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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.e.hist.soc. 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

III 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 

III 

172 A— 263 c 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
FRANK COLE BABBITT 

TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFOKD, CONIsTlCTIGDT 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXI 





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Reprinted 194J 


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Printed in Qriat Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

MORALIA . . . . , ix 

Sayings of Kings and Commanders — 

Introduction S 

Text and Translation 8 

Sayings of Romans — 

Text and Translation 154 

Sayings of Spartaxs — 

Introduction 240 

Text and Translation 242 

The Ancient Customs of the Spartans — 

Introduction 425 

Text and Translation 426 

Sayings of Spartan Women — 

Introduction 453 

Text and Translation 454 

Bravery of Women — 

Introduction 473 

Text and Translation 474 

Index * . , , 582 



V 



PREFACE 

The translation found in this volume is doubtless 
open to criticism from more sources than that in the 
volumes which have preceded it, since much of the 
matter which it contains is familiar to many people, 
and many of the Sayings have come to be a part of 
our everyday language. 

There are doubtless omissions in the numerous 
references, and some references to the more familiar 
stories it was necessary to curtail for lack of space, 
but it is to be hoped that, on the whole, the refer- 
ences may prove to be fuller than those to be found 
elsewhere, and that the necessary clues have been 
given in the case of the curtailed references, so that 
anyone Interested may be able to follow them up. 

To the bibliography in Vol. I. p. xxvi is to be added 
an interesting book : W. R. Halliday, The Greek 
Questions of Plutarch, with a New Translation and a 
Commentary (Oxford, 1928). 

At the time when this volume stands completed 
the second volume of the text of the Moralia in the 
Teubner edition has not appeared, and, in the main, 
one must still depend on the editions of Wyttenbach 
and Bernardakis. 

However, the grant of a subvention by the American 
Council of Learned Societies has made it possible to 

vii 



PREFACE 

procure photostatic copies of a few of the mss. in the 
BibHotheque National at Paris , and anyone who has had 
the experience knows the satisfaction in seeing with 
one's own eyes the reading of a ms. instead of having 
to depend on the (sometimes careless) collation of 
another. 

As a result, a good many readings of Bernardakis's 
text have been silently corrected. It is evident that 
Bernardakis did not collate some mss. which he says 
in his preface that he did collate, or else his collation 
was careless in the extreme. Several of his critical 
notes are but corrections of imaginary errors, which 
do not exist in the mss. which he did not collate ! 

It is quite clear that, in the mss. of the Sai/uig.^, 
occasionally a part of a word (or more rarely a whole 
word or a part of a sentence) has been omitted. If 
this be accepted as a working hypothesis, it may serve 
in some cases to further the criticism of the text, and 
to explain some of the dubious readings of the mss. 

F. C. B. 

Trinity College, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Augvst 1929. 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books 
of the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



I. De liberis educandis (Ilepc Traihojv dycoyfjs) 
Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

{Ha>S Set rov veov 7TOir]fxa.TOJv olkovciv) . 
De recta ratione audiendi (Ilept toG aKoveiv) . 
Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(IIcDs dv TLS Sta/cpiVeie tov KoXaKa rov <f>iXov) . 
Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 

(ncu? dv Tts cuodoiTO iavTOV ttpokotttovtos in^ 

dp€T7J) ....... 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (XIcDs dv tis 

vtt' exdpojv aj(f>eXolTo) 
De amicorum multitudine (Ilept TroAu^tAtas) 
De fortuna (Ilept Tvxrjs) 
De virtute et vitio (Ilept dpcTrjs koI KaKias) 
Consolatio ad Apollonium {liapaixvd-qrLKOS rrpo? 

' KttoXXojvlov) ..... 
De tuenda sanitate praecepta (Tyteiva Trap 

ayyeXfiaTo) ..... 
Coniugalia praecepta {TapuKa TrapayyeA/Ltara) 
Septem sapientium convivium (TcDv c'Trrd ao(f>d)u 

avpLTToaiov) ..... 
De superstitione (Ilept SeiatSat/xovia?) 
III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('A770 

<f>d€ynaTa ^aaiXecov /cat OTpa-rqyoJv) 
Apophthegmata Laconica {' A-not^deynaTa Aa 

KCOVlKa) ...... 

Instituta Laconica (Td TroAaid roii' AaKiBaLfMoviajv 
cViTT^Sey/xara) ..... 

VOL. Ill A 2 



PAGE 
lA 



17d 
37 b 



48e 



75a 

86b 

93a 

97c 

100b 

lOlF 

123b 

138 a 

146b 
164e 

172a 

208a 

236f 
ix 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



IV 



Lacaenarum apophthegmata (AaKaivwv ano 

^OiyiiaTo) ..... 

Mulierum virtutes (rwai/faJt- aperai) 
Qiiaestiones Romanae (Ama 'Pwyual'/ca) . 
Quaestiones Graecae (Ama 'EAAt^i'ik-o) . 



pLojv TTapa\\~qXojv 'VjXXrjVLKoyv kol PtD/xai'/co);' 
De fortiina Romanorum (Ilepi ttj^ 'Pcofialcuv 

rvx^is) ...... 

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilepi ttJj 'AXe^dvbpov Tvxr]S ">] dperrjs, 

Adyoi j8') ...... 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 

{Horepov 'AdTjvaloi Kara noXcfiov rj /card ao^iav 

cvSo^orepoi) ...... 

V. De Iside et Osiride (Ilept TaiSo? kol 'OaipiSo?) 
De E apiid Delphos (Ilept tov EI toO iv Ae\<j)ols) 
De Pythiae oraculis (Ilepi tov /xt) xP^^ l/x/xerpo 

vvv TTjv Uvdiav) ..... 

De defectu oraculorum (Ilept twv €kX€Xol7t6tcov 

Xprjar-qpiiov) ..... 
VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et StSaK-rov rj dpeTi^) 
De virtute morali (Ilept rrj? ridLKrjs dperijs) 
De cohibenda ira (Ilept dopyqaias) 
De tranquillitate animi (Ilept (vdvfiias) . 
De fraterno amore (Ilept c^tAaSeA^ta?) 
De amore prolis (Ilcpt rfjs etV rd €Kyova <f)iXo- 

OTopyias) 
An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Ei 

avrdpKTjS rj KaKia Trpos KaKohaipioviav) . 
Animine an corporis aifectiones sint peiores 

{\\6r€pov rd rijs ^vx'^S ^ rd tov awfiaTos irddr) 

Xftpova) ....... 

De garrulitate (Ilept dSoAeaxt'a?) . 
De CUriositate (Ilept 7roXvTrpayfj.oavu7)?) . 
VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept <f)LXonXovTLas) . 
De vitioso pudore (Ilept bvaionias) 
De invidia et odio (Ilept (f)66i'ov Kal fXLaovs) 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept rov 

(avTOv dnaiveiv dv€7n(hd6va)s) 
De sera numinis vindicta (Ilepi rail' vno tov 

Oelov ^paBdoiS Ttfiajpovfidvoiv) 



240c 
242 E 
263d 
291d 

305a 

316b 

326d 



345c 
351c 
384c 

394d 

409 E 
439a 
440 D 
452 E 
464e 
478a 

493a 

498a 



500b 
502 b 
515b 
523c 

528c 
536 E 

639a 

648a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGE 

De fato (riept €iiiapfjL€i>7]s) .... 568b 
De genio Socratis (Ilepi tov "LcoKparovs Saifiovtov) 575a 
De exilio [Uepl <f)vyrj?). .... 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem {UapaixvdrjTLKos irpos r-qu 

yvvaiKa) ....... 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (Su^Trocrta- 

Kcjv 7TpojSXr]iJ.dTajV ^i^Xia S'') . . . 612c 

I, 612c; II, 629b; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii {Hvinroma- 

KOiv TTpo^XrjixdTcov /St^Ata y') . . . 697c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX, 736c 
Amatorius {'EpwriKos) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes {'EpajTiKol Siiyyiyaei?) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (Ilepl tov on ixaXiara toIs rjyepLoat 

Sei TOV (l>iX6ao(j)OV StaAeyeo-^ai) . . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpoj Tjyefxova 

OLTTaiSevTov) ...... 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et TTpea^uTipco 

TToXiTevTeov) ...... 783a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae {YIoXitlkcl 

TTapayyeXfxaTa) ..... 798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 

statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilepi fiovapx^as 

Kal h-qpLOKpaTLas Kal oXiyapxtas) . . . 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilept tov pltj Selv bavel- 

ieoeai) 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (IIcpi tcSv Se/ca priTo- 

pcov) ....... 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (LvyKpiaeoos ^ ApiOTOcfxivovs Kol Alei/- 

dvBpov irriTopiri) ..... 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilepc t^s 'UpohoTov 

KaKorjOeias) ...... 854e 

De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilept rwu 

dpecKOvTOJv Tols (f)iXoo6(poLS, ^L^Xia e') . . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (Atrta ^ucrtAra) . . 91 lo 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept tov 

€fX(f>ai.vofi€vov TTpoowTTOv TcD kvkXo) ttjs acArj- 

vT)s) ' . . 920a 

De prime frigido (Ilept tov irpcoTcos ipvxpov) . 945e 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



FADE 



Aqiiane an i^nis sit utilior (Uepl tov TTorepou 

v8ojp T] TTvp ;^p7jCTt/j,ajrepoi') .... 955d 

Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 
ora (Horepa tcjv l^cocov (f)poi'ifxa)Tepa to. x^P^^oXa 
T] TO. ivvhpa) ...... 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus {Yiepl 

TOV TO. aXoya Adyoj ;^pTjcr^at) . . . 985 D 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilepi crapKo<f>ayias 

Adyoi/3') 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (nAaTOJi'i/fct ^TjTTy/MOTa) . 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo {Ilepl Tfjg iv 

Ti/jLaiip tlivxoyoi'ias) . . . . . 10I2a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 
Timaeo ('ETnTO/Ai) tov irepi ttjs iv tco Ti/xata> 
tfjvxoyovias) ...... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis {Hepl l.TUiiKcov evav- 

TLCoixaTcov) ...... 10S3a 

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora 
poetis dicere (XuVoi/(t? tov otl napaSo^oTepa at 
YiTOiiKol Tojv TTOirjTwv Xeyovoi) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilepi 

TCUl' KOLVOJV iwOLCOU TTpOS TOVS HtCOLKOV^) . 1058e 

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

("On ou8' -qSdws ^^v €cm Kar^ 'EiTTiKOvpou) , 1086c 

Adversus Colotem (Ilpd? KcuAcuTTji') . . IIOTd 
An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (el 

KaXcos €ipr}Tai to XaOe ^Loxras) . . . 1128a 

De musica (Ilept /AouaiK:i7s-) .... 1131a 
XV. Fragments and Index 



xii 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND 

COMMANDERS 

(REGUM ET IMPERATORUM 
APOPHTHEGMATA) 



INTRODUCTION 

Anyone who reads some of the many articles which 
have been written about the Sayi?igs of Kings and 
Commanders found in Plutarch's works would almost 
certainly gain the impression that the whole book is 
a tasteless forgery ; yet a closer study would prob- 
ably convince him that the Sayings are, in the main, 
just as truly the work of Plutarch as the poems of 
Sappho or Alcaeus which we now possess are the 
works of those authors. The only question, then, is 
how it happens that the Sayings stand in their present 
form, and this will doubtless serve as a topic for 
debate in the future, as it has in the past, since it 
can never be definitely settled. 

The assumption that the whole book is a forgery 
can only be regarded as nonsense. Many of the 
stories included here are found also in other writers, 
such, for example, as Aelian, Polyaenus, or Valerius 
Maximus, and the relation between the versions 
found in the different writers is quite the same as the 
relation bet^veen other stories found in the indis- 
putably genuine works of Plutarch and the versions 
found in other writers. 

A second assumption that some of the stories were 
put together by a later writer who copied them 
largely from Plutarch's Lives (when there were Lives 
from which they could be copied) is more plausible 

3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

in the case of many of the Sayings^ especially since 
the versions often coincide (in whole or part) in lan- 
guage. At the same time a comparison of the ver- 
sions found here with the versions found in the Lives, 
for example, of Phocion, or Fabius Maximus, or the 
elder Cato, will probably serve to convince an un- 
prejudiced reader that these were not copied ver- 
batim from the Lives, but that they have been put 
down independently from the same or the original 
source. A special stress is laid by those who uphold 
this theory upon the words ravra fx€v ovv va-repov 
(196 e), but that again is only a natural observation 
which anyone \vriting a memorandum might properly 
make regarding that incident, and anyone enthusi- 
astic in supporting the genuineness of the Sayings 
might equally well suggest that this was an observa- 
tion of some copyist, put down as a marginal note, 
which has crept into the text. 

There remains, then, the possibility that the Sayings 
are in the main the work of Plutarch, written by him 
in practically their present form, and that some of 
these were copied into the Lives rather than from the 
Lives. Plutarch himself tells us, in Moralia 464 f and 
457 D,° that he was in the habit of making collections 
of notes of this sort, and certainly nothing could be 
more natural than that the author of the Lives, to 
say nothing of the Moralia, should get together some 
of his material in more accessible form, especially in 
view of the difficulty, in ancient times, of consulting 
books, which were written and kept in the form of a 
roll. The arrangement of the Sayings of Kings and 

" In 457 D flF. Plutarch gives some examples of the kind 
of anecdotes which he is wont to collect, and some of these 
are identical with those found in the Sayings of Kings and 
Commanders, 
4, 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS 

Commanders is roughly chronological, "vvith some 
retrogressions. The Greeks (and Persians) and the 
Romans are grouped separately. If these sayings 
were extracted from the Lives by a WTiter as dull- 
witted as many would have us believe he was, it 
might reasonably be expected that he would have 
jumbled the Greeks and the Romans together as 
they are alternated in the Lives, but such is not the 
case. It will be noted that the names of the Spartans 
whose sayings are recorded in a similar collection are 
arranged in alphabetical order for convenience in 
consultation. 

In Lamprias's catalogue of Plutarch's works the 
Sayings of Kings and Commanders is listed as No. 108, 
and Stobaeus, in his Florilegium, quotes from it freely. 
Of the large number of quotations from this work 
which are to be found in Stobaeus an overwhelming 
majority agree in language either verbatim or almost 
verbatim, and are not in agreement verbatim with 
variant versions found elsewhere in the Lives or the 
Moralia or in AeUan or Polyaenus. In one case 
Stobaeus {Florilegium, liv. 4<3= Moralia 788 d and not 
187c) seems to have preferred aversion found else- 
where in the Moralia, and in one other case (vii. 48 = 
Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. 4, rather than Moralia, 
190 D, or 215 d) a version found in the Lives. It is 
clear, then, that the book was in existence as an inde- 
pendent volume in the time of Stobaeus, and prob- 
ably earher. 

Whether Plutarch ever meant that this collection 
should be pubHshed, or whether he himself provided 
the introduction addressed to the Emperor Trajan, 
are questions of minor importance. In ancient times, 
no doubt, as in later days royalty could not afford to 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

spend too much time with books, and welcomed 
predigested information. 

Plutarch very seldom tells the same story in the 
same words. Over and over again in his works we 
find a story repeated with minor variations in lan- 
guage, or in expansion or condensation, which often 
serve to adapt it better to its context, or, again, seem 
to serve no purpose except to avoid sameness ; and 
so with the stories in this collection : when they are 
repeated in other parts of Plutarch's works they al- 
most always show the same minor variations which 
are so characteristic of Plutarch.** 

It is an interesting academic study, for those to 
whom such studies appeal, to compare the different 
versions of the same story, and to try to draw con- 
clusions as to which version is derived from the other, 
or the others (as has been done by Carl Schmidt, 
De apophthegmatum quae sub Plutarchi nomine feruntur 
collectio7ubus, Greifswalde, 1879),^ but such studies 
are bound to be unconvincing at best. 

** Of the hundred or two hundred or more examples which 
might be cited (and which may be found by consulting the 
footnotes in the following pages) three or four must here 
suffice. One may compare the four accounts of Ada's 
cooks (180 a), or the three versions of Antigonus's modesty 
(183 c), or the remark of Lysimachus to Philippides (183 e), 
copied practically verbatim by Stobaeus, Florilegium xlix. 19, 
which looks like an original memorandum, while the other 
versions {Moralia 508 c and 317 b) appear to be adapted to 
their context; or the retort of Phocion to Antipater (188 f), 
six times repeated, in which the language of the retort is 
always essentially the same, but the setting is regularly 
adapted to the context. 

^ One may compare also Wilhelm Gemoll, Das Apo- 
phthegma (Leipzig, 1924), which is a discursive essay on the 
apophthegm, anecdote, novel, and romance, with relatively 
little reference to Plutarch. 

6 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS 

Of many of the stories there is no variant version. 
Some were doubtless used in Hves or essays by 
Phitarch whidi are now lost, and some were doubtless 
meant to be included in Hves or essays which were 
never written. 

The collection in whole or in part is probably as 
well known as anything that Plutarch has WTitten, 
for parts of it have become proverbial, and so it is not 
surprising that some of the sayings have been attri- 
buted to other well-known men, both ancient and 
modern, or that other men both ancient and modern 
have given utterance to them as their own. 



(172) AnOOGErMATA 

BASIAEHN KAI STPATHF^N 

nAOTTAPXOS TPAIANfil ATTOKPATOPI ET HPATTEIN 

1j ^Apra^ep^Tjg 6 Uepcrcbv ^aoiXevg, c5 /xeytcrrc 
avroKpdrop J^atcrap Tpa'Cavey ovx rjrrov olojxevos 
^aatXcKov Kal (j)iXdv6 pcoirov etvat rod /xeyaAa 
hihovai TO fxiKpd XafjL^dveiv evfji€va>£ Kal TrpodvjxcoSy 
iireL, TTapeXavvovTOs avrov KaO^ oSov, avrovpyog 
dvOpcoTTog Kal ISicoTrjg ovSev €)(o^v erepov eK rod 
TTorajjiov ratg x^P^'^^ diJL(j)OTipais vScop vnoXa^cbv 
TTpoGTiveyKev, rjSecog iSe^aro Kal ifieiSiaore, rfj 
TTpodvfjiia rod hihovros ov rfj XP^^^ "^^^ SiSofievov 
T17V x^P^^ fxerp-qaag. 

C *0 Se AvKovpyog evreXeardrag inoLTjaev iv 
'ZTrdprrf rag Ovoias, Iva da, rovs Oeovg rtfjidv 
iroificog SvvcovraL Kal paStajg 0.770 rojv irapovrajv. 
roLavrji hrj rtvL yvcopir] Kdpiov Xird gol Scopa Kal 
^eVta Kal Koivds drrapxds 7Tpoo(j)epovros diro 
<j>iXoao(^iag , a/xa rrj TTpoOvyiia Kal rrjv ;^petav 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Artaxerxes, chap. v. (1013 b c), 
and Aelian, Varia Historia, i. 32. 

^ Plutarch repeats this statement in Moralia^ 228 d, Life 
8 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND 
COxMMANDERS 

PLUTARCH TO TRAJAN, SUPREME MONARCH; 
SUCCESS AND PROSPERITY 

Artaxerxes, the king of the Persians, O Trajan, 
Emperor Most High and Monarch Supreme, used 
to think that, as compared with giving large gifts, 
it was no less the mark of a king and a lover of his 
fellow-men to accept small gifts graciously and with 
a ready goodwill ; and so, on a time when he was 
riding by, and a simple labourer, possessed of nothing 
else, took np water from the river in his two hands 
and offered it to the king, he accepted it pleasantly 
and M-ith a cheerful smile, measuring the favour by 
the ready good^\'ill of the giver and not by the service 
rendered by the gift.** 

Lycurgus made the sacrifices in Sparta very inex- 
pensive,^ so that people might be able always to 
honour the gods readily and easily from what they 
had at hand. And so, with some such thought in 
mind, I Hke\vise offer to you trifling gifts and tokens 
of friendship, the common offerings of the first-fruits 
that come from philosophy,*' and I beg that you will 

ofLycurgxis, chap. xix. (p. 52 a), and Commentary on Hesiod, 
26 {Works and Days, 336). Cf. also Plato, Alcibiades II. 
p. 149 A-c. " Cf. Plato, Protagoras, p. 343 b. 

9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(172) (XTToSe^at rcov oLTrofjLvqfiovevfjidTCOVy et Trpocrcfyopov 
ex^i' Tt^ TTpos Karavo-qoiv r)9ojv Kal TTpoaipioecov 
rjyefjLOVLKOJV, ifJi(f)aLvojJi€ua>v rot? Aoyots" /xaAAov ^ 
rats' TTpd^€GLV avrojv. Kairoi Kal ^iovs e;\;€t ro 
avvray/jba rcbv €m<f)av€Grdra}v irapd re 'PcojLtatots" 
D ^ott Trap* "KXXr]criv 'qyefjLovojv Kal vofjLoderojv Kal 
avTOKparopojv dXXd rcbv fxev Trpd^eoiv at TroAAat 
rvx^jv dva/xe/xty/xeVr^v exovaiVy at he yiyvopievai 
TTapd rd epya Kal rd TrdOrj Kal rds rvxa? aTTO- 
(f)da€LS Kal dva(f)Ojvrj(T€L?, a)G7T€p ev KaroiTTpois 
Kadapcos irapexovGL ttjv eKdGTov Bidvoiav diro- 
Oecopeti'. f)^ Kal Y^eipdpivris 6 UepGrjg Trpos rovs 
Oavpidl^ovras on rayv Xoyojv avrov vovv ixovrcov 
at irpd^eis ov Karopdovvrat, tojv fxkv Xoycjv ecfyrj 
Kvpios avTOS elvat, rajv Se Trpd^ecov ttjv rv^^^ 
fierd rod ^aGiXecog. 
E 'E/cet [X€v ovv djjLa at aTTO^dGeis rcbv dvSpcbv 
ras" 7Tpd^€Ls TrapaKeipiivas exovGac, GxoXdl,ovGav 
(jiiXriKotav TTepijjiivovGiv' ivravda Se Acat rovs 
Xoyovs avTOVs KaO* avrovg wGrrep Sety/xara tcjv 
^Lojv Kal GTTepfjLara GwecXeyfievovs ovSev otOjLtat 
GOL Tov Kaipov ivoxX-qGeiVy iv Ppax^Gi ttoXXcov 
dvadecxjprjGiv dvhpchv d^lcov fiv^fxrjs yevofiivcov 
XafJL^dvovTt. 

^ 7rp6(T(f)opou . . . Ti] opov . . . TLva in nearly all mss. Ap- 
parently the first part of Trpb<x<f>opov was omitted early, and ti 
was changed to correspond. 

^ Tj omitted in most mss. which add 5^ after 'Leipaixvrjs, 

" Diodorus Siculus, xv. 41, represents this remark as made 
10 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 172 

be good enough to accept, in conjunction with the 
author's ready goodwill, the utility which may be 
found in these brief notes, if so be that they contain 
something meet for the true understanding of 
the characters and predilections of men in high 
places, which are better reflected in their words 
than in their actions. True it is that a work of 
mine comprises the lives also of the most noted 
rulers, lawgivers, and monarchs among the Romans 
and the Greeks ; but their actions, for the most part, 
have an admixture of chance, whereas their pro- 
nouncements and unpremeditated utterance in con- 
nexion with what they did or experienced or chanced 
upon afford an opportunity to observe, as in so many 
mirrors, the workings of the mind of each man. In 
keeping herewith is the remark of Seiramnes the 
Persian who, in answ'er to those who expressed sur- 
prise because, while his words showed sense, his 
actions were never crowned with success, said that 
he himself was master of his words, but chance, to- 
gether with the King, was master of his actions." 

In the Lives the pronouncements of the men have 
the story of the men's actions adjoined in the same 
pages, and so must w^ait for the time when one has 
the desire to read in a leisurely w^ay ; but here the 
remarks, made into a separate collection quite by 
themselves, servingj'so to speak, as samples and primal 
elements of the men's Uves, will not, I think, be any 
serious tax on your time, and you will get in brief 
compass an opportunity to pass in review many men 
who have proved themselves worthy of being re- 
membered. 

by Pharnabazus, the Persian satrap, to Iphicrates, the 
Athenian general. 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

AnO^eEFMATA KTPOTi 

1. Tlepaat rcov ypvTTcbv ipcoGi^ 8ta to YJjpov 
ayaiT'qdevra fxaXcara rajv ^auiXicjv yeyovevai ypv- 
TTov TO etSos". 

2. "EAeye Se Kupos eTepoLS avayKa^ecrOaL tol- 
yaOa 7TopLl,€LV tovs avTols firj deXovTas' ap)(eiv Se 
fjLTjSevl TTpoG-qKeiv, OS 01) KpeuTTOJV ecrrt tcov apxo- 
jjLevojv. 

F 3. BovXofievovs Se tovs Ylepaas olvtl ttjs eau- 
Tojv ovGTjs opetvrjs kol Tpa-)(eias vreStaSa /cat /xaAa- 
Kr]v ;!^c6pav Xa^elv ovk etaaev, etTTcbv otl /cat tcov 
<f)VTcbv TOL GTTepfiaTa /cat tojv dvdpcLncov ol ^lol TaXs 
\wpais GVve^ofjLOLOvvTaL. 

AAPEIOT 

1. Aap€LOS 6 'Rip^ov TTaTTjp iavTov ey/ca)/xtaja>v 
e'Aeyev eV rats' fidxcm? kolI rrapd tol Seivd yiyveadai 
(jypovLpLOJTepos. 

2. Tovs Se (f)6pOVS TOiS VTTTJKOOLS TOL^aS fl€T' 

eTTepupaTO tovs TrpcoTovs tcvv e7Tap;^ta)v /cat Trept 
TOJV <f)6pa)v rjpwTTjCje, pbrj ^apels elcn' (j^rjodvTCov 
Se ixeTpiojs ^X^^^ eKeXevcre TcXelv tovs rjfXLaeis 
173 eKaoTov. 

^ These headings are regularly omitted in the 3iss. 
^ ^pcDcTi] ipuxxL Kai KaWiarovs viro\afx[3di^ov(n in many MSS. 

*» The elder Cyrus (t529 b.c), founder of the Persian 
empire. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 821 e. 

" Cf. Xenophon, Cyropaedia, i. 6. 8, and vii. 5. 83. The 
sentiment is not novel, and may be found in other writers. 

** Plutarch probably took this from Herodotus, ix. 122, 
who in turn may have drawn upon Hippocrates ; cf. Aim, 
Waters, and Places, chap. xxiv. (Hippocrates in L.C.L. ; 

12 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 172-173 

CYRUS" 

1. The Persians are enamoured of hook-nosed 
persons, because of the fact that Cyrus, the best 
loved of their kings, had a nose of that shape. ^ 

2. Cyrus said that those who are un%^ining to pro- 
cure good things for themselves must of necessity 
procure them for others. He also said that no man 
has any right to rule who is not better than the people 
over whom he rules.'' 

3. When the Persians wished to acquire a level 
and tractable land in place of their owti, which was 
mountainous and rugged, Cyrus would not allow them 
to do so, saying that both the seeds of plants and the 
lives of men are bound to be like the land of their 
origin.** 

DAPJUS' 

1. Darius, the father of Xerxes, said in praise of 
himself that in battles and in the face of formidable 
dangers he became more cool and collected.-'' 

2. After fixing the amount of the taxes which his 
subjects were to pay, he sent for the leading men of 
the provinces, and asked them if the taxes were 
not perhaps heavy ; and when the men said that the 
taxes were moderate, he ordered that each should 
pay only half as much.^ 

pp. 132-136). Cf. also Plato, Laws, p. 695 a ; Livy, xxix. 25. 
The idea is not novel, and may be found in other writers. 
It was again repeated in 1936 by Calvin Coolidge in regard 
to the rugged hills of Vermont. 

* Darius I., king of Persia 521-485 b.c. 

f Cf. Moralia, 792 c. 

" The same story with variations may be found in Poly- 
aenus, Strategemata, vii. 11.3. Nothing to this effect is to be 
found in Herodotus's account of Darius's taxation, iii. 86-95. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(173) 3. 'Poiav 8e fieydXrjv dvoi^ag, TTvOojjLevov rivos 

TL dv €)(€IV ^OvXoLTO TOGOVTOV OCTOV iorl TiOV KOK- 

Kcov TO TrXrjOogy etne, " ZjOjTTvpovs "' rjv he dvrjp 
dyaOos Kdi (f)LXos 6 ZojTrupos". 

4. 'ETret 8e avros lavrov at/ctcra/xep'os' o Zcuttu- 
pos Kal TTjw plva Koi rd aJra TrepLKoifjas i^rjirdTrjcre 
Jia^vXwviovs Kal TTiGrevdeis vtt* avrajv TrapeScxJKe 
Aapelo) TTjv ttoXlv, rroXXdKL? 6 Aapelos elirev ovk 
dv iOeXrjcraL Xa^elv eKarov Ba^vXaJvas inl rco fxr) 
ZiCOTTvpov e-x^eiv oXoKXrjpov. 

SEMIPAMIAOS 

TiefiLpafiLS 8e iavrfj KaraaKevdaaaa rd^ov €77- 
B iypaipev, " ooms dv XPVH'^'^^^ SerjOfj ^aauXev?, 
SieXovra rd jjLvrjfieiov daa ^ovXerai Xa^elv." 
Aapetog ovv SieXdjv XPVI^^'^^ l^^^ ^^X ^^P^> ypdfx- 
/xacrt 8e irepoLS ivervx^ rdSe ^pa^oucrtv, " el fjLrj 
/ca/cos" rjcrd^^ dvrjp /cat XPVH'^'^^^ dirX'qcjros, ovk 
du veKpdJv djjKas eKiveis." 

SEPSOT 

1. 'Rep^r) to) Aapeuov rrepl rrjs pauiXeias dfx^L- 

G^TjTCJV 6 dSeXc/iog ^ ApiafxevT]? Kare^aivev e/c r^? 

BaACT/otavrJ?- eTrefjujjev ovv avro) Sojpa, (j^pdaai 

KeXevaas rovs SLhovras, " tovtol? ae ripia vvv 

C "Eep^Tjs 6 dheX(j)6s' edv Se ^aacXevs dvayopevdrj, 

1 170-^'] ^s Stobaeus, Flor. x. 53. 

" The same story is found in Herodotus, iv. 143, but with 
the name of Megabazus instead of Zopyrus. 

'' Herodotus, iii. 154-160 ; cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ 
vii. 13. 

'^ Herodotus, i. 187, says that Nitocris built the tomb 

14 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 173 

3. As Darius was opening a big pomegranate, 
someone inquired what there was of which he would 
hke to have as many in number as the multitude of 
seeds in the pomegranate, and he replied, "Men hke 
Zopyrus."'' Zopyrus was a brave man and a friend 
of his. 

4. Zopyrus, by disfiguring himself with his own 
hands and cutting off his nose and ears, tricked the 
Babylonians, and by winning their confidence suc- 
ceeded in handing over the city to Darius. Many a 
time Darius said that he would not take an hundred 
Babylons as the price of not having ZopjTus un- 
scathed.^ 

SEMIRAMIS 
Semiramis ^ caused a great tomb to be prepared 
for herself, and on it this inscription : " Whatsoever 
king finds himself in need of monej" may break into 
this monument and take as much as he ^^ishes." 
Darius accordingly broke into it, but found no money ; 
he did, however, come upon another inscription read- 
ing as follows : " If you were not a wicked man with 
an insatiate greed for money, you would not be dis- 
turbing the places where the dead are laid." 

XERXES <* 
1. Ariamenes, the brother of Xerxes son of Darius, 
was on his way down from the Bactrian country to 
contest Xerxes' right to the kingdom. Xerxes ac- 
cordingly sent him gifts, bidding those who offered 
them to say, " With these gifts Xerxes your brother 
now honours you ; and if he be proclaimed king, you 

above the gates of Babylon. Stobaeus, x. 53, copies Plutarch 
word for word. 

'^ King of Persia, 485-465 b.c. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(173) TTavTCDv ecrrj Trap' avroj fjLeyLaros." aTToSeLxOiv- 
TO? Se rod "Eep^ov ^acnXeajg, 6 jxkv * Apta/JLevr]? 
evdvg TTpoaeKVPrjue koI to StaSi^/xa TrepUOrjKev, 6 
§€ "Rep^Tj? eKeivcp rrjv Bevrepav fied^ iavrov eScoKe 

2. ^Opyiodels Se ^a^vXcovioLS aTToardai /cat 
Kparijua? TrpoGera^ev oVAa pLr^ (fyepeiv, dAAa ipaX- 
Xeiv KOI avXelv /cat TTopvo^oGKelv /cat KaTTrjXeveLv 
/cat (jyopeiv koXttcotovs ;)^tTa»vas'. 

3. 'Arrt/cds' Se luxoiSag ovk dv €(f)r] (fyayelv ojvi- 
ovs KOfjLLCjOeLGag, dAA' orav rr]v ^epovuav KT-qar^TaL 
Xcopoiv. 

4. "KXXrjvag Se KaraGKOTTOvg eV rep arparoTrehcp 
Xa^dw ovSev -qhiK-quev, dXXd ttjv orparidv dhechs 

D emhelv KeXevGa? d(j)rJK€v. 

aptahep:=:ot 

1. 'Apra^ep^T]? 6 Sep^ov, 6 jjLaKp6x€tp TrpoGayo- 
pevOelg 8td to ttjv irepav X^^P^ pLaKporepav ex^LV, 
eXeyev on to TrpoGdelvai rod dt^eXelv ^acrtAt/coj - 
repou eGTL. 

2. Upcoros Se TTpcoro^oXeiv cKeXevGe rdJv avy- 
KvmjyerovvTcov rovs Swafxevovs /cat ^ovXopbivovs . 

3. npaJTOS" Se Tots" dfiaprdvovGC rdjv rjyejjLOvi- 

" Plutarch tells the story with more details in Moralia, 
488 D-F. The tradition which Plutarch follows is quite 
different from that of Herodotus, vii. 1-4. 

^ The usual tradition is that Babylon revolted from 
Darius ; Herodotus, iii. 150. 

" Cyrus is said to have employed this device against the 
Lydians ; Herodotus, i. 156 ; Polyaenus, Strategemata^ 
vii. 6. 4 ; Justin, Hist. Philip, i. 7. For two other instances 
cf. the scholia on Sophocles, Oedipus Col. 329, and Dionysius 
Hal. Antiq. Rom. vii. 9. 
Id 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 173 

shall be the highest at his court." When Xerxes 
was designated as the king, Ariamenes at once paid 
homage to him, and placed the crown upon his 
brother's head, and Xerxes gave him a rank second 
only to himself." 

2. Angered at the Babylonians, who had revolted,^ 
he overpowered them, and then ordained that hence- 
forth they should not bear arms, but should play the 
lyre and flute, keep public prostitutes, engage in 
petty trade, and wear long flo\\'ing garments." 

3. He said he would not eat figs from Attica which 
had been imported for sale, but would eat them when 
he had obtained possession of the land that bore them.<* 

4. AVhen he caught Greek spies in his camp, he did 
them no injury, but, after bidding them observe his 
army freely, let them go.* 

ARTAXERXES' 

1. Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, called * Long- 
hand,' because of his having one hand longer than 
the other,^ used to say that it is more kingly to 
give to one who has than to take away. 

2. He was the first to issue an order that any of his 
companions in the hunt who could and would might 
throw their spears without waiting for him to throw 
first.'^ 

3. He was the first to ordain this form of punish- 
ment for those of the ruHng class w^ho offended : 

^ Cf. Athenaeus, p. 653 b. 
* The story is told in Herodotus, vii. 146-147. 
' King of Persia, 465-425 b.c. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Artaxerxes, chap. i. (1011 e). 
'^ Xenophon {Cyropaedia, i. 4. 14) attributes this innova- 
tion to the elder Cyrus ; but cf. Ctesias, Persica, frag. 40. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(173) KCi)P Tifxcopiav erafev, avrl rod to aojyia iiaariyovv 
Koi TT^v K€(l)aXrjv aTTOTiXXeiVy^ fxauTiyovadai fiev 
aTTohvoajievcjv ra t/xarta rlXXeaOai 8e rr]v ridpav 
dTTodejjLevcov. 
E 4. HaTL^ap^dvTjv 8e rov KaraKOLfjLicjrrjv alrov- 
fxevov TL 77ap' avTOV rcov /jltj hiKaicov aiudoyievos 

€7TL rpLGfJiVpiOLS Sap€LKoXs TOVTO TTOLOVVTa, TTpOd- 

era^e rco rapiia rpiupivpiovs SapeuKovs KOfxluai' 
Kol SlSovs^ avTW, " Xd^€y" elireVy " w Sart- 
^apt^dvq- ravra p,ev yap Sovs ovk^ ecro/xat irevi- 
crrepoSy eKelva Se npd^as dBcKcorepos." 

KTPOT TOT NEfiTEPOT 

Kvpos 6 vecorepos rovs AaKeSaifjiovLovs ovfi' 
fxax^LV avrcp TrapaKaXwv e'Aeye rou dSeXcfyov Kaphiav 
€-x^€LV ^apvrepav koI irXeiova iriveiv aKparov avrov 
Kal (j)€peiv ^iXriov eKeZvov 8e /xdAts" iv rat? d-r^pai^ 
¥ irrl Tojv lttttcov pL€V€iv, ev he rots Seivot? fjLTjSe inl 
rod dpovov. TTapcKdXei hk diroureXXeLV dvhpas 
TTpog avrov, iTrayyeXXofJuevog rols ju,ev Tre^ots" Itt- 
7TOVS Scoaeiv, rols 8e lttttov^ e-)(ovGiv appLara, tols 
8e "x^cjitpia KeKryjixevots Kcofias, rovs 8e Kcofjuag 
k^ovras TToXeojv Kvpiov? TTOL-qcreiv dpyvpiov hk Kai 
XpvcFLov ovK dpidpLov dXXd GradpLov eaeadai,. 

^ dTTOTtWeiv F.C.B. : airoTLWeadaL. Some Mss. give a 
slightly abbreviated version, but the sense is quite clear, and 
is confirmed by Moral. 565 a. 

2 5i5o!)s] diaSovs in most mss. 

^ Hartman would omit ou/c. 
18 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 173 

Instead of having their bodies scourged and the hair 
plucked from their heads, they took off their outer 
garments and these were scourged, and put off their 
head-dress and this was plucked.** 

4. Satibarzanes, his chamberlain, made a dis- 
honourable request of him, and it came to his know- 
ledge that the man was doing this for thirty thousand 
pounds ; whereupon he directed his treasurer to 
bring him thirty thousand pounds, and, as he gave 
the money to his chamberlain, he said, " Take this, 
Satibarzanes ; for if I make you this gift I shall not 
be poorer, but if I do that deed I shall be more dis- 
honourable ! " 

CYRUS THE YOUNGER » 

Cyrus the younger, in urging the Spartans to ally 
themselves Avith him, said that he had a stouter 
heart than his brother, and that he could drink more 
strong wine than his brother could and carry it better; 
moreover, that at hunts his brother could hardly stay 
on his horse, and at a time of terror not even on his 
throne. Cyrus urged the Spartans to send him men, 
promising to give horses to the foot-soldiers, chariots 
to those who had horses, villages to those who owned 
farms, and to make those who had villages the masters 
of cities ; and as for gold and silver there should be 
no counting, but weighing instead.'' 

<* Cf. Moralia, 35 e and 565 a, and Wyttenbach's note on 
the latter passage. 

^ t 401 B.C. 

" The content of the passage agrees, in the main, with 
that of Plutarch's Life of Artaxerxes, chap. vi. (1013 f) ; 
but there he says, ovk dpi9/j.bv dXXd /Mrpofy " not counting 
but measuring out." 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

APTAHEPSOT TOT MNHMONOS 

1. 'Apra^epf-j^S" o tovtov jLtev dSeA^o? Mvqixojp 
8e KaXovfJuevos, ov fiovov rols ivrvyxdvovGiv eau- 
Tov dvcS-qv TTapeXx^^, aAAa Kal ttjv yvvaiKa rrjV 
yviqoLav eKeXevcre rrj? dpfiaiid^r^g rds avXalas irepi- 
eXelv, OTTOJS ol SeofMevot Kara ttjv oSov evrvy' 
xdvojGL. 
174 2. Hevqros Se dvdpcoTTov fjLrjXov V7r€p(f>veg fxe- 
yidei TTpooeviyKavTos avro) Se^dfxevos rjSews, " vrj 
rov M.ldpav," eiTTev, " ovros jLtot hoKel /cat ttoXlv 
dv €K pLLKpds iieydXrjv Tnorevdels direpydaaad at.'* 

3. *Ev §€ <f>Vy'j] Tf'Vi' T7y? d7TOGK€VrjS aVTOV 

SiapTTayeLcrrj?, ^r]pd ovKa (f)ay(jbv /cat Kpidivov 
dprou, " olaSi' ^Itt^v, " rjSovrj? aTreipos TJpirjv." 

nAPTSATIAOS 

ITapuo-arts' tj Kupou /cat ^Apra^ep^ov fnjrrjp 
e/ceAeue rov ^acnXet fieXXovra pi€rd TTapprjorias 
hiaXiyeodai ^vuglvols ;^p7ycr^at pTJpLaai,. 

B OPOXTOT 

^OpovTTjSy 6 PaaiXecDs ^Apra^ep^ov yafi^pos, drt- 
fjLia 7T€pL7reG(l)v 8td KaTiqyopiav^ /cat KarayvcoaOels 
e(f)r]y " KaOdirep ol rwv dpidfjLrjTLKcov 8d/CTuAot vvv 
fjL€V fxvpidha? vvv Se fxovdSas TiOevai^ hvvavraiy to 

* 5ia KaTrjyopiau F.C.B. from Diodorus, xv. 10: St.' opyrjp. 
2 Tidei^ai] Cobet would omit. 

« King of Persia, 404-359 B.C. 
'' Because of his good memory. 
" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Artaxerxes, chap. v. (1013 d-e). 
20 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 173-174 

ARTAXERXES MNEMON" 

1. Artaxerxes, Cyrus's brother, called Mnemon,^ 
not only granted audience freely to those who \Wshed 
to speak with him, but also bade his wife draw^ aside 
the curtains from her carriage so that those who 
desired might speak with her on the road.° 

2. A poor man brought to him an apple of extra- 
ordinary size which he accepted with pleasure, and 
at the same time he remarked, " By Mithras I swear 
it seems to me that this man would make a big 
city out of a small one if it were entrusted to his 
charge." <* 

3. Once in a precipitate retreat his baggage was 
plundered, and as he ate dry figs and barley-bread 
he exclaimed, " What a pleasure is this which has 
never been mine before ! " * 

PARYSATIS 

Parysatis, the mother of Cyrus and Artaxerxes, 
advised that he who was intending to talk frankly 
with the king should use words of softest texture. 

ORONTES 

Orontes, the son-in-law of King Artaxerxes, be- 
came involved in disgrace because of an accusation,^ 
and, when the decision was given against him, he 
said that, as mathematicians' fingers are able to re- 
present tens of thousands at one time, and at another 

■^ Ibid. chap. iv. (1013 b). 

'- Ibid. chap. xii. (1017 b) is a similar story regarding 
.■5 tale water. 

' Against Tiribazus according to Diodorus, xv. 10-11, 
where the story is told at length. 

VOL. Ill B 21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(174) avro kol tovs tcDv ^aoiXicov ^iXovs, vvv fiev ro 
TTOLV Sijuaadai vvv 8e rovXdxt'CrTov ." 

MEMNONOS 

^efjivcoVy 6 *AAe^ai'8pa> ttoXe/jlcov vrrep Aapeiov 

rod ^auiXecos, ^tco-^o^opoi^ rii^a ttoXXol ^XdacfyrjfjLa 

Kal doreXyrj Trepl 'AXe^dvSpov Xeyovra rfj Xoyxj) 

TTard^as, " iyoj ae," ei77€, " rpe^co ixaxovfJievov, 

dAA* ov XoL^oprjaro/Jievov ^AXe^dvBpcp." 

AirTIlTIfiN BASIAEQN EGOS 

Ot AlyvTTTLajv ^aauXels Kara vojjlov eavrcov rovg 
St/cacrras" iicopKt^ov on Koiv ^acnXevg ti Trpocrrd^r] 
Kplvai rwv pLT] hiKaiojVy ov Kpuvovai. 

nOATTOS 

HoXtvs 6 SpaKCJV paaiXevs iv rep Tpoi'CKw no- 
XefJLcp TTpea^evoafievajv Trpog avrov a/xa rcbv Tpcoojv 
Kal Tcov ^AxoH'(^v eKcXevoe rov ^AXe^avhpov diro- 
Sovra TTjv 'EAeVr^v 8vo Trap* avrov Xa^elv KaXds 
yvvacKas. 
D THPOT 

T'^prjs 6 ^irdXKov -narrip eXeyev oTTore axoXd- 

^Ot Kal p.T] GTpaT€VOLTO, TCOV LTTTrOKOfJiCOV OL€(j6aL 

fjLTjhev SiacjiepeLV. 

" Cf. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie, ii. p. 1068. 
*• A similar remark is attributed to Solon by Diogenes 
Laertius, i. 59. 
" Circa 333 b.c. 
^ Cf. Diodorus, i. 71. 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 174 

time only units,'^ so it was the same with the friends 
of kings : at one time they are omnipotent and at 
another time almost impotent.* 

MEM NGN 

Memnon, who was waging war against Alexander 
on the side of King Darius," when one of his mer- 
cenary soldiers said many Hbellous and indecent 
things of Alexander, struck the man with his spear, 
saying, " I pay you to fight Alexander, not to malign 
him." 

A CUSTOM OF THE KINGS OF EGYPT 

The kings of the Egyptians, in accordance with a 
rule of their o^vn, used to require their judges to 
swear that, even if the king should direct them to 
decide any case unfairly, they would not do so.^ 

POLTYS 

Poltys, king of the Thracians at the time of the 
Trojan war, when once both the Trojans and the 
Greeks sent deputations to him at the same time, 
bade Alexander restore Helen and accept a couple 
of beautiful women from him. 

TERES • 

Teres, the father of Sitalces, used to say that when- 
ever he had nothing to do and was not in the field 
with his army he felt that there was no difference 
between himself and his grooms.-^ 

« King of the Odrysae in Thrace in the earlier part of the 
fifth century b.c. 

f In Moralia, 792 c, this remark is attributed to Ateas, 
king of the Scythians. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(174) K OTTOS 

KoTfS" TO) ha)p'r](jaiJL€Vcp TrdpSaXiv OLvreScop-qcraro 
Xeovra. (f)vu€L he cov o^v? ets" opyrjv /cat TTiKpos 
Tojv dfiapTavovTcxJV iv rats' hiaKoviais KoXaGT'^s, 
GKevT) 7T0T6 Kcpajjied ^ivov KopiiaavTos evOpavcrra 
Koi XeTTrd, mdavcos Se /cat Trepirrajs elpyacrpLeva 
yAu^atS" TtCTt /cat ropetats", rep puev ^evcp eScoKe 
SdJpa, rd 8e (JKevrj Trdvra Gvverpufjev, " oVcos"/' 
E et77e, " pLT) 8t' opyrjv iriKporepov KoXd^oj rovs 
awTpi^ovras." 

lAANeXPSOT 

^ISdvOvpGog^ 6 TiKvdcov PacriXevSy icf)^ ov Ste^r^ 
Aapelos, €7T€l9€ rovs ^Iwvojv rvpdvvovs to rod 
"larpov ^€vyp.a Xvaavras dTTaXXdrreaO ai' pLTj 
^ovX-qOevras Se Sta Tr]v irpos rov Aapetov ttlgtlv, 
dvSpdnoSa ■)(^p'qGTd /cat dSpaara eKdXet. 

ATEOT 

'Area? eypa(j)e rrpog rov ^lXlttttov, ** crv fxev dp- 
X^iS Ma/ceSovcuv dvdpojrrois pLepbadrjKOTCjJv rroXepieiV' 
F iyoj he H,Kv6d)Vy ot /cat At/xo) /cat hiipei pidx^adai 
hvvavraL." 

Tovs he TTpea^eig rod ^lXlttttov iprix(J^v rov 
LTTTTOV rjpd)rr](jev, " el rovro rroiel ^lXltttto?." 

^\upir]viav he rov dpiarov avXrjrr]v Aa^coi' at;!^- 
IxdXcorov eKeXevaev avXrjaai' 6avpLal,6vrcov he rd)V 

^ 'Iddi^dvpaoi as in the mss. of Herodotus : l5ddvp<xos. 



« King of Thrace, 382-358 B.C. 
" Cf. Herodotus, iv. 142. 

24 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 174 

COTYS« 

Cotys was once presented with a leopard, and he 
presented the donor with a Hon in return. He was 
by nature very irascible and prone to punish severely 
any lapses in service. On a time when a friend from 
abroad brought him some vessels of earthenware, 
very fragile and delicate, WTought A\-ith figures in 
rehef in a realistic and highly artistic manner, he 
gave presents to the friend, but broke all the vessels 
in pieces, " so that I," as he said, " may not in anger 
punish too severely those that break them." 

IDANTHYRSUS 

Idanthyrsus, the king of the Scythians, against 
whom Darius crossed the Danube, tried to persuade 
the despots of the lonians to break up the bridge that 
spanned the river, and then withdraw. But when 
they were not willing to do so because of their 
plighted word to Darius, he called them good slaves 
who would never run away.^ 

ATEAS 

Ateas wrote to Philip : " You are the ruler of the 
Macedonians who have learned to fight against men ; 
but I am ruler of the Scythians who are able to fight 
against both hunger and thirst." 

While he was engaged in currying his horse he 
asked the ambassadors who had come from Philip 
whether PhiHp did this. 

Having captured in battle Ismenias, the very best 
of flute-players, he bade him play a tune. Everybody 
else was filled with admiration, but Ateas swore 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aXXojv, avTo? oj/xocrev rjSiov aKoveiv rod lttttov 
Xp^ixerl^ovTOi' . 

2KIA0TP0T 

HKiXovpos oySoTJKovTo^ TTatSa? appevas olttoXlttcjov , 
eVet reXevrdv e/xcAAe, Seafjii^v aKovriojv eKaorcp npo- 
reivcov eKeXeue KaraOpavGaL- Travrajv 8e aTrayo- 
pevGavTOjv y ko.9^ eV avTog i^eXojv olkovtlov airavra 
paSlcos crvv€KXaG€, SiSaGKcov eKeivovs, on gvv- 
€GTa)T€s LGXvpol SiafjLevovGLv , OLGOeveLS 8' ecrovrat 
hiaXvdivres kol GraGiaGavres . 

TEAfiNOS 

175 1. ViXcxjv 6 Tvpavvog, ore Kapx^jSoviovs Trpos 
*llJL€pa KareTToXeiJLrjGev , elpTjvrjv TTOLOvfJievos TTpos 
avrovs rjvdyKaGev iyypdijjai rat? opioXoyiais on 
KOI rd reKva TravGovrai rco Kpovo) KaraOvovres. 

2. 'E^Tjye Se TOV5 HvpaKOVGiovs iroXXaKis <1)S 
6771 GTpareiav Kara} cfyvrelav, oTTOis 7) re x^pa 
^eXrlojv yevTjrau yecxjpyovfJLevr] /cat /xtj ;(;et/)oyes' 
avrol GxoXd^ovre?. 

3. Alrojv Se XPVH'^'^^ rovs TroAtras", inel edo- 
pv^r]Gav, alrelv elirev ojs dTTohcaaajv , /cat ciTreSco/ce 
ixerd rov rroXepiOV. 

B 4. 'Ev Se GVjjiTTOGLa) Xvpag 7TepL(f>epofJLevris y ap/xo- 

^ oySorjKovTo] 6 dydorjKovTa van Herwerden. 
» Kara F.C.B., cf. for example 337 d : Kal. 

•* The story is repeated in nearly the same words in 
Moralia, 334 b and 1095 f. The fame of Ismenias is several 
times referred to by ancient writers. It may suffice to men- 
tion Plutarch, Moralia, 633 c. 
26 



u 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 174-175 

that it gave him more pleasure to hear his horse 
neigh." 

SCILURUS^- 

Scilurus, who left eighty sons surviving him, when 
he was at the point of death handed a bundle of 
javeHns to each son in turn and bade him break it. 
After they had all given up, he took out the javelins 
one by one and easily broke them all, thereby 
teaching the young men that, if they stood together, 
they would continue strong, but that they would be 
weak if they fell out and quarrelled.'' 

GELON" 

1. Gelon, the despot, after vanquishing the 
Carthaginians off Himera, forced them, when he 
made peace >vith them, to include in the treaty an 
agreement to stop sacrificing their children to Cronus.* 

2. He often led out the Syracusans to plant their 
fields, as if it had been for a campaign, so that the 
land should be improved by being worked, and the 
men should not deteriorate by being idle. 

3. He asked for money from the citizens, and, when 
they began to murmur, he said that he was asking 
for it with the intent to repay, and he did repay it 
when the war was over. 

4. At a party a lyre was passed around, and the 

^ King of the Scythians, second or first century b.c. 

" Cf. Moralia, 511 c. 

•* Ruler of Gela, 491-483, and of Syracuse, 485-478 b.c. 

* Cf. Moralia, 171 (and the note), and 552 a. According 
to Diodorus, xx. 14, the practice was revived in 310 b.c, 
even if it had not persisted during the intervening years. 
Cf. G. F. Moore in the Journal of Biblical Literature, xvi. 
(1897), p. 161. Cronus is the Semitic El, Moloch, or Baal. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(175) ^ofJLevcDV Tcov a'AAcjv icfye^rjg Kal aSovrctjv, avros 
rov Ittttov elaayayelv KcXevaas iXa(f>pcos /cat paSlcxJS 
dpe7njSrja€v Itt* avrov. 

IEP12N0S 

1. *\lpcjL>v 6 fjLera TeXcova rvpavvos eXeye purj- 
Seva Tojv 7Tappr](JLat,oiJL€vcov Trpog avrov aKaipov 
elvai. 

2. Tovs 8e OLTToppTjTov Xoyov €K(f)epovras aStaretv 
^€T0 Kal TOVS TTpog ovg iK(j)epovcn- pLicrovpLev yap 
ov pLovov roijs eK<f)epovTas aAAa Kal rovs olkov- 
aavras a piTj ^ovXopLeda. 

S. AoiSopr)9els Se vtto tlvos et? rrjv 8ucrco8tav 
rod GTopLaros , fjTLoiTO rrjv avrov yvvalKa pLiqherroTe 
C TTepl rovrov ^pdoauav tj he eiTrev, " wpuqv yap 
TOiovrov drravras rovs dvSpas o^etv." 

4. Upos Se Seyo^avTyv' rov K.oXocf)a)VLOv elirovra 
pLoXis oLKeras Suo rp€(f)€iu, " dAA* "Op-qpos," €L7T€v, 
** ov GV hiaovpeis, rrXeiovas t) pLvplovs rp€<f)€L 
Tedvr]Ka)S." 

5. 'E77t;\;a/3/xov Be rov KCopicphiOTTOiov^ on rrjs 
yvvauKos avrov rrapovaiqs eliTe ri rojv aTrpeTTajv, 
it^rfpiiojoe. 

AI0NT2I0T TOT HPESBTTEPOT 

1. ^lovvGLOs 6 TTpeG^vrepoSy KX-qpovpievcov Kara 
D ypdpLpa rcov Srjpirjyopovvrajv, cos ^Xa^^ ro M, irpos 

1 Kco/xif8i.oTroL6p (the preferred form) Bernardakis: Kcj/ji^ipSo- 
iroLbv. 

<» Cf. Themistocles' boast, to which he resorted in self- 
defence under similarly embarrassing circumstances, in 
Plutarch's Life of T/temistocles, chap. ii. (113 c). 

28 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 175 

others, one after the other, tuned it and sang, but the 
king ordered his horse to be led in, and nimbly and 
easily leapt upon its back.<* 

HIERO* 

1. Hiero, who succeeded Gelo as despot, used to 
say that not one of the persons who spoke frankly to 
him chose the wTong time. 

2. He felt that those who divulged a secret com- 
mitted a serious offence also against those to whom 
they divulged it ; for we hate, not only those who 
divulge such things, but also those who hear what we 
do not A\dsh them to hear. 

3. On being reviled by someone for his offensive 
breath, he blamed his wife for never having told him 
about this ; but she said, " I supposed that all men 
smelled so."*' 

4. In answer to Xenophanes of Colophon, who had 
said that he could hardly maintain two servants, 
Hiero said, " But Homer, whom you disparage, 
maintains more than ten thousand, although he is 
dead." 

5. He caused Epicharmus the comic poet to be 
punished because he made an indecent remark in the 
presence of his wife. 

DIONYSIUS THE ELDER" 

1. Dionysius the Elder, when the speakers who were 

to address the people were dra^\^ng by lot the letters 

of the alphabet to determine their order of speaking, 

drew the letter M ; and in answer to the man who 

* Ruler of Gela and Syracuse, 478-467 b.c. 

" Cf. Moralia, 90 b, and Lucian, Hermotimus, 34. Aris- 
totle tells the same story of Gelon according to Stobaeus, Flori' 
legium, v. 83. ^ Ruler of Syracuse, 405-367 b.c. 

VOL. Ill 8 2 29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(175) Tov eiTTOvra, " fxajpoXoyets,^ ALOvvcne *'' ** fxovap- 
X'^orco [xev ovv," etne, Kal SrjfJLrjyoprjGas €vOvs 
jipedrj arparrjyos vtto tcov TiVpaKOVGLCov. 

2. 'ETret 8' iv apxfj ttjs rvpo^vviho? eiroXiop' 

K€LTO, UVGrdvTOJV €77^ aVTOV TiOV TToXtTcbv , OL fXCV 

(f)iXoL crvve^ovXevov a77aAAay^vat ttJs" dpxrjs, et p,r) 
povXerai KpaT7]6€is aTTodaveZv 6 8e ^ovv Ihojv 
G<f)arT6[jL€vov VTTO fiayelpov Kal TTLTTTOvra rax^^?, 
elra ovk drjSes^ eaTLv/' eiTrev, " ovtoj ^paxvv 
ovra Tov Odvarov (fio^rjOevras r]p.ds dpx'^v eyKara- 
AtTretv rr]XiKavT^qv ; " 

3. Toy he vlov alaOofjLevos, (p rrjv dpxr)v diro- 
E XiTTelv cfxeXXev, dvhpos iXevOepov hiacjideipavra yv- 

vatov, rjpcvTYjore pLsr opyrjs, tL tolovtov avrco gvv- 
oihev. eLTTouTOS Se tov veavlaKov, *' av yap ovk 
etx^S TTarepa rvpavvov," '* ovhe cru," 6ltt€v, " vlov 
e^eiSi edv fiT) TTavoTj ravra ttoiow." 

4. YldXiv he TTpos avTOV elaeXdcbv Kal Oeaord- 
fxevos eKTrajfidrajv xP^^djv Kal dpyvpcov ttXtjOos 
dve^OTjorev, " ovk eoriv iv aol rvpavvo?, os a(/>' cbv 
Xa(JL^dveL? (Xtt' ifjiov iroTiqpiajv togovtcov <j)iXov 
ovheva oeavTW TTeTTOLTjKas." 

5. y^prjiiara he elcnrpdrrcov rovg ^vpaKovcrLOVs, 
elra opojv ohvpofievovs Kal heofxevovs Kal Xeyovras 

F COS" OVK exovGiv, eKeXevaev erepa Trpdrreiv, Kal his 
T] rpls rovTO fTTOirjGev iirel he Trpoard^a? irXeiova 
yeXdv TJKOvuev avrovg Kal GKcoTrreiv iv dyopq 

^ fxupoXoye'is] fj-wpoXoyfjaeii Kronenberg. 
2 arjMs] evTjdes Wyttenbach : det56 Parmentier. 

• Cf. Diodorus, xiii. 91-92. 

'' Cf. Moralia, 783 c-d ; Diodorus, xiv. 8 ; Aelian, Varia 
Historia, iv. 8 ; Polyaenus, v. 7. 
30 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 175 

said, "Muddle-head you are, Dionysius," he rephed, 
" No ! Monarch I am to be," and after he had ad- 
dressed the people he was at once chosen general by 
the Syracusans.** 

2. When, at the beginning of his rule, he was being 
besieged as the result of a conspiracy against him 
among the citizens, his friends advised him to abdicate 
unless he washed to be overpowered and put to death. 
But, on seeing that an ox slaughtered by a cook fell 
instantly, he said, "Is it not then distasteful that we, 
for fear of death which is so momentary, should for- 
sake such a mighty sovereignty ? " ^ 

3. Learning that his son, to whom he was intending 
to bequeath his empire, had debauched the wife of a 
free citizen, he asked the young man, with some heat, 
what act of his father's he knew of hke that ! And 
when the youth answered, " None, for you did not 
have a despot for a father." " Nor vriW you have a 
son," was the reply, " unless you stop doing this sort 
of thing." 

-i. At another time he went into his son's house, 
and, observing a vast number of gold and silver 
drinking-cups, he exclaimed, " There is no despot in 
you, for with all the drinking-cups which you are 
always getting from me you have not made for your- 
self a single friend." 

5. He levied money on the Syracusans, and later, 
when he saw them lamenting and begging and pro- 
testing that they had none, he ordered a second levy, 
and this he did twice or thrice.^ But when, after 
calling for still more, he heard that they laughed and 
jeered as they went about in the market-place, he 

" Cf. Aristotle, Politics, v. ii., and the Aristotelian Oeco- 
nomica, ii. 20, and Polyaenus, Strategemata, v. 19. 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

nepuovras, eKeXevcre rravaacdai' " vvv yap ovhkv 
€)(0VGLv," CLTTev, " OTC KaracjipovovGiv rjfjiajv.'* 

6. Tt^s" Se firjrpos avrov TrapiqXiKos fiev ovgtjs 
hodrjvai he dvSpl ^oyXofievrfg, €(f)r] rovs fxeu rrjs 
TToXeco? ^idaaadaL vo/jlovs Svvaadaiy rovs Se ttJ? 
(f)VO€cos jjLTj BvvaaOaL. 

7. YliKpojs he rovs ciXXovs KaKovpyovg KoXd^cju, 
i(f)el8ero rcov XcoTroSvrojv , ottojs Travacxivrai ol 
^vpaKovGLOi rod SeiTTveiv /cat fiedvcrKecrdat ^er 
aXXrjXajv. 

8. "Revov he nvos Ihia (jypdueiv (jydoKOvros avro) 
Kol hihd^eiv OTTOJs TTpoeLh-qGei rovs €7n^ovXevovras , 

176 eKeXevGev eiTTelv eTrel he TrpoaeXdcov, " hos/' eiTre, 
" jLtot rdXavrov, Iva h6^r]s aKrjKoevat, ra crrjixeta 
rojv eiTL^ovXevovrcoVy' ehcoKe TrpoaTTOLOvpievos aKT]' 
Koevai KOL Oavixd^ojv^ rrjv fxedohov rod dvOpwTTOV. 

9. Yipos he rov TTvOofxevov el axoXdl^oi, " firjhe- 
nore," elTrev, " ifiol rovro crvix^airj." 

10. Avo he dKovaas veavioKovs TroAAa j5Aa- 
o^-qpia TTepl avrov Kal rijs rvpawihos elprjKevat 
TTapa TTorov, dp,(f)orepovs eKdXeaev errl helirvov' 
opcov he rov p.ev Trapoivovvra Kal Xrjpovvra rroXXd, 
rov he orraviajs Kal pier evXa^eias rals iroueai 

B XP'^H'^^ov, eKelvov piev drreXvcrev d)S (jtvaei irap- 
oLVTjGavra Kal hid piiOi-jv KaKoXoyiqcjavra , rovrov he 
dvelXev cLs hvavovv Kal iroXepnov e/c Trpoaipeaecos. 

11. Alricopievajv he rivajv, on ripia Kal npo- 

* davfxd^uip Stobaeus, Flor. iii. 65 : dav/xd^eiv. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Solon, chap. xx. (89 d), 
* Cf. Poiyaenus, v. 2. 3, and Stobaeus, FloriUgium, iii. 65. 
« Cf. Moralia, 792 c. 
32 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 175-176 

ordered a halt in the proceeding ; ** For now they 
really have nothing," said he, " since they hold us 
in contempt." 

6. When his mother, who was well on in years, 
wanted to get married, he said that he had the power 
to violate the laws of the State, but not the laws of 
Nature.^ 

7. While he punished relentlessly all other male- 
factors, he was very lenient Avith the footpads, so 
that the Syracusans should stop their dining and 
drinking together. 

8. A stranger professed that he would tell him 
privately and instruct him how to know beforehand 
those who were plotting against him, and Dionysius 
bade him speak ; whereupon the stranger came close 
to him and said, " Hand me a talent that you may 
give the impression that you have heard about the 
plotters' secret signs ; " and Dionysius gave it, pre- 
tending that he had heard, and marvelling at the 
man's clever tactics.^ 

9. To the man who inquired if he were at leisure 
he said, "I hope that may never happen to me I " '^ 

10. Hearing that two young men at a drinking 
party had said much that was slanderous about him 
and his rule, he invited them both to dinner. And 
when he saw that the one drank much and talked 
freely, and the other indulged in drink sparingly 
and ^vith great circumspection, he let the former go 
free, holding him to be by nature a hard drinker and 
a slanderous talker when in his cups, but the latter 
he caused to be put to death, holding that this man 
was disaffected and hostile as the result of deliberate 
choice. 

11. When some blamed him for honouring and 

33 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(176) dyeraL novrjpov avdpcoTTOV /cat Svax^paLvojjievov 
v7t6 tcov ttoXltojv, " dXXa /cat ^ouAo/xat," elnev, 
** €tvat Tov ifxov (jLaXXov jjnaovfievov." 

12. 'ETret 8e J^opivdLCov Trpea^eig Scopa SlSovtos 
avrov TTaprjTovvro Sta tov vopiOVy os ovk eta Scopa 
XajJipdveLv Trapd Swdcrrov TrpeaPevovras, Sglvov 
€(f)rj TTpdyfia TTOieZv avrovs, o fiovov at TvpawlSeg 
dyaOov e)(ov(JLV dvaipovvras /cat SiSdaKovras ore 
/cat TO €v TTadelv vtto rvpdvvov (f)0^€p6v eariv, 

13. 'A/couCTas" Se rtva tojv ttoXltcov ^^puatov 
Q c-x^iv OLKOL Karopcopvyfievov e/ceAef crev iveyKeZv 

TTpos avrov eirel 8e TrapaKXeifjas oXiyov 6 avOpcoiros 
/cat fJLeraardg els irepav ttoXiv eoyvqaaro ;^a>ptov, 
lxera7T€iiijjdix€vos avrov eKeXevae rrdv dTToXa^elv, 
ijpyixevov ■)(pri(jdai rco irXovrcp /cat fxrjKiTL iroiovvra 
ro xPV^^^H-ov dxp'^crrov. 

AIONTSIOT TOT NEfiTEPOT 

1. *0 8e vednepog Alovvolos eXeye ttoXXovs rpi- 
(j)€LV G0(f)iGrdSi oi) davfjid^wv eKelvovs dXXd 8t' 
e/cetVcov 6avpLdt.eG6ai ^ovXopievog. 

2. HoXv^evov Se rod hiaXeKriKov <f)'i^Gavros av- 
D rov i^eXeyx^iVy " dfieXei rols X6yois»' elrreVy 

" eyo) he oe rols epyois eXeyxco' rd yap oeavrov 
KaraXiTTwv ifie /cat rd ifid depaTreveLs ." 

2. ^EiKTTeGcbv Se rijs dpx^S, Trpos p>ev rov 
ecTTOvra, " ri oe YiXdrojv /cat <f)iXo(JOcf)La (hcpeXrjae; " 

" Cf. Diodorus, xv. 70. 
» Ruler of Syracuse, 367-343 B.C. 

S4 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 176 

advancing a bad man who was loathed by the citizens, 
he said, " But it is my wish that there shall be some- 
body more hated than myself." 

12. When ambassadors from Corinth ° dechned 
hi^ proffered gifts because of the law, which did not 
allow members of an embassy to receive gifts from 
a potentate, he said that they were playing a scurvy 
trick in taking away the only advantage possessed 
by despotism, and teaching that even a favour from a 
despot is a thing to be feared. 

13. Hearing that one of the citizens had some gold 
buried at his house he ordered the man to bring it to 
him. But when the man succeeded in keeping back 
a part of it, and later removed to another city and 
bought a farm, Dionysius sent for him, and bade him 
take the whole amount belonging to him, since he 
had now begun to use his wealth, and was no longer 
making a useful thing useless. 

DIONYSIUS THE YOUNGER » 

1. The Younger Dionysius used to say that he 
gave bed and board to many learned men, not be- 
cause he felt any admiration for them, but because 
he wished through them to gain admiration for 
himself. 

2. When Polyxenus,^ who was skilled in argumenta- 
tion, asserted that he had confuted the king, the 
latter said, " Yes, very Hkely by your words, but by 
your deeds I confute you ; for you forsake your own 
affairs, and pay court to me and mine." 

3. He was compelled to abdicate, and when a man 
said to him, " What help have Plato and philosophy 

• Cf. Plato's Letters, iu p. 314 c. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(17G) " TO rrjXLKavrrjv," ecjirj, " rvxqs fJLerapoXrjV pahlcog 
VTrofievetv." 

4. ^KpajTYjOelg 8e ttcos 6 fxkv Trarrjp avrov nd- 
VY)s a)v Kal ISiwrrjg e/CTTycraro rrjv HvpaKovuiojv 
dpX'^V) OLVTOS Se 6X(Jtiv Kal rvpdvvov ttoXs cov ttcus" 
CLTri^aXev " o /xev Trarrip," €(^17, " puGOvpiiviqg 
SrjjjLOK par tag IveTreae^ rols TTpdyjJLaaiv, iycb 8e 
(jyOovovfxevr]? TvpavvlSog." 
E 5. 'Ytto aAAou Se to auTO rovro €pcx)rr]Beisy " 6 
TTarripy' 'd(j)7]y " pioi ttjv rvpavvlSa rrjV iavrov 
/caTeAtTTCV, ov rrjv rvxrjv." 

ArAGOKAEOTS 

1. ^AyaOoKXrjs vlog rjv Kepafxecus* yevofievog Se 
Kvpios i^iKeXias Kal ^aaiXevs dvayopevOels elcodei 
Kepapued TTonqpia ndivai rrapd rd ;)^puCTa, Kal rols 
viois €7nh€iKvvpi€vos Xeyeiv on roiavra ttolcjv 
TTporepov vvv roiavra TTOtet Sid rr^v iinpiiXeiav Kal 
TY)v dvhpeiav. 

2. lioXiopKovvros Se ttoXiv avrov, twv aTTO rod 
rei^ovs rivks eXoihopovvro Xiyovres on, ** c5 

F Kepapuev, rov pligOov ttcjs dirohajGeis rots crrpanci)- 
rais; " 6 he irpdos Kal /xetStcov eXiTev, " aiKa 
ravrav eXco." Xa^cbv 8e Kard Kpdros €77177 paaK€ 
rovs alxP'oXayrovs Kal eXeyev, " idv fie TraAtv 
AotSop^Te, 77p6s rovs Kvpiovs vpuojv earai fxoL 6 
XoyoS'" 

^ iv^ire<xe] iHaTrj some MS3. 

" Of. Plutarch, Life of Timoleon, chap. xy. f243 a). 
* By Phihp of Macedon, according to Aehan, Varia 
Historia, xii. 60. 

S6 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 176 

given to you ? " his answer was : " The power to 
submit to so great a change of fortune without 
repining."'* 

4. On being asked how his father, who was a poor 
man and a private citizen, had gained control over 
the Syracusans, and how he, who held control, and 
was the son of a despot, had come to lose it, he said. 

My father embarked upon his venture at a time 
when democracy was hated, but I at a time when 
despotism was odious." 

5. Being asked this same question by another man,^ 
he said, "My father bequeathed to me his kingdom, 
but not his luck." 

AGATHOCLES « 

1. Agathocles was the son of a potter. After he 
had made himself master of Sicily, and had been 
proclaimed king, he used to have drinking-cups of 
pottery placed beside those of gold, and as he pointed 
these out to the young men he w^ould say, " That 
is the sort of thing which I used to do formerly, but 
this is what I do now because of my diligence and 
fortitude."*^ 

2. When he was besieging a city, some of the 
people on the wall reviled him, saying, " Potter, how 
are you going to pay your soldiers' wages ? " But 
he, unruffled and smiling, said, " If I take this town." 
And after he had taken it by storm he sold the cap- 
tives as slaves, and said, " If you revile me again, 
what I have to say will be said to your masters." « 

" Ruler of Syracuse and Sicily, 318-289 b.c. 

"* Cf. Moralia, 544 b, where the story is repeated in slightly 
different words. 

" Cf. Moralia, 458 f, where, however, the last remark is 
attributed to Antigonus the " One-eyed." 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

S. l^yKaXovvrwv Se rot? vavrais avrov rcov 
lOaKi-jGicov, on rfj vrjoco TTpoa^aXovTeg tojv dpeyi- 

fiaTCxJv TLva drreGTraaav, "6 8e vjjierepos," ^(f>'r], 
' ^acnXevs iXdwv vpog rjfjids, ov jjlovov ra npo^ara 

Xa^ajv dAAa Kal rov Trot/xeVa TrpoaeKTvjyXcoGas 

OLTTrjXOe." 

AlfiNOS 

Atcoi' o Alovvglov eKpaXcbv €K TTJ? rvpavvlSo?, 
aKovcrag eTTi^ovXeveiv avrw KaAAtTTTTOV, w /xaAtcrra 
Twv (fytXojv Kal ^evcov eTTiarevev, ov^ vnefxeivev 
177 iXly^ai ^eXriov ehai (fiiqcjas a7To6av€iv r^ t/qv firj 
ixovov rovs TToXefiLovs dXXa Kal rovs ^tAou? ^vXar- 
TOfJievov. 

APXEAAOT 

1. ^Apx^Xaog alrrjOels napd ttotov nori^pLOV XP^~ 

GOVV V7t6 TIVOS TOJV (JVVrjOojV ov [XTjV eTTieiKCJV , 

iKcXevaev "EvpiTTtSr} rov TratSa Sovvai- davyid- 
oavTOs 8e rod dvOpcDiroVy " en) puev ydp^ etiTev, 
" alreiVf ovros 8e XapL^dveiv d^ios eari Kal firj 
aiTCJV." 

2. *A^oXiaxov Se Kovpeojs ipojTTjaavros avrov, 
" TTCos or€ Kelpo); " " aicoTraJVy" €(f)r]. 

3. Tov Se EivpLTTiBov rov KaXov ^AydOcova Trepc- 
XafJipdvovros iv rep avpLiroaicp Kal KaracfyiXovvros 



« The Cyclops, Homer, Od. ix. 375. 

^ Cf. Moralia^ 557 b, where the story is repeated in fewer 
words. 

« Cf. Phitarch's Life of Dion, chap. Ivi. (982 d). The 

38 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 176-177 

3. When the people of Ithaca complained of his 
sailors because they had put in at the island and had 
forcibly carried off some of the animals, he said, " But 
your Idng came to us, and not only took our flocks, 
but also bUnded their shepherd,** and went his way." * 

DION 

When Dion, who expelled Dionysius from his 
kingdom, heard that a plot against him was being set 
on foot by Callippus, in whom he placed the greatest 
trust above all other friends, both those at home and 
those from abroad, he could not bring himself to in- 
vestigate, but said, " It is better to die than to Hve 
in a state of continual Vvatchfulness not only against 
one's enemies but also against one's friends."^ 

ARCHELAUS* 

1. When Archelaus, at a convivial gathering, was 
asked for a golden cup by one of his acquaintances 
of a type not commendable for character, he bade 
the servant give it to Euripides ; and in answer to 
the man's look of astonishment, he said, " It is true 
that you have a right to ask for it, but Euripides has 
a right to receive it even though he did not ask for it." 

2. When a garrulous barber asked him, " How 
shall I cut your hair ? " he said, " In silence." * 

3. When Euripides threw his arms around the fair 
Agathon in the midst of an evening party and kissed 

story of the plot and the death of Dion is in chaps, liv.-lvii. 
Cf. also Valerius Maximus, iii. 8, Ext. 5. 

^ King of Macedonia, 413-399 b.c. 

• Of. Moralia, 509 a. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B -^817 yeveicJovra, irpos rovs (j>i\ovs elire, *' fir) 
(177) doLVfjLOLGrjTe' Tcov yap KaXcbv Kal ro fxcroTTCDpov 
KaXov idTiv." 

4. *E7r€t 8e TijjioOeog 6 Kidapcphog eXiTiaas 
TrXeLOva, Xa^ojv Se iXdrrova, St^Aos- rjv iyKaXcov 
avTcpy Kai ttotc aScov tovtI to KoixpLariov, 

" (TV Se rov yrjyevdTav dpyvpov alvets/* 

arreurjixaivev els eKelvov' vireKpovaev 6 ^Apx^Xaos 
avrcp 

(TV 06 ye atret?. 

5. nrScup 8e Ttros" avrov KaracjKehdaavTos , vtto 
lajv (f)LXcov TTapo^vvojJievos €7tI tov avOpcjirov, " aXX 
ovK ifiov," (f)r]GLv, " dAA' eKetvov /carecj/ceSacrev ov 
eSo^ev c/xe etvat." 

4>IAinnOT TOT AAE2ANAP0T HATPOS 

1 . OIXlttttov tov ^AXe^dvSpov irarepa Q€6(f>pa(TTOS 
L(jr6p7]K€v ov pLOVov p.iyav^ pLera^v rcov ^auiXiojv, 
dXXd Kal rfj rvxx} Kal rep rpoircp pLGi^ova yeviodai 
Kal pLerpicorepov.^ 

2. 'Ad-qvalovg pL€v ovv pLaKapit^eiv eXeyev, el 
Kad* eKacTTOv eviavTOv alpecGOau SeKa arrparrjyovs 
evpioKovGLV avTos yap iv ttoXXoZs ereaiv eva 
pLovov (jTpariqyov evpr]KevaL, UappievLOJva. 

3. HoXXcoi' 8e KaropdajpLarcjov avrcp Kal KaXcov 
ev pLta rjpiepa rrpoGayyeXdevrcov, " co Tvx^t" etvre, 

1 /i^7ai' added by F.C.B. 

2 icrT6p7jK€ tCjv ixera^i) /SacrtX^wj' ov ixbvov rfj tvxv /^ei^ova, dXXd 
*cat T(^ Tpdircp yeveadai fierpiurepou Wjrttenbach. 

• Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades^ chap. L (192 a); 
40 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 177 

him, for all that Agathon was already bearded, 
Archelaus said to his friends, " Do not be astonished ; 
for even the autumn of the fair is fair." " 

4. When Timotheus the harp-player had hopes of 
receiving a goodly sum, but received less, he plainly 
showed that he felt resentful towards Archelaus ; 
and, once, as he was singing this brief line : 

*' Over the earth-born silver you rave."* 
he directed it towards Archelaus ; whereupon 
Archelaus retorted upon him ^vith this, 

"That, however, is what you crave." 

5. When somebody had thrown water upon him, 
and he was incited by his friends against the man, he 
said, " But it was not upon me that he threw it, but 
upon the man he thought me to be." 

PHILIP THE FATHER OF ALEXANDER '^ 

1. Theophrastus has recorded that Phihp, the father 
of Alexander, was not only great among kings, but, 
owing to his fortune and his conduct, proved himself 
still greater and more moderate.*^ 

2. He said that he must congratulate the Athenians 
on their happy fortune if they could find ten men 
every year to elect as generals ; for he himself in 
many years had found only one general, Parmenio. 

3. When several happy events were reported to 
him within a single day, he said, " O Fortune, do 

Moralia, 770 c ; and Aelian, Varia Historia, xiii. 4. In all 
three places the remark is attributed to Euripides. 

* Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 624, Timotheus, 
No. 14, or Edmonds, Lyra Graeca (in L.C.L.), iii. p. 330, 
No. 28. Plutarch repeats the story in Moralia^ 334 b. 

« Born 382 b.c. ; king of Macedonia, 359-336 b.c. 

^ Cf, Cicero, De Officiis, i. 26 (90). 

41 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(177) ** jjLiKpov Tt fjLOL KaKov avTL rcjv roaovrojv /cat 
riq\iKovTCx)v ayaOcov rroir^aov." 

4. 'Erret 8e viKriaavri rovs "^XXrqvas avro) ovv- 
D e^ovXevov €vioi (fypovpat? rag TroAet? Kare-x^eiv, €(f)7] 

jjidXXov TToXvv xpovov idiXeiv )(^prjaT6s rj 8€G7t6t7]s 
oXlyov KaXeXaOaL. 

5. Tov Se Xoihopov l^eXduai tojv (j)iX(jjv KeXevov- 
TWVy ovK €(f)r] TTOLtjaeiv, Iva {jltj Trepuojv iv TrXeioGi 
KaKOjg Xeyr). 

6. UpLLKvdov 8e Nt/cavopa Sia^aXXovrog d)s ael 
KaK(x)s Xeyovra rov ^lXlttttov /cat rojv iraipcov olo- 
fxivcjv heZv jLteraTre/xTrco-^at /cat /coAa^ctv, " aAAd 
/xtJv," ecjiTj, " Nt/cayct)/) ov (jiavXoraros ecrrt Ma/ce- 
hovayv eTrtcr/ceTrreov ovv, pnq n yiverai Trap" rjjjLdsy 
COS" ovv eyvoj rov Nt/cavopa dXi^ofxevov laxvpo)? 
VTTO TTevias rjfJieXrjiJievov Se utt' avrov, TTpoaera^e 
Sojpedv TLva avrco Sodjjvai. ttolXlv ovv rod 2^t- 

E KvOov XeyovTog on davpLaurd Trepl avrov npos 
ciTTavras iyKcl) puia Xeycjv 6 Nt/cavcop StareAet, 
" Spare ovv," elirev, " ort Trap' rjpids avrovs^ icrri 
/cat TO KaXcb? /cat ro /ca/co)? d/couetv." 

7. Tot? Se to) J' 'Ad-qvalojv S7]p,aya>yolg €(f>7] 
xdpiv ^x^iv, on Xoihopovvreg avrov ^eXriova 
TTOiovGL /cat ro) Xoyo) /cat rw rjdei' " Treipcojxai yap 
avrovs dp.a /cat rot? Aoyot? /cat rots* epyois ipevSo- 
pLEVovs iXeyx^LV." 

8. Tctjv 8e *Adr]vai(x)V, oaoi Trepl Xatpcovetav 

^ 7ra/)' T7/Aas] Trap' i]ixtv E, perhaps rightly. 
■ Trap rj/uLcLs avroijs] irpb^ 7)ixlhv airdv E, perhaps rightly. 

*• Repeated in Moralia, 105 a and 666 a. 

* A similar story is told of Pyrrhus in Plutarch's Life of 
Pyrrhus^ chap. viii. (387 e). 
42 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 177 

me some little ill to offset so many good things like 
these ! " « 

4. After his victory over the Greeks, when some 
were ad\-ising him to hold the Greek cities in sub- 
jection by means of garrisons, he said that he pre- 
ferred to be called a good man for a long time rather 
than a master for a short time. 

5. \Mien his friends advised him to banish from 
his court a man who maligned him, he said he would 
not, so that the man should not go about speaking 
ill of him among more people.^ 

6. When Smicythus remarked maliciously of 
Nicanor that he was always speaking ill of Philip, 
and Phihp's companions thought that he ought to 
send for 5s^icanor and punish him, Phihp said, " But 
really Nicanor is not the worst of the Macedonians. 
We must investigate therefore whether something is 
not happening for which we are responsible." When 
he learned therefore that Nicanor was hard pressed 
by poverty, and had been neglected by him, he 
directed that a present be given to the man. So 
when again Smicythus said that Nicanor was con- 
tinually sounding the praises of Philip to everybody 
in a surprising way, Phihp said, " You all see that we 
ourselves are responsible for the good and the ill that 
is said of us." '^ 

7. He said that he felt very grateful to the popular 
leaders of the Athenians, because by maligning him 
they made him better both in speech and in char- 
acter, " For I try both by my words and by my deeds 
to prove that they are hars." 

8. When all the Athenians who had been taken 

* Cf, Themistius, Oration vil. 95 b, and Frontinus, Strate- 
gematUy iv. 7. 37, 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

idXcoaav, a(f)e6evTa}v vtt* avrov Slxol Xvrpojv, to. Se 
Lfidria /cat crrpaj/xara TrpooaTTairovvrcjv koI toZs 
F Ma/ceSocrtv iyKaXovvrcov, yeXdaag 6 OlXlttttos 
eLTTeVy " ov SoKovGLV vjjLLV ^ AdrfvaZoL vojJLL^eiv iv 
durpayaXois ixf)' t^/xcop' vevLKrjaOaL; " 

9. Tt^s" Se KXechos avrco Karayeia-qs iv TToXe/JLO) 
Kal rod depanevovros larpov navrcDS tl Kad^ 
rjfiepav alrovvros, " XdjJL^ave," €(f)r}, " oara ^ovXec 
TTjv yap kXeZv e;\;ets'.'* 

10. Avolv Se dSeXc/xjJv *Afi(f)OT€pov Kal 'E/ca- 
repovy Tov jxev 'E/carepov eficfypova Kal TrpaKTiKov 
opojVy TOV Se ^ Aix(f)orep6v ev-qOr) Kal d^eXrepov e^ry 
" TOV {.lev 'E/carepov d(Ji(f)6T€pov elvai, tov hk 

AfjL(f}OT€p6v ovSeTepov." 
178 11. Tous" Se GVjJL^ovXevovTas avTcp TTiKpcog XPV' 
adat, ToZs ^ Adrjvaioi'^ aTonovg eXeyev etvai KeXevov- 
ra? dvOpojTTOv VTrep So^rjs rrdvra TTOiovvTa Kal 
TrdaxovTa dno^aXeLV to tt^s" S6^7]s diarpov. 

12. Tevopievo? 8e KpLTTjg SvoXv 7TOvr]pa)V cVc- 
Xevue TOV fxev (jyevyetv e/c MaKeSovtas tov Se erepov 
BicoKeiv. 

13. MeXXcov Se KaTauTpaTOireheveLV iv x^P^^^ 

KaXo) Kal 7Tv66fX€VO? OTL X^pTOS OVK CGTl TOIS V7TO- 

tyVyiois, " oloSy' €L7T€Vy " 6 Plo9 'qpicov icTTLV, el 
Kal Trpos TOV Twv ovojv Kaipov o^etAo/xey ^y)v ; " 

14. ^povpLov Se TL ^ovXofJLevos Xa^elv oxvpov, 
B COS" aTTT^yyeiXav ol KaTdoKOTToi ;^aA€77ov elvai 

Travrdrraai Kal dvdXcoroVy r^pojTiqaev el ;(aAe7rop' 



" Cf. Polybius, v. 10, and Diodorus, xvi. 87. 

* Cf. Demosthenes, Oration xviii. {De Corona)^ 67 (p. 247), 
and Aulus Gellius, ii. 27. 
44 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 177-178 

captive at Chaeroneia were set free by him without 
ransom," but asked for the return of their clothing 
and bedding besides, and complained against the 
Macedonians, Phihp laughed and said to his men, 
" Does it not seem to you that the Athenians think 
they have been beaten by us in a game of knuckle- 
bones ? " 

9. When the keybone of his shoulder had been 
broken in battle,^ and the attending physician 
insistently demanded a fee every day, he said, 
" Take as much as you -wash ; for you have the key 
in your charge ! " '^ 

10. Of two brothers. Both and Each, he observed 
that Each was sensible and practical, and Both was 
silly and foolish, and he remarked that Each was 
both and Both was neither ! 

11. Those who counselled him to treat the Athen- 
ians harshly he said were silly in urging a man who 
did everything and underwent everything for the 
sake of repute to throw away his chance to exhibit it. 

12. Being called upon to decide a suit between two 
knaves, he ordered the one to flee from Macedonia, 
and the other to pursue him. 

13. When he was about to pitch his camp in an 
excellent place, he learned that there was no grass 
for the pack-animals. " What a life is ours," he 
said, " if we must live to suit the convenience of 
the asses ! " ^ 

14. When he was desirous of capturing a certain 
stronghold, his scouts reported that it was altogether 
difficult and quite impregnable, whereupon he asked 

" The pun depends on the fact that KKeis means both 
"key " and " collar-bone." 

^ Cf. Moralia, 790 b ; also Eunapius, Frag. 6Q in Dindorf, 
Historlci Graeci Minores^ i. p. 249. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(178) ovTCJS iartv, ware /xT^Se ovov TTpooeXSeZv ;(/3UGrtov 
Ko^it^ovra. 

15. Tcjv hk TT€pi AaGdevTjv rov ^OXvvdtov iyKa- 
XovvTCOv KOL ayavaKTovvTcov f on irpohoras avrovs 
evLOL tcl)V Trepl rov ^lXlttttov aTTOKoXovGi, GKauovs 
€(f)r] (jyvaeL /cat aypoiKovs etvat Ma/ceSovas" Kal ttjv 
aKd(j)r]v OKd(l>r]v Xeyovras. 

16. T(x> 8e vla> Trap'^vei rrpos ■)((xpLv ojXiXeLV rols 
MaAceSoct, KTcLfJLevov iavrco ttjv irapd rdv iroXXGiv 
SvvafJLLV,^ ecos e^ecrrt ^aGuXevovros dXXov cf)LXdv6paj- 
TTOV e?vat. 

C 17. ^vve^ovXeve 8e rcov iv rats' TrdAecrt Svvarcov 
Kol Toijs dyadovs (fytXovs KraGdat Kal rovg ttovt]- 
povSy etra ols {xev p^/OTjcr^at oh 8' d7TOXp'r]G6aL. 

18. Upos 8e ^IXcova rov Qrj^aiov evepyirrjv 
avrov yevopuevov /cat ^evov, OTrrjviKa hirjyev iv 
Si^pais 6pL7]p€vcov, vGT€pov 8e pLrfSefjiLav Trap' 
avTov Sojpedv Trpoohexopievov , " /xtJ /xe," etTrev, 
" d(f>aLpov TO dvLK7]Tov, €V€py€GLas /cat ;\;a/3tTos' 
'qrrcvpLevov ." 

19. A7](f>d ivTwv 8e TToAAcDv alxP'aXa)rojv , CTrt- 
7TpaGK€V avTovs dveGTaXpievcp rep ;)^tTaji^t Kadrjp,evos 

OVK €V7Tp€7TCOS' ^tS" OW TCUV 7TCjXoVpL€VaJV dve^6r)G€t 

" (j)eiGal pLOV, OtAtTTTre, TrarpiKos ydp et/xt ctou 

(f)lXoS "• ipCOTT^GaVTOS 8€ TOU OtAtTTTTOU, " TToOeV, 

D 60 dv9poj7T€, y€v6pi€vos KOI TTibs ', " " cyyt;?/' e^'7> 
(^pacrat crot ^ouAo/xat TrpoGeXdwv " (hs ovv 
^ SiVa/^iv] eii/Miveiav or eHvoiav Wyttenbach. 

" C/. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, i. 16. 12 ; Diodorus, 
xvi. 54. * C/. Moralia, 97 d. 

" A reference to a line from an unknown comic poet 
quoted by Lucian, Jupiter Tragoedus^ 32. Of. also Lucian, 

4.6 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 178 

if it were so difficult that not even an ass laden -v^ith 
money could approach it.** 

15. When the men associated wdth Lasthenes, the 
Olynthian, complained \\'ith indignation because 
some of PhiHp's associates called them traitors,^ he 
said that the Macedonians are by nature a rough and 
rustic people who call a spade a spade.'' 

16. He recommended to his son that he associate 
with the Macedonians so as to win their favour, and 
thus acquire for himself influence with the masses 
while another was reigning and while it was possible 
for him to be humane. '^ 

17. He also advised him that, among the men of 
influence in the cities, he should make friends of both 
the good and the bad, and that later he should use 
the former and abuse the latter. 

18. Philon ^ the Theban had been his benefactor 
and host during the time he spent as a hostage in 
Thebes, but later would not accept any gift from 
him ; whereupon Philip said to him, " Do not deprive 
me of my invincibility by letting me be outdone 
in benefactions and favours." 

19. On a time when many prisoners had been 
taken, PhiHp was overseeing their sale, sitting with 
his tunic pulled up in an unseemly way. So one of 
the men who were being sold cried out, " Spare me, 
Philip, for I am a friend of your father's." And 
when Philip asked, " Where, sirrah, and how came 
you to be such ? " the man said, " I wish to tell you 
privately, if I may come near you." And when he 

Historia quomodo conscrihenda sit, 41, and Kock, Com. 
Att. Frag. iii. p. 451, Adespota no. 221. 

^ Of. Moralia, 806 b, Cicero, De Officiis, ii. 14 (48). 

* Probably the man mentioned by Demosthenes, Oration 
xix. 140 (p. 384). 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(178) TTpoarixOr] , " yuKpov," ecjir], " Karajrepoj rrjv 
^XajjivSa TTOLrjGov, aG-)(ii-]ixoveig yap ovrco Kad- 
ijl^ievog' " Kal 6 OtAtTTTTOS", " d(f}€T€ avTov ," etrrev, 
" dXr]96js yap evvovs cov Kal (/ilXos iXdvdavev." 

20. 'E77et he vtto tlvo? ^evov KXi^dels IttI heZ- 
7TVOV iv oSo)^ TToXXovg eTTrjyeTO Kal rov ^evov 
icopa dopvPovfJLevov, rjv yap ovx tVam rd Trap- 
eoKevaajjLeva, TTpOTTepiTTCJV rcbv (fyiXcjv eKdarcp, 

E TrXaKovvTL x^P^^ eKeXevev diroXeLTTeiv' ol Se 
TTeidofxevoL Kal TTpoaSoKajpres ovk jjaOiov TroXXd, 

Kal TTaGlV OVTOJS 7JpK€G€V. 

21 . ^Ijnrdpxov rod Eu^oeo)? dTToOavovrog, SrjXo? 
rjv ^apeojs (f)€pa)v elirovTOs Se tlvos, " aAAa pir]v 
d>paXos d)V iK€LVOs dTToredvrjKev," " iavrco ye," 
elireVy " eyiol 8e Tax€CO£' ecj^d-q ydp reXevrrJGaL 
Trplv ri Trap" ijjLOV X^P''^ d^iav rrjs ^tAtas" drroXa^elv.*' 

22. YVvOopievos 8' iyKaXelv avro) rov 'AAef- 
avSpov, OTL TTalSas e/c ttAciovcov Trotetrat yvvaiKCJVy 
" ovKOVvJ' €(f)rj, " TToXXovg €xcov TT€pl TTJs ^aGiXelas 

F dvraywvLGTas yevov KaXos Kdyados, Iva fxr] St' 
e/xe rrjg ^aGiXeias tvxV^ dXXd Sta Geavrov." 
eKeXeve 8' avrov ^ApiGToreXeL irpoGex^LV Kal 

(f}lXoGO(j)€LV , " OTTaJS," ^(f>^ , " p-'^j TToXXd TOLaVTa 

TTpd^rjs, i<f)* ols iyd> Treirpayp^ivois /xera/xeAo^at." 
2S. Tojv §6 ^ KvTLTrdrpov <j)LXa)v TLvd Karard^as 

ets" Tovs SiKaGrds, elra rov TTOjycova ^aTrrojxevov 
1 ev 65a;] iv dyp<^ (?), c/. ivl x^po-s Moralia, 123 r and 707 b. 

* The story is repeated in Moralia, 123 f and 707 b. 

** Hipparchus, with two others, was set up by Philip as 
tyrant in Eretria about 343 b.c. See Demosthenes, Oration 
ix. 58 (p. 125), and Oration xviii. 295 (p. 324). 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. ix. (669 a). 

48 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 178 

was brought forward, he said, " Put your cloak a Httle 
lower, for you are exposing too much of yourself as 
you are sitting now." And Philip said, " Let him 
go free, for it had escaped me that he is a truly 
loyal friend." 

20. Once when he was on the march, and was in- 
vited to dinner by a man of the land, he took a good 
many persons with him ; and when he saw that his 
host was much perturbed, since the preparations that 
had been made were inadequate, he sent word in 
advance to each of his friends, and told them to "leave 
room for cake." They took his advice and, expecting 
more to follow, did not eat much, and thus there was 
enough for all.** 

21. When Hipparchus of Euboea died,^ it was 
plain that Philip took it much to heart ; and when 
somebody remarked, " But, as a matter of fact, his 
death has come in fullness of time," Philip said, " Yes, 
in fullness of time for him, it is true, but swiftly for me, 
for he came to his end too soon to receive from me, 
as he ought, favours worthy of our friendship." 

22. Learning that Alexander complained against 
him because he was having children by other women 
besides his wife, he said, " Well then, if you have 
many competitors for the kingdom, prove yourself 
honourable and good, so that you may obtain the 
kingdom not because of me, but because of yourself." 
He bade Alexander give heed to Aristotle, and study 
philosophy, " so that," as he said, " you may not do 
a great many things of the sort that I am sorry to 
have done." • 

23. He appointed one of Antipater's friends to the 
position of judge, but later, on learning that the man 
dyed his beard and hair, he removed him, at the same 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aicrdai'Ojxevos Kal rrjv /ce^aAi^y, dveurrjcrev etncbv 
rov ainuTov iv OpL^i fij) vo}iit,€iv a^ioinarov eV 
TTpdyiiaGLV. 

24. y[a-)(aira 8e riva Kpivayv Slkyjv kol vtto- 
WGrd^ojv ov TTavv TTpocrelx^ ToXg SiKatoLS dXXd 
KariKpivev €Keivov he dva^oiquavTOS eKKaXeladai 
TTjv KpiuiVf hiopyiGdeis " eirl riva; " ctVre* /cat o 
Ma;^atTas', *' em ere, ^acnXev, avroVy dv iyprjyopdj? 

179 KO-l TTpoaexcov dKovrjg." rore fikv ovv dveorr]' 
yevofxevos 8e fidXXov icj)* iavrw kol yvovs dhiKov- 
fjLevov rdv Ma;!^atTav ttjv fxev Kpiaiv ovk e'Aucre, to 
Se rlpbT^fxa rijs Slkt]? avrog e^ireiuev. 

25. 'Ettci Se ' ApTTaXos vrrep avyyevovs Kal 
oIk€lov ¥ipdrr]TOs dhiKripidrciiv hiKrjv e-xpvros tj^lov 
rrjv l,rjiJiLav elcreveyKeXv dcfiedrjvai Se rrjg Kplaecos, 
Iva fiT] XoiSoprjOfj, " ^eXnov ianVy" etTre, " tovtov 
avrov^ 'q rjfids hid tovtov KaKcJJs dKoveiv." 

26. ^ AyavaKTOvvTCov he tojv (J)lXo}V, otl oVpvT' 

TOVULV aVTOV iv 'OAu/XTTtOtS' €U 7T€7TOv66t€S OL 

B HeXoTTOvvT^dLOi, " TL OVV," elnev, " idv KaKcos 
Trddcocn; " 

27. Kot/xi^^ets 8e TrXeiova xpovov eirl GTpaTelas 
etra ScavadTdg, " acr^aAcos'," elireVy " eKddevhov* 
^ AvTiTTaT pog yap iyprjyopei." 

28. IlaAtv he rj/xepas Kadevhovros avTov Kal rcov 

^ aiiTov] 8i' avTov Pantazides. 

" The sentiment is attributed to Archidamus regarding a 
man from Chios, in Aelian, Varia Historia, vii. 20 ; cf. 
Stobaeus, Florilegium^ xii. 20. 

^ Of an old woman in Stobaeus, Florilegium, xiii. 29 
(quoted from Serenus) and Valerius Maximus, vi. 2, ext. 1 ; 
in the latter place is the more familiar appeal from " Philip 
drunk to Philip sober.'* 
50 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 178-179 

time remarking that he did not beUeve that a man 
who was untrustworthy in the matter of hair was 
fit to be trusted in actions." 

24. While he was hearing the case of Machaetas, 
he was near falling asleep, and did not give full 
attention to the rights of the case, but decided 
against Machaetas. And when Machaetas exclaimed 
that he appealed from the decision, Philip, thoroughly 
enraged, said, " To whom ? " And Machaetas re- 
pUed, " To you yourself. Your Majesty, if you \vill 
listen awake and attentive." At the time Philip 
merely ended the sitting, but when he had gained 
more control of himself and realized that Machaetas 
was treated unfairly, he did not reverse his decision, 
but satisfied the judgement with his own money. ^ 

25. When Harpalus, acting in behalf of his kinsman 
and intimate friend Crates, who was under condem- 
nation for ^vrongdoing, proposed as a fair solution 
that Crates should pay the fine, but be absolved from 
the adverse judgement so that he should not be 
subject to reproach, Philip said, "It is better that 
the man himself, rather than that we because of him, 
should be ill spoken of." 

26. When his friends were indignant because the 
people of the Peloponnesus hissed him at the Olympic 
games, although they had been treated well, he said, 
" Well, what if they should be treated ill ! " " 

27. Once on a campaign he slept for an unusually 
long time, and later, when he arose, he said, " I slept 
safely, for Antipater was awake." ^ 

28. On another occasion when he was asleep in the 

« Cf. Moralia, 143 f and 457 f. A similar remark of 
Pausanias is quoted in Moralia^ 230 d. 
** Cj\ Athenaeus, p. 435 d. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(179) ridpoiu^ivwv eirl dvpais 'EAAt^p'cov ayavaKTO-uvrwv 
Koi iyKaXovvTOWy 6 Yiapyieviajv, " jxtj ^aujuacrr^Te," 
€lnevy ' ei KaOevSet vvv (^iXlttttos' ore yap eKad- 
evSere Vfiel?, ovros iyp-qyopec." 

29. VciAtt^v 8c Tiva ^ovXofjLevov Trapa SelTTVOv 
erravopOovv avrov koi AaAetv Trepl Kpovfidroji-', 6 
ipdXrrjs, " fJiT] yevoLTO gol," elrrev, " c5 ^aaiXev, 
KaKCtjg ovTcogy Iva ravra ifxov ^iXriov elSfjs." 

C 30. 'Evret Se 8teve;^^eVTos' avrov irpog 'OAu/a- 
TTLaSa rrjv yvvalKa Kal rov vlov rjK€ Ar]pLdparos 
6 KoptV^to?, eTTwddvero ttco? Trpos aXXriXovs 
eXovoLv^ ol "KXXrjves- Kal 6 A-qfidparos, " rrdvu 
yovv, ^<f>'Q> " crot rrepl rrj? rcov 'EAAr^vcov ofiovotag 
o Xoyog iarivy ovrcx) rrpos ae rcov oiKeiordroiv 
exovrcov. 6 Se GVix^povqaas iiTavGaro rrj? opyrjg 
Kal SL-qXXdyrj npog avrovg. 

31. Ylpecr^vriSog Se Trevixpo-S d^iovar]? in avrov 
Kptdrjvat Kal TroAAa/ct? ivoxXovar^g, e(/)T] jJiT] (^xo- 
Xd^€Lv Tj 8e TTpeG^vns eKKpayovaay " Kal jxr) 

D /SacriAeue," elnev. 6 8e Savfxdaas ro p-qdev ov 
pLovov iK€LV7]£ dXXd Kal rcov dXXcov evOvg SiT^Kovaev, 

AAESANAPOT 

1 . AXe^avSpog en rrals cov, TioAAa rod ^iXtTnTOV 

KaropdovvroSy ovk exai-pev, dXXd rrpos rovs ovv- 

^ exovaiv^ Hatzidakis would add oixovotas from Moralia, 70 c, 
and Life of Alexander, chap, ix., but it is not absolutely 
necessary. 

" Something remotely like this is told of Alexander in 
Plutarch's Life of Aleomnder, chap. xxxi. (683 e). 

' The story is found also in Moralia, 67 f, 334 d, and 634 d. 

" Cf. Moralia, 70 b (which omits the conclusion) and 
Plutarch's Life of Alexander ^ chap. ix. (669 c). 
52 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 179 

daytime, and the Greeks who had gathered at his 
doors were indignant and complaining, Parmenio 
said, " Do not be astonished that Philip is asleep now ; 
for while you were asleep he was awake." " 

29- When he desired to correct a harp-player at 
dinner, and to discuss the playing of this instru- 
ment, the harp-player said, " God forbid. Your 
Majesty, that you should ever fall so low as to have 
a better knowledge of these matters than I." ^ 

30. At a time when he was at odds with Olympias, 
his wife, and with his son, Demaratus of Corinth 
arrived, and Philip inquired of him how the Greeks 
were feeling towards one another. And Demaratus 
said, " Much right have you to talk about the har- 
mony of the Greeks when the dearest of your own 
household feel so towards you ! " Philip, taking the 
thought to heart, ceased from his anger, and became 
reconciled with them.^ 

31. When a poor old woman insisted that her case 
should be heard before him, and often caused him 
annoyance, he said he had no time to spare, where- 
upon she burst out, '* Then give up being king." 
Philip, amazed at her words, proceeded at once to 
hear not only her case but those of the others. <* 

ALEXANDER* 

1 . While Alexander was still a boy and PhiHp was 
winning many successes, he was not glad, but said to 

"* The story is told also in Plutarch's Life of Demetrius^ 
chap. xlii. (909 c). Stobaeus, Florilegium, xiii. 28, quotes 
Serenus, who states that a peasant made this remark to 
Antipater, 

* Alexander the Great, born 356, king of Macedon 336- 
323 B.C. 

VOL. Ill c 53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALTA 

(179) rpe^oixlvovs e'Aeye TratSa?, " e/xot Se o TrarTjp 
ovSev aTToXeLifjei." rcov 8e iraihajv Xeyovrojv on 

aol ravra Krdrai "• " ri 8e 6(f)€Xog," elTrev, 
" iav €X(Ji> l^^v TToAAa Trpd^co Bk /xT^SeV; 

2. 'EAa^pos" Se ojv /<:at TToScjKrjg Kal TrapaKaXov- 
fievos VTTO rod rrarpos 'OAi;/x77ta 8pa/xetv crraStov, 
*' etye," 6(^17, " PaucXels e^etv efxeXXov dvrayojvL- 
aras. 
E 3. ^Ax0^^o-r]s 8e TraiBiGK-qg TTpos avrov (Ls crvv- 
avaTTavGopiivris irepi imrepav Padelav, rjpcorrjGev 
6 Tt TrjViKavra; rrjs Se €L7Tova7]£, " Trepte/xevov 
ya/o Tov dvSpa KaraKXlvai,^ " TTiKpayg iTrerLfi-qGe 

TOLS TTaiGLV (x)9 fJLlKpOV 8t' OUTOVS fJL0LX09 y€v6- 
[Ji€VOS. 

4. ^FjTndvfJiLWVTi Be rols OeoZs dcfyeiBcbs avrcp Kal 
TToXXaKL? iTTiBparropiivcp rod Xi^avcurov, Trapojv 
AecoviSrjs 6 TTaiBaycxjyos , " ovtojs," €L7T€v, " co 
TToty BaiptXcjs €77 idvfjLLdcreis, orav rrjs Xi^avojro- 
^opov Kpari^crr]?." (Lg ovv iKpdrrjorev, €7T€fii/j€v 

F eTTLGToXrjv TTpos avTov " aTTearaXKd crot rdXavra 
CKarov^ Xi^avojrov Kal Kaalas, Iva pnqKerL jxiKpo- 
Xoyfj TTepl Tovs Oeovs, elBcbs on Kal rrj? dpoj- 
jjiaro<f)6pov KparovpLev." 

5. MeXXojv Be rrjv inl TpavLKcp fJidxi^v fidxeadat 
napeKoXei rovg ^laKeBovag dcjidovcos Benrvelv Kal 
TTavra (jyepeiv els fieaov, (hs avpiov Benrv-qGovras eK 

TOiV TToXefJLLOJV. 

^ KaraKX^Lvail KaraKKivrivai van Herwerden. 
2 €Kar6i> omitted in nearly all mss. but is in the Life of 
Alexander, chap. xxv. 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. v. {Q6Q v). 
Many of the stories about Alexander are repeated in Zonaras, 
Epitome of History, iv. 8-15. 
54 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 179 

his playmates, " My father ^dll leave nothing for me 
to do." " But," said the boys, " he is acquiring all 
this for you." " But what good is it," said Alexander, 
" if I possess much and accomplish nothing } " ° 

2. Being nimble and swift of foot, he >vas urged 
by his father to run in the foot-race at the Olympic 
games. " Yes, I would run," said he, " if I were to 
have kings as competitors." * 

3. A girl was brought to him late in the evening 
with the intent that she should spend the night with 
him, and he asked her, " Why at this time ? " She 
replied, " I had to wait to get my husband to go to 
bed " ; whereupon Alexander bitterly rebuked his 
servants, since, o^\'ing to them, he had so narrowly 
escaped becoming an adulterer. 

4. On a time when he was offering incense to the 
gods with lavish hand, and often taking up handfuls 
of the frankincense, Leonidas, who had been his at- 
tendant in boyhood, happening to be present, said, 
" My boy, you may offer incense thus lavishly when 
you have made yourself master of the land that bears 
it." And so, when Alexander had become master 
of it, he sent a letter to Leonidas : " I have sent to 
you a half-ton of frankincense and cassia, so that you 
may never again count any petty cost in dealing with 
the gods, since you know that we are now masters of 
the land that bears these fragrant things." ^ 

5. Just before he fought the battle at Granicus he 
urged the Macedonians to eat ^\1thout stint, and to 
bring out all they had, since on the morrow they 
should dine from the enemy's stores. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 331 b, and Plutarch's Life of Alexander, 
chap. iv. {666 d). 

*= Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap, xxv, (679 c) ; 
Pliny, Natural History, xii. 32 (62). 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

6. YlepiXXov Se tlvos tcjv (j)iXo)v alr-qaavros 
TTpoiKa TOLS dvyarpiois, iKcXevae ncvr^Kovra 
rdXavra Xafielv avrov 8e (jj-qGavros t/cam elvai 
heKa, " orol ye," €(j)r], " Xa^elv, ifjLol 8' ovx iKava 
Sovvai." 

7. ^Ava^apx^p 8^ tco (j>iXoo6(hcp Sovvat rov 8tot- 
Kr)Tr]v €KeXevG€v ouov av alrn^crr)' rod Se Slolktjtov 
(fy-quavTOS (1)5 eKarov alrel raAavra, " KaAcD?," 

180 ^'0^* " 7T0i€L yLva)(7KCt)v OTL ^LXov cji^cc KOI hvvd- 
pL€Vov TrjXiKavra ScopelaOaL koI ^ovXofievov." 

8. 'Ev 8e rfj MiX-qrcp ttoXXovs avSpLavrag dOXr]- 
rcov Oeaadpievo? 'OAu/xTna Kal Ilvdia veviKrjKorcoVf 

/cat TTOV rd rr^XcKavra," €cf)rj, " rjv crcu/xara, ore 
ol ^dp^apoi vfiojv Tr]V ttoXlv irroXLopKOVv; '* 

9. TtJs" 8e Ta)V Kapojv ^aGLXiaaiqg "A8a? oj/ra 
/cat TTefjLfJLara Trapecr/ceuacr/xeVa TTepLTTws 8td SrjjJLL- 
oupyoJv Kal fiayelpcov (f)iXoTiixoviJievr]s del Trlpu- 

7T€LV TTpOg aVTOV, €(f)7] Kp€LTTOVag ^X^^^ avTos 

oifjoTTOLOvs, rrpos p^ev dpiarov ttjv vvKTOTTopiav 
TTpos 8e heiTTVov rrjv dXiyapiGriav. 

10. 'ETret Se TrapeaKevaapLevcov ttoutcov Trpos 
B pidx^jv, r)pd)Tr]Gav ol Grpariqyol pLTj tl Trpog tovtols 

€T€pov; " ovhivy" eiTTeVy " rj ^vpav rd yeveia rcbv 
Ma/ce8ova)v " davpidoavros 8e rod IlappL€VLa)vos, 
" 01) K olSag," €LTT€Vy " on peXrlajv ovk ecrriv iv 
pidx^Lt,? Xa^Tj TTcoyajvos; 

" Stories of this type about kings have long been popular 
and often repeated. 

^ Xenocrates seems to have been the lucky recipient, while 
Anaxarchus received high esteem, according to Moralia, 
331 E, and Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. viii. (668 e). 

" Cf. in Aristophanes, Plutus, 1003, and Athenaeus, 523 f, 
the proverb, " Once were the Milesians stout and strong." 

5Q 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 179-180 

6. When Perillus, one of his friends, asked him for 
dowry for his girls, Alexander bade him accept ten 
thousand pounds. He said that two thousand would 
be enough ; but Alexander said, " Enough for you 
to accept, but not enough for me to give." ** 

7. He bade his manager give to Anaxarchus, the 
philosopher, as much as he asked for ; and when the 
manager said that he asked for twenty thousand 
pounds, Alexander said, " He does well, for he knows 
that he has a friend who is both able and walling to 
make such presents." ^ 

8. When he saw in Miletus many statues of athletes 
who had won victories in the Olympic and the Pythian 
games, he said, " Where were the men with bodies 
like these when the barbarians were besieging your 
city ? " « 

9- Ada, queen of the Carians, made it a point of 
honour to be always sending to him fancy dishes and 
sweetmeats prepared in unusual ways by the hands 
of artists and chefs, but he said he had better fancy 
cooks — his night marches for his breakfast, and for his 
dinner his frugal breakfast.** 

10. Once, when all preparations had been made 
for battle, his generals asked him whether there was 
anything else in addition to what they had done. 
" Nothing," said he, " except to shave the Mace- 
donians' beards." And as Parmenio expressed his 
surprise, Alexander said, " Don't you know that in 
battles there is nothing handier to grasp than a 
beard ? " « 

** This story with slight variations is found also in Moralia, 
127 B, 1099 c, and the Life of Alexander, chap. xxii. (677 b). 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Theseus, chap. iii. (3 a) ; 
Athenaeus, 565 a. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(180) 11. Aapelov Se SlSovtos^ avrco fivpia rdXavra 
Kal rrjv "Aaiav vecfxacrOat irpog avrov iTTLurjg, Kal 
YlapixevLcovos etTrovro?, " eXa^ov av el AXe^avS pos 
TJfjLi^v," " Kaycb vrj Ata," eiTrev, " el Uapfxevlajv 
Tjixriv." (XTTeKpLvaro Se Aapetoj fjuijre rrjv yrjv 
TjXiovs Svo /xT^re rr^v ^Koiav hvo ^auiXeZs vtto- 
[xeveiv. 
C 12. MeXXovTL Se avrcp irepl rwv oXcov ev 'Ap- 
^TjXois Kivhvveveiv Trpos e/carov pLvpidhag dvrLreray- 
fievas TTpouTjeoav ol ^iXoi, rcov orparioiTCJV Kar- 
rjyopovvres cos ev tols OKiqvals hiaXaXovvrajv koL 
avvTidepieviov, ottcus ^y]Sev rojv Xa(j)vpa)v els to 
^aaiXiKov dvoiGovaiv dXX avrol Kephavovaiv . 6 
Se ixeihidoas, " dyaBdJ' (f)rjGiv, " dyyeXXere' 
viKav yap dvSpcbv ov (j^evyeiv TrapeoKevaGpievcxiv 
aKOvcx) SLaXoyLGfjLovs." /cat TTpouiovres avro) ttoX- 
Xol Tojv GTparLOjrajv eXeyov " c5 ^aaiXev, ddppei 
Kal 1X7] (fio^ov TO TrXrjOos tcjv TToXepLLajv, avTOV 
yap rjjjLcbv rov ypdaov ovx VTrofievovaL." 

13. UaparaTTOjJLevov Se rov OTparevjxaros I8a)v 
D TLva TOJV arparicoTCOv to aKovriov evayKvXovpievov 

i^ecoae rrjs (f)dXayyo? cos d)(^pr)GTOv, os irapaGKevd- 
CeraL Br] vvv, ore ;\;p7jCT^at 8et rols ottXois. 

14. ^^TTLGToXr]v he TTapd rrjs fir]Tp6s dvayLVcoGKOjv 
dTroppT]Tovs Kar ^AvTiTrdrpov Sta/SoAa? e^ovGav, 
djjia rov 'H^atcrrtaji^os' wGTrep elcodeu Gwavayivo)- 
GKOVTO?, ovK eKcoXvGev d)s Se dveyvco, tov SaKTvXiov 
dcfjeXojjievQS rov eavrov rep Grofiari rep eKeivov ttjv 
G(j)paylha erfiOiqKev. 

^ 5k 5id6vTos Bernardakis : didSuros or Sk 86vtos. 

<" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. xxix. (681 f): 
58 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 180 

11. When Darius offered him two million pounds, 
and also offered to share Asia equally with him, 
Parmenio said, " I would take it if I were Al-ex- 
ander." " And so indeed would I," said Alexander, 
" if I were Parmenio." But he made answer to 
Darius that the earth could not tolerate two suns, 
nor Asia two kings. ° 

12. When he was about to risk everything at 
Arbela against a million men arrayed against him, 
his friends came to him and accused the soldiers of 
talking together and making agreements in their 
tents that they would hand over none of the spoil to 
the royal treasury, but would keep everything for 
themselves. And he smiling said, " You bring good 
news ; for I hear in this the talk of men prepared to 
conquer and not to flee." And many of the soldiers 
came to him and said, "Be of good cheer, Sire, and 
do not fear the great numbers of the enemy ; for 
they will not be able to stand the very smell of goat 
that clings to us." 

13. As the army was being drawn up for battle, he 
saw one of the soldiers fitting the thong to his javelin, 
and he shoved him out of the line as a useless man 
who was making ready at this time when he ought to 
be using his weapons. 

14. As he was reading a letter from his mother, 
which contained secret slanders against Antipater, 
Hephaestion, as usual, was reading it with him. 
Alexander did not prevent Hephaestion from reading 
it, but, when he had finished the reading, he took off 
his ring, and placed the seal on Hephaestion's lips.^ 

Arrian, Anabasis, ii. 25 ; Diodorus, xvii. 54; Longinus, 
De sublimitate, ix. 4 ; Valerius Maximus, vi. 4, ext. 3. 

** Cf. Moralia, 332 f and 340 a, and Plutarch's Life of 
Alexander, chap, xxxix. (688 a). 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(180) 15. 'Ev 8e " AfJificovog vtto rod TTpocfy-^TOV ttols 
Ato? TTpoaayopevdelg " ovSev ye," ecfirj, " dav- 
[lacrrov, ttolvtcov fiev yap 6 Zeus' (f^voeL Trar-qp 
icrnv, eavTOV Se TTOieiTai rovg aptarovs." 
E 16. TofeujLtart Se TrXrjyeLS ^Ig to cr/ceAo?, co? 
TToAAot Gvvehpapiov rcov TToXkaKis elcoOoTCov a-urov 
6e6v TTpoaayopeveiv, SiaxvOels rep Trpoaojucpy 
*' rovrl pbkv atfjia/' elirev, " ojs Spare, /cat ovK 

lx^P> olouTTep re peei fxaKapeacri deolcnv* 

17. ^^jTTaivovvrojv Se evicov rod ^Avriirdrpov rrjv 
evreXeiav cos aOpvirrajs hiairajpievov Kai avGrrjpojs, 

e^coOev," elTTev, " 'AvrtVarpos" XevKorrdpv(j)6s 
eari, rd Se evhov oXoiropcjivpos.'* 

18. 'Ev he ■x.^ipicbvi /cat ^vx^^ '^^^ (j>iXcov rivog 
iancovros avrov, eoxdpav Se puKpav /cat irvp 
oXiyov eloeveyKavros , r] ^vXa ri Xi^avwrov ela- 
eveyKelv eKeXevoev. 

F 19. ^Avrmarpihov he KaXrjv ipdXrpiav eTTi ro 
helnvov dyayovros, KiviqBels rfj oi/jeu TTpos avrrjv 6 
^AXe^avSpos rjpcJarrjoe rov 'AvrLTrarplSrjv, firj n 
rvyxdvoi rrjs yvvaiKog ipdjv eKeivov he opLoXoyi^- 
Gavros, " c5 {jLiape," elirev, " ovk dird^eis evdvs €K 
rov (jvpLTTOolov rrjV yvvaiKa; " 

20. IlaAtv Se ilvOojva rov Eutou rov avXrjrov 
ipcofievov J^dcravhpog e^Ldl,ero (f)LXrj(jaL' rov ovv 
Eutov opwv dxOojjLevov dveTTt^hrjae jxer* opyrjs eirl 
rov l^daavhpov, KeKpayujs, " dAA* ouS' epaadrjvai 
TLVos e^eari hi Vfids." 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap, xxvii. (680 f). 
^ The story is often repeated : cf. for example, Moralia, 
841 b; Phitarch's Life of Alexander, chap, xxviii. (681 b); 

60 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 180 

15. In the shrine of Ammon he was hailed by the 
prophetic priest as the son of Zeus. ** That is nothing 
surprising," said he ; " for Zeus is by nature the 
father of all, and he makes the noblest his own." ° 

16. When he was hit in the leg by an arrow, and 
many of those who were oftentimes wont to hail him 
as a god hurried up to him, he, relaxing his counte- 
nance, said, " This is blood, as you see, and not 

Ichor, like that which flows from the wounds of the 
blessed Immortals." * 

17. When some commended the frugality of Anti- 
pater, who, they said, hved a plain and simple Hfe, 
he remarked, " Outwardly Antipater is plain white, 
but within he is all purple." '^ 

18. When one of his friends was entertaining him 
in the cold of ^vinter, and brought in a small brazier 
with a Httle fire in it, Alexander bade him bring in 
either firewood or incense. 

19- When Antipatrides brought to dinner a beautiful 
harp-player, Alexander, stirred to love at the sight 
of her, asked Antipatrides whether he happened to 
be at all in love with the girl ; and when he admitted 
that he was, Alexander said, ** You abominable 
wretch ! Please take her away from here at once." 

20. On another occasion Casander forced Python, 
beloved by Evius the flute-player,*^ to kiss him, and 
Alexander, seeing that Evius was vexed, leapt up in 
anger against Casander, exclaiming " It isn't allow- 
able even to fall in love with, anybody, because of you 
and people Hke you." 

Diogenes Laertius, ix. 60 ; Dio Chrysostom, Oration xliv. 
(p. 498) ; Seneca, Epistulae Moral, vi. 7. 12. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of PhocioUy chap. xxix. (754 e). 

* Cf. Plutarch's Ltfe of Euynenes, chap. ii. (503 d). 

VOL. Ill c2 61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

21 . AiToareXXovTO? Se avrov rcov MaKehovcov 
lol rovs vocjcoSels Kal dvaTnjpovg inl ddXarrav, eV- 

eoecx^T] Tt? elg rovs vooovvras dTroyeypafjiixivo? 
eavTov ov vouojv. eVet ovv clg oiptv dxOel? Kal 
avaKpivopievos U)fjLoX6y7]G€ 7Tpo(j)aoit,€odai hi epcora 
TeAeCTtTTTras" dTnovor^s irrl ddXarrav, rjpwriqaev 6 
AXe^avSpos, " TTpos TLva Set Tiepl rrjs TeXeoiTTTras 
otaXeyeadar" TTvOofxevo^ Se iXevdepav ovorav, 
ovKovv," ^^'^i " ^ ^Avnyevr), rreldcopiev rrjV 
TeXeaiTTTTav, Iva iieivrj fied^ rjfjbojv' jStaJecr^at yap 
cXevuepav ovaav ovx r^pLerepov.*' 

22. Twv 8e pLLa6o(f)opovvrajv 'EtXX'qvctJV irapd toZs 
TToXepLiovs VTrox^ipLOjv y€vopiivo)Vy rovs p.€V ^Adrj- 

B vaiovs eKeXevaev ev jrehais ^f Aarretv oti rpocjyrjv 
k^ovres €k hiqpLoaiov pnadocjjopovGL Kal rovs 
(derraXovs on yr)v^ dpLarrjv KeKr-qp^ivoi ov yecop- 
yovGL' rovs Be Grj^alovs dcf)rJK€V ELTTcbv on piovois 
TOVTOL9 ovre TToXvs ovre x^P^ ^^' ''5/^as' diro- 
XeXeiTTrai. 

23. Tcay Se *lvScov rov dpiora ro^eveiv hoKovvra 
Kai Xeyopievov Sta haKrvXiov rov olotov d^iivai 
Xa^cbv alxpidXcxJTOv eKeXevcrev eVtSetfao-^at, Kal 
fiTj ^ovXopuevov opyioOels dveXeZv TTpoaera^e' iirel 
oe ayopLcvos^ 6 dvOpiorros eXeye irpos rovs dyovras, 
on TToXXcov rjjjLepcov ov fiejjLeXerrjKe Kal i<j)o^'^9r] 
SiaTTecreLV, dKovcras 6 ^AXe^avSpos idavfiaae Kal 

* 7?5i' Hatzidakis and Kronenberg : tV. 

* dyd/jLcyos] dTaySfxevos Maximus et Antonius, Sententiae, 
p. 569. 

62 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 180-181 

21. When he was sending away to the sea those of 
the Macedonians who were sick or incapacitated, a 
man was reported to have put down his name in the 
hst of the sick although there was nothing the matter 
with him. When therefore the man was brought 
before Alexander and examined, he admitted that 
he had employed this ruse because of love for Tele- 
sippa, who was departing for the sea ; and Alexander 
asked, " With whom must one talk concerning Tele- 
sippa ? " And when he learned that she was not a 
slave, he said, " Then let us, Antigenes, try to per- 
suade Telesippa to stay with us ; for to coerce her, a 
free woman, is not within our right." " 

22. When Greek mercenaries serving on the 
enemy's side came into his hands, he would order 
the Athenians among them to be kept in chains, 
because, while they could live at the expense of the 
State, they were serving as mercenaries, and so also 
the Thessalians, because, although they owned the 
very best land, they did not till it. But the Thebans 
he let go free, saying that these alone, because of us, 
have neither city nor land left to them. 

23. When he had taken captive the man who had 
the greatest repute for marksmanship among the 
Indians, of whom it was said that he could send an 
arrow through a finger-ring, Alexander bade him 
show his skill, and when he would not, the king in 
anger decreed his execution. The man, as he was 
being led away, said to those who were taking him 
that he had not practised for many days, and was 
afraid of failing ; and when this came to the ears of 
Alexander, he marvelled and let the man go with 

* Cf. Moralia^ 339 c, and Plutarch's Life of Alexander ^ 
chap. xli. (689 b). 

63 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(181) a7Te\va€ ixera Scopcov avrov, on fidXXov amoBavelv 
VTrefxeivev rj rrjs So^-qg dvd^LOs (f)avrjvaL. 
C 24. 'Ettci 8e Ta^lXrjs, €is tG)V 'Iv8coi^ ^acrtAeus' 
cov, d7TavTr]Gas TTpoeKaXelro fir] jidxeaOai jxr]hk 
TvoAe/xetv ^AXe^avhpov, dAA' el fxev iariv tjttcdv, ev 
ndax^tv, el Se ^eXricov, ev TTOielv, d7T€Kplvaro TrepL 
avrov rovTOV jxaxeriov elvaiy TTorepos eif ttolcov 
TTepiyiviqrai. 

25. Uepl Se rrj? Xeyofievrj^ ^Aopvov nerpas iv 
'IvSotS" dfcouo-as" on to fxev ;)(a)ptoy SvadXojTov 
ianv, 6 Be e^^v avro heiXos ian, ** vvv," ecfyn]* 
** TO x^P^ov evdXojTov eanv." 

26. 'Ettci 8e d'AAos- exojv irerpav dXrjTTTOv Sokov- 
aav etvai eve;^€tpta€v eavrov fxerd rrjg irerpas rco 

D ^AXe^dvSpcp, Kal rrjs Svvdpiecos eKeXevcjev dpx^f-v 
Koi TTpoaedrjKe ;)^copav, elrrajv on ^poveZv jJLOi 
SoKel 6 dvdpojTTOs, dvSpl fxdXXov dyaOcv Tnarevcras 
eavTov 7] 6xvp(^ tottco. 

27. yierd he ty]v rrjs Trerpas dXcodLV rcov <f)iXoiv 
XeyovTCJV VTrepPe^XrjKevaL rov 'Hpa/cAea rat? npa- 
feo-tv, oAA eyo), et77€, ras €fias Trpa^eis 
[lerd rfjs rjyepLOVLas ivos ov vofMi^o) prjixaros^ 
dvra^ias elvai rod 'Hpa/cAeous.'* 

1 prjimaTos'] irpdy/uiaTos (?) ; Heracles was not noted for his 
words ! ypafifMaros E. Capps. 

64. 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 181 

many gifts because he preferred to suffer himself to 
be put to death rather than to show himself unworthy 
of his reputation. 

24. When Taxiles, king of the Indians, met Alex- 
ander, he charged him not to fight or make war, but, 
if he were inferior, to accept favours, and, if he were 
superior, to bestow them. To this Alexander repHed 
that this was the very issue between them, to deter- 
mine which could outdo the other in bestowing 
favours. " 

25. When he was told concerning the * Birdless 
Rock,' ^ as it is called, in India, that the place was 
extremely difficult to capture, but that the man who 
held it was a coward, he said, " In that case it is easy 
to capture." ^ 

26. When another man who held a seemingly 
impregnable rock surrendered himself together with 
his stronghold to Alexander, Alexander bade him to 
continue to rule, and gave him additional country to 
govern, saying that " this person seems to me to 
show sense in trusting himself to a good man rather 
than to a strong place." 

27. After the capture of the rock his friends were 
saying that he had surpassed Heracles in his deeds, 
but he remarked, " No, I do not feel that my deeds, 
with my position as commander, are to be weighed 
against one word of Heracles." ^ 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. lix. (698 u). 

* Cf. Cunningham, Ancient Geography of India, i. pp. 58 if. 

*= Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. Iviii. (697 e) ; 
Arrian, Anabasis, iv. 28 ; Diodorus, xvii. 85 ; Quintus 
Curtius, Hist. Alexandri, viii. 11. 

** Arrian, Anabasis, v. 26. 5, represents Alexander as 
boasting over the capture of the rock, which Heracles had 
failed to capture. 

65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(181) 28. TcJov 8e (j)iXojv rivas aladojxevos iv tco 

29. Twv 8e TTpwTCDV ^iXcov Kal KparLcrrajv riixdv 
fxev ihoKei Kparepov /xaAtorra Trdvrojv, (j>i\eZv 8e 
*H</»atcrrt60va. " Kparepo? fiev ydpj* €(f>r]y " (fyiXo- 
jSacrtAeus" ecrrtv, 'H</>ataTta;v Se <f>iXaXi^av^pos'* 
E 30. 'RevoKparei Se to) <f)i\oo6(j)cp Trevn^Kovra 
rdXavra Trefjupag, cos ovk iSe^aro fxr] SelaOat 
^-qoas, r]p(jjrr]G€v el /XT^Se ^iXov ex^i E^evoKpar-qs' 
" i[xoi ixkv yap," €(^17, " [jloXls 6 Aapelov ttXovtos 
€19 Tous" (f)tXovs rjpKeorev." 

31. 'ETiet Be YLcopos epoirridels vir* avrov [xerd 
rrjv fidx^jVi " 'TTii>s <Joi ;j(p7y(Ta;jLtat; " " ^aoiXiKcosJ 
eiTTe, Kal TTpoaepcorTjOeLSy " Kal jjut] tl dXXo; ' 
" Trdvra," elirev, " iv t<S * jSaatAiAccDs" * eveorri *' 
davfxdGas Kal ttjv avveaiv avrov Kal rriv dvSpa 
yadiav TrXetova x^pav rjg Trporepov et^^e TTpoaiOrjKe 
F 32. Yivdopuevos Se vtto tlvos AotSopeto-^at, " ^acn 
Xlkov," €(j)r), " iarlv €v TTOiovvra KaKOJS aKoveiv.' 

33. ^ KttoQvtjgkcjv he TTpos rovs eraipovs aTTihcxiV 
ecjiY], " jxeyav opcj jjlov tov emrdcfiLov eaofievov." 

^ ov Trai^ouras] av/uLTrai^ouTas Bernardakis. The question is, 
of course, whether they played professionally or would not 
play at all ; <(r7r>oL'<57?>, a not uncommon attendant of 
iral^co, would make the first alternative unequivocal, and ov 
(rvfiwai^ovTas (E. Capps) would do the same for the second. 

* Alexander himself, when he was ill, spent the whole day 
in throwing dice with Medius, according to Plutarch, Life of 
Alexander, chap. Ixxvi (706 d). 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap, xlvii. (691 f), 
and Diodorus, xvii. 114. 

" Cf. Moralia, 331 e and 333 b, and Plutarch's Life of 
Alexander, chap. viii. (668 e). 

«* Cf. Moralia, 332 e and 458 b ; Plutarch's Life of 
Alexander, chap. Ix. (699 c) ; Arrian, Anabasis, v. 19. 2. 

m 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 181 

28. Learning that in gambling with dice some of 
his friends did not enter into the game as a sport, he 
punished them." 

29. Of his foremost and most influential friends he 
seems to have honoured Craterus most and to have 
loved Hephaestion best. " For," said he, " Craterus 
is fond of the king, but Hephaestion is fond of 
Alexander." ^ 

30. He sent ten thousand pounds to Xenocrates the 
philosopher, but when Xenocrates would not accept 
them, and said he had no need of them, Alexander 
asked whether Xenocrates had not a single friend. 
** For, in my case," said he, " the wealth of Darius 
was hardly enough for my friends." " 

31. Porus, after the battle, was asked by Alex- 
ander, " How shall I treat you ? " " Like a king," 
said he. Asked again if there were nothing else, he 
said, " Everything is included in those words." 
Marvelhng at his sagacity and manhness, Alexander 
added to his kingdom more land than he had possessed 
before. <* 

32. Learning that he was being mahgned by a 
certain man, he said, " It is kingly to be ill spoken of 
for doing good." * 

33. As he was dying, he said, looking towards his 
companions, " I see that my funeral rites will be 
imposing." ■'' 

* An oft-repeated aphorism ; cf. for example, Plutarch's 
Life of Alexander, chap. xli. (688 e) ; Pro Nobilitate, 19 
(Bernardakis ed. vii. p. 268) ; Diogenes Laertius, vi. 3 ; 
Epictetus, Discourses, iv. 6 ; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
vii. 36 ; Die Chrysostom, Oration xlvii., last sentence. 

^ Cf. Arrian, Anabasis, vii. 26. 3 ; Diodorus, xvii. 117. 4 ; 
Quintus Curtius, Hist. Alexandri, "^,5,5', Justinus, Historiae 
Phillippicae, xii. 15. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

34. TeXevTT^aavTos Be avrov ArjixdSrjs 6 pTJrojp 
ofjLOLOv €(f)7] Slol tt^v oLvapx^av opdadai to crrparo- 
TTeSov Tcov M.aK€S6va>v c/CTerf^Aco/xeVa; t(x) Ku- 
kXcottl. 

HTOAEMAIOT TOT AAFOT 

nroAe/xatos' o Adyov rd ttoXXol Trapd tols ^tAotS" 
iheLTTvei Kol eKadevhev el 8e Trore SetTTVt^ot, rots' 
iKeivojv ixprJTo p^eraTrefXTTopLevos iKTrcopuara /cat 
GTpcjpLara fcat rpairit^as' avros 8e ovk iKeKT7]TO 
TrXeiOj TCOV dvayKalcov, dXXd rod irXovrelv eXeye 
TO 7tXovtI^€lv elvat ^aaiXiKajrepov, 

ANTirONOT 

18*2 1. 'Avrtyovo? eloiirpaTTe XPVH'^'^^ ovvtovcds' 
eliTOVTOs Be tlvos, " aAA' ovk ^AXe^avSpos rfv 
tolovtos," " elKOTCDSy" eiTTeVy " eKelvos pLev yap 
edepit^e ttjv 'Aotav, eyd) Se KaXapLcbpLai." 

2. Twv Be GTpaTLCoTwv IBcLv TLvas ev rols Ow- 
pa^L KOL TOLS KpdveoL acfyaipl^ovTas '^adrj, /cat tovs 
riyepiovas avTcov pLeTeTrepureTO eiraiveaai ^ovXo- 
pievos' d)S Be rJKOVGev ort ttlvovglv, ras" eKeiviov 
rjyepLOvlag tovs OTpaTicoTais eScuKe. 

3. Q)avpLal,6vTcov Be TrdvTCOv otl yepcjv yevopuevos 
B rjTTLOJS exprJTO /cat TTpdcos tols TTpdypbaoi, " TTpO' 

Tepov p.ev ydpy* etTre, " Bvvdpieojs eBeopurjVy vvv Be 
B6^7]s /cat evvoias." 

4. Yipos Be Tov vlov OtAtTTTTOv TTvOopievov TrAeto- 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Oalha^ chap. i. (1053 c), which 
also gives Demades as the author ; but in Moralia, 336 f, 
the saying is attributed to Leosthenes. Cf, also Demetrius 
Phalereus, De elocutione^ 284. 
68 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 181-182 

S4. When he had come to his end, Demades the 
orator said that the army of the Macedonians, be- 
cause of its lack of leadership, looked Hke the Cyclops 
after his eye had been put out.** 

PTOLEMY, SON OF LAGUS * 

Ptolemy, son of Lagus, used, as a rule, to dine and 
sleep at his friends' houses ; and if ever he gave a 
dinner, he would send for their dishes and Hnen and 
tables, and use them for the occasion. He himself 
owned no more than were required for everyday 
use ; and he used to say that it was more kingly to 
enrich than to be rich.* 

ANTIGONUS * 

1. Antigonus was persistent in his demands for 
money, and when somebody said, " But Alexander 
was not hke this," he replied, " Very naturally ; for 
he reaped Asia, and I am picking up the straws." 

2. Seeing some of his soldiers playing ball in their 
breastplates and helmets, he was much pleased and 
sent for their officers, wishing to commend them. 
But when he heard that they were engaged in drink- 
ing, he gave their positions to their soldiers. 

3. When all were astonished because, after he had 
grown old, he handled matters ^\dth mildness and 
gentleness, he said, " Time was when I craved power, 
but now I crave repute and goodwill among men." 

4. To his son Philip, who inquired in the presence 

» Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, 323-285 (or t 283) b.c. 
*■ Cf. Aeiian, Varia Historia^ xiii. 13. 
"* The " One-eyed " ; one of Alexander's generals ; ruler 
in Asia Minor, 323-301 b.c. 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(182) i^ojy TTapovTOJV y " nore fjueXXofxev dval^evyuvvai ; ** 
" ri SeSoLKag; " etne, " firj jiovos rrj? aaXmyyos 
ovK OLKOvar]?^ ;" 

5. ^TrovSdaavros 8e rod veaviGKov Xa^elv Acara- 
XvoLv napd yvvaiKi x^P9- '^P^^s ixovajj dvyarepas 
evTrperrels, KaXeaas tov IttI tojv ^€vlojv €L7T€V, " ovK 
i^d^€i? fjLov TOV vlov OLTTO TTJ? aT€vo)(a)pias ; " 

6. Nocri]cras" 8e piaKpdv vooov cos dveppojcrev, 
*' ovSev," €(f)r], " -^elpov vnepLvrjae yap rjpLds t] 
voGos fiTj fieya cfjpovelv ch? dvras dvrjTovs." 

7. 'KpfjioSoTov Se avTOV iv rots' TTOirjjjiaaLV *HAtou 
TToiha ypdijjavTos, " ov ravrd jjlol," €(f)r], " orvvoiSev 
6 Xaaavocpopos." 

8. EiTTOVTO? Se TLVos OTL irdvTa KaXd /cat St/cata 
rot? ^aCTtAeucrt, " val /xa Ata/' €L7T€, " rots tojv 
^ap^dpcxjv r)pLLV 8e pLova KaXd rd KaXd Kal piova 
St/cata rd Strata." 

9. MapGvov TOV aSeA(/)o£> Slk7]v exovTog, d^iovv- 

TOS he TTjV KpiGLV aVTO) y€V€GdaL KaT OLKiaV, 

ecrrat puev ovv," etnev, " iv Tjj dyopa Kal TrdvTCOV 
dKovovTCOV €L pLr]Sev dhiKOvpiev." 

10. 'Evret Se rroTe x^^P^djvog iv tottols 07Tavit,ovai 
TOJV iTTLTrjSeLOJV TjvdyKaGe KaTa^ev^ai Kal tojv 
GTpaTLOJTCJV TLves iXoiSopovv avTov dyvoovvTes otl 

D ttXtjglov ioTLV, T7J ^aKTrjpLa TTjv GKr]V7]v SiaGrGiXas 

^ cLKovarys Moralia, 506 D : aKovaij. 



" Cf. Moralia, 506 c ; Plutarch's Life of Demetrius, chap, 
xxviii. (902 c), when the remark is addressed to Demetrius. 
The same remark is attributed to Crassus by Frontinus, 
Strategemata, i. 1. 13. 

*• Repeated by Phitarch in his Life of Demetrius^ chap. 
70 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 182 

of numerous persons, " When are we going to break 
camp ? " he said, " What are you afraid of? That 
you alone may not hear the bugle ? " " 

5. When the young man was determined to take 
up his quarters at the house of a widow who had 
three handsome daughters, he called the quarter- 
master and said, " Will you not get my son out of his 
crowded quarters ? " ^ 

6. He suffered a long illness, and when he had re- 
covered his strength he said, " 'Twas nothing so very 
bad ; for the illness has reminded us not to feel too 
proud, since we are but mortal." ^ 

7. W^hen Hermodotus in his poems wrote of him 
as " The Offspring of the Sun," he said, " The slave 
who attends to my chamber-pot is not conscious of 
that ! " ^ 

8. When somebody remarked that all things are 
honourable and righteous for kings, he said, " Yes 
indeed, for kings of the barbarians ; but for me 
only the honourable things are honourable and the 
righteous righteous." 

9. When Marsyas his brother had a lawsuit, and 
claimed the right to have the trial held at his house, 
Antigonus said, " It shall be in the Forum and with 
everybody hstening to see whether we do any in- 
justice." 

10. Once upon a time in the winter when he had 
forced a halt in regions lacking provisions, and some 
of the soldiers were cursing him, not knowing that 
he was near, he poked open his tent with his stick, 

xxiii. (899 c), and more fully by Frontinus, Strategemata, 
iv. 1. 10. 

« Attributed to Alexander by Stobaeus, Florilegiurriy xxi. 
15. 

«* Cf. Moral ia, 360 c 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(182) " olfjicjo^eref" €t77€i/, " €1 fir) fxaKporepov arroaravres 
XoiSopijaere rjfids." 

11. ^ApLGToSlQIJLOV be TCOV t^LXcxJV TIVOS €K jXa- 

yelpov yeyovevai Sokovvtos, avfi^ovXevovTOS Se 
avTO) rwv dvaXajfjidrcov /cat rcov bcopecJov dcjiaipeiv, 
" ol Xoyoi GOVf' elirev, ** cS 'A/)tCTTo8T7/X€, irept- 
^dj/xaros" 6t,ovaiv.'* 

12. ^AOrjvaicov 8e SovXov avrov TLpLcofxevov^ els 
rrjv TToAtretW ws iXevdepov iyypaifjdvrojv , " ovk 

aVf" €L7T€Vy " i^OvXofJLTjV €Va ^Adr]VaLOV VTT* ifxov 

pLaoTiyovadai} " 

13. NeavLCjKov 8e tlvos tcov 'Ava^t/xeVous" tov 
priTopos fJLadrjTcov Xoyov eoKepipiivov i.K TrapacrKevTJs 

E eLTTovTos €77* avTov, ^ouXofxcvog TL pbaOeiv rjpdoTTjaev' 
aTTocTLOJTTrjoavTOs 8e rod veaviGKov, " ri Xiyeis; " 
elireVy " yj 

ravT iarl rdv heXroiaiv iyyeypafJLjJLeva; *' 

14. 'Erepou he p'qropog olkovcov Xeyovros on 
Xiovo^oXos Tj wpa yevofievT] XiTro^oravelv^ eTTOLrjae 
TTjv ■)(ajpaVy *' ov Tvavarj fxoL," etnev, '* ws o-^Xcp 
Xpcofxevos ; " 

15. 0pacruAAot> 8e rod kvvikov SpaxfJirjv atrrj- 
oavTOs avrov, " dAA' ov ^aaiXiKov," e<f)rj, '* ro 
hofjua"' rod Se elrrovrog, " ovkovv rdXavrov Sos" 
fiOL, aAA ov KVVIKOV y e^Ty, ro ArjfXfia. 

16. Ilep.7TOJv Se A-qjjujrpcov rov vlov fxerd vecov 

^ TLixuiixevov'] yevbixevov Cobet. 

^ fxaaTiyovcdai] /uLe/xaaTiyQadai Pantazides and S. A. Naber, 
but ixacTTLyovadai can be defended as an " imperfect infinitive." 
^ \Liro^oTavelv Bernardakis : XeiTo^oTavelv. 

" Repeated in Moralia^ 457 e, and Seneca, De Ira, iii. 22. 2. 
^ Possibly the son of Entropion, Moralia^ 11a. 
72 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 182 

and said, " You'll be sorry if you don't go farther off 
to curse me." " 

11. When Aristodemus,^ one of his friends, who, 
it was whispered, was the son of a cook, advised him 
to curtail his expenditures and his giving of presents, 
he said, " Aristodemus, your words have the stink of 
a kitchen apron." 

12. When the Athenians admitted to citizenship 
a slave of his, held in much esteem, and enrolled 
him as a free m.an, he said, " I could wish that one 
Athenian had not been flogged by me ! " 

13. A young man, one of the pupils of Anaximenes 
the orator, pronounced before him a very carefully 
prepared oration, and he, wishing to gain some 
further information, asked a question. But when 
the young man relapsed into silence, he remarked, 
" What is your answer ? Or 

Is this the content of the written page ? " • 

14. Hearing another orator say that the season 
had been snowy,** and so had caused a lack of herbage 
in the land, he said, " Please stop treating me as 
you treat a common crowd." 

15. When Thrasyllus the Cynic asked him for a 
shilhng, he said " That is not a fit gift for a king to 
give." And when Thrasyllus said, " Then give me 
two hundred pounds," he retorted, " But that is not 
a fit gift for a Cynic to receive." * 

16. When he sent Demetrius his son, with many 



" Euripides, Iphigeneia among the Taurians, 787. 

<* This could hardly refer (as some think) to the unseason- 
ably cold weather in the spring (of 307 b.c. ?) recorded in 
Plutarch's Life of Demetrius, chap. xii. (894 c). 

* The story is told more fully in Moralia^ 551 e, and by 
Seneca, Be heneficiis, ii. 17. 1. 

73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TToAAcoy Kal hvvdjxeojv iXevOepcoaovra rovs "EAAr^vas 
F e'Aeye rrjv So^av axjTrep oltto OKOTrrjs ttjs 'EAAaSos" 
els TTjV oLKOviJievrjv irvpoeveoOai. 

17. ^ Avrayopov Se rod ttoltjtov yoyypov eipovros 
Kal avrov rrjv XorrdSa Getovros, einards i^oTnadev, 
" OL€L," (jirjGL, ** rov "OiJi7]pov, d) 'Avrayopa, 
yoyypov eipecv rdg rod ^ AyapLepivovos ypd^ovra 
TT panels; " Kal 6 ^Avrayopas, " ov Si," etnev, 
'* w paoikev, Tov ^Ayapuepivova vopuL^eLS Trpdrrovra 
rds TTpd^eis eKelvas TToXvTTpaypLOvelv, €t ns iv rep 
arparorrehcp yoyypov €i/j€l; " 
183 18. 'E-TTet S' ovap ISojv xp^^ovv Bipos i^apLOJVTa 
Mid piSdr-qv ipovXevoaro KrelvaL, Kal ^rjpnqrpicp rep 
via) (f)pdaas wpKOioe OLiojriqoeiv^ TrapaXa^wv^ rov 
MiOpihdTrjv 6 Arjpi'^rpLos Kal avpLTrepLTrarcov irapd 
ddXarrav iv rep alyiaXcp Kareypaipe rep oravpoj- 
rrjpL rov Soparos, " (ftevye, Mt^ptSara." eKelvos 
Se voT^oas eejyvyev els Hovrov /ca/cet ^aaiXevajv 
StereAeae. 



AHMHTPIOT 

1. *Vohiovs Se TToXiOpKcov 6 ArjpL-qrpLos eXa^ev 
ev nvL TTpoaoreicp irivaKa Yipayroyivovs rod 

1 (TLUTrriaeLv, Life of Demetrius, chap. iv. is probably right: 

2 irapaka^wv F.C.B. : 6 5k irapaXajSdjv. Some shght change 
is required to make the sentence grammatical. Bernardakis 
accomplishes the same result by omitting 'ETrei 5' and 6 

At] fJLrjTpLOS. 



<» Cf. Plutarch's Life of Demetrius, chap. viii. (892 b), 
where the phraseology is slightly different. 
74 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 182-183 

ships and forces, to make the Greeks a free people, 
he said that his repute, kindled in Greece as on a 
lofty height, would spread Uke beacon-fires through- 
out the inhabited world." 

17. While Antagoras the poet was cooking a conger- 
eel, and was shaking the skillet with his own hand, 
Antigonus stepped up behind him and said, " Ant- 
agoras, do you imagine that Homer cooked a conger 
while he was writing of the exploits of Agamemnon ? " 
To which Antagoras retorted, " And do you, Your 
Majesty, believe that Agamemnon, while he was 
performing those exploits, was overmuch concerned 
if anybody in the army cooked a conger ? " ^ 

18. In a dream he saw Mithradates reaping a 
golden harvest, and thereupon planned to kill him. 
He told Demetrius his son, and bound him by an 
oath to silence. But Demetrius took Mithridates 
to walk with him beside the sea, and with the butt 
of his spear \\Tote in the sand, " Flee, Mithridates." 
And ^Iithridates, understanding the purport, fled 
to Pontus and reigned there until his end.'' 

DEMETRIUS ' 

1. When Demetrius was besieging the Rhodians • 
he seized in one of the suburbs a painting of the 

^ Cf. Moralia, 668 c, and Athenaeus, 340 f, who quotes 
as his authority Hegesander. 

<= Plutarch tells the story at length in his Life of Demetrius, 
chap. iv. (890 c) ; cf. also Appian, Roman History, Mithri- 
datic Wars, 9. iSIithridates became the founder of the line of 
Pontic kings, which lasted until 63 b.c, when Mithridates 
VI. was conquered by Pompey. 

^ Son of Antigonus, known as Demetrius Poliorcetes (the 
Besieger). 

• In 305-304 b.c 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B L,oj'ypd(f)OV rov ^IdXvaov ypd(f)ovros' iTnKrjpvKevaa- 
(183) /LteVcov Se rcov 'PoSlojv /cat (jieioaadai rod TrivaKos 
vapaKaXovvTCov, €(f>r] " fxdXXov dv^ rd? rov narpos 
CLKOvas ^ r-qv ypa(f)r]v iKeivqv hia^delpai." arrei- 
crdfjievos 8e rots' 'PoStots" rrjv eAeVoAty aTreXiTre 
Trap" avrols, VTToSetyjjLa rrjs avrov fxeyaXovpylas 
eKeivojv Se dvhpeias iaojJLevqv. 

2. ATToardvrcov 8e rajv ^Adrjvalajv, cAcov rrjv 
ttoXlv rjSrj KaKOJS vtto crtToSetas" exovcrav, evdvs 
iKKX-qoias avrco avvaxd^icrqs, eirihajKe hcopedv 
Girov avroZs' h-qpnqyopcov 8e irepl rovrcxjv ifiap- 

C jSaptae* rojv 8e KaOiqjjievcov rivos d)S eSet ro prjfjLa 
XexOrjvai TTapa<^a)Viquavros , *' ovkovv," €(f)r], " /cat 
rijg i7Tavopd(x)Geco£ ravr-qs dXXovs Vfilv nevraKLa- 
j^tAtofS" e77t8tSa)/xt pLeSifjivovs." 

ANTirONOT TOT AETTEPOT 

1 . 'Avrtyoyo? o Sevrepo?, ArjiJirjrpiov rov rrarpos 
dXovros /cat Trepixjjavros riva rcov ^iXojv /cat k€- 
Xevovros (JLT) TrpoGex^tv, dv n ypdc/yrj ^taadelg vtto 
HeXevKov, pLTjSe Trapaxcopelv rwv rroXecvv, avros 
eypai/je irpos ^iXevKov i^LGrdpievos avrcp rrjs 
dpxqs dirda-qg /cat TrapaSiSovs opuqpov iavrdv irrl 
rep rov narepa ArjpLi^rpLov dTToXvdrjvai. 

^ av added by Bernardakis. 

" The painting was seen by Cicero {Orator, 2 (5)) at 
Rhodes ; later it was carried to Rome and placed in the 
temple of Peace (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 36 (102)). 

