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Full text of "Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt"

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T, E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, FH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMIXGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

XII 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

HAROLD CHERNISS 

THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, PRINCETON, N.J. 

AND 
WILLIAM C. HELMBOLD 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 

XII 

920 A— 999 B 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLVIl 






OtCl6 



1153G93 



Printed in OrmI llrilain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

MORALIA ix 

Concerning the Face which appears in the 
Orb of the Moon — 

Introduction 2 

Text and Translation o^ 

On the Principle of Cold — 

Introduction 227 

Text and Translation 230 

Whether Fire or Water is more useful — 

Introduction 288 

Text and Translation 290 

Whether Land or Sea Animals are cle- 
verer — 

Introduction 311 

Text and Translation 318 

Appendix 481 

Beasts are rational — 

Introduction 489 

Text and Translation 492 

V 



CONTENTS 

PAOE 

On the Eating of Flesh — 

Introduction 537 

Text and Translation — 

I 540 

II 562 

Index 580 



VI 



PREFACE 

To prevent misunderstanding the editors wish to 
make it clear that the essays contained in this 
volume are not works of collaboration. Mr. Cherniss 
is entirely responsible for the text and translation 
of the first essay (pp. 1-223), Mr. Helmbold for all 
the rest of the volume. 



Vll 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 

the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



I. De Hberis educandis (Ilept TralScov dycoyrjs) 
Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(Hws Set Tov v€ov voL7]fj.a.raji> aKOveiv) . 
De recta ratione audiendi (Ilepl rod aKoveLv) 
Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(IIcDs" av TL9 hiaKpiveLC tov KoXaKa rod (J>lXov) 
Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 

(IIa»? av TLS atodoLTO iavrov TrpoKOTrrovros ctt' 

O-pcTfi) 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (Iltus- av n? 

UTt' €xOp<J^V d}(f)€XotTO) 

De amicorum multitudine (Hept TToXv(f>LXia^) 
De fortuna (Ilept Tvxqs) 
De virtute et vitio (Ilept dpeTrjs /cat KaKias) 
Consolatio ad Apol Ionium (TlapaiivdTjriKos vpos 

* AttoXXcovlov) ..... 
De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Tytetm Trap 

ayye'A/Ltara) ..... 
Coniugalia praecepta (ra/nt/ca TrapayyiXpLara) 
— vSeptem sapientium convivium (TcDv i-nTa. ao(f>cov 

aVpLTTOGLOv) ..... 

De superstitione (Ilept SetatSat/xovia?) 
III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('Atto 

(f)d4yjj.aTa ^aoiXewv Kal orpaTrjywv) 
Apophthegmata Laconica {W.'rTo<l>diypLara Aa 

Ka>VLKa) ...... 

Instituta Laconica (Ta TraAata roii' AaKehaLpLOviajv 

iTTiTrj^evfjiaTa) ..... 



PAOE 
lA 



17d 
87 B 



48e 



86b 

93a 

97c 

IOOb 

lOlF 

I22s 
138 a 

146b 
164f. 

172a 

208a 

236f 
ix 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



Lacaenaruiu apophthegnuita {AaKau-cov airo- 

<f>d€yfiaTa) ...... 24>0c 

Mulienini virtute.s (rwaiKcui' d/D€Tat) . . iJ-t^E 

-" I\'. Quaestiones pKomanae (AtTia 'Pa;/iaiKa). . 263d 

Quae.stioiies Graeoae (Atrta 'EAAt^vikci) . . 291 d 

Parallela Graeca et Koiiiana {^waycoyr) Ioto- 

picov TTapaXX-qXcov 'EXX-qvLKtov Kal 'Poj/ial/ctDi') . SOoA 

l)e fortuna Ronianoruin (Tlepi rijs 'Pcoixalcou 

TVXVS) . . . . S1()B 

l)e Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 
bri ii (Ilepi rrjs 'AXe^duSpov rvxrjS rj dp€TT]s, 
XoyoL j3') ...... 'i26D 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 
(Ildrepov Wd-qvaloL Kara voXcfiov rj Kara. ao<f>Lav 
eVSo^drepoi) ...... 345c 

W De Iside et Csiride (riept "IcrtSo? /cat 'OaipiSos) 351c 
De E apud Delphos {Ilepl tov EI tov eV AeA^oI?) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis (Ilept tov /at) xpd^ ep-fxerpa 

vvv TTjv Hvdlav) ..... 394d 

Ue defectu oraculorum (Ilepi rcZv eVAeAoiTrdraji' 

XprjoTrjpicov) ...... 409e 

\l. An virtus doceri possit (Ei SiSaKrov -q dperrj) . 439a 
De virtute morali (Tlept ttjs -qdLKTJg aperTjs) . 440d 
De cohibenda ira {Ylepl dopyiqaias) . . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilepi eu^u/xta?) . . 464e 

De fraterno aniore (Ilepi 0tAa8eA(^ta?) . . 478a 

De amore prolis (Ilept ttjs et? rd eKyova (f>iXo- 

OTopyias) ...... 493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Et 

avTdpKTjs rj KaKia rrpos KaKoSaifiovtav) . . 498a 

Aniniine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 
( II drepov rd rrjs 4'^Xl^ 1 ™ '''^^ oiLfxaros rrddr] 
X^Lpova) ....... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept dhoXioxias) . . . 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept ■noXv-npaypLoavvri's) . . 515b 

\'II. De cupiditate divitiaruni (Ilept ^tAoTrAouTta?) . 523c 
De vitioso pudore (TTept hvaiorrias) ■ ■ 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept <j)d6vov Kal pbtoovs) . 536e 
De .se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept tov 

iavTOv eVatvetv dv€7n(l>d6i>co9) . 539a 

De sera nuniinis vindicta (Ilept tojv vtto tov 

deiov SpaSe'cu? TLfiwpovfxevcov) . . . 548a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGE 



De fato (riept €lfiapfjL€vqg) . . . .568b 

De genio Socratis (Ilepi tov 'EwKparoug baifiovLov) 575a 
De exiVio {Ilepl (f)vyi]g) . .... 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem (HapafxvdrjTiKos ek r-qv 

yvvaxKa ttjv eavrov) ..... 608a 
VIII. Qiiaestionum convivialium libri ix {HvixTToaLa- 

Kcuu TTpo^XrjixdTcov ^L^Xia 6') . . . 612c 

I, 612c; II, 629b; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. VII, 697c; VIII, 716d; IX, 736c 

Amatorius ('EpojTt/co?) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('EpcortKrat 8t7?y^aets) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum {Ilepl rov on ixaXicra rols rjyefxoaL 

Set TOV (j)iX6ao<^ov SiaXeyeadai) . . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpos- rjyepiova 

dnaiSevTOv) ...... 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et Trpeo^vripco 

TToAireuTeov) ...... 783a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae {YVoXltlko. 

TrapayyeXfxaTa) ..... 798a 

De uniiis in republica dominatione, populari 

statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilept fiovapxias 

Koi hrjpiOKparias Kal oXiyapx^o-s) ■ • ■ 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilept tov jut) Sctv Savet- 

ieadm) . . . .... 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Ilept tcDi' 8eKa prjTo- 

pcov) ....... 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium {HvyKpiaecos ^ ApiuTO^dvovs Kal Met'- 

dvBpou eVtro/LtTy) ..... 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilept Trjs 'HpoSdroi; 

KaKorjdeias) ...... 854e 

De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilept tcDv 

dpeoKovTcov Tols <i>iXoa6(l)ois , jStjSAta e') . . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (Atrta ^yo-t/ca) . . 911c 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept tov 

ilx<f>aivoiiivov TrpoacoTTOV tco kvkXcd ttjs aeXij- 

VT^?) ....... 920a 

De primo frigido (Ilept tov TrpoiTOJS iftvxpov) . 945e 
Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Ilept tov -noTepov 

vbcop rj TTVp ;)(;pT7ai/xc6Tepov) .... 955d 

xi 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



Terrestrianc an aquatilia aninuilia t>int callidi- 
ora (rioTepa tcov t^wcov (f)povLfxcoT€pa to. x^paala 
rj TO. €vvBpa) ...... 

Bruta aninialia rations uti, sive Gryllus (llepi 
Tov TO. aXoya Xoyco XRV^^^'^'-) 

l)e esii carniuni orationes ii (Ilept oapKO(f)ayias 
\6yoL j3') ...... 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (riAaTcuvtxa ^T^TT/zxara) . 

De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Ilept ttjs iv 
TifxaLO} tpvxoyovcas) ..... 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 
Timaeo {'EnLTOfxr] tov Trepl rrjs eV ray Tifxaio) 
ipuxoyovia's) ...... 

De Stoicorum rei)ugnantii.s {Ylepl llTcut/ccDv' eVav- 

TICU/XCITCUV) ...... 

Compendium argument! Stoicos ab.surdiora 
poetis dicere {^vvoxpis rod otl TrapaSo^orepa ol 
SronACOt ToJv TTOLTjTcjv Xiyovat) 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Hept 

TcDv KOLVCOV iVVOlCOV TTpOS TOVS ^TCOLKOVS) 

Xon posse suMviter vivi secundum Epicurum 
("On ov8^ rjhecos ^i]v kari /car' ^Vj-rriKOvpov) 

Adversus Colotem (IIpo? KoAojttjv) 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (et 
KaXcos eXp-qrai ro Xdde ^Lcoaas) 

De musica (Ilept fxovuLKrjs) .... 

Fragments and Index 



XIV 



XV 



1128a 
1131a 



Xll 



CONCERNING THE FACE 

WHICH APPEARS IN THE 

ORB OF THE MOON 

(DE FACIE QUAE IN ORBE LUNAE 
APPARET) 



VOL. XII 



INTRODUCTION 

1. The authenticity of this dialogue has sometimes 
been questioned but without any plausible reason.*^ 
On the other hand, despite statements to the con- 
trary, it is certainly mutilated at the beginning,^ 
although one cannot tell whether much or little has 
been lost ; this follows not merely from the abrupt- 
ness of the opening as we have it, the lack of any kind 
of introduction, and the failure to identify the main 
speaker until two-thirds of the dialogue have been 

<* Cf. S. Gunther, quoted by M. Adler, Diss. Phil. Vind. 
X (1910), p. 87, and R. Pixis, Kepler als Geoffraph, p. 105. 
Wilamowitz {Commentariolum Orcunmationn, iii, pp. 27-28) 
suggested that the dialogue was published under the name 
of Lamprias ; and this notion that Lamprias was in some 
sense either the real or the reputed author was adopted by 
Christ in the third edition of his Geschichte der griechischen 
Litteratur ( 1 898), p. QG2, and by Hirzel {Der Dialog, ii, p. 1 85). 

'* Mutilation was assumed by Xylander, Kepler, and 
Diibner and has been reasserted by Pohlenz {B.P.W, xxxii 
[1912], pp. 649-650), von Arnini (Plutarch aher Ddmonen vnd 
Mantik, p. 38), Raingeard {Le HEPI TOT IlPOSQnOT de 
Plutarque, pp. 49-50 on 920 u 1), and K. Ziegler {Plntarchos 
von Chaironeia, 214). It was denied bv Wilamowitz {loc. 
cit.), Hirzel {Der Dialog, ii, p. 186, n. 6), and M, Adler {Diss. 
Phil. Vind. X, pp. 88-89). \\'yttenbac'h contended that 
" either nothing or no great part " had perished. 

2 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

finished, but even more surely from the nature of 
the text in the opening sentences.'^ 

2. In the dialogue as it stands the first speaker is 
Sulla. His chief function is to recount the myth which 
he mentions in the first extant words and which 
occupies the final fifth of the work ; but he interrupts 
the dialogue proper at 929 e — 930 a to ask whether 
a certain difficulty was treated in the discussion which 
Lucius is reporting. He is a Carthaginian (cf. 94^2 c), 
presumably the Sextius Sulla cited by Plutarch in 
his Romulus, chap. 15 (26 c), and the same as the 
Carthaginian Sulla who gave a dinner for Plutarch 
in Rome {Quaest. Conviv. 727 b). He is probably the 
Sulla who appears as the interlocutor of Fundanus 
in the De Cohihenda Ira (note h, 453 a) but probably 
not the same as the Sulla of Quaest. Conviv. 6SQ a 
(6 eratpo-s) and 650 a (one of tmv (rvvrjOioi^. 

The second speaker, at once the narrator of the 
whole conversation and the leader of the dialogue 

" Those who have defended 6 jxkv ovv SiuAAa? ' rayr' ' elire 
' TO) y e/jLco iJLvdcp vpoGTJKei ktX. as a possible opening appar- 
ently were unaware that the reading of E is 'OawoauAAas- 
ravra etTre. rco yap iixaj pivQco TTpoarjKii ktX. and that B's o /xev 
ovv ^vXXas is in all probability a conjecture made by the 
scribe of that ms. This being so, it is unjustifiable to " emend" 
the yap of Tcp yap ipLU) ixvOw, the reading of both E and B ; and, 
if this yap stands, it is certain that our mss. do not preserve 
the beginning of the dialogue. The next sentence, dAA' el 
Set Tt . . . TTpoaavaKpovaaodai, vpcoTOV rj8ea}9 av fxoL 8oKa) 
TTvdeoOac, which Wyttenbach needlessly " emended," implies 
that some introduction of Sulla and his myth preceded the 
present beginning ; and 937 c (. . . HvXXav . . . olov eVt prjToXs 
oLKpoarrjv yeyevqpievov) suggests what the nature of this intro- 
duction may have been. Even the tense of ri 8' ovk eneXXofxev 
implies some preceding reference to an earlier conversa- 
tion or a conversation itself interrupted by the arrival of 
Sulla. 

3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

proper, is Lamprias," who is also the narrator of the 
De Defectu Oraculorum {cf. 413 d), a dialogue in which 
he plays the leading role.'' In the T>e E apiicl Delphos, 
where Lamprias appears with Plutarch, Plutarch calls 
him brother (385 d) ; and he is frequently identified 
as Plutarch's brother in the Quaest. Conviv. (cf. 635 a, 
726 D-E, 74^4' c [with 715 a], and possibly 626 a). He is 
characterized as a wit and a tease (726 d-e, 74-0 a), one 
accustomed to speak out in a loud voice (617 e-f), and 
capable of inventing a story as evidence to support 
his argument {De E 386 a) ; he is an expert in culinary 
matters (643 e, 669 c, 670 e) and in the dance (747 b) 
and shrinks from appearing as a kill-joy to younger 
men (704 e). He is made to emphasize his close 
relations with a Cynic (De Defectu Oraculorum, 413 b) ; 
but he is no Cynic himself, and he is mortified to 
think that he might be supposed to have used his 
skill in argument to discredit any pious belief (435 e). 
He is said to honour the school of Aristotle above that 
of Epicurus {Quaest. Co?iviv. 635 a-b) ; but he does 
not hesitate to disagree with Aristotle in the De 
Defectu Oraculorum (424 c ff.) and to espouse against 
him the doctrine of the Academy (430 e ff.). In the 
De Facie he is a vehement critic of Stoic doctrine and 
a supporter of the Academic position {cf. 922 f). 
Lamprias bore the name of his grandfather ; but this 

** His name is not mentioned until 937 d. There at the 
beginning of a section which serves as the transition from 
the main or " scientific " part of the dialogue to the myth 
Theon calls Lamprias by name, as Sulla does also at the 
beginning of his myth (940 f) and at the end of it (945 d). It 
is probable that in the lost beginning of the work Lamprias 
was similarly identified. 

^ Cf. Flaceliere, Plutarque : Sur la Disparition des Ora- 
cles (Paris, 1947), pp. 19-22. 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

does not prove, as has sometimes been asserted, that 
he was older than his brothers, Plutarch and Timon. 
De Defectu Oraculorum, 431 c-d, has been thought to 
show that he was a priest of the oracle in Lebadeia,^ 
though this is not a necessary implication of that 
passage ; and a Delphic inscription proves him to 
have been an archon at Delphi towards the end of 
Trajan's reign or in the beginning of Hadrian's.^ 

ApoUonides, the third speaker, is at once identified 
as expert in geometry (920 f), and Lamprias indicates 
that the scope and limitations of his specialty coin- 
cide with those of Hipparchus, the great astronomer 
(921 D, cf. 925 a). He puts forward objections to 
Lamprias 's explanation of the " face " based upon 
astronomical terminology and calculations (933 f, 
935 d-e). An ApoUonides appears at Quaest. Conviv. 
650 F along with Sulla ; but he is called o raKrtKos 
\\7roX)io)VL8i]s, and there is no compelling reason to 
identify the two.^ Prickard may well be right in 
saying that the name ApoUonides here was used by 
Plutarch to mean " one of the clan of Apollonius," 
i.e. a mathematician who, like Apollonius,*^ is in- 
terested in astronomical theory. 

" Hirzel, Ber Dialog, ii, p. 189, n. 3; Flaceliere, op. cit. 
p. 251, n. 233 : Ziegler, Plutarchos von Ckaironeia, 10. 

" Dittenberger, S.I.G. ii. 868 c, n. 6 ; Stein, E.E. xii. 1. 
586, S.V. KayLTTpias 4. 

" Ziegler {Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 34) says that the 
sentence at 927 b, ov yap iv oTparoTrihu) raKTiKcov 6(f)€Xo5 /ctA., 
is spoken " obviously with reference to the interlocutor 
ApoUonides " ; but this is pretty obviously not true. Lam- 
prias is not here speaking in answer to ApoUonides ; and 
his subsequent words, ovBe K-q-novpiov ouS' olKo86fxa>v, certainly 
have reference to none of the present company. These are 
in fact stock examples of the argument from design. 

<* Apollonius of Perga ; cf. Hultsch, R.E. ii. 151-160. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Certainly Aristotle, who puts forward the orthodox 
Peripatetic theory of the heavenly bodies (928 e flp.), 
is only a name chosen by Plutarch to signify the 
school that he represents (c/. 920 f), even as the 
representative Epicurean in De Sera Numine Vindicta 
is called Epicurus." 

The Stoic position is represented by Pharnaces. 
This name was borne by the son of Mithridates, of 
whom Plutarch tells in the Lives of Pompey and 
Caesar, as well as by several notable Persians men- 
tioned by Herodotus and Thucydides ^ ; and Plutarch 
probably chose it for his Stoic because of its Asiatic 
sound/ 

After the role of Lamprias the largest in the dia- 
logue proper is that of Lucius, who is probably the 
same as " Lucius, the pupil of Moderatus the Pytha- 
gorean, from Etruria," a guest at the dinner which 
Sulla gave for Plutarch in Rome {Quaest. Conviv. viii. 
7-8 [727 B ff., 728 d ff.]).^ Early in the dialogue (921 f) 
Lamprias turns to Lucius for aid ; he seems to think 
it appropriate that Lucius should set forth the strict 
" demonstration " of the Academic theory concerning 

"■ There is no reason to change 'ETri/coupo? of the mss. in 
548 A to 'EvLKovpcLos, as Fabricius did. " Aristotle " here 
supports " Epicurus " there. 

* There was also a city in Pontus named Pharnaceia 
{IaicuUus, 17 [502 f]). 

" Hirzel {Der Dialog, ii, p. 186, n. 4) says that Pharnaces 
is certainly a former slave, one who had shared the fate 
and sentiments of Epictetus. This, of course, is the merest 
fancy ; not all Asiatics, not even all in Rome at this time, 
had been slaves. For Athenians named Pharnaces cf. I.G. 
ii2. 1039. 84 and 202. 55. 

^ Another Lucius, the son of Florus, appears in Quaest. 
Conviv. vii. 4 [702 f]) ; cf. Ziegler, Plutarchos von Chairo- 
neia, 55. 

6 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

the moon (cf. 928 d-e) ; and in fact the statement and 
defence of this position are shared by the two of them." 

Theon, whom Lamprias asks to identify a quotation 
(923 f) and whom he later teases for admiring Aris- 
tarchus to the neglect of Crates (938 d), is recognized 
as the literary authority in the group (cf. 931 e, 9^0 a). 
He is probably to be identified with Bewi' o ypajxij.o- 
TLK6<i, who was a guest at Sulla's dinner along with 
Lucius (Quaest. Conviv. 728 f) and who also dined 
with Plutarch at the house of Mestrius Florus (Quaest. 
Conviv. 626 e).^ In the De Facie his chief contribution 
is a speech (937 d — 938 c) which he makes after the 
main part of the dialogue has been concluded and 
which Lamprias praises as a kind of relaxation after 
the seriousness of the scientific discussion. 

The last of the persons present is Menelaus the 
mathematician. Lucius addresses him directly once 
(930 a), but Menelaus makes no reply and neither 
speaks nor is spoken to elsewhere in the dialogue as 
we have it.^ He is not mentioned anywhere else by 
Plutarch either ; but he is probably meant to be the 
Menelaus of Alexandria whom Ptolemy once calls 

" It is Lucius who demands that the Stoic theory should 
not be passed over without refutation (921 f). It is he who 
replies when Pharnaces complains of Lamprias's violent 
treatment of the Stoics (922 f). His speeches extend from 
922 F to 923 F, v.'here Lamprias takes over to give him time 
to collect his thoughts, from 928 f to 929 e, from 930 a to 
931 c, and from 931 d to 933 e. 

^ This Theon, whose home was Egypt {cf. 939 c-d), is 
certainly not the same as Qiojv 6 iralpos {Quaest. Conviv. 
620 A, i)e E, 386 d), who is probably the Theon oi De Pythiae 
Oraculis, Non Posse Suaviter Vivi, and Quaest. Conviv. 
667 A and 726 a fF. 

" Unless the plural u^tv used twice by Lamprias at 939 c-d 
is meant to include Menelaus as well as Theon ; cf. note a on 
p. 170 infra. 

7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

o yeo)H€Tpi]^ and twice cites for astronomical observa- 
tions which he made at Rome in the first year of 
Trajan (a.d. 98)." 

3. From 937 c-d it follows that the interlocutors 
have hitherto been promenading as they talked and 
that now they sit down upon the steps, seats, or 
benches (eVt rcui' fSiWpw) and remain seated to the 
end. No other indication of the scene or location is 
given in the work as we have it. It had generally 
been assumed that the dialogue was meant to take 
place in Chaeronea ^ ; but nothing in the text requires 
this, and F. H. Sandbach has adduced strong argu- 
ments for believing that the dramatic location is 
Rome or the vicinity of Rome.^ The persons in the 
dialogue furnish one of these arguments. Apol- 
lonides, Aristotle, and Pharnaces occur nowhere else 
in Plutarch's waitings and are probably all fictitious 

« Ptolemy, Syntaxis, vii. 3 (ii, p. 30. 18 ff. and p. 33. 3 ff. 
[HeibergD ; cf. Orinsky, s.n. " Menelaos " 16 in Pauly- 
Wissowa, B.E, xv. 1. 834 f. 

^ Cf. Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii, p. 184, n. 1, who discusses and 
rejects the suggestion that the scene is Delphi. Raingeard 
in his note on 939 c (p. 129 of his commentary) says that 
cooTTcp dvco TTcpl Qij^as there would allow the inference that the 
speakers are on the coast of Egypt. No such inference is 
justified by this phrase, of course ; in fact, the preceding 
vXrjv Se Kal Kap-novs avrov (or avrodi, as Raingeard conjectures) 
fiev ofi^poL Tp€<f>ov(yiv and the subsequent -nap^ vfj.iv ev AlyvTTTO) 
(939 D 1) show that the scene of the dialogue is not anywhere 
in Egypt. 

" F. H. Sandbach, " The Date of the Eclipse in Plutarch's 
De Facie,'' Class. Quart, xxiii (1929), pp. 15-16 ; cf. Ziegler, 
Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 73-74. I am indebted to Mr. 
Sandbach for sending me, along with copies of his publica- 
tions, many of his unpublished opinions concerning points 
in the De Facie and copies of his correspondence with J. K. 
Fotheringham occasioned by the publication of the article 
cited above. 

8 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

characters. Plutarch nowhere else mentions Mene- 
laus the mathematician either, but we know that 
Menelaus spent some time in Rome (see note a, 
p. 8). Sulla, Lucius, and Theon all appear together 
at a dinner given for Plutarch Avhen he had returned 
to Rome after an interval of absence (Quaest. Co?iviv. 
viii. 7-8) ; and none of these three is ever mentioned 
as being anywhere but in Rome or its vicinity (see 
§ 2, supra). Lamprias alone belongs to Plutarch's 
circle at Chaeronea ; but it is by no means certain 
that he did not visit Rome as Plutarch did, though 
there seems to be no definite evidence either way.*^ 

The other argument for the dramatic location is 
connected \\'ith the question of the dramatic date 
of the dialogue. At 931 d-e Lucius refers to a recent 
total solar eclipse, saying : "if you will call to mind 
this conjunction recently which, beginning just after 
noonday, made many stars shine out from many 
parts of the sky . . ." ^ Ginzel ^ identified this 
eclipse with the one which occurred on 20 March 
A.D. 71, for he found that all other solar eclipses 
visible in Chaeronea during Plutarch's lifetime fell 
too far short of totality to permit the appearance of 

"■ Lamprias at least pretends to be conversant with Latin 
{Quaest. Conviv. 726 e if.). On Plutarch's visits to Rome 
cf. Ziegler, Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 19-:20. 

^ . . . Sore /iot, raurrjg €vay)(os rrjs ovv68ov y.vrjod4vT€£ tj 
TToXXa fxkv aorpa TToXXaxodev rod ovpavov 8L€(f)r]V€v evdvs e'/c /xe- 
CTT/^jSpta? dp^ajxevT). . . . 

" F. K. Ginzel, Spezieller Kanon der Sonnen- und Mond- 
finsternisse fur das Landergebiet der klassischen Altertums- 
wissenschaft (Berlin, 1899), pp. 202-204' ; cf. also Plates X 
and XI for the paths of solar eclipses during the first and 
second centuries a.d. The data for the eclipses of 75 and 83, 
infra, come from Ginzel's tables, op. cit. p. 78 and pp. 110- 
lil. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

stars. His conclusion was generally accepted " until 
Sandbach ^ pointed out that, since this eclipse 
reached its maximum phase at about 11 a.m. local 
solar time in Chaeronea,^ Plutarch could not have 
referred to it as having begun after noonday. Ginzel 
had assumed that the place of observation was 
Chaeronea ; Sandbach, having recognized that this 
assumption is unwarranted, was able to consider two 
other echpses, that of 5 January a.d. 75 and that of 
27 December a.d. 83. The latter was total at Alex- 
andria shortly before 15 hours. The former was 
total in Carthage a little after 15 hours and in the 
latitude of Rome on the eastern side of the Adriatic 
at about 15 hours, 20 minutes ; at Rome itself the 
maximum obscuration was 11-5 digits, so that, since 
according to Fotheringham '^ stars other than Venus 
have been visible where the solar obscuration was 
10-7 digits, it is perfectly possible that some stars 

" Struyck (cited by Ginzel, op. cit. p. 203) appears to have 
come to this conclusion before Ginzel ; and Ginzel's identifica- 
tion was accepted by M. Adler {Zicei Beitrage zum plutar- 
chischen Dialog, De Facie [Xikolsburg-, 1910], p. 4) and by 
Fotheringham as cited by A. O. Frickard (Plutarch on the 
Face of the Moon [1911], p. 75, and Plutarch, Select Essays^ 
ii, p. 253). Hirzel {Der Dialog, ii, p. 182, n. 1), following 
Volkmann, does not even mention the eclipses of 59, 71, 
and 75, which Ginzel held to be the only ones worthy of 
consideration. 

'' Op. cit. in note c, p. 8 supra. 

<= lO^r, 58™, 4 according to Ginzel (op. cit. p. 204) : ll^^r, 
4™, 1 according to Fotheringham as quoted by Frickard 
{Plutarch, Select Essays, ii, p. 253). 

'^ Historical Eclipses (1921), cited by Fotheringham in a 
letter to Sandbach (22 January 1929) ; in this letter Fother- 
ingham states that " a certain number of stars were visible 
at Rome in 75." Cf. Ginzel, op. cit. p. 14 : " Bei den zen- 
tralen Sonnenfinsternissen . . . einzelne Sterne treten mitunter 
hervor, bevor die Phase 1 1 zollig geworden ist." 

10 



THE FACE OX THE MOON 

would have been seen at Rome about 3.20 p.m. local 
solar time on 5 January a.d. 75. This eclipse of 
A.D. 75 as seen in Rome certainly fits the conditions 
of Lucius' statement better than does the one of 
A.D. 71 as seen in Chaeronea, even though it was 
rather late to be described as beginning just after 
noonday." It must be emphasized that there is no 
reason to assume that Plutarch himself saw the 
eclipse to which Lucius refers. He had undoubtedly 
heard that it had been seen in or near Rome ; he 
almost certainly had seen the eclipse of a.d. 71 in 
Chaeronea and may have seen that of a.d. 83 in 
Alexandria ^ ; and what he had seen during one or 
both of these eclipses he may very well have applied 
to the eclipse of a.d. 75, which he had not seen.^ We 

"* Its " beginning," which would have been at approxi- 
mately 13.50 hours, could not have been observed with the 
naked eye ; but Plutarch was capable of calculating it 
roughly. In any case, whether the owohov . . . rj . . . dp^afxevrj 
is to be taken strictly or in the sense of the time when dark- 
ness began, jjLearjjx^pLa, as Sandbach has said, is an extended 
period of time and not an astronomical moment ; and Lucius 
means that the conjunction began just after noonday was over. 

^ We do not know when Flutarch visited Alexandria. In 
Quaest. Conviv. v. 5 (678 c ff.) his grandfather is present at 
a banquet given for him after his return from Alexandria. 
Sandbach (toe. cit.) thinks that this could have been after 83 ; 
but, whether this is so or not, we do not know whether there 
may not have been more visits to Alexandria than this one. 

" If 932 B (. . . 77€ pi(f)aLV€TaL TLS avyr] Trepl ttjv ltvv . . .) 
means, as has sometimes been supposed, that Plutarch had 
seen the corona, he must have had this experience in 71 or 83. 
No one in or near Rome would have seen it in 75. I doubt 
that these words apply to the corona at all, however, for the 
subsequent ovk ecoaa ^adelav yeveoOai ttjv aKiav koL aKparov 
would be a remarkably tame way of describing that spectacle. 
If the passage refers to any observed phenomenon, it is more 
likely to have reference to an annular eclipse. 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

may then conclude that the dramatic date of the 
dialogue is later than a.d. 75, but how much later it 
is remains uncertain despite Lucius' reference to the 
eclipse as " recent." The word which he uses, evayxos, 
like the English " recent," has a meaning relative 
to its context, and in the case of anything so unusual 
as a total solar eclipse might refer to an event that had 
taken place at any time within a decade or more ; it 
seems in this passage not to be used of the immediate 
past, for Lucius expressly reckons with the possibility 
that his audience may not recall " the recent con- 
junction " and may have to fall back upon literary 
evidence for the impression made by a total solar 
eclipse." The attempts to find a historical refer- 
ence in 945 B which would help to fix the date of the 
dialogue are quite perverse ^ ; and we are restricted 
by the evidence at present available to the conclu- 
sion that the conversation was meant to have taken 
place in or about Rome some time — and perhaps 
quite a long time — after a.d. 75. 

So much for the dramatic date. There is no reason 

" 931 E : el 8e fxt], Qecov rjixlv (rov) Miixvepfiov i-nd^ei ktX. 
Of course, this is primarily a literary device to excuse the 
introduction of the literary references ; but it shows that 
Plutarch does not expect his readers to remember what a 
total solar eclipse is like. 

^ Hirzel {Der Dialog, ii, p. 182, n. 1) excised Tu^civ in 945 b 
(TiTUOt 8e Kal Tv(f)a>v€s 6 re AeA</>oi)? KaTaax^ov «'cit avvrapd^as 

TO XP''?CrT7^ptOV V^pCL Kal ^LO. Tv(f>U)V €^ €K€LVCOV KtX.), tOok O . . . 

ovvrapd^as . . . jSta as a reference to Nero, and concluded 
that Phitarch must have written this after the devastation of 
Delphi and before the restoration of the oracle. Adler {Zwei 
BeHrcige, etc. [see note a, p. 10], pp. 5-7) defended the text 
of the Mss., which he interpreted to mean " demons of the 
nature of Tityus and Ty])ho and among- these especially the 
Typhon who, etc.," and followed Pomtow (Rhein. Mns. li 
[1896], pp. 377 if.), who showed that the extinction of the 

12 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

at all for Hirzel's assertion " that this and the date 
of composition coincide. Certain striking similarities 
between the De Facie and the De Defectu Oraculorum 
have often been observed, but from these can be 
drawn equally cogent — and equally hypothetical — 
arguments for the priority of either to the other ^ ; 

Delphic oracle during the time from Nero to Hadrian was 
pure invention and who took Tvcfidov in De Facie, 945 b, as a 
reference to the conflagration in 83 b.c. Adler then, assuming 
that after the ceremonious restoration of the temple in a. d. 84 
Plutarch would not remind his readers of its devastation, 
concluded that the dialogue must have been written before 
A.D. 84. This argument was criticized by K. Mras {Zeitschrift 
fiir die dsterreichischen Gymnasien, Ixv [1914], p. 187), who 
in turn deleted Tu^cDve? from the text and read Tnvol Se /cat 
o Tv^tuv o AeA^ous- . . . ^ta ktX. This violent alteration is 
even less justifiable than Hirzel's excision of Tvcfxvv, with 
which it shares the fault of producing the hiatus j8ia e^ ; but 
the text of the mss. is impossible despite Adler, for (a) one 
does not say in any language " such creatures as Tityus and 
Typho and in particular Typho . . .," (6) nowhere else is 
Tj'pho himself said to have done the deed here ascribed to 
him, and (c) a reference to the conflagration is at least as 
improbable as the supposed reference to Nero. Kaltwasser's 
change of Tv(f>a)v to IlvOtov, on the other hand, is practically 
certain. Confusion of v and t and of 6 and ^ is easy and 
common, and ttvOcov coming after rvifxjjves would very easily 
be assimilated to it. Moreover, in I)e Defectu Oraculorum, 
421 c, ra -nepl HvOojva are included among hatiiovcjov -nddrj along 
with ra Tv(j)iovLKa. and ra Tiravt/ca. In 414 a-b the oracle at 
Delphi is said to have been long deserted in what is repre- 
sented as " ancient times " ; and, if it is denied that the 
beast (which is not here named but is certainly P}i:hon !) was 
the cause, that is done in order to ascribe the cause to Sat/noves-. 
Finally, Ilu^ajv and Ttruo? are named together by Plutarch in 
Pelopidas, 16 {2%Q c) as they are by Strabo (ix. 3. 12 [cc. 
422-423]) and Apollodorus {Bibliotheca, i. 4. 1. 3-5 [22-23]). 

<* Der Dialog, ii, p. 184, n. 1. 

^ M. Adler {Diss. Phil. Vind. x, pp. 115-116) contends 
that in the De Defectu Plutarch excerpts the De Facie ; but 
see Raingeard, p. xxviii of his edition of De Facie. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

and, since in any case the date of the De Defectu is 
uncertain,'* the relative chronology of the two if 
established would not determine the date of the 
De Facie. 

4. The structure of the De Facie is complicated. 
The whole of the work is narrated by Lamprias who 
speaks in the first person and quotes those who took 
part in the conversation, including himself, some 
few times in indirect discourse (e.g. 933 f) but for the 
most part directly. The last part of his narration 
(chaps. 26-30 [9-10 f — 9i5 d] consists entirely of Sulla's 
myth given in Sulla's own words ; this myth, Sulla 
himself says, is a story told to him by an unnamed 
stranger, whom he quotes first indirectly and then 
(942 D ff.) directly to the end. The second or eschato- 
logical part of the myth the stranger had told Sulla 
that he had himself heard from " the chamberlains 
and servitors of Cronus " (cf. 945 d). Hearing it from 
Lamprias now% the reader has this part at fourth hand 
and the geographical introduction of the stranger at 
third hand.^ 

From 937 c it appears that Sulla had promised to 
tell his myth in return for an account of what had 
been said in an earlier discussion about the nature 
of the face which appears in the moon. Such a com- 
pact may have been expressly made in the beginning 
of the dialogue which is lost, where Sulla may have 
come upon the company already engaged in reviewing 
that earlier discussion (see note a, p. 3). So much 
is no more than conjecture. It is certain, however, 

" Ziegler, Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 76, gives " about 
100" as the date; but cf. Flaceliere, Plutarque : Stir la 
Disparition des Oracles, note 4 and pp. 13-17. 

* Cf. Plato's Parmenides and Shorey, What Plato Said, 
p. 287. 
14 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

that most of what Lamprias narrates from chapter 2 
through chapter 23 is a conversation which is itself 
represented as containing a resume or report of what 
was said at an earlier conversation. This the begin- 
ning of chapter 24 (937 c) states explicitly : i}/xets fj^ev 
ovi', €(/»;]', ocra jxyj ()uL7re(fievy€ t7)v' jxv'i]jxi]v tmv €Kei ^^X~ 
dei'Tiov d—ip/yeXKafiev, and the eSo/cet XeyecrdaL at the 
end of chapter 2 (920 f) implies that what Lamprias 
has hitherto said in that chapter had been used as an 
argument in the earlier discussion. The leader of 
that discussion, which is referred to as a Star/^t/i/;," 
was not Lamprias or Lucius, who here recapitulate 
it,^ but someone to whom Lamprias, Lucius, and 
Sulla refer as " our comrade " and who probably is 
meant to be Plutarch himself.^ Lamprias and Lucius 
are, of course, presumed to have been present at that 
discussion with their " comrade " and Sulla to have 
been absent from it.^ Of the others, Apollonides 
certainly was not present,'' nor was Theon ^ ; Phar- 

" By Lucius at 929 b : 6 /xev ovv eralpos iv rfj hiaTpi^fj 
rovTO . . . aTToSeiKvus' . . . rjvSoKLfjir]a€V. 

^ Of. besides 937 c, 920 f, and 929 b, which have already 
been cited, especially 931 f, 930 a, 932 d, 933 c. 

*= Cf. 921 F, 929 B, 929 f, and see note a on p. 48 infra. 

^ The log-ic of the situation demands this ; but it is also 
implied by Sulla's question at 929 f. 

^ This is implied by his question in 920 f and confirmed 
by that in 921 b : dAAo, rrfj t6v eXeyxov avrco Trpoaijyes; (in this 
latter passage Pohlenz [B.P.W. xxxii, 1912, p. 649] argued 
for retention of the mss. reading, Trpoorjye, understanding 
as subject o iratpos, who he assumes was mentioned in the 
lost beginning of the dialogue ; but surely this sentence 
is too far from even such a hypothetical antecedent, and 
Adler's TTpoarjy^s is an obvious and highly probable correc- 
tion). 

f This is certainly implied by his interchange with Lucius 
in 932 D-E. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

naces probably was not ^ ; and concernino; Aristotle 
and Menelaus the text as we have it allows no clear 
inference to be drawn. ^ What these men other than 
Lamprias and Lucius say in chapters 2-23 is not, then, 
part of the report of that earlier discussion ; but 
neither is all that Lucius says, for in several places 
his remarks or arguments are expressly declared to 
be his own contribution.^ That earlier discussion 
cannot, however, be identified with any that Plutarch 

" This is the most reasonable inference to be drawn from 
921 F, where Ivucius requests that Pharnaces be given some 
consideration, and from Pharnaces' comment in 922 f upon 
the attack of Lamprias. Nevertheless, Pharnaces' words in 
the latter passage, e'/ne 8' ovv ovk e^d^caOe r-qfiepov ktX., are 
open to the interpretation that he had been present at the 
earlier discussion and had there been drawn out by the 
Academic gambit. 

* Lucius's one remark to Menelaus (930 a), alaxwo/jiai . . . 
oov TTapovTos ktX., seems to imply that the latter had not been 
present at the earlier discussion ; but this is not decisive, 
especially in view of the fact that Menelaus makes no reply. 
Aristotle's silence when Lamprias addresses him in 920 f 
might be taken to mean that he had heard this before ; and 
. . . Trpos KXiapxov, co 'AptaToreAes', • . . eSd/cet XeyeaOai tov 
vfierepov could be interpreted as a reminder, although what 
follows, vficTcpos yap avrjp ktX., sounds as if this were some- 
thing new. In 929 b Lucius in a speech addressed especially 
to Aristotle refers to what " our comrade " said e'v rrj hiaTpi^fj 
and adds that he will not repeat what he learned Trap' u/itSv 
rj fied' vficov, which might be taken to imply that Aristotle too 
had attended the hiaTpL^-q in question, although it might have 
a more general meaning. 

•^ Cf. Lamprias's comment, ovx ovtws S' o eratpos 'qixiov, in 
921 F and his KaXu) Xoycp KaXrjv dvaXoylav vpoaedrjKas- ov yap 
a.TToaT€p7)T€ov o€ TcDv ISlcov (931 d). Thc lattcr marks the last 
sentence of Lucius's preceding speech (Sore St^ /lioi yeco/xeTpiKcS? 
eiVetv ktX.) as his own, while Lucius's own subsequent state- 
ment {ovKovv Kal SevTcpov dvaXoyia 7TpoaxpT]T€ov) makes the 
same claim for what follows, Tn 933 c {Trapi-npiL 8' 6aa . . . 
eXexOr]) and possibly in 929 h {iyco Se ravra p.(.v ovk epo) ktX. 

16 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

may have had with his friends or with any lecture 
that he may have given ; it is primarily a literary 
fiction, part of the structure of the dialogue for which 
it provides a specious motivation. 

The recapitulation of this fictitious discussion along 
with the incidental arguments provoked by it contains 
all that Plutarch would consider to be " scientific " 
in the dialogue. At its conclusion Lamprias is ready 
for Sulla's myth (chap. 24< init. [937 c-d]) ; but before 
Sulla can begin to speak Theon raises the question 
of the habitability of the moon, contending that, 
if it is not habitable, there can be no reason for it to 
exist with the nature or composition that according 
to Lamprias and Lucius it does have." Lamprias calls 
Theon's speech a kind of relaxation after the serious- 
ness of the preceding discussion. In fact, however, 
Theon has raised the metaphysical problem of the 
final cause ; and to this Lamprias replies at length 
(chap. 25). He argues first that the moon, con- 
stituted as he contends it is, need not, even if unin- 
habitable, be without a purpose in the universe 
(938 c-f), and secondly that, even if uninhabitable 
by corporeal human beings, it may still be inhabited 
by living beings of an entirely different kind to whom 
the moon may justly appear to be the only real earth 
and our earth the slime and dregs of the universe, 
uninhabitable by creatures that have warmth and 
breath and motion. Here Sulla checks Lamprias 
(chap. 26 init. [940 f]) lest the latter encroach upon 
his myth ; and Lamprias was upon the very threshold 

[see note 6 supra]) Lucius indicates that he is not giving a 
full account of the earlier discussion. 

" Cf. 937 D : . . . et hvvarov eKet KaroiKeiv. et yap ov hwarov, 
aXoyov Koi to yrjv etvai rr^v o€.\rjVT]v Sd^ei yap Trpos ovSev dAAd 
/xciTTyv yeyovevaL ktX. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

of it, for the myth, as it turns out, teaches that the 
moon is inhabited by souls that have left their bodies 
after death on earth or have not yet been incorporated 
by birth into terrestrial bodies. So the episode con- 
sisting of Theon's speech and Lamprias's reply (chaps. 
24-25) is not merely a formal literary device. It is, 
to be sure, a transition from the scientific part of the 
dialogue, in which it is argued that the lunar pheno- 
mena imply the earth-like constitution of the moon, 
to the concluding myth in which the purpose of such 
a moon in the universe is imaginatively portrayed ; 
but this " transitional episode " raises the philo- 
sophical question, without the answer to which the 
strictly astronomical conclusion could to a Platonist 
or Aristotelian be no complete or satisfactory explana- 
tion, and itself contains the metaphysical answer, of 
which the myth is, despite all its intrinsic interest, 
essentially a poetical embellishment. When this 
" transition " is properly attended to, there can be 
no question about the integral unity of the whole 
dialogue or any doubt that the purpose of the whole 
is to establish and defend the position that the moon 
is entirely earthy in its constitution and that on this 
hypothesis alone can the astronomical phenomena 
and the existence of the moon itself be accounted 
for.« 

5. The main part of the dialogue is of extraordinary 
interest for the history of astronomy, cosmology, 
geography, and catoptrics ; and this aspect of the 
work deserves more attention than it has usually 
received.^ It is not a technical scientific treatise and 

" Cf. iM. Pohlenz, Goit. Gel. Am. clxxx [1918], p. 323. 
* J. O. Thomson, History of Ancient Geography (Cam- 
bridge, 1948), pp. 330 f., gives a brief outline of this part of 

18 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

is not to be judged as if it were meant to be such ; 
but it is all the more significant that in a literary work 
intended for an educated but non-technical audience 
towards the end of the first century a.d. Hipparchus 
and Aristarchus of Samos are familiarly cited and 
a technical work of the latter is quoted verbatim, the 
laws of reflection are debated, the doctrine of natural 
motion to the universal centre is rejected, and stress 
is laid upon the cosmological importance of the 
velocity of heavenly bodies.* 

the work and cites Duhem's and Humboldt's praise of it. 
A. O. Prickard has some general remarks on the subject 
in the introductions to his two translations of the dialogue 
{Plutarch on the Face v)hich appears on the Orb of the Moon 
[Winchester and London, 1911], pp. 9-15, and Plutarch: 
Select Essays, ii [Oxford, 1918], pp. 246-353). So has S. 
Giinther in his outline of the dialogue, Vergleichende Mond- 
und Erdkunde (Braunschweig, 1911), pp. 24-35, nearly half 
of which, however, is concerned with the myth. Hirzel in 
his treatment of the dialogue {Der Dialog [Leipzig, 1895], ii, 
pp. 182-189) has little or nothing specific to say of its scientific 
aspect. The most extensive monograph on the dialogue, 
Maximilian Adler's Quibus Ex Fontibus Plutarchus Libellum 
" De Facie in Orbe Lunae " Hauserit {Diss. Phil. Vind. x 
[1910], pp. 85-180), is concerned with the scientific passages 
only in so far as the author thinks that from them he can 
draw support for his thesis that Posidonius was Plutarch's 
source for the dialogue. A similar purpose limits the treat- 
ment of the work by K. Praechter in his Hierokles der Stoiker 
(Leipzig, 1901), p. 26 and pp. 109-120. Cf. also the notes 
of W. Xorlind, Eranos, xxv (1927), pp. 265-277. 

** It is interesting to compare the treatise of Ibn Al-Haitham 
(965-1039) which was translated from the Arabic by Carl 
Schoy under the title Abhandlung des Schaichs Ibn 'All Al- 
Hasan Ibn Al-Hasan Ibn Al-flaitham : liber die Natur der 
Spuren (Flecken), die man auf der Oberfldche des Mondes 
sieht (Hannover, 1925). Ibn Al-Haitham's explanation of the 
" face " is that the nature of the moon's substance must differ 
from place to place, since the variation in illumination can be 
the result only of a difference in the power to absorb and 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Most of the attention given to the dialogue, how- 
ever, has been attracted by the conckiding myth." 
This consists of two parts. The second and main part 
is the eschatological mvth, which estabhshes the 
purpose of the moon in the cosmos by explaining her 
role in the " life-cycle " of souls and which the 
stranger told Sulla he had from the chamberlains of 
Cronus (942 d — 9^5 d) ; the first is the introduction 

reflect light, and the spots are places of greater density and 
less power of absorption (pp. 20 ff. and 29-31). Though 
Schoy appears to have been unaware of it and Plutarch does 
not mention it, this explanation is ascribed to ol d-TTO twv 
fxad-rjiJLaTiKcbv in Aetius, ii. 30. 7 {Dox. Graeci, p. 362. 5-13). 
Ibn Al-Haitham rejects the theory that the spots are shadows 
cast by prominences on the moon, arguing that such shadows 
would not always have the same shape and position, as the 
spots do (pp. 14-17). Like Plutarch, however, he knows and 
refutes the notion that they are a reflection of the terrestrial 
ocean or any other terrestrial feature (pp. 1-2, 5-7 ; De Facie, 
chaps. 3-4) ; and he also adduces the colour of the moon in 
eclipse (pp. 31 f. ; Be Facie, 934 b-d). He proves impossible 
as well (pp. 4-5, cf. p. 2) an explanation unmentioned by 
Plutarch but recorded by Simplicius {De Caeh, p. 457. 25-S6) 
that the spots are the result of vapours rising from below and 
obscuring the moon's brilliance (cf., however, for something 
similar, Milton, Paradise Lost, v. 415-420, and De Facie, 
922 B-c). Like Cleomedes (ii. 4. 103 [p. 186. 14-27 Ziegler]), 
Ibn Al-Haitham seems to hold that the moon as a reflecting 
convex mirror would have to appear as a single point of light 
(pp. 7 f. with Schoy's note, p. 8, n. 1). 

« It was probably the myth as much as the more strictly 
astronomical part of the dialog'ue that caused Kepler to make 
his Latin translation and commentary of the De Facie, which 
he did shortly before his death. This is printed in volume 
viii of Joannis Kepleri Opera Omnia, ed. Dr. Ch. Frisch 
(Francofurti a. M., 1870). Cf. R. Schmertosch, " Keppler 
zu Plutarchs Schrift ' Vom Gesicht im Monde,' " Phil.-Hist. 
Beitrage Curt Wachsmuth zum 60. Gehurtstag iiberreicht 
(Leipzig, 1897), pp. 52-55, and R. Pixis, Kepler als Geograph 
(Munich, 1899). 

20 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

to this myth or " frame-story," in which the stranger 
explained to Sulla how from the continent on the 
other side of the Atlantic he came to the Isle of 
Cronus, one of several that lie westwards of Britain, 
and thence, after having served thirty years, travelled 
to Carthage where he met Sulla (94-1 a — 942 c). 

This geographical introduction has aroused the 
wildest speculations. Kepler was convinced that the 
trans-Atlantic continent was America, and he tried 
to identify the islands mentioned in the myth ^ ; W. 
Christ in 1898 still could assert that Plutarch's con- 
tinent is " ob\dously America " and proves that about 
A.D. 100 sailors reached the North American coast 
via Iceland, Greenland, and Baffinland ^ ; and in 1909 
G. Mair argued that the source of this knowledge 
of America was reports of Carthaginian seafarers 
who had penetrated into the Gulf of Mexico, that 
the Isle of Cronus is Scandinavia, and that the 
northern geography of the myth derives from 
accounts of the voyages of Pytheas of Massilia.^ Even 

" Cf. notes 97, 98, 103, and 105 to Kepler's translation 
(see note a, p. 20 supra) and note 2 to his Somnmm siveAstrono- 
mia Lunaris. In Theatrimi Orhis Terrarum Ahrahami Ortelii 
(Ant«'erp, 1593), p. 5, this passage of Plutarch was used, 
apparently for the first time, to prove that the ancients knew 
the American continent. 

^ Geschichte der griechischen Litterattir, Dritte Auflage 
(1898), p. 662, n. 1. W. Schmid and O. Stahlin in the sixth 
edition of this work (Zweiter Teil, Erste Halfte [1920], p. 498) 
suppress this note of Christ's but v.nrite " aus dem Festland 
jenseits des atlantischen Ozeans (Amerika ?)." 

" G. Mair, " Pytheas' Tanais und die Insel des Kronos in 
Plutarchs Schrift ' Das Gesicht im Monde ' " (Jahresbericht 
des K.K. Staats-Gymnasiums in Marburg alD, 1909). A 
fair example of Mair's argument is his identification (p. 18) 
of the KoX-TTog mentioned in 94-1 b with the Christiana-Fjord, 
although according to Plutarch it is in the trans-Atlantic 

21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

before Mair had publislied his fantastic theory Ebner 
had conclusively demonstrated that Plutarch could 
not have referred to any real crossinc^ of the Atlantic 
or any rumours of such a crossing, that by using the 
name Ogygia at the beginning (941 a-b) he had 
clearly indicated the purely mythical intention of 
his geography, and that this geographical setting is 
simply an imitation of Plato's Atlantis in the spirit 
of Hecataeus' story of the Hyperboreans, Theo- 
pompus' Meropis, and the Sacred Records of Eu- 
hemerus." The additional geographical particulars 
are the usual " corroborative detail intended to give 

continent. Moreover, all of Plutarch's islands lie to the West 
and North- West of Britain ! 

" E. Ebner, Geographische Hinweise nnd Ankldnge in 
Plutarchs Schrift, de facie in orbe lunae (Munich, 1906). 
A. von Humboldt had concluded long before that the geo- 
graphical frame is entirely mythical {Kritische Untersu- 
chungen ilher die historische Enticickhnig der geographischen 
Kenntnisse von der Neuen Welt [Berlin, 1836], pp. 174-185). 
H. von Arnim (" Plutarch iiber Damonen und Mystik," pp. 
37-47 [ Verhand. K. Akad, van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 
Afd. Letterk., 1921]) contended that Plutarch's source for 
chapter 26 was a " fantastic travel-romance " that had 
nothing to do with philosophy or moon-demonology, but in 
which the demons of Cronus served the purpose of prophesy- 
ing to the hero about his future. W. Hamilton {Class. Quart. 
xxviii [1934], pp. 24 ff., cf. p. 24, n. l),while citing as parallels 
to the geographical myth Hecataeus, Euhemerus, Theo- 
pompus, and the Aharis of Heraclides Ponticus {cf. also 
Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii, p. 187, n. 4), maintains that Plutarch 
wrote the whole of his myth in direct imitation of Plato's story 
of Atlantis. Rohde {Der griechische Roman, 204-276 = 3rd 
edition [Leipzig, 1914], pp. 219-296) places Plutarch's geo- 
graphical myth in its proper environment with the romances 
of Theopompus, Hecataeus, Euhemerus, lambulus, Antonius 
Diogenes, and Marcellus. Cf. also H. Martin, Etudes sur le 
Timee de Platon (Paris, 1841), i, pp. 290-304, and J. O. 
Thomson, op. cit. (note b, p. 18), pp. 237-238. 

22 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

artistic verisimilitude to an otherwise bald and un- 
convincing narrative." The theme of the sleeping 
Cronus may have been suggested to Plutarch by 
Demetrius of Tarsus, who in the De Defectu Oracu- 
lorum (4<19 e — 420 a) is made to say that on an island 
near Britain Cronus is kept prisoner by the bonds of 
sleep and is guarded by Briareus and attended by 
Spirits who are his servitors. This Demetrius appears 
to have been an historical person who did travel to 
Britain, whence in the dialogue he is said to have 
recently returned ; and he may have told Plutarch 
some Celtic legend or superstition which the latter 
hellenized and wove into the fabric of his myth.<* 

The discussion of the second part of the myth, the 
demonology and eschatology, has also been con- 
cerned mainly with the problem of Plutarch's sources. 
Heinze attempted to prove that this myth had been 
put together out of material drawn from Xenocrates 
and from Posidonius and that in the resulting com- 
bination the parts that belong to those two authors 

" For Demetrius cf. R. Flaceliere, Plutarque : Sur la Dis- 
parition des Oracles (Paris, 1947), pp. 26-28, and K. Ziegler, 
Plutarchos con Chaironeia (Stuttjarart, 1 949 ), 36. If Demetrius 
did hear a Celtic tale of a god or hero asleep on some western 
island, it would have been easy for him or Plutarch to identify 
the subject with Cronus {cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 169, 
and Pindar, Olympian, ii. 77 [70] ff. ; see also note a on p. 182 
and note a on 943 a infra). Pohlenz's notion {R.E. xi. 2013) 
that Posidonius, who was " familiar with the northern world," 
was the intermediary of this " Kyffhausermotiv " has nothing 
to support it. Posidonius was the source of the Cronus-motif 
as well as of the whole geographical part of the myth accord- 
ing to M. Adler, op. cit. (note b, p. 18), pp. 169-170, who 
has no trouble in showing that Schmertosch adduced no real 
reason for designating Xenocrates as Plutarch's source for 
this section ; but Hamilton {loc. cit. [note a, p. 22]) has 
proved that Posidonius could not have been the source either. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

are distinguishable." Adler vigorously attacked this 
thesis and argued that Posidonius was Plutarch's 
source for the whole myth and for whatever there is 
in it that may have come ultimately from Xeno- 
crates ^ ; but R. M. Jones ^ proved conclusively that 
neither Heinze's conclusions nor Adler 's will bear 
scrutiny, that Posidonius could not have been the 
source, and that, while Plutarch combined various 
eschatological notions which were current and some 
of which Mere probably held in common by different 
philosophers, his myth is in the main an interpretation 
of Plato's Timaeus. Later, against Karl Reinhardt's 
attempt to trace the myth back to a hypothetical 
" solar eschatology " of Posidonius, Jones re-estab- 
lished the Platonic character of Plutarch's eschato- 
logy, psychology, and demonology here and the 
impossibility of taking Posidonius for the source.*^ 

<» Richard Heinze, Xenokrates (Leipzig, 1892), pp. 123 fF. 
M. Pohlenz, Vom Zorne Gottes (Gottingen, 1909), p. 133, 
n. 1, approved Heinze's conclusion in general but differed 
with him in some particulars. 

^ Maximilian Adler, op. cit. (note 6, p. 18), pp. 166 ff. 
Adler's dissertation was reviewed by Pohlenz in B.P.W. 
xxxii (1912), 648-654, and his thesis concerning the source 
of the rayih. criticized, ibid. 653. P. Capelle {De luna stellis 
Jacteo orhe animarum sedibus [Halle, 1917], pp. 14-15) held 
that chapter 28 came from Posidonius's account of the state 
of souls after death and chapters 29 and 30 from his supposed 
commentary on the Timaeus. 

<= The Platonism of Plutarch (Chicago Dissertation, 
Menasha, Wisconsin, 1916), pp. 48-56 and 58-60. 

'^ K. Reinhardt, Kosmos und Sj/tnpathie (Munich, 1926), 
pp. 313 ff. (c/. also F. Cumont, " La Theologie solaire du paga- 
nisme romain," Mem. de VAcad. des Inscriptions., xii [1909]) ; 
R. M. Jones, " Posidonius and Solar Eschatology," Class. Phil. 
xxvii(1932), pp. 113-135, especially pp. 116-131. P. Boyanc^, 
l^fndes snr le Songe de Scipion (Bordeaux and Paris, 1936), 
pp. 78-104, follows Jones in refuting Cumont and Reinhardt. 

24 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

Hamilton later contended even more positively that 
Plutarch took the Timaeus as the model for the whole 
of his myth in the De Facie and that, since the De 
Animae Procreatione in Timaeo shows that he regarded 
the Timaeus seriously, he must have intended the cor- 
responding portion of his myth in the De Facie to con- 
tain an equally serious exposition of his own beliefs 
concerning the nature and fate of the soul.*^ Soury in 
his extensive study of the myth, while emphasizing the 
possible influence of the mysteries, agrees in general 
with Hamilton that it is preponderantly Platonic.^ 

Anyone who without a preconceived thesis to 
defend reads the De Facie will recognize, I believe, 
that Plato was Plutarch's inspiration throughout 
the dialogue but that Plutarch is himself the true 
author of the whole work and that, while there is in 
it a distillation of his wide and varied scientific and 
philosophical reading, he cannot possibly have com- 
posed it by copying out any source or combination 
of sources. I have tried in the exegetical notes to 
indicate the " parallels " which ^\i\\ help the reader 
to understand the dialogue itself by seeing its relation 

« W. Hamilton, Class. Quart, xxviii (1934), pp. 24-30. 
Hamilton expressly opposes the theory of von Arnim, who, 
in his " Plutarch liber Damonen imd Mystik " (see note a, 
p. -22), pp. :24-65, argues that Plutarch took the geographical 
myth and the eschatological myth from two different sources 
and the latter from an eclectic Platonist later than Antiochus. 
As to Hamilton's notion of the seriousness with which 
Plutarch intended the myth, Ziegler is surely right in saying 
(Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 217) that Sulla's final sentence, 
taken together with Lamprias's remark in 920 b-c, shows that 
Plutarch had no intention of insisting upon the literal truth 
of the myth ; in this attitude also he follows Plato : see 
note a on p. 223 infra. 

* G. Soury, Bev. Et. Gr. liii (1940), pp. 51-58, and La De- 
monologie de Plutarque (Paris, 1942), pp. 73-82 and 177-210. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

to the rest of ancient scientific and philosophical 
thought. Among these " parallels " some of the 
most striking are drawn from later writers, especially 
Neo-Platonists ; these I have mentioned not in order 
to insinuate that they show Plutarch's direct influence 
upon those later writers, although many of them 
certainly were acquainted with him, but because 
they illuminate the meaning of the De Facie and at 
the same time indicate what may have been con- 
tained in some of the philosophical writings known 
to Plutarch and long since lost to us, and may help 
to cast some flicker of light upon that obscure and 
controversial problem, the prehistory of Neo- 
Platonism. 

6. The De Facie, which is No. 73 in the so-called 
Catalogue of Lamprias and No. 71 in the Planudean 
order, is apparently preserved in only two mss. of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Grec 1672 (saec. XIV) and 
1675 (saec. XV), conventionally called Parisinus E 
and Parisinus B respectively.'* These have hitherto 
been supposed to be independent copies of a single 
archetype ^ ; but recently G. R. Manton has put 

» On the MSS. of Plutarch generally cf. the references cited 
by M. Pohlenz, Plufarchi Moralia, i (Teubner, 1925), Prae- 
fatio, p. vi, n. 1, and pp. xxvi and xxviii f. on B and K 
respectively. 

" Wyttenbach {riutarchl Moralia [Oxford, 1795], p. xliv) 
says of B " nt videtur, ex E, aut ejusdem exempli codice, ita 
descriptus ut antiquiores melioresque simul adhiberentur ; 
iinde quaedani lacunae uberius etiam expletae, et plura menda 
sanata." M. Treu, Zvr Geschichte der Uberlieferu}i(/ von 
Plutarchs Moralia, ii (Ohlau, 1881), pp. 5-7, argued that B 
derives from the same source as E, which B must have used 
later ; and his conclusion was generally accepted by later 
editors. Raingeard's more complicated stemma (p. xiv of 
his edition of the De Facie) is, in any case, entirely unjustified. 

26 



THE FACE OX THE MOOX 

forward strong arguments for thinking that B is a 
descendant of E through an intermediate manuscript, 
" a copy of E, which was worked over by a scholar 
who filled in lacunae and inserted conjectures of his 
own." -' 

I have collated both manuscripts from photostats 
which were generously put at my disposal by Dr. 
William C. Helmbold ; and I have recorded under 
the usual symbols the variant readings of each of 
them, for I soon discovered that not only is Ber- 
nardakis' report of the mss. untrustworthy, but that 
the same must be said of Raingeard's in his recent 
edition of the dialogue, and that even Treu's collation 
(see note h, p. 26) is not free of errors. I have not 
recorded mere omissions or variations of accent or 
breathing, however, unless the sense is affected by 
them ; and I have regularized crasis and elision 
\\'ithout regard to the manuscripts or report of them, 

'^ " The Manuscript Tradition of Plutarch Moralia 70-7," 
Class. Quart, xliii (1949), pp. 97-10-i. Among the passages 
discussed by Manton where B has readings other than those 
of E are none from the De Facie, for the text of which Manton 
{op. cit. p. 99, n. 1) depended upon Treu's collation supple- 
mented by Bernardakis' list in vol. i of his edition, pp. 1 if. ; 
but I have found no variant reading of B in this essay that 
would surely gainsay Manton's hj7)othesis. Those which 
might suggest that B is not descended from E are the follow- 
ing : 927 F : rov -B for E's correct ra before ejx^piBii ; 929 b : 
exiov §e -B, e^ajv 8e rovro -E for the correct iKOJv 6e ; 932 D : 
7T€7T0 17) fxevcov -B for E's Correct Tre-n-eLafxevajv ; 937 F : i7n(f)€po- 
^€V7] -B, (/>epo/xev7y -E for the probable original dvTL(f)€poix4vrj ; 
938 D : avayivwoKojv -B for E's correct dvayLvcvoKovros ; 943 d : 
KarayLvojxivas -B for E's correct KaraSvofievag. Manton's con- 
clusion has been rejected bv K. Hubert {Rhein. Mus. xciii 
[1950], pp. 330-336), but Hubert's defence of the indepen- 
dence of B and E has been counterattacked by Einarson and 
De Lacv {Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], pp. 103 and 106, with notes 
36 and 56). 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

for they show no consistency in this matter.'^ In con- 
formity with the usage of Professor Babbitt and 
regardless of the manuscripts, I have printed the forms 
yLyvea-duL, yiyi'ojcrK€Li', and ovSei's, though the manu- 
scripts usually have yiveo-Oai, ytrcocrK-etr, and ovOets ', 
but I have adopted the form Svdv throughout. I have 
tried to the best of my ability to assign emendations 
to those who first proposed them ; but for some which 
appear without ascription in all modern editions, and 
the author of which I have been unable to discover, 
I have had to be content with the unsatisfactory note, 
" editors." For the suggestions said to be written in 
three different hands on the margins of the copy of 
the Aldine edition now in the Bibliotheque Natio- 
nale (Res. J. 94*), I have had to rely upon the report 

" For example, in 931 d they have ra avra -ndox^i-v vtto tov 
avTov . . . TavTO. (B, ravTO. -E) volcIv ravTov . . . and occa- 
sionally otS' 07T0JS and dAA' oncos, although they do not 
ordinarily elide the a of oiSa and dXXd. Almost invariably 
both E and B have /at) 8e instead of firjbe or firjS\ On these 
matters cf. T. Doehner, Quaestionum Phitarch. Particula 
Altera and Tertia (Meissen, 1858 and 1862), especially iii, 
p. 51, and ii, p. 35, n.** ; and on the question of hiatus cf. 
Helmbold, Class. Phil, xxxiii (1938), pp. 244-245, and xlv 
(1949), pp. 64 f. with his references, and for a much stricter 
view Ziegler, Plutarchos von Chaironeia, 295-298. To 
" emend " for the sole purpose of eliminating hiatus is to 
take unwarranted liberty with the text ; but, on the other 
hand, to introduce hiatus by emendation is certainly in- 
admissible. It should be observed, however, that in the 
De Facie, besides the exceptions to avoidance of hiatus listed 
by Ziegler {op. cit. 296-297), final ai, ot, et, and ov before an 
initial vowel may always be possible {cf. for ov e.g. tov ISlov 
d4pos in 94 1 a), dvoi and Kdrco are permissible before any word 
beginning with a vowel {cf. avo) ^x^lv and /caroj dvcod^v in 
924 c which guarantee dvco iariv in 926 a), and other cases 
of hiatus which cannot reasonably be eliminated occasionally 
occur {e.g. x^^^V etVoi-a? [921 c], tovtI clttco [935 d]). 
28 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

of Raingeard in the apparatus criticus of his edition 
(cf. pp. xvi f. of his Introduction) " ; all of these I in- 
dicate without differentiation by the formula, " Anon., 
Aldine, R.J. 9i-" Upon Raingeard 's report and 
those of Reiske, Wyttenbach, Hutten, and Bernarda- 
kis I have had to rely for the variant readings of 
the Aldine edition and of the edition of Xylander ; 
but the edition of Froben (Basiliensis, 1542), as well 
as those of Stephanus (1624-), Reiske, Wyttenbach, 
Hutten, Diibner, Bernardakis, and Raingeard, and the 
translations of Xylander, Amyot, Kepler, Kaltwasser, 
the two translations of Prickard,^ and that of por- 
tions of the essay by Heath, ^ I have consulted and 
compared throughout. 

Those emendations which, so far as I know, are 
original with me are indicated by the initials H. C. 
Besides the editions, translations, and articles already 
mentioned in this Introduction, the chief aids to my 
study of the text have been the following : 

« P. Raingeard, Le HEPI TOY nPOSQnOT de Plutarque, 
texte critique avec traduction et commentaire (Paris, 1935). 
Raingeard's text is fantastically " conservative," reproducing 
E for the most part even where E gives impossible Greek ; 
and yet his report of the manuscripts is frequently erroneous 
either expHcitly or by implication. The translation is worse 
even than the text ; and the commentary, especially where 
it touches upon philosophical and scientific questions, is more 
often wrong than right, almost everywhere inadequate, and 
frequently absurd. 

^ See note b, p. 18. Prickard's translation of 1911 was 
reviewed by W. R. Paton, Class. Rev. xxvi (1912), p. 269, and 
by L. C. Purser, Hermathena, xvi (1911), pp. 309-324., whose 
review is rather a series of notes and suggestions for almost 
two score passages in the essay. 

•^ Sir Thomas L. Heath, Greek Astronomy (London, 1932), 
pp. 166-180. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Adler, Maximilian : Diss. Phil. Fitid. x (IQIO), pp. 
87 ff. (cf. note b, p. 18). 
Wiener Siudien, xxxi (1909), pp- 305-309- 
Zwei Beitriige zum plutarchischen Dialog ' De 
Facie in Orbe Lunae,' " Jahreshericht des K.K. 
Staatsgifmnasiums in Nikolsburg, 1909-1910 (Ni- 
kolsbiirg, 1910). 
Wie7ie?' siudien, xlii (1920-1921), pp. 163-164-. 
Festschrift Moriz Winternitz (Leipzig, 1933), pp. 
298-302. 
Apelt, Otto : " Zu Plutarch und Plato," Jahres- 
hericht Gymnasium Carolo- Aleccandrinum su Jena, 
1904-1905 (Jena. 1905). 
" Kritische Bemerkungen," Jahreshericht . . . Jena, 
I905-I9O6 (Jena, I9O6). 
Chatzidakis, G. N. : Athena, xiii (1901), pp. 462- 

714. 
CoBET, C. G. : Novae Lectiones (Leiden, 1858). 
Variae Lectiones (Leiden, 1878). 
Collectanea Critica (Leiden, 1878). 
Emperius, a. : Emperii Opuscula Philologica et His- 
torica . . . ed. F. G. Schneidewin (Gottingen, 
1847), pp. 287-295. 
Hartman, J. J. : De Plutarcho Scriptore et Philosopho 

(Leiden, 19I6), pp. 557-563. 
Herwerden, H. van : Lectiones Rheno-Traiectinae 
(Traj. ad Rhen., 1882). 
Mnemosyne, xxii (1894), pp. 330-337, and xxxvii 
(1909), pp.. 202-223. 
Kronexberg, a. J. : Mnemosyne, Hi (1924), pp. 60-1 12, 

and Ser. iii, x (1941), pp. 33-47. 
KuNZE, R. : Rhein. Mns. Ixiv (1909), pp. 635-636. 
Madvig, J. N. : Adversaria Critica, I (Hauniae, 1871), 

pp. m^-mQ. 

30 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

Mras, K. : Zeitschrift fur die osterreich. Gymnasien, 

Ixv (1914), pp. 187-188. 
Naber, S. a. : Mnemosyne, xxviii (IQOO), pp. 329-364.. 
Papabasileios, G. a. : Athena, x (1898), pp. 167-242. 
PoHLENz, Max : Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift, 

xxxii (1912), pp. 648-654.. 
Gbtting. Gelehrte Anzeig. clxxx (I9I8), pp. 321-343. 
Sandbach, F. H. : Proc. of the Cambridge Philological 

Soc., 1943. 

Harold Cherniss 



Addendum 

Since this Bibliography was compiled in February 
1953 some publications dealing with the De Facie 
have come to my attention which require a brief 
notice. 

Konrat Ziegler in Plutarch ilher Gott mid Vorsehimg, 
Ddmonen und Weissagung (Ziirich, Artemis-\"erlag, 
1952) has WTitten a brief summary of the essay (pp. 
42-45) and has translated the myth (940 f— 945 d) 
into German (pp. 268-278) with the addition of a few 
explanatory notes. He makes one noteworthy altera- 
tion in the text at 941 a-b : adopting tov Se Bpuxpeojv 
e'xoi'Ta chpovpov, after which he puts a full stop, he re- 
moves the following words, tow re vqcriov . . . irapa- 
KaTM Kela-dai (?), from their position in the mss. and 
places them after KVKXui ddXarra in 941 b three lines 
below. 

The question of the mss., which is touched upon in 
the Introduction § 6 supra, has been discussed, though 
without specific reference to the De Facie, by R. 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Flaceliere in his edition and translation of the A?na- 
torius {Plutarque : Dialogue sur Vamour [Paris, " Les 
Belles Lettres," 19^2], pp. 35-37) and in an article, 
" La Tradition manuscrite des traites 70-77 de Plu- 
tarque," Rev. Etudes Grecques, Ixv (1952), pp. 351-362. 
By a different route he reaches the same conclusion 
as did G. R. Manton, namely that B is derived from E, 
probably through an intermediate manuscript now 
lost." In Gnomo7i, xxv (1953), pp. 556-551 K. Hubert 
replied to Flaceliere 's arguments and again sought to 
establish the independence of B with respect to E. 

Flaceliere in his article entitled " Plutarque et les 
eclipses de la lune " {Rev. Etudes A?icie/i?ies, liii [1951], 
pp. 203-221) is primarily concerned with the interpre- 
tation of De Genio Socratis, 591 c, but in connection 
with this he discusses De Facie, 933 d-e and 9^2 d-e 
and argues that in the former of these two passages 
Plutarch depends upon the calculations of Hipparchus 
(cf. my note in Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 14-5 referred 
to in note e on 933 e infra). 

G. Zuntz in Rhein. Mus. xcvi (1953), pp. 233-234 has 
proposed several emendations in the text of the 
essay : 

940 E : He is right in assuming that Bernardakis' 
vfxeh is a misprint for ?}/xet9 of the mss., but oa-airep 
which he condemns and emends is, of course, correct ; 
he apparently misunderstood the construction, oVa- 
TTep 'f)fJi€LS {soil. xpiofxeOa) depL. 

942 F : After rts^ S' ovto^ iirrti' ; he would add 
<€(/)7yi^- 6 S'->, thus producing the same effect as did 
Reiske's punctuation. Cf. on this sentence my note 
in Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 150-151. 

" Cf. Irigoin, Rev. de Philologie, xxviii (1954), pp. 117-119. 
32 



THE FACE ON THE MOON 

943 D : He would ^^Tite to aXoyov ko.I [to] ~aOi]- 
TiKov on the strength of De Def. Orac. 417 b (p. 75. 
23 [Sieveking]). This would be possible but is un- 
necessary, since kcu can here be taken as " explica- 
tive." 

9-t4< c : He suggests <^€pcre(^6vi]<i ov8o<i dvTixOovLos 
or ^€pcr€<f)6vi]^ ovSos avTiy^Oovo^, apparently unaware 
of von Arnim's far more probable emendation (see 
notes d and e on p. 221 infra). His further supple- 
ment, TO. Sk (7r/309 TO.) kvTo.vda, is quite unnecessary. 

94<4 E : To epcoTL t/Js Trepl tov -qXtov eiKovos he 
would add {tov evo?) or (toi! voijtov} or (rdyaOov) 
on the ground that the phrase as it stands is unintel- 
ligible. The following words, 8t rj^ e7rtAa/7.7rei ktA., 
themselves explain what Plutarch means (see note 
g on 9^4' E infra), and there is no excuse for any 
supplement at all. 

94-5 B : He rightly defends Kaltwasser's alteration 
of Ti'(/)toi' to Hvdojv (see Introduction, p. 12, note b 
supra). 

H. C. 
November 1954 



To my great regret I have been unable to take 
account of Professor M. Pohlenz's edition of this 
essay in Phdarchi Moralia, vol. v, Fasc. 3 (Leipzig, 
Teubner, 1955), since it became available only after 
this volume had already been paged and corrected 
for printing. 

H. C. 

February 1956 



VOL. XII c 33 



(920) nEPI TOY EMOAINOMENOT nPOSQnOT 
TQI KYKAHI TIIS ZEAHXHS^ 

B 1. . . . o ZuAAas" raur' etTre. " ro) yap ifxa}" 
fjLvdcu TrpoGTjKeL KOLKeWev ecTTf dAA' el Set n rrpos 
ras ava xetpa ravrag /cat Sta (jrofxarog ttolol 8d|a? 
77ept Tou TTpoGOJTTov TTJ? creArJvT]? TTpooavaKpov- 
oaodai TTpcorov -qSecos av fxoL Soko) TTvOeoOai." 
" Tt 8' ou/c ifjLeXXofiev " etTrov " utto tt^? eV raurat? 
aTTopias eV eKetva?^ aTTCJodevres ; ct>s" yap ot 6V 
voGrjfjLaGL )(poviOLg TTpos TCI KOLVCL ^o'qdrjjJLara /cat 
Tcts" cruvT^^et? Statra? aTreiTTovres iirl Kadapjjiovs Kat 
TTepiaTTTa Kal ovelpovs rpeTTovTai, ovrcos dvayKolov 
iv hvodecop'qTois /cat OLTTopoL? OKeijjeoiv, orav ol 

C KOLVOL Kal 'ivho^oi Kal avvrjOeLg Aoyoi fXTj rreiOojuLy 
TTeipdoOai rojv droTTiorepcov Kal fxr] KaTa(f)pov€lv 
dAA' e77a8etv dre^^vws eavrolg rd rcov TraXatcov Kal 
8td TTavrojv rdXride? l^eXiyy^eiv. 

^ E, B ; Tj-epi TOU eV ttJ creATjvT} <f)aLvofi.€vov ttpoucottov — " Cata- 
logue of Lamprias " (Xo. 73) ; Trepl tov iiJL<f>aLvofi€vov kvkXov 
rijs aeX-qvrjg -Folio I (verso) of Marc. 350 (X). 

^ Raingeard ; 'OawoavXXa^ ravra dne ktX. -E ; '0 fiev ovv 
ouAAa? TavTa cine ktX. -B ; *0 fiev ovv SuAAas, " ravra,^^ ei7T€, 
" Toi y' f/A^ '^'''^- -^^ >i:tenbach, who for yap e/ioj also suggested 
Trap' e'^oL 

^ \\ yttenbach {iKiiva? -Anon., Aldine, H..T. 94) : toutoij 
. . . €Keivovs -E, B. 

84 



CONCERNING THE FACE WHICH 
APPEARS IN THE ORB OF THE MOON 

1. . . . These were Sulla's words." " For it con- 
cerns my story and that is its source ; but I think that 
I should first Uke to learn v.hether there is any need 
to put back for a fresh start ^ to those opinions con- 
cerning the face of the moon which are current and 
on the lips of everyone." " What else would you 
expect us to have done," I said,^ " since it was the 
difficulty in these opinions that drove us from our 
course upon those others ? x\s people with chronic 
diseases when they have despaired of ordinary 
remedies and customary regimens turn to expiations 
and amulets and dreams, just so in obscure and per- 
plexing speculations, when the ordinary and repu- 
table and customary accounts are not persuasive, it is 
necessary to try those that are more out of the way 
and not scorn them but literally to chant over our- 
selves ^ the charms of the ancients and use every 
means to bring the truth to test. 

" Concerning the mutilated beginning of the dialogue see 
Introduction § 1. 

" For the metaphor cf. An Sent Respuhlica Gerenda Sit, 
787 E, and Plato, Phllebus, 13 d ; the meaning is guaranteed 
by a.TTOjadevT€s (" driven from our course ") infra. Cf. the 
nautical metaphor with which Sulla interrupts Lamprias at 
94-0 F infra {t6v jxvdov . . . e'^o/cet'Aa?). 

'^ The speaker and narrator of the dialogue is Lamprias, 
the brother of Plutarch ; cf. 937 d, 94-0 f, 945 d, infra. 

'^ Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 77 e and 114 d, Republic, 608 a. 

S5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

f920) 2. 'Opa? yap evdvg cog cltottos 6 Xeyojv ro (fyaivo- 
fievov elSog iv rfj aeXrjvrj Trddos elvau Trjg oijjeojs, 
V7T€LKova7]s Tjj XafnTpoTrjTL St' aodeveiav, o (^fiapav- 
ytavY KaXov[i€V,^ ov ovvopojv on irpog tov -^Xlov 
eSet TOVTO yiyveGBai fxdXXov o^vv OLTravrcovTa /cat 
TrXriKrriv (co? ttov koI ^KjJLTreSoKXrjg rrp eKarepajv 
aTTohihiooiV ovK dr^ScD? hia^opav 

tJXlo? o^v^eXrjg rj S' av IXdeipa aeX-qviq^ 

TO eTTaycoyov avrrjg /cat tAapov /cat dXvTTov ovrajg* 
TrpoGayopevaag) eVetr' {oi5)^ Xoyov aTToSiSovg /ca^' 
D ov at dfJLvhpal /cat dadevelg oifjetg ovhepiiav hia^opdv 
iv rfj GeXrjVT] jjiop(j)ris ivopojGLV dXXd Aeto? aurat? 
dvTtAajLtTTet /cat TrepLTrXecog avTrjg 6 kvkXo? ol S' 
o^v /cat G(j)ohp6v opdjvreg l^aKpi^ovGi fiaXXov /cat 
StacrreAAoucrty eKTvrro-ufJieva rd etSrj rod TrpoGcoTTov 
/cat TTJg Sta^opa? drrrovr ai Gacf)€GTepov eSet ydp, 
olfjiaiy TOVvavTLOV, etirep rjrrajiJLevov 7Td(9ogY ofi- 
fiarog eTTOtet tt^v ^avraGiav , ottov to 7rdo-;)(or 
dGOeveGrepov, (GacjyeGrepovy elvai to (f)aLv6pLevov. 
Tj 8' dv6o/xaAta /cat TravrdTraGiv eXeyx^i' tov Aoyov 
ou ydp caTt^ Gvvexovg GKidg /cat GvyKexvfievrjg 

1 H. C. (r/. Stobaeus, £"0^ iii. 1. 196); vac. 8-E, 9-B ; 
fiapavyelv -Wyttenbach ; ixapixapvyas -Raingeard {cf. Plato, 
Thnaeus, 68 a ; Chariton, E, 3. 9). 

^ So punctuated in Basiliensis ; E and B have mark of 
interrogation. 

' Xylander {iXdeipa aeX-qvrj -Hesychius) ; -^Xiog o^vfieXrjs rj 
8e Xdipa aeXrjvt) -E, li ; . . . 778' IXdeipa aeXrjvq -Dindorf (and 
Emperius) followed by Diels-Kranz ; ... 178' <i78'> IXd^ipa 
ofXrjvri -Purser. * E ; ovroi -B. 

^ liases (1897); eTreira Xoyov -E, B; eTretra Xoyoi' {ovk} 
-Emperius (1847). 

® \V}i;tenbach ; ttu vac. 4-E, 5-B. 

36 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 920 

2. Well, to begin with, you see that it is absurd to 
call the figure seen in the moon an affection of vision 
in its feebleness giving way to brilliance, a condition 
which we call (bedazzlement). Anyone who asserts 
this " does not observe that this phenomenon should 
rather have occurred in relation to the sun, since the 
sun lights upon us keen and \'iolent (as Empedocles ^ 
too somewhere not infelicitously renders the differ- 
ence of the two : 

The sun keen-shafted and the gentle moon, 

referring in this way to her allurement and cheerful- 
ness and harmlessness), and moreover does (not) 
explain why dull and weak eyes discern no distinction 
of shape in the moon but her orb for them has an even 
and full light, whereas those of keen and robust 
vision make out more precisely and distinctly the 
pattern of facial features and more clearly perceive 
the variations. In fact the contrary, I think, should 
have been the case if the image resulted from an 
affection of the eye when it is overpowered : the 
weaker the subject affected, (the clearer) should be 
the appearance of the image. The unevenness also 
entirely refutes the hypothesis, for the shadow that 
one sees is not continuous and confused but is not 

" If Plutarch has a definite person in mind, I have not been 
able to identify him. Adler {Diss. Phil. Vinci, x, p. 127) 
thinks that o Xeycov refers to a physicist whose name Plutarch 
himself probably did not know, and Raingeard that it refers 
to " esprits cultives " in general. 

" Frag. 40 (i, p. 329. 1 1 [Diels-Kranz]). 

■^ Wjiienbach (who, however, also inserted ianv before 
aa(f)e(jT€pov), implied in the versions of Amyot and Kepler ; 
daOevearepov elvai -E, B. 

8 Wjiienbach ; eVt -E, B. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(920) oijjis, dAA' OX) cf)avXojg VTToypdcJycov 6 ^ Ayrjaidva^^ 

€Lp7]K€ 

E Trdaa fxev rjSe Tripi^ TTvpl AajLtTrerat, iv 8' dpa 
pLeoorf 
yXavKorepov Kvdvoio cjyaeiverai rjvre Kovprjs 
OjLt/ia Kal vypd /xercoTra* rd Se pedei^ dvra eoiKev 

ovrco? yap virohverai Trepuovra* rot? Xap^npols rd 
OKLepd Kal TTte^et {Trte^o/xera)^ ndXtv vtt* avrcjv 
Kal aTTOKOTTTopLeva Kal oAcos" TreTrXeKrai hi* dXXrjXa)v 
F {cocrre)^ ypa(f)LKr]v ttjv hiairvTTOJULvy elvac rod 
0)(rjpLaroS' (rovro 8e)^ Kal rrpos KX€ap)(ov, a> 
'AptcrroTeAes", ovk aTnddvcxJS eSo/cet XiyeuSai rdv 
vpL€T€pov vpLerepos ydp dvrjp,^ ^ ApiuroreXovs^^ rod 
TTaXaiov yeyovojs Gvvrjdrjg, et /cat iroXXd rod 
HepiTTarov Traperpeipev." 

3. 'YrroXajSovros Se rov WttoXXwvlSov^^ rdv Xoyov 
Kal ris Tjv 7) 8d^a rod K-Xedpxov hiaTrvdopiivov, 
" TTavrl pidXXov " ecftrjv " dyvoelv tj goI TTpoGrJKOv 
ean Xoyov wonep dcf)* eorias rrjs yeajpuerplag 

^ E, B ; 'Hyrjoidva^ -Turnebus ; 'EpfirjGLdva^ -Hartman. 

2 E ; fieoT) -B. ^ Salmasius ; to 8' epevdcL -E, B. 

* Turnebus ; TrepLovra -E, B. 

^ H. C. ; me'^ei ttolXiv -E, B ; this sentence has been more 
drastically altered by Wyttenbach, van Herwerden, Ber- 
nardakis, and Adler. 

^ Kepler, Wyttenbach, and implied by Amyot's version ; 
dXXi^Xcov vac. 4-E, 8-B. 

7 Kepler, Wyttenbach ; 8ia vac. 5-E, 8-B. 

8 Bernardakis ; oxruj-aros vac. 7-E, B. 

^ 15ernardakis (d dvqp -Uiibner) ; dvrjp -E, B. 
1" Turnebus ; d dpiororiX-qs -E, B. It is just possible that 
d ' ApioTOTdXrjs was originally a marginal gloss on rov rraXaLov. 

38 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 920 

badly depicted by the words of Agesianax " : 

She gleams with fire encircled, but within 
Bluer than lapis show a maiden's eye 
And dainty brow, a visage manifest. 

In truth, the dark patches submerge beneath the 
bright ones which they encompass and confine them, 
being confined and curtailed by them in turn ; and 
they are thoroughly intertwined with each other <so 
as to) make the (delineation) of the figure resemble 
a painting. (This), Aristotle, seemed ^ to be a point 
not without cogency against your Clearchus ^ also. 
For the man is yours, since he was an associate of 
the ancient Aristotle, although he did pervert many 
doctrines of the School." ^^ 

3. Apollonides broke in and inquired what the 
opinion of Clearchus was. " You are the last person," 
I said, " who has any right not to know a theory of 
which geometry is, as it were, the very hearth and 

'' Schmid (Christ-Schmid-Staiilin, Gesch. der griech. 
Litteratur^, ii. 1, p. 164, n. 5) assumes that the verses here 
quoted are from the astronomical poem of Hegesianax ; so 
also Susemihl {Gesch. der griech. Lifteratur hi der Alex- 
andrinerzeit, ii, p. 33, n. 19), Schaefer (R.E. i. 795), and 
Stahelin {B.E. vii. 2603. 59 ff.). Powell {Collectanea Alexan- 
drina, p. 8) prints the verses as fragment 1 of the Phaenomena 
of Hegesianax but observes that Cod. A Catalogi Interpretum 
Arati gives 'AyTyaiava^. 

^ i.e. in the earlier discussion which Lamprias is now re- 
lating for Sulla's benefit. 

" Clearchus of Soli, pupil of Aristotle ; Wehrli, Die Schule 
des Aristoteles, Heft HI : Klearchos, frag. 9T {cf. A.J.P. Ixx 
[1949], pp. 417-418). 

^ For o Hepi-naros, " the Promenade," used to designate the 
school of Aristotle, cf. De Musica, 1131 f, and " the Peri- 
patetics " in Adv. Coloten, 1115 a-b, and Sulla, xxvi (468 b). 

1^ Editors {cf. 921 b) ; aTroAAcovtaSou -E, B. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(920) opixcofxevov Xeyec yap dvrjp^ eiKovag looTTrpiKas 
elvai /cat etScoAa rrjg fjLeydXrjs daXdaorjs e^^atvo- 
921 pL€va rfj GeXrjVT] to KaXovpievov TrpoGCxjTTov rj re yap 
oi/ft?' dvaKX(x>}xevri TroXXa-)(6dev aTTreadai rcov ov 
/car' evdvcoptav^ opcopievcov Tre^u/cer, ij re rravoeXrj- 
vos avTTj TTavTCov iaoTTTpajv ojJLaXorrjTL /cat crrtA- 
TTVorrjTL kolXXlotov eon /cat KaBapojrarov. worrep 
ovv rrjv t{/Dtv)^ o'ieaO^ vpiels dva/cAoj/xevTy? eVt rov 
tjXlov rr^s oifjeco? evopdoOai rch ve^ei Xa^ovri vorepdv 
Tjcjvxfj XeLOTTjra /cat (jrrjy^iv,^ ouVco? eKelvos ev- 
B opdadai rfj GeXrjvr) ttjv e^co OdXaooav ovk e^' t)? 
ecTTt )(cxjpas dXX odev tj /cAacrt? eTToirjoe rfj oipec^ rrfv 
erra^r^v avrrjs /cat rrjv avravyeiav ws ttov ndXiv 6 

^ Diibner (" vir ille " -Kepler) ; dvrjp -E, B. 

^ Turnebus, \^ulcobius, Kepler ; ltvs -E, B. 

^ E ; KarevdvcopLav -B. 

* Xylander, Turnebus ; ttjv I vac. 1-3-E (at end of line) ; 
Tr)v vac. 4-B. 

^ Turnebus, Vulcobius (c/. Quaest. Conviv. 691 f, Aina- 
torius, 765 e, and Aristotle's Meteorology, 382 b 31 ff.) ; /cai 
vac. 2 ^Lv -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; rrfv oifjiv -E, B. 

" Similar theories are referred to by Aetius, ii. 30. 1 (Dox. 
Graecl, p. 361 b 10-13) = Stobaeus, Eclogae, i. 2Q. 4; Lucian, 
Icaromemppus, § 20 ; Simplicius, De Caelo, p. 457. 15-16. 
Such a theory is recorded and refuted by Ibn Al-Haitham, 
the Arabic astronomer of the tenth and eleventh centuries (r/. 
Schoy's translation, pp. 1-2 and 5-6). Emperor Rudolph H 
believed the spots on the moon to be the reflection of Italy 
and the large Italian islands (cf. Kepler, Opera Omnia, ii, 
p. 491 cited by Pixis, Kepler als Oeograph, p. 102) ; and A. 
von Humboldt (Kosmos, iii, p. 544 [Stiittjjart, 1850]) tells of 
a Persian from Ispahan who assured him that what we see 
in the moon is the map of our earth {cf. Ebner, Geographische 
Hinweise und Ankldnge in Plvtarchs Schrift, de facie, p. 13, 
n. 3). 
40 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 920-921 

home. The man, you see, asserts that what is called 
the face consists of mirrored likenesses, that is images 
of the great ocean reflected in the moon,*^ for the 
visual ray when reflected naturally reaches from many 
points objects which are not directly visible and the 
full moon is itself in uniformity and lustre ^ the finest 
and clearest of all mirrors. Just as you think, then, 
that the reflection of the visual ray to the sun accounts 
for the appearance of the (rainbow) in a cloud where 
the moisture has become somewhat smooth and (con- 
densed),'^ so Clearchus thought that the outer ocean 
is seen in the moon, not in the place w^here it is but 
in the place whence the visual ray has been deflected 
to the ocean and the reflection of the ocean to us. 

^ i.e. in the evenness and polish of its surface. 

" For the rainbow as a reflection of the sun in the cloud 
cf. De Iside, 358 f, Amatorias, 765 e-f (where there is a 
strong verbal similarity to the present passage), De Placitis, 
894 c-F ( = Aetius, iii. 5, 3-10 and 11 [I)ox. Graeci, pp. 372- 
373]). According to Aetius, iii. 5. 11 {=De Placitis, 894 f) 
the theory was held by Anaxagoras {cf. frag. B 19 = ii, p. 41. 
8-11 [Diels-Kranz]). It is developed by Aristotle in Meteoro- 
logy y iii. 4, 373 a 32 — 375 b 15 {cf. Areius Didymus's Epitome, 
frag. \4! = Dox. Graeci, p. 455. ii ff., and Seneca, Aa^. Quaest. 
i. 3). Diogenes Laertius, vii. 152 cites Posidonius for the 
definition ipLV 8' elvai . . . cos IToaetSajvids' (j^rjOLV . . . ep.j>aaiv 
rjXiov T/jLT^fiaros 17 o€X-qvT]g 4v v€(f)€L hehpooLOixevco, kolXo) Kal 
avvex^^ TTpos ^avraaiav, (hs iv KaroTrrpco <j>avTaiC,opL4vrjv Kara 
kvkXov 7T€pL<f>ep€Lav {cf. Seneca, Xat. Quaest. i. 5. 13) ; and 
Adler {Diss. Phil. Vind. x, pp. 128-129) contends that Posi- 
donius was Plutarch's source for the formulation of the theory. 
Plutarch's oieoO' vfxels, however, addressed to Apollonides 
must be intended to ascribe the theory generally to " you 
mathematicians " ; and this is confirmed by the passage of 
De hide cited above, which reads : /cat Kadd-nep ol fxadrjiiaTiKol 
rrjv IpLv . . . XiyovoL. . . . On the diiference between the 
theories of Aristotle and Posidonius cf. O. Gilbert, Die 
meteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums, pp. 
614-616. 

41 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(921) 'Ayi7(nayaf eiprjKev 

jf' TTOVTOV fieya Ku/xa Karavrla KVjJLatvovTos 

SetVeAov LvSdXXoLTO TTvpL^Xeyedovros iaoTTrpov." 

4. 'Ha^et?^ ovv 6 * ATToXXojvtbrjs " ct>? thiov " el-ne 

Koi Kaivov oXoJS TO UK€V(jjpr]ixa rrjs So^r]?, roA/xav 

Se TLva Koi [xovaav exovrog avSpog- dXXa rrfj rov 

eXeyxpv avrw npoGrjyes ; "^ " Trpcorov jxkv " eIttov 

fi^ fita (f)vuis TTjS €^co daXdoGTjs eori, ovppovv Koi 

avvex^S (iavrcpy rreXayos, r] 8' efjicf^aGig ov jLtta 

rajv ev rfj aeXrjvrj pLeXaujidrcov dXX olov luBpiOVS 

C exovua, rod XafiTrpov hiaipovvros koi Siopl^ovros 

TO GKiepov. odev eKaorov tottov ;^6opto-^eVTOS' kol 

TTepas tStov exovTOS at rcov (fxjjreLvcov eTn^oXal rots 

OKoreLvols vifjovs eiKova kol ^ddovs^ Xajx^dvovoaL 

rds 7T€pl rd ofjifxara Kal rd x^^^V ^^^Kova? ^atvo- 

puivas opLOiorara SLervTrojaav coctt' rj TrXelovag e^co 

daXdoGag VTToXrjTTTeov ladpLols tlotl Kal rj7T€LpoLS 

drroXapipavopLevas , orrep iorlv droirov Kal i/jevbog, 

Tj pads ovGTjs ov TTidavdv eLKOva hieGrraGpLlvqv ov- 

TOJS ipL(f)aLV€GdaL. €Kelvo pL€v yap ipcordv ducfya- 

Xiorepov eonv -q (XTTO^atVeo-^at gov napovros , et, 

Tr\s oLKovpidvrjs evpos ixovG7]s' Kal pirJKo?, evSex^Tai 

J) TTaGav ojGavTOJS 0,770 ttJ? GeXrivqs oi/jlv dva/cAo)- 

piiv-qv eTTidtyydveiv ttj? OaXdGGTjs Kal TOts" eV avrfj 

rfj pLeydXr] daXdrrrj ttXeovgl vrj Ata Kal OLKovGiVy 

^ E, B ; ^ -Emperius. 

^ Xylander ; Treiadds -E, B. 

3 Adler {Wiener StucUen, xxxi [1909], p. 306, cf, Zicei 
Beitrdge, etc., p. 7) ; Trpoaij-ye -E, B. 

4 Wyttenbach ; et -E, B. 

^ Adler ; awexh vac. 5-E, B. 

^ vipovs . . . ^ddovs -Leonicus ; v(f>ovs . , , ^ddos -E, B. 
' Leonicus ; lotjs -E, B. 
42 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 921 

So Agesianax again has somewhere said : 

Or swell of ocean surging opposite 

Be mirrored in a looking-glass of flame." " 

4. Apollonides was delighted. " What an original 
and absolutely novel contrivance the hypothesis is," 
he said, " the work of a man of daring and culture ; 
but how did you proceed to bring your counter- 
argument against it ? " "In the first place," I said, 
" in that, although the outer ocean is a single thing, 
a confluent and continuous sea,^ the dark spots in the 
moon do not appear as one but as having something 
like isthmuses between them, the brilliance dividing 
and delimiting the shadow. Hence, since each part 
is separated and has its own boundary, the layers 
of light upon shadow,^ assuming the semblance of 
height and depth, have produced a very close like- 
ness of eyes and lips. Therefore, one must assume 
the existence of several outer oceans separated by 
isthmuses and mainlands, which is absurd and false ; 
or, if the ocean is single, it is not plausible that its 
reflected image be thus discontinuous. Tell me 
whether — for in your presence it is safer to put this 
as a question than as an assertion — whether it is 
possible, though the inhabited world has length and 
breadth, that every \'isual ray when reflected from 
the moon should in like manner reach the ocean, even 
the visual rays of those who are sailing in the great 
ocean itself, yes and who dwell in it as the Britons 

'^ Powell {Collectanea Alexandrina, p. 9) prints these 
lines as fragment 2 of the Phaenoinena of Hegesianax ; see 
note a on p, 39 supra. 

^ Cf. Strabo, i. 1. 8 (i, p. 6. 4-7 [Meineke]). 

'^ The language is that of painting ; cf. Lucian, Zeuxis, 5 : 
TcDv ;(pa»^aTcoi' aKpi^rj ttjv Kpdaiv /cat €VKaipov ttjv iTn^oXrjv 
TTOLTjaaada!,, 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(921) oJOTTep HpeTTarot?, kol ravra i.Lrjhk rrj<^ yv^> ^^ 
(^are/ 77/30? rr^v acjiaZpav ttjs oeXi^vr]^ Kevrpov Xoyov 
€7T€xovGrjs ;^ TOVTL fikv ovv " e(f)r]v " GOV epyov 

€.7TLOK07T€lv TTjV 8e TTpOS T7]V GeXrjVTjV Tj {/Ca^oAou)' 

rrjs oipeojs kXolglv ovk€tl gov ouS' 'Ittttolp^^ov' 
Kairoi y' e(j)iXepy€L dv(r]py* dXXa ttoXXols ovk 

dp€GK€L (f)VGLoXoy(JL)V TT€pl TTJS 6lp€OJ? aVTjjS , {^1^)* 
E OpLOLOTradlf KpaGLV LGX^iV Koi GVlXTTTj^LV €Lk6? €GTl 

fiaXXov Tj TrXrjyds rivas kol dTTOTTTjhrjGe is olas 
€7rXarre tcjv drofjuov ^KviKovpos. ovk ideX-qGCL 
Se, olpLai, rrjv GeX-qvrjv ipL^pideg vnodeGdaL CTcDjua 
Kal Grepeov rjpuv' 6 YiXeap-)(os dAA' aGrpov aWepiov 
/cat (f)COGcf)6pov, CO? cfyare' rotavrrj <(Se)^ rr]v oi/jlv 

^ Wyttenbach (implied in versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 
€<f>aTe -E, B. 

^ After €TT€xovar]s. E has a lacuna of 2 letter spaces. 

3 H. C. (r/. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], pp. 138-139) ; aeXrivT^v t) 
TTjs -E, B ; aeX'^vTjv rrjs -Basiliensis. 

^ H. C. (cf. Ptolemy, Syntaxis, iii. 1 [i. 1, p. 191. 19-20, 
Heiberg] : tcS 'l777rap;^a; avSpt ^iXottovw re ofxov Kal <j)iXaXrjd€L) ; 
Kairoi ye <^t'Ae Trpiafi vac. 2-E, 3-B ; Kairoi ye (f)iXo7Tpdyficov avrjp 
-Pohlenz {Phil. Woch. xxxii [1912], pp. (J49-650) ; Kairoi y 
co^etAe TTporiiJidoOai -Apelt (Jena, 1905). 

^ Wyttenbach ; avrijv -E, B. 

^ Adler, Zwei Beitrdge, p. 8 {cf. Be E, 390 b, De Defectu, 
433 D ; Plato, Timaeus, 45 c ; so in Quaest. Conviv. 626 d 
read opLoiorradrj with Bernardakis instead of Hubert's ofMOTradij); 
Ofxorradrj -E, B. 

' H. C. ; vfiiv -E, B, and all editors, though the versions of 
Xylander, Kepler, and Wyttenbach have " nobis " and that 
of Amyot has " nous." 

® Wyttenbach ; roiavrrj rrjv oipiv -E, B : roiavrrjv rrjv oipiv 
-Basiliensis. 

" i.e. " you mathematicians " ; see otead' vfiels in 921 a 
supra. The reference is to the eccentrics of Hipparchus's 
theory of the motion of the moon. For defence of the text 
44 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 921 

do, and that too even though the earth, as you say,*^ 
does not have the relation of centre to the orbit of 
the moon. Well, this," I said, "it is your business 
to consider ; but the reflection of vision either in 
respect to the moon or (in general) is beyond your 
province and that of Hipparchus too.^ Although 
Hipparchus was industrious, still many find him un- 
satisfactory in his explanation of the nature of vision 
itself, (which) is more likely to involve a sympa- 
thetic compound and fusion ^ than any impacts and 
rebounds such as those of the atoms that Epicurus 
invented.^ Moreover, Clearchus, I think, would 
refuse to assume ^\\t\i us that the moon is a body of 
weight and solidity instead of an ethereal and lumini- 
ferous star as you say ^ ; (and) such a moon ought 

and a detailed interpretation of this sentence cf. Class. Phil. 
xlvi (1951), pp. 137-138. 

^ Because Hipparchus was a mathematician and not a 
physicist {^vaioXoyos) ; on the diiference cf. Geminus in 
Simplicius, Phys. pp. 291. 23-292. 29, and the phrase, 8td 
TO [xTj €<f)a)hid(y6aL d-rro i^vaLoXoyias, which Theon of Smyrna 
(p. 188. 19-20) uses of Hipparchus. 

'^ Plato's theory ; cf. Timaeus, 45 c and De Placitis, 901 
B-c = Aetius, iv. 13. 11 {Dox. Graeci, p. 404). 

^ Cf. Adv. Coloten, 1112 c and De Placitis, 901 a-b = 
Aetius, iv. 13. 1 {Box. Graeci, p. 403. 2-4). The present 
passage seems to imply that Hipparchus's explanation of 
vision resembled that of Epicurus. In De Placitis, 901 b=: 
Aetius, iv. 13. 9 {Dox. Graeci, p. 404) a theory of vision is 
attributed to Hipparchus, however, which does not at all 
resemble that of the atomists ; but the name Hipparchus 
there is probablv a mistake, cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 154, 
n. 6. 

^ Lamprias addresses Apollonides and Aristotle, for that 
the moon is an ethereal and luminiferous star is the Peri- 
patetic theory {cf. the statement of Aristotle at 928 e infra 
and the references in the note there) and that is why it is 
ascribed to Clearchus. Obviously then vfuv of the mss. must 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(921) ['^] OpaV€LV^ 77pOGlJK€L KOi a7TOGrpe(j)€LV, LOOT oi 

■)(€odai TTjv avoLKXaoiv . el 8e TTapairelrai^ rig rjixds 
epr^GOfxeua ttojs p-ovov Trpoownov ionv ev rfj oe- 
XrjVT) TO TTJg OaXdau-qg eooTTTpov a'AAo) 8' ovhevl 
Tojv TOGOvrojv dorepcov ivopdrai- Kairoi to y 
eiKos OLTTaLTCL TTpos aTTavTa? Tj 7Tp6? p.r]h€va rOVTO 
F Trdox^LV rr]v oipLV. dAA' {eacrco/xev ravra, /cat 
GV,"y TTpOS TOV AeVKLOV €(f)rjv'' OLTTo^Xeifjag , 
TTpojTOV iXl-)(dri TCJbv rjp.€T€pojv VTTOpLVqOOV." 

5. Kat o AevKLOs " dXXd p,r) ho^cnp^ev " €(j)r] 

KOpilhfl 7rp07TrjXaKLl,€LV TOV ^apvaKTjV OVTCX) Tr)V 

IItcolktjv So^av dTTpoaavSrjTov VTrep^atvovTCS, etVc 
Srj TL TTpos TOV dvhpa TrdvTCog,^ depos /xty/xa koL 
p,aXaKov TTvpog vnoTiOepievov ttjv GeXrjvr^v eld* olov 
ev yaXrjvr) (jypLKT]? i)7TOTpe)(ovarjg cf)daKovTa tov 
depog hiapLeXaivovTOS ep(f)a(JLV yiyveodai pLop- 
^oetS^." <(" /xaAa)^ XPV^'^^^ y' ' elrrov " c5 
AevKie, TTjv^ dTOTTiav eixfy-qpLOLS TrepiapLnrex^iS dvo- 
piaoLV ovx ovTcos o o eTatpog rjpLOJv, aAA oirep 

^ Turnebus, Vulcobius ; -^ dpaCatv -E, B. 

2 Wyttenbach ; TrpooheZrai -E, B. 

^ \^'Ji:tenbach after the versions of Amyot and Xylander ; 
XprjaojjLeda -E, B. ^ E ; tovtcov -B. 

5 Adler ; aAA vac. 16-E, 19-B. 

•^ Wyttenbach ; e^' wv -E, B ; cittov -Turnebus. 

' -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94, printed by W>i;tenbach without 
note ; -navros -E, B : 7ra<ye>vT0? -Pohlenz (Die Stoa, ii, p. 
111). 

* Adler; /xop^oetSTy. vac. 5-E (at end of line), 4-B. 

^ B ; AevKie vac. 3-E. 

^° E ; ovTco -B. 11 Aldine, Basiliensis ; vfiwv -E, B. 

be an error and should be changed to rjixlv, for that the moon 
is a body with weight and solidity is the opinion of the 
Academy, i.e. of Lamprias, Lucius, and their circle {cf. 926 c, 
928 c, 931 B-c infra). 

46 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 921 

to shatter and divert the visual ray so that reflection 
would be out of the question. But if anyone dismisses 
our objections, we shall ask how it is that the reflec- 
tion of the ocean exists as a face only in the moon 
and is seen in none of all the many other stars, 
although reason requires that all or none of them 
should affect the visual ray in this fashion. But 
(let us have done with this ; and do you)," I said 
with a glance at Lucius, " recall to me what part of 
our position was stated first." 

