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Contab'd;'in fevcral 


O N 
Many Important DutIis, 

Written in French^ by 

Meflienrs dn Port Royal. 

* < 

Faithfully Rendred into Engltfh, by 

A Perfon of Quality, 
Firft Volume. 



Printed for J. MagtuszadK, Bentley, in 
JbMJfeLJbrm in Cm>eKt-Gardett t near 
the Tiazxa\ M DC LXXVII. 



• • v» 

V * 

V # 



N thing fhd be berefaidof the tro- 
ffeQ tbe Author bad in bi$ Eye, 
when be nude, theft Treatifes » 
nor of the Kerens bt bos at frejent tofmblifk 
thtm, nor of what extent tbi matter it winch 
be defign'd to comprehend under tbe lisle be 
bath given them. It is veil kjtewn % tbe 
World ear a little to be informed of tbefe far* . 
Uvular s , and that having no intereft but in 
tbe Word's* felfc i$*eill\udge thereof by its 
true intrinftck. worthy not by tbefe outward 
andfirrein emmmfaweef* 

We will therefore content our felves inn* 
vino feme advice touching the tooJ^ it Jelfc 
andtbefirftjballbe of its Tit/t,Moral Effay* 
It would be a miflakf to conclude that no- 
thing wot pretended to be herein prepos'd, but 
fome uncertain and confus'd Glimffes , or 
flight Ideas ofChrifiian Perfeftion. On tbe 
contrary, feme 1 of tbefe Treat ifes give a Pro- 
JpeS fair enough *, and there is none of them 
. that does ntt contain Truths meftfolid, and 
-eftbe-greateft importance. 




the reafon then ofmakjng choice of this 
'*fitle has beefy 'thai Chrifiian Msralrty ap- 
pearing to be of too vaft an extent, to be all 
entirely here treated of and the enterprifetoe 
great to reduce into one Body that diverfity of 
Principles it contains^ and thofi many De- 
voirs depending thereon : It has been thought 
tetter to JEffay to Treat it by Parts y now ap- 
plymg+nesfelftothfconfideration of one du* 
iy^uow of another ; wbtljl it has been thought 
fufficient, on the peculiar matters here ban* 
.died, to. advance fever al Truths as they have 
offered themfehes\ without undergoing the 
trouble of dijpofwg and ordering them accor- 
: ding to Method, And ibis is what is marked 
} %ui by the word Eftayj* 

.Perhaps this way of writing has been ebo- 
Jen for its eafineft, Tet true it ix, that this 
'. diforder* prams net Us advamages % and thofi 
no inconfider able ones. -For if we tafy notice 
, there is a neceffity of filling Methodical fPorkj 
with an infinite number of things ^wbich have 
no other benefit^ than that of their being re- 
qmfite to Order > and to leave out others of 
great ufi, for this only reafon thai they cannot 
bandftnnly take place in the prefcribed Me- 

Theneceffity which one obliges, bimfelf to 
ef tying and conneBing together former 
, tbwgbtS) U thofe that folio w^ brings in ano- 


tlfef, of admitting many common trivial <Mes? 
which are not takfn up by choice or inclina- 
tion, and which are of no -other nfe than to- 
fillip ceitain gaps and" void places, and to 
, tye and kpit together the fever al parts of the 
difeottrfe. So that in pieces exaftly methodi- 
cal) many things are faid againfl ones mind, 
and others omitted which one would h we faid: 

Not that I pretend to equalize Writings 
composed of thoughts, having no connexion 
me with another, to treatifes that are cohe- 
rent and methodical. No, I only pretend 
to conclude* that a Viece is not altogether to 
he flighted* though the parts whereof it is 
tempore A he not rangd in fo exaS anordtri • 
or fo neatly jointed one with another : Andr 
"Experience makes out the Truth which 1 ad- 
vance v from divers Writing of* this kind, 
which have had great vogue and eft cent. 

But if fo precifean order' be not tobe fought 
for in each particular 7reatif? of this Volume* 
it oetgbt with iefs reafon to-be expeRed in the ^ 
dijpofition they have apungft thetnfelves >• 
which is arbitrary enough* Ncverthckfi, m 
Order and Method are of feverah kjnds, and • 
that there are few things where fotnt order 
may not be imagined V the foffdwingtonfiUe- 
rations may give a Reafon ptaufible enough of 
the dijfrofwon of theft ireatifis. 

A 4 the 



the fitft duty ef Man is to ^w bimfilfy 
send to kpow bimfclfisto he fatty acquainted 
with his own corruption and weakjtefs. To> 
teach this is the fuhjeO of thf Firft Trcatifev 
Of the Weaknds of Man. 

But we ought not to fiof bere> having 
hfiown out fibres^ we muji endeavour to* 
know God v not by a Knowledge Barren and* 
Fbilofophkal , hut Benefitial and Cferi. 
Han \ by a Knowledge which may be a 
Light to guide our jtefs in this ltfe % and' 
hYing us to the end we aim* at. And this- 
is the f refer drift of the Second TffttHct 
Of Submiflion to the Wfllof God i Which* 
contains the Trinoifles of aU tbofe duties we 
■eire obliged to, during the comfe of. our life > 
finee there are mue which are not in this dou- 
ble ckmemplation of Gods Jftfl* conftder'doH 
cue fide at the rule of our atHons, on the other 
as the ca*fe »/ whatever hwffent. 

Had not Man been corrupted, almojt no 
other intrusions than this* had been needful > : 
aV Gbriftian. Juftiee cwftfing in knowing 
and performing the JWB of Gedi Bat, as. 
there ate many things that weak&t in the 
Jufi, refolutiorirtbey have made of obeying 
God, and preferring him before ell things 
elfe v they outfit to ufe many means to main* 
tain and jirengtbe* themfehes in their good* 
refolves. The mqft common, mefk efficacious^ 




Ad vcrtf /cmcritr 

unfit authorized by Seripture 9 and the Exai 
fits of Saints, aretbofi #fFear, the fubft i 
eftbe Third Treat tfct inwhkharepartiei ; 
Isrly confided d the Rea/vns that even the J* i 
have to live in a continual dread of God A\ 

the three firft treaties look direOly enl 
at the interior duties of Man % with relatiet 
either to God or to himfrlf: But finee Croc 
bath obligdfthe greateft portion rf Mankind 
to a life of commerce with others , and thai 
Salvation ordinarily depends on their toning 
herein \ it is ntedfklt* ferefec the principal 
errors we^ fir the moji fart eetrimtin trea- 
ting with ethers, and to* conflder themean. 
hem tojbtotihtm. And this hat keen endea 
voured to he done in the Treat ife which hat ft: 
TRtk) Of the mews to conferre Peace* 
roongft Meiu; 

LaJHyy having given federal ufefnl Ad< 
vertifements for confirvbtg Peace * it wa 
thought convenient to Vool^ up towards th 
Fountain-head of alt divjfi6nr 9 ;in the frea* 
iife of Rafh Judgments, where endeavour. 
are ns r d to regulate the mind in the Judg- 
ments itmakgs of M*n, and all other things 
and to infiire the love of Truth and Juftice 
and the hatred of a certain rajh prefltmption 
which in the World give* fentence ofaniw 
finite number of things-* 

• Terha 







„ Perhaps thefe Two bjl Treat ijef my feeirr 
to fome fN? d with a mtmber of observations too 
little, uo particular ^ and too common: But 
perhaps aljo there wiD be found fime who- 
may reap fo much, the more profit out of this 
minute handling thefe matters jnby experience 
tbeyfkaV know that the mofipart ofdifcourfes 
made ingeneral 7 are of little ufa fince either 
fir want of fxncerity or kpot?Udge there u aU 
moft no body found who applies them home to 
himfelf So that to oblige Men to refleS on 
their faults and duties , there is a neceffity of 
particularizing them in the m»ft plain and 
fimple manner that can be. Nor ought out 
to be referved in this particular out of fear y 
hfi the things prepofdjhould prove little and 
trivial. Here in the World all things are 
mean and little , through the meannefs of the 
end all our aUions tend to : In Religion all 
is great through the great nefs of that it pre* 
pofes to it felf. Moreover v thofe who kjtom 
in what Ckriftiari Virtue confi^s, are netigno* 
rant^ that it Jhews . it felf in nothing more 
than in regulating Men in their particular 
life y and ordinary, aftions* The occafions of 
doing great things are rare? and the Grace 
toperform them faithfully is not to be obtained 
vut by that attention and tare which every 
ope pall have to acquit himfelf of thofe com- 
mon duties which compofe the body of our a- 
tthns and life. • 'there 


,. * -"' • . 

'there only remains to advert ife , that i% 
-may be cbferv'd in fame places ( which are 
very few ) certain thoughts have been hot* 
rowd from Bookj publiflidv viz. From the 
Thoughts of Mr. Pafchal > the Art of 
Thinking, and the Education of a Prince; 
Since thefe are become publicly it wjs be- 
lieved one might, by that right the publicly 
has there to tbem, inakf this nje of them, and 
that no body could blame this procedure^ 
whiffi by this fincere acknowledgement Ju- 
fiice was done their Authors. 

Perhaps. ibe Treatife of the Education of 
a Prince may become me Volume of thefe 
Moral Etfays i in author having acknow- 
ledged,- that he could have wiffl^d it might 
from the beginning have born that litfc ; 
Since the Treat ifes whereof it is composed are 
fit to ma\e part of the defignof $htfi E£ays> 
and that , he gave, his confent itjhould for the 
future be too^d on as one of the Volumei of 
dbis Piece* l 

•v y 





The Firft Treatife. 

QftheWt*k*'f'<fM**' „ 
The Second TreattTe, 

The Third Treatife. ^ 
Of the Fear af God. : 

The Fourth Treatife. ^ 

^W^£ Fifth Treatife. ^ 
fyr MORA 








Firft Treatife. 

Of the weafyefs of Man] 

Miferere mei e Domine > queniattt iff 
■ prmusfum* ' ' 

. '. *• 

Ride is a fwelling of the heart, 
by which roan dilates and mag- 
nifies himfelf in his own imagi- 
nation^ and the Idea, or conceit 
tf our felves it imprints in us, is an Idea 
tf ftrength, of greatnefs, and of excel* 
Qace. "Tis upon this (core Riches puff 
j»s up •, for they give us occafion to efteem 
fax felves as mighty and great. We look 
upon them according to the expreflion of 

B the 


% %U f frft Creatlfe, 

the wife man» as a ftrong hold fheltcri 
us from the injuries of Fortune, and c 
blingus to Lord it over others ; $*$< 
tid divitis Vrbs robotis ejus. And hei 
fprings that inward haughtinefs, which 
according to St. Augftjtine^ the worm 

Hie Pride of the Great, is of the fa 
nature with that of the Rich, and, like 
confifts in the Idea they have of their o 
ftrength. Now, whereas, (hould tl 
cohfider themfelves alone, they could i 
find in themfelves wherewith to fratne f 
conceit : their euftom is, to add to t\ 
own being whatever belongs to, or h 
any connexion with themfelves. A gi 
man, in the Idea he frames of himfelf5 
not one fingle man alone, but a man m 
up of all thofc, who depend on him i s 
he imagines hiinfelf to have as many ha 
as they altogether have, becaufe all th 
£re at his difpofe, and move at his pleafi 
A General of an Army always looks 
himfclf as in the midft of his Souldi 
Thus it is that every one endeavours 
-fill as much room as he can in hiso 
thoughts » and it is but to augment ; 
magqjfie the Idea every one there frai 
of himfelf, that we prefc forward, 


firive to grow great in the world ! 'Tis 
tlieend of the defigns of all ambitious men > 
nor hzd Alex tnder and C^hr any other in 
all the battels they fought. If one fhould 
ask why the <rrW Seignuwr lately caus'd 
the death of a hundred thoufand men in 
CandU> with confidence one may anfwer, 
that it was onely to add to the poor trai* 
ture which he had drawn of himfeif in 
his own mind, the title of Conqueror. 


This it is, that hath brought forth all 
thofe haughty titles, which dayly increafe, 
as this inward pride grows more exorbi- 
tant, or lefs difguisfd. I fancy that he 
who fitft took the rtile of High snd Mighty 
Lord) iook'd on himfeif as rais'd above the 
heads of his Vaffals v and this it was he 
would make known by this Epithcte of 
High^ fo little agreeable to the low lines 
- of man. The Eaftcrn much owt^goes our 
European World, in the numeroufnefe of 
titles, being much chore foolifhly vain. 
Entire^ages are requir'd to contain thofe 
of the lead of your Indian Kings; becaufe ' 
there they fet down the number of their 
Elephants, Revenues, and Jewels, all which 
compoft that imaginary being, which is 
the Obje&of their Vanity. 

4 ®bt SitUZtzmk, 


Perhaps alio what makes us defire wi 
fo much paffion the approbation of othc 
is that hereby we are fettl'd and fortif 
in the Idea we hare of our own Exc< 
lencc: for, this publick teftimony gives 
an aflinrahce thereof; our approbators I 
ing as many witnefles, perfwading us i 
are not miftaken in the opinion we have 
our felves. 


Pride growing from Spiritual Endo 1 
ments^ is of the fame kind with ti 
grounded on outward advantages ; ai 
like it, confifts in an Idea reprefenting 
to our own eyes as great, and- making 
judge our felves worthy to be eftectr 
preferred,, and refpe&ed: whether t 
Pride (pring from fome quality we diftin 
Jy know in us, or from a confus'd im; 
of fome excellence and grandeur we atl 
bute to our felves. 

From this Idea alfo rifes the pleaf 

or diiguft we take in many little thin$ 

which cither pleafc or check us, with< 

determining the yeafon on the fudden. } 

take pleafure to win at all games what 

ever f even without any fpice of covetc 

nefs { and we arc difpleas'd when we loc 

£>f m wemtt* or t&m 1 

and why ? when we loofe we look upo| 
eur fclvcs as unfortunate, which iraplid 
an Idea of weakoefs and nrifcry *, when m 
win, we feem happy* and this rcprcfcntl 
to our minds an Idea of ftrength, anj 
makes us take our (elves for fottunes Fa- 
vourites. Tis with pleafurc we talk oi 
(icknefles and dangers we have run 
. through, for thus we appear to our (elves, 
either to have been Gods particular charge, 
or elfe tcrhave us'd much courage and 
much adircfs in overcoming thofe evils 
*~ incident to humane life. 

' If therefore our Pride proceed from the 
Idea.we have of our own ftreqgth and our 
own excellence > the beft means of eftabliflw 
ing the contrary virtue ofhumility, will be 
to convince us of our own weaknefs. The 
tumor muft be lanc > d> to give vent to the 
wind that fweHs it up* We muft undeceive 
and free our fclvcs from thofefalfc lights by 
which we appear in our own Eyes Great * 
by placing before them our own littlenefe 
and infirmities : yet not fo as to difcourage 
and reduce our felves to defpair > but to the 
endwemaybeprefs'd on to fearch for, in 
God,that help, that fuccour, that greatnefr 
and ftrengfh which we cannot find in out 
own being, no nor in whatever clfc is joinM 
thcrcuntcw B j Villi 

$ C&eJFfcff Creatifc, 


But fpeclal care is to be had, Ieaft 
doing this we tread in the ftcps 
fome Writers, who, under colour of hv 
blcing and, bringing down the pride 
man, have endeavored to reduce his : 
ture to the condition of Beafts.i be 
hurri'd to the extravagance of maintaiu 
it to have no advantages over that of the 
*Tis true thefe difcourfes produce an cfl 
quite oppofite to what they pretends ; 
are juftly efteem'd rather as difport< 
Wits, then reafonings of (crious pcrfc 
Man hath within him a knowledge 
dear, fo lively, of his pcc*emincncc ab 
Beafts, that it is a vanity to pretend 
obfettre it by little quirks, and little 
falfe ftories. * All that truth it felf can 
is to teach us humility , and often we 1 
hut too many cvafions to elude its ar 
men ts, how lively and preffing foe 
What can we then exped from thefe 
tie reafonings, whofe falfity we fufficte 
ly know from a bofom- witnefc we can 


It is to be fear'd thefe difcourfcs, inft 

of coming from a fincere acknowledge™ 

of mans bafeneis, and a defire of hi 

bling his . pride, on the contrary proc 

€>f tie mmttfi of 10m; 7 

from a fccrct vanity, or a taint in nature of 
a yet deeper malignancy. For there are 
feme, who, defiring to live tike Beafts, 
find nothing much humbling in thofe 
opmions by which they are made like to 
them > nay, they find a fccrct comfort : 
for they grow lcfs afham'd of their irre- 
gular ways, which thus appear more con- 
formable to nature. Moreover they are 
glad to bring down, and leaft with them* 
(elves thole whole luftre and greatneft 
dazle them : little care they to be of the 
fame nature with Brutes, fo they place but 
in the fame rank Kings and Prince*, Wife 
men and Philofophers. 

Let us not then lofe time in lifting thefc 
idle Fancies for proofs of qui weaknefs, 
fmce we have fo many true and real onet 
of it our felves : for this we need but take 
a vie w of our .Bodies and Souls > yet not 
fuch a fuperficial and deceitful one, as, con- 
cealing what pleafes not, fhall only fee 
before our eyes what we have a mind to 
fee. No, this view muft be a full diftindfc 
and fincere one, a view making us appear 
fuch as really we are ) acquainting us with 
what we truly have of weaknefs and 
ftrength, of contemptible, and great* 

B 4. XL 

* #&e JFftff Cteatffe, 


booking then on man afar off, we pi 
feiitly perceive a Soul and Body fallen 
and ty'd together by an unknown, n; 
incomprehensible knot y by which it cotr 
19 pafs that the impreffions of the Ba 
affed the Soul, and thofc of the Soul wo 
en the Body : whilft not one is able 
conceive the reafon or ways of this coi 
munication betwixt natures fo much d 
firing* After this, approaching near 
to take a more diftinft furvey of the 
differing Parts, We find the body to be 
Machine cotnpos'd of innumerable Pip 
and Springs, fitted to produce infinite i 
vcrfity of adtipn? and motions, wheth 
for the confer vation of this machine, < 
for other intents to which they ase d 
te&ech That the Soul is an uttelligei 
being, capable of good or evil, of happ 
nefs ot mifery: That there are certai 
aft ions of this Machine of our Body thi 
depend not oil the Soul, and that thei 
are others which Deed the concurrence < 
ber will, and which would not be wirf 
out it y and that even of thefe adions fotr 
areneceflary for prefer ving this Machine 
as eating and drinking > others for otbe 



This Machine, though fo clofely united 
fo a Soul, is neither immortal nor free 
from being diforder'd or difcompos'd : On 
.the contrary, its dtfpofition isfuch, that 
it can It ft But a certain number of years* 
and in it fclf carries the caufes.of its Own 
mine and deftru&ion ; nay, often it is 
JpotTd and broken in pieces in a very (horft 
time. It is fubje&, even whilft it fub- 
fifts, to an infinite of painful difcompo- 
fures, which we call difca&s. Phyfifians 
in vain have attempted to give us an exa& 
catalogue of them > they are more than 
they can know : it being impoffible this 
innumerable multitude offerings and fcnall 
pipes T conveying to and again the humors 
and fpirits of the Body, (hould fubfift a!~ 
mod without fome drforder. But, which 
is more grievous, this diforder fiays not 
in the Body, it feizes on the mind, affiidfe. 
k, difquietsit, and is thecaufeof itspaii* 

Man hath a power to move certain parts 
ef this his Machine, whichare^t the beck 
of his will, and, by the motion of it, to {tin 
and move Some adjacent bodies, according 
fo the degree of his ftrength. This ftrengtfe 
fa fomewhat greater in obe, theaanothe* > 

10 C&e § feff %tm\% 

but very inconfiderabk in all : fo that 
bring about any work of momenr,he 19 1 
ccd to make ufe of thofe great motions 
finds in nature, to wit, of Water,Air, t 
Fire* Thus bis own weaknefs is fupply 
and thus he can bring to pafs many thin] 
which by himfclf he could not compai 
but, after all this, all he can do is v< 
mconfidmble v and it is by taking a vii 
of Man, affifted with all thofe helps 1 
induftry borrows from other bodies, ' 
ftallmake it appear, that the vanity 
draws. (torn hispowrandfirengthjis vc 
ill grounded!. 

lAihat gjve&b&fchi t% and! fofter* up 
n^xt this; psoudi concur, is> that fclf-lo 
dhesi &> flfctfr audi lock him wp in himfe 
thai: among}!* tht tsnumeratde things 
theumterffi^ Ik wieFy confiders thofe th 
hire fcmcaefettott to r or connexion wii 
himfclf to him his life in fome fort is ; 
Eternity > for he little regards what c 
thee went before, or ft all «ome aftci 
and he makes a World of that little fphc 
of Creatures invironing him, having 2 
influence on him, or on which he cana£ 
and according to the place and room I 
allots himfelf in this little world, it ts, thi 
. he frames this advantagbus Idea of h 
own greatnefs* XJ 


Todifpell this error we are fo naturally 
ptone to, fcems the reafon why God AU 
mighty, having a defign to humble J*b 
under his fuprcmc Majefty, makes him a* 
it were to come out of himfelf, and go 
abroad into the wide world, to content* 
plate it, and the things wherewith it J* 
replenished > to the end, that Jetting be* 
fore his eyes how many beings and efle&s 
there are, furpafiing, not onely his firength,. 
but his underftanding > he may thereby 
convince him of his impotences and weak* 
ncfe. And to fpeak truth, what is there 
fitter todeftroy that falfe Idea man frames 
of the greatnefs of his own being, whilft 
he compares himfelf only with himfelf, and 
other men like himfelf, then to oblige him 
to contemplate all the other Creatures » 
and to confider what they difcover to us 
of the infinite greatnefs of God Almighty,. 
The greater and more powerful God (halt 
appear to our eyes, the lefe and feebler 
(hall we find our (elves > and it is du- 
ring the time we lofe fight of his inft. 
nice greatnefs, that we eftccra our felve* 


To pro&cute therefore this hint the 

Scripture hachfiiven jus,, let every one con- 

ii €#e jFfcff Cwatffe, 

fider that infinite duration that is already 
gone, and will hereafter follow) am 
fcfdinghis life (Hut up betwixt thefe two. 
let him take notice what part it fills there- 
of. Let him ask himfelf -this queftion 
why he began to appear rather at this ther 
another inftant of this Eternity * anc 
whether he perceive in himfelf a powei 
cither to gbe or confer ve his own being 
lit him put to himfelf the fame qutn 
about extenfion or fpace \ let him caft th( 
*yfes of his mind on that immenfity o 
bodies, where even his imagination tar 
find no limits : let him refle&on that vaf 
extent *of matter his fenfes difcover ; ir 
comparifon of which , let him confidei 
what is fain to his Jhare > I mean thai 
portion of matter whereof his body i: 
made: let him view well what it is, am 
what place it fills in the llniverfe: Lei 
him endeavour to find out why it is pm 
rather into this, thqi fome other place ol 
this infinite extent, wherein he is as ii 
were loft and fwallow'd up. It is in* 
poffible but that he foould conclude, even 
the whole earth, by .this furvey to be a little 
dungeon wherein he finds himfelf con- 
fin d : and if fo, whatmuft we fay pf the 
imall room he fills on the earth ? 'Tis true, 
he hath a pow$r to change place > but he 


£>f tije tfleaftner$s of $fratt* . 

never does this, but his lofs is as great 
what he acquires, and at all times he fim 
himfelf like an unperceptible atome fwai 
lowM up in this immtafity of the Uni 



To this confidcration let him add, that 
of all the great motions which tofs up and 
down the matter of the world, and hurry 
about thofe vaft bodies which rowk over 
our heads : let him add the confidcration 
of whatsoever happens in this corporeal 
world, without dependance on him : let 
him put to this the contemplation of the 
Spiritual Wotld, viz. that infinite num- 
ber of Angels and Devils, that prodigi- 
ous number of deceafed > which though 
dead in refpe& of us, are neverthelefs more 
lively audaftive then before; farther, let 
him add the confidcration of men now 
living, who think not on him, know him 
sot, and over whom he hath no power. 
And whilft he is in this contemplation, 
let him ask of himfclf what he is in this 
double world, what is his raAk, his force, 
his grandeur, his ftreagth, in comparifoa 
of that of all other Creatures. 


The principal end of this contempla- 
tion : is, to humble man in the prefence of 


14 C&etffcff Create 

God, and to teach him the knowledge 
his own wcakncfs, compared to the in 
nite power of his Make* Nor is it 
bufinefs of fiziall confcquencc thus to hui 
ble ones fclf : for, then only we grc 
proud of what we are in our felves, wh 
we forget what we are in rcfpe& of G 
Almighty. And for this reafon the Ap 
file St. Titer recommends to us the hui 
bling of bur felves under the power 
hand of God. Hnmiliamini fitb p<tte\ 
manu T>eu It alio aims at the rooting 
of that fain complaifance man feels whi 
he confiders only the rank he holds in tl 
little world, where he (huts himfclf up i 
enlarging the Scene to him; and obligi 
him to look on himfelf as one among 
many other beings, he is brought to I 
the Idea of that Phantaftick great™ 
which he oncly afcribes to himfelf, as ap 
from the reft of. the Creation. But < 
muft drive this nail farther, and make 
appear, that even all the ftrength he p 
Cu^es to have in this his little world 
naught but meer weaknefs, and .that 
sanity, is ill grounded on all fides. 

The ground of all this force, of all t 
prttended greatnefs, is onely our Itf 
tor we regard pur felves only as here, a 

£>f m mwkntfo of $an» i 


took on (in a maimer) all tbofcwhe an 
dead, as annihilated. But what is this 
life j whereon we build thefe pretentions, 
and what power have we to prefcrve it ? 
It depends on the good difpofition of a 
Machine to delicate, and made up of fo 
many Springs ; that, inftead of wondrfag 
how it comes to be the caufc of its own 
mine, wc have reafon to admire, how it 
can fobfift at all* The leaft Vcffcls which 
either break, or are ftopt, by interrupting 
the ceurfe of the Blood and Humours, 
fpoils its ©economy. A little blood fpilt 
in the Brain, is fufficienC to ftop thofc 
pores by which the fpirits find pafiage to 
the Nerves, and fo to ftill all its motions* 
Wc/houldbe fiirpriz'd with wonder, did 
w* but fee how final! that is which caufes 
oar death. Sometimes a drop of fame 
forrain humour, a grain of matter:. wrong 
placed does the deed) and this chop, this 
grain fuffices to overturn ail the ambitious 
defigns of our Conquerors and Lords of 
tht world, and even to annihilate them in 
sefpe& of men* 

1 remember there was cmcefhown to a 
Perfon of great parts and quality, a piece 
of Ivory, moft curio u fly wrought : it wa* 

a man mounted on * Pillar, (b finally that 


16 fc&e ffixti Crettffe, 

the lcaft Wiad was fufficient to (hatter i 
pieces the whole work* nor could 01 
enough admire theexquifiteaddrefs of hii 
that made it. Nevcrthelefc, this Gentl 
man, inftead of being furpriz'd as the re 
were, did fliew himfelf to be fo (truck wit 
the frivoloufncfc of the piece, and fo cor 
cern'd for the lofs of time imploy'd in tt 
making of it, that he could not mind tha 
induftry the others were taken with* 
look'd on this fentiment as very juft, bu 
at the fame time conceived it might fc 
raised to many things of greater conft 
quence. All thofe vaft fortunes by whic 
as by different degrees, ambitious men al 
cend above the heads, not only of th 
commonalty* but alfo of the great ones 
are fuftain'd by props as finally as frail ii 
their kind, as were thole of this piece o 
wrought Ivory. A turn of imaginatioi 
in the mind of a Prince, a malignant va 
pour in the head of thofe about him, an 
enough to bring to the ground this prouc 
building, which after all,hath its founda- 
tion but on the life of our ambitious man 
He once dead, on a fudden his fortunes an 
overthrown and brought to nothing. And 
what is there more brittte, more weafi 
then the life of Man ? With care we ma? 

prefcryc this little piece of Ivory, and 


£f t&e afraftitefc of #am i 

keep it as long as we pleafe > but let wha 
diligence foever be us'd to prefcrve Iff 
there's no means left to hinder its comin 
to a period. 

If men did but reftedk on this uncej 
tainty of their lives, they would be inf 
nitely more referv'd, in engaging in i 
many defigns, and fo many enterpiife 
the comparing of which require men inn 
mortal, and bodies made othcrwifc (he 
ours. Is it credible, that fhould pne ha\ 
pundually told all thofe, ( who we ha\ 
fcen tn our days, to have raised their foi 
canes high, which neverthdefs have bee 
diffipated after their death ) what {houl 
happen to them and their Families > an 
given them cxpttis notice, how chat fo 
lowing the way they have taken, the 
fhould live in fplcndor a certain term ( 
years, yet with a thouiand eares, a thot 
(and perplexities and ■croffesy that the 
fliould do thair utmoft to let up their Fs 
raify, to leave it powerful in goods an 
offices % that at a certain tifoe they (houl 
dyes and that afterwards all tongu< 
and pens fliould be let loofe againft then 
their families e^tinguifh'd, their gooc 
diffipated : is it credible, I fay, that th< 
would have undergone all thofe pains f< 

1 8 fc&ejffcff Cteatffr, 

fo fraall a matter ? fqx my part, I believe 
it not. Though men do not poGtively 
promtfe to themfclvcs Immortality and 
Eternity, for this would be too grofs a 
folly y yet at leaft they never exprefly fix 
their eyes on the narrow boundaries of 
their lives and riches : they are well plcas'd 
to forget, or not to refle A on c*m# And 
for this reafon it is expedient to mind 
them thereof, by (hewing, how all th£ 
fortunes, all the grandeurs they heap up, 
have for a bafis but a life, that every thing 
is capable to dcftroy. 

Again, 'tis but the laying afide the me- 
mory of our life's fraifty, and an ungroun- 
ded confidence to efcape all dangers, which 
makes us undertake tong Voyages to the 
end of the world, and hurry as far as China 
our bodies, that is, as we think, all our 
being, only to bring back fome Spice and 
Varnilh. Truly , if our thoughts were 
juft, and if we equally balanced our hazards 
with what we aim to acquire, we (hould 
certainly conclude, that fo fmall^gaines 
would not deferve to have fo weak a Ma- 
chine as ours, exposed to fo many dangers 
and inconveniences. But we voluntarily 
grow blind, even againft our own inte- 
xefts. We onely love our life, and yet we 


$f tie Wttikntto of 99am 19 

hazard it for every thing » nay, we have 
eftablifh'd as a maxime araongft us, that 
the fear of hazarding it is dUhonourable, 


If a man, no way by his duty obliged 
to take Arms, ifhould, to excufe himfclf 
for not going to the Wars, alledge his- not 
having a head Canon-proof ^ nor a body 
impenetrable by Swords and Pikes > fiich 
an one methinks would fpeak very judi- 
cioufly, and very agreeably to the com- 
mon difpofi t ion of men, whdonely value 
the goods of this prefcnt life. For, feeing 
we cannot enjoy them without we Kve, 
a greater folly cannot be committed, then 
to hazard that life whereon that enjoy- 
ment is bettomU Nevertheless* 'tis 
agreed amongft men , contrary to their, 
own principles, to look on this difcourfe 
as ridiculous : and why ? becaufe they 
have f heir reafons yet weaker then their 
bodies,, as fhalHhortly be made appear. 


: But, as it is onely by diverting his. 
thoughts from confidertog the frailty of 
his lite, that man runs into thefe extrava- 
gancies , and afterwards falls into this pre- 
iumption of his own ftrength v fo it will 
berequifite continually to lay before his 
cyes^ how all hi$ gteaXncfs, whether of ^ 


ao %fa SFitftZtmib, 

body or mind: which he afliimes to himfel£ 
is entirely fixM to this mifcrable life* 
which of it felf is faften'd to nothing, but 
cxpofed to the aflault of a thoufand acci- 
dents. Nay, though no ill one befall us,. 
yet the whole Machine of the world with 
an invincible force, labours inceflantly to 
deftroy our bodies : the motion of all na- 
ture dayly carries away fome parr of us, 
our life is a building, whofe foundation, 
nature, without intermiflion, undermines, 
and which will fall, when the props that 
fuftain it, fhall be ruin'd ; nor doth any one 
preetfely know hojv near, or how fax he is 
off frbm this condition; 

Tis ftrange men can, truft to their life 
as to fomcthing firtft and folid i .men, who 
have fo continual and fo convincing argu- 
ments of its infallibility. I mean not the 
deaths of thofe like themfelves, ^hom 
eyery moment they fee difappean and 
who are as fo many Trumpets, proclaim- 
ing aloud, that they are mortals, and that 
it will fliortly be their turn to difappca* 
too, as well as they* Neither fpeak I of 
unufual difeafes, which are as fo many 
Jaflies to waken them out of their Lethar- 
gy, and warn them to think of dying. 
I fpeak only of the ncceffity they lye under 


'• * 

€) f tfje caeafencfe of ^m 2 

of repairing dayly the wafte of their Be . 
dies by eating and drinking. What is thei : 
of more force to make them feel their o wi i 
weakne(s ? then, by this continual need, 
to convince them of the continual decay 
of that body they endeavour to repair and 
make good againft that impetuous torrent 
of nature, inceflantly hurrying it to death? 
Hunger and Thirft, properly (peaking, are 
mortal Difeafes * they fpring from caufes 
incurable, and if for fomc time we give 
a flop to the effe&, yet in the end they carry 
it againft all remedies. 

Let the gr eateft wit in the world be two 
days without eating, you (hall prefently 
ice him languishing, without a&ion, with- 
out thought almoft, and folely taken up 
with the fentiment of his weaknefs and 
decay. There is a neceffity of nourifli- 
ment, to make thofe fprings of his brain 
play, without which his Soul can do no- 
thing. What deferves to humble us more 
than this neceffity? yet is not this the 
mod troublefomc,iince 'tis not the hardef) 
to be cured* that of deep is far more, 
that we maylive, we muft dye every day, 
-seafing to think and act like rational Crea- 
tures, and permitting our (elves to fail in- 
to a condition wherein man is fcarce dl 


12 C&e JFfcff Cteatffe, 

ftinguifh'd from Beads* and this flat* 
wherein we live not, carries away a great 
part of our life* 


We muft undergo thefc ncceffiries bc- 
caufe God hath laid them on us. Never- 
thelefs, it would be very reafonabie, at 
kaft to look on them as marks of our weak* 
nefs, fincc that partly to mind mid of his 
abjedion, it hath pteas'd God every day 
in this manner to reduce him to the ftate 
and condition of Brutes. In the mean 
while, fuch is the extravagancy of men, 
that they change intocaufes of vanity, that 
which ought tnoft to humble them. There 
is nothing wherein they make appear, (if 
their abilities ferve them) more pomp and 
magnificence, than in their Banquets h they 
pride thcmfelvcs in thisfhamefulneceffity, 
and lb far they are from taking thence an 
occafionof humility, that even it ferves 
to diftinguifti them from others, when 
they are in a condition to do it with more 
ftate and oftentation. 


'Tis an eafie matter fpeculatively to per. 
fwadc men of the weaknefs of their bodies, 
and miferies of their nature ; though it be 
a task of much difficulty to make them 
draw this fo naturally flowing conclufion, 


£Df t&e GHealttteft of £0m, 

to wit, that they ought toict no value 
whatfeever kans on fo tottering and : 
weak a foundation as their lives. Butth | 
are fubjed tp other wcakneflcs, whi 
they do not only negkft, but are not co 
vine'd they are lyablc ,to them. They fi I 
an eftcemon their knowledge, their quk 
fight, their virtue, the ftrength, and coir, 
prehenfivenefs of their undcrftandingi the 
fincy themfeltes capable of great matters 
The common difcourfes of men are full o 
the Elogies they beftow on one another fo 
thefe endowment) of mind : and the pro. 
penfity they have to accept without farthei 
examen for currant, whatfoever is faid t< 
their advantage, is the caufe, that, if the] 
have any good quality, they take not ,theii 
raeafurcs to judge thereof, from what it i 
realty, but from that common Idea thq 
perceive of it in others. 


But we ought to take for a very grea 
weafcnefs this propenfity to judge of things 
not according to truth, but the opinion c 
others. For , 'tis evident, that a falf 
judgement cannot give a real being to wha 
has none. If then we are not humbl 
enough not to take a certain complaifanc 
in what we really have, let us at leaft no 
be fo I ootiihly vain, as, upon the teftimori 

v * 

24 Cfje JPfi^lCreattfe, 

of another, to attribute that to our ie 
which we may know we have nat. Wl 
. - fore let us examine what it is that puf] 
up : let us fee what there is of real anc 
lid in humane Sciences and virtues* an< 
us at leaft loppoff whatfoever welhaJJ 
to be vain and falfe. 


Knowledge is either of words, deed! 

things. I eafily grant, that men are aW 

make a great progrefs in the fcience of w 

and fjgns,that is, in the knowledge of 

arbitrary connexion they hav made of 

tain founds, with certain Idea's. I can 

admire the capacity of their mem 

wheih are able to contain, without < 

fufion, fo many different images of thi 

provided it be granted me, that this i 

of knowledge is a great proo£ not c 

of our great ignorance, but alfo of 

being almoft incapable of knowing 

thing \ For, of it felf it i*of no price 

fccnefit. 'Tis onely to come to the kn 

ledge of things that we learn the feni 

words » 'tis but the way apd means, 

\ the end wefeek after: yet this way i 

I long, thefe means fo hard, that they 

1 us a great part of our life. Nay, n 

[ imploy it wholly on this ftudy *, anc 

I the profit they thence reap, is to I 

L . ~ Ie; 

learnt, thatcertaia figns ate ftt apart by 
ibcb, to figbrfie certain things i without* 
being at alt advanced thereby toward* 
knowing thew nature. Nemthelefc, fa 
vain it man, that he caff boaft efthJsUad 
of fclence, nay, onfedethheballd snoft 
of Ws vanity y beeauftnc hath net power 
to wit Wand and flight ihe approbation of 
th<&Ig**r*m*St who art wont to admire 
Abhasare^sttrkts ofit* • - : 

•> ■ 


- • xxxt •' • J . • • 

t Mot « thW<n^hnwtefolld[ty factfe 
knowledge of ©etd*or Hlftorfeal r*frW 
How fewatc^heretttie^kf* final! tbChuftt- 
be* of thofc that aweafadty related in ffl- 
ftories? We may judgt bv Tuch as wehaTe 
hki i peculiar knowJe&e -df; that hare been 
wwtt*n b* others. »Nttw where* the* 
means- todir«hg 8 ifl,'thfe taHe from the true, 
ta« u»«rtaf»!rrbr^%rie'cert«te^ We 

may in general know, that all Historians 
whatfoerer, fall (hort of the truth i iffio- 
cete, with a good intention,, rfotherwifc. 
with a bad one **ut, •afr'he doth Jiot'ad2 ! 
vertife »s wnea-W fc% iwervw fronv 
truth, we cannot but Be fornetftoes de- 

E*f*then, -when weeanrot fay that HT- 
* C fiories 

I? "' * 

16 fttemrtXtmnty 

Aorif ; a$e r ftlfe, &>** diffident are ( thti 

tpns are Expteft* thsrattiatcJ, that is 
feparatcd from thole fccrcfr PVtt ion? ;whicl 
gave then* life* tad Jforp (bofe circum 
fiances wt4cb;icfi«ti^t^l ^<j «^ *H<ta 
fu^efs. ftfwfiaff Sfeff tfoi^ippiiJk&Jlfc 
ktons, Iiri(fa% wM^^^i^ba 
fectn ta df pco^pft /w vfpfiflgft^^lo^ 
indeed they were nc^f^r^rtoc^hvitwA 
dependance on an infinite number c 
caufes, to which tjapf Jfctc faften'd, an 
which prop'd them up, and gave thei 

body,.; Y Thi»:W^;i9ftllfWW^ 

very incpnfid^l« jpfUgfr^ igAfofti 

iqg in n^^WA^*^^ 

tather to humbly bin^ with the fight & h 

wcaknpfr * fince at the fame time, thaGl 
finds;^ ff jnd ? fill'd wrtfcifcch a-JHtafef < 
I^fiS: «9Vin «ut,;bf .gUJorics, ,he <n*j 
aliq^n^ft^inielf jffm\l 4 
ttinguilh lfcl^9P*ifiml/tofc AaiU 
not lb, ,:-.*.* : ' / 

•, • j . .?P£XIL:, t ., ... 
We may place to the ftnae account, t! 

knowledge we Mfcof n$i* ^io&«i$.< 
feywj points -wfoh jthey fe&v# ra^de t 
fubje&s of thqr ipecylatioBft^r) ftw th< 
too make up a cbnfiderable part of Wh 
we call- feicnefc For, as if we,h*d 
■ '" " ' s ' * Et< 

fl)f t&eCfleaitnefcof $9am 27 

Eternity of time to lofe, we are not fa- 
tisffd with informing our felves what 
things in reality are, bat wc,muft keep an 
account toot>f all the Fancies and Whim* 
fits of others concerning them : or rather 
not being able tofucceedin finding truth, 
we content our (elves to know their fen- 
timents, who have gone in qucft after it » 
and believe for example, we are great Phi- 
lofophers, or great Phyfitians, becaufcwc 
know on each particular point the opinions 
of feveral that are fo. But, as we become 
not richer for being acquainted with all the 
dreams of thole who have hunted after the 
art of making Gold > neither (hall we in 
like manner become wifer for having our 
memories burden*d with their imaginati- 
ons, who have fought after, but never 
found out truth. 

Only therefore the knowledge of things, 
that is, that fcience which aims at (atis- 
tying our under (landings with truth is," 
what can have any fohdity in it. Yet 
(hould men, even in this, advance far, 
and make great progreiTes, they ought not. 
neverthelefs, therefore to fct a value and 
efteem on their felves * fince thefc barren. 
knowledges are (b little able to yield them 
any fruit or (olid content, that one would 

C 2 be 

be full a? h^ppf in bidding them forthwith 
farewell, as in advancing them, by long 
toyle, tothchigheft pitch he can. Let a 
great Mathematician labour, and break his 
brain as much a* he plcafe, to find out fomft 
new (Ut$ in the Heaven?, and trace the 
ways of Comets? •• We need wcly rcfteft 
How caGly we may diipence with this fort 
of knowledge, not to envy jrim, and be 
foil as happy as he. And indeed, the con- 
tent we take in them, rife not from the 
pqiTcfllon but acquisition of e'm. As foou 
V once we arrive there, they ceafe to be 
in out thoughts. *Tis only the icrutiny 
zpd Catch Which gives a divcrfion to our 
mind, becaufc it is fed with th« vain hope 
of an imaginary good which it promifes 
itfetf in the difcovcry; but that once over* 
and it no more held up and animated by 
that hope, it muftj to avoid tcdioulhefs, 

fccK fome other imployment, 

' But it is not fufficicnt that nun draw 
motives of humility from the unprofitable* 
nefsof thefc Sciences > he .ought moreover 
to acknowledge, that whatever can there- 
in be attain d by him, is aknoft nothing, 
and that the greateftpart of humane Phi" 
lofophy, is oneiyaheapof things obfcure, 

uncertain, and even falfe. Nor need we 





€ft&e0^alm©ofi!9am 10 

afty other proof than what hath happen'4 
in our days. During the fpace of three 
rhoufand years, Philofophers, on fcvcral 
principles, have difeours'd of natures 
when, behold, from a corner of the world 
comes a man, who hath changed the whole 
face of Philofophy , and who pretends to 
make it appear, that all thofe who went 
before him, knew nothing of the princi- 
ples of nature. Nor are thefe onety vain 
promifes; for it muft be confefs'd, that 
this new comer gives us more light to- 
wards the cogniftnee of Natural Beings, 
than all thofe, together. Neverthelefs, 
whit good lack foever he hath had in lay- 
ing open the little folidity there, is in the 
Principles of the Vulgar Philofophy* yet 
he hath left in his own many obfeurities, 
impenetrable by humane wit* For Ex* 
ample, what he tells us of Space, and of 
the nature of Matter, is the fubjeft ctf 
ftrange difficulties •, and t fear much thofe 
who are not ftartled at them, are rather 
led by Pafflon than Evidence. Whit 
greater Example can we have of the weak- 
nefs of Mans Wit, than to find that for 
three thou&nd years together , thofe a- 
mongft men whb feem'd to bt the flurpeft 
fighted, have bufied thctafelves in ration- 
ing about Nature : and yet after fo touch 

C 3 labour 

30 Cfce JFtcff Zmttto, 

labour, and in fyight of the infinite num- 
ber of Books they have writ on this fubjeft, 
we are to begin again » and the greatcft 
profit we can draw from their works, is 
to learn, that Philofophy is a. Tain employ- 
ment, and that in it we know almoft no- 


When ignorant people caft their eyes on 
thole great Libraries, which one may, in 
a manner, call the Magazines and Store- 
houfes of the thoughts of men > they fancy 
that man would be very happy, or at lcaft 
very learned, who knew whatever is con* 
tained in thofc great heaps of Volumes, 
which they look on as Treafures of Light 
and Truth. But here they judge amifs : 
When all this (hould be got united info 
one bead > yet would not this head be ei- 
ther better ordered, orwifcr, or happier: 
It would but increafe its confufion, and 
obfeure and darken its light > and when 
all's done, this head would not differ much 
from a material Library, . For as one can- 
not read but in one Book at once, and in 
that but one Page ; fo he that (hould have 
in his head all thefe Books, could not be a- 
Me to apply himfelf at once but to pa? 
Book,and to one certain part of that Book. 
'AU the reft would in (braeibrt be as much 


out of his thoughts, as if he knew it not at 
all > and all the advantage he could draw 
thence, would be, that he could fometimtfs 
(apply the want 'of Books, by feajching 
with trouble in his memory for whk he 
keeps thete , and yet (hall he not be to a£ 
fared thereof, as if he at the fame time, 
took the pains to confult his Books there- 
upon. : »'.'.■ * 


To comprehend therefore hotv fmalttfce 
fcience of men is, we itiuft defcend as it 
were by degrees to the low pdint whereun* 
to It Is reduced* Smalt Would our know- 
ledge be, were out Soul capable atl at once 
** apply it ftlf; to whUtfoevcr is ftdr'd up 
in oar memory* for even then weflioufd 
- know fyatfew IVuths. Rrt we, is I juft 
: now faid 9 are only capable of knbwing 
one ObjtA, and me Truth at a time : All 
other things are buryed in cor memory, as 
. if they were not there Behold now our 
Science reduced to the knowledge of oke 
only Obje& : But in what manocr too do 
we know that* If it con tains dlVers qua- 
lities, we refled on but one at a time, ' We 
divide tht moft fimple Beings into Afters 
Idea's, becaufe our Soul is tbdtairroft to 
comprehend t him all. All f^ too much 
for it ; Wcottuft contract ted Idfch 

C 4 ^ at 

whatever we conftier* or at lea&tapp-off 
the greatcft part* |to proportion it to our 

The feeing*withour underjtanding^iaah 
fomething like to th»t ; with pur Eyes * I 
mean the one is as (hwt m\& fuperfidal as 
other. Our Eyes peir?e not into the 
depth of Bodies, the fur&ce terminates, 
their fight ; the iarther they extend it, the 
more confofed it grows* and to tic W any 
thing exa&Iy* we muft lofe the fight b( 
all others* Obje&s, if removed far from 
us, are t by the weakneQ of the Organc 
wherein their Image is received, reduced 
to the faallneft of the leaftJkrfi^ here a* 
bout us. Thoft prodigious hulks we call 
Statp* *Q our £*cs are but taints* and ap- 
j>car to aa akaoftbut as Sparta/ Behold 
the portraiture of the fight of our mind ! 
'tis but the bark and faperftde* that we 
know of moft . things* We %: aa it were, 
loofta fr^m them a thin Jkinonfilra^ to 
ni^ke thereof the Ob)t& (if onr thoughts, 
If thc.Otyedts be of any extent* v^c are 
confounded* we muftofncccffityconfidtr 
them bf piece-meal, and it often happens, 
that the multiplicity of parts jnft fui*di- 
vide, them into* brings us 1 into thar coi*~ 
fyfiqn m defired to pom; sVttoffififm # 

quicqmd pdvettm fiSkm tfi* ft Ofycfitt 
be not near and prcfent to Gut Settles, 'tli 
but a point thereof we often teach to* 
and we frame Idea's lb weak, (b (null of 
the greateft and moftdreadfol things, that 
they make a lefs hnpreffioh on our tlndet* 
fitndmgs , than even f he kaft of thofe 
which moveand wotk upon ou* Scnfe. 

But here's not all yet* thoufh what 
our Undcrftanding can comprehend of 
truth be confidence v yet hath it not even 
of this a firm and affined poflcflion : Thik 
often comes to be troubled by diffidence, 
incertatnties. Falfity appears to us clad iti 
Colours fo like thoft of Truth, that wt 
lofe our fel?es, and know not where wt 
aft* Hence it is, that we lay hold on, and 
embrace Truth but weakly, and tremb- 
lingly as it were , nor do we arm and de- 
fend our fclves agabft this incer tainty, but 
by a certain inmnd, and a certain fenti- 
men t, which makes us adhere to the Truths 
we know, in fpight of the reafons which 
fecra contrary thereunto. 


Behold then to what a low ebb the 
knowledge men fo much boaft of, is redu- 
ced , u .whf to the knowing a faiall num- 
ber of Truths one by one, and that in a 


34 Zbtsmzmm, 

weak and diffident manner. Bat even of 
thefc Truths how many are almoft ufelefc 
and of thofc that arc ufeful in themfclvcs,' 
how few are fo to us, and which may not 
prove Principles of Error > For it is ano- 
ther cfie& of the Weakncfi of Man, that 
even ligjit blinds him fometimes as well as 
darknels, and that Truth as well as Falfw 
ty deceives him. And the reafon is, that, 
conclufions depending ordinarily on the 
connexion of fever al Truths, not on the 
knowledge of one only > it often comes to 
pafs that one fole Truth imperfe&ly 
known, being by miftake look'd on as a 
fufficient guide, raifieads us into Errors. 
For Example, how many are there who 
run headlong into indifcretions , led by 
the knowledge of this particular Truth, 
that we owe corredion to our Neighbour? 
How many are there who authorize their 
debauches, by Maxims moft true, touch- 
ing Chrifyan condefcenGon and com- 


If no track appear, we go a&ray, if ma- 
ny, we are confounded > and the quick 
fight of our mind, which difcovers many 
reafon? , and lays open to us large Pro- 
Jpe&s, is as capable of deceiving us, as a 
doltifh ftupidity that fees nothing. Often 



we are deceived by the impreffim other* 
give us whilft "they communicate ' to us 
their Errors ; and fomctimes we deceive 
our felves, whilft we difcovcr thrmfao* 
titers \ for we are inclined to biMeve^that 
they arc wrong in alf, whereas they arc 
tmftaken often but in part' 

The difcovering of T*uth' in *jbft 
things, depends on the Gomparifbn foad& 
betwixt Likelyhoods : But 9 what raort 
deceitful than this Companion ? Or, what • 
of it felf carries lcG of likelyhood, being : 
placed more in ik w by the manner df exs . 
ptelfion, and confidcred with more earrieft* 
nefs and palfion, is capable of making a 
deeper impreffion in bur minds, than ma* 
vfy other things * which*- though ground - 
dedonreaibnsfefmorcfolid, arcpropofctf i 
obfairdy* andharkriedtone^igentiy/ani i 
without- concern or pa (Eon. Hence the - 
in-equalky of clearness* iht iirauaHty df \ 
application* and the inequality rf faJmrt* , 
often countcipoife; or entirely overcome ^ 
the- advantage one reafon hath over an*** - 
iher, eilhea iirfolidityorHkclyhoodis 


But what adohiflies tnoft of ifffe, Jftafc* 

the mind of MSm being fo> weal^fo'nar-* 

tow, fi> limited, fi* prone tagpaftrtyy i 5 s 

afc* 1 

t the Cunc tip*, ncvartfcMs Cp full jjf 
refumption, that there's nothing it can** 
tt beUeve it fclf capable <^ provide^ there 
c any who in this particular dp cajollc 
ad flatter it. What is there more appa- 
sitly above the understanding and reach ■■ 
f the moft part of Mankind, particularly 
F the fimplc and ignorant fort , than to 
tfqrrn amongft the various Points difpu- 
id and contefted among Chriftians, which 
re to be rejeded, which to be followed? • 
o decide rationally only one of thefc Que* 
ions, there's required a very great, and • 
Mom found extent and comprchenfion of 
lind t What then (hall we fay when our.; 
anftfn h to decide them all , and f by 
HnpjpingtheReafonsand Motives of each 
briftian Society, to make choice of a Re- 
gion . In the mean time the Authors of 
ew Heretics have petfwaded a hundred i 
millions of Men, that nothing herein fuc- . 
atfs'd the ftrength of their ow^ wit Nay* 
ren thif has been the way, by which they. 
ave brought them over to themfelves : , 
"heir followers have thought it a fine thing 
5 be themfelves Judges of Religion by a 
eculiar difcuffioq of contefted Points* and 
icy have look'd on this right of judging 
iq$i put jinto their hands, as a con&kra* 
le advantage the famn Church had un- 


^m^emmormm 37 

jaftly taken from tkfflU Nevcrthdcfi, we 
ought not ctfc^rc to fcekfo* the caufc of 
this prtfttfliption, thcftlntheWcakneftof 
Mao. lit foklyjHoccedsfirom this^that Maft 
it fo fat from knowing Truth, that he is 
ignOtant oiks Masks raC&ao&ert. Of* 
ten he has but confuted Idea's and Notions 
of the very terms of evidence, and ccrti* 
tydc : and benceit isheapplysthemby ha- 
maid to all the idle glkapfes that ftrikc his 
fight. Whatever pleafes him, ftrair be* 
comes evident. , Thus when an Heretick 
hath made his own fancies facrcd, by the ti- 
tles he gives- them of undoubted Truths 
ckatty contained in Scripture » prefently 
he fmothers all doubts which can be rtis'd 
againfi thcamtor does he give himJctf leave, 
t* confider them > or if he do. he only 
looks on them as objc&ions and difficul- 
ties \ and fo takes from them all the force 
they had to make any impreJfion on his 

If therefore humane wit be fo inconfide* 
table even then when it befttss k felf, and is 
in fearch of Truth, what (ball weiay of it, 
when abaadon'd to the weight of its own 
body, when it a<9:a but by the Scnfts, as it 

happens in moft past of Men* 



This is what the Scripture teaches m} 
when it fay*, That the Etrtkty ip^hng 
ftefles damn the mini) tbinkptg on many 
things. For , difcorering to us in ; theft* 
words the natural adkivenefs of the mmd, 
which makes it able of it fetf to frame 
great variety of thoughts, and to cornpre^ 
hend an* infinite • number of Obje&s > a* 
the fame time it fets before our Eyes the 
condition whereto the mind is reduced by 
its union with a corrupt Body, and by the 
neceffities of this prdent life > which *fo 
clog and weigh down the mind, though of 
it felf never fo adive, penetrating, and 
comprehenfive, that they confine it- to a 
▼ery froall circle of grofs and material Ob* 
jeds, amongft which it rowls continually* 
but with a. motion flow and feeble, and 
which (bews nothing of the excellence and 
greatnefs of.its nature, ki fine, if we 
look about, and conlider all the Men ii* 
the world, we (hall find almoft all fo fot tiflv 
and ftupid, that if Reafon be not mtirely 
cxtrnd in them, at leaft it is of ft) little 
ufe , that it amazes one to think how a 
Soul can be reduced, to fuch a Brutality 
A Cambal, a Brafilian y a Negro, a Green* 
lander , or Laplander > about what bufics 
their thoughts > to hunt, toAfh. to dance, 


to revenge themftlvcs of theii Eneinie** 
and that's all. 

But, without travelling fo far for Exam- 
pies of Mans ftupidity, what takes up the 
thoughts of our Labouring Men ? They 
think on their work, of eating, drinking, 
fleeping, calling in their debts, paying 
cuitom t and a fmall number df fitch things* 
As for other matters, they are, as it were, 
unienfible ; and they are fo accuftpmed to 
run this round in the little circle, that 
they become uncapable of conceiving any 
thing beyond it. If one tell them of God; 
Hell, Heaven, of Religion, and the Pre-* 
cepts and Rules of -Morality , they eithct 
under/fond not, or in a trice forget what 
is faid,, and their minds presently return 
again to this little circle of grofe Obje&s, 
whereunto they are acuftomed. If they 
are infinitely removed by their nature from 
that of Brutes, fuch as it in reality is v yet 
are they Tittle different from the conceit 
we have of them > for we fancy a Brute to 
be \ certain Animal , that thinks , yet 
thinks but little and feldore, whofe Idea's 
and thoughts are coufufed and grofs, and 
which is able to comprehend but a very 
fmall number of Objedb. Thus we con- 
ceive a Horfe to be an Anknal,which tMpks 


40 . CftemCttttffr, 

ef eating, fleeping, and running* For all 
that, this is not the Idea of a Horfc » for a 
Machine thinks not at all : Bat it is the 
proper Idea or Notion of a ftupid doltifh 
Man t and to <ay the truth, few other 
thoughts need be fuper-added to theft, to 
flame the notion of a wild tartar. 

Ne verthelefs, the number of thofe who 
fcarce think at all, and who are wholly em. 
ployed about the neceffities of this prefent 
life, is fo great of thofe others f whofd 
minds are in ibme motion and agitation, 
is nothing compared to it. For, even a- 
mongft Chriftians, the number of ftupid 
ones comprehends almoft all our Labouring 
Men, all our Poor, the gteateft part of , 
Women of low degree, and all Children, , 
without exception* Ail thefe fpend their 
whole life almoft on \ nothing but the 
thoughts of iatisfying the neceffities of , 
their Bodies, of finding out a means how . 
to live, of buying and felling ^ and even , 
of thefe things they frame thoughts con. . 
fufed enough. But of other Nations, par* 
ticularly thole who art. the moft Barba- 
rous, it comprehends the whole mafs of - 
people, without any refer vc at alU 


It U certain, that thofe who live by bo* 



Aly labour, to all the poor m the world do, 
think left than others v and that this Ja* 
boar and work make* even their Soul tnorie 
heavy. On the contrary, Riches which 
allow more liberty and leafure to entertain 
one another, as alb thofe employments of 
mind which oblige them todifcourfc toge- 
ther, hinder their Souls from filling into 
& great a ftupidity ♦ The mind of a Lady 
at Courtis okhc Alining, a&ivc, than that 
of a Country Woman y and the mind of a 
Magiifratc,th*nthatof a Tradcfman. Bat 
as there is move of motion, and more t- 
Alon, fo thereto for the moft part more of 
malice and tanity v fotmfcch, that there b 
jaaorc of real good in an honcft iimple Jte- 
-pWity, than k this adivity foil of art tfidc 

' XLVHi. 
In fine, to faiih the Pi&ure of the 
Weakneftof Mans mind, we muft moreo- 
ver confider, that let hirthoughts be never 
fo exaft and ttde, yet be Is often hutried 
with violence from them by a natural d& 
order of his itraginatibn, A fmall Ay pat 
fiog before his able to diftra& him, 
when in the moft ftrious contemplation. 
A thoufand Idle Idea's and Whimfies dl- 
fturb and confound hitti, in fpight of his 
teethv atidfo little i* he miftcr of himfclf, 
. --1 that 

4£ Q%t fitHZtt&tifc, 

that he cannot hat caft a look at Icaft on ■ 
theft idle rain fancies <> taking off his 
thoughts from considering the moft itnpor* 
tant matters. ., May we not With.reafbn 
caH this condition of Man a beginning of 
folly i for, as abfolute folly conbfts in aft 
intire diforder of the imagination f pw* 
ceedkg from hence, that the Images itte- 
prefents are fo lively, that the: mind no 
more diftinguiflies the fclfe from the true 
ones » fo the power that 'the imagination 
has to fet before the mind thefc Imagts, 
without the leave or confent of the WHi> 
is a certain commencement of folly, andto 
tender it compleat, there. needs only an 
encreafe of fome degrees of heat -in the 
brain, and make thefe Itoag**m<uc livtlj . 
So that betwixt the condition, of thdwi- 
feft man in the world, and that of the mod 
abfolute fools, theonly difference is forae 
degrees of heat and agitation in the Aril- 
fiial Spirits. And we are not 6nly fore'd 
to own our felvesr capable of lolly -, but 
moreover we muft acknowledge that we 
fcjl andfeeitperfe&y&rm'd in u$> whtlft 
we know not where it ftickfc that if bo- 
comes not abfolute by an int irc<vcrfion of 
our mind. 

Though our weak; evpt to .the 


degree we hare (hewn ; yet it this nothing 
in refped of the Wcakriefc of. the other 
part of Man, to wit, his Will. And it 
may be (aid, comparing them together, 
that his fit engtb confiftsin his Reafon, and 
that his weaknefs fprings from the impo- 
tency of his Will, to condufr hirafclf by 
reafon. ^ 

•Tis agreed on all hands, that reafon is 
given to ferve us for a guide during thb 
life v that by k we may diftinguMh betwixt 
Good and Evil, and know how to regu- 
late our defires and adions. But how 
few are they, who make ufe of it to this 
purpofe * and who live, I fay not accor- 
ding to Truth and Juftice, but even accor- 
ding to their own reafon, all Mind and all 
difordered as-it is? We are toft on the Sea of 
this world at the plcafure of our Pamonf, 
hurrying us fomettmes this, fomctimes that 
way, like a Ship without Stil, without Pi- 
Jot : And it is not Reafon which makes ufe 
of Pa (Sons, but Paifions* which make ufe 
of Reafon to compafs their ends i and this ' 
is all the ftead Reafon ftands ys in for. the 
moftpart* > ' 


Often alfo Reafon it felf is brib'd and 

corrupted. It fees what ought to be done, 

is €onvinc'd of the fiivoloufaefe of the 


44 COeJffttfftEeatffr, 

things wc arc carried away with : Yet ctn> 
it not ward off the violent impre (lions 
they give us* flow many have engaged 
themfelves in Duells, at the fame time 
deploring and condemning both this 
wretched Cuftom, and themfelves for fol- 
lowing it >- Yet they had not the powe* 
to flight the judgment-of thofe fools, who 
would have efteemed them cowaf ds,(hould' 
they have obeyed and yielded to rtafon* 
How many ruin* their Eftatcs in foolifli 
expences, and * educe themfelves to ex- 
tream miferies, becaufe they cannot over- 
come the falfe fhame they fcel> not to do as 
others do ? 

What eafier t&k Is there than to con* 
Vtnce the w6rid of the little worth and 
fofidity of whatfoever draws man after it > 
In the mean time, in fpight of all thefe 
Arguments* this Bugbear of Reputation, 
of Honour, of Place, and a thoufand of 
other things at vain and idle, lead and o- 
vcrturn men at pleafure* becaufe their 
Souls have neither force > folidtty t nor weight 
to fix them* 


What would one lay of a Soulier* who, 
being advert ifed in that , in a Show repre- 
senting a Skirmifh, the Mafque ts and Ca- 
nons only charged with Powder, (hould 

never j 

M tjje C&eafctte& of &eau 45 

neverthelefs dop his head, and at the firft 
diicbarge run away ? ihould not one fay, 
that hU cowardice approached near to 
♦folly* And yet this is what we our fdves 
do every day. We are warned, that the 
words and judgments of Men are as unca- 
pable of htutipg, as they are of being any 
way ferviceable to us, they an neither 
t*k$ from us our Goods, nor relieve or 
comfort us in our Evils, And neverthe- 
less thefc words, thefc judgments are fuffi- 
cicat to trouble us, and difcompofc the 
quiet temper t>f our Souls. A wry look, 
an ill word make/ us cholerkk , and we 
prepare to return it back, as if it were 
{poKthiag very formidable* We muft be 
fleered and careK&d like Children to be 
kept in a good humour * clfc in our fafliion 
we fall a crying, as Children do in theirs. 

It is a thing mail certain, that the im* 

patience Men (hew on alloccafions, hath 

Its rife from foroe paffion. But the paffions 

themfelves fpjripg (torn weiknefs, and the 

deader tye their Soul has to true and (olid 

Qoods. . And* to ufiderftand this, we may 

confider that, as it is not weaknefcm oun 

Body to have need of the Earth to fuftain 

it, this being the qtfur*! condition of all 

Bodies S but wf only then term it weak, 


45 C&e IFfcff Ctwttfe, 

iirhco it hatlv need to be underprop'd by 
(bone thing that bclopgs not to it, when 
it mull be carried* or make ufe of a ftaffj 
and is in danger of being overturned by e- 
very little Waft ; So the weaknefs of the 
Soul confifts not in that it needs fomething 
of. true and folid to fuftain it, and that it 
cannot fubfift as hanging in the Air, with- 
out bring faftned to fomeObjed:Or,if this 
be a weaknefs, 'tis an eflentialone to what* 
focvei is created, which not being felf-fuf- 
ficfent , is forced to feck clfcwhcrc fome- 
thing for its fupport. 

But the true weaknefs of the Soul con- 
fifts,in that it refisand leans upon nothing, 
as the Scripture fays, and not upon things 
real and folid : Or , if k rely on fopnc 
Truth, this Truth fuffices it not, nor it 
hinders its need of a thoufand other props, 
the want of which throws it immediately 
down into defpair. This weaknefs of the 
Soul confifts in that the lead blaft is able to 
bereave it of its repofe > that the leaft«trU 
fle, (hake$, torments, and troubles it ; and 
in that it cannot make head againit the 
icrprdfion of a thoufand things, whereof 
it felf knows the faltity, and the nothing- 


This is in little the Image of Mans 


Weakncfsi And it is worth the while to 
take a patticular view thereof that one 
may obdarvei Us deficient ftrekes. .'■ 

Although* Mtfn cannot in this life have 
true tcpofe, yet 'tis certain he is not al- 
ways naclancholly, :or in defpair. There 
i? a neceffity his Soulihould (bmetime be 
rixt, becaufe it is Weak *nd unconftanf, 
that it cannot evcate in a continual agi- 
tation, i The greateft misfortunes become 
tokabte in-time, the fentiment we have of 
them is loft and vanifhes away* Poverty, 
fhamc, difcafes, the lofe of ouil being a> 
bandoncd by.Ftiends wPatents, Children; 
gives us blows whofe (mart lafls not long > 
the agitation they £t vens by degrees grows 
lefs, till it quite ceafes. 

The Soul then arlaft finds fome kind of 
repofe, and it is common to all Men, to 
have foroetime or other during their life 
a calm anil untroubled difpofition of mind* 
but that fo fickle and unfteady, that almoft 
any thing is enough to dtfcompofe it, ' 

The reafon is, • becaufe Man doth not 

maintain himfelf in it, by adhering to an jr 

folid Truth he knows clearly ; but by lean- 

ing to a number of petty fuppoits, and is 

*s it were faftned by a world of weak and 

fmall threads, taa no left number of vain 

things, and which depend noron hiih* So 


48 C&eJFfeft ftt8tffe< 

tb*t> u it a Ways happens, that fame of 
tfafe threada bteak, he in pari* falls* and 
thereby receives a'ftake, which difcoropo^ 
fes him. We ate ca jollcd and carried away 
with the little circle of friends and appro- 
vers which environ us; For every one en* 
deavours to procure himfelf fijeh a. circle, 
and ufgally cotapofi&k, We are carried 
away with: the obedience and aftbfrion of 
oar Servants, ttw prote&ion of great 
oac$ f with our little fucccffes> withprai- 
fes, divortiCeipents , and plcafures. We 
are atnufiid with, employments, with the 
hopes we nourHh* with thedefigns we 
fQr% with the works we under taka > We. 
are taken with thecurtofity of a Cabinet, 
a Garden, a Country Houfe. In fine, it' 
is wonderful to think to whata numbe* of 
things the Soul adheres, and how xtway • 
little props and helps are neceflloy tofkeep 

. While we are mailers of thefe things^ 
vie know not how great our dependence 
on them is* But when they fail, as they ; 
often do , by our refentment for t&eir - 
1q(s, we learn, that w6 had a reality. 
and aife&ion to them. A broken Glaft 
puts us out of patience » our repofe there- 
fore depended thereon. A falfcan4 ridi- 

C>f t&e caeakneCaf of ^att* . 


culous cenfure which an impertinent fclli 
fhall make of us, toaches as to thequic 
The cftcem therefore this impertinent I 
low had , or at leaft , our not knowii 
the falfe judgment he made of us, conti 
butcd to our repofe, and without our b 
ing aware of it, we rcfted and leant 

Lv* * 
We have not only a continual need c 
thefe vain helps, but fo great is our weak 
nefs, that they are not able to fuftain u 
long. We muft change h elfe by our weigh 
we (hftuld break them. Whilft Birds an 
in the Air, theycannpt (Vay therVwithou 
motion > nor eafily in the fame place, botl 
becaufc .what fuftains them is not folid 
and on the other fide, they have not fore 
and vigour enough of themfelves to4>ea: 
up again (b what drives them downwards 
They iriuft be in a continual agitation, an< 
by new impulfes j>tven the Air, they mui 
without intermimon make it apt to Tup 
port them* But as foon as th^y ceafe r< 
make ufe of this Art,Nature hath taugh 
them, like other heavy Bodies they fall t( 
the ground. Our Spiritual weakn^fs fuf 
fers efle&s like to thefe. We reft and trul 
to the Judgments of Men, to the Pleafurc 
of Senfc, to Humane Comforts, as to a 

D Ai 

Air that keeps us up for a time : But, be- 
caufe things of this nature have no folidi- 
ty* if we ceafc to ftir, if we change not 
the Objejfts of owr thoughts, we ftrait fall 
into rolancholly and &dnefc,each Objeft in 
particular is not able to beep our Heart* 
up. It is by continual changes the Soul 
maintains it felf in a condition it can away 
with, and that it hinders it felf from being 
overwhelmed with, {grief and melancholy. 
Thus the Soul fubUfts only by Art, It 
tends by its own weight to difcourageracat 
and defpair. Madnefs and Hell are the 
center of corrupted Nature. Thcfe In 
feme fort we carry about us, even during 
this life, and it is only to prevent its feeling 
them, that the Soul beftirs it felf fo much, 
and fearche* employment out of it felf, in 
fo many interioitr ObjeAs. To enflave 
the Soul perfectly to this Madnefs , one 
need but feperate it from all thefe Ohje&s, 
and conftrain it to think only on it felfc 
And, as this is the proper efft& of Death, 
that would precipitate all Mankind into 
this center of mUery, had not God, by 
his Omnipotent Power, given to fome o- 
ther Byafics, which draw them up to Hea- 

It is not lefs true of the Will of Man 



£>f t&e fitteafttte© of Q&m 51 

confidercd in it felf, and without the af- 
furancc of God, than of his knowledge 
and undemanding, that whatever appears 
great in it, is naught but weaknefi > and 
that the names of force and courage, by 
which we heighten andraile certain aftions 
and difpofitions of the Soul, hides under 
them what is moft cowardly and bafe. 
That which we take for running, is a flight* 
forrifing, a fall*, forconftancy, lightnefs. 
That immovable and inflexible fti/fhefs 
which appears in feme aftiotfs, is naught 
but a hardaefs produced by the wind of 
Paffions, fwelling and puffing up like Sa- 
loons thofe they are Matters of* Sometimes 
this wind raifes them high, fomctimes 
throws them headlong do wn:but they are e- 
qually light and weak, whether high or low. 

What is it makes (b many betake them? 
(elves to be Souldiers, a profeflion where- 
in they muft of neccflity expofe themfel ves 
to fo many dangers, and undergo fo much 
toil > h it a defire to ferve their Prince 
and Country? For the mpft part Vis the 
leaft In their thoughts. *Tis therefore 
becaufe they cannot lead an orderly and re* 
gular lift; 'tis becaufe they would fliun 
that labour their condition engages them 
to > - 'tis becaufe *bey love what they fee 

D 2 ok 

ji tfc&eirtrftCceatffe, 

of liccptioijs in the life of Souldiers > 'tis a 
weakness of their mind, an illation oCtheir 
imagtnation,flattering them by falfc hopes > 
and which, (hejrigg them in a. full light; the 
evils they would (hun, hides and conceals 
from them thofe to which they cxpofe 

, Do not think that gallant Man, who 
with fo much courage and fiercenefs mar* 
ches to the aflault, does feribufly contemn 
Death, or refled much on the Juftice of 
the caufe he fights for; No, he's totally 
poflcfs'd with the fear of the ill opinion 
the World would have of him, fliould he 
give back } and this opinion, like an Ene- 
my , preflcs upon him, and permits him 
not to think on any thing elfe : And hence 
fprings this his undaunted courage. 

It is not unpleafant to caft ones Eye, on 
thofe, whom the World would have to 
pais for great Examples of humane force 
and generofity, in thofe paflages of their 
lives, where they wanted that wind which 
drives them forward in their fplendid and 
pompous a&ions : For there we (hall fee 
thofe pretended Hero's , who feem'd to 
out. brave Death, and laugh at what is 
mod terrible, brought down by the lead 


&f t&e CGeafenefe of ^atn j 1 

croft accident, and fore'd to own with 
ftame their weaknefs. Look on Alexan- 
der, who had caufed the whole Earth to 
tremble, and who in the field had fo often 
affronted Death , ferzed on by a mortal* 
I ilcknefsin Babylon* Scarce had Death ap- 
pealed to him open fac\T, but prefen tly hiV 
Palace is filled with Sotcerers of both' 
Sexes, with Pricfts and Sacrifices. There' 
is no kind of (hperftition he had not re-* 
courfe to, to flielter himfelf from that 
Death which threatned him, and which' 
carried him. out of the World at laft, hal- 
ving firft kiird him with its only look, and** 
reduced him to what was moft bafe and 
defptcable. Could he give us a greater cvu 
dence, that when he leem'd to contemn' 
Death , he thought it far off, and that 
the paffions he was tranfportcd with> caft 
as it were a Veil before his Eyes> which* 
hindred him from feeing it > 

Neither let any imagine, there wa* 
more of true courage amongft thofe Hea- 
thens, who fcernd not thus to have given 
themfelves the lye, and who to the fight 
of the World dyed with as much courage, 
as they hact lived. Let the Elogies and* 
Praifes, wherewith Philofophers, even to 
envy* heighten and raife the Dfcath of &•*«, 

D3 be 

54 C&e JFftft Creatife* 

be as great and pompous as they will, 'twas 
but a real effective weaknefs that carry cd 
him to that Brutality, whkhthcy look on 
as the height of humane generofity. This 
Is apparent enough in Cicero 9 when he (ays, 
Ibat Cato aught to dye, rather than fee the 
face of a Tyrant. 'T was therefore the fear 
of feeing the face of Cafar 9 that infpired 
him With this defperate refolution. He 
could not endure to fee himfelf under him 
whom he had endeavoured to ruine \ nor 
to fee him triumph over his vain rriiftance. 
Twas only to find in death a Sao&uary 
agabft this SteHrum of a Cafar vi&orious, 
that carryed him to violate all the Laws of 
Nature* £****, whole Idol Cote was* 
allows him no other reafon, when be makes 
him fay, Since the affairs of Mankind or* 
in a defcerat* condition > let m place Cato in 
m*ff*f#y- 'Twas his (afety then atone 
XI at 9 thought on, he only thought to re* 
move from before his Eyes an Obje& his 
weaknefe could not endure the fight of. So 
that, inftead of faying as Seneca does, That 
with violence he fet at liberty that Generous 
Smly and contemner of at Humane Temr : 
Genertfinp Mum centemfteremq; cmnk foten* 
tia Sftritum ejecit ; We ought to fay, that 
out of pittiful weakneb he could not (land 

an Obje& which all the Women and Chil- 

diren of B*mt could gate at without tm»- 
He ; and that his dread thereof Was fo vio* 
lent, that it forced him to leave this fife by 
the greateft of all crimes. 

Thofe calm Deaths, without the appea- 
rance of paffion or fury, fuch as Soar**?* 
was, night be look'd on as more generous. 
Neverthclcfs all this tranquility ,* all this 
calomels, was but a fhiall matter, fince it 
only (prung from ignorance and blindnefc 
Socrates believed he ought not to be afraid 
of Death, becauie, ho faid, be knew not 
whether it were Good or EviL But thn» 
lie made it appear, he had but a fleoder no- 
tion or Idea of the condition Death redu- 
ces us to* For is it not a great and terru 
bie misfortune not to know whether we 
ftall be happy or miferable, when we are 
about to enter into a ftatc of Being, which 
will continue for Eternity > Muft not one 
be prodigioufly infenfible, not to be tou- 
ched with that dreadful uncertainty, and 
to be in an humour, when juft on the point 
of making this tryal , to be pleafed yet 
with the difcourfe of ones friends, and take 
pleafure in that vain fat&fadiofi, which 
one receives from the fentimctits of tovt 
and efteem they then (hew us ^ Yet this is 
what filled the Soul of £«***** that day, 

4 which 

56 tt &e jFfitf Cteatffe, 

which, according to the opinion of Philo* 
Ibphers, wasthehappiefrof hisLife, viz. 
that of his Death. 


If Vertuef purely humafnc be meer 
Weakneffes , what ftall tfc fay 6f Mens 
Vices > What greater weaknefs than that 
of an ambitious perfon > He flights all the 
real and folid Goods of this life : He un» 
dergoes a thoufand dangers, expofes him- 
iclf to a thoufand croflesibecaufe h$ cannot 
fufler that another fhould have fome vain 
pre-eminence over him. What greater 
weaknefs than to efteem and take pleafure. 
as we do in a thoufand ridiculous trifles* 
even then when we ait perfwaded they are 
fuch? Where is the Man that is not con* 
vinced 'tis a meannefs to think himfelf 
worthy of efteem, becaufc he is well clad, 
becomes a Horfe well , is dexterous in 
finking a Ball, or walks gracefully? In 
the mean time f how few *re thofe who 
are above th'cfc trifles, and who are 
not pleafed when they are praifed for 
them. - 


What a weaknefs is it to find any guftin 
the divertifemejus of the World I Cap a 
Soul be reduced to a meaner Condition, and 
more unworthy felf, than facing 


Cf t&e mttfmtteot s0m> 5 7 

away all other thoughts, to employ it (elf 
only about the care of carrying and mo- 
ving the Body it animates, according to 
the cadence of fomcMuGcal Inftiumentir 
and in following certain brute Beafts which 
run after one another? Yet is this almoft 
all that makes' up the divertilcments of 
Princes and great ones. This privation* 
of rational thoughts, this total appIfaM 
tion of the Soul, to fome Obje&s grofej 
vairf, and ufelefs, creates what is pleafasff 
in all Games. Thelefs Man a&s, asMan,' 
the more content he is. Thofe Actions 
where Reafon hath the grcateft (hare, be-* - 
coiro troublefome, and quite tire him? 
The bent of his Nature, is to reduce htnf * 
as -ranch as can be to the condition of 

Let Man diffemble as much as po(fibl<£ : 
he can his own weaknefs, he is lie verthe* 
lefif fcnftble thereof: He endeavours what ' 
he can to redrefs it j but (ovoid of Light * 
and Reafon- is his carriage in thefearcbof - 
remedies, that inftcad of diminishing,' h& 
augments it. The true end and aim of - 
the ambitious and voluptuous Man, fo buv 
ttrundorprop and hold up' his weaknefs by 
fome externe fupport. The ambkioir ; 
ftrives to do fcby Luftcr tmd> Authority^ 

58 CfcJteftCttltffc, 

the roluptuous by Pieafures. Both the 
one and the other fecks to fatisfie their in- 
digency ; but both are equally unfocceG- 
fiih becaufe they do but increafc their nc- 
ceffities and want , and by confluence 
* Cbryf. horn, their weaknefs alfo. What* 
1+in 'jo**> fays * St. Chryfojtome, doth di- 
f.413. ft **£»$> Angel j from Men^ hut 

thst they ate not needy as ire are? Thus 
thole who need the leaft, come ncareft to 
them, and thofe are the fartheft off, who 
need the mod. He who needs, ( fays this 
Eather in another place ) many things, n a 
fiave u many things , it himfclf the Servant 
cf bk Servants j and defends more on them 
than they on him. So that the incrcafe of 
Worldly Goods and Honours, being but 
the increafe of our flavcry and dependtance, 
reduces us to a more real and effe&ive mi- 

Let us not therefore feek for ftrcngth in 
the Nature of Man. On which fide foe* 
ver we look on it, we (hall find naught 
but weaknefs and impotency* In God 
only, and his Grace we ought to feck for 
it. 'Tis he alone can enlighten our dark* 
nc6, fix and fettle our Wits, fuftain our 
Temporal Life as long as he pfcafes, and 
at lift .change the tf caknels and infirmities 


of oar Souls ami Bodirt into an everlaftfag 
fate of flrength and glory . Whatfoevc* 
hath been faid of the Weakneft of Man, 
ferves only to exalt and heighten the power 
of chat Grace irfrfch fupports trim, . Fat 
what force muft not it ha veto stake a Na* 
turefo corrupted, fo weak, fotnifcrabfc^ 
vi&drious over it ftlf and HdJ* to raifc h 
above all things, and make it overcome 
the World, with whatever it hath tf de- 
ceitful* pleafing or terrible* Mtgm gr*k 
tia *put eft, ut enm ttnnibm smorHw tt «r#-» 
t&m erroribm vincatnr bic namdm. 

But if it be true , that nothing doth 
more manifeft the power of Grace , than 
the Weakncft of Man v one may lay fa, 
that nothing doth fo much Iky open and 
difcovet his weaknefe> as the G**ct and 
tights God Almighty gives him* Atodthat 
in fome fort the infirmities of Nature arc 
more confpicious in thole whom God hath 
the tnoft favoured with his Grace**. > ft dev- 
ferves not fo much our wbndeti that Men 
furrounded with darkndv neither knout* 
ing what they are, nor what they do; kh 
lowing only the impreffions ef tahei*Sen*- 
fts, and the capricioii^ humous of tbri* 
imagination} ffeould appear lights htcon* 
fitteot and wcak> in all tfetifaftions* Evi 
•-..'." who 

» #> 

6a - 1tUf fcff tfcteafifc, 

who would not believe that diofc wirorn, 
God hath cnlightncd with fucfa pose knovrk 
ledge, to whom he hath made known their: 
double End, two Eternities, one of Bea- 
titude > the other of Mifcry , attending 
them, who have their Souk. brim-fall of 
thofe great and dreadful Objeftsof a Hell, 
of Devils, of Angels, of Saints, of a God, 
that dy'd for thofe who (hall prefer him be- 
fore all things elfe : Who would not have 
thought, I fay f that they would have beet* 
out of the reach o£ and incapable tobc- 
moved by the trifles of this worUH An4 
yet it is not fo : Even their Hearts arc ofc 
ten fcnfible of the icaft things. They are 
mov'd at a cold entertainment » an uncivil 
word (hakes them. Sometimes they fink on. 
der the flighted* temptations > even then 
whc» jGod gives them the Grace to over-, 
come the great eft. Morcovet (hey. expe* 
rience themfel ves fubjed to a thoufond pa£ 
(ions, a thoufand idle thoughts, a thou*. 
fand irrational motions, . The fopperies 
of the f world dtfiurbthdirinoii&ripvisfne* 
ditattons ; v And if they dd wtffiU- down- 
right into the precipice of, fin, yet jhey feel 
a certain weight and bent which drives 
them that way, and at the feme time per- 
ceive they have no power tq hinder thek 
falling thither i and that if ,Gpd„&Quld 
r abandon 

, MibfWtoimte of 10m eh 

abandon than to themfelveVihey(houM> 


1 hus it is, that they ate the Men, who to 
fpeak properly v are aware of their poverty, 
and cfcn fay with* he Prophet, Eg* virvideni 
foHferutemmtam. .Worldly. Men ait poor, 
and weak without knowing h .Tis when he 
would mafeCufe of his ftrength, that a lick 
man knows the want thereof; Tis but when 
we endeavour to refift and make againft the 
torrent,, wbkh drives us down, that we 
know-its rapid tiolence. Pious Men there* 
fore ate only they who know their weaknefs, 
becaufe they alone endeavour to overcome 
it) and though indeed they are vi&orious in 
things of tnoft importance, yet it is withfo 
roany !«dperfc<ftkra$, manjbfaults, 
and at the fame ithne. they perceive fotnaoy 
°ther thingv therein jhty overcome not* 
that they have tut fo much ropre reafon to 
be convinced of their own. miiery. 


Not only thin the moft iroperfe&, the 
kaft illuminated, and thofc to whom ^e 
give the n$mc of weak>ougbt to fiy -toGqd* 
Have mtrcyon meO Lard fa l-*m m'ak: But 
the moft pcrfe&, the moftttrong, and thofc. 
Ho received the moft light, andgreateft 
fcvourS from Almighty God.For the proper 

61 €fcetfrff€Kttft>&e> 

clcd of this light is to make them fee far- 
ther into, and have a deeper fentiment of 
their own meannefs and mifery,and to make 
them acknowledge before Almighty God, 
that they are nothing but dztknefs in their 
Underftandingi, nothing but wejtkneft and 
unconftancy in ibiit Willi that their life if 
only an Image which paffps away,a Vapour 
that of it felf is difpers'd. Tis this Light 
that makes them cry te God with the Pro* 
phet > My Being Ubms nothing ktfwt the*, Et 
fubfttnthameaunquamnibilum+meU. And 
that, taking thus from them ail confidence - 
in their own (frength,vi1ifics and annihilates 
them in their own fight, fills them at the ~ 
fame time with admiration of the Infinite 
Power of God, and of the incqmprehenfible 
Abyfe tf his Wifdomi and fo makes them 
throw themfelvcs into his Arms by an hum- 
ble confidence, acknowledging that he a-. 
, lone is able to fupport them amongftfo ma- 
ny difeafes and weakneffes, who is able to 
free them from fo many evils, to make 
thftm vi&orious over fo many enemies * fi« 
rally, that it is only in him they can find 
that Strength , that Health, that Light 
which they cannot find in themfelvcs, no 
nor in all the other Creatures befides. 

ZbeKnd oftbefirfi'IrMif*. 


Parti. .. 6$ 

Second Treatife* 

OfSubmifsion to the Will 
of god. 

Firft Part. 

jDoce me facere voluntatem tnam^qnU 
T)em mem estm 


TH E mofi general difference the 
Holy Scripture puts betwixt 
Juft Men and Sinners, is, that 
the fir ft walk in the ways of 
God, the fecond in ways of their own. So 
that he hath funxn'd up the difordcrs to 
which Gods Juftice abandoned the Hea- 
thens into this one faying x comprehending 

them all ; Dhtifit gums GwtU ixtftdi vim 

64 £>f aulmtf ffiOtt 

tuas : He left all Nations u w^K in their 
ewn trays. On the contrary the Prophet 
concludes all the inftru&ions JESUS 
CHRIST was to give the world in this 
other ; He JhsU teach us hk ways. Vocebit 


Now to ktaotf what it is to vwtfk in ones: 
own ways, we need but coufider what St. 
Paul fays in another place, of the condition 
of Men before Faith. He fays, then, that 
they walk'd in the vanity of their own fen- 
timents, and followed the will of the flefh, 
and their own thoughts. Ambulantis in 
vanitatU fenfus fni^ facientes volnntatem car- 
nit & cogttationem. On the other fide, to 
Juiow what it is*, to walk in the ways of 
God, we need but t*kc notice of -this paf- 
fageof St, Peter j where, (peaking of wfeat 
the Faithful newly converted ftould pro. 
pofe to themfelves to do, he fays, That 
they ought to refolve to lead the reft of 
their life in followiug the Will of God,and 
not the defircs of Mtn, Vt jam non defide- 
rijs bvminumfid VolnntattDei quod reliquum 
eft in carne vivat temporis. So that, to fol- 
low ones own will, is to walk in ones o vn 
way,and to livejike a Heathen: Ahd (0 
follow the Will of God, is to walk in the 
way of God, andtoliVeUkeaChnftian 

Fart* I. ZottjtimilOt @Qt}> 65 

. Hence the ftrft Motion Grace infpired 
fcito $t# P*«J, when perfedly converted,, 
wastoroakehim fay to JESliS CHRIST* 
Lord ttbat is thy Tleafure that Ijhould do I 
Vornine, quid vis me facer e ? And this Mo* 
tion of Grace carried with it a renouncing, 
of all his life pad, in which he had only 
follow'd his own inclinations » a firm re* 
foliation to follow the Will of God (during 
the remainder of his life > and an hearty dc*. 
fire of coming to the knowledge of it. So 
that in forae fort it comprehended all the 
Vertucs St. Taul pradicd afterwards \ as 
the Tree and Root contains the Fruit 
which the Tree is to produce in its proper 

These is no Ch? iftiin who ough t not to 

Ay to God by the Example ofSt. P**/ f 

Urd.wbdt it it thy thsfurithst IfauUdai 
Nor is it enough to fay it at the beginning 
of ones coAYcrfion i : 'tis a proteftation to 
be renewed without in ter million all onet / 
life > becaufe our own Will, which never 
dies in us, is alway endeavouring to re- 
pofftfs it felf of its Empire, and to abolifh 
the Reign of the Will of God. 

We btigjit .always todefire to know the 
Will of God, becaufe our ignorance every 

cnomeh t 

66 ©f ftttbrnffltott Treat IK 

moment hides it from us We ought al- 
ways to have a defire of following*, be* 
caufe our concuptfcence never ceails to* 
draw us from it, .that it may carry ^us to 
what it lores. But to the end this defire, 
this proteftation of obeying God prove 
not unfruitful, and remain a meet notion 
without cfFe&, it will be profitable feri* 
oufly to meditate what it is to foHow the 
Will of God, and in what manrier we 
ought to pra&ice this eflcntial duty of 
Chriftian Life, in all the particular Ren- 
counters of ours. And to do this , wc 
muft firft know what is the Will of God 
wc intend to follow. 

The Holy Scripture, and the Dodhrfne 
of the Church, obliges us to look on the 
Will of God in two manners. Firft, as 
the Rule of our Duties , prcfcribing us 
what we ought to do, fhewing us the dit 
pofitions we ought to aim at, difcovering 
to us what we ought to defire, what to 
ftun, whither to tend 5 condemning all 
Evil, and commanding all Good. Se- 
condly, as the caufe of whatever happens 
in the World, except fin ; efficacioufly pro- 
ducing whatever is good, and only permit- 
ting evil, to draw good out of it. 


Part! CO t&C CWHOf tofo 67 


- According to the firft conception, the 
Holy Scripcarc rives the Will of GoJ di- 
vers names, all denoting the fame thing, 
'Us that Law Eternal, whereof St. Anftin 
(peaks fo often, forbidding us to difturh, 
and commanding us to prefer vc the order 
of Naturcwnd *hich,placing Man betwixt 
God> and Creatures corporeal and inani- 
mate, forbids him to lettle his love on any 
thing but the Sovereign Being > Once he 
cannot do that but by leaving the rank and 
place he has in the order of things, and 
putting himfelf under what is either his in- 
ferior or equal. f Tis that "Divine Jnfjtke 
which fparkks in our Souls, as the fame 
St. Anftin lays* rendring whatibever is 
conformable, if amiable to us, though o» 
thcrwife we fliould find nothing therein 
which would draw our love. It is but in 
loving and following this Tuftice, that Men 
are Juft » and it is by receding from it that - 
they become un juft and finners. 

Thcfe are thofc Judgments, thofe Jnftiji* 
cations, David fpeaks of fo often, that it 
' to fay, thofe Juft and Holy Rules and Ordi- 
nances inftru&ing Man what he ought to 
do » and which are written in God himfelf 
becaufe they are nothing but his all Juft, 
and all Equitable Will. It is that fPifdom 


68 0f S)llbmi(T(on Treatir. 

the Wife Man fpeaks of in all his Books, 
which one ought to third after without in- 
termiffion, that one ought to^fcatchrfor, 
iikf Sitter , that ferves us fora guide in-our 
way, aftd that dwells in Cod, and with 
God. Omnis fapientia * Domine Deo eft, 
& cum illo fuit femper, & eft snte *vum. 

Thefe are thofe Cemmandmentt and Pre* 
xeptt the Scripture calls Eternal, and which 
it enjoys us to have always beforeowr Eyes* 
and keepclofe in our Hearts \ which ought 
to walk with us > whiclvought not to leave 
us in our flccp, and which ought to be the 
firft Objedfc of our thoughts when We a- 
wake, Liga ea in corde tuo jugiter, am 
smbulaveris gradiantur tecnm y cum derm** 
tit enftodiant re, & evigilans hqtere am 


It is that Ugh, which makes us be the 
Children of Light * which is the caufe that 
(bme walk in Darknefs, others in Light, 
according as they either leave or follow it, 
§hiia mandatum Interna eft, &,kxlxx. 

It is that Truth according to which it is 
faidof the Juft, that they *> attain truth % ' 
that they are in Ttutb t and that they da 
the 1tu%W fcafity, it is God himfelf \ for 
all thefe names fignifie but the Will of God, 
and the Will of God is God himfelf. 


Bart I. HfrtbtWUUtf ®Qk 69 


This juftice, this Law, this. Divine 
Truth, is made manifeft to us by the Holy 
Scripture, and particularly by the New 
Teftatnent. And it is one of thefenfes of 
this Verfe of St. Paul. Jufiitia %nim Dei 
in to revclstxr ex fide in fidem, . But the 
outward revelation ferves for nothing, if 
interiorly God does not. enlighten our 
fronds y if he doth not fhine in them as 
Truth and Light, and if he do not there 
make manifeft the Beauty of his Juftice. 
Wherefore it is faid, That there wm a True 
Light enlightning all Men coming mte this 
World. Erat Lux Vera qu* iUuminat om- 
net* Hominem inhume Mundntm That is 
to fay, Men are not en light ned but as far 
as it pieafes this Divine and uncreated 
Light to fhine in their Understandings. 


It is by following this Juftice, by con- 
forming to it, by loving and defiringit, 
that Juft Men increafe in Juftice. By de- 
parting from it Men are unjuft,wicked,cor- 
rupted, diforderedv becaufe this Jnfticeis 
Effcntial Order, Effential Vertue, EflTen- 
tial Holinefs. And as this Jufiice is God 
himfclf, fo it is evident, that the Love of 
this juftice, is the L oye of God, a., d that 
it is the fan $ thin, with Char it yv and that 


70 fl>f dK&mflfion Treat, n. 

to ad by the love of Juftice, is to a& by , 
Charity, and by the Principle of the love 
of God. 

Hence we may fee, that one may have 
Charity, and aft by the dictates thereof, 
though he know not (b much, and that 
fbmetimes one is, and ads without Cha- 
rity, when he thinks hitnfelf lively moved 
thereby. For there are certain perfons, 
who, finding in thcmfelvcs no fcnfible de- 
votion towards the Humanity of our Lord 
Jefas Cbrifti and reading (bmetimes the 
ftory of his Paflion, without any tender 
feelings or favour, imagine they love him 
not, becaufc their love is not accompanied 
with this fcnfible devotion* But, if thefe 
felf*fame Pcrfons have in great horror fin 
and injuftice, if they love the Law and Ju. 
ftice of God , if they efteem that Righ- 
teous and Holy, if they effedually yield 
obedience to it, and not fin, (hould God 
.even promife them impunity ; They trtrfy 
love JESUS CHRIST as God, be- 
caufe he is this Juttice, this Wifdom, this 
Eternal Law which they love. On the 
contrary, there are fome, who feel in them- 
felves fenfible motions, for JESUS 
CHRIST, who (hed tears when they 
read what he had fuflered for us » and ne- 

Part.!. CO t&e Will Of <&»&♦ 7 1 

vcrthekfs have no true love for God, be- 
caufe they love not Jufiicc and Judgment, as 
the Scripture fpeaks * they are not piere'd 
through with a certain fentiment, which 
makes us feel the Law of God as all amia- 
ble, all juft, and which makes us ftibmit 
with all willingnefs and lore. 

. With thefe thQ^^t^ with this fentu 
i»ent David was lively touched, when in 
his Lay PJalmt % he cries out, Thp Law of 
God is all pure , by its Beauty drawing 
Souls to it. Jax Domini immaculate con- 
vertens Animas. The Ordinances of pod 
are Faithful, they never deceive their Fol- 
lowers ; They give WiGotn, not tcr the 
Proud who refift, but to the Humble who 
fubmir, TefiimoHinm Domini fideie , fa* 
pitntiam fraftans parvulis. The Juftices, 
that is, the all Equitable Wills of our 
Lord, are Rightncfs it felf, and they fill 
Souls with Joy. Jvfiiti* Domini Rtfte, 
UtificantcJ Curia* His Commandments 
are full of Light, and clear the Eyes of the 
SouL Ptdceptum Domini Lucidum $ iHu- 
minans Occulos. The Fear of our Lord is 
Holy* it partes not away like that of 
Men, it endures for ever* Timor Domini 
SanSuSy permanent in faculum feenli. The 

Judgments of God are Truth it feif, they 


72 fl>f dUbttlf flfolt Treat L 

are juft of thcmfclves. Judieia Domini 
Vera, juftificat* in femitiff*. They are to 
to be defu'd above all the Rifchcs of the 
•World, and arc fwecter than the moft dc* 
licious Honey. Vefiderabilia fnper Aurnm 
prcfiojum tnultum, & dttlcioraftper Mel& 
faHum. All thefe expreifions come from 
a Soul tranfported with the Beauty of the 
Lav of God s of h«xj*ftice, of his Righ- 
teoufnefs, of his Staetncfir, and which 
ftrains it (elf to exprefs the motions it 
feels, the motions God caufes in it, at the 
fame time he makes this his Divine Law 
Jhirie and (parkle in i ts Spirit. 

The Church is fo fully pefrfrraded s that 
this Love of the Law of God is the foun- 
dation of Chriftian Piety,that therein con- 
fifts true Charity, and that meditating on 
this Law ought to tc our continual enter- 
tainment ; that whereas (he divides andaf- 
figns to (different days the inlfrudfrions of 
the Scripture, and the reft of the'Pfalms* 
laying no obligation on us to confider and 
ponder them every day, (he appoints us for 
our daily food that admirable FfalmJ in 
which David, in fuch a variety of expref- 
fions, asks of God the Knowledge and 
Love of his Law, And this to the end, 
that reciting it each hour of the day, i^ 


Parti. Zatl)ZmtllQt®Cto. J 3 

(hould be to us a continual admonither, 
not to loofe fight of this Divine Light, ca- 
pable of guiding us in the darknefs of this 
life, and without which we always go 
aftray. * * 

Whatever is contained in this Pfalm, is 
reduced to that Prayer of St. Paul y Do- 
mini, quid me vis facere i or to (his Verfc 
of another Fjalm. Voce me facere volunta- 
tern tnam, quia T>em mem es to. Teach me 
to do thy if&y because thou art my God. All 
the Verfes of this wonderful Pjalm fay but 
the fame thing, though in different expref- 
fions. As for Example, when the Pro- 
phet in the beginning, (ays : Bcati immacu- 
lati in via, qui ambulant in lege Domini. He 
acknowledges to God Almighty, that he 
admires the happinefs of thofe who obferve 
his Law > and fp makes Known the defire* 
he has to imitate them. Now this defire 
made known to God Almighty Js a Praye*, 
by which he begs Grace to know his Law, 
and strength to^falfill it. So when he de- 
clares, that thofe who fin, do not walk in 
Gods ways. Hon enim qui operant ur ini- 
quitaum in viis ejm ambula-verunt. It is 
as if he caft a look of anger on the life of 
diforderly people, - and a lo<5k of love and 
holy jealoutie on- that of the goad; And, 

E this 

74 ©f fiWbWlf ffftm Treat, tt. 

this two fold regard i containing in it the 
love of Juftice, and a hatred of Injufticc 
or Sin, is a double Prayer , whereby he 
l?egs of God the Knowledge and Love of 
his Law. -It would be eafic for me thus to 
run over all the other Verfes, to tfaew that 
they all aim at the fame Mark* 

The frequent repetition of the fame 
Prayer, (bews evidently there is none more 
important > wherefore it is good _to look 
into the bottom .of it, and to know of 
what extent it is : And this we may learn 
from the manner St. IW has expreft it. 
in * faying, Lord, what mnUft then have 
m U doi T)omine % quid me vis faecnf 
Ftctt, 'tis remarkable, he demands not of 
God wh^t in general is to be donq , or 
what a Chriftian is otyiged to do > but he 
^sk? what he huwfelf in particular ought to 
4q. Hfc. defirc, is apt only to be mftru- 
6tc4 in the confront 4i4tic$> but alfo in the 
particular ones* • For certain : jLaws of 
God are in fon^e fQrt gcfleral, becaufe they 
pught to be kept by all > an4 there areo- 
thers particular, relating to each ones pe- 
culiar and different difpofitio*. JLvefy 
one hath received fome gift from God Al* 
mighty proper, to foimftlft and W3 muft 
have^cajc not t& defuc.joje&v* God ii) 


Part I. Co<te C2im Of <#C&. +? $ 

the gift proper to another. God cxpedb 
sot fironrr all the fame things* What is a 
Vertue in one, may be a Vice in another* 
In fo me fort every one of us have a different 
way allotted to lead, us to God, and our 
Prayer muft be, that he not only would 
mate known to us the common road, bat 
alfo the path particularly appointed^ us* 
Dmincy quid me vis facere i .„ • . 

Thcfe words may be a prefer vativc for u* 
againft a deceipt ordinary t rtiongft per fons 
ot Piety, which is to think little on their 
own obligations, and muchon thofeof c 
thers: There are (pme well skilled in the 
duties of Kings , Great Ones , Mafters, 
Servants t who know what the Confe/Ta- 
rius, the Penitent , what the Rich and the 
Poor ought to do, but are ignorant of 
what is to be done by themfelves, They 
are bufie people in other mens affairs, but 
mind not their own. They are^ foil of 
words to edifie and inftruft others/ but for 
themfelvesp they are poor and barren of 
all. The reafon is, they do not fincere- 
ly pray to God,that he would make known 
unto them what he would have them to do. 
For one of the firft Lights h* woatd give 
them, Would be to apply their thoughts 
much about themfelves,, and little about 

£ 2 v others. 

76 #f ftufclttftnott Treat. II. 

* • • 

others.* EtqMfrdcipit tibi Dew $a co- 
git femptr. Tbink^alwsys on thwt, which 
God bath commanded thet to do % fays the 
Wife Man, There is therefore no time 
left us (o think on what others are com- 
manded to do, unlefs God himfelf com* 
mands us to think thereon \ and that 
even thefe thoughts of ours, make up a 
part of our own devoirs, and that they 
«re a4ielp for us to comply more faithfully 
therewith. For it is not abfolutely evil to 
make the obligations of others, part of 
our own meditations > but we muft not 
{lick there , we mud apply . to our fel ves 
what we find to be the duties of otters* 

XV. . • 

There is almoft no knowledge of any thing 
fo peculiarly bclanging to others , which 
makes us not undcrftand fome duty' and 
obligation peculiar to our (elves.and which 
may not b£ reduced into practice for our 
edification, had we the fame-care to draw 
profit, from the Spiritual Riches palling 
through our Souls, as the covetous have to 
gain by thofe Temporal ones palling 
through their hands, 

Weare^for Example,acquainjed with the 
dangers which at tend the condition of great 
Ones, the multitude of obligations where- 
with they are charged, and the difficulties 


Parti. GfrftetSfllOftittfe 77 

they meet in acquitting themfelves. Let us 
thank God he hath not made us Great. 
Let us pray for thofc that are, let us give 
God thanks for fuch as comply with thett 
condition, let us admire their Vertues, let 
us grow better by their Example , and 
humbler by comparing pur (lives to them* 
We know the difficulties waiting on Prieft- 
hood : Let this thought extinguifh in u* 
all defircs of a condition Co high, and fa 
dangerous: Let it prompt us to beg of 
God > that he would beftow on his Church 
Holy Priefts, that he would San&ifie thofe 
. that are. We have fome Items to take no- 
, tice of thediforder of fcveral Mon3fteries> 
let this provoke-us jto lament before Al* 
m/ghty God, and entertain (entiments 6f 
fear v for they arc fo many marks of God* * 
wrath on his Church, whofe (ad efle&s we 
alfo ought to ftatid in dread {£, if by humU 
ttation and pennance w*have not a care to 
pjrevent them. Thus whatsoever we know 
of others, will be profitable to our felves f 
and thefe knowledges^tnfteadof making us 
wander oiit of our (elves, will be a mean* 
to bring us home tQ, our felves* 

3. St. Paul, asking of God what' he 
would have him to do, does not ask Tpe- 
cuktive knowledges ufclefs for the condudt 

E 3 V - 

78 0f Sufcutf fff on Treat, n* - 

of his life : No, he asks Knowledge neceC- 
fary for a&ion. Domine^ quid mcyii fit* 
ctre ? Hemce wc learn, that the Lights and 
Knowledge it is lawful for us to beg and 
look for at the hands of God Almighty ,arc 
thole for a&ion, thofc that arc uecefTary 
for the guidance of our fteps. Lucerns 
fedtbm rKeisverbumtuum, & lumen femiti* 
nteis. Wc ought not to. ask of Gad that 
we may fee far about us y it fuffices to fee 
where we ought to fet our feet, and that 
God make his Will kno\Vn to us, Hill as 
we are to execute it. 

' The farther we caft our fight, the left 
clearly da wc fee the way we walk in* And 
for this reafon it is the Wife man tells us, 
That true Graft confifts in knowing one* 
• *iwn, not the ways of others. StpientU 
Catltdi efl meBgtve vism fisam i and that 
the Crafty Mante always employed in* con* 
fidering carcfally where he ftiall place his, 
fteps > Afam confidtrst gietfut fas. , 

But this way wc out to know, thefe 
fieps we ought to guide, do not only point 
out the exterior a&iops, which we are Co 
regulate according to the Laws of God % 
but alfo the interior motions of our Soul. 
For the Heart hath its fteps, its way, and 
tbcfc ar* nothing bqt ifs afedions, that 
. _i is, 

Part L <£o t&e Caiill Of $0& 79 

is to (ay,- its defires* its fears, its hopes v 
which we ought endeavour to render con- 
formable to the Law of God, by loving 
only what that approves of, §nd rejeding 
what that condemns. 

Laflly, St. Paul demands of God in ge- 
neral, that he would make his Will known 
to fiim, Domine; quid me vhfacerc > he 
excepts nothing. He offers God a Heart 
prepared to put in execution all his Orders: 
and hereby teaches us, that, when we beg • 
to know Gods Will, we mult have a Gn- 
cere defite to knolv it wholly, and that we 
ought not to have in our heat ts certain 
wilfull referas, by which wo with not to- 
know it in fome particular point, left we: 
fhould thereby be obliged ro execute it. 
For, one of the greateft and comraoneft 
defers of Men, is, not to defire to kno w 
Gods Wilt, even then when they feem with 
greateft order to beg the Grace of knowing 
it. We have aim oft all of \is certain de- 
fers, which we would not have touch*d f , 
and which we hide as much as poffible 
from God, and from our fdl vcs. And • for 
this reafbn St. Pant doth not only wiih 
that the Cvlojfiant (hould know the Will of 
God , but he wi(hes moreover that they 
(hould be repknifhed therewith, 14* hnpka- 

E.*, mine 

So fl>f ©UbmffffoB TTreat.II. 

mini agnitiont voluntatis cjtu: that is to fey-, 
that there /hould be no/fecret corners in 
.their Souls; in their Hearts, where this 
Divine Light (hould not enter and fhinc * 
and that thcyyfhould have no voluntary 
afledh'ons or tyes, which (hould hinder 
God from Ailing them with his Knowledge 
and Grace* 

How many do we fee that daily fpend 
whole hours iji meditation , who , not- 
wit hftanding, never reflect on thofe faults* 
which all the world fees in them^and them- 
fclves slone are ignorant of all their life 
long* It is becaufe at the firfl they made 
rtfcrv'd Cifcs of them- They unfold and 
lay open to God all the reft of their tleart* 
but th^y take fpeciai care not to difepver 
that corner, where they have plac'd thofe 
imperfe#ioris they cheri(h. In the mean 
time they make general protcftations, that 
they defire nothing more than to know the 
Will of God, They daily recite this Pfalm> f 
whereip this only Prayer is found ; and it 
4ecms to them, they fay it from the bottom, 
of their Hearts : But, befides that Heart 
from which they pronounce, thefe Prayers, 
they have another that difavows them > 
they have one Heart for God, and ano- 
ther for thcmfelves. They have one, de- 


Parti: Ctf t&e QUfll Of <$0&. SS 

firous of obeying God, in fomc things not 
very troublefome i they- have another; 
which being ty'd to certain other things 
will hoc know that they are evil* And 
thus they are to fee numbered amongft , 
thofc jhe Wife Man threatens in theft 
words. V£ duplid Corde. Wot to tbtft 
that have a double Heart : And amongft 
thofc of. whom he fays, They ftall not 
profper* becaufe they walk in a double 
path, Cor ingredittu duabm viiraon bsbebit 
Jucafimt - ■ s ' - 


- Hence we learg,- that it fuffices not to< 
ask of God the Knowledge of < his With 
if we beg not alfothis firopk and fingle 
Heart, ha vingno > other defire than that of 
fulfilling it .-Wherefore the Prophet does not* 
only callthofe happy, who only-own to God 
*ddire of knowing his Will,but thole who 
defire to found the bottom the re of, and feek 
after it with their whole Heart : Beati qni 
fcruiatttur teftimonia ejus, in uu Corde rx- 
qtiirunt tum^ who do not only limit then** 
lelves within the defire of fcrving God,but 
who can fay with" the feme Prophet, In 
toto Corde meo exquiftvi, te> nereptllaw** *- 
mandatis /if/. Thefc aie thofc Juftonea, 
whom their fimplicity guided in the right 
•way* Simplicity inflow** dkigeteos. Ba- 
. : * E 1 caufe 

St ffif ^ttftmfffiOlt Treat. 

cade God neve* fails to enlighten tbofe 
who have no other defirc than that of fol* 
lowing hinv 


Many there aie who require Exercifes of 
Devotion for the Morning > and which aie 
prefer ib'd them by others, according to the 
knowledge and motions of Piety each one 
hath*. But none fcems more natutal , nor 
move profitable than an oblation of ones- 
fetf, fuch *>St. Pours was to AJmightf 
God for fulfilling his Will all the day v. to, 
beg of him the Grace to know it •,, to fore- 
ftc ones own anions -, to order them ace or- 
dipg to the Light and KjiowJedgehe gives, 
us v and to beftech-him to give usilrength 
tp fulfill whaJ he wuch&fes to let usiknow 
of his Will. For we ought not to be fa.. 
fisfied when we have- in General ask'd of 
God Almighty* that he would mftrud us, 
touching our Duties ; but we ought to, 
have recourfe to, and confult him on each 
particiilar.a<^ion > and that not only about 
the eyerior, part thereof, but alfo about: 
the Ulterior 4ifpofitions rcquifite, that in . 
the day time we may endeavour to pra- 
ctice them accordingly. Thus we (hall, 
ohftrve the counfel of the Wile Man,ad- 
vifing Us to entertain our ftlves with the 
Commandment^ of God from ou* awake-. 


ing in the Morning : £t evigilans Uquere 
cum as* 


This is properly the Idea Sf . Anfim 
fram'd to hicnfelf of true .Devotion or 
Piety* Wherefore having in his Third 
Book of the Irimty, a mind to give us the 
Poiartraiture of a Wife Man, that is a true 
Chriftian, he defcribcs him in thefc word*. . 
Let m conceive in cur mmds a Wife M*ru> 
whofe Soul is enligbtned by that Trmb which 
is ALumal and Imnwtsble. WH O C O N- 
OUGHT TO DO IT, to tie en*4 
that $ faying and fubmit ting himfelf thereto^ 
be may aSt and d* likf a Juft Mm. But 
we ought not to fancy -, that thofe who 
are not wile, that is, are riot arrived at 
this degree of pcrfe&ion* are thereby dif- 
pcnfed from confukirig this Law. Their 
obligation is as great as that of the WHeft : 
Nay, thfcy ate npt fuch> becaufe they do 
not confult it, and ft> it is impoffible they 
(hould do well V fince to do well, is nothing 
but to love this Law-, and to fubmit, and 
follow it in all our a&k>ns. 