* This engine is described by Diodorus, xx. 48, and 
Plutarch, Life of Demetrivs, chap. xxi. (898 b). 

" The story is told by Plutarch in his Life of Demetrius^ 
76 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 183 

artist Protogenes in which he portrayed lalysus. 
The Rhodians sent a herald to him and besought him 
to spare the painting. He repHed that he would 
sooner destroy the statues and portraits of his father 
than that painting." And coming to terms with the 
Rhodians, he left his great siege-engine, the City- 
taker,^ with them to serve as a token of his prowess 
and of their courage.'' 

2. The Athenians revolted, and when he had taken 
their city, which was already in serious straits from 
lack of food, an assembly of the people was immedi- 
ately summoned by him, and he made them a present 
of grain.** In speaking about this before them he 
lapsed into a barbarism. One of those sitting there 
repeated the phrase as it should have been spoken, 
and he said, " For this correction, then, I give you 
eight thousand bushels more." 



ANTIGONUS THE SECOND- 

1. When Demetrius, the father of Antigonus the 
Second, had been taken captive, he sent one of 
his friends and urged Antigonus to pay no attention 
if he should wTite anything under compulsion of 
Seleucus, and not to withdraw from the cities ; but 
Antigonus of his own accord wrote to Seleucus re- 
signing to him his whole kingdom and offering to 
surrender himself as a hostage on condition that his 
father Demetrius be released.^ 

chap. xxii. (898 e) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 36 (105) ; and 
Aulus Gellius, xv. 31. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Demetrius, chap, xxxiv. (905 b). 

* Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, 283-239 b.c. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of Demetrius ^ chap. li. (914 d). 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(183) 2. MeXXwv 8e vavjxax^-lv irpos rovs liroXefjiaLOV 
J) (jrparrjyov?, elTTOvro? rod KV^epviqrov ttoXv rrXelo- 
vag €LvaL ra? rwv TToXefjiLcnv vavs, " ifie 8e/' ^V*^* 
** a-UTOv Trapovra Trpos TToaa? avrLrdrreis ; " 

3. *^7ro')(CDpa)V he rrore roig voXepiLois enepxo- 
fjLevoLs ovK e(f)r] (f)€vy€LV, dXXa hiojKeiv to avfi- 

<j)€pOV OTTLGCX) K€Lpi€VOV. 

4. 'ETret Se veaviGKos dvhpeiov Trarpog, avrog 
Se fXTj TTOLVV hoKibv dyados elvai arpaTi(x>rr]s rji^ov 
rds Tov TTarpog XapL^dveiv d7TO(f)opdg, " aAA' iyo)," 
€L7T€v, " o) p.€LpdKLov, dvhpayadias ov Trarpayadcas 
fjLLadovs Kal Scopeds SiScopn." 

5. Tuijvojvos Se TOV Kltl€0)s aTToOavovTOSy ov 
fidXiGTa Tibv (fyiXoGocjyojv idavpLaoeVy eXeye to dea- 
Tpov avTov Tcov Trpd^ecov dv7]p7]a6aL. 

E AT2IMAX0T 

1. Avoipiaxos eV (^paKrj KpaTiqdeis vtto Apofju- 
XaiTOV Kal Sid hi^av iavTOV /cat to crrpareu/xa 
mapahovs , (1)S emev alxpidXajTo? yevopievos, " (h 
deoL," €L7T€v, " COS" pLLKpds Tjhovrjs €V€Ka SovXov 
ipuavTov e/c ^aacXeajs 7T€7TOLr)Ka." 

2. ripOS' he OlAtTTTTtST^V TOV KCOpiCpS LOTTO LOV^ (f)lXoV 

ovTa Kal ovv^dr], " tlvos gol," elire, " tcov ipLcov 

1 KwixuidLoiroLov, the preferred form, Bernardakis: Arw^uySo- 
troLov. 



* Cf. Moralia, 545 b, and Plutarch's Life of Pelopidas, 
chap. ii. (278 d), both showing variation in wording and 
details ; also Athenaeus, 209 e, and Gulick's note in the 
L.C.L., vol. ii. p. 447. 

" Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 15. 
78 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 183 

2. When Antigonus was about to engage in a naval 
battle against Ptolemy's generals, the pilot said that 
the ships of the enemy far outnumbered their own. 
" But," said Antigonus, " how many ships do you 
think my own presence here is equivalent to ? " " 

3. Once when he was withdrawing before the 
advance of the enemy, he said that he was not fleeing, 
but was following up his advantage, which lay in 
the rear. 

4-. When a young man, son of a brave father, but 
not himself having any reputation for being a good 
soldier, suggested the propriety of his receiving his 
father's emoluments, Antigonus said, " My boy, I 
give pay and presents for the excellence of a man, 
not for the excellence of his father." 

5. When Zeno of Citium died, whom he admired 
most among the philosophers, he said that the 
audience to hear of his exploits had been taken away.* 

LYSIMACHUS <= 

1. Lysimachus was overpowered by Dromichaetas 
in Thrace, and because of thirst surrendered himself 
and his army '^ ; and M'hen he drank after he had 
been made a prisoner, he said, " My God, for what a 
little pleasure have I made myself a slave from being 
a king ! " * 

2. To Philippides the comic poet who was his friend 
and intimate he said, " What of mine shall I share 

'^ One of Alexander's generals ; later king of Thrace. 

<^ In 292 B.C. 

* The story is repeated with slight variations in Moralia, 
126 E and 555 d ; the capture of Lysimachus is recorded 
in Plutarch's Life of Demetrius, chap, xxxix. (908 b) ; 
Polyaenus, Strategemata, vii. 25 ; Diodorus, xxi. 12. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ixerahoj; " KOLKelvos, " ov jSouAet, ttXtjv tcov 
aTTOpp-qrajv." 

ANTIHATPOT 

F 1. 'AvrtVarpos" OLKOvaras rrjv Ylap/jLevLcovos vtto 
^AXe^dvSpov reXevTTjVy " el fxev irre^ovXevaev 
^AXe^dvhpcp Ilap[jL€VLOJV," etrre, " tlvl Tnorrevreov ; 
el Se jj,!^, TL TvpaKTeov; 

2. ArjfjLdSov he rod p'rjropos rjhr] TTpecr^vrov 
yeyovoTos e(f)7] KaOaTrep lepeiov hiaTTeirpaypLevov 
KaraXetTTeadai [jlovtjv Trjv yaorrepa /cat tt^v yXwrrav. 

ANTIOXOT TOT TPITOT 

1. ^AvTLoxos o rpLTOs eypai/je rats TToXeGLV, av 
Tt ypdi/jT) vapa rovs vofjiovs KeXevcov yeveaOai, /jlt) 
TTpoaex^iv to? rjyvorjKOTL. 

2. Trjv Se rrjs 'Apre/xtSo? lepeiav Ibcov VTreppoXij 
KaXrjv (f)aveL(jav evdvs dve(,ev^ev e$ 'E^ecrov, 
(j)0^ovp.evo? fXTj TTapd ypa)fj,7]v eK^Laadfj TTpd^ai tl 
Tcov ovx oaiojv. 

ANTIOXOT TOT lEPAKOS 

^Avrloxo? 6 eiTLKXridels *\epa^ eTroXepiei irepl rrjs 

184 ^aaiXelas Trpog rov dSeX(f)6v ^eXevKov eTrel he 6 

YieXevKos rjrrrjdels vtto TaXarwv ovhapLov (f)avep6s 



* Repeated with slight variations in Moralia, 508 c and 
517 B. 

* Trusted general of Philip and Alexander. 

" Cf. Moralia, 525 c and Plutarch's Life of Phocion, 
chap. i. (741 e). Pytheas (quoted in Athenaeus, 44 f) speaks 
of Demades' protruding belly and ranting tongue, 
80 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 183-184 

with you ? " And the other rephed, " What you 
\vi\\, except your secrets." ° 

ANTIPATER » 

1. Antipater, hearing of the death of Parmenio at 
the hands of Alexander, said, " If Parmenio plotted 
against Alexander, who is to be trusted ? And if 
he did not, what is to be done ? " 

2. Of Demades the orator, who had already become 
an old man, he said that he was like an animal which 
had been eaten at a sacrificial feast ; there was left 
only the belly and the tongue.^ 

ANTIOCHUS THE THIRD ^ 

1 . Antiochus the Third wrote to the cities that, if he 
should ^\Tite ordering anything to be done contrary 
to the laws, they should pay no attention, assuming 
that he had acted in ignorance. 

2. Seeing the priestess of Artemis surpassingly 
beautiful in her appearance, he straightway marched 
forth from Ephesus,^ for fear that even against his 
determination he might be constrained to commit 
some unholy act. 

ANTIOCHUS THE HAWK 

Antiochus who was nicknamed the Hawk was 
warring against his brother Seleucus for the kingdom.-^ 
But when Seleucus, vanquished by the Galatians, 
could nowhere be found, but, to all appearances, had 

^ Antiochus the Great presumably, king of Syria, 223- 
187 B.C. 

* In 196 B.C. presumably, when he wintered in Ephesus 
(Livy, xxxiii. 38). ^ In 246 b.c. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(184) T^v dAA' iSoKei KaraKeKocfydai, dels rrjV irop^vpav 
6 ^AvTLOxos (f)aL6v IfjLOLTLov OLveXa^e . ii€T oXiyov 
Se TTvdofjievos rov aSeA^ov croj^ecr^at, evayyeXia 
roL? Oeols eOvae /cat ras noXeis ras" u^' iavro)^ 
GT€(f)avr](f)op€iV iTTOL-qaev. 

ETMENOTS 

Kvfjievr]? iTTipovXevdelg vtto Ylepuio}? cSofc 
Tedvdvar rrjs Se cjirjix-qg elg Uepyafiov KOfJLLGOeLGrig, 
B "ATTaAo9 o a3eA^o? aurou Trepidefievos to ScdS-qfjia 
Kal TTjv yvvaiKa yiqjxas e^ao-tAeucre • Trvdofievos 8e 
TTpoGiovra ^ajvra rov dSeA^ov d77')7VT')7CTev warrep 
elcudei fierd rajv aajpLaTO(f)vXdKajv hopdriov exojv 
6 Se KvfjLevTjg cf)iXo(f)p6vci>s daTracrdfjLeuos avrov Kal 

TTpOS TO OVg eiTTCxJVy 

" fXTj GTTevSe yrifxai irplv reXevT'qcravT* tSr^s"," 

ovSev dXXo TTapd Tvavra rov ^iov ovr elirev vtt' 
07TT0V ovT€ iTTOLTjGev, (zAAct Kal TeXevTCjv iK€Lva) rrjv 
yvvaiKa kol rrjv paaiXelav dTreXiTrev. dvd* Sv 
€K€ivos ovSev ef iavrov t€KVov e6p€ip€, 7ToXXa)V 
yevofievcov, dXXd rep Eu/xeVous" via) ttjv ^aaiXeiav 
en ^ojv ivrjXiKO) yevofievo) rrapeSajKe, 

C nXPPOT TOT HnEIPfiTOT 

1. Ylvppov ol viol TraiSes ovr eg '^pcjrojv, rivi 
^ eavT(^ {cf. 211 a) Hatzidakis : eavrbv or eavrov. 



«• Cf. Moral ia, 489 a. 

* Eumenes II., king of Pergamum, 197-159 B.C. 
" Apparently a parody of a line of Sophocles adapted to 
82 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 184 

been cut down in battle, Antiochus laid aside his 
purple and assumed a dark robe. But after a little 
time, learning that his brother was safe and sound, 
he offered sacrifices to the gods to celebrate the good 
tidings, and made the people in the cities under him 
to wear garlands. ** 

EUMENES » 

Eumenes, plotted against by Perseus, was reputed 
to be dead. When the story w^as brought to Perga- 
mum, Attains his brother put on the crowTi, married 
his wife, and assumed the rule. But upon learning 
that his brother was approaching alive, he went to 
meet him, attended, as was his wont, by his body- 
guards, and holding a short spear. Eumenes greeted 
him kindly and whispered in his ear, 

*' Haste not to marry ere you see him dead," " 

and neither said nor did anything else during his 
whole hfetime to arouse suspicion, but when he died 
he left to Attains his wife and his kingdom. As a 
requital. Attains reared no child of his own, although 
many were born, but while still hving he transferred 
the kingdom to Eumenes' son when the boy became 
of age.<* 

PYRRHUS OF EPEIRUS • 
1. The sons of Pyrrhus, when they were children 

fit the situation {fx-qirw /xey dirrjs, kt\.). See Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Sophocles, No. 601. 

<* The story is told also in Moralia, 489 e. Cf. also W. S. 
Ferguson, "The Premature Deification of Eumenes II.," in 
Classical Philology, i. p. 231. 

* King of Epeirus circa 307-272 b.c. 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(184) KaraXeLipet rrjv PacnXelav Kal 6 Uvppos etneVf 
OS dv vfiojv o^vripav^ exj) ttjv ixdxdipo.v ." 

2. 'EipcxJTT^dels Se TTorepov HvOcov ^ Kac^tatas* 
avXrjTr)^ dfietvcov, " UoXvGTrepxojv,^ " €^7], " crrpa' 
nqyog." 

3. 'ETret he crujLtjSaAcov *Pct)/xatot? his ivLK-qae 
TToXXovg Tcjv (fycXajv Kal rwv rjyefxovajv diroXeGas, 

dv eVt," e^ry, " piiav fJidxrjv 'PcojJLaiovs vlkti' 
aojfjLev, dnoXcoXafjiev ." 

4. ETiet 8e StAreAta? olttotvxo^v e^cTrAet, fiera- 

GTpa(f)€LS OTTiGO) TTpOS TOVS (^lXoVS , " olaV ," €(f)T] , 

D " 'PwfjLaloLs Kal KapxrjSoviOLS OLTToXeLTTOfiev 7ra- 
XaiGTpav." 

5. Tcov he GTparioiTCJV 'Aerov avrov tt/joct- 
ayopevovTCov, " tl yap," etnev, " ov fieXXo), rols 
VfierepoLs ottXols wGTrep (hKVTTrepois alpofxevos; " 

6. 'AfcoJcras' Se on veavLGKOi ttoAAo, ^XdG<l)r]fia 
7T€pl avTov TTLVovres elpriKaGLVy CKeXevGev axOrj^CLi 
fied^ rifxepav rrpos avrov drravras' dxOevrojv 8e, rov 
TTpcorov rjpa)T7]G€v el ravra elpijKaGL rrepl avrov' 
Kal 6 veavLGKoSi " ravra J* ctWev, " (L ^aGiXev' 
TrXelova 8' dv rovrcov elp'qKeLjjLev, el rrXeiova olvov 
CLXOfiev, 

^ d^vrepav] o^VTCLTrjv Blass. 

2 Kacpicrlas, the reading of the mss. of other authors who 
mention him. Also the name of a sculptor is so spelled in 
an inscription : Ka<piaLos. 

3 Ho\v(nr^pXCJv Xylander, from the Life of Pyrrhus, chap, 
viii. as well as other writers : TroXuTrepx^J' or iroXvaTripxv^. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus, chap. ix. (388 a). 
84. 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 184 

asked their father to whom he intended to leave the 
kingdom ; and he said, " To that one of you who 
keeps his sword sharper." ° 

2. Being asked whether Python or Caphisias were 
the better flute-player he said, " Polysperchon is the 
better general." ^ 

3. When he was t\\dce victorious in conflict with 
the Romans, but lost many of his friends and com- 
manders, he said, " If we are victorious over the 
Romans in one more battle, we are lost ! " ^ 

4. As he was sailing away from Sicily after his 
failure there,*^ he turned to look back, and said to his 
friends, " What a field of conflict are we leaving be- 
hind us for the Romans and Carthaginians to -svTestle 
in ! " « 

5. When the soldiers addressed him as ' Eagle,' he 
said, " Why not an eagle, when I am borne aloft on 
the swift wings of your weapons ? " ■^ 

6. Hearing that some young men had made many 
defamatory remarks about him while in their cups, 
he ordered that they should all be brought before 
him the next day. When they were brought, he 
asked the first whether they had said these things 
about him. And the young man replied, " Yes, Your 
Majesty ; and we should have said more than that 
if we had had more wine." ^ 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus, chap. viii. (387 d). 

<^ The details may be found ibid. chap. xxii. (397 b). The 
" Pvrrhic victory" is like the " Cadmean victorv," Moralia, 
10 I. 

'^ In 276 B.C. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Irife of Pyrrhus, chap, xxiii. (398 f). 

f Ibid. chap. x. (388 b). 

" Told with more details by Plutarch in his Life of Pyrrhus^ 
chap. viii. (387 f), and Valerius Maximus, v. 1» ext. 3. 
Cf, also Quintilian, vi. 3. 10. 

VOL. Ill D 85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(184) ANTIOXOT 

1. ^Avrio')(os 6 orparevGas Sevrepov inl Hdp- 
6ov9y €v TLvi Kvvrjyeatcx) Kal §ta)y/x<S rcJov (f>i\(jiv koI 

E OepaTTovrcjv aTTOTrXavrjOeig, elg evravXiv irevrircov av- 
dpcoTTOJv aypoovjjievog elGrjXde' Kal Trapa ro SeiTTVOv 
ifji^aXojv Xoyov jrepl rod jSaatAeco? 7]kovg€v, otl 
rdXXa ')(priGr6g ianv, cjiiXoLs Se fiox07]poLs €7n- 
rperrcDV ra TrAetcrra irapopa koI TroAAa/ciS" a/xeAet 
Tiov dvayKaiOJV 8ta to AiW ^iXodiqpos elvai. rore 
fikv ovv iGL(x)7Trj(j€v d'/xa 8e '/^/xe/ao, rcov hopvcj^opcov 
7Tapay€vofi€vcx)v irrl ttjv eTravXiv (jiavepo? yevofxevoSy 
7rpoa(f)epofjievr]g rrjs 7Top6vpag avro) Kal rod 8ta- 
SijiJiarog, " dXXd dcj)^ rjg," €L7T€v, " rjixepa? vfids 
dv€LXrj(f)a, TTpcorov ixOeg dXrjdivcov Xoycov rJKovaa 
TTepl ifiavTOV." 

F 2. TtDv Se 'louSatcoi^, TToXcopKovvrog avrov rd 
*IepocroAu/xa, rrpos ttjv fxeyiGTriv ioprrjv aiTTjaa- 
jjievojv eTTTa rjjjiepojv dvoxds, ov [jlovov eScoKe 
ravrag, dXXd Kal ravpovg jj^pvcro/cepco? rrapa- 
GK€va(jdp,evos Kal OvfJuajJidTCOV Kal dpajpidrcov 
TrXrjdog d^pt- twv ttvXcov eTTOfXTrevae' Kal TrapaSovs 
TOLS eKeivojv Upevoi rrjv Ovorlav avrog iTravrjXdev 
€ig TO arparoTrehov. ol he 'louSatot OavfxdGavres 
€v9vg iavrovg fierd ttjv iopr-qv eVe;^etpto-av. 

OEMISTOKAEOTS 
] . SefjLiaroKXrjg 'in ixeipaKiov cjv ev iroroig €kv- 
XivSelro Kal yvvai^iv inel Se MtATcaSi^S" arpaTYjyaJv 

" Antiochus VII., king of Syria, 137-128 b.c. 

* The first campaign was against Jerusalem in 133 b.c. 

'^ The same facts are narrated by Josephus, Antiquities 
of the JewSy xiii. 8. 2. 
86 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS,, 184 

ANTIOCHUS » 

1. Antiochus, who made his next ^ campaign 
against the Parthians, in a hunt and chase wandered 
away from his friends and servants, and unrecognized 
entered the hut of some poor people. At dinner he 
brought in the subject of the king, and heard that, 
in general, he was a decent man, but that he en- 
trusted most matters to friends who were scurvy 
fellows, and overlooked and often disregarded matters 
that were imperative through being too fond of 
hunting. At the time he said nothing ; but at day- 
break some of his bodyguards arrived at the hut, and 
his identity was disclosed when the purple and the 
crown were brought to him. " Howbeit," said he, 
" since the day when I donned you, yesterday 
was the first time that I heard true words about 
myself." 

2. The Jews, when he was besieging Jerusalem, 
asked for an armistice of seven days for their most 
important festival, and he not only granted this, but 
he also made ready bulls with gilded horns, and a 
great quantity of incense and spices, and brought all 
these in solemn procession as far as the gates. Then, 
having transferred the offering to the hands of their 
priests, he returned to his camp. The Jews were 
amazed, and immediately after the festival placed 
themselves in his hands.*' 

THEMISTOCLES * 

1. Themistocles while yet in his youth abandoned 
himself to wine and women.* But after Miltiades, 

** Leader of the Athenians against the Persians in 480 b.c. 
• Cf. Moralia^ 552 b ; Athenaeus, pp. 533 d and 576 c. 

87 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

185 evLKTioev iv M.apa9covL rov? ^ap^dpovs, ovkctl rjv 
€VTV)(^elv draKTovvTi SefjuaroKXei' irpos 8e rov^ 
davpidl^ovras ttjv fxera^oX-qv eXeyev d)s " ovk cot 
/X6 KadevSetv ovSe padvfieiv ro MtArtaSou rpo- 

TTaLOV." 

2. 'EpcoTT^^et? Se irorepov 'A;^tAAeL'S' e^ovXer av 
T] "Ofxripos elvai, " gv S' aOro?/' ec/*?], " Tvorepov 
rjdeXes 6 vlkcov '0Au/x77taCTtv^ t) 6 KrjpvTTajv tovs 
VLKCJvras elvai; " 

3. E^ep^ov Se Kara^aivovro'S ctti T17V *EAAa8a 
Tip fxeydXcp aroXcp, t^op-qOels ^^TnKvSr]v rov SrjpL- 
ayojyov alcrxpoKephrj /cat SeuXov ovra pur] Grparrjyos 
yev6pi€vos aTToXeor) ttjv ttoXlv, eTTCiaev dpyvpicp 
rrjs crrparrjyLa? OLTrocrrrjvaL. 

4. ^ASeipAvTOV Se vavpLax^lv /xt) roXfJLOJvro? , el- 
B TTovTOs TTpos" Tov ©e/xtCTTo/cAea TOVS "EAAryva? irapa- 

KaXovvra kol TrporpeTTOvra, " S SepLLorroKXeiSy 
TOVS ev rois dycoai Trpoc^avLarapLevovs pLaanyov- 

GLV a€L, vat, £i7T€V, CO AOeipiaVT€y TOVS 

he XeiTTopilvovs ov OTe<j)avovGiv . ' 

5. 'ETiapa/xeVou 8e rod Eupu^taSou rrfv /Sa/CTTy- 
ptav CO? rrard^ovTOSy " Trdra^ov pikv ow/' eiTrev, 

" OLKOVGOV Be." 

^ 'OXvfXTriaaLi' Bernardakis : ev dXv/xTnda-iv. 
* dei] Wyttenbach would omit, but the embellishment does 
not seem out of place. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap. iii. (113 b); 
Moralia, 84 b, 92 c, 800 b ; Cicero, Tvsculan Disputations, 
iv. 19 (44); and Valerius Maximus, viii. 14, ext. 1. 

" The remark is attributed to Alexander by Dio Chryso- 
stom, Oration ii. (22 M., 79 R.). 
88 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 185 

commanding the Athenian army, had overcome the 
barbarians at Marathon, never again was it possible 
to encounter Themistocles misconducting himself. 
To those who expressed their amazement at the 
change in him, he said that " the trophy of Miltiades 
does not allow me to sleep or to be indolent." ^ 

2. Being asked whether he Mould rather have been 
Achilles or Homer, he said, " How about you your- 
self ? Would you rather be the victor at the Olympic 
games or the announcer of the victor } '' ^ 

3. When Xerxes was descending upon Greece ^ith 
his mighty armament, Themistocles was afraid of 
Epicydes the popular leader, unscrupulous and 
cowardly, lest possibly he might, by being elected 
general, bring about the ruin of the State ; and so he 
bribed Epicydes to withdraw from his attempt to 
gain the command.'' 

4. When Adeimantus lacked the courage to risk 
a naval battle, and said to Themistocles, who was 
exhorting and urging on the Greeks, " Themistocles, 
in the games they always scourge the runners who 
start before the signal is given," Themistocles replied, 
" Yes, Adeimantus, but they do not crown those who 
are left behind in the race." '^ 

5. When Eurybiades lifted his cane as though to 
strike him, he said, " Strike but listen." « 

" The story is told more fully in Plutarch's Life of 
Themistocles, chap. vi. (114 n). 

'* Adeimantus is the speaker here, as in Herodotus, 
viii. 59 ; but in Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap. xi. 
(117 d), the remark is attributed not to the Corinthian 
Adeimantus, but to Eurybiades the Spartan, who was in 
command of the fleet. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap. xi. (117 e); 
Aelian, Varia Historia, xiii. 40 : Diogenes Laertius, vi. 21. 

89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(185) 6. Mrj TT€id(x>v Sc tov Ftvpv^idSrjV iv rotS" crre- 
uoLS vavixaxrjcroLt-, Kpv(f)a irpog tov ^dp^apov 
eTre/JLipe TTapaivojv {jltj SeSteVat rovs "KXXrjvas diro- 
hihpdoKovras' irrel 8e neLodels eKelvos rjTT'qdT] 
vavfxa)(TqGa9 ottov avvecj^epe rots "EAAi^crt, ttoXiv 
C eVe/x^e TTpos avrov KeXevojv cfievyeLv eirl tov 'EA- 
XiqGTTOVTOv TYjv TaxicrTTjv d)s ToJv '^XXt^vcov Siavoov- 
ixivcov Xveiv ttjv 'y6(f)Vpav, tva acplcov tovs *'EA- 
AT^va? eKelvov Soktj crcofetv. 

7. Tov Se Ti€pLcl)LOV TTpOS aVTOV ellTOVTOS, (x)S ov 

ot' avTov dXXd Sta tt^v ttoXlv evSo^os tcrrtt', 

aArjUTj Aeyet?, enrev, aAA ovt av eycj 

Ti€pL<^LOs a)v iyevojjLrjv €v8o^os ovt€ av ^AdrjvoLos." 

8. 'AvTi^arou 8e tov KaXov TTpoTepov pcev 
ipcjVTa TOV ©e/xtCTTO/cAea (f)€vyovTOS Kal /cara- 
cf}povovvTOs, CTret 8e So^av e(7;^e fieydXrjv Kal 
8vva[jLLV, TTpoGepxpfievov Kal KoXaKevovTOS, " co 
lieipdKiov," elrrev, " oijse [xev dpu(j)6Tepo(, dAAd^ 
vovv iax'>]KaiJi6v." 

33 9. Ilpos he HLjJLOJVcSrjv e^aiTOvpievov TLva Kpi- 
GLV OV hiKaiav €(f>rj ixriT av eKelvov yeviadai ttol- 
TiTTjv dyaOov ahovTa Trapd fieXos 1^'^'t* avTOv 
dpxovTa XPV^'^^^ SLKdi,ovTa Trapd tov vojjlov. 

^ dXXd] 5' d/xa. Life of Themistocles, chap, xviii., is preferred 
here by some editors. 

" The details may be found in Plutarch's Life of 
Themistocles, chaps, xii.-xvi. (118 b-120 c). The story comes 
from Herodotus, viii. 75 and 110. Cf. also Polyaenus, 
Strategemafa, i. 30. 3 and 4. 

^ In almost the same words in Plutarch's Life of Themis- 
tocles, chap, xviii. (121 b), but the story goes back to 
Herodotus, viii. 125, where Timodemus is the speaker, and 
Themistocles names the island of Belbina. The man from 

90 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 185 

6. Unable to persuade Eurybiades to engage the 
enemy's ships in the narrows, he sent a secret message 
to the barbarian teUing him not to be afraid of the 
Greeks, who were running away. And when the 
barbarian, by taking this advice, was vanquished in 
the battle because he fought where the Greeks had 
the advantage, Themistocles again sent a message to 
him, bidding him flee to the Hellespont by the speedi- 
est route, since the Greeks were minded to destroy 
the bridge. In this his purpose was, while saving the 
Greeks, to give the king the impression that he was 
saving him." 

7. When the man from Seriphus said to him that 
it was not because of himself but because of his 
country that he was famous, Themistocles remarked, 
" What you say is true enough ; but if I were from 
Seriphus, I should not have become famous, nor would 
you if you were from Athens." ^ 

8. Antiphates, the handsome youth of whom 
Themistocles was enamoured, avoided him in the 
earher days, and looked do-vvn upon him, but, after 
Themistocles had acquired great repute and power, 
kept coming to him and trying to flatter him. " My 
boy," said Themistocles, " it has taken time, but 
now we have both come to have sense." ^ 

9. To Simonides, who petitioned for a legal de- 
cision which was not just, he said that Simonides 
would not be a good poet if he sang out of tune, 
nor should he himself be a useful oflicial if he gave a 
decision out of tune ynth the law.<* 

Seriphus is found first in Plato, Republic, 329 e and persists 
thereafter, as in Plutarch and in Cicero, De senectute, 3 (8), 
and in Origen, Against Celsns, i. 29 (347 e). 

" Cf. Phitarch's Life of Themistocles, chap, xviii. (121 a). 

^ Cf. Moral ia, oSi e and 807 b. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(185) 10. Tov Se vlov ivrpvcfywvra rfj fjL-qrpl ttXcIgtov 
'EiXXt^vcjov eXeye Swaadai' rcov yap 'EAATyi^cov 
dpx^iv ^Adrjvaiovg, ^ Adiqvaicov 8' iavrov, eavrov 
8e rrjv eKeivov ixiqrepa, rrj? 8e pir]Tp6s eKelvov. 
E 11. Tcov Se rrjv Ovyarepa /xvco/xeVcov avrov rov 
€7n€LKrj rod ttXovglov TTpoTLpL-qaag dvSpa ecjir] 1,7]- 
relv ;\;/3T7jLtara)P' Seojievov [xaXXov -qxp^p-CLTa dvSpos. 

12. yiojpiov Se TTCuXcov eKeXevae K-qpvTreiv on 
/cat yeirova xp^^'^ov e;\;6t. 

13. Tcov 8e ^ Adrfvaioiv avrov 7Tpo7Tr]XaKit,6vTU}v, 
" rl KOTTidre," etnev, " vtto rcov avrojv rroXXaKL? 
evxp'^cyTovjJLevoL ; " Kal raZs TrXardvois dneuKa^ev 
avrov, at? VTTorpexovui ;\;et/xa^o/xei^ot, yevofxevris 
he evhias rlXXovac TTapepxofJievoL Kal koXovovglv.^ 

14. Tovs Se 'Eper/atets" inLcrKcoTTrajv eXeyev cocr- 
7T€p revOiSas piaxo-ipav fiev ex^iv Kaphiav 8e }ir] 

15. 'ETret 8e i^erreGe rojv ^A6r]V(x)v^ ro TTpcorov, 
elra Kal rrjs 'EAAaSos", dva^ds Trpos ^aaiXia Kal 
KeXevofxevos Xeyeiv €cf)7] rov Xoyov ioiKevai rots 
ttolkLXois orpdjjxaGLV ws yap e/cetva, Kal rovrov 

F €Kr€Lv6pL€vov [JL€V imheiKvvvai rd etSr), GVGreXXo- 

1 KoXovovcTLv] XoidopovcTL 1X1 somc Mss. and editions ; but the 
passages cited in note d support KoXovovaiv, 

2 'Adr]pu>u Cobet : ddrjualcov. 

" Cf. Moralia, 1 c ; Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap, 
xviii. (121 b) ; and Life of Cato Major, chap. viii. (340 b). 

'' Cf. Plutarch's lAfe of Themistocles, chap, xviii. (121 c) : 
Cicero, De officiis, ii. 20 (71); Valerius Maximus, vii. 2, 
ext. 9. A somewhat similar remark is attributed to Pericles 
by Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixx. 17, and to a Spartan (on the 
authority of vSerenus), Ixxii. 15. 
92 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 185 

10. Of his son, who was pert towards his mother, 
he said that the boy wielded more power than any- 
body else in Greece ; for the Athenians ruled the 
Greeks, he himself ruled the Athenians, the boy's 
mother ruled himself, and the boy ruled the mother. ** 

11. Of the suitors for his daughter's hand he es- 
teemed the man of promise higher than the man of 
wealth, saying that he was looking for a man that was 
in need of money rather than for money that was 
in need of a man.^ 

12. When he offered a plot of land for sale, he 
ordered the announcement to be made that it also 
had a good neighbour." 

13. When the Athenians treated him with con- 
tumely, he said, " Why do you grow tired of being 
well served many times by the same men ? " He also 
likened himself to the plane-trees, beneath which men 
hasten when overtaken by a storm, but, when fair 
weather comes, they pluck the leaves as they pass 
by and break off the branches. ** 

14. The Eretrians, he said humorously, were hke 
cuttle-fish in having a sword * but no heart.-'' 

15. After his banishment from Athens first, and 
later from Greece, he went to the Persian king, and, 
when he was bidden to speak, he said that speech 
is like rugs woven with patterns and figures ; for 
speech, like the rugs, when it is extended, displays 
its figures, but, when it is rolled into a small compass, 

• Cf. Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap, xviii. (121 c). 

<* Life of Themistocles, chap, xviii. (121 a), and chap. xxii. 
(123 a) ; cf. also Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 18. 

* The "bone" of the cuttle-fish; cf. Aristotle, Historia 
Animalium, iv. 1.12. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap. xi. (118 a). 

VOL. Ill D 2 93 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

jjuevov 8c KpvTTTeiv /cat hia^d^ipeiv. (16) fiTTjonro 
he Kol xpovov OTTOJS TTjV YlepaLKTjv SidXeKTOV Kara- 
fjiaOojv 8t' iavTOV koI jxi) hi erepov Tron^cracTO rriv 
TTpos aVTOV evT€V^iv} 

17. rioAAcov he hojpecbv d^iOjOels Kal ra^v 
ttXovglos yevofievos TTpos rovs Tralhas elTrev, " cS 
TralheSy a776uAo/xe^' dv, el firj dTTOjXcjXeniev," 

MTPfiNIAOT 

M.vpoji^LS7]£ TTapriyyeiXev e^ohov *A9rjvaLOLg errl 
BotcoTous' arparevajv evardGrjs he rrjg copas kol 
Tcov Xoxaywv Xeyovrcov fJbrjheiTOJ Trdvras TTapeivaL, 
186 " TrdpeiGLV," elireVy " ol fxeXXovres pidx^odai "• 
KOL XPV^^H'^^^S avToZs TrpodvfioLS ivtKrjae rovs 
TToXefiiovs. 

API2TEIA0T 

1. ^Apiarelh-qs he 6 hiKacog del Kad^ avrov eiTO- 
Xirevero Kal rds eraipeias e<^evyev, cos" rrjs dno 
TCOV ^iXcov hvvdjjLeois dhiKelv eTraipovGrfs . 

2. 'Ettci Se TCDV ^AOrjvalcDV oppLwpievow eirl rov 
e^oorpaKiGpiOV dvOpcxJTTog dypdixfxaros kol dypoLKOs 
oarpaKov ex^JV TrpoGrjXOev avrcp KeXevojv ey- 
ypdipai TO ovofjLa rov 'AptcrretSou, " yiyvcooKeLs 

B yap," e(j)rj, " rov ^ApLGTeihrjv; " rov he dvOpconov 
^ ^ifTev^Lv] ^pdcL^eu some mss. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap. xxix. (126 c); 
Thucvdides, i. 137. " Cf. ibid. i. 138. 

" Cf Moralia, 328 f and 602 a ; Plutarch's Life of The- 
mif^toclesy chap. xxix. (p. 126 f) ; Polybius, xxxix. 11 (=xl. 5). 
^ Noted Athenian general in the fifth century b.c. 

* At Oenophyta in Boeotia, 457 (?) b.c. (Thucydides, 
94 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 185-186 

it conceals and spoils them. (16) He asked for time 
so that, when he should have learned the Persian 
tongue, he might conduct his interview through his 
own self and not through another.^ 

17. Being held deserving of many gifts, and 
speedily becoming rich,^ he said to his sons, " Boys, 
we should be ruined now if we had not been ruined 
before ! " ^ 

MYRONIDES '' 

Myronides, conducting a campaign against the 
Boeotians, gave orders to the Athenians for an in- 
vasion of the enemy's territory. When the hour was 
near, and the captains said that not all were present 
as yet, he said, " All are present that intend to fight." 
And, leading them into battle before their ardour had 
cooled, he won a victory over the enemy. « 

ARISTEIDES f 

1. Aristeides the Just was always an independent 
in politics, and avoided poHtical parties, on the 
ground that influence derived from friends encourages 
wrongdoing.fi' 

2. At one time when the Athenians had impetu- 
ously determined to vote on ostracism, an ignorant 
country fellow, holding his potsherd, approached him 
and bade him write on it the name of Aristeides. 
" Why," said he, " do you know Aristeides ? " And 

i. 108). Cf. also Moralia, 345 d ; Diodorus, xi. 31. A 
similar remark is attributed to Leonidas by Plutarch, 
Moralia, 225 d, and to Timotheus by Polyaenus, Stratege- 
mata, iii. 10. 3. 

^ Athenian statesman, sixth and fifth centuries b.c. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aristeides, chap. ii. (319 f). 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(186) yLyvd)GK€Lv fxev ov (f)'q(javros, axO^crOai hk rfj 
rod SiKatov TTpoGrjyopia, acajnijaag iveypai/je to 
ovofjia TO) oarpaKcp koL aTrehcoKev. 

3. ^^■)(dp6s he (x)v rod SefXLaroKXiovg /cat vpe- 
a^evrrjs iK7T€ix<j)dels orvv avT(x>, " ^ovXet/' (fyrjcriv, 
" 60 SepLLcrroKXeLs IttI rcov opcov rrjv €.)(dpav airo- 
XiTTCofjiev ; av yap SoKrj, ttolXlv avrrjv iiraviovres 
XrjipofjieOa." 

4. Tanas' 8e rovs (j)6povs tols "EiXXrjav roaovrcp 
TTTCoxoTcpos €7Tav7]X0ev oGov cls TT]!^ dTroSrjjXiav 
dvqXojaev. 

5. AlgxvXov 8e TTOL'qaavros €t? 'ApL(f)Ldpaov, 
ov yap SoK€LV dpicjTOs^ dXX elvai diXei, 
^aOelav dXoKa Sid <j)pev6s KapnovpLevos, 

^ i^^ rj^ rd KeSvd ^Xaardvei ^ovXevpiara' 

Kal XeyopLevojv rovTcvVy Travres els ^ Apioreih7]v dir- 
e^Xeifjav. 

nEPIKAEOTS 

1. UepLKXrjs, OTTore /xeAAot GrpaTrjyelv, dvaXap,- 
Pdvojv TTjv ;\;Aa/xi;3a Trpos iavrov eAeye, " Trpooex^, 

1 dpiffTos] diKaios, Life of Aristeides^ chap. iii. 
2 i^'\ d0' in some mss. 

« Cf. Plutarch's JAfe of Aristeides, chap, vii (323 a); 
Cornelius Nepos, Arhteldes, i. 3. 

'' Herodotus, viii. 79 ; Plutarch's lAfe of AristeideSy chap, 
viii. (323 c). 

" Cf. Moral la, 809 b ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, i. 31 ; 
and the following (from a newspaper in 1929) : " Paying a 
tribute to Senator Robinson, the Democratic member of the 
conference delegation. Senator Reed said ; ' I can say for 
him that when his ship sails from New York he quits being 
a Democrat, just as I quit becoming a Republican, leaving 
politics behind us at the American shore.' " 

96 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 186 

when the man said that he did not know him, but was 
irritated at his being called * the Just,' Aristeides 
said never a word more, but wrote the name on the 
potsherd, and gave it back to him." 

3. He was hostile to Themistocles,^ and once, 
when he was sent as ambassador in his company, he 
said, ** Are you willing, Themistocles, that we should 
leave our hostility behind us at the boundaries ? And 
then, if it be agreeable, we will take it up again on 
our return." ^ 

4. When he had fixed the contributions that the 
Greeks were to pay, he returned poorer by exactly 
as much as he spent on his journey.^ 

5. Aeschylus * wrote referring to Amphiaraus, 

His wish is not to seem, but be, the best/ 
Reaping the deep-sown furrow of his mind 
In which all goodly counsels have their root. 

And as these words were spoken all looked towards 
Aristeides. 

PERICLES « 

1 . Whenever Pericles was about to take command 
of the army, as he was donning his general's cloak, 
he used to say to himself, " Take care, Pericles ; you 

<* In 478-477 b.c. Aristeides, because of his reputation 
for fairness, was chosen to determine the initial contribution 
which each member of the confederacy of Delos should make 
to the common cause. Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aristeides, 
chap. xxiv. (333 c) ; Aelian, Varia Historia, xi. 9. 

* Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 592 ; Plutarch quotes 
the lines also in whole or in part in Moralia^ 32 d, 88 b, and 
Life of Aristeides, chap. iii. (320 b). 

f On account of the reading oiKaios in the Life of Aris- 
teides it has been thought that the actor who spoke the words 
may have substituted "the Just" for "the best" when he 
saw Aristeides in the audience. 

Athenian general and statesman, fifth century b.c. 

97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(186) Ilept/cAets", iXevOepcov fxeXXets dpX€LV, Kal 'EAAt}- 
vcjov Kal ^ Adrjvaiojv ." 

2. 'E/ceAeucre 8e rovs *A6r)vaLovs Tr)V AtyLvav 
coGTTep X-qfJLTjv acfyaipeZv rod YieipaiccfS. 

S. 11/30? Se (jiiXov riva ipevSovg piaprvpias ^eo- 
[xevov, fj TTpoarjv Kal opKos, ecfur^ae p^^XP^ '^^^ 
jSco/xou (jiiXos etvai. 
D 4. MeXXojv Se d7TodvrjaK€LV avros iavrov e/xa/ca- 
pil,€v on p,7]Sels ^AOrjvaLOJV piiXav IfxdrLov St* av- 
Tov evehvoaro. 

AAKIBIAAOT 

1. ^AXKL^idS-qs €TL TTalg d)V iXrj(j)6r] Xa^rjv iv 
TTaXaiarpa' Kal pur] Swdpuevos Sta^uyetv eSaKe rrjv 
;Yet/)a rov KaraTraXaiovros' eiTTOVTOs Se GKelvov, 
" SdKvets d)s at yvvalKes," " ov p.ev ovv/' eiTrev, 
" dAA' d)s ol Xeovres*' 

2. "E;)/a>v Se Kvva ndyKaXov eajvqpiivov^ eTrra/ctcr- 
Xt'XicxiV SpaxP'djv, dneKoipev avrov rrjv ovpdv 
" OTTCOS/' e^^, " TOVTO XiyojGLV ^A6r]vaLOL TTepl 
ipLov, Kal pLi^Sev dXXo TToXvTTpaypLovwcrL." 

E 3. Upoo'eXdcbv 8e SiSaoKaXeLO) paipcoStav 'lAtct- 

1 ioji'rjfiei'oi'] euprj/iihos Hartman, possible but not imperative. 

« Cf. Moralia, 620 c and 813 d. 

'' Ibid. 803 A ; Plutarch's Life of Pericles, chap. viii. 
(156 d) and Life of Demosthenes, chap. i. (84-6 c) : Aristotle, 
Rhetoric, iii. 10. Athenaeus (99 d) attributes the expression 
to Demades, an Athenian orator. The people of Aegina, 
who were Dorian, had been hostile towards the Athenians 

98 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 186 

are about to command free-born men who are both 
Greeks and Athenians."** 

2. He bade the Athenians remove Aegina, " that 
sore on the eye of the Piraeus." ^ 

3. To a friend who wanted him to bear false wit- 
ness, which included also an oath, he answered that 
he was a friend as far as the altar.° 

4. On his death-bed he accounted himself happy 
in that no Athenian, because of him, had ever put on 
a black garment.** 

ALCIBIADES * 

1. Alcibiades, while still a boy, was caught in a 
fast hold in a wrestling-school, and, not being able to 
get away, he bit the arm of the boy who had him 
down. The other boy said, " You bite hke a woman." 
" No indeed," said Alcibiades, " but like a hon."^ 

2. He owned a very beautiful dog, for which he had 
paid two hundred and seventy-five pounds, and he 
cut off its tail, " so that," as he said, *' the Athenians 
may tell this about me, and may not concern them- 
selves too much with anything else."^ 

3. Coming upon a schoolroom, he asked for a 
book of the Iliad, and when the teacher said that 

even before the Persian wars, and in the early years of 
the Peloponnesian war (431 b.c.) they were forcibly removed 
from the island by the Athenians. 

" Cf. Moralia, 531 c and 808 a, and Aulus GelUus, i. 3, 

^ Given with more details in Moralia, 543 c, and Plutarch's 
Life of Pericles^ chap, xxxviii. (173 c), and Julian, Oration 
ill. 128 D. 

* Rich and erratic ward of Pericles. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades, chap. i. (192 c). The 
same story is told of a Spartan in Moralia, 234 e. 

" In quite different words in Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades ^ 
chap. ix. (195 d). 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(18G) Sos rjrer rod Sc SiSaaKaXov /xT^Sey €X€tv *0{jLT^pov 
<^rioavTos, ivrplipas auroi KovhvXov TraprjXOev. 

4. 'EA^cov 8c €77t dvpas rod YlepLKXeov? Kal 
Trvdofxevos avrov firj GxoXdl,€LV dXXa OKOTrelv ottcos 
OLTToScoGei Xoyovs *Adr]vaLOLS, " ov jSeArtov," e^T], 
" UKOTTeZv rjVy ottojs o^k^ dTToScaaei; '* 

5. ¥iaXovfji€vos Se evrt KpiGiv OavariKrjv vtto tcjv 
^Adiqvaiojv diro ILiKeXias eKpviftev iavrov, eLTTOjv 
€vr]d€s^ etvac rov Slktjv exovra l,rjT€iv aTro^vyelVy 
i^ov (j)vy€lv. 

6. EtTTov'TOS' Se nvo£, " ov TTLGreveis rfj TTarpLhi 
F rr]V irepl creavrov Kpiaiv; " " iyoj fiev," €(j>r)y 

" ovBe rfj jjnqrpiy fiij ttojs dyvoT^aaora r^v fieXaivav 
^olXt] ifjrj<pov dvrl rrjs XevKrjs." 

7. 'AKOvaas Se on ddvaros avrov Kareyvoiarai 
Kal rcjv ovv avrcp, " hei^cjpiev ovv avroiSy" ctTrev, 
" OT6 t^ajjjLev"- Kal Trpos AaKeSaLfiovtovs rpeijjd- 
fievos rov Ae/ceAet/cov TJyeipev inl tovs *A6r]- 
vaiovs TToXejjLov. 

AAMAXOT 

AdfjLaxos eTTerlfia rivl rwv Xoxaychv dfiaprovri' 
rov 8e (j>riGavros /XT^/cert rovro rroLTJaeiv, " ovk 

€(7TtV, €LTTeV, €V TToAefJia) OLS afJLapr€LV. 

^ OVK Cobet : /xt] ovk, 
■ eH-qdes Aelian, Var. Hist. xiii. 38 : ii-qdrj, 

" Cf. Plutarch s Life of Alcihiades^ chap. vii. (194 d), 
and Aelian, Varia Historia^ xiii. 38. 
100 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 186 

he had nothing of Homer's, Alcibiades hit him a blow 
with his fist and passed on." 

4. He came to Pericles' door, and upon learning 
that Pericles was not at liberty, but was considering 
how to render his accounting to the Athenians, he 
said, " Were it not better that he should consider how 
not to render it ? " ^ 

5. Summoned from Sicily by the Athenians to be 
tried for his life, he went into hiding, saying that it is 
silly for a man under indictment to seek a way to get 
off when he can get away." 

6. When somebody said, " Don't you trust your 
fatherland to decide about you ? " he replied, " Not 
I ; nor would I trust even my mother, lest in a 
moment of thoughtlessness she unwittingly cast 
a black ballot instead of a white one." <* 

7. Hearing that sentence of death had been passed 
upon him and his companions, he said, " Let us show 
them, then, that we are alive," and turning to the 
Spartan side he started the Decelean war against 
the Athenians.* 

LAMACHUS' 

Lamachus reprimanded one of his captains who 
had made a mistake, and when the man vowed he 
would never do it again, Lamachus said, " In war 
there is no room for two mistakes." 

* Cf. Pkitarch's Life of Alcibiades, chap. vii. (194 e); 
Diodorus, xii. 38 ; Valerius Maximus, iii. 1, ext. 1. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades, chap. xxi. (202 c) ; 
Aelian, Varia Historia^ xiii. 38. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades, chap. xxii. (202 d) and 
Aelian, xiii. 38. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades, chap. xxii. (202 d) and 
Aelian, xiii. 38 ; cf. also Polyaenus, Strategemata, i. 40. 6. 

^ Brave Athenian general, fifth century b.c. 

101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



I^IKPATOTS 



1. ^l(f)LKpdTr)£y SoKcov vlos etvai, GKvroTOfJLOV, 
187 Kare^poveiro' So^av Se t6t€ TTptbrov eax^v ore 

Tpavixartas^ 77oAe/xtov dvSpa /xera tojv ottXojv 
l,(jjvTa GwapTrdaas els tt^v iavrov rpLijpT] fxer- 
rjveyK€v. 

2. 'Ev Se (fiiXla Kal GVjjifjidxci) X^P^ arparoTre- 
hevcov Kal xdpcLKa jSaAAo/xeyos" Kal rdcfypov opvrroiv 
eTTLfieXajs Trpog rov eiTTovra " ri yap (^o^ovfjLeda; ' 
X^i'Pi(yT7]v e(f)7]G€ GTparrjyov ^covrjv elvai rr]v " ovk 
av TTpocreSoKTjaa." 

3. UapararrojJLevos §€ rots' ^ap^dpoig e<f>ri Se- 
SievaL pLTj rov ^Ic/iiKpdrrjv ovk tcracrtv, S Kara- 
TrXriTTerai rovs dXXovs TToXepLiovs. 

4. J^pivofievos Se davdrov, Trpos rov avKocfyav- 
B rrjv, " Ota Trotets", co dvOpcoire," eiTre, *' rroXefiov 

TrepuearajroSy rrjv ttoXlv rrepl ifiov TrelOcov ^ov- 
Xeveodai /cat jlit) pier epLOv'* 

5. Upos Se AppioSiov rov rod rraXauov *Ap/xo- 
Stou avroyoi^ov, et? Svayevetav avrco XocSopov' 
fxevoVy €^17, '* ro puev eptov air* epLOV yevos dpx^Tac, 
ro oe GOV ev croc Traverai. 

6. 'PTyropo? Se nvos eTrepcorojvros avrov ev eK- 
KXrjorla, " rig cov p.eya <j)povels ; vorepov LTTTrevs 

^ rpav/xaTLas'] pavfiax^o-^ oilarjs or ev vavjxaxi-o- is suggested by 
Bernardakis, but vavnax^^v^ from Ulpian on Demosthen. 
Contra Midiam, would be simpler. Some mss. have rpav/MTiav 
and one rpaafxipos (i.e. TeTpavfxariafJL^vos = Tpav/xaTlas). 



* Famous Athenian general, early part fourth century b.c. 
A collection of his deeds and sayings may be found in 
Polyaenus, Strategemata^ iii. 9. 
102 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 186-187 

IPHICRATES" 

1. Iphicrates, who was reputed to be the son 
of a shoemaker, was looked down upon. The first 
occasion on which he won repute was when, wounded 
himself, he picked up one of the enemy alive, armour 
and all, and bore him to his own trireme. 

2. Encamping in a friendly and allied country, he 
threw up a pahsade and duof a ditch with all care, 
and to the man who said, " What have we to fear ? " 
he replied that the worst words a general could utter 
were the familiar " I never should have thought it." * 

S. As he was disposing his army for battle against 
the barbarians he said he feared that they did not 
know the name of Iphicrates with which he was wont 
to strike terror to the hearts of his other foes.*' 

4. When he was put on trial for his life ^ he said to 
the informer, " What are you trying to do, fellow ? At 
a time when war is all around us, you are persuading 
the State to deliberate about me instead of with me." 

5. In reply to Harmodius, descendant of the 
Harmodius of early days, who twitted him about 
his lowly birth, he said, " My family history begins 
with me, but yours ends with you." * 

6. A certain speaker interrogated him in the 
Assembly : " Who are you that you are so proud ? 
Are you cavalryman or man-at-arms or archer or 

* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ iii. 9. 17. The saying is 
attributed to Scipio Africanus by Valerius Maximus, vii. 2, 
and to Fabius by Seneca, Be ira, ii. 31. 4. Cicero, De officiist 
i. 23 (81) states it as a general maxim. 

" Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata, iii. 9. 25. 
<* Together with Timotheus, for thinking it best not to 
fight at the Hellespont in 356 B.C. (Diodorus, xvi. 21). 

* Cf. Be noh'ditate, 21, in Moralia, vol. vii. p. 272 of 
Bernardakis's edition. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



»» 



(187)77 oTr^LT7]g^ Tj To^oT-qg 7) TreAracTTO]?^;" *' ouSetV, 
€(f)rjy " TovrwVy aXX 6 Trdui rovroig iTnardiJLevos 
eVtrarretv." 

TIMOeEOT 

1. TtfioOeos €VTVxr)S eVo^LtiJero GTparijyog etvai 
Kal (f)9ovovvT€g avrco nveg it^wypdcfyovv rd? TToXets 

C el? KvpTov avTOfxaTCDS eKeivov KadevSovrog ivSvo- 
fievas' eXeyev ovv 6 Ti/xo^eo?, " el nqXiKavras 
TToXeis XafiPdvo) KaOevSajv, rl fxe oleode TTonjoretv 
iyp-qyopora; " 

2. TcDj^ he ToXp.rjpdjv arpaTrjycov rivog rpavpia 
TOLS ^ AdrjvaLOLg SeLKVvvTos, " eyoj Se," eLnev, 
** fjGXvyOrjv on /,tou urpari-jyovvros vjjlojv ev ^dficp 
KaraTTeXriKOV ^iXos eyyv? eTreae." 

3. Tcov he prjTopojv rov XapT^ra Trpoayovrwv 
Kal roLovTov d^Lovvrwv etvai rov ^ Adr^valajv orpa- 
rriyov, " ov rov orpaTTjyov," eiTrev 6 TtpiodeoSy 
" aAAa rov rep ar parrjy oj rd orpcopLara Kop.Lt,ovra." 

XABPIOT 

D 1. XajSpta? eXeye KdXXiora or parrjy eZv rovs pid- 
Xiora yivwdKovras rd rojv rroXepLLCOv. 

2. Alktjv he (jyevycxjv rrpohooias pierd 'I^t/jpa- 
rovs, eTTirLpLcovros avrco rov ^l(f)iKpdrov? on 
KLvhvveva)v els ro yvpLvdoriov jSaSt^et /cat rrjv elco- 

^ iinrevs ^ ottXlttjs Stobaeus, Florileglum, liv. 52: lirTevs. 
Cf. Moralia, 440 b. 

^ ri TreXraaTT^s Bernardakis : ^ TreXrao-rTjs i) Trefos or -^ Tre^oy 
7) TreXraffT^s ; but it is not imperative that such readings be 
always consistent ! 

" The story is found also in Moralia, 99 e and 440 b. 

^ Athenian general, colleague of Iphicrates ; numerous 
stories about him are recorded in Polyaenus, Strat. iii. 10. 
104 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 187 

targeteer ? " " None of these," he repHed, " but the 
one who understands how to direct all of them."" 

TIMOTHEUS* 

1. Timotheus was popularly thought to be a lucky 
general, and some who were jealous of him painted 
pictures of cities entering into a trap of their own 
accord while he was asleep.'' Whereupon Timotheus 
said, " If I capture such cities as those while I am 
asleep, what doyou think I shall do when I am awake? " 

2. When one ^ of the foolhardy generals was ex- 
hibiting to the Athenians a wound he had received, 
Timotheus said, " But I was ashamed when, at the 
time I was commanding you in Samos,* a missile 
from a catapult fell near me." 

3. When the prominent speakers brought forward 
Chares, and insisted that the general of the Athenians 
ought to be a man like him, Timotheus said, " Not 
the general, but the man who carries the general's 
bedding ! "^ 

CHABRIAS " 

1 . Chabrias used to say that those men commanded 
an army best who best knew what the enemy were 
about. 

2. When he was under indictment for treason along 
with Iphicrates,^ Iphicrates rebuked him because, 
while he was in jeopardy, he went to the gymnasium, 

' Of the many repetitions of this story it may suffice 
to refer to Plutarch's Life of Sulla, chap. vi. (454 b); 
Moralia, 856 b ; Aelian, Varia Historia, xiii. 43. 

** Chares, according to Plutarch in his Life o^ Pelopidas, 
chap. ii. (278 d). " In 366 b.c. ■^ Cf. Moralia, 788 d. 

" Celebrated Athenian general, early part of fourth cent. b.c. 

* With Callistratus, rather than Iphicrates, in the year 
366 B.C. Cf. Demosthenes, Against Meidias, 65. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(187) OvXav wpav apiGra^ " roiyapovv/' eiTrev, " av aAAo 
Tt yvcouL 7T€pi rjfjLoJv ^AOrjvaiOi, ere jxev au;^^a>vra 
/cat doLTOV, e/xe 8e rjpiari^KOTa /cat aXriXiiJiixevov 

aTTOKTeVOVGLV," 

3. Etco^et Se Xeyeiv on (f)op€pa)T€p6v ianv 
eXdcf)Ojv GTparoTTehov r^yovpiivov Xeovros r^ Aeov- 
TCDV eXd(j>ov. 

HrHsmnoT 

E *}lyr)OL7T7Tov Tov Kpoj^vXov irpoGayopevopiivov 
TTapo^vvovTog rovs ^Adrjvalovs iirl OtAtTTTTOV, 
vjre(j)OJvrjae ris €K rrjg iKKXrjGtag, " iroXepiOV 
€LGr]yrj ; vat /xa Ata, etTre, /cat peAava 

IpLdna /cat hrjpoGias €K(j)opds /cat Aoyous" €77t- 
raj>iovSy et pueXXopLev eXevdepoL ^tcocrco-^at /cat /xt) 
7tol7Jg€lv to TTpoGTaTTopievov Ma/ceSocTc/' 

nxeEOT 

ITy^eas' eVt pLeipdKiov cov 7TaprjXd€V avrepwv rots 
7T€pL 'AAefaySpou ypa^op^evois i/j-qcfiiGpiaGLV €L7t6v- 
Tos Se Ttvos', " cru veos wv roXpLag Xiyeiv irepi tt]- 
Xlkovtcov; " " /cat pirjv ^AXd^avSpog," eiTrev, " ov 
i/jr](l)LZ,€G9€ deov, ipLOV v€a)T€p6s ioTL.*' 

* Ascribed to Philip by Stobaeus, Florilegium, liv. 61. 

'' Patriotic Athenian orator, fourth century B.C., bitterly 
opposed to Philip of Macedon. 

« Because of his affectation in wearing his hair in a knot 
on the top of his head, in the very old-fashioned manner. 
Aeschines the orator regularly uses this name in speaking 
of him. For the " crobylus " see F. Studniczka, in the 
Appendix to Classen's edition of Thucydides, i. 6. 3. 

<* Unprincipled Athenian orator, opponent of Demosthenes. 

106 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 187 

and spent the usual time at his luncheon. His 
answer was, " You may go unwashed and unfed, 
and I may have had my luncheon and a bath and 
rub-dowTi, but you may rest assured that, if the 
Athenians reach any adverse decision regarding us, 
they will put us both to death." 

3. He was wont to say that an army of deer com- 
manded by a lion is more to be feared than an army 
of lions commanded by a deer." 

HEGESIPPUS » 

Hegesippus, nicknamed ' Topknot,* '^ in a public 
address was inciting the Athenians against Philip, 
when someone in the Assembly commented audibly, 
" You are bringing on war." " Yes, by Heaven, I 
am," said he, " and black clothes and public funerals 
and orations over the graves of the dead, if we intend 
to live as free men, and not to do what is enjoined 
upon us by the Macedonians." 

P^^THEAS * 

Pytheas, while still young, came forward in the 
Assembly to oppose the resolutions proposed in 
honour of Alexander. When someone said, " Have 
you the audacity, young as you are, to speak about 
such important matters ? " he repHed, " As a matter 
of fact, Alexander, whom your resolutions declare 
to be a god, is younger than I am." ^ 

« Cf. Moralia, 804 b. Similar derisive remarks about the 
deification of Alexander are attributed to other sharp-tongued 
Greeks. Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 8 and vi. 63 ; Aelian, 
Varia Hutoria, ii. 19 and v. 12 ; Valerius Maximus, vii. 2, 
ext. 13. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^QKIfiNOS TOT AOHNAIOTj 

F 1 . ^coKLOJV 6 ^Ad-qvaXog vtt* ovSevo? ovre yeXcoi' 
a>(/)9r) ovT€ SaKpvcjov. 

2. ^l^KKXrjGLag Se yevofievrjs rrpos rov etTTOvra, 

OK€7TTOfJLei^Cp, (L ^OJKLCOVy €OLKag," " Opdcbs/' 

€.^riy " TOTrdt,€is' GKETTTOfMac ydp €L TL SvvafjiaL 
77epteAetv ojv fxeXXco Xeyetv Trpos ^ AOrjvalovs ." 

3. Mavreuag Se yevojxevrjg 'AdrjvaloLs, (hg ets 
dvTjp eoTLV iv rfj TToXei raXg Trdvrcjv ivavTiovfievog 
yvojfxaiSy Kol tojv 'AOrjvaLOJV ^T^retv KeXevovrojv 
oGTis icTTL /cat ^ocovTCov, OcoKLOjv iavTov ecfy-qoe 
TOVTOV etvai' fjuovcp ydp avrco puiqhev dpioKeiv a)i' 

ol TToXXol 77 pdrrOVGL KOL XiyovGiv. 

188 4. 'Evret Se Xeycjv ttote yvcofjL-qv Trpos rov StJ/xov 
evSoKLfi€L Kal Trdvras ofiaXcos icopa rdv Xoyov d-rro- 
SexofJievovg, eTTLorpa^els Trpos rovs (f)lXovs €ltt€v, 
" oi) h-qTTOV KaKov TL Xeyojv ipLavrov XeXrjOa; " 

5. Upos Se Ovuiav rivd tojv ^Ad-qvaiojv alrovv- 
rcov eTTiSoaeLs Kal rojv d'AAcov errtStSoP'rcov, KXr^dels 

TToXXdKiSy " aloXVVOLfJLT^V dv," €LTTeV, " VfJUV eVt- 

StSous", TOVTCp he fir) dTToScSovs," a/xa SecKvvwv rdv 
haveLOTiqv. 

6. Arj/jLoadevovs Se rov prjTopos elTTOvros, ' drro- 
Krevovai are ^ABiqvaioiy idv fxavajGL," " vat/' 
€LTT€V, ** ifie fjLev dv fiavdjCTLy ere 8e dv aax^povcoaL." 

*• Upright Athenian general and statesman, fourth cen- 
tury B.C. 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap. iv. (743 d). 

" Ibid. chap. v. (744 a). 

•* Ibid. chap. viii. (745 c). 

* Ibid. Cf. similar remarks of Antisthenes, in Diogenes 
Laertius, vi. 5 and 8 ; and of Hippomachus, in Aelian, 
Varia Historia^ ii. 6. 

108 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 187-188 

PHOCION THE ATHENIAN « 

1 . Phocion the Athenian was never seen by anyone 
to laugh or cry.^ 

2. At a meeting of the Assembly someone said to 
him, " You seem to be thinking, Phocion." " You 
guessed right," said he, " for I am thinking whether 
I can leave out any part of what I am going to say 
to the Athenians." '^ 

3. An oracle was given to the Athenians declaring 
that there was one man in the city opposed to the 
opinions of all, whereupon they ordered that search 
be made to find him, and were very vociferous. But 
Phocion said that the man was himself, for he was 
the only one who did not like a single thing of all that 
the multitude did and said.*^ 

4. Once, when he expressed an opinion before the 
people, he won acclaim, and saw that all ahke ac- 
cepted the view he had expressed, whereupon he 
turned to his friends and said, " Does it not look as 
if I had unwittingly said something bad ? " « 

5. When the Athenians were asking for contribu- 
tions towards a public sacrifice and feast, and all the 
rest were contributing, he, being importuned to give, 
said, " I should be ashamed to make a contribution 
to you and not make restitution to this man," and, 
as he said this, he pointed to a man who had lent 
him money/ 

6. Demosthenes, the orator, said to him, " The 
Athenians will put you to death if they go mad." 
" Yes," he replied, " me if they go mad, but you if 
they keep their senses."^ 

' Ptepeated in Moralia, 533 a and 822 e, and in Plutarch's 
Life of Phocion, chap. ix. (745 c). 

" Ibid. chap. ix. (745 f). In Moralia, 811 a, Demades is 
substituted for Demosthenes.. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B 7. ^ ApiGToyeirovos he rod crvKocfxivTov fieXXoV' 
(188) ''■OS' a7Todvri(jK€iv iv rev SeafjuajT-qplcp KaraKpirov 
yeyovoTog /cat Seofievov rov Oco/ctcova irpog avrov 
eXOelv, rcJov Se (fitXcov ovk icovTCOV Trpog dvdpcoTTOV 
TTOvrjpov ^aSt^etv, " Koi ttov rts" dV," elirev, " -r^hiov 
* ApidToycirovi XaXrqGeiev ; " 

8. ^Opyi^ofievcov 8c rots' Bu^avrtots" rcov *A6rj- 
vaLwv {JLT] Se^afievoL?^ rfj TToAet ^dprjra TrepLcjiOivTa 
pLerd SvvdpL€a>s ^oiqOov avroZs rrpos OlXlttttov, el- 

TTcbv 6 ^CDKLCxJV OTL Set pLT] TOL? dTTLGTOVGl TCOV (TU/X- 

pidxojv, dXXd rots' dTnoTovpiivois opytt^ecrdai rcov 

UTparrjydJv avros JJP^Or] crrpari^yos" Kal Tnorevdel^ 

C VTTO Tctjv Bvl^avrlajv eTTotrjcre rov ^lXlttttov dTreXdeiv 

aTTpaKTOV. 

9. ^AXe^dvSpov 8e rod PauiXecos eKarov rdXavra 
hcopedv avrw Trepufiavrog, r^pcoriqoe rovs KopiLL,ovTas 
Tt S7^77ore, TToXXcbv ovTCOv ^ AdrjvaLOjv , aura) pLovo) 
ravra SIScxjcjlv 'AXe^avSpos' eiTTovrcjv 8e eKeivojv 
d)s piovov avrov rjyeXrat KaXov Kayadov etvat, " ovk- 
ovv," €(j)r], " iaadroj pie Kal Sok€lv /cat etvat 

TOLOVTOV." 

10. Atrouvro? 8e ^AXe^dvSpov rpirjpeis, Kal rod 
h-qpLov KcXevovTos ovopLaarl Trapilvai rov ^ojKLCjjva 
Kal GvpL^ovXeveiVy dvaords €09], " avpi^ouXeva) 
Toivvv vpZv T] Kparelv rols ottXols avrovs 7] (fylXovs 
ctvac Tcbv KparovvTCOV." 

T> 11. Aoyou 8e 77€pt TTJs ^AXe^dvSpov reXevrrj? 

^ 5e^a^^j/ots, Hartman, is clearly right from the Life of 
Phocion, chap. xiv. (747 p ov5^ al xdXeis id^xofTo . . .): 5e|a- 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap. x. (746 e). 
^ Ibid. chap. xiv. (748 a) ; the date was 339 b.c. 
110 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 188 

7. Aristogeiton, the informer, was about to be put 
to death in prison, sentence having been passed upon 
him, and he wanted Phocion to come to him ; but 
Phocion's friends were averse to his going to see 
such a wicked man. " And where," said he, " could 
anyone converse with Aristogeiton with greater 
pleasure ? " " 

8. The Athenians were enraged at the people of 
Byzantium because they had not received Chares in 
their city when he had been sent with a force to 
help them against Philip. But when Phocion said 
that they must not be enraged at those of their allies 
who distrusted, but at those of their own generals w^ho 
were distrusted, he was himself chosen general ; and 
he, being trusted by the people of Byzantium, made 
Philip ^vithdraw without accomplishing his purpose.* 

9. When Alexander the king sent him twenty 
thousand pounds as a present, he asked those who 
brought the money why it was that, when there were 
so many Athenians, Alexander offered this to him 
only. They replied that their king considered him 
only to be upright and honourable. " Then," said 
he, " let him suffer me both to seem and to be such." " 

10. When Alexander made a demand for triremes, 
and the people called for Phocion by name to come 
forward and advise them, he arose and said, ** W^ell 
then, I advise you either to be conquerors yourselves 
by force of arms, or else to be the friends of the con- 
querors." <* 

11. When word suddenly came, quite unauthen- 
ticated, of the death of Alexander, and the orators 

* Ibid. chap, xviii. (749 e); cf. also Aelian, Varia His- 
toria, xi. 9. 

'*' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap. xxi. (751 a). 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(ISS) ifiTTeGOVTog dSeoTTOTOv, Kal rcbv pr^ropcov dva- 
TT-qhcLvToyv €vdvg inl to ^rj/jia Kal jjltj /xeAAetv aAAa 
TToXefMeXv rjSrj KeXevovrcov, 6 ^ojklojv tj^lov irept- 
fjLclvaL Kal yvcovai ^e^alcog. " el yap nqpiepoVy* 
€(f)r], " Tedu7]K€, Kal avpLov ecrrat Kal els rpinqv^ 
redvrjKCJS." 

12. Tov he Aecoadevovs els rov noXefiov ifi- 

^aXoVTOS TTJV TToXlV eXTTLGL XapLTTpols TTpOS TO TJJS 

eXevOepias ovopta Kal ttjs rjyefjiovias eTraipop.eviqVy 
Tovs Xoyovs avTov TaZs KvirapiTTois aTretVa^e* 
" KaXol yap ovTes " ecfyrj " Kal viprjXol Kapirov ovk 
exovGL." KaTa)pda>pievcov Se tojv TrpcoTcov Kal ttjs 
TToXeojs evayyeXia OvovGiqs, epcjT-qOels el raura 
E TjdeXev avTw^ irerrpdxOoLi, " TreTrpaxOai pLev oSv," 
echt], " TavTa, ^e^ovXevGdai Se eKelva." 

13. Tfj 8e ^Attlkj] Tcbv MaKeSovcxJV TTpoG^aXov- 
Tcov Kal TTopOovvTCxiv TTjv TTapaXiav , e^-qyaye tovs 
ev rjXiKLa' ttoXXcov Se GvvTpexovTOJV Trpos avTov Kal 
TTapeyKeXevopievcxjv eKeZvov tov Xocfyov KaTaXa^eZv, 
evTavda ra^at ttjv Svvapav, " cS *Hpa/<:Aet?/' 
eliTev, " (hs ttoXXovs 6pa> GTpaTTjyovSy GTpaTLcoTag 
Se oXiyovs*' ov pirjv dXXd GvpL^aXcbv eKpaTTjGe Kal 
hie(j)deLpe MtKtojra^ tov dpxovTa t<jl)v MaKeS6va)v. 

14-. Mer' oXlyov Se xpoi'ov ol piev ^AdrjvaZoL tco 

F TToXepLcp KpaTiqdivTes ehe^avTO (fypovpdv vtt 'Avrt- 

TTOLTpov' MevvXXov 8e TOV TTJs (f)povpds dpxovTOs 

XpijpiCLTa TO) ^coKiwvL SlSovtos, dyavaKTTqGas etne 

1 ets TpiT7]v Wyttenbach from the Life of Phocion, chap, 
xxii. : ela^Ti. 

* avT(^ F.C.B. from the Life of Phocion^ chap, xxiii. ; 
avTixi Wyttenbach : oi'rw. 

3 ^[lkLwo] the Life of Phocion, chap. xxv. : Nt/rtwj'o. 
112 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 188 

immediately leaped to the platform, already urgent 
that there be no delay, but war at once, Phocion 
insisted that they wait a while, and learn the facts. 
" For," said he, " if Alexander is dead to-day, he 
will be dead to-morrow also, and the day after."** 

12. When Leosthenes plunged the State into war, 
elated as it was by brilliant hopes to aspire to the 
distinction of freedom and leadership, Phocion likened 
his words to the cypress - trees. "For," said he, 
" they are beautiful and tall, but they bear no fruit." 
However, the first attempts were successful, and, 
when the State was offering sacrifices to celebrate the 
good tidings, Phocion was asked whether he wished 
that these deeds had been done by himself. " Yes," 
said he, " these deeds done, but that advice given." ^ 

13. When the Macedonians invaded Attica,^ and 
were devastating the land near the sea, he led out the 
men of military age. Soon many were thronging 
about him and strongly urging him to " take posses- 
sion of that hill over there," to ** draw up his forces 
here." " Great Heavens," he said, " how many 
generals do I see and how few soldiers ! " Neverthe- 
less, he engaged the enemy, and overcame them, 
and slew Micion the Macedonian commander.^ 

14. After a Uttle time the Athenians were over- 
come in the war, and compelled by Antipater to 
submit to receiving a garrison. Menyllus, the com- 
mander of the garrison, offered money to Phocion, 
who said with indignation tliat Menyllus was no whit 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap. xxii. (751 e), also 
Moralio, 451 f. 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap, xxiii. (752 a b) ; 
Valerius Maximus, iii. 8, ext. 2. 

* In the Lamian war, 322 b.c. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap. xxv. (752 e). 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

jjL'^re iKelvov ^AXe^dvhpov ^eXriova elvai, /cat ;^et- 
pova TTjv alriav e<^' fj X-qxpeTai vvv rore [xrj Sefa- 
fxevos. 

15. ^AvTLTTarpog Se €(f)r]y d)S Svolu avro) (j)i\o)V 

*A6ljv7]GLV OVTiOV OVT€ OcD/CtCOVa Xa^elv 7T€7T€LK€V 

ovT€ ArjfxdSrjv StSovg ifjLTTeTrXrjKev. 

16. ^A^LOvvTos Se 'AvTLTrdrpov TTOirJGai ri rcJov 
fXTj SiKaLOjv avrov, " ov Syvaaai/' euTrev, " 'Avrt- 
TTarpe, koL ^iXcp ^coklojvl xPV^^'^^ '^^^ KoXaKi." 

189 17. Mcra Se rrjv ^ AvriTrdrpov reXevrr^v So^/xo- 
Kparias ^Adiqvaiois yevopiiviqs KareyvcoaOr] Odvaros 
rod ^coKLCovos iv iKKXrjGia /cat rcov <j)iXa)V' ol fiev 
ovv aXXoi KXaiovT€s rjyovro' rep 8e Ocuklcovl acajTrij 
^ahit,ovrL rcov ixOpcov ng iveTrrvarev OLTravr'^Gag €ls 
ro rrpouiOTTOV. 6 he irpos rovs dpxpvras aTTofiXeipas, 
** ov TTavoei ns," elne, " rovrov daxt^piovovvra;'* 

18. Tcx)v he fjLeXXovrojv GvvaTTodvriGKeiv ivos 
ohvpofMevov /cat dyavaKrovvros, '* ovk dyairas** 
€i7Tev, " c5 0oi;St77776, jLteTo, ^ojKLOJVos aTToOavov- 
jxevos; " 

19. "H807 he rrjs kvXlkos avrcp 7rpoG(f)epoiJLevr]g, 
ipcorrjOelg et rt Xiyei irpos rov vlov, "eycoye,^" 

B elTTev, " ivreXXopLai /cat irapaKaXcj fjLTjhev ^A9rj- 
vaiois pLvrjOLKaKeLV." 

1 eycoye E. Kurtz : iyd) aoi, suggested long ago, is preferred 
by Hatzidakis : iyu) ae. Perhaps ai^ry, Aelian, Var. Hist. 
xii. 49 {i.e. avT(^ ye) is right. 

<» Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap, xxviii. (754 a), and 
chap. XXX. (755 a). 

* Ibid. chap. xxx. (p. 755 b). 

114 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 188-189 

better than Alexander, and the ground for his re- 
ceiving money was not so good as before, since he had 
not accepted it then.** 

15. Antipater said that he had two good friends at 
Athens ; and of the two he had never persuaded 
Phocion to accept a gift, nor ever sated Demades by 
giving.^ 

16. When Antipater required as his right that 
Phocion do a certain act of unrighteousness, he said, 
" Antipater, you cannot use Phocion as a friend and 
flatterer both." ^ 

17. The death of Antipater was followed by a 
democratic government at Athens, and sentence of 
death was passed in Assembly on Phocion and his 
friends. The others were led away weeping, but 
Phocion was proceeding in silence when one of his 
enemies met him and spat in his face. He looked 
toward the officers and said, " Will not somebody 
make this man stop his bad manners ? " <* 

18. When one of the men who were to die with 
him wept and cursed, he said, " Are you not content, 
Thudippus, that you are to die with Phocion ? "« 

19. When the cup of hemlock was already being 
handed to him, he was asked if he had any mes- 
sage for his son. " I charge and exhort him," 
said he, " not to cherish any ill feeling against the 
Athenians." ^ 

" Repeated by Plutarch in Moralia, 64 c, 142 b, 533 a; 
Life of Phocion, chap. xxx. (755 b) ; Life of Agis, chap. ii. 
(795 e). 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap, xxxvi. (758 d). 

* Ibid. ; cf. Moralia, 541 c, and Aelian, Varia Historia, 
xiii. 41. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of Phocion, chap, xxxvi. (758 d) ; 
Aelian, Varia Historia, xii. 49. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(189) HBISISTPATOT 

1. HeiaLGTparos 6 ^AOiqvaicnv rvpavvos, irrel 
Tchv (fiiXcov TLV65 aiTOordvre£ avrov ^vXr^v Kar- 
eXa^ov, r^Xde npos avrovs GrpcofJLaroheGiiov avros 
koixlI,cov. TTwOavofievoji' Se eKeivcov ri ^ovXerai, 
" TTelaas vpids," €L7T€v, " aTrayayeZv t) /xt) Treioas 
fxeveiv fxed^ vpLCov, Sta rovro a^ty/xat GVveoKeva- 
ofiivos." 

2. AtapX-qdeLGTjs Sc rrjg fi-qrpos TTpos avrov, cos 
ipa Tivos veavLGKov /cat Kpv(f)a GvveGTL (jio^ovjxivcp 
/cat TTapaLTOVfievcx) ra ttoXXol, /caAecras- evrt SetTrvov 
rov veaviGKov rjpcoTrjGe SetTTV-qGavra, " ttws yiyo- 
v€v; " " rjSeoj?," Se (f)'qGavros, " ravrd gol, 

C ^4*^' " ^CL^' rffiepav eWat, idv rrj firjrpi fiov 
dpeGKT)?." 

3. 'Evret §€ QpaGvpovXog ipcov avrov rrjs dvya- 
rpog €(f)LXr]Gev aTvavriJGag , Trapo^vvofievos eV* 
avrov VTTO rrjs yvvaiKos, " dv rovs (f)LXovvras/' 
elrre, " jjLLGa)fX€v, rl TTOL-^GOjjLev rovs puGovvr as ; " 
/cat ehcoKe yvvaiKa rep Qpaov^ovXco rrjv Trapdevov. 

4. Koj/xacrrcoi' Se nvajv TrepLrv^ovrcxiv avrov rfj 
yvvaiKi /cat ttoAAo, rrpa^dvratv aGeXyrj /cat eiTTOv- 
rojv, pLcO^ Tjfiepav Se rod HeiGLGrpdrov SeofjLCvwv 
/cat haKpvovrcjVy " Vfxels /xeV," ^4'V> ' ''"etpaCT^c 
Gojcf)pov€LV ro XoLTTov T) 8' ifiT] yvvYj ro rrapaiTav 
e)(d€s ovSap^fj TTporjXOe." 

D 5. Tciiv §€ TTaihojVy avrov yafxelv iripav yv- 
vaiKa piiXXovros, SiaTrvvOavofxevajv fi-q ri fX€p.<j)6- 
jxevos avrovs etT^, " rJKiGra," €L7T€v, " dAA' eiraivcov 

" Ruler of Athens, at times between 560 and 528 b.c. 
^ Cf. Valerius Maximus, v. 1, ext. 2. Plutarch also refers 
to the incident in Moral la, 457 f. 

116 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 189 

PEISISTRATUS " 

1. Peisistratus, the despot of the Athenians, on a 
time when some of his friends had revolted and 
taken possession of Phyle, came to them carrying a 
bundle of bedding. When they asked what he meant 
by this, he said, " To persuade you and get you away 
from here, or, if I cannot persuade you, to stay with 
you ; that is why I have come prepared." 

2. It was whispered to him regarding his mother 
that she was in love ^\dth a certain young man, and 
had secret meetings Avith him, but that the young 
man was afraid and generally asked to be excused. 
Whereupon Peisistratus invited him to dinner, and 
after he had dined asked him, " How was it ? " And 
when the young man said, " Very pleasant," Peisi- 
stratus said, " You shall have this pleasure every day 
if you are agreeable to my mother." 

3. When Thrasybulus, who was in love with the 
daughter of Peisistratus, kissed her one day on 
meeting her, Peisistratus, when incited by his wife 
against the man, said, " If we hate them that love us, 
what shall we do to them that hate us ? " And there- 
upon he gave the maiden as wife to Thrasybulus.^ 

4. Some revellers fell in with his wife, and did and 
said a good many ribald things. The next day when 
they besought Peisistratus with many tears, he said, 
" As for you, do you try to conduct yourselves in a 
seemly manner hereafter, but as for my wife, she did 
not go out at all yesterday." '^ 

5. When he was bent on marrying a second wife, 
his children inquired whether he had any fault to 
find with them, " By no means," he said, " but only 

" Musonius in Stobaeus, Florilegium, xix. 16, records a 
similar action on the part of Phocion. 

VOL. Ill . E 117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(189) Kal ^ovXofjievos irepovs fjcoi TralSas tolovtovs 
yeveadai." 

AHMHTPIOT TOT ^AAHPEOS 

ArjfjL'qTpios 6 (^aXrjpevg UroXefxaiw rep ^acnXel 
Trap'^vei ra Trepl f^aaiX^ias Kal rjyepLOvias ^i^Xia 
KTaoOai Kal avayivojGKeiv " a yap ol (jiiXoi rot? 
^acTiXevGLV ov dappovoi Trapatvelv, ravra iv tols 
Pi^Xiois yeypairrai." 

E ATKOTPrOT 

1. AvKovpyog 6 AaKeSatfjiovLos eWicre rovg tto- 
Xuras KOfidv Xiycov on rovg /xev KaXovs rj Kop^rj 
evTTp€7T€arepovs TTotet, rovs Se aluxpovs (^ojScpco- 
ripovs. 

2. ITpos" 8e rov KeXevovra TTOieiv iv rfj vroAet 
8rjp.0KpaTiav " ov Trpcbrog," €L7T€v. " iv rfj oIklo, 
GOV TToirjUov hripLOKpariav." 

3. 'E/ceAeue he rag oiKias TTOieiv diro irpLovog 
Kal TTeXeKecxjg p,6vov alu-xyveodai^ yap et? ot/cta? 
Atra? iKTrcLpLara Kal crrpco/xara Kal rpa7Tel,as ttoXv- 
reXeis elo^ipovras. 

4. Y{vypir]v Se Kal irayKpariov ayo)vil,eadai 
iKcoXvcrev, Iva /xT^Se Trait^ovres airavhav idit,a}VTai. 

1 alcrx^iveadaL] aiVx^acr^at Hartman and S. A. Naber ; but 
the Life of Lycurgus, chap. xiii. suggests that the present is 
right. 

" Cf. Moralia, 480 d. Plutarch in his Life of Cato Major, 
chap. xxiv. (351 b), says that Cato as well as Peisistratus made 
his remark. 
'' Governor of Athens under the Macedonians, 317-307 b.c. 
" Early lawgiver of the Spartans. 
<* Cf Moralia, 228 f, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 

118 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 189 



praise — and the desire to have other children hke 
you." * 

DEMETRIUS OF PHALERUM » 

Demetrius of Phalerum recommended to Ptolemy 
the king to buy and read the books dealing with the 
office of king and ruler. " For," as he said, " those 
things which the kings' friends are not bold enough 
to recommend to them are \vritten in the books." 

LYCURGUS* 

1. Lycurgus, the Spartan, introduced the custom 
among his citizens of wearing their hair long, saying 
that it made the beautiful more comely and the ugly 
more frightful.** 

2. To the man who urged him to create a demo- 
cracy in the State his answer was, " Do you first 
create a democracy in your own house." ^ 

3. He ordered that the people build their houses 
with saw and axe only ; for he knew that men are 
ashamed to bring into simple houses costly vessels, 
rugs, and tables. •'^ 

4. He prohibited boxing and prize-fighting so that 
the people might not even in sport get the habit of 
crying oflf.^ 

chap. xxii. (53 d) and Life of Lysander, chap. i. (434 a). The 
Spartan custom of wearing the hair long is often referred 
to; for example, Moralia, 189 f and 230 b, infra, Xenophon, 
Constitution of Sparta, xi. 3. 

« Repeated in Moralia, 155 d, 228 d, and Plutarch's lAfe 
of Lycurgus, chap. xix. (52 a). 

^ Cf. Moralia, 227 b, infra, and Life of Lycurgus, chap, 
xiii. (47 b). 

" See Moralia, 228 d, infra, and cf. Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. xix. (52 a), and Seneca, De Beneficiis, v. 3. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F 5. HTpareveiv Se ttoXXolkls inl rovg avrovg eKw- 
XvG€v, 07760? {Jir) TTOLOJGi /JLaxi-lJiCorepovg . varepov 
yovv rod ^ KyqaiXdov rpcoOivTOS, 6 'AvraA/ctSa? 
elrrev Koka SiSacr/caAta Trapa Q-q^aicov Xapi^dveiv 
avTov eOlaavra Kal SiSd^avra TroXefieiv aKovras. 

XAPIAAOT 

1. XaptAAos" o paGiXevs ipo)Tr]6€ls Sid ri vofjiovg 
oXlyovs ovTOj AvKovpyog eOrjKev, aTreKpLvaro rous 
Xpcofxevovs oXiyoLg XoyoLs [xrj heladai vofjicov 
TToXXcov. 

2. Tcov Se elXcoTcov nvo? Opauvrepov aura) rrpoa- 
(jiepofjLevoVj " val^ rcb glco," elire, " KareKravov 
dv TV, al^ fJLTj wpyit^ofjiav." 

3. ripo? 8e rov TTvOofievov Sid rl Koixcjuiv elrrev 
OTL rctjv kog/jlcjov dSaTTai'coraros ovros iuri, 

THAEKAOT 

190 T-qXeKXog 6 ^acrtAeus' Trpos rdv dheX^dv iy- 
KaXovvra rols ttoXit ats d)S dyvajpiOveaTepov avro) 
7TpoG(f}€poiJLevoLs TJ eKeLvo), " Gv ydp," elnev, " ovk 
olhas dhiKeiGBai." 

1 vol Cobet : V7}, 
2 6.V TV, ai Cobet : reu d. 

« Cf. Moralia, 213 f, 217 e, 227 c, infra ; Plutarch's Life 
of Lycurgus, chap. xiii. (47 d) ; Life of Pelopidas, chap. xv. 
(285 d) ; Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxvi. (610d); Polyaenus, 
Strategemata, i. 16. 2. 

^ An early king of Sparta. 

" Cf. Moralia^ 232 b, infra^ and Plutarch's Life oj 
Lycurgus, chap. xx. (32 d). 
120 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 189-190 

5. He prohibited making war upon the same people 
many times, so that they should not make their 
opponents too belligerent. And it is a fact that 
years later, when Agesilaus was wounded, Antalcidas 
said of him that he was getting a beautiful return 
from the Thebans for the lessons he had taught them 
in habituating and teaching them to make war 
against their will." 

CHARILLUS ^ 

1. Charillus the king, being asked w^hy Lycurgus 
enacted so few laws, rephed that people who used 
few words had no need of many laws/ 

2. When one of the helots conducted himself 
rather boldly towards him, he said, "By Heaven, 
I would kill you if I were not angry." ^ 

3. In answer to the man who inquired why he and 
the rest wore their hair long, he said that of all orna- 
ments this was the least expensive.* 

TELECLUS^ 

Teleclus the king answered his brother, who com- 
plained against the citizens because they conducted 
themselves with less consideration towards him than 
towards the king, by saying, " The reason is that you 
do not know how to submit to injustice." ^ 

" Cf. Moralia, 232 d, infra. 

^ Attributed to Nicander, Moralia, 230 b, and to Agesilaus 
by Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixv. 10. 

f King of Sparta, eighth century b.c. 

» Repeated in Moralia, 232 b, infra ; cf. also the similar 
remark of Chilon reported in Diogenes Laertius, i. 68, and 
the general statement in Menander's Farmer, Kock, Co?n. 
Att. Frag. iii. p. 29, Menander no. 95 ; or Allinson's 
Menander in L.C.L., p. 338. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

[190) GEonoMnoT 

GeOTTOfJLTTOS eV TLVL TToAet TTpOS TOV iTnSeLKVVfJLe- 

vov TO relxo? avrw Kal TTVvdavofievov, et SoKel 
KaXov Kal vi/jTjXov elvai, " ov Brj yvvaiKcov; "^ 

€L7T€V. 

APXIAAMOT 

'Ap;(t8a/>tos', iy rw IleXoTTOwrjaiaKcp noXefxa) 
rojv <jvii}Jia-x(x>v ol^lovvtwv opiaai rovs (f)6pov£ 
avTOLS, elirev, " o TToXejxos ov rerayfiiva cnTelraL." 

B BPA2IA0T2 

1. BpacrtSa? ev laxdcFt, GvXXa^cbv jjlvv Kal 8r]- 
xd^ls d(f)rJK6v etra irpos rovs napovrag, " ovhev 
ovTCOS," e^r^, " puKpov iariv, o {jltj o-aj^erat roA- 
fjLCOv apLvveadaL rovg iTTix^ipovvras ." 

2. 'Ev 8e p-axV 8ta tt^s" dcTTTiBog aKovricrOels Kal 
TO hopv rod rpavpiaros e^eXKvuas^ avrco rovro) rov 
TToXepLLOv d7T€KT€LV€V' €.7T€p(jjTr]dels 8e ttCjs irpcodrj, 
** TTpoSovGTjg pie TTJ? oluttISo?," eLTrev. 

3. *E77etST7 avve^T] Trecrelv avrov iXevdepovvra 

1 ov 8r) yvvaiKuv F.C.B. from Moralia, 212 e, 215 d, 230 c 
(yvvaiKuv also S. A. Naber) : ov de?, or ovo' ei, ■yvvaiKCjv. 

2 Probably the genitive of all these Doric names should end 
in a, but the mss. do not show any consistency or uniformity 
which might serve as a guide. 

3 e^eXKvaas Moralia 219 C: iXKvaas, 

<" King of Sparta, eighth century B.C. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 221 f. The remark in varied form is 
attributed to Agesilaus in Moralia, 212 e ; to Agis in 
Moralia, 215 d ; and to Panthoidas in Moralia, 230 c ; and 
to an unnamed Spartan by Valerius Maximus, iii. 7, ext. 8. 

« Archidamus II., king of Sparta, 469-4.27 b.c. 

122 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, ]90 
THEOPOMPUS « 

When Theopompus was in a certain city, a man 
pointed out the wall to him and inquired if it seemed 
to him to be beautiful and high, and he replied, " It 
isn't a dwelling-place for women, is it ? " ^ 

ARCHIDAMUS <= 

When the alhes said in the Peloponnesian war it 
was only right that Archidamus set a limit to their 
contributions, he said, " War does not feed on fixed 
rations." <* 

BRASIDAS * 

1. Brasidas caught a mouse among some dry figs, 
and, getting bitten, let it go. Then, turning to those 
who were present, he said. " There is nothing so 
small that it cannot save its life, if it has the courage 
to defend itself against those who would lay hand on 
it."-^ 

2. In a battle he was wounded by a spear which 
pierced his shield, and, puUing the weapon out of the 
wound, -vvith this very spear he slew his foe. Asked 
how he got his wound, he said, " 'Twas when mv 
shield turned traitor."^ 

3. When it came to pass that he fell while trying 

^ Repeated in Moralia, 219 a, and in Plutarch's Life of 
Crassus, chap. ii. (544 b) ; and Life of Cleomenes, chap, 
xxvii. (817 e). In his Life of Demosthenes, chap. xvii. 
(853 e), the saying is put in the mouth of " Crobylus " 
{i.e. Hegisippus the Athenian orator). See the note on 
Moralia, 187 e, supra. 

* Spartan general in the Peloponnesian war. 

f Repeated in Moralia, 79 e and 219 c, and with some 
variation, 208 f. 

" Cf. Moralia, 219 c, infra, and 548 b, 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(190) TOWS' em @paKr]s "EAAi^vas", ol he 7reiJb<f)devT€s els 
AaKeSaijJLOva Trpiu^eis rfj jjLTjrpl TrpoarjXdov avrov, 
C TTpaJTOV fxev r^pconqoev el /caAcos" o Bpao-tSa? dir- 
eSavev eyKajpLiat^ovTOJV 8e rcov ©pa/ccov avrov /cat 
XeyovTOJV <1)S ovhelg dXXos eorai tolovtos, " dy- 
voeXre," eiTrev, " c5 ^evoi- BpacrtSa? fiev yap rjv 
dvTjp dyaOos, d Se Aa/ceSat/xcov ttoAAoj? exei Tiqvco 
Kappovag." 

ATIAOS 

1. ^Aycs* o ^aortAeus' ou/c e<^T7 rou? Aa/ceSac/xo- 
i^tous" ipwrdv ttogol elaiv, dXXd ttov elcnv ol 

TToXefJLiOL. 

2. 'Ei^ 8e Mavrtreta KcoXvofjuevo? Suajjidx^crdai 
ToZg TToXefjLLOLg TrXeiooLV ovglv, elirev, " dvdyKT] 
TToXXoLS fid^xeadai tov dpxetv ttoXXwv ^ovXofjievov." 

3. ^Knaivovfjievajv be rcov 'HAetcuv eTrl rep rd 
'OAu/XTTta KaXojs dyeuv, " ri hi J' etTre, " ttolovoi 
OavfjLaorov, el hi erojv rerrdpwv fjna 'qfiepa 

D ;^pa>VTat rfj hiKaioovvrj ; " eTTLjjLevovrwv he rolg 
eiraivoLSy ^4'V> " '^^ OavpLacrrov el TrpdypLan KaXw 
KaXojg ;\;pcop'Tat, rfj hiKaioovvrj ; " 

4. Hpos" he dvdpojTTOv TTOvrjpov epcordJvra ttoX- 
XdKig TL? dpLGTOs elrj UTTapnaraJv, elirev, " 6 rlv^ 
dvojjLOLoraros." 

5. 'Ere/oou he Trvvdavopievov ttogol elolv ol^ 

^ tIv Cobet : tvvt). 

2 ol (not in the mss.) is found in the other quotations of 
the passage. 

<* Argileonis {Moralia, 219 d, 270 c, infra). 
^ Repeated in Moralia, 219 d and 240 c, and in Plutarch's 
Life of Lycurgus, chap. xxv. (55 d). 

" Son of Archidamus. There were two kings of Sparta 

124 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, IpO 

to win independence for the Greeks who were hving 
within the borders of Thrace, and the envoys sent to 
Sparta approached his mother," her first question 
M'as whether Brasidas had died honourably. And 
when the Thracians spoke of him in the highest 
terms, and said that there would never be another 
like him, she said, " Ye ken naught aboot it, being 
from abraid ; for Brasidas was e'en a guid mon, but 
Sparta has mony a better mon than him." ^ 

AGISo 

1. Agis the king said that the Spartans do not ask 
how many are the enemy, but where are they.^ 

2. At ISIantineia, when efforts were made to dis- 
suade him from risking a battle wdth the enemy who 
outnumbered his own men, he said, " He who would 
rule over many must fight with many." * 

3. When the Eleans were commended for con- 
ducting the Olympic games honourably, he said, 
" What wonderful feat is it if they practise justice on 
one day in four years ? " And when these same 
persons were persistent in their commendation, he 
said, " What wonder if they practise honourably an 
honourable thing, that is, justice } " ^ 

4. To a base man, who asked him many times who 
was the best of the Spartans, he rephed, " The one 
most unlike you." ^ 

5. When another man inquired about the number 

of this name : Agis II., 427-401 b.c, and Agis III., 338- 
331 B.C., and there is some confusion as to which said which ! 
Lf. Mo r alia, 215 c ff., infra. 

<* Cf. Moral ia, 215 d, infra. * Ibid. 

' Ibid. 215 F, and Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. 
(52 c). 

" Life of Lycurgus and Moralia, 216 c. 
VOL. Ill ■k2 125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(190) Aa/ccSat/xovtot, " oaoi," elTrev, " iKavol rovs KaKov? 
aireipyeLV." 

6 Kat TO avTO irepov Trvvdavoiievov , " ttoXXoL 
aoiy" e(f)iq, " Sdfoucrtv elvai, iav avrovs lStj^ l^^X^' 
fievovs." 

ATSANAPOT 

E 1. AvaavSpos, ^iovvglov rod rvpdvvov 7re/x- 
i/javTog Lfxdria rats OvyarpdoLV avrov rajv ttoXv- 
reXcov, ovK eXa^ev, elnajv SeSteVat /jltj Slol ravra 
fjidXXov aiGXpoLi (f)av6j(jiv. 

2. Upos Se Tovs i/jeyovras avrov inl rep hi 
aTrdrrjs rd iroXXd Trpdrreiv (hs dvd^Lov rod 'Hpa- 
kXeovs, 'iXeyev ottov fxr) i(f)LKV€Lrac rj Xcovrrjy iTpoor- 
pairreov elvai rrjv dXco7T6K7Jv. 

3. Upos Se ^Apyeiovs SiKacorepa rcbv AaKreSac- 
pLOviojv Xiyeiv nepl rrjs diJL(f)L<j^r]rovp.€vr]s ^wpa? 
SoKovuras, GTraadfievog rr]v fidxcapoLV, *' 6 rav- 
'^f]S,^ " '^<t>'^> " Kparojv jSeArtcrra Trepl yrjg opojv 
hiaXiyerai." 

4. Tous" Se AaKehaipuoviovs opcov OKVovvras 
TTpoGfjidx^GOai rots' reix^oi rcov KopLv6ia>v, cLg 
etSe Xayojv e^aXXofxevov eV rrjs rd^pov, " rotov- 

F rovs," €(f)r], " (fyoPetade TToXefxlovs, cov ol Xayol 8t' 
dpyiav iv rols relx^GLv eyKadevSovaiv;" 

5. Meyapeojs Se dvSpos iv kolvo) GvXXoycp irap- 

1 TaijTr}s\ Tairxi Pantazides. 

• Cf. Moralia, 215 d ; (5) infra\ Plutarch's Life ofLycurgus^ 
chap. XX. (52 d). 

" Spartan general at the time of the Peloponnesian war. 

c Cf. Moralia, 141 d, 229 a, and Plutarch's Life of 
Lysander^ chap. ii. (434. c). The same story is told of Archi- 
damus in Moralia, 218 e. 

126 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 190 

of the Spartans, he said, " Enough to keep away all 
bad men." ^ 

6. When another asked the same question, he said, 
" You will think they are many, if you see them 
fight." 

LYSANDER» 

1. When Dionysius, the despot, sent garments of 
a very costly kind for Lysander's daughters, Lysander 
would not accept them, saying that he was afraid that 
the girls would appear more ugly because of them.^ 

2. To those who found fault with him for accom- 
plishing most things through deception (a procedure 
which they asserted was unworthy of Heracles) he 
used to say in reply that where the lion's skin does 
not reach it must be pieced out wdth the skin of the 
fox.** 

3. When the Argives seemed to make out a better 
case than the Spartans about the territory in dispute, 
he drew his sword, and said to them, " He who is 
master of this talks best about boundaries of land.' * 

4. Seeing that the Spartans were reluctant to 
carry on the battle against the walls of the Corin- 
thians, he said, as he saw a hare leap out of the moat, 
** Are you afraid of such enemies as these, in whose 
walls hares go to sleep because of the men's in- 
action ? " f 

5. When a man from Megara used frank speech 

^ Cf. Moralia, 229 b ; Plutarch's Life of Lysander^ chap, 
vii. (437 a), Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, 
i. p. 30. 

* Cf. Moralia, 229 c ; Life of Lysander, chap. xxii. 
(445 d). 

' Cf Moralia, 229 d ; Life of Lysander, chap. xxii. 
(445 d). 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

prjCFca ;YP^o'ajLieVoi; Trpo? avrov, *' ol Xoyoi aov/' 
€1776, " TToXeo)? heovTai." 

AFHSIAAOT 

1. 'Ayr^CTtAao? e'Aeye rovs ttjv 'Acrtav Karoi- 
Kovvras iXevdepovs fxev KaKovs €.lvai, hovXovs 8e 
ayaOovs. 

2. Et^tcr/xeVcuv Se avrojv rov YlepGOJV ^aatXea 
fieyav 7Tpoaayop€V€Lv, " ri hal^ eKelvos," eiTrev, 

ifxov jLtet^cov, el fxr] SiKaiorepos Kal oio^povi- 
arepos; " 

3. Uepl avhpeias Kal hiKaioavvqs ipcxjriqOels 
TTorepa ^eXrlcov, " ovSev dvSpelas," €(j>r], " XPV' 
^ofjL€Vy eav TTavres (Lfxev SiKatoL." 

191 4-. NuKTO? Se ixiXXcxjv Kara rdxo? dvat,€vyvv€LV 
€K rrjs TToXepiias Kal rov ipwfjievov opojv oLTroXeLTTO- 
fjLevov 8t* doO eveiav Kal SaKpvovra, " ;^aA€7rdv," 
eiTTeVy " d/JLa iXeetv Kal (f)poveLV," 

5. MevcKparovs 8e rou larpov Ato? Trpoa- 
ayopevofjievov, ypdipavrog iTnaroXrjV npos avroVy 
" Met^e/cpctTT^? TLevs ^aGiXel ^Ay-qGiXdcp ;\;atpetv," 
dvreypaijjev, " ^aaiXevs ^ AyrjoiXaos Meve/cparet 
yytatVeti^." 

1 5at (c/. Moralia 213 c) Hatzidakis: 5^. 



* C/. Moralia, 71 e and 229 c ; Life of Lysander, chap, 
xxii. (445 d). A similar remark is attributed to Agesilaus 
in Moralia, 212 e. 

" King of Sparta, 398-360 b.c. 

* Cf. Moralia, 213c infra. The remark is attributed to 
CalHcratidas, Moralia, '222 e, infra. Cf. also the similar 
sentiment recorded in Herodotus, iv. 142. 

128 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 19O-I91 

towards him in the general council, he said, " Your 
words need a country to back them." " 

AGESILAUS * 

1. Agesilaus used to say that the inhabitants of 
Asia Minor were poor freemen, but good slaves.^ 

2. Regarding their custom of calling the king of the 
Persians the Great King, he said, " In what respect 
is he greater than I, unless he is more upright and 
self-restrained ? " ** 

3. When he was questioned about bravery and 
uprightness and asked which was the better, he said, 
" We have no need of bravery if we are all upright." ^ 

4. When he was about to break camp in haste by 
night to leave the enemy's country, and saw his 
favourite youth, owing to illness, being left behind 
all in tears, he said, " It is hard to be merciful and 
sensible at the same time.*' ^ 

5. Menecrates the physician, who was addressed 
by the title of ' Zeus,' wrote in a letter to him : 
** Menecrates Zeus to King Agesilaus, health and 
happiness." Agesilaus wrote in reply : " King 
Agesilaus to Menecrates, health and sanity ! "^ 

<^ Cf. Moralia, 78 d, 213 c, 545 a ; Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus^ chap, xxiii. (608 r) ; also Xenophon, Agesilaus^ 
8. 4. A similar remark of Socrates is found in Plato, OorgiaSy 
470 E. 

* Cf. Moralia, 213 c, infra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap, xxiii. (608 f). 

f Cf. Moralia, 209 f, infra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xiii. (603 b). 

^ The story is repeated in Moralia, 213 a, and in Plutarch's 
Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxi. (607 e). Aelian, Varia Historia, 
xii. 51 , and Athenaeus, 289 b, say that it was Philip of Macedon 
who thus replied to Menecrates. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(191) 6. AaKeSaLfxovLOJv Se viK-quavriov ^ABrjvaiovs 

Koi Tovs ovfjifiaxovs iv Koptvdcp, rrvOofMevos to 

B ttXtjOos twv TToXefiLOjv veKpojVf " (f)ev rds 'EAAaSos'," 

€t77ev, " a ToaovTovs vcf)^ avrds OiTroXcoXeKev, ooois 

apKeZ TOVS ^ap^dpovs viKrjV arravTas." 

7. y^priopLov he AajSco^- iv 'OAu/iTTta rrapa tov 
Atos" ov rjOeXev, etra tcov i(f)6pa>v KeXevovTcov /cat 
TOV UvOlov epcoTTJaaL nepl tcov avTOJV, els AeA(^oi)s' 
TrapayevopLevos -qpcxjTiqoe tov Beov el direp to) TvaTpl 
SoKel Kol avTcp. 

8. HapacTOvpLevos Se TLva rcov <f)iXo}V irapa tov 
Kapos *ISptea»s"/ eypaipe Trpos avTov, " ISiKtas el 
pLev ovK aSt/cet, d'^es* el Se dSiKel, epLol d<j)es' 
TTOLVTCos he d(f)es." 

9. Tov he piLpiovpievov ttjv ttjs drjhovos (f>ajvr]v 
OLKovaaL TTapaKaXovpievos, " avTas," elTrev, " aKOVKa 

TToXXaKiS." 

C 10. Merd he ttjv iv AevKTpOLs pudxi^i^, TrdvTas 
TOVS TpeoavTas aTipiovs etvac tov vopuov KeXevov- 
Tos, opcbvTes ol ecf)opoL ttjv ttoXlv dvhpojv eprjpLov 
ovaav e^ovXovTO ttjv aTLpuLav XvGai, Kal vopLodeTTjv 
aTTehei^av tov ^Ay7]GLXaov 6 he TTpoeXOcbv els to 
pieaov iKeXevae tovs vopLOVs diro ttjs avpiov 
Kvpiovs elvai. 

1 'IbpUws Xylander (from Moralia, 209 e, and Life of 
AgesUaus, chap, xiii.) : tVptews or Uapiecos. 

° In 394 B.C. 

'' Cf. Moralia, 211 e, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, 
chap. xvi. (604 f) ; Cornelius Nepos, Agesilaus, 5. 2. The 
source is probably Xenophon, AgesilauSy 7. 4. 

" Apollo, the son of Zeus. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 208 f, when the oracle at Dodona is men- 
tioned instead of Olympia. It is probable that this story, 
which was related of Agesipolis by Xenophon, Hellenica, 
130 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 191 

6. The Spartans won a victory over the Athenians 
and their alHes at Corinth," and when he learned the 
number of the enemy's dead he exclaimed, " Alas for 
Greece which by her ain hands has destroyed so 
mony men, in number eneuch to conquer all the 
barbarians ! " ^ 

7. He received an oracle from Zeus at Olympia 
such as he wished, and thereupon the Ephors com- 
manded him to ask the Pythian god '^ about the same 
matter. So, when he arrived at Delphi, he asked the 
god if his opinion was the same as his father's. ^ 

8. In interceding with Hidrieus of Caria for one of 
his friends he wTote : " If Nicias has done no WTong, 
let him go free ; if he has done wrong, let him go as a 
favour to me ; but let him go anyway." * 

9. Being urged to hear a man who gave an imita- 
tion of the nightingale's voice, he said, " I hae heard 
the bird itsel' mony a time." •'' 

10. After the battle of Leuctra, since the law 
decrees that all who run aw^ay in battle shall lose 
their citizenship, and the Ephors saw that the State 
was destitute of men, they, ^vishing to abrogate this 
penalty, invested Agesilaus ^vith authority to revise 
the laws. He came forAvard into their midst, and 
ordered that beginning with the morrow all laws 
should be in full force.^ 

iv. 7. 2, and by Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 23 (mss. Hegisippus), 
has been transferred to Agesilaus. 

« Cf. Moralia, 209 e and 807 f ; and Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xiii. (603 b). 

/ Cf. Moralia, 212 f and 213 c, infra ; Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xxi. (607 e) ; and Life of Lycurgus, chap. 
XX. (52 e). 

" Cf. Moralia, 214 b, infra; Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, 
chap. XXX. (612 f) ; Comparison of Agesilaus and Pompey, 
chap. ii. iQ62 e) ; and Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 1. 13. 

ISl 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(191) 11. 'E77et Se 7r€fjL(f)deLS rw ^aoiXel rcov Alyu- 
TTTLCov avfifxaxos i7ToXiopK€LTO /xct' avTou, TToXXa- 
TrXaoLovcov ovrcov rcov TToXeyiitov /cat 7T6piTa(f)p€V- 
D ovrcov TO arparoTTehov, KeXevaavros CTre^teVat /cat 
Siafidx^crOai rod ^aaiXecjJS, ovk €cj)7] SiaKOjXvcieLV 
rovs TToXefjiLOvg 'loovs avrols yeveodaL ^oyXo/jLe- 
vovs. en Se puKpov dTToXiTTOva-qs rrjs rd(f)pov 
Gvvdipai, Kara rovro Trapard^as^ ro BiaXetTTOV 
/cat rrpos Igovs loois^ dyayviodpievos ivLK7](j€v.^ 

12. ^AttoOvt^gkojv Se rovs (J)lXovs eKeXevoe p/qhe- 
p,iav TrXaardv^ /xT^Se pupnqXdv TTOL'^oaaOaL, rds 
eiKovas ovrco Trpoaayopevcov " et ydp ri KaXov 
epyov 7Te7roL7]Ka, rovro p,ov pivr]p,€l6v icmv^' el Se 
jjLTjSev, ovS^ ol Trdvres dvSptdvres." 

APXIAAMOT TOT AFHSIAAOT 
E 'App^tSayLtos" o ^AyrjGiXdov KararreXruKov ISojv 
peXog rore npcorov e/c 2t/ceAta? KopLioOev dve^6r]oev, 
" c5 'Hpa/cAetS", diToXcxyXev dvSpos dperd." 

AriAOS TOT NEOTEPOT 

1. *0 8e veojrepos ^Aytj, Arjp^dSov Xeyovros ort 
TO, AaKOiviKo. ^i(j>r] Sta puKponqra Karanlvovcnv ol 

^ Trapard^as] wapera^e Hartman. 

2 fcroij E. Kurtz (from Moralia, 215 a): taoi. 

3 dyoiviadfieuos hiK-qaev Hatzidakis and F.C.B. (from 
Moralia^ 215 a) : dywvLcxdixevoL eviKyjaap. 

^ TrXacrrdj' the reading elsewhere (c/. note 6) : irXaOdv. 
5 iartp] ^arai Hatzidakis from Moralia, 215 a, perhaps 
rightly. 

« Cf. Moralia, 214 f, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, 
chap, xxxix. (618a); Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 1. 22; 
Diodorus, xv. 93. 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 191 

11. He was sent as an ally to the king of the 
Egyptians, and was shut up in camp, together with 
the king, besieged by hostile forces which many 
times outnumbered their o^\'n. As the enemy were 
digging a ditch around the encampment, the king 
urged a sally and a decisive battle, but Agesilaus 
refused to hinder the enemy in their desire to put 
themselves on an equal footing with the defending 
force. When the ends of the ditch almost met, he 
drew up his men at this gap, and contending with 
equal numbers against equal numbers ^vt)n a victory. ** 

12. When he was dying he gave orders that his 
friends have no * plaster or paint ' used, for this was 
the way he spoke of statues and portraits. " For," 
said he, " if I have done any noble deed, that is my 
memorial ; but if none, then not all the statues in 
the world avail." * 



ARCHIDAMUS, SON OF AGESILAUS ' 

Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus, on seeing the 
missile shot by a catapult, which had been brought 
then for the first time from Sicily, cried out, " Great 
Heavens ! Man's valour is no more ! " ^ 



AGIS THE YOUNGER • 

1. The Younger Agis, referring to the assertion of 
Demades that jugglers use the Spartan swords for 

'' Cf, Moralia, 215 a, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, 
chap. ii. (596 f) ; Xenophon, Agesilaus, ii. 7 ; Die Chryso- 
stom, Oration xxxv. (466 M., 127 R.); Cicero, Letters, y. 12. 7. 

" Archidamus III., king of Sparta, 361-338 b.c. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 219 a, infra. 

• Agis III., king of Sparta, 338-331 b.c. 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(191) davfjiaroTTOLOi, " /cat i.n]v," ^jiTfy " ju-aAtcrra ol AaK€- 
SaLjioi'LOi Tcov TToXeixiajv roZg ^Lcf^eGLV icfyiKuovvrai." 
2. To) Se Ttpohorrj Trapahovvai orpariajrag rwv 
e(f)6pa)v KeXevovrojv, ovk ecjiiq TTLoreveiv rovs dAAo- 
rptovs TO) TTpohovTi rovg ISlovs. 

KAEOMEXOTS 

KXeopL€V7]s TTpog Tov VTTLGxvovpievov avTO) Scocreiv 
F dXeKTpvovas aTToOv^GKovras eV rw pidx'^oQo.Ly " pLT] 
av ye," el7T€v, " aXXd hos {JLOl rovs KaraKTclvovras 
€V TO) fxdx^crdcK"" 

nAIAAPHTOT 

IlaL^dp7]TOs^ OVK iyKpiBels elg rovs rpiaKoaiovs, 
tJtcs r^v iv rfj rroXet TTpcorevovaa ripir) rfj rd^ei, 
IXapog /cat jxeihichv aTrrjei, ;^atpetv Xeycov el 
TpiaKOGLovs Tj ttoXls e;)(et TToXlras iavrov peXrlovas. 

AAMfiXIAOT 

Aa/X60vt8as" Se raxOels el? ttjv reXevralav tov 
Xopov rd^LV VTTO rod rov xopov LGTdvroSy " evye," 
eiTTev, " i^evpes ttws /cat avrrf eVrt/xos" yev7]Tai.' 

^ I[aibapt)Tos in Moralia, 231 b, and Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. XXV. The mss. of Thucydides viii. give IleSdpiros: 
TraiSdperos. 

2 avTT} F.C.B. from Moralia, 149 a, where the »iss. have a 
similar error : avrbs, probably due to ^utl/j-os : odros Pantazides, 
6 Tdrros Bernardakis would add. 



** Cf. Moralia, 216 c, infra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Lycurgus, chap. xix. (51 e). 

'' Attributed to Agis II. in Moralia, 215 c. 

« Cleomenes II., king of Sparta, 370-309 B.C. 
134 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 191 

swallowing because of their small size, said, " But it 
is a fact that the Spartans, above all men, reach their 
enemies with their swords. "<^ 

2. When the Ephors ordered him to turn over 
soldiers to a traitor to lead, he said that he did not 
entrust another's men to the man that betrayed his 
own.* 

CLEOMENES ' 

Somebody promised to give to Cleomenes cocks 
that would die fighting, but he retorted, " No, don't, 
but give me those that kill fighting." <* 

PAEDARETUS • 

When Paedaretus was not chosen to be one of the 
three hundred,^ an honour which ranked highest in 
the State, he departed, cheerful and smiling, with 
the remark that he was glad if the State possessed 
three hundred citizens better than himself.*' 

DAMONIDAS 

When Damonidas was assigned to the last place in 
the chorus by the director, he said, " Good ! You 
have discovered a way by which even this place may 
come to be held in honour." ^ 

^ Cf. Moralia, 224 b, infra, and Plutarch's lAfe of 
Lycurgus, chap. xx. (52 e). 

• Spartan general at the time of the Peloponnesian war ; 
also spelled Paedaritus (and Pedaritus ?). 

f Cf Herodotus, vii. 205, and viii. 124 ; Thucydides, v. 72 ; 
Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 4. 3. 

" Cf Moralia, 231 b, and Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. XXV. {55 c). 

^ Cf Moralia, 149 a and 219 e. A similar remark is 
attributed to Agesilaus in Moralia, 208 d, and the idea is 
also accredited to Aristippus by Diogenes Laertius, ii. 73. 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



NIKOSTPATOT 



192 Nt/cdcrrparos' o tG)v ^Apyeicov arparriyos vtto 
^ Apxt'^oLf^ov )(copLov TL TTpohovvai TTapaKoXovjievos 
errl ;(p7]/xacrt ttoXXois kol ydficp AaKaLvrjs tjv 
^ovXerai Slxcl tcov ^aacXiKcJov, arreKpivaTO firj 
elvai rov ^Apxl^ctfJiov d(f)^ ^HpaKXeovs' rov fjuev 
yap 'Hpa/<:Aea Trepuovra tovs KaKovs KoXat^eiVy 
'App^tSa/xov 8e TOVS dyaOovs KaKovs TTOieiv. 

ETAAMIAOT 
1 . E^jSa/itSa?^ ISojv ev 'AfcaST^/xeta^ "RevoKpdrrjv 
rrpeo^vrepov rjSr] jxerd tojv pLadrjrdJv ^iXoao^ovvra 
Kol TTvOopievos on ttjv dperrjv ^'r]T€Ly " TTore ovv," 

B 2. YldXiv dKovoas (jiiXoGo^ov SiaXexOevros on 
fxovos dyadog urpaTr^yos 6 GO(f)6s iunv, " 6 puev 
XoyoSy" ^(f>'^) " OavfxaGTOs, 6 8e Xeyo)V ov Trepi- 
aeodXTTiGTai.^ " 

ANTIOXOT 
^ Avrioxos €(f)op€va>v, cog 7]kovg€v on M^eaGrjvLOLg 
^IXiTTTTOs TTjv x^P*^^ eScoKev, rjpwrrjGev el kol to 
Kparelv avrolg pLaxofxevois Tvepl rrjs X^P^^ eScuKCV. 

ANTAAKIAOT 

1. 'AvraA/ctSas" Trpos rov ^AUrjvatov dpLaOets 

aTTOKaXovvra rovs AaKeSaifioviovs , " jjlovol yovVy* 

^ E05a/x/5as Xylander from Moralia, 220 d : evSaifiopidas. 

2 ' AKabrjjjLeia the better spelling : a.Ka5r]fj.ia. 

* irepiaeo-aXinyKTai Stobaeus, Florilegiunif liv. 65. 

" At the time of Archidamus III., 361-338 b.c. 
* Brother of Agis III., whom he succeeded in 331-330 B.C. 
136 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 192 

NICOSTRATUS 

Nicostratus, the general of the Argives,** was 
urged by Archidamus to betray a certain strong- 
hold, his reward to be a large sum of money and 
marriage with any Spartan woman he washed, save 
only the royal family ; but his reply was that Archi- 
damus was not descended from Heracles, for Heracles, 
as he went about, punished the bad men, but Arclii- 
damus made the good men bad. 

EUDAMIDAS » 

1. Eudamidas, seeing Xenocrates, already well on 
in years, discussing philosophy with his pupils in the 
Academy, and being informed that he was seeking 
after virtue, said, '* And when will he make use of 
it ? " c 

2. At another time, after he had Hstened to a 
philosopher who argued that the wise man is the 
only good general, he said, " The speech is admirable, 
but the speaker has never been amid the blare of 
trumpets." ^ 

ANTIOCHUS 

Antiochus, when he was an ephor, heard that 
Philip had given to the Messenians their land, where- 
upon he asked whether Philip had also given them 
the power to prevail in fighting to keep it.* 

ANTALCIDAS f 

1. Antalcidas, retorting to the Athenian who 
called the Spartans unlearned, said, " At any rate, 

« Cf. Moralia, 220 d. ^ Ibid. 220 d infra. 

* Repeated ibid. 217 f. 

^ Spartan admiral and politician who negotiated the 
" Peace of Antalcidas " between Persia and Greece, 387 b.c. 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(192) eL7T€v, '* rjfjLels ovSev /ie/xa^Tj/ca/xei^ KaKov Trap' 

v-* 2. Erepou §€ ^AOiqvaiov Trpos avrov eiTTOvroSy 
aAAa ^Tfv rjfjL€L£ oltto rod Kt]^kto{; TroAAaxts" 

u/xa? eSico^afjiev/* " rjfjieL? 8e ovSeiroTe/' eLTrev, 

** i^/xa? d770 Tou Eupdjra." 

3. Ho(j)iuTov Se jLteAAovTOS' avayti^cocr/cetv ey- 

KWfjLLov 'H/oaAcAeous", ^(^17, " Tt? yap aurov ipeyeL;" 

EHAMEINfiNAOT 

1. 'E77a/xetva)v8ou rou Qrjpaiov Grparrjyovvros, 
ovheTTore iraviKos dopv^os iveTreorev els to arparo- 
TTeSov. 

2. "EAeye Se rov iv TroXifico ddvarov elvai koX- 

XlGTOV. 

3. Tcov he ottXitwv helv aTre^aivev elvai to 
acjiia yeyvfivaafxevov ovk dOXrjTLKCvs [xovov aAAa 

D /cat orparnoTiKCJS' 8to /cat rots' TroXvadpKois eiro- 
Ae/xet, /cat rtva roiovrov aTrriXaGe rrj? arparids 
eLTTcbv on pLoXis avrov GKeirovGi rr]v yaorepa 
duTrihes rpels ri recraapes, St* rjv ovx eojpaKev 
avrov TO atSotop. 

4. Ovrco he rjv evreXrjs rrepl rrjv SlaLrav ^oare 
KXr]deis eirl heiirvov vtto yeirovos evpcbv TrepLfidrajv 

■ Cf. Moralia, 2 1 7 d. The saying is attributed to Pleisto- 
anax in Moralia, 281 d, and in Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. XX. (52 d). 

" Cf. Moralia, 217 d and 810 f, Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xxxi. (613 d). The Cephisus was a river 
near Athens, and the Eurotas a river near Sparta. 

138 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 192 

we alone have learned no evil from you Athen- 
ians." ^ 

2. When another Athenian said to him, " You 
cannot deny that we have many a time put you to 
rout from the Cephisus," he said, " But we have 
never put you to rout from the Eurotas ! " ^ 

3. When a lecturer was about to read a laudatory 
essay on Heracles, he said, " Why, who says anything 
against him ? " * 



EPAMEINONDAS « 

1. While Epameinondas the Theban was general, 
panic never fell upon his troops. 

2. He used to say that the most beautiful death 
was death in war. 

3. He used to declare that the heavy-armed 
soldier ought to have his body trained not only by 
athletic exercises but by military drill as well.* For 
this reason he always showed a repugnance towards 
fat men, and one such man he expelled from the army, 
saying that three or four shields would scarce serve 
to protect his belly, because of which he could not 
see a thing below it.^ 

4. He was so frugal in his manner of living that 
once, when he Mas invited to dinner by a neighbour, 
and found there an elaborate display of cake and 

« Cf. Moralia, 217 d. 

** Famous Theban general and statesman, 420-362 b.c. 
These sayings were doubtless incorporated in Plutarch's 
Life of Epameinondas, now lost. A collection of stories 
about Epameinondas will be found in Polyaenus, Stratege- 
mata, ii. 3. 

* Cf. Cornelius Nepos, Epaminondas, xv. 2. 4 and 5. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. ix. (341 c). 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(192) Kal oijjiov /cat [jLvpajv TrapadKevrjV aTrrjXdev €v6v9, 
elTTcov, " iyo) ere dveiv a)o/x7]y ovx v^pit,€iv** 

5. Tou Se fjLayetpov rols Gvvdpxovoiv rjfjiepcov 
rivoiv 8a7Tdv7]v dTToXoyit^opievov y irpos fxovov r^yava' 

E KT-que TO TrXrjOos rov iXatov davpLaaavrajv he rcov 
GVvapxo^TOJV, ov TO rrjg haTrdviqs €(f)r] Xvirelv 
avTov, dXX el togovtov eXaiov evros TiapaheheKrai 
rod acLfiaros. 

6. 'KopTr]v Se t^s" TToXecog dyovorrjs /cat Travrcov 
iv TToroLS /cat avvovoiais ovtcxjv, dTTT^vrrjae tlvi rcov 
GVVTjdcjv avxpi'r]pos /cat avvvovs /SaSt^cov davfid- 
^ovTos Se /cat jrvvOavofievov ri hrj ixovos ovrcos 
ex(J^v TTepteicrLv, " ottoj?/' etirev, " e^fj Trdaiv vjmv 
fxedveiv /cat padvpLelv." 

7. "AvdpcoTTov 8e <j)avXov i^rjpLaprrjKora Tt rwv 
l^ierpicxiv, rod [xev IleAoTT-tSa napaKaXovvros , ovk 
d(f)7JK€, TTJS" 3* epcjjpLev-qs heiqdeioiqs, d(j)rJKeVy eliTOJV 

F oTt TOLavra TTpeirei Xapi^dveiv CTatptStots", dXXd jxr) 
arparrjyoLS. 

8. 'E77et 8e AaKeSaijJLOvLcov eTTidTparevojievajv 
dvecfyepovTO xP'^^^f^ol roig S-q^aloig, ol fxev rjrrav ot 
Se viKTjv ^pdt,ovTeSt eKe^eve rovg pikv eirl Se^ta rod 
^rjiJiaros OelvaL rovs he en dpiurepa. redevrcov 
he TrdvroiVy dvaords elirev, " edv fiev edeXrjGiqre 
roLS dpxovGL ireideodai /cat Tots" TToXepiioLS ojjLoae 
XcopeXv, ovroi Vfxtv elolv ol xP'Q^l^oi," hei^as rovs 
^eXriovas' " edv he dTToheiXidGi-jre irpos rov klv- 
hvvov, eKelvoL," Trpos rovs x^^P^^^^ Ihcov. 

" Cf. Moralia, 1099 c, and perhaps Diogenes Laertius, 
vi. 28. 

'' Cf. Themistius, Oration vii. 88 c 
« Cf. Moralia, 808 e. 

140 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 192 

pastry and other dishes, and perfumes as well, he 
left at once, saying, " I thought this was to be a meal 
and not a display of arrogance." ^ 

5. When the cook rendered his accounts to 
Epameinondas and his fellow-officers of the expenses 
for several days, Epameinondas showed indignation 
only at the great amount of olive oil. As his fellow- 
officers expressed their surprise, he said it was not 
the matter of expense that worried him, but that he 
had taken into his body so much oil. 

6. While the city was keeping hohday, and all 
were busy with drinking and social enjoyment, 
Epameinondas, as he was walking along unwashed 
and absorbed in thought, met one of his intimate 
friends, who inquired in surprise why it was that he 
alone was going about in that state. " So that all 
of you," said he, " may get drunk and have a holi- 
day." ^ 

7. A worthless fellow, who was guilty of one of the 
minor offences, he would not let off at the request of 
Pelopidas, but, when the man's mistress pleaded for 
him, he let him off, saying that such favours may pro- 
perly be received by strumpets, but not by generals.^ 

8. When the Spartans threatened an invasion, and 
oracles were reported to the Thebans, of which some 
told of defeat and others of victory, he ordered that 
these be placed at the right of the speakers' plat- 
form, and those at the left. When they had all been 
so placed, he arose and said, " If you are wilHng to 
obey your officers, and come to close quarters with 
the enemy, these are the oracles for you," and he 
pointed to those of good omen ; " but if you are 
going to play the cowards in the face of danger, then 
those," and he glanced at those of ill omen. 

14] 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

9. YldXiv 8e TTpocrdyojv rot? TToXe/jLLOig, ^povrrjs 
yevofjLevTjg Kal rojv Trepl avrov TTVvOo.vouevojv ri 

193 crrjfJLaLveiV o'Urat rov Oeov, iii^e^povrrjaOaL tov<; 
TToXejJLLOvg elnev ore toiovtcxjv ;j^a>pta)V eyyvs ovrojv, 
iv TOiovroLs GrparoirehevovGLV . 

10. "Yihiurov he ttolvtcov avrcp rcov yeyovorojv 
KaXcov Kal dyadcov eXeye to tov^ irarpos ert ^oj^'tos' 
/cat rris fir^rpos iv AevKrpoig VLKrjcxaL Aa/ceSat- 
fjiovLOvg. 

1 1 . Etco^cos' Se (jiaiveGdai rov dXXov "x^povov 
dXrjXijipievos to crcD/xa Kal </>at8p6s' tw TrpoGCjOTTO), 
fieTOL TTjV fxax'Tji^ iKeivqv Tjj vaTepala TrporjXOev 
avxP'Tipos Kal Taireivos' tcjv 8e <l>iXcov ipojTOjvTOJV 

IXiq Tt XvTTTJpOV aVTCp GVpLTreTTTCOKeVy " ovSeVy" 

eiTTev, " aAA' ixOeg fjudoiJirjv ipiavTov pLel^ov 7) 
KaXcog ex^f' (jipov-quavTos' Sto (JT^jJiepov KoXdt,co ttjv 
B dpL€TpiaV TTJS x^P^^-" 

12. EiScbs" Se Tovg STTaprtaras- eTTiKpVTTTOfJievovs 
TO, ToiavTa GvjjLTTTcofjLaTa, Kal ^ovXofjievos efeAeyfat 
TO ixiyedos ttjs ovpi^opds avTcbv, ovx ofiov Trdoi 
veKp(x)V dvaipeaiv dXX eKdoTOis /caro. ttoXlv eSwKev, 
cocrre TrXeuovas tj x^Xiovs ovTas oc/idTJvaL tovs Aa/ce- 

baLfJLOViOJV. 

13. 'laCToyo? Se tov ©erraAcov jjLovdpxov avfi- 
fjidxov fjiev els Si^^as Trapayevofievov , hiox^'Xiovs Se 
Xpvcrovs Tip ^EiTTafieLVcovSa TrefufjavTOS laxvpwg 
TTevojxeva), to puev ;)(pfcrtoi^ ovk eXa^e, tov Se 

1 rb TOV Bernardakis, comparing the other versions in 
Plutarch : to twv yeivafxiuujv avrbv tov. 



* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 3. 3. 
142 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 192-193 

9. On another occasion, when he was leading his 
troops against the enemy, there came a thunder- 
stroke, and, when those about him inquired what he 
thought the god meant to signify by this, he rephed, 
" That the enemy have been thunder-struck out of 
all sense because, when such places as those are near 
at hand, they pitch their camp in places such as 
these." ° 

10. He used to say that of all the fair and goodly 
fortune that had fallen to his lot the thing that gave 
him the greatest gratification was that his \ictory 
over the Spartans at Leuctra came while his father 
and mother were still living.^ 

11. It was his habit to appear at all times with a 
well-groomed body and a cheerful countenance, but 
on the day after that battle he went forth unwashed 
and with a look of dejection. When his friends asked 
if anything distressing had befallen him, he said, 
" Nothing ; but yesterday I found myself feeling a 
pride greater than is well. Therefore to-day I am 
chastising my immoderate indulgence in rejoicing." 

12. Knowing that the Spartans were wont to con- 
ceal such calamities as this, and wishing to bring out 
clearly the magnitude of their disaster, he did not 
grant them leave to remove their dead all together, 
but separately by cities, so that it was seen that the 
Spartan dead numbered over a thousand.'' 

13. When Jason, monarch of Thessaly, arrived at 
Thebes as an ally, he sent two thousand pieces of 
gold to Epameinondas, who was then sadly in want. 
Epameinondas did not take the money, but with a 

^ Cf. Moralla, 786 d and 1098 b, and Plutarch's Life of 
Coriolanus, chap. iv. (215 c). 

" The story is told with sUghtly more details by Pausanias, 
ix. 13. 11 and 12. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(193) 'laCTOva Oeaadixevo^, " olSlkojv," ^'<^^> " ;^etpajp 
dpx^L?"' auTo? Se Trevr-^KOvra SpaxfJiOiS 8avet- 
C adfJLevos Trapd tlvos tcov ttoXltcov, e^oStov t'i^s' 
orparids, ivi^aXev els IlcXoTTovvrjGov. 

14. Au^t? Se Tou ITepcjcDv ^adcXeajs rpicrpLvplovg 
SapeiKov? dTToareiXavTos avrco, KaOTJiJjaro TriKpcos 
AiopLeSovros, el rocrovrov ttXovv TreTrXevKe Sta- 
(f)6ep(jov ^KirajJieLvcovSav npos he rov ^aatXea Xeyeiv 
eKeXevcrev on ra avjJL(f)epovra Qrj^atoLS ^povojv 
e^ei TTpoiKa (f>lXov 'E77ajU,etvcuvSav, ra Se [mtj ovpu- 
(j)epovTa TToXeyLiov. 

15. *E77et 8e 'Apyetot puev eyevovTO avfipuaxoL 
SrjPalojv, ^Adr]vaicx}v 8e TTpeo^eis els ^ApKaSuav 
TTapayevofjLevoL Kariqyopovv dficliOTepwv, Kal KaAAt- 

D arparos 6 p-qrcop (hveihiue tov 'Opeorrrjv /cat rov 
OlSiTToSa rats TToXeauv, eTravaards 6 ^EiTra/JLeivcovSas, 
" opioXoyovpLeVy" '^4*''1> " ^^^ Trap' rjpuv TrarpoKrovov 
yevead ai Kal Trap" ^Apyeiois pbr^rpoKTOvov aXXd 
Tovs ravra hpdaavras 'qpuels puev i^e^aXopuev, 
^Adqvaloi Se VTrehe^avro.'* 

16. Ilpog he rovs ^TTapridras 77oAAa /cat pue- 
ydXa TCOV Q'q^aiojv KaT7]yop-^GavTas, " ovtol puev- 
TOt," eLTTeVy " vpids ^pa^vXayovvras eTravaav." 

17. 'E77€t he ^AXe^avhpov tov ^epaiajv Tvpavvov 
E TToXepLLov ovTa Q-q^alojv ^AOiqvaloi (j)iXov eiroitj- 

aavTO /cat Gvpupaxov VTToaxop^evov avToZs rjpioj^o- 
Xlov TTjV pLvdv Kpeojv covLov TTape^eiVy " rjpLecs he/* 
e(f>r] 6 *Fi7TapLeiva)vhas , " ^vXa TTpoiKa irape^opiev 

" Cf. Moralia, 583 r, and Aelian, Varla Historia, xi. 9. 

^ Cf. Cornelius Nepos, Epaminondas, xv. 4, where the 
same story is told in more words, and Aelian, Varia Historia^ 
V. 5, where the fact is recorded in very few words. 
144 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 193 

steadfast look at Jason said, " You are beginning 
wrong." Then he borrowed a couple of pounds from 
one of his fellow-citizens to meet his personal expenses 
in the campaign, and invaded the Peloponnesus." 

14. On a later occasion, when the king of the 
Persians sent twenty-five thousand pounds to him, 
he assailed Diomedon bitterly because he had made 
such a long voyage to corrupt Epameinondas ; and 
he bade him say to the king that if the king should 
hold views conducive to the good of the Thebans, he 
should have Epameinondas as his friend for nothing ; 
but if the reverse, then as his enemy.^ 

15. When the Argives entered the Theban alli- 
ance,^ ambassadors of the Athenians arrived at 
Arcadia and accused both nations ; and when Calli- 
stratus, the chief speaker, held up Orestes and 
Oedipus as a reproach to their respective cities, 
Epameinondas, rising to reply, said, " We admit that 
we have had a parricide among us, and the Argives a 
matricide ; but we expelled from our land those who 
didthesedeeds, and the Athenians received them ! " ^ 

16. When the Spartans accused the Thebans of a 
long list of serious offences, he retorted, " These 
Thebans, however, have put a stop to your brevity of 
speech ! " ^ 

17. When the Athenians took as a friend Alex- 
ander, the despot of Pherae, who was an enemy of 
the Thebans, and he promised to supply the Athen- 
ians with meat to be sold at a penny a pound, 
Epameinondas said, " But we will supply them with 

" In 370 B.C. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 810 r, and Cornelius Nepos, Epaminondas, 
XV. 6. 1-3. 

• Cf. Moralia^ 545 a. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*A6r]vaiOLs irrl ra Kpea ravra- rrjv yap y^ujpav 
avTCJV T€fjiovfjLev, av TToXvTTpayfxovcvcn." 

18. Tot's" Se Boicorovs vtto axoXrjs eKXvofJievovs 
del ^ovXofxevos iv rois ottXols Gwex^Lv, oTTore 
BoLOjrdpxr]s alpedeur], 7rapaiva>v^ eXeyev, " en 
^ovXevaaaOe, dVSpes" idv yap iyco GTparrjyaj, 
OTparevreov iarlv vjjllv "' /cat rrjv ;^copav WTrrtav 
ovaav Kal dvaTreTTraixiv-qv * rroXepLov opxT^crrpav ' 
Trpoarrjyopevev , chs fxrj hwapbivovs Kparelv aurry?, 
av fjLTj TTjv X^^P^ ^'■^ TTopiraKos exo)UL, 
F 19 • Tou 8e XajSptou irepl K.6pLvdov oXtyovg 
TLvds TOJV Qrj^aioiv vtto to, reixr] ^iXopiaxovvras 
KarapaXovros Kal Gri^aavros rporraiov, 6 'ETrajLtet- 
vciivhas KarayeXaJv €(f>r], " ivravda Set ov rpoTraiov 
dXXd 'E/caratov^ iardvai "' rrjv yap 'E/carT^v eVt- 
€lk6js iv raig Tvpo rcbv ttvXojv ISpvovro rptoSots". 

20. ^ATTayyelXavrog Be twos djs ^AdiqvaZoL arpd- 
revpia KaivoZs KeKoopL-qpievov ottXols els HeXoTTovvrj- 
aov direGTaXKaGL, " ri ovvj' etnev, " ^AvTLyevlSas 
areVet' Kaivovs TeXXr]vos avXovs exovros ; " rjv Se 
avXrjTTjs 6 pLev TeXXr]v* KdKLGros, 6 Be ^AvriyevlBas 
AcaAAtcrros-. 
194 21. Top 8e VTraGTnGrrjv alodopLevos elXrjcfyoTa' 
XpT^P'OLTa TToXXd Trap* dvhpos alxpt-OiXwrov yeyovoros , 

^ TTapaLvQ>v'\ irapiwu S. A. Naber. 

' There can be little doubt that Epameinondas said 'E/cd- 
Tatov, although the mss. have a later form 'EKaTTjaiov, 

^ arifei] varepet S. A. Naber. 

^ T AXt^j/ Hatzidakis : T^XXt/s. 
146 



SAYINGS OF KINGS, 193-194 

wood to cook their meat for nothing ; for we will 
cut down everything in their land, if they make any 
trouble." 

18. The Boeotians, relaxed by leisure, he was 
always desirous of keeping continually under arms, 
and whenever he was chosen Governor of Boeotia 
he used to urge his advice upon the people, saying, 
" Bethink yourselves once more, men, for, if I am 
general, you will have to serve in my army." And 
he used to call their country, which was flat and ex- 
posed, ' the dancing-floor of War,' " intimating that 
they could not hold their power over it if they did not 
keep a grip on the handles of their shields. 

19. Chabrias, in the vicinity of Corinth, having 
struck down some few Thebans whose eagerness led 
them to carry the fighting to the foot of the walls, 
set up a trophy.^ Epameinondas, ridicuhng it, said, 
" In that place should stand, not a trophy, but a 
Hecate " ; for it was in keeping to set up an image 
of Hecate, as they used to do, at the meeting of 
three ways in front of the gates. 

20. When somebody reported that the Athenians 
had sent an army, decked out with novel equipment, 
into the Peloponnesus, he said, " Why should Anti- 
genidas cry if Tellen has a new flute or two ? " 
(Tellen was the worst of flute-players, and Anti- 
genidas the best.^") 

21. Learning that his shield-bearer had received a 
great deal of money from a man who had been taken 

° Cf. Plutarch's Life of Marcellus^ chap. xxi. (310 b), 
where two other picturesque expressions of similar meaning 
are quoted. 

^ Cf. Diodorus, xv. 69. 

" There are many references to the skill of Antigenidas ; 
it must sufl&ce here to refer only to Moralia^ 335 a. 

14.7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(194)"€/xot fi€V," eiTTev, " olttoSos r'r]v OLGTriSa, aeavrco 
8e TTptoj KaTTrjXelov, ev a) /caTa^Tjcrets" ovKen yap 
edeXrio€is KLvSvvevetv ofJLOLCUS els tcjv TrXovorlcoP 
yeyovojs Kal /xa/captcuv." 

22. 'EpcoTT^^et? 8e TTorepov iavrov riyeZrai jScA- 
riova arparrjyov r) Xa/Sptav ■^ *I(j)LKpdrr]v " Sucr- 

KpLTOV," ei7T£V, " €Wg l,a)jJL€V." 

23. 'Evret Se eV rrjs AaKCovLKrjs VTroarTpei/jas 
€<f)evy€ Oavdrov SIktjv [xerd tojv GvarparTjyojv, djs 
eTTL^aXajv rrj BoLcorapxta napd rov vopuov ria- 

B (Japas jjLTJvas, rovs [xev avvdpxovras eKeXevev el? 
iavrov dvo.(j)ep€LV rrjv alriav (hs iK^iaadevras, 
avTos 8e ovK ecfjrj ^eXriovas e;)^€tF tcdv epya)V 
Xoyovs' el Se Set rt TrdvTCxJS elireZv Trpos rovs 
hiKaurdsy d^Lovv, dv dTTOKreivcxJOiv avrov, eiri- 
ypdipai rfj aT')]Xrj rrjv KaraSiKrjv, ottcos ol "EAA/^ve? 
elSojGLV OTL fjLTj ^ovXojJLevovs Srj^aLovs 'ETra/xctvojv- 
8a? rjvdyKacie r-qv AaKOJViKriv TTVpTToXrjaaL, Trevra- 
KoaloLs iviavTols aSi^coTOV ovaav olKiaai hk 
^leoGTivriv hi irdJv rpidKovra Kal hiaKOGiajv 
ovvrd^ai 8e /cat ovvayayelv elg ravrov 'ApAcaSa?* 
aTToSouyat 8e rot? "FiXXr)(n ttjv avrovofxtav. ravra 
ydp eTTpdxdr] Kar iK6LV7]v ttjv orpareiav. e^rjX6ov 

•* Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, xi. 9 ; Themistius, Oration 
vii., 88 c. 

148 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 194 

captive in the war, he said to him, " Give me back 
my shield, and buy yourself a tavern in which to 
spend the rest of your days ; for you ^\1ll no 
longer be willing to face danger as before, now 
that you have become one of the rich and pros- 
perous." ° 

22. Being asked whether he regarded himself or 
Chabrias or Iphicrates as the better general, he said, 
" It is hard to decide while we are alive." 

23. Upon his return from Laconia he was put on 
trial for his life, together with his fellow-generals, 
for having added, contrary to the law, four months 
to his term of office as Governor of Boeotia. * He 
bade his fellow-officers to put the responsibihty on 
him, as if their action had been dictated by him, and 
said that he himself had not any words to speak 
better than his deeds ; but if he absolutely must 
make a statement to the judges, he required from 
them as his just due, if they put him to death, to 
inscribe their sentence upon his tombstone, so that 
the Greeks might know that Epameinondas had 
compelled the Thebans against their will to lay waste 
Laconia with fire and sword, which for five hundred 
years ^ had been unravaged ; and that he had re- 
populated Messene after a space of two hundred and 
thirty years, and had organized the Arcadians and 
united them in a league, and had restored self- 
government to the Greeks. As a matter of fact, all 
these things had been accomplished in that cam- 

* When the Thebans invaded the Peloponnesus, 370-369 

B.C. 

" Plutarch in his Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxxi. (613 b), 
says " not less than six hundred " ; one is probably as 
correct as the other. 

VOL. Ill F 149 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C ovv ol SiKacrTal gvv TToXkco yeXcoTi jJL-qSk ras 
(194) ilfT](f>ovs €77* avTov dvaXa^6vT€s. 

24-. 'Ev 8e rfj reXevraia fJidxT] Tpcxjdels koX KOfiL- 
adelg inl GKTjvrjv e/caAet A.ai(f)avTov , elra fier* eKel- 
vov 'loAatSay^* redvdvai Se rovs dvhpas Trvdofjuevog 
CKcXeve SiaXveadaL rrpos rovs TToXefiiovs y cus" ovk 
ovTos avToZs arparrjyov. /cat rw Xoyco to epyov 
efxaprvprjcrev cLs elSoros dpiara rovs TToXiras. 

llEAOniAOT 

1. HcAoTTtSa? o GV(jrpdTr)yog 'ETrajLtetvcovSou,' 
Tojp (jyiXcov avTov dfieXelv XeyovrcDV TTpdyfiarog 

D dvayKaiov, XPVH-^'''^^ Gvvayojyrjs, " dvayKoia rd 
XpT^p-CLTa VTj Ata," etire, " rovTcp NtKroSo^/xo),'" 
Sei^ag ;^6oAov /cat dvdTTiqpov dvdpojTTOv. 

2. T-^s" §€ yuyat/cos", CTTt ixd-)(r]v i^iovros avrov, 
Seofievrjs crco^etv iavrov, aAAotS" 6^17 Sett' rovro 
TTapaiveZvy dp^ovn he /cat arpaTr]ycp aay^etv rovs 
TToXlras. 

1 'loXatdav Aelian, Varia Historia, xii. 3: loWidav (or 
i'oXXtcaj'). 

2 'ETra/^eti'wi'Soi; F.C.B. C/". No. 6 infra: ^iraixLvoivda^ but 
there is no uniformity in the mss. Bernardakis would read 
the dative, '^-rraixeivihvdq.^ which is probably wrong. 

3 ^iKodrjixip, Life of Pelopidas^ chap. iii. : vLKoiJ.7j8ei. S. A. 
Naber would read 'Nlk65t]/ji.ov, but the reading in the Life 
and in Aelian is against it. 

" There are many references to this story, and it was even 
used as a corpus vile for argumentation in the schools, to 
judge from Cicero, Le inventione, i. 33 (55-56) and 38 (69). 
The story is repeated in Moralia, 540 d and 799 e ; Aelian, 
Varia Historia, xiii. 42 ; Pausanias, ix. 14. 5-7 ; Cornelius 
Nepos, Epaminondas, xv. 7. 3-8. 5. Appian, Roman History, 
Syrian Wa7'S, 40-41, compares the action of Epameinondas 

150 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS. 194 

paign. Thereupon the judges left the court-room 
with hearty laughter, and did not even take up their 
ballots to cast against him." 

24. When in his last battle ^ he had been wounded 
and carried into a tent, he called for Daiphantus, and 
next after him for lolaidas, and, learning that the 
men were dead, he bade the Thebans to make terms 
with the enemy, since no general was left to them. 
And the facts bore out his words, for he best knew 
his fellow-citizens.*' 

PELOPIDAS 

1. Pelopidas, the associate of Epameinondas in 
command, in reply to his friends who told him that 
he was neglecting a very necessary business, the 
amassing of money, said, " Yes, on my word, money 
is necessary — for Nicodemus here ! "<* as he pointed 
to a lame and crippled man. 

2. As he was leaving home for the field of battle, 
his wife begged him to have a care for his life. " This 
advice," said he, " should be kept for others, but for 
a commander and general the advice should be to 
have a care for the lives of the citizens." * 

with the similar action of Scipio Africanus Major {Moralia, 
196 f) ; and this suggests the probability that Appian had 
before him Plutarch's Parallel Lives of Epameinondas and 
Scipio, now lost. 

^ At Mantineia, in 362 b.c. 

* Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia^ xii. 3. Other authors lay 
stress on the fortitude with which he met his end. Cf. 
Diodorus, xv. 87 ; Cornelius Nepos, Epaminondas, xv. 9 ; 
Valerius Maximus, iii. 2, ext. 5 ; Justin, Historiae Philippicae, 
vi. 8. 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pelopidas, chap. iii. (279 c) 
Aelian, Varia Historia, xi. 9. 

* Cf. the Life of Pelopidas, chap. xix. (288 c), 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(194) 3. Elttovtos 8e tlvos twv Grpariairchv, '* ijx- 
TTeTTTcoKafJLev els rovs TToXefJLLOvs,^* " rt /xaAAov/' 
€LTT€V, " rj etV rjfJLdg iKelvoi; " 

4. 'ETret 8e TrapacrTTOvSrjOels vtto ^AXe^dvSpov 
rod ^epalcov rvpdvvov koX SeOels KaKcos avrov 
eXeyev, elirovros eKeivov, " onevheis diToBaveiv; 

" Trdvv [xev ovv," eiTrev, " tva jjlolXXov napo^vvdajGL 
Qrj^aXoL, /cat crv Slktjv Sws rdx^ov. 

5. Q-n^Tjs Se rrjg rod rvpdvvov yvvaLKos iXdov- 
ar]S TTpos UeXoTTcSav koI Xeyovar)? davfidt,€LV on 
ovrcos iXapos icrn SeSejueVo?, avros e(j)r] fidXXov 
daviJLdt,€LV iKeiV-qv, on /jlt) SeSejxevj] VTrofxevec 
^AXe^avSpov. 

E 6. KopLLoafievov 8' avrov rod ^ETrafxeLVcovSov, 
Xdpiv €i7T€V e'xetv ^AXe^dvSpo)- TreTreipdodai^ yaf. 
iavrov vvv fidXicrra ov fxovov npos TToXefiov, aXXa 
Kal rrpos ddvarov evOaparo)? exovrog. 

1 ireireipda-daL] TreTretparat some M93. 



152 



SAYINGS OF KINGS AND COMMANDERS, 194 

3. When one of his soldiers said, " We have fallen 
among the enemy," he said, " Why any more than 
they among us ? " " 

4. When he fell a victim to the treachery of Alex- 
ander, despot of Pherae, and was put in bonds, he 
upbraided Alexander ; and when the despot said, ' ' Are 

. you so eager to die," he replied, " Yes, I certainly am, 
'SO that the Thebans may become the more exasper- 
lated, and you may get your deserts the sooner." ^ 
• 5. Thebe, the despot's wife, came to Pelopidas and 
'said that she was amazed because he was so cheerful 
,in his bonds. Pelopidas replied that he was even 
more amazed at her because she without being in 
bonds could abide Alexander.^ 

6. After Epameinondas had obtained his general's 
release, Pelopidas said that he felt grateful to Alex- 
ander ; for by actual test he had now found himself 
piore than ever to be of good courage not only in 
facing war but also in facing death. 

" Repeated in the Life of Pelopidas, chap. xvii. (286 a). 
\ similar remark is attributed to Leonidas, Moralia^ 225 b, 
Infra, and to an unnamed Spartan, 234 b, infra. 
i ^ Cf. Plutarch's Lnfe of Pelopidas, chap.' xxviii. (293 a). 

" Ibid. (293 b). 



153 



PnMAION AnOOGErMATA^ 

(194) MANIOT KOTPIOT 

1 . Mavtos" Kouptos", iyKaXovvTOjv avro) tlvojv 
on rrjs alxiiciXchTov -x^fjjpas oXiyov iKaorco fxepos 
hiev£iiJi€ rr]v 8e ttoXXtjv eTToirjue hrjixooiav, eTrrjij^aro 
ixrjheva yeveadai 'PcofMalcov os oXlyrjv rjyTqaeTaL 
yrjv TTjV rpec/yovorav. 
F 2. SawtrcDv Se jxera rrjv rjrrav dcfyiKOficvcov 
jrpos avrov koX ;\;puo-60i' hSovrcxJV, ervx^v iv 
Xvrpais eipojv yoyyvXihas- aTreKpivaro Se rot? 
YiavviraLS fJbrjSev ;YP^crtou Seiodat tolovtov SetTTVOV 
heiTTvajv avro) Se ^iXriov elvai rod XP^^^^^ ^X^^^ 
TO Kparelv rcbv exovrajv. 

TAIOT ^ABPIKIOT 
1. Vdios ^a^piKios rrjV vtto Uvppov 'Pcu^itatcov 

^ poj/j.aicoi' airocpdey/iiaTa. /xaiuov Kovpiov, etc.] these headings 
are usually omitted in the mss. 



" M. Curius Dentatus, consul 290 b.c, and twice later. 
He conquered the Samnites and defeated Pj^rrhus. 

" Cf. Pliny, Natural History, xviii. 4 (18) ; Columella, 
i. 3. 10 ; Valerius Maximus, iv. 3. 5 ; Frontinus, Stratege- 
mata, iv. 3. 12. 