5. Whereat Lucius said : " Nay, lest we give the 
impression of flatly insulting Pharnaces by thus 
passing over the Stoic opinion unnoticed, do now bv 
all means address some remark to the gentleman 
who, supposing the moon to be a mixture of air and 
gentle fire, then says that what appears to be a figure 
is the result of the blackening of the air as when in a 
calm water there runs a ripple under the surface." " 
" You are (very) nice, Lucius," I said, " to dress up 
the absurdity in respectable language. Not so our 

'^ Von Arnim {S. V.F. ii, p. 198) prints this and some of 
the subsequent sentences as frag. 673 among the Physical 
Fragments of Chrysippus. For the Stoic doctrine that the 
moon is a mixture of air and fire cf. De Placitis, 891 b and 
892 B (==Aetius, ii. 25. 3 [Box, Graeci, p. 356] and ii. 30. 5 
[Box. Graeci, p. 361]), and S. V.F. ii, p. 136. 32. The " gentle 
fire " here mentioned is the -rrvp t^xvikov as distinguished from 
destructive fire {cf. S.V.F. i, p. 34. 22-27 and ii, p. 200. 
14-16). For the Stoic explanation of the face in ttie moon 
cf. S.V.F. ii, p. 199. 3-5 ( = Philo Judaeus, De Somniis, i, 
§ 145) ; and for the simile of the ripple cf. Iliad, vii. 63-64. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(921) oiX'qde? 171' eXeyev, v7Ta>7nal,eiv^ avTovs rrjv aeX-qvrjv 
922 gttlXcjv Koi ixeXaGficov avaTTiinrXavras , ojjlov /Ltev 
"Apre/xty /cat WOrjvdv dvaKaXovvras ofiov 8e GVfi- 
jjLLyjjLa^ Kol (f)vpafjLa iroLovvras depog ^ocjjepov kol 
TTvpog dvdpaKcoSovg, ovk €)(ovoav e^aijjLV ovh^ 
avyjjv OLKeiav, dXXd hvGKpLveg tl aajfia rvcfyofievov 
aet Kal TTvpiKavoTOV woirep tujv Kepavvwv Tovg 
dXapLTrels Kal ijjoXoevras vrro rcov TTOiiqrcJLyv irpooa- 
yopevofievovs. on fxevTOt TTvp dvdpaKwSe?, otov 
ovTOL TO Trj£ GeXtjvrjs ttolovglv, ovk e^ei Siafjiovrjv 
ovSe GVGTaoLV oXoJS idv purj Grepeds vXrjg Kal gt€- 
B yovGT]? dfxa Kal Tp€(j)ovGrjs €7nXd^rjTaL ^eXnov 
olfiai Gvvopdv ivLOJV (juXoGocjicov Tovg eV TfatSta 
Xeyovras rov "H^atcrrov elprjGdai ;)^coAov on to rrvp 
^vXov x^P^^ a>G7T€p ol x^Xol ^aKTTjpLag ov TrpoeiGiv. 
el ovv T) GeX-qvq nvp ion, rrodev avrfj roGovros 
iyyeyovev drjp; 6 yap dvoj Kal kvkXco (f)ep6jJb€vos 

OVTOGL TOTTOS OVK dlpOS dXXd Kp€LTTOVOg OVoLaS 

Kal rrdvra XeTTTVveiv Kal ovve^aTTreLV (f)VGLV €)(ovGrjg 
eGTLV el 8' eyyeyove^ ttujs ovk otxerat fxera^dXXojv 

^ Basiliensis, Turnebus ; vttottl41,€lv -E, B. 

2 Stephanus (1624) ; au/i/xtya -E, B. 
^ -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; 8e y€yov€ -E, B. 

" See 929 b and 929 f infra. This comrade was the leader 
of the earlier discussion, which is here being recapitulated, 
and is probably to be identified with Plutarch himself (so 
Hirzel, Der Dialog ^n., p. 184, n.2, and Hartman, De Plvtarcho, 
p. 557) ; cf. De Tuenda Sanitate, 122 f for a similar situation 
and Quaest. Conviv. 643 c, where Hagias addresses Plutarch 
as " comrade." 

" Cf. S. V.F. ii, p. 212. 38-39 (Chrysippus), iii, p. 217. 12-13 
(Diogenes of Babylon) ; in general Quaest. Conviv. 658 f — 
659 A, and Roscher, Uber Selene und Verwandtes^ p. 116. 

48 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 921-922 

comrade " ; but he said what is true, that they 
blacken the Moon's eye defiling her with blemishes 
and bruises, at one and the same time addressing her 
as Artemis ^ and Athena ^ and making her a mass 
compounded of murky air and smouldering fire 
neither kindling nor shining of herself, an indis- 
criminate kind of body, forever charred and smoking 
like the thunderbolts that are darkling and by the 
poets called lurid. ^ Yet a smouldering fire, such as 
they suppose that of the moon to be, cannot persist 
or subsist at all unless it get solid fuel that shelters 
and at the same time nourishes it ^ ; this some philo- 
sophers, I believe, see less clearly than do those who 
say in jest that Hephaestus is said to be lame because 
fire without wood, like the lame \^dthout a stick, 
makes no progress/ If the moon really is fire, whence 
came so much air in it ? For the region that we see 
revolving above us is the place not of air but of a 
superior substance, the nature of which is to rarefy all 
things and set them afire ; and, if air did come to be 
there, why has it not been etherealized by the fire ^ 

'^ Cf. 938 B infra. In De hide, 354- c Isis, who later is 
identified with the moon (37:2 d), is identified with Athena 
{cf. 376 a). Cf. Roscher, op. cit. pp. 123 f. (on the supposed 
fragment of Aristotle there cited see V. Rose, Aristoteles 
Pseudepigraphus, pp. 616 [no. 4] and 617). 

^ Cf. Odyssey, xxiii. 330 and xxiv. 539 ; Hesiod, Theogony, 
515 ; Pindar, Xemean, x. 71 ; Aristotle, Meteorology, 371 a 
17-24-. * See 934 b-c infra. 

f Cf. Cornutus, chap. 18 (p. 33. 18-22 Lang) ; Heracliti 
Quaestiones Homericae, § 26 (p. 41. 2-6 Oelmann). 

^ Cf. S.V.F. ii, p. 184. 2-5 : . . . e^aidepovaOaL -navra . . . 
els TTvp alOeptoBes dvaXvofievcuv vdvrcov. The " ether " here is 
Stoic ether, i.e. a kind of fire {cf. De Primo Frigido, 951 c-d 
and note d on 928 d infra), not Aristotle's " fifth essence," 
which does not enter into the process of the alteration of 
simple bodies. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(922) etV erepov etSos" 1^770 rod nvpo? i^aidepwdel? dXXa 
G(jjt,erai koL gvvolk6l TTvpl togovtov xP^vov wGirep 
tJXols^ dpapcj? del rot? avTolg^ fxlpeGi koL Gvy- 
yeyofJLcf^cxJiJLevos ; dpato) pikv yap ovn Kal Gvy- 
C Ktxvfievcp [J.7] fxeveiv aAAa 0(f)dXX€G9aL TTpoGrjKeL 
Gv iJL7Te7n-]y evai 8' ov hvvaTOV dvap^epaypievov TTvpl 
Kal iJLT]6^ vypov iJL€T€)(ovTa fi-^re yrj?, ols jjlovols 
drjp GVfjiTTrjyvvGd ai ire^vKev. r] 8e pvpir] Kal rov 
iv XWoLS depa Kal rov ev ipvxpci) /xoAt/^Soj^ gvv€k- 
Kaei, jJLTj Tt"* ye brj rov iv rrvpl hivovpLevcp fjLerd 
rdxovs roGorjTOV. Kal yap 'E/XTreSoarAet Svgko- 
XaivovGi TTayov dipos x^^'^^^^V '^olovvtl rrjv cre- 
Xijvrjv VTTO TTJs rod rrvpos G(f)aLpas Treptexop.evov 
avTol Se TTjv GeXi^vrjv Gcfyaipav ovGav irvpos depa 
<j>aGlv dXXov dXXr] hieGrraGiievov TTepUxeiV Kal ravra 
D piTJre p-q^eis exovGav ev eavrfj fx-qre ^ddrj Kal 
KOiXoTT^ras, drrep ol yecoSrj iTOLovvres dTToXeiTTOvGLV , 
dXX eTTLTToXrjs SrjXovoTL rfj Kvpror'qTL emKeiiievov , 
rovTO 8' e'cTTt Kal irpos SiapLovrjv dXoyov Kal Trpos 
deav dSvvarov ev rals TravGeXrjVOLS' hiCjapLGdaC' yap 
ovK eSei [leXava Kal GKiepov dAA' dfiavpovGdai 
KpvTTTOjJLevov Tj GvveKXdjJiTTeLv VTTO Tov -qXiov Kara- 
Xapi^avoixev7]s rrjs GeXrjvrjS. Kal yap Trap* ripAV 

1 H. C. {cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [19ol], p. 139) ; ^Xos -E, B. 

^ E : Tot? avTols ael -B. 

3 E ; ixoXfj^bcj {i.e. fioXv^So)) -B. 

4 E ; /X7J TOt -B. ^ Emperius ; hiopLaaadai -E, B. 

a Cf. I)e Primo Frigido, 951 d, 952 b, 953 d— 954 a : but 
the Stoic opinion given in 949 b { = S.V.F. ii, p. 142. 6-10) 
was that solidification (ttt^^i?) is a state produced in water by 
air, and Galen reports {S. F.F. ii, p. 145. 8-11) that according 

50 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 922 

and in this transformation disappeared but instead 
has been preserved as a housemate of fire this long 
time, as if nails had fixed it forever to the same 
spots and riveted it together : Air is tenuous and 
without configuration, and so it naturally slips and 
does not stay in place ; and it cannot have be- 
come solidified if it is commingled with fire and 
partakes neither of moisture nor of earth by which 
alone air can be solidified/' Moreover, velocity 
ignites the air in stones and in cold lead, not to speak 
of the air enclosed in fire that is whirling about with 
such great speed. ^ ^^hy, they are vexed by Em- 
pedocles because he represents the moon to be a 
hail-like congelation of air encompassed by the sphere 
of fire ^ ; but they themselves say that the moon is 
a sphere of fire containing air dispersed about it here 
and there, and a sphere moreover that has neither 
clefts nor depths and hollows, such as are allowed 
by those who make it an earthy body, but has the 
air e\idently resting upon its convex surface. That 
it should so remain is both contrary to reason and 
impossible to square with what is observed when the 
moon is full. On that assumption there should have 
been no distinction of dark and shado^\y air ; but 
all the air should become dark when occulted, or 
when the moon is caught by the sun it should all 
shine out with an even light. For with us too, while 

to the Stoics the hardness and resistance of earth are caused 
by fire and air. 

* Cf. Aristotle, I)e Caelo, 289 a 19-32, Meteorology, 341 a 
17-19 ; Ideler, Aristotelis Meteoroloqica, i, pp. 359-360. 

'^ Empedocles, A 60 (i, p. 294. 24-31 [Diels-Kranz]) ; cf. 
[Plutarch], Stromat. § \i) = I)ox. Graecl, p. 582. 12-15 = i, 
p. 288. 30-32 (Diels-Kranz) : and C. E. Millard, On the 
Interpretation of Empedocles, pp. 65-68. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(922) o M^i' ei' ^ddeac koI KocXcvfJLacn rrjs y^?, ov jjiT) 
SUlglv auyrj/ Sta/xeVet^ GKLcoSrjg Kal acjiajnoTos 6 
8* e^codev rfj yfj TTepLKex^iJievog (jylyyos lgx^l Kal 
XpooLV avyoeiSrj' npog Trdoav fxev yap eon TTOioriqra 

E Kal SvvajjLLV evKepauTOS vtto fiavorrjTO? pLoXiora he 
(fxjOTog av iTTii/javGrj pLovov, ayg (fyare, Kal dlyrj 8t' 
oXov rperropLevo'S eKcjiajrit^eraL. ravTov^ ovv rovro 
Kal rots els ^olOk] tlvol Kal (jydpayyas gvvojOovglv 
iv TTJ GeXrjVT] rov ddpa irayKaXajs* €oiKe ^orjdelv 
vp,ds T€ Ste^eAey;^et rovs i^ depos Kal irvpos ovk 
otS' OTTcos pnyvvvras avrrjs Kal GVvappL6l,ovTag ttjv 
G(f)alpav' ov yap olov re AetTiccr^at GKidv inl rrjg 
i7TL(f)av€Lag orav 6 rjXiog eTnXdpLTTr] ro) (J>ujtI ndv 

F OTTOGov Kal TjpieZs dTTorepLvopLeOa rfj oipet rrjg gc- 
X-qvT]?." 

6. Kat o ^apvdKT]? en pLov Xeyovros " rovr^ 
eKelvo TrdXiv " eiTTev " ecf)^ rjpidg d(j)LKraL to rrepi- 
aKTOV eK rrjg 'A/caSi^^etas"^* ev rep rrpos irepovg 
Xeyetv hiarpif^ovTas eKdGTore {-Ltj TTape)(eLV eXey^ov 
d>v avTol XeyovGLV aAA' dnoXoyovpLevoLg Sel^ XPV~ 

1 Stephanus (1624), cf. 929 e infra ; avr-q -E, B. 
" Stephanus (implied by versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 
8ta/xeAatVet -E, B. ^ Benseler ; Tavro -E, B. 

* Wyttenbach ; Kav KaX^s -E, B. 
^ Diibner : aKabrj^ilag -E, B. 

* E, B ; del -Wj^ttenbach (implied by Amyot's version). 

" Chrysippus, frag. 570 (S.V.F. ii, p. 178. 20-22), cf. Be 
Primo Friffido, 952 f. With the words ws ^are Lamprias 
addresses Pharnaces as representative of the Stoics, for whose 
doctrine of the instantaneous alteration of air by light see 
930 F hifra and the references there ; cf. especially KaTo. 
vv^tv T] tpavaiv tliere with av CTTHpavor] fxovov, ws (f>aT€, here. 
Aristotle originated the doctrine that the transparent medium 
is altered instantaneously throughout its whole extent by 
52 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 922 

the air in the depths and hollows of the earth, wher- 
ever the sun's rays do not penetrate, remains shadowy 
and unlit, that which suffuses the earth outside takes 
on brilliance and a luminous colour. The reason is 
that air, because of its subtility, is delicately attuned 
to every quality and influence ; and, especially if it 
touches light or, to use your phrase, merely is tangent 
to it, it is altered through and through and entirely 
illuminated.^ So this same point seems right hand- 
somely to re-enforce those who pack the air on the 
moon into depths of some kind and chasms, even as 
it utterly refutes you who make her globe an unin- 
telligible mixture or compound of air and fire — for 
it is not possible ^ that a shadow remain upon the 
surface when the sun casts his light upon all of the 
moon that is within the compass of our vision." 

6. Even while I was still speaking Pharnaces spoke : 
" Here we are faced again A^ith that stock manoeuvre 
of the Academy ^ : on each occasion that they engage 
in discourse with others they \vi\\ not offer any 
accounting of their own assertions but must keep 

the mere presence of light at any point (cf. Be Sensu, 446 b 
27— U7 a 10 and De Anima, 418 b 9 ff.). 

* i.e. on the Stoic theory. 

" The word to -nepiaKTov occurs in Comp. Lys. Sulla, iii, 
476 E, where it seems to mean " the old saw," though it may 
refer to a proverbial state of " inside out and wrong side to." 
In De Gloria Atheniensh/m, 348 e Plutarch mentions nrjxavas 
(1770 aKrjvrjs TrepLaKTov?, but that rather tells against taking 
TO TTeplaKTov as the name of this stage-machine. He uses 
TTepLayojyT^ in De Genio Socratis, 588 d in the sense of " dis- 
traction " and in Praecepta Gerendae Reipublicae, 819 a in 
the sense of " a trick of diversion," a sense which certainly 
suits TO TT€piaKrov in the present context. The complaint of 
Pharnaces is frequently made by the interlocutors of Socrates ; 
cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, iv, 4. 9 ; Plato, Republic, 336 c ; 
Ariptotle, Soph. Blench. 183 b 6-8. 

53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(922) cr^ai jjL-q KaT'qyopcjGLV^ {of?)^ av ivrvyxon'cocrtv . 
ijik S' ovv ovK i^d^ecrde rrjiJLepov els to StSdvat 
Xoyov (jjv inLKaXeLTe rols ^tcjjlkoIs, nplv evOvvas 
Xa^elv Trap* vfjichv dvoj rd koltco rod KoapLov ttolotjv- 
Tcov." Kal 6 AevKLos yeXdaas " piovov " €L7T€v 
923 " CO Tctv, piTj KpiGtv Tjpuv ciCTe^eta? iTrayyetXrjs, 
a)G7T€p Wplurapxov wero Selv KXedvd-qs^ rov Ha/xtov 
due^eias TrpooKaXeludaL^ rov? "EAAT^vas" cos Kivovvra 
rod KOGpLov TTjv iuTLav OTL {ra)^ <^aiv6pL€va aco^etv 
dvTjp^ eTTeipdro puevetv rov ovpavov vrroTidepievos 
i^eXirreodai he Kara Xo^ov kvkXov rrjv yrjv dpca 
Kal rrepl rov avrrjs d^ova SivovpLevrjv. rjpLels p^ev 
ovv ovhev avTol Trap' avrcov XeyopLev, ol 8e yrjv 
VTTOTLOepievoi TTjV GeX-qvqv, (I) ^eXnaTe, tl pidXXov 
vpia)v^ dvco rd Kara) ttolovgl ttjv yrjv ISpvovrcov 
ivravda pLerecopov iv rep depi, ttoXXw tlvl /xet^ova 
rrjs aeX-^vrjs ovaav ojs iv rols eKXenrriKols nddeaLV 
B OL pLadr^pLariKol Kal rals hid rod OKidupLaros irap- 
ohois Tjj eTToxfj^ TO pLeyedos dvapLerpovutv ; rj re 

^ H. C. ; Karrj-yopovoLV -E, B. 

2 Bernardakis. 

3 Menage ; apiarapxos . . . KXedvdr] -E, B. 

* Emperius {cf. 9:25 d infra) ; TrpoKaXeladai -E, B. 

^ Diibner. 

^ Diibner ; dv-qp -E, B. 

■^ Xylander (cf. 923 e infra : ^are vfxds) ; ly/xajv -E, B. 

^ AV. L. Bevan ; rrjs i-TTOxrjs -E, B. 

« =S.V.F. i, p. 112, frag. 500; the title, "Against 
Aristarchus," appears in the list of Cleanthes' writings given 
by Diogenes Laertius, vii. 174. For the theory of Aristarchus 
cf. Plutarch, Plat. Quaest. 1006 c; Be Placitis 891 a = 
Aetius, ii. 24. 8 {Dox. Graeci, p. 355) ; Archimedes, Arenarius, 

54. 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 922-923 

their interlocutors on the defensive lest they become 
the prosecutors. Well, me you will not to-day entice 
into defending the Stoics against your charges until 
I have called you people to account for turning the 
universe upside down." Thereupon Lucius laughed 
and said : " Oh, sir, just don't bring suit against us 
for impiety as Cleanthes thought that the Greeks 
ought to lay an action for impiety against Aristarchus 
the Samian on the ground that he was disturbing the 
hearth of the universe because he sought to save (the) 
phenomena by assuming that the heaven is at rest 
while the earth is revohdng along the echptic and 
at the same time is rotating about its own axis." 
We ^ express no opinion of our own now ; but those 
who suppose that the moon is earth, why do they, 
my dear sir, turn things upside down any more than 
you ^ do who station the earth here suspended in the 
air ? Yet the earth is a great deal larger than the 
moon ^ according to the mathematicians who during 
the occurrences of eclipses and the transits of the 
moon through the shadow calculate her magnitude 
by the length of time that she is obscured.^ For the 

i. 1. 4-7 {Opera Omnia, ii, p. 218 Heiberg) ; Sextus Empiricus, 
Adv. Math. X. 174 : T. L. Heath, Aristarchus of Samos, pp. 
301 if. 

^ i.e. v.'e Academics, the party which did in fact maintain 
that the moon is an earthy body. 

' i.e. you Stoics ; cf. Achilles, Isagoge, 4 = »S. V.F. ii, frag. 
oo5, p. 175. 36 ff. 

^ This would not have been admitted by most of the Stoics, 
who thought that the moon is larger than the earth ; but in 
this Posidonius and possibly others disagreed with the earlier 
members of the school ; cf. Aetius, ii. 2Q. 1 {Dox. Graeci, p. 
357 and p. 68, n. 1), and M. Adler, Diss. Phil. Vind. x (1910), 
p. 155. 

" Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 1, § 80 (p. 146. 18 fF. Ziegler) ; Sim- 
plicius, Be Caelo, p. 471. 6-11. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(923) yo^p (JKLOL rrj? yrj? eXdrrajv^ vtto fxeit^ovos rod <f)(jj- 

rit^ovTos avareivei kol rrjs OKidg avrrj? Xenrov ov 

t6^ dvco /cat GT€v6v ouS' "Ofirfpov, a>s (f)aGLV,^ 

eXadev, dXXd rrjv vvKra ' dorjv ' o^vttjtl rrjg OKids 

TTpooTjyopevoev vtto tovtov 8' opaos dXiGKoyi€vr] 

rals eKXeiipeGLV -q GeXijvr] rpiGi /xoAis" rols avrrjs* 

pLeyddeGLV OLTTaXXoLTTerai. gk6tt€l Srj ttogcov tj yrj 

GeXrji'cov eGTLV, el gklolv d(f)Lr]GLV ff" ^pa)(VTdT7] 

TrXdros TpLGeXrjvov. dXX ojicjos VTrep rrjg aeAr^vT^? 

jjLT] TTCGTj heSoLKare Trepi he rrjg yrjs Igcos A1g-)(vXos 

^ B ; eAcxTTOj -E. 

2 Turnebus ; ovra -E, B. 

^ Xylander ; cus <f>T]aiv -E, B. 

* Stephanus (1634) ; aur^s" -E, B. 

5 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; 17 -E, B. 

« Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 2. §§ 93-94 (p. 170. 11 if. Ziegler) ; 
Theon of Smyrna, p. 197. 1 ff. (Hiller) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 
11(8), 51. 

* Cf. De Defectu Oraculorum, 410 d. Homer uses the 
phrase ^017 vv^ frequently {e.g. Iliad, x. 394 [cf. Leaf's note 
ad loc], Odyssey, xii. 284). Another doos, supposedly meaning 
" pointed," " sharp " and cognate with idowaa in Odyssey, 
ix. 327, is used of certain islands in Odyssey, xv. 299 {cf. 
Strabo, viii. 350-351 ; Pseudo-Plutarch, De Vita et Poesi 
Homeri, b, 21 [vii, p. 347. 19 ff. Bernardakis]). The latter 
passage so understood was used to support the hypothesis 
that doi] vv^ referred to the " sharpness " of the earth's 
shadow : cf. Heracliti Qitaestiones Homericae, §§ 45-46 (p. 
67. 13 ff. Oelmann). Eustathius {Comment, ad Iliadem, 814. 
15 ff.) mentions besides this another astronomical inter- 
pretation of the phrase by Crates of Mallos. 

" For this temporal dative without iv cf. Theon of Smyrna, 
p. 194. 1-3 (Hiller). 

5Q 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 923 

shadow of the earth grows smaller the further it 
extends, because the body that casts the light is 
larger than the earth " ; and that the upper part of 
the shadow itself is taper and narrow was recognized, 
as they say, even by Homer, who called night 
' nimble ' because of the ' sharpness ' of the shadow.^ 
Yet captured by this part in eclipses ^ the moon 
barely escapes from it in a space thrice her own 
magnitude. Consider then how many times as large 
as the moon the earth is, if the earth casts a shadow 
which at its narrowest is thrice as broad as the moon.^ 
All the same, you fear for the moon lest it fall ; 
whereas concerning the earth perhaps Aeschylus has 

<^ Cf. De An. Proc. in Timaeo, 1028 d where Plutarch 
ascribes to geometers the approximate calculation of three 
to one as the ratio of the earth's diameter to that of the moon 
and of twelve to one as the ratio of the sun's diameter to that 
of the earth, figures which agree roughly with those of Hip- 
parchus (t : 1 : s = l . \ . \2^ ; cf. Heath, Aristarchus of 
Samos, pp. 342 and 350 after Hultsch). Hipparchus, how- 
ever, considered the breadth of the shadow at the moon's 
mean distance from the earth in eclipses to be 2i lunar 
diameters (Ptolemy, Syntaxis, iv. 9 [i, p. 327. 1-4 Heiberg]), 
while Aristarchus, whose calculations of the moon's diameter 
Plutarch quotes at 932 b infra, declared the shadow to be 
2 lunar diameters in breadth {cf. Aristarchus, H^y'pothesis 5 
[Heath, op. cit. p. 352. 13] ; Pappus, CoUectionis Quae 
SupersupJ, ii, p. 5o4<. 17-18 and p. 556. 14-17 [Hultsch]), the 
figure given by Cleomedes as well (pp. 146. 18-19 and 178. 
8-13 [Ziegler] ; cf. Geminus, Elementa, ed. Manitius, p. 272). 
Plutarch may here simply have assumed that the ratio of 
the lunar diameter to the breadth of the shadow would be the 
same as the Hipparchean ratio of the lunar diameter to the 
diameter of the earth ; but he may also have erroneously 
supposed that the time taken by the moon to enter the shadow, 
the time of complete obscuration, and the time taken to leave 
the shadow equal three diameters instead of two {cf. Cleo- 
medes, p. 146. 21-25 [Ziegler] and M. Adler, Diss. Phil. Vind. 
X [1910], p. 156, n. 2). 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(923) vfjidg^ Tr€7T€LK€V COS" o "ArAa? 

C €GTr}K€, KLOv'^ oupavov TC Kal ^dovos 

ojfxoig Ipeihiov, dxOos ouk evdyKaXov. 

Tj^ rfj yi€v aeXrjVTj Kov(j)os drjp vTTorpe-x^ei Kal orepeov 
oyKov ovK e)(iyyvos iveyKelv rrju 8e yrjv Kara 

IllvSapOV ' dSa/XaVT077e8tAot KL0V€? ' 7T€pL€)(OVOL, 

Kal hid TOVTO ^apvdK7]s auro? /xer eV dSeta rod 
Treaetv ttjv yrjv eariv oLKTipet* 8e tov'^ VTTOKeifxevovs 
rfj 7TepL(j)opo!' rrj? aeXi^vr]? AWcoTras rj Tarrpo^rjvovs 
fjLTj ^dpos avTols ipLTreorj togovtov. Kairoi rfj /xev 
oeXrjVT] ^orjdeLa TTpos to p^r] 7T€0€iv t) klvtjgls avrrj 
D Kal TO potJcoSe?^ rrjs Trepiaycoyrj?, wG-rrep oGa rat? 
G^evhovaLs ivredevra Trjs Kara(f)opdg kojXvgiv iGyei 
rrjv kvkXoj 7TepLhivi]GLV. dyec ydp €KaGrov rj Kard 
(f)VGiv KLvrjGLSy dv VTT^ ciAAou /XT^Seyo? dTroGTpi(j)rir at. 
hio Tr)v GeXrjvTjv ovk dyec ro ^dpos vtto rris nepL- 
cf)opds Tr]v poTTrjV €KKpov6p,€vov. dXXd pLaXXov lgco? 
Xoyov €LX€ davpid^€LV pievovGav avrrjv TravrdvaGLV 
wGTTep Tj y-q Kal drpep^ovGavJ vvv S' rf GeXrjvr) 
pikv e;^et pieydXrjv alrlav rod Sevpo jjltj (jyepeGdai 
Tr]v Se yrjv iripas KivqGeoJS dpoipov ovGav ecKog 
rjv pLovo) TO) ^apvvovTL KLvelv. l3apvT€pa 8' eart rrj? 
GeXiqvrjs ov)( ogoj pL€L^ojv dAA' en puaXXov dre Sr] 

^ Stephanus (1624) ; rjfids -E, B. 

2 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. O^, mss. of Aeschylus ; klcov -E, B. 

3 H. C. ; et -E, B ; Kal -Wyttenbach after Amvot ; eVet 
-Adler. 

* Editors ; oi/cretpet -E, B. 

6 H. C. {cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 139); fi€Ta(f)opa 
-E, B. 

* E ; pt^ctJSe? -B. 

' Emperius (cf. 926 a and 939 a infra) ; drpeTTTos dv. -E, B. 
8 Bernardakis ; vvv Se -E, B. 

58 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 923 

persuaded you that Atlas 

Stands, staying on his back the prop of earth 
And sky, no tender burden to embrace." 

Or, while under the moon there stretches air unsub- 
stantial and incapable of supporting a solid mass, the 
earth, as Pindar says, is encompassed by ' steel-shod 
pillars ' ^ ; and therefore Pharnaces is himself \\-ithout 
any fear that the earth may fall but is sorry for the 
Ethiopians or Taprobanians,'" who are situated under 
the circuit of the moon, lest such a great weight fall 
upon them. Yet the moon is saved from falling by 
its very motion and the rapidity of its revolution, just 
as missiles placed in slings are kept from falling by 
being whirled around in a circle.^ For each thing is 
governed by its natural motion unless it be diverted 
by something else. That is why the moon is not 
governed by its weight : the weight has its influence 
frustrated by the rotatory motion. Nay, there would 
be more reason perhaps to wonder if she were abso- 
lutely unmoved and stationary like the earth. x\s 
it is, while (the) moon has good cause for not mo\ing 
in this direction, the influence of w^eight alone might 
reasonably move the earth, since it has no part in any 
other motion ; and the earth is hea^ier than the 
moon not merely in proportion to its greater size but 

* Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinct. 351-352 (Smj'th). 

^ Pindar, frag. 88 (Bergk) = 79 (Bowra). 

■^ i.e. the Sinhalese ; cf. Strabo, ii. 1. 14-, chap. 72 and xv. 
1. 14, chap. 690 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. vi. -22 (24). 

^ Cf. Aristotle, De Caelo, 284 a 24-26 and 295 a 16-21 (on 
Empedocles [Cherniss, Aristotle's Criticism of Pr^socratic 
Philosophy, p. 204, n. 234]). Plutarch himself in Lysander, 
xii. 3-4 (439 d) ascribes to Anaxagoras the notion that the 
heavenly bodies are kept from falling by the speed of their 
circular motion. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ '^ J, Sta 0€pf.L6Ti]Ta Koi TTvpojuiv iXacfipdg yeyevrjixevj]^. 
oXiog 8' €OLK€v i^ Sv Aeyei? r) oeX-qvr] ixdXXov, el 
TTvp ion, yrjs helodai koI vX-qg iv fj ^e^i]K€ /cat 
7TpoG7T€(f)VK€ Kal (jwex^i Kal ^aJ7TVp€L Tr]V hvvafJLLV 
ov yap eoTL nvp ;)(cupt? vXt]? SLavorjdrjvai ocpt,6ix€vov 
yrjv Se (J)aT€ vp^els avev ^daeojs Kal pit^r}? hia- 
pLevetv." ^ " Trdvv pL€V ovv " e'mev 6 ^apvdKTjS 
" Tov oIk€lov Kal Kara (fivatv ronov exovaav, dorrep 
avrfj,^ TOV piecrov. ovros yap iart Trepl ov avrepetSct 
TTavra rd ^dprj perrovra Kal (f)eperai Kal Gvvvevei 
F rravraxoO^v- tj S' dvco X^P^ Trdaa, kolv tl he^-qrai 
yecuSes" vtto jUas avappi^ev, evdvs eKdXi^ei Sevpo 
pidXXov 8' d(f)irjaLV fj 7T€(f)VK€V oLKeia ponfj Kara- 

<f)€p6pL€V0V." 

7. ripo? tout' iyoj rep AevKLcp xpdvov iyyevladai 
^ovX6pL€Vog dva[-LLpLvr]GKopL€va) rov Qeojva KaXeoas 

^ Aldine, Basiliensis ; E and B have a question-mark here. 
2 Von Arnim {S. V.F. ii, p. 195) ; ojonep avri] -E, B. 

<* Here Lucius assumes the Stoic theory of the composition 
of the moon in order to rebut the Stoic objections. 

^ Cf. Seneca, Nat. Quaest. vii. 1. 7 : ". . . magni fuere 
viri, qui sidera crediderunt ex duro concreta et ignem ahenum 
pascentia. ' nam per se,' inquiunt, ' flamma diffugeret, nisi 
aliquid haberet, quod teneret et a quo teneretur, conglo- 
batamque nee stabili inditam corpori, profecto iam mundus 
turbine suo dissipasset.' " 

<= Cf. Aristotle's remark {Meteoroloffy, 353 a 34--b 5) about 
the ancient ^eoAdyoi who assumed pit^ai yrjs Kal daXdrT-qs and 
see Hesiod, Theogony, 728 ; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinct. 
1046-1047 ; and the " Orphic " lines quoted by Proclus, 

60 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 923 

still more, inasmuch as the moon has, of course, 
become light through the action of heat and fire." 
In short, your ovm. statements seem to make the 
moon, if it is fire, stand in greater need of earth, that 
is of matter to serve it as a foundation, as something 
to which to adhere, as something to lend it coherence, 
and as something that can be ignited by it, for it is 
impossible to imagine fire being maintained ^\ithout 
fuel,^ but you people say that earth does abide 
without root or foundation." ^ " Certainly it does," 
said Pharnaces, " in occupying the proper and natural 
place that belongs to it, the middle, for this is the 
place about which all weights in their natural in- 
clination press against one another and towards 
which they move and converge from every direction, 
whereas all the upper space, even if it receive some- 
thing earthy which has been forcibly hurled up into 
it, straightway extrudes it into our region or rather 
lets it go where its proper inclination causes it natur- 
ally to descend." ^ 

7. At this — for I ^\ished Lucius to have time to 
collect his thoughts — I called to Theon. " Which of 

hi Timaeum, 211 c (ii, p. 231, 27-28 [Diehl]) = Kern, Orphi- 
corum Fragmenta, 168. 29-30 (p. 202). The phrase pLl,a koI 
^dais is applied to the earth itself in a different sense by 
" Timaeus Locrus " (97 e). For the ascription to Xenophanes 
of the notion that the earth eV aVetpov eppt'^ajxat cf. Xeno- 
phanes, frag. A 47 (i, pp. 125-126 [Diels-Kranz]). 

'^ =S.V.F. ii, p. 195, frag. 646. This is the doctrine of 
proper place and natural motion, originally Aristotelian and 
ascribed to Aristotle in De Defectu Oraculorum^ 424 b but 
adopted also by the Stoics {cf. S.V.F. ii, p. 162. 14-19 ; p. 
169. 8-11 ; p. 175. 16-35 ; p. 178. 12-15) ; it should not be 
confused, however, as Ptaingeard confuses it, with the Stoic 
doctrine that the universe itself is in the middle of the void 
{De Defectu Oraculorum^ 425 d-e, De Stoicorum Repiig- 
nantiis, 1054 c-d). 

61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(923) " Tt? " €(f)r]v " ib QecDV e'cprjKe rcov TpayiKcov cu? 
larpol 

TTLKpaV TTLKpols KXvtoVGl (jyapfiaKOLS X^^'^^ i " 

aTTOKpLvapiivov he rod Qecovo? on ^o(f)OKXrjs, " Kal 
Soreov " eiTTov " vtt^ dvdyKrjs eKeLVOLS. (f)LXo(j6(f)CDV 
8' ovK OLKovGreov dv rd Trapdho^a Trapabo^OLS d/xu- 
veodaL ^ovXoiVTai Kal pa)(6pLevot Trpo? rd davpidGLa 
rdov Soypdrcov droTTwrepa Kal OavpaaLcurepa rrXdr- 
924 TOJGIV, WGTTep OVTOi TTjV ijrl TO pLeGov (f)opdv ecG- 
dyovGLV. fj TL TTapdho^ov OVK ev€GTiv; ov)(l rrjv 
yrjv G<j)aipav elvai rr^XiKavra ^dOy] Kal viprj Kal 
dvcjjpLaXias eypvGav ; ovk dvriTrohas OLKeZv wGirep 
OpiTTas^ rj yaXewras rpaTrevras^ dvoj rd Kdrw rrj yfj 
7TpoGiG)(opL€Vovs ;^ r)p.dg S* avrovs pLT] Trpds dpdds 
^e^TjKoras dXXd nXaytovs eVt/xeVetv drrovevovras 

^ Diibner ; dpi-nas -E, B. 
2 Basiliensis ; Tparrevra -E, B. 

^ -Anon., Aldine. R.J. 94 (implied by version of Xylander) ; 
TTpo'CaxoyL€vovs -E, B. 

" Sophocles, frag. 770 (Nauck^). The verse is quoted with 
variations at De Cohibenda Ira, 463 f, and De Tranquillitate 
Animi, 468 b. 

" Cf. Aristotle's remark, De Caelo, 294 a 20-21 : to Se ras 
TTcpl TOVTov Xvaeig jj-tj /laAAov oltottovs etvat So/cetv rrjs aTToplas, 
davfido€i€v dv tls- 

" This objection to the Peripatetic and Stoic theory that 
the sphericity of the earth is a necessary consequence of the 
natural motion of earth " downwards " to the centre of the 
universe (Aristotle, De Caelo, 297 a 8-b 23 ; Strabo, i. 1. 20, 

62 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 923-924 

the tragic poets was it, Theon," I asked, " who said 
that physicians 

With bitter drugs the bitter bile purge ? " 

Theon repUed that it was Sophocles.^ " Yes," I said, 
" and we have of necessity to allow them this pro- 
cedure ; but to philosophers one should not listen if 
they desire to repulse paradoxes with paradoxes and 
in struggling against opinions that are amazing fabri- 
cate others that are more amazing and outlandish,^ as 
these people do in introducing their ' motion to the 
centre.' What paradox is not involved in this doctrine ? 
Not the one that the earth is a sphere although it 
contains such great depths and heights and irregu- 
larities ? ^ Not that people live on the opposite hemi- 
sphere clinging to the earth like wood-worms or geckos 
turned bottomside up ? ^ — and that we ourselves in 
standing remain not at right angles to the earth but 
at an oblique angle, leaning from the perpendicular 

chap. 11 ; Adrastus in Theon of Smyrna, p. 122. 1-16 [Killer]) 
was often answered {cf. Dicaearchus in Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 
65. 162 ; Adrastus in Theon of Smyrna, pp. 124. 7-127. 23, 
using arguments from Archimedes, Eratosthenes, and Dicae- 
archus : Cleomedes, i. 56 [p. 102. 9-20 Ziegler] ; Alexander 
in Simplicius, De Caelo, p. 546. 15-23 ; Alexander, Le Mix- 
tions, p. 237. 5-15 [Bruns]). Plutarch, who defends Plato for 
constructing the spherical earth of molecules that are cubes 
on the ground that no material object can be a perfect sphere 
{Qtiaest. Plat. 1004 b-c), probably did not intend this or the 
subsequent paradoxes to be taken too seriously. Lamprias 
is simply riding Pharnaces as hard as he can, using any argu- 
ment, good or bad, to make him appear ridiculous. 

** Cf. Lucretius, i. 1052-1067 in his argument against the 
Stoic " motion to the centre." Plutarch mentions the anti- 
podes in connection with the Stoics in De Stoicorum Repug- 
nantiis, 1050 b. In De Herodoti Malignitate, 869 c it is said 
that " some " say that there are antipodes. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(924) a)07Tep OL fiedvovres ; ov iivhpovs x^^^^^^^^'^''^^'^'^ 
8ta ^ddovs rrjg yrjs (f)epo}xivovs, orav e^LKcovrai 
rrpos TO fjLeoov, 'iGraodaL jj.'qSevog OLTravTcovrog /xt^S' 
VTTepelSovTO? el Se pvpLT] koltco (^epofievoL^ to pueaov 
B VTTep^dXXoiev avOtg orriacx) Grpe(f)€GdaL Kal dva- 
Kafi7TT€LV dcji' aurtur;" ov TfirjfiaTa Sokojv dTTOTrprja- 
devra^ rrj? yrjs iKarepcodev p^rj (^epeodai Kdroj 8td 
navTOS* dXXd TTpoGTTLTTTOvra TTpos TTjv yrjv e^ojdev 
€LGco^ SicudelGOai Kal drroKpvTrreGOaL Trepl to 
fieGov; ov pevpa Xd^pov vSaros Kdrcv (j^epopevov, 

€i TTpos TO p,eGOV eXdoL Gl]pL€loV 07T€p aVTol XlyOVGlV 

dGcopLarov, CGTaodaL 7TepLKpepLavvvp.evov^ (rjy kvkXco 

C rrepnToXelv,^ aTravGrov alojpav Kal dKardrravGrov 

aco) pov pL€vov ; ovSe yap ipevScos eVta toutcov ^cd- 

aacTO dv tls avrov^ els to hvvarov rfj eVtvota 

^ Xylander ; <i>€po^i4vov -E, B. 

2 Bernardakis ; citt-' avrcjv -E, B. 

^ H. C. ; aiTOTTpLodevTa -E, B. 

* Bernardakis ; hiaTravTos -E, B. 

^ Bernardakis (eacu -W5i:tenbach, Emperius; c/. Xylander's 
" pertrudi intro ") ; ?ctcoj -E, B. 

^ Emperius ; ■nepiKepawvfia'oi' -E, B. 

' Emperius ; kvkXco Trepl ttoXiv -E ; kvkXw Trepl ttoXXov -B. 

® Wyttenbach ; avrov -E, B. 

" Cf. Aristotle, De Caelo, 296 b 18-21 and 297 b 17-21 : 
the courses of bodies falling- to the earth form equal angles 
with the horizontal plane at the point of contact and are not 
parallel. So, Lamprias argues, men standing upright on 
the earth would not be parallel to one another but all in con- 
verging on the centre would deviate from the " absolute " 
perpendicular. 

^ Probably not aeroliths, as Raingeard supposes, but 

64 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 924 

like drunken men ? " Not that incandescent masses 
of forty tons ^ falling through the depth of the earth 
stop when they arrive at the centre, though nothing 
encounter or support them ; and, if in their down- 
ward motion the impetus should carry them past the 
centre, they swing back again and return of them- 
selves ? Not that pieces of meteors burnt out on 
either side of the earth do not move downwards 
continually but falling upon the surface of the earth 
force their way into it from the outside and conceal 
themselves about the centre ? ^ Not that a turbulent 
stream of water, if in flo%\'ing downwards it should 
reach the middle point, which they themselves call 
incorporeal,*^ stops suspended (or) moves round about 
it, oscillating in an incessant and perpetual see-saw ? ^ 
Some of these a man could not even mistakenly force 

incandescent boulders such as are thrown up by volcanoes ; 
for fjLvSpot in this sense cf. [Aristotle], De Mundo, 395 b 22-23 ; 
Strabo, vi. 2. 8, chap. 274 ; vi. 2. 10, chap. 275 ; xiii. 4. 11, 
chap. 628. For the falling of great boulders within the earth 
cf. Lucretius, vi. 536-550, and Seneca, Xat. Quaest. vi. 22. 2 ; 
but Plutarch probably had in mind a subterranean geo- 
graphy such as that of Phaedo, HI d ff., of which the next 
sentence but one contains an explicit reminiscence. 

'' For the text and interpretation of this sentence cf. Class. 
Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 139-140. 

'^ Cf. 926 B infra. According to the Stoics the limits of 
bodies are incorporeal and therefore in the strict sense non- 
existent {De Commimibus Notitiis, 1080 e ; cf. 1081 b and 
S.V.F. ii, p. 159, frag. 488), since only the corporeal exists 
{S.V.F. ii, p. 115, frag. 320 and p. 117, frag. 329). Only 
corporeal existence, moreover, can produce an effect or be 
affected {De Comniunibus Xotitiis, 1073 e, cf. S. V.F. ii, p. 
118, frag. 336 and p. 123, frag. 363). How then can the 
incorporeal centre have any effect upon corporeal entities ? 

« Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 111 e— 112 e, which is certainly the 
source of Plutarch's figure, and Aristotle's criticism of Plato's 
account in Meteorology, 355 b 32 — 356 a 19. 

VOL. XII D 65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(924) KaraGrrJGaL. rovro yap eon rdvoj^ Karco KaV' 
TTavra rpaTTlyiTTaXiv^ elvai, rcov a^pi rod fieoov 
KOLTOJ Tojv 8' V7t6 TO jJLeoov ov ttolXlv dvco ycyvo- 
jjLevcov. iliOT , ei ri? ovp.7Tadeia rrjg yrj? to p-ioov 
avrrjs e;)(6or oralr] rrepl rov o/x^aAdr, d'/xa /cat TrjV 

K€(f)a\T]V dvCD Kol TOVS TToSa? dvOJ eX^iV TOV aVTOV 

Kciv fiev* hiaoKairrrj rov eneKeiva tottov, dvaKVTrrov 
avTOV TO (^Karoj dVco)^ elvat Kal koltoj dvcodev 
eXKeodai rov dvaoKanroixevov el he Si] rovrw ns 
dvTLpe^r]K(jL>g voolro, rovs diJL(j)OTepojv dfia 7ro8a? 
dvoj yiyveoOaL kol Xeyeodai. 

8. ToLovTOJV jjievToi Kal tooovtojv napaSo^oXo- 
D yiiov^ ov fjid Ata Trrjpav' dXXd OavfxaroTTOLOv tlvos 
dTTooKevTjV Kal TTvXaiav KaravojTLodfievoL Kal TrapeX- 
Kovres erepovs (j)aol yeXoidl^eLV^ dvoj ttjv oeXrjV7]v, 
yrjv ovoav, evL^pvovras^ ovx ottov to pLeoov eorl. 
KaiToi y' el rrdv odjjjLa ifi^pLOes elg ravro ovvvevei 

^ Jackson, who would have reconstituted the words as an 
hexameter : ravoj (vdvra) Karco Kal Travra rpane^TTaXtv elvaL {rf. 
Prickard's 1911 translation, p. ot) ; ra dvco -E, B. 

2 Wyttenbach ; Kav -E, B. 

^ Bernardakis {cf. Meineke, Philologus, xiv, p. 5 on 936 d 
infra) ; rpairevra ttoXlv -E, B. 

^ Leonicus ; Kav fxr) -E, B. 

5 H. C. ; TO vac. 8-E, 7-B. 

® E ; napabo^cov Xoyicov -B. 

' Turnebus ; rrelpav -E, B. 

8 Turnebus ; TreAa^eiv -E, B. 

^ Kaltwasser ; evtSpyovre? -E, B. 

" Cf. Phaedo, 112 e 1-3. By introducing the conventional 
phrase vtto to [xeaov, which really begs the question, Lamprias 
makes the notion appear to be a ridiculous self-contradiction. 

^ That ovfXTTadeia ttjs y^y?, which has given rise to many 

66 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 924 

himself to conceive as possible. For this amounts 
to ' upside down ' and ' all things topsy-turvy,' every- 
thing as far as the centre being ' down ' and every- 
thing under the centre in turn being ' up.' " The 
result is that, if a man should so coalesce vdih the 
earth ^ that its centre is at his navel, the same person 
at the same time has his head up and his feet up too. 
Moreover, if he dig through the further side, his 
(bottom) in emerging is (up), and the man digging 
himself ' up ' is pulling himself ' down ' from ' above ' ^ ; 
and, if someone should then be imagined to have 
gone in the opposite direction to this man, the feet 
of both of them at the same time turn out to be ' up ' 
and are so called. 

8. Nevertheless, though of tall tales of such a kind 
and number they have shouldered and lugged in — 
not a wallet-full, by heaven, but some juggler's pack 
and hotchpotch, still they say ^ that others are play- 
ing the buffoon by placing the moon, though it is 
earth, on high and not where the centre is. Yet if 
all heavy body converges to the same point and is 

conjectures, need mean no more than this is proved by Dox. 
Graec?, p. 317 b 14-16 : r-fjs re tcDv ovtcov ovinradelas kol ttjs 
Twu ocofxdTojv dXXT]XovxLa?. For the figure used here cf. Aris- 
totle, De Caelo, 285 a -27-h 5, and Simplicius, De Caelo, p. 389. 
8-24 and p. 391. 33 ff. The most famous later parallel is the 
position of Lucifer in Dante's Inferno^ xxxiv. 76-120. 

" i.e. his feet emerge first : and they, his bottom part, are 
" up." In digging himself " up " relatively to the surface 
through which he emerges, he is with reference to himself 
pulling himself not " up " to a position above his head but 
" down " to a position below his feet. The paradox rests 
upon the assumption that head and feet are respectively 
" absolute up " and " absolute down " for man {cf. Aristotle, 
Be Incessu Animal. 705 a 26 — 706 b 16, and Parra Xat. 
468 a 1-12). 

^ =S.V.F. ii, p. 195, frag. 646. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(924) Kal TTpos TO avrov^ fieaov avrep^ihei Trdcn rot? 
fjiopiois, ovx cu? fiioov ovaa rod Travro? rj yrj /xaA- 
Xov rj cog oXov otVctcoCTerat /xepi] avrrjg^ ovra to, 
^dprj Kal reKpnqpiov (ro /carco^epe?)^ carat rwv 
E perrovrmv ov rfj (yfjy* tt]s ii€G6Trjros rrpos rov 
KoofjLov dXXa TTpog rrjv yrjv KOLVcovlas TLVog Kal 
ovpi^vtas Tols aTrojGfxevoLS avrrjs etra ttolXlv Kara- 
(fyepofjievois. to? yap 6 tJXlos els eavrov emGT p€(j>€.L 
rd fieprj i^ ojv Gvv€GTrjK€, Kal rj yrj rov Xidov 
<jjG7T€p (avrfiY TTpoGTjKOVTa hiy^erai KaTaxjyepif 
TTpos OLKelov'- oOev ivovrai tco ■)(^p6va) Kal GvpL- 

^ Bernardakis (implied in versions of Xylander and 
Kepler) ; avTov -E, B. 

2 H. C. (implied in versions of Xylander and Kepler) ; 

aVTTJS -E, B. 

3 H.C. (rf. S.V.F. ii, p. 175. 34); reKfiripiov vac. 12-E, 
14-B. 

* Von Arnim ; yfj in place of rrjg of E, B -Madvig. 
^ H. C. ; wairep vac. 4-E, 8-B (at end of line). 

* Wyttenbach ; Kal (f>€p€L -E, B. 

' H. C. (TTpog TO OLKelov -Emperius), cf. OLKiia poTrij Kara- 
<f>€p6fi€vov (923 F supra) ; vpos eKelvov -E, B. 

" Lamprias refers directly to the words of Pharnaces at 
923 E-F svpra. Cf. De Sfoicorum Repngnantiis, 1055 a : el 
yap avTos ye veuetv eVt to avrov fxeaov del 7Te(f>VKe Kal ra fiepr) 
TTpos TOVTO Kararelveiv Travraxodev. . . . 

* That Toiv pe-novTcov can stand alone in this sense, pace 
Adler {Diss. Phil. Vind. x, p. 96), is proved by Aristotle, De 
Caelo, 312 b 24. 

" Aristotle (De Caelo, 296 b 9-25) asserted that heavy, 
i.e. earthy, objects move to the centre of the universe and so 
only " accidentally " to the centre of the earth. The Stoics 
distinguished the cosmos as oXov from to Trdv, which is the 
cosmos plus the infinite void encompassing: it (S. V.F. ii, p. 
167, frags. 522-524), putting the cosmos in the centre of the 
■nav and explaining this as the result of the motion of all 
things to the centre of the latter {S.V.F. ii, pp. 174-175, 
frags. 552-554 ; cf. note d on 923 f supra) but stating that 

68 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 924 

compressed in all its parts upon its own centre,'^ it 
is no more as centre of the sum of things than as 
a whole that the earth would appropriate to herself 
the heavy bodies that are parts of herself ; and (the 
downward tendency) of falling bodies ^ proves not 
that the (earth) is in the centre of the cosmos but 
that those bodies which when thrust away from the 
earth fall back to her again have some affinity and 
cohesion with her.'' For as the sun attracts to itself 
the parts of which it consists ^ so the earth too accepts 
as (her) o\\ti the stone ^ that has properly a down- 
ward tendency, and consequently every such thing 

within the cosmos those things that have weight, i.e. water 
and earth, move naturally down, i.e. to the centre {S. V.F. ii, 
p. 11 o. 16-35, frag. oo5). Nevertheless, Chrysippiis's own 
words could be used to show that the natural motion to the 
centre must belong to the parts of the universe qua parts of 
the whole and not because of their own nature (c/. De Stoi- 
corum Repugnantiis, 1054- e — 1055 c) ; and with the very 
word olK€Lcoa€Tai Lamprias turns against the Stoics their ow^n 
doctrine of olKeicoais {cf. De Stoicorum Repugnantiis, 1038 b 
= 6'. V.F. ii, p. 43, frag. 179). 

^ According to Reinhardt (Kosmos und Sympathie, pp. 
173-177) the source of Plutarch's argument must be Posi- 
donius ; but none of the passages cited contains any parallel 
to this statement concerning the sun, for references to the 
attractive power of the sun over the other planets (Reinhardt, 
op. cit. p. 58, n. 2 ; cf. R. M. Jones, Class. Phil, xxvii [1933], 
pp. 122 ff.) are irrelevant. There may rather have been a 
connection between this notion and the doctrine of Cleanthes 
referred to in De Communihus Notitiis, 1075 t> = S.V.F. i, 
p. 114, frag. 510. 

^ This is not a reference to aeroliths as Raingeard and 
Kronenberg suppose nor to the imaginary stone in inter- 
cosmic space {De Defectu Oraculorum, 425 c) as Adler be- 
lieves, but to any yewBes n vtto ^lus dvappL4>€v, in the words of 
Pharnaces (923 f supra) ; cf. Aristotle's use of d Xldos in the 
statement of his principle of natural motion (Eth. Nic. 1 103 a 
19-22). 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(924) (^uerat rrpos avTTjv rcbv tolovtojv eKaorov. el 8e 
Tt Tvyxoi^^L crcDjLta rfj yfj fxrj TTpoaveveix-qixevov 0,77' 
^PX^'^^ /xr]8' aTTeGTraafievov dAAa ttov^ Kad^ avTO 
F ovaraGLV eox^v tStar Kal (f)V(nv a>? (fiolev av eKelvoi 
TTjv oeXrjvqv, ri kcoXvcl ;^'copts" elvai Kal /xeVeiv Tiept 
avro^ Tols avTOV* neTneuiiivov /xepecrt kol ovfji- 
TreTTeSrjfjLevov; ovt€ yap rj yrj piiuov ovoa SeLKVvrai 
rod TTavTOS tj t€ rrpos ttjv yrjv r(x)v evravda avv- 
epeiGi?^ Kal ovuraGis vcfirjyeLrai tov rpoirov (h 
piiveiv ra eKel ovpLTreGOvra rrpos rrfv aeXrjvrjv eiKos 
€GTLV. 6 Se TTOLvra ra yecohr^ Kal ^apia uvveXavvcjJV 
els fxlav ;\;t6pav Kal pieprj ttolwv ivos crcop^arog, ovx 
opo) SiOL ri rols KovcfyoL? rrjv avrrjv dvdyKrjv ovk 
avrarrohiSajGiv dAA' ea x^P'-^ etvai ovGrdoeLS 
rrvpos Tocrauras" Kal ov rrdvras els ravro^ avvayojv 
rovs dorepas oa(f)Cx)s' o'Urai helv Kal craijLta koivov 
elvai rojv dvaj(f)€pdjv^ Kal (fyXoyoeiScov drrdvrayv. 
925 9- 'AAA' riXiov /xev drrXerovs p^vpidhas drrex'^iv 
rrjs dvoj rT€pi(f)opds <f>aT€ " eirrov " c6 ^tAe AttoAAco- 

^ Aldine, Basiliensis ; dvapxrjs -E, B. 

2 Stephanus (1624) : tov -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach (implied in Kepler's version) ; avro -E, B. 

* Wyttenbach (implied in versions of Xylander, Amyot, 
and Kepler) ; avrov -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; avvalpeais -E, B. 

® Wyttenbach (implied in versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 

TOVTO -E, B. 

' E, B ; Kal (f)a)s -Adler after Wyttenbach ; Travras . . . 
oa(f)ios deleted as marginal note by Sandbach (Cambridge 
Philological Society^ 19-i3). 

* Turnebus, Xylander ; dva<f)opa>i> -E, B. 

" The men referred to in 92-i d, irepovs . . . dvco rr)v aeX-qvqv, 
yrjv ovaav, eviSpvovras, whom the Stoics attack and among 
70 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 924-925 

ultimately unites and coheres \\ith her. If there is 
a body, however, that was not originally allotted to 
the earth or detached from it but has somewhere 
independently a constitution and nature of its own, 
as those men " would say of the moon, what is to 
hinder it from being permanently separate in its own 
place, compressed and bound together by its own 
parts ? For it has not been proved that the earth 
is the centre of the sum of things,^ and the way in 
which things in our region press together and con- 
centrate upon the earth suggests how in all prob- 
ability things in that region converge upon the moon 
and remain there. The man who drives together 
into a single region all earthy and heavy things and 
makes them part of a single body — I do not see for 
what reason he does not apply the same compulsion 
to light objects in their turn but allows so many 
separate concentrations of fire and, since he does not 
collect all the stars together, clearly does not think 
that there must also be a body common to all things 
that are fiery and have an upward tendency. 

9. Now," said I, " my dear iVpollonides, you 
mathematicians ^ say that the sun is an immense 
distance from the upper circumference and that above 

whom are Lamprias and Lucius themselves and " our 
comrade " (921 f). 

* i.e. even if it is the centre of our cosmos ; cf. De Defectu 
Oraculoricm, 435 a-e, where concerning the possibility of a 
multiplicity of universes in to ttolv Plutarch points out that 
even on the hypothesis of natural motion and proper place 
up, down, and centre would apply separately within each 
cosmos, there could be no centre of to ttolv, and the laws of 
motion in any one universe could not affect objects in any 
other or hypothetical objects in intercosmic space. 

<^ This is implied by the second person plural addressed 
to Apollonides, cf. 925 b infra and 920 f, 921 c supra. 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(925) vthrj Kal ^a>a(f)6pov e7r' avrco Kal SriA/Sovra^ /cat 
Tov? dXXov? TrXdv-qras V(f)i€fX€VOV? re rcov OLTrXavajv 
Kal TTpos aAA?]Aous" iv hLaordaeoi /xeyaAai? (bepeadai 
roL? 8e ^apeoi^ Kal yeajheoiv ovhepLiav o'Uade rov 
KOGfiov evpvxojplav Trapex^LV iv iavrco Kal hid- 
uraoLV. opdre on yeXolov ionv el yrjv ov (f)riGoiJL€v 
elvaL TTjv aeXTJvqv on rrjs Kdrco ;^6L>pa? d(f)€GT'qK€V 
B dorpov Se (f)'ijuojjLev opdyvres dTTOJGiiiv7]v rrjs dvoj 
7T€pL(f)opds fivpLdoi GraSiOJV roGavrais wGirep {^t?)' 
^v96v nva KarahehvKvlav. rojv fjiiv y' aGrpcov 
Karojrepoj roGOvrov ecrriv ogov ovk dv ns e'iTTOL 
fxerpov* aAA' eVtAetTTOucrtv vfids^ rovs [xad-qfianKovs 
e/cAoyt^OjU.eVous' ol dpiBpLoi, rrjs he yrjs rporrov nvd 
ipavec Kal 7TepL(j)epoixevr] TrXrjGcov 

dpjiaros COS" rrepL x^'Oi^j iXiGGerat^ 

<f>r]Glv 'E/i.TreSoAcA'f^S' 

rj re Trap* aKprjv 
{yvGGav eXavvoixevr]) ? 

ovhe yap rrjv GKidv avrrjs vrrep^dXXei noXXdKLs errl 
fjLLKpov alpopLevr]v^ roi TrapLfjieyedes elvai ro ^ajril,ov 
dXX ovrojs eoLKev iv XPV '^^^ Gx^hov ev dyKoXais 
rrjs yrjs TrepLTToXeiv wGr dvn^pdrreGdai rrpos rov 
C rjXcov vtt" avrrjs pLrj vrrepaipovGa rov GKiepov Kal 
X^ovLov Kal vvKrepivov^ rovrov rorrov os yrjs KXijpos 

1 E, B ; for the form see note on 941 c infra. 

2 Basiliensis ; padem -E, B. 

^ W}i:tenbach (implied in versions of Xylander and 
Amyot), cf. 943 d : els ^vdov . . . KaraSvofievag. 

* E, B^ ; oaw . . . fj.€Tpu) -B^ ^ Xylander ; rjfids -E, B. 

• Panzerbieter ; dpfiaros coairep Ix^os dveXLoaiTai -E, B. 
' Diels ; -^re Trepi aKpav vac. 18-E, 26-B. 

72 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 925 

the sun Venus and Mercury and the other planets " 
revolve lower than the fixed stars and at great in- 
tervals from one another ; but you think that in the 
cosmos there is provided no scope and extension for 
heavy and earthy objects. You see that it is ridicu- 
lous for us to deny that the moon is earth because she 
stands apart from the nether region and yet to call 
her a star although we see her removed so many 
thousands of miles from the upper circumference as 
if plunged (into) a pit. So far beneath the stars is 
she that the distance cannot be expressed, but you 
mathematicians in trying to calculate it run short 
of numbers ; she practically grazes the earth and 
revolving close to it 

Whirls like a chariot's axle-box about, 

Empedocles says,^ 

That skims (the post in passing). 

Frequently she does not even surmount the earth's 
hadow, though it extends but a little way because 
the illuminating body is very large ; but she seems 
to revolve so close, almost within arm's reach of the 
earth, as to be screened by it from the sun unless she 
rises above this shadowy, terrestrial, and nocturnal 
place which is earth's estate. Therefore we must 

" For the order of the planets cf. Dreyer, History of the 
Planetary Systems, pp. 168-170, and Boyance, Etudes sur 
le Songe de Scipion, pp. 59-65 ; the order here given is not 
the one adopted by most of the astronomers of Plutarch's 
time, by the later Stoics, or in all probability by Posidonius. 

^ Empedocles, frag. B 46 (i, p. 331 [Diels-Kranz]). 

8 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94, and implied in versions of 
Amyot and Kepler ; alpofxev-q -E, B. 

* VVKT€pLVOV -B ; VVKTCpLOV -E. 

73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(925) iori. Sio XeKrlov otfiat Oappovvrag eV rot? (t'^'^Y 
yrjg opot? etrat rrjv aeXip'-qv vtto tcov aKpcov avrrjs 
e7rL7Tpo<j6ov[JLevr]v . 

10. ^KOTTEL Se rov? dXXov? d^et? aTrAarei? /cat 
TrXdvrjTa? a heLKVVGiv ^ Aplorrapxos iv ro) Hepl fxe- 
yedojv Kol dvoGTrjiJidTCov on ' to rod tjXiov diro- 
orrjpia rod d'7TOOT7]pLaTOS ttjs aeXrjvrjs ' o d(j)€OTr]Kev 
D rjfjL.d)v ' TiXeov /xev i) OKTCDKaLhEKarrXduiov eXarrov 8' 
Tj eLKoaaTrXduLov eon.' Kairoi 6 rr^v aeXrjvrjv errl 
jjLTjKiGTOv alpujv dTTEX^LV^ (f)rjGlv rjpLcov e^ Kal TTevrrj- 
KOVTairXdoLov rrj? Ik rod Kevrpov rrjs yrjs. avrrf 
8' eorl reoodpojv fxvpidhcov Kal Kara rovs pLeaajg 
dvafierpovvras , Kal diro ravrrjs GuXXoyi^ofJievoL? 
diriyei 6 tJXlos rrjs GeX'qvrjs ttXcov t) rerpaKLGXiXlas 
rpidKovra pivpidhas. ovtoj? drrMKior ai rod rjXlov 
Sta j3dpos Kal rooovro rfj yfj rrpoGKexojprjKev wore, 
€6 rots' roTTOLS rds ovGias Statpereov, t] yrjs /xotpa 
Kal x<^poi* TrpoGKaXelrai GeXi^vrjv Kal rot? 7T€pl yrjv 
E rrpdyfiaGL Kal Gwi^aGLV eTTihtKos ecrrt /car' dyx^-- 
Greiav Kal yeirviaGLV. Kal ovhiv, olfiat, ttAt^/x^c- 
Xovjjiev on rols dvco TrpoGayopevofiivois ^ddos 
roGovro Kal hidGrrjiia hihovres dTToXeiTTopiiv nva 

r) 

^ Aldine, Basiliensis ; ev tols yrjs -E ; eV toIs yqs -B. 

^ B ; a.TT€X€i -E. 

^ B ; avTT) -E. 

* Tiirnebus (cf. 925 c : tottov os yrjs KXrjpos) : a>pa -E, B. 

" This is Proposition 7 of Aristarchus's treatise, the full 
title of which is Oil the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and 
Moon. The treatise is edited and translated by Sir Thomas 
Heath in his Arisfarchus of Samos, pp. 352 ff. 

* This was not the highest estimate hitherto given, nor 
have I been able to identify its author. Cf. on this matter and 
the subsequent calculations in this passage Glass. Phil, xlvi 

74 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 925 

boldly declare, I think, that the moon is within the 
confines of (the) earth inasmuch as she is occulted 
by its extremities. 

10. Dismiss the fixed stars and the other planets 
and consider the demonstrations of Aristarchus in 
his treatise, On Sizes and Distances, that ' the distance 
of the sun is more than 18 times and less than 20 
times the distance of the moon,' that is its distance 
from us.^ According to the highest estimate, how- 
ever, the moon's distance from us is said to be dQ 
times the radius of the earth. ^ Even according to 
the mean calculations this radius is 40,000 stades ; 
and, if we reckon from this, the sun is more than 
40,300,000 stades distant from the moon. She has 
migrated so far from the sun on account of her weight 
and has moved so close to the earth that, if pro- 
perties ^ are to be determined by locations, the lot, 
I mean the position, of earth lays an action against 
the moon and she is legally assignable by right of 
propinquity and kinship to the chattels real and 
personal of earth. We do not err at all, I think, if 
granting such altitude and extension to the things 
called ' upper ' we leave what is ' down below ' also 

(1951), pp. 140-14.1. No attempt is made to give equivalents 
for stades in calculations, for it is uncertain what stade is 
meant in any one place. Schiaparelli assumes everywhere 
the Olympic stade of 185 metres (Scritti sulla storia della 
astronomki antica, i, p. 333, n. 3 and p. 343, n. 1) ; Heath 
argues that Eratosthenes used a stade of 157.5 metres and 
Ptolemy the royal stade of 210 metres {Aristarchus of Samos, 
pp. 339 and 346) ; and Raingeard (p. 83 on 925 d 6) assumes 
without argument that Plutarch used the Attic stade of 177.6 
metres. 

•^ There is a play on the meaning of ras ovaias, " sub- 
stances," as " property " or '" estates " and as " the real 
nature of things." 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(925) Kal TO) KOLTOJ TTepcSpofirjv Kal rrXdro? oaov iarlv 
OLTTO yrjs iTTL aeXrjVTjv ovre yap 6 rrjv aKpav eVt- 
(jyavetav rod ovpavov {jlovtjv clvoj rdAAa 8e Kara) 
TrpoGayopevojv ajravra fierpLOS ecrrtv ovd^ 6 rfj yfj 
fiaXXov 8' o TO* Kevrpo) to Karoj TTeptypdcfyojv 
dveKTOs, dXXd KOLKeivr) rt Kal^ ravrr] hidorripia 
horeov^ iTTixojpovvro^ rod KoapLov hid pLeyedos. 
Trpos 8e Tov d^iovvra irdv evOvs dvo) Kal pLerecxjpov 
etvat TO 0.77-0 ttJ? yrj? erepos dvrrjx^l ttoXlv evdvs 
F etvai Kdrcj to diro rrj? drrXavovs 7T€pi(j)opds. 

11. "OAco? Se 7TC0S" Xiyerai Kal rivos r) yrj pLeur] 
KeZadai;^ rd ydp rrdv direipov euTL, ro) S' drreipuj 
/xt^t' dpx'^v exoVTL p^^jTe Trepas ov 7Tpooy]K€i pbcaov 
ex^iv TTepas ydp ri Kal to jLteaov, r] 8' drr^ipia 
TTepdrajv oreprjois. o he pLT) rod rravrdg dXXd rod 
KOGpLov pLeo-qv elvai rrjv yrjv d7TO(f)aLv6pL€vo9 rjSvs 
ioTLV el pL7] Kal rdv Koopiov avrdv evex^odai rals 
avrals aTTopLaug vopiitei- to ydp ttolv ovhe tovtw* 
pLeaov^ dTTeXiTTev, dXX dveorios Kal dvihpvrog eoriv 
926 ev dneipcp Kevo) <j)ep6p,evos Trpog ovhev olKelov (jj}, 
el^ dXXrjv rivd rod /xeVetv evpdpievos atVtav' ecrrrjKev 
ov Kard rrjV rod roTTOV (J)VGlv, dpLOia Kat rrepi yrjs 
Kal TTepl GeXrjvrjs ei/cct^etv rivl Trdpeariv (x>s erepa 

^ Bernardakis after Madvig's /cat eKcivj) Kal ; Kal KivrjTLKo 
vac. 2-E, B. 

2 Madvig ; to bdov -E, B. 

^ ^^'yttenbach ; KelraL -E, B. 

* Stephanus (1624.) ; tovto -E, B. 

^ Turnebiis ; fjLcarjv -E, B. 

® Implied by versions of Xylander and Kepler ; et aXX-qv 
-E, B ; ^ dXXr)v -Turnebiis. 

' E ; alrlav ivpdfievos -B. 

" Cf. De Defectu Oraculorum, 424 d, where Kad' ovs 8' 
76 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 925-926 

some room to move about in and so much latitude 
as there is from earth to moon. For as he is im- 
moderate who calls only the outermost surface of 
the heaven ' up ' and all else ' down,' so is he intoler- 
able who restricts * down ' to the earth or rather to 
the centre ; but both there and here some extension 
must be granted since the magnitude of the universe 
permits it. The claim that everything away from 
the earth is ipso facto ' up ' and ' on high ' is answered 
by a counter-claim that what is away from the circuit 
of the fixed stars is ipso facto ' down.' 

1 1 . After all, in what sense is earth situated in the 
middle and in the middle of what ? The sum of things 
is infinite : and the infinite, having neither beginning 
nor limit, cannot properly have a middle, for the 
middle is-a kind of limit too but infinity is a negation 
of limits. He who asserts that the earth is in the 
middle not of the sum of things but of the cosmos is 
naive if he supposes that the cosmos itself is not also 
involved in the very same difficulties.^ In fact, in the 
sum of things no middle has been left for the cosmos 
either, but it is without hearth and habitation,^ moving 
in infinite void to nothing of its own ; <or>, if it has 
come to rest because it has found some other reason 
for abiding, not because of the nature of its location,^ 
similar inferences are permissible in the cases of 
both earth and moon, that the former is stationary 

eoTLv {sell. TO K€v6v) rcfcrs to the Stoics (for whose distinction 
between the -ndv and the Kocjfiog see note c on 924 e supra), and 
De Stoicorum Repiignantiis, 1054. b-d, where as here Plutarch 
uses against the Stoics a weapon taken from their own 
arsenal. 

^ Cf. Gracchi, ix. 5, 838 d : aoiKoi koX avihpvTOL. 

" Cf. S.V.F. ii, pp. 174-175, frags. 552 and 553; De 
Stoicorum Repugnantiis, 1054 f — 1055 b. 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(926) TLVi 4'^xfi '^^'^ <f)VG€L fjLaXXov (t) roTnKfj)> Sia^opa^ 
T-^? ixev cnp€jJiovGri<; ivravOa rrj<^ S' eKel^ (fyepoixevq^. 
av€V he TO-UTOJV opa fJL-q fieya ri XeXrjdev avrov?' 
et yap on av Kal ottojgovv^ eVros" ylvqrai rod 
Kevrpov rrjs yrjs o-vco eariv, ovhev ian rov KOGfiov 
KOLTOJ fjiepos aAA' ctVco /cat rj yrj Kal ra inl yrjS Kal 

B Trdv ctTT-Ato? Gojfia rep* Kevrpcp TrepieGTrjKos rj irepi- 
Kecfjievov avcxj yiyver ai Karco he piovov [oV]^ eV, to 
aGcopLarov G-qfjielov eKelvo o TTpos Trdoav avriKelGQai 
TTjv Tov KOGfXOV (f)VGLV dvayKalov €L ye Srj to KaTOJ 
TTpos TO dvoj Kara (f)VGLV dvTLKeiTai. Kal ov tovto 
pLOvov TO aTOTTOV, dXXd Kal TTjv atrtav dTToXXvGL Ta 
^dpr) St' 7]P hevpo KaTappenet Kal (^eperav GcopLa 
pLev yap ovhev ecrrt KaTCO Trpo? o Ktvetrat, to 8' 
dGcopLaTov ovT eiKos ovTe ^odXovTai TOGavTrjv e)(eiv 
SvvapLiV a)GTe rrdvTa KaTaTeiveiv e</)' eavTo Kal nepl 
avTO^ crure;^etv. aAA' oAo;?' dXoyov evpiGKeTai Kal 
piaxopLevov rot? TTpdypiaGL to dvoj tov KOGpLov oXov 
elvat TO 8e Kdroj pbrjhev dXX rj rrepas dowpLaTOV Kal 
dSiaGTarov eKelvo 8' evXoyov, co? Xeyopev rjpLelg, 
TO) t' dvcx) x^'^P^"^ '^^^ '^^ KaTOJ TToXXrjV Kal TrXdros 
exovGav SirjprJGdaL. 

C 12. Ov pLTjv dXXd OevTes, el ^ovXei, rrapd (f)VGLV 

^ H. C. after Wyttenbach's fxaXXov ^ <j}voiKfj /cat tottlk-^ 
8La<f)opa and Bernardakis's fiaXXov (t] tottov) BLa<f)opa {cf. De 
Defectn Oi'aculoi'um, 424 e : ov tottlkcos dAAa aoj/iaTt/ccDs' and 
De Stoicorum Repugnant ih,\Oo\Y. : ^vaei . . . ov Tjjg ovaiag 
. . . aAAa TTJs . . . ;^ajpa?) ; /xaAAov vac. 7-E, 9-B 8La<f>opal 

-E, B. 

2 Madvig ; Se /cat -E, B.^ 

^ Diibner ; ottojoovu Kal on av -E, B. 

4 Bernardakis (?) ; to -E, B. 

^ Deleted by Madvig. 

^ E ; vrept avro -15. ' Emperius ; o^oj? -E, B. 

78 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 926 

here and the latter is in motion there by reason of a 
different soul or nature rather (than) a difference 
(of location). Besides this, consider whether they ^ 
have not overlooked an important point. If anything 
in any way at all off the centre of the earth is ' up,' 
no part of the cosmos is ' down ' ; but it turns out 
that the earth and the things on the earth and 
absolutely all body surrounding or enclosing the 
centre are ' up ' and only one thing is * down,' that 
incorporeal point ^ which must be in opposition to 
the entire nature of the cosmos, if in fact ' down ' and 
up ' are natural opposites.*^ This, moreover, does 
not exhaust the absurdity. The cause of the descent 
of heavy objects and of their motion to this region is 
also abolished, for there is no body that is ' down ' 
towards which they are in motion and it is neither 
likely nor in accordance vd\h the intention of these 
men that the incorporeal should have so much in- 
fluence as to attract all these objects and keep them 
together around itself. ^^ On the contrary, it proves 
to be entirely unreasonable and inconsistent ^^'ith the 
facts for the whole cosmos to be ' up ' and nothing 
but an incorporeal and unextended limit to be 
' doM'n ' ; but that statement of ours is reasonable, 
that ample space and broad has been divided between 
' up ' and ' down.' 

12. All the same, let us assume, if you please, that 

" The Stoics. 

* Cf. S. V.F. ii, p. 169. 9-11, frag. 527 : . . . rrjs yijs ttcoI 
TO fjicaov (jrjfjL€tov tov Koafxov KeL/jLevrjs, o 877 tov vavros iari ko-toj, 
dvio 8e TO oltt' avTOv els ro kvkXco rravrrj. 

'' Cf. S.V.F. ii, p. 176, frag. 556 : t6 civco koI to /caroj oi) 
Kara ox^ctlv . . . (pvG€L yap 8Ld(f)opa raura. 

^ See note d on 924- b supra, and cf. De Defectu Oraculorum, 
424 E against Aristotle. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(926) ev ovpavo) rot? yewSeat rag KLVi]a€Ls vTrdpx^LV 
drpefJLa, /xi) TpayLKOjg, dXXd irpdcos GKOTrajfiev on 
TOVTO TTjV oeXrivrfV ov heiKwai yrjv {jltj ovoav dAAa 
yrjv oTTov p-T] 7T€(f)VK€v ovdav, eVet Kal to nvp to 
Altvolov V7t6 yrjv rrapd (f>vaLV eoTiv dAAa TTvp eoTi 
Kal TO TTvevpia rot? daKols TreptAr^^^eV ecrrt p,ev 

dvOJ(f}€p€? (f)Va€i Kal KOV(f)OV TjKei 8' OTTOV pLT] 776- 

<f)VK€v utt' dvdyKrjg. auri^ 8' rj iljv)(iq, rrpos Ato? 
€i7Tov^ " ov Trapd (fivcriv tco Gcop^aTL ovvelpKTai ^pa- 
Sel Ta;^era Kal ipv)(p({> TTvpajhrjg, warrep u/xet? (f)aT€, 
Kal dopaTog alodiqTa); hid tovt ovv croj/xaTt ipvx^jv 
pLTj Aeyco/xev^ {eV)etva6^ p^r^he vovv* XPVH-^ Oelov, 
D [vTTO ^pidovs y] 7Td;)^ous']/ ovpavov t€ TrdvTa Kal yrjv 
Kal ddXaaaav iv TavTco TrepLTroXovvTa Kal SttTrrd- 
pLevov,^ etV odpKag tJk€lv Kal vevpa Kal pbveXovg 
(vTTo ^piOovg Kal 7Td-)(ovsy Kal TTadewv pivpia>v pueTa 
vypoTrjTos ; 6 8e Zcu? vpZv^ ovtos ov tjj /xev aurou" 

// / "'10' '^ ^' ' * 

(pVG€l XPOJpL€VOg €V €GTi pieya TTVp /cat aVV€X€9, VVVL 

8'" v(f}€lTat Kal K€KapL7TTai Kal hceax^Jp^dTLGTaL, irdv 
Xprjpio}^ yeyovdis Kal yiyvopievos ev rat? jLterajSoAat? ; 

1 E ; ^i-nev -B. 

^ E ; Xeyofxev -B. 

^ Van Herwerden ; efvat -E, B. 

* Madvig ; ^irjSev ov -E, B. 

^ [ ] H. C. (see note 7 infra). 

* Wyttenbach ; SuaTafxevov -E, B. 

' I have transposed this phrase hither ; E and B have it 
between deiov and ovpavov above. 

8 Xylander ; rjfXLv -E, B. 

9 E, B2 ; avTov -B\ 
^» E ; eveari. -B. 

^^ vvvl 8e -B ; vvvlhe -E. 

12 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; xP^f^<^ "E, B. 

° Cf. 928 B infra. Phitarch probably has in mind inflated 
80 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 926 

the motions of earthy objects in the heaven are con- 
trary to nature ; and then let us calmly observe 
without any histrionics and quite dispassionately that 
this indicates not that the moon is not earth but that 
she is earth in an ' unnatural ' location. For the fire 
of Aetna too is below earth ' unnaturally,' but it is 
fire ; and the air confined in skins," though by nature 
it is light and has an upward tendency, has been con- 
strained to occupy an ' unnatural ' location. As to 
the soul herself," I said, " by Zeus, is her confinement 
in the body not contrary to nature, swift as she is and 
fiery, as you say,^ and invisible in a sluggish, cold, 
and sensible vehicle ? Shall we then on this account 
deny that there is soul (in) body or that mind, a 
divine thing, though it traverses instantaneously in 
its flight all heaven and earth and sea,^ has passed 
into flesh and sinew and marrow under the influence 
of weight and density and countless qualities that 
attend liquefaction ? ^ This Zeus of yours too, is it 
not true that, while in his own nature he is single, a 
great and continuous fire, at present he is slackened 
and subdued and transformed, having become and 
continuing to become everything in the course of 

skins used for floats ; cf. Aristotle, Physics, 217 a 2-3, 255 b 
26, De C'ae/o, 311 b 9-13. 

*" Cf. S. V.F. ii, p. 217, frag. 773 : ol ^ikv yap 'LtcoIkoI Trveu/iia 
Xeyovaiv avr-qv evdepjxov Kal SiaTTvpov. 

" For this commonplace of the flight of the mind through 
the universe cf. R. M. Jones, Class. Phil, xxi (1926), pp. 97- 
113. 

<* This is a reference to the Stoic notion that the embodi- 
ment of soul was a process of condensation or liquefaction. 
Cf. De Stoicorum Repugnant i is, 1053 b-c { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 
605) and for the qualities that would attend liquefaction 
S. V.F. ii, p. 155. 34- : yijg re Kal uSaros", Traxvixepcov Kal jSapeojv 
Kal drovcov ovtcov. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(926) ojoO'' opa /cat gkott^l, 6aijji6i'L€, [jlt] fxediGTas koI 
E arrayiDV eKaorov ottov TTe<f>VK€v elvai hidXvaiv rtva 
KOGfJLOV (jyiKooo^fjs KOI TO V€LKog iTrdyrjg ro ^Kfrne- 
So/cAeof? rot? TrpdyfjLaGL fiaXXov Se rous" TraAatous" 
KLvfjs Tirara? eVt rrjv cfiVGiv koL Tiyavras kol ttjv 
jivdLK7]v eKeivriv kol (f)o^€pdv aKoopiiav koL irXripL- 
pJXeLav imhelv ttoOtjs x^P^^ '^^ ^apv ttov koL -)(cx)pls 
{dels 77ayy to kov^ov. 

€vd^ ouT^ rjeXiOLO StetSerat^ dyXaov etSos"' 

ovSe [lev ouS' atTy? Aacrtov /xeVo?* ovSe ddXaaoa 

60? (f)7]GLv 'E^TieSo/cArys" ov yrj depfjLOTTjrog ixereix^Vy 

F ovx vSojp TTvevfJLaro?, ovk dvco tC" tcov ^apewv, ov 

Kara) ri^ rcov kov(/)cov, dAA' oLKparoi kol daropyoi 

^ H. C, combining <77-av> of Turnebus with Diels's insertion 
of 061? after -nodij? above : x<^pts vac. 7-E, 3-B. 

2 Simplicins {In Arist. Physic. Comment, p. 1183, 30 
[Diels]) ; SeStrrerai -E, B. 

^ E, B ; co/cea yvXa -Simplicius, loc. cit. {cf. exegetical note). 

* Bergk ; yivos -E, B. 
^ Stephanus ; ri -E, B. 

* Stephanus ; ri -E, B. 

« =S.V.F. ii, p. 308, frag. 1045. Zeus "in his own 
nature " is the state of the universe in the ecpyrosis, while 
" at present " he is the universe in the state of diacosmesis ; 
cf. De Placifis, 881 f— 882 a ( = Aetius, i. 7. 33==^. F.F. ii, 
frag. 1027), Diogenes Laertius, vii. 137 ( = S.V.F. ii, frag. 
526), l)e Stoicoruvi Bepiu/uandis, 1052 c { = S.V.F. ii, frags. 
1068 and 604), De Communibus Notitns 1075 a-c ( = ^. TVF. 
ii, frag. 1049), and S.V.F. ii, frags. 1052, 1053, and 1056. 

^ The wStrife of Empedocles is connected with the mjihical 
war of the Giants by Proclus, In Platonis Parmenldem Com- 
ment, p. 849, 13-15 (ed. Cousin, Paris, 1864) = p. 659 (ed. 
Stallbaum). 

' Enii)edocles, frag. B 27 (i, pp. 323. 11-324. 4 [Diels- 
Kranzj), where the coxrea yvia given by Simplicius is adopted 
82 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 926 

his mutations ? " So look out and reflect, good sir, 
lest in rearranging and removing each thing to its 
' natural ' location you contrive a dissolution of the 
cosmos and bring upon things the * Strife ' of Em- 
pedocles — or rather lest you arouse against nature 
the ancient Titans and Giants ^ and long to look upon 
that legendary and dreadful disorder and discord 
(when you have separated) all that is heavy and (all) 
that is light. 

The sun's bright aspect is not there descried, 
No, nor the shaggy might of earth, nor sea 

as Empedocles says.^ Earth had no part in heat, 
water no part in air ; there was not anything heavy 
above oi anvthing light below ; but the principles of 
all things ^ were untempered and unamiable ^ and 

instead of Plutarch's dyXaov elSog. Bignone, however, who 
prints the lines given by Plutarch as frag. 26 a and those given 
by Simplicius as frag. 27, is probably right in taking this to 
be one of the lines which were repeated witii a different ending 
in two different parts of the poem {Empedode, studio crltlco, 
pp. 220 ff., 421, 599 fF.). Certainly Plutarch represents his 
quotation as describing the period when Strife has completely 
separated the four roots, whereas Simplicius says that his 
comes from the description of the Sphere, when all were 
thoroughly intermingled. 

'^ i.e. the four " roots," earth, air, fire, and water, for the 
separation of which bv Strife cf. Empedocles, frags. B 17. 
8-10 and B 26. 6-9 (i', p. 316. '2-4 and p. 323. 4-7 [Diels- 
Kranz]). 

^ From this Mullach manufactured for Empedocles the 
verse that he numbered 174 {Frag. Phil. Graec. i, p. 5). Stein 
took only aKparoL koI aaropyoi to be a quotation. The word 
daropyos appears nowhere in the frag-ments of Empedocles 
(though aropyq does in frag. B 109"[i, p. 351. 22, Diels- 
Kranz]), whereas Plutarch uses it several times in other con- 
nections {Amatorius, 750 f, Quaest. Nat. 917 d, Be SolUrtia 
Animalium, 970 b). 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(926) Kal /LtovaSe? at rcov oXcov dpxo.1 f^'rj TrpocrUfievai 
(jvyKpLGLv iripov TTpos erepov fxrjSe Koivcoviav aAAa 
(f)€vyovcraL Kal a7TOGrpe(j)6}xevaL Kal (f)€p6[jL€vaL <j)0- 
pas iSlag Kal avOdSeig ovtcxj? el^ov cx)9 e;^€t Trdv ov 
deos d7T€GTi Kara YlXdrcova, rovTeoriv a>? e;)^€t Ta 
ucopLara vov Kal ipvx^j? diToXLTTOvcTrjs , d-)(pL^ ov to 
Ipieprov rjK€v inl rrjv (f)VGLV eV Trpovoias, (f>iX6T7]ros 
927 iyyevoi.iev'qs Kal WcfypoScTr]? Kal "Epa>ro? co? 'E/x- 
TTeSoKXrj? Xeyei Kal YlapfJLevLSrjg Kal 'HatoSo?, tva 
Kal TOTTovs dixeui/javra Kal Swdfjiet? dri* (iAAtJAcov 
fJLeraXa^ovTa Kal rd jikv Kivrjaecxis to. 8e [xovrjg 
dvayKats ivheOivra Kal Karaf^LaaOevra rrpos to 
^iXriov i^ ov 7Te(f)VKev evSovvai Kal jjLeraarrjvaL 
(rd crco/xara)^ dppioviav Kal Koivcoviav dTrepydarjrat 
rod rravTOs. 

13. Et pikv ydp ovh^ dXXo n rwv rod Koajjiov 

jxepcov TTapd (j>VGiv ecr;^ev aAA' eKacrrov fj ttI^vke 

Kelrai ^TySe/xtas"^ fxeOSpvaeajs f^irjSe fxeraKOGfjirjGeajg 

SeofJLevov /xt^S' iv dpxfj he-qdeVy dTTopd) ri ri^s Trpo- 

B voias kpyov IgtIv t) tlvos yiyov€ ttolt^tt]? Kal Trarrjp 

^ Bernardakis ; dxpi-s -E, B. 

^ H. C. ; ixeraoTfjvaL vac. 7-E, 9-B. 

^ E ; fxT) Se /xia? -B. 

" Cf. Clara Millerd, On the Interpretation of Empedocles, 
p. 51-, and Cherniss, ylristofIe''s Criticism of Presocratic 
PfiHosopfn/, p. 175, n. 180. Plutarch's circumstantial account 
of the motion of the four " roots " during the complete domi- 
nance of Strife is coloured by the passage of Plato to which 
he refers. 

* Timaeus, 53 b ; cf. Be Defectu Oraculorum, 430 d, and 
De An. Proc. in Timaeo, 1016 f. 

" Cf. Amatorius, 756 d-f, where Empedocles, frag. B 17. 
20-21 (i, p. 317. 1-2 [Diels-Kranz]), and Parmenides, frag. 
84 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 926-927 

solitary, not accepting; combination or association 
with one another, but avoiding and shunning one 
another and moving with their own pecuUar and 
arbitrary motions ^' they were in the state in which, 
according to Plato, ^ everything is from which God 
is absent, that is to say in which bodies are when mind 
or soul is wanting. So they were until desire came 
over nature providentially, for Affection arose or 
Aphrodite or Eros, as Empedocles says and Par- 
menides and Hesiod,^ in order that by changing 
position and interchanging functions and by being 
constrained some to motion and some to rest and 
compelled to give way and shift from the ' natural ' 
to the ' better ' (the bodies) might produce a universal 
concord and community. 

13. If not a single one of the parts of the cosmos 
ever got into an * unnatural ' condition but each one 
is ' naturally ' situated, requiring no transposition 
or rearrangement and having required none in the 
beginning either, I cannot make out what use there 
is of providence ^ or of what Zeus, ' the master- 

B 13 (i, p. 243. 16 [Diels-Kranz]) are quoted, and Hesiod, 
Theogony, 120 is referred to ; and cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics^ 
984 b 23—985 a 10. With Plutarch's eV -rrpovoias contrast 
Aristotle's criticism of Empedocles {Metaphysics, 1000 b 12- 
17) and cf. Empedocles, frags. B 17. 29 and B 30 (i, p. 317. 
10 and p. 325. 10-12 [Diels-Kranz]). By e'/c Trpovolas here 
Plutarch prepares the way for his use in the next paragraph 
of the Stoic doctrine of providence against the Stoic doctrine 
of natural place. 

^ On the importance of providence in Stoic doctrine and 
its ubiquity in Stoic writings cf. De Stoicorum Repugnant lis, 
1050 A-B { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 937), 1051 e ( = S.V.F. ii, frag. 
1115) ; De Communibus Notitiis^ 1075 e { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 
1126), 1077 t>-e{ = S. V.F. ii, frag. 1064) ; Cicero, De Natura 
Deorum, iii. 92 { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 1107) ; Diogenes Laertius, 
vii. 138-139 { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 634). 

85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(927) Srjij.ioup'yo? 6 Zeu? o apioroTe-)(yas . ov yap^ ev 
GTparoTTeSa) raKTLKoJv 6(f>€Xo?, etVep etSetry rcov 
GrparuoTcbv ^Kaaros a(/)' eavrov tol^lv t€ /cat ;^a)pav 
Kal Kaipov ov Set Xa^elv /cat Sta</)i;Aacraetv o758e 

Kl]TTOVpCx)V Ovh^ OLKoSofXCOV, €L TTTj pieV aVTO TO vhojp 

d(/)' auTou^ 7Te(f)VK€v eTTievai^ rols SeopievoLS /cat /car- 
apSetF eTTcppeov tttj 8e TrXivdoi /cat ^uAa Kat At^ot 
rats" /card (jyvatv ;\;pa)jLtei'a poTratS"* /cat vevaeaiv e^ 
iavrcov /caraAa/xjSdvetv t9]v vpoGT^KOvcrav dppLo- 
viav /cat )(ojpav. et S' ovros pikv avriKpvs avaipel 
C TT^v TTpovoiav 6 Xoyos TO) deep 8' 9^ rd^LS tcov ovtcov 
7Tpoor]KeL /cat (rd)^ Statpetv, rt davpuaGTov ovrcos^ 
Terd-)(dai /cat birjppLoadaL rrjv (f)VGLV cos ivravda p-ev 
TTup e/cct 8' durpa /cat TidAtv ivrauda pi€V yrjv^ dvoj 
8e creA7]V7^y ISpvadaL, jSe^aLorepw rod Kara cf)vaLV 
TO) /card AdyoF beapLO) TTepiXrj^d^lGav ;^ cos", et ye 
TTavra 8et rat? /card cfyvGLV poTTols XP'I^^^^ ^^^^ 
(f)epeGdaL Kad^ o^ 7re'</>u/ce, P''>7^'^" ijXiog KVKXo(f)o- 
p€LGda) pLTjTe ^a>G(f)6pos pLT^be Ttov d'AAojv oLGrepajv 
p.7]8ets" dra> ydp ou /cu/cAoj rd Kovcha /cat TTvpoeihrj 

^ B ; u yap -E. 
^ B ; ttTr' auTOu -E. 

^ Emperius ; eVeirat -E, B (c/. the same mistake in Pom- 
pey^ xxxii. 636 b). 

* Turnebus (r/. ^^fZi". Colofen, 1122 c: poTrijs . • . Kal v€v- 
aeojs) ; Tponals -E, B. 

^ Diibner. 

« E ; ouTo; -B. 

' B ; ivravda yrjv -E. 

* Wyttenbach ; heojxiorrjpLOj \-q4>d€laav -E, B. 
9 Stephanus (16i4) ; /ca^o -E, B. 

^^ Bernardakis ; /utjS' -E, B. 

86 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 927 

craftsman ' ^ is maker and father-creator.^ In an 
army, certainly, tacticians are useless if each one of 
the soldiers should know of himself his post and posi- 
tion and the moment when he must take and keep 
them. Gardeners and builders are useless too if 
here water all of itself ' naturally ' moves to the things 
that require it and irrigates them with its stream, 
and there bricks and timbers and stones by following 
their ' natural ' inclinations and tendencies assume 
of themselves their appropriate position and arrange- 
ment. If, however, this notion eliminates providence 
forthwith and if the arrangement of existing things 
pertains to God and (the) distributing of them too,*^ 
what wonder is there that nature has been so mar- 
shalled and disposed that here in our region there 
is fire but the stars are yonder and again that earth 
is here but the moon is established on high, held fast 
by the bonds of reason which are firmer than the 
bonds of nature } ^ For, if all things really must 
follow their ' natural ' inclinations and move with 
their ' natural ' motions, you must order the sun not 
to revolve and Venus too and every other star as well, 
for light and fiery bodies move ' naturally ' upwards 

<* Plutarch ascribes to Pindar this epithet of Zeus in Quaest. 
Conviv. 618 b, De Sera Numinis Vindicfa, 550 a, De Covi- 
munibus Xotitiis, 1065 e, and in Praecepta Gerendae Rei- 
publicae, 807 c uses it of the statesman ; cf. Pindar, frag. 48, 
Bowra = 57, Bergk and Schroeder = 66, Tviryn. 

^ This terminology is more Platonic than Stoic : cf. 
Quaest. Conviv. 720 b-c, De An. Proc. in Timaeo, 1017 a ; 
cf. Timaeus, 28 c and contrast S. V.F. ii, frag. 323 a. 

" Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1075 a 11-15, and Diogenes 
Laertius, vii. 137 {^S.V.F. ii, frag. 526): {deos) . . . h-q- 
fMiovpyos a)v rrjs SiaKOOfXTJaecos. 

^ Wyttenbach's correction is assured by Timaeus, 41 b 4-6, 
of which this is meant to be an echo. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(927) KiveZodai 7T€(f)VK€v. el 8e roiavr'qv e^aXXayr^v rj 
<J)-6gis e;^et irapa rov tottov war ivravda fxev dvo) 
(jyaiveadaC' (jyepoyievov to rrvp orav 8' etV rov ovpavov 
TTapay6V7]Tai rrj Slvt] ov pLTre piorpe(j)eoB at, ri dav- 
fjLauTOV el /cat rots' ^apeoL /cat yecoSeaiv eKel yevo- 

D fxevoi?^ uvfjL^e^TjKev wGavrajg ets" dXXo KLViqueojs 
etSos" V7t6 rov 7Tepie-)(ovTos eKvevLKrJGdai ; ov yap 
St) Tctjv fjLev eXacfypcbv rr^v dvco (f)opdv dcjiaipelodai 
TOJ ovpavcp Kara (j)voiv eorl rcDv he ^apeojv /cat 
Kara) peTTovrcov ov Suvarat Kparelv, dXX (fjY ttot 
e/cetva hwdpiei /cat ravra fieraKOGpnqGas ixpT]croLTO 
TTJ (jiVGeL avTOJv eVt to ^eXriov. 

14. Ov ixrjv aAA* et ye Set to,? KarahehovXajfJievas 
e^ei? (/cat)* Sd^as d(f)evras 'rjSr] to ^atvd/xevov 
dSecos" Aeyetv, ozJSev eoiKev oXov fxepos avro /ca^' 
eavro rd^tv t] SeGLV r) klv7]glv ISlav exetv rjv^ dv ns 
(XTrAois" Kara (f)VGLV irpoGayopevGeiev . dAA' oVav 

E eKaGTov, ov X^P^^ yeyove /cat TTpos o 7Te(f)VKev ^ 
TreTToi-qr at, rovrco irapexxf XPV^^H'^^ '^^^ ot/ceta>? 
KLVovixevov eavro /cat TraGXOV t) ttolovv rj Sta/cet- 
fievov COS" eKeivo) irpos GCxjnqpiav rj /cdAAos" "?) Suva/itty 

^ E ; <f>€p€adai -B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; eVyevo/xeVot? -E, B. 

^ Emperius ; dAA vac. 2 -nore -E ; dAA' vac. 2 Trore -B. 

* Xylander {cf. Numa, xxii, 74 d : e^iv re K-ai yvcofxTjv) ; 
l^eis vac. .S Sofa? -E ; e^cts vac. 5-7 (at end of line) Sd^aj -B. 

^ Basiliensis ; 77 -E, B. 

• -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; -napix^iv -E, B ; -napix^i, 
-Basiliensis. 

" The Stoics held that the heavenly bodies consist of fire, 
which, though they call it aWrjp, is not a " fifth essence " like 
Aristotle's [cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. I'il = S.V.F. ii, frag. 

88 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 927 

and not in a circle." If, however, nature includes 
such variation in accordance with location that fire, 
though it is seen to move upwards here, as soon as 
it has reached the heavens revolves along with their 
rotation, what wonder is there that the same thing 
has happened to heavy and earthy bodies that have 
got there and that they too have been reduced by 
the environment to a different kind of motion ? For 
it certainly cannot be that heaven ' naturally ' de- 
prives light objects of their upward motion but is 
unable to master objects that are heavy and have a 
downward inclination ; on the contrary, by (what- 
ever) influence it rearranged the former it rearranged 
the latter too and employed the nature of both of 
them for the better. 

14. What is more, if we are finally to throw off the 
habits (and) opinions that have held our minds in 
thrall and fearlessly to say what really appears to 
be the case, no part of a whole all by itself seems to 
have any order, position, or motion of its own which 
could be called unconditionally ' natural.' ^ On the 
contrary, each and every such part, whenever its 
motion is usefully and properly accommodated to 
that for the sake of which the part has come to be 
and which is the purpose of its growth or production, 
and whenever it acts or is affected or disposed so that 
it contributes to the preservation or beauty or function 

580 ; S. V.F. ii, frag. 682). In De Stoicorum Repugnantiis, 
1053 E Plutarch quotes Chrysippus to the effect that to rrvp 
drapes 6V dvco(f}€p6s elvai { = S.V.F. ii, frag. 434). In accor- 
dance with this, he here argues, the Stoics are not justified in 
explaining the circular motion of the heavenly bodies as 
" natural " in the way that Aristotle did. 

^ Cf. Plutarch, frag. vii. 15 (Bernardakis, vol. vii, p. 31. 
6 ff. = Olympiodorus, In Phaedonem, p. 157. 22-25 [Norvin]). 

89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(927) eTTLTrjSeLov ion, t6t€ hoK€L ttjv Kara (f)VGLv ;\;a)pav 
e;Yfty Kal Kivrjoiv Kal Sia^ecrtv. o yovv avOpcorros, 
(jJS €i TL^ rcbv ovTCov erepov Kara (j)vaiv yeyovcos, 
F avcx) {xev ex^t ra~ ifi^pidrj Kal yewSrj jxaXiGra rrepl 
TTjv K€(f>aXr]v eV he rots" pLecroLS ra deppLO. /cat TTvpcoSrj- 
ra)V S' 6h6vTix>v ol pL€v avcoOev ol Se KarojOev €/c- 
(f)Voi'TaL^ Kal ovherepoL irapa (jiVGiv exovuiv, ovSe 

TOV TTVpOS TO pL€V dvCxJ 776/36 TOL OpLpLOTa OLTTOOTlX^OV 

Kara cf)voLV iorl to 8' iv kolXlo. Kal Kaphia Trapa 
(f)voLV dAA' eKaoTov ot/cetcu? Kal ;)(p7]crt/xcos" reraK'Tat. 

Val pLTjV KTJpVKCOV T€ XldopptVCOV X^^'^^'^* '^^ 

Kal TTavTOS SoTpeov ^voiv, ojs cf)rjOLV 6 ^KpLTrehoKXrj?, 
KaTapLavOdvwv 

€vd* oifjei x^ova xp^'^og vnepTaTa^ vaieTaovoav 

Kal Ol) TTte^et to At^ojSes" ovhk KOTadXi^ei ttjv e^tv 

928 e7TiKeipL€vov ovhi ye ttolXlv to deppiov vtto kov<J>6- 

TTjTos els Tr]v dvoj ;^tupav aTTOTrTapievov oix^Tai 

pLepLLKTai 8e ttojs TTpos dXX-^Xa Kal ovvTeTaKTat 

KaTOL TTJV eKOLOTOV (f)VOiV. 

15. "QoTTep eLKOs ^X^'-^ ^^^ '^^^ KoopLov, e'l ye Srj 
t,(x)6v eoTL, TToXXaxov yrjv exovTa rroXXaxov he Tvvp 

^ Wyttenbach (implied by versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 
€771 -E, B. 2 E . ^^^ _B. 

K 

^ K ; €fjL(f)vovTat, -B. 

* Xylander {cf. Quaest. Conviv. 618 b) ; x^Acoi-oiv -E, B. 
^ B ; vnepravTa -E. 

" The two lines here quoted and the line that preceded 
them are quoted together in sup})ort of the same contention 
in Quofsf. Conviv. 618 u^Empedocles, frag. B 76 (i, }). 839. 
9-11 [Diels-Kranz]). 

* For €^i? = " the bodily constitution " cf. Quaest. Conviv. 
625 A-B, 680 D, 681 e ; Amatorius, 764 c. 

90 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 927-928 

of that thing, then, I beheve, it has its ' natural ' 
position and motion and disposition. In man, at any 
rate, who is the result of ' natural ' process if any 
being is, the heavy and earthy parts are above, 
chiefly in the region of the head, and the hot and 
fiery parts are in the middle regions ; some of the 
teeth grow from above and some from below, and 
neither set is ' contrary to nature ' ; and it cannot 
be said that the fire which flashes in the eyes above 
is ' natural ' whereas that in the bowels and heart 
is ' contrary to nature,' but each has been assigned 
its proper and useful station. Observe , as Empedocles 
says," the nature of 

Tritons and tortoises with hides of stone 

and of all testaceans, 

Thou'lt see earth tliere established over flesh ; 

and the stony matter does not oppress or crush the 
constitution ^ on which it is superimposed, nor on 
the other hand does the heat by reason of lightness 
fly off to the upper region and escape, but they have 
been somehow intermingled and organically com- 
bined in accordance with the nature of each. 

15. Such is probably the case wdth the cosmos too, 
if it really is a li\dng being ^ : in many places it has 

^ In Adv. Coloten, 1115 b Strato's denial of this is cited as 
an example of his opposition to Plato ; and in I)e An. Proc. 
in Timaeo, 1014 c-d Plutarch, speaking of the creation of the 
world by the Platonic demiurge, says to KaXXtoTov d-n-epyaod- 
[xevos Kal reXeLOTarov . . . ^a)ou, thereby referring to such 
passages as Timaeus, 30 b-d, 32 c-d, 6S e, 69 b-c. Still, 
Platonic though it is, this assumption is one which his Stoic 
adversaries would grant (':•/'. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 139 and 
14-^-143 [ = S.V.F. ii, frags. 634 and 633]); and Plutarch 
believes that in granting it they are committed to the implica- 
tion that the moon despite its location can consist of earth. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(928) /cat vSojp /cat Twevixa ovk ef avay/o]? OLTTOTedXifX- 
fievov dXXa Xoyo) Sia/ce/coCT/xr^jLterov. ovhe yap 
0(/)^aA/xo? ivravda rod CTcojLtaros" eoriv vtto KOV(f)6- 
B TTjTos eKTTLeaOelg ouS' 77 /capSta roi jSapet oAtcr^ouaa 
TrimajKev els to Grrjdos, dAA' ort jSeArtov t^v ovtcos 
eKarepov reraxOai. fir] roivvv jjLTjSe^ tojv rod k6- 
GfJLov {jLepcov voiJLil,coiJL€v /XT^TC yT^v ivTavda Kelodai 
GVfJLTTedovGav 8ta ^dpos iirjre rov 'qXtov, co? oiero 
M7^Tpd8aj/30? o Xto?, etV tt^v dvoj ;\;a)pav dcr/cou 
Slktjv vtto Kov<f)6TrjTos iKT€dXl(f)6ai P'TJre rovs 
dXXovs durepas, ojoTrep Iv ^vyco Gradfiov^ Sta^opa 
pei/javras,^ eV ot? etcrt yeyoveVat tottols' dXXd rod 
Kara Aoyov Kparovvros ol jxev ajUTiep o/x/Ltara 
(f)ajo(f)6pa to) TrpoGcoTTCp rod iravros evhehepiivoi 
TTepLTToXovuLV, rjXios 8e /capStas" excov SvvafiLV 
C oiUTxep atfjia /cat TTvevpia StaTre/xTret /cat Staa/ceSdv- 
vucrtv e^ iavTov deppLOTrjra /cat </>a)?, y?^ 8e /cat 
OaXdaarj -x^prirai Kara (f)VGLV 6 Koopios 00a KoiXia 
/cat Kvorei t,a)ov. aeXrjvq S' tjXlov p^era^v /cat yrjs 
cooTrep Kaphias Kal KoiXias rJTrap rj n puaXdaKov 

^ Emperius ; /xi^'re -E, B. 

^ E ; l^vyaxyradixov -B. 

^ B ; peipavTos -E. 

" Cf. Aristotle, De Caelo, 277 b 1-2 : ouSe /3ta (.fc//. <f>€p€Tai 
avTcov TO /xev avco to Se /ccltoj) (Lavep rives (f>aaL ttj eKOXLijieL, and 
Cherniss, Aristotle's Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy^ 
p. 191, n. 196. 

* For this Atomist, who is not to be confused with the 
Epicurean, Metrodorus of Lanipsacus, or with the Anaxa- 
gorean, cf. l^iels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^ ii, pp. 231-2S4 ; 
the present passage should be added to that collection, from 
which it is missing. According to De Placitis, 889 u ( = 
Aetius, ii. 15. 6 [Dox. Graeci, p. 345 a 7-12]) Metrodorus con- 

92 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 928 

earth and in many fire and water and breatli as the 
result not of forcible expulsion " but of rational 
arrangement. After all, the eye has its present 
position in the body not because it was extruded 
thither as a result of its lightness, and the heart is 
in the chest not because its heaviness has caused it 
to slip and fall thither but because it was better that 
each of them should be so located. Let us not then 
believe with regard to the parts of the cosmos either 
that earth is situated here because its weight has 
caused it to subside or that the sun, as Metrodorus of 
Chios ^ once thought, was extruded into the upper 
region like an inflated skin by reason of its lightness 
or that the other stars got into their present positions 
because they tipped the balance, as it were, at 
different weights. On the contrary, the rational 
principle is in control ; and that is why the stars 
revolve fixed Uke ' radiant eyes ' ^ in the countenance 
of the universe, the sun in the heart's capacity trans- 
mits and disperses out of himself heat and light as 
it were blood and breath, and earth and sea ' natur- 
ally ' serve the cosmos to the ends that bowels and 
bladder do an animal. The moon, situate between 
sun and earth as the liver or another of the soft 

sidered the sun to be farthest from the earth, the moon below 
it, and lower than the moon the planets and fixed stars. For 
the explanation of the sun's position here ascribed to Metro- 
dorus see note a supra and cf. Simplicius, De Caelo, p. 712. 
27-29. 