84 • (DE SHlfinifflriOtt Treat. IL 


But it ought not to fuffice, that we only, 
at the beginning of the day confult Gods 
Law and Juftice > we mud as much as pot 
fible endeavour never to loofc the fight of 
it: And: above all) when any new thing 
prefcnts it fctf to be done which was not 
in the order of thole we had proposed to 
do v we muft caft a look towards God to 
ask of him what he would have us to do* 
and. to confult his Law. how he would .have 
us carry our fclves in it. So that it feems 
one cannot frame a better Idea of ChrU 
ftian life and Piety, than by conftdering it 
as a life of "continual attention to what 
God requires of us in each condition, and 
eacha&ion, whether exterior or interior: 
And that it: is this difpofition the Prophet 
tells u* of* whence fays* FravidtbatnVo* 
minum in conffettumto fetnper. For, thi* 
regard towards God, is the regard of *. 
Slave towards his- Maftcr* of a. Son to-« 
■wards histfathejr, at once containing avfia* 
cete defire of knowing his Orders, and a 
preparation of Heart to follow, them* Ero- 
•perly this Excrcifc is that which 
callM Tbi %xtrcife of the. Trffixct of Gods 
fo much recommended to us in Books of 
Urvotion. In.fine, 'tisthat which God 
himfelf recomtpencled to HlrakM> wlien, 


Part i. co m aim of €&&♦ s * 

he ouder'd him to walk uvhis Prefcnce, 
A tribal a coram me & efto perftfttu. Fof, to 
walk Vforc God, is to have God prcftnt, * 
'tis to confult his Law continually, and to 
guide ones fclf by his Light : For ,. this 
Light, and this Law, arc but *one and the 
fame thing* 

TJiere is this difference betwixt exterior 
and interior a&ions, that it is much bet- 
ter known whether the exterior be confor- 
mable, or contrary to th6 Law of God, 
thau it is *of interior ones; which are ofc 
ten hid in the mifts raifed by concupifcencc* 
To that we cannot afcertainour fclveswe 
have the bottom of our Heart* in the ftate 
as God would have it, But as it is impofc 
fiblc for us to free ou» (elves of this uncer- 
tainty, fo t %. ghc we got to leave off tho 
care of regulating our exterior; the re* 
formation of it being a: means* to the in* 
tcrior reformation of our Souls. Where- 
fore, though we have not yet fentimenf s 
fuch as we* ought, we muft not omit do* 
ing what we ought to do. If we find, 
motion&of Pride within, let us endeavour 
(p much the more to (hew our felves hum- 
ble without.: If tire find any.Bittcrncfe of 
H-art againft* any one » it is the Will of 

jSpd we (hould not have.any regard thereto, 


$6 ®t QubmiftlQU Treat IL 

but that we fhould behave our felves to- 
wards him, as if we had our Heart full of 
* Love and Tendcrocfi. Nor is there any 
Hypocrite in this manner of proceeding : 
Since it is grounded on Truth* and that, if 
it be not crfnfbrmable to thofc motions 
which are on the furfacc of our Soul, yet is 
it commanded by that portion of it, which 
guides and rales the exterior parts of the 

This is the only means to co^*c to con* 
(taut and uniform Piety, a Piety which 
only follows God, which confuits not 
ones own (entiments, humour or inclina- 
ttons,and which outwardly (hews only fuch 
humours, fuch fentiments as are conform 
ttable to the deed we are doing, If the 
occaGon happen wherein it «is<ftt to be gay 
and merry, Jetgayity and mirth be (hewn * 
if to be fad* Jet fedrfcfc appear. T here art 
certain occafions wherein tendernefe, truft, 
cordialncfs, companion ought to be (hewn: 
In rhefe let us endeavour to excite in our 
felves fuch- motions and fentiments, as out- 
rcafon guided by the Will of God tells us, . 
are then convenient and profitable- If it 
be not poffiblc to have srHvetyibnfe thereof, , 
at leaft Ictus bear the marlk <bf them in 
our exterior > and by this means we may 



Fart I;. €amW\&®&). S; 

hope God will give as the Gntce to regu 
late our interior motions, as for the lovt 
of him we have already, fram'd our exte« 
lior a&ions* 

Skilful Counters have no humours ol 
their own ; they borrow all theirs fron 
thofe they havp a mind to pleafc Ti< 
their intereft which in them produces thai 
fciperfical joy* that apparent fadnefs, thofi 
pkafant looks, that gfcneial complacency 
which appears without. True Piety ir 
force fort imitates this procedure , onlj 
changing the Principle : For, whereas in. 
tereft is the Rule Men of the World gufch 
themfelvesby, Pious Per fons take the Lavs 
of God for theirs, in which they fee bett 
the way how they, ought eo treat with each 
particular perfon, and the interior difpo- 
fition thsy ought therein to have, n ir 
themfelves they, feel this difpofition, thej 
cherifh it y if not, they endeavour what 
-they can to procure ft 9 at lcaftthey im- 
print it in their, exterior anions by little 
and little* to work it inta their Hearts, 

Several y who have near at" hand ob- 
ferv d a greatScrvant of God, . who at pre- 
fent is the Ornament of the Church oi 
Mrmxy.kfy that he hath divers look*, ac« 


83 £>f $Utim#ff<M Treat. 

cording to the variety of anions he ap- 
plies himfelf to. He hath one fo$ the Al- 
tar and Church 9 in which a profound re~ 
collcdion is to be obferv'd ; another irv 
civil conveifation, (hewing chearfulnefs 9 
a grave and ferious one, where Authority 
is to be made ufe of* and another fit and 
complacent r where fit occasions require 

There is not a more excellent pra&ico 
of Mortification than this, to fupprjefs all 
our humours and inclinations, to level and 
(kiooth all their unevenheffes, and to make 
only fuch motions appear, .as reafon 
prompts us to in every a&ion. This Mor* 
tiheation is a hidden one, for none takes 
notice of it ? it is a conftant continual one^ 
beeaufeour inclinations are always found 
mixt in what we do, never ceafing, whe- 
ther In folitude or company, to put us by 
the -order. God hath appointed* This 
Mortification gives not to any fubje&s of 
complaint j the Earaily is unconcerned : 
Phyficians, -whether* Spiritual ot Corpo* 
ral , never forbid it r. Nay, it even gives 
us leave to hide the Mortifications oPour 
Mind under Corporal Refielhments, when 
Reaion orders us to allow and fubmitxnir 
fclvcs thereunto \ moreover it. jaakes* us 


Part. I. C0t&ett!ifllOftfOll. 89 

lay afide certain demeanours which often 
contribute to nourifh the vanity we take 
in Mortification, when we have left the 
pra&ice of it. •• 

Bcfides, nothing brings -to our know- 
ledge more a&s of Vcrtuc fit to be putm 
pradice, than this continual attention to 
the Law of God,^ becaufe nothing more • 
blinds our Eyes from discovering thtro, 
than giving our felves up to the guidance 
of our own inclinations. *Tis this atten- 
tion which teaches us to contribute, as far 
as Chriftlanity will give leave, towards 
the divertifement of others in converfa-* 
tion s to infinuate our felves into their 
aflfe&ions, by a cbrnphtccncy without at 
federation •, to fuflcr their importunities $ 
to admonifli them of fome faults , but 
that by ways fweet and proportion^ to 
their humours v to (hun crofting them to 
no purpofe i it teaches us to hold our 
peace when we ought, to fpeak when 'tis 
fit > and fo to comply with a number of 
little obligations, which are not heeded by 
thofe who guide themfelves only by hu- 
mour. And this is one of the Sen ft s of 
that faying of the Wife Man, £gti inqni* 
tttnS Vominum adverttnt omnia^ Who ficl$ 
iff if G*d, tak$ notice of all things. 

go £>f SHtfimiffion Treat IL 


*ri$ this attention to the Will of God, 
which makes us lead a regular, even, and 
'uniform life, 'which makes us faithfully 
pra&icc the fame things in thefame occa- 
fions. For if we proppfe to our felves on- 
ly to fe*ve.God, with reafoa we (hall judge 
our felves more conformable to hi$Will> 
if we keep to fomc certain order of beha- 
viour in things indifferent , than if wc 
quitted it out of humour or capridoufriefs. 
The lefs fharc we our felves have in things, 
the more rcafon we have to believe 'tis 
God we follow in-doing them;. And thofc 
which of fhemfdves are equally. and indi£> 
ftrent, become equal and different, when 
wc add to fomc of them this Reafon of U- 
aifbrmity in the fame Exercifcs, 

xx xr. 

But if this defire of guiding our felves 
by the will of God makes us in things in- 
different, to prefer Older and Equality, b** 
fore D'forder and Inequality: in like 
manner it frees us from an over- weaning. 
Love for facb Excrctfes, and makes us 
topple and fixible, fo that we cafily change 
them when God requires it i becaufe, de- 
firing nothing more than to obey him, we 
are equally content when we equally find- 
means Of prafticing this obedience* Where* 


Part I -Co t&e ttlitt of '#(*♦ 9 1 

fore what Rules fbever we have prefixed 
our (elves in things indiflercnt, we ought 
to* be ready to alter them when occations 
areofler'd, whcrem God lets us know he 
expels fomething clfe at our hands, 'Tts 
an cffcA of this flexibility, when fuch as 
tore their ftudies, ceafc not with care to, 
apply themfelves to civil converfatidn t 
which they aflfedt not, when Charity re* 
. quires it at their hands. This makes them 
infomc fort loofe their time, when God 
wills them to do fo> to quit without 
trouble their employments v not from any 
£x'd and (teddy defigns *, and to keep them- 
Hfclves always in the Hands of God At* 
mighty, to undertake fuch things as he 
makes them understand, are agreeable to 
his Drvine WilU 

but we m»ft take care left we fufTer thiSs 
flexibility to degenerate into irrefolution ; 
for fince Men appropriate to therafehret 
but a very final 1 portion of their time, it 
is impeffible they (hould apply themfelves 
to any one thing, without quitting others. 
Now in making onesxhoice, things of ids. 
moment ought to give place to thofe of 
greater, and a fet choice muftof neceffity, 
Be made-, which dnce done, ought not 

eafily to be chang d. If, foe. Example, we 


92 SX Stlfimf (Holt Treat. IT. 

cannot employ our fclvcs about the con- 
duct of fomc particular perfbns, and at 
the fametimc labour for the good of the 
Churchy we are to confider whether of 
thde two may be done with more profit* 
and whether is more futable to our voca- 
tion. If we cannot distribute our atten- - 
tioo to feveral Hudies, we ought to confine 
it to one, and witha good will fuffer our 
want of skill in the reft, If we cannot , 
fatistic fo many works* of Charity , we 
muff ieftj;ain our felves tofuch as arc with* 
in our power, having always before our 
Eyes the advice of the Wife Man, which 
ought to (erve us^as a Rule in many occa^ 
fion, Filii He in nmltis fint aSus tuL 

Hence it is eafie to perceive, that the 
obedience pra£ic*d amongft Religious, is 
rather facility found-out by the Saints for 
obferving the Law ofOod, than a new 
fcverity they have added to the Gqfpel. " 
For k is never lawful for one, in what 
condition foevcr, to make concupi(ccnce 
the rule of his a&ions, vor to gwdc him* 
fclfbyhis own proper will, and capri- 
cious humoqr. The Will of God ought 
always to be bur Rule, whether in things 
of the greateft importance, or of the leaft 
concern. Now it being fomctimes a «natter 


Part I. CO t&e Will Of $0&» 93 

of difficulty to know this Will of God, 

and our own being often ready to take its 

place i the Saints have introduced this fub- 

[• je&ion to a fuperior, to the end Religious 

; Perfons may determinately know what to 

- do in things indifferent : For thus the 

! Will of God is made as it were more (en- 

! fiblc, it being certain, that the Religious 

( ought to obey their Superiors in things of 

this nature v whereas thofe who are under 

n&ne, are more put to it to know what it. 

is God in the like occafions requires them 


If we have a Heart fimple and right, we 
fliall clearly fee what the Will of God is, 
even in the leaft occafions*, Nature and 
Concupifcencc only hides it from us. To 
this end St. Paul admonifhes u$ to renew 
our Spirit, that we may know the Will 
of God* Kmov.amini in novitatc fenfus ve+ 
firi ut frobctis qntfit Voluntas Vet bona, btn$ v 
flacens &• ferfeSM. If therefore iyt per- 
ceive, that we do not difcover what is the 
Will of God, we ought to btlicve it is, 
becaufe we are not renewed ; it is becaufe 
we live the Life of A&arn * that fs, be- 
caufe we think only on the -things of 
this World, becaufe our Heart is full of 

the love of this World , and void of tbs 


94 Of ^IlfimffflOft Treat H» 

# tove of God, from whence fprings the re- 
newing of the Souk 


We m«ft not fancy to our fclves , be*, 
caufe we have not made Vows to pradtice 
the fcveral Duties of a Religious Life, we 
are therefore difpenfcd from fuch as con- 
fer ve and increafe Piety. The declaration 
God makes of his will in this particular, 
h general, when he fays. Use eft Velum* 
ZVi, fanOiftcaih veftra. This declaration 
obliges us to work and endeavour without 
intermiflion our own San&ification j and 
to lay hold on all means proper Cor that 
end, and which are taught us by this very 
Law or Will of God, So that if we are 
not plac'd under thecondud of a Matter of 
Novices, whofc task it is to cxercife us in 
Vcrtue, not under that of a Ghoflty-Fa* 
ther, whofe Charity does us the fame good 
Office h yet ought the Law of God to 
ftand us in ftead of both thefe, and therfee 
we ottght to draw fuch exercifes, and fuch 
pra&ifes, as are proper to heal our Sores, 
and advance us in the way of Salva- 


This defire of knowing the Will of GojJ, 
has a particular relation to the prcfent 
time : For though foretimes we may fore* 


Part. I €4 tfte tftfll Of tf 0& 95 

fee what wc ought tcudo hereafter, yet 
«mft ore never take care of that, but when 
it is our prefent duty to think thereon. So 
that one may fey, the way of Truth, and 
the way of Life , confift in confidering 
whatGod requires we fliould do in the pre- 
fent inftant, and in putting it in pra&ife 
forthwith > that is, in praying, when 
God Wills us to pray * in differing, when 
God would have us to fufler i in being in 
a&iori, wh^n God requires we (hould > in 
employing our thoughts either about the 
future, or about our fclves , or about 
others, when God orders they (hould be 
fo employed* 

k XXXVlIc 

f There is in this World no condition To 
unhappy, tip* fo diforderly, which we 
may not, in the prefent inftant leave, to re- 
place our felves in the rank and older God 
appoints us > nor is there any fo Happy, fo 
Holy, fo Conformable to the Will of God, 
which "wei may not alfo loofe every mo* 
tnent. There is a Line drawn from each 
degree, and each condition towards God * 
as foon as we come to tread on this Line, 
we arc iti the order lie appoints. If wc 

1 are in Gn, the Line which leads towards 
God, is to renounce it, to refolve to lay 

i 'hold on all the ueeeffiry meaps of quitting 

96 0f©UbmKBO!t Treat II. 

it, and at the fame time to fall a practicing 
fuch as feem to be moft according to Gods 
order. If we have epter'd unduly into 
any Office, and that it isnecefTary to leave 
it, and we may immediately do fo, we be- 
take -our felves to the order God hath ap- 
pointed, if effc&ually we quit it. But if 
Prudence permits not that we free our 
hands of it fo foon, it is fufficient we do it 
in defi re v and then, though we have en* 
ter'd on it contrary to the order qf God, 
yet is it not contrary thereunto, that we 
continue s fince it is now no more our own, 
but his Will which keeps us there, 

, Thus not only the Juft, who confulting 
the Law of God here at the bottom of 
their Hearts, an anfwer of Peace, as the 
Prophet (aid, Andiam quid hquatur in me 
Vatobw Dcm, qwrniam loqnetur facem in 
phkem framy nor the Saints, Et fupet 
SanBos fuos : But aifo the grcateft fioners, 
provided they enter into themfdves, and 
turn towards God, Et in eas qui'vertuntur 
tdCot. This Divine Light (hews to,aH 
away of Peace. It is true, this way is 
more rugged toibnie than other s,and often 
it appears to thofe who are irAmerftin fin, 
•fo uneven and precipitious, that they de- 
fpair of being able to walk therein. But 


provided they will but ufc violence to 
themfclves,, h is not itnpbfible fat fh cv 
too may walk ftrft; tor, thfe feme tight 
which dttcovers to them the way, {hews 
them alfo the foccoar which they mw 
obtain by their Prayer* , and which can 
give them ftrcngth greater than their tfwrr 


. TneconGdeittibnoFGodsWhT, »Tu- 
Jtce, conftitutes the Piety of true Chri- 
Jtans here on Earth, and will make up thj 
Eternal Happmefe of the Bfeft* in- Hea- 
ven. In this contemplation confifte that 
torrent of pfcafuies^herewfth they will be 
nebmte*t For, their Sovereign delight 
flnrfl be to- find nothing in themfilvet w- 
fofte tothe Juflice ofGod Almhjhty, ani 

Their Glory (hall be, that this lattice tula 
over them : And thur (hall their Charity 

*i" PJ iJp** *£ M not refei 
«o* tothemfclvei, bnrthemfdves w Godf 
"Jfio* alonr they flraff love- in them-" 

the ftate of the Bieflfcd- in Heaven; Cm 
'%E*2r,*' , S*K G * ******* 

F * XL. 

jpg ©f dttbntiCTtott Treat 11/ 

But, which is ftrange~ by an cffeA 
quite contrary t what God (hall snake 
known of his Juftice to the wicked, (hall 
be their grcateft torment , and (hall be 
that which will throw them head-logg 
into HclL For as a Holy Woman , to 
whom God had imparted great Light, 
fays , A Soul is no fioner fiparated from 
. the Body, h(t it goes firaight to its pro~ 
fcr place : And if being dead , it Jhould 
fiat find that out, which the Decrees of 
Gods Juftice bath prepared for it, its HA 
would he a tboufand times greater, hecaufe 
it would fee it felf out of the order and 
difpofition ef God : Finding therefore for it 
felf no place more proper , er Jefs painful 
than Hch, it eafis it felf bead-long thither 
m u its Center , and the place tnojt conve- 
nient for it. 


Not becaufe a damn'd Soul loves this 

Juftice, but becaufe this Juftice being 
Jkitown, confounds and convinces it of 
Its own unworthinefs 9 a thing it can- 
not fuffer. there is a Knowledge of God 
which incites us to unite our felves to 
him, and to lay our felves open to the 
Light of hit Divine Eyes. There is a- 
nothcr, Which makes us fly from him, and 



Parti. CfltffeflKfflOfflOtt 99 

withdraw our fclvcs as much as we can 
out of his Pretence. Adam and Cain 
had experience of this impulfe after thcii 
finsi the one being induced thereby to 
hide himfelf- in Paradice, the other to 
wander like a Vagabond in the World, 
thinking fo to outrun the remorfe of 
Confcknce, which gave him no repofc 
This fcfltimeht annex 1 d to fins, is not a 
fentiotcnt of firar and horrour , but one 
of rage and defpair. We cannot endure 
the fight of him whom we have offen- 
ded, whom we hate* becaute it conti- 
nually upbraids us. with our faults. We 
would deftroy him if we could > but fince 
we cannot, we (hun him, and hide our 
felves from him to our power* The 
featiment is weak in this life, where wc 
but imperfedly apprehend the deforms 
ty of fin -, but in the next it (hall be 
without limits, when our fins (hall 
(hoot out their Thorns,, as St. Auftin 
(peaks, and our fides, (hall be pierced 

-It is therefore out of this fentiment, 
that the Damned (hould precipitate 
themfelves into .Hell ; as a place the 
mod daf kfome, andf remotefi from Gpd t# 
and where they (hall be left picre'd by' 

Fa the 

1QO ©f ftUfcmifflOlt TrcauK* 

tbo penetrating Rays of bis JuAioe. There 
is too much light for them in any place 
tlfe, and their Eyes cannot lufifc that 
Jigh^t they hat* 

'She gtcated torment we* caa inffift 
on thofc who. have, fey* Eyes, is to ex- 
f*>fc: them to a Ml light , aqd force 
thcon *o look ou ifr The grca£eft"HeU 
of the Damned would be to force them 
-So appear in the Light of the Saints, and 
la (hew them on one fide their Glory, 
Gods Love towards them > on the o- 
thcr, their own deformity t and the ha- 
tred God bears them. 

Thus their greateft defire is, to hide 
themfelves as much as poffiblc they can 
from this kilting light. 

The profpedfc of Gods Juftice joyn'd 
to his Mercy and LQte, brings comfort 
and cafe v bat that of this fame Juftitp 
joyn'd< to his hatred , is what kills and 
leads to defpair. 



We may be movM by Pride to quit a 
place whereof we ate not worthy : jFtf- 
dai vfis not humble when remorfe for 
his fin ipade< him judge himfclf unwor* 
thy to live. He could not fuller the 
reproach of his unworthincG, Audi ta 

- . fhun 

PatL EfltfeMJWortfofc 101 

Aim ft, he fbft hfc life. In the ftmfe 
manner the Damned fatly (bate til 

the other places they are unwottfcf 
of, to (hun the fight of that penetra- 
ting Lifeht* cbhvtnting tferb of their 
crimes , and cfarftig them before it f as 
the Angel chaced Adam out of Para- 

They cannot fuflfcr to be out of Gods 
Order > not becaufe they lore his Or- 
der , but becaufe they cannot bear the 
interior reproach of their own difor- 


Bell therefore is the Center of the 
Damned, as Darknefs is the Centex of 
them who fly the Light. It is the 
place where the Light of God incon- 
veniences them the leaft, where the 
reproaches of their Confidences arc leaft 
fcnfiblc, &nd where their Pride fuffers 
the leaft conjufron. So it is a kind 
of refreshment to them to be there. 
If they could, they would deftroy God, 
and his Order, but they know they can- 
not; therefore they hide themfelves in 
tlteAfeyft of Hell, and ffify could wflff 
that there were a greater Chaos be- 
twixt God and them , to (belter them- 
felves , if poflGble, from the Rays of 

E 3 that 

1 02 9Df duftttf tttim &c. Treat. ML 

that Truth which dcfcends and pierces 
their ight , even in the depths of that 

lb* End if the fitfk T*rt ef the St- 
and Ircatifi* 



Part II. 10J 



Second Part. 


The Second Treatife. 

OfSubmifsion to the Wilt 
of god. 


WE have newly fcen the firft way 
of confidering the Will of 
God containing in fome fort 
the whole life of a Chriftian > fincc it con- 
tains the Knowledge and Love of Goto 
Law. But even this profpeft (hewing u* 
this Law r as the rule of our a&ions, of it 
felf leads us to * Submiffion to the Will 
of God, confider'd, as theciufeof what- 
ever happens Hi -this World, fin ex- 
cepted, which he only permits : And this 
& the fecond way, accordin^to which wc 

f 4. have 

104 tt&titoXllttim Treats 

hare (aid Gods wiltought to be confider'd. 
F^rf&ermngby? aith thefe great Truths, 
that God Creates all things, that he Or- 
dains and Governs all, that nothing hap- 
pens without his Providence,that in what- 
foever comet to-ptifs in the World, he ci- 
ther exercifes his Juftice or Mercy, that no 
Creature hath any power but what he be* 
flows, that all are either the Inftruments 
or Mfrtfftcr* of his Decrees, and accor- 
ding to the expreffion of Scripture, but as 
an Ax in the band §f him that cuts, or as a 
Staff in ik hand of him ' thai ftfikff : We 
fee alfo at the lame time, in the fame Will, 
confrder'd as Supreme Juftice v that it is fit 
he ftould reign, and we obey > that at is 
his part to guide, and ours to follow > 
that we ought to conform our felves to his 
Will, rod not ddfrc that he flioutd fiibmit 
to ours > that hi? Will befog alwgys Juft, 
always IJoty , ijt is alfo alwayff Adorable, 
always > wojethy of our Submiffioa and 
Love, though the effeds thereof fome- 
imes prove b%tfk aud ttoyibkfom* : for* 
only fiich Souls as are unjuft can find fault 
with whaj Juftice it ftjf '4o»9 and fo the 
trpublfis weiomettqnesferKto fubmit tok y 
is oMy,/?l PJOpf of our own injtfftke and 
corrupt Watiwj. which (Wild wake m$ 
lay the W*W> W* <» God, buf qw fcWes,. 


p«t ft tto %* wm fif dfcfc ioy 

faying with the Pitophet, AT**** Dh f*t* 
j*8d trh Afiims *\to? Oi*y ft*/, wi* #*#* 


But to fiK out felves 1ft this Suhtalffion, < 
to which even Jufticc it felf oblteesus, it 
fe good often to rtgard and conuder tfcW 
Will of God, at it operates in the World, 
and ads through all the Creature*. ¥<yt> 
the caufe in part of that dffi mfa&ton we 
feck in what happens to us,' (prints fifom< 
our (topping at, and not Iodkmg beydtad> 
the Creatures, and irt that we impute to 
them the events of things. We only fake 
notice of the Rod that fttikes and chafti* 
fes us, we fee not the hand that manages 
it. If we difcern'd God evety where, and* 
looked on him through the Veil of hisCrta~ 
turcs jf we fa w that it B he who gives them 
all the force they have, that it is he Whb 
drive* ehert forward to do what k good, 
and who in what is evH diverting their 
malice frbm Rich obje&s whither it tniglif 
terry them, gives, it no other liberty than 
foch a? ferves to put hi execution his Eter- 
nal decrees* the fight of His Juftice andP 
Majefty webbf give w check to. out. com- 
plaint?, dur'mtfrtftatingfc land impatfcneet; 
In fits pttftnec- Wc dUrff nbefty, we de* 

fc**e*ofc wfetf <riif 4Mb v *i* (hd*» WW 


106 flDf duMftOt! Treat, H. 

no other fcntimehts than thofc Which 
inade Holy Dsvid fay, I held my peace, I 
wm bumbled , beeaufe thorn didfi tbk. Qb 
mutui & bumiliativ fim , quenism tu ft- 
tifiu But we are pleas'd* when from our 
Eyes we can hide thefc Truths, that we 
tnav have fotne pretence to cafe our felves, 
and difcharge our ill humours on the Crea- 
turcp > that we may complain of their in- 
juftice > that we may think our Jelvcs in 
the right, and be perfwaded, that we fuG- 
fcr wrongfully what is infli&ed on us. 

Did we fix the Eyes of our Soul on this; 
firfi and Sovereign caufe of all events, we 
fbould fee the whole face of things in foma 
fort changed as to us > that is, we fhould 
be oblig'd thereby to alter the great eft part 
of the Notions and Idea's wehavefram'd 
to our felves of what pafles there. We 
fhould find none oppreft who were inno- 
cent y we fbould only fee the guilty puniflu * 
ed- The World no more tcrus would be 
a place of diforder and jars > it would only 
be one of lattice and Equity. We fhou'd 
acknowledge that nothing is taken from, 
a.ny,hut what he deferves to loofe,that none 
fuflcrs above his defeats, that juft ae and 
ftrfngth are always joyn'd there together, 
whcrca$ f in)u^ce.M always weak. and impoT., 

tent * 

Ptrt ir. Co m mniot «ofc 1 07 

tent i we fliould fee no evils, no misfor- 
tunes, but only juft ehaftifanents of Mens 
fins » that none dyed here either by the 
neceflity of Nature, or the accidents, of 
Fortune , but that Men deftrving death 
are pumfti'd therewith, and that in time 
and chrcumftanccs moft fuitablc. In fmc± 
that all here is Equitable and Holy, as well 
in refpe& of God ordaining all things, as 
Men on whom his decrees are executed. 
Only the Minifiers of this over-ruling- 
Will can be guilty of injuftice \ yet cannot 
their injuftice hinder what they do from 
proving juft and equitable to thofe who &£» 
far it; 

Taking our meaftres from this Idea*, 
what is an Army ? 'Tisa Troop of Exe- 
cutioners of Gods Juftice, which he fend* 
to kill thofe who have deferved to dye,andf 
Whom he hath condemned to this puniih- 
ment. What are two Armies fighting to- 
gether ?- They are the Ministers of this Di- 
vine Juftice, punching one another, and 
prcciGly executing nothing but what God 
hath ordered. What is Murder > Tis the- 
punifhment of a Criminal by the hand of 
an unjuft Minifter* What are Thieves >' 
They are certain people, unjuflTy execu- 
^ngi*c juft decree whereby Ged has or* 


108 ^ffetttWtmott Trctt.IL 

der'd certain pcrfonf (hoqld be deprjv'd of 
their Goods > What is a King ? He is a 
t<mi& ia thf . Haqd* of God Tpi puntfh~ 
mem of the wicktdt • 

'Tis only this prpfpeft that lays before 
our Ey^ Qods Empire over the World*. 
a*d his eminent poW*r over all his Crea«- 
tyres. $hpqld wc otherwifc look on 
thingSt it would fecm that the malice of 
Mcp had the upper hand of God himftlf, 
at Leaft for a tiw, a«d that. their Iniquity, 
overcame his Juftice, wherefore we aiayn 
tylkw- th*t the Prophet^ upon this con* 
templation of Gods Infinite Power, gui- 
ding all things to thf Ends bis Mercy 
and Judgment hath let, cries out : That 
GU Ret&n4 t tbat b* ba$b clad bim^ 
filf witb Bettty and Force, Nothing, 
hut a contemplation of Gods Provi- 
dence being capable of making us to fee 
Qjder and beauty in that confufion the 
Wofld is in, and of difcovering to us God** 
Supreme Empire over, it, maugre the vio-%. 
If nee of unwft Men conteomipgand flights 
i*g his VVill and Laws. 


The recital of things pafs'd is but in 
foe* felt,, to fa«h,« cis»fi4» the Workfc 


by a tight purely Humane, Hiftory of 
: the Devil, and the Reprobates > be** 
r ciufe the pcrfona ailing, tnoft on the Thea- 
ter of the World, and who have the grca- 
' • tcft (hare in all the accidents -whereby it is. 
kept in motion, arc;, for the mod part, 
i the Citizens of iabyl<m, hi whom the De- 
t vil dwclU, and by whom he ads. But ta 
[ thofc who carry their contemplation 
; higher, all Hiflory in fame fort is the Hi* 
i fidry of God v became they only find in it 
the execution of his Will, the decrees of 
his Juftice, and the e$c£t$ of his Power,. 
AH there tends to edification, becaufe all 
there is juft and equitable. 

Time paftd ifr aa Abyfs without bot- 
tom, fallowing and devouring all things 
trapfitory v. that. to come is another, to* 
ijs impenetrable. One of thefc Abyffcs 
't eDn^mwUy flows in to tjie other i the time* 
to Come difcharges it felf halo the thro 
paft, by gliding through the ptefent. We 
**e pUc'd hetwlst thefc two Abyffes : For, 
we perceive and are aware how the time 
- $acome flows into what is pafs'd; and/ 
Hshis makes the prefer* time, as what is 
prefeat makes qp al) our Kfe. "What is 
p*#,is noroprciand what's to>come, iftnot* 

fife *t *lk Heace; ohfcrve? .tfhat our con- 


ITO % ffif dtfctttfflfat Treat, if. 

dition is. What therefore we ought ta 
do, is to undertake that part which God 
for the piefent affigns us,looking on what's 
paft, and what's to come, according as ; 
God requires we ftould. 


For although what's pad ceafes to be in 
refpeft of us, and what's to come, is not 
yet * yet both the one and the other exift 
in refpeft of God. His Will grafps all 
time. What's paft, is fo, becaufc he de- 
creed it Qtould be at a certain time* and 
what's to come, will be becaufc he hath 
affigned another time for it. Thus his 
Will comprehends, and in fome manner 
makes Holy all events whatfoever, whether 
paft or to come. In his Will we find them 
altogether, and as that is always adorable,^ 
we are obliged by it to look with venera- 
tion on all events, whether paft or future* 
for that tye and dependance they have on 
this Divine Will. 


There is this difference betwixt thing* 
patt,and to come,that as we know in parti- 
cular f;mewhat of the paft, fo we may in* 
particular approve of it, and praife Gods> 
Providence in its eventsi But as we fee; 
nothing of what's to come, and that 'tis 
yet hid in God, we cannot exercife the 



PartlL &0tl)tmmt®40. Ill 

Swbrniffion wc ow* to his Will, otherwifc 
than by a general acceptation of all his de- 
crees, which wp ought always to regard 
as moft Sacred and mod J oft, 


What's paft* and whatVto come, bcihg 
fo flrLftly ty'd to the Wjil of God, at the 
fiift fight one would think that Faith in 
us could only raife fentiments of Venera- 
tion and Submi(fion for both the one and 
other » and that even in refpeft of things 
prefent, which depend not on us, we ought 
to have the like fentiments and approba- 
tion ♦ But if this be fo, what will be- 
come of that penitential forrow, we have 
for our fins pad ? What of that tendernefs 
and companion, whole principal obje& is 
the pre Cent troubles , and miferies ? What 
will become of that prudent Forecaft, by 
which we endeavour to prevent and fhuit 
them ? Muft we be afraid left God exercife 
bis Juftice* Muft we take on, and afflidfc 
our felves for what he either does himfelf 
or permits to be done? Does not God 
when be permits Evil; think it better to* 
permit than. hinder it, as with eafe he- 
could > And if his thoughts are (uch, fliould 
not ours he conformable to his ? How near 
is the (hallow Wit of Man, and pronrfhere 

tp. draw that Uafpheraous concluGon* 

, which 

112 Ctftllmitffrtt ttmtJL 

which was ftlfly imputed to St. ?*ul> That 
Mess fins were not to be condemned, fincc 
God thereby was glorifi'd. Quid adhne 

But thefc difficulties irifc only from our 
not considering tho Will of God in its 
foil extent, from our operating his Will, 
confidcr'd as Juftice, and f he Rule of alt 
things, from the fame Will conlider'd as 
theb Caufe and Principle For lee us Joyn 
together thefc two confiderations, and we 
(hall find, that God permits (in only by 
that Will which is the Caufe of things, 
whilft at the fame time he condemns and 
hates the fame by his Wil^coniider'd as Ju- 
ftice,to vihich fin is contrary and oppofite :. 
Whilft he punifecs finners for their 
Crimes by his Will confider'd as operative, 
and the Caufe of Beings, at the fame time, 
he makes it known by his Eternal Law, 
that thefc Crimes arc: contrary to th*t Jtu 
free which is nothing but that fdf fame 
ty ill. Thus the effe&s of his Juftice at once 
imprint in our Souls a Twofold Idea, viz* 
that of the Will of God permitting 6ns, . 
and that of the diforder of the (atriefmS' 
which ircondcmias: and theft two Ob* 
je&s ought to raife in. us two kinds of* 
Sentiments °> one by which we appro** of 


PtrtU; e*tfc£8ffi9f$0t>» It} 

what citaes from God, mother fey -which 
we condemn that which cooks from Man. 


By this contemplating the Will of 
God, we bring to an amicable agreement 
thofc ienthncnts which at the firft fight 
appear fo contrary aid irreconcilable, as 
well in xefpetit of what is part, as what's 
to come. We are forty for our fins, be- 
caufe in God's Sovereign Juftice we lee 
them condemned of iajuffice, infolcnce and 
ingratitude. In the fame Jnftice alio we 
fee it is but fit and equitable , that we 
ftouW have f hefe fcntiirients, and that we 
flaould endeavour to excite them in our 
felves. But knowing too that God has 
permitted us to fall into theft fins, to the 
end they might fcivc to bring on the de~ 
I fig» Ofhis Providence* wc cannot but. 
adore this bis Permtffion, becaufcit is yuft* 
! And thougtt this know ledge ought not u> 
* take off the regret and &rrow for our 
. faults* y et cntght it to appcaft thofc trou* 
hies, thofe exceffive unquiet griefs which 
other wife they would caufe: Since, in 
fine, it is caually jfift weftould, ( having 
in our protf*& - <£odi Joftice di&overlng 
to us tfae enormity of our fins) be for- 
rowful for them; and that we fhouid 
ceafc 10 be troubled and vexed thereat, 

. having 

X 14 ®f dubmilHOtt Treat It 

having in fight the Will of God, who, 
(to the end they might fcrvc hisdcfigns)has 
permitted them to happen* j 

It is properly this peace, this tranquili- 
ty which proceeds from the contemplation* 
of Gods Sovereign Will, .that the Apoftlc 
wifhcs to all Christians, when he (ays, Fax 
Cbrifii qui exuperat omnem fenf*m, cuftodUt 
tor da veftra & ittteVigentias veflrm'. Thi* 
Peace furpafles all the other Sentiments, 
but does not ftifie or extingutfh them* 
They nevertheleO are excited in our Hearts 
by the Light of Faith, difcovering to us 
what God judges of our a&ions > yet, not* 
withftanding thefe Sentiments of forrow, 
we ceafe not to be at peace within our 
fclves,whea we confidcr that it is a God all 
Juft, who permitted thele (ins, and that 
he will heieafter forgive them* One of 
thefe would be lame and imperfeft with- 
out the other v but, being joyn'd and uni- 
ted together, they frame a Pennance with* 
out defpair, and a Peace without pre- 


God does not equally difcovcr thefe 
Truths to all, and fo the motions they ex* 
cite have not always an equal vehemency . 
For Example , in this life God employs 


Pact H. CotfjeiHJfnof tfofc ti5 

much his Saints in meditating on the oppoJ 
fition their fins have to the Law of God * 
here with the fame evidence he difcovers 
not to them the Beauty of his Divine 
Will, permitting thefe fins to happen fo» 
their Good, and his Glory. And thus the 
motions and rcfentments of Pennance, 
which they feel at the fight of their fins* 
are much more lively , much more fenfible, 
than that comfort they receive from the 
hope they have that God one day will out 
of thefe very faults extrad his own Glory, 
and their Salvation. On the other fide* 
in the next World, the-Saints (hall be fa 
thoroughly pofltfs d with Joy, that they 
have contributed towards God* Glory* 
and fo filFd with admiration ef his Provi- 
dence, which through the ways they have, 
gone, has guided them to Heaven, that 
they (hall be no more capable of refen- 
ting the lead forrow for their paff ok 

'" XV. 
Neither ought this consideration of 
Gods Will make us infenfible of the evils 
of our Neighbour. It is true , nothing 
happens, to them but what is right and 
juft v but we fee in this fame Will confi- 
der'd as Law, as Juftice, as Truth * that 

Mankind is not in the ftate he was created 


115 fl)f dtAtnflftdQ Tr^t.lL 

(or 9 that thcfc evil* fpting nOtfrortiNa* 
turc, as i t was inftitutcd, but from its did 
order > that they are not toofontiable to 
the firft order of God, nor to his firft in* 
diftation, which is all for goodnefi. In 
this Will of God we fee the ties which u, 
nitc us to thofe miferable ones, and which, 
ought to induce us to love them. There 
alfo we fee that it is but juft, wd (hould 
love them, we fliould defire to fuccour and 
help them, we fliould be troubled at their 
Evils, and that God does approve We 
fhouH ask and beg of him thofe fuccours 
and helps they ftand in need o£ Jtiskn- 
poflible all thefe thoughts (houtd not ex* 
cite in us fentiments of Compaffion ; and 
that other contention of Gods Will, by 
which he chaftifes Men by thefe Evils, 
ought-oniy to ftand us in ftead to moderate 
thefe refontments* sot toftifte, atid quite 
take thorn away. 

In fine , the . conflderation of Gods 
Will, as doing all 5 as carrying tm all for 
his own Glory, ought not aWo to hinder 
thofe juft fore-fights we ought to have for 
the future, became we know that the Law' 
of God ordains us to nfe all f eafonablc care 
and precaution to prevent certain *ccv 
dents, and to procure others, kavin£nC* 


Part&CatfcSOffiOfCta 117 

vartheWs the fuc^ds tp his Providence^ 
and paying a genera] Subsniffion to his 
decrees*. St. f art defied to gp. and Preach 
the Gofpel at Knur » nay he laid the 
detigoti bit it was with feibraiffion tc^ 
and dfepandance cm the Witt of God* In 
hying the de%i, he obcy'd the Will of 
God as a Law and Ruk : la tobmitting 
the execution thereof to the WHJ of God, 
he obey *i him as the Sovereign caufe of aU 
things, according to the fame Rules of his 
Eternal Juftice. Fox, it is ( as wc have 
(aid ) Juftice it felf which obliges us to 
Tubmit our fclrcs. in alt events to his Holy 

The. life of F?kh therefore , which is 
the life of the Jyft, obliges them to fubrait 
themfel «a to the common ds&ates of htu 
mane B*udenec, and, to make ufe of bu* 
mane means, tobchigtbofc things topafc 
which they may reafboably defoe; be* 
aufe this Faith, forbids us to tempt Go4 
And this Qthei consideration of? Godb 
abfoktte Miili > as governing asddofc$aU; 
only fe*ve to comfort us when thing* faH 
out contrary to. our defirc,* aodought not 
to give us occafion of rafldy forc~ttliin$ 
what's to corae, or guiding our a<5tions; by 

certain, Prophoicfc Inflin&s, which for 


the, mod part are only the effcfts of our 
imagination, on which God has forbid us 
to rely. We know not whether it is Gods 
Will there (hotdd be Peace or War. Whe- 
ther fuch and fuch diforders Ihould have an 
end or no. Whether he will make his~de- 
figns faceted by this or that means ; yet 
ought we not tointermit our endeavour for 
procuring peace, and remedying diforders* 
nor ceafe to ufc fuch means as we judge 
proper for the ends we aim at , leav- 
ing never thclefs the fuccefs to God Al- 
mighty. . 


This fame reafon ought to make us-very 
refcrv'd and cautious, in taking for Marks 
of Gods Will our lighting in Scripture, or 
other Books of Devotion, on certain pla- 
ces which feera to us conformable to fome 
thoughts and defigns we have in our heads* 
For though it be certain we light not on 
thefc places, but becaufe it is Gods Will * 
yet is it not certain we (hould happen oft 
<hem for fuch a purpofe,or that they ought 
to fervc us as a Rule to guide our felves by* 
'Tis our Fancy that draws this confe- 
quence, and tlftt raflily * becaufe it fuppo. 
fes God could not have permitted fuch a 
hit but for fuch an end. On the contrary * 
who knows but he may have permitted it 

, as 

Part, a Cot&eCflfllof $ofc 119 

as a tryal, whether we would with 
conftancy walk in the way of Faith, ad- 
hering to the common Rules of Pru- 
dence : Or whether we would give our 
fel ves over to the motions of vanijty,which 
£0 naturally are raifed in us, when we ima- 
gine God does us peculiar favours ; and 
places us above the ordinary rank of Men* 
to whom he makes his will known only 
by the general documents of Scripture, 
and the ordinary inftru&ions of the 
Church? It fecms therefore not good to 
4>uild much on thefe cafual hits, and that 
touching them, we ought to fear what 
the Scripture fays of Dreams, Vbi mult* 
funt fomnis plurim* font vsnitatts. For, 
the vanity of Dreams confifts , not in 
concluding that God is the caufe of fuch a 
Dream, which is always true in fomc 
fenfe i but in applying fuch and fuch a 
Signification thereunto. Now the like va« 
nity is to be found in our judgments, when 
we think God has fuch dtligns in p& nut- 
ting fuch accidents* 

The conGderation then of Gods ab» * 
foiute Will, does not make any alteration 
in the ordinary way of judging of things ; 
nor cuts it off the application of humane 
means, or the ufe of humane knowledge 


120 £>f €Ktfimf(fiQtt Treat II 

ancHnfight. But, it reftrains alt unquiet, 
over«hafty, and too vehement wiflies for 
things not yet come to pafe, and alt trou- 
ble ami meianehoJly for (uch as are either 
prefatt or pafiu For, if we be faMy per* 
f waded, that God docs all things, and 
that he can do nothing btit what is }aft> 
having given (uch order about ou* at 
feirs, as he commands wc ihould, we ought 
totally to deliver our fehret up to hkn> and 
ifo peace expc& the accotnpiiihmcnt of his 
Eternal defign. And as thefe defcrvc out 
adoration, when by the event they become 
maitifeft to us, fo alfo no left do they even 
beforehand defer ve the fame, whHft they 
lie hid amongft the fecrets of his trevi- 

It is true , that amongft thefe events 
feme are the effejdta of his Mercy, others 
of his juftice. Bur as Mtrcy and Juftite 
are equally ado*abIr, an equal ftabmifr 
ftoni is due to both j. but wirh< this dif- 
ference : The fubraiffion pok* to the effi&% 
of Mercy, ought ordinarily to be accom- 
panied with joy and thanks : That to 
thofe of Juftice wkh humiliation «wl 


It is often impbffibte-amongft humane 


accidents to diftinguHh the cffc&s of his j 
Mercy from thofe of his Juftice v becaufe' 
oar Soul is too narrow to comprehend that 
infinite Chain of Oiufes fo linked together; ' 
that foroctimc the greateft arils art taftcn- ' 
ed to what fecms the greateft good* and' 
on the contrary, th& greateft good to 
what feem? the grcateft evil: So that ha- 
ving according to the di&ates of ordi- 
nary Prudence done what is In our power, 
not only Faith, but Rcafon it fctf obliges 
us to an indiflcrency, as to the event, be- 
caufe by it we know that our skill is too 
ihort* too narrow to frame a right and 
found judgment thereof* 


„To the Aid we may beinnurM to a Sub- 
iniffiori to Gods Will in affairs of grcateft " 
importance, able to (hake and difinay the . 
SouI> we muft begin and accultom our 
fclves to honour and refpeft it in the lead 
circumftanccs of our lives > becaufe that 
rules thofc as well as the greateft. Nay, 
in looking on thefe (mall things as effeds 
of Gods Sovereign Will, faith is more ful- 
ly exercifed : Becaufe Men feel more dif- 
ficulty in attributing to God ordinary and 
pet ty events, than great ones. One there- 
fore throughly poffefsM with this thought^ 
will never fay fuch an accident is trouble-* 

' Q ibmc., 

r - ' 

Z2Z ©f dUbrnfflOott Treat. II. 

(bine, becaufe looking on it as ordain d by 
•God, 'tis not allow'd him to be troubled 
at it. He will never complain of a meet- 
ing difappointed, of an unfcafonable vifit, 
of his fervants loitering, of his being made 
watt too long, or being refufed feme fa- 
vour: No little lofs, no unfcafonablcncfs 
of the weather f nor generally any of thofc 
ordinary occurrences of life) which ufually 
caufe impatience in. others, will diicom. 
pofc him* 

With this felf- fame difpofix ion ought 
every one to fufler his corporal defeds v 
as deafnefs, weakness of fight, and gene* 
rally whatfoever may render one con- 
temptible in the fight of Men t as want 
d memory , want of addrefs and wif, 
want of temporal goods, meannefs of 
Hirtb : And that without ever 'complai- 
ning thereof* as well becaufe thefc come 
from the Hand of God , as becaufe We 
know not whether they be not more for 
our advantage , than thofe other quali- 
ties, which would plcafc us better > Nay, 
we know not but that in fuifering thefc 
wants in this manner, they will .become 
really more beneficial. The fame is to 
befaid ofdifeafes, calumnies, evil treat* 
meats, the final! cfteem the World has 




Partfl. Cot&eOKKof ($OlU I2JL 

for us, the hatred and prejudices if may 
have againft us. Becaufe God Almighty 
cither does or permits all this v we muft 
look on it with a calm and peaceful Eye^ 
keeping our fclves in the rank lie has put 
us , and adoring his decrees. And the 
Will of God which governs all thefc 
things, ought to have more power over 
aur Souls , to make us cheerfully accept 
thereof and render them amiable to us % 
then whatever they have of ungrateful* 
to make us rejc A the fame, and carrying 
us on to impatience and murmur. - 

. Certain accidents are the neceflary con- 
fluences of our own fins* if thefc con* 
fcquences prove favourable » they admi- 
nister to us a peculiar caufe of praifing 
the Mercy ami -Bounty of God, who could 
draw good from evil, and change into 
means of faving us, that which onty'dc- 
farv'd ehaftifement f and the withdrawing 
of his Graces But ifthefe confequen- 
ccs be troublcfooae and hard,' as when 
our fins have involved us in great evils. 
Spiritual or Temporal) if our diiordets 
have b$en the caufe of many! Crimes t if 
thefe confcqucnccs continue, and are pro'. 
pagated * then ought we not to took on 
them without farrow. For the Will of 

Qi' 1 ~ God 

lli ©f fttlbtttf fflOlt Treat IL 

<£od confider'd as Juftice, commands us to ' 
grieve, to humble onr felvcs, and do pen- 
nance for fuch> and to endeavour to give a 
flop to theft bad confluences , by our 
better Deeds and Prayers: But, at the 
fame time it commands us to be calm and 
quiet, without trouble, without anxiety, 
and to comfort our (elves by the conte- 
ntion oC his Will that has permitted 
them, and will certainly draw his Glory 
u ut of them. 

No fin hath had fo fad a confeqticnce as 
that .of our firft Parents ; fince all the e- 
vils that have fain on Mankind, all the 
fins that the whole World hathcommit- 
ted| and the damnation of that innume- 
rable number of reprobates, a re the effecfts 
of it: Yet the Will of God has not been 
wanting to comfort them in itumd if it did 
toot take from them all ferrow, whilft they 
remained in this World, becaufe it was but 
juftaod retfonable they fhouH do pennancc 
lor their faults » yet hath it quite extin- 
guUh%UU&rief in the other > fince, taaugrc 
thofir dreadful conftquences of their fin, 
which (hall continue forall Eternity, Afcw* 
and Eve for ever enjoy that peace and con- 
fohtion which belongs to the juft* And 
rhis is the grcaicft Example imaginable of 


what the contemplation of Gods Will can 
3o towards appealing thofe troubles which 
naturally ought to tyring from the confe- 
rences of ourfinsv and having teen this, 
what ill effe&$ foever out&ults on have 
had) whatcyejf difcurdcrs they hayccaufcl, 
none ought to loofe his hope, ^oer gfrje 
himfelfover to grief out of- a certain kW 
of defpair. . 

Gods Will thus confider'd* not only, 
makes us fuller with peace and oalmncfr 
the cffc&s of our fins, but %ttb to bep 
with patience our own defers *nd iinpct* 
fe&ion s, as well z* thofe of others. And 
thus it caufes a good agreement betwixt 
thofe two fo feeraingly oppofite fcnti- 
roents; the thirftandzealof Juftice^hidi 
makes us hate our fins, and that patience 
which makes us fuiJcjMhem : becaufc wc 
fee t fiat God hatfrpJifcrib'd us both. The 
Soul refign d tofiQlifays indeed to bin in 
the fenfe of hqwmifcries, Lord bam U*g 
wilt thm fitffer mi to continue inibujltie 1 
Sti tn mtDmintufquiquot Meanwhile 
leaves not to be at peace ia it ; She jre- 
folves to make the term of her Jafc to be 
that of her Patience* and at once to wage 

# a continual war againft imjpcrfe&ions, and 

* ncverthelefs to bear with her fe$ and 

G $ fte», 

1 3 5 ©f Btibmi fitytt Treat n, 

l thcm, without ever giving her fclf over 
to dtfeouragement *, whilft (he is content 
with that theafure of Grace,God is pleafed 
to give her : And this is it (he learns from 
that advice of the Wife Man. g*i ti- 
mcnP lktminum> cxjtodianfmdndata iffiw, 
& ftthwtim habebunt tfjq} *d i*$c8ioncm 
iffim. * ' 


In fine, the greateft cflc&s of our Sub. 
miffion to Gods Sovereign Omnipotent 
Will, isy that (in the uncertainty <£ his 
jEternal decree^ touching our predestina- 
tion, and of that Sentence which he /hall 
pronounce at the hour of our Death, by 
which he puts in execution the former m 
decree, ana allots us cither a happy or mi- 
serable Eternity ) the Soul is brought by 
it to acknowledge that God is }uft, and 
< that Yhe adores him as fach \ according to 
vthe words and mind of the Prophet, *(ay** * 
iijg with him to Gi)& f Ifr mmntbut tuiifor- 
t*t met : In thy hands if my ht. But (he is 
very careful not to abandon her fclf over- 
much to this thought, not to dive' too 
far into it $ the weaknefr of our under (ten- 
ding being unable to bear it. She therefore . 
wholly applies, he* (elf to confider what 
God commands her to do in this icfpe&, 
and what difpofi don he by his TTUth and 
fei$ Law prescribes, XX VI If ♦ , 

Part. IF. CO t&e mill Of $Q& Tfr 

xxynt. * 

Now, in this Law (he fees, firft, that^tii 
jirft (he fhould Tpare her own weaknefe, anil 
not btrfic her felf about To dreadful v 
thought. Secondly, that we haft ni> 
rcafon to think that this decree wilt not 
prove favourable to her, fince God by ma- 
ny Graces-has call'd her out, and ftpcra- 
ted her'amongft (b many Ihfidels, fo ma* 
ny Hcreticks, fo many others who never 
think on God > and hasplac'd her amongft 
thofe few of the Faithful in his Church* 
who know his Law, and have fomc defies 
to obferve it. In this Truth (he fees', thtf . 
infiead of bufying her felf unprofitable 
with thoughts of diftruft, which cannot 
but do her harm, (he ought folcly to en* 
deavour to corrcft faults, to provide re- 
medies againft the future > to put her (elf 
into the way of God, if (he be not altca* 
dy there, and to walk faithfully in it, if 
(he be, 


She fees that Gods Will is, (hcfoould 
nouriih and keep alive her hope by all the 
juft means Truth fumithes her with > and 
that above all (he take heed not to look 01* 
God Almighty a*au Enemy,. having no 
love or kindnefs for hen For this Idea is 
falfe, and execrable even In refpedfr" of the 
_ . G 4 dananeA 

128 S*f SttfetttffifOtt Treat, tt. 

• ♦ 

* * * * 

damned themfelvcs. God made not Tcstb % 
lays the Scripture, and Ipt takft mpUafur* 
in tbi lofs of the Living. If bis Creatures 
depart from him, *it is, by making theru- 
felvcs unworthy of the effeds of his goodr 
• nefs, and by their wilful malice obliging 
him to (hew them thole of his Juftice, God 
never wants ' the Bowels of Mercy to 
receive fianers, if they be converted, and 
return to him* like a Father he has aK 
ways hisBofom open to receive them, and 
it is always their fault If they convert not 
thcnafclves. It is true, that by a fecret 
Juftice God thinks himfelf not bound to 
change the corrupted will of the repro- 
bates i but this Will of Juftice in him docs 
»ot deftroy that Effential CJoodnefs, which 
is the very Law and Will of God himfelf 
which makes him ready to receive into fa- 
vour every converted (inner, forfakinghis 
fins, and makes him command, that every 
tinner Ihould turn and forfake them. From 
this Goodnefs fprings that Patience of 
which St. Pju/fpeaks, inviting linnets to 
do Pennance. Let them dp that, and 
Gods Mercy will always be open to them, 
and his Grace abundantly flow upon them* 
who Hop the current, and dam it up > ne- 
ver thelcfs all fuch Graces lie al way steady 


Part II. CQt$eCttfflflfigML Ht? 


There is nothing then which more fiu 
cilitates the conduct of Chriftian lifc,than 
this contemplation of Gods Will in its 
whole extent, for by it we fee that the 
whole life of a true Chriftian, is a lift; of 
Peace, with an even calmnefs, contempla- 
ting in Gods order the jpaft, prefent, and 
future, perpetually coqiulting his Law, to 
team from thence what is to be done every 
moment, and to know the interior difpo- 
fition of mind we ought to have in reft*& 
of rhofe affairs we are to employ our felves 
alibut : Thefe difpofitions become various 
according to the variety of Qbjeds > and 
they include all the lawful paffions of joy, 
fadnefs , defire , fear , love, "anger, com* ' 
pa(Son, which fuch Obje&s ought to ex- 
cite, Yet arc all thefe paffions joyn'd to 
that general difpofition of repofc and 
peace, which the profped of Gods Sove- 
reign Will entertains, and nourishes in the 
bottoto of a Chriftians Soul » that Peace 
which calms all particular unquiet mo- 
tions \ that- Peace which they pi ways enjoy 
wholoyethe Law of God,, as Vivid by $• 
Tax mult* diligent tin legm twm ; that 
Peace which JESUS CHRIST be- 
queathed to his Difciplcs, when he left the 
World, and which the Wo*M knows not. 

*30 ©fftUfimfflTon&c. Treat. IK 

Taccm rtlinquo v$hk , Hon qnomodo Mutt Jut 
&**% *t* & vobii : That Pea$e which the 
ApoAle St. Foul wi&es the Faithful, as we 
hare already faid, to the end it may guard 
their Souls and Undcrftandings. Cvfrediat 
ccrdaveftra & intcSicentiaf veftraf :'Tis this 
Peace wheh quiets the agitations ot the 
Heart> wbilft it fixes it to the immovable 
Will of God : TIs this Peace gives a 
flop to thofe troubles which the multi- 
plicity of its thoughts produces in the 
Uoderftanding : By this one thought 'tis 
Gods Will this Peace caufes man to let hirn* 
felf bc<arried aflc&ionately on by, the tor- 
rent of Providence* whilft he troubles 
himfelf no farther, than faithfully to com* 
ply with his obligation in every particular 
duty prefcrib'd him at each Moment by f be 
I*aw of God. 

lie End of the Stoni freahfe. 

■ p i ' < 




Third Treatife.. 


Of the Fear of (jod. 

Confige timort tuo cirrus mess y djjt*- 
diciis enim tuis timttk 

r, • 

|H E Prophet is in fttr; and he : 
begs of God, that this hi^ 
Fear may be increafcd, like to » 
him who faid, Lord I believe, . 
Help my incredulity. The firft cffc&s of 
that Fear God infufesinto our Heart, is to 
convince us that we fear not enough. By/ 
ft we fee that God is infinitely dreadful^ 
and our (ear final) > and this incites us to • 
beg of God that he would redouble hi** 
Ftar in us, and pierce our Flefh with it* 

It oftea happens that our Undcrftan-- 

ding U-eonvinc'd.tlwt we- ought to fca*.; 
„ * Goda 

Hi ttfte C&fc5 Creattfe, 

God f but our Heart, and the fcnfible part 
of our Soul,, is tor all that untouch'* 
therewith. Yet 'tis that Fear of the Heart, 
not that perfwafion of our Understanding,, 
that deads temptations, And k is for 
this reafon that she Prophet is not fatif- 
fied with this Fear of God in his un- 
derflandins , * judiciis enim tun timmi, 
but he defires that even his very Flcfh 
fhould be (truck through with this Fear, 
to the end that the lively fmart thereof 
may ftiflc in it ail the temptations able by 
their flatteries to gain on the flcfh. Were 
we piere'd all through, with Nails, our 
condition would be fuch as the moft tempt- 
ing pleasures could .never aflail us. The 
Prophet therefore begs, that the Fear of 
God would work an cntQt like to this in 
him ; that this Fear would as live lily and, 
fenfibly touch his Sonl 9 as Nails do his 
flcflv, w-hen they really -and cifcdually 
fierce it through. 

Feat fcems to be an cfle& of feltlove^ 
We (tend in fear of the evils which befall 
us, becaufe we love our felves. Why 
therefore is it ncceffary we (hould beg it at 
Gods hands? Are we not Efficiently fur- 
aifh'd with felt love to fear that which may 
bring upon us the greateft of all evils?' 


$f tie JFm of $olr* rj^ 

The rcafon is, let our fclf-love be never fo 
great, it is always blind, infcnGble, flupid, 
without rcafon* It is fenfible of things of 
finall moment, and pafles by unconcerned* 
ly thofe of greater * u It fears without caufe* 
and is without fear when we have all the 
rcafon in the world for that paffion. It 
obfervcs no order, no rule in its motions. 
It is totally taken up, fill'd, tranfported 
with trifles, and is often infenfible of the 
greateft things in the World* God there- 
fere does os a great favour, when he makes 
us feel things as they are in themfelvcs : 
For in making us livelily fenfible of thofo 
things that are great , he deads the too 
lively fenfe we have of fuch as are little. 


There is in Man a prodigious fenfi- 
btlity, able to produce bound lefs mo- 
tions of (adnefs, love, joy, fear, de~ 
Jpair* and an amafing infeufibility, abW 
to refift the raoft terrible Objeas. Thd 
fame things kill fome, and not fo much 
as move others} whilft the reafon and caufc 
of effeds fo different lie hid"* and ua- 


Thefe violent paflions fpring from an 
unknown root, they proceed from a hid- 
deaabyis* Mo body prccifely knows the 

" . Springs 

T34 «&e tifttto Create, 


Springs he is to fee on work to excite 
them r all we know? is, that I^eafbn it 
fc If cannot fttr them tip as it would, even 
then when they are judged ufefuf , no more 
than it can reprtfs and quiet them, when 
they are judged prejudicial When the 
Soul is touch'd in fome inienfible part, no- 
thing is able to caule in her the lcaft moti- 
on, let this part-be a fenfiblc one^and every 
thing is capable of tranfporting her out of 
her (elf. 

The violence and irregularity of thefc 
paflions, arc at the fame time in Man both 
proofs of his diforder, and marks of his 
greatnefs. By them it appears, that his 
mind is compofed of prodigious Reforts 
and Springs, and thatif they were livelily 
touch'd and fet on work, they would pre* 
duce paflions and motions quite other than 
inch we are the mdft part (enfible of: So 
that natural Philofophers underftood no- 
thing either of Mans Happinels Or Mi- 
fery, whilft they placed the one and the 
other in fuchfentnnents as we are capahit 
of during this life, Nothing is more ri- 
diculous than to think as they did, that 
it is poffible we (hould be happy by com* 
roon and grofs pleafures, by empty curjo- 
fitief , Ctt by a frigid contemplation * of 


Df Ubt fear &®itoi 13s 

Vertue and Truth. Thefc notions are 
too dull and languid to make us happy; 
the Soul of Man is capable of a Delight, 
and Joy, infinitely more lively, infinitely 
more fcnfible* The fame is to be faid of 
Evils : Althodgh-welare far more fenfible 
of thefc than of Plcafure * yet may they 
be felt a thonfand times more livcly'than 
we f«el them. Now if it txTn*t in our 
power to procure our felves this Co lively 
Joy, or. thefc fo piercing Griefs i it is be- 
cause God would not have our Happinefs 
or Mifcxy in this World depend on- our 
felves* but has ordain'd, that both the 
one and the other, fhould be an eStdc 
either of his Mercy or Juftice, in the 


The time then of this life is properly a 
time of ftupidhy and dulncfs. All our 
knowledges here are obfeure, drowfy and 
languid, if compared to what they fhattbe 
at the moment of our Deaths whictrwill 
( as it were ) draw the Curtain to let us 
fee Things as they are. Then it will be, 
that all created Nature will difappear from 
before out Eyes , and that we (ball not 
look upon the Kingdoms, the Principali- 
ties, the Plcafures and troubles of this 
World but. as little motes not worthy* 

~ . ■ ■ • Wt. 

136 ftfre Wrti Cteatife, 

flight thought* God alone ia that daft, 
will appear mighty incur Eyes, according 
to the exprefiion of the Scripture, Et erit 
Vminw wugnm in Ma die. But thofe 
whonri Death (hall find without Gods 
Love, (hall fee him Great, but from that 
Greatnefs (hall be fiHM with terror, which 
will make them caft themfelves into the 
Akyfi of Hell, to hide themfelves the 
moft they can from fo dreadful a Majefty : 
Whereas thofe who (hall dye * in his Love, 
and be eleanfed from their fins (hall only 
fee him Great, that they may from thence 
derive inefl&Me Sentiments of Love and 
Joy, which will be their Everlafting Bea- 
titude. ' 

Thefe are the confidcrations which 
ought to ground our Hopes and Fear for 
the other World* Yet even jn this eftate 
of dulnefe and fiupidity we are plung*d in 
here, our Soul is not without certain pafc 
(ions, whereof fome are much more vehe- 
ment and lively than others : Whence (he 
may learn, how capable (he is of having 
quite different on* from thofe (he ordina- 
rily feels. Her vigour is clog'd, her mo* 
tionsdulPd by the weight of that Body to 
which (he finds her felf ty'd *, but not al- 
ways equally : She . is fometimes more, 
: i iome* 

' «>f tfre jrett of <Cofc -117 

* — 

fometiroes left ftupid and infenfible in se~ 
gard of Divine Matters* and the expe- 
rience of thefe two differing ftates, gives 
,her«can* to difcover what it is that con- 
tributes to the railing Sentiments fodiffe. 
rent v and putting her jn fo uauniform a 

Now there is fo much the greater ne~ 
ccflity to confider and find out thecaufcs of 
this infeufibility, in refped of God ; be- 
caufe we ought to look on it as one of the 
greateft of all our Evils. For it is this 
that makes way into the Soul, for knprtf- 
fions of fcnfibk Obje&s + which would be 
little able to move her, were (be much, 
concerned and buficd about, things of the 
next Life, as fhc.opght. ' Hf&cc it is the 
Soul langnifhes, becomes weak : *n4 Jftftki 
mat tecs of Devof ion* . Hence fhc ffttft a 
'greater value on the Goods and QjriU of 
this World than they, defervc* , Ljflly, 
from this infeniibitity towards God fprings 
that fenfibl? a#d lively cftccm for Grca~ 
lures: .For the .Soul cannot be withott 
fcfne inclination , and muft always fix her 
felf on fome Objed. Thus 'tis one of her 
chief Duties to endeavour to find out thp 
Caufcs of thisftupidity, and to encounter 
them with all the remedies ihe can. 

U8 €f)e ^itti Cceatffc/ 


It is apparent, that the general caufe of 
our infcnfibility , is the weakncfr and 
Windncfs of our underftanding , which 
conceives things mefrdreadful only by dark 
and confufed Idea's, futh as have nothing 
of lively , nothing of fenfiblc in them > 
aud fo excite there proportionable men- 
tions, that is, feeble and languifhing one*. 
The underftanding fcperates things joyn'd 
together , and totally employs it felf lit 
confidering fonae fmall part of the Objeft, 
without receding on what el ft belongs: to 
ifc Dfcath is fancied only under the Idea 
of that ghaftly look a dying Man has,with~ 
out decerning any thing elfe that accom» 
panics it. We look on fin under the Idea 
of what therein pkafes and flatters our 

• fcnfts r without perceiving what it is that 
rtptorsr k fo four in the Eyes of God. Thi; 
fortof ftupWity is to be found atmoftin all 
fins. For of neceffity to pleafe our felves 
in them , we muft only look on them 

• llightly , and confider their thin outward 
appearance, and take our minds off from 
fearching into- what accompanies them 
now, and will hereafter be their fad con- . 
.fequenccs. We never fee {jut a finall por- 
tion of what is cxpofed to the Eyes of our 

Soul, and hence we are made capable of 
v.* efteenw 

cftceming our fclvcs happy in the raidft of 
our grcateft milcries, 

What does people of the World fee afa 
Bali? an aOembly of agreeable perfons, 
thinking of nothing but to recreate them- 
GIvm> to (hare in, and contribute to the 
common delight, They fee there Wo- 
men doing all they can to make them* 
(elves admir'd , aud become lovely * and 
Men driving as much to let them know 
they do admire and love them. They fee 
there a Sjpc&acle that flatters their Senfea, 
fiHs their Fancies, foftens their Hearty and 
makes a gentle' and pleating entrance for 
the k>vc of the World, and of Creatures 
fato them. But what is it that the 
tight of Faith dffcovcrf in thefe prophane 
afamblies to thofe whom it enlightcn^and 
^akes difcern the wh«*r Spe&acle, which 
H really expos d to their lyes, apd what 
the Angels therafelves fte there. Faith 
difcovcr* to them a horrible Mafitcte of 
Souls killing one another. It difcovers 
Women, whereia the Devil dwells, which 
8' l *-a thou6nd Mortal Wounds to MMe- 
T *tyc- Men * and Men giving as deep 
Wounds to thefe Women , by their wio. 
k e d Idolatries. It (hews them the Bfc- 

*»!*$ entring into thefe Souls by all tjw 


140 C&e fc&fcfc Crcatifr , 

,Senfes of their Body, poifoning them fey 
all the Obje&s they prefent them, binding 
them with a thoufand Chains, preparing 
for them a thouGmd Torments, trampling 
them under their feet y and laughing at 
their delufien and blindnefs. It difcovers 
to them God Almighty looking on tbefe 
Souls with wrath, and abandoning them 
to the fury and rage of thole wicked 


This partes for a Figure, a Declamation, 
a piece of Rhetorick % wherein things are 
exaggerated beyond Truth: Yet is there 
nothing more real than it. Nay, the rea- 
lity infinitely outgoes all tbefe Figuscs : 
Thole Wounds, fhofe'Morral Blows are 
but feint fliaddow$,of What there is in ef- 
fc&. Some thcrati Mrtio believe nothing 
of all this, aaidb&is another kind of 
blindnefs '•> . but* here are thofc who believe, 
but refle& not oft it $ and that's the ftupi- 
dity wheireof I fpeak. Their Thoughts 
look not beyond what their Eyes (hew 
them > fo that all the knowledge they have 
by Faith, ferves for nothing, and never 
comes within their view. They refide 
in I know not what folds of their under- 
(landing, but they change not that brutifti 
way of conceiving things only by the fenfes. 


Sf t &e tfm of ®otJ. 141 


Men, when they are to pais from (pecu- 
lation to praftice, never draw conferen- 
ces, and it is an mftonifliing thing to con* 
fidcr how they can be Satisfied withfpecu" 
btive Truths , without improving and 
making them ufeful in fuch pra&Hes as 
Have fo near an alliance with them, that 
ft feems impoffible for them to be fepera- 
tcd. If 1 be your GoJ y where is the Ho* 
nour that is due to «*, (ays God himfelf in 
the Scriptures. There is smeceflary con- 
fequence betwixt knowing God, and ho- 
nouring hinr, but,' let thefc two he ne- 
ver fo faft link'd together, the blindnefs of 
Man is fuch) that it can unldofe and dit 
joyn them* Man knows God, yet ho- 
nours him not : He makes a flop at the 
knowledge of God, and proceeds not to 
tHc neceflary fequel of honouring him: 
tie is convinced there is a God, but draws 
no conference thence for regulating his 


Wh# would believe that Man, having 
attained to the knowledge of the Immor- 
tality of his Soul, fliould not improve it 
farther, and thenccr conclude, that all this 
Jffe ought to be employed in procuring a 

Happy Eternity after Death ? No confe- 

K ^ quence 

141 $fr Wtt> Creatife, 

qucnce can be more evident than this : Nc- 
vcrthelefs how many of thole great Wits 
of the World, who have bent their ftudics 
to eftabliQi this point, fcem not fo much 
as to hate thought on its confequence > 


The like abfurdiry we commit in the 
rooft dreadful Truths of our Religion. Vie 
are fatisHed to know them, and flop at the 
bare fpeculation. God does ail xhings, 
'tis he who by his Grace gives both power 
to will and do. We believe this Truth, 
and take delight to difcourfib of it. What 
flows hence ? Marry that we ought conti- 
nually to beg of God this Grace of which 
we have continual need. Yet does not 
this knowledge we have of our need of 
Grace, make us more afliduous at our 
Prayers > and often we ceafe not in our 
aftions,* and conduft of our lives, to be 
as much Pelagians, as- if thefc Truths were 
utterly unknown to us. 


The Devil, as the Apoftle St. Ptf*rfays f 
is continually roving about us like a roar* 
jng Lyon, fearching whom he may devour. 
What fear, what tifcmbling ought nottbis 
Truth to Air up in us > and ought not 
thefe paffions be incomparably greater, 
than if we were told we were befet with 


$f t&e .f tar of ^o5» 14s 

Thieves and Murderers, ready to aflaffi- 
natc us > Yet how many are there who<* 
very day recite this paflage of St. Vetcr, 
and are not at all touch'd with any fenti- 
meat of fear. 


If I believ'd, fay cer rain Cahemfls, chat 
the JSodyef JESUS CHRIST were* 
prefect in the Hoft t I would behave my 
fclf with more refped before the Bleffcd 
Sacrament*, than Catholicks do. They 
imagine they would do what tjiey (hould, 
and fancy this knowledge would make as 
deep an impreffion on our minds, as in 
rtafoa it ought : And , 'tis true , when 
we are told the King is prcfeat, every one 
compotes himfelf to (hew what refped 
be can. But, whilft they talk at this rate, 
they let rtie world know they little under- 
stand the, bottom of their own Hearts. 
Would they take the pains to confult them* 
felves, they would find, that in a thou- 
sand exigences their knowledge remains . 
barren, without producing that fruit it 
naturally (hoiilak Do not themfelves be- 
lieve, that God is prefent every where > 
Yet are their aftions more regular than 
thofe of others? Does, the knowledge of 
this prcfence keep them more to their duty* 

than if he were only in Heaven ? 



144 3E$t WttJ Zmtiit, 


Wc ought not, nevertheless^ to won- 
der, that our underloadings are naturally 
ificliu'd to believe, that if we had fitch and 
fuch knowledges, we ftiould comply with 
fuch obligations thofe knowledges bind us 
tot "The truth is , Nature and Reafon 
fway that way, and we are only hindrcd 
by the corruption of our wi II. And hejice 
it is, that this prodigious infeniibility, is 
an evident fign that they are fain from the 
ftate they were firft created in , and that 
their very Nature is corrupted. So mon r 
ftrous a ftupidity cannot be natural. Things 
<if the leaft moment atHift them even to 
<Jcfpair : But, when all their Being, and 
their Eternal Happtnefs or'Mifery are at 
flake, they are no more concerned, than if 
fome trifle was to beloft. ' ' , 

Nor is this ftupidity in all men only a 
fign of Natures being in general . corrup- 
ted s 'tis alfo jn Cbriftians a particular 
proof of that horrible darknefs,with which 
our (ins after Baptifin benight our Souls : 
And nothing more clearly (hews us, that 
fm not only caufes Death, as the Apoftle 
fays, but alfo that Death always accompa- 
nies it; and that our Souls by it are de^ 
priv'd both of Life and Scnfe. For were 

not * 

- 1 

cot the Soul of a ChrHHan living in fin in a 
fete of Death, how could it, even for one 
moment, be at Cjafc ? It knows it fclf to 
be under the power of the Devil , that 
Death may fcizc on it at every moment* 
that Hell i* open to (wallow it, ipd that 
perhaps no favour, no Grace is in ftorc for 
it, Yet all this while doth the Soul re- 
main, without fear, and peaceably eftjoy* 
thofe pleafures which it knows to be 
the caufe of its mifery. Thcfe know- 
ledges , which faith imparts in fpight of 
its Teeth, remain idle, without adion,. 
without producing any ejfeft. They dU 
fturb it not > and Man a&s and talks like 
one who* had nothing tp do but to recreate 
himfelf in this life, and nothing to fear in * 
the other. 


This ftupidity certainly is prodigious : 
But the caufe is evident. We need not 
won^e* that it isnightyiwhcnthereisho 
mors light, or that m death we fr-ould be 
without fenfe. We have more reafon to 
wonder, that this ftupidity (hould be of- 
ten found in thofe Souls where Gp iecaw 
not to reign, who to outward appearance 
acquit themfdves of the eflential duties of 
Christianity, practice divers exeriafes of 
Piety, and lead a life exempt from Crimes. 

H For 

14* <&** Wtfo Cmtf©, 

For, if foch a* thefe have this new Heart; 
the Heart of f left proper to thofe of the 
Ntw Law* how worries it to pais- there te 
fo ttttlc motion in tfcem. If they are amv 
mated with the Hoty Ghott, Why fee w4 
fo few figns thereof? If they ate enlight- 
ned by God, how chances ft they fee not 
their dangers i or if they do, that they 
tremble not at them ? 


This difpofition may fpring from feve- 
f al caufes. In fome, 'tis a proof of God» 
mothers a punifhment of their negligence; 
and there may be fomfc whofe natural tem- 
per may much contribute to it. But not 
to trouble our fehres to difcerri thefecau- 
fes farther than God (bail difcover them to 
us ; it fcems that all thofe who are in this 
citatc, have a common obligation to en- 
deavour to free thcmfclvcs from it* 
though it may b« more dangerous to fome 
than to others* becanfe we ought totegu* 
late emir fclvcs by the light of Faith.which 
teaches us, that this infcnfibility is in it 
fclf a very gf eat "evil, and make us dread 
«hat terrible threat of God to fuch as are 
* not touched enough with his Fear, whilft 
he declares to them, that it fhaB be iu for 
them *t the end *f their livers Car durum 
mstt btklnt in uovifmo ; And this (hould 
, make 

0f t&e ih* iff «WG U7 

itafce them carefully to lay hold on aH 
means that they (hall fudge proper to free 
ffterofelvcs from this evil difpofititti, add 
to foff en the hardnefi of their Heat t% 

XXfl. . *' 

It ts to no purpofc to vex and 1 froubte 
ones felf for being thus difpofed >• for thW 
vexation is no remedy for t hat difcafe * jet 
is it not unprofitable to ftaiid irt fearbf tfi . 
Nay, one; of the principal defies of fhafi 
that are thus aflfefted, is to excite in them- 
felves a Holy Fear, by* placing before their 
Eyes thofe inftru&ions of the VWft Mart. 
It is mpoffible to h Jnjlifted without FSar* 
Sine Timor* Mpffibife eft JnfHficatu That 
Fear is the beginning am root nf'ff r i}doin. 
Radix Safient'u eft Timet? Vtnnr. f That it 
ir the fitttfe of True- Joy. littoot dele&ai 
Ccr. And that only Souls poffefs'd with 
Fear have reafon to expe& favour at Gods 
Hands in the day oftheix Death. Timenii 
Dominitrn btne in extremis. 


That we may obtain thfe drfpofitio*^-^^ 
which by the Irght,of Faith we fee to be fo 
ncceffary to all the World, we ought td 
fhun a fault f or rather daccipt of felP 
love, that infallibly imuofts on manyi and 
which confifls in fo fpintualizing their Dei 
votion, rhat they fcarce ever applf thern^ 

H 2 fclves 

*4f ^1&Wt*tifrmitt; 

(elves to fuch Obje<fb as may eaufe fear ia 
them : Such are the meditations of Death* 
of Eternity, Hell, Gods judgments, and 
the rcafous they feaye to miftryft their own 
condition. Self-lovj: has no mind to eiu 
tertaii fiich fad -and difmal thoughts, and 
fo never is wanting to furnifli Spiritual 
matters more gay and pleafant. Yet have 
nqt thfi Saints, who without doubt were 
more Spiritual than we, given us any fuch 
Examplf : Theft common thoughts which 
we look on as grofs and dull, they fhun'd 
not» nay* on the contrary they judg'd it 
very profitable to have them continually in 
their minds ; there being nothing, that 
God oftner makes ufe of to draw Souls 
out of a certain evaporation which this 
infenfibility produces, and to make them 
return to their felves, than the profped of 
thefc dreadful Objc&s. 

The great eft part therefore of Mankind 
.ought not to apply their felves to the me- x 
Station of Cods Mercy, fo as at the fame ' 
time to lay afide that of his juftice, and 
feverc Judgments : Ancf that we may frame 
to our felves fome Idea, of thefe, let us con* I 
fidcr them in that infinite number of Men, / 
whom God before the Incarnation of his 
Son abandoned, to the defires of their own 

Hearts, -\ 

Hearts * in thofc incite Nations, -who ha* 
ring never fo much as heard of the Gof- 
pel, continue buryed ill darknefs and in 
the (hades of Death. Let us confidcr 
tkem in that other World now lately dif- 
covercdy which for more than fott thou- 
sand years was abfolutely ignorant of God; 
in that great multitude of MsbimetsnS, 
who polfefs fo great a part of the Earth, 
and who are immersM in a thoufand bru* 
tifh fuperflitions b in rhofe crowds of He- 
retickj, who joyn f d together, furpafs in 
Number alt the Cstlx I i*kj s in thofe Coun- 
tries whtoh were once rilled with Biftvops 
and Chrjttians, a* Africa: where now 
there are almoft none \ and iaftly, in that 
prodigious number of bad Ghriftians,with 
which the Church is ib repleniflied, that 
icarce any true ones can be found. ! ' 

X)LV> * 'if «>' - s i •'. •■; r 

All thefe people thus blmded^nd given 
over to. the guidance of their Padions* ard 
as many proofs of the rigour of Gods Ju- 
ftice. For, it is this Juftice that* delivers 
them up to the power of the Devil, who 
domineers over them f plays with them, 
cheats them/ hurries them into a thoufand 
diferders, punifhes them in this World 
with a thoufand miferies, and in the end 
caft$ them headlong into the Abyfs of Hell r 

H 3 there 

i50 %&*&&$%*#&, 

there co/Ti) Act e wWtfqg tertpents. Ti$ 
this Juftf ae tjbat permits theft wicked Spi* 
fits, not only to pofcfs whole Nations of 
Infidels, but alfo tp procure that ft range 
fpoil even in the Church it (elf; where 
they oftcft irfiu p the authority, wtylft they 
advance and prefer to be Rulers there, 
Mm without 'Charity >in w.hom they dwell 
and exerCtfc their power. Hence it is the 
Prophet fays, I w/ff gather together aB the 
Generttfous of the Kingdoms of the North f 
4*td,tbey frail, place ibeit Thrones at the en- 
trance *f the Gates of Hierufakm and aB a- 
tout its Wafa. For many of thofc who are 
as it were guard the Gates of the 
Church, and receive in the Faithful, and 
a great nuegber of thofe to whom the Cui 
ftody of its dtfaplipe is eoannkted, and 
who like &*x\ntkjtc ordered to watch 
upon its Walls, are like the Inhabitants of 
the 2ftr#4, that is, they we Men without 
Charity, add who have not within them 
the warmth of the Spirit of God. 

At this rate the whole World is a place 
$f Torments, where by the Eyes of our 
Faith we dtfery northing but the dreadful 
dfcA&'of Gods Ujftice. Have we a mind 
lb fancy to our (elves a Landslip, wherein 
fomdthing proportionable to this may 


£>f t&e *«t of tfW>. 151 

be exhibited } Let us iiwffne a vaft Plane 
iilled with all the Instruments the cruelty 
of Man has invented, and on the one fide 
a number of enraged Executioners, on the 
other, infinite multitudes of Criminals de- 
livered up to their rage and fury.- Let us 
farther look on thefe -Executioners, as fal« 
lfflgffurionfly on thqfcjnifefablc wfetches, 
tormenting all, and [by exquifue tortures 
killing raany > whilft there are but fcw, 
whole lives they have orders to fpare, and 
thefefew having, no afturance thereof on 
-tfie- qontrar y, have reafbn to ftand alfo in 
fear of that D^ath, which they fee other; 
round about them every moment differ, 
fince they perceive nothing in themfelves 
whereby they (hould be diftinguilhM from 
the Crowd. 


What muft be the condensation of thefc 
Wretches, being continually 'Spectators of 
-one anothers torments , participating of 
them themfelves, and in continual appre- 
henfion left thofe they fuffer end not in 
them, ( as they fee them in others ) by a 
cruel and (hameful Death? Could thole 
foolifh joys, thofe vain troubles of the 
World, find place in any breaft there,could 
pride tempt them in this wretched ftatef 
And yet doth Faith expofc to our Eyes a 

H 4 Spe. 

Spedade far more horribfc : It lets Us fee 
Devils difpers'd over the World, tormen- 
ting and aiHl&ing all Mankind in a thou- 
fand different ways,hurrying almoft all firft 
into fin, and then into Hell and Eternal 
Death. ...••• 

xxvin; : ' 

It was the profpeft of this fad Spe&ade, • 
that made the Prophet lfaub cry out. 
Frepteres dilstavit injernm snimam fitsm % 
& tferuit os fnum abfq\ *tio termini \ & 
dependent fortes ejus , & fcfulm e)m & 
fublimes glerioftque. That is to (ay * that 
the Mouth of Hell is always open, that 
the great, the little, the ftrong, the weak* 
the rich, the poor promifcuoufly defcend 
thither. This fight made the Prophet JFf^ 
re my fay . Mncro Vemini ufqy quo nm 
guiefces f ingredere vaginam team. 6 Sword 
of Gods Juftice, wilt 'thou never reft? 
Wilt thou Continually be filling the World 
with (laughter > Wilt not thou fo much as 
fpare the Church it fdf, butdetiverupto 
its Enemies the greateft part of thofe who 
feem to be its Sons > This a!fo was that 
Spe&aclc which the Angel (hew'd to St. 
Jebn in the Vifion of a horrible Prefs, 
where the Bloud of thofe- who wer ethers 
crufh'd, ran down on al! (Ides, and ovcri- 
How'd the receiving Veffels. For here ts 


\(pt. ttle f eat of €>o& 15 J 

not meant the Bloud of Material Bodies, 
bat that of Carnal Soul?, which the Devils 
deprive of the life of Grace by the Crimes 
they engage them in. 

We fpend our Lives in the midft of this 
fpiritual flaughter , and we may fay that 
we fwim up and down in the. Bloud of 
Gnners > that we are all covered with it v 
that the World wherein we are carried is 
a River of Bloud , fince the Life of the 
World isallcompofed of criminal a&ions, 
ciufing the Death of thofc who commit 
them, and drawing in thcrcft by the con- 
tagion of ill Examples* To pertfh • there 
needs nothing but to let our fclves be cat* 
ried away by the torrent. We are in no* 
thing diftinguifliable from thofe .who dye 
in our light : We are not flronger than 
they to refill the rage of the Devil. Our 
whole aid is in the protection of him who 
has freed us thus far, and proffers thi feme 
for the future. In the mean xime we 
dream not at all of this i we have no fenfe 
of our. part deliverance > no fear of our 
prefent danger, no aoxiety for that to 
cosne ; becaufe we netiherfee the gieatnefs 
of our miferies, nor the greatntfe of our 
dangers, no r. the great nefs of thofe evil* 
w) icuhrcatcii U5, 

H 5 XXX4 

JJ4 tt & fc&Cto Creatifc, 


The Holy Fathers bear witneft , that 
HQtWogptc^itcd the Church more than vi~ 
fible perfections; becsufe that kept all 
Chriftians in a Holy Fear- They daily 
Caw fome of their Brethren (natch'd 
from them > and every one imagining it 
might perhaps be his turn the next day to 
amfeft JESUS CHRIST before .the 
Judges , and in the midft of Torments, 
thought of nothing but to prepare himfelf 
for it by all the exercUes of a Chriftian Life. 
Wkm> fays TettMan* # Faith mere lively* 
$hau when em ferns mcfi ? . and when fears 
*wt> than in time a/ perjecutian? Fat 
then h is that the whale Church is in a Hely 
frights that Faith is mft vigilant in this 
Spiritual warfare \ that it is uuft exaQ in 
Me ehfervatien ef Fsfts , Ststions, Trayers 
siid Exereifes ef Humility, This was the 
cfk& of what they (aw with their corpo- 
real Eyes > whilft that which Faith difco- 
vers to us is infinitely more terrible*. By 
it we do not fee Meg, but Derils tearing 
from the bofom of the Church its Chil- 
dren. : Thefe maflacrc not only their Bo- 
dies, but their Souls too. They do not 
make them undergo fcort torments to 
. gain Immortal Crowns, but they damn 
them for all Eternity. The Death, of 


0ftftftaraf€ft& iff 

Martyrs was for many the Seed of Life, 
according to the faying of ooc of the An- 
cients i whereas the Spiritual Death of 
Christians is but for im& others the See* 
of Death, corrupting them by the Exam- 
ple of thofc Crimes which have caufed iu 
L&ftfy, as perfections were neither unin- 
terrupted, nor ouhrer&l, the greateft num- 
ber of Chriftiara found means to (hdter 
themfelves from them ; whereas there arc 
few who (after not by this Spiritual perfe* 
cution, and by this overflowing of vice 
which drowns all the Church. Whence 
comes it fhen that the ftrft Chrift tans Were 
fcnfibly toach'd wkh vifibk perfections, 
and we are fo little with thofc we cannot 
fee > It is becaufe the former are fcen by 
the Eyes of the Body, and the latter only 
by thofe of Faith : Or rather becaufe their 
Faith was lively and dear-fighred f and 
that ours is languishing, obfcure^ind with- 
out Kght. 

To fee how we behave our (elve*> one 
would think we had got Letters oflnftu 
ranee for our Salvation, that God himfclf 
had revealed to us, that the Devils ftvould 
«ever do us any hurt > that we were in a 
full certainty of ouf being poffefs'd of his 
Grace, without fear of cvetjoofing it-v 


and that our Names were infallibly writ- 
ten in the Book of Life. We look on the 
dangers and misfortunes of others , as if 
there were nothing for us to fear, and as 
from the Shoar we fee ftorms toffing and 
/wallowing up Ships that are at Sea. If 
in our minds we detcft that falfe aflur*ricc 
the Cafainifls flatter the World with * yet 
in reality we approve it in fome fort by our 
adions , and by the fentiments of our 
Hearts. We rely on the Mercy of God, 
not by any coijfidence we derive from Cha- 
rity, but by a ftupidity fpringing from 
felt love. Wherefore it is to us the ScrU 
pture fpeaks, when it warns not to Jay^ 
that the Mercy of God is great* Ne dicas % 
Mifiricordia Dei magna eft. For his Mercy 
.would not ceafe to be great, when it (hould 
permit us to perifh, and place us amongft 
the throng of fo many Nations, whom he 
-hafh left in darkneft, and of fo many Chri- 
ftians, who live under the tyranny of 
Devils. We fancy that we bear fomc 
worth and value with God Almighty. But 
if all the Men on the Earth are in his Eycs t ' 
but as a drop of Water, and a grain of 
Duft, as the Scripture fpeaks > What por- 
tion (hall we take up of this drop, and of 
this grain > If then It be juft we (hould 
hope in his Mercy, having fo often expe~ 




£>f t&e tf cat of tfofc 157 

ticnc'd the efieds of it $ it is not Ids Equi- 
table we (hould fear his Juftice, in it fclf 
fo dreadful, and of which we fee fo terri- 
ble confcqucnccs in all times, and in all 
places of the World. 


We ought never to deftroy in our Souls 
the hope we have in his Mercy , nor the 
confidence we place in his Eternal Love. 
But, the fear of his juftice deftroy s it not* 
on the contrary, it eftabli(hes and fortifies 
it : Since this very fear is one of the grea- 
tcft efieds of his Mercy * and we (hall have 
fo much the more reafon to hope he be- 
holds us with a favourable Eye, by how 
much our fear of his Juftice (hall be grea- 
ter. Let us fear God, becaufe he is to be 
fear'd* and becaufe We fear, let us hope in 
him*. Thofe whom he forfakes neither fear 
him> nor defire to fear hirrr. And it is for 
this reafon, that it is profitable to deftroy 
in our Souls all thofe falfe pretexts which 
feltlove lays hold on to confirm us in this 
-evil aftbrancci and to fhun all thofe 
thoughts and motions of fear, which-are 
always troublefome to us, becaufe they al- 
ways a little difturb that peace and quiet 
we are glad to enjoy. 


For the moft part this confidence Is 
_ - ■ * grounded 

i)8 ttfre C&tcn Zma(e 9 

grounded cither on a too great affurance 
that our fins rfter Baptiim are forgiven, 
cxprefly contrary to Scripture, which ad- 
nontthes us not to be without fear for 
thole fins, for which we thick we have ob- 
tained pardon * Pr ptfhitt* feccato noli 
ijkfnt nufu : Or on our having for a long 
tknc pra&ic'd the common duties of Chri- 
stian Piety. But to allay this rxceffivc 
confidence by warrantable natives of 
fair furnifli'd us by Truth itieif, we seal 
only remember, that no body knows with 
certainty whether Charity or concupis- 
cence reigns and rules in his Heart* and 
thfc uncertainty is much greater in thofc 
Who are cold and negligent. For with- 
out doubt, as Here ticks pra&ke a num- 
ber bf exterior good works without Cha* 
rity, fo the like may alfo be pra&ic'd in 
the Church, without any better principle* 
For it is oot a more difficult task to ob- 
ferve without Grace the exterior precepts 
of the Law of JESUS CHRIST, than 
toobferve thofe of VUhomt^ which fomc- - 
times are not a jot ltfs difficult. 


So, this exterior innocence,, confifting 
only in obferving the exterior duties of 
Chriftian Religion* is a very deeeiptful e- 
quivocal fign of interior Grace ana Inno- 
cence : 

Of ft* jfctt Of ft* 15,9 

cence: Since all this may proceed from cu^ 
ftom; a habit gotten, the love of Crea- 
tures, and a fear purely humane. And 
though we ought not (lightly to pais this 
(enteoce on our ftlves 9 nevcrthdefs we 
may reafonably fear left God does i placing 
us amoegft thofc of whom he {ays, Ibis 
people beuour me with their Lifs, but their 
Hesri isfsrfrm me. 


We ought not alio to exempt our&hros 
from this upon the fcore of that common 
Do&rine, that Grace is only loft by mor- 
tal fin, and that we do not remember to 
have committed any* For who will be 
our furety for this } All the testimony we 
can bear of oip {elves, atthemofthason* 
ly relation to corporal fins * but how ma- 
ny of thefe are there 9 whofe degree we 
know not > Who is he that can fay, that 
he hath not loft Grace by Pride or Envy, 
by fpkttual floth, felf-loyc, or aiinfal ad- 
hefioo to things of this World > St. let- 
Hard tells us, that the fole fin of Ingrati- 
tude for favours rcceiv'df of God Almigh- 
ty, may be fo great as to equal lize forae- 
times the enormity o£ feveral corporal 
fins *, and it is in this fenfe according to 
St* Cbryfijlome, that fins once forgiven, are 

again imputed, btcauft that ingratitude 


I So Zbt Ztytti Zuhtite, 

wherein to we fall by forgetting fo great 
favours, comprehends them all in'fome 
fort, and makes us as guilty of them, as if 
we had never been pardon'd* Nd w who is 
he who can afcertain himfelf that he 
has not committed this fin of Ingrati- 
tude > 

There Is nothing moreaftoniQiing than 
the threats our Saviour made to thole of 
Ctpernanm) viz. That they (hould be 
more ftverely handled ^t the day of Judg- 
ment, than thofe of Sodom and Gomorrah * 
that is, than two Towns defiled with the 
rooft abominable of Crimes. For, the 
onjy ground for thefe threats was their not 
having made ufe of the favours he had 
done them in working in their fight fo 
many Miracles, and giving them fo many 
inftrudions. It is not recorded, that o- 
.t her wife they were more disorderly, nor 
greater Enemies of our Saviour, than the 
other Jevu Now I would fain know, 
who has not reafon to fear left our Sa* 
viour tay the fame reproach to his charge ? 
In the mean time, where is the ufe we 
have made thereof? Where are thofe 
.(lores of Vermes we have got by the help 
of the Talents God has put into out 
Hands? 'Tis true, weh*vcbciiev'd, but, 


- ©f t&HFeat of Go*. i6i 

where arc the works of our Faith ? Where 
; is the ufe he 1 WiH'exaft of us for the bene- 
fits he has c*Aferred on as > We muft be 
ftupendioufly Infcnfible not to be totschM 
and affrighted ^o think th^t fomewijlbe 
found,- in Whom no extraordinary dtfordqr 
was ivcr known'* who, , for all that, AMI 
be fudged fy : Tfrtlth it felf more guilty 
* than thofe*<Jf Sddam, and that for the few 
abufingfof Gods Favour. 

All the otcafions God feas' offer'd «$, 
whereby we niight advance in the way of 
Vertue, are as fo many Graces whereof he 
wiH demand tctompt, They are fo ma?- 
ny fruitful Harveits which he commanded 
ustoresp, and out of -which he ordered us 
to lay up ftores, wherewith to maintain 
our fclves at fuch times as he fhould pen- 
mit us tn be try'd. f Fo# Example, fick- 
neiTes anrffufltrings; are the Hdrteft time 
of Patiences rebukes and contempts art 
rthat of Humility : our lofles that of Po- 
verty i Who makes good ufe of thefc Har- 
vcfts, is wife, according to the Scripture : 
gtti ccHgregat in me$e filikt fafiens f/K 
becaufe he* makes proviiion of Gracfc, 
which will be neteflary to him another 
time. But, Scripture tells us, That he 

who makes ill ufe thereof (hall be con- 
founded j 

i6 z %&%Ufofyx0ttfc, 

founded, §fri,0#emfiirtiyt$stefUiMfc<^ 
fnfioniu Where «[.c;wc to be,r«k'd ? W&t 
ufc can we (ay we have raadeof fomany 
Harvefts Go$ has given u* ? 

The Church ^ividc5 the whole y e$r in to 
fe veral feafpp s of Graces ^ and the [ pe vo- 
;ion { of the fjaithiul o^gpt ,to follow its 
Spirit : as Natural Beingf richer fail to fol- 
low that general Spirit, which regulates 
ihe courfe of the whote Machine of the 
>yorW. The Birds as tfc Scripture fays, 
keep with, exad:ncf$* their feafons : Now 
they build their Nefts, then change thqr 
Feathers; and this by a regular and con- 
ftant order* In like manner Devotion has 
its fiafcns. There is one proper for pro- 
curing the Spirit of Pennance > and it is 
that whenein the Church pra&ifes that 
Vertue. There is another when it invites 
.us to be Joyful, to a new life, and to imi- 
tate that we fhall enjoy in Heaven i and 
this is the Feaftof E*ft<r. To every My- 
Aery peculiar Graces are allotted, and the 
Feaft wherein the Church celebrates the 
one, is the Jproper feafon to obtain the o- 
thcr. Jhxt thofe who huslgnd ill thefc 
feafons, who permit <hcfe folemnities to 
flip away Without enriching themfelvcs 1 
withfuch Graces as God thenbeflowson 


$f tie JFttttf ftfe i^j 

wttt difpofed Souls, will Hfithao* doubt 
hear the fame reproach which the Pro- 
phet made the Jem of not having known 
the Judgment fcf out Lotd , and of being 
inferior in prudence' to the Birds of the 
Air, who never fail to do in fcafon what 
Nature bids. Milniv in Codo cognovit urn* 
put jimtn; luttwt fr Hirmd§*.&, Cipania 
cyftodierHft tetnfus 4dvtnw]]*i:-fvpulw 
% tut em mtus nan cognovit Judicium Vein 

If the abufc of thefc lefler Graces be a 
matter fo much to be fear'd, as we have 
declared i what is to be faid of our abu- 
ling that Grace of Graces, I mean tBtHo- 
ly Eucharift, which contains the Author 
of all Graces. The ApofUe tells us> that 
God did vtfUy pumfc *he firft Chriftians, 
who con&mkatc$ without due prepa- 
ration, and who made no difference be- 
twixt the Body of our Lord and common 
Meats * and. that this was the caufe of 
Death, and of feveral Difeafes amongft 
the. Faithful* But, that this punMhmcnt, 
from God was profitable, fince it ferv'd to 
expiate their faults in this, life, and pre- 
vent their damnation* Cum judicamur 
uutem Ptmirto corripimm ut uon turn hoc 
nmudo dammtmur : It fcems that God 

90W adays carries hjmfclf otherwife to- 

1 64 fc&< Wrti Cteartfe, 

wards thofc that prophanc his Holy My- 
fterfes^ He docs not (hew his Ju ft icefo ap- 
parently to the Eyes of Men > He retires 
himfelf on high, as the Scripture fays, and 
keepsat adiftanccfromus* Et prepcr earn 
in ahwk rtgrtdtre. Nercr wias more un- 
worthy communions, and yet there's no 
vifible punifhment. Thfs ought to ftiikc 
a fear, into fuch as know, by the negli- 
gence of their lives, that they have little 
profited by often communicating) left 
this indulgence of God towards them, 
be not an efled of his having abandoned 
them, and that they are fo much the more 
guilty, as they have been lefs punifted. 

One of the wiles by which feltllove hin* 
ders us from applying to our fclves the 
reproaches our Savionr makes tb certain 
people in the Gofpel, it to rtpreftne them 
to our felves fo black and ugly, that we 
cannet fancy we (hould ever rcfemble 
them. For Example,. we look on the 
Pharifees as a fort of people fo intolerably 
proud beyond all meafci'e, that we think 
there can be no other fuch now amongft 
Men; But this is not fo. They were like 
other Men, and their vanity was not ca- 
fily to be known by their outward beha- 
viour* nay they knew it not thetnfclves. 


On the other fide, they were great obfcr- 

ycrs of the Law, and mighty cxaft in the ; 

Icait matter that \}zi relation to Gods far-. 

vice* Who then will be our warrant that 

we arc not like to, them > They were Hy- 

pocrires, 'tis true % but their Hypocrific 

was unknown to them. Perhaps we are 

as guilty as they of that fault j and 'tis 

certain, we all have it in fome degree* In 

the meantime JESU S CftRISTde. 

dares , that they ihould be more rigo- 

roufly punifli'd than the reft of the Je*J> 

who were nevcrthelefs vcry^ wicked* Ac- 

ctyicnt frolixiiu judicium. From this we 

tear a, that, one. may be wicked in the fight 

of God, whilft he leads a regular life in 

tHe fight of Men. 


It is remarkable, that moft of the re- 

proaches and threats our Saviour makes in 

theGofpel, are only for. fpiritual vices >. 

for, he fuppofed that corporal ones are fufc 

Ijciently condemn'd of themfelves. In the 

Capcrnaties he condemns thcabufe of his 

Word and Miracles; In the Pharifecs 

Pride and Intereft i in his Apoftles, defire 

of precedency i in tfaofc who he fays (hall 

be placed on his left hand, and fent to Hell, . 

the omiflion of Works of Mercy * and in 

the Parable of the Virgins , a want of 


i66 €&c Wttttatfo) 

interior Charity. In like manner, die grea-J 
teft part oif his Precept? concern inward 
Vermes, as the love of bur Enemies * re- 
fervednefi in judging V being tooftned 
from the Goods of this World, renouncing 
humane fatisfadfions, vigilance in prayer, 
the humility and fimplidty of Children. 
'Tis here he places that Juftice furpafling 
the toftice of the.Phariffes, and' without 
which none can entrf folk the Kingdomof 
Heaven ; mean while who can affure him«< 
fdf that he fully complies with it. 

The Holy Scripture fumifhes us with 
feveral marks whereby' to know either the 
Death or Life of theSbul : But thefe Very 
marks are more apt to augment than dimi- 
sifli the feat of thofc who have little de- 
votion, and are in thisftateof infeniibili- 
ty of which we fpeak. It, firft of all, 
telb us, that who has not the Spirit of 
JESUS C H R I S T belong? not to him:* 
gtutn'on habet Spiritum Cbnfli y hicnon eft 
t)m. Thus though all fhofe who have 
bid farewell to fin, tjught in fome fort to 
, be confident that his Spirit dweHs in them, 
becaufe they feel a delite at the bottom of 
their Hearts, to dedicate themfelves folely; 
to JESUS CHRIST, yet does not 
this confidence exclude that fear which 


they alfo ought to Have, left 'this fign of his 
ptdence prove not a fallacious one , and 
they miftake a rcfotation me*rly natural* 
and wrougtit bf cuftom, for a Divine fl- 
guit fcrm'd by the Spirit of God. For 
how many other efffetfs are there of thit 
Holy Spirit, whkh are not to be found in 
them? The Spirit of JESUS CHRIST is 
a Spirit of recolk&ion., and continual a- 
do rat ion, '(is a Spirit of zeal -for jdfttce, 
of hatred ibr fin , of love # for firincrs : 
Tis a Spirit of the Crofs, of Death, and 
continual Sacrifice : 'Tis a Spirit of lea- 
ving and forfaking all Creatures ; 'Tis a 
Spirit of fweetnete and goodnefs towards 
all Men. Thefc are the motions the Spi- 
rit of God folly excited in the Heart of 
our Saviour, and which it ought in fotnc 
meafure to excite in ours % if we have re* 
cciv'd from hi* fulnefs any participation of 
that Spirit which ought to make us like to 
the Image of the only Son of God. Be- 
hold here the Marks and Tokens of Life ! 
The more lively, the more a&tve rhefe 
fentiments are, the more we have reafon 
to believe that we live : And the more we 
find them weak and langutihing, the more 
we ought to apprehend our being in a ftate 
of Death. 


• * XLIII. 

Again the Scripture, (hews us what the 
tW.Ufeof the Soul is, in telling us that: 
the Jvfjk ftttn Uvts by Faith. ; Now tQ un- ; . 
4erltand fully this place, wemuft obferve, 
that the Soul lives but by its Knowledge, 
and by its Love : From whence it follows, 
that this Life of Faith sonfifts in thinking, 
loving > and hating according to Faith: 
that is, -to live by Faith , we. ought to 
judge things little or great, profitable or 
hurtful v good or evil, pot according to 
our own guft and deprav'd inclinations, 
but according^ to the Light of Faith. In 
liKe manner, the fentimeu^of our Heart- 
ought to be dirc&ed by the fame Light, 
by it our fear« our hope, our joy, our* 
fadnefs, pur love and hate ought to be 

/To know then that we live by Faith, 
we need but confider whether we defirc 
what Faith jhews us- whether we -are 
troubled at what Faith difcovers be con- 
trary to the Law of God : Whether we 
beg for our felves and others fuch things 
as Faith tells us ought to be the fub- 
je& of our Requefts; If we do, we may 
be aflured our Soul truly Jives. But if^ 
on the contrary, we find our felves afflu 
#ed with what ought to caufe joy in us, 


and jo} flil at what ought to afflid us, as 
wc then have but a (mall (hare in this life 
of faith, fo have we but a few marks of 

., the life of our Soul. 

! XL1V, 

In fine, the ApoftleSt. Johnnttatcs us, 
Ibai he who hues not , remains in Veatb y 
and that he who loves, Hps life And the 
Apoftle Sk P*id left wcfhould be deceived 
'by a vain Image of felfc Charity, hath ta- 
ken tare to dcicribc exadly the qualities of 
that which is true, and which gives life to 
our Souls. Charity, (ays he, hpatien*> is 
bemgui &>arHytbai*tb*etperverfty\ is nee 
puffy up, is natambhiem | fetkgtb nee bee 
ewn\ is net trov*l£d to auget* ebinkj nee 
evil* re jo pet knot nfen hnqmty* busrqoy* 
cetb as Truth. This is the Rule by which 
we ought to examine our fehres. If we 
can bear our (elves fmcere witnefi, that We 
feci hi Osati the effeds of Charity* in the 
name of God let us be (till of confidence 
and joy » but if we (eel in our fclves the 
clean contrary, nothing but the greareft 
Aupidity imaginable can ftifle thofe jull 
fentiments offcar which fudi knowledge 
ought to caufe in us. 

We ought not alfo to take for a fign that 
we have life in the fight of God, a certain 


170 €$e Wt& Creatffr, 

Equality of mind, by which we judge 
xight enough of moft things. For this 
quality is confident with the greateft dis- 
orders > arid we often fee .thofei whofe 
condition is very I?ad through crimes either 
fpiritaator cofpof a V for which tbey have 
done po pennant who nevertbekfc con- 
ifer v<* a certain region of their mind, feero- 
. fng m>t at all troubled by bad ionpreffions 
fi^nji ,*te Devjl^ in which they judge well 
cf infoft .tVn^v l^d handfomdy and dif- 
w&xfy itifpkte the affairs of their Lives. 
And. this A4FV& who poflefles them often, 
^QK)Hst^^^> dwell aim© ft always w 
this^cal^, R^jpii, and thence only to be 
tcquafctftl ; with tfiem&ives * that ; they 
njayniH^eai^ir^the depravacbn of their 
f&a^t&^febh* breps them etrflaved. 
. i , ; , v XLVL 
\Ve $ught therefore to fear, we ought 
to ,t*cp$)c before God, having before our 
EyefLjfo many; motives of fear. Bat this 
fear plight to be a wholefbme one, a fear 
whkh inflead of difoouraging the Soul, 
ought tt* cheer it up, and incite it fori- 
oufly t<r >pp1y readies to whatfoever 
caufes fear in it. It ought to be a fear 
inciting us to pennance , to prayers, to 
vigilancy and labour. Yet notwithstan- 
ding fc,ali this, if we find our felvesjn a 


r WtWlM Of ffitf, 171 

condifion where it (cam we perceive in 

ourfelves nothiftg bfc t coldnefs and iflfen- 

fibiliry, and that we cannot alterthisdif- 

prtkidnofo«< mliids) we bought with all 

bcm^ty^to fttbmit ftf Gods decrees, «%4 

bopt'ltetArawarsHiachfi'ofit thence, as If 

it ^haittupfedi'drhU Btfln* Mtyeftftfto have 

ftl^d q* wjM>*AfiMe Acvotkxi, cOofo]^ 

tion^ j «fkI4brlfetir. And perhaps wc flvaH 

ct^lv^y ^fttvr-tW*^dt«><«gr thence, Jf 

we finccrcly entertain thcfe leneimen ts 

which^f aki^trtih kfecb Wtcs and that 

we judge of our fetves as in truth we ought 

to do. 


Nor would the advantage be inconBde- 
*able, fliould we hereby be confervM in a 
low opinion of our fetves. But we muft 
be careful, left under this pretext We be in- 
clined to continue voluntarily in this con- 
dition > God, who wills that fotne Souls 
ihonld be in it, to humble them, com- 
1®Mds at the fame timg that they do their 
endeavours to come out of it. 'Tis to 
all he addrefles thefc words of his Prophet, 
MruJi U Jerufalem ne forte recedat a te a- 
nima mea. Inflrud thy felf, O Chriftiia 
Soul, for fear my Spirit leave thee. Do 
hot wilfully contbae in ignorance and 
darknefs. We ought equally to avoid neg- 

I z ligencs 

172 Cft* GWj VttatiU, 

Hgence in (catching the Lights of God, and 
impatience in the darknds wherein he 
leaves us. The one is the cfk& of (loth, 
the other of Pride, But thefe lights we 
ought to feck, are run lights purely fpectu 
Iatiye^ they are fuch as touch our Heart* 
at the tame time, that they inftmft out 
underftandings » lights that fpring from 
Charity, which is the true remedy for 
hardnefe of Heart, and fof infenfibility 

fb* End tftbt Third trcttifr 





Parti, I75 

: The .Fourth Treatife 

Of the means to confene 
'Peace among® Men. 

r ' 


usrite patent civifath id' quam 
tranfmigrarc vos feci* & ortteyr* 
ea dd Hbominum$ qma i» Toe* 
Mint erit Tax vohk. 