" There are many references to this incident as typical of 
154 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS 
MANIUS CURIUS" 

1. When some complained against Manius Curius 
because he apportioned to each man but a small part 
of the land taken from the enemy, and made the 
most of it public land, he prayed that there might 
never be a Roman who would regard as small the 
land that gave him enough to live on.^ 

2. When the Samnites came to him after their 
defeat and offered him money, he happened to be 
cooking turnips in pots. He made answer to the 
Samnites that he had no need of money when he 
could make his dinner from this sort of food ; and for 
him it was better than having money to hold sway 
over those who had it.*' 

GAIUS FABRICIUS <» 

1. Gaius Fabricius, upon learning of the defeat of 

the simple life ; c/. for example Plutarch's Life of Cato 
Major, chap. ii. (337 a) ; Athenaeus, 419 a ; Cicero, 
Be Republica, iii. 28 (40) ; Pliny, Natural History, xix. 
26 (87) ; Valerius Maximus, iv. 3. 5. Frontinus, Stratege- 
mata, iv. 3. 2, and Aulus Gellius, i. 14, strangely enough, 
attribute the remark to Fabricius. 

** A Roman of the old school, simple and honest : consul 
282 and 278 b.c. In the later consulship he was in command 
against Pyrrhus. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovK 'HTretptDrat *Va)}xaiovs veviKn^Kacnv," 

2. 'EA^ojv 8e 77p6s" Iluppov 77-ept Aucrecas" at;)^/xaAco- 
195 TOJV ;\;pucrtov /xej/ ttoAi) StSoyros" oi5ac eXa^e- rfj 8' 
varepala rov [xeytarov eAe^avra rou Huppou irapa- 
GK€vduavTOs i^OTTiorOev ayvoovvn rep OajSpt/ctoj 
pTJ^avra (fxjjvrjv i7TL(f)avrjvaL' Kal rovrov yevofjievov, 
irriGrpacfiels 6 ^a^piKios Kal /xetStacras', " ^p^^," 
etnev, " ovre to ;^puCTtov ixO^s ovrc Gijpepov to 

S. Tov Se [Ivppov TTapaKaXovvTos avrov elvai 
Gvv avTcp Kal ttjv pier* avTOV ^X^^^ rjyepovLav, 

** OvSe GOL," €(f)r], " TOVTO XvGlTeXeS eGTlV 'H77€t- 

paJTaL yap, lav dp(f)OTepov5 yvcoGLV rjpLag, utt' 
ipov ^aGiXeveGdac pdXXov r) gov lOeXrjGovGiv." 

4. ^^TTaTeVOVTL he TW Oa^piKLO) 7TpOG€7TepnJj6V 

B imGToXrjv 6 tov Uvppov tarpos", eTrayyeXXopievo? , 
idv KeXevTj, (jyappaKois tov Ylvppov aTTOKTevelv 6 
he ^a^pLKLo? TTjv eTTiGToXriv TTpos Yivppov eTTepLipev, 
atGOeGdai KcXevGas St* o tl Kal <^iXcov kolkigtos 

eGTL KpLTT]? Kal TToXepiixiV. 

5. 'Ettci he ^copacra? ttjv eTn^ovXrjv 6 Ylvppo? 
TOV piev larpov eKpepaGe, tw he OajSpt/cta> tovs 
alxpoXojTovs dvev Xvrpojv drrehajKeVy ovk ehe^aTO 
hcopedv aAA* 'lgovs dvrehcjOKe, pir] ho^rj Xap^dvetv 
PLLgOov ovhe yap ;\;aptTt Uvppov puepLrjVVKevat ttjv 

1 Aai^lvov as in the Life of Pyrrhus, chaps, xiv.-xix., and 
in many other authors : \aj3Lrjuip. 

*• Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus, chap, xviii. (394 c). 
The defeat of Laevinus was in 280 b.c. 
^ Ibid. chap. XX. (395 e). 
" Ibid. chap. xx. (396 a). 

15() 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 194.-195 

the Romans by Pyrrhus, said, " Pyrrhus has defeated 
Laevinus, but the Epirotes have not defeated the 
Romans." ° 

2. When he came to see Pyrrhus about ransoming 
the prisoners of war, Pyrrhus offered him much money, 
but he would not accept it. On the following day 
Pyrrhus made ready his biggest elephant, all unknown 
to Fabricius, to appear and trumpet suddenly behind 
his back ; and when this plan had been carried out, 
Fabricius turned and said with a smile, " Neither 
your money yesterday nor your beast to-day has 
astounded me." ^ 

3. Pyrrhus urged Fabricius to stay with him and 
be the second in command, but Fabricius said, " But 
there is no advantage in this for you ; for. if the 
Epirotes come to know us both, they \\dll prefer to be 
ruled by me rather than by you." ^ 

4. When Fabricius was consul,^ Pyrrhus 's physician 
sent a letter to him, offering, if he should give the 
word, to kill Pyrrhus by poison. Fabricius sent the 
letter to Pyrrhus, bidding him note the reason why 
he was the worst possible judge both of friends and 
of foes.* 

5. Pyrrhus, having thus discovered the plot, 
caused his physician to be hanged, and gave back the 
prisoners of war to Fabricius without ransom. 
Fabricius, however, would not accept them as a gift, 
but gave an equal number in return, lest he should 
give the impression that he was getting a reward. 
" For," as he said, " it was not to ^vin favour with 

" In 278 B.C. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus, chap. xxi. (396 b) ; 
Cicero, Be officlis, i. 13 (40), and iii. 22 (86) ; Valerius 
Maximus, vi. 5. 1 ; Aulus Gellius, iii. 8 ; Frontinus, Strate- 
gemata, iv. 4. 2. 

VOL. Ill f2 157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(195) eTTLpovXt^Vy (xAA* OTTCOS fir] SoKcooTL ^PcofialoL 8oAa) 

KT€LV€LV, CO? (f)aV€pa>S VLKaV OV Svvd[JL€VOL, 

Q *ABIOT MASIMOT 

1 . Oct/Sto? Maf tjLto? ^AvvL^a [idx^crOaL fxr] ^ovXo- 
fjL€V09 dXXd rpc^eiv ;^povoj ttjv SvvafiLV avrov, Kai 
■)(pr]fjidr ojv ivSed Kal gltlcov ovcrav, iTrrjKoXovdei 
Sid Tojv rpax^ojv Kal 6p€Lvcov dvmrape^icjjv' Kara- 
yeXixJVTCOV 8e tcjv ttoXXojv Kal TraiSaycoyov ^Avvifia 
KaXovvrcjv, pLiKpd (f)povTL^ojv ixprJTO rots avrov 
XoyLGixols' Kal TTpos rovs (jilXovs eXeyev on rov 
aKWjjLjjLara (fyoPovfjievov Kal XoiSoplag SeiXorepov 
•qyelrai rov (jievyovros rovs TToXefjLuovs. 

2. 'Evret 8e rov owdp^ovros M.LVovKiov Kara- 
^aXovros rivds rcov TToXepiicov ttoXvs rjv Xoyos cos 

D dvSpos d^iov rrjs 'Pco/xt^S", fidXXov €(f>rj rrjv ev- 
rv^iav r) rr^v drvx^cii' rod yiivovKLOV (j)0^eZG6ai. 
Kal pier a puKpov eveSpa TTepiTreoovros Kal klv- 
hvvevovros dTToXiodai ju-era rrfs iavrov 8um/xea>s", 
iTTL^orjOrjoas rcjv re iroXepLLwv voXXovs hU^Qeipe 
KdKeivov eacporev. 6 piev ovv ^Avvi^as €L7T€ rrpos 
rovs (f)iXovs, " ov TToXXdKLs vpuv TrpovXeyov iyoj 
rrjv (XTTo^ rcbv opcov ve<j)iX'r]v on ;^et/>ia(Tet rrore €(f>* 
rjpLas; " 

3. Merd 8e rr)V iv Kdvvais drvx^CLV 'rrjs TToXecos 
dpxojv Karaaradels puerd KXavSlov MapKeXXov, 

1 dirb] iirl Life of Fabius Maximus, chap. xii. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus, chap. xxi. (396 d). 

" Five times consul ; dictator 217 b.c. to conduct the war 
against Hannibal. From his cautious tactics in this war he 
was called " Cunctator." 

158 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 195 

Pyrrhus that he had disclosed the plot, but that the 
Romans might not have the repute of killing through 
treachery, as if they could not mn an open victory." ** 

FABIUS MAXIMUS «• 

1. Fabius Maximus wished to avoid a battle with 
Hannibal, but, in time, to wear out his force, which 
was in need of both money and food ; and so he 
followed close after him, taking a parallel route, 
through rough and mountainous places. When most 
people laughed at him, and called him a slave in 
attendance on Hannibal, he paid little attention, and 
continued to follow his own counsels. To his friends 
he said that he thought the man who feared gibes and 
jeers was more of a coward than the one who ran 
away from the enemy. ^ 

2. When his colleague in command, Minucius, 
laid low some of the enemy, and there was much talk 
of him as a man worthy of Rome, Fabius said that he 
felt more afraid over Minucius 's good luck than over 
any bad luck he might have. And not long after, 
Minucius fell into an ambush and was in great danger 
of being destroyed together with his forces, when 
Fabius came to his aid, slew many of the enemy, and 
rescued him. Whereupon Hannibal said to his 
friends, " Did I not often prophesy to you regarding 
that cloud upon the mountains, that some day it 
would let loose a storm upon us ? " '^ 

3. After the misfortune which befell the State at 
Cannae * he was chosen consul with Claudius Mar- 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Fabius Maximus, chap. v. (177 a) ; 
Diodorus, xxvi. 3. 1. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Fabius Maximus , chaps, viii., 
xi., and xii. (179 a, 180 d, and 181 c) ; Livy, xxii. 25. 

' In 216 B.C. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ToXjxav €xovro£ dvSpos Kal (f)LXoiJLaxovvTog del 
TTpOS TOV ^AvvL^aVy avTos rjXTTL^ev, €t ixTjSels 
fxdxoLTO, raxv rrjv Svpajxiv rod 'Awt)Sa irapa- 
reivofiev-qv dnayopevcreLV' eXeyev ovv 6 ^Awl^ag 
E on fjidXXov (j^o^eZraL Map/ceAAou ixaxofxevov ^d^iov 
pLTj fxaxofievov. 

4f. TiTpartwTOV 8e nvos AevKavov Karrjyopr)' 

OeVTOS TTpOS aVTOVy d)S VVKTOJp (XTTO TOV CTT/OaTO- 

TTeoov TrXavcpro TToXXdKLg ipojv yvvaiKoSy rd Sk 
d'AAa OavpiauTov eV rots' ottXols irvvOavopievos elvai 
TOV dvSpa, avXXa^elv eKeXevoe ttjv ipa)p.evr]v avrov 
Kpv(f)a Kal TTpos avTov dyayeZv ojs 8e rjx^V* i^^'^<^" 
F TTep.ipdpievos TOV dvOpojTTOV, " ov XeXrjOas," eSrj, 
TTapa TOV vopiov dTTOVVKTepevojv aAA' ovhe 
XprjGTos a)v TTpoTepov eXeXrjOeis' to, p,€V ovv 
r]piapTr)pi€va XeXvorOco toIs r]vhpayad7)piivois , ro Se 
XoiTTov €G7] p,ed* rjpLcov exoj ydp iyyvrjT'qv' Kal 
npoayaycbv Gvv€(TTr]a€V avTW to yvvaiov." 

5. TapavTLVovs Se KarexovTa (f)povpa tov 'Av- 
VL^av TrXrjv ttjs dKponoXeojs dnayaydjv Troppcorara) 
St' dTrdTTjs Kal ttjv ttoXlv iXojv Kal SiapTrdoras, tov 
ypapbpLOTeajs i7Tepa)TijoravTOs tl irepl tcov lepdjv 
€yvajK€V dyaXpLaTOJV, " dTToXiTTCopLev," €(f)r], " Tap-. 
avTLVOLs Tovs deovg KexoXajpievov^." 

6. ISldpKov Se Al^lov tov ttjv dKponoXiv cf)pov- 
povvTos St* iavTOv eaXojKevai ttjv ttoXlv XeyovTOS, 

196 ol fiev dXXoL KaTeyiXojv , 6 Se OajStoj elirev 

• Plutarch's Life of Fahius Maximus, chap. xix. (185 a-c). 

^ Ibid. chap. xx. (186 a-c). Cf. also Valerius Maxhnus, 
vii. 3. 7. 
160 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 195-196 

cellus, a man possessed of daring and spoiling for 
a fight with Hannibal. Fabius hoped, if nobody 
fought with Hannibal, that Hannibal's forces, being 
under continual strain, would soon give out. Where- 
fore Hannibal said that he had more to fear from 
Fabius who would not fight than from Marcellus who 
would." 

4. A certain Lucanian soldier was accused of 
wandering often from the camp at night for love of a 
young woman. Fabius, on hearing the accusation, 
ascertained that in other respects the man was an 
admirable man-at-arms, and he ordered that they 
secretly seize the man's mistress and bring her to 
him. When she was brought, he sent for the man, 
and said to him, " Your being away at night, con- 
trary to the regulations, has not passed unnoticed, 
nor, on the other hand, your good service in the past. 
Therefore let your offences be atoned for by your 
brave and manly deeds, and in future you will be 
with us, for I have a surety." And leading forward 
the girl he presented her to him.^ 

5. Hannibal kept the Tarentines in subjection by 
a garrison — all the city except the acropolis. Fabius 
drew him away a very long distance by a trick, and 
captured and sacked the city. When his secretary 
asked him what decision he had reached in regard to 
the sacred images, he said, " Let us leave behind for 
the Tarentines their angered gods." ^ 

6. Marcus Livius, who had all the time held the 
acropolis with his garrison, said that it was because 
of him that the city had been taken. The others 
laughed at him, but Fabius said, " You are quite 

* Of, Plutarch's Life of Fabius Maximus, chap. xxii. 
(187 A-c) ; Livy, xxvii. 16. 

l6l 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(196) " dXrjOrj Xeyeus' el yap jjut] av rrjv ttoXlv ami^aXes, 
ovK av iyco aviXa^ov." 

7. "HSry Se Trpea^vrepos cov, viraTevovros rod vlov 
/cat -x^piqpiaTil^ovTOS eV h-qixoaico ttoXXCjv irapovroyv, 
ava^as e^' lttttov 7Tpor]€i}- Trefjupavros 8e rov 
veavioKov pa^hov^ov koI Kara^rjvaL /ceAeucravros', 
ol pLev dXXoL SieTpoLTTrjoraVf avrog Se 6 Oa^tos" 
aTTOTTTjSrJGas rod lttttov TTpooehpapie Trap' rjXiKLav 
Kal Trepi^aXajv rov vlov, " €vye," elneVy " a> TraX, 
(f>povels, alodopievos TLva>v dpxeis Kal TrrjXiKrjs 
dpX^? pi^y^dos TTapeiXiqcjias'' 



B ZKiniftNOiS TOT nPESBTTEPOT 

1. ^KLTTLWV Se o TTpeo^vrepog rr]v cltto tcjv 
GTpareLOJV Kal rrjs TToXirelas dxoXrjv iv ypapLpuaaL 
hiarpi^riv TTOLovpuevoSy eXeyev 6tt6t€ axoXd^oi, 
TTXelova TTpdrreiv. 

2. 'ETTet 8e ¥s.apxT]^dva Kara Kpdros etAe Kal 
Twv GrparicoTchv rives alxp^d-Xwrov Xa^ovreg ev- 
TTpeTTTJ TTapdevov rJKOv Kopiil,ovr€£ y avro) 8e eStSocrav, 
** TjSeoJS dvy" ecfy-q, " eXa^ov, eiTrep rjv ISicorrjs Kal 
put] dpxojv." 

1 LTTirov irporiet] 'iinrov irpoarjeL Life of Fabius Maximus^ 
chap. xxiv. ; but "obviam in equo vehens venit" (Aulus 
Gellius, ii. 2) rather favours the reading found in the 
Moralia. 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Fabius Maximus, chap, xxiii. 
(187 e) ; Cicero, Be oratore, ii. 67 (273), and De senectute, 
4(11). 

" Cf Plutarch's Life of Fabius Maximus^ chap. xxiv. 

1()2 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 196 

right ; for, if you had not lost the city, I should not 
have recaptured it." " 

7. When he was already an elderly man, his son 
was consul, and was attending to the duties of his 
office in pubUc in the presence of a large number of 
people. Fabius, mounted, was advancing on horse- 
back. When the young man sent a Uctor, and ordered 
his father to dismount, the others were thrown into 
consternation, but Fabius, leaping from his horse, 
ran up more nimbly than his years warranted, and, 
embracing his son, said, " Well done, my boy ; you 
show sense in that you realize whose official you are, 
and what a high office you have taken upon you." ^ 

THE ELDER SCIPIO « 

1. Scipio the Elder used to spend on literature all 
the leisure he could win from his military and poh- 
tical duties, and he used to say that he was busiest 
whenever he had nothing to do.^ 

2. When he captured Carthage « by assault, some 
of his soldiers, having taken captive a comely maiden, 
came to him with her, and offered to give her to him. 
" I would gladly take her," said he, " if I were a 
private and not a commander." ^ 

(188 a); Livy, xxiv. 44; Valerius Maximus, ii. 2. 4; 
Aulus Gellius, ii. 2. 

•= Scipio Afrjcanus Major, 235-183 b.c, conqueror of the 
Carthaginians at Zama. 

'^ Cf. Cicero, De ojicns, iii. 1 " numquam se minus 
otiosum esse quam cum otiosus . . . esset." 

« New Carthage in Spain, 210 b.c. ; Polybius, x. 8-19 ; 
Livy, xxvii. 7 and xxvi. 42-51. 

' Cf. Polybius, x. 19 ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 16. 6 ; 
Livy, xxvi. 50 ; Valerius IVIaximus, iv. 3. 1 ; Frontinus, 
Strategemata, ii. 11. 5 ; Aulus Gellius, vii. (vi.) 8. 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(196) 3. HoXiopKcov 8e ttoXlv Badelav, "^s virep- 

€(f)aLV€TO vaos 'A(/)po Strips', eKeXevcrev €K€l ras iy- 

yva? ofxoXoyeiv, cus" els rpinqv ev ro) Upw rrjs 

C ^A(j)poSi,Tr]g aKovaofJievos tcDp' StaSt/co wtcdv /cat 

TOVT eiToirioeVy d>s TTpoecTre, rrjs TToXecos dXovcrrjs. 

4. YLvvOavoiJievov Se nvos iv St/ceAto, tlvc 7T€- 
TTOidws ^ttI Kap;^7^Sova [xeXXei rov aroXov irepaiovVf 
Set^a? avro) evoirXovs dvhpas rptaKoalovs yvfx- 
vat,ofievovs Kal rrvpyov vipr^Xov vrrep daXdrrrjSy 
*' ovSeig/' '^4^'^y " TOVTOjv eorlv ogtls CTrt rov 
TTvpyov dva^ds tovtov ovk dv iavrdv piipeiev eirl 
Ke(f)aXr]V ijxov KeXevaavros ." 

5. 'Evret Se Stands ttjs re yrjs eKpdrei /cat to, 
arparoTTeSa rcov TToXefilajv KareKavorev, ol Kap- 
Xy]^6vL0L TTefjupavres inoLovvro GVvdrjKaSi "^d re 

D Qrjpia /cat ras" vavs /cat rd ^^prjfjiaTa Scoaetv ojLto- 
Xoyrioavres' ^Avvi^ov 8e KaraTrXevuavTOs ii 'Ira- 
Atas", iJL€T€fxeXovro rat? o/xoAoy tats^ Sta to Oappelv 
TTvdofievos Se 6 IIklttlcjov ecfyrj firjSe ^ovXojxevoLS 
avTols €Tt rds OTTOvhds ^vXd^eiv, dv purj rdXavra 
TTevraKicrx^iXia TrpoaeKrelaajGLv, on pLereTTefju/javTO 
Tov ^Avvi^av. 

6. 'Evrct 8e viK-qdivres ol KapX'r]^6vLOL /caret Kpd- 
ro9 TTepl GTTOvSdJv /cat elptjvrjs TrpecrjSets' aTrearetAav 
TTpos* avTov, eKiXevG€v evdvs dinevaL rovs '^Kovras, 
COS" OVK aKOVGOfievos Trporepov avrdjv 7] Acvklov 

^ rats o/xoXoyiais] ttjs ofioXo-yias Petavius, perhaps rightly, 
although fX€Ta/x4Xofiai is occasionally found with the dative. 

• Baria, attested by inscriptions, is probably the right 
spelling (variants : Barea, Bareia, Badia, Batheia), if the same 
town is meant. 

164 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 196 

3. While he was besieging the city of Baria," in 
which was visible a temple of Venus overtopping all 
else, he ordered that in giving sureties for appear- 
ance they should specify that place, since he purposed 
two days hence to hear litigants in this temple of 
Venus. And so he did, as he had foretold, after the 
city had been taken. ^ 

4. When somebody inquired in Sicily on what he 
placed his reliance in purposing to take his army 
across to Carthage, he pointed out to the inquirer 
three hundred m.en ^ in armour, who were drilhng, 
and also a lofty tower which overlooked the sea. 
" There is not one of these men," said he, *' who 
would not go up to the top of that tower and throw 
himself down head first at my command." 

5. When he had crossed over, and was master of 
the land, and had burned the enemy's camps, the 
Carthaginians sent to him and made a treaty of 
peace, agreeing to surrender their elephants and 
ships, and to pay an indemnity. <^ But when Hannibal 
had sailed back from Italy, they were sorry because 
of their agreement, since they did not now feel 
afraid. Scipio, learning this, said that, not even if 
they wished it, would he keep the compact unless 
they paid a million pounds more, because they had 
sent for Hannibal.^ 

6. When the Carthaginians had been utterly over- 
thrown, they sent envoys to him to negotiate a 
treaty of peace, but he ordered those who had come 
to go away at once, refusing to listen to them before 

* Cf. Valerius Maximus, iii. 7. 1 ; and Aulus Gellius, vi. 1. 

* As in Livy, xxix. 1 ; Valerius Maximus, vii. 3. 3. 

^ Polybius, XV. 18, and Livy, xxx. 16, indicate similar 
terms. 

' Not noted in Livy, xxx. 35, nor elsewhere, apparently. 

16.5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(196) TepevTLOV dydycoGLV 17 v Se 'Pco/xato? o TepcVrto?, 
€Tn€LKr]s div-qp, yeyovcbg at;^/xaAcoro? U770 Kap;^T7- 
E SoFtcov €7761 Se -^Kov dyovTes rov dvSpa, Kadiaas 
ev Tip crvfjLpovXLCp Trap" avrov^ €ttI rov ^rifxaros, 
ovrojs ixP'^P'OLTiore tols Ka/jp^T^SovtotS" Kal /careAucre 
rov TToXepiov. 

7. *0 he TepevTios €777] KoXovOrjcrev avrcp dptap,- 
^evovTL ttlXlov e-)(a)v cooTrep OLTreXevOepos' d/nodavov- 
Tos Se rots' e77t Tr]v eK^opdv Trapayivopiivois ivex^t 
TTiveiv olvopieXi Kal rd dXXa rrepl ttjv Ta(l)rjv e<^tAo- 
tlp^tJOt]. ravra fiev ovv varepov. 

8. ^AvTioxov 8e rod paoiXeajg fxerd to Sia^TJvai 
'PwpLalovs eV avrov etV ^Aolav Trep^i/javrog 77/30? 

F rov ^KLTTLwva irepl StaAuorecD?, " eSet Trporepov," 
elnev, '* dXXd firj vvv, orrore Kal rov ;\;aAtvov Kal 
Tov dva^drrjv tt pocrhihe^ai ." 

9. XpT^jLtara 8e rrjs GvyKXiqrov Xa^elv avrov e/c 
rod ra/xtetof ^ ipr](f)i(Taixevr]g, rcbv Se rajxicbv ov ^ov- 
Xofxevcov dvoL^at rrjg rjfjiepag eKeivq?, avrog dv- 
oi^eiv e(f)ri' Kal yap KXeUodai 8t' avrov TrXijaavra 
XpT^p^oLTOjv roaovrojv ro rafjaeXov. 

10. HeTtAAtou^ 8e Kal KotVrou 77oAAa Trpos" tov 
OTJpLOV avrov Karr]yop7]odvra)v, eLTTwv on rfj 
OTjixepov TjjjLepa J^apxrjSovLovs Kal ^Avvi^av ivl- 
KTjcrev' avros fiev €(f)r) ar€(f)ava}Gdp,evos dva^aiveiv 
etV TO KaTTercuXtov Ovgcov, rov Se povXojjLevov rrjv 

^ avrhv Hatzidakis : avrov. 

2 rafiLelov the better spelling : ra/xdov, 

* HertWlov the usual spelling: iraLTiKiov. 

*» Cf. Livy, XXX. 43. 
* Cf. Livy, XXX. 45 ; Valerius Maximus, v. 2. 5. 
• Cf. Livy, xxxviii. 55. ^ Antiochus the Great. 

166 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 196 

they brought Lucius Terentius. This Terentius was 
a Roman, a man of good talents, who had been taken 
prisoner by the Carthaginians. And when they 
came bringing the man, Scipio seated him on the 
tribune next to himself in the conference, and, this 
done, he took up the negotiations with the Cartha- 
ginians, and terminated the war." 

7. Terentius marched behind him in the triumphal 
procession, wearing a felt cap just like an emanci- 
pated slave. ^ And when Scipio died, Terentius pro- 
vided wine with honey for all who attended the funeral 
to drink their fill, and did everything else connected 
with his burial on a grand scale. But this, of course, 
was later.^ 

8. Antiochus the king,** after the Romans had 
crossed over to attack him,^ sent to Scipio to ask 
about terms of peace. " This should have been done 
before," said Scipio, " but not now, when you have 
taken the bit and the rider is in the saddle." •'' 

9. The Senate voted that he should receive a sum 
of money from the treasury, but the treasurers were 
not willing to open it on that day ; whereupon he 
said that he would open it himself, for the reason it 
was kept closed, he declared, was because he had 
filled it with so much money. ^ 

10. When Petillius and Quintus brought before 
the people many accusations against him, he re- 
marked that on this very day he had conquered the 
Carthaginians and Hannibal, and he said that he 
himself, with a garland on, was on his way up to the 
Capitol to offer sacrifice, and he bade anyone who so 

" In 190 B.C. 

^ Cf. Polybius, xxi. 15 ; Livy, xxxvii. 36 ; Appian, 
Roman History, the Syrian Wars, vi. 29. 

" Cf. Polybius, xxxiii. 14 ; and Valerius Maximus, iii. 7. 1. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

197 i/jrj(f)OV eKeXevae ^epeiv Trepl avrov' /cat ravra 
elTTOjv dve^atvev, 6 8e SrjfJLOS i7rr]KoXov6rj(7€ tovs 
Karrjyopov? OLTToXLTTcbv Xlyovras. 

TITOT KOINTIOT 
1. Titos' KotPTto? ovrcos rjv evOvs ef ^PXV^ 
eTTi^avris, cocrre irpo S7]fjLapx^oiS Kal orpanqyias kol 
dyopavofjLLag viraros alpeOrjvai. 7r€pL<f)Bels 8e arpa- 
rrjyos irrl ^lXlttttov els Xoyovs eTTeiodi) avveXdeiv 
avTcp' rod Se ^lXlttttov XapeXv ofi'rjpovs d^tovvros, 
eKelvov fxkv yap elvai jjierd iroXXajv 'Pco/xatcov, 
iavTov he fxovov Ma/ceSoat* " (jv yap jjlovov," 6 
Koivrtos" e</»T7, " eavrov eiroiiqaas drroKreLvas rovs 
<j)iXovs Kal avyyevels." 
B 2. Nt/CTjcra? 8e p^dxi) rov ^lXlttttov eKijpv^ev ev 
^IddfiloLs on TOVS "KXXrjvas eXevBepovs Kal avro- 
vofjLovs dcf)L7](jLV. OGOL Se ^VcjjpLaicov alxfidXcoTOi, yevo- 
fievoL ev Tols Kar ^Avvi^av ;)^/)ovots" ehovXevov 
Trapd TOLS "FiXX-qoL, rovrcov eKaarov ol "Y^XXiqves 
i^ojviqGdixevoL Spaxfjiojv TrevraKooicov hojpedv eooi- 
Kav avTcp, KaKelvoL OpLafi^evovn orvvrjKoXovdrjaav 
ev ^Vcojxri TnXia Trepl rat? Ke(j)aXais exovres, axjnep 
edos earl rols eXevdepajdelai. 

** There are many references to this incident. Cf. 3Ioralia, 
540 F ; Plutarch's Life of Cato Major, chap. xv. (344 d), 
Polybius, xxiii. 14 ; Livy, xxxviii. 50-51 ; Aulus Gellius, 
iv. 18. See also the note on the similar action of Epamei- 
nondas, Moralia, 194 b, supra. 

^ T. Quintius Flamininus, conqueror of Philip V. of 
Macedon at Cynoscephalae in 197 b.c. 

•= That is, without passing through the regular "cursus 
honorum." Cf. Plutarch's Life of Flamininus^ chap. ii. (369 c). 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Flamininus^ chap. xvii. (378 d) ; 
Polybius, xviii. 7. 

168 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 197 

wished to give in his vote about him. With these 
words he went his way, and the people followed after, 
leaving behind his accusers still speaking.** 

TITUS QUINTIUS » 

1. Titus Quintius, from the very first, was a man 
of such conspicuous talent that he was chosen consul 
without having been tribune, praetor, or aedile.^ He 
was sent in command of the army against Philip, and 
was prevailed upon to meet him in conference. Philip 
insisted that he ought to receive some Romans as a 
guarantee of his safety, since Quintius was accom- 
panied by many of his countrymen and he all alone 
represented the Macedonians. " The truth is," said 
Quintius, " that it is you who have made yourself all 
alone by putting to death your friends and kindred." ** 

2. Having vanquished Philip in battle,* he pro- 
claimed at the Isthmian games that henceforth he 
left the Greeks free and independent.-^ Whereupon, 
all the Romans who had been taken captive in the 
days of Hannibal and were the slaves of Greek 
masters the Greeks purchased from their owners at 
twenty pounds for each man, and gave them as a 
present to Quintius ; and these followed him in his 
triumphal procession wearing felt caps on their heads 
as is the custom for slaves that have been emanci- 
pated.^ 

* At Cynoscephalae in 197 b.c. : see Plutarch's Life of 
Flamininus, chap. viii. (3'2f); Polybius, xviii. 20-27; 
Livy, xxxiii. 7-10. 

^Cf. Plutarch's Life of Flamininus, chap. x. (374 d) ; 
Livy, xxxiii. 32. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Flamininus, chap. xiii. (376 f) ; 
Livy, xxxiv. 52 ; Valerius Maximus, v. 2. 6. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(197) 3. Tovg 8' *A;\;atous' e77t rrjv 'LaKvvOiwv vrjaov 

Stavoovfjievovs Grpareveiv CKeXeve ^vXdrreaOaL, fxr] 

C KadoLTTep at ^eXcovcu rrjv K€(f)aXr]v TTporeivavres €^co 

TTJS HeXoTTOVV-^GOV KLvSvV€VGOJCnV . 

4f. *Ai^tl6xov Se rod ^aatXews fxera TroXXrjs 
hwajxecos tjkovtos ^Is rrjv 'EAAaSa /cat Trdvrcjv 
iK7T€7rXr]yjj,€vajv rd irX-qdr] /cat rous OTrXiopiOVS, 
Xoyov etne tolovtov npos rovs 'A;)(atous'" 6^17 ydp 
iv XaA/ctSt TTapa rep feVoj SeiTTvojv davpidl,eiv to 
Toiv Kpecov ttXtjOos' elrrelv Se rov ^ivov on ravra 
TTovra ^(^oipeid ioriv r]hvGp.aGL /cat OKevaoiais 8ta- 
(f)€povTa. " pLT) roiwv pnq'^e vpLeis," €(f)r], " Oavfid- 
^ere rrjv ^aaiXiKr^v Swa/xtv, Xoyxo(f)6povg /cat^ 
D Karacj^paKTovs /cat rret^eralpovs /cat dpL^LTnro- 
To^oras aKovovreg- Trdvreg ydp elaiv ovtol Hvpoi 
OTrXapiois dXXiqXcov Stai^epovTeg." 

5. OiXoTTOLfxevL Se ra> OTparr^yo) rcov 'A;)(atcDv 
imreZg jxev ttoAAou? /cat OTrXiras e-xpvri, XPVH-^^^^ 
Se ovK evTTOpovvTLy TTpouTTail^cov eXeyev on x^^P^^ 
€X^L ^iXoTTOifx-qv /cat GKeXrj, yaarepa Se ovk €X€L. 
/cat ydp rfj (f)VG€L rov Gcofiaros rjv /cat o OtAo- 
7T0LfJir]V roiovTos. 

TNAIOT AOMITIOT 

Tvdios^ AofjLLTiog, ov TiKiTTLajv 6 fJLeyas dvO" iav- 

rov TO) dSeXcf)a) AevKLcp TrapaKareGnqGev iv ra> 

Tpos *AvTiOXov TToXefJLcp, KaTaGKeipd}jL€vog TTjv rdjv 

E roXepLLCov (f>dXayya, /cat rcov nepl avrov riyepLOVi- 

^ Kttt] omitted in the mss. 
2 Fj/dtos Meziriacus: 7dlos. 

° Cf. Plutarch's Life of FlamininuSy chap. xvii. (378 d) ; 
Livy, xxxvi. 'JJ. 

170 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 197 

3. When the Achaeans were minded to send an 
army against the island of the Zacynthians, he bade 
them beware lest, if they extended their head, 
tortoise-like, outside of the Peloponnesus they should 
find themselves in danger." 

4. When Antiochus the king, \\ith a great force, 
arrived in Greece, and all were terror-stricken at the 
great numbers of the men and their armament, 
Flamininus told a story for the benefit of the Achaeans 
as follows : He said he w^as in Chalcis dining with a 
friend, and was amazed at the great number of the 
meats served. But his friend said that these were 
all pork, diifering only in their seasoning and the way 
they were cooked. " So then," he said, " do not you, 
either, be amazed at the king's forces when you hear 
the names : ' pikemen,' ' panophed,' ' foot-guards,' 
' archers with two horses.' For all these are but 
Syrians differing from one another only in their 
paraphernaha." ^ 

5. He made a joke at the expense of Philopoemen, 
general of the Achaeans, who had plenty of horsemen 
and men-at-arms, but was not well off for money ; 
Quintius said that Philopoemen had arms and legs 
but no belly. As a matter of fact, Philopoemen, in 
physical appearance, was something hke this.^ 

GNAEUS DOMITIUS <* 

Gnaeus Domitius, whom Scipio the Great appointed 
in his stead as a colleague for his brother Lucius in 
the war against Antiochus, when he had inspected 
the battle-Une of the enemy, and the officers of his 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Flamininus, chap. xvii. (378 e) ; 
Livy, XXXV. 49. 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Philopoemen, chap. ii. (357 a). 

<* Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul 192 b.c. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kwv €vdvs eTTix^ipelv KeX^vovrcov, €(f)r) r^v cjpav 
ovK eTTapKelv, Iva roaavra? fjuvpidSas Kara- 
Koipavre? Kal SiapTTdaavTeg rrjv dTTOcrKevrjv iirav- 
eXOovres els to GrparoneSov iavrojv iTTCfJLeXrjOojaL, 
TO Se avTo TTonqoeiv avpiov Kad* wpav. Kal 
GVfjL^aXojv rfj vGTepaia TrevTaKLGfivplovs rcDv 77oAe- 
fjLLOJV dvecXev. 

IIOnAIOT AIKINIOT 

HottXlos AcKLVLog VTTaTog GTpaTiqyos, rjTTrjOelg 
V7TO Ylepaecjog tov MaKeSovcov ^aGiXecjg Itttto- 
F iJia)(La, SiG)(iXLOvg OKraKOGLOvg dTre^aXe, tovs fJiev 
ireoovTag tovs 8e aXovras' eTrel 8e /xerd tt^v fidx^jv 
€7T€fjiip€V 6 Ylepaevg Trpeu^eLS irepl OTTOvhchv Kal 
elpi^vrjs, eKeXevev 6 vevLKruxevog tov vevLKTjKOTa 
'Pco/xatots eTnTpiireiv rd KaO^ avTov, 

IIATAOT AIMIAIOT 

1. WavXos AlfiiXios SevTepav viraTeLav /xer- 
eXdchv dTTCTVx^v' €7766 8e TOV TTpog ITe/xjea Kal 
Ma/ceSdyas" TToXefiov pirJKOS Xapb^dvovTog dTreipia 
Kai jjiaXaKia tojv arpaTriyayVy CKeZvov vrraTOV 
dirlhei^av, ovk €(f>7] ;)^aptv ex^iv avTols' ov yap 
avTos dpxrjs SeofxevoSy cos €K€iva)V dpxovTos, 
rjprjoOai GTpaTrjyos. 

2. ^EiXdojv Se ets" olkov i^ dyopds Kal ttjv 
TepTLav TO dvyaTpiov evpwv SeSaKpvjjLcvov eirwdd- 

198 v€TO TTjv aLTLav eliTOVGrjs Se ort HepGevs Te6vr]K€v 

" Cf. Appian, Roman Histortj, the Syrian Wars^ vi. 30-36 ; 
Livy, xxxviii. 39. 

^ P. Licinius Crassus, praetor 176, consul 171 B.C. 

* Cf. Polybius, xxvii. 8 ; Livy, xlii. 62. 
172 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 197-198 

staff urged him to attack at once, said that there was 
not time enough to hew down so many thousands, 
plunder their baggage, return to camp, and enjoy 
their usual comforts ; but all this they would do on 
the morrow at the right time. And on the next day 
he engaged the enemy, and slew fifty thousand of 
them.« 

PUBLIUS LICINIUS ^ 

Publius Licinius, consul in command of the ai-my, 
was defeated by Perseus, king of the Macedonians, 
in a cavalry battle, with the loss of two thousand 
eight hundred men killed or captured. After the 
battle, when Perseus sent envoys regarding a treaty 
of peace, the vanquished bade the victor submit his 
case to the Romans." 



PAULUS AEMILIUS ^ 

1. Paulus Aemilius, when he was a candidate for 
a second term as consul, failed of election. But when 
the war against Perseus and the Macedonians 
dragged on because of the inexperience and effemi- 
nacy of the generals, the people appointed him 
consul. But he said he owed no thanks to them ; for 
it was not because he wanted office, but because they 
wanted an officer, that he was chosen general.^ 

2. Coming home from the Forum and finding 
Tertia, his Httle daughter, in tears, he asked the 
reason. And she said, " Our Perseus is dead." (It 

«* L. Aemilius Paulus (Macedonicus), a famous Roman 
general, conqueror of Perseus at Pydna in 168 b.c. ; consul 
182 and 168 b.c. 

* Cf. Plutarch's i^/"^ of Aemilius Paulus, chap. vi. (258 b), 
chap. ix. (259 c), chap. xi. (260 c). 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(198) r^ixlv (Kvvihiov S' tjv ovtcos ovofjba^ojjievov) , '* dyaOrj 
''"^XTl> €LTr€v, " CO Ovyarep, /cat SexofJLat rov 
olojvov." 

3. r^vpojv oe inl arparoTreSov ttoAAt^v 6pa(TVTr]Ta 
/cat AaAtav TTapaarpaT-qyovvroiv /cat TToXvirpay- 
IxovovvTOJV eKeXevorev rjavxiav ex^tv /cat Trotetv 
o^eiag ras /JLaxaLpas piovoVy aura) Se tcjv clAAojv 
pLeXiqGeiv. 

4. Tas" Se vvKrepLva? (/)vXaKag eKeXevorev (fyvXaT- 
r€iv avev Xoyx'^S koL ^i(j)ovs, ottojs dpLvvaadai rovs 
TToXejjLLovs aTTeyvcDKoreg pidXXov /cat SiapLaxovvrai 

TrpOS" TOV V7TVOV. 

5. ^Kpi^aXojv Se 8ta roiv aKpcov els Ma/ceSovtav 
/cat ovvreraypiivovs Ihcov rovs iroXepiiovs j rod 

S Nacrt/ca TrapaKaXovvros avrov evOvg eTTLxeipeiv 
etye T7)v ctt^v, et77ev, o^At/ctav etxov, at oe 
TToAAat /xe Tietpat /ca;AuoL'o-ty e/c TTopeiag irpos 
(f)dXayya Gvvreraypievrjv pidxeordaL.*' 

6. Nt/cTJcra? Se rov Ilepo-ea /cat ras" eTTiviKiovs 
TTOLOvpuevos ioTidaeis eXeye rrjs avrrjs ipLTreipias 
elvai orpdrevpLa cfio^epcorarov noXepLLOis /cat avpu- 

TTOGLOV tJSlGTOV (f)lXoL9 TTapaGXelv . 

7. Tov §€ YlepGecos at;^/xaAdjTOt> yevopievov Kol 

rrapaKpovopiivov^ rov OplapL^oVy " inl gol," etTre, 

** tout' eo-TtV," i^ovGiav SlSov9 avro) iavrov 

dveXelv. 

^ TrapaKpovofM^vov] irapaLTOi'/.i.€Pos Life of Aemilius Paulus, 
chap, xxxiv. 

** Cf Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus^ chap. x. (260 b), 
quoted from Cicero, De divinatione, i. 46 (103) ; see too 
Valerius Maximus, i. 5. 3. 
174 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 198 

was a pet dog which had that name.) " Good luck 
be Mith me, my girl," said he ; "I accept the omen." " 

3. Finding at camp much boldness and talk on the 
part of would-be generals and meddlers, he told them 
to keep quiet, and only sharpen their swords, and he 
would attend to everything else.^ 

4. He gave orders that the sentinels at night 
should stand guard without spear or sword, so that, 
with no hope of defending themselves against the 
enemy, they might better contend against sleep.'' 

5. Having invaded Macedonia by way of the 
mountains, and seeing the enemy standing in battle 
array, he said, in answer to Nasica's urgings to attack 
at once, " Oh yes, if I were of your age ; but much 
experience forbids me to fight, immediately after a 
march, against an army standing in battle array." ^ 

6. Having vanquished Perseus, he said, as he was 
carrying out the entertainments to celebrate the 
victory, that it was a part of the same proficiency to 
provide an army most terrifying to an enemy and a 
party most agreeable to friends.^ 

7. Perseus, having been made a prisoner, indig- 
nantly spurned the thought of being made a part of 
his victor's triumph. " That rests with you," said 
Aemilius, thereby giving him leave to make away 
\vith himself.^ 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulits, chap. xiii. 
(261 f), and chap. xi. (260 c) ; Livy, xliv. 22 and 34. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aevrilius Paulus, chap. xiii. 
(262 a) ; Livy, xliv. 33, says " without shield." 

'^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap. xvii. 
(263 f). 

« Foid. chap. xx\iii. (270 d) ; Moral ia, 615 e. Cf Stobaeus, 
Florilegium, xviii. 22. 

^ Cf Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap, xxxiv. 
(273 c). 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(198) 8. y^piqfjidrajv Se OLTreipcov evpedevrcuVy avrog fiev 

Q ovK e'Aa^e, rep 8e ya^^po) Tov^epojvc (f)idXrjv 

dpyvpav 6\k7]s Trivre Xirpwv dpiorelov eScDKC. ko.l 

Tovro <f)aGL TTpcJorov els tov AlXicov^ oIkov ela- 

eXdelv KeifnjXiov dpyvpovv. 

9. Terrdpojv Se rraihajv dppivcjv avrcp yeyo- 
voTCOV, Svo fjikv TTporepov irvyxoLV^v e/cSeSco/ccos' 
irepois deaOai' hvoZv 8e ovtcjv IttI rr\s OLKias 6 
puev rjfiepaLS Trivre Trpo rod dpidfi^ov, rerrapea- 
KaiheKa yeyovojs err], direOavev, 6 8e varepov 
Trevre rov SpidfJL^ov, hojheKaeriqs . TTpoeXOcjv Se, 
rod hrjpiov ovvaXyovvros avrcp kol ovpLTrevOovvros, 
]) vvv ecpT] TTepl rrjs Trarpihos aSeo)? yeyovivai Koi 
aKLvhwoSi OTTore rcbv evrvx'qpLdrajv rrjv vipieGLV 
els rov OLKOV dnepeLcrapLevrjs rijs rvx^jS virep 
Trdvrcjjv avros dvahiheKrai. 

KATfiNOS TOT nPEZBTTEPOT 

1 . Yidrojv 6 TTpeo^vrepos ev rep hrfpLcp rrjs 
dcrcorlas /cat TroXvTeXeias KadaTrrop^evos elrrev chs 
XOiXeTTov eon Xeyeiv Trpos yaarepa cor a pirj exovoav. 

2. Qavpidt,eiv he ttcos ocpl^erai ttoXls, ev fj ttco- 
Xeirai TrXeiovos Ix^^S rj ^ovs. 

3. AoiSopcov 8e TTore rrjv eTTLTToXd^ovaav yvvaiKo- 
KparlaVy " Trdvres," elrrev, " dvdpcxJTTOL rcbv yvvaiKaJv 

^ Ai\LU)u Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap, xxviii. : alfiLXiujv. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap. v. (257 c). 

^ Ibid. chap, xxviii. (270 e) ; cf also Pliny, Natural 
History, xxxiii. 50 (142) ; and Valerius Maximus, iv. 4. 9. 

*= To the houses of Scipio and of Fabius. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chaps, xxxv. 
and xxxvi. (274 a and f) ; Seneca, Ad Marciam de 
176 



u 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 198 

8. Of the unlimited treasure which was found he 
took nothing himself, but to his son-in-law Tubero <* 
he gave a silver goblet of five pounds weight in re- 
cognition of his supreme valour. And this, they say, 
is the first silver heirloom that ever found its way 
into the Aelian house. ^ 

9. Of the four male children that were born to him, 
two he happened to have given to others for adop- 
tion.'' Of the two that were at home one died five 
days before his triumph, at the age of fourteen, and 
the other five days after the triumph, at the age of 
twelve. When he went forth, and the people ex- 
pressed their compassion and sympathy, he said that 
now he had no fears or misgivings about his country, 
since Fortune had thrust upon his house the retri- 
bution due for all their good fortune, and he had 
received this in behalf of all.^ 



CATC THE ELDER * 

1. The Elder Cato, in assailing the profligacy and 
extravagance rife among the people, said that it was 
hard to talk to a belly which had no ears.-'' 

2. He said he wondered how a city could continue 
to exist unscathed in which a fish sold for more than 
an ox ! ^ 

3. In bitter criticism of the prevalent domination 
of women, he said, ** All mankind rules its women, 

consolatione, 13 ; Valerius Maximus, v. 10. 2 ; Velleius 
Paterculus, i. 10. Cicero refers brieflvto Aemilius's fortitude 
{De amicit. 2 (9) ; Tusc. Disput. iii. 28 (70) ; Letters, iv. 6). 

* M. Porcius Cato, the Elder, commonly called the Censor, 
234-149 B.C. 

' Cf. Moralia, 131 d and 996 d, and Plutarch's Life of 
M. Cato, chap. viii. (340 a). 

" Ibid, and Moralia, 668 b. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(198) dpxovGLV, -qfjLels Be rravrajv dvdpcoTrojv, tjijlojv 8e at 
yvvaLK€s." 
E 4. "E^T^ Se ^ovXeaOai fxdXXov evepyeri^Gag fir) 
KO/JLlaaadaL ^dpuv 7) p,r) VTrocrx^lv KoXaaiv dSt/CTycras", 
/cat Trdaiv del rols dfiaprdvovGL ;\;ct)pts' iavrov 
SovvaL Gvyyvwpi'iqv. 

5. UapopfJidJv Se rovs dpxovras iTTiripidv rols 
dpLaprdvovGiv eXeye rovs hwapievovs KOjXveiv rovg 
KaKOJS TTOiovvras y idv pLrj KOjXvajGL, KeXeveuv. 

6. Td>v 8e j^eojv e(j)7] ;)^at/)etv' TOt? ipvdpLOJGL 

fldXXoV 7] ToZs (Lxpi'dJGL. 

7. Hirparicnrriv 8e puGelv, os iv rep TrepLTrareTv 
rds ;)^etpas', iv 8e to) pdx^GOac ro-us noSas klv€l, 
peyx^t' Se /xet^ov "^ aAaAa^et. 

F 8. Ka/ctcrrov Se eAeyei^ dpxovra elvai rov dpx^iv 
iavrov pLrj SvvdpLevov. 

9. MaAtcrra 8e ivofJLi^e SeXv eKaGTOV iavrov 
alSeiGdaf p/qhiva yap iavrov pLTjSeTTore x^P^^ 
elvai. 

10. rioAAajv Se opojv dviorapevovs dvSpidvras, 
** ipLov Si," €(f)r], " ipojrdv ^ovXop,ai p^aXXov rovs 
dvdpconovs, Sta rt dvSpLas ov /cetrat Kdrcvvog t) 

ta Tt K€LraL. 

1 1 . OetSecr^at Se rrjs e^ovGias TrapeKoXei rovs 
hwap^ivovs, ottcos del napapiivoL ro i^eivai. 

12. Tovs Se rrjs dperrjs rrjv npirjv d<j)aipovvras 
eXeye rrjv dperrjv d(j)aip€lv rrjs veorrjroS' 

" See the note on Moralia^ 185 d (10), supra. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. viii. (340 f). 

" Cf. the somewhat similar sentiment attributed to Pyth- 
agoras in Stobaeus, Florilegium, xlviii. 112. 

<* Cf. Moralia, 29 e and 528 f, and the Life of M. Cato, 
chap. ix. (341 c), 
178 



^ 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 198 

and we rule all mankind, but our women rule 
us." « 

4-. He said that he preferred to receive no thanks 
when he had done a favour rather than to suffer no 
punishment when he had done a ^vrong, and that he 
always granted pardon to all who erred, with the 
single exception of himself.^ 

5. In trying to stimulate the officials to administer 
sharp rebuke to the erring, he used to say that, if 
those who have the power to discourage crime do not 
discourage it, then they encourage it.*' 

6. He said that it gave him more joy to see those 
of the youth that blushed than those that blanched.** 

7. He said that he hated a soldier who phed his 
hands in marching and his feet in fighting, and whose 
snore was louder than his battle-cry.* 

8. He said that the worst ruler is one who cannot 
rule himself.^ 

9. He thought it especially necessary for every 
man to respect himself, since no man is ever separated 
from himself. 

10. Seeing that statues were being set up in honour 
of many men, he said, " As for myself, I had rather 
that men should ask why there is not a statue of 
Cato than why there is." ^ 

1 1 . He charged those in power to be sparing of their 
authority, so that authority might continue always to 
be theirs. 

12. He used to say that those who rob virtue of 
honour rob youth of virtue. 

« Life of M. Cato, ibid. 
f Cf. Moralia, 210 f (33), infra. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 820 b, and the Life of M. Cato, chap. xix. 
(347 c). 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

IS. lov he dpxovra r) KpiTrjV eXeye Selv fJi'qre 
virep Twv hiKaiwv XnTapeZadai ixrqTe virep tojv dSl- 
Kcxjv eKXiTTapeladai. 
199 14. Tr]v Se dSiKiav eXeye, rot? dSiKOVorL Koiv^ jJLrj 
(f)€prj Kivhvvov, (XTTaat (jyepetv. 

15. Tip Se yrjpa ttoXXcdv alaxpojv TrapovTOJV 

Tj^iOV jJiT) TTpOGTiddvaC TTjV OLTTO T-^S" KaKLaS atCTjl^U- 

vr]v. 

16. Tov Se 6pyLl,6iJi€vov iv6iJLLl,€ rov pLaivopiivov 
Xpo^V 8ta0e/)ety. 

17. "H/ctcrra Se (j)dov€lG9ai rovs rfj rvxj] XP^' 
\xivovs emeLKcos kol fxerpicDS' ov yap rjplv dXXd 

roZs 7T€pl r]llds (f)doVOVGL. 

18. Tov9 Se GTTOv'dd^ovTa? eV rot? yeXoioig 
eXeyev ev roZs Gnovhaiois ececr^at KarayeXaGTOvs , 

19. Ta? KaXds TTpd^eLs e'Aeye Setv KaraXapu- 
^dveiv Trpd^eGL KaXaX?, Iva fxr] rrjs So^t^s" dirop- 
peojGiv. 

20. ^YdTTeripia Se rots* TToXirais del rovs avrovs 
B alpovpievois dpxovras' " Sofere ydpj' ecTrev, " pur) 

TToXXoV TO dpX^i'V d^iOV Tj pLT) TToXXoVS TOV dpX^^V 

d^iovs TjyeLGOai." 

21 . Tov Se rovs napaXlovs dypovs rreTTpaKora 
TTpoGeTTOielro davpidt^eiv co? loxvporepov ttjs daXdr- 
r7]S' " d yap eKeivq pioXis eTTLKXvt,ei, ovros paStcos" 
KaraTTeTTOJKe." 

22. Tt/xT^retav Se pienajv /cat rovs dXXovg opcov 
Seopcevovs rajv 7ToXXa)v Kal KoXaKevovras , avTOS 

^ adiKovcn Khv'] abiKovcTLv Slv E. Kurtz. 

« Cf. Moralia, 784 a and 829 f ; and Plutarch's Life of 
M. Cato, chap. ix. (341 d). 
* Cf. Horace, Epistles, i. 2. 62 ; Seneca, De ira, i. 1. 2, 

180 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 198-199 

13. An official or a judge, he said, ought neither to 
require importuning to grant what is right nor to 
yield to importuning to grant what is \^Tong. 

14. Wrongdoing, he used to say, even if it brings 
no risk to its authors, brings risk to all. 

15. He used to say that, since there are so many 
odious things connected with old age, it is only right 
not to add the odium which comes from vice.*^ 

16. He had an idea that the man mIio has lost his 
temper differs from him who has lost his mind only in 
duration of time. ^ 

17. He said that those who use their good fortune 
reasonably and moderately are least envied ; for 
people envy not us but our surroundings. 

18. He used to say that those who are serious 
in ridiculous matters will be ridiculous in serious 
matters. 

19- He used to say that it is necessary to make 
good deeds secure by means of good deeds, so that 
they may not fall off in their repute. 

20. He used to rebuke the citizens for electing 
always the same men to office. " For," said he, " you 
will give the impression that you hold office to be of 
no great worth, or else that you hold not many men 
to be worthy of office." '^ 

21. He pretended to be amazed at the man who 
had sold his lands bordering on the sea as being him- 
self stronger than the sea. " For," said he, " what 
the sea only laps, this man has easily drunk up." ^ 

22. When he was a candidate for the censorsliip, 
and saw the other candidates soliciting the populace 
and flattering them, he himself cried out that the 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. viii. (340 d). 
«* Ibid. 

VOL. Ill G 181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(199) i^oa Tov Srjfiov airorofjiov -x^peiav €X€LV larpov Kal 
fjLeydXov KaOapfxov- Seti^ ovv [jlj) tov rjhiorov, dAAa 
TOV aTTapaLTrjTOV aipelaOai. Kal raura Xiycou 
fjP^Or) rrpo ttolvtcjov. 

23. AiSoLGKajv Se tov? veovs evOapaojs [xax'^CfSai, 
C TToAAa/cts' eAeye tov ^i<^ovs tov Xoyov fidXXov /cat 

T'r]v (fjojvrjv ttj? )(€ip6s Tpiireiv /cat KaTaTrXrjTTeLv 
Tovs rroXefjLLovg. 

24. 'ETret Se TroXefMcbv toIs rrepl tov Batrtv 
TTOTapLOV OLKovcrtv etV KivSvvov V7t6 irXrjOovg tojv 

TToXejJiLCOV KaTeCTTT], TWV fiev KeArt^T^pCOV €77t 

hiaKouiois TaXdvTOis ^ovXo}xivcov ^orjOeXv, tcov Se 
'Pcofioxajv ovK iojvTOJv o/xoAoyetv pnaQov dvOpoj- 
TTOis pap^dpoLs, dfjuaprdveiv e(f)7]G€v avTovs' vlkcov- 
ra? jLter yap aTToSwaeiv ov Trap" avTcov^ dXXd Trapd 
TOJV TToXefJLLWv 7]TT(j)iievcx)v Se, inqTe tovs aTrrjTT]- 
piivovs"^ fJirjT€ TOVS d-naiTovvTas eueaOaL. 
D 25. HXecovas Se ttoXcls eXcov, ws (j>r]aiy tojv 
rjfjLepcov as hieTpufjev iv tols TToXefxiois, ovhev 
avTOS ttXIov €Xaj3€v^ Sv e^aye /cat €7n€V €K ttjs 
TToXefXias. 

26. Tcov Se GTpaTicoTcbv iKauTcp XiTpav dpyvpov 
Stavet/.ta? ^r/crt (3€Xtlov elvat ttoXXovs exovTas 
dpyvpLov Tj oXlyovs XP"^^^^^ ^'^^ "^V^ OTpaTeias 
eTTaveXOeiv tcov yap dpxovTOJV ovhev aXXo Setv iv 
Tols €7Tapxiais ^ TTjv So^av av^dveadat. 

27. rieVre 8e ot/cera? elx^v iirl ttjs OTpaTeias, 

^ avrGsv as in the Life of M. Cato, chap. x. : avrQv. 

2 dirrjTTj/ji.ei'ovs] dTraLTOviJ.^uovs, ibid, 

2 iXajieu Wy ttenbach : Xa^eiy, 

182 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 199 

people had need of a stern physician and a thorough 
cleansing ; they must choose not the most agreeable 
but the most inexorable man. As a result of his 
words he was the first choice of the electors." 

23. In instructing the young men to fight boldly, 
he said that ofttimes talk is better than the sword and 
the voice better than the hand to rout and bewilder 
the enemy. ^ 

24<. When he was waging war against the peoples 
living by the river Baetis,*' he was put in great peril by 
the vast numbers of the enemy. The Celtiberians were 
ready and willing to come to his aid for forty thousand 
pounds, but the other Romans were against agreeing 
to pay barbarian men. Cato said they were all 
wrong ; for if they were victorious, the payment 
would come not jfrom themselves, but from the 
enemy ; and if they were vanquished there would be 
no debtors and no creditors.^ 

25. He captured cities more in number, as he 
says, than the days he spent among the enemy, yet 
he himself took nothing from the enemy's country 
beyond what he ate and drank. ^ 

26. He distributed to each soldier a pound of 
silver, saying it was better that many should return 
from the campaign with silver than a few 'sWth gold. 
For the officials, he said, ought to accept no other 
increase in the provinces except the increase of their 
repute.^ 

27. He had five persons to wait upon him in the 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. xvi. (345 d). 
^ Ibid. chap. i. (336 e) ; cf. also Plutarch's Life of Corio- 
lanus, chap. viii. (216 f); Life of M. Cato, chap. x. (241 r). 
" In 195 B.C. in Spain. 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. x. (341 f). 
« Ibid. chap. x. (342 a). f Ibid. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(199) (Lv €LS alxfjidXajTa crco/xara rpla TrpidfJLevos, cos Ovk 
eXade rov Karcova, rrplv els 6i/jlv iXdeXv, aTTTyy^aro. 
E 28. IlapaKXr]deL£ Se vtto Hklttlcjovos *A(f)piKavov 
TOis ^A)(Oiia)v ovXXa^eodai (j^vydoLV, ottcos etV rds 
TrarplSas KareXdaxjiv, TrpoaeiTOLeZTO fjLr]Sev avroj 
fxeXcLV rod Trpdyixaros' ev Se rfj ovyKXt^ro) ttoXXcvv 
yLvofievcov Xoycov dvaorrds, " ojOTrep ovk e^ovres," 
elirev, " o TTpdrrcDpiev, KaO-qpieda uepl TpaLKCov 
yepovTLOJV l^rjTovvres TTorepov vtto tojv Trap' rjijuv 
^ VTTO TcDy e/cet veKpocpopcuv i^€V€xdcoGL." 

29. UoGTOvpiLov Se ' KX^ivov^ ypdijjavros laropias 

*YjXXr]VL(JTl Kcd Gvyyva)pi7]v Trapd tojv aKpoajfxevojv 

F aLTOVvros, elpcovevop^evog 6 Kdrojv ecfyrj Soreov 

etvac avyypcojjLTju, el rcoi' "ApicpLKTVovajv ifjiqcjiioa- 

piei'cov dvayKaodels eypaxpev. 

SKinmNOS TOT NEOTEPOT 

1. YiKiTTLOJva Tov vecorepov Xeyovcnv ereai TTevTTj- 
Kovra Kol rerrapoiv , ols e^iwoe, pnqhev TTpiaodat 
pLTjhev aTToSoadai purjSev olKoSofirjaaij Xlrpas Se 
dpyvpov Tpels /cat rptdKovra pLOvas iv ovaia 
p,eydXr] Suo Se ^(^pvGiov KaraXiTreZv kol ravra 
Kap;^7^Sovos" Kvpiov ovra Kal /xaAtara tojv arparT]- 
ycov TrXovTioavra rovs arparicoras. 

2. To Se YioXv^iov TTapdyyeXpua hia^vXarTOiv 
1 'AXlSbov Xylander, from the Life of Cato, chap. xii. : 

Xa^LTjUOV. 

Cf. Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. x. (342 b). 
Ibid. chap. ix. (341 A, = Polybius, xxxv. 6). 
" Ibid. chap. xii. (343 b) ; Polybius, xxxix. 12 (=xl. 6). 
** Pubhus CorneUus Scipio Aeniilianus Africanus (Minor), 
185-129 B.C. ; conqueror of Carthage in 147-146 b.c. ; friend 
of Polybius the historian. His life (now lost) was written 
184 



" Cf 
" Ibic 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 199 

campaign, one of whom bought three of the captives. 
But when he discovered that Cato knew of it, he did 
not wait to come before his master, but hanged him- 
self." 

28. He was urged by Scipio Africanus to lend his 
influence to help the banished Achaeans to return 
to their homes, but he made as though he cared 
nothing about the matter ; in the Senate, however, 
where the subject aroused much discussion, he arose 
and said, " We sit here as if we had nothing to do, 
debating about some poor old Greeks whether they 
shall be carried to their graves by bearers who Uve 
in our country or in Greece." ^ 

29. Postumius Albinus wrote a history in the 
Greek language, in which he craved the indulgence 
of his readers. Cato said sarcastically that he ought 
to be granted indulgence if he had written the book 
under compulsion by a decree of the Ampictyonic 
Council ! '^ 

SCIPIO THE YOUNGER ^ 

1. The Younger Scipio, they say, in the fifty-four 
years of his life bought nothing, sold nothing, built 
nothing, and left only thirty-three pounds of silver 
and two of gold in a great estate. So little he left, in 
spite of the fact that he was master of Carthage, and 
was the one among the generals who had made his 
soldiers richest.* 

2. He observed the precept of Polybius, and tried 

by Plutarch (No. 28 in the catalogue of Lamprias ; see also 
the Life of Tib. Gracchus, chap. xxi. 834 d, and Life of 
C. Gracchus, chap. x. 839 c) ; and without doubt many of 
the sayings found here were incorporated in it. 

* Cf. AeUan, Varia Historia, xi. 9 ; Polybius, xviii. 35 ; 
Pliny, Natural History, xxxiii. 50 (141). 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

iireipdro fjur) Trporepov i^ dyopds OLTTeXdelv rj ttoliJ- 
aaaOat nva avvrjOj] /cat (j)iXov d/xcocryeTrcos' rcuv iv- 
rvyxoLvovTcov . 
200 3. "Ert Se veos cov roaavrrjv elx^ So^av dvSpetag 
Kal Gvvecreojs ware Kdrajva fxev tov TrpecT^vrepoi 
eiTTelv ipcoTTjdevTa nepl rcJbv eV Yiapxri^ovi arpa- 
T€vojjL€Vwv, eV ofs" Kal Hklttlcdv rjv, 

olos TTeTTwrai, rol he GKial diaaovGiv. 

4. Ets" he rrjv ^Pcofjirjv iXBovros o-tto crrparetas'/ 
eKoXovv avTov, ovk eKeivco ;YctptJdjaevot, aAA' ojs 
¥^ap-xr]h6va hi eKeivov raxv Kal pahico? X-qifjofxevot. 

5. 'E776t he rrapeXdcbv els to rel-xps, tcov K.apxr]- 
hoviojv eK rrjs ciKpas dpLVVoixevcov pwfxr), ovveihe' 
T7]v hid jxeGov OdXarrav ov ttovv ^adelav ovoav 
rod UoXv^iov GviJL^ovXevovTos avrcp KaraGirelpai 
Tpi^oXovs GihTjpovs ^ Gavthas ifji^aXXeiv Kevrpojrds, 

B 07TC0S jJiTj hia^aivovres ol TToXeynoi TTpoGfjbdxojvTac 
Tols xcopiaGLV, e(f)iq yeXoiov elvai KaTeiX'r]<f>6Tas rd 
relxr] Kal ttJs" TToXecos evros ovras elra TrpdrreLv 
OTTOJS ov fiaxovvrai rots" TToAc/xtots". 

6. EiVpcbv he TTjP ttoXlv dvhpidvrcDv *EiXXrjVLKcbv 
Kal dvad-qixdrojv 0,770 HiKeXias {xeGrrjV ovGav, eKiq- 

^ airb crrpareias] iirl vTvarelav Wyttenbach. 

2 pwixTj, avveibe F.C.B. : eyvw Hulisch and van Herwerden: 
ifiaOe Hultsch : irapeijaXev els Pantazides : exov Kronenberg : 
yLiera|i) S. A. Naber: fii] aii. 

" Cf. Moralia, 659 e. Aelian, Varia Historia, xiv. 38, 
speaks of the advice as given by Epameinondas to Pelopidas, 
possibly confusing the two Scipios, and the two Lives (of 
Epameinondas and the elder Scipio) ! 

" Cf. Moralia, 805 a ; Plutarch's Life of M. Cato, chap. 
xx^'ii. (352 r) ; Livy, Epitome of Book xlix. It may be 

186 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 199-200 

never to leave the Forum before he had in some way 
made an acquaintance and friend of somebody among 
those who spoke with him." 

3. While he was still a young man he had such re- 
pute for bravery and sagacity that when Cato the 
Elder was asked about the men in the army at 
Carthage, of whom Scipio vras one, he said, 

He, and he only, has wisdom ; the rest are but fluttering 
shadows.^ 

4. When he came to Rome from a campaign, the 
people called him to office,'' not by way of showing 
favour to him, but hoping through him to capture 
Carthage speedily and easily. 

5. After he had passed the outer wall, the Cartha- 
ginians stoutly dejpended themselves in the citadel. 
He perceived that the sea lying between was not 
very deep, and Polybius ad\-ised him to scatter in it 
iron balls -\dth projecting points, or else to throw 
into it planks full of spikes so that the enemy might 
not cross and attack the Roman ramparts. '^ But 
Scipio said that it was ridiculous, after they were in 
possession of the walls and well within the city, to 
endeavour to avoid fighting the enemy. ^ 

6. He found the city full of Greek statues and 
votive offerings, which had come from Sicily, and so 

inferred from Suidas, s.v. aiaaovcnv, that the original source 
was Polybius. The Homeric quotation is from the Odyssey, 
X. 495. 

<' The consulship in 147 b.c. Of. Velleius Paterculus, 
i. 12. 3. 

^ Cf. Zonaras, ix. 29. 

* An account of the capture of Carthage is given by 
Diodorus, xxxii. 23-25, and Appian, Roman History, the 
Punic Wars, xix. 127-132. Cf. also Valerius Maximus, 
iii. 7. 2. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(200) pv^e roijs oltto rcov TToXeojv rrapovras iTTiyivajaK^iv 
/cat KOjjLil^eaOai. 

7. TcDv 8e ;)^p7]/xaTa>v ovt€ SovXov ovt€ diTeXevde- 
pov eta Xa^elv ovSiva, aXX ovSe Trptacr^at, Trdvrojv 
dyovrojv Kal (f)€p6vro)v. 
C 8. Fatoj Se AatAto) ro) (JjiXrarcp tojv iraipcov 
VTTareiav jLtertoi'rt avfiTrpdrrcov eTrrjpwrrjae Ilo/x- 
TTijiov el Kal avTog virareiav piereioiv iSoKet 8e o 
Ho/XTT'/Jtos' vlog avXiqrov yeyovivai- rod 8e cf)rj(TavTOS 
fXT] jLterteVat, aAAa /cat rov AauXiov eirayyeXXo- 
fievov^ avfiTTeptd^eiV /cat ovvap^o-Lpeaidueiv , 7rt- 
areuorayres" /<:at irepiixevovres eKeZvov i^rjTTarT^dyjcrav 
dTTrjyyeXXero yap auros" ev dyopa Trepuojv /cat 
he^io-ujxevos rovs rroXiras. dyavaKrovvrajv Se tcDv 
d'AAcov, o Hklttlwv yeAacras", " d^eXrepta y^^* 
eXirev, " rjiicov, KaOdrrep ovk dvOpcoTTOVs pieXXovres 
dXXd deovs rrapaKaXelv, irdXai hiarpi^opLev avXrj- 
rrjv dvapLevovres ." 

9. ^Attttlov 8e KAauStou irepl rrjs TLpirjTLKrjs 
D dpxrjs ajLttAAco/xeVou rrpos avrov /cat Xeyovros, ort 

Trdvra? ovofjuaGrl 'Pco/xatous" auros ao-Tra^erat, 
TiKLTTLOJVog oXiyov helv dyvoovvros aTravras, " dXrj- 
drj Aeyet?," eiTTev, " e/xot yap ovk elhevai ttoXXovs 
oAA* UTTO pLTjhevog dyvoeludai pLepLeXrjKev." 

10. 'E/ceAeue Se rovs noXiraSy iireihri irvy)(avov 
TToXejJLOVvres J^eXrl^-qpaLV, dpi<j)OTepovs iirl rrjv 

^ iirayyeWofx&ov F.C.B. : iwayyeWdfievos, 
2 ye Wyttenbach : 5^. 

" Cf. Diodorus, xxxii. 25 ; Cicero, Against Verres, iL 
35 (86) and iv. 33 (73) ; Livy, Epitome of Book li. ; Valerius 
Maximus, v. 1. 6. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 97 c, and note « on p. 187. 

188 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 200 

he caused proclamation to be made that the men 
from those cities who were there might identify them 
and carry them away." 

7. He would not allow either slave or freedman of 
his to take anything or even buy anything from the 
spoil, when everybody was engaged in looting and 
plundering.^ 

8. He was active in the support of Gains Laelius, the 
dearest of his friends, when he was a candidate for the 
consulship, and he inquired of Pompey '^ whether he 
also was a candidate. (It was reputed that Pompey 
was the son of a flute-player.) Pompey said that he 
was not a candidate, and offered to take Laelius 
about with him and help him in his canvass, and they, 
believing his words and waiting for his co-operation, 
were completely deceived. For it was reported that 
Pompey was himself going about and soliciting the 
citizens. The others were indignant, but Scipio 
laughed and said, " It is because of our own stupidity ; 
for, just as if we were intending to call not upon men 
but upon gods, we have been wasting any amount of 
time in waiting for a flute-player ! " <* 

9. When Appius Claudius was his rival * for the 
censorship, and asserted that he greeted all the 
Romans by name, while Scipio knew hardly one of 
them, Scipio said, " You are quite right ; for I have 
not taken such pains to know many as to be unknown 
to none." f 

10. He bade the people, inasmuch as they happened 
to be waging war against the Celtiberians, to send 

'' Quintus Pompey, consul 141 b.c. 
^ Cf. Cicero, De amicitla, 21 (77). 
* In 142 B.C. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap, xxxviii. 
(275 c). 

VOL. Ill G 2 189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(200) arpareiav iKTreixipavTag r) Trpeorpevra? ^ ;YfcAtap- 
XOV£ fjidpTVpas Xafx^dveLv kol Kptrd? rrjs eKaarov 
dperrjs rous" TToXefiovvras. 

11. ^ATToSeLxOels Se Ttfxrjrrjg veavioKov jjiev 
a^et'Aero rov 'lttttov, on SeLTTVcov TToXvreXojg, iv 

E o) XP'^'^V Kap;)(;rySajv iTToXefielro, ixeXiTTrjKrov elg 
oxrjfJia rrjg noXeoj? SiaTrXaGas kol tovto Kapxyj- 
86va TrpoaeLTTOJv 7Tpov6r]K€ hiapTrdaai roZs rrapovai' 
KOL TrvvOavofjiivov rod veavioKov ttjv alriav 8t' riv 
d<f>fipr]Tai Tov Ittttov, " e/xou yap,'* €(f)7], " irpOTepos 
¥s.apx'r]^6va hiripTraoag ." 

12. Tdiov Se AiKiviov Ihcjv Trapepxopievov, 
" otSa," e^Tj, " TOVTOv e7no}pKr]K6ra rov dvSpa' 
fjLTjSevos 8e Kar7]yGpovvTOSy ov hyvapuai Karriyopos 
avros^ elvai koI hiKaarriS'* 

13. ^¥jKrr€ix(l)6ivTa S' avrov'^ vtto ttJs" ^ovXrjg rpl- 
Tov^ CO? ^7]crt KAetTO/xa;)/os", 

dvOpcoTTCJov v^piv^ T€ Kal evvofJLLYjv i(j)opa)VTa, 

TToXecov iOvaJv ^aGcXiajv €7Tiui<07Tov, (Lg els 'AAe^av- 
F Speiav rJKe Kal rrjg vecbs diro^dg i^dStl^e Kara rrjs 
KecJiaXrjs €;^cdv to Ifidriov, tj^lovv dTTOKaXvipaoOai 
7T€pi6eovr€s ol ^ KXe^avhpels Kal hel^ai ttoOovglv 
avrois to TrpoGwrrov. rod Se aTTOKaXvipapLevov , 
Kpavyrjv Kal Kporov iTToirjaav. rod he ^aacXecos 

^ avTos] avTos van Herwerden. 

2 avTou . . . Tplroi'] Tplrou airop Hartman, presumably on 
the basis of Justin xxxviii. 8. 8; but it is also true that this 
M-as the third important commission given to Scipio from the 
Senate. 

^ i'l^ptp from Moralia 111 a : TroXewj/ or ivoKiwv. 

** Cf. Cicero, Oration for Cluentius, 48 (134) ; Valerius 
Maximus, iv. 1. 10. 

190 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 200 

out both himself and his rival either as legates or 
tribunes of the soldiers, and take the word and judge- 
ment of the fighting men in regard to the valour of 
each. 

11. After he was made censor, he deprived a 
young knight of his horse because, at the time when 
war was being waged against Carthage, this young 
man had given an expensive dinner for which he had 
ordered an honey-cake to be made in the form of the 
city, and, calling this Carthage, he set it before the 
company for them to plunder. When the young man 
asked the reason why he had been degraded, Scipio 
said, " Because you plundered Carthage before I did ! " 

12. Seeing Gaius Licinius coming before him, he 
said, " I know that this man is guilty of perjury, but, 
since no one accuses him, I cannot myself be both 
accuser and judge." " 

13. He was sent out by the Senate a third time for 
the purpose, as Cleitomachus ^ says, of 

Looking upon men's arrogant acts and their acts of 
good order,'' 

that is, as an inspector of cities, peoples, and kings ; 
and when he arrived at Alexandria and, after dis- 
embarking, was walking with his toga covering his 
head, the Alexandrians quickly surrounded him, and 
insisted that he uncover and show his face to their 
yearning eyes. And so he uncovered amid shouting 
and applause. The king could hardly keep up with 

* Poseidonius (instead of Cleitomachus) is found in 
Moralia, 777 a, and is also suggested by Athenaeus, 549 d. 

" Homer, Od. xvii. 487. Scipio's journeyings, beginning 
in 141 B.C., took him over most of the countries around the 
eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. 

lyi 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fioXis dfiiXXoiievov ^aht^ovGLv avrol? 8t' apyiav 
Koi Tpvcf^rjv rod ucojiaros, 6 Xklttlcov arpiyLa^ rrpos 
201 rov IlavaiTiov rpidvpiuas eiTrev, " rjSrj n rrj£ 
€7TLhrjfjLLag rjfjLOjv ^AXe^avSpelg OLTToXeXavKacn' 8t' 
rjfxds yap ewpaKaai rov jSacrtAea TrepLTTarovvra." 

14. ^vvaTTeSijfjLeL Se avro) ^tAo? ju,ev etg ^iXo- 
ao(f)OS HavaiTLOs, ot/cerat Se TreVre* /cat tovtojv^ 
€v6s arroOavovTOs irrl rrjs i^vrj^, d'AAov /xt^ ^ovXo- 
fievos TTpLaudai 0,770 Trjs 'Pcjojjltjs {jLereTrefjuparo . 

15. Tojv 8e No/xavrtVcov dpidxojv elvai hoKovv- 
Tcov Acat 77oAAoj)s" vevLKr]K6rajv arpar-qyovg, virarov 
dveSet^e ^KLTTiajva to Sevrepov 6 StJ/xos ctti rov 
TToXefxov <l)pfxy]pL€VCL>v Se ttoAAcov eVt ri^v o-rparetav, 
/cat TOVTO SL6Ka)XvG€V 7) ovyKXiqros, cLs ip-^fJLOV 
rrjs 'IraAtas" iaopiiviqs. /cat XPVI^^'^^ Xa^elv rcov 

g iroLpLCjv ovK €iauav, dXXd ras" reAcovt/cas" Trpoao- 
8ovs dTTera^av ovttoj xpovov ixovoas. 6 Se Hklttlcjov 
Xp'TjP'dTOJv pL€V OVK €(f)7] Setc^at, TO, yap iavrov /cat 
TcDv ^iXcov i^apKeaeiv Trepl 8e rcDi^ Grpanajrcov 
ipLepLxparOy ;\;aAe7roj^ yap etyat roi^ TToXepLOV, el pikv 
8t' dvhpeiav rcov TToXeixiojv 7JrTr]vraL roaavrdKLs, 
on Trpos roiovTovSf el he 8t' dvavhpiav raju ttoXl- 
T(x)Vy on jjierd tolovtcjv. 

16. 'Evret 8e e'A^ojv els to orrpaTOTreSov ttoXXtjv 
dra^iav /cat d/coAacrtav /cat heiGihai}xovLav /cat rpu- 
</>.i)v KareXa^e, pLavreis fxev evOvs e^rjXaae /cat 
dvras /cat Tropvo^oaKovs, GKevrj 8c rrpoGera^ev 

^ drpifxa] rip^/jta? 2 t-outw;/ Wyttenbach : roD. 



" Ptolemy VII., called ' Physcon ' by the Alexandrians 
because of his fat and unwieldy body. 

** Cf. Moralia, 111 a ; Diodorus, xxxiii. 28a ; Athenaeus, 

192 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 200-201 

them in walking because of his inactive hfe and his 
pampering of his body,** and Scipio whispered softly 
to Panaetius, " Already the Alexandrians have re- 
ceived some benefit from our visit. For it is owing 
to us that they have seen their king walk." ^ 

14. His one companion on his travels was a friend 
Panaetius, a philosopher, and there were five servants. 
When one of these died in a foreia;n land, he did not 
wish to buy another, and so sent for one from Rome.'' 

15. Inasmuch as the Numantians seemed invin- 
cible in battle and had vanquished many generals, 
the people made Scipio consul the second time '^ for 
this war. When many were eager to enlist for the 
campaign, the Senate intervened, on the ground that 
Italy would be unprotected. Moreover, they would 
not allow him to take money from what was already 
on hand, but set aside for his use the revenues from 
taxes not yet due. Scipio said that he did not need 
money, for his own and that of his friends would be 
sufficient ; but in regard to the soldiers he did find 
fault.* For he said that the war was a hard war ; if 
it was owing to the bravery of the enemy that they 
had been vanquished so many times, then it was hard 
because it was against such men ; if it was owing to 
the want of bravery in their own citizens, then it was 
hard because it must be conducted with such men. 

16. When he arrived at the camp, and found there 
much disorder, licentiousness, superstition, and 
luxury, he straightway drove out the soothsayers, 
diviners, and panders, and issued orders to send 
549 D ; Cicero, Academics, ii. 2 (5) ; Justin, Historiae 
Philipirlcae. xxxviii. 8. 8. 

« Cf. Athenaeus, 273 a (=Polvbius, Frag. 166, ed. 
Hultsch) ; Valerius Maximus, iv. 3. 13. <* In 134. b.c. 

* Cf. Appian, Roman History, the Wars in Spain, xiv. 84. 

193 



PLUTARCH'S MORAIJA 

C o.7ro7Tefji7T€LV dnavTa ttXtjv x^rpas o^eXcGKOV Kai 
(201) '^OTT^pLov Kepa/jLeov' tcov he dpyvpcjv^ eKTrajpia ov 
fxel^ov Svo Xirpajv Gvvexdjpy](je rots jSouAo/xeVoi? 
ex^iv' Xoveadac Se aTretTre, rcov Se dX€L(f)OfJi€va>v 
TpL^eiv eKaarov lavrov rd yap V7Tot,vyia ;^etpas' 
fxy] exovra Iripov rpiijjovTos SelaOaf Trpoaera^e Se 
dpLordv ixev iaTCoras dirvpov oifjoVy SeiTTvetv 8e 
KaraKEifievovg dprov rj ttoXtov^ drrXdj? /cat Kpia? 
OTTTov Tj l(j>d6v' avro? 8e adyov ijjLTTe7T0p7Tr]jJL€V09 
fieXava TrepirjeL, rrevdelv ttjv rod crrparevixaro? 
alaxvvTjV Xeyojv. 

17. Me/XjLttou 8e nvos x^^^^^PX^^ Xa^cbv vTrot,v- 
T) yea ifjVKTTJpag StaXlOovg TTapaKopbit^ovra /cat Srjpc- 

KXelovg, " ifjiol piev," elTrev, " rjpLepa? rpidKovra^ 
Koi rij TTarpihi, cravrcv Se rov ^lov drravra roLovrog 
wv dxpy]0'TOV 7T€7TOir]Ka£ creavTov." 

18. '^Erepou Se dvpeov eTTihei^avro? ev KEKoapir)- 
puivov, " 6 piev dvpeog," eiTrev, " c5 veaviay /caAo?, 
7rpe7T€L §€ 'Pwpiaiov dvSpa pLaXXov eV rfj 8e^ta rag 
iXTTiSas €;\;etv -^ rfj dpiarepd." 

19. Tov 8e Tov ;)(apa/<:a dpavrog a(j)6Spa Trte^e- 
cr^at ^daKovTog, " et/corcu?/' €(f>rj' " rep yap ^vXcp 
Tovrcp pidXXov rj rfj piaxalpa Trior eveis." 

^ apyvpQiv as in Moralia, 175 e, and elsewhere: dpyvpiuv. 
^ ttoKtov : ttoXtov or irorbv, 
' TpLOLKOvTa] dls TpidKOVTO, OX e^rjKOVTa Cobet, 

* Appian, Roman History, The Wars in Spain, xiv. 85 ; 
Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 16. 2 ; Livy, Epitome of 
Book Ivii. ; Valerius Maximiis, ii. 7. 1. 

^ A famous Corinthian potter. 

" Presumably the period of his disgrace and punishment. 

** Cf. Frontinus, Strategemata, iv. 1. 1. 

* So in Aelian, Varia Historia, xi. 9. Slightly variant 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 201 

away all camp-utensils except a pot, a spit, and an 
earthenware di'inking-cup. But he conceded a 
goblet of silverware of not more than two pounds 
weight to those who wished to keep such. He forbade 
bathing, and of those who took a rub-down he re- 
quired that each man should rub himself, saying that 
the pack-animals, not being provided -with hands, 
needed somebody to rub them. He also issued 
orders that the soldiers should eat their luncheon 
standing, and that it should be something uncooked, 
but that they might recline at dinner, and this should 
be bread or porridge simply, and meat roasted or 
boiled. He himself went about with a black cloak 
pinned around him, saying that he was in mourning 
for the disgrace of the army.*^ 

17. He detected in the baggage carried by the 
pack-animals of Memmius, a military tribune, mne- 
coolers set with precious stones, the work of Theri- 
cles,^ and said to him, " By such conduct you have 
made yourself useless to me and your country for 
thirty days,'' but useless to yourself for your whole 
lifetime."'* 

18. When another man showed him a shield 
beautifully ornamented, he said, " A fine shield, 
young sir ; but it is more fitting that a Roman rest 
his hopes in his right hand rather than in his left." * 

19- Another carrying a timber for the palisade 
said that it was awfully heavy. " Very likely," said 
Scipio, " for you put more trust in this wood than in 
your sw^ord." ^ 

versions are to be found in Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 
16. 4 ; Frontinus, Strategemata, iv. 1. 5 ; Livy, Epitome of 
Book Ivii. 

^ Cf. Polyaenus. Strategemata, viii. 16. 3 ; Livy, Epitome 
of Book Mi. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(201) 20. *0/3a»v 8e ttjv aTrovoiav rojv TToXe^ioiv eXeyev 

(Jiveiad ai rod ;\;/)ovoi> rrfv aacftaXeiav top yap 

dyadov Grparrjyov axiTrep larpov eGxdrrjs BelaOaL 

E rrjg Sua rod cnS-qpov depanelas. ov fJLTjv aAA' 

eTnOifjievog ev Kaipco rovs l^ofiavrivovs irpei/jaro. 

21. Tair 8e Trpeu^vrepojv rovs rjrrrjiJLevovs Ka- 
KL^ovTOJV, TL^ 7Te(j)€vyaGLV ovs TOoavTaKis iSico^av, 
eLTTelv TLva Xeyerau tojv ISofjuavTivoju (Ls ra Trpo- 
para ravra /cat vvv iarLV, 6 Se TTOLfirjv dXXos. 

22. 'Evret Se ttjv Nofxavrlav eXcbv kol Opiap,- 
^evuas TO hevrepov irpos Tdiov TpaKxov virep re 
TTJs povXrjs Kal rcov GVfXfjLo.xoJi' Karearr] Sta^opa, 
/cat Xv7TOVfjL€vos 6 SrjiJios idopv^Tjaev avrov cTTt rov 

F ^TJ/xaro?, " e^e/' elirev, " ovherrore arparoveScov 
dXaXaypLos idopv^rjcrev, ovri ye GvyKXvhcxjv dvdpco- 
TTCJVy (Lv ov fjLrjrepa ttjv ^IraXtav dXXd firjrpvidv 
ovGav €77tWajLtat." 

23. TcDv 8e 7T€pl rov Fatov ^oojvrcov Krelvai 
rov TvpawoVy " etKOTCos/' €L7T€v, " ol rfj TrarptSt 
TToXejjLOVvres e/xe ^ovXovrai TrpoaveXeXv ov yap 

oloV T€ TTjV 'PcO/XT^V' 7T€G€iV HkLTTLCDVOS ioTajTOS 

ouSe ^TJv S/ct77ta>va ttjs 'Pcofxrjs Treaovorrjs." 

KAIKIAIOT METEAAOT 
1. Kat/ctAto? MdreXXos oxvpcp x^P^V ^ovXevo- 
fievos TTpoaayayeLV, elirovros iKarovrdpxov npos 
^ tL] 6 TL Bernardakis, oVt Hatzidakis. 

" Cf. Aulus Gellius, xiii. 3. 6, where Scipio quotes a 
similar aphorism of his father's. 

^ Appian relates that Numantia was reduced by systematic 
siege {Wars in Spain, 89 ff.). 

* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 16. 5 ; Velleius 
Paterculus, ii. 4 ; Valerius Maximus, vi. 2. 3. 

196' 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 201 

20. Observing the recklessness of the enemy, he 
said that he himself was buying security with time ; 
for a good general, Hke a physician, needed to operate 
with steel only as a last resort." Nevertheless he 
attacked at the proper time and routed the Numan- 
tians.^ 

21. When the older men asked the defeated sol- 
diers why they were such cowards as to flee from the 
men they had so often pursued, one of the Numan- 
tians is said to have replied that the sheep were still 
the same sheep, but another man was their shephei^d. 

22. After he had captured Numantia and cele- 
brated his second triumph, he had a falling out with 
Gaius Gracchus in regard to the Senate and the 
alhes ; and the people, feeling much aggrieved, set out 
to shout him down on the rostra. But he said, " The 
battle-cry of armed hosts has never discomfited me, 
and much less can that of a rabble of whom I know 
full well that Italy is not their real mother, but their 
stepmother." *^ 

23. When the men about Gracchus cried out, 
" Kill the tyrant," he said, " Very naturally those 
who feel hostile towards our country wish to make 
away with me first ; for it is not possible for Rome to 
fall while Scipio stands, nor for Scipio to live when 
Rome has fallen." 

CAECILIUS METELLUS*» 

1. When Caecilius Metellus was desirous of leading 
his men against a strongly fortified place, a centurion 

** Distinguished Roman general, consul 143 b.c. ; some- 
times confused with Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, whose 
life Plutarch either wrote or intended to write {Life of MariuSy 
chap. xxix.). 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

202 o.i)t6v ws, iav SeKa jjlovovs arroPdXrj ,^ XTji/jerai to 
XOJpLov, rjpcorrjcyev avrov el povXoiro els rcov ScKa 
yeveadai. 

2. TcDv Se vewrepcjjv rivos ')(L\idp-xpv TrvvOavo- 
fievov ri pieXKei ttolcXv, " el rovro,^ " ^(f>y], " (Jvv- 
eiSevaL pLoi rov )(lto}vlgkov ivopLi^ov, oiTroSvcjdpievos 
av avTov IttI to rrvp errediqKa." 

3. TiKLTTLCjovL Sc t^oiVTi TToXepicbv , d/noBavovTOs 
rj)(6€a9rj, Kal tovs puev vlovs eKeXevcrev vTroSvvTag 
dpaaOai to Xe^os, toZs §e Oeols ecfyrj X^P^^' ^X^''^ 
VTTep TTJs 'PcjopLTjs, OTL TTap' dXXois ovK eyeveTO 

TAIOT MAPIOT 

1. Tdiog Maptos" eK yevovg dSo^ov TTpoicbv els 
B TToXiTeiav hid tojv crTpaTetajv, dyopavopLiav ttjv 

fxeil^ova Trapr^yyeiXev alodopbevos 8e ort AetVerat 
T7)s avTTJs 7]iJ,epas enl TrfV eXdTTOva pieTrjXOe' 
KaKeiviqs dnoTvywi', o/xcos" ovk direyva} tov irpcxj- 
Tevcreiv 'Pcu/xatcov. 

2. 'Iotas' 8e e;)(;60V iv dpL(f)OTepoLS tols GKeXecn 
TTape^xev dSeTos eKTepieZv tco laTpo), Kal pur] OTevd- 
^as pir]Se Tas d(f)pvs ovvayayojv eveKapTeprjcre ttj 
Xeipovpyia- tov he laTpov pieTa^aivovTOS errl OdTe- 

^ dirolBdXri] avoKaxv (!) Hartman. 
* TovTo Wyttenbach (as in Moi'alia^ 506 d) : tovtov. 

" Cf. Moralia, 506 d ; Valerius Maximus, vii. 4. 5. 
Frontinus, Strategemafa, i. 1. 12, attributes the remark to 
M^tellus Pius (consul 52 b.c. with Pompey). 

" Cicero, De amicUia, 21 (77), and Be officiis, 1. 25 (87). 

* Cf. Pliny, Natural History, vii. 45 (144), and Valerius 
Maximus, iv. 1. 12. 

1,98 



SAYINGS OF R(3MANS, 202 

said that with the loss of only ten men Metellus 
could take the place. Metellus asked him if he 
wished to be one of the ten ! 

2. A certain centurion among the younger men 
inquired what he was going to do. " If I thought," 
said he, " that the shirt on my back knew what is in 
my mind, I would strip it off and put it in the fire." ^ 

3. He was bitterly opposed to Scipio while Scipio 
hved,^ but felt very sad when he died, and commanded 
his sons to take part in carrying the bier. He said 
that he felt grateful to the gods, for Rome's sake, that 
Scipio had not been born among another people.® 



GAIUS MARIUS * 

Gaius Marius came from an obscure family and 
advanced into political life through his military ser- 
vices. He announced himself a candidate for the 
greater * aedileship, but, perceiving that he was 
running behind, on the very same day he went after 
the lesser.-'' FaiUng also to obtain that, he neverthe- 
less did not give up the idea that he should some 
day be the first among the Romans.^' 

2. He had large varicose veins on both legs, and, 
refusing to be fastened down, he submitted these to 
his physician for excision ; and without a groan or 
even a contraction of his eyebrows he underwent 
the operation with fortitude. But as the physician 

•^ Famous Roman general, seven times consul ; he lived 
157-86 B.C. 

* The office of curule aedile. 

^ That of plebeian aedile. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of 0. Marius, chap. v. (408 a) ; 
Cicero, Pro Plancio, 21 (51). 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(202) pov, ovK TjOeXrjaev eiTTcbv ovk elvai to OepaTrevfia 
TTJs dX'yi-]h6i'os d^Lov. 

3. 'Erret 8e Aovglos 6 aSeA^iSou?, avrov to 
Sevrepov VTrarevovroSy e/Siafcro tcov ev (Zpa arpa- 
revofxevajv riva ovopLari Tpe^coi^Lov, 6 Se arreKreivev 
avrov, /cat ttoXXcov Kar'qyopovvTOJV ovk rjpvii^GaTO 

C Krelvai rov dpxovra, ttjv Se alriav etne kol oltt- 
ihei^e- K^Xevoas ovv 6 jMaptos" tov irrl rals dpiureiais 
SiSo/jLevov (jTe(^avov KopiLodrjvai rat Tpe^covio) 
TrepUO-qKe. 

4. Tot? Se TevroGL TrapaorparoTTeSevGas iv x^' 
picp oXiyov vScop exovTL, tojv Grpariajrajv Siiprjv 
XeyovTcov, Set^a? avroZs TTorafxov iyyvs peovra raJ 
XO-paKL^ rojv TToXe^xLOWy " eKeWev vfuv €gtlu," 
€L7Te, " TTOTov (jL}Viov atyLtaTO^." ol Se dy€LV TTap- 
€KdXovv, eojs vypov exovGi^ to atfia /cat jjujiro) ttov 
i)7t6 tov Sli/jtjv iK7T€7rr]y6s. 

5. 'Ev 8e rots' Kt/x^ptAcot? TToXipiOis K.afiapLvajv^ 
D y^iXiovs dvhpas dyadov? yevofievovs ofjLOv *Pa)- 

fjLaiovg i7TOLr]G€, /car' ot'SeVa vopiov TTpos Se rovs 
iyKaXovvTas eXeye tcov vojjlcjov ovk i^aKOVGai 8ta 

TOV TOJV OTtXojV ljs6(j)OV. 

6. 'Ei^ Se Tip eix(jyvXicp TToXlpap TrepLTa^pevofxevos 

1 T(3 x^po.Ki] Tou . . . x^^P^i^os in the Life of C. MariuSy chaj). 
xviii., is preferable, but not imperative. 

2 ?Xov<n] ^xw"' some mss., but the indicative stands in the 
Life of C. Marius, chap, xviii. 

3 Kafiepivwv in the Life of C. Marius, chap, xxviii. Latin 
has e, Greek usually a. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap. vi. (408 e) ; 
Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, ii. 15 (35) and 22 (53) ; Pliny, 
Natural History, xi. 104 (252). 

^ Cf Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap. xiv. (413 b) ; 
Cicero, Oration for Milo, 4 (9) ; Valerius Maximus, vi. 1. 12. 
200 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 202 

turned his attention to the other leg, Marius would 
not consent, saying that the cure was not worth the 
pain.^ 

3. In his second consulship Lusius, his nephew, 
attempted an indecent assault on one of the youths 
in the army, by the name of Trebonius, and the youth 
killed Lusius. When many accused him of the crime, 
he did not deny that he had killed the officer, and 
disclosed the circumstances ; whereupon Marius 
ordered the crown which is given for deeds of supreme 
valour to be brought, and this he placed upon Tre- 
bonius.^ 

4. Encamped against the Teutons in a place which 
had little water, when the soldiers said they were 
thirsty, he pointed out to them a river flo^\ing close 
by the enemy's palisade, saying, " There is drink for 
you which can be bought with blood." And they 
called upon him to lead them on while the blood 
^vithin them was fluid and not all dried up by their 
thirst.*' 

5. In the Cimbrian wars a thousand men of Cameri- 
num who had acquitted themselves bravely he made 
Roman citizens, in accord \\dth no law. To those 
who complained he said that he did not hear the 
laws because of the clash of arms.** 

6. In the Civil War,* when he found himself 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap, xviii. (416a); 
Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 7. 12 ; Florus, Epitome of 
Roman History, i. 38. 8 ff. 

<* Gf. Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap, xxviii. (421 e) ; 
Cicero, Oration for Corn. Balhus, 20 (46) ; Valerius Maxi- 
mus, V. 2. 8. Cf also Cicero, Pro Milone, 4 (10), " silent 
enim leges inter arma." 

* Usually called the Social War (6 avfj-ixaxi-Kos ToXefMos), 
90-88 B.C. 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(202) /cat TToXiopKovfxevos iKapripei, rov oiKelov dva- 
fjL€vcov Kaipov. eliTOVTo? Se TiofiTraiSLov^ StAcovos" 
TTpog avTov, ** et /xeya? et GrparrjyoSy o) Mapte, 
Kara^as hiaycoviuai," " av fxev ovv," elirev, " el 
jLteyas" et Grparrjyos, avdyKaoov pue ScaycovLGaadai 
Kal fiTj ^ovXopievov." 

KATAOT AOTTATIOT 

KarAo? Aovrdnos ev Ta> Kt/,t^/)t/<raj TToXepup 
rrapd rov 'Artcrcoya irorapiov arparoTreSevajv, eirel 
E Tovs ^ap^dpovs 6p(jjvT€s ol 'Pco/xatot Sta^aLveLV 
€7nx€LpovvTas dvex^povv, /jlt] hwdpuevos avrovg 
Karacrxetv <^pfjLr]a€v et? rovs TTpcorovg rcov avro- 
rpexovTcov, 6ttoj£ SoKoycri /jlt] (pevyeuv tov9 ttoAc- 
(jLLovgy aAAa rco orpar-qyco KaraKoXovdelv, 

STAAA2 

SuAAa? o evrvx'T)? dvayopevOels tcov fieytarajv 
evruxtojv eTTOielro Zvo, rrjv Ulov MereAAou (jaXiaVy 
Kal TO fjLT] KaraoKdifjai rds ^ Adrjvas dXXd (jieiuaodai 

TTJ? TToXeOJS. 

F 

TAIOT noniAAioT 

Tdiog IIottlXXlo? iTTefi(f)6r] irpog ^ Avrioxov irn- 
cjToXrjv TTapd rijs avyKX-qrov Aco/xt^cov, KeXevovGav 

1 Jlofxiraiblov Wyttenbach (as in the Life of Cato Minor, 
chap, ii., and elsewhere) : iroixiriov. 

2 2 uXXa, the usual form: SuXXoi;. 

" Or possibly Poppaedius. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap, xxxiii. (424. d). 

* Quintus Lutatius Catulus, consul 102 b.c. with C. 
Marius ; general in the war against the Cimbri. The event 
here described happened in 101 b.c. 

202 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 202 

surrounded by a trench and cut off by the enemy, 
he held out and bided his own time. Pompaedius '^ 
Silo said to him, " If you are a great general, 
Marius, come down and fight it out." Marius 
replied, " If you are a great general, make me fight 
it out when I do not wish to do so ! " ^ 

CATULUS LUTATIUS* 

Catulus Lutatius, in the Cimbrian War, was en- 
camped beside the Atiso ^ River. The Romans, 
seeing the barbarians crossing to attack, retreated, 
and he, not being able to check them, made haste to 
put himself in the front rank of those who were 
running away so that they might not seem to flee 
from the enemy, but to be following their com- 
mander.* 

SULLA' 

Sulla, who was called the Fortunate, counted two 
things among his greatest pieces of fortune : the 
friendship of Pius Metellus, and the fact that he had 
not razed Athens, but had spared the city.^ 

GAIUS POPILLIUS* 

Gaius Popillius was sent * to Antiochus bearing 
a letter from the Senate commanding him to with- 

'^ Presumably the same river which the Roman writers 
call the Athesis, 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of C. Marius, chap, xxiii. (418 f). 

' L. Cornelius Sulla, 138-78 b.c. ; the dictator. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Sulla, chap. vi. (451 d), chap, 
xiv. (460 e), and the Comparison of Lysander and Sulla, 
chap. V. (478 b). ^ Consul 173 b.c. 

» In 168 B.C. to Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes). 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aTTdyeiv ef AlyvTTTOV to Grpdrevfjia /cat jult] crcfyere- 
pit^euO ai rcx)V llToAe/xatou tIkvcov 6p(f)ava)v ovtojv 
TTjv ^aaiXeiav Trpouiovra 8' avrov hid rod crrparo- 
TreSov TToppwOev duiraaafjievov rov ^ Avrioxov 
t^iXocfypovajg, ovk avraGnacrdfievog to ypafifiaTelov 
eTTeSajKev iirel Se dvayvovs €(f)r] ^ovXevoeodai 
Kal 8d)a€LV rrjv diroKpLuiv, rep KX-qpiarL yvpov nepl 
avrov 6 ITo77tAAto? nepLeypaif/ev elircov, " ivravda 
roiwv icrrcbs ^ovXevaai Kal drroKpivaL." Trdvratv 
he TO (f)p6vrjfxa rod dvhpos KaraTrXayevrojv rov re 
^ Avnoxov TTOirjGeiv op^oXoyovvros rd hoKovvra 
203 *Pa)//,atot?, ovrcos rjoTrdcraro Kal rrepieTrrv^ev 
avrov 6 YloTTiXXios. 

AETKOTAAOT 

1. KevKovXXos ev *App,evLa pier a pivpioiv ottXl- 
Tcov Kal x^Xiajv LTTTrecov eirl Tiypdv-qv eyjj^p^^ irevre- 
KaiSeKa j^ivpidSag orparids e^ovra rfj rrpd puds 
vcjvojv^ oKrw^plcov, ev fj rrporepov vrro Kt/xj8pa)V 
7] puerd Y^anricxivos"" hie(j)6dpr] hvvapus. elirovros 
he rivos on 'Pco/xatot rrjV rjpiepav dcf>ocnovvraL Kal 
hehoLKaaiv, " ovkovv," ecf)rj, " a-qpiepov dycxJVLGOj- 
pueOa rrpodvpicos, tVa Kal ravriqv i^ aTTOcjypdhos Kal 
aKvdpcoTTrjs TTOiTjoajpiev IXapdv Kal 7rpoG<^iXrj *Pa>- 
pLaiois." 

2. Tovs he Kara<^pdKrov£ pidXiora ^o^ovpLevcov 

2 KaLirldJvos Xylander : (TKi.TrL(avo%. 

" Cf. Polybius, xxix. 27 ; Appian, Boman History, the 
Syrian Wars, 6Q ; Cicero, Philippics, viii. 8 (23) ; Livy, 
xlv. 12 ; Justin, Historiae Philippicae, xxxiv. 3 ; Valerius 
Maximus, vi. 4. 3 ; Velleius Paterculus, i. 10. In Pliny, 
204 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 202-203 

draw his army from Egypt, and not to usurp the 
kingdom of Ptolemy's children who were bereft of 
their parents. As he was making his approach 
through the camp, Antiochus welcomed him gra- 
ciously while he was still a long way off, but he, with- 
out returning the salutation, dehvered the document. 
When the Idng had read it, he said that he would 
think about it, and give his answer ; whereupon 
Popillius drew a circle about him with his staff and 
said, " While you stand inside that line, think about 
it and answer." All were astounded at the man's 
lofty spirit, and Antiochus agreed to comply with the 
Roman decree ; which done, PopiUius saluted him 
and embraced him." 

LUCULLUS * 

1. Lucullus in Armenia with ten thousand men- 
at-arms and a thousand horsemen was proceeding 
against Tigranes, who had an army of an hundred 
and fifty thousand men, on the sixth day of October, 
the day on which, some years before,^ the force 
with Caepio had been annihilated by the Cimbrians. 
When somebody remarked that the Romans set 
that day aside as a dread day of expiation, he said, 
" Then let us on this day strive Mith might and main 
to make this, instead of an ill-omened and gloomy 
day, a glad and welcome day to the Romans." ^ 

2. His soldiers feared most the men in full armour, 

Natural History^ xxxiv. 11 (24), Cn. Octavian is substituted 
for C. Popillius. 

'' Roman general, friend of Sulla the dictator ; he defeated 
Mithridates and Tigranes. 

" In 105 B.C. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lucullus, chap, xxviii. (510 c). 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORAL! A 

B r(7)i' crTpo.TiOJT(t)v eKeXevae dappelv " ttXclov yop 
(203") €pyov elvai rod VLKT^aai to tovtovs aKvXevGai." 
7Tpoa^a<s Se rcb Xocfxp Trpcbros koL to KLViqjxa tojv 
papPdpcov deaGOLfjLevog ave^o-qoe, " veviK-qKapiev, 
<L GvarpaTLwrai "• koI firjSevos vrroardvTos Slcjokojv 
rrevTe 'Pco^atcov aTri^aXe rreaovras, tcov 8e 
TToXefiLCxjy V7T€p ScKa pLVpidSas direKTetve. 

TNAIOT noMnnioT 

1. Vvaio? YlopLTTT^io? VTTO 'Pco/xtttcov rjyamQOr] 
TOGOVTOV oGov 6 TraTTjp ipLiG-qdiq . veo£ Se cov Trav- 
TdrraGL ttj SuAAa fJLeplSi TrpoGeOrjKev avTOV Kal 
p.rjTe dpxcov jJLiJTe ^ovXevcxJv ttoXXovs ^k Trjg 

C 'IraAtas" eGTpaToXoyrjGe . Kal SuAAa KaXovvrog 
ovK €(j)r] Slxol Xa(f>vpajv ovSe dvaijxaKTOv eVtSetfetv^ 
TO) avTOKpdropi ttjv SwafiLV ouS' T^A^e TTporepov 
TTplv ^ TToXXals fidxcLi'? VLKTJGaL Tovs Grparrjyovg 

TOJV TToXe/JLLCOV. 

2. 'Erret Se TTep^^del? els ^iKeXlav vtto SuAAa 
Grparr^yos eTTVvOdvero rovs Grpancoras iv rat? 
ohoiTTopiais iKrpeTTOjilvovs ^idt,eGdai /cat dpTrdi^eLv, 
Tovs fxev dXXcos TrXavcojjiei'ovs /cat Trepidiovras 
eKoXaGCy TOJV Se 7rep,7rop.€va)v vn avrov G(f)paylSa? 
eVe^a/^iAe rat? ixaxo-ipais . 

D 3. Ma/xeprtVou? Se ttJ? ivavrias yevoixevovs 
fxepihos olos^ rjv aTTOGcjidrreLv diravras' ^Oevviov 
he rod Srj/JLaycoyov cf)^GavTos ov St/cata TTOielv 

^ fTTtSet'tei^] eiridel^aL some MSS. 
2 olos Hatzidakis and Hartman : oUs re. 

° Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lucullus, chap, xxviii. (510 d- 
511 b). * The triumvir. 

206 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 203 

but he bade them not to be afraid, saying that it 
would be harder work to strip these men than to 
defeat them. He was the first to advance against 
the hill, and observing the movement of the bar- 
barians, he cried out, " We are victorious, my men," 
and, meeting no resistance, he pursued, losing only 
five Romans who fell, and he slew over an hundred 
thousand of the enemy. ^ 

GNAEUS POMPEY» 

1. Gnaeus Pompey was loved by the Romans as 
much as his father was hated.*' In his 3^outh he was 
heart and soul for Sulla's party, and without holding 
pubUc office or being in the Senate, he enlisted many 
men in Italy for the army.^ When Sulla summoned 
him, he refused to present his troops before the 
commander-in-chief ^\^thout spoils and without their 
having been through bloodshed. And he did not 
come until after he had vanquished the generals of 
the enemy in many battles. « 

2. When he was sent by Sulla to Sicily ^ in the 
capacity of general, he perceived that the soldiers 
on the marches kept dropping out of the ranks to do 
violence and to plunder, and so he punished those 
who were straggling and running about, and placed 
seals upon the swords of those who were officially 
sent by him.^ 

3. The Mamertines, who had joined the other 
party, he was like to put to death to a man. But 
Sthennius, their popular leader, said that Pompey 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. i. (619 b). 
^ Hid. chap. vi. (621 d). 
• Ibid. 621 F. f In 82 b.c. 

* Cf. Plutarch's TJfe of Pompey, chap. x. (624 a). 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(203) avTOv dv6^ ivos oItlov ttoXKovs avairiovs /coAa^ovra, 
TOVTOV he avTov elvai rovs fi€v (fiiXovg Tretcrai^ra, 
Tovs 8e ixOpov? ^LaGOLfjievov iXiadai to, Maptou- 
davfjLOLGas 6 YloiXTT-qLO? e^T) avyyvcoiJLrjv ej^eiv Ma- 

fJLepTLVOtg VTTO TOLOVTOV TTeiGdeiOlV avhpOS, OS TTjV 

TTarpiho, rrjg iavrov ijjvxrjs TrporipLa. /cat TrjV re 
TToXiv Kal Tov ^Oevviou aTTeXvaev. 

4. EtV Se Ai^vjjv Sial3as irrl AofiLnov /cat p^dxr) 
fxeydXr) Kpar-qGas, dGTraGajxeviov avrov avro- 
Kpdropa Tchv GrpanajTcov €(j)r] pur] Sex^Gdai rrjv 
TLpirjv, ecos opdos €GT7]Kev 6 x^P^i '^^^ TToXepiLcov. 

E ol he, KaiTTep opu^pov ttoXAov Karexovros, oppLiq- 
Gavres SiCTTopO-qGav to GrparoTrehov. 

5. ^"ETraveXOovra Be avrov 6 SuAAas" rat? pikv 
dXXais TLpLOLs iSe^aro (f)LXo(j)p6vojs /cat Vldyvov 
TTpoG'qyopevGe irpajros avrov OpiapL^evGai Se 
^ovXopLevov ovK eta pLTjSeTTCO puerexovra ^ovXrjs. 
eliTovros Se rov YlopLTrr^Lov Trpos rov£ Trapovras 
dyvoelv rov HvXXav ort /cat rov rfXiov dvareXXovra 
TrXeioves 'q Svvovra TrpoGKVvovGiV, 6 pikv SuAAas' 

F dv€^6rjG€ " 6piapi^€V€ra)." SepoutAtos" Se dvrjp 
dpLGroKparLKOs rjyavdKrei, /cat rojv GrpariojTOJV 
ivLGravro ttoXXol rep dpcdpi^cp Scopeds rivas 
aTTairovvres . inel 8e o YlopLTr-qtos €(J)7] puaXXov 
d(f)i]G€LV rov OptapL^ov i) KoXaK€VG€iv eKeivovs, 
vvv €cf)7] /cat piiyav dXrjdaJs opdv /cat d^iov rod 
Opidpi^ov rov YiopLTTTllOV. 

6. "YaBovs Se 6vro£ iv 'Pcopurj roXs LTTTrevGLV, orav 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pomp^y, 623 f, where Sthen(n)is 
stands instead of Sthennius (Sthennon, Moralia^ 815 e), and 
the Himerians instead of the Mamertines. 

» In 81 B.C. 

208 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 203 

was not doing right in punishing many innocent men 
instead of one man who was responsible, and that 
this man was himself, who had persuaded his friends, 
and compelled his enemies, to choose the side of 
Marius. Much amazed, Pompey said that he could 
pardon the Mamertines if they had been persuaded 
by a man hke him who valued his country above his 
o^vn Hfe ; and thereupon he liberated both the city 
and Sthennius.^ 

4. He crossed over to Africa against Domitius ^ 
and overcame him in a mighty battle ; then, when 
the soldiers were hailing him as commander-in-chief, 
he said he could not accept the honour while the 
enemy's palisade still stood upright. And they, in 
spite of a heavy rain that enveloped them, swept on 
and plundered the camp." 

5. When he returned, Sulla received him gra- 
ciously with many honours, and was the first to call 
him ' Magnus ' (The Great). He desired to cele- 
brate a triumph, but Sulla would not allow him to do 
so, since he was not as yet a member of the Senate. 
When Pompey remarked to those present that Sulla 
did not realize that more people worship the rising 
than the setting sun, Sulla cried out, " Let him have 
his triumph ! " Servilius, a man of noble family, was 
indignant, and many of the soldiers stood in his way 
with their demands of largess before his triumph. 
But when Pompey said that he w^ould rather give up 
his triumph than curry favour Mith them, ServiHus 
said that now he saw that Pompey was truly great, 
and deserved his triumph.^ 

6. It is a custom in Rome for the knights, when 

" C/. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chaps, xi.-xii. (624 c-e). 
<* Ibid, chaps, xiii.-xiv. (625-626 b) ; Moralia, 804 f. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

arparevocovraL top vofUfiov ■)(p6vov, ayeiv rov 
Ittttov els ayopav €ttI tovs Suo dvSpa?, ovs rLfjLrjrag 
KaXovoTL, /cat KarapiOjiriGaiJievovs ras crrpareias 
Kat TOVS crTparrjyovs vcf)^ ols^ eorparevoavro rvy- 
204 X^^^^^ eiraivojv r] ipoyojv raJv TrpoarjKovrajv 
VTTarevojv 6 lioixTrrjios Kar-ijyayev avros rov Ittttov 
iTTL rovs TLfjLTjras TeXXiov^ /cat AevrXov eKeivcxjv 
he a>G7rep edos iorl TTvOofievwv, el rraaas eorpd- 
revrai ras arpareias, " Trdaas/* eiTrev, " vtt* 
efiavTW avroKpdropL." 

7. Tcop' 8e ^eprojpLov ypafifxarcov Kpari^Gas ev 
I^TjpLa, ev OLs rjoav eTTLoroXal ttoXXojv rjyefiovojv 

eTTi vewrepLorpLcp /cat fxera^oXfj rrjs TToXireias rov 
HepTcoptov els ^VojjJLiqv KaXovvrcjv, KareKavae 
TTaaas SiSovs pLeravorjoaL /cat ^eXrlovas yeveadai 

rovs TTOVTjpOVS. 

8. *E77et oe ^padrrjs 6 HdpOcov ^aaiXevs 
eTTepujje irpos avrov d^Lcov opco XPV^^^'' "^^ Eu- 
(f)pdrr}y pidXXov ecj)!] XPV^^^^^ *P(jopLaLovs opco Tvpos 
Yldpdovs rep 8t/cata). 

g 9- Aeu/ctou 8e AevKovXXov fxerd rds arpareias 
d^eiKoros avrov els rjhovds Kal iroXvreXcos ^covros, 
rov Se YlopLTT-^iov d)s rrap" r^XiKiav rov TToXXd Tvpdr- 
reiv opeyop^evov ipeyovros, " pidXXov '* e^-q '* ye- 
povri ro rpv(f)dv tj'^ ro dpx^^v elvai Trap" rjXiKlav." 

^ oh Wyttenbach : oOy. 

^ VeWtop Xylander (as the name is recorded elsewhere): 
TeWiov or (rTeWiop. 

' ■xpri<^dai] xpwfc^at in the Life of Pompey, chap, xxxiii. 

* r)] -^ viixj Pantazides and S.A. Naber, but this is quite 
discredited by the other three versions, {Cf. note d.) 
210 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 203-204 

they have completed the regular term of service in 
the army, to lead their horses into the Forum, one 
at a time, before the two men whom they call cen- 
sors, and after enumerating their campaigns and 
the generals under whom they served, to receive 
such commendation or censure as is fitting. Pompey, 
who was then consul, ^\-ith his own hand led his 
horse before the censors, Gellius and Lentulus, and 
when they asked him, in conformity with the custom, 
whether he had served all his campaigns, he rephed, 
** Yes, all, and under myself as commander-in-chief." ° 

7. On gaining possession of the papers of Sertorius 
in Spain, amono- -which were letters from many 
leading men inviting Sertorius to come to Rome vrith 
a view to fomenting a revolution and changing the 
government, he burned them all, thus offering an 
opportunity for the miscreants to repent and become 
better men,^ 

8. When Phraates, king of the Parthians, sent to 
him, claiming the right to set his boundary at the 
river Euphrates, he said that the Romans set justice 
as their boundary towards the Parthians. ° 

9- Lucius Lucullus, after his campaigns, gave 
himself up to pleasures and lived very expensively, 
and strongly disapproved of Pompey 's yearning for 
the strenuous life as something out of keeping with 
his years. But Pompey said that for an old man it 
was more out of keeping with his years to be a volup- 
tuary than to hold office.^ 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. xxii. (630 a). 

'' Ibid. chap. xx. (p. 629) ; similar stories are told of 
others, as, for example, of William III. of England. 

" Ibid. chap, xxxiii. (637 c). 

^ Ibid. chap, xlviii. (644 e) ; Life of Lucullus, chap, 
xxxviii. (518 b) ; Moralia, 785 e. 

211 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(204) 10. Noaouvrt 8e avrco KLx^rjv 6 larpos Xa^etv 
TTpooeTa^ev ol 8e tprjrovvres ov^ €vpov {rjv yap Trap* 
a)pav)y €(f)ri 8e rig evpedrjoreodat napa AevKovXXo) 
St' erovs rpe^o/xeVa?* " etra," 'i(f>y]t " €t puri Kev- 
KovWos iTpv(f)a, HoijUTr-qLos ovk av e^T^cre; " /cat 
•)(aLp€iv eacra? rov larpov eXa^e tcov evTroplarajv. 
C 11. *Iaxvpdg Se CTtroSetas" iv 'Pco/xt^ yevo/xeVr^S", 
dTToSeixOels Xoyoj fiev dyopds iTnfJLeX-qr'qs, ^py^ §6 
yrjs Kal daXdrrrjs Kvpiog, enXevaev els Al^vtjv /cat 
TiapSova /cat St/ceAtav /cat ttoAu^ ddpoiaas alrov 
earrevSev els rrjv 'Pco/x'/^v. fieyaXov Se x^ifjiayvos 
yevopuevov /cat rcoy Kv^€pvr]Ta)v okvovvtcov, TTpcoros 
epPds /cat tt]^ dyKvpav dpai KeXevaag dve^o-qGey 
" TrXeZv dvdyKT],^ i,T^v ovk dvdyKT]} " 

12. Trjs §€ TT-po? rot' Katcrapa 8ta</>opas' aTTO- 
KaXvTTTOixivTjs /cat Map/ceAAtVou rti^os" tcov U770 IIo^- 
TTTjLov rrporjx^OLi' Sokovvtojv /xera^ejSAi^/xeVou Se 
Trpo? KatCTapa 77oAAa rrpos avrov ev GvyKXiqTa} 

D XeyovTOs, " ou/c aLGXvvrj Map/ceAAtve/' etnev, 
** e/xot XoiSopovfievos, St' ov e^ d(f)covov Aoytos" c/c 
8e 7T€ivaTLKov^ e/xert/cos" yiyovas; " 

13. Hpos" Se Karojva TTLKpdjs Kadaipdpievov on 
TToXXaKCs avTOV irpoayopevovros rrfv Kataapos" 

^ avayK-ri . . . di'd7K'77 Junius (as in the Life of Pompey^ 
chap. 1.): avayKa^xi . . . dvayKd^rj. 

2 TreLVTjTiKou is preferred by Bernardakis, but both forms 
seem to have been in use. 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. ii. (620 b) ; Life 
of lyucullus, chap. xl. (518 f) ; Moral ia, 786 a. Stobaeus, 
Florilegium, xvii. 43, quotes from Musonius a similar story 
about Zeno the philosopher. 

^ In 57 B.C. 

212 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 204 

10. When he was ill his physician prescribed a 
thrush as diet, but those mIio tried to get one did not 
find any, for thrushes were out of season ; however, 
somebody said that they Mould be found at the 
house of LucuUus, where they were kept the year 
round. " So then," said Pompey, " if LucuUus were 
not a voluptuary, Pompey could not Uve ! " and 
letting his physician go, he made his diet of things 
not so hard to procure.** 

11. At a time when there was a serious scarcity of 
grain in Rome ^ he Mas appointed nominally overseer 
of the market,^ but actually supreme master on land 
and sea, and sailed to Africa, Sardinia, and Sicily. 
Having got together a great quantity of grain, he 
was eager to get to Rome. A great storm arose 
and the pilots were hesitating, M'hen he, going on 
board first himself, gave orders to weigh anchor, 
crying out, " To sail is a necessity ; to Uve is not a 
necessity." '^ 

12. When his falling-out Mith Caesar came to 
light, one MarcelUnus, mUo Mas among those reputed 
to have been advanced by Pompey but had gone 
over to Caesar, inveighed against him at great length 
in the Senate. " MarcelUnus," said Pompey, " are 
you not ashamed to revile me, Mhen it is all owing 
to me that you, from being inarticulate, have become 
so fluent, and from being a starveling, are now able 
to eat and disgorge and eat again ? " ^ 

13. Cato assailed him bitterly, because when he 
himself had often foretold that Caesar's power and his 

" He was appointed praefectus annonae for five years. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. xlix. and 1. (645 c- 
676 a) ; Dio Cassius, xxxix. 9 ; Zonaras, x. 5 ; Cicero, Letters 
to Atticus, iv. 1.7. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. li. (646 e). 
VOL. Ill H 213 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(204) hvvafiiv Kal av^-qaiv ovk eV ayaOw rrjs SrjfioKparlas 
yivofievrjv avro? avreTrparrev, aTreKpivaro, " to. 
pikv era fiavriKcorepa, ra 8' e/xa ^iXiK(x>r€pa." 

14. liepl Se avTOV 7Tappr]cnat,6iJL€VOS €L7T€V, (I)S 
Trdorav apx^jv /cat eXa^e Odrrov tj TrpocreSo/CT^crc, /cat 
KaradoLTO Odrrov t) TrpoGeSoK-qdrj. 

15. Mera 8e ri^v eV OapcraAoj fio-x^v (j)€vya)V 
elg A'iyvTTroVy ws e/xeAAe Sta^atVetv cV ttJs" rpi-qpovs 

E etV aAteurt/cov TrAotov aTTOCTretAa^'TOS' rou ^ao-tAeco?, 
€7norpa(j)€lg irpos rr]v yvvaiKa /cat rov utov ouSei' 
erepov t) to tou TtO(j)OKXeovg eiTrev, 

oaris Se Trpos rvpavvov ipLTTopeverai, 
Keivov 'crrt SovXos, /cav eXevdepos [JLoXt). 

fierapas Se /cat TrAr^yet? ^t(^et /cat arevd^ag drra^, 
eLTTOJv Se pur^Sev dXX eyKaXvifjOLfJievos, irapeSajKev 
iavTov. 

KIKEPfiNOS 

1. K.LKepwv 6 p-qrajp els rovvofxa GKCOTrrofievos 
/cat rojv (f)iXa)v jjueraOeoOai KeXevovrcuv, e(f>r] rov 
Kt/cepajva TTOir^Geiv raJv l^arcovcov /cat ra>v K.dTXoju 
/cat rcov ^Kavpcov evSo^orepov. 

2. "E/CTTCo/xa 8e dpyvpovv rots deois dvaridels 



• Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. Ix. (651 e) ; Life 
of Caio Minor, chap. Hi. (787 d). 

" Cf. Plutarch's lAfe of Pompey, chap. liv. (647 f). 

« In 48 B.C. 

^ Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Sophocles, no. 789 ; quoted 
by Plutarch also in Moralia, 33 d and the Life of Pompey^ 
chap. Ixxviii. (661 a). Appian, Civil Wars, ii. 84, and Die 
Cassius, xlii. 4, also state that Pompey quoted these verses 
214 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 204 

rise to fame boded no good to the democracy, 
Pompey had taken the opposite side ; whereupon 
Pompey rephed, " Your words were more prophetic, 
but my actions were more friendly." <* 

14. Speaking frankly about himself, he said that 
he had attained every office sooner than he had 
expected, and laid it down sooner than had been 
expected.^ 

15. After the battle of Pharsalus ^ he fled to Egypt, 
and as he was about to transfer from the trireme to a 
fishing-boat which the king had sent for him, he 
turned to his \\ife and son, and said never a word 
except the lines of Sophocles : 

Whoever comes to traffic with a king 
Is slave to him, however free he come.^ 

When he landed, he was struck with a sword, and 
uttering one groan, he covered his face and surren- 
dered himself to be slain. 

CICERO • 

1. Cicero, the orator, was often twitted about his 
name, and his friends urged him to have it changed, 
but he said that he would make Cicero to be held in 
higher esteem than the Catos, the CatuH, and the 
Scauri.-'' 

2. When he dedicated a silver goblet to the gods, 

shortly before his death when he was slain by order of the 
king's counsellors. 

* Cicero had a collection of jokes in three volumes 
(Quintilian, Inst. Or. vi. 3. 5 ; Macrobius, Sat. ii. 1. 12), so 
that the few found here can only be regarded as samples 
which have a personal touch. 

f Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap. i. (861 c). 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F ra jxkv Trpwra rojv ovofidrcov ypa/x/xacrtv eoiqixavev, 
avrl he rod HiKepcvvos ipi^ivOov iropevae. 

3. Twv Se prjTopcov rov? fieya ^oaJvrag eAcye 
St* aodeveiav iirl rrjv Kpavyrjv (hs ;^a)Aous' dva- 
^atVetv €</►* Ittttov. 

4. Oveppov Se vlov exovros ovk ev Kexp^p^^vov 
£(/)* a)pa TO) CTaJ/xart, rov 8e Kt/cepcova XoiSopovvros 
els fxaXaKLav /cat Kivaihov dvoKaXovvros," dyvoeXs," 
eiTTeVy " on TrpooriqKeL tols tIkvois ivTOs dvpcov 
AotSopetCT^at; " 

5. MereAAou 8e NeTTCDros" elirovros irpos avrov 
on " rrXelovas piaprvpcov dTreKTOvas y) crvvrjyopwv 

205 aeacoKas," " kol yap eanv," ecf)'^), " TrXelov ipLol 
iriurecDS t) Xoyionqros ." 

6. 'EpcoTajyTos" Se rou MereAAou rt? avrov rrarrip 
ion, " ravrrjv," ecfyy], " rrjv diTOKpiGLV ;)(aAe7rcu- 
repav rj arj fJL'qrrjp TreTTOirjKev." rjv yap rj rod 
M.ereXXov daroAacrros', o Se MeVeAAos' awros" vtto- 
KOV<^os Kal d^e^aios Kal (jyepofxevos rats opfiats. 

7. AtoSoTO) Se rw StSacrAcaAo) tcDi^ prjropLKOjv 
diTodavovn KopaKa XiOivov eTTiGrrjuavros avrov, 
hiKaiav ecfyrj rrjv dfJLOL^rjv yeyovevai' Trereadac yap 
rovrov ov Xeyeiv eStSa^ev. 

8. OvarlvLov Se dvOpconov eavrco hid^opov /cat 
B fjLOx6r]p6v dXXojs d/coucras' on redvrjKev, elra yvovs 

varepov on l,fj, " /ca/cds"/' etirev, " dTToXoiro 
KaKcos 6 ijjevodpievos ." 

9. Ylpos he rov hoKovvra Ai^vv diro yevovs 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, where, a few Hnes earher, the 
derivation of " Cicero " from cicer, " chick-pea," is explained. 

* Ibid. chap. v. (863 c). " Ibid. chap. vii. (864 c). 
** Ibid. chap. xxvi. (873 f) ; Moralia, 541 f. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero^ chap. xxvi. (874 b). 
216 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 204-205 

he caused the engraver to cut the letters of his first 
two names, but instead of ** Cicero " to engrave a 
chick-pea." 

3. He used to say that those of the orators who 
are given to violent vociferation rely on noise to 
carry them through because of weakness, just as 
lame men mount horses.^ 

4. Verres, who had a son that had been anything 
but virtuous when a boy, rebuked Cicero for effemin- 
acy and called him a corrupter of youth. " Don't 
you know," said Cicero, " that it is proper for children 
to be scolded behind the doors of their own home ? " ^ 

5. Metellus Nepos said to him, " You have caused 
the death of more men by your testimony than you 
have saved by your advocacy." " Yes," said Cicero, 
" the reason is that I am endowed with more credi- 
biUty than eloquence ! " ^ 

6. When Metellus kept asking him who his father 
was, Cicero said, " The answer to that same question 
your mother has made the more difficult for you ! " 
For Metellus 's mother was far from virtuous, and 
Metellus himself was light-minded, vacillating, and 
carried away by his impulses.* 

7. When Diodotus, Metellus 's teacher of oratory 
died, Metellus had a marble raven placed over his 
grave. " A very just tribute," said Cicero, " for he 
taught Metellus to be high-flown, but not to be a 
speaker." ^ 

8. Vatinius, who was at odds with Cicero, and was 
a bad character generally, Cicero heard was dead, 
and then later discovered that he was alive. " Curses 
on the rascal who lied so ! ' said he.^ 

9. To a man who appeared to be of African race, and 

' Ibid, " Ibid. chap. xxvi. (873 e). 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(205) etvai, (fyijoravra Se avrov /jltj aKoveiv Xeyovros, " /cat 
I.Lrjv ovK arpVTTiqTOV e;Yet? to ovs," elrre. 

10. Kacrrov Se noTrtAAtoi^ vofjLLKOv etvai ^ovXo- 
fjLevoVy ovra 8e dfiadrj Kal d(f)vrj, TTpoaeKaXeZro 
fidprvpa rrpos rtva Slktjv eLTTOvros Se eKelvov 
fjLTjSev yivcxjGKeLV, " oUl yap Igcjjs," etTre, " Trepl 
TCi)v vopLLfJLCOV eTTepcDTaaOai." 

11. *0pT7](JLOV Se rod piqTopos Xa^ovros fxiadov 
dpyvpdv G(f)iyya irapd rod Beppov /cat TTpos rov 
K.LK€pajva TrXaylcDs tl ^.tTTOvra (f)7jGavTos alviypid- 
rojv Xvaeojs diTeipcjos ^X^^^> " ^<^^ H'W V O'^^Vf/' 

' €cpr], TTapa gol eariv. 

12. OvoKcovLcp Se diTavrT^aa? fjuerd rpuajv dvya- 
repcov dpLop<f)OTdTCjov rrjv oifjiv drpifxa irpos tovs 

<J>lXoVS €17T€V 

^oi^ov TTor OVK idjVTOs eaTTetpeu reKva. 

13. ^avGTov Se rov SuAAa TratSos" Std ttXtjOos 
Savelcov dTrdpriov TTpoypdipavros, " ravr-qVy" €<l)rjj 
" [xaXXov dGTrdl^opLai rrjv 7Tpoypa(f)rjv rj ttjv ira- 
rpcoav." 

14. Uo/jLTTTjlov Se Kal KauGapos SiaGravrajv, 
eU??, " yiyvojGKCo ov <f)vy(j)y ixj) yiyvcoGKOiv irpos 
ov (pvyo). 

15. Kat IlopLTrrJLOv ipLepuparo rrjv ttoXlv e/c- 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap. xxvi. (873 e). The 
story is told also in Moralia, 631 d. The pierced ears 
suggest a slave. 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap. xxvi. (874 a), where 
the name of the man is given as Publius Consta. 

* Life of Cicero, chap. vii. (864 d), where the sphinx is of 
ivory. Cf. also Pliny, Natural History, xxxiv. 18 (48), and 
Quintilian, Inst. Or. vi. 3. 98. Intimacy with the sphinx, the 
author of riddles, should have helped Hortensius ! 

218 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 205 

asserted that he could not hear Cicero when he spoke, 
Cicero retorted, " Yet you have ears that are not 
wanting in holes." ** 

10. Cicero summoned as a witness in a certain case 
Castus PopilliuSj who wanted to be a lawyer, but was 
ignorant and stupid. When he denied knowing 
anything, Cicero said, " Very likely you think you 
are being asked about some point of law ! " ** 

11. Hortensius, the orator, received as a fee a 
silver sphinx from Verres. When Cicero used 
innuendo in something that he said, Hortensius de- 
clared that he had no skill in solving riddles. Cicero 
retorted, " And yet you have the sphinx at your 
house ! " ° 

12. Meeting Voconius with three daughters who 
had very ugly faces, he said softly to his friends, 

Phoebus forbade when he his children got.** 

13. When Faustus, the son of Sulla, because of a 
multitude of debts, posted a notice of an auction of 
his goods, Cicero said, " I find this notice more 
welcome than the kind which his father used to 
post." « 

14. When Pompey and Caesar took opposite sides, 
he said, " I know from whom I flee without knowing 
to whom to flee." ■'' 

15. He blamed Pompey for abandoning the city, 

•* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap, xxvii. (874 d). The 
verse may possibly be from the Oedipus of Euripides. Cf. 
Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., adespota, no. 378. 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap, xxvii. (874 d), 
and Cicero, Letters to Atticus, ix. 11. The reference, of 
course, is to the proscription lists of men condemned which 
Sulla posted. 

f Ibid. chap, xxxvii. (879 d) ; Cicero, Letters to Atticus, viii. 
7. 2 !' ego vero quem fugiam habeo, quem sequar non habeo." 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
D XtTTovra /cat QefxiaroKXea fxaXXov 7] HepiKXea 

(205) fJLLfJL7](TdfJL€V0V, OVK €K€LVOLS TCOV TTpayyLQTWV dAAa 
TOUTOtS' OfJLOLCOV 6vTO)V . 

16. V^voixevos 8* ovv Trapa UofJLTrrjLq) /cat ttoXlv 
{xeravoajv, ipojrrjOel? vtto YlopLTTiqiov ttov ITctcrcova 
rov yajx^pov aTToXiXonrev €(j>7], " irapa raJ crcp 
TT€vdepcp." 

17. Mera^aAojLteVou Se rivos oltto Kalaapos Trpos 
rov HofjiTT^LOv, XiyovTOS vtto aTTOvhrjs /cat TTpo- 
6v{.Lias aTToXeXo ITT evai rov lttttov, pdXnov €(f)7) avrov 
Trepl rov Ittttov ^e^ovXevcrOai. 

18. Upos Se rov oLTrayyeXXovra rovg Kalaapos 
^tAous" GKvOpcxjTTovs elvai, " Xeyeig," e(f>r], " Svo- 
voelv avrov? Katcrapt." 

E 19. Merct he rrjv iv OapaaAoj pLax'^v HopLTrrjlov 
fjL€V <j)vy6vros» Ncuvtou Se rivos ert Trap* avrols 
derovs eTrrd (fyrjaavros etvau /cat Slol rovro dappeiv 
TTapaKaXovvrog , " KaXaJs dv TTaprjveis/' etTrev, " el 
KoXoLOis eTToXepLovpiev." 

20. 'Evret Se Kataa/) Kpari^aas rds HopLrrqiov 
Karate ^Xr]pLevas ecKovas dveunqoe pierd rLpLTJs, €(f>7] 
Trepl avrov Xeycnv 6 Kt/cepa)v on rovs IlopLTrrjlov 
Katcrap dvhpidvras lords rovs avrov^ TrrjyvvoLV. 

21. Ovrcj he ttoXXov rd KaXcbs Xeyeiv eripLa re 
/cat Trepl rovro pbaXiara r)ya>vLa, ware TrpoKeipLevrjs 
St/CT^S" eTrl rdjv eKardv dvSpojv /cat €TTLKeLpLev7]s ttJ.? 

^ roOs avTov F.C.B. (c/. the Life of Cicero, chap. Ix): too 

iavTov. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pompey, chap. Ixiii. (652 f) ; 
Cicero, Letters to Attictis, vii. 11.3, and x. 8. 4. 

'' Pompey married Caesar's daughter Julia as his fourth 
wife. 
220 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 205 

and imitating Themistocles rather than Pericles, 
when his situation was not like that of Themistocles, 
but rather that of Pericles. ** 

16. When he went over to Pompey's side, changing 
his mind again, and was asked by Pompey where he 
had left Piso, his son-in-law, he said, " With your 
father-in-law ! " ^ 

17. One man changed from Caesar's side to 
Pompey's, and said that as the result of haste and 
eagerness he had left his horse behind. Cicero said 
that the man showed greater consideration — for his 
horse ! 

18. To the man who reported that Caesar's friends 
were downcast he retorted, " You speak as if they 
were Caesar's foes ! " ^ 

19. After the battle of Pharsalus, when Pompey 
had fled, one Nonius declared that on their side were 
still seven eagles, and exhorted them, therefore, to 
have courage. " Your ad\'ice would be good," said 
Cicero, " if we were making war on jackdaws." ^ 

20. After Caesar had conquered, he set up again 
with honour Pompey's statues which had been 
thrown do>yn. Cicero, in speaking of him, said that 
Caesar, by restoring Pompey's statues, made his own 
secure.* 

21. He set a very high value on excellent speaking, 
and strove especially for this, so much so that once, 
when he had a case to plead before the court of the 
centumviri, and the day was almost come, and his 

" C/. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap. xxx%iii. (880 b). 

^ Ihid. 880 c. 

* Plutarch repeats this story in Moralia, 91a; Life of 
Caesar, chap. Ivii. (734 e) ; Life of Cicero, chap. xl. (881 d). 
Cf. Suetonius, Divus lulius, 15. 

VOL. Ill H 2 221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F r^fxipas, "Yipcora aTrayyeiXavra avrcp rov OLKerrjv 
els TTjv eTTiovGav VTrepreOrjvai ttjv Slktjv rjXevdepajcre. 

TAIOT KAI2AP0S 

1. Tdtos Katcrap, ore HvXXav e^evyev ctl [xei- 
paKiov a)v, TrepLeTreae TTeiparaiS' koI Trpa)TOV jxev 
alr-qOels apyvpiov TrXrjOog KareyeXaae rcov Xtjutcov 
W9 ayvoovvTCjv ov 'ixovGi, koL hnrXdaiov ajfJUoXoyrjae 
hcjcjeiv c7T€Lra (fypovpovfievog, ecus oruvrjye rd XPV' 
fjiara, TTpoorerarrev rjavx^oiy avrco TTapex^LV Koufjuoj- 
fjLevo) Kal GLCoTTav. Xoyovs 8e /cat TTOtT^/xara 
ypd(f)a)v dveyivcDdKev avroZsy Kal rovs pur] Xiav 
iiTaLvovvTas dvaioO-qrovs Kal ^ap^dpovg dneKdXei 
Kal puerd yeXojros rjirelXei Kpepidv avrovs' o Kal 

206 H'^^* oXiyov iTTotrjaev. rcov yap Xvrpcov Kopa- 
aOevroiv diroXvOelg Kal Gvvayayojv dvhpas i^ 
'Acrtas" Kal TrXoXa cruvrjpTraGe rovg Xrjards Kal 
TTpoGi^Xcocrev . 

2. 'Ev he ^PcjopLTj TTpos KarAov Trpajrevovra 'Pco- 
pLaioiv els dpaXXav VTrep rrjs dpxi'^pojorvvrjg Kara- 
ards Kal TTpOTrepLiropLevos vtto rrjs pbrjrpos iirl rds 
dvpas, " G-qpiepov," elireVy " c5 pLTJrep, dpx^^p^OL 
rov vldv Tj (f)vydSa e^eis.** 

3. UopiTTrjLav Se rrjv yvvaiKa KaKws aKovaaaav 
iirl KAojSto) TTapairrjGdpievos y elra rod KAcoStou 
^evyovros eirl rovrco Slktjv pidprvs eiGaxd^ls 

* C. Julius Caesar also made a collection of apophthegms 
(Cicero, Letters^ ix. 16. 4 ; Suetonius, Divus Iitlius, 56)^ and 
it is said that he possessed unusual discrimination in recog- 
nizing the genuine work of any writer. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chaps, i.-ii. (708 a-d) ; 
Suetonius, Divus hdius, 4 ; Velleius Paterculus, Roman 
History t ii. 41 ; Valerius Maximus, vi. 9. 15. 
222 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 206 

slave Eros reported to him that the case had been 
postponed to the following day, he gave the slave 
liis freedom. 

GAIUS CAESAR* 

1. Gaius Caesar, while still a young man, in trying 
to escape from Sulla, fell into the hands of pirates. 
First of all, when demand was made upon him for a 
very large sum of money, he laughed at the robbers 
for their ignorance of the man they had in their 
power, and agreed to give double the sum. Later, 
being kept under guard while he was getting to- 
gether the money, he enjoined upon the men that 
they should give him a quiet time for sleep and should 
not talk. He wrote speeches and poems, and read 
them to his captors, and those who did not speak 
very highly of them he called dull barbarians, and 
threatened laughingly to hang them. And this he 
actually did a little later. For when the ransom was 
brought, and he was set free, he got together men 
and ships from Asia Minor, seized the robbers, and 
crucified them.^ 

2. In Rome he entered into a contest against 
Catulus, the leading man among the Romans, for the 
office of Pontifex Maximus,^ and, as he was accom- 
panied to the door by his mother, he said, " To-day, 
mother, you shall have as your son a Pontifex Maxi- 
mus or an exile." <* 

3. He put aM'ay his wife Pompeia because her 
name was Hnked in gossip with Clodius, but later, 
when Clodius was brought to trial on this charge, and 

« In 63 B.C. 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. vii. (710 d) ; 
Suetonius, Divus lulius, 13. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(206) ovSev etire (fiavXov vepl rrj? yvvatKo?' ipojxevov 
Se Tov Kar-qyopoVy ** Sta ri roivvv i^e^aXes avri^v," 
B " OTL r-qv Kalaapo?," €(f)r], " yvvaiKa Koi StapoXrjs 
Set Kadapav elvai." 

4. Ta? 8' *AAefarSpou rrpd^eis avayivojGKCjv 
iSdKpvcre /cat Trpog rovs ^tAou? eTnev ort " ravrrjv 
TTjv TjXiKLav exctjv ivLKTjore Aapelov, ifJLol 8e p^^XP^ 
vvv ovSev 7T€7TpaKrai." 

5. YIoXlxvlov Se avrov Xvrrpov iv rats "AXireGL 
irapepxopiivov y koX rcov (jjiXcuv StaTTopovvrajv el Kal 
evravdd nves ardaeis etcrt Kal dpaXXai irepl Trpco- 
reiwVy iiTiOTds Kal gvvvovs yei/o/xevos", " p,dXXov 
dvy" ecjyri, " i^ovXopL-qv TrpcoTos evravda elvai ^ 
hevrepo? eV ^PcopLj)." 

6. TcDv Se ToXpi7]pidTa>v rd rrapd^oXa Kal pteydXa 
C TTpdrreiv €(f)7] SeXv, dXXd pirj ^ovXeveadaL. 

7. Kat hie^Tj TOV 'Pov^tKcova noTapLov e/c rrjs 
TaXaTLKrjg eirapxio^s eVt Ylop^TrriioVy eiTTcbv ttolgi^ 

dveppL(j)d(i) Kv^os." 

8. 'Evret §6 Y[opL7T7]Lov ^evyovTos errl ddXarrav 
€K^ rrj? ^PcopLTjSy Kal MereXXos eirrap^os cov tov 
ra/xtetou^ ^ovXopievov avTOV ;^p')]/xaTa Xa^eXv eKwXvc 
fcat TO TapLieiov^ (iTre/cAetcrev, rj7TeLXr]G€V diro- 

* irdat. F.C.B. ( = TT/oos toi>s vapovTa^ in the Life of Pompey, 
chap. Ix.) : Tras of the mss. could be kept and explained, but it 
is not found elsewhere in Plutarch with this expression, and 
Cobet would omit it here also ; but it may have been sub- 
stituted for TrSo-i under the influence of ttSs dvippifxat kv^os, 
Aristoph. Frag. 673 Kock : E. Capps suggests ird^. 

2 iK supplied : not in mss. 

* TafjLieiov the preferable form : ra/xeiov. 

' Cf Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. x. (712 c) ; Life 
224 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 206 

Caesar was cited as a witness, he spoke no evil of his 
wife. And when the prosecutor asked, " Then why 
did you put her out of the house ? " he repUed, 
** Because Caesar's wife must be free from suspicion."" 

4. While he was reading of the exploits of Alex- 
ander, he burst into tears, and said to his friends, 
" When he was of my age he had conquered Darius, 
but, up to now, nothing has been accompHshed by 
me." ^ 

5. As he was passing by a miserable little 
town in the Alps, his friends raised the question 
whether even here there were rival parties and con- 
tests for the first place. He stopped and becoming 
thoughtful said, " I had rather be the first here than 
the second in Rome." '^ 

6. He said that the venturesome and great deeds 
of daring call for action and not for thought. 

7. And he crossed the river Rubicon from his 
province in Gaul against Pompey, saying before all, 
** Let the die be cast." ^ 

8. When Pompey had fled to sea from Rome, 
Caesar wished to take money from the treasury, but 
Metellus, who was in charge, tried to stop him, and 
locked up the treasury, whereupon Caesar threatened 

of Cicero^ chap. xxix. (875 e) ; Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 45 ; 
Suetonius, Divus lulius 6 and 74. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar^ chap. xi. (712 f) and 
Perrin's note in vol. vii. of the L.C.L. ; Dio Cassius, xscxvii, 
52. 2: Suetonius, Divus lulius, 7. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. xi. (712 r). 

^ Ibid, chap, xxxii. (723 f) ; Life of Pompey, chap. Ix. 
(651 d) ; Suetonius, Divus lulius, 32 " iacta alea est" or 
"esto." The expression seems to have been proverbial; cf. 
Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, i. p. 383 
and the references ; Aristophanes, Frag. 673 Kock, Com. 
Att. Frag. i. p. 557 and Menander, Frag. 65, ibid. iii. p. 22. 

225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(206) KTevelv avrov KaraTrXayevros Sc rov MereAAoUj 
" rovToJ' ^lireVy " cL veavicrKe, (fyrjaai fioi ;!^aA€77Co- 
repov rfv 7) TTOirjoaL." 

9. Tcov 8e orparicjJTCDV avrcp jSpaSecos" ets" Aup- 
pdxi'OV eK BpevrecTLOV Koixit^ojxevojv, XaOcbv airavras 
els ttXoZov ifji^as puKpov €77-e;^e 1^17 ere hiaTrXelv ro 

D TreXayos' avyKXvi^ofievov 8e rod ttXolov, 7TOL7]Gas 
Tw Kv^epv^qrr) (f)av€p6v iavrov dve^oTycre, " 7tlgt€V€ 

T7J TVXXl yVOVS OTL KatCTaptt KOfJLil,€LS." 

10. Tore fiev ovv eKcoXvOr], rod x^ipiojvos 1<7)(V- 
pov yevofievov Kal tCjv arpaTicxjTCJv avvSpafxovrajv 
/cat TrepLTraOovvrcov, el TTepifJievei hvvafxiv dXX'iqv dyg 
aTTLorajv avroZs' enel he jjl.olx't^s yevopiiviqs vlkwv 6 
UofXTT-^io? ovK ene^rjXdeVy aAAa avexojpTioev els to 
GTparoTreSov, " TtjjjLepov," elrrev, " "^v r) vlkt] irapa 
rocs TToXejjLLOLSi dXXa rov elSora viKav ovk exovoriv." 

E 11. 'Ev Se ^apadXci) YloixTT-qtov Trapareray/JLe- 
vrjv TTjv (f)dXayya Kara x^P^^ eordvai koX rrpoG- 
hex€(T9aL Toijs iroXefxlovs Trapeyyv^aavros , dpLaprelv 
avrov eXeye rov ef iTnSpofirjs pier evdovGLaapLOV 
Tovov Kal poZl,ov eKXvaavra rcov orpariojrojv. 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar^ chap. xxv. (725 c) ; 
Life of Pompey^ chap. Ixii. (652 c) ; Appian, The Civil 
WarSy ii. 41 and 138 ; Dio Cassius, xh. 17. 2 ; Cicero, 
Letters to Atticus, x. 4. 8 ; Lucan, Pharsalia, iii. 114-153. 

^ The story is often told. Cf. for example, Moralia, 319 b ; 
Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap, xxxviii. (726 d) ; Appian, 
Roman History, the Civil Wars, ii. 57 ; Dio Cassius, xli. 
46 ; Suetonius, Divus htlius, 58 ; Lucan, Pharsalia, v. 580 ; 
Valerius Maximus, ix. 8. 2. 

" At Dyrrachium, 48 b.c. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. xxxvIII. (726 d) 
and xxxix. (727 b) ; Life of Pompey, chap. Ixv. (654 a); 
226 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 206 

to kill him. Metellus was astounded, but Caesar said, 
" Young man, that was harder for me to say than to 
do." « 

9. As the transportation of his soldiers from 
Brundusium to Dyrrachium proceeded slowly, he, 
without being seen by anybody, embarked in a 
small boat, and attempted the passage through 
the open sea. But as the boat was being swamped 
by the waves, he disclosed his identity to the pilot, 
crying out, " Trust to Fortune, knowing it is Caesar 
you carry." ^ 

10. At that time he was prevented from cross- 
ing, as the storm became \1olent, and his soldiers 
quickly gathered about him in a state of high 
emotion if it could be that he were waiting for 
other forces because he felt he could not rely on 
them. A battle was fought ^ and Pompey was vic- 
torious ; he did not, however, follow up his success, 
but withdrew to his camp. Caesar said, " To-day 
the victory was with the enemy, but they have not 
the man who knows how to be victorious." ** 

1 1 . At Pharsalus ^ Pompey gave the word for his 
regiments after they had formed for battle to stand 
in their tracks and meet the onset of the enemy. 
In this Caesar said that he made a mistake, inas- 
much as he lost the effect on his soldiers of the inten- 
sity and excitement which comes from rushing to the 
onset N^ith enthusiasm.-'' 

Appian, Roman History^ the Civil Wars^ ii. 62 ; Dio Cassius, 
xli. 50 ; Suetonius, JDivus lulius^ 36. 

« In 48 B.C. 

f Of. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. xliv. (729 b); 
Life of Pompey, chap. Ixix. {656 c) ; Caesar, Civil War, 
ill. 92. Appian {The Civil Wars, ii. 79) says that this state- 
ment was found in Caesar's letters. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(206) 12. ^apvaKTjv Se viK-^aas rov YlovriKov i^ i<f)- 
oSov TTpog rovs (f)lXovs 'iypaipev, " -qWov elhov ivi- 
Krjaa." 

13. Mera Se tt^v eV At/Sur^ rcov Trcpt toi' JIkl- 
TTLOjva (f)vyrju Kal r^rrav Y^drojvos iavrov dveXovrog, 
" (l>dovco GOL Kdrojv," elne, " rod davdrov Kal 
yap Gv ijJLol rrjs crfjs GOJrrjpLag icfydovrjaag." 
F 14. ^AvrwvLov Se Kal AoAo^eAAav v^opojpLevcov 
ivLOJv Kal (f)vXdTT€adaL KeXevovrojv, ov tovtovs €(f)rj 
SeSievaL rovs ^avavuovs Kal XcTrcovra?, dXXd rovs 
loxvovs Kal (Lxpovs eKelvovs, Sei^as Bpourov /cat 
Kacrortov. 

15. Aoyov 8e rrapd SeiTTVOv IpLTreaovros Trepl 
davdrov ttoZos dpiaros, " 6 aTTpoGSoKr^ros/* etTre. 

KAISAPOS TOT 2EBA2T0T 

1. Katcra/0 o Trpcoros i7TLKXr]dels Tie^aGros, en 
fxevpaKLOv a)v ^Avrcoviov drrrirei StCTp^tAtas" rrevraKo- 

" In 47 B.C. Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. 1. 
(731 f); Appian, The Civil Wars, ii. 91 ; Dio Cassius, xlii. 48. 
According to Suetonius, Divus lulius, 37, these words (' veni, 
vidi, vici ') were borne aloft in Caesar's triumph. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. liv. (733 b) ; Life 
of Cato Minor, chap. Ixxii. (794 c) ; Appian, The Civil 
Wars, ii. 99 ; Dio Cassius, xlii. 12. 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, chap. Ixii. (737 c) ; 
Life of Antony, chap. xii. (921 b) ; Life of Brutus, chap, 
viii. (987 c). Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, i. 2 : 

Let me have men about me that are fat : 
Sleek-headed men and such as sleep o' nights : 
Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 
He thinks too much : such men are dangerous. 

228 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 206 

12. After he had conquered Pharnaces of Pontus 
by a swift drive against him, he wrote to his friends, 

I came, saw, conquered."* 

13. Following upon the flight of Scipio and his 
followers in Africa Cato took his own life ; whereat 
Caesar said, " I begrudge you your death, Cato, for 
you begrudged me the saving of your life." * 

14. Some looked \Wth suspicion upon Antony and 
Dolabella and urged Caesar to be on his guard, but 
he said that he did not fear these fat and sleek trades- 
men and craftsmen but those lean and pale fellows, 
indicating Brutus and Cassius. '^ 

15. When the conversation at dinner once digressed 
to the subject of death, regarding what kind of death 
is the best, he said, " Sudden death." <* 



CAESAR AUGUSTUS • 

1. Caesar, who was the first to bear the title of 
Augustus, was only a youth when he made formal 
demand upon Antony for the million pounds ^ which 

seems to incorporate all the terms used in the lAves^ but to 
ignore ^avavaovs in this passage. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's JAfe of Caesar^ chap. Ixiii. (737 f); 
Appian, The Civil Wars, ii. 115 ; Suetonius, Divus lulius, 
87. 