<= In De Fortuna, 98 b the phrase is quoted as Plato's ; it 
comes from Timaeus, 45 b (twv Se opydvcov vpajrov fxev (f)cjo(f)6pa 
ovv€T€KTrjvavTO ojjifiaTa, TOtaSe evh'^aavTes atrta), and Plutarch's 
TO) TrpoGcoTTOj Tov vavTos ivheSe/jLcvoL was Suggested by this in 
conjunction with the preceding lines (45 a : . . . .vTvodevTes 
avTooe TO TrpoocoTTOV, opyava ivihrjoav tovtco), though Plato is 
there speaking of the human face and eyes. 

93 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(928) aAAo GTrXdyx^'ov iyKeifxevrj ttjv t dvcodev dXeav 
evravda 8ia7rc/x7ret Kal ra? evrevdev dvadvyadoei? 
TTeipeL TLvl Kal Kaddpaei Xeirrvvovaa irepl iavr-qv 
dvahiBwGLV' el Se Kal rrpos a'AAa to yea>Se? auTTJ? 
Kal GrepefjLVLOV e;)^€t tlvol Trpoa^opov ;^petav, dhr]\ov 
rjfjuv. ev TTavrl 8e Kparel to ^eXtlov rov Kar- 
-qvayKaofxevov} ri yap ovtcos^ Xd^a>fjL€V eg (hv 
eKeh'OL XeyovGi to elKos ; Xeyovoi ye^ rod aldepos 
D TO fJLei' avyoeiSeg Kal XejTTOV vtto piav6rr]TOS ovpavov 
yeyovivai to he irvKVOidev Kal GVveiXrjOev aGTpa, 
TOVTCov Se TO vwdpoTaTov elvai ttjv GeXrjVTjv /cat 
OoXepojTaTov. dXX ofiwg opdv TrdpeGTcv ovk dno- 
KeKpifJLevqv* rod aWepo? ttjv GeXrjvr^v dAA' eVt 

^ \Vjii:enbach (though Xylander had already proposed 
rov KaTqvayKaofievov) ; KparelTai ^gXtlov tovto KaTrjvayKaafxevov 
-E, B. 2 IT ; ovToj -B. ^ 3 H. C. ; Se -E, B. 

^ Basiliensis ; d7TOK€KpifjL€vov -E ; aTTOKeKpvfiiMevov -B. 

" i.^. the spleen. For the purpose of liver and spleen cf. 
Aristotle, De Part. Animal. 670 a 20-29, 670 b 4-17, 673 'b 
25-28 : and for the close connection of liver and spleen 669 b 
15—670 a 2. 

** Eustathius, Ad lUadem, 695. 12 if. says that according 
to the Stoics the " golden rope " of Iliad, viii. 19 is o lyAio? 
€19 ov KOLTajdev <j}07T€p €is Kapbiav oLTTOXctrai dvabLSoixevr) rj twv 
vypojv dvaOvpLLaai?. Starting from this K. lieinhardt {Kosmos 
und Sympathie, pp. 332 if.) argued that Posidonius was 
Plutarch's source for the analogy between the parts of the 
cosmos and the organs of the body : but Reinhardt's con- 
tention is refuted by R. M. Jones, Class. Phil, xxvii (1932), 
pp. 121-128. Passages which equate sun and heart are fairly 
frequent, e.g. Theon of Smyrna, pp. 187. 13-188. 7 (Hiller) ; 
Proclus, In Timaevm, hTc-d (ii, p. 104. 20-21 and 28-29, 
Diehl) ; Macrobius, Somn. Scip. i. 20. 6-7 (pp. 564-565, 
Eyssenhardt) ; Chalcidius, In Platonis Tiynaeinn, § 100 (p. 
170, Wrobel) ; " Anon. Christ.", Ihrmippiis, pp. 17. 15-18. 1 1 
(Kroll-\'iereck) with astrological ascriptions of different 
bodily organs to the seven planets. An entirely different 

94 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 928 

viscera ° is between heart and bowels, transmits 
hither the warmth from above and sends upwards 
the exhalations from our region, refining them in 
herself by a kind of concoction and purification.^ It 
is not clear to us whether her earthiness and solidity 
have any use suitable to other ends also. Neverthe- 
less, in everything the better has control of the 
necessary,^ Well, what probability can we thus con- 
ceive in the statements of the Stoics ? They say that 
the luminous and tenuous part of the ether by reason 
of its subtility became sky and the part which was 
condensed or compressed became stars, and that of 
these the most slu^ffish and turbid is the moon.^ 

GO 

Yet all the same anyone can see that the moon has 
not been separated from the ether but that there is 

analogy between the various human faculties and the seven 
planets is mentioned by Proclus, In Timaeum, 348 a-b (iii, 
p. 855. 7-18, Diehl), and Numenius in Macrobius, Somn. 
Scip. i. 12. 14-15 (p. 533, Eyssenhardt) : and I know no 
parallel to Plutarch's further analogy of earth and moon 
with bowels and liver or spleen. In the pseudo-Hippocratic 
Ilept i^SofidScov the moon because of its central position in the 
cosmos appears to have been equated with the diaphragm 
(c/. Roscher, Die hippokratische Schrift von der Siehenzahl, 
p. 5. 45 ff., pp. 10-11, p. 123). In the section of Porphyry's 
" Introduction to Ptolemy's Apotelesmatlca " published by 
F. Cumont in Melanges Bidez, i, pp. 155-156, the source of 
which Cumont contends must have been Antiochus of Athens, 
the moon is said to have the spleen as its special province, 
while the heart is assigned to the sun ; but there the liver is 
the province of Jupiter. 

'^ Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 48 a : vov Se avdyK-q? dpxovTos r<Z 
TrelO^iv avrr/v twv yiyvo^iivtuv rd rrXelara eirl rd ^eXriarov dyetv 
ktA. For the term to Kar-qvayKaajxivov cf. S. V,F. ii, frag. 916. 

'^ =S. V.F. ii, frag. 668 : cf. Cleomedes, ii. 3. 99 (pp. 178. 
36-180. 8, Ziegler) and contrast ii. 4. 100 (p. 182. 8-10). On 
the Stoic " ether " cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 137 {=^S.V.F. 
ii, frag. 580) and note g on 922 b supra. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(928) TToXXo) [lev^ ro) jrepl avrr^v^ €fu,(f)€poiJievT]v ttoXvv^ 
8* V(f)^ iavTTjV exovaav ev w* (XlyovoLV avrol rov^ 
TTCoy ojvia^y' hiveiGdai kol KOfJL'^ra?. ovrcog ov rat? 
poTTOLS oeuriKCorai Kara ^dpos kol Kov(j)6rriTa rcbv 
acjpLarcov €Kaarov dAA' ire pep Xoycp /ceKocr/xryrat." 
16. AexQ^vrojv Se tovtcjv KapLov rep AevKicp rov 

E Xoyov TrapaStSovros", 677t ra? OLTToSeL^cLg /^aSt^ovros" 
rov SoypLaros, ^ ApiororeXiqs /iteiSiao-a? " pLaprvpo- 
piac " elirev " on rriv Trduav avTiXoyiav rreTTOir^GaL 
TTpog Tovs avrrfv pukv -qpLiTTvpov elvai rrjv gcXt^vtjv 
VTTOTidepiivovg Koivfj he tcov GcopLarajv ra pLev avoj 
TO, he Kara) perretv e^ eavrwv <f)aGKovras . el 8* eart 
Tts" o Xeycov kvkXco re KivelGdat Kara (f)VGLV ra 
aGrpa Kal ttoXv Tiap'qXXayp.ev'q? ovGLag etvac rcov 

F rerrdpcxjv, ouS' oltto r-6-)(7]^ rjXOev eirl piVTjpirjv vpuv,^ 
wGr e/xe ye' rrpayp-drodv aTTrjXXdxOai." Kal (vtto- 
Xa^ojv o)* AevKLo? " {. . .y (hyade " eiTrev " dXXa 
rdXXa piev lgcjj? aGrpa Kal rov oXov ovpavov eis 
riva <f)VGLv Kadapdv Kal elXiKpLvrj Kal rrjs Kara 
ndOos d7rr]XXaypievr]v pLera^oXi^g ridepLevoL<^ vpuv^^ 

1 Benseler: eV -E, B. 

2 Ik'rnardakis ; avT-qv -E, B. 
^ Madvig: ; 7toAAt7v -E, B. 

* Madvig: ; exovoav dve/jLcov -E, B. 

s H. C. {cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], pp. 141 f.) ; vac. 25-E, 
26-B. « Amvot ; rifilv -E, B. 

7 Turnebus ; re -E, B. 

8 H. C. ; Kal vac. 8-E (at end of line), 9-B. 

9 Aeu/cio? vac. 9-E, 11-B. 
^" Turnebus ; rjfxiv -E, B. 

" The lexica prive " weigh " or " balance " as the meaning 
of oeoiqKWTai, but the logic of the passage here shows that the 
word must be connected with a-qKos^ not with ar}KU)fxa {cf. 
Hesychius : dTToarjKcoaas and actKcoae). Amyot's " situez et 

96 ' 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 928 

still a large amount of it about her in which she 
moves and much of it beneath her in which (they 
themselves assert that the bearded stars) and comets 
whirl. So it is not the inclinations consequent upon 
weight and lightness that have circumscribed the 
precincts " of each of the bodies, but their arrange- 
ment is the result of a different principle." 

16. With these remarks I was about to yield the 
floor to Lucius,'' since the proofs of our position were 
next in order ; but Aristotle smiled and said : " The 
company is my witness that you have directed your 
entire refutation against those who suppose that the 
moon is for her part semi-igneous and yet assert of 
all bodies in common that of themselves they incline 
either upwards or downwards. Whether there is 
anyone, hoM'ever, who says ^ that the stars move 
naturally in a circle and are of a substance far superior 
to the four substances here ^ did not even accidentally 
come to your notice, so that I at any rate have been 
spared trouble." And Lucius (broke in and) said : 
" . . . good friend, probably one would not for the 
moment quarrel with you and your friends, despite 
the countless difficulties involved, when you ascribe 
to the other stars and the whole heaven a nature pure 
and undefiled and free from qualitative change and 

colloquez " and Kepler's " quasi obvallata sunt " render the 
sense correctly. 

^ It was ostensibly in order to give Lucius time to collect 
his thoughts that Lamprias began the " remarks " which he 
has just concluded after ten paragraphs (see 923 f supra). 

' This is Aristotle, of course : De Caelo, 269 a 2-18, 270 a 
12-35; cf. [Aristotle I, De Mundo, 392 a 5-9 and De Placitis, 
887 D = Aetius, ii. 7. 5 {Doo\ Graeci, p. 336). 

^ I have added this word in the translation in order to make 
it clear that " the four " are the four sublunar substances, 
earth, water, air, and fire. 

VOL. XII E 9'7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(928) Kal kvkXov ayovoav^ hi ov kol dreAeuTT^rou irepi- 
(f)opd? (otov T€ (f)VOLV ex^LvY ovK av Tis €v ye ro) 
vvv hiaixd-)(oiro Kairoi jjivptcov ovacov airopiayv orav 
8e Kara^aivcDV 6 Adyo? ouros"^ ^^YV "^V^ aeXrjvrjs, 
ovK€TL (f)vXdTT€L TTjv dTrddcLav iv avrfj Kal to /caAAo? 
eK€ivov rod acofiaTOS dAA* Lva rds d'AAa? dvco- 
[xaXtas Kal Sta</>opd? d^cu/xev avro tovto to Sta- 
(^aivofievov TTpooojTTOv rrdOet nvl rrjs ovalas 7] 
dvafjLL^eL TTCjJS erepas eTnyiyove. 7rdo)(eL he ri Kal 
929 TO fjnyvvjxevov aTTo^dXXeL yap to et'At/cpive? ^la 
rod ')(€ipovo£ dvaTnfiTrXdpevov. avrrjs 8e vcjOeuav 
Kal rd^ovs dfx^Xvr7]ra Kal ro Oepfiov dSpaves Kal 
djiavpov, {(S)* Kara rov "Icova 

jxeXas ov TreTTaiverai ^orpvs, 

els ri drjoofieda ttXtjv daOeveiav avrrjg Kal irdBos, 
(el rrddovsY dihico CTco/xaTt Kal oXvpLTrio) fiereoTLv; 
oAoj? ydp, CO (jiiXe ^ ApiororeXes , yrj puev ovoa ndy- 
KaXov n XPVI^'^ '^^^ aefivov dvaffyaiverai Kal KeKO- 
GiJL7]iJLevov COS" S' dorpov ■^ (f>a)S rj ri acojia Oeiov Kal 
ovpdvLov SeSta /xt) dp.op(f)os fj Kal aTrperrris Kai 
KaraLOxvvovoa rrjv KaXrjv eTTCovvixiav, el ye rchv ev 

1 H. C. {cf. Class. PhiJ. xlvi [1951], p. 142) ; ayovoL -E, B. 

2 H. C. ; Vac. 17-E, lo-B. 

* Wyttenbach ; ovtco -E, B. 

* Basiliensis ; d/naupw, Kara -E ; a^iavpov kol Kara -B. 

^ Diibner ; -rrdOos dlSt'o; without lacuna -E, B ; " Deest 
aliquid " -Xylander ; <et TrdOr]) -Turnebus, Vulcobius ; <et 
-nddos) -Reiske, Wyttenbach. 

° Cf. Aetius, ii. .SO. 6 (TJox. Graeci, p. 362 b 1-4.) : 'Apua- 
TOTcX-qs fXT] elvai. avrfjs {scil. oeX-qvrjs) aK-qpaTOV ro avyKpip.a 8id 
TO, rrpooyeia depcojxaTa rod aWepos, ov 7Tpoaayop€V€i od)p.a Tre/x- 

98 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 928-929 

moving in a circle whereby (it is possible to have the 
nature) of endless revolution too ; but let this doc- 
trine descend and touch the moon, and in her it no 
longer preserves the impassivity and beauty of that 
body. Not to mention her other irregularities and 
divergencies, this very face which she displays is the 
result of some alteration of her substance or of 
the admixture somehow of another substance." That 
which is subjected to mixture, however, is the subject 
of some affection too, for it loses its purity, since it is 
perforce infected by what is inferior to it. The moon's 
sluggishness and slackness of speed and the feeble- 
ness and faintness of her heat (which), in the words 
of Ion, 

ripes not the grape to duskiness,'' 

to what shall we ascribe them except to her weakness 
and alteration, (if) an eternal and celestial ^ body 
can have any part in (alteration) ? The fact is in 
brief, my dear Aristotle, that regarded as earth the 
moon has the aspect of a very beautiful, august, and 
elegant object ; but as a star or luminary or a divine 
and heavenly body she is, I am afraid, misshapen, 
ugly, and a disgrace to the noble title, if it is true 

TTTov. In fact in De Gen. Animal. 761 b 22 Aristotle does 
say that the moon shares in the fourth body, i.e. fire. 

^ At Quaest. Conviv. 658 c Plutarch quotes the whole line. 
Ion, frag. 57 (Nauck^). 

'^ For the epithet oXvfx-nLos used of the moon cf. 935 c infra 
and De Defectu Oraculornm, 416 e : ol S' oXvinriav y-fjv [scil. 
o€At^v7)v) . . . TTpooelnov, and for the meaning attached to it 
cf. the etymology in the pseudo-Plutarchian De Vita et 
Poesi Homer i, b, 95 [vii, p. 380. 17-20, Bernardakis] ; 
Pseudo-Plutarch in Stobaeus, Eclogae, i. 22 (i, p. 198. 10 ff., 
Wachsmuth) ; [Aristotle], De Mundo, 400 a 6-9 ; Eustathius, 
In Iliadem, 38. 38. 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(929) OVpaVCp rOGOVTCDV to TtXtJOo? OVTOJV fJLOVrj (fyCDTOS 

dXXorpLov SeofJievT] TrepUiGL^ Kara Wapixevih-qv 

B aiel' TTaTTTaivovaa rrpos avyas rjeXtoLO. 

6 fiev ovv iralpos iv rfj SiarpL^fj tovto Srj to 'Ava- 
^ayopeiov airoheiKvi)'^ cog ' TJXtog ivrldrjaL rfj GeXrjvj] 
TO XapLTTpov ' TjvSoKLjjLr^aev iyoj §e raura [jl€V ovk 
epo) a Trap' vjjlcov tj fxed^ vjjlcuv efiadov eKOJV Se^ 

77pO? TO. XoLTTCL ^aStOU/Xttt. cf)COTL^€adaL TOLVVV TrjV 

aeXi^vqv ov^ OJS veXov* t) KpuoraXXov eXXapufjei Kal 
SLa(f)avG€L rod y]Xiov TTidavov Igtlv ouS'^ av /cara 
GvXXapupLV TLva Kal GvvavyaGpiov cjgtt^p at 8aSe? 
av^ojjLevov tov ^coto?. outojs"*' yap ovSev tjttov ev 
vovfJLiqviaLS rj 8t;^o/x9]ytats- ecrrat TravGeXr^vog rjfjuv, el 
C fjLrj GTeyec /xt]8' avTL(j)paTTei rov tJXlov dAAa hdr]GLv' 

VITO fXaVOTTjTOg Tj KaTO, GVyKpaGLV eKXa/JLTTCL^ Kal 

GVvega7TT€L rrepi avTTjv to <pa>g. ov yap cgtiv 

1 E, B2 ; TTepUoTL -W. 

2 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; aet -E, B. 

^ Xylander ; exoyv hk tovto -E ; exoiv Se -B. 

A 

* Basiliensis ; ueAAov -E ; ueAov -B. 

^ Bernardakis ; ovr -E, B. ^ E ; ovrco -B. 

' Madvi^ (implied by versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 
hUioLv -E, B. 

* Sandbach (citing Appian, Syr. 56 : tt^v iariav . . . e/c- 
XdfjUpaL TTvp fieya) ; elaXd^TTCi -E, B. 

^ wSandbach ; avT7]v -E, B. 
1° Bernardakis ; ydp eanv -E, B. 

" At Adv. Coloten 1116 a Plutarch quotes Parmenides as 
having called the moon aAAdrptor <^cu? ( = Parmenides, frag. 
B 1 4. [i, p. 248. 19, Diels-Kranz]) ; cf. Empedocles, frag. B 45 
(i, p. 381. 2 [Diels-Kranz]). 

^ = Parmenides, frag. B 15 (i, p. 244. 3 [Diels-Kranz]), 
quoted also at Quaest. Rom. 282 b. 

<^ See note a on p. 48 supra. 

100 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 929 

that of all the host in heaven she alone goes about 
in need of alien light,^ as Parmenides says 

Fixing her glance forever on the sun. ^ 

Our comrade in his discourse ^ won approval by his 
demonstration of this very proposition of Anaxagoras's 
that ' the sun imparts to the moon her brilliance ' '^ ; 
for my part, I shall not speak about these matters 
that I learned from you or in your company but shall 
gladly proceed to what remains. Well then, it is 
plausible that the moon is illuminated not by the 
sun's irradiating and shining through her in the 
manner of glass ^ or ice ^ nor again as the result of 
some sort of concentration of brilliance or aggrega- 
tion of rays, the light increasing as in the case of 
torches,^ Were that true, we should see the moon 
at the full on the first of the month no less than in the 
middle of the month, if she does not conceal and 
obstruct the sun but because of her subtility lets his 
light through or as a result of combining with it 
flashes forth and joins in kindling the light in herself.'^ 
Certainly her deviations or aversions ^ cannot be 

'^ =Anaxagoras, frag. B 18 (ii, p. 41. 5-7 [Diels-Kranz]). 

' Cf. Aetius, ii. 25. 11 {Dox. Graeci, p. 356 b 21) = lon of 
Chios," frag. A 7 (i, p. 378. 33-34 [Diels-Kranz]). 

•^ See note c on 922 c supra. 

3 Cf. De Placitis, 891 f = Aetius, ii. 29. 4 (Dox. Graeci, 
p. 360 a 3-8 and b 5-11). 

'' The latter was the theory of Posidonius as Plutarch 
indicates in 929 d infra : cf. Cleomedes, ii. 4. 101 (pp. 18-2. 
20-184. 3 [Ziegler]) and ii. 4. 104-105 (pp. 188. 5-190. 16). 

^ i.e. the various deflections of the moon in latitude and 
the varying portion of the lunar hemisphere turned away from 
the sun as the moon revolves in her orbit. For these two 
variations in the explanation of the lunar phases cf. Cleo- 
medes, ii. 4. 100 (pp. 180. 26-182. 7 [Ziegler]), and C^eminus, 
ix. 5-12 (p. 126. 5 fe. [Manitius]). 

101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(929) eKKXiueLS ovh' airooTpocjyas avTrjg, ojuirep orav fj 
Slxotojjlos Kal dfJL(f)LKvpro9 t) {jL-qvoetSris, alridoQai 
7T€pl Tr]V GTJVohov dAAo, Kara GTadjjLTijv, cfyrjGL ^rjfjio- 
KpiTos, larafxevq rov ^ajrit^ovros VTToXafjL^dvei /cat 
Sex^rac rov tJXlov, ujur avrrjv re cfyatveadaL Kal 
hia(f)aLV€LV eKelvov elKos tjv. rj 8e rroXXov Set rovro 
TTOielv avriq re yap dhiqXos eon rrjVLKavra KOLKelvov 
OLTTeKpvipe Kal r](f)dvL(7e TToXXaKis 

aTTeoKehaGev^ he ol avyds 

cos (f)rjGLV^ "KfjLTTeSoKXrjs 

D ecr' atav KaBvTrepBev, aTTeGKvi^aiGe he yai-qs 

roGGov OGov t' evpos yXavKojmhos eVAero jjli^vtjs^ 

KadaTTep elg vvKra Kal GKoros ovk els dorpov 
erep6(v nY rod (fiajros epLireGovros - o he Xeyei 
XloGeLhojvios y d)S V7t6 /SdOovs rrjs GeXrjvrjs ov Tre- 
paiovrai hi avrrjs^ ro rod rjXlov (f)ajs rrpos rjpids, 
eXeyx^Tat KaracfiavoJs . 6 yap drjp djrXeros cov Kal 
^ddos e;^a>y TToXXaTrXdocov rrjs GeXrjvqs oXos^ e^- 
-qXiovrai Kal KaraXdjjLTrerai raZs avyals. drroXei- 
E rrerai roivvv ro rod ^Kfj-TrehoKXeovs , dvaKXdGeu rtvl 
rod tjXlov TTpos TTjV GeXrjVTjv yiyveGOai rov evradda 

^ Xylander ; a-neoKevaoe -Yj, B. 

- B ; d)S (f>T}olv -E. 

^ E ; evXero yXavKcoTTibos fnjvrjs -B. - 

* Papabasileios ; irepo vac. 2-E, 4-B. 

^ B ; SiauTT^s -E. 

^ E ; oXws -B. 

« =Democritus, frag. A 89 a (ii, p. 105. 32-34 [Diels- 
Kranz]). For the meaning of Kara ardOfx-qv cf. De Placitis, 

102 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 929 

alleged as the cause of her invisibility when she is in 
conjunction, as they are when she is at the half and 
gibbous or crescent ; then, rather, ' standing in a 
straight line with her illuniinant,' says Democritus, 
* she sustains and receives the sun,' ^ so that it would 
be reasonable for her to be visible and to let him shine 
through. Far from doing this, however, she is at that 
time invisible herself and often has concealed and 
obliterated him. 

His beams she put to flight, 

as Empedocles says. 

From heaven above as far as to the earth, 
Whereof such breadth as had the bright-eyed moon 
She cast in shade, ^ 

just as if the light had fallen into night and darkness 
and not upon (an>other star. As for the explanation 
of Posidonius that the profundity of the moon pre- 
vents the light of the sun from passing through her 
to us,^ this is obviously refuted by the fact that the 
air, though it is boundless and has many times the 
profundity of the moon, is in its entirety illuminated 
and filled with sunshine by the rays. There remains 
then the theory of Empedocles that the moonlight 
which we see comes from the moon's reflection of 

883 A, 884- c. The words u7roAa/i/3avei Kal hix^rai have a sexual 
meaning here ; rf. 944 e infra. Be hide, 373 d, Amatorius, 
770 A, and Roscher, Uhe7- Selene unci Vericandtes, pp. 76 flf. 

^ = Empedocles, frag. B 43 (i, p. 330. 11-13 [Diels-Kranz]). 

" See note h on 929 c supra. In Cleomedes, ii. 4. 105 
(p. 190. 4-16 [Ziegler]) the refutation given by Plutarch here 
is answered or anticipated by the statement that the air does 
not have ^ados as the moon does, and from what follows it 
appears that by the ^ddo^ of the moon Posidonius must have 
meant not mere spatial depth but a certain density as well. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(929) (f)coTLGfj.6v 0.77' avTTJs. odev ovSe depfiov ovhe Aa/x- 
TTpov d(f)LKV€lraL rrpos rjjJids, cooTt^p rjv euKos e^dijjeco^ 
Koi jjLL^eco? (rdJvy^ (fxjjnov yeyevqpLevrjg. dAA* olov 
at re (j)Coval Kara rds dva/cAacret? dpLavporepav^ 
dvacjyaivovoi rrjv rjxdj rod (fydeyptaTOS at re TrXr^yal 
Tcov d(f)aXXoiJL€vcov ^eXayv /xaAa^corepat TTpoGVL- 

TTTOVGLV 

60? avyrf rvipaaa o€Xr]valr]s kvkXov evpvv 

daOevrj Kal dfJLvSpdv dvdppoiav tox^i Trpos -qfJids, 
hid Tr]v KXdaLV eVAuo/xeVr^? rrjs hvvdpi€(x>s." 
17. *Y7roXa^djv 8' o SuAAa? " dpueXei ravr 
F 61776 V " e;^6t rivds TTtdavoTT^ra?. o S' Idxyporarov 

ioTL rdJV dvTLTTL'TTTOVTCJV TTOTepOV €TVX^ TtVOS" TTapa- 

pivdias r] TTaprjXdev rjpLa)v rov iralpov ; " " ri tovto" 
€(f)r) ' ' Xeyets ;" 6 AevKios " rjro npos rrjv hixoropiov 
drropovpievov; " " rrdw fiev ovv " o SuAAa? eiTrev' 
€X€i ydp TLva Xoyov to Trda-qg iv tcrats" ycoviais^ 
ycyvofjievrjs dva/cAdcreo)?, orav rj GeXrjvr] hixoropios 

^ Bernardakis ; vac. 4-E, 2-B. ^ E ; a^iavpoiTepav -B. 

^ Xylander ; ayri) -E, B, 

* At 937 B infra and De Pythiae OracuJis, 404- d it is said 
that in being reflected from the moon the sun's rays lose their 
heat entirely (c/. Macrobius, Somn. Scip. i. 19. 1:2-13 [p. 560. 
30 ff., Eyssenhardt]). Just above, however, at 929 a Plutarch 
ascribed to the moonlight a " feeble " heat, and so he does in 
Qnaest. Xat. 918 a (c/. Aristotle, De Part. Animal. 680 a 33- 
34 ; [Aristotle], Problemata, 943 a 24.-26 ; Theophrastus, 
De Causfs Plant, iv. 14. 3). Kepler (Somnimn sive Astro- 
nomia Lunar is, note 200) asserts that he had felt the heat 
from the rays of the full moon concentrated in a concave 
parabolic mirror ; but the first real evidence of the moon's 
heat was obtained by Melloni in 1846 by means of the newly 
invented thermopile. Cf. R. Pixis, Kepler ah Geography 
p. 135 ; S. GUnther, Vergleichende Mond- und Erdkunde, 

104 



THE FACE ON THE xMOON, 929 

the sun. That is why there is neither warmth ^ nor 
brilHance in it when it reaches us, as we should expect 
there to be if there had been a kindhng or mixture 
of (the) Hghts <of sun and moon).^ To the contrary, 
just as voices when they are reflected produce an 
echo which is fainter than the original sound and the 
impact of missiles after a ricochet is weaker, 

Thus, having struck the moon's broad disk, the ray '^ 

comes to us in a refluence weak and faint because the 
deflection slackens its force." 

17. Sulla then broke in and said : " No doubt this 
position has its plausible aspects ; but what tells most 
strongly on the other side, did our comrade ^ explairt 
that away or did he fail to notice it ? " " What's 
that ? " said Lucius, " or do you mean the difiiculty 
with respect to the half-moon ? " " Exactly," said 
Sulla, " for there is some reason in the contention 
that, since all reflection occurs at equal angles,^ when- 

p. 82, n. 3 ; Nasmyth-Carpenter, The Moon (London, 1885), 
p. 184. 

* I have added the words " sun and moon " in the trans- 
lation to make explicit the meaning of (tcov) cfxoTcov. For the 
theory referred to see note h on 929 c supra. 

^ =Empedocles, frag. B 43 (i, p. 330. 20 [Diels-Kranz]). 
^ See 929 b and note a on p. 48 supra, 

* This expression is intended to have the same sense as 
vpos taas yiyviudai ycovias avaKXaoLv vdaav (930 A infra), and 
both of them mean {pace Raingeard, p. 100, and Kepler in 
npl^ 28 to his translation) " the angle of reflection is always 
(Cqual to the angle of incidence." Cf. [Euclid], Catoptrica a' 
((:=iEuclid, Opera Omnia, vii, p. 286. 21-22 [Heiberg]) with 
(Qlympiodorus, In Meteor, p. 212. 7:= Hero Alexandrinus, 
(Opera, ii. 1, p. 368. 5 (Nix- Schmidt) and [Ptolemy], De 
^hpeculis, ii = Hero Alexandrinus, Opet^i. ii. 1, p. 320. 12-13 
((Nix-Schmidt) ; and contrast the more ,pii«^cise formulation 
^of Philoponus, In Meteor, p, 27. 34-35, 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(929) ovaa^ fxeaovpavij, firj (f^lpeadai to ^co? eVt yrj? a?;-' 
930 CLVTTJg dAA' oXtadaiveLV eVe/ceira t';^? yn?. o yap 
rjAios em rov opil^ovros wv aTrreraL tt] aKTivL rrjs 
aeX-^vr^s' Slo Kal /cAacr^etcra Trpo? toras^ eVt ddrepov 
€K7T€G€LraL 7T€pa? Kal ovK d(f)riaei Sevpo ttjv avyrjv 
■^ hLaGTpo(f)'r] jjieydXr] /cat napaXXa^LS eorai rijs 
yojviaSy OTTCp dbvvarov ioriv." " dXXd vrj At" " 
€L7T€V 6 Aeu/ctos" " Kal tout' ipprjdrj." Kal npos ye 
MeveAaov dno^Xeifjas iv rw hiaXeyeoOai rov fxadr)- 
fiariKOV, " alG-xvvopiai fxev " ecf^rj " gov Trapovros , 
ch (fiiXe MeveXae, deGiv dvaipelv iiaBrnxariKr^v ojGirep 
dejJLeXiov TOt? KaroTTrpiKol'S VTTOKeLpievrjv TrpdyfxaGLV 
avdyKT) 8' etTretv^ on to Tvpos cGa? ylyveGOat* 
ycovias dvdKXaGLV iraGav ovre <f)aiv6pievov avrodev 
B ovd^ ofJLoXoyovpLevov ecrrtv aAAd Sta^SdAAerat p.ev iirl 
TOJV Kvprcbv KaroTTTpcov, orav ifjL,(f)dG€L? ttoltj fxei- 
t,ova£ iavToJv Trpos eV to ttj? oifjeoj? Grjixelou, 
Sta^dAAerat Se rot? ScTTTVXOLg KaTOTTTpois, <Lv Ittl- 

^ Wj-ttenbach ; bixorofiovoa -E, B. 

2 Benseler (rf. Cleomedes, p. 186. 18 [Ziegler]) ; toa -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; elTrev -E, B. 

" -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94- ; rdveadat -E, B. 

<* Kepler in note 19 to his translation points out that this 
is true only if fxeaovpavfj " is in mid-heaven " refers not to the 
meridian but to the great circle at right-angles to the ecliptic. 

^ Cleomedes, ii. 4. 103 (p. 186. 7-14- [Ziegler]) introduces 
as a^eSoi' yvcopifiov his summary of this argument against the 
theory tiiat moonlight is merely reflected sunlight. 

'^ See note e on 9:_'9 r supra. 

^ It has l)een suggested that ovd^ o/xoXoyovfievov is a direct 
denial of wixoXoy-qixivov €otI -rrapa Trdaiv at the beginning of 
Hero's demonstration (Schmidt in Hero Alexandrinus, Opera 
[ed. Nix-SchmidtJ, ii. 1, p. S14. However that may be, the 
law is assumed in Proposition XIX of Euclid's Optics, where 

106 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 929-930 

ever the moon at the half is in mid-heaven the Ught 
cannot move earthwards from her but must glance 
off beyond the earth. The ray that then touches the 
moon comes from the sun on the horizon " and there- 
fore, being reflected at equal angles, would be pro- 
duced to the point on the opposite horizon and would 
not shed its light upon us, or else there would be 
great distortion and aberration of the angle, which 
is impossible." ^ " Yes, by Heaven," said Lucius, 
" there was talk of this too " ; and, looking at Mene- 
laus the mathematician as he spoke, he said : " In 
your presence, my dear Menelaus, I am ashamed to 
confute a mathematical proposition, the foundation, 
as it were, on which rests the subject of catoptrics. 
Yet it must be said that the proposition, ' all reflec- 
tion occurs at equal angles,' ^ is neither self-evident 
nor an admitted fact.*^ It is refuted in the case of 
convex ^ mirrors M'hen the point of incidence of the 
visual ray produces images that are magnified in one 
respect ; and it is refuted by folding mirrors ,-'' either 

it is said to have been stated in the Catoptrics (Euclid, Opera 
Omnia, vii, p. 30. 1-3 [Heiberg]) ; and a demonstration of it 
is ascribed to Archimedes {Scholia in Catoptrica, 7 = Euclid, 
Opera Omnia, vii, p. 348. 17-22 [Heiberg] ; cf. Lejeune, Isis, 
xxxviii [1947], pp. 51 ff.j. It is assumed by Aristotle in 
Meteorology, iii. 3-5 and possibly also by Plato {cf. Cornford, 
Plato's Cosmology, pp. 154 f. on Timaeus, 46 b) ; cf. also 
Lucretius, iv. 322-323 and [Aristotle], Problemata, 901 b 21- 
22 and 915 b 30-35. Proposition XIX of Euclid's Optics, 
referred to above, is supposed to be part of the " Dioptrics " 
of Euclid which Plutarch cites at Xon Posse Suaviter Vivi, 
1093 E {cf. Schmidt, op. cit. p. 304). 

* i.e. cylindrical, not spherical, convex mirrors ; cf. Class. 
Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 142-143 for the construction and mean- 
ing of this sentence. 

f For such mirrors cf. [Ptolemy], De Speculis, xii = Hero 
Alexandrinus, Opera, ii. 1, p. 342. 7 ff. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(930) KXidevTCDv^ TTpos dXXrjXa /cat yajviag Ivros yevofievqg 
€Kdr€pov rcov eTTLnehajv Sltttjv^ e/Lt^aatv dTTohihtoGi 
Koi 7TOL€l rerrapas ecKovag dcf)^ eVos" TrpoowTTOVf 
hvo jJLev dvTLGTp6(f)ov? {eV) rot? e^codev [^dpiGTepoZsY 
p.ip€GL hvo he he^iocfyaveZs afxavpas iv jSddei rcov 
C KaroTTTpcov. coy* rrJ9 yevioecos rrjv alriav YiXdrojv 
dTTohihojoiv . €Lpr]K€ yap on rod Karonrpov evdev 
Koi evBev vipos Xa^ovros vrraXXdrrovcnv at oipets 
rrjv dva/cAacrty dno rtov irepajv eirl ddrepa jLtera- 

TTLTTTOVaai.^ €L7T€p OVV TCOP 6lp€OJV €v6v^ TjpOS rjfJids 

<(at /xev drro tcov eVtTreScuy)' dvaTpe)(OVGLV at 8* irTL 
Odrepa ixepr] rcov Karoirrpajv oXiodaivovoai irdXiv 
eKeWev dva(j>epovTai irpos rj(JLdg, ov Swarov ioriv 
iv tcrats" yajviais yiyveoBai irdaas dva/cAaCTetS", coctt'* 
(evioi jJLev rots puad-qixaTiKolsy ofioae ')(^a)povvres 
d^LOVGLV avTols rot? dirro ttjs GeXrjvrjg inl yrjv (f)€po- 
D fjLevoig pevfxaGL^^ ttjv iGorrjra rojv ycDVidJv dvatpelv, 
TToXXo) rovr eKelvov TTiOavcjrepov elvai voiiit^ovres. 
ov fJLrjv dAA' et Set rovro x^pH^eGOai rfj ttoAAo, St) 

^ Turnebus ; ws €Tn,KpiOivTOiv -E, B. 

2 Turnebus ; Sitt^? -E, B. 

^ Emperius ; rols e^codev apiarepols -E, B. For dpLarepols 
Schmidt {Heronis Alexandrini Opera, ii. 1, p. 313, n. 2) 
sug:gests aa<j)€aT€pas, Raingeard ivapycarepas, but it was more 
probably merely a gloss by someone who misunderstood 
Se^ioc^avei?, as Amyot, Wyttenbach, and Prickard misunder- 
stood it. 

* Turnebus ; between KarorrTpaiv and (Lv E and B repeat 
from above orav €fM<f>do€is ttoltj . . . SiafiaXXerai Be, after 
which E has a space of 13 letters and B of 10. 

^ H. C. {cf. Thnaexis, 46 b 7 : oTav pLeraTrearj . . . <j>6j?, i.e. 
it is the visual ray that shifts) ; ij.€TaTTtTTTovaai> -E, B. 

^ Papabasileios ; evOvs -E, B. 

' H. C. ; vac. 20-E, 15-B ; (at fxkv €k tcLv i^codcv) -Adler, 
Zwei Beitrage, p. 8. 
J08 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 930 

plane of which, Avhen they have been incUned to each 
other and have formed an inner angle, exhibits a 
double image, so that four likenesses of a single object 
are produced, two reversed on the outer surfaces 
and two dim ones not reversed in the depth of the 
mirrors. The reason for the production of these 
images Plato explains,^ for he has said that when the 
mirror is elevated on both sides the visual rays inter- 
change their reflection because they shift from one 
side to the other. So, if of the visual rays (some) 
revert straight to us (from the plane surfaces) while 
others glance off to the opposite sides of the mirrors 
and thence return to us again, it is not possible that 
all reflections occur at equal angles.^ Consequently 
(some people) take direct issue (with the mathe- 
maticians) and maintain that they confute the 
equality of the angles of incidence and reflection by 
the very streams of light that flow from the moon 
upon the earth, for they deem this fact to be much 
more credible than that theory. Nevertheless, sup- 
pose that this ^ must be conceded as a favour to 

" Plutarch means Timaeus, 46 b-c, where Plato, however, 
describes a concave, cylindrical mirror, not a folding plane 
mirror. Plutarch apparently mistook the words evOev koI 
evdev vipT) Xa^ovaa, by which Plato describes the horizontal 
curvature of the mirror, to mean that the two planes of a 
folding mirror were raised to form an angle at the hinge 
which joined them. 

^ See note e on 929 f supra. 

'^ i.e. the " theory " that the angle of reflection is always 
equal to the angle of incidence. 

8 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; ocas -E, B. 

9 H. C. {cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 143) ; no lacuna 
indicated in E, B. 

^^ B ; p-qixaoL -E. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(930) 4'^^11 y^txj/^erpta /cat BovvaL, Trpcorov /xev arro rcbv 

TjKpl^COllivWV rals X€L6rT](JL GVflTTLTTTCiV ioOTTTpOiV 

€lk6s eoTLV Tj Se GeX-qvT] TroAAa? dvcDfiaXlas ex^i Kal 
rpaxvT'qra'g ware ra? avya? dno ocofiaros /xeyaAou 
TTpoGcfyepojJLeva? vifjeGW d^LoXoyoL?, dvrLXdfjLiJjeis Kal 
StaSoaei? (xtt' dXXt^Xcov Xajx^dvovoiv , dvaKXdadal 
T€ TTavrohaTTCJS Kal TreptTrAe/cecr^at Kal ovvdrrreiv 
avrrjv eavrfj ttjv dvravyetav olov dTTO ttoXXojv cftepo- 

P] jxevriv rrpos r^jJids KaroTTrpajv. CTretra Kav Trpds 
avrfj rfj oeXrjvrj rag avraya/cAao-ct? eV taats" yajvlaus 
TTOLWjJLev, ovK dSvvarov (f)€poiJLevag iv hiaorrnJiaTL 
TOOOTJTO) rds avydg KXdaetg lgx^lv Kal TTepioXiodr]- 
oeis, CO? (Jvyx^lcrOaL^ Kal KdpLTTT€iv^ ro (f)d)S. evioi 
he Kal h€LKVvovGi ypd(f)ovT€9 on noXXd rojv (Jxjotojv 
€7tI yrjv d(f)Lr]GL Kara ypap-jjcr^v avro rrjg Ikk^kXi- 
piivrjs^ VTroraOelaav'^ GKevcx^peluO at 8' dfia Xeyovri 
hidypap^jjia, Kal ravra rrpos TToXXovg, ovk ivrjv. 

18. To 8' oXov " €(f)r) " davpid^aj ttcJos ttjv Slxo- 
TopLov icf)^ TjpLag klvovglv ipLTTLiTTOVGav pLerd rrjg 
dpi(f)LKvpTov Kal rrjg pL-qvoecSovs. el yap alOepiov 

F dyKov Tj TTvpivov dvra rdv rrjs GeXrjvqs icfycont^ev 6 

^ Wyttenbach : ovyKeladai -E, B. 
2 Emperiiis ; XdixveLv -E, B. 

^ H. C. : VTTO TTjV K€KXLIJ,€VrjV -E, B. 

* Turnebus ; vTToradciarjg -E, B. 

" With these words Pkitarch means to refer to the effects 
of refraction : rf. De Placltis, 894 c = Aetius, iii. 5. 5 {Dox. 
Graec't, p. 87-2. 21-26) ; Cleomedes, ii. 6. 121-125 (p. 224. 8-28 
[Ziegler]) ; Alexander, In Meteor, p. 143. 7-10. 

^ Cf. the argrument given by Cleomedes, ii. 4. 103 (pp. 186. 
14-188. 7 fZieg-ler]) and especially : on S' airo rravros tov kvkXov 
avTTJs (f)a)TLl,€TaL Tj yij, yviopifxov. evdecos yap dfia rcx> ttjv npcvTrju 
iTW dvaax^^v eK tov 6pit,ovTO? ^cDTi'^et tt^v yrjv, tovtcov tiov jjiepajv 

110 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 930 

geometry, the dearly beloved ! In the first place, 
it is likely to occur only in mirrors that have been 
polished to exact smoothness ; but the moon is very 
uneven and rugged, with the result that the rays 
from a large body striking against considerable 
heights which receive reflections and diffusions of 
light from one another are multifariously reflected 
and intertwined and the refulgence itself combines 
with itself, coming to us, as it were, from many 
mirrors. In the second place, even if we assume that 
the reflections on the surface of the moon occur at 
equal angles, it is not impossible that the rays as they 
travel through such a great interval get fractured 
and deflected '^ so as to be blurred and to bend their 
light. Some people even give a geometrical demon- 
stration that the moon sheds many of her beams upon 
the earth along a line extended from the surface that 
is bent away from us ^ ; but I could not construct a 
geometrical diagram while talking, and talking to 
many people too. 

18. Speaking generally," he said, " I marvel that 
they adduce against us the moon's shining upon the 
earth at the half and at the gibbous and the crescent 
phases too.^ After all, if the mass of the moon that 
is illuminated by the sun Mere ethereal or fiery, the 

avTTJg TTepiKXivwv ovrojv kol Trpos rov ovpavov, aXX ovxh fJ-o. Ata, 
Trpos rrjv yrjp opojvrwv. For rj e/v/ce/cAt/xevT^ cf. Hippocrates, Art. 
38 (iv, p. 168. 18 [Littre]). 

'^ i.e. the moon at the half, gibbous, and crescent phases 
presents such a great difficulty for the Stoics themselves that 
it is strange for them to adduce these phenomena as refutation 
of the theory that the moon shines by reflected light. Wytten- 
bach's conjecture, eKniTTrovaav for efMrriTTTovoav, approved by 
Purser and apparently adopted by Prickard in his translation 
of 1918, betravs a misapprehension of the meaning of the 
text. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(930) 7JXlo£, ovk dv oLTTeXeLTTev avrfj oKiepov det kol 
dXafjLTTeg -rfiiiucjiaipiov Trpog aiodrioLV aAA', et koI 
Kara puKpov eipave Trepacov,^ oXtjv^ dvaTTLpLTTXaoOai 
Kat St' oXrjs TpeTTeadat^ rw (fxxjrl Travraxdae \aj- 

pOVVTL 8t' €V7T€T€La9 rjv TTpOGTJKOV. 07T0V ydp otvog 

vSarog diyajv Kara* rrepas Kal arayajv alfiarog etV 
vypov e[jL7T€Gdvro? dve^pajoe Trdv dfia^ (roj j/ravetv)^ 
(f)OLVL)(dev avTov Se rov depa Xeyovcnv ovk drrop- 
poals^ riGLV ouS' dKrlai jLte/i-ty^eVats" ciAAa rpoTrfj 
Kal fxeTa^oXfj Kara vv^lv t} ipavatv dno rod (fxjoTOS 
l^r^XiovaOai,^ 7760? darpov dorpov Kal cfxjjs ^coro? 
aifjapievov otovrat fXTj Kepavvvodai^ fir^Se a-uy)(VGLV 
TToieZv hi dXov^^ Kal pi€Ta^oXr]v dAA' eKelva ^cort^etv 
931 fjLovov (Lv dVrerat /caret ttjv e7Ti(j)dv€iav ; ov ydp 

6 TJXiOg TTepLLOJV KVkXoV dyei Kal 7T€pLGTp6(f)€L TTepl^^ 
TTjV G€XrjV7]V, VVV jJikv eTrLTTLTTTOVTa TO) hlOpit^OVTl TO 

oparov avTTJs Kal to ddparov vvv 8' dvLGrdfievov 

^ -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; Trept c5v -E, R ; irepicov -Stepha- 
nus (1624) after Leonicus. 

2 Stephanus (1624) ; ttoXXtju -E, R. 

^ Turnebus ; Tp€<f>eodaL -E, R. 

* R ; aTo. 7T€pas -E (at beginning of line). 

^ Turnebus ; alfia -E, R. 

8 Adler ; vac. 8-E, 7-R. 

' Rernardakis ; aTToppoiais -E, R. 

^ E ; €^7]XXoLOvadai -B. 

^ E ; K€pa.vv'iadai -B. 
1" E ; hioXov -B. 
11 E ; -npos -R. 

" For aTTeXiiTrev cf. 931 c infra. The dative with the verb 
is unobjectionable, cf. e.g. [Reg. et Imp. Apophthegm.] 178 d, 
195 I. ' 

^ For Kara TTcpas cf. De Commnnibns Xotitiis, 1080 e 
{ — S.V.F. ii, frag. 487) : ipavciv /card iripas to. acofiara . . . 
XiyovoL and S. V.F. ii, frag. 433 cited in note d on 930 f infra. 

112 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 930-931 

sun would not leave her ^ a hemisphere that to our 
perception is ever in shadow and unilluminated ; on 
the contrary, if as he revolves he grazed her ever so 
slightly, she should be saturated in her entirety and 
altered through and through by the light proceeding 
easily in all directions. Since wine that just touches 
water at its surface ^ or a drop of blood fallen into 
liquid at the moment (of contact) stains all the liquid 
red,^ and since they say that the air itself is filled 
with sunshine not by having any effluences or rays 
commingled with it but by an alteration and change 
that results from impact or contact of the light,^ how 
do they imagine that a star can come in contact with 
a star or light with light and instead of blending and 
producing a thorough mixture and change merely 
illuminate those portions of the surface which it 
touches ? ^ In fact, the circle which the sun in its 
revolution describes and causes to turn about the 
moon now coinciding with the circle that divides her 
visible and in\isible parts and now standing at right 

The " emendations "' of Emperius and Papabasileios are con- 
sequently ill-advised. 

" Cf. De Commitnihus Xotifiis, 1078 d-e ( = ^S'. V.F. ii, frag. 
480) and S. V.F. ii, frags. 473, 477, 479. 

** Cf. S. V.F. ii, frag. 433 (Galen, In Hippocr. Epidem. vi 
Comment, iv, vol. xvii, B, p. 161 [Kiihn], especially: rot? avcu 
■nipaoLv avrov {sc'd. rov depos) TrpoaTTLTTrova-qs tt]S TjXiaK-qs avyi]g 
oAo? dXXoLOvral re koI /xeTa^aAAerai ovv^x^S cov iavro)). Cf. also 
note a on 92-2 e supra. 

« Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 4. 101 (p. 182. 20 if. [Ziegler]) for the 
doctrine of Posidonius, which Plutarch here turns against 
him and the Stoics generally : Tpirrj iorlv atpeois rj Xeyovaa 
KLpvdadai avrrjg {scil. ttjs oeXijvTjs) to (fxZs e/c re rov oiKetov Kal 
rov "qXiaKOv (f)ujr6s Kal roLOvrov yiveodai ovk diradovs fievovorjs 
avrijs . . . aAA' dXAoLOvpLevrj^ vtto rov -qXiaKOV t^oiros Koi Kara 
roLavrr^v rrju Kpdaiv tSiov laxovarjs ro (f>d>s. . • . Cf. ibid. 104 
(p. 188. 4-7). 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(931) TTpos opdas a)OT€ refivetv €K€lvov vtt^ €K€lvov re 
rejjLveGdai, dXXais kXlo€Gl Kal Gx^creai rod Xajjivpov 

TTpos TO GKiepOV ap.(f)LKVpTOVS KoL fJH-jVOeiSels^ OLTTO- 

SiSoi'ra fjLopcfiag ev avrfj, Travros {JidXXov eTTiheiKW- 
Gtv^ ov GvyKpaoLV dAA' eVa^o^y ouSe GvXXajJuJjLV 

B aAAa TTepiXaixijjLV avrrjs ovra rov (^cotlgjjlov. eVct 
8' ovK avTT] (f)<jJTLt,€Tai fiovov dXXoL Kal Sevpo rrj? 
avyrjg dvanefjiTTeL ro etSojXov, en Kal jxaXXov Ig)(v- 
piGaGdai TO) Xoyw rrepl rrjs ovGtas SlScoglv. at 
yap dva/cAaCTet? ylyvovTat rrpos ovSev dpaiov ovhe 
AeTT-ro/xepe?, ouS' eWt cf)d)s 0.77-0 (Jxjjtos^ r) TTvp diro 
TTvpos d(f)aXX6iJL€vov [tjY voTjGai pahioVy dXXd Set to 
TTOLTJGOV dvTLTVTTLav TLvd Kal /cAcLCTir ipLJ^pides elvai 
Kal TTVKVov tVa 77/30? auTO TrXrjyr] Kal drr^ avrov 
(f)opd yevrjTai. rov yovv avrov rjXiov 6 fxkv drjp 
Sllt^glv ov TTapexojv dvaKonds ovS^ dvrepeihojv dno 
8e ^uAa>y Kal XiOojv Kal IpLaricDV els (fidJs TiOepievcxJV 

C 7roAAds" dvTiXdijupeLS Kal TrepLXdjixljeLs dTToSlSojGLV. 
ovTCo he Kal rrjv yrjv opojjjiev vtt^ avrov <j)<jL>ril,o- 
fievqv ov yap els ^dOos coGTrep vSa>p ovhe 8t' oAt^? 
coGirep drjp hurjGi rrjv avyiqv, dXX olos rrjv GeXrjvrjv 
TTepLGreLX^i kvkXos avrov'' Kal ogov vnorefiverai 
jj.epos eKeLvqs roiovros erepos rrepleLGL rr^v yrjv Kal 
roGovrov^ (jxjjrit^cov del Kal dTToXeiTTCOV erepov d(f)co- 

^ B ; vo€l8€ls -E (at top of page). 
2 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; eVtSei/cvJouaii^ -E, B. 
^ E ; a.TT0(f>(jir6s -B. 
* Deleted by \\'yttenbach. 

^ -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 91< ; avToJv -E, B ; avrr^v -Turnebus, 
Vulcobius. 

^ E ; TOOOVTO -B. 

« Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 5. 109-111 (pp. 196. 28-200. 23 
[Ziegler]). 

114 



THE FACE OX THE MOON. 931 

angles to it so as to intersect it and be intersected by 
it, by different inclinations and relations of the bright 
part to the dark producing in her the gibbous and 
crescent phases,'^ conclusively demonstrates that her 
illumination is the result not of combination but of 
contact, not of a concentration of light within her 
but of light shining upon her from without. In that 
she is not only illuminated herself, however, but also 
transmits to us the semblance of her illumination, 
she gives us all the more confidence in our theory of 
her substance. There are no reflections from any- 
thing rarefied or tenuous in texture, and it is not easy 
even to imagine light rebounding from light or fire 
from fire ; but whatever is to cause a repercussion 
or a reflection must be compact and solid, ^ in order 
that it may stop a blow and repel it.^ x\t any rate, 
the same sunlight that the air lets pass without im- 
pediment or resistance is widely reflected and diffused 
from wood and stone and clothing exposed to its rays. 
The earth too we see illuminated by the sun in this 
fashion. It does not let the light penetrate its depths 
as water does or pervade it through and through as 
air does ; but such as is the circle of the sun that 
moves around the moon and so great as is the part 
of her that it intercepts, just such a circle in turn 
moves around the earth, always illuminating just so 
much and leaving another part unilluminated,^^ for 

^ Here iyL^pidh is used as the opposite of Xe-n-ro^epes {cf. 
Liddell and Scott, s.v. ifM^pWeia ii) as ttvkvov is of dpaiov. 

' Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 4. 101-109 (p. 184. 9-18 [Ziegler]). 
Cleomedes, assuming that the moon is jxavov, uses this as an 
argument against reflection : Plutarch, having established 
the necessity of reflection, uses the argument to support the 
contention that the moon is earthy. 

" Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 5. 108 (p. 194. 20 ff. [Ziegler]). 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(931) TLOTOV TjiJLLOcfyaipLov yap oXlycp Sok€l ^Ltet^ov elvau 
TO TTepiXayLTTOii^vov eKarepas. Sore Srj fioL yeco- 
fierpLKOj? eiTTelv Trpos avaXoyiav (hg el, rpicov ovrcov 
ols TO dcj)^ rjXLOV (f)UJ? 7TXrioidl,eL, yrjs (jeXrjvr]? depos, 
6pcx)fiev ovx ^S" o dr^p pLaXXov tj^ (v? tj yrj cJjcdtlI^o- 
[xev^-jv TTjv ueXi'^vqv, dvdyKT] (jyvaiv execv ojiolai' d 
ravrd TTdax^iv vtto ravrov jrecfyvKev." 

D 19- 'Ettci he Trdvres errr^veGav tov A.evKiov, " ei) 
y* " e^y]v " on KaXo) Xoycp KaXrjv dvaXoyiav rrpoo- 
edrjKas' ov yap dTToorepiqTeov oe rcJbv lSlcov." ko,- 
Kelvog eVt/xetStaCTa? " ovkovv " e(f>y) " Kal hevrepov 
dvaXoyla 7TpoGXP'y]crTeov, ottcos pLrj (jcpy^ ravrd 
Trdax^^^ VTTO ravrov jjlovov dXXd Kal raJ ravrd 
TTOieZv ravrov dTTohei^ajpiev rfj yfj rrjv oeXrjvqv 
TTpooeoiKvlav. on jxev yap ovSev ovrws rd)v rrepi 
TOV tJXlov yiyvojjievcxjv ojjlolov eonv cos eKXenpLS 
tjXlov hvoei Sore (jlol, ravrrjs evayxos rrjs^ avvoSov 

E fJLVTjodevres y) TToXXd pLev dorpa rroXXaxddev rod 
ovpavov hiecjirivev ev6v? Ik pLeorjpL^pias dp^apLevt] 
KpdoLV 8' olav rd XvKavyes ro) depL Trapeox^v el 8e 
fjLTj, Geojv* TjfXLV ovros (rdvy' MipLveppLov eird^eL /cat 

^ 8c -Wyttenbach. ^ Basiliensis ; lacking in E, B. 

3 B ; lacking in E. " Basiliensis ; dewv -E, B. 

^ Stephanus (1624) ; Mt/ivep/xov -Basiliensis ; epyofxifMvafiov 
-E, B. 

° Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 5. 109 (p. 198. 6-9 [Ziegler]). 

^ I have tried to preserve the contorted form in which 
Plutarch expresses the point that the moon, since it is affected 
by sunlight as the earth is and not as air is, must have the 
consistency of earth and not of air. 

" Concerning this eclipse see the Introduction, § 3 supra 
on the date of the dialogue. 

^ For XvKavycs see 91.1 D infra and Lucian, Vera Hist. ii. 
12. Prickard takes the KpdoLs to refer to the degree of heat ; 

116 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 931 

the illuminated portion of either body appears to be 
slightly greater than a hemisphere." Give me leave 
then to put it in geometrical fashion in terms of a 
proportion. Given three things approached by the 
light from the sun : earth, moon air ; if we see that 
the moon is illuminated not as the air is rather than 
as the earth, the things upon which the same agent 
produces the same effects must be of a similar 
nature." ^ 

19. When all had applauded Lucius, I said : " Con- 
gratulations upon having added to an elegant account 
an elegant proportion, for you must not be defrauded 
of what belongs to you." He smiled thereat and 
said : " Well then proportion must be used a second 
time, in order that we may prove the moon to be like 
the earth not only because the effects of the same 
agent are the same on both but also because the 
effects of both on the same patient are the same. 
Now, grant me that nothing that happens to the sun 
is so like its setting as a solar eclipse. You wdll if you 
call to mind this conjunction recently which, beginning 
just after noonday, made many stars shine out from 
many parts of the sky ^ and tempered the air in the 
manner of twilight.*^ If you do not recall it, Theon 
here will cite us Mimnermus ^ and Cydias •'' and 

Raingeard, like Amyot and Wyttenbach, takes it to refer to 
colour or light. Either is possible, but I think a reference to 
colour the more probable ; for Kpdcns used of colour cf. 
Qua est. Conviv. 647 c. 

^ Cf. Anthologia Lyrka Graeca, ed. DiehP, i. 1, pp. 50-57, 
and Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, i, pp. 82-103 ; Mimnermus 
is mentioned in the pseudo-Plutarchean De Musica, chap. 8, 
1133F. 

^ Cf. Plato, Charynides, 155 d ; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, 
iii, p. 68 ; Wilamowitz, Textgeschkhte der ^rieckischen 
Lyriker, p. -iO, n. 1. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(931) Tov Kvhlav kol rov ^ \py^L\o-)(ov npog Se tovtols tov 

Y^TTjOLXOpOV KOL TOV WlvhapOV €V Tttt? €KX€Llfj€GLV 

6Xo(f)vpopL€vov9 ' darpov^ ^avepwrarov kXcttto- 
fievov ' Kai ' fxloo) a/xart^ vvKra ywofjievr^v ' Kal ttjv 
F oLKTLva rod tjXlov ' gkotovs^ drpa-TTov (iaovpLivavy '* 
(f)daKovras inl Trdoi he rov "Ofi'qpov ' vvktl Kal 
i,6(f)ip rd TTpoacona^ Karex^ordaL rcDv dvdpojTTOJv ' 
Xeyovra Kal ' rov tJXlov i^aTToXojXevai rod ovpavov ' 
7T€pl rrjv oeXrjvqv Kal (alvirrojievov cos")* rovro 
yiyveudaL 7Te(f)VK€ ' rod fxev ^divovros pLrjvos rod 8* 
lorapievov .' rd XoLTrd 8' ot/xat rat? fiad'qpiarLKals 
aKpL^eiais et? rov (aa^rj Aoyov)' i^rjxOaL Kal /Se- 
^atov COS" T] y€ vv^ Ian OKid yrjs r] 8' eKXenJjLS rov 
rjXiov OKid a€Xii]vr]s orav rj oipL? iv avrfj yev7]raL. 
Svofjievos ydp vtto rrjs yrjs dvrL(f)pdrr€raL rrpos rrjv 
oijjLV IkXittojv 8' VTTO rrjs GeX-qv-qs' dp.^6repai 8' 
932 etcrty imoKorr^oeis, dXX tj jxev SvrLKT] rrj^ yrjs rj 8' 
eKXeiTTriKri rrjs aeXrjvr]? rfj OKia KaraXapL^avovo'qs 

^ Bergk ; tov -E, B. ^ Leonicus ; afxa rrjv -E, B. 

3 B; oKOTos-E. * Adler; vac. 1(3 -E, B. 

^ Xylander ; Trpcora -E, B. 

« H. C. {rf. De Vita et Poesi Jlomeri, § 1 [vii, p. 88-J. 9, 
Bernardakis]) ; vac. 14-E, 12-B. 

' H. C. (cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], pp. 148 f.) ; vac. 
7-E, 9-B. 

" Cf. Archilochus, frag. 74 {AntJwlogia Lyrica Graeca, ed. 
Diehl^, i. 3, p. 33 = Edmonds, Elegy and lambux, ii, p. 134). 

* Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. \2, § 54 : " quo in metu fuisse 
Stesichori et Pindari vatiini sublimia ora palam est deliquio 
sol is." 

" = Pindar, Paean, ix. 2-3 : dorpov vTieprarov iv afxepa kXc- 

TTTOfieVOV. 

^ Possibly Stesichorus, cf. Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Oraeci^, 
iii, p. 229 (frag. 73), and Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, i, p. 
102, n. 1. 

118 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 931-932 

Archilochus " and Stesichorus besides and Pindar,^ 
who during eclipses bewail ' the brisrhtest star bereft ' '^ 
and ' at midday ni_2:ht falling ' ^ and say that the beam 
of the sun ' (is sped) the path of shade ' ^ ; and to 
crown all he will cite Homer, who says ' the faces 
of men are covered with night and gloom ' ^ and ' the 
sun has perished out of heaven ' ^ speaking with refer- 
ence to the moon and (hinting that) this naturally 
occurs 

When waning month to waxing month gives way.'* 

For the rest, I think that it has been reduced by the 
precision of mathematics to the (clear) and certain 
(formula) that night is the shadow of earth ^ and the 
eclipse of the sun is the shadow of the moon ^ when- 
ever the visual ray encounters it. The fact is that 
in setting the sun is screened from our vision by the 
earth and in eclipse by the moon ; both are cases of 
occultation, but the vespertine is occupation by the 
earth and the ecliptic by the moon with her shadow 

* Cf. Pindar, Paean, ix. 5 : iiriaKOTov drpaTTOv iaovjiiva. 
For the genitive gkotovs cf. De Audiendis Poet is, 36 e, and 
De Latenter Vivendo, 1130 b. 

f Adapted from Odyssey, xx. 351-352. 

^ Odyssey, xx. 356-357. 

^ Odyssey, xix. 307. For this interpretation of the Homeric 
lines cf. De Vita et Poesi Homeri, chap. 108 (vii, p. 388. 15 ff. 
[Bernardakis]), and Heraclitus, Quaestiones Homer icae, § 75 
(pp. 98. 20-99. 18 [Oelmannl). 

»■ Cf. De Primo Frigido, 953 a and Plat. Quaest. 1006 f, 
where on Timaeas, 40 c Plutarch quotes Empedocles to this 
effect. Aristotle refers to the definition, Topics, 146 b 28 and 
Meteorology, 345 b 7-8. 

^ Cf. the lines of Empedocles quoted at 929 c-d supra. In 
De Placitis, 890 F = Aetius, ii. 24. 1 this explanation of solar 
eclipses is ascribed to Thales — quite unhistorically, as the 
subsequent entries show. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(932) T'f]v oi/jiv. eV 8e tovtojv evOecop-qrov ro ytyvofJLevov. 
€L yap ojxoiov ro rrddo?, 6p,OLa ra rroiovvra' T(p 
yap avTO) ravra ovp-^aiveiV vrro rcov aurtov avay- 
Kalov ioTLV. et 8' ovx ovrojs^ ro Trepl ras eVAetj/zet? 
cr/coTOS" ^vdiov earw ouS' ojjlolojs rfj vvKrl Trte^et 
rov depa, jxtj QavpLdt^cjpLev' ovoia /xev yap rj avrrj 
rov rrjv vvKra noLovvrog /cat rod rrjv CKXen/jLV acj- 
fxaros jLteye^o? S' ovk loov, dAA' AlyvTrriovs fJi^v 
i^hofjLTjKooroSvov oljjLai (j)dvai fiopiov elvai^ rrjv G€- 
B At^vt^v 'Ava^ayopav 8' ogt] HeXoTTOwqGOS .^ 'Apt- 
orapxo? 8e {tt^v Stdpierpov rrjs yrjs Trpo?)* t7]V 
Sidfjierpov rrjs aeXii^vr]? Xoyov exovoav dnoSeLKwaLV 
OS eXdrrcov fiev tj i^rjKovra Trpos Se/caevvea* /xetjcov 
S' -^ ojs^ eKarov OKrd) rrpos reaaapdKovra rpi 
eoriv. oBev rj jiev yrj TravrdTraai rfjs oifjecos rov 
tJXlov dcfyacpelrai hid piiyedos (fJieydXr) yap r) ern- 
TTpoadrjaLs Kal xpot^^'^ exovoa rov rrjs vvKros), rf 
8e oeXrivrf Kav oXov rrore Kpviprj rov tJXlov, ovk €X€i 
Xpdvov ovhe TrXdros r) eKXenpug dXXd 7T€pi(j>aiverai 
Tts" avyr] rrepl rrjv irvv ovk icbua ^adelav yeveadai 
rrjv GKidv Kal aKparov. ^ApLaroreXrjg S' o TraAatos" 
C alriav rod TrXeovdKi? rrjv aeXrjvrjv eVAetVouaav rj 

^ E ; ovTio -B. 

2 {ttjs yijs) -Turnebus, Vulcobius. 
' B ; U€Xo7T6vr]aos -E. 

* Bernardakis (c/. Aristarchus, p. 408. 21 [Heath]). 
5 Turnebus {cf. Stephanus [1624]); 5e. Kal Ivvia -E, B, 
Aldine, Basiliensis. ^ Bernardakis : 8e ttoj? -E, B. 

° Cf. Cleoniedes, ii. 3. 94-95 (p. 172. 6-10 [Ziegler]) and 
ii. 4. 106 (p. 192. 16-24) ; Geminus, x (pp. 130. 11-132. 12 
[Manitius]). 

^ I know of no other reference to such an estimate. 

'^ According to Hippolytus, Refnt. i. 8. 6-10 {=Dox. 
Graeci, p. 562 = Anaxagoras, frag. A 42 [ii, p. 16. 16-31, 

120 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 932 

intercepting the visual ray." What follows from this 
is easy to perceive. If the effect is similar, the agents 
are similar, for it must be the same agents that cause 
the same things to happen to the same subject. Nor 
should we marvel if the darkness of eclipses is not so 
deep or so oppressive of the air as night is. The reason 
is that the body which produces night and that which 
produces the eclipse while the same in substance are 
not equal in size. In fact the Egyptians, I think, say 
that the moon is one seventy-second part (of the 
earth), ^ and Anaxagoras that it is the size of the 
Peloponnesus ^ ; and Aristarchus demonstrates that 
the ratio of (the earth's diameter to) the diameter 
of the moon is smaller than 60 to 19 and greater than 
108 to 43. '^ Consequently the earth because of its 
size removes the sun from sight entirely, for the 
obstruction is large and its duration is that of the 
night. Even if the moon, however, does sometimes 
cover the sun entirely, the eclipse does not have 
duration or extension ; but a kind of light is visible 
about the rim which keeps the shadow from being 
profound and absolute.^ The ancient Aristotle gives 
this as a reason besides some others why the moon 

Diels-Kranz]), Anaxagoras said that the sun exceeds the 
Peloponnesus in size (r/. Aetius, ii. 21. 3 and Diogenes 
Laertius, ii. 8). The statement here concerning the moon is 
missing from Diels-Kranz. 

** This is Proposition 17 of Aristarchus's essay, " On the 
wSizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon " (c/. Heath's edi- 
tion and translation in his Aristarchus of Samos, pp. 351 if.). 
Although Plutarch does not say that this contradicts Stoic 
doctrine, the older, orthodox Stoics held that the moon as 
well as the sun is larger than the earth {De Placitis, 891 c = 
Aetius, ii. 26. l=S.V.F. ii, frag. 666 ; cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
ii. 11 [8]. 49). 

« Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 4. 105 (p. 190. 17-26). 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(932) rov tJXlov KaOopdodai Trpos aXXatg tlgl /cat ravrriv 
aTTohihcooLV rjXiov yap eVAetVetv ueXi^vrjs avTicfypd^et 
a€Xrivr]v Se {yrjs, ttoXXco jLtetJovo? ovGiqs.Y 6 Se 
rio(7et8coi'to? opLodpievos ovtcjs' ' To8e to ttolOos 
CKXenpLS ioriv tjXlov ovvohos OKids GeXiqvrjs ois^ 
[ttjv eKXeLipLvf (^dv yrjs fxepeoL /caraCT/cta^i^-y eVet- 
voLs yap jxovois e/cAetj/fts" loriv a)v dv tj OKid rrjs 
aeXr]vr)s KaraXa^ovua ttjv 6i/jlv dvTKJypd^rf Trpos 
Tov TjXiov '- ofJLoXoycov St]^ GKidv rr^s creXrjvqg 
(j)ep€oBai rrpds "qfids, ovk otS' otl Xeyeiv iavrco 
KaraXeXoLTTev . dorpov he OKidv dhijvarov yeveudai- 
TO yap d(j)d>TiGrov uKid Xeyerai to he (fidJs ov TToieV 
OKidv dXX dvaipeZv 7Te(f)VKev. 
D 20. 'AAAa hr) ri "* ecj)!^ " pier a rovro rcjv re- 
Kp.r)pL<jJV eXexdT^ ; " Kaych " ttjv avrrjv " e^-qv 
eXdpLpavev rj GeXrjvrj eKXen/jtv." " opOcos " elirev 
VTrepLVfjoas.^ dXXd hr] rrorepov cos TreTTeLopieviov^^ 
vpidjv Kal TiOevTCov e/cAeiVetv tt^v GeXrjvrfV vtto rod 
GKidapLaros dXiGKopievrjv rjhr] rpeTTcopiai^^ rrpos rov 

^ Adler ; oeXi^vrjv 8e vac. 28-E (in tM'o lines), 25-B. 

2 E ; ^9 -B. 

3 Excised by Prickard (1911). 

4 H. C. ; vac. 2:?-E, 11-B. 

5 Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94. ; avn^pa^ai -E, B. 

6 H. C. ; 8€ -E, B ; ye -Wj-ttenbach. 

' E ; 7TOL€lV -B. 

8 E : TL St) -B. 
^ B : vTTOfjLvrjoas -E. 

^^ E ; 7T€7TOL7)IJ.€Va>V "B. 

^^ Wyttenbach ; rpeVovrat -E, B. 



<* = Aristotle, frag. 210 (Rose). The reference is not to 
De Caelo, 298 b 20-25, for in that ])assage Aristotle gives not 
his own opinion but that of some Pythagoreans {rf. Cherniss, 
122 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 932 

is observed in eclipse more frequently than the sun, 
saying that the sun is eclipsed by interposition of the 
moon but the moon <by that of the earth, which is 
much larger)." Posidonius gave this definition : * The 
following condition is an eclipse of the sun, conjunc- 
tion of the moon's shadow with whatever (parts of 
the earth it may obscure), for there is an eclipse only 
for those whose visual ray the shadow of the moon 
intercepts and screens from the sun ' '^ ; — since he 
concedes then that a shadow of the moon falls upon 
us, he has left himself nothing to say that I can see. 
Of a star there can be no shadow, for shadow means 
the unlighted and light does not produce shadow but 
naturally destroys it.'^ 

20. Well now," he said, " which of the proofs came 
after this ? " And I replied, " That the moon is 
subject to the same eclipse." " Thank you," he said, 
" for reminding me ; but now shall I assume that 
you have been persuaded and do hold the moon to 
be eclipsed by being caught in the shadow and so 

Aristotle^s Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy, pp. 198-199, 
and Aetiiis, ii. 39. 4 cited there). For the terminology a^X-qvT}'; 
or yri's dvTi(f)pa$LS cf. Aristotle, Anal. Post. 90 a 15-18, and 
with the whole passage cf. Pseudo-Alexander, Problem. 2. 46 
(quoted by Rose, Aristoteles Pseudepigraphus, § 194, p. 222), 
and Philoponus, In Meteor, p. 15. 21-23. 

* Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 3. 94-95 (p. 172, 6-17 [Ziegler]) and 
98 (p." 178. 13-24), ii. 4. 106 (p. 192. 14-20). 

"^ Posidonius ranked the moon as a " star " ; cf. Arius 
Didymus, Epitome, frag. 32 {Dox. Graeci, p. 466. 18-21), and 
Edelstein, A.J.P. Ivii (1936), p. 297. For the theory that the 
light of the moon is a product of her own proper light and 
the solar light which produces an alteration in her cf. Cleo- 
medes, ii. 4. 101 (pp. 182. 20-184. 3 [Ziegler]) and 104"(p. 188. 
5-27), the latter of which indicates how the present contention 
of Plutarch could have been answered from the point of view 
of Posidonius. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(932) Xoyov r) ^ovXeade fieXer-qv 77ot7]croj^at^ kol arro- 
h^L^LV vfjuv^ rcL)v eTnx^LprjfjLOLTajv eKaorov aTrapiB- 
fjLrjGas ; " " vrj At" " elrrev 6 Qicjjv " tovtols 
efjLfjLeXeTrjGov. iycj he kol Treidovs rivos 8eo/xat 
TavTT] [jLovov OLKrjKocjs to? eVt ficav [jbtey]' evdelav 
E rojv rpiojv oojixarcjjv yiyvofxevajv, yrjs Koi tjXlov 
Kal aeX'qvTjs, at iKXelifjeis ovvTvy)(^dvovGLV' rj yap 
yrj rrjg oeXi^vrjs rj ttolXlv tj GeXrjvrj rrjg yrjs d(f)aL- 
pelrai rov tJXlov eVAetVet yap ovrog jxev GeXT^vqs 
aeXi^vr] 8e yrjs eV ixIgoj tojv rpiayv iGrafjievr]?- c5v 
yiyveraL ro jxev iv gvvoSo) to S' eV hixopiiqvia." 
/cat o AevKLos e^rj " cr;^eSoy /xeVrot* rtov XeyofJLevcov 
KvpLcorara ravr^ eGri. TrpocrAa^e^ he TrpojTov, el 
^ovXei, rov oltto rod gxt^P^olto? rrjs gklols Xoyov. 
ecrrt yap Ka)vos^ are hrj' fxeyaXov rrvpog rj (f)cor6? 
G<j)aipoeLhovs eXarrova G(f)aLpoeLhrj he Trepi^aXXovro? 
oyKov. odev iv ralg eKXecipeGL rrj? GeXrjvrjs al irepi- 
ypa(j)al ra)v [xeXaLvofxevcov Trpos ra XafiTrpa ras 
OLTTorofxag 7TepL(f)epelg Ig^ovglv as yap dv Grpoy- 
F yvXov GrpoyyvXcp TrpoGfu^av r) he^rjrat ropids r] 
TTapdoxX]) Travra^oGe x^povGat St' opiOLorrjra, yiy- 
vovrai KVKXorepels. hevrepov ot/xat ere ytyvoiGKeiv 

^ E, B^ ; TTOLTjooiiiev -B^. 

2 Aldine, Basiliensis ; u/Ltcuv -E, B. 

^ Deleted by Wyttenbach. 

* B ; /xeV Ti -E. 

^ -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94, Wyttenbach ; rrpoXape -E, B. 

^ Xylander ; kolvos -E, B. 

' H. C. ; /ii) -E, B ; Kal -Aldine, Basiliensis. 

" The argument that the moon is earthy, which at the 
beginning of chap. 19 (981 d) Lucius stated in the form of a 
proportion. 

" Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 6. 113 (p. 208. 9-12 [Ziegler]) for the 
124 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 932 

turn straightway to my argument," or do you prefer 
that I give you a lecture and demonstration in which 
each of the arguments is ennumerated ? " " By 
heaven," said Theon, " do give these gentlemen a 
lecture. As for me, I want some persuasion as well, 
since I have only heard it put this way : when the 
three bodies, earth and sun and moon, get into a 
straight line, eclipses take place because the earth 
deprives the moon or the moon, on the other hand, 
deprives the earth of the sun, the sun being eclipsed 
when the moon and the moon when the earth takes 
the middle position of the three, the former of which 
cases occurs at conjunction and the latter at the 
middle of the month." ^ Whereupon Lucius said, 
" Those are roughly the main points, though, of what 
is said on the subject. Add thereto first, if you will, 
the argument from the shape of the shadow. It is 
a cone, as is natural when a large fire or light that is 
spherical circumfuses a smaller but spherical mass."^ 
This is the reason why in eclipses of the moon the 
darkened parts are outlined against the bright in 
segments that are curved,*^ for whenever two round 
bodies come into contact the lines by which either 
intersects the other turn out to be circular since they 
have everywhere a uniform tendency.*^ Secondly, 

eclipse of the moon and ii. 4. 106 (p. 192. 14-20) for the 
eclipse of the sun ; cf. also Theon of Smyrna, p. 193. 23 if. 
and p. 197. 22 ff. (Hiller) ; Geminus, viii. 14 (p. 104. 23 if. 
[Manitius]). 

'^ See notes a and 6 on 923 b supra. 

'^ Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 6. 118 (p. 214. 2-12 [Ziegler]) ; Aris- 
totle, De Caelo, 297 b 23-30. 

^ i.e. the intersecting lines are always arcs of a circle 
because the degree of curvature of each of the two surfaces 
is at everv point similar. For this interpretation cf. Class. 
Phil. xlvi'(1951), p. 144. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(932) oTt GeXyjvrjs jjLev eV'AetVet Trpajra fJ.ep'q to. rrpos 

dTTTjXLWTrjV TjXloV Sc TOL TTpOS SvGLV, KLVelrai 8' T) 

fiev CT/ftd TTJ? yrj? inl ttjv luTrepav arro roJv dva- 
933 ToXojv -qXios 8e xrat oeXrjvr] rovvavriov cVt ra? dva- 
roXdg. ravra yap ISelv re rrapex^i- ttj alad-qaei rd 
<^aLv6pL€va KdK Xoycov ov rrdw ri^ jJcaKpaJv fJLadeiv 
eoTLV. €K Se TOVTCov 7) air La ^e^aiovrai rrjs €k- 
Xeiijjecjjs. iirel yap rjXios fiev eVAetVet KaraXafjL- 
^avofxevos GeXrjvr] 8' dTravrwaa rep ttolovvtl rrjv 
eKXenjjLV, €lk6t(jO£ fidXXov 8' dvayKalaJS 6 jikv^ 
OTTiodev dXioK€TaL rrpaJTOv rj 8' einrpoodev dpx^Tac 
yap CKeWev rj ejnTTpooBrjGLS 69ev Trpcorov [p-^i^Y 
€7TL^dXXei TO emTTpoGdovv ini^aXXeL 8' eKelvco fiev 
d(^' eGTTepas rj GeXrjvr] 'npds avrov dfXiXXwfjLevr] 
ravTT) 8' ciTrd rajv dvaroXdjv (rj gk id rrjg y^?)* cus" 
TTpog rovvavriov VTTO^epopilvrj. rpirov rolvvv eVt 
B TO rod xP^vov Xd^e^ /cat ro rod fieyedovs roJv 
eKXeli/jecov avrrjg. vi/jrjXr] [xev eKXeiTTOVGa Kal diro- 
yeLos oXlyov dTTOKpvTrrerai^ ;)(pdi'or Trpooyeios 8e 
Kal rarreLvrj avrd rovro' TraOovGa G(f)6hpa TTie^erat 
Kal ^paSews €K rrjs GKidg dVeiat, Kairoi raTreivr) 
fJLev ovGa rols pLeyiGrois ;)^;pr^Tat KLvrjfJLaGLV viprjXrj 
8e rot? iXaxioroLS . dXXd rd atriov cV rfj gklo. rrjs 
Siacfyopdg eGnv evpvrdrrj ydp ovGa rrepl rrjV jSctcrtr, 
coGTTep OL Kojvoi, GVGreXXojxivy] re Kard puKpdv et? 
d^ij rfj Kopv(f)fj Kal Xerrrov dTtoXrjyei rrepas. dOev 
Tj GeXrjVTj raireivrj jikv ifi7T€GovGa rol? fieyiGTOL? 

^ K ; TOL -]^. 2 Wytten))ach : to fxkv -f', H. 

^ Deleted by Wyttenbacli. * Adler ; no lacuna -E, B. 

s E ; omitted by R. ^ £^ 32 . aTroAeiVeTat -B^ 

' E, B ; TavTo TovTo -Benseler (" le mesme " -Amyot). 

« Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 144 ; Cleomedes, ii. 6. 116 
126 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 932-933 

I think that you are aware that of the moon the east- 
ward parts are first ecHpsed and of the sun the west- 
ward parts and that, while the shadow of the earth 
moves from east to west, the sun and the moon move 
contrariwise towards the east." This is made visible 
to sense-perception by the phenomena and needs no 
very lengthy explanations to be understood, and these 
phenomena confirm the cause of the eclipse. Since 
the sun is eclipsed by being overtaken and the moon 
by encountering that which produces the eclipse, it 
is reasonable or rather it is necessary that the sun 
be caught first from behind and the moon from the 
front, for the obstruction begins from that point 
which the intercepting body first assails. The sun 
is assailed from the west by the moon that is striving 
after him, and she is assailed from the east (by the 
earth's shadow) that is sweeping down as it were in 
the opposite direction. Thirdly, moreover, consider 
the matter of the duration and the magnitude of 
lunar eclipses. If the moon is eclipsed when she is 
high and far from the earth, she is concealed for a 
little time ; but, if this very thing happens to her 
when she is low and near the earth, she is strongly 
curbed and is slow to get out of the shadow, although 
when she is low her exertions of motion are greatest 
and when she is high they are least. The reason for 
the difference lies in the shadow, which being broadest 
at the base, as cones are, and gradually contracting 
terminates at the vertex in a sharp and fine tip. Con- 
sequently the moon, if she has met the shadow^ when 

(p. 210. 6-19 [Ziegier]), 117 (p. 212. 1-12) on the lunar 
eclipse; ii. 5. 113-114. (p. 204. 27 ff.) on the solar eclipse ; 
Geminiis, xii. 5-13 (pp. 138-140 [Manitius]) on the eastward 
motion of sun and moon. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(933) '^ci/x^arerat kvkXols vtt^ avrrjs Kal Starrepa to 
Q ^vOlov Kal GKOTCoSeuTarov avoj S* olov iv revayet 
Slol XeTTTOT-qra rod GKiepov ^('par^ercra ra^^eojs arraA- 
Aarrerat. Trapiiqixi S' ocra x^P^^^ ^^^^ rrpo? rag 
(j)ao€is^ Kal SLa(f)Op'qG€LS iXex^'q (Kal yap CKelvai 
fi€xpi^ y€ rod ivSexofievov TTpoaUvraL ttjv alrlav), 
aAA* eVavayco Trpos rov viroKeifievov Adyov apx'rjv 
exovra rr^v a'tadr^aiv. opthfiev yap on nvp €k tottov 
OKiepov hiacj^aiverai Kal StaAct/XTret fiaXXov etre^ 
iraxvTiqri^ rov (JKorcoSov? depo?, ov SexojJievov rag 
OLTToppevaeLS* Kal StaxvaeLS dXXa ovvexovros ev 
ravrw rr)v ovuiav Kal (jcfytyyovrog , eire rrjg aladri- 
G€(jjg rovro TrdOos ecrrtV, cu? rd Bepfid rrapd rd 

1 W. L. Bevan ; ^daets -E, B. 

2 Leonicus ; em -E, B. 

' Basiliensis ; raxvT-qTi, -E ; TaxvT-fJTi -B. 

* E ; dvopevaeis -B. 

** Cf. De Commnnibus Xotitiis, 1080 r : avrai yap hrirrovdcv 
at Tojv KcoviKoJv rfxruxdrcov iTTi^dveiai kvkXol eloiv. 

" Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 6. 119 (pp. L>11-. 18-L>16. 8 [Ziegler]) ; 
for the observation that the phmets appear to move most 
swiftly when they are nearest to the earth and most slowly 
when they are farthest away cf. Cleomedes, ii. 5. 112-114 
(pp. 202. 26-206. 27), and Theon of Smyrna, p. 135. 6-11 and 
p. 157. 2-12 (Hiller). Plutarch's language, however, implies 
that the moon makes a conscious exertion to accelerate her 
motion when she is near the earth, and in the myth at 941. a 
infra it is stated that she increases her speed in order to 
escape the shadow of the earth. Kepler in note 51 to his 
translation declares that, contrary to what Lucius here says, 
perigee eclipses even when central are briefer than apogee 
eclipses ; and Prickard {Plutarch on the Face of the Moon 
[1911], p. 1 1) says that " ceteris paribus an eclipse of a distant 
moon should be longer by about one fifteenth." Prof. 
Neugebauer informs me that, using the Ptolemaic figures for 
the apparent diameter of the moon and of the earth's shadow 

128 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 933 

she is low, is involved by it in its largest circles " and 
traverses its deep and darkest part ; but above as it 
were in shallow water by reason of the fineness of the 
shadow she is just grazed and quickly gets clean 
away.^ I pass over all that was said besides with 
particular reference to the phases and variations,^ 
for these too, in so far as is possible,^ admit the cause 
alleged ; and instead I revert to the argument before 
us ^ which has its basis in the evidence of the senses. 
We see that from a shadowy place fire glows and 
shines forth more intensely,^ whether because the 
dark air being dense does not admit its effluences and 
diffusions but confines and concentrates the substance 
in a single place or because this is an affection of our 
senses that as hot things appear to be hotter in com- 

and the classical figures given by Geminus for the velocity, 
the maximum totality in apogee should be 4 ; 3, 23'^^ and 
in perigee 3 ; 20, 0^^^ 

'^ Probably a reference to such matters as are discussed by 
Geminus, ix (pp. 124-130 [Manitius]). With ras (jxiaei? Kal 
BLa(f)Ofyqo€Ls cf. " species diversitatesque Lunae," Martianus 
Capella, viii. 871 (p. 459. 15-16 [Dick]). 

^ It is impossible to give an exhaustive and accurately 
scientific explanation of physical phenomena, for they are 
involved in the indeterminateness of matter. Cf. Aristotle, 
Anal. Post. 87 a 31-37 and Metaphysics, 995 a 14-17, 1078 
a 9-13 {cf. Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen, ii. 2, p. 166, 
n. 3) ; and for Plato's more extreme attitude cf. especially 
Timaeus, 29 b-c, Philebus, 56 and 59. Plutarch appears to 
have Philebus, 56 c in mind at Quaest. Conviv. 744 e-f, where 
he makes astronomy " attendant upon " geometry, as he has 
Philebus, 66 a-b in mind at 720 c {cf. R. M. Jones, Class. 
Phil, vii [1912], pp. 76 f.). For the notion of the necessary 
lack of accuracy of the " physical sciences " cf. further Plat. 
Quaest. 1001 e ff. and Quaest. Conviv. 699 b. 

* Cf. note a on 932 d supra. 

f Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 3. 99 (p. 180. 11-13 [Ziegler]) and 
ii. 6. 120-121 (p. 218. 2-3). 

VOL. XII F 129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(933) ipvxpcL depixorepa /cat ras rjSovag rrapa tovs ttovovs 

a<j)oh pore pa's ovrco ra Xafinpa ^aiVccr^at irapa ra 

OKOT€iva (f)av€pd, rolg hia^opois TrdOeGiv avreTn- 

D relvovra rrjv ^avracrtay. eoiKe he TTudavwrepov 

etvat TO nporepov. ev yap tjXlo) ndaa irvpos <f>VGLS 

OV fJLOVOV TO XafXTTpOV aTToXXvOLV dXkd TO) €LK€LV 

ytyveraL Svaepyog Kal dfjL^Xvrepa' okl6vt]gi yap rj 
uepfiOTrjs Kal Siax^l^ rrjv 8uvaju.tr. e'tVcp ovv rj 
aeXi^vr] irvpos €tAo];!^e ^Xrjxpov Kal dSpavov? dorpov 
ovoa doXepojrepov, cooirep avrol XeyovGLV, ovSev (Lv 
7rao-)^ovoa ^atVerat vvv dXXd rdvavria Trdvra Trd- 
ax^LV avTTjv TrpoGTJKov €GTi, (fyaiveoOai jxev ore Kpv- 
E Trrerai KpvTrreaOaL S' oTrryytVa (jyaiveraiy rovreori 
KpvTTreoOaL fiev top dXXov xP^''^ov vtto tov nepu- 
exovTOS aidepos dp-avpovpievrjv eKXdjjLTreLV Se Kal 
yiyveudai Karacfyavrj St' e^ fJL-qvojv Kal irdXiv Sid 
irevre rfj gklo. ttjs yrjs VTTohvopulvriv. al ydp TreWe 
Kal i^rjKovra Kal rerpaKoataL rrepiohoL tojv €k- 
XeLTTTLKcov TTavaeXijvajv rds reooapas Kal rerpa- 
KOGias e^afjLrjvovs exovai rd? S' aAAa? 7T€vrapir]vovs . 
eSei roivvv Std togovtcjov xP^'^^'^ ^aiveodai rrjv 
aeX-qvrjv iv rfj OKia XapLTTpwopLev-qv , rj 8' eV (rfj 
OKLay jjLev eVAetVet Kal aTroAAucrt to cfxjj? dvaXafi- 

^ Bernardakis (rf. 989 c 2 infra) ; Sia;^eei -E, B. 
^ Wyttenbach after Turnebus and \ ulcobius ; vac. 5-E, 
4-B ; <auT^> (?)-H. C. 

" Cf. Quomodo Adul. ab Am'tco Internosc. 57 c, De Jlero- 
doti Malignitate, 863 e. 

130 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 933 

parison with cold and pleasures more intense in 
comparison with pains so bright things appear con- 
spicuous when compared with dark, their appearance 
being intensified by contrast to the different im- 
pressions." The former explanation seems to be the 
more plausible, for in sunlight fire of every kind not 
only loses its brilliance but by giving way becomes in- 
effective and less keen, the reason being that the heat 
of the sun disperses and dissipates its potency.^ If, 
then, as the Stoics themselves assert,^ the moon, 
being a rather turbid star, has a faint and feeble fire 
of her own, she ought to have none of the things 
happen to her that now obviously do but the very 
opposite ; she ought to be revealed when she is 
hidden and hidden whenever she is now revealed, 
that is hidden all the rest of the time when she is 
bedimmed by the circumambient ether ^ but shining 
forth and becoming brilliantly clear at intervals of 
six months or again at intervals of five when she sinks 
under the shadow of the earth, since of 465 ecliptic 
full moons 404 occur in cycles of six months and the 
rest in cycles of five months/ It ought to have been 
at such intervals of time then that the moon is re- 
vealed resplendent in the shadow, whereas in (the 
shadow) she is eclipsed and loses her light but regains 

^ Cf. Aristotle, De CaeJo, 305 a 9-13 ; [Alexander], De 
Anima Libri Mantissa, p. 128. 2-7 (Bruns), and the explana- 
tion of the moon's phases ascribed to Antiphon in De Placitis^ 
891 D = Aetius, ii. 28. 4 {Box. Graeci, p. 358). 

*^ See 928 d supra with note d there and 935 b infra. 
Reference to the present passage is omitted in S. V.F. 

^ aWrip is here used in the Stoic sense as in 922 b and 928 
c-D supra. 

* For this period of 465 ecliptic full moons cf. Class. Phil. 
xlvi(1951), p. 145. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(933) ^dvei S' avdig orav eK^vyrj rrjv gklolv /cat ^atVerat 
ye TToXXoLKLS Tjixepas co? rravra /xaAAov r) TTvpivov 
ovcra Gcofxa Kal aorepoeihes ." 
F 21. EtVovTo? 8e TOVTO rod AevKtou, avve^eSpa- 
pLOV a/xa TTOJ? rep (XeyeivY 6 re Oapm^T]? Kal 6 
'ATToAAcuytS')]?. etra rou 'A77oAAajvtSoL' rrapevros^ 
6 ^apvaKTjg elirev on rovro Kal p^dXiara rjjv ae- 
Xijv'i'jv heLKVVGLV dorpov tj nvp ovaav ov yap Ian 
TTavreXcjs dSrjXog eV rat? iKXeiifjeoiv dXXd Sta</>atVet 
nvd xpoav dvdpaKwSrj Kal ^Xoavpdv TJrt? tSto? ianv 
avrrjs. 6 8' 'ATToAAcovtSry? ivearr] nepl rrjs OKids' 
del yap ovrcug dvofjid^eiv rovs^ piadrjpiarLKOv? rov 
dXapLrrrj rorrov GKudv* re pL-r] Se)(ea9aL rov ovpavov. 
934 iyoj Se " rovro pLev " e(f)rjv " rrpds rovvopua pidXXov 
epioriKajs r^ rrpog rd Trpdypia (f)VGLKCo? Kal pLaOrj- 
pLarLKOJS ivLGrapLevov^ • rov ydp dvrLcf)parr6pLevov 
VTTO rrj? yrj? roirov el pur] oKidv ng edeXoL KaXelv 
dXX d(f)eyye£ xcupiov, dpLOjg dvayKolov ev avrw rrjV 
oeXrjvriv yevopLeviqv (errLOKoreloOai rod rjXiaKov 
(fxjjrog GrepopLevr]v.y^ Kal oAca? " e^T^y " evrjdes 
eoriv eKel pL-q (f)dvai rrj? yrj? e^iKveladai rrjv OKidv 

1 H. C. ; vac. 6-E, 5-B. 

2 Wyttenbach after Xylander's version ; rrapovTos -E, B. 
^ ovTios vac. 2 6vafidl^€LV Tovs -E ; ovtcos ovo/xa^eiv vac. 5 

Toiis -B ; lacuna suppressed by Kepler and Wyttenbach. 

* Aldine, Basiliensis ; tottov vac. 4-E, 6-B gklolv (the lacuna 
in E is immediately under that after ovrcog in the line above). 

^ Wyttenbach after Xylander's version ; evLcrTafjLevovs -E, 
B. 

« H. C. {cf. Cleomedes, p. 192. 21-22 [Ziegler]) ; vac. 38-E, 
39-B. 

" For this argument cf. Cleomedes, ii. 4. 103 (p. 182. 10-16 
[Ziegler]). 

^ =S.V.F. ii, frag. 672. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 9. 42 
132 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 933-934 

it again as soon as she escapes the shadow " and is 
revealed often even by day, which imphes that she 
is anything but a fiery and star-Uke body." 

21. When Lucius said this, almost while (he was 
speaking) Pharnaces and ApoUonides sprang forth 
together. Then, ApoUonides having yielded, Phar- 
naces said that this very point above all proves the 
moon to be a star or fire, since she is not entirely 
invisible in her eclipses but displays a colour smoulder- 
ing and grim which is peculiar to her.^ ApoUonides 
raised an objection concerning the " shadow " on the 
ground that scientists always give this name to the 
region that is ^\"ithout light and the heaven does not 
admit shadow.^ " This," I said, " is the objection 
of one who speaks captiously to the name rather than 
like a natural scientist and mathematician to the 
fact. If one refuses to call the region screened by 
the earth ' shadow ' and insists upon calling it ' light- 
less space,' nevertheless when the moon gets into it 
she must (be obscured since she is deprived of the 
solar light). Speaking generally too, it is silly," I 
said, " to deny that the shadow of the earth reaches 

(" deficiens et in defectu tamen conspicua ") ; Olympiodorus, 
In Meteor, p. 67. 36-37 ; Philoponus, In Meteor, pp. 30. 37- 
31. 1 and p. 106. 9-13. The moon is seldom invisible to the 
naked eye even in total eclipses (cf. Dyson and Woolley, 
Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, p. 30 ; C. A. Young, Manual 
of Astronomy [190:2], § 287 ; Boll, s.v. " Finsternisse," R.E. 
vi. 2344) ; and the apparent colour of the moon in total 
eclipse was as late as the 16th century adduced as evidence 
that the moon had light of its own, a notion entertained as 
possible even by W. Herschel {cf. Pixis, Kepler als Geograph, 
pp. 132-133). 

•^ For a Stoic this follows from the definition of ovpavos as 
eaxarov aWipos and TTvpivov {cf. S. V.F. i, p. 33, frags. 115 and 
116 ; S.V.F. ii, frag. 580 [p. 180. 10-12]). 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(934) (^oTTodev xat)^ tj gklol rrj? aeXy'^vr^s eViTrtTrroucra rij 
Sipei Kal (hLrjKovoaY irpos rrjv yrjv €kX€hJjlv rjXiov 
B TTOiet.^ TTpos o€ Se, d) Oapm/cT], rpei/jo fxai. ro yap 
avdpaKwhes CKelvo Kal Sta/cae? XP^H-^ '^'^^ oeXrjvrjg 
o (f)r]g lSlov avTTJg elvai ocxjjjiaros eVrt 7TVKv6rr]Ta 
Kal ^dOos exovTos' ovSev yap ideXec rolg dpatOLS* 
VTroXeiixfjia ^Xoyos ou8' 1x^0? e/x^eVetv ouS' eonv 
dvB paKoyev€Gis ov jjirf Grepepiviov oajfia he^dpievov 
Slol ^ddovs TTjv TTvpajoriv Kal croj^ov/ co? ttov Kal 

"OfJLTjpOS €iprjK€V 

avrdp CTret nvpo? dvOos dTreTrraro Travoaro he 

cf>X6i 

dvdpaKLTjv GTopeaag. . . .' 

o yap dvdpa^ eoiKev ov TTvp dXXd aaJpLa TreTTvpoj- 
puevov elvai Kal rreTTOvdos VTro rrvpos, arepecp Kal 
pil,av exovTL TrpoopLevovros oyKco Kal Trpoohiarpi^ov- 
C TOSy at Se (f)X6yes dpaids elcnv e'^aifjis Kal pevpLara 
rpocfirj? Kal vXrjg, raxv 8t' dadeveiav dvaXvopLevrjg, 
OJGT ovhev dv VTTTJpxe rov^ yeujhr] Kal ttvkvtjv elvai, 
Tr]v GeXrivqv erepov ovtojs evapyes reKpLT^pcov etirep 

^ Purser (implied by Amyot's version) ; vac. 10-E, 9-B. 
2 Turnebus ; vac. 6-E, 9-B. 
^ -Anon., Aldine, K.J. 94 ; TToielv -E, B. 
* Xylander ; apxalois -E, B. 

^ Wvttenbach ; ov p.r}v -E, B (for the same scribal error cf. 
Aristotle, Politics, 1801 b 27). « Xylander; adAa>v -E, B. 
' E ; oTopiaaaa -\^. ^ E ; omitted by B. 

" Cf. 922 A-R svpra. With dvdpaKoyeviais, " incandes- 
cence," Raingeard compares avOpaKo-noua in Gregory of 
Nyssa, iii. 937 a. 

134 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 934 

that point (from which on its part) the shadow of 
the moon by impinging upon the sight and (extend- 
ing) to the earth produces an ecUpse of the sun. 
Now I shall turn to you, Pharnaces. That smoulder- 
ing and glowing colour of the moon which you say 
is peculiar to her is characteristic of a body that is 
compact and a solid, for no remnant or trace of flame 
will remain in tenuous things nor is incandescence 
possible unless there is a hard body that has been 
ignited through and through and sustains the igni- 
tion/* So Homer too has somewhere said : 

But when fire's bloom had fiown and flame had ceased 
He smoothed the embers. . . .^ 

The reason probably is that what is igneous ^ is not 
fire but body that has been ignited and subjected 
to the action of fire, which adheres to a solid and 
stable mass and continues to occupy itself with it, 
whereas flames are the kindling and flux of tenuous 
nourishment or matter which because of its feeble- 
ness is swiftly dissolved. Consequently there would 
be no other proof of the moon's earthy and compact 
nature so manifest as the smouldering colour, if it 

" Hiad, ix. 212-213 in our texts read : 

avrap inel Kara rrvp eKa-q kol </>Ao^ efxapdvdr], 
dvOpaKiijv oTopeoas o^iXovs e(f>V7Tepde Tcivvaae, 

but the first line as Plutarch gives it was known to Aristarchus, 
who rejected it {cf. Ludwich, Aristarchs Homerische Text- 
kritik, i, p. 302 ; Eustathius, Ad Iliadem, 748. 41 ; Scholia 
Graeca in Homerl Iliadem, ed. Dindorf, i, p. 312). 

" Purser has pointed out {Hermathena, xvi [1911], p. 316) 
that dvdpa^ may mean all degrees of burning coal from com- 
plete incandescence to ashes and that fire's need of solid 
matter to work upon was often used as an argument against 
the Stoic conflagration of the world : cf. Philo, De Aeter- 
nitate Mundi, §§ 86-88 (vi, pp. 99. 14-100. 10 [Cohn-Reiter]). 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(934) avTTJg lSlov rjv cu? ;^ptDjU.a to dvOpaKcoSeg. dXX* 
ovK eoTLV, (L (f)iX€ (t>apvdK'r]' noXXd? 7^9^ eKXei- 
TTovoa^ Xpdas dpiei^ei^ /cat hiaipovGiv aura? ovtojs 
ol jxadrfpiaTLKol Kara xpovov Kal copav d^opil,ovT€S. 
dv d(f)^ idTrepag e/cAetVr] ^atVerat fxeXaiva Setvco? 
dxpi' TpiTrjS a)pas Kal rnxiG^ias' dv he jJieGT], tovto 

St] to ItTK^OLVLOGOV LTjGL [/Cat TTVpY Kal TTVpCOTTOV 

drro 8' e^SojU-T]? (Zpag Kal rjfjLLGeLa? dviGrarai to 
D epvdrqjxa' Kal reXos rjS-q^ rrpo? eco Xajjij^dvet^ ;!^poav 
Kvavo€LSrj Kal x'^P^'^W ^4^^ V^ ^V '^^^ fidXiGra 
yXavKcuTTiv ' avrrjv ol TTOirjral Kal 'E/XTreSo/cA-r^? 
dva/<:aAo{JvTat. roGavras ovv xP^ols €V rfj gklo. rrjv 
GeXrjVTjv XafijidvovGav opcovreg ovk opdcos inl 
pLOVov Kara(j)ipovTai rd dvdpaKcohes o pidXiGTa 
(^rjGai TLs dv dXXoTpiov avrrjs etvai Kal pidXXov 
VTTopLLypLa Kal XetpLpia rod (l)(X)Tds Std rrjs GKids 

^ Turnebus ; ras- -E, B. 

2 Diibner (implied by Xylander's and Amyot's versions) ; 
eVAeiTTOUCTas -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach (implied by Amyot's version) ; d/neijSeir -E, 
B. * Excised by Emperius. 

^ B; rfh-q -E. « Stephanus (1624) ; Xafi^dvav -E, B. 

" Cf. A^milius Paulns, 17 (264- b), Siclas, 23 (538 e) and 
for a description and explanation of the phenomenon cf. Sir 
John Herschel, Outlines of Astronomy, §§ 421-4-24-, and 
J, F. J. Schmidt, Der Mond (Leipzig, 1836), p. 35. Astrology 
assigned special signiticance to the various colours of the 
moon in total eclipse : cf. Catalof/us Codicum Astrologorum 
Graecorum, vii (Brussels, 1908),' p. 131. 6 ff. ; Ptolemy, 
ApoteUsmatica, ii. 14. 4-5 (pp. 101-102 [Boll-Boer]) and ii. 
10. 1-2 (pp. 91-92) ; and Boll in R.E. vi. 2350 assumes that 
by fjLad7]fj,aTLKOL in the present passage Plutarch means " astro- 
logers " (but see 937 f infra). Neither there nor in his article, 
" Antike Beobachtungen farbiger Sterne," does Boll mention 

136 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 934 

really were her own. But it is not so, my dear Phar- 
naces, for as she is eclipsed she exhibits many changes 
of colour which scientists have distinguished as 
follows, delimiting them according to time or hour." 
If the eclipse occurs between eventide and half after 
the third hour, she appears terribly black ; if at 
midnight, then she gives off this reddish and fiery 
colour ; from half after the seventh hour a blush 
arises ^ on her face ; and finally, if she is eclipsed 
when dawn is already near, she takes on a bluish 
or azure ^ hue, from which especially it is that the 
poets and Empedocles give her the epithet ' bright- 
eyed.' '^ Now, when one sees the moon take on so 
many hues in the shadow, it is a mistake to settle 
upon the smouldering colour alone, the very one that 
might especially be called alien to her and rather an 
admixture or remnant of the light shining round 
about through the shadow, while the black or earthy 

any classification of the colours according to the time of the 
eclipse, however, nor does Gundel, s.v. " Mond " in R.E. 
xvi. 1. 101-102. Geminus's calendar for the different phases 
of the moon (ix. 14-15 [pp. 138-130, Manitius]) has no con- 
nection with this matter and so is not, as Adler supposes 
(Diss. Phil. Vlnd. x, p. 157), an indication that Plutarch's 
source in the present passage was Posidonius. 

* This, pace Prickard, must be the meaning of aviaraTai 
here ; cf. dvioTa^evos in Pompey, 34 (637 d) and avaoTavros in 
Appian, B.C. i, 56 (ii, p. 61. 7 [Mendelssohn-Viereck]). 

" In Marius, 11 (411 d) xapoTroTTj? is used of the eye-colour 
of the Teutons and Cimbrians, and in De hide, 352 d the 
colour of the flax-flower is said to resemble rfj -nepi^xovari rov 
Koofxov aldepio} ;fapo77o'Ti7Ti. 

'^ See 929 d supra and note b there ; but Diels {Hermes, 
XV [1880], p. 176) because of dva/caAowrat thought that 
Plutarch must here have had in mind a verse of Empedocles 
that ended with the invocation, yXavKcoin 'L€Xt]V7). Cf. also 
Euripides, frag. 1009 (Nauck-). 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(934) TTepiXdyLTTovTos i-'Stov 8e to /xeAav koI yecbhes. ottov 
hk 7Top(f)vpLGLV evravda /cat (jyoiviKiai At/xvat? re kol 
TToraiioZs hexofJievoLg tJXlov eVtcr/cta )((x>pia yetr- 
VLCJJvra Gvyxp<^^^TaL /cat rre piXdfXTTer ai hid rds 
dva/cAacret? dTTohihovra ttoXXovs kol htaffjopovs 

E aTravyaupiovSy rl OavfiaaTov et pevfia ttoXv oKids 
ifi^dXXov a)G7T€p €LS TTeXayos ovpdviov ov araOepov 
^OJTOS" ovS^ TjpefjLovvTOS dXXd fxvpioLS durpoLS nept- 
eXavvojJievov^ pii^eis re TravroSaTras' /cat /xera/SoAas* 
XafJL^dvoVTOs dXXr]v dXXore xpoav eKfiarTopievov dno 
rrj? GeXrjvr^s evravd^ dTTohihcoGiv ; dorpov [xev ydp 
Tj TTvp ovK dv iv GKLa Sia(f)av€Lrj fieXav rj yXavKov 
Tj Kvavoeches, opeGL 8e /cat TreStots" /cat daXdGGais 

F TToAAat pLcv a0' rjXiov fJiop(j)ai ;^pa;/>taTajv eTnrpi- 
XovGL, /cat GKials /cat o/xt;)^Aat? ota? cfyappidKOis 
ypa(f)iKOL9 ixiyvvfxevov indyei ^a(f)d? to Xa/jiTrpov. 
(Lv rd fi€V rrfs daXdrrr]? i7nKex^ipy]f<€v dficoGyeTTCos 
€^ovopidl,€iv "OfJLTjpos ' toetSea ' KaXojv /cat ' oivoira 
TTOVTOV ' avdis Se ' 7rop(f)dp€ov KVfia ' ' yXavKrjv ' 
t' dXXoJS ' ddXaGGav ' /cat ' XevKrjV yaXrjvrjv ' rds 
8e TTepl TTjV yrjv Sta^opa? rcov a'AAoT* dXXcos inL- 
(f)aLVOfjievwv ;YP^/^ctTa>v TraprJKev cos dTreipovs to 
TrXrjdog ovGag. ttjv Se aeATyvryv oi)/c et/cos" oiGnep^ 
TTjv OdXaGGav fxiav ^x^cv l7n^dv€iav dXX eot/ceVat 
[idXiGra rfj yfj rrjv (j)VGiv 7]v ifMvdoXoyei HcoKpdrrjs 

^ K ; iXavvofxevov -B. 
^ E ; omitted in B. 