Very Society whereof we are a 
part, every thing with which 
we have any tye or commerce, 

- ._ on which we have any influence, 

or which may work on us, and whofe de- 
ferent itatc is. able to alter the difpoBtion 

- o 01 


174 ®ft&* meanjs to cottfet&eT&flft 

of our Souls, arc the Towns wherein we 
paft away the time t>f wf : Pilgrimage 
fince in thofc our Souls fiiuiemplQyxnent 
and repofe* 

Thus tl}? whole Wprld js ojnrpi;jr, £e- 
eaufe' wt a* InhabkaA^^Wt^-have^ &r- 
tain tye with all Men t from whom we fome- 

Thfe Hodanfo* Hrtvfe a Ttt& With thoft 
of ft**, v%mtW$$oll*^ 
we alio hare a commerce with tnofe peo*- 
pie who inhahif thf fnrthrft parte «et -tim 
World s becaufe the advantages the Hot- 
Under* draVRbliVfc&ifttMhem means 
either to help, or incommodate us. The. 
tttarimytreftid gf pother Harrow; thfff 
all are fritned to^is.fome way or pthe^ 

they ate aft'Uhks oFtfcit chafofyhfcft tyes 
M AMatittini* togetoa^ *# Tccfprbcal, 

We are in & more particular manner (aid 
to be Citizens of the Kingdom wherein we 
live.and were born,of theTown where we 
dwell, and of the Society we make a part 
of*, and in feme fenfe we may fry m are 
Citizens of our felves, and of our own 
Hearts. For our many pa (lions and 
thoughts in ibme fort are a kind of people 
with whom we arc to live, and it Is often 


eafier to Kvfe with all tbe exterior WorM v 
tiim with this interior ase which we carry 
wct/ib our fdrcs. 

The Scripture which obliges us to feck 
the Peace of the City where God makes 
ws inhabit* is equally ta be unictftood of 
all thefe different Towns.: . That w, k ob^ 
liges us to fcek and defire the Peace and 
Tranquility of the wholfc World, of .'our 
Kingdom, of our City , of our Society, 
and of our (elves. But as it is nwte in 
our power to procure Pence for fome of 
thefe Towns, than fevlothers, fe niuft we 
in different ways endeavour the fanrrt. 

■ There are but few who are in a condi- 
tion to, procure the. Peace of the World; 
of Kingdoms or Cities* otherwMe than by 
their Prayers, So that otnr duty in this 
point is redae'd to begging it fincerely at 
Gods Hinds, and in bclievnp^pur felves 
afalig'd to do foi as rally we are, fince 
thofe exterior troubles which divide King- 
doms, often rife from the little care par* 
ticular perfoms whereof they axecomposV,- 
havetobegPieace of God, and their final! 
acknowledgment for fo great a favour 
when granted them. Temporal Wars 
have fo ftrange ctofequences^ and work fo 
fad effc&s:cvcn on Soub themfelves, that 

14 wc 


i76t)t tfte mm to ankmrisr. 

wc cannot be too. apprchenfive of them* 
Wherefore St. F*J, where he recommends 
praying for the Kings' of the Earth* ex- 
pfefly obferves, a* one principle of this 
obligation* the need we have for our (elves 
of this outward Tranquility , V* quictam 

We procure Peace to our fclvcs, when 
w *. regulate tnd order our thoughts and 
paffionst and by fuch an anterior Peace, 
we contribute much to that of the Society 
wherein we live-, fince it isdiflurbUal- 
rooft by nothing but our unruly paffions. 
But as this Peace with thofe who arc uni- 
ted to us by clofcr tyes, and a frequenter 
commerce, is of extraordinary great im- 
portance for prefer vlng Tranquility in our 
fel ves > and nothing is a greater Enemy to 
it,than that divifion oppofite to this Peaces 
it is of itj|fc;muft particularly underftand 
this Document of the Prophet, Quwitt 
pacewxivitatis aiqmsm migrart wsfeci. 


Man for the mod part neither guidesJiis 
life by Faith, nor by Rcafon: Heraihly 
follows thcJmpreffions of things prefent, 
or the commonly received opinions cif 
thofe with whom helives. There arcfew 
who with any care apply thcmfelves to 


Part i; jpeace amottgff $&en- 1 77 

confider wftat is really, and truly neceflary. 

for pafling this life happily either according 
to God or the World. Did they relied fe. 
rioufly on't, they would find, that. Faith 
and Reafon gp hand in. hand, and agree 
concerning the greateft part of the duties 
and a&ions of Mankind : That thole 
things we are forbidden by Religion* are 
often as oppoiite to our Repofe in this life, 
as to our Salvation in the other ; and that 
moll of thpfe we are commanded to do, 
contribute more to our Temporal H^ppU 
nefe, than whatfoever we are prompted 
to reek after with fo much carneftneis by 
our Ambition and Vanity. . 


Now this agreement betwixt Reafon 
and Fa ifh, appears nowhere fo evident, as 
in the. obligation to conferve Peace* with 
thofe who are link'd in Society with us, 
and to efchewing all occafions that may> 
difturb the fame. For if Religion do pre- 
feribe us this duty, as one of the eflcntialeft 
to Chriftian Piety, Reafon alfo inclines us 
to it as one of greateft. irapprtance for our* 
own Temporal Intereft.. 


Wc cannot witKany attention cpnfider? 
the origine of the greateft part of thofe 
tioubles aijd creffes^ which either happen • 

•1-5- to 

i7SC»ftte mean* tat 0ttretdeiv.1v; . 

to our felvcs, or that wc fee befall others, 

but we muft acknowledge that they fpring 

for themoft part from our not noting welL 

one another : And if wc will be jtrft to our. 

felves, we {hall find, that very rarely any. 

one fpeaks ill of us without caufc, or takes , 

deligjit to hurt or vex us, only for wan- 

tonnnefs. Wc always contribute fome- 

thing; if we give no immediate caufe, at 

leaffc wc have done a far off. We commit t 

without thinking a thoufand little faults 

agaioft thofe with whom we live, which 

4ifpofe them to take an ill part, what o-> 

therwife they would without trouble pafs 

by, had they sot already hi their minds 

given entertainment to fomedifguft. In 

. fine, it is almoft always true, that, if wc 

are not beloved , 'tis we who have not. 

Known how to make ourfehresbc fo. 

We therefore our felves contribute te > 
thoft inquietudes, thofe croffes, to thofc 
troubles which others give us; and as *tiSv 
partly this which renderrus unhappy, nCK 
thin& imports us more, even according to , 
the World, than ferioufly to endeavour ro , 
fhun thefe. And the Science which tea- 
ches us to doit, is infinitely, more ufefai 
than i\\ thSo(e others which Men leara 
v^ttf fo epoch c&re, aiijd fo grca" cxpence of 


Parti; prate amottgff &m> 179 

time And for this reafon we have caufc 
to deplore the HI choice Men make 
of the Arts , Exercifcs, and Sciences, 
they apply" themfelves to. They dili- 
gently apply themfelves to know the 
mattar,and to find the means 1iow to make 
it ferve their occafions » they learn the ways 
of taming Beafis, and employing them for 
the uft of life * But they do not fo ranch as 
(Jreatn of learning the Art to make Men 
ufeful to them, and hinder them from di- 
fturbingand making their lives miferable » 
although Men. contribute infinitely mow 
cither to their Happtnefs or Mifery, than 
all the reft of the Creatures* 


This is what Reafon teaches us x>f this 
duty* But if we confult Fait hand RelU 
gion, they oblige us farther ftiil to the 
ftmc, by the Authority of their Dodrine, 
and the Divine Reafons they propofe. 
3ESUS GHillSTfotofedJeace^that: 
ef the Eight Beatitude* he propofe* in the 
Gcrfpd^^he th«of made Two. Blejjid, 
fays he, *u the Meb^ for they fbal foffeff 
iik Earth $ this cbinj^ehends the .tranqui- 
lity of this, and repofe of the other life. : 
IliefkddK, -lays heagain^ -'the ?eace*md%rsi „ 
for rthcy fhtti-be calfd the Sons of G*h which 
is-the Wgheft title Meagre capable of, and ; 


1 8o©f tfie mean* toxottfemeTr.iv. 

which i$ therefore due only tothehigheft 
Vertue. St* Psul has made as exprds 
Law concerning Peace, in commanding it 
to be kept as much as potiible with all 
Men what foe ver : Cum omnibus bemwibv % 
fi fieri pet eft, Vac em baberttes. He forbids 
ftrifes and fuits, and en joyns patience and 
meeknefs towards all: Sttvnm Dei Hon 
eportet litigare-i fe^manfuetum e$ adjemnej* 
Andlaftly, he declares, that the Spirit of 
Contention is not the Spirit of the 
Church. Si qui* videtur contentioftu effe $ 
h$s talyntonfuctuiinem non htbemus. 

There are fcarce any admonitions that 
occur more frequent in the Books of Wi£. 
dom, than thole which tend to regulating 
us in the commerce we have with our 
neighboured making us ftun vphatfoever 
may. excite divifions and quarrels, 'lis 
upon, this fcore the fFtft-ma* tells us> That 
meek words multiply Friends, and miti- 
g3te£nemies, Vtrbwn dnlce mukiplic** A* 
micos^ & muigat Umico& And that per- 
fons of* worth are full of fweetnefs and 
tomplaifence, JuttagpfiEucbfirit inbenofo* 
minc*ab*ad*t4 % 

In auother place Jie fays, That meek 
anfwers appeafe wrath, and (harp ones (Ur 
Up Uge, Rejfyonfa wtiis fravgit, irom>: 

Fart i. peace amottgff^n. 181 

Stmo d*m fnftitat furor an: . He tells • us, 
That the Wife- man procures himfelf low 
by his words, Sapiens in vttW feipjnm a* 
mabitem fat it. 

In fine, he Co far Extotls this Vcrtuo, 
that he calls it the Tree of Life » becauie 
it procures us quiet in this World, and 
in the next. Lhgua placability Lignum 



He has taken earealfotd teach us, that 

the advantage we receive from this Venue, 
in making us be belovM, is preterrabie to 
thefe which Men defire moft, viz, Honour 
and Glory. For this is one fenfc of t hefc 
words, Fiti in vtanfnetndine opera tna per* 
fice & fuper gloriam bominnm deligere* 

Here the Wife man compares the two 
things Mei) principally feek from others, 
vte. LaVeand Glory* Glory fprings from 
an /Idea of Excellence, Love from afoldea 
of Goodnefs •, and this is known by a naeek 
and fweet behaviour. » Now in this com* 
parifori he teaches us, that though efteem 
ajui repute from others fatisfies,our vanity 
snore, yet it is better to have their Love* 
Efteem only lets us into their judgment* 
whereas Love opens us their Hearts.: E* 
deem often has for companions Fears and 
Jeoloufies > whereas Love deftroys all tna- 
* . - ligpautf 

is iTO t&e meat* tMmtfet&eTr jv. 

lignant Paffionr, and 'cis theft that difturb 
our quiet* 


We may from Scripture draw an infi^ 
nitc number of Reafcns, exciting us to 
conferve Peace amongft Men by all poifible 

, Nothing agrees better with the Spirit of 
the New Law, than , the practice of this 
duty, and one may fay, that even the EC- 
fence of this Law leads os to it. Foy 
whereas concupifcence, which is the Law 
of the Flcfh, feperatieg Man from Qod f 
kas fet him at variance with hunfeH; by 
making Jiis iPaifions rebel againft Reafon \ 
and with ail other Men, by making htm 
their enemy, and endintng him to endea- 
vour to get dominion and' tyranny over 
diem. On the contrary, it is proper to . 
Charity, ( which is the New Law which , 
JESUS CHRIST came into the 
World to eftaffltfh) to repair all thefe 
breaches fin has made, to reconcile Man 
to God by making him fubje&'to hi* 
Laws., to reconcile him to himfelf , by 
bringing his Paifons to. the beat of Rca-i 
fan * ;atul Jafftly s to reconcile him to all 
Men, :by taking'fromhimthcilefireof do* 
ftiincoang over them. 


Part i; peace atttottgff &ak 1S3 

Now one of the principal efte&sof this 
Charity in tfdpedt of Men, is to make us 
apply our felves how to confetvc Peace 
with them >' for it is impoffible Charity 
(hould be lively and fincere in the Heart, 
wkhout producing in it this application. 
We naturally fear to hurt thole we love : 
And this love making us look on all the 
faults we cummit againft others as great, 
and of cpnfequence, and in thofe they com*. 
mit againft us as flight and fmatl v. it there* 
by extinguitites the ufualeft fourceofquar- 
r?ls, which for the inoft part take their 
sifc from thefc fatfe Idea's that make all 
things look big which concern ourfehres* 
«nd thofe fmail and little which concent, 


ft is impoffible to love our neighbour 
without defiring to ferve and help him* 
nor can we do this without beine at peace 
with him : So that the ferae duty by which , 
we are charg'd , accovding to Scripture; 
to hdp him in tvhat we ate able, obli- 
ges us al(b to keep peace with him* for. 
Peace is the Gate by which we enter into . 
his Heart, and this by averfion i* (hut and 
made rnacceffible. 

. Xtv.» « • 

l\ k h tfttc, we ate not always in a con- 

\. . djtion 

1 84®f t&e meatus taconftutieTr iv: 

dition to ferve others by. difcourfcs of edi- 
fication: But there are many more ways o£ 
doing that. We may do it by-holding our, 
peace, by Examples of Modcfty; Patience, 
and other Vertues v And it* is Peace and 
Union with them, that open tlteir Hearts 
to profit thereby* 


Charity does no t* only embrace all Men* 
but it does this at all times. And thus we 
ought to be at peace with all Men, and 
this always* For, no time, no occurrence 
happens where we ought not to love and 
defire to ferve them > and by confequencc 
there is none, where we ought not, on our 
part* tp takeaway all obftaclcs which may 
intervene'tand the greateft of thefc is a cer- 
tain averfion and ftrangenefs they may have 
for us. So that even then when we can* 
not keep an interior Peace with them* 
which confifts in an union of thoughts and 
fentiments, we mull at leaft endeavour to 
prefer ve an exterior one, confiding in the 
devoirs of humane civility* to the<end we 
may not be rendrcd incapable to fervc theim 
fome other time, and always t eft itie to God 
our finctre defire to' do fo. . 

Moreover, if we do not. actually fervq' 
them, wc are at leaft obliged to do them 
ncr harm. . Now we do .them harm, when 

- by, 

Patti. p cacc amonffff ^ett. i8j 

by croffing them, we give them occafion 
to look bat coldly on us. We do them a 
^real hurt, in difpofing them, by an aver- 
fion tb$y may conceive againft us, to take 
enr words and a&ions in evil part v to 
fpeak of them unjuftly , and fo as may 
wound thekConfcicnccs ; and in fine* to 
flight even Truth it felf in our mouths, 
and not to care for Juftice, when 'tis we 
that maintain k. 

It is not therefore onty the intereA of 
the Man, bat that of Truth it fe!£ which 
cbtiges us» not to exafpetate them need- 
lefly againft us. If we love Truth t we 
ought to avoid all occafions of rendrihg it 
odious by our indifcretions, and of (hut* 
ting againft it Mens Hearts and Minds, 
whilft we (hut them againft our felves : 
'Tis to make us efchew this fault, that the 
Scripture adfnoni(hes us, 'that the fPife 
sdem Science. That is to fey, they make 
it appear; venerable before, Men, and the 
cfteem which they gain themfelvesby their 
moderation, makes, that Truth / which 
they denounce,appea*moie auguft : Where- 
as fhould they incur the contempt or ha* 
tred of others/ they would bring it into 
difefteem > becaufe contempt and hatred 
ordinarily pafs from the Berfbns, to the 
Po&rine which they teach* KVIL. 


1 8$€>f tie mew arc «tfer%eTnVT, 

; xvh. 

It is impoHible Honeft Men fhould al* 
ways be at Peace with others, fince our 
Saviour has told them, that they ought 
Dot to expeA to be otherwise treaxed by 
th$m y than he himfelf had been. . And it 
is for t\ih neafon that St. VauI* pchdfting 
us to keep Peace with others^ added this re* 
ftri&ion If it be poffble^Si fieri po$?fl$Lnovtr 
ing well that *tis not always fo, and that 
fome occafions intervene where we ought 
to run the ha#rd of esdfperating other^by 
PPRfag wr fdves toth^cpurfe^ thd? 
P^ffion^ Put to the end: we may do this 
with profit, and without having >qft tea- 
ion to fear left we fltoukl have contributed 
to tbe ill conferences which may thence 
arife^ we mail cxtream carefiijlp avoid 
chopfing them to . no purpofc f op for 
things of finall moment , or too hardily } 
for the truth is, that thofco/ily whofpar* 
others as nrnch as they can, are in a poffi* 
biiity of doing good by corre&ing their 


St. Peter, knowing that it wasimpofli* 
ble Chrifttans (hould live without trouble- 
and perfection, adtnonUhes them not to^ 
draw theft on themfel ves by their own 
Crimes; In like manner one may fay, that 
, . it 

out being h»te4>-th£y ought witinxf ran* 
care t-oavoid tarring hatred Vy, their Wr 
prudence aftd radifcmi<>fl v *™i fheKhf 
lafiqg the mtfrk tfafcy artgltf gam by ;tW# 
lund .of ik0efttng» : •.-./•.-> ,:,-.<. -; -; ;, <* 

... .»:"n j'#fiil r j:..:': XlX-\, •. fj >*, a t .' \ > 

Frmeinar cftutftiojl ka-,4myexprcfl)r 
iccotwneiKted to us in tbc Gofpel, ftfdotti 

obligation thereunto i*? fvrefyjfrtfi pm* 
' Neverthelefs it is . exxfcain there are very 

jritftipafo* **}<&** wtf fc^S-tjlSpatf* 
scprdtitt^ttcw.<^ oSf^t 

fcr*U)thi* tbeytmght aotrto*W^Kh**TM; 
fchrcs fireed ftom theoblifeati^ri. #or** 
we ard riot exempt font* guilt bf-fpieCorf^ 
when by iaipnjdcnce:^e #)*ke.ovi&li*f* 
uncapable c£ doing Corporal JNprJtf dfc 
Mercy, and he will lay to wr charge r the> 
Want of thofe good deeds we #ut of our 
own fault do not * neither otufrt. we to 
think our felves free from m y whoa 
through the little care we have of prefer*, 
viog Peace amongft our neighbours, we 
become irn capable of psa&icing 111 their i 

ngaxd thofc Spiritual Works of Mercy j 

which are due to them from us* 


. In fine, out Spiritual Intereft, and that: 

^ Charity 



Charity which we owe to our felves* 
ought to make us forbear doing what foe* 
ver may let us at variance with our neigh* 
four, and tender u$ the objeft of his ha- 
tred and contempt, for nothing is apter 
to extinguiflv or cool in our felves* that 
Charity which we awe them, fince there 
is not a more difficult task than to love 
fhofc m whom we find nothing but cold- 
aefs, or even averfion . 


But the difficulty Hcs not in convincing 
oar felves of the nectffitv t a confer ve 
Peace with our neighbour » tis inefFe&ive* 
ly confervitg ft, by (hunning whatfoever 
may breed an alteration. It is certain, 
that nothing but a Superabundance of Cha- 
rity can produce this great cfk&. Yet 
amongft humane means ncceflary for this 
end, none feems more proper than a dili- 
gent enquiry after the ordinary caufes of 
tuch diflenfions as happen amongft Men r 
to the end we may be able taprevent the 
feme. Now considering thefe in general, 
one may fay , that mifunderftandings be- 
tween us and others , never happen but 
*ifher through our difoWiging them f fo- 
as they avoid and feperate from us , or. 
their difobligmg us by their words or ^ 
deeds, fo that we our felves eftrange from 


Parti peace mnottffff^at 189 

thena,and renounce theif Friendfhip.Either 
of thefe two may happen by an abfolutc 
breach, or by an infenfible cooling of 
Friend (hi p. But in what manner foever 
this conies to pais, 'tis always thefe reci- 
procal difcontents that caufe rupturcs ) and 
the only means of (hunning them, is never 
Co do do what may offend another, not 
bco/Fcndcd at what others fhall do againft 

us. *' . , . • • 

There is nothing more eafie than to 
prefcribe this in general, yet fcarce any 
thing harder than to pradice it in particu- 
lar : And one may (ay it is one of thofc 
rules, which, being (hort in worcjs, are ne- 
▼erthclefs of vaft extent in their meaning 
and which under the generality of their 
terms comprehend an infinite number of 
mod important duties. Uoon thisjeorc 
it will be expedient to look into it, and 
examine more particularly by what means 
we may avoid offending others* and bow 
wemay bring our (elves into fuch a difpo* 
fit km as not to be offended by any thing 
they (hall either fay or do againft us* 


The means to be fnccefiful in pradice of 

the iirA of thefe devoirs, is to know wh*t 

k is that exasperates others , and gives 


them theft impre(fions which produce a- 
Tcrilon and diftance. And all thefe ca li- 
fts fecm reducable to two , viz* contra- 
dicting their opinions, and withstanding 
their palfions. But as this may happen 
dfrcrs Ways, 1 thai' thofc opinions and paft 
Jfori* afcWft all of*htf {tafefMfMMi and 
tfiat there arc fome for r Wht&fr' t&y havi 
a^fhorcfeiifebic concern than othitfs -;. wi 
nauft carry on this enquiry a little farther, 
and cqnfider mortf foinutely thofc judg- 
tfctrffc and thoft { ^(§oh^ #tiich^f^ mort 
daHgerot^.t^Be-ih^irfcd; ; " j >" ^ 
•.-.:. ;. . :. . XXJV. - < - : - ' \ 

; Melt* ate nrft orally wedded to their ©. 
fftfidtf ;%ecattfe' they < are wVer freofrbfA 
»tfefir6 f 6r^6r«ig It o¥# bthers fef aM 
.ways Jfcffibte^'-We fti fome fort! **eigfi 
ofreir them by Wieir believing what %efay * 
? ris a kind of dominion to make our fenti* 
tnents pafs current amongft others: And 
fo tjic oppbfitieri we here find, wdilmdstfc 
fti proper tf on* td the Fove wehitelbrthte 
kind of Empire Man, (ays the ScrijKure, 
placet tit ttntchr in tht fefttimenffbtfrp^ 
fpfes, Lttatnt homo in jententns ms fm 
JFor by propofing them, he makes them his 
own, he becomes concerned for them/aqd 
their ruine carries wfth it f he deftru&ioh 
of fome thfog thatfcelotigs -to him. c Mte 


Part L peace amcmgff $)etr* 19 1 

cannot oppofe them, without (hewing 
htm chat he has been miftaken, and he 
takes no pleafure in being To. . Whoever 
in any particular point con|radi&s ano- 
ther, pretends to know more of it than 
he ? and fo at the fame tfme gives hfan 
two very uftpleafing tmprelfions, the one 
that he wants knowledge, the other that 
he who thus finds tfault, turpaflfcs him hi 
underftandkjg. , . The fir ft bumbles him* 
the fecond exafpdrafles,. him f and cao* 
(es jealonfies. Theft eifc&s»iarc more 
lively and fenfible>as tomfepifeence is foore 
quick and . a#Lve. : But there are very 
few, who in fonac'mcafute arc not tbudfrd 
therewith , ?od who can endure ttf he 
contndided without feettfg any ifabtktt 
of dtfpleafiure. • . • ; . ; 

Befide* this general caafe, there are 

many more making Map adhere to his own 

ienfe, and touchie tobecontradided, Al*> 

though devotion fcem ( in dimintthtog 

the efteem we niay ha vie of oar felvcs, and 

the defire of domineering over the minds 

of others ^) at the fame time tqdiminifli 

in us the love for our own fentimepts, yet 

does it often produce a quite contrary 

efte& For as devout people look on aH 

things fpititually , and yet it often happens 


th at they are deceived^ it alFo comes to 
pa ft, that fometimes they fpiritualize cer- 
tain falfhoods, and drcfs upfomoopiriions, 
-either <unceitain or ill grounded y with 
Regions of Confidence, which caufe them 
to adhere obftitiately thereunto. So that 
applying in general that love they have for , 
Truths for Vertue, for the concerns of 
God, to thefe opinions they have not wejl 
cxamin'd* their zeal b ftir'd up, and 
glows high agatnft fuch as either oppofe 
thefe opinions, or do not feem to be per* 
{waded of their Truth ; and the remainder 
even of Concupifceiice inthenv, mingling 
and blending it fclf with thefe motions of 
ical v (preads it felf (6 much the fireelyer, 
the lefs thefe perfons refifl it, anddiftin- 
guifli this double motion in their Hearts v 
becaufe they only perceive their minds to 
be f aken up whh thefe Spiritual Reafons, 
which feem to them to be thefole fouroe of 
all their seal. 

It is by an efifed of this (beret illufion, 
jhat we fee fomevery devout Perfons ad* 
here fo obft tnately to certain opinions m 
Philofophy, and thofe notorious fa lfc pnes^ 
that they even look with pity on fuch as 
are not convinced thereof, and upbraid 
them with the love of novel ty, when they 


P*rti. peace attionffff ©em i9i 

advance nothing but what is undoubtedly 
true. There are fome before whom one 
cannot fpeak of fubftantial forms, withoat 
putting them into paffiou. Other* cC 
poufc ArifkotUs quarrel, and that of other 
ancient Pliilofophcrs, as if they were Fa- 
thers of the Church. Others take the 
Sun's part, and pretend 'tis injur'd in being 
.made to gafsonly for a heap of violently 
agitated duft. The* truth is, thefe no- 
tions fpring not from cdncupifcence, they 
are caufed by certain Pious Maxiroes; 
which in general are true, but applyed ill 
by theiti in particular/ We ought to be 
averfe from Novelty > it is true; we 
ought not to take delight in extenuating 
tho/e, who by the con lent of all the- tear* 
ced have been judg'd worthy efteem* this 
is alfo true. But after all this, when fuch 
things come under difpute as are only to 
be judg'd by Reafon, known Truth ought 
to carry it agajnftall thefc Maximc*, -and 
ail the ftead they can ftand us in f is to 
make us more circumlpcdfc, led by flight 
appearances we fuflfcr our felves to be fur-* 
priz d. 

AH thole exterior qualities y which 
- without augmenting our knowledge, con- 
, tribute to pe*fwade us* that wc are in the 

K, rghtv 

/ - 

tight i MM they fix m to out own opl- 
«u©es,,~th«y wakens, alG> mote inpatient 
<£ tateg contwUded. Now there a*e 
«nwy t»lK, fow^.whicfepioduce thtseffect 

. Thofe who fpfak well, and with e»fe,ajfe 
&bje& to be teiadotfs of their own fenfe, 
and difieultty ^deceived : Becanfc the* 
arc incliu d to think they have the fame 
ad vantage ovot the undjerftandings , that 
*h«yj h»v« ©set the tongues of others; 
Tb« advantage is* *ifibk and palpable 
««4, wherea* it. i& in the dark to tbete* 
that they wan*,*ighfc and exaftaefr in re** 
foningi. BcMev thfefaciUty of ittteeanc^ 
. B iv«s thekthougftts, though fa»% * «r* 
tain !«&*,. which daalet ewn< their, own 
fiy«sv whejeafl thofe who eaprcfc then*. 
felvea with dificulty, caft Clouds m the 
rooft apparent Truths, makes them apw 
peat is the drefs of faulty, andare thtnv 
felvcs often fare'd to yield, and fccmoveo- 
come, beeaufc they wane words where- 
with to diflhtangle themfcbres.from thofe 
cay and dazling errors. 


What for tines in .thofe who have a good 

utterance this obftinate adhering to their 

own opinion, is that for the moft part 

they draw the multitude to thc» fide » 

' - • becaufe 

bccaufe this never tails to give the advan* 
tag? of Reafon, to thofe who have it in 
words : And this publick approbation p s* 
turning upon then^makes them (till pleas'd 
with their own thoughts: For thence 
they take occafion to believe them confor- 
mable to the light of common faife. So 
that they receive from others what them- 
felves lent them, and are in their turn 
cheated by fuch as were firft deceived by 

The fclf-famc effed proceeds from ma* 
ny other exterior qualities, as moderation 
refervednefs, calmnefs and patience. For . 
they who arc matters of thefc endowments, 
comparing themfelve& with others who 
have them not, cannot but prefer them* 
(elves before fuch, ir\ thefe particulars; 
nor are they unjiift to them in doing fp. 
Now as advantages of this, fort are «nu<& 
more confpicuous than thofc of the nauyl* 
and gain more credit and authority in 
the World ; fo their owners often Qavpqt 
forbear preferring their judgment before 
that of others, who have not thefe quitir 
ties \ not believing through a grofs and 
palpable vanity* that they are more ($arp~ 
fighted than they, but in 3 more febnlc 
and fenfiblc manner. Eos befides that 

K z «»- 

1 96® f fte twang to tonretneTr.iv. 

iiDprcilron they receive from the approba- 
tion of the multitude, on whom * hey im-' 
pofc by : thefc exterior ornaments/ they 
apply themfelves particular ijr t6ckfcant on 
the defe&s : wWch theyobfer ve in the man* 
ner of others propofing their fentiments, 
ind thefe at laft they tnfenfibly take for 
marks of dcfe<& of Reafon. 

Nay there are (bme, who from tTie care 
they have had to beg of God that Light 
which is he<?eflTary to guide themfelve9' by, 
In certain difficult occurrences, take oc- 
casion -to prefer their opinions before thofe 
of others, in whom they obfcrve not the 
fame affiduky of Praye*. But thefe re- 
fled, not that the genuine cflfe<3: of Prayc* 
is not fo much to makers more knowing 
and dear-lighted, as to obtain for us a dif- 
fidence of our own skill and knowledge, 
and to make us more difpofed to foHo# 
the light and advice of others. So that it 
often happens, that one inferior in -Vest ue 
(hall fee more in certain matters than ano- 
ther much above him. Neverthelefs all 
this light and in fight (hall much lrf> piofit 
him, by reafon of the ill ufe he makes 
thereof, then if by his Prayers he had ob- 
tained a docility to accept truth from ano- 
thers hand, and the Grace to make good 
ufe thereof. XXXI. 

* c c Tbrfe;^iw/h4^ a quick iroagkutioni 
*P#4 jfo©ng : ?p4 Uycly- apprehenfion, are a. 
nothcr kind of people fubje& to be wed- 
ded to their own fentiments* becaufe 
this intent application of themfelvcs to 
fprne p*rr j^ular objeds, hinders them (torn 
fclsfrg tjigft underftandings fofull a pro- 
ifx^ of things asris neccflary to frame an 
equitable judgment, which depends of the 
comparing (everal Reafons together. They 
ate fo felly, taken up with fome one Rea- 
lign, t\\^ they allow no admittance to all 
the reft, : >And they properly rcfemble fuch 
a^ are too near the objefts they look on, 
>vhp thef ^forefee nothing at all but what 14 
prgeiftjy b.fore their Eyes. 

-*•»'*• XXXll* 

; ? Tfc for nwij of thefe Reafons that Wo* 
ioen 9 and particularly thofe who haft 
good Wits, are fobbed to be much ty'd to 
j$eir own fenfe. For the moft part their 
.Wit is a Wit of imagination v that is, it 
is lively, but extends its fight not far : 
Hence they are ftrtngly taken up with 
what is near and (hikes them, whereas 
they confider little any . thing clfc : They 
fpeak well, and with eafe, and To gain 
credit and efteem ; They are moderate, 
and cxa& in all the duties of Devotion. 
_ K x And 

And thus all things contribute to make . 
them fct a Taine on thfck own thoughts, 
for nothing happens that may brew In 
them a miftruft therecC 

XXXIH. :- / 

In fine, whatever taife men fcthfc 
WdiM s as Riches , 4\>wer > Aafhbrtty -, 
renders them infenfibty more fitfd td tto* ft 
own fcnttmentsv as WelFhecaufe tfaefe < 
things make others complacent, and a$>t 
to beliere what they fay* as atfolxxtftifc 
they are lefs accufiom'd *o be* central 
AcS s whence they become mbr* ftnflblfc 
*nd delicate, A* no hody for t*fe trtoft 
part fdls them of then* tofRiktH fothey 
accuftom thenrtelves *d JhfelP fhtfi; * tfcf 
commit none, and they aWftipiltfdWh** 
any one goes about to -make themrcfteft 
they are firbjeft therennto , is well as 
others. v . ! 

Weftould makeiflufeof &(*£et*rdl 
t>bfer rations, fhould we thence take occa- 
fion to attribute in particular this vicious 
adhefion to thofe in whom we obferve the 
qualities capable to produce ft -» becauft 
they ire not the neceffary caufes thereof, 
Ihe ufe therefore we ought to make of 
them, is not to fufpeft and condemn any 
xmc in particular thereupon v but only to 


$o*icluck> {wl]Cff ^e,t«eal with fuch as 
by their coqditiQn or dUpofitioBof'min4 
may he fubje& to this faulty whether tal- 
ly they are guilty thereof or no ) that it 
always behoves us to (bod more ftriftly on 
our guard, nof to thwart* without {peat 
rcafen* their opinions and ieqtknratsw 
For this prc-cantion pan never do Jiarat 
whereas it may be pf great concern in nwu 
cy occurrences* 


But as it is obferyable, (hat as there if 
more danger in contradkHu fpmc pcrifefi* 
tha* others* fo aire thfre Jo«W opinipaf 
whereof we oqght to be more wflry^ And 
(uch are thpfe which are not peculiar ftr 
(ojueone perfon of the place where we live,. 
tot *r* eftablift'd these by an uplverfel ap. 
pcobttiwi : F?r by oppofiag opiptpfs of 
this tynd> it &fcnp* we would raife ott* 
(elves above aH ether%/» and wt give {*<** 
goo to all *hofe whoarc prepdflels'd with 
them co concern therafelves for them ft 
much the more warmly, as they believ* 
this common concern pf thek* mks> *oft 
kcaufe the<>pfarijpi«jOT tljejr oyja^feft 
Ihofe of the whole ^wmtffttsy* ; NaW 
the malignity of oar *J*wr« n fe fofifttfti* 
more lively, and more a&ivt, wfoetiif; Is 

undier forae hoqeft pretext* and 49*4$; 

K 4 gttife 

looCtf t&c mrang to c0nfetiJcTr.1v. 

guife, and hide it felf from it felf, under 
the coloiifr of that zeal which is due to Su- 
periors, and to the community whereof 
we are Members. 

r This observation is of uttnoff impor- 
tance for conferring peace > And that we 
niay comprehend the extent thereof, "we 
nuiftadd, that in aJl Bodies, in att Socie- 
ties, there are for the moft part certain 
Maximes that beat fway, whidxare fram'd 
by^ the j judgment of thole who arc in pof- 
fef&MrttfShe bdief, : a«d by thek author*-** 
ty,'l6t<d it oVer the H*md$of all thfc *efy 
It oftrt happttwi thar ihofif ^ho propoft 
thefe, are not very tenacious of them, be- 
caufc they fectn not cVen to thenifelvesve- 
ry clear ; but this hinders not the irife- 
riour fort, ( who receive thefe Maxime* 
without examination on the bare authori- 
ty of the frop6fers ) frorri looking oiv f 
them a* ccrtaitt beyond cotrtroul, and* 
f fince they ufaally place their glory iu 
maintaining them at what price foever> 
from growing hot and full of zeal againft 
their - oppoftrs. l%efe Maximes and opi- 
rtions focnef lines concern only matters of 
SpBcufct Ion ahd Dd&rine. Here one kind 
of Philotbphy is in vogue, there another. 
In fothef kecs all opinions tending to five- 

Farti. peace amongft^nt 201 

iity arc acccptable,in other t bey all lie under 
fufpfriop. Sometimes t hefe opinions have 
relation to the cfteera we ought to have 
of certain perfons, and principally of fuch 
as arc of the fame Society > becaufe thofe 
who beat fway there by the credit they 
have, give each their rank and place ac- 
cording to the manncp of their, treating 
them 3 or fpeaking. of them. And this, 
place and efteem becomes confirmed to 
them, by the multitude which authorizes 
the judgment of the Sugeriours, and is. 
always ready to defend it. 

Now* as thefe judgments may beer ro- 
pious and extravagant, it may happen^ 
that particular Members of the fame So- 
ciety may not approve of them, and may 
think thefe places misbeftowed. In this 
ca(e if the diffentcrs ufe not a great 
deal of difcretion, and many precautions 
not to exafperate thofe with whom they 
live, by the difference of their opinions i 
they y l hardly avoid the incurring the cen- 
fore of preemption and temerity h nay,. 
fcarce prevent what they have difcove- 
ted of their fentiments from being car.- 
ried far beyond their intentions, and ma* 
king themfelves to be acciifed of an abfo- 
hrte contempt towards thofe on whom 

K 5, «hey 

fteffif tie mew to ttai&tbtTr.W. 

they do not beftow all the refpedt that 
others do.- 


To avoid then thefe inconventeneds; 
and feveral others xxfc may fafl into by 
oppofing commonly received opinions'* 
we ought, in what Place or Society foe- 
vcr we be, to make a Draught or Map of 
all the opinions in vogue there, and of the 
place and rank each of them holds there, 
that we may have all the confideratioii 
for them which Charity and Truth can, 

It may happen that many of thefe opt- 
ions feem Falfe» and that others have not 
their due places allotted them. But our 
firft arc ought to be, todiftruft our felvcs 
in this particular. For if in Man there be 
a certain natural weaknefi which diipofei 
him to accept without examination the 
impreifions he receives from others > there 
is alfo a malignity no lefs natural, inclining 
him to contradi& the fentiments of o* 
thets, and particularly of fuch as. live in 
jrepute. Now this latter vice k more to- 
be ihun'd than the other v becaufe it is. 
more oppofite to humane Society, and be-* 
tokens a greater depravation of the Heart 
and Mind: So that to refill this, we 
$ught as nauch as we can to favour the opi- 

putt?, peaceamtttgff %kn.) tp* 

fiions of others, to be w*ll pleas'd that 
we can approve of them* and even to 
take their being, received fpr au* omen of 
their being true. \ 

That impatience which makes us with 
heat contradi& others, (prings but from 
pur not being aWe to endqre without 
trouble, that others (houldcritcrtain opi- 
nions different from ours* 'Tis becaufe 
thefe fentiroentfc are contrary to our fenfe,. 
that (hocks us > not becaufc they are con- 
trary to Truth. Were it our defign to 
benefit thofe we contradi&, we (hould 
tike other tneafares , and proceed other 
ways > we propofe to oar felycs only the 
bringing of them under our opipiom, *pd 
railing our fclves above their Headsfc or 
father we defire by contf adi ding them to 
be * reveng'd of them for the difjpJeafurc 
they do us in thwarting opt rf$B$iqtents* 
So that in this behaviour there i^foundaf 
the fame time Pride,, whkh bedeck thij 
fyke, want of Charity, which hurries us 
to take revenge, by an indifcreet pppofi- 
tion and hypocrifie, which covers updc? 
the pretext of our. love for Truth, and a 
Charitable defire of di&bufiqg ot^frs^ all 
thefe dept av'd motions % Wtara*0in*fli# 
we only fed* to (ktisfcr our fe ve*; >«4 


«04$ft&e mean* to conret6eTr.iv. 

thus one may very juftly apply to us the 
faying of the Wile Man, That the admo- 
nitions of him who intends an injury, are 
falfe and deceitful. Correpth mettdax 
in ire coutumeliofi. Not that he always 
fays what is falfe ; but becaufe he has a 
mind to vex and infult over us, whilfthe 
would feem only to defign our profit; by 
Corre&ing fomc fa ul r # 

We ought then to look on this impa* 
tience, which makes us without diftin- 
#ion engage our felves againft whatever 
feemsto us untrue, as a very contiderable 
fault, and- which very ofren is much grca* 
ter than tht pretended error we would de- 
liver others ftottu < Thus as we ought in s 
the firft place to be charitable to our felves* ' 
lb our firft care* and pains ought tobea- 
bout our felve*, endeavouring to fettle 
our ininds-fo as to be able to endure with- 
out-' difturbance « the opinions of others, 
which may teem 'falfe to us, to the end 
we may ncter enter the lifts againft them* 
but with a defile of benefiting their abet* 

' Were-we poffefs'd with this fcle defire,* 
we (fecttW without difficulty acknowledge 
that, tfeotofik all am be ill, there are 


Peace amongff $&m 

neverthelefs many which we ought not 
our (elves to-deftroy, becaufe often the re* 
medy would be worfe than the difeafe * 
and applying our felvcs to the cure of thefe 
fmall evils, we ftduld put our fe Ives out 
of condition to redrefc fuch as ate really of 
concern* And therefore, though our Sar 
▼ionrJESUS CHRIST was full of 
all Truth, as St. J*hn fays* yet We fin^ 
not that he undertook the freeing Map 
from other errors than fuch as concerned 
God, and the means of his Salvation. He 
was fully acquainted with all the cxtravar 
gapt opinions about natural beings} he 
knew better. than any.elfe, in what true 
Eloquence confiflcd » to him all part events 
were periedly known* yet did not he 
cornrai/fionate his A pottles to com bate 
Mens errors in natural Fhilofophy., to 
teach Men how to fpeak well, or to re- 
difie a great number of falfitics in mafr 
ters of fa<£ wherewith Hiftoriesw^rc 
ftu&d. . 


We are not obliged to be more charitable 

than the Apoftles weie : When we per*- 

ceive therefore,' that by contradicting ccr* 

tain opinions concerning humane Sciences 

and Affairs, we vex and cxafperate many, 

wd give them occafion of making raft 


aoffflW tf>e mam to mfctbtTrjy. 

and un jaft cenfures \ we not only may diC 
penfe with our fclvcs nQt to eppofe fuch o- 
pinions, but arc often obliged co it by the 
Laws of Charity* 

But the prafticc of this refer vednefe 
ought to be intire and full > we muft not 
think it fuflkient to abftain from openly 
coptradiding thofe we are obliged to 
manage with this moderation : We ought 
to truft no body with our opinions of 
them,becaufe that ferves for nothing but to 
disburden our fclves to no purpofe ; and 
tfiere is often more danger in telling to o- 
thers our opinions of fuch perfons as have 
tftcetn and authority in a community ,and 
reign oyer their minds, than to the parties 
themfelves* becaufe thofe to whom w* 
defign our thoughts, having often Ids 
Light , lefs Equity , left Charity , and' 
rnorefalfe^retfl'rfnJieagerncfs, receive grea- 
ter wounds thto&cfe other would t And 
laftly, becaufe there are very few good 
fecret-keepers, fo that whatfoever we fay - 
comes to his Ear who is concern'd, and * 
that often told (b, that the way of telling 
caufes a greater pique than the thing it 
(elf. So that there is almoft no other means 
left of avoiding thefe inconveniences, than 
by being generally refeev'd to all, . 



It is no eafie matter to ware a Confi- 
dent too, when there's fomething which 
We approve net that lies at our Heart * we 
bdieve our (elves obKg 7 4 to beep it dofe. 
Sdf-love naturally feeks to disburden it 
felf, and we are pleas'd at leaft to have 
one witnefs of our rcfervednds. That 
malignant vapour whidi always drives us 
on to contradjS what we like not. be- 
ing (hat npin an utwhortified mind, makes 
continual efforts to get out ; and often 
Ac dHpIeafarc it caufes grows greater by 
the violence we ufe to keep it in. But,, 
the more lively thefe motions are, the 
more certain, (we ought to conclude Jt 
is our obligation of repreffing them, and 
that we ought not to intermeddle ineon- 
du&tng others, when we have fo much 
need to labour about guiding our fclves. 

xlv; - 

Thus by refilling that defire we have of 
talking of the faults of others, when pru- 
dence permits us not to diicover them, it 
will come to paft, that we (hall eitb« 
know or find afterwards, we were in the 
wrong, and judgM ami(s, or fomc occ** 
fion will happen of difcovering them,with 
profit » and fo we (hall pradice what the 
Scripture commands in thefe wprds. 3**** 

%oS®ftUmzfto$ totortfettJcTr.VL 

fenjm ufq\ ad tempi* abfcvndet verba iHirn, 
& labia multorum enarrabunt fenfum t&m. 
Or if neither the one nor the other come 
topafs, however we (hall enjoy the fruit 
of Peace r and may juftly hope that reward 
for our rcfervednefs which we (hould have 
loit by delivering our (elves up to the gui- 
dance of our Pa ill on s. 


If we ought to have regard* as I have 
laid, to the Quality, the Spirit, and Con* 
dition of the Pcrfons we are about to con* 
trad id * much more ought we to confides 
, our. (elves, and the place wc hold in their 
efteero. For fince we muft not, oppofe 
the opinions of others, but with a defign 
of doing them fome<good; we mitftfee 
what, likely hood we have of fucceeding >- 
and as the. fuccefs lies m our petfwading 
them, and the only, means to do this, are; 
Authority and Reafcti, we muft further 
know well how far we can prevail by both. 
thefe means. 

Without doubt the weaker of the two 
is Reafon v and thole who have only that 
Card to play, cannot promife themfclves 
any great fuccefs, lince the grca te# part of 
the world are led by Authority;. It is 
therefore touching.this we ought partial 
larly to examine our fclves^ and ifwc 



{ Viit t peace amettffff Jgfeit. ie£ 

perceive wejhaveifcot that Credit, that 
efteem which is tieceflary to procure if fa- 
vourable reception for whit wc- fay ; wc 
ought to believe God< doe* difpenfe with 

j us for fpeaking our minds concerning thofe 
things wHteh appear to us btatue- worthy, 

I and that what he expc&s at our hands in 
fuch occafiohsr, is reTcrvcdnefe and' filence. 

! In geing by any other. Rule, wc butdit 

| credit our felves, and quarrel with no be- 
nefit to any , and difturb the peace of others^ 
and one own too* 


* "Thie advite Plato gives of not preten* 
<)kig to reform and eftablifh In Common*- 
wealths any thing but what he (hall find 
himfelf able to get approvM and allowM by 
thofc who compote it :. Tantum contendere* 
quantum probate civitue tuijpcflis % has. not 
only relation to States and Common** 
wealths, but to all particular Societies, 
nor is it only the thought of a Heathen, 
but a Rule of Chriftianity, taught by St, 
Anjtin as abfolutely neceflary for the Go- 
vernment of the Church. Ibe true Peace- 
maker, lays this Blefled Saint, is be wb* 
corireSs what be can of the faults be fee** 
and tebo 9 by an equitable judgment difal- 
letting thofe be cannet mend* ceafes note* 

tolerate them With an uttjbahs* confkancy. 


2 io ©ftftcwwwto amfe&eTr iv. 

Now if this Holy Father prefcribe this 
Ru|e * even to thofe who arc cncarufted 
with the Government of the Church % if 
he command them to look on Peace as 
their principal end, and to pais by in in- 
finite number of faults, rather than cfofturb 
it ; How much more itfcctfary is it for 
.thofe who are entruftcd with nothing, 
and who hare on them only the oblige 
tion common to all ChrifKaos to contri- 
bute what lies in their power to the good 
of their Brethren. 

r As in politick Government wexrall It fe- 
ditton, tffien any on e endeavours a refbrr 
nation of difordcrs, without having 
tight to db ib from the place aid nufck hfc 
holds. So in private communities it is a 
{pedes of the fame Crime, when partial* 
Jar pcrfoas, who are in no authority, fet 
tberafetas up agiinit the femiihentseftaf 
Uifk'd ihere» arid ty their opjrofitien di* 
ftnrh the Peace ol the whole Body. Ne« 
▼erthelefi this ought only to be under* 
flood of fach dilbrders at may he tolerated, 
and which being halanc'd agatoft the drf* 
quiet they may canfc, fhall be found !efs 
conEderaMe* For feme there aire of that 
Nature, that even particular perfons lie 
under an abfotatc occefity of oppo- 


fing h kit it i* not of dtffe w* now ijifr 


Neverthclds weight fiof Contend 

Aefe Moximes, fi> -fihr «a*gefifcr*tfy ukxmi* 

*er(ation, to faupftiouriywttin&adifltfee 

*tf oestaiii Kfp'mibiS of; (jhofc with wjxfflfi 

we iivt )Tpfofc.#Qlrtd be ^o defitty &» 

) riety, faftcachof efdtttftmg it i for tto* 

[ reftraint would fo fe t one on, tbc. rack, . that 

i it would make ontf prefer privacy before 

emu parry. - ; We hiuft therefore reduce our 

£knce to things t£ ;k«pontiiti^ . aijd fweb 

as wc fee others concsfn^ernfetvep *wft 

fo* > and, even in t We f jwe may find way* 

* fo to thwart thenrv as hr will be iropoflible 

thej fawkinke't&mcc* AadthisrOt^ht 

tD&ottrpaftacufaviludys commence *nd 

coavearfaftioa not feeing abk flft fabfift* 

•when that freedom of owtting our .being 

of different opmtans frotfc oithctt i* takes 


So it is a matter of wondrous great ufe 

to ftudy with care how to propofe ottr fen- 

timents in fiich a fwcet r refer /d, and a* 

greeabte way, tha$ none thence nay take 

occafion ©f dM&s&S TW3 by Men of the 

World is pnidie'd to admiration towa*d* 

your Great Ones, concupifoence never 
• ^ failing 

facing tb fiitnifh tbflScient means for doing 
it : And we fhouldfind the like as well as 
they, were Charity tnius as a&ive as con- 
lupifcenci is kf them y and if itrmadfc us 
as apprchenfi ve of offending our Brethren-, 
whom we ought trv look on as above us in 
the kirigd^mM IB S US CHR I&T, as 
wdrMMngs a#e~of difpkafin$ thofei their 
intfcrtf? is to manage fot-)tte incieaCe of 
their fortune*. . ; \ 

LI* • i 

The practice of this duty is fo|mpor> 
tant, 4& ne&thvf jtariog the whole courft 
rf our^tife, that we ought to have a parti* 
cular care tt) be well* fe»arcis?d and- hobitua*. 
ted therdtf* Po* often; itaedi%uft not 
others fo much by our contrary opinions; 
as by the fierce, prcfumptqous, paffionatc, 
difdainfal; and in&ktag way of propofing 
thero. We ihould; Aeakn: therefore to 
coftti*adi<£fc civiHy r and humfcdy r and to 
look on our faults herein as very AQnil- 
derablc. ~ 


It is a hard matter to comprize in parti* 
cular Rules and Precepts, all the different 
ways of contradi&ing others without 
offence. Thcyfpringftdmprefentcircum- 
ftatices* and that charitable fear of offen- 
ding our Brother, which makes us find 


part I. peace amottgff #em 21* 

them our. But there are certain general 
dcfe'&s xhac we ought always to ha^e in 
view to avoid the ha, and which arc the or* 
dinary Springheads', whence flow thefe 
ungrateful ways* The &xl\ may be called 
t-he Afcendant) that is an imperious way of 
telling ones mind, which few can endure > 
?s jwell becaufe itflie\y$arierceand haugh- 
ty -mind, abhor'd natutatiy by every one w 
as fcraufe it thereby feems one would ex* 
ercife Dominion, arid Lord it over others 
Wills. This Air is fulfictently kubwn, 
and every one ought to obferve ifc partial- 
kr whence it xifes., •_ , - ;i r n : ., -• 

.. it is afcmd of this afceridaB t vyay f q ap- 
pear angry, and reproach others becaufe 
they do not believe us. This is as it were 
to accufe thofe with whom, we fpeak Of 
tbttiftinefs, for not underftanding our Ar- 
guments, or of wilfulnefs for not yielding 
to them* Op the contrary, we ought to 
bo perfwaded, that whom oujr Rcafons do 
not convince,' our reproaches will % not 
move* For theft give nonewjjghtv and 
betoken only, that we prefer our judg* 
merits before /theirs, and that we are 
unconcerned > whether we ( offend then* 
or now . , 



If k alio a vary great fault foipeak in a 
decifive tone, as if what? tore advancM 
could not in rcafon be queftion'd. For 
thofe we fpcak to in this, manner, are ei* 
ther offended bccaufc they arc made to. un- 
^erftand that they qucftion what is out of 
difpute s or elfc it feems, that we have a, 
mind to take from them the liberty af €%2h 
mining and judging by theit own proper 
light, and this they look on as an unjuft 


It was to make the Religious Hum thU 
offenfive way, that a Holy Saint prefcribes 
unto them, to feafoft all their difcbutfes 
wit h the Salt of doubtfulnefs, oppofitetq 
this decifiveaad dogmatiek homour;.0aiH 
nU ferm* vefler iubHrtiwm Jabfitcondaua 
beeaufe he thought Humility permitted 
not, tha* one (Would arrogate to ones fclf 
fo clear a knowledge of truths as to leave 
no room for doubting it* • 


Who are of this pofitive humour, do 
not only (hew that tftty doubt not them- 
fel ves of what they advance, but alfo that 
they think no body elfe cad doubt thereof. 
Now this is to exa& too much from others* 
an d to arrogate too much to thfcmfel ves. 


panL ptmumma&ttt n> 

Every Body will be fudge of his own opi- 
nions, and not embrace any but bccaufe he 
approves thereof. All that is got by the 
deciftve way, is to engage the hearers in 
ibarching more , than other wife they 
would, Reafoqs to doubt of what is (aid ; 
becaufe this imperious way excites a fecret 
defire of contradi&ing , and finding out ' 
that what is proposed with fo great aflu- 
rance,is not certain, or at lcaft not to that 
degree that was imagtn'd. 

Msat and eagerndi for our opinions, is a 
fiultditferenrfrom ttofe we nowoMerv-d, 
wfekh arc confident with eoldnefs and mo* 
ikraticm. Thb raife$* belief that we are 
not only wedded to our opinions by Rea* 
fon, but alfo by Patfkm j this raifes 1m 
many a prejudice againft theft opinions, 
Mi makes an impreffion in them quite 
contrary to \vftat it defigw* Fdr the very 
fufpicion that an opinion ha* been. embra- 
ced by Paffion rather than by Reafon, 
renders it fufpc&ed to them. They- refill 
it a* a» unjuft piece of violence offered 
them, to make things enter by force into 
their judgments* Nay,, often taking thefe 
(igns of Paffion for Injuries, they are in* 
due'd to defend themfelves with the fame 
heat they arc attaqued* 

1 1 6£>f tl)tmtm$ ttt contoeTr.1V. 


It isfo vifiblea fault in difputes to conic 
to terms of contempt and contumely, that 
there is no need of advertising the World 
thereof. But it is not anaifs to obferve* 
that there are certain rudeneffes and inci- 
vilities bordering on contempt ,' though 
they may come from another Principle* 
It is enough wd make thofe we contradidt 
believe that they are in the wrong, and 
that they are deceived* without letting 
them know by harfli and mortifying words, 
that there's not the lead (park of Reafon. 
to be found in them. - This change of o~ 
pinion we would bring them to, is hard 
enough for NaCutfeto fuhmit to v without 
.adding ovec and above new hardncflc*. 
Thefe harlh , tqrms never can be good but 
in written anfwers, where one has mote 
mind to perfwade the Reader of the little 
/ufljeiency of oujr adveifary,. than, our ad^ 
jverfary tixmkfc ■; ■ , 

: LIX.: 

JLaftly, that drinefs which cohfifts not 

fb much in the harihnefs of the terms, as in 

.the want of certain lenitives., is anufual 

caurfe of offence. For, therein is imply'd 

. a certain kind of indifferency and con- 

tempt. This leaves the wound made by 

contradi&ion without any Oyl to allay 


Pani peace mwwffff ^etn 217 

die fmart. Now 'tis not refpcd enough 
to Men to put them to pain, without ro- 
fenting it, and endeavouring to aflwagc 
it: And this it is, this drinefs does not 
do 9 becaufe it properly conGfts in not 
doing it, and in faying harfh things harfli- 
ly. We manage thofe we love and efteem 
other wife, and fo diredly teftifie ta thofe 
we ufe thus, that we have, neither afTe- 
4ion nor cfteem-fbr them. 

LX. • 

No body is free from the obligation of 
endeavouring to avoid thefe faults. Yet 
ate there fome, whofe obligation is greater 
than that of others > becaufe there are 
fome, in whom thefe faults appear more 
vifibly, and are more oftenfive. The af- 
cendant, for Example, is not fo great a 
fault in a Superior, in 1 a Man of years or 
quality, as in an Inferior, a Young Man, 
or one of fmall note. And as mucn may 
be faid of the- other defers we have obi 
ferv d, becanfe they are really left offen- 
five, when they are found in perfons of 
quality, ^and- authority. For. in thefe 
they 'are loft almoft in that confidence 
w* juilly owe to them for thcit place 
- and dignity, and fo appear fo much the 
left ; Btkt they are beyond meafure of- 
fensive in the common fort, ftomwhotn 

. L we 


we*aipe<t; a Man roodeft and refer *'d be^ 
hamui . 


Thr fcanol, at fucb, wou!d>gladJy ?*. 
togate to thcmfeWcsrtbe Ǥht ot Speaking 
dogtmcicaftf of aH things, flut tibiey are 
in thtwnong. The World hairnet aWow'd 
this priiakdge to true Science, bit to 
that they ase 9091a bated with, it ours be 
not fiich, it h all cmtinrefpc&of oth$js> 
as if it were not true, and fo from it we 
desire 00 right of leaking deriftvriy ; 
fince whatever we (by, ought always to 
bear a proportion to the un&r&«d*qg$ of 
thefe to whom we Jpeak, and this pro- 
portion 4qpendfl on the dkfem and bo* 
fltf they have Jbr us, and not on. the 


To Ipeal therefore docifively, «nd with 
authority^ mi otaft .have tt once Troth 
add Credit* aai *tf* ahftnft always offend 
when etfhcr of thefe two are wanting, 
tienoe it follows , that perfcns*of dwai- 
hfii ftatnre* of ill meen and afped * and 
generally whoever have ootward and na- 
tural defe&s, how wife and learned fbe- 
Y^fethey be, are mart obliged than others 
Jto tpeak witlrcnodefty, and to fluut fhit 
afceudant and authoritative deportment. 


PvtL jpttCt WMIgfl $)flt» 9 219 

For if thcfc be not of wry extraordinary 
defette,!* fcUont happenstfey gain any ro 
Jpeft. Ilia arc ibnoft fttasys looked on 
with a kind of contempt* botauft their 
dtshoireaKnts'foUus ah* Scales, and ftiics 
on the imagination, whslft few take either 
notice of tntir Spiritual Endowments, or 
•re even capable of d tfbovering them- 

We ought firnn thrfe remarks to con- 
dude* that die principal meansnot to «&• 
afperate, are aedue'd to two* trie filence 
and roodefty : Tbatistofay^taourfitpprcP 
firtgfo<A(mtkmnts a&niayoflfaid, when 
idle benefit tote espeded from thence de- 
fer ves not expofing one fetoos to it* and 
to c&(bviiigib*af)aayfMtion% when we 
<hatt beefclig'd <xr (peak our Grinds, that 
we nay atcnucfei at poffibk fatmlk what is 

LXWt . 

( Bu( we ft all never proper in . the pra- 
&icc of thcfc Rtt&s, if ou* cadeavout * 
only, aim at the -outfuhr, andlnotatan in* 
ward acfor mation. The Heart is the Rule 
bf oar words, fays the Wife-man. Cor 
&afunx&udutvj\e)Hs. We ought therefore 
to^bouitaacxjuine this Wtfdom, this Hu- 
mility of Htartydeploringhefore Almighty 
<3od W«h groans the- motions of-pnde 

La whkb 

'iiofDt t&e means to confec6eTr.iV* 

which we feci » begging without ceafe his 
Grace to rcprefs them ; «and endeavouring 
to obtain thole difpofitions from whence 
naturally this rdcrvedoefs flows, and that 
without trouble or pain, when we are ful- 
ly eftabitfh'd in thenu 

LXV. ■ . - 
To this end we ought ta have a lively 
(entiment of the danger we incur by offen- 
ding others , through our indifcretiens. 
For the wounds of the Soul have this, 
common to thofc of the Body 7 that 
though they are not all mortal of them- 
ft Ives, yet they may all become fuch if 
irritated and envenomed* The leaft fcratch 
caufes • the Gangrene , if malignant Hu- 
mours ftow to the place that's hurt. Thus 
the leaft difguft given any one by an tedifc 
creet opposition , may. be a caufe of his 
Spiritual Death. and ours » becaufcitraay. 
give birtH to a iMcOur, which may in- 
create in /the fequel to that height, as to 
extinguish Charity bftth in him and us* 
Tbis codnefe may difpofe him to take in 
evil part words, which, had he .not his 
Heart envenomed, he might have pafs'd 
over without trouble. Hence h$*i be left 
rcfery'd in his words agaiuft usv hence pet* 
baps we (hall be inducM to ufeharfh ones 
to him on other pecafions*, nay* occasions 


Parti, fieace atttongfi $)ztu 221 

themfclves will grow more frequent > and 
this coolncfs chaogM into hatricd, may ba- 
nifli Charity quite away. 

Nor are thefe accidents only poffiMe, 
but ordinary.) for it rarely happens that 
thefe enmities and hatreds that kill the 
Soul, have not had fuch for their fore* 
r&nners \ nay* . that they have not taken 
hold on thofe little toolings <produc d by 
jndifcretions. Wherefore I /wonder not 
that the Wife-man begs of God with fo 
much inftance, that he would fet a Seal on 
hii Lips v Super Labia m$a fignaemlmm €«•• 
turn, left .his Tjpngac fhould be his ruine* 
Uejjnguimis me pcrfot> : And I eafily ap- 
prehend he begs in' thefe. words* that no 
word fhould come thence without his or- 
dcrVas nothing is taken from- a place urr 
der Seal, without his order who has put it 
there. That is, he deftr' be enabled 
jto Watch fo $ *a$Jy <jv$r all bi? words* 
jhat not ow^.n^^<^BwTr<>qi 7 him r un' 
fqwi'd iccoi^iflg tfc-tjhe; Lw*<of .God, 
which are the fane with thofe of Charity* 
for fhould we qnly apply our felves to re* 
gulatc fuch as grofly and vifibly fwerve 
tbfrct, it wpu$ be , ujpoffijrijp *q ' jrfqdc* 
many others hpm flapping from us t , phich 

JP^ht : bg pf ycwAw&xm *«^%*h: 

« L 2 JUXVIjU 


The condition of Man in this life de- 
fcrvcs our wonder. He is not only al- 
ways walking on towards an Eternity of 
Happtncfs or Nfifery 5 bat every ftcp, cve- 
ry a&ton, every word often directs and 
determines him towards one of theft two 
ftatcs > fince either his Salvations Perdi- 
tion may depend thereon* though fhey ap- 
pear of final I moment. We are all on the 
Icnihk of a Precipice, and often the leaft 
felfe rttp is fiifficfcnt to eafi as headlong 
down. An, mdifcrcet word puts am 
ttrind on she fodden out of its fteddy po- 
ffcrf e and temper, and aftc* that our ow* 
height is capable of prcfing «s dowu €• 


Irk not Efficient to hnmoor and mv 
nage, bat we muft refpeft and honour 0* 
the*s» there being nothing which can 
make ns mote averft from ofcnding thcm> 
than this inferior refycA which we beat 
them- Servants find mi twubte in wot 
contradi&ing their Mafters* nor Courtiers 
in not difptotifinjg their Princes ; becaufe 
that interior fubje&ion they find m then* 
letos, fweetens the fowcrnefsof their fen- 
thftents, and MtttOAf regulates tbeit 
wwfc. Wt Aould hate the ftmedifp^ 


Parti yii m i m ni f f yicMi * 32$ 

fition in rcfpcd df allChriftians, did we 
1mA m Aon astttir Super bis and Meters, 
»5fc JM otdfis^mfiioakU did we con* 
fider JESUS CHRIST in them, di* 
we jc a qm b ei that hfr Ins put than J|» 
bis place, and did we, inftead of applying 
our fttaes to find fenfatfki them, only take 
notice of the tcafons we have tocflccm 
and prefer thena h efoeconi fcfanss. 

But above all, we ought to endeavour 
mmt to took on this obligation we have to- 
fiicnet, to tefcrvednefs, to a modefiy in 
our words, as a hacd and taoublcfomc no* 
ceffitys bnttalheitoanfitaritjsahap- 
py, favoaatahle, and advantageous one; 
Since nothing is«corplit*o«ntcrtomhn» 
srilfty in as, wfefch bihegjwtefthappi- 
nefe of a Chriftian* Hence we ought to 
look on as grateful and lovely, whatever 
engages us to in for Example, want of 
Authority, and all oaturaljfe&dfi which 
induce it. for on the onefide it k tone* 
that Men wtthot* Authority and Gqtfir, 
are obltg'd to ipeak with snon modefty 
aut ciraunfpedion than others 9 what 
knopwledgt, what light foe*et thcyhpFvev 
hot Jt is 4i true, that they ought to hold: 
thenifidivosnancb the*happict fioeii. 

224©f tfte means tacoitfetUeTr.iv # 


It is no final! danger to have dominion 
over minds,, to be able togive them what 
turns, and what impremons we pleafe. 
Jfior hence it happens, that we communi- 
cate to them all the errors we are in, and 
all the Rafti Judgments we have framed : 
Whereas thofe are exempt from this dan- 
ger, who. are not rats'd to this, height : 
if they are decciv/d, 'tis only for them- 
(elves, nor are they to anfwer for otters. 
They fee - not in the crowd about than 
thofe favourable opinions of them, which 
•re the greateft fetters up, and nourifhers 
of Vanity v and as the World little de- 
pends on them, fo they are indmM to de- 
pend as little on it), and have a* great fa- 
cility to confide* only God .Almighty in 
all their addons. 

Not that we ought dircdly To feck after 
this want of authority and efteeqaf, or that 
Yr*ipve not reaion to humble our felvec* 
^Htedutowfi faults have brought' thefe 
wants upon us. But on what fcorc foe- 
ver they happen to us » though we are not 
otrligtf to love the caufe, . yet ought we to 
lflbfccmthe eflfcds as favourable > Cnce, 
this condition cuts off from us this noil- 
ri(hmcnt of pride, it exempts us from 


wlm V-» 

Parti. Peace mnotiffff ^e«. 22$ 

Sharing, in many tWngs of *gteat r dinger * 
and by .obliging u&.to"an extraordinary 
moderation in fpecch, &ekers us from in- 
numerable perilsu It is true, we are here* 
by deprived too of the good of edifying 
others: But as God has more particular* 
ly oharg'd us with our Own~SaIvation, 
than that of our Neighbours V it Teems we 
have more reafon to defire to be in thi$ 
condition, than to grieve for being there, 
and that thofc rwho arc reduced to it on 
what fcpre focver, have reafon to. fay to 
God witjb joy and confidence : Bonummibi 
qnia huntiHtjli pie, ntJifctmptfiificaiiQnrJ 

ii '.'. : ... "... LXXHv .? ,r . ... ' 
What we have already-fidd touching the 
npeaas of nor offending others, in thwar- 
ting their opinions, gives us much tight to 
karn how iwe bughf to humour and ma- 
ntg«; in \b&on \ itnee 

even thefe opinions are a great ipgjrjedienS 
fa ttetf,- aridity am pkju'd fct^. heading 
then* oppos'd only,, feecaufe. they, are i» 
lpvc With, and wedded to them by paflion. 
Theipitb and rancour they feel when any 
ttftfltt thtir ,wHls, Iprings from the lame 
fftfttfljn s with* their isefeticment i when 
their opinions ^re" conJradi&edi, that is, 
from a, natural tyranny by which they 
v -•*■• L <; would 


would domineer over alt, and -make all j 
fcbjeft to thea&lves. But Gnoe fuck a. 
tyranny appears coo unrcafonable when it 
fhews k fclf bare-fae'd r fctf-Jove has a, 
great «rc to throw over theft pafiionsa 
veil of Juftice v by perfwading them they 
are not troubled at the oppofition thejt 
find, but becanfc it U onjfift, and againit 

But though this fenthnent be an unpft 
one, and facb as Should not be, yet it fe 
fcot fit we (fbcwld endanger the ftimng it 
up by our mdifcrccions.v and it way otto* 
happen, that u the party who is offended* 
becaufc we follow* not his inclinations, i* 
in the wrongs we maybe more fo fonot 
following erf* them : Since we may bewail 
ting in tome duty whercunto ReafauoblU 
g?s », and be the caafe *f «bt fautt* 
this (pile fluti raatehina tforomh to hii *M 
fatment; • ' ^ 

We new* therefore ftudy to know what 
we ewe to the kidktatiofts tf others j 
fince other wife it Is impoffible to tvoid 
complaints, murmurs and quarrels, which 
are contrary to tranquility of Mtn<k*n<fc 
Charity, and by confcqnc»cc to t^ ftattt. 
of a life t ridy ChriftUii. 



Nov in the firft place itis obfcmttcp 
that we do not bare feek out the means of . 
pieafing, but of oat difpleafing others, 
and not drawing on us thfiir hatred 1 be» 
caufe that is fiifficknt to maintain the 
Peace we difcourfe of. It is true, we 
(hould fuccced better did we gain theis 
affedions, but often this brinp with it 
other inconveniences* We mutt content 
otif felvcs with not inaki|ig9ur felvcs ha- 
ted, and with avoiding rcproad^s an* 
cort^plamts; And thiols <*fcat we cannot d<* 
fcot by ftudfiflg theinclinationsof pthcrs r 
and following then as much as jpftice will 

Atnotigft thefc. inclinations tjicje, j 
me which we may. call juft,pthcrs indi 
rent, and focne unjuft. W* rouA never 
pafitively fatisfie tfcofc that aieunjoU; 
Neither is it always neceflary we (hould 1 
Oppofe them: Wbeta this happens, we 
ought always tp compare the Good with* 
Ac EVil, and fee whether from this oppos- 
ition Vre ha*e rcafon to e*pc& more of 
the one than it can caufc of the other* for 
we may apply to all fo*t,s of people the 
Kule St. A*fttn gives for reprehending; 

Creatonesi Ihgtifis.hnhfear'd^ ufi 

being exajperated by reproof, they be indued • 
to do "s greater evil 7 than is the good bpe ' 
would pmnrethem, it is then the Conncei 4>f 
Charity not to reprehend them , and not * 
pretext of 9 Conmpifceuce* Now we ought 
not to imagine there needs but Ik tie Ver- . 
tue thus to fuflfer with patience the defers 
we think our felves unabfc to corral v ' 
and that the freedom-making us valiantly 
to corfe& ani reprehend diforders, i* 
more rare and difficult, than the difp^ 
fit ion of one who in the prefence of God 
fighs for thenij who ufcs violence to him. 
felf not to^ take notice of them, and wko 
far from taking hence an occasion of con- 
temning others , makes ufe thereof td 
humble himfelf by. Contemplating the 
common mifery of Mankind* For this 
difpofition at the fame time contains 
both the pra&ice of Mortification, in rc^ 
preffing thai natural Impettiofity which 
ttts us againft thofe «we a*e not in a con- 
dition to amende that of Humility jta 
giving' us a- more lively Idea of the cor^ 
luption of our own Nature -, and 'that 
q{ Charity, in making us patiently beat 
with the dfeftdtsof our Neighbour, J 

One of the' greatefc defefts of Ma© i^ 

that his paffifens jnix themfeives **«*y 

;V where* 

^art i. peace amottga c^cn^ 229 

wheF*,*n d that be confhks- thimri in choofrhg 
for the moft part even the Vertucs he in- 
tends to praftice?He has a mind to reprove 
thofe he ought content himfelf to fuller i 
*nd is content tofuffcr fuch as he ought to 
reprehend. He is bufie with otheu, 
when God requires he fcoufd only meddle 
with hrimfclf; and he has a tnipd to cor^ 
rc€t himfelf only, when God would have 
him employ'd about others. If he cannot 
pradkice certain adions of Vcrtuc which 
tun in Ms head, he leaves all > infttad of 
taking Botice that this inability God puts 
him In of pranking fuch Vermes, gives 
htm nfcan& to practice others, which 
Would be (o much the more acceptable to 
his Divine Majefty, as his will and choice 
h*d the lefs (hare therein* 
'..-'.' . : LXXVII; i « 

\ - It is v a lfo another fault to take upon ut 
the ofypofing even the moft un juit palfions, 
Witew others may do it with more benefit 
than we>vbecauf« it is evident, that this 
©ver^birtmdnefs . comes from a kind of 
malignant humour? pfeafing it /elf in be- 
ing . troublefome to others. For this hu* 
motor mingles it felf in juft tcprchenfioiw, 
at weH as unjuft ones, and is. well pleated 

f o have yxCt pru^xts to thwart others i 
hw»^$are the 

■ • mote 

%3*IK tfre mean* to c«tfer*eTr.iv- 

more troubled, the more they have feafctt 



The firae Rale obliges us to ufc thetaft 
difobliging, and the moft courteous way* 
we can, wncn we aie under an obi jpt ion 
of doing any thing that may be ungrateful 
to our neighbour. Nor. ought we Co think 
out felves without fault, when we ate (a» 
tisfied that we have rcafon as to the mat* 
fer it fclf, but have no regard to the man* 
nes and way we go about it v when wt 
take no care to fweeten whatmay be fak* 
ter in our preceding , nor to periwadt 
thofe wbofc palfions we thwart, that wo 
are thereunto indne'd by neofity, not b$ 
humour or inclination* 


Icalfthofc humours indifferent,' whefe. 
objedfcs being of thciufclfc* not e*ttj may 
befought after without Fatfion, and with 
Reafoo, though, perhaps they an pnrfu'd* 
with a titbits adhefion, Now in thing* 
•of tins nature, we have mtoe liberty of 
complying with the inclinations of others* 
For we are not constituted their Judges v. 
me mnft havcftiil eridefaavxelfe no right 
to judge that they have tdo great an ad* 
befion to objedt other wjfe innocent. Nay 
we. do not even know whether fafch ad* 



Parti. &mmwag&&m. aji 

hcfions be sot -Mceflary to thenar fincc 
there arc aaany who woald&ll into dengc~ 
iou* conditions were they on a Ridden de- 
barred of all things they ha *e an afit&ioa 
for. Moreover, prudence and ctreunw 
IpcdHon ought to he us'cb ia deftroying 
thefe aflefttonft* and we maft not aflumc 
to our fttaes the right of judging what 
maanet 09c ought to proceed therein. 
Id tine, it i* often to be feat'd left we do< 
them owe harm by the rancour we raife 
kt chem, by oppofiog tadifaeetly fuch Pat 
ions at are *atfa Innocent , than good* 
by the advice and Gounod wegfretfieife 

Indifcretious therefore may be commit- 
ted in talking fharply agamft the excefiofc 
Meataefe, before fuch a* a*e given thcrc^ 
witoi, agafeft <hc ufclcGie&ef Pi&urts^ 
before fach as are taken therewith* agahtll 
Yerfe and Poetry, before thofe who arc 
addi&ed chat way. Thefe Ad*trti&* 
mQMsarea kind of Medicines: Thof hate 
their bfotraefs, are ungrateful not wkh- 
Mt danger. They oaght therefore to he 
admfotftitd with the fame cautions with; 
which Phyficiara dUpenfe theirs. It is the 
part of an ignorant Empirkh to propofe 
thcm.ptoroifcuoufty to all whatfoever. 


2 j 20f ft* means to contoeTr.iv. 

. Not to be certaiath^twcftouWtxnc- 
St others,, by oppofiog their humours, i* 
Efficient to make us comply therewith,, 
even when we fufped they are add idled 
to them : Todundertake their cure there 
mud be knowledge and addrefe* but if 
•ithcr of thefe be wanting, it irenough to 
jnake us comply with their^ defires in 
thjngs that are not bad ^f themfelves, Fot 
in this cafe we have liberty to frame out 
actions aQCQyding to the general Law of 
Charity, which ought to difpofe us fo as 
toobt^jtnafelveaU: A ad the benefit of 
jgaining their affe#ions by teftifying our 
love towards them, being always to be 
found iii this condefcendeftce, we ought 
te be fure of an advantage both greater, 
and more evident, before we endanger th& 
lo($ of it. _. •■ ; . 

Lxxxil ; 

. Thqfc Paffions I call Jufo*. in yfhfch W$ 
are Ky certain taws obliged 10 <5QP*1* 
with others s though perhaps they have 
no right to exa# from us this cpmplyatWi 
For as we have a greater .obligation to 
cpmply ; with our awn duty, thaofpeor^ 
red the faults of others 3- (a Reason;?** 
quires that w;e (hould witiiiiipplicity.gefc 
form what we owe to them, and bydcting 

Part i. peace imumffff qjittL 23) 

(b, take from them all fubjeft of com- 
plain t, wf thout troubling our ftl vcs whe- 
ther this be exa&ed by them either too 
eagerly j or toojmperioufly» 

Now to Goroprehend the extent of theft 
devoirs, we ought to know, that we owe 
fome things to our neighbour by certain 
-Laws of Juftice ; which are properly calPd 
Laws *, • others by the bare Laws of CivU 
Htyi the obligation to which fprings 
from a content amongft Men, agreeing to 
blame fuch as (hall be defe&ive in them. 
It is by thefc latter Laws that we owe to 
thofc we) live amongft fuch civilities at 
are agreed on amonigit pertbns of Honour, 
though othcrwifevno cxptcft Law com- 
mauds thpm v that we owe to them cer- 
tain Services according to the degrees of 
relation we have with them* that we 
ought to cerrefpond with them in open- 
breafiednefs and confidence , in propor* 
tion to what they acre to'us. For Men 
.have eftabKflied all theft Laws. There 
afe certain things we ought to dofot fuch 
as we have contracted a familiarity with 
to fuch a degree, which we may sefufi to 
others ;. nor (hail they have right therefore 
ro take itill at oui hands.! i ; » ^ -- 



We (bould endeavour to be exa& in the 
performance of all thefe dirties > other- 
wile it is imptiflible te avoid the com* 
plaints, murmurs, and aveifion of others. 
For it is incredible how much thofe who 
have but a fmall ftarc of Vtrtue are eȣ 
pcrafed, when we are wanting to die do* 
ties of acknowledgment and civility eft^u- 
blifhM in the Worlds afcd~how much 
things of this nature cool that little 
Charity they hive* They are ObjeOs 
which trouble them , always exafporate 
tbem, and Under tint edification dicy 
might receive from the good they fee is 
Us 4 JMCaute of thefe ftkurt wherewith 
thcyare In particula* wounded, they are 
infinitely nacre fcnfibk, than of V&tucs 
which ctocara «ot the*. 


Thm Charity obligmgu* to cunpaffio* 
nete the Weakncfe of our Brethren, and 
10 take from before them all febpOs cf 
temptation, * the fame tknt obliges m 
to be careful in complying with thefe oW 
ligations* But, sot Charity aboe, bat 
Juftkck &$ and Gods Eternal Law or* 
daim as much as may eafily be Qxym^ . 
both as to the Tcffiawnics of Gratkade, 
tod the PcTOirs of Civility , to which*. 


Parti. &emttmmtfi&€iL iff 

the orhno thereof we hare (poke may 
be redue'd, as open-boaftednefc v conk, 
dene, application, wbicb are but Specks 

The origen of alt the Gratitude we 
owe to oar Neighbour, is, that at God 
makes ufe of their Miniftry to convex 
to us fcvcral benefits of Body ana 
Sotri > ti> alfo he dcfiies that our Grati- 
tude fiioaid rc-afcaid to htm by Men* 
and lay hold on the Inftruments he makes 
ufe of > and as he hides himfelf ia the be* 
aefits he beftows, and wills, that Men 
Aould be the vifible cau&s thereof* he 
requires atfb, that they ftooU take hi* 
place, and rceeitt from us the exterior 
aflfedfcf cf actaowfedgeaaeat which iwt 
ewehinv So thst we ^lohtc the orfet 
of God, in fetisfy mg out fchK* with aft 
acknewkdgementtovaeds Ub» endrbeing, 
uugratrful towards thofe whom he has 
enqptofd to make us fcdtfieefltdsofUt 


LKXXVfc : 

Men, by a motion of Intertft- Ae*(a» 
Eye on thofc who arc indebted to them* 
God Almighty h*& fo too, accoodtng to 
Scripture /but upon- the tcoae of a ]u» 
ftice pffc&fy Paac, pcrfcAly dillnteae. 
fled. For it is this the Wife Man fiy»» 


2^ 6 SDft^e meanjstcicontctUeTr.iv. 

thcfc words :■ Veutprofretitr $ <9«f p*ttd- 
dti gratism. We ought to make ufe oT 
this two-fold attention, to excite ours, 
and to keep our Eyes fix'd both on 4 
Men who exped thefe duties from us > 
and oa God who commands us to pay 

We ought not to pretend exemption 
upon the fcore of the diiinterefted ones, 
and Piety of thpfe we are oblig'd to, 
or upon their cxpeding nothing from 
us. Let them be never fo diGntereftcd* < 
they ccafe not to fee what is their due,., 
and it is rare they (hould be unconcerned 
to that degree, as not to refent £t. all 
our (mall care, in . acquitting . ous ftlves. 
Bifidcs, though they qfwroceed not To far 
as to upbraid as> yet is it eafie for them to «, 
take a certain turn • which ifoay much 
what have the farnc eflfc&.as an, humane 
refcntment. , . They (ay (hey cannot put 
out their own Eyes, not to fee that thefe 
perfons ufe the* ' ill ;but they heartily 
difpenfc tilth them. , thus while they dif- 
penfe with it> they ceafe not to blame 
their carriage » and hence they infcnfibly 
«tac to love dfcm left, f ndat leaft to (hew 
them, fe we* tokens of theft aflfc&ion* * 


PattL peace rnnongff #ett. 1*7 

The fame happens in the duties of Ci- 
vility, Even thofc who are the qioft free 
from the World cannot but take notice 
when we are wanting therein, and others 
are eflcdivejy offended, When , by our 
fenfes we are not perfwaded that others 
love and efteem us> is is hard the Heart 
fiiould be, or at leaft that this perfwafion 
fiiould be a lively one. Now it is this ci- 
vility that has this efled oo our fenfes, 
and by our fenfes on- our minds. If we 
be wanting in civility, this negligence is 
never wanting to produce a certain relen- 
ting in others, which often ptflfei from 
the^enfes to the Heart. 


'Men. are perfwaded, that civility is dud 

to them, and it is really fo, according as 

it i* pra&ic'd in the World v but they 

know not the rcafon why* If they had 

no other right than Cuftom to cxad it, it 

were nof due to them* -for Cuftorti isjiot 

enough to enflave others to certain trou- 

blcfome anions. We muft afcend higher 

to find out the Fountain head , as well 

here, as in what' was bid of Gratitude c 

And if if be true, as a Servant of God 

has (aid, that nothing is more civil than a 

good Chilian, it. fallows that he muft 


have fomc Dhfcw &cribns obliging him' 
thereunto * and what w* aitf about to (ay 
aaay help to dtfcover thenu 


Men lace link'd together by an infinite 
number of wants, obliging them tut of 
neceiity to Kve m Society » eachpeitjcu'- 
ler apt being able to fiiWift without othcr« 
And this Society is conformable to Gods 
Order, finoe he permits thefc wants for 
this end. In this Order therefore is con* 
tamed whatfoever is neceflary to main* 
taio this Society, and God in foooe fort 
commands it by that natural Law which 
obliges each part to conferee the whole* 
Now it is of abfolute neceifity for keeping 
up Society amongft Mco» that they flioukl 
xc$eA add Jove one another i for con- 
tempt and hatred certainly dif- unite and 
make breaches* These are a number of 
fipaU ouotcrs highly noceflary for lift 
which ace beftowed jr*/*, and which be* 
jng>not to be fold, can only be* had for 
love. Moreover, this Socieey being com- 
posed of Men foil of love and eiteem for 
themfelvcs > fhould they not have a care 
reciprocally to pleafe and humour one 
another, it would prove a took company 
of people ill pleased ami dHTatistiad a* 
moflgft thcmielwJkiana fo could aever 


continue netted* Bat face this mutual 
love and efeecn appears not outwardly, 
they have thought convenient taeftabtiOi 
amoi&ft themfelvesccr tarn devoirs* which 
fiiouftd be Id many tahtns of rc%eft and 
atfc&ion* Whence ic neceflarily fellows* 
that to be wanting in thefe duties, is to 
(hew a difbofitioa contrary fip love and re* 
J]pe& Thus thefe exterior adions are 
due from us to thofe to whom we owe the 
difpofitions they betoken i and we do 
than wrong when Wc fail therein , be- 
caufe this omiffion denotes certain fenti- 
"ments which we ought not to have for 


Wherefore we may, nay we ought to 
be cxz& in complying with the duties of 
civility ,' Men have cftabltfh'd : And the 
Motives and Reafons of this exa&nefi, 
are not only very juft, but alfo grounded 
on the Law ' of God* We muft comply 
therewith, to the end others may not 
imagine that we flight, or have an indif- 
ference for jfuch to whom we do pay thde 
iefpc<fh> to th* end we may maintain 
humane, Society, to conferve which, it is 
juft every one (hould lend his helping hand, 
fince every one thence reaps conGderable 

advantages i and laftly, to the end we 


24b ®f tftetnemtf to confetbeTniv. 

may avoid the open or inward reproaches 
of thofe j9c flioiild thus be wanting to • 
tvhich afe the fourfes of thofe divifions 
which trouble the tranquility of this life, 
and of that Chriftian Peace which hath 
been the fubje& of this difeourfe. 



• * 


Part II. 141 

AAn AmnSnn ) wAAAAnnnn 


The Second P aut. 

T is not chough that we may oon- 
fcfvc Peace amongft Men, to avoid 
offending them : We muft over and 
above know how to fuffcr them when 
they tnifi in their duty te us : For, it is 
. inrpoffiblc to pfefcrve inward Peace, if we 
be touchy for whatever they can door fay 
contrary to our humours and fcntiments : 
And it is very hard that an inward difcon* 
tent once conceiv'd, (houH not appear 
without , and difpote us to behave our 
{elves towards fuch as may have offended 
us, fo as to give offence to them in their 
turn: Thus by degrees differ* t ions in* 
crcafe, and often are carried on to thcut- 
moft extremities. 

We ought therefore to ftifle even in the 
. birth thefe diffentions and quarrels* And 

M °* 

*42®f fte meatus to confet&eTr.iV; 

on thefe occasions (elf-love never fails to 
fyggeft tows, that the means of fugceecpng 
herein is to correft fuch as incommodate 
us, and to make them yield to reafon, by 

1 ettia&them know,, that thtim t.Q blame 

to deal with us as they do: Thence it is,that 
we are fij apt to complain of what others 
do, to make their defects known,to the end 
wc may either amend in them- what wc 
,diflike, or elfe punish them by the fpight 
thefe complaints of ours may raife in 
them, and by the dif-efteem they draw on 

1 1. . Bttt M Wfi mt fcl^s wore tr ply. guided 
fy#Sifap> *r* JMd> etflji fee,*thit the 
<Mign «p tfa&tA&g Fe*GC upon the re- . 
fewwHw pf ofhfrf, ift irid^^foolift 
eae* even herein , tacaufe 'tis injpoifibte 
it (hould faceted* The more We^tiofiis. 
pUinef -the beta v jour tf osfcers^thonaQse 
we ea^fperate* witl*oi*t sorre&ing<lherai 
We fell maHe our felv&^iteemU touchy* 
fierce and proud * And tbe word is, tfot 
this opinion thus rais'd of us, will got be 
altogether unjufti (ince really thefe wra* 
plaints proceed not but from our afcen^ft 
and pride : Nay, froen ,thofe who will 
own that they underftand the jtfftice of our 
caitfe, and (hall believe we have wm& 


fwttt peace amwtgff <$m. U3 

dene us, wilt for all that be fcandalizki at 
our too much nicely* And as w* are all 
naturally inclin'd to Juftitie our fclves, if 
ihofe we complain againft have never (o 
little addrefs , they will fi> tell the fame 
tale , that the wrong will be laid at out 
doors. For the fame want of Equity and 
fight Judgment which make people com* 
mit thofe faults we complain of) for the 
moft part hinder them too from owning 
or feeing them, and make them take for 
true and .juft whatever they can make ufe 
of for their own purification. 

But if thofe we level our comphhttt 
againft be jrais'd above us by their Quality, 
Credit or Authority, fuch complaints 
will yet prove of lefs ufe , and of more 
danger. They can but give u$ that iha~ 
lignant and fliort tranfient iatisf adtion of 
having them condemned by^toft w* mfake 
our complaints to, and tifta wards tfeey 
produce a number of confeqotnte*, b&th 
dangerous and permanent, in &*$gr*tfog 
fach perfons againft us, and btfeaking ^ 
(under all the unity we might have wkb > 

•Vi .;."'" -" •'-• • 

Prudence therefore obliges «*-*to» **ke 
a quite different Way > *Wo4utcly. to break 

Ma "■ •" 

244 ®f t&e meatus to confetiJcTr.iv. 

off that chimerical defign of thinking to 
mend whatever we (hall find amife in o- 
}hers, and to endeavour to ground our 
peace- asd quiet on reforming our (elves, 
and moderating our own Pauions. Nei- 
ther the Minds nor Tongues of others are 
at our difpofe : We (hall not be call'd to 
account for their adions, but as far as we 
(hall have given occaflon of them > but 
We (Kail* give a ftri dt one of our own 
words, pf our own deeds, of our own 
thoughts, We are charg'd with the obli- 
gation of taking pains about our felves, 
and correcting our own faults v if we 
cemply'd with this as we ought, nothing 
from abroad > would be able to difquiec 

us# , . 

r vi. 

. In temporal matters we never -fail to 
prefer an affured benefit of our own,befbre 
an uncertain one for others ♦ If we did 
the like in matters of our Eternal Salva- 
tion, we fcould foddenty perceive, that 
the reafons for complaint are for themoft 
part falfe and condemn'^ by what is truly 
fuch , for in waving thefc complaints, we 
procure an allured benefit to our felves: 
Whereas it is very uncertain whether our 
complaints will profit our Neighbour. 
Wh^rdfore then do we loofcthe fruit of 
' ■• ~ our 


Part II. peace amongff $9en» 245 

our own Patience, under pretence of 
reaping that of Correftion > At kaft 
there ought to be a very gr^at likelyhood 
of fuccefs ; if this be wanting , we ad 
againft Reafon, by renouncing upon pre- 
tence of fo uncertain a hope, the certain 
benefit which a peaceable and humble pa- 
tience would bring. 

As concerning Silence in general, we 
may fay, that there ought to be motives 
for fpeaking, whereas none are requifittf ' 
to hold ones tongue * that is, we have a 
fufficient obligation to Silence, when we 
are not engagM to fpeak. Now witfc 
more reafon may this Maxime be applyed 
to that Silence. which ftiflcs complaints; 
becaufe, for thefe complaints our Motives 
ought to be ftrong and evident to an high 
degree > whereas to forbear complaining 
it fufficcs that we are not in an evident 
oece(5ty to complain. 


What trefpaffes (hall we forgive bur 
NeighbourS)if by our complaints we exadr 
from them whatever they can owe ni » . and 
if we take revenge of them for the lfaft 
faults -they commit againft us» by making 
all that we can pats Sentence of condem- 
nation agdna them* With wfcat/Ow*&- 

M % dcnc « 


246®* t&e www to amtmzTT.W; 

fidencc cau we beg of God that he would 
forgive us our 6n% if we pardon none of 
thole we believe others have committed a- 
gainftus? P ' 

• IX. 
There is nothing more beneficial, than 
thus to fupptcfk ones complaints and re- 
fentments. It is the beft means to obtain 
at the Hands of Almighty God, that he 
will .tat dalKvfedi us according to the 
rigour of his Jaffice y not entet Into judg- 
ment with ns, as the Scripture fpeaks, It 
is the alTured'ft ready way to qud diflen- 
tions in their bif th, and to hinder thei* 
growing Hgh., It is ^an ad of Cbatity we 
practice cbwaads oiir felves , whitft we 
reap the fruit of Patientti wMlft we free 
our feWes from the ttpuce of being nice 
and quarrelfome, and fir om the tronbte am* 
vexation which wtfeel* when the addrefi 
of Men to juftifie themfelves makes -the 
fault be plainly laid toour charge in mat- 
ters wherein we thought we had the right. 
It is a 'tad 6f Charity we do others, in 
tolerating their weakntift*, and fparing 
them both the little confufion they have 
defer v'd, and the new faults they would 
perhaps commit i* juftifytag themfclves, 
and ifi' toying flew tfiatter to their charge, 
t* vtbbtb fcteady 'they have given occafion 


*/ ■# • <. •" 

Part ii. j^memwmgn^oK *#? 

of complaint* In fine, for the moft part 
Vis the beft means of flocking them bur 
friends-, the Example of our Patjeticfc 
Kefoig mote powerful td chaftge their 
Heart towards us> than our Complaints : 
For thefe at the moft can but make them 
corre& the exterior, a matter of ftraM 
conference: Whereas they rather Jn* 
create that fttward averfion* from whence 
proceed thofe things we make tteftfbje<% 
of our Complaint s. 


- What would our lofebe, (hould were* 
(blve not to complain? Nothing at alt* 
fco not even in this World. Ofhtas will 
notfpeakworfeofusforit: Nay, taUfet 
contray, as foon as they flurti be ;*WWt 
of our refer vednefs, they (halt he ktsUu 
ctiaed to back-bite us. We (hall not be 
worfe dealt withall » we (ball b£ more be. 
kwfdU * e ~ Itoe whole will be redue'd to oet» 
tain imhfitfties, stodunjuft difoourfco, for 
whidi we can find«oredrefefe*uf^<3oitH 
plaints* Does this malignattt^fetWa<SKort 
we take in cormfiuntcathi| our dUgidfe *<* 
dthers- by our complaints* defem fo 
mucb> as thereby to deprive us of thofe 
Treifwes we might gain bf our Patience 
and rta«fey> 

i \i 


M 4 , XL 

HS&f tfemetttfto amfet&e 

. The proper fcafon of eftablifliing our 
fclves in this^refoJution is, when we chance 
to forget our felves in fame complaints. 
Never better, than then can we difcern 
the vanity, and the nothing of the con- 
tent we (ought for . there* It is then we 
muft fay to eur felvcs : Is it for this vain 
idle fatisfa&ion that we have deprived our 
fclveS of the inefttroable good of Patience, 
and of that recompence we might expe& 
of it from God Almighty > In what ftead 
have our complaints flood hs 9 what profit 
have, we rcap'd thence? We have endea- 
voured to get thofe we have. raurraUr\i 
agafnft condemned by others? whereas 
perhaps they pafs ten tence only againft us > 
bat if is certain that God hitriclf con- 
demns us of malignity , of impatience, 
and of flighting things of another World* 
Before we murmur'd we had fome advan- 
tage over thofe who had offended us > but 
by our complaints we have pbe'd out 
felves under them, becaufe wehavereafoa 
to believe, that the (jn we have commit* 
ted againft God, is far greater; than all 
thofe fruits Men can commit againft us. 
Thus we have done put felves much more 
wrong,than we could receive from the pet* 
ty injufticesof Menvfor theft could but dc- 

PmiL peace omongC^ett. 249 

prtve us of fome few things inconfiderable^ 
.whereas" the lnjufticc we do our (elves by 
thefe impatient murmurs, deprive us of an 
Ever lalting Happinefs which is annexed to 
each good aftion. Wchave therefore in* 
finitely more reafoir to complain of our 
ftlves> than of others. 

Thefc confederations may ftand us in 
great ftcad to repress thedefire we have of 
disburdening our Heart by our complaints, 
and to regulate us outwardly in our words: 
But it is impoffible we (hould long con- 
tinue in this reftraint, if we give our re- 
ftntments full fcope to aft within our 
breads with all their vigour and violence. 
Exterior murmurs proceed from thole 
within , and when the Heart is full of 
them , it is hard to hinder their burfting 
forth. They always fcapeout, and make 
themfelves a paflage fome way or other* 
Befides, the primary end of this exterior 
moderation being to procure interior 
Peace > it would profit Tittle to appear 
outwardly patient and tefer/d, if within 
all be irk tumult and diforder. We muft 
therefore endeavour to ftifle thofe mur- 
murs which our Soul frames within it 
felf, and whereof it alone is witnefsf, as 
well as thofe that make a (hew before Mem 

M 5 and 


z5o£Df t&e, 

*n4 the poly way to do this* is to lay afide 
the love of what foe ver may excite them in 
us. for the truth i$> we trouble not our 
Selves to xaife ftirs about things absolutely 

* xm. 

Caufes of complaints are infinite, for 
they are as many as the things we can fet- 
tle our iffeftions on. and in which Men 
can either hurt or difplcafeus* We may 
neverthekfs reduce them to fome General 
Heads? as tyntemft , Falfe Judgments^ 
Bai\hithgt Averfwn , Incivility^ Indiffe*. 
reuce and NiglcS , JLeftrvedntfS) or wratm 
of JrMJiy Ingratitude, sh4 Iroubleftmt thi* 

We arc naturally avcrfe from all thefe* 
bfcaufc we ailed their contraries, viz* 
Efteem and l^ove of others, their concer- 
aing thcmfelves for our Affw$ % Civility; 
Trufi, Acknowledgements, and Humours 
that, arc fweet *$d eafie. Thus to free 
our felyes from the impreffions ihefe Ob- 
je&s of our hatred make on our mind% 
we rauft labour to root out the afle&ions 
wc havie for theic contraries. Nothing, 
but Gods Grace can etifed this. But. a? 
Grace makes ufe of Humane means , k 
will not be. unprofitable to ftoreupfucb 
conGderack>&s as may difcover to us the 


p»tiL peace iwwnBff#letk 251 

vanity of thcfe Objefts of our* aiFe&iooi 
And this is what we aim at in thcfe fol. 
lowing refie&ions. 

Nothing makes it appear more f how 
deep Man is plmng'd in vanity, injufticc, 
and error, than the complacence we take 
when we perceive others judge advanta- 
geously of, and have an eftecm for us > 
becaufe on one fide, the remaining light 
we have , though dim, is not yet fo in 
this particular, but lets us clearly fee how 
vain , un juft 9 and ridiculous this paflion 
is > and yet, on the other fide, we can- 
not ftifle it, how much foeyer convinced 
we be of its fooliflmefi, but always feel it 
alive at the bottom of our Heart*. Ne~ 
verthefcfs it is good often to give ear to 
what Reafon (ays on this fiibjeft. . If this 
be not able wholly to extinguish the un- 
happy bent we have, atleaftit wijlfuffice 
to make us aftiam* d thereof, to breed con- 
fiifion in us, and diminith its ei£<fts* 

There ire few fo grofty vain, as to be 

taken with commendations manifeftly 

falfe ; and-thcre is but a final l r (hare of Ho* 

nefty and Candour requited not to be 

pleas'd that the World Ihould be wholly 

deceived in us i For Example, *W * 8 ro{ * 


&2&t t&e mean* to conferteTr.iv* 

foolery* whereof few arc capable, to dtfire 
to pafs for skilful in fonae Language one 
has* never learn'd, or to be efteem'd a. 
great Mathematician, when perfedly ig- 
norant of thofe Sciences.. It would be a 
difficult matter not to be afhamM inte* 
riorly, and confounded for fo fordid a va-*. 
nity. Yet let the ground of this repute 
be never fo little, we accept thereof with 
3 complacency, convincing us much what 
of the fame unwosthineis, and. infmccrc 

Tb paint you out in rude Colours tht* 
Humour : What would the World fay of 
one, who, finding himfelf disfigured, and 
ftruck from head to foot with Come loath- 
fbme uncurable difeafc , fo that nothing, 
mrbin'd found but feme one little part of 
hi* Face, and this fo that he did not know 
whether even that were not corrupted 
within, (hftuld neverthelefs cxpofe it to 
view, hide all the reft* and with.pkafure 
hear himfelf prais'd for the beauty of that 
finall piece. Without queftion they would 
iky K that fo exceffive a vanity bordered'' 
on madneft. Yet this, is the Pourmw 
dure of the vanity we are all guilty of* 
and which yet does not difplay all its de* 
fcrmitks, We are full of faults,, of fin*, 

PartjL locate amottfffl^em 253 

of corruption. What wc have of good is 
ahnoft nothing * and yet this, fmal I reCd ue 
of good is oftep fpoilM and marr'd by a* 
tboufand by-aims and turns of (elf-love. 
Notwithftandingall this, if it chance that 
fome, unaware of the great eft part of our 
defeats, caft their Eye and Efteemon that 
(ball parcel of good which appears in us r 
and which perhaps is falfc and cprrupt ; 
this judgment, as blind and ill groun- 
ded as it is, ceafes not to flatter and 

pleafe us, 


. I have told you, that this Pourfrak 
dure does not difplay all its deformities. 
For if oae,. ftruck with fo ftrange a du - 
feafc, fhould take delight in the efteem 
otheis had for the beauty of that found 
part, though he would be vain and ridi- 
culous, yet would he not at, leaft be blind* 
or~ ignorant of his. own condition, But 
our vanity has biindriefsfojr its companion* 
Whilft we conceal our. faults from others, 
we endeavout to hide them, from our 
fclves V and here it is we have the beft fijc* 
eels. We - defire only to be leen and taken 
notice of, by that froall part which we ima*- 
gine free from blemifli, and it is only* 
though it wc look on our felves. 


254®tttetntmu toctmCetlieTxJV. 


What then is this repute wherewith we 
flatter oar felves > It is a judgement grouiv 
ded upon the knowledge of one faull 
part, and the ignorance of all the reft. 
What is the complacence we take therein 
a Tis a profped of out felves full of blind- 
pefs 9 full of error , full of illufion , by 
which we confider and meafure our felves 
by one fmall part, forgetting all the teft 
of our Mifqries and Wounds. _ 


But fn opinions "thus favourable for us, 
what is there that can be fo grateful, and 
Can deferve fo much of our aflfedion > 
Let us put the cueftion to our (elves, or 
father let us ask our own Experience. 
This will tell us, that nothing is more 
vain, nothing of fhorter durance than this 
efteem. He who on feme particular occa- 
fion may have praised and appro v'd of us, 
will not 6e the 1efs difpos'd to undervalue 
us on another. Often this very efteem 
will incline him thereunto* becaufe it ra- 
ther creates jcaloufie , than begets love 
Having drawn from the mouth of others 
feme vain and barren praifes, they'] prefer 
before us the very loweft of Men.that fhall 
be more for their intereft* They will poi- 
fon all the Teftiraonies they are forced to 


Pawn, peace amwtgff^ett 215 

give to what wc have of good, by fome 
malignant observation of our defc&s."They 
will fet a value otv what in us {hall defcrve 
pone, and condemn what may defcrve e-* 
fteem. Ought we not certainly to have m 
extraordinary n%annefsofSoul,andftrangp 
littknefsof mind to take delight in anOb- 
|e<Si fo vain, and fo contemptible ? 

But let us fuppofe this repute the beft 
grounded , and the raoft fincece that we 
can imagine, or vanity it felf defirer 
Let us heighten i* by the quality of the 
pcrlons tfaar give it, by their wit, or 
whatfoever elfe can ierve naoft to flatter 
and pleafe our inclinations to it, What 
is ttere of Jovety or fclid in aH this, ccmlU 
tiered® it fetfoinlji It is the eftewn feme 
perftxis have of us, who foppofe us Ma. 
fiers of certain good qualities, but who 
neither beftow any on us , nor augment 
thofe wse have. It leaves m fuch as we 
weie, and fo is perfedly ufdefs. It fub* 
fifis nor, bat whitft they think of us y and 
it is feldom they do fo. Some of thofe 
whole good opinion we arefo pleas'd with,, 
will fcaree thick on us twice a year, and 
when they do , their thoughts will be 
flight and few, forgetting us all the reft of 
thctimck ' 

H6Qt t&e mtmt ta canferteTr.iv. 


This Efteem is fo frail a good, that a 
thoufand accidents may rob us of it, with<- 
out any fault of ours. A falfe rumour, 
an inadvertence, fomc little crofs accident 
is ablc4ablot it out, or at leaft render it 
of more harm than advantage. For when 
Efteem is joyn'd with Averfion, it only 
opens the Eyes to fee faults, and tbe Heart 
to give a kind entertainment to whatfoe- 
ver we (hall hear againft thofe we efteem 
and hate * becaufe we have even this fi- 
fteen* in Hatred, and we defirc to be free4 
firom it, as from a thing wherewith wc 
find our felvcs burdened. 


If wc do not perceive this Efteem to be 
in the Hearts of others/ it is in rcfpcd of 
us, as if it were not ; If we are aware 
that it is there, *tis an obje A foil of dan- 
ger for us, *nd whofe Ikht may take from 
us the fmall refidue of Vertuc wc have. 
What kind of good therefore is that 
which is ufelefe when *e fee it not > and 
does harm, when feen, which has at once 
a 11 thefe conditions of being vain and ufe- 
kfs, frail and dangerous h 


Did we not affed the approbation of 
•thers . we fliould not be touched. with 




Partn. ipeacr mmmgff $tan 257 

any words they might (peak t o our difad- 
vantage, fincc the greatcft effedb they 
could produce would be to deprive us of 
what we looked on with indifferency. But 
fince there are fotne who fancy, that 
though it be not lawful to defirc and look 
after repute, yet we hare reafon to be ofc 
fended when flighted and ill fpoken of, it 
will not bearaifs to- examine what there is 
of real and folid in. theft Obje&s, which fo 
violently ftir up our paffions* 


To know therefore how unjuft our ni- 
cety is in this particular, and that all the , 
fentiments it excites in us are contrary to 
true Reafon, proceeding not fo much 
from the Obje&s thcmfclves, as from the 
corruption of our own Hearts v we need 
but take notice, that theft judgment*, 
thefe difeburfes wherewith we are offenr 
ded, may be of three forts. For they are 
either abfolutely true, or aWblutely falfe v 
or partly true, and par t ly falfe. Now out 
isefentment is equally unjuft in all thefe 
three cafes. 

If thefe judgments be true , is it not 
horrible not to be troubled that our fins 
fliould he known by God> and yet not to 
fiiflcrthat they fliould be known by Me* > 
Can. we own more palpably .that wc prefer 

^ Men. 

2 j8 flDft^emcansto tanfetUcTriv. 

Men before our Maker? Is it not the 
height of injufticc , at once to acknow- 
ledge that our fins deferve an Eternity of 
Torments,, and not whh joy to accept fo 
flight a punifhment as that fmall confufion 
they bring upon us before Men > 

The knowledge Men have of our faults 
and mUeries increafe them not > on the 
contrary, it might be able to diminifli 
them, were it fufferM with humility* 

'Tis therefore a piece of vifible folly, 
not to relent the real mifchiefs we do to 
our felves, and to be fo lively touch'd 
with thofe imaginary ones, which cannot 
but be bepeficiat to us. And this fcnfibili- 
ty it an evident proof of our exceffive 
blindoefi* which ought to inform us, that 
what others know, is but a fraall part of 
our many faults. 


If thefe judgments and diTcourfes be 
falfe and ill grounded , otir refentment is 
little kfs unreafonabfe and unjott. For 
why (hould not the Judgment df God Al- 
mighty juftifying us , fuffice to make us 
contemn that or Men > Why (hould not 
it have the fame influence on us, as the ap- 
probation of our friends and others* whotta 
^ve efteem, which for the TOdft part fce- 
Wigf* to comfort «s, and countcrpoift 

. what 

part ir. jpeoce amongff t^eti. 259 

what others can either fey -or think a- 
gainft us / Why has not Reafon it ft!f, 
fbewing, that fuch difcourfes cannot hurt 
us, that of themfelves they can do no- 
harm either to Soul or Body \ nay, that 
they may be of great profit to us , fo 
-much power over our minds, as to make 
us furmount a paffion fo rain and unreafo* 


We grow not cholerick, when any ima- 
gine us to be in a Fever , when we are 
certain of our being well. Why there* 
fore (hould we be offended *t thofe who be- 
lieve we have committed faults which We 
have not, or who condemn us of defc&s 
we are not guilty rf > Since their judg- 
ment can lcfs make us guiltvof, of fatten 
to us thofe faults and defcds, than the 
thought of a Man who believes we are in 
a Fever , can dfedivcly make us fick of 
that diftemper. 


The reafon of this is , Tome will fay, 
becaufe no body contemns and flights one 
in a Fever, it is an evil which does not 
make us contemptible in the Eyes of the 
World* fo we are not offended by the 
judgment of thofe who think fo* Bat 
fee who lays to our chatge Spiritual faults* 

i6ofl)f tf# mm& ta eottfertcTr .iv. 

generally joyns therewith contempt, and . 
excites the fame Idea and Sentiment ia 

This is really the true caufe of this pad 
Con > but this caufc does but give us a ful- 
ler knowledge of its injuftice. For were 
we juft to pur felvcs, we (hould acknow- 
ledge without difficulty, that thole wha 
accufe us of faults we have not, do not lay 
to our charge a great number of others we 
cflc&ively have : And thus we are gai- 
ners by all the judgments we complain of» 
though never fo falfe. The judgments of 
others would be infinitely lefs favourable 
to us, were they abfolutely conformable to 
Truth, or were all our real faults known 
to thofc who frame them. Wherefore if 
they do us fome little wrong, inathoa- 
land other matters they favour us , and 
we would not for a World they (hould deal 
with us according to the rules of cxad ju- 

But we are fo Unreaibnable, and fo un- 
juft, that we would draw profit from the 
ignorance of others* We cannot endure 
they (hould take from us any thing we be- 
lieve we have: And we woujd willingly 
keep up with them the reputation of ma- 
ny good qualities we have not . We com* 
plain, if they think they fee faults in us. 


Partn. peace amongd #ett itt 

which arc not there, and we reckon as 
nothing,if they fpy not an infinite number 
of defe&s , which really we have : As if 
Good and Evil only confifted in the opini- 
ons of Men. 