• These sayings of Augustus were, beyond doubt, incor- 
porated in the Life of Augustus which Plutarch wrote (No. 26 
in Lamprias's list of Plutarch's writings). Augustus (Octavian) 
was Julius Caesar's grand-nephew. 

f Plutarch in his Life of Antony, chap. xv. (922 c), 
says 4000 talents, which would be the same as 24,000,000 
drachmae (or denarii), a little less than the amount given 
here. Velleius Paterculus, ii. 60, says sestertium septiens 
milieus ( = 700,000,000 sesterces), or about £6,000,000 ! 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

cnas ixvpidhas rod Trpcorov Kataapos" avaipedivros, 
€K rrjs oLKtag ds^ npos avrov 6 *Avra)VLos jxer- 
riveyKev arrohovvai PovXofxevo? 'Ptu/xatot? to Kara- 
Xei(j)dev VTTO Katcrapos", exracTTOj SpaxfJ'Oig i^So- 
fjL-qKovra TreVre- rov Se ^Avrcovlov ra fjuev xprjjjLara 
207 Karexovros, eKelvov 8e rrj? aTTairrjGecos a/xeAetv, 
et GOJ(f)povei, KeXevovTOSy iK-qpvTTe ra irarpcoa koI 
€7n7TpaGK€' Kal rrjv hcopeav dirohovs evvoiav pukv 
avTCOy jMGos 8e eKelvcp napa rojv ttoXitcov irepi- 
€7Toir]aev. 

2. 'Evret 8e 'Poijjir)TdXKr]?^ 6 rcov SpaKOJv ^aai- 
Xevs dm ^ Avrojviov p,€Ta^aX6ix€vos Trpog avrov ovk 
epierpiat,€v Trapd rovs norovs, dXX rjv eTraxOrjg 
ov€Lhil,(x)V rrjv arvfJifjLaxiCLV, TrpoTncov rivi rwv dXXcov 
^aaiXecDV 6 Katcrap elTrev, " iyoj irpohooiav ^lAcS, 
TTpohoras 8' OVK eVatvco." 

3. Toiv 8e ^ AXe^avhpiojv fxerd rrjv dXcoGLv rd 
Seivorara 77etcreo-^at TrpoorhoKcovrcov, dva^d? eVt 

B TO ^rjiJia Kal TrapaorrrjGdfjievos "Apetov rov 'AAef - 
avSpea ^ei^eadai [xev rrjs ttoAccos* 6^17 npcorov Bid 
TO fjueyedos Kal to /caAAos', eVetra Sid rov KriGrr]v 
^AXi^avhpoVy rpirov Se hi "Apetov rov (j)iXov. 

4. ^AKOvoas 8e on "Epco? o ra ev Alyvrrrcp 8t- 
OLKCov oprvya rov Kparovvra Trdvrcov iv rep pidx^<ydai 

^ iK TTJs olKias Sis] ds iK ttjs oIkLus ? Bernardakis: e/c rijs 
ovaias {cf. the Life of Cicero^ chap, xliii.) Hartman. 
2 'FoifirjTd\Kr)s the preferred spelling: pv/xeTdXKTjs, 

" Suetonius, Divus lulius, 83, says 300 sesterces, which is 
in agreement with the amount stated by Plutarch. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Cicero, chap, xliii. (883 a) ; 
Life of Antony, chap. xvi. (922 d) ; Life of Brutus, chap. 
xxii. (994 b) ; Appian, The Civil Wars, iii. 28 ; Dio 
Cassius, xlv. 3-5 ; Velleius Paterculus, ii. 60. 

* Plutarch repeats this aphorism in his Idfe of Romulus, 
230 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 206-207 

had belonged to the first Caesar, who had been assas- 
sinated, and which Antony had transferred from 
Caesar's house to his own keeping ; for Augustus 
wished to pay to the citizens of Rome the sum which 
had been left to them by Caesar, three pounds'* to 
each man. But when Antony held fast to the money, 
and also suggested to Augustus that, if he had any 
sense, he had better forget about his demand, 
Augustus announced an auction of his ancestral 
property and sold it ; and by paying the bequest he 
fostered popularity for himself and hatred for Antony 
on the part of the citizens.^ 

2. Rhoemetalces, king of the Thracians, who had 
changed his alliance from Antony to Augustus, 
could not practise moderation when there was any 
drinking going on, and gave much offence by his 
disparaging remarks about his new alliance, whereat 
Augustus, as he drank to one of the other kings, 
said, " I Uke treachery, but I cannot say anything 
good of traitors." " 

3. After the capture of Alexandria, the people of 
the city were expecting to be treated with the most 
frightful severity, but when he had mounted the 
tribune and had directed Areius of Alexandria to 
take a place beside him, he declared that he spared 
the city, first because of its greatness and beauty, 
secondly because of its founder, Alexander, and 
thirdly because of Areius his own friend.*^ 

4. When it was told him that Eros, procurator in 
Egypt, had bought a quail which had defeated all 

chap. xvii. (28 a). Stobaeus, liv. 63, quotes Philip of 
Macedon as the author of a similar remark. 

<* Cf. Plutarch's L\fe of Antony, chap. Ixxx. (953 a) ; Dio 
Cassius, 11. 16; Julian, Letters, No. 51 (ad Alexandrinos) \ 
Suetonius, Augustus, 89. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(207) Kal d'qTT7]TOV ovra 7rpidfjL€vos onr'qcras /carc^ayc, 
fjLeT€7T€fnJjaTo avTOv KoX dveKpivev oixoXoyqGavTa 
Se eKeXevaev terra) 1^170? rrpocrqXcodrjvai. 

5. 'Ev he StxTcAta "Apeiov dvrl SeoScjpov Kar- 

€GT7](7e SlOiKTjri^l'- ilTiSoVTOS Sc TIVOS aVT CO ^i^XioVy 

iv S yeypafxpiivov rjvy " (f)aXaKp6s 'q^ KXeTrrrjs 0ed- 
Sojpos 6 Tapaevg- ri aoi Sok€l; " dvayvov^ 
C Katcrap vneypai/je, " 80/cet." 

6. ITapd 8e MaLKijva rod cru/x^tcoToiJ KaO" e/ca- 
OTOV eviavTOV eV rot? yevedXiois Soj pov iXdjipave 
<l>LdXrjv. 

7. * K6r]voh(x>pcp he rep (f)iXo(j6(f)cp hid yi^pas els 
oIkov d(f>e6rjvaL herjOeprt ovvexcjoprjorev. eTrel he 
duTTaadfjievos avrov 6 ^Adrjvohojpo? eiTreVy " orav 
opyLGdfjSy Katcrap, pLTjhev eiTTrfs pLrjhe TTOLi^Grjs irpo- 
repov ^ rd eiKOGi /cat rerrapa ypdfjLpLO,Ta hueXdeXv 
irpos eavTovJ' eTTiXa^opLevos avrov rrjs x^ipoSy ert, 
aov TTapovros," e<^r], " ;\;petav exco"' /cat KareG)(ev 
avrov eviavrov oXov, elnajv on 

D Icrrt /cat aiyrjs aKLvhwov yepag. 

8. 'A/couCTa? he on *AXe^avhpo9 hvo /cat rpta- 
Kovra yeyovchs err] Kareorpafifxevos rd irXelara 
hLTjTTopeL ri TTOLijcreL rdv Xomdv )(^p6vov, edavpiat,ev 
el ixTj fxel^ov ^AXe^avhpos epyov rjyeLro rod Krij- 
Gaodai rrjv rjyep.oviav rd hiard^ai rrjv inrdp- 
Xovoav. 

^ 7)] Kal Cobet : Kal ^aXaKpbs /cat kX^ttttjs is suggested by 
Bernardakis. 

*» A Stoic philosopher from Tarsus. Dio Cassius, Ivi. 43, 
relates a story about his practical instruction. He was later 
allowed to return home (wStrabo, xiv. 5. 14, p. 674). 

232 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 207 

others in fighting and was the undisputed champion, 
and that Eros had roasted this quail and eaten it, the 
emperor sent for him and examined him regarding 
the charge ; and when the man admitted the fact, the 
emperor ordered him to be nailed to a ship's mast. 

5. In Sicily he appointed Areius procurator in 
place of Theodorus ; and when someone handed him 
a paper on which was \\Titten, " Theodorus of Tarsus 
is a bald-pate or a thief ; what opinion have you ? " 
Caesar, ha%ang read it, wrote underneath, " It is my 
opinion." 

6. From Maecenas, his bosom-friend, he used to 
receive each year on his birthday a drinking-cup as 
a birthday present. 

7. Athenodorus," the philosopher, because of his 
advanced years begged to be dismissed and allowed 
to go home, and Augustus granted his request. But 
when Athenodorus, as he was taking leave of him, 
said, " Whenever you get angry, Caesar, do not say 
or do anything before repeating to yourself the 
twenty -four letters of the alphabet," Augustus 
seized his hand and said, " I still have need of your 
presence here," and detained him a whole year, 
saying, 

" No risk attends the meed that silence brings.^ " 

8. He learned that Alexander, having completed 
nearly all his conquests by the time he was thirty- 
two years old, was at an utter loss to know what he 
should do during the rest of his life, whereat Augustus 
expressed his surprise that Alexander did not regard 
it as a greater task to set in order the empire which 
he had won than to win it. 

*• Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 417, Simonides, 
no. 66 ; or Edmonds, Lyra Graeca (in L.C.L.), ii. p. 322. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(207) 9« Tpdifjas hk rov irepl rGiv [loiyGiv vofiov, iv 
CO SicopLGrat ttcos Set KpiveGOai rovs iv alriais^ 
yevofjL€vovs Kal ircog Set KoXd^eaOaL rovg dXov- 
ras*, etra TrpocrTreaajv v'u opyrj? rov eVt 'louAta 
rfj dvyarpl S tajSe^Ai] ju-eVov veavicjKov ervirre rat? 
X^pcTLV eKeivov Se dva^ocbvTO? , " vofiov edrjKas, 
E a) Katcrap," ovtoj pL€T€v6rjG€v coare ttjv -qfilpav 
iKeivrjv TrapairriGaudai ro Sclttvov. 

10. Tdtov Se Tov dvyarpihovv els 'Ap/xeytav 
dTToareXXcLiv r^relro jrapd rcov decov evvoiav avrcp 
TTjv Ilofi7Tr]Lov, ToXpLav Se TTjV ^AXe^dvSpoVy rvx'Tjy 
Se TTjv iavrov TrapaKoXovdrjuai. 

11. *PcopLaLOLS Se T-^s" dpx^S eXeyev dTToXelifjecv 
StdSoxov, OS" ouSeTTore Trept rov avrov rrpdypiaros 
Sts" i^ovXevaarOy Ti^ipiov Xeyojv. 

12. Qopv^ovvras Se rovs iv d^LOjpLari viovs 
/caracrretAat ^ovX6pievo?y w? ov TTpoaelxov dXX 
cOopv^ovv, " aKovaare," etTre, " viot yipovros, oS 
viov yipovres tJkovov." 

F 13. Tov Se ^AOrjvaLcov Sr^/xou i^r^pLaprr^Kevai rt, 
So^avTos, eypaipev diT* Alytvrjs otecrdaL pur] Xav- 
6dv€LV avTovs opyLt,6pL€vo?y ou yap dv iv Alylvr) 
Siax^ipLdcrai.^ dXXo Se ovSev ovre etnev avrovs 
ovre iTTOL-qae. 

14. Toii^ Se EiVpvKXeovs Karrjyopcov ivos d^et- 

* airiais] airia van Herwerden. 

- dLaxei/J-daai F.C B. : Staxei/'-acreii'. Or perhaps B.i> should 
be omitted, simply to accord with what little we know of the 
historical facts. 

" Lex lulia de adulteriis et de pudicitia. Cf. Horace, 
Odes^ iv. 5. 21 ; Dio Cassius, liv. 16. 

" C. Caesar, son of M. Agrippa and Julia. 

« C/. Moralia, 319 d. 
234 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 207 

9. After promulgating the law about adulterers," 
in which it was specified how the accused were to be 
tried, and how the convicted were to be punished, 
he later, under stress of anger, fell upon a young man 
whose name had been linked in gossip with his 
daughter Julia, and struck him with his fists ; but 
when the young man cried out, " You have made a 
law, Caesar," such a revulsion of feeling came over 
him that he refused food the rest of the day. 

10. When he dispatched Gaius his daughter's 
son ^ into Armenia, he besought the gods that the 
popularity of Pompey, the daring of Alexander, and 
his own good luck might attend the young man.^ 

11. He said that he would leave to the Romans as 
his successor on the throne a man who never had 
deliberated twice about the same thing, meaning 
Tiberius. 

12. When he was trying to quiet the young men 
in high station who were in an uproar, and they paid 
no heed, but continued with their uproar, he said, 
** Do you young men listen to an old man, to whom 
old men listened when he was young." ^ 

13. When, as it appeared, the Athenian people 
had committed some offence, he wrote from Aegina 
that he supposed they could not be unaware that he 
was angry ; otherwise he would not have spent the 
whole winter in Aegina. But he neither said nor did 
anything else to them.^ 

14. One of the accusers of Eurycles^ was unsparing 

* Cf. Moralia, 785 d. 

* Cf. Dio Cassius, liv. 7, who says, however, that Augustus 
spent the winter (21 b.c.) in Samos. 

^ Presumably the Eurycles who pursued Cleopatra's ship 
(on board which was Antony) at Actium ; cf. Plutarch, 
Life of Antony, chap. Ixvii. (947 a). 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

SaJs Kal KaraKopcjs TrapprjGia^ojjLevov Kal TrpoaxOev- 
ros eiTTetv rt tolovtov, " et Tavrd aoL, Katcrap, ov 
<j)aiv€TaL fieydXa, KeXevGov avrov aTTohovvai jjlol 
QovkvSlSov rrjv i^SofjLrjv "' Siopyiadels^ dirdyeLV 
€/ceAcfcre* Trvdofievos Se, on rcbv amo BpaalSov ye- 
yovorcov vttoXoittos ovros ecrrt, /LtereTre/xi/faTO, Kal 
fxerpia vovdenqGas direXvoe. 
208 15. Yleidojvos he r7]v OLKtav eV OepLeXioyv dxpi' 
7rd(jr)s OTeyrjS eVt/xeAcD? olKohopiOVVTog, " €V- 
OvfjLOVy" e(f)7], " fjLe TTOiels ovrojs oIkoSojjlcov, d)S 
dihiov TTJs 'PwfjLTjs icroiJLevrjs." 



diopyiaOels Bases and Kronenberg : 5i6 opyiaOeU, 



* The fourth book (which tells of Brasidas), as the books 
are now numbered, would be in point : but we know that 



SAYINGS OF ROMANS, 207-208 

and tiresome with his frank utterances, and went so 
far as to say, " If these things, Caesar, do not seem 
to you to be of high importance, order him to repeat 
for me the seventh ° book of Thucydides " ; and 
Augustus, much incensed, ordered the man away to 
prison, but, on learning that he was the sole survivor 
of Brasidas's descendants, he sent for him, and, after 
reproving him moderately, ordered that he be re- 
leased. 

15. When Piso ^ built his house with great care 
from the foundation to the roof-tree, Augustus said, 
" You make my heart glad by building thus, as if 
Rome is to be eternal." 

anciently the history of Thucydides was divided into thirteen 
books (and into nine books) as well as into eight books. 

^ Probably Cn. Calpurnius Piso, consul 7 b.c, but it may 
have been his father, of the same name, or L. Calpurnius 
Piso. 



887 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS 

(APOPHTHEGMATA LACONICA) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch was an admirer of the old Spartan virtues, 
and it seems altogether probable that the collection 
of sayings of Spartans was made by him as literary 
material for use in his writing, as he tells us was his 
custom (Moralia, 457 d and 464 f), and many of 
the sayings are actually found incorporated in his 
other works. That he did not use all the material 
which he had accumulated is no more than is to be 
expected from a discriminating author. 

The title {Sayings of Spartans) stands as No. 169 
in Lamprias's list of Plutarch's works. 

A selection from the sayings of the more famous 
Spartans is incorporated in the Sayings of Kings and 
Commanders, which covers a broader field, including 
both Greeks and Romans, and so does not contain 
the entire collection of Spartan sayings. For example, 
in the Spartan Sayings, under the name of Agesilaus 
are found seventy-nine different sayings, but only 
twelve of these are selected for inclusion in the 
Sayings of Kings and Commanders, so that the Emperor 
Trajan (if the collection was made for him) should 
not be overburdened in his reading ! 

TheMS. tradition of these Spartan sayings is in sad 
confusion. The Spartans spoke in the Doric dialect, 
yet according to the ms. tradition of Plutarch they 
spoke sometimes Doric, more often Attic, and 
240 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS 

occasionally used Aeolic forms ! It is not likely, for 
example, that the mother of Brasidas spoke Doric 
(190 c) and Attic (219 d) in making the same remark, 
or that Brasidas spoke sometimes Doric and some- 
times Attic (219 c-d), or that Charillus said the same 
thing in both Doric (189 f) and Attic (232 c). The 
explanation probably is that Plutarch copied these 
anecdotes as he found them in the books from which 
he made his excerpts. Xenophon, for example, or 
Thucydides seldom uses Doric, but represents the 
Spartans as speaking Attic, as frankly as Herodotus 
or Aeschylus represents the Persians as speaking 
Greek. So on the stage in England or America, or 
in novels, French or German characters speak 
English, or vice versa — a convention which is uni- 
versally accepted. Hence it should not disturb us 
to find Plutarch recording remarks of Spartans in the 
Attic dialect, nor should we hastily conclude that 
the Mss. are all wrong. 

It would be possible, with our present knowledge, 
to translate all these Spartan sayings into the Doric 
dialect, but to do so would be a useless tour deforce. 
It would be as if the editor of a newspaper were to 
insist that every story about a Scotchman or a Yankee 
should be edited to conform to the correct Scotch 
or Yankee dialect — a rather futile proceeding. 
Hence no radical changes have been made in the 
MS. tradition. Only when the mss. show a distinct 
attempt to quote in Doric has an effort been made 
to make the Doric consistent in itself. 

It will not escape the attentive reader that the 
names of the Spartans whose sayings are quoted are 
arranged in alphabetical order, for the purpose, with- 
out doubt, of facilitating reference to them. 

241 



AnOOeEFMATA AAK^NIKA 

(208) AFASIKAEOTS 

B 1. 'Ayacrt/cATj? o AaKeSaifiovlcov ^aoiXevs, Oo.v- 
fjid^ovTos Tivos on (f^iXriKOOs (x)V ov Trpouhix^rai 
Q>i\o^dvr] Tov GocjyiGT'qv, ^(f>r}, " rovrcov XPV^^ 
liadriT7]s elvai, Sv etvai^ Kal vlog." 

2. ripo? 8e TOV eLTTovra ttws dv ris dSopV(f)6pr)- 
ros cov dpx^iv d(T(f>aXcos Swatro, " edv ovrcos/ 
€<f)r]y " avTcbv dpxijf a)G7Tep at irarepes rd)V vldJv.'* 

AFHSIAAOT TOT MEFAAOT 

1. ^AyrjalXaos 6 [xeyas Trapd ttotov ttotc Aa;^a>v 
GVjjLTTooriapxos, ipcjTrjdels VTTO TOV olvoxoov TToaov 

C €Kd(JTCp 7Tpo(j(j)€prj, €(f)r],^ "el fiev ttoXvs olvos iari. 
7rap€(TK€vaaiJL€VOSy ocrov eKacrros aiTel' el he oXtyos, 
ef taov SlSov Trao-tv/* 

2. KaKovpyov Se Tcvog efJLfJLOVOjg viropieivavTOS 
PaadvovSi '* (hs cr^oSpa TTOvqpos," euTTev, " dvOpcj- 

^ elvai F.C.B. : dfu. Hartman would omit dixi. 

- f 077 added by Bernardakis after olvosy but it seems more 
likely to have dropped out after irpoa-cp^py (wpoa^^pei or 
vpoacpipoi most Mss.). 
242 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS 

AGASICLES " 

1. When someone expressed surprise to Agasicles, 
king of the Spartans, because, although he was very 
fond of reading and lectures, yet he would not admit 
to his presence Philophanes, a learned man, he said, 
" I want ta be a pupil of those whose son I should 
like to be as well." 

2. In answer to a man who raised the question how 
anyone could possibly rule in safety without the 
protection of a bodyguard, he said, " If one rules 
his subjects as fathers rule their sons." ^ 

AGESILAUS THE GREAT" 

1. Agesilaus the Great was once chosen by lot 
to be master of ceremonies at an evening party, and, 
when he was asked by the slave who poured the 
wine how much wine he should serve to each man, 
Agesilaus said, " If much wine has been provided, 
as much as each one asks for ; but if only a little, 
then give to all equally." 

2. When a malefactor endured tortures without 
flinching, Agesilaus said, " What an out-and-out 

* One of the early kings of Sparta. 

* Cf. Homer, Od. ii. 47. 

^ Of. the note on 190 f, supra. Many anecdotes about 
Agesilaus may be found in Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 1. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(208) 770?/ et? [JLoxdrjpa Kal alaxpoi Trpay/xara rrjv 
VTTOfjiovrjv Kal Kaprepiav KaranOefjievog." 

3. KTraLvovvTos Se tlvo? p-qropa inl ro) Svvarojs 
au^etv TOL jJLLKpa TTpdyfiara, ovSe OKyroropLOV, €(f)r](j€V, 
elvat GTTOvhaZov, os fiiKpco ttoSI VTroS-qiiara r^ydXa 
TrepLTidrjcnv. 

4. <I>aju,eVou Se tlvos ttotc irpos avrov, " (hpLoXo- 
yrjKaSy" Kal noXXaKis to avro Xeyovros, " val hrjTa, 

T> €.1 y eari SiKaiov," e^fj, " et 8e pL-q, eXe^a /xeV, cbfxo- 
Xoyrjaa Se ov." eTTenrovrog he, " dXXd jjltjv Set rovs 
jSacrtAet? enLreXelv ' 6 tl k€v K€(f)aXfj Karavevcroj- 
GWy " " ov pLoiXXoVy" ec/i-q, "rj rovs TTpocnovras rols 
^aGiXevGLV alreladaL Set rd StVata Kal XeyeiVf gto- 
XdCopi^vovs re rod Kaipov Kal rov dppLo^ovros rols 
^acnXevuiv.** 

5. 'OTTore Se i/jey6vra>v iq eTraivovvrcDV rivcjv 
aKovoL, ovx rJTTOV (jpero Setv Karapiavddveiv rovg 
Tcbv Xeyovr ojv rpoirovs r) irepl (Lv Xeyoiev. 

6. "Ert Se 77atSa avrov ovra, yvpLVOTraihias 
ayopLevqs, 6 ^PpoTToios earrjorev els darjpLov tottov 
6 Se eTTeiaQ-q Kaurrep rjSr] ^aortXevs aTToSeSety/xeVos" 

E Kal elirev " euye* Set^o) yap on ovx °^ tottol rovs 
dvSpas evripLovSy dXX ol dvSpes rovs ronovs iin- 
heiKvvovoiv .^ " 

7. Upoardrrovros Se nvos avrcp larpov irepL- 

^ civOpojvos E. Kurtz : &u0pct}iro$. 
2 iwideLKvOovaLv] dwodeiKPvovaL Hartman. 

" Cf. Moraliay 224 c, infra^ and Cicero, De oratore, i. 54 
(231). 

*• Adapted from Homer, //. i. 527. 

" In almost the same words, but with a diflferent turn of 
the thought, in Xenophon, Agesilaus, 11. 4. 
S44) 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 208 

villain the man is, devoting his endurance and forti- 
tude to such base and shameful purposes ! 

3. WTien someone praised an orator for his abihty 
in making- much of small matters, Agesilaus said that 
a shoemaker is not a good craftsman who puts big 
shoes on a small foot.** 

4. When someone said to him, " You have agreed," 
and kept repeating the same thing, Agesilaus said, 
" Yes, of course, if it is right ; but if not, then I said 
so, but I did not agree." And when the other added, 
" But surely kings ought to carry out * whatsoe'er 
they confirm by the royal assent,' " * Agesilaus said, 
" No more than those who approach kings ought to 
ask for what is right and say what is right, trying to 
hit upon the right occasion and a request fitting for 
kings to grant." 

5. Whenever he heard people blaming or praising, 
he thought it was no less necessary to inform himself 
about the ways of those who spoke than of those 
about whom they spoke.*' 

6. When he was still a boy, at a celebration of the 
festival of the naked boys the director of the dance 
assigned him to an inconspicuous place ; and he 
obeyed, although he was already destined to be 
king,'^ saying, " Good ! I shall show that it is not the 
places that make men to be held in honour, but the 
men the places." ^ 

7. When a physician prescribed for him an over- 

<* Plutarch in his Life of Agesilaus, chaps, i. and ii. 
{396 A and 597 b), says that Agesilaus was brought up as a 
private citizen, and did not become king until after the death 
of Agis. 

* Cf, Moralia, 149 a. In 219, wi/Va the remark is attributed 
to Damonidas, and Diogenes Laertius, ii. 73, assigns it to 
Aristippus. 

VOL. Ill I 245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

cpyorepav depancLav Kal ovx oLTrXrji',^ " vrj rco deco,"^ 
<f)r)GLV, " ov TTavTCOs /xot rrpoKeiTaL t,riv ouSe Trdvra 

so./ >> 

avaoexoixai. 

8. 'E^ecrrco? 8e rrore rep ^cofio) rrjs y^aXKioiKov 
PovdvTOJV, eTTeiSr) (f)6elp avTOV eSaKev, ov hierpdiTr)' 
Xa^ojv 8e 7Tepi(f)avcL)s ivavriov Trdvrojv d7T€KT€LV€, 
TTpoaeLTTCov, " vrj rovs deovs '^Seojg rov irri^ovXov 
Kal eVt TO) ^cofio)." 
F 9- "AAAore IScov fjivv iXKOfievov eK Bvpihos vtto 
TTaiSaplov Kparovvros, irrel 6 /xu? emuTpacjiels e8a- 

K€ T7]V X^^P^ '^^^ KparOVVTOS Kal 6(f)Vy€Vy eTTL- 

Set^as TOLS rrapovGiv etTrev, " orav to iXaxicrTOV 
^ojov ovTCJS dp.vvr]Tai rovs dSiKovvras, ri rovs 

dvSpaS TTpoariK€L 7T01€IV XoyLl,€G6€." 

10. BovX6fjL€vos 8e rov rrpos rov Heparjv avGr'q- 
oaadai 7ToAe/xov eveKa rov iXevdepaxjat rovs iv rfj 
'Acrta "EAAT^i^as", ro) Kara AojS-qvqv Aios ixp'Qf^Oiro 
fjLavretcp' KeXevcravros 8eV 'to xP'^<^B^^ dvrjyyeiXe rots 

209 i(f>6poLS' OL he eKeXevaav avrov Kal els AeA^ou? dcf)- 
LKOfjLevov TTepl rcov avrcx)v TTwOdveadaL. TTopevOels 
ovv els ro piavrelov eTTrjpcorrjorev ovrcos, ""ArroXXoVy 
rj SoKet croL o Kal rep narpl; '* ovvaiveoavros 8e, 
alpeOels ovrcos icrrparevaaro. 

11. 'ETret 8e Tio-aa(j)epvr]s ev dpxfj p^^v (f)o^-qdels 
rov ^ Ky-qoiXaov eTTOirjoaro uirovhds, rds TToXeis 
avrcp rds 'EAAT^yt/ca? dcf)T^GeLV avrovopovs ^aoiXea, 
piera7Tep.iJjdp,evos 8e irapd rod ^aGiXecos ttoXv 

* Hartman would omit koL ovx cnrXrjv and ovbk iravra 
iLvabexoi-i^ixL. ^ vt) tw deil)] val rw crul) Cobet. 

' After Ke\€v<javTos be the mss. have birep icrlv ws 8oKel 
ffrpareveadai, which is pretty clearly an explanatory clause 
which has become incorporated in the text: deleted by 
Wyttenbach. 
246 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 208-209 

elaborate course of treatment, not at all simple, he 
said, " Egad, it is not ordained that I must live at 
all hazards, and I refuse to submit to everything." ^ 

8. As he was standing at the altar of Athena of 
the Brazen House sacrificing a heifer, a louse bit him ; 
but he did not turn a hair, and, picking it off, he 
cracked it openly before the eyes of all, saying, " By 
Heaven, it is a pleasure to kill the plotter even at the 
altar." 

9. At another time he saw a mouse being dragged 
from a hole by a boy who had hold of him, and the 
mouse turned and bit the hand that held him and 
escaped ; whereupon Agesilaus called the attention 
of the bystanders to this, and said, " When the 
smallest animal thus defends itself against those who 
do it wrong, consider what it becomes men to do." ^ 

10. Desiring to bring about the war against the 
Persian for the sake of setting free the Greeks hving 
in Asia, he consulted the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, 
and when the god bade him to go on, he reported 
the answer to the Ephors. And they bade him go 
to Delphi and ask the same question. Accordingly 
he proceeded to the prophetic shrine and put his 
question in this form : " Apollo, are you of the same 
opinion as your father?" And Apollo concurring, 
Agesilaus was chosen, and began the campaign. ^^ 

11. Tissaphernes, at the outset, in fear of Agesi- 
laus, made a treaty, agreeing that the king should 
leave him the Greek cities free and independent, but, 
after sending for a great army from the king, he 

" Cf. the similar attitude of Pompey, 204 b, supra, 
^ Cf. the similar story about Brasidas in Moralia, 79 e, 
190 B," and 219 c. 

* Cf. MoraliUt 191 b, supra, and the note. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(209) orrpdreviJia TroXejjLov KarriyyeiXev avrcoy el [xt] 
aiTLOi rrjs 'Aatas", a<7jji€vos rrjv Trapd^acnv Se^d- 
B jJi€V05 (x)piJLr]G€ [xev d)S irrl Kaptav TTpod^cov eKel 
8e Tr]v hvpajjiLV rod Tiuoacjiepvovs ddpoiaavros, 
dpag els Opuytav eVe/3aAe- Kal Xa^cov vrdAei? 
TrXelorras Kal -x^prjyidTOJV ttXtjOos, €<^rj rots ^tAot?, 
" e7TLaTT€L(jdjJL€vov jxev dhiKeZv^ dae^es, rovs he 
TToXepLLOvs TrapaXoyi^eodaL ov jjlovov hiKaiov Kal 
eTTiho^ov, dXXd Kal rjhi) Kal KepSaXeov." 

12. lot? 8' L7T7T€VGLV iXaTTCoOels dv€)((X)pr](J€l^ 

els "E</)ecrov Kal rols eviropois TrpoelTre irapex^iv 
Ittttov^ dvd^ iavrov Kal dV8pa, dTToXvojjLevov^ t7]s 
orpareias' ojure ra)(y Gwq^^drjdav Kal lttttol Kal 
C dvhpes iTTiT-qheioL dvrl heiXchv Kal ttXovglcov. Kal 
Tov ^Ayafiefivova e(f)rj ^r^Xovv Kal yap eKeZvov 
OiqXeiav Ittttov dyadrfv Xaj36vra KaKov dvSpa Kal 
TrXovortov rrjs orpareios aTToXvaai, 

13. 'E77€t 8e KeXevuavTos avrov rovs alxp^oL- 

XwTOVS yVjJLVOVS TTCoXetV eTTlTTpaGKOV OL Xa(f)Vp07TCl)- 

XaL, Kal rrjs p^ev eGOrjros rjGav (hv-qral ttoXXoi, twv 
8e Gcjpudrcjjv XevKwv Kal aTraXcbv iravrdiTTaGi 8ta rds 
GKLarpacf)Las KareyeXojv (hs dxpTJorrcov Kal pLTjSevos 
d^i(jL>v, eTTiGrds 6 'AyqGiXaos, " ravra jU.eV," elireVy 
** VTTcp Sv jjidx^crOe, ovroi 8e ots jU,a;^eCT^e .* " 

^ ddiKe?v as in the Life of Agesilaus, chap. ix. : dSkws. 

^ tTTTTOJ'] Lwirov '^KaffTov ibid. 

* d.TToXfo/xej'oi'] airoXvofxivovs in some MSS. 

* [xdx^<Tde\ fxax^Tade in some MSS. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. ix. (600 c) : 
Xenophon, Hellenica^ iii. 4. 5 if., Agesilaus, 1. 10; Diodorus, 
xiv. 79 ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 1. 8-9 ; Cornelius 
Nepos, xvii., Agesilaus, 2 and 3 ; Frontinus, Strategemata^ 
i. 8. 12. 
248 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 209 

declared war on Agesilaus unless he should depart 
from Asia. Agesilaus gladly welcomed the trans- 
gression, and set forth as if he were intending to 
advance into Caria ; and when Tissaphernes had 
concentrated his forces there, Agesilaus, by a rapid 
movement thence, invaded Phrygia ; and having 
taken very many cities and a wealth of spoil, he said 
to his friends, " To do wrong after making a treaty 
is impious, but to outwit the enemy is not only right 
and reputable, but also pleasant and profitable." ^ 

12. Finding himself inferior in horsemen, he re- 
treated to Ephesus , and there made proclamation to the 
men of means that they should each provide a horse and 
a man, and thus gain their own release from service. 
As a result there were collected, in a very short time, 
both horses and capable men in place of wealthy 
cowards.^ Agesilaus said he was emulating Agamem- 
non ; for Agamemnon accepted a good mare and 
released from service a base man of wealth.'' 

13. When, in obedience to his orders that the 
prisoners of war be sold naked, those charged with 
selling the spoils so offered them, there were many 
buyers for rtie clothing, but as for the prisoners' 
bodies, altogether white and soft because of their 
indoor life, the buyers derided them as useless and 
worthless. And Agesilaus, stepping up, said, " These 
are the things for which you fight, and these are the 
men whom you fight. "'^ 

'' Of. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. ix. (600 d) ; 
Xenophon, HeUenica, iii. 4. 15, and Agesilaus, 1. 24. 

* Cf. Moralia, 32 f. The reference is to Homer, II. 
xxiii. 296 If. 

** Cf Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. ix. (600 e); 
Xenophon, Hellenica, iii. 4. 19, Agesilaus, 1. 28 ; Polyaenus, 
ii. 1.5; Athenaeus, 5.50 e. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(209) 14, Tpeipafxevog Se irepl Af8tav Tiaaacfyepvrjv 
D Kol TrXecGTOVs aveXojv, Karirpe-x^e rrjg paGuXecus 
)(a)pag. Tovrov Se xPVf^^'^^ avrco TrpoaTrejjuJjavros 
KOL a^iovvros SiaXvoraGdaL rov rroXefJiOV, 6 ^Ayrjorl- 
Aao? TTJs /xev elprjvris €(f)rj ttjv ttoXlv etvat Kvplav, 
Tovs 8e orparidiTas TrXovrc^cov -/jSeadai fidXXov ^ 
avTO? TrXovTOJV' KaXov 8e vofiL^eLv "EiXXrjva? ov 
Scopa XapL^dveiv airo rojv TToXefxlcjov, dXXa Xd(j)vpa 
Krdodai. 

15. Meya^arof he rod HiTnOpLhdrov TratSo?, os 
r^v KoXXiGTOS TTJV piopi^rjv, TrpoaeXOovTO? avrco (1)S 
aGTTacrofxevov Kal ^lXtjoovtos hid to cr</»oSpa hoKeiv 
dyaTTdadat, i^eKXivev d>g 8' eiravcraro eKelvog 
TTpoGLojv, e7T€t,'^Tr](j€v avTOV 6 'AyT^cxtAao?' rcjjv 8e 
^iXoiV (j)a[JL€vojv d)s avTog etr] airios rpeaas ro 

E rov KaXov ivros^ (f)iXrjiJLaTOS iXdelv, Kav^ /xt) 
(XTToSetAta/ ■J^'^etv iKelvov, XP^^^'^ ^^'^ oXiyov rrpos 
avTCp yevofxevos 6 "* AyiqaiXaos Kal hiaGLCjUTnjaag 
ovoev, ^'PV' ^^^ 7T€LU€iv €K€LVOv TjfjLas eyo) 
ydp [XOL hoKCj raJv tolovtojv ^ovXeorOaL eTrdvcxj elvaL, 
7] rrfv evavSpordrrjv rcJbv dvrLrerayjjLeva^v ttoXlv Kara 
Kpdrog iXelv ctjaetvov ydp iavrco (fivXarreiv rrjv 
eXevSepiav rod irepcov dcf)aLp€LG9aL." 

16. To. 8e aAAa dKpc^rjs cov Kal vopupLOSi ^v 
rots' ^iXiKoZs TTpdyjiaGLv evo/xt^e Trpo^aaiv etvat ro 

1 ii^rbs added by F.C.B. 2 ^^^ F.C.B. : Kal 

' dTTodeiXia F.C.B. : dirb deiXias {(piXrjfxa, el ideXei Kal /jlt) 
dirodeLXidaeL Kronenberg). 

* Set Wyttenbach {deivbu Kronenberg) : deTp. 

5 7)p.ds] UytiSs Kronenberg from the Life of AgesUaus, 
chap. xi. There are more elaborate attempts to improve 
the passage (dependent mostly on the Life of Agesilaus^ 
ibid.) ; cf. the editions of Wyttenbach and Bernardakis. 
250 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 209 

14. Having routed Tissaph ernes in the Lydian 
country and slain a great many of his men, he pro- 
ceeded to overrun the king's country. The king 
sent money to him, and in return asked for a cessation 
of hostihties, but Agesilaus said that the State alone 
had the power to make peace, and that it gave him 
more pleasure to enrich his soldiers than to be rich 
himself, and that he thought it a grand thing that the 
Greeks did not accept gifts from the enemy, but took 
spoils instead." 

15. When Megabates, Spithridates' son, who was 
most fair of form, came near to him as if to greet him 
with a kiss because the boy felt that he was held in 
affection by Agesilaus, Agesilaus drew back. And 
when the boy stopped coming to see him, Agesilaus 
asked for him ; whereupon his friends said that he 
had only himself to blame, because he shrank from 
coming within kissing distance of the fair one, and if 
he would not act the coward, the boy would come 
again. Agesilaus, reflecting by himself for no brief 
time in uninterrupted silence, finally said, " There is 
no need of our trying to persuade him ; for I feel 
that I had rather be above such things than to take 
by storm the most populous city of our opponents, 
since it is better to preserve one's own liberty than 
to deprive others of theirs." ^ 

16. In almost all matters he was exact in observing 
the law, but in anything affecting his friends he 
thought that too rigid justice in dealings with them 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus^ chap. x. (601 a-b), 
where the remark is made to Tithraustes, who was sent by 
the king to supplant Tissaphernes. Cf. also Xenophon, 
Hellenica, iii. 4. 25, and Agesilaus, 4. 6. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xi. (602 a) ; 
Moralia^ 31 c (81 a) ; Xenophon, Agesilaus, 5. 4-5. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Atav hiKaiov irpos avrovs. ^eperai yovv iTTLcrroXiov 
F avTov 7rapaLTOV[JL€Vov rtva rcov (J)lXojv rrpos *ISptea 
Tov Kapa, ovTO}' " Nt/cta? et pikv ovk dStKet, a<f>€s- 
el 8e dhiKeX, ifiol a^€S' rravrcos he defies." 

17. 'Ev fxev ovv rot? TrXelaroig vrrep rcov ^iXojv 
TOiovTos 6 ^AryrioiXaos' ecrn Sc ottov Ttpos to cru/x- 
(f)epov exprJTO rep Kaipw p,dXXov. dvai^vyrjs yovv 
TTore yevofJLevTjs dopv^ajhearepas , doBevovvra Kara- 
Xlttojv tov epcopievov , eKeivov Seofievov Kal dva- 
KaXovvTOS fieTCL SaKpvojv avTov, e7nGTpa<f)els elirev 
*' COS x^t-AeTrov iaTiv iXeelv a/xa Kal <f>povelv.' 

18. Atatrav he ttjv Trepl to crco/xa ovhev dpieivova 
TCJV GvvovTCDV elx€, Kopov p,ev Kal pLedrjs to Trapdirav 
dTTexofJLevos, vttvco he ov SeaTrorr] dAA* dpxop^evco 

210 i^TTo Tcov rrpd^ecov ;)^pc6/xevo? • Trpos he OdXrros ovtcxj 
Kal i/jvxos ^^X^^> ^^'^^ {jLovos del ;)^pTjo-^at rals 
oipais' ev jxeoois he rot? OTpaTicxjrais (tktjvojv 
ovhevos dfiecvova kolttjv el^^v. 

19. AtereAet he Xeycov tov dpxovTa irpoariKeiv ov 
fxaXaKLa KapTepia he Kal dvhpeia hrf' tcjv IhicxJTOJV 
TTepielvaL. 

20. Yivdoixevov yovv tlvos tL TrepieTTOLrjaav ol 
AvKovpyov vojjLOL TTJ ^TrdpTT) , " KaTa(j>poveZv" e0^, 
**T(jL)v r]hova)v." 

^ 8t] F.C.B. (probably corrupted to Se? and then into the 
infinitive) : dth'. TrpoarjKeLv in the line above should be kept, 
as it stands in Xenophon, Agesilaus, 5. 2, the source of the 
quotation. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xiii. (603 b) ; 
Moral ia, 191 b, supra. 

* Cf. Plutarch's lAfe of Agesilaus^ chap. xiii. (603 c) ; 
Moralia, 191 a, supra. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xiv. (603 d) ; 
252 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 209-210 

was but a poor excuse. At any rate, there is a note 
of his in circulation addressed to Hidrieus the Carian, 
in which he asks for the release of one of his friends 
in these words : "If Nicias is not guilty, let him go ; 
but if he is guilty, let him go for my sake ; but let 
him go anyway." ^ 

17. Such, then, was Agesilaus in his friends' behalf 
in most matters ; but there are instances when, in 
meeting a critical situation, he showed more regard 
for the general weal. At any rate, on a time when 
camp was being broken in some disorder, and Agesi- 
laus 'vvas leaving behind his loved one who was ill, 
and the loved one implored him and called him back 
with tears, Agesilaus, turning round, exclaimed, 
** How hard it is to be merciful and sensible at the 
same time ! " ^ 

18. The mode of living which he followed personally 
was in no wise better than that of his associates. He 
refrained always from overeating and from heavy 
drinking. Sleep he treated, not as a master, but as 
governed at all times by what he had to do ; and such 
was his attitude towards heat and cold that he alone 
was able to make good use of the different seasons ; 
and in his tent, which was in the midst of his soldiers, 
he had no better bed than anybody else.*' 

19- He was continually saying that the commander 
ought rightly to be superior to the privates not in 
soft living and luxury, but in endurance and courage.'^ 

20. At any rate, when someone inquired what 
advantage the laws of Lycurgus had brought to 
Sparta, he said, " Contempt for pleasures." 

Xenophon, Agesilaus, 5. 2-3, and 9. 5 ; Cornelius Xepos, 
xvil., Agesilaus, 5. 2. 

** Cf. Xenophon, Agesilaus, 5. 2. 
VOL. Ill 1 2 253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(210) 21. Tlpos 8e rov imOaviidt^ovTa rriv fjuerpLO- 
TTjra rrjg eodrjros koI rrj? rpo(j>rjs avrov re /cat 
Twv dXXojv AaKehaiixovLCOv " avrl ravrrj^/' €(f)rjy 
"rrjs hiairiqs, c5 feVe, rr]V iXevdeptav d/xcu/xe^a/" 
B 22. "AXXov 8e 7rporp€7TOfji6vov dvUaOaL Kal 
XiyovTOS Sta to tt]? tv-xjis dSrjXov [xi^Trore /catpo? 
rovTOV yevrjTaiy " dXX eyoj," €Itt€v, " ifxavrov e9il,(x> 
fxeXercvv^ coctt' iv /XT^Se/xta /Jiera^oXfj pLera^oXrjv 

t,rjT€LV." 

23. Kat TTpeal^vTrjs Be yevopuevos rfj avrfj 
dycx)yfj expT]TO' rrpo? ovv rov 7Tv66p.evov hi 6 rt cr</)0- 
hpov x^ipion'os ovTOS dx^TOJV Trepiepx^Tai et? rovro 
TjXiKLas rjKOjv, " Iva," €.(^y], " ol vioi pupLayvrai , 
TTapaSetypLa exovres rov? TTpea^vrdrovg Kal dp- 
Xovras." 

24. ©ctcrtot 8e t7]v x^P^^ avTwv hiairopevopievcp 
pLETo, rod arparevpLaros dXcfiira Kal XV^^^ '^^^ 

C rpayrjpiara Kal [.leXLTrrj Kra Kal dXXa iravToharrd 
^pcnpLard re Acat Trco/xara^ noXvreXrj eTrepLifjav pLova 
8e TO. dXcjara Se^dpcevo? rd XoLTrd dndyeiv eKe- 
Xevaev orrloco rovs KeKopuKora?* chs odSev avrols 
ovTa XPV^^H'^- XnrapovvTiov 8e Kal Seopievcov 
Trdvrcos Xa^elv, eKeXevoev avrd rots etAcocrt 8ta- 
Sovvai.^ TTv9opL€va)v 8e ttjv air lav, €(f)r], " rovs 
dvhpayaOlav duKovvras rds roiavras Xixvelas ovx 
dppi6t,€L rrpoGLeudai' rd yap heXedt^ovra rovs 
avSpaTToScoSeis rcov iXevOepcov dXXorpua." 

* d/xwyue^a] /.Lcbineda Valckenaer, ixvibixeOa S. A. Naber. 

^ fjLeXeTuiv or daKuiv F.C.B. : Xiywv. 

3 n-^ixara the preferred form : Tro^aTa. 

* KeKOfiiKOTas] Koixi^ovras some MSS. 

^ bLabovvai] 5La5i5ov(rdai some MSS. 

254 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 210 

21. In answer to the man who expressed surprise 
at the plainness of the clothes and the fare both of 
himself and of the other Spartans, he said, " From 
this mode of Hfe, my friend, we reap a harvest of 
hberty." 

22. When someone else urged him to relax, and 
said that, because of the uncertainty of fortune, the 
opportunity for this might never come to him, he 
replied, " I accustom myself by training to seek to 
find a change in no change." 

23. Even when he had grown old, he followed the 
same course ; and in answer to someone who asked 
him the reason why, at his age, he went about with 
no undergarment in such very cold weather, he said, 
" So that the young men may imitate, having the 
oldest men and the officials as an example." <* 

24. The Thasians, as he was marching through 
their country ^\1th his army, sent to him flour, geese, 
sweetmeats, honey-cakes, and other costly foods and 
drinks of all kinds. The flour alone he accepted, but 
the rest of the things he bade those who had brought 
them to carry back because these were of no use to 
the Spartans. But when the Thasians importuned 
him and begged him by all means to take all, he gave 
orders to distribute them among the Helots. And 
when the Thasians inquired the reason, he said, "It 
is not in keeping that those who practise manly virtues 
should indulge in such gormandizing, for things that 
allure the servile crowd are alien to free men."** 

" Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, vii. 13. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap, xxxvi. (616 f), 
where the scene is laid in Egypt, as also in Cornelius Nepos, 
xvii., Agesilaus, 8. 3-4. The story is found also in Athenaeus, 
657 B, and in Aelian, Varia Historia, iii. 20, where it is told 
of Lysander. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(210) 25. YldXiv 8e rcov SaaLcov 8ta to BoKetP fxeydAcos 
D VTT^ avrov evepyerrjaOai, vaol? avrov kol oltto- 
dediGeaC- TLfx-qaavrcov, kol Trepl rovrov TrpeG^eiav 
dTToareiXavTcov y dvayvovg rd? TLfJidg, a? avrcp 
TTpoGiqveyKav ol irpeo^eis, rjpcoTTjGev et rj Trarpls 
avrcov dnoOeovv dvOpwrrovs Suvarau' <f)afi€VOJV Se, 
" ayer ," Gc/y-q, " TrotT^crare Trpcorovg iavrovg deovg^' 
/cat Tovr dv Trpd^-qrey rore 7tlgt€vgoj vjxZv on Kdjxk 
SvvT^GeGOe deov TroLrJGai." 

26. Toiv 8e €7rt rrjs 'Aortas' '^XXtjvlkcov edvayv 
ipr](f)LGaiJi€va)v iv rat? eTn^aveGrdrais TToXeGiv 
eiKovas dviGrdv avrov, TrpoGeypaifjeVy " epLOV pLTjhe- 
fjLia eiKow €.GTOj fjLTjSe ypaTTTT) fjirjSe TrXaGrr) fjLTjSe 
KaraGKevaGTiq . ' ' 
E 27. 0eacra/xeyo? 8e cVt rrjg 'Acrtas" OLKcav t€~ 
rpaycovois d)po(f)ajfX€vr]v Sokols '^pa)T7]G6 rov KeKrr]- 
jjidi'ov ft rerpdyajva vrap* avrolg (^verai ^vXa' 
^afjicvov Se ov, dXXd GrpoyyvXa, " rl ovv;" elTrev, 
" el rerpdyojva rjv, GTpoyyvK dv^ ereAetrc;" 

28. 'EpojTT^^ets' 8e ttotc a;^pt rivos cIglv ol 
TTJg AaKOjVLKTJg opoL, TO Sopv KpaSdva^ eiTTev 

*' d^piS ov TOVTO (f)9dvOL^" 

29. "AXXov Se e7nt,7]TovvTOS 8td rt dreix^GTOs 

T) Hrrdpr-qy emSel^as tov9 TToXiTas efcoTrAtcr/xeVous' 

" ravrd eGnv," elrre, " ra AaKeSaLfioviajv Teixr}'" 

^ airodeibaeaL] diroOeua-eL van Herwerden. 
2 deovs added by Bernardakis, but it is not absolutely 
necessary. 

^ arpoyyvX' &i> Bernardakis ; arpoyyvXa. 

^ (pOdvoi] there are grounds for emending to toOt Sif (f)ddvrj. 

" Cf. Moralia, 191 d, supra, and the note. By " con- 
structed " he probably refers to the gold and ivory statues 
which were common among the Greeks. 
256 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 210 

25. At another time the Thasians, because of a 
feeling that they had been greatly befriended by 
him, honoured him with temples and deifications, 
and also sent an embassy to inform him of their 
action. When he had read the honours which the 
ambassadors proffered to him, he asked if their 
country had the power to deify men ; and when they 
answered in the affirmative, he said, " Go to ; make 
gods of yourselves first, and if you can accomplish 
this, then will I beheve that you -vvill be able to make 
a god of me also." 

26. When the Greek peoples of Asia voted to 
erect statues of him in their most prominent cities, 
he wrote to them : " Let there be no image of me 
painted or sculptured or constructed." <* 

27. Seeing in Asia a house roofed with square 
beams, he asked the owner if timber in that country 
grew square. And when the man said, " No, but 
round," he said, " Well, then, if they were square, 
would you finish them round ? " ^ 

28. Being asked once how far the bounds of Sparta 
extended, he said, with a flourish of his spear, " As 
far as this can reach." ^ 

29. When someone else wished to know why Sparta 
was "without walls, he pointed to the citizens in full 
armour and said, " These are the Spartans' walls." ^ 

^ Cf. Moralia, 227 c, infra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Lycurgus, chap. xii. (47 c). 

' Cf. Moralia, 190 e (3), supra, and 217 e (7), 218 f (2), 
229 c (6), infra, and 267 c. 

<* Cf Moralia, 217 e, infra (Antalcidas) ; Plutarch's Life 
of Lycurgus, chap. xLx. (52 b) ; Plato, Laws, 778 d ; 
Epictetus, in Stobaeus, Florilegium, v. iii. ; Demosthenes, 
Oration xviii. {De corona), 299 (325) ; Claudius Claudianus, 
(viii.), Panegyr. de quarto consulatu Honorii, 508. Cf. also 
Moralia, 228 e (28), infra. 

257 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

SO. "AAAou 8e TO avTO i7nt,r]rovvTOs , "ov XlOols 
F Set Kal ^vXoLs rereixicfdai tols TToXets," €(j)rj, "raXs 
Se rojv evoLKovvrojv dperais." 

31. Tot? 8e (J)lXols TrapTjyyeiXe yLT] ;\;p7j/>ta(7ti^, 
dvSpeta 8e /cat dperfj OTrofSa^eti^ TrAoi^rett'. 

32. *077OTe 8e ^ovXolto epyov ri rax^ojs vtto 
TU)v GrpariOJTcov yeveadaL, avros npajros icfy^qnTero 
iv oipeu dTrdvTOJV. 

33. 'E/xeyaAw6TO he iirl rep firjSevos rjrrov 
TTOvelv, Kal €7Tt TO) dpx^t,v iavrov fiaXXov 'q iirl 
Tcp ^aaiXeveiv . 

34. (deojprjGas Se riva AaKOJva x<^Aov inl 
TToXejjLOV e^LovraKal iTnrov t,riTOvvTos ," ovKoloBavr] J * 
€(f)7], " on ov (f)evy6vTO}v dXXd pievovrcov 6 TToXefxos 
Xpelav e'xet;" 

35. ^F^pajTcopLevos 8e ttcjs pieydXrjv So^av irepL' 
CTTOL'qaaro, " davdrov Karacjipovriaas," ^<t>'^' 

36. 'ETTt^T^TowTOS" 8e Tti^os" 8ta Tt ^TTapridrai 
211 /xer' avXcJov dyix}vit,ovTaiy ecf)^], " Iv* y orav rrpog 

pvOpiov ^aivojoiVy 61 re 8etAot /cat ot dv8petot 
<j)avepol ojGiv." 

37. Ma/cajOt^ovTOS" 8e rtvos" rov Wepacjv jSaatAea 
viov ovra KopbiSfj, etTrev "dAA' ovSe YlpLapLos ravrTjv 
exojv rrjv rjXiKiav 'qrvxT]cr^-" 

38. rioAAi^v 8e rrjs 'Aotas" V(f)^ eavrco rrouq- 

" See note d on previous page. 

'' Cf. Xenophon, Apesilaus, 5. 3. Plutarch tells the same 
sort of thing about C. Marius in his Life^ chap. vii. (409 b). 

258 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 210-211 

30. WTien another person put the same question, 
he said, " Cities ought not to be fortified with stones 
and timbers, but with, the strong virtues of their 
inhabitants." '^ 

31. He advised his friends to endeavour to be rich, 
not in money, but in bravery and \irtue. 

32. Whenever he wished a task to be quickly 
performed by his soldiers, he himself took hold first 
in the sight of all.^ 

33. He found more cause for pride in his working 
quite as hard as anybody, and in his mastery over 
himself, rather than in his being king.° 

34. When he saw a lame Spartan going forth to 
war and asking where he could get a horse, Agesilaus 
said, " Don't you reahze that war has need, not of 
those who run away, but of those who stand their 
ground ? "^ 

35. Being asked how he had fostered his great 
repute, he said, '* By showing contempt for death." • 

36. When someone desired to know why Spartans 
do battle amidst the sound of fifes, he said, " So 
that, as all keep step to the music, the cowardly 
and the brave may be plainly seen."-'' 

37. When someone dwelt upon the great good 
fortune of the king of Persia, who was a very young 
man, Agesilaus said, " But even Priam at that time 
of life had not met with misfortune." ^ 

38. When he had brought a great part of Asia 

" Cf. Moralia, 198 e (8), supra. 

^ Cf. 217 c, 234 E, infra ; Valerius Maximus, iii. 7, ext. 8. 

« C/. 216 c (18), infra. 

^ Cf. Thucydides, v. 70 ; Xenophon, Constitution of 
Sparta, 13. 8 ; Lucian, On Dancing, 10 ; Cicero, Tusculan 
Disputations, ii. 16 (37) ; Valerius Maximus, ii. 6. 2. 

» Cf. Moralia, 113e. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(211) (jdfi€vo9 Sieyvoj x^P^^^ ^''"■' o-vtov ^acrtAea, ottcjs 
navar] gxoXtjv avrov dyovTa /cat hia(j)0€ipovTa rovg 
rcov '^XXrivayv Srjfiayojyovg. 

39. MeTaTT 6 iJi(f)0 els Se V7t6 tojv €(f)6pa)V €V€Ka TTJS 
rod TTepiearrj KOTOS rrjv 2l7TdpTr]v 'EAATyvt/cou 7ToXe}iov 
aiTias 8ta rd vtto rov^ Hepaov hiaTT€pi<j>6evra 
XpyjfJiOLTa, elncbv top dyaOov dpxovra heZv vtto tcov 

B vofxcov apx^orOai, aTreVAeucre rrjs 'Aata? ttoXvv 
iavTov TToOov Tols ivravOa "EAAi^ort KaraXiTTCov. 

40. Tov Se IlepdLKOv vofxiopLaTos x^P^yi^^ '^^' 
^OTTjv exovTOs, dval^evyvvojv e(f>7] rpiGixvpiois ro^o- 
rais VTTO TOV ^aatXecog i^eXavveaOai ttjs *A(Jtas" 
TOorovTOjv yap els ^AOrjvas koL ©rj^a? KOfxiadevTcov 
hid TifxoKpdTovs XP^(^<^^ SapeiKcbv /cat SiaSoOevTcov 
TOLS SrjixaycjoyoLS, i^eTToXefxa^Orjaav oi SrjixoL TTpos 
rovs TiTTapTidTas .^ 

41 . Kat dvTeypaijje toIs i^opo is iTTLGToXrjv TqvBe, 
Ay7]<TLXaos TOLS €cf)6poLS ;)^at)oetv 

Tdv TToXXdv Tas 'Aata? /carecrrpej/fa/xe^a, /cat 
Tco? pappdpojs iXdaapies, /cat eV to, ^Icuvla oVAa 
C iTTonjaajJies TToXXd' eTTel Be KeXeaOe fie /cara rav 
TTpodeapLcav TTapayiveodai, eVojLtat ra eTTtaroAa, 
ox^Bov 8' aurav kqX ^Odaco' dpxo) ydp ovk ifxavTcv 
dpxdv, dXXd TO. TToXei /cat rots' GVfjLfjidxoiS' kol TOTe 

^ TOV, not in the mss. apparently, seems necessary. 
■ XirapTidras in the Life of Agesilaus, chap. xv. : ffTpaTidras. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xv. (603 e); 
Xenophon, Hellenica, ill. 5. 1, and iv. 1. 41, and Agesilaus, 
1.7. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xv. (p. 603 e) ; 
Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 2. 1-3, and Agesilaus, 1. 36; 
Cornelius Nepos, xvii., Agesilaus, 4. 1-4. 
260 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 211 

under his control, he decided to march against the 
king himself, so that he might put an end to the 
king's spending his time in leisure and corrupting 
the popular leaders among the Greeks." 

39. When he was summoned home by the Ephors 
because of the war declared against Sparta by the 
surrounding Greek states, influenced by the money 
which had been sent to them by the Persian, he 
said that the good commander ought to be subject 
to the command of the laws, and sailed away from 
Asia, leaving behind a great yearning for him among 
the Greeks there. ^ 

40. Inasmuch as the Persian coinage was stamped 
with the figure of a bo\^Tnan, he said, as he was break- 
ing camp, that he was being driven out of Asia by 
the king with thirty thousand bowmen ; for such 
was the number of gold pieces brought to Athens 
and Thebes through Timocrates and distributed 
among the popular leaders ; and thus the people 
were stirred to hostilities against the Spartans.'' 

41. H« wrote a letter in reply to the Ephors as 
follows : 

" Agesilaus to the Ephors greeting. 

" We hae conquered the maist pairt of Asia, 
and made the barbarians rin, an' in Ionia we hae 
built mony an armed camp. But gin ye bid me 
come back as ye hae set the limit, I'll come after 
the letter, or I'll mebbe get there afore it ; for 
I rule, no for masel', but for the State and oor allies. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xv. (604 c) ; 
Life of Artaxerxes, chap. xx. (1021 d) ; Xenophon, 
Hellenica, ill. 5. 1. Xenophon (I.e.) says that the Persian 
gold went to Thebes, Corinth, and Argos, and the Athenians 
were eager for the war (naturally, as it was a war of revenge) 
without being bribed. 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(211) dpxcov apx^^ dXaOecog Kara SiKav, orav Koi dpx''^'J'aL 
VTTO re vojjLOJV Kal €(f)6pow 7) oloi dv d'AAot iv rroXei 
dpxovres coglv." 

42. 'O? Se Sta/Sa? rov 'EAAt^ cTTroyrov i^dSt^e 8td 
rrjg QpaKT]?, ehe-qO-q fiev ovSevos ra)v ^ap^dpcuv, 
TrefiTTCov 8e irpos CKaarovg irrvvddvero TTorepov 

D CO? ^iXiav T] a»? TToXefilav hiairo pevrjr ai rrjv p^cu- 
pav. OL [lev ovv dXXoi (fnXiKcJog eSexovro Kal 
TTapirrepLTTOV ol Se KaXovpievoi TpaAAet?/ ols Kai 
Eep^T]?, (jjs Xeyerac, eScoKe^ Swpa, rrj? StdSou 
jjLiaOov rjrovv rov ^AyrjalXaov eKarov dpyvpiov 
rdXavra Kal yvvalKas rooavras' 6 8e Karetpw- 
vevadjjievo? avrovs Kal 0?]cra? ri ovv ovk evOvg 
"^Xdov XrjifjojJLevoL, Trporjye Kal avfi^aXajv avrois 
TTaparerayixivois rpeipdfxevog Kal hLa(j>Oeipas ttoX- 
Xovs hirjXOev. 

43. Tip he rojv ^laKeh6va>v ^acnXeL to avro 
ipa)rrjfjLa Trpoo-eTrejjuJje' (f)ijaavrog S' eKeivov ^ovXev- 
oeoOai,^ " ^ovXeveado) roivvv," elrrev, " r][jieXs Se 
TfopevaofJLeda." OavpidGas ovv rrjv roA/xav Kal SetGas 
eKeXevGev chs ^iXov Tipodyeiv^ 

E 44. Tcov he QerraXcov rots TToXepLioig Gvp.p,a- 
XOvvrcjJVy eiTOpOei rrjv x^P^^' ^^^^ ^^ AdpLGav^ 
enepufje "RevoKXea Kal IlKvO-qv Trepl (fyiXtas' guXXj]- 
(f)devra)V he rovrwv Kal rrapa(l)vXarropieva>v , ol jxev 
dXXoL ^apecas (jyepovres a)ovro helv rov ^ AyrjGiXaov 
vepLGrparoTTehevGavra rroXiopKelv rrjV AdpuGav^' 6 

* TpaWeTs in the Life of AgesUaus, chap. xvi. : TpwaSe??. 

2 eScjKe ibid. : 5e'5w/ve. 

^ ^ovXevcreadai. ibid. : ^ovXeveadai. 

"* irpodyeiv ibid. (Cobet) : irpoalpeiv. 

■ AdpLaav the regular spelling in inscriptions : Adpiaaav. 

262 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 211 

An' a mon truly rules richt whan he gangs wi' the 
laws an' the Ephors or whatever ither rulers there 
may be in the State." " 

42. When he had crossed the Hellespont and was 
marching through Thrace he made no request of any 
of the barbarian peoples, but sent to each to inquire 
whether, as he passed through their country, he should 
find it friendly or hostile. Nearly all received him 
in a friendly manner, and helped him on ; but the 
people called Trallians, to whom as it is said even 
Xerxes gave gifts, demanded of Agesilaus, as the 
price for passing through their land, an hundred 
talents of silver and an equal number of women. 
And he, making fun of them, asked why they did 
not come at once to get all this, and, leading on his 
forces to where the Trallians were dra^vn up for 
battle, he engaged them, and, having routed them 
^vith great slaughter, he marched through.^ 

43. To the king of the Macedonians he sent to 
propound the same question ; and when the king 
said that he would consider it, Agesilaus said, " Let 
him consider it, then, but we will be marching on." 
Amazed at his boldness, and fearful, the king accord- 
ingly bade him advance as a friend.^ 

44. Since the Thessalians were in alliance with his 
enemies, he ravaged their country. To Larissa, 
however, he sent Xenocles and Scythes to suggest 
an amicable agreement. But when these were seized 
and detained, the rest of his men bore it very ill, and 
thought that he ought to encamp about Larissa and 

" The letter contains a suspicious number of words for a 
Laconic letter ! 

^ Nos. 42, 43, and 44 are to be found consecutively in 
nearly the same words in Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, 
chap. xvi. (604 d-e). 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Se (f)'iJGag ovk av ideXrJGai QerraXtav oXr^v AajSetv 
OLTToXeGag rcov dvSpojv rov ercpov vttogttovSovs 
avrovs aTTeXa^ev. 
r 45. YlvOoixevos Se P-O-XW y^yovevai Trepl Kd- 
pivOoVy /cat TiTrapTiarcbv /xev TravraTTaaiv oXiyovs 
redvdvai, KopLvdccov Se Kal ^Adrjvalajv /cat tcjv dX- 
Acov GVfxiJidxcov avTols TrafXTToXXovg , ovk axfiOrj Trept- 
XO-prj? ovS^ €777] pjjievos rfj vlktj, dXXd /cat iravv ^apv 
arevd^aSy " (pev ra?^ 'EAAaSos"," ^(f>''^) " o} togovtov^ 
V(ji* auras- drroXoiXeKev , dcroLs dpKel raJS ^ap^dpcog 
VLKav aTTavra?." 

46. OapcraAtcov Se TrpoGKeifxcvajv /cat KaKovp- 
yovvrojv^ avrov to Grpdrevp^a^ irevraKOGiois t77- 
mevGL rpeipdfievos avrovs rpoiraiov eGrrjGev vtto 
Tw Nap^a/cto)' /cat rrjv vlktjv iKeiv7]v Trdvrojv VTrep- 
TjydTT'qGev, ore GVGrrjGdfievos to lttttlkov avros St 
eavrov, tovtw p.ovcp rovs pLeyiGTOV i(f)' LTTTTLKfj 
(jypovovvros iKpdrrjGev. 
222 ^'^- At</»/)t3a Se oiKodev dTrayyeiXavros avrcp 
€v6vs €K TrapoSov iji^aXelv els rrjv Boto^rtW, /catVot 
e/c pLeit^ovos TrapaGKevrjs VGrepov rovro TTOirJGaL 
Siavoovpevos, ovk dTreidrJGas rols dpxovGi, [xera- 
TTepiijjdpLevos hvo fiopas^ rchv Tvepl Ys^opivdov Grpa- 
revop.evojv ine^r] rr^s Botcorta?. /cat Gvpi^aXajv iv 

^ Tcis and & the Doric forms for the sake of consistency: 
rrjs and ?). 

- KaKovpyovvTwv] KaKovuTiov Life of Affesilavs, chap. xvi. 
^ fj.6pas Turnebus : ixoipas or /xvpiddas. 

" See note b on previous page. 

^ In 394 B.C. Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 2. 18 ff. 
*■ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus^ chap. xv. (604 f) ; 
264 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 211-212 

lay siege to it. But he declared that he would not 
lose either one of those men for the whole of Thessaly, 
and got them back by coming to terms with the 
enemy. ° 

45. When he learned that a battle had been fought 
in the vicinity of Corinth,^ and that only a very few 
of the Spartans had fallen, but a vast number of the 
Corinthians and Athenians and the others on their 
side, he was not observed to be overjoyful or elated 
at the \ictory, but ^^^th a very deep sigh said, 
" Hech, sirs, for Greece, wha her ane sel' has killed 
sae mony men — as mony as micht pit doon a' the 
barbarians." '' 

46. When the Pharsalians beset him and harassed 
his army, he routed them with five hundred horse- 
men, and set up a trophy at the foot of Mount 
Narthacium. And he was better satisfied with this 
victory than with all others, because he himself by 
his o^\Ti efforts had built up this company of cavalry,** 
and with this alone he had overcome those who took 
the greatest pride in horsemanship,* 

47. Diphridas ^ brought word to him from home 
that he should at once, as he passed by, invade 
Boeotia. It had been his purpose to do this later 
after making more adequate preparation, but he 
did not disobey those in authority, and, after send- 
ing for two divisions of the army in the field at 
Corinth, he entered Boeotia, At Coroneia he engaged 

Moralia, 191 a (6), supra, and the note; Xenophon, Helle- 
nica, iv. 3. 1, Agesilaus, 7. 4 : Diodorus, xiv. 86 ; Cornelius 
Nepos, xvii,, Agesilaus, 5. 2. 

** See 209 b, supra. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xvi. (605 a) ; 
Xenophon, Ilellenica, iv. 3. 3-9, Agesilaus, 2. 2-5. 

^ One of the Ephors. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(212) Kopcovela G-qj^atois ^AdrjvatoLg 'Apyetot? KopiV' 
dloig Ao/cpots" djj,(f)OTepoLg ivLK-qore, KauTOi vtto 
TToXXojv rpavfjidrajv KaKcog ro orajfjLa hiaKeiixevog, 
TrjV p^eyiunqv iidxrjv, o)s (jifiui Eevocficbv, rwv Ka9^ 
iavTOV yevojjievojv. 

48. Ovhev Se twv irepl rov ^iov /cat Tr]V hiairav 
hid rds Toaavrag evrvx^cig koI viKas TJXXa^ev 
ot/caS' irTaveXOcov. 
ij 49. Opwv 8' ivLOvg TOW ttoXltojv drro Itttto- 
Tpo(j)ias SoKovvrag elvai rivas kol }Jb€yaXo(j)povovv- 
ra? €7T€LG€ TTjv dSeA^o^y IvvvLGKav dpfxa KaOelaav^ 
^OXvjJLTTidcrLV dyojVLGaadaL, ^ovXojJievog ivhei^aaOai 
ToZs "^XXrjGLv (hs ovSejjuds icrrtv dperrjs ttXovtov 
he Kal hairdviqs rd roiavra. 

50. "Revocfycovra he rov GO(f)6v exoiv /xe^' eavrov 
OTTovhatofjievov eKeXeve rovs iraZhas ev AaKehai- 
fiovL Tpi(j)eiv pieraTTeiupdfievov , d)s^ ro xraAAtcrroy rcJov 
fjLaOrjfidrcov TraihevOiqGop^evovs , dpxetv re Kal dp- 
XeoOai. 
C 51. "AXXore 8' epojrd)[JLevos htd ri fxaXiura 
rrapd rovs dXXovs evhaifiovovGLV ol UTrapridrai, 
" hion," elire, " napd rovs dXXovs doKovoiv dpxeiv 
re Kal dpxead at." 

1 Kadeiaav Life of AgesUmis, chap. xx. : Kadiaaaav. 
^ ws ibid. (Kronenberg). 

" Hellenica, iv. 3. 16, Agesilaus, 2. 9. Xenophon took 
part in the battle (Anabasis, v. 3. 6). 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chaps, xvii. and xviii. 
(605 a-f) ; Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 3. 15-20, Agesilaus, 
2. 9-16. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xix. (606 b-c), 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xx. (606 d) ; 
Xenophon, Agesilaus, 9. 6 ; Pausanias, iii. 8. 1-2 ; iii. 15. 1 ; 

9,m 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 212 

in battle Thebans, Athenians, Arn^ives, Corinthians, 
and the two Locrian peoples, and, although he was 
in desperate straits by reason of the many wounds 
in his body, he was victorious in the greatest battle, 
as Xenophon says,^ of those fought in his day.^ 

48. After he returned home he made no change 
in anything touching his life and his manner of 
living on account of so many successes and victories. '^ 

49. Seeing that some of the citizens thought them- 
selves to be somebody and gave themselves great 
airs because they kept a racing stud, he persuaded 
his sister Cynisca to enter a chariot in the races at 
Olympia, for he wished to demonstrate to the Greeks 
that this sort of thino; was no sign of excellence, but 
only of having money and being ^\^lling to spend it.^ 

50. He had \nth him Xenophon the philosopher, 
who was treated with marked consideration, and he 
urged Xenophon to send for his sons, and bring them 
up in Sparta, where they would be taught the fairest 
of all lessons — to rule and to be ruled. ^ 

51. On one other occasion he was asked what was 
the especial reason why the Spartans were fortunate 
above all other peoples, and he replied, " Because 
they, above all others, make it their practice to rule 
and to be ruled." ^ 

V. 12. 5 ; vi. 1. 6 ; and the epigram in the Greek Anthologij^ 
xiii. 16 (L.C.L. v. p. 10), which records Cynisca's victory. 
Fragments of the original inscription, which was cut on the 
pedestal on which the statue of Cynisca stood, were found 
in the excavations at Otympia. See J. G. Frazer, Pausanias, 
iv. p. 3 : or Pausanias, ed. Hitzig and Blumner, ii. p. 533. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xx. (606 d), 
and Diogenes Laertius, ii. 51 and 54. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 215 c, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgvs, 
chap. XXX. (58 c), and Life of Agesilaus, chap. 1. (596 d) ; 
Xenophon, Agesilaus, 2. 16. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(212) 52. AvcrdvSpov 8e TeXevr'qGavros , evpojv erat- 

p€iaV 7ToXXr]V GVV€GT(X)GaV, TjV €K€lV0S EvOvS CTTaVcA" 

dojv arro rrjs 'Aata? Gwior-qaev iirl rov ^AyqalXaov, 
wpfjLrjGev avrov i^eXeyx^f'V otos rjv i^cbv TToXirrjs. 
Kal Xoyov dvayvovs iv ^l^Xlco aTToXeXeLpLfievov , ov 
eypaipe fxev KAecav o *AXiKapvaGG€vs, e/xeAAe 8e 
Xeyeiv dvaXa^cbv 6 AvcravSpog iv rip StJ/jlo) rrepl 
TTpayixdrojv Kaivcov Kal /xeracrTacrecus' rod iroXirev- 

D jLtaros", TjOeXrjcrev els iieoov i^eveyKelv eVet Se rig 
rctjv yepovTOJV tov Xoyov hieXOcxiv^ Kal cfjo^rjdels rrjv 
SetvorrjTa avve^ovXevcre fxr) rov AvcravSpov dvopvr- 
T€LV, dXXd TOV Xoyov jjLciXXov avTcp (jvyKaropvrreiv, 
irTelaOr] Kal rjovxacrev. 

53. Tovs 8e VTrevavrLovfjievovs avrat <f)av€pa)s 
fiev ovK irdparre' SiaTTparrofJievog Se TrepiTTeadai^ 
TLvag del OTpanqyovs Kal dpxovras e$ avrojv iir- 
eSeLKvve yevopievovs ev rat? e^ovuiais irovj^povs 
Kal irXeoveKTas' elra Kpivopievois ttoXiv av ^orjdcov 
Kal ovvaycDvit^opievos oiKeiovs eTTOieXro Kal pLeOiGrrj 
TTpos eavTov, ware ovSeva dvriTraXov elvai. 

E 54. *ESe7^^T7 TLS avTov ypdipat irpos rovs irr^ 
Aalas ^evovs, ott(j)s Tvxf] tov SiKalov " aAA' ol 
epLol ^evoiy" elrre, " rd StKaia St' eavTcov, Koiv iyw 

pLTj ypdlpO), TTOLOVGLV." 

55. ^l^neSeiKwe rts" avrw rrjs rroXews to reZxos 
o^vpov Kal Kaprepcbs dyav e^coKoSopLrjpievov, Kal 

^ SteX^wj/ Hartman : iveXOuv. 
' vifxireadai Life of Agesilaus, chap. xx. : 5' ^ireaOai. 

" Cf. Moralia, 229 f, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Lysander^ 
chap. xxiv. (447 d), and chap. xxx. (450 e) ; Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xx. (606 e). 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xx. (606 f). 
268 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 212 

52. After Lysander's death he found a huge associa- 
tion banded together, which Lysander, immediately 
after his return from Asia, had organized against him, 
and he set out to show up Lysander by pointing out 
what kind of a citizen he had been when he was aUve. 
So, after reading a speech which had been left among 
Lysander's papers, the author of which was Cleon 
of Halicarnassus, and which Lysander had been in- 
tending to appropriate and dehver before the people 
on the subject of revolution and changing the form 
of government, Agesilaus wished to make it pubhc. 
But when one of the aged men read the speech, and 
was frightened at its cleverness, and advised him 
not to disinter the dead Lysander, but rather to 
inter the speech along ^vith him, he took the advice 
and did nothing.** 

53. Those who covertly opposed him he did not 
openly put to confusion, but managed to have some 
of them always sent out as generals and officers, and 
then he would proceed to demonstrate that they had 
proved themselves unprincipled and greedy in exer- 
cising their authority. Then later, when they were 
brought to trial, his role this time would be to help 
them and defend them at their trial ; and thus he 
won their allegiance, and brought them over to his 
own side, so that there was nobody who opposed him.* 

54. Somebody wanted him to WTite to his friends 
in Asia so that the petitioner might meet with 
right treatment there. * But," said Agesilaus, " my 
friends of themselves do what is right, even if I do 
not write to them." 

55. Somebody in a foreign land pointed out to 
Agesilaus the city wall, high towering and exceed- 
ingly massive in its construction, and asked Agesilaus 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rjpdora el KaXov avrco (fyaLverai' " vq Ata," ^^t?» 
" KaXov ovx ^S oLvSpdcri 8e aAA' cus" ywaL^lv 

ivOLK€LV." 

56. Meyapeojg 8e tlvos rrepl ttjs TToXeojs irpos 
avrov fjLeyaXavxovfjLdvov, " pueipaKiov," e^^, " ol 
Xoyoi GOV TToXXrjs Swdfieajg SeovraL." 
F 57. '^ A Se rovs dXXov? icopa davixd[,ovras eSo- 
K€i iJL7]Se yivcoGKeiv. /cat ttote KaAAiTrTrtSi^? 6 rcov 
rpaycpStaJv inTOKpiTi]?, ovofxa Kat So^av excov 
iv Tols "EAAr^crt koL G7Tovhat,6iievos vtto Trdvrajv, 
TTpchrov fiev aTTijurrjGev avro) Kal TrpooelTrev, eVetra 
Go^apcos els Tovs GVfjLTTepLTTarovvTas ijJi^aXdjv 
iavrov, eTreheiKwro voixl^ojv eKelvov dp^eiv^ tlvos 
(f)LXocf)pov7]G6ajs' reXos Se elireVy "ovk eTTiyiyvwGKeis 
fie, (L ^aGiXev, ovS^ yJKovGas ogtls elfil;" 6 8' 
'AyrjGiXaos aTTO^Xeipas els avrov elTrev,^ " aAA' ov 
TV eGGi KaAAtTiTriSa? o SeiKr^XiKTas; " ovrco Se 
AaxeSai/jiovLOi rovs fiLfiovs KaXovGiv. 

58. Tod he papiovfievov rrjv rrjs d7]S6vos (fxjjvrjv 
OLKOVGat TTapaKaXovfjievos, 7rapr)T7^Garo ^rjGas " av- 
rds aKovKa TToXXdKis." 
213 59- ^leveKpdrovs Se rod larpov, errel Kara- 
rvxdji^ eV TLGLv aTTeyvcuGpievaig depaTreiais Zeu? 
eTTeKXtjOr], c/yoprLKCus ravrr] ;Ypco/xeVou rfj irpoG- 

1 &p^€iv Life of Agesilmis, chap. xxi. : dp^ai. 
^ elirev added from ibid. 

" Cf. Moralia, 190 a, supra, 215 d, 230 c, infra, and 
Valerius Maximus, iii. 7, ext. 8. 

'' The remark is usually attributed to Lysander ; cf. 
Plutarch's Life of Lysander, chap. xxii. (445 d) ; Moralia, 
71 E, 190 E, supra, 229 c, infra • Themistius, Oration xxvii. 
270 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 212-213 

if it looked grand to him. " Yes," said Agesilaus, 
" grand indeed, not for men though, but for women 
to live in." " 

56. When a man from Megara boasted greatly 
about his city, Agesilaus said, " Young man, your 
words need a great power to back them." ^ 

57. Things which he saw other people admiring 
he seemed not even to notice. For example, once 
upon a time Callippides, the tragic actor,*' who had a 
name and repute among the Greeks, and was received 
everywhere with the most flattering attention, first 
of all put himself in front of Agesilaus and addressed 
him, and then pompously thrust himself into the 
company that was walking with him, thus making 
it plain that he expected the king to begin some 
friendly conversation, and finally he said, *' Your 
Majesty, do you not recognize me. and have you not 
heard who I am ? " At that Agesilaus looked towards 
him and said, " Are ye no Callippidas the shawTaan? " 
That is what the Spartans call the strolling players.** 

58. When he was invited to hear the man who 
imitated the nightingale's voice, he begged to be 
excused, saying, " I hae heard the bird itsel' mony 
a time." * 

59. Menecrates the physician, who, because of his 
success in curing certain persons who had been given 
up to die, had come to be called Zeus, used to di-ag 

334 c. The idea was originally expressed by Adeimantus 
to Themistocles in Herodotus, viii. 61. 

" Famous for his impressive acting. Cf. Xenophon, 
Symposium, 3. 11 ; Aristotle, Poetics, chap. 26; Plutarch, 
Moralia, 348 e ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, vi. 10. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxi. (607 d). 

* Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxi. (607 e) : Moralia, 191 b ; Life 
of Lycurgus, chap. xx. {o2 e). A similar remark is attributed 
to Pleistarchus, Moralia, -231 c, infra. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(213) ojvvjJLia, /cat Sr] npos top ^ AyiqGiXaov iTTLGTetXai 
ToXfJujaavTos ovroj, 

** M-eveKparrj^ Zeu? ^aacXeX ^AyqaiXdco )(aLp€Lv/' 
OVK dvayvovs rd Xoirrd dvreypaijje, 

" jSacrtAeu? 'Ayr^criAaos" Mevearparet vyiaiveiv** 

B 60. 'Etxci Se \^6vo)v koX Oapm^ajos- rep ^acn- 
Xeco? vavTLKO) OaXarroKparovvTes irroXiopKovv rd 
TTapdXia rrjs AaKOJVLKrj^y iretxtGOrj Se to dorrv rajv 
^Kdiqvaiojv ^apva^dt,ov )(pijiJiara Sovtos, €lpTjvr]V 
inoL'qcravTO AaKeSatuovcoL TTpos ^acnAea* Kal Trepi- 
7TOVGL ttoXlttjv ^AvTaXKiSav TT/oo? T ipi^at^ov ^ TOVS 
iv Tjj 'Acrta "EXXrjvag, vrrep Sv eTToXepb-qaev ^Ayqai- 
Xaog, paaiXei TrapaSiSovreg. odev Br) TJKLcrra^ 
ovve^T] TTJ? KaKoSo^La? ravrrjg ^AyrjcnXda) /xera- 
CT;^etv oydp 'AvraA/ctSa? ixOpos rjv avrcp, Kal rrjv 
elp-^vrjv i^ diravros eTrparrev, (Lg rod iroXep^ov rdv 
^Ay-qaiXaov av^ovros Kal iroiovvros evho^orarov 
Kal pbeyiGTOv. 

61 . Ou /XT]V dAAa /cat rrpds rdv elTTOvra pLrjhit^eiv 
rovs AaKeSaifJLOVLOVS d7T€Kpidr] pidXXov rovs M.r]8ovs 
XaKCJVL^etv. 

C 62. ^EipojrrjOels Se TTore oTTorepa ^eXricov rcbv 

dperdjv, dvhpeia t) hiKaioGvvr], ovSev dcfyeXog dv- 

hpetas e(j)aGK€V elvai purj rrapovG-qs SLKaLOGUvrjS' el 

^ Ttpt/iaf^oj/ the usual spelling: T-qoifia^ov, 
2 TJKiara Life of Agesilaus, chap, xxiii. : KaKiara. 

° Cf. Moralia, 191 a (5), supra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap. xxi. (607 e). Ascribed to Philip of 

272 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 213 

in this title on all occasions, and even went so far in 
his effrontery as to write to Agesilaus in this fashion : 
" Menecrates Zeus to King Agesilaus, health and 
happiness." Agesilaus did not read any further, 
but wrote in reply, 

"KingAgesilausto Menecrates, health and sanity ! "** 

60. When Conon and Pharnabazus \\ith the Great 
King's fleet were masters of the sea and blockaded 
the Spartans' coast, and the walls of Athens had 
been rebuilt ^ with the money provided by Pharna- 
bazus, the Spartans made peace with the king.'' 
They sent one of their citizens, Antalcidas, to Tiri- 
bazus, and surrendered into the king's power those 
Greeks in Asia Minor for whose freedom iVgesilaus 
had fought. It follows, therefore, that Agesilaus 
could not have had the slightest thing to do with this 
disreputable business ; for Antalcidas was at enmity 
with him, and employed every resource in working 
for the peace, because he felt that the war made 
Agesilaus great and enhanced his repute and 
importance.'^ 

61 . Yet, in answer to aman who said that the Spartans 
were becoming pro-Persian, Agesilaus said that rather 
the Persians were becoming pro-Spartan ! ^ 

62. Being asked once which was better of the 
virtues, bravery or justice, he said that there is no 
use for bravery unless justice is also in evidence, and 

Macedon by Aelian, Varia Historia^ xii. 51, and Athenaeus, 
289 b. 

'' In 393 B.C. (Xenophon, Ilellenica, iv. 8. 10). 

" The peace of Antalcidas, 387 b.c. (Xenophon, Hellenica^ 
V. 1. 29 ; Plutarch, Life of Artaxerxes, chap. xxi. (1022 a)). 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap, xxiii. (608 c). 

* Ibid. 608 D ; cf. also Plutarch's lAfe of Artaxerxes, 
chap. xxi. (1022 c). 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(213) he SiKaLOL Trdvres yivoivro, fJLTjSev dvhpelas herjOi^- 
oeoOai} 

QS. Et^tCT/xeVcov 8e rchv ttjv 'Aatar KaroLKOvv- 
Tcov Tov Yiepacxyv ^aartXea fieyav TTpoaayopevecVf 

" TV hal eK€LVOS ipLOV fJL€L[,ajV," €(f)r]y " et pLTj 

hiKaiorepos /cat GOJcjjpoveGTepos ; " 

64. "EAeyc 8e tov? rrfv 'Acrtav KaroiKovvras 
iXevdepovs fJiev KaKovg, hovXovs Se dyaOovs etvat. 

65. '^pcorrjOels 8e ttcos dv ris pidXiura €v- 
SoKLjjLOLTj Trap' dvOpojTTOis, " €1 Xeyoi," €i7T€y " rd 
dpLura, TTpdrroL he rd KaXXiGra." 

66. Tov Se Grparrjyov Selv e4>a.(JKe rrpos fxev 
Toijs evavTLov? ToXfxav, rrpos he rovs viroreray- 
fxevovs evvoiav e-x^eiv.^ 

D 67. 'ETTt^T^TowTo? Se Tivo? TLva Set fxavdaveiv 
Tovg Tralhas, " raur'," elTrev, " of? Kal dvSpes 
yevo/JLevoi yp-qoovrai." 

68. At/ca^orros" he riva hiK7]v avTov, Kal tov 
jxev KaTTjyopov ev elpr^KOTog tov he diroXoyovpievov 
(f)avXajs, XeyovTos he rrpos eKaorTa, " ^AyrjGcXae, 
hel TOV ^acrtAea tols vojjlols ^oiqdeZvy* " kol ttjv 
OLKiav," e(f)r), " el tls (Jol hieoKaTTTe Kal to IfidTLOv 
el d<j)'r]pelTOy vpoaehexov dv tov OLKohojiov rj tov 
TO LfjidTLov v^dvavTa eTTLKovp-qGeiv aoi; " 

69- ^^mGToXrjS he az^ro* Trapd tov Yiepocov 
^aGiXecos KO}iLG9eLG7]s, TTJs elpT^vr]S yevopLevrjs, rjv 

^ de7]6ri(X€a6ai] devaeadaL in the Life of Agesilaus, chap. 
xxiii., and in Stobaeus, Florileghnn^ vii. 72. 

2 Stobaeus, Florilegium^ liv. 49, adds irphs bk Toi>s Kaipoi>s 
\oyi(T/jL6v. 

*» Cf. Moralia, 190 f (3), supra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Agesilaus, chap, xxiii. (608 f). 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 f (2), supra. 
274 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 213 

if all men should become just they would have no 
need of bravery. ** 

63. The inhabitants of Asia were accustomed to 
give to the king of Persia the title of ' The Great,' but 
Agesilaus said, " In what, pray, is he greater than I, 
unless he is more just and more self-controlled ? " ^ 

64. He used to say that the inhabitants of Asia 
were poor freemen, but good slaves. ° 

65. Being asked how one might most surely have 
a good name among men, he said, " If one say what 
is best and do what is most honourable." 

66. He used to say that a general ought to be 
possessed of boldness towards the enemy and kind- 
ness towards the men under him.^ 

67. When someone desired to know what boys 
ought to learn, he said, " That which they will use 
when they become men." ^ 

68. Once when he was sitting as judge the accuser 
spoke well and the defendant poorly, merely repeat- 
ing in answer to each point, " Agesilaus, a king must 
uphold the laws ; " whereat Agesilaus said, " And if 
somebody had broken into your house, and if some- 
body had robbed you of your coat, should you expect 
that the builder of the house or the maker of the 
coat would come to your assistance ? " 

69. After the peace was made, ^ a letter from the 
king of Persia was brought to him, of which the 

"^ Cf. the note on Moralia 190 f (1), supra. 

<* Stobaeus, Florilegium, liv. 49, adds, " and reasoning 
power to meet crises." 

* Leotychidas (224 d, infra) and Aristippus (Diogenes 
Laertius, ii. 80) expressed the same opinion, which has been 
repeated ad nauseam by professors of paedagogy. 

^ The peace of Antalcidas, 387 B.C. See Moralia, 213 a-b, 
supra. 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(213) o /xera KaAAtou rod AaKeSaifJiovLov Hepcr-qs 
E 7Jv€yK€ 7T€pL ^cvlas Kal (fyiXlas, ovk eXa^ev elircbv 
aTTayyeiXai ^acrtAet (hs Ihia fxev irpos avrov ovhkv 
heoL eTTiUToXas TrifXTreiv r]v 8e (f)iXos rfj Aa/ce- 
SaLfJLOvi Kal rfj 'EAAaSt evvovs cjv (jyaivqrai, on 
Kal avTOs cf)LXos avrcp Kara Kpdros ecrotro' iav 
jjLevTOL iTTL^ovXevajv aXioKiqTai, " p^r]^^ oiv irdw 
TToAAas" 8e;!^60/xat eTTioroXds , TTLGreverco <f)lXov /x€ 

70. ^iXoreKvoraros: 8* wv Sca(f)€p6vrajs, Aeyerat 

OTi fJLiKpOLS Tols TTaihioiS^ KoXapiOV 7T€pi^€^rjK(jbs 
(X)G7T€p ItTTTOV o'IkOL GVV€7Tail,€V 6(f)6els Se V7t6 TiVOS 

rwv (j)iXcL>v TTapeKoXei piiqhevl (f)pd^€LV^ irplv av^ 
Kal avTO? Trarrjp Traihojv yivqrai. 
F 71. ^vv^x^s 8e avTov roZg STj^alois TToAe/xouv- 
Tos" Kal rpoidivTos iv rfj p^dxi), ((xigI rov 'Av- 
raXKcSav elrrelv, " KaXd rd htSaGKdXia Trapd Sr]- 
palojv drroXapi^dveis , {jlt] povXop^evovs avrovs /xr^S' 
eVtorra/xeVous" p^dx^Gdai SiSd^ag." rw yap ovri 
Qrj^aLovs avTOVs iavrcov TToXep.LKajrdrovs tot€ 
^acrt yeviadai ratg TroAAat? Grpareiais rcov Aa/ce- 
haipLOvicjJv €77* avTOVs. Sto Kal AvKovpyos 6 
TTaXauos iv raig KaXovp^ivais 'ViqTpaLs aTTeiTre ttoA- 
XdKLs €7tI rovs avTOVs o-rpareuetv, ottcos TroXep^eiv 
fiTj piavddvoiULv. 

^ Traiblois] TratSiois otxn^ Life of Agesilaus^ chap. xxv. 
2 irplv hv ibid. : irplv. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap, xxiii. (608 f) ; 
Xenophon, Agesilaus, 8. 3 (in almost the same words as 
here) ; Aelian, Varia Historia, x. 20. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxv. (610 c) : 
Aelian, Varia Historia, xii. 15. Diogenes Laertius and 
Valerius Maximus (viii. 8, ext. 1), tell this story of Socrates. 

' In the invasion of Boeotia in 378 b.c. 

276 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 213 

Persian with Callias the Spartan was the bearer, in 
regard to hospitality and friendship ; but Agesilaus 
would not receive it, bidding the man to take back 
word to the king that there was no need to sendletters 
to him personally ; that if the king showed himself 
to be a friend to Sparta and well disposed towards 
Greece, he himself, to the very best of his power, 
would be a friend to the king. But if the king should 
be caught plotting against Greece, he went on to say, 
'* even if I receive many letters, let him not believe 
that he shall have me for a friend." "' 

70. He was unusually fond of children, and it is 
said that at home he used to mount astride a stick as 
a hobby-horse and play with his children when they 
w^ere little. But when he was seen thus by one of his 
friends, he begged the man to tell nobody before he 
had children of his own.^ 

71. He made war continually upon the Thebans, 
and when he was wounded in the battle,*' they say 
that Antalcidas exclaimed, " This is a fine rew^ard 
which you are receiving from the Thebans for giving 
them lessons in fighting when they had no desire to 
fight, and no knowledge even of fighting ! " For, as 
a fact, they say that the Thebans at that time were 
more warlike than they had ever been before, owing 
to the many campaigns of the Spartans against them.'^ 
It was for this reason that Lycurgus of old, in his 
so-called ' Decrees,' forbade campaigning frequently 
against the same peoples, so that these should not 
learn to make war.* 

<* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxvi. (610 d) ; 
Life of Pelopidas, chap. xv. (285 d) ; Moralia, 227 c, 
infra. 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xiii. (47 d), 
Moralia, 189 f, supra ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, i. 16. 2. 

VOL. Ill K 277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

72. 'ETret Se rjKovoi irore buox^pdvat rovs crvfx- 
214 fJLoixovs Slol ras crvvex^^s arparelas, oXlyois ovai 

ToZs AaKeSaifjLOVLOLg ttoAAou? OLKoXovdovvras,^ iXey^ai 
^ovXofJievos avrajv to ttXtjOos eKeXevoev airavTas 
Tovs GVjjLjjLaxovs Kadioai fxer^ dAAT^Acoi^ ava/xe/xty- 
ixivovs, IbicL Se roijs AaKeSatfjiovLovs icf)* iavrcov 
elra iKT^pvrre rovs Kcpafiels aviuraaOaL Trpwrovs, 
(1)S Se dveGTTjGav ovroi, Sevrepovs eKiqpVTTe rovs 
XclXk€ls, €ira reKTovas €cf)6^r]s Kal olKoSofiovs, /cat 
TOJV dXXojv T€xvcbv iKaar-qv. iravres ovv oXiyov 
helv dvearrjaav ol GVfifjLaxoL, rchv Se Aa/ceSat- 
fjLovlojv ouSets" direipiqTO yap avTOis T€xvr]v ipyd- 
Jecr^at -q fiavOdveuv ^dvauaov. ovrco Sr] yeXdaa? 
6 'AyTjcrtAaos", " opdre," elvev, " <L dvBpes, oao) 
B TrXelovas vjjlcov orparicxyras iKnefiTTOfJiev rjixels ; " 

73. 'Ev Se rfj Tie pi AevKrpa P'dxj), ttoXXojv Aa- 
Kehaiiioviojv (jyvyovrcjv koX tovtcov rats e/c rov 
vofjiov drLfjLLais^ VTrevdvvojv ovrcuv, ol e<f)opoL epripLov 
dvhpayv rrjv ttoXiv opcovreg Seopievrjv (jrparicoTihv 
i^ovXovro TTjV dripiiav Xvaai Kal rovs vopuovs 
TTjpeiV. alpovvrai ovv vofjioderrjv rov ^AyrioiXaov 
6 he TTpoaeXdajv elg to Stuxogiov, " vofJbodeTTjg jjuev 
ovK dv yevoLjjLTjv eTepcov vojjlojv," elire, " toZs yap 
ox}Cjiv ovT^ dv 7Tpo(jdeL7]v TL ovT^ dv d<j)iXoLp.L OVTe 

Q jLteTaTTOtTJcratjLtf tovs Se ovTag rjfxiv vofjiovs Kvpiovs 
elvai KoXws exov IgtIv diro ttjs avpiov." 

74. Tov S' 'ETxajLtetvcovSav eireXdovTa fxeTa to- 

1 TToXXoyj cLKoKovdovvTas Meziriacus : iroWol aKoKovdovuTes. 

2 dTifxlais Xylander (as clearly indicated by Moralia, 191 o, 
and the Life of Agesilaus^ chap, xxx.) : acTiais, 

278 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 213-214 

72. When he heard once that the allies had come 
to be disaffected because of the continual campaign- 
ing (for they in great numbers followed the Spartans 
who were but few), wishing to bring their numbers to 
the proof, he gave orders that the allies all sit down 
together indiscriminately and the Spartans separately 
by themselves ; and then, through the herald, he 
commanded the potters to stand up first ; and when 
these had done so, he commanded the smiths to 
stand up next, and then the carpenters in turn, and 
the builders, and each of the other trades. As a 
result, pretty nearly all of the allies stood up, but of 
the Spartans not a single one ; for there was a prohi- 
bition against their practising or learning any menial 
calling. And so Agesilaus, with a laugh, said, " You 
see, men, how many more soldiers we send out than 
you do." ** 

73. In the battle of Leuctra many Spartans ran 
away to escape the enemy, and these were liable to 
disgrace as provided by the law. The Ephors, seeing 
the State bereft of men when it was in great need of 
soldiers, ^vished to do away with the disgrace, and 
also to observe the laws. Accordingly they chose 
Agesilaus as lawgiver ; and he, coming into the 
public meeting, said, " I would not become a law- 
giver to enact another set of laws, for in the present 
laws I would make no addition, subtraction, or 
revision. It is good that our present laws be in full 
force, beginning with the morrow." * 

74. Although Epameinondas came on with such 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxvi. (610 e); 
Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 1. 7. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxx. (612 f) ; 
and the note on Moralia, 191 c (10), supra. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(214) (jovrov pevfiaros Kal kXvScovos, twv Q-q^aiojv /cat 
avix}xd)(^UL)v iJLeyaXav)(oviJLevojv IttI rfj vlktj, o/xcus' 
etp^e TT^s" TToXeojs Kal dvaGrpeifjat iTTOirjaeu, oXiyojv 
ovrojv rcov iv rfj TToXei. 

75. 'Ev he rfj irepl Islavriveiav ^dxj] napeKe- 
Xevaaro rols AaKehaifjiovLOLS rovs ctAAou? edaavras 
irdvras ^EiTrafieLvcovSa jJidx^crdaL, jjlopous Xeycov 
Tovs €ix(f)povas dvhpeiovs elvai Kal fiovovs ViKTjg 
alriovs VTrdpx^iv el ovv tovtov dveXoiev^ pacrra 
TOVS dXXovs VTTox^LpLovg 7TOLT]GeLV' dfjypovas yap 

D elvaL Kal ov'^evos d^iovs. o Kal crvve^rj- rrjs yap 
VLKrjs crvv ^EtTrajJieLvcjovSa ovar^s Kal (l)vyrjs yevo- 
[lev-qs, e7TLGTpacf)evTa avrov Kal dvaKaXovfievov 
TOVS lSlovs rojv AaKehaijxovicxJv ns Kaipicos^ 
ivdra^e, Kal Treaovros dvaurpeipavres diro ttjs 
(fivyrjs ol ovv ^ KyqaiXdw ecjidpuiXXov ttjv vlktjv 
eTToi-qoav, rtapd ttoXv p.ev twv Q-q^alwv ;^etpop'cuy, 
irapd TToXv he twv Aa/ceSat/xovtcov d}xeLv6va>v 
(f)avevTcov . 

76. XpT^/xaroji^ he heojjievi^s ttjs UTrdpTTjs irpos 
TToXejjiov Kal ^evoTpo(j)ovGr]s, erropevdr] 6 W.yiqoiXaos 
els KlyvTTTOV jjieTaTTefjiffidels vtto tov ^aacXeajs 

KlyVTTTLOJV 6771 {JLLgOo)' hid he TO XlTOV TTJS iodrJTOs 

els KaTa(f)p6v7](nv rjXde toIs iyxcopt'OLS' TrpoorehoKcov 

E yap tov UrTdpTTjs /SacrtAea KaOdnep tov Hepcrcov 

KeKoap.Tjpievov oifjeadai hiaTrpeirajs to crtD/xa, <j)av- 

Xrjv 'i^ovTes Trepl ^aoiXeoiv ho^av. ehei^e yovv 

^ ap^Xoiev Bases and E. Kurtz : du^XoLfxey, 
2 Kaipiuis] Kaiplav Cobet. 

280 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 214 

an overwhelming tide," and the Thebans and their 
allies were boasting mightily over the victory, never- 
theless Agesilaus kept him out of the city and made 
him turn back, although the number of persons in 
the city was very small. ^ 

75. In the battle of Mantineia he urged the 
Spartans to pay no attention to any of the others, 
but to fight against Epameinondas, for he said that 
only men of intelligence are valiant and may be 
counted upon to bring victory ; if, therefore, they 
could make away with that one man, they would 
very easily reduce the others to subjection ; for 
these were unintelligent and worthless. And so it 
came to pass. For while the victory rested with 
Epameinondas, and the rout of the enemy was com- 
plete, as he turned and was cheering on his men, 
one of the Spartans struck him a fatal blow ; and 
when he had fallen, Agesilaus 's men, rallying from 
their flight, made the victory hang in the balance, 
and the Thebans showed themselves far inferior, and 
the Spartans far superior. 

76. ^\'llen Sparta was in need of money for war, 
and was supporting a mercenary force, Agesilaus set 
out for Egypt, having been summoned by the king 
of the Egyptians for a goodly remuneration. But 
because of the simplicity of his clothes he came into 
contempt among the people there ; for they had been 
expecting that they should see the king of Sparta, 
like the king of Persia, with his person magnificently 
apparelled — a sorry opinion for them to hold regard- 
ing kings. At any rate, he showed them, before they 

" The expression is that of Theopompus, as Plutarch tells 
us in his lAfe of Agesilaus, chap. xxxi. (613 b). 

" Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, vii. 5. 10 ; Diodorus, xv. 83 ; 
Cornelius Nepos, xvii., Agesilaus, 6. 1-3. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

avToZs ^era^v, co? ro fjueyaXeiov /cat a^LoXoyov 
vo'qcret Kal avhpeia KrauOai TrpoarjKeL. 

77. 'ETT-et Se rovs Trap* avTcb TTapaar-qcreGOai 
[xeXXovTag ecLpa SeStoras' rov iirLovra klvSvvov 8ta, 
TO ruyv TToXefjLLCDV ttXtjOos {eiKOGL yap rjaav pivpidhes) 
Kal TTjV Tcjv 7T€pl avTov oXiyoTTjTa, TTpo TTJs TTapa- 

F rd^ eojs eyvco rr poiJurjOrjaeGd ai^ acruvetST^rcoS' rots' aA- 
Aots" Kal inl Tr]v dpLcrrepdv V7T€GTpaiJL[JL€vr]v^ rfj 
X^f'pl NIKHN TTpoaiypaifje. Kal Xa^cbv irapd rod 
[lavreajg to rjirap i7Tidr]K€ fxev IttI ttjv VTToyeypapL- 
fjLevrjv X^^P^' '<^pctTcDv he €(/>' iKavov xp^vov VTTe(f>aive 
SiOTaypLov Kal TrpooTToiiqGLV elx^v^ aTTopovvTOSy 
ixexp^ Tcp rjTraTL GVvavaXrjcjidivTeg^ iTVTTcoOrjGav ol 
Tcx)v ypaixpidTCOv ;\;apa/<:T7jpe9. koi tote toZs crvv- 
aya>vit,<eG9aL /xeAAoucrtv iTreSeiKvve, (jyapuevos tovs 
deoijs Sta Tcov yeypapufjuevcov iK(j)rjvaL viK-qv. 
dG(f)aX€s ovp TeKpnqpiov ho^avTes e^etv tov KpaTTJoai 
eddpprjGav irpos rrjv fidxrjv. 

78. YlepiTacfipevovTCOv Se tojv TroXepLLOJV to GTpa- 
TOTTeSov avTOV Sta to ttXtjOos, Kal Ne/cram^to?/ cS 
Gvveixdx^i'y d^tovvTO? iire^Uvai Kal StajLta;^ecr^at, 
ovK e(f)r) SiaKa)XvG€iv^ tovs TToXejiLovs 'lgovs avTols 

215 yeveodaL ^ovXapievovs. ert 8e fiiKpov aTToXiTTOVGrjs 
TTJg Td(f>pov Gwdipai, xrara tovto TrapaTd^as to 
SiaXeiTTov Kal npos lgovs lgols dya>VLGdp.€vos 

1 irpofJLTjdrjaeadai F.C.B. : 7rpodv/u.rjcrea6ai or Trpodvaaadai. 

* inreaTpafx/jLeurjv Meziriacus : vireaTpwixivri. 
8 elx^v Pantazides and E. Kurtz : ^x^'"- 

* <yvvava.\T)(f)devTes\ crwaXeLcpd^PTes Pantazides. 

5 Ne/crai/d^tos Wyttenbach (as in the Life of Agesilaus, 
chaps, xxxvii.-xxxix.) : i/e/crd/3tos. 

6 diaKcoXvaeiv Hatzidakis and E. Kurtz (from Moralia^ 
191 d): OiaKijfkveLV. 

282 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 214-215 

were done with him, that the proper way to acquire 
greatness and distinction is by understanding and 
manly virtues.'^ 

77. When he saw that his men were on the point 
of capitulating, for fear of the oncoming danger 
because of the vast number of the enemy (two hundred 
thousand) and the small number with him, he 
determined, before drawing up the battle-line, to 
forestall this by a plan unknown to the others. And 
upon his hand he ^vrote the word victory with the 
letters turned tow^ards the left. Then, as he received 
the Hver from the priest, he placed it on the hand which 
had the wTiting upon it. Holding it for rather a long 
time, he showed perplexity, and kept up a pretence 
of not knoA\ing what to do, until the marks of the 
letters had been taken up by the Hver and imprinted 
upon it. Then he exhibited it to those who with 
him were to engage in the struggle, saying that the 
gods through the letters had revealed victory. So his 
men, feeling that they had a sure sign that they were 
to overcome the enemy, became bold for the battle.^ 

78. While the enemy were digging a ditch to 
surround his position (as they could do by reason of 
their vast numbers), and Nectanabis, with whom he 
was allied, was insistent upon a sortie and a decisive 
battle, Agesilaus said that he would not hinder the 
enemy in their desire to put themselves on equal 
terms with the defenders. And when the trench 
lacked but httle of completion, he drew up his 
men in the open space between the ends, and, 
fighting with equal numbers against equal numbers, 

" C/. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus^ chap, xxxvi. (616 b); 
Cornelius Nepos, xvii., Agesilaus^ 7. 2. 

* A similar trick of Alexander's is told by Frontinus, 
Strategemata^ i. 11. 14. 

28.S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(215) rpoTTrjv eiroiriaaTO koX ttoXvv (f)6vov rcov TToXefXioyv 
oXtyoLS rots Trepl avrov Grparicxirais koI "x^piqixara 
TToAAct rfj TToXei Ste77e/x?/faTO. 

79 • Kara he rov AlyvTrrov^ aTTOTrXovv OLTroOvrj- 
(JKOJV evereiXaro rots rrepl avrov ix-qre TrXacrrav 
IXTjre ypaTTTOLV fjL'qre pLLpL-qXav rod Gcofxaros ecKova 
TTOti^craCT^at, " el yap tl KaXov epyov TreiroiiqKa, 
TOVTO jjiov fjivrjiJielov earai' el 8e [jlt], ouS' ol Trdvres 
dvSpidvres, Pavavcrojv Kal ovSevos d^icov epya 
ovreg." 

B ArHsmoAiAos tot kaeombpotot 

1. ^AyrjGLTToXLS 6 KXeofJi^porov, elirovros tlvos 
on OlXlttttos ev oXtyaig T^/xepat? "OXvvdov Kar- 
euKai/je, " jjud rovs Oeovs," elirev, " dXXrjv roiavrrjv 
iv TToXXaTrXaGLovL XP'^^V ^'^^ oLKoSopi'^crei." 

2. "AAAou Se eliTovTO? on pLerd rcov aK iJLat,6vr ojv 
^aGiXevcxJV (l>f.iT]pev(Te Kal ov^ ol TralSeg ouS' at 
yvvalKeg aurcov, " StAcatco?," eiTrev, " avrovs yap 
rjpLag KaXojs exov icrrl rag avTwv dpLaprias 
<j)epeiv." 

3. BofAo/xeVou 8' avTOV OKvXaKas oiKodev pLera- 
TrepLipaaOaL, co? ng eLnev, " ovk eonv e^aya>yrj 

C Trap' avrdjv," " ovSe yap di'Spajv," ecfiT], " irpoddev, 
dXXd vvv iyivero." 

ArnsmoAiAos tot hatsaniot 

^ Ay7](ji7ToXis 6 YiavaavioVy ^AOiqvaicxjv rrpos avrov 

^ Ai'7i;7rroi;] Bernardakis prefers air' AiyvirTov. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Ayesilaus^ chap, xxxix. (618 a), 
Moraiia, 191 c (11), supra, and the note. 

^ Cf. Moraiia, 191 d (12), supra, and the note. 

284 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 215 

he routed the enemy with great slaughter by means 
of few soldiers with him, and sent home much money 
for the State." 

79. On his way home from Egypt death came to 
him, and in his last hours he gave directions to those 
with him that they should not cause to be made any 
sculptured or painted or imitative representation of 
his person. " For if I have done any goodly deed, 
that shall be my memorial ; but if not, then not all 
the statues in the world, the works of menial and 
worthless men, will avail." * 



AGESIPOLIS, SON OF CLEOMBROTUS* 

1. Agesipolis, son of Cleombrotus, when somebody 
said that Philip in a few days had razed Olynthus to 
the ground, said, " By Heaven, he will not build 
another like it in many years I" ^ 

2. When someone else remarked that he while 
king had been made hostage with those in the prime 
of life, and not their children or their women, he said, 
" That is but just, for it is good that we ourselves 
should bear the consequences of our own mistakes." 

3. When he wished to send for some dogs from 
home, and someone said, " There is no such export 
permitted from there," he said, " Nor was there of 
men before this ; but now it has been done ! ** 

AGESIPOLIS, SON OF PAUSANIAS' 
Agesipolis, the son of Pausanias, when the Atheni- 

• Agesipolis II., king of Sparta, 371-370 b.c. 
<^ Cf. Moral ia, 40 e and 458 b. 
• King of Sparta, 394r-380 b.c. 

VOL. Ill K 2 285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(215) 7T€pL Jjv el^ov TTpos oXXrjXovg iy KXyjixdr ojv rrjv rujv 
Meyapecov ttoXlv €kkX7]tov Xafi^avovrajv , " at- 
G-)(pov, ^(f>'^, " oj ^AOrjvoiOL, rovs d(f)r]y7]aaiJL€i'ovs 
Tcov EXXt]vaji^ rJTTOV elhivai Meyapiojv ro St- 
KaiovJ' 

AriAOS TOT APXIAAMOT 

1. "^Ayts" o ^Apxi'Safiov, rci)v i(j)6pa)v irore elirov- 
TCOVy " ^a.hit,€ Tovs Tj^covrcis e^coy iTrl t7]v tovtov 

J) TTarplSa' rjyi^GeTaL Se aoi auros" ovros eVt rrjv 
OLKpoTToXiv/' " Kal TTco^," etne , " /caAcos" ^X^^ 

ioTlV, c5 €(f)OpOLy rOGOVTOVS VeOVS TTLGTeveiV TO) 

TTjv iavTOv TTarplSa irpohihovTL; " 

2. ^YApiOTTjOels Se TL fidXcGra pbdOrnia eV YiTrdpr-Q 
dcjAcetrat, " ro ycyvcuGKeLV," elnev, " dpx^LV re 
Kal apx^GOaL." 

3. OvK €(f)r] 8e rovs AaKeSac jjlovlovs ipcordv 

TTOGOL eLGLV ol 77oAe/XtOt, ttAAa 7TOV eCGLV, 

4. 'Ev Se Mavrtvela KcoXvofxevos 8ta/xa;Yecr^ac 
TOt? TToXepiiois rrXeioGiv ovglv, eiTrev, " dvdyKT] 
TToXXols fidx^GOai rov apx^iv ttoXXojv ^ovXopievov*' 

5. HvvOavofxevov 8e rtvos ttogoi etGLV ol Aa- 
KeSaijJLOviOi, " oGOi LKavoL," elire, " rovg KaKovg 
aTTepVKeLV." 

6. IS.i€pxoiJ^evos 8e rd rcov Kopivdlajv Teixr] 
Kal deaodfievos vi/jr]Xd re Kal dxvpd eTTi ttoXv 



* Agis II., king of Sparta, 427-401 b.c. Some of the 
sayings attributed to him here should doubtless be assigned 
to the younger Agis (Agis III.)- 
286 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 215 

ans offered to accept the city of Megara as arbitrator 
regarding some complaints which they had each 
against the other, said, " It is a shame, men of Athens, 
that those who have held the hegemony of the Greeks 
should know less about justice than the Megarians." 



AGIS, SON OF ARCHIDAMUS* 

1. Once upon a time the Ephors said to Agis the 
son of Archidamus, " Take the young men and march 
against the country of this man here. He will him- 
self guide you to its citadel." " And how, sirs," 
said Agis, " is it right to entrust so many youths to a 
man who is betraying his own country ? " ^ 

2. Being asked what form of instruction was most 
in vogue in Sparta, he said, " Knowledge of how to 
rule and to be ruled." ^ 

3. He said that the Spartans did not ask ' how 
many are the enemy,' but ' where are they ? ' ^ 

4j. When, at Mantineia, he was not permitted to 
risk a decisive battle with the enemy, who out- 
numbered his men, he said, " He who would rule 
over many must fight ■s\'ith many." * 

5. When someone inquired how many Spartans 
there were, he said, " Enough to keep all bad men 
away." ^ 

6. As he was going about among the walls of the 
Corinthians and observed that they were high and 

^ See the note on Moralia, 191 e (2), supra, where the 
saying is attributed to the younger Agis. 
'^ Cf. the note on 212 c (51), supra. 
^ Cf. the note on 190 c (1), supra. 
* Cf. the note on 190 c (2), supra. 
f Cf. the note on 190 d (5), supra. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E T€ Traparetvovra, " rives," €17T€V, " at tov tottov 
(215) '^otTotAcoucrat^ yvvalKes ; " 

7. llo(f)LGTOV Se TLVOS eLTTOUTO?, " TTOLVTOiV AoyO? 

eari KparLarov," " ovkovv," €(f)r], " av eav aiojiras 
ovZevos d^Los el." 

8. 'D? Se 'Apyetot fxera rrjv rjrrav dTnrjvTOJV 
avTO) TrdXiv dpaavrepov, raparrofjievovs 6pu)V rovg 
avfjLjJLaxovg, " Oappelre," e'lTrev, " cS dvSpes' ottov 
yap rjfjiels ol vcKcovres oppajSovfjiev, ri SoKelre 
TTOLelv rovs ixf)^ rjpicov veviKrj^evovs ; " 

9. ripos" Se rov EK rd)v ^A^Sijpojv TTpeG^evT-qv, 
F OT€ KareTTavcraro ttoAAo, elTTcov, ipcordjvra ri roig 

TToXiraig aTrayyeiXr], " on," €(f)7], " ocrov crv 
Xpovov Xeyeiv €Xpr]t,€g, roaovrov iyco gicjjttcjv 
tJkovov." 

10. ^^TTaivovvrayv 8e tlvojv 'HAetou?, on SiKaio- 
raroi clgl 7T€pl roi^ dycJova rcbv ^OXvpLTTLOjv, " kol 
ri piiya," elTrev, " r) Oavpiacrrov TTOLovcnu, el iv 
erecTL Trivre pad pLOVov -qpiepa ScKaiocrvvr] xpcovrai; " 

1 1 . Upog he rov£ (f)dGKovras on ^Oovovai nveg 
avrw rcbv eK rrjs erepas OiKias, " ovkovv," ecfy-q, 
" rd 'iSia avrovs /ca/ca XvTr-qoreL, /cat TTpog rovrois 
rd re epid /cat rd rdjv epLOJV (f)iXa>v dyadd." 

12. TiVfjipovXevovros Se nvos on Set roZ? (j)ev- 
yovai rcbv rroXepbiajv SiSovai SioSov, " /cat ttojs," 

1 at . . . KaroLKovaai Wj^ttenbach in his note on 190 a, and 
E. Kurtz : ai! . . . KaroLKovcri. 



" Cf, the note on 190 a, supra. 
" Cf. Moralia, 232 e (2), infra. 

288 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 215 

towering and vast in extent, he said, " What women 
Hve in that place ? " <* 

7. When a lecturer said, " Speech is the most 
important thing of all," he retorted, " Then if you 
are silent, you are of no worth at all ! " 

8. When the Argives, after their defeat, met him 
again with greater boldness, and he saw that his 
allies were greatly perturbed, he said, " Do not be 
afraid, men ; for when we who are victorious are 
frightened, what do you think those vanquished by 
us are doing ? " 

9. In answer to the ambassador from Abdera, who, 
after winding up a long discourse, asked him what 
report he should make to his people at home, he said, 
" Report that during all the time you wanted to 
speak I listened in silence." ^ 

10. When some commended the people of Elis be- 
cause they were very just in conducting the Olympic 
games, he said, " What great or marvellous accom- 
pHshment is it if they practise justice on one day 
only in four years ? " " 

11. In answer to those who said that some mem- 
bers of the other royal house <* were jealous of him 
he said, " So then, their owti ill fortune will make 
them miserable and, besides that, the good fortune 
of myself and of my friends.' 

12. When someone proffered the advice that they 
ought to give a passage-way to those of the enemy 
who were fleeing, « he said, " And how, if we do not 

" Cf. the note on 190 c (3), supra. 

^ The Spartans had two kings and consequently two royal 
families. 

* This was a part of the tactics of Agesilaus according to 
Polyaenus, Strater/emata, ii. 1. 4. Cf. Xenophon, Ilellenica, 
iv. 2. 22 and iv. 3. 19. 

289 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

€(f)r], " TOts" Slol heiXiav (j)€vyovoL fjirj fiaxofJi^voL 
Tolg 8t' avhpeiav fievouoL /xa;^ecrojLte^a; " 
216 13. Tlpo(f)€po}ji€i'ov^ 8e nvog vepl TTJs rcov 'EiXXrj- 
vcjjv eXevOepias ovk dyevvrj fiiv, Svax^prj 8e eVt- 
reXeGOrjvai, " Trpoaheovr ai gov, w ^€ve," €(f)rjy *' ol 
XoyoL Swdfiecos Kal XPVH-^'^^^-" 

14. AeyovTog Se nvos otl ^lXlttttos avrols 
dv€7Ti^arov rr)v *EAAaSa Tron^GeL, " LKavrj rjfjuv," 
€(f)r], " CO ^€ve, Tj iv rfj tSta dvaGrpo(f)T] ." 

15. Ilp€G^€vrr]s €K Ylepivdov TrapayevopLevos els 
AaKeSalpLova ifjiaKpr^yopei' cos" Se eTravGaro Xiyojv 
KOI rjpcora rov 'Aycv rt Set rots' YLepivdiOLs oltt- 
ayyelXac, " rt S' aAAo," e^T^, " rj on gv pikv fioXis 
iTTavGOj Xeyojv, iyd> 8' eGiajTrajv^ ; " 

B 16. UpeG^evojv Se pLovos rJKe Trpos ^lXlttttov 
eiTTOVTos 8' eKelvov, " TL rovTo; pLOVog '^k€L£;" 
€(f)rj, " /cat yap Trpos eVa." 

17. OT^crayros" 8e rivos rcbv TrpeG^vrepcov Trpog 
avTov yrjpaiov ovra, iTreihrj rd dpxouoL vopupua 
€KXv6pL€va icopa dXXa Se TrapeiGhvopieva pLoxOy]pd, 
Slotl rd dvco Karco tJSt] yiyverai iv rfj ^Trdprrj, 
TTai^ojv eiTTe, " Kard Xoyov ovrco TTpo^aivei rd 
TrpdypLara, et tovto yiverai' /cat ydp iyoj ttols (x)v 
tJkovov TTapd rod rrarpoSy on rd dvco /caret) yeyove 
Trap* avrols ' €(J)rj 8e /cat rov irarepa avrw 77at8t 

^ irpo(f)€poix€vov Wyttenbach : Trpoacpepofxevov. 
2 o' iaLUTTcou Eusebius and Wyttenbach : 5^ aiw-n-Qv. 

° The same idea which is expressed in Moralia, 212 e (56), 
supra. 

" This remark must have been made by the younger Agis 
(Agis III.). 

" Cf. Moralia, 232 e (2), infra. 
290 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS,, 215-216 

fight those who because of cowardice are fleeing, 
shall we fight those who because of bravery stand 
their ground ? " 

13. When someone brought forward a plan, for 
the freedom of the Greeks, which, while not lacking 
idealism, was difficult to put into practice, he said, 
' Your words, my friend, need the backing of power 
and money." <* 

14. When someone said that Phihp would make 
Greece forbidden ground to them, he said, "It is 
quite enough, my friend, for us to go and come within 
the confines of our own land." ^ 

15. An ambassador who had come from Perinthus 
to Sparta made a long harangue ; and when he had 
stopped speaking and asked Agis what report he 
should make to the people of Perinthus, Agis said, 
" What else except that it was hard for you to stop 
speaking, and that I said nothing ? " ** 

16. He came alone on an embassy to Philip, and 
when Philip exclaimed, " What is this "? Have you 
come all alone ? ", he said, " Yes, for I came to only 
one man." '^ 

17. When one of the elderly men said to him in his 
old age, inasmuch as he saw the good old customs 
falhng into desuetude, and other mischievous prac 
tices creeping in, that for this reason everything was 
getting to be topsy-turvy in Sparta, Agis said humor- 
ously, " Things are then but following a logical course 
if that is what is happening ; for when I was a boy, 
I used to hear from my father that everything was 
topsy-turvy among them ; and my father said that, 

•* This remark also must be assigned to the younger Agis. 
Cf. Moralia, 233 f (29), infra, and 511 a, where an unnamed 
Spartan makes this retort to Demetrius. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(216) ovTL rovTo elpr]Kevar coare ov XPV ^au/xa^eti^, el 
C X^^P^ T'ct fxera ravra rayv Trporepcov, aAA' et ttov 
^eXrioj Kal TrapanX'^Gta yevoiro." 

18. 'EpcoTTy^ets" 8e ttcos civ tls iXevdepos 8iaju,eVot, 
'* davdrov Karacfypovcov," €.(j)y]. 

AriAOS TOT NEfiTEPOT 

1. *Ayt? o vecorepos, At^/xciSoi; Xeyovrog on ra 
AaKOJVLKOL il(f)r] 8ta fiLKpoTrjTa KaraTrivovGiv ol 
OavfiaroTTOLol, "Kal jLtTyv," ecj)!-}, " ot Aa/<re8at- 
jjioviot rchv TToXefjLLcxjv Tolg ^i(j)eaiv i<f)LKVovvraL." 

2. Ilpos Se dvdpciJTTov TTOvqpov epcorajvra ttoX- 
XoLKis TLS dpiOTOs €Lrj UTTapTidnqs , eiTTev,^ " 6 gol 
dvopbOioraros.' 

AriAOS TOT TEAETTAIOr 

D '^Ayt? o reXevralos tcjv AaKeSaifiovlcov paatXecov 
ef iveSpas avXXr](f)6€ig Kal KaraSiKacrOels vtto ra)v 
icjyopojv x^P''^ hiKr]s, aTTayojxevog inl rov ^poxov 
Ibdov TLva Tcbv VTT-qpercbv KXalovra, " Travaai," 
elirev, " S dvdpojTTe, ctt' ipLol KXaUiv^' Kal yap ovro) 
TTapavofJLCOS Kal dSt/ccos" dTToXXvfxevos, KpeirTOJV elpX 
rojv dvaipovvTCov ." Kal ravra cIttcov TrapeSwKe rco 
^p6x(i> Tov rpdx^Xov eKovGLOJs. 

* etwev (as in Moralia, 190 d), F.C.B. : not in mss. 
* KXaieiv] KXaloof Life of Affis, chap. xx. 

" The latter part of this has been suspected on account 
of the length. For the sentiment cf. Homer, Od. 27C)-277 ; 
Horace, Odes, iii. 6. 46 ; Aratus, Phaenomena, 123-127. 

* Cf Moralia, 210 f (35), supra. 
292 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 216 

when he was a boy, his father had said this to him ; 
so nobody ought to be surprised if conditions later 
are worse than those earher, but rather to wonder 
if they grow better or remain approximately the 
same." * 

18. Being asked how one could be a free man all 
his life, he said, " By feeling contempt for death." * 

THE YOUNGER AGIS • 

1. The younger Agis, when Demades said that 
the jugglers who swallow swords use the Spartan 
swords because of their shortness, retorted, " But all 
the same the Spartans reach their enemies with 
their swords."** 

2. In answer to a base man who asked repeatedly 
who was the best Spartan, he said, " The one most 
unhke you." « 

THE LAST AGIS ' 

Agis, the last of the kings of Sparta, was arrested 
as the result of treachery and condemned by the 
Ephors without a trial. As he was being led away 
to the halter he saw one of the officers weeping, and 
said, * Stop your weeping for me, man. For in spite 
of my being put to death in such defiance of law and 
justice, I am superior to those who are taking my 
h'fe." With these words he willingly offered his neck 
for the noose. ^ 

« Agis III., king of Sparta, 338-331 b.c. 

" Cf. the note on 191 e (1). 

« Cf. the note on 190 d (4). 

^ Agis IV., king of Sparta, 245-241 b.c. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agis^ chaps, xix.-xx. (p. 803 c). 

293 



PLUTAKCH'S MORAIJA 

(21 6) AKPOTATOT 

^AKporaros, eVct ol yovels avrov (iSlkov tl crvfi- 
TTpd^ai avrolg tj^lovv, P-^XP^ tlvos avreXeyev d)S 
Se lv€K€LVTO, eLTrev, " ecos" /xev 77ap' vixlv -qv, ovk 
Y. rj7TL(TTdiJir]v hiKaioovv7]s ovSefMiav ewoiav eTrel he 
fie rfj TrarpiSt TrapeSore /cat rots ravriqs vofxois, 
en 8e^ hiKatoGVPrj /cat KaXoKayaOta eTraihevGare 
60? eSvvaade,^ rovTotg TTeipduopiai pLoXXov^ r^ vpuv 
eTTeaOai' /cat eVet OeXere /x'* dpiora^ TrpdrreiVy 
dpiura Se rd 8t/cata ecrrt /cat IhicaTTj /cat ttoAu 
/xaAAov dpxovri, Trpd^oj d OeXere' d Se Xeyere 
TrapaiT'qcrofiaL ." 

AAKAMEXOTS TOT THAEKAOT 

1. ^AXKafJLevrjs 6 TT^Ae/cAou/ Trvdofzevov tlvos 
TTcos dv TLs dptara ^acnXelav SiaT-qpolr), " el irepl 
TrXeiovos," €(J)r], " to KepSos fJirj Troiolro." 

2. 'Erepoi; Se e7nt,r]TOVvrog Std tl rrapd Mecr- 
F crqviojv Sojpa ovk eSe^aTO, " on Xa^ovTO? pLOV," 

e(f)rj, " TTpos Tovs vopLOVs elpT^vr]v dyeiv dhvvaTOV.'* 

3. A.eyovTos Se tivos otl auveoraXpievajs ^fj 
LKavrjv ovoiav KeKT-qpuevos , " KaXov ydp,* ^<}>f]> 
" TToXXd KeKTiqpevov l,rjv /caret XoycapLov /cat fxr) 
Kara ttjv einOv p^iav." 

^ 5k] BernardakLs would write 5' iv -. Kronenberg re. 

2 idvvaade F.C.B. : rjdvvaade. 

3 fxdWoi' added by Bernardakis. 

* m' added by F.C.B. 

* ApiffTa] TO. dpLo-ra Kronenberg. 

• T-ijXckXov Xylander : TyfK^Kpov. 

" Son of Cleomenes II. He died before his father, and 
so never became king. 

294. 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 216 

ACROTATUS « 

Acrotatus, when his parents claimed it was his 
duty to co-operate ^vith them in some unjust action, 
spoke in opposition up to a certain limit. But when 
they insisted, he said, " While I was with you, I had 
not the slightest idea of justice ; but since you have 
surrendered me to our country and its laws, and, 
besides, have had me instructed in justice and 
honourable conduct so far as lay in your power, I shall 
try to follow these rather than you. And since your 
wish is for me to do what is best, and since what is 
just is best both for a private citizen, and much more 
so for a ruler, I will do what you wish ; but as for 
what you propose I shall beg to be excused." * 

ALCAMENES, SON OF TELECLUS " 

1. Alcamenes, the son of Teleclus, when somebody 
inquired how a man could best keep a kingdom 
secure, said, "If he should not hold his own 
advantage too high." 

2. When another person sought to know the reason 
why he did not accept gifts from the Messenians, he 
said, " Because if I took the gifts, it would be impos- 
sible to maintain peace with impartial regard for the 
laws." 

3. When someone said that he lived a straitened 
life while possessed of plenty of property, he said, 
" Yes, for it is a noble thing for one who possesses 
much to live according to reason and not according 
to his desires." 

* Cf. a similar remark of Agesilaus, Moralia, 534 d. 
' King of Sparta, 779-742 b.c. (the date is uncertain). 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



ANASANAPIAOT 



1. ^Ava^avSptSas 6 Aeovros 7Tp6? rov Suor- 
<f)opovvTa Sea ttjv eV rris TToAecus' avro) yevofxeviqv 
(f)vy'qv, " CO Xcpcrre," €(f)rj, " fir) rrjv ttoXlv <f)€vytov 
oppcoSet, aAAo, rrjv SLKaiocrvvrjv." 

2. TcI) Se Tots" e(f)6poLs ra Seovra puev Xiyovri 
TrAetco he tojv cKavajv, " c5 ^eVe," e^"^, " ovk iv 
oeouTL TO) hiovri XPfJ'" 

3. Uuvdavofievov 8e tlvos Sua rl rots etXcocn 
217 rovs aypovs iyx^tpi^ovGL /cat ovk avTol iiTLpLeXovv- 

rat, " otl/' €(j>r], " ov tovtojv iTnfJLeXovjJLevoL, dAA' 
avrojVy avTOvs iKn^adpLeOa." 

4. 'Erepou 84 tlvos Xeyovros^ on pXaTrrovaiv 
at 8of at /cat on tovtcov 6 OLTraXXayels evSaijJioviJGei,, 
** ovKovv ol ra aSt/ca TTOLOvvres/* €9^17, ** Kara rov 
GOV Xoyov €vSai[jiov€s dv etev ttcjs yap av rt? 
UpoavXcov ri dSt/ccDv So^rjs eVt^aeAotro ; ** 

5. "AAAou 8e €pa)T(x)VTOS Std rt iv tols TroAe/xot? 
HiTTCipndrai dapuaXecos klvSvv€Vovglv, " on," €(f)r), 

atSetcr^at Trepl ^lov fieXerojfJLev , ovx ojoirep ol 
aXXoi (f>o^eLG9aL." 

6. 'E/DcoTcop'Tos' 8e Ttvos" avrov Std rt rds" 77e/)t 
B davdrov SiKas TrXeiooiv T^/xepat? ot yepovreg Kpi- 

vovGLV, Koiv d7T0(f)vyr) rts", ert ovSev rjrrov ionv vtto- 
hiKOSy " TToAAats" /xeV," e</»')7, "ij^epat? KpLvovGLV, 
on TTepl davdrov tols SLapLaprdvovGLV ovk €gtl 

« King of Sparta, circa 560-520 b.c. 
296 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 216-217 



ANAXANDRIDAS » 

1. Anaxandridas, the son of Leo, in answer to a 
man who took much to heart the sentence imposed 
upon him of exile from the country, said, " My 
good sir, be not downcast at being an exile from 
your country but at being an exile from justice." 

2. To a man who told the Ephors of things that 
were needful, but spoke at greater length than 
would have sufficed, he said, " My friend, in needless 
time you dwell upon the need ! " ^ 

3. When someone inquired why they put their 
fields in the hands of the Helots, and did not take 
care of them themselves, he said, " It was by not 
taking care of the fields, but of ourselves, that we 
acquired those fields." 

4. When someone else said that high repute works 
injury to men and that he who is freed from this will 
be happy, he retorted, " Then those who commit 
crimes would, according to your reasoning, be happy. 
For how could any man, in committing sacrilege or 
any other crime, be concerned over high repute ? " 

5. When another person asked why the Spartans, 
in their wars, ventured boldly into danger, he said, 
*' Because we train ourselves to have regard for life 
and not, like others, to be timid about it." 

6. When someone asked him why the elders con- 
tinue the trials of capital cases over several days, 
and why, even if the defendant is acquitted, he is 
none the less still under indictment, he said, " They 
take many days to decide, because, if they make an 
error in a capital case, there can be no reversal of 

'' Attributed to Leo, the father of Anaxandridas, in 
Moralia, 224 f (3), and to Leonidas, the son of Anaxandridas, 
in Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. (52 b). 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(217) fxera^ovXevaacrdaL' vo/xo) Se vttoSlkov Se-qaei elvac, 
OTL Kara tovtov tov v6\iov av e'er) /cat to Kpeirrova 
^ovXevoraordaL . ' ' 

anasanapot tot ETPTKPATEOS 
*Avd^avBpog 6 FiVpvKpdreog, TTwdavopuevov rivos 
hid Tt ;Yp7jaaTa ov avvdyovGiv els to Stjixoctlov, 
" OTTOJSy' ^4*^' " H'V ^^ (fivXaKes avrcjv yiyuopievoi 
hLaKJyOeipojvrai." 

ANASIAA 1 
Ava^iXa? TTpos tov davp^d^ovra Std Tt ot €(f)opoL 
TOLs ^auiXevGiv ov^ VTre^aviaravTaiy /cat ravra 
VTTO rojv ^aacXeajv KadiGrdpievoL, " Std rrjv avrrjv 
alriav," e^yy, " St' ^v /cat i^opevovGiv." 

ANAPOKAEIAOT 

'Ai^Spo/cAetSa? o AdKcov Trqpcjdels to a/ceAo? 
KaTera^ev avTov els tovs TToXepnords' (hs S* 
evto-TavTO^ Tti-'es' hiaKOjXvovTes otl eTreTrrjpcxJTO, 

aAA ov (pevyovTa, ctTre, pievovTa be oet TOt? 
dvTLTeTaypievois pidx^oOaL." 

ANTAAKIAOT 

1. 'Ai^TaA/ctSa? iv HapLoOpaKT) piVovpLevos, epcu- 

1 aua^iXa Wyttenbach : ava^iXov. 
2 5' ivicTTavTo Wyttenbach : 5e 'idravTo. 

" For the fact cf. Plato, Apology ^ chap, xxvii. (37 a) ; 
Thucydides, i. 132. 

^ King of Sparta in the earlier part of the seventh century 

B.C. 

" Son of Archidamus, perhaps one of the arbiters between 
Athens and Megara over Salamis, seventh century b.c. 

298 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 217 

the j udgement ; and the accused continues, perforce, 
to be under indictment of the law, because, under 
this law, it may be possible, by deliberation, to arrive 
at a better decision." ** 

ANAXANDER, SON OF EURYCRATES * 
Anaxander, the son of Eurycrates, when someone 
inquired why the Spartans did not amass money in 
the pubUc treasury, said, " So that those made the 
guardians of it may not become corrupt." 

ANAXILAS « 

Anaxilas, in answer to the man who wondered 
why the Ephors did not rise and offer their places 
to the kings,^ and this, too, although they were 
appointed to their position by the kings, said, 
" For the very same reason that they hold the office 
of Ephor." 

ANDROCLEIDAS • 

Androcleidas the Spartan, who had a crippled leg, 
enrolled himself among the fighting-men. And when 
some persons were insistent that he be not accepted 
because he was crippled, he said, " But I do not have 
to run away, but to stay where I am when I fight 
the opposing foe." ^ 

ANTALCIDAS " 
1. When Antalcidas was being initiated into the 
mysteries at Samothrace, he was asked by the priest 

<* Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 15. 6 ; and 
Nicolaus quoted by Stobaeus, Florilegium, xliv. 41 ad fin. 

* Possibly the opponent of Lysander, mentioned in Plu- 
tarch's Life of Lysander, chap. viii. (437 c). 

f Cf. the note on Moralia, 210 f (34), supra. 

' See the note on Moralia, 192 b, supra. 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

I) TiqOeis VTTO rod lepewg ri Seivorepov SeSpaKev iv 
(9\7) 'J'^P iStaj, " ct TL fioL 7T€7rpaKTai TOLovroVy eidovrai," 

€L7T€V, aVrOi OL ueoi. 

2. ITpos" Se rov dfiaOeis KaXovvra rovs AaK€- 
SaLfjLOVLOVs ^AO^qvalov, " jjlovoi yovv," eliTev, " rjfjielg 
ovhev ixefxaGrjicafjiev Trap* u/xcDv KaKOV." 

S. 'Erepof 8' ^AOi^vatov rrpos avrov cIttovtos, 
" dAAa pirfv rjiiels oltto rod Kry^taou ttoXXolkls Vfidg 
eOL(jo^afjL€v, TjiieLs oe, €^97, ovoeTTore Vfias 

OLTTO rov JLvpcura." 

4. ^KpojTrjdelg Se ttcu? ar res /xaAto-ra apeaKoi 
roZs avdpcxJTTOis, " et -qSiara fidv," ec/yr], " avroZs 
hiaXiyoiTO, (LcfyeXificjorara Se 7TpoG(f)epoLTO." 

5. Ho^LOTov he fxeXXovTos avayivajoKeiv iyKco- 
E p-iov 'Hpa/cAeoi^s", " tls yap avrov," e^y], " ifjeyet; " 

6. Ilyoos' ^AyrjGiXaov TrXrjyevra iv f^oixD vtto 
Q-q^alojVy " arrij^CLs," et77e, " ra 8t8acrAcaAta, pLrj 
^ovXofxevov^ avrov? /^''vS' iTnarafievovg ixd^eGdai 
hihd^as." iSoKovv yap rals (JVve)(^eGLV eir* avrovs 
rod ^AyrjaiXdov urpareiais jLta;^t/xot yeyovivai. 

7. Telxr] 8e eXeyev etvai rrjs TtTrdprrjg rovs veovs, 
op La Se ra? eVtSopaTtSa?. 

8. Hp6s Se rov eTTL^i^rovvra Std rl^ iyx^ipihloLs 
^pax^cri' Kara TToXefAov xpa)vrai AaKeSaifiovLOL, 
" Siori," €L7T€, " TTXrjGLov roZs rroXepiiois jLta- 
Xdpieda." 

^ 8ui TL F.C.B. (the usual formula) : otl. 

* The same story is told of Lysander in Moralia, 229 d (10), 
infra, and of an unknown Spartan in Moralia^ 236 d (68), 
i7i/ra. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia^ 192 b (1), supra. 

* Cf. the note on Aforolia, 192 c (2), supra, 
** Cf. Moralia, 213 c (65), supra. 

300 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 217 

what especially dreadful thing he had done during 
his Hfe, and he rephed, " If any such deed has 
been committed by me, the gods themselves will 
know it."'' 

2. In answer to the Athenian who called the 
Spartans unlearned, he said, " At any rate we are 
the only people who have learned no evil from you." * 

3. When another Athenian said to him, " You 
must admit that we have many a time put you to 
rout from the Cephisus," he retorted, " But we have 
never put you to rout from the Eurotas." '^ 

4. Being asked how anybody could best make 
himself agreeable to people, he said, " If his con- 
versation with them is most pleasant and his sug- 
gestions most profitable." <* 

5. When a lecturer was about to read a laudatory 
essay on Heracles, he said, " Why, who says anything 
against him ? " « 

6. When Agesilaus was wounded in battle by the 
Thebans, Antalcidas said to his face, " You have 
your just reward for the lessons in fighting you have 
given to that people who had no desire to fight and 
no knowledge even of fighting." For it appeared 
that they had been made warlike by the continual 
campaigns of Agesilaus against them.-^ 

7. He used to say that the young men were the 
walls of Sparta, and the points of their spears its 
boundaries.^ 

8. In answer to the man who sought to know why 
the Spartans use short daggers in war, he said, 
" Because we fight close to the enemy." ^ 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 192 c (3), supra. 

f Cf. the note on Moralia^ 189 f (5), supra. 

" Cf. the notes on Moralia, 210 e (28, 29, 30), supra. 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 191 e, supra. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



ANTIOXOT 



F ^AvTLOxos i^op€V(x)v (l)s TjKovoev oTt Mecrcnyvtotj 
OtAtTTTros" T'r]v x^P^^ eScoKeVf rjpcor-qaev et Kal 
SvvajjLLv avTols Trapeax^ro coo-re [xaxofievovs irepl 
TTJs x^P^^ KpareXv. 

APEfiS 

1. "Apevs,^ irraivovvTOjv tlvcjv ovk Ihias dAAa 
rivas rojv aXXorpicjv yvvaiKOJv, " jLta rovs Oeovs," 
ecTTe, " TTepl rcov KaXaJv KayaOcov yvvaiKcov ovoeva 
Set \6yov GLKfj XeyeadaLy ayvoelodai 8' auras' to 
TTapdnav, oTTolai rvyxo-vovGL, ttXtjv [xovols rots 
ovixPlovgi." 

2. Ata HeXivovvros Se TTore rrjs St/ceAtas" 
7ropev6fji€vos Ihcbv iirl fjivqixaros iXeyeiov irn- 
yeypafifievov, 

G^evvvvras irore rovG^e rvpawiha ;!^aA/<:€os' 
"ApT^s" 
etAe* ^eXivovvTos 8' api<f)l rrvXais edavov, 

SiKaLCjDS," €(f)7], " OLTTeddvere rvpavviha KaiOfMevrjv 
diTOG^evvvvai eTnx^LpiJGavTes' rovvavriov yap eSet 
oXrjv avTTjv d<f)€LvaL KaTaKarjvai." 

APIZTftNOS 

218 1. ^ApiGTCov, IrraivovvTos rivos rrjv rod KAeo- 
fjLevovs %/oetW, ort ipojrrjdels rt Set rov dyadov 
jSaCTiAea TTOielv, etTre, " rovs fJi€v (^IXovg evepyerelv 
rovs Se ixOpovs KaKcos ttolcXv," " /cat ttogo) 

^ A/3ew5. "Apevs Cobet : aprjyeus. 'Aprjyevs, 

302 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 217-218 

ANTIOCHUS 

Antiochus, when he was Ephor, hearing that Philip 
had given the Messenians their land, asked if he 
had also provided them with the power to prevail in 
fighting to keep it.<* 

AREUS " 

1. Areus, when some men commended, not 
their own wives, but certain wives of other men, 
said, " By Heaven, there ought to be no random talk 
about fair and noble women, and their characters 
ought to be totally unknown save only to their 
consorts." ^ 

2. Once upon a time, when he was passing through 
Selinus in Sicily, he saw inscribed upon a monument 
this elegiac couplet : 

Here at Selinus these men, who tyri.nny strove to 

extinguish. 
Brazen-clad Ares laid low ; nigh to our gates were 

they slain. 

Whereupon he said, " You certainly deserved to die 
for trying to extinguish tyranny when it was ablaze ; 
rather you ought to have let it burn itself out 
completely." ^ 

ARISTON * 

1. When someone commended the maxim of 
Cleomenes, who, on being asked what a good king 
ought to do, said, "To do good to his friends and 
evil to his enemies," Ariston said, " How much better, 

" Repeated in Moralia, 192 b, supra. 

^ Areus I., king of Sparta, 309-265 b.c. 

* C/. Moralia, 220 d and 242 e, infra ; Thucydides, ii. 45. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. (52 e). 

* King of Sparta, circa 560-510 b.c. 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(218) KpeLTTOv," eV*^' " ^ Xcoare, rovs fxev <f)LXovs 
evepyerelv tous 8e i^^dpovs (j^iXovs iroLeiv; " avrrj 
l^cuKpdrovs ojjLoXoyovjjLevrj rrpos Travrcov XP^^^ ovaa 
Kal elg avrov dva<f>ep€raL. 

2. Hvvdavofiei'ov Se rivog ttogol STraprtarat to 
TrXrjdogy " ocTOL cKavoi," elire, " roijg ixOpovg dn- 

€pVK€LV." 

3. Tcov ^Kdr]vauov Se nvos eTraivov eTTLrdcjiLov 
B dvayivcx)(TKOVTOS tcjv Treaovrajv vtto Aa/ceSai- 

jJLOVLOJV, " TToSaTTOVg OVV, e^T^, " TOVS 'f]pL€TepOV£ 

voixLt,€Ls elvai vLK-qaavTas rovrovs; " 

APXIAAMIAOT 

1. 'Ap;^tSayLttSa? irpog rov eTraivovvra XaptAAov/ 
on Trpog drravras opLOLOJ? TTpdos rjv, " /cat ttcu? 
TLS," ^(f>f], " SiKaLOJS dv eiraivoZro, el kol irpos rovg 

TTOVTjpoijS TTpdo? €117; " 

2. M€IJLcl)0[JL€V0V Se TLVOS *EiKaTaiOV TOV G0(j)LGrT]Vy 

OTL 7TapaXi](j)9els €l? to avGoiriov avrcov ovhkv 
eXeyev, " dyvoelv fxoL SoKelg," eiTrev, " on 6 elhojs 
Xoyov Kal TOV tov Xeyeiv Kaipov otSev." 

C APXIAAMOT TOT ZETHIAAMOT 

1. ^Apx^^ctP'Og 6 Tjev^L^dfJiov, TTvdojJievov twos 

avTOV TLveg TrpoeoTiqKacTL ttj? TtTrdpT-qs, " ol vojxoi 

Kal Ta dpx^Zo-i" '^<i>'^> " /caret, tovs vojjlovs." 

1 XdpiWos is the usual spelling in Plutarch. The mss. of 
other writers also show both forms : XapiXav. 

" But not quite in these words ; cf. Plato, Republic, i. 
chap. ix. (335 b ff.), CritOt chap. x. (49 a fF.), Gorgias, 469 a-b 
and 475 b-d. 

^ A similar remark is attributed to Cleobulus by Diogenes 
Laertius, i. 91. 
304 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 218 

my good sir, to do good to our friends, and to make 
friends of our enemies ? " This, which is universally 
conceded to be one of Socrates' maxims," is also 
referred to Ariston.^ 

2. When someone inquired how many Spartans 
there were in all, he said, " Enough to keep away 
our enemies." ^ 

3. When one of the Athenians read a memorial 
oration in praise of those who fell at the hands of the 
Spartans, he said, " What kind of men, then, do you 
think ours must be who vanquished these ? " ** 

ARCHIDAMIDAS 

1. Archidamidas, in answer to a man who com- 
mended Charillus because he was gentle towards all 
aUke, said, " And how could any man be justly 
commended if he be gentle towards the ^vicked ? " * 

2. When somebody found fault with Hecataeus 
the sophist because, when he was received as a mem- 
ber at the common table, he spoke not a word, 
Archidamidas said, " You do not seem to realize 
that he who knows how to speak knows also the 
right time for speaking." ' 

ARCHIDAMUS, SON OF ZEUXIDAMUS » 
1. Archidamus, the son of Zeuxidamus, when 
someone inquired of him who were at the head of 
Sparta, said, " The laws and the magistrates in 
accordance with the laws." 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 d (5), supra. 

■* Perhaps the remark of another man named Ariston who 
lived later. 

* Cf. Moralia^ 55 e and 537 d. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. (52 c). 
" Archidamus II., "king of Sparta, 469-427 b.c. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(218) 2. ripo? 8e rov eTTaivovvra KiBapcohov /cat Oav 
fidl,ovra ttjv hvvafjiLv avrov, " w Xwarre," e^t], 
" TToZov y€pas Trapa gov roZs dyaOoig dvSpduLV 
caraLy orav Kidapcohov ovrois eTraivfjs; " 

3. Evret 8e ris avro) gwigtcls i/jdXri^v eiTrev, 
OVTOS dyaOos ijjdXriqs eGrivJ' " Trap* r)pLiV Se y€ 

ovTog," €(1)7], " aya^o? Jco/xoTrotos'," cos ovhev 
oia^epov hi opydvojv ^ojvrjs rjSovr^v ijjL7TOL€LV rrjs 
D Sl* oijjiov Kal ^ojpLov GKevaGLas . 

4. iTTLGXvovfjievov Se tlvos avruj rov olvov rjhvv 
7TOi7]G€iVy " TTpos Ti; " e(f)7] , " Kal ydp SaTTavTj- 
OrJGeraL uX^icov Kal TrotTjcret rd dvSpela dxpy]orr6- 
repa." 

5. HrparoTTehevQjv he Trepl KopLvdov^ etSev €K 
rov^ 7T€pl TO relxos tottov Xaycoovs dvaGrdvras' 

€L7T6V OVV TTpOS TOVS GVGTpaTlOJTaS , " €vdXo)TOl 

rjfxcov ol TToXefjLCOi cIgl." 

6. Auo hi Tivcov SiaLTrjrrjv avrov Xa^ovrcoVy 
ayayojv 6ts" to rrjs yiaXKioLKov Tefxevos i^copKCGev 
ififielvaL rots' KpideiGLV avTOvs' djjLOGdvTCov Se e/cet- 
vojv, " Kpivoj TOLvvVy" €(f)7]y " jLt?) TTpoTepov drreXOelv 
vpids €K rod refxevovsy rrplv dv rd irpos dXXijXovs 

E hiaXvGTjGde." 

7. Tats" 8e OvyarpdGLV avrov lixariGfiov ttoXv- 
reXrj Alovvglov rov StKreAtas" rvpdvvov Trejjujjavros, 
ovK iSe^aro elirajVy " ^o^ou/xat pur] 7Tepi9epL€vai at 
Kopai ^avajGi /xot alGXpal." 

'Ettiw^ 5^ TTjv TLopivdiuv irbXiv /uerA (rTparevfiaTos in 
some Mss. 2 ?/c row Hartman: €k toO. 



<• Cf. Moralia, 223 f, infra (15), where the saying is 
attributed to Cleomenes. 
306 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 218 

2. In answer to a man who praised a harper and 
expressed amazement at his abiHty, he said, " My 
good sir, what honours shall you be able to offer to 
good men when you have such praise for a harper ? " 

3. WTien someone, in introducing a musician to 
him, remarked, " This man is a good musician," he 
said, " And in this country of ours that man there 
rates as a good soup-maker," thus implying that there 
was no distinction between giving pleasure through 
the sound of instruments and giving it through the 
preparation of appetizing foods and soup." 

4. When somebody promised him to make the 
wine pleasant to the taste, he said, " What for ? 
For more of it will be used, and it ^\•ill make the men's 
eating together less beneficial." ^ 

5. As he was establishing his camp hard by the 
city of Corinth, he saw hares start up from a spot 
near the wall. He said therefore to his fellow- 
soldiers, " The enemy are ours." ° 

6. When two persons accepted him as arbiter, he 
took them to the sacred precinct of Athena of the 
Brazen House, and made them swear to abide by his 
decision ; and when they had given their oaths, he 
said, " My decision, then, is that you are not to leave 
this sacred precinct before you compose your differ- 
ences." 

7. When Dionysius, the despot of Sicily, sent costly 
raiment to Archidamus's daughters, he would not 
accept it, saying, " I am afraid that, if the girls 
should put it on, they would appear ugly to me." ^ 

^ See Moralia, 240 d (2), infra, which makes the meaning 
of this passage quite clear. 

" A similar remark is attributed to Lysander in Moralia, 
190 E, supra, and 229 d, infra. 

** Cf. the note on Moralia^ 190 d (1), supra. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(218) 8. QeaadiJievog 8e toi^ vloi' npoTrerws fxaxoficvov 
^AdrjvaiOL?, " T] rfj hvvdjxeL Trpoades," €(f)r]y " ■^ 
Tov (fypovrjixaros v(/)€s.^ " 

APXIAAMOT TOT AFHSIAAOT 

1. ^Apxi^afjLog 6 ^AyrjOTLXdov, OtAiVvrou jLtcra 7-171' 
€v Xatpojyeta fidxrjv UKXr^porepav avro) eTTLUToXrjV 

Y ypdijjavTos, dvreypaijjev, " et fjLCTp-qaaig rrjv oavrov 
cTKidvy ovK dv evpoLs avrrjv ixeit^ova yeyevrjfxevrjv t] 

TTplv VLKaV." 

2. 'EpcDTT^^et? Se TTOGTjg x^P^S Kparovaiv ol 
^TTapridraiy " oarjs aV," ^4*'^> " t^ Sopari 
i(j)iK(x>vr at." 