° Ke])ler remarks on this sentence (note 56) : " Ecce 
Plutarchum meae sententiae proxime accedentem, nisi quod 
non dic.it, a quo lucente sit illud lumen, num ab aethere, an 
a wSole ipso, per refractionem ejus radiorum." 

^ Cf. the similar but more elaborate description in De 

138 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 934 

colour should be called her own.^ Since here on earth 
places near lakes and rivers open to the sun take on 
the colour and brilliance of the purple and red awnings 
that shade them, by reason of the reflections giving 
off many various effulgences, what wonder if a great 
flood of shade debouching as it were into a heavenly 
sea of light, not calm or at rest but undergoing all 
sorts of combinations and alterations as it is churned 
about by countless stars, takes from the moon at 
different times the stain of different hues and pre- 
sents them to our sight ? ^ A star or fire could 
not in shadow shine out black or glaucous or bluish ; 
but over mountains, plains, and sea flit many kinds 
of colours from the sun, and blended with the shadows 
and mists his brilliance ^ induces such tints as bril- 
liance does when blended with a painter's pigments. 
Those of the sea Homer has endeavoured somehow 
or other to designate, using the terms ' violet ' ^ and 
' wine-dark deep ' ^ and again ' purple swell ' ^ and 
elsewhere ' glaucous sea ' ^ and ' white calm ' ^ ; but 
he passed over as being an endless multitude the 
variations of the colours that appear differently at 
different times about the land. It is likely, however, 
that the moon has not a single plane surface like the 
sea but closely resembles in constitution the earth 
that the ancient Socrates made the subject of a myth ^^ 

Genio Socratis, 590 c fT., where the stars are islands moving in 
a celestial sea, and also De Sera jViiminis Vindicta, 563 e-f. 

"^ For XafMTTpov, " brilliance,''' as a colour cf. Plato, Timaeus, 
68 A ; Theophrast'is calls it to TTvpojhes Aeu/cdv {Be Sensibus, 
§ 86 [Box. Graeci, p. 525. 331). '^ ^-9- lUad, xi. 298. 

« e.g. Iliad, i. 350. ^ e.g. Iliad, i. 481-482. 

^ Only in Iliad, xvi. 34 {cf. Scholia Graeca in Homeri 
Iliadem, ed. Diiidorf, ii, p. 92). 

f" Odyssey, x. 94. ' Plato, Phaedo, 110 b ff. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

935 o naXatog etre Sr] ravrrfv alvirroyievos ^Ire hrj 
aXXrjv TLva hn^yovixevos' ov yap aTnorov ovhk dav- 
fiaarov el ynqhev e^ovoa Siecfydopog {eV)^ cavrfj /xt^S' 
lAuoiSe? dAAct </>cDs" re KapTTovfj^evrj Kadapov i^ ov- 
pavov KOL depixoTTjTos ov ScaKaovs ovSe piavLKov 
TTvpog dXXa vorepov^ Kal a^Xa^ovs koL Kara (jivoiv 
exovros ovoa TrXripr]? kolXXt] re davpLaara /ce/cro^rat 
roTTCov oprj re (^XoyoeiSi] Kal l,cx)vas dXovpyovs^ 
€;^et, XP^^^^ '^^ '^^^ dpyvpov ovk ev ^ddei hieuirap- 
piivov dXXd rrpos rols Trehiois e^avOovvra ttoXvv t) 
TTpos vipeaL XeioLg TrepccfiaivopLevov .* el 8e rovrcov 

B oifjLg dcfiLKvelraL Sid rrjs OKids d'AAor' dXXiq irpds 
Tjpids e^aXXayfj Kal Suacfiopa rivi rod jrepiexovros, 
ro ye pLTjv ripnov ovk dnoXXvoi rrjs So^t]? ovSe rd 
Belov Tj aeX-^VT], (y)ri ns^ (oXvpLiria /cat)® lepd rrpos 
dvdpcoTTCDv vopiLl,opLevr] pidXXov tj' nvp doXepdv ojurrep 
ol ^ra>LKol XeyovGi Kal rpvycoSes. rrvp piev ye 
irapd Mt^Sois" Kal ^ Kaovpiois ^ap^apiKds ex^i 
ripids, ot <j)6^cp rd ^Xdrrrovra deparrevovoi rrpd rcbv 
crepLVcov d(f)OGLOvpLevoLy ro Se yrjs ovopua rravri ttov 
(jiiXov "EAAr^vt Kal ripnov Kal rrarpwov rjpuv (Larrep 

C d'AAoy nvd deov^ Ge^eodai. ttoXXov he heopiev* 

1 Emperius ; omitted without lacuna -E, B. 
^ voepov ? -H. C. ^ E ; aXovpyas -B. 

* Bernardakis (c/. Brutus, 42 [1004. a] ; Pompey, 19 [628 
d] ; Fabius Max. 5 [176 e]) ; ■nepi<f)€p6pLei>ov -E, B. 

5 Emperius ; lyns- -E, B. 

* Bernardakis {cf. 935 c infra and De Defect n Oracidorum, 
416 e) ; vac. 9-E, 13-B. ' Tiirnebus"; ^ piaXXov -E, B. 

^ B ; decov -E. ^ Basiliensis ; Set 6'C /xev -E ; Bel ol fxev -B. 

<* " This one," ravr-qv, means the earth, not the moon, as 
most translators since Wyttenbach have thought ; " some 
other," aXXrjv two., means " some other earth," which is 
exactly what Lamprias believes the moon to be. So Lamprias 

140 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 935 

whether he really was speaking in riddles about this 
earth or was giving a description of some other." It 
is in fact not incredible or wonderful that the moon, 
if she has nothing corrupted or slimy <in> her but 
garners pure light from heaven and is filled with 
warmth, which is fire not glo^\'ing or raging but 
moist ^ and harmless and in its natural state, has got 
open regions of marvellous beauty and mountains 
flaming bright and has zones of royal purple with 
gold and silver not scattered in her depths but burst- 
ing forth in abundance on the plains or openly \isible 
on the smooth heights.^ If through the shadow 
there comes to us a glimpse of these, different at 
different times because of some variation and differ- 
ence of the atmosphere, the honourable repute of 
the moon is surely not impaired nor is her divinity 
because she is held by men to be a (celestial and) 
holy earth rather than, as the Stoics say, a fire turbid 
and dreggish.'^ Fire, to be sure, is given barbaric 
honours among the Medes and Assyrians, who from 
fear by way of propitiation worship the maleficent 
forces rather than the reverend ; but to every Greek, 
of course, the name of earth is dear and honourable, 
and it is our ancestral tradition to revere her like any 
other god. As men we are far from thinking that the 

means that what Socrates said must be considered as a riddle 
if he was really talking about our earth but can be taken as 
straightforward description if he was referring to " some 
other earth," i.e. the moon. 

^ Or, if vorepoy is a scribal error for voepov, " intellectual " ; 
cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 145. 

" The details of this description were suggested by Phaedo, 
110 c — 111 c, to which Plutarch has referred above. 

^ See 928 d and 933 d supra. The present passage is not 
listed in S. V.F. 

141 



PIA TARCH'S MORALTA 

(935) dvdpojTTOL rrjv oeXiqvqVy yr)v ovoav dAu/X7rtav, dipvxov 
r^yeZodai ocofxa koX avow /cat dfjiOLpov ojv Oeols 
dirapx^crdaL TrpoGrjKei voficv re tojv dyadcov d/xot^a? 
rivovras /cat /cara (f)VGLV G€^ofi€Vov? ro KpeiTTOV 
dperfj /cat Svi'dfxeL /cat rifxuxirepov. ware firjSev 
OLcofxeda TrXrjpLjjLeXeLV yrji'^ avrrjv defxevoL ro 8e 
(fyaLVOfjievov tovtl TrpoacoTTOv avrrjg, (Zarrep rj Trap" 
TjiiLV e^^c yrj koAttous" rtvas" fieydXovg, ovtojs 
€K€Lvrjv dveTTTVxOaL ^ddecTL pi^ydXois /cat prj^eGiv 
vScop rj ^o(f)ep6v depa TrepUxovuiv d)v ivros ov 
KadlrjUiV ouS' eTTufjavei ro rov tjXlov <f)cog dAA' 
e/cAetTret /cat SieaTTaGfiev-qv ivravOa rrjv dm/cAaatv 

dTToStSoJGLV." 

D 22. 'YnoXa^ajv 8' d 'AttoAAcuviSt^? " etr', (I> irpos 
avrrjg " €(f)r] " rrjg aeXrjvqs, hvvarov etvai So/cet 
v/jLLV prjyjjidrwv rivojv r) ^apdyyojv elvai GKids 
KaKeWev d(f)iKvelGdai hevpo npog rr]v oi/jlv, rj ro 
GVfJL^aLVov ov Xoyil,€ade Kayoj rovrl etTTCo ; d/cou- 
otre Srj^ Kairrep ovk dyvoovvreg. rj [xev hidp^erpos 
rrjg oeXrjVTjs Suo/catSe/ca haKrvXovg e;^et to (fiatvo- 
fjL€vov eV TOts" fxeGOL? dTTOGrrjpiaGL fieyeOog. rcjjv 
he fxeXdvojv /cat GKiepcov cKaGrov T^ixihaKrvXiov 
^aiverai pL€Zt,ov ojGre rrj? hLafierpov /xetjov ^ 

E €LKOGroreraprov etvat. /cat pirjv, et fxovojv vtto- 
doLfJLeda rrfv irepip^erpov ri]? GeXrjvqs rpLGp^vplcov 
Grahiwv pivpiojv he rrjv hidfierpov, /card ro vtto- 
KelfJievov ovk eXarrov dv e'irf TrevraKOGicov Grahiajv 

^ Basiliensis ; ttjv -E, B. 

2 Turnebus ; d/coyoiTe 8e -E, B (but B has this phrase after 
KaL-nep ovk aYvoovvTeg). 

^ Turnebus ; elvat -E, B. 

11-2 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 935 

moon, because she is a celestial " earth, is a body 
without soul and mind and without share in the first- 
fruits that it beseems us to oflPer to the gods, according 
to custom requiting them for the goods we have 
received and naturally revering what is better and 
more honourable in virtue and power. Consequently 
let us not think it an offence to suppose that she is 
earth and that for this which appears to be her face, 
just as our earth has certain great gulfs, so that earth 
yawns with great depths and clefts which contain 
water or murky air ; the interior of these the light 
of the sun does not plumb or even touch, but it fails 
and the reflection which it sends back here is dis- 
continuous." ^ 

22. Here Apollonides broke in. " Then by the 
moon herself," he said, " do you people think it 
possible that any clefts and chasms cast shadows 
which from the moon reach our sight here ; or do 
you not reckon the consequence, and shall I tell you 
Avhat it is ? Please listen then, though it is not any- 
thing unknown to you. The diameter of the moon 
measures twelve digits in apparent size at her mean 
distance '^ ; and each of the black and shado\\y spots 
appears greater than half a digit and consequently 
would be greater than one twenty-fourth of her 
diameter. Well then, if we should suppose that the 
circumference of the moon is only thirty thousand 
stades and her diameter ten thousand, each of the 
shadowy spots on her would in accordance with the 

<* See note c on 929 a supra. 

^ For this " discontiniiousness " of the reflection cf. 921 c 
supra and especially Quaest. Conviv. 696 a-c. 

'^ Cf. Cleomedes, ii. 3. 95 (p. 172. 25-27 [Zieglerl) ; on this 
measurement of 12 digits cf. Heath, Aristarchus cf Samos, 
p. 23, n. 1. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(935) €v avT fj Tcov OKiepcov eKaarov. opa Srj npcoTov 
dv fj Svvarov rfj GeXi^vrj r-qXiKavra ^adt] /cat ri^At- 
Kavrag etvaL rpaxvrrjrag (Lore gklolv rroieZv roa- 
avTTjv, eVetra ttcDs" ovaau nqXiKavrai to fxeyedog 
v(f)* rjfjLwv ovx opojVTai." Kayoj /xctStaora? 7rp6? 
avTOU " euy' " ecfyrjv " on roiavTTjv e^evprjKas dno- 
SeL^LV, oj ^ AttoXXcdvlSt] , 8t' rj? Kapie koL oavrov 
F aTToSet^et? rcov 'AAcoaScDr^ eKeivtov etvac pbeit^ovas^ 
ovK €v dnai'TL pbevroi xpovcp rrjg rjpiepag dXXd Trpcm 
pLaXicrra Kac SelXr]?, (et)^ o'Ui, rd? GKidg -qpbojv rod 
rjXlov TTOiovvros -qXi^drovs, rov KaXov rovrov 
aladrjoei rrapix^iv GvXXoyLapLov cos", et /xeya to 
GKLal,6pL€vov, vveppLeyede? to OKta^ov. iv A'qpLVco 
pL€v ovSerepo? rjpidjv €V otS' otl yeyove, rovrl p^evroi 
TO dpvXovpi€vov* lapL^elov dpi^oTepoL TToXXaKis dKiq- 

^ Diibner ; aAAoiaSoji' -E ; aXcodhiov B. 

^ E ; /xet'^ova? flvai -B. 

^ Emperius : hilXrj?. oUl -E, B ; heiXiqs, (os} oUi -Purser. 

* H. C. (c/. Quaest. Conviv. 641 b, De Aud. Poetis, 17 f and 
36 B, De Amic. M^iltitudine, 94 a, De Cominunibus Notitiis, 
1078 c, De Stoicorum Rgpugnantiis, 1050 b) ; TcOpvXXrjfxevov 
-E ; OpvXXovfjLcvov -B. 

** Apollonides exaggerates for the sake of his point, for 
500 stades is ^a, not ^V of 10,000 ; but he has guarded him- 
self by saying that each of the spots is mo7-e than half a digit 
and so moi-e than ^\ of the diameter. On the other hand, 
he intends his estimate of the moon's size to err, if at all, on 
the side of conservatism : cf. " only thirty thousand stades." 
Such small figures, even as minima, are remarkable, however. 
Cleomedes (ii. 1. 80-81 [pp. 146. 25-148. 3, Ziegler]) gives 

144 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 935 

assumption measure not less than five hundred stades." 
Consider now in the first place whether it is possible 
for the moon to have depths and corrugations so great 
as to cast such a large shadow ; in the second place 
why, if they are of such great magnitude, we do not 
see them." Then I said to him with a smile : " Con- 
gratulations for having discovered such a demon- 
stration, Apollonides. It would enable you to prove 
that both you and I are taller than the famous sons 
of Aloeus,^ not at every time of day to be sure but 
early in the morning particularly and in late after- 
noon, (if), when the sun makes our shadows enor- 
mous, you intend to supply sensation with this lovely 
reasoning that, if the shadow cast is large, what casts 
the shadow is immense. I am well aware that neither 
of us has been in Lemnos ; we have both, however, 

40,000 stades as the lunar diameter, basing this upon the 
assumption that the earth is twice as large as the moon and 
has a circumference of 250,000 stades according to the 
measurement of Eratosthenes and a diameter therefore of 
" more than 80,000 stades." Plutarch adopted the same 
figure for the terrestrial diameter (see 925 d supra) but sup- 
posed this and the terrestrial circumference to be three times 
those of the moon (see 923 b supra and note d there), figures 
which should have given him more than 26,000 stades as the 
lunar diameter. According to Hultsch, however, Posidonius 
must have calculated the lunar diameter to be 12,000 stades 
(cf. Ahhand. K. Gesell. Wissensch. zu Gottingen, Phil.-Hist. 
Kl., X.F. i, Xo. 5, p. 38), which by the usual approximation 
would have given 36,000 stades for the lunar circumference ; 
and Apollonides' minimal estimate may have been based 
upon these figures. For the common " rough approxima- 
tion " 3-1 as the relation of circumference to diameter cf. 
Archimedes, Arenarius, ii. 3 {02:)era Omnia, ii, p. 234-. 28-29 
[Heiberg]). 

^ Otus and Ephialtes : cf. Be Exilio, 602 d ; Iliad, v. 385- 
387 ; Odyssey, xi. 305-320 ; Apollodorus, Bihliotheca, i. 7. 4. 
2-4. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(935) KoajjLev 

"Adojs KaXviJjeL^ TrXevpa^ Ar^fivLas ^oos' 
eTTL^dXkei yap r) gklo. rod opovs, ojg €olk€, ;^aA/<:ea) 

936 TLvl ^OlSlCx), pLTjKOS a7T0T€LV0VGa StO. T"^? daXdrTT]? 

OVK eXarrov eTrraKooiajv orahiojv. (aXX ov XP'^ 
SrjTTOvdev eTTTaKoalajv crraStcov)' to /caracr/cta^ov 
yj/fos" €Lvai Sid rrjv alrtav on rroXXaTrXaGLOVs at rod 
(fyojTos dTToordaeLS rcbv aojpLdrojv rds oKids ttolovoi. 
hevpo St) Beo) kol rrjs aeXrjvrjg ore 7Tdp.pir]v6s eon 
KOL fidXiGTa TTjv ISeav evapdpov rod TrpoGconov 
^advrrjTL rrjS GKids aTTohlScoGL to jxeyLGrov drr- 
€)(ovra hidGTTjfjia rdv rjXiov tj ydp diroGTaGis rod 
<J)ojt6s avTTj TT^v GKidv fjieydXrjv ov rd fjicyedrj rojv 
VTTep rr^v GeXrjvrjv avco/xaAtcov 7T€7tol7]K€. Kal firjv 
ovSe rcJov opcov* rdg VTrepo^ds etocrt /xe^' rjixlpaV" at 
B TTepLavyal rod -qXtov KadopaGOai, rd pulvroi ^aOea 
KOL KolXa (jiaiverai koi GKLwSr] TToppcodev. ovSev 
ovv droTTov el kol rrjS GeXrjvqg t7]v dvriXajJuljiv^ /cat 
rov i7TL(f)OJTLGiJ.6v OVK €GTL Kadopdv aKpL^d)? at 8e 

^ E, B ; KaXvTTTei -\'an Ilerwerden. 

2 Aldine, Basiliensis ; TrAeupa? -E, B^ ; TrXevpas -B^. 

^ H. C. after Purser's (ov xPl 8f €TTTaKooicov oraBlcov) ; no 
lacuna in E or B ; lacuna indicated in Xylander's version ; 
" (At non ideo tantam facienius illam) altitudinem," etc. 
-Kepler. 

^ B ; opoJv -E. 

^ Stephanus (1624) ; fiedrjfjLcpav -E, B. 

* Apelt ; avT LX-qijjiv -E, B. 



" The verse, which comes from an unidentified tragedy of 
Sophocles, is elsewhere quoted with KoXv-mei or oKidCei and 
with TrXevpd or vcora {rf. Nauck, Iro^. Graec. Frag.^, p. 299, 
frag. 708). lM)r the shadoM' of Athos cast upon Lenmos cf. 

146 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 935-936 

often heard this Hue that is on everyone's Ups : 
Athos will veil the l.emnian heifer's flank." 

The point of this apparently is that the shadow of the 
mountain, extending not less than seven hundred 
stades over the sea,^ falls upon a little bronze heifer ; 
(but it is not necessary, I presume.) that what casts 
the shadow be (seven hundred stades) high, for the 
reason that shadoAvs are made many times the size 
of the objects that cast them by the remoteness of 
the light from the objects.^ Come then, observe that, 
when the moon is at the full and because of the 
shadow's depth exhibits most articulately the appear- 
ance of the face, the sun is at his maximum distance 
from her. The reason is that the remoteness of the 
light alone and not the magnitude of the irregularities 
on the surface of the moon has made the shadow 
large. Besides, even in the case of mountains the 
dazzling beams of the sun prevent their crags from 
being discerned in broad daylight, although their 
depths and hollows and shado^\y parts are visible 
from afar. So it is not at all strange that in the case 
of the moon too it is not possible to discern accurately 
the reflection and illumination, whereas the juxta- 

Plinv, Xat. Hist. iv. 12 {23). 73 ; Apollonius Rhodius, i. 
601-604 ; Proclus, In Timaeum, 56 b (i, p. 181. 12 ff. [Diehl]). 

^ Proclus {loc. cit.) says that this is the distance of Lemnos 
from Athos, Plutarch rather that it is the length of the shadow- 
cast by the mountain. According; to Eustathius {Ad Iliadem, 
980. 45 ff.), Athos is 300 stades distant from Lemnos, accord- 
ing to Pliny {loc. cit.) 87 Roman miles (unless this is a scribal 
error for XXXXVII). The actual distance is said to be about 
50 miles ; and Athos, which is 6350 feet high, could cast a 
shadow for almost 100 miles over open sea. 

"^ In this Plutarch is guilty either of an error or of an 
intentional sophism ; cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 145, 

147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(936) Tojv GKiepcov 7Tapad€G€LS Trapa ra XafiTrpa rfj 8ta- 
(jiopd rrjv oipLV ov XavOdvovGiv. 

23. 'AAA' €i<€lvo fjidXXov " €(f)rjv " iXeyx^f-v Sok€l 
TTjv XeyojjLevTjv dvaKXaoLV oltto rrjs aeXi^vr^s, on rovs 
iv ralg ava/cAco/xevat? avyalg iarcoras ov jLtovov 
GVfJL^aLveL TO ^coTt^o/xei'ov opdv dXXd /cat to <^cd- 
ril^ov. orav yap avyrj? d(/)' vSarog npog Tot^^or 

C dXXoiJL€vrjs oijjLS iv avrco rep TrecfycoTLGpLevcp Kara 
TTjv dvoLKXaGLV TOTTOj ylvrjraL, to, rpia KaOopa, ttjv 
t' dvaKXcopievrji' avyrjv Kal to ttolovv vSojp rr]V 
dvaKXaGiV Kal rov tJXlov avTov defy* ov to (f)a)? to) 
vSari TrpoGTTLTTTOV dvaK€KXaGraL. tovtcov 8' ofJLO- 
XoyovjJLevcxJV Kal (f)aLVop.€VOJv KeXevovGt rovs dva- 
KXaoec (/)Ct»TtJeo-^at rr^v yrjv vtto rrjs oeXrjvqs 
d^Lovvras eTTiSeiKVvvaL vvKTCop ep,(f)aLv6iJL€vov rfj 
G€X7]vr] rov tJXlov wGrrep ifjLcfyaiveraL ro) vhari jLte^' 
Tjpiepav^ orav dm/cAaotS" cxtt'^ avrov yevqrai- fir] 
(fyaLVOjjLevov 8e toutou Kar^ dXXov olovrai rpoTTov 
ovK dva/cAaCTet yiyveGdai rov (fiajriGpLov el Se (jltj 

D rovro, fi-qSe yrjv etvai rr]v G€X7]vr]v." " ri ovv " 

€<j)ri " TTpos avrovs XeKreov " 6 * AiroXXajVLSr]? . 

KOLvd yap €olk€ Kal rrpos rfpids elvac rd rrjg 

^ E ; fiedrjfiepav -B. 
2 Wyttenbach (implied by version of Kepler) ; utt' -E, B. 

" i.e. the image of the sun in the water or the reflecting 
surface. 

^ i.e. by the Stoics ; cf. e.g. the argument of Cleomedes 
(ii. 4. 101-102 [p. 184. 4 ff., Ziegler]) against the explanation 
of the moon's light as reflection. The following argument in 
this passage is printed by von Arnim, S.V.F. ii, p. 199 as 
frag. 675 of Chrysippus. 

"^ For the idiom, kolvov koL -npos riva dvaL, cf. Lvculius, 

148 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 936 

positions of the shado\\y and brilliant parts by reason 
of the contrast do not escape our sight. 

23. There is this, however," I said, " which seems 
to be a stronger objection to the alleged reflection 
from the moon. It happens that those who have 
placed themselves in the path of reflected rays see not 
only the object illuminated but also what illuminates 
it. For example, if when a ray of light rebounds from 
water to a wall the eye is situated in the place that 
is itself illuminated by the reflection, the eye discerns 
all three things, the reflected ray and the water that 
causes the reflection and the sun itself,^ the source 
of the light w^hich has been reflected by impinging 
upon the water. On the basis of these admitted and 
apparent facts those who maintain that the moon 
illuminates the earth with reflected light are bidden 
(by their adversaries) ^ to point out in the moon at 
night an appearance of the sun such as there is in 
water by day whenever there is a reflection of the 
sun from it. Since there is no such appearance, (these 
adversaries) think that the illumination comes about 
in another way and not by reflection and that, if 
there is not reflection, neither is the moon an earth." 
" What response must be made to them then ? " said 
Apollonides, " for the characteristics of reflection 
seem to present us with a problem in common." ^ 

44 {5-21 a) and 45 (522 b). Apollonides is a geometer (c/. 
920 F and 925 a-b supra) who had expressed admiration for 
Clearchus's theory of reflection from the moon (c/. 921b supra); 
by /cat TTpos rjixds here he means that the objection just raised 
to reflection from the moon constitutes a difficulty for the 
theory which he has espoused as well as for that of Lamprias 
and Lucius which he has just attacked. Lamprias in his 
reply, however, contends that the physical characteristics 
of the moon on his theory, the very characteristics to which 
Apollonides has just objected (935 d-e), will explain why the 

149 



PLl'TARCH'S MORALIA 

(936) avaKXaGeoj?." " dfieXet rporrov riva " e(j)'i^v iyo) 
Koivd, rpoTTOv 8' aAAov ovhe^ kolvol. npcorov 8' 
opa rd rrj? clkovos (hs dvoj TTorajjLOJV Kal rpaTrepL- 
TTaXiv"^ XaixjSdvovGiv. inl yfjg ydp iari^ Kal Kdrco 
TO vhcjp vTTep yrjs 8e GeXrjvr] Kal pLeriojpos' odev 
dvTLOTpo<f)ov at KeKXaopLevai to gxtIp-ol rrjs ycuvta? 

TTOLOVGL, TTJS fJLeV dviO TTpOS TTj GeXrjVT) ttJ? 8e Kdro) 
TTpds TTJ yfj rrjv Kopv(f)r]V i)(OVG'qg.* jjLrj diraGav ovv 
Iheav KaroTTrpov" p-^)^" eV TrdGrjs aTTOGrdGCOis 
E opLolav dvdKXaGiv ttolclv d^iovTCOGav, eTrel pbd^ovrat 
TTpos rrfv evdpyeiav .^ ol 8e GOjpLa (jlt] Xeirrov pLTjhc 
Xelov, a)G7T€p €GtI to vhtop, drroc^aivovr^s Tr]v 
GeXrjVT^v aAA' ipL^piBes Kal yecoSe? ovk olh^ ottcos 
dTTaiTovvraL rov -qXlov rrjV cjJLcfyaGLV ev avrfj irpos 
TTjV oijjiv. ovhk yap TO ydXa rovs tolovtovs cctott- 
rpLGpiOVS diTohihojGLV ovhe TTOiel rrjs oi/recos" ava- 
KXaGCL? 8ta rr]v dvcapiaXiav Kal rpaxvrrjra tojv 
piopiojv' TTodev ye tt^v GeXrjvrjv Svvarov €gtiv dva- 

7T€[17T€LV d(f)^ iaVTrj? TTjV OljjLV a)G7T€p dva7Tep.7T€L TO, 

Xeiorepa rojv eGOTTrpcov ;' Kairoi Kal ravra hrj- 
F TTOvdev, idv dfjivx^j tls tj pviros tj Tpa^ynqs Kara- 

1 B; ou-E. 

2 Meineke {cf. 924 c sup7'a) ; rpanev TrdXiv -E, B. 

' Wyttenbach (after Xylander's version) ; -ndpeaTi -E, B. 

^ /3 ^ \°- ^ , 

* E ; TTpos TTjV Kopv<f)riv ttJ yfj e'xoucnys -B. 
^ H. C. {cf. e.g. Demetrius, 2\ [898 b] : Trdaav Ihiav iia-xrjs:) ; 
KOiTOTTTpov -E, B ; KaTOTTTptov -Emperlus. 
^ Basil iensis ; evepyeiav -E, B. 
' B ; iaoTTpojv -E. 

objection does not really make the difficulty for his theory 
that it would for that of Clearchus. 

150 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 936 

In common in a way certainly," said I, " but in 
another way not in common either. In the first place 
consider the matter of the image, ^ how topsy-turvy 
and like ' rivers flo\A'ing uphill ' ^ they conceive it. 
The fact is that the water is on earth and below, and 
the moon above the earth and on high ; and hence 
the angles produced by the reflected rays are the 
converse of each other, the one having its apex above 
at the moon, the other below at the earth. "^ So they 
must not demand that every kind of mirror or a 
mirror at every distance produce a similar reflection, 
since (in doing so) they are at variance with the mani- 
fest facts. Those, on the other hand, who declare 
that the moon is not a tenuous or a smooth body as 
water is but a hea\y and earthy one,^ I do not under- 
stand why it is required of them that the sun be 
manifest to vision in her. For milk does not return 
such mirrorings either or produce reflections of the 
visual ray, and the reason is the irregularity and 
roughness of its particles ^ ; how in the world then 
is it possible for the moon to cast the visual ray back 
from herself in the way that the smoother mirrors 
do ? Yet even these, of course, are occluded if a 
scratch or speck of dirt or roughness covers the point 

" i.e. the reflected image, not " the simile," as Amyot and 
Prickard interpret it. 

^ For the proverbial expression cf. Hesychius, s.v. dvco 
TTOTa/itov; Euripides, Medea, 410; Lucian, Dialogi Mor- 
tuorum, 6. 2. 

« As Kepler says in his note 64 ad loc, " ratio nihil ad 
rem." 

^ i.e. those who hold the view of the moon's nature that 
Lamprias himself espouses. 

^ Cf. Quaest. Conviv. 696 a ; and observe that the phrase, 
dvojfiaXia Kal rpaxvr-qs, used here of milk is in 930 d supra and 
937 A infra applied to the moon. 

lol 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(936) Xd^rj TO o-q^xelov [av]^ a^* ov 7T6(f)VKev tj oijjis 
dvaKXdoOaL,^ ru^AoOrat^ Kal jSAeVerat jjl€V avrd rrjv 
8' dvTavyeLav ovk aTroStScocriv. o 8' d^iwv rj /cat 
T*J7i^ oj/ftv rjfjiwv €itI tov tJXlov Tj fxrjhe rov tJXlov icf)^ 
rjfxds dvaKXdv d(f>' eavrrj? ttjv oeXrjvqv r]Svs ion 
rov 6(f)daXfx6v rjXiOV d^LOJV elvat ^ojs Se T7]v oipiv 
ovpavov he rov dvOpcorrov. rod [xev yap tjXlov 8t' 
evroviav Kal XajirrpoTr^ra rrpos rfj GeXrjvr) ytyvo- 
pLevTjv fxerd TrXrjyrj? ttjv dvdKXaaiv (j)epeodai Trpos 
rjiid? eLKOs ecrrtv, tj S' oifjig dodevr^s ovoa Kal XeTTTT] 
Kal oXiyoarr] ri davpLaarov et pLrjre TrXrjyrjV dva- 
KpovGriK7]v TTOiel pirjT^ dcfyaXXopbevrf rrjpeL ttjv 
937 cruvex^tav aAAa dpvTTTerai Kal aTroAeiTret ttXtjOos 
OVK exovaa </)6otos" coore pLTj hiaoTraGdai nepl rds 
dvojpLaXlas Kal rpaxynqras; diro puev yap vSaros 
Kal rwv dXXiov iooirrpcjv loxvovoav en rijs dpxfjs 
eyyijs ovaav errl rov -rjXtov dXXeoBai rrjV dvaKXaaiv 
OVK dhvvarov eonv diro he rrjs ueXrjVTjs, Kav yiy- 
vwvrai nves oXiudrioeis avrrj^y dadevel? eaovrai 
Kal dp^vhpal Kal TrpoaTToXeLTT ova at hid ro pirJKog 
rrjs dTTOGrdcreojs . Kal yap dXXws rd /xev KolXa 

1 Excised by Wyttenbach. 

2 Bernardakis ; dvaKXaodev -E, B. 
^ Emperius ; rvnovrai -E, B. 

* Madvig (implied by version of Xylander) ; d(f>aXXoix4vrj? 
-E, B. 

<» For the phenomenon referred to cf. [Ptolemy], De 
Spectdis, vi=:Hero Alexandriniis, Opera, ii. 1, p. 330. 4-22 
(Nix-wSchmidt). For Tu^Adoj meaning to deaden, muffle, 
occlude rf. De Defecfu Oraculonim, 43i c, Quaest. Conviv. 
721 B, Be Esu Carninm, 995 f. 

152 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 936-937 

from which the visual ray is naturally reflected, and 
while the mirrors themselves are seen they do not 
return the customary reflection." One who demands 
that the moon either reflect our vision from herself 
to the sun as well or else not reflect the sun from 
herself to us either is naive, for he is demanding that 
the eye be a sun, the vision light, and the human 
being a heaven. Since the light of the sun because 
of its intensity and brilliance arrives at the moon with 
a shock, it is reasonable that its reflection should 
reach to us ; but the visual ray, since it is weak and 
tenuous and many times slighter, what wonder if it 
does not have an impact that produces recoil or if in 
rebounding it does not maintain its continuity but is 
dispersed and exhausted, not having light enough to 
keep it from being scattered about the irregularities 
and corrugations (of the moon) ? From water, to be 
sure, and from mirrors of other kinds it is not im- 
possible for the reflection (of the visual ray) to re- 
bound to the sun, since it is still strong because it is 
near to its point of origin ^ ; but from the moon, even 
if the visual rays do in some cases glance off, they 
will be weak and dim and prematurely exhausted 
because of the magnitude of the distance.^ What 
is more too, whereas mirrors that are concave make 

'' Plutarch has to explain how the image of the sun can be 
seen in water and mirrors though it is not seen in the moon, 
and he does so by stressing the proximity of the former to the 
" point of origin." This " point of origin " can only be our 
eyes, so that he must be thinking of the visual ray as reflected 
from water and mirrors to the sun and as failing to be re- 
flected from the moon to the sun. The reading of the >iss., 
i-nl rov tjXlov, is necessary to the argument and all suggestions 
for altering it are wrong. 

^ i.e. the distance from the eye to the reflecting surface 
of the moon. 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(937) Ttov icroTTrpajv evrovwrepav iroieZ Trjg nporjyov- 
lieviqs avyrj? ttjv avaKXojyievriv oiore koI (f)X6yas 
avaTTeyLTTeiv TToXXaKis, ra 8e Kvpra /cat ra^ C7</>at- 

B poeihrj Tcp fjLT] TTavraxodev dyrcpctSeiv dudefrj /cat 
dpLavpav (avr7]v dvahihojoLV .y opdre^ hi^TTovdev, 
orav tptSe? hvo ^avwot vi<j>ovs vecfyog ipLTTepL€.-)(ovTos , 
dpiavpd* TTOLOvaav /cat daacfyrj rd ;!^p6tj/i,aTa ttjv 
TTepiexovaav to yap e/cro? V6(f)os drrcoTipaj rrjs 
6ip€a>g KelfjLevov ovk evrovov ovS^ LG)(vpdv rr]v dvd- 
/cAaCTtv (XTroStScocrt. /cat ri Set TrXeiova Xeyecv ; ottov 
yap TO rod tjXlov 0a>s" dvaKXcajxevov diro rrjS oe- 
Xrjvqg rrjv fiev OeppLorr^ra Trdaav dno^aXXeL rrj? 8e 
XaijLTTpoTTjTog avrov XeTTTOV d</)t/cvetTat jLtoAt? irpos 
rjfjLa? /cat dSpaves Xelipavov, rjirov^ tt)? 6i/j€a)£ rov 
LGov^ (jyepopLevris hiavXov evhe-x^erai jxopLov otlovv 

C Xenjjdvov' i^LKeadai Tvpos rov rjXiov drro^ rrjg oe- 
Xr]vrjs ; iycb ju,ev ovk ot/xat. cr/coTretre S* " eiTTov 
/cat UjLtet?. et ravrd Trpos ro vSojp /cat ttjv oe- 
X-qv-qv €7Taox€V rj oipis, eSet^ /cat yrjs /cat (fyvrojv /cat 
dvOpwTTOJV /cat duTpwv epLcfydoeLs ttol^Iv ttjv 77av- 
oeXr]vov, ocag rd XoiTrd TToieZr ai rwv ioorrrpiov. 
el 8' ov yiyvovrai npos ravra rrjs oifjeojs dva/cAdact? 

•^ E ; Kal o(f)aipoiLhr\ -B. 

^ Adler ; ayiavpav vac. 14-E, 18-B. 

^ Turnebus ; opdrai -E, B. 

* H. C. (implied by versions of Xylander, Aniyot, and 
Kepler) ; ayiavpav -E, B. 

5 B ; ^" TTOV -E. « B2 ; tV tOTyv -E, B^. 

' H. C. (implied by version of Amyot) ; Xeiifjavov -E, B. 

8 Wyttenbach (implied by versions of Amyot and Kepler) ; 
vTTo -E, B. ^ Turnebus ; o 817 -E, B. 

<• For the concave burning-glass cf. [Euclid], Catoptrica^ 
Prop. 30 (Euclid, Opera Omnia, vii, pp. 340-342 [Heiberg]). 

154 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 937 

the ray of light more intense after reflection than it 
was before so as often even to send off flames," convex 
and spherical mirrors ^ by not exerting counter- 
pressure upon it from all points (give it off) weak and 
faint. You observe, I presume, whenever two rain- 
bows appear, as one cloud encloses another, that the 
encompassing rainbow produces colours that are faint 
and indistinct. The reason for this is that the outer 
cloud, being situated further off from the eye, returns 
a reflection that is not intense or strong.^ ^^7? what 
need of further arguments ? When the light of the 
sun by being reflected from the moon loses all its 
heat '^ and of its brilliance there barely reaches us a 
slight and feeble remnant, is it really possible that 
of the visual ray travelling the same double-course ^ 
any fraction of a remnant should from the moon 
arrive at the sun ? For my part, I think not ; and 
do you too," I said, " consider this. If the visual 
ray were affected in the same way by water and by 
the moon, the full moon ought to show such reflec- 
tions of the earth and plants and human beings and 
stars as all other mirrors do ; but, if there occur no 
reflections of the visual ray to these objects either 

^ Not tico kinds of mirrors, as Raingeard says ad loc, but 
one, " convex, i.e. convex spherical," for (1) spherical mirrors 
that are concave are the burning-glasses in the preceding 
category, and (2) convex mirrors that are not spherical would 
not provide the obvious analogy with the moon that is wanted. 

'^ On the double rainbow and the reason why the outer bow 
is less distinct cf. Aristotle, Meteorology, 375 a 30-b 15. 
Aristotle's explanation, which Plutarch here adopts, is 
attacked by Kepler in a long note on the present passage 
(note 70). ** See note a on 929 e supra. 

« The moon is thought of as the KafnrT-qp or turning-post 
in the stadium. The sun's rays travel from sun to moon to 
eye, and the visual ray would have to travel the same course 
in reverse. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(937) 8t* dadevetav avrrjg rj rpa-xyr'qra rrjg aeXiqvris, /xT^Se 
TTpo? Tov tJXlov arraLToyyiev. 

24. 'Wfxels /xev ovv " e(f)T]v " oaa jjlt] Starre^euye 
rrjv fivij[xr]v rcjv eVet Ae;^^evTa)v dTT-qyyeXKaiJLev . 
wpa 8e /cat HvXXav TrapaKaXelv, fiaXXov 8' aTT-atretv 
TT^v Sit^yquLV, OLOV IttI prjTolg a.Kpoar'qv yeyevrj- 
fievov. a)GT€, €1 8oK€L, KaraTTavoavTes tov Trepi- 
D irarov kol Kadioavres eirl rcov j^dOpcov iSpalov 
avro) 7TapdG)(co[JL€V dKpoarrjpLov." eSo^e St) ravra, 
KOL KadiodvTCOv Tjiicov 6 Qeojv " iycx) rot, co AajLt- 
npta," eiTTev " eTnOvfia) fxev ouSeyo? rjrrov u/xcov 
aKovaai rd Xexdrjaofieva, rrporepov S' dv -qhicjg 
dKovaaLpLi Trepl rcov olk€lv Xeyopievojv Ittl rrjs 
GeXrjvT]?, ovK el KaroLKovGL rives dAA' el Svvarov 
eKel KaroLKelv. el yap ov hvvarov, dXoyov koL to 
yrjv elvai ttjv aeXi^vr^v So^ct yap Ttpds ovhev dXXd 
fjbdrrjv yeyovevai (I'^re Kaprrovs eK<f)epovua [x-qr^ 
dvdpojTTois Tiulv ehpav 7Tape)(ovoa Kal yeveoiv /cat 
E Statrav, cLv eVe/ca /cat ravrr]v yeyovevai (j)ap,ev Kara 
nAarcuva ' rpo(j)dv^ rjfjieTepaVy r^fiepas re /cat vvktos 
drpeKT) (f)vXaKa /cat hrjjjLiovpyov.' opag 8' ort 

^ Stephanus (1624), cf. Timaeus, 40 b ; Tpo<f>T]v -E, B. 

« See 921 f, 929 b, 929 f sxipra. 

" In De Placitis, 892 A = Aetius, ii. 30. 1 this notion is 
ascribed to the Pythagoreans (and in the version of Stobaeus 
specifically to Philolaiis). Diogenes Laertius, ii. 8 ascribes 
it to Anaxagoras — if on the basis of frag. B 4 (ii, p. 34. 5 ff. 
[Diels-Kranz]), wrongly ; and Cicero's ascription of it to 
Xenophanes {Acad. Prior, ii. xxxix. 123) is certainly an error 
(despite Lactantius, JJiv. Inst. iii. 23. 12) but more probably 
due to confusion with Xenocrates than, as is usually said, a 
mistake for Anaxagoras {cf. J. S. Reid ad loc. ; Diels-Kranz, 
Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 125. 40 ; Diels, Dox. Graeci, p. 121, 
n. 1). The " moon-dwellers " became characters of " scien- 

156 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 937 

because of the weakness of the ray or the ruggedness 
of the moon, let us not require that there be such 
reflection to the sun either. 

24. So we for our part," said I, " have now re- 
ported as much of that conversation ^ as has not 
sHpped our mind ; and it is high time to summon 
Sulla or rather to demand his narrative as the agreed 
condition upon which he was admitted as a listener. 
So, if it is agreeable, let us stop our promenade and 
sit down upon the benches, that we may provide him 
with a settled audience." To this then they agreed ; 
and, when we had sat do^\^l, Theon said : " Though, 
as you know, Lamprias, I am as eager as any of you 
to hear what is going to be said, I should like before 
that to hear about the beings that are said to dwell 
on the moon ^ — not whether any really do inhabit it 
but whether habitation there is possible. If it is not 
possible, the assertion that the moon is an earth is 
itself absurd, for she would then appear to have come 
into existence vainly and to no purpose, neither 
bringing forth fruit nor providing for men of some 
kind an origin, an abode, and a means of life, the 
purposes for which this earth of ours came into being, 
as we say with Plato, ' our nurse, strict guardian and 
artificer of day and night.' ^ You see that there is 

tific fiction " at least as early as Herodorus of Heraclea (c/. 
Athenaeus, ii. 57 f). 

'^ Timaeus, 40 b-c. Though aTpeKrj does not appear there, 
it is introduced into the passage by Plutarch at 938 e infra 
and at Plat, Quaest. 1006 e, which indicates that he meant 
it as part of the quotation. Since there appears to be no other 
reference to the words Tpo(f>6v rjficTepav in Plutarch's extant 
works, one cannot be sure that rpo4>riv here is not his own 
misquotation rather than a scribal error. (The phrase, 
Tpo(f>als t,(x)ojv, in De Superstitione, 171 a is probably not part 
of the adaptation of the Tiniaeus-psissage there.) 

157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(937) TToXXa Aeyerai /cat avv yeXcon kol jLtera aTTovhy)? 
TTepl TOVTCov. TOL? fxev yap vtto rr]v aeXrjvqv olkov- 
GLV cooirep TarraAotS" virep^ K€(f)aXrjs eTTiKpepiaGOal' 
(f)aaL rovs S' OLKOvvrag av ttolXlv eV a-urrjs, (x)07T€p 
-F 'I^tova? eVSeSe^eVofS" p^p^lj rouiavrriy rrj? Kara- 
(j)Opds kcjXv€lv T'r]v kvkXo) TrepihiviqoLV.y Kairoi 
fJLiav ov KLvelr ai KLvqacv dXX\ co? nov /cat Aeyerat, 
TptoStrt? ioTiV, a/xa fJirJKo? IttI rod ^ojSta/cou /cat 
irXdros dvTL(f)€pofjL€vr]^ /cat ^ddos' cLv ttjv ptev rrepi- 
hpopLTjV rr]v 8' e'At/ca rr]v 8' ou/c otSa ttcos dvcopiaXiav 
ovopLal^ovaLV ol pLadrjpLarLKoly Kalrrep ovhepLiav o/xa- 
Xrjv ovhe T€TaypL€vrjv rats' dTTOKaraordaeoLV opcjvres 
€)(ovaav^ ovKovv^ et Xec/jv rt? eneaev vtto pvpLrj? 

1 Stephanus (16:24) : eV -E, B. 

2 H. C. (c/. C/as5. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 155, n. 47) ; eV/cpc- 
fiaadai -E, B. 

3 H. C. (c/. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 146); toot} vac. 
43-E, 30-B. 

^ H. C. (c/. C7a.9s. Phil, xlvi [1951], p. 146) ; <f>epotievr) -E ; 
€7n<f)€pofM€V7] -B, Aldine, Basiliensis. 
^ B ; ix^vaais -E. 
« Stephanus (1624) ; ovk -E, B. 

" C/. the sarcastic remarks of Lucius in 923 c supra. For 
the " stone of Tantalus " cf. Nostoi, frag, x ( = Athenaeus, 
281 b-c) ; Pindar, Olympian, i. 57-58 and Isthmian, viii. 
10-1 1 ; and Scholia in Olymp. i. 91 a, where reference is made 
to the " interpretation " that the stone which threatens Tan- 
talus is the sun, this ])eing his punishment for having declared 
that the sun is an incandescent mass {cf. also scholiast on 
Euripides, Orestes, 982-986). 

^ For the myth of Ixion on his wheel cf. Pindar, Pythian^ ii. 
21-48 and for Ixion used in a cosmological argument cf. 
Aristotle, De Caelo, 284 a 34-35. 

" An epithet of Hecate (cf. Athenaeus, vii. 325 a) applied 
to the moon only after she had been identified with the moon- 
goddess, after which her epithets had to be explained by 

158 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 937 

much talk about these things both in jest and seri- 
ously. It is said that those who dwell under the moon 
have her suspended overhead like the stone of Tan- 
talus " and on the other hand that those w^ho dwell 
upon her, fast bound like so many Ixions '^ by such 
great velocity, (are kept from falling by being 
whirled round in a circle). Yet it is not with a single 
motion that she moves ; but she is, as somewhere 
she is in fact called, the goddess of three ways,^ for 
she moves on the zodiac against the signs in longitude 
and latitude and in depth at the same time. Of these 
movements the mathematicians call the first ' revolu- 
tion,' the second ' spiral,' and the third, I know not 
why, ' anomaly,' although they see that she has no 
motion at all that is uniform and fixed by regular 
recurrences.^ There is reason to wonder then not that 
the velocity caused a lion to fall on the Peloponnesus ^ 

reference to lunar phenomena. Cf. e.g. Cleomedes, ii. 5.111 (p. 
202. 5-10 [Ziegler]) on TpLrrpoacoTTos, and Cornutus, Theologiae 
Graecae Compend. 34 (p. 72. 7-15 [Lang]) on TpLiJLop(f>os a.nd 
rpiohlTL's. The etymology here put into Theon's mouth had 
already been given by Varro in his De Lingua Latina, vii. 16. 
For the moon as Hecate cf. notes b on 942 d and g on 944 c 
infra. 

^ For the text, terminology, and intention of these two 
sentences cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 146-147. 

« Cf. Epimenides, frag. B 2 (i, p. 32. 22 ff. [Diels-Kranz]) ; 
Anaxagoras, frag. A 77' (ii, p. 24. 25-26 and 28-30 [Diels- 
Kranz] ). It may be that Anaxagoras referred to this legend in 
connection with his theory concerning the meteoric stone of 
Aegospotami, the fall of which he is said to have " predicted " 
{Ly Sander, 12 [439 d-f] ; Diogenes Laertius, ii. 10 ; Pliny, 
Xat. Hist. ii. 58 [59], 149-150). Kepler (note 77) suggests 
that the story of the lion falling from the sky may have arisen 
from a confusion of Xdwv (gen. pi. of Xdas) and Xioov or, as 
Prickard puts it, between Aa? and At?. Diogenes Laertius 
(viii. 72) quotes Timaeus to the effect that Heraclides Ponticus 
spoke of the fall of a man from the moon, an incident which 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(937) etV YleXoTTOvvrjGov^ d^Lov ion davfidl^eLV dAA' dirajs^ 
OX) fivpC opcofiev del 

Trearjfxar^ dvSpojv KdnoXaKnofMovs ^icuv^ 

938 eKeWev olov eKKV^LGTcovTCvv /cat TTepLTpairevrcov .*" 
/cat (^fjLTjvy^ yeXolov Trepl fiovrj?^ tcov ckcI hiaTTopeZv 
€L pLTj yeveoLV fJL7]Se ovoraoiv €)(eLV hvvavraL.' ottov 
yap AlyvTTTLOL /cat T pcoyXoSuraL , ots rjjjLepas /xta? 
d/capes" tararat /caret Kopv(f)rjV 6 -qXiog eV rpoTTals 
etr' aTTeicnv, oXiyov drrexovoL rod /cara/ce/caua^at 
^TjpoTTjTL rod TTepiexovTos , rJTTOv Tou? eVt r7]s cre- 
XrjVTjg et/cd? ion ScoSe/ca ^epeta? vnopLeveiv erovs 
eKdorov, /card fJLrjva rod tjXlov Trpog Kdderov avTolg 
i(j)LorapLevov /cat arrjpl^ovros orav fj TravcreXrjuos ; 
TTvevfjLard ye {jl7]v /cat vicfyT] /cat ojji^povs, cov ;)^copt9 
B ovT€ yev€GL5 cf)VTa)V €onv ovre ucoT-qpla yevopievoLs, 
d/x7];^ai'ov e/cet Siavo'r]6rjvaL ovvLordpieva Std deppLo- 
TTfra /cat XeTnonqra rod TrepiixovTOS' ovSe yap 
ivravda tojv opcov rd vipi']Xd Se;^6Tat rovg dyplov? 
/cat ivavTLOvs p^et/Licora?, dAA{d AeTrro? djv)* t/St^ 
/cat CTaAov excov vtto Kov(f)6Tr]rog 6 drjp iK<l)€vyei 
TrjV GvoraoLV ravrr^v /cat ttvkvojolv. et /xi^ vr) Ata 
<j)rjGopiev WGTrep rj ^ Kdrjvd rw 'A;^tAAet veKrapog n 

^ B ; ireXoTTOVTjaov -E. 

2 Turnebus : o/Lio;? -E, B. 

3 B (c/. i)g Curiositate, 517 f) ; y'toi' -E. 

* Wyttenbach (c/. i)^ Vitando Aere Alieno, 831 d : rrepi- 
rpaireis) ; TTCpiTp^TTOvrcov -E, B ; TrepLppenovTcov -Apelt (Jena, 
1905). ^ Dubner ; Kal vac. 1-E ; Kal yap -B. 

® Basiliensis ; novrjg -E, B. 

' Wyttenbach ; Svvarai -B ; hwarai -E. 

8 Bernardakis (c/. 939 b-c, 939 e infra) ; dAA' vac. 9-E, 
10-B. 

Voss after Hirzel refers to a dialogue of his that may have 
160 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 937-938 

but how it is that we are not forever seeing count- 
less 

Men falling headlong and lives spurned away," 

tumbling off the moon, as it were, and turned head 
over heels. It is moreover ridiculous to raise the 
question how the inhabitants of the moon remain 
there, if they cannot come to be or exist. Now, when 
Egyptians and Troglodytes,^ for whom the sun stands 
in the zenith one moment of one day at the solstice 
and then departs, are all but burnt to a cinder by the 
dryness of the atmosphere, is it really likely that the 
men on the moon endure twelve summers every year, 
the sun standing fixed vertically above them each 
month at the full moon ? Yet winds and clouds and 
rains, without which plants can neither arise nor 
having arisen be preserved, because of the heat and 
tenuousness of the atmosphere cannot possibly be 
imagined as forming there, for not even here on 
earth do the lofty mountains admit fierce and con- 
trary storms ^ but the air, (being tenuous) already 
and having a rolling swell ^ as a result of its lightness, 
escapes this compaction and condensation. Other- 
wise, by Heaven, we shall have to say that, as Athena 
when Achilles was taking no food instilled into him 

influenced Plutarch (Voss, De Heraclidis Pontici Vita et 
Scriptis, p. 61). 

" Aeschylus, Supplices, 937 ; cf. De Curiositate, 517 f, 
where also Plutarch gives jStoiv instead of Aeschylus's 

^ i.e. Ethiopians : cf. Herodotus, iv. 183. 4 ; Strabo, ii. 
o. 36 (c. 133). 

^ Cf. Aristotle, Meteorology, 340 b 36—341 a 4, 347 a 29- 
35, and Alexander, Meteor, p. 16. 6-15, where lines 10-11 
guarantee and explain the ivavrlovs in Plutarch's text. 

^ Cf. 939 E infra and Plat. Quaest, 1005 e. 

VOL. XII G 161 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(938) Kal ayi^poGias iveara^e jlit^ TrpooLefievco Tpo(f)rjv 
ovroj rrjv oeX-qvrjv, ^ Xdiqvdv Xeyofievrjv /cat oucrav, 
Tp€(f)eLv rovs dvSpas dfji^poaLav dvielaav^ avTol^ 
i(f)r]ijL€pLov, o)? Oepe/<:u8i7? o TraXatog oterat atreladaL 
C avTOvg (rov^y deovs. ttjv fikv yap ^IvSiKrjv ptS^av 
7]v ^TjOi Meyao-^eVT]? rovs ^p-'^T^ eodiovrasY /xrjre 
TTLVovras dXX daropLovs* ovrag v7TOTV(f)€LV Kal 
dvpLidv Kal Tpe(f)€GdaL rfj oupifj TTodev dv tis €K€l 
(f)VopLevrjv Xd^oL, p.r) ^pexopLevqs rrjs aeXrjvqg ; 

25. Tavra rod Sewvos €L7t6vto?, {" VTrepev) y "^ 
e^T]r " KoX dpiGTa rfj TraiSta rov Xoyov rds 6(f)pvg 
(rjpLcov KadrJKas, St')* a Kal ddpoos rjpiZv iyylyvcrai 
npo? TTJV dTTOKpiGLV pL,rj Tvdvv TTLKpdv' pL7]S^ avGTrjpdv 
evOvvTjv TTpoGSoKcoGL. Kal ydp COS" dXrjdojs tojv 
G(f)6Spa 7T€7T€LGpL€va)V rd Toiavra hia^epovGiv (pv- 
Sev)^ ol G<j}6hpa SvGKoXaivovTeg avrol? Kal 8ta- 
TTLGTOvvreg dXXd pLT] Trpdcos rd hvvarov Kal ro 
evSexop-^vov edeXovres €7Tlgko7T€lv. €v6vs ovv ro 

^ Eniperius ; dvelaav -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; avrovs deovs -E, B. 

3 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 (cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 2. 25 : 
" nullum illis cibum nullumque potum ") ; tovs fivre Trlvovras 
-E, B. 

* Basiliensis, Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; eyard/Liou? -E, 1^ 
{cf. avaTOfxoL of both mss. in 940 b infra). 

5 H. C. ; vac. 6-E, B yt. 

® H. C. {cf. Amatorius, 753 u, Df Comniunibus Notitiis, 
1062 f) ; vac. 15-E, 12-B a; {r^^wv dviJKag, 8t*> a -Wytten- 
bach. ' B^ ; fxLKpav -E, B^ 

* Dubner {roiavTa (ovbeu) hiacjiipovaiv ol -Wyttenbach after 
Xylander's version) : roiavTa hLa^€povaLv, ol -E, B. 

" Cf. Iliad, xix. 340-356. 

* See 922 a avpra and note c there. 

« =Pherecydes, frag. B 13 a (i, p. 51. 5-9 [Diels-Kranz]). 
'^ Megasthenes, frag. 34 {Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, pp. 425-427 

162 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 938 

some nectar and ambrosia,'^ so the moon, which is 
Athena in name and fact,*^ nourishes her men by 
sending up ambrosia for them day by day, the food 
of (the) gods themselves as the ancient Pherecydes 
beUeves,^ For even the Indian root which according to 
Megasthenes the Mouthless Men, who (neither eat) 
nor drink, kindle and cause to smoulder and inhale 
for their nourishment,^ how could it be supposed to 
grow there if the moon is not moistened by rain ? 

25. When Theon had so spoken, I said " (Bravo), 
you have most excellently (smoothed our) brows by 
the sport of your speech, wherefore we have been 
inspired with boldness to reply, since we anticipate 
no very sharp or bitter scrutiny. It is, moreover, 
a fact that there really is (no) difference between 
those who in such matters are firm believers and those 
who are violently annoyed by them and firmly dis- 
believe and refuse to examine calmly what can be 
and what might be.^ So, for example, in the first 

[Miiller]) ; cf. Strabo, ii. 1. 9 (c. 70) and xv. 1. 57 (c. 711) ; 
Pliny, ^ai. Hist. vii. 3. 25. Aristotle {Parva Nat. 445 a 16-17) 
mentions the belief of certain Pythagoreans that some 
animals are nourished by odours ; cf. the story told of 
Democritus, frags. A 28 and 29 (ii, p. 89. 23 If. [Diels-Kranz]), 
and Lucian on the Selenites ( Vera Hist. i. 23), a passage 
which, however, looks like a parody of Herodotus, i. 202. 2. 
« Strictly, the potential and the contingent ; but probably 
Plutarch meant his phrase here to imply only " the possible " 
in all its senses and intended no technical distinction between 
hvvaTov and e'vSexo^evov. Certainly one cannot ascribe to him 
the distinction drawn in the pseudo-Plutarchean De Fato, 
570 E — 571 E ; n.b. that in De Stoicorum RepHgnantiis, 1055 
D-F he attacks the Chrysippean doctrine of Swardv. On 
SvvaTou and eVSexd/xevoi^ as used by Aristotle cf. Ross, 
Aristotle's Metaphysics, ii, p. 245 ad 1046 b 26, and Faust, 
Der Moglichkeitsgedanke, i, pp. 175 if . : for the attitude of 
the Hellenistic philosophers, Faust, op. cit. i, pp. 209 if. 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(938) rrpcorov ovk dvayKolov ioriv, el fx-q KaroLKovoLV 
D avdpcoTTOi r7]v GeXrjvqv, ixdrrjv yeyovevai Kal rrpos 
fjirjhev. ovSe yap rrjvSc rrjv yrjv St' oXrj? ivepyov 
ovSe TTpoGOLKOvpievr^v opojfiev, dXXd puKpov avrrj^ 
fiepo? warrep aKpois tlgIv ■)) )(€ppovrJGOis^ dvexovGtv 
€K ^vdov yovLfiov Igtl t,a)(jov kol (jyvTCJV tcov 8' 
dXXojv rd fikv €pr]iia Kal aKapira xeifiajGi Kal 
avxp^olg rd Se TrXelGra Kara rrjs fieydX'qg SeSuxe 
daXaGGT]?. dXXd gv rdv WptGrapxov dyarrcoi' del 
Kal Savpidt^ajv ovk d/couets" KpctTT^ros" dvayuyva)- 



^Q.K€av6g, oG7T€p yev€GL? TTavreGGL rlrvKrai 
dvSpaGLV -qhe BeoZs, TrXeLGrr^v irrl^ yalav ltjglv.* 

dXXd TToXXov Set fidr-qv ravra yeyovevai' Kal ydp 
E dvaOvpLiaGeis rj OdXaGGa jLtaAa/cct? dvl'qGL, Kai rwv 
TTvevfjidrajv rd TJSiGra Oepovs dKjjLdl,ovrog eK rrjg 
doLKYjrov Kal Kareipvyfxevrjs at ;;^toves" drpefia Sta- 
rr^KOfxevac ^(aXdjGL Kal hiaGrreipovGiv . ' rjpiepas re 
Kal vvKro? ' eGrrjKev ' drpeKTjS ' ev fJLeGO) ' (jivXa^ ' 

^ E ; ;(;€povv7^CTOts -B. 

.' T7 . J.._ ')aKOiV - 

246. 



'■ Hi ; x^povvrjaoLS -o- 

^ dvaytvcoGKOVTOs -E : dvayLvwoKcov -B. 

nXcLG-njv <8'> eVt -Leaf ac/ Iliad, xiv. 24 

* Wyttenbach (1831) ; Tijaiv -E, B. 



" For the uninhabitability of the arctic and torrid zones 
cf. besides I)e hide, 367 d Strabo, ii. 3, 1 (c. 96) and Cleo- 
medes, i. 2. 12 (p. 22. 1 1-14 [Ziegler]) ; and for the connection 
of this theory with the notion that the greatest part of the 
outer ocean is in the torrid zone cf. Cleomedes, i. 6. 33 (p, 60. 
21-24). This was 7iot the opinion of Posidonius (Cleomedes, 
ibid, and i. 6. 31-32 [p. 58. 4-25]) ; it was the geography 
of Cleanthcs, which Crates sought to impose upon Homer 
{cf. Geminus, xvi. 21 ff. [p. 172. 11 ff., Manitius] ; Kroll, 
B.E. xi. 1637 s.v. " Krates " ; Susemihl, Geachichte der griech. 

164 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 938 

place, if the moon is not inhabited by men, it is not 
necessary that she have come to be in vain and to 
no purpose, for we see that this earth of ours is not 
productive and inhabited throughout its whole extent 
either but only a small part of it is fruitful of animals 
and plants on the peaks, as it were, and peninsulas 
rising out of the deep, while of the rest some parts 
are desert and fruitless with winter-storms and 
summer-droughts and the most are sunk in the great 
sea. You, however, because of your constant fond- 
ness and admiration for Aristarchus, give no heed 
to the text that Crates read : 

Ocean, that is the universal source 

Of men and gods, spreads over most of earth. ^ 

Yet it is by no means for nothing that these parts 
have come to be. The sea gives off gentle exhala- 
tions, and the most pleasant winds M'hen summer is 
at its height are released and dispersed from the 
uninhabited and frozen region by the snows that are 
gradually melting there. ^ ' A strict guardian and 
artificer of day and night ' has according to Plato '^ 

Litteratur in der Alexandrlnerzeit, ii, pp. 5 ff.). Since the 
first line quoted by Plutarch is Iliad, xiv. 246 of our text of 
Homer (with wKiavov instead of ojKeavos) but the second line 
does not occur, the latter was probably an interpolation made 
by Crates to support his " interpretation " of Homer's geo- 
graphy ; for Crates' textual alterations and for the contro- 
versy between him and Aristarchus cf. Susemihl, op. cit. i, 
p. 457 and ii, p. 7, n. 33 : Kroll, loc. cit. 1640 ; Christ- 
Schmid-Stahlin^ ii. 1, p. 270 ; Mette, Sphairopoiia. pp. 60 flp. 

^ Cf. Theophrastus, De Ventis, ii, § 11, and Aristotle, 
Meteorology, 364 a 5-13. For -fj doLKTjTo? without a noun = 
" the uninhabited world " cf. Adv. Coloten, 1115 a. 

•^ Lamprias retorts upon Theon an adaptation of his own 
quotation of Timaeus, 40 b-c ; cf. 937 e supra and note c 
there. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(938) Kara WXdrcjva ' Koi brifjLiovpyog.' ovhev ovv 
KCoXv€L Kal TTjv G€XrjV7]v t,a)CDV jjucv cp-qfjLov elvai 
Trapex^iv 8' dva/cActcret? re^ to) ^cort nepl avrrjv 
hiax^OfJilva) Kal GVppor]v rals twv aaripajv avyais 
F cV avrff Kal ovyKpaoiv, fj gvv€K7T€tt€l re ras oltto 
TTJg yrjs avadvpudoeis a/xa re" Kal rod tjXlov^ to 
efjLTTvpov dyav Kal OKXr]p6v dvlrjaL.^ Kal ttov' tl 
Kal TTaXaia (fyripirj StSovre? "Aprefjuu avr-qv^ vofXL- 
odrjvat (f)rjaoiJL€v wg jrapdevov Kal dyovov dXXais^ he 
porjd-qrLKrjv Kal (h(j)eXipiOV . eVetra^" ra)v y clprj- 
fievcDV ovhev, to (f)iXe^^ Qicov, dhvvarov heiKWOL rrjv 
XeyofjLevTjv eV avrrj? oiKrjcnv rj re yap Sivrj ttoXXtjv 
exovora TTpaorrjra Kal yaX-^vqv iTnXeaivet rov depa 
939 Kal StavejLtet^^ GvyKaTaKOGpiovfxevov cjore pL-qSev 
elvai Seo? eKireoelv Kal dTTOGcfyaXrjvaL rovs eKel 
^e^rjKOTas.^^ el Se /xt^S' aTTXrj,^* Kal to ttolkIXov 
TOVTO rrjs (jiopds Kal TTeTrXavr^fievov ovk avco/xaAta? 
ovhe rapaxrjs eoriv dXXd davpLaarr^v eTTihelKvvvrai^^ 
rd^LV ev tovtols Kal TTopelav ol dorpoXoyoi, kvkXol? 
real TTepl kvkXovs erepovs e^eXirropLevois Gvvdyovres 
avrriv ol /xev drpepLovaav ol he Aetco? Kal o/xaAco? 

^ E ; omitted by B. 

2 H. C. ; avrrjv -E, B. 

3 H. C\ ; avTfj -E, B. 

4 B ; omitted by E. 

^ Wyttenbacli ; roi -qXiip -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; d<f)Lr)at -E, B. 

' Wyttenbach ; Kal ttoXv -E, B. 

8 B ; avT vac. 4-E. 

» 1 1. C. (aAAot? -Wyttenbach) ; dXXws -E, B. 

^" Hutten ; eVet -E, B. 

^^ Xylander ; ax^eAeiv -E, B. 

12 Wyttenbach ; Bmfievu -E, B. 

166 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 938-939 

been stationed in the centre. Nothing then prevents 
the moon too, while destitute of living beings, from 
providing reflections for the light that is diffused 
about her and for the rays of the stars a point of con- 
fluence in herself and a blending whereby she digests 
the exhalations from the earth and at the same time 
slackens the excessive torridity and harshness of the 
sun.'^ Moreover, conceding a point perhaps to 
ancient tradition also, we shall say that she was held 
to be Artemis on the ground that she is a virgin and 
sterile but is helpful and beneficial to other females.^ 
In the second place, my dear Theon, nothing that 
has been said proves impossible the alleged inhabita- 
tion of the moon. As to the rotation, since it is very 
gentle and serene, it smooths the air and distributes 
it in settled order, so that there is no danger of falling 
and slipping off for those who stand there. And if 
it is not simple either,*^ even this complication and 
variation of the motion is not attributable to irregu- 
larity or confusion ; but in them astronomers demon- 
strate a marvellous order and progression, making 
her revolve with circles that unroll about other circles, 
some assuming that she is herself motionless and 
others that she retrogresses smoothly and regularly 

" Cf. 9:28 c supra. 

^ For moon = Artemis cf. 922 a supra and note 6 there ; for 
the virgin goddess of childbirth cf. besides the references 
there Flato^'rheaetetus, U9 b, and Cornutus, 34 (p. 73. 18 ff. 
[Lang]). 

'■ This refers to 937 f supra. For the use of ciTrATy " simple " 
in this context cf. Cleomedes, i. 4. 19 (p. 34. 20 [Ziegler]) and 
Theon of Smyrna, p. 150. 21-23 (Hiller). 

^^ Turnebus ; ^e^LojKoras -E, B. 
^* H. C. ; ei Se jxtj hk aurr] -E, B. 
^^ Basiliensis ; eVtSeiVvurai -E, B. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(939) aet rdx^oi rols avrols dvdv7TO(f)€pojjievrjV' avrat yap 
at Tojv kvkXojv eTTL^daeis koI Trepiaywyal Kal 
ox^oets rrpos dXXiqXov's Kal npos rjfJid? rd (/)aivojLteva 
TTJs KLvrjoeaJS vi/jt] Kal ^ddf] Kal rd? Kard TrXdros 

B napaXXd^ecs dfia rats Kard firJKos avrrjs rrepiohoi? 
epLpLeXeurara ovpbTTepaivovoL} ttjv 3e TToXXrjv Oep- 
fjLorrjTa Kal Gvvex^ TTvpcoatv vcf)^ -qXiov Travar)^ 
(f)opovfjL€vo£ dv TTpcbrov jJLev dvndfjs^ rats ScuSefca* 
depLvals iravoeXiqvois rds ovvohovs^ virod'ff he rd 
Gvvex^S rrjs picra^oXrjg rats vnep^oXalg xp'^^^v ovk 
ixovGai?^ TToXvv ifjLTTOielv Kpdoiv OLKeiav Kal rd 
dyav cKarepas a^atpetv. 8ta p.eoov^ hif rovrwv, cos 
€LKos, copav eapL 7TpoG(popcorarrjv exovoLV. eireira 
TTpds /xev Tyjuas" KadirjOL hi depos OoXepov Kal avv- 

C errepeihovros^^ Bepp^onqra rais dvadvpudueot rp€(f)o- 
pbiviqVy eKel he Xeirrds cjv Kal hLavyrjs 6 drjp oKihvrjoi 
Kal htax^'i rr]V avyrjv vrreKKavpLa Kal crco/xa pi-qhev 

^ Basiliensis ; avixTTapaivovai -E, B. 
^ Basiliensis ; 'f]Xiov ov navor) -E, B. 
^ E ; dvTidels -B. 

* Kepler (implied by Amyot's version) ; IvSe/ca -E, B. 

* Adler ; depivals avv68oi,s ras TravaeA^vouj -E, B, 
^ H. C. ; etoT) -E, B, Aldine ; eha -Basiliensis. 

' E ; exovaas -B ; exovcrqs -Basiliensis. 

* Bernardakis ; afxeaov -E, B. 

^ H. C. ; be -E, B. i° Basiliensis ; irpoa^opoiTdrayv -E, B. 
^^ Diibner ; owiTrepeibcov ttjv -E, B ; avveirepeiSovTOS r-qv 
-Emperius. 

« An example of the former hypothesis is Aristotle's theory 
that each planet is fixed in a sphere revolving within counter- 
acting spheres that cancel the special motions of the superior 
planet (c/. Metaphysics, 1073 b 38 — 1074 a 14- and De Caelo, 
289 b 30—290 a 7) ; an example of the latter is Plato's theory 
of freely moving planets (rf. Timaeus, tO c-d, Laws, 822 a-c ; 
Cornford, Plato's Cosmology, pp. 79-93). Theon of Smyrna 

168 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 939 

with ever constant velocity," for these superpositions 
of the circles and their rotations and relations to one 
another and to us combine most harmoniously to 
produce the apparent variations of her motion in 
altitude and the deviations in latitude at the same 
time as her revolutions in longitude.^ As to the great 
heat and continual scorching of the sun, you will cease 
to fear it, if first of all you set the conjunctions over 
against the twelve summery full-moons ^ and suppose 
that the continuousness of the change produces in 
the extremes, which do not last a long time, a suit- 
able tempering and removes the excess from either. 
Between these then, as is likely, they have a season 
most nearly approaching spring. In the second place, 
upon us the sun sends, through air which is turbid and 
which exerts a concomitant pressure, heat that is 
nourished by the exhalations, whereas there the air 
being tenuous and translucent scatters and diffuses the 
sun's light, which has no tinder or body to sustain it.^ 

(p. 175. 1-4 [Hiller]) observes that the difference between 
these two kinds of astronomical model is immaterial in 
" saving the phenomena." On the whole passage cf. 
Eudemus in Theon of Smyrna, p. 200. 13 if. (Hiller). 

^ Norlind {Eranos, xxv [1927], pp. 275-277) argues from 
the terms used here and in 937 f supra that Plutarch has in 
mind the theory of epicycles which Hipparchus proposed for 
the moon and which is described bv Ptolemy, Syntaxis, iv (i, 
pp. 265 ff. and especially pp. 301. 16-302, 11 [Heiberg]). The 
evidence of the terminology is not exact enough to make this 
thesis convincing {cf. Class. Phil, xlvi [1951], pp. 146-147). 
•^ Cf. 938 A supra : " twelve summers every year." 
'^ For the " pressure " of the air and the inreKKavixa cf. 
Aristotle, Meteorology, 341 b 6-25, and Alexander, Meteor. 
p, 20. 11 ff. Praechter {Hierokles der Stoiker, p. 109) refers 
to Seneca, Xat. Quaest. iv b 10 in support of his thesis that 
the material in this chapter of the De Facie is from a Stoic 
source. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(939) k)(ov(7ai'. vXrjv Se /cat KapTTovs avrov fxev oyi^poi 
Tpe(f)OVGLV, erepojdc Se^ wuTrep avco rrepl (drj^as Trap' 
VfiZv KOL ^vqviqv ovk ofi^pLOV vSojp dXXa yqyeves 
7] yyf TTLVovaa Kal XP^H-^'^V TT'veu/Ltacrt /cat Spdaot? 
OVK dv ede\i]0€L€v, olpLai, rfj TrXelarov vo/jlcvt) tto- 
XvKapTTLa^ GVfjL(f)€p€GdaL* 8t' dp€Tr]v TLva Kal Kpdoiv. 
rd S' aura ^vrd rw yivei Trap* r^pXv fjiev idv^ o(j)6hpa 

TTL€o6fj X^iflOJOLV^ €K(f)€p€L TToXvV Kal KaXoV KapTTOV 

D €V Se Ki^vrf Kal Trap* vpuv ev AlyvTTTO) hvapiya 
Kop^ihfj Kal SetAa 77pos" x^'-H-^^^^ eon. rrjs 8e 
TeSpcoGLag^ Kal TpcoyAoSurtSoc* 7) KadrjK€i Trpds rov 
(l}K€av6v d(f)6pov Sid ^rjporrjra Kal dSevSpov rravrd- 

TTaOlV OVGTjS, iv Tjj 7TapaK€LfJLeVT] Kal TT€pLKeXVfjL€Vr] 

daXdrrrj davfjiaGrd fMeyedrj (f)VTa)v rpec^erai Kal 
Kard ^vdov redrjXev chv rd fjL€v iXaias rd Se Sd(f)vag 

^ Wyttenbach after Xylander's version ; avrol . . . eVepcu? 
-E, B. 

2 Stephanus (1624) ; rj ye -E. B. 

^ Aldine, Basiliensis ; TToXvKapirLa -E. B (probably meant 
for dative, since neither ms. uses iota subscript). 

^ Leonicus (implied by version of Xylander) ; avfX(f)aLV€adaL 
-E, B : avix<f)vp€odai -Stephanus. 

^ Bernardakis ; el -E, B. • 

6 E\ B ; xi-of^^^ -E^. 

' E ; Xl^vc -B. 

* B ; ye Spooias -E. 

* E ; TpojyAoSmSos' -B. 

* Lamprias is addressing Theon primarily ; but Menelaiis 
also was from Egypt, though we know only Alexandria as 
his residence. 

* Theophrastus (Hist. Plant, viii. 6, 6) says that in Egypt, 
Babylon, and Bactria, where rain is absent or scarce, dews 

170 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 939 

The fruits of tree and field here in our region are 
nourished by rains ; but elsewhere, as up in your 
home " around Thebes and Syene, the land drinking 
water that springs from earth instead of rain-water 
and enjoying breezes and dews ^ would refuse, I 
think, to adapt itself ^ to the fruitfulness that attends 
the most abundant rainfall, and that because of a 
certain excellence and temperament that it has. 
Plants of the same kind, which in our region if sharply 
nipped by winter bear good fruit in abundance, in 
Libya and in your home in Egypt are very sensitive 
to cold and afraid of \\-inter.^ And, while Gedrosia 
and Ethiopia which comes down to the ocean is barren 
and entirely treeless because of the aridity, in the 
adjacent and surrounding sea there grow and thrive 
down in the deep plants of great magnitude, some 
of which are called olives, some laurels, and some 

nourish the crops (cf. also Hist. Plant, iv. 3. 7). Plutarch's 
statement here that the water drunk by the land in Egypt is 
yrjyeves may have been inspired by Plato's remark in Timaeus, 
22 E 2-4. ; for the theory that the flood of Xile was caused by 
water springing- from the earth cf. Oenopides, frag. 11 (i, 
p. 394. 39 ff. [Diels-Kranz] ; cf. Seneca, Xat. Quaest. iv a 2. 
26) and the opinion mentioned without an author by Seneca, 
yat. Quaest. vi. 8. 3. Praechter {Hierokles, p. 1 10) holds that 
Plutarch here reflects Posidonius's theorv as reconstructed by 
Oder {Philologus, Suppl. vii [1898], pp.^299 ff. and 312 f.). 

'^ For this meaning of ovix<^4p€o6ai tlvl cf. Quomodo Quis 
Sent. Prof. Virt. 79 a. Be Cohihenda Ira, 461 a, De SoUertia 
Animalium, 960 e, Timoleon, 15 (242 e), Wjii;enbach's 
Animadversiones in Phitarchi Opera Moralia (Leipzig, 
1820), i, p. 461 : the phrase cannot mean "to be compared 
with," as it has been regularly translated here. 

'^ That the same species of plant varies with the nature of 
the soil, the atmosphere, and the cultivation is frequently 
stated by Theophrastus (cf. e.g. Hist. Plant, vi. 6. 3-5-8) ; 
cf. with iav a(f>68pa TTieadfj ;^et)LtaiCTtP' in this passage Theo- 
phrastus, De Can sis Plant, ii. 1. 2-4. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(939) TOL 8' "IcriSos" rplxo-S KoXovoiv. ol S' avaKaynpepoj- 
T€£ ovTOL TTpoGayopevofjievoL rrjs yrjs e^aipeOevres 
ov fjLovov ftDat /<rpejU,a/xevot XP^^^^ oaov ^ovXerai 
Tt? aAAa ^Xaordvovoiv {. . .)/ OTreiperai 8e ra 
jLtei' 77po? ;j(€t/^ajyos' to, Se Oepovs aKpiat^ovTOS cjunep 
arjaajjiov Koi pLeXivr). to" Se dvi-tov rj to KevravpLov, 
E av etV dyadr^v Kal niova UTrapfj ^(topay Kat Bp€xr]TaL 
Kal dphr]Taiy rrjs Kara <f)VGLV l^iGrarai TTOiorrjros 
Kal OLTToj^aXXeL rrjv SvvapiLV avxp^cp be ^cttpet /cat 
TTpos TO OLKetov eViStScuCTtv. eVta 8'^ co? (bauiv ovhk 
rds hpooovs dvex^rai, KaBd-nep rd TrXelara rwv 
^ Apa^iKOJV y dXX i^ajJLavpovTai Siaivofieva* /cat 
<f)9elpeTai, ri hif OavfJiaGTOv €gtlv et yiyvovrai irepl 
TTjV GeXrjvqv pi^ai /cat GTreppLara /cat uAat jJLTjhkv 
V€T(x)v Seofxevai^ /xT^Se' ;)(tovajv aAAd npos Oepivov^ 
depa /cat Actttov eixfyvcjs exovGat; TTchs 8' ovk 
eiKos dvcevat re 77veu/xaTa daXTTOjjieva rij GeX-qvrj 
F /cat TO) o-aAo; t-^? nepLcfiOpd? avpas re TTapofxaprelv 
drpefia /cat hpoGOVS /cat vypor-qras eAa(/)pa? Trept- 
;^eouo-as' /cat hiaGTreipopievas eVap/cetv TOt? /SAa- 
GrdvovGLV, avTTjV^ 8e ttJ KpdGeu purj rrvpwSr] fx-qS^ 
avxiJ^rjpdv dXXd fjLaXaKr]v /cat vhpoTTOLOv elvai; ^t]- 
poT-qros /xev yap ou8ev d^t/cvetTat TrdOos drr'' avTrjs 

1 Vac. 21-E, 20-B. 

2 E ; Toi; -B. 

^ Paton ; ot Se -E, B, Aldine ; to. be -Basiliensis ; el 8k 
-Stephanus (1624). 

* Wyttenbach (after the version of Xylander) ; Xeiaivofieva 

5 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 : ti Se -E, B. 

^ Bernardakis ; Sed/x€va -E, B. 

' I?ernardakis ; jx-qre -E, B. 

^ Eeonicus, Stephanus (1624) ; vpoadepov -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach ; avrr} {i.e. avrfj) -E, B. 

172 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 939 

tresses of Isis °' ; and the plants here called ' love- 
restorers ' when lifted out of the earth and hung up 
not only live as long as you wish but sprout ^ (. . .). 
Some plants are sown towards winter, and some at 
the height of summer as sesame and millet.^ Thyme 
or centaury, if so^^Tl in good, rich soil and wetted and 
watered, departs from its natural quality and loses 
its strength, whereas drought delights it and causes 
it to reach its proper stature ^ ; and some plants, as 
they say, cannot stand even dew, as is true of the 
majority of Arabian plants, but are blighted and 
destroyed by being moistened.* What wonder then 
if on the moon there grow roots and seeds and trees 
that have no need of rain nor yet of snow but are 
naturally adapted to a summery and rarefied air ? 
And why is it unlikely that ^\^nds arise warmed by 
the moon and that breezes steadily accompany the 
rolling swell of her revolution and by scattering off 
and diffusing dews and light moisture suffice for the 
vegetation and that she herself is not fiery or dry in 
temperament but soft and humidifying ? After all, no 
influence of dryness comes to us from her but much of 

'^ On these plants that grew in the sea cf. Theophrastus, 
Hist. Plant, iv. 7. 1 ff. : Eratosthenes in Strabo, xvi. 3. 6 
(c. 766) : Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiii. 25. 50-52 (UO-142). In 
Quaest. Nat. 911 f Plutarch refers to the plants that are said 
to grow in the " Red Sea," but there he states that they are 
nurtured by the rivers which bring down mud and that these 
plants consequently grow onlv near to the shore. 

^ Cf. Plinv, Nat. Hist. xxiv. 17. 102 (167). 

<" Cf. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, viii. 1. 1 and 4; 2. 6 \ 
and 3. 2. 

^ Cf. Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, iii. 1. 3-6. 

« For the notion that dew injures some plants cf. possibly 
Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, vi. 18. 10 ; but he holds that 
desert vegetation is nourished by dew in default of rain {Hist. 
Plant, iv. 3. 7 and viii. 6. 6). 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(939) npog rjfidg vypor-qro? Se ttoAAo, Kal OrjXvrrjTOS , 
av^i]oeis (f>VT(jji', OTjijjeis Kpeajv, rpoTral Kal dveaeL? 
uLVcov, fjLaXaKOTrjTes ^vXcov, evroK lai yvvaLKOJV. 8e- 
940 Sot/ca 8* -qavxa^ovTa Oapra/cT^r avdt? ipedl^eiv Kal 
KLveXv, ojKeavov re^ TrXrjpijxijpas, cLs XeyovGiv avroi, 
Kal TTopOfiojv eVtSocrcts" SLax^ofjuevajv Kal av^avo- 
fjLei'cov VTTO TTjS GeXrjvrj? rep avvypaiveoOai irapa- 
TLdepevos. hio npos oe rplifjopiai p.dXXov, (I> ^t'Ae 
0ecc»v Aeyet? yap rjljuv, e^rjyovjJLevog ravrl^ ra 

^AXKfjLaVO? 

{ofa Aio?)^ OvyaTrjp "Kpcra* Tpl(j>ei Kal SeAava? 

OTt vvv rov aepa KaXel Ata /cat*' (j)r]cnv avrov vtto 
rrjg aeXrjvr]? Ka0vypaiv6p.evov els hpooovs rpe- 
TTeaOai. Kivhvvevei ydp, cL eratpe, npog rov i^'Atov 

dvTLTTadrj (j)VGLV €)(€LV €Ly€ {JLTj piOVOV OOa TTVKVOVV 

B Kal ^rjpaiV€LV eKelvos avrrj pLaXdooeiv Kal 8ia;^etv 
7recf)VKev dXXd Kal rr^v oltt^ €K€lvov deppLorriTa Kad- 
vypaiveiv Kal KaTaifjV)(€LV TrpoomTnovoav avrfj /cat 

^ Basiliensis ; ware Kal dvoiyal -E, B. 

2 Bernardakis ; ravTr] -E, B. 

^ Xylander {cf. Quaest. Nat. 918 a, Quaest. Conviv. 659 b) ; 
vac. 6-E, 12-B." 

* Xylander ; epya -E, B. 

^ Wyttenbach (//. mss. of 918 a) ; Kal ^eXdvas without 
lacuna -E, B. 

® Wyttenbach ; KaXd Kal Ai'a -E, B. 

° Cf. De Vita et Poesl Homer l, B, 202 (vii, p. 450. 14-20 
[Bernardakis]) ; Aristotle, llist. Animal. 582 a 84-b 3. 

" On the liquefying action of the moon and the passage in 
general cf. Quaest. Conviv. iii. 10 (657 f ff.) ; De hide, 367 d ; 
Cicero, De Nat. Deorum, ii. 19. 50 (with Mayor's note ad 
loc.) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 101 (223). On the growth of 

174- 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 939-9^0 

moistness and femininity " : the groMth of plants, the 
decay of meats, the souring and flattening of wine, 
the softening of timbers, the easy delivery of women. ^ 
Now that Pharnaces is quiet I am afraid of provoking 
and arousing him again if I cite, in the words of his 
own school, the flood-tides of Ocean and the swelling 
of the straits when they are increased and poured 
abroad by the liquefying action of the moon.^ There- 
fore I shall rather turn to you, my dear Theon, for 
when you expound these words of Alcman's, 

{Such as) are nourished by Dew, daughter <of Zeus) and 
of (divine) Selene/ 

you tell us that at this point he calls the air ' Zeus 
and says that it is liquefied by the moon and turns 
to dew-drops.^ It is in fact probable, my friend, that 
the moon's nature is contrary to that of the sun, if 
of herself she not only naturally softens and dissolves 
all that he condenses and dries but liquefies and cools 
even the heat that he casts upon her and imbues her 

plants cf. also Be hide, 353 f and Athenaeus, iii. 74 c ; on 
softening of timbers Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, v. 1. 3 ; on 
easy delivery S. V.F. ii, frag. 748. For further literature cf. 
Boll, Sternglauhe unci Sterndeutung^ (1926), pp. 122-125. 

'^ =<S. F.F. ii, frag. 679. Cf. also Cicero, De Divinatioiie, 
ii. 34 (with Pease's note ad loc.) and De Sat. Deorum, ii. 7. 
19 ; Seneca, De Provid. i. 4 ; Cleomedes, ii. 1. 86 (p. 156. 
15-16 [Ziegler]) and ii. 3. 98 (p. 178. 4-5) ; Strabo, iii. 5. 8 
(cc. 173 f.) and i. 3. 11 (cc. 54-55). In De Placitis, 897 b-c 
( = Aetius, iii. 17. 3 and 9) theories that the moon influences 
the tides are attributed to Pvtheas and to Seleucus. 

^ Alcman, frag. 43 (Diehi) = 48 (Bergk^). In both Quaest. 
Conviv. 659 b and Quaest. Xat. 918 a Plutarch quotes the 
line as an explanation of the origin of dew, Cf. Macrobius, 
Sat. vii. 16. 31-32. 

* Cf. Vergil, Georgks, iii. 337 ; Roscher, Selene und Ver- 
wandtes, p. 50, n. 200. 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(940) avi.ifj,Lyvvfiei'r]v. ol re hif rr]v aeX-qv-qv eyLirvpov 
CToJ/xa KOI htaKae? etvat voiJiit,ovTe<^ afxapTavovaLV, 
OL T€ rot? €K€L t,a)OLS ooa rots ivravda irpog yeveoLV 
Kal Tpo(f)rjv Kal hiairav a^Lovvre? virdp^^^etv eoiKaoiv 
dOedroLg^ rcov rrepl rr]v (f)VGLV^ dvcopiaXLCov, Iv at? 
jLtet^ovas" €ori /cat TrAeto^'as'"* irpos dXXrjXa tcoi' ^(x)a>v 
rj TTpos rd fJL-r) ^a)a Sia</>opa? Kal dvofjLotorrjrag 
evpeZv. Kal doroyioC' pLev dvdpcoTTOi Kal oopLols 
C rp€^6pi€voi pLTj eGTOJoav, ot^ Me(yaCT^evet y' et)yat' 
SoKovGL. Tr]V 8' dXipiov^ 7)?^ riplv avrog i^iqyelro 
SvvapLLV fjVL^aro puev 'HatoSo? etVcov 

ovh^ 600V iv ptaXaxD t€ Kal da^oSeAoj /xey* 
6v€Lap 

cpycp 8' ipi(f)avrj Trapeax^v ^KTnpLevlSrjg SiSd^ag on 
pLLKpw TravraTraoLV rj c^vgls vireKKavpLarL t,<jL>7TvpeZ 
Kal Gvve)(€L TO ^ojov, dv oGov eXaias pieyedog Xd^r), 
pLTjhepiLd? ert rpocfyrjg Seopuevov. rovg 8' eVt rrjs 
GeXT^vrjs, eiirep eloiv, evGraXels etvat rot? owpiaGL 
Kal SiapKelg vtto tojv TV)(6vrcov Tplijieodai TTidavov 
eon. Kal ydp avrr^v ttjv GeXrjvriv d'jonep rov tjXlov, 

1 Stephanus (1624) ; he -E, B. 

* Xylander ; ioiKaai koX dearal? -E, 15. 

' E ; TTcpl (f)vaLV -B. * B ; TrXiovas -E. 

* -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 {cf. 938 c supra) ; ovarofioL -E, 
B, Aldine, Basiliensis. 

« Wyttenbach ; el -E, B. 

' H.^C. after Adler's (Kal MeyaodeveL) ; fiij vac. 8-E, 9-B /i^y. 

8 Adler (1933) ; t^V tc afifiovos -E, B. 

' H. C. (for the final os in dufiovos). 

« Cf. Aristotle, Hist. Animal. 588 b 4 ff. and De Part. 
Animal. 681 a 12-15. 

^ See 938 c supra and note d there. On the text and im- 

176 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 94-0 

with. They err then who believe the moon to be a 
fiery and glowing body ; and those who demand that 
living beings there be equipped just as those here 
are for generation, nourishment, and livelihood seem 
blind to the diversities of nature, among which one 
can discover more and greater differences and dis- 
similarities between living beings than between them 
and inanimate objects." Let there not be mouthless 
men nourished by odours who (Megasthenes) thinks 
(do exist) ^ ; yet the Hungerbane,^ the virtue of 
which he was himself trying to explain to us, Hesiod 
hinted at when he said 

Nor what great profit mallow has and squill '^ 

and Epimenides made manifest in fact when he 
showed that with a very little fuel nature kindles and 
sustains the living creature, which needs no further 
nourishment if it gets as much as the size of an olive. ^ 
It is plausible that the men on the moon, if they do 
exist, are slight of body and capable of being nourished 
by whatever comes their way.-'^ After all, they say 
that the moon herself, like the sun which is an 

plication of this sentence cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 147- 
148. 

" For Tj dXLfxos cf. Sept. Sap. 157 d-f ; [Plutarch], Comment, 
in Hesiod. § 3 (vii, p. 51. 14 ff. [Bernardakis]) ; Pliny, Xat. 
Hist. xxii. 22 (73) ; Porphyry, Vita Pythag. § 34 and De 
Ahstinentia, iv. 20 (p. 266. 5 ff. [Xauck]) ; Plato, Laws, 677 e 
(where the word aAt/xo? itself does not occur, however). 

'^ Works and Days, 41. 

^ Cf. Epimenides, frag. A 5 (i, pp. 30-31 [Diels-Kranz]), 
where reference to this passage should be added. 

f Cf. Aristotle, De Gen. Animal. 761 b 21-23 for the sug- 
gestion that animate beings of a kind unknown to us may- 
exist on the moon and [Philoponus], De Gen. Animal, p. 160. 
16-20 for a description of these creatures that do not eat or 
drink. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ jl l,cpov ovTa TTvpivov Koi rrjs yrjs ovra TroXXaTrXduLov , 
0.770 Tojv vypct)v (f)aGL rojv eVt ttJ? yTy? rpecfyeadaL 
Kal Tovg dXXovg darepag dneipovs ovras' ovrcus 
€Xa(f)pd Kal Xird tcov dvayKaiojv (jiepetv ^coa rov 
dva> TOTTov VTToXafjL^dvovoLV . dAA' ovT€ ravra 
GVVOpOJfJLeV Ovd^ OTL Kal X^P^ '^^'' <f>^^^^ K^f- KpaGLS 
dXXrj 7rp6(j(f)op6g loriv avrols. (Lairep ovv, el rfj 
BaXdrrrj fir] hwafxevcov rjfjicov TrpoaeXdelv jif'^S' 
difjaoOai fjiovov Se rr]v Biav avTrjs TToppcoOev d^- 
opojVTOJV Kal TTVvdavopLevojv on iriKpov Kal dnorov 
Kal dXjivpov vhojp eorlv e'Aeye ti? ojs ^cpa noXXd 
E Kal fxeydXa Kal Travroharfd rat? jiop^aZs rpe(f)€i 
Kara ^dBovs Kal d'qpLOjv earl 7TXi]p7]s vSan XP^~ 
pLevixiV oaa-nep T^/xet? depi, jjlvOols dv o/xoia Kal 
repaoiv ehoKei Trepaiveiv ovtojs ioiKajjiev e;)^etv Kal 
ravrd 77acr;(etp^ Tipo? ti]v oeX'qvqv dTTLorovvres eKet 
TLva? dvBpojTTovs KaroLKelv . €K€lvovs S' ay o'iopiaL 
TToXv fxdXXov dTToBavpidoaL rrfv yrjv, d(f)opa)VTas 
olov VTTOGTdBjJLrjv Kal IXvv Tov TTavros €v vypols 
Kal opiLxXaLS Kal ve^ecrt hia(j>aivopievriv dXapLjres Kal 
7 0.7T€Lv6v Kal dKiv7]rov x<^P^ov, el l,a)a (f)V€L Kal rpl- 
cf)€L pLerexovra KLvrjaewg dvarrvorj? BeppLorrjros. Kav 
F €.'i TToBev avrols iyyevoLTO tcov 'OpL-qpiKcov rovrcov 
dKovoai 

opLcphaXe , evpojevra, rd re OTvylovGL Beoi irep 

^ Wyttenbach (after the versions of Xylander and Amyot) ; 
TOVTOis doKelv -E ; tovtovs daKclv -B. 

" =(S. V.F. ii, frag. 677. Cf, De Stoicorum Repugnantiis^ 
1053 A {^S.V.F. ii, frag. 579) ; Aetius, ii. 17. 4 : Strabo, 
i. 1. 9 (c. 6) ; Cleomedes, i. 6. 88 (p. 60. 2\-24> [Ziegler]). 

178 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 9^0 

animate being of fire many times as large as the 
earth, is nom-ished by the moisture on the earth, as 
are the rest of the stars too, though they are count- 
less ; so light and frugal of requirements do they 
conceive the creatures to be that inhabit the upper 
region.'' We have no comprehension of these beings, 
however, nor of the fact that a different place and 
nature and temperature are suitable to them. Just 
as, assuming that we were unable to approach the 
sea or touch it but only had a vie^v of it from afar and 
the information that it is bitter, unpotable, and salty 
water, if someone said that it supports in its depths 
many large animals of multifarious shapes and is 
full of beasts that use water for all the ends that we 
use air, his statements would seem to us like a tissue 
of myths and marvels, such appears to be our relation 
to the moon and our attitude towards her is apparently 
the same when we disbelieve that any men dwell 
there. Those men, I think, would be much more 
amazed at the earth, when they look out at the sedi- 
ment and dregs ^ of the universe, as it were, obscurely 
visible in moisture, mists, and clouds as a lightless, 
low, and motionless spot, to think that it engenders 
and nourishes animate beings which partake of 
motion, breath, and warmth. If they should chance 
to hear somewhere these Homeric words. 

Dreadful and dank, which even gods abhor ^ 

Plutarch, of course, uses Stoic doctrine here against the 
Stoics. 

*• Zeno called earth IXvs and vnocrTddiMr) {S. V.F. i, frags. 
104 and 105) ; but, since the end of this chapter appears to 
have been inspired by Plato's Phaedo, 109 b-d, the phrase here 
used M-as probably suggested to Plutarch by Plato's use of 
vTToorddfxT} there (109 c 2). 

' Iliad, XX. 65. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(940) /cat 

TOGGOV evepd^ 'AtSeco^ ogov ovpavos €Gr^ 0,776 
yaLrjg, 

ravra (l)'qGOVGiv drex^ojs Tiepl rov x^piov rovrov 
XeyeGdai Kal rov "AlSt^v Ivravda^ kol tov T dprapov 

OLTTCpKLGdaL^ yfjv §€ /XtttV €iVaL TTjV GeXiqV7]V, LGOV 
€K€LVOJV TCJV dvCO Kal Tcbv KaTOJ TOVTCUV d7Te)(OVGaV ." 

26. "Ert 8' ifjLov* GX^^ov Xeyovros 6 SuAAa? vtto- 
Xa^ojv " eTTLGX^? " €L7T€v " c5 AajjLTTpLa, Kal TTapa- 
^aXov TO dvpiov rod Xoyov, fxr] Xddr]9 rov fivOov 
a)G7T€p et? yrjv i^oKetXas Kal Gvyx^Jj? rd hpap-a rov- 
941 pLov irepav €xov gktjvtjv /cat ScdOeGLV. eyoj pL€v ovv 
VTTOKpirrjg elpLi, Trporepov 8' avrov ^pdGOj rov ttolt]- 
rrjv rjfilv^ el p.'q rt KOiXvei^ Kad^ "OpLr]pov dp^dpievov^ 

^QyvyiTj ns vrJGog dnoTrpodev^ elv dXl /cetrat 

hpopov TjpLepdjv irivre Bperravlag drrexovGa rrXiovn 
TTpdg eGTTcpav. erepai Se rpet? Igov e/cctvi^S" a^- 
ecrrtuCTat /cat dXXrjXojv TrpoKeivrai pidXtora Kara 
SvGpLag -qXiOV depivds, cbv iv paa rov Kpdvov ol 
^dp^apoL KaOelpxOai pLvOoXoyovGiv vtto rod Atd?, 
rov 8* (jjyvyiov {Bptapeojv)* exovra (fipovpdv^^ rcjv 
re vqGOJV eKeivojv Kal rrj? daXdrrr]?, t^v Kpdvtov 

^ Bernardakis ; 'AiSao -E, B. 

2 Written twice in B. ^ E : a-rroKeloQaL -B. 

* Bernardakis ; hi yuov -E, B. 

6 E, B ; vyuv -Stephanus (1624). 

« E, Bi ; KwXvoi -B2. ^ ^ ' E, B : ap^a^evo? -Hutten. 

^ Stephanus (1624) ; a-noTTpoadcv -E, B. 

^ " Le Geant Ogygius ou Briareus " -Amyot ; rov 8' (Ls 
vlov -E, B ; TOV 8e Bptapeotv -Kaltwasser : tov S' "Q.yvyov 
-A pelt (1905). 

180 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 940-941 

and 

Deep under Hell as far as Earth from Heaven," 

these they would say are simply a description of this 
place and Hell and Tartarus have been relegated 
hither while the moon alone is earth, since it is equally 
distant from those upper regions and these lower 
ones." 

26. Almost before I had finished, Sulla broke in. 
" Hold on, Lamprias," he said, " and put to the \vicket 
of your discourse ^ lest you unfittingly run the myth 
aground, as it were, and confound my drama, which 
has a different setting and a different disposition. 
Well, I am but the actor of the piece, but first I shall 
say that its author began for our sake — if there be 
no objection — with a quotation from Homer ^ : 



An isle, Ogygia, lies far out at sea, 



a run of five days off from Britain as you sail west- 
ward ; and three other islands equally distant from 
it and from one another lie out from it in the general 
direction of the summer sunset. In one of these, 
according to the tale told by the natives, Cronus is 
confined by Zeus, and the antique (Briareus), holding 
watch and ward over those islands and the sea that 

° Iliad, viii. 16. 

^ Cf. De Sollertia Animalium, 965 b. 

' On the text of this sentence cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), 
pp. 148-149. 

** Odyssey, vii. 244. On the geographical introduction to 
the myth see the Introduction, § 5, and especialh^ Hamilton, 
Class. Quart, xxviii (1934), pp. 15-26, who points out the 
parallel bet^veen Plutarch's geographical scheme and Plato's 
location of Atlantis in Timaeus, 24 e — 25 a. 

^•^ Kaltwasser (implied by Amyot's version) ; ^povpov -E, B. 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^' Y) TTeXayog 6vofidl,ovaL, TrapaKaTCOKLGdai.^ ttjv Se 
ljL€ydXr]v rjiretpov, u</)' rjs rj jJLeydXrj Trepiex^Tai 
kvkXco ddXarra, rcov fxev oXXcjov eXarrov d7re;^etv^ 
TTJs S' ^Qyvytas rrepl TrevTaKLGXt-Xlovg crraStous' 
KCjOTTijpeGL ttXolols KOjJLil^oiJieva)' ^pahvTTopov yap 
elvai Kal Trr^XcoSes vtto ttXtjOovs pevfjidrajv to ttc- 
Xayog. rd Sc pevpLara Tr)V fieydX-qv i^ievat yrjv 
Kal ylyveadaL 7TpoGxci)0€L?^ 0,77' avrojv Kal ^apelav 
elvai Kal yecohr) ttjv ddXaTrav, -^^ /cat Trenr^yevaL 
So^av €(TX^- 'T'V^ S' r)7T€Lpov rd irpos rfj daXdrrj] 
KaroiK€LV "KXXrjvas irepl koXttov ovk iXdrrova rrjs 
MaicortSos", ov to aropia ro) o-ro/xart rov KaaTTtou 
C TreXdyovg pidXiora /car' evdelav Keludai,^ KaXelv Se 
Kal vopLL^ecv eKetvovg r]7T€Lpa)ra? pL€v avrovs^ (yV~ 

^ Apelt (1905) and implied by Amyot's version : Trapa/carco 
Kdodai -E, B. 2 Basiliensis ; aTrexec -E, B. 

3 Diibner ; TT-poxcuaei? -E, 1?. 

* E, B ; fi -Wyttenbach. ^ E ; Kiveladai -B. 

^ Diibner (implied by Amyot's version) ; avrovs -E, B. 

" Cf. Be Defectu Oraculorum^ 420 a and on the text Class. 
Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 149. For Briareus as* a guard set by 
Zeus over Cronus and the Titans rf. Hesiod, Theogony, 729- 
735 and Apollodorus, i. 7 (==i. 2. 1). The pillars of Heracles 
are said to have had the older name Bptapecu arfiXai (rf. Aelian, 
Var. Hist. v. 8 = Aristotle, frag. 678) and before that Kpovov 
oTTjXaL {rf. Charax, frag. \6 = Fraf/. J list. Graec. iii, p. 640) ; 
cf. also Clearchus, frag. 56 {Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, p. 320) and 
Parthenius, frag. 21 (I)iehl) = frag. 31 (Martin). 

^ Cf. Timaeus 24 k 5 — 25 a 5. 

<^ Plutarch's language really implies that the way is so 
long — not just that it takes a long time — because the sea is 
hard to traverse ! 

"^ Cf. Strabo, i. 4. 2 (c. 63) : 17V {i.e. (dovXiqv) <j>-qaL Yivdias 
. . . iyyvs elvaL rrjs Trevn^yuia? daXaTTrjg, and Pliny, Sat. Hist. 
iv. 16 (104) : " a Tyle unius diei navigatione mare concretum 
a nonnullis Cronium appellatur " {n.b. that for Apollonius 

182 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 941 

they call the Cronian main, has been settled close 
beside him," The great mainland, by which the great 
ocean is encircled,^ while not so far from the other 
islands, is about five thousand stades from Ogygia, 
the voyage being made by oar, for the main is slow 
to traverse and muddy as a result of the multitudv 
of streams.^ The streams are discharged by the grea\ 
land-mass and produce alluvial deposits, thus giving 
density and earthiness to the sea, which has been 
thought actually to be congealed.^ On the coast of 
the mainland Greeks dwell about a gulf which is not 
smaller than the Maeotis ^ and the mouth of which 
lies roughly on the same parallel as the mouth of the 
Caspian sea/ These people consider and call them- 
selves continentals (and the) inhabitants of this land 

Rhodius [iv. 327, 509, 54^6] the Adriatic is the Cronian sea) ; 
cf. Tacitus, Agrkola, § 10 and Germania., § 45. Plutarch 
denies that the sea is really congealed as it is reputed to be 
and explains its nature in imitation of Plato (Timaeus, -25 d 
3-6, Critias, 108 e 6 — 109 a 2) ; but, since he cannot adduce 
as the cause of the muddy shallows the " settling of the island, 
Atlantis, under the sea," he falls back upon alluvial deposits 
from the rivers on the great continent, a notion familiar from 
manv sources {cf. De Exilio, 602 d with Thucydides, ii. 102. 
6 ; Aristotle, Meteorology, 351 b 28-32 : Herodotus, ii. 10 
Strabo, i. 3. 29-30 [cc. 36-37]). For the " congealed sea " cf. 
further K. Miillenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde, i (1890), pp 
410-425 ; E. Janssens, Hist, ancienne de la mer du iV"ord^( 1946) 
pp. 20-22 ; J. O. Thomson, Hist, of Ancient Geography, pp 
148-149, 241, and 54-55 (on Avienus, Ora Maritima, 1 17-129) 

* The Sea of Azov, the size of which Herodotus had greatly 
exaggerated (iv. 86) : Strabo reduced its perimeter to 9000 
stades (ii. 5. 23 [c. 125]). 

f The Caspian was thought to be a gulf of the outer ocean 
from the time of Alexander until Ptolemy corrected the error 
{Alexander, chap. 44 ; Strabo, xi. 6. 1 [c. 507]), though 
Herodotus (i. 202-203) and Aristotle {Meteorology, 354 a 3-4) 
had known that it was connected with no other sea. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(941) GLcoras 3e rous")^ Tavrrjv rrjv yrjv KaTOiKovvra? , 
(1)S Koi kvkXo) TTepLppvrov ovaav vtto rrjs daXdaar]?. 
o'Uodai he roZs Kpdvou XaoZs dva/xt;)^^eVTas' varepov 
Tovs jLte^' 'HpaKXeovs irapayevopievovs Kal vtto- 
XeL(f)devTas rjhrj G^evi'VfjLevov to 'KXXtjvlkov e/cet Kal 
Kparovjxevov yXajTrr] re ^ap^apiKji koi vofjiois Kal 
oiatraiS" olov dva^corrvprJGaL ttolXlv lo-^vpov Kal ttoXv 
yevofievov. Sto rt/xas" ^X^^^ rrpajras rov 'WpaKXia 
hevrepas he rov Kpovov. orav ovv^ 6 rod Kpovou 
OLGTTjp, ov OatVovra fJLev rjixels eKeivovs he Nu- 
KTOvpov ecfyrj KaXeXv, els Tavpov TrapayevrjraL St' 
era)V rpiaKovra, TrapaGKevaaapievovs ev XP^^^ 
D TToXXcp rd TTepl ttjv dvGiav Kal rov (KjroGroXov 
deojpovs LKavovsY eKTrepLrreiv KXrjpcp Xaxovrag ev 
ttXolols roGovroLS depaTreiav re ttoXXtjv Kal Trapa- 
GKevTjv^ dvayKaiav jxeXXovGi TrXelv rreXayos roGov- 
rov elpeGia Kal xpovov errl ^evqs ^Lorevetv rroXvv 
epL^aXXofjLevovs .^ dvaxOevras ovv xP'^^^^l^^ rvxoH'S, 
CO? etKO?, dXXovs dXXais. rovs he htaGcodevras Ik 
rrJ9 daXdrrrjS rrpcbrov pLev enl rds rrpoKeip^evas 
VTjGovs oLKovpLevas S' vcf)^ 'EAAtJi'ojv KariGx^i'V Kal 

^ vqoLWTas Be -Basiliensis ; vrjaLcvras Se tovs -Wyttenbach ; 
lacking in E and B without sign of lacuna. 