If therefore we have no rcafon to com* 
plain , neither of true judgments , nor 
even offolfe ones* we ought by confo 
quence to be lefs troubled at thofe that are 
partly true, and partly falfe. In the mean 
time, by a partiality the moft unjuft that 
ever was, we are offended with what they 
have of falfe, but are not humbled by the * 
Truths they contain* And whereas the 
(entiment we ftould have of what they 
contain of true, ought to ftifle the re- 
fentment of what is falfe and unjuft 
therein } on the contrary, we, by a vain 
refentuient of fome falfity and in jufticc 
there mingled; ftifle that which we ought 
to havj3 of what is real and folid, 

' I do not pretend that thefe confidera- 
tfons are fufficient to coned: and free us 
from this injuftice •, but at leaft rhey may 
be able t» convince us thereof, and it is 
fomething to be fo convinced. For there is 
always to be found, in thefe inward grudg- 
ing* and rancour which we feel, when fuch 
- . v dif- 

26%®$$t mean* ta cwfetijcTrJV. 

difcourfcs and judgments pafc on us, a for* 
getfulnefs of our fins and real mifexics * 
5ncc rt is impoffible, chat thofe who ac- 
knowledge their true greatncfs, and arc 
touch M therewith as the; ought, can 
bufie themfelves about the difcourfes and 
judgments of others. A Man deeply in 
•debt, opprefs'd with Suits at Law? with 
poverty and ficknefs, little regards what 
can be faid of him : His real evils give 
him no time to think op the imaginary 

Thus the true cure of this tendernefe, 
.which makes us fo fenfible of what is faid 
againft us t is vigoroufly to apply our 
delves to the confideration of our own 
Spiritual ills, of our ov^n weakneft, dan^ 
:rs , poverty > and of that Judgment 
rod makes of us now, and will make 
known at the hour of our Death. Were . 
thele thoughts as lively, and as continual 
in bur mind, as they ougfrt tpt# v. refle- 
xions on the Judgments of Men would 
find it a bard task to get entrance there > 
or at leaft to take it wholly up, and fill 
it with fpite and bitternefs, as often they 
do. . 

For this end it will be profitable to 
compare the Judgments of Men with that 


Part ii Pf ace mtionitfWm i&$ 

of God, and .to refled on their different 

2aalities* Mens Judgments are often 
tlfe , un juft , dubious^ «&, and always , 
krconftan V and neither of profit or force* 
Whether they approve, or dtflike us, they 
make no change in what we are, not 
make us in effeft either happier* or more 
miferabk. But on that Judgment God 
will make of us, depends all our good, Or 
all our mifery. This Judgment is always 
Juft , always True, always Certain and 
Unchangeable , and its efieds are for all 
Eternity. Can we therefore fancy a grea- 
ter folly, than tp bufie ones mind with 
tfaefe Judgments of Men, which concern 
us fi> little, ai\d forget that of God whence ' 
alLowrHappincfs dependd 

; xxxi 

. Mfe pretend often test fct a glof* on tbfc _ 
inward ipite, caus'd in us by theje difad* 
vantageous Judgments,: with the pretext 
of Jufticc, fencing tooWriehes, that we 
are. only . <fqacein$ becaufe they ate not e* 
qtyttafek* and 'tbe Aiutart of them are in 
the Wxcmp Eut if this were true, Wf 
fliould be is much troubled at the un juft 
judgments made ag*inft others, as at 
fhok againfl our fel.ves ; Which fince we 
are not, *tis,.grofly to flatted our.fehres, 
notfto'Cee .thatHtf-loveis tiie caufe of *th^s 
,<_."' •' ^ dif- 

264*Wememta toomfet&cTr.iV, 

difcontcnt we feel for vyhat.coocerns us. 
It is notthc injustice it fclf which 'offends 
as, 'tis our being the Objeft of it. Let 
another be the Objeft of it, our refent- 
tnent will cool, and we (hall content our 
felves only to difallow quietly, and with* 
out perturbation this felt fame piece of in- 
juftice, which before put us into lb great 
a heat 


Mean time, did we take lufter tneafures* 
we fhould find, that thefc difadvantageous 
Judgments look not properly towards us, 
and that it is chance, not choice which 
determines them to have us for their pb- 
jedh For k muft needs be, that he who 
fudges thus of us. has been (truck with 
fome appearances dire&ing him thereunto: - 
And though thefc Appearances were flight 
ones, (fat we fuppofe the Judgments 
faUe) nevertheless it is true, that he who 
fudges thus,had his mind difpos'd tofracne 
fuch Judgments from fuch Appearances* 
fo that they take their rife from thefc Ap- 
pearances meeting with his evil difpofi- 
tion. The fame effed would have been 
producM, had they been taken notice of 
in any other. Thus we ought to believe, 
that thefc Judgments look not particular* 
iyaius : We ought only to fuppofe, that 


ttefc people were diiposfi ft* judge iliof 
whomfovgr fhouid ftttkc them, wtitfvfueh 
and fitch Appearance^ Chance has da* 
creed,, that we fliould be the Men- Bat 
this ill dtfpofition, and this! Eghtnefs of 
mind making: thefe Rafti Judgments; wart. 
of it (elf as indifferent whom tbty fliould 
wound, as a (tone thrown in the Air, 
which hurts him on whom it frits, hot 
by choice, oil becaufc he. is fuch a Man* 
but becaufc he chane'd to bt ia the place 
where it was to fall. 


When we. light info the hands of thofe 
Wretches* who in Woods, and Fbrveffls 
waylay Badcngcr** and that we are ill 
handled, ami rob'dby tbcm, wc take not 
this trcataacnt foe am aflront; We cx- 
pfefs; not. our ttfenpnacnt againfL qhemtfoi 
tacanfo we kMw thcyndo not pick afti 
cl«»fe rfiafo they f&i Ion; artthat'favge* 
pei^ thenar qnrfed^d twiqhwhoinfoeuei 

That difpolitioni whence Ha(ft> Judg- 
ment* fpmg, is all ant a&gmenatandtan* 
de&min-dy audi tabcsartictle heei whom 
it! lights oel k k a Oghmtfs:^) tnwidl 
talking? cert aftn i pcupk lttr thewifcfVesl foe 
carried * by: ftighto appeaprahttsino V&t* 

? N this 


this light difpofition has its effeft again ft 
us, we have no more reafon to be mov'd 
with that refcntment which is called fpight 
or vexation , than we fbould have to en- 
tertain the like againft thofe Thieves who 
(hould let upon us, becaufc we were in 
iheir way. 


There is moreover fomething ridicu- 
lously exotick in the trouble we conceive 
for the disadvantageous judgments and 
difcourfes the. World makes of us. For 
one muft be little Acquainted with it, not 
to be perfwaded , that *tis impoiiible it 
{hould be -other wife. Princes are ill fpo* 
ken of in tbeir Anti*€hambers. Their 
Pomefticks counterfeit them* Friends 
talk of one another* faults, andloofcupon 
it as a piece <£ honefty and candour Sin- 
cerely to own them. However it be, 
this is certain, that the World is in^pof- 
fdfion of the priviledge of fpcakinrftrely 
of the defedt of others in their abfcnce. 
Some do this out of malice, -others With 
good intentions v but very few are free 
from. it. 1 1 is therefore ridiculous to ex- . 
ped to be the only peifo* that the Wtir Id j 
will fp^rcv and if fuch difcourfes and ] 
judgments will put us out of humour, wc 
fluir never be plcas'd, For these is no 


Partn. pette mnottgfl &ttu i$y 

time wherein,in general we may not affure 
our (tires i that they do fpeak /t>r have 
fpoken of us othefwife than We could have 
wHhU But 4>ccaufc tcrbc coitftaat ly out 
of the humour ,would be too trofeblcfomci 
we ate pleasM tofpare our feWes without 
rcafon, and to exped being To, tin fomc 
either tell us what is faid, or (hew us 
thofe i*ho do fpeak ill of us* In the 
mean time, this telKng adds almoft no- 
thing,and before that,we ought to be much 
what as certain, that we and our faults 
were the fubjed of others dtfcourJcs, artf 
we had been told of it already. This lit* 
tie degree of stffuranCeproduc'd by advdr- 
tifement, is really very inconfiderable to 
be able to change, ask docs, the (late qjf 
our Souls. 

Thus let his *r we 'ptcafc confi&s thk 
touchy humour fltewing it (elf on thefe 
eeeafions, «andweihall &nd it always un* 
juft, and always contrary to region. T 


When wedefire to be beloved, et ire 
troubled that we are hated by others, bc- 
caufe thereby our defigns are either fur- 
thered or hinder d, it is not properly vani- 
ty or fpight i it is hope or tar. Arid this 
is not what we hcrt reftcd on, where we 
only examine the irapreffion .which the 

H a fcnti~ 


4#ttfm«*t$ of octets love ok i»tredipr us, 
may of thent&tvo& n&akc in our Heart* ; 
the fight aJoi* qf tfcefe Obje&s bong, but 
too capable either to pleajfc or vex us* 
without CQufidweg thek confequencjes. 
For as t he efteSm we h*** for our felves, is 
a^ajysj &toipp*i»J£d) with a tender and 
fenilbte Ipw •> fp w* ckfii* pot only th*t 
Men tbpuldgive n&thrir approbation, but 
fettle their Iqvc on us; and the eftecm 
they have for us, brings ne fatisfadion 
with k, if it ends not in affection. Where- 
fore nothing (hocks us more than averfion, 
and hatred , nothing excites in us more 
lively refentxnents: And thefe are, iince 
original tin, become natural to us f yet 
ceafe they not to be^ojuft> nor are we lefs 
bblig'd to withftand and fight againft 
them > and this we iwy do by fome refle- 
xions little differing , firow thofe we have 
already proposed againft the love of Ho- 
nour and ELteero. 


To ftek afteif the stfEe&ion and love/ of 
other* is unjuft » finee it is built on the 
opinion of our (elves, as deferring 
lov'd, whereas it is felfe.that we defer ve 
to be fo. Itfpuiegs ftona blMnefs* and 
% wU&il ignorance/ of our defe&s. One 
werwheknd with oaifcry^and.pQor t would 
-. -. be 

part a peace mvmtft ?0 c*. if>$ 

be pfcasM that others tofer*d, and ivere 
charkal>Je towards Wro. We (ho u Id crave 
no more, didweperfe&ly know otir con- 
ation * and this we ftbuld know, 4id we 
*«ot wilfully put oat our own Eyes. 

* xxxvn. 

Can he *v*ho knows that lie dderve* 
that the whole Creation fhould rife op 
and war againft him, pretend that the 
felf-fame Creatures fhould love hitn>Thus 
inftead of looking on the love of others a* 
our due, and their avctfiori as unjuft, we 
ought on the contrary to confider thear 
hatred as what we defer ve, and their aflfe- 
&ion as a favour we deftrve not. 


.- Bat if it be a piece of injuftice, general^ 
ly, to believe ofies felf worthy of love^ it 
is yet a much more greater to defire tto be 
belov'd by force. There is nothing more 
ft ee than Icm^and we ought not to pretend 
to purchafe it by complaints and reproa- 
ches. Perhaps 'tis our faults we ate not 
belov'd, perhaps alfb the reafcm is to be 
fought for in the evil Hifpdfttreris of o- 
thers: But iris certain, that violence and 
anger are not the means to obtain it. 

Theorigfne of all aversions is the con* 
society which happens tobelfctwia* *he 

iyo'Of t&ememtf to cwtfiateTrJV. 

difpofition we find our felves, in, and that 
we think wc fee of others ditpofitioiu 
Now this difpofition makes us ad againft 
a)l thofe in whom this contrariety appears.' 
When therefore it happens that we cither 
really have thofc qualities, tf hich to fome 
<are. the objeA of averfion , or that we 
make our felves known unto^thcra, only 
by fuch particularities, as give them rea- 
fpn to imagine m& have them > it ought 
not fccm ftrange to us, that their difpo- 
Itfion {hould produce its natural cfle&s 
againft us , it would have done the fame 
againft any other whatfocver, and it is 
not particularly we whom they hate, 'tis 
him in general who has. fuch and fuch of*, 
fenfive qualities 

In general , we have an averfion foT r 
thofe that are covetous 9 fejfcintcrefted, 
apd prefumptuous * we in particular are 
bclievVi guilty of thefe faults : This gene* 
ral averfion therefore adte againft us. What 
is it that ofljbnds us herein > Is it this ge- 
neral averfion > No r this averfion in fome 
fort is juft and reafonable* for one thus 
qualified, deferves we (hould have fqjne 
kind of averfion for him. Is it the judg- 
ment they make of us ? But this judg- 
ment is form'd , upon feme appearances, 

. .- which 

partiL peace ammtgff39ett 27 r 

which may really be flight, but for all 
that are ftrong enough to carry it with' 
thofe who fee them. We ought therefore 
to make their weakoefs and Hgjhtncfs the 
fub)e& of our conjplaints, not their in- 

Whcnothers love; it is not properly us * 
they love, their aifc&ion being only bot- 
tom'd on their aicribingjto us qualities wo 
have hot, or on their not feeing the dc- 
fclh we really have. The fame happens* 
when they hate us. Then the good wc 
have appears not to them, and they fee 
only what's ill in us. Ww we arc nei- 
ther the Mm. who is without fault, por. 
the Man in whom there is no good* It is 
not therefore fo much us, as a certain 
Phantafin fet up by themfelves which they 
love or hate : And thus we arc to blame 
tobe pleased with their afle&ion, or offen- 
ded with their hatred. 

But fhould this love or hatred reficdt o& 
us dirc&ly as we truly are* what good or * 
what evil would thence come to us, if we, 
confider , as we have (aid 9 thefe fcnti* 
ments in themfelves? They are bat Ape- 
ting vapours, which of their own, accord 
vanifli in a moment v . it being impoflible, 

N z. that, 

that Man AqoW fi K himfclf for any time to 

»ey wottld have no power, of tfiemfclTw! 
to raider us either mow happy or unhap- 
PF- They are things intirety fcperated 

from us having no eflec* on us, onltfs 

^ SSiT wit i 1 tHem > and b y afelfe 

!fl ifJ tfaI "WMfion take them for 
«eal goods or reaJ evils. Ut us unite in 
•ne the low of all the Creatures, let us 
heighten ,t to be the raoft violent, and 
inoft Rearing that we can poffibly fancy* " 
*t wiHaotall this add tlie |«ft degSf 
h*PP*nefs either to our Souls, or fooul 
Bod,« } and tf our Souls ta^ any P.S- 

jwaj ; b«tta, that they will grow worfc: 
by the vanity fheyl fall faco, Likewifc, 
fet us joyri in one thehatredof all Man- 
kind ajgaihft as, yet cannotthb leffcnthe 
7^ ***! goods, which are thofe of 
the Soul. Ought not this only confide- 
ration , of the impotency of the love of 
great ones, either to hurt orlidpus, fiifc 
nee to ttmt us «gard them with ndiffe~ 

, >'■■ XLIII. ' 

- Whatfiberty would not that man enjoy/ 
who cared riot to be lorM* »or'ftafd to 
he hated, and yet at the feme timevporr' 

' ~ " other. 

pan n. peaceftmrnsftq^ 275; 

ether motives fhotild db til that was ne* 
x^flary to gain the one,and Aran the other ? 
Who {hould endeavour to be ferviceable 
toothers, withontexpe&ing any reward, 
no not that of their good willy and who 
fkonld cqmply-with all his obligations to- 
wards them, without dependance on their 
difpofition towards himfelf? Whofliould 
sot in the good offices he does them loot 
"on any Objcfttut what is fixd and perma~ 
nent, vtiu his obedience to God, without 
any regard to Creatures, which cannotr 
bat leflen the recompence he expefts at his 

fcands> \ ' ,. 

\ Who coyld hate a t4an thus difposM, 
iorjr who coUld abfaln from loving of him? 
trw&iitt fell out, then, that by not fca- 
*fag>' fie jfroftld avpid the hatred of Men * 
and gain th*k *ff$<9Horr, without fear-- 
(Jhjng after it: Whereas thofc; who bjf a 

SijiKBoqate defir^ of bch^ t beloyM r become 
bfenfible of aWflidn!, for the mbti part do 
involW thefoftlves- in irj. by .fo uneafie at 
tenderrids. : v : ' r ' f * r ' 

Yet is there (bmething more unreaf©^ 
nable, yhen >we ai& offended that others 
carry ^rbfetve^ ^ithindiiference toward 
i$. 1 iPW tteri ijL at : Qprtchowto^lvc them* 
What ftrifiments w£ plcafed, it Ibouiabe 
" »*, *atr 

*74$f t&e wm* to coitfettjeTriv, 

that prppcrly, which ojir true intereft 
ought to make us choofc. Their love is 
fun of danger, dr^whjg our Hearts away, 
and poifpntng them with a iportal fweet- 
ncis. Their hatred , exafperates us, and 
tqakes us run the hazard of lofing Cha- 
rity j But this indiflTerency is a mean pro* 
pprtion'd to ,our condition and weakqefs, 
and which leaves us the liberty of purfuing 
our journey towards God, without tur- 
ning oqt of the road to hfe Creatures., 

All affe$jon of. others towards us, is a 
certainty and engagement > not only be- 
caufe concupifcena makes us cleave to it f ' 
and we arc afraid to loft it i but alfp bcr 
caule hence fpriog; a neceffity of certain 
devoirs , which wc cannot acquit ouj 
fclvcs of without difficulty. As it lays 
their Hearts opep to us, fo it obliges us tp 
nuke ufc of this openriefs for their Spiri- 
tual good i and *tis not cafie to do fo. It 
is true, this is a great good, when we can 
manage it well, yet it is not to be cove- 
ted, being accompanied with fo many 
dangers. We ordinarily ftpp at thisaffe- 
Aion , we , take content in it, and are 
afraid to lofe it > and are fo far from ta» 
king hence an occafion of conducing o- 
thers towar d s God, that it is often a caufc 


p*rtn. ii&*ce agonal* #«& 17* 

of diverting out fdves from him, awl of ■ 
foftning. us, by drawing. us too d** 1 

XLVl. • 

But. fome will &y, why doct fcdi *» 
one behave himfelf with that rodiflcr<«qr 
towards me, fince I am othcrwifeaflcCtwi 
towards him > Why has he no concern tor 
what touches me, who interefe my fell 
with fo much care with what relates to 
him > Thefe are the difcQUtfes which felt- - 
love makes in theBreaft of touchy people, 
endowed with fmaH Vertucj but ltiieaM 
to difcovcr their injuftice* . ,■ 

If thcfolc aim we drove at ro being ; 
complacent to othexs, was to tyethemto 
ns y , and caufc them to repay us in the Ume 
coin, wr well deferv'dtolofftfovainarc. 


But if ,we had ©that defigns, if we ap* 
irty'd our fclves to Men only in obedience 
to God -, docs not <his. application carry 
with it its <ow« jccoropence, "d** we 
ejufc any . other without, marafcft: mju. 

It is true, others may he-faulty in their f 
nealea -and indiflfe rency towards^ .but 
this fault concerns God, notus.> lt>ooca 
harm to thenv.but none to u^. Ifcimy • 
give us pUy,;butnottocom, 

fRaki of (tern. And thus the *eihittncnt 
it kafrettausfc always unjvrffc, finccithath 
no other Objeft than our felves. . 

• XLVU. 

' Kbthfog doth maaifett tnoit how much. 
Faith is exriognftVd, and how aradivein 
it is, ahm the difpteaftfre tfcey 
pay them not tilth* 
acknowledgement that's due to them V be* 
tMcauft nothing ii more ©ppofcd to the 
Mgfettfforjffe. < " * * 

Did (hey look on, asfhey ought, die 
fcrvice* ttey do othm> they would con- 
sider them as favours they haw ttcfthrcd 
fexn God) and' which tfaey owe to his 
gftttintfe, and aswosfes whtohtheyought 
tocoirfetrate aadoffc* op to him, * wirfioat 
the ieafl tegatd to<Grtat*r*s» 

They would confide* thole to whom* 
thefe good Offices were A>nc, as perfbns* 
who in fome fort hate procured them thi* 
fevenr vand cqi^feqtw ntly they believe they 
have r«c«jved wtu* more from, than they 
ikwteflQ4M(Mi < ttaii..i. !. '-. ^ > 

They would dread a^thegreateftofrmifr 
ftittuiies*® receive in this world * h* teoom- 
pence tofthefe good deed*, and to be dew 
pt i tf d of ttoat which they might have had; 
La the other* harfthef done them pwely; 
for. the love ef^iod* -.*■ 

Thc y/ 

They woul4 acknowledge, tint ifaefe 
deeds, foch as they arc, were numt with 
many imperfedaoos : And fa they fboiAl 
have *eaton to t*ke thence octarfoh a£ 
fcmnbitag , and decking to parge them* 
fcivcK by Ponancefor them* 

To go about to a My with * rhefe £eotu 
aimt*jwhkh Faith ©ijght to give us, chat 
fpifht and ilt humour wc experience^ 
when others aie wanting i|u what we 
think they owe tft . f s it rise, on the 
contrary, to let tib* World kao*vttoat wc 
have taken all theft pains for Men, that 
we only had regarfl ftb them > and that 
lb > the Ktarks ttt^jkxyifi, arc pudofn'd 
fawn - God Almighty, feko dia* theedfotfc. 
40ghtt*chafttfeUfcfc*them? < t. • 

i If *e have hacfariy Men in ouj Ey v i* 
all the good Offices wr have tkme thenv 
it b weSKfof usthey flaouldhe ttngnatefu^ 
mxA not acknowledge rfcem**' haapfc thtdr 
ingratitude m^y be Ufcfol for ais fc> obtain 
iStyds Mercy, if we bear teas we gnsghtv 
If we hive had Godooly in iightyk fiiM 
turns to our advantage that Men did not 
reward u$ y- becaufe *he xonfideration we 
tfborid ham^thtiffit&MWit^ement, is 
above any /ritiflg elfc>eapaWe #f dimtai* 
ft togi and bfcfegpig twfiojfcbijg the *eq>n>- 

2781W t&e mam to conOrtbcTr.iv. 

penfc we cxpcd from God* Which way 
foever we .confider theft, the gratitude of 
Men, we (hall find, that if it prove bene* 
ficial to them, it will prove otherwife to 
us ; And that in their ingratitude we 
may find infinite more advantages. Their 
gratitude can only take from us the fruit 
of our beft a&ions, and augment the pu* 
nifhment due for. our ill: Their ingra- 
titude may* preferve forus the fruit of 
out good deeds,; and* help us to pay the 
debt we owe Gods Juftice for our bad 
ones* : 

We fliouH never be fo inprtoip to a 
Prince ^ who had promis'd large recant* 
penfes to thofe who (hould fcrve him, 
and would be grievoufly offended, (hould 
they look for them any where 1wt from 
himfclfi as to prefer the careflcs of Tome 
few of his. Sub jedte before the folidbene- 
fits they might hope from him* Yet thus 
we daily deal with God Almighty. He 
promifes an Everlafiing Kingdom to the 
Charitable Servifes we de our Neighbours 
he bids us be content, with this reward, 
and cxpeft roo other.; In the mean time; 
the raoft part of Men bufie thetrfd ves in 
examining whether others pay them what 
they owe theta, whether thole they have 

bwi 4i 

Rartti. peace mtwtgff^pn; 279 

bcca fqr viccablc< tQ own their obligations* 
and whether they acquit tberofcJvts pun* 
ftually of thofc devoirs Men have eftablifl* 
c^ for marks of acknowledgement. 

If therefore we bad. the true faithbents 
which Fpith oiight t6 infpire, we fhould 
be fully perfwaded,. that as God does us a 
great favour, when he furmfhes us with 
means oThelping others \ So he does u*a« 
npther na whit kft^ when he permits 
them not . to teftific the acknowledgement 
they pughu For this is to take order in 
riving us an ineftinuble Treafure, that it . 
lhall continue to us,, ami nobody nmQut . 
fipmufc, ; • ... . .. . 

. But, our Joy ought to be. full and com- 
pleat, when, wc have rcafon to thinly 
that thole who fccm to be wanting in their 
due acknowledgements to us, are of them* 
fqlves very grateful , and. that their faults 
come from ; their not knowing the obliga- 
tion %,they have to. us. For though it be 
always a real advantage to us> that others 
a;e wanting in. point of gratitpdc towards 
us; yet ought we not to wifh for this, 
fioce for the. rooft part it is ill for them. 
Bpt there's nothing but what's defirablei 
tljep what happens is neither ill to them, 

<4 W 

280 mm moral to mamzTvJVi 

doc prejudicial to us ; anil when they, 
without guilt of ingratitude, pat us our 
of danger of lofing for an humane ac~ 
knowl cd gefft cnt the reward which we tx* 
ped from God. 

There is not only in this *xpe6feation op 
•denowkdgefnent from others much m» 
jtffitee, t> w a Jfo a great irieannefs** and it 
*ughf to cattle m u* -to 'great confafion, 
When Wc^oiifHfar for #hit trifled i*e lot 
in Eternal Rewwl, A II we expeft fa an 
acknowledgement often is reduced to a 
hate doaipiemcnt, or to fo^taftkTscitrllj* 
tt<»v aM thefcart tbt rtiings we prefer 
before God, and reward* he promife us. : 


Nay, often wfc out fdvcs.are *he tai^ft 
of what -we impute toothers, hytopy-and 
maimer 0f fervhig them, we flWk <he gra* 
titudein their Hcar^ v attd.wc hare ^kivpft «tafdtt to 4felK^*ctot#]y^'^ 

*k,Uha*tfc4thfci«, theieq* iri-usfamethiqg 
which MtileisifV -J^^fettalt happen 
fcyoftrtfauk, or #hat of otlters^it is always 
aweakwefi in LfStobecoricera'dWVex'd 
Jifeea tthat« teiuim %-hot tfttcki wMpft-wg 


pmtL peace mmjt^Qlen* at 


The tf aft and confidence others pot in 
te,is a mark of their friendship and cfteem, 
and fo no wondet IF it pleate and flatter 
felMove* nor is it a wonder if the refer- 
vednefiotf thofe nee believe oaght to have 
thefe ientiments for us , be uneafie, and 
wound the Tape. But Reafon and Faith 

■ ought to innill into us quite contrary 
Principles, and raifc in us a ftrong perfwa- 
fion, that this re&rvednefs of others to* 
wards us/ is offer more advantage than 
their confidence and truft. 

Were there no other reafon for this> 
'than that it is beneficial to want thofe pet- 
ty fetisfa&ibns ^Wch plcacfc and fbftcr tfjj 
our vanity \ this ought tofaffice to make* 
us with ]6y to lay hofcl on thefe occafiQria 
of a Spiritual Mortification, which might 

. be fo much the more advantageous to us, 
as it dire&ly oppofes the firft principal of 
our paffions. But there are others as folid 
and important as this : And here I jjive 
you fome of t hem. 

He who opens hitnfelf to us* tn fomc 
fort confults us, and after this we cannot 
diTcourfe with him without concerning 

our fclves in his Conduft and frflairs v 


182C* t&tmtmi*tt confetijeTr.iyi 

k is almoft impoffible but that what we 
(hail fay to him. will have fome relation 
to what he has difcovered to us, and we 
cannot but thereby make fome imprc (lion 
ori his mind : becaufe even by his open* 
breaftcdnefe he is difposM to hearken to # 
and credit us. Now it is no finall danger 
to lie under an obligation of fpcaking in 
thcfe drcumftanccs ; becaufe t great deal 
of light and knowledge is required to do 
it with profit, either fototur feWes or ou- 
tliers. It often happens , that we only 
authorize their paffions \ fince wc are na- 
turally inclined not to contriftate them i 
And thus we bolfter up that fecret defirc 
they have to find thole who (hall approve 
of their proceedings , which ufually is 
thccaufc of their dttcovejring themfchrcs. 

There are ft w who can receive the full, 
effiifion of the Heart and Spirit of others, 
without being, par takers of their corn** 
ption and faults. We infallibly partici- 
pate of their paffions, we entertain pre* 
judices againft fuch as they diflike , and 
as the truft they put in us makes us be- 
lieve that theyjiave no mind to deceive us, 
we cfpoUfe their opinions and fentiments, 
without being., aware that they often 
deceive themleives firft* And thus we 


Part ii. peace amottffff^ett 2** 

fill our (ekes with all their falfe imprcC- 

We often by this means charge our fcfos 
with feveral thing?- which ought to be 
kept fecret t a burdeu not at all eafie to 
carry > fince by it we are oblig'd to a very 
troublefome circumfpc&ion, left we be fur* 
prjz'd > and fince it puts us in great dan* 
get of wounding Truth* And <as it ofte» 
happens, that there fecrets come ftveral 
ways to be known , naturally the. fufpu 
i;ion of divulging them falls on- thole to 

whom they have been thus with confidence 

We contra&too by thiwonfidence ani 
qpennefi of others to us, a kind of oblige 
tion to truft 9 and make them partaken 
of our fecrets \ becaufe they takeoflence, 
if they be not, dealt with , as they deal 
with us; whereas. thofe who are more 
referv'd, take it not ill we fhould be fo 
alfo to thent Mow this obligation is not 
often without great inconveniences > ,Gnc$ 
we cannot be wanting therein without gi- 
ving dHguft, nor comply with it, without 
incurring the. danger of doingeiUier tbctn 
op our fclves harm, by the ill ufc they may 
nuke of what we difclofc to them. i 


If we confider farther how little df 
teality, and how much of vanity there is 
in the pledfute wc take when others rruft 
us, how -uftjcift it is to efcaft t>f ofhetfs ' 
^what ought to be (b free as k fhe difctofifrg 
of their fecrets* and teftly, if we do our 
fcjves that right as to acknowledge, that 
if others are refer vM towards us, it is be* 
Caufe fomethtng m us makes them fo ; It 
will be a matter of fome difficulty not tb 
pais fentcnce againft that inward di^lea*- 
fore the fecrefy of others caufe, «id not 
to be afliam'd of our own weaknefc. 


Civility and courteous behaviour gains? 
bur Hearts; Incivility offends us: But 
the Gfeegbfos. the ether offends s tetettfe 
wewe Men, Vh*t fe, becaufe *c *re fall 
of vanity and injuftice. - 

There are very few civilities which 
dught topfcafeus, eve© according to hu* 
tnane rcafon > becaufe there arc very few 
which ire fincere and Attintesefted. They 
are often tat a ffay ani $tttt *f words* 
and ' at! exercife of vanity, Wfecte nothing 
of real t>r true is to be found. To be 
pkas'd with this, is to take content in 
being cheated, For, thofe who in out- 
ward appearaloce are the tnott courteous 


Part ii. ®mtm*t8&s$m*. 28; 

and compleraental , perhaps will be t(ie 
fijfft who willUugh at us when our backs 
ate tuw'd. 


. |ventto civiliiy. which hath mqft of 
fiocerity and truths hath always little of 
profit, and foroetimc5 much of danger. 
Ft i$ bat a Teftitnony than they love and 
efteqet us> and fo fets before oat Eyes 
two Objeds flattering felt love io u$> 
apd of which each fe able to. corrupt our 


All the civilities wc receive, engage us 
tq tt^bleftwfrfejrivitycU^ FofthcWoald 
gives not any tbin&gtvw. Heie is dri* 
ven a kiod of owmapjee afid traffick,, 
wher* ftlfclove fits as Judge, and thi* 
Judgo_obliges u* tcb 2troci|»oqal equality of 
returns,, and aitffoerjxe* tj>pfe cop plains 
which we teade agattsft fuclvasare de£* 
#ivs therein* ;•* 


Civilities for tlfcmpftpaft corrupt our 
Judgments, becawfe they often incline us 
to prefer thofc from whom -w$> *eceiv$ 
tkc*n, beferer others endawsd wi$h the, 
efl&itiai qualifies which, d«fcr f Y$ qui '*,-> 
ftceau if.. ■• .• . .4 • • 


2*«Df tfteitieow to confctUeTr.iv: 


As'wc^rtap little benefits from the ci- 
vilities which af e (hewn us * fo incivility 
does us little harm \ and confequently 'tis 
an cxtream wcakne$ to be offended 
thereat* Often 'tis only a Want of taking 
notice of us, proceeding from their minds 
being crtplo/d about things of greater 
concern v and thofewbo^retheteaft *xa& 
in civilities, are often the peffons who 
have the mod real and affedHve defires 
of doing us fervice in things of impor- 


But let incivility come from indiffcrcn- 
cy or want of *ffe&ion what good does it 
bereave us of? What harm does it do us ? 
And how can we hope that <Sod ftould 
forgive us the infinite debts we owe him 
♦by the mdifpenfable Laws of his Eternal 
Jufttee, if we do not remit to Men the 
ftnall References they owe us only on the 
fcore of humane agreements > 


Not but that God fcts the Seal of his Au- 
thority on thefe agreements, and fo we 
pftght tofhew thefe devoirs of civility one 
to another, even, according to the Laws 
of God \ zs has been (hewn in the iirft 
part of this Treatife. But they are certain 


part n. peace mmtfi 90tn. 28? 

debts which we never ought to txaftor 
fiic for > for they ate not due toourcte- 
ferts 9 but to our weaknefc. And as we 
ought not to be weak and infirm, and that 
it is by our own fault we are fo, our fir ft 
duty confifts in corre&ing this weaknefs 
of ours, and we never have any right to 
complain tfiat others have no regard 
thereof, and lefs'yet to deiire what only 
contributes towards the nourifliing of 

Yet is it not enough to confervc Peace 
with ones (elf and others, not to offend 
any, or not to exad from others either 
frtendfhip or eflcem, confidence , gratu 
tude or civility; farther, we muft have. 
a Patience not to be overcome by any ca- 
pricious humour. For as it is impofliblc 
to make all thofe with whom we live 9 
become juft, moderate, and faultlefs \ Co 
ought we defpair of prefcrving the tran- 
quility of our Soul, it we make it depend 
cfnthde means. 

: We ought therefore to exped while we 
Kve amongft Men to find tfoublefome 
and ttiitafic humours, <to meet with thofe 
who •% ill grow angry for nothing, who 
Will look awry on all things , who will 

f * dit 


2 & Wt&e mean* to cenffOjeTs.iv. 

difcturfe without realon, add whofe. pre-* 
dominant humour (hall be either tierce, or 
meanly and ungratefully complacent* 
Some will be too paifionatc , others tcxy 
cold. Some will contradid you without 
rcafon, others will not endure to be con* 
tradi&ed in the leaft. Some will be en- 
vious and malicious, others infolent, top 
full ot* themiely^ and without any refpeft 
for their Neighbours. We (hall meet 
with thofe who (hall believe. all is due to 
them, and who never making reflections 
on the manner . wherewith they treat; o- 
thers, (hall neverthefcfs exa& from them 
great and exceffive deference* . 

What hopes of Hvinginiepofeif thefe 
faults (hake us, if they vex wd difcom- 
pofeus, and bereave our; Soul of its quiet 
and calm temper ? - 

We ought then to fuller tjiem with 
IfttyerKe, and^t V(q^4 *t- tbcip* 
if we desire tpt Roflfefy pi^ owp >oufo** 
qh* Scripture (pe^s, and; prevent U&p4n 
tiences, every moment carrying us from 
ourfclvcs, and throwrig us headlong into 
all the ipcoaKeniQftCCs, we tyavei difplw'd* 
But thjtFtfifJKf is,npt ^c^awonfpr4« 
nwf y , Vetf u* . Sot th^ ij; i* very ft*aqge* 
that/ bdjpg-oo,ofl^fi^b(b.d»ffi^lti. qv\ the 
9thcr fo ucceflaitf, : Wi We -W gr#tfflr fM* 


IfertiL pence mnwtffff glen, 2»<i 

to raake it our praftice , whHft at th e 
fame time we ftudjr , and cmplpy our 
(elves about fo many ufclefs ana t rifting 

• LXX. 

To leffcn the fecond imprcffioas other 
peoples faults make upon us, it will be 
ufcful often to conftder, 

i. That thcfc faults being fo common 
as they are, it is a foily to he furpriz'd 
thereat, and not to exped tp rind them. 
In Man there is a niedty of good and had 
qualities : He is at once beneficial to 
us, and hurtful. As fuch we ought 
to confider him* frnd whofoever defires 
to reap the advantages x>f Humane So* 
cicty , ought with patience to jfufler 
the inconveniences that come along with 


i . That there is nothing more ridicu- 
lous than to be unreafonable, becaufc o- 
thers are fo, to do our felvcshartn, be- 
caufe another hurts himfelf, and to (hare 
and become guilty of other Mens follies; 
as if our own faults and mifeiies were 
not enough, without wc add thereun- 
to the load of all thofe of our Neigh- 

O 3- That 

WdDfttottytmt* confet&e Tr.vr* 

3. That lei the faults of others bene* 
ver To great, they only do harm to thofc 
who have them, without the leaft incon- 
venience to us t provided we do not- wil- 
fully receive their impteffion. They arc 
therefore objeds of our pity, not of our 
anger \ and we have as little reafon to be 
vcxM at the difeafes of mind in others, as 
we have to be angry at thofe which feize 
on their Bodies. Nay there is this diffe- 
rence, that we may againft our Wills con- 
tract the diftempers of their Bodies; 
whereas* nothing but our own Wills can 
admit into our Souls the difeafes of their 


We ought not only to look on the faults 
of others as difeafes, but as difeafes com- 
mon to our felves : For we are as lyable 
thereunto as they* There are no faults 
we are not capable of , and if there be 
fome we de fabo have not , perhaps we 
have greater. Thus having no caufe to 
prefer our felves before others, we (hall 
find, that we have none to be offended at 
what they do » and that if we tolerate 
them, they in their turns muft bear with 


part ir. p«ce mtionga^m 291 


Other Mens feults,could we view them 
with a calm and charitable Eye , would 
be inftru&ions to us fo much the more 
profitable, as we ihould better perceive 
their deformity than that of our own, 
over part of which felf-love cafts a cloud. 
They might make us obferve, that pa (lions 
ordinarily have effe&s oppofite to what 
we aim at : We grow angry to make our 
(elves be believ'd, and this makes us be be- 
lieved lefs. We take it ill we are not fo 
much efteem'd, as we imagine we deferve* 
and wc are efteem'd fo much lefs, the more 
we hunt after it* We are offended becaufc 
we are not belov'd j and by being fo, we 
ftrein others, and draw more their aver* 
fion. ' • 

We might alfo hereby fee with wonder 
to what degree tbefe fame paffions blind 
. thofe they are Matters of: For thefe e£- 
fedfrs fo vifible to others, are ufually un- 
known to them. And it often hap- 
pens, that whilft they make themfelves 
odious, unealie, and ridiculous to all 
^ the World, themfelves are the fole per- 
r foas who perceive nothing of it. 

6 2 A»4 

*p2©f tfrettfeaitf tutwfcr^cTr.iv. 

And all this might bring into our 
minds either the faults we have at other 
ttiflts committed through the like paffions, 
or thofe we yet commie, lead by other pif- 
fions perhaps not lefe dangerous, and in 
which we are fell as Wind. And thus oar 
whole induftry being apply'd- to the redrefs 
of our own faults, we fhould become 
much more difpos'd to tolerate thole 
«f others. , 


Laftty, we ought to canfider, that it is 
as ridiculous to be angry at the faults and 
exotick ihutnours of others , as it is to 

Sow choferick becaufe the weather is not 
r, or that it k too cold or hot * fince 
our anger has as little influence on Men 
to correft their humours, as on (he feafons 
to change the weather* There is only 
this difference, that the feafons neither 
grow better . nor work for our anger, 
whereas that we conceive agatnfi Men, 
Airs up their indignation againfl us, 
and gives life and adivity to their pat 


What hitherto has been laid before our 
Eyes, may fuffice to give us a flight Idea 


Part-it pace arawmtf -tioC" W 

of Ac mentis which may conduce toward* 
the conferring of Peace arooagft Men> amd 
they are all comprehended in this Verfeof 
the Pfalrru Pax multa diligentibus legem 
tujm^ & tivt e&illis jcandalum Fob it we 
lovMonlytheLawof Go<f, we fliould be 
circumfpedt not to offend our Brethren > 
we fliould never irritate them by indis- 
creet ftrifes : Their faults would never be 
to us an occafion of anger* of rancour, of 
trouble, or of fcandal : Since thefe faults 
hinder not us from remaining fixM to this 
Law , fince it obliges us to fufler them 
with patience, and fince in particular it is 
this precept of Chriftian Patience, which 
the Apoflle calls the Law of J E S US 
CHRIST: Bear one another s Bnrdtns, 
fays he^ and fo yon JfraU obferve the Law op 
CHRIST. We ought therefore to ac- 
knowledge, that all our impatiences, all 
our vexations fall on us 'becauie we do 
not love as we ought this Law ofCha-. 
rity, becaufe we have other inclina- 
tions than that of obeying God \ and 
becaufe we feck after our glory, our 
pleafure* our fatfcfa&ion in Creatures*.. 
Wherefore the principal means to efta- 
blifh the Soul in a folid and unalterable 
Peace, is to fix it firm in that love 
which regards God only in all things;. 

O 3 anJ 

*94 W t&e means &c* Tr. iv. 

and which only covets tm pleafe him, 
and place all its happinefe in obeying 
his Laws. 

The End of the Fturtb treat i fa 

~ - - i i n > >n-w fc ir «J ^**twr *< f i > Trti m i , 


»»■■*«■■*■•»"•*»■*■••■■■■'— «"*»^"«^""^«»""<p*»*"i»w 

L*. . 



The Fifth Treatife, 
Of $(a/h Judgements; 

Kclite dftte tempuf judicarc qnotdHpfi 
vemat < Dominm* 

RA(h judgments being always 
attended by ignorance, and 
want of knowledge, imply a 
manifeft injuftice , and a pre- 
ftwptuous ufucpation of Gods Authority* 
For it only belongs to Titith to judge, ac- 
cording to what our Saviour fays hi the 
Gofpei : The Father bath given all Judg- 
ment to bis Son 9 becakfi be is truth itfejfi 
fo that Men cannot take on them to judge, 
but as the Son gives them a right there - 
unto, by enlightning them by his Truth ; 
and to undertake to judge without know-* 
ing, is to invert Gods order, to ufurp 
unjuftly the fan dion of JESUS CHRIST, 

O 4 and 

1§6 C&e JFtft& Cwattfe, 

and exercHe it in a manner eflentialiy con- 
frary to hi) Eternal Law ; Since Chrtft 
faim&tf is not the Judge of Men, but be- 
caufe as God he is Truth, and as Man lie 
was rcrtenithed with Grace and Truth. 


Thus Rafli Judgments are of the num- 
ber of thofe afiRontf which art efTefithrily 
ill, and Which cannot become vaarrantable 
by 'any drcumftances whatfoevcr 9 Gnce 
they are dirc&fy oppofitc to ttate Ete?-. 
rial Juftice. Yet may this fin be capable 
of different degrees , of being fometimes. 
greater, fometimes 4cfs, according to the 
quality of its objedi * the caufes whence, 
it fprings, and the cffe&s it may produce* 


The quality of theobje&augnitats-or 
dimimfhes it ; finoe the mote important 
things at, die g«tat*f U ounftbttgatl^tt 
of being refer vM and ttafflttripeft in judgL 
fng thereof i and that 6ur guilt is the 
greater when the judgments we frame are 


The caufes alfc whence they fprfcg 
make them more or lefs criminal, beciufe 
the ignorance which is their inoperable 
companion is more or left fo, 'according to 

the caufci thereof, which may bt very dit 


fcrept. Sometimes our ignorance fpi logs 
from a temple precipitation , making us 
tike that foi certain*, *hkfe is not 6 i 
fotneciiBCs, ftom o*»rwecnmg4ffe&ion to 
our ow ifentimciitt , Wndktng us from 
examining them with that caitf which is 
iieceflary foe dtfcenjtog truth from ertour ; 
But the commoneft caufe of this ignorance, 
which is alwayes to fee found with rafh 
iudgmcntSi is a cctfam malignity apd 
particalar averGon we haw foe thofc we . 
thus ttlWy judge of. 

?Foarit is this dtpoficion which makes us 
difcone* m them blemifheff tod faulty 
whidiaficnp'etyc would not tind there, 

it is this dilpoiitton which carries our 
mind to cjmfidcr whtffoever may induce . 
us to judge &&dKmfagtoujty o£ them, 
and divert* it <&e>tu tatinginoriceofwhatr 
might raalke our judgment? fevaurabk: 
This is rt which ktaoutfaa rttudy colours ; 
rite fcaifconjedxuce*, and -makes the fligh- • 
fceft appearances fern. big in our eyes i this 
makes us guefs an their raoft hidden 
thoughts, and dive to the very bottom < 
of their hearts We think thcmguilty he* 
caufe we detire they (hoiild i>e (b) and 
whatever tends towards railing that per— 
fwalioninltts, 4p.Vafc sand with c*fcxmters. 

298 efjejnft&Cteatite, 

and takes pofleffion of our minds. Now 
who can doubt bur that fo corrupt , fo 
filthy a fpring head muA heeds fully and 
poifon whatfoever comes thencc,and render 
. both our ignorance, and the judgments it 
produces much worie and more difpleafing 
to God, then if they came from fome other 


But what makes yet a greater difference 
amongft judgments , is that fome are fol- 
lowed by great and dreadful confequences. 
For thofe hatreds and dtvifions which 
<fi fturb humane Society , and extinguifhes 
charity, are for the moft part but the 
efte&s of fome undifcreet words which flip . 
from us unawares * and thefe words pro- 
ceed fr'om ralh judgments , which former, 
ly we had made within our felves. Fir ft 
we judge ra(hly of our neighbour , which 
of it felf is a great evil % then by commu- 
nicating our thoughts which is natural to 
us , we talk raflily > and thefe words paP 
fing afterwards from one to another , by 
an unhappy progrefs many minds come to 
. be corrupted > fo that perhaps one ralh 
judgment may be the firft caufc of dam- 
jrina feveral fouls. 

•* It is further obfimble that we flop 


I 1>*WV ■■ II 

fl)f ftaft 3!uQ0ttiettt^ 299 

not fox the mod part, at fim pie judgments. 
We proceed from the thoughts of the 
mind , to the motions of the heart : We 
concevie an averfion and contempt for 
thofe we have (lightly condemned , and in* 
fpire the fame fentiments to others : fome~ 
. times we proceed fo far as to extinguiih m 
' them and our felves that charity which is 
the life of our fouls. 

But this, is not all yet , we do not only 
hereby hurt thofe who joyn in and *p» 
prove of our fentiments : We often do 
greater harm to fuch as diflike them when 
they are concerned therein* For when 
they come to the knowledge of thefe judg- 
ments , they are exafpejrated at bur in- 
juftice,and conceive a violent hatred againft 
thofe whoappxoveofthem. 


Ra(h judgments are the fource whence 
comes what we call Prevention or pre- 
judice, or rather thefe are 'but rath judg- 
ments which we frame of the mind , di£- 
poiitions and intentions of others , where- 
with we permit our felves to be ftrong- 
lyprepoffefTed* For whereas there is no 
Painter that would undertake to draw the 
Pobrtraiture of a face , upon fome flight 

defcriptkra made thereof by the By> «c 


ioo €$ejFtft&€t?atffe, 

* * 

often frame to our felvcs piftutes of others, 
from fome inconfiderate difcourfe we 
may have heard, or fome light a&ion we 
may have feen. And having once con* 
cental theft itnpreflions y we afterwards 
add thereunto all their other aftions , and . 
this Idea fetvesus inftead of another key 
to unriddle all there ft of their life, and of. 
a rule for our behaviour towards them* 
Thus having firft judg'd amifs , our com* 
portmeqt towards them becomes fo too; 
and we treat them in fuch a manner as 
Jets 'em understand our prejudices again A 
them, and fo creates m them an averfioa 
for us. 

Ihefe prbjtjdtces arethecaufes of great 
dffoitktsevc*y where, but of all others^ 
Monafteries are the places where they arc 
the moft evident and ftnfible. For as the 
petfons retired t*ather 5 are Operated from , 
the greateft f>trt of workHy objedts , fa 
they < bafy thcfriblves with more applica- 
tion then others about that feriailn umber 
ofthmgs which arcprefcnt to them > they 
ate much more fenfiWe of the <difodvan«- . 
tagcous judgments thofe of their cotntnu* 
nity make of them, hecaufe being lefe di* 
ftra&ed and divided , the refidoe of 
felf-tove in them unites itstfrcngth again!* f 


that obje£ which offends them. Hence 
it often happens* that words, with which - 
men of the world would* be Hide coa- 
cern'd, entirely takes up the thoughts and 
feniibly affli&s thofe who axe retir'd from 
it. A religious woman who believes that 
her fuperiour has a prejudice againft her* 
is often more concerned thereat » thea* 
Courtiers, are who believe their Prince is 
prejudiced againft t hem. 

This in aU religious Societies is one of the 
greatest troubles and tentatioas^and agatnft 
which rhey ought by continual prayer 
and meditation to fbrtifie themfclves*. 
For if they aieibftnfibly toucht,whea they 
^ncy others huve a prejudice ogablft them * 
and that turns their -fpirit , and delfts 
them : often they run a great h&~ 
Hard even in thefc Sand u tries aad pkce> 
ofrefage, whither they retire to fliun the 
dangexs of the world : Becaafe it is a 
platter of great difficulty to avoid tbcfe 
inconveniences^ audit is oven fo ordinary 
for virtuous pcrfbns to take up prew 
indices 1 , that we ought not to expedfc 
they will have none againft us : So that 
it is much -better to expe&v and to pre- 
pare ones felf to fuller and bear with fucb- 

502 WtofftftZttattoi 


But although thofe are very faulty, who 
are too touch fhaken by the imagination 
that others are prejudiced againft them ? 
yet is their fault greater who effectually 
entertain thefe prejudices , fince not only 
their own fin,but that of others will be laid 
to theii charge, and that thereby they give 
occafionof the great diforders, particular- 
ly in Religious houfes. For often cold 
effays there beget aver lion, aver fi on begets 
cabals > and thefe end in divifions, where- 
by all things are turned topfy turvy. 


Can we be apprehenfive enough of a Gn 
caufing fo flxange diforders > Is there any 
who has not reafon to fear that God will 
at the hour of his death impute to him 
that unhappy train of crimes which (hall 
only be the efTc&sof therafh judgements 
he has made? And yet the trruth is, there 
are few fins we are lefs apprehenfive of 
then this. Every one ads as if he were 
infallible, and out of danger of being pre- 
judiced or deceived ; And at the fame time 
that we acknowledge how common this^ 
fault is, and very often accufe others of it * 
*we imagine our fel ves almoft alwayes ex- 
empt from it* The reafon is , becau£ it 
is almoft alwayes as much hid from thofq 


2>f Ka$ JuDgmcnt^ 303 

who commit this fault againft others , as 
it isyifible to them that others fall into' 
it againft them } for felt love equally pro- 
duces thefe two effcds, to conceal this m 
our (elves, and make it appear in others. 
Thus as difcourfes made in general gives 
concupifcence little offence, becaufe it finds 
it felf unconcerned therein, fo do they (land 
us in little dead , becaufe we alwayes ap- 
ply them to others rather then [ta our 


The way we take to conceal from our 
felves this fault; is a refined one hard to 
be (hun'd : For it comes from the ill ufe of 
a maxime true in it felf, when taken in 
general , but which in particular weabufe 
inperceptibly. This maxime is that we 
are forbid to judge, but not to fee, that is; 
to yield to evidence. " Thus taking our 
judgements for things evident and feen, we 
fancy them fafe from all that is faid againft 
the rafhnefs of judgements. We tiever 
judge, we alwayes fees all our imagina- 
tions are evident truthes, arid thus we 
,ftifleall the reproaches our conferences can 

upbraid us with. 

But if felf- love did not blind us, it 

would be an eafy matter tomake us jufily 


3 04 CMMtttcttfft 

diffident of this pretended evidence. For 
there would need no more, buttooblidge 
us to rtikd on thofe we think guilty of 
faflmefs in the judgements they frame of 
us,, and to make us hi them obfcrve all 
thofe very difpoilt ions whereon weground 
the pretence of our juftirtcation. They as 
well as we take, their rafhdi judgeoamts . 
Sox mod evident truths: who them will 
allure us that we do not fo too , and that 
we are the only ones exempt from this . 
common ill u lion. 

Ti*t juft fear we ought to have Jtail, 
we as weH as others ihotrid he deceived v 
obliges us then , to tahe our fttaes that . 
advice we would give to fudh as fnifcr 
thewfelves to run into raft judgements 
Jtnder pretence that it is lawful , to fee, 
though it he not to judge, To fijeh with- 
out doubt we&ould fay f - that fmce there 
is a naultitude of people who are deceived ■. 
in imagining they judge not 9 hut only fee, 
what's before their eyes > Chrtftian pru- 
dence commands us even to fhun theft 
fights, when they arc not neceffary , be^ 
caufe it forbids, us rafhly to expofe on*; 
felves to danger. He that thinks he fees, . 
may he deceived , in taking that For Dghr, 
4fld v ewteut, which in rifc&jis only n/h~ 

judgement. Bat he who. feet not ^ nor 
$i ves his mind to fie > it not deceived, be- 
c*ufe he judge* not at all : We ought 
therefore to take this couifc a* often . as 
we ate not obltdgcd to fee, . 

- XVI. 
Soirc Without qucftron will 6y r that 
it is not in our power whether we fee or 
Ho * This being a neccfliry comfequence of 
nour unrieifiandiogs^uui which often makes 
iuch lively jmpreflions there , that it is 
impolfible 'to refill them. Bat this is not 
generally true, or rather it is feldom to 9 
Jkcaufe < there tie but few obje&s that 
4irikethe undemanding fo vehemently as 
to force it to yield and proceed to judge- 
ment? On the contrary, 'tis for the rnoft, 
ipart tc^uifd that we apply our fdves t*. 
<c0nfidar things, and 'tis this voluntary 
*f$tytogour fctocs to confider die faults, 
of others, which C^rii&^pre&na ought 
to retrench in fuch as are not oblidged 
by their place to be Watchful to correct 


; Whoever fall be cartful! not to let/ 
Wsmind run afier thtfe ufcfefe rcfle&kms 
on the a&ions of others; fkafl very rarely 
find htmfclf in * condition not to be able to 

abftain from judging of them* . For there 


306 C&e fifth Cteatffe, 

are (bene geueral rcafons which incline us 
to doubt of what we have not examined 
withcare. And as it is a fufficierit anfwer 
to thofc who ask our advice , to tell them 
we have not as yet thought on what they 
demanded » fo it is nb tefs reafonable to tell 
our feives the fame , and to fufpend our 
judgment on this general consideration, 
that we ought not to judge till we have 
weighed all circumftances, and that as yet 
we have not done fo« 

We may therefore already convince 
them of a great fruit , who defend them, 
fcl ves by this pretended maxime, , that it, 
is lawful to fee, though, it be not to judge * 
•by (hewing them that they have been 
t afh and timerarius in applying themfelves 
to confider what they pretend to (ce in 
others , and that the charity they owe to 
themfelves, oblidged them to divert their 
fight, to the end they might fufpend their 


But there remains yet another duty 
more certain and more palpable , which 
cuts off a great (hare of t Weevils which 
are caus'd by rafh judgments > and 'tis this : 
Let the evidence we think we have of our 
Neighbours faults i^never fo great i yet 
Chriftian prudence forbids us to difcover 


\ • 

them to others, when we are not there- 
unto engaged by our place, nor oblig'd by 
any certain benefit. By this means, though 
we had judg'd rafhly of them, yet fhould 
we be only accountable for our rafhnefs, 
without becoming guilty of the bad eflc&s 
it may produce in others. 


This pra&ice is not only ufcfulto regu- 
late our words, and cut off the ill confe- 
quences of Rafla Judgments > but infinite* 
ly more to regulate die Soul it felf, and Co 
corred the temerity of thefe. Judgments 
in their, very fource* For we tcarce ever 
give liberty to our undemanding to judge 
of the faults of others , but to talk of 
them > and if we made them not the fub* 
)eft of our difcourfe, we fhould infallibly 
ceafe to reflect and judge thereof. More- 
aver , by fpeakidg we become intereffed 
and engaged to. maintain what we have 
faid * and lb lefs fufceptible of whatfbever 
may fervc to undeceive us. 

But as there are fome occurrences 

wherein it is impoffible not to rcfled on 

fuch faults as are folly expos'd to fight, 

others wherein it is difficult not to fpeak 

thereof > and there are even fome who are 

oblig'd by the duty of their place to do 


'30% C|«JF«$Ct*atffe, 

both the one aid the other : We malt 
yet fearch for other femedics agamft the 
danger of Rafh Judgments. 

The tnoft ufeful without doubt will be 
thdfe which we (hall apply to the original 
caufes thereof the principal of which arc*. 
as we have (aid, malignity, precipitation, 
and an over- weening arifedion to our own 


Malignity it cur'd by filling the Heart 
with Gharity, and drawing it down from. 
Heaveq by the means which the Hfcly Scri- 
pture difcovcrs to u?. It is curd by often.* 
reflecting on the Yertues and good quali* 
tics of others > by turning our Eyes fronv. 
their faults , and by refkding much 01* 
Out ftlitsy and our own tmfa ies* 


Precipitation or over^&rwatdncfs is at* 
red by aceuftexmng our fd ves to a flo wer 
pace in our Judgments, and to take mote 
time to conficfer circumftanoes, being per- 
fwaded that What » true today, will be 
as much fo to morrow, and that thus 
there will be no harm in taking more time 
toconfiden by flopping and moderating 
the ifrtpetuofity of ones Spirk, and the 
Hghtnefs of ones Tongue, even in things 
evident, that thereby we may inmire them 


itot to ran headlong in things doubtful 

That overweening afledion to our own 
fentiments, is owed by the continual re« 
fle&ions we ought to make on the weak* 
nefe of oar own wit, and by the expe- 
rience we haw of its illufions, and of 
thofe of others : And one of the proiita- 
Weft things we ibould do, towards ma- 
king advantage thereof, would he to keep 
a Regi&er of all the furprizes we (hall 
have fain into, by following too lightly its 
impreffions. I fay we (hould have a Rc» 
gifter of them, and often refrcfh it in our 
memory as an Objed trom whence we 
may learn Humility. But our felf-love 
does quite contrary* It Wots out of our 
mind all the Ra(h Judgments wherein our 
preemption hath engaged us, and pre- 
icrvesa lively Idea of tho(c,which,though 
in themfelves Ralh, have by a piece of 
Chanct-tnediy prov'd true. We are over*, 
joy'd to fay, fiich an one has not deceived 
toe i I have always found him to be what 
he is, 1 could never have a good conceit of 
bim. Whereas we never fay to our fcl ves: 
I was rniftaken in fuchand fuch occafions * 
(uch and fuch I have thought guilty of 
certain failours, which I have found to be 


3 io Clic IFfflfo ZMtift, 

very falfe. I have flightly in fuch and fuch 
occafions yielded to that impreffien others 
would give me, and I have fince difcovered 
that I did ill to receive it foeafily, with- 
out looking for other proofs* 


By thefeand the like means which the 
defirc of mending themfelvcs makes thofe 
find out, who are vigorouflyand fincercly 
touched therewith, we may cure and take 
away the laufes of Rafh judgments : But 
we ought alfo to combate them more di- 
re&Iy, by applying our felves to difcover 
them by the light of Truth, In this 
fearch we (hall find , that for the moft 
part there is fomething of clear and evi- 
dent in what engages us in an error. But 
our temerity confifts in letting our Judg- 
ment over-run our fight, and in not ob- 
ferving that we comprife things therein 
which we fee not, that is, which are not 
evident. - 

For Example , we condemn certain a- 
&ions, becaufe it is evident, that for the 
moft part they are criminal > and we do 
not take notice that they may be accom- 
panied with fomc extraordinary circum- 
ftance,.. whereby they become warran- 


Now to judge equitably, it fufficcs not 
to know Truth as circurafcrib'd within 
certain limits , we muft know it in its 
whole extent* Thus when the queftion 
is, whether we ought to condemn fome 
a&ion or other thing, we muft demand of 
our felves, whether this a&ion or thing 
can by any circumftances become warran- 
table h and after that, examine not only 
whether thofe circumftances cffe&ively are 
there, but whether we are fully convinced 
they are not there to be found* 

For we ought always to have this 
Maxime in mind, that not to judge » it is 
fufficient not to be afcertain'd of the fault* 
whereas to pafs fentence nothing ought to 
be wanting to make up a full evidence. 

If we were careful often to put thefe 
queftions to our felves, we fhould cut off 
a great number of Rath judgments, which 
remain' d concealed from us -only, becaufe 
we will not make refle&ion thereon. 


As we often ground our Judgments on 
general fuppoOtions which are not true, 
without certain limitations , fo alfo we 
often conje&urC rafhly all hidden inten- 
tions, fuppofing that fuch an exterior a- 
<ftion, ( wherewith we are offended ) did 

proceed from fuch a jdefign, whilft'we do 


not take notice that the 6me outward 
a&ion may fpring from feveral different in* 
tehtions, and that we are not capable of 
comprehending the infinite number of hid* 
den motions and confideration$ wbich 
might produce it. . 

Wherefore no Judgments are fc palpa- 
bly rafh, as thofe by which we pretend to 
dive into the motives and intentions of 
others ; principally when we afar the that 
to them whkh they dffavow \ and we may 
even fay> that there is in thefe kinds of 
Judgments fotnething more injurious to 
God Almighty than in others, fince he 
hath in a ipecial manner referv'd to him- 
felf the knowledge of the fecrets of Hearts, 
and that he hath granted it neither to De- 
vils , nor even to Angels , according to 
the Fathers. & 


It often happens too, that whilft we 
are not abfolittely deceived in condemning 
certain things, becaufe in reality they are - 
ill v yet we carry our Judgment too far 
by determining to what degree tfaey are 
criminal > and this is a manifefl rafhnefs. 
For God alone knows the meafure of our 
faults j there being athoufand things un- 
known to Men, which either augment or 
diminifli them, Often what we look on 


is a great tin, is not fo to that height 
as we believe , ' fince want of know- 

^e inadvertency , a good in tent i- 
, . , the dark mitts of (bme violent ten- 
tatioiv may much diminkh it before al- 
mighty God 9 and feften on the other 
fide thofe faults we take for peccadtU 
lios ,• 'appearand are great in Cods judg- 
ment for the ill root from whence they 
fpring. „ 


It is another fort of ra(h judgment,' 
when w- look on certain faults in our 
•neighbour as fix'd and fubfifteitt , though 
we be not affured that God looks on 
them as fuch there, or that they may no* 
be either tooted out by pen nance, or cufd 
by an abundance of charity. For here 
again *fe pafe beyond the bounds of hu- 
mane knowledge ,* and gif e (entence of 
what we fee not : All that can be faid of 
thefe perfons , ki cafe we are oblidg'd to 
fpealr of them , is only that they have 
committed fuch or fuch a fault ; But that 
we do not know whether they have re**' 
paired it by Pennance 9 by works of Cha- 
rity , or thofe other means God furnifhes 
us with to blot out our fins. Thus the 
judgment we make that fuch aft one is 
highly guilty, or farther -removed from 

p Go $ 

514 Cfreftftfjtteaftfc 

Godsfamu then another, are. raft and 



: fo^.it eu^i£:tor)be obfcnred that it 
fn|fi$fS;B0t tD jdldga fbn tfao nwfti pan of 
ptftkulaft adioav we: firame detcrnmat^ 
ch*«i&e*s cHl tbc;ptrfotis tticanfel^s, Wa 
Jookofc forae* ai irepcrfdrfi and. coat titifu 
tiUf^im-olhe^afi xwarth ritea™ and ho* 
riour. Thefe, we fay, are good for nothing, 
others we command '& perfons of great 
WGsfb* NqW it ofien happens that fio- 
thiogl* TOOtf t$fftewaeions» dbenithrfe judgt- 
mesusb For thert art ferae who fcew ttttte 
of \what they, hatfe in tfcem of giod : 
Qtbc^ ia whQOfcttooift is tx> be fetf* then 
fhey V^*. ThtfC aire feme whofe fault* 
ase matfl vHjWfe aftdioffenfirc m -ottefe* 
who for?, all that* Jm\te a* gpoiuid-woi* of 
light aud e<j»fcy> and' a fixture to their 
dTefttfial duties , whteh fuftain and hold 
thertvup m impofJanl ocoaitttK* THetti 
ajc others qb thtf contrary T who being 
guilt^offtw^XtsetJat faudnjhavea certain 
3efe& of fo^rtajbntedvktwwltdge, atid 
are guided by. certain fearer iiuerefts un-, 
known to them&lvcs, which in emergen- 
cies of confequ^nce produce g*cat»difor- 
ders* QnJy Godcan difcoverthetecWte* 
rent temperas Bu formen, tfce n»rc they 


we in this particular to acknowledge 
their ignorance and bHndnefs, die more 
ought they to be referv'd in the com- 
panions they make of perfons , and in 
the judgments they fratfce on the' view 
tf f their particular a&fons% 

If it be a matter of difficulty to Ihtm 
tafh jadgrtienfs when we are wifneffes 
fcurfehres of what we fenteace , and that 
we ground our drives' on our' own pro- 
per knowledge > it fhall yet be much mors 
difficult , when we build on the teftifnony 
and knowledge of ofhert. For befide* 
that, theu our evidence is muehleft, we 
take a greater liberty to "judge -, as if the 
fitf were only to be charged on him- who 
judges firft : amd<^rtrarutricates his thoughts 
to others: Mean while it is not fo. The 
reports made us *of our neighbour feem 
oiriy for figns , by wfticjr we ought to 
fhrtifc r ;bifr - iud|metrfs. : * : 0f theft figtrs 
fomearc certain, others not fo> and as 
we may reli>e on^kofe^ we have a right 
tfe &ke for cettaiu , fo arttb is it to judgs 
raftly-y to buHd' on fuch as are iaccr- 
•faiit; ' : ' ■-•■•• 

• r, N6* ! bitty* fiW tfepOrte ait uncertaftf, 

«ut-ai^efftatiarefcr : ,and When wt found 

r. ; p z things 

*• „«k 

3i6 CfjeiTO %tmi% 

Jthipgs to the bottom , we (eldom fail of 
finding more or left then what is told, 
Paifion and want -of evennds in judging, 
almoft alwayes dilguife or change truth 
in thofe di&ourfes which men make con- 
cerning one another. Thofe who feem to 
be moft fincere and without the leaft fu-_ 
(picion of impofture, or lying, deceive us 
fometimes , becaufe often they firft de* 
cehre themfelves. Some there are who 
will give you their reflexions and judg- 
ments as matt ers of Fad, and who making 
~nb diftjn&ion betwixt what effedive- 
ly has happened , and their own dedu&k 
ons, out of boththcjfe makeup the body 
of their (lories. Thus we can almoft 
build nothing of certainty on the re- 
ports of others > .and a$ it is a rafhnefs to 
ground ones judgements , on things un- 
certain » and ilnce moft relations are fuch, 
it follows that the grcateft part of judge- 
men ts grounded thereon, are rath and un- 

xxxi J 

It ieems excludable from hence , that 
men are xo be bclievM in nothing , and 
that .we ought to examine every thing 
our felvcs when we cannot abftain from 
judging. Yet it is evideAt, that the com- 
merce of life, and the fociety amongft men, 


SX Eaflr IuUgmcnt3. 3 1 7 

permits not this* There is t ncceffity . 
of grounding an infinite number of thing* 
on the relation «f men, and thole of the 
greateft moment* even to give fcntence 
thereby very often of life and'death. % A. 
man is; condemned to die upon the <fc~ 
pofition of two witnefles. Some are ad- 
mitted to places in Church and State* 
fome excluded upon the tefttmonies of 
others;. And thefc teftimonies are only' 
reports, amongft which it cannot be de* 
nyed, but fome are very uncertain. How_ 
then is it poffible to reconcile the indi- 
fpenfabic obligation we have not to judge 
but upon certain and evident figns , with 
the neecfiity of relying often on the re- 
ports which one man makes of ano- 


' ' This difficulty is rcfol v'd by diftinguifti - 
ingthe knowledge fufficient, to a& from 
that which /is ncceflary to frame an ab* 
folute judgment of the truth of things; 
To proceed to a&ion on reports , it fuf- 
fices that we are oblidg d to ad and can- 
not come to a dearer knowledge of the 
truth. I am oblidg'd~to prefer one to 
fuch a charge* fuch aft one is prefented 
who has the teftimonies of men of worth 
I Know* thefc teftimonies are uncertain* 

P 3 and 

318 £fc tf tfti) £ teatt fr, 

and Mook on tfedm as fach : But becaufe 
I have bo means of arriving at a greater 
certainty , this ought to be fufficient to 
determine me te *&, provided I lie mv» 
dcraneccflttyof a&iag. And tbe judg- 
x|fnt whereoa theft 4iiod of a&ipnsare 
grounded, became it is not uncertain, 
i rnplyes nothing elfc; but that I have got 
the greateft aflura^ces I could of tbe me- 
rit and worth of Urn I have thoftn. 

Thus a Judge paffing faience agaioft 
one that's actufed, judges not ra&ty, 
though he (houjd wndowi <xne that i* 
innocent -•> focude i* tlae* -not *hfolw^ 
ly judge tha^t he isgp&y t but that be t* 
conviaed of being fip according tfr thf 
forms of jufticc.. 

Thus an Abbefs who excludes out of 
her Convent fome yotaig women upon 
the teftimonks of one who has had the 
charge of her , judges not raflily » becauft 
(he judges not absolutely that the maid 
deferves exchifion , but only that tbofe 
whom (he ought to ttuft having judg'd 
fo , it is the will of God {he fhoitJd tiot 
ftay fa that Manafter y, - ' .• 


On the lame maroer we may judge 
that 'tis no prudence to eroploy fteh or 
fuch of whom we have heard feme di£- 


0f Eaf& JMtMtf 3 1$ 

advantageous reports y without fudging 
for all this that thefe reports are tree. 
It is enough tba* We 4o sot know they 
are falfe, to have a juft night to ufe thefe 

For we ought to make a great difc 
ference betwixt the j augment whereby 
we abfolutely condemn fuch an tine, and 
the rational precautions we may ufeahtut 
hirrs without judging* 

A full certainly isneceffary for an ab- 
folutc condemnation , but apparent figns 
and proofs are fui&cieni motives foe war- 
rantable precautions 

I 4m told for example, thaffuchan 
eof k+ chc%t , thofc who*b!d mcfo arc 
perfons of evedit* I h*we m> tk4e trhere* 
upon to condemn him f to -call him cheat, 
or one of no faith. But I am not forbid 
to fear engaging inteirefts with him , and 
to obfarve him nearer then another were I 
* to deal with him. 

The truth is, iris agaiaft juflace to 
frame an abfolute judgment, rhut tuch ao 
one is guilty upon uncertain motives : 
But it is impefibte aUb 40 jodgc ihiim cer- 
tainly innocent^ wh^n the fufcicions 
againft bim greftfiOMg «0Sgb* 4^d faro* * 
Kd*ted by nothing elfe. Nov the re- 
ports of fitch as w$ believe fiocore 9 hold 

P 4 the 

52o C|jeirfft6CteattC?r 

the rank of fuch fufpicions*, They neceffiirr- 
ly therefore bring it into doubt, and being 
brought thither, we are not forbid to adfe 
according to that condition , though in 
it we are not permitted to pafsan abfoluts 


This is the courfe we ought to take in 
thofe emergencies where aft ion is riecc- 
ffary, though we want certainties to 
build upon. But 'out of fuch neceflity, 
for the molt part little regard is to be 
had tq the relations of others, fince few 
arc exa^ly true i as we every turn might 
learn by experience, were we careful to 
obferve it. Nay we ought to with never 
to inpirre the obligation of a&ing oo 
fiich uncertain grounds/ We ought to 
give the leaft credit we can to thefe re- 
ports , and alwayes keep our minds in a 
difpofition to receive with joy a contra- 
ry impreflion, in cafe it happen by Corns* 
accident we be informed of (bmething that 
deflroys thefe. 


But though the dtftruft we may con- 

# ceive on reports made us of otlr neigh- 

* buors adtions be not abfolutcly forbid f as I 
have faid , and that it be inevitable and 
involuntary, yet irit never-lawful to ac- 

quaint others with it, becaufe few arc fo 
refer v*d as to flop there, and not ad- 
vance diffidence and diftruft even to ab- 
fblute condemnation i and yet fewer who 
can refrain from telling the fame tale to 
others in their turn too. Befides this , 'tis 
a matter of no fihall difficulty to redreft 
the(e difadvantageous imprclfions , as we 
are oblidgM to do when we come to 
kiicw clearly thefr innocence whom we 
have thus decry'd* and that the m'mdi 
that -ffevc entertainM thofe fufpjcions, 
continue bent and inclin'd to take in ill 
part things indifferent of themfelves , and 
to afcribe them to the prejudices ifee 
Have givea them- Wherefore we mult 
have great and folid reafons to build there- 
on a right of communicating to others 
thofe rumours "and reports which arc 
not intirely certain , and yet give occa- 
fions of fufpicions. That a man to whom 
thefe difcourfrs are mad<J ought to have a 
notable concern and intereft to be adver- 
ted of them. We ought farther to be 
affur'd of his difcretion; and moreover 
our difeourfe ought fo to be rated with 
precautions , that we give him not the 
lefaft ground t>f framing a (teddy and fixt 

Behold herein-part what may bs faid oV 

p 5 thefe 

522 C^ JTtf tlj Cteatifc , 

thefe kind of raft judgments , which caufe 
fcrupks in dhrdut people, when they per- 
ceive they have fallen into them. But 
there arejothcrs which axe fcarce confi- 
der'd at all, though they are as dange- 
rous, and corrupts little left the minds 
6f thofe to whom they are communi- 

. Firft we fancy that fuch rafh judg- 
ments are to be fluin'd which are made 
of the living, but that the dead ate left 
. in prey to the obloquies of men > becaufc 
.their judgments can now do them no 
harm. But this is molt falfe, as are alfo 
the reafons which are brought to give if; 
fome colour. Rafh. judgments are^ffifu- 
tiaJly Ul , becaufe contrary ty Gods truth* 
and this reafon takes ; jpjacs as well fat 
the dead as living* Betides, j t is not true, 
that we are perfe&Iy operated from 
him: If that commerce y?f have here 
amongft our (elves is not at an end witf* 
them, yet we ceafe not. to be united t a 
them; they continue to! be our brethren 
and members of the fame body » if wth> 
God as weought to. prefume, and it is 
fo far falfe that we have more ?i$ht to 
condemning becaufe deceased , that on 
the contrary we have *nuchlefs, fince the 


otfcer life is properly that whete -God 
ex«rcifes his judgment, and where that 
of men has nothing to do* 


Secondly , not only we are forbid to 
judge of others, whether alive or dead; 
becaufe they have their judge, to wit* 
God almighty > but we are even forbid 
to judge of our felves in thole things 
wherein, we know not our felvts* A 
f houfand things of this nature pafs with- ^ 
in our hearts which we nraft leave to 
Cods judgment * becaufe we fhould only 
embroife pur (elves without profit. Should 
we undertake to difcern them, and it is 
pever lawful for us to let our judgment* 
rangt out of tk limits of our know- 
ledge. Betwixt thedifppfitienwfcoGght 
tphave for our (elves , ibid |he& wc (hohty 
be in fat others r there ia only this di&* 
fence; that we (hauld defirc to Jgbow out 
felves in all our faults \ on the cofctmy - 
we (hould be glad to have nothing to 
do, wi$h|udgiogo^hei» iuaad not to know 
any thing that might oblidge us to co*H 
demn .them. Only fuck mifts as rife a- 
gainftovrt wills and we* cannot di{fipitte> 
ought to hinder us from judging and coo 
demning our felves \ whereas cxt the con- 
trary > nothing but evidence ought ta 

force us to pais fentcncc againft bthejrs- But 
whether we judge o our felves or others, 
we lie under the fame law, of not judg- 
ing definitively without full aiTurance, 
and of paying that refpedt to Gods truths 
refer vigg .to him the judgment of things 
eWcure and uncertain. 

Thirdfty , 'tis ordinarily ieltev'd that 
r a (h judgments are then ofily to be 
Uam'd when we judge ill of, and con- 
•detriB others, and we make nofcrupk of 
judging rafhly .in favour , fiftce there is no 
malice in doing fo. But though this fault 
be of a lefs ftze , yet it is one v becaufe ie 
iscalwayes contrary- to. truth and reafon*^ 
There is a middle betwixt judging 
ill and* judging well, which 1 is not to 
judge at alt j betwixt blameing and 
praifing , which i* to do -neither. We 
rauft knew to judge ilh no left is re ^ 
quir'd to judge well .or to praife, and* 
thus it |s *thc part of thofe who have ' 
knowledge., to da neither .the ci*c or th^ 

xxxixv ■ . * • 

Befides that refpe& and fubmiffkm* 
#hich we owe to that eternal law , which - 
obHdgcs us to moderate our words ac- 
<r?>tdin^tGr our. .knowledge , and nevcar to* 

: ' go -, 

go beyond it > we are farther oMidg'd 
to this refer vednef* bfc the concern and 
intereft of our neighbour. For we often 
do him as much harm by ra(b praifes, as- 
by an ill grounded condemnation: fincc 
thefe unadvifed encomiums incites other* 
to imitate thiofe we efteem at this rate, 
and to believe they- cannot- do am lis by* 
following their example and their max- 
imes : And this is 'properly- to au- 
thorize their faults, an J make them con- 

* XL. 

We muft not think it a fmairfault tcr 
praile a Clergy-man who refides not s*t* 
his Cure , who gathers Riches , or lives > 
amonft the Pkafures of the World v efpe- 
dally if we praife him in general , arid that 
what we fay advqntagebufly of him be 
not limited to certain particular a&ions* 
ojr qualities which defer ve it* 
• It isalfoagreat fault to praife the de- 
votion of a woman * who in cloath** 
obferves not the rules of an cxad-mo- 
defty , who pafles away her time at play 
and other diver tifements , and who takes 
little care of her family. For this is at 
the feme time to deceive thofewhom we« 
thus praife, becaufe we hereby make them 
believe* that,. there is nothing blamcablein 

\ their, 

3i6 &k fitt* Zmtitc , 

their carriage 9 ami thefc praifes contri- 
bute to their getting a fond reputati- 
on wherewith they feed their vanity -> and 
alio thole others in whofe pretence we 
praife them> fince we incline them to 
think thefe women are in good conditi- 
on , and thai they are not oihHdg'd to cor- 
redFfuch faults, as arc common to both, 
fince they hinder them not from having 
the effence and approbation of the pub- 

We mud m^ke account, that the 
world hardly believes that God con- 
demnes what man praifes * or if it does, be* 
lieve it little feels it. Thus to free oux 
felvcs from the harm we may do others. 
ip pralftng what God ttames, vc muft en- 
deavour to be exad inp ttifing only whan 

r But the raft judgments, the moft un- 
known to the generality of the worlds 
are thofc which have for ohje# the rules 
of condu# and morality, for there is 
alnaoft aq bqdy t.o be found, mho- fcrupfWs 
tp, advance in difcourfe feveral judgments. 
' of this nature , that is, maximes concer- 
ning anions and things good and evil > of 
which they have no affurancej nor have 

"* eve* 

evet examined t and yet may often be both 
very dangtf ous, and very falfe. 

. xLIII. 

To comprehend well how great this 

(auk is, and what ill consequences it may 

have , we muft confider that the Law of 

God by which we ought to regulate our 

adtions, is nothing but that eternal J uft ice 

and truth which prafcribes all duties to 

man, and- which makes all things good 

or evil, as it approves or condemns them > 

gnd that this juftice, and this truth are 

nothingelfcbut Godhioifdf: So that to 

oppofe truth and jufiice, istooppofeGod* 

acid thwart his will. Now this Law and 

this eternal Juflice , to which we ought 

to bear a conformity , does not only con* 

lift in the general precepts of the Ptot/'gi** 

nor only copdemn.c^rtaingrofs Gas kjnoW 

to -all Cbriftians, as Thievery, Murder* 

falfe witnefs : But it comprehends farther 

all the coniequences doduceable &om thefe 

general precepts , and particularly from 

{hat of loving God and Our Neighbour; 

And fo it generally fhfbkh; all ft>«t of fins 

what foe ver they be , fioce thaw af e none 

that are not contrary thereunto \ nay 

they are only (ins for that contrarietyt 


There are fe w Chriftians as I have find* 


31% CIjc iTiftt) etcittffe 

who are not acquainted with the Ten 
mandmnts , as to certain grofs and pal- 
pable duties : But there is not one who J 
knows them perfc&ly as to all the con.- ] 
fcquences whether mediates immediate, | 
which may thence be deduct Ahd 'f is in 
a (hallower or deeper penetration into 
thefc confequences thatthofe different de* 
grees of light and knowledge which we 
find in Christians principally confifts. 

• Now we rauft* know that when thfcy 
are ignorant of fome of thefe confc^ 
quences , and that this ignorance caufes 
them to do artfifs , they- are not therefore 
e&cufable, nor exempt from faulty fince 
this ignorance has its rife from concu* 

ETcence which keepa thefe confequences 
d, and from the little care tbey have to 
beg of God that light which is neceflary 
to difcover and make them know their 
duties ; laftly it comes from the fihall de- 
lire they have to get out of this ignorance, 
from the Jove they bear to it-} and their 
being often glad not to know thofe Laws 
they have no defire to keep. • 

Were our hearts clean and ' pure, th6 
l/aw of God would be alUightfome taus t 
that parky would make day in every 
corner , and wc (hould fee in every occur- 
x4ncc what God cxpsds of us.- If -there- 

Of Roff) JuOgmcnt^ 329 

fere we fecit not, 'tis the impurity of our 
hearts that blinds and cafts theft mitts 
about us. 

It is therefore certain that this ignor 
ranee is no excufefor thpfe fins we com- 
mit againft the Law of God even in thofe 
moft hidden' confequences v though they 
ate more or lefs enormous as thefe cone 
iequences are more or lefs immediate, 
clearer or obfeurer : &s it- is more or. left 
cafie to get inftru&ions * or laftly as this 
ignorance is more or lefs voluntary. 

-.. XLV. 
And as we contrad a guilt by the leaft 
deeds oppofite to the will of God > fo i$ 
this guilt great when we attack and fct 
our (elves againfr it dire&ly , by main* 
taining maximes quite oppofite thereun- 
to. For this Law being truth and 'God 
himfclf, we combate God and truth when 
we combate it : and it is as far frdm ppf- 
fible that (hould ever be innocent v as it 
is impoffible God (hould ever approve it r 
becaufe that were to difown himlelf. 

Neverthelefs did we examine the dif- 
courfesof men , we (hould find them fall 
fraught with maxirnfs contrary to the law 
of GotL Carnal Chriftians oppofe it- in 
clear and evident confequences, and feme 
even of thrfe who would pafe for vcrtu- 


330 C&e JTcftfj Ceeatf ft> 

ous and dev out ones , often opjx>(e it in 
thole that are obfcure and father fetch't* 
In fine, there's fcarce any who does not 
meafure law by the eil of his own under- 
flawing # and condemn what he diilikes o& 
comprehends not; 


For example, hoyv many are there pro- 
feffing themfelres CathoUcks, who not 
content to blame the vices of Religious 
perfons , utterly condemn the life it felf 9 
as a life of idle and ufekfs people* To 
what end, fay they, (hould there be a fort 
«f folk hufy'dabout Gating , without do- 
ing any thing for «the ibeae&t of others ?■ 
Intfayiqg fo, they condemn* kind of life 
which the fprit of God has iiafpir'd* 
which the Church of God has approved, 
and which is raoft conformable to the 
condition of man in ibis world. They 
therefore di*e#ly soontzadift the truth* 
of God,and foiail into a raoft falfe,and naoft 
temerarious judgment. 


There axe others who in general con* 
demn great aufterities , and Took. on the 
pra&ccrs thereof as fcople without wit 
and befide themfelves ; Thus, they wtt- 
de«m the very principle* of religion, 
which oblidges man to a continual pe«fc 


aaace, and leads him to repair his faults* 
by fevcrely pnniftung them in this world. 
. How mush of t his fame mixes it felf in 
die difcourfes of Maximes of interefiv 
contrary to the Rules which the Law of 
God prefcribes, (hould be obferv'd in un- 
dertaking of all charges, and principally 
EcrfeGaftical ones* 


It is true, that thofe-who make particu- 
lar jprofeffion ofPkty, fall not into tkfe 
grots faults ; but they often ohferve not 
that they fall into others* which qeafe not 
to fee of ag*eajt tonfapaenc?. 

They mj&e God ad acco*ding to their 
fancy* as if his Jnfttae and Jtfjsacy were at 
thek dilftffe. God will foj$i?e thefe 
kind of fins, fay they v lie will not impute 
fitch and .fuch faults \ to repair fnch and 
fucb crimes, fuch and fuch exerctfes will 
fuffice. They limit Vertue to what they 
know of it > as if Gods Law could go no* 
farther than their petty light and know-, 
ledge. They talk of the ways of condu- 
cing Souls , as if they were acquainted 
with all the Rules » theie they approve, 
t&ofe they condemn. They tell you, that 
the conduct of certain ditediions is toofe- 
vere; Tfaey pcawfe thefweeftiefcand indul- 
gence of othdf s % They put Men in Peace, 



3 $1 Cite f tftfc Cteattfe, 

without knowing whether they have mf 
ground to be in Peace, and give affurances 
which God gives not* They, without 
confuting any, or farther examining, de>~ 
dde a World of Cafes touching ordinary 
condu&, by the firft glimpfes which ftjrikc 
their lye* Who fees not that alVthis is 
full of temerity, and by confequence un* 


The ordinary excufe of thofe who do 
thus, is, that they are not appointed to 
teach others, that they fpeak what they 
think, that if one would fpeak fo exactly, 
he muft fay nothing at alii fo* the reft 
that none has any deference for their fentU 
ments, and To they are not rcfponfible for 

But how vain and frivolous are thefc ex* 
cufes b For it is fo far from being more 
lawful to propofe falfe Maximes, becaufc 
one is not appointed to teach others i 
that on the contrary * as thofe in'this con- 
dition have lefs obligation to fpeak,fo have 
they lefs excufe when they (peak rafhly. 
Thoie who are in place where they are o{>- 
lig*d to judge of feveraWhings, may plead 
the neceflity of .their employment for ex* 
cufe, if fome time there flips from them 
feme unadvifed decifion : But thofe whg 

flX Ea$ 3Iotismettt0, 33 3 

are not, ought to be fo much the more 
exad in fpeaking according to truth, as 
to have a continual attention over their 
own thoughts and words. 

Nor is it true, that this exadnefs goes 
(b far, that its obfervation will bring us 
to fay nothing. It only confifts in. pro- 
pofing nothing* for true, but what we are 
afiur'd is fo, to hold our peace about 
things we either koow nor, or have not 
examined, or at leaft to propofeour fenti- 
irients by way of doubt, rather to inform 
our (elves, than to inftrud others. Now 
there is nothing very troubleibme in this 
t pra&ice, nay it becomes eafieas we prove 
faithful therein > for by often examiqing 
the Maximes we propofe, we become 
more fteddy in thofe that are certain , we 
difcharge our felves of thofe that are not 
fo, and we learn to propofe both the one 
and the other according te that degree of 
certainty that they have, and vye have of 

Laftly, it is utterly falfe, that Maximes 

, againft Truth, propos'd by fuch as are not 

in authority do others qqharm, and that 

the propofers are not rqfpon&ble for them. , 


3^4 ®&e fifty Cteattfe, 

For all felfitjcs whatfetet arc capable of 
doing har^ and principally &ch as con- 
cern mantlets, ami are the Principles and 
Rules of A&ion.-ThereV»o>ewory which 
propofed, makes not sfti impreilion on tfie 
mitidy fvheri itot perfcei*e<k If thtrtf fhids 
approbation* and ftoofe \vha ha^effo re* 
criwdit, are thereby rtiorrfdHpos'd tofdl* 
torn ft \h their a&torts 1 *' Amd, asu&fon* 
are Mnfc ? a together, aHd Cloiids AfaO 
Cfeads- after th^mv fct tfte ftutfbernevet 
fo Httfc, it may bedome the frkHtfpk and 
Sourfc of many ^thets. 
. LII- 

; A Vfertwra* Mafa folly poflfefe-* withthe 
Wtt of TltttW , ' afctf featfal toP-W<krtftBi*a ' 
fr, ought t^cWryTAth^v^teit'has beea 
ft«P. T6*"he <>ti$&Wnd*' onff tb &mk 
frbm adtfcritHig tettferariou* ptopdfiftoftl 
in what regards rftariWr*-, btit eten in 
things ' ttfc ; ottfF. indijftrttrty itf q«te*ioM 
jbaitiy fei4fclfophieal,*Jff^ftdtlfe, lb tfi* 
jttdgetflerite4t<Hm*&es l o£ t$fe Ek^uence, 'e* 
the Genius of Authors-, in fine, generality 
in all things where 'truth and Falfhood 
ftiay take 'place, lie ought' t4> ! ivoid being . 
rafti, and precipitate itf pA$ti£\ beca^le 
raflnieft isr ^HvayS againft rea85» f ' and by 
accuftdm?ng of*e$.feif to thefe Brads df 
ra(h defigfls in things of fmall importance, 
lc '- an 

*a evil habit fe contracted, which after* 
ward fprcads k (elf even to things whcr c 
temerity is more dangerous: Whereas ho* 
nawirrg Truth in ftmrll matters, a difpo- 
fitfon is acquired of doing, the fame in 
greater, and God engaged no Bcftow that 
Grace upon u* 

LIT*., , 
It in true, tfrat the condition of Kfkri 
hi this life permits us not wholly to aivoid 
jtll kinds of rafluicfr* yet we are dblig'd f o 
Wifli-and cfefire we may avoid them, raid- 
bour for: it, to beg fiirccrely of God that 
ftrength and light neceflSry for that pur* 
poft, ttera* pardon for tHe faults wenivd 
made wheir fcatrwrf by us; aitfd to figh fot 
thofe that are hi<J fftyh us. Jhjs Labour, 
tfidfc PhryttV tttfrWgtfa&cTrcb &$ from 
4»mntfttmg a great nurrfbef of faults, and 
obtains jpardbn forthofe: we commit. But 
But thofe who labour not* who watcty 
rtot , viho ; pray ribt for tfcfe , hzvt not 
any right' to hope tlwftme indulgence 
fixma God* Mar cyj ;; 

lwj ; 

We ought not then; from the difficul- 
ties we meet with, in the pra&ice of 
theft T*rutbs, take occafibri to difown ahct 
impugtiifhfem ? But conclude* thence, that 
focc it is fohardtofpeakas we^ougtit; 
-- " w$ 

3 $6 C&e JPiftft Cteatife* 

we fhould fpeak as little as we can, and 
when we are obliged thereunto, to be 
very careful what we fay. It is for this 
the Scripture recommends to Chriftians 
filetice To earneftlys and that St. James 
fays in exprefe terms, That we ought to 
be prompt to hear, and flow to (peak* 
Sit autem omnis homo velex ad audhndum^ 
tar Am autem ad loqtendunu . For by hea- 
ring we acknowledge both our ignorance 
of Truth , and onr defire of learning it* 
which is very conformable to the ftate of 
Man in this life ; whereas by fpeaking, we 
profefs our felves to know, which few 
can pre tend to without prefumption, and 
which is never without danger. 


Thus the bent and inclination of a Yep- 
tuous Maa is towards filence as much as 
poffible he can, becaufe the principal light 
and knowledge of this life confifts in being 
throughly acquainted with the depth and 
greatnefs of his own ignorance. So that 
thofe who make great progrefies in hu- 
mane Sciences, for the moft part become 
peremptory and decifive » on the contra- 
ry, the proficients in the Science of God 
become more referv'd , more inclin'd to 
filence. lefs addi&ed to their own tenle, 
and lets vcnturefonie to judge of others » 


337 c&eiT!ft& timikr 

becaufe they difcover more and more 
hew" uncertain and obfcure our know- 
ledges are, how much we often deceive 
our felves in the things we think we 
know beft ; how may faults and er- 
rors we run into by haft, and precipi- 
tation in judging, and what diforders 
aire often caufed by Rafh Judgments and 1 
Advices? s 


It was the Motto of a Heathen * that 
the older ftill he grew, the more he 
learned, ynyttiu* f d « toM» Ji<fktKsfy&&'. 

•But a Ghriftian , in fome fort may take 
one quite, contrary , and fay, that as he 
grows older in the practice of Vertuc, 
he unlearns ftill many things \ that is, 
lie daily more and more discovers that 
many things which the World boldly 
proposM as Truths, and he once with 
it maintain'd for fuch, are riot only true, 
but on the contrary very falfe: And this 
gives him an extream averfion to that 
prefumptuous- decifive deportment, and 
thofe. numerous falh Maximes, which 
are propofed ordinarily without mi- 

' ftruft or fcruple by fuch as are ill en- 

• This may b: thereafon why the Scrip- 

Q~ ptuiS 


ture, reprefentipg to us the condition t>f 
a. man who has born the yoak of our 
Lord from his youth f and wfio-by that 
means has encreas'd the grace of inno- 
cency by th* continual pva&ice of vert ues * ., 
allots him no other exercife then to be 
in quiet and to hold; his peace. Beatus* 
fom quifHsvit jugum Domini ah tdolcf* 
cctttia fug Jidebct folitarius & taccbit* So- 
litude and filence are the end and recom- 
pence whither the increafe of piety leads, 
us, apd whither we come not but by.a< 
whole life of innocpney^ Since there is* 
only, this condition) which is conform- ,.• 
able to thefeaticnept , Graft, infpitfes and i 
the light it gives us-r 

The more we know God, the more.hts. 
Law appears to us , profound, admirable? 
infinite. The mo*c s we refpeft it, the more 
we fear, to offend againftit : The _ more 
we look with aftcmift went on the infinite 
wayes of God, and mans impotency to 
comprehend them, , h the more we are per* 
fwaded of the weaknefs and want of know- . 
ledge in man , and the more we hate his . 
prefumption and boldnefs* Andallthefe 
difpofesus tofpeakas little as may be 9 this, 
iff admirably welfexprefsd by the words, 
©f ^Prophet. D.W 4 U*w in Ctfc, &he> 

329 Cfte Mfrttotflfc* 

fufn w tarn , $4 cireo fim fsmi fermones* 
tnu That is to fty,God is in heaven, where 
he dwells in fplendor and light inaccef- 
fihle to man, we live in earth overwhel- 
med with darknefs and ignorance*: And 
this double knowledge oblidges us to few. 
words of what concerns God, Id circofint i 
faucifermontJ tvi. 

The more we love JESVS CHRIST, 
the more we refpeA him in his Brethren, 
and to we fear the more to hurt them , to 
condemn orfcandalize them by rafk judg- 
ments or erronius maximes. 

Thefe are the genuine motions of Chri- 
ftian Grace, they that feel them<not,ought 
to excite them in thcmfelves , by confide-- 
ring thofe truths whence they fpring , and 
endeavour to extingniih and quell dayly 
more and more that in con fide rate pre- 
fumption which makes them either rafrly 
condemne others , or at a venture propofe 
maximes of Ghriftian morality , they have 
never examin'd, and which they often 
ought to believe themfclves incapable of 
examining , becaufc they want fufficient 
knowledge of the principles they depend 
~ on.Let them to day get free of one of their 
xa(h judgments, tomorrow of another * 

asdrby this continued progrefs they will 


fl>f Ba$ 3!ifligment0t 340 

a*laftcometoa difpofitiari of refervedneis 
and humility » which will make them with 
aftoniihment look back on that humour 
wherein . they fpoke at randome of all 
things :> whereof they, were infenfible^hilft* 
they were in it. 



F 1 AC 1 S. 



— " ' . -I 


Contained in feveral 



Many Important DUTIES. 

Written in French, by 

' Mefteurs du Tort Royal. 
Faithfully Rendred into Englifh^ by 

A Perfon of Quality. 
Second Volume. 


Printed for R. Bentky and S. Magnet in 
Rujfel-ftreet in Ctment Garden, near 
the PiazAa\ MDCLXXXIV. , 

_ s_- — : , J 

* » 


SINCgtis always ridiculous to/peak 
without need, eve* according to 
the advice of one of tbegreatejt talkers 
that ever was, * in tbeje very *Cicero, 
term : It feems a piece of Jttfliee, 
which fhofe mho publtfb Books ', in feme 
fort jive tothemfehesfo lei the World 
know, they lye under an obligation to do 
it ; l& they helookt on as People, who 
knfythfmfelves in telling their Senti- 
ments on feveral matters of moment 
wbem t her e } s none that dejrres them. 

It is not hard to free" my felffrem 
this reproach, as to thejrefcnt pmlijb* 
ijtgtbis piece Of the Emotion of a 
Piraocf /or Icon with troth aver, that 
I had no thought s of mahiugpubtick any 

of the Treaties whereof 9 th compos a ; 
when Shad notice from a friend, that 
feme, having found means to Copy o ne 
aftheChhfefteftkem, hadrefeh'dto 
get it printed in feme forraine Country. 

A x *' s 


made melookmA^^pr^^as in- 
evitable^ made me aljo more yielding 
to. the Counfel he gave me tf procuring 
it *Q<$efr^d^ 

t 9 W4S Jk(PtWri4 W*6££*crtJiwfiiuhs \Ia 

bad^ik^^^V^th x M^ )tever£a&t&\ 
the pabfs fe;0f#fi.1idy\}h t JtM*wdhwh 
jome3tJ%rsj u>k#k x t&irxth\u$t-Jifa(*\ 
verdto.mty tkah vh\J^0r. </*\tffowfc im^u 
dmeiidddtA k$\p&:hfa*thc*hi^tfrf^ 
thtvtorhd. "' : .^ : vv» \ yy^V 1 ' A 

« But'atjtMs acmdbntftiHmJht mvwtk 

feme ethe\wtjt!&gs\tf tbesfim^ tin d? 
whereof £ ktrh^Cvp'xK&fad famltaken r 
and wherein. th$rt x wjasmofafa he ^r- 
rc8'edi*\ to. free nfaftiffroflt this dread 7 
&lto*gk£ ihwiuX&tiatw print 

cenftdexhile ^di0iit^n\^tMit m% ^ehi^ 
4nd-n&K4#ing any^h(n:^F^ti\n^fl 
sthexonditipH ofth<j0^kit\aK^oi^uhi¥ 
ifokofytfajkttc^yettfiefa'htl aver)/ 
frntlfatfafctm %t\ foifrg tkf^iifh$A */* 
Jiftbmt* a litttefa^^defs* \ < \ * \ vn 
a." c A . I do 

#hb Preface: 

j?"-\ff Ji notthhkit \eceffary t*patti± 
tu&atb&Mhe rtdftins;, which y hav£ in* 
4 K dutdnie to writ* the fe Tfieatifes : for 
finee they* we fie* vet made for the pnfo, 
J hey ought opely to pafs for bare and 
"mere ♦ thought Sy whtremtb^it is^iaw- 
ful for every on* to * iutertoi* I titbit 
Jbimfelfor his friends; provided they Be 
warrantable and true ones^ Itmayfuf 
jiee to*f#y turner at, that they > we fie 
madeatfevofiul times and oti fever id 
occafions i and i/tfuch circumftances, as 
wherein Ibad^tatefireafontobemifi 

finfibly toucht With the thoughts! Jnw 

endea mured toexprefa > t . * * 

*. Bumper haps fome will ihmkit firkngel 
■ that they are united 'and pUPfSrih to* 
* gether under the fame title Of the E- 

ducation of a Prince, ". to which they 
, • ail do notfeemtohave any natural- Re* 

l&thori. And the truth is 3 1 cannot deny, 
. but thai, all the Treat ifes of the third 

part were made without any exprefs. 

revard to. the. InftrpHionrtfA Prfnco ; 
y dvd.Upcm -profptkt, qgit* \4ifftrentftom 
- itiha^ % FaraU>thitM d* notthihifthat 
*>&\ A % »&* 


with reafon lean h hUmdjfer hailing, 
pstheri them together under the fame 
title ijmc* tbey are in fern fort f.eiated ; 
one te another % and that there needs «* 
great reafons far theft arhkrarymtiomu^ 

It mas neeejfary te keep the title Qi 
•be Education of a P&Hft, hcaufe it 
mis thatpmhieh ike Tnatifc kea*s % 
afnrreptitims imtrejfios whereof was 
fear J : ** d the WorUveastete a*W- 
itidnot fa maktnfeofan iUCop.Tbere 
max a&fime benefit in joymvg ihefc 
Tra&s together, and not making them 
fi maty fab a-far*. The Jeafi relation 
therefore mat fnffieient te make one 
falj of them ; W this reiotwn is here 
eefili found y jime each Piece explicates- 
■ at large feme point or other that is Jant' 
fiightiy teucbt in the tmefrfi Parti. 

It isatfo m*jttert*i*t that they con- 
cern Per/on t of quality mere than the- 
vm/rar, for the reafons there Jet domes, 
and this Juppnfid, 'tis no more a fault, 
fate* the xontrojv>a*kiantogeonsj that 
thefeTraSs,heingj^icnUr^ fnal^PJ' 
amddiretledftr the great j/hanld never- 

' - ..' the— 


thekfi prove ufeful for alL Tis in* 
cMVtm&t enough, that hooks expos d 
t*Je read hy all* fbeuid onelyiefitfor 
Jmr certain perfons, who often are tbqfe 
whe read them the lead : If ow this is 4 
ckmrgf whereof this piece is >not guilty % ,. 
Jincetbe particular advantage it may 
bring to perfons of high conditio 
cm dees net aVall hinder that general 
eke which may accrue to all the World* 
this is w9t oueiy true of certain pieces* 
AWf ouf of which 9 tis evident alf may > 
jfaem thtirfkMofpwfit%.asoHtef* 
/^,0f Gbriftian civility ,of thedan- 
<gejr of «hc difcourfes of Men, of the 
mtwd proofs of God, and of the 
00 SeneeaM the occellky «f hot , liv- 
ing at hazard, a od gwiing our fdve$ 
Jby the roles of fwey .- £** even of* 

theft which feem mofi appropriated tp • 

tie condition of t he Great % or the In- 

JtmUion of a young Prince. Every onf 

\ cannot he great \ hut every one may de-- 

fire to hhjo : Every one can envy thofe ■ 

that are Great} Jr-at kaftlya Philofo- 

A 4- ft***' 


phical pride raife himfelf alov\ themZ 

It is tlxrefote rf importance; tthat^aib 

Jhotild krioto the condition dkdh'dtahdi) 

that attend the hfe> ■ Vf St eat totosft* m 

tiietndthivkMotokdgmcy *ft\f#*bof* 

amkitkoKs'defifeSf that "malign ant. jea~ 

bufyi that prefumpfious^vanity'whicha 

^pYofptfr oft iterate of Grandeur - might 

infpitt themHoith ; and* that it "may in* 

chne them to remain quiet ^i» their 

own ft ate > and to give God thanks for 

having otdefd their birth s ivta degree^ 

though low i yet left expos' d to dangers. 

- It is more-over true, * that there are 

very fern who infotoefort do Hoi /hare 

in Greatnefsy bfiomparing themjfelves 

to thofe who are below them. Every 

Gent Urban u Great in his own Village^ 

and every Maftet in companifon of his 

Jeryant f and often thefe little Empires 

x are managd with greater jkrcenefs 

"and authority than^ thofe of real Prit- 

ves. Thus there's rtajbntoadmonijh ail 

whatfoever> not to -ahufe the authority 

' €od has "put > into theft hands\ n to be 

mindful* of:>ihat natural, equality 

: * s i ^ which 

which isietwixttkemand tbetA tnfe& 
, r'mrt ; ptd tohokfnvhejbate, ' wherein* 
they find themfelves plac'dy ds ■*'$&*& 

fl^Mlfoinghmuprofrr* *& tke&ood 
thyjrfjfitycmto'thofe wbo'dte Jkhje- K 

tt&l\teilie*a*\ v v . ■* ■> * > ■*. -••"; •'• ■ ..'; 
-^thtrrh^fewto • whM the BdueaJ 
ti^^cf V&nttvn ctrMiheJ^tarV 
tbcxe-\nt$*yiwbe are' char&d* mtk the \ 
briHgingftp tf^h'eir ton Children? orX 
ofthofe -of others ' t \wbo- are always to'. 
he loo&t, on as % young Prince* in the' 
XxHgdtmsVfjESVSC&RiSTs and in- 
iMrfe.ytnftr*ftionS .. the greatefi jktr* 
nuyMfra£biid of what h here f>ropos'd f 
f^h'the^Mdnartiwjoyfitckaf. are calF'd. 
Princes on the earth. they ought a]f& 
t& he vigilant and ch efuUn. modelling 
their jvdgvotts, in heabhingtbem \tr*t 
mjtaltty;, m\hi*fw*g:it£%rowib>)f 
their fajfions, and in fortifying tbent X\ 
^.during thtfetdebefthtirltbes. FoP 
men king t».\a&Mes\fuljeatoM* 
$m*.\fattlits& have <im\ch+wb<k hied of 
-the fame Kemvdfr T » aWtkentee&try 
vh * A 5 ; f»» 


fomfi particularly ncctjjaryto ant ewe- 
ditien, that they are ahfohtefy nfelefx 
tt dither*. 

After aUthit, if am enthefemi 
who cannot *Un> of onr mritingaB 
tbefe treaties under the Tide Of the 
Education of a Prince, they may taffy 
redrefi what here thmarts their fancy, 
*9 center im each piece atje+aroted 
from the refit mtthont any mtmexUm 
i**m* themes really they men font J # 
am! by taihrgft the Education of a 
Prince f»r enee/theje Treat ifet, and 
mi fir the general fuijeS af them «JL 
Ana they have here a pramtfe, that if 
fitch a change fi^l he knew* generally 
to plcofe, core JhaU he taken m the 
next Edition to Hot ant the Title it 
mm heart, which it the antit mark 
yfthat arbitrary connexion they leg* 
ghat. . . .:■/■-,■ ,._ - ; 

F«r what rcmaints, I Jo met ielient 
it neceffary to an/me* an- . phjeStion^ 
*>hieh cannot be made hat by fitch as 
*re Majtert <f jmalirehfo* • j and *th 
*ht£, that mbtlfiwt lay.epen to vie* 



the condition of the great, we dbninijk 
tie admiration and eficem we jhoatd 
have for them, and cenfcptcntlj effe* 
{lively UJJm their Grandeur, of which 
tbh admiration and efteem make a 
fart* It were to bewijht y that what 
they look on as an inconvenience f would 
really happen i that is% that men would 
hfe thatfalfe Idea they bavt if thefe- 
iitity of the Great, fince they would 
4ofiit with advantage both to them* 
fehes and the Great ones ; fince they 
would-be thereby more htdufd to give 
"them the real true rcjpefits which are 
due te'em according to the orders efl& 
llijht amongfl Men; and fince they 
would he farther either from contemn- 
ing and flighting them through afbUoJo* 
phtcal vanity* » raifiq^ thmfcha 
above them by a prepofierous ambition I 
They would hence become both more 
fubmiffive and thankful towards 
them ; and though they would admire 
their condition lefs, yet would they 
with more charity love their perfons. 
But the truth is % never *uy thing was 

SHfclSIl.EiFACEi, 1 ' 

pretend $${ djfa*(fe& like this thwart* 
#g the mt^tal 'utclinatio^s 4nd, cpnfr 
&ou jmptsjfitms tf mankind, flwlj 
work, any confcderAblc effefti ;,As,>long 
V»J5, cmeuftfcence jhalf reign jn.num, 

^*.pMM**r$ a*J,<ffi^r(Mnefu 
?Tu i impktf'Jfnie fwH^Wtrytf 
^perjim can <i>0he % . lighf <#\ tf^th c«?r 
_reft. and' moderate this, &x$r4j>fo 

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* * •■ ■ ■ • i i- 








■" ■ » w ■ — *»^ ^mft^mmm 


Containing the General a&m to be had 
or the well educating a Prince. 

§.i.<HQ&2? Young Prince is a Child of 

t he A I mighty /ft apart by liis 
Divine Providence, for Em- 
ployments df the greafceft 
impQrtance, tnit withal of the great eft 
danger * and rfhoo&y prove a great In- 
ftruraent cither of God'sMcrcy^or Wrath 
on Men. 

B §• *• 

* 0ff$e$toCStfOfl Parti. 

§. z. The end propofed in his Educa- 
tion ought to be,the rendring him able to 
comply with all the Duties to which his 
Condition obliges him, and to prepare 
him againft -all die dangers he is thereby 
exposM to. 

■ §. 3. A Prince is not his own : He is the 
State's. God gives him to the People in 
making him Prince. To them he is ac- 
countable for all his time. And, as foon 
as he arrives at years of Dilcretion, he 
becomes guilty of a double fault,if he ap- 
ply not himfelf,with all the care he can,to 
fuch Studies and Exercifcs,as may difpofe 
hiflrto perform all the devoirs of a Prince. 
For in miipending his time^ he does not 
oneiy wrong Himfelf, but the State to 
Whom he owes it. 

§. 4. They who are chargM with the 
.tare of his Breeding) are yet more guilty 
than He, if they do not procure Irim the 
belt, and moft worthy a Prince, that pof- 
fibly they can. For, befldes the injuftice 
they commit againft this Prince and the 
State, they moreover become guilty of 
all the faults he might have been prefer- 
red from by a good Education. 
% & 5- This Chriftian Education,direttIy 
aiming at the Eternal Happinefs of the 
Priflce^ and the good ofhis.Peojpie, and 


Varil. ; £>f a ##1We* ^ 

apt to have effe&s of infinite confequence, 
ought to be lcokt on as a thing of the 
greateft importance in the World. AU 
confiderations of Intereft and charge) all 
humane refpefts ought everywhere to 
give place to it. Nothing mult be omit- 
ted, that may conduce thereunto j and 
whatever may prove dlfadvantageous 
4>ught to be thrown alide : in Ihort. 'tis 
this m uft be lookM on as the end-all elfe 
can be confiderM only as means to it. 

§. 6. It is certain that one of the prin- 
cipl cares of thofc who are entrufted 
with this Education, ought to be,to make 
a good choice of fome one or more, to 
whom they may commit the bringing up 
this young Prince. But it is impoffible 
not to go ralhfy to work, if the qualities, 
neccflary for fuch an employment,be not 

§. 7. The ill choice (bmetiraes made 
onthe(e<occa(ions,proceeds from the low 
Idea ip have of what is neceflary for one, 
- who undertakes the Breeding of a young 
Prince. The molt part think it fufficient, 
if fochanone be not vitious ; and that he 
have fome knowledge of polite Litera- 
ture : others particularly are defi- BeUes 
rou$ that he be skillM and conver- tettrei 
J&nt in Hiftory. There are fome who re- 

. B 2 quire 

4 mm **Wati(M Kurt I. 

autre able Mathematicians ; others confi- 
er principally that which is caliM Knov- 
ing the World. In fine, they ordinarily* 
have only particular and low regards,and 
fuchasin no wife anfwer the greatnefs 
of the end, they ought to propofe to 
\ ttiemfel ves. 

£, 8. 1 1 is eafie to dUcern,Tbat ail thefc 
aims are mean,and th^t they bear no pro- 
portion to the end one ought to have in 
inftrudting a young Prince j fmceone may 
be endowed with allthefe qualities,and yet 
be no able man ;and a Prince may be very 
well inftrudted in Languages, in Hiftory, 
andMathematicks,and yet very ill brought 
up -, becaufe his judgment may be fpoiPd, 
and he not at all fram'd for any of thofe 
things which are of greateft neceflity to 
make him live like a Ghriftian Prince. 