3. Ilepidvhpov he tov larpov d^LoXoyov Kara 
rixvriv ovros Kal eTTaivovjxivov is rd jLtaAtara, 
<f)avXa 8c TTOi-qpiara ypd(f)ovTO?, " ri ST^TTore, c5 
UepcavSpe," elnev, " dvrl ;^aptevTOS' larpov KaKos 
TTOiTjrrj? KaXeladac imOvfielg ; 

4. 'Ev 8e rep rrpos ^lXittttov TToAe/xoj ovpi^ovXev- 
ovrcov nvdjv on TToppoj rrjg olKeias rrjv jjidx'rjv avv- 
dirreiv hei, " aAA' ov rovro," e(f)r], " opdv 8et, aAA' 
ov^ lxax6p.evoL^ Kpeirroves rwv TToXejxiojv iaofjLeda." 

5. II po? 8e rovs erraivovvras avrov, ore rrjv 
TTpos 'Ap/cctSa? (idxy]i^ evLKTiGe, " ^eXriov dv rjv, 
el rfj (jypoviqoei," e(l)rj, " avrovs eviKcofiev pidXXov 
7^ rfj laxvL." 

^ (PpovrjjjLaTos v(p€s] Opdaovs A0eXe Stobaeus, Flor. liii. 12. 
2 o5 Wyttenbach (ov or y Hatzidakis) : oi (or el). 
^ fiaxofJ.€POL Pantazides : /.Mxoi'fJ.ei'OL (evfxaxov/J-epoi). 

" Archidamus III., king of Sparta, 361-338 b.c. 
"" Cf. the note on Moralia, 210 e (28), supra. 
308 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 218 

8. Observing that his son was fighting impetuously 
against the Athenians, he said, " Either add to your 
strength, or subtract from your courage." 

ARCHIDAMUS, SON OF AGESILAUS • 

1. Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus, when Philip, 
after the battle of Chaeroneia, wrote him a somewhat 
haughty letter, wrote in reply, " If you should 
measure your own shadow, you would not find that 
it has become any greater than before you were 
victorious." 

2. Being asked how much land the Spartans con- 
trolled, he said, " As much as they can reach with 
the spear." ^ 

3. Periander, the physician, was distinguished in 
his profession and commended very very highly, but 
was a wTiter of wretched verses. " Why in the 
world, Periander," said Archidamus, " do you yearn 
to be called a bad poet instead of a skilful physician ? " 

4. In the war against Philip, when some proffered 
the advice that they ought to engage him in battle 
at a good distance from their own land,'' Archidamus 
said, " No, that is not what we ought to look to, 
but where, in fighting, we shall be superior to the 
enemy." 

5. In answer to those who commended him when he 
had been victorious in battle ^ against the Arcadians, 
he said, " It would have been better if we had van- 
quished them by intelligence rather than by strength." 

* The policy of Demosthenes (e.^. Olynthiac i. ad fin.). 

<* The '' tearless battle " in 368 b.c. described by Xenophon, 
Hellenica, vii. 1. 28-32. Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus^ 
chap, xxxiii. (614 e). 

VOL. Ill L 309 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

219 6. "Ore 8e els ^ApKahiav ivepaXe, nvdofxevos 
Porjdelv avTols 'HAetou? iTreorreiXev avrols, " 'Ap- 
X^^OLjjLos 'HAetot?' KaXov rjavx^o,-^" 

7. T<jl)v 8e crvfjiiidxcoi^ eV rep HeXoTTOvvrjataKCp 
TToXefjiOj eTn^rjTovvrow Troaa ;!^p')7/>taTa dpK€G€L, kol 
d^iovvrcov oplcraL tovs <f)6povs, " 6 TToXepuos," 
€(f)r], " ov rerayfieva Girelrai} " 

8. KaraTreArt/cov he Ihcov ^eXog rore TTpwrov €K 
St/ceAta? KOjXKjdev dvePorjaev, " 'HpaKXeis, dvo- 
XcoXev dvSpog dperd." 

9. 'Evret 8e ou/c e^ovXovro "EAAt^vcs" Treideadai 
avTOj Kal Xvaat rds irpos 'AvrtVarpov^ /cat Kparcpop' 

B Tovs Ma/ceSova? o^oAoytas" /cat eXevOepoi etvai, chg 
XaXeTTCorepajv eao/jLevcov AaKeSaifiovLcov ^ Ma/ceSd- 
p'coi/, et7r€, " rrpo^arov puev del rrjv auTrjv <f>dey'yerai 
^ojv-qv, dvOpcoTTos he TToXXds Kal TTOiKiXaSt ecos dv 
TO So^av eTTireXear]." 

ASTTKPATIAOT 

KurvKparihas, eiTTovTos nvos avrcp jjuerd to tjt- 
TTjdrjvaL ^Aytv tov ^aatAea eV ttj Trpos ^AvTiTraTpov^ 
fidxi) TTepl ^sleydXrjv ttoXiv, " rt TrotT^crerc, w Aa/ce- 
haiixovLoi; rj hovXevcreTe Ma/ceSdcrtv; " elire, " tl 
8e; KOjXvaai dp SvvaiTo ^ AvrtTraTpos fxaxopievovs 
TjiJids dnodaveLV vrrep ttjs ^Trdpr'qs ; " 

^ r}<Tvxl-o.\ davxi-a Valckenaer. 

* (TLTeiTai] ^7]Td in most mss. But see 190 a, supra. 

^ 'Ai'TiTrarpoi' Wyttenbach: 'A-vriyovov. 

" The saying is attributed to Periander by Diogenes 
Laertius, i. 97. 

'' Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 a, supra. The saying 
plainly belongs to Archidamus II. (218 c, supra)^ who lived 

310 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 219 

6. When he invaded Arcadia, he learned that the 
Eleans were supporting the Arcadians, and so he 
sent this letter to them : " Archldamus to the Eleans. 
Quiet is a good thing." ** 

7. In the Peloponnesian war, when his allies sought 
to know how much money would be sufficient, and 
said it was only fair that he set a limit to their 
contributions, he said, " War does not feed on fixed 
rations." ^ 

8. When he saw the missile shot by a catapult, 
which had been brought then for the first time from 
Sicily, he exclaimed, " Great Heavens ! man's valour 
is no more ! " '^ 

9. When the Greeks were not willing to take his 
advice and break their agreements with Antipater ^ 
and Craterus the Macedonian, and be free, because 
of a feeling that the Spartans would be harsher than 
the Macedonians, he said, " A sheep or a goat bleats 
always in the same way, but a man talks in a great 
variety of ways until he accomplishes what he has 
set his mind upon." 

ASTYCRATIDAS 

When someone said to Astycratidas, after the defeat 
of Agis their king in the battle against Antipater in 
the vicinity of Megalopolis, " What will you do, men 
of Sparta ? Will you be subject to the Macedonians ? " 
he said, " What ! Is there any way in which Antipater 
can forbid us to die fighting for Sparta ? " 

at the time of the Peloponnesian war. See Plutarch's Life 
of Cleomenes, chap, xxvii. (817 e). 

" Cf. Moralia, 191 d, supra. 

^ Either Antipater (Wyttenbach's certain emendation) or 
Antigonus (mss.) is too late for Archidamus III., who died 
in 338 B.C. 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(219) BIANTOS 

C Bta?^ iueSpevdel? vtto 'I^t/cparous" rov ^AOrjuatajv 
orrparrjyov Kal ipojrcviievGg imo row GrparLcoroji' 
ri Set 7TOL€iv, " ri yap aAAo," c^^, " tj vjjLois puev 
acpt,€Gdai, e/xe 8e /xa;^o/xeyov diroOaveiv; " 

BPASIAOT 

1. BpaCTtSa? iv Icrxdai avWo^^ajv pLVV Kal 
8r])(d6L? d(f>rJKev' elra Trpos rovs Trapovras, " ovhkv 
ovrcos," ^4*V> " [J^''f<pov iuTLVy o ov^ Gw^erat 
ToXfJLOJV dpivvecrOai rovg iTTix^ipovvTas." 

2. 'El' 8e nvL P'O'XV ^''^ '^V^ dcrTrtSos' dKovTicrdels 
Kal TO Sopv rov rpavpLaros i^eXKvaas aura) rovrco 

j\ rov TToXefjLLOv aTTeKreive' Kal ttcos irpcoOrj ipajTrjOeis, 
** TTpoSovGTjg jjLe," e(f)rj, " rrj? aGTTiSos." 

3. 'E^eA^cov 3e eVt TToXefiov eypaipe rols i(f)6- 
pois, " ducra ST^Acu/xac^ TTpd^oj nor rov TToXefiov tj 
redva^oviJiaL." 

4. 'Ettci 8« Gwe^T] 7T€G€iV avrov iXevdepovvra 
rovg iirl QpaK-qg "EAAip'a?, ol he ireixcjidevres et? 
AaKeSatpLova npeG^eig rfj ynqrpl avrov 'A/oytAecovtSt 
TrpoyTrjXdov TTpcorov fiev rjpcorrjGev el /caAcDs" o Bpa- 
GiSa? ereXevrrjGev eyKcopi.ial,6vrcov he rojv SpaKOJV 
Kal Xeyovriov (hs ovhels aAAos- ecrrt roiovros, 
** dyvoeXre/' elrreVy " c3 ^evor BpacrtSas' yap rjv ixev 

^ Biai/Tos, Bias] ai'a^t/Stoi;, 'Aj/a^ijSios Wyttenbach, rightly 
without much doubt. 
* Ol)] AiT? 190 B (1), supra. 
3 87j\co/xaL Valckenaer : 8r]\u)/xai., 



as 
312 



** It seems almost certain that this anecdote is the same 
; that told of Anaxibius by Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 8. 32-39, 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 219 

BIAS- 

Bias, caught in an ambush by Iphicrates the 
Athenian general, and asked by his soldiers what was 
to be done, said, " What else except for you to save 
your Uves and for me to die fighting ? " 

BRASIDAS ^ 

1. Brasidas caught a mouse among some figs, and, 
when he got bitten, let it go. Then, turning to those 
who were present, he said, " There is nothing so 
small that it does not save its life if it has the 
courage to defend itself against those who would 
lay hand on it." '^ 

2. In a battle he was wounded by a spear which 
pierced his shield, and, pulling the weapon out of 
the wound, with this very spear he slew his foe. 
Asked how he got his wound, he said, " 'Twas when 
my shield turned traitor." ** 

3. As he was going forth to war he wrote to the 
Ephors, " What I wuU to dae I'll dae as regairds 
the war or be a deid mon." 

4. W^hen it came to pass that he fell in trying to 
win independence for the Greeks who were living 
in the region of Thrace, the committee which was 
sent to Sparta waited upon his mother Argileonis. 
Her first question was whether Brasidas had come to 
his end honourably ; and when the Thracians spoke 
of him in the highest terms, and said that there was 
no other like him, she said, " You have no knowledge 
of that, sirs, being from abroad ; for Brasidas was 

but if so, the name is out of alphabetical order, and the mis- 
take must be ancient. 

* See the note on Moralia, 190 b, supra. 

* Ibid. (1). «* Ibid. (2). 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E dvrjp dyaOos, ttoXXous S' eKeivov Kpetrrovag €;)^et 
(219)^ ^TTdprr)." 

AAMfiNIAOT 

AajLtcovtSas" raxOelg ecrxaros rod x^pov vtto rod 
Tov x^pov LdTcovTog, " 6vy€ ," etTxev, " 60 x^P^y^> 
e^evpes ttojs Kal avrr] -q x^P^ dripLos ovaa €vtljjlos 
yevTjraL." 

AAMIAOS 

A.djJLLg TT/oo? TO, eTTiGTaXivra napd rod 'AAe^av- 
Spou Oeov elvai ijirjcfjlcracrOai, " orvyxcopovfJLev," €(f)rj, 
^AXe^dvSpcp, idv OeXji, deos KaXelcrdai." 

AAMINAOT 
F Aa/xtV8as'/ ^iXlttttov ipu^aXovros els HeXoTTOwrj- 
oov Kal gIttovtos twos, " KLvhvvevovGi heivd Tradelv 
AaKeSaifjLOVLOL, el firj rd? rrpog avrov StaAAayas" 
TTOLTqaovTai," " dvSpoyvve," ctTxe, " rC 8' dv ud- 
doLjJLev Secvov davdrov KaracfypovT^aavTes ; " 

AEPKTAIAOT 
AepKvXlSas, Ylvppov rrjv orparidv eTTi rrjg Yi-nap- 
TLdrihos exovTos, 77e/x</>^ets" Trpos avrdv Trpeo^evrrjs, 
TOV Wvppov TTpoGTdrrovTOs KaraSexecrdaL tov ^acn- 
Xea avTcx)v Y^Xecovvyiov r) yvdjoeoOai (hs ovhevos 
Tcjv dXXcjv dvSpeLOTepoL TvyxdvovoLV, vttotvxcov 
elnev, " el fxev deog eoTiv, ov (jyo^ovixeda tovtov 
ovhev yap dSLKovfxev el 8e dvOpojiros, ovx rj/JLCOv ye 

KpeLTTWV." 

^ Aafxiudas] Aa/uLiddas (a name found in Spartan inscriptions) 
is suggested by Bernardakis. 

" See the note on Moralia, 190 b (3), supra. 
^ See tile note on 3Ioralia, 191 f, supra, 

S14 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 219 

indeed a good man, but Sparta has many better 
than he was." ° 

DAMONIDAS 

Damonidas, being assigned to the last place in the 
chorus by the director, exclaimed, " Good ! You 
have discovered, sir, how this place which is without 
honour may be made a place of honour." ^ 

DAxMIS 
Damis, with reference to the instructions sent 
from Alexander that they should pass a formal vote 
deifying him, said, " We concede to Alexander that, 
if he so wishes, he may be called a god." ^ 

DAMINDAS 

When Philip invaded the Peloponnesus, and some- 
one said, " There is danger that the Spartans may 
meet a dire fate if they do not make terms with the 
invader," Damindas exclaimed, " You poor womanish 
thing ! What dire fate could be ours if we have no 
fear of death } " 

DERCYLIDAS 

Dercylidas, when Pyrrhus had his army near 
Sparta,^ was sent to him as ambassador ; and when 
Pyrrhus stated that they must receive their king 
Cleonymus, or they would find out that they were 
no braver than any of the rest, Dercylidas interrupted 
to say, " If this man is a god, we do not fear him, 
for we are guilty of no wrong ; but if he is a man, 
he is surely not superior to us." 



• Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, ii. 19. 
'^ In 272 B.C. 



315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

AHMAPATOT 

1. ^rjfjLdparos,^ ^Opovrov rrpos avrov gkXtjpo' 
220 repov opuXijcravTOS /cat el'novTOS rivos, " orKXrjpa)? 

aoL KexprjraL ^Op6vTi-]9, c5 A7]fJidpaTe," " ovSev 
TJfjiapTev els e/xe/' eiTrev " ol yap Trpos X^P'-^ 
ofJLiXovvres ^XdnrovaLV, ovx ol [xerd diTexOeias." 

2. 'EpcoTT^aavTos" Se nvos Sta rC rovs puev rds 
aGTrlSas Trap* avrois dno^aXovTas drLfiovai, tous 
Se rd KpdvT] koi rovs dcjpaKas ovKeri, " on," 
€(f)r], " ravra jxev iavrcov x^P'-^ TrepLridevTaiy rrjv 
8e acTTTtSa tt^s" Koivrjs ra^eco? cVc/ca." 

3. ^dXrov Se aKpocxjpievos, " ov /ca/ccos"," eiTre, 
" (jyalveraL pLOi (f)Xvap€Lv." 

4. 'Ev Se Ttvt ovveSplo) ipajrcofjuevos TTorepov Std 
B /xojptW '^ 8t' diTOpiav Xoyojv ULCOTra, " dAA' o ye 

ficopos ovK dv SvvaLTO oiydv," e(f)7]. 

5. Hvdojjievov Se nvos Sid ri (f>evy€L rrjv Ytirdp- 
TTjV paoiXevs a>v, " otl," c^t;, " Kpeirroves avrijs^ 

ol VOflOL eiGi." 

6. TcDv 8e Hepcrcov nvog Sid to avvex^s rrj? 
SojpohoKLas Tov ipcxyfievov avrov aTrayayovros /cat 
XeyovTOS, " c5 AdKcov, redijpevKd gov top ipco- 
fxevoVy" " pud rovs Beovs" ^^V* " ^^X^ ^ 7^* ^^' 
'qyopaKaS'" 

7. 'ATrocrrdvTOS' Se rtvos" tcDv Ilepcrcav rod BaGL- 
Xecog /cat pLeraTreiGdevros vtto Arfp^apdrov iirav- 

^ A-qfidpaTos would be Aa/xaparos in Doric, but the Ionic 
influence of Herodotus may be seen. 
2 avTTjs] avTov Pantazides. 

<• King of Sparta circa 510 until 491 b.c, when he was 
deposed and went to Persia. In 490 b.c. he accompanied 
Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. 
316 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 219-220 



DEMARATUS • 

1. Demaratus, when Orontes had talked to him 
rather haughtily and someone remarked, " Orontes 
has treated you haughtily, Demaratus," said, " He 
has committed no fault against me ; for it is those 
who talk to please that do harm, not those who talk 
with hatred at heart." 

2. When someone asked why they visited disgrace 
upon those among them who lost their shields, but 
did not do the same thing to those who lost their 
helmets or their breastplates, he said, " Because 
these they put on for their own sake, but the shield 
for the common good of the whole line." 

3. As he was listening to a musician, he said, 
** He seems to do his silly task fairly well." ^ 

4. In a council meeting he was asked whether it 
was due to foolishness or lack of words that he said 
nothing. " But a fool," said he, " would not be able 
to hold his tongue." ^ 

5. When someone inquired why he was an exile 
from Sparta, being a king, he said, " Because her 
laws are more powerful than I am." 

6. When one of the Persians, by unremitting 
bribery, had got away from him his beloved youth, 
and said to him, " Ho, Spartan, I have captivated 
your beloved," he said, " Not you, I swear, but you 
have bought and paid for him ! " 

7. When one of the Persians deserted from the 
king and was persuaded by Demaratus to change 

* Cf. the similar remarks in Moralia, 220 f (6) and 234 d 
(42), infra. 

* Cf. the similar remark of Bias in Moralia, 503 f, and 
of Solon in Stobaeus, Florilegium, xxxiv. 15. 

VOL. Ill l2 317 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(220) eXOelv /cat fxeXXovros rod ^aoiXeajg rov Tlcparjv 

SLax^LplCeaOaL, " alcjxpov," ^c/y-q, " co ^aatAeu, 6t€ 

fjL€v e^Opos TjV crot, /xt^ h-uvaudai Slktjv ttjs oltto- 

C aracrecDs nap* avrov Xa^eXv, ore 8e (fylXos yeyovev, 

o/noKTeiveLV." 

8. IT/DOS" Se rov Trapacnrovvra rep ^acrtAet /cat 
Trepl rrjs (fyvyrjs ttoXXolkls imGKcoTTrovra avrov, 
" ov fxaxovpLal crot," 6(^7^, " cS feVe* KaravaXcuKa 
yap rrjv rod ^iov rd^iv." 

EKnPEnOTS 
^YiKTrpeTTrjs^ ecf)opo? Opui^tSo? rod pLOvaiKov cr/c€- 
TTapvoj ras" Suo rojv ivvea ;\;opStLJv^ i^erefiev, elTTcov, 
" jLti^ KaKovpyei rrjv fiovaiK-qv." 

EHAINETOT 
'ETratVero? iravrayv ecfyrj rovs i/jevarag rojv apbap- 
rrjixdrcjv /cat rcjv dSLK-qfidrajv alrlovs etvai. 

D ETBOIAOT 

Kv^oiSas aKovojv nviJbv irraivovvrayv yvvalKa 
dXXorpiav ovk aTreSex^ro, (jyTjoas, " 6Xa>s 7T€pl 
yvvaiKeias (f)VG€cos irapd rols e^co Xoyov clvat 
ovSeva Set." 

ETAAMIAOT TOT APXIAAMOT 

1 . lEivSafjLiSas 6 * Apxf'^dfjiov , aSeA^os" Se "AytSos", 
tScoi' E.€VOKpdrr]v iv 'A/caSiyjitcta^ irpeu^vrepov rjSrj 

^ EKTTpeTTovs, 'EKirpeirrjs Xylander and Wji;tenbach : Efxnpe- 
irovs, 'Efxtrpeirrjs. 

2 xop^^^ added by Eusebius from the Life of Agis^ chap, x., 
and Moralia 84 a. 

^ ' AKadrjfjLeiq. the better spelling : aKabrndq,. 
318 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 220 

his mind and return, and the king was going to have 
him put to death, Demaratus said, " For shame, your 
Majesty ! To think that when this man was your 
enemy you could not punish him for his desertion 
but now that he has become your friend, you would 
put him to death ! " 

8. In answer to a man who was a parasite of the 
king and often jeered at him over his exile, he said, 
" I have no quarrel with you, my friend ; for I have 
squandered my position in life." 

ECPREPES 

Ecprepes, an Ephor, cut out with an adze two of 
the nine strings of Phrynis the musician, saying, 
** Do not murder music." ^ 

EPAENETUS 

Epaenetus said that liars are to blame for all sins 
and crimes. 

EUBOEDAS 

Euboedas, on hearing some men praising the ^vife 
of another man, could not stomach it, saying, " In 
regard to a woman's endowments there should be 
absolutely no talk among those outside the family." ^ 

EUDAMIDAS, SON OF ARCHIDAMUS « 

1. Eudamidas, the son of Archidamus and the 
brother of Agis, seeing Xenocrates in the Academy, 

" The story is repeated in Plutarch's Life of Agis, chap. x. 
(799 f), and with variations in Moralia, 84 a, 238 c (infra) ; 
Athenaeus 636 e ; Boethius, De Musica, i. 1. 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 217 f, supra. 

" Eudamidas I., king of Sparta. 330-300 (?) B.C. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(220) fJLera rcov yvajptfiajv (fyiXocrocfyovvra, eirvOero ris 6 
TTpea^vrr]?' (fyafxevov hi rivos on ao(j)6s dvrjp Kal 
rcov t^-qrovvrcov rrjv dperijv, " Kal nore/' €^07, 
** XP'ij<y€TaL avrfj, idv dpn (^rjrfj; " 
E 2. 'A/couo-a? Be (f)iXoa6(j)ov hiaXexOivros on /xo- 
vos ayaOos orpariqyos 6 G0(f)6s icrrLV, ** o [xev 
Aoyos"," ^'^^* " davfjLaaros' 6 Se Xdycjv aTrtcrros"* ov 
yap 7T€pi(j€ad\7TiGTai} " 

3. Trjv dioLV 8e "EevoKpdrovg clprjKorog Kal 
KaraTTavofjievov, Traprjv 6 Eu8a/xt8as" d)g 8' elTre ns 
Twv fxer avTOV " ot€ Trdpeajxev rjixeXs, rore ireirav- 
rar " " /caAcos" ye/ " ^i>V> " ^'^tt^P '^hrj eXe^e ravra 
a €xprjl,€' " Tov 8' eliTovTOs " koXov rjv dKovaar 

rj Kal Trpos heheiTTViqKOTa jJLoXovres," etireVf 
" rj^LOVfiev dv^ TrdXiv avrov henrveiv; ** 

4. UvvOavojJLevov 8e nvos Sid ri, rcov iroXcrajv 
F alpov/jbdvcov rov irpos Ma/<:e8ovas' TToXefiov, avrog 

rjavx^OLi^ dyeiv 80/ct/xaJet, " on/' €(j)r], " ov XPTI'^^ 
ipevSofjuevovs avrovs iXey^ai." 

5. *ETepou 8e Trpo^epopievov rd /caret Hepacbv 
dpiGrela Kal Trporperrovros iirl rov TToXefxov, 
" dyvo€Lv/' €(j)7]y " pLOL SoK€i5 y€ on ravrov ian^ 
X^'Xiojv Trpo^drajv Kpar-^oavra irevr^qKovra Xvkols 
ixdx^adai." 

6. ^^dXrov 8e nvos evr^fxep-qaavros, rjpcorrjGav 

avrov TToSaiTos ns avrco Sok6l etvaVf " jxeyas, 

€<^7y, " K7]X7]Krds iv puKpcp TTpdypuan." 

^ 7rept(re<rdX7rt(rrat] TrepLaecrdXinyKTai Stobaeus, Flor. liv. 65. 

2 76 Wyttenbach : 5^. 

' cLp added by van Herwerden and Pantazides. 

* eari] iari rw E. Kurtz. 

• Cf. the note on Moralia^ 192 a, supra. 
S20 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 220 

already well on in years, discussing philosophy with 
his acquaintances, inquired who the old man was. 
Somebody said that he was a wise man and one of 
the seekers after virtue. *' And when Avill he use it," 
said Eudamidas, " if he is only now seeking for it ? " ^ 

2. Hearing a philosopher discoursing to the effect 
that the wise man is the only good general, he said, 
" The speech is admirable, but the speaker is not to 
be trusted ; for he has never been amid the blare of 
trumpets." ° 

3. Xenocrates had been expounding his theme, 
and had just reached the stopping-point when 
Eudamidas arrived. One of the persons with him 
remarked, " Just when we arrive he comes to the 
stopping-point." " Quite properly so," said Eudami- 
das, *' if he has already said all he wanted to say." 
" It would have been nice to hear him," said the 
other. " Indeed," said Eudamidas, " and if we came 
to a man who had just dined, should we insist that 
he eat another dinner ? " 

4. Someone inquired why, when the citizens pro- 
fessed to be all for war against the Macedonians, he 
himself decided in favour of keeping the peace. He 
repHed, " Because I do not need to prove that they 
are lying." 

5. When another man brought up their brave 
successes against the Persians, and was urgent for 
the war, Eudamidas said, " You do not seem to reaHze 
that your proposition is the same as fighting fifty 
wolves after overcoming a thousand sheep ! " 

6. When a certain musician made a great hit, 
they asked Eudamidas what he thought of the man, 
and he replied, " He has great power to charm in a 
trifling matter." 

321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7. ^EiTraivovvTOS 8e twos ra? ^Ad-qvas, e(f)r}, 
** KOI TLS av ravTTjv rrfv ttoXiv heovrcos iTraivoir], 
Tjv ovhels eorep^e yevo/.ievog ^eXricov ; " 

8. 'Apyeiov 8e tlvos Xeyovrog, co? (f>avX6repoL 
yiyvovrai Kara ras aTTohrjiiias ol AoLKcoveg i^- 

221 LGrdfievoL rcov Tiarpiajv vopLCov, " aAA' ou;j( Vfiels 
ye," €(f)r), "els Tr)v YiTTapTiqv eXdovres x^^poves oAAd 
^eXrioves yiveade." 

9. ^ AXe^dv^pov he KTjpv^avros ev 'OAu/x77ta /car- 
teVat Tovs (f)vydSas arravras els rrjv Ihiav TrXrjv 
©T^^atcov, " aTu;^€S' fJiev," ecfy-q, " c5 Qrj^aLOL, to 
KTjpvyjjLa aAA' evho^ov fxovovs yap vpids <j)oPelTaL 
^AXe^avhpos." 

10. 'EpcoTT^^et? he TLVOS eveKa irpo tojv klvSv- 
vojv Tats Movaais Gcjiayidt^ovGiv, " ottcos/' ^<t>'r), 
*' at TTpd^eis Xoycov dyadojv Tvyxdvajoriv," 

ETPTKPATIAOT TOT ANAEANAPIAOT 
B ^vpVKpaTihas 6 ^Ava^avhplhov, TTvdofjievov rivos 
hid TL Ta nepl^ tCjv avjjL^oXaLCxjv St/cata eKdGTTjs 
7)ixepas KpivovoLv ol e(f>opoL, " ottojs," e^^, " Kal 
iv ToXs TToXepLLOLS TTLGTevajfjiev dXXrjXoLs." 

ZETHIAAMOT 
1 . Z ^v^ihapLos, TTVvdavopievov tlvos hid tl tovs 
TTepl TTJs dvhpeias vopLOVs dypd(f>ovs TiqpovoL Kal 

^ ra irepl Wyttenbach : Trepi TO, or irepi. 

" " Lions at home, but foxes abroad " was proverbial. 
Cf. Plutarch's Comparison of Lysander and Sulla, chap. iii. 
(476 e). 

^ In 323 B.C. Cf. Diodorus, xviii. 8. 

<^ Cf. Moralia, 238 b, infra ; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ 
chap. xxi. (53 d). 

322 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 220-221 

7. When someone praised Athens, he said "And 
who could praise that city deservedly, towards which 
nobody has ever felt any affection for having been 
made a better man by it ? " 

8. When a man from Argos said that the Spartans 
became more unscrupulous on going abroad and 
being out of the control of their long-established 
laws," he said, " But you, when you come to Sparta, 
do not become worse, but better." 

9. When Alexander caused proclamation to be made 
at Olympia that all exiles might return to their o^vn 
land,^ save only the Thebans, Eudamidas said, " The 
proclamation for you, men of Thebes, is unfortunate, 
but very complimentary ; for it is you only that 
Alexander fears." 

10. Being asked for what purpose they offered 
sacrifice to the Muses before hazardous ventures, 
he said, " So that our deeds may find good words." ^ 

EURYCRATIDAS, SON OF ANAXANDRIDAS ^ 
Eurycratidas, the son of Anaxandridas, when some- 
one inquired why the Ephors try cases involving 
contracts ^ each day, said, " So that also amid our 
enemies we may trust one another." 

ZEUXIDAMUS ' 
1. When someone inquired why they kept the laws 
in regard to bravery unwritten, and did not have 

'^ Presumably Eurycratidas, son of Anaxander, mentioned 
by Herodotus, vii. 204, in the genealogy of Leonidas. He 
was king of Sparta in the first half of the sixth century b.c. 

« Cf. Aristotle, Politics, iii. 1, 10 (1275 b). 

' Presumably the son of Leotychidas II., king of Sparta 
{Moral ia, 224 e). He died before his father, and so never 
became king. 

S23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(22 1 ) roLS veoL? aTToypaxjjdfievoi ov hihoaaiv avayiv(joGK€iVf 
C " on," €(f)rj, " avveOl^ecrdai SeV rals avhpayaOiais 
Kpelrrov ov^ 7} rats' ypa^at? Trpooex^^v." 

2. AtrcoAou he tlvos Xeyovros on rols avhpa- 
yaOetv hvvajievois Kpelrrcov rrjg elpi^vrjg 6 TToXepiOS, 
" ov fjua Tovs deovs," ^V*^* " aAAa tovtols Kpelrrajv 
6 Odvaros rrjs ^corjs." 

HPfiNAOT 
'UpcovBas, ^Kdrivr)GLV dXovros nvos ypa<f)r)v dp- 
yiaSy TTapojv /cat TTvOofievos eKeXevcreu iinhel^ai 
avTcp TOP TTjv iXevdeplav Slktjv rjTTTjdevra. 

GEAPIAOT 

0ea/Dt8as" ii(f>os aKovcov rjpajTTJdrj el o^v eonv, 
Kal ehreVf " o^vrepov Sia^oXrjs." 

GEMISTEOT 
SepLLoreas^ TrpoeiTre fxev AecovlSa rep paoiXel rrjv 
D y€vrjaop,evrjv drrcoXeiav Trepl SepfionvXas avrov re 
Kal T(x)V avGTparevopLivwv avrco, pidvns a>v' diro- 
TTep/TTopbevos he vtto rod A.eojviha els ttjv AaKehai- 
pcova 7Tpo<j)dGei rod dTrayyelXai rd (jvp,pr]a6p.eva, 
rats S' dXy]deiais Iva [jltj TrapaTroAi^rai, ovk rjve- 
axero aAA' etTre, " pLaxrjrijs e7Tep,(f)6rjv ovk dyyeXia- 
<j>6pos'' 

1 Set] 6.€l is suggested by Wyttenbach. 

a bv added by F.C.B. 

' 9ejui<7-T^as] MeTtcrriiyj in Herodotus, vii. 221. 

<• On the subject see Busolt, Griechische Staatskunde 
(Munich, 1926), p. 815. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xxiv. (54 e). 
The free population of Sparta did no labour. 

324, 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 221 

them written down and thus give them to the young 
men to read, Zeuxidamus said, ** Because the young 
ought to accustom themselves to deeds of manly 
valour, a better thing than to apply their mind to 
writings." 

2. When a certain Aetolian asserted that, for those 
who are able to play the part of real men, war is 
better than peace, Zeuxidamus said, " By Heaven, 
no ; but for such men death is better than life." 

HERONDAS 

Herondas was at Athens when a man there was 
found guilty on a charge of not having any occupa- 
tion,<* and, when he heard of this, he bade them 
point out to him the man who had been convicted 
of the freeman's crime ! ^ 

THEARIDAS 

Thearidas, as he was whetting his sword, was 
asked if it was sharp, and he replied, " Sharper than 
slander." 

THEMISTEAS 

Themisteas foretold to Leonidas, the king, the 
coming destruction both of himself and of his fellow- 
soldiers at Thermopylae, for he was a prophet. He 
was sent away by Leonidas to Sparta, on the pretext 
of announcing there what would come to pass, but 
in reahty so that he should not suffer death with the 
rest. He, however, would not brook this, but said, 
" I was sent out to fight, not to carry messages." '^ 

* A somewhat diflFerent version is to be found in Moralia^ 
866 c. The original is in Herodotus, vii. 221, where the 
seer's name is given as Megistias. 

325 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(221) eEonoMnor 

1. GeoTTOfiTTOs irpos Tov ipajTrjaavra ncog av ris 
au(^akiaTaTa rrjpoLr] rrjv jSaatAeiav, " el roZs ju,ev 
cfylXoLS," €cl)rj, " jU,eTaStSotT7 Trapprjoias SiKalas, rov? 
Se dpxopLevovs Kara 8uva/xtv jjlt] Trepiopuy-q ahiKov- 
fievovg." 

2. Upos Se TOV ^ivov rov Xeyovra on irapa tols 
E avrov TToAtVacs' KaXetrai (jyiXoXaKcov, " Kpelrrov,'* 

€(f>r], " rjv ae ^iXoTToXirriv r] (fiiXoXdKOJva /caAetcr^at." 

3. Tov 8' eK rr\s "HAtSo? TTpea^evrov cIttovtos 
on hid rovT avrov i^aTTeoreiXav ol iroXlraLy on 
fiovos rov AaKcovLKov e^TJAcucre piov, " /cat irorepovj* 
€(f>rj, " 6 oos y] 6 rctjv aAAcov TToXtrajv ^ios ^eXrlojv 
icrri; " rod Se ehrovros rov avrov, " rrcjs ovv av," 
e^i^, " avrr] rj ttoXls acp^oiro, iv fj ttoXXcov ovrojv 
€LS jjLOvo? dyaOo? ion; " 

4. Aiyovros Se nvos on rj ^Trdprr] aajjerat 8td 
rovs pacnXels dpxi'Kovg ovras, " ovk," €(f)rj, " dAAa 
Sid rovs TToXiras 7T€L6ap)(LKOvs ovras." 

^ 5. YIvXlcdv Se avro) fjuell^ovas npids tprjcfyiaafid- 
vojv, dvreypai/jev^ on rds fxev pberpias 6 XP^^^^ 
aufet, rots' 8' virepaipovoas d(j)avil,€i. 

6. ^YimheLKwyievov 8e nvos avraj relxos Kal 
TTwdavofievov el Kaprepov /cat vipr]X6v, " ov Srj 
yvvaiKcov^ ; " elirev. 

1 avreypaxpep Wyttenbach : iv^ypa^pev. 

2 ov 8r] yvi^aiKwu as in 190 A, F.C.B. {yvpaiKibu also S. A. 
Naber) : ov8' el yvpaiKwv elireu fjv. 

326 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 221 

THEOPOMPUS « 

1. Theopompus, in answer to a man who asked how 
anyone could keep a kingdom most securely, said, 
"If he concede to his friends their just share of 
frank speech, and, so far as Hes in his power, do not 
suffer any of his subjects to be wronged." 

2. In answer to a man from abroad who said that 
among his own citizens he was called a lover of 
Sparta, he said, " It would be better to be called a 
lover of your own country than a lover of Sparta." 

3. When the ambassador from Elis said that his 
citizens had sent him for the especial reason that 
he alone emulated the Spartan way of Uving, 
Theopompus said, " Is your way of li\dng or that of 
the other citizens better ? " And when the man 
said that his own was, Theopompus said, " How, then, 
can that State be saved in which, among many 
citizens, only one is a good man ? " 

4. When someone said that Sparta was saved 
through its kings, because they were competent to 
rule, he said, " Not so, but through its citizens, 
because they are obedient to the rulers." ^ 

4. When the people of Pylos voted him some 
unusually high honours, he wrote in reply that time 
increases modest honours, but obliterates those that 
are extravagant. 

6. When someone pointed out to him a wall, and 
inquired if it was strong and high, he said, "Is it 
not a place where women live ? " ^ 

" King of Sparta at the time of the first Messenian war, 
eighth (?) century b.c. 

* Cf. Moral ia, 816 e, and Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. XXX. (58 d). 

*= Cf. the note on 190 a, supra. This paragraph is not 
found in some mss. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

efiPTKmNOs 

QcopvKLOjv e/c ^eX(j)cJL)v rrapayevofxevog, lSojv to 
OtAtTTTTOu arparoTTehov iv ^loOfio) ra areva Kar- 
€iXiqcf)6ro? y^ " KaKovg," e<f)r], " TTvXojpovs vpidSy w 
l^opivBioi, Tj YleXoTTOvvrjGos ^X^^'" 

GEKTAMENOTS 
QeKrafXGvrjg, Karayvovrcov avrov ddvarov rcov 
€cf)6pcoVy aTTTjei ixethicjov Kai rivos rcbv Trapovrajv 
epcurrjcravTos €l Kal Kara^povel rcov rij? TiTrdprrjg 
vopLLfjLcov, " ov-^h*' elirev, " aAAo, yiy-qda on Set 
pie rrjv tyiqpiiav eVretorat TavTiqv, Trap* ouSeros" ovt€ 
Tt alrrjoavra^ ovre Save L(jdp,€vov." 

mnOAAMOT 
222 'l777roSa/i,os', ore ^Aytg 'A/3;)^t8a/xaj TTaperdrrero , 
uvpLTTep.^Oels'^ TO) "Ayihi els ^^Trdprrjv eKeZ rds 
Xpeiag Trapexeodat, " dAA' ovros/' ^(f)7], " ovroi 
KaXXcco* Bdvarov aTTodavovpLai rf virep Tindpras 
dvSpayadcov "• t^i^ Se ^e^icjOKcbs virep rd oyhotj- 
Kovra err)- Kal p^erd ravra Xa^cov rd oirXa Kal 
ards ev Se^ca rod ^auiXecxis, pLaxdpLevos aTTO- 
OvriGKei,, 

mnOKPATIAOT 
1 . 'ImroKpaTLSag irpos rdv rrjs Kaplas Garpdrnqv 
eiTLUTeiXavTa St' o ri AaKehaipLovLos dvrjp iiripov- 

^ KaT€i\r)(p6Tos] KaTeCKrjcpb^ S. A. Naber. 

* TL airrjaavTa Madvig: diaiTrjaaPTa /xe. 

^ ' Apxi-SdfKi) . . . avjxire/x^deh] 'AjTiTrdrpy . . . ire/xcpdels 
AN'yttenbach. 

* KaWiu} Wyttenbach UaXKlova van Herwerden) : KdWioy, 

^ ^ added by F.C.B. 

" Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 42 (100). 
^ The attempt has been made to identify Hippodamus 
S28 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 221-222 

THORYCION 
Thorycion, arriving from Delphi and seeing in the 
Isthmus the forces of PhiUp, who had already gained 
possession of the narrow entrance, said, " The 
Peloponnesus has poor gate-keepers in you, men of 
Corinth ! " 

THECTAMENES 

Thectamenes, when the Ephors condemned him 
to death, went away smiling. Someone among the 
bystanders asked him if he felt such contempt for 
the laws of Sparta. " No," said he, " but I rejoice 
to think that I must pay this penalty myself without 
begging or borrowing anything from anybody." ** 

HIPPODAMUS » 
Hippodamus, when Agis was taking his place on 
the field of battle beside Archidamus, was sent with 
Agis to Sparta to render his services there. " But 
look you," said he, " I shall meet no more honourable 
death than in playing the part of a brave man for 
Sparta's sake." (He was over eighty years old.) 
And thereupon, seizing his arms and taking his stand 
at the king's right hand, he fell fighting. 

HIPPOCRATIDAS « 
1. This is the answer of Hippocratidas to the 
governor of Caria who wrote a letter to him because 

with the Hippodamus mentioned in Athenaeus, 452 a and 
in Polyaenus, Strategemata, ii. 15, and, by emendation, to 
reconcile this passage with the time of Agis IV. ; but both 
Agis II. and Agis III. had fathers named Archidamus, and 
it is quite possible that the incident of sending away from 
danger the old man and the young heir to the throne took 
place as here narrated. 

•^ The name occurs in Herodotus, viii. 131, as one of the 
earlier kings of Sparta. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B XevovTOJp TLvcbv ovveSojs rrjv eTTi^ovXriv Karecno)- 

(222) '77")7cre, /cat TTpoadevTO^ ttcos ;^/37ycreTa6 avro), dvr- 

eypaiffev, " el jxev fxeya n dyaOov avTOv TreTroLTjKag, 

KaroLKTave- el Se fi-q, iK rrjs X^P^^ e/c^aAe SetAov 

77pos" dperrjv ovra." 

2. AnavTrjaavTos Se TTore avrw /xetpa/ctou, S 
'qKoXovOet ipaarrjs tls, Kal SiarpaTrevros, " fxerd 
roLovTcuv " €(f)r] " ^ahit^eiv Set, /xe^' (Lv 6(f>d€ls ttjv 
avTTju xpocL^ Tiqpiqcreis ." 

KAAAIKPATIAOT 

1. KaAAtAcpaTtSas" vavap)(os, tojv AvGavSpov (f)L- 
Acov d^Lovvrojv ivLTpapaL avrols eva nvd rcJov i)(Opojv 

C dveXelv /cat Xa^elv nevr-qKovra rdXavray KalroL 
Gcfyohpa Seofxevos ;\;/37]/xaTCoy els oifjcovia rots vavrats, 
OX) <Jvvex(Jop7]Ge. KXeavSpos Se avfjLpovXos OiV, 
aAA eycoy av eAapov, enrev, et ov rjfirjv' 
/cat yap avros," elTrev, " el av rjv." 

2. Uapayevofievos 8e Trpos Kvpov rov vewrepov 
els Tjdpheis, GvpLjxaxov ovra AaKeSaipLOViois, enl 
XprjixaTa rw vavriKco, rfj fiep TTpcorrj rjfjiepa eKeXev- 
uev eiGayyeZXai on ^ovXerat Kupo) evTVx^tv cos S' 
rjKOVoe TTLveiVy " TT/oocr/xevco," etTxev, " ecos dv ttlt)' " 

D /cat rore p.ev dTrrjXXdyrj, ws eyvo) ovx olov re elvai 

uvpi^aXelv avrcp eKelvrj rfj rjfiepa, So^as dypoiKo- 

repos elvai. rfj 8* exopLevj], cos TrdXiv avrov rriveiv 

jJKovcre /cat ov Trpo'Covra,^ (j^rjoas, " ovx ovrco ottov- 

^ irpoadevra F.C.B. : Trpocrd^uTos, 

* irpol'dvTa] irapUvra Kronenberg from Life of Lysander^ 
chap. vi. 

" Upright and straightforward Spartan who commanded 
the Spartan fleet at the battle of Arginusae in 406 b.c. He 
was killed in the battle. 
330 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 222 

a man from Sparta had been privy to the plot of 
certain conspirators, and had said nothing about it ; 
and the governor added a hne, asking how he should 
deal with him. Hippocratidas wTote in reply : "If 
you have done him any great favour, put him to 
death ; but if not, expel him from your country, for 
he is a poltroon so far as any virtue is concerned." 

2. When a youth with a lover in attendance met 
him one day, and turned colour, he said, " You ought 
to walk with persons such that when you are seen 
with them you shall keep the same complexion." 

CALLICRATIDAS « 

1. CaUicratidas, an admiral, when Lysander's 
friends made him a fair offer that he permit them to 
make away \\-ith one of their enemies and receive 
ten thousand pounds, although he was in sore need 
of money for rations for his sailors, would not consent. 
Cleander, who was a member of his council, said, 
" But I would take it, if I were you." " And so 
would I," said CaUicratidas, " if I were you ! " ^ 

2. When he came to Cyrus the Younger at Sardis 
(who was allied with the Spartans) to get money for 
his fleet, on the first day he bade them send in word 
that he wished to have an audience with Cyrus. 
But when he was told that Cyrus was busy drinking, 
he said, " I will wait till he has finished drinking." 
And at that time he withdrew, when he realized that 
it was not possible to meet Cyrus on that day, thus 
creating the impression that he was somewhat lacking 
in manners. On the succeeding day, when he was 
again told that Cyrus was drinking and would not 
come forth, he said, " We must not be so eager to 

* C/. the reply of Alexander, Moralia, 180 c (11). 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(222) Saareov XPVI^^'^^ XaSctv (Ls fJbrjSev dvd^Lov Trj<^ 
^TTapr-qg TTOielv," d7Tr]X\dyrj et? "E</)ecrop', voXXd 
/xer iTrapcofxevos /ca/ca roXg Trpcurot? ivTpv(f)r]9€iGLV 
VTTO ^ap^dpcov Kol SiSd^acnv avrovg v^plI,€lv Stct 
nXovTov a)fxvv€ 8e^ Trpog rovg rrapovras co?, orav 
TTpcJOTOv els ^Trdprr^v Trapayeviqrai y Trdvra TrotTycret 
VTTep rod StaAAa^at rovs "EAAi^va?, cos (j)o^€pcx)repoL 
rots ^ap^dpois etev Kal iravoaivro rrjs CKeivcxiv eir* 
E dXXiqXovs SeofievoL hwdfiecos. 

3. *Epa)T7]^ets" Se ottolol dvSpes elcrlv ol "leave?, 
iXevOepoi fiev," €(f)7], " KaKoi, SovXot 8e dyaOoL" 

4. Tod Se Kupou rov jxiaBov npoTTefufjavros roLS 
arparicjrais kol feVta avrco, jjlovov eXa^e rov 
pLiodov rd Se ^eVta dvreTrc/xe/fe, ^TJcras" /xi) SetJ' 
(faXiav avrcp ISlav npos avrov elvai, oAAa ttJv 
KOLvrjv rrpos dnavras AaKehaifjLovlovg yeyovulav 
Kal avrcp V7Tdp)(€LV. 

5. M-eXXcDv 8e Trepl rds ^Apytvovaas vavpiaxeZv, 
"Kpfiojvos rod Kv^epv-qrov eiTTovros on KaXcbs e;^et 

F aTTOTrXevGaL , at yap rpi-qpeis rcov ^AOr^valcov ttoXXcu 
TrXeiovs elortv, etne, " Kal ri rovro; dXXd ^evyeiv 
alaxpov Kal ^Xa^epov rfj TiTrdprr)- p,4vovra Se tj 
ajTodavelv tj viKav dptarov." 

6. YlpoOvadiJievos Se, cl)s rJKovcre rov ixdvrecos 
ar]fxaiV€G9ai Sto, rcov ifXTTvpcvv ro) puev orrparo) 
VLK7]v Tip Se orparrjyovvri Odvarov, ovSev Kara- 
TrXayels eiTrev, " ov irap* eva rd ILirdpras^' diro- 

^ 5e Bernardakis : re. 

2 TO. 'L-rrdpTas Bernardakis : rq. ILirdpTq. {rdv STrdprat', Life of 
Pelopidas, chap. ii.). 

^ " Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lysander,, chap. vi. (436 c) ; 
Xenophon, Hellenica, i. 6. 6-7. 
332 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 222 

get money as to do anything unworthy of Sparta," 
and withdrew to Ephesus, invoking many evil curses 
on those who were first wantonly treated by the 
barbarians and had taught the barbarians to be 
arrogant because of wealth. And he swore to the 
persons present that, just so soon as he should arrive 
at Sparta, he would do everything to bring about a 
reconciliation among the Greeks, that they might 
become more formidable to the barbarians, and cease 
begging them for their resources to use against one 
another.^ 

3. Being asked what kind of men the lonians were, 
he said, " Poor freemen, but good slaves." ^ 

4. When Cyrus sent on money to pay the soldiers, 
and special presents for himself as a token of friend- 
ship, he took the money only and sent back the 
presents, saying that there was no need of any private 
friendship between him and Cyrus, but the general 
friendship which had been contracted with all the 
Spartans would serve also for him." 

5. As he was about to engage in the naval battle 
at Arginusae, Hermon the pilot said that it would be 
well to sail away, for the ships of the Athenians were 
many more in number ; but Callicratidas said, 
" And what of that ? To flee is a disgrace and an 
injury to Sparta. No ; to stay here, be it death or 
be it victory, is best." ^ 

6. As he offered sacrifice before the battle, and 
heard from the seer that the indications of the omens 
were victory for the army, but death for its com- 
mander, he said, not at all disconcerted, " Sparta's 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 f (1), supra, 
" Cf. Moralia, 213 d (69), supra. 

■* Cf. Xenophon, Hdlenica, i. 6. 32; Cicero, De officiis, 
i. 24 (84). 

323 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

OavovTog yap fiov ovSei^ r) Trarpls iXaTTCoOijaeTai* 
el^avTog he rot? TroAe/xtot?, eXarrojOrjGerai." dno- 
Setfa? ovv avd^ iavrov KXcavbpov rjyefiova cop/xT^o-ei^ 
i-rrl TTjv vavfiax^oiv, /cat piaxopievos reXevra. 

KAEOMBPOTOT TOT HATSANIOT 
223 KXeop^porog 6 Ilavcravlov, feVou nvos hia^epo' 
pL€vov rrpos rov irarepa Trepl dperrjsy " pi^xpi rov- 
eiTTev, " Kp€LTTOJv GOV ioTiv^ 6 TTari^p, pi^xpt' 
yevvrjoTjs." 

KAE0MEN0T2 TOT ANA^ANAPIAOT 

1. K.Xeopievrjg 6 ^Ava^avSplSov^ rov puev "Opcvpov 
AaKehaipiOviojv elvai rroLiqTrjv €(J)rj, rov 8e *HcrtoSoj/ 
TtDv elXcjTCov' Tov piev yap cog XPV TToXepLelVy tov 
Se COS" XPV y^ojpyeXv TraprjyyeXKevat. 

2. ^AvoxcL? 8e €(j)drjpiepovs Trpog ^Apyetovs ttoitj- 
adpievoSy (f)vXd^as avrovs, rij rpirr] vvktl /cot/xco/xe- 
j'ot?* Sta TO TTeTTOidevai ralg crTTOvSatg ineOero' /cat 
Tou? p^€V d7T€Kr€LV€, Tovs §€ alxp^oXdiTovs eXa^ev. 

B 3. 'OyetSt^o/xevo? Se eVt rfj irapa^duei tcjv opKcuv, 
ovK e(f)ri TrpocropLOjpLOKevai rat? rjpLepaig rag vvKras' 
dXXojs re /cat o rt dv /ca/cdv rt? rroifj rov? iroXepiiovSy 
TOVTO /cat rrapd OeoXg /cat rrapd dvdpwTTOLS Slktjs 
VTTeprepov vopiit,€Gdai . 

^ ianv] earai S. A. Naber. ^ ^^^j ^^ yi^j^ g, A. Naber. 

^ 'Aua^au 8 pldov F.C.B. : 'Aua^apSpldeu). 

* KOLfxcj/xej^OLS F.C.B. : Koiixwixevovs. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Pelopidas, chap. ii. (177 d). 
' King of Sparta, 380-371 b.c. 

* Cf. Moralia, 227 f (14), infra, and Plutarch's Life of 
Lycurgus, chap. xv. (48 c). 

'^ King of Sparta, circa 517-488 b.c. 
334 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 222-223 

fate rests not with one man. For, if I am killed, my 
country will not be impaired in any way ; but if I 
yield to the enemy, it will be." '^ And so, after 
appointing Cleander to take his place as commander, 
he put forth without delay for the naval engagement, 
and met his death in the battle. 

CLEOMBROTUS, SON OF PAUSANIAS ^ 
Cleombrotus, the son of Pausanias, when a man 
from abroad was disputing with Cleombrotus 's father 
about excellence, said, " My father is a better man 
than you — until you too have become a father." " 

CLEOMENES, SON OF ANAXANDPJDAS " 

1. Cleomenes, the son of Anaxandridas, said that 
Homer was the poet of the Spartans, and Hesiod 
of the Helots ; for Homer had given the necessary 
directions for fighting, and Hesiod for farming. ^ 

2. Having made an armistice of seven days with the 
Argives, he kept a watch on them, and on the third 
night, when they were sleeping because of their 
reliance on the truce, he attacked them, and slew 
some and took the others prisoners.-'' (3) When he 
was reproached for his violation of his oath, he said 
that he had not included the nights as well as the 
days in his plighted word ; and anyway, whatever 
ill one can do to one's enemies is regarded, among 
both gods and men, as something vastly higher 
than justice. ^ 

* Cf. Aelian, Varia Hisforia, xiii. 19. 

f Cf. Cicero, De officiis, i. 10 (33). Herodotus, vi. 78-79 
(followed by other writers), relates that Cleomenes defeated 
the Argives by a different trick. 

" For the phrase cf. Euripides, Electra, 584 ; and Xauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, no. 758. 

S^5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(223) 4. Hvve^T] 8' avro) rod fiev "Apyovs, 8t' o Trap- 

eoTTovSrjGev, aTTOTTeaelv Sta ro ras yvvaiKas rot 0,770 

TCx)v Upcov KadeXovoag oirXa rovroig avrov dfjLvve- 

odaf Kal vurepov 8e ra}v (fypevojv e^co yevojJLevov 

C hpd^aodai rivos fxaxcLLpLov Kal avTov dvare/xetv 0.770 

TcijW (J(f)Vpa)V €tOS eTTL TOUS KaipiOVS TOTTOVg, Kal ov- 

rws eKXiTTelv rov ^iov yeXcbvra Kal creGTjpora. 

5. Tov 8e ixavrecDS dTTorpeTTOvros /xt) dyeiv inl 
TYjv ^Apyetcov ttoXlv to arpdrevfiay ttjv yap Itt- 
dvoSov alaxpdv yev-qoeadai, irpoaeXdcbv rfj 7ToAet (h? 
TO? fiev TTvXas KeKXeiGpievas et8e, to? 8e yvvaiKag 
€7TL TCx)v reLxcQV, " avrri cot/' ^^17, " y] eTrdvoBog 
alaxpa ^aiverai elvaiy ev fj rchv dvhpojv redvriKOTOjv 
at yvvalKes rds irvXas KeKXeiKaGiv ; " 

6. 11/30? 8e TOWS' AotSopouvTas" o^^tov t(x>v 'Ap- 
yetcov cos iTriopKov Kal dcye^rj, *' rod puev^ /ca/ccDs" jxe^ 
XeyeLV," €cf)7], " vyLeis KvpcoL, rod 8e KaKcbg Vfxds 
TTOielv eyoj." 

D 7. Tot? 8e 0770 rrjs SojLtou Trpea^eot TrapaKaXov- 
GLV avrov YloXvKpdrei rep rvpdvvcp TToXepLelv Kal 
Std rovro fxaKpoXoyovGiv , " a)v elp-qKare," €<j)r], 
*' rd fjuev i^ <^PXV^ ^^ p.eixvrjp.aL, 8ta rovro Se Kal 
rd fieaa ov GvviiqixL' rd 8' eVt Trduiv ov So/ct/xajcu." 
8. Yleiparov he KaraSpaf^Lovros rrjv x^P^^ ^^^> 
ws idXoj, Xiyovros on " rpo^r]v ovk etxov rots 
arpancoraLS Trapix^cv, rrpog rovs exovras ovv, 
1 fjLev] /xev iixk Kronenberg. Better perhaps ixe after /ca/cws. 

« Cf. Moralia, 245 d, infra ; Pausanias, ii. 20. 8 ; Poly- 
aenus, viii. 33. 

'' Cf. Herodotus, vi. 75 and 84 ; Athenaeus, 427 c ; 
Aelian, Varia Ilistoria, ii. 41. His madness was traditionally 
ascribed to over-indulgence in strong drink, 

336 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 223 

4. It was his fortune to be repulsed from Argos, 
to gain which he had violated the truce, owing to the 
women's taking do^vn the weapons in the shrines 
and defending themselves against him with these. ** 
Later he went out of his mind, a/id, getting hold of a 
small dagger, he slashed himself, beginning with his 
ankles until he reached the vital parts, and thus 
departed this life laughing and grinning.^ 

5. The seer tried to dissuade him from leading 
his army against the city of the Argives, for the 
return, he said, would be made in disgrace. But 
when Cleomenes had advanced near the city, and 
saw the gates closed and the women upon the walls, 
he said, " Does it seem to you that the return 
from here can be made in disgrace, where, since 
the men are dead, the women have barred the 
gates ? " 

6. In answer to those of the Argives who upbraided 
him as an impious perjurer, he said, " You have the 
power to speak ill of me, but I have the power to do 
ill to you." 

7. To the ambassadors from Samos who urged him 
to make war upon the despot Polycrates, and for this 
reason spoke at great length, he said, " What you 
said at the beginning I do not remember ; for that 
reason I do not comprehend the middle part ; and the 
conclusion I do not approve." ^ 

8. A certain pirate overran the country, and, when 
he was captured, said, " I had not the means to 
provide subsistence for my soldiers ; therefore, to 

« Cf. Herodotus, iii. 46, and the note on 216 a (15), supra. 
The traditional date of the mission from Samos {525 b.c.) 
seems too early to fall within Cleomenes's reign, but the 
chronology is uncertain. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(223) eKovrl 8' ovK av hovras, ^ia X-qifjofxevos "^Xdov," 
€(f)r], " GvvTOfJLOS rj TTovrjpia." 

9. OauAou 8e TLVos avrov KaKcJos Xeyovrog, " dpa 
8ta rovro," €(f)r], " Travrag crv KaKcog Aeyet?, tva 
arroXoyovixevoi fxr] evKaipajfjiev nepl rrjs <Jrjs KaKias 
Xeyeiv; " 
E 10. Tojy 8e ttoXltcov tlvos Xeyovros on rov 
ayadov ^aoiXea TrdvTrj TravTCog rrpdov elvai Set, 
** ovKovv," €cf)r}, " dxpi' Tov fjLT) €VKaTa(f)p6vr)rov 
etvai." 

11. '^XKVdOels he voGO) fxaKpa, iirei KaBapTois 
Kol ixavreai irpooeZxe to irplv ov 7Tpo(J€X<^^> Oavjjid- 
I1,ovt65 TLVog, " Ti 6 av jjidl^e is ; " ^(f>y]y " ov ydp etpLL 
6 avTog vvv /cat rore- ovk d)V 8e o avros ovSe rd 
avrd SoActjua^co." 
F 12. HocfyiGTov 8e tlvos rrepl dvhpeias Xeyovros 
TrXeicx), eyiXaoe' rod he elrrovTOS} " tl yeXas, 
l^XeofjLeves, jrepl dvhpeias Xeyovros aKovojv, /cat 
ravra ^aatXevs a)v; " " on," ecfyrj, " ^eve, /cat rj 
XeXihojv el Tiepl avrrjs eXeye, ro avro rovro dv 
eTToiovv el he deroSy ttoXXtjv dv elxov rjpefjLiav." 

13. Tcov he ^Apyelojv rrjv rrporepav rjrrav (f)a- 
GKovrojv dvafxax^lodai, " OavpLd^co/' ecfyrj, " el hvo 
GvXXa^ojv TTpoGdrjKr] vvv Kpeirroves eyeveGde rf Trpo- 
Gdev rjre." 

14. Aoihopovvros he nvos avrov /cat cfy'qGavros 
" dpVTTnKos el, <jj KXeopueves," " dXXd Kpeirrov," 

*» For a similar change in the attitude of Pericles and of 
Bion cf. Pkitarch's I/(/(? of Pericles, chap, xxxviii. (173 a) and 
Diogenes Laertius, iv. 54. 

'' Presumably in the battle over Thyrea in 546 b.c. Cf. 
Herodotus, i. 82, and the reference in Plato, Phaedo, 89 c. 
338 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 223 

those who had it, but would not wiUingly give it, I 
came with the purpose of taking it by force." To 
this Cleomenes said, " Villainy is curt." 

9. When a certain low fellow spoke ill of him, he 
said, " So it is for this reason, is it, that you speak ill 
of everyone, that we, busied in defending ourselves, 
may not have time to speak of your baseness ? " 

10. When one of the citizens said that the good 
king ought to be mild at all times and in every way, 
he remarked, " Yes, but not to the extent of being 
despised." 

11. When he was afflicted with a lingering illness, 
and began to give attention to mind-healers and seers, 
to whom formerly he had given no attention, someone 
expressed surprise. " Why are you surprised ? " said 
he ; " for I am not now the same man that I was, 
and, not being the same man, I do not approve the 
same things." '^ 

12. When a pubhc lecturer spoke at considerable 
length about bravery, he burst out laughing ; and 
when the man said, " Why do you laugh, Cleomenes, 
at hearing a man speak about bravery, and that, too, 
when you are a king ? " " Because, my friend," he 
said, " if it had been a swallow speaking about it, I 
should have done the same thing, but if it had been 
an eagle, I should have kept very quiet." 

13. When the people of Argos asserted that they 
would wipe out their former defeat ^ by fighting 
again, he said, " I wonder if by the addition of a 
word of two syllables ^ you have now become more 
powerful than you were before ! " 

14. When someone upbraided him, saying, " You 
are inclined to luxury, Cleomenes," he said, *' Well, 

" The word " again. ' ' They had lost in the previous fighting. 

339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

e^T], " Tj aSiKov etvaf cru Se ^iXoxpriyiaros Kalirep 

IKaVa K€KTr)fJL€VOS." 

15. ^''dXriqv Se tls avra> ^ovXafJuevos avGrrjaat 
224: rd re dXXa rov dvhpa iir-Qvei /cat ifjdXrrjv avrov 

€(f)r] KpdrLGTOv elvai rwv 'EAAtJ^cov o §€ Sctfa? 
TLva Tcjv ttAtjolov, V7) tovs ueovSi ^Y'Hy ovTog 
Trap ifJLOL ^co/xoTTOtd?." 

16. MaiavSpLov^ 8e rod rrjg Ea/xou rvpdwov Sta 
rriv YlepGojv €(f)oSov els Ti7TdpTr]v <j)V'y6vT0S Kal 
eTTtSel^avTOS ocra eKeKOfXiKei "x^pvaed re Kal 
dpyvpea eKTrajyiara xapil^opievov re ocra jSouAcrat, 
eXa^e fxev ovSev, evXa^ovfJievog Se purj erepoLS rial 
ra>v darrojv SiaSco, rropevOel? errl rovs e(f>6povs, 
dfieLVov e(f)r] elvai rij UTrdprr) rov ^evov eavrov 
^dfJLiov aTTaXXdrreadac rrjs lieXoTTOvv^Gov, Iva fir] 

B TTeicrr) rivd rojv Yiirapriarthv KaKOV yeveodai. ol 
8e VTTaKo-uaavres e^eK-qpv^av rov M.aidvSpLov^ 
avrrjs rjpLepa?. 

17. EtVdvTO? Se rtvog, " 8ta rl noXepiovvras 
Vfuv ^Apyelovs voXXdKLs KpanqGavres ovk dvrjprj- 
Kare; " " ovS^ dv dviXoipLev," ^(f>'f]y "cos dv yvpL- 
vaords rots veoidiv e'xot/xei^." 

18. Yivvdavofxevov he rivos avrov Sta ri Unap- 
ridrai rols deols ovk dvariOeaai rd diro rcov TToXe- 
jLttcov (TKvXa, " on," e(f)ri, " diTO SeiXcov earc."^ 

^ Tr\r)aioi' Bernardakis: TrXrjaiuv. 

2 .MatavSptou, ^iaidvdpiov F.C.B. (as always elsewhere): 
Maiavdpov, 'Maiapdpov. 

^ Most Mss. add also rd 701;;' dirb tQv KeKTrj/j^fuif dia deiXlay, 
kt\, . . . deols duaTidepac, as in 224 f (4) infra. 
340 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 223-224 

that is better than being unjust. And you are 
avaricious although you possess property enough." 

15. When someone, wishing to introduce a musician 
to him, said, in addition to other commendations, 
that the man was the best musician among the 
Greeks, Cleomenes pointed to one of the persons 
near, and said, " Yonder man, I swear, ranks with 
me as the best soup-maker." " 

16. Maeandrius, the despot of Samos, because of 
the inroad of the Persians, fled to Sparta, and ex- 
hibited all the gold and silver vessels which he had 
brought with him, and offered to favour Cleomenes 
with as many as he wished ; but he would have none, 
and, tajcing good care that the man should not dis- 
tribute any among the rest of the citizens, he went 
to the Ephors and said that it was better for Sparta 
that his own friend and guest from Samos should 
\\'ithdraw" from the Peloponnesus, so that he should 
not persuade anyone of the Spartans to become a bad 
man. And they listened to his advice and proclaimed 
the expulsion of Maeandrius that very day.^ 

17. When someone said, " Why have you not killed 
off the people of Argos who wage war against you so 
often ? " he said, "Oh, we would not kill them off, 
for we want to have some trainers for our young 
men." 

18. When somebody inquired of him why Spartans 
do not dedicate to the gods the spoils from their 
enemies, he said, " Because they are taken from 
cowards." ° 

" C/. Moi'alia, 218 c (3) supra, where the saying is attri- 
buted to Archidamus II. 

^ The story is taken from Herodotus, ill. 148, in part 
word for word. 

*• Cf. Moral ia, 224 f (4) infra. 
VOL. Ill M 341 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(224) KAEOMENOTS TOT KAEOMBPOTOT 

C KAco/xeVr^s" o KXeofx^porov, SiSovros avraj nvos 
ixaxiixovs aXeKrpvovas koI Xeyovros on ixaxojJi^voi 

OLTTodvrjGKOVCn 7T€pl VlK'qS, " Ttbv KaraKTeLVOVTOJV 

Toivvv avTovs," e^ry, " rtms" So? ftot, iKeZvoi yap 
rovTOJV d(X€ivovs." 

AABOTOT 

AajScoras", [laKpoXoyovvros tlvos, etTre, " rt (jlol 
fjLiKpcbv 7T€pL fxeydXa (f)poLiiLd^rj ; ocrov yap etrj 
TTpdyixa, ToaovTos^ /cat o Xoyos co xpriaaL*' 

AEfiTTXIAOT 

1. AecoTV^tSaS" o TTpcorog, Xiyovrog rivos ws 
D edTLV evjJLerdf^oXos, " Sta rovs Katpovs," ^(fyrj, " ovx 

ojs u/xets" Sta rrjv avTwv KaKiav'* 

2. ripos" Se rov ipajrcovra ttcDs" dv rt? fjudXiara 
Sta^uAarrot rd irapovra rcDv dyaOcbv, eliTev, " ct 
/XT^ Trdvra rfj rvxi} Tnorevoi." 

3. *Fipa)T7]dels Sc rt Set jLtaAtara fJLavddvetv rovs 
iXevdepov? TratSa?, " ravr ," €(f)r], " daairep dv 
avTOVs (h(j)€Xrjaeiev^ dvSpa? yevofievovg." 

4. YlvvOavofjLevov Se rti^os" Sta rtVa air lav dXiyo- 
7TOTOVOIV ol HiTTapTLdraiy €(l)7], " Iva fXTj dXXoL virkp 
rjpLOJV ^ovXevcjvrai, dXX rj/jLeXg virep dXXojv." 

1 ToaovTos F.C.B. : roaovTOv. 
^ ih^eXriaeiev F.C.B. : dxpeXrjaeiav. 
342 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 224, 

CLEOMENES, SON OF CLEOMBROTUS 

Cleomenes, the son of Cleombrotus, when someone 
offered him fighting cocks and said that they would 
die fighting for victory, said, " Well then, give me 
some of those that kill them, for those are better 
than these." <* 

LABOTAS ^ 

Labotas, when someone spoke at very great length, 
said, " Why, pray, such a big introduction to a small 
subject ? For proportionate to the topic should be 
the words you use." '^ 

LEOTYCHIDAS ^ 

1. Leotychidas the First, when somebody re- 
marked to him that he was very changeable, said, 
" Yes, because of varying occasion ; not like all you 
because of your baseness." 

2. In answer to the man who asked how any 
man could best preserve his present state of good 
fortune, he said, " By not trusting everything to 
chance." 

3. Being asked what freeborn boys had best learn, 
he said, " Those things which may help them when 
they become men." * 

4. When someone inquired for what reason the 
Spartans drank so Uttle, he said, " So that others may 
not deliberate over us, but we over others." 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 191 f, supra. 

^ An early king of Sparta. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 208 c (3), supra. 

* King of Sparta in the seventh century b.c. 

* Cf. the note on Moralia^ 213 d (67), supra. 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/224) AEfiTTXIAOT TOT APISTfiXOS 

1. AeCOTUXtSct? O ^ApLCTTOJVOS TTpO? TOV ellTOVTa 

E on KaKcJos avTov ol rod ArjfxapdTov Xiyovoi, " fxa 
rovs deov?," €<f)7], " ov Oaviid^co, KaXcos yap Xiyeiv 
ovhels av avTOJV SvvqOetrj." 

2. T-^S" S' iyyvrepco nvXr^g^ SpaKovros Trepl ttjv 
KXelv iXi^d evTO's Kal tcjv jxdvreajv re pas d7TO(f)aLvo- 
[xevoju etvat, ovtl efiouy , ccpr], ookel, aAA ec tj 
kXels Toi SpaKovTL TTepietXixOr], ripas av tjv," 

3. Ylpos ^iXiTTTTOV TOV 6p(ji€OTeXeGTr]V TravreXcog 
TTTCoxov ovra, Xiyovra S on ol Trap" avrcp pLvrj- 
Bivres jJLerd ttjv tov ^iov reXevr-qv evSaifjiovovGL, 
" Tt ovv, 60 dvoTjre," elirev, " ov Tr]v Taxicrrrjv drro- 

F 6vr]GK€Ls, Iv d'/xa TravGrf KaKoSaLfjuovlav Kal nevlav 
KXaiojv; " 

4. YivOopiivov he nvos hid ri rd (xtto tcup' tto- 
XefXLcov oirXa roZs Beois ovk dvanOiaaiv, €(f)rj on 
TO. 8td rr]V heiXiav rcov KeKrrjjjievcov dr^padevTa ovre 
Tovs viovs opdv KaXdv ovre rols deols dvanOivat,, 

AEONTOS TOT ETPTKPATIAA 
1. Kicxjv 6 YjVpvKpariha ipajTrjOeis, ttolov rt? 
av ttoXlv OLKTjaas dG(f)aXa)5 olkolt], " ottov," ecj)!^, 
" fi'^re TrXelcD /xi^re iXdrrova KeKT-qoovrai ol 
ivoLKovvreg' Kal ottov to jjl€v SiKatov lg)(V(J€l, to 
§€ dSuKov dadeves ecrrai." 

^ TTjs . . . TTvX-qs F.C.B. : rg . . . tvXtj. 
^ Xv dfia iravarj Bernardakis : iVa dvairava-ri. 

<• Doubtless the son of Menares, Leotychidas II., king of 
Sparta, circa 491-469 b.c. 

'^ The same story is found in Diogenes Laertius, ii. 35 
(of Socrates), and in Stobaeus, Florilegium, xix. 5 (of Plato). 

" The saying is attributed to the others also ; cf. Clement 
344. 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 224 

LEOTYCHIDAS, SOX OF ARISTON « 

1. Leotychidas, the son of Ariston, in answer to a 
man who said that the sons of Demaratus were 
speaking ill of him, remarked, " Egad, I don't wonder ; 
for not one of them could ever speak a good word." ^ 

2. When at the adjacent gate a snake had coiled 
around the key, and the soothsayers declared this to 
be a prodigy, he said, " It doesn't seem so to me, but 
if the key had coiled around the snake, that would 
be a prodigy I " '^ 

3. This is his retort to Phihp, the priest of the 
Orphic mysteries, who was in the direst straits of 
poverty, but used to assert that those who were 
initiated under his rites were happy after the con- 
clusion of this life ; to him Leotychidas said, " You 
idiot ! Why then don't you die as speedily as possible 
so that you may with that cease from bewaihng your 
unhappiness and poverty ? " '^ 

4. \VTien someone inquired why they did not 
dedicate to the gods the arms taken from the enemy, 
he said that property wrested from its owners owing 
to cowardice it is not good either for the young men 
to see, or to dedicate to the gods.^ 

LEO, SON OF EURYCRATIDAS f 
1. When Leo, the son of Eurycratidas, was asked 
what kind of a city one could live in so as to live 
most safely, he said, " Where the inhabitants shall 
possess neither too much nor too little, and where 
right shall be strong and wrong shall be weak." 

of Alexandria, Stromata, viii. 843 ed. Potter; or iii. 18, ed. 
Stahlin ; Cicero, De divinatione, ii. 28 (62). 

•* Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 4, where the remark is attri- 
buted to Antisthenes. * Cf. Moral ia, 224 b (18), supra. 

/ King of Sparta in the first half of the seventh century b.c. 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

2, *Opa>v Se rovg eV 'OAu/ATrta Spo/xetj (T7rou8a- 
t,ovras TTepl ttjv acfyeaiv tva TrXeoveKri^GCOGLV, " oorco 
[xdXXov," €(f)r], " ol SpofxeLg G7TOv8d^ovGL 7T€pl rrjs 
ra-xvrriros t] irepl rrjs SLKatoavvr)?." 

3. 'A/catpo)? Se tlvo? irepl Trpay/xarcov ovk o.)(piq- 
arojv SiaXexOevTogy " co ^eVe," elnev, *' ovk iv 
hiovTL xpfj T"<? Seovn." 

AEfiNIAOT TOT ANAHANAPIAA 

1. AccDv/Sa? o *Ava|^avSpt8a, d8eA(/»os' Se KAeo- 
225 iiivovs, TTpos TLva eiTTOvra, " ttAt^v tou ^aaiXeveLV 

rjfjiajv ovoev OiacpepeL?, aAA ovk av, ^917, ec 
^1107 ^eXriaiv vjjlcov TJfMrjv, i^aoiXevov." 

2. Tt}? Se yuvaiKos avrov Topyovs irvvOavo- 
{JLevrjgy ore clg SepfjiOTrvXas e'^TJ^t tco Yleparj 
p,axov[JL€Vos, €1 ri avrfj evriXXerai, €<j)7], " dyadolg 
yaixeicrdai /cat dyaOd rt/cretv." 

3. AeyovTcov Se rcov icjyopajv oXlyovs dyeiv avrov 
els SepjJLOTTvXag, " ovk dXXd TrXeovas/'^ 6^17, " Trpos 
rjv j8a8t^o/xey Trpd^iv." 

4. IlaAtv 8e aureus' eliTOvrajv, " fJi^'^ ri erepov 8t.- 
eyvojKas TTOielv r] rds Trapohco rojs ^ap^dpcjs^ 
kcjXv€Lv;" "rep Xoyw," e(f)rj, " ra> 8' epyco oltto- 
davovfievos virep rojv ^^XX'qvcjv." 

B 5. TevopLevos 8e iv SepixoTrvXais Trpos rovs 
(jvorrparicjras eiTre, " Xdyovrt rov ^dp^apov iyyvs 

^ oiiK, dXXd TrX^oi'as (irXiovas?) F.C.B. : ovk, dXXas or ovk 
oXLyov^j or nothing at all {o^k^ dXX' aXts or ovk, dXXa 7roXXo«>s is 
suggested by Bernardakis). 

^ ras irapbbw tws (Sap^dpus Kronenberg: rds Trapodovs tuv 
^ap^dpojv. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 216 f (2), supra. 
34,6 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 224-225 

2. Seeing that the runners at Olympia were eager 
to gain some advantage in starting, he said, " How 
much more eager are the runners for a quick start 
than for fair play ! " 

3. When someone, at an inappropriate time, dis- 
coursed about some matters which were not un- 
profitable, he said, " My friend, in needless time you 
dwell upon the need ! " " 

LEONIDAS, SON OF ANAXANDRIDAS » 

1. Leonidas, the son of Anaxandridas and the 
brother of Cleomenes, in answer to a man who 
remarked, " Except for your being king, you are no 
diiferent from the rest of us," said, " But if I were 
no better than you others, I should not be king." 

2. His wife Gorgo inquired, at the time when he 
was setting forth to Thermopylae to fight the Persian, 
if he had any instructions to give her, and he said, 
" To marry good men and bear good children." '^ 

S. When the Ephors said that he was taking but 
few men to Thermopylae, he said, " Too many for 
the enterprise on which w^e are going." <^ 

4. And when again they said, " Hae ye decided to 
dae aught else save to keep the barbarians from 
gettin' by ? " " Nominally that," he said, " but 
actually expecting to die for the Greeks." 

5. When he had arrived at Thermopylae, he said 
to his comrades in arms, " They say that the bar- 

^ The hero of Thermopylae. These sayings were doubtless 
incorporated, or meant to be incorporated, in Plutarch's 
Life of Leonidas, according to what he says in Moralia, 
866 B ; and some of them may be found in Moralia, 854 e- 
874 D {Be Herodoti malignitate). 

« Cf Moralia, 240 e (6), infra, and 866 b. 

<* Ibid. Cf. also 225 b (8 and 9), infra, and 866 b. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(225) y€v6[i€vov Trpotfiev,^ dfie^ 8e xpoyorpiPeecv i^Sry yap 
7j Kaveofxes^ T(hs ^ap^dpojs rj avrol reOvajxev 
fieXXoixeg." 

6. AeyovTos 8e tlvos, " oltto tojv otcrrcu/xaTCOV 
T(x)v ^ap^dpwv ouSe rov -qXiov Ihetv ecrnv, " ovk- 
ovv/' €(l)rj, " xdpi^u, el vtto oklS.*' avrols fxax^oo- 
fjLeda." 

7. *'AAAou Se €L7r6vTOs, " TrdpeicfLV iyyvg rjficjv/' 
" ovKovv," ecjiT], " Acat r]ixels avrcbv iyyv£." 

8. EtTTOvTO? Se TLVos " d) AeojvlSa, Trpos ttoAAous" 
jLter' oXlyctJV SiaKivhwevacDV ovtco irapei; ei 
[JL€V o'UcrOe [.i€," €(f)rj, " rep rrXriOei, ou8e r] irdoa 

C 'EAAa? dpKei- ^pax^la yap {.lolpa rod eKeivojv 
ttXtjOovs icjriv el be rat? dperois, Kal ovros 6 
apiifpLos iKavog. 

9. "AAAou he rd avrd Xeyovrog, " /cat pLrji^/' 
eiTTev, " TToXXov? errdyofxai (hs aTToOavoupLepovg." 

10. 'E.ep^ov Se ypdipavTog avrcp, " e^ecrn gol pL7] 
OeopLaxovvTL, pier epiov Se raTro/xeVoj, rrjs 'EAAaSo? 
piovapx^'^v ," dvreypaifjeVy "el rd KaXd rod ^iov 
eylycoGKeg,^ direor-qs dv rrjg rcjv dXXorplcov ein- 
dvpiias' epLol he Kpeirroiv 6 virep rrjs 'EAAaSos" 
ddvarog rod pLOvapxelv tojv 6p.o(f)vXcx)v." 

11. IldXiv he rod "Eep^ov ypdi/javrog, " Trepupov 
D TO, dirXa*' dyreypaipe, " pLoXcbv Xd^e." 

1 irpoLfxeu F.C.B. : a lacuna in one ms. : nothing in the rest. 

2 mpLe F.C.B. : &/.L^€. 

^ T) Kav^o/xes {Kapiofxes? Kavifxev?) F.C.B.: rj Krd/iev Ber- 
nardakis : TJKafies or rjKafxev. 

* (TKL^ F.C.B. (Herodotus, vii. 226, and Stobaeus, Flori- 
legium^ vii. 46): «r/cidf. 

5 iyiyvwffKei F.C.B.: iyivuffKes Bernardakis: yi.yu}<7K€is or 
yivibaKois, 

348 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 225 

barian has come near and is comin' on while we 
are wastin' time. Truth, soon we shall either kill 
the barbarians, or else we are bound to be killed 
oursel's," 

6. When someone said, " Because of the arrows of 
the barbarians it is impossible to see the sun," he 
said, " Won't it be nice, tlien, if we shall have shade 
in which to fight them ? " ^ 

7. When someone else said, " They are near to us," 
he said, " Then we also are near to them." * 

8. When someone said, " Leonidas, are you here 
to take such a hazardous risk with so few men against 
so many ? " he said, " If you men think that I rely 
on numbers, then all Greece is not sufficient, for 
it is but a small fraction of their numbers ; but if on 
men's valour, then this number will do." 

9. When another man remarked the same thing 
he said, " In truth I am taking many if they are all 
to be slain. "'^ 

10. Xerxes ^\Tote to him, " It is possible for you, 
by not fighting against God but by ranging yourself 
on my side, to be the sole ruler of Greece." But he 
wrote in reply, " If you had any knowledge of the 
noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting 
others' possessions ; but for me to die for Greece is 
better than to be the sole ruler over the people of 
my race." 

11. When Xerxes wrote again, " Hand over your 
arms," he ^^Tote in reply, " Come and take them." 

" The remark is attributed to Dieneces by Herodotus, 
vii. 226. Cf. Stobaeus, Florilegium, vii. 46 ; Valerius 
Maximus, ill. 7, ext. 8 ; Cicero, Tusculan Disputations^ i. 
42 (101). 

'' Cf. Moralia, IQ^ d, supra, and 234 b. 

« Cf. Moralia, 225 a (3), supra, and 866 b. 
VOL. Ill 2 M 2 349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(225) 12. BouAo/xeVou 8' avrov rjhr] rot? TToXcfitois 
iTTLTLOeadai, ol TroXeixapxoL irpos avrov e(j)aaav on 
Set 7Tpo(jfjL€V€LV avTov Tovs oXXovs C7U/Xfta;(0f s" " ov 
yo-p," e^T^, " TTOLpeiGLV ol pidx^crOaL p^eXXovres; 'q 
ovK lore on piovoi irpos rovs rroXepLLovs pidxpvrai 
ol rovs ^aoiXeas alhovpLevoi kol (l)oPovp€voL; " 

13. Tots' Se arpancorais TrapT^yyetXev dpiarO' 
TTOielaOaL ws iv "At8ou 8ei7rvo7TOLr]aop,€vovs. 

14. ^Eipajrrjdels Se 8td rl ol dpiaroL rov evho^ov 
Odvarov rrjs dSo^ov TrpoKpivovoi i^ojrjsy " on," €(f)r], 
" ro pL€V rrjs (jjvorecos lBlov, ro hk avrcjv elvai 
vopiil^ovGiv." 

E 15. Tovs Se rjideovs ^ovXop^evos Uipoai koX 
eTTiardpievos avriKpvs ovk dve^op^evovs, (TKvrdiXas 
Sovs Kad^ €va avrojv irpos rovs i(f)6povs CTre/x^e. 
Kal rcov reXelojv 8e rpeXs ipovXi^Or] hiaacoaai' ol hk 
Gvwoijcravres ovk rjveoxovro Xa^eiv rds OKvrdXas' 
a)v 6 pukv €L7T(EV, " OV KTJpv^ dXXd piax'qrds aKoXov- 
O-qaa "' 6 Sk hevrepos, " avrov p^evajv Kpeoraajv dv 
etrjv"' 6 Bk rpiroSi " ovx vcrrepos rovrojv, npcoros 
hk /xa;^rjc7o/xat." 

AOXArOT 

Aoxayos 6 HoXvaivlhov /cat Heipcovos Trarrjp, 
aTTayyeiXavros nvos avra> on rajv vla)V redvqKOi 
6 erepos, " ndXai, rjhetv/' c^ry, " on. aTTodavelv 
avrov eoet. 



• Cf. Moralia, 185 f, stipra. 

" Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 42 (101) ; Valerius 
Maximus, iii. 2, ext. 3. 

* The reference is to a well-known form of cipher message 
in use among the Spartans. A narrow leather thong was 
350 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 225 

12. He wished to engage the enemy at once, but 
the other commanders, in answer to his proposal, 
said that he must wait for the rest of the alhes. 
" Why," said he, " are not all present who intend 
to fight ? ° Or do you not realize that the only men 
who fight against the enemy are those who respect 
and revere their kings ? " 

13. He bade his soldiers eat their breakfast as if 
they were to eat their dinner in the other world. ^ 

14. Being asked why the best of men prefer a 
glorious death to an inglorious hfe, he said, " Because 
they beheve the one to be Nature's gift but the 
other to be within their owti control." 

15. Wishing to save the lives of the young men, 
and kno^ving full well that they would not submit 
to such treatment, he gave to each of them a secret 
dispatch,^ and sent them to the Ephors. He con- 
ceived the desire to save also three of the gro\vn men, 
but they fathomed his design, and would not submit 
to accepting the dispatches.^ One of them said, " I 
came with the army, not to carry messages, but to 
fight ; " and the second, " I should be a better man 
if I stayed here " ; and the third, " I will not be 
behind these, but first in the fight." 

LOCHAGUS 
Lochagus, the father of Polyaenides and Seiron, 
when word w^as brought to him that one of his sons 
was dead, said, " I have known this long while that 
he was fated to die." 

wrapped around a cylinder, and on the surface thus formed 
the message was written. When the thong was received it 
was applied to a duplicate cylinder kept by the recipient, 
and so the message was read. 

" Cf. Moralia, 866 b ; and Herodotus, vii. 221, 229, 230. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ATKOTPrOT 

1. AvKovpyos 6 vofioBeriqs PovX6[jl€vos €K rrjs 
TTpovTTapxovGTjs hiair7]s rovs TToXiras ^Is aco^pove- 
arlpav ^lov ra^iv fjLerdyeLV Kal KoXoKayaBiKovs 
arrepydl^^udai [d^pohiairoi yap rjcrav) Svo aKvXaKag 
di'eOpei/je ravrov rrarpos Kal jjLTjTpos yevofxevovs' 
/cat rov ix€v eWiae ire pi \f)(y€ias o'lkol idaas' rov Se 
irrayopLevog -qaKYjore -nepl Kvviqyeoia. eVetra dyayojv 
etV T-qv eKKX-iqoiav edi]K€v aKdvdas Kal Xtx^elag 
TLvdg, d(j)rJK€ Se Kal Xaywv eKaripov 8* eVt rd 
GvvqOr] opfjirjcravTos Kal daripov rov Xayojv ■)(eLpaj- 
aafievov, €L7T€v, " Spare , co TToXlrai, on ravrov 
226 y^vov£ vrrdpxovres ev rfj rod ^iov dycoyfj irapd 
TToXv dXXijXajv hid^opoi drre^rjoaVy Kal TroLrjrLKO)- 
repa rrjs <j>v(jecx)s r) daKr^GLs npds rd KaXd rvy- 
xdvei; " 

Tives he (/yaoriv, c5?^ ov Traprjye cKvXaKas, ol €K 
rajv avrojv yeyovoreg ervyxoL^ov, dAA' 6 fxev ef 
OLKOvpcnv, erepos 8' e/c Kw-qyeriKchv Kaireira rov 
jjLev eK rov ;)(etpovo? yevovs Trpos rd Kvvrjyeaia 
TJGK-qae, rov Se eK rov dpieivovos nepl Xixveias 
piovov eWiaev eW^ eKarepov e^* a eWioro oppiTj' 
uavros, (fiavepov TToirjaas duov rj dyojyrj rrpog rd 
dfieLVCD Kal X^^P^ avXXaji^dverai , elnev, " ovkovv 
Kal Tjfids, c5 TToXlraiy ovSev rj rrapd roZs rroXXols 
davpLal,opievr] evyeveia Kal rd d(f)^ 'HpaKXeovs etvai 
B ovLvrjGLV, el fxr) Trpdrrofxev St' a eKeivos drrdvrcov 
dvdp(jj7T(x)V emSo^orepos Kal evyeveorepos e(f)dvr], 
1 u)s] omitted in most mss. 

" The reputed founder of the Spartan constitution. A 
brief account of his laws may be found also in Porphry, Da 
ahstinentia^ iv. 3 IF. 

352 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 225-226 

LYCURGUS « 

1. Lycurgus, the lawgiver, \vishing to recall the 
citizens from the mode of living then existent, and 
to lead them to a more sober and temperate order 
of life, and to render them good and honourable men 
(for they were Uving a soft life), reared two puppies 
of the same litter ; and one he accustomed to dainty 
food, and allowed it to stay in the house ; the other 
he took afield and trained in hunting. Later he 
brought them into the public assembly and put down 
some bones and dainty food and let loose a hare. 
Each of the dogs made for that to which it was ac- 
customed, and, when the one of them had overpowered 
the hare, he said, " You see, fellow-citizens, that 
these dogs belong to the same stock, but by \1rtue 
of the discipline to which they have been subjected 
they have turned out utterly different from each 
other, and you also see that training is more effective 
than Nature for good." ^ 

But some say that he did not bring in dogs which 
were of the same stock, but that one was of the breed 
of house dogs and the other of hunting dogs ; then 
he trained the one of inferior stock for hunting, and 
the one of better stock he accustomed to dainty food. 
And afterwards, as each made for that to which it 
had become accustomed, he made it clear how much 
instruction contributes for better or worse, saying, 
" So also in our case, fellow-citizens, noble birth, so 
admired of the multitude, and our being descended 
from Heracles does not bestow any advantage, unless 
we do the sort of things for which he was manifestly 
the most glorious and most noble of all mankind, and 

* As in Moral ia^ 3 a. 

353 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(226) d(JKoviJL€voL /cat [xavdavovres KaXa 8t' oXov rod 

O' >> 

piov. 

2. 'AvaSacr/xov 8e ttj? y?}? TroiTJcra? /cat auaoiv 
Xgov kXtjpov Tols TToKirais veLjiag, Xeyerat varepov 
TTore XP^^V "^W X^P^^ hiepxojxevov^ ef airohiqiiias 
dpn redepLGfjLevrjVj ISovra^ rov? oojpovs Keifxevovs 
Trap* aXXriXovs /cat 6p.aXovg rjadijvai, /cat /xetSta- 
aavra elrreZv TTpos rovg Trapovras ojg rj AaKcovLKr) 
(f)aLV€TaL TTdora ttoXXwv dS€X(j)cov elvau vecoari 
vevepLTjixivajv. 

3. Kat row XP^^^ ^^ diroKOTrds elarjyrjGdpievos 
C iirex^tpyjor^ /cat rd /car' oIkov ovra iravra i^ laov 

Siaipelv, O7T60S" TTavrdrraGiv c^eAot to dvLoov /cat 
dvajpiaXov . errel 8e x^Xeirajg icopa TTpoahe^Ojjievovs 
TTjv dvTLKpvs dcfiaipeoLv, TO T€ xp^(^ovv /cat dpyv- 
povv v6{JLL(TiJLa rjKvpcode, fjuovo) 8e rep oiSrjpaJ irpoa- 
era^e jj^pT^a^at* /cat fJi^xpi'S ov Set ex^t'^ rrjv oXrjv 
D virap^LV Trpos djjboi^rjv rovrov, Trepiajpiae. tovtov 
8e yevofxivov y i^eireae rrjs AaKeSatpLovos aSt/cta 
Trdaa' ovre yap kX€7tt€lv ovre hojpohoKeZv ovre 
dTTOorepeiv r] dpnd/^eLv en iSvvaro tls, o jx'qre 
KaraKpvifjai ^vvardv r^v pbTjre KTrjaaadai^ ^rjXcorov 
pbrjre ;)^p')]o-acr^at dKLvhvvov, jjLijre i^dyeiv rj indyeLV 
docjiaXls. Trpos Se Toi^TOts" /cat dTrdvTOJV rcbv Trepir- 
ra)V ^ev-qXaaiav eTTonqoaro- 8to ovre €jX7Topos ovre 
Go^iUTTis ovre fxdvTLS ^^ dyvpT7]s ovre tojv Kara- 
aKevaajxarajv hrnxiovpyos etViJet ets" rr]v Hirdpr-qv, 

* oupxofJievov and ibbura F.C.B. from the Life of Lycurgus^ 
chap. viii. (which has bpCovTo) : di^pxoueuos and iduv (or 
fieidtdaavTa might be changed to /xeLdidaas). 

^ KTrjaaadai] KeKTrjadai in Life of LycurguSy chap, ix, 

^ fi\ Kronenberg would omit. 

354 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 226 

unless we practise and learn what is good our whole 
life long." 

2. He made a redistribution of the land, and 
assigned an equal share to all the citizens ; and it is 
said that a while later, on returning from abroad, as 
he passed through the country, where the harvesting 
had just been finished, and saw the cocks of grain 
standing near together in even lines, he was much 
pleased, and said with a smile to those who were with 
him that it looked as if all the Spartan land belonged 
to many brothers who had recently divided it." 

3. Having introduced the abolition of debts, he 
next undertook to divide equally all household 
furnishings, so as to do away completely with all 
inequality and disparity. But when he saw that the 
people were hkely to demur about assenting to this 
outright spoliation, he decreed that gold and silver 
coin should in future have no value, and ordained 
that the people should use iron money only. He also 
limited the time within which it was lawful to ex- 
change their present holdings for this money. When 
this had been done, all ^\Tongdoing was banished 
from Sparta. For nobody was able to steal or to 
accept a bribe or to defraud or rob any more, when 
the result was something of which concealment was 
not possible, nor was its acquisition envied, nor its 
use without risk, nor its exportation or importation 
safe. As an added measure, he brought about the 
banishment from Sparta of everything not absolutely 
necessary. And, by reason of this, no merchant, no 
pubhc lecturer, no soothsayer or mendicant priest, 
no maker of fancy articles ever made his way into 

" Related with more detail by Plutarch in his Life of 
LycurguSt chap. viii. {H a). 

355 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(226) ovSe yap vojJLKJfJLa Trap' avrois €vxp'r]crrov etaac, 
fjLOVov Se TO Gihiqpovv eLGT^y^aaro, 6 ioTi pivd 
oXktj Klyivaia, SvvdjjLet Se xctA/cot recraapes. 

4. ^^TTtdeaOaL Se rfj rpvcj^fj /cat rov t,rjXov a^- 
eXeoOai rod ttXovtov Siavo-qdel? to, Gvaalna elcr- 

E rjyqaaro. rrpos yovv rovs eTTit^iqrodvTas Std rl 
ravra ovvearrjaaro /cat fjLeO* ottXcov /car* oXlyovs 
Tovs TToXiras hiripiqKev, " ottojs," eiTTev, " ef iroLfiov 
TO, TTapayyeXXofieva Se;)^a>VTat, /cat eav rt vecorepi- 
t^ojuLVy ev oXiyois fj to d/x7rAa/c7^/xa, tao/xotpta re 
T-^S" Tpo(f)7Jg /cat TTocrews' 77 /cat /xt^tc Trdaet Ttvt -^ 
ppa)G€L dXXa jLtT^Se GrpojjjLvfj rj GKemaiv tj aXXcp 
rivl TO CTuvoAoy nXeov €XJ} TrAoucrtos' tou Trevrjrog." 

5. "A^T^Aov Se TTOi-^Gag rov ttXovtov, ovSevos 
ouSe XPV^^'^'' oj5Se eVtSetfai Swajxevov, eXeye irpos 
rov? crvvrjdeis, '* ojs /caAov icmv, cL iralpoL, Std 

F Tcov epyo}V cTrtSetf at toi^ ttAoutov oTTOtos" eort ttJ 
dXrjBeia, on rvcjiXos." 

6. riape^i^Aafe Se coo-Te /xo^Se ot/cot TrpoSetTTVi]- 
cravTas" e^eZvai ^aSt^etv eTrt Td (jvooiria TreTrXr^poi- 
[livovg irepojv iSeGfidrcov 7) Trajfidrcov^- eKdKi^ov Se 
ot AotTTOt Tov p.r] TTLOvra 7] (jyayovra jLteT* avrojv, (Ls 
aKparrj /cat Trpo? ttjv kolvtjv dTTOfiaXaKtl^oficvov 
StatTav i^rjjjLLovTo Se /cat d (j)av€p6s yevojxevos. 
"AytSo? yow jLtCTa ttoAup' ;\;povoi^ tou ^aaiXiojs 
eTTaveXdovTos oltto arparetas (/caTaTreTToAe/XT^/cet Se 

^ TTw/xdra;;/ the better spelling : Tro/udrwv. 

" Plutarch tells all this, at somewhat greater length, in his 
Life of Lycurgus, chap. ix. (440). Cf. also Xenophon, 
Constitution of Sparta, 7. 5 and 6 ; Plato, Eryxias, 400 b ; 
Pollux, Onomasticon, vii. 105, and ix. 79 ; Justin, Historiae 
Philippicaey iii. 2. 11-12. 

S56 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 226 

Sparta. The reason was that he permitted no handy 
coinage to circulate among them, but instituted the 
iron coinage exclusively, which in weight was over 
a pound and a quarter, and in value not quite a penny .° 

4. Having determined to make an attack upon the 
prevaiUng luxury, and to do away with the rivalry 
for riches, he instituted the common meals. And in 
answer to those who sought to know why he had 
established these, and had divided the citizens, when 
under arms, into small companies, he said, " So that 
they may get their orders promptly, and, in case they 
cherish any radical designs, the offence may be con- 
fined to a small number ; also that there may be for 
all an equal portion of food and drink, and so that 
not only in drink or food, but in bedding or furniture 
or anything else whatsoever, the rich man may have 
no advantage at all over the poor man." ^ 

5. Having made wealth unenviable, since nobody 
could make any use or show of it, he said to his 
intimate friends, " What a good thing it is, my 
friends, to show in actual practice the true charac- 
teristic of wealth, that it is blind ! " '^ 

6. He took good care that none should be allowed 
to dine at home and then come to the common meal 
stuffed ^vith other kinds of food and drink. The rest 
of the company used to berate the man who did not 
drink or eat with them, because they felt that he was 
lacking in self-control, and was too soft for the com- 
mon way of Hving.^ Moreover, a fine was laid upon 
the man who was detected. A case in point is that 
of Agis, their king, who, returning from a long cam- 
paigning in which he had overcome the Athenians in 

^ Plutarch amplifies this account in his Life of LycurguSt 
chap. X. (45 b). " Ibid. (45 c). «* Rid. (45 d). 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

227 ^ AdrjvaLovg) y jSouAo/ieVou irapa rfj yvvaiKL fiia 
r}fJL€pa SeLTTvrJGaL Kal fjLeraTTefiTTOjjLevov ras" jJieplSas, 
ovK €7T€fiipav ol TToXiiiap^oi' [xed^ rjpiepav 8^ 
(j>avepov yevopiivov tois e^opot?, il^rjpacodr] vtt* 
avrcov. 

7. npo? ovv TOL Toiavra rwv vopLoderr^pLarcov 
XO-X^TTTivavTes ol eviropoi eTnovvioriqaav /cat i^Xa- 
G(f)'f]pLovv avTov Kal epaXXov, KaraXevorai j8ou- 
X6pL€VOL' SLcoKofievos Se hierreae 8ta r-;^? ayopas- 
Kal Tovs pikv ctAAous" €(f)9a(T€V €LS TO lepov rrj? 
XOlXkloIkov ^Adrjvds KaTa<j>vy<jjV' "AA/cavSpo? Se 
€7noTpa(j)ivTO£ avrov Slcokojv rfj ^aKrrjpLa rov 
o^daXpbOV €^€Koip€v avrov. rovrov Se kolvoj Soy- 
jjLan rrapaXa^ojv inl npLajpia ovre KaKws hUdiqKev 

B ovr€ ipLepuJjaro, cruvStatraj/xevov Sc excov direSei^ev 
iTTatverrjv avrov re Kal rrjs SiaLrrjg 7]V ef^c ovv 
avrcp, Kal KadoXov rrjg dycoyrjg epaari^v. rov 8e 
rrdOovs vvopiv-qpia ISpvoraro eV ro) rrjg j^aXKioiKov 
repbivei lepov ^Adrjvdg, 'OTrrtAAertv 7rpoaayop€v eras' 
rovs yap 6(f)daXpiOvs oirriXXovs ol rfjhe Aco/Jtets" 
Xiyovaiv. 

8. ^Yipcjrrjdels Se Sta ri ovk ixp'qcrcLTO vojxols 
€yypd(l)OL9, " on," €(j)T], " ol TrevratSeu/xeVot /cat 
dx&^^Tes rfj TTpocrrjKovorrj dyojyfj ro rov Kaipov 
XprjoLfiov 8o/ct/xaJouCTt/' 

9. HaAtv 8' i7nt,r]rovvrcov nvcbv, 8td rt 6po(f)rjv 
diTO TreAe/cecos" rats ot/ctats" eVtrt^eVat TTpoadra^e, 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xii. (46 c). 

^ Pkitarch tells the story more fully in his Life of Lycurgus^ 
chap. xi. (45 d-46 a) ; cf. also Aelian, Varia Historia^ xiii. 
23, and Stobaeus, Florilegium, xix. 13. 
358 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 227 

war, wished to dine at home with his wife on this one 
day, and sent for his allowance of food ; but the 
military commanders would not send it ; and the 
following day, when the matter was disclosed to the 
Ephors, he was fined by them.** 

7. The well-to-do citizens resented legislation of 
this type, and, banding together, they denounced 
him and pelted him, wishing to stone him to death. 
As he was being pursued, he rushed through the 
market-place ; and he out-distanced almost all his 
pursuers, and gained refuge in the shrine of Athena 
of the Brazen House ; only, as he turned around, 
Alcander, who was pursuing him, put out one of his 
eyes by a stroke of his staff. But when, later, 
Lycurgus received Alcander, who was handed over 
to him for punishment by vote of the people, he did 
not treat him ill nor blame him, but, by compelling 
him to live under the same roof with him, he brought 
it to pass that Alcander had only commendation for 
Lycurgus and for the manner of living which he had 
found there, and was altogether enamoured of this 
discipline. Lycurgus dedicated a memorial of his 
unhappy experience in the shrine of Athena of the 
Brazen House, and gave to her the added epithet of 
Optilletis ; for the Dorians in this part of the world 
call the eyes * optics (optillot).' ^ 

8. Being asked why he had not made any use of 
written laws, he said, " Because those who are trained 
and disciplined in the proper discipline can deteraiine 
what will best serve the occasion." ° 

9- At another time when some sought to know why 
he had ordained that the people should use only an 
axe in putting a roof on their houses, and make a 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xiii. (47 a). 

359 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(227) OvpoLV Se dno Trpiovos fxovov Kal firjSei'o^ tojv 
aAAa)v epyaXeUoVy " ottojs dV," ec/*-)], " pL€Tpidt,oiev 
OL TToXXrat irepl navra, oaa elg rrjv oiKLav ela- 
dyovGi, Kal fi-qhev rcjv Trap* dXKois l^rjXovfJbevwv 
exoJOLV." 

10. *Ek: Se TavTrjs rrjg avvrjOeias (f)aal /cat Accu- 
rvx^Srjv TOP TTpcoTOv ^aaiXea SecTTvovvra irapd tlvl, 
Kal Oeaodp.evov rrjs areyqs rod o'lkov rrjv napa- 
GKevTjV TToXvreXrj Kal <^aTva>fiarLK'qv, ipojrrjaaL top 
^ivov et reT pdy ojva Trap* avroZs ^vXa (jyverai. 

11. ^^pa>rrjOels he hid ri eKwXvGev iirl rovs 
avTovs TToXepiiovs TroAAa/ct? ar par eveoO at y €(f)rj, 

" Iva fJLT] TToXXdKLS dfJLVVeGdai OVVedLt^OlXeVOL €fJL- 

TTeipoi TToXifiov yevcovrai." hio Kal 'AyrycrtAaou* 
eyAcAr^jLta ov ^pa^v eho^ev eti^at, rats' els ttjv 
•D BotojTtav avvexeGLv elo^oXat? Kal OTpareiais rovs 
Qr]^aLovs dvrLTrdXovs AaKehaipiovioLs KaradKevd- 
aavros.^ rerpojpiivov yovv Ihcbv avrov 'AvraA/ctSa?, 
" KaXd,'* elTTC, " rpo(f>€La dnex^iS, pirj povXofievovs 
avrovs pirjhe^ elhoras pidxeodai hihd^as." 

12. "AAAou he eiTitprirovvros, hid ri rd awpiara 
rcov Trapdevcov hpopiois Kal irdXais Kal ^oXais 
hiGKOJV Kal dKovriojv hieirov-qoev y " iv\*' e(f)r], " tj 
rcjv yevvojfievcov pit,(x>Gis laxvpdv iv loxvpois 
acofjiaoiv dpx'r]v Xa^ovaa KaXoJs pXaardvr), avrai 
re jxerd pwpi7]9 rovs roKovs VTTOfievovaai pahiojs 
re djxa Kal KaXcos dycjjvit^ojvrai TTpos rds (hhlvas, 

^ 'A-yeaiXaov or ' XyeaCKdif but usually KaraaKevdaavTos ; 
presumably they should agree as in the Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. xiii. 

* ixrjdk to accord with other quotations of the passage ; fx-qre. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xiii. (47 c), and 
Moi-alia, 189 e (3), supra. 
S60 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 227 

door with a saw only and none of the other tools, he 
said, " So that the citizens may be moderate in regard 
to all the things which they bring into the house, and 
may possess none of the things which are the cause of 
rivalry among other peoples." " 

10. It was because of this custom also that their 
first king Leotychidas, dining at somebody's house ^ 
and observing the construction of the ceiling, which 
was expensive and embellished with panels, asked 
his host if timbers grew square in their country ! 

11. Being asked why he had prohibited frequent 
campaigns against the same foes, he said, " So that 
they may not, by becoming accustomed to defending 
themselves frequently, become skilled in war." It 
was for this reason also that there appeared to be no 
sHght ground for complaint against Agesilaus, who 
by his almost continual inroads and campaigns into 
Boeotia had rendered the Thebans a match for the 
Spartans. At any rate Antalcidas, when he saw him 
wounded, exclaimed, " You have got a handsome 
reward as you deserve for your fostering care in 
teaching them to fight when they did not wish to 
fight and did not even know how." ° 

12. WTien someone else desired to know why he 
instituted strenuous exercise for the bodies of the 
maidens in races and ^\Testling and throwing the 
discus and javelin, he said, " So that the implanted 
stock of their offspring, by getting a strong start in 
strong bodies, may attain a noble growth, and that 
they themselves may vrith. vigour abide the birth of 
their children and readily and nobly resist the pains 

^ In Corinth, according to Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. xiii. (47 c) ; of. also Moralia, 189 e, supra, and the note. 

" Cf. Plutarch's i(/"^ of Lycurgus, chap. xiii. (47 d), and 
Moralia, 189 d, supra, and the note. 

361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(227) /cat, et rc^ avdyKf] yevotro, SvvojvraL vrrep avrojv 
Kal tIkvcov /cat ttJ? irarpiho? jxax^crOai." 

E 13. M€iJi(f)oixevcov Sc tlvcov rrjv yvfjLVOjaLV rcjv 
napOeucov ev rat? vTO/XTrats' /cat tt^v alriav J^tjtovv- 
rcjv, " Iv y 607^, " rot aura rot? dv8pao-tv €7rt- 
rr^Seuouaat [i-qhev jxelov €XOJ(Jl fi'^re Kara owfiaros 
Icrxvv /cat vyUiav fjLrjre Kara ipv^rfs c^tAortjLttav /cat 
dperi^v, 8o^7^? he rrj? irapa rots 77oAAot? VTrepcfypovo)- 
CTLV." 66 ev /cat Trept Topyovg loTopeirai rrj£ Aea>- 
vtSou yvvaiKO? roiovrov elnovG-qg yap tlvo9, d)S 
eoLKe ^evq^y Trpos avrrjv (hs " jxovai rcov dvSpcov 

F dpyere vjxels at Ad/catrat," dveKplvaTO, " pLOvai 
yap r^fxeZs dvhpas TLKTOfJLev." 

14. Etpfa? Se Tovs dydfJLOvg rrjg ev rat? yvfjLVO- 
TraiStat? ^ea? /cat dnfjuiav TrpoGdelg, ttoXXtjv irpo- 
voiav eTTOLrjcraro rrjs rrat8o770tta?' rijjirjs 8e /cat 
depairelas , rfv veoi TTpea^vrepois Trapeixov, eGreprjae, 
/cat TO Tipo? AepKvXlSav piqOev ouSet? epiepLijjaTO , 
Kaiirep evhoKipiOV ovra Grpanqyov eiTLovri yap 
auroi rci)v veojrepoiv rt? eh pas ovx vrrel^ev elncvv, 
" ovhe yap ifJLol gv rov vTrei^ovra eyevvqoas." 

15. Yivvdavoixevov he rtvo?, 8td rt Tag Kopas 
evojjioderrjcrev drrpoLKOvg e/c8t8o(T^at, " onajg," e(f)r], 
** fjLTJre 8t' eV8etav dyafioi rcves eaBtoai fjLrjre hia 
TTepiovaiav OTTOvhdl^ojvraiy eKaaros he et? tov rpo- 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xiv. (47 f); 
Suidas, Lexicon, under Lycurgus. 

^ Cf Moralia, 240 e (5) infray and Plutarch's Life of 
Lycurgus, chap. xiv. (47 e-48 b). 

* Ibid. chap. xv. (48 c) ; and Moralia, 223 a, supra. 

S62 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 227 

of travail ; and moreover, if the need arise, that they 
may be able to fight for themselves, their children, 
and their country." '^ 

13. When some persons expressed disapproval of 
the nudity of the maidens in the processions, and 
sought to know the reason for it, he said, " So that 
they, by following the same practices as the men, may 
not be inferior to them either in bodily strength and 
health or in mental aspirations and quahties, and 
that they may despise the opinion of the crowd." 
Wherefore is recorded also in regard to Gorgo, the 
wife of Leonidas, a saying to this effect : when some \ 
woman, a foreigner presumably, remarked to her, 

" You Spartan women are the only women that lord 
it over your men," she replied, " Yes, for we are the 
only women that are mothers of men ! " ^ 

14. By excluding the unmarried from looking on at 
the festival of the naked youth, and by laying upon 
them other additional disgrace, he created much 
concern about having children. He also deprived 
them of the honour and attention which the young 
bestowed on their elders. And nobody said a word 
against the remark which was made to Dercyhdas, 
although he was a general and in high repute ; for 
one of the younger men, as Dercylidas approached, 
did not rise to offer his seat, saying, " No, for you 
are not the father of any son who will rise and offer 
his seat to me." ^ 

15. When someone inquired why he had made a 
law that girls should be given in marriage without 
any dowry, he said, " So that some of them shall not 
be left unwedded because of lack of means, and 
some shall not be eagerly sought because of abundant 
wealth, but that each man, wdth an eye to the ways 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTOV TTJs naiSos d(f)Opa)v dperfj rrjv alpeaiv ttolcov- 
228 ''■ctt/" 8ia TOVTO Se Kal rov KaXXajTncrfXov Trjs 
TToXecu? dm^Xacrev. 

16. 'Optcravro? Se avrov Kal rov xpo^ov tojv re 
yajxovixivcov /cat tcjv yapLOvvrojv , rrpos rov 1,7)- 
rovvra,^ " iv\" ecjyr], " rd yevvcLjJLeva Idxvpd fj eV 
reXeiCDV yevvcofieva." 

17. ripo? Se rov davpLat^ovTa, Si* o rt rov yeyafXT]- 
Kora d7T€ip^€ jjiTj (jvyKoipLddd ai rfj yeyapirjfxevrjy 
TTpouira^e Se to TrXelarov rrjs 'qpuepas (jwelvai rots 
rjXLKLwraLS Kal rag vuKras oXas cruvavaTraveodaij 
TT] Se vvii(j)r] Kpv(j)a Kal jjuer* evXa^eias avveivaL, 
" 0770)9," ^4>^y " Kal Tols CTctJ/xaCTtv lorxvpol (Lai 
SiaKopeis pLT] yev6p,€voiy Kal rep (j)iXelv del Kaivol 

B VTrdpxojGL Kal rd eKyova eppcjopievdarepa Trapexcoai." 

18. Kat TO jjiev fivpov i^TjXaaev d)s rod iXalov 
(f)dopdv Kal oXedpov, r7]V Se ^a(f)iKr]v ws KoXaKclav 
aloOriaews . 

19. riaCTt Se Tots" 7T€pl rov rod aojpLaros KaX- 
XcoTTiGjJLov hiqpLLovpyols dv€7TL^arov eTTolrjcre rrjv 
UTTaprrjv, (Lg Sta rrjs KaKorex^^o,? rds rex^as 
XvpLaLVOfievoLs. 

20. Toaavrr] S' rjv Kar eKeivovs rovs xpovou? 
ooj(f)poavvr] ra)v yvvaiKwv Kal rooovrov drretxc 
rrjs vorepov irepl avrds evxepeuag, co? Trporepov 
aTTLorov elvai rd rrjs [xoLxetas Trap' auTatS'.^ Kal 

^ TroiwuTai.] TToteTrai in some Mss. 
2 i'TjTouj/ra] Xylander would add tt]u alriav. 
^ aj^rars] aurols Kronenberg from the Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. XV. 

" Cf. AcHan, Varia Historia, vi. 6. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xv. (48 d), and 
Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta^ 1. 6. 
SQ4^ 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 227-228 

of the maid, shall make virtue the basis of his 
choice." For this reason he also banished from the 
State all artificial enhancement of beauty." 

16. He set limits to the time of marriage for both 
men and women, and, in answer to the man who 
inquired about this, he said, " So that the offspring 
maybe sturdy by being sprung from mature parents." ^ 

17. In answer to a man who expressed surprise 
because he debarred the husband from spending the 
nights with his wife, but ordained that he should be 
with his comrades most of the day and pass the whole 
night in their company, and visit his bride secretly 
and with great circumspection, he said, " So that they 
may be strong of body and never become sated, and 
that they may be ever fresh in affection, and that the 
children which they bring into the world may be 
more sturdy." " 

18. He banished perfume on the ground that it 
spoiled and ruined the olive oil,^ and also the dyer's 
art on the ground that it was a flattery of the senses. 

19. To all whose business was the enhancement of 
personal beauty he made Sparta forbidden ground, 
for the reason that they outraged the arts through 
the vileness of their art.^ 

20. So strict in those times was the virtue of the 
women, and so far removed from the laxity of morals 
which later affected them,^ that in the earlier days 
the idea of adultery among them was an incredible 

" Cf, Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xv. (48 e), and 
Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 1. 5. 

'^ Cf. Seneca, Quaestiones Naturales, iv. 13. 9. Perfumes in 
ancient times were made with a base of oil ; cf. Moralia, 127 b. 

« Cf. Plutarch's lAfe of Lycurgus, chap. ix. (p. 44 f). 

f Athenaeus, 142 f, quotes Phylarchus at some length 
regarding the degeneration of the Spartans. 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C Xoyos a7roixvr)jjiov€V€raL TepaSdra^ tlvos HiTTafynd- 
(228) Tov Tcov a(j)6Spa TraXaucov, os ipajTrjOels vtto ^evov, 
rl Trddxovaiv ol fioLXol Trap avrols, ovSev yap 
opdv 7T€pl rovTOV v^vopLoderrjiiivov vtto AvKovpyov, 
etiTev, " ovSels, cL ^eve, yiyverai jioixos Trap* riplv." 
€K€LV0V Se VTToXa^ovTOS , " CIV ovv y€vr]TaL," " rav- 
pov," e^T] 6 Tepahdras " €ktlv€L /xeyav, og 
VTTepKvijjas TO Tavyerov diro rod Evpcura TrUrai." 
OavjJLdaavTOS 8' c/cetVou Kal (ji-qcravros , " ncos 8e 
dv yewoLTO jSous" Tr]XiKovTOs; " yeXdaas^ 6 Tepa- 
hdras^ " ttcos yap dv," e(f)ri, " fiOLxos iv ^Trdprrj 
ydvoLTO, iv fj ttXovtos pbkv /cat Tpv(f)r} /cat /caAAcDTit- 
Gfios drLpLd^ovrai, alScbs he /cat evKoapiia /cat tcjv 
Tjyovjjidvajv TreiOcb Trpea^evovraL; 

21 . Ilpos 8e TOV d^LOVvra SyjixoKparlav iv rfj 
J) TToAet KaraarijaacrdaL 6 AvKovpyos etVre, " ai) 

TTpoJros ev rfj oIklo. gov TTolrjcrov SrjjjiOKpaTLav." 

22. livvOavopLevov Se nvos 8td rl puKpds ovro) 
/cat evreXecs erafe rcov 6ed)v rds Ovaias, " ottojs," 
€07^, " fjLTjSeTTore TLfxcovTes TO delov SiaActTTcojitev." 

23. Mova 8e ravra tojv ddXrjfidTOJV i<f)evT0s 
avTov Tot? TToXiTais dya)vil,€GQ ai, ottov rj x^'^P ovk 
dvaTeiverai, iTTvOero tls ttjv alriav 6 8e, " ottojs," 

^ FepaSctTa, Tepaddras] FepciSa, Tepddas in the Life of 
LycurguSf chap. xv. 

2 ravpov iKrlveL fx^yau . . . Tr)\iKOVTOi ; yeXdaas Xylander 
from the Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xv. : the mss. have only 
ravrbv i(pr) 6 Yepaodras, 

S66 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 228 

thing. There is still recalled a saying of a certain 
Geradatas, a Spartan of the very early times, who, on 
being asked by a foreigner what was done to adulter- 
ers in their country, since he saw that there had been 
no legislation by Lycurgus on that subject, said, " Sir, 
there is never an adulterer in our country." But 
when the other retorted with, " Yes, but if there 
should be ? " Geradatas said, " His penalty is to 
provide an enormous bull which by stretching his 
neck over Mount Taygetus can drink from the river 
Eurotas." And when the other in amazement said, 
" But how could there ever be a bull of that size ? " 
Geradatas laughed and said, " But how could there 
ever be an adulterer in Sparta, in which wealth and 
luxury and adventitious aids to beauty are held in 
disesteem, and respect and good order and obedience 
to authority are given the highest place .^ " * 

21. In answer to the man who was insistent that 
he establish a democracy in the State Lycurgus said, 
" Do you first create a democracy in your own house." ^ 

22. WTien someone inquired why he ordained such 
small and inexpensive sacrifices to the gods, he said, 
" So that we may honour the Divine powers without 
ceasing." ^ 

23. As he permitted the citizens to engage only 
in that kind of athletic contests in which the arm is 
not held up,*^ somebody inquired what was the reason. 

" In part this is in close agreement with Plutarch's Life 
of Lycurgus, chap. xv. (49 c), but the main point, which is 
lacking in the mss., is usually inserted here by the editors 
from the Life. See the critical note 2. 

** Cf. the note on Moralia, 189 e (2), supra. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 173 b, supra. 

"* As a sign of defeat ; cf. E. Norman Gardiner, Greek 
Athletic Sports and Festivals (London. 1910), p. 415. 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(228) eiTTC, " jJLr]S€lg avTwv iv rw TTOvetv OLTravSdv 
i6Ll,r]raL." 

24. 'EpcoTcovTO? Se nvog, Sua ri ttvkvol fiera- 
GTparoTTeSeveLv KeXevei, " oirajg," etTre, " ttXclco 
rovs ix^povs ^XdnTcofxev.^ " 

25. "AAAou 8' iTTi^rjTOVVTOs Sta rt TT-upyo/xa^ety 

E ^' TLvos TTapaTTXrjGiou dvdpcoTTOV OL dfjueLVOves d/TTO- 

OvT^GKCOGLV." 

26. Tots' Se GvjJL^ovXevojjiepoLs tojv Qrj^aicov 
TTcpl rrjg lepovpyia? kol tov Trevdovs, "^v TTOLOvvrai 
rfj AevKodea, ovve^ovXevaev el fiev deov rjyovv- 
rat, jJLT] 6pr]V€LV, el 8e dvOpojTTOV, pLTj lepovpyelv 
(hs dew. 

27. Ylpos he Tovs eTnt^iqrodvr as tcov ttoXltcjv, 
" TTWS dv TToXepLLOjv e(j)oSov dXe^oifxeOa; " " edv 
TTTOjypiy 6^17, " [xevrjTe^ /cat fjcrj fjieL^ojv^ drepos 
darepov epdre etvau.^" 

28. Kat TTaXiv eTrt^Tyrowrcov Trepl reixdj^y ovk 
e<j)7] TToXiv elvai dreixiorov, tJtls dvSpduL /cat ov 
ttXlvOols eare(f)dvcjorai. 

F 29. ' ETT-ejLteAo VTO Se ol STraprtarat /cat rijs k6- 
jLtTjS", dTTopLvrjixovevovres riva AvKovpyov Xoyov irepl 

^ (BXaTTTw/j-ev E. Kurtz : ^Xairroiixev. 

2 fxhrjTe Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xix. : ^re. 

^ fjiei^iov from fxiadcou (sic /) Z///(g 0/ Lycurgus^ chap. xix. : 

* ^pare eZvai F.C.B. from the i^i/ig 0/ Lycurgus^ chap. xix. ; 
with the omission of one syllable -ar- gives almost exactly 
the queer ms. reading ^peebrj (or ipeivet) : epeij eli/ai Sintenis. 

* C/. the note on 189 e (4), supra. 

^ C/.Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 12. 5. 

•^ C/". Plutarch's Comparison of Lysander and Sulla, 477 d. 

368 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 228 

He replied, " So that no one of the citizens shall 
get the habit of crying quits in the midst of a hard 
struffffle." " 

24. When someone asked why he ordered a fre- 
quent change of camping-place, he said, " So that we 
may inflict greater injury upon our enemies." ^ 

25. When someone sought to know why he forbade 
assaults on walled places, he said, " So that valiant 
men may not suffer death at the hands of a woman 
or a child or some such person." '^ 

26. When some of the Thebans advised with him 
in regard to the sacrifice and the lamentation which 
they perform in honour of Leucothea, he advised 
them that if they regarded her as a goddess they 
should not bewail her, but if they looked upon her as 
a woman they should not offer sacrifice to her as to a 
goddess. '^ 

27. In answer to some of the citizens who desired 
to know, " How can we keep off any invasion by 
enemies," he said, " If you remain poor, and no one 
of you desires to be more important than another." ^ 

28. And at another time, when they raised a ques- 
tion about fortifications, he said that a city is not 
unfortified whose crowning glory is men and not 
bricks and stones.-^ 

29. The Spartans gave particular attention to their 
hair, recalling a saying of Lycurgus in reference to it. 

As a matter of fact, the Spartans were quite without ability 
to attack a walled town, as is clear from Herodotus, ix. 70, 
and Thucydides, i. 102. 

'^ This saying of Xenophanes seems to have been attributed 
by someone to Lycurgus. Cf. Moralia^ 171 e, 379 b, and 
763 c ; also Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 23. 27. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xbc. (52 b). 

' Cf. the note on Moralia, 210 e (29), supra. 

S69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rovrov, on roug [xev KaXovg evirpeTTearipovg TToiet, 
Tovs Se alcrxpovs (fio^epaJTepovs. 

30. Ylapi^yyeiXe he eV rot? TToXepoLs rpeipap^lvovs 
KOI VLKiqaavrag I^^XP^ '^^^ ^e^aLcoGarjOat ro VLKTjpia 
eTTihicxiKeiVy etra evdvs avaxojpeiv' ovre yewalov^ 
ovre '^XXrjVLKov (f)ov€veLv tovs rrapaKexoop'qKoras 
<f)daKOJV' etvai^ 8' ov jjlovov KaXov rovro kol fxe- 
yaXoijjvxov^ aAAd K:at XPV^^P-^^' ^t'Sdras" yap rovs 
j^taxofidvovs irpos avrovs on (jyeihovrai fxev tojv 
evSihovnov, avaipovGi 8e tovs ixj^iOTdpievovs , rod 
fjieveiv TO (f)€vy€LV aj(f)€XL[jLa)T6pov riyqaecrOai.^ 

31. UvvOavopidvov 8e tlvos, Sua tl tovs rcbv 
TToXepLiajv v€Kpovs dTTTjyopevGe GKvXeveiv, *' oncos," 

229 e^T?, " fXTj KV7TTdl,ovT€s vepl TOL GKvXa TTJs pidxV^ 
dixeXojGLVy dXXd Kal ttjv rrevtav dfia Tjj rd^ei Sta- 

Gwt,COGi." 

AT2ANAP0T 
1. AvGavSpOS, AlOVVGLOV TOV TTJS St/CcAia? TV- 

pavvov TTefiipavTOs avTOV tols dvyaTpdGiv IjidTLa 
TToXvTeXrj, ovK eXa^ev eLTTchv SeSteVat, jxtj Sid raura 
[idXXop aloxpoX (f)ava)GiV. aAA' oXiyov VGTepov 
irpos TOV avTov Tvpavvov e/c Trjs avTrjs noXecos 
dTTOGTaXels TTpeG^evTTjs, TTpoGTripujiavTos avTip tov 
Alovvglov Svo GToXds Kal KeXevGavTOS t^v jSouAerat 
ravTTjv eXofjLevov tjj OvyaTpl Koixit,eiv, avTrjv e/cet- 

* o{jT€ yevvaiov supplied by the editors from the Life oj 
Lycurgus, chap. xxii. 

2 ehaL F.C.B. to fit the construction: ^u Life of Lycurgus, 
chap, xxii., from which the sentence etvat 5' . . . ix€ya\6\pvxov 
is added here by most editors. But the whole paragraph 
looks like a memorandum. 

' vy-qaeadai] Tjyrjaaadai most Mss., perhaps rightly. 
370 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 228-229 

that it made the handsome more comely and the 
ugly more frightful." 

30. He gave instructions that in war, when they 
had put the enemy to flight and had gained a victory, 
they should continue the pursuit only far enough to 
make their success assured, and then return im- 
mediately ; for he said that it was neither a noble 
trait nor a Greek trait to slay those who had yielded, 
and this policy was not only honourable and mag- 
nanimous, but useful as well ; for the opposing army, 
kno\ving that they customarily spared those who 
surrendered, but made away with those who resisted, 
would regard it as more profitable to flee than to stay.^ 

31. When somebody inquired why he forbade 
spoiling the enemy's dead, he said, " So that the 
soldiers may not, by looking about covertly for spoil, 
neglect their fighting, but also that they may keep 
to their poverty as well as to their post." '^ 

LYSANDER 

1. When Dionysius, the despot of Sicily, sent 
costly garments for Lysander's daughters, he would 
not accept them, saying that he was afraid that 
because of them his daughters would appear ugly 
rather than beautiful.^ But a little later, when he 
was sent as ambassador to the same despot from 
the same State, Dionysius sent to him two robes and 
bade him choose whichever one of them he would, 
and take it to his daughter ; but Lysander said that 

" Cf. the note on Moralia^ 189 e (1), supra. 
^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xxii. (54 a) ; 
Thucydides, v. 73 ; Polyaenus, Stralegemata, i. 16. 3. 
'' Cf. Moralia, 224 b (16), supra. 
^ Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 e (1), supra. 

371 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(229) ur]v €(f)y] ^eXriov alp-qoeciOaL- /cat Aaj9a>v ayL<j)orepa^ 
dTrrjXdev. 

2. '0 Se AvaavSpo?, Setvos ao<f)iOT7)s yevofjievos 

Kal OLTTOLTaLg TO. TToXXo. TTOLKiXXoJV, TO hlKaiOV iv 

fxovcp TO) AuCTtreAet ridiyievos Kal to KaXov iv rco 
avfJL(j>ipovTiy TO dX'qdeg e'Aeye rov iJjevSovs KpeuT- 
Tov elvaiy iKarepov 8e rfj XP^^^- '''l^ ^i''^^ ^^^ "^W 
B TL[JL7]V opL^eaOai. 

3. Ilpos' Se Tovs i/jeyovras avTov €7rl tw oi 
dTTOLTr]? TOL TrXeiGra Trparretv, cos" dvd^Lov tov *Hpa- 
KXeovs, Kal SoXo) ovk dvriKpvg KaropOovvTa, yeXwv 
eXeyev ottov {jltj icfuKveirai rfj Aeovr^/ TrpocrpaTTTeov 

etVat TTjV dXc07T€KTJV. 

4. 'ETT-tjLtejLt^o/xeVojv^ 8' irepcov avTOV €7tl rat? 
napa^dcreaL tojv opKOJV, ovs iv MtAr^TO) eTTOirjoaro, 
eXeye, " rovs /xer TralSas durpaydXcLS Set i^aTrardVy 
Toijs 8e dvSpag opKOig." 

5. Nt/crjaas' 8e rous" ^ Adiqvaiovs ii ivihpas irepi 
Klyos TTOTafjiov? Kal At/xa> Tndoras avTovs TrapeoTi^- 
craro ttjv ttoXlv, Kal eypai/je tols i<j)6pois, " iaXoj- 
Kaaiv at 'A^Tyrat." 

Q 6. ripo? ^Apyeiovs he rrepl yrjs opcov dix(j)Lapr]- 

Tovvras TTpos AaKeSaifjiovLovs Kal hiKaioTepa Xiyeiv 

avrdjv (f)d(TKOVTas, orraodixevos ttjv pLaxaipaVy ** o 

^ ttJ XeovTXi] T] XeouTTj^ as in Moral ia, 190 e, and the Life of 
Ly Sander t chap, vii., Car. Schmidt. 

2 iTrLiJ,ei.i(f)OfJ.evo}v Wyttenbach : diroiuLefKpofxivoiv. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lysander, chap. vii. (437 a). 

* The legendary ancestor of both lines of Spartan kings ; 
cf. Herodotus, vii. 204 and viii. 131. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia^ 190 e (2), supra, 

372 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 229 

she herself would make a better choice, and, taking 
them both, he departed. 

2. Lysander, who was a clever quibbler, and given 
to employing cunning deceptions to further most of 
his designs, counted justice as mere expediency, and 
honour as that which is advantageous. He said that 
the truth is better than falsehood, but that the 
worth and value of either is determined by the use 
to which it is put." 

3. In answer to those who blamed him because of 
his carrying out most of his designs through decep- 
tion, which they said was unworthy of Heracles,^ and 
gaining his successes by wile in no straightforward 
way, he said laughing that where he could not get on 
with the lion's skin it must be pieced out with the 
skin of the fox.'' 

4. When others censured him for his violation of 
his oaths which he had made in Miletus he said that 
one must trick children with knuckle-bones, but men 
with oaths. '^ 

5. He conquered the Athenians by a ruse at 
Aegospotami, and by pressing them hard through 
famine he forced them to surrender their city, where- 
upon he ^vrote to the Ephors, ** Athens is taken." « 

6. In answer to the Argives, who were disputing 
with the Spartans in regard to the boundaries of their 
land and said that they had the better of the case, 

^ Repeated in Moralia^ 330 f, where it is attributed to 
Dionysius ; Moralia, 741 c ; Diodorus, x. 9. 1 ; Die Chyso- 
stom, Oration Ixxiv. (399 R., 640 M.) ; Polyaenus, Stratege- 
inatay i. 45. 3 ; and Aelian, Varia Historia, vii. 12, who says 
that some attribute it to Lysander, and others to Philip of 
Macedon. 

« According to Plutarch, Life of Lysander^ chap. xiv. 

(441 b), the Ephors objected to the verbosity of the dispatch ! 

VOL. Ill N 373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(229) ravrrjs,^ " ecfyrj, " Kparayv jSeArtcrra Trepl yrjs opo)v 
StaAeyerat." 

7. Tovs Se BotcoTou? eTra/x^orept^oi^ra?, ot€ 
StTyet Tr]V ')(^cJjpav, opchv, TrpoGeTTeixijje rrvvdavopievos 
TTorepov opBols tois hopauiv r] K€K\ipi€Vois Sta- 
TTopevrjrai ttjv "xojpav avTcov. 

8. MeyapecDS" Se di'Spos iv tco koivo) ovXKoycp 
Trappiqala ')(^prioaixevov npos avrov, " ol Xoyoi gov,* 
€L7T€Vy " CO ^eW, TToXeoJS hlovTai." 

D 9' 'E77et Se Y^opivdiiov d^ecrrcuTCDV hiep)(6ixevos 
irapa ra Tei)(r] tovs AaKeSaifiovlovs ecopa rrpou^aX- 
Xeiv OKVovvras , kol Xaycos tls oj^^t^ StaTTT^ScDp' ttjv 
T(i(f)pov, " ovK alaxvveade," etrrevy " cL HrrapTLdrai, 
TOLovTOVs (fyo^ovfievoL TToXefxiovs y cLv OL Xayojol St' 
dpylav rots retx^cnv iyKadevSovcnv ; " 

10. 'Ev Se JlafjioOpaKr) ;!^p7yo'T7^pta^o/xeVa; avro) 
6 tepevs eKeXevoev eiTTelvy 6 ri dvofjicorarov epyov 
avTO) iv TO) f^iw TreVpa/crat. eTnfjpcorrjaev ovVy 
" TTorepov GOV rovro KeXevovros ^ twv decbv tovtq 
Set TTOielv ; " ^a/xeVou Se, " rcbv Oewv," " av 
TOivvv," e^'7, " eKTToScov pLOL pLerdarrjdLy^ KdKeivois 
ipcby idv TTVvOdvcovTai." 
E 11. IlepGov S' ipcurrjaavTOS TToiav pidXiura eVat- 
ret TToXiTeiaVy " tJtls," 'i(f>f), " toIs dvhpeiois koI 
SetAots" rd Trpoo-r^Kovra aTToStScoo-t." 

12. Yipos Se Tou eLTTovray on eTraivoiiq avrov kol 

VTrepaGTrdt^oiro y " Suo ^ovs ^X^>" ^V*^> " ^^ dypcp' 

^ ravT-qs] ravTrj Pantazides. 
2 fitTacTTridL Hatzidakis : KaTda-Trjdi. 

" Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 e (3), supra. 
* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lysander, chap. xxii. (445 d). 
* Cf. the note on Moralia^ 190 f (5), supra. 
374 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 229 

he drew his sword and said, " He who is master of 
this talks best about boundaries of land." " 

7. Seeing that the Boeotians were wavering at the 
time when he was about to pass through their 
country he sent to them to inquire whether he should 
march through their land with spears at rest or ready 
for action.^ 

8. When a Megarian in the common council 
used plain words to him, he said, " My friend, 
your words need a city to back them." '^ 

9. When the Corinthians had revolted and he was 
going through their country along by the walls and 
saw that the Spartans were reluctant to attack, a 
hare was seen leaping across the ditch, whereupon 
he said, " Are you not ashamed, men of Sparta, to 
be afraid of such enemies as these, who are so slack 
that hares sleep in the walls of their city ? " <* 

10. As he was consulting the oracle in Samothrace, 
the priest bade him tell what was the most lawless 
deed that had ever been committed by him in his 
lifetime. Lysander asked, " Must I do this at your 
command or at the command of the gods ? " When 
the priest said, " At the command of the gods," 
Lysander said, " Then do you take yourself out of 
my way, and I will tell them in case they inquire." * 

1 1 . When a Persian asked what kind of a govern- 
ment he commended most highly, he said, " The 
government which duly awards what is fitting to both 
the brave and the cowardly." 

12. In answer to a man who said that he com- 
mended him and was very fond of him, he said 
** I have two oxen in a field, and although they 

«* Cf. the note on Moralia, 190 e (4), supra. 
* Cf. the note on Moralia, 217 c (1), supra. 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Giyu)vrojv 8' afKJioripcxyv , aKpi^ojs eVtWa/xat rov 
T€ apyov Koi rov ipyal,6jjL€vov." 

13. AoiSopovfjievov Se tlvos avraj, €t7r€, " Xiye 
TTVKvojs, CO ^€vv?C\lov, Acye fx-qhev eAAetVcuv, av crot> 
8^1^27 '^^^ ipvxoLV KevcoGai KaKOJV, Sv eoiKas TrX'qprjs 

F 14. Xpdvoj 8' vcrrepov /xerot tt^v reAeur-J^v dvrt- 
Aoyta? Gvjjiixaxi'Krjg yevofjLevrjs, ^AyrjalXaos rjXdev 
i-nl rr]v rov AvadvSpov olKiav, orrws ra irepl avrrjg 
ypdjjifjLara SiauKei/jrjraL- ravra yap Trap* avro) 
Kareax^v 6 AvaavSpog. €vpe 8e /cat Pl^Xlov 
yeypafJLfjLevov ro) AvadvSpo) irepl rrjs TroXirelas, 
COS" XPV "^^^ ^vpVTTOiVTL'^cbv^ /Cat 'A)/ta8cDv r7]v 
^aaiXeiav d(f)eXoixevovs elg pieaov delvai koX 
TTOL^laOai rr)v alpeaiv e/c rcbv dpiarcov, Iva firj rcov 
d(j)^ 'HpaKXeovs, dXXd ra)V otos^ ^HpaKXrj?, rfj 
dperfj KpivopLevoiv, to yepag fj, fj KaKelvos eh 
6ecx)V Tipids dvyixOy]. /cat tovtov rov Xoyov cSp^LfT^cre 
ixev et? Tovs TToXiras i^eveyKeiv /cat TrapaheiKvvvaL 
rov Avoav^pov olos cjv TToXiriqs SiaXavOdvoL, /cat 
eVt StaPoXfj T(x)v AvodvSpou (j)iXa)v. Kpari^rjv^ 8e 
^act Tore Trpoearcora rcov e(j)6po}v, evXa^rjdevra 
fJLT] TreLGT) dvayvwadels 6 Xoyog, einXa^eGdai rov 
AyqoiXdov /cat elneiv cog ov Set dvopvTreiv rov 
ooQ Avoavhpov, dXXd /cat rov Xoyov avrcp ovyKaropvr- 
recv, TTavovpyojs /cat TTLOavcos ouvTerayfievov. 

1 'EvpvirwvTidwp Wyttenbach : evpvTrpwTiduiv. 

* Tuu olos Life of Lysander, chap. xxiv. : otos. 

3 Kparldyji^] AaKparidav Life of I/ysander^ chap. xxx. ; but 
the name of Cratidas is recorded as an ephor in an inscription 
{S. G.D.I, iv. p. 690). 
376 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 229-230 

both may utter no sound, I know perfectly well which 
one is lazy and which one is the worker." 

13. When someone was reviling him, he said, 
" Talk right on, you miserable foreigner, talk, and 
don't leave out anything if thus you may be able to 
empty your soul of the \-icious notions with which 
you seem to be filled." 

14. Some time after his death, when a dispute 
arose regarding a certain alHance, Agesilaus came to 
Lysander's house to examine the documents in re- 
gard to this, for Ly Sander had kept these at his own 
house. Agesilaus found also a book -svTitten by 
Lysander in regard to the government, to this effect : 
that the citizens should take away the kingship from 
the Eur}'pontids and the Agiads " and put it up for 
election, and make their choice from the best men, 
so that this high honour should belong not to those 
who were descended from Heracles, but to men like 
Heracles, who should be selected for their excellence ; 
for it was because of such excellence that Heracles 
was exalted to di\ane honours. This document 
Agesilaus was bent upon publishing to the citizens, 
and demonstrating what kind of a citizen Lysander 
had been in secret, and with the purpose also of 
discrediting the friends of Lysander. But they say 
that Cratidas, who at that time was at the head of 
the Ephors, anxious lest, if the speech should be 
read, it might convert the people to this way of 
thinking, restrained Agesilaus and said that he ought 
not to disinter Lysander, but to inter the speech 
along \\'ith him, since it was composed with a vicious 
purpose and in a plausible vein.^ 

" C/. the note on Moralia, 231 c (1), infra. 
* Cf. the note on Moralia, 212 c (52), supra. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(230) 15. Tou? Se ixvrjGrevaavra? avrov ras Ovyare- 
pag, etra fxera rrjv reXevTrjV 7Tev7]ro£ evpedevros 
a7T€L7Ta[X€Vovg, il,rjiJLLajGav ol e^opoi, on ttXovglov 
jjLev vofJLL^ovres idepdnevov, hiKaiov Se koI -x^priOTOV 
CK TTJs TTevias CTTLyvovres virepeZhov, 

NAMEPTOT 

NajLtepTT^? 7Tp€(Tp€vrr]s dTToaraX^is, pLaKaptt^ovros 

TLVos avTov rcov eKelOi Stort ttoXv^iXos etrj, rjpcj- 

J3 Tr]G€v el SoKcpLLOv e;^et rtVt rpoTTCp Tretpa^erat o 

TToAu^tAos" eTTitpfiTOVvros he darepov fxadeiv, 

" drvx^'O.," eiTTev. 

NIKANAPOT 

1. ^iKavhpos, eliTovTOS nvos on KaKcos a'UTOV 
XeyovoLV 'Apyetot, " ovkovv," ecfyrj, " Slkt^v tivovgl 
rovs dyaOous KaKOJS Xeyovres." 

2. Ylv9op.evov Se nvos 8ta tl Kop^cooL Kal TTOjyoj- 
vorpo(j)ovoLV, " on," e(f)r], " Trdvnov KaXXtaros /cat 
a8a77avct)TaTO? dvSpl 6 tSto? Koapios." 

3. Tcuv ^AOrjvaLCOv Se elirovrog nvos, " Xiav 
dvrex^ode, o) NiKavSpe, rod axoXd^eiv," " dAry- 
uLij), €07], aAA ovx oJOTTep vpLets ottojs rv)(oi 
G7TOvhdl,opLev." 



" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lysander, chap. xxx. (451 a), and 
Aehan, Varia llistoria, vi. 4, and x. 15. 

* Cf. John Heywood, Proverbs, part i. chap. 11 : " But 
indeede a friend is never known till a man have neede." 

" An early Spartan king, perhaps circa 809-770 B.C. He 
was the son of Charillus (Moralia, 189 f, supra). 

378 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 230 

15. The suitors of his daughters, when after his 
death he was found to be a poor man, renounced 
their obhgations ; but the Ephors punished them 
because when they thought he was rich they courted 
his favour, but when they found from his poverty 
that he was just and honest they disdained him.** 

NAMERTES 

Namertes was sent as an ambassador, and when 
one of the people in that country congratulated him 
because he had many friends, he asked if this man 
had any sure means of testing the man of many 
friends ; and when the other desired to learn, 
Namertes said, " By means of misfortune." ^ 

NICANDER « 

1. Nicander, when someone said that the Argives 
were speaking ill of him, said, " Well then, they are 
paying the penalty for speaking ill of the good ! " ^ 

2. When someone inquired why the Spartans wore 
their hair long and cultivated beards, he said, 
" Because for a man his own adornment is the very 
best and cheapest." ^ 

3. When one of the Athenians said, " Nicander, 
you Spartans insist too much on your principle of 
doing no work," he said, " Quite true; we do not 
make work of this thing or that thing in your 
haphazard fashion." ^ 

** He was invading Argolis and laying waste the country ; 
see Pausanias, iii. 7. 4. 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 189 f (3), supra. 

f Cf. Moralia, 318 f and 710 f ; Plato, Laws, 803 c-d. 
See also the note on Moralia, 221 c, supra. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C nANGOIAOT 

(230) 1. nav^otSas" TTpeuPevajv elg rrjv 'Acrtav, €7Tt- 
SeLKvvvTOJV a-UTw rel^os ix^pov, €t7r€, " vrj rovs 
OeovSy CO ^€voc, KaXr] yvvaiKOJvlris .*' 

2. *Ev ^AKaSr]fjL€Lq} 8e rcov <^l\og6<^ojv StaAeyo- 
fxevajv TToXXa /cat cr7Tou3ata, lirepajTOJi'TCxiv he rov 
Yiavdoihav fjiera ravra ri Sokovctlv avrco ol XoyoL 
ovTOL etvaL, " rl 8' d'AAo," ^'</*^* " "^ cr7roi;Sarot; 
6(j)€Xos 8' ou8eV, piTj ;)^pa)^eV60P' v/xcov avrols." 

nATSANIOT TOT KAEOMBPOTOT 

1. riaucravtas' o KAeojLtjSporov, ^rjXlcov 8t/cato- 
XoyovpLevojv Trepl rrjs vrjoov Trpos ^AOrjvaiovg /cat 
XeyovTOJV ore Kara rov vofxov rov Trap' avrots ovd^^ 

D at yvvaiK€s iv rfj vqaut riKrovatv ovO* ol reAeurrj- 

GaVT€S doLTTTOVTaL, " TTOJS aV^ OVv/' €<j>7Jf " aVTY] 

TTarpls vfJLCjv eir], iu fj ovre yiyove tls vficov out* 
ecrrat ; 

2. Ta>v 8e cf)vydSa)v avrov TrpoTpeTTopiivoiv eiri 
Tovs ^ KOiqvaiovs ayeiv rrjv arpariav Xeyovrojv t€ 
ort TOLS '0Ai;/X77iot9 dvaKrjpvrTOfxevov avrov 
eovpiTTov avTov jjiovoi, " rt ovv oteadet" €01], 
*' TOVS" ore ev enaaxov crvpirrovras Tradovras 
KaKws TTOLTiaeiv; " 

3. Ylvvdavojievov 8e nvos 8ta rt Tvpralov rov 

^ 'AKadrjfxeia the usual spelling : dKaSr}fjil<f. 
2 oijff Bernardakis : ol'5' or oCre. 

3 aj/ added by Cobet. 
* ?o-rai] Keiaerai van Herwerden. 



<• A Spartan harmost who fell at Tanagra, 377 b.c. 
^ Cf. the note on Moralia^ 190 a, supra. 

sso 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 230 

PANTHOEDAS " 

1. Panthoedas went on embassy to Asia and when 
they pointed out to him a very strong wall he said, 
** By Heaven, strangers, fine quarters for women ! " ^ 

2. When the philosophers in t-he Academy were 
conversing long and seriously, and afterwards some 
people asked Panthoidas how their conversation 
impressed him, he said, " What else than serious ? 
But there is no good in it unless you put it to use."* 

PAUSANIAS,** THE SON OF CLEOMBROTUS 

1. Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus, at the time when 
the people of Delos were asserting their rightful claims 
to the island against the Athenians, and said that 
according to the law * which prevailed among them 
there were no births and no burials in the island, 
said, " How can this be your native land in which 
no one of you has ever been bom nor shall ever be 
hereafter ? " ^ 

2. When the exiles were inciting him to lead his 
army against the Athenians, and saying that, when 
his name was proclaimed at Olympia, they were the 
only people who hissed him, he said, " What do you 
think that those who hissed when they were being 
well treated will do if they are treated ill ? " ^ 

3. When someone inquired why the Spartans had 

« Cf. Moralia, 192 b, 220 d, and 1033 b-e. 

•* Regent of Sparta from 479 b.c. ; commander at Plataea. 

* The law seems to have been put into effect (426-425 b.c.) 
some years after the death of this Pausanias (468 b.c). 

/ Cf. Thucydides, iii. 104. 

' A similar remark is attributed to Philip of Macedon in 
Moralia^ 143 f, 179 a, and 457 f. 

VOL. Ill N 2 381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(230) TTOirjrr^v eTTOirjaavro TToXLrrjv, " ottojs,'* ^<f>'^> *' lirfhi- 
iTore ^ivos (jiaivqrai rjjJLOJV rjyejJLCov." 
E 4. rTpos" Se TOP dadevrj jxev ro) crco/xart, ctu/x- 
^ovXevovra 8e irpos rov? vroAe/xtou? Kara yrjv Kai 
Kara ddXarrav Sia/ctrSui^euetv, " OeXeis ovv," ecfyr], 
" Setfat Geavrov €kSvs, olos cov rjixlv ixax^crdoLi' 
avfJi^ovXevecs ; " 

5. Qavfia^oi'TCov 8c rivciiv iv rots Xacjyvpois rcjv 
pap^dpcx)V rr^v rroXyriXeiav rrjs eGdrJTOS, Kpelrrov 
€(f)r) avTOVS elvai ttoXXov ol^lovs t] KeKTrjaOaL ttoX- 
Xov d^ia. 

6. Mera he ttjv iv UXaraLaig Kara MrjScov ye- 
vofJLevrjv vlkyju tols dfx^^ avrov eKeXevae to TrporjroL- 
fxaGfievov IlepGLKov SeiTTVov irapadeZvai' tovtov Se 

F davpLacrrrjv TToXvriXeiav exovros, " vr) rovg Oeovs," 
€^7], " Xixvos rfv 6 YiipcTiqs, on roaavra exojv iTTi 
rrjv rjix€T€pav rjXOe fidi,av.'* 

nATSANIOT TOT HAElSTfiNAKTOS 

1. YlavaavLag 6 UXeiGrwvaKros Trpog rov ipco- 
TT^CTavra, Sid ri rcov dpxaicov vofjLOJV ovSeva Kivelv 
e^€GTL Trap* avrols, " on rovs vojjlovs," e^'>7, " tcvv 
dvSpwv, ov Tous" dvSpas r(x)V vofxajv KVpiovs elvai 
oet. 

2. 'ETratvo WTO? Se auTOU ev Teyea ixerd rrjv 
(hvyrjv rovs AaKehaipioviovs , eliri ns, " 8ta ri ovv 
ovK epLeveg ev liTraprr] aAA ecjyvyeg; on ovo ol 
iarpoi," ecfyrj, " vapd tols vyiaivovaiv ^ ottov 8e ol 
vooovvres, hiarpi^eiv elcodacnv." 

*» Tyrtaeus, according to tradition, was a native of Athens. 
* Cf. Plato, Laws^ 870 b ; Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorurriy 
vi. 1-3 (42-52). " Cf. Herodotus, ix. 82. 

382 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 230 

made Tyrtaeus the poet a citizen, he said, " So that a 
stranger shall never appear as our leader." " 

4. In answer to the man who was weak in body, 
but was urging that they risk a battle against the 
enemy by both land and sea, he said, " Are you 
willing to strip yourself and show what kind of a man 
you are — you who advise us to fight ? " 

5. When some people were amazed at the costli- 
ness of the raiment found among the spoils of the 
barbarians, he said that it would have been better 
for them to be themselves men of worth than to 
possess things of worth. ^ 

6. After the victory at Plataea over the Persians 
he ordered that the dinner which had been prepared 
for the Persians should be served to himself and his 
officers. As this had a wondrous sumptuousness, he 
said, "By Heaven, the Persian was a greedy fellow who, 
when he had all this, came after our barley-cake." '^ 

PAUSANIAS, THE SON OF PLEISTOANAX <* 

1. Pausanias, the son of Pleistoanax, in answer to 
the question why it was not permitted to change any 
of the ancient laws in their country, said, " Because 
the laws ought to have authority over the men, 
and not the men over the laws." 

2. When, in Tegea, after he had been exiled,* he 
commended the Spartans, someone said, " Why did 
you not stay in Sparta instead of going into exile ? " 
And he said, " Because physicians, too, are wont to 
spend their time, not among the healthy, but where 
the sick are."-'' 

^ King of Sparta, 408-394 B.C. * In 394 B.C. 

' Cf. the similar saying which is attributed to Aristippus 
in Diogenes Laertius, ii. 70. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

S. Ylvvdavofxevov Se tlvos avrov ttcjs av Bvvr)' 

Oelev Tovs QpaKas viKTJcrat,, " el rov apiorov,** 

etire, " orparr^yov KaraarTJaaiixev ." 

231 4. ^larpov 8' iiTLGKeTTTOiJievov avrov koL elnov- 

roSt " ovhkv KaKov e;^ets"," " ov yap gol," €^17, 

larpo) ;)^paj/xat." 

5. AlejjLi^oiJievov Se nvos avrov rcov cfylXcoVy Stort 
la-^pov riva KaKchs Aeyet, irelpav ovk e-)(a}v avrov 
ovhe dSiKrjdeis n, " on/* eiTrev, " el eXa^ov avrov 
TTelpav, OVK dv el^a)v." 

6. Tou 8e larpov elnovros avrcp, " yepcov yeyo- 
vas," " Sion," elirev, " ovk expy]crdLiJi'qv gol larpcp." 

7. J^pdrLGrov 8e e'Aeye rovrov larpov elvai, rov 
pur] KaraGrjTTOvra rovs dppwGrovvras dXXd Ta;)(to"Ta 
daTTrovra. 

HAIAAPHTOT 

B 1. HacSdprjros y Xeyovros nvos on, ttoXXoI eirjGav 
OL TToXeixLOi, " ovKovv/* ^4*^], " rjlJieis evKXeeGrepoi 
eGopieda' ttXelovs yap aTTOKrevovpLev." 

2. 'I8cov Se nva rfj pikv ^vgel puaXaKov St' em- 
eiKeiav 8e eiraivovpLevov vtto rG)v TToXircvv, €(f)r]y 
" ovre dvSpas yvvat^lv opLolovg ovras eiraiveiv heZ 
ovre yvvaiKas dvBpaGLV, edv pLTj rrjv yvvalKa XP^^^ 
ns KaraXd^Tj." 