2 E ; orav be -B. ^ H. C. ; rov a vac. 23-E, 16-B. 

* B ; vac. 5 OKevrjv -E. 

^ Wyttenbach ; euPdXXofiev ovs -E, B. 

^ Xylander ; ov XPV "^» ^^ 

" Oaivojv as the name of the planet Saturn occurs in De 
An. Proc. in Timaeo, 1029 b (ace. : Oaivcova) ; Aetius, ii. 15. 4 
(where mss. vary between OatVcova and Oaivovra, cf. Diels, 
Dox. Graeci, p. 344 ad loc.) ; [Aristotle], De Mundo,'392 a 23 
(OaiVovTos) ; cf. Cicero, De yatu7'a Deorum, ii. 20. 52. There 
is a similar variation in the mss. as between ^rlX^ovra and 
SriAjScuva (r/. Diels, Dox. Graeci^ p. 345 on Aetius, ii. 15. 4), 
184 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 941 

(islanders) because the sea flows around it on all 
sides ; and they believe that with the peoples of 
Cronus there mingled at a later time those who 
arrived in the train of Heracles and were left behind 
by him and that these latter so to speak rekindled 
again to a strong, high flame the Hellenic spark there 
which was already being quenched and overcome by 
the tongue, the laws, and the manners of the bar- 
barians. Therefore Heracles has the highest honours 
and Cronus the second. Now when at intervals of 
thirty years the star of Cronus, which we call ' Splen- 
dent ' " but they, our author said, call ' Night- 
watchman,' enters the sign of the Bull,^ they, having 
spent a long time in preparation for the sacrifice and 
the (expedition), choose by lot and send forth (a 
sufficient number of envoys) in a correspondingly 
sufficient number of ships, putting aboard a large 
retinue and the provisions necessary for men who are 
going to cross so much sea by oar and live such a long 
time in a foreign land. Now when they have put to 
sea the several voyagers meet with various fortunes 
as one might expect ; but those who sur\-ive the 
voyage first put in at the outlying islands, which are 
inhabited by Greeks, '^ and see the sun pass out of 

though at 925 a supra the mss. of Le Facie agree on ZxtA- 

* Taurus is the sign of the moon's exaltation {cf. Ptolemv, 
Tetrahihlos, i. 20 [p. 44. 2, Boll-Boer] ; Porphyry, Le Antra 
Xymph. 18), and it is for this reason that the expedition be- 
gins when Saturn enters this sign. For the " thirty years " cf. 
Aetius, ii. 32. 1 {Do:c. Graeci, p. 363) ; Cleomedes, i. 3. 16-17 
(p. 30. 18-21 [Ziegler]) ; Cicero, Be Xatura Deorum, ii. 20. 52. 

•^ These islands lie out westw^ard or north-westward from 
Ogygia, cf. 941 a supra. It has not previously been said that 
they are inhabited by Greeks : in fact, 941 b seems to imply 
that Greeks live only on the mainland. 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(941) '^or tJXlov opdv KpvTTTOfievov wpag fJLids eXarrov icf)^ 
iqfxepas rpLaKovra {koI vvKra rovr^ elvat, gkotos 
€)(ovaai' eXacfypov kol XvKavyes oltto SvGfxcjv irepi- 
XafjLTTOfievov). eVet Se hiarpiifjavras rjfxcpas €V€- 
VTjKovra,^ /xera TLfjLrjg Kal (j)iXo(f)poavv7]'^ Upov? 

E vofXL^ofjievovs Kal TTpoGayopevojJievovs , vtto ttvcv- 
fidrcov ol Set^ Trepaiovodai. fJLrjS^ dXXovs nvds 
ivoLKelv i) cr(f)ds r' avrovs Kal tovs Trpo avTwv 
drr oTTepLcfydivT as . e^eZvai /xev yap aTTOTrXelv ot/caSe 
rovs TO) deo) rd rpl? 8eV er-q^ GvXXarpevaavras y 
alpeladai 8e rovs rrXeiGrovs eTTieiKchs avrodi Kar- 
oiK€LV rovs p-^v VTTO ovvqBelas rovs 3' on ttovov 
hL)(a Kal TTpaypidrojv d(f)dova Trapeuri iravra Trpos 
dvaiais Kal xoprjyiaLS r)* Trepl Xoyovs nvds del Kal 

F (jyiXoGocfiLav hiarpi^ovoi. davfiaGrr]v ydp etvat rrjs 
re v-qoov rrjv (f)vaLV Kal rr^v Trpaorrjra rod Trept- 
exovros depos- eviois he Kal ro deZov epLTTohojv 
yiyveodai hiavor]delGiv dTTOTrXeiv wGTrep owqdeai 
Kal (f)iXois e7nheiKvvp,evov ovk ovap puovov ovSe 8ta 
ovjji^oXojVy dXXd Kal cfyavepcbs evrvyxdveiv ttoXXovs 
oipeoL SaLp,6vojv Kal cjxjjvals. avrov pikv yap rov 
Kpwov ev dvrpo) ^aOel Trepiex^oBai Trerpas XP^~ 
Goechovs KadevSovra. rov ydp vttvov avrw fie- 
jjLrjxoivrJGd ai heGfiov vtto rod Atos", opviSas he rrjs 
nerpas Kard Kopv(f)r]v eloTTeropievovs^ dp^^poGiav 

^ E ; €V€vrjKovTa Kal ixera -B. 

2 Bernardakis ; rjSr] -E, B. 

^ Bernardakis : to) rpLOKaih^KaTco -E, B. 

* Turnebus ; oi -E, B. 

^ Madvig ; ovs Trerofxevovs -E, B. 

« I have tried to preserve the ambiguity of Plutarch's 
language, though he probably meant to say " less than an 

186 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 941 

sight for less than an hour over a period of thirty 
days," — and this is night, though it has a darkness 
that is slight and twilight glimmering from the west. 
There they spend ninety days regarded with honour 
and friendliness as holy men and so addressed, and 
then winds carry them across to their appointed goal.^ 
Nor do any others inhabit it but themselves and those 
who have been dispatched before them, for, while 
those who have served the god together for the stint 
of thirty years are allowed to sail off home, most of 
them usually choose to settle in the spot, some out 
of habit and others because without toil or trouble 
they have all things in abundance while they con- 
stantly employ their time in sacrifices and celebra- 
tions or with various discourse and philosophy, for 
the nature of the island is marvellous as is the soft- 
ness of the circumambient air. Some when they 
intend to sail away are even hindered by the divinity 
which presents itself to them as to intimates and 
friends not in dreams only or by means of omens, 
but many also come upon the visions and the voices 
of spirits manifest. For Cronus himself sleeps con- 
fined in a deep cave of rock that shines like gold — 
the sleep that Zeus has contrived as a bond for him — , 
and birds flying in over the summit of the rock bring 

hour each day for thirty days " (so Kepler understood, who 
thought that the reference was to Greenland). For the length 
of summer-days in Britain and in Thule cf. Cleomedes, i. 7. 
37-38 (pp. 68. 6-70. -22 [Ziegler]) and Pytheas and Crates in 
Geminus, vi. 9-21 (pp. 70-76 [Manitius]). Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
iv. 16 (104) says that in Thule at the summer solstice there is 
no night at all, i.e. while the sun is in Cancer ; but he adds 
here, what he had before (ii. 75 [186-187]) ascribed to Pytheas, 
that some think that in Thule there is a continuous day of 
six months' duration. 

* Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 149 and note 91. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(9-il) i7TL(f)€peLv avroj, /cat r'r]v vrjoov eutoSta KaTe-)^€o6ai 
942 rrdaav ojGTrep eV Trrjyrj? oKihvaixevr] rrjg Trerpas. 
Tous Se Sat/L6ora9 €K€lvovs Trepterretv /cat deparreveiv 
rov \\p6vov, iraipovs avrcb yevopievovs ore hr] decov 
Kal dvdpcoTTOjv e^acrtAeuCTe/ /cat ttoAAo. /Ltev d(^' 
iavrcov /xavrt/cous" oVras" irpoXeyeiv ra 8c /xeytara 
/cat 77ept Tcov /xeytarajv cos" oveipara rov Kpovou 
/cartovra? efayyeAAetv^- oVa yap o Zei)? TTpohia- 
voeZrai^ raur' oyetpoTroAetv rov Kpovoi^, etvat o 
dvdraaiv^ rd rtrayt/cd vrd^T^ /cat KivqpLara ttjs 
ijjvxrjs {eo)?) dv^ avrco irdXiv dvdTravaiv^ o vttvos 
(^Karaor-qarj}^ Kal yevqrai rd ^aaiXiKov /cat delov 
B azjrd /ca^' iavrd Kadapov /cat dKrjpaTOV. ivravOa 
St] KopLLadeLS, ojs e'Aeyer, d feVo? /cat depajrevajv 
Tov 8e6v CTTt cr;^oA'^S' dorpoXoyias fJiev e</>' ocrov 
^ye)* yecjopberpTJoavTi TToppojTdroj irpoeXdelv Svvarov 

^ E, B ; €^aaiXev€ -Emperiiis. 

^ E ; e'^ayy e'Aeiv -B. 

^ E ; TTpoahiavoeiTai -B, 

"* H. C. ; avaaraaiv -E, B. 

^ After Bernardakis's i/jvxrjs (eivs av) ev ; tp^xv^ ^^ "B, B. 

® H. C. ; vavTO-TTaaLV -E, B. 

' H. C. ; 6 V7TVOS vac. 10-E, 13-B. 

8 H. C. ; oaov vac. 2-E, 3-B. 

" For the sleep of Cronus as his bonds and for the spirits 
who are his servitors cf. De Defechi Oraculonim, 420 a. F'or 
the sleeping Cronus cf. also Kern, Orphicorum Fragmenta, 
frags. 149 and 155 ; in these " Orphic " or Neo-Platonic 
passages, however, Cronus prophesies, furnishes Zeus with 
plans, or thinks the world order b<'fore Zeus is aware of it 
(cf. Damascius, Dub. et Sol. 305 v-306 r [ii, pp. 136. 19-137. 8, 
Ruellel and Proclus, In Cratyhim, p. 53. i29 ff. [Pasquali]), 
which is the opposite of what Plutarch's words imply. Be- 
cause of Tertullian, De Anhna, 46. 10 (f. 156) J. H. Waszink 
(Tertullian, De Anima, p. 496) thinks it certain that the 
ultimate source of the story was one of Aristotle's lost 

188 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 941-942 

ambrosia to him, and all the island is suffused with 
fragrance scattered from the rock as from a fountain ; 
and those spirits mentioned before tend and serve 
Cronus, having been his comrades what time he ruled 
as king over gods and men. Many things they do 
foretell of themselves, for they are oracular ; but 
the prophecies that are greatest and of the greatest 
matters they come down and report as dreams of 
Cronus, for all that Zeus premeditates Cronus sees 
in his dreams ^ and the titanic affections and motions 
of his soul make him rigidly tense (until) sleep 
(restores) his repose once more and the royal and 
divine element is all by itself, pure and unalloyed.^ 
Here then the stranger ^ was conveyed, as he said, 
and M'hile he served the god became at his leisure 
acquainted with astronomy, in which he made as 
much progress as one can by practising geometry, 

dialogues. Pohlenz (R.E. xi. 2013. s.v. " Kronos ") sup- 
poses that Plutarch's source was Posidonius and that Posi- 
donius was inspired by Nordic legend ! 

The feature of the birds that bring Cronus ambrosia appears 
to have been adapted from the story of Zeus's nectar ; cf. 
Sept. Sap. 156 F and Odyssey, xii, 63-65. 

Besides J. H. Waszink (Tertullian, De Anima, p. 496) see 
the same author's articles in Vigiliae Christianae, i (1947), 
pp. 137-149 (especially pp. 145-149) and in Melanges Henri 
Gregoire, ii (1950), pp. 639-653 (especially pp. 651-653). 
Waszink mistakenly believes that in Plutarch's story " special 
demons convey to Zeus [the thoughts that arise in Cronus's 
dreams] who makes use of them for his government of the uni- 
verse," and consequently he overlooks the important difference 
between Plutarch's version and the " Orphic " passages that 
I have pointed out in this note. 

^ Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 149-150. 

*■ This is the first mention of " the stranger," unless he 
was referred to in the lost beginning of the dialogue. Hitherto 
he has merely been implied by the indirect discourse and t6v 
TToiTjTTjv in 941 A supra ; cf. the reference in note c there. 

189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(942) €.orLV efXTTeiplav eax^ (f)LXoGO(f)Lag Se rrj? aXX-qs ro) 
(f)V(JLKa) ;^pc6jU.ero?. eTTt^u/xtav 8e rtva Kal rrodov 
€)(a)v yeveodai rrjg iicydXr]? vrjoov dear-^g [ovrcog^ 
yap COS" eoLK€ Tr]v Trap" rjfjiLV olKovixlvrjV ovopid- 
l,0VGLv), eVeiS?]" TO. rpiaKovr err) Sii^XOev d(j)iKO- 
pilvojv Tibv hiah oy^cov oLKodev doTraadpievos^ rovs 
cfylXov? efeVAeuCTC, rd pL€v dXXa KareGKevacrpievos 
evGTaXo)?* i(j)6'6iov he avx^^ov eV* -^pvaoZs €K7rwpLaGL 

KOpLLl^COl'. d pL€V OVV €7Tad€ Kal OGOVS avOpOJTTOVS 

C StrjA^ev, Upolg re ypdptpLaGiV evrvyxdvwv iv reXe- 
raXg re^ irdGais reXovpLevo?, ov /xia? rjpLepas epyov 
eGrl SieXdelv co? eKeZvos rjpuv drrriyyeXXev ev pidXa 
Kal Kad^ eKaGTOv dTTopLvrjpLovevcov, oGa 8' otVeta 
TTJs eveGTCJGiqs hiarpL^rjS eGTLV dKOTJGare . TrXeiGTOv 
yap ev Y^^apx^hovi xP^^ov hierpiipev are hrj Trap* 
rjpuv pLeydXa? exovros (rod Kpovou rt/xas")/ Kai 
Ttva? 66^ Tj TTporepa ttoXls aTTOjXXvro hL(j)6epas lepd? 
VTTeKKopLLGdeLGag Kpvcf)a Kal SuaXadovGag ttoXvv 
Xpdvov ev yfj /cet/xeva? e^evpev.^ rcov re (j)aLVo- 
pLeva>v decbv e(j)iq XPW^'- '^^^ H-^^ TtapeKeXevero ripidv 
hLa(f>ep6vra>£ rrjv GeXrjvrjv d>s rod ^lov KvpLinrdrrjV 

^ E ; ovrco -B. 

2 Madvig ; eVet hk -E, B. 

^ E ; danaoafievovs -B. 

* -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; cvoTaBws -E, B. 

^ E ; omitted in B. 

^ E ; re omitted in B. 

' Emperius ; /xeyaAa? cxovtos Kal tlvols -E, B, Aldine ; 
fieydXrjs cxovtos Kal TL^dg -Basiliensis ; fieydXds €xovtos (tov 
Kpovov) TL/jLag- Kal -Wyttent)ach. 

8 Adler ; i^evpelv -E, B ; e^cupcov -Basiliensis. 

" (f>i.Xoao<f>las . . . xP^H-^vos is highly condensed ; it must 
190 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 94.2 

and with the rest of philosophy by dealing with so 
much of it as is possible for the natural philosopher." 
Since he had a strange desire and longing to observe 
the Great Island (for so, it seems, they call our part 
of the world), when the thirty years had elapsed, the 
relief-party having arrived from home, he saluted 
his friends and sailed away, lightly equipped for the 
rest but carrying a large viaticum in golden beakers. 
Well, all his experiences and all the men whom he 
visited, encountering sacred writings and being 
initiated in all rites — to recount all this as he reported 
it to us. relating it thoroughly and in detail, is not a 
task for a single day ; but listen to so much as is 
pertinent to the present discussion. He spent a great 
deal of time in Carthage inasmuch as (Cronus) re- 
ceives great (honour) in our country,^ and he dis- 
covered certain sacred parchments that had been 
secretly spirited off to safety when the earlier city 
was being destroyed and had lain unnoticed in the 
ground for a long time."^ Among the visible gods '^ 
he said that one should especially honour the moon, 
and so he kept exhorting me to do, inasmuch as she 

be construed : 0tAoCTO(/)tas' Se rrjg aXXrjs {i^Treipiav ea^e), 
Xpco^J-evos {avrij i(f)' oaov) roi (^volko) {hvvarov ioTLv). For the 
distinction between aarpoXoyia and 4>voiKrj here referred to cf. 
Geminus's quotation of Posidonius in Simplicius, Physica, 
pp. 291. 23-:?92. 9 (Diels). 

^ For the special position of Cronus at Carthage cf. De 
Super st it ione, 171 c, I)e Sera yuminis Vindicta, 552 a ; 
Diodorus, v. 66. 5. 

<^ Nothing in the subsequent account supports the fre- 
quently expressed notion that the myth is supposed to have 
been discovered in these parchments, and 945 d infra ex- 
pressly invalidates any such assumption. 

'^ Cf. Timaeus, 40 d {to. irepl dewv oparwv), 41 a (octoi Trept- 
TToXovacv (^avepws . . . Oeoi) ; Epinomis, 985 D {tovs ovrcos 
rjpuv (f>av€povs ovras Oeovs). 



t^LUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(942) ovaav {/<:at rod Oavdrov, tcov "AlSov Xeifjuajvcovy^ 
€xofi€vr)i'. 

27. 0au/xa^ovTO? 8' e/xou' ravra Kal Seofxevov 

D (Ta(f)€GTepov aKovoai ' ttoAAo, ' €t77ev^ ' t5 SuAAa 
Trept ^cojv OX) Trdvra he /caAoj? Aeyerai Trap' "EAAi]- 
atv. otov evOvg opdojg ■\rjfir]Tpau* Kal Koprjv ovo- 
jjidl^ovTe? ovK 6pda)S 6}xov Kal nepl rov avrov 
djji(f)OTepag etvai tottov vopiil.ovGiv rj jxev yap eV yfj 
Kal Kvpia TOiV 7T€pl yrjv eoriv rj 8' eV aeXrjvrj Kal 
Tcov TTepl aeXrjVTjv.^ Kopry re Kal ^epGe(f)6v7f 
K€KXr]Tai TO fjLev a>9 (l)Cx)G(f)6pog' ovGa Kopry 8' otl 
Kal Tov ofxpuaros ev a) to etScoAov dvTiXdjjLTret rod 
^XenovTOS uiGTTep to tjXlov (f)eyyos evopdrai rfj 
GeXiqvr) Koprjv npoGayopevopiev . rots re rrepl rrjv 

E TrXdvrjv Kal rrjv ^rjrrjGiv avra)v XeyojjLevois eveoriv 

1 H. C. (r/. 942 f, 943 c infra ; De Genio Socratis, 591 
A-c) ; ovoav vac. 31-E, 24-B. 

2 Bernardakis ; 84 fiov -E, B. 

^ Stephanus (1624) ; eiVeiv -E, B, Aldine, Basiliensis. 

4 E, B (so Mss. at De hide, 367 c, iJe Esu Cam. 994 a, Adr. 
Coloten, 1119 e; cf. Allen and Sikes, The Homeric Hymns, 
note on the title of Hymn II). 

^ E ; TTcpl rrjv aeXrjvqv -B. 

® Diibner {cf. 943 b infra) : 7T€pa€(f)6vr) -E, B. 

' E ; (f)oo^6po? -B. 

"■ Here Sulla begins to quote the stranger directly and 
continues his direct quotation to the end of the myth in 945 n. 

'' Eor identification of Persephone and the moon cf. Epi- 
charnms, frag. B 54 (i, p. 207. 9-11 [Diels-Kranz] = Ennius 
in Varro, De Linyva Latina, v. 68) ; Porphyry, De Antro 
Nymph. 18; lamblichus in John Laurentius Lydus, De 
Mensibus, iv. 149 ; Martianus Capella, ii. 161-162. Plutarch 
in De hide, 372 d notices the identification of Isis and the 
moon and in 361 i: that of Isis and Persephassa {cf. note c 
on 922 A supra for Athena). The P>i;hagoreans are said to 
have called the planets " the hounds of Persephone " (Por- 

192 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 942 

is sovereign over life (and death), bordering as she 
does (upon the meads of Hades). 

27. When I expressed surprise at this and asked 
for a clearer account, he said " : ' Many assertions 
about the gods, Sulla, are current among the Greeks, 
but not all of them are right. So, for example, 
although they give the right names to Demeter and 
Cora, they are wrong in believing that both are 
together in the same region. The fact is that the 
former is in the region of earth and is sovereign over 
terrestrial things, and the latter is in the moon and 
mistress of lunar things. She has been called both 
Cora and Phersephone,^ the latter as being a bearer 
of light ^ and Cora because that is what we call the 
part of the eye in which is reflected the likeness of 
him who looks into it ^ as the light of the sun is seen 
in the moon. The tales told of the wandering and 
the quest of these goddesses contain the truth 

phyry. Vita Pythag. 41 = Aristotle, frag. 196; Clement, 
Stromal, v. 50 [676 p, 344 s]) ; and Plutarch in De Defectu 
Oraculorum, 416 e refers to some who call the moon x^ovias 
ofiov Kal ovpavias KXrjpov 'E/ccittj? (cf. De hide, 368 e). Cf. 
further, Roscher, Uher Selene und Vericandtes, pp. 119 if. 

<^ Cf. for the ancient etymologies of Oepae^ovT; Brauninger, 
R.E. xix. 1. 946-947, and Roscher, Lexicon, ii. 1288; there 
seems to be no ancient parallel to the one given here, to which 
Plutarch does not refer in De hide, 377 d, where he mentions 
the etymology proposed by Cleanthes. In the Orphic Hymn 
to Persephone (xxix. 9 = 0rphica, rec. E. Abel, p. 74. 9) the 
epithet, <f>aea(f)6pos, is used of the goddess but not by way of 
etymology {cf. line 16) ; nor is she expressly identified with 
the moon, although she is called (f>aeu(l)6pos, dyXaofxopcf^e, . . . 
€V(f>€yy€?, Kepoeooa. 

'^ Cf. [Plato], Alcibiades I, 133 a. The word Kopr] means 
" girl," " maiden," for which reason it was used of such god- 
desses as Athena and Persephone, and also " doll," whence 
like Latin " pupilla " it came to mean the pupil of the eye ; 
cf. English " the baby in the eye." 

VOL. XII H 193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(942) (jfi^LyfJLei'ovy t6^ dXr^Oes' dXXijXcov yap icfyUvrat 
XCDpl'£ ovoai Koi av fjLTrXeKovr ai Trepl ttjv gklclv ttoX- 
XoLKLg. TO 8e vvv^ /xev ev ovpavtb /cat (fxjjrl vvv S' eV 
OKoro) Kol vvKTi yevludai irepl ttjv Koprjv ifievSos 
juev ovK €oriv, rod he xpovov'^ rep dpidpLcp TrXdvrjv 
7TapeG)(rjK€v. ov yap e^ p,i]vas dXXd Trap' e^ pirjva? 
6p6jpL€V avrrjv vtto rrj? yrj? coorrep vtto rrj? pi'qrpos 
rfj ctklS, XapL^avopLevrjV oXiydKLS he rovro hid Tievre 
F pLrjvcJv 7Tdo)(ov(jav ,* eneV' rov y' " Kihriv dTToXnreZv 
dhvvarov eanv avrrjv rod " Kihov 7re/)<(a?)' ovoaVy 
cjOTTep Kal "Opbiqpos emKpvifjdpievos ov (f)avXoJS 
rovr^ elirev 

dXX els 'HAucriov Trehiov Kal ireipara yalrjs' 

OTTOV yap r] a/ctd tt^S" yrjs i7nvep,op,ev7] naverai 
rovro rep/xa rrjs yrjs edero /cat Trepag. els he rovro 
<f)avXos fxev ovhels ouS' dKddapros dveiaiv, ol he 

^ H. C. ; eveartv vac. 7-E ; cj/cctti vac. 9-B. 
2 Basiliensis ; o 8e vvv -E, B. 

^ Raingeard ; ouSe XP^^^^ "^'» ^ ? 6 hk xP^^^s -Anon., 
Aldine, R.J. 94. 

* Wyttenbach ; -napovoav -E, B ; iradovaav -Kaltwasser. 

5 Stephanus (1624) ; em -E (at end of line with 2 or 3 letter- 
spaces possibly vacant after it), B (no lacuna). 
^ Turnebus ; Trep ovaav -E, B. 

* i.e. the wandering of Demeter in search of Persephong 
after the abduction of the latter by Hades : cf. e.g. the 
Homeric Hymn II to Demeter and Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 
i. 5. In the myth, however, Demeter was the wanderer ; but 
the earth, which she is here supposed to represent, is stationary. 
In the myth Persephone is in darkness when she is separated 
from lier mother and with Hades, whereas Plutarch's inter- 
pretation requires that Persephone, the moon, be in darkness 
and night when she is in the embrace of her mother, the earth. 

^ ('/. 933 K supra and De Oeu'io Socratis, 591 c : a€XT]VT] 
. . . (f)evYCi TTjv ^Tvya fjLiKpov VTTep<f)4povaa Aa/x/3av€Tai 8' aTra^ ev 

194 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 942 

(spoken covertly)," for they long for each other when 
they are apart and they often embrace in the shadow. 
The statement concerning Cora that now she is in 
the light of heaven and now in darkness and night 
is not false but has given rise to error in the com- 
putation of the time, for not throughout six months 
but every six months we see her being wrapped in 
shadow by the earth as it were by her mother, and 
infrequently we see this happen to her at intervals 
of five months,^ for she cannot abandon Hades since 
she is the boundary of Hades, as Homer too has 
rather well put it in veiled terms : 

But to Elysium's plain, the bourne of earth.'' 
Where the range of the earth's shadow ends, this he 
set as the term and boundary of the earth. ^ To this 
point rises no one who is evil or unclean, but the good 

/xeVpot? SeuTepot? eVarov 4^8o[x-qKovra eTrra (177 days = one-half 
of a lunar year, 6 synodic months). 

'^ Odyssey, iv. 563 but with aAAa a is instead of aAA' els. 

'^ Cf. Stobaeus, Eclogae, i. 49 (i, p. 448. 5-16 [Wachsmuth]) 
= frag. 146 /S (vii, p. 176 [Bernardakis]), where Odyssey, iv. 
563-564 is taken to indicate that the region of the moon is the 
seat of righteous souls after death (rf. Eustathius, Ad Odys- 
seam, 1509. 18). There 'HAuatoi^ vreStov is said to mean the 
surface of the moon lighted by the sun {cf. 944 c infra) and 
-neipara yai-qs the end of the earth's shadow which often 
touches the moon ; but there is no mention of Hades, Perse- 
phone, or Demeter. In the present passage Plutarch does 
not say why his interpretation of Homer's line justiiies him 
in calling the moon rod "AiSov nepas, but the rest of the myth 
makes it certain that Hades is the region between earth and 
moon (cf. 943 c infra). This agrees with the myth of I)e 
Genio Socratis, where (591 a-c) this region is " the portion o. 
Persephone " and the earth's shadow is " Styx " and " the 
road to Hades " and where (590 f) Hades and Earth are 
clearly identical (cf. Heinze, Xenokrates, p. 135 ; R. M. 
Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch, p. 57 and n. 147). Prob- 
ably then Plutarch here thought that, if Homer could be 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(942) XPV^'^^'- Atera rrjv rcXevrrjv KOjjLLadevre? avrodt 
paorov fxev ovrojs^ ^lov ov pL-qv jxaKapLpv ovhe delov 
€)(OVT€S o-XP'- '^^^ Sevrepov davdrov StareAouCTt. 
28. TiV S' ovTos eoTLV, (I) ^vXXa; fxrj nepl tovtojv 
943 epT]. fjLeXXo) yap avros hiriyeiGdai. rov avdpcjTTOV 
ol TToXXol avvderov pikv opOco? eV Suetv^ Se fjiovov^ 
Gvvderov ovk opdcJog riyovvrai. fxoptov yap etvai 
7TCO? ipvxrj? o'lovrai rov vovv, ovSev rjTrov eVetVcov 
apLaprdvovres ol? r] ip^xV So/cet pLoptov etvai rov 
GcopLaro?- vovs yap ifjvxyj? oocp ^/-ivx'^ crto/xaros' 
dpLCLVov eoTi Kal deiorepov. TToiei 8' 7^ puev ipvx'^? 
(^Kal GwpLaro? pu$LS to dXoyov Kal to TradrjTLKov r) 
Se vov Kal 4'^XV^y cr^^oSo? Xoyov, ojv to /xev rjSovrjs 
apxr] Kal ttovov to S' dpeTrjs Kal KaKtas. Tptcov 

^ E ; ovTcu -B. 

^ Bernardakis ; bvolv -E, B. 

^ B ; fiovwv -E. 

* Bernardakis (r/. 943 d infra) ; -f] /xev ipvxrjs avvohos -E, B ; 
" et fait ceste composition de Tame avec I'entendement la 
raison, et avec le corps la passion . . ." -Aniyot. 

shown to have set the boundary of earth at the moon, it 
follows that he understood the moon to be the boundary of 
Hades. In De (Unio Sorratls, 591 b the moon is expressly 
made the boundary betMeen " the portion of Persephone," 
which is Hades, and the region which extends from moon to 
sun. Nevertheless, in 94-1- c infra the Elysian plain is said 
to be the part of the moon that is turned to heaven, i.e. away 
from the earth; and, though this, does not explicitly con- 
tradict the present passage, it might still seem to suggest the 
notion ascribed to lamblichus by John Laurentiiis Lydus 
(JJe Mensihiis., iv. 149 [p. 167. !24 if.]) : . . . t6v inrep oeXrjvrjs 
dxpLS TjXiov x'^pov TU) ' Xihrj hihovs, ■nap' (L (f)r]al Kal Tag iKK€Kadap- 
jjicvas iardvai ipvxds, Kal avrov fiev eti'ai tov llXovTcova, Ylcpac- 
<j)6vT]v hk T-qv a€Xi]i'T]v. 

" Cf. Odi/S'sey, iv. 565 : tt; 77-ep prjiarrj ^lorrj rreXcL avdpwTTOiaLV. 

^ In Qaaest. Rom. 282 a Plutarch cites Castor {rf. 2m e) 

196 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 942-94-3 

are conveyed thither after death and there continue 
to lead a hfe most easy to be sure " though not 
blessed or divine until their second death. ^ 

28. And what is this, Sulla ? Do not ask about 
these things, for I am going to give a full explanation 
myself. Most people rightly hold man to be com- 
posite but wrongly hold him to be composed of only 
two parts. The reason is that they suppose mind 
to be somehow part of soul, thus erring no less than 
those who believe soul to be part of body, for in the 
same degree as soul is superior to body so is mind 
better and more divine than soul. The result of soul 
(and body commingled is the irrational or the affective 
factor, whereas of mind and soul) the conjunction 
produces reason ; and of these the former is source 
of pleasure and pain, the latter of virtue and vice.^ 

for the notion that after death souls dwell on the moon, for 
which cf. in general P. Capelle, I>e luna stellis lacteo orbe 
animarum sedlbus (Halis Saxonum, 1917), pp. 1-18 and n.b. 
lamblichus, Vit. Pyth. 18. 8:2 ; \'arro in Augustine, De Civ. 
Dei, vii. 6 (i, p. 282. 14-17 [Dombart]) ; S.V.F, ii, frag. 
814. 

" Cf. De Virtute Morali, 441 d — 442 a, De Genio Socratis, 
o91 D-E. The ultimate source of Plutarch's conception of the 
relation of mind, soul, and body is such passages of Plato as 
Timaeus, 30 b, 41-42, 90 a ; Laws, 961 d-e, Phaedrus, 247 c 
(cf. Thevenaz, L'Ame du monde . . . chez Plutarque, pp. 
70-73). Phitarch himself ascribes the twofold division, soul 
and body, to ol ttoXXol and so cannot intend a reference to any 
philosophical school : by those who make soul a /xdptov tov 
acofiaros he might mean Stoics {rf. De Stoicorum Repug- 
nantiis, 1052 r ff., De Communibus Xotitiis, 1083 c ff.) but 
might equally well mean Epicureans or materialists gener- 
ally. Against Adler's argument (Diss. Phil. Vind. x, pp. 
171-172) that the first of the two notions rejected is Platonic 
and the second Stoic, so that Plutarch's source must have 
been Posidonius, cf. Pohlenz, Phil. Woch. xxxii (1912), p. 653, 
and R. M. Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch, p. 55. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(943) Se TovTcov avjjiTTayivrojv to /xev CTcZ)jLta tj yrj ttjv Sc 
^^XW V '^^^'^'^V '^ov 8e vovv 6 tJXlo? 7rapeG)(€v et? 
Tr)v yeveoiv (j-avd pujTT coY wanep av(rfjy^ rfj cre- 
^V^V '^^ (f)€yyog. oif 8' a'7TodvrjGKOjX€v ddvarov, 6 
/xev Ik rpLcbv 8uo Trotet tov avd pcoTTov 6 S' ev eV 

B hvelv^ /cat o jLtev eoriv iv rfj (yf])* rrj? /^TJfJi'qTpo? 
<[(Sio reXevrdv Aeyerat roi^ ^C)ov^ avrfj reAetv /cat 
Tous" veKpovs 'A^T^vatot ArjjjLrjTpelovs cavdjLta^ov to 
77-aAatoy) (o)'' 8' eV tt] creAT^yr^ ttj? ^€poe(f>6v7]£,^ 
Kol GVVoiKog lun tt)? ^ev ;^^ovt09 o 'EpjU.?^? rrfs 8* 
ovpdvLO?. Xvec 8' avTjf jJLev raxv /cat jLterd ^ta? 
T-j^v ijjvx^v drro rod (JcvpLaros rj 8e Oepaec^oi^T^ Trpdcos 
/cat )(^p6vii) rroXXo) rov vovv drro rrj? ^^XV^ ^^'' ^^^ 
rovro fJLOvoyevrjS KeKXiqr ai- [xovov^ yap yiyver ai ro 
PeXrLorov rdvdpwTTov SiaKpLVopievov (utt*/" avrrjs. 

C orvvrvyxdvei 8' ovrws /caret (j)vaLV eKdrepov Trdoav 

^ Bernardakis ; yevcmv vac. 7-E, 11-B. 
'■^ Raingeard : cu? Trep au -E : cu? 7re/) ow -B. 
>> Bernardakis ; bvolv -E, B. 
* Madvig ; ev t^ ttjs -E, B. 
^ H. C. ; AriiM-qrpos vac. 20-E, 36-B ev. 
^ Kaltwasser ; to TraAatov 8e eV -E, B. 
' E', B ; TT€pae(f)6vr]9 -E^. 
® Bernardakis ; avr-f] -E, B. 

^ Stephanas (1634) : fiovrj -E, B ; posh-ihly i^Lovr) {rf. L and 
S, s.v. fiovos, B IV). 
^" Stephanus (1624) ; 8iaKpi.v6fx€vov avTrjs -E, B. 

" C/. D^ (Jen to Socratis, 591 u, where motion and genera- 
tion are linked by Mind in the sun and generation and de- 
struction by Nature in the moon. 

^ Eor a " mortal soul " or " mortal part " of the soul rf. 
Plato, Timaeus, 42 d, 61 c, 69 c-u. 

198 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 943 

In the composition of these three factors earth 
furnishes the body, the moon the soul, and the sun 
furnishes mind (to man) for the purpose of his genera- 
tion « even as it furnishes Ught to the moon herself. 
As to the death we die, one death reduces man from 
three factors to two and another reduces him from 
two to one ^ ; and the former takes place in the 
(earth) that belongs to Demeter ((wherefore " to 
make an end " is called) " to render (one's life) to 
her " and Athenians used in olden times to call the 
dead " Demetrians "),^ (the latter) in the moon that 
belongs to Phersephone, and associated with the 
former is Hermes the terrestrial, \\dth the latter 
Hermes the celestial.^ While the goddess here * 
dissociates the soul from the body swiftly and 
violently, Phersephone gently and by slow degrees 
detaches the mind from the soul and has therefore 
been called " single-born " because the best part 
of man is '* born single " when separated off (by) her/ 
Each of the two separations naturally occurs in this 

" Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 151. 

** Cf. De Iside, 367 d-e. Hermes appears in the myth 
of Persephone as early as Homeric Hymn II, 377 ff. and is 
connected with Hecate in the fragment of Theopompus in 
Porphyry, De Ahstinentia, ii. 16. Cf. also Quaest. Graec. 
296 F and Halliday's note ad loc. 

* i.e. on earth, Demeter, which is Mhy Plutarch refers to 
her with avr-q, though she is the former of the two mentioned. 

^ fjLovoyevijs, which appears as an epithet of Hecate and 
Persephone (rf. Hesiod, Theogony, 426 : Orphic Hymns, 
xxix. 1-2 [Abel] : Apollonius Rhodius, iii. 847), means 
" unique " : cf. Timaeus, 31 b and 92 c, to which Plutarch 
refers in De Defectu, Oraculorum, 423 a and c, where he inter- 
prets the word to mean " only born." Here, however, he 
probably takes the final element in an active sense such as 
it has in KaAAiyeWca, an epithet of Demeter, the moon, and 
the earth. 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(943) ^■''^XW> ^'I'o^i' 'T^ '<^ctt Gvv }'oj, Gcofiarog eKTreuovaav 
€Liiapiji€i'ov ioTiv (ei')^ to; /.lera^u yrjs kol oeXrjvr]^ 
XOJplco^ TrXavrjdrjvai XP'^^''^^ ovk lgov, dAA' at fiev 
dSiKOL Kal aKoXaaroL StVa? rcov dSt/cT^/xarcov rt- 
vovGL ras 8' e7TL€LK€ls ooov dcfiayvevaaL Kal dvo- 
TTvevoai (rovsY o.'^o ■^<^^ GcofiaTog WGirep drfjiov^ 
TTOvripov ixiaop.ov<s iv ro) Trpaordroj rou depos, ov 
XeLfjLwvag "AlSov KaXovGi, Set yiyveodai xpovov rivd 
T€TayjjL€vov. (et^')^ olov i^ dTToSrjfJLia? dvaKopa- 
t,6jjL€vai (j)vyahiKri£ els Trarpiha yevovrai x^pds olav^ 
OL reXovpuevoL pLaXtora dopv^cp Kal TTTorjoeL ovy- 

^ \A'yttenbach ; iarl tw /xcra^u -E, B. 

2 E, B ; x^PV -Papabasileios. 

^ Emperius ; dTTOTTvevaai d-rro -E, B. 

* Emperius ; alriov -E, B. 

^ Basiliensis (eha) ; omitted by E, B. 

^ Editors after olav {sic) of Basiliensis ; olov -E, B. 

" This may mean only " whether the soul has been obedient 
to reason in life or has not but oXt] /care'Su et's atD/ia," as De 
Genio Socrafis, 591 d-k ])uts it ; but at 915 b infra Plutarch 
speaks of souls which dvev vov assume bodies and live on 
earth, and by avow here he may intend to refer to the separa- 
tion of such souls from their bodies. He cannot mean, as 
Raingeard supposes, souls whose minds have immediately 
passed to the sun, for he has just said that the separation of 
mind from soul takes place at the secund death on the moon 
and neither here nor in 914. v infni does he allow for any 
exception in the sense of the doctrine of the Hermetic Tractate, 
X. 1(), where vovs is separated from ipvxq at the moment when 
200 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 943 

fashion : All soul, whether without mind or with it,** 
when it has issued from the body ^ is destined to 
wander (in) the region between earth and moon but 
not for an equal time. Unjust and licentious souls 
pay penalties for their offences ; but the good souls 
must in the gentlest part of the air, which they call 
" the meads of Hades," ^ pass a certain set time 
sufficient to purge and blow away (the) pollutions 
contracted from the body as from an evil odour. ^ 
(Then), as if brought home from banishment abroad, 
they savour joy most like that of initiates, which 
attended by glad expectation is mingled with con- 

the soul leaves the body (cf. Scott, Hermetica, ii, p. 265). In 
De Genio Socratis, 591 d — 592 d Plutarch makes vovs and 
4ivxv not really two different substances as here in the De 
Facie but considers ipvxi] to be a degeneration of vovs. 

^ Cf. De Sera IVuminis Vindicta, 563 e : eVet yap e'leVeae 

TO <f)pOVOVV TOV OCOfiaTOS . . . 

" For the location of Hades cf. De hide, 382 e and the 
etymology in De Lat enter Vivendo, 1 130 a {cf. Plato, Gorgias, 
493 B and Phaedo, 80 d) ; for the identification of Hades with 
the dark air cf. [Plutarch], De Vita et Poesi Homeri, § 97 ; 
Philodemus, De Pietate, c. 13 {Dox. Graeci, p. 547 b) ; Cor- 
nutus, c. 5 and c. 35 ; Heraclitus, Quaestiones Homericae, 
§ 41. Reference to a mead (Aei/xaiv) or meads in the under- 
world is common: cf. Odyssey, xi. 539, 573 and xxiv. 13-14 ; 
Kern, Orphicorum Fragmenta^ 32 f 6 and 222 ; Plato, 
Gorgias, 524 a. Republic, 614 e and 616 b. The Neo- 
Platonists argued that the Aei^cuv in these Platonic passages 
is meant to be located in the atmosphere under the moon : 
Proclus, In Rem Puhlicam, ii, pp. 132. 20-133. 15 (Kroll) ; 
Olympiodorus, In Gorgiam, p. 237. 10-13 (Xorvin) ; Hermias, 
In Phaedrum, p. 161. 3-9 (Couvreur). 

<* Cf. De Antro Nymph. §§ 11-12 (p. 64. 24-25 [Xauck]) ; 
Proclus, In Timaeum, iii, p. 331. 6-9 (Diehl) ; and in general 
on the pollution of the soul by association with the body 
Plato, Phaedo, 81 b-c. Plutarch in a different context uses the 
words : . . . orav drfiol -nov-qpoL . . . rats rfjs ^vx^js . . . dva- 
KpadaJoL TreptdSois {De Tuenda Sanitate, 129 c). 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1>43) K€Kpafiei>rjv^ fier^ eATrtSos" rj^etag^ e-)(ovoi- TroAAa? 
D yap i^ojdeL /cat aTTO/cujuartJet yXixojJLevas rjhrj ttJs" 
crcArJvT]? eviag 8e Kal rwv €K€l TT^piKaru/ rpeno- 
fxevas olov els ^vBov avdis opojGi KaraSuo/xeVa?.* 
at 8' avoj yevofjLevai Kal ^e^atoj? IhpvOeloaC' rrpco- 
rov fiev (Zanep ol vLKr](f)6poL TrepuaoLV^ avahovpi€.vaL 
Gr€<j)dvoLS Trrepcjv evoraOeias Xeyopievois on rrjs 
ipvxrjs TO aXoyov /cat to TraOrjTLKov evrjVLOV eTrtet/ccDs" 
Toi Xoycp /cat KeKooixiqpLevov iv ro) ^lco TrapeaxovTO. 
bevrepov, olktIvl ttjv oiJjlv ioLKvlac^ irepl he ttjv 
^ucrtv^ avu) Kov(f)Ll,ofji€vr^v warrep ivravda to) Trept 
rr^v aeXrjvrjv aldepi, /cat rovov (xtt' avrov^^ /cat hvva- 

^ Madvig ; ovyKCKpafievT) -E, B. 

^ Xylander in his version ; iSi'aj -E, B. 

^ Madvig ; nepl ko-tuj -E, B. 

* E ; KaTayivofievas -B. 

5 W'yttenbach ; ISpvdrjaav -E, B. 

® Wyttenbach : TrepuoraoLV -E ; TT^puardaiv -B. 

' Hntten ; dvaSou/Lievot -E, B. 

* Wyttenbach ; eot/ce'vai -E, B. 

^ Sandbach (who, however, reads -nvpl for 77-epi after 
Wyttenbach) ; -nepl he Tr]v 4>^XW '^■> ^• 
^° Wyttenbach ; d(^' avrov -E, B. 

<* For life on earth as the soul's exile from its proper home 
cf. De Exilio, 607 c-e ; and for the comparison with initiates 
and what follows in this vein a few lines below rf. fragment 
VI (vii, p. 23. 4-17 [Bernardakis]). 

'' Cf. De Oenio Sorratis, 591 c, and Plato's Pliaerlrus, 24-8 
A-B, especially al Se St) dAAai yAt;;^o/xei'ai pikv airaaaL tov dvco 
€7TOVTai, dSwarovoai. be, vTTO^pvxtai ovp.7TepL(f>epovTai ktX. 

" For life as an athletic contest and the soul as athlete cf. 
De Sera Nnminis Vindicta, 561 a, De (Jenio Socratis, 593 d-e 
and 593 f — 594 a. The conception is Platonic {cf. Republic, 
621 c-D, Phaedrus, 256 b) ; and it is irrelevant to cite oriental 
notions of life as a combat and immortality as a triumph as 
Soury does (La Demonologie de Plutarque, p. 189, n. 1) after 

202 



THE FACE OX THE MOON, 9^3 

fusion and excitement.^ For many, even as they are 
in the act of cUnging to the moon, she thrusts off and 
sweeps away ; and some of those souls too that are 
on the moon they see turning upside do's^Ti as if sink- 
ing again into the deep.^ Those that have got up, 
however, and have found a firm footing first go about 
Hke victors crowned with wreaths of feathers called 
wreaths of steadfastness,*^ because in life they had 
made the irrational or affective element of the soul 
orderly and tolerably tractable to reason <^ ; secondly, 
in appearance resembling a ray of light but in respect 
of their nature, which in the upper region is buoyant 
as it is here in ours, resembling the ether about the 
moon,^ they get from it both tension and strength 

Cumont. Soury follows Raingeard in misconstruing orecfxivoLs 
. . . XeyoixevoLS and supposing that vTepcov evoraOetas is an 
" expression mystique " {op. cit. pp. 189 and 191-192). 
evaradeias does not depend upon rrTepwv or vice versa ; and 
Plutarch has simply woven the " feathers of the soul," which 
appear throughout the myth of the Phaedrus, into a wreath 
that is given to the souls of the good for their steadfastness, 
just as the victorious souls in Phaedrus, 256 b become vno- 
TTTcpoL because in life they were iyKparels avTwv /cat KoapLLoi. 

^ Cf. De Genio Socrafis, 592 a, and Plato's Phaedrus, 24-7 b 
(n.b, evrjvLa ovra pabiajs TropeveTat). 

« aW-jp for Plato was simply the uppermost and purest air 
{cf. Timaeus, 58 d, Phaedo, 109 b and 111 b) ; but here the 
word is probably used under Stoic influence, for which see 
note d on 928 d and note g on 922 b supra and cf. [Plato], 
Axiochus, 366 a {rj ipv^r} awaXyoCaa tov ovpdviov TTodel Kal 
avfi<f)vXov aWepa). These last sentences of chapter 28 show 
several definitely Stoic traits, especially the conception of 
" tension," nourishment of the soul by the exhalations, and 
the use of the quotation from Heraclitus. It has long been 
customary to compare with this passage Cicero, Tusc. IHsp. 
i. 19, 43, and Sextus Empiricus, Adv. Math. ix. 71-73 {cf. 
Heinze, Xenokrates, pp. 126-128 ; K. Pteinhardt, Kosmos 
nnd Svmpathie, pp. 308-313 and p. 323; R. M. Jones, 
Class. ^Phil. xxvii [1932], pp. 113 ff.). 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(943) 1^'-'^ olov TO. GTOfioi'iieva f^ac^r^v lgxovgl- to yap 

E dpaiov €TL Koi SiaKexvfJLei'ov ptovvvTcu kol yiyv^rai 

aradepov koi htavyks oxjO^ vrro Trjg Tvxovcrr^s dya- 

dvpadaeajs Tp€(f)€GdaL, kclI KaXcbs 'Hpa/cAetro? 

eiTrev on at iJjvxolI 6g pLcbvr ai Kad^ "AtSr^v. 

29- ^K(f)opa)Gi 8e TTpoiTOV fxev avrrjs GeXrjvr^g to 
fieyedos kol to koXXos koL t7jv (I)vglv ovx olttXtjv 
ouS' dfiLKTOV dXX olov aGrpov GvyKpajJLa Kal yrjg 
ovGav CVS ydp r] yrj TTvevfian {jLepLLyfievrj Kal vypo- 
(rrjTiy^ {jLaXaKTj yiyove kol to at/xa rfj GapKi nap- 
ex^L TTjv aloOriGLV iyKeKpapuevov ovtojs^ to) aldepi 
XeyovGL TTjv GeXrjVTjv dvaKeKpafievriv Sid ^ddovg 
dfjLa fiev epiifjvxov clvai /cat yovifj^ov ajjua 8' LGoppoirov 
F e;!^etv rr^v irpos to ^apv GUfM/jieTpLav rrjs Kov(f)6rrjros . 
Kal ydp avTOV ovtcos^ rov kog/jlov Ik tcuv dvco /cat 
TcDv* Kdro) ^UCT€t (f)€popiivojv GVvqppLOGfjievov dnrjX- 
Xdxdo-t rravrdTTaoi rrjs Kard tottov KtvqGeajg. ravra 

^ Papabasileios ; vypoj vac. 5 -E, B. 

^ E ; ovTco -B. 

3 E ; OVTCO -B. 

* Stephanus (1624) ; eV tcD dvoj Kal rcb -E, B. 

" For the Stoic doctrine of tovos cf. De Stoicorum Repug- 
nantiis, 1054 a-b, JJe Communibus Xotitiis, 1085 c-d, and 
S. V.F. ii, frags. 447 and 448. The metaphor of " temper- 
ing " was also commonly used by the Stoics in connection 
with the soul : cf. S. V.F. ii, frags. 804-80(). 

'' Frag. 9S (i,"p. 178. 8 [Diels-Kranz]). For the nourish- 
ment of disembodied souls cf. the passages of Cicero and 
204 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 943 

as edged instruments get a temper," for what laxness 
and diffuseness they still have is strengthened and 
becomes firm and translucent. In consequence they 
are nourished by any exhalation that reaches them, 
and Heraclitus was right in saying : " Souls employ 
the sense of smell in Hades." ^ 

29. First they behold the moon as she is in her- 
self ^ : her magnitude and beauty and nature, which 
is not simple and unmixed but a blend as it were of 
star and earth. Just as the earth has become soft 
by having been mixed with breath and moist(ure> 
and as blood gives rise to sense-perception in the 
flesh with which it is commingled,^ so the moon, they 
say,^ because it has been permeated through and 
through by ether is at once animated and fertile 
and at the same time has the proportion of lightness 
to heaviness in equipoise. In fact it is in this way 
too, they say, that the universe itself has entirely 
escaped local motion, because it has been constructed 
out of the things that naturally move upwards and 
those that naturally move downwards.-'' This was 

Sextus cited in note e, p. 203. Here the argument of Lamprias 
in 940 c-D supra is incorporated into the m\i:h, which thereby 
appears to substantiate the argument. 

<= Plutarch certainly wrote aur-^? ceX-qv-qs (or perhaps auras' 
T-qs aeX'^v-qs) under the influence of Plato's " true earth," avrrj 
7] yrj, in Phaedo, 109 b 7, 110 b 6 (c/. 935 a supra and 944 b 
infra). 

"* Cf. Aristotle, Be Part. Animal. Q5Q b 19-21 and 25-26, 
QQQ A 16-17 ; and Plato, Timaeus, 77 e on the connection of 
the blood-vessels with to rwv alad-qoeojv -rrdOos. 

* Not " the demons " who told the stranger the story, as 
Raingeard says, but the human authors of the theory men- 
tioned in the next sentence ; cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), pp. 
151-152. 

^ Cf. S.V.F. ii, frag. 555 and Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 
157, n. 105. 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(943) 8f KOLL "E^evoKpoLTT]? €OiK€v ivvorjoat Seicx) nvl Xo- 
yLGfio) rrjv dpx'^'^' Xa^ojv Trapa IlAaTcovos". OAarcov 
yap eoTLV 6 /cat rcov darepcov eKaarou Ik yrjg /cat 
TTvpo? (jvvrjpjjLOGdaL Slol tcov {Suetvy /xera^u (fyvoeojv 
dvaXoyia SedeLUoJi'^ aTTocfyrjvdjJLevog- ovhev^ yap etV 
atodrjGLV i^LKveLadai (I> jjltj tl yrjs e'^/uejU-t/crat Kat 
(f)ior6g. 6 8e "EevoKpar-qg rd pLev darpa /cat rov 
944 rjXiOi' e/c irvpos (f)r]GL /cat tov Trpcorov ttvkvov Gvy- 
K€LG6aL Tr]v 8e GeXrjvrjv e/c tou hevrlpov ttvkvov 
/cat rod tStou depos ttjv 8e yrjv ef vSarog [Kat 
depo^Y ^^^^ '^ov rpirov tojv ttvkvojv oXojs Se pLrjre 
TO TTVKuov avTo Kad^ avTO pLTjTe TO piavov etvat 
i/jv)('fjg SeKTLKOv. /cat ravra pLev rrepi ovglgs G€- 
Xt^vyj?. evpo? Se /cat pLeyeOos ovx ogov ol yecopuerpaL 
XeyovGLV dXXd pLel^ov TroAAa/ct? eWt. KarapLerpet 
he TYjv GKLav rrjg yrj? oAtya/ct? Tot? eavrrjs^ pLe- 
yedeGLV ovx ^'^^ GpuKporriTOS, dXXd deppiiprepovY 
eireiyei rrfv klvtjglv ottojs raxv Ste/CTrcpa tov gko- 
rwSrj TOTTov vneKcfyepovGa {to,?) twv dyadcbv (ipv- 
xd?y GTTevSovGag /cat ^ocoGas' ovkItl yap 
i^aKovovGLV ev rfj gklo. yevopLevai rrjg nepl rov 

^ Purser ; 8ia twv vac. 4-E, 5-B. 

2 Leonicus {cf. Plato, Timaeus, 31 c, 32 b-c ; Plutarch, De 
An. Proc. 1016 f— 1017 a) ; So^eiacDv -E, B. 

2 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 {cf. Plato, Timaeus^ SI b) ; ouSeVa 
-E, B. 

* Excised by H. C. ; Kal depos -E Kal TTvpos -B. 

* E ; eavTOv -B. 

206 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 9^3-944 

also the conception of Xenocrates who, taking his 
start from Plato, seems " to have reached it by a 
kind of superhuman reasoning. Plato is the one who 
declared that each of the stars as well was constructed 
of earth and fire bound together in a proportion by 
means of the (two) intermediate natures, for nothing, 
as he said, attains perceptibility that does not contain 
an admixture of earth and light ^ ; but Xenocrates 
says that the stars and the sun are composed of fire 
and the first density, the moon of the second density 
and air that is proper to her, and the earth of water 
[and air] and the third kind of density and that in 
general neither density all by itself nor subtility is 
receptive of soul. '^ So much for the moon's substance. 
As to her breadth or magnitude, it is not what the 
geometers say but many times greater. She measures 
off the earth's shadow with few of her own magnitudes 
not because it is small but she more ardently hastens 
her motion in order that she may quickly pass through 
the gloomy place bearing away (the souls) of the 
good which cry out and urge her on because when 
they are in the shadow they no longer catch the sound 

° The Greek does not imply, as Adler supposes, that 
Plutarch had any doubt about what Xenocrates had said (c/. 
R. M. Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch, p. 55). 

* Timaeus, 40 a and 31 b — 32 c ; cf. [Plato], Epinomis, 
981 D-E ; Plutarch, De Fortuna Bomanoriim, 316 e-f. 
Timaeus, 31 b strictly requires yijs . . . /cat -nvpos here ; but 
according to Timaeus, 45 b and 58 c (f>u)s is the species of fire 
that produces visibility. 

'^ Xenocrates, frag. 56 (Heinze) ; for text and implications 
cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 152. 

^ \^on Arnim ; depfi vac. 7 eVetyet -E ; OepfioTTjTos eneLyet 
-B ; depjjiOTdTqv eVet'yet -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94. 

' Reiske ; vireKcfiepovcra tcov ayadiov avevSovaas -E, B ; 
v'rT€K(f>€povca tpvxas rujv dyadcov avevSovoa? -Basiliensis. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rtTinnnrti/ n r\i 



944) , , c , " x^ > ' /J ' - 

^ ' ovpavov apiiovia<;. a/xa oe Kai Karojuev at rtov 



KoXal,oiievcjL}V ijjvxal riqvLKavra Sia tt]? OKids ohvpo- 
fievaL {/cat)^ dAaAa^oucrat TTpoGcfyepovraL. Sio Kai 
KpoT€LV iv rals eKXeLi/jeGLv elojdaoiv ol 7tX€lgtol 
)(aXKcopLara Kal ip6(f}ov rroLelv Kal rrdrayov irrl ra? 
ipvxo-?,^ iK(f)o^eL 8' aura? /cat to KaXovjJievov irpoa- 
C07T0V orav eyyvg yivojvrai ^Xoovpov^ n Kal Spi- 
KcoSeg opojpievov. ecrrt 8' ov roiovrov, dAA' woirep 
Tj Trap' n)ijuv e;\^6t yr) /coAttous- ^adels koI jjLeydXovs , 
eva ptev ivravOa 8td gtt^Xcdv 'HpaKXeiOJV dvax€6- 
C pLevov elao) TTpog rjpLag e^oj he rov Kolottlov /cat 
Tous" TTepl rr]v ^KpvOpdv ddXarrav, ovrcos* ^ddr] 
ravra rrj? oeX'^vrj? earl /cat /cotAdj/xara. /caAoucrt 
8* aurojv TO /xev pLeytorov 'E/cctTr]? piV)(6vy ottov /cat 
8t/ca? SiSoaotv at ipvxal Kal XapL^dvovatv d>v dv jjhr] 
yey€V7]pL€vaL halpioveg rj Trddcooiv rj Spdowai, rd 8e 

^ Rasiliensis ; dSupd/xevat, dAaAa^owaai -E, B. 

2 Basiliensis ; ^uAa? -E, B. 

' Stephanus (1624) ; ^Xoaavpov -E, B. 

* E ; ovTOj -B. 

" Plutarch here gives a " mythical correction " of the 
astronomical calculations in 928 a-r and 932 b svpra (on the 
text and the paralogism of this " correction " cf. Class. Phil. 
xlvi [1951], pp. 152-158) and also a mythical explanation of 
the acceleration of which he had spoken in 938 b supra. With 
this account of the effect of the lunar eclipse upon the dis- 
embodied souls cf. De Gfnio Soc7'a(is, 591 c and for the har- 
mony in the heavens cf. 590 c-d there, De Miisira, 114.7, 
Plato's Republic, 617 b,' Aristotle's De Caelo, 290 b 12—291 
a 28. 

^ Cf. Aemilius Paul us, 17 (264 b) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 11. 
12. 9 (54) ; Tacitus, Annals, i. 28 ; Juvenal, vi. 442-443. 
The purpose of the custom is here made to fit the myth ; In 

208 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 944 

of the harmony of heaven." At the same time too 
with wails (and) cries the souls of the chastised then 
approach through the shadow from below. That is 
why most people have the custom of beating brasses 
during eclipses and of raising a din and clatter against 
the souls, ^ which are frightened off also by the so- 
called face when they get near it, for it has a grim 
and horrible aspect.^ It is no such thing, however ; 
but just as our earth contains gulfs that are deep and 
extensive,^ one here pouring in towards us through 
the Pillars of Heracles and outside the Caspian and 
the Red Sea with its gulfs,^ so those features are 
depths and hollows of the moon. The largest of them 
is called^ "Hecate's Recess,"^ where the souls 
suffer and exact penalties for whatever they have 
endured or committed after having already become 

De Genio Socratis, 591 c the moon herself flashes and bellows 
to frighten away the impure souls. 

'^ Cf. Epigenes in Clement, Stromat. v. 49 ( = Kern, Or- 
phicoriun Fragmenta, frag. 33) : Topyoviov rrjv o€XrjV7]v 8td to 
iv avrfj Trpoooj-nov. Cf. the notion that the face in the moon is 
that of the Sibyl {Be Pythiae OracuUs, 398 c-d ; De Sera 
Xii minis Vindicta, 5(o<i d). 

'^ Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 109 b. 

^ For the Caspian see note /on 941 c supra. By " Red 
Sea " Plutarch means what we call the Indian Ocean plus 
the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea ; in Quaest. Conviv. 733 b 
he cites Agatharchidas who wrote an extensive work on the 
" Red Sea " {cf. Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. -250 [pp. 441 ff., 
Bekker]). 

/ Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 151 on 943 e. 

" For Hecate and the moon see notes c on 937 f and h on 
942 D supra : cf. Sophocles, frag. 493 (Xauck^) and Kern, 
Orphicorum Fragmenta, frag. 204. For Hecate's association 
with a cave cf. Homeric Hymn II, 24-25, and Roscher, Vher 
Selene und Verwandtes, pp. 46-48. Plutarch himself 
associates fj.vx6s with the " punishments in Hades " (De 
Superstitione, 167 a). 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(944) hvo jxaKpa} (ras lIuAa^).^ Trcpatouvrat yap at 
ijjvxoj. hi avr(x)V vvv }xev etV ret Tipo? ovpavov rrj? 
0€X7]V7]s vvv Se 77aAty elg ra Trpos yT]v. ovo fidL^er at 
8e ra fxev Trpos ovpavov rrjs oeXiqvrjs 'HAwcrtov 
7re8tov* ra 8' evravda ^€pG€(j)6vr]s oIkos^ dvrlx&ovos ■ 
30. OvK del 8e hiaTpi^ovoLV eV auT'xjs'^ ol 8at- 
pLoves dXXd XPV^'^VP^^'^~ Sevpo Kariaoiv eVt/xeAi]- 
D GOfJLevoL /cat rat? dycorctTCu^ ovpLndpeLcrL /cat ovvop- 
yidt^ovoi rcov reXercbv KoXaorai re ylyvovrai /cat 
<f)vXaK€S dhLKTjpidrojv /cat acorrjpes ev re TroAe/xot? 
/cat /caret ddXarrav eTnXdpLTTovGLV. on 8' av jitT^ 
/caAco? Trepl ravra Trpd^coGiV aAA' z;??' opyrjs^ rj Trpos 
dSuKov X^P^^' V 4'^ovoj OLKi-jv rivovoLV cLdovvrai, yap 

^ Leonicus ; ras 8e bvo fxaKpd? -E, B. 

^ H. C. ; no lacuna indicated in E or B. 

^ H. C. ; 6voyiat,€odaL -E, B. 

* B ; TTaibiov -E. 

^ After von Arnim (who read of/cov because he kept dvo/xa- 
t,eadaL supra) ; ovk -E, B. 

^ Bernardakis (c/. De Tvenda Sanitate, 128 b : hiarpi^civ 
€-n aKTrj's) ; avrr]v -E, B ; avrfj -Wyttenbach. 

' Basiliensis ; XPV^'''1P^^ "1"^' ^• 

® B ; dvcjOTOLTais -E. 

» -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; v-rrep yfjs -E, B. 

" This has been called inconsistent with the preceding 
statement in chapter 28 that only pure or purified souls attain 
the moon. Even the pure souls that reach the moon, how- 
ever, still have the affective soul as well as mind ; and 
Plutarcli has already said in chapter 28 (912 i) that the life 
which they lead on the moon is ov fiaKapiov ovSe deZov. 

210 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 944 

Spirits ^ ; and the two long ones are called (" the 
Gates ">," for through them pass the souls now to 
the side of the moon that faces heaven and now back 
to the side that faces earth. ^ The side of the moon 
towards heaven is named " Elysian plain," '^ the 
hither side " House of counter-terrestrial Pherse- 
phone." ^ 

30. Yet not forever do the Spirits tarry upon the 
moon ; they descend hither to take charge of oracles, 
they attend and participate in the highest of the 
mystic rituals, they act as warders against misdeeds 
and chastisers of them, and they flash forth as 
saviours manifest in war and on the sea.-'^ For any 
act that they perform in these matters not fairly but 
inspired by wrath or for an unjust end or out of 
envy they are penalized, for they are cast out upon 

^ Cf. Class. Phil, xlvi (1951), p. 153. 

'^ They pass to the outer side on their way to the " second 
death " (944 e IF. infra) and to the hither side on their way 
to rebirth in bodies (945 c infra). In Amatorius, 766 b the 
place to which souls come to be reborn in the body is called 
oi JleX-qvTjS /cat 'A^poStTT^j Aet/xoives'. 

^ See 942 f supra and note d there. 

* Plutarch uses avrlxOcov in the usual Pythagorean sense 
in De An. Proc. in Timaeo, 1028 b {cf. Be Placitis, 891 f, 
895 c, 895 E=:Aetius, ii. 29. 4 ; iii. 9. 2 ; iii. 11. 3). Identi- 
fication of the moon with the counter-earth is ascribed to 
certain " Pythagoreans " (but cf. Cherniss, Aristotle's 
Criticism of Plato and the Academy, i, p. 562) by Simplicius, 
Be Caelo, p. 512. 17-20 {cf Asclepius, Metaph. p. 35. 24-27 ; 
Scholia in Aristotelem, 505 a 1 [Brandis]). 

^ Cf. Be Befectu Oraculoram, 417 a-b and Be Genio 
Socraiis, 591 c ; R. M. Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch , 
pp. 29, 59, and 55-56. lamblichus, Vit. Pyth. vi. 30 (p. 18. 4 
[Deubner]) says that some people considered Pythagoras to 
be such a Spirit from the moon. In the last clause of the 
sentence above Plutarch refers to the Dioscuri : cf. Lysander, 
14 (439 c) ; Be Befectu Oraculorum, 426 c. 

211 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^944) au^t? eVi yrjv GweLpyvvfJievoL^ owjiaoLV avOpco- 
rrivoLS. €k 8e rcov /SeArtovcoi^ eKeivcov ol re rrepl 
Tov Kpdrov 6vre<s €(f>aGav avrovs^ etvac /cat npo- 
repov iv rfj KprjTT] tov? 'ISatow?^ Aa/cruAous" eV re 
E ^pvyla rovg Y^opv^avrag yeveodai kol rov? Trepl 
BoicoTiav iv OvScopa* Tpo(f)CjovLdSas Kal pLvpiovs 
aXXovs 7ToX\a)(69L rrjs OLKOvfJievrjs d>v lepa Kal rt/xat 
Kal irpooriyopiai hiapievovGLV at he Suva/xet? evevov^ 
els erepov roirov rrjs apiGnqs e^aXXayrjs rvyxo-vov- 
rojv. rvyxoi^'ovGL 8' ol fiev rrporepov ol 8' VGrepov, 
orav 6 vovs aTTOKptOfj rrj? ipv^ffS' arroKpiveraL S' 
epojri rrjs Trepl rov tJXlov eiKovos, hi t}? eVtAa^iTret 
TO e(j)er6v Kal KaXov Kal delov Kal pLaKaptov ou 
iraGa ^vgis, aXX-q 8' a'AAco?, opeyerai. Kal yap 
avrrjv rrjv GeXrjvr^v epcon rod rjXlov TrepnroXelv 8et^ 

1 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; avppriyvv^€voL -E, B. 

2 l^ernardakis (implied in the versions of Xylander and 
Kepler) : avrovs -E, B. 

^ Aldine, I^asiliensis ; Ihiov^ -E, V>. 

* E, B ; ovbcooa -Aldine ; Ae^aSia -Basiliensis. 

^ Apelt ; eVt'cuv'-E, B. 

^ Apelt ; TTepLTTepiTToXelv del -E : 7rept77oAetv aet -B. 

" Cf. 926 C supra {rj tpvxT] • • • tco aw^aTt avvelpKraL), De 
An. Proc. m Timaeo^ \i)2''^ c {ro) acuixan aweipyfievT] sell, rj 
^vxTj) ; for the " misbehaviour " of Spirits cf. JJe J)efectu 
Oracxtlorvm^ 417 b, 417 e-f, Df Jside, 361 a ff., where the 
punishment of these Spirits is mentioned in 361 c {rf. De 
Defect u Oraciilontm, 415 c). 

^ i.e. not those who for misdeeds are cast out upon earth 
again. The attendants of Cronus are the Salfiovcs of 94i? a 
snpra. Cf. Porphyry's account of good and evil spirits in 
De Abstinent ia, ii. 38-39. 

" Cf. Nnma, 15 (70 c-n) ; [Plutarch], De Flvviis, xiii. 3 
(vii, p. 305. 4-12 [Bernardakis]) ; Strabo, x. 3. 22 (c. 473) ; 
Pausanias, v. 7. 6-10 ; Diodorus, v. 64. 3-7. 

212 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 944< 

earth again confined in human bodies." To the 
former class of better Spirits ^ the attendants of 
Cronos said that they belong themselves as did afore- 
time the Idaean Dactyls '^ in Crete and the Corybants ^ 
in Phrygia as well as the Boeotian Trophoniads in 
Udora " and thousands of others in many parts of the 
world whose rites, honours, and titles persist but 
whose powers tended to another place as they 
achieved the ultimate alteration. They achieve it, 
some sooner and some later, once the mind has been 
separated from the soul.-'' It is separated by love for 
the image in the sun through which shines forth 
manifest the desirable and fair and divine and blessed 
towards which all nature in one way or another 
yearns,^ for it must be out of love for the sun that 
the moon herself goes her rounds and gets into con- 

'^ Cf. Schwenn, R.E. xi. 2 (1922), 1441-1446, and Lobeck, 
Aglaophamos, pp. 1139-1155. 

« This place seems to be mentioned nowhere else ; but, 
since Plutarch here refers to inactive oracles from which the 
Spirits have departed, the change to Ae/SaSeta cannot be 
right, for in De Defectu Oraculorum, 411 e-f Lebadeia is said 
to be the only remaining active oracle in Boeotia where there 
are many others now silent or even deserted. 

f Cf. 943 B supra. 

^ Plato's Republic, 507-509 is Plutarch's main inspiration. 
It is a passage which he echoes or cites many times (e.g. De 
hide, 372 a, De E, 393 d, De Defectu Oraculorum, 413 c and 
433 D-E, Ad Principem Inerud. 780 f and 781 f, Plat. Quaest. 
1006 F — 1007 a) ; and his references to it show that " the 
image in the sun," ttjs Trepl tov -qXiov clkovos, here means the 
visible likeness of the good which the sun manifests and not, 
as Kepler suggests, the reflection of the sun seen in the moon 
as in a mirror. The last part of the sentence with the notion 
that all nature strives towards the good and the term i^^rov 
itself are drawn from Aristotle {Physics, 192 a 16-19 and the 
whole of Physics A, 9 and Metaphysics A, 7) ; cf. De hide, 
372 E-F and Amatorius, 770 b. 

213 



PLUTARCH'S MORALLY 

(944) Kal ovyyiyveaOat opeyojjievriv air^ avrov to yovi- 

licorarov (hey^eoBai)} XeiTreraL S' rj rrj? 4''^XV^ 

F (f)VGLg €7tI rrjg aeXrjvrjg^ otov tx^'r] nva ^lov Kal 

oveipara hiacjyvXdrrovGay Kal rrcpl raurr^? opdcos 

Tfyov XeXexOoLL ro 

ipvx'T] S' rjvr^ oveipos aiTOTTTafievrj TTenorrjraL. 

oi)8e yap evOvg ovSe rod Gcofiaros aTraXXayeiGa 
rovTO irinovBev dAA' varepov orav eprjjxos Kal {JLOvrj 
Tov vov dTTaXXaTTOjJLevq yevqrai. Kal "OpLrjpos 
wv etTre Travrajv iidXiura hr) Kara Oeov ecTTelv €olk€ 
TTepl Tcov Kad^ "Aihov^ 

TOV 8e /xer' etcrcvorycra ^lt^v ']rlpaKXr]€i7]v,* 
etScoAov auTO? Se /xer' ddavdroiGL deoloiv. 

avTOS re yap eKaoros rjjjLcbv ov dvfjios^ €Gtlv ovSe 

(f)6j3o£ oi}8' eTndvpiia KaOdrrep ovhk udpKes ouS' 

^•Ab vypoT-qres aAA' o)^ hiavoovpieOa Kal (f)povovfJL€v, rj 

'■ Wyttenbach (r/. 945 c hifra : rj acX-qvr] . . . h^xo^icvri 
, . . and 929 c supra : hix^rai tov tiXlov) ; no lacuna -E, 15. 

^ H. C. {cf. 944 B-c supra) ; tt7v aeX-qvrjv -E, B ; ttj aeXTjvr] 
-Wyttenbach. 

^ Kaltwasser and W}'tteny)ach after Amyot's version ; 
KadoXov -E, B. 

* Mss. of Homer and editors ; ripaKXeL-rjv -E, B. 

^ -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; evOvfios -E, B, Basiliensis. 

^ Leonicus ; o -E, B. 

" The specific nature of this fertilization is described in 
945 c infra ; the conception of the sun as an image of god 
is connected Mith a reference to its fructifying force in De E, 
393 D. Eor sexual language used of the moon and sun see 
the references in note a on 929 c supra. 

*" Odyssey, xi. 222. 

•^ Odyssey, xi. 601-602. Similar interpretations of this 

214 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 9^4-94.5 

junction with him in her yearning (to receive) from 
him what is most fructifying." The substance of the 
soul is left upon the moon and retains certain vestiges 
and dreams of life as it were ; it is this that you must 
properly take to be the subject of the statement 

Soul like a dream has taken wing and sped,* 

for it is not straightway nor once it has been released 
from the body that it reaches this state but later 
Avhen, divorced from the mind, it is deserted and 
alone. Above all else that Homer said his words 
concerning those in Hades appear to have been 
divinely inspired 

Thereafter marked I mighty Heracles — 

His shade ; but he is with the deathless gods. ..." 

In fact the self of each of us is not anger or fear or 
desire just as it is not bits of flesh or fluids either but 
is that with which we reason and understand '^ ; and 

passage are common among the Xeo-Pji:hagoreans and 
Neo-Platonists : cf. especially [Plutarch], JDe Vita et Poesi 
Homer i, chap. 123 ; Plotinus, Enn. i. 1. 12 ; iv. 3. 27 and 32 ; 
vi. 4. 16 ; Proclus, In Rem Publicam, i, p. 120. 22 if. and p. 
172. 9 ff. (Kroll) ; Cumont, Bev. de Philologie, xliv (1920), 
pp. 237-240, who contends that the doctrine itself arose in 
Alexandria where Aristarchus became acquainted with it. 

^ Cf. De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 564. c and Adv. Coloten^ 
1119 A. For the vovs as the true self cf. Aristotle, Eth. Xic. 
1166 a 16-17 and 22-23, 1168 b 35, 1169 a 2, 1178 a 2-7. 
Plato usually speaks of the ^pvxrj without further qualification 
as the true self [e.g. Laics, 959 a, Phaedo, 115 c [cf. the 
Pseudo-Platonic Alcibiades /, 130 a-c and Axiochus, 365 e]), 
although such passages as Republic, 430 e — 431 a, 588 c — - 
589 B, 611 c-E can be taken to imply that he meant the 
rational soul only {cf. Plotinus's use of the last passage in Enn. 
i. 1. 12). Cf. also Cicero, De Republica, vi. 26 (" mens 
cuiusque is est quisque ") and Marcus Aurelius, ii. 2 with 
Farquharson's note ad loc. 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(945) '7'e 4'^XV 'TVTrovfJiivri fiev vtto rod vov rvnovoa Se 
TO ocofxa Koi TTepiTTTvaoovGo} TTavraxoOev eV^ar- 
rerat to ethos cocrre Kav ttoXvv xpovov ;)(6opt? eVa- 
repov yevrjTai^ hiarrjpovGa rrfv ojjLotOTT^ra Kal rov 
rvTTov^ etScoAov 6p6d>g di'OjLta^erat. tovtojv S' rj 
oeXip'Tj, KaSoLTTep elprirai, oroix^lov ianv' dvaXvov- 
rai yap els ravrrjv (Lorrep els ttjv yrjv ra craj/xara 
Tojv veKpcov, raxv fiev at G(x>(f)pov€S jiera GxoXrjs 
aTTpdyfjLova koi (^iXoGocfyov crrepfacrat ^lov {d(f>ed€'L- 
crat yap vtto tov vov Kal irpos ovSev eVt ;)(pco^evat 
rots TTadcGLV drropiapaivovraL) . rcbv Se (fyiXoTL/JLajv 
B Kal TTpaKTiKOJv ip(xiriKCx)V re Trepl Gcopbara Kal dv- 
/xoetStov at fjL€v olov iv vttvw rals rod ^lov fxvrjjjLo- 
Gvvais ovelpaGL XP^H-^^^^ Sta^epovrat Kaddnep -q 
TOV ^EvSvfJiLWVos. 67761 8* avTas TO doTaTov Kal 
TO ifjLTTades* i^LGTT]Gi Kal dcjyeXKei ttjs GeXrjvqs Trpos 

^ E ; TTCpiTTTVOOOV "B. 

^ B ; . . . x^P'-^ e/carepou yevT}rai ttoXvv xpovov -E. 

3 -Anon., Aldine, R.J. 94 ; toitov -E, B. 

* Kepler, Wj^ttenbach after Amyot's version ; aTra^es-E, B. 

" Cf. l)e Sera Niiminis Vindirta, 564. a, where the souls 
are descrilied as tvttov ex^voas avdpwTTO€Lhr\, and [Plutarch], 
De Vita et Poesl Homer i, chap. 1^8 (etScoAov onep fjv ajro- 
TTCTTXaafievov [?] rov awixaTos) ; Porphyry in Stobaeus, i. 
xlLx. 55 ( = i, p. 429. 16-22 [Wachsmuth]/. The notion that 
the soul after death retains the appearance of the body was 
common {cf. Lucian, Vera JJist. ii. 12), although Alexander 
Polyhistor in Diogenes Laertius, viii. 31 gave it as Pytha- 
gorean doctrine (but rf. Antisthenes, frag. 88 [Mullach]). 
With the sj)ecial ])oint of the ])resent passage that the body 
is given its form by the imprint of the soul, which has itself 
been moulded by the mind, cf. Proclus, Jn Bern Pnblicam, 
ii, pp. 327. 21-328. 15 (Kroll) ; Plotinus, iv. 3. 9. 20-23 and 
10. 35-42 ; Macrobius, Somn. Sclp. i. xiv. 8 ; Sextus, P.FI. 
i. 85. In Lavs, 959 a-b Plato calls the body " an attendant 
semblance of the self" and uses the word ctScuAa of corpses. 

216 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 945 

the soul receives the impression of its shape through 
being moulded by the mind and moulding in turn and 
enfolding the body on all sides, so that, even if it be 
separated from either one for a long time, since it 
preserves the likeness and the imprint it is correctly 
called an image.'' Of these, as has been said,^ the 
moon is the element, for they are resolved into it '^ 
as the bodies of the dead are resolved into earth. 
This happens quickly to the temperate souls who 
had been fond of a leisurely, unmeddlesome, and 
philosophical life, for abandoned by the mind and 
no longer exercising the passions for anything they 
wither quietly away. Of the ambitious and the 
active, the irascible and those who are enamoured 
of the body, however, some pass their time '^ as it 
were in sleep with the memories of their lives for 
dreams as did the soul of Endymion ^ ; but, when 
they are excited by restlessness and emotion and 
drawn away from the moon to another birth, she 

The notion that soul encompasses body instead of being 
contained by it comes ultimately from Plato, Timaeus, 34 b. 

^ i.e. 943 A supra. 

<^ For later Xeo-Platonic opinions concerning the dis- 
solution of the lower soul see Proclus, In Timaeum, iii, p. 284. 
9 ff. (Diehl) and rf. Plotinus, Enn. iv. 7. 14 (. . . d(f)€LiJ.4vov 
be TO x^^pov ou8e avTo OLTToXeladaL ecu? av fj 60 ev e';^et rrjv apxrjv). 

^ The expression correlative to at /xe'v is eVet 8' avrds, and 
the contrast between eVet 8' avrd? . . . i^iaT-qai and the 
present clause requires that Sia^e'povrat mean " pass their 
time " rather than " toss about," " be distraught," the mean- 
ing that it has in I)e Genio Socratis, 591 d. 

* There seems to be no other reference to Endymion's 
dreams ; but Plutarch may here have been influenced by 
the story that Endymion's endless sleep was a punishment 
for his passion for Hera {cf. Scholia in ApoUonium Rhodium 
Vetera^ iv. 57-58 [p. 265, Wendel]) and Scholia in Theocritum 
Vetera, iii. 49-51 b [p. 133, Wendel]). 

217 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

(945) aAA-)]!' yeveaLv, ovk ea (veueiv eVt yrjv}^ aAA' dva- 
KaXelrai /cat KaTaOeXyet.^ jjuKpcv yap ouSev ouS* 
riGvxov ouS* ofJioXoyovfxevov epyov lorlv orav avev 
vov TO* TTa6r]TLKOj CTttj/xaros" iiriXd^ojVTaL. Ttruot 
8e Acat Tf(/)cove? o re AeA</)OL'S' Karao-)((jL>v koL gvv- 
rapd^as ro ;^p7]crT7]pior v^pei kol ^ia Wvdcov^ i^ 
eKeivcxJV dpa tojv iJjvx^^ rjaav, ip-^ficov Xoyov* Kal 
rvcf)cp TrXavr^devri ro) TTadrjrLKcp ;)^p')7CTa/xev6UV, -x^povcp 
he KdK€ivas Karehe^aro'' elg avrrjv^ rj creXiqvr] Kal 
C KareKOGpLrjoev . elra rov vovv avdu? eTnaTrelpavro? 
rod tjXlov toj t^wTiKO) S€)(OjjL€vrj vea? 7Tol€l ipvxds, 
7) Se yrj rpirov aaJjjLa 7Tap€G-)(ev . ovhev yap avrrj 
SlSojGL jjLerd ddvarov oGa Xapi^dvcL Trpos yiveGiv 
{a77o8t8oucra,)' tJXlos Se XajjL^dvct pikv ovhev diro- 

^ H. C. (c/. De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 566 a ; Frag VI. 
2 [VII, p. 22. 9, Bernardakis]) ; ovk ea vac. 12-E, 9-B. 

2 E, B2 ; dvadeXyet -BK 

^ Kaltwasser (c/. Introduction, note 6, p. 12 svpra) ; Tu^cuv 
-E, B. 

* Kaltw^asser (implied by Kepler's version) ; cprjiMoi Xoyw 
-E, B. ^ Leonicus ; /careSet^ev -E, B. 

« B2 ; auTTyv -E, B^. 

' H. C. ; no lacuna indicated in E or B ; St'Scuaiv (toi? 
aAAois SuCTi, aAA' avroStScoCTi) fiCTo. davarov ktA. -Wyttenbacli. 

" Cf. De Sera Ninninis Vindicta, 565 d-e, 566 a ; Plato, 
Fhaedo, 81 b-e, 108 a-b. 

* C/. Odyssey, xi. 576-581; Pindar, Pythian, iv. 90; 
Eustathius, Comment, ad Odysseam, 1581. 54 ff. 

•^ C/. esjieciaily 7>>^ hide, chaps. 27 and 30. 

"* llvdcjov and TiTudj are named together by Plutarch in 
Pelopidas, 16 (286 c) ; cf. Strabo, ix. 8. 12 (cc. 422-423) and 
Apollodorus, Bihiiothera, i. 4. i. 3-5 (22-23). 

* For the play on 'Vv<f)iov-TV(f>os cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 230 a, 

218 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 9^5 

forbids them (to sink towards earth) ^ and keeps 
conjuring them back and binding them with charms, 
for it is no shght, quiet, or harmonious business when 
with the affective faculty apart from reason they seize 
upon a body. Creatures hke Tityus ^ and Typho '^ 
and the Python ^ that with insolence and violence 
occupied Delphi and confounded the oracle belonged 
to this class of souls, void of reason and subject to 
the affective element gone astray through delusion ^ ; 
but even these in time the moon took back to herself 
and reduced to order. Then when the sun with his 
vital force has again sowed mind in her she receives 
it and produces new souls, and earth in the third place 
furnishes body.^ In fact, the earth gives nothing (in 
giving back) after death all that she takes for genera- 
tion, and the sun takes nothing but takes back the 

which is quoted by Plutarch in Adv. Coloten, 1119 b ; and 
cf. also Marcus Aurelius, ii. 17 (. . . to. Se ttjs <A"X^^ oveipos 

Kal TV(f>OS . . .). 

^ C/. O-iS A and 944 E-F .SM^^ra. In the latter passage dpeyo- 
^livrjv aTr' avrov to yovificoTarov {bex^adai} {cf. De E, 393 D 
[to 7T€pl avTTjv yovLfiov] and Aqua an Ignis, 958 e [tov TTvpos 

. . . olov TO ^OJTLKOV eV€pya^OIX€VOv]) shows that Tip I^COTLKO) 

here is to be construed with the preceding words rather than 
with those that follow (so Reinhardt, Kosmos und Sympathie, 
pp. 3-20, 329). On Reinhardt's treatment of this passage in 
general and his attempt to derive it from Posidonius {op. cit. 
pp. 329 if.) cf. R. M. Jones, Class. Phil, xxvii (1932), pp. 
118-120, 129-131, 134-135; n.b. Timaeus, 41-42 where the 
demiurge is said to have sowed {eorreipev) in the earth, the 
moon, and the other planets the souls that he had fashioned 
himself, i.e. the minds {cf. 41 e, 42 d), and the interpretation 
of Timaeus Locrus, 99 d-e, according to which this means 
that the souls are brought to earth from the various planets 
{cf. also R. M. Jones, The Platomsm of Plutarch, pp. 49-51, 
and especially Porphyry in Proclus, In Timaeum, i, p. 147. 
6-13 \n.h. . . . els to ttjs a€XT]vrjs aiofxa aTTeipeadai ^rjoiv . . .] 
and p. 165. 16-23 [Diehl]). 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(945) Xaf.il3dv€L he tov vovv StSou?, oeX^vr] 8e /cat Aa/Lt- 

f^dv€i Kal SlScogl Kal avi'Tld-qGL /cat Statpet [/cat]^ 

/car* aXX-qv /cat a'AAr^j' Sm^a^iv, (Lv KlXelOvia^ fxev r) 

Gwrld-qGLV "AprefiLS S' "^ 8tatpet /caAetrat. /cat rpLCjv 

Motpoir 7^ /Ltev "ArpoTTos" Trept roy i^'Atoi' ISpufievr] 

rrjv d.p-)(y]v evSiScoGL ttj? yeveo-eco?, -^ Se KAoj^co Trcpt 

TT71' GeXj'-ji'Tji' (f)€pofjLevr] crurSet /cat pLLyvvGLV, ecr;^aT?] 

Se GVV€(f)d7Tr€TaL irepl yrjv rj Adx^crt-? f) ttX^Igtov 

rvx^S jJLereGTL. to yap di/jvxov aKvpov avro /cat 

TTad-qrov vrr^ dXXcov, 6 8e vovs dnadris /cat avro- 

D Kpdrojp, fiiKTOV he /cat fxeGov -q ipv^'^ Kaddnep rj 

GeXrjVT] T(JL)V dvcx) /cat Kdrcx) GVixpnyiia /cat {xera- 

KepaGfia^ vtto rev dead yeyove, tovtov dpa rrpos 

tJXlov e^ovGa tov Aoyov ov e-)(ei yrj npog GeXrj- 

vrjv.' 

^ Kal -E, B ; omitted by Basiliensis. 
- E ; ftX-qdvLa -B. 

^ Wji:tenbach after the versions of Xylander and Amyot ; 
fieya KCpas -E, B. 

" Cf. Quaest. Conviv. 658 f : 66ev of/xat Koi ttjv "Apre/xiv 
Aox^iav Kal ElXeidviav, ovk ovaav ircpav t] ttjv ocX-qinjv, oivo/xa- 
adai. Here, however, Artemis and Ilithyia are supposed to 
be names for two contrary faculties of the moon. In 938 f 
.supra the identification of the moon with Artonis because 
she is " sterile but is helpful and beneficial to other females " 
implies that Artemis is Ilithyia, as she is in Plato's Theaetetus^ 
149 B {rf. Cornutus, p. 73, 7-18 [Lang]). Artemis was 
associated with easy, painless death, however {cf. Odyssey., 
xi. 172-173; xviii. 20i) ; and Plutarch probably connects 
this notion with the gentleness of the death on the moon {cf. 
943 B supra). L. A. Post has suggested that he may also have 

220 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 9^5 

mind that he gives, whereas the moon both takes and 
gives and joins together and divides asunder in virtue 
of her different powers, of which the one that joins 
together is called Ilithyia and that which divides 
asunder Artemis." Of the three Fates too Atropos 
enthroned in the sun initiates generation, Clotho in 
motion on the moon mingles and binds together, and 
finally upon the earth Lachesis too puts her hand to 
the task, she who has the largest share in chance.^ 
For the inanimate is itself powerless and susceptible 
to alien agents, and the mind is impassible and sove- 
reign ; but the soul is a mixed and intermediate 
thing, even as the moon has been created by god a 
compound and blend of the things above and below 
and therefore stands to the sun in the relation of 
earth to moon.' 

intended apTa^ielv as an etymology of "Apre/xij. Ilithyia and 
Artemis are sometimes sisters {cf. Diodorus Siculus, v. 12. 5), 
but then they have the same function. 

^ In iJe Genio Socratis, 591 b Atropos is situated in the 
invisible, Clotho in the sun, and Lachesis in the moon. The 
order there is the same as it is here and different from that 
in the De Fato (568 e), where in interpretation of Republic, 
617 c Clotho is highest, Lachesis lowest, and Atropos inter- 
mediate. Both orders differ from that of Xenocrates (frag. 5 
[Heinze]), which was Atropos (intelligible and supra- 
celestial), Lachesis (opinable and celestial), Clotho (sensible 
and sublunar). The order of i>^ Facie and iJe Genio Socratis 
is that of Plato's Laws, 960 c, where Lachesis, Clotho, and 
Atropos are named in ascending order as the epithet of 
Atropos, TpiTT) acLreLpa, shows ; here in the De Facie it is the 
passage of the Republic, however, that Plutarch has in mind, 
for his ovv€<j>a.TTr€raL is an echo of Plato's i(f)a7TToix€vr]v and 
i(ba.TTT€o9aL there. Cf. H. Dorrie, Hermes, Ixxxii (1954), pp. 
331-342 (especially pp. 337-339), who discusses the relation of 
these passages to the pre-history of the Xeoplatonic doctrine 
of hypostases and argues that in writing them Plutarch was 
inspired by Xenocrates. 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(945) lavT " €L7T€V 6 ZuAAa? " cyoj fiev rjKovoa tov 
ievov Ste^Lov'Tog iKelvcp S' ol rod Kpovov Karev- 
vaoTal KOL depd-novres, (hs eXeyev avros, ^^rjy- 
yetXav. vplv h\ w Aajjinpta, XPV^^^'^ '^<V Xoycp 
TTapeGTLv fj f^ovXeoOe." 



222 



THE FACE ON THE MOON, 945 

This," said Sulla, " I heard the stranger relate ; 
and he had the account, as he said himself, from the 
chamberlains and servitors of Cronus. You and your 
companions, Lamprias, may make what you will of 
the tale." « 

" Cf. De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 561 b, De Genio Socratis, 
589 F ; Plato's Phaedo, 114 d, Meno, 86 b, Gorgias, 527 a, 
Phaedrus, 246 a. 



223 



ON THE PRINCIPLE 
OF COLD 

(DE PRIMO FRIGIDO) 



VOL. XII 



INTRODUCTION 

This little essay, or open letter to Favorinus, is not 
^vl'itten in a controversial spirit, though a few sharp 
comments are made from time to time. Having 
established (chapters 5-7) that an element of Cold 
really exists, Plutarch proceeds to consider what that 
element may be. Since fire is obviously excluded, 
can it be air, as the Stoics believe (8-12), or water, 
as Empedocles, and an early Peripatetic, Strato, hold 
(13-16) ? Or, indeed, may it be earth itself (17-22) ? 
This latter opinion is apparently put forward by 
Plutarch as an original contribution to theoretical 
physics and there is no reason to believe it is not his. 
The essay closes, however, with a recommendation 
to scepticism,'^ so that our author may not have re- 
garded his attempted proof as cogent, as indeed it is 
not. 

The work was probably written in Delphi (cf. 953 
c-D and e) after a.d. 107 (949 e, note) and addressed 
to the young philosopher Favorinus,^ the great lover 
of Aristotle (Mor. 734 f), who is also a speaker in 
Symposiacs, viii. 10. Though Favorinus was in all 

" See J. Schroter, Plutarchs SteUung zur Skepsis (Greifs- 
wald, 1911), pp. 23 and 40. He compares other recommenda- 
tions to the suspension of judgement, such as 3Ior. 430 f — 
431 A. Cf. also Hartman, De Plutarcho, pp. 253 f. 

^ For the details see Ziegler's article on Plutarch in Pauly- 
Wissowa, RE, col. 675. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

likelihood some twenty years younger than Plutareh, 
the two men dedicated several works to each other. '^ 
In the present essay it is, perhaps, odd that of the 
three quotations from Aristotle one is a rebuke (950 
b), one is apparently a partial miscitation (9 18 a, note), 
while the third is of no importance. No doubt it is in 
virtue of Favorinus' youth that his idol is treated so 
lightly, and that the sceptical note is sounded so 
firmly at the end. The young Peripatetic was also 
quoted by Plutarch (for ]:)artial refutation) in Mor. 
271 c ; but Plutarch (if Tarn ^ and others are right) 
became much more favourable to Peripatetics later 
in his life (e.g. in the Life of Alexaiider). 

Bernardakis's text of this work is one of his most 
unsatisfactory ; even for an editio minor it is careless 
and confused to a deplorable extent. Nor are the 
means of correcting and supplementing it at hand, 
the fifth Teubner volume being still, one fears, in 
the remote future. Then, too, the only photographs 
available were those of E and B, which are not likely 
to add much to our knowledge.^ Consequently the 
only course that seemed prudent was to return to 

° Lamprias cat. 13^ : Plutarch's Letter to Favorinus on 
Friendship (or The Use of Friends) ; Galen, de Opt. Doctr. 
(i. 41 K) : Favorinus's Plutarch, or On the Academic Dis- 
position. See also Suidas, s.v. OajScopiw?. 

* Alexander the Great, ii. 298 f. 

*^ See the recent brisk controversv as to their relationship : 
Manton, C7a.v.s-. Quart, xliii (IDti)), pp. 97-104: Hubert, 
Rhein. Mus. xcili (1950), pp. 880-886 ; Einarson and l)e Lacy, 
Class. Phil, xlvi ( 1951 ), p. 110, n. 56 ; Flaceliere, ed. Plutarch, 
Amatorius, pp. 85 if. The evidence in this essay, for what it 
may be worth, seems to make it unlikely that H was here 
copied from either E or an immediate descendant ; they both 
aj^pear to go back to a common ancestor, perhaps through 
several intermediaries: see, e.g., 951 a, b, d, 953 k. See now 
Cherniss supra, pj). 21, note a; 81, 82. 

228 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD 

VVyttenbach wherever there was a reasonable doubt. 
Bernardakis has been tacitly corrected (or altered, 
whichever it may be) in a good many places. This 
has been done consistently when both E and B 
agree with Wyttenbach's and Hutten's silence ; Ber- 
nardakis 's silence, unfortunately, appears to have no 
significance. 

The work is no. 90 in the catalogue of Lamprias. 



229 



(945) IlEPI TOT nPOTQS^ TTXPOT 

F 1. "KuTL rt? dpa rod i/jvxpov Svvafitg, (L OajSco- 

pLV€, TTpcOTYf Kal OVdla, KadoLTTep TOV deppLOV TO 

TTvp, Tjs TTapovGia rivl Kal pL€Toxfj yiver at tojv 
aXXojv €KaGTOv ijjvxpov Tj p^dXXov Tj ipvxpoTrjs are- 
prjGL? ion depfxoT'qros, ojarrep rod (fxjDTOS to gkoto? 
XeyovGi Kal rrj? Ktvqoeojs rrjv Grdcnv; irrel Kal 
TO ifjvxpov €OLKe OTauipLov elvai, klv7]tlk6v 3e to 
946 OepfjLov at tc tcov deppLoJv KaTaijjv^eis ovSepLtdg 
TTapovaia yivovTai Sum/xeco?, aAA' eKOTaaei deppLO- 
TrjTos' d'/xa yap aTnova^ oXr]^ (j)aiv€TaL Kal ijjvx^Tai 
TO vTToXeLTTopLevov 6 ydp (xt/xos", ov to, t,eovTa tcov 

vSoLTCOV pL€dL'r]CnV, dmOVTi TO) deppLCO OVVeKITLTTTef 

Sto Kal pL€Lol TO TrXrjdos Tj rrepLipv^LS iKKplvovoa to 
deppiov, eTepov pLTjSevos eTTeiaiovTos . 

2. "H TTpojTov piev dv tls vttlSolto tov Xoyov tov- 
Tov TO TToXXdg TCOV ipi(f)avcov dvaipelv SvvdpLecov, wg 
ov TTOLOT'qTas ovh^ e^^t?, €^€Cx)V he Kal ttolott^tcdv 
UT€prjoei£ ovaag,^ ^apvTr^ra pL€v Kov(f)6Tr]Tos Kal 
GKXrjpoTTjra pLaXaKOTrjrog , to j^ceXav Se tov XevKov 

B Kal TO TTLKpOV TOV yXvK€Og, Kal (I)V €KaOT0V eKdoTOJ 
7T€cf)VK€V dl'TLK€LGdaL ACaTO. SvvapLiV , OVX CO? €^€1 

GTeprjCTLS' eTTeid^ otl iraGa GTeprjGLS dpyov €gtl Kal 

^ TTpcoTojs Meziriacus : TTpwrov. 

^ oXrj Meziriacus : ttoAAt) : Wyttrnhach Mrites dfj.a yap 

(ITTlOVOr] TTO?^Xfj. 

^ ovaas addfd by Hartnian. 
230 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD 

1. Is there, then, Favorinus,^ an active principle or 
substance of Cold (as fire is of Heat) through the 
presence of which and through participation in which 
everything else becomes cold ? Or is coldness rather 
a negation of warmth, as they say darkness is of light 
and rest of motion ? Cold, indeed, seems to have the 
quality of being stationary, as heat has that of motion ; 
while the cooling off of hot things is not caused by the 
presence of any force, ^ but merely by the displace- 
ment of heat, for it can be seen to depart completely 
at the same time as the remainder cools off. The 
steam, for example, which boiling water emits, is 
expelled in company with the departing heat ; that 
is why the amount becomes less by cooling off ; for 
this removes the heat and nothing else takes its place. 
2. First of all, must we not be wary of one point in 
this argument ? It eliminates many obvious forces 
by considering them not to be qualities or properties, 
but merely the negation of qualities or properties, 
weight being the negation of lightness and hardness 
that of softness, black that of white, and bitter that 
of sweet, and so in any other case where there is a 
natural opposition of forces rather than a relation 
of positive and negative. Another point is that all 
negation is inert and unproductive : blindness, for 



<* See the introduction to this essay. 
* As, for instance, the force of fire. 



231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(946) arrpaKTOv, cos TV(f)X6rrjs Kal Koj^or'qs kol oiojttti 
KOL ddvaros ; eVcrracret? yap eloLV elScov Kal dv- 
aLp€G€LS ovoiojv, ov cf)VG€Lg TLV€S ouS' ovotai Kad^ 
iavrds' rj Se i/jvxporr^s ovk iXdrrova ttjs depfxoTrjrog 
eyyivofjievri rolg GcopiaGL Trddiq Kal /xcrajSoAa? iv- 
epyd^eadai 7Te(f)VK€- Kal yap TT-qyvvrai TioAAa to) 
ijjvxpcp Kal GvyKpiveraL Kal TrvKvovrat' Kal ro ora- 
G aLfiov avTO) Kal Svgklv7]tov ovk dpyov eGTLV, dXX* 
i/JL^pides Kal ^e^aiov, vtto pcjofxr]? GVv^peiGriKov Kal 
gvv€Ktlk6v ex^^^V^ rovov. odev rj /xev Grepr^Gis 
e/cAeti/ft? ytVerat Acat u7roxco/3T7crt? ttjs" dvriK€iixiv7]s 
Svvdfiecos, ipvx^Tai Se TroAAa tt-oAAt)? avroZs depfio- 
rr]Tos ivvTTapxo'UGrjS' evia 8e Kal fxdXXov rj ipv- 
XPOTr]g, dv Xd^Y) depfiorepa, TT-qyvvGi Kal Gvvdyeu, 
Kaddnep rov j3a77TO/xevov Gihr^pov ol Se UrcoiKol Kal 
TO TTvevfia XeyovGLV iv rols aco/xacrt tojv jSpe^cuv rfj 

7T€pHpV^€L GTOjJLOVGdai Kal p.€Ta^dXXoV €K (f)VG€CxJS^ 

ylveGdai ijjvx'^v' dXXd tovto jJLev dfKfyLG^rjT'^GLiJLov, 
erepcov he ttoXXcov ttjv ipyxporrfra <j)aivopievy]v ht]- 
fiiovpyov OVK d^iov r^yeiGdai GreprjGLV. 
D 3. "Ert GTeprjGLS p-ev ouSe/xta Sex^^ai to p^dXXov 

Kal TO TjTTOV, OvS^ dv eiTTOl TtS" €T€pOV €TepOV /LtCtA- 
XoV TTeTTYJpdjGdaL TOJV pLTj ^XeTTOVTOJV Tj GLCDTTaV TWV 

p,r) (jiOeyyopievojv rj TeOvdvat tojv pLrj t^wvTCov. iv 8e 

Tols ifjVXpOLS TToXv TO ptdXXoV Kal TO TjTTOV €VeGTi 

Kal TO Xiav Kal to p.rj Xlav Kal 6Xa>s €TnTdG€is Kal 
^ (f)vaeix}s\ i/<u^eaj? van Herwerden from Mor. 1052 f. 

" As steam is condensed and oil becomes viscous. 

'' The verb is ambiguous : " become cold " or " dry " or 
perhaps " congealed." 
232 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 94-6 

example, and deafness, silence or death. Here you 
have the defection of a definite form and the annihila- 
tion of a reality, not something that is in itself a part 
of nature or reality. It is the nature of coldness, 
however, to produce affects and alterations in bodies 
that it enters no less than those caused by heat. 
Many objects can be frozen solid, or become con- 
densed or made \dscous, by cold.^ Moreover, the 
property whereby coldness promotes rest and resists 
motion is not inert, but acts by pressure and resis- 
tance, being constrictive and preservative because of 
its strength. This explains how, though negation is a 
disappearance and departure of the contrary force, 
many things may yet become ^ cold while all the time 
containing ^^^thin themselves considerable warmth. 
There are even some objects which cold solidifies and 
consolidates the more readily the hotter they are : 
steel, for example, plunged in water. The Stoics ^ also 
affirm that in the bodies of infant children the breath is 
tempered by cooling and, from being a physical sub- 
stance, becomes a soul. This, however, is debatable ; 
yet since there are many other effects which may be 
seen to be produced through the agency of cold, we 
are not justified in regarding it as a negation. 

3. Besides, a negation does not permit degrees of 
less or more. Surely nobody will affirm that one blind 
man is blinder than another, or one dumb man more 
silent than another, or one corpse deader than its 
fellow ; but among cold things there is a wide range 
of deviation from much to little, from very cold to not 
very, and, generally speaking, in degrees of intensity 

' Cf. Mor. K)o-2 F : von Arnim, S.V.F. ii, pp. 134, 222 ; 
and see Hartman's explanation, De Plutarcho, p. 566. \'on 
Arnim thinks that the next five chapters also contain Stoic 
material. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(946) CiV€G€LS, COGTTep €V TOt? depflOiS, 8ta TO^ TT]^ vXr]v 

rrfj pL€v o(j)6hpa rrfj 8' rjpefJLa Trdaxovaav vtto rcov 
ivavTLcxJV Svvd[ji€Cx)v erepa fjidXXov erepcov /cat dep- 
{jLorepa /cat ipvxporepa napex^iv ef iavrrjs. /cat 
yap €^€(jos fiev ovk eon /xt^t? Trpo? areprjGLV ovS^ 
E draSep^erat SvvajJiLS ouSe/xta t7]v avrt/cet/xevT^v auTTj 
OTeprjGLV €7TLovGav^ ouSe TTOieZ kolvcovov dAA' dvre^- 
iGrarai' Oepfid S* IgtIv cLxpi- ov Kepavvvfjieva ipvxpols 
VTrofxevet, Kaddirep /xeAava Aeu/cot? /cat ^apeGiv o^ea 
/cat yAi^/ceCTtv avGTTjpd, rrapexovra rfj KOLVWVia 
ravrr) /cat dpfiovLa ^^pajjudrajv re /cat (j^Ooyycov /cat 
(^apjLtd/cojv /cat oijjcov 7TpoG(j)i\eZs TroAAds" /cat ^tA- 
avdpojTTovs yevecrets'. 

'H jLtey ydp /card GreprjGLV /cat e^tv dvrideGis 
TToXejJiLKr] /cat aGvpi^aros eVrtv, ovGiav darepov r7]V 
darepov (j)dopdv exovros' rfj Se /card rd? evavrias 
F SvvdfMei? Kaipov rvxovGr) jroXXd /xev at rexvo-f' 
XP^vrai, irXelGra S' t] cfyvGig ev re rats" d'AAat? 
yeveaecrt /cat rat? Trept rdv depa rpoTTols, kol dcra 
Sta/cocr/x.cov /cat ^pa^evwv 6 deog dpfiovcKos /caAetrat 
/cat jJLOVGiKos, ov ^apynqras GwappiOTTCDV /cat d^u- 
TTjTas ouSe Aeu/cd /cat /xeAava Gvpi<j>a>vcos opLiXovvra 
7Tap€X<J^'^' dAATjAot?, dAAd T17V ttJ? depfiorr^rog /cat 
djvxpdrTQTO? ev KOGfico KOLVOJviav /cat Scacfyopdv, OTTcog 
GWOiGOvral re /xerptco? /cat Stotaovrat TrdAii', eVt- 
rpoTTevcov Kal to dyav eKarlpas d^aipcjv elg to 
hiov dp,(j)OT€pas KadLGTr]GL. 
947 4. Kat firjv ifjvxpov fxev atGOrjGig €Gtlv, ajGirep 

^ TO added by Meziriacus. 
^ iniovaav Madvig : efnroLOvaav. 

234 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 94^6-9^7 

and remission, just as there is in hot things. This 
occurs because the matter involved is in different cases 
acted upon by the opposing forces ^\'ith more or less 
intensity ; it thus exhibits degrees of one or the other, 
and so of hot and cold. There is, in fact, no such 
thing as a blending of positive qualities with negative 
ones, nor may any positive force accept the assault 
of the negation that corresponds to it or take it into 
partnership ; instead it gives place to it. Now hot 
things do admit a blending with cold up to a point, 
just as do black with white, high notes with low, sweet 
tastes with sour ; and this harmonious association 
of colours and sounds, drugs and sauces, produces 
many combinations that are pleasant and grateful 
to the senses. 

For the opposition of a negation to a positive 
quality is an irreconcilable hostility, since the exist- 
ence of the one is the annihilation of the other. The 
other opposition, however, of positive forces, if it 
occurs in due measure, is often operative in the arts, 
and very often indeed in various phenomena of 
nature, especially in connexion with the weather 
and the seasons and those matters from which the 
god derives his title of harmonizer and musician, 
because he organizes and regulates them. He does 
not receive these names merely for bringing sounds 
of high and low pitch, or black and white colours, into 
harmonious fellowship, but because he has authority 
over the association and disunion of heat and cold in 
the universe, to see that they observe due measure 
in their combination and separation, and because, by 
eliminating the excess of either, he brings both into 
proper order. 