§. 9. For Example : Hiftory is look ton 
as of great concern for Princes, and that 
not without reaibn, fince it may ftand 
them in great ftead,provided it be taught 
them as it ought. But, if neceflary ad- 
vice be pot given, it may do then* njore 
harm than good. For Hiftory of it feif 
is but a confusM heap of things done ; 
Men therein mentioned are for the mpft 
jpart vicious, unadviftd, and led on by 
. their paffions * their a&ions are pf tm 


Parti. CT##jritfcei s 

related by Writer* s of fmall judgement r 
who praife and Maine by humour, and 
who by* their difcourfes imprint a thou- 
sand ill Models and falfe Maximes in the 
minds of thofe r who read them without a 
difcerning eye. 

§. 10. A Tu^whofejudgfflefttNwere 
not. accurate, might' mak* this kind^ of 
Study much more dangerous* Such an one 
wouM indifferently fill the mind of our 
yoangPflnce with the fooleries of Books, 
and his own too j he would 'fpoii the4)eft J 
things with the ill drefs he put them in;: 
fo»that it may often happen that whilffche' 
loads his Pupilwith^onfiisMknowledge^ 
he fhallonly ftffle what Nature- may have 
beftowMoa him of right Sefrfc ot^Rea-' 
(on. » 

$.11. The greatest part of things aw 
good or bad^according as they are repre- 
fented. The Story of a wicked Mante 
Life may yield as much profit, as that o§ 
a Saint, if duely told y if its> miftry be 
laid open, and a horrour of it inftUTd : 
And the Life of a Saint may be as danger 
rousasthatbf a wicked Ma, when fb> 
defcrib'd, as inclines us either to abufe 
or contemn it. 

§, 12. Sciences have their beneficW* 
nefs and ufelefnefs > efpecially to Prin- 

B 3 «•* 

e OX t$f C&ucstion Parti. 

ces ; and they may all be taught them ei- 
ther in a low and mean, or in a high and 
elevated way. There arc few wha know 
this difference j, yet is it of that impor- 
tance, that 'tis better to be totally igno- 
rant of them, than to know 'em meanly, 
and to bufie ones felf and wade deep into 
what they have of frivolous and ufelefs. 
The praife Ttcitns gives Agricola. \% extra- 
ordinary, RetinuitqMt r cjuodtfl diffctUtmnm^ 
ex Safkntii modum. The moft part of 
thofe who are the abletf in them judge 
theworft:, bccaufethey make them the 
object of their paflion, and place their 
Glory in the nice accuratenefs, not in the 
ufe and profit of their knowkdges.There 
are fbme able Mathematicians, who ima- 
gine 'tis the rareft thing in the World ta 
know, Whether there be a Bridge and an 
Arch hanging round about the Planet Sa- 
turn. A Prince ought to be acquainted 
with fech opinions, becaufe the know- 
ledge of them cofts little : But he has 
wrong done him, if at the fame time he 
is cot taught, that thefe knowledges are , 
but a vain euriofity . For it is better to 
be ignorant of fuch things, than not to 
know that they arc frivolous, and of no, 

§. j^ Hence we learn,. That the quar 


Parti. &f SfMtlCft . r 

lity molt eflential to a Tutor fit to edu- 
cate a Prince, is -a Quality without a 
Name,and which is not fixt to any certain- 
Profeffion. It is not fimply to 6e $kill T <F 
in Hiftory, in Mathematicfcs, Languagts, 
Politicks, Philofophy, in the Ceremonies 
and interefts of Princes ^ all this maybe 
fupply*d. 'Tis not neceffary that he, who. 
has the care of inftrudinga Prince,Qiould J 
teach him all v 'tis fufficient he teach- 
himthe ufe of all. There is a neceffity he 
fliould fometimes eafe hhnfelf, and that 
whilft he prepares and ftudies to teach 
his Pupil fome certain things, he Ihould 
onely ftand by > and be a witnefs of what 
is taught him by others. But this • Qua-*; 
lity, fo eflential to his Employmefakis not 
, to be fupplyM from abroad* j& aorto be 
borrow a from others, nor procurM by 
ft udy . It has its beginning u om Nature 
and is ripen'd by long exercife and con- 
tinual reflection. Thus they,who have not 
this Quality, and are already (truck in 
Age, are uncapable of evef attaining 
to it. 

§. 14. We cannot make it comprehen- 
ded better,than by faying, That *tisthii 
Quality, which makes a Man alwayes to 
blame what is blameable, to ptaife what 
deferves praife,and to flight what is Cleans 

B 4 » 

S m ttyt <*m*tUM Parti. 

It makes a Man know what is great-, it 
. makes him judge wifely and equitably of 
ail things whatfbever," and propofe his 
judgment in a grateful way , and with 
a certain proportion to thofe he fpeaks 
to} in fine, it in all things guides the mind 
of him that is inftrufted to truth. 

$* l $* Wrought not to imagine, that 
this is always doo*. by exprefs reflexions, 
nor that at every turn it makes a Hop to 
inttillRuIcspf good and evil> trtje and 
felfey no, ontne contrary k doe?thi3 
almoft always to an infeniible manner. 
far. >Tisan ingenious turn it gives to 
tftiqgs* which expofes to view thofe that 
are great, anddeferve to be.cpnfider'd,. 
and hides what ought not to be feeny 
making Vice ridiculous, Vertue amiable y 
and iurenfibly framing the mind to tafte 
and relifh good things, and to tewe a difc 
like and averfion from bad* Sq. that it 
often hapnens, that the fame Stpry, the 
fame Maxime, which betters the mindy 
When proposed by an able judicious Per^ 
ft>n, on the contrary ferves for nothing 
but to.depirave it, when deliver' one 
not fo qpallfftL 

§. 1 6. Ordinary Tutors think them- 
fdves onely obligM to inftrudt Prin- 
ce? at. certain hours, to wit > when 


they teach them that they call their LeP 
fon. ButtheMan, wefpeak of r hasnofet 
hour of teaching, or rather he teaches 
him at every hour. For,he oftcninftru&s 
him as much: in his Play, in his Vifits, in 
Converfation,and Table*talk with thofe 
prefent, as when he makes him read 
Books ; becaufe having for principal, aim 
to frame his judgment right, for This 
hefinds the various obje&s, that offer 
themftlves, often more available than 
premeditated Difcourfes y fince nothing 
links lefs into the mind, than what enter? 
thereunder the unpleafent ffiape of a Le£ 
fbn or Inftruftion. 

§. 17.* As this way of inftru&ing is in- 
fenfiblei lb alfo in a manner is the profit 
thereby gainM ; that is, 'tis not perceived 
by certain grofs and texterior figns : and 
this it is, that deceives lhalbw CQnfiderers > 
who imagine a Child taught in this manner 

k not forwarder than* another V becaule 1 
perhaps he cannot tr an Hate better into his.' 
own Language a piece of Lain, or recife. 
more readily z Leffon out of Virgil. And? 
thus judging of aChittl's advaqce by fuck 
like fbeoleries,they ftaft often value a Tii~ 
tpr tiiuly^de, Ie0 than another^ whole* 
knowledge (hall be mean, and, ms Soiifr 
withouilight. ' ■ 

* B s * l * 


10 Of t ^ € tWCat t0« Parti. 

5. 1 8. Not that common things ought 
to be neglefted in the inftrudion of a 
Prince. They ought to learn Languages, 
Hiftory, Chronology, Geography, Ma- 
thematicks*and even Civil Law to a cer- 
tain degree. Their Jtudies ought to be 
regulated like thofe of other Persons ; 
one ought to-endeavour to make them la- 
borious, and teach them to go from one 
enjoyment to another, without leasing 
any void and unprofitable time between : 
all occafions ought to be husbanded with 
adrefsto teach them feveral things •• if 
poffible, they ought to be ignorant of 
nothing that is remarkable in the World. 
All this in it felf is good, ufeful, and ne- 
cefiary, provided we fix not here as the 
laft end of Inftruttion r but make ufe. 
thereof to frame their manners and, 

§. 19. To fafliion and frame the Judg- 
ment) is to make the Soul relifli truths,, 
and teach it how to difcern and know, 
themjtis to make it quick-lighted in find- 
ing out falfe ratiocinations ; 'tis to learn 
it not tobe dazled by the vain flalhes of 
words void of fenfe ; not to content it" 
felf with Terms or pbfeure Principles } 
and never tobe iatisfied till it have div f d 
even* to the bottom of things: 'tis to. 



Pani ®tapilntt. II 

make it fubtilc in finding where the diffi- 
culty lies in intricate Queftions, and diP- 
cern in thoft, who fly and wander from 
the point : 'tis to fill the Soul with Prin- 
ciples ufeful for the finding out of truth 
in all things) particularly in thofe>one has 
molt need of. 

$. 20. It is requifite,that an underftand- 
ing Tutor indeavour to render his young; 
Prince equally curious and skilled in 
knowing things,, and die grateful gaining 
ways of proposing them. As there are 
certain things that arefalft, fo likewifc 
are there ways and manners that are 
falfetooj that is to fay , There are wayes 
ofpropoling, which produce quite diffe- 
rent eftcds from thofe^ we defire to raifc 
in the minds of others. He who applies 
Mmftlf but to one of theft, is ufualiy de-_ 
fedivein the other: he that's knowing in 
things often miftakes grofly incircum- 
ftaoces} and one that's nice in theft, has 
often fmall skill in the other.: * Mien that 
live retired, are often faulty in the firftf 
and thoft of the World 4o fail as often 
m the other. A Prince ought to firan both 
theft defers : becaufe it Behoves him e- 
qually to know truth, and to make others 
•elifh it.. And though lie ought to be in* 
tenigentJandequit»lcenough > both to 


koow and honour Troth j esen whenafc i* 

Sopotfd with felfe and grofs arena*-* 
uces;.yeft ought ho with extreme <&m 
to avoid delivering it in fiich diftdysmta- 
gems wayjs r fince thereby the greateffc 
partofthofcihe, converfes with* may lofe 
the fruit thereof. 

S^ 2i. hsfine^fc Prince mafl: be made 
tp take notk^nliatfelfity,is to feeanet with 
every inhere: that there is a; felfe Va^ 
lour, ^MfeHon«fty, a falfe lLibemltty r 
'afalfe Gallafttry,a,falfe Eloquence, felfo 
RaiUcry, felfe Agreeablaneds. Henw& 
look very new soft to take the one for the 
other v and; it is very; difficult npt to be 
nuftafcen* wfac&onthaa no rate to judgo 
by, andxmly foUojwcthe impi-cflkia n^ 

§. ix. Morality, i&the Science of Mtti^ 
and particularly oi Princes^ fince tbejt 
«re not ooely iMen^bot ought to rule and 
command Men >v and tAey cannot perform 
th% wirtont they too w both tbenfeira 
andi others in their defefts anApatfe 
ons, and without they be throughly i» 
flxudcdinall their devoirs. *Tisibctti& 
this Science tint a Prince's mind ought to 
be principally infirpfted* and; moulded : 
For atite ufe will be oootihnal r fo alfo 

oughts fl^dy thereof & canoed be 
*< - begun 

begun toofoon,becaufe one cannot begin 
toofOontoknowhirafcll': and this ftudy 
is. lb much the more convenient, as aft 
things may be afliftant to it : For Men 
and their Faults ace to be found every 

§.*3 . Endeavours ought to n . r ' 
teuf^only totjach him %?/'?£ 
the true Principles of this S ci- ^ c f net 
ence, but alfo to let him know lm*g h A* 
it&neceffity, and to inftil into ?<"*• 
him a lavcandefteem thereof, by making 
himfenfibleofthe terrible unhappineft 
of the molt part of Great ones, whopafi 
away their Lives* in a dreadful ignorance 
ofwhatconcemsthemmoft; who know 
nntl what they do# nor whither they go } 
whoftacy tcutamfelvesthat they have 
nothing el fe to do here, but* to hunt and 
recreate themfelves ; or to frame ambiti- 
ous idefignsof raffing, thdr Families \ and 
who* after the Ihort^ace? of a wretched 
Life, fiilt of continual iltafions and fed 
witfcdiic^umandChiaaera?^at the hour of 
daatk, fee aH tftefe vain Phantafmes dif- 
appeaivwhitfttiictytbemfelm^ bead- 
Inginto the utmoft extremity of eternal 

fc 24* Be ought tcri)emibru-5#^*# /r^ 

tfcdtath-ifei the gcwral fct&4<K** 


14 ®ftt)t<£tMtattmi Parti. 

denr tui the ties of Man, and the particular 
5^^* ones of Princes-, and to know 
Pafcal! CUr ,kowto tie and link theft to- 
gether^ and above ail, endea- 
vour mull be ufed, that he infenfibly for- 
get not (as molt Great ones do ) what is 
common to him with other Men, whilft 
Re "only bufics his imagination, about 
what diftinguiflies him from them. For 
thispurpofe, it is neceflary to make him 
well comprehend the true nature of all 
_ thefe things ; what greatnefs is,whenceit 
fprings, and where it ends •, what it hath 
offohdandreal, and what of idle and 
vain ; what it is, that Inferiors owe to 
Great ones,and what thefe ought to repay 
them : laftly,wha*it is, that abates or lets 
them high in the efteem of God and Man. 
$. 25. As the love and affedtion of Men 
are neceflary for the Employment to 
which Princes are caU'd,iba Prince ought 
with great care to be inftru&ed in what 

Surchafes er lofts them, in what gains or 
locks Mens minds,and in what pieafts or 
difpleafes the World. He mult difcover 
the hidden fources of theft efFe&s,and the 
ftcret Springs, whence flow all theft mo- 
tions, to the end he may make them play, 
as need (hall require. But, at the lame 
tiffifc,hcis to bemade acquainted with thi 
/; vanirg 

Parti. ®ta&mt. i* 

vanity and foolery of this little addrefi- 
when he promotes to himfelf no other end 
than the driving on forae worldly defign> 
or the enjoying the fatisfadion of being 
belov'd. And for this reafbn he is to un- 
derftand, That all thefe actions may be 
prattisM upon the fcore of higher and 
nobler considerations, and that they may 
be made infinitely more ferviceable for his 
concerns in Heaven, than for thole he can 
have on Earth. 

. Fpr Example, Great ones by Seethe Trea- 
their very Condition are obli- tl J t9 f chrim 
ged to be in a continual exer- ^* Qlvp * 
cife of Civility^and when they> 
as they ought^compLy with this their du- 
. ty, it ftands them in great ftead to. gaia 
the efteem and love of others. Yet for, 
the molt part this Exercife partes amongfl 
them for a molt vain and frivolous amufe- 
ipent As they pra&ife it with great, 
inequality, being extrem complaifant to 
fome, and as fierce and rude to others, it.- 
often happens,, that they do not fucceed in , 
the defign they have of making themfelves 
belovM : and fhould they fucceed,it could, 

Srocure them but very fmall advantages, 
ut the fame offices ofCiyilitypradisM on 
other motives.; . wu- t&ofe pfghari^mayj 
become a copunual exacife' of , vertu^ 

z6 mt^^mmfm Pam, 

and they by this means produce, even 
more certainly, that temporal cffedt, or- 
dinarily expetted by them, of gaining the 
love of tbofe, to whom they are paid. 

J. 16. In fine, one ought to make a 
young Prince obftrve, That in all parti- 
cular a&ibns , the Laws of God are. fo 
equitable and holy, that there is no rea- 
dier way to gain the admiration of Men, 
than by praftifing Chriftian vertue in the 
molt Meroick and elevated way; and that 
thefe qualities andaftions>which dilpleafe 
God the molt, as Infolence, Pride, Inju- 
ftice, Anger, are thole which draw on 
them in greater meafure the contempt and 
hatrcdof others: There is nothing, more 
amiablfcthanaMan, that lovesnot Hm- 
ftlf, and does air things in relation to 
God, and the fervice of others , wherein 
confiffe the^ Piety of a Chriftian : and 
there's nothing fo hateful, as one, who: 
loves noneirot.himftlf , who refers all 1 
things folely tphimfelf, wherein confifts- 
thedeordination of Man. 

§: 27, Butthough thisiludy-o^hr to. 

be the chiefeft and frequehteftxjftil thofc> 
to whidf one allies a Prince $ yet ought; 
i( to be;doae iriz *«yy bearing inch a 
tiroportion t*tHsfagt^apdthfe quality of* 
OS miod, that he be^not o^cHarg'd' 


Parti. MftffeftKBt* 17 

therewith* nay, that he even fecis it not. 
Endeavour HiuitbeijsM that he learn all 

Morality, without knowing almoft there, 
is fuch a Science, or tint there is a defign 
to teach himany fuch thing ; Jo that when 
hefhall apply himfeif to it in the coutrffc 
of his Studies, hefhall be aftonifhed, that 
her knows beforehand much more than, is 
these; taught. 

. i 28. There: is nothing more difficult, 
than to find this proportion to die Un- 
derft^cding of Children ^ and it ir with 
reafon that a Man of the World laid, 

Thatitisth&fxrP of* jkrcmg and' eievtted 
SoxljoteaUe tofr^ti<m^anifr^?mitfeif 
to the ways aml>humo*rsof ( Children.. *tisr 
an cafie matter to make a: difcaurfe o£ 
Morality for an hour together yjimt to> 
reduce all things to it, & that the: 
Child neither perceivesnor taiwdiibafte 
thereat, is what requires an admirable 
addrcfs,and fuch as is to be found in very 
few* > 

& %% In Vice there ane two things! 
confiderable^ thedeordination> which 
makes them difpleafe Almighty God, ami 
the folly and ridiculoufhefs^ which makes 
them contemptible in the- eyes of. Men.. 
Children for the molt par tare little, ftn- 
fibleof thefiril, but the 


18 m t^e eimc*«on Parti. 

inculcated to them by a thoufand ingeni- 
ous wayes, which the occafions iuggeft. 
Thus by making them hate Vice as ridi- 
culous, one prepares them to hate it as 
contrary to the Laws of God j and mean- 
while prevents its making full impreffioi 
on their minds. 

$. 30. It ought to be confider'd, That 

Youth is almoft the fole time, whenTruth r 

with any kind of freedom, prefents it felf 

to Princes-, the reft of their Life, it 

fly es from, and (hunsthem. All thofe, 

who are about them, fcarce confpire but 

to deceive them, becauie it is their in- 

tereft to pleafe them i and they know 'tis 

not the way to it, to tell them the truth. 

So that for the U w fc'pjrt their Life is a 

dream, where they fee falfe lights and 

deceitful fhows. Wherefore one who has 

the Inftru&ion of a Prince committed ta 

his charge, ought often to reflett, That 

the Child, he has care of,every day comes 

nearer anight, where truth will abandon 

him; and fo he ought to make hafte to 

tell him and imprint in his mind, what- 

foever may be molt neceflary to guide 

him in thofe dark mills, which ay a kind of 

neceflity hisCondition will caft about himC 

$.3 1 .One ought not to think it enough 

to enlighten his Underftanding by many 


Parti. Ma&inct, i 9 

Principles of tnuth,which may help him to 
guide and regulate himfelf in his anions .• 
but heought to be pofleft in general with 
a love of truth in all things,and an averft- 
on from being deceived ;and be made tho- 
rowly to comprehend,that it is impoffible 
hefhould not be fo, all his Life,if he does 
not let all thofe,who approach him,know~ 
he loves nothing To much as truth, and 
hates nothing more than lies and cheating. 
$. 32. There arefome who SntbiTr +> 
deceive others, out of intereft, ^**J* /J 
without being deceived them- n b§9 %£** 
felves-, but there are alfo a romtbedif 
number of others who only tourfa . *f 
communicate their own errors**** *r #. 
that is, Thofefalfc Idea's IB^tfptmons 
their minds are full of. And as the Life 
of Great ones pafles in almoft continu^ 
commerce with Men % they are alfo more 
expofed than others to this danger : fo 
that if they have not a care on't, they u- 
uite in thcmfelves all the falfities which are 
to be found difperft amongft other Men. 
He therefore, who is to be inftrudted, 
ought to be made know, how much it con- . 
cernshim, not only to defend himfelf a- 
gainft the artificial, malignant, and fnte- 
refted cheats of thofe,who would furprize 
and impofe upon him j. but alfo againft that 
• other 

io m tip <&mcattim p« i. 

other Hondt,and one may fay^Fair-deal- 
ing deceit, which communicates i t felf> by 
the Difcowfesof almoft all thofe, with! 
whom he will be obllgM to live - 7 who,be- 
ing themfelves full orfalfities,they are not 
aware of, propgate them^vithout know* 
ing it, in their difconrfe toothers. 

If this latter kind of Deceivers be:lef$ 
Hatcful^yetare they more dangerous than 
the other. For i t is not enough for thefe 
to conceal from our knowledge fome par- 
tic ular matters olf fadb* wherein the others* 
employ their skill mdl: but they even/ 
keep from us the knowledge of; thofe: 
Principles, whereby* we ihould judge^andt 
whilft they inftil into us a theufand falfe, 
Maxims,they. corrupt the. very Heart and, 
Underitanding.. He ought therefore, to; 
he inftru&ed to ftand equally on his guard) 
againft theone and the other , and tm e* the greatelt of naileries >to! be de- 
prived of thfc light of Truth v by. which. 
hisLife is to be guided , and without which, 
it is impoffibk not to go aftray, and'fall 
into thofe precipices, which are the end of 
this deadly wandring. 

'§• 33 1 The ordinary caufes of the mife- 
ries of Great ones are to be particularized: 
and taken notice of, and endeavours ufedt 
to fortifie him on that fide: and above 


Part i. jbt aqtointet xi 

all he ought to be infpirM with a great 
horror of Civil Wars,and all kind of dif* 
feafions, which to Princes are the caufes 
of evils almoft irreparable, and gulphs 
without bottom. . 

§. 34. It is.necedary to know the faults 
and defeats of him, we inftruft \ that is, 
we muft well obferve, whither the bent of " 
his concupifcence fways him,to the end all 
means and arts may tie ufed to leflen it, 
by taking away,whatfoever may either ex* 
afperate or fortifie it j yet fo, as to di- 
ftmguifh always between thole tranfient 
faults which age deftroys,andfuch as with 
years grow and get ftrength. 

$. 35. ^Tis not enough to aim ontly at 
prcferving Princes from falling , .but at 
lowing too in their minds certain feeds, 
which may aid them to rife again, if they 
be fo unfortunate as to fall. And theft 
feeds are the folid truths ofRelieioniprm- 
cipally as to the manner of re-eftabli thing 
our felves in our loft innoeence.For*though 
thefe troths are fbmetimes obfcurM by the 
intoxication of the World, when young 
Princes begin to tafte and relifh it ; yet 
they many times break forth again after- 
wards, when it pleafes God to look on 
them with an eye of mercy . 

. #. $6. U is not onely neceflary to frame 


xx Mtty&m&tiQXi Part!. 

andfalhion, as much as one can, their 
mind to Vertue ^ but it is requifite alio to 
give their Bodies a ply and bent there- 
unto •* that is, endeavours muft be ufed 
that their Bodies prove not an hindrance 
to their ieadinga regular Life •, and that 
they draw them not by their fway to de- 
bauchery and diforder. 

For we muft know, that, Man being 
compofed of Mind and Body>the evil ply 
and bent that is given to the latter ^during 
one's Youth, proves often in the fequel 
of one's Life a very great hinderance to 
Vertue, There are fome, who accuftom 
themfelves to be fo flitting, fo impatient, 
fbhafty, that they become uncapableof 
any regular imployments. Others prove 
fo nice and tender, that they cannot en- 
dure the leaft trouble or pain. There are 
fome who give themfelves up to endlefs 
difquiets, wherewith they are tormented 
all their Life-time. 

One may fay, Thatthefe are faults of 
the Mind, but they haue their permanent 
caufe in the Body t and that's the reafon 
they continue in them, even when the 
Mind appears abfblutely free from them. 
For behold how, for example lake, many 
become fibjeft to thefe trkfome di£ 

Part I. ^ g)f ft $>Wtt. i i 

J. 37. The content of Mind confifts in 
acting and employing it felf about fome 
pleafing objeft : and the intermiffion or 
celTacion of adion, or a more languid re- 
miflea&ion, are the ordinary caufes of 
its difguft and difquiet. Hence we grow 
weary of our felves in folitude ,'becaufe 
there for the moft part our thoughts are 
weak, and the objeds we fee make no 
lively impreffions on us: for as foon as \ve 
come to a certain degree of agitation, we 
ceafe to be weary. 

From hence it happens, that thofe, 

[ whofe Souls have been accuftom'd to be 

h ftirrM and Ibaken by lively and violent 

motions, become cafily weary of them- 

felves, when the objeds prefent do ftir 

and agitate them but a little; and for 

this reafon thofe who are accuftom'd to 

violent divertifements,great paflions,and 

, employments whereby their Souls have 

[ been kept in great motions \ are much 

niore fubjeft to it, than others-, becaufe 

their Souls have been ufed not to take 

pleafure but in thele violent concuflions* 

On the other fide,thofe,whofe Mind? have 

never been ftrongly mov'd, are not for 

the moft part fubjeft to this irkfomnefs \ 

- becaufe common cfcjeifts fuffice to keep 

them in an evennefs of motion, which 



* 4 &ftfte4fttK»tfOtt Parti. 

is fofficient to free them from it* 

Now thisirkfomriefsis not only in the 
lHind,but alfo in the Body : that is to fay, 
This difguft of the Soul is accompanied 
with a certain contraft ion of the heart, 
which is an efied perfedtty corporeahand 
thefe two motions become £o linkt toge- 
ther, that as the Mind is never ftruck 
with thefe difgufts>but that this corporeal 
motion happens in the heart } fi>, as often 
as thefe material motions happen in the 
Body, thefe motions and thoughts of fad- 
nels and regret offer themfelves to the 
Mind i in the fame manner as the idea 
of a Man ftrikes us, as foon as we hear his 
Name, becaufe thefe two Idea's are joyn- 
ed and iinkt together. 

Although thercforeorie fhouM through 
Principles of Demotion, <juite renounce 
thofe great divertifements and agitations 
of the Soul, which fpring from ftxonje paf- 
fions, yet may he Temain fobjed tor a 
great while to this irkfomnefs ; becaufe 
being now movMonly by weaker objects, 
theycaufeinthe Body the fame contra- 
ction of heart ,which they heretofore ufed 
to produce there ; and this fame motion 
of the Body brings the fame thoughts, of 
fadnefs, which caufc this uoeafinefs of 


From hence it appears, That there is 
nothing more danger dus* than violent di*-' 
vertifements, and whatfbe ver dfeffiix>ng- r 
ly ftirs and agitates the Soul. Far efxeept 
one continue cdnfftultly in Uhis ; agitation, 
(a thins veiy oftfcn imp^tile r and which 
would: be the gfeateftof misforttmes^he 
isreduced to that pafs, as to be in fome 
fort miferable aB his tiifb •, although this 
raifery it felf would provtfa giteaterhap-- 
pinefs tp thofe> who can patiently away 
with it, thajithat bthar apparent h*pj&- 
nefs of their great diVertifementsi • ; 

'5^ 38. The feme cafe as tri alpthofe ci- 
ther paflions of Anger, Impatifcnce,Fc&frr 
Each of thefe makes its impreflion on the 
Body, and this impreflion is afterwards! 
excited, whether one will or no, whea 
thefe objedts prefent themfelves> and it 
to feme degree communicates it felf to 
the mind. Thus one of the^reafceft goods? 
one can procure to a Prince under one's 
Tuition, is, during his Youth to reprefs 
the exterior effedts of his paflions, if he 
cannot «abfolute!y be curM of them : left 
his Body accuftom it felf thereto,and ha- 
ving once taken its bent, the redreis be- 
come infinitely more painful and difficult. 

§.39. The love of ReadingandBooks,is a 
general preservative againft amofcitudeof 

C ' difbr* 

16 0f t^e tifttttatfott Part I. 

diforders,towhichGrea tones are fubjeft, 
\yhen they know not how to employ 
themfelves: Wherefore it cannot be too 
much inculcated to young Princes. They 
ought to be accuftomM to read much 
themfelves^and hear much read by others, 
and to have their Souls openM andin- 
larg'd,.that they may take delight there* 
in. They ought ewn to be brought to 
it by- the quality of the Books ; as thole 
of Hillary, Voyages, Geography ; which 
will be of iio fmallufe to them, if they do 
but habituate themfelves to pais their 
timein reading of them, without difguft 
and chagrin. 


O F 


V ^ «. 

Part If.: ^ 17 






II* 1 — — — -y— ^— i— «»— —— — — » — ' ■■ 


Containing many particular Advicei t 

about Studies, 

M.TNSTRUCTION aims at ad- 
vancing the Mind to the higheft 
point it is capable of. 
§.2. It requires neither memory, ima- 
gination, nor understanding : but it cul- 
tivates all thefe,in fortifying them by one 
another. Judgment is helpM by Me- 
mory, and Memory is refreih' Ima- 
gination and Judgement, v ■ . 

G x £ 3- When. 

\ ^ 

2 3 £DUt)C tf&UCattOtt Part II. 

$.3 .When cither of thefeis wanting, the 
defefr mafrbe-fuppiy'chby the reft: Thus 
the-gpe&t-addreft ota Mafter is to apply 
thofe under his care to fuck ftudies, as 
they are naturally moft inclinM to.There 
are fomeChildren aim oft only to be exer- 
cifed in what depends on memory^becaufe 
their memories are ftrong and their Judg- 
ments weak", and there are others, who 
ought immediately to be fet on work a- 
bout things of judgment, becaufe they 
have more of that, than of memory. 

$.4. Properly fpoaking., neither Ma- 
tters nor outward lnfttru&ions they give, 
make Learners comprehend things.Thefe 
onely expofethem to the interior light 
of the mind, by which alone they are 
comprehended. So that when one does 
not. meet with this light, inftru&ions 
prove as ufelefs, as it would be to expofe 
and fhew Pi&ures in the dark., 

§.5.The greateft Wits have but limited 
uriderftandings. In thtm there are always 
fame cloudy and darkfom corners : but 
the underftandrngs ofChildren are almoft 
totally over-caft,they difcover onely fome 
lktle glimpfes of light. So that the great 
wprk confifts in managing thefe fmall 
f ays,in increafing them,andplaeingther?- 
in whatfoever one would make them com-r 
frehend. $.6. 

Part II. ®f ft fctfttte; ly 

5.6-Henceit is that 'tis fo difficult to 
give general Rules forth t Inftrudtfon of 
any one, becaufe they ought to be pro- 
portioned to that mixture cff light and 
darknefs,which & various according to 
the difference of Wits ? particularly in 
Chi ldren. W e mult obferve, where day 
in them begins to break, and thither We 
ought to bring, whatever we. would make 
them underftand.* and tfhus feveral 
ways rtwft be try'd to get admittance into 
their Minds ; and in thofe we muft 
per (HI, where we fi nd the befft fhccefs. 

§. 7. It may neverthetefs in general be 
laid, That the light dr knowledge m 
Children depending very much onfenfe, 
one <?ught, as much as proffible, fallen 
t?o fenfible things the Inftru&ions that are 
given thetn-,aiid,iiot onely to make them 
enter by. the Ear> but alio by the Eye : 
there being no fenfe that makes a more 
lively imprefiion on the Soul, nor that 
forms therein Idea's more diftintt ?md 

§.8.Laying hold on this hint, one may 
aver, That the ftudy of Geography is. 
vefy fit for Children, becaufe it depend? , 
much on theSenfes,and they may be made 
to feeby their eyes the fcituatSon ofTowns 
arid F¥ovinces : befides it is pleafem 

C 3 enough 

5 o 0>t t$e gfttSCatfotY Part If. , 

enough, (a neceflar^circuraftance not to 
difcourage them at the firft J and needs lit- 
tle of ratiocinatlon,wherein they are molt 
deficient at that age. 

§. 9. But to m^ke this ftudy at once 
both more profitable and pleafant, it is 
not enough barely to ihew them in Maps 
the Name of Towns and Provinces j rat 
moreover jfeveral Arts and Addrefles are 
to be ufed, to fix them in their memories. 

Books may be provided with the Cuts 
of great Towns> which they may per ale * 
Children are taken with this kind of di- 
yertifement. Some remarkable Hiftory 
may be told of each place > which may 
rivet it in the memory. One may make 
them otyerve the Battle fought,theCounr 
cils held there, and the Famous Men 
fprung thence. Some thing may be told 
them either of Natural Hiitor.y, if any 
rarity be there to be found, or of their 
Government, Greatnefs,and, Traffique. 
If the Towns be in France, it would not 
bsamifs, if one could, to let them know 
the Lord to whom they belong, or the 
G over nours they are under. 

§. 10. To this ftudy of Geography, 
there ought to be joynM a certain little 
Exercife* which is but a divercifementiyet 
may much contribute towards the im- 

\ printing 

Part II- 4)f a $Wtt. yi 

printing it in their minds^ and 'tis this, if 
one (peak before them of fome Hiftpry, 
be fure alwayes to (hew them the place of 
it in the Map. If, for example, the<?*- 
z.erte be read, all the Towns it fpeaks of 
muftbe fliewn. In fine, endeavours mult 
be ufed fo to make them mark, in th«ir 
own Maps, all they (hall hear (aid j that 
thefe may ftand them inftead of an artifi- 
cial memory, whereby not to forget Hi- 
ftories, as the Hiftoriesdo the like good 
office in making them remember the pla- 
ces where they happenM. 

§. 11. Beudes Geography, there are 
yet many other ufeful knowledges* which 
may find admittance,by the fight,uito the 
minds of young Children . 

In theJBooks of Lipjiut are reprefented 
in Pictures the Engins ufed in War by the 
Romanes^. with their Cloathes, Arms, Pu- 
nilhmeots^ and feveral other things of 
this natnre, which may be (hewn to Chil- 
dren with much advantage. For example, 
they may there fee what a Ram is, what 
a Buckler, what a TejHdo 5 how the 
Romane Armies were drawn up, what 
number their Cohortes and Legions confi- 
fted of, the Officers of their Armies, and 
an infinity of other curious and delightful 
things,6mitting the more intricate. The 

C 4 fame 

3i jSDft^e^jaUWt^tT Part If. 

fame advantage almoft may be made of a 

'Book caUM Soma Snbterranea, and feme 
others 9 ^here may be feen in Cuts^ 
Vhat remains of the Antiquities of this 
Chief City of the World." To thefe one 
may add the Pictures that are to be found 
in the Relations of certain Voyages into 
the Indies and 0nna ; wherein are defcri- 
i>ed the Sacrifices and Pagods of thofe 
"Wretches : 3nd Children at the fame tiro 
jnay be mad§ to obferve to what excefs of 
dforfy Man ipay pa£ 7 when he follows his 
own fancies and the v dar,k lights of h]s 
own .mind. 

$. 1 2jildrovpu2dus ov rather hisAbr-idge- 
ment by Johtfioriy ^ may alfo be ufefvl tar 
their profitable divenifejnent $ jMwid- 
,cd he who (hews thena have a car* to tell 
;th£tn fomqthing of the nature of theBeafts 
nofctoy wayGfLefloa, but difcourfe. This 
JBoo^ alfo ought to be made ufe of, to let 
Ifrsm fee ths figures anjl tfiapes of the 
|tea1S$ they find.mentiop'd either in Books 
or pucourfe. 

j. 13.. An ingenious Man by a Tryal 

with one rf his own Children,, hath lately 

;tr&d& it appear, that thefe early Years are 

"very capable of learning Anatomy : and 

Mithout doubt fome general Principles 

tn$y be ufefully fliownthenyf it were for 


Part II. tot i fyttto t M 

nothing elfe, but to make them remem- 
ber the Latin Names of the parts of Hu- 
mane Bodies •, but one mult have a care of 
leading them into feme curiofi ties that 
. are dangerous in this particular. 

$* 14. For the fame reafon it would be 
profitable to let them fee the Portrait 
dures of the Kings qfiVdwre, of the &k 
mm Emperours, of the ShUjws^ of great 
Captains, and of the famous Heroes of 
feveral Nations* It is good they Ihould 
take pleafure in viewing thefe in Books 
of Pi&ures, and that they ihould have 
recourfe thereunto as dften as mention 
thereof is made. For ail this ferves to fix 
notions and Idea's in their, memory. 

§« 1 3. One ought to endeavour to ih- 
cl&e the minds of Children to a commen- 
dable curiofity of feeing things that ate 
ftrange and curious, and encourage them 
to be iqquifitive of the reafons 01 what- 
soever occurs, Ihis Curiofity is; no fault 
. in their age, becaufe it opens, and en*. 
larges their minds, and divers them from 
fflany ill turns, 

§> 16. Hiftory may be plac'd amongfl: 
thofe knowledges , whkh enter by the : 
eyes, fince to make one remember what 
is read, ufemay be made, of Books of J 
Qats and Pi&ures* But even when none 

B 5 fucha 

34 4Df t$$ CtmcatiOtT Part IT. 

iiith can be had, yet it bears a great pro- 
portion with the capacity of Children : 
and though it depends onely on memory, 
yet it is of great ule to frame and mould 
the Judgement. All Arts therefore,are 
to be ufed to make Children reliih it. 

§. 1 7. Fir ft of all therefore they may be 
furnifhM with a general notion of the Hi- 
ftory of the whole World, of the leveral 
Monarchies,and the great Changes which 
have happenM fince its beginning. To 
do this,the time of its duration may be 
divided into feveral Ages •, as from the 
Creation to the Deluge j from the De- 
luge to Abraham •, from Abraham to Mo- 
fis ^ from Mofes to Solomon j from Solomon 
to the return from the Captivity of Ba- 
ty/twtthence to J ESVS C HRIST y 
from him to our age : Thus in a general 
Chronology tying together the general 
Hiftoryof the World. 

§. i8.But here the.Hiftory of the Jewijh 
Nation is morejparticularly to be expli- 
cated tot hear* and ufe thereof muft be 
made to ground them firmly betimes in 
the truths of our Faith, as I (hall declare 
here&fter. It would be good alwayes to 
let go hand in hand Hiftory, Chronology, 
and Geography, by Jhewing in Maps the 
places fpoken of, and afligning whatever 


Fart ii. jaDfaffcitwe* 35 

is there related to Us particular age. 

$. 19. Befides thefe Hiftories, which 
ought to make a part of their ftudy and 
Employment, it would not be amifs to 
teH them fbmc Story, out of the courfe 
of their Exercife •, and which might ferve 
for a diver tifement : This may be calPd 
the Story of the Day, and they may bft 
fet to repeat it again, to learn them how 
tofpeak. : 

Stories ofthisldnd ought to f elate fome 
great accident ; forae ftrange rencountre, 
or remarkable example of Vice, Vertue, 
Mifery, good Fortune, or what is other- 
wife very Exotick. Here ma^ be told ex- 
traordinary Events^ Prodigies, Earth- 
quakcs,fwallowing upwhblcT6wns,Ship^ 
wracks, Battles, forreign Laws and Cuf 
ftoms •• This exercife, being wellmanagM 
may teach them what is beft to be known 
in all Hiftdry •, but one muft be punttual 
Jiferein,letting no day flip without telling 
fbme ftory, and marking the day whereon 
it was told; • ' 

* J 1 . %o. Children are to be taught to 
fort together in their memories Stories * 
that are alike, for th£y will be helps 
whereby to remember one another. - For 
example, it is good they fhonld* know afl 

the fcf eat Armies mentioned to hiftories - 
. ofr 

of War j all the great Maflkrcs,Plagues* 
3II remarkable prolperities and mtferi** ; 
all who fcave been exceffive rich, great 
Conquerors, great Captains, fortunate 
ornntprtupate Favourites j who have U- 
yed long) who have been fignalized by 
their extravagancies, great Vices a* 

. §. zi. Jtwojild be of great advaatege 
for the Children of Great Perform U} 
accuftom fbtm to fcear p»e Tead while 
they are a ilreffing. This in Perfons of 
Quality takes up couch time, qftally ipeet 
totfhopt any profit, not to iay with much 
lofs and dagger, this being the time wtea 
their Servants tafe? the molt freedom of 
talk with th?m Jtfeyerthelefs by manage 
ing of it right, a great deal of Hiftory 
andgooks of Voyages might be read. 

§,2*The greateft diffic&ty occurring 
in the ioftrudion of Children^ teaching 
them the l*tin Tongue .» 'tis a long and 
dry ftudy ; and though depending prin- 
cipally on the memory, it is a ftudy fit for 
their age.; yet neverthelefe for the uaoft 

f^rt itdifcourage^ and difmays them by 
eing fo laborious and long. W herefpre 
it very often happens that the Children 
ofGreatPerfons, being mpre impatient 
aad kfs iludious than others^ learn the 


Part It ^fttftfttfe ' 37 

Latin Tongue fo imperfe&iy In their 
¥opth, £$ wholly to forgot it afterwards j 
becaufe when they enter Into the World, 
iheyfo entirely give tbemfclves up tofcn- 
joy it, that during a long fpace of time 
they quite Jay aSde all forts of Study and 
Reading. Endeavours therefore muft bfe 
us'd to make them fenfible how great this 
fapk is, and what reafon they will have 
*9 repent themfelyes thereof when tra- 
yellmg into Foreign Countries, of being 
frigted in their own by Ibrangers^they fhau- 
jtndthemfehres utterly unable to entertain 
thepj, They are to be made underftand^ 
that only in their own Countries^Gentle- 
tpen we to be found 'who arc ignorant of 
4&e l**w Tongue ; that in PoUnd, Han* 
g&yyGerm&y, Swtdelafid, and Denmmk^ 
all Periods of Quality cannot only under- 
ftand, but readily fpeak it * and laftly, 
thatf:*Qthajag is more Siameful, than not 
to underftand the Language of the 
Church, nor to be partakers of ksPray- 
ers ptherwife than the rnoft illiterate 
Peafantsand Women y to be confined on- 
ly to fuch entertainments as thofe of 
his own age-can afford him, and to be dfe- 
jptived of thatof thofe greatMen^ wHty in 
-their coOrpofares.J|>eak-fhat hingfagt } - r 
that aothfog is parfeftly ^wa whett. 
t , read 

? s~ ®ftf)ttimtation Pamr 

read in Tranflations, and that even one 
reads but little, when reduced to read 
Tranflations only. 

5*23. The difficulty, and withall ne- 
cellity -of Learning this Language,hathfet 
feveralon work to find out forae means 
whereby to eafeChildren in theftudy they 
are to employ about it. Theft endea- 
vours have brought forth a numerous va- 
riety of Methods, whilft every one doth 
pretend that the Method, he hath found 
out,is to be preferM before all others for 
teaching the grounds of that Tongue. 
' On tiie contrar y,others have belicvM that 
the belt Method was to ufe none,and that 
it was belt to enter new beginners at firft 
.with the Le&ure of Books,without trou*- 
bling them with the thorny difficulties of 
Grammar. Many have been of opinion 
that it was fooneft learn't by trie ? and 
' that there needed only an Obligation of 
fpeaking Latin conftaritly* to come to its 
knowledge. Aft*fegtfe relates, that this 
was the way he was brought to it j and 
jthat by this means- at the age of feven or 
eight years he fpake Latin in perfe&ion. 
The French, Hollanders, Germans, and lta- 
Jiums^ have in high efteem a certain Boob, 
-called, The Gate of Tongues, Ja»** Lin- 
guaxHtn j whpre, in a continued .and coo- 

. ' netted. 

Part II. .. £>U#tfttCe* J9 

netted difcQuffe, all Latin words are to 
be found \ and they fancy to themfelves, 
that Children, by the learning this BooK 
at the firft, may be brought in a fhort 
time to know the Latin Tongue, with- 
out the help of reading fo many other 

§.24. To pafs judgment in one word 
on thefe feveral ways of teaching Chil- 
dren Latin ; it is certain, that it would tte 
initfelfof an extraordinary advantage 
to teach by ufe this Language r as vulgar 
ones are taught : but to put this in pra-^ 
ftice hath been found obnoxious to for 
many difficul ties,t ha t hitherto it has been 
lookt upon as almoft impoffible, 'at lead 
in regard of the common people,^ which, 
is the worft of faults. 

For, firft Maftcrs are to fee found out v 
who (peak Latin very well v and this al- 
ready is a quality very rare •, jand it oftca. 
happens , that thtofe who are endowed* 
with it,are not the fitteft to inftruft Chil- ? 
dren, fincethejr may want other Quali- 
ties that are incomparably morefle- 
ceflary . Befides,it i s requilite,that thole 1 
with whom Children^ thus to- be taught,' 
(hall converfe , fpeak only Latin to, 
them: Nay, at the firft glance it.feeitfs 1 
that it is with reafon to be ftaf'd, left' 


40 mt$t$m*ti0n Part If. 

introducing thisRuIc amongftChildren to 
be bred up together, and obliging them 
tofpeak Latin amongft tberafelves be- 
fore they know alnioft any thing in the 
Language, inftead of teaching them to 
(peak Latiny one do make them to for- 
get both to fpeak and think ; and alfb 
eft this flavery do not make them ftupid 
and doltifl^by the trouble it will put them 
urito>to exprefs their minds and thoughts. 
But, as in matters of this nature ex- 

Jjerience i£to be infinitely prefer'd be- 
bre conjectures and reafonmgs, the trial 
which fome Perfons of worth have lately 
made in the fight of all Ami* ought toper* 
fwade all unbyasM Men 1 that this way of 
inftru&mg Youth may be of great pro* 
fit> and that the inconveniences that 
tome fancy there^are either none at aH, or 
not without their remedies. But as thefe 
Perfons did much contribute by their 
skill and care to the fuccefs this Method 
had, and that they cannot take the charge 
of any considerable number of Children ^ 
$$& difficulties we have obierv'd hare. 
tasix force yet,in refpeft of others. 
V$L\2jf. And fo one muft be content 
frpm^mongft the other Methods to ; 
cfciife fuch a? may prove the mpft bene-, 
ficial i t and common fenfe presently fug-' 

Part II. M*Wi*Cl< 41 

gefts that thofe ought be made ufe 
of where the Roles of Grammar are writ 
in Latin, fince it is ridiculous ttfteach the 
^rudiments -of a Language in that very 
-Tongue the Learner is ignorant df, and 
which pught to be taught. 

J. 26. Thofe who would have intro* 
-dmc'd the ufe of certain Tables feem to 
hiizbetn deceivMby the few words? and 
iktk J>aper * -that's there imployM; 
.and ihsve fancied to themfelves that it 
Ttould be as-eafie to the mind^to compre- 
hend and remember whatsoever was tnere 
writ down, as it was for the Eyes to fee 
$B& run fcheia over. But it is otherwife 
when thefe Tables are tobe learnt in par- 
-tkuteir, the feif-fame difficulties occm 4 
as when the fame things were to be learnt 
iu Books 5 nay, greater than thofe; for in 
them the Rubrkk, or colour, thar joins 
dhe words together, is not a natural tye 
helping the Memory , and which fticks 
and remains in the mind. If one or two 
things were only to be remembered, per- 
chance this Method might be ufeful i but 
»thete being a great many, the undemand- 
ing is<lazled and ton founded. *Tisthere- 
f^e abfolQtely neceflary to fix, and ftay 
J[fe Memory by fotae Rules more diftraJt 

"and precife. : 

J. 27. The 

42 &>t tip etmatiQlX Part II. 

§. 27. The opinion of thofe,who would 
have no Grammar at all, is bat the fancy 
of fome Hot hful r people, who would rid 
themfelves of the trouble of teaching it \ 
and this humour is Co far from bringing a- 
ny eafe to Children, that it incomparably 
burdens them more, and takes from them 
a light that would give them great faci- 
lity to uoderftand Books •* Befides* it lays 
on them *n Obligation of learning over 
and over a hundred times v what other wife 
it would have been fufficient to have 
learnt once. Thus att things conJidered, 
it will be found, that the belt Method,al 
moft, will be, to make all learn exadlyf 
the little Rules in French Verfe,that they 
may afterwards, as foori as poflible,be ad- 
vanced to read the Books* 

§. 28. It cannot be denied, but that 

Janus LinguAYum may prove of fome nfe, 

yet it is troubklbme to burden Childrens 

Memories with a Book,wherc nothing is 

m to bs learnt but words, fince one. of the 

belt Rules, which can be followed in the 

inftru&ion of Children, is to fain feveral 

advantages together, and to endeavour, 

. that the.Books, which they (hall be made 

to read for to learn thence Languages, 

may alfoferve to mould their SquI aqd 

frame their "Judgment and Morals •, and 

. - • for 

Part ii. 0fa$$tttce* , 4? 

for this end that Book can contribute no- 
thing. Eefides, it is rare to find Ibobft*- 
nate a diligence as is requifite to learn k 
all ; I believe therefore, that this Book 
may be of more profit for Matters that 
teach, than Children that learn ; and it 
may be very beneficial to thofe t<^ teach 
thefe others in difcourfe, as occafion fhall 
fenre, the particular Names of each Art 
and Profeffion,which he may have at hand 
by reading this Book, without bfcing o- 
bliged to learn them in particular by a 
troublefome and tedious ftudy. 

§. 29. 'Tis a general and moft necef- 
iary advice for Mafters,that they be per- 
fectly ready in what they ought to teach 
Children, and that they think it not e* 
jiongh,that they have barely in their Me- 
mories what they are to inculcate : for^ 
one may lay hold on a thoufand favoura- 
ble occafions to ihew Children what one 
knows perfe&ly well, nay* occafions may 
be ftarted when one pleafes, and infi^ 
nitely better fitted to the Learners capa- 
city, when freely without any effort the 
Teacher finds at hand what he is to lay. - 

§• 30. According to what has been 
laid,Childrenmaybetaught,evenin thei* 
Infancy, a number of Latin words' ac- 
cording!© the order of that Book, by na- 

44 4>t4totf*Nflfttl Part II. 

mingtheroin £***>* whatsoever they ei- 
ther fee or know.To thbmay bz added the 
ttymol^gies of feveral Words ^ thefemay 
•help to make them be reiftetnberM ^ be- 
fides they oft^n contain fome confident 
ble piece rof antiquity, and by little and 
Jittle, beating very frequently ©n their 
Ears/th^y get fettled in their Memories 
fvktiput fi$?§ force, or ftriving of the un- 

\ i. 3 i.j The gceat. fecret of ueacfririg 
Children to anderftand Lxxin> is to make 
them begin as foon as polSble one can, 
ta read Books, and to exercife them very 
much in trapflatrng them into their Mo- 
ther Tongue. But tothe end this .'kifidtrf* 
f^udy jmay be (enrtceabk to mould their 
umtenftyndiftg^ jadgmebt, and manners; 
it will not be amife to obfcrve thefe fol- 
lowing Rules. 

§32. Nothing at all ought to be learnt 
by heart by Boys, but what is admirable ; 
wherefore it is no good Cuftome to make 
them get off Book whole inure Books, 
becaafe aU tn them is not eqtfeHy good. 
Virgil nevertheless may be excepted out 
of the number of thofe Authors which 
are only £o be learnt by parcels, at 
leaft fomeof his Books, as the 2. 4. and 
6. of his t^neist ibut a^ to e&er Au- 

part u. m mwtom 4r 

* thors, judgment is to be us?djotherwife by 
tpnfufedly mingling, what is common ~ 
with what b excellent, inftead of making j 
them be "equally remembred, they will* 
come to be aB equally forgotten* There- 
fore in Cicero, Titut Liviut , Tacitttx, 
Stneeay choice is to be made of fbme il- 
lufoious places j that it may be loofc't on 
as a matter of importance not to Remem- 
ber them^and it may ftffice to make Chil- 
dren get off Book fuch as thefe. The 
like choice is to be made in Poets, as Ca- 
tullus, Horace, Ovid s Seneca, Mtrtial, 
Statim, Claudian f Aufontus. It would 
notbeamifs' tO; make them learn fome- 
thing cf each , whereby their different 
Chara^ers may be known, taking iir a- : 
mongft them the later Poets* as i \Bkcba* 
nan, Grorius, Httnfius, Barclay, Bourbon* 

§.23. -This advice is of greater mo- 
ment than one would imagine, and* it 
will be ufeful not only to eafe the* Meffio- 
ries,hut alfbto frame the Minds and Style 
or Children. For what is got by heart 
links into their Memories, and becomes 
as lb many Mould, and Patterns , by 
which their thoughts ffeape- themfelves 
when they would exprefs their minds ; fb 
that when thefe ans good- and excellent, 
there's^ kindiofjieceflity that they deli- 


46 01 tfy ttmcatitm Partir. 

ver themfelve* in a noble elevated ftrain. 
. §. 34. By a reaion quite contrary to 
this, it happens that certain people, that 
have good wits, and who reaion well 
enough, neverthelefs fpeak and write 
meanly. This comes, from their having 
been iH-inftru&ed in their Yout^and that 
their Memories have been filfid with iH 
forms of ipeech, and they accultomM to 
deliver what .they (poke in an ill drefs. 
A Printer who had only Gothick Cha- 
ra&ers, would only Print in thofc Let- 
ters, let the Piece in the'Prefsbe never 
fo good. One may in the like manner 
fay of thofe people, that their minds be- 
ing only furnifht with Gothick Moulds, 
their thoughts always putting on the 
drefe of fuch like expreffions, appear al- 
wayes in a Gothick, or Scholaftick garb, 
which they <annot lay afide. s 

. §• 35. There are fome Books to be 
read, others to be got by heart. Ctcero 
in Colledges is ufually made choice of tp 
be thus learnt, whilft they read him there 
but little, whereas the quite contrary is 
to be don6. For in him there is not that 
number of lively and glittering places, 
which ought to be commended to Memo- 
ry, whereas there h an infinity of others 
largely difcufs'd, and admirably written, 


* 1 — • 

Part II. 0(a fMtttt' - 47 

which ought to be read : Nay, « his works 
which ar$ there got off Bbdk •$ to wit,*, 
his Orations, excepting three or foor, 
are of leaft value , whereas his Philofb*' 
phical Books 5 his Tufcnlan Quefims^ 
tbofctf the Nature of the Gods, of Divi- 
nations, his Offices , his pieces of Friend- 
Jhip, Old age , and even his Eft files, are 
jncomparabiy more beneficial , and pro- 
per to frame the minds and ftyle of Chil- 
dren. Hi* Books, deOratore, are exqui- 
iite^but writ in a long-winded ftyle, and 
foill to be imitated, it being a matter of 
difficulty in writiflg Latin to maintain 
ones felf for afty while in a long perio- 

§• 36, Rhetorick ought to be learnt by 
ftudying JrijtotU and gmritilian 5 but vfc- 
ry much of thefe Authors may be laid a- 
fide •• for in the firft book of Ariftotle's 
Rhetorick there are many ufelefs Chapi- 
ters ^ whatfoever Quintilian has concer- 
ning the ancient eloquence of the Bar is 
very intricate, as is alio hist whole fe- 
venth Book and Chapter de Statibus. It 
may alfo be faid of this Writer^that what 
he has of moft confideraWe belongs not 
properly to Rhetor ick^as his fifrft and laft 
Books •, all thofe names t>f figures , all 
t hofe places ^whence Arguments ftay be< 




4$ mmWmmtOn Part IT. 

4rc}wn* all thofe Enthymeraes and Epi- 
chcreniqs nev;er advantaged any ; and if 
at all they are to be learnt, one ought at 
the famq time to learn that they are of 
very fmaii worth. 

. §,37. Ali things intbeaflftittttkia of 
Princesoughtto tend towards Morality, 
as has beenfaidin the firft part ; and with 
eafe this Rule may be followed in what . 
fbould be taught themof Rhetoricfe :For, 
trneRbetbrkk is grounded on true Mo* 
rals, Juice it ought always to fettle and 
imprint inths hearer a lovely atod' agree- 
able Idea of hiiTi:who f fp^afa^and to make 
the Qrator. pafs fon a Man, of worth ; 
and this iuppofes, that 'tis known in what 
confifts worth * ,and what; thofe qualities 
acey that make us be telflv'd. . Whofo- 
ever, by Speaking draws on hitofelf Con- 
tempt and Hatred* fpeaks ill '• a$d this 
Relays an Obligation of ftiuaning what- 

faeyer.njay reUfli^f Vanity > Ligbtnefs> 
IlJ-rnafcire,, Meanefs, Brutifhncfs, Itnpi*- 
derrce, ajij generally of wbatfoever im- 
prints the notion of any vice or defedt 

* §, 38. For example, there is a certain 
toflch of Vanity i Afti#ation,snd too ten - 
d/cr a define of Glory-in Pliny tbe younger, 
wlfer epith hi* Liters . are <, btetoiflted, 
:...... ' ' ' (though 

Part II. -MatyUm. 49 

(though otherwife never fo well writj 
and which makes the very ftrain of them, 
naught > becauie we cannot copfider their 
Author, but as a light and vain Fellow. - 
The feme fault renders CkeroH Perfon 
contemptible at the fame time we admire 
his Eloquence. No Man of honour would 
defireto refenible Horace and MtrtUl in 
their malignity and impudence. Now, 
to raife in others the like Idea's of oneV 
felf, is to go agaipft true Rhetorick, as 
well as true Morality. 

§ . 3 9 . There are two kinds of excel- 
lencies in Eloqnence,and Children ought 
to be brought thoroughly acquainted with 
them both- The one confiits in Jouriih-. 
ing folid thoughts, but fuch as .are ex- 
traordinary, and furprizing- Lucm^Swe- 
€4 and Tacitus^ are full fraught .with 
Beauties of this kind. 

On th^ contrary, the otfiex* confifc 

not at all ii\ thefe rare and far-fetqht 

thoughts, but in a certain natural.^ 

in a certain e?fie,but elegant andej^ic^te 

fimplicity •, which lets not the. mind jm 

ttie rack} prefents it with noticing fii# 

common Images, but thofe agrgea$c 

and lively, and which knows fcuwtu^to 

follow and wait on the. Readers ^houg^tt 

inall his nsotibns, that it never fan* to 

& pro- 

50 JJDf tfce ttmaUOtt Part II. 

£ropofe in each thing it treaty fuch ob- 
jects as are able to move him-, it never 
milles to exprefs thofe paffions and fen- 
timents which ought to be excited by 
whatitreprefents. This is the beauty 
and excellence of Tcrenee and Virgil. And 
it may be-gather'd, that this ftrain is 
more difirctiltihan the other, fince there 
have been no Writers whohave left their 
followers at a greater -diftance behind 
them, than the fe t wo. 
' Nevcrthslefs, 'tis' this beauty which 
creates all agreeablenefs and^ f wee trie fs - 
that's found in civilConv<rrfation:andon 
thisfcore 'tis of more confequence to 
make it relifh with thofe wcinftr lift, than 
that other m&de'up of hfgh thoughts 
which are ; much lefsinufe* 

If we know not how to intermix this 
natural unaffected beauty with that of 
great thoughts, . we run the hazard of 
writing and fpeaki^g perfeftly " ill, by 
endeavouring to do both too well \ nay 
the more of Wit one hath> the bftner he 
fhall fall into this vitious ftrain. For it is 
Wit that makes onfe fall on this pointed 
way of wiring, whofc Chara&er is of all 
others the- raoft. ungrateful: ; Let the 
thoughts and fei}tences be never fb fo- 
lia and tjuaint in ; # themf^lves', , _ yet they. 

PartIL ;^r*#Wy- }x 

weary and opprefs the mind if they be too 
numeroosj or brought in where the mat- 
ter requires them.npt. 5oKftfy> ,who is ad-, 
mirable, when confiderM by parts, tyres 
one when read conjajumer : and I tefieve 
that as Quintitian hath laid with reafori, 
that He abounds with grateful faults, a T 
kutuiat dftleibus vittis,onz may alio fay with 
as much reafbn, that he is full of difagree- 
able excellencies, becaufe of their nume- ' 
roufhefs,and the defign he all aloqg makes 
appear of faying nothing plainly, but of 
turning ail into points and being every.. 
-where fententious. No fault ought to be 
inculcated to Children more than this, 
when fomewhat advancM, becaufe none 
deprives them more of the fruit of ftu- 
dies,in what concerns Language and Elo- 
quence. , 

$.40. As I have faid before, all ought 
to be levellM at tho righx framing and 
fafnioning the judgment of Children, and 
ac the imprinting in their mind.and graf- 
ting in their heart,the Rules of true Mo-v 
rality. Occafions ought from all things 
be taken to inftrud them therein:,' yet 
may one ney^rthelefs put in pradice cer- 
tain cxercifes which look more diredlly 
that wa y. And firft one muft endeavour 
to eftablilh and ground them well in 

D 2 Faith 

5* titfyt^imtiLtttm PartIL 

FMth, and to fottifie them Agdfeflttfhe 
Maxims of Liber tin ifm and prophanenefs, 
which have too great a vogue in Princes 
Courts. Not that Religion ought to be 
fubmhted to Tryals of that Age^ they 
trraft be brought acquainted wi& its 
proofs, without almoft letting them con- 
fider the reafofts given as fuch - 7 and they 
*re to be aecuftomM to look on Liber* 
tines, and the prophane, as the great Im- 
pertinences of Mankinds 

They are to be made obferve,as well in 
themfelves as others, the horrible cor- 
ruption of the heart of Man in all things^ 
his vanity, his in juftice; his ftupidity, 
this brutiflinefe, his miftry ; and hence 
they muft be brought to underftand the 
great neceflity of reforming nature : 
They are to be taught, how Men, whilft 
they have fought feveral remedies for 
their maladies, have only found out the 
greatnefs of their evils, and their own 
impotency of curing them : that fince 
no remedy could be procuf 'd from Rea- 
fen, it was to be learnt from Religion, 
that is. front God himfelf. They muft 
be told that this Religion diftovers to 
tfs,aQ at once,the origine of ail our mife- 
ties (by acquainting us with the two 
J ikate$ of Man, viz.. his innoce&ty and 



fall) whkhfPhilofophm of odd ia vaifr 
have fought for $ aad that, at the fare 
time it teaches us their remedy, to wi t, 
our redemption by JESVS C HRJST- 
They muft be made to obferve^ that this 
Religion is the ancientcft of all other ^ 
that it has always been in the World y 
• that it has been prefervM amongft a par- 
ticular people, who with a prodigious 
care ha v^ kept theBook wherein it is cob- 
tain'd. The Wonders of this Nation are 
to be extoll'd before 'em, and the cer- 
tainty laid open of the Miracles of Mo* 
fay which were done in the fight of fix 
hundred thouiaqd Men, who would hav* 
given him the lye, had hebettTfo bold as 
pQ feign, or afterwards to write them in 
a Book, the moft offepfive and injurious, 
that can be imagin'd, to that People who 
WfctOinCSrTSi^ £2C5 everywhere it 
lays open their infidelity and hainous 
- crimes. 

They are to be told, that thisBook dotfc 
fore tell the coming of a Mediator andSa- 
viour, and that all the Religion^ of this- 
People did confift in the expe&ing and* 
prefiguring him by the whole body of 
their ceremonies : That the coming o£ 
this Saviour hath been cold by a continu- 
ed lucceflkm: of miraculous Pn>phets,who 

D 3. have.- 

54 ^f^e^MtCatWn PartIL 

have appear^ from time to time to ad~ 
monifh the World thereof : and who have 
mark'tand let down the time, and princi- 
pal Gircumftances of his Life and Death: 
That he after this came at the time fore- 
, told } that he was not acknowledged by 
. thejews., bfecaufe-thc Prophets having 
-fpokenoftwo comings jof" this Saviour, 
;onein humility and poverty, the other 
in iplendor and glory y they only fixt their 
.thoughts on this kxtttr, Which was the 
canfc that hindered them from knowing 
- him when he came poor and humble. 
: Tbey:aretabe niade toe comprehend the 
t reafons of this way of proceeding of 6ur 
; Saviour JESVS C HRJS1. The 

• Wonders of his Life muft be explicated 

• to them, and the certainty of his Refur- 
rettion kid open ; to teftifie which, all 
that were w* Wflfe Iter? of iiGdcr^eftt 
martyrdom : To thefe mult be added, the 
Miracles wrought by the Apoftles^ she 
deftru&ion of Jerrfalem foretold by our 

.^yiomy the dreadful punifhment of the 
3*w, the Converfion of the Genttkt \ fo 

1 that in lefs than an hundred and fifty year 
theFaith of JESVS CHRIST was 
fpread over the whole World, evena- 
amongft the moft barbarous Nations, £as 
§t.jHJtin cxprefly obferves In his Dialogue 



Part 11 m* VtitUti SS 

againft Trifhon ; ) aad laftly, that the ad- 
mirable force of this Religion has fab- 
filled and encreafed notwithftanding the 
unheard of cruelties us ? d bv Men to de- 
ftroyit. , . * 

Thefe things king timely rooted in 
the minds of Children, makes them proof 
againfl all the Difcourfcs of libertines, 
and lets them fee, that they proceed* only 
from ignorance and bruitifhnels. 

§.41. There appearM lately in pub- 
lick, a Book whereof this difcoarfe is on- 
ly an abridgment ^ and which ptrhaps 
is one of the ufefulleft that can 6e put in- 
to the hands of a Prince who has. wit and 
good parts. 'Tis the Collection of fife 
thoughts of MonficHr 'fajcak Beiides the 
advantage they may thence reap to 
ground themfelves well in the trueReligi? 
on 7 by reafons which will appear to them 
fo much the morefolid, as £hey ; lhall be 
the more thorowly underftqod : beiides 
the deep jmpreffion it ieavesjthat nothing 
is more ridiculous than vainly to boaft of 
Libertinifm and Irreligion, a thing of 
greater importance for Great ories^ than 
can well be bclfcvM ': Beiides all this>it is 
writ in fo great* fo elevated a ftrain, and 
at: the fame time fo plain and far.fron* 
affectation, that nothing is more proper 

D 4 to 

56 &>t f|e CUttCatiOtt Part If. 

to fafhion tSeir minds,aind' to give them a 
relifli arid Idea of a Noble and natural 
way of writing and fpeaking : 

$.42. The defignMonfieur Pa/cat hzd 
to confine ^imfell to Proofs, drawn ei- 
ther from the cognizance of Man* or. 
from the Prophets, or from various re- 
marks on Scripture,is the caufe no others 
hare been found amongft his Papers j 
and it is certain that he had an Averlion 
from Abftraft and Metaphyficai reafon- 
togs, cmploy'd by many to eftabliih the 
truths of Faith 3 yet did he not pals the 
Hfce fcntence on fomc other more fen- 
fible Proofs which may fervefor the fame 
ptirpoft. On the contrary be was fully 
perwaded that the Proof drawn from 
the incapacity, matter is in to ihink^ was 
wy {bhd* and that it fftewM manifeftly 
the Soul was not material, but a fubftance 
of another Icind diftmA fronr Body. Per- 
haps, hacFhe had teifore to have brought 
Hkdefigns ta perfe&ion^ he would have 
pte'd this Proof as weft as others of the 
feme nature, in their foil light. 

Btit ask isamatterofthehigheft im- 
portance to cftablifh Princes firmly in the 
trot Religion, fo that no means ought to 
be fie gle&ed that can contribute there- , 
•ntoj foitfeems that £rofecuting this 
^ 3e%n 



defign, one n&y, with profit, make ufe 
of all thole natural reafons, which arc 
dear and folid, by infinuating them fo in- 
to their minds that they fnall not be a- 
ware of the hidden defign. The Proofs 
which are drawn hence, viz.. that the un* 
derftanding clearly fees that it is impof* 
fible, matter and motion fhould be necef 1 
fery and eternal beings, that matterihould 
thiak r know it felf r and generate a Spi- 
rit 5 are perfe&Iy of this kind, and o- 
thers may be drawn from the order and 
Bewnefs of the World proper enough to 
work on aH ibrts of understandings. The 
inconveniency that may here be atiedg'd, 
that thefe kinds of Proofs lead us only to 
know a God* but not a JESVS CHRIST 
our only Redeemer, is not coniiderabte 
in regard of the greateft part of the- 
World •• For all the Points of Religion 
are for the moft part made up into one 
intire Body ; aH is either rfeceivM, or all 
rejected jjb that, faftning on Men fome 
one part, the- whole Body of Tencnts. 
which it contains for the moft part goes 
along with it. 

§.43-Ifc is St.BafiPs advice tbatChildreir 
fhould learn fentences out of the Provtrh- 
and Books of^i/i/^tofandifie their Mer 
mods by the word ofGod,and toinftruit 

Dj them- 

£8 ©f #e fonwiwt Partm. 

them in the Principles of Morals. Per- 
haps this Pra^ice maybe usM with pro- 
fit,- but at the 6mc time they ought to be. 
fo explicated as toraife in them a great 
ld^aof Holy Wrk, and to make' thcrn* 
fenfible of the infinite treafures qf light. 
comain'd therein. Perhaps by this gleans 
a cure might bt provided againft a grest: 
and frequent malady of G reat ones^wh ic h 
makes them difrelifh and contemn Scrip*- • 
ture for the apparent meannefs, and ob- 
fcurity r 6f expredions wherein it has. 
pleased .Cod Almighty, to involve the ; 
truths it contain?.. 

S44.T0 thefeSentcnc* s gathsr'd out of r 
the Prov. Toothers may be added, drawn* 
out of Heathen Writers^and of the^onc : 
will be enotgh to l*arn . on a day. This * 
Practice continued during the c<5orfe of. 
feveral yearsi wiH fuffice to make, them-' 
remember the bell fayings of Poets, Hi- 
ftorians, and Philofophers; and by it, 
one may have the means to cull fuch out. 
as may be molt proper to correct their 
faults., which hereby they may come to 
know^being thus placM before their Eyes . 
in a fvyeet agreeable way,and without ex-" 
afpsrating of them. 

§-. 45. It wpuld be a piece of too much , 
rigor to debar absolutely Children the, 


t rl *l? 

Part 11/ m*$Htiil 59 

reading of Heathen Authors, fince, eve<i 
thefe contain many ufefiil things > But it 
is the Mailer's part to know how to make 
them fpeak like Chrtftians, by hi? man- 
her of explicating them. In them are to 
be found Maxims entirely true^and thefe 
are Chriftian Maxims of themfelves^fmce 
a!) truth cohes from and belongs to God 
Almighty'! .Thefe ?KsVerpre ought .only 
to be apphiVd without m^e ado» m % or : elfe 
it muft be ihewntJ^t Carjltion flSeygioii 
carries them yet much ftirther^and makes 
ias drive deeper. into the truth of them 
There are others w$i& .are falfe in the 
Mouth.' of Heathens,, /buf.jr^very/t rtrei 
and very folid in the : £hriftF 
ans : A nd this it is a Matter ought well 
to diftinguifh by laying open the vanity 
of Heathen Philofophy, and oppo- 
fing thereunto the folidityof the Princi- 
ples of Chriftian Religion. Laftiy, there 
are fome that are abfolutely falfe,and the 
falficy of thefe ought to bemanifefted by 
fblid ? and clear Realbns Thus whatfb- 
ever is in thefe Books will be profitable* 
and they will become Books or Devotion 
andPiety, fmce ufe may be made ofthe 
errours they, contain to make known the 
oppofite truths, and to make one com- 
prehend more fully the horrible blind- 


tf o m &t coocstfur Pan ir . 

nefi to whfch* the undefftanding of Maa 
is reduced by Sin, and the great neceffity 
of the light of God's grace to diffipatc 

Bflttounderftand morefWly^fcow thefe* 
three things may bs pat tn jptdtice, viz* 
how i. To heighten theSentiments of the 
Heathens by Chriftian truths j 2. How t* 
declare their falfity when utter'd by them,, 
and their truth when fboken by Chrifti- 
anfr: i^Howtolhew the vapity and il- 
lofiofl of afl their Phitofophy, I hare 
thought it an Obligation to put forth an 
Eflay oneheof the beft Book* of Sexecd> 
which is That he madeon the Shortnefs <gf 
Mai's Life* by rsfle&ingon feveraL Pat 
ftges therein.: 


■ I P " ■' ■ » ■ 1 > » +. 






P A R T IH. 

Containing fever dl Treatifes where it* 
a more particular explication is to 
h found iffeveral Points in* the 
precedent Difceurfes. 

Reflections on Seneca's Book of the 
fbortneft of Man's Life. 

Wherein is fern the ufe r one ought to makg of 
the Writings of Heathen Finlofofhers, 


4 *"V^:A J O R pars oiortalium de Na- 
^JLVX tur* ©alignitate conquerit»ty 


^ #f t%z tftwcattott Part nr. 

tf quod in exigtium aevi gignimur, quod~" 
ct que tain velocitci\ tarn raplde clati no- 
< 4 bis temporis ; fpacia decurrant — - 
cc Quid dererum Natura querimur ? Iila 
u fe benigne geffif, vita , fi ; fcias uti,. 
Ct louga eft. ■ * ; . . 

Theg&atefl part of Mankind accufcs Na- 
ture of malignity for having brought them in- 
to the World to livefolitik there r and that 
the time jhe has bcftomP'd on them paffes fo 
fwifrtjh away»*> t — fiufrthjfe cotfftaixtsj are 
not jflftt Nature hath dcffe favour abfy pt th 
us \ our Life is long enough^ if we know hew* 
ro ufc it right. ., , • . , • 


. Ti^coreuion fort of "Mankind complain - 
of the (bortnefs of Life, ..and. to thefe 
complaints Philofcpliers oppdfe .them- 
felves. They lay ' to their charge . the 
time they fpend idlely,and maintain, that 
Life is long enough well managed. 
They fee fonh the vanity of the grcatcft. 
part of Men's employ mcnts,and exagge- 
rate their fottiihnefs in bellowing all their 
time on other Peoples affairs, and refer- 
vingnoneto themfelves, Seneca , ampngft- 
others, triumphs in the pre'fent Tf^atife- 
on this fcore. To hear the tone and con- 
^ -. ' fidence . 

r~ — 

fidence wherewith they fpeak, one would 
think they had ail the reafon in the World 
and it is true they lay the blame on what 
really deferves it. Neverthelef* the 
trath is,That had vec no other lights than 
fiich as Nara*e holds forth, we ought on 
the contrary to fay ,that the Vulgar are 
in the right, and thePhilofophers in the 
wrong. To fay the truth, the Life of 
Man is-too.fhort, and no wlyes fuflkes- 
for thof: very things; for which Philofo- 
phers would employ it, They bid nte- 
fearch # byrcafoning the true end to which 
1 ought i& direct- all my aflion^ that I 
Ihould correct all the Enours that the 
prejodice&of my Childhood or Examples 
of debaucht Perfbns haveimprinted in my 
mind : That Ifhould fquarc all things-ac- 
cording to the Rules of Tr uth ; that I* 1 
Jhoftkl *ame f my Paffibnsvarid'have alftay$ : 
prefent before my eyes fuch reafohs-as : 
may free me from • t?fre fal fejifipreffions of 
deceitful objefts.- ' A thou (and Lives like 
mine, will not/ fuffice to brkig a work^of 
this natureto perfe&idn. 
I. Bat why therferey fay th&y, Idlfe' yoit 
fornuch time f why aire your thoughts- 
lbdjrperil y and you lb much out of ; your- 
felf ? What matters it whether! lole my, if I-become riot r happier in 


6 4 totttm **ttt*ti*n Part m. 


u Noa eft quod ifta officia cuiquam 
u imputes, quoniam quidem cum ilia fa- 
a ceres, noa efle cum aliquo volebas^fecL 
44 tecum non poteras. 

Ton ought not to frettnd that 4 others are 
obliged tojQH for the fervkts yo* da them v 
For it is not out of a defire of benefiting them 
that you do theft thiag y *tis becanfeym dm^ 
not be with yourfelf alone. . 


This is a pretext almoft always to \a+ 
ftifie ingratitude, One would think that 
we incur an obligation to fuch onely as 
have on let propofe obliged us* and not 
to fuch, as hunting after their own plea- 
fure and profit, have by chance light on 
us in their, way. Farewel Gratitude, if 
this be a rule. But to retain k amongflr 
ns, wemuft confider the goed deed done,, 
without fearching into its eaufeand ori- 

tine :For fhould we riffle there,we (hoold 
nd all things for the moft part fo. cor- 
rupt, that our gratitude would wholly be. 

Wherefore,where acknowledgment is 


Part III. dX&ftftKfe 6$ 

due, we ought not to fubtilize too mucbj 
it will by being too nicely lifted quite va- 
nifh away. 


u Omnia tanquam mortales timetis ; 
44 omnia tanquam immortales concupi- 
44 fcitis. 

Ton fear all things as being mortal \ yon 
€0 vet aU as if yon were never to dye. 


The reafon of this,is v that Man is both 
mortal and immortal. He is immortal ac- 
cording to the in ft it ut ion 6f his Nature, 
and mortal by its corruption : his fear 
flpeaks him mortal and miferable : lis 
unbounded defires prove his immorta- 


^PotentttGmis&inaltumfiiblatis ho- 
44 minibus exciderevoces videbis, quibtis, 
tfi otium optent. 

" It often h off cm that Men in the great eft 
power and elevation^ let flif words by which 
they give the World to kgow 9 that they want %t 
and defire repofe and quiet. 


66 0>f tije ^mication Pa* in. 

iU pleated with their prefent ft ate, and tqff 7 d 
to and fro by a cox t pi Hal viciffitnde of new 


Thefe People do alwayes welt to aban- 
"don the purfuit of what ttey fought af- 
ter. Their mifery is^that they forthwith 
fall in queft of fomething elie that de- 
ferves as little their inquiry. 'Tis unjuft 
to blame them for being difpleas'd with 
themfcFvcs-.they are onely blank able that 
they are not alwayesfo. They are not 
fight and inconftant becaufc they leave 
off their Enterprifesj but becaufe' they 
frame new ones. Innne, Man isfonri- 
ferable, that in fome fort inconftancy is 
his greateft vertuej becaufe by it he 
fhews that there remains yet in him fome 
remnants ofthatQrandeur^which prompts 
him to difrelifh things that deferve not 
his eftecm or affeftion. 


" Omnes deniqj abinfimisad fummos 
c pcrcrrant: Hicadvocit - 7 hicadeft: Illc 
" perielitator, illsdefcndit jille judicit : 
" Nemo fe fibi vindicat : alius in alium 
** cbrifunfimur. Cwfdtr 

Part in. a>f*piimt< • *7 

Confider how Aden from the lowefi Condi- 
tions the highefi fafs away their time: Some 
procure others to manage their affairs ; others 
wriertak?the>nan4gement of them \ this Man 
is acenfed^ that defends himfelf a third fits as 
Judge; Nobody think* ox, orlyvesforhim- 
felf. We totally wajle ar>d con fume onrfelves 
ofit rfor amtlier* • 


If there were no other Life but this, 

as Seneca aimoft thought, he was in the 

* wrong to blame them. Thefe Men are 

ae pleafed with this noife and tumult, as 

Phiiofophsrs in *~:r grs^tdt rcjsrfVi 

They dye with as much eonftancy, or ra- 
ther with as little fchfe and fear bfDeath. 
Truths become falfities in the mouths of 
- Phiibfopheus, becaufe they fpoil and 
comipt thejn. *TiS but fit w« mould free 
bur felves from the turmoil of theWorld, 
and thinkon our own affairs, provided 
thofe thoughts produce any folid good \ 
and on this fcore, Chriftians have reafon 
toforfake k: But if we receive no greater 
advantage by being alone, than in com- 
pany, it is all cut as good to bethere 
.as with ones fclf. 


** mm**mUtiQn Part ILL 

managing of it tetter ?. But how do you 
pretend that 1 ibouid gather rny thoughts 
together, a>nd redrefc that difiipation* 
whereof you accufe me >t I confefs it k 
one of my great eft evils and my whole 
Life is not fufficient to cure it, I feel an 
impetuous inftintt which hurries me out 
of myfelf \ I find nothing in me where- 
with I am fatisfied - 9 1 mult have grofs 
thoughts to employ and free my felf from 
an irkfom reftlefnefs. All thefe fubtle' 
and nice confiderations, wherewith they 
ftore my head, flip away forthwith* to 
make place for more fenfible ones, which 
feize more ftrongly on me -, before that It 
IteU be acfflftomwtobuilc my fitf *** 
theft Spiritual and Philofophkal idea 7 s, 
Death will have put ffle ox& of poffibUity 
of ufing them. 

There is therefore more truth in the 
complaints of the Vulgar, than in the 
vanity of Philofophers, and according}; 
when they would fpeak fincerelft they 
find themfelves obliged to complain of 
the fhortnefs of Life. We ffend ai our 
Life, (ayes Sene c a % in oontinud^an \dxrings r 
dthwgh it would ffwe tjodjhort^ jhonld we 
emfloy all its dayes and nights to bring qw 
Minds toperfettion. There is nothing but 
Cljriftian Religion that can give us any 


parti ii. m*ip#m. 6 9 

real comfort, for the fhort fpacc of our 
Lives. It appoints not Man to learn 
Sciences,' nor would even raife him to a 
perfe&ion free from aJ! defefts : It pre- 
tends not we fhould acquire Vcrtue by 
our own-ftrength, but by theinfufion ., 
of God's Holy Spirit. Now who can 
complain that Life is not lotog enough 
-for this. 

Our Life is almoft too (hort for any 
Exercife, for attaining to any Art or 
Profeffion. We live not long enough to 
become either good Painters, gdod Ar- 
chitects, good Phyficians, good Lawyers, 
good Philofophers, good Captains, good 
Princes •, but we live long enough to be- 
, come good Chriftians: And the reafoiusr 
we are not fent hither into the World 
to be either Painters, Phyficians, or Phi- 
lofophers j but our errand is to be Chri- 


* 4 Plero% nihil cer turn ftquentes^vagt 
"Bcinconftans, &fibi difplicens levitas 
* /per nova confilia jaftavit. 

The greatefl part of M#nk*nd fw$oft to 
themfehes nocertsinendof living \ they per- 
mit themfekues to be c*rrttd Hp and down by , 
4 fitting itwonfi ant levity : They are alvtayes 

70 £>f tfc $toSC*tfOII Part III; 


It is bscaufe real Happineft confifts 
therein. And if the quiet of this Life be 
unable to fatisfie thofe who enjoy it, 'tis 
becaufe Happinefs confifts not in the re- 
pofe and quiet of this Life. 


< c Tanta vifa eft res otium, ut illam,quia 
M ufu non poterat, cogitatione prgfume- 
" ret. (Hefpcakl <f Auguftus.) 

^QtUet is fo great a goody that thofe who 
could not effe&ively enjoy it, vtere glad to 
take a tafie thereof by their thongots and 


This fecms eafie to be done : Such-like 
thoughts are Hot troublefbme ^they leave 
us the free enjoyment of Greatnefs, and 
in feme fort joy n together all the advan- 
tages of repofe with thofe of Fortune. 
But let a neceffity of chufing intervene^ 
wilt fopn appear that od a corrupted 
Soul Greatnefs works with more attra- 
#ivenefs than repofe. 
, Thus Men pleafe themfelves in form- 

Part in. m a t&tfttce; 7 1 

ing Idea's cither of States of Life, which 
they would not effeftivdy undertake, or 
of Vertues they would never pra&ife, 
to the end they may take Pride in thefe . 
glorious Reprefentations, and fancy 
themfelves fuch and fuch, whillt they . 
remain in the condition where their con- 
cupifcence has a. mind to Place them* 
Doyonaskjne\ fayesSwec*, why I would 
have a Friend ? 'Tijfatanfe I would have 
one for whom J might Uy down my Life : Vt 
habeam fro quo mori fojfim. This fenti- 
ment is great and elevated, and, as fuch, 
mighty pleafing to a Soul full of Vanity : 
But let him alone, he will find means ; 
tofreehimfelf from Death-, he will ne- 
ver fall into the occafion of dying. Id the 
mean time being out of d anger, * he plea- 
fes himfelf with this thought* which lays 
before his eyes all thofe praifes he might 
deferve by this Heroick deed he n$vc? 
will do. 

SEN EC A. / 

ct Plures, cum aliis focliciflimi videren- • 
ct tur, ipfi in fe teftimonium dixerunt, 
4 * perofi omnem a&um annorum fuorum. 
lt jSed his qnerclis nee alios mutaverunt, 
cC necfeipfosi, Nam cum verba erumt- 
. " ' "perent 

7 % fl)f t^e cCWtcfftton Partiir. 

4, perent, affe&usad confuetudinem re- 
cC fabuntur. 

There are many who of fearing mo ft hap- 
py^ hone neverthelefs born witnefs againjt 
them/elves, by detefiing the turmoil of their 
pafi Life. Sat thefe complaints have nei- 
ther produced any change in themf elves , nor 
others •, for after all their talk, they have 
hen hurried by their pajfions back^ again to 

their old wonted wayes. 

i . ■ ■ 


Difcourfes of this nature are ufually 
made daring the intervals of paflions - 7 
but thofeonce weakned again, they are 
laid afide and forgot. In Man nothing 
is permanent, nothing alwayes prefent, 
neither Paffion nor Reafon \ and in this 
are to be found the greateft miftakes of 
Ancient Philofophers: They thought that 
by furnifiiing Men with fair Reafons a- 
gainft the fear of Death, Poverty, and 
Pain, they could make them refill all the 
impreffions of thefe objefts. But here 
lurks a double errour : nrft, in beleiving 
that Maa ^ guides himfelf by Reafon, 
whereas he is lead by Paffion which do- 
mineers over him : Secondly, in ima- 
gining that Reafon* can altfayes be pre- 


ient y whereat the Sout^ being tlricapiblfe? 
of a Iconftant £pplicatiorft therenritd, *fe* ; 
neceftitated to forget thcm^to thinK fob 
the ifioft part no longer on them, WHefice v 
pafiions have leaye to, play their part 
and ^arry the day: "* - ;» •' ;- * .'■*. 

S E N £~C a: - , -- '• •* 

■ • . • \;v; * 

* 4 Tot& vita diltendum eft mori. 

We ought to employ our whole Lift in 

learning how tp dye. ' . ' : - 

: r REf LE-CTI'ON^ ^ ; > 

He fo liiglily 4 efteem\fc tfeis feiitenGeV 
that f he repeats it;every-whete» Htiqko- 
tiiie, fays he in another place, *n*ditare y 
Ht pops -Aqua, ttnmo vitam reliniju^e^ ¥-ac 
iihijwmdatityitam^bmttmfro iU*foUirittt~ 

dinemdepc^ef(4o\ ^fays he in a thira.- Mo-' 
thing is jtocire folia than this diofcgfit itt 
the mouth of aChriftian. Hd hasrea- 
fon to concern himfcf for that momen^ 
which is to decide his Eternity: but hi^- ' 
thing is more vain,than k,in the tnotatit^f 
a Heathen, who has neither fear, nor 
hope for another Life. What need I, 
fays pur Heathen, trouble my felf with 
thefe melancholy thought*/ pertikps I 

r 7* *xmm»c*m *™wl 

i^l<^patbefu(idain without refe#- 
irc on o6»tts wi/b ffoll nee£ 
fl^v^Goiat^ coaftap^ At the. vwrftv 
^tfflFttSWttP: i* it/df three of four be 
wte^Ts of JOT? impatiesc* and mpaas! 
in a quarter of ail hour I flhoQ cesfe to be 
in regard of them, as theyalfo (had in 
xtfpSSt of m*. A^d dots this deferve 
£he txovble of a whole Life, wearied and 
worn out; wi^h ccmtiwtf thoughts, of 

in fine i PhHo%fct? CPOWoan 

what was irtpoffibleto be done* w* 

on one hurt tkej l^gta u* tyre w 

oat any anxious care of Life j and on 

<M «fbsr 1*H! paiflftqd tbis very tife 

«* a*«n^ofljj^qo4- -i . 

tap* is. tfo vefjF. 7otin{ajn-head of 

pfetfuj** aju&tf &3* i 3»itf topoffibk 
« flttuW jnot bf i^toixb-tiiefc two pa®- 
oav Tfrbj free, from the fear of Deatfc> 
1* jwyft not; bfr in. love iyi& i4fe v not 
cfew» it agreeable., Thus as Chriftiaa 
■IMiffttftaJpfte^aKtafc fronj^tli? fcv* 
of Life, folate* .can mate, n* %bj 

^^^^W^l^^YF V MV I MIT 

* c & videbis paucos quosdacp & rejiculos 
* c apud t& refckliflfe. 

Sam Hp the days of thy Life y and thou 
jk*frftod 9 thou baft cmphfd font thy Jilfthe 


Amofcgft the days he DJlteVeS he» fa*, 
©lof tf ferhimfclf, hiiofiiy reckons 1 t4id» 
ipent on Philofophy : But had he rea- 
fon'd juftly, he might have found there 
remain'd no more to himfelf of thefe Phi- 
losophical day* than of the other!*, he 
had only fottie 1 flight' re^netftbrahfce of 
thett^ a* he ha£ <tf the re^mfcra'ttfctf of 
hfe Life, Timejiaft< Jfeagb** ■ v#4A& e- 
quals all things, provided the -eflfce& of 
t;iale,paft^bbfift , no , more $ atid." thWis 
what the PhHdfbp!ftfc?of okfkneW tfo# 

$£ N0 C J! ■ •• ' 

«*' re una oiWhtoJpreHotrfltmaiadKt^ 

W« <«fc qf, W befimon others o*r time 
and lei fare, as if it- vtertof Ho wShh $ and 
Jhnt we flay and trifle away that which rf*# 


76 £* tfje tftaicatfoti 

• • » 


If that time be the bed employ M which 
is the merrily'ft fpent, 1 cannot do bet- 
ter than beftow it on the next I meet, 
provided I divertife my ielf thereby. 

The tune of Heathens was of no value, 
bat that of Christians isinfinitely efteem- 
ajble j Eternity may be gainM thereby. 


. * c Maxima vivendi impedimentum eft 
*f cXpe&atio qua pendet excraftrno. Per- 
^diahbdiernum; quod in *taanu fortunae 
c ?pofitum eft, difponis, quod in tul, di- 

'^The great eft hinder ana from living hap- 
ftifa is always to have ones mind in fujpence^ 
ami to be framing defigns about what's to 
come. We permit time prefent to flip from 
us f and in lien of applying our f elves to re- 
gulate it) we are fooUJhly bnfie about that, 
tfihich .is yet in the hands of Fortune. 


Time to come is not ia the hands of • 
Fortune, 'tis ia the hands of God, who 


Part in. tfXa fMtice* 17 

as yet has not beftowM it on us \ bat he 
gives us the time prefent as a Talent he 
will demand account of: and for this 
reafon it is true what Seneca fays, that, to 
live wdl confifts in well-tiling the time 
prefent 9 and in putting in execution -now, 
what God commands us now, in this ve- 
ry hour, to do* For God's Will com- 
mands always fomething to do done for 
each minute, and this we ought forth- 
with to do. The bufinefe only is how to 
know and accomplish it : But are we for- 
bid to think on what's to come? We 
ought then to think on it, when it is apart 
of our prefent duty to do fo -, otherwife 
we do not follow Almighty God, we w3l > 
needs pre vent andgo before him. - 

S EN £ C A. 

» * 

" Com edentate tempori* utendi ve- 
ft< lockate certandum eft : tanquam ex 
l€ torrente rapido nee femper cafuro 
" hauriendutn eft". 

Our endeavours to ufe time weli^ ought to , 
keep pace with its fwiftnefi. We tmftmakp 
haft to draw -from thence what Water may 
be necejfary, as out of a Torrent thaPs both 
rapid and will foon be drfd up* 


7« & m » €*** iW Rart HI. 


WjH^giattei*^ math 

feafte, tajce the tarrant mti jcatty aea- 
teng w&b* * and chat^hen ^<dryM i^>, 
Jibuti be *o more? l^areis ikoui pel- 
jfcble JUufaa in all tfccfi: fftboiirjfe, 
prhcn we look on tbo« as fpctei by l^i- 
iofcpha* ^ but tbty are trae aod pmi- 
JKMwteadelwer'd by Chriftjacs. This 
Time, tbcPrice wherewith wc buy Eitr- 
tfcy, ilif&aauay before oar Eyesjaad 
wc flbali oevtxhaTicodKr creafcices than 
ttfifaa* we flteU-faare drawn fvpm feeace. 
Weouglittberefixciagotowwic apace. 
The codeqoeoceis good^aod 'tie ftiwge 
fo feft are wrought on by it* 

S £ N £ C ji. 

c ' Ncino^nili a qu© oranra a&a foe* fub 
u eenfare fua quae auttjeam fejhtur, li- 
« benter fe in praeterxtiu r* tonquct. 

Qdy tbafe mheftntitty eeafmm jrff fit *5/~ 
mt of ih'ir Lvss^ and judge thermf If ike 
afaUibk Rmlt of Cwfckrw, cs* with fka~ 
fweiQokje*ck.&* whtfs f*jt* . 


• * 

*.. ^^' V '* » 

Part lit. -W%W*ih ft 

« » 



There's a fpfce o)f folly ift this info' 
lenc;y. What^ is Khn nfeyer djcccivM ? 
he has owu'd, and 6id the contrary an 
hundred time* ftdt thh v^itt Image ha- 
ving here ftsutk hb fanty f he co fltotc 
remembers eklier his own wgakneft or 
his old Maxims. This fofgetfulnefs is 
not lefs ftrange than that which makes 
him in another place Tay 9 PhirdTophy gave 
nspoflcffioa of an eternal felicity,, al- 
though according to his Principles it can- 
not out^teft oar iife. Man is aptwQfcik 
what hedefires* tod to fuppofe things 

Jkh as he would fcye fbcm |b 1bq : I» 
would be infallible •> he would tnjjpjr at 
eternal felicity, Be gives himfdTboth 
the one and the other In his fancy aad 
woids, ince he cannot effeduaUy be- 
ftow them on hhnfdf. 

5 E N£C A 

u Haec eft pars nottri temporis lacfa 
u & dedicata, & omnes huiaafios cafts 
u iupergrefla t extra regmap fortune fub- 
li dtfda, quam non inopia, non metus, 
u non morborum incurlus cxagitat. 

E4 * r H*c 

So ®ttft&m*tiQtl PartllL 

4 * Haw:, riec turbari, nee eripi poteft : 
"perpetua ejus & intrepida pofleffio 

Time f aft is that fart of our Life, which 
'. i&j as it were , confecrated, and above all 
human accidents j it*s no more obnoxious* to 
' Fortunes tyranny, it*sfree from the affauhs 
jf tw^y* f ear i and fekpefs. This, can nei- 
ther be Sj quieted, nor takptfrom us : its en- 
joyment is lofting and peaceful. 


How (hallow are the dilcourfes of Phi- 
Jofophers? How Could the Heathen be 
; in pqfl^on of time paft, he neither ex- 
pected the reward of . his good ad ions, 
r ^-fe^rM ponifiiment for his bad 7 What 

*JHva$ paft of his Life ? whence .Qnce. forgot- 
tten, was to him "as rf rt never had bettf: 

# He could therefore only keep pofleffioh 

* therefore by remembring it. But what a 
poor kind of a thing is this poffeffion ! 
by it we only enjoy fame fnjall number of 
adtions, and only nie body bf thofe, the. 
greateft part of drcumffances are, for- 

^jgotteiii and what is retained, helps only 

to give lome faint divertifement: He 

' n^ed not therefore, brag, and bear up fo 

- high. If there was not a Life tcrrome^ 


the remembrance of what's pall in this, 
would be ufelefs enough*, and all the 
fruit we could gather thence, would be 
like to that, which we draw from fome 
mean and trivial ftory. 

Biit let a Chriftian hold this difcotfrfe, 
its truth will exceed the loftinefs of «x- 
prelfing it ^For it is true that whit's pall 
fubflfts yet, that none of our aftions pe- 
rilh, We fhall find them all writ, a* the 
Prophet fpeaks, with a Graver of Iron. 
We may yet neverthelefs fay, that it is 
not free from all change, fince our good 
a&ions in fame* fort may be annihilated 
by our bad, as on* the contrary our bad 
may be aboliftit by our good; fo that 
they will not be perfeftly fixt and per- 
manent till the -and of bur Life, when 
the good fhall be no more in danger of 
being .deftrqy'd, and the bad out of 
hope of redrefs. 

Human Philofophy did infinitely dimi- 
niJh the horrour of Vice, and the efteem 
of Vertue, by extending them no farther 
than this Life, For one may fay of Vet- 

! tue and Vice, what was ufually faid of 
Mifery: Nihil, magnum quod extremnm 
babet : Nothing that's finite is great* But 
the Eternity, which Chriftians con fider 
adds an infinite weight to either T o«r 

: , E^5. good 

goad pr^Fil aftjons, fiacc k makes both 
the pqe tftf tbcs $tber to endure for al- 

^Dfcrepfti fte** panconrai dferum 
"afgeffiopftR v«ttf mendicant; raiaores 
4 <aat» ftipfc* fingunt, mendacio fi|>i 
44 ty&pdjupsor, & tam itfcnter fallunt* 
44 qpra< ft fm mi decipiaBt. 

Q14 A4m rtfdy fa the Grave cffhrtheir 
¥w$ fril ef nK*iwtf$ y to have their Lives 
JtflMViyfr fame ft* years \ they fancy 
?bmfel'wy*«*?er th+n they, *rr, and fkafe . 
thtmjtfjvet mtktbis <kmt 4* wish as if they 
$wfd therekj/fiof apd 4*mw the afpnaaeb- 


There «re certain foeliih extravagan- 
ces that alter and change, as fqAikms do, 
stfid ib laft but for feme time. There are 
others that; continue always and thefe 
are grounded on the moft eflential ob- 
je&s of concupifcence 

Thedefire of Life which makes old 
Afcn cUflembte their age, is of the sumr 
bcr of the laft. Men will always defire 
to live, and to dye will be troub^fiuoe to 



Part nr, M*&fai& a* 

But how tomes it to jwtfs they tafee 
delight in thefe deceits, the falfitt where- 
of themretoes Juffickntly know Fit is be- 
canfe thefe fi&ions furiufli tfacm with 
pleafing motioasand thoughts., aod ttat 
they apply tbemfehres lo jnwh to f his 
jrteaftre that they coafider not their fel- 
hty. Something not unlike this happens 
in reading Romances, ^kknovmtbef 
ate all Lyes , and yet thw pleafe> hecaafc 
no body thinks of their firiiigyi its Idea' 
is laid aftcle, and pkaiure it taken iaret- 
ding the imaginary accidents they cw 


w Qj»damvitfci ttk*,<^fedUtftai« 
<c argument* dele&ant NimishumiH* 
u iftp coeterapti hoou&is efle videtoc, 
a fcire quod Faciant. 

Tfeere *re certain Vices that fkafe */ f 
hecaafe they are the badges of tmr greatnefi^ 
and fortune. There Art fomt who phudL i* 
the fart of a mean and contanftiklc ffirit^ 
know what they do. . 


The Great are pfeasM withthofe farite, 
the Great are only capable of \ became 

by thenj 'tney are Hiltinguifht from the 
leflerlbtt. We love to own the Vices 
incident to Men of parts, becaufe we, 
fency thplfe, who. take ndtice of them^ 
feg&rd the Caufe more than th6 effedt. 
There's nothing more common , than to 
•tell ftch faults as are ingenious and wit- 
ty jr^ndiojir defign therein is not to let- 
' our hearts know we have done amifsj but 
to tell themthat we are Men of parts and; 
ingenuity; . .' 

: One of thofe- Roman Epicures , whiPfl:: 
fie was carried iri a Chair from the Bath,, 
ask'd '. his Servants, Do I fit ? Jam fedeo ?.-• 
Much like unto this was that of one, who 
being a Hunting ask'd thofe about him : : 
Do not there take a great deal of plea- 
fore ? Theft* fifties are peculiar to * 
Great ones ; and it is good to obferve 
them v the vulgar is not guilty of 'any 



4U Operos£, nihil agunt.- 
v Theft People are 4lways bttfit , yet donQt 




Tis what may be ftidof the generality 
ctMeji. They are all in a throng, all in 

* ; • a:hur» 

Part HT. ^fl^^^l^o Syr 
a hurry , and all this ftir end* in no- 
thing. They build Caftles of Paper 
^ which the. Wind fweeps away. To em- 
ploy ones labour well, one fcould know 
- lome end to labour for : Bene confitrgit 
' dilucuto. qui qnarit bona , fays the. Scrip- 
' turfe f But if we do not *knovV r where this. 
, good is to be found, 'tis in vain to rife 
early in the morning to go in fearch after 
it. The flothfulandthe diligent advance 
equally, when the one knows no better 
than the other what is to be done* 


"'Ocjuantum caliginis,mentibus humg- 
nis obijeit magna fcelicitas!, 

What blindnefs great F mimes caufe iff the 
minds of Men} 


We fee the Clouds wherein others are 
ihvolvM, but we fee not thofe that invi- 
roh ;us.. What we fay to others is true } 
but we never tell thefe truths t<) our 
fclves. Swec* knew the blindnefs of the 
Great , but he knew not that of the Phi- 

;lOfopher, nor his own: and ^the rea- 
fpnwasV becaufe he did; not pqrft&ly 

^ , - know* 

26 &>ffljt 4SttliUU0tl Part Iff. 

know the blindnefc of the Great. 

To know this thorowijr^ one oqght 
not only to be acquainted with that hliad- 
nefs, that Is peculiar to feme particular 
condition, but that which is general to 
Mankind. Thofib roifts wbkh rife from 
particular conditions are of lefs confe- 
quence: but there is a certain Cloud that 
benights Mankind* and 'tis tfcU we augbt 
to be well acquainted withr 


** Ad res pulcherrimas ex tenebris adf 
tc lucem emtas alieno labor e dectacteftr. 
4 * Nullo nobis faecqlo interdi&ma eft : in 
ct omnia admittimur % §c fi magnittdine 
•* animi egredi * humane imbecittitatis 
* c anguftias libet, multum per quodfpa- 
c€ demur temporis eft. Difputare cum 
" Socrate licet : , dubitare cum Car- 
** neade : cum Epicuro quiefcest. 

By the help of others ^ without any trouble 
of our own , we enjoy the fyowfojge ofanm* 
her of exauifite truths which him k&? 
kroiqht to tight t hy Ma&s wdnjhy* The fa 
frets ofm jfyeare hid from tu, au lies open y 
and ij. we would b*t carry our minds beyond 
ihtftrdit bounds of time > we fowld find room 
enough t* expatiate in : We might difiomfe 

Part III. J0C « 4frtf*te< %j 

with Socrates \ vtc might doubt with Car- 
Beades^ *nd enjoy <pnct md mfc with Epi- 


Behold the pourtrayturc of Philofo- 
phical Beatitude*' This is the nobleft 
employment of that wife Man,the Philofo- 
phcrs fo much boaft of* and this is 
the fumof what aH their Wk could find 
out to make us happf. You ftaU hear, 
fey they, the greateft Men of all anti- 
quity difcourfc v youfhallfee the heft of 
inventions. ^Tis true, but my mfcfbr- 
tunefe* thai I hare no eyes to fee thefe 
def d Men with, and vtithoot eyes I can- 
not entertain them. What therefore 
fcall I do in this Phllefephieal retire- 
went/ Lee them fey what they will-, one 
that's blind will have much ado ta be- 
come PhilofcphicaHy happy* You flptil 
bufieyour thoughts, fty they, in medica- 
ting the truths you know, I, but a quar- 
ter of an hours meditating diftutfes my 
Brain. This is another inconvenience 
which our Philofcphers have not fort- 
ften. Belike they foppos'd our heads 
were made of Brafe \ but let u§ grant that 
we may entertain our fefm with theft 
thoughts^ what great pteaftrefhallWe 


88 $f *&? ItWrtiOtl Part HL 

here find : if they have only for object 
fbme falfity, what happinefs is there to 
have ones head always full of Chimera's 
and Dreams. Perhaps I fhall be hap- 
pier in knowing what Philofophers teach 
. of the nature of the Soul, of its Seat, 
and of its duration. 'Tis Air,fay they,'tis 
. Fire, 'tis Light, 'tis a Harmony, a Quia- 
teflence, a Spirit, « part of the Soul of 
the World: It refides in the Heart, in the 
Belly, in the Brain, in a glandule of the 
Brain: It paHes from one Body to ano- 
ther, it flies upwards, defends below, 
it periihes, continues a while, fubhfts 
for ever, is chang'd into God, or into a 
. Daemon. Now I have made a great pro- 
grefs in knowledge, and let what I have 
learnt be all truths r yet are. they fiich as 
are advantageous Jo me v and for which I 
ought to intereft my felf ? After all, this 
contemplation of human truths is not a- 
ble to di vertife me for any while. I find 
my felf ftraitn'd by a thouland wants/or 
which they bring no remedy. I mult 
take care to manage a Suit at Law,I mutt 
.provide for Children*, maintain my Fa- 
mily : I have no leifure to difcourfe with 

L It is a ftrange thing to confideiyhow 

ipany ^wfre^djKbar'd their . Philofophical 

5,.;; ' " ■" . happinefs,, 

Part HI. . ., 4>f a tJiflWr 8* 

happinds, even by their very condition 
of Life. It belongM not at all to thofe 
who were obligM to work from morning 
to : night j (laves, or Women tending 
Families had no claim to it. For what 
means or opportunity had they to gaze 
' at the (tars in ttefe conditions? 

Let Philofophers declaim as much as 
they pleafc againft riches ; one ought to 
betolerably well provided to be as hap* 
, py as they would have one, to H the end 
" one fliouid not be continually diftrafted 
t by* the thoughts of getting a heceffiuy 
1 lively hopd. 

Moreover* it wasfurtherrequifite r tQ 
"ftn0wtb read,'.to underftand Languages, 
* and. to be'furnifbM with a. competent 
" wft * Let us joyn all thefe together, and 
.^we fliall find that this Philofophical hajj- 

SiiKfs ; would fall almoffc to no bodies 
lare jjjmd hence its falfity may be con- 
[ eluded^ as on the contrary the truth of 
^Chriftian Religion may be gathered. For 
.'to b^ a Cfrriftian, onely a heart ^nda 
docility .of 'Spirit is requirM. 

Thus Philofophers had many falfe 
Principles, whereon their whole reafon- 
ings turnM, yet were thtey not aware of 
their falfity. And here is one which 
was, the fource* of moft of thofe fine dff- 


coufTes by Ttfhich they did extiott ttȣOta-r 
ftancy/to a contempt^ all humane ac- 
cidents, and eren of Death It tel£ They 
did fuppoft that the $ctaf ceuld do 
sflwayes and *very-whfere* what fhe 
coBld ta feme fet dtoimthiTces, This 
is the ground of the foflowmg difcourfe 
of Seneca: It is a diftctftt things mtt ym 
fa, fo obtain front tht Sort that it tvofiU 
/Bgfo Death: T>o yon ml fee for what fmdll 
rrijks it is Wtfy Jay dehis+d f Thus Man 
bangs himfe/f at his AfifrefPs dtor : That 
other throws 4>imfitf bead-lo*g fnm the tdp 
of the ho*fc r that he may no longer htiar 
the chiSngs 1 of an ill-c$ndifioned Mt- 
Jter v * fhirdwho has run away ftaishimf elf , 
kftU &o#l4 & brought bac^agam to m 
Mafttr he had out-ran. Can yon think, that 
Ytrtue canrfot do, tobat Fear dhts fo t*$l f 
Yes I do, and ha?e teafon to thiftk' tb. 
This excefliv* Fear has not produced 
thefe effe&s you mention, but by bHn4r 
ing thefe wretches, fo as t$ hide frOBi 
them the mi [try or Ocatf^and fetthjg 
them onely fee and coftiutefr the evils 
they fhiin. ■ To fay^ Reafon eaa dtf tbU,, 
betaufe Palfion did it, is to afirCfc that if 
darknefs can hinder n* from ftetaft, hght 
can do lb too. 
The extraordinary eflefts of Qur paF- 


ikm cannot be imitated by Reafbs^ be 
caufe they depend cm eerafa- motions 
^vhich are not perfectly voluntary. We 
cannot when we pfeafe excite in our 
felves thofe violent agitations j the; de- 
jpefidon objc&s, .and evenptt feme cqr- 
jaw diipofitSm *f tfhe Body. 

Without thatragt of deceit and foil F r 
which makes thefe people took on the 
evils tky would flwn^sintdlerabk, and 
whid> hides from their fight the mtfery 
of Death, never wonM <hqr take fo 
defperate feibfutions. They do not 
flight Deaths they think not on it, and 
fo run head-long thither « to a place 
of reft. 

Why4o yoe not % the fate df Hea* 
fen pwfft, fey again thefe Pbilofb- 
ffhers v chat Wtricfc Time wiff hereafter 
<k> for you ? But Time wiB take from 
frfore my eyes thole obfetts which at 
prefeot wholly take* ire up : it will di- 
inimih that impreJfien which now fo fcn- 
lifely work*<*fc my Body, k wtH engage 
my mind in other thoughts , Kcafim tan 
do nothing of all this. 

There is then a great fault in that Dip- 
courfe which concludes, That the Soul 
can alwayes do what flie does in fome 
certain conditions which are involuntary 


pr fi>e tfte f ^wation Part m 

and accompanied with a thoufand -exte- 
rior circumftances. 


4 Ipfr eorum voluptates trepidae, & 
4 variisterroribus inquiefce funt 5 fubitq; 
4 cdm maxime exultantes, follicita cogita- 
4 tio i h«c quamdiu ? 

Their very fleafitres are not free from 
trebles, and fears, for they are in their 
,highe ft. jollity di ft nrbed with this melancholy 
: thought j How long wiUall this laft ? 


How. many arc thsre, who never made 

any of theft, refleftioiis, • and whole mi- was ; npt txi make . them ? Seneca 

knew not the-ftppidity of Mankind, 

whole misfortnne it is not to be troubled 

with the fear of ^hofe accidents and evils 

. that threateivhim, bat to be fo difpos'd 

.astojiy^n^repofe and quiet, without 

being djfturB'd with fo warrantable 



4 Ad h«c facra & fublimia accede, fci- 
* . turus 

Part III. ®t *fft$ttIC& 9i 

' turns quae fit natura diis, quae voluntas, 
4 quae conditio, quae forma \ quis ani- 
c mum tuum cafus expeftet} ubi nos i 
4 corporibus dimiflbs natura componat. 
4 Quid lit quod hujus mundi gravUfima 
4 quasque fuitineat^fupra levia fufpendat, 
c in fummum ignem ferat, fydera curfi- 
4 bus fuis excitet \ caetera deinceps in-' 
4 gcntibus plena miraculis. Vis tu, reli- 
c &o folo, mente ad ifta refpicere ? 