3. OvK eyKpidels 8' ets" rovs rpiaKoalovs, 'qns 
ev rfj TToXeu TTpcorevovGa npirj rfj rd^ei rjv, IXapos 
/cat pieihicjv drrfiei' dvaKaXeGapuevajv 8* avrov rcov 
e^opojv /cat TTwOavopbevcov 8t' o rt yeAa, etTTC, 



** See the note on Moralia^ 191 f, svpra. 
384 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 230-231 

3. When someone inquired of him how they could 
become able to conquer the Thracians, he said, " If 
we should make the best man our general." 

4. When a physician paid him a visit and said, 
" You have nothing wrong \vith you," he said, " No, 
for I do not employ you as my physician." 

5. When one of his friends blamed him because he 
spoke ill of a certain physician, although he had never 
had anything to do with him, and had not suffered 
any harm at his hands, he said, " Because if I had 
ever had anything to do with him I should not now 
be alive." 

6. When the physician said to him, ** You have 
lived to be an old man," he said, " That is because I 
never employed you as my physician." 

7. He said that the best physician was the man 
who did not allow his patients to rot, but buried them 
quickly. 

PAEDARETUS « 

1. Paedaretus, when someone said that the enemy 
were many in number, remarked, " Then we shall be 
the more famous, for we shall kill more men." 

2. Seeing a certain man who was effeminate by 
nature, but was commended by the citizens for his 
moderation, he said, " People should not praise men 
who are like to women nor women who are like to 
men, unless some necessity overtake the woman." 

3. When he was not chosen as one of the three 
hundred,^ which was rated as the highest honour in 
the State, he went away cheerful and smiling; but 
when the Ephors called him back, and asked why 
he was laughing, he said, " Because I congratulate 

* Cf. Herodotus, viii. 124 ; Xenophon, Constitution of 
Sparta, 4. 3. 

385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(231) '*§(,' o Tt ovyxo-^piJ^ Tfj T^oAet TpiaKoaiovs /rpetr 
(J Tom? /xou TToXiras ixovcrr]." 

nAEISTAPXOT 

1. nA€t(Trap;)(OS" o^ AecoviSov irpos rov eTrepcoT-^- 
Gavra, 8ta rtVa alriav ovk (xtto tcov Trpcorcov jSaat- 
Aecov TTpooayopevovrai, " ort," ^'^^* " ^Kelvoi fiev 
dyav^ ^aGiXeveLV expij^ov, ol 8' €K€Lva}V vorepot 
ovSafJLO)? ." 

2. SfVT^yopou Se rtvos" yeAota Aeyoyros", " ov 
<f)vXd^r), CO ^eW/' ^V*^> " crL'ye;\;aJS" yeAota^coi^, ottcos 
fjLT] yeAotos- y^vr], a)(j7T€p /cat ot cruve;^^? TraAatovre? 
TTaXaiorai; " 

3.^ npo? 8e rov o-T^Sova ixLfJLOvjJievov, " '^Slov," 
€(f)ri, " CO ^iv€, avTTJs d-Kovaa rrjs drjBovos." 
T) 4. AdyovTOS 8e tlvos on KaKoXoyos tls avrou 
€7T7Jvet, " davfjid^co," €^r], " ^l [^t] tls avrco etTiev 
oTt direOavov ^cDvra yap iKclvos ovheva KaXdJs 
Xi^ai 8uvaTat." 

nAEISTONAKTOS 
nAetcrraii^af o Ilauo-avioi;, 'Arrt/cou rtvo? pTJ- 
Topos Tovs AaKeSatfjLOVLovs dfiaOelg dnoKaXovvrog , 

1 6 added by Bernardakis. 

2 (i7aj' Kronenberg from dyav f.t.ovapx^'iv in the LaA of 
JjycurguSy chap. ii. : HyeLv ^ or d7t>'. 

^ No. 3 is not in all mss. 

* C/. the note on 3Ioralia, 191 f, supra. 
^ King of Sparta, 480-458 b.c. 

* One of the two lines of the kings of Sparta was called 
'* Agids " (or " Agiads ") from Agis, the second of that line, 
and the other " Eurypontids " from Eurypon, the third of 
that line. Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. ii. (40 d) ; 
Strabo, viii. 366 ; Pausanias, iii. 7. 1. 

S86 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 231 

the State for having three hundred citizens better 
than myself." <* 

PLEISTARCHUS ^ 

1. Pleistarchus the son of Leonidas, in answer to 
one who asked him for what reason they did not take 
their titles from the names of the first kings, said, 
" Because the first kings needed to be absolute 
monarchs, but those who followed them had no such 
need." ^ 

2. When a certain advocate kept making jests, he 
said, " You had better be on your guard, my friend, 
against jesting all the time, lest you become a jest 
yourself, just as those who wrestle all the time 
become wrestlers." 

3. In retort to the man who imitated a nightingale, 
he said, " My friend, I have had more pleasure in 
hearing the nightingale itself." ^ 

4. When someone said that a certain evil-speaker 
was commending him, he said, " I wonder whether 
possibly someone may not have told him that I was 
dead ; for the man can never say a good word of 
anybody who is alive." * 

PLEISTOANAX ' 

Pleistoanax, the son of Pausanias, when an Attic 
orator called the Spartans unlearned, said, ** You are 

Presumably Plutarch means that the later Spartan kings 
did not wish to perpetuate the memory of any harshness, 
which would have been suggested by the names of the 
earlier absolute monarchs. 

•* Cf. the note on Moralia, 212 f (58), supra. 

• Cf. the note on Moralia, 224 d (1), supra, 

' King of Sparta, 458-408 b.c. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(231) " opOcjs," €(f)r), " Aeyet?' fiovoi yap 'EAAi^vcov r^yi^Xs 
ovhev KaKov /xe/xa^T^/cajLtet' Trap' u/xcov." 

nOATAf}POT 

1. rioAuScopos' o ^ AXKafievovg , aTTeiXovvTOS tlvos 
TOLS ix^pois ovx^oL, " ov avvLTj^/' €<f)rj, " rrjs 
TipiCxipias TO TrXelcrTOV KaTavaXioKiov fxepo^; " 
E 2. 'E^ayovTO? 8' avrov to OTpaTevpia iirl Meor- 
Grivqv, rjpeTO rts" et rots' aSeAc^ot? pidxeaBai /xeAAct, 
ol^'k: e^^, dAA' eVt tt^v dAcAT^pcorov ttJ? ;(cupa? 

3. 'A/oyetcov Se 77-dAtv /xerct ri^v rcDv TpiaKoaioiV 
pLdxy]V €K Trapardfecos" TTavSrjfjiel KpaTrjdevTCJV, tov 
WoXvhuypov ol avfifxaxoi TrapeKcXeiJOVTO firj Trapetvai 
TOV KaipoVy dAA* €7TeX96vTa tco Teix^i tojv TToXepilcov 
TTjv ttoXlv iXelv pdaTov yap eoeoOai, tojv fxev dv- 
Spojv aTroXcjoXoTOJV y tcov yvvacKcbv Se aTToXeXeipipLi- 

VCDV €.(j)7] OVV TTpOS aVTOVS, " TO fJL€V €/C TOV LGOV 

IJLax6jJL€vov viKav tovs ivavTiovpilvovs ioTi fioi /ca- 
XoVy TO 8' vnep tojv opcov ttIs X^P^^ fjLCfiaxrjP'^vov 
TTjV ttoXlv eTTidvixeLV Xa^elv ov hiKaiov TidepiaL etvai* 
F rfXdov yap p^copav aTToXa^elv ov KaTaXa^eodaL 
ttoAlv. 

4. ^^pojTTjdels 8e 8td tl ^TrapTidTai Kara ttoAc- 
yiov KLvSvvevovavv dvSpeicus, " otv/' €^^, " at8et- 
adai tovs 'qyefxovas €[xadov ov ^ojSeta^at.'* 

* /SaS/^ti' F.C.B. : /SaSffee. 
388 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 231 

quite right, for we alone of the Greeks have learned 
no evil from you." ** 

POLYDORUS » 

1. Polydorus, the son of Alcamenes, when a certain 
man was continually making threats against his 
enemies, said, ** Don't you see that you are using 
up the best part of your vengeance ? " 

2. As he was leading out his army to Messene, 
someone asked him if he was going to fight against 
his brothers. He said that he was not, but was merely 
proceeding to the unassigned portion of the land. 

3. The Argives, after the battle of the three 
hundred,^ were again overcome, with all their forces, 
in a set battle, and the alUes urged Polydorus not to 
let slip the opportunity, but to make a descent upon 
the enemy's wall and capture their city ; for this, 
they said, would be very easy, since the men had been 
destroyed and the women only were left. He said in 
answer to them, " To my mind it is honourable, when 
fighting on even terms, to conquer our opponents, 
but, after having fought to settle the boundaries of 
the country, to desire to capture the city I do not 
regard as just ; for I came to recapture territory and 
not to capture a city." 

4. Being asked why the Spartans risked their lives 
so bravely in war, he said, " Because they have 
learned to respect their commanders and not to fear 
them." <* 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 192 b (1), supra. 

' King of Sparta in the second part of the eighth century 

B.C. 

" Herodotus, i. 82. 

" Cf. Moralia, 217 a (5), and 227 d (12). 

389 



PLUTARCH'S MORAIJA 

nOATKPATIAOT 

TloXvKpartBag^ irpeG^evcjv Trpos rovs jSacrtAeco? 
GTpaT7]yovg fxed^ irepcov, ipofievajv avrojv TTorepov 
Ihia TTapeiuiv t) SjjjJLOorLa i7r€fji(f)6rjcjav, " aiKa Tu;j(a>- 
)Lt€?, orjfjLOGLa, €t,7T€v, at oe p,r}, tota. 

*OIBIAOr 

(^OL^iSag, Trpo rod klvSvvov rod AevKrpiKov 

XeyovTCJV tlvojv hei^eiv rrjv rjfjLepav ravrrjv tov 

dyaOov, ttoXXov ttjv 'qfjLepav, €(f)rjGev, a^iav elvai, 
^vvapLevrjv tov dyaOov Setfat. 

SOOT 

232 Tioov^ XeyeraL iv ;\;capta> ;!^aAe77a) /cat dvvSpcp tto- 
XLopKovjJLevov VTTO KAetToptcoP' ojjioXoyrJGai rrjv hopL- 
Krr]TOV avrois d^eivai yrjv, el Trioiev ol* pier* avrov 
TTavres oltto rrjs ttXtjulov rrrjyrjg- €(f)povpovv 8* 
avrr^v ol TroXepaot. yevopievojv he rwv opKcov, cruv- 
ayayovra rovs pied* eavrov SiSovai tco pur) ttlovtl 
TTjv ^aoiXeiav' ovhevog he Kapreprjaavros dXXd irdv- 
Tojv movTcov, avTOV eirl irdGi Kara^dvra /cat irepip- 
pavdpLevov, en rcov iToXepiioyv irapovToyv ^ diTeXdeti^ 
/cat rr^v x<^P^^ Karaoxelv ojs pir) TTiovra. 

1 IloXvK par Idas] Ilo\v(TTpaTi8as Life of Lycnrgus, chap. xxv. 
^ ai'/ca Tux^Ates . . . al Cobet (partly from the Life o/JjycurguSt 
chap, xxv.) : aiKc rvxio/xeu . . . el 8L 

* 2601/ Xy lander : auiov. 

* ol added by Turnebus. 

'' (XTreXM;/ Turnebus (from the Life of IJycurgus, chap. i\.): 
iweXdetv. 

390 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 231-232 

POLYCRATIDAS 

Polycratidas was sent, along with others, as am- 
bassador to the king's generals, and when these 
asked whether they were there as private citizens or 
had been sent as public representatives, he said, " If 
we succeed, public ; if not, private." <* 

PHOEBIDAS ^ 

Phoebidas, before the hazardous engagement at 
Leuctra, when some remarked that this day would 
show the brave man, said that the day was worth 
much if it had the power to show the brave man. 

SOUS" 

The story is told that Sotis, being besieged by the 
Cleitorians in a rugged and waterless stronghold, 
agreed to give up to them the land which he had 
captured by the spear if all the men with him should 
drink from the neighbouring spring. This spring tlie 
enemy were guarding. When the oaths had been 
exchanged, he got together his men and offered the 
kingdom to the man who would not drink ; however 
no one had the strength to resist, but they all drank ; 
whereupon he came down after all the rest, and 
sprinkled himself, the enemy still being present, and 
went back and took possession of the land on the 
ground that he had not drunk. ^ 

'^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xxv. {55 c). 
^ Spartan general, fourth century b.c. 
'^ Third king of Sparta, second of the Eurypontid line 
according to tradition. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. ii. (40 c). 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(232) THAEKAOT 

■D 1 . TrjXcKXo^^ TTpog TOV CLTTOVTa, OTL 6 TTttTT]/? 

Xeyei KaKwg avrov, " el fjurj avrco/' €(f)rj, " Xcktov^ 
r^Vy ovK av eXeyev." 

2. EtVovTOs 8e TOV aSeA^ou, ort ov;^ o/xotco? 
avTo) 7Tpoo(j>epovTai ol TToXlrai ojs eKelvct) ovri e/c 
ra)v avTojv, dyvajjjLoviarepov he, etTTC, " av yap 
OVK otSa? ahiKeiGOai, eyoj 8e." 

3. *Epa>T7^^£tS" Se 8ta rt e^o? 77a/)' aurot? eart 
Tovs vecorepovs roZs Trpeo^vrepois e^avLGTaoOai^ 
" 07ro)£," e(f)r], " Trepl rovs firj TrpoGiJKovTas ovrcos 
exovreg Tiiirjs jxaXXov ripLcoGL rovs yoveas." 

4. YivdopLevov he rivos TToarjv KeKTr^rau ovaiaVy 
e(j>y]y " ov TrXetcx) rrjs iKavrjs." 

XAPIAAOT 

1. XapiAAo? epojTiqdels 8td ri rovs vofiovg 6 
AvKovpyos ovrcos oXiyovs eOiqKev, *' ort/' 6^17, 

C " Tols oXiya Xeyovoiv oXiycov koX vojjlcov earl 

2. Ylvvdavofievov he nvos Sta rt ras" fxev Kopa? 
OLKaXvTTTOVs , TCLS §6 yvvoLKas iyKeKaXvpLfievas els 
rovix(j>aves ayovoiv, " on," ^V*^> " ^ctS" /xev Kopas 
dvhpas evpelv Set, ras 8e ywat/ca? aco^eiv rovs 
exovr as." 

^ TrjXeKXos Xylander : T-rjXeKpos. 

2 XeKTou] XeKT€OP Bernardakis, but unnecessarily. See, for 
example, Jebb on Sophocles, O.C. 1360. 

* See the note on 3Ioralia, 190 a. 
" Cf. Moralia^ 190 a, supra. 
392 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 232 

TELECLUS « 

1. Teleclus, in answer to the man who said that 
Teleclus's father was speaking ill of him, said, " If 
he had had no cause to speak, he would not have 
spoken." 

2. When his brother said to him that the citizens 
did not comport themselves toward himself as they 
did toward the king (although he was of the same 
family), but with much less consideration, he said, 
" The reason is, you do not know how to submit to 
injustice, and I do." ^ 

3. Being asked why it was the custom among them 
for the younger men to rise up and give place to 
the elder, he said, " So that, having this attitude 
regarding honour toward those who are not related 
to them, they may pay greater honour to their 
parents." '^ 

4. When someone inquired how much property he 
possessed, he said, " Not more than enough." 

CHARILLUS " 

1. Charillus, being asked why Lycurgus made so 
few laws, said, " Because those who use few words 
have need of but few laws." * 

2. When someone inquired why they took their 
girls into public places unveiled, but their married 
women veiled, he said, " Because the girls have to 
find husbands, and the married women have to keep 
to those who have them ! " 

« Cf. Moralia, 237 d, infra ; Xenophon, Constitution of 
Sparta, 6. 1-3. 

^ An early king of Sparta ; traditionally a contemporary 
of Lycurgus. Another spelling is Charilaus. 

* Cf. Moralia, 189 f (1), supra. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(232) 3. Twv he elXa)TCOV rivos Opaavrepov avrco 

7TpO<7(f)€pOjJL€VOV, " €t fJiTj Wpyit,6yL7]V ,'' etTTC, " KaT- 

eKravov dv ore." 

4. 'Epcorr^CTai^TO? Se tlvo? avrov Ttva vo[XiL,€L 
TToXireiav dpicrrr]v, ecjiTj, " eV fj av Trepl dperrjs 
TrXeLGTOi TToXiTevojJievoi Trpos dXX-qXovs dvev crrd- 
G€a)5 dycovit,eG6 ai OeXcoGL." 
D 5. UvvdavoiJievov 8e nvog Sid tl Trdvra rd rcov 
decjv ^oava jjced^ ottXojv I'Spurat nap* avrols, 

07T0JS," ^i>'^) " lJ^T]Te rd Kard rwv avOpojirajv 
oveiSr] XeyofjLeva Sid rr^v hetXiav iirl tovs deovs 
dva(f)€pojiJL€v, fjLTjre ol veoL dvoirXoi rols deols 
evxojvrai." 

6. Upos 8e Tov TTvdopLevov Sta rl KOfjuaxjiv 
elnev, " on t(x)v Koopiojv 6 (fyvaiKos /cat dSdiravos 
ovTos Igti!* 



AIA^OPA TfiN EN TOIS AAKfiSIN AAOSfiN 
AnO^eEFMATAi 

1. TtafJLicov 7Tp€GpevTaZs piaKpoXoyovGiv e^aaav 
ol TiTTapTLdraiy " rd (xev rrpdra^ eVtAeAaa/xe^a/ 
rd he vorepa ov avv'qKapies'^ hid rd rd irpdra^ 
iTTtXeXdadaL." 
E 2. ^Prjropos piaKpov Karareivavros Xoyov koX 
rd^ aTTOKpioei^ alrovvros, Iva rols TToXlraig drt- 
ayyetXr), " (XTrayyeAAe rolvvv/' ecjyaaav, " on fjLoXis 
fjLev Gv iiravGOj Xdycov, puoXtg he ripLeis aKovovres.* 

* 5ia(popa . . . airocpdey/xaTa omitted in most mss. 

^ irpdra Cobet : irpura. 

3 iiriXeXda-fMeda Cobet : iTn\€\d6afji.es, 

* a-vvTjKa/ies] avveiKafiei Cobet. 

394. 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 232 

8. When one of the Helots conducted himself 
rather boldly toward him, he said, " If I were not 
angry, I would kill you." ^ 

4. When someone asked him what he thought to 
be the best form of government, he said, " That in 
which the greatest number of citizens are willing, 
without civil strife, to vie with one another in 
virtue." ^ 

5. When someone inquired why all the statues of 
the gods erected among them were equipped wdth 
weapons," he said, " So that we may not put upon the 
gods the reproaches which are spoken against men 
because of their cowardice, and so that the young 
men may not pray to the gods unarmed." 

6. In answer to the man who inquired why they 
wore their hair long, he said, " Because this is the 
natural and inexpensive form of ornament." ^ 

VARIOUS SAYINGS OF SPARTANS TO FAME 
UNKNOWN 

1. When the ambassadors of the Samians spoke at 
great length, the Spartans said to them, " We hae 
forgot the first part, and the later part we did na 
ken because we hae forgot the first. "^ 

2. When a speaker extended his remarks to a great 
length, and then asked for answers to report to his 
citizens, they said, " Report that you found it hard 
to stop speaking and we to listen." ^ 

« Cf. Moralia, 189 f (2), supra. 
'• Cf. Moraliay 154 e. 

" C/., for example, Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 
911), p. 434. 
** Cf. the note on Moralia^ 189 f (3), supra, 
* Cf. Moraliay 216 a (15), supra. 
' Cf. Moralia^ 216 a (15), supra. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(232) 3. npo? SrjpaLOvg Tvepl tlvojv avriXiyovras '* rj 
<l)pov€LV," etnov, " Set eXarrov ri SvvacrOaL fJLet^ov." 

4. AaKCDV ipcoTTjOelg 8t* rjv air lav ras tov ttcj- 
ycovog rpixoL? ^ttI ttoXv KOfxdocras ^X^^> etnev, " tva 
pXeiTCOv ret? ttoXlols jJLrjSev dvd^Lov avrcov TTpdrroj." 

5. "AAAo? TTvOofJLevov TLVos, " Sta TL iyx^LpiSLOLS 
ppax^ort' xp^ja^e; " " tva TrXiqolov," etTTC, " rots' 
TToXepLLOLs els x^tpas" tKrco/xe?." 

6. 'ETratvowTo? nvos rov? ^Apyelovs^ fjLaxrjTas, 

AaKCOV €L7T€V, " iv TpOtOL." 

7 . "Erepo? (iKovGag SetTTvrjcravTds nvag ^id^eadai 
7TLV€LVf " firj /cat iadUiv," €L7T€, " ^ta^ovrat; ** 

8. UivSdpov ypdipavTog, 

*EAAa8o? epeLGfia *Ad7]vaL, 

AdKcov €(j)y] KaraTreaeiv av t7)v *EAAaSa oxovfjidvrjv 
ipeLafiari tolovto). 
F 9. 'Ettci Se IScov Tt? iv TrtVa/ct ypaTrrcp AdKOJvas 
V7t6 ^AdrjvaLOJV CT^arro/xeVou? eXeyev, " dvhpeZoi y 
*Adr]vaLOLy" AdKOJV vttotvxco^, " iv rep TrlvaKi," 

10. Xlpos 8e riva Trpocneixevov rds €K Sta^oXijs 
jSAacr^r^jLtta? AdKcov €itt€, " Trauo-at Krar' ipiov rot 
(Lra x^P'^y^^'" 

1 1 . Y\p6s 8e rov KoXal,6p.evov Kal Xeyovra, 

CLKCOV TJjJLaprOV," €L7T€ Tt?, " aKCOV rOLVVV Kal 

KoXdt,ov." 

1 'Apyeiovi van Lee wen : dpiarovs. 

<» Cf. Moralia, 218 e (8), supra. 

* A thousand years before. 

" Perhaps the reference is to the expression irp6s ^iav irlueiu 
found in Alcaeus (No. 20 in Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. 
396 



tt V 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 232 

3. In answer to the Thebans who were disputing 
with them over some matters, they said, " You 
should have less pride or more power." " 

4. A Spartan, being asked why he wore his beard 
so very long, said, " So that I may see my grey hairs 
and do nothing unworthy of them." 

5. Another, in answer to the inquiry, " Why do 
you use short swords ? " said, " So that we may get 
close to the enemy." 

6. When someone w'as praising the Argive warriors, 
a Spartan said, " Yes, at Troy ! ^ " 

7. Another, being told that some people after 
dining are forced todrink,^ said, "What, and are 
they forced to eat also ? " 

8. When Pindar wrote,** 

Athens the mainstay of Greece, 

a Spartan said that Greece was like to fall if it rested 
on any such mainstay as that ! 

9. Someone on seeing a painting in which Spartans 
were depicted being slain by Athenians, kept re- 
peating, " Brave, brave Athenians." A Spartan cut 
in with, " Yes, in the picture ! " 

10. To a man who was listening avidly to some 
spitefully slanderous remarks a Spartan said, " Stop 
being so generous with your ears against me ! " ^ 

11. To a man who was being punished, and kept 
saying, " I did \\Tong unwillingly," someone retorted, 
" Then take your punishment unwillingly." 

p. 15^, Sophocles {Frag. 669 Nauck) and Aristophanes 
{Acharnians, 73). Cf. also Menander, The Arhitrants, lines 
4-5 (in L.C.L. p. 18) where the same words are used. 

^ Frag. No. 76 (ed. Christ). 

* Cf. the similar remark of Simonides quoted in Stobaeus, 
Florilegium, ii. 42. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

12. IScov TLS iv a7TO-)(a}p'ri(JeL SaKovvras^ €7tI hi- 
(jypcov dvd pcoTTOVS , " fJirj ylvoirOy" etVrcv, " ivravda 
KadioaL odev ovk eoriv i^avacrrrjvaL Trpeo^vrepcp." 

13. Xto)!^ TTore Kar eTTihrniiav o/no SetTTVOV 
ifieadvrojv ev rep icfyopelo) /cat ;)^CCTa^'Tajv 6776 rcDv 

233 hi<^pa)V, €vda ol e^opoi iKaOr^vro, ro [lev irpajrov 
LGXvpcJbs dvetj-qrovv rovs TroLT^cravrag fxr) iroXlrai 
Tvyxd.vcjJGLV' (Lg 8 rjcrdovro on Xtot rjcrav, eKijpv^aVf 
* rots Xio6? e(/>tao-tv acreAyatVetv.' 

14. 'Ettci Se Tt? rds dfivySaXdg rcbv GKXrjpcijv 
ecopa hiTrXaoiov TTCuAou/xeVas', " /xt) OTrdvLoi," €(f)r]f 
" ol XlOol; " 

15. TlXas TLS d-qSova /cat ^pax^lav Trdvv adpKa 
evpcov, €i7T€, " (j)(jjvd TV TLS idCTi Kol ovhev dXXo." 

16. 'I8c6v Tts" rcjv AaKcovojv Aioyevr) rov Kvva 
rrepiXapL^dvovra dvSpidvra x^-XKeov, ijjvxovs ovtos 
G(f)oSpov, eTTvOero el ptycpr]' dpyTjaafidvov 8e, " ri 
ovv," €(f)r], " fjieya Troieis; " 

17. 'Ov'et8to-^ets' ns rcov MeraTTovrlajv et? 8et- 
B Atav VTTO AdKOjvoSf " dXXd fi'r]v," ^cjit], " ovk oXiya 

rrjs dXXorpias exofxev "• o 8e, ** ov fxovov dpa," 
€07^, " 8etAot dAAa /cat a8t/cot iare." 

18. Kar' €77t8i7/xtav rt? iv TiTrdprr) KprjTTLhov- 
lievos dpdos eirl dardpov GKeXovs etire Trpos Aa/ccova, 

^ BaKovvras F.C.B. : daK^ovras {daKevopras Life of LycurgilS, 
chap. XX.) 

* Not in Sparta, of course. 

'' As in Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xx. (52 r). 

* A similar story is told of the Clazomenians by Aelian, 
Varla Historia, ii. 15. 

•* Cf, for example, Athenaeus, 53 a. 

* " Vox et praeterea nihil." 

^ A part of his self-imposed training to inure himself to 
398 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 232-233 

12. Someone, seeing men seated on stools " in a 
privy, said, " God forbid that I should ever sit where 
it is not possible to rise and yield my place to an older 
man. " 

13. When some Chians, on a visit to Sparta, 
vomited after dinner in the hall of the Ephors, and 
befouled with ordure the very chairs in which the 
Ephors were wont to sit, the Spartans, first of all, 
instituted a vigorous investigation, lest possibly these 
might be citizens ; but \vhen they learned that they 
were, in fact, Chians, they caused public proclama- 
tion to be made that ' The Spartans grant permission 
to the Chians to be filthy.' ^ 

14. When someone saw almonds of the hard sort <* 
selling at double the price of others, he said, " Are 
stones so scarce ? " 

15. A man plucked a nightingale and finding 
almost no meat, said, ** It's all voice ye are, and 
nought else." « 

16. One of the Spartans saw Diogenes the Cynic 
holding his arms around a bronze statue in very 
cold weather,^ and asked Diogenes if he were cold ; 
and when Diogenes said "No," the other said, ** What 
great thing are you doing then ? " 

17. One of the people of Metapontum, being re- 
proached for cowardice by a Spartan,^' said, '* But as a 
matter of fact we have not a little of the country of 
other states " ; whereupon the Spartan replied, 
" Then you are not only cowardly, but also unjust." 

18. A man who was visiting Sparta stood for a long 
time upon one foot, and said to a Spartan, '* I do 

cold, as in the summer he used to roll in the hot sand to 
inure himself to heat, according to Diogenes Laertius, vi, 23. 
" Possibly Cleonymus (Diodorus, xx. 104). 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(233) " ovK av OLjjLal ere, cL AaKwv, tooovtov ■)(p6vov iin 
rov TToSos ooov iyo) Grrjvai." /cat o? VTToXa^cov, 
" ov yo-p," '^4'V> " '''^^ jxevToi, XV^^^ 075/C eariv 
oCTTts" ov." 

19- MeyaAuvo/xeVou nvos iirl rfj pr]TopLKfj rex- 
vTj, elire rig Aolkcxjv, " aAAo, val^ roj gicx), rlx'^'n 
avev rod dXrjOelas rj^dai ovre iarlv ovre fii^TroTe 
yevTjrat." 
C 20. ^Apyelov ttote elirovros, " ttoXXol Td(f)OL Trap* 
rjfXLV elal TiTTapnarcov/' Aolkcov elrrev, " dXXd jjltjv 
Trap* rjfJLLV ^Apyeccov ouSe ets"," d)S avrcjv [xev ttoA- 
XoLKLs *'Apyovs em^e^riKorwv ^Apyeicov he rrjs 
YiTrdprris ovheirore. 

21 . AdKOJV alxfJioXoLiTLGdels koI TnTrpaaKojjievo? , 
Tov KiqpvKos Xeyovros, " AdKcova TrcoXcj," in- 
earopLiGev elTTWVy " alxp^dXcorov Ki^pvGGe." 

22. Tcov TTapd AvGLjJidxci) GTparevojjievcDV ipco- 
rr]6eLS ng utt' avrov, fjirj rts" tcov elXcorojv ccrrt, 
" cru 8' o'leL," e(f)rj, " eirl to irapd gov rerpco^oXov 
AdKOJva ^^eLv; " 

23. "Ore S-q^aloL VLK'qGavres rovg AdKojvag iv 
AevKTpois TTpog avrov TraprJGav rov ^vpojrav, Kai 
TLS fJLeyaXavxcov eiTre, " ttov vvv etGLV at AdKCJves ; " 
YiTTapridnqs Xiq^Bels vtt* avrcov, " ov TrdpeiGivJ' 

D e^r]y " ov yap dv vfieis Sevpo rjXOere." 

24. ^ Adiqvaicx>v d^iovvrcjv, ore TrapeScoKav to 
CLGTV, Sa/xov avTols fxovov iaGai, eiTrov, " orav 

1 vol Cobet : vr). 

"In almost the same words in Plato, Phaedrua^ 260 e. 
* Cf. Plutarch, Life of Ages'daus, chap. xxxi. (613 d). 
"= Cf. Moralia, 234 c (40), infra. 
400 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 233 

not think that you, sir, could stand upon one foot as 
long as that " ; and the other interrupting said, " No, 
but there is not a single goose that could not do it." 

19. \\Tien a man boasted greatly of his art in 
speaking, a Spartan said, " By Heaven, there is 
no art nor can there be an art without a firm hold 
on truth." ° 

20. When an Argive said once upon a time, " There 
are many tombs of Spartans in our country," a 
Spartan said, " But there is not a single tomb of an 
Argive in our country," indicating by this that the 
Spartans had often set foot in Argos, but the Argives 
had never set foot in Sparta.^ 

21. A Spartan having been taken prisoner in war 
and put up for sale, when the crier said, " I offer a 
Spartan for sale," stopped his mouth, saying, " Cry 
a prisoner of war." ^ 

22. One of the men serving in the army of Lysi- 
machus, being asked by him whether he were not 
one of the Helots, said, " Do you suppose that any 
Spartan would come to get the sixpence which you 
pay ? " 

23. At the time when Thebans had conquered the 
Spartans at Leuctra and advanced to the river Euro- 
tas itself, one of them, boasting, said, " Where are 
the Spartans now ? " A Spartan who had been 
captured by them said, " They are not here ; other- 
^vise you would not have come thus far." 

24. At the time when the x\thenians had sur- 
rendered their city,^ they declared it was only right 
that Samos should be left to them, but the Spartans 

<* At the close of the Peloponnesian war, 404 b.c. Samos 
had been the naval base for the Athenians during the pre- 
ceding years. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(233) avT(hv ovK rjre, rore Kal d'AAous" e^eti^ t^r^relre; ** 
d<j>' od Kal Tj 7TapoL[JLLa 

OS auTO? avTov ovk €;\;6t Sa/xov OeXet. 

25. rioAtv Tiva Kara Kpdrog iXovrcuv Aa^eSatjU-o- 
vicjv, ol e<f)opoL eLTTOv, " oix^Tai ro 7raAatcr/Lta rcjv 
viojv ovKeri e^ovuiv dvraycoviord? ol vioi} ' 

26. "AAAt7v TToXiv v7TiO)(yoviievov rod ^aaiXiajs 
E avrcbv reXeov dcfyavielv -^v ovve^e^rjKei TrpdyfjLara 

'TToXXdKLg 7Tap€G)(7]odai Tols AdKCOGLVy OVK llT- 

erpei/jav, (f)diJLevoi, " fii^SapLcds d(f)avLarjs /xt^S' dviXrjs 
rrjv dKOVTjv rcbv veajv." 

27. Tots' TToXaiovGi iraihor pi^as ovk i(f)ioravov, 
Lva [JLT) T€xvr]g dAA* dperrjs rj ^tAort/xta yivqrai. 
8t6 Koi AvaavopiSas^ ipojTcofxevos, ottojs 6 Xapcuv 
ivLKr]G€V avTOV, " ra 7ToXvpiiqxo~vla '* €L7T€. 

28. OtAtTTTTOu ypd^ovTOs, OT€ els TTiv x^P^^ 
auTOJV TTapeyivero, irorepov ^ovXovrai (jiiXiov 
eXdelv ri iroXiixiov avrov, dvre^cjvriaav , " ovhi- 
T€pov." 

29. Upea^evT'^v riva 8ta77e/xj/fa/xeyot TTpos ^Avtl- 
yovov Tov ArjfjLTjrpLOVy TTvOofxevoi on iKdXeaev 

F avTov ^auiXea, e^rjfjLLCjjcraVj Kairoi pLeSifJiVov TTvpcov 
eKdcrra) Trap* avrov airoheias ovoiqs KOpLii^ovra. 

30. Ar]ix7]Tpiov iyKaXovvTos on eva Trpea^evTTjv 

^ Pantazides would omit ou/ceVi . . . ol viot. 

2 A.v(Tai>oplBas Wyttenbach (from Moralia, 576 a, and Life 
of Pelopidas, chap, xiii.) : Avaavdpos. Lysander seems not 
to have come into contact with Charon. 

• Cf. Dio Chrysostom, Oration Ixxiv. (637 M., 395 R.) ; 
Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiocjfrajihi Graeci, i. p. 292 
(Diogenianus, vii. 34), and ii. p. 371 (Apostol. xiii. 5). 
402 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 233 

said, ** Do you, at a time when you do not even own 
yourselves, seek to possess others ? " From this 
incident arose the proverb : " 

Who does not own himself would Samos own. 

25. When the Spartans had taken by storm a cer- 
tain city, the Ephors said, " Gone is the MTCsthng- 
school of our young men ; they no longer will have 
competitors." ^ 

26. When their king promised to wipe out com- 
pletely another city which, as it happened, had given 
much trouble to the Spartans, they would not allow 
it, saying, " You must not abolish nor remove the 
whetstone of our youth." 

27. They appointed no trainers to instruct in 
wresthng so that the rivalry might be not in skill, 
but in courage.^ This is the reason why Lysanoridas, 
when he was asked how Charon had conquered him, 
said, " By his great resourcefulness." 

28. Philip wrote at the time when he entered their 
country, asking whether they wished that he should 
come as a friend or as a foe ; and they made 
answer, " Neither." 

29. They sent an ambassador to Antigonus, son of 
Demetrius, and, upon learning that the embassador 
had addressed Antigonus as King, they fined him, 
although he had brought for each one of them a 
bushel and a half of wheat at a time when there was 
great scarcity of food. 

30. When Demetrius complained that they had 

" The last clause looks like an explanatory comment. 
Pantazides would omit it. 

« Cf. Moralia, 639 r, and Plutarch's Life of PelopidaSy 
chap. vii. (281 b). 

403 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

enefjupav rrpos avrov, " ovx iKavos ovv," eiTTov, ** ci 
TTpos eva els; " 

31. 'Evey/cavTO? nvos dplaTrjv yvcojjirjv fJLOxdrjpov, 
ravr-qv fiev aTreSe^avro, TrepieXofJievoL 8c rovrov 
TrepUO-qKav irepo) KaXws ^epiojKOTL. 

32. 'ASeA^cov TT-pos" oAAtJAoi^s" Sta^cpo/xcvcov, rov 
TTarepa i^rjiiLwoav on rovs vUXs Graorid^ovras 
7T€piopa. 

33. ^aXriqv eTnSrjfX'qcravra i^rjfjLiojaav ori 8a- 
KTvXois KiQapit^ei. 

34. Auo 77atSes' ipidxovro, drepos 8c avTwv rov 
krepov erpwGe SpeTrdvco TrXr^yfj davaaifxa)' roiv 
8e (JvviqOcDV Traihajv, iiTei hiaXveudaL efieXXov, ctt- 
ayyeXXofJLevojv dpivveZodai koL dvaip-qaeiv rov 
TrXtj^avra, " /LtT^Sa/xcos"," ctTre, " irpos decjv, ov yap 

234 SiKaiov /cat yap dv iyw iiroLrjoa tovto, el e(j)6aGa 
Kal dyados iyevoixriv ." 

35. "YiTepov TTatSdpiov, cTret naprjv 6 Kaipos, iv 
(L KXe7TT€LV vevopiLGTO Tovs iXevOepov^ TTalBas o ri, 
TLS hvvaLTO Kal fXTj Xadelv aloxpov rjv, d)s ol ovv 
auTo) TratScs £cDy eKXeipav dXajireKiov Kal eSooav 
avTcp <f)vXdrr€LV, Trapayevofxevcov tojv dTToXcoXeKo- 
TOJV €7tI t,rJTr]aLV, ervxe fiev VTro^aXajv ro dXojTTeKiov 
VTTO TO avTov IfidrLov, dypiaivovTos he rov drjpLov 
Kal TTjv avTOV TrXevpdv Kareodiovros /xe;^pt tcov 
oirXdyxvcjjv , rjpepLeL, cva fxr} yevrjraL Kara(f)av'qs • 
a>? be vcrrepov e/cetVcov d7T€Xd6vTa)v idedoavro to 
yeyovos ol TralSes Kal ep.ip.(f>ovTO , XiyovTes dfieivov 

" Cf. Moralia, 216 b (16), supra. 

^ Cf. Moraliay 41 b, and 801 b ; Aeschines, Against 
Timarchus, 180-181 ; Philo Judaeus, The Worse Plotting 
against the Better ^ 195 b ; Aulus Gellius, xviii. 3. 
404 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 233-234 

sent only one ambassador to him, they replied, " Is it 
not enough — one to one ? " " 

31. When a bad man brought in a very good idea, 
they accepted it ; but they took it away from him 
and bestowed the right of proposing it upon another 
man who had lived a virtuous life.^ 

32. When two brothers quarrelled with, each other, 
the Spartans fined the father because he permitted 
his sons to quarrel. 

33. They fined a visiting harp-player because he 
played the harp with his fingers. ° 

34. Two boys were fighting, and one of them 
wounded the other mortally \vith the stroke of a 
sickle. The friends of the wounded boy, as they 
were about to separate, promised to avenge him and 
make away with the one who had struck him, but 
the boy said, " In Heaven's name do not, for it is 
not right ; the fact is, I should have done that 
myself if I had been quick enough and brave 
enough." 

35. In the case of another boy, when the time had 
arrived during which it was the custom for the free 
boys to steal whatever they could, and it was a dis- 
grace not to escape being found out, when the boys 
with him had stolen a young fox alive, and given it to 
him to keep, and those who had lost the fox came in 
search for it, the boy happened to have slipped the 
fox under his garment. The beast, however, became 
savage and ate through his side to the vitals ; but the 
boy did not move or cry out, so as to avoid being 
exposed, and later, when they had departed, the boys 
saw what had happened, and blamed him, saying that 

' Thus making the music pleasanter to hear than if he 
had used the plectrum. C/. Moralia, 802 f. 

VOL. Ill o 405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B elvai <f)av€p6v TTOLrjaac to dXcoTreKLOv -^ f^^XP^ 

(234) Oavdrov KpvTrreiv, " ov jxev ovv," etnev, " dXXd 

KpeZrrov rals dXyrjSoai [xrj ivSovra^ reXevrdv -^ 

7Tepi<^a>pov yevojjievov Sta jjiaXaKiav to t,rjv alaxpctj? 

■ TrepLTTOL'qGaGdaL." 

36. UepiTVXovTeg Tives AaKOJGL Ka6* oSov €L7rov, 
*' €VTVX'^KaT€, dpTLCjjg ivTevOev Xtjotcov dTnovTCvv." 
at 8e, " ov jLta tov 'EvuaAtoi^, dAA* eKelvoi fjLrj 

7T€pLTVxdvTeS rjfJLLV." 

37. AdKOJV ipcoTTjOelg rt CTrtWarat, ctTrev, " eAeu- 
Oepos etvat." 

38. Hats YiTTapTidTiqs alxp^ciXajTiGdels vtt* 'Avrt- 
C yovov tov ^acnXecos Kal Trpadels ra /xev aAAa 

TvdvTa VTTi^Koos rjv tco TTpiapLevq), doa ojero Trpocr- 
r]K€LV iXevdepcp TTOtelv ws Sc irpoueTa^ev dfjLiSa 
koixlI,€lv, ovk rfveax^TO eiTTcov, " ov SovXevGOj." 
iviGTaixlvov 8e eKeivoVy dva^ds ctti tov KepafjLov 
Kal eiTTwv, " ov-qGrf ttjs (Lvrjs/' epaXev iavTov 
KaTCx) Kal ereAeura. 

39. "Erepos TTOjXovfJLevos, elirovTos tlvo?, " idv 
dyopaGOJ crc, ;(/37jcrt/x,os €0-17; " " Kav jxrj dyopaGTjs " 
elirev. 

40. "AAAos alxP'dXcoTOS TrmpaGKoixevos, tov Kiq- 
pvKos eTTiXeyovTos dv^pdnohov TrajXeiv, " /carapare/' 
eLTTeVy " OVK ipels alxP'dXojTOv ; " 

41. Aa/ccov €m Trjs daTrtSo? puvZav exojv cm- 

^ d\yr]86aL /xr] evbovra Bernardakis : oKyiidbcrLv t) eUdovra or 
oKyqboffL only. 

2 ov-qarj Wyttenbach : €L(yq (oi/xib^rj Meziriacus, ovk ov-qaig 
Cobet, OL aoL Bernardakis : ^leravo-qarj ?). 

" The story is told more briefly in Plutarch's Ldfe of 
I/ycurgus, chap, xviii. (51 b). 

^ Cf. the note on Moralia, 194 d (3), supra. 
406 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 2S4 

it would have been better to let the fox be seen than 
to hide it even unto death ; but the boy said, " Not 
so, but better to die without yielding to the pain than 
through being detected because of weakness of spirit 
to gain a Ufe to be lived in disgrace." ° 

36. Some people, encountering Spartans on the 
road, said, " You are in luck, for robbers have just 
left this place," but they said, " Egad, no, but it is 
they who are in luck for not encountering us." ^ 

37. A Spartan being asked what he knew, said, 
" How to be free." 

38. A Spartan boy, being taken captive by Anti- 
gonus the king and sold, was obedient in all else to 
the one who had bought him, that is, in everything 
which he thought fitting for a free person to do, but 
when his owner bade him bring a chamber-pot, he 
would not brook such treatment, saying, " I will not 
be a slave " ; and when the other was insistent, he 
went up upon the roof, and saying, " You will gain 
much by your bargain," he threw himself down and 
ended his life.^ 

39. Another one being sold, when someone said, 
" If I buy you, \\i\\ you be good and helpful } " said, 
" Yes, and if you do not buy me." ^ 

40. Another captive being put up for sale, when 
the crier announced that he was offering a slave for 
sale, said, ** You damnable wretch, won't you say ' a 
captive ' ? " « 

41. A Spartan had as an emblem on his shield a 

" Cf. Moralia, 24:2 d (30), infra. This story is repeated by 
Philo Judaeus, Every Virtuous Man is Free^ chap. xvii. 
(882 c) : Seneca, Epistulae Moral, no. 77 (x. 1. 14), and is 
referred to by Epictetus, i. 2. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 242 c (29), infra. 

• Cf. Moralia, 233 c (21), supra, 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(234) or]iiov, Kal ravTrjv ov {jlcl^oj rrjg aX-qOivrjs, d)9 Kara- 
j) yeXcbvreg rives eXeyov on^ vTrep rod Xavddveiv 

TOVTO 7Te7TOilJK€L, " Iva fJL€V OVV ," eL7T€ , " cf)aV€p6s 

CO' ovrco yap tols TToXefiLois 7tX7]glov TrpoGepxofjiaL, 
cocrre to iTTiurjjjLov tjXlkov iarlv utt' avrchv opdadai." 

42. "Erepos", eV cru/XTTOcrtoj TTpoaevexOelonrjs Xvpas, 
" ov AaKOJVLKOv," et77€, " TO (f)Xvapelv." 

43. Y^TTapridriqs ipcorrjOels el ducfyaXrjs r) els 
^TTaprrjv ohos elirev, " ottoIos Ka tls fjs^' ot fxev yap 
Xeovres ^aSc^ovrL oTra Ka XecxjvTL,^ reus Se Xaycos 
eiTi rds yds Kr^vas^ 67]pevofjLes." 

44. 'Ev ')(eipa\pla TrepiKpovovros rod Trpoarpax'^Xl- 
E t,ovros KevoGTTOvh(x)s Kal KaraGTrcovros eirl ttjv yT]v, 

eTTeihy] ro) acvfxarL eXeiTTero 6 TrpocnreGcov, eSaKe 
Tov ^pax^ova' Kal 6 erepos etire, " SaKveis, c5 
AaAcojy, wGvep at yvvalKes' " ov piev ovv," etrrev 
drepoSy " aAA' coGTrep ol Xeovres." 

45. XcdAos" eTrl rroXepLov e^iojv, eiraKoXovdovvrajv 
avrcp TLVOJV Kal yeXcovrcov, eTTiGrpa^els eirre, 

KaKal Ke^aXai, ov cf)evyovra Set rols TroXepLioLS 
fjidx^crdoLf', dXXd [xevovra Kal rrjv rd^iv <j)vXdr- 
rovra'* 

46. "Ere/DOS" ro^evdels Kal rov ^lov e/cAetVcov, 
eXeyev, ov fieXei pLOL rovro on 0,770 ^avou/xat/ dAA' 
ort V7t6 yvvviSos ro^orov Kal purjhev irpd^as." 

^ OTL added by Turnebus. 

- Ko. TLS Tjs F.C.B. : Ka hjs Hartman : Kadiaris or KadiaeLS. 

^ OTra Ka Xewiri Beriiardakis ; diro KaXiovrt or dtroKXaiovTi, 

* Tois 7as KTjvas {yds Koiv^) F.C.B. : rq. CK'qvq. {jq. evvq? 
Bernardakis). 

^ Most Mss. have a slightly briefer version. 

* Cf. Moralia, 230 a (3). For the expression of similar 
sentiments see Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, chap, ii, 
(112 c) ; Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 2 (4). 

408 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 234 

fly, and that, too, no bigger than life-size. When 
some mockingly said that he had done this to escape 
being noticed, he said, " Rather that I may be 
noticeable ; for I come so close to the enemy that 
my emblem is seen by them in its true size." 

42. Another, when a lyre was brought in at an 
evening party, said, " It is not Spartan to indulge in 
nonsense." ^ 

43. A Spartan, being asked if the road into Sparta 
were safe, said, " That depends on what kind of a 
mon ye are ; for the lions gang about where they 
wull, but the hares we hunt over that land." 

44. In a clinch one wrestler, who had the other by 
the neck, overpowered him with little effort, and 
pulled him to the ground. Since the one who was 
down was at a disadvantage in using his body, he 
bit the arm that held him. His opponent said, 
" Spartan, you bite like a woman." " No, indeed," 
said he, " but like a hon." * 

45. A lame man was going forth to war, and some 
persons followed after him laughing. He turned 
around and said, " You vile noddles ! A man does 
not need to run away when he fights the enemy, but 
to stay where he is and hold his ground." " 

46. Another,'* mortally wounded by an arrow, said, 
as his life was ebbing away, " I am not troubled 
because I must die, but because my death comes at 
the hands of a womanish archer, and before I have 
accomplished anything."^ 

^ The same story is told of Alcibiades in Moralia, 186 d 
(1), and in Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades^ chap. i. (192 c). 

" Cf. Moralia^ 210 f (34), and 217 c ; Valerius Maximus, 
iii. 7, ext. 8. 

'* Callicrates at the battle of Plataea (Herodotus, ix. 72). 

* R epeated by Plutarch, Life ofAristeideSy chap. xvii.(329 c). 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

47. Et? TravSoKelov tls KaraXvaas Kal Sou? oi/jov 
rep 7TavSoK€L GKevdaaL, co? drepos rvpov 7]t€l Kal 

F eXaiov, " rl," e^ry, " et rvpov ctxov, en av iSeojxrjv 
oifjov ; 

48. rL/DOS" Sc rov ixaKapil^ovra AdfiTTiv rov Alyi- 
PT^rrjv, Sion iSoKei rrXovaicoraros etvai vavKXrjpia 
TToXXd exojv, Aolkcjov elrreVy " ov irpooixoj euSat- 
yiovia e'/c gxolvlojv aTTiqprrjfjLevr]." 

49. EtVoyros" Se nvos AaKcovi on i/jevSerat, 
direKpivaro, " eXevOepoi yap elfies' ol 8' ctAAot, 
a'iKa firj rdXr]9rj Xeyojvri, olfica^ovrai." 

50. YLpodejjLevos rt? veKpov arrjaai opdov, chg 
rravra ttolcuv ovk ehvvarOy " vrj Aia," elireVy " 'ivhov 
Tt elvai Set." 

51. TvvvLXps, Qpauv^ovXov rov natSos drro- 
davovros, evpojarcjs TjveyKe- Kal eVtypa/XjLta et? 
rovrov iyevero, 

235 rdv Ylirdvav Spaov^ovXog ctt' daTTiSos rjXvdev 
dnvovg 
iirrd rrpo? 'Apyetcov rpavfxara Se^dfievog, 
SeiKvij^ dvria Trdvra' rov atfxaroevra 8' o Trpea^vs 

dels €Trl TTvpKa'Crjv Tvvvlxos etiTe raSe/ 
** AetAot KXaiioOayGav' iyd) he oe, reKvov, dSaKpvs 
ddijjaj, rov Kal ijjLOV Kal AaKeSaLjJLOviov." 

52. 'AA/ctjStaS27 ro) ^Adiqvaioj ^aXavicos inl 

^ OeU . . . rdde] irald' . . . Tcdeis Palatine AntJiology vii. 229. 

" Repeated in Moralia, 995 b, where the meat is fish. Cf. 
also Aelian, Varia Historia^ 787 a ; Demosthenes, Or. xxiii. 
211 (691). 

^ Lampis was famous for his ships and his wealth. Cf., 
for example, Moralia, 787 a; Demosthenes, Or. xxiii. 211 
(691). " Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, v. 14 (40). 

410 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 234-235 

47. A man stopped at an inn and gave the inn- 
keeper a piece of meat to prepare ; and when the 
innkeeper asked for cheese and oil besides, the other 
said, " If I had cheese, what need should I have of 
meat too ? " * 

48. In answer to the man who called Lampis ^ of 
Aegina happy, because he seemed very rich in having 
many cargoes on the sea in ships, a Spartan said, " I 
do not pay much attention to happiness that hangs 
by ropes ! " ° 

49. When somebody told a Spartan that he was 
lying, the Spartan replied, " Yea, we are free 
men ; but ithers, if they dinna tell the truth, will 
rue it." <^ 

50. When someone set himself to make a corpse 
stand upright, and, for all his efforts, was unable to 
do this, he said, " Egad, there is need of something 
inside." 

51. Tynnichus, when his son Thrasybulus was slain, 
bore it sturdily ; and this epigram * was WTitten on 
him : 

Lifeless to Pitane came, on his shield upborne, Thrasybulus ; 
Seven the wounds he received, pierced by the Argive 
spears ; 
All in the front did he show them ; and him with his 
blood-stained body 
Tynnichus placed on the pyre, saying these words in 
his eld : 
" Let the poor cowards be mourned, but with never a tear 
shall I bury 
You, my son, who are mine, yea, and are Sparta's as 
well." 

52. When the keeper of a bath was pouring in a 

«* Cf. Moralia, 229 a (2). 

« Attributed to Dioscorides in the Palatine Anthology, 
vii. 229 {The Greek Anthology in the L.C.L., ii. p. 130). 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(235) TrXelarov Trapax^ovros vSojp, Aolkcjv eiTre, " rl 
TOVTO^ COS ov KaOapcp; G(f)6Spa Se cos pVTrapco 
TrXelov TTapax^L.^ " 

53. ^lXlttttov rod yiaKehovos TTpoardrrovros 
B TLva St' eTnGToXrjs, dvreypaipav ol Aa/ceSat/xovtot 

** Tvepl (hv djjLLv^ eypaifjas, Ov." 

"Ore Se ive^aXev els rr^v AaKOJViKrjv /cat iSoKovv 
drravres diroXelGOai, eiTre Se Trpos TLva tojv ^rrap- 
TiarwVy " Tt vvv TrotT^crere, c5 Aa/cajve? ; " " rt ydp," 
€cf)r], " d'AAo 7) dvSpetcos" OLTTodavoviJieda ; [jlovol 
yap rjjjiels 'EAAo^vcov eXevdepoi elvai /cat p.'q vtt- 
a/couetv dXXois lixadofiev." 

54. Merd Se rr]v "AytSo? '^rrav, opiripovs al- 
Tovvrog ^ AvrLTrdrpov TrevTrjKOvra TratSas", 'Ereo/cA^? 
icfiopevajv etire TratSa? /xey ov Scocretv, tva jlit) 
drraihevroi yivojvrai, rrjg Trarptov dyojyrjg drev' 
KTrjuavres' ovhe TToXirai yap dv ei-qaav TTpea^vras 
S' Tj yvvaiKas, et ^ovXoiro, ^iTrXaoiovs Scogclv. 

C direiXovvTOS S' avrov Setm, et fxrj Xd^oL, drreKpL- 
vavTo KOLvfj, " idv ;)(;aAe7rc6Tepa davdrov iTnrdrrrjs, 
€VKoXa)T€pov drrodavovfJieOa." 

55. UpeG^vrrjg ev ^OXvpLTTia GwreXovpiivov rod 
dy(x)vos irpodvpLOvpievos dedGaGdai, KaOeSpas rjTTopei' 
TToXXovs S' i7Ti7Top€v6pL€vos roTTOVs v^pl^ero /cat 
eGKOJTTrero, fJirjSevos avrov TrapaSexofievov d)S Se 
/caret rovg Aa/ceSat/xovtous" rJKev, dveGrrjGav Trdvres 
ol TratSes" /cat 77oAAot rojv dvSpcov rov roTTOV iK- 



TOVTO] TOVTU) 



, if necessary. 



^ Trapaxet F.C.B. : irapex^i- or Trapdxet. 
^ S/iii' the regular Doric form : &nfxiv. 



" The Spartans were not enthusiastic bathers {cf. Mor alia 
237 b). 

^ The story is told with shghtly more detail in 3/ora/m, 513 a. 
412 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 235 

great quantity of water for Alcibiades, a Spartan <* 
said, " Why all this for him as if he were not clean ? 
The fellow is pouring in extra water as if for a very 
dirty man." 

53. When Philip of Macedon sent some orders to 
the Spartans by letter, they wrote in reply, " What 
you wTote about, ' No.' " ^ 

When he invaded the Spartans' country, and all 
thought that they should be destroyed, he said to 
one of the Spartans, " What shall you do now, men 
of Sparta ? And the other said, " What else than 
die like men ? For we alone of all the Greeks have 
learned to be free, and not to be subject to others." " 

54. After the defeat of Agis,^ Antipater demanded 
fifty boys as hostages, but Eteocles, who was Ephor, 
said they would not give boys, lest the boys should 
turn out to be uneducated through missing the 
traditional discipline ; and they would not be fitted 
for citizenship either. But the Spartans would give, 
if he so desired, either old men or women to double 
the number. And when Antipater made dire threats 
if he should not get the boys, the Spartans made 
answer ^vith one consent, " If the orders you lay 
upon us are harsher than death, we shall find it 
easier to die." * 

55. While the games were being held at Olympia, 
an old man was desirous of seeing them, but could 
find no seat. As he went to place after place, he 
met with insults and jeers, and nobody made room 
for him. But w^hen he came opposite the Spartans, 
all the boys and many of the men arose and yielded 

'^ Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations^ v. 14 (42). 
'^ Agis III., in 331 b.c. 

* A different version of the Spartans' reply is given in 
3Ioralia, 64 d. 

VOL. Ill o 2 413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(235) ■)(wpovvTes' rcov Se Ylave^rjvcxyv iTnarjixrjvafJLevcjv^ 
KpoTip TO edos Kal VTrepeiTaivovvTiOV , 6 Trpeapvrr]? 
KcvrJGas 

ttoXlov re Kapr] ttoXlov re yeveiov 

Kal haKpvaaSy " oipioi tojv KaKcov," (f)r]GLV, (Ls 
D airavres piev ol "YiXX-qves erriGravraL ra KaXd, 
■)(^p(jjvrai 8' avTols {jlovol Aa/ceSat/xovtot. 

Oacrt Si Ttves" on Kal ^AO'^vrjcrL to avro eyevero' 
Havadrjvalcov yap ovtojv ol *Attlkol yepovra 
7Tpo€TTrjXdKLt,ov , TTpoGKaXovfievoL pL€V cx)S TTapa- 
Se^ojLteyot, el Se Trapayevotro , ov 7Tpoahe-)(6pL€Voi' 
ths Se Ste^tcbv ux^Sov arravras iyevero Kara rovs 
AaKeSaLpLoviojv decx)povs, OLTravres tojv ^dOpcov 
dvaaravres rod tottov irapexo^povv dyaadels Se 
6 oxXos irrl rep yeyovori iKporrjoe puerd rroXXrjs 
E iiTiuripiauias y Kai tls €L7T€ tcov TtTrapriaTcoVy " vai} 
roi Gico, loaoi /xev ol *Adr]valoL rd KaXd, ov irpda- 
GOVGL he." 

56. ^l^TTairiqs TJrrjde AdKcova- " dXXd el Soltjv 
aoL," €(j)rj, " pLaXXov ttt oax'^vo eis y rrjs Se dux^- 
pLoavvrjs GOV ravrrfs 6 TTpwros pueraSovg airios, 

dpyOV G€ TTOL'QGaS." 

57. AdKCxJV IScbv dyeipovrd riva deols, ovSev 
€t7re (fypovTi^eiv Oecbv Trrcoxorepcov eavrov. 

58. Aa^cov Tis pLOixov eir' aiGXpS, yvvaiKi, 
auAie, €i7T€, TLS TOL avayKa; 

* €Tnar]/xrjvafX€PO)P Cobeti i-rrLaTjfxencaaixivcjp, 
2 fai Cobet: VT]. 

• Homer, //. xxii. 74, and xxiv. 516. 

" Cf. Cicero, De senectute, 18 (63-64) ; Valerius Maximus, 
iv. 5, ext. 2. 
414 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 235 

their places. Whereupon the assembled multitude 
of Greeks expressed their approbation of the custom 
by applause, and commended the action beyond 
measure ; but the old man, shaking 

His head grey-haired and grey-bearded, ** 
and with tears in his eyes, said, " Alas for the evil 
days ! Because all the Greeks know what is right 
and fair, but the Spartans alone practise it." 

Some say that the same thing happened at Athens 
also. It was at the time of the Panathenaic festival, 
and the people of Attica were teasing an old man in 
an unseemly manner, calling him to them as if they 
were intending to make room for him, and not making 
room if he came to them. When he had passed 
through almost all the spectators and came opposite 
the delegates of the Spartans, they all arose from 
where they were sitting and gave him place. The 
crowd, delighted, applauded the action with great 
approval, and one of the Spartans said, " Egad, the 
Athenians know what is right and fair, but do not 
do it." ^ 

56. A beggar asked alms of a Spartan, who said, 
" If I should give to you, you will be the more a 
beggar ; and for this unseemly conduct of yours he 
who first gave to you is responsible, for he thus made 
you lazy." 

57. A Spartan, seeing a man taking up a collection 
for the gods, said that he did not think much of gods 
who were poorer than himself. 

58. A man who caught another in adultery with an 
ugly woman said, " Puir soul ! what was yer muckle 
need ? " ^ 

" In Moralia, 525 d, the same saying is attributed to a 
man of Byzantium. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

59. "AAAos" OLKovcov prjTopos jjLeydXag arpecfiovrog 
TrepLoSovg, " dAAa val roj glo)/' etTrev, " di'SpeXos 
ye 6 dvdpojTTog' Trpos ovSev 7moK€L[i€vov ev arpo- 
^lXoV TTji' yXojTTav." 
F 60. Et? AaKeSalfiova Trapayevo/JLevo? rig Kal ttjv 
TTpos rovs TTpea^vTag rcov vicov njjirjv deaudixevos, 
*' €V UTTaprr] fjiovrj," elrre, " AuatreAet yr]pd(TKeiv." 

61. ^Eipcorrjdelg AdKOJV ottolos ian Tvpralos 6 
TTOL'qrTJs, " dyaOog," elrrc, " KaKKovrjv^ veojv ipvxdg." 

62. "Erepos" dXyojv rovg o</>^aA/xou? ^ijj^t' e'^vt 
TToXefjLOV XeyovTCOv Se avroj tlvojv, " rrov drrei 
ovrojg excoi' ^ tl ttoitjgcov ; " " Kav jJirjSev erepov 
TTpd^cx)," €(f>7], " TToXej^LLOV y€ fjidxcii'poiv dpL^Xwco." 

63. BouAts" Kal Y^rripx^S^ AaKeSaipLOVLOL iropev- 
Oivres iOeXovral irpog 'Eep^-qv rov Uepcrdjv ^acnXea 
€7tI rLjjLcnpia '^v w(j)eiXev r] AaKehaipLOiV Kara XPV' 

236 GjJLOv, StoTt KijpvKag 7T€pi(j)9evras vtto rod Hepaov 
(Lg avrovg direKr eivav iXdovreg Trpog rov 'Rep^-qv 
€KeXevov Jj ^o-vXerai rpoTTCp hiaxp'qGaodai avrovs 
vnep AaKehaijxovicx)v . (hs Se eKeZvog dyaGOelg 
dneXvae rovg dvSpas Kal rjiiov {Jbeveiv nap* avrWy 
" Kal TTcos dV/' ecjyauav, " SvvaLfxeda ^rjv ivravOa, 
TTarpiha KaraXiTTovres Kal vojxovs Kal rovrovg rovg 
dvSpag, VTTep wv roGavriqv TJXOojjiev oSov diroOavov- 
jjievoL; " ^IvSdpvov 8e rod orparrjyov eirl -nXiov 
heopiivov Kal Xiyovros rev^eoBai avrovs rrjg l(J7]s 
TLjJLTJs TOLS [JidXiara iv Trpoayojyfj (J)lXols rov ^acrt- 

^ crr/)o/3i\ot] aTpo^tXCv E. Kurtz. 

- KaKKovTjv van Herwerden (c/. also Moralia, 959 b, and the 
Life of CJeomenes, chap, ii.) : KciKavdv. 

3 BoOXis /cat '^irepxi-'s, the usual spelling elsewhere, e.g, 
Moraliay 815 e: ^ovpis Kal air^prts (Herodotus, vii. 134 has 
^Trepdirjs). 
416 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 255-236 

59. Another, listening to an orator rolling off long 
sentences, said, " Egad, but the man has courage ; 
he twists his tongue well about no subject at all." 

60. One man who came to Sparta, and observed 
the honour which the young render to the old, said, 
" Only in Sparta does it pay to grow old." ° 

61. A Spartan, being asked what kind of a man 
Tyrtaeus the poet was, said, " A good man to sharpen 
the spirit of youth." 

62. Another who had sore trouble '\\'ith his eyes 
was going forth to war ; and when some said to him, 
" Where are you going in that state, or what do you 
purpose to do .^ " he said, " Even if I accomplish 
nothing else, I may at least blunt an enemy's sword." 

63. Buhs and Sperchis of Sparta went as volunteers 
to Xerxes king of the Persians, to render satisfaction 
which Sparta owed according to an oracle, because 
the people had killed the heralds sent to them by the 
Persian. These men came before Xerxes and bade 
him make away with them in any manner he desired, 
as representing the Spartans. But when he, filled 
with admiration, let them go free, and was insistent 
that they remain with him, they said, " And how 
should we be able to hve here, abandoning our 
country and laws and those men in whose behalf we 
made such a long journey to die ? " And when 
Indarnes ^ the general besought them at greater 
length, and said that they would receive equal honour 
with the friends of the king who stood highest in 

" A similar sentiment is attributed to Lysander by 
Cicero, De senectuU, 18 (63). 

" Hydarnes in Herodotus, vii. 135. 

417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B Xecog, €(f)'qaav, " ayvoelv rjixiv SoKelg rjXLKov ecrrt 
(236) 'TO TTJg iXevdeplag, rjs ovk av dXXd^atro tls vovv 
exojv TTjv riepcraJt' ^aoiXeiav.'* 

64. AaKcxJV, eTTei rfj /xev Tvporepa rjfidpa 6 ^Ivog 
avTov i^eKXtve, rfj S' ^i^]? arpcLfiara xPV^^I^^^os 
SaifjtXojs VTTeSex^ro, eTTi^ds rols GrpcojJLaaL Kar- 
eTfdrei, eTTiXeyojv hid ravra i^Q^.s ouS' eirl if/tddov 

VTTViOKivai. 

65. "Erepos" iXOcbv et? 'A^o^va? Kal opcov rovs 
* Ad-qvaiovs to rdpixo? aTTOKiqpvTTOVTas /cat to 
oipov, Kal reXcovovvras Kal TTopvo^ooKovvras , koX 
erepa epya dax^jpi-ova TrpdrrovraSj Kal p/qhev 
alaxpov riyovp.€vovg ore eTravrjXdev elg rrjv TrarpuSa, 

C Tcbv TToXiTCJV TTwdavofjievcov avTOV TTotd TLvd icrn 
rd iv 'A^tJ vats', " Trdvra," ctWe, " KaXd," elpcovevo- 
pievos Kal rrapLGrdg on Trdvra rrapd rols ^ AOiqvaioLS 
KaXd ^'o/xt^eTat, alaxpov Se ovSiv. 

66. "AAAos" ipa)Twp.evos jrepi tlvos d7T€Kpivaro 
" ov "' COS" Se o ipcxjr-qGas dTreKpivaro on " ipevSj]/' 
" opas ovv," ^(f>r], " on pidraios €? irepl cLv 
€TTiaraGaL epa)rcov." 

67. '^Hkov TTore Kard TTpeo^eiav AaKcove? npos 
AvySapiiv Tov rvpavvov (Lg 8' eKetvog virepnOlpievos 
TToXXdKis ovvTVX^^v o.ve^dXXeTO, to S' inl Trdori 
p^aXaKO)? ex^iv avrov e(f)7] ng, ol TTpea^eLg, " Xeye 
avro)," eiTTov, " on p,d rovs deovs ov 7TaXaio6pi€voi 

D rrpos avrov iXr]Xv6api€V, dXXd SLaXex67]G6p,€VOL,** ■■ 

68. AdKOJvd nvd ns piVGrayojycov rjpwra n 

" Cf. Moralia, 815 e; Dio Chrysostom, Or. Ixxvi. ad Jin.; 
Stobaeus, Florilepium, vii. 70, and xxxix. 27 (quoting 
Serenus). The ultimate source is probably Herodotus, vii. 
134-136. 

418 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 236 

advancement, they said, " You seem to us not to 
know what is the meed of Hberty, which no man of 
sense would exchange for the kingdom of the 
Persians." " 

64. Because a friend with whom a Spartan was 
intending to stay dodged him on the first day, and 
on the next day, having borrowed bedding, received 
him sumptuously, the Spartan jumped on the bedding 
and trod it under foot, remarking that it was because 
of this that yesterday he had not had even straw to 
sleep on. 

65. Another, on going to Athens, saw that the 
Athenians were hawking salt fish and dainties, col- 
lecting taxes, keeping public brothels, and following 
other unseemly pursuits, and holding none of them 
to be shameful. When he returned to his own 
country, his fellow-citizens asked how things were 
in Athens, and he said, " Everything fair and lovely," 
speaking sarcastically and conveying the idea that 
among the Athenians everything is considered fair 
and lovely, and nothing shameful. 

66. Another, being asked a question, answered 
" No." And when the questioner said, " You he," 
the other said, " You see, then, that it is silly of you 
to ask questions to which you know the answer ! " 

67. Once upon a time, ambassadors from Sparta 
arrived at the court of Lygdamis the despot. But as 
he tried to put them off and repeatedly postponed the 
interview, and, to croAvn all, it was asserted that he 
was in a delicate condition, the Spartans said, " Tell 
him, in God's name, that we have not come to wrestle 
with him, but to have a talk with him." 

68. When someone, initiating a Spartan into the 
Mysteries, asked him what his conscience told him 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(236) TTpd^as iavro) gvvolScv dae^eGrarov, 6 Se, " ytyvco- 
GKOvaiv ol deoL," ecfyrj- irriKeiyiivov he fiaXXov /cat 
Xeyovros, " TrdvTCOs G€ Set clrrelv," 6 AdKCxJV 
dvTr]p(jL)Tr]G6, " TtVt jLte Set et77etv, crot -q rep deep; 
rod Se elTTovTOSy " rep deep," " gv toli^vv," e^r], 
" dTTOX(^py]ctov." 

69- "Erepos' vvKTOs pLvrjjxa rrapLcov /cat (fyavra- 
GLOjdels SaLjjLoviov TL CTieSpajLte rij Xoyx'f} Stapa- 
jxevos, /cat evaTrepeihojv elire, " irfj pie (f>evyeLs, Sis 
diroOavovpLevq ^vxq; " 

70. "AAAos" ev^dpLevog 0,770 rov Aeu/cara ptWeti' 
eavTOV dve^Tj /cat vrreGrpeifjev ISojv to vijjos' 6v€l- 

E St^o/xei^os' Se eiTTev " ovk (ppiav rdv evxdv dXXag 
/xet^ovos" evxG-S Setcr^at." 

71. "AAAo? eTTt TTapard^ews rep TToXepilcp to 
iicf)OS Kara(f)€peLV jjieXXcov, eirel to dvaKXr^TLKov 
eGripnqveVy ovkItl KarrjveyKe- nvdofJievov Se tlvos 
hid TL Tov exOpov ex^jov VTrox^^p^ov ovk dTreKTeivev , 

OTLy" ^4>T^, " ^IXtLOV eGTl TOV (j}OVeveLV TO 

TrecOeGdaL Tcp dpxovTt." 

72. AaKCOVL TiVL r]TTa>p.evcp ev '0Au/x7rta elire tls 
** 6 dvTayojVLGTi]s , c5 Aa/ccov, eyeveTO gov Kpeir- 
Tojv "' " ov pbev ovv," e(f)r], " dXXd Ka^^aXt- 
KcoTepos." 

"■ A similar story is told of Antalcidas, Moralia, 217 c (1), 
and of Lysander, Moralia, 229 d (10), supra. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 273 f ; Plutarch's Comparison of Pelopidas 
and MarcelluSt chap. iii. (317 d) ; Epictetus, ii. 6. The 



420 



SAYINGS OF SPARTANS, 236 

was the most unholy deed he had ever done, he said, 
"The gods know." And when the other became 
even more insistent, and said, " It is absolutely 
necessary that you tell," the Spartan asked in turn, 
" To whom must I tell it ? To you or to the god ? '" 
And when the other said, " To the god," the Spartan 
said, " You go away then." " 

69- Another, passing by a tomb at night, and 
imagining that he saw a ghost, ran at it with uplifted 
spear, and, as he thrust at it, he exclaimed, " \Vhere 
are you fleeing from me, you soul that shall die 
twice ? " 

70. Another, having vowed to throw himself from 
the Leucadian cliff, went up and came down again 
after seeing the height. Being jeered at for this, he 
said, " I did na think my vow needed anither 
greater vow to dae it ! " 

71. Another, in the thick of the fight, was about to 
bring do\vn his sword on an enemy when the recall 
sounded, and he checked the blow. WTien someone 
inquired why, when he had his enemy in his power, 
he did not kill him, he said, " Because it is better to 
obey one's commander than to slay an enemy." ^ 

72. Someone said to a Spartan who was defeated 
at Olympia, " Spartan, your opponent proved him- 
self the better man." " No," said he, " not that, 
but more upsetting ! " '^ 

source is doubtless Xenophon, Cyropaedia, iv. 1. 3, and 
Chrysantas is the man's name. 

"^ For a similar sentiment see Moralia, 233 e (27), supra. 



421 



THE ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF 

THE SPARTANS 

(INSTITUTA LACONICA) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch wrote an article about the Spartans, as he 
tells us in his Life of Lysander, chap. xvii. (443 a). 
The only question, therefore, that can be raised is 
whether The Ancient Customs of the Spartans is that 
article. It is true that adverse judgement has been 
pronounced upon it, mainly because of some in- 
felicities of language, and the character of the last 
chapter; yet, whether written by Plutarch or by 
another, it is in the main the work of Plutarch, and 
much of it comes from the same source as Plutarch's 
Life of Lycurgus. The body of facts and traditions 
here set down is, in great part, to be found scattered 
here and there in other ^^Titers, especially in the 
extant histories of Herodotus, Thucydides, and 
Xenophon, to say nothing of other historians whose 
works are now lost. Much had been brought to- 
gether, long before Plutarch's time, in the Con- 
stitution of Sparta^ which is printed among the works 
of Xenophon. 

A hint that various sources were used in making 
this compilation may be found in the fact that some 
of the verbs are in the present tense and others in 
the past. 



425 



F TA nAAAIA TQN AAKEAAIMONIQN 
EniTHAETMATA^ 

1. Tcov elaiovTcov et? to, uvauiria iKaorcp 8et- 
Kvvcou 6 TTpeu^vraros tols dvpas, " Sta rovrcov, 
(f)rjaLV, " ovSelg i^epx^rai Xoyos." 

2. Ao/ct/xaJojLteVou /xaAtcrra Tra/)' aurot? rou /xe- 
Aai^os" Xeyofievov ^ojjjlov, (Lore /X17 Kpeahlov SelcrOaL 
Tovs 7rp€(jpvT€povs , TTapaxcopetv Se rot? veavtcr/cot?,^ 
Aeycrat AtorJcrtoj o rijs St/ceAta? rvpawos tovtov 
X^P^^ AaKOJVLKov fidyeipov Trpiacrdai /cat Trpodrd^ai 
GKevauai avrcp fjirj^evos ^^eihopievov dvaAco/xaros" 
eVetra yevGapievov Kal Svox^pdvavra drroTrrvoai' 
Kal rov pidyeipov elTTetv, " c5 jSao-tAcO, tovtov Set 

237 Toi^ ^wpLov yvpivaadpi€vov AaKOJVLKCJS Kal t(x> 
JLvpcora XeXovpudvov inoi/jdcrdai." 

3. TIl6vt€s ol AdKcoves iv rots avaaiTLOis 
fieTplcos dirlaaL St^a XapuTrdhos' ov yap e^eoTi npos 
(l)cbs ^aStfetv 0VT6 TavT7]V ovtc dXXrjv oSov, ottcos 

^ ra TraXaia , . . eTTiTTjoei^/iara] omitted in most mss. 

* TOis veavicKois Turnebus, as in the Life of Lycurgus^ chap, 
xii. : ro^s veayiffKovs. 
426 



THE ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE 
SPARTANS 

1 . To each one of those who comes in to the pubhc 
meals the eldest man says, as he points to the doors, 
" Through these no word goes out." " 

2. A thing that met with especial approval among 
them was their so-called black broth, so much so that 
the older men did not require a bit of meat, but gave 
up all of it to the young men. It is said that Diony- 
sius, the despot of Sicily,^ for the sake of this bought 
a slave who had been a Spartan cook, and ordered 
him to prepare the broth for him, sparing no expense ; 
but when the king tasted it he spat it out in disgust ; 
whereupon the cook said, " Your Majesty, it is 
necessary to have exercised in the Spartan manner, 
and to have bathed in the Eurotas, in order to rehsh 
this broth." ^ 

3. The Spartans, after drinking in moderation at 
their public meals, go away without a torch. In fact, 
they are not permitted to walk -with a Hght either on 
this route or on any other, so that they may become 

" Cf. Moralia^ 697 e ; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. xii. (46 d) ; and the scholium on Plato's Laws, 633 a. 

•* Plutarch, in his Life of Lycurgus, says, " one of the 
kings of Pontus." 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xii. (46 e), when 
a slightly diflFerent version is given, as also in Cicero, Tusculan 
Disputations^ v. 34 (98), and Stobaeus, Florilegium, xxix. 100. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(237) ldit,cx)VTai GKOTOvg /cat vvktos evdapaajs Kal dSecD? 

4. r pdjJLfJbaTa eVe/ca rrjs XP^^^^ iyidvOavov rcov 
8e dXXcov TTaiSevfjidTCOv ^evrjXauiav iiroiovvTOy ov 
fidXXov dvdpcvTTcov 7) Xoycjv. r) Se TratSeta rjv 
avrols rrpos to dpx^odai KaXcos Kal Kaprepeiv 
TTOVovvra Kal piaxoyievov viKav rj d7To9vrjGK€LV. 
J3 5. AiereXovv he Kal dvev x^'^^^og, eV t/xctrtov 
els Tov iviavTov Xafji^dvovreg , avxp^^pol rd acop^ara 
Kal XovTpdJv Kal dXeipipidrojv Kara to irXeiGTOV 
aTTexopevoL. 

6. ^KKdOevSov Se ol veoi opLov Kar iXrjv Kal 
Kara dyeXrjV eirl Gri^dSajv , a? awTot uvve^opovv, 
TOV TTapd TO) ^vpcora irecjiVKoros KaXdpiov rd aKpa 
rals xepcrtv dvev GiSrjpov KaraKXdoavres' ev he rw 
X^i'P'dJvt Tovs Xeyop,evovs XvKocfiOvas^ VTre^dXXovro 
Kal KarepLetyvvcrav ratg an^dcn, deppiavriKov e^^ctv 

Tt TT^S vXrjS hoKOVGTlS . 

7. 'Epap rwv rrjv ifjvx'^v GvovSacwv nalSwv icf)- 
Q eiTO' TO Se rrX.rjGLaL^eLV aiGXpov vevopiGTO, (hs rod 

GoipLaros ipdjvras dXX* ov rrj^ ifjvxyjs' Se eyKXrjdels 
cu? ctt' aLGXvvr] TTXiqGLdt^cov dripiog Sid ^iov rjv. 

8. "E^oj rjV Kal tovs vewrepovg vtto tojv Trpe- 
G^vrepcijv epcjjrdGdai ttov TTOpevovrai Kal eVt Tt, 

^ \vKb(povas in the Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xvi. : \vK0(p6.vas or 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xii. (46 f) ; 
Xenophon, Constltutiofi of Sparta^ 5. 7 ; Plato, Mino!^, 
330 a. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xvi. (50 b) ; 
Isocrates, Panathenaicus, 209. 

* Life of Lycurgus^ 50 c ; Xenophon, Constitution ofSparta, 
2. 4 ; justinus, Historiae Philippicae, iii. 3. 5, 
428 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 237 

accustomed to travelling in darkness at night con- 
fidently and fearlessly. '^ 

4. They learned to read and write for purely 
practical reasons ; but all other forms of education 
they banned from the country, books and treatises 
being included in this quite as much as men. All 
their education was directed toward prompt obedi- 
ence to authority, stout endurance of hardship, and 
victory or death in battle.^ 

5. They always went without a shirt, receiving one 
garment for the entire year, and with unwashed 
bodies, refraining almost completely from bathing 
and rubbing down.^ 

6. The young men slept together, according to 
division and company, upon pallets which they them- 
selves brought together by breaking off by hand, 
without any implement, the tops of the reeds which 
grew on the banks of the Eurotas. In the winter 
they put beneath their pallets, and intermingled 
with them, the plant called lycophon, since the 
material is reputed to possess some warming 
qualities. '^ 

7. Affectionate regard for boys of good character 
was permissible, but embracing them was held to be 
disgraceful, on the ground that the affection was for 
the body and not for the mind. Any man against 
whom complaint was made of any disgraceful embrac- 
ing was deprived of all civic rights for life.® 

8. It was the custom that the younger men should 
be questioned by the elder as to where they were 
going and for what, and also that the elder should 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xvi. (50 c). 
* Ibid. chap, xviii. (51 d) ; Xenophon, Constitution of 
Sparta, 2. 12-14 ; Aelian, Varia Historia, iii. 10 and 12. 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(237) Kal Tov [JLT] aiTOKpivo^evov 7) TTpocjxicreLg rrXeKovra 
iTTLTrX-qTreLV' 6 8e [mtj iTTLTrXrJTTOJV Trapovros avrov 
apLaprdvovra 'ivoxo? rjv rco tacp eVtrt/xtw S-rrep Kal 
6 ajJiapTiov Kal 6 hvox^po-ivo^v 8e, el iTTCTLfJicpTO, 
iv jjieyaXo) dvetSet rjv. 

9. Et TLS (ficopaOeLTj apLaprdvcov , eSet tovtov 
^ojfjiov TLva Tcov iv rfj rroXei kvkXco irepiUvai, 

X) ipoyov ahovra 7Te7Toir]pievov els iavrov orrep rju 
ovSev erepov 7) eTTirrXrirTeLV avrov iavrco. 

10. Kat Tovs veovs Se ou ptovov rovs lSlovs 
alheladai irarepas Kal vttttjkoovs rovroig etvat, aAAa 
TTavras rovs TTpea^vrepovs ivrpe-rreodaif Kal ohcov 
VTroxojpovvras Kal KadeSpas VTre^iorapiivovs koI 
TTapovTcov^ TjGvxoi^ovTas. 8to Kal rjpx^v eKaorog 
ovx cjGirep iv rats aAAat? TToAecrt tcov avrov 
reKvojv Kal hovXojv Kal Kr7]pLdrcov, oAA' (Larrep rojv 
avrov Kal rchv rod ttXtjolov, ottojs on pLaXtara 
KOLvajvcoGL Kal ^povril,o)(JLV ojs oLKelcjv. 

11. Hats' Se VTTO nvo? KoXaodeis, et roi rrarpl 
i^TJyyeiXev, aloxpov rjv rep rrarpl pLrj tt pocrevr eivai 

E oLKovoavra irdXiv eripas' eiriorevov yap iavrols eK 
rrjs TTarpiov dya>yrjs pirjSev alaxpov Trpoord^ai rols 
rcKvoLs- 

12. KAeTTTOUcrt 8e ol veoL Kal ra>v oiriajv 6 tl 
dv SvvojvraL, piavOdvovres eixfyvws eTTiriOeoOai rols 
KadevSovoiv 7) pa6vpLa>s <f)vXdrrovoi' ro) Se dXovri 
l,rjpLLa irXrjyal Kal ro TTeivrjv. yXioxpov yap avroXs 



* Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 2. 10. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xv. (48 c), 
where this form of punishment is visited upon the bachelors. 

* Cf. the note on Moralia, 232 b (3), supra. 
4-30 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 237 

rebuke the one who did not answer or tried to contrive 
plausible reasons." And the elder who did not re- 
buke a younger who did wTong in his presence was 
liable to the same reprimand as the wrongdoer. 
And anyone who showed resentment, if he was 
reprimanded, was in great opprobrium. 

9. If anyone was detected in wrongdoing he had 
to go round and round a certain altar in the city, 
chanting hnes composed as a reprehension of himself, 
and this was nothing else than his own self rebuking 
himself.^ 

10. Moreover, the young men were required not 
only to respect their own fathers and to be obedient 
to them, but to have regard for all the older men, to 
make room for them on the streets, to give up their 
seats to them, and to keep quiet in their presence. 
As the result of this custom each man had authority, 
not as in other states over his own children, slaves, 
and property, but also over his neighbour's in like 
manner as over his own, to the end that the people 
should, as much as possible, have all things in 
common, and should take thought for them as for 
their o^vn.*' 

1 1 . When a boy was punished by anybody, if he 
told his father, it was a disgrace for his father, upon 
hearing this, not to give him another beating ; for 
they had confidence one in another, as the result of 
their ancestral discipline, that no one had ordered 
their children to do anything disgraceful.'^ 

12. The boys steal whatever they can of their food, 
learning to make their raids adroitly upon people 
who are asleep or are careless in watching. The 
penalty for getting caught is a beating and no food. 

•* Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 6. 2. 

431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ccrrt helnvov, ottcos" St* avrcjv djJLVv6[JL€VOL rrjv €V' 
Setav avayKdt,a}VTai roXfJidv Kal Travovpyelv. 

13. ToSe^ epyov rrjg crtToSetas" 8ta re ravra yXi- 
crXpoJ^ "yjv Kal Iv* edit^cxivrai fjLTjheTTore yiyveadai 
F TrX-qpeis, hvvaGdai Se TTeLvrjv' ovtoj yap cpovro Kal 
iv TToXejjLcp -x^priOLiiaiTepovs eoeaOaiy el hvvaivro 
Kal dorirrjCTavTeg eTnTTOvrjoai' Kal eyKpareorepovs 
he Kal evreXedripovg, el TrAetco XP^^^^ hidyoLev 
a770 fXiKpds hairdvri^' rr]v S' dvoiplav viro^epeLV,^ 
(hs Ppd)[JLa TO Tvxov Trpo<j(f)epeG9aL, cpovro vyiei- 
vorepa rd crco/xara drro rrjg eXXeiTTOvcrrjg TTOielv 
Tpocf)^]?, voyLit,ovres els ^dOos re Kal irXdros dpfifj^ 
7net,6pueva^ eTraipeiv els vijjos rd crco/xara, Kal KaXd 
he TTOie'iv rds yap lax^ds Kal hiaKevovs e^ets 
vnaKoveiv npos rrjv hidpOpojGiVy rds he noXv- 
Tp6(f)0vs^ hid j^dpos dvTi^aiveiv. 
238 14. 'EcTTT-oL'SaJov 8e Kal irepl rd jJieXr] Kal rdg 
cphds ovhev -^ttov Kevrpov S' et^^e ravra eyepriKov 
dvpLov Kal (f)povTf^jjLaros Kal rrapaorariKov oppirjs 
ivdovGLcohovs Kal TrpaKriKrjs. Kal rj Xe^cs rjv 
d<^eXrjs Kal ddpvTrros' ovhev 8* erepov elx^v "^ 
eTTaivovs rcbv yevvLKcos t,rjGdvro)v Kal virep rrjs 
TiTrdprrjs dTToOavovrojv Kal evh at jjiovLl^ojJLevajv, Kal 
ifjoyovs Tcbv rpeGavroiV d)S dXyeuvov Kal /ca/co- 

1 t68€ F.C.B. {tovto in the Life of Lycurgus, chap, xvii.): 
rb 8L ^ yXicrxpa. F.C.B. : yXicrxP'^f' 

3 VTocpepeiu Meziriacus : dirocp^peiv. 

* 6p/Jifi F.C.B. : yU,7?. 

5 Tru^d/meva Turnebus : TTLe^oinePOV. 
^ Tro\vTp6(f)ovs Xylander : iro\vTp67rovs, 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Ljycurgus^ chap. xvii. (50 e); 
Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, ii. 6-9 ; Isocrates, The 
432 



CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 237-238 

For the dinner allowed them is meagre, so that, 
through coping with want by their own initiative, 
they may be compelled to be daring and un- 
scrupulous." 

13. This was the object of the starvation diet. It 
was meagre both for the reasons given and purposely 
that the youth should never become accustomed to 
being sated, but to being able to go without food ; 
for in this way, the Spartans thought, the youth 
would be more serviceable in war if they were able 
to carry on without food, and they would be more 
self-controlled and more frugal if they lived a very 
considerable time at small expense. And to put up 
with the plainest diet, so as to be able to consume 
anything that came to hand, they thought made the 
youths' bodies more healthy owing to the scanty food, 
and they believed that this practice caused the bodies, 
repressed in any impulse towards thickness and 
breadth, to grow tall, and also to make them hand- 
some ; for a spare and lean condition they felt served 
to produce suppleness, while an overfed condition, 
because of too much weight, was against it.^ 

14. They were no less seriously concerned over 
their music and their songs. These contained a 
stimulus to awaken a spirit of pride and to afford an 
inspiring and effective impulse. Their language was 
simple and plain, consisting merely of praise of those 
who had lived noble lives, and had died for Sparta, 
and are now counted among the blessed, and also 
censure of those who had played the coward, and now, 

Panathenaicus, 211-214; Heracleides Ponticus, Fra(/. ii. 8, 
in Muller, Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. p. 211. 

^ Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap. xvii. (51 a) and 
XeHophon, Constitution of Sparta, 2. 5-6. Unfortunately 
the text of both passages is none too good. 

433 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(238) SaifjLova ^lovvtcov ^lov eVayyeAtW re /cat jxeya- 
Xavx^CLV TTpos dperrjv TTpirrovaav^ rat? rjXLKiais. 
(15) Tpicov ovv ;^opcDv ovroiv Kara ras rpels 
•qXiKias Kal avvLarafxevojv iv rals ioprals, 6 jiev 
rcjv yepovroyv dpxopievos ??Sev, 

dfies TTOK^ rjjJL€s aXKLfjiOL veavlai' 

B elra 6 rcov aKfia^ovrcov dvSpcbv dfjieiPojJLevos, 

dfxes Se y' et/xe?^* at Be Xijs, auyajeo* 

o Se rpiros 6 rcov TralSajv, 

dfxes Se y' iaaofjieada ttoXXco Kappoveg. 

16. Kat OL i/jif^ar'^pLOL Se pvdjJLol 7rapopfjL7]rLKol 
TTpos dvhpeiav Kal dappaXeorr^ra Kal VTrep^povrjoiv 
davdroVy ols exp^^'^o ev re x^pots Kal Trpos avXov 
eTrdyovres rots iroXep.iois > 6 yap AvKovpyos Trap- 
et,ev^e rrj Kara TToXefiov dcr/CTycret rrjv ^tAo/xoucrtav, 
OTTCJs ro dyav iroXep^iKov rw ep,pLeXei Kepaodev 
cruix(j)a>viav Kal dppLOviav exj}' Sto Kal ev raZs 
fxdxoH'S TTpoedvero rats Movaaus 6 paacXevs, Iva 
Xoyov d^ias irapexcocri rds rrpd^eis ol /xa^o/xevot 
C Kat pLvijfjirjs evKXeovs. 

^ iirayyeXlav . . . fieyaXavxiav . . . irpirovcav Pantazides and 
F.C.B. : iirayyeXia . . . fieyaXavxio- . • . Trpitrovca. Kronen- 
berg would put them all in the ace. plural. 

2 iroK Life of LycurguSy chap. xxi. : ttot. 

^ e^yu6 Moralia^ 544 e : ia/x^v. 

• Pollux, Lexicon^ iv. 107, says that the three choirs were 
established by Tyrtaeus. 

'' Cf. Moralia^ 544 e ; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus, chap, 
xxi. (53 b). Other references may be found in Bergk, 
Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 661, or Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica 
Oraeca, ii. p. 197, or Edmonds, Lyra Oraeca (in the L.C.L.), 
iii. p. 530. 
434 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 2S8 

presumably, are living a tormenting and ill-fated 
existence ; and therewith profession and boasting in 
regard to valour, such as was fitting for the different 
periods of life. (15) So there were three choirs," 
corresponding to the three periods of life, which were 
made up at their festivals, and the choir of old men 
would begin with this song ^ : 

Young valiant men long days ago were we. 

Then the choir of men in the prime of life would 
sing in response. 

And that are we ; look, if you will, and see. 

And the third choir, that of the boys, would sing, 

And better far 'tis certain we shall be. 

16. Moreover the rhythmic movement of their 
marching songs was such as to excite courage and 
boldness, and contempt for death ; and these they 
used both in dancing, and also to the accompaniment 
of the flute when advancing upon the enemy. In 
fact, Lycurgus coupled fondness for music with 
military drill, so that the over-assertive warhke spirit, 
by being combined with melody, might have concord 
and harmony. It was for this reason that in time of 
battle the Idng offered sacrifice to the Muses before 
the conflict, so that those who fought should make 
their deeds worthy to be told and to be remembered 
with honour. ^^ 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xxi. (53 b-d) ; 
Thucydides, v. 70 ; Die Chrysostom, Or. ii. 31 M., 92 R. ; 
Athenaeus, 632 f; Valerius Maximus, ii. 6. 2; Bergk, Poet. 
Lyr. Graec. ii. p. 404. 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(238) 17. Et 8e Tts" TTapa^alvoi n rrj? ap)(aia? /xoucrt- 
KrjSt ovK erreTpeTTOv' dAAa Koi rov TepTravSpov 
apxoi'^KcoTepov ovra kol dpiorov rcov Kad^ iavTOV 
Kidapcphchv KOI Tcjv rjpojLKcov TTpd^eojv eTTaLveTrjv, 
O/X60S" ol €cf)opoL i^-qfjilojorav Kal ttjv KiOdpav avrov 
TTpoaeTTarrdXevaav (jyepovres, on piiav fiovrjv ^opSrjv 
evireive TrepiGOorepav rod ttocklXov rrj? <j)Covrjg 
Xdpiv piova yap rd dirXovcrTepa rcov /xeAtov ehoKL- 
fxa^ov. TcpLoOeov Se dya>VL(^op,evov rd Kapveta, 
€Ls ra)V ecj^opajv fidxcLLpav Xa^cbv rjpa)r7]0€v avrov 
■D eV TTorepov rwv pLcpchv dTrore/jirj rds TrXelovs rdv 
iirrd xop^dJv. 

18. Tojv Se rd(l)a)v^ dvelXe rrjv SeLGiSaLpLovlav 
drraGav 6 AvKovpyog, iv rfj TToXet ddTrreiv rovs 
veKpovs Kal TrXrjoiov e;^ety rd p,vrjiJL€ia rcov lepdjv^ 
uvyxojprjuas. rrepLeZXe 8e Acat rovs pbiaojxovs.^ 
avvdaTTreLV Se ovhev iTrerpeipev, dAA* iv (fyoivLKihi 
/cat <j)vXXoLs eXaias devra? ro crcD/xa TrepicrriXXeiv 
Kar toov diravras. dveZXe he Kal rds i7Tiypa(f)ds 
ras inl rcjv ybv-qpieicnv , rrX-qv rcov iv TToXlpLCo 
reXevrrjadvrcov, Kal rd rrevdrj Kal rovs ohvppiovs. 

19. 'A77o87^ju,etv 8e OVK i^rjv avrols, Iva fii] ^€V^- 
E Kcov idcjbv Kal picov aTTaihevrcov pL€rix<J^Of" 

^ Tdcpwv] TacpuiP Bernardakis (probably from racpas in the 
Life 0/ Lycu7'ffus, chap. xvii.). 

^ For cx^'" • • • i^p^:^ Hartman would read ^xetj/ rd ^/9m, 
and Kronenberg would omit wepielXe . . . /xiaafxovs, both 
contradicted by the Life of Lycurgus^ chap, xxvii. 

" For variant versions of the story see the note on Moralia, 
220 c, supra. 

'' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus^ chap, xxvii. (56 a), 
and Heracleides Ponticus, Frag. 2. 8, in Miiller, Frag. Hist. 
Graec. ii. p. 211. 
486 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 238 

17. If anyone presumed to transgress in any way 
the rules of the good old music, they would not permit 
this ; but even Terpander, one of the oldest and the 
best harp-player of his time as well as a devoted 
admirer of the deeds of heroes, the Ephors none the 
less fined, and carried away his instrument and 
nailed it to a wall because he put in just one extra 
string for the sake of the variety in the notes ; for 
they approved only the simpler melodies. Moreover, 
when Timotheus was competing at the Carneian 
Festival, one of the Ephors took a knife, and asked 
him on which side he should cut out the superfluous 
strings beyond the usual seven.** 

18. Lycurgus did away with all superstitious fear 
connected with burials, granting the right to bury 
the dead within the city, and to have the tombs near 
the shrines. He also abolished the pollutions associ- 
ated with death and burial. He permitted the 
people to bury nothing with their dead, but only to 
enfold the body in a red robe and olive leaves, and 
all to treat their dead alike. He also did away with 
the inscriptions on tombs, except of those who had 
met their end in war, and also did away with mourning 
and lamentation.^ 

19. It was not allowed them to go abroad, so that 
they should have nothing to do with foreign ways 
and undisciplined modes of living.^ 

" There are many references to the studied isolation of the 
early Spartans. The most important are Plutarch's Life 
of Lycurgus, chap, xxvii. (56 c), and the Life of Agis^ 
chap. X. (799 d) ; Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 14. 4; 
Aristophanes, Birds, 1012 ; Aristotle, Frag. 543 (ed. Rose). 
Cf. also the note on Moralia, 237 a, supra, and the refer- 
ences given in the Teubner ed. of Plutarch's Lives (1926), 
iii. 2, p. 45 (Lycurgus, chap, xxvii.). 

VOL. Ill p 437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(238) 20. Kat ^ev-qXacriag 8e ela-qyTJaaro, ottojs ol 
TTapeiopiovres fxr) StSacr/caAot KaKov nvos rolg 
TToXirais vTTOLpxo^crt" 

21. Tojv ttoXltcov OS oiv fJiT] VTTOfJieLvr) TTjv rcov 
TTaihcjv aycoyrfv ov [xerelx^^ ^-cov rrjs TToXecvs 
SiKalcov. 

22. "Evtot 8' €(j>aGav on koI rwv ^Iviov o? ai^ 
V7TOfJL€Lvr) rrjv roiavriqv auK-quiv rrjg TToXirela? Kara 
TO ^ovXiqixa rod AvKOvpyov pLereix^^ rrjg dpxrjOev 

F hiareraypiivris fiolpag. 

ncoAetv 8' ovK i^TjV. (23) rot? rwv nXr^oLov 8* 
oiKerais co? t8tot? XPV^^^'' ^'^°^ V^y ^'^ '^^^ SeoLvro, 
Kal Kval Kal Ittttois, et pirj ol SeaTTorai xPTJ^ocev 
Kal iv dypo) 8e €t rls tlvos eXXnrrjg yevofievos 
Se-qdetT], dvol^as Kal ^aurduas rd iTTLTTJSeta rod 
exovroSt rd crTy/xeta^ (nqix-qvafievos KariX^nrev. 

24. 'Ev rots' TToXlpiois (f)OLViKiGLV ixpcovro' djJLa 
fjLev ydp rj XP^a iSoKeu avrols dvSpLKr) elvai, dfxa 
he rd at/LtarojSe? rod ;^p66/^aTOS" irXeiova rols 
diretpoLg <f)6^ov Trapex^i-^' Kal rd firj evTreplcfxxjpov Se 
TOi? rroXepiioLs elvaiy idv rig avra)V TrXrjyfj, dXXd 
hiaXavddueLV hid rd djjLoxpovv xRV^^H-ov. 

25. "Orav urpanqyrjjxari rovs rroXepilovs viktj- 

1 Ateretxej ixereex^ would be preferable. E. Kurtz would 
read fxerexei-, but the formal rules of grammar are not always 
observed ! 

2 rd ar]iJ-€ia] Bernardakis would place after duoi^as, as is 
suggested from Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta^ 6. 7. 

' Tro/^e'Xfi] Trapex^"' some MSS. 

* See note c on previous page. 

^ Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 3. 3. 

'^ There is no doubt that some foreigners resided for a 
time at Sparta ; Alcibiades, for example. 
438 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 238 

20. Lycurgus also introduced the practice of ban- 
ning all foreigners from the country, so that these 
should not filter in and serve to teach the citizens 
something bad.* 

21. Whosoever of the citizens would not submit to 
the discipline to which the boys were subjected had 
no participation in civic rights.^ 

22. Some used to assert that whosoever among the 
foreigners would submit to such discipline as was 
enjoined by the constitution in accordance with the 
programme of Lycurgus might become a member of 
the division assigned to him at the beginning.*^ 

The selling of anything was not permitted ; 
(23) but it was their custom to use the neighbours' 
servants as their own if they needed them and also 
their dogs and horses, unless the owners required 
them for their own use. And in the country, if any- 
one found himself lacking anything and had need of 
it, he would open an owner's storehouse and take 
away enough to meet his need, and then replace the 
seals and leave it.^ 

24. In wars they used red garments for two reasons : 
first, the colour they thought was a manly colour, 
and second, the blood-red hue causes more terror in 
the minds of inexperienced. Also, if anyone of them 
receive a wound, it is advantageous that it be not 
easily discovered by the enemy, but be unperceived 
by reason of the identity of colour.* 

25. Whenever they overcome their enemies by 

^ Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 6. 3-4 ; Aristotle, 
Politics, ii. 5. 

* Cf. Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta, 2. 3 ; the scho- 
lium on Aristophanes, Acharnians, 319 ; Aelian, Varia 
Historia^ vi. 6 ; Valerius Maximus, ii. 6. 2. 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

GCJGL, pOVV TO) "Ap€i OvOVdiV OTaV S* €K TOV 

<j)av€pov, dXcKTpvova, iOl^ovres rovs rjyovfxevovs ov 
jjLovov TToXefjLiKovs (xAAo, Kal arpariqyiKovs elvai. 
239 26. Tat? eu;)(at? TTpoand eaui ro ahiKelaQai 8u- 
vacr^at. 

27. E^x''? S' auTcDv StSdvac ra /caAa em rois 
dyadoLSy /cat TrXeov ouSeV. 

28. ^AcfypoSiT-qv Ge^ovat ttjv ivoirXiov /cat Trav- 
ra? Se Toys' deovs ^i^Aets" /cat dppeva? Xoyxa? 
exovras Troiovvrai, cLs drravrcov ttjv TToXefiLKTjv 
dperrjv ixovrcDV. 

29. 'E77tAeyouort Se /cat ot 7ra/)ot/xtaJo/X€vot 

rav X^^P^ 7TOTLJ)€povTa rdv rvx^-v /caActv, 

COS" Seov iTTLKaXeladai rovg deovs fierd rod iy' 
X^ipetv TL /cat TrpdrreLV, dXXcos 8e jitTy. 

30. Tot? Traiolv eTTeSeiKwov rovs etAcura? [ledv- 
cravres^ elg diTorpoTTrjv iroXvoivias . 

B 31. "E^o? TjV avTolg fX7]Se Konreiv rds avXelovs 
aAA' 6^60 ^ev ^odv. 

32. ErAeyytCTtv ov GiS-qpaLg aAAa /caAa/xtVat? 

€;(/3C0VTO. 

33. Kct>)Lta>Sta? /cat rpaycphias ovk rjKpocjvro, 
OTTWs pL'^re iv gttovStj pLTjre iv TratSta a/couojcrt rail' 
avrtAeyorrcov rot? vofjLois. 

1 fiedvaaPTcs Wyttenbach, as is plain from the Life of 
Lycurgus^ chap, xxviii. and the Life of Demetrius^ chap. i. : 

fxedvaavTas. 

" Cf. the note on 232 d, supra. 

* C/. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, 
11. p. 653, for the ancient versions of " God helps those who 
help themselves " ; also Babrius, Fahulae^ no. 20. 
44.0 



CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 238-239 

outgeneralling them, they sacrifice a bull to Ares, 
but when the victory is gained in open conflict, they 
offer a cock, thus trying to make their leaders 
habitually not merely fighters but tacticians as well. 

26. To their prayers they add the petition that they 
may be able to submit to injustice. 

27. And their prayer is that the gods give them 
fair and honourable requital for their good deeds, and 
that is all. 

28. They worship Aphrodite in her full armour, 
and the statues of all the gods, both female and male, 
they make with spear in hand to indicate that all the 
gods have the valour which war demands." 

29. Those fond of proverbs are wont to quote this 
on occasion : 

Yer ain hand use when Fortune ye would call, 
thus indicating that calling on the gods for aid ought 
to be accompanied by effort and action on one's own 
part, or else they should not be invoked.** 

30. They used to make the Helots drunk and ex- 
hibit them to the young as a deterrent from excessive 
drinking. ° 

31. It was their custom not to knock on the outer 
doors but to call from outside. 

32. The strigils which they used were not made of 
metal but of reeds. 

33. They did not attend either comedy or tragedy, 
so that they might not hear anyone speak either in 
earnest or in jest against the laws.'* 

" Qf. 3Ioralia, 455 e ; Plutarch's Life of LycvrguSy 
chap, xxviii. (57 a) ; Life of Demetrius, chap. i. (889 a) ; 
Plato, Laws, 816 e ; Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus^ 
iii. chap. viii. ad init. (41. 5) ; Diogenes Laertius, i. 103. 

** Cf. Plato, Laws, 816 ff. where a different conception is 
expressed. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(239) 34<. ^Apxi^oxov rov 7roLr]Trjv iv AaKeSatfiovi 
yevofievov avrrjg a)pas iSiOj^av, Slotl eTriyvcoaav 
avTOV TTeTroiTjKora cos Kpelrrou eariv drro^aXeLV ra 
onXa r) OLTTodaveLV 

aoTTiSi fxev Satcov rt? dyaAAerat, rfv Trepl Bdfxvco 

evrog^ djJiwiJLrjTov kolXXlttov ovk eOeXcov 
avTOs S' i^e(f)vyov Oavdrov reXos'^ danls iKelvrj 
C ipperoj' i^avOig KrijaofMai ov KaKLCo. 

35. Kopat? /cat Kopois KOLvd rd Upd. 

36. YiKLpa(j)ihav e^T]/xta>crav ol €(f)opoL, otl vtto 

TToXXdJV rjSiKelTO. 

37. llaKKO(f)6pov dvelXov, Stort 7rapv(f)rjv elg rov 
adKKOV evej^aXev. 

38. Tdv €K rod yvfxvaaiov veaviGKov iTTerLficov, 
OTL rrjv elg YlvXalav oSov 7)77 ioTaro. 

39- Kr](j)LGO(j)a)VTa, elirovTa Trepl rod rvxovros 
SvvaaOai oXtjv rr^v rjixepav Xiyeiv, i^e^aXov, 
SdjJLevoL rov dyadov [xvdrjrdv SeXv rolg Trpdypiacriv 
Lcrov rov Xoyov ^x^^v. 

40. 01 TTOiSeg Trap* avrot? ^aivopievoi /xacrrtft 

D St* oXiqs rrjg r^fxlpas eirl rod ^ajfiov rijg ^Opdias 

'Apre/xtSo? P'^XP^ Oavdrov iToXXdKLs SiaKaprepovcnv 

IXapol /cat yavpoi, d/xtAAc6/x€vot irepl vlktjs Trpos 

^ hros Brunck : ivrbs. 

2 aurbs . . . reXos omitted here, is found in Sextus Empiri- 
cus, Pyrrhon. Hypotyposes, iii. 216 (p. 182). 

* For the numerous references to the action of Archilochus 
see Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii. p. 384, Archilochus, no. 6, 
or better Diehl, Anthologia Lyr'ica Graeca^ i. p. 213. Cf. 
also Horace, Odes^ ii. 7. 10, and Valerius Maximus, vi. 3, 
ext. 1. 

'' What is meant is uncertain ; possibly (as suggested by 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 239 

34?. Archilochus the poet, when he arrived in 
Sparta, they ordered to depart that very instant 
because they learned that he had written in his verses 
that it is better to throw away one's arms than to be 
killed « : 

Shield that was mine, fair armour, now gladdens the heart 
of some Saian ; 

Sorry I left it behind tangled in brush in my path ; 
But for myself I escaped from the clutches of Death. Let 
perdition 
Take the old shield, for no worse surely I'll get the 
next time. 

35. The temples and religious services were open 
to maidens and youths alike. 

36. The Ephors fined Sciraphidas because he was 
wronged by many. 

37. They made away with a man who wore the 
very coarsest clothing, because he inserted a border 
in his garment. 

38. They reprimanded the young man from the 
gymnasium because he knew well about the road to 
Pylaea.^ 

39- Cephisophon, who asserted that he could speak 
the whole day long on any topic whatsoever, they 
expelled from the country, saying that the good 
orator must keep his discourse equal to the subject 
in hand.^ 

40. The boys in Sparta were lashed with whips 
during the entire day at the altar of Artemis Orthia, 
frequently to the point of death, and they bravely 
endured this, cheerful and proud, vying with one 
another for the supremacy as to which one of them 

the use of the word elsewhere) a place where men met for 
gossip and loose talk. 

<= Cf. Maralia, 208 c (3), supra. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(239) dXX'^Xovg, ocrrts avrcbv €7tI TrXeov re /cat fxaXXov 
KapTeprjoeie ruTrro/xevos"* /cat o Trepiyevoyievos iv 
rots' fxaXidra e77tSo^d? ecrrt. /caAetrat 8e 17 a/xtAAa 
StajLtacrrtycocrts" yiyv^rai he KaO^ eKaarov eros. 

41. *^Ev Se Tt Tcov /caAcov /cat fiaKapicov iSoKCL 
TTapeaKevaKevai roX? TToXirais 6 AvKovpyos d- 
(f)6ovLav crxoXrjs' ri-xyqs piev yap dipacrdat ^avavaov 
TO TTapdrrav ovk i^rjv ;)(p')7/xaTto'/xoi} 8e ovvayojyrjv 
€.)(ovros ipycoSr] /cat irpaypLareias^ ouS* ortow eSet 

E 8ta TO Kopahfj tov ttXovtov d^rjXov TTevrotT^/ceVat 
/cat dripbov, ol Se etAa>Tes' auTots" elpydt^ovro rrjv 
yrjv aTTO^epovres^ d7TO(f)opdv ttjv dvcoBev loTapiivrjv} 
irrdparov^ 8' tjv TrXeuovo? nva paaOajGac, tva 
iKelvoL pL€v Kephaivovres rjSeoJS VTTrjpercjaLVy ovroi 
Se jJLTj TrXeov e7nl,r]T(x)Giv . 

42. 'AireiprjTO 8' az^TOts" vai^Tats" etvat /cat vav- 
pLax^Tv vurepov pLevroi ivavp.dx'ricrav ^ /cat rris Oa- 
Xdrrrjs KparT^crapre? rrdXiv d7r€(JT7]aav, hia^deipo- 
pL€va rd rfdiq tcjv ttoXltcov decopovvreg. dXXd TrdXiv 
pL€T€^dXovro KaOdirep iv rots dXXoLs Trdai' /cat yap 
Xprjfidrcjv ovvaxQivrcov rots Aa/ceSat/xovtot?, ot 

* Trpay/xareias] irpayfj-aTelav, Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xxiv. 
2 6.Tro(j>lpovTes added by Turnebus. 

2 icTTajuLeuTju] earaixevtjv most MSS. 
* iira.parov'] airopp-qrov Wyttenbach. 

<» There are many references to this practice, which seems 
to have been kept up even in Plutarch's time according to his 
Life of Lycurgus, chap, xviii. (51 b). Cf. also his Life of 
Aristeldes, chap. xvii. (329 d) ; Xenophon, Constitution 
of Sparta, 2. 9 ; Miiller, Frag. Ilist. Graec. iii. p. 458 
(Nicolaus Damasc, Frag. 114); Lucian, Anacharsis, 38; 
Philostratus, Apollonius, vi. 20, who explains the custom as 
originating in earlier human sacrifice, but on this see J. G. 
444 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 239 

could endure being beaten for the longer time and 
the greater number of blows. And the one who was 
victorious was held in especial repute. This com- 
petition is called ' The Flagellation,' and it takes 
place each year." 

41 . One of the noble and blessed privileges which 
Lycurgus appears to have secured for his fellow- 
citizens was abundance of leisure. In fact it was not 
permitted them to take up any mem'al trade at all ; 
and there was no need whatever of making money, 
which involves a toilsome accumulation, nor of busy 
activity, because of his having made wealth wholly 
unenvied and unhonoured. The Helots tilled the soil 
for them, paying a return w^hich was regularly settled 
in advance. There was a ban against letting for a 
higher price, so that the Helots might make some 
profit, and thus be glad to do the work for their 
masters, and so that the masters might not look for 
any larger return.^ 

42. It was forbidden them to be sailors and to 
fight on the sea. Later, however, they did engage 
in such battles, and, after they had made themselves 
masters of the sea, they again desisted, since they 
observed that the character of the citizens was 
deteriorating sadly. But they changed about again, 
as in all else. For example, when money was amassed 
for the Spartans, those who amassed it were con- 

Frazer in his commentary on Pausanias, iii. 16. 10. Among 
Latin writers c/., for example, Cicero, Tusculan Disputa- 
tions, ii. 14 (34). 

" Cf. Moralia, 214 a, supra, and the note ; Xenophon, 
Constitution of Sparta, 7. 1-6 ; Isocrates, Busiris, 20 ; 
Miiller, Frag. Hist, Graec. iii. p. 458 (Nicolaus Damasc. 
Frag. 114); Josephus, Against Apion, ii. 229; Aelian, 
Varia Historian vi. 6 ; Athenaeus, 657 d. 

VOL. Ill p 2 445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F avvayayovres davdrco KaTehiKdodiqGav . 'AA/ca- 
jxevei yap /cat SeoTTOfiTTO) tois" jSacrtAeucri XPV^H'^^ 
iSodrj 

d (f)i\oxp'^y^o.ria T^Trdprav oAeet/ 

dAA' ofxcog AvcravSpos iXow ^ A67]vaiovs ttoXvv 
')(^pvo6v Koi dpyvpov €lGriyaye, kol Trapehe^avro 
/cat irliJLTjcrav rov dvSpa. 

Tots' fxev ovv AvKovpyov xp^f^^^V ^ofioLS r) ttoXis 
/cat rots' opKOLs e/x/xetVaaa irrpwreve rrj? 'EAActSos" 
evvoixia /cat ho^r] xP^i^^v ircov TrevraKoalajv /car' 
oAtyov 8e TTapaf^aivopievoiV /cat TrXeove^ias /cat 
240 (fnXoTrXovrcas TrapeiGhvopieviqs , /cat rd rrjs hvvdjjiecjs 
rjXaTTOvro' /cat ot ovpiyiaxoL hid ravra Svofievcbg 
elxov TTpds avrovg. aAA' ojjlcxjs ovtojs exovres fierd 
rrjv OtAtTTTTOi; rov MaKeSovos iv Xatpojvcta vIktjv, 
Trdvr ojv avrov rcov 'EAAtJvojv rjyefjLova Kard re yrjv 
/cat /caret OdXarrav dvayopevodvrojv , /cat /xerafu 
8' ^ AXe^avhpov rov vlov fjLerd rrjV Qr]paLcx)V /cara- 
OTpo(j)i^v, piovoL Aa/ceSat/xoi^tot, /catVep dreix^arov 
TToXiv exovres /cat oAtyot Trdvv ovres Sta rovs 
avvex^^S TToXepLOVs /cat ttoAu dddevearepoi /cat 
evx^i'PCoroL yevopievoi, Trdvv ^pax^a rtm t,a)7Tvpa 
hiaowl,ovTes rrjs AvKovpyov vopuodeaiast ovre 
B ovveorpdrevaav ovre tovtol? ovre rots' fJLera^v 
Ma/ceSovt/cots- ^aaiXevuiv , ovr els ovveSpLov kolvov 
elarjXdov ovhe cj)6pov i^veyKav ecus ov iravrdiraGiv 

1 oXe'et or airoXeX F.C.B. : oXe?. 

* Cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, 
i. p. 39, and i. p. 201, and the references there given; also 
]3iodorus, viii. 12. 5, and Plutarch, Life of Agis, chap. ix. 
(799 b). 
446 



CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 239-240 

demned to death ; for to Alcamenes and Theo- 
pompus, their kings, an oracle '^ had been given : 

Eager desire for money will bring the ruin of Sparta. 

Yet, nevertheless, when Lysander had taken Athens, 
he brought home much gold and silver, and they 
accepted it, and bestowed honours on the man. 

As long as the Spartan State adhered to the laws 
of Lycurgus and remained true to its oaths, ^ it held 
the first place in Greece for good government and 
good repute over a period of five hundred years." 
But, little by little, as these laws and oaths were 
transgressed, and greed and love of wealth crept in, 
the elements of their strength began to dwindle also, 
and their allies on this account were ill-disposed 
towards them. But although they were in this 
plight, yet after the victory of Philip of Macedon at 
Chaeroneia,^ when all the Greeks proclaimed him 
commander both on land and sea, and likewise, in the 
interval follo^\^ng, proclaimed Alexander, his son, 
after the subjugation of the Thebans,* the Spartans 
only, although they dwelt in an unwalled city, and 
were few in number because of their continual wars, 
and had become much weaker and an easy prey, still 
keeping alive some feeble sparks ^ of the laws of 
Lycurgus, did not take any part in the campaigns of 
these or of the other kings of Macedon who ruled in 
the interval following, nor did they ever enter the 
general congress or even pay tribute. So it was, 

* To abide by his laws until he should return. Plutarch's 
Life of Lycurgus^ chap. xxix. (57 d). 

•^ Ibid. 58 A ; cf. also Diodorus, vii. 12. 8. 

"* In 338 B.C. * In 335 b.c. 

^ An echo from Plato, Laws^ 677 b. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(240) VTrepiSovres rrjv AvKovpyov vofioOeGtav vtto tcSv 
ISlojv TToXncjv irvpavvevdrjGav fiTjSev en crcot^ovTes 
TTJs TTarpiov dycoyrjs, koI TrapaTrXr^oioi rots aAAot? 
yevofx^voi ttjv TTpoaBev eu/cAetav koI TTapprjcrlav 
OLTTeOevTO Kal els SovXetav fierecrTrjGaVy /cat vvv 
VTTO 'PcofialoLS KaOoLTrep ol aAAot "EXXrjves e.yevovTO. 



448 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS OF THE SPARTANS, 240 

until they ceased altogether to observe the laws of 
Lycurgus, and came to be ruled despotically by their 
own citizens, preserving nothing of their ancestral 
discipline any longer, and so they became much hke 
the rest, and put from them their former glory and 
freedom of speech, and were reduced to a state of 
subjection ; and now they, like the rest of the Greeks, 
have come under Roman sway. 



449 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN 

(LACAENARUM APOPHTHEGMATA) 



i ai:a 



INTRODUCTION 

Of the Say'mgs of Spartan Women the same may be 
said as of the Sayings of Spartans. It truly represents 
the work of Plutarch, and many of the sayings are 
repeated elsewhere in his writings ; others perhaps 
in his writings that are now lost. Whether the 
sayings were collected in this form by Plutarch or by 
someone else is a matter of minor importance. 



453 



(240) AAKAINQN AnO<D0ErMATA^ 

C 

APriAEfiNIAOSi 

^ApyiXeojvig rj BpaatSou ynqrrjpy TeXevrrjGavTOs 
avrfj rod vlov, ws TrapayevofievoL nveg rcov 'A/x^t- 
ttoXltcov els ^Trdpriqv tjkov rrpos avrrjv, -qpcoTrjaev 
€L KaXcos Kal d^Lcos rrjs ^Trdprrjs 6 vlos ereXevra' 
jjL€yaXvv6vTCx}v S' eKelvov Kal Xeyovrcov dpiarov iv 
Tols TOLOVTOis epyoLs aTTavrajv KaKehaipiOviajv 
elvai, eiTTev, " co feVot, KaXos puev rjv Kayados 6 
TTOis fJLov, TToAAous" S* dvhpas AaKeSaijJicov e^ei 
D Trjvoj Kappovas .^^ 

roproTS 

1 . Topyd) ^aaiXeajg KXeofxevovg 6vydrr]p, *ApLcrr- 
ayopov rod MLXr](TLOV TrapaKaXovvros avrov IttI 
Tov TTpos ^auiXia TroXejjiov vnep ^Iojvojv /cat vtt- 
LGXi^ovpLcvov ■)(^p'qixdr(jov ttXtjOos Kal ocro) dvreXeye 
TrXeiova Trpoondevros, " KaTa<j>d€p€i oe," ^'0^* " ^ 
Trdrep, to ^evvXXcov, idv fxr) rd^t'OV avrov rrjs 
OLKias €K^dXr)s." 

2. Upoard^avrog 8e Trore avrfj rod Trarpo? 
hovvai rivi oZrov els fjnordov Xoyov Kal TTpocmdevros, 
" eStSafc yap /xe rov ohov p^pT^crrov Troielv/' 

^ The title, XaKaivu}i> airotpde^fxara^ and the headings, ap-yt- 
Xewi/iSos, etc., are almost always omitted in the mss. 
454 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN 

ARGILEONIS 
Argileonis, the mother of Brasidas, when her son 
had met his death,^ and some of the citizens of 
Amphipohs arrived at Sparta and came to her, asked 
if her son had met his death honourably and in a 
manner worthy of Sparta. And when th ey proceeded 
to tell of his greatness, and declared that he was the 
best of all the Spartans in such enterprises, she said, 
" Sirs, my son was a gude and honourable mon, but 
Sparta has mony a mon better than him." ^ 

GORGO ' 

1. Gorgo, daughter of king Cleomenes, when 
Aristagoras of Miletus was urging her father to enter 
upon the war against the Persian king in behalf of 
the lonians, promising a vast sum of money, and, in 
answer to Cleomenes' objections, making the amount 
larger and larger, said, " Father, the miserable 
foreigner will be your ruin if you don't get him out of 
the house pretty soon ! " '^ 

2. Once when her father told her to give some 
grain to a man by way of remuneration, and added, 
" It is because he showed me how to make the wine 

" At the battle of Amphipolis, 422 b.c. 

* Of. the note on Moralia, 190 b, supra. 

• Gorgo later became the wife of Leonidas. 

<» C/. Herodotus, V. 48-51. 

455 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(240) *' ovKovv, CO Trdrep," €(l)rj, " o r' olvos TrXeicxiV 
E eKTTodT^GeraL Kal ol TTivovres dpvTTTLKcorepoL Kal 
X^Lpoveg yevrjcrovrai.*' 

3. Tov S' ^Apiorayopav vtto tlvos tojv olKeraJv 
VTTohovfjLevov Oeaaafievr] , " Trdrep," €(f)7], " 6 ^dvos 
X^^poLS ovK €xet." 

4f. "B^evov Se nvo? fxaXaKcos Kal axoXfj^ vpoG- 
ayayovroSy Trapojorafjievrj avrov, " ovk direi iv 
revdev," eTireVf " ovSe^ rd rrjs yvvaiKos Svvd- 
fjL€vos; " 

5. 'E/3COT07 Vetera Se vtto tlvos ^ArrLKrjs, " Sid 
TL Vfxels dpx^re fiovat tcov dvSpcov at Aa/catvat^ ; '* 
" on," ^(f>y], " Kal TLKTOfxev fxovai avSpag." 

6. IlpoTp€7ToiJL€V7] Sc TOV dvhpa AecoviSav i^- 
lovTa et? SeppLOTTvXas d^tov ttjs TiirdpTr)? (f)avrjvaLy 
TjpcoTa TL xp"^ 7TpdTT€LV' 6 Sc €^7], " dyadov yafielv 
Kal dyadd tlkt€lv." 

TTPTIAAOS 
1. TvpTLds, ^AKpOTdTOV 7TOT€ TOV dvyaTpiSoV 

avT7j£ €K TWOS TCOV TTalSajv pidxi)S TToXXds rrXrjyds 
Xa^ovTOS Kal direvexOevTos OLKaSe (Ls TeOvrjKOTOS, 
KXaLovTOJv TCOV OLKeLOJV re Kal yvcoplfiajv, " ov (jlo)- 
F TT-qaeTe; " ec/)!^- eSet^e yap olov alpiaTOS rjv '*• 
Kal OVK €^7] Setv TOWS' dyadoijs podv dXX* laTpeve- 
odaL. 

* Kal axoXfj (or o-xoX??)] <TToKir]v Stephanus, perhaps rightly. 

2 ovbk Bernardakis : oUre. 

* AdKaiz/at, the usual form : \dK(j3vai.. 



" Cf. the note on Moraliay 218 d (4), where the same idea 
is attributed to Archidamus. 
456 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 240 

taste good," she said, " Then, father, there will be 
more wine drunk, and the drinkers will become more 
intemperate and depraved." ^ 

S. When she had watched Aristagoras having his 
shoes put on and laced by one of the servants, she 
said, " Father, the foreigner hasn't any hands ! " ^ 

4. When a foreigner made advances in a mild 
and leisurely way, she pushed him aside, saying, 
" Get away from here, you who cannot play a 
woman's part either ! " 

5. Being asked by a woman from Attica, " \\Tiy is 
it that you Spartan women are the only women that 
lord it over your men," she said, " Because we are 
the only women that are mothers of men." '^ 

6. As she was encouraging her husband Leonidas, 
when he was about to set out for Thermopylae, to 
show himself worthy of Sparta, she asked what she 
should do ; and he said, " Marry a good man, and 
bear good children." <* 

GYRTIAS 
1. Gyrtias, when on a time Acrotatus, her grand- 
son, in a fight with other boys received many blows, 
and was brought home for dead, and the family and 
friends were all wailing, said, " Will you not stop 
your noise ? He has sho^\'n from what blood he was 
sprung." And she said that people who were good 
for anything should not scream, but should try to 
find some remedy.* 

* Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 44, where Diogenes the cynic 
goes Gorgo one better. 

•^ Cf. Moralia, 227 e, supra, and the note. 
^ Cf. Moralia, 225 a (2), supra. 

* The last sentence is borrowed from Plato, Republic^ 
604 c. 

457 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

2. "Ore dyyeXos rjXdev e/c Kp-^rrjs rov 'A/cpo- 
rdrov Odvarov avrayyeAAajv, " ovk efxeXXev," €(f)rj, 
" TTpos Tovs TToAe/xtous' TjKcov t) avTOs VTT* eKelvojv 
OLTTodavelaOaL 'q KaraKavelv^ iKeivovs ; tJSlov 8 
oLKovecv on oLTreOave Kal iavrrjg Kal rrj? TToXeo)? 
d^LOJs Kal rcxjv Trpoyovwv, ^ el el,rj rov airavra 
)(p6vov KaKos a>v/' 

AAMATPIAS 
Aa/xarpta rov vlov SetAov kol dvd$Lov eai^r^?" 
aKovaaGa, rrapayevopuevov dvelXe' ro §' erriypaiiixa 
€77 avrrjs robe, 

rov napa^dvra vofiovs AapidrpLov eKrave fxdrrjp 
d AaKeSaLjjLOVLa rov AaKeSaipLOVLov. 

AAKAINi^N AAHAfiN 
241 1. 'Erepa AdKaiva rov vlov XiTToraKri^Gavra^ c5? 
dvd^Lov rrjs rrarpihos dveZXeVy eiTTOVora, " ovk epLov 
ro cfiLrvfxa." e^' rj? ro eTTiypapLfia roSe, 

eppe KaKov ^tru/xa 8ta GKoros, ov Sid pZoog 
^vpcoras SecXoLS P''^^^ eXd(j)OiGi peoi. 

dxp^Zov GKvXdKevp^a, KaKd piepis, ^PP^ ttoO^ 
"Aibav, 
eppe' ro purj Hrrdpras d^iov ouS' ereKov. 

^ KaraKavelv F.C.B. : KaraKalueiu. 

2 iavTov in some mss. 

5 XiTTOTaKT-qaavTa^ the preferred form : XenroTaKT^a-aPTa. 

* Son of Areus I., king of Sparta. He fell in battle at 
Megalopolis in 265 b.c, but the fact that his father Areus had 
been lighting in Crete may account for the intrusion of Crete 
here. Pausanias (viii. 27. 11) makes a more serious error in 
confusing this Acrotatus with his grandfather of the same 
name. 
458 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 240-241 

2. When a messenger came from Crete bringing 
the news of the death of Acrotatus,'' she said, " When 
he had come to the enemy, was he not bound either 
to be slain by them or to slay them ? It is more 
pleasing to hear that he died in a manner worthy of 
myself, his country, and his ancestors than if he had 
lived for all time a coward." ^ 

DAM ATRIA 

Damatria heard that her son had been a coward 
and unworthy of her, and when he arrived, she made 
away with him. This is the epigram '^ referring to 
her : 

Sinner against our laws, Damatrius, slain by his mother. 
Was of the Spartan youth ; she was of Sparta too. 

OTHER SPARTAN WOMEN TO FAME UNKNOWN 

1. Another Spartan woman made away with her 
son, who had deserted his post, on the ground that 
he was unworthy of his country, saying, " Not mine 
the scion." This is the epigram referring to her '^ : 

Off to your fate through the darkness, vile scion, who 
makes such a hatred, 
So the Eurotas flow not e'en for the timorous deer. 
Worthless whelp that you are, vile remnant, be off now to 
Hades ; 
Off ! for never I bore Sparta's unworthy son.* 

^ Cf. the similar saying of a Spartan woman, quoted by 
Teles in Stobaeus, Florilegium, cviii. 83. 

" Cf. the Palatine Anthology, vii. no. 433, or W. R. 
Paton, The Greek Anthology (in L.C.L.), ii. p. 238. 

^ Cf. the variant version in the Palatine Anthology, vii. 
no. 433 (or W. R. Paton, The Greek Anthology (in L.C.L.), 
ii. p. 238). 

• Cf. Moralia, 242 a, infra. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(241) 2. "AXXt) oLKovaacra rov vlov ev TTapard^ci 
TTeorovra €<f)7], 

" 8etAo6 KXaieaBcjjaav iyw 8e crc, reKVov, dSaKpvs 
doLTTTCo^ rov Kal ifJLOv /cat AaKeSaijjLovLov," 

3. *A/coucracra rig rov vlov aecrcoGfievov Kal 
7T€(f)€vy6ra Ik tcov 7ToXe[XL(x)v, ypd^ei aura), ** KaKo. 
(f)djjia r€V KaKKexvrat' t^ ravrav vvv^ eKvupat i^ (jltj 

€GO." 

-n 4. "AXXrj, TCOV vlcjjv ^vyovTOiv eK fidx^jS Kal 
TTapayevofxevajv d)s avT'qv, " ttou/" (f)r]GLv, " 'qKere 
Spa7T€T€vaavT€s, KaKOi avSpdrroBa; ^ Sevpo oOev 
efeSuTC KaraSvGOjJLevoL ; " dvacrvpafjievr] Kal €7rt- 
Setfaca* avrols. 

5. lipoadyovrd rt? rov vlov deacrafjuevrj invdero, 
ri 7T parrel rj Trarpis; " eiTTovros §€, " rrdvres 

diToXojXaaL," KepafilSa dpaaa e7ra(^7j/<:€v avru) Kal 
dvelXeVy elirovcray " ere ovv KaKdyyeXov eTrejxifjav 
Tjfiiv; 

6. At-qyovfJiivov tlvos rrj jjLrjrpl yewaiov ddvarov 
rod dSeXcjyov, " elr ovk alaxpov/' etTTC, " rrj? 
roLavTTjg ovvohias dirorvxelv ; " 

C 7. 'E/<:77e/x(/faaa rt? rovs vlovs avrrjs rrivre 
ovras irrl 77oAe/xov, iv rolg Trpoaarelois elGr-^Kec 
KapaSoKovaa ri e/c rrjs p^dx^]? diro^riGOLro' (hs 8e 
TTapayevojjLevos ns 7rv6op,evrj dmjyyeLXe rovs 
rralSas diravras rereXevrrjKevai, " dXX* ov rovro 

^ doLTTTO} S. A. Naber and Hartman: Kal IXapd. OdTrTw. 
Pantazides would omit Kal ifiov Kal to accomplish the same 
result, butc/. 235 a. 

- vvv Hatzidakis: vvv. 

' irov] TTol Stobaeus, Florilegium^ eviii. 83. 

* ^TTtSe/^atra] dei^aaa ibid. 

460 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 241 

2. Another, hearing that her son had fallen on the 
field of battle, said ; « 

" Let the poor cowards be mourned, but, with never a tear 

do I bury 
You, my son, who are mine, yea, and are Sparta's as 

well." 

3. Another, hearing that her son had been saved 
and had run away from the enemy, wrote to him, 
" 111 report is spread about ye ; aither clear yersel' 
of this or stop yer living." 

4. Another, when her sons had run away from 
battle and come to her, said, " Where have you 
come now in your cowardly flight, vile varlets ? Do 
you intend to shnk in here whence you came forth ? " 
And with these words she pulled up her gamnent and 
showed them.^ 

5. One woman, observing her son coming towards 
her, inquired, " How fares our country ? " And 
when he said, " All have perished," she took up a 
tile and, hurling it at him, killed him, saying, " And 
so they sent you to bear the bad news to us ! " 

6. As a man was narrating to his mother the 
noble death of his brother, she said, '' Isn't it a 
shame, then, to have missed his company on such a 
journey ? " '^ 

7. One woman sent forth her sons, five in number, 
to war, and, standing in the outskirts of the city, she 
awaited anxiously the outcome of the battle. And 
when someone arrived and, in answer to her inquiry, 
reported that all her sons had met death, she said, 

• Cf. Moralia^ 235 a, supra. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 246 a, and Teles as quoted by Stobaeus, 
Florilegium^ cviii. 83. 

<= Cf. Moralia, 242 b (22), infra. 

461 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(241) €7Tv96ll1)V,** €L7T€, " KaKOV OLvSpdnoSoV, ttAAo. Tt 

TTpdrrei rj rrarpis'' <j)r]oavTos §€ on viKa, " dofievr] 
roivvVy" eL7T€y " SexojJLat /cat rov rcov TralScov 
ddvarov." 

8. Sdnrovad rt? rov vlov, cos" ypatStov eureAes" 
TTpocxeXOov avrfj, " c5 yvvac, rag rvxo-S," etTre, " vr] 
TO) crtco aAAoL ra? xraAa? y'," €^17* " /cat yap avTov 
ov €V€K€V ereKov, tV vrrep rds ^Trdpras dTToddvr), 

D Tovro jjLOL arvve^rj." 

9. Ttefivvvofjievr]? yvvaiKO^ nvos ^lojvLKrjg cTrt 
Ttvt raJv iavrrjs vcfyacypidroiv ovtl TToXvTeXel, 
Aa/catva imhei^aaa tovs rerrapag vlov? ovras 
KOGfJLLwrdrovg, " roiavra," €(f)y], " Set etvat rd tt^S" 
KaAT^s" Kal dyadrjs yvvaiKos epya /cat eVt rovrois 
€7raLp€(jdai /cat /xeyaAaup^etv." 

10. "AAAt] d/couaacra 77ept rou utou, co? /ca/ccu? 
€77-t ttJs" ^dvrjs dvaarpi^oLTO, eypaipe, " /caKot reu^ 
^d/xa KaKKexyrai' ravrav dmodev^ r^ pLTj €00." 

11. riapaTrAi^CTta)? 8e /cat Xtcoi' (f)vydS€s iXOovres 
els ^Trdprrjv vroAAd HatSapiJTOV^ Karrjyopovv' fxera- 

E TTepupapLevrj he avrovs rj fjLtjrrjp avrov TeXevrla /cat 
aKovaaGa Sv eveKdXovv, eTrel cSd/cet avrfj ct/xap- 
rdveiv 6 vlog, eTreoreiXev , " d pidnqp natSapT^ro)^* 
7) ^eXriova Trpdoue 7) au^t /xeVe, dTToyp'ous' rdp' eg 
i^irdprav aojrrjpLav." 

1 reu Valckenaer as in no. 3 supra (241 a) and Stobaeus, 
Florileg ium, cvi'ii. 8S: tol. ♦ 

2 cLTTibdev Hatzidakis (c/. Cicero, ^d Atticum^ xiv. 22): 

2 IlaiSapTjroi', -t(^] IleSapiToi', -rtj; is perhaps the correct 
spelling ; cf. Thucydides, viii. 28. 

** Cf. Plutarch's Life of Agesilaus, chap. xxix. (612 c-d). 
462 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 241 

" I did not inquire about that, you vile varlet, but 
how fares our country ? " And when he declared 
that it was victorious, " Then," she said, " I accept 
gladly also the death of my sons." ° 

8. Another was burying her son, when a common- 
place old woman came up to her and said, " Ah the 
bad luck of it, you puir woman." " No, by Heaven," 
said she, " but good luck ; for I bore him that he 
might die for Sparta, and this is the very thing that 
has come to pass for me." ^ 

9. When a woman from Ionia showed vast pride in 
a bit of her own weaving, which was very valuable, a 
Spartan woman pointed to her four sons, who were 
most well-behaved, and said, " Such should be the 
employments of the good and honourable woman, 
and it is over these that she should be elated and 
boastful." ° 

10. Another, hearing about her son that he was 
conducting himself badly in a foreign land, wrote to 
him, " 111 report is spread about ye ; pit this from ye 
or else stop yer Uving." ^ 

1 1 . Of somewhat similar character is this : Chian 
exiles came to Sparta, and accused Paedaretus of 
many misdeeds ; whereupon his mother Teleutia 
sent for them and, after listening to their complaints, 
feeling that her son was in the wrong, sent him this 
letter : " Mither to Paedaretus. Aither dae better, 
or stay whare ye are, and gie up hope o' gaen back 
safe to Sparta." 

^ The story is told also by Teles in Stobaeus, Florilegium, 
cviii. 83; cf. also Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 42 (102). 

•^ Cf. Severus in Stobaeus, Florilegium, v. 47, and tlie 
similar story of the Roman Cornelia, the mother of the 
Gracchi. 

<* Cf. Moralia, 241 a (3), supra. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

12. 'Erepa e-n aStKr^/xart roi TratSt Kpivofxeva), 

'* T6KVOV," eL7T€V, " t) Ttt? atTta? "5 O-eaUTOV TOU ^TJl' 

OLTToXvaov ." 

13. "AAAt] ;)(6oAov utov €771 Trapdra^LV TrpoTre/x- 

TTOUCTa, " T6KVOV," €L7r€ , " KaTOL ^rjjJLa TT^S 0Lp€T7JS 

jxefjivrjao." 

14. "AAAt^, tov TTatSog avrfj d(f)LKop.ivov oltto 
Trapard^eojs reTpcojJLevov rov rroSa /cat o^ohpa 

F dXyovvTOS, " idv rr\s dperrjs/' etire, *' fxefivrj, c5 
reKi'ov, Kal dnovos ear) /cat Oapp-qcrets." 

15. AaKcov rpcodels Iv TToXepLO) /cat j3a8t^€tv fxrj 
^vvdfievos, TerpaTToStcTTt SSevev. alaxwofievo) 8* 
avTO) elvat^ yeXoio) rj fjL'qrrjp, " /cat ttogco ^eXnov, 
CO T€Kvov," etTie, " fjidXXov irrl rfj dvSpela yeyrj- 
Oevai T] alaxvy^ddai irrl yeXcuTL dvorjrio; " 

16. "AXX-q TTpoGavaSiSovcra rep TratSt ttjv dcTTTtSa 
/cat TTapaKeXevofjLevr] , " reKvov/' ecfyrj, " 7} rdv 7) 
CTTt ra?." 

17. "AAA")] TTpOLOVTL Tip vlcp CTTt TToXepLOV dva- 

8t8oucra TT^v dcTTrtSa, " ravrrjv," €^7], " d Trarrip 
Got det ecrcp^e- /cat ot) ow -^ ravrrjv GCp^€ 'q pLrj 

€GO. 

18. "AAAi^ Trpos" TOV utor Xeyovra puKpov e^etv 
TO $L(f)OS etne, " /cat ^rjpi,a npoGOeg." 

242 19. "AAA')] d/couCTao-a, OTt d utos" avrrjs iv napa- 
rd^€L dvhpayaOiqGas dTredavev, " e/xo? ydp rjVf" 

1 dvai F.C.B., iwl T<^ Wyttenbach : iv. 



" Cf. Moralia, 331 b ; Stobaeus, Florilegium^ vii. 29 ; 
Cicero, D^ oratore, ii. 61 (249). 

*» Referred to Gorgo as the author by Aristotle in his 
464 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 241-242 

12. Another, when her son was being tried for some 
offence, said to him, " My child, either rid yourself 
of the charges, or rid yourself of life." 

13. Another, as she accompanied a lame son on 
his way to the field of battle, said, " At every step, 
my child, remember your valour." ° 

14. Another, when her son came back to her from 
the field of battle wounded in the foot, and in great 
pain, said, " If you remember your valour, my child, 
you will feel no pain, and be quite cheerful." " 

15. A Spartan, wounded in battle and unable to 
walk, was crawling on all fours. He was mortified at 
being so ridiculous ; but his mother said to him, 
" How much better to be joyful over your braveiy 
rather than to be mortified at silly laughter." 

16. Another, as she handed her son his shield, 
exhorted him, saying, " Either this or upon this." ^ 

17. Another, as her son was going forth to war, 
said, as she gave the shield into his hands, " This 
shield your father kept always safe for you ; do you, 
therefore, keep it safe, or cease to live." 

18. Another, in answer to her son who said that 
the sword which he carried was short, ^ said, " Add a 
step to it." 

19- Another, hearing that her son had been slain 
fighting bravely in the line of battle, said, " Yes, he V-"^ 

Aphorisms, as quoted by Stobaeus, Florilegium, vii. 31, 
but it is often spoken of as a regular Spartan custom. C/., 
for example, the scholium on Thucydides, ii. 39. 

Ancient \vTiters were not agreed whether the second half 
meant to fall upon the shield (dead or wounded) or to be 
brought home dead upon it. In support of the second 
(traditional) interpretation cf. Moralia, 235 a, and Valerius 
Maximus, ii. 7, ext. 2. 

" Cf. Moralia, 191 e, supra. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(242) €L7re. nepl Se rod irepov^ TTvOofjiivr] otl oltto- 
heiXtOLGas Gcpl,€Tai, " ov yap rjv iixos," €(f)7]. 

20. 'Erepa OLKovaaaa redvdva rov vlov iv 
fio-xfj KadoLTTep ireraKTO " KarOere^ avrov," €(pr), 
" dva7TXr]p(jocrdra) 8e tt^v eKeivov rd^iv 6 dheX^os-" 

21 . "AAAt7 TTOfjLTTTjV TeXovoa Trdvhiqiiov rjKovaev 
€7tI rrjg irapard^ews viKav rov vlov, e/c Be rcov 
rpavfidrojv ttoXXojv yevopiivayv 6vt^gk€iv. ov irepi- 
eXopuevT] ovv rov OT€(f)avov, dXXd aefjuvvvOelora npos 
rds ttXtigiov eiTreVy " cos" ttoAAo) /caAAtov, c5 ^t'Aat, 

B €gtIv €v Trapard^et VLKCovra reXevrdv r) ra 'OAujU-Tna 
Trepiyiyvopievov t,7]v." 

22. ALrjyovjJLepov nvog rfj dSeX(f)fj yewalov da- 
varov rod TratSos" avrrjsy €K€lv7j €L7T€v on " oaov 
eV eKeivip yey-qda, rocrovrov eTrl goI dxdojJLai, 
ivaperov ovvohias aTroAet^^eVrt." 

23. AaKaivrj rt? TrpocreTre/xj/fei^, el (f)Bopa orvv- 
emvevei. rj 8' e^^y, " ttols fxev oucra efxadov rep 
TTarpl TTeideGOai, koI rovro eVpafa- yvvr) 8e yevo- 
fjievr) rep dvSpl' el ovv St/cata /xe irapaKaXet, rovrcp 
cf)av6p6v TTOL-qadrco Trpcjrov." 

24. riap^eVos" Trevixpd ipcorrjOelaa riva SlScom 
rep yafjiovvn rrpoiKa, " rr]V TrdrpLov," €(f)r]y " aoj- 

(f)pOGVV7]V." 

C 25. AaKatva ipojrrjdeLGa el rdvSpl^ TTpoGcX'qXvOev, 
ovK eyojy eiTTeVy aAA o avrjp epboi. 

1 Tod er^pov] Tov er^pov Wyttenbach, but cf. no. 1 supra 
(241a). 

2 Kdrdere] dd-rrTeTe S. A. Naber. 

3 Tdi/Spi A. Piatt as in Moralia^ 140 c: dvbpl mss. 

*• Cf. Moralia, 241 a, supra. 

^ Cf. the somewhat similar story about Xenophon in 
Moralia^ 118 f. 

4>QQ 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 242 

was mine." But learning in regard to her other son 
that he had played the coward and saved his life, she 
said, " No, he was not mine." " 

20. Another, hearing that her son had been killed 
in battle on the spot where he had been placed, 
said, " Lay him away, and let his brother take his 
place." 

21. Another, engaged in conducting a solemn pub- 
lic procession, heard that her son was victorious on the 
field of battle, but that he was dying from the many 
wounds he had received. She did not remove the 
garland from her head, but with a proud air said tc 
the women near her, " How much more noble, my 
friends, to be victorious on the field of battle and meet 
death, than to win at the Olympic games and live ! " ^ 

22. As a man was relating to his sister the noble 
death of her son, she said, " As glad as I am for him, 
I am sorry for you that you were left behind when 
you might have gone in such brave company." ^ 

23. A man sent to a Spartan woman to ask if she 
were inclined to look with favour upon seduction ; she 
replied, " When I was a child I learned to obey my 
father, and made that my practice. Then when I 
became a married woman, my husband took that 
place. So if the man's proposal is honourable, let 
him lay the matter before my husband first." 

24. A poor girl, being asked what dowry she brought 
to the man w^ho married her, said, " The family 
virtue." 

25. A Spartan woman, being asked if she had made 
advances to her husband, said, " No, but my husband 
has made them to me," ^ 

• Cf. Moralia, 241 b (6), supra, 
" Cf. Moralia, 140 c. 

467 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(242) 26. Kpv(f)a tl9 ScaTTapdevevOetora Kal hia(f)6€[paaa 
TO ^pe(f)os ovTCOs iveKapreprjGe fjL7]Se[ilav TipoeveyKa- 
fjLevTj (f)a)vr]v, cocrre /cat rov narepa /cat aAAou? 
ttXtjglov ovras Xadelv OLTTOKV-qaaaa' ro yap pieyeOos 
rcxiv aXyqhovcjv rfj €VGxr)pLO(Tvvrj ro aax'^P'OV Trpoa- 

TTCGOV €VLK7]Ge. 

27. Aa/catva TnirpaGKopiivr] /cat ipcDTCopuevirj tL 
CTTtWarat, €^17, " iriora T^/xev.** 

28. "AAAi7 alxi-iaXcoT€vd€LGa /cat €po}TO)pt,ivr) 
TrapaTrXrjGLOjg, " ev oiKelv oIkov," ^^V- 

29. ^l^pcorrjOeLGa ng vtto tlvos, et eWat dyadrj, 
av avTTjV dyopaGT], etrTe, " Koiv pLrj dyopoLGrjS." 

D 30. "AAAt^ 7TL7TpaGKopi€vr] y rod K-qpvKos nvvdavo- 
pL€VOV TL iTTLGrarai, *' iXevOepa," etneVy " rjpLCV.*' 
(hs 8e 6 d)V7]GdpLevos TrpoGeraTTe riva avTrj ovx 
dppbo^ovra iXevOepa, et77ouora, " olpiCQ^r) (f)dov7]Gas 
GeavTO) TOLOVTOV KTripLarog," i^i^yayev iavTiqv. 

" Cf. Moralia, 234 c (39), supra. 
• Cf. Moralia, 234 b (37 and 38), supra. 



468 



SAYINGS OF SPARTAN WOMEN, 242 

26. A girl had secret relations \\ith a man, and, 
after bringing on an abortion, she bore up so bravely, 
not uttering a single sound, that her delivery took 
place without the knowledge of her father and 
others who were near. For the confronting of her 
indecorum with decorum gained the victory over the 
poignant distress of her pains. 

27. A Spartan woman who was being sold as a 
slave, when asked what she knew how to do, said, 
" To be faithful." 

28. Another, taken captive, and asked a similar 
question, said, " To manage a house well." 

2i^. Another, asked by a man if she would be good 
if he bought her, said, " Yes, and if you do not buy 
me."« 

30. Another who was being sold as a slave, when 
the crier inquired of her what she knew how to do, 
said, '* To be free." And when the purchaser ordered 
her to do something not fitting for a free woman, she 
said, " You -will be sorry that your meanness has cost 
you such a possession," and committed suicide.'' 



VOL. Ill Q 4i69 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN 
(MULIERUM VIRTUTES) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch's well-chosen selection of stories about the 
bravery of women was composed for his friend Clea, 
who held high office among the priestesses at Delphi, 
and to whom he dedicated also his treatise on Isis 
and Osiris. He speaks of it as a supplement to a 
conversation on the equality of the sexes, which he 
had with Clea on the occasion of the death of Leontis, 
of blessed memory, suggested no doubt by the noble 
character of the departed. It is not impossible that 
some of the topics discussed in that conversation are 
included here also, so as to make the book a complete 
and finished whole. 

The treatise stands as No. 126 in Lamprias's hst of 
Plutarch's works. 

Polyaenus drew freely from this book to embellish 
his Strategemata, as a glance at the notes on the 
follov.ing pages will show. 

Novelists who still write of virtuous women and 
heartless villains may find some material in this work 
of Plutarch's. They need not be ashamed to glean 
where a great poet has reaped. 



473 



E rTNAIKQN APETAl 

Ilepl dperrjSy (3 KAea, yvvaiKcov ov rrjv avTr]v 
TO) SovkvSlSt) yva)jj,r]v exo/xev. o /xev yap, rjs oiv 
iXdxi'CFTos fj TTapd rots cactos" ipoyov Trepi -^ eiraivov 
\6yos, dpLurrjv d7TO(j)aiverai, KaOdrrep to crco/xa /cat 
TOvvo[xa rrjg dyadrjs yvvaiKo^ olofievo? 8etv Kard- 
KXeioTOV elvai kol dve^ohov. rnuv 8e Kopufjorepos 
Y ft€v o Topylas (^aiverai, KeXevojv [xtj to etSos dXXd 
TTjv So^av elvat ttoXXols yvcLpifJuov tt}? yvvaLKos' 
dpLGTa 8' o 'Pcujaatcov SoKel vopios e;\;etv, (Lcnrep 
dvSpaGL /cat yvvai^l Sr^/xoo-ta jLtera tyjv TeXevTrjv 
Tovs TTpodiqKOVTas a77o8t8oL'? iiTaivovs . 8to /cat 
A€ovTt8os" T^S" dpiOTTjg dTToOavovdrjs, €v6vs T€ 
jLtera gov t6t€ ttoXvv Xoyov euxofiev ovk dpioipovvTa 
TTapapLvdias <J)iXog6(J)ov , /ca< vvv, c5? e^ovXiqdT]? ,^ rd 
vTToXoLTTa Tcjv Xeyopi€vcx)v els to jxiav elvai /cat tt^v 
243 avTTjv dvhpog /cat yui^at/co? dpeTTjv irpoGaveypaipd 

GOL, TO IGTOpiKOV aTToheiKTlKOV CXOVTa /Cat TTpOS 

-qhovTjV [xev dKorjs ov cjuvreray/xeVa^* et Se tco 

TTeWovTL /cat TO TepTTOV ev€GTi (j)VG€L Tov TTapa- 

1 i^ovX-qO-qs the preferable form : i]^ov\r)6r]s. 
2 (TvvT€Tayfjt.€va the Basel edition of 1542 : crvvTeTa-y^icv-qv. 

" Thucydides, ii. 45. 

474. 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN 

Regarding the virtues of women, Clea, I do not hold 
the same opinion as Thucydides.^ For he declares 
that the best woman is she about whom there is the 
least talk among persons outside regarding either 
censure or commendation, feeling that the name of 
the good woman, like her person, ought to be shut up 
indoors and never go out.^ But to my mind Gorgias 
appears to display better taste in advising that not 
the form but the fame of a woman should be known to 
many. Best of all seems the Roman custom,^ which 
publicly renders to women, as to men, a fitting com- 
memoration after the end of their Hfe. So when 
Leontis, that most excellent woman, died, I forthwith 
had then a long conversation with you, which was not 
without some share of consolation drawTi from 
philosophy, and now, as you desired, I have also 
written out for you the remainder of what I would 
have said on the topic that man's virtues and woman's 
virtues are one and the same. This includes a good 
deal of historical exposition, and it is not composed 
to give pleasure in its perusal. Yet, if in a convincing 
argument delectation is to be found also by reason of 

'' Cf. Moralia, '211 t^ supra. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Camillus, chap. viii. (133 b), 
Livy, v. 50 ; Cicero, De oratore^ ii. 11 (44). 

475 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(243) BeiyixaroSy ov ^evyei X^P^^ aTroSel^cajs Gvvepyov 
6 Xoyos ovh^ aldxvyerat 

Tois yiovaais 

ras Xct/otras ovyKarafXiyvvs 

KaXXiGTav^ ovt,vyiaVf 

ws FiVpL7TLBr)s (jyrjalvy e/c rod (^lAo/caAou y^dXiara 
rrjg ifjvxTJ? dvadoviJievo? rrjv TTLartv. 