4. Furthermore, we find that cold can be perceived 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(947) Kal depjJLOV- arep'qoLS S' ovd^ oparov ovt^ olkovgtov 
ovd^ OLTTTOV ovre raZs d'AAat? aLGOrjoeai yvojorov. 
ovoias ydp TLVos aicrdrjGLS rjv ottov S' ovaia [irj 
(fyau'erat, voelrat areprjuis, ovoias aTTO^acrt? ouaa, 
KaOoLTTep oi/jeoj? rvcfyXorr]? Kal (fyojvrjs crtcoTn^ Kal 
GcujjLaTog iprjiJLLa Kal k€v6v. ovt€ yap k€VOV 8t' 
d(f)rj'^ aloOrjois €Gtlv, dAA' ottov [ir] yiverai acLpiaros 
dcj)!], K€vov ytVerat v6r]GLS' ovre Giyrjs dKovopi€V, 
dAAct, Koiv jLtT^Sevo? OLKovajpLev, Giyrjv voovpiev' co? 
8' avTco? Kal TV(f)X(jijv Kal yvpLvcbv^ ovk a'iGdrjGLS 
B CGTLV dAA' atcr^T^crea)? d7T0(f)dG€L^ votjgls. eSei 
Toivvv pL7] yiveGOai i/jvxpcJov aiGdr]GLV, dAA* ottov to 
deppLov imXeiTTei voeiGdai ro ipvxpov, eiTrep rjV 
deppLov GreprjGiS' et 8', wGTTep to deppLov dXea Kal 
hiaKptGei rrjs GapKos, ovroj GvyKpioet Kal ttv- 

KV(x)G€i TO IpVXpOV aLGdrjTOV IgTL, hrjXoV OTL Kal 

iJjvxpoT'qTO? t8ta Tt? €GTLV dpx^j Kal TTT^yrj Kaddnep 

deppLOTTjTOS . 

5. "Ert Toivvv €V tl Kal dTTXovv tj rrepl eKaoTov 
etSog GTeprjGcg, at 8' ovGiai TTXeiovas ^ia(j)opds Kal 
hvvdpieis exovGL' puovoeihes ydp tj glcotttj ttoiklXov 
8' Tj (jxjjvrj, vvv pL€V ivoxXovGa vvv 8e TepTTovGa 

C Tr]v a'iGdrjGLV. e;)^et 8e rotaura? Kal Td xpd)piaTa 
Kal Td GX'r]P^ciTa hiacfyopd?, iv at? d'AAor' dAAoj? tov 
TTpoGTvyxdvovTa hiaTidrjGi' to 8' dva(j>es Kal dxpcu- 
GTOV Kal oAoJS" aTTOiov OVK ex^i 8La(f)opdv, dAA' 

OpLOLOV eGTLV. 

6. ^Ap' OVV eOlK€ rot? GT€pr]TLKolg TOVTOL? TO 

^ After yvfiuwi) the mss. add Kal amTrXcov ; deleted by 
W. C. H. 

236 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 94-7 

as well as heat ; but mere negation cannot be seen or 
heard or touched or recognized by the other senses. 
Perception, in fact, must be of something existent ; 
but where nothing existent is observed, privation may 
be inferred, being the negation of existence, as blind- 
ness is of sight, silence of sound, void and emptiness 
of matter. We cannot perceive a void by touch ; but 
where no matter can be touched, void is inferred. 
Nor can we hear silence ; yet, even though we hear 
nothing, we infer silence. Nor, in the same way, is 
sense active when things are unseen or bare ^ ; there 
is, rather, inference from the negation of perception. 
If, therefore, cold were a privation of warmth, we 
ought not to be able to feel it, but only to infer it 
from the deficiency in warmth ; but if cold is per- 
ceived by the contraction and condensation of our 
flesh (just as heat is by the warming and loosening 
of it), clearly there is some special first principle and 
source of coldness, just as there is of heat. 

5. And yet another point : privation of any sort is 
something simple and uncomplicated, whereas sub- 
stances have many differences and powers. Silence, 
for example, is of only one kind, while sound varies, 
sometimes annoying, at other times delighting, the 
perception. Both colours and figures show the same 
variation, for they produce different effects on dif- 
ferent occasions when they meet the eye : but that 
which cannot be touched and is without colour or any 
quality whatever, admits no difference, but is always 
the same. 

6. Is cold, then, so like this sort of privation that 

** As, when a hill has been stripped of timber, you cannot 
see the trees. 

^ d7To<f)do€L Xy lander : airocfiaais. 

237 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(947) ^i>XP^^'' <^o-'^^ I^V 7TOL€LV €v Tols TTadeoi hia(j)opdv ; 
rj TOVvavTLOV rjSovai, re /xeyaAat Kal to^eAt/zot tol? 
GcjfiaaLv 0.770 xjjvx^pijjv vTTapxovaL Kal /3Aa^at ttolXlv 
v€avLKal Kal ttovol Kal ^apvTTjreg , vcf)^ cov ovk del 
(f)€vy€L Kal diToXeiTTei to depfiov dXXd TToXXaKLS 
iyKaraXaii^avojxevov avdioraTai Kal p,dx^raL, rfj 
/xa;^?? ^' OL'^TcJijv ovofia (f)pLKrj Kal rpofio?, 'qrrojfxevq) 
8e TOJ deppLO) TO TT-qyvvoBai Kal vapKav iTnyiveraiy 

D Kparovv he rod ipvxpov Sia;(U(Ttv Trapex^t Kal dXeav 
ro) GcojjiaTi p.ed'' rjSovrjg, oirep "0{xr)po£ " laiveoBai " 
KeKXrjKev; dXXd ravrd ye iravrl SrjXa- Kal rovTOtg 
ovx rjKLGra tols Trddeoiv evSet/cvfrat to ipvxpov, 
OTi TTpos TO depfiov (hs ovGia TTpog ovGtav 7) rrdOos 
Trpos TTados ovx ^^ aTTO^aGis avTiKeiTai, Kal gtI- 
prjGLS, ovSe (J)9opd Tcg Igti tov depjJLOv Kal dval- 
peGis dXX VTTapKTrf (J)vgls Kal hvvafiLg. rj Kal tov 
X^LfiaJva Tojv chpajv Kal to, ^opeia tcjjv TTvevfidTCOV 
e^eXajfjLev, co? GTep-qGeig oWa twv deppLcov Kal 

E voTLWv, IScav 8' dpx^v ovk exovTa. 

7. Kat p.'qv TeTTdpwv ye tcov TrpajTiDV ovtojv ev 
TO) rravrl GOJfJLdTOJV, d Bid ttXtjOos Kal drrXoTT^Ta 
Kal SvvafiLV ol irXelGTOi gtolx^^ol tcov dXXojv vtto- 
Tt^evTat Kal dpxd?, irvpog Kal vBaTOS Kal depos 
Kal yrj?, dvayKalov eGTi Kal TTOiOTTjTag etvat ras 
TTpojTag Kal dirXag TOGavTag. TLveg ovv eloiv av- 
Tat TrXrjv depjJLOTT^s Kal ipvxpoTrjs Kal ^r^poTT]? 

^ vTTapKTTj W. C. H. after Madvig : <f>dapriKT]. 

** See, e.g.^ Odyssey, vi. 156 ; Iliad, xxiii. 598, 600 ; and 
cf. Mor. 454 d, 735 f. 

238 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 947 

it produces no effects that differ ? Or is the contrary 
true : Do not great and useful pleasures accrue to 
our bodies from the presence of cold, as well as mighty 
detriments and pains and depressions, before which 
the heat does not always depart and quit the field ? 
Often, rather, though cut off within, it makes a stand 
and gives battle. This struggle of hot and cold is 
called shivering or shaking ; and if heat is overcome, 
freezing and torpor set in ; but if cold is defeated, 
there is diffused through the body a relaxed and 
pleasantly warm sensation which Homer " calls " to 
be aglow." Surely these facts are obvious to every- 
one ; and it is chiefly by these effects that cold is 
shown to be in opposition to heat, not as a negation 
or privation, but as one substance or one state ^ to 
another : it is not a mere destruction or abolition of 
heat, but a positive substance or force. Otherwise 
we might just as well exclude winter from the list 
of seasons or the northerly blasts from that of winds, 
on the pretext that they are only a deficiency of hot 
weather or southerly gales and have no proper origin 
of their own. 

7. Furthermore, given four primary bodies in the 
universe ^ which, because of their quantity, sim- 
plicity, and potentiality, most judges regard as being 
the elements or first principles of everything else — 
I mean fire, water, air, and earth — the number of 
primary, simple qualities must be the same. And 
what should these be but warmth and cold, dryness 

^ Heat, for example, may be said to be a " state "' or con- 
dition of metal. 

<= See Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, pp. 315 if., Em- 
pedocles, frag. B 17. The doctrine is clearly stated by, for 
example, Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 10. The author of the Epinomis 
(981 c) adds a fifth element, aether {cf. 951 d infra). 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



.f„i 



(947) Kai vypoTTj^;, at? ra orotx^ia Traax^LV airavra Kai 

7TOL€LV 7Te(f)VKev; CO? Se rcbv ev ypafifiarLKfj gtol- 

X^LOJV ^paxvT-qTe? eluL /cat fxaKponqre?, tojv 8' eV 

F fJLOVGLKrj ^apvTTjreg /cat o^vrrjre?, ov ddrepa rtov 

irepojv oreprjOL^, ovrws iv rot? <^voikoZs oojpiaoLv 

dvTLdTOLX^CLV^ V7ToXr]7TT€OV VypCJV TTpOS ^'r]pOL /Cttt 

ipvxpo^v TTpos OepfJid, TO /caret Xoyov dfia /cat ra 
(fiawofxeva SiacfyvXarrovTag- rj, Kadajrep 'Avaft- 
pLevTjs 6 TraAato? oiero, fxrjre ro ipvxpov eV ovola 
fi-qre ro OeppLov aTroXeLTTajfjiev, dXXd TrdOrj Koivd rrjg 
vXrjg eVtytvo/xeva rat? jLtera/SoAat? ; to yap avoreX- 
AojLtevov avrrjg /cat 7TVKvovfX€vov i/jvxpov ehal (fyr^cn, 
TO 8' dpatov /cat to ;^aAapdv [ovro) ttcds ovofidcras^ 
TO) prjfjLaTL), OepfjLOV. odev ovk aTret/coTO)? XeyeaOaL 
TO /cat depfid rov dvdpcoTTov e/c tou orojiaros /cat 
948 ifjvxpd fiedievai' j/;u;^eTat yap t] ttvot^ Tneadelaa /cat 
TTVKvojOeloa rols ;(etAeo-tv, dveufxevov 8e tou ctto- 
jLtaTO? eKTTLTTTOVGa ylverai OepfjLov vtto jJLavorrjTO? . 
TOVTO fjiev ovv dyv67]iJLa TrotetTat tou dv8po? o 
'Apto-TOTcAi]?* dveipievov yap rod urofjiaros €/c- 
TTveloBai ro depjjLov i^ -qpLcov avrwv, orav Se ctu- 
(jrpei/javres ra X^^^V (f)VorjOOjfji€V, ov rov i^ rjpLchv, 
dXXd rov depa rov rrpo rov Grofiaros (hOelodai 

IpVXpOV OVra /cat 7TpOG€fJLTn7Tr€LV . 

^ ah] as Post, deleting: kol after d-rravTa. 
- dvTioTOLXiav Meziriacus : avTiaTOLXciajv. 
3 Kai after ovofidaas deleted by Hartman. 

o Post translates his emendation : "by which all things 
are qualified through the natural action of the elements," 
pointing out that elements have nothing but size, shape, and 
motion. Fire causes heat, but its atoms are not themselves 
hot. 
240 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 9^7-948 

and moisture, which by their very nature cause all 
the elements to act and be acted upon ? ^'' Just as in 
grammar we have elements long and short and in 
music elements high and low in pitch — and in neither 
case is one element merely a negation of the other — 
so also in physical bodies we must assume an ele- 
mentary opposition of wet to dry and cold to hot, and 
in this way we shall be faithful both to logic and to 
experience. Or are we, as old Anaximenes ^ main- 
tained, to leave neither hot nor cold in the realm of 
being, but to treat them as states belonging equally 
to any matter and occurring as a result of changes 
within it ? He affirms, in fact, that anything which 
undergoes contraction and condensation of matter 
is cold, while anything that suffers rarefaction and 
distention — this comes close to his own phrasing — is 
hot. So there is no contradiction in the remark that 
the man blew^ both hot and cold,'^ for breath grows 
cold when it is compressed and condensed by the lips ; 
but when it is expelled from the mouth left slack, it 
becomes hot through rarefaction. Aristotle,^ how- 
ever, holds that in this Anaximenes was mistaken : 
when the mouth is slack, what is exhaled is w^arm air 
from our own bodies ; but when we compress the 
lips and blow, it is not air from ourselves, but the cold 
air in front of the mouth that is propelled forward and 
makes contact. 



^ Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 95 ; cf. Diller, 
Hermes, Ixvii, pp. 35 f. 

'^ See Aesop's Fables (no. 60 in Chambry's Bude edition, 
vol. i, pp. 131 fF.), where the satyr renounces friendship with 
the man because the latter blows both hot and cold through 
the same mouth. 

** Probably {cf. the note on 950 b Infra) Prohlemata, xxxiv. 
7 (964 a 10 if.) ; contrast Plato, Timdeus, 79 a-c. 

24.1 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(948) 8. Et S' OLTToX^LTTreov ovoiav ipvxpov Kal Oepfiov, 
TTpodyojfJLev eVt ro e^rj? rov Xoyov, rjri? earlv ovola 
B Kal apx^ Koi ^vols ipvxpor-qros , l^rjrovvres' ol [xev 
ovv, rujv GKaXrjvcov Kal rptyajvoeiSajv gxt^P-oltlgijlojv 
iv rols GcofxaoL KeipLivcxiv ,^ to piyovv Kal rpejjieLV 
Kal (f)pLTr€LV Kal ooa ovyyevrj rols nddeoL rourots" 
vrro TpaxvTr]Tos eyyiveodai Aeyorre?, et Kal rolg 
Kara fiepo? SiafxapTavovaL , t7]v yovv dpx'^^ odev Set 
XafijSdvovGL- Set yap wairep d(f}^ iurias rrj? rojv 
oXcuv ovGias apx^odat ttjv t^ririqcnv. cL Kal jLtaAtara 
So^etey ay larpov Kal yewpyov Kal avXr^rov Sta- 
</)epetv 6 (f)iX6GO(f)os . iK€LVOLS P'kv yap i^apKel rd 
euxo.ra rchv alricjv deaypijaaf ro yap eyyvrdrco 
rod rrddovs alnov dv avvo(/)6fj, nvperov fiev evraois^ 
y] TTapefJLTTrojai?, epvoi^rjs S' i^'Atot 7TvpL(f>X€yeis eV* 
ofjL^pcp, ^apvrrjros Se kXlgls avXwv Kal Gvvayajyr) 
TTpds dXXriXovs y iKavov e'crrt rcb rex^^Tj] rrpos ro 
OLKelov epyov. rep Se (f)VGLKa) Oewpla? eVe/ca ;Lte- 
riovri rdXrjdes r] tcov ioxdrojv yvdjatg ov reXos 
iorlv oAA' dpxr] ttJ? eVt ret TTpcora Kal dvcordro) 
TTopeias. Sto /cat WXdrcov opdcos Kal ArjjjiOKpLros^ 
alrtav d€pix6rr]ros Kal ^apvrrjrog t.-qrovvres ov 
Karenavoav iv yfj Kal rrvpl rov Xoyov dXX €7tI rag 

^ Keifievcvv] oeiofxevojv Sandbach. 

2 evraais] evoraais Turnebus from Galen. 

^ At]ix6kpitos] ZevoKpai-qs Wyttenbach. 

" Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 53 c, 54 b-c. 

* Or, perhaps, " with Hestia," as the first principle of the 
cosmos (see, for example, Hitter, on Plato, Phaedrus, 2\1 a, 
pp. 128-124of his edition). This passage is somewhat obscurely- 
quoted below in 954 f. There were already three different 

242 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 9^8 

8. Perhaps we should now leave the question 
whether heat and cold are substances ; if so, let us 
advance the argument to the next point and inquire 
what sort of substance coldness has, and what is its 
first principle and nature. Now those who affirm 
that there are certain uneven, triangular formations 
in our bodies ^' and that shivering and trembling, 
shuddering and the like manifestations, proceed from 
this rough irregularity, even if they are WTong in the 
particulars, at least derive the first principle from 
the proper place ; for the investigation should begin, 
as it were from the very hearth,^ from the substance 
of all things. This is, it would seem, the great differ- 
ence between a philosopher and a physician or a 
farmer or a flute-player ; for the latter are content 
to examine the causes most remote from the first 
cause, since as soon as the most immediate cause of 
an effect is grasped — that fever is brought about by 
exertion or an overflow of blood, that rusting of grain 
is caused by days of blazing sun after a rain, that a 
low note is produced by the angle and construction 
of the pipes — that is enough to enable a technician 
to do his proper job. But when the natural philo- 
sopher sets out to find the truth as a matter of specu- 
lative knowledge, the discovery of immediate causes 
is not the end, but the beginning of his journey to 
the first and highest causes. This is the reason why 
Plato and Democritus,^ when they were inquiring 
into the causes of heat and heaviness, were right not 
to stop their investigation with earth and fire, but 

interpretations known to the scholiast on Plato, Enthyphro, 
3 A (p. 2, ed. Greenej. 

"^ Wyttenbach suggested " Xenocrates " for " Demo- 
critus " in this passage, which may be right, though his pro- 
posal is not considered by either Mullach or Heinze. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

{\^'^S) vo-qras dva(f)€povT€s apx^^ '''^ aloSr^Ta fJ-expt' rwv 
eXax^CTTCov coGTrep 07T€pfxdT(jjv TTporjXdov. 

9- Ov fJL'qv dXXd Kal rd alad-qrd Taurl npoava- 
KLvrjaaL ^eXnov Iotlv, iv ot? ^KfnreSoKXrjg re Kal 
D Srparajv Kal ol UtojlkoI rag oucrta? ridevrai rojv 
Swdfiewv, ol [JL€V UranKol ro) dipt ro TTpchroJS ifjv- 
Xpdv aTToStSovres", 'E^ttcSo/cAt^? Se /cat Hrpdrajv 
TO) vhari- rr]v Se yrjv lgcos dv erepos ^aveiTy i/jv- 
Xpdr7]TOS ovoiav VTrondepievo?. rrporepov he rd 

eK€LVO)V OKOTTCxypieV. 

'Ettcc to TTvp deppidv dpta Kal Xapurpov eVrt, Set 
T'r]v dvTLK€LpL€V7]v To) TTvpl (jydoiv ipvxpdv t' ctvat 
/cat GKOT€LVi^v' dvTLK€LTaL ydp d)g rd) XapiTTpd) rd 
t,o(f)€p6v, ovroj ro) deppiO) ro i/jvxp6v eon ydp cog 
oifjeojs rd OKoreuvov, ovroj ro ipvxpov d(f)rjg ovy- 
XvriKOV Tj he deppLorrjs Sta;^et rrjv aLaOrjaiv rod 
dTTropLevov KaOdrrep r) XapLTrporiqs rod dpojvrog. ro 
E apa TTpd>r(x>s OKoreivov ev rfj (j)voei npajraj? Kal 
ipvxpov eonv. on 8' dr^p rd Trpcoro)? GKorecvdv 
eonv, ovhe rods TTOirjrdg XeXrfdev depa ydp rd 
OKoros KaXoVGLV 

drfp ydp napd v7]vol ^aOvs:^ rjv, ovhe oeXrjvr] 
ovpavodev TTpovcfyawe." 

Kal rrdXiv 

" rjepa eaadpievoL rrdoav (f)OLrd)GLV eV atai^."" 

^ Mss. of Homer have vrepi and ^adeV. 

2 Kal TrdXiv . . . alav are omitted by most mss. and are 
unknown to Wjttenbach. 

<* Cf. Diels-Kranz, Frac/. der Vot\sok.^, i, p. 319, frag. B 21, 
part of which is quoted below in 949 f. 

244 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 9^8 

to go on carrying back sensible phenomena to rational 
origins until they reached, as it were, the minimum 
number of seeds. 

9. Nevertheless it is better for us first to attack 
things perceptible to the senses, in which Empedocles " 
and Strato ^ and the Stoics ^ locate the substances 
that underlie the qualities, the Stoics ascribing the 
primordially cold to the air, Empedocles and Strato 
to water ; and someone else may, perhaps, be found 
to affirm that earth is the original substance of cold- 
ness.^ But let us examine Stoic doctrine before the 
others. 

Since fire is not only Marm but bright, the opposite 
natural entity (they say) must be both cold and dark : 
as gloomy is the opposite of bright, so is cold of hot. 
Besides, as darkness confounds the sight, so cold 
confuses the sense of touch. Heat, on the other hand, 
transmits the sensation of touching, as brightness 
does that of seeing. It follows, then, that in nature 
the primordially dark is also the primordially cold ; 
and that it is air which is primordially dark does not, 
in fact, escape the notice of the poets since they use 
the term " air " for " darkness " : 

Thick air lay all about the ships, nor could 
The moon shine forth from heaven. * 

And another instance : 

So clad in air they visit all the earth. ^ 

^ See Fritz Wehrli, I)ie Schvie des Aristoteles, Part V, 
frag. 49. 

" Cf. Mor. 952 c, 1053 f ; von Arnim, *S'. V.F. ii, pp. 140 f. 

** As Plutarch himself; see beloM^ 953 c ff. (chapters 17-23). 

« Homer, Odyssey, ix. 144-145. Words for " air " in Homer 
often mean " mist " or " fog." 

' Hesiod, Works and Days, 255. 

245 



PIATAIUH'S MOKALIA 



iLV 



(948) '<oii' TTaXi 

avTLKa S' rjepa fiev GKehaoev kol OLTTOJaev 

TjeXios S' €77 eXa jjujj € , iJ^dx'f] S' ^ttl Trdaa (f>advd7]." 
KOL yap " Kve<^as " rov d(f)coTLGTOV dipa KaXovoL, 

KeVOV, COS" €OLK€, (J)doVS OVra- kol " V€(f)OS " 6 gvjjl- 

F TTeGcbv Kal TrvKVCodelg dr]p dTTo^daei (fxjjros kckXt]- 

rat' KVTjKLS^ 8e Kal d^Xus /cat ofilxXr] Kal Sua rod 

(ficoTOS ov TTapex^L rfj aloOrjoei hioijjLV depo? etcrt 

hiacfiopai- Kal ro deihes avTOV Kal dxpojorov "Athrjg 

Kal ^Ax^pcov i7TLKXr]cnv e^x^v. wonep ovv avyrjs 

eTnXLTTOvarjg gkotclvos drjp, ovrco deppLov pLeraardv- 

Tos TO aTToXeLTTopievov drjp i/jvxpo? dXXo S' ovSev 

eari' Sio Kal Tdprapos ovra>s^ vrro ifjvxpdrrjTOS 

/ceVAo^rat • St^Aoi Se Kal 'HgloSos eiTTCjjv " Tdp- 

rapov^ Tjepoevra "' Kal to piyovvra TrdXXeodai Kal 

rpepLetv " TaprapL^eiv." ravra pL€v ovv tolovtov 

€X€i Aoyov. 

10. 'Evret 8' Tj (pdopd pbera^oXi] rig eon tojv 

949 (f)d€LpopLev(jJv els rovvaxniov eKdarco, aK07TcopL€v el 

KaXojs eiprjraL to " nvpos ddvaros depos yeveois." 

OvrjcTKeL yap Kal nvp cooTrep ^cpov, rj ^la a^evvv- 

puevov rj 8t' avrov pLapawopLevov. rj puev ovv a^eois 

€pi<j)aveoTepav TToiel rrjv els depa pLera^oXrjv avrov- 

^ KVTjKLs Meziriacus from 951 b : KraAetrai. 

2 ovTcos Eniperius : ovtos. 
^ Taprapov] Mss. of Hesiod have Tdprapd t\ 

° Homer, Iliad, xvii. 649-650. 

^ Plutarch's etymologies here are no more scientific or 
convincing than those to be found in his Roman Qtiestions, 
L.C.L. vol. iv, pp. 6-] 71. 

246 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 948-949 

And another : 

The air at once he scattered and dispelled the mist ; 
The sun shone forth and all the battle came in view." 

They also call the lightless air knephas, being as it 
were, kenon phaous " void of light " ; and collected 
and condensed air has been termed nephos " cloud " 
because it is a negation of light. ^ Flecks in the sky 
and mist and fog and anything else that does not 
provide a transparent medium for light to reach our 
senses are merely variations of air ; and its invisible 
and colourless part is called Hades and Acheron.'' In 
the same way, then, as air is dark when light is gone, 
so when heat departs the residue is cold air and 
nothing else. x\nd this is the reason why it has been 
termed Tartarus because of its coldness. Hesiod '^ 
makes this ob\aous when he WTites " murky Tar- 
tarus " ; and to shake and shiver ^^ith cold is to 
" tartarize." ^ Such, then, is the reason for these 
names. 

10. Since corruption, in each case, is a change of 
the things that are corrupted into their opposites, 
let us see whether the saying holds good that " the 
death of fire is the birth of air."^ Fire, indeed, 
perishes like a living creature,^ being either ex- 
tinguished by main force or dying out of itself. Now 
if it is extinguished, that makes the change of fire 

'^ " Invisible "' ; cf. 953 a below and Plato, Cratylus, 
403 A if. ; Phaedo, 81 c-d and contrast Mor. 942 f supra ; 
" colourless," achroston, Acheron. Cf. L. Parmentier, " Re- 
cherches sur le traite d'lsis et d'Osiris de Plut.," Mhn. Acad. 
Belg. ii. 2 (1912/13), pp. 71 ff. 

<* Theogony, 119 ; contrast Plato, Phaedo, 112 a if. 

* Cf. Servius on Vergil, Aen. vi. 577. 

f Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 168, Heraclitus, 
frag. 76 (fra^. 25, ed. Bvwater, p. 11). Cf. Mor. 392 c-d. 

Cf. Mor. 281 r, 702 e-f ; 703 b. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(949) KOLf- yoLp o KaTTi'og depos eorlv etSo? /cat rj Kara 
nivSapov " depa^ KVLodvri XaKrH^OLoa Kanvo) 
Aiyi'u? Kal dvadvfiiaGLS. ov ijltjv dXXd Koi cfydtvovGr^g 
dTpocf)La <f)Xoy6? ISelv eoriv, cjGTrep eirl tojv Au;y^^^> 
TO aKpov €Lg depa 'yvo(f)(x)hrf Kal l,o(j)€p6v d7TO)(^e6- 
pL€.vov.^ LKavcos 8e Kal 6 twv fj-erd Xovrpov tj nvplav 
7T€pL)(6aiJLev(x)v* ipvxpdv dvLd)v ar/xo? ivheiKwrai 
rr^v €t? depa rod depfiov (jjOeipofievov fieTa^oXi^v, 
B COS" (jyvGCL Trpds rd irvp dpTLKelfUvov ch to Trpwro)? 
rov depa oKoreivov elvac Kal ijjvxpdv rjKoXovdeL. 

11. Kat fir^v dTTavTCOV ye rcxyv yivofievojv vtto 
ipvxpdT7]rog iv rolg oojfxaoL ocfyohporarov Kal jStatd- 
rarov r) -nrj^is ovoa, nddos p^ev eoriv vharos, epyov 
8' depo?' avTO fxev yap Kad^ eavrd to vhcop evSid- 
XVTOV Kal dirayes Kal dGVorarov eoriv, evreiverai 
he Kal ovvdyerai toj depi o(^Lyy6pievov vtto ipvxpd- 
T7]Tos' Slo Kal XeXeKrai 

" et he voros ^operjv TTpoKaXeaoeraL, avriKa 
VLi/iei." 

rov yap vorov KaOdnep vXtjv rrjv vyporrjra napa- 
GKevdaavrog, 6 ^opeios drjp vnoXa^ajv ernrj^e. Kal 
hrjXov eon fxdXtora rrepl rds ;\;tova?- depa yap 
/jLedeioai Kal TTpoavaTTvevGaoai Xeirrdv Kal ipvxpdv 
OVTOJ peovGLV. ^ ApLGroreXrjs he Kal rds dKovas rov 
jjLoXi^hov rr]KeGdai (ji-qGc Kal pelv vtto Kpvovg Kal 

^ Plutarch's mss. have dcpo? Kvioa avTiXaKTi^ovaa. mss. of 
Pindar read aWepa. 

2 yvocfxZSes ? W. C. II. ; Kronenberg deleted the preceding 
Kal. 

^ dTToxeoiJLevov the Basel edition of 1 525 : aTToxeofievcov : 
d7T€px6fi€vov Kronenberg. 

* 7T€pLX€apL€pa)v] other mss. have Trepicxoficvtov and nepi- 

X€Ofl€VCx)V. 

248 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 9^9 

into air more conspicuous. Smoke, in fact, is a form 
of air, as is reek and exhalation, which, to quote 
Pindar,« 

Stabs at the air with unctuous smoke. 

Nevertheless, even when fire goes out for lack of 
nourishment, one may see, as for instance in the case 
of lamps, the apex of the flame passing off into murky, 
dusky air. Moreover, the vapour ascending from our 
bodies when, after a bath or sweat, cold water is 
poured on them, sufficiently illustrates the change 
of heat, as it perishes, into the air ; and this implies 
that it is the natural opposite of fire. From this the 
Stoics drew the conclusion that air was primordiallv 
dark and cold. 

11. Moreover, freezing, which is the most extreme 
and violent effect of cold in bodies, is a condition 
of water, but a function of air. For water of itself is 
fluid, uncongealed and not cohesive ; but when it is 
compressed by air because of its cold state, it becomes 
taut and compact. This is the reason for the saying ^ 

If Southwind challenges North, instantly snow will appear. 

For after the Southwind has collected the moisture 
as raw material, the Boreal air takes over and con- 
geals it. This is particularly evident in snowfields : 
when they have discharged a preliminary exhalation 
of air that is thin and cold, they melt.^ Aristotle^ 
also declares that whetstones of lead will melt and 
become fluid in the wintertime through excess of cold 

« Isth. iv. 112. 

^ Included without authority among Callimachus's frag- 
ments (787 = anon. 384) by Schneider, but rejected by Pfeiffer. 
'^ Cf. Mor. 691 F and Hubert's references ad loc. 
** Frag. 212, ed. Ptose and cf. Mor. 695 d. 

249 



PLITARCH'S MORALIA 

(949) X^^P-^^'^^' vharo? fiev ov^ TrX-qGtdl.ovTOS avral?' 6 8' 
drjp, (Ls eoiKe, avveXavvcov rd Gcofxara rfj ipvxpdTrjTL 
Karadpavet /cat p-qyvvGLV. 

12. "Ert Toivvv rd /xev dTTouTraadevra rrj^ TTrjyrjg 
vhara fxaXkov TTrjyvvrai- fidXXov ydp 6 drjp ernKpa- 
T€L rod iXdrrovos. dv 8e rt? i/jvxpdv eV (jypearos 
vhcxjp Xa^cov €v dyyeio) Kal Kadels avdts et? to 

(f)p€ap COGT€ jJiTj ipaV€LV TOV vSaTO? TO dyycLov cxAA* 

D ei' TO) depi KpejJLaGdai, TrepipLetvr^ xP^^^v ov ttoXvv, 
earac i/jvxpdrepov to vhojp- o) pidXiura hrjXovTai 

TO pLTJ TOV vSaTOS €LVaL TTjV TTpcjTTjV tttTtaV TT^S 

ipvxpoTrjTO^ dXXd tov depos. twv ye pLTjv pbeydXcnv 
TTOTapLcbv ovSels TT-qyvvTai hid ^ddovs' ov ydp Kad- 
LTjOLV els oXov 6 drjp, aAA' ooa tt] i/jvxpottjtl rrepi- 
XapL^dvei ipavojv Kal TrX-qGid^ajv, TavB^ lgttjglv 
odev ol ^dp^apoi hia^aivovGL nel^fj, TrpofiaXovTes 
dXa)7T6Kas- dv ydp pLT] ttoXv? dAA' eTrnroXaios 6 
Trdyos f), aiGdavopLevai tco ip6(f)cp tov vnoppiovTos 
dvaGTp€(f)ovGLV. eviOL Se Kal drjpevovGiv Ixdvg, 
E vhaTL OeppLO) TOV rrdyov irapaXvovTeg Kal ;^aAajVTe? 
TO ye TTjv opfjLidv Se^opLevov.^ ovtco? ovSev vtto 
TOV ipvxpov TO ev ^ddet TreTTovde. KaiToi tcdv dvoj 
TOGavTT] yiveTai pLeTa^oXr] hid Trfv Trrj^Wy a)GTe 
GVVTpcf^eLV Td TrXota to vhcjp aTTo^tal^opLevov el? 

eaVTO Kal GVvdXtf^OpLeVOV , d>? LGTOpOVGLV OL I'VV 

^ fX€V ov Post : fjiovov. 
^ TO ye . . . 8e^d/Ltevov Wyttenbach ; totc . . . Se^afidvcov. 

" There is here probably a confusion of lead and tin, for 
both of which the term stanmim is used in Latin. Tin is re- 
duced to powder bv severe cold, owing to transformation to 
its allotrope. In [Aristotle], 1)e Mir. Avsc. 50 (p. 257, L.C.L.) 
the more nearly correct statement appears that tin melts in 

250 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 949 

when no water is anywhere near them ; it seems 
probable that the air with its coldness forces the 
bodies together until it crushes and breaks them.^ 

12. Furthermore, portions of water will freeze 
sooner than the spring from which they are drawn, 
for the air more readily masters the smaller amount. 
If you will draw from a well cold water in a jar ^ and 
let it down again into the well in such a way that the 
jar does not touch the water, but is suspended in the 
air, and if you wait a short time, you will find that the 
water has become colder. ^ This is very good evidence 
that the First Cause of coldness is not water but air. 
Certainly, none of the great rivers freezes through 
its entire depth ; for the air does not penetrate down 
into the whole, but merely renders stationary as 
much as, by contact and proximity, it includes within 
the range of its coldness. And this is the reason why 
barbarians ^ do not cross frozen rivers until they have 
tried them out with foxes : if the ice is not thick, but 
merely superficial, the foxes perceive this by the 
sound of the current running underneath and return 
to the bank. Some even catch fish by weakening and 
softening the ice A\'ith hot water — enough of the ice, 
at least, to admit their lines ; so the cold has no effect 
at a depth. Yet the water near the surface undergoes 
so great a change through freezing that ships are 
crushed by it when it is forced in on itself and squeezed 
tight, as those relate who recently passed the winter 

severe cold. This note is due to the suggestion of O. T. Benfey 
of Haverford College. 

'' Presumably Plutarch is thinking of a jar of porous 
earthenware, such as are commonly used to cool water in 
the Near East. '' Cf. Mor. 690 b-e. 

'^ The Thracians, according to 968 f flf. hifra ; cf. also Pliny, 
Nat. Hist. viii. 103; Aelian, Be Natura Animal, vi. 24; xiv. 26. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(949) fJ^^TCL Tov Kataapo^ eVt tov "larpov 8ta;^et^a(TavTe?. 
ov iirjv dXXa Kal ro rrepl rjpid? ovfji^alvov LKavqv 
ixaprvpiav StStuar /xera yap ra Xovrpa Kal ra? e^- 
iSpoKTei? TTepujjvxop-^Od /jlolXXov, rot? ocopLaaiv dvet- 
fxevoLS Kal StaKexvpLevoL? ttoXXtjv ifjvxporrjTa piera 
TOV aipos KaraSexop-^voi. to 8' avro tovto Kal to 
vScxjp TTOLGX^^' if^vx^TaL yap, av TrpoOeppLavdfj, pidX- 
Xov, evTTaOeoTepov to) aepi yevopievov' ot re^ to. 

F t^ioVTa TWV vSoLTCOV dvapvTOVT€S^ Kal pi€TeO}pit,OVT€S 

ovhev dXXo hr]7Tov ttolovolv t) irpos depa ttoXvv 
dvaKepavvvovoLV . 6 ptev ovv to) depi tt^v TrpcoTTjv 
aTTohLhovs TTJg ipvxpoTrjTOS SvvapLLV , (h ^a^ojpZve, 
Xoyos iv TOtauratS" ecrrt TTidavoTTjoLV. 

13. '0 Se TO) vSaTL XapL^dveu puev Kal auro? dpxd? 
opLOLOj?, ovTO) TTOjg TOV ^KpLTTeSoKXeovs XeyovTos 

TjeXiov piev XapLTTpov^ opa*' Kal deppiov aTravTrj, 
opL^pov S' iv TTctcrt bvocfioevTd t€ ptyaXeov re "* 

TOJ yap deppLO) to ipvxpov cos" tco XapLTrpo) to pLeXav 
dvTLTa^a? ovXXoyioaadai SeSwKev, otl ttjs avTrjg 
ovaias IgtI to pieXav Kal to ifjvxpov, cbs ttjs aurrj? 
950 TO XapLTTpov Kal to deppLov. otl 8' ov tov depog 
TO fieXav dXXd tov vhaTOS eoTiv, rj a'iod'qGis €7tl- 
pLapTvpel, TO) pL€V depi pLrjSevog to? aTrXcbs etVety 
pLeXaivopLevov tm 8' u8art navTajv. av yap to Xev- 
KOTaTov epL^dXrjs epiov et? vhcop rj IpidTLOv, dvacfial- 

^ ol re \\'yttenbach : 6tt6t€. 
^ avapvTovT€S rurnebiis : avopvrTOVTes. 

^ XayLTtpov] XevKov Aristotle. 
* 6pa\ opdv Aristotle and Siniplicius. 

° Probably the reference is to Trajan and the Second 
252 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 9^9-950 

with Caesar " on the Danube. Nevertheless, what 
happens in our own case is ample testimony : after 
warm baths and sweats we are cooler, since our bodies 
are relaxed and porous, so that we take in a good deal 
of cold along with the air.^ The same thing happens 
to water, too : it freezes faster when it has first been 
heated, thus becoming more susceptible to air ; and 
those who draw off boiling water and suspend it in 
the air do this, surely, only to secure the admixture 
of great quantities of air.^ So now, Favorinus, the 
argument that attributes the primal force of cold to 
the air depends on such plausibilities as these. 

13. But the argument which attributes it to water 
finds in the same way facts to support it ; Empedo- 
cles ^ says something like this : 

Behold the sun, everywhere bright and warm ; 
And then the rain, to all men dark and cold. 

By thus setting cold against hot, as he does dark 
against bright, he has given us to understand that 
dark and cold belong to the same substance, as do 
also bright and hot. And our senses bear witness 
that darkness is an attribute of water, not of air, since 
nothing, to put it simply, is blackened by air and 
everything is by water. ^ For if you throw the whitest 
wool or the whitest garment into water, it ^vill come 

Dacian War (a.d. 105-107). Plutarch's intimate friend, 
Sosius Senecio, is known to have taken part in it. 

'' Cf. Mor. 690 c-d. 

' Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Voisok.^, i, p. 319, frag. B 21, 
lines 3 and 5. Plutarch apparently used a version different 
from those known to Aristotle and Simplicius. The evidence 
is complicated and may be consulted in Diels-Kranz. On 
Empedocles' meaning see Cherniss, Aristotle's Criticism of 
the Presocratics, p. HO. 

" Cf. 3Ior. 364 b. 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(950) veraL fxeXav koI 8ta/xeVei, f^^XP^ ^^ ^^^ dep^jionqros 
e^LKjjiaodfj TO vypov ij tlol crrpe^Aat? kol ^dpeoiv 
iKTTieoBfj- TTJ? re yrjs vSan paivopievrjs, Sia/xeAat- 
vovoLV OL KaraXafJL^avofjievoi rats orayooL tottol, 
Tcov dXXcxJV opLOicov fievovTOJv. avTov fxev ovv rod 
vSaros GKoretvoTarov vtto ttXtjOov? (^atVerat to 
B ^advTaror, ols S' drjp TrXrjGidt^eL, ravra TrepiXafx- 
Trerat Kal StayeAa. toji' S' dXXcov vypoJv Stacfyaves 
pLoXiora rovXaiov iori, TrXeiorcp ;!^paj/xevov dipi' 
TOVTOV he reKfiripiov 7] Kov(f>6r'qs, St' r^v eTTLTToXdl^eL 
TTaoLv VTTO Tov dipos dva(f)ep6}ievov . ttoleI he Kal^ 
yaXrjvrjv ev rfj daXdrrrj rot? KVpLaatv eTnppaivo- 
jjLevov, ov Sid TTjv XeiorrjTa rcov dvefJLOJV dTToXioda- 
vovTOJV, (xjg ^ ApLOToreXrjS eXeyev dXXd iravrl fiev 
vypo) TO KVfia hia-x^elTai TrXr]TT6fjLevoi>, tStco? he tov- 
XaLov avyrfv Kal KaTa(j)dveiav ev ^vdaj 7rape;^et, 
SiaCTreAAo/xeVcoF tco depi tCjv vypajv ov yap fiovov 
eTTLTToXrjg toIs^ hiavvKTepevovGiv dXXd Kal Karcu 
G ToZs OTToyyod-qpaLs hiat^vocjopievov eV tov OTOfiaTog 
ev Tjj OaXdTTTj (f)eyyog eVStScocrtv. ov fjidXXov ovv 
TO) depi TOV fieXavos rj tw vhaTt fieTeGTLv, tJttov he 
TOV ipvxpov. TO yovv eXaiov, depos TrXeioTov tcov 
vypctjv fieTexov, rJKLOTa ipvxpdv ecrrt Kal TT-qyvvTai 
fiaXaKO)?' 6 yap drjp eyKeKpapcevos ovk id uKXrjpdv 
yeveodai ttjv tttj^lv ^eXovag he Kal TTopTras Gihrjpdg 
Kal TO, Ae77Ta^ tojv epywv ovx vhaTt ^dnTOVGLV 
aAA' eXaioj, ttjv dyav ipvxpoTTjTa (po^ovfxevoL tov 

^ T^v after Kal deleted by Diibner. 
2 Tois] missing in nearly all mss. 
254 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 950 

out black and it will remain black until the moisture 
is evaporated by heat or is squeezed out by some sort 
of wringing or pressure. When a patch of ground is 
sprinkled, the spots which are covered by the drops 
turn black, but the rest remains as it was. In fact, 
of water itself the deepest looks the darkest because 
there is so much of it, while those parts that lie near 
the air flash and sparkle " ; and of the other liquids 
oil is the most transparent, as containing the most 
air. A proof of this is its lightness, by reason of which 
it maintains itself on the surface of all other things, 
buoyed up by the air.^ If it is sprinkled upon the 
waves, it will calm the sea, not because it is so smooth 
that the winds slip off it, as Aristotle ^ affirmed ; but 
because the waves are dissipated when they are 
struck by any moist substance. But it is peculiar to 
oil that it provides light and sight at the bottom since 
the moist elements are interspersed with air ; it is, 
in fact, not only on the surface that it provides light 
for those who pass the night at sea ; it does so also 
for sponge-divers ^ below the surface when it is blown 
out of their mouths. Air, therefore, has no greater 
proportion of darkness than water has, and it has 
less cold. Certainly oil, which has more air than any 
other moist substance, is least cold ; and v/hen it 
freezes, it forms a soft jelly : the air that is intermixed 
does not permit it to freeze hard. They dip needles, 
iron clasps, and all delicate artifacts in oil rather than 
in water, fearing that the water's excessive frigidity 

« Cf. 952 F infra. ^ Cf. Mor. 696 b, 70-2 b. 

'^ Problemata, 961 a. -23 if., though this work is surely not 
by Aristotle in the form in which it has come down to us. 
" Cf. 981 E infra ; Oppian, Hal. v. 638 if. 

^ AeTTTtt Madvig : Xonra. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(95U) vSaro? to? htaGrpe^ovoav . cltto tovtcov yap hiKaio- 
repov eoTLV i^erdt^euSai tov Xoyov ovk airo rcov 
Xpcop-OLTcui'' evel Kal )(loji' Kal )(dXa^a Kal KpvoraX- 
Aos a'fta XapLTrporaTa ylveraL Kal ipv^poTara' Kal 
D ttolXlv TTLTTa depfjiOTepov ion fxeXiTOS Kal okotco- 
heorepov. 

14. "OfjLOJS 8e ^au/xa^co tcov ol^lovvtcov tov depa 
ijjvxpov elvat Sid to Kal okot€iv6v, el jxr] avvopdjGiv 
erepovg d^Lovvra? Oepfiov elvai Sid to Kal Kov(f)ov. 
oi) ydp ovTO) TO) ipvxp^ to gkotclvov co? to ^apv 
Kal oTdoipiov olk€l6v iaTL Kal ovyyeves' TroXXd ydp 
d'/xoipa depfjLOTT^TOS ovTa /xeTe;^et Xapmrihovos , eXa- 
(f)p6v Se Kal Kov(f)ov Kal dvwcfyepes ovSev eoTi tcov 
ifjvxpdjv. dXXd Kal TO, v€(f)rj, ^te;^pt fxev depos ovaia 
fxaXXov TTpooTjKeL, fjieTecDpit^eTaf fjLeTa^aXovTa S' els 
E vypov €v9vg oXiGOdvei Kal to kov(J>ov ov^ tjttov 'q 
TO Oepixov dno^dXXei, iJjvxpoTrjTog iyyLVOfxevrjg' Kal 
TOVvavTLov oTav depfiOTTjg iiTeXdrj, ndXiv dvaGTp€<f)€L 
TTjv KLvqaiv, a/xa to) fxeTa^aXelv et? depa Trjg 
ovaias dvoj (fyepofievrjs. 

Kat fjLTjV ovSe TO ttj? (f)9opd? dXrjOes Igtiv ov ydp 
els TovvavTLov dXX vtto tov evavTiov ^OeipeTai Ttuv 
dTToXXvfJievaiv eKaoTOV, oiairep to Trvp vtto tov 
vSaTOS els TOV depa. to ydp vhcop 6 [lev Alax^Xos 
el Kal TpayiKoJs ciAA' dXr^OaJs elrre 

TTavov^piv^ hiKrjV rrvpos "* 

"Ofirjpos Se Toi noTa/jLO) tov "H^aiCTTOV Kal tco 

TioGeiScOVL TOV 'A77oAAcOVa /CaTO, TTjV fjidxf]v (f)V- 

F GLKcbs fiaXXov 7) pLvdiKcbs dvTeTa^ev. 6 8' ^Apxl- 
256 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 950 

may distort them. It is, in fact, fairer to judge the 
argument by this evidence than by that of colour, 
since snow and hail and ice are at their brightest when 
they are coldest. Moreover, pitch is both hotter and 
darker than honey. 

14. I am surprised, nevertheless, when those who 
maintain that the air is cold because it is dark do not 
perceive that others think it must be hot because it 
is light. For darkness is not so closely connected and 
akin to cold as heaviness and stability are ; many 
things, in fact, w^hich have no heat are bright, but 
nothing cold is buoyant, light, and soaring. Why, 
the very clouds, as long as they are akin to the sub- 
stance of air, float aloft ; but as soon as they change to 
moisture, they fall at once and lose their lightness no 
less than their warmth as coldness grows within them. 
Contrari■^^'ise, when heat supervenes, they reverse 
the movement again, for their substance begins to 
soar as soon as it has changed to air. 

Nor is the argument from destruction true either ; 
for when anything is destroyed, it does not perish by 
becoming its opposite, though it does perish by the 
action of its opposite, as fire, for instance, is changed 
by water into air. For of water Aeschylus " speaks 
in tragic style, but accurately, as 

The riot-quelling justicer of fire. 

And when Homer ^ matched Hephaestus against the 
river and Apollo against Poseidon in the battle, he 
did it rather as a philosopher than as a poet. And 

« Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. pp. 107-108, frag. 360. 
* Iliad, xxi. 330-383 ; 435-469. The river is the Xanthus. 

^ -navav^pw Bernardakis : rrave v8cop. 

VOL. XII K 257 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(950) Ao;^©? eVt tt^? ravavria (j^povovGrjs ov KaKcos €L7T€ 

" rf] fiev vSojp €(f>6p€i 
SoXo(f>poveovaa X^^P^y '^V'^^PV ^^ TTvp." 
iv Se Wepoais rcjv LKeTevpidrcov [leyLOTOV rjv /cat 
aTTapaiTTjTov y el TTvp Xa^cov 6 iKerevajv kol iv tto- 
ra/xo) ^e^rjKCJ? aTTeiXoirj firj rvxojv to rrvp el? to 
vScxjp d(f)i]a€LV' irvyxcLve fiev yap <x)v ihelro, tvx^jv 
S' €KoXdt,€ro hid rr)v dTTeiXrjv c6? rrapd vofiov Kal 
Kara rrjg (j)VG€Oj<^ yevofxevrjv. Kal tovto Srj ro mpo- 
X^ipov dnaGL " rrvp vhan piiyvvvai " to TrapotpLia- 
t,6fJi€V0V iv^ TOi? dSvvdroL?, fiaprvpelv eoLKev on tco 

TTVpl TO vSojp TToXejJLLOV ioTL Kal VTTO TOVTOV (f)d€L- 

951 pcTat Kal KoXdl,€TaL o^evvvpievov, ovx ^'^o tov 
depos OS TOVvavTiOV^ viroXapL^dvei ttjv ovoiav av- 
Tov Kal hex^Tai fjL€Ta^dXXovTos . el yap dirav^ elg 
o pieTa^dXXei to cfydeipopLevov evavTiov eaTL, tl fidX- 
Xov TO) dipt TO TTvp T] TO vhojp evavTLOV (jyavelTai; 
fieTa^dXXei yap els vScop avvLOTdp^evog elg 8e irvp 
SiaKpcvopi^evos' woTrep av TrdXiv to vSa>p hiaKpioei 
fiev els depa (f)deLpeTaL GvyKpiaei 8' els yrjv, cvs 
p,ev eyd) vop.il,co 8t' olKeiOTrjTa ttjv Trpos dp,c/)6T€pa 
Kal Gvyyevetav, ovx ^^ evavTiov eKaTepcp Kal tto- 
XefiLov. eKelvoL he, onoTepws av eiTrajGL, to em- 
B ^^etpi^/xa hia^OeipovGL. TTiqyvvGOai ye p.-qv vrro tov 

^ €v] eVt van Herwerden ; Hartinan would delete to napoi- 
fiia^ofxevov €v rois ahwaroi?. 

^ o's TovvavTLov Post : tlov ojs, rdvov cos or a lacuna in the mss. 
^ a-nav Bernardakis : atVia. 

" Diehl, Antholoffla Lyr'tca Graeca^ i. 237, frag. 86 ; 
Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus (L.C.L.), ii, p. 146, frag. 93 ; 

258 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 950-951 

Archilochus " expressed himself well on a woman 
who was of two minds : 

With guileful thoughts she bore 
In one hand water, in the other fire. 

Among the Persians it w^as the most compelling plea 
to gain an end, one which would admit no refusal, if 
the suppliant took fire, stood in a river, and threatened 
that if he lost his suit, he would drop the fire into the 
water. Now he got what he asked, but though he 
did so, he was punished for the threat, on the ground 
that it was contrary to law and against nature. Again, 
the familiar proverb that is on everyone's lips,^ " to 
mix fire with w^ater," as an example of the impossible, 
seems to bear witness that water is hostile to fire, 
which is destroyed by it and so is punished by being 
extinguished ^ ; it is not so affected by air, which, on 
the contrary, supports fire and welcomes it in its 
changed form. For if anything into which the thing 
destroyed changes is its opposite, why will fire, any 
more than water, seem opposite to air ? For air 
changes into w^ater by condensation, and into fire by 
rarefaction just as, on the other hand, water vanishes 
into air by rarefaction, but into earth by condensation. 
Now these processes take place, in my opinion, not 
because these elements are contrary or hostile to one 
another, but because they are in close affinity and rela- 
tionship. But my opponents,^ whichever way they 
state their case, ruin their proof. Certainly it is per- 

quoted again in Mor. 1070 a, Life of Demetrius, 35 
(905 e). 

^ But, curiously enough, not to be found in the Paroemio- 
graphi Graecl, as edited by Leutsch and Schneidewin. 

" Cf. the quotation from Aeschylus supra, 950 e. 

^ Presumably those who, in 950 d supra, claim that air is 
cold because it is dark. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(951) oLepos (f)dvaL to^ vSojp dXoyayraTOV ecrrtv, avTOV rov 
depa pLi^hapiov TT-qyvvpievov opcbvras. ve(f)7] yap Kal 

OpLLX^OLl' Kal KVTjKiheS OV TTTj^ei? €LGLV ttAAo, GV- 

ordoeis Kal Tra^vrr^re? depos htepov Kal drpLcohovg' 
6 8' dviKpLos Kal ^7]p6s ouS' d-xpi ravrrjs rr]v Kard- 
ijjv^LV evSex^Tai rrjs pLera^oXrjg. eVrt yap a rwv 
opcov OV XapL^dvei vecfyos ouSe SpoGov ovS^ 6pLLxXr]v, 
et? Kadapov depa Kal dpLoipov vyporrjTos i^iKvov- 
pL€va rols CLKpoLS' (I) fj.d\iGra StjAoV eWtv ojs r] 
Kdrco TTVKvojGis Kal GVGraGis TO) dipi GVjjipLe piety - 
pLevov vypov Kal ipv^pov evStSajGL. 

15. To, 8e Kdro) rojv pieydXwv TTorapioJv ov tttj- 
yvvr at Kara Xoyov. ra ydp avoj Trayevra ttjv dva- 
OvpLLaGLV OV Sllyjglv,^ aAA' eyKadeipyvvpLevq Kal 
C d7TOGTpe(f)op,evrj OeppboriqTa napex^L rot? Sta ^ddovs 
vypols' diToheL^Ls Se rovrov ro Xvopuivov rov irdyov 
TtdXiv drpLov TToXvv Ik tcov vypojv dvacjyepeGdai. 
hio Kal rd tcov ^(pwv Gcopiara ;;^et;LttDvos" eVrt dep- 
pLorepa ro) Gvvex^i-v to deppiov ev eavToXg vtto ttjs 
e^ojdev ipvxpOT-qTO? eiGOj GvveXavvopLevov. 

At S' dvapvGei? Kal pLeTecxjptGeis ov pLovov to 
deppLOV e^aipovGi tcov vhdTCov dXXd Kal to ipvxpdv 
odev yJKLGTa Tag ;^ioi^as- Kal to GwdXi^opLevov vypov 
aTT avTOJV OL G(/)6Spa i/jvxpov heopievot klvovglv 
eKGTaTLKOv ydp dpicfyolv tj klvt^gl?. 

"Otl S* ovk depos IgtIv dXX vhaTos r] TOLavTiq 
hvvapiis, ovTcus CIV rt? e^ vTrapxrj? eneXdoL. npcoTov 

^ TO added by Beiiseler. 
^ hu-qaiv Wyttenbach : hdeoiv. 
260 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 951 

fectly absurd for them to say that water is frozen by ah* 
when they have never seen air itself freezing. For 
clouds, mists, and flecks in the sky are not congela- 
tions, but condensations and thickenings of air that is 
moist and vaporous. But waterless, dry air never 
admits loss of heat to the point where such a change 
might occur. There are, in fact, mountains which do 
not know clouds or dew or mist because their peaks 
reach a region of pure air that has no humidity at all. 
From this fact it is especially obvious that it is the 
condensation and density below that contribute to air 
the cold, moist element that is found in combination 
^\•ith it. 

15. It is reasonable that the lower portion of large 
rivers should not freeze ; for the upper portion, being 
frozen, does not transmit the exhalation which is, 
accordingly, shut in and turned back, and so pro\ides 
heat for the deep waters. A demonstration of this 
is the fact that when the ice melts again a great 
quantity of vapour rises from the waters. This is also 
the reason why the bodies of animals are warmer in 
the winter, because the heat is driven inwards by the 
cold from without and they keep it within them. 

Now drawing off water and suspending it in the 
air ^ not only takes away its warmth, but its coldness 
also ; those, therefore, who want a very cold drink 
take care not to disturb the snowpacks ^ or the wet 
matter that is formed from them by compression, 
for movement expels both heat and cold. 

That such a function of cold belongs not to air, but 
to water, mav be demonstrated as follows from a fresh 



« Cf. 949 F supra ; Mor. 690 b-e. 

^ Cf. Mor. 691 c— 692 a for snow packed in chaff and the 
like. 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(yoi) \ 1 ■) f ■> 5/ '>'/)' -^ > 

^ ' fiev ovK €LKog eoTLV aepa, tco atc/ept yeLTVLOJvra /cat 
ipavovra rrjs TrepL(f)opdg /cat ifjavofxevov ovaias^ ttv- 
pcoSovg, rrfv ivavriav e'x^tv Sura/xtv ovre yap aAAco? 
hvvarov aTrro/xeya /cat CTUve;^'^ rot? rrepaoiv ovra 
hvo GcojJiaTa /xt] 77acr;^€ti/ LiTr' dAAi^Aojr, et 8e 77a- 
cr;^eti', /xi) dvaTTLfXTrXaGdat rrjs rod Kpeirrovos hvvd- 
fjLeojg TO rjTTov^- ovT€ TTjv (j>voiv e^ei Xoyov 6(f)€^rjs 
TO) (fyOelpovrc rd^ai ro ^^etpo^eyoy^ cjorrep ov kolvco- 
vias ovoav ouS' dpfxovlas dXXd iToXefjLov /cat pid-)(7}S 
SrjpLLovpyov. XPW^^ i^^^ 7^9 ^Vavrtot? etV to, oAa 
TTpdyfiaGL^' ;^pr)Tat 8' ovk dKpdroig ovS^ dvriTVTTOLSi 
dXX eVaAAaf rtva dioiv /cat rd^iv ovk dvaLpeTLKrjv 
dXXd KOLVOJVLKTjv 8t' ircpcov /cat avvepyov iv pLeacp 
7Tapa7rX€KoiJL€vr]v^ exovcn- /cat ravTiqv €LXr](f)€v 6 drjp, 
v7TOK€Xvpievos TO) TTvpl TTpo Tov vSaTos /Cat StaStSou? 
E €7T^ dp,(j)6Tepa /cat Gvvdycov, ovre OeppLOS ojv avTog 
ovre ipvxpos dXXd i/jvxpov /cat depfiov fieraKepaafia 
/cat KOLVcovrjjjiay jLtetyvu/xeVojv iv avro) pu^iv d^Xa^rj 
/cat /xaAa/cco? drtetcrav^ /cat h€xoixevr]v rds ivavrias 
dKpoTTjTas. 

16. "K7T€ira Travraxov jxev ioriv drjp loos, ov 
iravraxov 8e ;)^et/xa)V opioios ovhe ijjvxos- dXXd 
ravra fiev rd piipi) ifjvxpd /cat Kddvypa, ravra Se 
^'qpd /cat depfid rrjs OLKovpLevrfs ov Kara TVXf]v, 
dXXd TO) fiiav ovoiav ipvxpdTTjros Kal vyporriros 

^ ovaias Xylander : ovarjs. 
^ hvo . . . ffTTov are omitted in most mss. 
^ XPVTai ^€v . . . irpdy^aai are omitted in most mss., in B 
also, but not in E. 

* TTapa-nX€KOfX€VT)v E and most MSS. : TrapaTTiv-Xcyixevrjv B. 
^ dvuloau Turnebus : ivieiaav. 

262 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 951 

start. In the first place, it is improbable that air, 
which lies adjacent to the aether " and touches and is 
touched by the revolving fiery substance, should have 
a force that is contrary to that of aether. For one 
thing, it is impossible for two substances whose boun- 
daries touch and are contiguous not to be acted upon 
by each other — and if acted upon, for the weaker not 
to be contaminated by the force that resides in the 
stronger. Nor is it reasonable to suppose that Nature 
has placed side by side destroyer and victim, as though 
she were the author of strife and dissension, not of 
union and harmony. She does, indeed, make use of 
opposites to constitute the universe ; yet she does 
not employ them without a tempering element, or 
where they wdll collide. She disposes them rather 
so that a space is skipped and an inserted strip duly 
assigned whereby they ^^'ill not destroy one another, 
but may enjoy communication and co-operation. And 
this strip is occupied by air, suffused as it is through 
a space under the fire ^ between it and water. It 
makes distribution both ways and receives contribu- 
tions from both, being itself neither hot nor cold, but 
a blending and union of the two. When these are so 
fused, they meet \%ithout injury and the fused matter 
sends forth or takes to itself the opposing extremes " 
■v\'ithout violence. 

16. Then, too, air is everywhere equal, though 
neither %\1nter nor cold is identical everywhere. It 
is no accident that some parts of the world are cold 
and damp, while others are hot and dry ; it is due 
to the existence of a single substance that includes 

" On the difference between aer and aether see the lucid 
discussion of Guthrie, The Greeks and their Gods, pp. 207 f. 
* That is, the aether. See also Cherniss, op. cit. p. 126. 
" Heat and cold. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ ^ elvai. Xl^vtjs [xcv yap evdepfios rj ttoXXtj /cat dv- 
uSpos", '^Kvdlav he Kal (dpaK-qv koL Wovrov ol ire- 
TTXavrjfievoL XlpLvag re fJLeydXa<; e;\;etv koI TTorapioZs 
hiappelodai ^adeoL Kal TroAAot? LGTopovoLV avrcov 
re Tojv iv jieocp rorrajv rd irapaXipiva /cat iXcoSr] 
ipvxos €.x^i ixaXiara 8ta rds 0.776 tojv vypojv dva- 
dvpLLaGeiS' Ylooeihojvios Se ttj? i/jvxporrjTos atrtav 
eiTTOjv TO 7Tp6a(f)aTOV elvai rov eXeiov depa /cat 
vorepov ovk eXvoe to TTidavoVy dXXd mdavojTepov 
eTToirjoev ov yap dv e^atvero tov aepos o TrpoGcparo? 
del ipvxporepos, €t (jLtj to ipvxpov iv toZs vypols T17V 
yeveoiv elx^. ^IXtlov ovv "OfJirjpos 

952 " oivpr] 8' e'/c TTOTapiov 4'^XPV '^'^^^^ rjcodL^ Ttpd," 

TTiv TTTjyrjv TTJs ipvxpdTrjTos eSet^ev. 

"Ert TOLVvv Tj fjiev alGdiqais voXXdias rjfxds ef- 
avrara, orav t/xartcov 7) epioov ipvxpcov diyydvwjjiev, 
olojjievovs vypujv BiyydveLV hid to kolvtjv dpi^oTepois 
ovoiav VTrdpx^i'V Kal ra? ^"uoeis ovyyevels elvai 
Kal oLKelas. iv he rot? hvox^^P'ipots /cAt/xacjt ttoAAo, 
prjyvvei to i/jvxo? dyyela Kal ;!^aA/ca /cat Kepafied' 
Kevov 8' ovhev dXXd ndvTa^ TrXrjpr], ^La^ofxevov Tjj 
ipvxpoTTjTi TOV vhaTos. KaiTOL (jiTfol ©eo^pacTTo? 
TOV aepa p7]yvvvaL Tct dyyeia to) vypcp Kaddnep 
B rjXcp* Xpd)}Jievov opa he firj tovto KOjiifjcos fxaXXov 

^ TTj'eei TjiodL] omitted in most mss., which also write npos- 

^ crvyyevels Kronenberg : ovueyy^?- 

^ vdvTa] omitted in most mss. 

* 17A6J Turnebus : rjXiq 



uco. 



" Phitarch may be thinking of the old kingdom of Pontus, 

which included tracts south, east, and north of the Black Sea. 

'' The fragment has not yet been numbered in L. Edel- 

264 



THE PRIN'CIPLE OF COLD, 951-952 

coldness and wetness in one. The greater part of 
Africa is hot and without water ; while those who 
have travelled through Scythia, Thrace, and Pontus " 
report that these regions have great lakes or marshes 
and are traversed by many deep rivers. As for the 
regions that lie between, those that are near lakes 
and marshes are especially cold because of the ex- 
halations from the water. Posidonius,^ then, in 
affirming that the freshness and moistness of marsh 
air is the reason for the cold, has done nothing to 
disturb the plausibility of the argument ; he has, 
rather, made it more plausible. For fresh air would 
not always seem colder if cold did not take its origin 
from moisture. So Homer '^ spoke more truly when 
he affirmed 

The river-air blows chill before the dawn, 

thereby indicating the source of coldness. 

Our senses, moreover, often deceive us and we 
imagine, when we touch cold garments or cold wool, 
that we are touching moist objects : this is because 
wet and cold have a common substance and their 
natures have a close affinity and relationship. In very 
cold climates the low temperature often breaks 
vessels whether they are of bronze or of clay — not, 
of course, when they are empty, but only when they 
are full and the water exerts pressure by means of 
its coldness. Theophrastus,'^ to be sure, declares that 
the air breaks these vessels, using the liquid as a 
spike. But take care ^ that there isn't more ^^^t than 

stein's forthcoming collection ; for the literature see A. J. P. 
Ivii (1936), p. 301 and n. 61. ^ Odyssey, v. 469. 

^ The fragment is apparently omitted by Wimmer. 

* This seems to be addressed to Favorinus's Peripatetic 
sympathies. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(952) ■^ dXrjOcog elprjiJLevov fj- eSet yap ra ttlttt)^ yifiovra 
pLoXXov prjyvvoOai vno rod aepos kol ra yaXaKros . 
'AAA' eoLKe ro vSojp e^ iavrov i/jvxpov elvau Kal 
TTpwroJS' avriKeiraL yap rfj ipvxpoTrjrL irpos rrjv 
deppLorrjra rod rrvpog, a)a7T€p rfj vyp6rr]ri Trpos rrjv 
^r^por'qra Kal rfj ^apvrrjri rrpos rrjv Kovcjyoriqra. 
Kal oAco? TO /xev irvp hiaorariKov ian Kal 8tat- 
periKov, ro 8' vhojp KoXXrjrLKov Kal gx^tlkov, rfj 
vyporrjn ovvexov Kal Trrjrrov fj Kal napeax^v 'EjU,- 
TTeSoKXij? VTTOvoLav, cog ro fxev rrvp " veiKO? ov- 
Xofxevov," " GX^^vvTjv " he " (f^iXorrfra " ro vypov 
C eKaorore rrpoGayopevcov irrel rpocjyr] jjLev TTvpos ro 
fxera^aXXov el? TTvp, /xerajSaAAet Se ro Gvyyeves 
Kal OLKeZoVy ro 8' evavriov hvGfJierd^Xrjrov, cu? to 
vSojp- Kal avro fxev (1)S erros etTretv aKavarov ianv, 
vXrjv 8e Kal iroav vorepdv Kal ^vXa /Se^pey/xeVa 
hvoKarj Trapex^i, Kal cf)X6ya t,o(f)€pdv Kal d/jL^Xelav 
VTTO x}^ojp6rriros dvahihcooi rep ijjvxpci) /xap^ojitevov 
Trpos ro deppLov co? (f)VG€L TToXepnov. 

17. S/coTret hr^ Kal ravra Trapa^dXXojv eKeivois. 
eTTeihr] ydp^ ^pvglttttos olop^evos rov depa TTpwrcos 
ipvxpov elvai, Sion Kal GKorecvov, ipLvi^ad-q pLOvov 
rcjv ttXIov d(f)€GrdvaL ro vSojp rod aWepos r) rov 
depa Xeyovrojv , Kal irpos avrovs n ^ovXopLevo? 
etTreiV, " ovroj pLev dv," €(f)rj, " Kal rrjv yijv xpvxpdv 
elvai TTpcorcxJS Aeyot/xev, ort rov aWepo? d(f)€GrrjK€ 

^ €7T€ihi) yap ^\ yttenbach : cVei Se Kal. 

" That is, than those full of water. 

" Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 318, frag. B 19. 
Plutarch seems to have mistaken Empedocles' meaning, 
though some would invoke frag. V> 84. In general, while 

266 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 952 

truth in such a remark ! For if it were so, vessels full 
of pitch or of milk would more readily be broken by 
the air.*^ 

Water, however, seems to be cold of itself, and 
primordially so. It is the antithesis, in its coldness, 
to the heat of fire, just as in its wetness to the dryness 
of fire, and in its heaviness to the other's lightness. 
To sum up : fire is of a disintegrating and separative 
nature, while water is adhesive and retentive, holding 
and gluing together by means of its moistness. 
Empedocles ^ alluded to this, when, as often as he 
mentioned them, he termed Fire a " Destructive 
Strife " and Water " Tenacious Love." For the 
nourishment of fire is that which can be changed 
into fire and only things that have affinity and a 
close relationship to it can be so changed ; while 
its opposites, like water, are not easily changed to 
fire. Water itself is practically incombustible, and it 
renders matter such as damp grass and moist timber 
very hard to consume ; the greenness in them pro- 
duces a dusky, dull flame because, by dint of cold, it 
struggles against heat as against its natural enemy. 
17. Now you must pursue the subject by comparing 
these arguments with those of my opponents. For 
Chrysippus,^ thinking that the air is primordially 
cold because it is also dark, merely mentioned those 
who affirm that water is at a greater distance from the 
aether ^ than is air ; and, wishing to make them some 
answer, he said, " If so, we might as well declare that 
even earth is primordially cold because it is at the 

Plutarch is said to have written ten books on Empedocles 
(Lamprias catalogue no. 43), he does not seek the difficult 
poet's meaning very carefully. 

" Von Arnim, SlV.F. ii, p. 140 ; cf. Mor. 1053 e. 

** See 951 D supra. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ y. irXelGTOv," (x)S dSoKLfjLOV TLva TravreAtD? tovtov /cat 
droTTov dTToppiijjas rov Xoyov, eyoj (jlol Sokcj fx-qhc 
T7]v yrjv dyLOipov etVorcDV kol TTidavcov drro^aiveiv ^ 
TTOLrjaajjievo? dpx'Tjv (L /xaAtcrra \pvGL7T7Tos vrrep rov 
depos K€XP'i]TaL. rt 8e tout' eori; to OKoreivov 
ovra TTpcoTws etvat /cat ipvxpov Trpcorojs.^ et yap 
Svo Xa^d>v ovros dvTLdeaeis 8um/xeajv otcTat rfj 
irepa /cat rrjv irepav i^ dvdyKrj? eTreodai, ptvpLaL 
hrjTTovdev eloLV dvrird^eis /cat dyrnrdOeiaL irpos rov 
aWepa^ rrj? yrjs, at? /cat ravrrjv dv Tt? dKoXovdelv 
d^Lwaeiev. ov yap wg ^apela rrpos Kov(f)ov /cat 
E KarappeTTTjs rrpos dvaxjyepes avTt/cetTat (jlovov, ovS* 
ws TTVKvrj rrpos dpaiov ovh^ cbs jSpaSeta /cat cttcl- 
CTt/xo? rrpos d^vppoTTOv /cat Kivr^riKov , dXX (1)S 
^apvrdrr] rrpos Kov(f)6rarov /cat rrvKvordrrj rrpos 
dpaiorarov, /cat reXos d)S dKLvqros e£ iavrrjs Trpos 
avroKLVTjrov /cat rrjv fjLeorjv ;(co/3av errexovoa rrpos 
del KVKXo(f)opovpL€vov . ovK droTrov ovv rr^XiKavraLS 
/cat rooavrais dvnrd^ecn /cat rrjv rrjs ipvxpdrrjros 
/cat depfxorrjros eTreodat. vat, dXXd rd Trvp Xap^rrpov 
eoriv. ovn fJirjv* OKoreivdv tj yrj ; GKoreivorarov 
F p^ev ovv aTrdvrojv /cat d(j)€yyeGrarov . dipt /xeV ye^ 
fierox'^ 4>ojr6s eGri rrpcoro), /cat rdx^-crra rpenerat 
/cat dva7rXr]GdeLS Stave^et Travraxov rr]v Xapirrpo- 
TTjra, CTCOjLta napex^ov rijs avyrjs iavrov 6 yap tJXlos 
dvLGXOJV, a)S TLS €L7T€ TCJV hiBvpapL^orroidjv , 

€v6vs dveTrXrjGev depo^ardv plyav olkov dvepuajv " ' 

1 aTTO(j>av€Lv Hatzidakis. 
"^ elvai Kal ipvxpov irpwrco^ added by Patzig. 
^ aldipa Leonicus : aepa. 

*■ ovTL ^jLrjv] the text is that of E ; B and other mss. have 
several lacunae. 

268 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 952 

greatest distance from the aether " — tossing off this 
argument as if it were utterly inadmissible and absurd. 
But I have a mind to maintain the thesis that earth 
too is not destitute of probable and convincing argu- 
ments, and I shall start with the one that Chrysippus 
has found most serviceable for air. And what is this ? 
Why, that it is primordially dark and cold. For if he 
takes these two pairs of opposing forces and assumes 
that one must of necessity accompany the other, 
there are, surely, innumerable oppositions and anti- 
pathies between the aether and the earth with which 
one might suppose this to be consistent. For it 
is not only opposed as heavy to light and as moving 
by gravity downwards, not upwards, or as dense 
to rare or as slow and stable to mobile and active, 
but as heaviest to lightest and as densest to rarest 
and, finally, as immovable of itself to self-moving, 
and as occupying the central position in the universe 
to revolving forever around a centre. It is not absurd, 
then, if oppositions so numerous and important carry 
with them the opposition of cold and heat as well. 
" Yes," Chrysippus may say, " but fire is bright." 
Is not the earth, then, dark ? Why, it is the darkest 
and most unilluminated of all things. Certainly air 
is first of all to participate in light ; it is instantly 
altered and when it is saturated, it distributes 
illumination everywhere, lending itself to light as a 
body in which to reside. For when the sun arises, 
as one of the dithyrambic ^\Titers ® has said, 

It straightway fills the mighty home of the air-borne winds. 

" Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica Graeca, ii. 302 ; Edmonds, 
Ltyra Graeca (L.C.L.), iii, p. 460 (adespota no. 95). 

5 ye] yap Meziriacus. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(952) eV TOVTOV 8e Kal XiyLvrj /cat daXarrr] fiolpav avyrj? 
Kariajv ivirjcn Kal ^vdol TToraiJLcov StayeAojatv, oaov 
depog e^iKvelrai npos avrovs. jJLOvr] 8' rj yrj twv 
oajfjidTcov del dcfxjjTLGrog ioTi Kal drpcoTog v<f)* 
tjXlov Kal ueXrjvqg tw (Jxjjtl/^ovtl, ddXTreraL 8' utt' 
avTOJV Kal 7Tap€)(€i jY'^tatvetv eV oXiyov ^ddos^ 
953 ivSvofjLevo) rco dep/jLoj- to 8e Xafiirpov ov napLT^GLV 
V7t6 arepeorrjTos dAA' iTnTToXrjg Tr€pi(j)OJTil,€Tai, rd 
8' ivTO? 6p(f)vrj Kal x^^s Kal 'AtS?]? ovo/xa^eraf 
Kal TO epe^os tovt^ rjv dpa, to -)(d6viov Kal eyyatov 
OKOTos. TTjV 8e vvKTa 7TOLT]Tal fiev Ik yrjs yeyovdvai 
pivdoXoyovaiy puadrjiiaTiKol 8c GKidv yfj? ovaav drro- 
SeLKVvovaiv dvTL(f)paTTOV(Trjs Trpos tov -qXiov 6 yap 
drjp dvaTTLpLTrXaTaL gkotovs vtto yrjg d)S (fxjJTOS v<f>* 
rjXiov Kal to dcfxxJTLGTOV avTov firJKo? egtl vvkto^, 
oGov Tj GKid T7J? yfjs eVtve^eTttt. 8to to) fiev cktos 
depL Kal vvktos ovgt]s dvOpojiroi re -x^pchvTai Kal 
B drjpia TToXXd vojjids rroLovfieva 8ta gkotov?, dfia)G- 
yeTTOJS 'f'X^'n (fxDTog Kal drroppod? avyrjg ivhi^Girap- 
fjL€vas €)(ovTog' 6 8' OLKovpog Kal vtt cd polios , are 
hrj TTJg yrjs TravTaxoOev TrepiexovGr]?, KOfjuhfj TV(j)X6s 
€GTi Kal d<j)(x>TLGTOS. dXXd fJiT^v Kal SepfiaTa Kal 
KepaTa l,cpa>v oXa fiev ov huriGLV avyr^v vtto crrepeo- 
T7]Tos, oTav 8e TTpLGdfj Kal KaTa^€G6fj, ylveTaL 8ta- 
<f)av7J, TTapafjLLxOevTOS avTol? tov depos. olfiaL 8e 
^ ^ddos Wyttenbach : ndpos or cfxipos. 

" Cf. Aeschylus, Prometheus, 90, and 950 b supra. 
** The Invisible Place, according to the etj-mology adopted 
above in 948 f. 

270 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 952-953 

Next the air, moving downward, infuses a part of its 
brightness into the lakes and the sea, and the depths 
of the rivers flash brightly,'* to the extent that air 
is able to penetrate them. Of all bodies only the 
earth remains constantly without light, impenetrable 
to the illumination of sun or moon ; yet it is warmed 
by them and permits the heat to sink in and warm 
it up to a slight depth. But because it is solid, earth 
does not give passage to light, but is encircled by 
light on its surface only, while the inner parts are 
called Darkness and Chaos and Hades ^ — so that 
Erebus ^ turns out to be the subterranean and interior 
darkness. Then, too, the poets tell us that Night 
was born of Earth ^ and mathematicians demonstrate 
that night is the shadow of Earth blocking the light 
of the sun. The air, indeed, is saturated \\-ith dark- 
ness by the earth, just as it is with light by the sun. 
The unlighted portion of the air is the area of night, 
amounting to the space occupied by the earth's 
shadow. This is the reason why men make use of the 
air out of doors even when it is night, as well as many 
beasts which do their pasturing in the darkness, since 
it retains some vestiges of light and dispersed glira- 
merings of radiance ; but the house-bound man who 
is under a roof is utterly blind and without light 
inasmuch as there the earth envelops him from all 
directions. Whole skins, furthermore, and horns of 
animals do not let light pass through them because 
of their solidity ; yet if sections are sawed off and 
polished, they become translucent when once the 
air has been mixed with them. It is also my opinion 

" Hesiod, Theogony, \-2o. The original meaning of Erebus 
is actually " darkness ". 

^ Cf. biels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 331, Em- 
pedocles, frag. B 48 ; cf. Mor. 1006 f. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(953) ^Q-^ fieXawav eKaorore Tr)v yfjv vno rcDy TTOir^rcbv 
KaXeladai Sta ro cr/corcDSe? Kal to d(f)a)rLGrov wore 
Kal rrjv TToXvTLfjLrjTOV avrideoiv rod gkot€lvov npos 
TO XajJiTTpov eVt rrjg yrj? [xaXXov rj rov depos utt- 

C 18. 'AAA' avTTj jjiev d.Trripr'qraL rod l^rjroviJLevov 
voXXd yap SeSeiKrai iJjvxpoL roJv Xafirrpwv ovra /cat 
depfid Ttov dfjLavpojv Kal OKoreivayv. €KeZvai he 
GvyyevearepaL Suva/xet? ijjvx^porrjros eioi, to e/x- 
^pide? TO ixovijxov TO TTVKVov TO dfjLerd^XrjTov' cLv 
dipt fiev ovSefjLLag, yfj he jjidXXov rj vhari Traacov 
fjLerecm. Kal firjv ev rols pLaXiora to ifjvxpov alodir]' 

TOJg OkXtjPOV eOTl Kal GKXrjpOTTOlOV Kal aVTLTVTTOV. 

IxOv? jLtev yap iGTopel QeocfypaGTOs vtto piyovs rre- 
TTTjyoTag, dv d<f)e9djGLV eirl ttjv yrjv, KaTdyvvGdat 
Kal GVVTpi^eGBai Slktiv veXwv^ ^ Kepafxecov GWfJid- 
D Ta>v. ev he AeA^ot? auTo? rjKoves oVt tujv eis tov 
riapvacrov' dva^dvTwv l3o7]drJGaL Tals QvidaLV,^ 
(XTretATy/Lt/xeVat? vtto TrvevfiaTOS ;)(aAe770L' Kal ;!^tovo?, 
ovTOJS eyevovTO hid tov irdyov GKXrjpal Kal ^vXcohei? 
at ;)^AajLtu8€?, to? Kal dpaveGdai hiaTeivop^evas Kal 
p-qyvvGdat. TTOtel he Kal vevpa hvGKapTrrj Kal 
yXdJTTav dvavhov dKiviqGia Kal GKXrjpoTr^Ti to dyav 
ipvxo?, eKTTTiyvuov Ta^ vypd Kal jiaXaKa tov goj- 

)LtaTO?. 

^ veXuyv van Hcrwerden : veXcov. 
^ Qvidaiv Bernardakis : dvdaiv. ^ rd] most mss. have Koi. 

272 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 953 

that the earth is called black by the poets, '^ whenever 
they have occasion to do so, because of its murky and 
lightless characteristics. The result, then, of these 
considerations is that the much-prized antithesis of 
light and darkness belongs to earth rather than to air. 
18. This, however, has no relevance to the question 
under discussion ; for it has been shown that there 
are many cold objects which are bright and many 
hot which are dull and dark. Yet there are qualities 
more closely connected that belong to coldness : 
heaviness, stability, solidity, and resistance to change. 
Air has no part at all in them, while earth has a greater 
share in all of them than water has. Cold, moreover, 
is perceptibly one of the hardest of things and it 
makes things hard and unyielding. Theophrastus,'' 
for instance, tells us that when frozen fish are dropped 
on the ground, they are broken and smashed to bits 
just like objects of glass or earthenware. And at 
Delphi you yourself heard, in the case of those who 
climbed Parnassus to rescue the Thyiades ^ when 
they were trapped by a fierce gale and snowstorm, 
that their capes were frozen so stiff and wooden that 
when they were opened out, they broke and split 
apart. Excessive cold, because of its hardness and 
immobility, also stiffens the muscles and renders the 
tongue speechless, for it congeals the moist and 
tender parts of the body. 

* e.g. Homer, lUad, ii. 699 ; Alcman, 36 (Edmonds, Lyra 
Graeca, i, p. 76 ; Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica Graeca, ii. 27) ; 
Sappho, 38 (Edmonds, op. cit. i, p. 208). 

'" Frag. 184 Wimmer. 

" The Thyiades were Attic women, devotees of Dionysus, 
who went every other year to Delphi to join in the midwinter 
festival. (See Guthrie, The Greeks and their Gods, p. 178.) 
The rites must have involved considerable discomfort and 
even risk, as Dodds says (edition of Euripides, Bacchae, p. xi). 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(953) 19- '^^' ^Ae77o/xei'CL>r, OKOTret to ycvo/JLevov ovroj. 
Trdoa S-qTTOv Sm-a/xt?, av TrepiylvrjT at, 7r€(f)VK€ fiera- 
^aXXeiv /cat rpeVctv et? eavrr^v to viKOJiievov to 
juei' ydp UTTo depfiov KparrjOev eKTrvpovraL, to S' 
UTTO 7Tvevp.aros i^aepovrai, to S' et? vScop ifirreGOV, 
E av /Lf)] Stacj^vyrj, KaBvypaiveTaL Gwhtax^opLevov . 
dvdyKTj Srj Kal to. ipv^opieva KopuSfj ^eTa/SaAAeiv els 
TO TTpcoTCog ipvxpov eoTL 8' vTTep^oXrj ipv^eojs TT'rjiiS, 
TTTJ^L? 8' etV dAAota^CTtv TcAeuTa Kal XlOojglv, OTav, 
TTavTOLTrauL Tov ijjvxpov KpaTTjoavTOS, eKTTayfj fiev to 
vypov IkOXl^tj §e to Oepfiov. odev rj /j.ev eV ^ddei 
yrj TTayos IgtIv w? etVety Kal KpvoTaXXos aTraoa- 
to yap iJjvxpov ciKpaTov oLKovpel Kal dfidXaKTOV 

d7T€ajafJL€l>OV €K6L tov aWlpOS dTTCOTdTO)- TavTl 8e 

TO, iix(f)avrj, KprjfjLvovs Kal OKOTreXovs Kal TieVpa?, 
^KfjLTTeSoKXrjs jjLev vtto tov TTvpog otCTat tov ev ^dOei 
TTjS yrjs ioTdvai Kal dvex^crOai StepciSd/xeva (f)Xey- 
F fiaivovTOS' e/Li^atVeTat he pLoXXov, ooojv to OeppLov 
e^eBXi^Tj Kal SieTTTaTO, rrdvTa TavTa TravTdTraoiv 
VTTO TTJg xjjvxpoTTiTos TTayrjvaL' 8to /cat ndyoi /ca- 
AowTat. /cat TO, a/cpa ttoXXojv eTTLfieXavBevTa,^ fj 
TO BepfJLOv e^eTTeae, TrvpiKavoTOLS Ihelv TrpooeoiKe' 
TT-qyvvoL yap to ijjvxpov to. fjiev jxaXXov Tct 8' t^ttov, 
954 p-dXiOTa 8' ols TTpwTWS evvTrdpxeLv irecfiVKev. wuirep 

^ eTTiiJLeXavdevTa Emperius : cTTifieXavdevrcov. 

" See 951 D above. 

^ Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, i, p. 296, frag. A 69 ; 
cf. Mor. 691 iJ and Hubert's references ad loc. 

* Crags and rocks are called pagol (as the Areo-pagus, 

274 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 953-954 

19. In view of these considerations, regard the 
facts in the following light : every force, presumably, 
whenever it prevails, by a law of nature changes and 
turns into itself whatever it overcomes. What is 
mastered by heat is reduced to flames, what is 
mastered by ^vdnd turns to air ; and anything that 
falls into the water, unless it gets out quickly, dis- 
solves and liquefies. It follows, then, that whatever 
is completely frozen must turn into primordial cold. 
Now freezing is extreme refrigeration that terminates 
in a complete alteration and petrifaction when, since 
the cold has obtained complete mastery, the moist 
elements are frozen solid and the heat is squeezed 
out. This is the reason why the earth at its bottom- 
most point is practically all solid frost and ice. For 
there undiluted and unmitigated cold abides at bay, 
thrust back to the point farthest removed from the 
flaming aether. '^ As for these features that are 
visible, cliffs and crags and rocks, Empedocles ^ thinks 
that they have been fixed in place and are upheld by 
resting on the fire that burns in the depths of the 
earth ; but the indications are rather that all these 
things from which the heat was squeezed out and 
evaporated were completely frozen by the cold ; and 
for this reason they are called pagoi.^ So also the 
peaks ^ of many of them have a black crust where the 
heat has been expelled and have the appearance of 
debris from a conflagration. For the cold freezes 
substances to a varying degree, but hardest those of 
which it is naturally a primary constituent. Thus, if 

" Mars Hill," at Athens), which Plutarch correctly connects 
with the verb meaning " freeze " or " solidify " and uses to 
confute Empedocles. 

<* Plutarch is speaking of volcanoes like Aetna with a lava 
bed on top. 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(954) yctp, el depjjiov to KOV(f)L^€LV, Oepjiorarov eon to 
Kov(f)6rarov' el 8' vypov to /xaAacrcreiv, vypoTaTov 
TO pLaXaKWTaTov ovTCog, el kol ipvxpov to TTiqy- 
vveiv, avdyKT] Kal ipv^poTaTov elvai to /xaAtara 
TTeTTrjyog, olov rj yrj- to Se ipuxporaTOV (fyvaei St^ttou 
Kau TtpojTOJs ifjvxpov oiGTe TrpaJrco? /cat (f)VG€t 
ijjvxpov 7] yrj. TOVTO 8' apbeXei kol ttj aladi^aeL 
SrjXov eGTL- Kal yap ttiqXos vSaTOS i/jvxporepov Kal 
TO TTvp yrjv emcfyopovvTeg d(f)avLt,ovGLV' ol he x^^XKels 
TO) TTvpov/JLevcp Kal dvaTr^KOfMevo) oihr^pcp fxapfiapov 

B Kal XaTVTTTJV TrapaTTaGGOVGL,^ TTjV 7ToXX7]V pVOLV 

e(j)LOTdvTes kol KaTaiprjxovTes' ijjvx^t, Se Kal ra rcuv 
d6Xr]Tajv 7] KOVLS crco/xara /cat KaTao^evvvGL tovs 
ISpaJTag. 

20. *H Se /ca^' eKaoTov eviavTov rj/JLa? fieTd- 
yovGa Kal pLeTOLKi^ovGa XP^^^ '^^ ^ovXeTat, x^^~ 
fjLcovog fjLev (XTrcoraTCt) <f)evyovGa Trjg yrj? el? fieTeajpa 
Kal dTToyeia, Oepov? Se ndXiv dvTexop^evrj tojv /carco 
/cat VTroSvo/JLevT] Kal Stto/cofcra TrpoG^opovs^ /cara- 
(j)vydg, TidepLevrj Statrav eV dy /caAats" yr\s dyaTrrjTOjg ; 
dp ovxl TavTa TroLOVfiev enl ttjv yrjv vtto xjjvxpd- 
TiqTOS 6Sr]yovfxevoL ttj alod-qGei Kal to TTpwTWS 
(f)VGeL ipvxpov eTnyivcoGKovTe? ; at yovv TrapdXioi 
X€Lijia)vo5 Statrat Tpoirov TLvd yrjs (jivyai eloiv, (hs 

C dvVGTOV dTToXeiTTOVTCDV hid KpVOS aVTr]V, TOV 8' 

eVaAoi^ depa Kal TreXdyiov Oepfiov ovTa nepLpaX- 
Xofxevajv^' etr' avdc? ev depei tov yqyevrj Kal x^P~ 
Galov VTTO KavjiaTos Trodovfjuev, ovk avTov oVra 
276 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 954 

it is the nature of heat to lighten, the Hghtest object 
will have most heat, and if it is the nature of humidity 
to soften, the softest will have the most humidity ; 
so, if it is also true that the nature of cold is to harden, 
then it must also follow that the hardest object will 
have the most cold — that is to say, just as the earth 
has. But what is coldest by nature is surely also 
primarily cold, so that the earth is in fact cold both 
primordially and naturally ; and, of course, this is 
obvious even to the senses. Mud, in fact, is a colder 
thing than water ; and men extinguish a fire by 
dumping earth upon it. Blacksmiths, when their iron 
becomes fiery and begins to melt, sprinkle on it marble 
chips and gypsum to check and cool it off before it 
melts too much. It is also true that dust cools the 
bodies of athletes and dries up their sweat. 

20. And what is the meaning of our demand for 
a yearly change of habitation ? In winter we retreat 
to the loftiest parts of our houses, those farthest from 
the earth, while in summer we require the lower parts, 
submerging ourselves and going in quest of comfor- 
table retreats, as we make the best of a life in the 
embrace of mother earth. Since we do this, are we 
not guided to the earth by our perception of its cold- 
ness ? Do we not acknowledge it as the natural seat 
of primordial cold ? And surely our living by the sea 
in the winter is, in a way, an escape from the earth, 
since we abandon the land as far as possible because 
of the frost and wrap ourselves in salt sea air because 
it is warm. Then again, in the summer by reason of 
the heat, we long for the earth-born, upland air, not 

^ irepiTTaaaovaL van Herwerden. 

^ TTpo(j4>opovs\ vpooyetovs Patzig, 

^ Tr€pL^aXXo[X€va>v Wyttenbach : Trept^aAAo/Liev. 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(954) ^vxpov dXXa rov (f)VG€L ifjvxpov Kal TTpcorcos drro- 
^XaGTOLVOvra Kal ^e^apipievov vtto rrj? ev yfj Svvd- 
fiecos LOGTTep jSa</)r^ oihripov. Kal yap rcbv pvrwv 
vhdrcxjv rd Trerpala Kal opecvd ipvxpdrara Kal rcov 
<f)p€arLaLOJv rd KOiXorara- rovrois fJLev yap ovKeru 
jieLyvvrai hid ^ddovs efcu^ev o d-qp, eKcXva 8' €K- 

7TL7TT€L StO. TT^S" yfjs dpiLKTOV Kal Kadapdg , a>? TO 

D 7T€pl Talvapov,^ o hrj Sruyos" vScop KaXovGLV, €k 
TTerpas yXioxpoJS ovXX€i^6pL€vov ovtoj ipvxpov, wore 
pL-qSev dyyelov dXXo jjL6vr]v 3' ottAt^v ovov oreyeiv 
rd 8' d'AAa hiaKOTrrei Kal prjyvvoiv. 

21. "Ert ye pir^v rcov larpdjv dKovoptev, co? rrdaa 
yrj TO) yevet Grvcjyeiv Kal ipvx^t'V 7T€(f)VK€- Kal rroXXd 
rdJv jLteraAAeuo/xeVcov KarapiBpLovGi gtvtttlktjv av- 
Tols TTapexovra Kal gx^tlktjv els rds (f)appLaK€Las 
hvvapLLV Kal ydp to gtolx^lov avrrj? ov rpLTjTLKOV 
ouSe KLvqrLKov ovSe Actttov^ ouS' ^xov o^vrrjTag 
ovhe pLaXdaKov ovh'' ^VTrepixvrov yeyovev, dAA' 

E iSpalov (Ls d KV^og Kal GvvepeiGTiKov. dOev avrt] 
re ^pWos ^(^X^f '^^^ '''^ 4'^XP^^> 07T€p rjv SvvapLis 
avTTJs, TO) TTVKVovv Kal Gwcodelv Kal drroOXi^eLV rd 
vypd (f)pLKas Kal rpopLovs 8td rrjv dvwpbaXlav ivep- 
ydt,€raL roZs GwpiaGiv dv 8' iTTLKpar-^Grj rravrdTraGL, 
rod deppiov (f)vy6vros rj G^eGdevros, eGrrjGe rrjv 
€^LV €K7TayelGav Kal veKpcudelGav. odev ovSe 
KaUrai yrj rd rrapdirav tj Kaierai yXcGXpco? Kal 

^ TO TTcpl TatVapov \\ yttcnbach : nepiTTOTepajv or nepl to 
Talvapov (to Trepl Ntijva/cptv Kmperiii.s). 
^ XiTTTov Turnebiis : Acittov or XIttov. 

278 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 954 

because it is itself chilly, but because it has sprung 
from the naturally and primordially cold and has been 
imbued with its earthy power, as steel is tempered 
by being plunged in water. ^ And of flo\\'ing waters, 
also, the coldest are those that fall from rocks or 
mountains, and of well waters the deepest are the 
coldest ; the air from outside does not, in the case 
of these wells, affect the water, so deep are they, 
while any such streams burst forth through pure un- 
mixed earth, like the one at Taenarum,^ which they 
call the water of Styx : it flows from the rock in a 
trickle, but so cold that no vessel except an ass's hoof 
can contain it — all others it bursts and breaks apart. 
21. We are, further, informed by physicians that 
generically earth is by nature astringent and cold, 
and they enumerate many metals that provide a 
styptic, staying effect for medicinal use. The element 
of earth is not sharp or mobile or slender or prickly 
or soft or ductile, but solid and compact like a cube.*' 
This is how it came to have weight ; and the cold, 
which is its true power, by thickening, compressing, 
and squeezing out the humidity of bodies, induces 
shivering and shaking through its inequality ^ ; and 
if it becomes complete master and expels or ex- 
tinguishes all the heat, it fixes the body in a frozen 
and corpselike condition. This is the reason why 
earth does not burn at all, or burns only grudgingly 

« Cf. Mor. 433 a and 946 c supra. 

^ Plutarch knew that the mouth of Hades was at Taenarum 
(Pindar, Pythian, iv. 44) and transferred the St\^ to that 
place. For its water see Frazer on Pausanias, viii. 18. 4. 
According to Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 158 (ed. Keller) no 
receptacle except one of horn can contain the water ; he adds, 
" All that taste of it die." 

" Cf. Mor. 288 e and Plato, Timaeus, 55 d-e. 

** Cf. 948 B supra. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(954) fJioyis. drjp fxkv yap e^ eavrov ttoXXolkl? ^Aoya? 
dvahiScoai Kal peV' /cat hiaoTpdrrrei TTvpovfJievos^' 
TO) S' vypo) rpo(f>fj )(prJTai ro deppLOv ov yap to 
arepeov dXXd to voTepov tov (vXov KavoTOV iaTiv 
Y i^LKpaodevTOs^ 3e to'utov, to GTepeov Kal ^r)p6v 
aTToXeLTTeTai T€cf)pa yev6pi€vov. ol he Kal tovto 
cf)LXoTLpLovi.i€voi pL€Ta^dXXov aTxoSeifat Kal /carava- 
XiGKopievov dvaSeuovre? TToXXdKis eAata> Kal crreart 
c/)vpovT65 ovSev rrepaivovGLV , dXX OTav CKKafj to 
XiTTapov, TTepUoTL TrdvTOJS Kal Siapiev€L to yecoSe?" 
odev ov KaTa ;(c6/Dav piovov i^ ehpa? aKLvrjTov ovaav 
avTTjv dXXd Kal Acar' ovaiav dpteTd^XrjTov, 'Ecrrtav, 
dVe Srj* " pLevovoav iv decbv o'Iko)," KoXXiOTa^ Trpoo- 
Tjyopevaav ol TraXaioi, hid ttjv ardcrtv Kal tttj^lv rjg 
rj ipvxpdTr]s Sea/xd? Igtlv, (Jjs ^Apx^Xaos 6 ^vuiKd<^ 

€L7T€V, OvSeVO? X^XoJVTO? aVTTjV OvSk jLtaAdlTTOVTOS", 

are depopLivrjv Kal dXeaivopievrjv ovoiav.^ 
955 Ot Se TTvevpiaTos /xer alaBdveudai ifjvxpov Kal 
vhaTO?, yrjs 8' tJttov olopievoL, ttjv 'iyyiOTa yrjv 
opctJGLV depojv Kal vhdTCov Kal tjXlov Kal deppLOTrj- 
T09 drdTrXecov ovpLpaypia Kal GvpLcfyoprjpia yeyevrj- 
pievrjv Kal ovSev hiacj^epovoi rcov pLT] tov aWepa 

^ pet] ^ei Eniperius. 

^ biaoTpoLTTTei. 7TvpovfjL€vos Bcmardakis : SiaarpaTTTOficvos or 

doTpaTTTCL TTVpOVp.€VOS. 

^ €$iK^ao6€VTos Tiirnebus : iKfjLaadevTos. 

* 'EoTLav, are Bi] Turnebus : Icttiv ore 5e. 

^ KaXXiara Post (who also suggests laaiTaTo) : /cAtVa ; hiKaio- 
rara W. C. H. 

* ovoiav Post and Sandbach : ovaav (deleted by Wytten- 
bach ; rjpcfiovaav Cronert). 

280 



THE PRINXIPLE OF COLD, 954-955 

and with difficulty- Air, on the other hand, often 
shoots forth flames from itself and, turning into fire, 
makes streams and flashes of lightning. Heat feeds 
on moisture,^ for it is not the solid part of wood, 
but the damp part, that is combustible ; and when 
this is distilled, the solid, dry part remains behind, 
reduced to ashes. ^ Those M^ho emulously strive to 
prove that this too is changed and consumed, sprink- 
ling it, perhaps, ^vith oil or kneading it with suet and 
setting it alight, accomplish nothing ; for when the 
oily part is consumed, the earthy remains as a per- 
manent residue, do what they may. Not only, there- 
fore, because the earth is physically immovable from 
its station, but also because it is unalterable in es- 
sence, it was quite appropriately called Hestia ^ by 
the ancients — in as much as she " remains in the home 
of the gods " — because of its stationary and compact 
nature ; and coldness is what binds it together, as 
Archelaiis ^ the natural philosopher declared, since 
nothing can relax or soften it, as a substance that is 
subject to heating or M'arming might be loosened. 

As for those who suppose that they feel cold air and 
water, but are less sensible of earth's coldness, what 
they perceive is that portion of earth which is closest 
to them and has come to be a medley, a congeries, 
abounding in air and water, sun and heat. There is 
no difference between such people and those who 

« Cf. Mor. 649 b, 687 a, 696 b ; Aristotle, Metaphysics, A 
3 (983 b 23 ff.) ; Pseudo- Aristotle, Problemata, 949 b 29. 

^ Cf. Mor. 696 b. 

" Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 247 a and 948 b stipra with the note. 
For earth as Hestia see also Dio Chrys. xxxvi. 46 (L.C.L.) with 
Crosby's note ; Dion. Hal. ii. 66. 3 ; Ovid, Fasti, vi. 267 ; 
Koster, Mnemosyne, Siippl. iii (1951), p. 7, n. 6. 

'^ Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, ii, p. 48. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(955) 4'V(yei KOi rrpojrojs depfxov aAAa to t,iov vhojp 7) 
rov hiaiTvpov oihrjpov aTTOcfyaivopLevajv , on tovtojv 
fxev cLTTTOVTaL Kal TTpoudiyyavovoL,^ rod Se TrpcoTov 
Kadapov Kal ovpaviov nvpos atad-qGLV 8t' d(f>rjs ov 
XapL^dvovoLv , (jjorrep ouS' ovroi rrj? eV ^ddei yrjSy 
7]v fidXiGTa yrjv dv ns vo-queiev avrrjv KaO^ avrrjv 
d7T0K€KpLpLevn]v Tojv dXXcov . SelypLa S' auxTys" icrn 

B KavravOa rrepl rds Trerpas- ttoXv yap Ik ^ddovs Kal 
ov paSiov dvaox^odai TrpoG^dXXovoi^ Kpvos. ol he 
ifjvxporepov ttotov Seo/xevot )(^dXLKas epi^dXXovGLV 
elg TO vSa>p- ytverat yap ovXorcpov Kal GTOpLovTaL 
TTapd rrjv dno twv Xidcov ipv^^^poriqra, 7Tp6G(f)aTOV 
Kal aKparov ava</)epo/xeV7]v. 

22. Tovs ovv TrdXai go(I)ovs Kal Xoylovs dfXLKra 
deGdai rd cVtyeta Kal rd ovpdvia )(prj vofii^eLV, ov 
rot? TOTTOL? a)G7T€p €7tI l,vyov TTpos rd Kdrcx) Kal 
dvco ^XeiTovrag , dXXd rfj SLa(f)opa rcov Swdfiecov 
rd fX€v depixd Kal XafXTTpd Kal ra^ea Kal Kov^a rfj 
ddavdrcp Kal dihioj (f)VG€i rrpoGvepiovras, rd 8e 
GKoreivd Kal ipvxpd Kal ^paSea (jyOircov Kal ivepojv 
ovK evhal/JLOva KXrjpov drr o(j)aLvovr as .^ inel Kal ro 

C Gcofxa rod ^cpov, p-^xp^ p-^.v epLTTvovv IgtI Kal daXepov, 
(hs ol 7TOL7]ral XeyovGL, depp^orr^rL ;^p7]Tat Kal ^ojfj' 
yevopievov he rovrojv epr]pLov Kal d7ToXei(j)dev ev 
piovjj rfj rrj? yrj? pLolpa iljvxpdrrjs evdvg tcr;\;et Kal 

^ TTpoodiyyavovoi Meziriacus : Trpoorvyxo-vovai, 
^ TTpoo^aXXovai Turnebus : Trpo^dXXovai. 
^ aTTO(f>aLvovTas B, as Kronenberg had conjectured : arro- 
(ji-qvavTas. 

282 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 955 

declare that the aether " is not naturally and prim- 
ordially hot, but rather that scalding water or red 
hot iron are — because they can feel and touch these, 
but are unable to touch and feel the primordially 
pure and heavenly fire. Nor likewise are these 
persons able to touch and feel the earth at its bottom- 
most, which is what we particularly mean by earth — 
earth set off alone by itself, \dthout admixture of any 
other element. But we can see a sample of such 
earthiness in that statement about the cliffs ^ that 
display from deep down so intense a cold that it can 
scarcely be endured. Then, too, those who want a 
colder drink throw pebbles into the water, '^ which 
becomes thicker and denser through the coldness that 
streams upward, fresh and undiluted, from the stones. 
22. We must, therefore, believe that the reason 
why ancient learned men held that there is no com- 
merce between earthly and celestial things was not 
that they distinguished up and down by relative 
position, as we do in the case of scales ; but rather 
it was the difference in powers that led them to assign 
such things as are hot and bright, swift and buoyant, 
to the eternal and imperishable part of nature, while 
darkness and cold and slowness they considered the 
unhappy heritage of transitory and submerged beings. 
Then too, the body of a living creature, as long as it 
breathes and flourishes, does, as the poets say, enjoy 
both warmth and life ^ ; but when these forsake it 
and it is abandoned in the realm of earth alone, 
immediately frigidity and congelation seize upon it, 

° Cf. 951 D supra. 
^ Cf. 954. c-D supra. 
<= Cf. Mor. 690 f— 691 c. 

^ Perhaps some such passage as Homer, Iliad, xxii. 363 is 
meant. 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(955) ^p^os, CO? er Travrl /jLolXXov yj toj yecoSet Kara (f)vaLV 
depyLOTrjTos ivvTrapxovGr]?. 

23. Taur', c5 Oa/Stoptvc, rot? elpr^ixevoLg u</>' ere- 
pa>v TrapcLjSaAAe • /<:av jUT^re AetrrT^rat ttJ TTidavoT-qri 
firjd^ VTTepexj] ttoXv, -x^ciipeiv ea tcls So^a?, to ctt- 
6;!^etv iv tols aSrjAot? tou ovyKararideodai (J)lXo- 
GO(f)a)T€pov rjyovfjbevos. 

"■ See the introduction to this essav. 



@84 



THE PRINCIPLE OF COLD, 955 

since warmth naturally resides in anything else rather 
than in the earthy. 

23. Compare these statements, Favorinus, with the 
pronouncements of others ; and if these notions of 
mine are neither less probable nor much more plaus- 
ible than those of others, say farewell to dogma, being 
convinced as you are that it is more philosophic to 
suspend judgement when the truth is obscure than 
to take sides." 



285 



WHETHER FIRE OR WATER 
IS MORE USEFUL 

(AQUANE AN IGNIS UTILIOR) 



INTRODUCTION 

There seems to be no reason to discuss this little work 
in detail, since F. H. Sandbach ^ has shown con- 
clusively that it cannot be genuine. Still more might 
be added to his proofs, sound and thorough as they 
are ; but this is not the place to slay the slain. It is 
the more to be regretted that Ziegler, in the article 
on Plutarch in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie, has 
not had access to Sandbach 's work,^ though he does 
refer to Xylander's athetesis, only to reject it, and 
might have mentioned Meziriacus' as well. 

Sandbach well observes : " To wTite an exercise 
on the comparative utility of fire and water may 
seem so difficult to us moderns who do not have such 
tasks as part of our education, that we do not recog- 
nize how badly the topic is here handled. . . . While 
it is possible that Plutarch wTote this work as a parody, 
or when a schoolboy, or under some strange circum- 
stances, yet . . . the most probable view is that a 
miserable sophistical exercise on the subject Whether 
fire or jvater is more useful was fathered on the author 
of a diversion entitled Whether land- or water-animals 
are more intelligent, ]\ist as the Consolatio ad Apollonium 

" Class. Quart, xxxiii (1939), pp. 198-202. G. Kowolski, 
De Plut. scriptoriim iuvenilium colore rhetorico, Cracow, 
1918, pp. 258 ff., also denied the authenticity. 

^ This is very puzzling since Ziegler later (936) cites the 
same article as authoritative on rhythmical matters. 

288 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 

was ascribed to the author of a consolation addressed 
to his wife, or the Lives of the Ten Orators to the author 
of some more famous biographies." 

The text is extremely bad, as may be seen by 
examining Wegehaupt's topheavy " apparatus in 
XdpLT€'i fur Friedrick Leo (Berlin, Weidmann, 1911)j 
pp. 158-169. It is possible, to be sure, that part at 
least of the difficulty of the text is due to the author. 
Less emendation than that admitted here might not 
seriously damage what is irreparable nonsense in any 
case. Some attempt has been made to reproduce the 
childish style of the original. 

