anciently repeated, zviij. On 
what days celebrated. 64. 

Creed: at ordinations. 219. 

Crown : its signification, zij. Of- 
fered on the altar, xix. note. 
Removed at communion. Iij. 

Crucifix: of Edward the confes- 
sor. Ixix. note. 

Cyclas. 52. 

Dahnatic. 30. 

Deacons: their disabilities, cvij. 
dx. 192. Not curates, an- 
ciently, cviij. note. Anciently 
anointed on the hand. 200. 

Declaration: at coronations. 103. 

Degradation: in later times might 
1^ inflicted by one bishop only, 
clij. note. 

Dei gratia : why Idngs so styled, 

DepositioDy distinct from degra- 
dation, clij. 

Dunstan, his tomb opened. Ixxvj. 

Eadburga : her crime, xxiv. 

Edward VI. : hb coronation, xxxv. 

Efilgies, of dead sovereigns. Ixxiij. 

Egferih : his coronation, x. 

Ember-days, cxxij. 

Episcopate : an order ? Ixxxi. 

Eucharist: not to be administered 
by deacons, dx. Always ac- 
companied coronations; 39. and 
ordinations. 158. Carried in 
processions. 366. 

Examinations : before ordination, 
xd. 245. 

Faldstool. 86. 

Fonts, necessary in all churches. 

Form, of the sacrament of Orders. 

194. 259. 
French coronation-service, derived 

from the Ang^o^saxon. 14. 

Gospels, book : delivered to dea- 
cons. 199. Laid on the head 
of bishops. 255. Objeetiooable 
oractice, connected with it 257. 
Not andently delivered to bi- 
shops. 275. 

Honor : a title of the greater or- 
ders. 196. 

Houseling-cloth : at coronations, 
liij. 134. 

Illegitimacy: an impediment to 
ordination, xcvj. 

Impiety: examples, and punish- 
ment, cliv. note, 

Inthronization : followed by a 
feast, cxxxij. Andent Uallic 
custom. 296. 

Irregularities: to be dispensed 
with, cxviij. How incurred, 
and its penalties, cxix. 

John, king: his obsequies. Izzj. 
Condition of his soul, after 
death. Ixxj. note. 

Keys, given to the ostiariL 163. 
Kings : their duties, etc ix. note, 

llie number of those anointed. 


Legates: how distinguished, cxlij. 

Liber Regalis. xxxix. note. Pon- 

tificaUs. Explained, cxxxiv. 

note. Transcript in B. Mus. 63. 
Litania brevis. 12. 
Litlington's missal. 63. 

Maniple. 182. Worn at proces- 
sions. 367. 
Manipultts curatorum. Ixxx. note. 



Marriage, at the churdi-door. 384. 

Mediatorial office, of the clergy. 37. 

Minor orders: might be conferred 
together, ciij. Fallen into prac- 
tical disuse before the reforma- 
tion, and properly discontinaed. 
civ. llieir duties in the Anglo- 
sazon age.cvj. 

Mitre. 274. 

Monasteries, claimed to have their 
members ordained by any bi- 
shop, cxxvj. note, 

Norway: king» anointed as a 

king, xiv. 
Nuns : nominated at coronations. 

Oath: of Henry VIILxxziv.iio/0. 
Andently, as well as in modem 

* times» signed, xl. Book, of 

the Saxon kings, xlj. Exam- 
ples, xliij. note. Corporal: its 
meaning, etc. xliv. xlv. Of 
canonic^ obedience, at ordina- 

: tion. 221. 247. 

Obsequies: of clergy, exxxvij. 

[ note. Of abbots, ibid. Of 

bishops, cxxxviij. note. 

. Oil, miraculous, of Clovis. iv. 

I English, xvij. Jewish, xviij. 

, note. 

Orders: a sacrament. Ixxviij. 

I How many, in number. Ixxx. 

Disabilities, xcv. etc. To be 
conferred separately? cij. To 
be conferred freely, without 
money, cxxiv. Not to be ob- 
tained furtively, cxxviij. An- 
ciently conferred on great num- 
bers, cxxx. 
Ordo : its meaning. Ixxvij. note. 