Leave thefe mean imployments } and of-* 
ply your felf to the contemplation of thefe 
htgn and f acred truths^ learn what* s the' 
nature of the godsj what their inclinations^ 
their condition, Jhape^ &c. what mil be- 
fall our Souls, and where Nature will 
place them when feparated from the B)dies: 
what power it is (hat k&eps heavy Bodies in 
the middle of the Wbrld^ and raifes light 
ones up ' Have yon na mind to leave the 
Earth, to fix the eyes of your -mind on thefe 

great obje&tl ''■' '',••' ! ': ■ : ''' ' 

. • •* t ' ■ 


* * - '. ' • 

It appears by all thefe DJfcourfts that; 
Philofophers did aim at nothing elfe 
but having their ipinds buffed a&out 
fome objeft giteat enough hot to make 
them weary of themlelres, and able 


94 &ttfo<mt$tim PartliL 

enough ta free, them from* thdr paflhras; 
The inquiry afor the iinmarUiity of tho 
Soul r ane! the natase of God was by 
tfieraranktin the faaie place with that 
about thegravity of the Earthy and the 
diJbofTtionrof Elements. They did nob 
rraeft that this knowledge *at neceflary 
to gpide their Lives by : They believed 
they mi|Et be happy without knowing 
their origins whence they <ame or thek 
end whitfier they were to^go. And, ge- 
nerally fpcaking. all their Phtlofophicai 
(peculations were no more to -t henv than 
a game at Card^which with as much cer- 
tainty produces the effeft of diverting 
them as the molt fuMime Meditations 
whatever. * 

I f therefore it be a fewpinefs to taiow 
all thefe thing$»it iaa mifery t& bft with- 
out knowledi^ of than *j fo thw all thefe 
fpeculations^haviagpwlyfw their eodt 
the convincing us of our ignorafloey. are 
onely capable to make us more fenfible 
of our mifery^ Hufc if it be nat a hap- 
pinefs, why do they look on aH thefe 
in^jprie* as. oa foroe^hbg^tba^ g^e«* 
If is thcypfore wdpnt that Ph&tfoprir*' 
have j^t.pjta^d theic happjoeft < is* the* 
knowledge oftruthr but* in. this agitata 
oikd£ the mind fiilU with gr^^lderfs/ 


Part HI. ®i&Pltntt. <# 

They were of opinion that it imported* 
littte w hcilm wlui they knew wa s teuc- 
or falfe, fo t ha t th ey wcrr emtaUytakea- 
up therewith. Error, Doubt, Truth- 
were things indifferent to them, nor did 
they ever cfteem thofe, who made pro- 
feffion of kntrwing nothing left happy 
than U*& that Jfcafted . tttef knew all. 
In a word, they really only aimM to 
pleafe and dtsrert thcatfetaes,, whilft by 
all thefe glorious promifes they cheated 
the Worn i and even thea whan: they 
fet themfclvesagainft thofe, who taught, 
*hat plealure was Mkrifs Soveraign 
Gpo4> they proppsM to therafelves no 
<#toar tshao anr idlejdftreiftja ofmrncL 

, t\ ■ ' V i , mm,, m, , « t i m j m ■! Ji « * " 

". 'f 

i ■i i i ti j ii ( i| n . » ' mi ' i. 1 * ,. • „ 



Containing in fhort 

The Natural Reafons 

of Ttfr'; ■; , ;. : ;, 

Exiftence of JSODi 



Of the SOVL 

AS Libertins and irreligious Perfons 
rejcft almoft all proofs drawn 
from the Authority of Holy 
Writ, and imagine they lay the axe at 
the very root of thefe, when they deny 
the ^cifteflce of G O D, and the Im- 
mortality of the Soul : fo thofe, who un- 
dertake) the defence of Religion againft 


tim, have thought it tteirdftty to call 
NatwafReafcn to their aid 1 as a eom- 
mi principle which tltey cannot dif- 

ami*' ■" 

Sfcittetoweftaght' <** fi#fle «ndf7Kfo- 
taphyfjti* difeaurffes for gnarf ef both 
ttefe poirits ; others Raw prdpo^d ipore 
popular and fcnfible Oftes ? ibch as arc 
drawn from the confederation of the ex- 
qtrifite ordfc* in the Unhnctfe, which, 
as a large Book* lies exposed to the 
view of all. 

I acknowledge, that'thofe firft are 
not the moft proper and efficacious 
proofs to conduct fuch to the true 
Religion* as are fo unfortunate to 
be ignorant thereof; and at the lame 
time mull own, that thole others, drawn 
from Miracles and Prophecies authori- 
zing the certitude of Scriptures, are 
mtfch more capable to mate impreflion 
and work on the obftinate : yet I can*' 
not but be perfwaded,that theft Natural 
proofs are yet folid ones, and that they 
ought not to be laid alkie, fince they may 
best a proportion to fome kind of wits. 

There are, as I have faid, abftraft 
and Metaphyficai Reafbns, nor do I think 
it convenient to take pleafure in impugn- 
ing theft ^ or laying open their infuffi- 

F tiencies 

9* £)ft|e<C^tetwe 

dearies- Yet are there others which are 
more fenfible, naore conformable to our 
Reafon, apd bear a greater proportion 
to the greateft part of Men ; and Iaftly. 
which are iuth as we cannot wkhftand 
yithout ufing, violence to our felves^ 
and'tisthefel have ja 4efigii to gather 
into this Difcourfe. 

Let the Endeavours be never fb great, 
which Atheifts ufe to blot out. ofTtheir 
minds tfrat general impreflion t>f a Dei- 
ty, which the fight of this great 'World 
Jo naturally frames in all Men: yet can 
they neither annihilate, or entirely ob~ 
fcure it, fo ftrong and deep) Roots has it 
{ajcea-in puf Soulklf fo be it depspds not 
aiv an un^qVo^lablepifcoufre-and Ras 
yGM^i^t IoOy J^U dpls it corUift in a Jiirely* 
fcn tiinen t, and clear v low, . which i$ ^ot 
kfs ftrong aijd powerful than any Dif- 
CQiirfe whatsoever. To yield, therenotp 
up force is teguifite t ' but violence, muft 
be us' war t and'refift it., , ^ : 

.Jleaibri needs do norpore thai^ follow 
ks natural ihftindt, to be perfoaded that 
there is a God, who created .all we iee^ 
*\un it contemplates thofe router mq- 
tiers, which rod above our heads; 
tjvat cxhflord^r in Nature never thwart-- 
^T&j:£lfi ;hfit. admirable union of all 


its parts fuftauune one anqthef y and 
which cannot fubfift withput that mutual 
hejip wbkfc they lend each other; That 
variety of Stones, of Metals, of Plants ; 
th#t itupendious contrivance of living 
B^lie^ Sheir pro^bii^ ; their , birth, 
increafe and death- It is ippoflible that 
Reafon contemplating all thefe wonders, 
Ihould not hear a fecr?t voyce; alluring 
k^ : Tl»t.5dlthj?fe can»ot be ^eff^pf 
cbajrce, but. of fome car»fe cpntaiij&g 
In jit |(blf all the perfedion^ ^whi^ we 
qbjferve fcatter jl. in this grya t/wor Jcl- 

I nvain Ihould one endeavour to! expli- 
cate all the fprings and contrivances of 
this; ftupendious ^Machine, ; by faying, 
jFfcere is nothing here but. a vaft extent 
qf jasper* with a . great motiofi 7 order- 
ingand diipofing it : fince we mult fur* 
$h*T tell, from what ; caufe came* this 
natter and great motion f And this, can* 
npt fatisfa& done without afcend- 
iog to aa immaterial and intelligent Prin- 
ciple? which oncemufl: .have prpducM, 
a#d now^oes C9nierve both the one and 
jdbs otjwr. , '. .; 

^,F<?r bow is it poffiWe to Conceive that 
this dead and inienlibuj bulk, which we 
caji Mattf r yi fhou'd be eternal and with- 
in t^gtfi*ing ? Do we riot clearly fce 

tfiat m it letf it hath u6 caofeof it* ow* 
itffc&K*, aadqsSttte is even ridiculow 
tfr 'rikMt*0&iMlto& aid moft con^ 
temptiMeof aRBetegs^ the greateft 6? 
ail t&fcftipH** to *it, Tfr be ftdm, mS 
bthsbfttftlfi 1 1 am ctfnftiotts rt> rt# 
KK, thatlaminfiflkefymotencfeIetK*Bf 
Mhttdr; t know it, it knows not' ttte: 
1Pct at the fame time I am confekm* t» 
myfelf ttortl am not from ettrrfty : Pd 
fbHbws therefore that It, zi wetf as I t 
mufthave a caufe of its Being ; antf this 
<aufe which cannot be material, mgft 
be that immaterial and<a& working Prin- 
ciple which we fearch after* 

But if it bcridiculous'tofenqr a mat- 
ter fubfiftingfrom all eternity by k ftlf 
without caufe or principle, k is much 
morefoolifhto fuppofe motion incnea- 
xed and eternal : For it is evident that 
no matter has in it ftlf a caufe or prin- 
ciple of its own motion: it may receive 
motion from abroad, but cannot hate 
it from it felf •• what motion foever it 
hath, is commuoicated to it from feme 
.other caufe ; when bf this caufe it ceafts 
to be mov'd, of it ftlf it remains in an 
eternal reft. 

. Who has then produced this great 
jriQtion which we fee in all the parts of 

the^World, fince it proceeds net frofrt 
matter it feif, nor is unalterably fixM to 
any part thereof, but 4s ftill palling from 
one par t to another by a continual vi- 
ciflkude ? Skill we alfo exalt this mode, 
tfei& accident, into an eternal and fcif- 
Itibfiftent Being ? Aftd Ihall' we not ra- 
ther acknowledge, tfhatfinoe it canaoe 
fcewkhouta caufe, and that this caufc 
tttiuVtt fce 'Matter, irmttft of nece'iity ; 
tw pfwtutfd by an iramateml Prin- 

^ tfvfoch^i caufe as tfeis be reqiurM u>~ 
imf&k modem, it is no left necelTa^ ;o 
«tgtdtftfc>aiid determine it in fech mea- 
ftresatid proportions as are fit to con- 
Kfera the>Wor!d> and without which it 
9rodd be deftrey*d, For although wc 
^ay we8 rtrittk that this motion which 
ftfhkms, orikrs, and disjoints aB tx>-' 
dies, is infinite in the infinity of Q&ces \ 
j*t%4t neverthekfi^min^Chat it is H- 
Wte^^each parcel, and that if -it were 
^ith^- greater or ids in our fifible 
CMfafrfl,- k would totally change the 
iaeeof <thkigs, md wifee -it qmte ano- 
^ei^aiflfitlfcnfc ?*: >^M)^h^nterfh 
*ro«ght i£it6*k#tae*fure edd proper- 
*ktoi*erei« w^fed it^ and^how coti& 

-fcW Wfe tbat-attdfigft i*^*aibn»- 
i.;a< JF 3 , table 

"1 * 1 

tot GHtffl 

rabls degrees, whepeof .it is tttpabfe* . it 
hath exactly light qpon that vihkh d|f- 
pofes things in that admirable /order we 
fee ? Mattel of |t feljf is indifferent to 
receive a lefs or more violent motion i 
the one or the other would q«ite change 
and diflblve tfce W,<?rid, Whence then 
comes ir^ that all things are placed in 4© 
fxadl a baljacce.?. ?7> Cha&ce hath done 
u:i >, &y they :. it is ti*ie they dmay fey 
io in words, but I canpot think* they can 
feriouily from their hearts fay fo. y ; , 
But beJtd^s mjfcterand raotidn w dc* 

f<;rypyer^4*owttthe W^W 3*W& 
i^ Subft^nces;or Being? i becwjfe w« 
are certain we thipkiitfr felveaj fti&jiidge 
that others likens do % the? &ffie«. - #p# 
the configuration of thefe Befogs leads 
us diredtli to the kfldwlodge of Che So»l*s 
jntti^rt^lky, and.iconfifl^s^ly &$# 
exiftence of its Crea*$f « ;.:«:;•» r : c */j 
For it is injpoffibk.^efliould &rtpgfo 
<x)nfidet t and:r«a^t r 'On thgl pptHre, s* 
Matter v butth# we^ftiall/prefently^fe 
(l?t \t -b&tprnM sod t0fsMjas<}ne ij^j^ 
that never through the various ^ifppfi- 
tioj^afidcoetextur^ «f 4 i^Bfi#mr# 
can fropi#*hing iiQjhflfflffiPWgi te ;$&* 

Wflfideriflgftbftjiftgfti^^thaf by pag- 


ing and ftifring this dead and infenfible 
matter, it fhould prefently ftelrr up a 
living Thinking and l intelligent Being* 
There are few things our Reafon fees 
more evidently, than the impoflibility of 
a meer Body's thinking and knowing rt 


What follows hence ? even that fince 
it is certain that we think, and are think- 
ing Beings^ We have fomcthing in us 
that is not Matter, bat really diftinguifht 
from it.- What therefore will beabli 
to deftroy this? why trait it perifti 
when feparatedfroa) Matter, feeing Mat- 
ter perflhes not when feparated from it ? 

The annihilation of any Being is to u 
unconceivable. Naturefurniflies lis wj h 
no examples of it v the whole currer.t cf 
our Reafon drives again!): it. Why 
therefore lhbukhwe ufe violence both to 
onr Imagination and Reafon, and en- 
deavour to take thefe Thinking Subftan- 
cesout of the common condition of all 
other Beings ^ which when once on foot 
never fall rack again into their former 
Nothing ? and why (halt we fear left our 
Souls which are infinitely more noble 
than Matter, be annihilated, fince we 
apprehend nq inch thing for any parcels 
of it? 

..I: F 4 Now 

io4 ^tifctietfkmtt 

Now if we canncft doubt but these tie 
in the World Thinking Subflances that 
are not Bodies, being further certain 
that they have not been forever., what 
caufe muft they have had ? This caufe 
cannot have been body or matfler 3 for 
matter being a Nothing of Sp irk, ii one 
may fpeak fc, how can it poffibly pro- 
duce a Spirit? Nor can this caufe be so- 
other Soul or Spirit ; that 4$ to &y, the 
Souls of Fathers cannot produce thole 
of their Children. For bow is it pof- 
fible a Spirit can produce and bring, 
forth out of nothing another Spirit, 
having thoughts and defines different 
i; omits own, and often fuch as are 
quite contrary to them.* If a Spirit 
could produce another, it would pro- 
duce it by thinking^ it would therefwe 
know this power it hath, it would 4k 
aware of itseffiptf;: But who ever knew 
or was aware of any foch thing? 1 *m 
irnormit^ fatd the Mother of the Mich** 
fees, h*w yon firfi afftarU in *ty Wmh* 
AUMothers may iay the feme; and it is 
evident that neither thcar though*!* «* 
will, contribute the ieaft Jo tbat /atat* 
rable work that is fwokL witbid/theflb 
fines wy often ti^ hatoc ttoqgbttsttd 
defires that are quite oppofite att 


«ttrid[ drftroy i*var<*dr iGtfdtotits 

BiiUh. ' ,' * - ..- v- J/ 

tads us to tfaeknowkdgeof k*C»$a~ 
tor* Matter, Motion, Spirit. AJIthefe 
cry with a loud fend . inqriligihlf: voice ^ 
That they are aQttfrom thflriffclves^that 
a God CEsated ihfesr} iffiifikit pos i /©•■" 
nmiffims. ■ . i 

G OD, thathe may. tabefronwis that 
impious thought of die Worlds etcr- 
nky, has . even in fenfible and gtofs cha- 
rafters writ what will ib&rfr u& that it is 
new, at leaft asto thfc order it i& now in r . 
and without which we cannot live met 
fubfift : Hence . it follows* that jMen arid 
pther living Creatures are tow ; and this 
will luffice t<* prow the ^xifteoce of their '<* 
Creators*: ;' - t- '■ 

J ' . . f or.weinow no ti^iral caufe,, which b 
flfcty have «f ais'd our high hills, .or hoK 
iWid V3lleys)foas to be the receptacles. - 
pfalljour Seas- Let ail Hifbories be read > 
and we ihali not there find** the; example ~ , 
©f ofte mil newly xai^d. • The winds 
fometimesinibn^pfae^ rapft little heaps • 
of cWty buti there never corae to aa/ 
^onljderable height/ and are even f as *• 
often deftroy'd las made. Earth-quakes ; 
•efceflMi&de havccks T &ut wo-rahd -nut 

tlvat - 

^^WphaTDrfti'sd , iiigh hilfe, ****» 
uppofe they (hould r fs onely to bvBA'A 
HfcpAthofif in thriAb ifippw«ctfcibf/no 
tjqpdefli&o ^Tiai* Mountains daily iamri 
ftnfibly decrtafibg, by rains, and R iyert 
always carrying: with them partx>£ the 
Earjfy and VaUfeysifacmg prapoi^nably 
filiM . up> it is cvidcm: that neithboi&he 
one nor the other , could for a whole^tccv 
vitif tsmaindn the eftate we (Se tkdm ? 
but in 4 certaifi term of Years both Hi lh 
and Valley iwould ceceflarilybs leveled : 
and it is further i evident, Tim if the 
World wasfrom jBternicy y Jthii :ba£*fr 
ready been dons,: tfnifeitlie fcaftjienfiWe 
diminution; is abkka toveirtbfe fcighfeft 
Mountains an infinite mumber of tinier 
during that infinite (pace of Eternity '+ 

It is therefore clear we canuot fop- 
pofe the World .eternal in the .ftate and 
pofture .we.. find in , that i& having one 
.part raifed arid dfry^ the lother de£reft 
and eovjer'd with Waters* TheonfiWy 
courie of natural G^wfes tends towards 
'its deft radlion^ fince it would level the 
Earth* and ipread the . Waters.otfer all 
its furface t and yet Man carinopfeblifo 
was our £arth other-ways difpos'd 
than it is* He certainly would petfih, 
was the Earth's furface. one continued 


Of 6ftfe dpfc^ 107 

• * * * 

Sea: Man therefore is hdt Eternal ,iio 
mare than the reft of living Creaturei. 
He hacf therefore a beginning , and By 
a certain continned ftcceffion of Years 
one may go to the ftock and root of his 

Now what fliall we aflign for the caufe 
and origine of Man^? Should we feardi 
all Nature for one; none fhall we find 
capable of producing fuch an ^fFett. 1 1 
has not been heard that, Men have been 
produced othdrwile than' by', the ordinary 

It is alfo very probable, That the or- 
dinary motion ot the matter the Worfd 
is composed of, would never be' abl^tp 
produce a Lion, were there* no-^uch 
beafts in Nature v as thelanie : motions^ 
do not produce Wqlvesin England noufo 
where once they y^ere all deflxoy'd. [ r 

Butit is at leaft; abiblutely certaifi, 

Motion can never bring forth a.Spirit, 

as we have alresd/ fhewa j and thaunat- 

' terming deprjyM/of a thinkhig^ ;^icti Jtry 

can nevetjctyne, by;differejit difp5a$tio^s 

;^ud.texdireis, : to,refed orr and. Know it 

^lf.-" Tfcuswenmft neteflariiy ■acknotf- 

ledge^That Men arc new Creatures, and 

that all corporeal Nature being in an ab- 

fclgte incapacity of producing, thenr, it 


evidently #}Ukw% that jiace jtey jfl|p 
not&om^etercity, they have been WO- 
jduc^d by* snore powerfiil Being, tW 
is teforound'in Nature. 

Thus all the Inventions of Mankind 1 
proclaim "Novelty* and difown Eternity.. 
We fold nothingin theWcrld which may 
be a mark of an Antiquity greater than 
that, Holy Writ arfigns it.. Beywd 
4000 years we have no Hiftorians ; fince^ 
that time we fee a continual increafe and 
progrefs, like to that of one who com- 
ing out of his Childhood, by degrees* 
panes through and advaaces towards 
the other riper years df his 32c; 

Varro wknefles, that amongft the Art£ 
which were in the world when he wrte£ 
there was none of an ancienter date, 
than a thdufand years. Great prpgref- 
Jb have always been made, and new in- 
ventions found out, to eafe the troubles* 
aridneceffitiesof man; the higher we 
afcend the more imperreft ihall be found 4 
thefe inventions, and man worfe pro- 
vided therewith* We know almolf the 
Origine of all Arts* of all Sciences, of 
all Polities* of all Empires, of all 

1 know alfertaih Author hath amongft 
the new Inventions which have lately 

*• been* 

faeejyfandoat, gaskvad together <ra* 
d#*>l£ones, which treioft, whereof he 
*#*^«pofed a Book under this Title, 
Vetera Jeprdita, wvtvtftrt*. tfiat k is 
observable in tbisvBook, that theft an- 
cient Joft inventions jwerebot of £mU 
i&, aodarefupplyedbyMws ones bach 
oafierand bet ter, with advantage. Where- 
as thofe which have been lately found 
<wt, are cm theone jgde lb comrnodious, 
that ?tis impoffible that being once 
-feiown, they ihovtld ever be Joic $ jtfd 
on the<Jther fo eafe, thatitis a matter 
of wonder the world, fliould have been 
ib long in lighting on them. 

For Example, What .greater benefit 
canaccrae to the life of man, than that 
we receive from the art of manag ing .in 
oar Woricsthofe t^gfeat^aSf A- 
jents, WipdandWajiw!, Tfefcgreatuff 
rftatt of what js now done, fc perfbrat' 
*4 by the- jforee we rborrc*? rfrom tWb 
two bodies Thfe^eailifikpjttJllato. 
mcks &9BT5 .naturally to lead m to cte 
#««!» W <&»*&«* for tfettMft 
-part^focpe wfl^keftej:, -the _0pia> 
:#a*pftWtoS aJwagjejfie^ : v . . .....i, 

4fijnaSWJ(|bico»5dw^,b*!5faiii,, that 
ffleawj&nfffer be ft> JrojOfc as to iwojrk 
%,iir««gth of tend, wbett fheyaow with 

(branch eafe do with the help of Wind 
and Water ; and that thus the invention 
of Milfe : will never perifh. Neverthe- 
lefi this lb profitable Invention is hot ve- 
ry ancient j before Ptinyh age there was 
none known. No other art had they to 

'igrihd Corn, but that of a Qpern, torn- 
^d efrtier by ftrength of hands orhorie. 

/And though it appears by this Author, 
that in his days there were Mills which 
turned with Water, yet his* manner of 

ifpe^king thereof in his 18 Book, to 
Chap, makes it apparent, the invention 
then was- both ittlperfeft and rare, fince 
he mentions it> not as the commonivay 

Xif grinding Corn, whereas, when that 

JoncebediBie : knd)wn, it put downald- 

A Moreover- there* is nothing more na- 
tural, w^re firt^ than Printing *, nor 
■4» *foa*; aiy f 'f€afo»€d fear ■* ¥&{ '|hat 
dfatold l^rffl^ :wfaw 1s'-tiie"itaqBUisr^ 
triDrmittiDg all things elfcto ^terflity. 
Btttcvte.fcav&a &m dea*3f *1«afifc **> " 
%onderJho# » :«faBfcP to -' p&ii~i&dh 
-^ngtbefofecit^sisfobBd tittfttibtiBfr 
cients knew ho#i«S et&Ve da*MiB$ * : 

*& eaTie^isdef***^ 
^tbyprint^oh^J^fWtetdiejbao . 

^ *■-** 

* what they had? been fo long #• 
trailing' with their Graver. If this 
thought had come ihto th^ir heads, and 
Ciiey followed the hint, they could sot 
have been fo long in bringing it to per- 
fection, and finding oqt a mixtnrie ft 
nom&e Ptinfers ffiftf neverthelefs; 'tis 
vbutl feme twft* hundred years fince this 
fmseiitton Wtt? ftftncf ;<tat, which will 
-laffi fof a wljole eterriity hereafter, if 
«te world lafcfp long, r / 

What may not be laid of Gunpowder : 
what advantage !are not ^theri ce l djnawn 
ibot^ifor pleaftfre and war ? What con- 
veniences ire 1 there in 4FowIing-£ie£eS 
ior killing Birds, above thofe of Bote 
and 'Tillers , which once were- in ule ? 
artd-how many Machines of great < trou- 
ble and finall effeft are ktid afidey to 
give place to Cahiions arid the playkj 
irf'our Mines? Once there wa$ flfard 
at*y other mdaas to tafewalfed^ Tbwfek 
xhan by heaping tip ear thy fo as to cbftife 
*o fight hand to hand. Vi<ftorioiis Ar- 
mies were ftopt whole half years to ta& 
in fomeftnall places. C*fc#^*Jk& 
Uaafer^ with all their valobr, could vtdt 
in a years time have taken one of the 
'ftrctog TtfWhs itf r the Ltfr Countries : 

Men are too wkJWNiren x& forged *n 


m wmmffiw* 

Invention* fo apt to 4ftOQd and Jiadk 
tbf ir jPaffif^s. All, fcs M?*tttals are .-al- 
ways tp be rhpd, ^beir prepo^auqai oi« 
hard,, >the Experiments tafc, *aiiyet for 
all this 'tis not Joug fince it cane iafto ' 

TfaerSea-C^rdisan tevgptiQncdf rrtflt 
i^a^dipi^advaBU^.t^at it atooe faatit ' 
flight us to the kaotf&tge of jam* 
\ World, and by Commerce 4*yqs alUNati- 
ons together ; *tis a^bing fo plant, that 
.weftaveT^aibntp adpnire how Mankind < 
Jcouldhaveb^enfo loi^ without finding 
it put. For the Lo^dJtpnes quality df * 
^drawiag Iron having been always daiown 
ande^peri^d, it is a, feard mitter to 
Ncooceive/how k ihouki eome to pafcthat 
jg$nfhouid never^ther by chance^t d^ 
j^feaijei$ftaj^ , 

A^ethf r i^iiBfflfRg ontbe water, or J»- 
fjjfp<kHia t&#p394:thrs cafe put^witfer 
r Ow^dtjBc^lt^^ w^i tov< found out 
;^^ i^^^ alway s<)|ne v^y . The£kffte ; 
JjOV44Wc teppen'd, J^dttoybwg the 

JMB^t bflise^fi3v«d^j|hf t tit: itf&rMOidd 

; AU ^ft«iveii*ioi»iwkJi joaovotbefef ^ 
«jre -foe^c, iiiat ?tis uopoftftl* the 
• ,, " ~ . World : 

WvviA Aoold *avd Stem for alw&jK* 
*?khCiJt finding thefiMHt^aHrithey areof 
*tet great eonmieiite, that once found 
Itfc therefore cwdcttt that being new* 
they act fo many fenfible proofs of the 
ttewttds of Mankind ^ fiace Man could ne- 
ver have feUMbf finding; therii out foonetv 
bad he been from eternity, and that 
laving wtce found them, he couid me* 
*er have let them perifh. 

'TJks wtetfoercr we ice in t heWorid, 
fees m in the beleif of its having not 
bate for abreyes. and perftrade* ttt 
them is another Bemg above th&Worldj 
wfakh hath coeattd aft other Beings 
Acd'^in vain ttett Athcifts upbr^W>tts 
*kh take incon^^heirfifaiMty of tfrfcBe* 
io&* <*&aKb ftdwt we m fei^es do ao 
lufcraiedtewecaaa^ §m b& 

ahh* capaeitf of okh? Soula which *W 
lit and limit. !0wr Heafon can 4tt£ 
ftfchend* That tkore jfine«rtiin thiftg* 
ttagbfchey be tacotnpwbenSfate. " 8tt 
tht»»kc«niprehenllbk(Peiog«iw a& 
pfttod, ia fomt finrt wcijecdne^cwable 
of tompwtewling afl Natnrtviad *4 
afceaoafens at a fl^d*© Mjqrcafca 
af m Mtite ttttbet *£' tttag* frig* 

t ♦ 

ii4 flHf tfttt Cjrtfcttc e 

without i^ would be inexplicable. Bb- 
dies are, becaafe God hath created them * 
^Jotipn is, bcctafe he hath producM and 
doth conferveit. This Body is in this 
placc v becaufe God, having created it in 
^pother , it at laft hath been brolight 
hither by a certain feries of changes 
whkh^re not infinite There are cer- 
$gh iThirxking, beings, becaufe God 
creates tbem, when he fees Bodies fitly 
preparM for their reception. Moito- 
taios are not yet levelled, becaofe the 
World as yet .hath, tot lafted long e- 
fiongb to produce this eff&t- There 

St Men, i becaufe. they fprung frdm a 
, anj&d Woman whom God createch 
There are Beafts* betaufe God when he 
created the* World, framM thefe ani- 
mated Machinesand^gavethema-powtt 
to multiply, and conferva their roecies 
by Generation* There are noHiftories 
frtuch teach further than few thouftnd 
Sears*, for the World being but fix 
thottfand Years old or there abbots, 'tis 
not ftrange ttafc Mankind at the firft 
ftQuld.feaycappryM it feiftoftch Arts 
«$( iVra^r^of )jQaoflb arte fore conferring 
I^e^ All^this: k linkt together; and it- 
grtes rppcfefltly jwrWimth what th^Scri- 
fftjte teaches usof a fi0dandti*Cre*> 
ftfeof the World. But 

/,/:• MlGMtoQftl 3CI4 **f 

things; ^vithm the, narrow Um^s of t\$w 
gfira rjndfirlt^cjfiggs. t vyilt flqt ;Ul$W;0f 
this incomprehenfible Being- bectufy 
they cannot comprehend it, ao not a- 
void the inconvenience they, without 
reafon, lay to our charge ^ nay on the 
contrary, they do nothing but augment 
it. Infteadof one incomprehenfible Be- 
ing which they rejeft, the world and 
each part thereof becomes incompre- 
henfible for them •, they are forc'd to 
admit in all things an infinite progrefs 
and fticceirion--xrf'caiife-^pe«4iQ^oiie 
on another, without ever coming to 
fome primary and independent oite j 
which of all others is molt incomprehen- 
fible and thwarts Reafbn the mole* Why 
& this Man in the world ? becaufe he was 
born of fuch a Father, and that Father 
of fuch another, and fb in infinitum. Why 
is this Lion here ? becaufe he came of 
another Lion, and fo end-ways. Why 
is this parcel of Matter ia thii. place r 
becaufe it came from that other, and fo 
in infinitum; Infinity is to be every- 
where found, and fo Incomprehensibi- 
lity never to be mifsM. Thus their Un- 
derftandipg is forcM to yield under the 


n« m m tu t u** . &c. 

Weight of the leaft thipg im^rndbk, 
itMffi k bandies « feif againft him bc- 
tfort wjjom it h pift^oa glorious to yield 

,. . .' > 



^ » - 

v j ;' 

r ! ■ ' / « J' 

•- * -v 

♦ N O- 

:: k: , i 



« « • 


» » «» 


s- *. 

P r 



i * ; : • • ? r 

9 » i k 

I ' - '. 

W 4 


) V 

'- • -^i i 


\ » 


i « • * * ■ » 

*\,»»*.». . .. . •...„ ,♦,..•»• \* rf , ...... ft | 1|ft | r 

Mill i-i »f 

* > , 

*.l|l IT II I , li 

Of the NECES . 

0/»of truftingttie 
if Mesi life f9 Chance, and 
°f nrt&wfing it bj the Rulh 
of Fancy* < 

AS loon as men come to a flats of 
jfm. knowing what they do, they betake 
thmJetaes to feveral Conditions and 
CalHngs^ tcxording either as their tacli* 
nation carry^or neceflity or want engage 
them. The caries of their inclinations 
are various,. and often very irrational, 
and that it i$ which produces that^xo tick 
Yorfetyof Conditiom and 1 Callings in ttaf 
worlds what for the aioftprt direds 
us to this kind of Life rather than ano- 
ther^ it fo inconGdcrable opdtrivial^that 
could we remember it* we ihpufci be aJha* 
modofourfoolUhlightnefs. ' Bat 

if 8 jDf $e CotiDBct* 

--But befides thit variety~of-Callings y 
whereof ^ach is bur taken up by a certain 
number of People, (here is a common 
one, a general Trad&which all Men are 
obligM to profefs, and ^tis thgty " 
an^ Hying like Me^,TMs CaMfg is oJ 
impprfe|ce r irifiiiiteV^te^l(Ae if ft; 
it comprehends and rebate** them all. 
•s Me gtxxj <^r ^vil^ profitable or 

w nrnaable ov contrary to the 4 devoirs of 
this common due- * *V 4| : ^ vr 
\/ittg^licr^l.iit%iiiay b^d, ^t\thefe 
Dnties con(ift m living and' dyine as one 
ought.' To live, is to' 'ti^df towards 
Death. To dye, irto enter ti\tda. ti/e 
thatfliaji never end. Life therefore is a 
jTOrneytowarcfepeathr and Death/he 
entrance intb a riewf *fi$d ; everlalCrAg 
Life. Btit < as this entrance ' hath • double 
Doofs^ one of AvRkk is that fcf Death, 
leading to a ftfite of eternal inifcryj the 
other of ttfe/^Vbding us in eterhfcl happen 
neisv^iSbMefit, tbat^o livewdii&to 
tr<&a*Mf fotfrtim lead* tothis-encflds 
h£ j>pm#s »/ Ifend to five ill, is to ivraUc in 
that othe^hfch briilgs usitaan eternity 
of Mifety, --- ; /^: ;</.;.' 
: Ail the otbt* (*Jffe^snces, obfer^btein 
the varied t^^^tfl tread nithisiiifq 


• J.'r-'i . 4., 

itf JMMK'^ tt 9 

ace topthing compared do this fatal ohe, 
which fprings from the ends of thejfe ' 
t*o,vfa^What way fo-e?er leads to' 
evwltftufe i Joifery , . is uofcrtungtfe " l smd* 
ratftobte* though a^iftnw^d wfthFlot^ 1 
eg*.: That: whdehfjends inr< &erndl hajif>y ; 
n$fs is fc*tugate and gctodj though '^1H a 
fcjeifet with liiorns and Briars. Iri-afH the £ 
ways Men take v good and.evil are to br 
fiwpd v '^ would be a thingJdf gre^at diffi- 
a*lty:tQ chufe well, fhould <<3fae< <fc«fidd?* 
only the eafe r readktefe, rmA pleafure ftp 
the way. ' : .;,.,;.- i- /«■• 

And amongft Men ther^ft few vlrHd T 
Q^nfifikr more ; yet is thcr& fra^ce aiiy' 
kind of Life thatiias:ii0ti»rf!MrelSiiaH^ 

rajiojaaXin- this.partttulac, :MtjHnga'i& 
tbs Wojjld reduce themfelws- td a &# J 
t^kirwlof BaHance.The gcpd-aAd l b^d^ 
fpptuneof feveral touiditiobs ii foeveii*' 
poifed^that aimoft e^ratilto^orlidds 1 bf 
bpth ^ttobef^whdftnaib Sb^tbafc Men's 
errour aimoft donfift^tin iinagii»ing : that f 
ea^h.opejseitber.hat)pii6Kj or titofre iniie- r 
rable than his . Neighbours- Whereas 
the truth is,aJl conditions are much-what 
equally faflfpij&te, x>t ititterabfel -*\' :! % 
7 ,Tis ftot hprt the.pioper plate to en- 1 


large oa this particular, nor W 
OBthpw Cufcam^lmagi otti on, and Mfr* 
Oua*#e thts^qu*ti*y o£g*odan*«i*fc 
in all for^of Condition* Yet r kt? ttefe 
ham whatpoWcr they witt ta take frottL 
Us^befenfe-o£ msSokmm or wBh of 

Efperity, ptethkig k <raj»bte <rf d*» 
Spbofi thtt^intqtwfeywtadi k dttw^T 
v a tfel&fc ends otfthefe t*0'W«y&, 
Thii>incquaiity beingib dwadftiWialfi* 
fifhvifibl^ that* werte iticn rational Q» 
tprep* thfcy would; only mind it, they 
would only bufie themfelves about find- 
ing out th* way that leads to eternal hap- 
pinefs^ and ramniag that which hurries 
them, to everfafting nafery, 

It k the particular carc of Travellers 
to loam the way Which leads touhe place 
they are gong txau We fee none f* fcol- 
ifli as to leek out a Coach, a Boat, or 
good* Coiimanyv without taking cart 
whither this Coach! Bdat, or Company 
will coodttdl theta* . • . " . 

But this pieccofmadrisM fodliftnefs, 
which none ate guilty of in Journeys 
they take from one place to another in 
this World, is very common amdngft 
Men in that great^nd general Voyage of 
their *hole Life. They, all, how unwilr 
ling ib-ever^ travel towards Deal*. The 


iadilfceftfoble Law of tf ataftf preffes 
them forward, and will not give them 
leave to make the kaft hak in this Jour- 
ney. They know the two flaMfcfls this 
Life leads to, the greateft jttrt of N* 
ttobsown their being perfwadc&ofthcnk 
And yet the confideratioos pfctim deit* 
ble end, the one fo terrible^ the other 
|b defirable, has fearce *tay influence oa 
lihe choice they naafcef of a 4*&f to wrilc 
y# during their Life. They Mfcrm them- 
felvefc particularly of all other things 
they are wary not; to be impOdMon ; they 
take a catfe for aR seceflTarta, and eon* 
vepiences for their other Journeys 3 bat 
for this, they cfcufe ft wfch fcfittte Jadg- 
«ent»nd fotefeht, thfltth^Ee*s nothing 
in the World wherdntheyarejtfeviraryl 
and more careleS. 

Let ^ny one ask of Men, whither tfaty 

go,they wdriHall anlwer with oae^FOtce, 

we are going toward*Dtatfi t towards E- 

• tehrity j ; that each ftep they flfcfe, fits 

tfifcrt fofWatif towards this dreadftlcnd, 

afrid:ttattheyr ate even ignorant, whether 

#&t very flqrthey are noto making will 

not brjiig them cjfitfier. For aB thefe 

^aySfi^ethatofcommoii, that in none 

^*tiskhdwhhbw near we are fo* or far 

"from; our journeys end. But fhonW one 

irj G further 

i „ 


further ask, why they rather chufe this 
way, than another ? what ground they 
have for thofe Maxims they guide them- 
felves by ? it would appear that fcarce e- 
vjcc they have reflected on this ; that they 
Jiave followM the firft glimpfes that ftruck 
their Eye v that the Maxims they have 
prefcribed thetnfelves have no other Ori- 
gine, or Ground, than fome Cuftom they 
Jiave not examined, or fome raft Di- 
fcourfes which they have fettled for Prin- 
ciples $ or in fine, paflkwv or fome other 

foplilh humour-i ;■; 

It is eafie to comprehend how we are 

carry M on by the example and difcourfes 
of others ; but it is not fo eafie to under- 
stand how, from thefe, we frame to oar 
felves Principles to ad by. It is indeed 
a thing obfcure enough, and thusit comes 
topafs. ' 

Men would not be Men, did they not 
.run after f8metrue,orfalfeLigbt.They are 
fofafliionM by Natiire,that they lay hold 
on nothing but what is by the under- 
'ftanding prefented to them under the 
appearance of fome good. There is there- 
fore on them a kind of Obligation to fol- 
low the guidance of Reafon. And though 
j)leafure fcmetimes makes them do what 
.reafon judges ill and hurtful, yet cannot 


of one* jUfe. ixj 

this either (continue always, or even hap- 
pen very frequently. The ftrife and war 
of our paflions againft reafon incom- 
modes us too much, and is too trouble* 
fome : we cannot loiig away with it, 
and there's a neceffity, that we may make 
Life tolerable, to find out fome means of 
agreeing them. 

It is hard to be contemnM and con- 
demn'd by others, but it is yet worfe to 
beilighted and condemned by one'sfelf : 
becaufe theres none we love better than 
our iel ves, nor whofe efteem and appro- 
bation we defire more. 

It is therefore ueceffary that defiring 
to be efteemM by our felves, we, to a- 
void the reproaches of our own Confci- 
ences, take our own reafon for our 
guide. But becaufe alio we have a mind 
to pleafe our paflions, we manage our 
reafon fo, that it, becoming flexible; to 
their inclinations, frames fuch Maxims, as 
are conformable thereunto ; and accor- 
ding to whole rules it may approve of 
their doings. Thusinourjfelvesweefta- 
blUhapeace by a mutual agreement be- 
twixt our thoughts and adtfons. We 
think as we a&> and ad: as we think •, and 
fo are far from condemning our felves, 
becaufe our will always toHows^what 

G x our 

cor arfterfcanding prescribes ; and that 
never fails to proftribe what the will de- 
all Fools are diffatisfied with tbcmfelveR, 
Owwm jbdtiti* labor 4t faftidto Jm^ is very 
tree i !* one fenfe, though it ocas falfe in 
another, And it may on the contrary 
be Aid with more truth, that it is the 
property of a Wite-man to be dirpleas'd 
With bimfilf : Omm fafhnti* labmtt f*~ 
JMtofiii: becanfe their deeds never per* 
ieftly correfpond to their light and 
knowledge. But Fools for the moft part 
ate consent and wett-fetbfied with what 
they do* beceufe their reaf on and fife a- 
grees : And accordingly the Scripture 
teaches ms when it lays, that the Fool is 
iMl of hia own wayes j VO§ fm$ replekt** 
fi»ltu* ; that is, he is content and Satisfied 
therewith. There being therefore in men 
a conoeftiott betwixt their teafcn and 
<condu&* it folfows that reafon in them 
takes asKtefftrentihapes as there are dif- 
ferent humours and ways -of living j and 
this with eafe- may be oWerv'd by any 
who near at hand conffders the fife and 
pra&ifbof Men. Fora final! attention 
isoriyttquffiteto obferve, that every 
*&m hafthis peculiar Principles and Who- 


tf out* %tf* i%s 

xims, w hereof be according to bis own 
humour frames a Morality for bimfelf. 

Tbefe Maxims and Principles of Mo- 
rality are the Rules he makes ufe of to 
chufe the way which leads to eternal Life 
or Death. For the order of each Man's 
anions makes up the way he walks in 
during Life ^and thefe actions are fijuarM 
according to the Maxims by which he 
guides hirtfeif. So thak fince there are 
an infinite number of falfe wayes, that is, 
of diforderly and irrational Lives, fo 
muft there alio be as many ill and talfe 

Thus there is not onely a Morali- 
ty proper for Christians, another for: 
Jiws^Jwkj y Ttrfums^ Brtcbmatts-, Chmfef, 
and BrsfiUanj, conflicting of Maximcs 
common to each of thefe particular 
Se&s \ but even ajnongfl; thofe who pro- 
fefs the fame Religion there are ofccn 
different Moralities according to the 
diver&y of Profeflions. Magiftrates 
have one Morality $ Gentlemen havje 
*a<fther : There arc Moralities proper 
to Souktiers* Merchants? Tradesmen, 
Artificers, and even to Thieves* Ban- 
elites and Pyrates ; fiace thefe People 
have certain Ruleat^ey obferye amongft 
t^emlelv^ with ai much fidelity as other 

tJ 3 ; Mem- 

it* m t&e Contact 

Men do their Laws ; and fince they, like 
the reft, mould their confciences fb, as to 
approve of this their kind of living. 

In fine, defcending to each Man in 
particular: we (hail find that,befides the 
general Maxims in which they agree 
with thole of the fame Religion and 
Profefljon* they have over and above 
certain peculiar ones pickt up here and 
there, or elfe fram'd by themfelves, out 
of which they compofe a Morality quite 
different from that of other People. 

It is a furprizing wonder to fee the 
confos'd galimaufry of Maxims that 
ti:nke up the Morals of particular Per- 
fbns : A lets variety is not to be feen in 
the Vifages of Men, which are never- 
theless ftrangely different. But that 
which is yet more aftoniftiing, and which 
more folly layes open the excels of blind- 
nefs in Man, is that prodigious levity he 
(hews in entertaining the molt impor- 
tant Maxims for his conduct - 7 the fmall 
care he takes to diftinguifh Truth from 
Errour* and the obftinacy wherewith he 
embraces thefe ? as if they were the molt 
aflurM veritiesin the world. 
g|Their ./Mis at (take, fince an eternity 
of good or ill is to be bad. Every ftep 
they advance brings them nearer to the 


of otreg %i$t'> ii? 

one or other. Is it not then evident, 
That their principal care and applicati- 
on ought to be' about learning the true 
Rules which they ought to Follow, in 
guiding their Life, and about endea- 
vouring to diftinguilh them from that 
innumerable number of falfe erf oneoiis 
'Rules, which are followM by fuch as de- 
part from Truth. 

Nay> even this variety of Maxims 
which hath vogue amongft Men, ought 
to teach them this Leflbu, That it is not 
fo eafie a matter to find the way out 
. which leads to Life, fince it is not yet 
agreed amongft them which it is. Wei e 
.it vifible, it would draw all to k by its 
own luftre : and if there were any to be 
found fo devoid of reafon as to n,fufe 
to walk in it, yet would there be none fo 
blind as not to perceive that it was the 
right way. 

In the mean time about what dtf they 

employ their thoughts lefs, than 4- 

. bout learning the way how to live t '' For 

- the molt part without judging, they fey 

held on the firft Maxims that are prfr- 

posM •, thefe they never queftion nor ex- 

v amine,as if it were certain the firft in- 

ftradtions ftould ever prove the belt 

This is molt particularly evident in 

G 4 the 

i»8 0et$t €mmt 

the choice of Religion^which of all others 
is a thing of greatefl importance, and 
which in molt People compotes a very 
confidetable part of their Morality, For 
there is noramnefs like that which makes 
the greatefl: part of Mankind follow one 
Religion fooner than another. 

I except hence Chriilian Religion^ 
whidi has fo great and peculiar a fplen- 
dor for its Sanctity, Antiquity, Miracles 
and Prophecies ; that its followers once 
ltruck with this extraordinary luftre, 
not to be found elfe-where, cannot be 
accusM of ralhnefs in preferri ng it forth- 
with before all others. Be fides it has 
this advantage, that the more we pene- 
trate into its myfteries, the more light 
is difcover'd : whereas all others] cannot 
abide th« Ieaft fcrutinie o£ Exameti. 

I fpeak thenonely of thofe Religions 
which are in vogue in the greateft paft 
,.of the World, and which joyriM to ge • 
ther are of far greater, extent than Chri- 
ilian Religion. Therms nothing more 
extravagant than their federal Beliefs j 
and if onehad^ N defign'to invent Opi- 
Ijioris that (hould be ridiculous without 
realbn or like!yhood t one could sot have 
better fiiccefs than the Authors 9? tptfe 

%taftical Religions have had- , [They 


toe neither ftpporttd by Mirtclfe, Pro- 
phecies, nor any thing elfe that is capable - 
of perfwadiag tany that has neter fo 

, little judgment, Whatlbever We fcftftr 

fcyReafon, Experience, Reading of Hi- 
ftorks, utterly over- throws *f& tofr- 
vhioes them of faHity. How txwes k 
to pafs then that they we ftrtkwM 
by three parts of the Wotfd? fc&tf 
comes it that M&otmifm atofirtf i$£#ftft 
of fo vaft a (hare of the Earth 1 ? Let 
the qtieftion be pot to the i 9Mthmafri J 
Chtnefes, Tmars, anelTWHfc, Why they 
follow the Religion they jprofeft ? If 
they have neyer fo little honefty, they - 
will anfwer nothing elfe, but that &t^f 
follow it becaufe their Fathers have done 
fo before, becaufe 'tis the -Religion o*\ 
their Kinsfolk, Friends, Comicrey tttA : 
Prince. Here's all the ground of their 
Belief: Norwithftanding all this, the 
leaft dram of Common ienfe fuffotei to 

* ftew the ridicaloufnefs of this reafon. 
For onthisfcore every Religion woulil 
betrue, in the Countrey where it is pro- 
feft. But let it b: as erroneous- and 
falfe as it wfll, the generality of the 
World is not cajfebte ,to ,-make head *- 
.gainft k j -their minds ftrrfok wider it*, 
they yield to it without refinance* and 
. . > ' Gj. fettle. 

fettle it as a foundation of all their 

Christians are only they whom , as I 
{aidbefore^one may exempt and free from 
this unadvifednefs > although amongft 
them there be many who are Chriftians 
on the fame fcore that Turks are Tnrki ; 
to wit, Onely by the force of Example 
without any divine adhelion in their 
hearts, without any folid light in their 
Underftandings. But as it is true in ge- 
neral that the morality of all Chriftians 
is very folid in the Principles it derives 
from this Heavenly Religion, fo alfo it 
is true that it is very fantaftick and very 
ill-grounded in the minds of molt who! 
wear the Name of CAri/?//?w becaufe they 
know not the bottom of their Religion;, 
becaufe they give themfelycs the free- 
dom, as others do> of framing to them- 
felves other Maxims, according to their 
capricious humours. The Pri ncipks 
they draw from Chriftian Religion com- 
poie but a fmall fcantlicg of their Mo- 
rals. They have a number of others 
taken up by chance and without exami- 
nation, by a ralhnefs like to that we 
haveobferv'd in others not enlightnM 
by Faith* The Example of Friends and 
of thofe with whon\ they live, the Dif- 


ctmrfes of fudi as converfe with them 
giue them mahy others, without theil 
taking notice- of them. Self-lore, afi£ 
cret defire ofjuftifying what they do in 
'paffion, fnrntftes them with others* as 
has been faid. They at adventure judge 
often of occurrence* that befall them, 
and thefe judgments remaining in their 
memories, and being back'd by Selfrlove^ 
which looks on them as productions and 
priviledges that appertain to it, ferve 
for Principles to judge by in the like 
occafions. And thus they frame to them* 
felves a Morality that is: little lefs irre^ 
gular than that of Indians v and \Mahm> 
me tans. / ; 

They think they ftand in need of Ma* 
. fters and Teaching for all things elfe: 
Theyftudy thefe withfbme aire; they 
(hew a docility toward* their Teacher?. 
There is onely the Science of living 
which they either, learn not, or defire 
not to learn *, or elfe they learn it with fo 
little care and application, that it feems 
tjjey fcarce think it worth their pains. . • 

They make choice of good Artificers^ 

Phyficians, Lawyers ; here they fear 
being deceived in matters of ".the fmalleft 
confequenci. Bat they miftraft nothing^ 
when nothing tefc than- their Salvation 


*. r 

or DaiftHtioft is at flake* Here irtry 
Ptofar is teutfd :»d iufficicot, the 
fifft that tUbls is #X>d> and they rtly 
oh him *kk*&U ahd fcerfcft fwuriiy* 
Thua ifre bfabtty begin the journey of 
oat Lift* withwt feartfcing *fter other 
ItgltftfaUlfdch As theft fantaftfcal Ma- 
xkrti fbrtiifli us with^ and wheifevrith we 
hare rdWy kodbt tar Underftaadings* 

Where arc they tote founds who aire 
ferkttifly toucht with a fear of going dot 
«f th&r way, and following fofffe ill 
track ? who defire nothing more thin 
to find that true Light* which toay con- 
diift them 5 and Who make this ftatch 
their great and molt ferious imploy- 
snfcfit? Where are thofc who miftruft 
themfeives, who walk with fear and 
tremblings and tfho continually watch 
how and where they place their fteps ? 
There are fome without queftion, be- 
caufe there are fcifie Juft and chofea 
ones i but there are but few, bectafe the 
number of thefe is fittall. The genera- 
lity of the World goes on boldly with- 
out fear, without mifcruft, without fore- 
caft, without refie&ton, and rafhly run- 
ning after their padions and humourt 
make great hafte towards Death, till 
they come to that dreadful period,, which 


^tflnt&ftsto Meo what they hive refold 
•frd* V'ty* nwrifeftd it fo, that thence 
rtef fl*tt r*cwre no advantage* wbcifc 
it traits from the bottom bf their httite 
f bfcfe wtihr4s fuli of tkfpaif : J&rj* ert*- 
vimus i iH* veritatis y & j*ftttU tinmen nop 
luxit nobis & Sol itittUtgcntitnon eft vrt*s 
ttebia* We fmve gone, mray from the frays 
efprrth, the light qf Jt$neh*b mtfbmed 
on */ f *or km the Smf of kpctohdge riftn 

Whilft I affrighted coafider the raih 
aod tvandring ftep&sf the greateft paft 
of Masking Itidmg tfatm to Death, 
afid that aEH eteraal obe, mtthi nks I fee a 
Arable Ifle far rounded on all fides with 
precipices^ dvcrcaft with dark clooda, 
fo that it candot be feen, aod environ 
ed tvkh a torrent of Fire ftrattowtag 
up all thofe who fall head-tang fro* 
the. top of its precipices. All tiMfWays, 
all the* tracks of this Ifle kid to theft 
precipice except ooly on vwWch bong 
both narrow add ill tb be found leads 
to ft Bridge, by which this torrent af 
fane may be ptfro* mA the travdtor 
wridLover to a pb^oCiaWity tofl 
-light*' '- -: • -i -^: " - v n: * 
. ihth« Iftj?th^rearc«irrtifinitfe Ajm- 
t*r of Afe^who witt^i-ittttAiiiflkti 


i34 0tt$e 

are forcM to march forward : an in*- 
petuous wind drives them on, and will 
not give them leave to make any ftay t 
they are told nevcrthelefs that all ways 
end in precipices, except one by which 
they may be lav'd, but that this is very 
hard to be found out. 

Yet not wit hftandin^ this advertifement 
tbefe without enquinng for this happy 
track, and as if they perfectly knew it, 
begin their journey, are only taken up 
with the care of their Equipage, with a 
defire of domineering over their Fellow- 
travellers in the lame unfortunate Road, 
and with feeking after feveral divertife- 
ments they may meet with in their jour- 
ney. Thus they infenfibly come to the 
brink of the precipice, whence they are 
caft ato this torrent of fire, which fwal- 
lows them up for ever. 

Whilft there is only to be found a very 
inconfiderahfc number of wife Men, who 
with care look out for this narrow path, 
and having found it, walk therein with 
great drcumfpeftion j and thus finding 
the means of avoiding the precipices^nd 
•paflihg fafitoverthetorrexir,at laft come 
to a place of fecurity arid relt 
-• Perhaps he who fpoketthfcfe words to 
God Alq^hty, Tarrmt^pfttr^jSw* j^ 
. * m4 

ttmtttto 13s 

nut nqfbSyfor/hanpcrtranjiffet animanoflrA a* 
qstam intoltrdbilem, had framed in his mind 
fomefuck image asthis, which though ncr 
. ver fo frightful comes yet far fhortof the, 
truth I h^d a mind to reprefent. Spiritual 
things are fo elevated that no imagina- 
tion can reach them : Any thing of image 
is infinitely lhort of their real greatnefs. 
There is no proportion betwixt this 
torrent of fire fwallowing up Nuchas 
N fall from the precipices of this Imagi- 
nary Ifland, and that of Hell which 
fwaljows up fi?c4i as depart out of this 
World by the ^ate of Death, living 
wanderM all their Life-time out of the 
ways of Juftice. And yet this repreftn- 
tation, as imperfeft as it is, fuffices to 
make one comprehend, that the only 
Wifdom of thefe Travellers would be 
to feek out the way which might lave 
their Lives, and to continue walking 
therein to the laft : and that all thofe 
who fhould not be concerned to find it 
out, were fpoliih and miferable. It fuffices 
to make one conceive, that what curiofiy 
foever we have to know other things, 
all ambition to lord it over our Com- 
panions, ail that puther to feek out 
pleafures, aire not onely Vain ?nd ridi* 
cntous, bat are alfo the eflfeft o£an ifih 


trettUdiUpidity. What then k toteftd 
tefthe fireA wtatebf tbb dtsqgl* cones 
fo flloc fc, atfd What dnght wt ttf tftiafc of 
theblindnefs of Men who have fo thai! 
* ctrft to 4* taught the way of Safratt- 
©n ? who live and jogs on at adventure, 
thinking oft nothing mt to tafce their 
pleafore ia this voyage of Eternity. 

It is to draw Men out of this brutifh 
tcrtiertty thrbwidfc thetfifehres head- 
long into fjeilby followiDg their capri- 
tibf» hiiftiOfirsaiid fancies, That God in 
the Scripture* exhorts them to give ear 
to Wifdony aad open their "hearts to 
tfneferftand it. Tls for this reafon he 
exports the* to feek for it as the Cove- 
tous feek for hidden treafure j Si c/tutfi- 
tris earn qmji fecktriafy & ficm thepmros 
ifbtkrii UUm\ That he commands them 
t* look oa it as their Subflance, their, 
inheritance their treafure, Poffids Sa- 
fictfiiato) fojftdt Prndc&iam - 7 & in mini 
foJfrtffioHC tnjf acquire PttuktuUm. For 
this Wiftodi which he commands them 
to faefc, is nothing but the Light that 
is necellary for thtni to walk well in the 
dar&ieft of this Lift, 1 and to regalhfee 
iiwir feffions aodording^D the Juftkfc 
mbfoksw oftfod ; andnrt wtoljfeoafflfe 

*lw«%igJdfe patfcihepwgirt to.**3> 

JAl r )/:> to , 

to arrive fafe at Heaven. Wherefore 
he fays espre&ly, .Tfc* ffo mfidom <f 
him that is trnly cmifing, is to fe»» his own 
way: SafUntia caUiM eft inf$Big&re via& 
fiiam. The Scripture calls it the Science 
of Salvation, Scmtiam falutis ; becaufe 
it alone is able tp conduct us thither j 
. and all other without It are bat Sciences 

': Behold here the trnefcienceof Men,! 
'tis to Jojow their w^y, that is, thp way 
of Salvation, the' way ; of j Peace, fcfo& wijy 
of Heaven. Thetf hap pines con 13U in 
^ffWipg this ,&iwce» put the means to 
#oui*e Jtiis^it^J^k^ 
it ^erve^XVheretore th? $pifcturefi^s 
\if^hAt^kkiimimM}^Jedof»*t to 

lej.we w tftyft. tljfi tf^fiw »*** in tb^s 
WorU. Prtypifp^$mt*a fjofjjdi: Safieuti- 
4up^ in orim ff$$ort ''**A .^fl*^? Vrkim- 
nmx ^ ^xtpS) w4^4 ttefcthisfcj- 
mjo necewy tf> M^n ihoulfl be fuch 
.« '§ji!i| pepi nd inpre on t^; Jte^s 
tiiaiiofl tieir Ifodei^din^ aa<^i| j 
aod that it fowld dot 6e foiwl ^ Ujafe 
whp^^elifejtaQt, oi* who defire it not 
fo much as it defcnres. The/ nev^r jpjfs 
fiadifif wJm>, fc$k it with thefr if hole 


ii8 M t&e Conduct 

Thus the greateft advance we can make 
towards Wifdom is to defire it, to feek 
after it fincerely, and to be throughly 
ftruck with the fenfe of that dreadful 
mifery which is found in guiding one's 
Life by chance, and* in following rafhly 
Maxims received without judgment, 
with the Scripture calls walking after 
we* sown thoughts^ and doing their will} in 

not knowing whither* one goes, and in 
being unconcerned whether the way we 
walk in leads to Life, or Death. 

My delign in this Difcourfe was only 
to beat down this monftrous frupidity, 
tind to perfwade, if I can, thofe who 
fcall read this Piece, and 'have not yet 
made fufficient reflexion on its Theme 5 
That it is a horrible blindnefs to bufie 
one's felf, as moft of the World does, 
with thofe things which ufuaily take 
up our thoughts, to learn Arts, Exer- 
cifes, Sciences, and not to learn the 
great Science of living,that is,TheSciencc 
of guiding one's Life, fo as is rcqaifitc 
to Aran ah eternity of evils wherewith 
we are threatii'd, and to arrive at that 
Everlafting happinefs which fttall be the 
recompence 61 tie Juft. • * ■ • 

For when once this thought is ftrongly 
fettled in the heart and understanding, 


of one* jUfe. 13* 

and that it bepomes our predominant af- 
fection, It does not onely put us in the 
way of finding Truth, fets us on work 
to feek it, and open our eyes to fee it 5 
but it is abte above all things elfe to 
dtfGpate that illufion which hides it, to 
wit, That doubknefs of heart, fo often 
oblervM in- Scripture, which makes us 
apprehenfive and fearful of knowing our 
Duty, left the obligation of complying 
-therewith, when once known, ihould 
urge and prefs us too much j or that we 
fhould be forced either to renounce and 
forfake our paffions, or at leaft not to 
follow and humour them but with a rc- 
morfe of Confidence, which would in- 
commode us, trouble our repofe, and 
blaft our content aqd plsafure* ' r 

* . - R 

,1. * .**«* 



*— *• 

. I * • ' ' ' 



m * > * ■ » ■ » " ■ 1 rf 1 fcw»>M »*i * * -1*+**^* »^»^»Mfc^» 



part; 1. 

. * * • 

t » 

Of the Nature of Greatnefs, 
. <md of the Pttty of Infer burs 
!! towards Great anei. 

;•'■; . ' : 

EN have of Greatnefs 
contrary thoughts,which 
neyerthelefs lpring from 
the fame root of their 
own natural corruption. They love and 
hate h,they admire and contemn it. They 
love k, becaufe iatt they fee whatsoever 
they delire, riches, pleafure, honour, 
power* They hate it, becaufe it hum- 
bles, and bear s them down ; and, makes 
them fenfible of the want they are in of 
the goods they love. They admire it, 


Part i. &f ©tWtt^tf 141 

becaufc it datfesthem. They contemn it 
alfo^fcmetimes, or at left feem to do (b j 
that,in their own imagination, they may 
raife themfelves above the Great j ana 
thus build an imaginary Grandeur, by 
ptjBing down thofe, who are the Objgft 
of the Vulgar's admiration. 

§. 2. Though all theft various fettti- 
rtentr are human, nevertbelefs it muft 
be granted, that thofe which incline H* 
to nononr and efteero the Great are 
nroch the ffrxmger and the more a&ive* 
bccarrfe they look towards the moft na-r 
tnral objefts of concupifcence : where*, 
a* hatred for greatuefi, is iji fame fort 
ffifftlfcy the continual need we have, at 
Great ones, which inffinfibly gives the 
Soul a bent to reQ)eft and efteemthat 
ftate. We defoair of rjfiijtg asjjigh as 
they, and fo chufe to partake of their 
fevojrrs, by fdbtolttipfc W $Iy<ps to 

$, 3, fiijtftane canftim^of Gre^tnefs 
is only to be found for tfi^'mpft pgtrjm^ 
xertam Generation of M^n, who palate; 
their pride with the name of railbfo- 
rifiy, andwho, fioce; the# canftot fatter- 

i&bur r thty havej in lelfening^ aud ate 


i 4 x $>t ttVattiXUV* Part L 

ling thofe that are fa. Since we cannot 
arrive at Greatnefs 9 'let us t^ks revenge by 
/peaking ill of it, faid Montagne pleafant- 
ly enough, to exprefs this natural fenti- 
mentv of pride. 

If perchance lome Philofophers have 
been found, who having reafon enough 
to be well-pleafed with their condition, 
as the World goes, have yet made a 
fhow to contemn Greatnefs in their Di- 
fcourfe and Writings •, this has happen'd 
through a vanity yet more ingenious and 
fine-lpun. Thefe People have been won- 
drous Careful not to part with their 
riches effectually \ and Seneca^ with much 
caution, hath ftrengthened himfelf with 
Maxims agaiuft this real quitting of this 
Wealth. *h is y fays he, the fan »fa weJk^ 
Soul not to be able td bear a great fortune. 
Ir£rmi eft animi pati non fqffedivitias. For 
what ourpofe then are all thefe fine di- 
ftouiie^ againft Great ones, and their 
wealth. ..Even tq joyn together that hu- 
ii}#i ^lory of Greatnefs fvith that Philo- 
lbphical one of flighting and contem- 
ning it ; to the; end he mfeht be efteem'd 
not only by the Vulgar 3 : but iifo by Phi-? 
lofophers arid Men of tearnmg.' . 

^.^Weoughtflot thentolpljowthe 
,Diftates of C6ncupifcence in 'tifa ftnti- 


Pare I. 4K tftttftetttV 143 

meats we muft have for, or againft the 
Great % nay, we ought to miftriift our 
very Reafon becaufe of that commerce 
and tye it has with thofe pafllons, which 
corrupt its judgment in the things they 
are concerned in \ we muft feek out fome 
furer, and lefs fufpedted lights 5 and it is 
impolGble to find out any but in Christian 
, Religion, becaufe it alone thoroughly 
knows Concupifcence, and fo can deveft 
Greatn^fs of thofjbfalfe advantqgeswhere- 
with our ambition liath adornM it, and 
fettle on it thofe true ones the maligni- 
ty of our Nature would take from it. 
, $.5. There's nothing Eftimable in the 
things of this World but what God has 
placM there according to what's faid in 
the Golpel : Nan potefi homo accipere qnic- 
quam mfifiterat ei datum de Ccelo. What- 
soever comes from' God is good, and de- 
ferves efteem : all the productions of 
felf-love we muft contemn and hate. la 
Great ones therefore we ought to efteem 
what God has beftow'd on them, and 
contemn what they have frpm Concupi- 
scence* Now it belongs to Religion to 
diftinguiflibetwixtthe one and the other* 
,and to difcover to us, what Perfons ot 
.. (Juality really received from God, from 
, what they have from the errours and ilia- 
TiopsofMen. v $. r 6 Tiiis 

144 mQvtmWm* Pir^f; 

J l. 6. This Principle oneefettfcd, it is 
c to perceive that the common Idea 
Men frame to themfelres of Grandeur, 
is altogether falfe and decekfti ; becaufe 
it is only grounded on the falfe judgments 
and illufions of their own hearts. For 
this is th j way they take to frame tM$ 
Jde&. They love ppwer 7 riches, plea- 
fcres : they fee that the Great art Matters 
of thefe. Hence they etfeem them hap- 
py, ami prefer their tonditiofr before 
that of* others who warit tiffii antf by 
thi5 preference they raifethetnirove tfce 
rsftoif Mankind. Tfttfc^gWt is ait 
ready felfe and; deedtftrt: Fi^kafcre, 
riches* and power; are notrm^gb^ 
only concupflcehce takei theni^iMiich^ 
whereas reafon enliditnM by Faith e- 
fteetfs t&cmjjceat evils, betawftthey at* 
^eatobftadRs ! todexbtion-^ andoiiF e- 
ttrnal SdVati&n; ' 6trt men ftop pot 
here : ForastheyiSe thefadgment th$y 
Jiave jpiOMf titcthe cpntffticjn of Great 
pijesCsqt '^qMarto themftfres-, but 
toatrth^grjfat^fr tiart<jf Mankhitrbas tljk 
Wsi f^ntiri/enfeofelf eem itod'^mfratSto, 
;i^ey tittite- tfris judgment which tfteffee 
Iji .tfte^ives^as weH afriit iithersL as a 
Wis ? wWrtbn to raHe G^reacneB^t 
$jta£i I and thus ( dfcy wni^qr CJneat 
-fc - cites 

part i. 4ftf tfttNtitafc* 14s 

one$ as fur rounded with a crew of ad- 
tnirjfers, exalting them infinitely above 
thehead s of other Mortals. 

/This is the Idea Concupifcence gives 
of Greatenefi, but afmall light will iuffiee 
xp difcover its illnfion. For all thefe judg- 
uients,hoifing the Grca* above others, be- 
ing only vain fancies, bred out of the cor- 
ruption trf Man's heart, it is maoifeft 
that Grandeur built thereon, . is nothing 
buta meer Jhadow, and phanfftfia with- 
out any foUdity. 

$. 7. Philofophy ©ay load us thus fir ; 
butifwefeeno other light but what it 
hangs out, we may well, whilft we &*c 
our (elves of one errour^ m& into ano- 
ther, which is to believe that the Great 
deftrve no honour or reipeft at all. And 
- the truth is, ibis conclafian would ne- 
ceflarily follow* were Greattefs only 
built on this confus'dheap offalf-judg - 
ments and falfo-goods: >ror I ought Apt 
torelpcd a Jyian becaufe he is more roi- 
fcrablathaa my fel£ And that iUufion 
which makes the Great believe they are 
happier than othets, becaufe they ap- 
pear fcdi to a number of abuPd People 
would deferve;only our pity » not our re- 
ipeft and efteem. 

§.8. in the mean time tte Scripture 

H tells 

146 d&i&ritfteifr* Part 1. 

tells us there is an honour due to Perfbns 
of Quality, arid that Chriftian Piety 
ought to comply with that Duty. Now 
Pfety- having Truth for an inseparable 
Companion, cannot beftow Jionour where 
none is truly due. One may even aver 
that there is foraething in Greatnefs 
which Gdd has jpliacM there, fince the 
Scripture on the one fide afcertains us, 
.that the Great are tabe honourM ^ and 
on the other t£aches v that all honour is 
due to God alone, Soli Deo honor & oh- 
f%*. Hence it follows, that we . may Ho- 
nour God when we honour the Great > 
and thatthert is fomething of divine in 
them which may terminate the. honour 
we give4:hetn. But to know what this, is* 
it is neceflary to go up to the iirlt efta- 
blilhmeat and origine of Greatnefs. 

§. 9. Concupifcence, Reafon, and Re- 
ligion, combine together to* frame .this 
condition r we call Greatnefs. Concupi- 
fcence deflres it out of pride ^ Reafon 
approves it becaufe neceflary for Man- 
kind; and religion authorises it. by 
Warrant from God Almighty* To know 
how this comes to pafs, we mutt confidcr 
that ifMan had remain'd in the ftate of 
innocence, there had been no one gflca- 
ter thafa the reft 5 for beipg born equal, 


Part I. &f <Bf*ttte!S& 147 

they would all have remained in the fame 
equality of Nature. Man is not proper- 
ly made to command other Men* as St. 
Gregory fays, becaufe his will is- ridt the 
rule of anothers will % and bebaufeQod^ 
will is the only rule of them all, which 
would, before original fin, Ihavb been 
fufficiently -known to all withoiit kani*- 
ihg it from others. -.*. -.^j :. i. j 

• §.10. If then mot at* 
ways a deordinitoon in it fclf#*t at kaft 
is it always an ' cfFett of the; diforder 
of Nature, and a confequence of fia 
For as the ftate of innocence cannot ad- 
mit an inequality, ib that of fin xannct 
endure equality. Every ont: Would be 
Matter, and tyrannize over others *. And 
as it is impoflible all fhould fucceed in 
thefe pretentions; there is a neceflity that 
either reafon fhould reduce things to or- 
der, or force *, and fa' the ftranger be- 
come Lords, whilft the weakranain Sub- 

jew* - r v . „*. t 

$.11. Reafon doth, not only fee tide 
the fubje&ion of fome to otters. H jmvil* 
table, but alfo that it is advantageous 
and neceflary . Reafon knows,that iince 
fin, Man has too little light to guide him-, 
felf by, even in -things of a civil, life; 
and that the will is too corrupt to main- 
Hi 2 tain 

148 &fXB3M*Hfr. Part I. 

taiahiminpeace and a regulated order- 
ly W»?^)f tirmg. Reafon therefore fees, 
that it isintoeffarytbat feme grofs Law 
thbultbbeahhde to hind him to his doty,, 
tnibffiita&the Law jof Empire and Domi- 
nkm : Thus it perceives that it is coftve- 
meat ttntiLaws flbould foe made, and Po- 
IltirdftablUhM ; and that the power of 
feeing then obfervM fhould be confer'd 
da iotne<certsbi Hen. Reafon allows 
ibErit hamm^foirs Ihould be orderly ma- 
•aged, and that to avoid diipuces, pre- 
<eddncyft»oldbc)gi¥en to feme wove 
ttohen* InawwdLitdocsiiotonlyowx- 
iketi^o tfaeeftablifkment of Greatirtfe 
&jt>it >foofcsx>n thfe ordination as the 
M4fter*pkoeof human Wfc, andathibg 
of all others the mdft ufeful in the 

§*12. Though Concupifcence afteft 
<3reatoeft> and Realbn approve its jefta- 
-flUftmeatti; yet arte neither die one nor 
the other warrant enough to make it 
^become lawful. Man belongs not to 
bimfcl^neitter he nor others are at their 
iowndifpofc. God alone is their Scare- 
raign Lord ; and to acknowledge, or 
7eftablifii any Superidur without Us or- 
der, hanincroechntenton his Preroga- 
tive. £f 3 crew of Stew 4»ckt toge- 

Fart i. ^tfiraafteor* 149 

thet in a Prifon ftiould beftow ott foaae 
particular one the right of life and dead 
over others* their Matter would laugh at 
this rafli government ; and would pwift 
him, who us'd this right** aftUftaper 
and Tyrant ; becanfe 'tisa right belongs 
only to him y and he only can transfer or 
communicate it to another. This is our 
cafe, in refpeft of God Almighty y that 
is, we are his Scares, and without his 
order caniiot dtfbofe of .our feives. In 
vain thefore IhotW Men beftow on 
ibmc one amoogft them the right and 
powerto govern the reft t if God did 
not warrant their choice tttfbhh autho- 
rity; Aad for t his fea^ according to 
ifcrDb&rine of Sfc 4*$Ht y our punilh- 
mente would be ffiufders and homicides, 
did not God Almighty, who is the only 
l^>rd of Life and Death* giw a power to 

mate thofcd^,w*» Viottte lite taw of 
Naturc^aaddiftufblwBWixSQtkty. Btft 
fromScri^tureweteanittaW^ \m @*e 
this power* aad by las authority w 
fitmMtbeG? tasteo coniUtutiO*tn 1*# 
heapprara that Men Hnklhem^vBiM^ 
gether by Laws and Fonm of Govern- 
ment, and tint be gbrqr ta***tt> mate 
choice of fome aamq^Ubc feft tft % 
thorn cftfttf dt c «afc coiomnifateo his 

i;o fl)f tttatttew < Part l 

power to thofe, thus chofen to, govern 
filch as areplacM under them. 

§.13. T hefe are not idle fpeculations: 
they are truths decided by Scripture. 
For it is the Apoftle Saint Paul^who teach* 
es^that atl power is derived from God, 
Non eft foteftas nip a Deo : That they are 
eftablilhed by God ', qu* autem fmtt^ a 
Deo or din at a fmt : And that who refifts 
power refifts the Ordinance of God : 
qmrefiflitfotoftati) Dei otrdininum refiftit \ 
that theGovernours of the People are the 
Minifters of God ? to reward the good 
*nd puniih the wicked ; Dei mintfter eft 
ftbiin bonwfU) Dei mnifter eft tiki inirdm. 
And thus he beftows on Princes the fame 
Title he allows ^himfclf, as an Apoftle 
layes, fie not exiftimei r homo ut mptifhros 

By this it appears that Greatenefs is a 
part icipatibn of God's power over Men, 
whichhebefto*rs on feme for the good 
of others \ ' that it is a charge he en trufts 
tfiem with : And thus nothing being more 
real and juft than God's power and au- 
thority v nothing alfo is more, juft and 
real than Greatncfs, in theft to whom he 
-hath tfoftaally cbmatonicited it* and 
who^ranot Ufurparsofit. *' 
v. d J; J14; Out of this^odrittcit is «fie 

-1 :Z \ tO 

Part T. &f<&Un'&*ttt 1 51 

to comprehend how that Monarchy and 
other Forms of Government fpring ori- 
ginally from the choice and confent of 
the 1 People, and yet the authority of 
Monarchs comes not thence, but is de- 
rived from God only. It is true he hath 
given the People a power to chufea Go- 
vernment. But as the Election ofthofe 
Who chufe a Bifhop, does not make and 
Cc^iftitutc him one , for the Paftoral 
authority^ %ESV$, c HIRST h 
confer'don Mm by his ordination : So is 
itnot the fo'e confent of thepeople which 
inakes Kings, but it is GodV commu- 
nicating with them his Regality and 
Power,* Which makes them lawful Kings, 
and gives them right over theiir Subject. 
Anafor thi& realbn the. Apoftledoes not 
ftyle Princes Miniftcrs of the Peopte, but 
-Minifters of Godv becaufe from him 
alone they hold their; power. 
- • ^15 Hence ? omfequence: of great 
importance day be drawa in fevour <K 
fuccelTt ve ftfaraarcby •, audit is tbii : Al- 
though the eftaMiforaen^ this kin&of 
Government onpc depended in its firft 
letting up on the People, by the choice 
of fome gneFam^ly^ zitdbftbdrxoofki- 
tuting this way of fuccefficwift the, King- 
dome: Neverthclttli thi ? :cooftitutiai 

H 4 once 

i;x M0MMm. Part I. 

once made, itisnomorein the Peopled 
choice to change it afterwards. For the 
power of making Laws no more refides. 
in the People when they have once (le- 
velled themfelves of it, and who had al) 
imaginable reafon to do fo, nothing ha- 
ving been more for their good i but is 
tranfer'd to the King, to whom God 
communicates his ruling power.. And 
thus as in a fucceffive Monarchy the Ring 
never dyes, fo the People being never 
without one, they never come to be in. a 
capacity to make new Law* to alter the 
order of fucceffion ; to do which they 
have never fufficient and lawful author* 
ty 9 face it always refides in him whoa 
Cod hath given it* according to th&fc 
constitutions to which the People wf&ag- 
ly once fubtmtted themfclves. 
-, S* i£ From hence aUb it is evident; 
that it is never lawful for an; to .rebel 
a$aint htsSownign, nor to engage in 
Civil-wars againfi: himi . For Wftreafr- 
not be raitM without abdaority^aiid tfa* 
atotfcratgp one* fines by it People ate 
pot to death* which fuppofes tf right over 
Life aod Death. Now this right in a 
Monarchical ftate only fadonga to the 
Kiug^aid thoft *ho eatrtifc tonider 
febaattarity. Thtothofc^ho robtU 
» > ..- L ; _ againft 

«aftifthntibefag ddtftute oft^w Au- 
thority, commit a? many murders as ■ 
they caufe Men to die, fince tiiey art 
the ctofe of thHf death, withdtft aft^ 
power or order from' God. It is in -jm - 
to jnftifle thefe udder pretence of dmifti 
in the State, which they wottfd feeiA 'ter 
redrefs. For no abofe is fi> great, as to] 
give Subje&s' a rfg$:;to draw theltf 
Sword y for they havfe~no right tG tfitf 
Sword, and cannot ufe it hit by' com- - 
mand. from him, who wears' itiyordef ? 
from AMghty God. V ' " '■ 

§.17* This Regal POwef-thi* Rlghti : 
to govern Nations, whkh ellentially pV. 
longs to God, and is by feina'Communi-. - 
cated to fbme for the good, of Others, ,. 
refidesin Kings in an eminent degree^ , 

/ but from them isderiv'd to au {heir Mi-. *■ 
nifters, who are impfayM to rule the - 

- People under them, and maintain order., ■ 
So "that- it •comprehends' alt '. Authority. • 
whatfoever, that gives ttotiojate^ anor. '< 
regulates the •Affairs of tote:*' whole* ' 
ever is a ftarer herein, is C ctfPs RUnK , - 
for for that part he has of hi* Author - 

: §. r8v* It feenK tbereaYa in Gdveffl-^ ; 
mentis certaia Greatnefles that confift 
mare in $1%£ than atthorits-: Sn$h'f K r - 

H-5 / we- c 


the QpflWy; of. Prince of the Blood, 
\vhicfo Places Fjts owners in a mych higher 
rank, above others that want it, but 
wfeich Includes fio jurHclidtion, /at leafl 
(f itbe aqt jpyriM to lbme other Charge 
w Office." But even this Rank has its 
kind of Authority, and is, like others, 
deriyMTtbm Goq's order. For there 
being ' V fteceffity that humane affairs 
fliould Be Regulated, and fince they can- 
not frMft without order, it is requifite 
toeftablifli. thefe'Preeminences, fo that 
fome lhall have a right to be prcfer'd 
before others. And this preference hath 
with jaft ice beeii granted to Princes of 
the £lood, as a confequence of the 
very nature of fucceflive Monarchies, 
For this form ot Government confuting 
eflentially in the choice the People have 
Wade of a certain Family whereby to be 
governM, it is evident, that as all thofe 
of this Family have a right to the Regal. 
Dignity, artd in their torn may come to 
have it •, fo it is neceflary,]that the People 
fhould be accuilomM before-hand to re_- 
fped them mofe than others •, it being 
otherwife a matter of difficulty,that the. 
People Ihould have thofe fentiqients of 
relped and, fubmiffiori due t0 Kings, for 
thefe Princes, when the$ effe&iially come 
«o the Crown. " ''■■---• $.19; 

part h &*&*#*& m 

§. 19. By thefeiPrin&ples, a Sbhitioh 
maybe given of tile .Queftioa, proposal 
touching what it is^rijat; makes the JQ real 
worthy c^ourrtl^d; It ici«itherictbelr . : 
riches, j pleasures,; 110*3 pom|>!; <fcn tbt 4V 
(hareithey have in that ( Regality ; rthfeh 
belong* to God, and which we ought to 
honour in their Ptribns according to 
the proportion they participate thereof; 
it is the order where . God las placed and 
difpos'd of them by his provide ncei Thui 
this fubmiffion having for objeft what is 
really worth our refpedt, ougfit not one- 
ly to be exterior and Ceremonious; 
hit interior, that is, it ought to carry 
with k an acknowledgement: of a real 
Superiority and Grandeur in. thoft to 
whom we give this kind of honour :. And 
for this reafon it is that the Apoftte 
commands Chriftians to be obedient to 
higher Powers, notonely for fear, 'Jbut 
alio for confeience ,fake : Nan fiinm/fro^ 
pur. iram^fidetiam, p-opter confeknuaw* - > 

,§. xo, Jbe pomp and fplendour which 
ufually accompanies the Great;, is not 
that which makes them really worthy of 
otirrefpe&s, though it be that which 
makes them honbur?d;by the greateft 
part &f »ltte World: but becaufe it is re- 
quire thf y fl»>uld have tjus*refpe& pay'd 
tbcai; it is al) juft and equitable that 

Crai> * 

if* MiWttOK Parti* 

Grandeur fhouldbe joitfdto tM&storior 

Manficcnce: For Maa is not 5p»ltaat* 

te^ew»gh torcf^in t*Kfm tfc* at* 

ttoricydnly of God v ^thejF damply foe 

itemfaaftatt that is the ofotl eb)eh 

; of their contempt and hatred Tlw t 

J that Greatoefi may make that imprefllon 

von the mind which it otghe, ic is bat 

^ it firft Aouid work on ttefen^ 

{This makes it iteceflary the Great ihonkt 

^Jnnrt Riches in proportion to the £te~ 

Vgrcc they hold : for by Riches they pre- 

ferye that good-wii], which is rtquilite 

for their condition v and without which- 

it would become ufelefs to. others. 'Tis 

> grofs vifible erraar, whkh TertuUim- 

teaches in his Book of Idolatry c*p: i &♦ 

1 That all tbg marks of Digmty and Pew& v 
and all the ornaments annexed to Office, arc 
forbid Chriftians, and that Jefus Chrift 
hktb fiacU all theft things amongft the 
fonfpsof the Devil., fince Im him/elf off ear- 
tdin a cm&nonfo jar from all fvmf ami 
fiUndour. For Chriftian Religion never 
thwarts true Reafon j and' if our Saviour 
did not take on him this exterior Mag- 
•lificeoce, it was not becaufe he abfolute- 
ly condemned it $ bat becaufe that 
humble deportment was conformable tor 
hisMiniftry, in which he did intend w 


ftew, in his oaneatfdway of living, tile 
JftMtioa* dilfcafitioA' of ftiM'tf s'-Blfek 
fte ttttghB to Irtve. Great 6f^ fflrt^ 
fore mult learn from the Lift of our 
Satfoar JESt>S C HRlST^ not 
to be in love with l*>mi> and Splendor,, 
but not efledlively to tey it afide, withott: 
<iod infpires thciato kame the -World 
ifor gciotl a«d at!< BeKTvvfe ought not to 
l«n^r at thfe efceefi of TtrtuttUn^ face 
fleteaches in tlte fameBook, That Chift- 
Itiafls are forbid *0 f»fs judgment, *b 
jtbe Life and honour of Men, which, is 
Contrary to the Doctrine and praftke 
of the Church. 

§.iu The exterkror rclpe&s giy&^ 
by iaferiours tfr th^ Great, are other; 
tavrfW attendants on their Conditio*. 
For thoneh thefe perhaps i* their &fi- 
gifie fee btrt the indention* of Mttft 

- prMe, whkh pterd^ 
Befi' better -w-. feeing the abjedtteif! of 
ethers *,, yet flight we to acknowledge 
that tftefe te$fe&* and deferences are itt 
ttemfthres both ufeful and jrifcj aM 
titat though Pride lad net, yte Reaffift 
oaght to hste brought them fe f aflfod* 
fcer kisb^t)ttft attd^eaibnGble> that thi 

' G&at flwaid bfe hoanwr^ by aflbeei* 
^d^t^acteowledetniefttof that ordei- 


of God which has raifM them above 
others. Man has fo great an. averfion 
from lubmitting , to, and acknowledg- 
ing others above faimfelf, that to accu- 
ftom his mind and Soul thereunto, it is 
neceflary that in fome fort the very Body 
be brought to it : the Soul infenfiblytak- 
ing the like bent and ppfture, apd mak- 
kg an eafy ftep from the outward cere- 
mony to . what's really true. And for 
this reafop it is but fit, that thcfe exte- 
rior refpefts ihould carry with them 
fbmething of trouble, otherwife it would 
not ,t>e pcrceivM that thpy are directed 
to honour the great j but that they might 
be praftis'd only for that plcafiire and 

. convenience they >may, carry with them, 
ap4jfQ be in4iffpreatf y giyep to ailaUke j 
md thu? the : Soul would not infenfibly 
receive] any fen time jits of Refpgft for 
thole, who pfethpg hoc^)iu?M. - r j 
' , §f a&^;Th<?te ^haye .feU.'jttab 
(there being two for ts of r Gseajt ne% tfag 

* Qn*Natural,tfce lathes of Eftablg^ew;) 

W$ OTlj|owfeNat^^TPfpeavr^^ 
jconfife in eft^ip gqd Cobpufton pfc mm 

.to -patpral Endpwm?ptjy m& { tto&hto - 
. ?M*?:natuTj5^gto?dN,igi3?fln>i?$te 

parti .jQlfnititetiv, 1*9 

by Men to honour the Dignities they have 
fee up, ought further to -add} to make 
this opinion throughly folid, that theft 
exteriour Ceremonies ought to Ipring 
from an interiour fentiment of mind, by 
which we acknowledge in the Great a 
true fuperiority : For. their Condition 
carrying with it, as we have faid, a cer- 
tain participation of God's Authority- 
is worthy of a tf ue and interiour Refpect 
and it is fo far from trutf, that the Great 
have a right to exact from us an ex- 
teriour ceremonious deportment, with- 
out any fympathizing motions of the 
Soul; that on the contrary it may be faid, 
they have only a right to exact this 
outward Refpect, that they may thereby 
Imprint in. our fouls thole juft inward 
fentiments which we ought' to have, 'of 
their Quality : So that v 
to know certain. Perfon 
be fully afTufM^ they art 
tion of refped: towards 
difpertc^e «?ith extefjbur : 

having already whWthej 
anduftful. :■;".. 

tfo -Of «rmtfcift. fart i 

twff enough with our knowledge of their ■ 
faults ot miferies, nor lays icon fis an obli- 
gation of not preferring before 'em inow 
minds thofe who have more of real goods 
and natural Grandeur. But asrefpect is 
their due, as it is fit they b: honourM, 
and as the generality, of the World hath 
neither Light nor Equity enough to con- 
<demn faults, without undervaluing thofe 
they fee guilty ^ ft there remains an ob- 
ligation on us to be mighty referv'tf in 
what we fay of Perfons of Quality, and 
thofe to whom this honour belongs. 
This word of the Scripture Speak_tiotiS - 
of the Prime of thy Peofte, is to be un- 
derftood of ah Superiours, as well Ec- 
deliaftick as Secular, and generally of 
all who have any participation of God 
jAlmighty^ Power} wherefore itis per- 
fectly oppose to true Piety, to ufe that 
tiberty the vulgar takes to cry down,the 
conduct of thofe v* 
For befides that, t 
fhe moltpart, a: 
cauft they nave no 
formation of what 
cpurfcs are never it 
d2poiition cpntran 
have- them 'to be in 
has fet over them. $ ■ 24. . 

Part I. M OftitteMk id * 

§. 24. There are fome who at leaft 

would have this Authority, which we 

muft thus refpett, only given to defert* 

and who accftfe of Injoftice thofe UKvs 

which have feftenM it to £bme extcrkm* 

Qualities. They {peak high when they 

difcDurfe againft foch Cooflitntionft, as 

hare made Gareaftnefs depend on Birth : 

Wechufenot, fey; tfapy, to 

fteeraVefleLhimtlrtris^lrt ' ^tlF* 

bcftofite^y: Why p^t 

therefore do we do fo, to 

guide Kingdoms and Emp'mtl But 

thefc are unacquainted wkb thrfaottom 

of Man's: ^oeakitftaiidcfirQMmk TJwJr 

reafirn m&iiS Men litre roafcAhbfc and 

jolt ^ buttWjriMaibii vary itl^ tedeMin 

-niitfctr is ndr wiBi»&. : Mart) : <mtunfl 

idjuftfce which caondt foe rooted otit 

0^hw / heavt^ m*kes£hfc choke, not ob- 

ijr t edfcnabte, hut **** feifoirtj > Mafteft* 

picdec lEor'ifebpmjQHftl rwel thdle^ jcrvm 

hifnwhdis .Jm>ftmrtim»i wife rind 

valiant. , BatLfcehrid wif :art Wtaeyfe iJt 

Daggers drawing. Every one will be 

fthb VertuoK. Valiant, »d Wife Man . 

Let us therefore determine our -choice 

bjr ibfrtctl^ri^k e«etiwf d aadad- 

Wits no difpute. He's the Kin^tldeft 

Son : this is clear and unquefhonable : 

:*»«« Reaibri 

Ida 4>f 4frftttDeW* Part I, 

Reafon therefore cannot do better than 
chufe him i for Civil War is the worft of 

§.25. What- is true pf Royalty is alio 
true of the firft Officers of State. Had 
it not been better, will fome fay, that 
Princes were iuch by merit, than by 
defcent : one may rife higher by Vertue 
than by this vain prerogative. Is it not a ' 
piece bf in juftiee that a General of an Ar- 
my, after, he hath conqoerM whole Wtcj* 
vinces, fhould beobligM to give place to 
a Prince of t£e Bloody wkhaut Wit^with- 
ont Experience? -JN©> this is no injur 
ftk& On the contrary ftikPthe* beft k> 
toutiori Reafon couktfiid out to temper 
itfcte: Aaugjitinefe vof rGfflmteur^ and to 
Ifnefefrota the totrte* and envy; of Ut- 
feridnrs: If one became Great only by 
dcfert, the height of the great would 
be a/continual noife in out 1 ear$,that they 
wee prtfefrM. to tfee pre jadice of others, 
wfaomwc feacy marc deferving than 
-thefo airi every onbwriuldfay, .- ■ 


■> ; :* » 

Tktdafsytmom: attdjrktt waif 1 tity 

dm ■ - J 

Turfy A/hT y .E*vaKr htxnthrown an 

'/ft**. ./. % .'■ ■/.. r ■ t j*> : ; , 'U 

t * * * *\ 

>♦« -j » ) .j -•>.. . j •; . T . *c 


I J / • «» 

Part i. m <B*81IDetfr 103 

But thus joyning Greatnefi with Birth* 
the pride of inferiours is aHaicL and 
Greatnefs it felf becomes a far lefe eytr> 
fate. There fe no fhame to give pfcce 
to another, when one may fey, 'Tishis 
Birth I yield to.- Thisreafon convinces 
the mind without wounding it with fpight 
or jealoufie. Cuftom hath made this eafie^ 
and no body retells againft am efteblilht 
order which is. not at; all wjurtoBS)&> 
hiflV . .. •. ; ; • -'.: -, ; ■•:. 
S- 26. Another atanftge -fibaC 4* 
crues from this eftabliflunent is, That 
Princes may be had without pride, and 
Grandees found* .that ar^ hluffibi^ ■•>${* 
it giye3np o^cafipniofpridfl to m$nj# 

: in the rank ^b^^ptfs^rwaWfiihM 

r plaC;Mju^prpTid^dW ^b it to the otfs 
h? prefcribes. Moreover, here the fea- 

, timeots of humility may be prefervM in 
the; heart, one's faulted mif^qy^y 
be knowji^ $nd v on© may look, pn his 
Conditio as fome thing,, if ot betoq&ng 
to hirafel& 4 bewg only , pla$'d i%<fr py 

. God's difpofitian- But how tar^ri 
to be humble when we confider that, our 
rife is the fruit of Our labours, anc^re- 
wn^ rf pur rmfa v-wto. w^M c ffr 
£«e4 Jf bj mt ^T^iPF^^:* 

ii.; -.:■-. tOv 

1*4 OTtttfMfc Part i. 

to believe it is our due, and that we as 
far excel! others in merit, as we are raised 
above 'em in place. 

§.27. WhenDefertis thegate by which 
we come to Greatnefs, we fcarce ever 
arrive there bat by the way of Ambition} 
and ufing In the room of real Venues, 
Cabals and tlnder-hand-deaiings. We 
«ften come Richer without merit, aJ- 
Woft always wilftottt a call, fince the 
call we have is only from our iefres 
amF our own ambition. But at leaft 
thofe that are bora Great mar with truth 
fey, They, have a cau\ and that it is 
Geo wfco has mad* them ft. Aid thas 
by cOfflply fc# feltHfuUy with the duoy 
of their ftatfert, they arc wkhoat doubt 
ns greater IfteJynood to dcaw down 
on themftfttes * bkffbrg frow Heaven, 
than men' as ftrMflg forward in the 
Wbitkt, out of motives altogether ear- 
waL ought rathet to think of quitting 
tfiefrftation tiian keening it •, face th«y 
cannot fey to thearfelves that God has 
*alP4 them thither, wnktter their own 
ambition only brought *in. * 

$.28. Thfc way of honotrtng the 
trreat^to wtt, by oonfiderteg m them 
that the portion' wMcfr chef have of 
x GiWfc3tHft6rityisi& mecft fcne-nlttre be- 



Part I. '0t4&$imVt* i*$ 

neficialfor hum??* Society, as being in* 
dependent 01 perianal indpwment j k is 
alfo free from the capricious judgments 
of humorifts, andfo becoms fix t and in- 
alterable. And here is another confide 
ration of the fame Nature. Let the Great 
be what they will, at ieaft they are the 
Miniflxrs God makes ufe of to procure 
Men the greateft and moil: effential goods 
this World has. For we neither enjoy 
our £itates, nor travel without danger* 
«or rejnain quiet at home: We reap, no 
advantages by - commerce^ receive 40 
profitfftom the induftry of Men, or from 
humaiivS^ciety* but by the means of pub* 
tick jpifcipline. This once gone, we 
gumot fay weare Matters of any things 
clrery one would be his Neighbour's foe t 
and there would rife an universal War* 
not to be decided but by force. 

§. 29. To comprehend more fully how 
great our Obligation is To State-govern- 
men£> wemuftconfider* that Men being 
void of Charity by the diforder of Sio» 
nererthelefs remain full of wants>*nd in 
an infinite number of ways depend our 
upon another. Gbncupifcence therefore 
bath taken the place 0? Charity that k 
may fijpply thefe wants, and the m«os 

it lifts are fuch that one cauwE enoqgh 


166 OH ttratftetm Part r 

admire them -, vulgar Charity cannot 
reach fb far. Going in the Country we 
meet almoft every-where People that are 
ready to ferve thofe that pafs on the 
Road, and who have Houfes furnifht to 
entertain them. Thefe are at the Tra- 
vellers dilbofe, he commands, they o- 
bey.They feem to believe that we do them 
ft kitadnefs in accepting their fervice; 
they never feek to *be excusM from lend* 
ing that affiftance which is required. 
What would deferve our wonder more 
than theft people, were they animated 
and fet on work by Charity ? But it is 
Gotlamifcence that does it, and does it 
ft weO and gracefully, that they would 
evtnhaveusto think that they take it 
for a courtefie th&t we employ them in 
our fervice. 

What a piece of Charity would it bejto 
build for another anintire Houfe>furnifh 
it with all neccflaryJHoufiiold-ftufFi and 
after that to deliver him up the Key ? 
Concupifcence does this cheerfully. What 
Charity would it be to go and fetch 
Drugs from the Indies^ to fubmit ones 
feif to th* meanoft Ol&es, and ferve o- 
thers in the moft abjeft and j>ainf ul com- 
mands? -And this Concupifcence does 
withottt r eYer<X)ftplakingv 
1 There 

Part L fDt totagfotUt. i*j 

There is therefore nothing whence 
Men derive greater benefits to them- 
lelves than their own Concupifcence. 
But that it may ba dilpofed to do thefe 
Offices, there ought to beforaething to 
keepit within compafs. As foon as it's 
left to it felf, it flies out and keeps within 
no bounds. Inftead of being beneficial to 
human Society, it utterly deftroys it. 
Thereis jio iexcefs it will not run into,, if 
not held back. It is by its own Inclination 
ind bent carried to fob, kill, and commit 
the greateft injuftice and extravagances. 
; ; There was then an art to be found out 
to keep Concupifcence within bounds : 
and* this art confifts in that polity, which 
~ by? fear of punilhment keeps it inland ap- 
. plies it to whatfoever is neceliary for 
human life. - This Polity furniihes us 
with Merchants, Phyfiriaus* Artificers, 
and generally with whatfoever contri- 
butes to our pieafure, or fupplies the 
necefiity of Lite, Thuswehave an Obli- 
gation to thofe who maintain Govern- 
ment, tha t, is, to tiiofe in whom refides 
the authority which regulates and keeps 
the Body of the State toeether. 

$. 3& We ihould admire that Man, 
who Jhauld have found out the. Art of 
taming Lioos, Bears, Tygres* and other 


««B £H &K8ffMtt» Part I. 

Wild fieafts, fo as to make them ler- 
-nocable for the ufc/of life. Govern- 
jnent is the worker of this Wonder e 
for Men left to their <awn defires are 
iwcrfe&han lions. Beats, orTygres. fi- 
nery one would devour his Neighbour j 
and it is by the mews of Policy and Laws 
■that thefeWild Beafts are become tra&a- 
hie, and that from them we reap all thofe 
hyman iervices xhaunight he had from 
fABe Charity - 

r$* 31. fBoficy m governing is an a&r 
•mirable invention found out by Man to 
forniih private Ferfbns with thofe con- 
veniences, which the gpreateft Kings 
tcouW r^ot h?ve, were their Officers never 
ftunauy, their Riches sever ft> great, iif 
xhi^tftw urate deftroy Vt Withoutdris 
tnv«fiion.wha Servants, what Wealth 
, ^honbdxme have to procure thebere! con- 
veniences which now any one of four 
handrfad Rounds a Year enjoys ? How 
k m^ Ships ought he, to have, and fend 
into thfc federal Parts of the World, to 
bring him back the Drugs, Stafls, and 
XSoriofities, and, Manotaftucts of far 
Countries? How many Men mttft be 
omptoy'd to bring him xonftanriy every 
Week hiews from alLParts of £«npr> 
Wealth itojiid iuigce to. ^untein 

fb % 

fo many Courriers as ,are neceilary to 
fend into divers places ; or to furni/h 
Horfesand Ians to4odge them ? What 
A rmies o f Souldiers to fecure t^]^ays 
and free them from Thieves ?yffcw ma- 
ny Trades wpuldjtrbe requifite to%W 
to find theni with Meat, CJoathV and 
Lodging ! . AH Trades are iinfc together 
and depend one on another, fo that he 
would have need of them all^ and that 
not only for himfelf; he would need 
them for his Officers,, and for aWthpfe 
who wrought for Mm* and thus there 
^quW be no*nd. ; ; An ordlnajry Qeaties- 
man has all this, and that without trou- 
ble, turmoil, or anxiety. Whatsoever he 
needs is brought to him from China* JW 

the World;., He^s .fre$,froV$ht>« 
^#*5?j)jp|j;-to eafaij'd, -„ w „ 
all the dangers and hazards- at ■ Sea/- All 
4*e Roads in Eur^e are kept open' for 
him i and ^ourriers are, difpaccjii: to 
bring torn -the, NeVp ot /wh^c. happens. 

;<»tfthey : reeeiv'd hi* Wages. He.-a»y 
with truth fay, -that th ereis a Million of 
.Men .working for him in-»<the Kingdorp, 
h I. ' He 

feX5ft(**s not of»% «ft *he Trades* 
t*h 'of ffik Kttttti lie -lb* in, bet 
arf&^<Jft'<?fN<igtibouring States, fince 

they ere ready >w fe^ve him, bdtowiag 
«fe HfeM « &f&ifi *J#»« -afNfcd oo, 
foMcfrfe<*efc>thia* 'the mrtiie ffllgfK; 

$ft fefe «wii swvtftes. M thefe, *hd 
rtusfWrJtforhim, Krlng Mm notpoobie, 
uot is fttsoWtgMto limply theff wfttrta. 
itflttitftsPpftrtof his Charge to manage 
then $ tft&ta no need of Sbpetfow 
Oflfcers r tb 'govern, iior Iiiftflflttr ta 

■ft*¥*th«K :and «f thefre-be,. * $J not 
fife part fb^toride then. Whocaafeta 
value high enough offthefe Advantages, 
which thus eqaaU&e the jttrrate Con- 
j&tioa oTSobjeeti to that oc Klngs v , and 
■wMchfttoing thenr from all the tf ott'btes, 
*eflt\*dfithemall{that^t©be had of 
'goodtntiiegreateft rfcheW v 

§.32. The Vulgar become fofenfiWe 
*'ctf tall this, outofa principle of vanity 
•amd:i»grairitade. ' They draw die foot 
•idvao^ge froni'af 'thble wtoytforfc for 
=Tfce|itebfiek> 'wherein: they -'att-' tompre- 
twndfed, as if they, jwrttqghtf ©hely for 
. them. Their Letters 'art as fifely carf red 
tothefurtheftpartsoftheWoridby a 
-Courrier that carries tea thoufiad, as 


9m u m m m mtm *?* 

tf hr*as<diacgM with *>ae ooflty*, t&af 
areas'iwH kokt to by * J%fr'4»-lte& 
WBttsAsmaity vtimZ, as if to^waft pjgj 
toooQrGr£hoinrrr:A])td,aioreo««r tjMbfggfe 
ririace Jtejgdtaby gdl%^j»^inakM 
jbkftahfacr tfo Jbcte thewl ia $he c fnfe tf 
their Maladies. .. Nisverthekft^ be<$j}fe 
ttay inow that theydd not alooe enjof 
ttefe^tootiia, «%.aro j»t. jftwchfe 
TAekiwaiits.awJaqdaajr fifpply^ bat 
their vanity is nofijow^lfeiriiedH te- 
fadfe thtjr haw jk» i^IttitMijftperiority 
over t±©fc whofe fcr vice they fitfeive^ 
Theyoridcrval«arid;fli^« «tat profit 
tbey dntiRtteiuE^ j and thatigtajtateoefit 
0DbasTOcciv^jdimbigraitotitt)all that 
^nAich redooads do *bem^ yft does it 
xfimiiiifltAnd tnHeawaf the ffaafif tbcreofe 
and they do ribt believe that they .-*» 
oblfe*d to at^body, ihtcaofe tfaer's a ' 
write* of others, who ai^e partakers of 
ihc fame btt»fit$,and fliarers in the fame 
oabli^atkMK ; -/ . 

tlroftrealgo^ Kings 

^»*iybii k Arthority y no more than we 
nsfleft* as was obferVed by one of old, 
that we are mightily obliged to the 
(Ear ri* that fuftaii&sn^aiid that we ihouM 
•beiilpuc^o it Jhould it feil under our. 
* I 2 feet 

17% &t GtWfotUV. Part IL 

feet* But this forgetfulneis in Man is 
a proof, not an excufe ofiiis ingratitude. 
Forfince thefe are benefits, and great 
ories to<V and received moreover from 
the* hands of God ibjj the Intervention 
of Meft, 3d* 6Ught*b acknowledge thenr 
Wkh -gratitude, and in. this acknow- 
ledgement include all thofe, by whole 
mean* hehath conveyM them to us, and 
vvith whom he hath* deposited his Au- 
thority for this, purpofe; •.;.;. 

§• S4- Humane obligations, when tbey 
are jtlft and due, bicome the duties of 
Chr iftian Religion, becaufe it hath for 
Rule, Sovereign Juftice 7 and confifts fdier 
iy in c&nforimngiuit felf themHjta 
Hence the Apoftle (commands Chrifiir 
ans -to pray for: KincSy and foriihoft^ 
who undet them rule the State ^ and thefe 
Prayers- are their, due : debtsrif 'for no- 
thing elfe, at leaflrfor the care they Jots 
in maintaiaing peace, and ! tjuietnds 
amongft Men. Thus 'tis a fanlt?npt . to 
comply with thrt obligation! in- Qinksing 
• to pray fori Kmgs^and we make our lelves 
unworthy of all thebenefits God by their 
means beftows on Maiu There #tefew 
ivho confider this epanghi:: The jnaoft 
•part of the Wbrld bafiesfifi felf} it «ty 
.cotnptiiiasl againft ..tiieji difcrdfft >rtf 

* t - i . State, 

Part I. &l GtmlltUV. 1 73 

State,, of which commonly it is igno- 
rant, and dreams not of complying with 
that jnft acknowledgement that is due 
to God, for the Benefits receiv'd from 
him by the means of all- well orderM Go- 
vernments •, f and-nqpertjieleft thefc bene- 
fits are infinitely greater than tHa& dlf- 
orders, whether true or fupposM, which 
are the ftbjcft of alJ thefe-mutterings and 
complaints,,; /* il /. , 



- - ^ J '- ! 'til JL * '■" J |_ 

• < • % « ' " ' ' , . * ' ' 

-• r ■ ' 

*74 > «"* - ••" <* * *- 


v * ■ - . i **-* • " * ■ ' ' r " * * * 





* ^ 

0/ the Duties belonging to, 
and Difficulties occurring in, 
the Life of Great Men. 

§. i. ^lethtn^twtofGreaitnt&fiich 
as we have here defcribM it, 
may be a f buadation to build, 
as on a fixx and unalterable 
principle, the duties tiat Inferiors owe 
the Great * It is yet much more proper, 
to make tbe Great themfelves know the 
molt die n rial and indifpenfable obliga- 
tions of their Places. 

it is true, as. jse have ihevrn^ that 
Grandeur is a participation of God's 
Authority and Power oyer Men, com- 

mb. mmmmk w 

miinlc^d by hip to G*»q CftrtaiA QW?* 
ftutto kgowth* dotis* that ^ccqwpaay 
it, wq muft know oa wb« <wditk*i P> 
and for what end, God b^'toftw'd q? 
thwntbi^P'Owcr «|4 Aptjfoftj :.. It be- 
ing cqjrtwu, thtf* ae *KJ waty" hftld, if 
frorafari»*fp thsy quwatilftwraUir emcy 
It fcwt on ftch cfltfwtpjns as Qod ha$ fe|> 
*{KUh?t they can»Qt wqtfe it, but for 
tb^ ends be hath prefcrijb\t th^ 

§.*. Thjj%fttM»gt}igaw€ji>oghtto 
cppfidvinthi^pi^t^r,;^ Th$t God ifi 

I^ofd-sMad Wf«^6^%^ tkfc fo ef- 
fwtfiaVt^.fcU letups, thaf i^ i& ii-npojlibic 
he fhould make any Creature partner kv 

jga^Mt&f Willof G$4> Itfcaufc this 
^Usfcttna^U&i woaitprahid *ute- 
&touQJjift wiqprbe folk*** knot : And 
bfadMtict cpnftfts ia eopfprnvog and 
ftjbnwtting bwtfelf thsreuafiOi. But k 
tewgsjyfo iwpoftbtei t&tf the Will of 
90? otter Croatus* feasld be his Rule, , 

mtitsn tm he. bv qWig\J« t<* follow & 

for itioiw fete. 

FW this fi^X^dimttOR of Mstf? Will 
toto Wftof GodJ* fe«gj&ti4 tQ his 
nature, ttat even God himfelf caonot 

l A laft 

176 ^ dttan&ettt ♦ Partii. 

laftend. And for this reafbn even the 
Son of God as Man, protcfts that he 
alwayes fulfills the Will of his Father, 
and not his Own. 

Now if it be not lawful for any Crea- 
ture to do and follow his own Will, it is 
yet lels lawful to make his Will a rule,and 
Lord it over his Companions -, fince his 
Will is neither its own rule, nor the rale 
of any other Creature whatfoever. God 
therefore can in juftice rule and com- 
mand our Wills j to him the Empire fee- 
longs, and his Divine Will we ought to 
confiilt, as the onely rule of all our 

§.^. Thence it follows not, but that 
we are often obliged to follow the hu- 
mours and obey the commands of o- 
the* Men, but this, never conficfcrihg 
them onely as Men, and obeying* them 
asfudu Nt by vertue of God's Autho- 
rity obliging us thereunto. Thus our 
obedience finally tends to God, even 
then when we obey Men ; for we only 
obey them becaofe God commands we 
fhould. And this command of God is 
the principal motive of the obedience 
we render them. 1 obey my King whctfe 
Subjeft I am, and would obey my Ma- 
fter were I a Slave, becaufe God com* 


ftrtll. ^^tttot^ 177 

mands I fhoukl do fo ; 'tis therefore God 
whom I really obey : His Will W . the 
rule of mine, arid 1 have no tye nor de*- 
pendente on Man, even when I am ntoft 
pun&ual in obeyhfg him; For as foori 
as this fame Will ot God fhall let mt 
underftand, that he would not have rftfc, 
obey others in fome certain things, they; 
fhall no more find mi either their Sob- 
jedt or Slave. - - : ' 

§. 4. From hence it follows, that God % 
does not communicate his Power to Men 
that they fhouid make others the flaves 
of their own Wills, fince.this Empire of 
one Man's WiMoter the WUls brothers 
is naturally and eflentially unjiift. It i^ 
not given them, that they > fhouid take 
pleafure, and pride themfelves, as if they 
were thofe, whom others* fhouid look- on 
as their laft end : For in reality they are 
not, nay it is impoffible they fhouid be 
to. The only aim God has irk making - 
them lharers of his Pttwer/ is td efta- 
blifh thefci Minifters and Executors of 
his Will, whilft he gives them a righp 
and porter not to make themfelves be 
obey M.but (Sod- 1 Not t6 eftSbliflf their 
own Dominion) but GodVv not to make 
Men contribute to their o*vn glory ahd 
Grandeur>bttt to b$ be-thenafdvesServam* 

ly to 

i78 iDtm*vm* mis, 

totfae gpod of ethers* and to procw* 

Ibfmauibefpiritualaad temporal coa- 
waienc^ they pofliWy can, 

fr j/ t^Qr^^efsis a pure Minjr- 
ftec*t having for jt^ ©fid the hamr *f 
God* and tfte advantage of Men* with- 
mtMf.fesNrdataUt^it ftjf. for i* 
fetf jti? »ot CQflftiuited, \it oejy made 
forothftrfc By this it is evident, That to 
nfe it as one ought, in the ordsr God 
has efWWifb'd, ifo Great mtkbt fo far 
Yrom confidariog their Subj$&s as being 
theirs, that they even ought to kok or 
themfolvf* tfc appertaining to the People* 
and to he firmly perfoartpd, th& their 
Condition gives them do right either to 
f<^vf their own -will, or to m*fceitbe 
follort'd by others t That they cannot 
commaad^oolf tofotw their Authority* 
and that in all the commands they lay 
pa Others* they ovgfrt fo to behave them- 
felv^ that if I hey were demanded hy 
God Atoighty^for what eod and ftotivs 
theya&ed* they might with trffth an- 
fwer f That it is for him they did (b, 
that it was to make his Laws be obfer- 
ved, ahd to procure their People what 
good they could- 

§> 6. The crime therefore the Great 
ones commit in, roatog their Grandeur 


«nkl Wraith fa?ftrvfcnjt jtcr tjicm^vcs 

and their own plegflirc^ is a jclijd of 
ptrfidioefbeft to Go#. ror certainly a 
King would have rcafbn to efteem that 
ttabjeft a Rebel, who having a Gpytrn- 
ment ehfcrtiftetf to him. Iq p^Sprh 
hi* Matter** Aq$horlty t moitfd pretend 
toraakchimfelfaWblutc Hciccij: Al- 
lows, that Great oqces, ^avfijgireceiv'tl 
their Greatnefs and Authority not for 
themlelves, but to the end they pray 
r©fe up God 1 * Empire, anij procure h$* 
glory, they become* Perfidious *nd fte- 
b€ih whea they oaly uffe it for j&eirf- 

f. 7. It is therefore n^cefljtry^the^ceat 
Hotjld look on their condition as a Mir 
iiiftry and Office bellowed on them, not & 
a quality incorporated in {hoir bein£. 
It 13 neceflary that they fliould have c$ 
interior affeftion for it y that they fhpyjfi 
confider it as fomething not belonging to 
themf&ves, and by which they neitper 
become moreperfect, por more pieafipg 
to God: By it they have only means to 
do irrmtr good, or mych h?rm > accprjfing 
as they pora ply with, and.accjuit them- 
fcfres of the duty tf their places. They 
ought to be firmly perfwacfed, that only 
ttm gpod> or evil ufe. they.fhall make of 


i&o £$,$$#$&$;' Put If; 


Power, doqs properly belong tp,tf»eafc> 
and which will ftay with them,finpe that 
at the hour of their death they fhall leave 
their Graqdeur behind, and only carry 
. withJhpmthofe good or bad deeds they 
(hail havejdone in the managing $f it. 
» 5.8/ 'Frpoi this Principle (which 
makes it plain that the Great ought not 
to ule their Grandeur for themfelvesj) 
itiseaCetopafstothis other ^ that ha- 
ving receiv'd^from God their Authority 
andPower, they ought only to employ 
it for bira ; that is* they ought to do for 
God whatsoever they have aPower to do,, . 
and that the Meafure and Rule of their 


Duties isto be Jiad from thence. 