The work is no. 206 in the catalogue of Lamprias.^ 

<* Wegehaupt collated some 34 mss. for his edition, all of 
which he cites separately. 

" The new Teubner edition of this and the following essays 
appeared while this volume was in proof, so that only the most 
necessary changes and corrections could be made. In this 
essay (since Wegehaupt's edition was already available) they 
have not been so plentiful as in the subsequent ones, for which 
Hubert has now provided the first truly critical edition that 
these works have ever had. 



VOL. XII L 289 



(955) nEPI TOT nOTEPON TAOP H DTP 
XPHSIMQTEPON 

D 1. " "ApLGTov fxev vSojp, 6 8e ')(pva6s aW6jjL€vov 

TTVp " 

E (f)7]aLV 6 YiivSapos' wod^ ovrog fiev Sevrepav avn- 
Kpvs TOJ TTvpl ^cjpav eSojKe- GviJL(f)ajV€L 8e Kal 'Hcrt- 

oSoS €i7T(hv 

TjTOL fjL€v TTpwTLGTa x^og yeveTO "' 

roLS TrXeLGTOL? yap cLvofiaKevai Sokel to vhojp rov- 
Tov rov rpoTTov Trapa rrjv ;)(i;crtv. aAAo. ro fiev rcJov 
/jLaprvpcov iKarepois^ Igov inel Kal to irvp ecGiv ol 

TOV TTaVTOS 0.pXT]V d7TO<f)aLv6fJL€VOL Kal OLOV GTTepfJia 

tout' e^ iavTov t€ ndvTa rroteLV Kal et? iavTO 
iKXafi^dveiv KaTa tt^v eKTTvpojGLV. a^e/xevot 8e 
TOJV dvhpwv, GKeipcojJieda tou? etV eKaTepov Xoyovg 
TTTJ fidXXov dyovGLV Tjiids. 

2. ^Ap' ovv ov ;;^p')7crijLta)Tepov eKetvo, ov irdvTOTe 

F Kal hirjveKcijg Seo/xe^a Kal ttX^lgtov, Kaddrrep epya- 

Xelov Kal opyavov Kal vr] Ata ^IXog 6 TrdGrjg (hpag 

Kal TTavTOS Kaipov rrapajv eVot/xo?; Kal fjL-qv to p-ev 

^ iKaTepois Bernardakis : iKdrepos or -ov. 

" Olympians^ i. 1. * Theogony, 116. 

290 



WHETHER FIRE OR WATER 
IS MORE USEFUL 

1 . Water is best, but gold is a flaming fire, 

says Pindar." He, therefore, bluntly assigns the 
second place to fire ; and Hesiod ^ agrees with him 
in the words 

And first of all came Chaos into being ; 

for most people believe that this is his name for water 
because it flows {chifsis).^ Yet the balance of wit- 
nesses on both sides seems to be equal. There are, 
in fact, some '^ who state that fire is the first principle 
of the universe and, like a seed, creates everything out 
of itself and receives all things into itself when the 
conflagration occurs.^ Ignoring the authors, let us 
examine the arguments on both sides and see where 
they will lead us. 

2. Is not that element the more useful of which 
most of all, everywhere, invariably, we stand in need 
as a household tool and, I swear, a friend, ready to 
help us at any time, in any emergency ? Yet fire is 

" Etymologizing (as in Mor. 948 e-f supra) chaos from 
chysis, " diffusion of liquid." 

'^ The Stoics : cf., e.g., von Arnim, S. V.F. i, p. 27 (Zeno, 
frag. 98) ; cf. Mor. 1053 a-b ; 1067 a ; 1077 b. 

* On the Universal Conflagration of the Stoics see von 
Arnim, op. cit. ii, pp. 183 ff . ; on that of Heraclitus, Cher- 
niss, Aristotle's Criticism of the Presocratics, p. 29, n. 108. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(955) '^^P ov TTavTore xPV^'-H-oi', ean 8' ore Kal ^apvvo- 
jjLeOa Kal aiTOGTTojii^da- rov 8' vSaros XP^^^ ^^'■ 
Xet/xcoyo? Kal Oepovs Kal vogovgl Kal vyiaLVovGL, 
956 vvKTO? Kal ixeO^ rjfjiepav Kal ovk eariv 6t^ dvdpojTTos 
ov Setrat. apiiX€i rovg arrodavovras " dXl^avrag " 
KaXovGLV cos eVSeets" " AtjSctSos"," tovt€Gtlv vypo- 
rrjTOS, Kal rrapd rovro Grepovfievovs rod ^rjv. Kal 
dv€V puev TTvpos Tjv TToAAa/ct?/ vSarog 8' ovherror^ 
dvdpCOTTOS. €TL 8e TO €^ ^PXV^ '^^^ "V*^ '^V '^P<^'T"U 
Kara^oXfj rcov dvdpcoTTWV ;^p')]crijLtC(jre/Dov rov VGrepov 
evpedevTOS' hriXov yap (l>s to /xev ovtcos^ dvayKalov 
rj (f)VGLS eScoK€' TO Se TrepLovGia ttjs xPV^^^^ '^^X^ 
Kal \xy]X'^v'r] rt? evpev. vScxjp fiev ovv ovk €Gtlv 
eLTTelv OT^ OVK rjv dvdpcjTroLs ovSe rt? evpeTTjg Xeye- 
rai Bediv r^ rjpcocov cr;^e86y yap yevopLevojv evdvg 
B vTTTJpxG Kal TO yey€vr]GdaL rrapelx^v. rj 8e irvpos 
Xpy]crLS ixOeSy ^acrt, Kal TTpcorjv vtto UpofMrjOeaJS* 
. . . jStos" TTvpo's, OVK dvev 8' vSaTOS rjv. Kal to 
[lev TrXaGfjia tovto }xi] elvai TTOLrjTLKov drroheiKvvGLV 
6 KaB^ ripids jSto?* €GTi yap dvBpwTTOJV yivq Tivd 
X^pl? TTvpos TTOLOvfieva TTjv 8tatTav, doLKa Kal 
dveGTia Kal vTraiBpia' Kal /S.Loy€vr]s 8' o kvojv 

'qKLGTa TVpOGeXprJTO TTVpc, d)GT€ Kal TToXvTToha 

KaTaTTidjv to/xov, " ovTOJS vTTep Vfxdjv," ecTTev, " d) 

^ TT-oAAoK-i? Post with one MS. : TroAAa (TraAat van firrwerden). 

^ ovTOJs Meziriacus ; outco?. 

^ Tvxrj Leonicus : ixdxr] (rexi'V Wyttenbach). 

•* Lacuna after UpofjirjOeajs, indicated by Reiske, variously 

292 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 955-956 

not always useful ; sometimes, indeed, we find it too 
much and interrupt our use of it. But water is used 
both winter and summer, sick and well, night and 
day : there is no time when a man does not need it. 
That, of course, is the reason why the dead are called 
alihmites, meaning that they are wdthout lihas, " mois- 
ture," " and for lack of that deprived of life. Man 
has often existed without fire, but without water 
never. Besides, that w^hich, from the beginning, 
was coincidental with the inception of man is more 
useful than that which was discovered later ; for it 
is obvious that Nature bestowed the one as vitally 
necessary, while the other was brought to light by 
luck or contrivance for a superfluous use. Now, none 
may tell of a time when w^ater w'as unkno\vn to man, 
nor is any god or hero said to be its discoverer ; it 
was, in fact, at hand instantly w^hen man appeared 
and was itself the cause of his appearance. But the 
use of fire, they say,^ was discovered only a day or 
two ago by Prometheus ; (consequently all our pre- 
ceding life was deprived of) fire, though it was not 
wdthout water. And that this is no poetic fiction is 
proved by present modes of living ; for there are 
certain races of man w^ho live without fire, with no 
house or hearth, under the open sky. And Diogenes ^ 
the Cynic reduced the use of fire to a minimum, so 
that he even swallowed a squid raw% remarking, 
" Thus, gentlemen, do I risk my life for you." But 

« Cf. Mor. 736 a ; Galen, De Temperament, i. 3 (i,p. 522 K.). 

'' As, e.g., Aeschylus, Prometheus, 254. The following 
words in lozenge brackets are conjecturally supplied. 

'^ This anecdote is told with rather more point and relevance 
in 995 c-D infra. 

supplied. The required sense is given by Post's supplement 
{iSodr] cuctt' eareprjixevos tj^lZv t^v -nds 6 Tecos}. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(956) aVSpes", Tiapa^aAAo/xat. " ;(cupt9 8' vbaros ovt€ 
KaXov TLS €v6fJLLG€ ^rjv ovre hwarov. 

3. Kat TL iJL.LKpoXoyovfJLaL rrjv rchv dvdpcoTTCov in- 
epxofievo? (fyvaiv; ttoXXcov yap ovrcov,^ pioXXov 8* 

C aTTeipojv yevcov, to tcov dvdpojTTWv ax^^ov jjlovov 
olSe TTVpOS XPV^^^y '^^ ^^ AotTTCt dlTVpOLS XP'^^^^ 
StatratS" kol rpoc/ialg, Kal jSto? avrol? vepLopLevois, 
LTrrapLevoLS, epTTovGiv, oltto pt^cov Kal KapTTwv /cat 
oapKCJV dvev TTvpos' vSarog 8e ;)(6opts" ovk evaXov 
ovSev^ ovSe ;\;epcratov ovS^ aWepiov Kal yap rd 
aapKo^opa rwv ^coa>v, chv evid (^rjai jjlt] rrLveiv 
^ApLGToreX-qs, ro) y ivros^ vypo) ;^pa>/xeva Sia^fj. 
tout' ovv ;!^p')7crtjLtc6Tepov, ov ixrjheixia ^ojrj? (f)VGL? 
dvev LGTarai Kal StajLteVet. 

4. McTtco/xev (XTTO TOJV ;)(pa>/xeVa;y eVt ravd^ ols 
Xpcojjieda, (f)VTd Kal KapTTOvs. tovtcov a /xev ovh^ 
oAcos" depjjiov jJi€TeiXT]<^ev , a 8' rjKLGTa Kal dhr^XoJS' 
T) 8' vypd (f)VGL? ^XaGrdvovra iravra 7Tap€X€raL, 

J) av^avofieva Kal Kap7TO(f)opovvTa- Kal tL pie Sel Kar- 
apidfJieLGdaL p-eXi* Kal otvov Kal cXauov Kal rd XoLTrd 
OGa rpvyoJfiev Kal dfieXyop^ev Kal ^Xirropiev^ iv 
^avepoj K€Lp.eva, ottov ye Kal 6 nvpos, Sokojv elvau 
T-fjS i'qpds Tpocjirjs, pLera^oXfj Kal Grjipei Kal SiaxvGei 
rod vypov yiveraL; 

5. Kal pir]v Kal ;^pT]crtjLta>Tepov o pL7]he7TOTe j8Aa- 

^ yap ovTcov Meziriaciis : Trapovrcov. 

2 ovhkv added by Bernardakis. 

^ y' eVro? Amyot : ovrco's or ovtwv. 

* fieXi Wegehaupt : fiev. 

^ ^XiTTopiiv ^Vyttenbach, coniirined by one ms. : ^Xeirofiev. 

294 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 956 

without water no one ever thought it good, or even 
possible, to hve. 

3, And why do I spUt hairs by discussing merely 
human nature ? For though there are many, or 
rather countless, sorts of creatures, man is practically 
the only one that knows the use of fire, while all the 
others live and feed without it : they subsist, whether 
they range abroad or fly or crawl, upon roots or pro- 
duce or flesh, all without fire ; but without water no 
creature of the sea or land or air ever existed. For 
even flesh-eating animals, some of which Aristotle <* 
says do not drink, nevertheless keep alive by using 
the fluids in the flesh. That element, therefore, 
without which no living nature can subsist or endure 
is the more useful. 

4-. Let us pass from the people who use fire to the 
things that we use, namely plants and produce,^ of 
which some are completely devoid of heat, while 
others have an infinitesimal and uncertain amount. 
Moisture, however, is the element in nature that 
makes them all burgeon, growing and bearing fruit. 
And why should I enumerate honey and wine and 
oil and all the rest that come to us from the vintage, 
the milking of herds, or taking off of honey — and it 
is obvious where they belong ^ — when even wheat 
itself, though it is classed as a dry food, moves into 
the category of liquids by alteration, fermentation, 
and deliquescence ? ^ 

5. Moreover, what is never detrimental is more 

" Historia Animal, viii. 3 (601 b). 

^ " This must be one of the most remarkable transitions 
in literature " (Sandbach, op. cit. p. 200). 

•^ That is, they must be classed as liquids. 

'^ Cf. 968 A infra : here, however, the author seems to be 
talking about beer. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(956) T^'Tet. TTvp [JL€v ovv piov^ oXedpicoraTov, rj 8' uSaro? 

^VGLS ovheTTore /SAajSepa. kol /xt^v Suetv co^cAt/xco- 

repov TO cvreXearepov kol x^P^? two? TTapaGKevrjs 

rr]v i^ avTov napexov ox^eAetav r] fiev ovv oltto 

E Tov TTvpos X'^PVy^^^ Setrat Kal vXr]s' Sta rouro 

fJL€T€XOVGLV aVTOV TtXeOV TtXoVGLOL TTeVTjTOJV, ^aGiXet? 

tStcoTcoy TO S' vSojp Kal tout' e;^£t (jyiXavdpojTTov, 
TTjv LGOTTjra, TO ojJLOiov ov SetTttt yap opydvcvv 
ou8' epyaXeicuv , aTrpooSees', auTOTcAe? dya^ov. 

6. "ETt /X7]v, o TToAAaTrAaota^djLteyov^ tt^v ax^eXeuav 

OLTToXXvGLV, dxp'TjGTOTepOV' TOLOVTOV 8e TO 77Up, OtOV 

drjpLOV 7TaiJL(f)dyov Kal SaTravcov twv TrapaKeLfxevajv, 
Kal pLedoScp Kal Tex^rj pidXXov Kal fxeTpLOTr^ru tj^ tyj 

aVTOV (f)VG€L (X)(f)€Xi[JLOV TO S' vSojp Ovhe7TOT€ (f)0^€- 

oov. Kal jirqv Suetv to /xeTO. tou eTepov XPV^'-I^^' 
repov TTvp jjiev ovv ovk eTnSex^TaL to vypov ovhe 
_p TTj St' avTOV Koivwvia XPV^^P'^'^> uScop 8' ccttc 
jLteTO, Tivpds axfieXifJiov' to, yovv Seppid twv vSdTcov 
ciKreCTt/xa Kal Tvpos depaTreiav evSiddeTa.* Kal TTvp 
pikv vypov OVK dv ti? evpoL, vSwp 8' tu? ijjvxpdv 
OVTCO Kal deppLOV dx^eXipiOV dvdpcoTrco. 

7. Kat /xrjy, T€TTdpa>v ovtojv tojv OTOtp^etcov, to 
vhojp i^ iavTov rrepLTTTOV, cos dv Tt? eiTroL, 7r€7Tol'r]K€ 

957 aTOLX^lov ttjv ddXaGGav, ov^ev tjttov eKeivajv (h(j)e- 
XipLov TOJV T d'AAcor ev€K€v Kal pidXiGTa tt)? cttl- 
pLi^lag- dypiov ovv rjpidjv ovTa Kal dovpL^oXov tov 

^LOV TOVTO TO GTOLX^LOV GVVrjlp€ Kal TeXeiOV €7T0LrjG€, 

hiopdovpL^vov Tals Trap' dAAT^Acor iTTLKovpiaLs Kal 

^ p€ov Meziriacus and one ms. ; paSiov or paov. 

" TToXXaTrXaoLai.ofievov Leonicus : 7ToXvnXaaia^6iJi€vov. 

^ ^ added by Leonicus. 

296 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 956-957 

useful. Now fire, when it forms a stream, is most 
destructive ; but the nature of water is never harmful. 
Then again, of two elements that is more beneficial 
which is cheaper and provides its help without any 
preparation. Now the use of fire requires a supply 
of fuel, for which reason rich people have more of 
it than poor, and kings than private persons ; but 
water has another merit in service to man, that of 
equality, with no discrimination. For it needs no 
tools or implements, being a self-sufficient, self- 
fulfilling good. 

6. Then too, that which by multiplication destroys 
its own contribution is the less useful. Such a thing 
is fire which, like an all-devouring beast, consumes 
everything near, so that it is useful rather by skilful 
handling and craft and moderation in use than by 
its own nature ; but water is never dangerous. 
Further, of two things the one which may be joined 
M-ith its fellow is more useful. Now fire does not admit 
moisture and is of no use w^hen in conjunction with 
it ; but water is of ser\-ice when combined ^^■ith fire, 
for hot water is healing and well adapted to medicinal 
purposes. A watery fire you Avill never see ; but 
water is as useful to mankind when hot as when cold. 

7. Furthermore, though there are but four ele- 
ments," water provides from itself a fifth, so to say, 
the sea, one no less beneficial than the others, especi- 
ally for commerce among other things. This element, 
therefore, when our life was savage and unsociable, 
linked it together and made it complete, redressing 
defects by mutual assistance and exchange and so 

<» Cf. Mor. 948 d above ; in 729 b the sea is called the 
" naturally hostile element." 

* euSta^era Wyttenbach : ^vaioQ-qra. or dvaLodrjTa. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(957) olvtlS6g€Gl, Koivwviav 8' ipyat^o^evov kol ^tAtav. 
'HpaKAetTOS" jU-ey ouv, " et fxr] -qXtog," (f)rjalv, " "^v, 
evcfypowq dv rjv " ' eari 8' etVetv, o)?, et /xt) daXarra 
rjv, TTOLVTCxJV dv^ dypLcoTarov l,ajov /cat eVSeeWarov^ 
o dvdpojTTOs rjv. vvvl 8e tovto fxev Trap' ^Yvhwv a/x- 
TTeAov' Tot? "EAAT^crtv, eV 8e rr^s 'EAAa8os" Kaprrajv 
XpTJfyi-y TOLS e7T€K€Lva TTj?^ daXdoGT)s eScoKev, i.K Oot- 
B VLKiqs 8e ypajLt/xara fxvrjfioGvva Xiqdiqs eKopnoev, 
Kal* doLvov /cat aKapTTOv /cat a7rat8ei'TOv CKcoXvaev 
€LvaL TO TrXeZuTOV dvdpcoTTcov yivos. ttcos ovv ov 

XpT^CTLfJiCxJTepOV vhcop GTOLX^iCp^ 7T€piTr€VOV ; 

8. Tt® TTpos TovvavTLOv dv Ti? ivrevdev ex^JV 
Aeyot; 8iort rerrapa /xev GroLX^la deep Kaddrrep 
rexviTTj TTpos rrjv rcov oXcdv epyaGiav VTTOKelpLeva, 
rovTOJV 8' au 77aAtv eV' dAArjAot? Sia(f)opd dTrXrj^' 
yrj [JL€v /cat vSojp VTTO^e^Xiqrai Slkt^v vXt]? ttolov- 
}X€va /cat TrXaTTOfjLeva /cat pLerexovra KOGpiov /cat 
rd^eixJS /cat tou (f)V€LV ye* /cat yevvdv, ogov dv 
pLeraXd^T] Trap'' irepajv, TTvevp,aros /cat TTVpos^^ 
C TTotouvrajv /cat SrjpLLOvpyovvTCxJv /cat /cet/xeya veKpd 
reojs €TTL TTjv yev€GLV dvLGrdvTCjJv Td)v 8e 8i;etv 
Toi^TOjv avdis TO TTvp dpx^t /cat r^yepLovevei. hi^Xov 
8* €/c T-^s" iTrayojyrjS' yrj re yap dVeu d€pp.rjs ovGtas 

' av added by Bernardakis. 

^ evbeeorarov Meziriacus : dvaiSeWaTO? or -ov. 

3 T^9 Xylander : o tt^s-. ^ ^rat added by Diibner. 

^ (eVi) aroLx^LO) ? W. C. H. ^ ti Post : ^, 

" eV added by van Herwerden. 
* CLTT-A^ Post : ttXtjv. ^ y€ Heiske : ye (f>aai. 

^^ TTvevfiaros Kal nvpos Reiske : Trv^VfJLa fi€P Kal rrvp. 

" Diels-Kranz, Frap. der Vorsok. i. 173, frag. H 99. In 
Mor. 98 c a fuller and more appropriate version is given ; but 
see now H- Frankel, Wege unci Formerly p. 210 and n. 1. 
298 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 957 

bringing about co-operation and friendship. Now 
Heraclitus " declares, " If there were no sun, it would 
be perpetual night " ; in the same way we may say 
that if there were no sea, man would be the most 
savage and destitute of all creatures. But as it is, 
the sea brought the Greeks the vine from India, from 
Greece transmitted the use of grain across the sea, 
from Phoenicia imported letters as a memorial 
against forgetfulness,^ thus preventing the greater 
part of mankind from being wineless, grainless, and 
unlettered. How, then, should water not be more 
useful when it has the advantage over fire of one more 
element ? ^ 

8. What could anyone find to say on the other side 
from this point on ? This, that God, the master work- 
man, had as material four elements from which to 
construct the universe. Among these, again, there 
is a simple mutual distinction, namely, that earth 
and water are a foundation at the bottom of the 
universe, being, like raw material, the substance of 
which things are constructed and moulded, having 
just so much form and organization, and indeed of 
capacity for growth and procreation, as is imparted 
to them by the other elements, air and fire, which 
are makers and artisans and rouse them, lying lifeless 
as they were until then, to the act of creation. Be- 
tween these two, again, fire and air, there is the dis- 
tinction that fire assumes the rule and leadership. 
This is clear by induction ^ : earth without warmth 

" Cf. Euripides, frag. 578 (p. 542 Xauck). 

'^ For this delightful absurdity see Sandbach, op. cit. p. 
199, n. 4. 

'^ Possibly ; but the argument hardly demonstrates this. 
The text is corrupt and a different solution than that adopted 
here is proposed by M. Adl-er {Wien. Stud. xxxi. 308). 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



(957) oL-yovos /cat aKapTTog- to be TTvp Kparrjaav /cat 
Sta/ceav* TTapLGTrjaw etV rrjv yeveaiv opywaav^' ov- 
SejLttav yap atrtav evpoi rt? dv, St' rjv dyovoi TreVpat 
/cat ra KareaKX-qKora rcov opojv jrXrjv* on rrvpos 

OuS* oXixiS T] oXiyOV [Ji€T€GXr]Ke. 

9. To 8' oAov rooovTov d77e;^et Trpo? GajTrfpiav 
7] erepajv yeveuiv to vhojp avTOTeXks elvai, wcrre 
Kat avTO) (f)dopd rrvpos evSeta* ovvex^i yap rj dep- 
uoTTis e/caarov eV to) etvat /cat eVt tt^s" tSta? ovalas 

D (f)vXdTT€L KadaTrep /cat ra'AAa /cat to vSwp' oltt- 
exovTos Se /cat eVSeT^aavTo? G7]7T€TaL /cat ddvaTO? 
vhaTL /cat oXedpos eVtAetj/ft? depiiOTTfTos. dpLeXet to, 
AtjLtvata /cat oaa crraot/xa roir uSarcov /cat rtv'^ 
aSte^oSot? lyKadripieva kolXottjol fxoxQ'^pd /cat re- 
AeuTCUvra urjTreTaL tco KLvrjoreajg rjKicrTa jU,eTe;)(etv, -i^ 
TO OepfjLov iv €KdGTOiS piTTL^ovaa T7]p€l. StoVep® TCt 
fidXiGTa (f)€p6ijL€va /cat peovTa Tchv vSdTCov, Sta tt^v 
KLvrjGLV avvexofJLevrjs ttj? OeppbOTrjTOS, ovtco /cat 
TTpoaayopevofiev, ^rjv XeyovTes. ttcos toLvvv Suetv 
ou/c coi^eAt/xcoTepov, o to) eVepo) t7]v atTtav tou 
etvat TTapeax'^Ke, KaOdirep to Tiup toj vhaTi; /cat 

E /X17V, ou 77avTa7TaCTtv ciTraAAayeVTO? (jiOeipeTai to 

t^CpOV, tout' (X)(f}€XilJL(JL)T€pOV' StJXoV ydp COS"' ou 

GTcpovpLevov ovK cCTTtv ftvat, TOVTO /Cat T17V aiTiav 

7Tap€GXf]K€V, OT^ TjV . VypOTT^S /LtCV OW /Cat TOt? 

TedvqKOGL rrdpeGTL /cat ou/c i^fjprjTai rravTaTraGLV 
eirel ovk dv cctt^ttcto tcl veKpd tcov GcojjidTWV, ttjs 

^ KpaTTJaav W. C. H. (after KeKparrjKOS Post) : cKpaos, evKpaeSi 
€Kpvkv. ^ Biaxeav Post : 8ia;^€ap' (or -cov, -ov), Staxu^cv. 

^ dpytZtaav Piciske and one. .-MS. : opyayvra, epywuTa, eVepyoiin-a, 
and the like (Paton would add Travra : " swell to bring forth 
all things "). * ttAt^v Naber : ttuctiv or 17. 

^ Sonie Mss. have nvd cV. 
300 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 957 

is barren and unfruitful, but fire, when it takes 
possession and inflames, causes it to swell to the 
point of generation ; and it is impossible to find any 
other reason why rocks and the bare bones of moun- 
tains are barren except that they have either no part 
at all, or very little share, in fire. 

9. And, in general, water is so far from being self- 
sufficient for the preservation or generation of other 
things that the want of fire is water's destruction. 
For heat maintains everything in its proper being and 
keeps it in its proper substance, water itself as well 
as everything else. When fire withdraws and fails, 
water putrefies : the dearth of heat is the death and 
destruction of water. It is, of course, marsh waters 
and such as are stagnant, some too that have drained 
into depressions with no outlet, that are bad " and 
finally putrefy ^ because they have very little motion, 
which preserves everything by stirring up its heat. 
This is the reason why we commonly say that those 
waters are " living " which have most motion and 
the strongest current ; the heat is maintained by 
their motion. How, then, should that not be the more 
useful of two things which has provided what is 
necessary for the other's existence, as fire does for 
water ? And surely that is the more useful, the lack 
of which, if it be entirely taken away, causes the 
living creature to die. For it is obvious that anything 
without which a creature cannot live must have been 
a necessary cause of its existence, while it did exist. 
Now even corpses have moisture which does not 
entirely vanish ; otherwise dead bodies would not 

" That is, " salt," as, for example, the Dead Sea. 
" C/. Mor. 1129 D, 725 d ; Athenaeus, 46 b-c. 

^ SioTrep Wyttenbach : Trepi. ' ws Wegehaupt : a»? to. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(957) <^'>]^€ajg et? vypov ovk^ ovor^s eV ^'qpov jjieTa^oXrjs , 
fjL,dXXov 8' vypcov €v crap/ct (f)6opdg. ddvarog 8* ovk 
dXXo TL ttXtjv eKXenfjLS Oeppiov TzavreAT]?' ifjuxpoTaroL 
TOLVVV ol veKpor /cat rd? dKfidg, el tls €7Ti)(€LpoLrjy 
T(x)V ^vpd)v^ dTTafjL^XvvovGL 8i' VTTep^oXrjv ipvxporrj- 
F TO?. Kal iv avro) 8e ro) ^cpcp rd r^KLGTa jjierexovra 
TTvpds dvaLGOrjTOTara,* KaOdrrep oord /cat rpix^S 
Kal rd TToppojdev dcfyeordjra rrj? KapSias' C7;(e8ov 
ydp^ p,eit,a)v^ €k rrj? rod nvpos ytVerat Trapovoias 
hia(j)opd. <f)vrd /xer ydp /cat Kapnovg ovx 'f] vyporrjs 
dvaSlSajGLV dAA' rj depyur] vypoTrjg- djieXei rd 
ijjvxpoi rojv vhdrojv rjrrov rj ovS^ oAcd? yovLfxa. 
Kairoi y' et rfj avrov (f)VG€L ro vSojp Kapirocpopov, 
958 Set' irdvrore Kal Kad^ avro dva(f)€p€LV KapTTovs' rd 
he rovvavriov Kal ^Xa^epov eorLV. 

10. 'A77' dXXrj^ dpxrJ9. npog jiev rr]v irvpos (jos 
TTvpo? XPV^^^ vSaros ov TrpoGSeofieOa, dXXd rov- 
vavriov efjLTToSojv ylverai- KaraG^evvvGi ydp Kal 
htacfydelpei. vSarog 8e rot? TrXelGroig XPV^''^ ou/c 
eoriv dvev TTvpos' depp-avdev ydp (JxjyeXipiOjrepov, 
ovrco 8e ^Xa^epov. Kal rrjv OdXarrav -q depjjLorrjs 
dx^eXipLiorepav eTTolr^aev, cos fjidXXov KarddeppLOV^ 
rojv vSdrcov eVet /car' aAAo^ ye rcJov Xonrcdv ovhev 
hUi^epe. wore hvelv a/xetvov o a(/>' eavrov rrap- 
ex^Tai ;Ypetav, rod erepov pLTj Trpooheopevov. en 

^ OVK added by Kronenberg. 
^ €TTLX€ipoir]] eTTLKCLpoi Bemardakis. 
^ ^vpcov Stephanus : ^r^pcov. 
■* avaiod-qjor ara Reiske : -OTcpa. 
* yap W. C, H. : yap rj irpo'S to.. 

^ /Aei'^ojv W. C. H. : ixiit,w tcov. Post would keep the text 
here and just above, adding <f>vTd)v, Kaprrcov or the like. 
' 8el] eSet Leonicus, 

302 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 957-958 

putrefy, since putrefaction is not a change from dry 
to moist, but rather a corruption of the moisture in 
flesh. Death, then, is nothing but the total disappear- 
ance of heat and so dead men are extremely cold ; 
if you attack them with a razor-blade, you will blunt 
the edge of it through excess of cold. In the living 
creature itself, too, the parts that have the least heat 
are the least sensitive, like bones and hair and the 
parts that are a long way from the heart. And, in 
general, the presence of fire makes a greater differ- 
ence " than that of moisture ; for it is not mere 
moisture that produces plants and fruits, but warm 
moisture ; cold water, of course, is either less pro- 
ductive or not productive at all. Yet if by its own 
nature water were fruitful, it would always bear fruit 
by itself ^ ; but on the contrary it is even harmful. 

10. To begin again : for the use of fire as fire we 
do not need water ; on the contrary, it would be in 
our way since it extinguishes and destroys it. But 
in most circumstances it is impossible to use water 
without fire. WTien water is heated, it is more useful ; 
otherwise it is harmful. And it is heat which has 
made the sea more beneficial, its waters being warmer, 
since it differs from other waters in no other respect.'' 
So that of two things, that is better which of itself 
lends us its use without need of the other. Besides, 

^ Or adopting Schultz's (Hermes, xlvi. 6S-2) emendation : 
" the difference between living and non-living comes from 
the presence of fire " ; but the text is hopeless! v corrupt. 

^ That is, without heat. 

" This sentence was transferred here from the following 
chapter by Wegehaupt. 



KaTadepfiov W. C. H. : Karadepei and the like. 
^ dXXo W. C. H. : avTo. 



303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(958) ^'Scop fxev iiova)(^u)£ (xx^eXijJLOv Kara Ol^lv Xovaa- 
fievoLS^ rj vnpafievoLs ,^ to he Trvp 8ta Trdarjg alaOrj- 
Geojg- Kal yap Sict rrjs" acfyrj? Kal TToppcodev 6pa>pL€.vov, 
ojGre TTpooelvai roZs aAAot? rrfS ^petas" avrov Kal 

B TO TToXvTTOLKiXoV.^ 

11. To yap XeyeLV to? eon ttoO^ 6 avdpojTTos 
avev TTvpos oltottov* ouS* oXojs SvvaraL yeveoOat 6 
avdpcjTTos. Sta^opat 8' elulv iv yev€L KadaTrep Kal 
eV dXXoLg. Kal ol fxr) TrpoGhcopievoL he rod e^ojOev 
TTvpo? ovx d)S oLTTpoaheels rovro rraGyovoLv , dXXd 
TTepiovGLa Kal TTXeovaGfxcx) rod iv avrolg depfiov' 
Tovro prjreov Kal jrepl rcjv dXXojv t^ajojv, ooa pLT] 
TTvpos Setrat/ wGre Kal Kara rovO^ V7T€pe-)(eiv ttjv 
Tov TTvpos XP^'^ci^^ <^S" eiKos. TO fjuev vhojp ovheTTore 
roLovTov, coore fir] helGdai rajv eKTOS, to he irvp 
C V7T^ dperrjs TToXXrjs Kal avrapKes. o)S ovv Grpa- 
rriyos djJLeivojv 6 TrapaGKevaGag rrjv ttoXlv fxr] 
hecGdaL TOJV e^wdev Gvpijxdx(J^v, ovtco Kal GTOL)(eZov 
TO tt)? e^toOev errLKovpias^ TToXXaKis p^rj heop^evov 
VTTepexov. 

KatVot y' elg rovvavriov Xd^oL ns dv, to xPV^^' 
pidjTepov elvai rovro, (L ;)^ptL)^e^a piovoC Kal pidXiora 
rd ^eXriov eK XoycGpiov Xa^elv hvvdp,evoL' errel ri 
Aoyof ;)^p7]CTtjU,CL>Tepov r] pidXXov dvOpwrroL? Xvgl- 
reXeorepov ; dXX ov rrdpeGTi rolg dAoyots". Tt ovv; 
hid rovd^ rjrrov (h(f>eXipiOv rd^ eK rrjg Trpovoias rod 
^eXriovos evpedev; 

^ Xovaafievois] yevaafidvoig Wyttenbach. 
^ vitpafxevoLS one MS. only : aipafxevois. 

^ TO TToXvTTOlKlXov W. C. II. : TTjV TToXvTiXeiaV. 

* OLTOTTov added by Bernardakis. 
^ TTupoj SeiTai Wyttenbach : TrpoaBeiTai. 

304 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 958 

water is solely beneficial to the touch, when you wash 
or bathe in it ; but fire is profitable to all the senses. 
It can, in fact, both be touched and seen from a 
distance, so that in addition to its other uses, there 
is also its variegated character. 

11." For to say that man ever exists without fire 
is absurd, nor can he exist at all without it ; but 
there are differences in kind as in other things. As 
for men who have no need of fire from without, they 
have this experience not because they do not need it, 
but because their own heat more than suffices. This 
must be predicated also of other animals which do 
not need fire.^ So that in this respect, too, the use 
of fire is probably superior. Water is never in such 
a condition as to need no external support, but fire 
is self-sufficient because of its great excellence. As, 
then, a general is better who manages the affairs of 
his city so that it needs no allies from without, so 
also an element is superior which does not often need 
external assistance. 

Yet, to take the opposite point of view, that is more 
useful which we alone make great use of, since by 
the powers of our reason we are able to choose what 
is better. For what is more useful and more profitable 
to man than reason ? But brute beasts do not have 
it. WTiat then ? Is what has been discovered by the 
foresight of our better part for this reason less useful ? 

" The order of the sentences in this chapter, in addition to 
its many other corruptions, has been badly disturbed. 

^ This clause was transferred here by the editor from 
958 c infra at the end of the paragraph. 

® imKovplas W. C. H. : eTTiKOvpLas Trapexov (dittography with 
v7T€p€xov below). 

' fjLovoL an anonymous corrector : p.6voj ([iovol ol Pteiske). 
8 TO added by W. C. H. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ _| 12. 'ETiet Se Kara tovto tov Xoyov yeyova/jLev, 
Tt rex^"/]? TO) /Sioj XvoLTcXeorepov ; re^vas Se ndoag 
Kal dvevpe to TTvp Kal ucLt^ei- 8to kol tov "W^atOTOv 
dpx^yov avTixyv ttolovol. kol jjltjv oXiyov xP^^ov 
Kal ^Lov TOis dvdpwTTOLs SeSofievov, 6 jiev ^AptoTcov 
cf)rjGLV OTL 6 VTTvos OLOV TeXcovTjs TO ^{jLiCTV d^aip^l 
TOVTOV eydj 8' dv elrroLpJ otl gkotos' eypiqyoplvai} 
dv elrf hid vvktos, dXX ovhkv tjv^ ocfieXos ttj? ^yp^]- 
yopoeojg, el jxr] to TTVp ra tt]? ripiepas tjijllv Trapet^ev 
dyadd, Kal Tr]v ripilpas Kal vvktos ^i'^P^t, hia(j)opdv. 
€1 TOLVVV TOV ^7]i' ovhev dvdpcoTTOLS XvoLTeXloTepov 
Kal TOVTO TToXXaTrXaGLd^ec to rrvp, ttws ovk dv eirj 
TrdvTOJV w(f)eXijjLa)TaTov ; 

13. Kai /X7]i/, ov TrXeloTOV^ eKdoTrf tojv alodrj- 
E oeujv iJ.€TeLXrj(f)€v, ovk dv etrj Xv a lt eXe ot aT ov ; ovx 
opag ovv, c6? Tjj /xev ^ypd (f)VG€L ovSe/xta tcov 
acGdrjoeajv /car' avTTjv TTpocjxp'^Tai ;)(copt? TTvevjJLaTos 
rj TTvpos iyKeKpajdevov, tov Se nvpo? dnaaa jjiev 
aLodrjGLS, OLOV TO ^OJTLKOV ivepyal^ofjievov , /xeret- 
Xrj(f)ev, i^atpeTajs 8' rj oj/ft?, Torts' o^VTdTTj tcov 8ta 
GcofiaTOS ioTLV aloOrjoeajv , TTvpds efa/x/xa ovoa Kal 

OTL deCOV 7TLOTLV TTapeGXyjKeV ; €TL T€, fj HXdTOJV 

(f)7]GL, Svvdjjieda KaTaox'^p^o.TLt,€Li> npos ras" rdiy iv 
OVpaVO) KLVrjG€LS TTjV ^p^XW ^''^ '''V'^ o0ecos". 

^ €yp-qyop4vaL anonymous : iyp-qyopev. 

2 av €L7] Post : del. ^ ■^v added by Adler, 

* TrXelaTov Bernardakis : TrAetWou. 

^ iKaoTTj Emperius : Kpdais rijs. 

« Von Arnim, .S'. V.F. i, p. 90, frag. 403 ; cf. Aristotle, 
Nicomachean Ethics, i. 13. 12 (1102 b 7). 

* A very corrupt passapre. Adler's reconstruction {Wien. 
Stud. xxxi. 308), with additions by Post, has been followed. 

" Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 250 d ; c/- ^^^r. Qo'^ d-e, 681 e. 
306 



IS FIRE OR WATER MORE USEFUL ? 958 

12. And since we have arrived at this point in our 
argument : WTiat is more profitable to life than Art ? 
And it was fire that discovered and still preserves all 
the arts. That is why they make Hephaestus the 
first of artificers. Man has been granted but a little 
time to live and, as Ariston " says, sleep, like a tax- 
collector, takes away half of that. But I would rather 
say that it is a question of darkness ; for although 
a man might stay awake all night, yet no good would 
come of his wakefulness if fire did not give him the 
benefits of day and remove the difference between 
day and night. ^ If, then, there is nothing more 
advantageous to man than life and life is many times 
increased by fire, how should fire not be the most 
useful of all things ? 

13. And, to be sure, will not that be the most 
advantageous of which each of the senses has the 
greatest proportion ? Do you not perceive, then, 
that there is no one of the senses which uses moisture 
by itself without an admixture of air or fire ; and that 
every sense partakes of fire inasmuch as it supplies 
the vital energy : and especially that sight, the 
keenest of the physical senses,^ is an ignited mass 
of fire ^ and is that which has made us believe ^ in the 
gods ? And further, through sight, as Plato ^ says, 
we are able to conform our souls to the movements 
of the celestial bodies. 

<* Cf. von Arnim, S.V.F. ii, pp. 196, 199; but Post 
believes the words may mean " a chain of fire " linking the 
eye with its object. 

* It is the visible heavens and their fire that make us 
believe by " declaring the glory " of the celestial gods. See 
A. S. Pease, " Caeli Enarrant," Harvard Theological Revieu\ 
xxxiv (1941), pp. 163-200. 

^ Timaeus, 47 a-b. 

307 



WHETHER LAND OR SEA 
ANIMALS ARE CLEVERER 

(DE SOLLERTIA ANIMALIUM) 



INTRODUCTION 

There can be little doubt that Plutarch composed 
this pleasant work from commentarii (^v-o/jlvi'jijl kto) 
derived not merely from Aristotle (mentioned specifi- 
cally in 965 D and quoted often), but also from various 
other compendia, the remains of which are to be 
seen in Aelian's and Pliny's natural histories and 
elsewhere." In fact, if one reads Plutarch and Aelian 
and Pliny side by side, one may acquire the impres- 
sion that they had before them substantially the 
same sources, and that these were numerous. Where- 

" On the sources see Ziegler's article '' Plutarchos " in 
Pauly-Wissowa, col. 738, and, of the authorities he cites, 
particularly Wellmann's papers in Hermes, xxvi, xxvii, and 
li, and Max Schuster, Untersuchnngen zu Plutarchs De 
Sollertia Animalium (Diss. Munich, 1917). There is also 
an amusing work of Philo, surviving only in an Armenian 
version, which is most conveniently accessible in Aucher's 
Latin translation in vol. 8 of the Bihliotheca Sacra edition 
(Schwickert, Leipzig, 1830) : De Rat tone quam habere etiam 
Bruta Animal ia dicebat Alexander. In the first part of this 
work Alexander presents the arguments for animal intelli- 
gence, which Philo himself attempts to refute in a somewhat 
summary fashion at the end. The occasional parallels with 
Plutarch will be cited as Philo, with Aucher's section and 
page numbers. Antigonus of Carystus, Historia Mlrabill im, 
will be cited from O. Keller's edition of the Xaturalium 
Eerum Scrlptores Graeci (Teubner, 1877) and Aelian's De 
Natura Animalium from R. Hercher's Teubner (not Didjt) 
edition. 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

as Plinv and Aclian appear to adopt nearly every- 
thing their authorities may have offered (for they 
■were writing factual commentaries), Plutarch, as 
ahvays, selects. It is possible, in some cases, that 
Plutarch's Mss. (which are not good and also contain 
lacunae) may have been interpolated from Aelian's ; 
and the reverse is likewise possible. This is a very 
difficult matter, but the hope may be entertained 
that some main sources of Plutarch and Aelian, if not 
of Pliny, and the as yet unassessed evidence of Philo, 
may eventually be disentangled for substantial sec- 
tions, though this is not the place to attempt such a 
feat. 

The title is not well chosen, since the victory is 
awarded to neither side. The real point of the dia- 
logue seems to be, in its second as well as its first 
part, that all animals of whatever provenance are 
intelligent." The occasionally bantering tone may 
serve to indicate that we have before us something 
of a school exercise from Plutarch's own academy, 
with perhaps the first draft of the second part com- 
posed by pupils.^ Note the carefully established 
details : the contest will take place at a fixed time 
(960 B. 963 b) before their fellow-pupils and a specially 
appointed judge (965 c-e). More or less elaborate 
preparation has been made by the contestants (960 b, 
975 d).'^ Because of the occasion the school has been 
granted a hohday. 

" Schuster thinks, rather, that Plutarch's chief aim is to 
make clear a moral and juridical relationship between man 
and beasts. 

^ See Schuster, pp. 57 ff. Aristotimus and Phaedimus 
were doubtless actual pupils of Plutarch. 

* Plutarch lays special emphasis on preparation : Afor. 
80 D, 652 B. 

312 



THE CLE\^RNESS OF ANIMALS 

In the first part (chapters 1-8), the author demon- 
strates through the authoritarian voice of his own 
father that the Stoics, in so far as they affirm the 
irrationality of animals, contradict their own tenets. 
The second part proves that animals of all kinds are 
rational (chapters 9-36) ; the last small section, while 
refusing to award first honours in the debate, appears 
to contain Plutarch's exhortation to his pupils to 
continue the fight against the Stoics. For an excel- 
lent summary with sympathetic comments see E. R. 
Dodds, Greece and Rome, ii (1932/3), pp. 104-105. 

D' Agostino ^ and others have shown that there is 
little originality in Plutarch's animal psychology, while 
not denying our author considerable \'ivacity in 
presentation. While it is true that whole sections, like 
976 A-D, are dra>\Ti from the identical source that 
Aelian (De Natura Animalium, viii. 4-6) used, yet one 
has only to compare the use these authors have made 
of precisely the same material to recognize the great 
superiority of Plutarch. The principal sources have 
been disputed ^ : Chrysippus, Theophrastus, Hag- 
non, Alexander of Myndus,^ Juba, Xenocrates have 
all been suggested, but there can be little doubt (as 

"■ V. D' Agostino, Archivo Italiano di Psicologia, xi (1933), 
pp. 21 ff., a useful summarizing article. 

^ Hirzel, Ber Dialog, ii, p. 179, n. 1. All of Hirzel's dis- 
cussion is worth reading, though there are occasional slips, 
as when he affirms (p. 173, n. 2) that the story in 969 e f. 
goes back to Plutarch's own experience. This is quite unlikely 
in view of Aelian's version of the same story ; nor has Aelian 
drawn from Plutarch as some, including Wyttenbach, have 
thought. 

'^ For the difficulty and danger involved in identifying the 
sources exactly see the lists of authorities furnished by Pliny 
in his first book. Alexander of Myndus, for example, does 
not appear at all as a source for books 8-11. 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

with De Tranijuillitate ° and many other works) that 
a considerable variety of sources has been utiHzed. 
Now that Schliipfer ^ has demonstrated that Plutarch 
had himself read and meditated upon great sections 
of classical poetry, critics may perhaps be more 
Milling to allow our author first-hand familiarity with 
a wider range of prose, and works of reference as 
well. 

It is by no means impossible that the work is in- 
complete in our mss. ; there are, at least, several 
demonstrable lacunae and it is possible that it was 
considerably longer and may even have justified its 
title when it left Plutarch's hands. 

As for the date of the dialogue, the iermiyius post 
quern is a.d. 70 (not 79, as it cannot be certainly 
inferred from ^lA- a that \ espasian was then dead) ; 
it is probably a work of Plutarch's youth, preceding 
in any case the Lives and the Symposiacs. It may 
well date from Plutarch's anti-Stoic period which 
produced the De Facie, the De Comnninibus Notitiis, 
and the other anti-Chrysippean polemics. It has 
much in common with the Gryllus and the fragments 
of De Esu Carnium and some correspondence with 
the Amatorius.^ It may, in fact, have been written 
during nearly the same period as that in which the 
elder Pliny (whose preface is dated a.d. 77) was 
compiling his own Natural History. 

" See the introduction in the Loeb edition. 

* Plutarch und die klasslschen Didder, Ziirich, 1950, 
especially pp. 59-60. 

<^ But alk)wance must be made for exaggerated and 
partially false premises in Hartman, ])e Plutarcho, p. 567. A 
modified chronological scheme of Plutarch's writings has 
lately been proposed by T. Sinko {Polish .lead. Cracow, 
1947), but it is too complicated to be examined here. 

314 



THE CLE\^RNESS OF ANIMALS 

The citations in D'Arcy Thompson's Oxford trans- 
lation of Aristotle's Historia Animalium ^ are somewhat 
inaccurate and inconsistent, being, as he says, " com- 
piled at various times and at long intervals during 
many years." Nevertheless the work is of great 
value and it may be hoped that the notes in this 
edition that rely on it (and these are many) have 
been adequately sifted. Also to be constantly and 
gratefully consulted are Thompson's A Glossary of 
Greek Fishes (Oxford, 19^7) and A Glossary of Greek 
Birds (2nd edition, Oxford, 1936). There will be 
many references to Thompson's Aristotle ; but if the 
creature in question is a bird or a fish, it is to be 
understood that supplementary and often corrective 
material is to be found in the Glossaries. There is, 
further, a tribute of admiration due to A. W. Mair's 
L.C.L. edition of Oppian, with its exhaustive notes. ^ 
Rackham (L.C.L. Pliny, vol. Ill, books \iii-xi) is very 
interesting on the text, but has almost completely 
denied himself the pri\-ilege of citing parallel passages. 

The debunking of many of Plutarch's stories, if 
such a task is necessary, has been pleasantly done 
in the leisurely course of Bergen Evans' The Natural 
History of Nonsense (New York, 19^6). It should be 
added, however, that modern scientific speculation 
is approaching somewhat closer to one of Plutarch's 
main tenets, if one may judge from such a work as 
W. C. Alice's Cooperation Among Animals (New York, 
1951 : a revision of his earlier The Social Life of 

" The Loeb edition of A. L. Peck is still awaited at this 
date of writing. It should be noted that quotations from 
the ninth book, in particular, are liable to peculiar suspicion 
and may not proceed from the great naturalist himself. 

** Even the extremely hostile review in Phil. Woch. li (1931 j, 
pp. 1569 if., exempts the notes from censure. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Animals) ; and on the thesis of animal intelHgence 
see Evans himself, p. 173, and the authorities cited 
there, note 1. 

Both the translation and the notes of this and the 
following essays have benefited immeasurably from 
an exhaustive criticism generously given them by 
Professor Alfred C. Andrews of the University of 
Miami, Florida. He has in fact supplied a number of 
valuable notes and also the Appendix, a classified 
zoological index. It must be understood, however, 
that any errors remaining are to be attributed solely 
to the editor." 

The dialogue is no. 147 in the catalogue of Lam- 
prias. According to this document Plutarch wTote 
another work (no. 13.5) on the same subject : Do 
Beasts Possess Reason ? But no. 127, llept (i{mv 
aAoyoji' 7rot-//Tt/<o?, is probably the same as our 
Gryllus, the following dialogue in this edition. 

Abbreviations used ix citing Modern Authors 

Brands = J. P. J. M. Brands, Grieksche Diernamen. 

Purmerend, 1935. 
Cotte = J. Cotte, Poissons et ajiimaux aquatiques an 

temps de Pline, Paris, 19^5. 
Keller = Otto Keller, Die antihe Tierwelt. Leipzig, 

1909-1913. 
Mair = A. W. Mair, Oppian^ Colluthus, Tryphiodorus , 

L.C.L., 1928. 

" Since our text was formed and our translation and notes 
composed a year or more before the appearance of the new 
Teubner edition, almost no new references have been added 
which are not purely textual. The curious reader is referred 
to Hubert's wealth of illustration to supplement our contribu- 
tions. 

816 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS 

Saint-Denis = E. de Saint-Denis, Le Vocahulaire des 

ajiimaux marins en latin classique, Paris, IQ'i'T'. 
Schmid = Georg Schmid, " Die Fische in Ovids 

Halieuticon," Pkilologus, Supplementband xi 

(1907-1910), pp. 253-350. 
Thompson, Aristotle = D'Arcy W. Thompson, The 

Works of Aristotle, vol. IV, Historia animalium, 

Oxford, 1910. 
Thompson, Birds = D'Arcy W. Thompson, A Glossary 

of Greek Birds, rev. ed., Oxford, 1936. 
Thompson, Fishes =^D'Arcy W. Thompson, J Glossary 

of Greek Fishes, Oxford, 19^7. 



317 



(959) nOTEPA TQN ZQIQN OPONIMnXEPA, 
TA XEPLAIA H TA ENTAPA 

1 . ATT0B0TA02. Tov TvpTOLOv 6 AecDViSas epoj- 
B TTjOels TTolov Ttva vo/xi^ot, " ayaBov TTOirjrrjV " e(/)7^ 
" veojv i/jv^Oi? KaKKovrjv "^* cog toIs veois 8ta rcov 
eTTcov opjJLTjv ifJLTTOLovvTa /xeTO, OvpLov Kal <f)LXorLpLias 
iv rat? fidxoiiS d</>etSoL'crtv^ avrcov. SeSta Sr), o) 
^t'Aoi, ^T] Koi TO rr^? Kvvriyeoias iyKcopLcov ixOe? 
dveyvcoGjjLevov iTrdpr) rod fieTpiov rrepa rovg (fyiXo- 
d-qpovg rjfjuv veaviOKovs, toure raXXa ndpepya Kal 
TO /jLTjSev 'qyeLaOai, Trpos rovro iravrdiTaGi pvevras' 
oTTov hoKix) [JLOL Kal avTos €K V€as avdis dpxfis Trap* 

^ KaKKovrjv van Herwerden after Meziriacus : KaKvveiv or 
KoAAwetv. ^ d(f)ei.8ovatv van Herwerden : a<f>€LBovaav. 

" Plutarch's father ; on controversial points connected 
with this identification see Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. 
" Plutarchos," 642 ff. 

* A friend of the household who appears in several of the 
Symposlacs and in the Amatoriits also ; he is not improbably 
the L. Mestrius Soclarus of Insrr. Or. ix. 1. 61. 

" A speaker also in De Defectu Oracidorum {rf. Mor. 
412 e). Of the other speakers in this dialogue, nothing 
definite is known except what may be inferred from the 
present work. 

'^ Cf. Mor. 235 F, where it is an anonymous saying ; but 
the Life of Cleomenes, ii (xxiii=805 d) also attributes it to 
Leonidas. 

' The authorship of this work has been endlessly disputed, 

318 



WHETHER LAND OR SEA ANIMALS 
ARE CLEVERER 

(The speakers in the dialogue are Autobulus," Soclarus,^ 
Optatus, Aristotimus, Phaedimus, and Heracleon. '') 

1. AUTOBULUS. When Leonidas was asked what sort 
of a person he considered Tyrtaeus to be, he repHed, 
"A good poet to whet the souls of young men," ^ on 
the ground that by means of verses the poet inspired 
in young men keenness, accompanied by ardour and 
ambition whereby they sacrificed themselves freely 
in battle. And I am very much afraid, my friends, 
that the Praise of Hunting ^ which was read aloud to 
us yesterday may so immoderately inflame our young 
men who like the sport that they will come to con- 
sider all other occupations as of minor, or of no, 
importance and concentrate on this/ As a matter 
of fact, I myself caught the old fever all over again 

but present opinion {pace Sinko, Eos^ xv, pp. 113 ff. and 
Hubert, Woch. f. klass. Phil, xxviii, pp. 371 ff.) holds that 
it is Plutarch himself who wrote it (Schuster, op. c'lt. pp. 8 ff.). 
Bernardakis (vii, pp. 14:2-143) included this passage (959 b-d) 
as a fragment of the lost work. 

^ " There cannot be two passions more nearly resembling 
each other than hunting and philosophy " (Huxley, Hume, 
p. 139), and see Shorey's note on Plato, Republic, 432 b 
(L.C.L.) ; cf., however, Rep. 535 d, 549 a. See also 
Isocrates, Areopagiticus, 43 f. ; Xenophon, Cynegetica, i. 
18 ; xii. 1. ff. ; Cyr. viii. 1. 34-36 ; Pollux, preface to book 
v ; the proems of Grattius, Nemesianus, Arrian, etc. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(959) rjXiKLav efiTraOearepog yeyovevai Kal TTodeiv, woTrep 
7] Eupi77tSou OatSpa, " KVGL dcDV^at jSaAiat? eAa- 
C (f)OLg iyxpLjjiTTTOiJievog "• ovrojs edtye /xou rrvKva /cat 
mdava rcov eTnx^ip'qiJ.dTajv eTrdyajv 6 \6yos. 

2nKAAP02. ^A\7]dr\ XeycL?, uj Avro^ovXe- Kal 
yap eK^Zvos eSo^e fioi to prjropLKov eyeZpai 8ta 
Xpovov, "x^apil^opLevos Kal avv^apit^ojv rot? fieipa- 
kIols' /LtaAtCTra 8' tJgOtjv rovg pLovopid-x^ovs avrov 
napaOevTOS, oj? ovx rJKLGra rrjv drjpevTLKrjv d^iov 
eTTaivelv, on rov necjyvKoros eV -qplv t) pLCpLadrjKoro? 
XdLp^t'V pidxais dvSpoJv npos dXX-qXov? Sid athijpov 
TO TToAu Sevpo rplipaoa Kadapdv Trapex^i Beav, d'/xa 
Te;^^"}]? Kal roXpLrjg vovv ixovorjg rrpos dvorjTov 
laxvv Kal ^iav dvTLraTTopLevrjg Kal iTraLVOvarjg ro 
EuptTTtSetov 

7^ ^paxv rot oBivo? dvepos. dXXd 

D TTOLKlXia TTpaTTlhoiV 

Setvd /xev^ </»uAa ttovtou 
xdovLCOv r depiajv re 
hdpLvarai TTatSevpLara. 

2. ATT. Kat pLr]v iKeXdev, cS ^tAe Sco/cAapc, 0a- 
alv 7Jk€lv err' dvdpcoTTOv? rrjv dndOeiav Kal rrfv 
dypiorir^ra yevGapL€V7]v (f)6vov Kal TTpoedLoOeiGav iv 
rals dypais Kal rols KvvrjyeoioLS atpLa Kal rpav- 
piara [,cpcov pirj SvGx^paLveiv dXXd ;)^atpety O(j)aTT0- 
pL€VOLS Kal dTTodvrjoKOVGLV . eW^ (jJGTTep ev ^ Adr^vais 

^ Seiva /xev Mor. 98 i:, from which several other corrections 
have been introduced : hafxa. 



° Cf. Hippolytus, 218 f. It follows from the fuller quota- 
tion in Mor. 52 c that Plutarch's text of Euripides inverted 
the order of these lines as given in our mss. of the tragedian. 

320 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 959 

in spite of my years and longed, like Euripides' " 
Phaedra, 

To halloo the hounds and chase the dappled deer ; 

so moved was I by the discourse as it brought its 
solid and convincing arguments to bear. 

socLARUS. Exactly so, Autobulus. That reader 
yesterday seems to have roused his rhetoric from its 
long disuse ^ to gratify the young men and share 
their vernal mood. ^ I was particularly pleased with his 
introduction of gladiators and his argument that it is 
as good a reason as any to applaud hunting that after 
diverting to itself most of our natural or acquired 
pleasure in armed combats between human beings 
it affords an innocent spectacle of skill and intelligent 
courage pitted against witless force and violence. It 
agrees with that passage of Euripides ^ : 

Slight is the strength of men ; 
But through his mind's resource 
He subdues the dread 
Tribes of the deep and races 
Bred on earth and in the air. 

2. AUTOBULUS. Yet that is the very source, my 
dear Soclarus, from which they say insensibilitv 
spread among men and the sort of savagery that 
learned the taste of slaughter on its hunting trips * 
and has grown accustomed to feel no repugnance for 
the wounds and gore of beasts, but to take pleasure 
in their violent death. The next step is like what 

^ Presumably an autobiographical detail. 

" The word is found only here, but may well be right if 
Plutarch is in a poetical, as well as a playful, humour. 

^ Frag. 27 from the Aeolus (so Stobaeus) : Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag. pp. 370 f. : cf. Mor. 98 z. The text is some- 
what confused. * Cf. Porphyry, De Ahstinentia, iii. 20. 

VOL. XII M 321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(959) TTpcoTOS Tt? imo rcoi' TpiaKovra GVKO(f)dvTrj^ dno- 

^ai'cuy eVtTT^Seto? €.\e-)(drj, kol Sevrepo? ojjlolcos Kal 

rptros' €K Tovrov Se Kara jiiKpov rjS'q Trpo'Covre? 

rjTTTovTO Tcbv €7n€LKajv Kal reXog ovSe rwv dpiorojv' 

E d7TeG-)(ovTo ttoXltwv ovtcds 6 TTpcoTog dpKTOV dv- 

eXdjV 7) XvKOV €vSoKLjJLrjG€V' 7] jSoU? tCTCeJ?^ t) GVg Qt- 

riav €G)(€ TTpoKeipLevcov lepow yevGafievog eTnr'qSeLog 
dTTodavelv eXacboi he rovvrevdev rjhr] Kal Aaycuot 
Kal Sop/caSes" eGdiofievoi Trpo^drcjov Kal kvvcvv 
iviaxov Kal lttttcov Kpea Trpov^evrjGav " riQaGov 
he XV^'*^ '^^^ TTepcGTepdv, echeGnov OLKeTtv," to 
TiO(f)OKXeov?,~ ovx dj9 yaXal Kal alXovpoi Tpocfyrjg 
€V€Ka hid Xifiov, aAA' e'^' rjhovfj Kal oipo) hiaGTTcov- 
res Kal xaTa/coTrrovres' oaov eorl rfj (f)VG€i (J)ovik6v 
Kal drjpicbheg eppojGav Kal rrpds oIktov dKafineg^ 
dTTeipydGavTO, rod 8' rjiJiepov rd nXelGrov diT'qpL- 
F ^Xvvav wGTrep av ndXtv ol YivdayoptKol rr^v etV 
rd d-qpia Trpaorr^ra fxeXer-qv eiroiriGavro irpos rd 

^ rj ^ovs laojs W. C. H. : Kal ^ovs ti?. 

^ TO 'Lo(f>OKX€OVS Emperius : re ^o(l)OKXrjg. 

^ d/ca/LiTie?] oLTTades Porphyry. 

* €LS W. C. H. : TTpOS. 

" See 998 b infra and cf. Muller, Hist. Graec. Frag, i, 
p. 269, Ephorus, frag. 125 : it is not, however, accepted as 
from Ephorus by Jacoby (cf. Salhist, Catiline, li. 28-81). 
We must remember, during the following discussion, that 
zoology used to be the handmaid of ethics. 

^ Cf. 993 B ijifra. The Age of Cronus, when beasts 
were unharmed, is admirably described in Plato, Pollticus, 
270 c ff. 

" " That is, they put grain on the altar to make the 
animal volunteer, as it were, to die " (Post) ; and the con- 
sent of tile victim was secured by pouring water on it to 
make it shake its head. See Mor. 729 k and the article 
" Opfer " in RE, xviii. 612. 

322 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 959 

happened at Athens " : the first man put to death 
by the Thirty was a certain informer who was said to 
deserve it, and so was the second and the third ; but 
after that they went on, step by step, until they were 
laying hands on honest men and eventually did not 
spare even the best of the citizens. Just so the first 
man ^ to kill a bear or a wolf won praise ; and perhaps 
some cow or pig was condemned as suitable to slay 
because it had tasted the sacred meal placed before 
it.^ So from that point, as they now went on to eat 
the flesh of deer and hare and antelope, men were 
introduced to the consumption of sheep and, in some 
places, of dogs and horses. 

The tame goose and the dove upon the hearth, 

as Sophocles ^ says, were dismembered and carved 
for food — not that hunger compelled men as it does 
weasels and cats, but for pleasure and as an appetizer.^ 
Thus the brute ^ and the natural lust to kill in man 
were fortified and rendered inflexible to pity, while 
gentleness was, for the most part, deadened. It was 
in this way, on the contrary, that the Pythagoreans,^ 
to inculcate humanity and compassion, made a 

^ Xauck, Trag. Graec. Fraq. p. 314, frag. 782 ; Pearson, 
vol. Ill, p. 68, frag. 866. 

« Cf. 991 D, 993 B, 995 c infra. Or " as meat to go with 
their bread " ; for fowl is not ordinarily an appetizer. 

^ From this point to the end of chapter 5 (963 f) the 
greater part of the text is excerpted by Porphyry, De Absti- 
nentia, iii. :20-3-i (pp. 211-2:20, ed. Nauck). This indirect 
transmission, with its not infrequent changes, omissions, and 
variations, gives valuable evidence ; but obvious errors on 
either side have not been mentioned here. 

^ Cf. 964 F, 993 A infra, and Mor. 86 d, 729 e. " The 
practice is correctly stated ; the alleged motive is not. The 
taboo on meat stemmed from belief in the transmigration of 
souls " (Andrews). 

323 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(959) (f)LXdvdpaj7Tov xrat (jiiXoLKripfJiov' r] yap avvqdeLa 
960 SeLVT] Tols Kara puKpov ivoLK€Lovfi€voig Trddeoi 
TToppco rrpoayayeZv rov dvdpcoTTOv. 

'AAA* ovK otS' OTTOJS iv XoyoLS yeyovoreg AeAr^- 
dajJLev ovre rcov x^^^ tjjjuv yeyovorcov ovre rwv 
rdxa. So] yevrjoojjiivwv aiqpiepov dTTrjprrjiJievoLS. 0,770- 
(f)r]vd[i€i'OL^ yap c^^^e?, (x)S otada, fMerex^LV dficjcj- 
yeTTOJs Trdvra rd ^oja StavoLag /cat Xoytufiov 
TTapeaxofiev ovk dfiovoov ou8' dxo.piv rols Orjpa- 
riKois veavLGKOLS Trepl avveaeco? drjptcxjv evdXojv re 
/cat net^wv dpaXXav t)v orjpLepov, (hs eot/ce, ^pa^ev- 
GOfiev, dv ye Sr] rat? TTpoKX-queGLv ol Trepl 'Aptaro- 
B TLfiov /cat OatStjLtov epLpLeivojaiv eKeLVcov ydp 6 [lev 
rrjg yrjs co? hLa<j>epovTa ro) (f)povelv ^oja yevvcoarjg 
eVeStSou rot? eVatpot? avviQyopov eavrov, 6 he rrj? 
daXdrriqs. 

2nKA. 'EjLt/xevoiJatv/ to Kvro^ovXe , /cat ooov ov- 
TTCD Trdpeioi- ovvraaGopievovs ydp avrovg ecodev 
eojpojv. dXX el jSouAet, Trpd rod dyujvos 60a tols 
ex6es XoyoLS TrpooiqKovTa Ae;^^7^vat /catpov ovk 
eaxev 7) crvv^ otvco /cat irapd ttotov ov fierd GTTovhrjs 
eXexOrj TTpos avrovs dvaXd^cofJiev. eSo/cct ydp ri 
TTpayiiaTLKOjg olov dvrrjx^iv e'/c rrjg Sroas", cos" rw 
dvqra) ro dddvarov dvriKeirai Kal rd) <j)dapra) ro 
d(f)daprov Kal oojpiari ye ro dcrcofJLaTov' ovrcos vtt- 
C apxovn rep* XoyiKO) XPW^^ "^^ dXoyov avrtKelodaL 

^ dvrjpT-qfxevoLS Reiske : aTrrfpTrjixevoi. 6.Tro(f>r}va.yi€voL added 
by Bernardakis after Wyttenbach. 

^ e/xfj-evovaLv W. C. H. : ifjifMCvovai-u. 

^ avv] €u van Herwerden. * tco] ye tw Porphyry. 

324 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 959-960 

practice of kindness to animals ; for habituation has 
a strange power to lead men onward by a gradual 
familiarization of the feelings. 

Well, we have somehow fallen unawares into a 
discussion not unconnected with what we said yester- 
day nor vet with the argument that is presently to 
take place to-day. Yesterday, as you know, we 
proposed the thesis that all animals partake in one 
way or another of reason and understanding, and 
thereby offered our young hunters a field of competi- 
tion not lacking in either instruction or pleasure : 
the question whether land or sea animals have 
superior intelligence. This argument, it seems, we 
shall to-day adjudicate if Aristotimus and Phaedimus 
stand by their challenges ; for Aristotimus put him- 
self at his comrades' disposal to advocate the land as 
producer of animals with superior intelligence, while 
the other ^^i\\ be pleader for the sea. 

socLARUs. They'll stand by their word, Autobulus ; 
they'll be here any minute now. Early this morning 
I observed them both preparing for the fray. But, 
if you like, before the contest begins, let us review 
the discussion of whatever topics are germane to our 
conversation of yesterday, but were not then dis- 
cussed, either because no occasion offered, or, since 
we were in our cups, were treated too lightly. I 
thought, in fact, that I caught the reverberation of 
a material objection from the Stoa " : just as the 
immortal is opposed to the mortal and the imperish- 
able to the perishable, and, of course, the incorporeal 
to the corporeal ; just so, if there is rationality, the 
irrational must exist as its opposite and counterpart. 

« Cf. von Arnim, S. V.F. ii, pp. 49 ff., 172 ff. ; and Pohlenz, 
B.P.W. xxiii (1903), col. 966, on Chrysippus, frag. 183. 

325 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(960) Kal dvdvTrdpx^iv Kal fir] yLoviqv ev rocjaZohe ovt^v- 
yiais dreXrj rrjvhe XeLTTeodai Kal 7T€7n]paji.i€vr]v. 
S. ATT. Tt? Se, c5 ^t'Ae StuAcAape, tout' tj^loj- 

G€V, OVTOS €V Tols TTpdyfJLaGL TOV XoyCKOV, [JLT] €LVaL 

TO a'Aoyoy; 77oAu yap ioTi Kal d(f)dovov iu rrdoL 
roZs ^vx'TJS dfioLpovcn Kal ovSev^ irepag Seofxeda 
TTpog TO AoytKoy dvTiQeaeats, dXXd ndv evOvs to 
dijjvxov COS" aAoyov Kal dvor^rov dvTLKeirai rd) fierd 
ipux'TJ? Aoyoi' exovTL Kal Sidvoiav. el be tl^ d^toi 
fXTj KoXo^ov elvai rrjv (jyvGiv dXXd rrjv efjufjvxov 
(l)VGLv ex€Lv TO fxev XoyiKov TO 8' dXoyov, erepos 
D d^iojGei TTfV ejjupvxov (f)vaLV ex^i'V to fiev (jyavTaori- 
Kov TO S' d(j)avTauLOJTov y Kal ro fxev aladr^TLKov to 
8' dvaiadrjTov' Iva 8rj to,? dyTt^uyou? TavTag Kal 
dvTiderovs e^-et? Kal OTeprioeis Trepl TavTOP rj (f)VGL? 
exj] yevos olov iGoppoTTovGag.^ el 8' dVoTTos" d 
^7]Td)v TOV ifjujjvxov TO jJLev alGdrjTLKOV TO 8' dv- 
aiod-qrov elvat, Kal to fxev ^avTaGLodpievov to 8' 
d(j)avTaGiCx)Tov , otl ndv to epujjvxov aiGdiqriKov ev- 
dvs elvai Kal (jyavTaoTiKov 7Te(f)VKev, ovS^ ovtos 
imeLKaJs dTramqaei to p,ev XoyiKov elvai tov ifx- 
ipvxov TO 8' dAoyov, npo? dvOpajTrovs hiaXeyofie- 
vos p-iqhe ev olofjuevov? alodrjoecos pierex^tv o jjli] 
Kal avveoeojs , /^^8' elvai t^chov ib p.r] 8d^a tls Kal 

^ ovBev Porphyry : ouS' en. 

^ laoppoTTovaag] laoppoirovs Porphyry, who adds aXK aroTTov 
TovTo ye. 

* There seems to be a great deal more anti-Stoic polemic 
326 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 960 

This alone, among all these pairings, must not be 
left incomplete and mutilated. 

3. AUTOBULUS." But wlio ever, my dear Soclarus, 
maintained that, while rationality exists in the uni- 
verse, there is nothing irrational ? For there is a 
plentiful abundance of the irrational in all things 
that are not endowed with a soul ; we need no other 
sort of counterpart for the rational : everything that 
is soulless, since it has no reason or intelligence, is by 
definition in opposition to that which, together wdth 
a soul, possesses also reason and understanding. Yet 
suppose someone were to maintain that nature must 
not be left maimed, but that that part of nature 
which is endowed with a soul should have its irrational 
as well as its rational aspect, someone else is bound 
to maintain that nature endowed %\ith a soul must 
have both an imaginative and an unimaginative part, 
and both a sentient part and an insentient. They 
want nature, they say, to have these counteractive 
and contraposed positives and negatives of the 
same kind counterbalanced, as it were. But if it is 
ridiculous to require an antithesis of sentient and 
insentient within the class of living things, or an 
antithesis of imaginative and unimaginative, seeing 
that it is the nature of every creature A\dth a soul 
to be sentient and imaginative from the hour of its 
birth, so he, also, is unreasonable who demands a 
division of the living into a rational and an irrational 
part — and that, too, when he is arguing with men 
who believe that nothing is endowed with sensation 
which does not also partake of intelligence and that 
there is no living thing which does not naturally 

in the following speeches than von Arnim has admitted into 
his compilation. See especially the notes on 961 c ff. infra. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(960) , , , 

■p AoyiCT/ios" cooTTep atcrc/r^crt? /<:at op/XT) Kara (pvaiv 

TTapeuTLi'. Tj yap (jiVGig, tjv eveKO. rov Kal irpo? n 

navra rroLelv opdws Xiyovoiv, ovk IttI iptXa) rep 

TrdG)(ov TL^ aloddveudaL to t^cpov aloBriTiKov iTToirj- 

G€V aAA' OVTiOV pi€V OLKeLCJV TTpO? aVTO TToXXcOV 

ovrwv S' dXXorpicaVy ovh^ OLKapes rjv Treptetvat jjltj 
jxadovTi rd ptev (jivXarreadaL rols Se avpLcfyepeadaL. 
rrjv pLCv ovv yvchoiv dpLcfyolv o/xotco? rj aiadrjaLg 
eKaoTcp napex^i' rd? 8' enopLevag rfj aloBiqo€L rcjv 
piev co^eAt/xcuv X'rjifjei.g Kal Sttu^ets", SiaKpovaei? 8e 
Kal (f)vydg rcov oXedpliov Kal XvTTTjpojv oi)Se/xta 
F pLTj^avrj TTapelvai^ rots /xt] Xoyit,€G9aL tl Kal Kpiveiv 

Kal pLV7}pLOV€V€LV Kal TTpOGeX^lV 7T€^Vk6oIV dXX <Lv 

dv d^eXr^s TravrdTTaoL TrpoohoKiav pLvrjpLTjv rrpodecnv 
TTapaaKevrjv to eXTrit^eiv to hehoiKevai rd inidvpLeXv 
rd daxdXXciv, ovr^ dpLpLdrwv o0eAo? ouSev avrols 
TTapovTOJV ovT^ OJTWV aluQrjoeiiJS re Trdoris Kal 
(^avraaias rd ;Yp6tJ/xevov ovk exo'voiqs aTTrjXXdxda.f' 
961 ^IXtlov Tj TTovelv Kal XvTreiadaL Kal dXyelv, co 8ta- 
KpovaeraL ravra pi7) rrapovros . 

KatVot HrpdrcDvog ye rod (fyvoiKov Xoyos iarlv 
dTToSeiKvvojv c6? ovS" aladdveodai rd rrapdnav dvev 
rov voelv vTrdpx^L' Kal ydp ypdpipLara TroAAa/cts" 

€7TL7rop€VOpL€VOVg TTJ dlp€L Kal XoyOL 7TpOG7TL7rTOVT€S 

rfj aKofj SLaXavddvovGLV rjpids Kal hia(j)€vyovGL TTpds 
erepoL? rov vovv exovras' €lt^ avOis eTTavrjXde Kal 

^ TTaoxov Tt Reiske : ttoloxovtl {Trdax^tv Kal Porphyry). 
2 TTapelvai added by Porphyry. 

" Aristotle and Theophrastus passim ; cf. also Mor. 646 c, 
698 B. 

328 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 960-961 

possess both opinion and reason, just as it has sensa- 
tion and appetite. For nature, which, they " rightly 
say, does everything with some purpose and to some 
end, did not create the sentient creature merely to 
be sentient when something happens to it. No, for 
there are in the world many things friendly to it, 
many also hostile ; and it could not survive for a 
moment if it had not learned to give the one sort a 
wide berth while freely mixing %\'ith the other. It 
is, to be sure, sensation that enables each creature 
to recognize both kinds ; but the acts of seizing or 
pursuing that ensue upon the perception of what is 
beneficial, as well as the eluding or fleeing of what is 
destructive or painful, could by no means occur in 
creatures naturally incapable of some sort of reason- 
ing and judging, remembering and attending. Those 
beings, then, which you deprive of all expectation, 
memory, design, or preparation, and of all hopes, 
fears, desires, or griefs — they will have no use for eyes 
or ears either, even though they have them. Indeed, 
it would be better to be rid of all sensation and 
imagination that has nothing to make use of it, 
rather than to know toil and distress and pain while 
not possessing any means of averting them. 

There is, in fact, a work of Strato,^ the natural 
philosopher, which proves that it is impossible to 
have sensation at all without some action of the in- 
telligence. Often, it is true, while we are busy 
reading, the letters may fall on our eyes, or words 
may fall on our ears, which escape our attention since 
our minds are intent on other things ; but later the 
mind recovers, shifts its course, and follows up every 

* Frag. 112, ed. Wehrli {Die ScMile des Aristofeles, v, 
p. 34). 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(961) P^^Tadel koi Slcok€L tojv rrpoeifjievojv^ eKacrrov dva- 
Aeyd/xei'os" fj kol XeXeKrat 

vovs opfj Kol vovs OLKovei, ra'AAa" Kcxxjia kol TV(f)Xd, 

COS Tov rrepl rd o^/xara kol d>ra Trddovs, dv jjltj 
Trapfi TO (jipovovv, alodiqGiv ov rroiovvros . hid kol 

B KAeo^eVT^S" o ^auiXevs, napd ttotov evSoKLjJLOVvros 
aKpoapiaros , epojTr^dels et pLTj (jiaiverai (jTTovSaiov, 
eKeXevuev eKeivovs OKOirelv, avrds^ ydp ev FleAo- 
Trovvrjocp rdv vovv ex^tv. ddev dvdyKT] Tracrtv, of? 
TO aloddveudai, /cat rd voelv virapx^iv, el roj voelv 
aladdveaOai TT€(j)VKap,ev. 

"Ecrro) Se pir] SeladaL rod vov ttjv alodrjGiv irpos 
TO avTTjS kpyov dAA' orav ye to) t>d)cp rrpos to 
OLKelov KOL rdWdrpLov rj aLaOrjaLs evepyaaapbevq 
^La(J)opdv dTTeXdrj, tl to pLi"r]pLovev6v euTiv rjSr] /cat 
SeSto? TO, XvTTovvTa /cat ttoOovv to, d)^eXip.a /cat, pLTj 

C TTapovTcnVy ottcos rrapearai pLr}xoivcop.evov ev avTois 
KOL TrapaGKeval^opievov oppnqTripia /cat /cara^uya? 
/cat OrjpaTpa irdXtv av rots' dAa>CTo/xeVot?'* /cat dno- 
SpdoeLS TOJV e7TLTLdep.evajv ; /cat raurt ye^ /cd/cetvot 
XeyovTeg dTTOKvaiovoiv, ev rat? etVayajyats" e/cct- 
OTOTe TT^v " TTpodeoLv " opt^o/xcvot " G'qi.ielcoGLV 

^ 7rpo€i^4v(x}v Kronenber^ : TTpo'Ceixevcvv {npo€i.pTjix€i>aji> Por- 
phyry ; TTapeipievwv Nauck). 

^ TaAAa Meziriacus : to. S' aAAa. 

^ avro's Porphyry : avTov. 

* TOLS aXoxiaiv Porphyry. 

^ Koi TavTL yej-KatVot ye Porphyry. 

" A frequently occurring quotation, attributed to Epi- 
charmus in Mor. 336 b (Kaibel, Corn. Graec. Frag, i, p. 137, 
330 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 961 

detail that had been neglected ; and this is the 
meaning of the saying " : 

Mind has sight and Mind has hearing ; 
Everything else is deaf and blind, 

indicating that the impact on eyes and ears brings 
no perception if the understanding is not present. 
For this reason also King Cleomenes, when a recital 
made at a banquet was applauded and he was asked 
if it did not seem excellent, replied that the others 
must judge, for his mind was in the Peloponnesus. 
So that, if we are so constituted that to have sensation 
we must have understanding, then it must follow 
that all creatures which have sensation can also 
understand. 

But let us grant that sensation needs no help of 
intelligence to perform its own function ; neverthe- 
less, when the perception that has caused an animal 
to distinguish between what is friendly and what 
is hostile is gone, what is it that from this time on 
remembers the distinction, fears the painful, and 
wants the beneficial ? And, if what it wants is not 
there, what is there in animals that devises means of 
acquiring it and providing lairs and hiding-places 
— both traps for prey and places of refuge from 
attackers ? And yet those very authors ^ rasp our 
ears by repeatedly defining in their Introductions ^ 
" purpose " as "an indication of intent to complete," 

frag. 249 ; Diels, Frag, der Vorsok. i, p. 200, frag. 12) ; see 
also Mor. 98 c and 975 b infra. The fullest interpretation 
is that of Schottlaender, Hermes, Ixii, pp. 437 f. ; and see 
also Wehrli's note, pp. 72 f. 

* The Stoics again : von Arnim, S.V.F. iii, p. 41, Chry- 
sippus, frag. 173 of the Ethica. 

" Or " elementary treatises " : titles used by Chrysippus 
(von Arnim, op. cit. ii, pp. 6 f. ; iii, p. 196). 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(961) eViTeAetojcreto?," ttJv S' " eTTL^oXrjv " " opjjir^v npo 
opfjLTJg," " 7TapaoK€vr]v " Sc " irpd^Lv rrpo npa- 
^fccos"," " {jLvrjjjL'qv " Se " KardXrjiptv d^LcojJLaros 
TTapeXrjXvdoTos , ov ro rrapov i^ alodrjoeajs Kare- 
X'q<f)dr]." TOVTOJV yap ovhev o n /xt) XoyiKov iuTLt 
/cat TTOLvra rots l,cx)ois VTrapx^i- TrdGLV wonep djjLeXeL 
Kal rd 7T€pL rds voijaets, a? ivaTTOKeLfxevas /xev 
D " evvoias " KaXovoi, KLVovpLevas 8e " Stavo-j^aet?." 
TO, hk TTaOrj GVfjiTTavTa Koivchs " Kpioeis (f)avXas Kal 
So^as " ofJioXoyovvreg elvau, davpLaoTov on hr] 
rrapopwoLv ev rols OrjpLOLg epya Kal Kiviqpiara 
TToXXd fJLev dvpLcJjv TToXXd he (f)6^cov Kal val pid} Ata 
(f)d6va>v Kal tpr^Xorvmwv avrol 8e Kal Kvvag dpuap- 
rdvovras Kal Ittttovs koXAI^ovgiv , ov hid Kcvrjs dAA' 

€771 UOJ^pOVLOpO), XvTTrjV hC dAyr^SoVOS" €/X7rOtOUVT€? 

avrols, t]v pLerdvotav 6vopLdi,opL€v. 

'Hhovrjs he rfj piev^ hi corcoy ovopia KijXr^ois ecrrt 
rfj he St' 6pipLdTa)v yorjreia' ^pdjvrai S' eKarepais^ 
€7tI rd Orjpia. K7]Xovvrai piev ydp^ eXacfiOi Kal 
E 17T7TOI avpiy^i Kal avXolg Kal rov? rrayovpovs eK 
Ttov -xripapLchv dvaKaXovvTai ^ial,6pLevoi rat? cfyco- 
Tty^t/ Kal rrjv dpiaaav dhovrcDV Kal Kporovvra>v 

^ val ixa\ VT) Porphyry. 

^ rfj fi€v . . . TTj 8e Bernardakis : tw ^kv . . . rw Se (t^? fikv . . . 
TTJs be Porphyry), 

^ e/carepat? Porphyry : eKarepois. 

* fxev yap Hirschig : ficv. 

^ ^Lal^Ofievoi Tois ^coriy^i] /xeAi^o/u.ei'ot tols avpiy^t. Porphyry. 

" That is, by sensation we apprehend the proposition 
" Socrates is snub-nosed," by memory the proposition 
" Socrates was snub-nosed." The literature on this com- 
plicated subject has been collected and analysed in Class. 
Rev. Ixvi (1952), pp. 146 f. 

332 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 961 

" design " as "an impulse before an impulse," " pre- 
paration " as " an act before an act," and " memory " 
as " an apprehension of a proposition in the past tense 
of which the present tense has been apprehended by 
perception." " For there is not one of these terms 
that does not belong to logic ; and the acts are all 
present in all animals as, of course, are cognitions 
which, while inactive, they call " notions," but when 
they are once put into action, " concepts." And 
though they admit that emotions one and all are 
" false judgements and seeming truths," ^ it is extra- 
ordinary that they obviously fail to note many things 
that animals do and many of their movements that 
show anger or fear or, so help me, envy or jealousy. 
They themselves punish dogs and horses that make 
mistakes, not idly but to discipline them ; they are 
creating in them through pain a feeling of sorrow, 
which we call repentance. 

Now pleasure that is received through the ears is 
a means of enchantment, while that which comes 
through the eyes is a kind of magic : they use both 
kinds against animals. For deer and horses ^ are 
bewitched by pipes and flutes, and crabs '^ are in- 
voluntarily lured from their holes by lotus pipes ^ ; 
it is also reported that shad A\'ill rise to the surface 

^ Cf. von Arnim, op. cit. i, pp. 50 f. ; ill, pp. 92 ff. ; see 
also Mor. 449 c. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, xii. 44, 46 ; Antigonus, 
Hist. Mirab. 29. 

^ Dolphins also are caught bv music : Plinv, Nat. Hist. 
xi. 137. 

* As described in Athenaeus, 182 e {cf. 175 e) ; cf. Aelian, 
De Natura Animal, vi. 31. " Better would be ' Egyptian 
flutes,' as the term ' lotus ' is somewhat misleading. It is 
probably the wood of the nettle-tree, Celtis australis, that is 
indicated " (Andrews). 

333 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(961) dvaSv€(jBai kcil Trpotevai XeyovoLV. 6 S' coro? av 
TrdXiv dXiuKerai yoriTevofievos, op^ovfjidvajv iv orpei 
jjLeO^ TjSovrjg dfia pvOfiw yAi;^o^ei'o? rov? cofJLOv? 
GvvhLaaTpe(f)eiv } 

01 Se 7T€pl rovTwv d^eXrepoDs Xeyovres pir]d^ rjSe- 
adai }Jir]re dvpLovadai lJir]re (fio^eloOai inqre napa- 
(7K€vd^€(j9aL pi-qre pLVit]ixov€V€iv , dXX " chaavel 
fivrjfioveveiv " rr]v /xeAtrrav /cat " wcravel rrapa- 
GK€vdt^€GdaL " rrfv "x^eXihova /cat " cbaavel Ovjxov- 
uOai " rov Xeovra /cat " ct>CTav€t (jyo^eluOai " rr^v 

F €Xa(f)ov, ovK olSa ri XRV^ovrai rolg XeyovGi p-rJTe^ 
jSAeVetv /xr^r' d/couetv aAA' " cocravet jSAeVetv " aurd 
/cat " cLaavel dKoveuv," fX'qSe (fiajvelv dAA' " woavel 
(fxxjvelv ," /XT^S' oXo)? l,rjv dAA' " (hoavel l,riv " • ravra 
yap e/C6tv6t)v ov fidXXov ion Xeyofieva Trapd ttjv 
ivdpyetav, co? iyoj TreldofjiaL. 

4. 2nKA. Kd/X€ roLVVV, cL Avro^ovXe, ravrd ye 

Tt^£t TTeidofievov rep Se rot? dvOpcoTrivois rjOecn 

962 /cat j3tot§- /cat irpd^eGL /cat StatVat? rd rcDv l,ci)OJV 

iraparidevai dXXrjv re ttoXXtjv ivopcov^ ^Xavporrjra 

/cat TT^s" dperrj?, npdg rjv 6 Adyos" yeyovc, firjSdv^ 

^ avvhLaorp4<j)€Lv Hubert (a^/ .\for. 70.5 a) : ei5 8ia(f>ep€Lv 
{avv8La(f>€p€Li>) Kronenberg:). 

2 /xT7Te . . . fjL-qr' Hirschig : /iTySe . . . /litjS'. 

^ €vopu)v Bernardakis from Porphyry : iv oXco. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, vi. 32 ; Athenaeus, 328 f, 
on the trichis, which is a kind of thrissa {cf. Athenaeus, 
328 e) ; and see Mair on Oppian, Hal. i. 24-t (L.C.L.)- 

* (/. Mor. 5-2 B (where the L.C.L., probably wrongly, 
reads "the ape"); 705 a; Athenaeus, 390 f; Aelian, 
De jVafura Animal, xv. 28 ; Pliny, Nat. Hint. x. 68 ; Aris- 
totle, Historia Animal, viii. 13 (597 b 22 ff.) and the other 
334> 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 961-962 

and approach when there is singing and clapping." 
The horned owl,^ again, can be caught by the magic 
of movement, as he strives to twist his shoulders in 
delighted rhythm to the movements of men dancing 
before him. 

As for those who foolishly affirm that animals do 
not feel pleasure or anger or fear or make prepara- 
tions or remember, but that the bee "as it were " '^ 
remembers and the swallow " as it w^ere " prepares her 
nest and the lion " as it w^ere " grows angry and the 
deer "as it were " is frightened — I don't know what 
they \vill do about those who say that beasts do not 
see or hear, but " as it were " hear and see ; that they 
have no cry but " as it were " ; nor do they live at all 
but "as it were." For these last statements (or so I 
believe) are no more contrary to plain evidence than 
those that they have made. 

4. socLARUS. Well, Autobulus, you may count me 
also as one who believes your statements ; yet on 
comparing the ways of beasts with human customs 
and lives, with human actions and manner of living, 
I find not only many other defects in animals, but 
this especially : they do not explicitly aim at virtue,^ 
for which purpose reason itself exists ; nor do they 

references of Hubert at 3Ior. 705 a and Gulick on Athe- 
naeus, 629 f. Contrast Aelian, Be Xatura Animal, i. 39, on 
doves. Porphyry omits this sentence. 

'^ A favourite expression of Aristotle's ; but it is the Stoics 
who are being reproved here {cf. von Arnim, S. V.F. ii, p. 
240, Chrysippus, frag. 887). This seems to be the only 
appearance of the word in Plutarch, unless Pohlenz is right 
in conjecturing it at Mar. 600 f, or Rasmus at 1054 c in 
other Stoic quotations. 

'^ On animals possessing arete see Aelian's preface to the 
first book of De Natura Animal. ; cf. also Mor. 986 f 
infra ; al. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(962) €fjL(f)avrj^ GTOxo.ofx6v aurtui' fi-qhe TrpoKOTTiji' /X7^S' 
ope^iv, OLTTopa) ttlos t] (f)VGL? ehojKe ttjv a.p-)(T]v av- 
Tot?/ eVt TO reAo? e^iKeuOai pLTj Suva/xeVot?. 

ATT. 'AAAa Tovro fjikv ovh^ avroZs €K€lvol?, to 
^(jjKXape, rols dvSpdoiv dronov etvaL Sok€L' ttjv 
yovv Trpos rd €Kyova cficXoGTopylav dp)(riv fiev riplv 
Koivojvias Koi SiKaLoovvr)? ridepievoi, TToXXrjv Se 
TOiS ^cvoig Kal luxvpdv opdjvres Trapovaav, ov 
B (f)aGLV avTolg ouS' d^tovGL ixereZvai hiKaLou-uvrjs . 
rjfjLLOvotg Se tcov yevvrjTLKcuv fioplajv ovSev eVSet* 
Kal ydp alSola Kal /XT^rpa? Kal to xprjadac /xe^' 
TjSovrjs TOVTOLS e)(ovoai rrpos to reAos" ovk I^ikvovv- 
rat Tr\g yevioecos.^ OKOirei 8' aAAco?, /xt7 Kal /cara- 
yeXaoTOV ccrrt tov? Soj/cpara? Kal tovs WXdTCovas 
ovhev iXa(f)poT€pa KaKta tov tv^ovto? dvSpaTToSov 
(jvv€Lvai ^acr/cetv/ dAA' opioiws d(j)povas elvai Kal 
dKoXdoTovs Kal dhiKovs, ctra rcov drjptwv alTidoB ai 

TO jjirj Kadapov'' /X7;8' d7T7]KpLpa>IJL€VOV TTpOS dp€TrjV 

CO? aTeprjGLV^ ovxl (f)avX6Tr]Ta Xoyov Kal doOeveiav, 
Kal TavTa ttjv' KaKiav opLoXoyovvTas elvai XoyLKTjV, 
C TjS Trdv drjplov dvarrerrXrjOTai' Kal ydp heiXiav ttoX- 
Xols Kal dKoXaGLav dhiKiav re Kal KaKovoiav^ 
6pd)(i€V ivvTrdpxovGav .^ 6 S' afttov to ptrj 7T€<^vk6s 
opdoTTjTa Xoyov hex^Gdai pnqhk Xoyov Sex^Gdat^'^ 

^ €fi(f)avrj Porj)iiyrv : eiJ.<f)T]vr). 

^ avTOLs] Tols Porphyry. 

^ yeveacajg] ycvvijcews Hartnian. 

■* (jjaoKCLv Porphyry : (fydoKovras. 

^ Kadapoi'] KaddpeLov Kronenberg:. 

* tus- GTip-quLv Porphyry : wo-ncp. 

' Kal Tavra Trjv I'orphyry : Kal ravrrjv. 

* KaKovoLav Porphyry : KaKor/dciav. 

^ ivvTrdpxovaav Meziriacus : vndpxovaav. 

^" fiT^Se Xoyov Bex^adat added by Porphyry's mss. 

336 



THE CLEA^ERNESS OF ANIMALS, 962 

make any progress in virtue or have any bent for it ; 
so that I fail to see how Nature can have given them 
even elementary reason, seeing that they cannot 
achieve its end. 

AUTOBULUS. But neither does this, Soclarus, seem 
absurd to those very opponents of ours ; for while 
they postulate that love of one's offspring " is the 
very foundation of our social life and administration 
of justice, and observe that animals possess such love 
in a very marked degree, yet they assert and hold 
that animals have no part in justice. Now mules ^ 
are not deficient in organs ; they have, in fact, 
genitals and wombs and are able to use them with 
pleasure, yet cannot attain the end of generation. 
Consider another approach : is it not ridiculous to 
keep affirming that men like Socrates and Plato ^ are 
involved in vice no less vicious than that of any slave 
you please, that they are just as foolish and intemper- 
ate and unjust, and at the same time to stigmatize 
the alloyed and imprecise virtue of animals as absence 
of reason rather than as its imperfection or weakness ? 
And this, though they acknowledge that vice is 
a fault of reason and that all animals are infected 
with vice : many, in fact, we observe to be guilty of 
cowardice and intemperance, injustice and malice. 
He, then, who holds that what is not fitted by na- 
ture to receive the perfection of reason does not even 

^ See Mor. 495 c and the whole fragment, De Amove 
Prolis (493 a— 497 e). 

^ Cf. Aristotle, De Generatione Animal, ii. 7 (746 b 15 IF.), 
ii. 8 (747 a 23 ff.) : for Aristotle's criticism of Empedocles' 
theory see H. Cherniss, Aristotle's Criticism of the Pre- 
socratics, p. 143, n. 573. Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 173, mentions 
some cases of the fertility of mules, see also Cicero, De 
Divinatione, i. 36: ii. 49 : Herodotus, iii. 151 if. 

" Cf. Cicero, De Finibus, iv. 21. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(902) rrpoJTOv fxev ovSev hiac^epei rov ynqre Trid-qKov 
alay^ovs cf)V(J€L fxerex^i-v 1^'^']^^ ■)(eX(jjvriv ^paSvrrjrog 
a^LovvTog, ort fii-jSe kolXXous iTTiSeKTiKo, fj.'qhe rd- 
Xov? eoTiv €7T€LTa Trjv hLa(j)opdv eyiTTohojv ovoav ov 
ovvopa- Xoyos j-iev yap iyylveraL ^voei, orrovhaZos 
he Xoyos kol reXeios i^ eVijLteAeta? Kal StSacr/caAtas" 
8i6^ rod XoyiKov ttolgl rolg epuipv^ois [jl€T€gtlv. rjv 
8e l,rjTovoLV opdorrjra Kal oo^iav ou8' avOpojTTov 
elneZv KeKriqpiivov exovoLv." co? yap^ oipeojg eari 
D TTpo? oipLV Stacfyopa Kal 7TT7]G€a>£ rrpos TTrrjOLV [o-u 
yap ofJLOLOjg lepaKes ^XIttovol Kal remyes ovS* 
derol Trirovrai Kal TrepStKes), ovrcxjs ovhe Travrl 

XoyiKO) IJL€T€GTLV (IjGaVTOJS TTJS evpOjJLeVTjS* TO CLKpOV 

evorpo^ias Kal o^vrrjros' inel Sety/xara y€ ttoXXcl 
KOLVcovias Kal dvhpeias Kal rov rravovpyov TTcpl 
Tovs TTopLGfiovs Kal Tct? oiKovofjiLa? , coGTTep av Kal 
ra)v ivavrLOJv, dSiKta? SciAta? d^eXreplag, eveoTLV 
avTols. Kal fiaprvpel ro vvvl TreTTOLTjKos ev rots 
veavLGKOLS TTjv dfiiXXav ojs yap ovgtjs tlvos hia- 
(f)opd?, OL jJLEV rd ;)(epo-ata </)acrtv ol Se rd OaXdoGca 
E jJLaXXov TTporjxOat (f)VG€L Trpos dperrjv o hr] Kal 
SrjXov 6GTL, TTapa^aXXofxevcov neXapyols lttttojv 
TTOTa/xtojv {ol fxev ydp rpe(j}ovGi rovg Trarepag, ol 8* 

dTTOKTLVVVOVGLV tVtt TO,? jXTjTepaS O;)(6l^60Crt) Kal 7T€pL- 

^ 8l6 Porphyry : 8ta. 

2 exovoLv] Porphyry adds Kav ixvpioi Be oJoiv. 

^ cos yap Meziriacus : wonep. 

* evpofievTjs] hexofievqs Porphyry. 

" Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 54. 

^ Cf. Cicero, De Xafnra Deorvm, ii. 13. 34. 

" Cf. 99:2 D infra. 

338 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 962 

receive any reason at all is, in the first place, no 
better than one who asserts tliat apes are not natur- 
ally ugly or tortoises naturally slow for the reason 
that they are not capable of possessing beauty or 
speed. In the second place, he fails to observe the 
distinction which is right before his eyes : mere 
reason is implanted by nature, but real and perfect 
reason ^ is the product of care and education. And 
this is why every living creatm-e has the faculty of 
reasoning ; but if what they seek is true reason and 
wisdom, not even man may be said to possess it.^ 
For as one capacity for seeing or flying differs from 
another (hawks and cicadas do not see alike, nor do 
eagles and partridges fly alike), so also not every 
reasoning creature has in the same way a mental 
dexterity or acumen that has attained perfection. 
For just as there are many examples in animals of 
social instincts and bravery and ingenuity in ways 
and means and in domestic arrangements, so, on 
the other hand, there are many examples of the oppo- 
site : injustice, cowardliness, stupidity.'^ And the very 
factor which brought about our young men's contest 
to-day provides confirmation. It is on an assumption 
of difference that the two sides assert, one that land 
animals, the other that sea animals, are naturally 
more advanced toward virtue. This is clear also if 
you contrast hippopotamuses '^ with storks ^ : the 
latter support their fathers, while the former kill 
them ■'' in order to consort with their mothers. The 

^ Cf. Herodotus, ii. 71 ; Aristotle, Historia Animal, ii. 7 
{502 a 9-15), though the latter passage may be interpolated. 
Porphyry reads " contrast river-horses with land-horses." 

' Cf. Aristotle, op. cit. ix. 13 (615 b 23 if.) ; Aelian, De 
Natura Animal, iii. 23 ; Philo, 61 (p. 129). 

f And eat them : Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 19. 

339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(902) orepals TrepdLKcvv ol fikv yap d(f)avl^ovoL ra cod /cat 
hLa(f)deLpovoL, rr^s OrjXeiag, orav eVtod^i^, ^7^ rrpoo- 
Sexo/JLevq?^ rrjv 6)(^eiav, ol 8e /cat StaSep^ovrat rrjv eVt- 
fxeXeiaVy ev fxepet ddXrrovres rd chd /cat i/jajfjLL^ovGL 
rrporepoi rd veoma, /cat tt^v ^i^Aetav, edv rrXeiova 
■^povov diTOTTXavrjOfj , kotttojv 6 dpprjv ctcreAawet 
F TTpds rd (l)d /cat roijs veorrov?. ovois he /cat irpo- 
^droLS WvrLTTarpo? ey/caAojv oXiycopLav Kadapioriq- 
ros ovK otS' OTTO)?" TTapelhe rds Auy/ca?^ /cat ret? 
;)(eAt3oyas', cuv at /Ltev iKrorril^ovoL TravrdTraui Kpvir- 
rovoai /cat d</)avt^oucrat to Auy/cou/otov/ at 8e X^'^'-" 
h6v€s €^oj orpe(f)Ojjievovs SiSdoKovai rov^ veorrovs 
d(/)teVat TO 7T€pLrrajfjLa.^ 

KatVot Sid Tt SevSpov SevSpov^ ov Xeyofiev dfia- 
deorepov, w? Kvvog Trpo^arov ovSe Xaxdvov Xd)(avov 
963 dvai'SpoTepoi', co? 6Xa(f)ov Xeovros ; r) KaddTrep ev 
Tot? aKLV-qroL? erepov erepov ^pahvrepov ovk eoriv 
ovhe jiLKpo^wvorepov ev rots dvavhoi?, ovrw? ov8e 
heiXorepov' ovhe vcudporepov ovS^ dKparearepov , 
ols^ pLTj (f)VGeL rrdoiv^ tj rod (j^povelv ^vvapus ; dXXois 

^ So Porphyry : ra^ OrjXeias, orav eVoja^ojaii' ov irpoahexo- 
fjL€vas. 

- otS' oTTcos Nauck : olba ttws (otSev ottcos Porphyry). 

^ XvyKas Hercher : Xvyyas. 

* XvyKovpiov Nauck : Xvyyovpiov. 

^ TTepLTTOjfia Porphyry : Trepirrevpia. 

" SeVSpou Se'i'Spor Benseler : hevhpov bevSpov. 

"^ SeiXoTcpov Porphyry : Seivorepov. 

® ols] 07T0V Porphyry. ^ -ndaLv] TrapeaTiv Reiske. 

" Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, vi. 4 {562 b 17) ; Aelian, 
De Natura Animal, iii. 45. 

" Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 8 (613 b 27 ff.) ; 
Aelian, J)e Natura Animal, iii. 16, and cf. iv. 1,16; of pea- 
cocks in Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 161. 

34>0 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 962-963 

same is true if you compare doves " with partridges ^ ; 
for the partridge cock steals the eggs and destroys 
them since the female %\dll not consort with him 
while she is sitting, whereas male doves assume a 
part in the care of the nest, taking turns at keeping 
the eggs warm and being themselves the first to feed 
the fledglings : and if the female happens to be away 
for too long a time, the male strikes her with his 
beak and drives her back to her eggs or squabs. And 
while Antipater ^ was reproaching asses and sheep 
for their neglect of cleanliness, I don't know how he 
happened to overlook lynxes and swallows ^ ; for 
lynxes dispose of their excrement by concealing and 
doing away ■s\'ith it, while swallows teach their nest- 
lings to turn tail and void themselves outward. 

Why, moreover, do we not say that one tree is less 
intelligent than another, as a sheep is by compari- 
son ^vith a dog ; or one vegetable more cowardly than 
another, as a stag is by comparison with a lion ? Is 
the reason not that, just as it is impossible to call one 
immovable object slower than another, or one dumb 
thing more mute than another, so among all the crea- 
tures to whom Nature has not given the faculty of 
understanding, we cannot say that one is more coward- 
ly or more slothful or more intemperate ? \\Tiereas it 

" Von Arnim, S.V.F. iii, p. 251, Antipater of Tarsus, 
frag. 47. We know from Plutarch's ^ictla Physira, 38 that 
Antipater wrote a book on animals. On the other hand, 
Dyroff {Blatter f. d. Bay. Gymn. xxiii, 1897, p. 403) argued 
for Antipater of Tyre ; he believed, in fact, that the present 
work was mainly directed against this Antipater. Schuster, 
op. cit. p. 77, has shown this to be unlikely. 

<* Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 7 (612 b 30 f.) ; Plu- 
tarch," Mor. 727 d-e ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 92 ; Philo, 22 
(p. 111). 

341 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

(963) S' aAAcos" Kara to fidWov koi -iqrrov rrapovaa ras 
opojfxeva? 8ta^opa? 7r€7roirjK€v. 

5. 2fiKA. 'AAAci davfjLaGTOV oaov dvOpcoTTo? ev- 
jxad^Lo} /cat dy)(^LVoia koi rols Trepl hiKaioGVvrjv /cat 
KOLVCtiviav hia^ipet ra)v ^ojcov. 

ATT. Kat yap eKeivajv, c5 iralpe, 77oAAa rovro 
fiev fieyedeu /cat TroSco/ceta rovro S' oipecog pcojLtr^ 
/cat a.Korjs d/cpt^eta rravras dvBpoJTTOvs a.77oAeAot7rev 
dAA' OX) hid rovro rvcf)X6?^ ovS^ dSvvarog ou8' 
B dcoro?^ 6 dvdpcjOTTo? lurLV dAAd /cat deofJLev el /cat 
^pahvrepov iXd(f)a)v, /cat jSAeTio/xer et /cat ')(€.lpov 
lepaKLov'^- lo^vos re Kat p.€yi6ovs rj (j)Vois rjfjLd? ovk 
d7T€Gr€p7]0€v, Kairoi ro pirjSev iv rovrots rrpos e'Ae- 
<f)avra /cat Kdfi7]Xov dvras. ovkovv opioicos pnqhk 
rd drjpla Xeycopiev, et vojdporepov (fypovel /cat /cct/ctov 
Stavoctrat, ^7] hiavoelodai pi'qSe (^povelv 6Xoj£ pLrjSe 
K€KrrjodaL Aoyov, dadevrj Se KeKrrjodaL /cat doXepov, 
wGTTep 6(f)6aXp6v dpL^Xvwrrovra /cat rerapaypievov . 
€t 8e /XT] TioAAd rovs veaviGKovs avriKa hrj /xdAa 
rrpoGehoKOJv rdv pkv e/c yrjs rov 8' e/c OaXdrrr^s 
C evravda GwepavLoeiv,^ 4>iXoX6yovs /cat (f)iXoypap.- 
pidrovs ovras, ovk dv dTreaxopirjv ooi^ pLvpia pLev 
evpiadeias pLvpla S' €V(f)vtas rrapaheiypLara dr]picxjv 
StrjyovpLevos, cLv d/xat? /cat OKdcfyais rjp-lv e/c rcHv 

^ ei)/ua^eta Porphyry : ein^dela. 

2 kcjo4>6s ovSe TV(f)X6s Por})hyry. 

^ ouS' aojTo? omitted by Porphyry. 

^ deofiev . . . ^Xdnofiev ei Kal x^^P*^^ UpaKOJv] added from 
Por]ihyry ; the 3iss. of Phitarch have only x^ipov UpaKcov 
or ;^eipc£»v Kal ofXfjLdTcov. 

^ awepavielv ? 

* CTot Bernardakis : aov. 

342 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 963 

is the presence of understanding, of one kind in one 
animal, of another kind in another, and in varying 
degree, that has produced the observable differences. 

5. socLARUS. Yet it is astonishing how greatly man 
surpasses the animals in his capacity for learning and 
in sagacity and in the requirements of justice and 
social life. 

AUTOBULUS. There are in fact, my friend, many 
animals which surpass all men, not only in bulk and 
swiftness, but also in keen sight and sharp hearing '^ ; 
but for all that man is not blind or crippled or ear- 
less. We can run, if less swiftly than deer ; and 
see, if less keenly than hawks ; nor has Nature de- 
prived us of strength and bulk even though, by 
comparison with the elephant and the camel, we 
amount to nothing in these matters.^ In the same 
way, then, let us not say of beasts that they are 
completely lacking in intellect and understanding 
and do not possess reason even though their under- 
standing is less acute and their intellect inferior to 
ours ; what we should say is that their intellect is 
feeble and turbid, like a dim and clouded eye. And 
if I did not expect that our young men, learned and 
studious as they are, would very shortly present us 
here, one with a large collection of examples drawn 
from the land, the other %dth his from the sea, I 
should not have denied myself the pleasure of giving 
you countless examples of the docility and native 
capacity of beasts — of which fair Rome ^ has provided 
us a reservoir from which to draw in pails and buckets, 

" Cf. Alexander of Aphrodisias, De Fato, 21 ; Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. viii. 10 ; x. 191. 

^ Pliny, Xat. Hist. ii. 145, reports a singular deduction 
from this theme ; see also Seneca, Be Beneficiis, ii. 29. 1. 

'^ See, for example, 968 c, e infra. 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(963) ^okjlXlkcJov apvoaodai Oedrpcov rj KaXrj 'PcajJir) rrap- 
lox^Ke. ravra fiev ovv eKeivoLS vcapa /cat ddiKra 
TTpos rov Xoyov eyKaXXcLtTriaaoBai KaraXeLTTWjJLev . 