I Pall: its form, cxxxv. Attributed 
^ to S. Peter, cxxxiv. A per- 

sonal ornament, cxxxvj. An- 
ciently only a mark of honour. 
301 . Why said to be *• de cor- 

pore B. Petri." cxlij. note^ 
Regale. 30. 

Pastoral staff: of abbots; how 
distinguished, exxxvij. note. 

Peace of the Church. Ivj. note. 

Pecten, (^ a bishop. 241. 

Penances, performed at proces- 
sions. 368. 

Petition of bishops,at coronations. 9 

PUoe, where coronations are so- 
lemnized. Ivj. 

Poderis. 243. 

PontiBcal, Exeter. 369. 

Pontificalis liber : explained, 
cxxxiv. note. Exon. 369. 

Preaching: not permitted to all 
persons, cxvi. 

Priests, albwed to confirm by the 
Greek church. Ixxxj. note. 
Their duties, ex. Unction, at 
ordination, cxj. Not to take 
charge of a parish, for one year 
after ordination, cxiij. Not to 
wander about, cxiij. Always 
to communicate, if they cele- 
brate, cxiv. note. Pentuty on 
persons usurping the office, 
cxvij. Not allowed to recon- 
cile a church, cxlix. Alone 
entitled to consecrate the Eu- 
charist. 203. Have powers to 
confer benedictions. 204. An- 
ciently anointed on the head. 
212. To learn how to celebrate 
the Eucharist. 223. 

Processions. 366. Banners used. 

Pulpit, at coronations. 68. 

Pupilla oculi. Ixxix. note. 

Ray-cloth. 52. 

Rectors : to be in priest's orders, 

Reconsecration of a church : for- 
bidden, cxlvj. Whether neces- 
sary, if the altar had been de- 
stroyed, cxlviij. Examples in 
the 17th century, cxlix. note. 



Regalia : anciently kept at West- 
minster, xxxviij. note. 

Registers of ordinations to be kept, 
xcij. noU, 

Restitution to orders, clvj. 

Ring: of S. Edward, xix. note. 
Episcopal ; claimed, after death, 
by the archbishop, cxxxiij. 273. 

Sacerdos: its meaning, cxiv. no^^. 

Sceptres. 33. 

Seat, royal, in Westminster Hall. 

Seal, episcopal : how disposed of, 

after death, cxxxij. 
Serfe ; not to be ordained, xcvij. 

xcviij. note. 
Sign of the cross. 189. 
Simnel-cakes. 48. 
Standards: anciently consecrated. 

Stephen: omens regarding him. 

xxvij. note. 
Stole. 208. 

Stragulatus pannus. 52. 
Subdeacon: office, performed by 

a newly crowned emperor, xvj. 

Substratorium. 230. 



before ordina- 

. tion. xcix. Its meaning, xcix. 

note. Why necessary, c 
Tonsure : an order ? IxxxL The 

Office, not primitiye. Ixxxiv. 

S. Peter's. Ixxxv. Might be 

conferred by priests. Ixxxvij. 

Ordered, for scholars. Ixxxvij. 

Not to be concealed. Ixxxviij. 
' Removed; as a punishment. 

Ixxxix. note. 
Traditores. 167. 

Unction of kings : peculiar to the 
Church of God. iij. its high 
antiquityin England, viij. Ex- 
.plained, xi. xij. note. Confers 
sacredness. xiv. A sacramenL 
XV. Of queens, xxiij. Of 
priests, and bbhops. ^ee priests 
and deacons. Of the thumb. 
208. Extreme: ornaments re. 
moved. 379. 

* Veni Creator :* of late introduc- 
tion into the ordinal. 211. 
Viaticum. 378. 

Women: not capable of ordina- 
tion, xcv. note. 

Wills; ancient form. 363. Ca- 
nons, reUting to. 365. 

SoMB Errors to be corrbcted. 



P. xix. 


de posaeroDt . 




regnim • . . 




aeeinelu$ . . 



nol€ 4S. 

canumvei . . 

eanam, Tel. 


note 41. 

pateroam . . 




Offert. Exolta 

Offert. Exolta 

C. Whittingham, Cixiawick.