They need only to examine, what they 
have. Power to do; for it is a. certain 
Rule they ought to do all they. can. If 
they can do but little, they are obliged 
to no more •, if they can do much, their 
Obligations increafe in proportion to 
tjjeir Power, 

§•9, It hence follows,,, that a Prince^ 
where he has Authority, ought to do all r 
he can for the good of his People, and of 
the Churchy that all Lords,and Mafter$, 
ought to do the fame, in theit TerritxH 
ries, and Families: That a Magiftrate 
ought to perform, what . hk. Office im^ 

powers .. 

powers him to fee done* to the end that 
jflftice be given to all i and laftly, every 
one in bis place, ought to do whatsoever 
mmH he can, fi> that the Talent, en* 
torufted him by God AJmighty,; lye not 
idle and ufdefs, This Rule may be told 
in three words, but the pra&ice of it 
is of vaft extent j., fince : that to reduce 
all thing* to their due. order, and to takf 
aw^ allabufeg,* there, aknoft. nee^Synor 
thing clfe^but thattjbfe who are in ppf 
feffion of Authority, flxaild ufe all their 
Power to fee the Laws of God and Hcv 
ly Church, obferv^d. \ 

S* 10. There* are fome.of thefe Du? 
ties, which being grofs and vifible, are 
aot altogether unknown to the Great j 
but there are others^which they fcarce e* 
ver reflet on, which, neyerthelefs are of 
infinite confequence. That, which we 
have mention^- of referring all the re- 
fped others pay them fl and , making ufe . 
of it to eftabliih the Kingdom of God, 
is one of the greapeft Importance.* Re* 
Ipefl; and Honour, as I have faid, ars 
paid to the Great. The bef* Qiriftians 
cannot in Confcience dilpence with their* 
Duty herein ; and worldly Cteiftians 
wen give more honour than they ought s 
byj worfluppng ia ttem Wealth, .am* 
r what- - 

is* mmmmtm »>» h. 

toots canfts them to Lore aacjt efteem. 
Honow therefore follows and w^s up- 
on the^endfcien of the Great ? and tab 
bonoor is juft : being bottomM o*gopd 
and warrantable reafpns, as hath beeij 
ftewa heretofore. It is even God him* 
felf, the Author of all Juftfee, that allows 
it to them-, but he docs not therefore al- 
low them to make it the Obfaft of their 
Vafcity. Aflhohour belongs to God a<v 
COt'dif>g to Scripture-, SoHDeo bmer&> 
£&i*. The Great therefore ought to 
reftore to God that whkh is given them^ 
and to nfe it (o, that God may be thereby 
glorified. Now the means to pradife 
this Duty is not jfftr tfte moft part, Amply 
in the prcfence of God Almighty to de- 
left ones felf of the Honoar annext tQ 
Ms condition, *er thereto acknowledge 
that it belongs to him* and not to them- 
felves i bat ib to behave themfelvev 
that all Venues whadbever may be e- 
fteem*d honourable for their good ex- 
ample? For it is iftgra&ed in Majreiiaquto 
to value whatfoever they % » **ft 
fhey refpedt, and no* to make n|ee df- 
ftin&ions of Quality and qftafity* fo as 
fc> wrferenep 4bm? ? $nd ipom&ma ea^ 
fligfctc others Heace k xora» that the 


taffXtr we aanex to the ctioditkm of 
Qratdoe** ara&s erea the Vice* of the 
v&j&m to be eftcetnM, as & like manner 
nH Yprfiwiane, when they appear in any 
i^ I^GtJcaaModcft^iftApf^e^ fad* 

nij^uftiavrfel Recreations, as e*aftob» 
fcnranoe <>f the Lam of holy Church, 
$cftfe tobedUbonourabte y whe» the Great 
publickly profcfe and praftife then* 
When we but imitate them, wethinJt P«r 
film ftetoir'd ftt>fi tbt raiUrry of the 
World ^ and* is efteemM gloriow K> 
follow thofe,wfco are always feUowM 
and waited on by glpry and honour. . 
$; i u We catfnot ittfficiently make 
knOWB^of what importance this one thing 
is for laving the S&ukof tihe Great. For 
one of the greateft Artifices the JDevli 
gfes to engage Men in Vie? apd Petatt* 

dier^ia, toftften ttwm of cwtftenBt «ir 

certain Vertues & aod to flit weak Soujfc 

with « fooU(h : ;fe*rio£iM^ 

lous, ftotfid tihey defifer ta |Hit them j# 

ice. It is by this means* for ^xam* 
[e» that he hath ifttfoctecM into tfeft 

Id ina»od>efty in Apparel i and that 
he ma&$* even Women, rtberwUe rart 
cfaaft, to foHoW thpfe Fafcioni Which 
mm oaly found out for fuch^as were wfcr 
mo^It >Tis thsMttfe, cry they *, wr 



i8 4 &&i*twmt: partir: 

tannot endure to bt lingular. Tfacl% 
weak andfoolifh People have need to hi 
upheld againft this dangerous temptati- 
on - r and nothing can do it better, than 
the example of Perfoni of Quality which 
frees them from the reproach of Angu- 
larity, Thus it belongs to the courage 
and duty of the Great, to believe that 
they &re rai*>d1>y God to Withftand this 
Artifice of the -Devil, and to let the 
World know, that it is glorious to obey 
Almighty God \ to underprop by their 
Example the weaknefs of their Brethren;, 
and to confefs JESVS CHRIST 
loudly arid -openly in the fi^ht of the 
whole World, bjrpublfckly |>rofeffing 
and teadhig a Life truly Chriftian. and 
ftould they only d6 the Church this piece 
crffcrvice, yet ought they not to efteem 
AeirLifeill-implov'd, nor their quali* 

sy and condition or fmall concern. 
§: 1 2^trts but enlarging thH Prlnci^ 

pie, that t&e Great are obl%*d to 'em* 
ploy for Godallthey have receiv'd from 
him j thatthey ottghtto doe what lies' in 
their power, either by Abth&ri€yi> or Ex- 
ample ; and we (hall difebver an infinite 
nwiber of tkvbit^ peculiar to esfcb fta> 
tfc*^ : the ogMbw whereof fAakes tfcet$ 
gailey j^xtmberkti faults. And it will 

'« s :i.\J . ' not^ 

Part II. Sm^Wmtt. 185 

not be amifs to confider fbme, that are of 
more than ordinary extent. 

It is certain, as we have juft: now laid, 
that nothing is ; more fit to hifpire mo- 
defty intothofe of ar middling condition, 
than to lee Perlbns of Quality (by whom 
they fojuare their own aftions, and wftbrti 
they would by no means difpleafe) keep 
themfelves within an exadt modefty and 
decorum, as well for Apparel as other 
•Accommodations. : There ire Circtltii- 
4fcances? Where Princefles* and the WWh 
of thofe who govern Provinces, without 
any other help but that of their own Erf- 
ample, and a diflike of fuch as (hall ap- 
pear before them undecently clad ? may 
De able to free a whole City from- immd- 
deft fafluon^ N At kail they may oblige 
thofe who dependdn them to a decency i 
and their example will n<k 'fail to Work 
powerfully on others who. have no fuch 
dependance. Thus they will be able to 
hinder many fins occasioned in Women 
and Men by this difofder. NOW if ttoefc 
can teingthb about, it is unqnefttotiabfe 
that they ought ; and that they are notod- 
ly oblig'dto a decent modefty by a. duty 
common to them aud other Chriftian 
Women, but alfo by a more peculiar 
ope, fpringingfnmuheirflate r «Hd q&- 
■<i ..: Uty v 

dring many fins 9m cUfcrdtar^ iB$a&s 
po Uhera aj; the fame tuae aft obligation 
ojf doH^g^t picoyprttaft t» their ppwef. 
For at tbsr* if a% donbg, bat that, that 
Man, «&& ^f«ye the tiro ?f maty? fey 
debarring hiwfaf ojf fcpra flight r«cw- 
ation, would he a Mardewr, Owdd lie 
prefer that trifle before the ftfoeg of 
theft i foit k, yet; wore eerta»» that 
<pwld one prfi^ve many Sogfc &oat & 
JjpriCaa} death by ftppepoe pra$j&,~ 
fAerggntQ be j& other wfe obliged by the 
iaw of Go4 by few qwditwiP^ im tfae 
fbc* God bach charged feia> w'ulfcjk \t 
«a*pot be o$ni<ttedi by ton,, wtrttwrt 1» 

»»§& feme*, teen jrdferVdr fcettfwfc- 
paqies fey abekayi««r t$u&> £Mftta&. 
fc.ta-i.TWft dteadtM «*nfapenfle 
«Mke»k ylak, what %ftra8ge.4tflwej« 
.ftottriwfr tftadtfitoaa. of Rfowcteatt » 
*ftieW Mhif^ DHtmrdi^ appear the 
Aooe., F«r,inde«eftq£ la Appaae* fe ia a 
JffiooMt <tf i ton ^naiky frtt % ffifctbtt 
beats pro|>wtic« tottaviifttfcy tint a*» 
cwtjpawsic and thc&asda* it $i*et W 
femefcw. JB»t this fame aotton of V* 
ftjfy sacking Perfoat <rf Quality* who are 
-tte EsimpkaadIUkofotbar>jtoap^ 


*** mmmm »*? 

gcfpiaag^Jbtthat wounds Modefty, is 
*;pti#ck |ppr^?iticfli gf Vies, a SemT- 

zing, tin. ,E<ir the, wampfeoTtfiefePejc:- 
lon* is, $ Jiving iaw r wdbicfr has muctt 
wore fwce^ndjjoworvover the WorW, 
thw all the other laws and Ordiaaaces 
that are found written in Books. Thp^ 
'ttaqgh c6n%yqi<;e^are not coofider 7 d, 
>i4|hat th? pities offeridiqg are or^lv 
farriedon wrth * flight jpubit of 

fee than ; yet ihallthey be aftc 
when at the day *f Jadgmex* t& w , x _ 
fipdifeemiaves l^idenM wkb the exum 
Qfamotlfr^f Pzopfa whom thsyfbafl 

an obligation of letting tnei$isee by up 
-/Wft^^uff tsaflople; «F a ino&lL bsha- 

nples* Soy«raiga Lords -flMhjjBr 

ftict to #ofe who aceivkler thetp* Ipi 

Gfj#e# they ft* over them* do butii£- 

jtfy tatHjPfcpe,, aa4 4ft what; tbe|r t them- 

iffives <wghc >to.4fe- WW. it J8weh- 

.♦ 4 "M. 

18$ £>f tftatttemr. Part it. 

* » 

• ... 

They are ' therefore oblig'd in their 
choice toprefeff ftrch as may be ihe 
beft able to ptrforfn that duty. ' Wow: if 
Out of any humane ronfidefatiorv . negli- 
gence, or prcffptQ, of fbme little i&tereflL 
theiy chufe thofe that are unfit, brat leafr 
inch as are lefs capable^ all the faileurs of 
thefeOfficersfhall be laid to thpir charge, 
they fhall be gullqr ofatt' the* infojhce 
ddneby them, and^oflaB the Sfforders 
thaf ftiall happen' through tiieif ftujfc. A 
ippvptous Juagb ijiay;ruine a whpte Fa- 
mily j mifery may engage this poor Fa- 
mily in a thoufand crimes ; it is not to 
be queftion'd, but afl theft lhall fall on 
the\Chief Lord, if he out of 'negKgerice 

ftrvM better. 
" S- 1 S.The received Laws of a Kingdom 
giye the Supreme Lord poiwer, to reqrefe 
'a number ofdH&fdersi as to pat dbwn 
Ordinaries, and places where ."Hays 6f 
cft^nte and hazarcf are us*d, to forbid 
Balli tod Dancings on Feftival daytt, 
With many others of like nature : A4m& 
obferVing of fuch regulations would ba- 
irilh a thouland difbrders ; whoever 
'tea introduce or iJfcintaibtfiefe,' ,a*e 
ihereunto indifpcnfibiy obliged, and 
>> great 

Part II, .$H $r*t$efgfc *** 

great Lords may do, this, when they . are 
authorize ; and . backt by tjie. La w of 
the Kingdom Thuj whgatjhcy do nof 
(amply with |hfe obligation, when they 
do not watch over their Officers, nor 
maintain! them in their rights ; ^hen 
they chnfe fuch asare corrupt, unlit, an^ 
Weak, withoutjzeal or vigpur T the/ have 
great jopk opt themfelves a$ 
gnilt^Wo^ AiHiighty Gpd pfafi, tHp 

they ought tQ haveftf- 

g. 1 4, iThis multitude q£fins $at;tte 
<Qr»t jmiato, .by bsipg (b§urerS in! the 

JWpieK'd^^ infinitely yet^e^.mniai;- 
^fcirs EtoJ&ia#ieak . wheFe^h P'rme& 
AKeefttrufted^, either by nominating to' 
jfcveral; Benefice?; aadQires. of Souls, or 
ba the fbUicka*ions v tjhey make to have. 

.A* ill ftiftoqr fc;ctej^b]fc x wj# l ,ajj. ,thfe 

fttnl^s/j.^mjtcei by c o$ch" ,.))* 
f R««ttsi.<»«the,ini:pl9yes, yit|t all. the 
. fcahdaU thsy caule , . with . all the tins pf 
,tne ^People, which bemighj;, hav'&.hiij- 

ti&^XtetM. jfcjfeir, ,fc«$7a#,.atje 
,«%WWtc fi d ) i A a Xc^^^areMtchir- 

^abfecjft-a.peghseAtjfM #gicM,£a- 
tt ftpri.s 3 ..^iWf ^fiu^^^tbe ^People ate 

1 ' •• • • • » r ,^ 

i 9 t MWiliM^ rt*e*f, 

and vAoare lb ferftwti gtttdfag ^tt«* 
fa the rtay <* Salvation, tbataKy yUB 
Hi. and, by their e**i»plei *jaw «>*»* 

« iS.i wtmId«6<3od dtttlfc'Qtwi 
tow, utow**^ '*»%[**«'¥ 

if dtmninr* n*tfa»*^*™* W 

-juMW-tk People tomtiihtM^ ««-**#• 

•jWe i*» ^&/w*4*« ows Sort «ty 
;Sea 3 Mm **gl* tb»M» M«pe#,**» 

jttp&tod to the Ifeftw*^ fewh ttc fens 
4$ the 'we stadthe other ftafel be^harg^ 
Oft the Patrons who have Thrfefentefl, 
«r by tiunm- have got them Notni- 

>§.a?jc lf«te(5dve* , iMmroflbffl«itBK 
portaati Pefo hating 'from the Ring :* 
motto chufe filch Meriottr Office^ 

V' "" p^m 


to ^Perfons of vatour; and tonfidering 
hi4iis dofee only the Sefrict eif hk 
Klng,4houk(bH thec6*rtrtfr? teg^ra*«- 
ly his proper tetereftj una fb £dm<* 
Peopto with^irf ^ pittite apdxotfr^ 
futhas would deliverthttnfelve* fothfc 
Enti&y v who can queftion^ but that tht 
King woald look on this Gfovetnbur as 
& ifi&chesoas Servant? But with fta#r 
rntio^ iriore jcrftice will God Alrai^ity 
condemn tho&y wfibfeXJhargc beu&tO 
fifpply PiftpraPCritts, that V tojftttfc 
«jO*srnonrs and Heads 6y<r Cftrifftansr, 
tt> free them from itie aflaults of the 
Devil,andtocondtra them tor Hea^en^ 
wtttfft them iii the tenkb* of fficfy as 
tew* no ekperietk* ih tffis Spfrittial 
toarfitt^' Which they afreWtf^againft 


*9k ®f&Wfo 

> 1* 

i. 19. Although 4ie proraptio 
Benefices, that 4iave not the. aire 
Souls annext* draws not , after it fo great 
and fo dreadfu} confluences ; yet ought 
we not to fancy, that foch may be di- 
fposM of according to humour, and for 
other motives, befides thole of the Ser- 
vice p£jGod. They are. always; goods; 
confpcrated to God, and fet afide to 
maintain thofe, that fhquld really ferve 
th$ Ghurch, and who ought to lead a 
Life iiii table to their Vocation ^andcbn- 
ieqwntly when tiaey, are either given or 

ErocurM for fuch. as are perfetJUy feat* 
r ip . tfipir way q| aivi%g, ;^nd wfefldy 
leek after them tafafisfj5 tMrluftsv to 

Erbeurc diyertifepients^ ^ and ; to load a 
ife not at all becoming a Clergy-man's 
cplejfcvr all themmef cpipfllif $fld in the 
m^p^tion p^hefego^l^^fall on 
Mofej ; wjijv •£?]$ .cfeflftn fuch for thei* 

iq comply withVcm did even know : what 
t%y^Gbligtt,^ ^ ■; .'* 

rjedn&s jliele guci^ers : if fi^rt^f r • wc 
i * " l ' ~ banilh 

Part ii» 4>f <£ran&etfr. 193 

baniih by their Authority, words, and 
examples prodigality, blafphemy, de- 
baucheries, play, libertinage, and a 
number of other caufes of diforders and 
fins} and if wefquare all this according 
to thefe two Principles, That Men in 
Power are oblig'd to do what they can* 
and that the Oniiflion of thefe devoirs 
makes them guilty of what mifchief fo- 
ever they might have hinckr'd, we may 
frame fome tolerable Idea of the ftu- 
pendious dangers that attend Great- 

§. 2 1 . This heavy burden bf fins, 
wherewith Great ones at unaware and 
without their own knowledge load them* 
felves,is not j>erceiv'd during l;ife. They 
are ftuon'd with thenoife and hurry that 

# is always about them, and outward ob~ 

# jefts, which take them from themfelves > 
will not permit them to fee them. 
They may be refemblM to Mountains 
hanging over their heads, fuftainM as 
yet byGod's mercy,to give them leave to 
recoiled and repent. But at the hour 
of their fteath, thefe Mountains fhall 
fall fuddenly upon them, and all obje&s, 
wherewith before they werer taken up, 
vanifhiqg out of fight, they (ball only 
find themfelves encompafs'd ^bout with. 

K an 

. > 

IJ4 MttftNfeOfc- Pa* II; 

an army i of People who ihall upbraid 
the*V either) with injofticedont, or with 
crimes wherettftta ttey have been drawn 
by thrill ufe they madeof their Dignity 

§.J»2 Bit wham? yet more terrible 
intlwGoaditteri'of otjr Grat ones, is 9 
Thattxfag obligM ;by their Condition ^ 
to alltbefe dutic^ it* at the ftffite^ time 1 
pt»m~ahittte*^^ and' 

win RBOWHv iPoiB^ perwmnjaig tMaS^ 
T4*^ery r teJfewh€«on timr CoflditiW 
is built) is, that they belong not to then***- 
ftlttfi, but to tteir People : That thtir 

Gnudemr and Attft&ritf was^ nw be* 
iha#& (*##hem, ttat .they nrighrefl^ 
aatdukepleaftreiath^ tattftlfc'wttl 
ftr the good of thofe, wtoy areplac'd^ 

Buchd^dlfficultanJaCter is k to find . 
rooHrfo? theft fehdments in the heart 
of one born ifrthfe throng of RltiRs and 
Honours? Man corrupted by fin has a 
fecret inclination to feek all things for 
Kimftlf; to make hiffifttf the center of • 
all : It is a Natural Tyranny fin has plant- 
ed in the* very ' d«pth of Man's heart. 
Kffonsof low Condition- canndt eafilf 
come to exercife this Tyranny, becauie 
others* will not give place thereunto 


Part II. j&l <Bfr9ttBttft% 19$ 

They continually learn from others 
thwarting their defires, that others were 
not made to ferve them. It happens 
otherwife with Perfons of Quality, par- 
ticularly with thofe, who are borniucK. 
This kind ofGreatnefe lets them feeirora 
their very Infancy, that all the World 
is accuftbmM to yield to them and follow 
their humours : Hfence they, infenfibly be- 
gin to think that.thofe who ufe f6 much 
lubjeftion and refjpedt towards them, 
were only born for their fike, and' came 
but into the Wbrld to contribute tw 
wards their Plfealures and" Grandeur. 
Thus they imagine that they have no 
more to do than to enjoy this Greatnefe 
of theirs* to endfcavour its increafe by 
becoming yet more powerful and great; 
and. that the Inferior fort of Men are 
only plac'd here to ferve as inftruments 
to bring thefe their ends about. They 
fancy to themftlves, that the onely bufi- 
nefs of their Life is to prelerve their 
Families) and make them nourifh by fet- 
ting all their dependents on work for 
this end: And it altooft never comes 
into their thoughts* that both they and 
their Families are on the. contrary by 
God's order and decree defigtfd onely 
to ferve and help thofe r who are under 
their command. K2 §.23. 

\96 ®t<&taxtotut. Rut n. 

$.23. Thus we, for the molt part, 
fee, that the Great, who are] given to; 
Vices incident to their high Station, are 
fo totally taken up with their own 
Grandeur, and their thoughts fo per- 
fectly employ M about themfelves, that 
they fcarce ever think of doing any good 
turk gratis. They are as great niggards 
of their Recommendations, as oftheir 
goods, left the favours obtainM for 
Others, fhould be plac'd to account a- 
mongft thole they hope to procure for 
themfelves. Hence it comes, that their 
molt intimate Friends dare not beg their 
Favours, even for their own concerns, 
without they have deferv'd it by their 
effeftual Service;, and that it be rather 
a recompenfe for what's paft, than a 
new grace. Thus they truly drive a 
trade, and fell their words and credit j 
* and one may fty, without doing them 
any injury, that they are but Merchants 
trafficking in a more elevated way. 

§.24. The knowledge of thofe other 
truths, which are neceflary to teach them 
how to comply with their devoirs, is ho 
lefs difficult to be gotten. They have 
a natural averfion from them all, be- 
cause they incommode them in the pur- 
suit of their paffions. They are like 


Part IF. ®«&tmUUV. J97 

fo many fetters abridging their Liberty, 
diftarbing their Pleasures, and making 
their Grandeur almoft ufelefs. Thus 
the corruption of their hearts keeps 
them at diftance from thefe Truths, 
whilft this fame corruption is fortifyM 
by all the objetts that furroiind them. 
Every one knows, they do not love that 
Truth which would bring them to be low 
and humble, whereas they are pleasM 
with flattering lies : And thus every one 
out-vies his Fellow in cheating and de- 
ceiving them, for every one loves him- 
felf more than he loves them. 

§. 25. Intercit gives iacreafe to our d:- 
fire of plealing, and fear makesus avcii 
difpleaRng of them, and this as thofeto 
whom we fpeak are more or Jefs able to 
ferveand hurt us,that is, as their Quality 
is lefs or greater. Hence it is evident, 
That every degree of Grandeur is a hin- 
drance to Truth, and to defire to be 
Great is to defire that Truth fhould find 
a more difficult accefs unto us. 

§. if. Concupifcence alone is not that 
which hides Truth from the Great, Pru- 
dence it felf is often oblig'd to do this, 
or at leaf): foto moderate and temper it, 
that it may be proportioned to their 
weaknefs. For that continual complaf- 

K 3 * lance 

ipS £tf 4ftaiMtt Part It. 

lance of thofe who environ theft) having 
bred in their Souls a cer tain delicatenefs, 
has alio made them uncapable of feeing 
Truth in its nakM purity and force. 
There's therefore a neceffity, it fhouM 
be fhewn them by parts j they muft have 
a glimpfe, not a foil fight of things. 
Some times to the Vulgar our difcourfe 
isfincereandopehi but who dare fpeak 
thus to the great, at lead if they do not 
feem to defire it ' Truth fbme times 
finds out thofe that are low and little, it 
may acco(t them without being calPd om, 
but thole who are high and Great ought 
to be diligent themfclves in looking af- 
ter it : Thty ought to go before and meet 
it, if they have a mind to find it here in 
this World. 

§.27. But if they befo happy as to 
know thefe many devoirs, and to Tee 
through thofe exterior and interior 
mills that encompafs them \ 1 mean thole 
which both rife from themfelves and 
from the malice, artifices, and gaflions 
of others^ yet what difficulties will they 
not meet in performing of them? what 
means to withstand fo many unjuft de- 
fires, feconded by their own uqjuft paf- 
fions ? Ifvfo* example theyte^nfriwwi 


%99 4* m*muv. PmM. 

it is fafer from Troth, that this 'right 
(hould either be to them pleafkigor 
advantageous, that it will lie on them 
;as;atnaft insupportable burden, ^hey 
. rnaft give flat denials to ill fuchas would 
think themftlves dbligM* to them . by the 
/donation, and muft go and find out' fome 
. others who would think they^ncur no 
obligacion, becatafe they look on fuch 
iDignities as on 'Charges dangerous'to 
their Gonfriences. Theymuft not pkk 
out^fu ch as make their* Sour t, anddance^ 
attendance in |i©pestaobtsain them ; but 
'foch, as they are -net : aGgaamted wkhv 
'btttifuch^stlteyiknowflet^ -and -Who lye 
private, Arpfear 6pMfeiik$tn. ^Ne- 
ver wo wd our Gi&ndees fctkko %e ; Pa- 
XtotiSy werethey never to nominate but 
, oothefe conditions \ and-yet^fchefe con- 
idhiousar^roquired to make their pre- 
jfcntatioHgilav^L : 

&&^h6&&ter diffictftfes wfckh 

i^ring&Mjitbe Qtaditiort'dfthe Great, 

-andutfitoh ilead ifehefti ^rfbay out j .of ^the 

* waiyi ofl V^arteeafldSfliFaiieo, > are >nd Wfs 

vififrfe ia refpt a ^&e common duties 

- «f fCfarfftiafiity^ jtftoramto they i are no 

fefso6l^>tite>oihe^. ^Por they craght 

flto^oafiBtr^ they 

^tSfcttoK lb lie ftfcttv <&3e*oir$ -proper 

K 4 to 

iTt r ' 

1 h . 

200 4>f <&tattteUt% Part II. 

to their condition does not free them 
from thofe others, which, with their con- 
fluences, belong to the common condi- 
tion of all Mankind. They are Men,and 
Sinners, that is, full of corruption, 
mifery, darknefs, and inward fores. 
Thefe they ought to know ; thefe they 
ought to cure. They are proud, they 
muft humble themfeives : they are given 
to ]>leafures, they have need of morti- 
fication J they are tyM to the WorId,and 
its riches, they muft be loofen'd and fet 
free. They wander out of themfelves, 
their thoughts are all diflipated •, they 
muft be recolleded and brought home. 
The ordinary Remedy to cure thefe Ma- 
ladies, is to deprive ones fclf of what 
caufes and nounlhes them. But their 
condition and quality allows not of this j 
They can neither quit their riches, their 
honours, nor the ftate they live in. 
They are not in a condition to pradife 
mortification, and . recolledion , much 
lefs, a thoufend occafiQn* draw them a- 
broad. Yet, not withftamjtag all thh, a 
Cure muft be wrought, or they petifc : 
And fince that cannot be had by ti» ordi- 
nary means, extraordinary?qfts mnft be 
try'dy and Juch as ar$ miraculous,' even 
in the order of Grace. Tfeey r uifift be 



tfart II. WWaWmtl 20 r 

humble amongft their honours ; poor 
in their riches ; and fully pcrftoaded of 
their mifery, whillt they appear fb fop-; 
tunate. And thus as others, by exterior 
exercifes, dp bear up the weaknefs of 
their fouls and vertues -, it is on the con- 
trary neceflary, that the Great, by the 
ftrengthofboththefe, overcome all ex- 
terior Obftacles. 1 

$, 29. The Great cannot be in that 
right dilpofition, which God exads and 
Reafon requires they fliould, if they do 
not confider themfelves intnree different 
ftates,.or orders. The firft is exterior, 
the fecond natural, the third interior 
depending on their vertues. According 
to the exterior order, they are Great a- 
bove others i according to the natural, 
they are perfectly equal - 7 but accordin! 
to the interior they are obliged, througl 
humility, to place themfelves beneath 
all. The fentiments riling from thefe 
three orders ought to agree and fubfift 
together : And they are oblig'd,that they, 
may conferve exterior prder,to keep the 
rank and place, which belongs to them 
according to the World ^ yet ought fh£y 
for all that, to acknowledge themfelves 
perfeftly equal to the reft of Mankind \ 
wjiich will make them,- towards othew, 


feries : iiaj^tbeyiajpe not hereby dUpen^l 
from ^kdovfl^gjuig) that perhaps iftsir 
fins, and imierfedions make them to be 
cfte^ and his Aogels, as fte 
laft of ^U Mea. Thefe featimente are 
juft and aeceffary,, becaufe they are con- 
formable to their sedition • twt how 
hard is it to nuke them .together ? So 
that it often happens, that the ftate of 
Greatnefs mates «iem almoft forget they 
are Men, and more, that they are Sin- 
ners. They only meafure thcmfelves by 
theexterior order, by their Riches* No- 
bility* and Offices ; nprdo they look on 
the reft ofMen, but J>y that degree of 
Inferiority wherein they are plac'd be- 
neath 'em. This is an iilufion, as it 
were, naturally bred up with Grcatnefs* 
and wbkh cannot be diffipated, but by 
an extraordinary grace* which forces 
them to retire into themfelres, at the 
feme time they are with Jo much, vio- 
lence drawn abroad. 

§• 3©, How is it polCble to be be-fct 
with riches and honours, and yet to al- 
low ones felf nothing from them , to 
lpokonthem, as not belonging to ones 
felf, but only as things ufeful for the 
(lace, God has put us in ? if the Great 


more fftflfen i JthaniR#^ <Qwwjp- 

ftem* wakes ti^^jiow thtfe ridHS, 

,tWe fpfepdpr^tftftii tfcefe jptaftifls; 

We fioofitmtly ^9Qe^Bd ihew ilfcwi. 

,*hew*i yctfre^iw^j^id to&ctiwe, , 

Who r^^ (ays tfce»Scripl»H;, #o,$an 
handle Pitch and cot be d^61 7 d ? &ms 

ficm Hmget & mw yfpqmtmti&r r¥& ,€# ? 
Who can drink of this delicious Wipe 
without exeefe? Rc^on alone ^nfwers . 
tba tit is jmpoffiblc. ||ut lf^ii«toUs.p$ 
another ftory : All tlrag* arej^fljb|e f to 

$. § i,, If thefe difficufti^s 3«c xgrs*t t 
even to thoie^.who, through ag^ and ox- 
porience, have learnt the v^qity and the 
nothingnefs of the Worlds and of what- . 
foever flatters the mind and feqffs, and * ' 
who having tailed the ijail that's tnip* 
gPd in all the fweets it affords, may have 
wme difguft for the-World * what ihall : 

;*re)6y:Qf/i*ch>a^bsginbiit t,o relifti ;ips 
ptetfhre, $pd who -know j^thi ng of the 

j iwifertes aitet infepar*bly - aucndthem : : 

duties s. 3 

xo 4 Wmttttft -IfttflL 

dudesof<ifirtft^t^ ^ a Ok>« #b- 
fpc& tbrtanfs £he dangers bf- pkafofe .• 
who hayfettreirWferts hid wi^le ^eri' to 
the.ckjetts erf fettfe, ' -which are apt to 
purchafe the efteem of Men •• Whopleafe 
theWorld,and whomthe World is pkas'd 
withal ; who ate drawn to vice by a 
thonfand temptations r both exterior and 
interior £ and who muft encounter and 
give battle at the feme time to the molt 
violent onftts of their own corruption^ 
the moft attraftive charms of the World,, 
and the nurft dangerous Artifices of the 

$. 32. Search all dangers, which, here 

in this World, occur of lofing our tem- 
poral Life,* there is fcarce any, that may 
not ferve as a reprefentation of that, a 
young Prince is in of lofing his Soul, who 
goes to Court handfome in Body, - and a- 

freeable in the difpofitions of his mind ; 
ut withal, carries thither a fmall know- 
ledge of Chriftian duties, and a ftrong 
inclination to pleafures. The danger of 
him who ventures on an E*ft<rln&a Voy- 
age in a poor Filher-Boat, without Helm, 
qr Pilot •, the danger of one who foould 
enter a Town,or Houfe where the Plague 
rag'd, there to live amongft the dead and 
infefted Carcaffes^ that of a Sobldier 



r #atf<ttng tfoefhot xrf & whole Anriy,: is 

c^btfeiilg^ comparM.tb jtte danger 6f this 
^tiftg Prince, wkxisthe Mark whereat 

I welerelPd ail tte Darts of the World 
and Devils •, and who is not only fought 
after by Death, bat who even leeks his 
own death and mine. There's only a 
God^ff ho can, by his alkmitatulous pro- 

' te&ion^free him from chisdanger,by put- 
tirig by theft Darts, and hindring kit 
Ac hhnfelf ufe them to his own deftru- 

$.33. As the Life of Religious Men 
ss a Life framed and found out by Holy 
Men as a means to arrive with more eare 
at Heaven \ lb one may fay, that the Life 
which the Gratideesumally lead at Court 
is a Life contrived to leadMen with Htodh 
eafe to Hell. We need but toinfift a lit- 
tle on theComparifon,to be fati$fi'd,that 
'tis exact. The eafie meians>that Saints 
Ime found out fot thofe who live in 
well-Govern'd Monafterks,to go td Hea- 
ven by, confiftsin that they have,as fcuch 
as they could, (hut all the Gates againft 
the Devil, and laid ill thofe open where- 
at Grace might enter. Tbef have baniftit 

.pkafllres By auffittfrie^Jiricbes by i)o- 
-V(p-ty v idlenefs by labour, pride by ohe- 

- dfejice and humility. They have obAig'd 


ap* lapptyMlMen to attdtag r at»W» 

Truth and Grace : They tore ,mdpa- 
vour'd foto dtfpofe pf all> that $U/houId 
lead towards God, and afaoIUh tteSpkit 
df;the World. 
A Courtier's Life isframM after the 

r Ameftfodel, but for an end quite difle- 

'" )iQcpt« It has been obferv'd, thatSinJiath 
Jbund entrance inter Souls through idle- 
vieis, di^erttfements, afreecamieriati- 
an betwixt Men and Women ? through 
mil difcourfe, principles of Iibertifiage > 
intereft ganger, rerenge , ambition, and 
-what eke Jo*eror ftirs up paffion , A " 
Courtier's Life is fo contnvM , that all 
thefe are its Ingredients. It has been 
ibrther obfervM, that what carries us to- 
awards God.> and inclines us to enter in- 
taour felves, is , recollection, reading, 
prayer, good example,, profitable and 
kwful employments j and thefe are per- 
ffeaiyr banilht fixmGotirt: 

$. 34. What r therefore, opght. the 
Great to do toflielter tbemfelves fe«n 
this danger ? thai 1 they bertakgthenifelKes 
'to this kindxiflLifej? .Jtffr; i6*tey do, . 

-fl|ey Are a3ttadplaft^fca^Ungthtasiq7 


r >t^nfioiPtJEfib^giiav^diiaiA life of Mb- 

i i; 066, , 

pt&o stfwtifemtnt* play v and paffian. 
Shall thsy endeavour jto iife lome^acd*- 
tafien^ -aad to give ;fomthii}g .to, tip 
World , without delivering themfelves 
totally up to it ? But, will the World he 
faiisfi'd with this lhare, will it not look 
on them as ridiculous ? A thoufend oc- 
cafions .therefore -will offer thepifelves* 
wherein the World muft be crofiM xdjSl 
Xhwarted ; audio do this, great courage 
is required. Now let thele difficulties pet 
as,greht as they will v yet muft our Men of 
Qpality refolve to overcome'em , if they 
remain inthe World ; .fince there is none 
fo^great, which ought not to give place 
Xo the danger of being eternally loft ; 
iov^TertuBian fa^ys^ QHMHmfoncceffitat 

minor eft tanto periculo compardta. 

§. 35. By this, it is made evidential 
the condition of the Great, is, in Chrifti- 
ans,aftate of violence *, and that it is con- 
trary to the firft inftindt the Spirit of God 
inipires into thole Souls which he touch- 
es. For his is an inftinft of fear incli- 
ning us to fly all temptations-; an inftinfr 
of hatred and averfion from the obje&s 
.of Concupifcence ; it is an inftmftpref- 
ling us forward to. imitate the XHe op 
;bleued Saviour led on JEarth, which w?s 
% outward lhew quite . contrary xpibpk 
of Men in Power ♦ And as thisiriftindt 

* ' " remains 

t«8 $f 6f*ifc8ft Part If. 

remains in the Great,when they are truly 
Chriftians-, fo of neceffityit muft raife 
in them an interior war and oppofition 
againft the flaveries they are obliged to 
by their call, and make them cry with 
Job^ Quare data eft miferis lax, & vita his 
qai in amantadine funt ? How comes it to 
pafs, O Ltord, that a Soul ftruck through 
with the fentiment of its own abjedtion 
and mifery, muft yet appear in iplendor 
ind honour - 9 and that fhe muftfc^i/ivi- 
ron'd with a number of People-perivra- 
ding her that (he's happy ? Why muft 
fee command others, who ought, her felf 
to be fubjed to all ? Why fhould (he en- 
joy the pleafures of the World ; ftte 
who ought to bebury'din the bitternefs 
of Penance ? 

§. 36, There is almoft no Chriftian 
vertue, to which Grandeur is not fbme 
waysopposM, and from which it does 
not eftrange us^ It is oppofite to the 
'. Spirit of Faith, fince Faith does take our 
[ thoughts from what's prefent and vi- 
fible, to make us adhere to what*s invi- 
fible and eternal : Grandeur on thecoil- ' 
,;trary fattens us to things vifible and 
''temporal, whilft it brings them near to 
.. us, forces us to fee and feel them in 
; what they hare of moft iplendid and de- 
licious. "" It- 

Pare II. m <ff¥8lfte!Jti 109 

It is contrary to Chriftian Hope, be- 
caufe this Vertue makes us place all our 
confidence and truft in God alone j 
whereas Greatnefs inclines us to con- 
fide and truft to our riches? according as 
the Wife-man / fays ^ The Fortrefsofthe 
Rich, that is to fay, his fupport, and the 
objed of his hope? conflfts in his riches: 
. Subftjurtia Divitis whs fortitudinis ejus. 
Hence it is, that St. Paul fo particularly 

- recommends to thole who are rich in the 
World, that they put not their truft in 
the uncertainty oftheir wealth: neqm 
jperare in incerto Jfioitiarum : Knowing 
full well, that that was the bent and in- 
clination riches would give them. 

It is contrary to the Spirit of Charity, 
becaufe Charity regards not itfelf, but is 
all for others: whereas the inftinft of 
Grandeur refers all things to it felf. 

- It is contrary to the Spirit of Recol- 
lection, by that continual didipation it is 
ingag'dia: to the Spirit f ot^ Penance> 

: by tjie pleaftres it affords : to the Spirit 
of Povettjiy by the plenty of all things 
which attend it : to the -Spirit of Humi- 
lityV by .thofe ob'pSte of ambition and 

^priSe italwaysi^s before the Soul. : f; 

r jc^37-Ifi therefort tteocMdftiffii of 

< therGteat be fiich a$ wp tferfe pairttid ft; 


Part II. »f wttUVtflV+ 

if it be fo contrary to the firft inftinft of 
Chriftian Religion, it is evident, it may 
be under-gone when impos'd by God, 
andaccept'd ofbyfubmiffionto his will ^ 
but it cannot be willingly fought after 
without preemption and imprudence. 
•We ought to comfort our felves, that 'tis 
by God's order and will that we are pla- 
ced there, as it is onely his Grace that 
can fupport us. Wherefore the Scri- 
pture, declaring to us the fentiments we 
ought to have of our felves, tells as, that 
we muft not demand of God great QSi- 
ees or Employments, Afrii*p*tm ni %Bo- 
mm jLbic*$#m y m*pe *►* . Rqc Cxthedntm 
honoris. It warns us, not to expofe .cow: 
fault* to theteyewrf thePeople,by under- 
taking !to .govern them -' ,N*n pieces (in 
nHlHtudine Civttfitis , m^t^immttasm 

§•38- Butthofe^hQifiid4thcinfelves 
^QgagM % God^s Otder^ foug&trrotifiir 
jail this to Jfifeceutage^ iGod jrapfcwith 
Jteifiuaejeafe p^etb<> h^ 07CT cA^ igr^t 
difficulJtes, ^ihe^ews the.littte. iHe> 
»:tkc7Sofpt»reiayes > : 
*$ wilhicw , ^atfth immi»rahlc/Ar^ 
eesttfoportioaW to laH.c^ine^But 
$0 mm: thtft ^ofwrtfiiaAic Gratit 


Part II. . 0| HftaMttffc an 

itisrequir'd^that the Great know the 

.greatnefs of their wants; as alfo that the 

ordinary ones will not fuffice them. 

5- 39- That ordinary common Faith t 

k that fuffices to take from one of a middle 

k Condition the afiedtions he has for the 

little Wealth hepofleffes, is not fuffici- 

ent to take from a Noble Man, or Prince* 

that which muft needs be raisM by the 

Smpreflion of fo maiw obje&s, which 

they continually have before their eyes. 

They mull: have a molt lively, adli ve* and 

enlightened Faith to put out^ll the falfe 

lultr es of wordly goods, and to make 

them fee their nothingnefs and vanity. 

They in like manner have need of a moll 

ftrong and folid hope, not to be fhaken 

by thole great ftorms whereunto they^ 

are expos*d r "ia hope that may witfr 

ftand allthe winds and tempefts of this 


§. 40, But above all, they have need of 

a Charity and Gourde extraordinary* 

and which in foipe fort comes near to 

that of Marty rs^ .fince it ought to make 

them alwayes ready to iofewhatfoew 

they have»for jtfie intsreft of Juftice «tf 

.good of their Nei&hbpur. Thofe whflB 

•Cod keeps low ip ,obfc»rity >*re xu>t<&r 

4pos?d to thefegro&<$i»<& jtf itafwg i*» 

" ther 

*it €>f (Btattifcttr* Part II. 

ther all they have in this World, or 
God in the next. But the Great are con- 
tinually exposM thereunto,and fb ought 
to be alwayes prcparM. Their For- 
tunes and Grandeur ought to be fatten-, 
ed to nothing *, they ought continually 
to carry them in their hands, expecting 
when God fhall offer an occafion of part- 
ing with them for his Service, 

It is true, that Great Men, who would 
keep home, and live on their own Lands, 
without afpiring to any Office or Em- 
ployment, may (hun many of thefe incom- 
veniencies : and this makes it appear ,that 
the condition their Enemies would pro- 
cure them is thehappieft they can have, 
. and that the careues and fmiles of the 
World arc the greateft misfortunes that 
can befall them. 

; $.4 1 .If it were evident, what thefe xle- 
voirs of Great ones werejt would not be 
a matter of much difficulty to accompliih 
them by a firm refolution once for aH, 
erf utterly forfaking the World, nor 
would this be hard to do. But the dif- 
ficulty confifts, in that they are often 
twyillto be known. We may throw 
*#ay out Wealth and Greatnefe for 
God's intereft; but we rauft not do it 
fafltfy out of an humour, when God re- 

part ii. 0)f (Bratfcetit* %i 3 

quires no fuch thing at our hand. Many 
things mult; be born with, that we may 
referve our (elves for greater matters. 
Chriltian condefcendence is no lefs a 
Vertue than zeal ^and refolution. Cow- 
ardice > which makes us betray Juftice, 
mult; be Ihunn'd j as mult alio a certain 
humane generality which leeks dangers, 
without hope of advantage. Nothing 
is more difficult than to diftinguilh be- . 
twixt thefe two : For alwayes under pre-, 
text of Coiidefcenfion, we permit Jiucicfc 
to be oppreft , and if we will fuffer no- . 
thing , we become, within a very little, 
ufelefs. Something therefore muft be 
tolerated, but not all. But who can 
find out that golden-mean , that Ratio* 
rial moderation > which here ought to be 
obfervM ? This cannot be done with- 
. out great Light and Knowledge , nor 
this obtainM without ardent prayers * 
no more than the ftrength and courage 
neceflary to put in execution what they 
dictate. So that in fome fort we may 
fey of the Great , what St. Gregory faid 
of the Pallors of the Church , That they 
ought to be the molt eminent in Adtion, 
and the molt elevated in Contempla- 

$. 42. That degre of patience, which 



xnf pP&mfiXUf. Part ir 

the Great ffendinneedcrf, tafufffer the 
acddents, whereuntt). their Condition ex=- 
pofes them , . is alio much greater than 
rthat is neceflaiy to die common fort*} 
and one may fay^ they mnft needfc fhrink 
under them, if they be not mores patient 
than the reft of Men. Cuftom has made 
theirSottls more xldtcate and" tender than 
other Mens are ^ and yet neverthelefs 
tfecy are more exposM to great difgraces* . 
whidr are alwayes obvious* and: there's 
a- thoolimd ways of offending them. It 
often happens that a great: Favoorfte 
trites' pleafure in hamtSing thofe who 
by Birth andMfcit fhould Der tah?d a- 
bbte him * nothing qucftionleft is more 
faedting* and touches itr muchthe quick, . 
as v tKis ufage^ nothing moreiHrs up anr 
ger and" impatience. Neverthelefs all 
the remedies, force' can here fupply us 
with r are unjuft , criminal v and of fid 
conference. Patience is the only 
cure v and if this be- GHriftianand' 
hwnble, it muff needs be the efFe&ofa 
highVertue, andanextraordinarjrwif 

§v 4?. But if to^mply asoneought 
wrat thedevoirs of Grandeur, and to 
overcome all the difficulties that accom- 
pany it, fo great a lhare of Graccyfo 


- , j 

s,*5 fl)f dftWtttttr ^ ^ P artrHi 

high a degree of Vertue ~ is requirMj 
Rtafoa obliges us to conclude, That 
tbofe Per fons of Quality, who do really/ 
comply therewith^ and overcome aflthr 
occurring difficulties* mufti needs pop- 
feft thU fo eminent degree of Vertoe; 
•Tison this fcore, that Saints haveex* 
tolkdwthfuchhighpraifesthoie Great 
ofltt, who through their Piety have 1 bcem 
911 ktinourto the Church. They kn^rtB 
fdl^ell^that in this infinite line oft owp 
dotation* which ■ is ftretcbt froi*> thoor 
firft moment of our Being to ail etc** 
nfcft the diftindrens of Conditions take*> 
place only in an imperceptible aoome^ 
ttf wity Thefttort fpaceotour Uf& ana 
that inall the remainder of that infoittf 
time, there fliall'be no> other difference 
amongft Men^but that ivhich lhall fpring: 
from their Vertue and merits. But theyj 

meafiirM the Vertue 1 of the Great^ by> 
the greatnefs of thofir debacles Grace 
made them overcome; It was for this; 
reafoo, thatSt. Paulitms was during his' 
Life and after his death, fo ltadrfd' 
with praife by all the Saints of that Age, 
and that he himfelfwaspleasM fo highly* 
ttvpraife the ilhsftrious Meltxi*. whofc 
Voyage into Italy he in one of his Let* 
ters,- defcribes ia fb edifying wfbvutk 


%\6 0>f tfraufceiir. Part il 

What Elogitim has not been given the 
Emperour TbeodopHs for having done 
what a hundred t^Quland Penitents. ha$ 
dene as well as he? becaufe it. was ftp- 
pos'd,an Emperour ftood in need of a 
much greater Vertue, than others, to un- 
der-go the fame penance that they did / 
§. 44. It was not therefore out of com- 
plaifence purely humane, but taught by 
a Spiritual Light, that Holy Men have 
ownM a particular eftefcm for the Ver- 
tues of die Great. They with reafbn 
lookt on them as the Vi&oriousTrophtes 
Qf the Grace of JESVS CHRI ST. 
And in efieft, what deferves our won- 
iter more, than to fee, that God by his 
Spirit plants humility in thofe, hearty 
which are hurryM by all about them to 

Eridej that he makes his voice heard 
y them amongft the noifc and tur- 
moils of the World -, and that he pre- 
ferves them from infeftion , whillt they 
breath lb contagious an air ? What in- 
terior heat muft they needs burn with, 
not to be chilPd with that deadly cold, 
which attends a wordly Life ? There 
is fb great a diftance betwixt a Courtier's 
Life and that of a Chriftian, that we 
ought to think him a Map of ftrength 
who has performed the Voyage. If 
f tome 

piftif. £>r<ftrmttiettt% *\y\ 

fenie -time they appeiar more wearied 
than thofe who live in folitude, 'tis not • 
becaufe they are lefs vigorous, but be- 
czafc they have gone more ground. 
Thus thofe who for God's fake left tittle,' 
and who by keeping him lofe nothings 
have great reafon to humble themfelve*: 
by the Example of the G reat, and to be 
afhamM of their floth and cowardife, 
when they> {hall confider the violence 
theft are ablig'd to ufe againfb then* 
felves to overcome- all the difficulties 
which lay in their way. 

§. 45. 'Tis upon this, view, that the 
Church delights to propofe to the Com* 
Dion the Vertuesor theGrdat, as being 
of more forte to work on their minds. 
For it is certain that nothing is more fit 
to confound the Pride, Delicacy, and 
Impenitence of the Low, than the Ha- 
nility, Mortification, and Penitence op 
the Great. .iTheir Example has a $& 
culiar efficacy, and their Grandeur has 
no lefs force to infpire Vertue than to 
authorize vice. 

Every one is difposM to regard it with 

admiration , Admiration begets Love, 

and Love imitation : And thus it is but 

juft tbs Church Ihould make ufe of them 

- to dogood>as the Devil does to do miP 

L chief, 

**8? ^frtturatotHft* Paw are 

chief? and shaft w Jierhand* thep-be rin^ 
ftrmncttts of Salvation, as in Jiis they ; 
are of damnation* 

§rt$; We ought not ondy ta.havea > 
g^ttveoasttton fbfi^he>Vestnesoof ithet 
J&ctzt but it is juft aHa we pay> thtaioaa 
pM&liaft: acknowledgment whiter they i 
lurci and ; when thejr are deadL: . There i 
a*e neoc to whom; the prayers of: the*, 
Chnrch arc a more doe debt^ andiwhero/ 
thff maybeof^teatcradrantagr;:. Fori 
ifdecwding to St, ^im^w>sDo€trm&^ < 
whatlbevcr the Living do icrithci Dead / 
protest ; oqljr, *dv antagonist to thenuin 
proportion^ to what theyj merited r by; 
thek former a&ions ^ theGtfeatvrwto: 

Ltfev ddenre that : the :Cbwoh ftbukfi 
pray for rthem, with fo- trmch; the .more f 
aert, .asfhehastheimoirerea&ctaJicyci 
toobt^nthetcflfedk of her prayers cftam 
theinKr^ofcAknightyiObcL ; 



**«J» ♦ 

zl 9 

1 i < ■ T T n i n — , ■ i . . i i , * 


- •* *• m 

t~>> + 

L&tely decease -/ 

E f Inftftiftitta • of 1 ■' a ^<#*gi 
Pi-fiitt, 1 : wftdtti' orit Wnfld %#> 
ddfrdbr<t(* W$a$ ■in'% 
m<jft Iv ftkablc rt 'td i -tlft? Si_._ 
wlttrttartff- God' caBs : hir^-and'ta&flP 
pttotirto Wake? Wfa'abtetd'fiffiHl^alf* 
difa&,' add'aVdd-felfita &*£tt*i 3i wi&6ii^ 

ha^'nfctt% - had taBir" tB£* fafeff* 
P^W" *#haVoft&rb<^h&*#>t<i 
&t; TJiatihwrwas-i^thi^li^tv^i!^ 

axo w t|e Contftfon 

more willingly contributemito than that, 
were he engag'd in it .5 and that he would 
willingly fecrifice his Life to a thing of 
that importance. And .as it was his cu- 
r ftom to write -down the thoughts he had 
on the fubje&s about which his Mind 
was bufied % thole who were acquainted 
with him wejre attoniihM to Hnd nothing 
amongft the Papers he left , which did 
expreflely concern this matter \ though it 
may be faid in fome fenfc , that aU his 
notes tended that way, there being few 
Books that can more contribute to the 
fafhioning a young Prince , than that 
which is The Collection of hu Thoughts. 
Wherefore whatfoever he has writ on 
this fub jedt muft be loft , or elfe haying 
thofe Reflections pcrfe<ftly prefent to hk 
Mind , he did ragleA the committirig 
them to Paper. And as the Publick is 
an equal lofer, whether the one or the 1 
other caufe be in fault, it fell into the 
Mind of one to write down, fome fevzn 
or eight Years after 7 what he remem- . 
ber'd of a Difcourfe'' which Monfmr to a Child of great Quality, 
and whofe Mind was fo far advane'd as 
to be capable of the molt folid truths. 
Though after To long a time, he c^nnQfr . 
0y that he gives you the words Mwfkfa 
" * '■ . . J>*fU 

jAt^c^/ .raacje ufe o£ . nevertheless what 
.he tBcttfi^rdmadeTo deep'aa impreffi- 
oh on ^i$ Mind* that he could not forget 
ii;jlotbpt he canl^Torc yoo^ Yon have 
here at leaft his very Thoughts and Sen- 

. lyi Uv m^* **fr* »^ - »' «*t.-» t- ~» -• * r"» 

io JJ*&*hiw^ 
^im^theredrefling asmanyfaileottimto 
iri^hCraWkur of^it:^:kafcofhofe 
vfogrphom pi^t. .The firftis, That 
of not Jcgo^iiigfjibcmftavcs and fanty- 

ing all the goods ihcy einjoft #f rigit 
doe to them, and making (as it were) 
part t>f their Bcing^^ Hence it comes 
that the Grbt ce?tr dwifider tbem- 
jelvesin a natural equality with the pdt 

* The fecondi$, That they afie$ tt*ej* 
up with theft exterior adrant%es where- 
of they Sod thapfelir^ Millets, that they 
h^tiMre^rdt0t^ real 

aikimott dHmabkQt^itk^ amdlboc- 
verftrire to acquire them : they imagke 
that the fole Quality of bring Great de^ 
fervc$ all forts of rcfp^l, amd needs cot 
to be held tip and BMerpropt by thofe of 
Vertoc and of the Mind. 1 

^ iThe third yra^\That the Qpality of a 
iGrandee being joy nM with libertlnage 
w; - "* L 3 and 

-ngd a^ow/sr to (atisjie its hpmotjrs^avl 
Inclinations,' fir harries ; ,inany others 

# * « "* "X *•» % ~ * ~ ** /*<* V ** """1/ *"* «* 

XHaptioijs ; So that in lieu or , placing 
"thfjir CTM^eHr Ji tein^j^Yiccgulc and 
fecnenciaf to-ithen^tfiey make it conftft 
in treating them outragepnUy, and in 
abancUini^*tficaiM^^to-kl4*^iid of 
vtxceft. ••'**. - " ""- • ' 

>£Ehefeare tl*ee^tM^<* ^ere « 

-f em occffi9ns;Jte<4itM^4becDiU€omies 
.w^tfhalLhere gire l ydu» 

That you nE^ISSwa true kaantedfe 
^^W 1 *^ i<9Wfflrtl««rt* *■ 


gp>Q^lfend, y^Anhmtytsme 

fir ft he knows notjyhat to,do> Qfttat 
laft refolves pot tplbe wanting to Jus 
goodforfipe : He.gcceptsbf ajl tjie Ho- 

onttge/thcy trader Mm, : afidfufiferf him- 
ifelf to~be ttfpeflfcd as King. 

SBntm hccoolduotrfijrgctPhis fittforal 
• condition, 4at:«he. fitee* fitart&tot he tfe- 

ccivM all theft honours, hewascoitfckfts 
r.twnhimfdfcxhathe *a* fifct tfcif XBfig the' 
J.hegwefn^^lofl^dfiOttohiFn. ?FMs 
r toihad: two&tsof ihoaghttjone by whlSh 
c he aitod^s^Kiffg, another by Which he 
itoew his o^ii tttie €ortditi6n ; as alfo 
c that it *ras only chance which piae'd him 
inhere he was. Tfcefe lattkr thoughts he 
skept fecret, add difcovei*d* the other. 

OFhe firft - wertf cfiofehe treated ~ hi* Peo- 
•Jfe^witb/^ith'the latwr he'inanfeM 

* potato Ihitik it was : bfa left drante 
that Vou peffifefc the riches you'&fd ^your 
fclf Ivfefter o£ than that by which this 
^Vto^feiind'fauDftlf^^elCfaig. feyyoiir 
felf, and by jrdtir own flature, 70U hate 
"no greater right to thenvthan lie to his 
1^mgd6m; and rmt onlyyoudonot ftid 
Jofir fe^f the Son 6f a ; Duke/butybu 
do fcdt find your felf brought Ib^moch 
'Ss ttto the World, but through a num- 
ber of diinces and ha2ards. Ybor Birth 
depends on * Marriage, or rather on all 
th^Mirriagesof thofc from whom yon 

1 4 dtfeend 

*i4 tfft t$e €onUtion 

defcend. But thefe Marriages, whence 
fprung they ? from a vjfit ; made by 
chapce, a difcourfe made in the Air, 
and a thoufand other un-forfeen acei- 
. dents. . 

You hold, feyyoo, your Eftate from 
jour Anceftors : But is it not through a 
K tbqufand hazards you hare gpt, and 
kept it? Too may alio fancy that it is 
byfome Lair of Nature that this Eftate 
pafl^ fr om tbem to you : But this is not 
true. This order is only grounded on 
: the Win of thole who made Laws* who 
had good reafons for what they did ^ bat 
. of ihefe reafi>ns > not one was taken from 
■ the natural right you have to tl e~c flof- 
(Hfions. IJF it had pleasM thenuo hate 
ordain'd^that thisEttate having been en- 
joy M by your Father, during his Life, 
ibouM have reverted to the Common- 
! wealth after his Death^ you woul(l have 
. had no canfe to complain. Thus all the 
; Title you have to your Eftate is notaTl- 
tkderivMfromNanturc^ but from to- 
man Conftioations. Another mm of 
jmaginatioQ in thofe who made the Laws 
* might have made you poor $ and it is but 
afriece of chance in the Laws (which by 
Clancy ofidbdrMafcer are become fa- 
vourable to yon) tlm gives yoa right 

to all you have. I do not fay that your i 

* Eftate of right belongs not to you, or 
..that any other may take it from you: 

* for God, who is fu£r erne Lord of 4llvhas 
' given leave td Commoft-weaiths to make 

thefe allotments V and when Laws* arc 
: once eftabliffitytHey cannot juftly be vio- 
lated. And in tfeis vqu ar? iiifome little 
' diftfaguiffit from xn^t other - Man who 
*bnly enjoys his Kingdom' through the er- 
t bur of the : People ; ' for God has not 
approved and authorized fuch Poflefli- 
ons ; * on the contrary he obliges him to 
renounce the fame, whereas* he ap- 
proves of yours. But that wherein ' you 
;perfeftly agree with him, is; that your : 
.•rigRt^nb rooreriji$rtrivs not groundedoh 
anyquaKty k)T k defert of yours,,\vherebJr 
you Dcco r oi.e worthy thereof. Your Soul 
and your Bqdy, ofthemfelvcs, are indif- 
(r^ntlyrtadefor rhetondition of a Plow*- 
tftan,-a$i3 for that ofaDtike ; and there : 
;isi50 .natural tye which fattens them rai- 
£her : *tk the Precondition, than to the 

fete:^' - x * ■ t • ••• 

* Wftat fblfow* hence? that you ought 
to have;, as the Man we fpoke of, twd 
Set? of v thcughb; and if exteriorly a- 
mongftMen, you adlf according to your 
rank and quality, yoitmuft by the other 
.V • ' L ^ thoughts. • 

£boijgats>#>ois ,fea;et but ye* injwe.tGii*, 
..ackpQjpJedge, that ffatujatty jrou^fcaye 
.nptftng-aboyetfiem. ^f #our (^?miB^- 
J[^k-?h9Vg^s«ifp,ypp}a£)Qwe.^ reft ^f 

.dpvqn ^jrain, v d jseej) .yawn a : pei£«& 
je^juja^yj^h^hsfp, .t^it is, mypwwwjk 
fijafyxifd bei^g. 

„aj;e jiot acgu#iwjd Wj&jthk fcqret. T*^f 
Jptfi&tpiitiX. N.gbilky #4 real Qr*ata#«, 

jpAfeWW Ee*ftwitf Quality .asAfep 
,p/ ^aotfier -patpre- i&aa *hat of other*. 

# YPN fi&fo ?ou*W^ n# difowertp 
$*nj du?,<yTp#fj, butdo£Gtiw;n«ft>- 

fence abyfe (his^ur^jaJLt^ipn, and a- 
Jbove aJJ, do not (ni^updierft^d your fetf" 
by fanjofagyojir bejojg has foomhiflg of 
great -$ove that of cohere, 

Wliat woqid you fyof this M»i» be- 
come King by the #iftafce of J*e People* 
if he Should ^ far forget hi^pwg natn* 
raj coiiditipn, as tp think the Kiqgdoaj 
was due to him ^ tttat he deferv *d it>and 
had right to it ? you would ftand ama^ 
at hjs fattifh foolery. , But are not they 
as fcoli^u who live in fo ftrangea forget- 
fulned of their natural ftaje and being ? 

Of what importance is tjhjs advice.' 
ag th,e exceii) all 0e violence, aH tl»e 

. vanity 

of ifyt <Bmt Hi 

vanity of the Great, comes from their 
not knowing what they are : it being riot 
credible that tbofe who interiorly look 
on thernfelvefc as equal to the reft tff 
Men, anil who are perfwaded that they 
have nothing inthem that defe^es thflfe 
fmall advantages Cod has beftbwM eta 
them ?bove pthefs, taid behave :fliem- 
(elves foinfolently towards thdfr To & 
this wemijft forget our felvesr,«id bfliete 
we have fome real. efcteUenee above d- 
thers^ { wherem confifts that deceit fcnd tl- 
lufion Hiave endeavourMtadifcbver. 

■> ' . i 


. Sir, itis good ydti be fttyttffi&a fifth 
what the World s owes you, that f ott do 
not pretend to eiatt more than is yotir 
due* Tor this is palpably in juft : Yet this 
happens often to thofe of ydur quality*, 
bec&ufe they into w not its nature. 

There are in the World twb forts bf 
Grandeurs t, one of eftabliflurierit, the 
of her natural. The firft depends on the 
Wills of Men who have thought they h4* 
reaftm to honour fomc ftates^ &nd affix 
certain refpe&s to them. Pe^fbiis dig- 
aifi'd and born Noble are of this fort>v 



1ft thisCountvy the Nobility ishononr'cf 
in that the Commonalty: here elder Bro- 
kers, there the younger, have the advan- 
tage. . And why fo, becaufe Men have 
decreed it fhould be fo. It was a thing 
of indifferejicy before the Law % after 
that, it became juft ar;dequitable,becaufe 
itis unjuftto difburband violate Laws. 
Natural Grandeur is that, which de- 
tpends not on the fancies and humour of 
Men, becaufe it confifts in certain real 
and pofitive qualities of thfc foul and Bo- 
Ay , by, which thefe become praife-wor- 
"thy, as Science, ..good Wit, Vettue, 
Healthy or Strength. 

Something is due from us to either of 
thefeGraadeurs •*• but as they are of a dif- 
ferent nature, fo alio are the refpe&s 
different which wrought to pay to them. 
To greatnefs of eftabli foment we owe re- 
fp^fts that are fuch v that is to fay y cer- 
tain exterior Ceremonies, which never- 
tbelefs in reafon ought to be accompa- 
nied with aa interior acknowledgment 
'.of the juftice of this order, but yet 
. vjhich does not make us believe there is 
. any real quality, jn thofe we thus honour. 
Kjingsought to be on the Knee. 
[ VOfe muft not (it down in the. Chamber of 
."a Prince. It .is foolery, and the part of 

a mean 

a mean fpirit to rcfufe them thefe re- 

But thofc. natural refpefts which con- 
fiftin an interior efteem, are only due to 
natural great nefs •, and we owe on tHe 
other fide a kind of hatred and averfion 
to fuch qualities as are contrary to this 
Natural Grandeur. It is not neceflary, 
becaufe you are a Duke , that I fhould 

• have an efteem for you \ but it is necefla- 

• ry I Ihould falute you. If at the fame 
- time you are both a Duke, and an honeft 

Man , I fliall pay to you what is due to 

• both thefe qualities. I will not deny you 
thoft Ceremonies which are due to you 
in quality of a Duke, nor the efteem you 
deferve as an honeft Man. But; if you 
be a Duke, and hot a Man of worth , I 
will do you juftice :for whilft, I be- 
llow on you thofe* exterior Ceremonies, 
which Men have affixed, to your Birth, I 
ihall not fail to "have that inferior con- 
tempt for you which the meannefs of your 
mind deferves. . • ; ; t i ; • 

And in this corififts the eqpity of thefe 
devoirs, as the injuftice confifts in giving 
natural refpe& Grandeurs ^f ^fte- 
; biilhment, .and t|iofe of eftabiiftiment to 
natural Greatriefi. Monfieiir. N\ is la 
greater. G^cimetrkiaAthaalj aiid jsjfuoh 

"he Wottfd take place of me. I (hall tcll T 
him he miflakes himfelfc Geometry is 
air^tuml/Greatncfs, it defertres a, pre- 
ference of eftcem, but Men have not be* 
-ftovv y d oh it any out ward preeminerjcy. 
1 ' fell therefore take place of him > bat 
afthefametimel fhall-eftcemhimin^u^- 
litf 6f aGeometriciaa more than n)y ielf. 
In like Wanner , if you , being Duke 
and Peer > are hot content with my flood- 
ing ha fe to you , but exaft a further e- 
lteaft ? t fliafl defire you to fcew me thofe 
~ nifties which ileferve it : ffyou do this! 
yours ^ and I cannot tefofe it v you 
Without in juttice } but it you cas Jhew 
Do ftiCh thing , you are unjuft to exptt it \ 
gdd tvithout'doubt youcculd not fiicceed 
in your demand , were you *he «reateft 

My Lord , I will bring y6u acquainted 
with your true ftate and coftdition > for 
of all things jn the World fcettbhs of 
yoar quality afe ignotaht of tfiis. What 
thwtisitifc youroptoi6fl to be, a great 
Lord * It » te be Matter of ihe fevera! 
objeds<»ftht-<3«icupifccB(cC of Men, afld 



& to bare ja rpowerto faffafitetbe wants 
xtfi4 (kftres iot anany. Thdfe fronts >gfid 
^bflfejteimrsjnaloe «hem wait*&*l fottow 
yoM j -fris thsferwhich make nchcm'fthmit 
Ho (you, ottocwifetrhcy ^wouM^^^amuch 
,13'Jook aficryDu : feuttiow they hepe'by 
jheir feraicesand refpe&sto obteinfrom 
you foam of thofe g&odsfthey wast , and 
which *hty fee are at your dttboTe. God 
is taconpgft about with Men taltafGta- 
rity, who demand of hta the riches 4f 
Charity which are in hts^pewer i and he 
^therefore is properly the Hing of Cfea- 

Ytm in fike tnamer ase beftt *m A a 
m*n[>er of Paribus , over tfhoua you ki 
your fi^bion Reign and Lo$d it Thefe 
are fuU affCcaicnpUbetice , and its goads 
they are which they beg of you. You 
-therefore property voa King of Concu- 
pifcence ^ your Kipgdooi , His true , is 
r but finaK, but etherwtie you arc equal 
to the greateftKuig* of Che Earth. They, 
like you, are Kings of Concipifcence \ 
Concupifcencegives them sfl their force, 
that is , the pofleffion of thofe thtugs 
*?hkh worldly Men define. 

Bttt having thus known your naturttl 
condition* make ufe of the means it fur- 
you with v pretend not to Reign 


any other way^ thaa by that which has 
made you King- . It is not your own 
force and natural ftrength which have 
brought thefe People under you.: pre- 
tend not then to domineer over them by 
force , nor. to ufe them harlhly. Satisfie 

.their juft defires* relieve their wantei 

; make it your; rpleafiire to do good $ ad- 
vance them as muci as you can, and you 

. ihall play the' part of aright King of 
£oncypifcegce. h . 

What I have faidis-.but little ; if yon 

. fiay here*, you wiH yet be loft > but you 
will'beloft like an honeft Man. Thefle 

. are fome who go fboltftdy to Hell through 
: avark:e , brutality,, ~ debaucheries , ■ vio- 
Jeqoes , . excdles and blafphemies. Tlfe 
way that I (hew you is without (jucftion 

.better; yet, to fey. truth*, it-is always a 
*reat folly to-dama obes felf. Where- 
fore we wuft not ftppHere y wjeumft dc- 

f tiiat are ftbje$ ;there«fcta v ;breath only 
Charity , •an^i .covet only the .goods df 

. Charity. Others vtfHihew you the right 
way ; 'tis eaougb for me tolhave divb»- 

: ted»you t from thofe brutal vices* vtherein 

- 1 fee Perfonsof J^ur condttiomcilgage 

tbemfelves Jot ?wut pf knowing, its true 
fete. , Of, 

» ^ i . v 


- * —N 



Of Chriftian Civility. 

iN the dcfire of being bekwtt 
by others, becaafe nothing is ibftafithd 
to him as to love himfelf. Now twfiil- 
wayes defire that what wfe love ftfooadJK 
belovM by others. Charity that' tofts 
God, defiresthat he Ihoold be bclov'd of 
aU his Crea tores; and Gonoipcldeiice that 
loves it fetfi, defires that we otfr ftlvb 
were the felebbjed; of all tyfemflbt*. ^ 

J f. 2. iWedefiretobebelof3drtbitii»e 
may lo^e oqij <& ves^ pioirs, T^tafc 
which others bear ns mafces us judge we 

: deferve to, be bek>v\J > afld mate lis 
frame of our felves a more lovdy Itfep. 

; We aft glad they have the fame opinion 
of m that we haveof oqt felves ,. andqpr 

. judgement, which is always weak apd.ti- 

. mid when alone, gets ftreagth aa4 <SP- 

. fidence when fortified by the jadgemept 
of others, and lb k adheres with Jb modi 
the more content to it felf , as it finds 
k(s diftarbance from the feu* of btibjg 

* 1 . 3. The lore therefore of others 


**4 txtw&tm&mttv. 

towards as, is not ooely the object of our 
▼anity,and the nourifhment of Self-lovfe, 
bat aUb the bed or coach . whereon our 
weaknets. cdtsjt feift XtaftSoul «is fo lan- 
guifhing and fo weak > "that it cannot fb- 
rifmfri&faftttout -towgjoildcr-praa* 
&fUfa ffffobMioniiaddsmei^frothers. 
litchs»ttaSs^mtHt fot£odcithi9>«Btv<qr 
-inwgitwag v oor Hfehres?ifl oa vconditian 
^afeferci^bffridcbe flottbaald; tpoll 
«lhe' World, inhere jatady ufcoald.'tc- 
),cafd*sJtmt wJdrJtotredaaooSlcorQ, sand 
dby feeeptttgAhataU Maakiod JteUtte*- 
efyfortjfit bs. -Eor «fcoxouldcft&:ni*«f e 
on .ih^pto^K^iatiiOBtbciag . ttoabW> 

v rf ifc o um g tt aunt atfffcffitd -1 .fjqw if 

9WdaveIdejetced«t^tki»^lie ,""« coYft«- 
-fy -«e waft fleedlairtty Jtk>M S£ ^lr 
aheart ,tthwgh we tfo^nfiC at*a4KFiHia 

$..4. *Efte 4ove-«H«rtfo»e W^Iflfrs 
'-feeing; fostetftary to keep flp 6ti i?Kttfe, 
«w« «»aaWra1!yl^Jn^Wtee1«ftftlpb- 

eare it. And 4sTO<kftd^3>y<oflf4ffln 
'«rperi««ce 'tfiafw*lov$tK6le i, w1ib %fte 
<«s i we-<tfft> either lore er ; wtfiM fe«n 
<fc> lore Others , that (b W&^fttr&are 
^tfceh- afio&ton : •«na*<tMsik!We- , gr euatf of 

humane Civility , which is bufraltfndof 
"traffick of 5elf-l0ire ,^h^Min we efidca- 


oMiB^kjteffjedr : th»m. 

#r^{M&padiar<-fclfe „ -qadauiitito 

!<>Ye wan „\ye .bare j ^bfiHmfe.Stlf-Joxe 

.|!iftow^Jpy^)ef«b«:s,: Jy tfe«s;4n^hc 


jajtWf ft ftftfcejn irs,-3«l7«fl^ge,i„aod 

$£9?JUitSU ,io. wJwajy in tte (ooujte 
4*Afajfr 3*c World, y^cWorfeir'fiKWi 

■$*& 4^aH the^X«tHaent»ar««>rr|pt 

*QJV ..Oiarjty, can,«teceft jt fclfj fa.tWs 
-tt^5fk«f Jtuiauu^ Duties , &3d-A*amh 
V^aoqs of.twtfittl agedjQB, wiich «e 
wHQwlity - 7 .sad at,tii&Srit'|Uh»OBe 
y««W4 tfaujc«tfot <^rity(temtd^tyf 
its ov?a.ij«it av«Ffc ftoBQ-thfiQ. tfinras 
4£WC,fo Pugljttit toiaipire us withqdte 

<;wtraiy ^towtiepf, Ot iDwfrgwsihatc, 



t love our telves, and 
one would think it ought to'ieefc; a/tcr 
'the contempt of Creatijres raiher tbaa 
their love ; above .all it letras far from 
feeking after tbis," 1 by> ratfe cojnfrlai- 
laoce and deceitfo 

Jtents. So that M 

'others woafcr Sir r 
ietf , riarns Gotf 
height ^ffnJrffltai^.lHey woala receive 
from thejir that iribrtre which « jwfr 
doe to Gtid 'i Wfijeh ISA great aud ,c*v 
iniiiai «rirj>Sflor4 W¥ nttj itcBc!«« 
•ttat whers'Hay tore Gtefof' ft^ is'; 
tjotwe are notpleasllwitlithar^or rattier 
we (top not there- for Charity tan fub- 
4tt with the Uowtrdge of oor (Witts, 
h«t SetfJoVe- SneV not iBlatiifflfriotl 
■^'^t4a ctia ^;6f'it faeiii:Ml 
"djpptokaiSoBtaoa iffritoettnies it be for-" 
<^A to (^ open itj own fadtsajid t^as, 
itastfce fime time mnU hare others 
cooeera^l and grierM fcr them- fa fine, 
it likes dot the Onritytf others, be- 
anie it brings to them any good , bst 
bertftnebeiHgbetovid-'of^fteoi* it makes 
«b"£lie^ _ eoBF-ielvos-h3or-c--amfa&Je\ ) 'aW 
. *--i makes 

makes us find fatisfa&ion in this lovely 
Idea ofourfelyes./, j , r . 

.jj : 8. Tnere is a palpable injufttcVto' 
dVfire'tp 6$ thus, IpelpvM^. For We .ajre- 
not lovely at all y we are jiough't put ui- 
juftice and-.fin ' r and tqdefire thatthefcr 
(hould be befov'd, wheja* known, is to"! 
dcfire that Men lhould love. Vice. If we.! 
pretend, aqd * endeavour/, jqa^eaT pur^ 
fauks %;■ ^w. defire ^jtiier* ifiouid be cte-: 
ceiyed irius, and tha^ they ta"k« us For, 
wfat we are not*; .ana tlius on what fide ' 
foeyef we turn.our fefves , we are ^uiltjr - 
of iajuftice in fearchlpg aFter thislpve. ' ' ' 
. §..9. It is true , \1txS) no piece of ihju- ; 
f&ce that others fhbulfl love] in us what; 
God hath plac'd jthfcre ^'* but/ if they 
IqP^oq theft things; as belonging unto 
us, we are yet.u^ult in? requiring this-. 
love v for they, as well as we> are blame- % 
able in alcribing to 1^ God's Gifts : But . 
if they look, on ttietnas^ God's pure fa-, 
vpurs hot deftrved by us*,' and perhaps 
adulterated by iheitl ule we h^ve made 
of them > their Joy.e towards us becomes 
jutt*, but the complaifance we take in 
it is, not fo r fince 'tis not this juftiee 
wherewith we are pleasM , but with our . 
vain-thoughts, that takes a kind oi fa* 
itisfaftion, bequfewehavea^placein the . 

' ' minds' 

«> • 

intad*ofe*hers tiifwewf We tatattBeW* » 
and becaofe the World'Wttfc btfu^wfth 1 
eftfeenr, mth 1 Wfei l roikc c nft'of tofetlflc 
in w a better ©piritanbffotf fete 

S; 1 9/TKere befrig'fo natch dartgtt-itt' 
being bdovMb^Ci-^ttrres 1 , otie'wtrtrttft 
thiitk .CferfWfhfcflM, be- indih'd^d*" 
vtft iC &i( imtdf^ leTft i thfc , 'hftIdeh "re- 
gard Itibtntf cdrrtWA»r J beW 5 a«Mbte^ 
T*K tttis tiiatlnl^lPtHi'Salrifsr wfcha 1 
detereof ftttbJdcV 't&tluYthatf nttkeVfiS.- 
litMe^^ettffiry ttf afl :'f<ir 1 #hen'tre'fcf^ 
tirrfifcnrtntf reftVftftSftettWtt,- wfdeV- 


mdWta«nts;-of file f ate coitnttla&rtfe'Wei 
frt£ fa^betfelteej^and $f &d b&fce*> ^ 
ingaftef'their. affection. : 

$! L n. Death 1 ihatt^aittrtitf iaH fonta* 1 
irieuuBups y^sna autnarinomeilrwe^uiair 

bfokg ^iundefr' FWT tHetf tl^wttked 1 ' 

thfyl&lfhkft *6 "other tehtShtitetit'fchr 
ont'twfortffr 'thMthbfe^f J hatretf' , aiia^ 
aferfloil :• ana v th£liiy&8ttha f ll btflorGH 
talffabfbfp't in tJod J AtiniftWty^ that l 
thty/h&l fe& ijtfCreafciftt tnfrfirluW'i 
fo'that the-ptoifeeet toe? <ftl&t'few€"or' 
tHenVfljStr^nor difinrb'thWrftllittiat^nd J 


rqppft,t>y pay thing thatta*yndiv«rt ttern// 
fcomtrGod^ Thq^ wUlronl^'lo^ thol 
Creatures byflfc^fMoaoftteffotecHejrJ 
harc fcr<hinv; they iballoirfyrfee and) 
love God in them,accordio^«^itd»iwritk» 
ten $ ) t\Mf&>d>f#lltfo«*&***#- Ifi tfcis 
pf€fe»t^Life:oug^lita be-a prcpankv 
tion foe thafreteaaai onehwiuftftfotows^ 
oiigfcs wer*iat^in^^ fettdcaof - 

Y0nri. to .frrenoap (^tf sfronpthc ^afo< ; 
feftion-r we* :b$arn>nen aflothte i int thfeo 
World*4i^to'tiHm^ • 

Jjt content witfa God^loa^whtlfliwetlo^* 
ptiveour felvtoof allrhuman rfatisfaftfe ' 
ogs 5 < and rail? thofe demonftratkttts lo£2 
kincUfcfe which *>alyi rl pteaffc-Sclfr 
afld^oughH wen6fcia* redifte allvoi 
vkwr i towards; *>l*? aotithfti tto't fe*v*csn 
tte**ftJtfM>eraal;) aal^kfrintjhi^wKri^o 

§,ax If^kroofcCteafc^betfup^ 
port<tf^iiir*fV«akftfi6yas wtrcraght-to eH- 
dcatrasf rffr jgata^^ 
alfoto^doe-otmitraoffi tmia^fkJ* ttafri 
hasten fop|jortsi£hait wtfiray themoxte fern * 
Jy> t)a Godft For thdfefi^^ 
of ill ifitiifiM {i tfcatawMltelK^ 
our, weaknriv \thfey?at tteidaMr'tinters 
keepett &Uv^agWtaiTS<tenAiTifisPcwhwi7 

* we 

14 o m€tymi&u€tmitv. ^ 

we are nourifh'd with the Bread of Self- ~ 
lave^ we grow out of tafte with that lb- 
lid Food of Juftice , and of the Will of ; 
God, which is the only Fountain of all 
Chriftiah force. 

S- 13. The ftrength of our Body con- 
lifts not in being able to fubfift without 
its natural fupport , the Earth ; but in 
notneedingfomethingelfebefides^ and in - 
being *d. a condition t6 live- without all 
other forreign helps. -Thus the ftrength 
ofdLSoultS not tb rely On anything that's 
banian ,' but to be content with its natu- 
ral fupport, which is God, It fuffices a 
Soul that?s ftrong,to know that God fees 
if,thatit femaiiK in his due order^and ex- 
ecutes his will This Bread noijrifties, fu- 
ftaiiis and fortifies it ; this is its All. Thus 
oar, Saviour JESVS CHRISTMd 
of hirafelf , that his nourifliment was, to 
accomplilh the Will of his Father : Metis 
ctbus eft wfacidm voluntateniPatrii fnti. 

§. 14. Happy are they who feed on 
this Bread , and who make it their de- 
light , for to fuch it can never he want* 
ing ! Let all nature forfake them * let 
miferiesand maladies feize on them \ let 
them be loaden by Men with reproaches 
and ignominies \ yet have they always 
this nourifhment which fortifies, fuftains, 


and conforts them. For they fee God's 
Will in all things ; they know it is full of 
juftice and mercy , and that's enough for 
them. This is that Houfe built upon a 
Rock, which neither winds , rains , nor 
ftorms can ftiake.This is that Houfe of the 
juft Man,foll of force, of which it is faid, 

Donms jufti flnrima fartituS \ 'Which 

xjoinM to God by the lore of his Wilj, is 
ftrongcf than all Men together,, fince it 
bath God's ftrength on its fide; ' : j ■ 

$. 15. We nwftaim at the procuring 
this ftrength ; we muft afpire to relifh 
this Bread. But as we cannot ftrengthen 
the Bodies of Children, but. by accufto- 
ming them to walk without help, and by 
taking from them the Meats of their 
Child-hood, ahd giving them others that 
are more ftrong and folid j fo it feems 
we cannot come to Chriftian ftrength, 
but by laying afide thofe fupports which 
we fiad in the compliance and love of 
Creatures, and by accuftoming our ielves 
to be content with God alone. 
- §. 16. It feems we ought hence to con- 
clude, that we ihould neither dtfire the 
love of Creatures, nor any tokens there- 
of ; we ihould hence believe that theyr 
would do us a courtefie Ihould they for-% 
get us •, that their indifferency is advan-; 
geous, and that there is danger in their* 

M- ■ affefti- 

. »«* 

aHedioDs. But rauft w<* bense ai& cc 
elude, thatw* ought to ufe theteiae i 
difficpeacy toward them ; that we m*ft 
lay afufe all unaecefiary dvUitfefcandre*- 
duce our felvest© the fbte officer of Cha- 
rity ? k feem* tb& feme r«fi»flbwWI 
obfige us to draw this: coflctufioa. For 
we omht to love them as we love &s; 
felvcs, and we (houl&nQt vrifcdiaai wrtrti* 
we thick kdaagjran** for «♦ And thai 
we fliall become uncivil agd favftgpbjr * 
Priacipk of Confosace. Meverthetefi 
this appears coatrary totheSpktf aft* 
PbbfUce o£attth*Saiate, whowe«ftIl 
of a Deader kindsefe lor their Mttidfc 
and who did not keep ifl the efl^io* tf 
titeir Charity, eveaaa tfiiagsr that wfete» 
not ibaeceffiffy. ThereYmrthiag Mtte 
teader andaffectionate^haftSc. Pmttrmi 
te.Jdin, and St. Ar**W : We Hit* 
therefore take care kit we drive theft 
Maxims too &r. And this oblige as to 
examine whether Charity has no nofeirtt 
and teafon indudag *fc tapra&ife the 
dwoirs of civility as?d k the World, 
and whether it camaot. perform with* 
great purity aadiiacerityy what Warld- 
4iflgs doootof intereftsand dt&aftfe* 
V I. 17. Andfirjfr, as to what reprda 

^Sincerity ; Charity needs notapprebend 
the wounding of thi^¥«ait«€ in the cm* 


UtKskbeftows on our Neighbours. And 
one may, ia regard of it, (ay, that it on- 
ly belongs to Charity to be civil , fincc 
Charity alone can fincerely be lb. For 
by honouring and loving , as it does* 
JBSVS C #£/sr in our Neighbonr, 
can it apprehend to honour and love him 
'jwthexcefi ? if fometitoes we do not feel 
in im fatc^ aU tte tnidcRi0& for <► 

we are convinced we Amid feel it* md 
that we endsavour to procure thefenti- 
ments of itby thedemonftrationsofthat 
af&dion He tew them. For hence it 
tappenstbat they are not faifeand de- 
pcitM^ fince that they ate Conformable 
to on* defire and inclination. 

& i8 # rTisotayCbadty.whichfurniihes 
us with general reafons of loving all the 
World * and fcbmkting our felves to 
them. Self-love only makes as love 
thofe who have an affection for t and may 
beufefulto os«, it only makes us fubjeft 
to thofe who arc more puiflaat than we, 
and it inclines as to bring under all others, 
if we could. But Charity comprehends 
all Men in its love , and fubmiffion. It 
looks on them as the handy work of God 
/ whom it adores* as redeemed by the 
blood of its Saviour , and as cali'd to the 

Mz King- 

Kingdom whereunto it afpires; And 
thefe endowments are fufficient to make 
at love them , nay to look on them as its 
Mailers , fince it ought to think it ielf 
but too happy in being a Servant even in 
fmallcft things to the Members of J E- 
SVS CHRIST and to theEleftof 
God. Charity therefore has in it felf 
the true Fountain-head of Civility, to wit, 
a love for, and fubmiffion to others j and 
when thefe appear without, 'tis but a na- 
tural overflowing of thole lentiments 
which it imprints in the heart. 

§. .19. Civility confifts in giving place 
to others as much as the eftablifht order 
of the World will permit, in preferring 
them before, and confidering them as a- 
'bove ones (elf. Pride which really lays us 
uAder them, cannot fuffer this ; bat Cha- 
rity which raifes us above many, can 
without trouble humble it felf in this 
fort ^ not by fome outward fhew and dif- 
guifc^but by a true judgement it forces us 
, to make of our felves. Let us hear what 
the Wife man fays } Behold., lays he., the 
words of a Alan with whom God is, , and who 
being ftremthetPd by the frefence of God^ 
wherewith he isfnU^ has foul : ( We (hall 
then hear. what Charity lays, becaufewe 
cfliall hear what comes from a Jieart full 


of God ) what then will this Man lay ?. 
Of all Men I am the ntofi foolijh^ avd the 
wifdom of Men is not with me : / have not 
learnt Wifjfam, and 1 kp<W not the Science of 
the Saints. Stukijfmus fum ntrorHmGr fa* 
fientia hominurnnon eftmecum : Non didici 
fafientiam Cr non novi fcithtiam fanttorum* 
This fulnefs of God ends in making him. 
know the depth of his own ignorance* 
and of his nothingnefs -, and in .ma* 
king him look on himfelf as the wretch? 
edeft of Men : and this, knowledge is not 
a deceitful falfe one , fince it hath for 
objedt that which belongs to him by his 
nature, and which, making him fee his 
faults nearer hand than thole of others^ 
caufes him truly to fay, that they appear, 
greater in his Eyes : as we fay the Moon 
is greater than the Stars, becaufe fuch it 
appears to us r being feen at a lefs di- 

. §• 20. Charity therefore has all the 
requifites to make it. fincere in its civi-? 
lity : and one may fay it carries with 
it an inward civility towards all Men, 
which , could they fee , would infinitely 
pleafe them. But it is convenient fome- 
times to make it known \ and what Mo* 
tive have we to produce it in publkk> 
fince that of gaining the affe^on of o-* 

Ntr^ thers 

then to take delight therein is corrupt 
and naught ? It is true , were there no 
Motives elft, Charity would be inclioM 
rathes to hide , than make known its af- 
fedion ; bnt it h ftoiM withmany raore t 
and the nrft is , that whilft it thus breaks 
out in exterior demonftrations of lore 
towards otbers,it nourilhes and ftrengtb- 
ens it felf. It makes it felf know that it 
loves 9 to the end it may love the more. 
For Charity is a Fire that has need of 
Air and Fewel, and which goes out , if 
once fmotherM •, 'tis a Vertue which like 
ethers muft be pnt in prattice. Thus as 
in it confifts the life, health, and ftaength 
of our Souls > fo onght we to feek all oc- 
cafio^of exercifing it, nor can there 
be anv more frequent , than thofe Civi- 
lity nnmifbes ns with. 

$. 21. Onr Souk are fubjeft to more 
than one kind of Difeafe * and 
muft be had, left while we ap£] 
diestofome, we fall not frito others of 
more danger. It is 9 Difeafe to ttie 
content in die lore Men bear us, but it 
*a greater to be in an indifference to- 
wards them; to be tmeonctnM at their 
good^reviiitobefttK tip within, and 
toUfink cm nothmgfmtoer Rlf :andftl£ 
loveiacHnes trsno fcfito ibis vice Chan 


0( lf$VflJfftll tiftttlttf* 247 

to otters. Now it nmy eafily hajroen 
that whil/t we pretend to break off aft 
commerce ofCiviUty sndFriendlhip with 
Men, we fall into a ftate of drinefs,luke- 
warmnefi, and inward indifferency for 
them. We utterly forget them, not that 
we may totally fix our fekes on Codjbnt 
that we may .become full of our felves. 
InfeaflMy we avoid their cocqpany, and 
they become itrangers to us ; and by de- 
fying to praftife in a way too refin'd, we 
really lofe that fpirinial Charity , and e- 
ven that human affeftion which is the tye 
pf civil Society. 

/§. 22, There would be nothing of grea- 
ter advantage tp us than Civility , knew 
we how to manage it right. It affords 
us place and opportunity of honouring 
iri Men all the graces God diftrii?utes a- 
mortgftxhem , and to alter and change 
our lgf&rior ftntiments according to the 
variety of thefe graces. If we fee a Man 
thart penitent ^ whom Cod hath drawn 
out ofthis diforderly^World . in hkn we 
ought to honour the Power of the Grace 
of JMSVS CHRIST^nditsviaory 
over the World : in linn we ought to re- 
verence the virtue of Penance, and con- 
sider him as rarfcd by it much above our- 
felves. InVeribns of Place and Quality 

M~4> W* 

m3 m C&rtftfati CMlitt •;. 

we honour the Authority they partake 
of from JESVS CHRIST. Ifthefe 
be vertuous, we reverence the Greatnefs 
of Grace which they have received, and 
by which they have overcome all the ob- 
ftacles of their Condition. In the Poor 
we honour the poverty -of JESVS 
CHRIST., his Humility in thofe that 
are humble and in a Icfcv Condition j his 
Purity in Virgins, and his Sufferances in 
the afiiitted. In fine, under the colour 
and appearance of Vertue altogether 
humane, we praftife and honour all 
Chi ilHan Vermes whatlbever. 

§.23. It is true we might much-what 
praftife all this by our thoughts and a- 
dions purely interior \ but it is good 
we fhouid be advertis'd thereof and the 
duties of humane Civility does this.«Thus 
the exterior fhew of refpeft which we pay 
God Almighty by the Compolition of 
our Body, does mind us to endeavour 
the placing our Soul in the like interior 
difpofition of refped and adoration, 
which we fhouid be in towards his Di- 
vine Majefty. And thefe Advertife- 
ments are fo much the more ufeful > by 
how much the more frequent. For it is 
not always, that we can praftife Charity 
towards our Neighbour by real and c£ 


MX€tmmn€Miti: m* 

fc&ive fervices j fuch occafions offer 
themfelves very feldom. But this com- 
merce of Civility is moire frequent : It 
cofts us little ? yetfumifhesAis with thb 
means of gaining much, by a continual 
exercifc or Charity. 
§.24.Bot if this pradice of Chriftian Ci- 
vility be advantageous to us,' it is no left 
profitable to others. If they are devout, 
the afFe&kra we. fhew them increafes 
their Charity. If they are of the World, 
'tis true we flatter hereby their Self-love* 
which is an evil fpringing from their de- 
pravM condition * 7 yet always is it aa evH 
much lefs than that other, wherekptb they 
would fall 9 had we not care to fuftaia 
.and hold xhem up by letting them know 
ouraffedtion towards them. For if one 
Jias not a care to entertain them thus 
with'devoirs of humane Civility , they 
will perfedtly eftrange themfelves from 
the pious 4 they will lofe all kindnefs and 
belief for them , So that theft will be- 
come incapable to do them any fervice. 
It is therefore the duty of Charity to fo- 
lace them »in their weaknefs ? by letting 
them know they are bdovM and efteem* 
ed, whiift we expe&thatin them true 
Charity take place after *this- imperfeft 
(ition.^ . . 

** - ' 


*> a J. W* nuftdfal wtthiMai * Hot, 
tat w Angcfc : and ttos 'tk <tasffi*y 
Aata^beterionr towards &« ftooid 
tear ppopxiioa totte comtu* fete jq£ 
Jtktkaod. New tblrcamat ftate ae- 
ries with it * that ev*a the fr ieadflnp sod 
«niaft that is betwixt Perfbiisof Pe*o- 
ftfoa ihoiAlJwwf a msgoture of many im- 
porfeftrens t fi> that to Mgbt to to- 
poft^ That befides thofe Spiritual tpes 
which mite than ttgeitiher* share are 
aaatriber of other tittle firings perifedfr 
hamane , which they are not aware o£ 
coatting m the efteeoi and afe&oct 
they bear o*e aoocloer, andkifomeeerw 
eain /corfbiatipns they reotive from that 
tXMttlier jcc which is ihetiwecn them : a&d 
theftreogth of their iwton depends not 
oaeJyapbc the Spiritual tyes, but upeft 
tbcfc haatane firings which preferyc it. 

little firings chance aotatafc by awnritf 
of little ftandab, ififconteats apd ncg- 
kds^ there happens aft erwaeds a breach 
lo auttteB of greater importance : and 
if we obdrve nearly , wt fhall find that 
thofe vexatious ruptures, which are feen 
to alienate Perfons of piety who wre 
once great Friends <> wene for the molt 
pan occafion'd by certain coolings, pro* 


mdingfroinawant incompfyiog frith 
feme devoirs of Chtflity. It were to be 
wi/ht that the frjendflup atnongft Chri- 
ftianswere more firm, more pure, and 
fefs dependant on homancxx>nfotetlons: 
And cadi one ought to endeavour to 
bring hhofelf to that $a&> that he may 
be without them: But it feems we are 
obligM'by Charity, not to omit towards 
others the devoirs Civility impofes on 
«s ; not becaufe we judgetfiem weafk,but 
becaufe we think they may hereafter 
prove &., and to the end wte give theci 
*k> pretext of letting their affoStion to- 
wards us grow cool. " 

%.jx6. This is nothing but what the 
Apoftles extraordinarily recommend, to 
n#ke Piety and Devotion feem lovely 
in the. eyes of thofe of the World, to 
the taw! they may fairly and fweetly bz 
drawn to it. Now it is impoflible it 
ftotild appear lovely, if it be wild, un- * 
civil, and downilh ; and if ithave not a 
care to let Men know that it loves, has 
a dejire to ferve, and is full of tendirnets 
Ibr them. If by this behaviour we dp 
theronoreal fervice, atleaftwedo not 
aKenateand iadifpofe them \ we rather 
prepare their Minds to receive Truth 
with te& oppofition. Our end* avoirs 



therefore mult be to refine Civility, and 
free it from what is impure, not banifh 
it out of the World. We muft endea- 
vour to gain the love of Men, not vainly 
to pleafeour felves therein, but to the 
end we may by this their afFedion be ca- 
pacitated to ferve them; and becaufe 
this very afFedion is a good for them j 
fince it infpires them with a love for 
Piety, difpofes-them thereunto, if not 
yet arrivM there,and preferves it in them 
when once poflcft thereof. 

§♦ 27. St Peter recommending to us the 
Ihewing and infpirihg humility in all oar 
aftfons, Humilitatem in omnibus infiriuanr 
re/, at. the feme time recommends a con- 
tinual pra&ice of Civility. For Civility 
is an exterior humility, and it becomes 
interior when exercisM in Spirit. Saint 
Paul yet more exprefly commands it, 
^vhen he orders us to topreventfone ano- 
ther by thefe demoriftrations of relpe^ 
Honor e invicemfrdLvenieatei. 

§. 2S: Behold then a conflict, not of 
Vices but Vertues. We muft feek after 
the love of Men, by rendri-ng them aJl 
the devoirs of Civility ; to the end we 
may fcrve them, keep a correipondence 
with them, and hinder their being averfe 
from us /to the end Charity be not 


^extinguiihtintheni, that it may be aug- 
mented and nourilht in us, and that all 
* Vertue&tnay be put in practice .• On the 
other fide, we muft not look after the 
affe&ion of others, we muft lay aficte 
whatfoever may procure it j becaufe to 
us it is a temptation ; becaufe thefe hu- 
mane complaifances fcfter up our Spiri- 
tual weaknefs > and becaufe even in this 
Life we ought to reft content with God 
alone, and free our felves from the love 
of all things elfe. Thefe are the Spiritu- 
al reafons fro and to*:But which of them 
oughtto carry it ? and it is a matter of 
fome decide thepoint. We 
(hall find that Holy Men have fometimes 
followed the one, fometimes the other. 
However here arelbme Rufcs which per- 
haps may be obferv T d. 

§. 29. When there is finall hopes, we 
(hall be ferviceabie to fuch as are ndt 
committed to our. charge, and thatcoii- 
veriation with them may ptfovei hurtftl 
.to us, though but during that ftiort time 
we fliall be with them y to fuch we * muft 
content our felves with the common ii- 
diffrenfable devoirs of Cfvitity$ at whfel, 
if not paid, they would be fcandalifcM, 
and all thofe others muft be laitf afid*. 
which hsavefontheir qidonly-tfo&pleaf- 

. in** 


j^ofc aid ct*»*fti*£ tvitiitfcanatttte 

§• 30 When rtc are rettfrM Into a 
j*pied»n*Kdiaanr fclitude, and when 
m &r&km ** retreat tycs « feftar 

jfcttniiigsi toakiad of iaHStmacf far 
OOrFrM*, veaiayaiiJtgivttcr ffcee- 
4oonraw utafe datmofCnritity, which 
arc opt abfttataly neadfir^pro vided al- 
myofethtf twr Otfliag and way of firing 
TOybeetircxcufe, and diatom* foJkucJe 
be tfbunjfoTO and regular^ tipt it leaves 
*¥> t«u» /for a firfpicion that, we are 
Jfaoagfrttptevpt md indiffenency da- 
fe&we i# ogr devoirs toothers. 

§. 3 1. {Juttf W way of Jmng be free, 
if we are wojJBtated to have fereral 
Friendfhips in the World ; if a total re- 
treat &e n« fit for oor Calling;, if we 
opr feferq* /tgp4 jftjnoedof fame fcumaae 
comfort, *od if fey the airier of God we 
tare ff>8ttafiie4 fevorat obligations with 
fcudry Peopic wkrichiae caanoc well re- 
MWKei it fcenw modi moraftinmient 
I4> take the otiber courfe, thatw,toim- 
pro^a}ic¥^&)nswbcremwe any fiew 
oqr affeftiout Cowards tjhem, and paocw* 
theirs tons. ; 

S«3£.0#r onJy cndeawMwr apdt be 


«f Af*af<heW<«ld. dp ouft tie fw>- 
&£ty tm, pft-fadly Akwc V atwft «dt 
•ckber be light wfciwiing. Itnuftpqt 


orPraifes: It muft not take up a confide* 
rablepartofourtime,norbea fource of 
araufements and inprofitable fooleries : 
it muft infbire Devotion, relifh of Mo- 
deity, and if it fbew to Men the Bounty 
and Sweetnefe of our Saviour JESVS 
CHRIST, it muft be only to procure 
them a flight and an averfion from the 
Spirit of the"Wortd,and to incline them 
toleadea Life perfectly Ghriilian. 

§.33. Neverthelefiwe muft not fettle 
it as a generalRule,that,we ought to pra- 
ftife civility towards all whatsoever. For 
there are fome People we cannot free our 
fclves froir* but by certain Incivilities, 
*nd who would overwhelm us with Vifits 
and Letter-Miflives, ihould we let them 
know we took any delight therein. We 
muft therefore out of neceffity Ihew fome 
coolnefs to thefe, left' they deprive us 
of what is moft precious, to wit, Our 
time. If we can break off this fruitiefs 
Commerce without giving them a fubjed 
ofdifguft, 'tis well; but if not, 'tis bet- 
ter they Ihould murmur againft us, than 


*j4 £X€t)ribinn€tbtUtT 

that with juftice it be laid to our charge, 
what the Scripture faith, That ftrangtrs 
bigot devoured whatfoever was neceffary to 
Juftain his Life, and he knew tt not : Coma- 
derwt Mitni robur tim % G-nefevtK 

' * « 




' * 4.. - 'I I *■ 

. 7 

r 1 1 < » * 


t 1 *-' 



Wherein is fhowri 

How dangerous Conver- 
sation is. 

Verba hi quorum fravahermt foper 
. riof) & impietathbus nofiris tn>pro* 

pitiaberis. " • * - * 


i. \ Great Saint, confidering with 
J\ himfelfhowdiflScultamatr 
ter it was^that the Children 
of Heathens Ihould refill thofe improfli- 
ons made on them by the Authority of 
their Barents * and that in the weaknels 
of judgement natural to $at9gp', Jhey 
Ihould rife ahoye thofe the? fee ;wifer 

'^ than 

than thcmfcl vcs in aii things cHe, fe&* 
That all theyconid do when they had once 

known their errors,was, w ^^ * c Prophet 
to complain in thefe words, Th*t the Dif- 
coxrfes of the wickgd hadtJk&n frmmm 
their rttfm *ftd jmfamem : Vkrk* inifiQ- 
r urn fr**> doer hm adverfa n& ^ and after- 
wards to beg of God Almighty pardon 
ofthofefinstneemiptetffiteir Parents 
had ingagM'them in , Bt imfkmibus *o- 

ftrii W frttpitidberix. 

Thofe who through Cod's Grace arc 
born OiriftiansandCathcfccks, cannot 
with truth apply thefe words to them- 
feWs in the ffc»e ftnfe, fince thofe to 
wiiointheyowetbekBhthiwve put them 

f in the way of Truth. Th» ttef «$ht 
only to ule them to raiie in their own 
Breafts fentiments of acknowledgement, 
by coafidering how maoy there are to 
whom he has not ftewn the feme fa- 
vour , and how great their obligation is 
to him for having fceed them from as 
riiat violence. It isnecefl&ry H»thens and 
Heretics mvtfk life this to overcoaw in 
Ij^nrfehes die impreffions made fey Ctt- 
ftpm and Authority,aqd lay afidt jdl djfc 
prejudice their wPds have been fiffifl 
with , while they were not qpafefe to 
, judge of things by their own light: 


Whereas Faith cofo thofe but little, who 
have the haj>ptnefs to be bred up in it 
from their Child-hood. But if they can- 
not ufe theft wqrds in this fenfe , they 
tnay in another, which is yet as general 
and of no lefs great importance. For 
there is nobody who ought not to ac- 
knowledge, that the difcourfe of the 
wkked hath Hot taken from them their 
Reafon, corrupted their Spirit, flpd 
them with feMe Principles and falfe Ide- 
a's •, fince even the falfities and ilfadons 
which fpring from the difconrfes of Men 
take (b deep root there, that no body is 
in this .World perfe&ly cur>d thereof. 

$.3. That wt may comprehend how 
the dHeourfcs 6f Men corrupt our minds, 
we muft take notice of two kinds of cor- 
ruption in Man .• one Natural, the other 
Superadded. We are all born in the igno- 
rance of God, of our feives, and of what 
is truly good and e*fl. Moreoyer we 
bring into the World with ns a Will 
totally taken up with the lore of it- 
feif, and nncapable of Jwtogany thing 
but whft relation to eurfeires. THscor- 
ruption prefently appears jn our hunting 
after honours and the pleafores of fctfe : 
Thefe inclinations arp jnjfeparefele from 
Self-low. becanfetheyfecfede the lore 



• of the Body, which affetts pleasure* and 
that of the Mind, which is fed with 
honours. But thefe general inclinations 
are much increaft and diverfified as well 
t>y outward objefts, as by the impreffiqns 
^ndfentiments of the Mind. 
. §. 4. Honour hath no fixt object. Men 
place it according to Rumour, where 
they pleafe : And there are few things 
honourable, which may not l^aue being 
So by another turn of imagination. Anq. 
though it doth not depend on fancy to 
jnake us loye honour, fince that inclina- 
tion is Natural, it depends nevertheleft 
on fancy to fix it here, rather thap elf§ 
prticrc. There is fometfiing ,of liable 
and fi$t in,the inclination we have for 
pleafure, for all Men naturally love thofe 
that are fenfible, as well as fome deter- 
minate obje&s of them. Nevertheiefs 
Imagination and Supervening opinions 
ceafc not to have a gf eat influence, either 
to increafe or djiminilh the Idea we hav* 
of them. Thi^ Idea, would . be much lefs 
were it only modelFd by our natural cor*- 
jruption : We add thereunto another fur- 
nilht by our imagination. We make them 
appear infinitely greater than they are, 
and it is often this addition, coming from 
fancy, which hurries us on, andraifts 


tfl ns thofe violent ftorms of paffions. 
.' §. 5. This happens becfiiufe we do not 
only know the obje&s of our own pafli- 
ons, bu t alfo becaufe we have thofe fen- 
timents touching them , which they have 
excited in others ; and this Idea, which 
they have thereof being once • communis 
xated to us, we accuftom our felves to 
look on thefe objeds, not tbrdbgh the 
impreffion they make on us, but through' 
that common one, which others have : and 
hence it follows,that we feel certain mo- 
tions which we Ihould not^ had the ob- 
jc&s themfelves only wrought on us/ 
How ^mnch, think you, does the way the 
World takes in difcourfing df Beauty, 
Honour, Grandeur, Glory, Infamy and 
Affronts, contribute to increafe what 
thefe objeds would naturally raifein our 
paffions? This is of that extent, that 
one may fay,That the additional corrup- 
tion is infinitely greater than the Natu- 
ral one. 

§.6. Befides, thofe objeds fthich have 
a Natural' >connedion with JConcupi- 
fcence, and on which it looks with a di~ 
red eye, Man having applyM himfelf 
to^ number of others, Whether as means' 
to procure thefe by, or to' fupply the 
tteceffities of Life, to Hum its evils and 


.* • * • 

inconwoiencea, to eftercife Wit or Car 
riofity j and ferny* havia&foafld fcMral 
tsaths, cither by the Light of Reafbn aot 
perfeOly txtiMoift t in hta, or by, the 
uMb^&ioBGodhaabmptas'dto srrft 
bun of hhnfeUy and of things Devise* 
whereof all Nations have had fane trws 
Idea's* he has, befidet all this, frairf dto 
himfeif nany ©titer notions of I doe's of 
God, of his Gr«»tv*c* of Good aad 
$ril« Vertat, Vktf^thias* Temporal and 

$. 7-BiHk bappcostvltiift fifatfianes 
thff« Idetfj, that dungs Spiritual (be* 
jpg fi» seBMgvMftom.hsySoai oaOwrM 
toftafe, and tt*fcingnoliwiyajidicff- 
ftle io|t|eflk»«t bis Mirtd $ aad start* 
over being littfehnowri «r lov'd by tb» 
eenqapp fort of People,) hare franrtl 
and imprinted io the Soul* bat ebftare 
aaddMfci&IdeB't aad Notions of the*- 
fWv<$, They areoaty feen» as it were* 
at an infinite diftance, and fo appear to 
the 8<^ ptogortlon^ h^fiffl'd More- 
over they are. foea atone, defttts&Bkof 
aBfnppert; that is, they are tot teea bt 
other Mea at all, If conpar'd to thofc 
objefts, thofc paffions) thofc defires, 
which eatege thek own Mea^nd which 
make them fektokt o% as things that arc 
great aad deferable. §. 8. 