Oepe ydpy el Xeyovres rrjv avrrjv eti'at t,(jjypa<f)Lav 
dvSpcbv Kal yvvaiKOiv TrapeixofxeOa roiavras ypa(f>dg 
yvvaLKCoVy otas ^ATreXXrjs aTroAeAotTrev 7) Zcu^tS" t] 
^LKOfxaxoSt ap* dv ns eTreripnqGev rjp.LV, cLg rod 
B ;)^apt^ecr^at Kal ipvxoLycoyelv )LtaAAov rj rov Treideiv 
aroxoL^o[X€VOL9; iyw /xev ovk olpai. 

Tt hi; idv 7T0iiqriKr]v irdXiv 7) p,avTLKrjv^ aTTO- 
<f)aivovTes ovx irepav pkv dvhp(j)v irepav Se yv- 
vaLKOJV oucrav, dAAa tt^v auTT^v, rd Ha7r(f)ovs p,eXr] 
Tots ^ AvaKplovTog ri to, YiL^vXX7]s Aoyta tols 
Ba/ctSos" dvTL7Tapa^dX\copL€v ,^ e^et tls aiTLdaaadai 
SiKalcos TTjv aTToSei^LV, on ;)(atpoi^Ta /cat repno- 
p,€vov iirdyeL rrj irioTei rov dKpoari^v; ovBe rovr 
dv eiTTOis. 

Kat ixr]v OVK eoTLV dperrjs yvvaiKeias Kal dv- 
Speta? oiJLOLOTYjra Kal hiacj^opdv dXXoOev Karapadeiv 
C /xaAAor, rj ^iovs plots Kal Trpd^eui irpd^eis wanep 
epya peydXrjs rexvrjs TrapaTidivras dp,a Kal 
GKOTTOvvras, et rov avrov ex^L xapa/cr'^pa /cat 
rvTTOv Tj Se/xipa/xecos" p,€yaXo7Tpayp,o(Jvvr] rrj Heoo)- 

1 rats 'yiovaais rds Xapiras . . . KoWicrTap] rds Xapiras [rats] 
Moj'crais . . . ablaTav Euripides mss. : KaXKlffTrjv Plut. mss. 

2 fJLaVTLK^V Cobet: IXLIXr]TlKT}V. 

3 avTLTrapa^6.\\wyLev Dinse : avTLTrapa^aKKoiixev, 

" Hercules Furens^ 673. Plutarch probably quoted from 
476 



BRA\TERY OF WOMEN, 243 

the very nature of the illustration, then the discussion 
is not devoid of an agreeableness which helps in the 
exposition, nor does it hesitate 

To join 
The Graces with the Muses, 
A consorting most fair, 

as Euripides says," and to pin its faith mostly to the 
love of beauty inherent to the soul. 

If, conceivably, we asserted that painting on the 
part of men and women is the same, and exhibited 
paintings, done by women, of the sort that Apelles, 
or Zeuxis, or Nicomachus has left to us, would any- 
body reprehend us on the ground that we were aiming 
at gi\ing gratification and allurement rather than at 
persuasion ? I do not think so. 

Or again, if we should declare that the poetic or 
the prophetic art is not one art when practised by 
men and another when practised by women, but the 
same, and if we should put the poems of Sappho side 
by side with those of Anacreon, or the oracles of the 
Sibyl with those of Bacis, will anybody have the power 
justly to impugn the demonstration because these 
lead on the hearer, joyous and delighted,^ to have 
belief in it ? No, you could not say that either ? 

And actually it is not possible to learn better the 
similarity and the difference between the virtues of 
men and of women from any other source than by 
putting lives beside lives and actions beside actions, 
Hke great works of art, and considering whether the 
magnificence of Semiramis has the same character 
and pattern as that of Sesostris, or the intelligence of 
memory, as he made one transposition and one substitution. 
Of. the critical note. 

" Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica, 426. 

VOL. Ill Q 2 477 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(24:3) GTpios rj T) Tava/cuAAtSo? avveaLs rfj TiepovLov tov 
^acnXecos, 'q to UopKiag (f)p6v7]iJLa rw ^povrov Koi 
ro Yl^Xorrihov rw Ttjao/cAetas-, Kara rrjv KVpio)- 
rdrrjv kolvottjto^ Kal SvvafjLiv iTreiSrj hia<f>opds yi 
TLvas iripasy ajGirep xpoi'ds ISias, at dperal Sta 
rag ^vaeis XapL^dvovoi Kal avve^ofioLOVvrai rois 
VTTOKeLjjLevoLs eOeGL Kal Kpaaeat acofxarajv Kal 
Tpo^aZ? Kal hiairais' dXXoJS yap dvhpelos 6 

D A;^tAAeuj dXkwg 6 Alas' Kal (ftpovqais *OSvaa€0)s 
ovx ofioia rfj Nearopos ovbe 8t/cato? waavrcos 
Kdra)v Kal 'Ayr^crtAaos", ovS* Filpijvr) ^tAavSpos" 0)S 
" AXktjotls ovhk Kopv7]XLa [j,€yaX6(f)pcov d)s 'OAu/u-- 
Tnds. dXXd pLTj TTapd rovro TToXXds Kal hia<j)6povs 
iTOithpLev dvhpeias Kal (j)povrj(j€Lg Kal SiKaiOGVvaSy 
av fJLOvov rod Xoyov rod olk€lov pLrfiepiLav at Kad^ 
€Ka(7TOV dvoixoLorrjres iK^i^dl^coai .^ 

To, piev ovv dyav Trepi^oiqra Kal oorcov ot/xat g6 
jSej8ata>s"^ ^l^XIols evTV^ovoav laroplav e^^LV Kal 
yvwoiv rjbr] rrapijcra)' ttXtjv €l /xt^ riva roi/s rd 
KOLvd Kal SeS7]p.evfjL€va irpo rjp.a)V larop'qGavras 
aKorjs ct^ta StaTre^cuyev. iirel 8e TroAAa Kal 
Koivfj Kal tSto. yvvai^lv d^ia Xoyov TTeirpaKrai, 

E ^po-X^^ "^^^ KOLvojv ov x^lpov ioTL TTpo'CaToprjaai. 

^ KoivbTTjTa Meziriacus : KaiudrrjTa. 

2 ^/c/3t/3dfo;(n Wyttenbach : ^/c/Sidfwo-t. 

3 pe^alo3s F.C.B. (note the same slip in the mss. in 243 b) : 
/Se/3alois. 

" Cf. Hippocrates, Airs^ Waters, and Places, chap, xxiii. 
(Hippocrates in the L.C.L., i. p. 132) ; Cicero, Tusculan 
Disputations, i. 33 (80) ; Porphyry, De Ahstinentia^ iii. 8 ; 
478 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 24S 

Tanaquil the same as that of Servius the king, or 
the high spirit of Porcia the same as that of Brutus, 
or that of Pelopidas the same as Timocleia's, when 
compared with due regard to the most important 
points of identity and influence. For the fact is that 
the virtues acquire certain other diversities, their own 
colouring as it were, due to varying natures, and they 
take on the Hkeness of the customs on which they are 
founded, and of the temperament of persons and their 
nurture and mode of H\ang.<* For example, Achilles 
was brave in one way and Ajax in another ; and the 
wisdom of Odysseus was not like that of Nestor, nor 
was Cato a just man in exactly the same way as 
Agesilaus, nor Eirene fond of her husband in the 
manner of Alcestis, nor Cornelia high-minded in the 
manner of Olympias. But, with all this, let us not 
postulate many different kinds of bravery, wisdom, 
and justice — if only the individual dissimilarities 
exclude no one of these from receiving its appropriate 
rating. 

Those incidents which are so often recited, 
and those of which I assume that you, having kept 
company with books, have assuredly record and 
knowledge, I will pass over for the present ; but with 
this exception : if any tales worthy of perusal have 
escaped the attention of those who, before our time, 
have recorded the commonly published stories. 
Since, however, many deeds worthy of mention have 
been done by women both in association with other 
women and by themselves alone, it may not be a 
bad idea to set down first a brief account of those 
commonly known. 

cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 127, for the statement of the con- 
trary view. 

479 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1. TPfilAAES 

Tojv aTT* *IAtou Trepl ttjv oXcjoiv eKcfyvyovTCJv ol 
TrXeiGTOL ;(;et/xa)vt ')(p'iqodixevoiy Kol 8t' aTT€ipiav rov 
ttXov Kal ayvoiav rrjs OaXdrrrjs OLTrevexOevres els 
TTjv 'IraAtai^ Kal Trepl rov QvpL^ptv Trorapiov op/xot? 
KOI vavXoxois dvayKaiois {xoXis VTroSpapLovres, 
avTol fxev eTrXavojvro Trepl rrjv ;j^a)pav (fypaarripajv 
F SeojjLevoL, rals Se yvvai^lv ifiTTLTTrei XoyLcrpLos, co? 
rjTLdovv tSpvGLs ev yfj Trduiqs^ TrXdvrjs Kal vavriXia's 
eu T€ Kal KaXwg TTpdrrovGiv dvOpcoTTOtg dfX€Lva>v 
iart, Kal TrarpiSa SeV TToceiv avrovs, aTToXa^elv 
7]v aTToXajXeKaGL jjltj Svvajxevovs. eK 8e tovtov 
GVfK^povqGaaaL Krarec^Ae^av ra rrXola, jxids Kar- 
ap^afjbevTjs a)s (j)aGi 'Pcvfjirj^. irpd^aGai 8e ravra 
roLS dvSpdGLV diTriVTOJV jSorjdovGL rrpos ttjv da- 
Xarrav, Kal (f)oPoviJLevai Tr]v opyrjv at fiev dvSpojv 
244 ctt 8' oIk€lojv avTiXaix^avofjievaL Kal KaracjyiXovGai 
XiTTapojg, i^€Trpdvvav to) rpoTTCo rrjs (JyLXocfypoGVvrjg. 
8to Kal yeyove Kal Trapa/xeVet rat? 'Pcu/xatcov 
yvvai^lv €TL vvv eOos acrTra^ecr^at pierd rod Kara- 
<j)iXelv rovs Kara ylvos TrpoG-qKovras avrals. 

^vviSopres yap d)S eoiKe ttjv dvdyK7]v ol Tpojes 
Kal a/xa Tretpcopievoi rcov iyxcop^a>v, evpievajg Kal 
<j)iXavdp(x>TTO)s 7rpoGhexop,ivcx)V , rjydTrrjGav to rrpax- 
Oev VTTO TOJV yvvaiKCov Kal GvyKarcpKrjGav avrodi 
TOt? KarivoLS. 

^ TrdcTTjs Xylander : TraaiQ. " M Xylander : 5^. 

" Cf. Moralia, 265 b ; Plutarch's Life of Romulus, chap, 
i. ( 1 7 f) ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 25. 2. The story 

480 



BKAVERY OF WOMEN, 243-244 

I. THE TROJAN WOMEN » 

Most of those that escaped Irom Troy at the time 
of its capture had to weather a storm, and, because 
of their inexperience in navigation and ignorance of 
the sea, were driven upon the shores of Italy, and, 
in the neighbourhood of the river Tiber, they 
barely escaped by running in, under compulsion, 
where there were anchorages and havens. While the 
men were wandering about the country, in search of 
information, it suddenly occurred to the women to 
reflect that for a happy and successful people any 
sort of a settled habitation on land is better than all 
wandering and voyaging, and that the Trojans must 
create a fatherland, since they were not able to re- 
cover that which they had lost. Thereupon, be- 
coming of one mind, they burned the ships, one 
woman, Roma, taking the lead. Having accom- 
plished this, they went to meet the men who were 
hurrying to the sea to save the ships, and, fearful of 
their anger, some embraced their husbands and 
some their relatives, and kissed them coaxingly, and 
mollified them by this manner of blandishment. This 
is the origin of the custom, which still persists among 
the Roman women, of greeting their kinsfolk with a 
kiss. 

The Trojans, apparently realizing the inevitable 
necessity, and after having also some experience 
mth the native inhabitants, who received them 
kindly and humanely, came to be content with what 
had been done by the women, and took up their 
abode there with the Latins. 

differs in some details from Virgil's account, as was noted 
by Dionysius of Halicarnassus in his Roman Antiquities^ i. 
72-73. 

481 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

II. ^fiKIAES 

(244) To 8e Tcov Oco/ctScov ivho^ov fxev ov rervx^jKe 
J3 avyypa(f)€OJs, ovSevos 8e rcov yvvaLKeicov eXarrov 
els dper'^v iarL, iiaprvpovfjievov lepols re fxeydXoLS, 
a SpcoGL OcoAcets' ert vvv irepl 'Ta/X7ToAtv, Kal hoy- 
fxaoL TTaXaioZs, o)v to fxev KaO^ eKaarov rrjg 
TTpd^eojs eV to) Aai(f)dvTOV ^icp yeypaTrrai, to Be 
Tcov yvvaiKibv toiovtov eoriv. 

" A-UTTovhos rjv QerraXoLS irpog ^coKeas TroXefios' 
OL fiev yap dp\ovTas avrcov Kal rvpdvvovs iv rats 
^coKiKois TToXeoLV Tjixepa pna Trdvras drreKreivav y 
ol 8e TTevTijKovra Kal hiaKooiovs eKeivojv o/jlt^- 
povs Karr^Xorjaav elra TravGrparia hid AoKpcov ev- 
e^aXov, Sdy/xa Bepievoi pLiqhevos (jieihecrdai rwv ev 
rjXiKLa, TTalSas Se Kal yvvalKas dvhpaTTohiaaaSai. 
C A.at<f)avros ovv 6 BaOvXXiov , rpiros avrds dpxojv, 
eTTeiae rovs Oco/cet? ixev avrovs^ diravrrioavTas 
Tols ©erraAots" [idx^adaij rds 8e yvvauKas dfia 
Tols reKvois els eva ttov tottov Gvvayayovras i^ 
dirdoiqs ttjs ^cjklSos, vXtjv re Trepivrjaai ^vXwv 
Kal (fjvXaKas KaraXiTTelv, TrpoGrayfia Sovrag, dv 
atudojvrai viKcofxevovs avrovs, Kara rd^os ttjv 
vXr]v dvdijjaL Kal KaraTTprjaai rd oajfiara. if)rj(f)L- 
aapievojv he ravra rwv ctAAojv, els e^avaords e<f>'q 
hiKaiov elvai ravra crvvhoKelv Kal rals yvvai^LV 
D el he pufi, xP-ipeiv edv Kal jjirj TTpoa^idl^eadaL. rov- 

^ ^kv ai)roi)s] avToi)% jxh Dinse. 



* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategematat viii. 65 ; Pausanias, x. 
1.3-11. 

" Cf. Herodotus, viii. 27-28. 

482 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 244 

II. THE WOMEN OF PHOCIS « 

The deed of the women of Phocis has not found 
any writer of high repute to describe it, yet it is not 
inferior in point of bravery to anything ever done by 
wom.-n, as is attested by imposing sacred rites which 
the Phocians perform even to this day in the neigh- 
bourhood of HyampoUs, and by ancient decrees. Of 
these events a detailed account of the achievements ^ 
is given in the Life of Daiphantus," and the women's 
part was as follows. 

The Thessalians were engaged in a war without 
quarter against the Phocians. For the Phocians had 
slain on one day all the Thessalian governors and 
despots in their cities. Whereupon the ThessaUans 
massacred two hundred and fifty Phocian hostages ^ ; 
then with all their forces they made an invasion 
through Locris, having previously passed a resolu- 
tion to spare no grown man, and to make slaves of 
the children and women. Accordingly Daiphantus, 
BathyUius's son, one of the three governors of Phocis, 
persuaded the men to meet the ThessaUans in battle, 
and to bring together into some one place the women 
with their children from all Phocis, and to heap about 
them a mass of faggots, and to post guards, giving 
them instructions that, if they learned the men 
were being vanquished, they should with all haste 
set fire to the mass and reduce the living bodies to 
ashes. Nearly all voted approval of the plan, but 
one man arose in the council and said it was only 
right that the women approve this also ; otherwise 
they must reject it, and use no compulsion. When 

" One of Plutarch's Lives which has not been preserved. 
It is No. 38 in the catalogue of Lamprias. 
<* Cf. Aeschines, De falsa legationet 140. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(244) rov Tov Xoyov SteXdovros els ras yuvat/cas", avral 
Kad^ iavras uvveXOovGai ravra} ii/j7](l)L(TavTO Kal 
TOV Aat(f}avTOv dvehrjaav, cos tcl apiora rfj Ocu/ctSt 
^e^ovXevfJievov' rot S* aura Kal rovs TralBas ISla 
(f)aGLP eKKX-qGLOLGavras iirnp-qcj^LGaaOai. 

UpaxOevTCOv Se tovtcov, orvfjL^aXovres ol ^coKels 
TTepl KAecovas" rrjs 'Ya/XTroAtSo? ivtKrjaav. ro /xev 
ovv ifnjcfyiajjia Oco/cecov ^ ATTOvoiav ol "EiXX'qves 
(LvofjLaaav ioprrjv 8' €/c TTaarwv pLeyiGTrjv ra 
E 'EAa^7]j8dAta pL€Xp(' vvv rfj ^ApTepuhi rrjs vIktjs 
CKeLvrjs iv *TajLt7roAtSt reXovcnv. 

III. XIAl 

Xtot AevKcovtav iircoKLGav^ ck roiavrrjs air Las. 

iydfi€L ns iv Xta> rcov Sokovvtojv yvcuplfxcov^ etvai' 

dyoix€vr]s 8e ttj? vvfit^rjs IttI l^evyovs, 6 ^aaiXevs 

^YttttokXos i eTTLTTJSeios cov ro) yapLovvri Kal napajv 

CL>GTT€p ol XoiTTol, [Jiedr]s ovGTjs Kal yeXojTOS, dv- 

eTTiqhiqoev irrl ro Jeuyo?, ovSev v^piuriKov Trpd^cov, 

dAA' eOei KOLVO) Kal rraihia xp^l^^^^s' ol Se ^tAot 

rod yafjLOVvros dTreKreivav avrov. 

M^r^vipbdrcov §€ rots' Xtot? rrpocjiaivoiiivojv Kal rod 

F deov KeXevaavros rovs "IttttokXov dveXovras dveXetv, 

dnavres ecfyaaav "Itttto/cAov dvr}pr]KevaL. Trdvras 

ovv avdis 6 deos e/ceAeuae rrjv ttoXlv cVAtTrctv, el 

Trdat rov dyovs /xereo-rtv. ourco Srj rovs alrlovs 

Kal pueraaxovras rod <j)6vov Kal GweiraLviaavras 

^ Taira Duebner : ravTa. 

^ eiripKLcav Xylander : eirt^Kyjcrav, 

^ yvoipi/xooi'] y€(jo/x6poju S. A. Naber wrongly. 

• " Phocian Desperation," according to Pausanias, x. 1. 7. 

^ Cf. Polyaenus, Strategematay viii. Q6. 
484 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 244 

report of this speech reached the women, they held 
a meeting by themselves and passed the same vote, 
and they exalted Daiphantus for having conceived 
the best plan for Phocis. It is said that the children 
also held an assembly on their owti account and passed 
their vote too. 

After this had been done, the Phocians engaged 
the enemy near Cleonae of Hyampolis, and gained 
the victory. To this vote of the Phocians the Greeks 
gave the name of" Desperation " " ; and the greatest 
festival of all, the Elaphebolia in honour of Artemis, 
they celebrate in Hyampolis even to this day in 
commemoration of that victory. 



III. THE WOMEN OF CHIOS * 

The reason which led the Chians to appropriate 
Leuconia as a settlement was as follows : One of the 
men who appear to have been prominent in Chios was 
getting married, and, as the bride was being conducted 
to his home in a chariot, the king, Hippoclus, a close 
friend of the bridegrcom, being there with the rest 
amid the drinking and merry-making, jumped up 
into the chariot, not with intent to do anything 
insulting, but merely following the common custom 
and indulging in facetiousness. Whereupon the friends 
of the bridegroom killed him. 

Signs of divine anger were soon disclosed to the 
Chians, and the god of the oracle bade them slay the 
slayers of Hippoclus, but they said that they all had 
slain Hippoclus. So the god bade them all leave the 
city, if they were all involved in the crime. And thus 
the guilty, both those who had taken a hand in the 
murder and those who had in any way assented to it, 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

dfJLOJGyeTTOjg , ovk oXiyov? yevoiievovg ouS* dSwdrovs 
oVra?, aTTcpKLGav els AevKajvtav, rjv KopcoveXs 
d(f)eX6iJL€voL TTporepov iKTi^aavro fier^ ^lEpvOpalcov. 
"Yorepov Se iroXefiov 77/30? rovg 'Epu^patou? 
avTOLS yevofxevov, jxeyLorov *Ic6vcov hwapiivovg 
Tore, KaKeivcov eTrl Trjv AevKOJVLav Grparevoavrayv 
245 dvrex^LV fjur] Swdfievoi, (TVvexcopr]Gav i^eXdetv vtto- 
OTTOvSoi, X'^atyav [xlav iKacrrov /cat [[xdnov aAAo 
8e fxr]Sev exovros. at Se yvvaiKes e/ca/ctjov aurous", 
et TTpoejxevoi rd OTrXa yvfivol 8ta tcSv TToXefitcov 
i^iaoiv ofiajpiOKevaL Se ^aoKovrcov, eKeXevov 
avTovs rd jjuev oTrXa {jlt] KaraXmelv , Xeyeiv Se TTpos 
Tovs TToXefXLOVs on ^^Aatva jjiev ian to ^votov, 
Xi-Tcov S* T] dcTTTLSy dvSpl OvjjLOV e^ovrt. TTeKjdevTCxyv 
Se ravra rcov Y^lcjuv /cat TTpos tovs *l^pv9paLovs 
7Tappr]Giat,oiiev(x)v /cat rd onXa SeuKwovrajv, i<j)o- 
pTJ9'r]Gav ol ^KpvdpaloL ttjv roXpiav avrcbv /cat 
B ovSels TTpoGTjXOev ouS' eKojXvaev, dXX rjydTrrjcrav 
aTTaXXayevTOJV. ovroi [lev ovv Oappeiv hihaxd^vres 
VTTO rdjv yvvaiKcov ovtojs i(Ja)9r]Gav. 

TovTOV S* ouSeV Tt AetTTo/xevov epyov dperfj /cat 
Xpdvois VGrepov ttoXXoZs eirpaxdr] rals Xta;i^ yvvai- 

^iv, OTTT^VLKa ^lXlTTTTOS 6 ArjpbrjrpLOV TToXtOpKCJOV TTJV 

ttoXlv eKTipv^e K-^pvypLa ^dp^apov /cat VTreprjcjyavoVy 
d^iaraodai rovs OLKeras Trpos eavrov eir* eXev- 
depia /cat ydfxcp rrjs KeKrrjpievrjs, cos cruvoLKLcov 
avTovs rals rcov SeaTTorcov yvvai^i. heivov S' at 
yvvaiKes /cat dypiov Ovpiov Xa^ovcrai, jxerd rcov 



*» Cf. Herodotus, i. 18 ; Frontinus, Strategemata, ii. 5. 15. 
" Philip V. ; the date is probably 201 b.c. 

486 



BRAA^RY OF WOMEN, 244-2 i5 

being not few in number nor \\'ithout strength, the 
Chians sent away to settle in Leuconia, which they 
had earUer A\Tested from the Coroneans and taken 
possession of with the co-operation of the Erythraeans. 

Later, however, they became involved in war \\ith 
the Erythraeans," the most powerful of the lonians ; 
and when these marched against Leuconia, they 
were not able to hold out, and agreed to evacuate 
the town under truce, each man to have one cloak 
and one inner garment and nothing else. The 
women, however, called them cowards if they pur- 
posed to lay down their arms and go forth naked 
through the midst of the enemy. But when the men 
said that they had given their oath, the women 
bade them not to leave their arms behind, but to say, 
by way of answer to the enemy, that the spear serves 
as a cloak, and the shield as a shirt, to a man of 
spirit. The Chians took this advice, and when they 
used bold words towards the Erythraeans and dis- 
played their weapons, the Erythraeans were fright- 
ened at their boldness, and no one approached them 
nor hindered them, but all were well pleased at their 
departure. So the Chians, ha\-ing been taught 
courage by their women, were saved in this way. 

A deed which does not in the least fall short of this 
one in bravery was performed by the M'omen of 
Chios many years later at the time when Philip,*' 
son of Demetrius, was besieging their city, and had 
made a barbarous and insolent proclamation bidding 
the slaves to desert to him, their reward to be free- 
dom and marriage \\*ith their owners, meaning 
thereby that he was intending to unite them A^lth 
the wives of their masters. But the women, suddenly 
possessed of fierce and savage spirit, in company with 

487 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Q OLKercov Kal avrojv avvayavaKrovvrojv koL crvfi- 
(245) '^^P^v'^(Jt)v wpfxrjaav dva^alvevv cm ra relx'r], /cat 
Xidovs Kal ^eXrj 7TpoG(f>ipov(jai Koi TrapaKeXevofievai 
Kal TTpooXnrapovGai^ rots' fxaxopilvoLg , reXos 8* 
afivvofjievai Kal ^aXXovoai rovs TroAe/xtous", ^77- 
€a>GavTo rov ^lXlttttov, ovSevos SovXov to irapd- 
Trav OLTTOGTavrog npos avrov. 

IV. APrEIAI 

Oi^Sevos" 8' rjrrov evSo^ov ion rwv KOivfj hia- 
7T€7Tpay{-L€vojv yvvai^lv epyojv 6 rrpos KAeo/xeV?^ Trepl 
*'Apyovg dycLv^ ov rjyajviGavro, TeXeoiXXr^s rrj? 
TTOiTjrpLas TrpoTpeipaf,L€vr]s . ravrrjv 8e (jyaoiv olKias 
ovGav ivho^ov ro) Be GcvfxaTi voGTuxariKr^v els 6eov'~ 

D TTefJupai TTepl vyieiag' Kal XPV^^^^ avrfj MoJcras" 
OepaireveiVy TreiOopievriv ro)^ deco Kal e7Ti6epievi]v 
coSfj Kal dppiovia rod re ttolOovs aTTaXXayrjvaL raxv 
Kal davjjLa^eGOai Sta 7TOir]TLKr]v vtto rcov yvi aLKLOv. 
'Evret Se K)^eofjievrjg 6 ^aGiXevg rcov UTraprLarcov 
TToXXovg diTOKreivas (ov /xtJv, cos" eVtot fivOo- 
XoyovGLV, eTTTOL Kal e^Sofi'^Kovra Kal eTrraKOGiovs 
TTpos eTTraKLGXi'XiOLs) e^dSiCe rrpos rrjv ttoXlv, oppLTj 
Kal ToA/xa SaifjLovios TrapeGrr] rats' a/c/xa^ouo-ats" 
rajy yvvaiKOJv dfivveodaL rovs TToXejjLLovg VTrep rrjs 
TTarpihos. rjyovfjLevijs Be rrjs TeXeGtXX-qs, orrXa 
XafjL^dvovGL Kal Trap* eiraX^Lv iGrdpievai kvkXco ra 

E ret;^;?; TrepLeGrei/jav, wore OavfJid^eLV rovs TroXefJulovs . 

^ 7rpocr\L7rapov<TaL] irpoaTaXanrcopovaai. Wyttenbach. 
* deov Meziriacus: deovs. ^ ti^ idem: r^. 

<• Cf. Moralia, 223 b ; Herodotus, vi. 76 ff ; Pausanias, 
ii. 20. 8. 

488 



BRA\ ERY OF WOMEN, 245 

their slaves, who were themselves equally indignant 
and supported the women by their presence, has- 
tened to mount the walls, both bringing stones and 
missiles, and exhorting and importuning the fight- 
ing men until, finally, by their vigorous defence and 
the wounds inflicted on the enemy by their missiles, 
they repulsed Philip. And not a single slave deserted 
to him. 

IV. THE WOMEN OF ARGOS « 

Of all the deeds performed by women for the 
community none is more famous than the struggle 
against Cleomenes for Argos, which the women 
carried out at the instigation of Telesilla the poetess. 
She, as they say, was the daughter of a famous house 
but sickly in body, and so she sent to the god to ask 
about health ; and when an oracle was given her to 
cultivate the Muses, she followed the god's advice, 
and by devoting herself to poetry and music she 
was quickly relieved of her trouble, and was greatly 
admired by the women for her poetic art. 

But when Cleomenes king of the Spartans, hav- 
ing slain many Argives (but not by any means 
seven thousand, seven hundred and seventy-seven,^ 
as some fabulous narratives have it) proceeded 
against the city, an impulsive daring, divinely 
inspired, came to the younger women to try, for 
their country's sake, to hold off the enemy. Under 
the lead of Telesilla they took up arms, '^ and, 
taking their stand by the battlements, manned the 
walls all round, so that the enemy were amazed. 

^ Six thousand according to Herodotus, vii. 1-48. Cf. also 
vi. 77-82. The date is put about 494 c.c. or possibly earlier. 
" Found in the temples according to Moralia^ 223 b. 

489 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Tov ix€V ovv KXeofjLevq ttoAAcDv TTeaovrayv dneKpoV' 
aavro' tov 8' erepov ^acrtAea A7]p,dparov, cos" 
HajKpdrr]£ <f)y]Oiv, ivros yevofxevov Kal Karaaxovra 
TO riaju,(5^uA6a/<:ov i^ecoaav. ovrcu 8e rrjg noXecos 
7T€pLy€vo[JLevr]?, ra? jLtev Treaovaag iv rfj pidxj] 
Tcjv yvvaiKwv eVt rrjg oSov rrjs 'Apyeta? edai/jav, 
rat? Se GwOeiaais VTTOfivrjixa rrjs dpiareias eSoaav 
ISpvaaaOaL tov 'Ei'uaAtov. tt^v 8e [Jidxrjv ol fxev 
ipSoiJirj XeyovoLV LGTapievov fjbrjvos, ol 8e vovfi-qvia 
yevecrdai tov vvv jjl€v T€TdpTOV, TraAat 8' *Ep/xatoi» 
Trap' 'Apyetots", /ca^' -^p H-^XP^ ^^^ "^^ *Y^pLaTLKd 
TeXovGi, yvvaiKas jjl€v dvSpeloLs ;Ytra)crt Kal ^Aa- 
F fJivcrtv, dvSpag 8e TreTrXois yvvaiKCJV Kal KaXv- 

TTTpaiS dpL(f)L€VVVVT€S . 

^lEiTTavopdovixevoL 8e ttjv oXiyavhpiav, ovx d)9 
'UpoSoTog LGTopeZ toIs SovXoig, dXXd tojv rrepioiKCJV 
TTOirjudixevoi TroAtra? tov£ dpiUTOvs, ovvcpKiaav Tag 
yvvalKas' iSoKovv 8e Kal tovtovs dTipidt^eLV Kal 
TTCpLopdv iv Tcp avyKaOevSeLV cog ;(etpora?. odev 
eOevTO vojJLov tov KeXevovTa TTcoycova Selv ixovoas^ 
GvvavaTTaveoBai toIs dvhpdai ras" yeyajjLrjfjLevag. 

V. HEPZIAES 

246 Ilepcra? 'Aaruayou ^aGiXecog Kal MtjScov dno- 

GTTiGas Kupo? 'qTTi]9ri pidxrj' (f)evyovGL 8e Tolg ITep- 

GaLs els Tr]v ttoXlv, oXiyov drrexovTOiV GweLGireGeZv 

rojv TToXefiLOJV, d7nqvTT]Gav at yvvalKes irpo ttjs 

^ ixovaas] ^xo^^^i- E. Kurtz misses the irony ! 

" Miiller, Frag. Histor. Graec. iv. p. 497. 

'' Herodotus, vi. 83, does not say quite this. Cf. Aristotle, 
Politics, V. 3. 7. " Approval by indirection ! 

•^ Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ vii. 45. 2 ; Justin, Historiae 
Philippicae^ i. 6. 

490 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 245-246 

The result was that Cleomenes they repulsed with 
great loss, and the other king, Demaratus, who 
managed to get inside, as Socrates says,^ and gained 
possession of the Pamphyliacum, they drove out. 
In this way the city was saved. The women who 
fell in the battle they buried close by the Argive 
Road, and to the survivors they granted the privilege 
of erecting a statute of Ares as a memorial of their 
surpassing valour. Some say that the battle took 
place on the seventh day of the month which is now 
known as the Fourth Month, but anciently was 
called Hermaeus among the Argives ; others say 
that it was on the first day of that month, on the 
anniversary of which they celebrate even to this day 
the * Festival of Impudence,' at which they clothe 
the women in men's shirts and cloaks, and the men 
in women's robes and veils. 

To repair the scarcity of men they did not unite 
the women ^\ith slaves, as Herodotus records, ^ 
but with the best of their neighbouring subjects, 
whom they made Argive citizens. It was reputed 
that the women showed disrespect and an inten- 
tional indifference to those husbands in their married 
relations from a feeling that they were underlings. 
Wherefore the Argives enacted a law,'' the one which 
says that married women having a beard must 
occupy the same bed with their husbands ! 

V. THE PERSIAN WOMEN * 

At the time when Cyrus induced the Persians to 
revolt from king Astyages and the Medes he was 
defeated in battle. As the Persians were fleeing 
to the city, ^\dth the enemy not far from forcing their 
way in along with the Persians, the women ran out 

491 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(246) TToXcwg Kal rovs TTCTrXovs eK rayv Karco fjicpcov 
iirdpaaaiy " Trot (jiipeude,' eiTTOV, " aj KOLKLarroi 
TTOLVTCov avdp(x)7TCx)v ; ov yap evravBd ye hvvaode 
Karahvvai (f)€vyovr€Sy 69 €V i^eyevecrOe." ravrrjv 
rrjv oi/jiv dfia Kal rrjv (f)covr}V alSeaOevreg ol YilpGai 
Kal KaKLcravres iavrov? dvearpeipdv re Kal Gvpu- 
^aXovres i^ ^PXV^ irpei/javro rovg TroAc/xtous". 
B €K TOVTOV KaTecrrrj vojjlos, elaeXdcravros ^aaiXicJS 
€LS TTjv TToXiv €KdoTrjV yvvacKa xP^(^ovv XapL^dveLV, 
l^vpov vofjioOer-qaavrog. ^Q;^ov 8e <^acrt, rd r' 
aAAa fJLoxOrjpov Kal (jaXoKepheararov ^acrtXeajv 
ovra, TTepLKdjjLipai ttjv ttoXlv del Kal {jltj TrapeXdelv 
dXX dTToureprjuai rrjs Scopedg rds yvvatKag. 
^AXe^avSpog Se Kal bis elcrrjXde Kal rals Kvovoais 
hiTrXovv eSojKe. 

VI. KEATAI 

KeArot?, TTplv vTrep^aXeiv *'AX7Teis Kal KaroLKrj- 
uai TTJ? 'IraAta? 'r]v vvv vefiovrau ;!^c6pav, ordoLs 
C ifJLTTeGovcra Seivr] Kal hvoKardTTavaros els TToXefiov 
epi(j)vXiov TTporjXdev. at Se yvvaiKes ev pLeacp rwv 
ottXcov yevofjLevai Kal TrapaXaBovcrai rd veiK-q St- 
rJTrjaav ovrcjs dfie/JLTrrcos Kal hieKpivav , ojare ^iXiav 
TTctCTt davfiacrrrjv Kal Kara TToXets Kal Kar oIkovs 
yeveoOai irpos Trdvras. eK rovTOV StereXovv nepl 
re TToXejJLOV Kal elprjvr^s ^ovXevofievoi jxerd rchv 
yvvaLKcbv Kal rd rrpos rovs (JvpLfidxovs dpi^i^oXa 
hi eKeivcjv ^pa^evovres. ev yovv rals rrpos 
^Avvi^av GvvOrjKais eypdipavro, KeXrojv p.ev ey- 

" Cf. Moralia, 241 b, supra. 
^ Cf, Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii. 5. 21. 
• Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander^ chap. Ixix. (703 a). 
492 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 246 

to meet them before the city, and, lifting up their 
garments, said," " Whither are you rushing so fast, 
you biggest cowards in the whole world ? Surely 
you cannot, in your flight, slink in here whence you 
came forth." The Persians, mortified at the sight 
and the words, chiding themselves for cowards, 
ralHed and, engaging the enemy afresh, put them to 
rout. As a result of this it became an established 
custom that, whenever the king rode into the city, 
each woman should receive a gold coin ; the author 
of the law was Cyrus. ^ But Ochus,^ they say, being a 
mean man and the most avaricious of the kings, would 
always make a detour round the city and not pass 
within, but would deprive the women of their largess. 
Alexander,^' however, entered the city twice, and 
gave all the women who were with child a double 
amount. 

VI. THE CELTIC WOMEN «» 

Before the Celts crossed over the Alps and settled 
in that part of Italy which is now their home, a dire 
and persistent factional discord broke out among them 
which went on and on to the point of civil war. The 
women, however, put themselves between the armed 
forces, and, taking up the controversies, arbitrated 
and decided them with such irreproachable fairness 
that a wondrous friendship of all towards all was 
brought about between both States and families. 
x\s the result of this they continued to consult with 
the women in regard to war and peace, and to decide 
through them any disputed matters in their relations 
with their allies. At all events, in their treaty with 
Hannibal they wrote the provision that, if the Celts 

* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ vii. 50. 

493 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(246) KaXovvTOJV KapxrjSovLoi?, rovg iv 'Iprjpta Kapxr]' 
SovLOJV indpxovs^ koI Grparrjyovs ehaL St/cacrTaj* 
av 8e K.apX'i^^ovLot, KcArots" iyKaXaJai, rag KeArcDv 
D yvvaiKas. 

VII. MHAIAI 

MT^Atot yrj? XPV^^^'^^^ aiJL(j)ika(f)ovs ^vfi(f)atov 
r]y€[ji6va rrjs aTTOLKias eTTOirjGavTO, veov dvSpa /cat 
KaXXei Sta^epovra" rod Se^ Oeov TrXetv KeXevaavros 
avroTJS, 07T0V 8' av aTTO^dXcoai rovs KOfjLLGTrjpag, 
iK€L KaroLKelv, Gweireae rfj Kapla TTpoG^aXovaiv 
avroig Koi diro^doi rds vavg vtto p^et/xcDi^o? 8ta- 
(l)6aprjvai. rcx)v 8e KaptDv ol \\pvaGGOv^ oIkovvt€s, 
eure rrjv diropiav olKTipavres etre SeuGavres avrcov 

E TTjv roXpiav, eK^Xevov oIk€lv Trap* avrots kol rrjs 
Xcopas fJiereSajKav etra ttoXXtjv iv oXiyco ;^pova» 
XapL^dvovras av^7]GLV opcovres", iire^ovXevov dv- 
eXelv evcox^'OLv nvd Kal dolvr^v TrapaGKevdGavres. 
ervx^ 8e J^apivr) TrapOevos ipcjGa rod ISvpLcfyatov 
Kal XavddvovGa rovs dXXovs' eKaXelro Se Ys.a^iv7]' 
TTparropLevajv 8e tovtwv ov Swafxevr] rov Nu/xcj^atov 
TTepiopdv aTToXXvpievoVy i^riyyeiXe rrjv Stdvoiav 
avTW rcbv ttoXltojv. d)s ovv rJKov ol Kpuacrcrets' 
KaXovvres avrovg, ovk €(f)r] vofiov 6 l^vp.(f)aios 
"^XXrjGiv elvai ^ahit,eiv IttI heiTTVov dvev yvvaiKibv' 

F dKovGavres 8e ol Kape? eKeXevov dyeiv /cat rds 
yvvauKag. ovtcxj Stj (jypdoas rd TreTrpayixiva Mi)- 
Atots" eKeXevoev avrovs /xev dvoTrXovs iv t/xartots 

^ iirdpxovs] linrdpxovs Polyaenus, Strategematay vii. 50. 

^ S^ added by Meziriacus. 

* 'Kpvaaaov Xylander : Kpvaaaav, 

494. 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 246 



complained against the Carthaginians, the governors 
and generals of the Carthaginians in Spain should 
be the judges ; and if the Carthaginians complained 
against the Celts, the judges should be the Celtic 
women. 

VII. THE WOMEN OF MELOS « 

The Mehans, being in need of wide acres, put in 
charge of the colony to be sent forth Nymphaeus, 
a young man and unusually handsome. The god 
bade them sail, and wherever they should lose their 
transports to settle in that place. It came about, 
as they put in at Caria and went ashore, that their 
ships were destroyed by a storm. The Carian 
inhabitants of Cryassus, whether pitying their sorry 
plight or fearing their boldness, bade them live near 
themselves, and gave them a portion of their land. 
Later, seeing their great expansion in a short time, 
they plotted to make away with them, after preparing 
a sumptuous banquet for the purpose. It hap- 
pened that a Carian maiden was in love with Nym- 
phaeus, but nobody else was aware of this. Her 
name was Caphene. As the plan was being put 
into operation, she could not suffer Nymphaeus to 
be put to death, and so she disclosed to him 
the intention of her fellow-citizens. So, when the 
Cryassians came to invite them, Nymphaeus said 
that it was not the custom for the Greeks to go to 
dinner without women. When the Carians heard 
this, they told them to bring the women too. On 
this understanding Nymphaeus informed the Melians 
of what had been done, and told the men to go to the 

• Of. Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 64. 

495 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

jSaSt^etv, Tojv 8e yvvaiKcbv €Kd(JT7]v ^i(f>o<s iv rep 
koXtto) KOjJLL^eiv Kal KaOe^ecrOai Trapa rou avrrjg. 
€7761 Se rod heiTTVov fieoovvros iSoOr^ to oviOrjjjLa 
Tois KapCTt /cat ovvrjoOovro rov Kaipov ol "EAAi^ve?, 
at fJLev yvvoLKeg djjLa Trduai rovs koXttovs hUoy^ov, 
ol Se TO, iic/yr] Xa^ovres eireOevro rot? ^ap^apois 
Kal hi€(j)9eipav avrovs a/xa rravras' KriqadjievoL 
he TTjv ycxjpav Kal rrjv rroXtv eKeiviqv Kara^aXovre? , 
247 cpKLoav^ irepav, tjv veav Kpuaacrov (hvofiaaav. rj 
Se Ka(l)€vr] rep Nv[ji(l)aLa) yapnqdelua nixr^v Kal 
X^pi'V €GX€ rals evepyeuiais TTpeTTOvaav. d^Lov ovv 
dyaadai rcov yvvaiKa)v Kal rrjv aiWTrrjv Kal to 
QdpaoSi Kal to ixiqhepiiav iv TToXXals fir)h^ aKovaav 
V7t6 SetAta? KaKTjV yeveodai. 

VIII. TTPPHXTAE2 
Tvpprjvcov Toivvv rcbv Arjixvov Kal "IpL^pov /cara- 
axovTOJV, dpTTacrdvTOJV 8e BpavpojvoOev ras" *Adr)- 
vaicov yvvalKas, eyevovTO TralheSt ovs i^ijXaoai 
'A^7]vatot [iL^o^ap^dpovg ovTas e/c TOiv viqGcov. ol 
8' et? Taivapov KardpavTeg iyevovTO ;)(/37^crt/xot 

YiTTapTldTaiS TTCpl TOV elXcOTLKOV TToXefJLOVy Kal Sid 

B TOVTO TToXiTeias /cat ydpba>v rvxovTes, ovk d^iov- 
pL€voi 8e dpx^Loiv Kal ^ovXrjs, vrrovoiav eaxov cos 
em veajTepLGfio) avvepxop^evoi Kal hiavoovpievoi ra 
KadeGToJTa Kivelv. auXXajSovTes ouv avTovs ol 
Aa/ceSatjLtovtot /cat KaOeip^avTes Icj^uXarrov laxv- 
^ ipKiaav Xylander : ipKTjcrap. 

** Cf. Moralia, 296 b ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, vii. 49 ; 
Herodotus, iv. 145-148 and vi. lo8 (who says that the men 
were descendants of the Argonauts) ; Valerhis Maximus, 
iv. 6, ext. 3 ; Conon, Narrat tones, 36 and 47. 
496 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 246-247 

place unarmed in conventional attire, but that each 
of the women should carry a sword in the fold of her 
garment and sit beside her husband or male relative. 
When, about the middle of the meal, the predeter- 
mined signal was given to the Carians, and the Greeks 
realized that the time had come, all the women at 
the same instant threw open the fold of their gar- 
ments and the men, seizing the swords, attacked 
the barbarians and slew them all together. Then, 
taking possession of the land and razing that city, 
they built another, to which they gave the name of 
New Cryassus. Caphene married Nymphaeus and 
received the honour and gratitude merited by her 
valuable services. It is right and proper to admire 
both the silence and the courage of the women, and 
that not a single one of them among so many was 
led by timidity to turn coward even involuntarily. 

VIII. THE ETRUSCAN WOMEN » 

When the Etruscans had gained possession of 
Lemnos and Imbros, they carried away forcibly from 
Brauron Athenian women, and children were born 
to them. These the Athenians expelled from the 
islands on the ground that they were in part bar- 
barian, and they put in at Taenarum and made them- 
selves useful to the Spartans in the war with the 
Helots. For this they received citizenship and the 
right of intermarriage, but were not deemed worthy 
to hold office or to be members of the Senate, and 
this gave colour to the idea that some radical design 
underlay their coming together, and that they 
purposed to disturb the established institutions. 
Accordingly the Spartans took them into custody 
and, shutting them up in prison, placed a strong guard 

497 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(247) pois, tpqT0vvre£ iXelv cra^icri Kal jSejSatot? cAey- 
XOLS' at §e rcov KaOeipyfjievoJV yvvaiKes i-jrl rr]V 
elpKTrjV Trapayevop.evai, ttoXXol? LKeataLs Kal Sct]- 
G€GL TTapeiOrjGav vrro rGiv cf)vXdKwv ocrov dcnrd- 
aadOai Kal 7TpoG€LTTeiv rovs dvSpag. iirel 8' etcr- 
rjXOov, eKeXevov avrovs (JLerafK^ievvvGOat raxu to, 
IfidrLa Kal rd [jl€V avTa)v^ iKeivais aTToAtTretv, rd 
C 8' eKeivcov ivhvvras avrovs dinivai TTepiKaXvijja- 
[xivovg. y€vo piivojv Se rovrcov, at jxev vnefxeLvav 
avTov Trapara^diievai irpos rrdvra rd Setvd, rovs 
8' dvhpas i^aTrar-qdevres ol <f)vXaK€s rraprJKav (I)s Srj 
yvvalKas. 

'E/<: hr] rovTov KaraXa^ofievoiV avrcjv rd Tau- 
yera, /cat rd elXcjorLKOv dcl)LGrdvra)v Kal rrpoGhexo- 
puevcov, ol YtTTapridrai elg ttoXvv (f)6^ov KaraGrdvreg 
irr€KrjpvK€VGavro Kal hirjXXdyiqGav inl rat KopuL- 
GaGdai pkv avrovs to,? yvvalKas, XPVI^^'''^ ^^ 
Kal vavs Xa^ovras eKrrXevGai Kal yrjs rv^ovras 
1^ dXXaxoGe'^ Kal rroXecos diroiKovs AaKehaipLOvioiV Kal 
GvyyeveZs vopiil^eGdai. ravr errparrov ol IleAaoyot 
IloAAtv Tjyepiova Kal AeA</»ov /cat KpaTat8av^ Aa- 
KehatpLovLovs Xa^ovres' Kal piipos ftev avrwv iv 
Mt^Aco Kara)K7]Gav' rovs 8e TrXeiGrovs ol rrepl 
IloAAtv exovres els KpT^rrjv enXevGav, aTTOTretpoj - 
/xeyot ra)v Xoylwv. ixp'^Gdrj ydp avrols, orav rrjv 
dedv Kal rrjv dyKvpav aTToXeGCOGiy rravGaGdai 
TrXdvrjs Kal ttoXlv e/c€t crwot/ct^ctv. oppnGdeiGLV 
ovv TTpds rfj XeyopL€vr] ^eppovqaco Oopv^oi ttovikoI 

^ avTQjv] avTuiv E. Kurtz. ^ aWaxoae] dWax^di- Dinse. 

3 AeX06f /cat Kparatdai' Meursius, presumably from Photius, 
BihUotheca, ed. Bekker, p. 137 b 21, and 14fa7 ( = Conon, 
Narrat. 36 and 47): abeXcbbv Kal Kparatda. Cf. Miiller, 
F.H.O. i. p. 356. 
498 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 247 

over them, seeking to convict them by clear and 
certain proofs. The wives of the prisoners, coming 
to the prison, by dint of many prayers and intreaties, 
were permitted by the guards to pass within just to 
greet and to speak to their husbands. '^ When they 
had gone inside they bade their husbands to change 
their clothing quickly, leaving their own for their 
wives, and then, putting on their wives* garments, 
to depart with their faces covered. This done, the 
women waited there, prepared to face all terrors, but 
the guards were deceived and allowed the men to 
pass, supposing, of course, that they were women. 

Following this, they seized the strongholds on Mount 
Taygetus, incited the body of Helots to revolt, and 
gladly received them as an addition to their forces. 
The Spartans were thrown into a great state of fear 
and, sending heralds, made peace with them, the 
conditions being that they should get back their 
wives, should receive money and ships, and sail 
away and, having found land and a city elsewhere, be 
considered as colonists and kindred of the Spartans. 
This the Pelasgians did, taking as leaders PoUis and 
Delphus and Crataidas, all Spartans. A part of them 
settled in Melos,^ but PoUis and his associates, with 
the great majority, sailed to Crete, testing the truth 
of the oracles. For an oracle had been given them 
that whenever they should lose their goddess and 
their anchor they should cease from their wanderings 
and found a city in that place. So, when they had 
come to anchor off that part of Crete which is called 
the Chersonese, panic confusion fell upon them by 

* Who, according to other accounts, were to be put to 
death that night. 

* Cf. Thucydides, v. 84. 

499 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

npocreTTecrov vvKTcop, vcj)* Sv SiaTrrorjOevre^ ev- 
E eTT-qhrjoav els ras vavs OLKocTfiojs, airoXnTOvres iv 
'^V yfi ioavov rrjs 'Apre/xtSos", o Trarpcpov rjv avrois 
€Ls ArjiJLvov €K J^pavpojvog KOfJuaOev, €K §€ A'^jjlvov 
TTavraxov crvfiTTepiayofjievov . 677et Se rod dopv^ov 
Arj^avTog eVd^ryaav avro Kara ttXovv, dpba S' o 
lloAAts" KarefiaOe rfj dyKvpa rov 6vv)(a fjurj Trpocr- 
ovra {^ia yap iXKopLevq? cLs eoiKev iv tottols 
VTroTTerpoLs drrocnTaGdels eXaOe), Trepaiveudai ra 
Trvdoxprjara (jy-qaas iarjiJLaLvev dvaaTp€(j)€iv' Koi 
F Kareox^ "^W X^P^^> '^^^ pidxciis rroXXais rwv olvtL' 
ra^a(jL€va>v iTTLKparrjGa? Avktov wK-qcre Kal TToXecg 
aAAas" v7Tox€LpLov£ eXa^€. Slo Kal vopiit,ovaiv 
avTovs AdrjvaLOLS re Sid rds jJLTjrepas Kara yevos 

7TpOGlJK€LV Kal UTTapTLaTCJtJV aTTOLKOVS cfp'at. 

IX. ATKIAI 

To 8' iv AvKLCL yeveadai Xeyofievov fivdcoSeg 
fJLev ioTiv, e^et 8e riva (fy'qjJLTjV ojjlov^ pLaprvpovoav. 
'A/xto-c68apos" yap, COS" (j)aaLV, ov ^Icrdpav Avklol 
KaXovoLV, r)K€V iK rrjs Trepl ZeAetav dTTOiKias 
AvKioiv, XrjGrplSas dyojv vavs, cov Xt/xappo? 
rjyeZro, TToXepnarr^s /xei^ dvrip ajp.65 8e Kal drjpLwBrjs. 
248 eVAet Se ttXolo) Xeovra pep exovn rrpcLpaOev iiri' 
OTjixov, iK he TTpvpivqs hpdKovra, /cat iroXXd KaKa 

^ oytioO] 6V.WJ Meziriacus. 

" Cf. Aristotle, Politics, ii. 10. 2. 
* Cf. Homer, //. vi. 152 if. and the scholia on II. xvi. 328 ; 

500 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 247-248 

night, by which they were so excited that they leaped 
aboard in utter disorder, leaving behind on land an 
ancient statue of Artemis which had been handed 
down to them from their ancestors, having been 
originally brought to Lemnos from Brauron, and from 
Lemnos had been carried about with them in all their 
journeyings. But when at sea, as the confusion sub- 
sided, they missed this, and at the same time Pollis 
discovered that the fluke was gone from the anchor 
(for apparently it had been broken off as the anchor 
dragged in some rocky places, without anybody's 
noticing its loss), he declared that the god-given 
predictions were now fulfilled, and gave the signal to 
return. He took possession of the country, prevailed 
in many battles over those who ranged themselves 
against him, settled Lyctus, and took other cities 
under his control. Because of all this people regard 
them as related to the Athenians by descent on 
account of their mothers, and as colonists of the 
Spartans also.** 

IX. THE LYCIAN WOMEN 

That which is said to have happened in Lycia sounds 
like a myth, yet it has some supporting testimony 
in the tales that are told.^ Amisodarus, as they say, 
whom the Lycians call Lsaras, arrived from the Lycian 
colony in the vicinity of Zeleia, bringing with him 
pirate ships, in command of which was Chimarrhus, a 
warlike man, bloodthirsty and brutal. He sailed in 
a vessel which had a lion as its figurehead at the 
prow, and a serpent at the stern. He did much evil 

Hyginus, Fabulae, no. 57 ; Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, ii. S. 
Is Chimarrhus a Chirnaera ? 

VOL. Ill R 501 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(248) Tovs AvKLOVs €7TOL€L, Kal TrXevoai TTjv ddXarrav ovk 
tJv ovSe rag iyyvg dakdrnqs TToXeis OLKelv. 

ToVTOV OVV OLTTOKTCLVag 6 BeAAepO^dvTTy? <f)€V' 

yovra rep Urjydorq) Sico^ag, eK^aXcbv Se Kal ra? 
'AjLta^ovas", ovSevos irvyxct-ve rwv hiKaiiOV, dXX rjv 
dhiKcorarog rrepl avrov ^lo^drrjs' odev els ttjv 
OdXarrav ifM^ds ev^aro Kar avrov rep IlocretScDp't 
TTjV x^P^^ aKapTTOV yeveadaL Kal dv6v7]rov. eW* 
6 fJLev aTTTJct Karev^dpLevog, Kvpua 8e hiapOev 
i7T€KXvt,€ rrjv yrjv Kal Oeapua Seivov rjv, irrop^evrjs 
puerecopov rrjs daXdrrrjg Kal d7TOKpv7Trovar]s ro 

B irehiov. iirel 8e, rwv dvSpojv Seopievajv rov BcA- 
Xepocfyovr-qv IttIgx'^'I'V , ovSev €7T€l6ov, at yvvalKeg 
dvaGvpdptevai rovg ;ctTa;i^tcr/<rous' aTT-^vr-qaav avrw' 
TrdXiv OVV VTx' alaxvvT]? dvaxcopovvros ottlgco Kal 
ro Kvpua Xiyerai avvvirox^J^^p'TJcrcLi" 

Tives Se rov Xoyov rovrov TrapapLvdovpievoL ro 
pLvOojSeg ov ^acrt Kardpais virayayiadai rrjv 
OdXarrav avrov, aAAa rov irehiov ro morarov 
VTTOKelordaL rfj daXdrrr) raTreivorepov 6cf)pvv 8e 
TTaparelvovoav aKrrjs, rj Sielpye rrjv OdXarrav, 

C eKprj^au rov B€XXepo(f)6vrrjv , Kal ^la rov rreXdyovg 
eTTLcfyepopievov Kal KaraKXv^ovros ro Trehiov, rovs 
pLev dvhpas ovhev Trepaiveiv Seopidvovs avrov, rds 
Be yvvoiKas dOpoas Trepix^Oeiuas alSovs rvx^LV 
Kal aTTOTTavGai rrjv opyqv. 

01 8' oAo)? rrjv XeyopLevrjv Xt/xatpav opos dvr'^Xiov 
yeyovevai ^aal Kal iroielv dvaKXdaec? ev rep Oepei 
XoXeirds Kal rrvpajheis, v(f)^ Sv dvd ro rreblov 

" Bellerophon's winged horse (which may be found repre- 
sented on the coins of Corinth), 

502 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 248 

to the Lycians, and it was not possible to sail the sea 
or even to live in the cities near the sea. 

This man Bellerophon slew, pursuing him with 
Pegasus ^ as he was trying to escape. Bellerophon 
also drove out the Amazons, but met ^vith no just 
treatment ; in fact, lobates was most unjust with him. 
Because of this, Bellerophon waded into the sea, and 
prayed to Poseidon that, as a requital against lobates, 
the land might become sterile and unprofitable. 
Thereupon he went back after his prayer, and a wave 
arose and inundated the land. It was a fearful sight 
as the sea, following him, rose high in air and covered 
up the plain. The men besought Bellerophon to 
check it, but w^hen they could not prevail on him, 
the women, pulling up their garments, came to meet 
him ; and when he, for shame, retreated towards 
the sea again, ^ the wave also, it is said, went back 
with him. 

Some, attempting to explain away the mythical 
element in this account, assert that he did not get 
the sea to move by imprecations, but that the most 
fertile part of the plain lies below the sea-level, and 
Bellerophon broke through the ridge extending along 
the shore, w^hich kept the sea out ; then, as the ocean 
rushed in violently and covered up the plain, the men 
accomplished nothing by beseeching him, but the 
women, flocking about him in a crowd, met with 
respect, and caused his anger to subside. 

Still others assert that the Chimaera, as it was 
called, was nothing but a mountain facing the sun, 
and that it caused reflexions of sunlight, fierce and 
fiery in the summer time, and by these, striking all over 

* Cf. Homer, II. vi. 162. 

503 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(248) aKehavvvjjLevojv fiapatveaOaL rovg KapTTOvg. rov 8e 
BeAAepo^oVrT^v oviJL(f)povr]Gavra SiaKoi/iai rov Kprjjji- 
vov TO Xecorarov Kal jLtaAtara rag dvaKXaGEL?^ 

OVTaTTOGTeXXoV €7761 8' OVK irvyXOLV€ X^^pLTOS, 

opyfj 77/30? dfjivvav rpaTreadai twv Avklcjv, Trei- 
odi^uaL 8' i;7ro rajv yvvaiKcov. 
D *^Hy 8e Nu/x^t? eV to) rerdproj irepl 'Hpa/cAeta? 
alriav elpriKev, rJKiora fjLvOcoSr^s earl' Xiyei ydp, on 
ovv dypiov iv rfj 'RavOicnv X^P9' '^^^ ^^^ '^^^ 
Kapnovs XufiaLvofievov dveXcbv 6 BeAAepo^ovTTy? 
ovSefjiLas irvyxoLv^v djJiOL^rjs' Karapaaapbivov 8e 
TcDv "Eavdccov avrov irpos rov Yioueihchva, Trdv to 
irehiov i^-qvOiquev dXpLvplSa Kal Si€(f)9apro vavrd- 
iraai, ri^g yfjs vriAcpa? yevop^ev-qs' p^^XP^ ^^ '^^^ 
yvvoLKas atSecr^ets" 8eo/xeVa? ev^aro rep YloaeLSajvi 
TTjV opyrjv d^etyat. 8to Kal v6p.os rjv roXg "RavdloLs 
pLT) TTarpodev dXX diro p,rjr€pa>v ;^pT7/x.aTt^etv. 



X. SAAMATIAES 

E 'AvvtjSa Se Tov Bap/ca, nplv inl ^PcDpLatovs arpa- 
r€V€LV, iv ^Y^rjpia TToXei pLeydXr) HaXp,arLKfj Trpocr- 
pLaxopL€Vov, rrpajTOV /xev eSecaav ol iroXiopKov- 
pL€voL Kal GVveOevro rroirjaeLV to TTpoGTarTopuevov, 
'AvvL^a TpiaKOULa hovT^s dpyvpiov rdXavra Kal 
TpiaKoaiovs opLTjpovs. dvivTos 8e tt^v TToXtopKLav 
€K€ivoVy pLCTayvovres ovSev eTrparTov cSv d)p,o- 
^ dvaKXacrcL^ Kai dvaKavaeis, " burning reflexions," in some mss. 

" Cf. M tiller, Frag. Histor. Graec. iii. p. 14 (Frag. 13). 

^ Cff. Herodotus, i. 173, and the note in A. H. Sayce's 
edition (London, 1883), where many of the numerous parallels 
are cited. 
504 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 248 

the plain, the crops were dried up ; and that Bellero- 
phon, sensing this, cut away the smoothest part of 
the precipice which mostly sent back the reflexions. 
When, however, he met with no gratitude, in anger 
he turned to avenge himself upon the Lycians, but 
was prevailed upon by the women. 

But the reason which Nymphis gives ° in the fourth 
book of his treatise about Heracleia is least mythical 
of all ; for he says that Bellerophon killed a wild 
boar which was making havoc of the stock and crops 
in the land of the Xanthians, but obtained no fitting 
reward ; whereupon he addressed to Poseidon im- 
precations against the Xanthians, and the whole plain 
suddenly became glittering ^vith a salt deposit and was 
completely ruined, since the soil had become saline. 
This lasted until Bellerophon, out of respect for the 
women who besought him, prayed to Poseidon to 
give up his anger. For this reason it was the custom 
for the Xanthians to bear names derived not from 
their fathers but from their mothers.^ 



X. THE WOMEN OF SALMANTICA " 

When Hannibal, the son of Barca, before ^ making 
his campaign against the Romans, attacked a great 
city in Spain, Salmantica, at first the besieged were 
terrified, and agreed to do what was ordered by giving 
him six thousand pounds and three hundred hostages. 
But when he raised the siege, they changed their 
minds and did nothing of what they had agreed to do. 

" Of. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ vii. 48. 
^ Probably about 220 b.c. Cf. Polybius, iii. 14 and Livy, 
xxi. 5. 

505 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F Xoyriaav. avOt? ovv iTTLGrpetpavrog avrov kol 
rovs arpandiras eirl hiapTrayfj ■)(prji.Ldr(x>v KeXev- 
aavTO^ eTTix^ipelv rfj TToXei, TravraTracn Kara- 
irXayevres ol ^dp^apoL Gvvexcoprjaav i^eXOelv iv^ 
IjiaTLcp Tovs iXevdepovs, orrXa Kal ;)^p')^/xaTa /cat 
dvSpaTToSa /cat rrjv ttoXlv KaraXtTTOvrag . at Se 
yvvalKeg olofjuevai tojv fikv dvSpwv (fxjjpdaeiv 
eKaorov e^iovra rovs TToXefjLLOvg, avrajv 8* ovk dv 
dipaaOac, ^iij^ri Xa^ovaai Kal dTTOKpvijjaGai uvve^eTTi- 
7TTOV rolg di'SpdoLV. i^eXOovrcov he TrdvrcDV 6 'Av- 
vtjSas" (f)povpdv MaaaLGvXlajv iTnoTTjuas ev roj rrpo- 
aaretcp ovvelx^v avrovs, ol 8* aAAot rrjv ttSXlv 
drdKrcjiis efjiTTeaovTe? hirip7Tat,ov. iroXXchv 8' dyo- 
pLei'cov, ol MaaatCTuAtot Kaprepeiv ovk iSvvavTO" 
249 ^Xe7rovT€9 ovSe rfj (hvXaKrj rov vovv TTpoaelxov, 
dXX rjyavdKTOVv Kal aTrexcjopovv cos pLedi^ovres 
rrjs co^eAeta?. ev rovrcp 8' at yvvaiKes epi^orj- 
aaaac rots' di'Spdai rd ^i(j>r] TrapeSocrav, eVtat he 
Kal hi eavrcbv erreTiOevTO rots <f)povpovGL' jLtta he 
Kal Xoyx'Tjv e^aprrdaaaa l^dvcxjvos rod eppirjvews 
avrov eKelvov eTTaiaev erv^^ he reOwpaKtopLevos' 
rdjv 8' dXXa)v rovs piev Kara^aXovres, rovs he 
rpeijsdpLevoiy hie^erreaov ddpooi pierd rcov yvvai- 
Kcov. TTvOopLevos 8' o ^AvvL^as Kal hccu^as rovs 
pev KaraXetc/jdevras etXev^' ol he rcov opdjv Ittl- 

B Xa^opievoL Trapaxprjpia piev hii<j)vyov, vorepov he 
rrepujjavres iKerrjptav els ttju ttoXlv vtt^ avrov 
KarrixO'rioav , dheias Kal ^iXavOpojirias rvxdvres. 

1 ev] iul Poljaenus, Strategemata^ vii. 48: e*/ hi van 
Herwerden ; but cf. Moral ia^ 276 d, and Poh'^aenus, Strate- 
gemata, v. 19 and viii. 64, all of which have iv only. 

2 48vvavTo the preferable form : i}bvvavTO. 
506 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 248-249 

So he returned and ordered his soldiers, with the 
promise of plunder, to attack the city. At this the 
barbarians were panic-stricken, and came to terms, 
agreeing that the free inhabitants should depart clad 
in one civilian garment, and should leave behind 
weapons, property, slaves, and their city. The 
women, thinking that the enemy would search each 
man as he came out, but would not touch the women, 
took swords, and, hiding them, hastened out with the 
men. When all had come out, Hannibal set over 
them a guard of Masaesylian soldiers in a place near 
the city, and kept them there under constraint. The 
rest of the soldiers rushed into the city in disorder 
and set to plundering. As much booty was being 
carried off, the Masaesylians could not bear to be 
merely spectators, nor did they keep their mind on 
their watching, but were much aggrieved and started 
to move away as if to have their share of the spoils. 
At this juncture the women, calling upon the men, 
handed them the swords, and some of the women 
of themselves attacked their guards. One of them 
snatched away the spear of Banon the interpreter, 
and smote the man himself ; but he happened to have 
on his breast-plate. Of the others, the men struck 
down some, routed the rest, and forced a way out in a 
body, accompanied by the women. Hannibal, learn- 
ing of this, sent in pursuit of them, and caught those 
who could not keep up. The others gained the 
mountains, and, for the time, escaped. Afterwards, 
however, they sent a petition to him, and were 
restored to their city, and received immunity and 
humane treatment. 

' KaraXei^deuras elXev^ KaraXtjcpd^vTas Hatzidakis, dveiXev van 
Herwerden, would perhaps make Hannibal too bloodthirsty. 

507 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

XI. MIAHSIAI 

(249) Tas" MtA-no-tcov ttotc irapOevovs Seivov ttolBos /cat 
aXXoKorov Kareorx^^f ^'< ^V '^^^09 alrias dS'qXov' 
IxaXiora S' eLKa^ero Kpacriv iKarariKrjv koI (f>apfJLa- 
kcoSt] Xa^cbv 6 a-qp rpoirrjv avralg /cat Trapa^opav 
rrjs 8tavotas" evepydaaadai. rrduaLS pcev yap 
i^ai(jivr]s eTTidviJiia davdrov Kal irpos dyxpvriv oppur] 
TTepifxavris iveTrnrre, TroAAat 8* drrrjyxovTO \av- 
C OdvovGai' \6yoL Se /cat Sa/cpua yovecov /cat rrap- 
riyopiai <j)iXcx)V ovhev eTripaivov, dXkd TrepLrjaav 
iiTLVoias /cat Travovpylas aTrdcrrjs rcbv ^uAarrovrcov, 
iavrds Staxpcofi^vcLt" Kal to /ca/cov e8o/cet Sat- 
jjLOVLOv etvat /cat Kpelrrov dvdpcoTTLvrjs ^orjOeCas, 
dxpi- ov yvcLpLT) vovv exovros dvSpos €ypd(j)rj rrpo- 
^ovXevfia, rds aTrayxopLeva? yvpbvds iKKopLLl,€GdaL 
hid rrjs dyopds' /cat tovto Kvpoidev ov fjLOVOV 
iTreax^v, dXXd /cat TravreXcbs eVaucre Oavarcjoas 
rds rrapdevovs. fxeya Stj reKpnqpiov €V(f>vta9 /cat 
dperrjs rj rrjs dSo^tas evXd^eia /cat ro rrpos rd 
D Setrorara tojv ovtojv, ddvarov /cat ttovov, dhews 
exovaas aluxpov cfjavraGLav purj viropLeXvaL pLTjS* 
iveyKelv alaxvvrjs pierd ddvarov iaopiivrjs. 

XII. KEIAI 
Tats" K.€La)v^ TrapOevoLS €dos rjv et? Upd S-qpLOGia 

(JVpL7TOp€V€G6aL /Cat 8Lr]pL€p€V€LV pL€T* dXX-^XoJVf ol 
^ Keiai, Ket'wi'Cobet: Kiai. KLcov, 

• Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 63. Aulus Gellius, 
XV. 10, translates the story from a lost work of Plutarch's 
508 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 249 

XI. THE WOMEN OF MILETUS- 

Once upon a time a dire and strange trouble 
took possession of the young women in Miletus for 
some unknown cause. The most popular conjecture 
was that the air had acquired a distracting and in- 
fectious constitution, and that this operated to 
produce in them an alteration and derangement of 
mind. At any rate, a yearning for death and an 
insane impulse toward hanging suddenly fell upon 
all of them, and many managed to steal away and 
hang themselves. Arguments and tears of parents 
and comforting words of friends availed nothing, but 
they circumvented every device and cunning effort 
of their watchers in making away with themselves. 
The malady seemed to be of divine origin and beyond 
human help, until, on the advice of a man of sense, 
an ordinance was proposed that the women who 
hanged themselves should be carried naked through 
the market-place to their burial. And when this 
ordinance was passed it not only checked, but stopped 
completely, the young women from killing them- 
selves. Plainly a high testimony to natural goodness 
and to virtue is the desire to guard against ill repute, 
and the fact that the women who had no deterrent 
sense of shame when facing the most terrible of all 
things in the v/orld, death and pain, yet could not 
abide nor bear the thought of disgrace which would 
come after death. 

XII. THE WOMEN OF CEOS 
It was a custom for the maidens of Ceos to go in 
a company to the pubUc shrines and spend the day 

(De anima), in which it was doubtless repeated. Cf. 
Bernardakis's ed. of the Moralia, vii. p. 21. 

VOL. Ill R 2 509 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(249) 8e jjLvr^arrjpes ideajvro Tratjoucra? Kal ;^opei;ouc7a?* 
eanepas Se Trpo? eKaanqv ava fxepos Pahit,ovaai 
SirjKovovPTo rots aW-qXcxyv yovevGL Kal dSeXcfiOLg 
dxpi rod Kal rovg rroSa? diTOvil^eiv. TJpcvv TT-oAAa/ct? 
fjLids TrXetoveg ovrco koot^lov epcora Kal vofjufioVf 
wcrre rrj? Koprjg iyyvqdeiGrjg ivl rous" dXXovs 
evdvs 7r€7Tavo6ai. KecjidXaiov he rrjs evra^lag rcov 
E yvvaiKCJVy to fi-qre fjioix^lav fJL'qre <f)Bopdv dveyyvov 
iribv iTTTaKOGLoyv fjuvrjixoveveGOat Trap' avrols 
yevofidvrjv. 

XIII. $fiKIAES 

Tcuv iv ^ajK€v<TL rvpdvvojv KareiXiqcjiOTWV AeA- 
<f)OVS Kal rdv lepov KXrjdevTa TToXejjLOV S-q^atoju 
TToXepiovvrajv Tvpos avTovs, at Trept rov ^lovvoov 
yvvaiKes, as Qvia^as dvoixdl^ovuLV, eV/xavetcrat Kal 
TrepnrXaviqOeiGai vvktos eXadov ev ^AfJL(f)L(jarj yevo- 
[levai- KaraKOTTOi 8* ovaac Kal /XT^SeVco rod (jypovelv 
TTapovTog avTals, iv rfj dyopa Trpoepievai rd orcofiara 
Y OTTOpdh-qv €K€LVTO KaOevSovuaL. rdjv 8' 'A/x0tcr- 
aeojv at yvvalKes, ^o^rideloai p,r) Sid rd avfifxaxov 
rr)v ttoXlv ^ojKecuv yeyovevai Kal gv^vov? orpa- 
TLcoras TTapelvai rcjv rvpdvvojv dyvcjOfjLOvr]dd)Giv at 
©utaSes", e^ehpaixov els rr]v dyopdv aTrauai Kal 
kvkXo) TTepiordoai aicoTrfj KOifxaj/JLevais fji€V ov 
Trpoorjeaav, ivrel S' i^avecTTTjaav, d'AAat rrepl aAAa? 
iylyvovro depairevovoaL Kal rpo(j)rjv 'npoo<^€povGai' 

" A story about the women of Phocis has been told already 
(supra 244 a). A better title for this story would be ' The 
Women of Amphissa.' 

510 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 249 

together, and their suitors watched their sports and 
dances. At evening they went by turns to each one's 
home and waited upon one another's parents and 
brothers even to washing their feet. Very often 
more than one youth would be in love with one maid, 
but their love was so orderly and so controlled by 
custom, that when the girl became engaged to one, 
the others ceased their attentions at once. The net 
result of this orderly behaviour on the part of the 
women was that there was no memory of a case of 
adultery or seduction in that country for the space 
of seven hundred years. 



XIII. THE WOMEN OF PHOCIS « 

When the despots in Phocis had seized Delphi, 
and the Thebans were waging war against them in 
what has been called the Sacred War, the women 
devotees of Dionysus, to whom they give the name 
of Thy ads, in Bacchic frenzy wandering at night un- 
wittingly arrived at Amphissa. As they were tired 
out, and sober reason had not yet returned to them, 
they flung themselves down in the market-place, and 
were lying asleep, some here, some there. The 
wives of the men of Amphissa, fearing, because their 
city had become allied with the Phocians, and 
numerous soldiers of the despots were present there, 
that the Thyads might be treated with indignity, all 
ran out into the market-place, and, taking their 
stand round about in silence, did not go up to them 
while they were sleeping, but when they arose from 
their slumber, one devoted herself to one of the 
strangers and another to another, bestowing atten- 
tions on them and offering them food. Finally, the 

511 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rcAo? §€ Tretaaaai rovs dvSpas €777] KoXov9r]Gav 
auTat<? dxpt tcov opwv d(j(f)aXa)s TrpoTrefiTTOiievaLs. 

260 XIV. OTAAEPIA KAI KAOIAIA 

TapKvvLOP Tiovrreppov, e^Sofxov oltto *Paj/.LvXov 
paGiXevovra 'PcofiaLcov, i^rjXaoev v^pis^ /cat dperr) 
AovKp7]Tias, yvvaiKos dvhpl yeyapLrjfjLevrjs XafiTTpcp 
Kai /caret yevos Trpoa-JKOvri rots f^aaiXevcrLV. 
e^Laadr] fxev yap v(f>^ ivos twv TapKVviov TTaiScjVy 
eTn^evcodevTog avrfj- (f)pd(ja(ja Se rots (JjlXols /cat 
OLK€LOLg TO TTaOos €v6vs d7T€(j<^a^€v iavT'qv . 6/C- 
7T€ad)V 8e rrjs dp^rjs 6 TapKvvios dXXovs re iroXXovs 

B €7ToX€fX7](J€ TToXifJiOVS , TTeLpCOfJieVOS dvaXap€LV TY]V 

rjyepLoviav' /cat riXos dpxovra Tvppr]vdjv HopaLvav 
€7T6LGev CTTt rrjv 'PdjfjLYjv (7TpaT€V(jai fierd ttoAAtJs" 
Bwdfieojs. dfia Se t(2 TroAe/xoj /cat At/xou gvv- 
eTTtrt^e^LteVou rots' 'PcofiaLOis, TTVvOavofxevoi tov 
Hop(JLvav ov TToXepLiKov elvai fjLOvoVy dXXd Kai 
St/catov dvhpa /cat XPV^'^^^> i^ovXovro xprjadai 
hiKaurfj rrpos rov TapKvvLov. dTravdahiGapiivov 
8e rov TapKVviov /cat rov Ylopalvav, el /xi) fievec^ 
avfjifjiaxo? ^i^aios, ovhe Kpirr^v hiKaiov eoeudai 
<j)doKovros, dcf)€ls eKelvov 6 Uopcrlvas eVparrcv, 
OTTOJs (f)LXo9 direiGi *Pa>)Ltatcov, rrys" re ^^copas" o<J7]v 
dTTererjJLrjVTO Tvpprjvcov /cat rovs aixp^o-Xdirovs 

C KOfJLLGdfXeVOS, CTTt TOVTOLS OfJL'ijpCOV aVT(p SodeVTCOP 

1 e!/3/3ts] vUos d^pi'i S. A. Naber, wrongly, as is clear from 
Plutarch's TAfe of Publicola^ chap. i. 

2 fi^pei] fxevei G. Papavassiliu, wrongly, as is clear from 
Plutarch's Life of Puhlieola^ chap, xviii. 

512 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 249-250 

women of Amphissa, after winning the consent of 
their husbands, accompanied the strangers, who were 
safely escorted as far as the frontier. 

XIV. VALERIA AND CLOELIA « 

The two things that brought about the expulsion 
of Tarquinius Superbus, seventh king of Rome from 
Romulus, were arrogance and the virtue of Lucretia, 
a woman married to a distinguished man of royal 
hneage. For she was outraged by one of Tarquin's sons 
who had been welcomed as a guest at her home. She 
told her friends and family what had been done to her, 
and immediately slew herself. Deposed from power, 
Tarquin waged various wars in his endeavours to re- 
gain his sovereignty. Finally he persuaded Porsena, 
ruler of the Etruscans, to march against Rome with 
a great force. ^ At the same time with the war 
famine also attacked <' the Romans, and they, learn- 
ing that Porsena was not merely a great soldier but 
a just and fair man as well, wished to make him 
judge in their case against Tarquin. But Tarquin 
was stubborn, saying that Porsena, if he did not re- 
main faithful as an ally, would not be a just judge 
either ; and so Porsena renounced him and made it 
his endeavour that when he went away he should be 
a friend of the Romans, and should get back such 
part of the land as they had cut off from the Etrus- 
cans, and also the prisoners of war. To confirm these 

" The story is told (with interruptions) by Plutarch in his 
lAfe of Publicola, chaps, xvii-xix. (106-107) as well as 
by many other writers. C/., for example, Livy, ii. 13 ; 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities^ v. 32-34 ; 
Seneca, Consolatio ad Marciam, 16. 2 ; Valerius Maximus, 
iii. 2. 2 ; Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 31. 

^ Cf. Livy, ii. 9. « Ibid, 11. 

513 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(250) SeVa [X€V appivojv Traihojv SeVa 8e drjXeLCJV (ev afs 
rjv Tj IToTT-AcAcoAa Tov VTTarov dvydTr]p OvaXepia), 
ndoav evOvs dvrJKe rrjv rrpo? tov TToXepLOV irapa- 
GKev-qv, KaLTTep ovncx) reXog e-)(ovG7]s rrjs ofioXoyiag. 

At Se TTapOevoi Kari^iqaav fxev eTrl tov TTOTapLOv 
(1)9 XovGOfxevai fxiKpov aTTCoTepa) tov OTpaTOTreSov 
puds S' avTCov ovofia KAotAtas' TrpoTpeifjapLevrjg, 
dvaSr]crdpL€vaL irepl ra? KecfyaXds tovs ;\;tTa;vtcr/cou? 
TTape^dXovTO^ Trpos pevpua ttoXv Kal Slvag ^aOeias 
T> viovoai Kal^ Sierrepaaav dXXi^Xcov ixopLevai ttoXv- 
TTovo)? Kal pLoXis. eicrt S' ol XeyovTCs lttttov ttjv 
liXoiXlav evTTOp-qcraaav avTrjv pL€v iTTL^rjvaL Kal 
ScefeAawetv rjpepia, rats' 3* aAAats V(j)r]y €1^9 ai 
TTapadapGvvovoav v7]xopi€va? Kal Trapa^orjOovGav . 
S Se TeKpLTjpicp ;);^pcovTat, /xer* oXiyov ipovpbcv. 

'E77et 8e oojdeiaas etSov ol 'Pct)/xatot, ttjv puev 
dpeTTjv Kal TTjv ToXpLav iOavpLaaaVy ttjv 8e KopLiSrjv 
ovK r)yd7T7](jav ouS' VTrepieivav ev rriaTei ;^etpoves' 
Ivos dvhpos yeveodai,. TrdXcv ovv ras" Kopas iKe- 
Xevaav aTneVat Kal avverrepufjav avTais dyojyovSt 
ols hia^dui TOV TTOTapuov iveSpav vc/yelg 6 TapKvvLOs 
oXlyov iSdrjaev iyKpaTjjs yeveoOai tojv TrapOevcjv. 
Tj pi€v ovv TOV vndTOV IIoTrAt/iroAa 6vydT7]p Oua- 
E Xepia pLETa Tpicov Trpoe^echvyev olKeTwv elg to tov 
IlopoLva OTpaToneSov, ras" 8' d'AAas" o tov Yloporlva 
vlos "Appovs Taxv 7Tpo(j^o7]dT]Gas e^ctAero tojv 
TToAe/xtcuv. 

* TrapejSdXovTo] nape^dWouTO in some Mss., perhaps rightly. 

^ Kal added by F.C.B., as seems to be demanded by the 
Life of Publicola, chap, xix., which puts pev/xa and 5ivas in 
the same construction. 

514 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 250 

terms hostages were given to him, ten youths and 
ten maidens, among whom was Valeria, the daughter 
of Pubhcola the consul, whereupon Porsena at once 
remitted all his preparation for the war, although the 
agreement was not yet consummated. 

The maidens went down to the river as if to bathe, 
a short distance away from the camp. At the insti- 
gation of one of them, Cloelia, they fastened their 
clothes to their heads, and took the risk of breasting 
a s^vift current and deep-whirling eddies, and by 
swimming close together they reached the other 
side by dint of a hard struggle, and with many a 
chance of failure. There are those who say that 
Cloelia procured a horse and, mounting it, swam it 
across slowly, acting as guide for the others, and 
encouraging and helping them as they were swim- 
ming. The argument with which they support this 
I ^vill mention in a moment. 

When the Romans saw them safe and sound, they 
admired the maidens' bravery and daring, yet did 
not like their coming back, nor could endure to prove 
themselves less honourable than one man in keeping 
faith. Accordingly they commanded the girls to go 
back again, and sent men with them to see that they 
got there. Tarquin set an ambush for these when 
they had crossed the river," and came very near 
getting the maidens in his power. But Valeria, 
daughter of the consul, Publicola, with three servants 
succeeded in escaping to the camp of Porsena, and 
the others Porsena's son, Aruns, rescued from the 
enemy by hastening with all speed to their assistance. 

<» His purpose, according to other accounts, was to prevent 
the return of the hostages, and so to make it appear that the 
Romans had not kept faith. 

515 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

'E7T€t 8* 'qx^iqoav y Ihojv avras 6 Uopatvas iKe- 
X€V(J€V el7T€LVy rjTLs idTLV 7j TTpoTpetpafxevT] Kal 
Kardp^acra rod ^ovXev/jLarog. at fieu ovv aAAai 
<f)oBr]deZ(jai Trepl rrj? IvAotAta? icnayTrrjaav avrrjs 
Se rrjs KAotAtas' eiTTOvarjs iavT'^v, dyaaOels 6 
Uopalvas eKeXevaev Ittttov dxOrjvaL KEKocrfxrjfjLcvov 
evTTpeTTCJS, Kal rfj KAotAta ScoprjordjjLevos dir- 
eTTefjupev evpievojs Kal ^iXavdpojTTOJS irdaa?. rovro 
E TTOiovvrai oiqixelov ol ttoXXoI rod rrjv KAotAtav 
LTTTTO) Sie^eXdaai rov Trorapiov' ol S' ov <^acrtv, aAAa 
TTjv pwfJLTjv Oavixduavra Kal rr)v roXfjcav a-urrj? cos 
Kpeirrova yvvaiKOs d^iojoai hojpeds dvhpl tto- 
XefxcaTTJ 7Tp€7rov(J7]5' dv6K€Lro yovv e<f)L7T7TOs eIkojv 
yvvaiKOS €7T6 rr]s ohov rrjs Updg XeyofJievrjs, t]V ol 
fjLev rrjs KAotAta? ol 8e rfjs OvaXeplas Xiyovow 
€tvat. 

XV. MIKKA KAI MEnSTO 

^ApLOTOTipbos 'HAetots" €7ravao"Tas' rvpavvos taxv€ 

jxev 8t* *Ain-Ly6vov rod ^aoiXicjs, ixprjro 8e ttJ 

251 SwdficL Trpos ovhev eTrtet/ce? ovhe pbirpiov Kal yap 

a'UTOS rjv <f)v<7€L 9ripi<x>hr]s , Kal rols (j>vXdTT0VGL ttjv 

^PXW '^^^ '''^ cr^p^oL ^ap^dpoLs pnydoL hovX€va>v 

VTTO (f)6^0V, TToXXd p.ev V^pLGTlKCL TToXXd 8' CO/xd 

rovs TToXiras vtt* avrcov Trepieojpa Trdcrxovras' otov 
'^v Kal TO ^iXoSijp^ov Trddos. exovros yap avrov 
Bvyaripa KaXrjv ovojjLa MiKKav irrex^lp'^crc tls tcov 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Publicola, chap. xix. (107 c) ; 
Livy, ii. 13, who gives a sHg-htly diiFerent explanation of the 
*' virgo insidens equo " Pliny, Natural History, xxxiv. 13 
(28-29). 

** Plutarch seems to be our only authority for the details 
of this narrative, although the atrocities and death of Aristo- 
M6 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 250-251 

When they were brought to the camp, Porsena, 
with a look at them, bade them say which one of them 
was the instigator and leader in the plan. The others, 
for fear regarding Cloelia, said not a word ; but 
Cloelia of her own accord said that it was herself, 
and Porsena, in admiration of her, ordered a horse to 
be brought, fittingly caparisoned, and presented it to 
her, and then sent them all back kindly and humanely. 
Many make of this an indication that Cloelia rode 
across the river on a horse. Others, however, say 
this is not so, but that Porsena, because he admired 
her strength and daring as above that of a woman, 
deemed her worthy of a gift fitting for a warrior. 
At all events, there stood an equestrian statue of a 
woman " close beside the Sacred Way, as it is called, 
and some say that this is the statue of Cloelia, others 
of Valeria. 

XV. MICCA AND MEGISTO " 
Aristotimus, having succeeded in becoming despot 
over the people of EUs, was able to prevail through 
the support of Antigonus '^ the king, but he used his 
power for no seemly or moderate purpose. He was 
himself brutal by nature, and he was led by fear to 
be subservient to a band of mixed barbarians who 
kept guard over his person and his sovereignty, and 
he overlooked many arrogant and cruel deeds done 
to the citizens by them. An example is what hap- 
pened to Philodemus. This man had a beautiful 
daughter named Micca, and this girl one of the 

timus are recorded briefly by Pausanias, v. 5. 1 (c/. vi. 14. 11), 
and by Justin, Historian Philippicae, xxvi. 1. Aristotimus's 
name is found on coins of Elis (Head, Historia Numorum, 
p. 356). 

" Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, 28S-239 b.c. 

517 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(251) TTepl rov rvpavvov ^evayojv ovofxa Acvklos v^pei 
yidXXov Tj epcnrt, avyyeveaOat' /cat Trefxifjag e/caAct 
T'r]v rrapdivov. ol fxev ovv yovetg ttjv dvdyKr)v 

B 6pcovT€s eKeXevov pahit,eLV r] he naZs ovaa yevvaia 
KOL fJL€yaX6(f)pcov eSetro rod Trarpog TrepLTrXeKOfxevr] 
Kol Ka6iK€revovaa fidXXov avrrjv TrepuSelv oltto- 
Qavovuav rj rrjv TrapOeviav alaxpcos Kal vapavofiajs 
dchaLpedeluav. Kal StarpL^rj? yevofievrjg, OTrapycov 
Kal [ledvcov 6 AevKLos avro? e^aviorr] pLera^v 
7TLVOJV Trpos opyrjv Kal rr]V MiKKav evpojv iv rot? 
yovacTL rod irarpos rr]v KecfyaXrjv e^ovoav eKeXevoev 
avTO) GvvaKoXovdeZv ov ^ovXopLevqs 8e to -x^LrajvLov 
TTepipprj^as ipLaarlyov yvpLVtjv, avrrjV fxev eyKap- 
repovaav aiojTrfj rat? dXyrjhoaiv 6 he irarrfp Kal 
7] pL'qrrjpj (1)9 ovSev avriPoXovvres Kal SaKpvovre^ 

C eTTepaivov, erpaTTOvro rrpos decbu Kal dvdpojrrwv 
dvoLKXTfOLV (1)5 heivd Kal vapdvopLa irdaxovres. 6 
he ^dppapos eKpuavels TravrdTraoiv vtto rod Ovpiov 
Kal pLeQ-qs d7Toa(f)drreL rrjv 'jrapOevov, d)S ervx^v 
iv TOLs koXttols rod Trarpos exovaa ro TrpocrojTTOV. 
*AAA' ovhe rovTOLS 6 rvpavvos eKdpLTrrero, ttoX- 
Xoijs 8' dvfipei Kal TrXeiovas e<j)vydhevev' oKraKoaioi 
yovv Xeyovrai Kara<l>vyeiv els^ AlrcoXovs heopievoL 
rds yvvaTKas avrolg Kal rd v^ma ra)v reKvojv 
KOpLLoraadai irapd rod rvpdvvov. oXlyct) 8' varepov 
avros eKrjpv^e rds ^ovXopbivas yvvalKas dirievai 
TTpos rovs dvhpaSy oaov ^ovXovraL rcov yvvaiKeiiov 
XP'^p^driov i7TL(f)€popLevas. errel he rrdaas rjoOero 

D P'^0'' rjhov7]£ ro K-qpvypia heheypievag (eyevovro yap 
vrrep i^aKoaias^ rd ttXtjOos), eKeXevorev dSpoas 

^ els van Herwerden : eV. 
* VTT^p i^aKoaias Bernardakis : vv^p e^a/c6<rteu, 
518 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 251 

officers of the despot's mercenaries named Lucius, 
to show his arrogance, rather than for love of her, 
undertook to make his paramour, and sent a summons 
for her. Her parents, seeing the necessity, advised 
her to go, but the girl, being noble and high-minded, 
begged her father, embracing and beseeching him, 
that he would rather bear to see her dead than 
robbed of her maidenhood in such a shameful and 
lawless way. There was some delay, and Lucius 
himself, lustful and drunk, started forth in the midst 
of his drinking in a passion. Finding Micca with her 
head on her father's knees, he commanded her to 
follow with him. But, as she was not willing, he tore 
off her clothes and whipped her naked body, while 
she bravely bore the painful blows in silence. Her 
father and mother, effecting nothing by their in- 
treaties and tears, resorted to calling upon gods and 
men to witness their frightful and lawless treatment. 
But the barbarian, utterly crazed by rage and di'ink, 
killed the maiden, as she lay ^vith her face in her 
father's bosom. 

The despot, however, was not moved even by 
things like this, but he made away with many, and 
forced even more into exile. At any rate, it is said 
that eight hundred men fled for safety to the Aeto- 
lians, asking for rescue of their wives and youngest 
children from the despot. A little later he himself 
caused proclamation to be made that the women 
who wished might go away to their husbands, taking 
along as much as they ^\^shed of their feminine pos- 
sessions. When he learned that they all received 
the proclamation with gladness (and their number 
was over six hundred), he issued orders that all 

519 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(251) rjfiepa prjTjj ^ahiiC,€iVy cu? T17V ao^dXeiav avros 
TTape^ojv. ivardorr]? Se rrjs rj/Jiepas, at pL€V CTTt rds 
TTvXas r)dpoLl,oPTO rd •)(p'qpiaTa GvaK€vaodpLevai, 
Kol rcjv reKVcov rd fiev iv rats dy/caAat? (j)€povaai 
rd 8* iirl rwv dfxa^a)v exovaai, Kal Trepiefievov 
dAAT^Aas" d(l>vcx) 8e 77oAAot rcov rod rvpdwov 
i'7T€(j)epovTo,^ piiveiv ^o6jvt€s ert TToppcodev. chs S' 
iyyvs iydvovroy rds jxev yvvalKas eKeXevov dva- 
XcopeXv oTTLdOJy rd 8e i^€vyr] Kal rds djxd^as vtto- 
Grpeipavres ecjaav els avrds Kal Bid piiacjv d(j)eLh(jL)S 

E hiiqXavvoVy ovr aKoXovOelv ovre fjLevetv icovres ovre 
rols vqTTiOLs Por]6€iv aTToXXvixevois (rd fxev ydp 
eKTTLTTrovra rcJov afxa^ajv rd 8' VTroTTiTTrovra 8t- 
€<j)6€Lpovro) ,^ ^ofj Kal fJudarL^LV axirrep npo^ara 
rcov piiu9o(f)6pcjv eTreiyovroiv dvarpenofievas utt' 
dXXrjXojv, €0)s els to SeGfJLOjrijpLOV eve^aXov d- 
rrdcjas, rd 8e XPVH'^'^^ TTpds rov ^ AptaroripLov 
aTreKopLLuOT]. 

XaAeTTCUS' 8e rajv ^HXelcov IttI rovrois exovrcoVy 
at TTepl rov Alovvoov tepal yvvacKeSy as eKKaiheKa 
KaXovoiVy LKerrjplas Kal crre/x/xara rojv oltto rov 
6eov Xa^ovoai Trepl rrjv dyopdv aTT^vrrjoav t<3 

F *ApicrrorlpLa)y Kal rcov Sopv(f)6pcov vtt* alSovs 
SLaardvrcoVy earrjaav ro irpcorov aicxjTrfj ocrlcos^ 
TTpoiaxopLevaL rds LKeriqpias. inel 8* iyevovro 
^avepal Se6p,evaL Kal Trapairovpievai rrjv opy-qv 
VTTep rcov yvvaiKCJVy irapo^vvOels Trpds rovs Sopv- 
<j)6povs Kal KeKpaychs on TrpooeXdelv etacjav avrds 
irroiiqcje rds piev (hOovvras rds 8e rvirr ovr as ii' 

^ iire(p^povTo] iirecpalpovTO Cobet. 
• bt.e(t>9€ipovTo\ 8Le<p6eip€To Dinse, wrongly. 
^ ofl-twj] Kal offlws Schellens. 
520 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 251 

should proceed in a company on a specified day, as 
if purposing himself to assure their safety. When 
the day arrived, the women gathered at the gates 
with their possessions which they had packed up, and 
some of their children they carried in their arms, and 
others they had in wagons, and they were waiting 
there for one another. Suddenly many of the despot's 
men bore down upon them, calling out to them, 
while still a long way off, to wait. And when these 
came near, they ordered the women to move back, 
and then turned the teams about and rode them at 
the M^omen, driving them through their midst merci- 
lessly, and giving the women no chance either to 
follow or to stay or to come to the help of their little 
ones who were being killed, some of whom perished 
by being thrown from the wagons, others by falling 
under foot. The mercenaries urged them on like a 
flock of sheep, with shouts and whips, while the 
women tripped over one another, until the soldiers 
had cast them all into prison. Their possessions 
were carried off to Aristotimus. 

The people of Elis being highly indignant over this 
affair, the holy women devoted to Dionysus, whom 
they call the Sixteen, taking suppliant branches and 
fillets from those sacred to the god, went to meet 
Aristotimus close by the market-place. His body- 
guard made way out of respect, and the priestesses 
silently halted, first of all reverently holding out 
their suppliant branches. But when it became clear 
that they were petitioning in behalf of the women, 
and trying by intreaty to mollify his anger, he, greatly 
exasperated with his guards, screamed out that they 
had permitted the priestesses to come into his 
presence, and he made them drive these from the 

521 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eXaaai €K rrj? dyopds, iKdarrjv Se Sval raXavTOig 
i^r)iJLLaja€. 

Tevofjievctjv Se rovroiv, iv fxkv rfj ttoXcl ovviGnqae 
•JTpd^iv irrl rov rvpavvov 'EAAavt/co?, dv7]p hid 
yrjpas rjSrj /cat Svo reKvcov Odvarov (hs ovhev dv 
252 TTpa^ag vtto rod rvpavvov Trepiopcofjievos. ^k S' 
Atro^Atas' StaTTepdcravres ol (jivydheg /caraAa/x- 
pdvovGL rrjs x^P^^ eTTir-qheiov ifXTToXepLelv epv/xa 
rrjv Afiv/JLCovrjv, /cat orvxi^ovs TTpoaehexovro rcov 
TToXircbv eK rrjs "HAtSos" dTroSiSpdcrKovras . ravra 
0€ oetcras' o ^ApiororifMO? elcrrjXde rrpos rds yvvai' 
/cas", /cat vop.i^ojv (j)6^cp fjidXXov 7) xdpiri hiairpd- 
^euOai TTpoairarre rrefXTreLv /cat ypd(f)€iv avrdg roZs 
dvhpdoiv oTTOjg dTrccocnv e/c rrjs X^P^S" et Be /xtJ, 
Karaa(f)d^€LV T^TretAet rrdoag alKiadpLevos koX irpo- 

B aP'eAcov TOWS' TratSas". at piev ovv d'AAat, ttoXvv 
Xpovov icjiearayros /cat KeXevovros eLTrelv et rt 
Trpd^ovoL rovrcov, ovSev direKplvavro Trpos €K€ivov, 
dXXd TTpoae^Xeifjav dAAyJAat? olcotttj /cat SUvevoraVy^ 
dvdopLoXoyovpL€vaL ro ptr] SeSteVat /xt^S* e/CTre- 
TrXijxOaL rrjv dTreiX-jv. Meytard) 8' 77 Tt^oAcop'ros' 
yvvi] /cat Std top' dvSpa /cat tt^i^ dperrjv r^yepLOVLKrjV 
exovGa rd^iVy SiavaorrrjvaL piev ovk rj^iajoev ovh* 
etacre rds dAAas" Kade^ofjievr] S' drreKpivaro rrpos 
avrov, ' et piev rjs dvrjp (l)p6vLfxos, ovk dv SaXeyov 
yvvai^l 7T€pl dvSpojVj dXXd Trpos €K€ivovs dv d)S 
Kvpiovs r^picjv €7T€pL7T€s, dpL€Lvovas Xoyovs evpojv 

C ^ St' (Lv rjpids iir]7Tdrr](jas' et 8' avros eKeivovs 

1 dUvevaav Wyttenbach : 5i' eSuoiav, 
522 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 251-252 

market-place by pushing or striking one or another, 
and he fined each woman four hundred pounds. 

After these events, Hellanicus started a concerted 
activity against the despot. He was a man who, 
owing to his advanced years and the death of two 
sons, was not thought of by the despot as Hkely 
to be active in any way. The exiles crossed over from 
Aetolia and occupied Amymone, a stronghold in 
Elis, well adapted to serve as a base for warlike 
operations, and there they received a great addition 
to their numbers from the citizens who managed to 
escape from Elis. Aristotimus, alarmed at this, 
went to see the imprisoned women, and, thinking 
that he should accomplish his purpose better by fear 
than by favour, he gave orders to them to wTite and 
send letters to their husbands so that the men should 
leave the country ; and if they would not write, he 
threatened to put them all to death after torturing 
them and making away ^vith their children first. 
As he stood there a long time and urged them to say 
whether they would carry out any part of this pro- 
gramme, most of the women made no answer to him , 
but looked at one another in silence, and showed by 
nods that all their minds were made up not to be 
frightened or perturbed at the threat. Megisto, 
the wife of Timoleon, who, on account of her husband 
and her own virtues as well, held the position of leader, 
did not think it meet to rise, nor would she allow 
the other women to do so ; but, keeping her seat, she 
made answer to him : "If you were a sensible man, 
you would not be talking to women about husbands, 
but you would send to them, as to those having 
authority over us, finding better words to say to them 
than those by which you tricked us. But if you despair 

523 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(252) TTelaai dneyvajKajs St* rjfjLCov iiTLX^ipeZs napa- 
Xoyit^eoOai, fJLrjd* rjiidg eAmJc irdXiv e^airarriaeiv 
fJL'qr^ eKeXvoL /ca/ccD? ovro) (f>pov'i]G€Lav, ware (f>€L- 
oofjievoL TTaihapiiov kol yvvaiKcbv^ iyKaraXLTreXv rrjv 
rrjs TrarpiSos eXevdepiav ov yap togovto KaKov 
avTOLs rjfjids diroXeGaL firjSe vvv exovrag, oaov 
dyadov i^eXiaOai rrjs crrjs (hfior-qrog /cat v^pecos 
rovs TToXlra?." 

Taura rrjs Meytcrrous" Xeyovcrr]?, ovk dvaaxp- 
fievos 6 ^ApLGroTLfjLos eKiXevae to Traihiov avTTJg 
d)s diTOKTevojv ev 6iJj€l KOjJLLcrdrjvaL. ^rjrovvrajv Se 
Tcov VTTrjpercov dvajxepiLyiJiivov ev rot? dXXois 
TTai^ovGi /cat StaTraAatoucrtv, rj fX'^TTjp ovofxaarl 
D TTpooTKaXeaafievr], " Sevpo," €(f)7], " reKVov, irplv 
alcrdecrdaL /cat (jypovelv dTraXXdyrjdi rrjg TTiKpas 
Tvpavvihos' (1)S ifjLOL ^apvrepov icrri hovXevovrd 
ere Trap* d^iav icjiopdv tj dTTodvrjcTKovra." 

Tov 8* ^ApicrroTLfiov (JTraaafievov ttjv ixd^dipav 
eV avrrjv eKeiviqv /cat jier opyrjs eTTi<f)€poix€VOVy 
Twv <jvvrj9cx>v TLS avTO) Vs.vXcjov^ ovofxa TTLOrOS SoKcov 
etvat, pLLGCDV Se /cat puerexcov rrjs crvvcoixouiag roZs 
7T€pl TOV 'EAAayt/coF, dvreorr] /cat dTrearpeipe 
Seopievos /cat Xeycov dyevve? etvat /cat yvvaiKcoSes 
E OVK di'Spos r]yepiovLKOV /cat Trpdyixaort XPI^^^'' 
pLepiadiqKOTOS to epyov oiOTe fioXtg 'ivvovv yevofxevov 
TOV ^ ApioTOTiiiov aTTeXOetv. 

TlyveTaL 8e arjfjietov avrcp pueya' pieaiqpi^pia pikv 

^ 'yvvaiKCiv] yvpaLwv S. A. Naber, wrongly. 

2 KuXwj'] Ki'XXoji' in the Delphinian inscription (Ditten- 
berger^ no. 423). 
524 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 252 

of persuading them yourself, and are attempting 
to use us to mislead them, do not expect to deceive 
us again, and I pray that they may never entertain 
such a base thought that, to spare their wives and 
little children, they should forsake the cause of their 
country's freedom. In truth, it is not so bad a thing 
for them to lose us, whom they have not at present, 
as it is a good thing to rescue the citizens from your 
cruelty and overbearing insolence." 

As Megisto spoke thus, Aristotimus could not 
brook her words, and ordered her young child to be 
brought, as if intending to kill him in her sight. As 
the servants sought for him mingled among the other 
children playing and wrestling, his mother, calling 
him by name, said, " Come here, child, and, before 
you can realize and think, be deUvered from this 
bitter despotism ; since for me it is more grievous 
to look upon your undeserved slavery than upon 
your death." 

At this, Aristotimus drew his sword upon the 
mother herself, but as he was rushing at her in a rage, 
one of his intimate associates, Cylon ° by name, 
who was thought to be loyal to him, but really hated 
him, and was in the consipracy with Hellanicus and 
the rest, intervened and turned him from his purpose 
by intr eating him and saying that such action was 
ignoble and womanish, not that of a manly ruler who 
had learned to meet any situation. The result was 
that Aristotimus, with difficulty regaining his senses, 
came away. 

An ominous thing, however, happened to him. 

<* See the inscription in honour of Cylon found at Delphi, 
Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscript. Graec.^ no. 423 (no. 920 
in the second edition). 

525 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yap rfv Kal fxera rrjs yvvaiKog dvcnavero' irapa- 
OKevat,ofxeva>v Se rajv Trepl to hetTTVov, aeros" 
fierecjopos a)(f)dr] BLVovfJL€vos vrrep rrjs ot/ctas", et^* 
wGTTep €K TTpovoias /cat OTOxacjpiOV Xldov d<l)riK€V 
evfjueyedrj Kar eKelvo rrj? orreyq^ ro [xepos, ov to 
Sco/xartov -^v^ iv S KaTaKeipievos eTvyxoLvev 6 
'AptCTTOTtjLto?. (XjLta S* dvcoOev ipocfyov pteyaXov 
Kal Kpavyrjs e^ojdev vtto Tchv IhovTcov tov opviv 
F yevopLevTjg, eKTrXayels Kal 7Tv96p,evos ro yeyovog 
/xereTre/xj/faro pidvTiv, a> ;^p6o/xevo9 StereAet /car' 
dyopdv, Kal SirjpcjTa Trepl tov oy]p.€LOV ovvT€Tapay- 
fjuevos. 6 8' eKelvov piev irapeKaXei (hs tov A to? 
avTOV i^eyetpovTOS Kal ^oiqOovvTOSy ols 8* €7TLGTev€ 

TCOV 7To\lTCx)V €(f)paO€V OGOV OVTTCx) TTjV SlKTJV aiOjpOV- 

piiviqv VTTep K€(f)aX7Js ipiTTeoeZodai tco Tvpdvvco. Sto 
Kal TOis TTepl TOV 'EAAavt/cop' eSo^e /xi^ /xeAAetv, 
aAA' eTTiTiOeodaL Tjj voTepaia. 

TtIs 8e vvKTos 'EAAavt/cos* iSoKei Kara tovs 
V7TV0VS TCOV TedvrjKOTOJv vlojv TOV eTepov Xey€LV 
avTcp irapaoTavTa, " tL TreirovOas, (L rraTCp, 
253 KaOevScov^; avpiov 8e cr€ Set ttJ? rroXecos GTpaTrj- 
yetv," ovTos re 817 hid ttjv oipLv evdaporrjs yeyevr]- 
pL€Vos TTapeKaXei tovs eratpous"/ o t * ApiGTOTipiOS 
7Tv66pL€Vos VipaTepov auTO) ^07]dovvTa /xera ttoXXtjs 
SwdpLecDS iv 'OAu/XTTto, KaTacrrpaTOTTeSeveiV, ovtcos 
i^eOdpGTjaev, oxjt* dvev hopv(f>6pa)v els ttjv dyopdv 
TTpoeXOelv fxerd tov KvXojvos. d)S ovv ovvelSe tov 
Kaipov 'EAAavtACOS", o /xev riv urnxelov avTcp TTpog 
TOVS [xeXXovras iinx^ipeiv ovyKeipievov ovk eScu/ce, 

* TT^TTovdas . . . Ka6€v8o}v ;] TrewoudCjs . . . Kadevdeis ; Dinse. 
> eraipovs Wyttenbach : er^povs. 

526 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 252-253 

It was midday, and he was resting, and his wife was 
with him. While preparations for dinner were 
going on, an eagle was seen high in air circling over 
the house ; then, as if with intent and design, it let 
fall a good-sized stone on that part of the roof under 
which was the room where Aristotimus happened to 
be lying. At the same moment there was a great 
crash above and shouting outside by those who saw 
the bird. Aristotimus was seized with consternation, 
and when he learned what had happened, he sent for 
a seer whom he constantly consulted in the market- 
place, and, much perturbed, questioned him about 
the ominous happening. The seer encouraged him 
to believe that Zeus was rousing him and aiding him, 
but, on the other hand, told those citizens in whom he 
trusted that judgement was hovering over the despot's 
head, and was all but ready to fall on him. Where- 
fore it seemed best to Hellanicus and his friends not 
to delay but to make their attack on the next day. 

That night Hellanicus in his sleep dreamed 
that one of his dead sons stood beside him and said, 
" What has happened to you, father, that you are 
asleep ? To-morrow you must be commander of 
the city." So he, having gained good courage 
because of the \-ision, urged on his associates, 
while on the other hand, Aristotimus also having 
learned that Craterus was coming to his aid with a 
numerous force and was encamped at Olympia, 
became so extremely bold that without his body- 
guard he went forth into the market-place in the 
company of Cylon. When, therefore; Hellanicus 
realized the opportunity, he did not give the signal 
which had been agreed upon between himself and 
those who were to make the attempt, but with clear 

527 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(253) XafiTTpa 8e rfj (jxjovij Kal dfjua ras X^^P^^ TTporelvcov 
B afx^orepas, " ri fxeXXere,^ dvSpes dyaOoi; koXov 
TO Oearpov iv fieaa) rrj? TrarplSos ivayoiviGaadai." 
TTpcoTOS fxev ovv 6 KuAojv GTTaadfxevos to ft^o? 
TraUi nvd rcjv iTTOfxevcov rep ^ApLaToripLcp- Qpaav- 
povXov Se Kal AajxTTiSos i^ ivavrias €7rt0€/)o/xeVcov, 
€^drj jji€v 6 * ApLcrroTLpo^ ets" to tou Alos lepov 
KaracjyvycxJV' eKel 8* dTTOKreivavres avrov Kal to 
acofjua TTpo^aXovres ets" ttjv dyopdv eKoXovv rovs 
TToXiras eTrl rrjv iXevOeplav. ov firjv €(f)dr]adv ye 
TToXi)^ Tas yvvalKas' evdvs yap i^eSpafiov p^erd 
Xapds Kal oXoXvyfjLov, Kal TrepLGrdaaL rovs dVSpas" 
dveSovv Kal Karearecfyov . elra rod ttXtjOovs eTrl 
rr^v GLKLau rod rvpdvvov pvevros, rj pev yvvrj avy- 
C KXeioaaa rov ddXapLov avrrjv dv-qprrjae, hvo 8* 
rfGav avrcp^ Ovyarepes, irapdevoi pev en, KdXXiorai 
he rrjv dxpiv, tJSt] ydpaov wpav exovGai' ravras 
GvXXa^ovres elXKov e^cu navrcos pev dveXelv, atAct- 
GaodaL Be Kal Kadv^pLGat Trporepov iyvojKores, 
diravrriGaGa 8' r] MeycoTco puerd rcjv dXXojv ej^oa 
Seivd TTOLeiv avrovs, el Syjpos d^iovvres elvai ravra* 
roXpojGL Kal doeXyaivovGL rols rvpdvvois dpLOia. 
evrpeTTopevcov he TToXXdav ro d^layfia rrjs yvvaiKos 
TrapprjGLal^opevrjs Kal haKpvovGTjs^ eho^ev d(j)eXeZv 
D rr]V v^piv, avrds 8* eacat hi avrcjv dTToOavelv. 

*Q.S 8' ovv dvaGrpeifjavres evhov eKeXevov evdvs 
dTToOvrjGKeiv rd? TrapdevovSy rj rrpeo^vrepa Mupo)' 
XvGaGa rr]v l^cjvriv Kal ^poxov evdibaoa rrjv 

1 yLiAXere] Dinse would insert ^0?? or ifSorjaei', 

* TToXi) Cobet: iroWol. ^ avT(^] avry DinSC 

* Tavra] Tavra Cobet, omitting o/xoia, 

^ Mvpw] Noipw Cobet. 

528 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 253 

voice, stretching out both arms at the words, he 
said, " Why delay, brave men ? Fair is this place 
on the soil of your own native land to stage your 
contest ! " So then Cylon first, drawing his sword, 
smote one of the men following with Aristotimus, 
but, as Thrasybulus and Lampis rushed at him 
from the opposite side, Aristotimus forestalled the 
conspirators by taking refuge in the temple of Zeus. 
There they slew him, and, exposing his corpse in 
the market-place, they sounded for the citizens the 
call to freedom. As a matter of fact, they were not 
much ahead of the women, for these at once ran 
forth with joyful acclamations and, surrounding the 
men, adorned them with ribbons and garlands. 
Then the crowd surged towards the house of the despot, 
but his wife, bolting the doors of her chamber, 
hanged herself. He had two daughters, still un- 
wedded, most beautiful to look upon, of marriage- 
able age. These they seized and dragged out, 
having resolved to do away ^vith them, but to torture 
and insult them first. But Megisto, with the rest 
of the women, meeting them, cried out that they 
were committing a frightful crime if they who deemed 
themselves worthy to be a democratic people were, 
in this matter, showing recklessness and wanton 
violence like despots. As many had respect for the 
high worth of the woman who spoke so boldly amid 
her tears, they decided to omit the violence, and 
permit the daughters to die by their own hand. 

When, therefore, they had returned the maidens 
to the house and ordered their death immediately, 
the elder, Myro, loosing her girdle and making a 
noose of it, bade farewell to her sister and urged 



529 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(253) dS€X(l)r)v Kariqo'ndt.eTo koL TrapeKaXei irpooex^iv 
Kol TTOielv d-nep dv avrrjv dedarjraL TTOiovaav, 
" 07T0JS dv," ecf)-/], " fX7] ra7T€LV(jj? [Jir]S^ dva^ioi^ 
iavTcov KaraGrpeifjajfxev." rrjs Se vecurepas Seo- 
fjievrjg avrfj rrapelvai tt pore pa dTToOavelv koL rrjg 
^covqg dvTiXafi^ai'Ofievrj^, " ovSev dXXo ttcottot*/' 
CLTTev, " ovSe eV^ Tjpvrjpiai ooi heofievrj- kol ravTrjv 
E ovv Xd^e rrjv ■)(dpiv, iyw S' VTrofievo) kol rXT^crofiai, 
rod davdrov ^apvrepov, to ae, ^iXrdrriy Trporepav 
ISelv aTToOvrjaKovaav ." €k tovtov ttjv fiev dheXcjirfV 
avTTj ScSd^aaa rw Tpo,)(r}Xa) TTepi^aXeoOai tov 
^poxov, d)s fjoOero TeBvqKvlav , KaOelXe Kal Kar- 
eKdXvi/jev avrrf he ttjv Meytcrro) TrapeKdXeaev irn- 
fjLeXrjOrjvai, /cat pirj TrepuSelv alaxpcos, irreihav diro- 
OdvTj, Tedeloav' Mure jjLrjSeva mKpov fir^Se puGorvpaV' 
vov ovrco yeveuOai tojv Trapovrcov, os ovk eKXavaev 
ovSe KaTiqXiriGe rrjv tojv Trapdevcov evyeveiav . 

Ta;!^ piev ovv Kotvfj TreTrpayp.evtov yvvai^l pLvplcov 

ovTOJV LKavd TavTa TrapaSecyuaTa' Tag Se Kad* 

F CKdaTTjv dperds, ottco? dv €7TLr), anopdSrjv dva- 

ypdipopieVy ovSev olopLCVoi ttjs Kara xpovov rd^eojs 

SeLoOaL TTjV V7TOK€Lp,€Vr]V LGTOpiaV. 

XVI. niEPIA 

Tojv els ^liXiqTov d<f)iKopLevojv Tojvojv oracrta- 

aavreg evLOL TTpos tovs NetAea>^ Tralhas, dTre)(O)pyj(J0LV 

elg MvovvTa Ka/cet KaTWKOVV, TToXXd KaKa rrdaxov- 

reg vtto tcoi^ yiiXrjcriojv' eTToXepiovv yap avrotg Sta 

^ ovde €u F.C.B. : ovdev. ^ avTrj F.C.B. : avTijv. 

3 Ne^Xeco] there is considerable authority for the spelling 

5S0 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 253 

her to take note and do exactly what she saw her 
do, " so that," she said, " we may not end our Hves 
in any humihating way, unworthy of ourselves." 
But when the younger sister wanted the other to 
concede to her the privilege of dying first, and seized 
hold of the girdle, the elder said, " I have never 
denied you anything else that you wanted ; and so 
you may receive this favour also, and I will patiently 
endure and bear what is more grievous than death, 
and that is, dearest, to see you die first." There- 
upon she instructed her sister how to put the noose 
around her neck, and when she saw that she was 
dead she took her down and covered her. She her- 
self begged Megisto to take care of her and not to 
suffer her to be laid in any ignominious way when she 
should be dead. In consequence no one there was 
so bitter or such a hater of despots as not to shed 
tears and commiserate the nobility of the maidens. , 

Of the deeds, countless in number, done by M^omen 
acting together these may suffice as examples. But 
cases of individual bravery I will put down as they 
come to me, not in any order, because I think that 
the record of the present subject does not at all 
require a chronological arrangement. 

XVI. PIERIA « 

Some of the lonians who came to Miletus, owing 
to lively disagreements with the sons of Neileus, went 
away to Myus and settled there, suffering many ills at 
the hands of tlie Milesians ; for these made war upon 

" Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 35 ; Aristaenetus, 
Letters^ i. 15. 

531 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rr)v aiTOOTaGLV } ov /jltjv OLK'qpvKros "^v* ovS^ dvcir^' 
fJLiKros 6 TToXefjLO?, dAA' €v riaiv iopraZs i(f)olTajv el? 
M.LXr]Tov €K rov MvovvTos at yvvoLKes. rjv '6k 
Yivdiqs dvTjp €v avTolg ifjicfjavij^, yvvacKa jLtev c^cov 
^laTTvyiav, Bvyaripa he Yltepiav. ova-qs ovv eoprrj? 
^AprefXiSi Kal Ovaias rrapd MiAi^atotS', tjv NrjXrjiSa^ 
254 TrpoaayopevovdLV, eTrefjupe rr)v yvvoLKa Kal rrjv 
dvyarepa, Serjdeicrag oTrojs rrj£ eoprrjs fierdcrxcoaL' 
rchv he NetAeco^ Traihojv 6 hwarcoraros ovofia 
^pvyios rrjs Iltepta? epaoOels evevoei ri av avrfj 
/xaAtcrra yivoiTo Trap' avrov KexapLGfxevov. elirov- 
(rrjs 8* eKeivTjs " el hiarrpd^aio fioL to iroXXaKis 
evravda Kal pLerd ttoAAcDv ^ahit^eLV," ovveis^ 6 
^pvyios heopievrjv (fiiXlag Kal elprjvrjs toZs TToAtrat? 
B KareTTavae rov iToXepLov. rjv ovv iv dpL(j>OTepai9 
raZs TToXeGL ho^a Kal ripLT] rrjg Yliepia?, Sore Kal 
rag MtAi^crtcov evx^oOai yvvalKas dxpi vvv ovrcog 
rovs dvhpas^ epdv avTcov, (hs ^pvytos rjpdodr) 
Uieplas- 

XVII. ITOATKPITH 

Na^tot? Kal MiXr^aloLS Gwearr] noXepLog hid ttjv 
^YipLKpeovTOs rov MiXr^alov yvvaiKa Neaipav. 
avTT] yap rjpdodi] UpopLehovrog Naftou Kal crvv' 
eTvXevGeVy os t^v /xey ^evog rov *Yi/jtKpeovTog, epa- 
oOeioTj he rfj Neatpa ovvrjXOe, Kal rov dvSpa (f)0- 
^ovpLevrjv dirayaycbv els Nafov LKertv rrjs 'Earta? 

1 airoaTaa-Lv Cobet : airocFraalav. 

* ^v] 7 ' Tiv Cobet. • N7?X77/5a] ^eCK-fna Cobet. 

* NeiXew] there is considerable authority for the spelling 

' (Tweis Bernardakis : aweUoZv\ better perhaps o-i/j/eisaiJTV* 

* roi)% dfdpas seems to be a necessary supplement, 
532 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 253-254 

them because of their defection. However, the war 
was not without truce or intercourse, but at certain 
festivals the women commonly went to Miletus from 
Myus. There was among the people of Myus a 
prominent man named Pythes, who had a wife named 
lapygia and a daughter Pieria. As there was a 
festival in honour of Artemis, and a sacrifice, which 
they call Neleis," he sent his wife, and daughter, who 
had asked that they might participate in the festival. 
The most influential of Neileus's sons, Phrygius by 
name, fell in love with Pieria, and tried to think 
what could be done on his part that would be most 
pleasing to her. And when she said, " If only you 
could make it possible for me to come here often and 
many with me," Phrygius was quick to understand 
that she wanted friendship and peace for the citizens, 
and stopped the war. There was, consequently, in 
both cities repute and honour for Pieria, so that the 
women of Miletus pray even to this day that their 
husbands may love them as Phrygius loved Pieria. 

XVII. POLYCRITE ^ 

A war arose between the Naxians and Milesians 
on account of Neaera the wife of Hypsicreon of 
Miletus. It was because she fell in love with 
Promedon of Naxos and sailed away with him. He 
was a friend and guest of Hypsicreon, but yielded to 
Neaera's ardent advances, and then, as she was in 
fear of her husband, he took her away to Naxos, and 
placed her as a suppliant at the shrine of Hestia. 

• Cf. Roscher, Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologies 
i. p. 572, line 63. 

'' Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 36 ; Parthenius, Love 
Stories t nos. 9 and 18. 

VOL. Ill s 533 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(254) iKadiacv. tcjv Se NaftcDV ovk iKSiSovrwv x^/oti/ 
C Tov IlpofieSovTog, dXXcog Sc TTOLovfxevcov 7Tp6(f)aaLV 
TTjv LKereiaVy 6 TToAe/xos" crvvearr]. rots' 8e MtAry- 
CTtot? a'AAot re TroAAot /<:at TTpodvfxorara tojv ^lojvoiv 
'FjpvOpaloL crvvefiaxovv, Kal fxrJKog €(tx^ Kal gvjx- 
<f)Opas 7Jv€yK€ fieydXas 6 iroXefios' etr* inavGaro 
St' dp€TrjV yvvaLKos, (I)S avvdarrj Sid pLoxOyjpiav. 

AioyvrjTog ydp 6 tcjv ^^pvOpalcov GTparrjyos 
e^cov Kal^ 7T€7noTevpiivos epvpia /caret rrjg Na^tcoi' 
TToAecos" €V Tre^u/cos" Kal KaredKevaafjievov, rjXdaaro 
Aetai/ ra>v Naf tcai^ 7ToXXr]v /cat yvvaiKas iXevdepas^ 
/cat irapBlvovs eXa^ev Sv puds UoXvKpLrrjg ipa- 
adels et;Yev avrr^v ovx d)S alxpidXcorov dAA' iv rd^ei 
yapLerrjs yvvaiKos. ioprrjs 3e rots' MtATyo-tots' Kad- 
TjKovarjs €v rij arpana Kal npos ttoolv diTdvTOJV 
J) Kal Gvvovoias rpaTTop^dvajv, rjpd)Tr]ae tov ALoyvrjrov 

Tj HoXvKpLTT] piTj TL KCoXvOL TTtjLt/XarCOy pL€pi8aS 

diTOTTepupaL rots dSeX<f>OLS avrrjs. iTTiTpiijjavTos S' 
eKCLVov Kal KeXevaavros, ive^aXe pLoXi^hivov ypa/x- 
pLarihiov els irXaKovvray KeXevcraaa ^pdoai tov 
KOfJii^ovTa Tols dheX(j)ols ottojs avTol p,6voL /carava- 
XwocjGLV a eTTefn/je. ol 8' evTVXovres tw pioXi^hcp 
Kal ra ypdppaTa ttjs IloXvKpLTrjs dvayvovTes, 
KeXevovarjs vvktos eTndeudai tois TToXepiois, cos 
VTTO pedrjs Sid ttjv iopTrjv i^rjfjLeXrjjjLevojv TrdvTOJVy 
TrpoG'^yyeiXav tols GTpaTTjyols Kal TTapoippnqoav 
E i^eXdetv pi€T avTCOv. dXovTOS 8e tov x^P^ov Kal 
TToXXdjv hia^OapevTOiv , e^r^TTjoaTO tov ALoyvrjTov 
1^ IloAu/cptrTy irapd tcov ttoXltcov Kal hieucpaev. 

^ ex^^v Kal] Cobet would omit. 

2 eXevd^pas Bernardakis, proper but not imperative: 
eXevd^povs, 
5S4> 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 254 

When the Naxians, as a favour to Promedon, refused 
to give her up, though they advanced another 
excuse, her position as supphant, the war arose. 
Besides the many others who fought on the side of 
the Milesians the Erythraeans were the most zealous 
among the lonians ; and the war dragged on and on, 
and brought great calamities. Then it came to an 
end through a woman's bravery, as it had arisen 
through a woman's badness. 

Diognetus, the general of the Erythraeans, en- 
trusted with the command of a stronghold, its natural 
advantages reinforced by fortification to menace the 
city of the Naxians, gathered much spoil from the 
Naxians, and captured some free women and maidens ; 
with one of these, Polycrite, he fell in love and kept 
her, not as a captive, but in the status of a wedded 
wife. Now when a festival which the Milesians 
celebrate came due in the army, and all turned to 
drinking and social gatherings, Polycrite asked 
Diognetus if there were any reason why she should 
not send some bits of pastry to her brothers. And 
when he not only gave her permission but urged her 
to do so, she shpped into a cake a note written on a 
sheet of lead, and bade the bearer tell her brothers 
that they themselves and no others should consume 
what she had sent. The brothers came upon the 
piece of lead and read the words of Polycrite, ad- 
vising them to attack the enemy that night, as they 
were all in a state of carelessness from drink on ac- 
count of the festival. Her brothers took this message 
to their generals and strongly urged them to set 
forth \vith themselves. When the place had been 
taken and many slain, Polycrite begged for the hfe of 
Diognetus from her citizens, and saved him. When 

535 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

auTii) Se 77/00? rat? TruAat? yevofxevrj irpos^ rov? 
TToAtra? OLTravrcovras OLVTfj, fi^ra x^P^^ '^^^ 
GT€<f)6.vo)v VTTohexojxivovs Kol davfjidt,ovTas, ovk 
TJveyKe ro jjceyedo? rrj? ;\;a/Da?, aAA' arredavev avrov 
Treaovcra Tvapa t7]v TTvX-qv ottov reO airraiy /cat 
/caAetrat ^aoKavov rd(f>os, co? ^aGKavcp tlvI tvxq 

rr^V IloXvKpLT7]V cf)doV7]d€L(7aV OLTToXaVGai TOJV TlflWV. 

OvTOJ fiev OL l^a^LOJV ovyypa(j)eis iGTopovoiv o 

F V ^ApLGToreX-qg (fyrjolv ouS' olXovgtjs rrjs IIoAu- 

KpLTTj?, aXXo)? Se TTOJ? ISovra rov AioyprjTOV kpa- 

GOrjvaL /cat Trdvra hihovai /cat TTOielv croLjJLOv eivai' 

TTji^ 8' ofjioXoyelv dcf)L^€G9aL npos avrov, evo? [xovov 

TVXOVGaV, 7T€pl OV TOV AtOyVT^TOV, c5? (f)r]GLV 6 

(^iXoGo^os, opKov firrfGev eTrel 8* a>ixoG€V, rf^iov 
TO ATyAtov avrfj SoOrjvaL (Ao^Atop' yap c/caAetro to 
Xojplov), d'AAoj? S* OVK dv €(f)r] GVveXdelv. 6 he /cat 
Sta rrjv eVt^u/xtav /cat Std rov opKov i^eGrrj Kai 
rrapihiOKe rfj HoXvKpLrrj rov tottov, €K€Lvr] Se rots 
TToAtrat?. e/c Se rovrov ttoXlv els Igov KaraGrdvreg, 
icf)^ oh e^ovXovro^ irpog rovs MiXrjGlovs SieXvd-qGav. 

XVIII. AAM^AKH 

'E/c Ooj/cata? rov KoSptScov yevovs rJGav dSeA- 
^ol SiSvfjLOL Od^o?' /cat BXeijjos' djv 6 OdjSo? aTTO 
rctjv AevKdSojv irerpcbv Trpcoros d(f)rJKev eavrov et? 
OdXarrav, d>s \.dpa>v 6 AapuJjaK'qvos lGropr]Kev. 

^ rpbs added by F.C.B. (probably omitted on account of 
the preceding vpbs). E. Kurtz would read aladofi^yr] for 

* i^ovKovTo the preferred form : tj^ovXovto. 

■ *6/3os] ^o^os Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 37. 

« Frag. 559 (ed. Rose)=Aulus Gellius, iii. 15. 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 254-255 

she herself arrived at the gates, and found herself 
confronting the citizens who came to meet her, 
welcoming her with joy and garlands and giving 
expression to their admiration for her, she could not 
bear the immensity of her joy, but fell down dead 
beside the gate ; and there she is buried, and her 
tomb is called the Tomb of Envy, as though by some 
envious fortune Polycrite was begrudged the enjoy- 
ment of her honours. 

This is the story which the Naxian writers record. 
Aristotle,^ however, says that Polycrite was not taken 
captive, but that Diognetus, in some other way, saw 
her and fell in love with her, and stood ready to give 
or to do anything ; and she agreed to come to him, 
if she might obtain just one thing, for which, as the 
philosopher asserts, she required an oath of Dio- 
gnetus. And when he had given the required oath, 
she demanded in fulfilment that Delium be given to 
her (the place was called by this name), otherwise 
she would have nothing to do \\-ith him. He, because 
of his love and his oath, was carried quite away, and 
handed over the spot to Polycrite, and she in turn to 
the citizens. Following this, the Naxians were again 
put on an equal footing, and effected a reconciliation 
with the Milesians on such terms as they desired. 



XVIII. LAM PS ACE » 

There came from Phocaea twin brothers Phobus 
and Blepsus of the family of the Codridae, of whom 
Phobus was the first to throw himself into the sea 
from the Leucadian Rocks,'' as Charon of Lampsacus 



* Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 37. 
As a remedy for love, at least in later times. 



537 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(255) exoiv Se SvvafjLiv Kal ^aoiXiKov a^iojfxa Trape- 
irXevaev els Wdpiov Ihiojv eVe/ca Trpayixdrcov /cat 
yevofievos ^tAos" Kal feVo? MdvSpojvL, ^aGiXevovri 
BeppvKOJV Tojv Ilirvo€GGrivcx)v TTpoaayopevopiivojv, 
iPo^qdr)G€ Kal uvveTToXeix'qGev avrols vtto rajv rrpoa- 
B OLKOiv ivox^ovfievoLs. 6 8e MdvSpojv dXX7]v re 
ttoAAt^i^ iveSel^aro rep Oo^Soj (fyiXocfypoo-uvr^v aTTO- 
TrXiovri Kal fiepos rrjs re x^po^S Kal rrjs TToXeojs 
VTTioxvelro ScoaeLv, el ^ovXoiro OcoAcaetS" exoiv 
eTTOLKOvg el? ttjv Ylirvoecrcrav d<j>iKeadai. Treioas 
ovv Tovs TToXiras 6 Q)6^os e^eTrepufje rov dSeXcfyov 
dyovra tovs Ittolkovs. Kal rd fiev irapd rod 
^Idvhpoivos VTTrjpx^v avrols » (Zanep npoaeSo- 
K7]Gav' (h^eXeias Se [leydXas Kal Xd(f>vpa Kal 
Aeta? aTTo rGiv rrpoGoiKCxyv ^ap^dpojv XapL^dvovres , 
e7Ti<f)6ovoL ro rrpwrov eira Kal (f>o^epol rols 
Be^pv^LV '^aav. eTnOvfjiovvres ovv avrcop dnaX- 
Xayrjvac, rou fxev MdvSpojva, XRV^"^^^ ovra Kal 
C hiKaiov dvSpa rrepl rovs "EAAr^va?, ovk erreioaVy 
aTTodrjix-qcravros S' eKeivov, TrapeoKevdt^ovro rovs 
'^CDKaels SoAoj SiacfyOeipaL. rod 8e MdvSpojvos 'f] 
Ovydrrjp AaixifjdKT] irapOevos ovoa rrjv eTn^ovXrjv 
TTpoeyvcx), Kal Trpojrov fxev eTrexeipei rovs (jtiXovs 
Kal olKeiovs aTTorperreiv Kal SiSdaKeiv cos epyov 
heivov Kal dae^es eyxecpovcn rrpdrreiv, evepyeras 
Kal GVjjLfidxovs dvSpas vvv he Kal TToXiras diro- 
Knvvvvres. cos S* ovk eTreiOe, rots "KXXrjGLv ecj^paae 
Kpv(j>a rd TTparrofxeva Kal TrapeKeXevaaro ^vXdr- 
5SS 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 255 

has recorded." Phobus, having influence and princely 
rank, sailed to Parium on some business of his o^vn, 
and having become the friend and guest of Mandron, 
who was king of the Bebrycians who are called the 
Pityoessenians, he aided them by fighting on their 
side when they were being harassed by their neigh- 
bours. When Phobus took his departure Mandron 
expressed the utmost regard for him, and, in par- 
ticular, promised to give him a part of their land and 
city if Phobus wished to come to Pityoessa with 
Phocaean colonists. So Phobus prevailed on his 
citizens and sent out his brother with the colonists. 
And what Mandron had promised was at their dis- 
posal, as they expected.^ But they, inasmuch as 
they made great gains for themselves through the 
spoils and booty which they took from the neighbour- 
ing barbarians, were first an object of envy, and later 
an object of fear also, to the Bebrycians, who, desiring 
to be rid of them, could not prevail on Mandron, who 
was a fair and just man in his treatment of the Greeks ; 
but when he had gone away on a journey, they pre- 
pared to destroy the Phocians by treachery. But 
the daughter of Mandron, Lampsace, a young girl, 
learned of the plot beforehand, and tried first to 
dissuade her friends and relatives and to point out 
to them that they were undertaking to carry out a 
frightful and wicked deed in murdering men who 
were their benefactors and allies and now also their 
fellow-citizens. But when she could not prevail on 
them, she secretly told the Greeks what was afoot, 
and warned them to be on their guard. And they, 

*• Cf. Miiller, Frag. Histor. Graec. i. p. 33. 
* Cf. Strabo, xiii. (589), and Stephanus of Byzantium 
under Lampsacus. 

539 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(255) T€odai. ol .Sc dvaiav rem TrapaaKevaadiievoi /cac 

1) dolvTjv i^eKoXicravTO rovg Hirvoecroirjvovs etV to 

TTpodareiov avrovs 8e SteAovre? St;\;a, rots' /xei^ ra 

T€Lxr) KareXd^ovTO r'oZs 8e roi)? dvOpcoirovs dvetAov. 

ovrco Srj ttjv ttoXlv KaTaG)(6vTes rov re MavSpcova 

IJL€T€7T€fJL7TOl^TO, GVjJL^acnXeveLV TOts TTttp' aUTcDl' 

/ceAeuoi'Tes" /<^ctt tt^v AajjLifjaKrjv i^ dppcooTias 
drrodavovGav edaipav ev rfj TroXet pieyaXo7TpeTTG)s , 
Kol TTjv TToXiv (XTT"' avTTJs AdjjiifjaKov 7TpoGi]y6p€voav . 
iirel S' o yidvhpcov Trpohoaias vrroifjiav cf)€vywv ro 
fjL€V OLK€LV fji^T avTCOv 7Tapr]TT](jaro , TTatSas 8e tojv 
reOvr^KOTCjjv koI yvvaiKas 'q^La)(T€ KopLiaaadai, /cat 
ravra TrpoOvfjLOJS ovSev dhLK-qaavreg i^eTTefJupav 
E /cat Tjj AafjupdKTj Trporepov rjpcoLKds nfids dno- 
8lS6vt€s varepov ws Beo) Bveiv iiprj(f)LoravTO /cat 
SiareXovGLV ovtoj Ovovres. 

XIX. APETA<I>IAA 

^AperacfylXa 8* r) Kvprjvaia rraXaid puev ov ye- 
yovev dXK iv rot? Mt^pt8aTt/cots' Kaipols, dp€Trjv 
Se /cat TTpd^iv ivdjjLiXXov rfj ^ovXrj^ tcjv rjpojLSojv 
TTapeGX^v. rjv 8e dvydriqp fxev AlyXdropos Oat- 
SifjLov 8e yvvT], yvcopipiojv dvhpcijv' KaXr) 8e rrjv 
oijjiv ovGa, /cat t6^ <f>poveLV eSo/cet TrepLrrij tls 
elvai /cat TToXiTLKrjs SecvorrjTOS ovk dpLOipos' 
iTTLcfyavrj 8' avrrjv at /cotvat Tu;^at ttJs" iraTpihos 
eTTOLrjorav. 
F Nt/co/cpaTT^S" yap eTravaard? ¥ivpr)vaLOLS rvpavvos 



^ Ty ^ovXy] rfj jSeXTiffTr) S. A. Naber, wrongly. 
2 Tol rw Wyttenbach. 



540 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 255 

having made ready a sacrifice and banquet, invited 
the Pityoessenians to come to it just outside the city ; 
then, dividing themselves into two parties, with the 
one they took possession of the walls, and with the 
other made away with the men. Having gained 
control of the city in this manner, they sent for 
Mandron, and bade him be king jointly with one or 
another of their own number. Lampsace died as the 
result of an illness, and they buried her within the 
city most magnificently, and called the city Lamp- 
sacus after her name." When Mandron, endeavour- 
ing to avoid any suspicion of treachery, asked to be 
released from, dwelling Avith them, but asked as his 
right to take away with him the children and wives 
of the slain, they sent them forth, doing them no 
wrong. They rendered heroic honours to Lampsace 
at first ; later they voted to offer sacrifice to her as to 
a goddess, and so they continue to do. 

XIX. ARETAPHILA » 

Aretaphila, of Cyrene, was not born long years 
ago, but in the crucial times of Mithradates ; she 
displayed, however, a bravery and an achievement 
which may well rival the counsel of the heroines of 
olden time. She was the daughter of Aeglator and 
the wife of Phaedimus, both men of note. She had 
beautiful features, and w^as reputed to be unusually 
sensible and not deficient in political wisdom, but the 
common misfortunes of her country brought her into 
prominence. 

Nicocrates, having made himself despot over the 

•» Cf. Strabo, xiii. (589), and Stephanus of Byzantium 
under Lampsacus. 

^ Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 38. 
VOL. Ill s2 541 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

d?^ovs re ttoXXovs i(f)6v€V€ rcbv 7To\iro)v /cat rov 
lepea rov ^ArroXXcovos avrox^tp dveXcbv MeXdv- 
LTTTTOV, €(TX€^ rrjv UpojGvvrjV dveiXe Se Koi ^aihifjiov 
rov rrjs ^ Apera^CXas dvSpa Koi rr)v ^ Apera(j)iXav 
€y7]fji€v dKovaav. irpos 8e pivpiois dXXois napa- 
vojJL-^fjLaGL (f)vXaKas irrl rdjv ttvXojv Karecrrrjaev, ot 
Tovg €K(f)epoii€POVS veKpovs iXvfxaivovro vvrrovres 
^L<f)Lbiois KOI Kavrrjpia Trpoa^dXXovres virep rov 
fjLTjSeva rctjv TToXirwv cos veKpov Xadeuv eKKopiit^o- 
fievov. 

Avar(l)opa fjL€v ovv Kal^ rfj 'Apera^tAo, rd ocKela 
256 KaKdy Kai7T€p evhihovros avrfj St' epcora rov 
rvpdvvov TrXcLcrrov dTToXaveiv rfjs Svvdfxecos [rjrrrjro 
yap iK€LV7]? /cat fiovr) x^^P^V^V irapeZx^v avrov 
dreyKros d)V rdXXa /cat drjpiioSy]?)' rjvia Se fiaXXou 
avrrjv rj Trarplg olKrpd Trdaxovcra Trap' d^iav. 
dXXos ydp €77* dXXo) rojv TToXircov i(j(f)drrero, 
rifjLCjpia 8* 0,77* ovhevos rjX7TLl,€ro' /cat ydp ol 
<f>vydh€Sj dodevels TTavrdTraaiv ovres /cat 7T€pL(f)O^OL, 
SLeaTrdprjaav. avrrjv ovv rj ^Apera<j)iXa vnodeiaa 
fjLovTjv rots KOLVOLS iXTTiSa, /cat TO, 017^7]? t^rjXdxjaaa 
rrjs Oepata? /caAa /cat Trepi^o'qra roX/x-qfiara, avfi- 
jidx^ov he TTiorojv /cat OLKeiajv, olovg eKelvrj rd 
TTpdyfiara Trapeaxev, eprjfios ovcra, ^ap/xa/cots" 
B iTrexeLpr]Ge hiepydaaodai rov dvSpa. rrapaaKeva- 
i,ojJLevi] 8e /cat TTopit^ovcra /cat hiaireLpajpLevr] ttoXXojv 
BwdfiecDV ovK eXadev dAA' epL-qvvOiq- /cat yevopuevajv 

^ eVxf F.C.B. : c?xf. 
- Pantazides would place Kai after ' KpeTa(pi\q.. 

* Who killed her husband Alexander. Cf. Moralia^ 
856 A ; Xenophon, Hellenica, vi. 4. 35-37 ; Diodorus, xvi. 
14 ; Cicero, De divinatione^ i. 25 (53), De inventionet ii. 49 

542 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 255-256 

people of Cyrene, not only ordered the murder of 
many persons, but killed with his own hand Melan- 
ippus the priest of Apollo, and took the priesthood 
himself. He also killed Phaedimus the husband of 
Aretaphila, and made Aretaphila his unwiUing wife. 
In addition to his other unnumbered acts of lawless- 
ness, he stationed guards at the gates, who maltreated 
the dead that were being borne to the grave, prod- 
ding them with daggers, and applying red-hot irons 
to them, so that none of the citizens should be secretly 
carried out in the guise of a corpse. 

Even for Aretaphila her o\mi troubles were hard 
enough to bear, although the despot, because of his 
love for her, granted her the fullest enjoyment 
of his power, for he was quite vanquished by her, 
and with her alone did he conduct himself civilly, 
being relentless and brutal in all else. But even so, 
the piteous and undeserved suffering of her country 
distressed her the more ; for one citizen after another 
was slaughtered, and there was no hope of vengeance 
from any quarter ; for the exiles, altogether weak 
and timid, were scattered here and there and every- 
where. So Aretaphila, risking herself as the sole 
remaining hope for the common weal, and emulating 
the glorious and far-famed daring of Thebe " of 
Pherae, but being destitute of faithful supporters 
in the household, such as the circumstances pro- 
vided for Thebe, undertook to dispatch her husband 
by poison. In preparing, procuring, and testing 
many potent mediums she did not go unnoticed, 
but was betrayed. And when proofs were presented, 

(144) and De officiis, ii. 7 (25) ; Valerius Maximus, ix. 13, 
ext. 4. Theopompus wrote an account of this (as Plutarch 
says, Moraliut 1093 c). 

543 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(256) iXeyxcov, KaX^ta fxev tj tov Nt/co/cparoi'S' /atJtt^p, 
(f)vaeL <j)ovLKr] yvvr) /cat aTrapairiqTOS , evdvs cpero 
Setv dvaipetv alKCGafxevr^v^ rrjv ^ Ap€Ta(f)iXav' tov 
8e NcKOKpoLTOvg fieXXrjOLV iverroUi rfj opyfj Kal 
aaOeveiav 6 epa>g, Kal to ttjv ^ApeTacjyiXav eppco- 
jjLevoJS ojjioore ■)(ojp€Zv tols KaTTiyopiaig dfivvovcrav 
eavTrj Trpo^auiv rtva tw irdQei Trapetp^ev. errel he 
KaTeXapL^dveTO tols iXdyxoLS Kal ttjv TrapaoKevrjV 
TTJg (j)appiaK€Las ia)pa pur} Sexopievrjv dpvqGiv, 
C 6L>/xoAoyet, TTapeoKevdodat 8' ovk oXeOpiov (f)ap- 
/xa/cetW* " dAA' vTrep pbeydXajv/' elirev, " w dvep, 
dycovL^opiaL, ttjs arjs evvoias Trpos e^ae Kal So^rjs 
Kal SvvdpL€Cjos, rjv Sid ere KapirovpiaL iroXXals em- 
(fyOovos ovcra KaKais yvvai^iv c5v </>ap/xa/ca he- 
hoLKvla Kal pbr^xavds eTreiodiqv dvTLpirjxo.i^'^crcL(^0CLL, 
pLOjpa pL€v LGCos Kal yvvaiKelay davdTOV 8* ovk d'^ta* 
ttXt^v et KpiTTJ aoL 8o^€ie </)tArpajv evcKa Kal yorj- 
retas" KTCtvai yvvaiKa, nXeiov t) av jSouAet (fjiXelodaL 
Seoptevrjv." 
J) TotavTa TTjv *Ap€Ta(f)iXav dTToXoyovpuev-qv eSofe 
Tcp Nt/coAcpdret ^aoaviaai- Kal ttjs KaX^las 
ecf)€GTa)or]s dTeyKTov Kal aTrapatTT^rou, rat? jSacrct- 
voLS dveKpive- Kal hi€(fivXaTTev avTTjV diJTTrjTov ev 
TOLS dvdyKais dxpt Kal ttjv KaA^tav diroKapLelv 
aKovaav.^ 6 8e Nt/co/cpdrT^S' d(j)rJK6 TTeicrOels Kai 
jLterevoet ^aaavLcras' Kal xpoyov ov ttoXvv 8taAt77cbv 
avdis TjKev VTTO tov TTadovs els aVTTJV (f>€p6pL€VOS, 
Kal crvvijv avdis dvaXapL^dvcov TipiaZs Kal </>tAo- 
<f)po<Jvvais TTjv evvoiav. 7) 8' ovk e/iteAAe ;\;dptTOS" 

* alKLcraiJ.eurji'] alKiad/uLeuov Meziriacus. 

' &Kovaav] KaKovaav S. A. Naber, wrongly as dveKpive (just 
above) shows. 
544 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 256 

Calbia, Nicocrates's mother, who was by nature 
bloodthirsty and inexorable, felt that she ought 
to make away with Aretaphila after torturing her. 
But Nicocrates' love had the effect of tempering his 
anger with procrastination and weakness, and the fact 
that Aretaphila vigorously met the accusations and 
defended herself against them provided some excuse 
for his attitude. But when she was apprehended 
by the proofs, and saw that her preparations for the 
poisoning admitted no denial, she confessed, but said 
that she had prepared no fatal poisoning. " No, my 
dear," said she, " my striving is for very important 
things, your affection for me, and the repute and 
influence which I enjoy because of you, and so am an 
object of envy to bad women. It was fear of their 
potions and devices that led me to invent some 
devices to counteract them. It was foolish and 
feminine perhaps, but not deserving of death, 
unless you as judge decide to put to death because 
of love-potions and charms a woman who yearns for 
more love than you are willing to grant her." 

In spite of this defence of Aretaphila's, Nicocrates 
decided to have her put to the torture, and, with 
Calbia standing by, relentless and inexorable, he 
tested her in this way. She sustained herself with 
indomitable courage under the torments until even 
Calbia unwillingly gave over ; and Nicocrates was 
convinced, and acquitted her, and was sorry that he 
had caused her to be tortured ; and after no long 
time he came back again, impelled towards her by 
his passion for her, and resumed the old relations, 
and tried through honours and acts of kindness to 
regain her goodwill. But she, who had been trium- 



545 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

-qrraadai KpariqaaGa ^aadvojv /cat ttovcdv, dAAd 
TO) (fyiXoKaXo) <j)LXovLKias^ TrpocrycvofJLcvTjs iripas 
riTTTero pirix(ivr\s. 
E '^Hi^ yap avrrj Ovydr-qp dvhpos wpav exovaa koX 
rrjv oifjLV LKavrf' ravTiqv V(f)rJK€ rdSeA^ol rod 
Tvpdvvov SeXeap, ovri fxeLpaKLO) vpos rjSovds 
evaXdoTO). ttoXvs 8e Xoyos iorl xp'^^^y^^^^ yo-qrela 
Kal (jyapfidKois €ttI rfj Koprj rrjv 'Apera^tAav, 
X^LpcLoaadaL Kal hia^Oelpai rod veavlorKov rov 
Xoyicjpiov' eKaXelro 8e AeavSpos. iirel S' rjXwKet. 
Kal XnrapriGas rov dSeX(f)6v ervx^ tov ydp,ov, rd 
jjLev Tj Koprj TTaprjyev avrov vtto rrjs fJLrjTpos 8tSacr/co- 
fjbdvr] Kal dveTretdev iXevdepovv ttjv ttoXlv, d)S pbrjh^ 
F avTOV iXevdepov eV rvpavvihi t,a)VTa /ii^Se rov 
Xa^elv ydjJLOv -r) ^vXd^ai Kvpiov ovra, rd 8' ol 
<f>iXoi rfj 'Apera^tAa ;;^a/DtJo/xeyot Sca^oXds rtvas 
det Kal vTTOVoias Kar€(JK6vat,ov avrco irpos rov 
dbeXcfyov. cos 8' fjodero Kal rrjv ^Kpera^iXav rd 
avrd^ ^ovXevopLevr^v Kal a7rovSdl,ovaav, eTrex^ip^L 
ro epyovy^ Kal Ad(f)VLv OLKerrjv irapopixT^aas aTreKreuve 
8t' eK€LVov rov l^LKOKpdrrjv. rd Xomd 8* ovKeri 
rfj ^ Kpera(j)iXa Trpoaelx^v, dAA' evdvs €8etf€ rols 
epyoLs dSeX(f)OKr6vos ov rvpavvoKrovos yeyovois' 
257 Tjpx^ ydp ipLTrX-qKraJS Kal dvoi^rcos. rijxr] Se ris 
opLcos rjv rijs 'Apera^tAa? Trap' avrco Kal BvvafiLs, 
ovK dTTexOavojjLevrjs ovSe TToXefjLovdrjs dvriKpvs 
dAA' dhriXojs hiararrovo-qs rd Trpdypiara. rrpcorov 
fiev ydp avrco Al^vkov VTreKcvrjae TToXe/juov, 'Avd- 

^ (piXof i K las F.C.^.: (piXoPeiKias. 

^ Uavr)] KaXr] S. A. Naber, wrongly, for the second sentence 
below shows that her beauty was not overpowering. 
3 rd avra] Tavra Dinse, proper but not necessary. 
* TO ifryoy] Ty ^pyci) Turnebus. 

54,6 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 256-257 

phant over tortures and pain, had no intention of 
being vanquished by a show of favour, and, with 
eagerness for victory added to her eagerness for the 
honourable and good, she resorted to another device. 
She was fortunate in having a daughter of marriage- 
able age, rather good-looking. Her she dangled as 
a bait before the despot's brother, who was a young 
man and an easy prey to pleasures. There is much 
talk to the effect that Aretaphila, by using charms 
and love-poticns on the girl, got the youth in hand and 
upset his reasoning powers. His name was Leander. 
When he had been captivated, and, by importuning 
his brother, had gained his consent to the marriage, 
the girl, on the one hand, instructed by her mother, 
tried to influence him and to induce him to set the 
city free, arguing that not even he himself was living 
as a free man under the despotism, and had not even 
warrant to contract a marriage or to keep to it ; 
and, on the other hand, his friends, thinking to do a 
favour to Aretaphila, suggested to his mind certain 
prej udices and suspicions against his brother. When he 
discovered that Aretaphila was planning and working 
to the same end, he undertook the deed, and by 
urging on Daphnis a servant, through him he slew 
Nicocrates. For the rest, he no longer paid any 
attention to Aretaphila, but straightway showed 
by his deeds that he had made away with his brother, 
but not wdth the despot ; for he ruled in a crazy 
and foolish way. Nevertheless there remained >vith 
him some respect for Aretaphila and some influence 
on her part, as she was not hateful to him and not 
directly hostile, but carried on her activities in his 
affairs unknown to him. First she secretly stirred up 
a war with the Africans for him by persuading a 

547 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(257) jSow TLva Treicjaaa hvvdarrjv rr]v -xcjpav €7n8pafjL€tv 
Kal rrj TToXei TTpocrayayelv, eVetra 8te^aAe rovs 
^lXovs Kal rovs Grparrjyovs irpos rov AeavSpov, 
COS" TToXefjLelv ovk ovras TTpodvjxovs, elpi^vrjs Se 
fxdXXov Seofxevovs Kal tjovx^cl?, t]^ Kal ra Trpay/xara 
TTodelv avTov Kal rrjv rvpavvlSa, ^ovXopiivov 

B jSe^atoj? KpareZv tojv ttoXitwv avrr) Se rrpd^eiv 
e(f)7] rds SiaXv(7€LS Kal rov ^Avd^ovv els Xoyovs 
avTO) Gvvd^eiv, idv KeXevrj, Trplv dvTjKeGTOv tl rov 
TToXepLov i^epydcracrOat. KeXevoavros Se rod Aeav- 
SpoVy TTporepov avrr) rep Al^vi dieXixdrjy avXXa^eiv 
deopievrj rov rvpavvov inl Scopeals fieydXais Kal 
XpTJP'aoLVy orav els Xoyovs avrco Trapayiviqrai, 
veLordevros Be rod Ai^vos, cjKvei jxev 6 AeavSpos, 
alSecrdels 8e rrjv ^AperacfylXav avrrjv Trapeaeodai 
(jidoKovaav, e^rjXdev dvorrXos Kal d'jyvXaKros. d)S 
8' iyyvs rjXde Kal rov ^Avd^ovv elSev, au^ts" eSuor- 
XepaLve Kal irepipLeveLV e^ovXero rovs hopv^opovs' 

Q 9) S' ^Apera^iXa irapovoa ra fjuev iOdppvvev avrov 
ra S* eKdKit^e' reXos 8e yevopuev-qs hiarpL^rjs, 
e(j)eXKVGapLev7] rrjs X^^P^^ Irap^cos irdvv Kal reOap- 
prjKoroJS rTpo(jr\yaye rep ^ap^dpcp Kal TrapehoiKev. 
evdvs oSv dvTjpTTauro Kal avvelXr^TTro Kal SeOels 
V7t6 rojv Al^vcov errjpelro, dxpi- ov rd p^pT^/xara 
rfj ^ Apera(j>iXa Kopcl^ovres ol (J)lXol rrapeyevovro 
fxerd rcjv dXXojv TToXirojv. TTvOofxevoL yap ol TrXeZ^ 
or 01 e^eSpapiOV errl rrjv TTapaKX-qcriv' (hs 8' elbov 
TTjv ^Apera(j)lXav, oXtyov^ eSerjoav eKXadeudai rrjs 
TTpos rov rvpavvov opyfjs, Kal rrdpepyov rip^ eKelvov 

.> dXiyov in Hutten's edition : dXiyov, however, the reading 
of the Mss., may stand. 

548 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 257 

certain potentate Anabus to overrun the country 
and lead his army against the city ; then she falsely 
accused to Leander his friends and generals, intima- 
ting that they were not zealous in carrying on the war, 
but wanted rather peace and quiet, which his cir- 
cumstances and despotism required, as he wished to 
hold secure his power over the citizens. She said 
that she herself would effect the reconciliation, and 
would get Anabus to come to a conference \vith him, 
if he would but give the word, before the war should 
have wrought some irremediable ill. When Leander 
gave the word, she herself had a talk ^\^th the African 
beforehand, in which she desired him, on the promise 
of many presents and much money, to seize the 
despot when he should come to the conference with 
him. When the African had been won over, Leander 
was hesitant, but, abashed before Aretaphila, who 
said that she would be present herself, he went forth 
unarmed and unattended. When he came near 
and saw Anabus, he again felt uneasy, and wanted 
to wait for his bodyguard. But Aretaphila, who was 
there, at one moment encouraged him, and the next 
called him a coward. Finally, as a delay ensued, 
she, quite impulsively and boldly dragging him by 
the hand, brought him up to the barbarian and 
handed him over. Instantly he was seized and 
made a prisoner, and, after having been put in 
bonds, was kept under watch by the Africans, until 
Aretaphila's friends, who were bringing the money 
for her, arrived, accompanied by the rest of the 
citizens. For almost all of them, on hearing the 
news, ran out at the call. When they saw Areta- 
phila, they came near forgetting their anger against 
the despot, and considered vengeance upon him a 

549 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

D TLfxojpiav ev6ixit,ov epyov Se npcoTov "^v avrols koX 

(257) ctTToAaucTjLta t7)s iXevOepias eKeiviqv daTrdaaadaL 

{jberd x^P^S '^^^^ SaKpvojv, wdnep ayaA/xart Oeov 

TTpoGTTiTTTovras . (xAAcov 8' cV ctAAot? eTTLppeovrcav, 

fioXis ioTTTepag rov Aiavh pov TrapaXapovreg €77- 

avrjXOoV €L9 TTjV TToXiV. i7T€L §6 TCJV TLfJUaJV TTJS 

* Ap€ra(j>iXas koX rGiv eTraivcov iveTrXi^crdrjorav, ovrco 
rpaTTOfievoi Trpos rovs rvpdvvovs rrjv puev KaAjStav 
^cbaav KareKavaav, rov he AeavSpov ivpdifjavres 
elg pvpcrav KaTeTTovriaav. tj^lovv 8e rrjv 'Apera- 
(fjiXav Gvvdpx^LV /cat GwhioiKeiv rols dplaroLg dv- 
E ^pdat rrjv iroXireiav. rj 8' cog ttolklXov tv hpd[xa 
Kal TToXvfjLepes dyajvLGafJuivrj piixP'' crrc^avou 8ta- 
Socrecos", cos" €Trelhe tyjv ttoXlv iXevdepav, cvdvg elg 
rr]v yvvaiKOJvlriv Ivehvero, Kal rov TToXvirpay- 
liovelv oTiovv TTapa^aXXopbivrf^ rov Xoittov xP^v^v 
iv iUToZg rjGvxiOLV dyovcra /xera rcov ^iXoiv Kal 
oiKeicov SiereXeaev. 

XX. KAMMA 

*Hcrav iv TaXarla SwarcoraroL rcov rerpapxcov 
KOLi n Kal Kara yevog Trpocr-qKovreg dXXijXoig 
Stmro? T€ Kal llivopL^^' d)v 6 llivdrog yvvaiKa 
TTapOevov ecr;^e Kctjit/xav ovofia, Trepi^XcTrrov fxkv 
F tSeo. Gcofxarog Kal a)pa, davixat^ojjievrjv Se [idXXov 
8t' dperijv' ov yap [xovov oax^pcov Kal (jyiXavhpog, 
dXXd Kal Gwerrj Kal pLeyaXocjypcov Kal TTodeivrj roig 

^ irapa^aWoixevri] irepi^aWoix^vq in some MS3. 
2 -^iviypi^ probably the correct spelling : avvbpi^. 

" The Cup, a drama by Alfred Lord Tennyson, follows 
closely Plutarch's story of Camma, which inspired it. The 
play (published in 1884) may be found in Tennyson's 

550 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 257 

secondary concern. Their first concern in the enjoy- 
ment of their freedom was to greet her with joy 
and tears, prostrating themselves before her as 
before the statue of a god. As the people surged 
on, one close upon another, it was with difficulty that 
by evening they took over Leander and returned to 
the city. When they had had their fill of honours 
and praises for Aretaphila, they then turned their 
attention to the despots. Calbia they burned alive, 
and Leander they sewed up in a leathern sack and 
sank in the depths of the sea. They asked that 
Aretaphila, as her proper due, should share ^vith the 
best citizens in the control and management of the 
government. But she, as one who had played through 
a drama of varying sort and of many roles up to the 
winning of the prize, when she saw the city free, 
withdrew at once to her own quarters among the 
women, and, rejecting any sort of meddling in affairs, 
spent the rest of her life quietly at the loom in the 
company of her friends and family. 

XX. CAMMA" 

There were in Galatia two of the most powerful 
of the tetrarchs, distantly related to each other, 
Sinatus and Sinorix. One of these, Sinatus, had 
married a maiden, Camma by name, conspicuous for 
her form and beauty, but even more admired for her 
virtues. Not only was she modest and fond of her 
husband, but she was also quick-witted and high- 
collected works. It was presented at the Lyceum Theatre 
in 1881 by Henry Irving and ran for over one hundred and 
thirty nights. Certainly the account of Gamma's death does 
not lack dramatic quality. 

Plutarch repeats the story in Moralia, 768 b, and Poly- 
aenus, Strategemata^ viii. 39, also gives his version, 

551 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIAH 

VTTTjKOOL? rjv Sia(f)€p6vrO)9 VTT* €VfX€V€LaS Kai XPV 

GTOTTjTos' i7n(f)o.v€GTepav 8* avTTjv eTToiei koL to 
rrjs 'Apre^tSos" lepeiav elvai, riv ^aAtcrra FaAarat 
ae^ovGL, TTepi re TTOfiTrag del /cat dvuias KeKOorpirj- 
fxevr^v opdaOai {jLeyaXonpeTraJS. 

^Eipaodels ovv avrrjs 6 HuvopL^y Kol pLi^re Tzetcrat 
jjL'qTe ^cdaaGOaL ^a)vros rod dvSpos Bvvaros wv, 
epyov elpydoaro heivov drreKreive yap hoXco rov 
^ivarov, Kol )(p6vov ov rroXvv StaAtTTcov ijjLvdro rrjv 
258 Ka/x/xav ev rw lepcp TroiovfJievrjv SiarpL^dg /cat 
^epovGav ovK OLKrpoJs /cat raveLVCos oAAa Ovfic^ 
vovv exovn /cat Kaipov TrepLfxevovn rrjv rod Stvo- 
ptyos TrapavojjLLav. 6 Se XiTraprjs rjv rrepl ras 
SeT^cret?, /cat Xoycov eSo/cet fxrj TravrdnacrLV drTopelv 
evTrpeTTeiav e^ovrajv, (hs rd fxev dXXa Htvdrov 
^eXriova TrapeaxT^xajs eavrov dveXd)v 8' eKeXvov 
epcort ri]? KajU/i,?]?^ fJirj 8t' erepav rivd TTOvr]piav. 
rjcrav ovp ro rrpcorov dpvijcreis ovk dyav d7Tr]veZs rrjs 
yvvaiKos, etra Kara fjuKpov eSoKet fiaXdrreadar 
B /cat yap ot/cctot /cat ^tAot TTpoaeKeivro depaireia /cat 
xdptn rov Stvdptyos" /xeytcrrov SvvajjLevoVt rrei- 
dovres avrrjv /cat Kara^ial,6p,evoi' reXog Sc gvv- 
e;(dj/)et /cat fjLereTTefiTrero TTpos eavrrjv eKelvov, co? 
rrapd rfj^ deep rrjs (Twaiveaews /cat KaraTTLarcoaecog 
yevrjGOfxevrjg. eXOovra Se Se^afievr] <^iXo^p6va>s 
/cat TTpoaayayovaa rep ^ajpLa) KarecrrreKTev e/c 
^idXr]s, /cat ro fiev i^emev avrrj ro 8* eKelvov 

* KdjUL/jL-ns Hatzidakis : Kd/j-fxas. 

* TTJ Xylander, presumably from Polyaenus, StraUgemata, 
viii. 39 : ry, 

552 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 257-258 

minded, and unusually dear to her inferiors by reason 
of her kindness and benevolence. A thing that 
brought her into greater prominence was the fact 
that she was the priestess of Artemis, w^hom the 
Galatians especially reverence, and was seen magni- 
ficently attired always in connexion with the pro- 
cessions and sacrifices. 

So Sinorix fell in love with her, and not being 
able to prevail upon her either by persuasion or 
force as long as her husband lived, he committed 
a horrible deed, and treacherously killed Sinatus. 
Then, \\'ithout allowing much time to elapse, he 
commenced to woo Camma, who was spending time in 
the temple and bearing Sinorix 's lawless transgres- 
sion in no pitiful nor abject manner, but with a 
spirit that showed sense and bided its time. He was 
persistent in his suit, and seemed not to be at all at 
a loss for arguments that had some plausibiUty, to 
the effect that in all other respects he had shown 
himself a better man than Sinatus, and had made 
away with him for love of Camma and not because 
of any other nefarious intent. The woman's denials 
at the first were not too peremptory, and later, little 
by little, she appeared to be softened ; for her rela- 
tives and friends also brought pressure to bear upon 
her by way of service and favour to Sinorix, who held 
such very great power, and they tried to persuade 
and coerce her. Finally she yielded, and sent for 
him to come to her, on the ground that the consenting 
and pledging should take place in the presence of 
the goddess. ^Vhen he had come, she received him 
kindly and, having led him to the altar, poured a 
Hbation from a bowl, then drank a portion herself 
and bade him drink the rest ; it was poisoned mixture 

553 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(258) eKeXevuev rjv 8e Tre^a/DjLtay/xeVov fjueXiKparov, d)s 
S' elSe TTeTTcoKOTa, XafJLTrpov dvcxjXoXv^e /cat rrjv 
deov TTpodKVvqGaaa, " [xaprvpo [xai ae," elTrev, " co 
7ToXvrlixrjT€ SoLjJLOV, on ravT-q? eVe/ca rrjs 'qjxipas 
eTTe^Tycra ro) Stvarou ^ovco, XP^^^'^ roaovrov ovhkv 
C aTToXavovGa^ rod ^iov ^^prjUTOV aAA' rf ttjv iXTrlBa 
rrjs SiKTjSi "^v exovaa Kara^aLvoj Trpos rov ifiov 
dvSpa. aol 8*, c5 ttolvtcdv dvoaiihrare dvdpojTTOJV, 
rd(j)ov dvrl OaXdpLov Kal ydfjuov TrapaGKevat^eTOjcrav 
ol irpoGTiKovTes*' 

Tavra S' aKovoas 6 VaXdrris Kal rod (l)apixdKov 
Spwvrog rjSr] /cat Sta/ctvo wro? to crcojLta avvatordo- 
fjLevos ine^r^ [xev oxT^piaTO? ca? (rdXcp /cat TLvaypLO) 
Xpridopievos , e^iarr] Se irapaxprjpia /cat jLterajSa? 
etV (f)op€LOV ioTTepa? diredavev. rj Se Ka/XjLta 
Stevey/couCTa tt^v vvKra /cat irvOopbevr] reXos e^^tr 
€KeZvov, evdvfjiOJS /cat IXapcog Karecrrpetpev. 

XXI. STPATONIKH 

ITapeorxe 8* t^ FaAarta /cat ^rparovLKTjV ttjv 
r^ ^Tjiordpov /cat \i,opidpav tt^v ^OpridyovroSy d^ias 
pivripL-qs yvvaiKag. 

'H jLtev ow TiTparovLKr] heopLevov yvrjGLCOV TralScjov 
€77t SLaSoxfj TTJs jSacrtAetas" iTncrrapLevr] rov dvhpa, 
fjiTj TLKTOvora 8' auTTy avv€7T€La€v i^ irepag yvvaiKos 
TTatSoTTOLrjadiJievov avrfj ro Traihiov TrepaheZv vtto- 
^aXX6p.€vov. rod 8c ATjiordpov nqv re yvcopbrjv 
Oavfidaavros Kal ttclv iir* avrfj TTOirjuapiivov , 
TTapdevov €V7Tp€Tr7J TTapadKevdaaaa rcjv at;^/>taAc6- 

* d7roXai;oi;(ra Wyttenbach : aToKa^ova-a, cf. 259 E, 272 f. 
2 dW ij Bernardakis : dXXd. 

554 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 258 

of milk and honey. When she saw that he had 
drunk, she uttered a clear cry of joy, and, prostrating 
herself before the goddess, said, " I call you to 
witness, goddess most revered, that for the sake of 
this day I have lived on after the murder of Sinatus, 
and during all that time I have derived no comfort 
from hfe save only the hope of justice ; and now 
that justice is mine, I go down to my husband. But 
as for you, wickedest of all men, let your relatives 
make ready a tomb instead of a bridal chamber 
and a wedding." 

When the Galatian heard these words, and felt the 
poison already working and creating a disturbance 
in his body, he mounted a chariot as if to try shaking 
and jolting as a relief, but he got out almost immedi- 
ately and changed over into a htter, and in the 
evening he died. Camma endured through the 
night, and when she learned that he had come to his 
end, she died cheerful and happy. 

XXI. STRATONICE 

Galatia produced also Stratonice the wife of Deio- 
tarus and Chiomara the wife of Ortiagon, women 
that deserve to be remembered. 

Stratonice, well knowing that her husband desired 
children from her to succeed to the kingdom, but 
having no child herself, prevailed upon him to have 
a child by another woman, and to connive at its 
being passed off as her own. Deiotarus thought 
highly of the idea, and did everything in dependence 
upon her judgement, and she procured a comely 

555 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(258) TOjv ovojJLa 'HAeVrpav avvelp^e rco Arjiordpo), Kal 
rovs y€VO[JL€Vovs TraZSas wGTrep yvrjalovg avrrjs 
edpeifje (jyiXoGTopycos Kal /xcyaAoTrpeTrais". 

XXII. XIOMAPA 

^LOfJidpav 8e avve^r] ttjv ^OpridyovTos at;^ju.a- 
E XcjjTov yeveadai fierd rcov dXXcov yvvacKcov, 6t€ 
'PcofioiOL Kal Tvalog iviKrjGav [Jidxij rovs iv 'Acrta 
FaAaras-. o 8e Xa^cbv avrrjv ra^lapxos ixprj(^0LTO 
TTJ rvxj) crrpaTLcoTLKcbs kol KarrjGxvvev rjv S' dpa 
Kal TTpos rjSovrjV Kal dpyvpiov djJLadrjs Kal^ aKparr^s 
dv9pa)7T05' rjTTiqOrj 8' ojjlo)? vtto tt^s <^iXapyvpias, 
Kal xP^^^ov avx^ov hioixoXoyrjOivros VTrkp Trjg 
yvvauKo?, riyev avrrjv dTroXvrpcxJcrajv, TTorafXov 
F TLV09 iv fjLeao) hieipyovrog. (hs 8e StajSavre? ol 
TaXdrai to xP^^^^^ eSojKav avrco Kal TrapeXdfi- 
^avov TTjv ^LOfidpav, rj /xev dno vevfiaros irpoo- 
era^ev ivl Tralaai rov 'PcDjLtatov da7Tal,6ixevov 

aVTTjV Kal (f)LXo(f)pOVOVljL€VOV €K€LVOV Sc 7T€LGdivrOS 

Kal TTjV Ke^aXrjv aTTOKoipavrog, dpajjievr] Kal nepi- 
oreiXaGa rols koXttols aTT-qXavvev. ws 8' ■^XOe 
TTpos Tov dvhpa Kal ttjv K€(f)aXr]v avrco Trpoe^aXev, 
€K€ivov davfidaavros Kal eliTovTos, " c5 yvvai, 
KaXov Tj TriariSy' " vat,'' ^iTreVy " aXXd KdXXiov 
€va jiovov l,rjv ifjLol Gvyyeyevqixevov." 

^ d/nadTjs Kal] Cobet would omit. 

*» This is printed as one of the fragments of Polybius, xxi. 
38 (xxii. 21), from whom it is possible that Plutarch copied 
the story. Cf. also Livy, xxxviii. 24 ; Valerius Maximus, 
vi. 1, ext. 2 ; Florus, Epitome of Roman History t i. 27. 6 
(it. 11. 6). 

556 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 258 

maiden from among the prisoners, Electra by name, 
and sealed her to Deiotarus. The children that were 
bom she brought up with loving care and in royal 
state as if they had been her own. 

XXII. CHIOMARA « 

It came to pass that Chiomara, the wife of Ortiagon, 
was made a prisoner of war along ^\'ith the rest of the 
women at the time when the Romans under Gnaeus ^ 
overcame in battle the Galatians in Asia. The 
officer '^ who obtained possession of her used his good 
fortune as soldiers do, and dishonoured her. He was, 
naturally, an ignorant man with no self-control when 
it came to either pleasure or money. He fell a 
victim, however, to his love of money, and when a 
very large sum in gold had been mutually agreed 
upon as the price for the woman, he brought her to 
exchange for the ransom to a place where a river, 
flowing between, formed a boundary. When the 
Galatians had crossed and given him the money and 
received Chiomara, she, by a nod, indicated to one 
man that he should smite the Roman as he was 
affectionately taking leave of her. And when the 
man obediently struck off the Roman's head, she 
picked it up and, wrapping it in the folds of her 
garment, departed. When she came to her husband 
and threw the head down before him, he said in 
amazement, " A noble thing, dear wife, is fidelity." 
" Yes," said she, " but it is a nobler thing that only 
one man be alive who has been intimate with me." ^ 

^ Gnaeus Manlius Vulso ; the battle took place in 189 b.c, 
" A centurion, according to the Roman account. 
** " Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in iliis." 

557 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Tavrjj jiev 6 YioXv^ios ^tjgi 8 to, Xoywv iv SapSeat 
yevojjievos Oavfjidaai ro re (f)p6vrj[jia /cat rrjv avveaiv, 

259 XXIII. rXNAION nEPrAMHNONi 

'EvT-et Se ^\l9 pihoLTTis l^-qKovra VaXarcjv rovg 
dpLGTOVs ixeraireixipdixevos et? Yiipyafxov cu? (j^iXovs, 
v^pLGTLKCos eSo/cet /cat heorroriKcos tt pocr^epeGO ai, 
/cat TTcivres rjyavaKTOVV, Ylop-qSopi^ ,^ dvrjp ro re 
Gajpia pajfxaXeos /cat t-j^i^ xpvxriv Siacfiepcov (rju Se 
TocrtajTroiv^ rerpdpx'^s), dveSe^aro rov M.LdpiSdrr]Vj 
orav iv rep ^Tj/jLan iv* yvp^vacriO) ■)(prip.aTit,rj orvv" 
apTrdoras a>G6iv a/xa gvv avro) Kara rrjs (f)dpayyos. 
Tvxj] Se Tti^t rrjs -qpipas e/cetVi]? ovk dva^dvros els 
TO yvpvdaiov avrov, ixeraTTep.rrop^ivov Se rovs 

B FaAaras" ot/caSc, dappelv Trape/caAet, /cat orap' ej/ 
ravro) yevcomai, StacrTraaat ro crcD/xa /cat Sta- 
cfydeipat TravraxoOev irpoaTTeGovras. rovr ovk eXade 
Tov MiOpiSdrrjv, dXXd p,r]vvGea)S yevopiiviqs, Kad* 
eva rwv TaXarojv TrapeSlSov G(j)ayT]a6pL€Vov' etrd 
7T0JS dvapLV-qGOels veavtGKOv ttoXv rrpoixovros^ a)pa 
/cat KdXXeL Tcov Kad^ avrov (pKnpe /cat ^erevdet* 
/cat SijXos rjv dx^op^evos cos iv TrpcoroLs dTToXojXoros, 
opLcos S* eVejLti/fej/, el l,a)V evpeOelrj, p^edelvai KeXevojv 
■QV 8* ovo/xa ro) veaviGKco BryTzoAtravos'. /cat rtj 
avrcp TVX'T] davp^aorrj GweireGe' KaXrjv yap iGdrjra 

C /cat TT-oAureA^ GvveXijcftOrj (f)opa)V' rjv 6 So^/xtos" av- 

^ The title (not in the mss.) was added by Xy lander. 

2 HoprjdopL^ an early correction: iroprjddpa^. 

^ TocrtwTrw/'] 'To\LaTo^u)'yu}v Wyttenbach : TeKroadyup sug- 
gested by Bernardakis on the basis of inscriptional evidence, 
but certainty is impossible. * ii^ added by F.C.B. 

^ 7rpo^XO''7-o? Wyttenbach : ■wpoix^^'^o'; irpwTfivaavTo^. 

** Cf. Appian, The Mithradatic Wars^ vii. 46. 
558 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 258-259 

Polybius says that he had a conversation \vith this 
woman in Sardis, and that he admired her good 
sense and intelhgence. 

XXIII. A WOMAN OF PERGAMUM 

When Mithradates,** after sending for sixty of the 
noblest of Galatians to come to Pergamum as friends, 
seemed to comport himself arrogantly and despoti- 
cally toward them, and all were indignant, Poredorix, 
a man of great bodily strength and of unusual spirit, 
tetrarch of the Tosiopians, undertook, when Mithra- 
dates should be hearing cases on the tribunal in a 
gymnasium, to seize hold of it suddenly and precipi- 
tate him, tribunal and all, down into the ravine. But 
by some chance Mithradates did not go up to the 
gymnasium on that day, but sent for the Galatians 
to come to his house, whereupon Poredorix urged 
them to keep up their courage and, when they all 
should be met together there, to rend Mithradates 
limb from limb, and kill him, by falling upon him from 
all sides at once. Knowledge of this came to Mithra- 
dates through the agency of some informer, and he 
dehvered over the Galatians one by one to be exe- 
cuted. A Httle later, happening to remember a 
young man who, in comeliness and beauty, far sur- 
passed those of his age, he felt sorry for him and 
changed his mind. It was plain that he was much 
distressed, since the youth had probably been put to 
death among the first ; yet he sent orders that, if 
the youth should be found aUve, they should let him 
go. The young man's name was Bepolitanus, and a 
marvellous piece of luck befell him in this wise : 
when he was arrested he was wearing very beautiful 
and costly clothing, which the executioner wished to 

559 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(259) OL^l^oLKTOv avTco Kal Kadapav Sta^uAafat PovXofievoSf 
Kal oLTToSvcov r)p€fxa^ tov veaviGKOv, elhe rovs Trapa 
rod ^aGiXecos Trpoadeovrag ajxa Kal rovvojjLa rov 
fxeLpaKLOv ^ooJVTas. rov p^ev ovv ^riTToXiravov rj 
TToXXovs OLTToXeoaaa (jiiXapyvpia hieocoaev a-rrpoa- 

SoKT^TCOS. 

*0 8e YloprjSopi^^ KaraKOTTelg dracfyo? ef^jSe- 
pXrjTO, Kal Tojv (f)iXojv oz'Set? iroXp^rjae TTpooreXdelv 
yvvaiov 8e IT epya/xi^ vo v, eyvojGpievov d^' (Lpas 
^covTL^ rep TaXdrj] iTapeKivhvvevoe ddifjaL Kal Trepi- 
D crretAat rov veKpov jjaOovro 8* ol (f)vXaK€£ koI 
GvXXa^ovres dvriyayov irpos rov ^acrtAea. Xeyerat 
fiev ovv TL Kal irpos ttjv oiJjlv avrrj? TradeXv 6 
Mt^ptSctTTys", vea? TTavTOLTTacrL Kal aKOLKov rrj^ 
TTaihiaKTis cf)av€i(jrjg' en 8e p,dXXov cu? €olk€ rrjv 
air Lav yvovs ipa)rLKrjv ovaav iTreKXaodr} Kal ovv- 
e-x^LxjpriGev dveXiaOai Kal ddipai rov veKpov iadrJTa 
Kal KOGpLov €/c Tcjjv €K€ivov Xa^ovaav, 

XXIV. TIMOKAEIA 

Qeay€vr]g 6 Srjpalos, 'E77a/>t€tvaji^8a Kal IleAo- 
TTcSa Kal rot? dpiaroLS dvSpdai rrjv avrr^v VTrep rrjs 
TToAeco? AajStov htdvoiav, eTrratcre rrepl rrjv kolvtjv 
TVXf]v rrjs *EAAa8o? ev Xatpojveto,, Kpara>v tJStj Kal 
hiojKCOV rovs Kar avrov dvrLrerayp,evovs. €K€.Ivos 
E yap rfV 6 Trpos rov €p.^orjGavra, " j^^XP^ '^^^ 
hva)K€Ls; " aTTOKpivdpievoSi " p^^XP^ Ma/ceSovtas"/' 

^ -qpip-a. Cobet : drpefxa. 

2 1 1 o/D7?56/)t^ an early correct ioH: irop-qbbpa^. 

3 l^C:iVTi\ '^Cjv TL ! E. Kurtz. 

• Plutarch tells of Timocleia more briefly in his Life of 
560 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 259 

keep, unstained by blood and unsullied, for himself, 
and he was stripping this off in a leisurely way, when 
he saw the messengers from the king running towards 
him and shouting the youth's name. So in the case 
of Bepolitanus, avarice, which has been the undoing 
of many a man, unexpectedly saved his life. 

Poredorix was executed and his body cast forth 
unburied, and not one of his friends dared to go near 
him ; but a woman of Pergamum, who for her loveli- 
ness had been known to the Galatian while he was 
living, took the risk of burying and covering up his 
body. The guards, noticing her, arrested her and 
took her before the king. It is said that Mithra- 
dates* emotions were stirred at the sight of her, as the 
girl appeared altogether young and innocent. A still 
stronger influence very likely came from his having 
learned that love was the reason behind it all ; at any 
rate, he relented andgranted herpermission to remove 
and bury the corpse, and to take for it clothing and 
adornment from what belonged to him. 



XXIV. TIMOCLEIA • 

Theagenes of Thebes, who had come to entertain 
the same aspirations for his city as Epameinondas and 
Pelopidas and the noblest of the Thebans, came to 
grief, involved in the general fortunes of Greece at 
Chaeroneia, when he was already overpowering and 
pursuing the opposing lines. He is the one who, in 
answer to a man who cried out, " How far is your 
pursuit to go ? " said, " As far as Macedonia ! " 

Alexander, chap. xii. (671 a). Cf. also Polyaenus, Strate- 
gemata, viii. 40 ; Hieronymus, Adversus lovinianum, 35; 
Zonaras, iv. 9 (185 b). 

561 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^KiTodavovrL 8' aura) Trepurju aSeA^i^ fiaprvpovcra 
KOLKetvov dperfj yevov? Kal (f)V(Tei fieyav avhpa 
Kal XafiTTpov yevecrdaL' nXr^v ravrr) ye Kal xP''l^'^ov 
OLTToXavaaL n rrj? dperrjs VTrrjp^ev, Mare Kovcf^orepov, 
ouov Tcov KOivwv aTU^T^/xctrcoy els avrrjv rjXOev, 
eveyKeZv. 

'E77£6 ydp eKpdrrjGe Stj ^aiojv ^ AXe^avS pos, d'AAot 
8' aAAa rrjs TToXeojs inopOovv eiriovres, erv^^ ttjv 
Tt^ao/cAeia? oLKuav KaraXa^wv dvOpojiros ovk im- 
eLKTjg ouS' Tjixepos ciAA' v^piarrjs Kal dvorjros' rjpx^ 
8e QpaKLOV TLVOs tXr^g^ Kal ofJLCovvfJLOS t^v tov 
F ^aGiXeojs ovSev 8' ojjlolos. ovre ydp to yevos ovre 
TOV ^iov alSeaOels Trjs yvvaiKos, d)S everrXiqGev 
iavTov olvoVy jnera heiTTVOv e/caAet GwavaiTavoo- 
fiev7]v. Kal TOVTO^ TTepas ovk rjv dXXd Kal xpvaov 
etpfjTei Kal dpyvpov, el tls eirf KeKpufxpLevos vtt* 
avTTJs, TO, jjiev wg dnoXajv Ta 8' d>s e^cov Sid TravTOS 
iv Ta^ei yvvaiKos. rj 8e Se^afxevr] Xa^rjv avTov 
SiSovTos, " dj(f)eXov fJLev," eiTre, " TeOvdvai rrpo 
260 TavTT^s iyoj ttjs vvktos tj t^rjv, Iva^ to yovv aajfxa 
TrdvTOJV aTroXXvfJievcxJv'^ direlpaTov v^pecjs Ste^u- 
Aafa°- TTeTTpayiievojv 8* ovTCJSy e'i ae K-qbepuova 
Kal SearTTOTT^v Kal dvhpa 8et vopbt^eLV, rod 
haipiovos SiSovTog, ovk dTTOGTepijoco ae tcov acov 
epLavTrjr yap 6 tl ^ovXt^gt) opcb yeyevrjpLevrjv. 
ejjiOL Trepi aajjjia kog/jlos tjv Kal dpyvpos iv eK- 
TTCjpLauLv, rjv Tl Kal xpvf^ov Kal P'o/xta/xaros". (1)S 8' 
7} TToAts" TjXioKeTOy TTavTa GvXXa^etv KeXevaaaa ra? 

^ l'\7?s Xylander : eiXi/s. 
'tovto Meziriacus: toOtov. * tva added by F.C.B. 

* diroWvfxei'wu] airoXofxhiaf Cobet. 
• bi€<pv\a^a\ diacpvXd^aL most MSS. : dLa(pv\d^a<xa MeziriaCUS. 

562 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 259-260 

A sister survived him to bear witness that by reason 
of the virtues of the family and his own natural 
endowment he was a great and splendid man. How- 
ever, she had the advantage of getting some benefit 
from her virtues, so that she could bear more lightly 
so much of the general misfortunes as came upon 
her. 

For when Alexander had overpowered the Thebans,* 
and some of his men were going to this part of the 
city, and others to that, and plundering, it happened 
that a man took possession of Timocleia's house who 
was not reasonable or ci\il but arrogant and foolish. 
He was commander of a certain Thracian troop, 
and bore the same name as the king, but was in 
no way like him ; for, without showing the least 
respect for the ancestry or the estate of the woman, 
after he had guzzled his fill of wine, he summoned her 
after dinner to spend the night with him. And this 
was not the end ; he asked for gold and silver, if 
any had been hidden away by her, at one time 
threatening to kill her, at another promising to keep 
her for all time in the position of a Vvife. She, seizing 
upon the hold he offered, said, " Would God I had 
been dead before this night rather than to be alive, 
so that I might at least, when all else is being ravaged, 
have preserved my honour. But, since what has 
been done is done, if I must look upon you as my 
protector, lord, and husband, by God's will, I will 
not deprive you of your own ; for I see that I myself 
have become whatever your will shall decide. I did 
possess personal ornaments and silver fashioned into 
drinking-cups, and there was also some gold and 
money. When the city was being captured, I told 

« In 335 B.C. 

563 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(260) OepaTTavviSag eppupa, fxdXXov Sc KareOefxrjv ct? 
^piap vSojp ovK €Xov' oi58' laaGiv avTo ttoXXol' 
B TTCJfxa yap eTrecm /cat kvkXco 7r€pL7re(f>VK€V vXrj 
avcTKCos. ravra gv jxkv €vrvxoir]s Aa^coi/, ipLol 
8* earai irpos ae jjuaprvpia /cat yvcopCapbaTa ttJ? 
irepl rov olkov evrvxicis /cat XajJLTrporrjTOS.** 

'A/COUO-aS" OVV 6 Ma/Ce8cOV OV 7T€pL€IX€LV€ TT7I^ 

TjfJLepav, dAA' €v9vs e^dSi^ev irrl rov tottov, 'qyov- 
jJLevrjs rrjs Tt//,o/cAetas" /cat rov KrJTrov aTTO/cAeto-at 
/ceAeucras", ottojs atcr^otro /xT^Sets", Kari^aivev iv rep 
XtrcbvL. GTvyepd 8' T^yetro KAco^cb rifiajpos vtto^ 
TTJs TtjLto/cAeta? €(f)€(JTCL)Grjg dvcodev. (hs 8' jjadero 
rfj (f)cov7J Kara) yeyovoros, ttoXXovs /xev aT5ri7 rcSv 
C Xidcuv €TTi(f)epe ttoWovs 8e /cat jueyaAous" at depa- 
TTaiViSeg eTreKvXLvSovv, ctxpt' ov KareKoipav avrov 
Kal Karixojaav . to? 8' eyvcoaav ol Ma/ce8ov€S' /cat 
Tov v€Kp6v dvelXovro KTjpvyfjLarog 77817 yeyovoro? 
fiTjSeva Kreiveiv Qrj^acojv, rjyov avrrjv (JvXXa^ovres 
irrl TOV ^aaiXea /cat Trpoo'T^yyctAaP' to reroXfirj' 
fievov. 6 8e /cat r^ /carao-raoret rou TrpoorcoTTOV 
/cat to) GXoXala) rov paSiGfiaros d^iojpiariKov tl 
Kal yevvalov evihcjv irpajrov dveKpivev avrrjv rig 
€17] yvvaiKcnv. rj 8' dveKTrX-qKrcos iravv /cat 
redapp-qKOTCos etTrev, " e/xot OeayeVi^? '^v a8eA^o?, 
OS €v Xatpcoveta arpanqychv /cat fxaxop^evo? Trpog 
Vjjids vnep rrjg rwv 'EiXXtJvcov iXevdepias eTrecrev, 
OTTCog 'qjJiels fx-qSev toiovtov TrddcopLev iirel he 

^ vTTo] v-rrep Hartman. 

• The poetic expression probably comes from some lyric 
or dramatic poet. It can hardly have been made up by 
Plutarch from Hesiod's Shield of Heracles^ 258. 
5Q4i 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 260 

my maid-servants to get this all together, and I 
thcevf iti or rather deposited it, into a dry well. 
Nor do many know of it ; for there is a cover over 
the well, and a shady wood growing all around it. 
I hope you may be fortunate in obtaining it, and for 
me it will serve as proofs and tokens to you of the 
happy and splendid state of my house." 

When the Macedonian heard this, he could not 
wait for daylight, but went straight to the place under 
the guidance of Timocleia, and, after ordering the 
garden to be shut close, so that nobody should find 
out what was going on, he climbed down into the 
well in his shirt only. An odious Fate led him on,* 
destined to work vengeance upon him at the hands 
of Timocleia standing over him at the top of the well. 
When she could tell by his voice that he had reached 
the bottom, she herself brought many of the stones, 
while her maid-servants rolled in many big ones on 
top until they had beaten him down and completely 
buried him. When the Macedonians came to know 
of this and recovered the corpse, inasmuch as pro- 
clamation had been made before this to kill none of 
the Thebans, they arrested Timocleia and brought 
her to the king, and told of her daring deed. But 
he, seeing in the composure of her countenance 
and her unhurried step an indication of high 
rank and noble blood, first questioned her as to 
who she was among the women. She quite un- 
dauntedly and courageously said, " I had the good 
fortune to have a brother Theagenes, who was a 
general at Chaeroneia and fell there, fighting against 
you Macedonians for the freedom of Greece, that 
we might not have any such experience as we have 
had. But since we have had an experience un- 

VOL. Ill T 565 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(260) 7T€7r6v6aix€v avd^ia rod yevov?, cLTroOavelv ov 
J) <j)evyofjL€V' ovSe yap dfietvov tacog Jcocrav irepa? 
TTeLpdodai vvKTos, €L Gv TOVTO fXT] KcoXvorei?." 

Ot /xev ovv eTTLeuciuTaroi rcov Trapovrojv iSaKpv- 
crav, ^AXe^dvSpci) 8' OLKTcpetv fiev ovk CTTi^et rrjv 
dvdpcoTTOv d)g fiet^ova, davfjidaa? 8e rrjv dperrjv 
Koi Tov Xoyov €v fjidXa KaOaijjdfievov avrov, rots 
fiev rjyefjioaL TTapiqyyeiXe Trpoaex^LV /cat (fyvXdrTeLVy 
fJLT] irdXiv v^pLopia tolovtov et? OLKtav evSo^ov 
yev-qrar ttjv Se Tt/xo/cAetav d(f)rJK€v avriqv re /cat 
TTavras ocrot /caret yivos avrfj TrpoGT^KOvres 
cvpedrjaav. 

XXV. EPTSfi 

Barrou rov €7TiKXrj6evros EuSatjLtoi^os' vlds *Ap- 
E xeaiXaos rjv ovhev dpLoios toj Trarpl rovs rpOTTOVS' 
/cat yap ^cDi^tos" ert Trepl rrjv olKiav TTepidelg 
€7TdX^€L? VTTO TOV TTarpo? i^-qfjiLcvdr] raXdvrcx)' /cat 
reXevrrjaavTOs eKeivov, rovro fiev^ (f)vaeL ■)(aX€7T6s 
(jov (oTTep /cat eVe/cArj^T^), rovro 8e ^tAa> TTOvrjpw, 
Aadpxqj, XPOJ/xei^o? ai^rt ^aaiXecxis iyeyoveu rvpav- 
vos. 6 Se Adapxos^ eTn^ovXevajv rfj rvpavvihi /cat 
rovs dpiorovs rdJv l^vprjvaLOJv e^eXavvojv ri 
4>ov€V(jjv, inl rov 'Ap/cecrtAaov ra? air las erpeire' 
F cat reAos" iKelvov fxev els vogov ifx^aXcbv (jydivdha 
Kai x^XeTTTjv, Xaychv irtovra OaXdGGiov, SLe(f)deLpev, 

^ /xev van Herwerden : /xei' ovv. 

2 Xdapxos] 'AXiapxos (or Aiapxos?) Herodotus, iv. 160, but 
Adapxos occurs in inscriptions. 

" Cf. Herodotus, iv. 160 ; Polyaenus, Strategemata, viii. 
41 ; Miiller, Frag. Histor. Graec. in. p. 387, Nicolaus Damasc. 
Frag. 52, " He was nicknamed * The Harsh.' 

566 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 260 

deserved by our family, we have no \vish to escape 
death ; for it were better, perhaps, not to Uve to 
experience another such night, unless you put a 
stop to this thing." 

At this the most sympathetic of those present 
began to weep, but it did not occur to Alexander 
to pity the woman, for he felt that she was too great 
for that, but he marvelled at her bravery and her 
words, which touched him greatly, and he issued 
orders to his officers that they should take good care 
and be on the watch that no such insult should again 
be offered to a noted house. Timocleia he allowed 
to go free, both herself and all others who were 
found to be related to her. 



XXV. ERYXO» 

Arcesilaus, the son of Battus who w^as nicknamed 
' The Happy,' was not at all like his father in his 
ways. In fact, while his father was still hving, he 
surrounded his house Mlth a rampart, and was fined 
two hundred pounds by his father ; and when his 
father had come to his end, for one thing Arcesilaus, 
being harsh by nature (and this gave him his nick- 
name),^ and for another consorting with a vicious 
friend Laarchus, instead of being a king became a 
despot. Laarchus, secretly scheming to become 
despot, banished or murdered the noblest among 
the men of Cyrene, and diverted all the blame for 
this from himself to Arcesilaus ; and finally he 
brought Arcesilaus into a wasting and grievous 
illness by a drink containing sea-hare,*' and thus 

"^ A kind of fish {Lepus marinus); Plutarch {Moralia, 
983 f) says that it is fatal to human beings. 

567 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

auTO? 8c Tr)v apx'^v eax^v^ w? tw TratSt tco €K€ivov 
Barroj 8ta(^uAaTTa)V. o fiev ovv ttois kol Sta rrjv 
XCoXorrjra /cat Sta tt^v rjXiKiav Kar^^ypoveZrOy rfj Se 
jjLTjTpl TToXXoi 7rpo(J€LXov avTov' aco(f)pajv T€ yap 
rjv /cat (fyiXdvdpcoTTOS oIk€lov9 re ttoXXovs /cat 
Suvarous" ft;Y^" ^^^ ^^^ OepaTrevcuv avrrjv 6 
Adapxos iiJLV7](TT€V€To, /cat Toi^ Barrov rj^iov 
TTolha ^ecr^at y-qfjua? eKeivqv, /cat /cott'6t)v6v d770- 
Sct^^at^ TT^s" dpxy]?' 'T) S' 'Epu^cb (rouro yap "^v 
ovofia rfj yvvatKi) ^ovXevaafJievT] jitera rojv dSeXcfxjjv, 
261 e/ce'Aeue rov Aaap;(;ov eVTuy;!^avett' e/C€tVots", co? 
avrrjg TTpoaiefievrjg rov ydpuov. inel 8' o Adapxo? 
€V€Tvyxav€ rots aSeA^ot?, e/cett'ot 8' iTTtrrjSe^ 
Traprjyov /cat dve^dXXovro, rrep.TTei Trpos avrov t] 
'Epf^co depairaiviha Trap'' avrrjg TrapayyeXXovaav , 
on vvv fi€v dvTLXeyovcnv ol dheX(j)oiy yevofievr]? 
Se TTjs Gvvohov TTavGovrai 8ta^epo/x€vot /cat cruy- 
XOjp'qGovdL' Selv^ ovv avrov, cl ^ouAcrat, vvKrcop 
d(f)LKiG9ai rrpos avrT^v /caAcD? yap e^eiv /cat rd 
XoiTTa rrjs dpx^js yevofxevr]?. 

^llv ovv ravra Ka6* rjSov7]v rw Kadpx<^, /^cti 
vavrdTraacv dvarrroi^dels^ irpo? rrjv <j)iXo(j>poGvvr]V 
B rrjs yvvaiKos wi.ioX6yi]G€V rj^av, orav e/cetVo] 
KeXevTj. ravra 8* errparrev r) 'Epffo) ftera 
IloXvdpxov rov vpea^vrdrov rojv d8eA</>aJv. o/)t- 
adivros he Kaipov Trpos rrfv ovvohov, 6 YioXvapxos 
els ro Scofjidriov rrjs dSeX(f)rjs napeLGijx^V Kpv(f)a, 
veavioKovs exo^v hvo avv avrcp^ ^L(f)i^peLS, (f)6vq) 

^ ^(TXff F.C.B. : eixei'. 

* dirodei^aL Bernardakis: diro8ei^as. 

' Seiv Benseler : Set (or else e^eiv below should be changed 
to ?^ei). 

* dfaTTTOTjOels] dvavTeptodels Cobet. 

568 



BRA^^RY OF WOMEN, 260-261 

accomplished his death ; then he took over the 
sovereign rale himself on the pretext that he was 
keeping it for Arcesilaus's son Battus. The boy, 
by reason of his lameness and his youth as well, 
was looked do\^Ti upon, but to his mother many gave 
heed, for she was discreet and humane, and had many 
influential relatives. \Mierefore Laarchus lavished 
attentions upon her, trying to vrin her as his wdfe, 
saying that it was only right and proper to make 
Battus his owti son by marrying her, and to pro- 
claim him colleague in the sovereignty. Eryxo 
(for that was the woman's name), after taking counsel 
with her brothers, bade Laarchus to have an inter- 
view mth them, as if she herself looked ^vith favour 
on the marriage. But when Laarchus interviewed 
them, and they purposely misled him and put him 
off, Eryxo sent a maid-servant to him to tell him 
from her that at present her brothers declared them- 
selves opposed, but if the union should be con- 
summated, they would cease their dissent and give 
over ; he must, therefore, come to her by night if he 
were wdlhng ; for if the beginning were once made, 
all the rest would be well. 

This was joyful news to Laarchus, and, all excite- 
ment in \'iew of the woman's compliant mood, he 
agreed to come whenever she should give the word. 
Eryxo carried out all this in consultation with 
Polyarchus the eldest of her brothers. When a 
time had been determined upon for the coming 
together, Polyarchus was secretly introduced into 
his sister's room, having \vTth him two young men 
with sword in hand who were intent on avenging 

® avTu Bernardakis : avrQ. 

569 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(261) TTarpog e7T€^i6vras, ov 6 Adapxo? irvyxavev 
a7T€KTOi'(jJ5 vewGri. 

MeTaTTefn/jafjievqg 8e rrj? 'Epufou? avrov, dvev 
hopv(f)6pcjL>v elarjXOe, /cat rcov veaviGKCJv avrw irpoct- 

7T€GOVTOJV TV7Tt6iJL€VOS ToZg ^L(f)eGLV OLTTeOaVC. TOV 

piev ovv veKpov epptipav virep to reixos, rov 8e 
BcLTTOV TTpoayayovTEs^ dveSet^av eTrl roXg Trarpiois 
^aoiXiay /cat Tr]v 0,77' dpx'rjs TToXtreiav 6 YloXvapxos 
CLTTeSajKe rots Kupi^vatot?. 

C ^Krvyxavov 8' 'A/xao-tSo? rod AlyvTTTiiov ^atn- 
XecDs o-rpartaJrat avxyol Trapovreg, ols 6 Adapxos 
exprjro ttlgtoI?, /cat ^o^epos 'qv ovx rJKLcrra St' 
e/cetVojv TOis TToAtrats". ovroi rrpos "Afiaaiv eVe/x- 
ijjav TOV? Karr^yoprjaovrag rod re IloXvdpxov /cat 
rrjg 'Epufou?. ;)^aAe7ratVovros' 8* iKeivov /cat 8ta- 
vooujjLevov TToXepLelv rols Ys^vprfvaioLs, ovve^r] ttjv 
fjLTjrepa reXevrrjaaiy /cat racfyd? avrrjs iTnreXovvros, 
dvayyeXXovra? iXOetv irapd" rod 'A/xacrtSos". eho^ev 

D ovv TO) YloXvdpx^ jSaSt^etv d7ToXoyrj(jop.evcp' rfjs 
8' 'Epu^oys" jLtT] d7ToXeLTropi€vr]£ , dAA* eireodai /cat 
cruy/ctySuveuetv ^ovXopiiviqs, ovh^ rj fxijrrjp KptroAa, 
KaL7T€p ovaa Trpeo^VTis, (XTreAe tVero. fieyLarov 8* 
avrrjs rjv d^tca/xa, Bdrrou yeyevripiivr^s dS€X(j)7Js 
TOV EuSat/xovos". CO? ow t^A^ov etV AtyuTrrov, ot 
T* oAAot davfjuaaraj? aTreSe^avro rrjv irpd^iv avrcjv, 
/cat o "AjLtacrts' ou fxerplcos direSe^aro r-qv re ooj(j)po- 
Gvvrjv /cat tt^v dvSpetav tt^s" yut'at/cd?' Sdjpots" 8e 
rLp^rjaas /cat depaTreia PaaiXiKij rov re HoAua/jp^oi^ 
/cat rds" yuvat/ca? et? KupT^vr^i/ aTrecrrctAei^. 



1 7rpoa7a76j'Tes van Herwerden: Trpoaaya-YbvTes, 
a 7ra/)d] Hartman would omit. 



.570 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 261 

the murder of their father, whom Laarchus, a short U ^ 
time before, had put to death. 

When Eryxo sent for Laarchus, he came in un- 
attended, and, the young men falHng upon him, he 
was run through by their swords and killed. His 
body they threw over the wall and, bringing forward 
Battus, they proclaimed him king in succession to 
his father's rights, and Polyarchus restored to the 
people of Cyrene their original form of govern- 
ment. (^ 

It happened that there were in the city numerous 
soldiers of Amasis, king of the Egyptians. These 
Laarchus had employed as trusty retainers, and they 
were not the least of his instruments through which 
he terrorized the citizens. These soldiers sent men 
to Amasis to accuse Polyarchus and Eryxo. He 
was much incensed and had thoughts of making 
war on the people of Cyrene, but just then it happened 
that his mother died, and it was during the days in 
which he was holding her funeral that messengers 
returned from Amasis with the tidings. So Poly- O 
archus thought it best to go there to make his defence. 
When Eryxo would not be left behind, but expressed 
her wish to go with him and share the danger, their 
mother Critola, although well on in years, would not 
be left behind either. Her standing was of the 
highest, since she was the sister of Battus the Happy. 
When they came to Egypt, the people expressed 
wondrous approval of their exploit, and Amasis 
expressed extraordinary approval of the self-control 
and courage of the woman ; and after honouring 
both Polyarchus and the women with presents and 
royal attentions he sent them back to Cyrene. 

571 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(261) XXVI. HENOKPITH 

E Ovx rJTTOv 8' av ns dyaGairo rrjv Kvfxalav 
"EevoKpiTTjv €7rt TOtS" TTpaxOeXaL Trepl ^ApKjroSrjjjLOV 
rov TVpawoVy w rives MaAa/cov eTTLKXirjaiv otovrai 
yeyovevat, to dXrjdes^ dyvoovvreg. eTreKX-qdy] yap 
VTTO rcov Pap^dpajv MaAa/cos", orrep iarlv dvriTraiSy 
on fi€LpdK(,ov wv TTavrdvacTi jxerd rcov tjXlkcov €tl 
KOfjicovrcvv [ovs KopayvKTrds (hs €OLK€v drro rrjs 
Ko^jLTi's a)v6fiat,ov) Iv rots rrpos rovg ^ap^dpovs 
TToXefjLOLs i7TLcf)avr)£ rjv Kal XajJLnpos ov ToXfxrj jjlovov 
ouSe x^'-pos' epyoLs, dXXd Kal crvveaei Kal irpovoia 
Ravels TTepiTTos. oOev els rds pLeyioras TTporjXOev 
dpxds davpiat,6p.evos vtto rcov TroXircbv, Kal 'Pco- 

r pbaloLS emKovpiav dyojv eTreficfiOr] TToXepiovpiivois 
VTTO Tcbv Tvpprjvojv TapKvvLov Hovirep^ov inl ttjv 
^aaiXeiav KarayouTCOv. ev ravrrj Se rfj orpareia^ 
pLaKpa yevofJLevrj TTavrrj rrpos X^P^^ evStSovs tols 
arparevopLevoLS rcjv ttoXitcjv /cat Sr^p^aycoycov 
fxdXXov -^ Grpariqyajv eTreicrev avrovs ovveTTideaOai 
rfj ^ovXfj Kal avveK^aXelv rovs dptarovs Kal Svva- 
rcordrovs. e/c 8e tovtov yevofxevos rvpawos rjv 
fiev iv rats Trepl yvvaiKas Kal TralSas iXevdepovs 
dSt/ctatS" avros eavrov pLOX^riporepos .^ laroprjraL 
yap ore rovs jJiev dppevas Tralhas rjaKec Kopudv* Kal 

^ rb a\r]d^$] Bernardakis, in sudden access of virtue, would 
write Td\r]d^s ; but cf. 229 a in his text. 
- arpaTeiq. Bernardakis : arpariq.. 
3 fxoxOvp^'^^po'^ van Herwerden : /iox^^poraros, 
* KOfxau Meziriacus: Kbjxais. 

" Cf. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities^ v. 
4-12 ; Diodorus, vii. 10. 

572 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 261 

XXVI. XENOCRITE 

No less admiration might be expressed for Xeno- 
crite of Cumae for her behaviour towards Aristodemus 
the despot,** who, some think, had the nickname of 

* Mild ' given to him, but they do not know the truth. 
The fact is that by the barbarians he was called 

* Mild,' which, in their tongue, means ' childlike,' 
because, when he was a mere youth with others of 
his age who were still wearing their hair long (whom 
they called ' harassers,' ^ from their long hair pre- 
sumably), in the wars against the barbarians he was 
conspicuous and brilliant, not merely by daring and 
the work of his hands, but showing himself to be 
above others in quickness of mind and forethought. 
Wherefore he advanced to the highest offices, being 
admired by his fellow-citizens, and he was sent to 
bring aid to the Romans when they were besieged 
by the Etruscans who would restore Tarquinius 
Superbus to his kingdom. In this campaign, which 
lasted a long time, he gave in altogether to the 
citizens who were in the military service, and, by 
playing the part of a demagogue rather than that 
of a general, he persuaded them to join him in attack- 
ing the Senate and in driving into exile the noblest 
and most influential. Following upon this, he made 
himself despot, and in the ways in which he mis- 
conducted himself towards women and free-born youth 
he surpassed his former record for viciousness. In 
fact it is recorded in history that he imposed on the 
boys the custom of wearing long hair and golden 

^ Strollers who went about singing begging songs. Cf. 
Athenaeus, 359 d-360 b. "Harassers" as a corruption of 
"Hair-raisers" is no more weird than Plutarch's Greek 
etymology ! 

VOL. Ill T 2 573 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xpv(TO(f)Op€iVy rag 8e OiqXeias r]vdyKal,€ nepirpoxoiXci 
KeipeoOai /cat (f)opelv e^-q^iKas -xXapLvhas koX tojv 
262 avaKcLXojv x^towlgkojv. ov fxrjv dAA* i^aupercos 
epaoOeis rrjs E^cvoKpLrrj? ^*X^^ avrrjv ^vydhos 
ovuav TTarpo?, ov Karayaycbv ovSe Treioas iKclvoVf 
dAA' oTTCOcrovv rjyovfievos dyarrdv avvovcrav avrcp 
rrjv Kop-qv, are Sr] l,rjXoviJL€vr]v Kal pLaKapil,op,ivr]v 
V7t6 Tcbv TToXcrajv. rrjv Se ravra ixkv ovk i^eTrXrjr- 
T€v dxOojjL€vr] 8' inl rep GvvoiKeiv dveKSoros Kai 
dveyyvos ovhkv^ rjrrov irroOei rojv fjucrovfjievajv vtto 
rov rvpdvvov rrjv rrj? Trarpihos iXevBepiav. 

Erup^e 8e /car' eKeXvo Kaipov rd(f)pov dyojv 
B kvkXo) TTepl rrjp x^P^^ o ^ ApiGrohrnxos y ovr 
dvayKOLov epyov ovre ;(p7}crt/xov, dAAco? Sk rpi^eiv 
Kal diTOKvaUiv Troi^ot? Kal dcrxoXiais rovs iroXiras 
^ovXojxevos' rjv yap TrpoGrerayfieuov eKdarcp jjue- 
rpcov nvaJv dpcOfiov eKcfyepeiv rfj? y^?. yvvrj 8e rts"' 
60? elSev Imovra^ rov ^AptoroSrjfjLov, i^eKXuve Kai 
TTapeKaXviparo rep ;^tTcovt(T/<:c(j ro Trpoawnov. air- 
eXdovros ovv rov 'Apto-roSrJ/xou, oKCJirrovres ol 
veavLGKOL Kal Trait^ovreg rjpcorcov 6 rt Sr) pLovov 
V7T^ alSovg (f)vyoi rov 'ApLcrroS-qfiov, irpog 8e rovs 
d'AAou? ovSev TrdOot roiovrov r) Se Kal /xdAa fiera 
(JTTOvSrjg d7T€KpLvaro, " fjLovos ydp," €017, " Ku- 
[xaLa)V 'ApiaroSrjfjLog dvqp ecrrt." 

Tovro ydp* Xexdkv ro prjixa ndvr cjv fiev ruparo, 

C rovs Se yewaiovs Kal Trapw^vvev alaxiivrf rrjs 

iXevdeplas dvr exeadai. Xiyerai 8e /cat "E^evoKplrrjv 

aKovuaaav etVetv, (hs i^ovXer dv Kal avrrj yrjv 

^ oiidev] ovdevbs E. Kurtz. 

* 7i;;'7j 5^ tis added by F.C.B. : Wyttenbach would write 
iv TovTois 5k Kai yvvri tis. ' iTibvra Xylander : diridyra, 

574 



BRA^^ERY OF WOMEN, 261-262 

ornaments, and the girls he compelled to bob their 
hair and to wear boys' clothes and the short under- 
garment. However, he was singularly enamoured 
of Xenocrite, whom he kept, the daughter of an 
exiled father, ^\ithout restoring her father to his 
country or ^^1nning his consent, but believing that 
somehow the girl was contented to be \\'ith him, 
inasmuch as she was envied and deemed happy by 
the citizens. But all this did not make any great 
impression on her. She was distressed at being 
partner to a union in which there had been no gi\'ing 
in marriage nor plighting of troth, and she longed for 
her country's freedom no less than did those who were 
the object of the despot's hatred. 

It happened at that juncture that Aristodemus 
was extending a moat all the way round the country, 
a work neither necessary nor useful, but the real 
reason was that he wished to wear out the citizens 
and waste their strength with toils and labours ; 
for it was prescribed for each one to carry out a certain 
number of measures of earth. One woman, when 
she saw Aristodemus approaching, stepped well out 
of his way and covered her face with her garment. 
When he had gone, the young men made fun of her 
and asked her, in joke, why her modesty led her to 
avoid Aristodemus only, when she had no such 
feeling towards the rest of the men. She with a very 
serious purpose repUed, " Because among all the 
people of Cumae Aristodemus is the only man ! " 

These few words thus spoken laid hold upon them 
all, and also incited the noble-minded, for very shame, 
to struggle for their liberty. It is said that when 
Xenocrite heard of it she said that she herself would 

* yap] yovv Meziriacus. ^ aicrxi'"??] aiax^fV Dinsie. 

575 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(262) virep rov irarpos (fycpeiv Trapovros r^ Tpv(f>rj^ avjx- 
jU,€Te;^eti^ 'ApicrToSrJ/xoj /cat Swdfiecus roaavrrjg, 
€7T€ppa>u€v ovv TauTtt Tovs^ ovvLCTTapievovs €7rt rov 
ApLGToSrjiJLOv, Sv rjyeXro SvfjLoreXrjS' Kal rrj? 
a€VOKpLrr]s elaoSov 7rap€\ovGr)<s avrolg a8etav /cat 
Tov ^ApLorroSrjfjLov dvoirXov /cat d(j)vXaKTOV , ov 
XaXeTTcJos TTapeiGireGovres hia<f)6eLpovoiv avrov, 
ovrcx) fjLev r) K^vfiaicov TToXig riXevOepajBrj hvoiv 
dperfj yvvaiKOiVy rrjs /xev errivoiav avrols Kal 
opfirjv ifjL^aXovG'qs rov epyov, rrjs Se Trpos to 
reXos GvXXa^opiivris. 

Tt/xcDv 8e /cat hojpecjv fxeydXcov rfj E^evoKpLrrj 

J) TTporeLvofjidvcjov idaaaa Trdaas iv fjT'qaaTO, Odrjsai 

TO CTcDjLta rod ^ ApiGrohrnxov' /cat tout* ovv ehouav 

avrfj Kal AtjfjLrjrpos lipeiav avrrjv etXovro, ovx 

rjrrov olofievoL rij deaj Kexo.pL<jpiivriv -^ TrpiirovGav 

iK€LVrj rLfJLTjV €G€GdaL, 

XXVII. nxesfi rxNH" 

AeyeTat 8e /cat rrjv YlvOeo) rov Kara 'Rip^'qv 
yvvaiKa oo(j)r]V yeveadau Kal XPV^'^V^' ctuTOS" /xev 
yap 6 Ylv6r]s (Ls eoiKe ;)^pucretots" ivTVxd)^ pberdXXoLg 
Kal dya7T7]Gas rov ef avrcov irXovrov ov jjuerpLaJS 
dXX dTrXrjGrojs Kal Trepirrcbs, avro? re Trepl ravra 
Sterpi^e Kal rovs rroXiras Kara^L^dt,a>v diravras 
ofiaXcos opvrreiv ^ <j)opelv t) KaOaipeiv rjvdyKat,€ 
E TO ;^/oi>(Ttov, aAAo /xT^Set' epyat,op,ivovs to irapdirav 

* Toivs added by Patzig. 
* TTvOeo) yvvT) added by Xylander : not in the mss. 

" Cf. Polyaenus, Strategemata^ viii. 42 ; Herodotus, vii. 
27-29 and 38-39, where the name is given as Pythius. 
576 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 262 

rather carry earth for her father, if he were only in 
his own land, than be associated with Aristodemus 
in all his luxury and power. These things gave 
added strength to those who were banding together 
against Aristodemus, at the head of whom was 
Thymoteles. And when Xenocrite provided them 
with a safe way to get in and assurance that Aristo- 
demus was unarmed and unattended, they forced 
their way in Avithout much difficulty, and dispatched 
him. Thus the city of Cumae was made free by the 
bravery of two women, the one who put into their 
minds the thought and impulse for the deed, and 
the other who co-operated with them to bring about 
its conclusion. 

Honours and great gifts were tendered to Xeno- 
crite, but she would have none of them ; one request 
only she made, to bury the body of Aristodemus, 
and this they granted her, and chose her to be priest- 
ess of Demeter, feeling that the honour would be no 
less pleasing to the goddess than appropriate for 
Xenocrite. 



XXVII. THE WIFE OF PYTHES • 

It is said the wife of Pythes, contemporary with 
Xerxes, was wise and good. Pythes himself, as 
it appears, came by chance upon some gold mines,^ 
and, delighting in the wealth from them not with 
moderation, but insatiably and beyond measure, 
he himself spent all his time over them, and put the 
citizens down there also, and compelled all alike 
to dig or carry or wash out the gold, performing no 

'' On the source of the gold of Pythes see T. Leslie Shear 
in the Classical Weekly, xvii. p. 186. 

577 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fiTjSe TTpdrrovras. aTToXKvyievojv 8e ttoAAcDv ttolv- 
Tojv 8* aTTayopevovTOJV, at yvvauKes LKer-qplav 
eOeorav inl ras dvpag iXdovaai Tr\s rod YlvBeoj 
yvvaiKos. Tj S* iK€Lvas jJLev aTTiivai /cat Oappeiv 
eKeXevcrev, avrrj 8e tojv irepl to ;^pi;crtoi' rexviTixiV 
ots €7TLGTev€ jjidXiGTa /caAeWcja /cat /ca^etp^aaa, 
TTOtetv €K€.Xev€v apTOVs re XP^^^^^ '^^^ Tre/xju-ara 
F 7rap'ToSa77a /cat oncLpag, /cat ocrots' 317 /xaAtara rov 
rii;^i7v iyiyvojoKev rjSojJLevov oipois /cat ^pc6/xacrt. 

7TOL7]6€VTOJV Se TTaVTCOy, O jLtCV Hu^T^S" "I^/CCV 0,770 

T'^S' ievrjs' krvyxave yap aTToSrjpicov' r) Se yfvi] 
SetTTVOv alrovvTL 7rap€6r]K€ XP^^^W 'Tpd.Tre^av ovSev 
eScohifjiov exovaav dXXd Trdvra ;^puCTa. to )u.ev 
ovv TTpcoTOV e^atpe riu^r^s" TOt? jLtt/XTj/xao-tv, 6jLt- 
TrXTjudel? Se ttj? oipeco? rjreL (jiayeZv rj Sc xp^^^vv 
6 Tt Tvxoi TToOridas irpooecj^epe. hvux^po.l'VOVTOS S* 
avTOU /cat 7T€Lvrjv ^oojvtos, " dXXd av ye tovtojv," 
etrreVj " dXXov S* ovSevos evTTopiav 7T€7TOLr]Kag 
263 "J^fttv /cat yd/3 e/x7retpta /cat Te;\;i^7; Traca (^pouSo?, 
yeojpyet S' ovSels, dXXd rd GTreipofieva /cat 
(ftyrevopLeva /cat rpicfiovra rrjs yrjs ottigcxj Kara- 
XiTTOvres opvrrofJLev dxpyjorra /cat Jt^tou/xcv, (Xtto- 
Kvalovres avrovs /cat tou? TroAtVas"." 

'E/ctV7^cre ravra rov Hvd-qv, /cat irdaav fxkv ov 
KareXvGe ttjv nepl rd /xeraAAa TTpaypLareiav, dvd 
jjLepos Se TO TTejJLTTTOV ipydt,eadai /ceAeuVas" tcuj/ 
TToAtTuJi^, Tous" AotTTOU? cVt yeojpylav /cat Tct? 
rdx^oLS erpeijje. 

"Eep^ov Se Karapalvovros eirl ty]v *EAAdSa, 
XafiTrporaros ev rals vnoSoxcus /cat Tat? Scopeat? 

« Herodotus tells the story of Pythes' (Pythius's) relations 
with Xerxes at length in vii. 27-39. 
578 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 262-263 

other work and carrying on no other activity. Many 
perished and all were completely exhausted, when 
the women, coming to the door of the wife of Pythes, 
made suppHcation. She bade them depart and not 
lose heart ; then she summoned the goldsmiths 
whom she trusted most, secluded them, and ordered 
them to make golden loaves of bread, cakes of all 
sorts, fruit, and whatever else in the way of dainties 
and food she knew Pythes liked best. When these 
had all been made, Pythes arrived home from 
abroad ; for he had been travelHng. And when he 
called for dinner, his wife caused a golden table to be 
set before him which contained nothing edible, but 
everything of gold. At first Pythes was delighted 
with the mimic food, but when he had gazed his fill, 
he called for something to eat ; and she served to him 
a golden replica of whatever he chanced to express 
a desire for. By this time he was in a high dudgeon 
and shouted out that he was hungry, whereupon she 
said, " But it is you who have created for us a plenti- 
ful supply of these things, and of nothing else ; 
for all skill in the trades has disappeared from among 
us ; no one tills the soil, but we have forsaken the 
sowing and planting of crops in the soil and the sus- 
taining food that comes from it, and we dig and delve 
for useless things, wasting our own strength and that 
of our people." 

These things moved Pythes, and he did away with 
much of his activities at the mines, but not all, 
ordering a fifth of the citizens to work the mines in 
turn, and the remainder he transferred to agriculture 
and the trades. 

When Xerxes '^ was on his way to invade Greece, 
Pythes, who had been most splendid in his enter- 

579 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(263) yevoixevos x^P^^ fjTT]Garo napa rod j8ao"tAea>9, 
TrXeiovojv aura) Traihojv ovrcov, eva TrapeZvai Trjg 

Vj OTpareias Koi KaraXiTreZv aura) yqpo^oGKeZv} 6 
he 'Rip^ris vtt* opyrjs rovrov puovov, ov i^rjnqaaro, 
0(j)d^as Kal Siare/JLcbv eKeXevcre rov arparov 
SieXOelv, rovs 8' aAAous" iTrrjydyero , Kal Trdvres 
aTTcoXovTO Kara rag fxdxas. 

'E^* oi£ 6 Ylvdi]? dOv/xijoras erradev opioia 
TToXXois rojv KaKOjv Kal dvorjrojv rov fi€v yap 
Odvarov i(f)0^€XTOy rep ^ico S' '^;^^eTO. ^ovXojjLevos 
8e jjirj t/qv, Trpoeadai Se to L,rjv purj Swdfievos, 
X(i)P'aros OVTOS iv rfj TroAet fieydXov Kal TTora/xou 
hiappeovrog, ov HvdoTToXLrrjv (hvop^al^ov, €V puev 

Q rep ;!^a)/xaTt KareoKevaae piv-qpieloVy iKrpeipas 8e 
ro peldpoVf coore Bid rov ;\;c6/xaTOS' (fyepeadai 
ipavovra rod rd(jiov rov TTorapLov irrl rovroLS 
GwreXeGOeLGiv avros fxev elg ro /JLvqixelov KarrjXdey 
rfj 8e yvvaiKl rrjv dpx'rjv Kal rrjv ttoXlv dvadels 
diraaav CKeXevae purj Tvpoaievaiy iripLTreiv 8e ro 
SeLTTVOV avrat Ka9* iKdorriv -qp.epav et? ^dpiv 
ivrtdelaav, dxpf' ov rov rd(f)0v ri ^dpLs irapiXdrj 
TO heiTTVOV aKepaiov exovaa, rore Se iravaaadai 
7T€p.7TOvaav y (1)5 avrov redvrjKorog. eKelvos fiev 
ovroj rov Xolttov ^lov Siijyev, rj Se yvvrj rij^ ^PXl^ 
KaXoJS eTrepLcXi^drj Kal jjLera^oXrjv KaKOJv tols dv- 
dpojTrois Trapeax^. 

^ yt/jpo^oaKelv] yi]po^offK6v Cobet. 



580 



BRAVERY OF WOMEN, 263 

tainmeiits and gifts, asked as a favour from the king- 
that, as he had several sons, the king should exempt 
one from military duty, and leave him at home to be 
a comfort to Pythes in his old age. Xerxes, in his 
rage," ordered that this one son for whom the father 
made his request should be killed and cut in two, 
and that the army should march between the two 
halves ; the others he took with him, and all perished 
in the battles. 

Because of this Pythes lost all spirit, and went 
through an experience similar to that of many bad 
and foolish men ; for he was afraid of death and 
burdened with life. He wished not to live, and yet 
could not let go of life. As there was a great mound 
in the city, and also a river flowing through it, which 
they called the Pythopolites, he made ready a 
mausoleum in the mound, and then turned the course 
of the stream so that the river was carried through 
the mound with its waters touching the tomb. 
Upon the completion of all this he went down into 
the mausoleum, committing the government and care 
of the whole city to his wife, and ordered her not to 
come near him, but to send his dinner for him every 
day, by placing it in a boat, until the time when the 
boat should pass by the tomb with the dinner un- 
touched ; then she should cease sending, taking it 
for granted that he was dead. He passed the re- 
mainder of his life in this way, and his wife adminis- 
tered the government excellently, and gave the 
citizens relief from their miseries. 

" Cf. Seneca, De ira^ ill. 16 ; Pliny, Natural History, 
xxxiii. 10 (47). 



581 



INDEX 



AsDERA, 289: a town in Thrace 

near the mouth of the river 

Nestus. 
Academy, the, 137, 381 : the school 

of philosophy founded by Plato 

at Athens, so called from the 

place of meeting. 
Achaeans, 171 : a people in the 

N. W. of the Peloponnesus. 
Achilles, 89, 479 : one of the most 

prominent Greek leaders in the 

Trojan war. 
Acrotatus, 295 : eldest son of 

Cleonienes II., king of Sparta. 

Acrotatus, dying before his 

father (before 309 B.C.), never 

became king. 
Acrotatus, 247, 249 : grandson of 

the elder Acrotatus, and son of 

Areus I., king of Sparta. He 

succeeded his father in 265 b.c. 

but fell in battle the same year 

at Megalopolis. 
Ada, 57 : queen of Caria. 
Adeimantus, 89 : Corinthian naval 

commander in the Persian war, 

480 B.C. 
Aegina, 99, 235 : an island off the 

coast of Attica near Athens. 
Aeglator, 541 : a citizen of Cyrene. 
Aegospotami (battle of), 373. 
Aemilius, see Paulus. 
Aeschylus quoted, 97 : Athenian 

tragic poet, 525-456 B.C. 
Aetolia, 523 : a country in the S. W. 

of Greece, north of the Gulf of 

Corinth. 
Agamemnon, 75, 249 : brother of 

Menelaus, and commander-in- 
chief of the Greeks in the Trojan 

war. 

582 



Agasicles, 243 : an early king of 

Sparta. 
Agalhocles, 37, 39 : ruler of Syra- 
cuse and Sicily 31S-2S9 B.C. 
Agathon, 39, 40 : Athenian tragic 

poet, circa 447-400 B.C. 
Agesilaus, 121, 129-133, 243-285, 

301, 3(31, 377, 479 : king of Sparta 

398-360 B.C. 
Agesipolis I, 285-287: son of Pau- 

sanias, and king of Sparta 394- 

380 B.C. 
Agesipolis II., 285 : son of Cleom- 

brotus, and king of Sparta 371- 

370 B.C. 
Agis II., 125-127, 187-293, 329, 357: 

son of Aichidamus II., and king 

of Sparta 427-401 B.C. 
Agis III., 125-127, 133, 293, 329, 413 : 

son of Archidamus III., and king 

of Sparta 338-331 B.C. 
Agis IV., 293 : son of Euda- 

midas II., and king of Sparta 

245-241 B.C. Plutarch wrote his 

life. 
Ahenobarbus, see Domitius. 
Ajax, 479 : son of Telamon, from 

the island of Salamis, one of the 

Greek heroes of Troy. Sophocles' 

Ajax portrays his last day. 
Albinus, Aulus Postumius, 185 : a 

Roman who wrote poems and a 

Roman history in Greek, and 
doubtless other works as well. 
He was praetor in 155 and consul 
in 151 B.C. 
Alcamenes, 295, 447: son of Tele- 
clus, and king of Sparta for 38 
years (779-742 B.C. or 785-748 
B.C. ?) at the time of the first 
Messenian war. 



INDEX 



Alcander, 359: a young Spartan 
who put out Lycurgus's eye. 

Alcestis, 479 : daughter of Pelias 
and Anaxibia, and wife of 
Admetus. 8he died to save her 
husband from dying. Cf. Euri- 
pides, Alcestis. 

Alcibiades, 99-101, 413 : a hand- 
some Athenian, ward of Pericles 
and friend of Socrates, banished 
415 B.C. for alleged sacrilege ; 
most of his later life was spent 
in exile. 

Alexander of Pherae, 145, 153, 542 : 
was master of Thessaly from 369 
to 358 B.C., when he was assas- 
sinated. 

Alexander the Great, 41, 49, 53-69, 
81, 107, 11], 113, 225, 231, 233, 
235, 315, 323, 447, 493, 563, 567 : 
son of Philip, and king of Mace- 
don, 356-3-23 B.C. 

Alexandria (Alexandrians), 191, 193, 
231 : a city in Egypt, founded by 
Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. 

Amasis, 571 : king of Egypt circa 
569-525 B.C. 

Amazons, 503 : a mythical (?) race 
of warlike women. (There is a 
tradition that many of them were 
slain by Bellerophon when they 
invaded Lycia, iu the reign of 
lobates.) 

Amisodarus (Isaras, in Lycian), 501 : 
a king of Lycia (Hom. II. xvi. 
328). 

Ammon (shrine of), 61. 

Amphiaraiis, 97 : an Argive, son of 
Oecles and Hypermnestra ; a 
prophet and hero at Argos. Took 
part in the Calydonian boar hunt, 
the Argonantic expedition, and 
the expedition of the Seven 
against Thebes, where he met 
his death. Worshipped as a hero 
after death ; oracular shrine at 
Oropus. 

Amphissa (the women of), 511-513 : 
a town in Locris near the borders 
of Phocis. 

Amymone, 523: a stronghold in 
Elis. 

Anabus, 549 : ?, ruler in northeni 
Africa, otherwise unknown. 



Anacreon, 477 : celebrated Greek 
lyric poet of Teos in Asia Minor; 
circa middle of 6th cent. B.C. to 
early 5th cent. 

Anaxander, 299: king of Sparta, 
earlier partiof 7th cent. B.C. 

Anaxandridas, 297-299 : king of 
Sparta circa 560-520 B.C. 

Anaxarchus, 57 : a philosopher from 
Abdera, of the school of Demo- 
critus, in favour with Alexander. 

Anaxibius, 312 footnote. 

Anaxilas, 299 : a Spartan, son of 
Archidamus, 7th cent. B.C. 

Anaximenes, 73 : of Lampsacus, 
historian, rhetorician, and orator, 
4th cent. B.C. 

Androcleidas, 299 : a Spartan, per- 
haps the opponent of Lysander. 

Antagoras, 75 : an epic poet from 
Rhodes, circa first half of 3rd 
cent. B.C. 

Antalcidas, 121, 137, 273, 277, 299, 
301, 361 : a Spartan, author of the 
"Peace of Antalcidas" between 
Greece and Persia, 387 b.c. 

Antigenes, 63 : oiie of the generals 
of Alexander the Great. 

Antigenidas, 147 : a famous flute- 
player from Thebes, latter part of 
4th cent. B.c. 

Antigonus, 69-75 : called the "One- 
eyed," circa 380-301 B.C., general 
of Alexander the Great. 

Antigonus Gonatas, 77-79, 403, 407, 
517 : the son of Demetrius 
Poliorcetes; born circa 319 b.c; 
king of Macedonia 283-239 B.C. 

Antiochiis, 137, 303 : an ephor at 
Sparta. 

Antiochus "The Hawk " (Hierax), 
81, 83 : younger son of Antiochus 
II., king of Svria (227 B.C.). 

Antiochus III. (The Great), 81, 167, 
171 : king of Syria 223-187 B.c. 

Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes), 203 : 
king of Syria 176-163 b.c 

Antiochus VII., 87 : king of Syria 
137-128 B.C. 

Antipater, 49, 51, 59, 61, 81, 115, 
311, 413: trusted Macedonian 
officer, appointed regent by 
Alexander during his Asiatic 
expedition, 334 B.c, and con- 

583 



INDEX 



tinued as regent after Alex- 
ander's death until 320 B.C. Was 
general against the Greeks during 
the Lamian war. 

Antipatrides, 61 : a friend of Alex- 
ander the Great, 

Antiphates, 91 : a handsome youth 
favoured by Themistocles. 

Antony, Mark (Marcus Antonius), 
229, 231 : friend of Caesar, 
triumvir with Octavian and 
Lepidus, enamoured of Cleopatra; 
lived 83-30 B.C. Plutarch wrote 
his life. 

Apelles, 477 : perhaps the most 
famous Greek painter, second half 
of the 4th cent. b.c. 

Aphrodite, 441 : the Greek goddess 
of love. 

Apollo, 131, 247 : the Greek god, 
brother of Artemis. 

Appius, see Claudius. 

Arbela (battle of), 69. 

Arcadia (Arcadians), 309, 311 ; the 
league, 149 : a country in the 
centre of the Peloponnesus. 

Arcesilaus II., 567, 569 : called "The 
Harsh," son of Battus II., and 
king of Gyrene in Africa circa 
560-550 B.C. He was killed by 
his brother (or friend) Learchus 
(or Haliarchus). 

Archelaus, 39, 41 : king of Mace- 
donia 413-399 B.C. 

Archidamidas, 305 : an unknown 
Spartan. 

Archidamus II., 123, 305-309 : son of 
Zeuxidamus, and king of Sparta 
469-427 B.C. 

Archidamus III., 133, 136, 187, 309- 
311 : son of Agesilaus, and king 
of Sparta 361-338 B.c. 

Archilocus, 443 : from the island of 
Paros ; wrote elegiac poetry as 
well as the iambic, of which he 
was reputed to be the inventor ; 
circa 650 B.C. 

Axeius, 231 (233 probably the same 
man): of Alexandria.a philosopher 
and friend of Caesar Augustus. 

Ares, 441 : the Greek god of war. 

Aretaphila, 541-551 : of Gyrene, 
daughter of Aeglator, and wife of 
Phaedimus. 

584> 



Areus, I., 303 : king of Sparta ; son 
of Acrotatus, grandson oi Cleo- 
menes II., whom he succeeded, 
Acrotatus having died. He 
reigned 309-265 b.c. 

Argileonis, 124, 313, 455: the 
mother of Brasidas. 

Arginusae (battle of), 333. 

Argos (Argives), 127, 145, 267, 823, 
335, 337, 339, 373, 379, 389, 401 ; 
the women of, 489-491 : an im- 
portant city in the east of the 
Peloponnesus. 

Ariamenes, 15 : son of Darins L of 
Persia. 

Aristagoras, 465, 457 : of Miletus, 
instigated the Ionian revolt in 
500 B.C. 

Aristeides, 96-97 : a high-minded 
Athenian, often called " the 
Just" ; fought at Marathon and 
Salarais; died 468 b.c. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Aristodemus, 73 : a friend of Anti- 
gonus the "One-eyed." 

Aristodemus, 573, 575, 577 : tyrant 
of Cumae in Campania, 502-492 (?) 

B.C. 

Aristogeiton, 111: unscrupulous 
Athenian orator against whom 
two of Demosthenes' orations are 
directed. He died in prison. 

Ariston, 303-305 : son of Agasicles, 
and king of Sparta circa 560- 
610 B.C. Cf. Herodotus vi. 61- 
66. 

Aristotimus, 517, 619, 621, 523, 
525, 527, 629 : tyrant of Elis for 
six months in 271 B.C. 

Aristotle, 49 : the philosopher, 
384-322 B.C. 

Aristotle quoted, 537. 

Armenia, 205, 235 : a country in 
the N.E. of Asia Minor. 

Artaxerxes I. (Long-hand), 17 : 
king of Persia 465-425 b c. 

Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon), 9, 21 : 
king of Persia 404-358 B.C. (The 
latter date is questioned.) Son 
of Darius and Parysatis, and 
brother of the younger Cyrus. 

Artemis, 81, 485, 601, 553, 555; 
Orthia, 443 : the Gre?k goddess. 
sister of Apollo. 



INDEX 



Aruns, 515 : son of the Etruscan 
king Lars Porsena. 

Astyages, 491 : son of Cyaxeres, and 
last king of Media ; reigned 
circa 584-550 B.C.; overthrown 
by Cyrus the Great. 

Astycratidas, 311 : a Spartan, 
otherwise unknown. 

Ateas, 25 : king of the Scythians, 
4th cent. B.C. 

Athena (of the Brazen House), 247, 
307, 359. 

Athenodorus, 233 : a Stoic philo- 
sopher from Tarsus, and an 
intimate friend of the emperor 
Augustus. 

Athens (Athenians), 43, 45, 63, 73, 
77, 95, 99, 105, 109, 115, 131, 137, 
139, 145, 147, 235, 261, 265, 267, 
301, 305, 323, 325, 857, 373, 379, 
381, 397, 401, 415, 419, 497, 501. 

Attains II. Philadelphus, 83 : bom 
200 B.C., second son of Attains 
I. ; king of Pergamum 159-138 B.C. 

Attica, 113. 

Augustus (0. lulius Caesar Octa- 
vianus), 229-237 : born 63 b.c., 
was the firet emperor of Rome, 
23 b.c.-a.d. 14 (although he had 
been at the head of the State for 
at least ten years before that). 

Babylonians, 17. 

Bacis, 477 : a legendary seer, re- 
puted author of oracles which 
were quoted in classical times. 

Baetis, 183 : a river in southern 
Spain. 

Banon, 507 : an interpreter in the 
army of Hannibal. 

Baria (Barea, Bareia, Badia, 
Batheia), 165 : a town on the 
S.E. coast of Spain. 

Battus XL, 567, 571 : sonof Arcesi- 
laus I., and king of Cyrene in 
Africa circa 583-560 (?) B.C. He 
was called " The Happy." 

Battus III., 569, 571 : sonof Arcesi- 
laus II., and king of Cyrene in 
Africa circa 550-530 B.C. He 
was called "The Lame." 

Bebrycians, 539 : a people in the 
N.W. of Asia Minor. 

Bellerophon, 503, 505 : son of 



Glaucus, king of Corinth. Antei 
wife of Proetus, fell in love with 
him, etc. 

Bepolitanus, 559, 561 : a Galatian. 

Bias (Anaxibius ?), 313 : a Spartan 
general (?) ; see footnote on page 
312. 

Birdless Rock (in India), 65. 

Black Broth (at Sparta), 427. 

Blepsus, 537 : a Phocaean, descend- 
ant of Codrus. 

Boeotia (Boeotians), 147, 149, 361, 
375: a country in the east of 
Greece, N.W. of Attica. 

Bowmen (on the coins of Persia), 
261. 

Brasidas, 123, 237, 313-315 : a dis- 
tinguished Spartan general in 
the Peloponnesian war. He fell 
at Amphipolis in 422 b.c, 

Brauron, 497, 501 : a place on the 
east coast of Attica. 

Brundnsinm, 227: a city in Cala- 
bria in the extreme S.E. of Italy. 

Brutus (Decimus lunius Brutus 
Albinus), 229, 479 : intimate and 
trusted friend of Julius Caesar, 
but later joined in the conspiracy 
against Caesar ; put to death by 
order of Antony in 43 b.c. 

Bnlis, 417 : a Spartan, sent with 
Sperchis to Xerxes to atone for 
the killing of the Persian heralds. 

Cabpio, Q., 206: Roman general 
(consul in 106 B.C.), badly de- 
feated by the Cimbrians in 105 b. c. 

Caesar, C. lulius, 213, 219, 221, 223- 
229, 231 : famous Roman general, 
statesman, and writer, 100-44 
B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Caesar, C, 235 : son of M. Agrippa 
and of Julia, daughter of the 
emperor Augustus ; died in 
A-D. 4 of a wound received in 
Armenia. 

Calbia, 545, 551 : mother of Nico- 
crates of Cyrene. 

Callicratidas, 331-335 : upright 
Spartan commander who suc- 
ceeded Lysander in command of 
the Spartan fleet off Asia Minor 
in 406 B.C. He met his death in 
the battle of Arginusae soon after. 

585 



INDEX 



Callias (Calleas), 277 : a Spartan 
(unknown except for this inci- 
dent). 

Callippides, 271 : a famous tragic 
actor from Athens (area 400 e.g.). 

Callippus, 39: an Athenian who 
followed Dion to Syracuse, but 
afterward assassinated him, and 
became ruler of Syracuse for a 
short time. 

Callistratus, 145 : Athenian orator 
and demagogue, 4th cent. e.g. 

Camerinum, 201 : a town in 
Umbria in Italy. 

Gamma, 551-555 : wife of Sinatus 
of Galatia. 

Cannae (battle of), 159. 

Caphene, 495 : a Carian maiden. 

Caphisias, 85 : a flute-player. 

Caria, 249 : a country in S.W. Asia 
Minor. 

Carthage (Carthaginians), 163, 1C5, 
185, 187, 191, 495 : celebrated city 
on the northern coast of Africa, 
settled by the Phoenicians. 

Casaiider, 61 : (circa 350-297 B.C.) 
son of Antipater, and ruler of 
Macedonia (and Greece) from 317 
B.C. till his death. 

Cassius (C. Cassius Longinus), 229 : 
one of the assassins of Julius 
Caesar ; defeated at Phllippi, he 
ordered his freedmen to kill him. 

Cato (M. Porcius Cato the Elder), 
177-185, 187, 479: commonly 
caUed the Censor, 234(?)-149 B.C. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Cato, M. Porcius, 213, 229 : com- 
monly caUed Cato Uticensis, or 
Cato Minor, 95-46 b.c. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Catulus, Quintus Lutatiui?, 203 : 
consul in 102 e.g. withC. Marius. 
He was a highly educated man, 
author of orations and poems, 
and of a history of his consulship 
and the Cimbric war. 

Catulus, Quintus Lutatius, 223 : a 
leading Roman aristocrat, often 
opposed to Caesar; consul in 
78 B.a, censor in 65 b.c., died in 

60 B.C. 

Celtiberians, 183, 189 : a powerful 
people in central Spain. 

586 



Celtic women, 493-495. 

Ceos, the women of, 509-511. 

Cephisophon, 443 : an unidentified 
orator. 

Cephisus, 139, 301 : a river west of 
Athens. 

Chabrias, 105-107, 147, 149 : cele- 
brated Athenian general, early 
4th cent. B.C. 

Chaeroneia (battle of), 45, 309, 561, 
565. 

Chares, 105, 111 : unscrupulous 
Athenian general, middle of 4th 
cent. B.C. 

Charillus (Charilaus), 121, 305, 393- 
395 : an early king of Sparta, by 
tradition put in the time of 
Lycurgus. 

Charon, 403 : a Theban, instru- 
mental in helping to dislodge the 
Spartans from Thebes in 379 b.c. 

Charon of Lampsacus quoted, 537 : 
Greek historian of the 5th cent. 

B.O. 

Chimaera, 503: the fabulous 
monster, lion, goat, and serpent 
combined. 

Chimarrhus, 501 : a pirate, other- 
wise unknown. 

Chioraara, 555-557 : wifeof Ortiagon. 

Chios (Chians), 399, 463, 485, 487 ; 
the women of, 485, 389 : a large 
island oflf the coast of Asia Minor. 

Cicero, M. Tullius, 215-223 : famous 
Roman orator and statesman, 
106-43 B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Cimbri(Cimbrian), 201, 205:aCeltic 
people who attempted to invade 
Italy circa 105 b.c. 

Claudius (Appius Claudius Pulcher), 
189: consul in 143 b.c. ; father- 
in-law of Tiberius Gracchus. He 
lived in constant enmity with 
Scipio Africanus Minor. 

Clea, 473, 475 : priestess at Delphi, 
and a friend of Plutarch's. 

Oleander,. 331, 335: a Spartan 
associated with CalUcratidas in 
command of the fleet in 406- 
405 B.C.; harmost of Byzantium in 
400 B.C. 

Cleitomachus, 191 : of Carthage, 
born circa 187 B.C. ; came to 
Athena and became a pupil of 



INDEX 



Cameades, and was for two years 
at the head of the Academy ; a 
proliflc writer, mostly of philo- 
sophical works. 

Cleitorians, 391 : a people in north- 
ern Arcadia, in the central Pelo- 
ponnesus. Those who drank at 
the fountain in Cleitor lost for 
ever any desire for alcohol. 

Cleon, 289 : a rhetorician of Hali- 
carnassus {drca 400 B.C.). 

Cleonae, 485 : a town near Hyam- 
polis in Phocis. 

Cleombrotus, 335: sonof Pausanias, 
and king of Sparta 580-371 b.c. 
He fell at the battle of Leuctra. 

Cleomenes I., 303, 3:^5-341, 347, 455, 
489, 491 : son of Anaxandridas, 
and king of Sparta circa 517-488 
B.C. (the dates are uncertain). 

Cleomenes II., 135, 343: son of 
Cleombrotus, and king of Sparta 
370-309 B.C. 

Cleonymus, 315 : younger son of 
Cleomenes II. king of Sparta ; 
excluded from the throne in 
.309 B.C., when his father died. 

Clodius (Publius Claudius (Clodius) 
Pulcher), 223 : unprincipled 
Eoman of patrician birth ; ob- 
tained adoption by a plebeian to 
become tribune of the plebs in 
59 B.C., so as to avenge himself 
on Cicero, who was forced into 
exile. Clodius was also enamoured 
of Caesar's wife, Pompeia. 

Cloelia, 513-517 : one of the maidens 
given as hostages to Lars Porsena. 

Conon, 273 : distinguished Athenian 
general. With Persian assistance 
he defeated the Spartan fleet off 
Cnidus in 394 b.c, and rebuilt 
the long walls at Athens in 393 b. c. 

Corinth (Corinthians), 127, 147, 265, 
267, 287, 307, 329, 375 ; battle of, 
131. 

Coroneans, 487 : a people on the 
west coast of Asia Minor (pro- 
bably Greek colonists). 

Coroneia (battle of), 265 : a town 
in Boeotia. 

Cornelia, 479 : a P>oman matron, 
mother of the Gracchi ; 2nd 
century b.c. 



Cornelius, see Scipio. 

Cosmetics, forbidden in Sparta, 305. 

Cotys, 25 : king of the Odrysae in 
Thrace, 382-358 B.c. 

Crassus, P. Licinius, 173 : praetor 
176, consul 171 B.C., when he was 
appointed to conduct the war 
against Perseus, by whom he was 
defeated in a battle in Thessaly. 

Crataidas, 499 : Spartan leader of a 
colony to Melos and Crete. 

Craterus, 67, 311, 527 : a distin- 
guished general of Alexander the 
Great. 

Crates, 51 : a relative of Harpalus. 

Cratidas, 377 : an ephor at Sparta, 

Crete, 459, 499: the large island 
south of Greece, home of early 
Aegean civilization. 

Critola, 571 : mother of Eryxo. 

Cronus ( = Semitic Baal, El, or 
Moloch), 27. 

Cryassus, 495, 497 : a city in Caria. 

CuUeo, see Terentius. 

Cumae, 573, 575, 577: a city in 
Campania in Italy. 

Curius (Manias Cnrius Dentatus), 
155 : consul in 290 B.C., in which 
year he defeated the Samnites 
(ending the Saranite war), and also 
conquered the Sabines who had 
revolted. In 275 b.c. he defeated 
Pyrrhus at Beneventum. He 
celebrated two triumphs in 290 
B.C., a third in 275, and perhaps 
still another in the interval 
between the second and the third. 

Cyclops, 69 : the one-eyed giant 
who was blinded by Odysseus. 

Cylon (Cyllon), 525, 527, 529 : one 
of the leaders in the revolt against 
Aristotimus tyrant of EUs. 

Cynisca, 267 : sister of Agesilaus. 

Cyrene, 541, 567, 571 : acity innorth- 
ern Africa founded by Battus in 
631 B.C. 

CjTus the Elder, 13, 491, 493 : also 
called " The Great," first king of 
the Persians, founder of the Per- 
sian empire, killed in 529 B.C. 

Cyrus the Younger, 19, 331, 333: 
the second of the sons of Darius 
Nothos, king of Persia; attempted 
to wrest the kingdom from his 

587 



INDEX 



brother Artaxerxes, and fell at 
the battle of Cunaxa, 401 B.C. 

Daiphantus, 483, 485 : a Phocian, 
son of Bathyllius, and leader of 
the Phocians against the Thes- 
8al=ans some years before the 
Persian wars. Plutarch wrote his 
life, now lost. 

Daiphantus, 151 : a Theban officer, 
shiin at the battle of Mantineia 
in 362 B.C. 

Damatria, 459 : a Spartan woman. 

Damindas, 315: a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Daniis, 315 : a Spartan, otherwise 
unknown. 

Damoiiidas, 135, 315: a Spartan, 
otherwise unknown, but appar- 
ently prominent in his day. 

Daphnis, 547 : a servant of Leander 
tiie brother of Nicocrates. 

Darius I., 13, 15 : king of Pensia 
521-485 B.C., associated with 
Gobryas in overthrowing Smerdis 
(Herodotus iii. 67-78). 

Darius III., 59, 225 : (circa 380-330 
B.C.) king of Persia conquered by 
Alexander the Great. 

Deiotarus, 555, 557 : presumably 
the elder Deiotarus, tetrarch of 
Galatia in the earlier part of the j 
1st cent. B.C. I 

Delium, 537: a stronghold in Naxos. 

Deles, 381 : an island in the Aegean 
sea, one of the Cyclades. 

Delphi, 247 : a town in Phocis, the 
seat of the celebrated oracle of 
Apollo. 

Delplius, 499 : Spartan leader of a 
colony to Melos and Crete. 

Demades, 69, 81, 11.5, 133, 293: a 
brilliant Athenian orator, oppo- 
nent of Demosthenes ; put to 
death by Antipater, 318 b.c. 

Deniaratus, 317-319, 345, 491 : king 
of Sparta circa 510-491 b.c. 
Deposed on the charge of illegiti- 
macy, he went to Persia and 
accompanied Xerxes on his ex- 
pedition against Greece in 480 B.C. 
Demaratus, 53 : of Corinth, a friend 

of Philip of Mac^don. 
Demeter, 577: the Greek goddess 

588 



of agriculture, worshipped especi- 
ally at Athens and Eleusis. 

Demetrius of Phalerum, 119: Athen- 
ian orator and writer, 350 (?)-283 
B.C., put in charge of Athens by 
the Macedonians (317 b.c), but 
forced to flee, 308-307 B.C., by 
Demetrius Poliorcetes. 

Demetrius Poliorcetes, 73, 75-77 : 
king of Macedonia, and famous as 
a general ; son of Antigonus the 
"One-eyed" ; lived 337-283 b.c. 

Demosthenes, 109: the famous Attic 
orator, 385-322 B.C. 

Dercyliadas, 363 : a prominent Spar- 
tan general, active in Asia Minor 
from 411 to about 396 B.O. 

Dercylidas (Mandrocleidas in Plut. 
Life of Pyrrhus, chap, xxvi.), 315 : 
a Spartan, one of the ambassadors 
sent to Pyrrhus in 272 b.c, when 
Pyrrhus undertook to restore 
Cleonymus as king of Sparta. 

Diodotus, 217 : teacher of Q. M. 
Metellus Nepos. 

Diogenes, 399 : of Sinope 420 (?>-323 
B.C., the famous Cynic philo- 
sopher, to whom are ascribed 
numerous pungent and witty 
sayings. 

Diognetus, 535, 537 : general of the 
Erythraean s. 

Diomedon, 145: fromCyzicus; sent 
by Artaxprxes with money for 
Epameinondas. 

Dion, 39 : of Syracuse in Sicily, 
brother-in-law of the elder Dio- 
nysius. Plutarch WTote his life. 

Dionysius the Elder, 29-35, 127, 
305, 371, 427 : bom 430 B.C., rose 
to be tyrant of Syracuse, 405- 
367 B.C. 

Dionysius the Younger, 35, 37: son 
of Dionysius the Elder, succeeded 
his father as ruler, but was finally 
driven out by Timoleon in 343 b. c. 

Dionysus, priestess of, 521. 

Diphridas, 265 : one of the Spartan 
ephors. 

Dodona, 247 : the seat of the oracle 
of Zeus in Epeirus. 

Dolabella, P., 229 : profligate son-in- 
law of Cicero ; espoused Caesar's 
side in the Civil War, but after 



INDEX 



Caesar's death joined the assas- 
sins. Besieged in Laodicea by 
Cassius, he ordered one of his 
soldiers to kill him to save him 
from his enemies. 

Domitius (Cn. Domitius Aheno- 
barbus), 171 : consul 192 B.C. ; 
legate of L. Scipio in the war 
against Antiochus the Great. 

Domitius (Cn. Domitius Aheno- 
barbus), 209: consul in 87 b.c. ; 
son-in-law of L. Cornelius Cinna. 
Proscribed by Sulla for choosing 
the side of Marius, he fled to 
Africa and raised an army, but 
wa5 defeated by Pompey in 81 

RC. 

Droriiichaetas,79: king of the Getae 

in Thrace circa 300 b.c. 
Dyrrachium, 227 : the Greek Epi- 

damnus, a city in Illyria. 

EcpREPES, 319 : an ephor at Sparta. 

Egypt, 133, 215, 231, 281. 

Egyptian kings, 23. 

Eirene, 479: mistress of Ptolemy 
brother of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
(Athenaeus, 593 b). 

Elaphebolia, 485 : a festival at 
Hyampo is (in Phocis) in honour 
of Artemis. 

Elis, 125, 2i>9, 327, 517, 521: country 
in N.W. of the Peloponnesus. In 
it was Olymp'a where the 
Olympic games were held. 

Epaeiietus, 319 : a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Epameiiioudas, 139-151, 153, 279, 
281, 501 : of Thebes in Boeotia, 
circa 420-302 B.C., famous general 
and statesman, founder of the 
Theban League. 

Epeirus (Epirotes), 157 : a country 
in the N.W. of Greece. 

Ephesus (Ephesians), 81 : a city on 
the coast of Asia Minor. 

Epicharmus, 29 : comic poet from 
the island of Cos, but lived most 
of his life in Sicily under the 
patronage of Hiero. 

Epicydes, 89: popular leader at 
Athens in 480 B.a ; his name is 
known only in connexion Avith 
Themistocles. 



Eretria (Eretrians), 93. 

Eros, 223 : a slave of Cicero's. 

Eros, 231, 233 : procurator in Egypt 
at the time of Augustus Caesar. 

Erythrae (Erytliraeans), 487, 535 : 
a city on the coast of Asia Minor 
opposite Chios. 

Ery.xo, 567-571 : wife of Arcesilaus 
II. of Gyrene. 

Eteocles, 413 : an ephor at Sparta. 

Etruscans, 573 ; Etruscan women, 
497-501. 

Euboedas, 319 : a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Eudamidas, 137, 319-323 : brother 
of Agis III., and king of Sparta for 
a few years beginning with 331 

B.C. 

Eumenes II., 83 : king of Pergamum 

197-159 B.C. 
Euphrates (river), 211. 
Euripides, 39: Athenian tragic poet, 

circa 485-406 B.C. 
Euripides quoted, 219 (?), 477. 
Eurotas, 139, 301, 367, 427, 429, 459 : 

a river east of Sparta. 
Eurybiade.*, 89, 91 : a Spartan, 

commander of the allied Greek 

fleet in the Persian war, 480 B.C. 
Eirrycles, 235 : probably one of the 

commanders at the battle of 

Actium. 
Eurycratidas, 323: king of Sparta in 

the drst half of the 6th cent. b.c. 
Evius, 61 : a flute-player from 

Chalcis in Euboea. 

Fabid.5, see Maximus. 

Fabricius (C. Fabricius Luscinus), 
155-159 : a grand and simple 
Roman of the old schooL Consul 
in 282 and 278 b.c. Sent as am- 
bassador to Pyrrhus (280? b.c.), 
and later (278 B.C.) conducted the 
war against PjTrhus which re- 
sulted in the evacuation of Italy 
by Pyrrhus. He was also censor 
in 275 B.C. when he tried to co.ai- 
bat the rising tide of luxury. 

Faustus Cornelius Sulla, 219 : son 
of Sulla the dictator {circa 88-46 
B.C.) ; sided with Pompey in the 
civil war, and put to death by 
Caesar's soldiers. 

589 



INDEX 



Fighting cocks, 135, 343. 

Flagellation (of boys at Sparta), 445. 

Flamininiis, T. Quintius, 169-171: 
Roman general, consul 19S B.C. ; 
conquered Philip V. of Macedon at 
Cynoscephalae in 197 b.c., and 
proclaimed the freedom of Greece 
at the Isthmian Games in the 
following year. He died about 
174 B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Galatia (Galatians), 81, 551, 555, 
557, 559, 561 : a people of Asia 
Minor. 

Gellius (L. Gellius Poplicola), 211 : 
consul 72 B.C. ; censor 70 B.c. ; 
defeated Crixus and a part of 
Spartacus's army, but was later 
defeated himself. 

Gelon, 27, 29 : ruler of Gela 491-483 
B.C., and of Syracuse 485-478 b.c. 

Geradatas (Geradas), 367: a Spartan 
of early times. 

Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, 557 : Roman 
general ; consul in 189 b.c. 

Gorgias, 475 : of Leontini in Sicily; 
famous as an author and rhetori- 
cian, bom about 480 b.c., and 
said to have lived over one 
hundred years. 

Gorgo, 347, 363, 455-457 : daughter 
of Cleomenes I., king of Sparta, 
and wife of Leonidas. 

Gracchus, C, 197 : one of the two 
brothers who attempted to bring 
about a reform in the laws relat- 
ing to public lands in Italy. He 
died a violent death in 121 b.c. 

Granicus (the battle of), 55. 

Gyrtias, 457-459: the mother of 
Areus I., king of Sparta (or else 
of his wife). 

Hannibal, 159, 161, 165, 167, 169, 
493, 505, 507 : son of Hamilcar 
Barca, and a very famous Car- 
thaginian general, who attempted 
to conquer Rome. He lived 247- 
183 B.C. 

Harmodius, 103 : one of the two 
slayers of Hipparchus at Athens 
in 514 B.C. ; one of his descend- 
ants also had this name. 

Harpalns, 51 : a Macedonian, son 

590 



of Machatas ; treasurer of Alex- 
ander the Great, and for a time 
governor of India. 

Hecataeus, 305 : of Abdera (circa 
300 B.C.); philosopher, historian, 
and reputed to have been also a 
critic and grammarian. 

Hecate, 147 : a chthonic deity, 
often worshipped at cross-roads. 

Hegesippus, 107: patriotic Athenian 
orator, 4th cent. B.C., strongly 
opposed to Philip of Macedon. 

Hellanicus, 523, 525, 527: leader 
in the revolt against Aristotimus 
tyrant of Elis. 

Hellespont, 263 : the modern Dar- 
danelles. 

Helots, 255, 297, 441, 445, 497 : the 
name given to the slave popula- 
tion in Sparta. 

Hephaestion, 59, 67 : son of 
Amyntor and intimate friend of 
Alexander the Great and cavalry 
commander under him. 

Heracleia, 505 : a Greek city on the 
south shore of the Black Sea. 

Heracles, 65, 137, 139, 301, 373, 
377 : the famous strong man of 
the Greeks. 

Hermaeus (an Argive month), 491. 

Hermodotus, 71 : an obscure poet. 

Hermon, 333 : pilot of Callicratidas' 
ship at the battle of Arginusae. 

Herodotus quoted, 491 : Greek 
historian of the 5th cent. b.c. 

Herondas, 325 : a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Hesiod, 335 : of Ascra in Boeotia, 
epic poet of the 8th or 19th 
century b.c. 

Hidrieus (Idrieus), 131, 253 : raler 
of Caria, middle of 4th cent. 

B.C. 

Hiero, 29 : ruler of Gela and Syra- 
cuse 478-467 B.C. 

Hipparchus, 49 : one of the three 
men appointed by Philip, about 
343 B.C., to rule Eretria in 
Euboea. 

Hippoclus, 485 : king of Chios. 

Hippocratidas, 329-331 : an early 
king of Sparta. 

Hippodamus, 829 : see the footnote 
on p. 328. 



INDEX 



Homer, 75, 89, 101, 335 : the tra- 
ditional author of the Iliad and 
the Odyssey. 

Homer, the Jliad quoted, 61, 245, 
249. 

Homer, the Odyssey quoted, 191. 

Hortensius, Q. Hortalus, 219 : fa- 
mous Roman orator (114-50 B.C.). 
Consul in 69 B.C. ; defended 
VeiTes against the prosecution 
by Cicero in 70 b.c. 

Hyampolis, 4S3: a town on the 
eastern border of Phncis. 

Hypsicreon, 533 : of Miletus. 

Iaptoia, 533 : wife of Pythes of 
My us. 

Idanthyrsus, 25 : king of the Scy- 
thians circa 500 b.c. 

Imbros, 497 : an island west of the 
north part of Asia Minor. 

"Impudence," festival of, 491. 

Indarnes (Hydarnes), 417 : a Per- 
sian, commander for Xerxes in 
Asia Minor. 

India (Indians), 63, 65. 

lobatfs, 503 : king of Lycia (pre- 
historic). 

lolaidas, 151 : a Theban officer, 
slain at the battle of Mantineia, 
362 B.C. 

Iphicrates, 103-105, 149 : celebrated 
Athenian general, early part of 
4th cent. b.c. 

Iron money, 355. 

Isaras, see Amisodams. 

Ismenias, 25 : a celebrated fiute- 
player, 4th cont. B.c. 

Isthmian Games, 169. 

Italy (Italians), 197. 

Ithaca, 39 : an island on the west 
coast of Greece. 



Jason of Pherae, 143, 145 : ruler 
("Tagus") of Thessaly early in 
4th cent. B.c, 

Jerusalem, 87. 

Jews, 87. 

Julia, 235 : the daughter of 
Augustus, who married Tiberius 
(later emperor) as her third 
husband. Her reputation was 
not lily-white. 



LAARCHUs(Learchus, Haliarchus ?), 
567, 569, 571 : friend (or brother) 
of Arcesilaus II. of Cyrene. 

Labotas, 343 : an early king of 
Sparta. 

Lacedaemon (Lacedaemonians), see 
Sparta. 

Laelius, C. (Sapiens), 189 : consul 
140 B.C. ; intimate friend of Scipio 
Africanus Minor; the principal 
character in Cicero's De amicitia. 

Laenas, see Popillius. 

Laevinus, P. Valerius, 157 : consiU 
in 280 B.C. when he was defeated 
by Pyrrhus who had invaded 
Italy. 

Lamachus, 101 : brave and devoted 
Athenian general ; born circa 
470 ; fell in the Syracusan ex- 
pedition, 414 B.C. 

Lampis, 529 : supporter of Aristo- 
timus tyrant of Elis. 

Lampis, 411: a wealthy ship- 
owner of Aegina. 

Lampsace, 537-541 : daughter of 
Mandron, king of the Pityoes- 
senians. 

Lampsacus, 541 : a city at the east 
end of the Hellespont. 

Larissa, 263 : a town in northern 
Thessaly. 

Lasthenes, 47 : of Olynthus, ac- 
cused by Demosthenes of having 
betrayed his country to Philip of 
Macedon. 

Leander, 547, 549, 551 : brother of 
Xicocrates of Cyrene. 

Lemnos, 497, 501 : an island west 
of tlie north part of Asia Minor. 

Lentulus (Cn. Cornelius Lentulus 
Clodianus), 211 : consul 70 b.c. 
and censor 72 b.c. with L. Gellius 
Poplicola ; defeated by Spartacus. 

Leo, 345 : son of Eucratidas, and 
king of Sparta in the 7th cent, 

B.C. 

Leonidas, 325, 347-351, 363, 457: 
leader of the Spartans at Ther- 
mopylae. 

Leonidas, 55 : tutor of Alexander 
the Great. 

Leontis, 475 : an unknown woman. 

Leosthenes, 113 ; an Athenian, 
commander-in-chief of the Greek 

591 



INDEX 



forces at the beginning of the 
Lamian war, 323-321 B.a 

Leotyehidas I., 343, 301 : son of 
Anaxilas, and king of Sparta at 
the time of the second Messenian 
war, 7th cent. b.c. (Herodotus 
viii. 131). 

Leotyehidas II. , 345 : son of Menares 
(Ariston in Plutarch is thought 
to be a mistake), and king of 
Sparta circa 491-469 B.c. (The 
dates are uncertain.) Herodotus 
viii. 131. 

Leucadian Cliff, 421, 537: the 
southern extremity of the island 
of Leucas, west of Greece. To 
leap from it was traditionally 
thought to be a cure for love. 

Leuconia, 485, 487 : a town on the 
west coast of Asia Minor, pro- 
bably on the peninsula opposite 
Chios. 

Leucothea, 369 : Ino, the daughter 
of Athamas of Boeotia, threw 
herself into the sea and was 
changed into a deity, bearing 
the name of Leucothea. 

Leuctra (battle of), 143, 279, 401. 

Licinius (C. Licinius Sacerdos), 
191 : a Roman knight. 

Licinius, see Crassus. 

Livius, M. Macatus, 161 : com- 
mander of the garrison in Taren- 
turn in the second Punic war. 

Lochagus, 851 : an unknown 
Spartan. 

Ix)crians, 267: peoples of central 
Greece. 

Lucius, 519 : an officer in the mer- 
cenary force of Ai'istotimus 
tyrant of Elis. 

LucuUus, Lucius Licinius, 205-207, 
211, 213 : Roman general ; consul 
in 74 B.O. ; friend and confidant 
of Sulla the dictator. Defeated 
Mithradates and Tigranes in 
several battles, 74-68 B.C. Plut- 
arch wrote his life. 

Lusius, 201 : nephew of C. Marius. 

Lutatius, see Catulus. 

Lycian women, 501-505. 

Lyctus, 501 : a town in Crete. 

Lycurgiis, 9, 119-121, 253, 277, 353- 
371, 3P3, 43n, 437, 439, 445, 447, 

592 



449 : the reputed founder of the 
Spartan constitution. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Lygdamis, 419 : tyrant of Naxos, 
in the latter half of the 6th 
cent. B.C. He was ousted by the 
Spartans, probably in 624 b.c. 

Lyre, strings of, 319, 437. 

Lysander, 127, 269, 331, 371-379, 
447: Spartan general and naval 
commander ; brought to a close 
the Peloponnesian war by win- 
ning the battle of Aegospotami, 
404 B.C. ; fell in the battle of 
Haliartus, 395 B.C. 

Lysanoridas (v.l. Lysander), 403 : 
one of the Spartan governors 
(harmosts) of Thebes aft^r it was 
treacherously seized by Phoebidas 
in 382 B.C. 

Lysimachus, 79, 401: a Mace- 
donian, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, at whose 
death he became king of Thrace. 
In 291 B.C. he tried to subdue the 
Getae, but was compelled to sur- 
render. He fell in battle against 
Seleucus in 281 B.C. 

Macedon (Macedonians), 169, 173, 
175, 263, 311, 321, 447. 

Machaetas, 51 : an unknown Mace- 
donian, unless Machatas, the 
father of Harpalus, is meant. 

Maeandrius, 341 : succeeded his 
brother Polycrates as despot of 
Samos in 522 B.C. The name is 
everywhere spelled Maeandrius 
except twice in Plutarch. 

Maecenas, C. Ciluius, 233 : a 
wealthy Roman, patron of 
letters ; friend of Horace, Virgil, 
and other poets, as well as of 
the emperor Augustus, to whom 
he bequeathed his property on 
his death in 8 b.c. 

Maniertines, 207, 209: an Oscan 
people in Sicily. 

Mandron, 539, 541 : king of the 
Pityoessenian Bebrycians. 

Manlius (Cn. Manlius Vulso), 557: 
consul in 189 b.c. when he con- 
quered the Galatiane in Asia 
Minor. 



INDEX 



Mantineia (battle of), 125, 281, 287. 

Marathon (battle of), 89. 

Marcellinus, Cn. Cornelius Len- 
tulus, 213 : consul 56 B.C., friend 
of Cicero, and enemy of Pompey. 

Marcellus, M. Claudius, 159, 161 : 
distinguished Roman general, 
Ave times consul, conqueror of 
Syracuse ; appointed colleague of 
Q. Fabius Maximus to conduct 
the war against Hannibal in 216 
B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Marius, C, 199-203, 209: famous 
Roman general, seven times 
consul, the first time in 107 b.c. 
at the age of 50. Defeated 
Jugurtha and saved Rome from 
the Cimbri and Teutones. Died 
in 86 Rc. Plutarch wrote his 
life. 

Marsyas, 71 : brother of Antigonus 
the "One-eyed." 

Masaesylians, 507 : a people of 
Numidia (western part) in Africa. 

Maximus, Q. Fabius (Venucosus), 
159-163 : consul in 233, 228, 215, 
214, and 209 B.C. Dictator to 
conduct the war against Han- 
nibal in 217 B.C. From his 
cautious policy in this war he 
received the name of "Cunc- 
tator." He died in 203 B.C. 

Megabates, 251: sonof Spithridates. 

Megalopolis, 311 : a large city in 
Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. 

Megara (Megarians), 127, 271, 375 : 
a country in Greece N.E. of the 
Isthmus of Corinth. 

Megisto, 523-531 : the wife of 
Timoleon. 

Melos, the women of, 495-497. 

Memmius, 195 : a military tribune 
under Scipio Africanus Minor. 

Memnon, 23 : of Rhodes ; anally of 
Darius against Alexander the 
Great. 

Menecnites, 129, 271, 273: a very 
successful physician from Syra- 
cuse. He seems to have gone 
(about 359 B.C.) to the court of 
Philip of Macedon. 

Menyllus, 113 : a Macedonian, 
commander of the garrison in 
Athens which was imposed by 



Antipater after the Lamian wa6 
(322 B.C.). 

Messene (Messenians), 187, 149, 
295, 303, 389 : a country west of 
Sparta in the Peloponnesus. 

Metapontum, 399 : a Greek city on 
the Gulf of Tarentum in southern 
Italy. 

Metellus (L. Caecilius Metellus 
Creticus), 225, 227 : tribune of 
the plebs in 49 b.c. ; attempted 
to thwart Caesar's designs. 

Metellus, Q. Caecilius Metellus 
Macedonicus, 197-199 : Roman 
general ; praetor in 148 B.C. when 
he defeated the pretender to the 
Macedonian throne, and later the 
Greeks, their conquest being 
completed by Mummius in 140 
B.C. Consul in 143 B.c. with the 
province of Hither Spain. Died 
in 115 B.C. Often confused with 
Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, 
whose life Plutarch wrote. 

Metellus (Q. Marcus Metellus 
Xepos), 217 : brother of Metellus 
Celer; supported Pompey, and, 
for a time, opposed to Cicero, 
but when consul (in 57 b.c.) he 
did not oppose the recall of 
Cicero from exile. 

Micca, 517-519 : daughter of Philo- 
demus. 

Micion, 113 : commander of the 
Macedonian forces which invaded 
Attica in 322 B.C. 

Miletus (Milesians), 57, 581, 533, 
535 ; the women of, 509 : a city 
on the coast of Asia Minor. 

Miltiades, 87, 89 : one of the ten 
generals in command of the 
Athenians at Marathon. He held 
the supreme command on the 
day of the battle. 

Minucius (M. Minucius Rufus), 
159 : consul 221 b.c. In 227 B.c. 
he was magister equitum to the 
dictator Q. Fabius Maximus in 
the war against Hannibal. 

Mithradates, 75 : founder of the line 
of kings of Pontus. 

Mithradates VI., 559, 561 : king of 
Pontus circa 120-63 B.C. 

Music, Spartan, 433-437. 

593 



INDEX 



Myro, 529 : elder daughter of Aris- 

totiiiius. 
Myronides, 95 : noted Athenian 

general in the 5th cent. b.c. 
Myus, 531 : an Ionian city in Caria. 

Namertes, 379 : an unknown 

Spartan. 
Narthacium, 265 : a mountain in 

Thes?aly. 
Nasica (P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica 

Corculum), 175: 2ncl cent. B.C., 

a wise and learned man, twice 

consul ; consistently opposed to 

Cato's policy regarding Carthage. 
Naxos (Naxians), 533, 535, 537 : a 

large island in the Aegean sea. 
Neaera, 533 : wife of Hypsicreon of 

MiletuS. 
Nectanabis, 131, 283: last king of 

the Sebennite dynasty in Egypt, 

middle of 4th cent. B.C. 
Neileus (or Neileos), 531 : son of 

Codrus (the last king of Athens) 

and founder of the city of Miletus 

in Asia Minor. 
Nestor, 479 : of Pylos, the wise old 

man of the Homeric poems. 
Nicander, 379 : an early Spartan 

king (circa 800 B.c.?), son of 

Charillus. 
Nicanor, 43 : a Macedonian. 
Nicias, 131, 253: a friend of 

Agesilaus. 
Nicocrates, 541, 543, 545, 547: 

tyrant of Cyrene in Africa. 
Nicodemus, 151 : a cripple. 
Nicomachus, 477 : a distinguished 

Greek painter, middle of the 4th 

cent. B.C. 
Nicostratus, 137 : Argive general, 

middle of 4th cent. B.C. 
Nonius, 221 : an officer in Pompey's 

army at the battle of Pharsalus. 
Numantia (Numantians), 193, 197 : 

most important town of the Celti- 

berians in Spain; destroyed by 

Scipio Africanus Minor in 133 B.C. 
Nyniphaeus, 495, 497 : of Melos, 

leader of a colony of Melians to 

Caria. 
Nymphis, 505 : Greek historian of 

Heracleia in Pontus, 2nd cent. 

B.C. 

594 



OcHus, 493: son of Artaxerxes II. 
(Mnemon), and king of Persia 
358(?)-338b.c. 

Odysseus, 479 : a most import- 
ant character in the Homeric 
poems. 

Oedipus, 145: king of Thebes in 
Boeotia, subject of Sophocles' 
plays which bear that name. 

Olympias, 479 : wife of Philip of 
Macedon and mother of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

Olympic games, 125, 289, 323, 847, 
381, 413, 421. 

Olynthus, 285 : a flourishing town 
in the Chalcidian peninsula at the 
head of the Gulf of Torone, cap- 
tured by the Spartans in 379 B.C., 
and by Philip in 348 b.c. 

Optilletis, 359 : epithet of Athena. 

Orestes, 145 : son of Agamemnon 
and Clytemnestra ; he slew his 
mother to avenge the death of 
his father. 

Orontes, 21 : Persian satrap of 
Mysia ; honoured with Athenian 
citizenship 349-348 b.c. 

Orontes, 317 : a prominent Persian ; 
probably unknown except in this 
connexion. 

Ortiagon, 555, 557 : one of the three 
princes of Galatia at the time 
of the Roman invasion in 189 

RC. 

Paedaretus (Paedaritus, Pedari- 
tus), 135, 385, 463 : Spartan 
general at the time of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. 

Panaetius, 193 : of Rhodes, a Stoic 
philosopher, friend of Scipio 
Africanus Minor. 

Panthoidas, 381 : Spartan governor 
(harmost) who fell at Tanagra 
377 B.C. (Plut. Li/e of Pdopidas, 
chap. XV.) 

Parium, 539 : a town of Mysia on 
the Hellespont. 

Parmenio, 41, 53, 57, 59, 81 : trusted 
general of Philip and Alexander ; 
accused of plotting against the 
life of Alexander, he was assas- 
sinated by command. He lived 
400-330 B.C. 



INDEX 



Parysatis, 21: wife of Darius II. 
(Ochus, or Not 1ms). 

Paulus (L. Aemilius Paulus Mace- 
donicus), 173 : distinguished 
Roman general ; aedile 192, 
praetor 191, consul 182 and 168 
RC. ; conquered Perseus (last 
king of Macedonia) at Pydna in 
168 B.C. He lived 230-160 b.c. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Pausanias, 381 : son of Cleom- 
brotus ; regent of Sparta from 
479 B.C. ; commanded the Greeks 
at the battle of Plataea ; died 
468 B.C. 

Pausanias, 883-385: son of Pleis- 
toanax ; king of Sparta (444 
nominally) 408-394 b.c. 

Pegasus, 503: Bellerophon's winged 
horse. 

Peiraeus, 99: the sea-port of 
Athens, 

Peisistratus, 117-199 : benignant 
" tyrant" of Athens, otf and on, 
from 560 to 528 B.C. ; rated by 
some as one of the Seven Wise 
Men. 

Pelasgians, 499 : the traditional 
name of the early inhabitants of 
some parts of Greece (including 
Attica)w 

Pelopidas, 141, 151-153, 479, 561 : 
eminent Theban general and 
statesman, early part of 4th 
cent. B.C. ; intimate friend of 
Epameinondas. 

Peloponnesus, 145, 147, 171. 

Pergamum, 559, 561 : a city near 
the west coast of Asia Minor, 
opposite Lesbos. 

Periander, 309: a physician, 4th 
cent B.C. 

Pericles, 97-99, 101, 221 : the 
famous Athenian general and 
statesman. Died 429 b.c. Plut- 
arch wrote liis life. 

Perillus (or Perilaus?), 57: a 
Macedonian, brother of Cas- 
ander (?). 

Perinthus, 291 : an important town 
in Thrace. 

Perseus, 83, 173, 175 : son of Philip 
V. and last king of Macedonia 
(from 178 to 168 b-c). 



Persian king, 129, 145, 247, 26&, 

273, 276, 281. 
Persian women, 491-493. 
Petillius (Q.?), 167 : accuser of 

Scipio Africanus. 
Phaedimus, 541, 543: of Gyrene, 

husband of Aretaphila. 
Pharnabazus, 273 : Persian satrap, 

governing the provinces about 

the Hellespont from 412 to 393 

B.C. 

Pharnaces, 229 : king of Pontus 
63-47 B. c. ; son of Mithradates the 
Great. 

Pharsalians, 265 : the people of 
Pharsalia in Thessaly. 

Pharsalus (battle of), 215, 221, 227. 

Philip, 25, 41-55, 137, 285, 291, 303, 
309, 329, 403, 447 : of Macedon, 
382-336 B.C., conqueror of Greece, 
father of Alexander the Great. 

Philip v., 169, 487, 489 : king of 
Macedon, able and eminent, 
defeated by the Roman general 
Flamininus at Cynoscephalae in 
197 B.C. He Uved from 237 to 
179 B.C. 

Philip, 69, 71 : a son of Antigonus 
the "One-eyed." 

Philip, 345 : a priest of the Orphic 
mysteries. 

Philippides, 79 : Athenian, poet of 
the New Comedy, circa 300 b.c. 

Philodemus, 517 : a citizen of Elis, 
otherwise unknown. 

Philon, 47 : a Theban. 

Philophanes, 243 : a sophist, other- 
wise unknown. 

Philopoemen, 171 : {circa 252-183 
B.C.) of Megalopolis; distin- 
guished general of the Achaean 
League. 

Phobus, 537, 539: a Phocaean, 
descendant of Codrus. 

Phocian " Desperation," 485. 

Phocion, 109-115: upright Athenian 
general and statesman, 402-317 
B.C. He was put to death on a 
charge of treason. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Phocis, the women of, 483-485, 611- 
513. 

Phoebidas, 391 : Spartan general 
who in 382 B.C. treacherously 

595 



INDEX 



seized the Cadnieia in Thebes ; 
fell in baltle against the Thebans 
sometime after 378 b.c. 
Phraates III. (Arsacas XI I.), 211 : 
king of the Parthians circa 70-CO 

B.C. 

Phrygia, 249 : a coiantry in central 
Asia Minor. 

Phrygius, 533 : son of Neileus of 
Miletus. 

Phrynis, 319: a celebrated dithy- 
rambic poet, second half of 5th 
cent. B.O. 

Phyle, 117: an Athenian fortress 
on Mt. Panies. 

Pieria, 531-533 : daughter of Pythes 
of Myus. 

Pindar quoted, 397 : famous Greek 
lyric poet, 522-442 b.c. 

Piso (C. Calpurnius Piso Frugi), 
221: husband of Cicero's daughter 
TuUia ; quaestor in 58 b.c. 

Piso, 237: probably Cn. Calpur- 
nius Piso, consul in 7 B.C. 

Pityoessenians, 539, 541 : apparently 
a sub-division of the Bebrycians. 

Plataea (battle of), 383. 

Plato, 35 : the celebrated philoso- 
pher, 427-346 B.C., friend and 
follower of Socrates, and founder 
of the Academic school of philo- 
sophy. 

Pleistarchus, 387 : son of Leonidas, 
and king of Sparta 480-458 b.c. 
He was only a child at the time 
his father fellat Thermopylae, and 
Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus 
was regent during most of his 
reign. 

Pleistoanax, 387 : son of the elder 
Pausanias, and king of Sparta 
circa 458-408 B.C. 

Pollis, 499: Spartan leader of a 
colony to Melos and Crete. 

Poltys, 23 : a legendary king of 
Aenos in Thrace. 

Polyarclius, 569,571: eldest brother 
of Eryxo the wife of Arcesilaus 
II. of Cyrene. 

Polybius, 185, 187, 559 : of Megalo- 
polis, celebrated Greek historian, 
circa 201-120 B.C. ; he was a host- 
age in Rome 168-160 b.c. 

Polycratea, 337 : ruler of Samos 



latter part of 7th cent. b.c. ; son 
of Aeaces. 

Polycratidas (better perhaps Poly- 
stratidas), 391 : an unknown 
Spartan. 

Polycrite, 533-537: a maiden of 
Naxos. 

Polydorus, 389 : son of Alcamenes, 
and king of Sparta in the second 
part of the 8th cent. b.c. 

Polysperchon, 85 : distinguished 
general under Alexander the 
Great and his successors. 

Polyxenus, 35: perhaps the brother- 
in-law of Dionysius the Elder. 

Pompeia, 223 : daughter of Q. 
Pompeius Rufus and of Cornelia 
the daughter of the dictator 
Sulla. She was married to Julius 
Caesar as his third wife, and 
divorced by him in 61 B.C. 

Pompey (On. Pompeius Magnus), 
207-215, 219, 221, 225, 227, 235: 
famous Roman general; triumvir 
with Juliiis Caesar and Crassus. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Pompey, Quintus, 189 : son of 
Aulus Pompey; of humble origin, 
no mean orator, consul in 141 
B.C., and censor in 131 B.C. 

Popillius (C. Popillius LaenasX 203 : 
consul 172 and 168 B.C., Roman 
general, in command against 
Antiochus IV. Epiphanes in 168 

B.C. 

Popillius, Castus, 219 : a Roman of 
plebeian family, otherwise appar- 
ently unknown. 

Porcia, 479 : daughter of Cato 
Uticensis, and wife of M. Brutus. 

Poredorix, 559, 561 ; tetrarch of 
the Tosiopians. 

Porsena, Lars, 513, 615, 517 : king 
of Clusium in Etruria (end of 
6th cent. b.c. ?). 

Porus, 67 : a king of India at the 
time of Alexander the Great. 

Priam, 259 : king of Troy at the 
time of the Trojan war. 

Promedon, 633, 635 : of Naxos. 

Protogenes, 77 : a celebrated Greek 
painter, latter part of 4th cent. 

B.C. 

Ptolemy (Soter), 09, 119: son of 



596 



INDEX 



Lagns, and king of Egypt 323- 
285 B.C. 

Ptol«^my VII. (Physcon), 192 : king 
of Egypt circa 145-116 b.c. 

Ptolemy, 79 : son of Pyrrhus king 
of Epeirus ; he held commands 
under his father, and was killed 
in battle in 2T2 B.C. at the early 
age of 23. 

Pylaea, 443 : a place in Sparta (?). 

Pylos, 327 : a town in S.W. of the 
Peloponnesus. 

"Pyrrhic Victory," 85. 

Pyrrhus, 83-S5, 157, 159 : king of 
Ep^'irus cir^a 307-272 B.c. Plut- 
arch wrote his life. 

Pytheas, 107 : unprincipled Atlien- 
ian orator, 4th cent, b.c; opposed 
to Demosthenes. 

Pythes, 533 : a prominent citizen of 
Myus. 

Pythes (Pythius) and his wife, 577- 
581 : a wealthy Lydian, son of 
Atys. He seems to have lived 
at Celaenae in Phrygia. 

Python, 61 : a Macedonian, com- 
mander under Alexander the 
Great, and laterunder Alexander's 
successors. 

Pji;hon, 85 : a flute-player. 

Pythopolites, 581: a river (the 
Marsyas?) flowing through Ce- 
laenae. 

QciNTics, see Flamininus. 
Quintus, 167 : accuser of Scipio 
Africanus. 

PiHODEs{Rhodians), 75, 77: an island 
ofiFthe southern pai t of Asia Minor. 

Rhoeinetalces I., 231: king of Thrace 
towards the close of the 1st cent. 

E.C. 

Roma, 481 : one of theTrojan women. 
Rubicon, 225 : the river which 

marked ti.e boundary between 

Gaul and Italy. 
Rufus, see Minucius. 

Saceedos, see Licinius. 
Salmantica, the women of, 505-507 : 

a city in Spain, the modern 

Salamanca. 
Bamuites, 155 : a people of Italy. 

VOL. Ill 



Samos (Samians), 105, 395, 401, 403: 
a large i.^land off" the S.^V. coast 
of Asia Minor. 

Samothrace (mysteries) 299, (oracle 
of) 375. 

Sappho, 477 : of Lesbos, the famous 
poetess, often called the tenth 
Muse. 

Satibarzanes, 19 : chamberlain of 
Artaxerxes I. 

Scilurus, 27 : king of the Scythians 
2nd or 1st cent. b.c. 

Scipio, Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Africanus Maior, 163-160 : Roman 
general, consul 205 B.C. ; conquered 
the Carthaginians at Zama 202 
B.C. He lived 235-183 B.C. Plut- 
arch wrote his life to parallel the 
Life of Epameinondas ; both are 
now lost. 

Scipio, Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Aemiliauus Africanus (Minor), 
185-197, 199: son of Aemilius 
Paulus, adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, son of Scipio Africanus 
Maior ; Roman general, consul in 
147 and 134 B.C. ; censor 142 b.c; 
conqueror of Carthage in 147-146 
B.C. ; friend of Polybius the 
historian. He lived 185-129 B.C. 
Plutarch wrote his life, which is 
now lost. 

Scipio (Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Nasica), 229 : sometimes called 
Metellus Scipio, because he was 
adopted by Metellus Pius ; consul 
(with Pompey) in 52 B.c An 
enemy of Caesar, he killed him- 
self after Caesar's victory at 
Thapsus in 46 b.c. 

Sciraphidas, 443 : an unkno-svn 
Spartan. 

Scythes, 263: commander of hopUtes 
in the army of Agesilaus. 

Seiramnes, 11 : a Persian, other- 
wise unknown. 

Seleucus I., 77 : commander under 
Alexander the Great, and after 
his death one of his successors, 
becoming ruler of SjTia ; the 
first of the line of Seleucid kings 
(t 280 B.C.). 

Selinus, 303 : important Doric 
colony in S.W. Sicily. 

597 



INDEX 



Semiramis, 15, 477 : an early Assyr- 
ian (or Babylonian) queen (or 
princess), about whose name a 
mass of legend has gathered. 

Seriphus, 91 : a small island in the 
Aegean sea. 

Sertorius, Q., 211 : a Sabine by 
birth ; began his military career 
in 105 B.C. ; opposed to the 
aristocracy; retired to Spain in 
82 B.C., organized the barbarians, 
and successfully withstood the 
Romans. He was assassinated 
in 72 B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Servilius (P. Servilius Vatia Isauri- 
cus), 209 : Roman general, consul 
in 79 B.C., subdued the pirates in 
Cilicia and its neighbourhood, 
and organized the Roman pro- 
vince of Cilicia (t 44 B.C.). 

Servius TuUius, 479 : the sixth king 
of Rome. 

Sesostris, 447 : a legendary (?) king 
of Egypt (see Herodotus ii. 102- 
111), by some identified with 
Rameses II. of the 19th dynasty. 

Shields (Spartan) 317, (" either this 
or upon this") 465. 

Sicily, 85, 101, 133, 165, 187, 207, 
213, 303, 311: the large island 
south of Italy. 

Silo, Q. Pompaedius, 203 : leader 
of the Marsi in the Social war in 
Italy, 90-88 B.C. He fell in the 
last battle of that war. 

Simonides of Ceos, 91 : distin- 
guished lyric and epigrammatic 
poet, 556-467 b.c. 

Simonides (of Ceos), quoted, 233. 

Sinatus, 551, 553, 555 : a tetrarch 
of Galatia. 

Sinorix, 551, 553, 555 : a tetrarch of 
Galatia. 

Smicythus, 43 : a Macedonian. 

Social war, 201:(in Italy, 90-88 B.C.). 

Socrates, 305 : the well-known 
Athenian philosopher, 468-399 

B.C. 

Socrates, 491 : a Greek historian, 
of Argos (works not preserved). 

Sotis, 391: third king of Sparta 
(Eurypontid). 

Sophocles quoted, 83, 215 : Athenian 
tragic poet, 495-406 B.C. 

S9B 



Sparta (Spartans), 127, 131, 133, 141, 
143, 145, 149, 253, 261, 267, 279, 
281, 291, 293, 297, 301, 305, 311, 
317, 323, 333, 341, 361, 369, 373, 
379, 381, 387, 389, 397, 401, 413, 
415, 425-449, 497, 499, 501 ; walls 
of, 257, 259 ; bounds of, 2o7, 309. 

Sperchis, 417 : a Spartan, sent with 
Bulls to Xerxes to atone for the 
killing of the Persian heralds. 

Spithridates, 251 : Persian com- 
mander sent by Pharnabazus to 
block the passage of the Ten 
Thousand ; later he forsook the 
Persians and joined the Greeks 
under Agesilaus. 

Sthennius, 207 : of Thermae in 
Sicily; friend of C. Marius ; 
leader of the Mamertines. 

Stratonice, 655-557 : wife of Deio- 
tarus. 

Sulla, L. Cornelius, 203, 207, 209 : 
(138-78 B.C.) surnamed Felix, 
served in the army under C. 
Marius, but later became his 
rival and overthrew him ; was ap- 
pointed dictator and proscribed 
many persons. Plutarch wrote 
his life. 

Sulla, Faustus, see Faustus. 

Syracuse (Syracusans), 27, 31, 33, 
37 : a city in Sicily. 

Syria (Syrians), 171 : a country at 
the eastern end of the Mediter- 
ranean sea. 

Taenarum, 497 : the south-western 

promontory of Laconia. 
Tanaquil, 479 : wife of L. Tarquinius 

Priscus, 5th king of Rome. 
Tarentum (Tarentines), 161 : an 

important city in southern Italy. 
Tarquin (L. Tarquinius Superbus), 

513, 515, 573 : the last king of 

Rome drca 534-510 b.c. 
Taxiles, 65 : a king of the Indians. 
Taygetus, 367, 499 : the mountain 

range west of Sparta. 
Teleclus, 121, 393 : king of Sparta 

8th cent. B.C. 
Telpsilla, 489 : an Argive poetess 

and heroine, circa 500 B.C. 
Tele.sippa, 63 : a woman othermse 

unknown. 



INDEX 



Teleutia, 463: the mother of 

Tellen (Telles), 147: a flute-player 
(and poet) noted for his lack of 
skill. 

Tennyson's The Cup, 550. 

Terentius(Q. Terentius CuUeo), 167 : 
a Roman senator taken captive 
by the Carthaginians in the 
second Punic war. 

Teres, 23 : king of the Odrysae in 
Thrace, 5th cent. b.c. 

Terpander, 437 : of Lesbos, some- 
times called the father of Greek 
music, lived in the first part of 
the 7th cent. B.C.; added three 
strings to the original four of 
the lyre. He was held in high 
honour in Sparta. 

Tertia, 173 : daughter of L. Aemilius 
Paulus. 

Teutons, 201 : an ancient people of 
Germany. 

Thasians, 255, 257: inhabitants of 
the island of Thasos and the 
adjacent mainland in Thrace. 

Theagenes, 561 : general of the 
Thebans at the battle of Chae- 
roneia. 

Thearidas, 325 : a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Thebe, 543 : wife of Alexander of 
Pherae. 

Thebes (Thebans), 63, 139, 141, 143, 
145, 147, 149, 261, 267, 277, 281, 
323, 361, 369, 397, 401, 447, 563 : 
the principal city in Boeotia. 

Thectamenes, 329: a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Themisteas (Megistias), 325 : the 
seer who accompanied the Spar- 
tans to Thermopylae (in 480 B.C.), 
and met his death in the battle. 

Themistocles, 87-95, 97, 221 : leader 
of the Athenians in the second 
Persian war, 480 B.C. Plutarch 
■svrote his life. 

Theodorus, 233 : procurator of 
Sicily in the time of Augustus 
Caesar. 

Theophrastus, 41 : of Lesbos, born 
372 B.C., pupil of Aristotle, and 
a distinguished philosopher and 
writer. 



VOL. Ill 



U2 



Tlieopompus, 123, 327, 447 : king of 
Sparta in the 8th (?) cent. b.c. 

Thericles, 195 : a famous Corinthian 
potter. 

Thermopylae (battle of), 347, 349, 
351. 

Thessaly (Thessalians), 63, 143, 263, 
483, 485: a country in N.B. Greece. 

Thorycion, 329 : a Spartan, other- 
wise unknown. 

Thrace (Thracians), 23, 24, 125, 263, 
313, 385 : the country at the 
north of tlie Aegean sea. 

Thrasybulus, 117: son-in-law of 
Peisistratus. 

Thrasybulus, 411 : a Spartan, son 
of Tynnichus. 

Thrasybulus, 529 : supporter of 
Aristotiraus tyrant of Elis. 

Thrasyllus, 73: a Cynic philo- 
sopher. 

Thucydides, 237, Greek historian of 
the Peloponnesian war, born 
471 B.C. 

Thucydides quoted, 475. 

Thyads, 511 : frenzied devotees of 
Dionysus. 

Thymoteles, 577 : leader of the 
revolt against Aristodemus tyrant 
of Cumae. 

Tiber, 481 : a river in Italy. 

Tiberius Caesar, 235 : emperor of 
Rome, A.D. 14-37. 

Tigranes, 205 : king of Armenia 
from ^Q to 66 B.C., when he sub- 
mitted to the Roman general 
Pompey (t circa 56 b.c). 

Timocleia, 479, 561-567: sister of 
Theagenes of Thebes. 

Timoleon, 523 : a prominent citizen 
of Eli.s. 

Timotheus, 41, 437 : lyric poet from 
Miletus in Asia Minor (447- 
357 B.C.). 

Timotheus, 105 : Athenian, general 
from 378 to 356 B.C. (t 353). 

Tissaphernes, 247, 249, 251 : Persian 
satrap of lower Asia Minor from 
414 B.C. ; opposed to tlie younger 
Cyrus, whose generals he 
treacherously put to death after 
Cyrus was killed. He succeeded 
to Cyrus's satrapy also, and 
carried on war against the Greeks, 

599 



INDEX 



but was himself put to death in 

S95B.C. 
Tosiopians, 559 : one of the divisions 

of the Galatians in Asia Minor. 
Traian, 9 : Roman emperor, a.d. 

98-117. 
Iranians, 263 : a people in Thrace. 
Trebonius, 201 : a young man in 

the army of C. Marius. 
Trojan women, 481. 
Tubero, Q. Aelius, 177 : son-in-law 

of L. Aemilius Paulus. 
Tynnichus, 411 : a Spartan, father 

of Thrasybulus. 
Tyrtaeus, .383, 417 : a poet, who 

according to tradition was 

summoned from Attica to help 

the Spartans in the second 

Messenian war. 

Valeria, 513-517 : daughter of the 
consul Publicola, and one of the 
hostages given to Lars Porsena. 

Vatinius, P., 217: a Roman of 
dubious character. As tribune 
of the plebs (in 59 B.C.) he seems 
to have sold his services to 
Caesar. He sided with Caesar in 
the Civil War and was consul 
suffectus for a short time in 47 

B.C. 

Veiling of married women, 393. 

Verres, C, 217, 219 : propraetor in 
Sicily, 73-71 B.C. ; prosecuted by 
Cicero for malfeasance in office 
and convicted in 70 b.c. 

Voconius, 219 : probably Q. Voco- 
nius Naso, who was judge at the 
trial of Cluentius in 66 b.c. 
(Cicero, Pro Cluentio, 53-54.) 

Xanthians, 505 : people of Xan- 
thus, the most important city 
of Lycia. 

Xenocles, 263 : commander of the 
cavalry in the army of Agesilaus. 



Xenocrates, 67, 137, 319, 321 : of 
Chalcedon, 399-314 B.C., disciple 
of Plato ; succeeded Speusippus 
as head of the Academic school 
of philosophy. 

Xenocrate, 573-577 : beloved by 
Aristodemus tyrant of Cumae, 
was instrumental in bringing 
about his assassination. 

Xenophanes, 29 : of Colophon in 
Asia Minor, Greek philosopher 
living afterwards at Elea in Italy, 
sometimes called the first Unit- 
arian. Latter part of 6tli 
century b.c. 

Xenophon, 267 ; Greek historian 
and general writer, 430-350 (?) 

B.C. 

Xerxes, 15, 17, 89, 91, 263, 349, 417, 
577, 579, 581 : son of Darius I., 
and king of Persia 485-465 B.c. ; 
conducted the great Persian 
expedition against Greece in 480 

B.C. 

Zacvnthus (Zacynthians), 171 : 
island on the west coast of 
Greece, the modern Zante. 

Zeleia, 501 : a town in Troas. 

Zeno, 79: from Citium in Cyprus, 
founder of the Stoic school of 
philosophy at Athens, circa 270 

B.C. 

Zens, 61, 131, 247: the supreme 

Greek god. 
Zenxidamus, 323-325 : an early 

king of Sparta, or else the son of 

Leotychidas II. If the latter, he 

died before his father, and so 

never became king. 
Zeuxis, 477 : a most celebrated 

Greek painter ; latter part of 

5th century B.C. 
Zopyrus, 15 : a distinguished 

Persian ; personal friend of 

Darius I. 



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Catullus. F. W. Cornish ; Tibullus. J. B. Postgate ; and 

Pervigilium Veneris. J. W. Mackail. 
Celsus : De Medicina. W. G. Spencer. 3 Vols. 
Cicero : Brutus and Orator. G. L. Hendrickson and 

H. M. Hubbell. 
Cicero : De Finibus. H. Rackham. 
Cicero : De Inventione, etc. H. M. Hubbell. 
Cicero : De Natuha Deorum and Academica. H. Raok- 

ham. 
CicEBo : De Officus. Walter Miller. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Cicero : De Oratore, etc. 2 Vols. Vol. I : De Ohatore, 

Books I and II. E. W. Sutton and H. Rackham. Vol. II : 

De Okatore, Book III ; De Fato ; Paradoxa Stoi- 

coHUM ; De Partitioke Oratohia. H. Rackham. 
Cicero : De Republica, De Leoibus, Somkium Scipionis. 

Clinton W. Keyes. 
Cicero : De Senectute, De Amicitia, De Divinatione. 

W. A. Falconer. 
Cicero : In Catilinam, Pro Murena, Pro Sulla, Pro 

Flacco. Louis E. Lord. 
Cicero : Letters to Atticus. E. O. Winstedt. 3 Vols. 
Cicero : Letters to his Friends. W. Glynn Williams. 

3 Vols. 
Cicero : Philippics. W. C. A. Ker. 
Cicero : Pro Archia, Post Reditum, De Domo, De Ha- 

HUSPicuM Responsis, Pro Plancio. N. H. Watts. 
Cicero : Pro Caecina, Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Cluentio, 

Pro Rabirio. H. Grose Hodge. 
Cicero : Pro Caelio, De Pbovinciis Consulahibus, Pro 

Balbo. R. Gardner. 
Cicero : Pro Milone, In Pisonem, Pro Scauho, Pro 

FoNTEio, Pro Rabirio Postumo, Pro Marcello, Pro 

LiGARio, Pro Rege Deiotaro. N. H. Watts. 
Cicero : Pro Quinctio, Pro Roscio Amerino, Pro Roscio 

CoMOEDo, Contra Rullum. J. H. Freese. 
Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium. R. Gardner. 
[Cicero] : Rhetorica ad Herennium. H. Caplan. 
Cicero : Tusculan Disputations. J. E. King. 
Cicero : Verrine Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 
Cl AUDI an. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. 
Columella : De Re Rustica ; De Arboribus. H. B. Ash, 

E. S. Forster, E. Heffner. 3 Vols. 
Curtius, Q. : History of Alexander, J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Florus. E. S. Forster ; and Cornelius Nepos. J. C. Rolfe. 
Frontinus : Stratagems and Aqueducts. C. E. Bennett 

and M. B. McElwain. 
Fronto : Correspondence. C. R. Haines. 2 Vols. 
Gellius. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 
Horace : Odes and Epodes. C. E. Bennett. 
Horace : Satires, Epistles, Ars Poetica. H. R. Fairclough. 
Jerome : Select Letters. F. A. Wright. 
Juvenal and Persius. G. G. Ramsay. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

LivT. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, A. a 
Schlesinger and R. M. Geer (General Index). 14 Vols. 

LucAN. J. D. Duff. 

Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse. 

Martial. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. 

Minor Latin Poets : from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 
Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 
NEivfEsiANUS, Avianus, witti " Aetna," " Phoenix " and 
other poems. J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. 

Ovid : The Art of Love and other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

Ovid : Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. 

Ovid : Heroides and Amores. Grant Showerman. 

Ovid : Meta»iorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Ovid : Tristia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. 

Petronius. M. Heseltine ; Seneca : Afocolocyntosis. 
W. H. D. Rouse. 

Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. 

Pliny : Letters. Melmoth's translation revised by 
W. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 

Pllny : Natural History. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V and IX. 
H. Rackham. Vols. VI and VII. W. H. S. Jones. 

Propertius. H. E. Butler. 

Phudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 

Quintilian. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. 

Remains of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. 
Vol. I (Ennius and Caecilius). Vol. II (Livius, Naevius, 
Pacuvius, Accius). Vol. Ill (Lucilius, Laws of the XII 
Tables). Vol. IV (Archaic Inscriptions). 

Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. 

Scriptores Historiae Augustae. D. Magie. 3 Vols. 

Seneca : Apocolocyntosis. C/. Petronius. 

Seneca : Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 

Seneca : Moral Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 

Seneca : Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Sidonius : Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

SiLius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. 

Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. 

Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 

Tacitus : Dialogus. Sir Wm. Peterson : and Aoricola 
and Germania. Maurice Hutton. 

Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. 
Jackson. 4 Vols. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. 

Tertullian : Apologia and De Spectaculis. T. R. Glover; 

MiNUcius Felix. G. H. Kendall. 
Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Moziey. 
Varro : De Lingua Latina. K. G. Kent. 2 Vols. 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Auousti. 

F. W. Shipley. 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. 
ViTfiuvius : De Architectura. F Granger. 2 Vols. 



GREEK AUTHORS 



Achilles Tatius. S. Gaselee. {2nd Imp.) 

Aelian : On the Nature of Animals. A. F. Scholfield. 
3 Vols. Vols. I and II. 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasandeb. The 
Illinois Greek Club. 

Aeschines. C. D. Adams. 

Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. 

Alciphron, Aelian and Philostratus : Letters. A. R. 
Benner and F. H. Fobes. 

Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 

Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. 

The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. 

Appian s Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. 

Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 

Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 
trans. 

Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. 

Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 
Virtues and Vices. H. Rackham. 

Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. 

Aristotle : Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 

Aristotle : Minor Works. W. S. Hett. " On Colours," 
" On Things Heard," " Pliysiognomics," " On Plants," 
" On Marvellous Things Heard," " Mechanical Problems," 
'* On Indivisible Lines," '* Situations and Names of 
Winds," " On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." 

Abistotle : NicoMACHEAN Ethics. H. Rackham. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Abistotle : Oecokomica and Magna Mobalia. G. CL 
Armstrong. (With Metaphysics, Vol. II.) 

Abistotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. 

Aristotle : On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 
W. S. Hett. 

Aristotle : Organon — The Categories. On Interpreta- 
tion. H. P. Cooke ; Prior Analytics. H. Tredennick. 

Aristotle : Organon — Posterior Analytics. H. Treden- 
nick ; Topics. E. S. Forster. 

Abistotle : Organon — Sophistical Refutations. Coming- 
to-be AND Passing-away. E. S. Forstcr. On the Cosmos. 
D. J. Furley. 

Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L Peck ; Motion and 
Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. 

Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Corn- 
ford. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Poetics ; Longinus on the Sublime. W. 
Hamilton Fyfe ; Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. 

Aristotle : Politics. H. Rackham. 

Aristotle : Problems. W. S. Hett 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Rhetorica ad Alexandrum. H. Rackham. 
(With Problems, Vol. II.) 

Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. 
Iliffe Robson. 2 Vols. 

Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

St. Basil : Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 

Callimachus : Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 

Callimachus : Hy3ins and Epigrams, and Lycophhon. 
A. W. Mair ; Aratus. G. R. Mair. 

Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 

COLLUTHUS. Cf. OpPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Cf. Longus. 

Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor 

Orations : I-XVH and XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes H : De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. V'ince. 
Demosthenes HI : Meidias, Androtion, Aristochates, 

Timocrates, Ahistogeiton. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes IV-VI t Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. 
Demosthenes VH : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essat, 

Exordia amd Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Gary. 9 Vols. 

Dio Chhysostom. 5 Vols. Vols. I and II. J. W. Cohoon. 

Vol. III. J. VV. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. Vols. IV 

and V. H. Lamar Crosby. 
DioDORUs SicuLus. 12 Vols. Vols. I-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX and X. Russel M. 

Geer. Vol. XI. F. R. Walton. 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
DiONYsius OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 
EusEBius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
Galen : On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacheontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 
Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
IsAEUs. E. S. Forster. 

IsocRATES. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
JosEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I-VII. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
LoNGUs : Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translfttion 

revised by J. M. Edmonds ; and Parthenius. S. Gase- 

lee. 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I-V. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 
Lysias. W, R. M. Lamb. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Manktho. W. G. Waddell ; Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols. K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burtt. 
NoNNos : DioNYSiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L 

Page. 

PaRTHENIUS. Cf. LONGUS. 

Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V, F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker ; Vols. VI-IX. F. H. Colson. 

Two Supplementary Vols. Translation only from an 
Armenian Text. Ralph Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives op the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato I : Euthyphbo, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedhus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato H : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato HI : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler : Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato IV : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

V/. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato V : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R, M. Lamb. 
Plato VI : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato VII : Timaeus, Critias, Cutopho, Menexenus, Epi- 

STULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plato VIII : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The 

Lovers, Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plutahch : Mobalia. 15 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. C. Babbitt; 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Vol. VI. W.C.Helmbold; Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler ; Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

Quintus Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Herodes, 
etc. A. D. Knox. 

Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 
2 Vols. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. 

Xenophon : Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant 



VOLUMES IN PREPARATION 



GREEK AUTHORS 



Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 

LATIN AUTHORS 



Babrius and Phaedhus. B. E. Perry. 

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