§. 8. The fame happens aot in things 
temporal. Coacupifcence brings them 
dofetous^aBd^aJkesusthrwugWy ferfr- 
fible of them. The livelinefs of thfelfen- 
timent, join T d go the esaraordinary (fe- 
int we perceive others have for the time 
things, increafes their Wca. We rates 
them not by their true intrinfick raise; 
tut by that they carry id the opinion of 
Others. Thus whilftw^e excite and dat- 
yte each other in bvlrig and conceMnt 
them as great and eftlmable, they tfrft 
feize on ourjadgments, and alter wards 
tafce&fl pdtfeflian of our hearts and af- 

§. 9. The 1 Idea's vW have of God, of 

things Sternal, of Heaven, Heft,of Vite 

and vertue, are of the ftrft kind. They 

aire fptritual and refinM Ideals, fcarte 

ienfible , very dark and cloudy } the; 

move and affect tisjlrttfe, and are very 

cou&sM. Alfthefe raft objecls,6y the 

weaknefi and ftott-fightethiefs of out 

onderfhmdtngs, are rednCd to a point 

arrnoft farperceprible, and fcarce take 

they up the leaft corner of dot heart 

and mind winch fe often top-fu l of fe me 

pinfottrHte. We can neither apprehend 

theMffOenfrtyofGorf, nor the unlpeak* 

-able joys of Heavett, nor ttkt dreadful 


**4 itf>f t|e Jfcattfiet 

pains of the damnM, nor the beauty of 
vertue, nor. the uglinefs of Vice. We 
fcarce know any thing but their Names^ 
and Tomething, I know pot What, of dull 
?nd obfcure aniwering thereunto, which 
of itfelfhasriopowerto work ;or make 
any impreffion on our underftandings. 
. §• 10. . But the notions we have of No- 
bility, Riches, Grandeur, Reputation^ 
Valouj:, [of thofe endowments of ' Mind. 
andBpdy which are grateful to, and e- 
fteemM in the World, as addrefs in bu/T- 
nefs, agreeablenefs in Converfation. elo- 
quence in Difcourfe, and generally of 
whatsoever is valued by Worldlings, are 
of thelecond kind. We do not oneJy. 
comprehend and as it were feel what! 
thefethingshaveof real (but moreouer 
we allow them a greatnefs they have not, 
framMby the Model of our own pafli- 
ons, and the falfe notions we know o- 
thers have of them. For as I have faid, 
?tis enough *hat any thing be efteem'd 
and fought after by others, to make us 
believe it deserves to be fp, fince by ha- 
ving it we! look on our felves as fur- 
rounded by that crowd of People who 
judgpadvantageouay ofus, and account 
us feppy focbeii?g Owners of it. \ 
r .. §\ * I -' , TT& for the fame feafbii,we con- 

. ceive 

M€onM&tia\t %6j 

ceive things oppofite to thole I have 

1 here obferv'd, as evils incomparably 
greater than they are ; and we frame to 
our felves Idea's which make them ap- 
pear frightful , becaufe we know how 

' contemptible they are amoogft Men, how 
expos'd to their raillery, and to what a 
lowftate of abjedion they reduce Men 

/in the opinion of the World/ And as 
it is this low (contemptible ftate, which 

; human pride, cannot endure , lb are we 

; thereby inciinM to lotok oh it , asa great 
evil * whatfoever may reduce us there- 

§. 12. Properly therefore in this er- 
roneoufnefs or our Idea's confifts the cor- 

' ruption of our mind. Now the ordina- 
ry means by which we receive thefe falfe 
Idea's is fpeech, fince it is no lefs a truth 
of the opinions we have of the greatefl: 
part of things of this World, as to their 
meannefs or Grandeur , than of the veri- 
ties of Faith, that they come by hearing. 

* For thefe Idea's were fram'd in us for the 
molt part when we were uncapable to 
judge of things by our felves, and that 
we only receivM fuch impreflionsaswere 
communicated to us by words. Whilft 
we were in this condition certain things 
were prefented to us as evils , others as 

N good*. 

goods. Thpfe who have difcours'd to 
jis of ttefo' things* have imprinted iritis 
thq Idea- s of their own ieatiinents^ and 
We haw acaiiiomM our felves to lobk 
^oa them with the fame c eye, and to join 
wkh them the fame Motions and Pafli- 

J. 13.. That corwptictti which 'jfco- 
: , s. from cilcwide Is l lb much the 

^greater^ as" the !aumber ; of tT&e wickfed 
-exceeds that of tfie^ood $' beftfdes , die 

. vertuous: having not alio always teen 
veirtubus, nor being yet' peHfe&lylb f 
there remaintngjet in them the relicks of 

. .their natural corruption , it comes to 
pafs that the common' Language of the 
Worid is that of Concupiscence which 
there rules and governs ail. ^Theldea of 
Grandeur and meannefi, of contempt 
and efteem, is always faftenM to objects 
as they are represented by Cobcupi- 
fcence ; fo that it is no matter of wonofer, 
if corruption be fpread abroad by the 

§.14. There is none therefore who 
lias not realbn to complain of thole 
wounds he has receivM in his Soul from 
the words of Men , and who cannot tin* 
iy fay to God Almighty, that the difcour- 
fes of the wicked have prevaHM over 


: 1! 

v hifij. They ;have ^wrevail'd over as in 
our youth when we were. not able to 
Jnakehead againft them, they.y«t con- 

- tkually prevail oven us by < tfctfc interest 
and > intelligence tt>ey have ^wkhia<us, 
iwhilft they make usappreheod: things ei- 
*«her qOtt eotherwifel, or at leafi greater 

^. t$i Foricisnottobeimigk'd^that 

i the defire \we have of dedicating our 

tUfes to God 7 nay nor our aftual con~ 

- verikm to him r does entirely take away 
* the corruption 6f our minds , and make 
w &t v a true value on^ every thing. Itis 

,.trne,*when we deliver our felvcs up (so 
God* Almighty, we. then preferoiwB bc- 

-foresail his Creatures ; but this, prefe- 
rence is but fmail, and in nowifeanfwers 

- that infinite disproportion there is bo 

- twixthimandhis Creatures, things tem- 
poral artd eternal. The advantage God 

- has over the cjfcjeds of Concupiftence is 
often but very finall. We yet fet a va- 

' lue oo Creatures, and on the convenien- 
ces of this. World , infinitely above what 

\ they defefve. We are yet near an Equi- 
librium j let us put never fo little into 

a one fcale , that is , let ps but a little in- 

- create that irapreffion the things of the 
World make on our Souls, they will 

N 2 with 



*«8 tiHtfce danger 

with cafe again recover their Empire, 
. and carry the Caufeagainft God. 
* ' §• * $• Now there is nothing likelier to 
produce this fad effedt than the difcour- 
fesof Worldlings , becaufe they conti- 
nually renew the falfe Ideals we have of 
things of the Earth, and always fhew 
thofe of God ia that obfcurity and mcan- 
,nefs which brings on then) the contempt 
of fo many ; and thus they continually 
-renew our wounds. For this reafon there 
is fcarce any advice of greater impor- 
tance , than that die Wifeman gives in 
thefe words. Keep .watch on thy [tlf^aad 
take cart xohdt thonheareft : for^thyeurmy 
is therein concerned. Cave fibi tm Mtcme 
diUgcntcr audim tup^ cfmiam csmfqbvcr- 
fidhe tH4 andndas. Our failings come 
for the moft part from our falfe judg- 
ments, thefe from the falfe impreffi- 
ons we receive from the commerce we 
have one with another by the means of 
ipeech. v 

§. 37- It is hard to (hew how many ill 
things happen s I do not fay in the dif 1 
courfe and converfation of dHbrderly 
People, but even in that we uftally have 
with the common fort of the World. I 
fpeaik not of grofs palpable faults^where- 
cf thofe are fufficiently aware who never 


fo Kttle watch over their felves , fuch as, 
is fecret detra&ion , virulent raillery, a 
too great freedom in difcourfe, or 
maxims plainly erroneous \ 'tis of a num- ; 
ber of lefler faults of which none take- 
notice. We cannot lend an attentive . 
ear to the ordinary difcpurfes of the , 
World, but we (hall perceive a number^ 
of fentiments all human , and quite oppo- 
fite to truth. In thofe, anger , revenge, . 
ambition , avarice, luxury are juftified. . 
Many things which God condemns are 
there., fpoke of with honour : there all * 
lefler vices find approbation , nor do they 
create in us a horrour but when they are < 
in their higheft excefs. 

$. 18. Should we be free from faults of . 
this nature, yet are there others ahnoft 
inevitable. It is not often convenient to 
(peak of things facred, we ought there* 
fore to make thofe of the World the fub* 
jett of our difcourfe ; and thefe are ne- . 
ver without the mixture of fome danger. . 
Of them we can never either (peak our 
felves, or hear others talk without think* 
ing on them -, and think on them we can- 
not without bringing frefh into our 
minds the Idea's which both we and o- 
t hers have of them 4 and as it were ma- 
king them more pCefent there, and by ? 

N 3 con- 

confequence more capable of working 
on Oar thoughts. 

§. 19. Theorditt?rjr^dila)TirfesofMcn 
have for attendants two things j a for- 
getfulnefs of God y and an^ applicati- 
on to things of this World ; and from- 
theft two come ail temptations. Adam 
when innocent loft himfelf only by for- 
getting God) and applying himfelf 
through this forgetfulnefs to contem- 
plate his own beauty > and that of other 
Creatures. How much the more apt to 
be loft by the fame way is Man, now be- 
come a Sinner ? What elfe do we in 
thefe entertainments but admire human 
endowments \ andfuch things as are ac- 
cording to the World, either gloriott, 
profitable, or convenient ? Nor need we 
afiy other fin to damn our felvesith&n foto 
admire thefe things as to prefer them be- 
fore Almighty God, And what can more 
difpofe us to do fo, than to hear themdif- 
coursM of, and that with efteem r and 
id become full of thero, by utterly for- 
getting God ? 
- §. 20. It is almoft impoffible butthat 
the greateft part of human dilcourfes* 
wherein Religion hathnofhare* flxmld 
be full of felflties. Ear ftoiigkm it fo 
n&f ly Um& & things of tWf World 


by the relation they have to their laft 
end , whkh is God Altmghty , that we : 
connot rightly judge or ahy but by it. 
For by it they are either advantageous 
or diladvantageous., harmlefsbr dange- 
rous , praife- worthy or contemptible, 
good or bad. The price they bear in 
themfelves is nothing 5 they borrow it 
entirely from, that relation they have to* 
the foveraign good. So that confider- 
ingthem as it ufually happens in the or- 
dinary difcourfe of Meri,without relation* 
to God and the ( next World , it is al- 
mblt impofQble to fpeak rightly of them, 
and that difconrles ( where they are fpo- 
kenof ) IhouW not fill with illufion and- 1 
ifr notions thofe who hearken to them. 

§. j 2i. There arefomewho think to 
avoid this, danger by. letting ns know, 
that what they fpeak of taay be con- 
fifler'd with two different Afpefts , one 
looking towards the World*, and the o- 
ther towards God j and by further act- 
vertifing us that they difcourfe only of 
them with relation to the World ancf hii- 
man fentiments. And.thi&it is they or- 
dinarily exprefs by tbefe words, human* 
fyfp**!@?£* Humanly fpeaking, laythe^ 
the condition of Perfons of Quality is 
very happy. §itfh an one, huqjailly fpeak* 

1 N. 4 ">&* 

27* iDttty&m&tt 

ing, hath great caufc to be offended with 
fuch treatment. Humanly fpeaking, one 
cannot find fault with his reientment ; 
as likewife, that fuch a thing mult 
prove very ungrateful. Thus they be- 
lieve they do fufficiently let the World 
know that they ought to judge otherwife 
of thefe things if they took another view 
of them. But there is great reafon to 
fear left fbme fecret illufions lurk in di- 
fcourfes of this nature, and that they 
fpring from a terrain addrefs of Self- 
love , which Cnce it cannot totally extin- 
gui(h the light of Truth and Religion, 
condemning thefe fentiments which we 
call human , is glad neverthelefs by tht$ 
device to give them fome place in its 

§. 22. To difcdver this fecret deceit, 
we ought to confider that thefe fenti- 
ments we call humane , and of which we 
here (peak > are fentiments of Concupi- 
fcence contrary to the Law of God and 
his eternal Juftice. There is no refent- 
pient of an injury that's humane, which 
i$ not alio injuft becaufe it proceeds from 
Self-love i audit is always unjuft , that 
we Ihould love out felves with a love of 
this kind which is terminated in our 
fejves, without relation to God. It is 


unjaft that we do not conceal and 

9 » 

by fome (mall injufy, having fo many Di 
Vine motives inciting usto the love of our 
Neighbour. It is unjuft that we ibould 
be troubl'd aad( take on for the harm; 
hedoesus, and that we ftould not have f 
the like fentiments for the ill be does; 
himfelf. In like manner moft of thofc 
judgements by which we look on certain * 
human endowments as advantageous* arc< 
falfe and irrational tit is absolutely .falfe 
that Grandeur is an advantage yit is on- ** 
ly ufeful to procure us fome certain fina 11 - 
Jwnan contentments * and is infinitely 
prejudicial to our eternal Salvation. 
Now what is only ferviceable to attain' 
fotne little mean ends , and hinders us 
in our Way to thoft of greateft import-* 
ance, is> abfolutely fpe^ing , difadvan- 
tageous. Neverthelefs whilifc we- by 
tjiis device pretend to fpeak of thingi 
only humanely, we take from before our - 
eyes what thefe judgements have of falfe 
and unjuft, that there we may fee no-t 
thing but what agrees with, * and*' 
flalters concupifcence. - ". 

§ 23. The truth is, when we ufe the'e* 
words,, humanely /peaking ., we mean not » 
fpeaking falfly; injuftly,.um^afonably.- 
The Ideas of tbofe words do not: at alb 

*N 5 . - ftrike 

174 *tmmm* 

ftrteonr brain^ we only ootffakr tint 
die things wc (peak -of agree *ny well 
rath the nature rf Jfari 3 and*d<* t*fe r 
confidm*ario* *fc iDtcrroik no dffifte or 
ackrofcviedgwent of the feifity they am- 
tain. Nny, o© the' contrary we ratter 
gbc oarfccrtt approbation, by which 
vmnonM hide ivta tbey*t*e of mngfc 
tf and faWtwder this term of Humm, 
whklnsvcpg oad *iollifie* the era. 

$• 24. ft item* that there are three 
Qaflcsor Ranks 5 as it were, of farti* 
meats v fome jaft, others usjuft, tiie third 
humane*, with as many degrees af Jodg- 
ments^fome true,othert fafie, and a third 
humane. In the mean time it is not fc, 
all judgements areeither true or fatie* alt 
fentiments juft or imjuil : and it is abib- 
lotely neceflary that thofe fentiments and' 
judgments we call humane be placed in 
the one ? or the other of thefe Clafles. ; 
and for oeing humane , that is conform- 
able to the defires and eoncupifcence of 
Man, they will be neither lefs condemn- 
ed norpunilht by God Almighty. 

§. 25 It is lawful to fpeak humanely 
ei things , when we Ipeak as S. Paul did :. 
Nonm carnales eftit , & fccHndnm homincm 
ambuktis. He tells the Corinthians that 

they did aft humanely^that they beha?'& 




tftsmfelves acceding to Mwfott ftfJitd 
not thfc to Wrttffe #ir behaviour * fept 
rather to coridemp qnd reproaqS tfiepn 
with it 9 and m^iftft to them its ori- 
girie. But this is not the uft we put jhqfe 
words to , we makeup of th$m toltfAe, 
leflen^afld cjcflfcyicc, m& famff WF 
own minds as well $s thofe pf o$er$ t far 
a falfe outward* appearance w^cb waJf^s 
themfeem conforjnabk to the dtfj&tps 
of Reafon, fuch as is to be fpupd in the 
World , that is , to the dictate* of de- 
pravM and corrupted Resfoiu 

§ f 26. Not only in this rencounter, but 
alfo in an infinite number pf others, ft 
is . that we make ufe of this actfceff to 
kffen crimes , whilft we conQder only 
that part of them which ibewingns no- 
thing of what they have of horrible, 
fets only before our eyesi what i^io be 
found in them of grateful and »ttMK 

What Idea does this Word Gallantry 
leave in us ? The Idea of foniejt^mg 
grateful both to the mind and £*l£*Sr}' 
and yet under this Word do we <;bnqegfc 
We greijtefl: crimen ' How do* v^ JjKsak 
x>fone uho.l^ath rsvefiitcj ^ih.^ 
'hathiiUM his Fqein a Uwd^rW^ \mb 
septusM an affront in a haughty proud 
• ' manner? 

i 7 6 mtf**wwt 

manner ? how do we fpeak of one who 
bydifbrderly ambition raifes himfelf to 
Ecdefiaftical, Dignities ? We fhaU find 
that the words here made ufe of make a s 
conibtehend nothing but what is very 
pardonable, and therefore we mult needs 
" lay , That the profpe<t we thus take of 
things reprefent theita quite different to 
' what they appear to God, who con- 
demns to Hell Men for thofe adtions, 
wherein we fcarte can conceive any thing 
that's criminal. 

§. 17. Man is arrived at that height 
of corruption, that it is now no flsatne 
not to bean honeft Man. We fay with- 
out fear of being difgracM , that we are 
naught y notivorth any thing. We fay 
this 9 that we may be believ'd , and we 
are Co ^ and yet ? what's aftonilhing, we 
are neither for it lefs efteem'd , or even 
pity'd. The reafon Is , The World fa- 
llens its thoughts only on a certain ap- 
parent hqnefty and candor , which we 
(Hew in acknowledging bur own difor- 
ders*, nor does it pals farther than lb, nor 
receives it any other impreflions from this 
kind of Difcourfe. We have a certain 
kindndsfor the candor of thofe that talk 
afttfhimtei nor do wd pity ; the mifery 
they are Inland the little Tenfe the> have 





Of a01H)fVHill0li# 277 

of it i lince that appears not in their dip 
courfe which only difcovers to us their 
honeft plain dealing. 

§. 28. For this reafon there is no fe- 
xious Man who hath not caufe to make 
this continual prayer to God > , Dominc- 
libera mea a labUs iniqitisJfr a lingua 'dolosa* 
The talk of the World is foil of illufion 
and deceit 1 their praife is given to what 
we ought to flight, and that is flighted 
which ought to be praisM. It induces 
us to defire what we (hould (hun, and to 
fear that which we ought not. Itrepre* 
ferits to us as happy and fortunate Inch 
*as wie ought to regard as miferable j on 
the contrary, others are defcrib'd to us 
as unfortunate, whom we fhould cfteem - 
the happieft of Men : And what's molt 
aftonimmg is, That even the Difcourfe 
of VertuousPerfons is not free from il- 
.lufion, fince they in many occafions bor- 
row from the World its Language V nay* 
they are fometimes obliged to do fo. For 
they would not be underftbod^ did they 
talk a Language fo different from that 
of others. Sometimes they call good and 
eyil which the World call fo .• They lye 
iifldey an obligatipn of fpeaking with 
'.reipqdtofftver^ 1 things the World e- 

.fteems but too ' much, aad their words 
""" "■"" * "" ~ being 

Txfag underftood by others in the feme * 
fenfe the World takes them in r and thetr 
hearers fubftiiuting their own Uca% k : 
happens, that againft their Wills they 
help to augment thofe falfe impreffioas 
which are the fource of all Vice. So that 
when we beg 6f God to be freed ab ha- 
tnine qui perverfa loquitur, we ought not 

therein to comprehend the wicked only^ 
but our prayer fhould extend it ftlf to* 
whatfbever partakes of that general in- 
fection which is found in the language of 

§;2?.Hris this, that renders filence foufe- 
ful, and has caus'd it to have beien fo 
much recommended by the Saints. For^ 
whilft it hinders the falfe Idea's imprint- 
ed in our minds by the difcourfes of Men y 
from being renewM and ftirM up again ... 
by the like , difcourfes, it at once makes 
them left lively, and eafier to be quite 
blotted out* , Brit fince it is not pot- 
fible that . thqfe who are engaged in & -.< 
wordlytife, fhould fubftratt tHetfifelves . 
from the difcourfes and entertainment of 
Men, and that even herein confute the 
greateft Employment bf their titne, they , 
arc obiig'd to feek after other: remedies 
and prefhrvative^ jjgalnift ' this ' tfoi'nrcti- ■ 
on; For if it bt neceflary that tfi^jr live 

in the World, to comply with thehr en- 
gagement therein, there is yet; a greater 
neceflity they fliouM not be corrupted 
by it Npnepelffty;noengagemeilt,can: 
663ige bs to fill our heads with lyes, nor 
to live in a continual illufion j and no 
body ought to be fo wretched as to think, 
that felfity and error ought to be the 
allotment of his flat e and condition. 

$. 30. NTdw as Error cannot be de-> 
ftreyM but by the light of Truth, tis 
ofegr that tfic only means to dilpel thofe 
mifts which the difcourfes of the World 
continually caft on our Underftandings,. 
istobeconftantlyfwriifliing them with 
contrary Principles of Truth, For this 
seaibn St. JtAm Chryfofam told his Flock* 
That he would never leave telling them that 
they ought to judge of things by what they hoi 
in them of real and trnejmi that they ftould 
not fermit themjehes to be carry* d away ty 
falfe opinions y that they Jhonld learn mat it 
was to be a Slave ^ to be Poor y to be Nobl$l 
tebehafpy^ and what fajftori was. This-, 
according to this Father, . is the true Sci- 
ence of Men-, which confifts not in a 
barren knowledge of things, which we 
may as well be ignorajitof a? know \ ttotj 
m the knowledge of ttoarnTruths,which 
#e the Principles "of our dfcfire* an? 


. * i u 

a 80 

a&ions, T and confequentfy of par eternal 
happinefs or mifery. ,, 

§,31. But fince that our JWmd f cte- 
firing to judge oif things according, to» 
Truth, is perplex t and obfcurM by thefe 
imprefrions and judgments, it would not 
be amifi,tbat we piay be freed from them 
to forget both our (elves and the reft of 
Mankind, and to confider only what God 
himfelf judges thereof. - For. fince the 

Srfedion of Man confifts in loving" 
eatures as God loves them, the way 
to this perfe&ion is to endeavour to 
knowandfeethemas he does:, for this 
true fightand knowledge qui onlyregu-. 
late our love. . This fok reflection would 
often fuffice to make that imaginary. 
Grandeur webeftowon things humane; 
and temporal, difappear from before- 
our eyes, and to let us fee what Self-love 
ispljeasM not to, fee, that with greater, 
tranquility it may employ and bufie it felf 
about them, - \ 

J §.3*2 . That we may fix this judgment,. 
it is neceflary we lh6uld fully and lively* 
perfuade our felves,Thatthatonly is true, 
that God judges fb*,that we fhall be judged 
according t6 this judgment God inakesr* 
that ft is the ible rjilpb four ^ftions,and 
that cfeingj. Truth, it felf, * whatfoever. 

■ * fwerve* 

fwerves from it, is falfe, deceitful and 
illufory. I fay, of this we ought to be 
fully and lively perfuaded, that we may 
accuftom our (elves to meafure by this 
Rule all thofe judgments aad actions we 
call Human ^ and that we may thoroughly 
convince pur felves, that let them ap- 
pear never fo rational, they in effed are 
as God, that is, as Truth, judges them to 
be,and as the Angels and Saints fee them, 
$.33. Thus we (hall pra&ife what St-' 
P**/feys, when he commands us to Walk 
hmefily as in the day. For he means not 
that day made by the Sun, but by the 
Light of God. And his meaning is, That 
4$ the Sight of MeA, inclines us to fquare 
our adions according to their judgments 
for fear of difpleafing them,from whence 
comes exterior civil Honefty. In like 
manner the Sight of God, (hewn us by 
the Light of Grace,lays an obligation on 
lis to confult his judgments, that we may 
thereunto conform our aftions, in which 
true Hon^fty,that is true Vertue,confilb- 
And this isaUb what is, more clearly $** 
preft in that paflagc of the Wife-man, 
where fpeaking of the Life of the Juft,hc 
lays, That they wiUfan&ifie their Souh in 
the fight and preface of God. Etin emffeHn 



PART n. 

The true Ideas of things* 

§. r.TTwouldbe an ettdlefs labour to 
X decftre what God and his Saints 
Ridge of all tjhe things vte fee in this. 
World? fince this atone would compre<» 
feeqd wlraliteve* qajj be faid with truth. 
If will neverthf tefs fc>£ w<Htb our pains tp> 
aafeeaa Eflay* t^lioraeJ; ^grip^ 
pal objeft^ofM^sdcfe^% tljaxun^y 
fcro fbr a Modsl how t? judge <?f ajTi 

Efcf+khktD teob^Mth^thcd^B^ 
lfcreis not, to confide* how to>fpflafc of 
tWhgaof thkWcrW> butoplyhow yi?e 
e^hjf to judge of thest* wiacfc is quite 
another thing, 
words and judgment 

for their Rule, yet it dot* not always 
happen that what Juffices to jaftifie our 
Judgments k ilrojnfuffidint to dotte 


fame for our words. Oar judgments 
ought only to be fram'd conformable to 
thatparticular Truth they conflder, but 
our words over and above this ought to 
agree with that other Truth* which dis- 
covers tons that proportion they ought 
to have with thofe to whom we {peak. 
Hence it follows that be would ill under- 
fond what we Audi fay hereafter, who 
ftould conclude thatit were lawful upon 
all occafions to ufe a Language confor- 
mable to the Motions and Idea's we fhall 
give of feveral things. They are only 
proposed to regulate that interior Lan- 
guage every one fpeaks to hiinfelf, not 
that exterior one they ufe towards ©* 
titers. The Notiens imprinted in tie 
generality ofthc World of tbefc things, 
are too different frond thofe Truth obli- 
ges us to haroe, for m to hope to lee 
them changM all at once, and to make 
cfcrrant a Language fo contrary to what 

Nay, bar very actions have not alto* 
gether the fame Rule with ourieota* 
raent*} for there are IbmeEtrfons, to 
whom more exterior refpect is tine* 
though we approve and efteem them le& 
Since the Rule of exterior Civility i& the 
place and rank the World tas allotted 



them, whereas Reafon only ought tore* 
gulate our interior efteem. But as this is 
only interior, fd gives it cot . to any occa- 
fibn either of offence or complaint, T^hus 
thofe of whofe worth Twth permits us 
not to frame a favourable judgment,tave 
noreafoii to be offended with thefeMax. 
ims, fince we only treat here of interior 
judgments wherewith they have nothing; 
to do, Thefe concern them not, nor. 
would it be at all beneficial to them, that 
they fhould be deceitfully made to fliew 
them efteem and honour: 

'Things ttmf&rd..- 

. §.2. One of our greateft miferies U^ 
to fet too high an efteem on temporal 
things •, and the reafon we do Co is, be-j ; 
caufe wefcarce ever conlider our feives 
but in that fmall part of our duration 
which makes up our life here. We lhut 
our feives up in time, and become part * 
of Chat Fbncx which hurries it away 
without looking any further. , Hence 
does that falfe Grandeur we allow to > 
things of this World take its rife, . 
aodjthe only means to undeceive our.: 
iefres,' is to take another profpeft, and 
to look on *wr feives r ft ch . as really we. < 

vareiri truth and in. the fight of Almighty 
God. Now.confkleriflg our felves thqs^ 
; we forthwith find that we have an im- 
mortal Being, whofe duration extends 
: tb&n eternity that follows, and that we 
. are ordain'd to be eternally happy or 
miferable. If after this we confider the 
~ Jpace of our Life in this infinite duration^ 
-■tvefliallperceiveitappearbut as an im- 
: perceptible Atome to us. 

: S* 3* Man compared to God Almigh- 
: ty is not only nothing ; but even all Men 
: together to him appear but as a drop 
; of Water to the whole Oce?n, as (bine 

- of theProphets {peak j but all the great- 

- joefs : and advantages of the World com- 
: parM to the leaftof Men, are alio to be 

lookt on as nothing, fince they fill up but 
l anindivifible point of his duration ; fo 
that taking it whole and intire they nei- 
ther eta fet a greater value op it, nor 
make it more happy, Eternity admits of 

- no meafure, or comparison. If fo, what 
is a Kingdom en joy M during the {pace of 

l thirty years, and tfmt even of the whole 
. Univerfe ? what fome fmall Principali- 
ty in this Kingdom? . what (hall we fay 
of die feveral degrees and ftates under 
a'thofc of Princes ? to what a fnrprizing 
littlenefs does this Prolpeft reduce theptf 
/ and 

I V* ' 


, «iidocoafiba of bis canity. ^ 

§r4. It? k ftrange-to imagine whatnif- 
Sealtf Mew have toperfwarethemfelrjcs 
Of the nothiagnefs of :tfccJVDrW,(fittc 

> tlft things tfhatfeever mind them' at it. 
^Vhfltelfeisttw-Hiftory df MenaadNft- 

> r tfeosjt«t«<«otiiiioaldoi«ne^ thafcfcejn- 
'B0J4I things are nothing ?*« byrdefcrt" 
bin* to to what they were, actihefcqie 

-time 4hey '4et'j»fte ( th«y ate no njpre : 
They tell as that dl th^Greatnefiialfchat 
HVMnp -which from tkne to t*ne>was tire 
^tfonderofMen, 'tha*aUtihofe3?«ntes, 
431 tihoft<3onqoerMr9^kfe^theiir'««g- 
•lfificence and^wat'-Efefigns,; uemxc- 
'fpett of -us Shrank intio«noaung5 that 
Aey-were certain* iwpours *hat>are di- 
^Jerft, certain • phantafmes that are 

"TanKht. . , , _ 

• * fi ■>{ .What canwe in the»wodd defcry 

'Wprobfi^f'this very Troth?: For ndo 

•n6t«we-at every ho»«Tee«hofe difappear 

-who i have lbeen> fe«n j with the greataft 

fpleridory arid -made the greateft aoife 

-during iheir Life, w)M&> there remains 

. nothing^of them botaoffighfrafld* fading 

-memory? Do nbtwefee that all things 

are continually ft»fllov»M np dntheabyfs 

of tunepaft?- that even <jut life flips 


tMitof 6«r Jmnds/tbat what of itisfpcit 
appcairsiK) more to our light, sod that 
traeJiathtourrkd'away all our tntteties, 
all our^eafc*es t all the trouble* swtd 
caries we have felt, < *ritho*r leaving be- 
fimd ^any other remembrance of thtf&i- 
felvesthanfbcttasdiminsido. And it is 
for this reafon the Wife-man bid us 
look on tertporal thingsr as on the fond 
imaginations which trouble our fleep : 

% 6. And what is mofbidrcadfidin 

this is, thfcton one fide we TOll notcon- 

' £eive the nothingneftoftbe Worldy and 

onthe other we apf>r&hend it bit Coo 

l imich. Whatf6ey^spaft and gone ^wc 

Ibok on' as nothing, -all thofe that are 

klead are nothing with 4is. We take 

1 thofe Whofe anions are' recordediin 

Story fbi* People nho have been, {mtare 

no more ; nor do yvettfkd: that they 

yetHve more than ever y becabfe their 

-Sotilsare infinitely itibre a&ive, and that 

this Life producing only rveak andlan- 

gailhing actions, is rather to be efleem- 

ed a Hate of Death than Life, in wfpeft 

of the other. Itisalfo hence that we 

nonrHh in us an efteem for th£ Grandeurs 

of this World: becatofe we*ake them to 


x88 tttyettttegaeft 

beas durable and lafting as our felvesi 
nor do we dream that we oaly fubfift 
whtift they perilh; and thus that thafe 
who were once JVf afters ef them ceafenot 
to be, although they fhall be deprived for 
alt eternity of thofe things which were 
the object of their pride. 

Humane Glory. 


§. % What fhall we fay of this wordly 
Glory, which makes fo deep on impref- 
fion onout Minds ? what has it of lolid 

- and real in the light of Almighty God ? 

' It fiibfifts only io the knowledge we have 
erf the good opinion others have for 
us/: And theft for the moft part are inch 
as know us little, love us not much, and 
whofe judgments, even in our opinion, 
are neither folid nor greatly to be va- 
, hiM ; fo that often in all other things we 
flight and Contemn their fentiments. Be. 
fides, the favourable opinions others 

. have for us, are perfedly ufelefs. They 
addnothiag either to Soul or Body, nor 
do they leflen the leaft of our nuferies. 

. They onely contribute to deceive and 

cheat us, whilft by them we are inclined 

to judge of our felves, not by the rule of 

Truth, but by that of others Mans opi- 

> nions, 


nions-, and having boded our heads da- 
ring Life, whea death comes> difappear 
on the fuddain, for then we have no feqjfb 
or fentiment for fuch trifles : And this 
is that fmoak, that vapour which thus 
fills and puffs us up. 


. The Glory of Saints. , 


§. 8. What a difference then is there 
betwixt this- Humane Glory, and that 
tf hich the Saints lhall enjoy for all eter- 
Jiity ? A Glory as valuable and folid as 
that of Man is vain and contemptible -, 
becaufe it hath qualities quite oppofite. 
The Beatitude of the Elect (hall be ac- 
companied with a Spirit of Society and 
Union ; they lhall know one another 
perfectly, they (hall jointly give glory 
to God for the favours he hath done each 
one in particular. Thus (hall the good 
deedsofeach Saint be known to all the 
reft ; for every one in particular they 
,ftiall be occafions of joy, praife, and 
Thanks-giving for ever. They will caft 
all their Crowns at the feet of the Lamb, 
not their own onely, but thole of all ths 
reft j becaufe they will not only glorifie 
God in thrmfelves, but (hatl glorifie him 
ijj allhii Saints, liflging to him for all 

O Eternity 

♦Eternity, Mirdnlis ^Dentin SMnekis.firii. 

§. 9. O the truly folid Glory of the 
%te€t of God / A G toty that arafifcs 
-not in a fleeting iplendoi 7 bat reateios 
for tiftC-' A <Jtocy mot coafiifd and 
built on the knowledge -of fbme few en- 
vious and ignorant People, but which 
fliall have as nKanywittidlesis there are 
Citizens in the Ctlkfiu&ftierufdkm I A 
<GUKy that caafiftsriotrin theufeJife and 
:r a1h ^pproba tibn of thofe who knew d& 
H9t, know not thfenfelrcs; bat laite 
joy of an innumerable number of Bily 
Souls, who by the light of Truth feali fee 
the bottom, of our hearts. 

The Gloryltf the Wicked. 

% \o. Nwi ftcimf&jton ftc 1 Tfepyhaw 
littfeenjoymtnfe <* their Glory dating 
Life? and it quite tfaniftjes at die hour erf* 
their Death. If For any time it continues 
in the memory of Meo, 'tis aot for thfcm, 
they have no ftare in; it, and when alPs 
<lone, it ihall beintireiydeftroyMattfte 
^day of Judgment. Far the puniibment 
of the wicked fliall be attended on by a 
Spirit of divifion amongfl: themfdves ; 
for the intenfenefs of their torments 
sviJI ib entirely employ them aboot them- 


fclves, that they ftall leave no room for 
< the memory of that efteem others had 
- for thenijwhcnalive. So that there's no- 
thing more literally true than what the 
^Scripture fays, Mmortitm Juftrbormm 
ifttotafo Dmtiy & relkptit memoruunbum- 

"<$>' xi.'.Vkn of*he World ar? taken 

<# whlh nothing more than what they 

c$\i Qudity, caadbtfcat which gives fome 

^dooooienfttionofPerfbn^ of Quality 

*odiftinguih thetn frxMH fach as are not 

to. Tbey eiitonathbdiftinaion To ftr 

th^aManis thought to differ kfs' firttBi 

afeaft, than a Man of Quality from 

' one of mem Birth. This Quality fttffes 

~abnoft allothers^eren the moft Spiritual 

-and Divine. " We do not jonely ratfeit 

;abovfe theSMiaH* * hot rovefl above V^ 

tue^ and. the QfidHtyofbw>gaChrifti- 

tan* and if lit happen, we don^tjtate 

~^te pr^fereaceinipofitive words^at leaft 

we &» in oar: judgment ; that i^ we 

are other-ways taken tip with, and coo- 

cernM about it. For who are they thftt 

-fi&cerelyvafae t±re co^ditiw of z Aor 

-and Uttdanly-bora Chriftiaq above thai of 

O a '■> a 

a debaucht Pcrfon of Quality ? wBa is 
he that can fee the profound abjeftion 
of this Great one, and the high eleva- 
tion of that poor Chriftian ? It is mani- 
- feft therefore that the Idea wehave>of 
Condition and Q**lity dectives us, and 
that it is worth our while to examine 
what there is of folid and real in this 
common objedb\of Man's vanity, to the 
jend we may difabufe our (elves. 

§. 12; To be a Perfon jof Birth and 

Quality according .to tfe 

«e/ thfirft World, is to be jpfung from 

jart oft be Parents, who hold a confi- 

'S2£r #/ fifcraHe. pKde in. the otd^r 

grandeur. ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

Birth of it felf gives ao advantage ei- 
ther of Mind or Body , it takes away 
no defeft, and Perforis of Quality have 
iaults as great as others. There is there- 
fore no folid reafon which makes Per- 
fons of Quality more to he eftem'd than 
others. Neverthelefs becaufe there ought 
£0 be a decorum amongft Men, 'tis with 
-reafon that in fome places cuftom car- 
ries it, that Perfons thus born (hould en- 
joy, the precedence of others^ and bepre- 
-fer'd before them. . . . 
. tf we flop here, there would be no- 
ting of Qfijuft in the' Idea m haye of 


of tW&- — ^ 

wfcat is call'd Quality-: But we proceed, 
further. Of this arbitrary order efta- 
bliflfd by Men 1 upon no grounds taken 
from the Perfonsthemfelves, we create 
another, \hat is natural and indifpen- 
fable, and we accuftonrour (elves to 
look on it as fomething fattened to the 
very Being of thofc to whom wegiv*. 

this precedence. V 1 ; * 

- We do not only content our ieiyes : 
With girittg ; them that exterior and in- 
terior refpedt that is due to them,, 
for in this there . would be nottung 
bat what's rational and warrantable •> ta 
this we add what's not due to them, to x 
wit * A f efpeft wfoich iprings from our^ 
own errors arid corruptions. Weframe * 
to our felves large and auguft Idea?s .of 
thisftate: We look on it as the very 
hfeight of all happinefs ; we defire it our 
felves; we eaavy it in thofe that have it, 
and if we prefer them before others, n tis 
only out of an ardent paffion we have 
for the Goods and Honours they epjoy. 
So that there is no kind of People Great 
ones ought to fear more, thanthofe that 
admire them moft, becaufe they will be 
always ready, if they could^torob them 
of their Greatnefs. 
In the mean time, as the Admirers of 

O 2 Great- 

294 G$t ttttt%m 

Greatnefi are very numerous, and in 
their difpofitioH wc cenfider not that 
malignity which they conccaJ T but only 
that eftecm they make fliew of, they are 
not the leaft contributors to this imagi- 
nary Felicity of the Great ; becaufe in 
them they know thofe fentiments and 
that djlpofition, the proved of which* 
is that which flatters molt the vanity of 
ambitious Souk. 

§. 13. Allthefe jud^jnentstfife &lfe: 
for'tisjiohappineis to receive from, ci- 
thers thefe-mariss of effaces), and *is »♦ 
plain piece of injnftfce intake <teligt$ \a( 
being the- objeft of that, adtpiratiw 
whiohffprings only firom/the cctwuptip^ 
of Man*. Nev«thcIcfvPeriiM$of!Qp%T 
lity^kuowing theientimoote and Itta*^ 
which the generality hare of their ,Gpifr 
diiion* frame: thence the conceit, thay. 
h?ve thereof^ They; look, onthar Qjia~ 
lityas^iocorporated in-ttek Being, .thflp. 
fancy thcmfelves: raisM> infinitely above 
the ^cadgof othec^anjiife isL ataoii in*- 
poffiblsfar ti)emtD£onfidflrthomfcly«s^ 
lovelPd wixh thof^ who ant below them 
ia the. order of the wqchb, Thtfeare 
thofe falfe Idea's, we oaightitp/oftcceft byi 
conlldering the judgment God poflfes on< 
this£ftateu * But «&# judgmaifc paflis 


•ft ttjntpfc agp- 

he ? Ewn tipt tfcefc macks of. Hodoiuv 
tbefdKlefencnoes-cftaJdilhMby Men^ con*, 
tain nothing of tenet and foiid, becaufe 
ttey are only Certxtomtx *»dfhmf void cf 
rectify, 3* 8c. ^/)^^b»^rinsrtlrami: tfe» 
famemift be Grid ofthofb judgments, be-: 
caufe- they arp felfe, and:are afe^leis to> 
ftKfejQS-tJike^icaibKiiiLthcaD^ an&reiir: 
der thofe who do delight therein, rat-. 
ftraMa Tlje,ftidie?5and:delightsiGft|ie 
Gwt ode* Jj» under the fejne cenfure; 
fititcthefe give ocaifjoa ofi great tentan 
tiftus*, andproTe^catobfl^des in their 
way td Heaven., Thbhthc judgment) 
Gdd^afleft on whaowecail Quality and) 
Gfeamefe'. And heaDB it follows* . tfaafe 
vffio jbdga otboavife, jadgearanv^aodi 
tffoatr dubopixfet fcevee grec anotfar? 
Idft&ofcheiB, which. jocUnesusto ddtre* 
thei*whtfi. warning, to< take pic afore kt 
thcGHfrtoen tbfttfa, and to oemtemn thofe; 
\*fto4*£*e ±efn noc^ are falfc ao4 d©-. 
celtM :.. ^ "' 

• * 

f^. 14. Next tobdngborjLNDfal^i^- 
thiftg<ittifegMafl higher inth€ cftqaoofr 
the world, thatt pfolm-^nork: there aojf 
thing the*qj)«teofiwhi(^ctoeua^^<l^ . 

> .\< O 4 degree 

degree flatter perfons of quality, and ' 
touching which they are more fenfible 
and delicate. A Gentleman will fifler 
any reproach fooner than that of want 
of courage, becaufe he know* that 
the world hath allotted valour the higheft 
efteem, and cowardife the greateft infa- 
my y when found k perfons of his con- 
dition. ..'-■» 

If our task he*e wasoriely to juftifjr 
men in this point, it would not be a very 
hard one. For fince it is valour that keeps 
up Kingdomes, and makes them for qai- 
dable to their Enemies ; 'tis with reafon 
(fince the fervkes of all the valiant, 
men whereof a State has need cannot be , 
recompense with rewards *quai» tp 
their deferts) that this quality is oecgnje 
honorable, to the end men may be drawn 
to ferve for this .. kind of reward ; which 
is never wanting. There, is therefore 
feme Juftice in this eftaem, in relation 
to men, and confequeutly fome / aflp; Jg 
relation to God, for he approves all that 
is juft and neceflary tftthe confervation 
of humane focieties. 

But as in the efteem we alio W tf aloof^ 
wc may go beyond the bounds of Truth;, 
attdby faife praifes extol in it what 4e— 
ferves ,no efteem* we muft yst copftfc: 

. . a C/ what 

Of t$fttg& *97 

what God judges of it, and learn of him 
what there is in this quality of real and - 
great > and what only appears fuch by/ 
the error and illufion of Men. ^ 

We may confider Valour <t wo ways," 
either as a pa(Eon , that is , an impreffi- 
on coming from the Imagination and 
Body, or as one regulated, and guided by v 
the Will. To confider it in thefirft way*., 
we may take notice,that as there are fome 
who being raised high above the reft are 
not fubjeft ta be dazPd , nor feel thofe. 
weaknefles caufed by the. force of Imagi- 
nation, on fuch as have not been us'd to 
thofe fearful fights ^ fa there are others 
who either by- Nature, orx>u£ of Cuftom, \ 
are not furpriz?d in the dangers of War 5 - 
who there conserve the fame calmncik 
and pretence of -mind ^ who cart for efee 
all, take all advantages, and to whom 
the fight of an armM Enemy does only 
itrfpire new* vigour and force, to encoun- 
ter and fur mount them ; and thefe are 
thofe we call valiant and Brave Men- . . 
. There's no idoubt but a difpolition, , 
fuch as this , deferves our? efteem, but 
whilft we |ook on it only in this degree, 
the Imagination and Body (hare more in 
it than the Will* For if ii> thefe Perforis 
the .Sp^ritSvftid Blood took Tome other 

" O 5 ; courie: 

8' C$*fW»$)C* 

arfe ^ all their valour could mt ft«f- 
em from fear^as it cannot -hi Bde^ them- 
om bckig ftartled wfeen fme* a<frigli 
ace they look dowriapreoffoe. 
Thujas Godfets &o valtia oo^ahy thing 
i u$ which : knot voluntary and vertu- 
us, if he allow that Men out of ne* 
eflfty ffiould have allotted valour cer- 
am harnari t ewardsv yet dbei he nei ap-* 
>rove that in that }ud^i*»if tfiey fcKetfioiv 
y pafi oh valour r they (braid tiqoatizt iff 
o the Ieaff of thofe V*rfifc*8o is author 
>f* So that tfie- joffA-ifetoiir 6f all Cbft- 
juero^ts cotfrdet M fa tfiis<fe$fcte, M 
is on$ a nalui^di^tSira' df^fe toa- 
phation, dt^icsndtftybe^otopar'dta 
the leaft motion of Gtaee , \vfeidv God 
produced in the htthtdPfomefiflSpte Wo- 
nan v Gnce that all qWaKties purrfy hu* 
tian dye with Man y and* thai the leaffi 
Derbies have effe&s &ai Tubfift for alt 
Eternity: Ttfte Idea m&fbt* whkftth* 
iiftourfes. df the Wdrld frame of Va* 
owxsfelfe^ becauft it exceed* Tftfth^ 
ind that in lieu of leaving k ptee'd a-^ 
hongft purely hurmn qualities > it raties. 
t above the moft v jpiritua! and divine 

But their ilia {Ton is mfitfltefy greater 
ft the judgment they pafe o» valour, con-* 


^f^CflllgSfc 299* 

ffdgrM as'vofontar^that h> on the ufiv 
^at^niadfroflt; f<y they eqiiWy: ?$eenr 
tfco£ that\ art accounted t>r?vp, antfe 
Vaifcmt^ wh^thjcr theft valoui? be accoipr 
pa«fed:if?^h Jqftice 'or ttfuftite, Pi;u- 
denier or t5fl»ef$. 

Nev^i^cIcjS wjrat a modigious djfl&- 
rencc ddrit fR;nth k feffl?. place, betwixt: 

our itv^s } where; bur duty ?nd" Jpftice 
i**Joir^ ^nti ; to? Sacrifice then*- 1» • God 
#h&e he engage* ip-, 1$ 34 ?& of lp £igh 
£g<nerofrty that ^lrifKan Religfep fcs 
nofftiag t^t;** greater. But tot'e^'bofe* 
th^irrm^ri i\i\C3i^ x and fb t$ deash^fail 
mto the' ha'nds of an efxaQreTatje^ afl<£ 
OTtt|pqterir" r Qodf; is fq;' prodigies ^ 
foflyithaft *we need no greater proof* 
of the blindneft. ofi man, than the pl?i- 
dim hjs glory i# fo fenfelefs au a&ipn. 
: |* 1 5. Morover k often happens* that 
MJJJ tfeftrpw 'molt ^tui|uftiy^he.naniepfcoiir 
rtw;s\nd', .valour px*th? greatefr part of 
theje ^£6otis.;Men dp not e*pofe tfteffw 
fekes to. danger became they flight it, but; 
becaufctfrey fee \t tiov Their fouls are 
wholly taken, up; eithpr i)y tljerepown 
tljfy ,pf &ena ' ib#\- pr . Tome; other trifle 
wtocti Ml?ng (he; v^oV capacity of the: 
«io.4i' Wffccals 'alt thiftg* elfe 'from it- 

\ '• - • W* 

30 «$* tiff* '3Hft 

r e watt 0Ht± ftysa man of the world fe 
is McmoktSy to fftaks. our fetves to be fix*. 
Cf That is, to out-dare death and God, 
jmfelfe,by putting our life in hazard fora. 
idiculous vanity. What do yon imagine* 
lid then ftrikethis man's foul/ it was. 
roficd about the thoughts this adtion 
vould raife in thole,, who Jhould hear of 
t, and the praifesit would procure him*. 
This feemMgreat to him, nor did he fee/ 
iny thing elftj yet was this exploit ac- 
ompanied with the danger of death, and- 
he hazard of Hell The praifes he ex- 
>e&ed from men could not (bring but. 
rom folly and blindnefs, whilft even jthe. 
yreateft number of thofe who. arc truly, 
r allant,Ibok on tbefe actions as markes. 
f a. falfe and baftard valour. A mo- 
tient lees them at an end, and 'an eteiv 
lal repentance follows them. This va^ 
tity is in devils the objefl; of their laugh- 
er, ih Angels of their indignation^ in. 
Jod' of his. wrath againft. a wretcfcftf 
ian,, who being, touch t with & little 
read of his Juftice^and ready to fall into 
is hands,dares affront him with fo much, 
lfolence. Thus this action wasaccom- 
anied with a thoufand terrible circuin- 
ances.i ^is tf ue v hhi hte w;as not at all" 
varcofthenr, and. .winded, tjie praiieL. 

Ibleljr ^ 

» ij 7 

fblely and feparately from them all ; he 
lookt on himfelf as placM in the thoughts 
of others, enjoying there the efteem anct. 
repute of valiant ^ and this Idea took; 
him fo totally up , that at once it made.;' 
him forget, G<xl r Death, Hell and Eter- 

§ 1 6. Nothing but a blihdnefs as gr eat: 
as this, can find any thing of gre^t in this 
a&ion : for men difcourfe not' at this 
rate of things, they fee. ajid know.. They; 
could find nothing but what's ridiculous, 
and foolilh in a Prince , who to gain a . 
good name and repute fromfpmeof his 
mean fervants, fhould without any neceP ' 
fity expofe the good of his Kingdome to ! 
eminent danger > how then can. they find "" 
aoy f .genet oUty in thole .. who foolilhly f 
expofe their" Iives r and caii thence hope 
for nothing by death but an eternity of 
torments ? This happens becaufe men ^ 
know full well the Price of i Kingdom^' 
but know not the value, of their own: 
lfyes. This fbleg^dofj^nitbistrje^. 
fore , whole lofs is irrecoverable , thisf', 
price wherewith eternity is hought * is "I 
the thing in, the world, moft . con- i 
teaijh'd and flig^tejl. Ther^rip reward t 
ibpisan and bale for whicKwe feiard; it ; 
npt>. an<Ob£wlbkh at every tqrii Xtk, 

* uot *• 

30i cfettttt 5fDeat 

not. caft, away 1 * Men, leem to t>e* weary* 
of ltfe T finccthcy ftefeto be qntt of it- 
fa raltilyv^nd: forfofraarttriftfei threw it 
away, ihns* we ma^diitOTer as- a cer-. 
tain ttnttb^ttetall.thi^ftife taloor which* 
cafts men headlong into d«fc r ^jpft' 
qparrels and nfelefs dangers x tp which : 
they exppfc-tbemfelyes tfirotgh a rirfi- 

ctiJoW^*? > & ra&ta&:e?ft fcnt either 
a flQt £nowiti£ the rairie ^ or* a ftyrapttnigj 
the fend cfflHfe> adar^enm^ of thr Bat 
which conce^trdanger t or a fboifftran* 
unr ealbhabk 'affip^nce of efcapmg, it i : 
ot lafMyi a vk}Irat.apjrtfcation to. fcmi 
objeft of tfut yafftons.- What j$\ that tie- 
lews our efteero in alijt&r ? isft^a fignr 1 
of aja;\i^ani^elf courage m > dfeafman/ 
B0^ t# ftartlek thetiiunder o£eahiton > ; 
or kl a bftjrd 1 one npt to be ipovM at the 
dr^^* : fShf of ah enemy ? There^ no 
courage rio^tb fendi^di^ Qod Al- 
fehty r BkartK bofaihgtait an horrible 
jldpefe^anfee eprcmptfrQttrftc^ftar.. 
t*pd is ftj ,t«mbfe f Hb^^reo heiias a. 
nijiid i^riiake' Kffflfible (^.hfeang^ no 
y¥c#>rtteiv*a ^lief canrftelter ris from, 
«fei feaft; of J*ft T^anfcr,, and tvm the , 
wfe^ed 3$f6rtfrip tft rtf tltfexceft of 


in weate a**f wtfewlrt* Bfafi to out-dare 
God Almighty r though- fSr a moment^ 
wheh he delays his minffhniefye •, fee tlra* 
Ite runs thchaiafd 6f being' theobjedt 
for evetf of his rigorous Jttftfc$? r whea 
he cannot: at alt hinder hk coming under 
the tefh* 

•- Whanhea rnuft we'thkA of theft 3ra* 
**V, the Wofffi with fi> little jttdgeweTit 
elfe^tB ^nfHith ? Wi nmft tfemfc,iq£ 
jadjge as God judges. Wamuft approve 
6f tbofe he approves, we tmtt condemn* 
thofe he condemns ; and rfiake the diP- 
ferefices betwkct fueK and^fheh. that he 
does : and a4 ftboti&ht- to <feny fi 
theft Ate<^Hb ; 4m- Gfenerofty 
femsvf* dught'%e to batie fbrotheti 
that }»ftCott«empf? which- fad^e totftqk 
ferutifli Valottr. 



more feUd and *ea? fc the QyalHies aqd 
Endorfmeirf* of Mind v <uch as are Scir 
eSces j. Eloquence, a grateful mecu itt 
£em*r fttion > A&hreft hj biHmefij Ca- 
pacity of great Affairs y witfrftrehgtkt 
of Mind and Brain to go through with 
tfcm v a particular PnSence in the con.- 


394 $&6tVtte 

dud of our defigns 9 " and management q£ 
our FortunesFNot at all.The whole value 
we ought to fet on theft , confifts only 
in the ufe we make of, and the end to 
which we refer them. They are necefc 
fary initruments for the Employments 
of Life ; and hence thofe who live in the 
world lye under an obligation of culti- 
vating them with great care, becaufe they 
ought to know, that fince Men have aft 
ilgnM them a great value> 'tis impoffible 
to fucceed in any thing without being 
matter of them. 

But if we feparate them from their 
qie^and our referrin&of t^em to the ho- 
nour of God,;aadthat we only confider 
them in tjiemfei ves , or as the means to 
arrive at fome low and temporal end, 
they lofefo much their efteem and value, 
that the condition of thofe who are ma- 
tters of themy j? WK& all preferable to 
that of others, who want them. And for 
thisi-re^fon $ 'tis of : grc#$ft importance 

"which in the world are*beftow'dou theft 

, Endowments, as confider M in themfelves, 

xa& fepara ted. from tfu^ufe wh^h^ght 

% iQ?^!of.them; •:, .a> \v; "• - - :^.j 

■" 'i' ' r' '• r> ' ■ • • r * .* [ I • • i ■ ' '* ■ 

- r "y-\ 


♦ - 

Wit y or Mgbt vf Mind. 

$.; 1 8. The very Idea we have of what 
is talVd a Man of parts or Wit , is per- 
fectly falfe, and one of thofe whereof 
we the moft of all ought to difabufe our 
fclves. For we call Wit a certain faci- 
lity to learn Sciences r to difcourfe well 
on what's ofier*d, to manage Affairswiihr 
addreft,or to find out fome far-fetcfit In-: 
trigues to bring our defigns to a good 
condufion. But nothing of this goes tot 
the making up of the tr^ie Light of Mind r 
fince thefe Endowments may be found ia 
thofe, who^ 4 to theScriptiireteUs m 1 are 
Wind , Iktlejfoot? r infeniate v and void 
of Uncferftandi^ What is iff then to* 
be a Man of Wit ? Let us: judge thereof 
by taking a view of the fight of 6ur Body t 
which is the Image of that ; lof our Souk; 
To fee well, fee ihii^^ucha&l they; 
are^ that is* to fep wiiat'sl Groat: afc 
greats and whaitfs little as Httla)Tholfe 
to whom a Mountain [ JhoaU -appear & 
Mole-hill, and a Mole-hill a Motetauv 
would be laid to be very ilMgHted. They i 
vfha can ^conceive things that are great j 
as.£ich r and; that with .an apprehtnfioo r 

full of Light and Life-, and titoifee1&i4g*> 


S" „ 

&6 C^:t«tlt.Htta 

that are little in their natural dime&fions, 
without increafing or augmenting them 
by their imagination, are great Wits,and 
lias/of accuratcright Judgements. Tikis 
ho who faid , H* fm*d\ God' a* +finlm\ 
St*, hanging (xm his head $ a&d he who. 
faid yWhoi j kke to thte^ Q, Lord, who is, 

was. one: of a^ great Wixi;bccmife, God. 
appeafrdgraateiiLbtieyes^ and> ho was: 
fctty> poflefb and OQtt?inc ? d df M&M^ 
mfioeace and Gireatticfe; Ht had: tkea 
a.Gght whicbiwas; dear r apd extended: 
terirThusaninfetttai^ offiraplei 
Woipon 7 kha iuconcerns of tjori Mforkb 
4pp&t>o£ no^orts v ara goedtcWits # . i»i> 

[CVTODtD be tonchi aod'feenu 
Wbereaxfibchiasfiayejdnly^i Witto ui^ 
deift^d, a)M9thcmatsU^E)fii^hftaiation^ 
to JOifOTUflffc iwpli y to. cmcy ott-a/btego 
caatfflo od Intnagoe r tarthopt fteihg Uie; 
things o^iheiMat. Wtoltfc tack* agy jo-* 
the^djoienfibiis thaa thofe of atomesy 
apttoth littfeiMfen and. Wi(s 1 and: d©^ 
fccDDnoLOtHpr Names than thofe cbeSari-* 
pture^ftords thereof . Xcnrfe onc^ ftaxud* ^ 
tyjtiapfcy Kitted either; fight & %V :, ;&*** 

- 1 Strength 


^ / 

Strength of Htit* 

- • * 

$ 19. As the Idea whidriscoramoriy 

fram'd of. the Light .Mind i&falfe r fo 
that which wBhairaofitsftwngtk is no" 
leg fa We make it confift in being able 
toiuftain the wdghtdf a great irombc© 
o£ Affairs Y without beingdifmay'd^, ty r t 
ridb or cobfiHUsfaxL with thtm. Bfcboid, ; 
fey* the World, a ftrcmg Brain » thatV 
able to comply witi^andrniaoage fti great, 
a jnmber of di/Ebeent Affairs. . jtot;per* ? 
hapa on the oontraer y : roe ought tafay, ; 
Wtiata weak : Heaji istHis^ ; thai: &uti&& ; 
iouttd of fanpiy. Eanpfoy^ 
(hnit) andrkeep it Bp? and how Kttfe vfcr ; 
goraios thkSoul that waqt f rtfa . nianfr 
props to keep itfnam bripg dnmay?d, or 
wearyi of it fclf* Take theffi Employ* 
merits from thkJMaxw aa&yaraJlmlllpra-r 
fently fee him dull and languishing, *Tis* 
not we, that fuppbrttwriAffais, 'tis they 
that bear us up. In them we-find a Bed 
whereon our Sonfc in: their weakneft it- 
p€& The ftcengbhi and i vigour ©f^^oul" 
confifU in being able to. contiBue without 
tlfcfeUfaja^ and ptaa&og Jtrfeiirtatywittp 
Qodc and in> hte pnefenoei: If there: bn 
anyfttengthi in \ ttofe wi|D9ro.iz0Ci9r^^ 


Q 8 C&e too e $fca 

>ythe tumultuous Employments of this 
Atorld, 'tis a ftrehgth which depends oa 
;be organization of the Body , not a true 

§. xo. It is true there's fomething in 
Man that's great , and let him apply his ' 
tnihd to what he pleafes?there always ap- 
>earifome f/gns of Grandeur and Excels 
emfe : Put eren from this Geamleur 
prbceeds his mifery andineaimefs , when 
lie givtes his mifld to what merits not 
Misapplication, and neglefts thofe other 
things which* only deferve his careful 
fought* andaf&dtion. If Man were left 
:baa ( be is y all tHefe Qualities and En- 
iowtinents would jbe greater ^ and they, 
ire <'bat fticsn! and \lcttle i becaufe he is ' 
:alTd to things of afar higher ftrain^and 
nfinitly more important which he pafles 
)y and negleds, whilft he too much ap- 
plies him&lf to thole other. ^ 

•\ .': • . Smxce* ■ \ : :• H . 

%i 2i. The jgreateft part of Humane - 
Sciences are fo inconfiderable in them- 
Pelves, and contribute fo little to Man's 
felicity, that we are full out as happy* 
irihg in ignorance land contempt, as itt > 
toe knowledge and over? value of them. . 
\ i * . Vanity 

Vanity and opinion fets a price on them, 
and we defire onely to be leairnM for o- 
thers r not for our fcl ves. Hence Seneca^ 
aU Stoick as he was, does confefs that he 
carM not for wifdom, which was the 
Idol of thofe of his Seft, were he prohi- 
bited to difcourfe of it with others •• Si 
cam hac exceftione detttr fafkntia^ut Mam 
inclnfam teneam nee erumciem , rcjiciam. 
That is , the whote reward and fruit he 
defirM to draw from thence , wSs onely 
the praife and approbation he expected 
to have from others. But as opinion fcts 
the rate on fciences , fo doesic aMb de- 
bafe them when it pleafes. Men have 
•b^enpleasM not to judg learning fit for 
-Women ; in the mean time, men do not 
think them miferable, nor are they them- 
selves fenfibk of the want. Some Ladies of 
quality conceal the skil they have in po- 
lite literature calPd Belles lettres^ as a- 
Jhara'dof'it •, and they are in the right, ' 
for there's always fome fhame in being 
burdenM with an ufelefs knowlede. If all 
thofe of that fex who have applyM them- 
felves to the ftudy of curious Sciences 
did the like, they would but thence de- 
fence more efteem. 

§. 22. It is true never thelefs that fome 

-of thefe fciences that are. very beneficial 

*T to 

3 to c^e tme^aa 

to fanmane fockty^ and affctrd to fane, 
great advantages jand for this reafon, it 

r bas been well dw^to^ffix thereunto cer- 
tain honours and rewards > btfc for the 

/ifioft .part thoy procure their owners 

-niorc hatm than gofcd. 

Let lis rtfn<wer all thofe, we kdowito 
have been men of ftitaftd {arts in the 
World, and u|xhi a^deratron we ihall 

^flnrirery few wiahave not thereby befch 

^ damaged as to the iiext World. Had 
nctfiicji an one bcten a Man of parts be 
had mever, been ichofen iBtitop : he had 
ikwr then bcten^harg^dwfhthefinsof a 

.whole Dioccfe. It isi by bis 3»o6d parts 

rtka^ anot&crfis tais'd to agres^t office, 

jand gr^tetapJoymeots, and thereby ta- 
aards bis tooftienc^ through a thou- 
ifecddajkgecottsintrigjtics. If another had 
not had dnredfy Attertmce hebad never 
been a Preacher r and fo ©otfpcnthis 
.Life in an abefive dif|wnfation of Godfs 
ward. WiliiGut pms w^ 
)teartLm.thcWotld, arid^ltriag^rivd- 
•Bcly ;*fc '&jm # •tht»&nd itofiMrwmtoe 

^ ^ tlskaottftoflibk^ fte a 

value on thefe endo wmertts, by confidet- 
ing thciin fe|»tateiy from the cood or 
^edafedmiaay bemadetbereOfTriierrfs 

an : 

^in obHgatiocL on thofe in tte Work! to 
do fo, fmcc often ttay arc knxwn , but 
s6t the bad ufe thty areipatcg. iWeyer- 
• is jneffi certato that rthh way 
iofxonfideriag tbK»in4*^mfelVe8>>v^tth- 
Uaut rcflefth% on themfe fchatfi «»de tf 
-tbettL, is the origkc *rf :gisat ilfeifi&n 
]x>th tp ns and others. For thefe C[^- 
'Jit^cs fobliil iiotin tiie.air, abftm&ed 
iboitn their. good oribttd-ufo, and wheft 
•they are ill ; irnplt>yni r ttiey dtfetve ifeMs- 
•iteem, fince they <Mi^ly ^cntreafeth^gaUt 
«f thofowho have them . 

$. Z4* -The:Holy fcrlptt^ <»«ly rtft 

that Science, which teaches us bom to 

Hire, acawmting: ail:tha&are igaotfatatJtff 

4r6jadsandmadrffleii : nor would IWa^ 

<#ere he rational, fpeafe^ny «J«r iait- 

^uageithaathis^ for it is moft ic^rtfor- 

jnable to reafcnand na&are, aad oaefy 

his blindnefs has brought another didkft 

jfito faJGhian- Mot but that each fcience 

teaches fome particular tfuths, -tot-be^ 

odewe tend; in fo urgent a aeceffity 

. of that*nowiedg>#hi6h kak&to heaven* 

Chat weaire aotpermitted fa reckon the 

reft for any thing- Wire ffe ina ftorm 

we feouldonely value that Are wfekh 

might ferveriKthere^ and ffl© body ever 

thought ^prafttog* fdp* of verfes 


5 iz ^ffttmt %ttta 

when the queftion was how to avoid a 
threatened Shipwrack. Let a Man be 
fick, he onely in his Phyfirian values that 
skill which may cure his difeafe , aO the 
relit of. his good qualities vanifh and 
pre not taken notice of. In a word all 
thole great concerns,which ought totally 
to employ and take us up , give us leave 
lonely to confiderfuch abilities as maybe 
ferviceable tliereunto* But what greater 
concern tan we have than that of fave- 
ing our fouls, ihunning hell, and pnrcha- 
fing heaven ? What grcatet and more 
urgent danger than that ofperifhinge- 
ternally ? What deferves. more to take 
up all our thoughts , than the care of 
preparing for an eternity? It is there^ 
fore againft nature ai}d reafon to fet fo 
high a price on certain qualities? and en- 
dowments that contribute nothing there- 

§. 25. Nor is this a mere queftion a- 
* bout words , things themfelvcs are con- 
cerned , fince the words carry the things 
a-long with them. Were it onely about 
words, it would be a, fmall inconveni- 
ence to beftow the name of learned, skil- 
ful^ndcfgood parts,on thofe who might 
excel in humane Sciences , , becaufe in 
reality as ujefefc as tttey are , confider'd 

of t&togu* 3^ 

in themfelves ; they yet continue to be 
markes of the greatnefsqf humane Wit, 
But we ftop not here, to thefe words we 
fatten certain fentiments of our Souls \ 
and we always accompany them with an 
interior judgement of efteem and excel- 
lency. We raiie thofe on whom we be- 
llow thefe Names above others , and 
here they become falfe and deceitful. For 
whereas a Poet that's no Chriftian , an 
eloquent Preacher that leads a diforderly 
Life,or an able Politician that thinks not 
on God,are infinitely lefs efteemable than 
the fimplelt Woman that lives according 
to his Laws \ yet under the Favour of 
thefe Names , we fail not in our own 
thoughts and imagination to beflrow a 
moft eminent degree and place on thefe 
Perfons, whom we ought ( notwithftand- 
ing their great Learning and Knowledge^ 
to confider as in the loweft degree of 
blindnefs and abjeftion. 

§. 26. If Men are not capable of be* 
ing fpoke to in this Language , at kaft 
ought we to fpeak it to our fejves : And 
thus by judging of things by the relation 
they have to God and What's eternal} 
inftead of thofe feveral Conditions and 
Degrees of Men in the World , we (hafl 
only find two ; but thofe prodigionfly 

P ♦. differ 

j 14 €$etm$tai 

different) if we look an them with the 
eyes of Faith , though the difference be 
unknown to Senfe. One of thefe Glades 
is made up of the Juft > the other of Sis- 
jaers. It will be profitable to excite in us 
the livelieft Idea we goffibly can of 
tkefe two fetes , to the end it may help 
to obfeure and ftifle in our Minds all 
thofe diftinftions 9 which Men have efta- 
blift'd and built amongft theiafelves on 
certain Qualities, whether exterior or 
interior > real or imaginary. 


$. 17. What then does a Sinner 9 and 
one without God > appear to the eyes of 
Faith, that is , to Truth it felf t He is one 
that's blind 5 becatife he does not partake 
of true Light y knowing neither G O D 
nor Himfelf , his Friends nor Enemies, 
Good nor Evil. Let him be as intelli- 
gent as he wiH in the Affairs of this 
World, yet does he live and walk in 
darknefs, fince he blindly faUs at every 
ftep, and knows not where to place 
kis feet. 

He is one that's deaf, fince he hears dot 
the voice of God , nor admits to his heart 
his Divine Word j although it may make 
A Boife in the ears of Ids Body. Ha 

w t$ttfg$« JT5* 

He is one flck of a Palfey , becaufe his 
heart is without motion , nor afpires up 
towards God •, itis always on the ground; 
and in an utter disability of ever railing 
itfelf. x 

$. 28. He is a Man reducMto an ex- 
tremity of want and beggery , becaufe 
difpoiPd of all true Riches which a#e 
only Spiritual \ becaufe he has loft what-- 
foever God beftowM on him in' his Ba- 
pt ifme : to him no more belongs any right 
to his Inheritance, which is Heaven. 

He is not only poor as to the Riches of 
Grace, but even as to the goods of this 
World. For albeit to the eyes of Men 
he appears the Owner of great Wealth, 
and that others have no right to deprive 
Jiirn thereof ; yet does heunjuftly keep 
it as to God : He no more deferyes to 
enjoy it 5 he's unworthy the ufe of any 
of his Creatures*. 

§. i9. He's a bondflave - 7 not only to 
-his paflions which domineer over him, 
-but to the Devil , who pofiefles him, 
dwells in htm, moves, agitat$s,and makes 
him do and aft as he pleafes -, who with* 
cut ceafing deceives him, and turns him 
into the fiibjed of his difport and laugh- 
ter , according to the phrafe of Holy 
Scripture. Nay, heY a flave *>f the Juft 

P 2 and 

3 io yvyx, ttiw jjutt* 

and thofe God haschofen i that is, his 
whole Imployment during his Life, is 
to labour for the good of others , not 
for his own •, and to contribute to the 
good of the Eleft , without drawing 
thence any benefit for himlelf. . 'Tis thus 
the Angels and Saints look on thofe 
who are great and wealthy. They fancy 
the whole. World only made for them- 
felves*, tn the mean time God only efteems 
them as made for others \ nor does he 
permit them to live but for the Service 
of his Ele<5t , who are the only Matters 
?nd Kings in his fight, and who v^ill drive 
.them out of their Houfe, when the time 
aall come, that they Hand in no more 
need of them : Becaufe the Slave does not 
remain in the Hotife ofhisMafier^ as the 
Scripture tells us. 

$. 30. A Sinner is a Man tednc'd taa 
fhameful nakednefs, becaufe. he has loft 
the robe of Innocence and Jufticc ^ let 
lib Magnificence be never fo great, where- 
with he endeavours to cover his igno- 
miny. His greatnefles , as St. Aug*(tin 
fpeaks , are but The R*gs of the Devil y 
fanni Diabok: Thefe are not only fhame- 
ful, but over and above great decei- 
vers; becaufe the Devil only lends them 
to the end that Man. fixing there r and 

- . making 

* Of t^tUg^ 3 if 

making them the objeft of a ridiculous 
vanity , . he may lofe all fenfe of his true 
mifery, and never endeavour to recover* 
what he has loft : and thefe he will take 
fronvhim at his death, and make him for 
all eternity fenlible of the nakednefs he is 
reducM to. 

$.31. Laftly, a Sinner is a Man that's 
dead, and a thoufahd times more fenfelefs 
than the dead themfelyes • his very Soul 
is dead , whereas others die only as to' 
the Body. I lay, His very Soul is dead, 
nor do I here ufe any Metaphor. Ther 
Soul only lives by Love and Knowledge. 
Thus the Love and Knowledge of what 
is the Good of^ Man, that is, of 
God , is the true Life of the Soul *, and 
when it lofts this Love and this Know- 
ledge, it lofts its tru? Life , although it 
retains another poor and miferableone, 
by the Love it bears to, and the Know- 
ledge it hath of Creatures. Tis for this 
reafoft that it is {aid, That as (in deprives 
m of true Life , fo true Life is given by 
Wifedomto its C2iildren \ Saykntia fi- 
lth fitis vium inffirtt ; becaufe on them - 
it beftows the knowledge and love of 
God. ' < 

' }- 3** The Companion therefore is 
rery natural and exad, which the Fathers 

P j make 

3 iS ci)t tm &e» 

make betwixt a Soul in fin, and a movkg 
Sepulcher. Becaufe the Soul being dead, 
the Body that inclofes it may in ihme 
fort be faid to be its Grave. And this 
Companion runs fo much the better , in 
that, as a Tomb is adored without > but 
fill'd within with nothing but dirf and 
iftfedion : In; like Manner the; Sinner, 
whofe out- fide appears fo pleafing and 
grateful* flattering our fenfesby theSe ex- 
terior EndowrdetLts*, conceals within fe 
horrible a corruption and l&nch , > that 
ft would prove intolerable, wer^iclaid 
open to Jgjit. t r . 

-'- \ Thefrfi. ••■■ '"> 

$♦ 3J. The dreadful mifery of Sinners 
may help us to conceive the ineiti- 
mabie happmefc of the Jyfi^fince wd kflow 
ql ready * That it isa great good fortune 
to be. freed frodi fo wretched a conditi- 
on- The Tuft are no more either blind 
or deaf , beggars or benumm'd with 
Palfeys; they are no flaves > nor .more 
naked , nor in a Hate of Death. But 
they enjoy the. Light of Almighty God> 
they as Friends hear his voice ; they tend 
up towards him by the motions and fen- 
iiiftentsof their hearts.; They are ip jpo£ 

\ 3f9 

feffion of the txeafores of Grace, and 
freed from the flavery of the Devil and 
Sin : they are dad with the Robes of In* 
nocency, and live the true Life , that 
is, the Life of Charity . 

§. 34. But we muft yet make a fur- 
ther progrefs before we can conceive 
any part of their Grandeur. We muft 
&y 9 They are Kings*, being aflbciates in 
Royalty with our Saviour JESVS 
C HJUS T - 7 that they are Lords of the 
World , fince the whole Creation cooti* 
nues bat for, and ii* relation to them: 
That they are Children of God, face they 
are adopted for his , by being united to 
his: oneiy Son :, That they are fa@rs of 
Heaven , fince that k the J nbeat&nce of 
our Saviour, and a right thereunto has 
-been coD&r'd ost them by the pledge of 
the Holy Ghoft , which they have receiv- 
ed .- That they ate the Temple of God; 
linee he dwells in them , ana that they 
are animated by bis Holy Spirit : Laftly, 
that they are Members of JESVS 
CHRJS.T 7 making up part of his Bo- 
dy, by the participation of his Spirit, and ! 
the union tbey have with his very Body, 
which they receive in the holy EHchaift. 
$» 37* We muft endeavour to imprint in 
our miads,*s deep as we can* thefe Idea's, , 

R 4-i tha4;c 

3 xo cfp ttife Sfdes 

that we m$y be able to refill the imprefli- 
ons made on us by the Difcourfes of 
Men, who fill our heads with conceits of 
falfe Grandeur, falfe Abje&ion , fel/e 
Goods and Evils. And for this reafon it 
iVhe Holy Scripture fo often raifes us up 
to admire the Juft. Bleffed are thofe , fays 
the Scripture, who are without blame in the 
ways of God : Bleffed are thofe > who found the 
defth of his Precepts : Bleffed the Man, who 
fears God :\Bleffed the Man, who follows mt 
the Counfel of the wicked : Bleffed , O Lord, 
are thofe who dwell in thy Houfe : Bleffed is 
the Man inffruStedhy thee: Bleffed are thofe, 
wbofe fins are remitted. On the contrary* 
it endeavours to take from us that efteem 
we have for all thofe humane Qualities, 
which are the ufual object of ftfan*s Va- 
nity- Let not the Wife, fays the Scripture, 
glory in his Wifdom • nor the Strong in his 
Strength \ nor the Rich in ins Riches. But 
he that has a mind to glorifie him f elf , let it 
he in knowing Me , in knowing that Jam the 
Lord , wbo does mercy , judgement and ju- 
fiice on -the Eartk For thefe are the things 
thatpleafe me , fays the Lord. 

§• 36, The Scripture yet proceeds 
further, and wills us to look on Sinners 
not only as reduced by fin to a low de- 
gree of abjeftion, but even to aftate of 


of t&ingfr 311 

annihilationiAnd this it expreflfes by thefe 

• Words ; Ad tuhilnm red*8*£eft in conjpe- 

tiutfus malignus.AvA whilftin this manner 

it paints them forth , at the fame time it 

< buries and annihilates with them ail their 

Greatnefs, all their Riches, all their Qpa- 

'<* lifications , as well the interior as exte- 

' rior ones : that is, It will not permit that 

any thing of theft fhould make them even 

tfc fubfift in our fight, or mate us to judge 

there is any thing of real and folid in 

their condition. 

§. 37. And it is thus the Holy Scripture 
would have us to confider whatfbever 
has no relation to God. This is that exr - 
prefs conqlufion , which it made a great 
King ( on whom God had heaped all the 
Grandeurs and pleafures of the World,) 
to deduce , to the end he might be more 
able to teach us the vanity of them all: 
In purfuit of this defign , he does in par- 
ticular reprelent unto us the nothingnefs 
<Jf 3II Pleafures , of all Greatnefs, of all c 
Employments , of all Enterprises confi- - 
der'd in themfelves , and not referM to 
God. After all he concludes the fumme 
of his Inftru&ions by thefe words-, Fear 
God, k$ep his Commandments •, for in this r 
txmfifts the very Being of all Men. Deum 
time—-& -mmdat**}** obfcrva* Hocefi 

P 5, vmniss 

3« eft tm Sf&ea 

.taw hom* That is to fey > Whatfocwr 
tends not to God, and the keeping bis 
Law, has JW Being, no reality, cannot be 
iblid and hapfty j,aad lb before Almighty 
God is a total privation of Good* TJhjs 
it, is God judges otthe thiag* of this 
Earth r and therefore. w& oug& m$ to 
judge otfccnwfc •> aod k is by tfefc Rale 
we orate tbttfhnm all thofe f#Jfe kta& 
aod Notion we xepefre ftom ow Go»- 


■.. t - > ■ >,. ■ * — ' ■; " ■ " f - 


j . ' . -'.7.* .• ' 

. » > • i - . . » . * 

~ * « ••-.♦ « 


-.^-TUM-HHM. * *..*., T . | f . ,. . .^ . ■ , X » ■ ' ■ ■ ■"*' 


mii u *m 

The Way how tofludyasa 
Cnrifiian ought.* 

$ i. '"pH E firft Rule which can be 
X given touching jh* manner how 
to ftudy as a Chriftian ought, and which ' 
is the Bads of all the reft , is to look on 
Study not asEmploy meat ofindifferency r 
but as an afitiort of our Life of greateft 
importance,^and whkh being performed 
well or ill,, may in a high degree contri- 
bute either to fave or damn us. And it 
I will not be amifs in the firft place to fyc 
and fettle this Principle,, by confi(kriag > 
the reafbns of ifc 
, • §J z. Study is not a (tort and fleeting : 
attiOH ; it laftslorig , and is often r<- 
newM. > Tis of importance therefore • 
that it be well- ordered, apd that the time 
impfcy'd therein £e not loft* For if it 
be unlawful idlefy to throw ones wealth ; 
away* and a great Cntxxlofe . at .Play, of 
on fame of her not necefl^ry Qccafioflk^ a 
cooBderable fum of nqoney , becaufe thsfc 
temporal goods are only beftow'd on us 
4 to 

ro ©a? of £&tuty. 

to be the fubjeft of oar good works, and 
not of our idle pafs-time, it is yetlefs 
lawful), unprofitably to confume that 
time which is given us to gain eternity 
by v and whofc lpfs is for more irrecove- 
rable^ than that of all other temporal 
goods whatfqever* 

§•3; We ought to confider that the 
time we fpend in ,ftudy is not oncly the 
price we purchafe eternity with, but that 
moreover it is a Prefent we are con- 
ftantly receiving from the hand of God, 
and for which we never ceafe owing him 
a new acknowledgment •, and this debt 
we cannot pay but by continually em- 
#oy ing that in his fervice, which we con- 
tinually receive from his hand. In line 
this debt we contrail every moment^ 
fince he onely beftowes time on us that 
we-may ufe it well , and that he referyes 
to himfelf the right of calling us to ac- 
count for it. It is a talent, it is a pled] 
he trolls us with , he will know what ui 
we have put it to ; and I do riot believe 
we have any realbn to think he will re- 
ceive us^ favourably; ''when we 1 fhaff tell 
-Mm, Lord* I have employed, ot the time 
thcav halt beftow*d dn me *to work, my 
*ftJvation in T fo rhvkix in Reading books 
of defcra&ion , fb much in heading bthers 

7 which 


mt OfJbttW 3*5 

which were perfectly ufelcfs for my coik 
cerns* ; for if this dilcourfe even now 
feems ridiculous ? can we hope it will 
juftify us in the Sight of God Almighty 
and his holy Angels ? 

§. 4. Study is not onely the employ- 
ment, and the whole labour and toile of 
Children , but a great lhare alfo of their 
toile and labour who have chofen for the 
employment of their lives fiich exercifes 
as depend more on the mind than on the 
body. Now 'tis a thing of greateft necef- 
ceflity > that our labour (boqld be well- 
regulated, becaufe it is of greateft necef- 
iity our penance (hould be fo , the toilp 
and labour we take making up the greatr 
eft part of this latter. For if our pe- 
nances , which ought to cleaafe us frorgi 
all our faults and, pay a^l our debt^^Qf 

Snely defile us s?oi^ , ^ egqeafe ©ur 
ebts, what hope d(^ t^ere^emam for 
us? Si Sal evanHerft 9 jfi^t$Q ffifaur^^tf 
falling , which of it^isav^k^P^ 
nance ? find not accept^e fronv God 
when it is fpoilM by ones raoper wilJ t 

that he did not; approve . of tl^Jeff sfaftfo 
£ecaufe they onety toi&thj^iiiB by liu 7 
rnouf and fancy ) hqw p^ch further : will 
God be from, approving m&xtQwinm 
" - -# - ^ • * '-tfiofe 

thofe (ladies for works of penance*, 
whkh fhali onely ahne at forae vain and 
fool i ft ditrertifement ? 

§. 5. Laftly we ought to confider, that 
the aim of ftudy is to cultivate and nou- 
irifli our minds; What we read enters 
into our memory, and is there received 
as food which nourishes us y and as feed 
^whkh on feveral occafions produces good 
thoughts j and good defires \ nor is this 
fced ever receiv\I without our thinking 
and reSofting on it , for we always think 
andreffedonwbat we learn, feeing that 
memory and underflanding are operati- 
ons of our fonts r as foon as they com? 
tlwe they 'prdfently go out again % and 
they are abfe to deme us by enteringj be- 
taffife they never g6 from us without the 
-totamoif ■ of feme i comptaifance and 
lifciHtBfe delist ^ takrht them. If 
qfcfcfortte do tfotpeat indi&reitfly of 
Ml^^oftMfefiy iRwith :&tb we ifaup 
flrth* ^iij&y %* hurtfbi | 'if to al 1 (piles 
^^o'flo^cdmthie aH fofis />? feeds* bbt 
ohety 1 IbdilzS agngi with the naturs 
of thetii ^h&* rnncfr tto&.fofflcitous 
©apt; we^toSbe-'in'idMling what moft be 
the Wifrl<hm^A?^ ; foufs; and the 
feeds ^we-bur/'gdoA v thblight8/inj4 
faring /ftrwhat4\re to day read with ih- 
" '•'- ' difference 

difference andmncofieertfd, ffialias occa- 
iions fenreiawake in ub^ and furaiih as, 
without our ft> inoch as receding there- 
on , with inch thoughts as ihail either 
k procure us heaves or hell. God awakens 
* in us good thoughts for our fafration, as 

- it is written > €o£ira!ri$ fknlba ftrwt&itlte. 
The Devil awaken thofe ill t^ughC^Ae 

-feeds: wticraif he finds in w r ta the end 

) the jray daiiuuii; and we furmflihiBTwith 

\ opportunity of doing fo, when we fauple 

-TO>cto fill oor memories with a thoufand 

win and dan getous knowledges* 

? $, 6. ^Tfemudit&rac^netjeflhryto 

6fe great application ii..diftingaifliirig 

the good food 1 tff ©or ftul^ftom <wtefr is 

bad, becaafe wte hive ao'natttrab knftiffift 

; by wjiitft we can^jud^ and libera it. 

For as foritte'toij^^t&e&faAiy 

Itftows what i? iitrnft*;itt)ibwriietitl v 

<"-;Q8fc haviag ;t^s ywvidnd, Ifctf Hie 

.'caitf$*v*ti<jn^ bit 

"Jfcy itte&pentqteei ^ ihmtfd feedxm:poi- 

•ibrts. ;Bu* the JattNfttrie holds nptfiriithe 

nouriOiments of uait? rakidi' Jfa&^ly 

£#£hwe n^%itiaiatfeftc(ttrdiitii^ui(h 


- rtor fe^> Nay itfteno&otfiift i^Hhcfafetter 

- WkhiuMhar>flte fcagtarf ^fo depfat'd 

„..;; - aft* 

5*8 -'jJMtt ^ iWH># 

an attention altogether particular ought 
we. to corrcd this natural corruption of 
^>ur minds : laud this is one of thofe ways 
by which we may pra&ife that advice 
of the Wife-Man i.Qmi fufioJiafirva 
c^tHitnt. We nauft watch with accurate 
. diligence over whatfoevqr is to enter 
into lb precious aiVef&b f .,. . 

§..' 7fc :I£ our ibul oiightto be the Tem- 
plet 'Sta&uaryof: pod; Ah^^ 
it ought to be that houfe of prayer, of 
• which itis (aid * X>or?;Hstne*Jymwvratip- 
ms fmti^.^rStaUijwc nctti/ear* Wfc 
o God: tophraidiw dfcr haying profenM his 
^Tcaapk, ; and ; tell ju^as; hcodid the 
; Jotfsj (tha* wfe; haTO<mad t his houfe juito 
a den dfi Thieves ^ That we have made it 
. iintoa:Theatrc c^Cpmialilag^by fiUiflg 
' . itat maftoriesfcNph , J>ocifanto Iriages * and 
t fofoasTiirtildiflfoapOT 
to God , laildvifi^fcpferh^s ,dci cBftpfb 
thQ. teadqitbetyr €* joitf *|»9C»iMt^ e 
^inctboughlSiwhich they: bcb^iwtO ?$r 
-Jtaindayi wheat tfeiOMtgtit ift; &_ the mqft 
diftugkgM.froni them?- cK^fC'; 

; imttwifibte , -raoithe^'tbiihi ^d r icar^e 
*o£e1fctoi Smcdjtofal&yrtiL QTSrcor- 

f rapted 8A4 taH%Kfe*:i cmhenfciJ*I|rjirt^ftr- 
taiaplaaK^ teditJiqtQ.argife^ti^^ave 


J i. 

Hot at leaft thus faulty. For Books are 
the Works of Men r and the corruption 
of Man is to be found mingled in moft 
.of his anions ;,and as it confiftsin his 
ignorance and concupifcencc , all Books 
almoft are tainted with thefe two de- 

. A taint of Ignorance is to be feen in 
.the falfe Maxims which are to be found 
Town up and down : that of Concupfc- 
fcence, comes from the pafllons we ly 
under, which grit make an impreflion 
on the Book , we write, and after that 
carry this anperceiv'd impreflion , even 
to the Souls of thole who read them. 

§• 9t Tis the opinion of certain Phyi- 
ficians , that in all Meats there is ibmer 
thing of mortal , which they call Tarttr* 
And they further add, that all Difeafes 
cortie from a. gathering of this poyfonous 
matter which remains in the Body after 
digeftion. But What is not true of the 
nutriment of our Bodies , without doubt 
is fo touching that of Souls. There are 
few Books, which for the reafon air 
ledgM do not contain fome poyibn. The 
corruption of Man is to be found every t 
where. Thus whilft we read the .w.ora% 
of Men> we infenfibly take in, and fraight 
our feftes with the Vices of Men* . 

§. io. 

$• 10^ Bcffideathis camptbn which 
comes from Books* ttare is Mother 
phichcooKs from oor fetes, and which 
fpoilswhtt wefiBdofmoftwboliaaaiMl 
goodia them. Oar heart is a Veflei abfe 
m corrupt whatforrer is paurMiato it} 
the molt profitableInltrudions,may prove 
tons a fubjeftof vaxrit^aodewa of er- 
ror by die faffe appfaaajoc we may make 
-thereof, tet them be good in them- 
ftlrcs , yctare they not fo for us. They 
lead as out of our road r dwy amofeaod 
ftay ooc progreft > white the? take as off 
from wfcat would be really profitable.. 

§. ii. .To avoid thefe two cKSefent 
•^foto^.di8cj«nc ftsmitifcp nfijft fe©. 
appJyM. And fir ft ^ to free our felves 
from that wbfcfo fptings from the cor- 
rupt ioa of our own hearts, nothing eMe 
ii to be <Jone but :m parifie them with- 
vac istennffltan r by the Exercifes of a 
ttnly Cbriftan Lite. We ought then 
» have ill OGr.TOderftawiiogs this pa- 
rity of heart T whkh is the principal dif- 
jtoficfoji for ftudy. Thus to deanfe well 
a Veflei , is the principal difpofitioa «► 
<juir*d to receive fome precious Li- 
quors. • - .v 

Sincemmtjknifivas , cpodtmf, inftiuUs 

.- i L *«?/«**. With- 

Without thtoaft grows ftwre and naughty 
a* ha* been fakL Thu$ that prayer of 
the Royal Prophet belongs pecidiariy *<► 
Studeats , Cor mtmd*** trcs in mt+ Jjuu % 
& SpiriiMm ntim imw* ** vifteriims 

:§*. i2<, Wemtfftj*>timaghethatiti* 
eawgfe co believe our heart k ckfto* 4ad, 
fb to >loofc off our ftlve* 3a qualified tpi 
wad the wwft Bookv Chriftian ftrepgtfc 
cofififtsiii Wievhag oar weaknefi > aod 
^iis a great fttare of purity to be very, 

apprehenfive of bemg defij'd wi th rito* 
gmhis Book^ To this >w, rwft add « 
watchful care to lh\in^|myipfls ( tjiifo5^ 

Swedes*: iJ£ tfetyJw grqfs arcl fel- 
p»bfa> ife toay toMttftetg by laying afife 
alicprk^tvfott^liga^thatn^ire^ if 
more flefinMaml in^ero^tible^iieiraghti 
00 tefl^yecourfti^G^^ Pjijfftv ttr» 
the f nd he rxfty either nftafceOT$»tonrii«i 
<*»$* or wake usp^/s jfcro ov«;tfitb» 
<rot fo much as; takteg- notice of theme 
For this ueafbn there's force aay aftiotf 
thatflaadfrflwrein need of Prayer^ thari 
Study; attd'ti* * great defcft to begin 
any without Sr ft rstiftrg *»e* mind t<* 
God* 9bd i^eggwg ChaOht iwouM:pn&r 
fper « , aod tfefff ire it from ttadaagt** 

. . i For 

3ii »»¥*£ 

/For if through a moft jaft and war-' 
rentable cuftom , we take not our cor- 
poral Refedtion without begging of 
God a Blefling , that what ought only to 
ferve to fuftain our Life , give the Devil 
no means of making us lofe our Souls j 
how much more careful ought we to 
be in addreffing our felves to God Al- 
mighty, When we ifcall take that Spiri- 
tual Food ? which? is much irtOre capabte 
of excitiagin us all manner of ill paflions, 
and which of neceflky willhiave that ef- 
fect ? if not hiuderM by God's Miffing, 
tod if foe fweHtag 4t4*aifesbe not diffi- 
psMS& by hisClerity ! - - : I « 
- & *¥• Bya Prayer of thk^ature, we 
offer tP Qod ouf Reading and Study, as 
anaftion canfecratedto him, and per- 
form'dibr his foke. But that our Prayer 
may ( e^cio(^ypro(!h^ 
be fincine; ttet i^ itmft be true that? 
wfciftudjr/for GtodVfafcbi that^defire 
of fecving him "be; the Motive ; and his 
Will the Rule and Gdidi of our Studies. 
For we muft nor fancy thatbecaufe we 
have at random in tb« Air offerM him 
ear Studies /they became efFdftittly con- 
fecrated to himiGod annot receive ffcow 
ia b^ whit lie produces in lis ^ he re- 
ceives nothing bat wtet GftBCfffrotti hiv 
v i ' not 

not from our Spirit. So that if bur Stu- 
dies lave for real motive, either curio- 
-fity, vanity, or fome other ill defire or 
end, 'us in vain we offer it to God, it 
will not hence become, more h61y c ; nay 
we do God an injury in defiring him to 
accept what was not begun for his fake, 
which would be contrary both to his 
Juftice and Sandtity. . 

Our Study therefore,to the end it may 
become a fit oblation to God, ought of 
neceffity to have God for its motive -, 
that is, it ought to come from a defire 
of obeying him. Now Study has this 
motive, when undertaken to fatisfie that 
general penitential labour God has im- 
posM on all Men, and that we chufe 
fuch things to employ our Studies about, 
astray ferve us to comply with our other 
duties and obligations. For, if we ap» 
ply our felves to frivolous and uftlefi 
Studies, 'tis clear that it is not either 
God's Wtfl, or a defire of pleating hinjy 
that makes us ftudy ; for his Will is juft 
and reafonable, not humourfom and 
fantaftick. , , { 

• A Judge^who applyshis ftudks to things 
of his own Calling, may be faid to flfudf 
-according to God's Witi and pleafore : 
but (hall lie bu fie Jus head iri learning 



die lndum or Chine fi Language, it would 
be hard forJiim, were be demanded by 
God, for wtafc fake he apply'd biaa- 
fdfttKthat ftodfr fiocerdy to aafwer, 
Lord , 'tis fbr tine i have undertaken 

§. 14. Yetfcrallti^wejaaghtiiatto 
carry this Rule fi> far as to firnpk all fuck 
Studies as have not a dired relation to 
oar Calling. For ^provided we employ 
what time is neceuary to make is able 
and expert therein , we ace indued feme 
liberty for other ftudics, ib we. abnie 
tteta not. Tkntvm *ic Irtrtrtotxm m occ+* 
fiouem dukritis cjtrnis. And the means 
oot to abnfe them,is to refo°em to fame- 
thing pro&tahle is it ielf , and which 
may be uWid , foch are Hcftory, Learn- 
ing to write and fpeak well, becaufe thefe 
*re general ktio wledges,which agree well 
with our particular profeffioiL 

$.15. Neither ought thefe Maxims to 
be underftood wkh that rigour , as to 
mate us imaginethat we do ill in taking 
lone pieafinx in our Sojdy-, or even in 
feledting fuch matters , wherein in fame 
fort we feek the divcrtifement of our 

For if thefe pleating Studies are other- 
wife within, the onder. of our devours, 


they become a refreihmeat. God allows 
oar wcafcfteiV, and we ought to mate 
ufe hereof a$ a means to make greater, 
progress therein j it being a thieg knowa* 
that what we ftudy wkhfftlea&ne, Caks 
much deeper into our memeffies 9 tbaa 
that which we apply oar felvea unto with 
ill-will ami difguft. 

As for fuch Reading, wherein pleafure 
and diverufement alone are feugbt 9 fuch 
as is afforded as by Medals, and Boqk$ 
of Voyages , 0r. it may be lawful as 
other paftknes are -, that [is , to jjetfk our 
heads when dozM and weari'd with fe- 
rious Speculations ^ to refrefh and em- 
ploy our minds when not capable of 
ought-elfe. But we muft take care • left 
thefe divertifeflientfi be net in themfelves 
dangerous ; and moreover > that we do 
sot fo accuftom our felves thereunto as 
eaCly to fall in difguft with what's fib~ 
rious. For this purpofe we ought not 
to betake our felves to.thefe kinds of re- 
medies , before we have undergone feme 
trouble and wearinefs with others. 
. $.16. That confideratipn which ma- 
kes us look on ftudy , as a penaaee and 
labour imposed on us by God , gives; us 
a profpett of aU thofe cfifpofiuons we 
ought to have. We muflt labour faith- 

~ folly 


33* &*t # frmt. 

fulljr^ exa&ly, and with perfeverance. Fi-> 
delity confifts in applying as much as we* 
can the fame hours to the fame ftudies, 
that we may honour God not only by. 
our ftudies, but alfo by their regular 
courfe, and that we may overcome that 
floth which would make us trifle that 
time away, which is deftinated for our 
Studies. Exa&nefs confifts in doing all 
things as well as we can, always having in : 
mind that what we do, we do it for God, 
and that he folly defe'rves our whole ap- 
plication. Laftly, Perfeverance confifts 
in continuing the fame ftudies, as long as 
it ihall be convenient, to make us (nun* 
that inconstancy which is fo natural to 
Self-ldve. For this purpofe it would nox 
be amifs often to Have in mind that fay- 
ing of the Prophet, Atak'diftus qstifacit 
opus Dei franduUnter : and that of the 
Wife-man, tfni mollis et idiffblutHs eft in ope- 
re [ho, frater eft opera ftiadijftpamis. By 
the firft we are warnM to free our felves 
from negligence and unaccuratnefi, which 
fo often finds place in our ftudies, tothe ; 
end we may fliun that curfe,which is pro- 
jiounc'd againft thofe who carelefly per- 
form what they are to do for God ; by the 
fecbnd, to fhiin floth and idlenefs, which 
ttfe oppofite to fidelity j -and diforder, 
\ which 


Qif? fif £PtIfty* 317 

. Which is opposM to perfeverance, which 
are the two ether requisites for thofe 
which are performed as Chriftians ought. 
$. 17- We ought not to imagine that 
the Life of a ftudent is a Life of eafe* 
Thofe who featt ftrieufly make tryai 
thereof , (hall find that on the contrary a 
Lift; of pure ftudy and contemplation is a 
life of aH others the moft painful, and 
that others are only fo as in proportion 
they come nearer to it. The reafon is y 
becaufc nothing is more contrary to our 
nature than uniformity and quiet ; foe* 
cattle nothing gives us more time and 
opportunity tofoe with our ftlves. Va- 
rious changes and employments take us 
from our (elves, and pfeafe, becaufe they 
make us forget our felves. Befidestbe 
language of the dead in books wants life, 
and hath nothing that livelily afitfta 
Self-love, or vigorously awakens our pat 
lions. It is deftitute of a&ion and na- 
tion ^ it furniflics our minds onely with 
dull languid Ideas of the things it fpeats 
of,becaufe they are not let out with the 
advantage of fpeech, gefture, lookes, 
and all thole other circumftances which 
contribute to enliven thofe Images,whidi: 
are imprinted in us by converfation with 
Men. Laftly , it e ntertains us very littfc 

Q, with 

ftS «*ar of &m *& 

with what concerns us, and gives us finalL 
©ccafiontojook on pur iejves with corn-, 
plaiiance 5, it flatters our hopes buf little :' 
And all this ftraijgely : contributes to mor- 
tify in us Selfrlpvc, which opce diJpieas'd 
tabes from all our a&ions all vigour and 
celiih. . - ; : :. .. •, „y .-. 

i *Ti$ for this reajpn, that the apfterej 
Mfe of a Capuchin is more eafy than tlia 1 1 
of a ftudent ty'd to be Solitary in hii 
Chamber : for this re^fon 'tis pwe ,eafy r 
to be a Souldier, a Merchant to hazird 
ones life at fea than to live in the quiet, 
of a regular folitude ; and why . fp ? Be-* 
caufe there's nothing more difficult $aa, 
to be with^ endure y ,?nd b$ fe^le,*)^ 
ones fel£ To fhun this all thefe^ard^ 
(hips are undertaken. Therefore wjfea. 
we have chofen thi^ kind of life, we | 
muft refolve at the fame dine to enicounr? 
ter and vanquiflj this tepidity and ilotk'^ 
ForSeJf-love^ which will make its markets ," 
upj, endeavqurs tp gejt on one fide as, i^ : 
lofts pn the other, Thus ( when it can, 
not be in* and dijoy that motion, and agi-~ 
tation wherein it finds the greateft la- : 
tisfaftion, at leaft it endeavours to enjoy , 
aa exemption; from labour and pain v 
and fi> with violence draws us tothat Cde. , 
J^t-thiswafoA, ifc?re (?e.,;nat taken, a , 
:\ :♦. l jlife, 

life of ftudy will incline us to intermit 
mortification,and makes us guilty.of idle- 
nefs arid all its concomitant faults, and 
fo it is needful continually to endeavour 
to prefenre our fdves from them. 

§. 1 8. Thefe vices we ought to attaquc 
dire&ly, and by addrefs and flight. ' We 
attaque them dire&ly, when we make ufe 
of tnofe reafons and arguments which 
may excite in us a frelh eagernefs,by con- 
sidering the fatigues and troubles which 
accompany all the employments 'of this 
World, and by apprehending it to be of 
their number of .whom' it is laid, that 
they are not to be found amongft.the 
trembles and labours of Men,, arid thai; 
they lhall have no fliare pf the chaftife-. 
mehts God fends them, which is a fig a 
of God's great wrath, againfl^era. But 
k is good alfb to ufe fome addrefs, to de- 
ceive ones felf,. and. not to co'nfidertWys 
kktd of life all at once but by parts •, thafc 
is, to confider. one only task at oiice^ 
whofe end we may fee, as that of the ' 
reading or writing fuch a bqok with- 
out looking any further at prefent. This 
work finifht, another will come, and in 
the mean time the mind will not b e op- 
preft and difmaid. In a word, we muft 
do with our itudies wbat^ St. Gregfrie 
*.-. Q^a ' coun- 

34* i*tt«f^ttl*f* 

counfels to be done about fafting, whkh 
was to begin to faft, and to promife our 
bodies forae refrefement for the future- 
Thus we ought to begin to {tady, and 
promife our felves fome divertifement 
when we ihall hare performM any thing 
that's confiderable ; and it will not be a- 
mift fometimes dfc&hrely to refreflt our 
felvss, fince 'tis certain that in ftudying 
we fometimes advance by going back, 
and by not difinaying our minds through 
a too obft inatc continuance of labour. 

$.19. OorftudtesoughttDbeorclerM 
and bear proportion to our other employ- 
fneflts * if We have no other than fcudy? 
it ought totally to tend to the end we pro- 
pofe t?o oar fehres, and we think moft 
conveaioRt But we moft confider that 
we have two kinds of employments, and 
lb mult propofc to our fehres two kinds 
*f ends. One particular depending on 
many cif cuaiftances, and wbldi varies 
according to the variety of tbofewho 
apply thcmfelves to ficdy* The other 
general and common to ail, which is to 
give to ones foul that food and noorifh- 
ment which is neceflary to make it fubfift 
and travel in the way of God, left it fall 
into that ftate the Prophet fpeaks of 
when he fays 7 ^Pcrt*$*s [urn m f*n», flh 

*r*it tor mum y amaobtitus Jinn comdtrc 
t*mm mam. Tnis brepd of the foul arc 
the folid inftruftions of Piety which St. 
Chryfoflome judges fo neceflary, that he 
fears not to lay in his third Homily of 
£*z*rus^ that non fotefi fieri m qus/qnam 
[*l*ttm *Jfy*Mts*r, wfiferfetHo vtrfetm m 
kliitm jfirituali : And though we ought 
not to underftand theft words ii*tfae 
their full rigour, God fupplying this 
fxercift hi the ignorant with thofc Ga- 
thers of labour, penance, and humility, 
which behjjg pertorm'd in fpirit are *x~ 
celknt leflons $ yet ought they to teach? 
thofc who are capable of reading bow 
great a fauk it is to employ all their time 
in other ftudics, and to allot none for 
the good of their fails. Without que* 
ftion 'tis a matter of greateft difficulty 
for one fo difposM to be favM, fo that 
tocenfider than well we (hall and no ex- 
cels in the words of St. Chryfcftm. For 
it is molt certain, we have always 4 
weight which carries us downwards, 
that is* which incline* us to lead a carjnaj* 
Life. To fall and be carried thither, we 
need onely leave our Delves at iiberty,and 
make no reftftance, without more sudo* 
we fhall go a-longwiththe.torrent.Now 
thegreateft refiftaoce we can make is to 

Q.3., fipadeit 

*4» vmtf&titw 

ponder fcrid> "Wdkate.the word of God; 
critf her r . i^i Scri^ttirfe or other books oft 
Piety, therd W iiig nbthing which fur-* 
niflifcs lis <*JtH ftibtt? ftrengttf to refiit 
ttfe folrithrtdinakiiriesof the World. ' 
$.20/ Th6Wbrtdfpeakst6usathou^ 
ftpd ways. ' It ihak^iis hear Its tr&che.? 
?ous voice, by dltadft all creatures which 
to us are Co many fnhxtl according to the 
WUe-Mam i The^otarnbn? djifcoutfe* of 
Men' are all ff amM l k&>ra'hig ( tb the tool 
del df concupifc^6e,ridt tdfcnatojftfiithi. 
What there is qdlM good, hoiloiir, plea£ 
fare, : happinefs, evil ? J mifcry 1 , it\famy 1 atd 
bnely the objfefts ; which ^Concupifcentie 
would either lhai oi" fehjby*, and where* 
uritoithatli fafteiM th^feWea% : What 
meahs therefore is, thefe Ifeft tb-taajce 
head againft the coritinQal' ittipreflion of 
this language of the Wofldi } if we hav£ 
no care to hear what God lays to xii fti 
his Scriptures, indiri thd bodies Avrif^ 
hisfpirit?~ ••". r : *' : ']\ / ; ■ •' ! c 
: §. 2 1 . A ; gr&t fervent* pf \ 7 G6& did 
counfel fuch as had good 'memories to 
learn by heart feVeral Pfabies fcnd Sent 
tences of holy writ, that; by thofe Dii 
vine words they might -Jah$ify T tHei£ me- 
mories. And this teiercjfe- if pehi$afclf 
aeceflary to thole,' who haW m45*m& fttt 
^ Z •>■ profantt* 

f»ap of ^ttrtty 343 

pt 6faaM their memories by a number of 
things writ there by theDevil,with derign 
to deceive the World by a faHe agreeable* 
iie(s ? Which makes vice amiable by repre- 
* fenting it under grateful colours.Though 
at fi f ft we do not fee the beauty and depth 
offcripture, yet the reading of it ceafes 
ftot to be profit-able, provided if be per-* 
f&riflM with reverence, and that wfc at- 
tribute not to it, but our own ignorance, . 
the fmall relifli and infight we havethere^ 
into. For 'tis of ^thofe who are thus 
difpbsM to bear refpeft to fcripture,thai 
fe to be underftood what Or if en lays i 
Strides aliqnando le^ifcriftHrkm^ih aurU 
bust His, interim hsne frimam fiids tef#fce+ 
fitfe HtiUtdteni^ quod fdo kuditHj tfe&f 
fveiatibne- qudddm , noxitrntn virtktwh 
Md'-'ic obfidtnt virtus deft Hit nr. If the. 
tbuqd of (cripture's words fometimes 
ftrikeyour ears, know that the firft be^ 
toeftt you thence receive, is, that the bare, 
bearing the wdrds fupplies the place j£ 
Ifrayfcfc, c which drives away far fronryou 
<thdl£ adVerle powers which aflault you : 
Asalfo* What St; Chryfoftome fays'in hk 
third Homily of L*zmths % Qmdfi rum in- 
tettgatm s qua cwtinentwrin Sacris Lit&'is 
maximi quidcm etiainfi non intclligas illic 
fkwti&a^ titmtn ex tpfa Je&ion e mult* n*f? 

Q,4» titwr 

344 w*t*9Him> 

c*u» Sm&itts. Though you underftamf 
aot what; is contain'd in Scripture, yet 
the very reading - of it does imprint in 
your mind many efle&s of Grace and 

§. zx. We ought then always to bear 
in mind, that other Sciences have their 
times a- part, and that wc may lay thenr 
a-fide When we ihall have learnt what's 
Efficient : But the tody of Chriftian 
morality^ which we ought to learn out of 
(cripture and other books writ by holy 
Men, maft never be laid a-fide * it muft 
laft as long as our lives, nor ihall we ever 
be able to (ay. that we are fuffickntly 
skilPd therein. For it is not enough to 
know thefe Truths fpecuhtively, and to 
keep them laid up in fome corner of our 
memory, they ought to be frefh and ready 
there, to that they forthwith offer and 
prefent themfelves,when there's any que- 
stion of putting them in pradice. But' 
this cannot be done except we have a* 
continual care to renew them, and en- 
deavour: to imprint them not onely in- 
aur.memories,but alfo in our very hearts*. 

£ IN IS. 



A^Fd* EducMtm of 4 Prim. 


Containing the general Aims which ought to 
he had in frojfeft to Educate a Prince 
well. . page i. 

P A& T U 

Containing maty particular advices touching 
fiudies. p. *7. 


Containing feveral Treats fes^ wherein a more 
p articular explication is to be found of 
several poinu in the precedent difiour-l 

Reflexions on Senecah Book of the fhort- 
nefs of Man's life. 

Wherein is feen the uje one ought to maks *>f 
the writings of Heathen Phibfopherr. 

p. ibid CLS * 


- * # «* 

fcomlc containing injhort thehaXwrak 

^Jcourje containing %n^ 

reafons of theExmme o£ God, and of 

tbefpfatdih<$l*fQ»t!\ V9 6 - 

jtdifcourfe of the necefity of not trufting 
the conduEt of ones Ufe to chancy and of 
not guiding it by tbeqdcsqf 'fancy, p. 117 

:i *. <: ,1- • 
Of Grandeur* 

*v.v-:\ > P^ R T L I 

. 1 < 

' r 

0/rto »4f#re <jf Greatnefs and of the duty 
$f inferiors u> b refit ornsi p, 141. 

• ■-■ ^- Of Gtmkut\ { : f ' • v ' : % 

' ' . * . - • ^ 


-t • ' / 

• » I '» • • -. 

Of the duties belonging %and the difficulties 
* dcearrirtgix, the lifeof^reab Aim. p. f 4* • 

Three SJc<mfes of Mr. PAfcal (0/ %7 
tot/nary) touching the condition of\he 

Great. V* 21 ?'. 

■noAsi -•>;■ • ' •'"-•!.. .. ' 

The Jirfi Dtfcourfi. ; ; "•" ■*'-" " V- 211. 
The [econd DUbourfe. p. Ii7« 

fihe^r&Pifiwfir- ' 'V v '> ' ' « »V- "pV^-- 




Qf Chriftiat civility. p. 233, 

PART. 1. 


PAR T 2, 

The true Ideas of things. p. 282. 

Things temporal. p. 284 

Human* glory. p. 28 8 . 

The glory of Saints. p. 289. 

The glory of the wicked. p. 290. 

Quality. p. 291. 

Valour. p. 295:. 

^Qualities of the mind. P«3°3* 

Wit or light of mind. ' p. 305. 

Strength of wit. p; 307. 

Science. p. 308. 

Sinners. p. 3 14. 

Tbcjtfi. p. 3 18. 

' ■ 

The way how to ftudy as a Chrifiian 

ought. p. 323. 


* to* 

v;, - 


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