BovXofiaL 8e jXiKpov n fierd gov GKeipaodai Kad^ 
r)GVX^OLV. ot/xat yap Ihtav tlvol fxepovs eKaoTOV kol 
hvvdpeojs (f)avX6TrjTa kol Tn]pcoaLV etvai Kal vogov, 
a)G7T€p 6(f)daXiJLov TV(f)X6r7]Ta Kal GKeXovs p^coAorT^ra 
Kal ijjeXXoTTjTa yXwGGrjs, dXXov hk fin^Sevos' ov yap 
CGTi TV(j)X6rris fjLTj 7T€<J)vk6tos opdv ovhk ■^(ijjXoTris 
fjLT] TTecfiVKOTos ^ahl^^LV, ipeXXov re rwv dyXojGGOJV 

D 7) Twv dvavhoiv cf)VG6L rpavXov ovSev dv TrpoGeLTTois' 
ovKovv ovSe TTapaTTaZov 7) rrapacfypovovv rj jtxatvo- 
fjLevov, o) fiT) TO (j)pov€iv Kal^ SiavocLGdaL Kal Xoyl- 
t,€GBai Kara <J)Vglv VTTrjpx^v' ov yap €gtlv iv nrdBei^ 
yeveodai fir) K€Kr7]fji€Vov SvvajJLLV rjs rd TrdOos rj 
GreprjGiS rj TTTjpwGLS ij rt? dXXrj KdKOJGig rjv^ dXXd 
firjv ivreTVxrjKdg ye XvrrdjGais kvglv, iyd) Se'* Kal 
1777701?" €VLOL 8e cf)aGL Kal ^ov? /xatVeCT^at Kal aXw- 
7T€Kas' dpKel Se rd rcov kvvojv, o dvaiJL(f)LG^rjrr]rdv 
ian, Kal {laprvpel Xdyov e'x^tv Kal dtdvotav ov 
(f)avXr]v rd ^d)ov, rjs raparrofxevrjs Kal Gvyx^ofxevrjs 

E rj Xeyofievr] Xvrra kol fxavla Trddos eGriv ovre yap 
difjiv dXXoLovfjL€vr]v avrdJv^ ovr^ aKorjV dpajfjuev aAA' 
cjGTTep dvOpojTTov {JieXayxoXdjvro? rj rrapaKOTTrovros 
o jxrj Xeycov e^eardvai Kal hie<j)dopevaL rd (fypovovv 
Kal Aoyt^o/xevov Kal fivrjfxovevov dr ottos CGrt {Kal 
yap rj Gvvrjdeia ravrd ye Karrjyopet rwv napa- 

^ Kal Porphyry : rj. 

2 eV TrddcL Porphyry : ivnades. 

^ ■^v] iOTLv Porphyry. 

* iyoj 8e] en hk Porphyry. ^ avrol^ Porphyry. 

" So too, perhaps, wolves in Theocritus, iv. 11. 
344 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 963 

as it were, from the imperial spectacles. Let us 
leave this subject, therefore, fresh and untouched 
for them to exercise their art upon in discourse. 

There is, however, one small matter which I should 
like to discuss with you quietly. It is my opinion 
that each part and faculty has its own particular 
weakness or defect or ailment which appears in 
nothing else, as blindness in the eye, lameness in the 
leg, stuttering in the tongue. There can be no 
blindness in an organ which was not created to see, 
or lameness in a part which was not designed for 
walking ; nor would you ever describe an animal 
without a tongue as stuttering, or one voiceless by 
nature as inarticulate. And in the same way you 
would not call delirious or witless or mad anything 
that was not endowed by Nature with reason or intelli- 
gence or understanding ; for it is impossible to ail 
where you have no faculty of which the ailment is 
a deficiency or loss or some other kind of impair- 
ment. Yet certainly you have encountered mad 
dogs, and I have also known of mad horses ; and 
there are some who say that cattle and foxes also go 
mad." But dogs ^vill do, since no one questions the 
fact in their case, which provides e\'idence that the 
creature possesses reason and a by no means despi- 
cable intellectual faculty. What is called rabies and 
'madness is an ailment of that faculty when it becomes 
disturbed and disordered. For we observe no de- 
rangement either of the dogs' sight or of their hear- 
ing ; yet, just as when a human being suffers from 
melancholy or insanity, anyone is absurd who does 
not admit that it is the organ that thinks and reasons 
and remembers which has been displaced or damaged 
(we habitually say, in fact, of madmen that they " are 

34>5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(963) (f>povovvT(x>i' fiT] elvat Trap' avTols aAA' €K7T€7ttoj- 
Kevai Tcbv Xoyiofjiwv), ovrojg 6 rovg XvTTcovTag 
Kvvag d'AAo n TreTTovdevai voiJiLi,cx)v dAA' ovxl ro) 
(fypovelv necfyvKOTi^ /cat Xoyl^eaOaL /cat iJ,vr)iJiov€V€LV 
dva7T€7TXr]G[jL€i>ovs Tapaxrj? /cat TrapaTreTraiKoras 
F ayvoeZv rd ^tArara TTpoGOJira /cat (j>€vyeiv ras 
Gvvrp6(f)ovg Statras", rj Trapopdv ro (fyauvofxevov 
€OLK€v Tj avvopcov^ TO yivojjievov i^ avrov <J)lXov€i- 
K€LV TTpos rrjv dXrjOeLav. 

6. 20KA. ^Opdws l-ioL So/cet? VTTovoelv' ol yap 
0,770 rr\s ILrods /cat rod WepiTrdrov fxaXiara npos 
TovvavTLOv ivreiVovTat ro) Xoyco, rrjs hiKaiOGvvrjs 
tot' dv^ yev€GLV ovk ixoxjurjs, dXXd TTavrdTraaiv 
964 davordrov /cat dvvirdpKrov yivofj.^vqs, et Traat rot? 
^aJot? Adyof ixireorf ytVerat yap tj to dSt/cetv 
dvayKaZov r)[MV dcfyeiSovaiv avrwv, t) (jlt] xpf^P'^^OLS* 
TO i,rjv dSvvaTov /cat dnopov /cat Tponov rtm 
OrjpLOJV ^Lov ^LCDGOfJieOa, rd? dTrd rcDv drjplojv rrpo- 
e/.ievot ;^petas". d(f)L'qiJLi yap No/xdScoy /cat TpcoyAo- 
Surdjy dv€^€vp€Tovs dpidfjici) [ivpidSaSy ot Tpo(f)7]v 
odpKas d'AAo 8' ouScv to-ao-tv dAA' T^jLttv rots" "jj/xe- 
pojs" /cat <j)iXav6 pcjjTTOJS ^rjv hoKovui ttolov epyov 
aTToAetWrat yr^s", ttolov iv BaXdTTTj, rt? ii^aepios^ 
Te-xyrj, tis KOGfJLO? StatVi]?, di^ cvs TrpoGrjKet Aoyt- 
/cot? /cat OfJLocfivXoLS TTaoi TOLS t,ci)0LS ovoLV d^Xa^ibs 
B /cat jLter' evXa^eias TTpoa^epeodai fidOajpiev, epyov 
eoTLV elnelv. ovSev ovv (f)dpiJiaKov ovS^ 'iajxa ttjs 

^ Tov (f>pov€lv 7Te(f)VK6Tos . • . dvaTTeTrXTjafxevov . . . TrapaTreTTTU)- 
KOTos (It'g". TTapaiTCTTaLKOTog) Porphyry. 

^ iQ avvopuiv Porphyry : /xt) avvopcjv. 

^ TOT av W. C. H. after Post (It' av) : crcpav. 

** ;)^paj/xeVot9 Porphyry : ;^pa)/xerajv aurot?. 

^ eVaepios Post : eV opeat (evapyrjs Porphyry). 
346 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 963-964 

not themselves," but have " fallen out of then* wits "), 
just so, whoever believes that rabid dogs have any 
other ailment than an affliction of their natural organ 
of judgement and reason and memory so that, when 
this has become infected with disorder and insanity, 
they no longer recognize beloved faces and shun 
their natural haunts — such a man, I say, either must 
be disregarding the evidence or, if he does take note 
of the conclusion to which it leads, must be quarrel- 
ling ^^•ith the truth. ^ 

6. socLARUS. Your inference seems quite justified. 
For the Stoics ^ and Peripatetics strenuously argue 
on the other side, to the effect that justice could 
not then come into existence, but would remain 
completely ^v^thout form or substance, if all the 
beasts partake of reason. For <^ either we are neces- 
sarily unjust if we do not spare them ; or, if we 
do not take them for food, life becomes impracticable 
or impossible ; in a sense we shall be living the life 
of beasts once we give up the use of beasts.^' I omit 
the numberless hosts of Nomads and Troglodytes who 
know no other food but flesh. As for us who believe 
our lives to be civilized and humane, it is hard 
to say what pursuit on land or sea, what aerial art,^ 
what refinement of living, is left to us if we are to 
learn to deal innocently and considerately Avith all 
creatures, as we are bound to if they possess reason 
and are of one stock with us. So we have no help or 

" The Stoics again : cf. Galen, De Hippocratis et Platonis 
Placitis, V. 1 (p. 431 Kiihn). 

^ Von Arnim, S. V.F. iii, p. 90. 

" From this point to the end of chapter 6 (964. c) the text 
is quoted by Porphyry, De Abstinentia, i. 4-6 (pp. 88-89, ed. 
Xauck) : cf. the note on 959 f supra. ^ Cf. Mor. 86 d. 

* That is beasts, fish, and fowl in earth, sea, and air, 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(964) '>) TOP ^Lov avaipovGTjs rj rrjv hLKaioovvqv arropias 
€)(oixev,^ av firj rov apx^lov opov koL vo/jlov (jyvXdr- 
TOJfjLev, (I) Kad^ 'HgloSov 6^ ras </»ucret? SieXojv Kal 
Oefxevo? ISla ra)v yevcov eKarepov 

LxOvGL fiev Kal drjpal Kal olajvols 7T€T€7^voIs 
eudeiv dXX-qXovg , cVet ov Slkt] ecrrt /xer' avrol^, 

dvdpCOTTOLGL 8' €.h(JJK€. SlKTJV 

TTpos dAAT^Aous". ot? S' ovK €GTL TO^ hLKaioTTpayelv 
TTpog rjfxds, ouS' rjiilv Trpo? eVetva ytWrat ro 
dSiKelv CO? ot ye rovrov Trpoifievoi rov Xoyov ol't* 
C evpelav^ dXXrjv ovre XiTrjv^ rfj SiKaiOGvvr) TrapeiGcX- 
deZv ohov 0,770 AcAotVacrt. 

7. ATT. Taura /xeV, oj (^iXe " rdTTo Kaphias "* 
i^eLprjKas- ou fJLTjv horiov, ajGrrep hvGTOKovGaLS 
yvvai^L, vepidifjaGdaL roXs (f)iXoG6(l)oi? (Lkvtoklov, 
Lva paSlcog Kal draXanTOjpojs to hiKaiov rjpiv drro- 
T€Ka>GLi'. ovSe yap avrol ro) ^l^mKovpco 8tSoa- 
GLV vrrkp rcbv pLeytGrcov GpuKpov ovrco Trpdypia 
Kal cf)avX.ov, drofjiov TrapeyKXlvai /xtav irrl rovXd- 
Xt(yTov, oTTwg aGTpa Kal t,oja Kara rv^r^v' rrapeiG- 
eXOrj Kal to 6</)' tjijllv [jltj dvoXr^TaL' SeiKvvvaL Se 
TO dS'qXov Tj XajJL^dveiv n tojv rrpoh-qXwv KeXevovGi 

^ €;^o/Ltev Diibner : ov8ev exofMev. 

2 o] o Zeu? Porphyry : omitted by most mss. 

^ TO Porphyry : tl. 

* ovT^ cvpelav Porphyry : ovre ;(petai'. 

^ Xlttji'] XeiTTTju Porphyry. 

® Kapbiag W. C H. : KapSias rcov dvSpoJv. 

' Kara rvxr]v Sandbach : Krai tvxt]. 

" Works and Days, 217-279 ; cf. Aeliaii, De Natura 
Animal, vi. 50 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 43. 

348 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 964 

cure for this dilemma which either deprives us of Ufe 
itself or of justice, unless we do preserve that ancient 
limitation and law by which, according to Hesiod," 
he who distinguished the natural kinds and gave 
each class its special domain : 

To fish and beasts and winged birds allowed 
Licence to eat each other, for no right 
Exists among them ; right, he gave to men 

for dealing with each other. Those who know nothing 
of right action toward us can receive no wrong from 
us either.^ For those who have rejected this argu- 
ment have left no path, either broad or narrow, by 
which justice may slip in. 

7. AUTOBULUS. This, my friend, has been spoken 
" from the heart." ^ We certainly must not allow 
philosophers, as though they were women in difficult 
labour, to put about their necks a charm for speedy 
delivery so that they may bring justice to birth for 
us easily and without hard labour. For they them- 
selves do not concede to Epicurus,^ for the sake of the 
hiofhest considerations, a thino; so small and triflinor as 
the slightest deviation of a single atom — which would 
permit the stars and living creatures to slip in by 
chance and would preserve from destruction the 
principle of free will. But, seeing that they bid him 
demonstrate whatever is not obvious or take as his 
starting-point something that is obvious, how are they 

** This seems to have been Plutarch's own attitude toward 
the question, at least later on in life : see Life of Cato Malor, 
V. 2 (339 a). 

" Cf. Euripides, frag. 412 (Xauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 
p. 486) ; quoted more completely in Mor. 63 a. 

** Usener, Epicurea, p. 351: see Bailev on Lucretius, ii. 
216 ff. ; Mor. 1015 B-c. 

349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(964) TTcog^ Koi TTpoGtjKei TO TTcpl rchv l,a)(j)v viroTiOeoOai 
TTpog rr)v 8LKaLOGvv7]v, el jx-qd^ oixoXoyelrai {i-^r* 

U aAAco? oiTToSeLKvvovGLV ; €X€i yap irepav obov eKeZ 
TO hiKaiov ov (JcfyaXepav /cat TTapaKpy^iJLVov ovtoj /cat 
Sia Tojv evapycbv dvarpeTTOfievajv^ ayovuav, aXX rjv, 
riAaroji^o? V(f)r)yoviJL€Vov, SeiKWOLV ovjjlos vlog, a) 
T.coKXape , CTO? S' iraXpog, roXg pLTj (fiiXofiaxelv eVe- 
CT^at Se /cat jjLavddveLv ^ovXofievots. eVet to ye fxrj 
TTavTairaoL Kadapeveiv dSt/ctas" tov dudpcuTTOv ovtoj 
TOL t,(x)a jieTax^Lpit^ofievov 'E/XTreSo/cAr^? /cat 'Hpa- 
KXeiTOS CO? dX-qOes TrpoohexovTat, TroXXd-ag oSvpo- 
fjLevoL /cat AotSopouvre? ttjv cf)V<JLV, tus" dvdyKr^v /cat 

E TToXefiov ovcraVy djJLiyeg Se pi'qSev fJirjS^ etXiKptveg 
exovorav dXXd Sid ttoXXcov KdSiKOJW^ rraOwv Trepatuo- 
lievqv OTTOV /cat Trjv yeveaiv avTrjv i^ dSuKias 
avvTvyxdveiv Xeyovcn, tco OvrjTcp crvvepxofxevov tov 
dOavdTov, /cat TpecfyeaOai* to yevvcxJixevov^ rrapd 
(f)VGLV pieXeGi^ TOV yevvijaavTos dTTOGTTcojjievoLg. 

Ov jJLTjV dXXd TavTa jiev a/cpara /cat niKpd (/>at- 
verat /cara/copcos" eVepa S' IgtIv ejJbjjieXrj? Trapiq- 
yopia, jjLT^Te TOiv l^cpojv tov Xoyov d(f)aLpovpLevr) /cat 
ocpt,ovGa ;)^pajjU,eVajv avTols cos' rrpoG-qKeL to St/catov 
rjv Tcov GO(f)a)v /cat TraAattoi^ ecGayovTcvv^ auardcra 
AatjLtapyta /xe^' r^Sviradeias e^e^aXe /cat rj(f)dvLaev, 

^ KcXevovoL TTcos acldcd by Sandbach after Usener. 

^ avarpcTTOiiivojv Meziriacus : dvaTpevofxevov. 

^ KaScKcov Leonicus : /cat hiKaicDv. 

* Tp€(f>eadaL Meziriacus : repTreadai. 

^ yevvcofi.evov Reiske : yevofievov. 

^ fxeXecL] fxepcGL Emperius. 

' oi? Meziriacus : ttcos. ^ elaayayovTcov Emperius. 

* That they are irrational. 

* For this difficult and corrupt passage the admirable 

350 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 964 

in any position to make this statement about animals " 
a basis of their own account of justice, when it is 
neither generally accepted nor otherwise demon- 
strated by them ? ^ For justice has another way to 
establish itself, a way which is neither so treacherous 
nor so precipitous, nor is it a route lined with the 
\\Teckage of obvious truths. It is the road which, 
under the guidance of Plato, ^ my son and your com- 
panion j*^ Soclarus, points out to those who have no 
love of wrangling, but are willing to be led and to 
learn. For certain it is that Empedocles ^ and Hera- 
clitus ^ accept as true the charge that man is not 
altogether innocent of injustice when he treats ani- 
mals as he does ; often and often do they lament and ex- 
claim against Nature, declaring that she is "Neces- 
sity " and " War," that she contains nothing unmixed 
and free from tarnish, that her progress is marked 
by many unjust inflictions. As an instance, say, even 
birth itself springs from injustice, since it is a union 
of mortal with immortal, and the offspring is nourished 
unnaturally on members torn from the parent. 

These strictures, however, seem to be unpalatably 
strong and bitter ; for there is an alternative, an 
inoffensive formula which does not, on the one hand, 
deprive beasts of reason, yet does, on the other, 
preserve the justice of those who make fit use of 
them. When the wise men of old had introduced this, 
gluttony joined luxury to cancel and annul it ; Pytha- 

exposition and reconstruction of F. H. Sandbach {Class. 
Quart. XXXV, p. 114) has been followed. 

<= Laws, 782 c. '^ Plutarch himself; cf. Mor. 734 e. 

« Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok. i, p. 366, frag. B 135 ; 
and see Aristotle, Rhetoric, i. 13. 2 (1373 b 14). 

f Diels-Kranz, op. cit. i, p. 169, frag. B 80 ; By water, 
frag. 62. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(964) olvOls Se YivOayopas dveXdfjL^ave , hiSdoKcoi' to^eAei- 

Y (jOai fjLT] dSt/couvra?- ov yap dhiKovcnv ol tq [lev 

djJLLKTa Kal jSAajSepd KofiiSfj /coAdJovre? /cat dno- 

KTLVVVOVT€S, rd 8' 7JjJi€pa Kal (f)LXdvdpa>Tra TTOLOVflCVOL 

ndaod Kal ovvepyd ;^/3eia?, rrpos rjv eKaorov ev 

7T€(f)VK€V, 

LTTTTOJV ovojv t' ox^^ol^ kolI Tavpcov yovas , 

6UV 6 AlaxvXov llpofirjdev? " Sovvai " cfyrjalv rjplv 

965 dvrihovXa Kal ttovwv eKhiKropa' 

kvgI Se ;!^pc(j/xevot 'npocjyvXdrrovGiv , aiyas re Kai 
oh dixeXyop^evas Kal Keipopiivas' vepbovres. ov ydp 
dvaipelrai to i,rjv ovSe J3lo9 dTToXXvTai rols dvOpoj- 
TTOLSy dv fJLT] XondSas lxOvojv /u-t^S' T^Trara xV^diiV 
excocn fi7]Se ^ov? H'V^^ epi(j)ovs KaraKOTTTwaiv en 
€vajx^o.> A'-'^S' dXvovreg iv dedrpois pu^qhe rrait^ovres 
iv drjpai? rd jiev dvayKdt^cooL roXfxdv aKovra Kal 
pudx^odai, rd Se p-'^^^ dpyveadat TrecfyvKora Sta- 
(f)6eLpa}(jL. Tov ydp Trai^ovra Kal repTTop^evov ot/xat 

GVpL7TaLl,0VGL SctV XPW^^^ '^^^ iXa p ols , OU^ CD(J7T€p 

^ t' ox^tci Mor. 98 c : re ox^iav. 

^ dfjLeXyoiJLevas Kal Keipofxivas Keiske : d;u.eAyd/xeva koX Kapo- 
fieva. 

** Cf. 959 F supra ; Mor. 129 e ; frag, xxxiv. 145 (vol. VII, 
p. 169 Bernardakis). 

" Cf., e.g., Plato, Republic, 352 e. 

' From the Prometheus Unbound, frag. 194 (Xauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 6o) ; quoted again in Mor. 98 c. 

** " There are significant undercurrents here. Of the 
animals domesticated by man, Plutarch first mentions only 
the horse, the ass, and the ox, noting their employment as 

352 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 964-965 

goras,*^ however, reintroduced it, teaching us how to 
profit without injustice. There is no injustice, surely, 
in punishing and slaying animals that are anti-social 
and merely injurious, while taming those that are 
gentle and friendly to man and making them our 
helpers in the tasks for which they are severally 
fitted by nature ^ : 

Offspring of horse and ass and seed of bulls 

which Aeschylus' ^ Prometheus says that he bestowed 
on us 

To serve us and relieve our labours ; 

and thus we make use of dogs as sentinels and keep 
herds of goats and sheep that are milked and shorn. ^ 
For living is not abolished nor life terminated when 
a man has no more platters of fish or pate de foie gras 
or mincemeat of beef or kids' flesh for his banquets ^ 
— or when he no longer, idling in the theatre or 
hunting for sport, compels some beasts against their 
will to stand their ground and fight, while he destroys 
others which have not the instinct to fight back even 
in their own defence. For I think sport should be 
joyful and between playmates who are merry on 

servants of man, not as sources of food. Next come dogs, 
then goats and sheep. The key factor is that in the early 
period the cow, the sheep, and the goat were too vaUiable as 
sources of milk and wool to be recklessly slaughtered for the 
sake of their meat. The pig was the only large domestic 
animal useful almost solely as a source of meat" (Andrews). 
* " Plutarch's choice of examples of table luxury is apt. 
The enthusiasm of many Greek epicures for fish scandalized 
conservative philosophers. Pate de foie gras ranked high as 
a delicacy, more especially in the Roman period ; the mince- 
meat mentioned is surely the Roman isicia, dishes with 
finely minced beef or pork as the usual basis, many recipes 
for which appear in Apicius " (Andrews). 

VOL. XII N 353 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^' V) o Btcoi' eXeye ra TratSapta Trali^ovra rcov ^aTpd^cav 
rols XiBoLS e(j)UodaL, tovs Se ^arpaxovs ixrjKCTL 
Trat^ovras" dAA' aX-qdws aTToBvr^OKeiv, ovtco Kvvr)- 
yelv Koi aAtei^etv, ohvvcjpievois repTTopievovs kol 

aTToBvQGKOVGl, Tols S' OlTTO OKVfJLVixJV KOL VeOdGCOV 

iXeeLvcog dyop-evoig. ov yap ol ;;^poj/xei'ot ^cool? 
dSiKOVGLV, dAA' ol ;^poj/xevot ^Xa^epcos koi oXcyajpoji; 
Kai jieT (jjfiOTrjTos. 

8. 2nKA. 'ETrtcr;^^?, cS Kvro^ovXe, koI rrapa- 
paAov TO uvptov rirjg KaTTjyopLa?' eyyv9 yap oide 
TTpoGLOvres TToXXol Kal drjpaTLKOL TTavreg, ov? ovre 
fxeraOelvaL pahiov ovre XvireZv dvayKaZov. 

ATT. ^OpOojs TrapaiveZs' dAA' Kv[^Lorov^ fiev eu 

C otSa Kal Tov ifxov dveijjLov ^Aplarcova, rovs re 

Aiovvoiov TTalSas dno AeA^cDv/ AlaKL^rji^ Kal 

^ KpiGTorijJLov rovrov, etra NtKavSpov rov K-udv- 

SdjjLov, ■x.^pGaias " ha-qfxovas "^ dypag cos" "0pi7)pos 

^cfiT^, Kal Sid TOVTO TTpoS ^ ApLGTOTLpLOV^ yeVTJGO- 

pievovs' a)G7T€p av TraXuv rovG^e roug v-qoLcorag Kal 
TTapaXlovs, 'HpaKXewva rov Meyapodev Kal OiAd- 
orparov rov EujSoea, " toIgl^ BaXdGGia epya p.e- 
pL7]X€," OatSt/xos" e'xtov irepl avrov ^ahil,ei. 

TuSetSo^v 8' ovK av yvoirj? rrorepoLGi pLerecT], 

TOVTOvl rov Tjixerepov -qXiKLcoTr^v 'OTrrarov, o? " ttoA- 

^ TO dvpLov added by Salinasius, cf. Mor. 91-0 v. 

2 Eu^t'oTov Ilatzidakis and Cronert : ev^icorov. 

^ AeA</>aJv Leonicus : dSeA^oij'. 

* bai^fjiovag Kei.ske : 8a-qij.oi'a. 

^ TTpos ' ApiOTOTLfiov Pohlcilz : dptaTOTi/Lior. 

** Tolai Keiske : toIgl re. 

" Bion and Xenocrates were almost alone among the 
Greeks in expressing pity for animals. 

354 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 965 

both sides, not the sort of which Bion " spoke when 
he remarked that boys throw stones at frogs for fun, 
but the frogs don't die for " fun," but in sober earnest.^ 
Just so, in hunting and fishing, men amuse them- 
selves with the suffering and death of animals, even 
tearing some of them piteously from their cubs and 
nestlings. The fact is that it is not those who make 
use of animals who do them wrong, but those who 
use them harmfully and heedlessly and in cruel ways. 

8. socLARUS. Restrain yourself, Autobulus, and 
turn off the flow of these accusations.'' I see a good 
many gentlemen approaching who are all hunters ; 
you will hardly convert them and you needn't hurt 
their feelings. 

AUTOBULUS. Thanks for the warning. Eubiotus, 
however, I know quite well and my cousin Ariston, 
and Aeacides and Aristotimus here, the sons of Diony- 
sius of Delphi, and Nicander, the son of Euthydamus, 
all of them " expert," as Homer ^ expresses it, in the 
chase by land — and for this reason they ^W11 be on 
Aristotimus' side. So too yonder comes Phaedimus 
with the islanders and coast-dwellers about him, 
Heracleon from Megara and the Euboean Philo- 
stratus. 

Whose hearts are on deeds of the sea. * 

And here is my contemporary Optatus : like Dio- 
medes, it is 

Hard to tell the side on which he ranges, f 

^ See Hartman, De Plutarcho, p. 571 ; [Aristotle], Eud. 
Eth. vii. 10. 21 (1243 a 20). 

" Cf. Mor. 940 f supra. Possibly a reference to the water- 
clock used in the courts. 

^ Odyssey, viii. 159. 

* Cf. Homer, Iliad, ii. 614 ; Odyssey, v. 67. 

f Homer, Iliad, v. 85. 

S55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(965) Aot? fX€i> ivdXov opelov 8e TroAAots""^ aypa? aKpodt- 
VLOLS dyXatcrag " rrjv Wyporepav dfia deov /cat 
D AtACTUvvav, evravOa hrjXos eon rrpo? rjixas j3a8t^6t»v, 
COS" jJirjSerepoig TrpocrO-qacDV lavrov r] cf)avXa>? et- 
/ca^OjLtev, c5 ^tAe 'OTrrare, /coivov crc Kal p.€aov 
eueadai raJv veavLGKCov ^pa^evri^v ; 

onTATOS. llavu jLtev ovv opdojg vTTovoelg, oj 
Avro^ovXc TTaXat yap 6 SoAcui^o? eVAeAoivre vopog, 
TOV9 eV ordaeL fjurjSerepqj fiepet TTpooyevopievovs 
KoXd^ojv. 

ATT. Aevpo Si] KaOi^ov rrpos rjpids dirajs, el 

SerjGeL fidprvpos, [jlt] toZs ^ ApiororeXovs rrpdypLara 

E ^l^Xlol? 7Tape-)(CjJixeVy dXXd aol hi epLTreipiav eVo- 

fjLevoL TOLS XeyofievoLS dX7]9dj? rr]v ijjrjcfyov eVt^e- 

pcojJLev. 

2nKA. Etev, d) dvSpes veoi, yeyove ris vpLLV ofjio- 
Xoyla TTepl rd^ecog ; 

4>AIAIM02. Teyovev, tu ScoAcAape, ttoXXtjv rrapa- 
Gxovaa (^iXoveiKiav elra /car* ^vpLTTihrjv 

6 rrjs T-ux^? TTOis KXr\pos 

eVt TOUTOJ rayels rd )(epGala rrpoeiodyei StVata^ 
Tcov evdXayv. 

2nKA. Katpo? ovv, (h ^ ApiOTorifie, aol fiev rjhrj 
Xiyeiv, rjfuv 8' aKoveiv. 

^ 6p€LOv 8e TT-oAAot? Diihner : opelov ttoXXolkis. 



° X'erses of an unknown poet, as recognized by Hubert. 

^ Artemis ; on the combined cults see Farnell, Cults of 
the Greek Sfatea, ii, pp. 4J5 ff. 

• Life of Solon, xx. 1 (89 a-h) ; Mor. 530 c, 8:?3 f ; 
Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, viii. 5. A fairly well 
attested law, but " the name of Solon is used as the collective 
356 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 965 

for " with many a trophy from the sea, many hkewise 
from the chase on the mountam, he has glorified " ^ the 
goddess ^ who is at once the Huntress and Dictynna. 
It is evident that he is coming to join us \vith no in- 
tention of attaching himself to either side. Or am 
I wrong, my dear Optatus, in supposing that you will 
be an impartial and neutral umpire between the 
young men ? 

OPTATUS. It is just as you suppose, Autobulus. 
Solon's ^ law, which used to punish those who adhered 
to neither side in a factious outbreak, has long since 
fallen into disuse. 

AUTOBULUS. Come over here, then, and take your 
place beside us so that, if we need evidence, we shall 
not have to disturb the tomes of Aristotle,^ but may 
follow you as expert and return a true verdict on the 
arguments. 

socLARUS. Well then, my young friends, have you 
reached any agreement on procedure ? 

PHAEDiMUS. We have, Soclarus, though it occa- 
sioned considerable controversy ; but at length, as 
Euripides ^ has it. 

The lot, the child of chance, 

m.ade arbiter, admits into court the case of the land 
animals before that of creatures from the sea. 

SOCLARUS. The time has come, then, Aristotimus, 
for you to speak and us to hear. 

term for the legislative activity of the past " (Linforth, Solon 
the Athenian, p. 283). The penalty was disfranchisement. 
Lysias, xxxi, shows that this law was unknown in his time. 

'^ The zoological works, such as the Natural History and 
the Generation of Animals, which once extended to fifty 
volumes (Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 44.). 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 678, frag. 989 ; cf. Mor. 
644 D. 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(965) 9- API2TOTIM02. 'H fiev dyopa rols StKa^o/xe- 
I'ot? . . } ra 8e rov yovov avaXiuK€i irepl ras" 
aTTOKvriGeis imTpexovra rols d-qXeoi. 

Kecrrpeo)? 3e yei'os, ovs TTepauas' KaXovGiv, oltto 
TTJs p-v^rjs T p€(j)ovr ai rrjg iavTcov 6 Se ttoXvttous 
avTOV eodiiov Kad-qrai ■)(eip.(jJvos 

iv r OLTTVpcp o'lko) Koi eV rjOeau XevyaXeotOLV 

ovrojs dpyos tj dvaioSiqros r^ yaoTpifxapyos rj Trdoi 

TOvroLS evoxd? Iotl. 8to kol IlAaTCOv av TrdXiv 

F d7T€L7T€ vofJioOerajv , fjidXXov 8' dTrev^aro rovs vdovg 

daXarrlov drjpas epojra Xa^elv "' ovSev yap 

dXKTJs yvfivaGLOv ovSe fieXerrj fjLci GO(f)ias ovh^ ocra 

rrpds iG-)(VV t) rd^os 'T] Kivqof.L? hiarrovovaiv ev' rols 

TTpos Xd^paKag rj yoyypovg rj uKapovs dycjOLV 

966 coorrep ivravda rd fiev dvj.LO€ihrj rd (jiiXoKU'hvvov 

KOL rd dvSpelov doKeX tojv jiaxojJilvojv, rd he rrav- 

ovpya TO ^povTiOTLKOv Kal ovverdv tcdv eVtrt^e- 

jjLevojv, rd Se rrohajKr] rd pcojiaXeov kol (^lXottovov 

rdJv hiajKovrwr. Kal ravra rd Kvvrjyelv KaXdv 

7T€7TOL7jK€' rd 8' dXieveiv an ovSevds evSo^ov ovhe 

^ Lacuna indicated by Leonicus. 

^ Trepat'as" Aristotle {Historia Animal. 591 a 24) : Trapbla?. 

^ iv added by Hartnian. 

" Here follows a long lacuna not indicated in the mss., 
the contents of which cannot even be conjectured. 

^ The milt is, of course, for tiie fertilization of the eggs, as 
Aristotinuis should have learned from Aristotle (e.g., Historia 
Juinidl. vi. IS, 561 b S ff.) 

*■ On this type rf. also Aristotle, Historia A^iimal. viii. 2 

358 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 965-966 

9. ARiSTOTiMus. The court is open for the Uti- 
gants ..." And there are some fish that waste 
then* milt by pursuing the female while she is laying 
her eggs.^ 

There is also a type of mullet called the grayfish '^ 
which feeds on its own slime ^ ; and the octopus sits 
through the winter devouring himself, 

In fireless home and domicile forlorn,^ 

so lazy or insensible or gluttonous, or guilty of all of 
these charges, is he. So this also is the reason, again, 
why Plato ^ in his Larvs enjoined, or rather prayed, 
that his young men might not be seized by " a love 
for sea hunting." For there is no exercise in bravery 
or training in skill or anything that contributes to 
strength or fleetness or agility when men endure 
toil in contests with bass or conger or parrot-fish ; 
whereas, in the chase on land, brave animals give 
play to the courageous and danger-loving qualities 
of those matched against them, crafty animals sharpen 
the wits and cunning of their attackers, while swift 
ones train the strength and perseverance of their 
pursuers. These are the qualities which have made 
hunting a noble sport, whereas there is nothing 

(591 a 2S) and in Athenaeus, vii. 307 a, where variants of the 
name occur. " The same name was applied to a type of 
shark as well as to a tj'pe of mullet, an apt application in 
both instances " (Andrews). 

'^ See Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 643 {cf. iii. 43:2 if.). Pliny 
{2s at. Hist. ix. 128, 131) tells the same story of the purplefish. 

^ Hesiod, Works and Days, 524 ; cf. 978 f infra and the 
note ; Mor, 1059 e ; Aelian, De Natitra Animal, i. 27, xiv. 
26. See also Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 2 
(591 a 5) ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 244 ; Lucilius, frag. 
925 Warmington (L.C.L.). 

^ Laws, 823 d-e. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(9G()) y^ decov TLS Tj^Lcuaev, cu eVaipe, " yoyypoKTOvos," 
coGTTep 6 'AttoAAcov " Au/coKTOvo?," ovhe " rpiyXo- 
poXos," axjTTep " eXacfyrj^oXos " r) "Apref-us, Xeye- 
odai. Koi TL davfiaarov, ottov Kal dvdpcoTTcp ovv 
fX€V^ Kal €Xa(f)OV Kal vr) Ata hopKaha Kal Xaywov 
iXeiv koXXlov r) Trpiaodai ; Bvvvov he Kal KoXiav^ 
Kal OLfJLLav aefjLVOTepov icrnv oi/jajvelv rj avTOv^ 
B dXievetv. to yap dyevveg Kal a/x')7;)(avoi^ oAcas" Kal 
OLTrdvovpyov avTCOv aluxpoLV* Kal d^7]Xov Kal dv- 
eXevdepov ttjv ay par ireTroi'qKe. 

10. KadoXov 8e, eVet 8t' d>v ol (f)iX6(jo(f)Oi 8et- 
KVVOVGL To'^ p.€r€-)(^eiv Xoyov TO- ^a>a, TrpoSioeis etcrt 
Kal rrapaGKeval Kal [xvrjiJLaL Kal Trddr] Kal reVi'tuv 
C77tjueAetai Kal -)(dpires ev TTadovTOJV Kal jjuvrjOLKa- 
KLai TTpds TO XvTTTJGav, cTt 8' €vp€Gei? Tcov dvay- 
Kalcov, €iJL(f)dG€L? dpeTTj? , otov drSpeiag Koivojvias 
iyKpaTeias }JieyaXo(j)po(jm"r]s' OKOTTCofiev rot eVaAa, 
el TOVTOJV eKelva /xev ovhev rj ttov tl TravTeXcb? 
dfiavpov aWvyfjLa Kal hvadeaTov eviSeiv /xctAa jLtoAts" 
TeKpLaipofievcp SlSojglv ev he Tolg Tre^ot? Kal yrj- 
C yeveuL XapLnpa Kal evapyrj Kal /5ejSata Trapaheiy- 
fxaTa TOJi' elprip.evwv eKdorov XapL^dveiv eoTi Kai 
dedodai. 

^ /x€v Reiske : fiovov. 
2 KoXiav Andrews : Kapa^ov. 

^ avTov follows ioTLv in the mss. ; transferred here by van 
Herwerden. 

* alaxpo-v Reiske : alaxpov. 
^ TO Reiske : to re. 

" For Apollo's connexion with wolves see Aelian, De 
JVatura minimal, x. ^26; al. 

* On Artemis, " The Lady of Wild Beasts "" (JI'huK \\i. 
470), see Mnemosyne, 4th series, iv (1951), pp. J80 ff. 

360 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 966 

glorious about fishing. No, and there's not a god, 
my friend, who has allowed himself to be called 
" conger-killer," as Apollo is " wolf-slayer," ° or " sur- 
mullet-slayer," as Artemis ^ is " deer-slaying," ^ 
And what is surprising in this when it's a more 
glorious thing for a man to have caught a boar or 
a stag or, so help me, a gazelle or a hare than to 
have bought one ? As for your tunny ^ and your 
mackerel and your bonito ! They're more honour- 
able to buy than to catch oneself. For their lack of 
spirit or of any kind of resource or cunning has made 
the sport dishonourable, unfashionable, and illiberal. 
10. In general, then, the evidence by which the 
philosophers demonstrate that beasts have their 
share of reason is their possession of purpose ^ and 
preparation and memory and emotions and care for 
their young f and gratitude for benefits and hostility 
to what has hurt them ; to which may be added 
their ability to find what they need and their mani- 
festations of good qualities, such as courage ^ and 
sociability and continence and magnanimity. Let 
us ask ourselves if marine creatures exhibit any of 
these traits, or perhaps some suggestion of them, 
that is extremely faint and difficult to discern (the 
observer only coming at long last to the opinion that 
it may be descried) ; whereas in the case of terres- 
trial and earth-born animals it is easy to find remark- 
ably plain and unanswerable proofs of every one of 
the points I have mentioned. 

" This accusation is answered in 983 e-f infra. 
^ See 980 A infra. 
« Cf. 961 c supra. 

f See the essay De Amore Prolis, Mor. 493 a ff. passim. 
» Plato, at least, held that, philosophically speaking, no 
beast is brave : Laches, 196 d ; Republic, 430 b. 

361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(966) llpcoTov ovv opa TTpodeaeL? Kal TrapaoKevas 
ravpcov inl p-dxT] KovLOfievojv Kal Kdnpcov drjyovrojv 
oSovra?- iXecfyavreg Se, rrjs vXrjs rjv opvTTOvreg rj 
K€LpovTeg eadiovoLv djJi^Xvv rov ohovTa TTOLovarjs 
dTrorpL^ofjievov , rco irepoj Trpos ravra ^(poji'TaL, rov 
8' €T€pov eTTaKfjLov del Kal o^vv errl rds dfivvas 
cfyvXdrrovGLV . 6 Se Xeojv aet fta6it,€i ovveorpapi- 
fxivois rois TTOoiv^ ivros dTroKpviTTOJV rovs 6vvxo.s, 

tva fJLT] TpL^OjJLei'OL TTjV dKpLTjV dTTajJL^Xvi'COai ixr]h€ 

J) KaTaXeiTTcoGiv evTTopeiav rols ori^evovGLV ov yap 
pahlojs 6vv)(os evpLGKeraL Xeovrelov GVipLelov, dXXd 
piiKpols^ Kal rv(j)Xois LXV€GLV evrvyxdvovres dno- 
TrXavcjvrai Kal hiapLaprdvovGiv . 6 S' Ixvevpicoi^ 
dKTjKoare hrjiTovdev cos ovOev aTioAetVet dojpa- 
Kil^opiivov TTpos f^dxr]v ottXltov togovtov lXvo? 
TTepL^dXXerai Kal Trepirr-qyvvGi rco GcojjLa.ri ;YtTcDya 
fxeXXojv emrideGOai rw KpoKoSelXo). ra? Se X^^^~ 
Sovcov TTpo rrjg reKvorrodas: rrapaGKevds opajpLtv, a»? 
ev rd Greped Kdp(f)r] TrpovTTo^dXXovrai Slktjv de- 
pLeXiOJi', elra rrepLTrXdrrovGi rd Kov(f)6r€pa' Kav 
TTrjXov rivos ix^KoXXov SeofjLevijv atadcovrai rr]v 
veorridvy XlfJLvqs rj daXdrrr]s iv xp^ TrapaTrerofJLevaL 

E ijjavovGL roX? rrriXois em7ToXr\s , ogov rorepat/ (jltj 

^ avv€OTpaiJLfjL€i'ous \tols ttoolv] W. ('. H. from Mar. o2() y. 

2 fjLLKpolg] afiavpol? Kronenber^ ; cf. Xen. Cyneff. vi. 2\. 

^ voT€pd, fxi) ^apda Ueiske. 

" See Mair on Oppian, Cyn. ii. 57. 

** Aelian, De yafura Animal, vi. I ; Philo, .51 (j), li5) ; 
HoiiuT, Iliad, xiii. \-l I f. 

" Cf. Pliny, ^at. Hist. viii. 8 ; viii. 71 ol" [he rhinoceros ; 

362 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 966 

In the first place, then, behold the purposeful 
demonstrations and preparations of bulls '^ stirring 
up dust when intent on battle, and wild boars whet- 
ting their tusks. ^ Since elephants' tusks are blunted 
by wear when, by digging or chopping, they fell the 
trees that feed them, they use only one tusk for 
this purpose and keep the other always pointed and 
sharp for defence/ Lions '^ always walk \\'ith paws 
clenched and claws retracted so that these may not 
be dulled by wear at the point or leave a plain trail 
for trackers ; for it is not easy to find any trace of a 
lion's claw ; on the contrary, any sign of a track that 
is found is so slight and obscure that hunters lose the 
trail and go astray. You have heard, I am sure, how 
the ichneumon ^ girds itself for battle as thoroughly 
as any soldier putting on his armour, such a quantity 
of mud does it don and plaster about its body when 
it plans to attack the crocodile. Moreover, we see 
house-martins ^ preparing for procreation : how well 
they lay the solid twigs at the bottom to serve as a 
foundation, then mould the lighter bits about them ; 
and if they perceive that the nest needs a lump of 
mud to glue it together, they skim over a pond or 
lake, touching the water with only the tips of their 
feathers to make them moist, yet not heavy with 

Aelian, De Natura Animal, vi. oQ ; Antigonus, Hist. 
Mirab. 103. 

** Cf. Mor. 520 f ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, ix. 30. 

* See Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 6 
(612 a 16 if.), where, however, the animal's opponent is the 
asp. (So also Aelian, De Natura Animal, iii. 22 ; v. 48 ; 
vi. 38.) But cf. 980 e infra ; Aelian, De Natura Animal. 
viii. 25 ; x. 47 ; Xicander, Theriaca, 201. 

f Cf. Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 7 (612 b 
21 ff.) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 92 ; Philo, 22 (p. 110) ; Yale 
Class. Studies, xii. 139, on Anth. Pal. x. 4. 6. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(9G0) ^apeZai yeveodat rfj vyp6Ti]ri, uvXXa^ovoai he 
KoviopTOV ovTCxi? i^aX€L(f)ovGi^ Kol GVvheovGL ra x^~ 
Xcjvra KOI hioXioddvovra- roj 8e o-)(r]fxaTi rovpyov 
ov ywvLcoSe? ovSe TToXvTrXevpoi', dAA' ofJLaXov co? 
et^CCTTt pLaXiara Koi o^aipoethes aTToreXovaf /cat yap 
jxavLfjiov Kal xwprjTLKoi' to tolovto Kal tols im^ou- 
Aeuoucrt drjptoLS e^codev dvTiXrjifjeis ov Trdvv hiScoGL. 
Ta 8' dpdxv7]s €pya, kolvoi' lorcbv yvvai^l kol 
6-qpas aayrjvevralg dpx^TVTTov, ov KaO" eV dv ris 
davfidaeie' Kal yap rj rod vrjixaro? di<pi^€La Kal rrj? 
F v(l>rjs TO jJLT] Sl€)(€? p.'qBe GTTijjiovchhes dXXd Xeiov 
GVV€X€iav vpiivos Kal KoXXrjGiv vtto nvog dSrjXojg 
TTapapiepLiypiivris yXiaxpdrrjTos aTTeLpyaafievov , rj re 
Pa(f)r) rrjs xpoa? evdepov kol dxXvcijhr) rroLovoa ttjv 
e7n(f)dveLau vnep rod XaOeiv, avrrj re fidXiara Trdv- 
ra>v rj rrj? {jLTjxavrj? avrrjg rjVLOxeta Kal Kv^epvrjais, 
orav evoxeOfj n rwv dXcoalfjiajv, warrep Seivov 
(jayi-]vevrov , raxv avvaipelv el? ravr6~ Kal avvdyeiv 
967 TO dr^parpov aloBavoiJieviqs Kal (f)povovG'qg, rfj Kad^ 
TjfjLepav otpei Kal dea rod yivopievov morov €gx^ 
rov Aoyov. aAAoj? S' dv iSoKei puvdog, a)07Tep rjfjuv 
ehoKei ro rwv ev Al^vtj KopdKwv, ot TTorov heopievoi 
Xidovs ifi^dXXovGLV dvaTrXrjpovi're? Kal dvdyovreg 
TO vhcup, fiexpi- dv ev ecfuKro) yevr^rai- elra fievroL 

^ e7TaX€i(f>ovaL van Herwerden and some mss. 
- rauTo Reiske : TavTO. or TavTa. 

" dT]pia may be " serpents " here, or any wild beast, per- 
haps, such as members of the cat family that relish a diet of 
birds, 

*" For a collection of the loci communes dealiiifj: with 
swallow, bee, ant, spider, etc., see Uickernianii in Trans. 
Am. Philol. Assoc, xlii (1911), pp. li^3 ff. 

364 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 966-967 

dampness ; then they scoop up dust and so smear 
over and bind together any parts that begin to sag 
or loosen. As for the shape of their work, it has no 
angles nor many sides, but is as smooth and circular 
as they can make it ; such a shape is, in fact, both 
stable and capacious and provides no hold on the 
outside for scheming animals. '^ 

There is more than one reason ^ for admiring 
spiders' <^ webs, the common model for both women's 
looms and fowlers' ^ nets ; for there is the fineness of 
the thread and the evenness of the weaving, which has 
no disconnected threads and nothing like a warp, but 
is MTought with the even continuity of a thin mem- 
brane and a tenacity that comes from a viscous sub- 
stance inconspicuously worked in. Then too, there 
is the blending of the colours that gives it an airy, 
misty look, the better to let it go undetected ; and 
most notable of all is the art itself, like a charioteer's 
or a helmsman's, with which the spinner handles her 
artifice. When a possible victim is entangled, she 
perceives it, and uses her wits, like a skilled handler 
of nets, to close the trap suddenly and make it tight. 
Since this is daily under our eyes and observation, 
my account is confirmed. Otherwise it M'ould seem 
a mere fiction, as I formerly regarded the tale of the 
Libyan crows ^ which, when they are thirsty, throw 
stones into a pot to fill it and raise the water until 
it is within their reach ; but later when I saw a dog 

" Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 39 (623 a 7 fF.) ; Aelian, 
De Natura Animal, i. 21 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 79-84 ; 
Philo, 17 (p. 107) ; Philostratus, Imagines, ii. 28. 

'^ Commonly taken as " fishermen," but this seems un- 
likely here. 

« Cf. Anth. Pal. ix. 272 ; Aelian, De Nafura Animal, ii. 
48 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 125 ; Avianus, fable 27. 

S65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(967) Kvva Oeaadiievo'^ eV ttXoloj, tcov vavraJv f.Lr] irap- 
ovTcov, elg eXaiov afji(f)op€a>s aTToSeovs ifjL^dXXovra 
TCOV y^aXiKCxiv, iOavfiaGa ttcos voel /cat ovviiqcd ttjv 
yLvofievr^v ckOXh/jlv vtto tcov ^apvTepcov rot? kov- 
(f)or€poLg vcjiLGrapievojv . 

"Ofioia 8e /cat to, tcov Kpryrt/ccov fjieXiGGcbv /cat 
B TO. rajv ev KtAt/cia ■)(r]V(jov e/cetvat fxev yap dve/xajSes" 
Tt iieXXovoai Ka/XTTTetv a.KpcoT'qpiov ep^art^oucrtv 
iavrds, vnep rod jjlt) TrapacfyepeaOaL, puKpols XlOl- 
Stois" ol Se XW^^ rovs derovs hehoiKores, orav 
vnep^dXXcooL rov Tavpov, et? to GTOfxa Xidov 
evixeyed'q XapL^dvovGLV, olov eTitCTTO/xt^oi'Te? avTwv 
/cat ;(aAtvouvTes' to (f)iX6(f)a)vov /cat AaAov, orrcog 
XdOojGi GLCOTrfj 7TapeXd6vT€?. Twv 8e yepdvojv /cat 

TO TTepl TT^V TTTrJGLV €vboKL[l€L' 7T€TOVTai ydp, OTaV fj 

TTvevfia TToXv /cat Tpa^ys drjp, ovx, coGTrep euSta? 
ovGrj?, iJi€T(jD7Trjh6v rj koXtto) pb-qvoeiSovs Trept^e- 
peiag, dAA' evdvg et? Tpiycovov GVvdyovGai G^i- 
C ^ouot Tr\ Kopv(J)fj TO TTvevfia Trepippeov, cocrTe pLT] 
SiaGTraGdaL ttjv Ta^tv. oVav he KaTdpojGLV IttI 
yrjv, at 7Tpo<f)vXaKrjv e^ovGai vvktos eVt OaTepov 
GKeXovs dxovvTai to Gcbpca, tw 8' CTepco rrohl Xidov 
TTepiXa^ovGai KpaTovGL' GVvex^L^ ydp 6 tt^s" d(f)rj^ 
Tovos ev Tcx) 1X7] Kadevheiv rroXvv xpo^^^' OTav S* 
dvcoGLV, eKTTeGUiV 6 Xidog Taxv Snjyeipe ttjv irpo- 
efievrjv' ojGTe [jlt] ndw OavfJid^eLv tov 'WpaKXeovs, 

" Cf. Mor. 510 A-B, which adds the detail that the geese's 
366 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 967 

on board ship, since the sailors were away, putting 
pebbles into a half empty jar of oil, I was amazed at 
its knowing that lighter substances are forced upward 
when the heavier settle to the bottom. 

Similar tales are told of Cretan bees and of geese 
in Cilicia." When the bees are going to round some 
windy promontory, they ballast themselves with 
little stones ^ so as not to be carried out to sea ; 
while the geese, in fear of eagles, take a large stone 
in their beaks whenever they cross Mt. Taurus, as it 
were reining in and bridling their gaggling loquacity 
that they may pass over in silence unobserved. It is 
well known, too, how cranes ^ behave when they fly. 
Whenever there is a high wind and rough weather 
they do not fly, as on fine days, in line abreast or 
in a crescent-shaped curve ; but they form at once 
a compact triangle with the point clea\-ing the gale 
that streams past, so that there is no break in the 
formation. W^en they have descended to the ground, 
the sentinels that stand watch at night support them- 
selves on one foot and with the other grasp a stone 
and hold it firmly ^ ; the tension of grasping this 
keeps them awake for a long time ; but when they 
do relax, the stone escapes and quickly rouses the 
culprit.^ So that I am not at all surprised that 

flight is by night. Contrast Aelian, De Natura Animal, ii. 1, 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 60, of cranes. 

'' Aelian, De Natura Animal, v. 13 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 
24, and Ernout, ad loc. ; Dio Chrysostom, xliv. 7. Cf. 979 b 
infra, of the sea hedgehog ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. x. 69. 

<= Cf. 979 B infra ; Aelian, I)e Natura Animal, iii. 13 ; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 63, of geese ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. i. 
624; Liican, v. 713 fF. 

«* Cf. 979 D i7ifra ; Aelian, loc. cit. ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 59. 

« Cf. the anecdote of Alexander in Ammianus Marcel- 
liniis, xvi. 5. 4 ; of Aristotle in Diogenes Laertius, v. 16. 

367 



PLITARCH'S MORALIA 

(967) ft Tofa fjiaaxoL^r] viroOeU kol 

Kparato) nepi^aXajv ^pax^ovL, 
evSet TTieCcov x^^P^ S^^ta ^vXov 

IdTjS^ av ttolXlv rod rrpojrov^ V7rovo7]oavTog oarpeov 
fMepiVKorog dvoLTrrv^LV ivTVxovra rols epoohioiv ao(f)L- 
afxaoLV' orav yap ttjv Koyxf]^ KaraTTLj] [xepLVKvlav, 

D ivoxXovjJLevos iyKaprepel, p-^XP^ ^^ alodrjTaL pLokao- 
aopL€V7]v Kal ;YctAcfjo-ai' vtto rrjs deppLorr^ro?- rore 8' 
eVjSaAtov Kex^jwlav Kal dveGTraapiivrjv e^etAe ro 
iScoSipLOv. 

1 1 . Ta? 8e pivppLrjKOJV olKovopLias Kal TrapaGKevdg 
€K(f)pduai ptev aKpi^cog dpiT]X(^^ov, VTrep^rjvai he 
-navreXajs oXiycopov ovhkv yap ovtoj puKpov 7) 
(f)VGLg ex€t /xet^ovcov /cat KaXXiovojv KaroTrrpov, 
aAA' oJGTTep ev Grayovi KaOapa TrdG7]g €V€Gtlv 
dperrjs epLi^aGLS, " evQ^ evi pL€v (fyiXor'qg " ro kolvoj- 
VLKov, evL S' dvhpeias eLKOJv ro (J)lX67tovov evcGrc Se 
TToXXd pL€v eyKpareias GTreppLara, TToXXd Se t^povt^- 

E creco? Kal SiKaLOGVvr]? . 6 /xev ovv KXedvdrjg e'Aeye, 
KaiTTep 01) (paGKOJV p.erix'^^^ Xoyov rd ^cpa, roiavrr) 
deajpua naparvx^'iV' pLvppi7]Kag eXdelv IttI pLvppLrj- 
KLav erepav pivppLr]Ka V€Kp6v (f)epovra?- dvtovrag 
ovv €K rrjs pLVppL7]KLd? evLovg olov ivrvyxdveuv 
avrois Kal ndXiV Karepx^Gdat- Kal rovro Sis rj rph 

^ TTpwTov I3enseler : Trpcorov. 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 919, Adespoton 416. 

** That is, by dropping it in hot water. 

'^ Cf. Aelian, fJe Xatiini An'mml. iii. iO ; another pro- 
cedure is described in v. 8o. See also Pliny, Sat. Hist. x. 
115, of the shoveller duck : Philo, 81 (p. 116); Antigonus, 
Hist. Mirah. 41 ; a/. ** Homer, Iliad, xiv. i?16. 

368 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 967 

Heracles tucked his bow under his arm : 

Embracing it with mighty arm he sleeps, 
Keeping his right hand gripped about the chib." 

Nor, again, am I surprised at the man who first 
guessed how to open an oyster ^ when I read of the 
ingenuity of herons. For they swallow a closed 
mussel and endure the discomfort until they know 
that it has been softened and relaxed by their internal 
heat ; then they disgorge it wide open and unfolded 
and extract the meat.*' 

11. It is impossible to relate in full detail all 
the methods of production and storage practised by 
ants, but it would be careless to omit them entirely. 
Nature has, in fact, nowhere else so small a mirror of 
greater and nobler enterprises. Just as you may see 
greater things reflected in a drop of clear water, so 
among ants there exists the delineation of every 
virtue. 

Love and affection are found, ^ 

namely their social life. You may see, too, the re- 
flection of courage in their persistence in hard labour.* 
There are many seeds of temperance and many of 
prudence and justice. Now Cleanthes,^ even though 
he declared that animals are not endowed with 
reason, says that he witnessed the follow ing spectacle : 
some ants came to a strange anthill carrying a dead 
ant. Other ants then emerged from the hill and 
seemed, as it were, to hold converse with the first 
party and then went back again. This happened 

* Cf. Plato, Laches, 19:2 b ff. : we have here the four 
Platonic virtues, with Love added. 

f Von Arnim, S.V.F. i, p. 116, frag. 515 ; cf. Aelian, De 
datura Animal, vi. 50. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(967) yeveadai- reAos" Se rovg [lev Kcircodev dveveyKelv 
ojoTTep XvTpa Tov veKpov OK<jj\i]Ka, rovs S' eVetvov 
^ dpafievovs aTToSovras 8e rov v€Kp6v oLX^<ydai. 

Ttov 8e TrdcTiV efi(j)av(jjv rj re Trepl rds aTravrrioeLS 
eVrtv evyvcopoavvT], rcov p.7]Sev (f)ep6vT(xJV rols 
(jyepovGLv i^Lorafievajv oSov /cat TrapeXOelv SlSovtojv 
al' re rtov hvo(f)6pajv Kal hvoTrapaKofiLGTCjov 8ta- 
^p<jL)0€LS Kal Statpecrct?, ottojs ev^doraKra TrXeiooi 
yevrjraL. rag 8e roiv GTrep/jbdrcov^ Siadeaeig Kal 
SiaiJjv^eLS eKro'g verov TTOLelr ai ornxelov 6 "Aparos" 

7] kolXt]? fjLvpfjirjKes dx'rjs e^ coca Trdvra 
dduGOV dvrjveyKavro' 

Kal TLves ovK " cod " ypd(l)ovGLV, dXX* " -rjua "^ c5?' 
TOV? d7TOK€LpL€vovs KapTTovg , oTav €vp(jjra Gvvd- 
968 yovras aiGdwvrai Kal cfio^rjdojGL (f)dopdv Kal gtjiJjlv, 
dva(f)ep6vT(x>v. VTrep^aXXeu §e TraGav irrivoiav Gvve- 
G€a>g T) rod TTvpov rrj? /3AacrT7]creaj? TrpoKardXrufjig- 
ov yap St] 7TapajJLev€L irjpo? ouS' dGr]7Tros dXXd 
hiax^-lrai Kal yaXaKTOvrai pLera^dXXojv els to 
cf)V€Lv tV ovv fJLTj yevofxevo? GTripfxa rrjv gltIov 
XP^lo-v Sia(f)6€lp'r], TTapafjLevrj 8' avrols e8c68t/xos", 
i^eodlovGL TTjv dpxriVy d(j>' rjs tov ^XaoTOV 6 irvpos 
dcjilriGiv. 

^ OTTepfxaTcov] MSS. have also KV^drcov and Kcpixdrcov {KVTjiJLd- 
Ttov Bernardakis). 
^ iJLa Lc'opardi : ea. 
^ ws added by Wyttenbach. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ii. 25. 
^ Pfiaenomena, 956 ; cf. Vergil, (leorglca, i. .S79 f. : 'Jheo- 
phrastus, De Signis, 22. 

* Not o/'t/, but ^ia : " What the ants really carry out in 

370 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 967-968 

two or three times until at last they brought up a 
grub to serve as the dead ant's ransom, whereupon 
the first party picked up the grub, handed over the 
corpse, and departed. 

A matter obvious to everyone is the consideration 
ants show when they meet : those that bear no load 
always give way to those who have one and let them 
pass." Obvious also is the manner in which they 
gnaw through and dismember things that are difficult 
to carry or to convey past an obstacle, in order that 
they may make easy loads for several. And Aratus ^ 
takes it to be a sign of rainy weather when they spread 
out their eggs and cool them in the open : 

When from their hollow nest the ants in haste 
Bring up their eggs ; 

and some do not write " eggs" here, but " provisions," ^ 
in the sense of stored grain which, when they notice 
that it is growing mildewed and fear that it may 
decay and spoil, they bring up to the surface. But 
what goes beyond any other conception of their 
intelligence is their anticipation of the germination 
of wheat. You know, of course, that wheat does not 
remain permanently dry and stable, but expands 
and lactifies in the process of germination. In order, 
then, to keep it from running to seed and losing its 
value as food, and to keep it permanently edible, 
the ants eat out the germ from which springs the 
new shoot of wheat. '^ 

Aratus and Vergil is their pupas, but these are commonly 
called ' eggs ' to this day " (Piatt, Class. Quart, v, p. 255). 
The two readings in this passage seem to show that Plutarch 
had at hand an edition with a commentary ; cf. also 976 f 
infra, on the interpretation of Archilochus, and Mor. 22 b. 
'^ Cf, Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 109, and Ernout ad loc. 

371 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(96S) Toi)? Se TO,? [j.vpiirjKLa'^ avrcov eVt roj Karafiad^lv 
a)(T7T€p e^ dvaroiJLrj^ rrapaTrjpovvras^ ovk arrohi- 
XopaL- XeyovGi S' ovv ovk evdelav clvaL ttjv cxtto rrj? 
B 0777]?' KOiOohov ouS' €V7Topov dXXcp OrjpLCp Sie^eXdelv, 
dXXd KapLTTOis KOI arpe^XoTT^ai Ke/cAao-jiteVa? vtto- 
7TopevG€LS Koi dvaTpr]GeLS ixoijaaLS elg rpels koiXo- 
TTjras dnoreXevTajGav , ojv t^]V /xev ivSiaLTrjpLa 
Koivov avrols etvat, rrjv he rwv eScoStjitcov ra/Ltetov, 
ets" 8e TT^r rpir^qv dTTOTideadai rovg 9i"^GKovTas . 

12. OtjLtat Se ju,9] aKaipos vfjilv ^avctcr^at rot? 
lJ.vpijL')]^LV eTTeiGaycjov rovs iXe<j)avras , Iva rod vou 
TTjv <f)VGiv ev re rots fMLKpordroLS dfia koi jxeyiGrois 
CTt6/xa(Jt KaTavoTQGCop.€v, /xTJre rovrois iva(f)avL^o- 
pLevTjv firjT^ €K€LVOL? ivSeovGav. ol pi€V ovv dXXoL 
Oavpidl^ovGi Tov iX€(f)avros ocra {lavOdvcov Kal 8t8a- 
C GKopLevo? iv Oedrpois eTTiheiKvvrai G-xripLdrcov elSr] 
Kal /xerajSoAas", cSv ouS' dvdpcoTrivais jLteAerats" to 
ttolklXov Kal TrepiTTOv iv pLvrjfxrj Kal Kade^et^ yevi- 
oQai Ttdvv pdhiov eGnv eytu Se jidXXov iv toXs defy* 
avTOV Kal dStSciKTot? rod drjpLov irdOeGL Kal KLviq- 
fxaGLV, cuGTTep dKpdroL? Kal dTTapaxvToig, ipcjiai- 
vofiivrjv opd) rrjv gvv€Glv. 

'Ev 'PcojLtT^ fiiv yap ov TrdXau rroXXojv TrpoStSa- 

^ TTapaTTjpovvras Post : rrX-qpovvTas. 

^ OTTTJ^ Meziriacus : oX-qs. 

^ Kal Kade^ei] Kade^^s van Herwerden. 

" The intricate galleries of anthills were used for ])urposes 
of literary comparisons by the ancients : see the fragment 
of Pherecrates in Mor. 1142 a and Aristophanes, Thes- 
mophoriazusae, 100 (on Timotheiis and Agathon respec- 
tively). 

*• Aelian, De Natura Animal, vi. 43 divides into men's 
apartments, women's apartments, and storerooms ; see also 

372 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 968 

I do not approve of those who, to make a complete 
study of anthills, inspect them, as it were, anatomi- 
cally. But, be that as it may, they report that the 
passage leading downward from the opening is not 
at all straight or easy for any other creature to tra- 
verse ; it passes through turns and twists ^ with 
branching tunnels and connecting galleries and ter- 
minates in three hollow cavities. One of these is 
their common dwelling-place, another serves as 
storeroom for provisions, while in the third they 
deposit the dying. ^ 

12. I don't suppose that you will think it out of 
order if I introduce elephants directly on top of ants 
in order that we may concurrently scrutinize the 
nature of understanding in both the smallest and 
the largest of creatures, for it is neither suppressed 
in the latter nor deficient in the former. Let others, 
then, be astonished that elephants learn, or are 
taught, to exhibit in the theatre all the many postures 
and variations of movement that they do,^ these 
being so varied and so complicated to memorize and 
retain that they are not at all easy even for human 
artists. For my part, I find the beast's understanding 
better manifested in his own spontaneous and un- 
instructed feelings and movements, in a pure, as it 
were, and undiluted state. 

Well, not very long ago at Rome,'^ where a large 

Philo, 42 (p. 120), and Boulenger, Animal Mysteries, pp. 
128 if. for a modern account. On the social life of ants (and 
animals) as contrasted with that of humans see Dio Chry- 
sostom, xl. 32, 40 f. ; xlviii. 16. <= Cf. Mor. 98 e. 

^ Cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 6, which shows that Plutarch 
is drawing on literature, not personal observation ; cf. also 
Aelian, I)e Natura Animal, ii. 11, for the elaborateness of 
the mancjeuvres ; Philostratus, Vita Apoll. ii. 13 ; Philo, 
54 (p. 126) ; see also 992 b infra. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(968) (JKOfievcov ordoeLS rivas toraodai^ rrapa^oXovs Kal 
KLvr](j€i? hvoe^eXiKTovs avaKU/cAetv, ets" o hvojiaSl- 
ararog olkovoji' KaKchs iKaorore /cat KoAa^o/xevo? 
TToXXaKis a)(f)drj vvkto? avros d(f)^ iavrov rrpos rrjv 
D aeXrjvqv dvararrofievos rd [ladijiJLara Kal /xeAercDv. 
'Ev Se Y^vpia TTporepov " Ayvcjv taropet, rpe^o- 
fxevov Kar" oLKuav iXecfyavros, rov iTnardr'qv XajJL- 
^dvovra KpiOchv jJLerpov ixjyaipelv Kal )(p6a>K07T€iV 
fjidpos rJixiGV Ka6^ rjiiepav errel Se, tov heoTTorov 
TTapovTOS 7TOT€ Kal Oeojjjievov, Tidv TO fierpov Kari^- 
paoev, ifi^Xeipavra Kal Siayayovra rr^v TTpof^oGKiha 
Twv KpiBGiv dTToSiauTrjaaL Kal 8ta;((x)/ot(Tai to fjLepos, 
(Ls evrjv Xoyicorara KareiTrovra rod eTTLGrdrov rrjv 
dhLKtav dXXov 8e, Tat? Kptdals Xldovs Kal yrjv els 
TO {jLerpov TOV eincrrdTOV Karafjuyvvovros , iipo- 
IJLeva>v Kpecov, hpa^dfxevov rrjs recfypag ifi^aXelv et? 
E T'r]v ^(vrpav. 6 8' vtto twv Traihapiojv TrpoTTTjXaKL- 
odels iv 'PcopLr) rots y paletots rrjv TTpo^oGKiSa 
KevTovvTCxiv ov avveXa^e pLerewpov e^dpas eTriho^os 
rjv d7TOTvpLTTavL€LV^' KpavyTjS he rcov Trapovrcov yevo- 
pLevrjS, drpepa irpos rr]v yrjv TidXiV dTrrjpeLCFaTO Kal 
TTapijXdeVy dpKovaav -qyovpLevo? Slktjv tw rrjXiKOVTa) 
(f)0^r]drjvai . 

Wepl Se Ttur dypicov Kal avrovopLOJV dXXa re 
davfJidGLa Kal rd Trepl TCts" hia^daeis rcov TTorapLcov 
LGTopovGL' irpohia^aivei ydp eVtSou? ayTOi^ o veoj- 

^ laTaadai Casaubon : KTciodai. 

^ OLTTorvfiTTavieiv W. C. H. from Mor. 170 a : a.TTOTVfj.TTavi- 
aeiv. 

" Of Tarsus, pupil of Carneades. 
* Cf. Aelian, De Xatyra minima}, vi. 52. 

374 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 968 

number of elephants were being trained to assume 
dangerous stances and wheel about in complicated 
patterns, one of them, who was the slowest to learn 
and was always being scolded and often punished, 
was seen at night, alone by himself in the moonlight, 
voluntarily rehearsing his lessons and practising 
them. 

Formerly in Syria, Hagnon ^ tells us, an elephant 
was brought up in its master's house and every day 
the keeper, when he received a measure of barley, 
would filch away and appropriate half of it ; but 
on one occasion, when the master was present and 
watching, the keeper poured out the whole measure. 
The elephant gave a look, raised its trunk, and made 
two piles of the barley, setting aside half of it and 
thus revealing as eloquently as could be the dis- 
honesty of its keeper. And another elephant, whose 
keeper used to mix stones and dirt in its barley 
ration, when the keeper's meat was cooking, scooped 
up some ashes and threw them into the pot.^ And 
another in Rome, being tormented by little boys 
who pricked its proboscis with their v.Titing styluses, 
grabbed one of them and raised him into the air as 
if to dash him to death ; but when the spectators 
cried out, it gently set the child down on the ground 
again and passed along, thinking it sufficient punish- 
ment for one so young to have been frightened. 

Concerning \\'ild elephants who are self-governing 
they tell many wonderful tales, particularly the one 
about the fording of rivers ^ : the youngest and 
smallest volunteers his services to go first into the 

" Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 1 1 , gives a diiFerent account ; still 
different is Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 15, and cf. 
Philostratus, Vita Apoll. ii. 15. 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(968) raros Kal fXiKporaro^' ol S' €gtojt€s airodecxjpovoiv 
(1)S, a.v €K€.lvos VTTepaiprj rep fieyedeL to pevfJLa, 
TroXXr]v Tolg pieit^OGi rrpos ro dappelv TrepLovolav rrjs 

F aG(j)aXeias ovoav. 

13. 'Evrau^a rod Xoyov yeyovcjs ov Sokoj jitot 
vap'qGeLV 8t' opLOLorrjra ro rrjs dXa)7T€Kos. ol fiev 
ovv fxvdoXoyoi Tcp AevKaXcajVL <^acrt TrepLGrepav €K 
rrjs XdpvaKOS d^te/xeVi^r Si^Xcofia yeveGdat ;^etjLta>vos" 
jjLev eLGOJ ttclXlv ivSvojJievrjv, evSlas S' oiTTOTrrdGav' 
ol he QpaK€s en vvv, orav rrayevra hia^aivetv 
TTorafiov eTTix^ipcjGLV, dXcorreKa iroiovvrai yvcojjiova 
969 rrjs tov ndyov Grepporrjros' r]GVxrj yap virdyovGa 
TTapa^dXXei ro ovs' Kav fxev aLGdrjrai ipocficp rod 
pevfjiaros iyyvs VTTO^epofievov, reK/xatpo/xevTy pur] 
yeyovevai Sid ^ddovs rrjv Trrj^tv dXXd Xevrrjv Kal 
dj8e/3atov iGrarai, Kav id ris, eTravep-^erai- rep he 
pLTj ijjocfyelv dappovGa hLrjXOe. Kal rovro pLrj XeycopLev 
alodriGecos dXoyov dKpi^eiav, dXX e^ aLGdrjGecos 
GvXXoyiGpLov on " ro ipo(f)ovv Kwelrat, ro he klvov- 
pLevov ov TTeTTrjye, ro he pcrj rrerrr^yds vypov eon, ro 
8' vypov evhihcxJGLV." ol he hiaXeKriKoi ^acrt rov 
Kvva roj hid 77-Aetdvaji' hiet,evypiev(x> ■^(^pojpLevov ev 

B Tat? TToXvGX^heoLV drparrols GvXXoyit,eGdaL irpos 
eavrov, " -rjrot rrjvhe ro Orjplov wppLrjKev r) r-qvhe rj 

" The authorities on Deucalion's Flood are assembled by 
Frazer on Apollodorus, i. 7. 2 (L.C.L.), and more completely 
in his Folk- Lore in the Old Testament, i, pp. 146 ff. Plutarch 
is the only Greek author to adtl the Semitic dove story, 
though Lucian {De Dea Syria, 12 ff.) Mas to add to the other 
major contaminations. 

^ (/. 949 D supra and the note. 

376 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 968-969 

stream. The others wait on the bank and observe 
the result, for if his back remains above water, those 
that are larger than he will have a wide margin of 
safety to give them confidence. 

13. At this point in my discourse, I imagine that I 
shall do well not to omit the case of the fox, since it 
is so similar. Now the story-books " tell us that when 
Deucalion released a dove from the ark, as long as 
she returned, it was a certain sign that the storm was 
still raging ; but as soon as she flew away, it was a 
harbing-er of fair weather. So even to this day the 
Thracians,^ whenever they propose crossing a frozen 
river, make use of a fox as an indicator of the solidity 
of the ice. The fox moves ahead slowly and lays 
her ear to the ice ; if she perceives by the sound that 
the stream is running close underneath, judging that 
the frozen part has no great depth, but is only thin 
and insecure, she stands stock still and, if she is per- 
mitted, returns to the shore ; but if she is reassured 
by the absence of noise, she crosses over. And let 
us not declare that this is a nicety of perception un- 
aided by reason ; it is, rather, a syllogistic conclusion 
developed from the evidence of perception : " What 
makes noise must be in motion ; what is in motion is 
not frozen ; what is not frozen is liquid ; what is 
liquid gives way." So logicians ^ assert that a dog, 
at a point where many paths split off, makes use 
of a multiple disjunctive ^ argument and reasons 
-with himself: " Either the \\'ild beast has taken this 

•^ Specifically Chrysippus {cf. von Arnim, S. V.F. ii, pp. 
726 f.). Cf. Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 
69 (the whole passage i. 62-73 is worth reading) ; Aelian, 
De Xatura Animal, vi. 59 ; Philo, 45 (p. 1-2-2). 

^ For the form of the syllogism see Diogenes Laertius, 
vii. 81. 

377 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(969) r-qvSe^- dXXa firjv ovre rrjvSe ovre TT^vSe* ttjv Xoltttji' 
dpa"- TTJ? [lev alodiqaecos ovhev r) tt^v TTpoGXrjipLV 
StSovGi]?, rod Se Xoyov rd X-qjiyiara koI to avyi- 
TTepaajxa rot? Xrjfi}iaoiv e7TL(f)€povTO?. ov fjLTjv helrai 
ye TOLavTr]s pLaprvpias 6 kvojv ipevhi]? yap €Gtl 
Kol KL^Sr]Xog- 7] yap aiudr^ois avrrj rols l)(V€GL /cat 
TotS" pevfxaoL" rod Oriplov ttjv (f)vyrjv eTrtSetVvucn, 
XO.ip€iv Xiyovoa hLel,€vypLevois a^tco/xacn /cat ovp.- 
TreTrXeypLevois. St' aAAcov 8e ttoXXcov epywv /cat 
7Tada)V /cat KaOrjKOVTCOV ovr" oacfypavTOJv ovd^ opa- 
C Tcbv dXXd Siavola /cat Xoycp (jlovov TrpaKrcov /cat 
dearcov ovtojv KanSelv euTL ttjv Kvvog <j)VOLv ov 
rds /xev iv dypacg iyKparelag /cat TreidapxiCL? Kal 
dy)(ivoias yeAoto? eaopLau Xeyojv rrpos vpidg tou? 
opdjvrag avrd KaB^ rjp^epav /cat /x€Ta;^etpi^o/.tei'ou?. 
KaA^ou 8e^ rod 'Pco/xatou cr^ayeVro? eV rot? £^- 
(j)vXiois TToXejJLOiS ouSets" iSvvrjdT] rr]v Ke(f)aXrjV drro- 
T€p.€LV TTporepov irplv T) rov Kvva tov ^vXarrovra 
/cat Trpop.axdpi€vov avrov /cara/cevrrjaat Trepiardv- 
ras. Tlvppos S' o ^adtXevg oSevcov ivervx^ kvvl 
(fypovpovvTi CTCOjLta 7T€cf)ov€vp.evov, /cat TTvdojJLevog 
rpLrrjv rjp^epav €K€Lvrjv doirov TrapapLeveiv /cat pLTj 
D aTT-oAetTreti^* tov jLtev V€Kp6v eKeXevoe ddi/jat, rov 8e 
/cura ped^ iavrov KOfXLZ,€Lv iTTipeXopevovs. oAtyat? 

^ "7 T7;v8e added liy early editors. 

^ p€u/xaat] TTvevfiaoL Fim])erius. 

^ KdAjSou 5e Diibner : ouSe. 

* aTToAetVeii' Bernardakis : aTroAtTreiv. 

« C/. Shorey on Plato, Republic, 437 e (L.C.L., vol. I, 
p. 81-7, note e). 

^ For the philosophic dog see Plato, op. cit. 37(i b : the 
scholia of Olympiodorus add that Socrates' famous oath " by 

378 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 969 

path, or this, or this. But surely it has not taken 
this, or this. Then it must have gone by the remain- 
ing road." Perception here affords nothing but the 
minor premiss, while the force of reason gives 
the major premisses and adds the conclusion to the 
premisses, A dog, however, does not need such a 
testimonial, which is both false and fraudulent ; for 
it is perception itself, by means of track and spoor,*' 
which indicates the way the creature fled ; it does 
not bother with disjunctive and copulative proposi- 
tions. The dog's true capacity may be discerned 
from many other acts and reactions and the perfor- 
mance of duties, which are neither to be smelled out 
nor seen by the eye, but can be carried out or per- 
ceived only by the use of intelligence and reason.^ 
I should only make myself ridiculous if I described 
the dog's self-control and obedience and sagacity on 
hunting parties to you who see and handle these 
matters every day. 

There was a Roman named Calvus ^ slain in the 
Civil Wars, but no one was able to cut off his head 
until they encircled and stabbed to death the dog 
who guarded his master and defended him. And 
King Pyrrhus ^ on a journey chanced upon a dog 
guarding the body of a murdered man ; in answer 
to his questions he was told that the dog had re- 
mained there \\'ithout eating for three days and 
refused to leave. Pyrrhus gave orders for the corpse 
to be buried and the dog cared for and brought along 

the dog " was symbolic of the creature's rational nature. 
See also Sinclair, Class. Rev. xlii (1948), p. 61 ; the parallel 
passages are collected by J. E. B. Mavor, Class. Rev. xii 
(1898), pp. 93 if. ^ 

'^ See Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 10. 

<* Cf. Aelian, loc. cit. ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 142. 

379 



)arLOJT(jL>\ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(969) S' vGTepov -qyiipais e^eraois rjv rojv arpc 

Koi TrapoSo? KadrjjjLevov rov ^acrtAecu? Kal rraprjv 6 
Kvojv rjov)(Lav ej^ojv eTrel Se rovg (f)ov€a? rod he- 
GTTOTOV TTapiovras elhev i^eSpajie (JLera <l)OJvrj? /cat 
dvjjLou eV avTovs Kal KaOvXaKTei ttoXXolkls /xera- 
OTp€(f)6iJi€vog els rov llvppov, a)or€ pLJ] jjlovov €K€l- 
vo) 8t' vTToi/jias dAAd Kal Trdoi rois irapovai rovs 
dvdpajTTovs yeveodai- hio avWiq^devres evdvs Kal 
dvaKpLVOfxevoL, puKpcbv rivojv reKpnqpiajv e^wdev 
TTpoGyevofievojv , oiioXoyrjaavres rov (f)6vov €ko- 
Xdadrjaav. 
E Tavrd^ Se Kal rov 'HatoSov Kvva rod aocfyov 
SpdaaL XeyovGi, rovg TavvKropos i^eXey^avra rov 
^avTTaKrlov TiatSa?, u</)' wv 6 'HcrtoSo? aTreOavev. 
o 8' oi TTarepes rjpLwv eyvcooav avrol CT^oAd^oy- 
re? ^A6rjvr]GLV Ivapyiorepov eon rcov elprjixevajv 
TTapappvel? yap dvdpojTTOs els rov vecbv rov Acr- 
KX'q-TTLov rd evoyKa ra)V dpyvpojv Kal xp^^^J^'^ eXajSev 
dvadrjijidrajv Kal XeXj^devai vofxll^ajv vrre^rjXdev 6 
8e (f)povp6s KVixiVy ovofJLa KdTTTrapos, eVet iJLr]S€ls 
vXaKrovvri rcjv l^aKopojv VTr-qKovoev avrcn, (fyevyovra 
rov UpoGvXov e7TehiCx)K€' Kal rrpajrov fiev j3aAAojU,e- 
F vos Xidois ovK dneGrrj- yevopL€V7]s 8' rjfiepas, eyyvs 
ov 7TpoGL(hv dAA' 0.77' ocfidaXpLov 7Tapa(j)vXdrra>v et- 
TTCTO Kal rpo(j)r]v TTpo^dXXovros ovk eXdpifiavev dva- 
7Tavo[X€va) 8e rrapevvKrepeve Kal ^ahit,ovros TrdXiv 
dvaGrds ImqKoXovdei, rovs 8' d-rravrcjvras ohoL-no- 

^ ravra Pu'iske : ravra. 

" Cf. 984 D infra. A different account, omitting the dog, 
will be found in Mor. W2 c-f (where see Wyttenbach's note) ; 

380 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 969 

in his train. A few days later there was an inspection 
of the soldiers, who marched in front of the king- 
seated on his throne, while the dog lay quietly by his 
side. But when it saw its master's murderers filing 
past, it rushed at them with furious barking and, as it 
voiced its accusation, turned to look at the king so 
that not only he, but everyone present, became sus- 
picious of the men. They w^ere at once arrested and 
when put to the question, with the help of some 
bits of external evidence as well, they confessed the 
murder and were punished. 

The same thing is said to have been done by 
the poet Hesiod's " dog, which convicted the sons of 
Ganyctor the Naupactian, by whom Hesiod had been 
murdered. But a matter which came to the attention 
of our fathers when they were studying at Athens 
is even plainer than anything so far mentioned. A 
certain fellow^ slipped into the temple of Asclepius,^ 
took such gold and silver offerings as w^ere not bulky, 
and made his escape, thinking that he had not been 
detected. But the watchdog, whose name was 
Capparus, when none of the sacristans responded to 
its barking, pursued the escaping temple-thief. First 
the man threw stones at it, but could not drive it 
aM'ay. When day dawned, the dog did not approach 
close, but followed the man, always keeping him in 
sight, and refused the food he offered. When he 
stopped to rest, the dog passed the night on guard ; 
when he struck out again, the dog got up and 
kept following, fawning on the other people it met 

cf. also Pollux, Onomasticon, v. 42 and Gabathiiler on Anth. 
Pal. vii. 55 {Hellenist ische Epigramme auf Dichter, p. 31). 

** The same story in Aelian, De Natura Animal, vii. 13, 
indicates a literary source. See now E. R. Dodds, The Greeks 
and the Irrational, p. 114 and n. 65. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(969) povg eaaivev, €K€LVip S' li^vXaKrei /cat Trpocre/cetro. 
ravra S' ol StcvKovres TTwdavofxevoL irapa tojv 
OLTTavTcovTajv afia Kal ro xpajjJLa (f)pat,6vrcov Kal to 
/jLeyedo? rod Kvvog TTpodvfJLorepov €)(py](Jai'TO rfj 
Slw^cl, Kal K'araAajSoi'Te? rov dvdpcoTTov dvrjyayov 
970 OLTTO l^pojJLiJLvdjvos. 6 8e Kvcov dvaGTpeifjas TTporjyelTO 
yavpos Kal 7T€pL-)(apris , olov eavrov TTOLOvpievos dy- 
pav Kal OiqpapLa rov lepoovXov. iifj7](f)LGavTO Srj 
alrov avTcp hrjpiooia pierpeZGOai Kal Trapeyyvdodai 
rols UpevGLV et? aet Tr]v eVt/xeAeiav, aTro^tjLtr^CTa- 
fievoL TO TTpos Tov 'qjJLLOVov (jiiXavO pojTTevpa rcov 
TTaXaichv ^Adrjvalcov. rov yap iKaropLTrehov vecov 
YlepcKXeovs iv dKpoiroXei KaraGKevdl^ovTos , d>s 
eiKog, XWoL TTpoGrjyovTo ttoXXoIs ^euyeai Kad^ Vl^^' 
pav T(x)v ovv Gvv€LpyaG[ji€vajv jiev irpodvpLOj? tJSjj 
Se Sid yrjpas di^ecpLevcov opecov els Karep^ofievos et? 
B K^epapLeiKov Kal rotg dvdyovGi t,evyeGi rovs Xudovs 
VTTavTCJV del GvvaveGrpe^e Kal GVfXTTaperpoxcL^ev, 
olov iyKeXevofjLevog Kal TrapoppLcJov Sto OavfjidGa? 
avTov rr]v ffuXoTipiiav 6 Srjfiog CKeXevGe SrjpLOGLa 
rpecjieGdaL, KaOdrrep dOXrjrfj oiriqGiv vtto y-qpat? 
dTTeLprjKOTL ijjr](j)iGdp.€Vos . 

14. Ato Tou? XiyovraSy co? 7]/xtr ovhkv Trpo? rd 
^ola hiKaiov €GTL, prjreov ev Xeyetv dxpi rd)v ivdXojv 
Kal pvdLcov dfJLLKTa yap e/cetva Kopuhfj irpos X^P''^ 

" Better known as the Parthenon ; cf. Mor. 349 d. Life of 
Pericles, xiii. 7 (159 e). 

* Cf. JAfe of Cato Maior, v. 3 (339 a-b). Aelian, De 
Natura Animal, vi. 49, ag:rees in the main with Plutarch's 
account ; Aristotle, Jlistoria Animal, vi. i?4 (577 u 34), says 
merely that a public decree was passed forbidding bakers to 
drive the creature away from their trays. He adds that the 

382 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 969-970 

on the road and barking at the man and stickmg to 
his heels. When those who were investigating the 
robbery learned this from men who had encountered 
the pair and were told the colour and size of the dog, 
they pursued all the more vigorously and overtook 
the man and brought him back from Crommyon. On 
the return the dog led the procession, capering and 
exultant, as though it claimed for itself the credit for 
pursuing and capturing the temple-thief. The people 
actually voted it a public ration of food and entrusted 
the charge of this to the priests in perpetuity, thereby 
imitating the ancient Athenian kindness to the mule. 
For when Pericles was building the Hecatompedon ^ 
on the Acropolis, stones were naturally brought by 
numerous teams of draught-animals every day. Now 
one of the mules who had assisted gallantly in the 
work, but had now been discharged because of old 
age, used to go down every day to the Ceramicus 
and meet the beasts which brought the stones, 
turning back Avith them and trotting along by their 
side, as though to encourage and cheer them on. 
So the people of Athens, admiring its enterprise, 
gave orders for it to be maintained at the public 
expense, voting it free meals, as though to an athlete 
who had succumbed to old age.^ 

14.*^ Therefore those who deny that there is any 
kind of justice owed to animals ^ by us must be 
conceded to be right so far as marine and deep-sea 
creatures ^ are concerned ; for these are completely 

mule was 80 years old and is followed by Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
viii. 175. 

•^ There is probably a lacuna before this chapter. 

<^ Cf. 999 B m/m ; 96-1 b supra. 

« Cf. additional sources cited by Mair on Oppian, Hal. 
ii. 43. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(970) ^^1- o-OTopya Kal TraaT^? djjioipa yXvKvdvfjLLa?- Kal 
KaXcog "OjJLrjpo? elrre 

yXavKTj 8e g^ eriKre BdXaaoa 

rrpos rov dvrjp.€pov etvai SoKovvra Kal dpLLKTov, cos 
pfqhev TTJg daXdacj'qs €vvo'lk6v p.'qhe irpdov (fyepod- 

C Gr]S- d he Kal Tvpog rd ;)(epCTata ro) Xoyco tovtco 
Xpcofievos d7n]vi]s Kal drjpidjSrjS' rj fjLTjhe^ AvoLfidxo^ 
Tt yeyovevau (f^rjcrrj^ irpos rov Kvva rov 'YpKavov 
hiKaioVy OS veKpcp re pLovos TrapepueLvev avra> Kai, 
Kaopievov rov acopLaros, evSpapuajv avros eavrov 
eTTeppujje. rd S' aura Kal rov derov^ hpauai Xe- 
yovGLv, ov Ilvppos ovx o ^aGiXevs dAA' erepos ris 
IhnJjrrjs edpeipev dTTodavovros ydp avrov rrepl ro 
GcopLa hiarpi^oov Kal Trepl ro kXlvlSlov alajpovpLevos 
eK(f)epopilvov , reXos els r7]v rrvpdv GreiXdpievos 
d<j)rJKev eavrov Kal ovyKareKavoe. 

Y[(jjpov Se rov ^aoiXecos 6 eXecf)as, ev rfj rrpos 
*AXe^avSpov p-dxj) Kararerpcopievov, rroXXd rd)v 

D dKovr LGpidr ojv drpepLa Kal (fyetSopLevos e^rjpeL rfj 
TTpo^oGKihi, Kal KaKcbs tJStj hiaKeipievos avros ov 
Ttporepov eveSojKev rj rod ^aGiXeoJS e^aipiov yevo- 

^ jj ixTjhk V. only : et 5e /at). ^ 4*V^TI Madvig : (f>-qoei. 

^ d^Tov Emperius : darov and avrov. 

« Iliad, xvi. 34. 

* Mor. 821 A : the companion and successor of Alexander 
(c. 360-281 B.C.). Cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 143; Aelian, 
De Xatura Animal, vi. 25 ; and ii. 40 {cf. vi. 29), of eagles. 

384. 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 970 

lacking in amiability, apathetic, and devoid of all 
sweetness of disposition. And well did Homer " say 

The gray-green sea bore you, 

with reference to a man regarded as uncivilized and 
misociable, implying that the sea produces nothing 
friendly or gentle. But a man who would use such 
speech in regard to land animals is himself cruel and 
brutal. Or perhaps you will not admit that there was 
a bond of justice between Lysimachus ^ and the 
Hyrcanian dog which alone stood guard by his 
corpse and, when his body was cremated, rushed into 
the flames and hurled itself upon him.*^ The same is 
reported to have been done by the eagle ^ which was 
kept by Pyrrhus, not the king, but a certain private 
citizen ; when he died, it kept vigil by his body ; at 
the funeral it hovered about the bier and finally 
folded its wings, settled on the pyre and was con- 
sumed with its master's body. 

The elephant of King Porus,^ when he was wounded 
in the battle against Alexander, gently and solici- 
tously pulled but with its trunk many ^ of the javelins 
sticking in its master. Though it was in a sad state 
itself, it did not give up until it perceived that the 

It may be conjectured that ii. 40 was derived from an original 
in which aerivv was confused with kvvojv, as infra. 

'^ Similar stories in Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 40. 

^ " Dog " and " eagle " are again confused ; but the 
"hovering" is here decisive. {Cf. also Wilamowitz, Hermes, 
Ixiii, p. 380.) The dog reappears in Pollux, v. 42 (where it is 
King Pyrrhus), an eagle in a similar tale in Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. X. 18, while Pyrrhus is the name of a dog in Pliny, 
viii. 144. 

* Life of Alexander, Ix. 13 (699 b-c), with Ziegler's refer- 
ences ad loc. 

f " Each one of the spears " in the Life of Alexander. 

VOL. XII o 385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(970) fJ^^^'ov Koi TTepippeovTO? aiGdofJievog^ /cat (fyo^r^Oel? /xt) 
TTeorj TTpdojs V(j)rJK€, rrapl^^iov eVetVoj rr^v arroKXioiv 

aXvTTOV. 

'0 he BovK€<f)dXas yvpuvog [xev ojv Trapelx^^ dva- 
^TjvaL TO) LTTTTOKOfjia), KoopLTjOeis Se Tois ^auiXiKoZs 
TTpoKOGfJLLOLS Kal TTepihepaiois ovheva TrpooUro ttXtjv 
avTov 'AXe^avhpov rots 8' a'AAotS", €L TretpctS/xeyot 
7TpooLOL€V, ivavTios eVtTpe^^cov exp€iJL€TLl,€ jLteya /cat 
E ivrjXXero^ /cat KareTrdreL rovs fir] Trpoaoj leoOai 

jLtT^S' d7T0(f)€Vy€LV (f)ddGaVTa9. 

15. OvK dyvoo) 8' OTt t6^ tojv TrapaheiyfJiarajv 
vjjuv (f)av€Lrai n ttolkIXov ovk ecrrt he paSto)? tc5v 
€V(f)VOJV l,a)cov irpd^iv cvpelv fiids ejJ.<j)aGLV aperrjg 
expvaav dXX IpL^aiverai /cat rep cfyiXoaropycp to 
(j)iX6riixov avTcJov /cat rep yevvaicp to dvpLoaocfyov, t) 
re TTavovpyla /cat to uvverov ovk dTTrjXXaKraL rod 
dvfJLoeihov? /cat dvSpa)hov?. ov fxrjv dXXd ^ovXo- 
fxevoL? Statpety /cat htopil^eLV Kad^ eKaorov, 17/xepou 
puev epL^aGiv ofxov /cat vifj'qXov (fjpovrjjjLarog ttolovglv 
ol Kvves, dTTorpeTTopLevoL rcov GvyKaOet^opLevcov cos" 
7TOV /cat ravr eipiqraL 

F ot /xev /ce/cAi^yovTe? errehpapiov avrdp 'OSuco-eus" 
et,ero KepSoGTJV^, GKrJTrrpov Se ot e/cTreae x^ipo?- 

ovKen yap tt poGjxdxovr at Tot? V7T07T€Govgl /cat ye- 
yovoCTt ra7T€Lvols rag e^ecs ofxoLOLg. 

^ ata^d/xei'o? DiihruT : aladav6^evo<s. 

2 evT^AAeTo Diibner : cruvT7AAeTo. 

^ TO added by Wyttenbach. 

*» Other stories of humane elephants in Aelian, De Natura 
Animal, iii. 46 ; al. 

" Cf. Pliny, .Va<. ///.sV. viii. 154 ; Gellius, Xortfn Atticae, 
V. 2 ; and see the parallels collected by Sternbach, Wiener 

386 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS. 970 

king had lost much blood and was slipping off : then, 
fearing that he would fall, it gently kneeled and 
afforded its master a painless glide." 

Bucephalas ^ unsaddled would permit his groom to 
mount him ; but when he was all decked out in his 
royal accoutrements and collars, he would let no one 
approach except Alexander himself. If any others 
tried to come near, he would charge at them loudly 
neighing and rear and trample any of them who 
were not quick enough to rush far away and escape. 

15. I am not unaware that you will think that my 
examples are rather a hodge-podge ; but it is not 
easy to find naturally clever animals doing anything 
which illustrates merely one of their \'irtues. Their 
probity, rather, is revealed in their love of offspring 
and their cleverness in their nobility ; then, too, 
their craftiness and intelligence is inseparable from 
their ardour and courage. Those, nevertheless, who 
are intent on classifying and defining each separate 
occasion will find that dogs give the impression of a 
mind that is at once civil and superior when they 
turn away from those who sit on the ground — which 
is presumably referred to in the lines ^ 

The dogs barked and rushed up, but wise Odysseus 
Cunningly crouched : the staff slipped from his hand ; 

for dogs cease attacking those who have thrown 
themselves down and taken on an attitude that 
resembles humility.^ 

Studien, xvi, pp. 17 f. The story is omitted by Plutarch in 
the Life of Alexander. 

" Homer, Odyssey, xiv. 30 f. ; cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 
146 ; Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 24 : Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 
3. 6 (1380 a 24). 

<* Cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 48, of the lion. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(^)70) OaCTt 8e /cat rov Trpajrevovra Kwa rcJbv 'Iv^St/ccov 
Tov iidXiGTa davfiaodevra Trpos *AAe^av8poL»/ eAa- 

(j)OV [lev^ 0L(f)i€I.L€VOV Kal KOLTTpOV Kal dpKTOV, 

r]OV)(icLV ^xovra Kelodai /cat Trepiopdv, o^devros he 
XeovTOS, evOvg i^avaGrrjvaL /cat hiaKOi'Uodai /cat 
971 (jiavepdv etvat avrov Troiovjxevov dvrayojviorrjv , rcov 
8' aAAoji' V7T€p(J)povovvTa rravTiov. 

Ot 8e rovs SaavTTohag hiuoKOVTe?, idv fxev avrol 
KreivojOLV , rjhovrai hLacnrcovTeg /cat to at/xa Acltt- 
TOVGL TTpodvfiojg- idv 8' aTToyvou? eaurov o Aaycuo?, 
o ytVerat 77oAAa/ct?, ocrov e;^€t nvevfjiaros et? rov 
eoxoLTOV dvaXa)Gas hpopiov e/cAtVi^, ve/cpov Kara- 
Xa^ovres ovk dTrrovrai to Trapdrrav, dXX loravraL 
TO,? ovpds KLvovvreg, ojg ov Kpecov X^P^^ dXXd viK-qs 
Kal (jyiXovLKia^ dycovt^OjLtevot. 

16. llavoupyta? he ttoXXcJjv TrapaheiyyidTOJV bv- 
rojv, d(f)eLS dXcorreKas Kal Xvkovs Kal rd yepavojv 
B oo^LGpLara Kal koXolojv, eari ydp hi^Xa, pLaprvpi 
;^p7Jcro/xat SaXfj ro) TraXaiordrcp rcov o'o<^a>v, 6v ovx 
rfKLGTa OavpiaGdrjvaL XeyovGiv opecjs^ '^^X^V '^^P^' 
yevopievov. rd)V ydp aAr^ytuv rjpLLOvojv et? epL^aXcbv 
et? TTorapLou wXiaOev avTOpLarcos Kal rcov dXojv 8ta- 
raKevrcov dvaard? eXacjypos fjadero rrjv alnav /cat 

^ TOV (W. C". H.) ^dXiora dav^aadivra rrpos WXi^dvhpov van 
Herwerden : koI fiaxeodevTa Trpos WXd^avSpov. 
'^ fi€v added by Benseler. 
^ opeojs Amyot : opdcos. 

" There are nearly as many emendations of this phrase as 
there have been scholars interested in Plutarch's text. Van 
Herwerden's version, as having the liveliest sense, has been 
preferred. It is by no means certain, however, though sup- 
ported by Aelian, De Xatura minimal, viii. 1 ; Pliny, Sat. 

388 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 970-971 

They relate further that the champion of the 
Indian dogs, one greatly admired by Alexander," 
when a stag was let loose and a boar and a bear, lay 
quiet and still and disregarded them ; but when a 
lion appeared, it sprang up at once to prepare for 
the fray, showing clearly that it chose to match itself 
with the lion ^ and scorned all the others. 

Hounds that hunt hares, if they themselves kill 
them, enjoy pulling them to pieces ^ and eagerly lap 
up the blood ; but if, as frequently happens, a hare 
in desperation exhausts all its breath in a final sprint 
and expires, the hounds, when they come upon it 
dead, will not touch it at all, but stand there wagging 
their tails, as much as to say that they do not strive 
for food, but for victory and the honour of winning. 

16. There are many examples of cunning, but I 
shall dismiss foxes and wolves '^ and the tricks of 
crane and daw (for they are obvious), and shall take 
for my witness Thales,^ the most ancient of the Wise 
Men,-^ not the least of whose claims to admiration, 
they say, was his getting the better of.a mule by a 
trick. For one of the mules that were used to carry 
salt, on entering a river, accidentally stumbled and, 
since the salt melted away, it was free of its burden 
when it got up. It recognized the cause of this and 

Hist. viii. 149 ; cf. also Pollux, v. 43-44 and the parallels 
cited bv Bethe ad loc. See also Aelian, iv. 19 and Diodorus, 
xvii. 94. 

^ Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 149 f., adds the elephant as a 
worthy match. 

" So " break up " : Xenophon, Cynegetica^ vii. 9. 

<* Cf. Pindar, Pythians, ii. 84 ; Oppian, Cynegetica, iii. 
266. 

* Omitted in Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok., not with- 
out reason. Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, vii. 42. 

^ See the Septem Sapientium Convivium {Mor. 146 b ff.). 

389 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

^971) Karep.\"t]ix6v€VG€V' Loare Sta^atVcov det tov TTorafjiov, 
eVtT7]Se? v(f)Levai Kal jSaTrrtfetv ra dyyeta, avyKadl- 
^601' Kal oLTTovevoji' et? eKcirepov fxepos' aKovaas 
ovv 6 idaXrj? eKeXevoev cli'tl tcov clXojv epicov ra 
ayyela Kal Gnoyycov eixTrXTjoavras Kal dvadevra?, 
C iXavvetv rov rjjjLLOVov. TTOLrjoag ovv to elojOos Kal 
dvarrXrioas vharos ra (j)opria ovurJKev dXvGireXrj 
Go<j)it,6iJievos iavroj, Kal ro Xolttov ovrco rrpoGe-)(OJV 
Kal (jyvXarropievos Ste/Satve rov TTorajJLOv, cocrre /x'?]S' 
aKovros avrov rojv <^opria>v TTapaifjavGai ro vypov. 
"AAAt^v he TTavovpyiav ofiov fxerd rov (j)iXoGr6pyov 
7TephiK€s ImheLKvvvres rovs ju-ev veorrovg idl^ovGL 
fi-qSencxj (f)€vy€LV hwapuivov? , orav SicoKCjovrai, Kara- 
^aXovrag vrrrlovs iavrovs ^coXov riva rj GVp(j)€r6v 
dvcx) TTpo'cGx^f^OaL rov G(x)p.aros olov imqXvyal,o- 
pilvovs' avral^ 8e rovs hiojKovras VTrdyovGLV dXXr] 
Kal 7T€piGTTCx)Giv 61?^ iavrd? , ipLTToSdjv StaTrerojLtevat 
D Kal Kara puKpov i^aviGrdp^evai, pLe^p^S dv ogov 
OV7TOJ y'^ dXiGKopevcjov ho^av eVStSoucrat, piaKpdv 
dTTOGTrdGOJGL roJv v€orr<jJv. 

01 8e SaGVTTohes npog evvrjv erravLovres ctAAov 
dAAa;\;'^ KOLpil^ovGL* rwv Xayihecov , Kal rrXeOpov hid- 
Grrjpua TroAAd/ct? dXXrjXcov d7T€.-)(ovras , ottcos, dv 
dvdpojTTOS rj Kvcov 677 ti], p,rj rrdvres d/xa GvyKLvSv- 

^ avral Pa'iskc : avrai. 



2 ei? added by early editors. 
^ oaov ovnw y' Naber and \V. C. H. : ovtcos. 



390 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 971 

bore it in mind. The result was that every time it 
crossed the river, it would deliberately lower itself 
and wet the bags, crouching and bending first to 
one side, then to the other. When Thales heard of 
this, he gave orders to fill the bags with wool and 
sponges instead of salt and to drive the mule laden 
in this manner. So when it played its customary 
trick and soaked its burden with water, it came to 
know that its cunning was unprofitable and thereafter 
was so attentive and cautious in crossing the river 
that the water never touched the slightest portion 
of its burden even by accident. 

Partridges ° exhibit another piece of cunning, com- 
bined with affection for their young. They teach 
their fledglings, who are not yet able to fly, to lie on 
their backs when they are pursued and to keep above 
them as a screen some piece of turf or rubbish. The 
mothers meanwhile lure the hunters in another 
direction and divert attention to themselves, flutter- 
ing along at their feet and rising only briefly until, 
by making it seem that they are on the point of 
being captured, they draw them far away from their 
young. 

WTien hares ^ return for repose, they put to sleep 
their leverets in quite different places, often as much 
as a hundred feet apart, so that, if man or dog comes 
near, they shall not all be simultaneously in danger. 

" Cf. 992 B infra ; Mor. 494 e and the references there ; 
add Pliny, Xat.'Hist. x. 103: Philo, 35 (p. 117) (probably 
referring to partridges, though the Latin version reads 
palumbae) ; Antigonus, Hist. Mlrab. 39 ; Aelian, Be Xatura 
Animal, iii. 16; xi. 38; Aristotle, Historia Animal. 613 
b31. 

* Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, xiii. 1 1 ; vi. 47. 

* KOifjLi^ovcTL some MSS. : KOfill^ovai. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(971) vevcoGLV avrol Se noXXaxodi ralg fxeTahpofxalg iX^V 
Bivr€S, TO S' eoxo-Tov aXfia fieya Kal jiaKpav rwv 
Ix^cov an ouTT da avT€? ovtuj Kadevhovotv. 

'H 8' apKTOS vrro rod TrdOovs, o KaXovai (f)aj- 
Aetav/ KaraXafi^avoiJLevrj , TTplv rj TTavraTTacn vap- 
E KrJGaL Kal yeveodai jSapeta Kal hvGKLvqTog, rov re 
roTTOv dvaKaQalpei Kal /xeAAoucra KaraSveodai rrjv 
/xev d'AAr^v TTopetav c6? evhex^rai jxaXiora iroieZrai 
fierewpov Kal iXa(f)pdv aKpoig eTnOiyyavovGa rois 
'ixveoL, ro) Viorco Se to Gcofxa Trpoodyei Kal irapa- 
KopLit^ei TTpos rov (j>ajXe6v. 

TcDv eXd(j)Cx)v^ S' at BiqXeiai [xaXiGra riKrovGi 
napd rrjV ohov, orrov rd uapKo^opa OrjpLa /xt] rrpoa- 
eiGiv OL t' dppeveg, orav alaOcovr at jSapct? vtto 
TTLixeXrjs Kal rroXvaapKias ovres, eKro7Til,ovoL gco- 
l,ovreg avrovs rep XavOdvcLV, ore rco (f)evyeiv ov^ 

TTeTToiQaGLV. 

Toiv he ;)^ep(Taicor ex^vwv -q p.ev virep avrchv d/JLVva 
F Kal <j)vXaKr] Trapoifiiav 7Te7TOL7]Ke 

77-oAA' otS' dXcoTTT]^, dAA' e^tvo? ev jLxeya- 

^ (f)coX€Lav Keiske : ^ojXiav or <j>(x)\ia. 

- TU)v eXdcfxjuv Jannotius : twv iXecfxivrajv. 

^ OV] OVKCTL W. C. H. 

<• Cf. Aelian, De Natnra Animal, vi. 3 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
viii. 126 f. ; Mair on Oppian, Cyn. iii. 173 (L.C.L.). 

392 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 971 

The hares themselves run to and fro and leave tracks 
in many places, but last of all with a great leap they 
leave their traces far behind, and so to bed. 

The she-bear, just prior to the state called hiber- 
nation," before she becomes quite torpid and heavy 
and finds it difficult to move, cleans out her lair and, 
when about to enter, approaches it as lightly and 
inconspicuously as possible, treading on tiptoe, then 
turns around and backs into the den.^ 

Hinds are inclined to bear their young beside a 
public road where carnivorous animals do not come '' ; 
and stags, when they observe that they have grown 
heavy by reason of their fat and surplus flesh, vanish 
and preserve themselves by hiding when they do not 
trust to their heels. ^ 

The w^ay in which hedgehogs defend and guard 
themselves has occasioned the proverb ^ : 

The fox knows many tricks, but the hedgehog one big one ; 

'' These precautions seem to have been successful (though 
cf. the implications of Pliny, Sat. Hist. viii. 128), since 
Aristotle {Historla Animal, viii. 17, 600 b 6 f.) says that 
" either no one (or very few) " has ever caught a pregnant 
bear. Cf. Pliny, Sat. Hist. viii. 95 and Amm. Marc. xxii. 
15. 22, of the hippopotamus entering a field backwards. 

" Aristotle {Historia Animal, ix. 5, 611 a 17) notes that 
highways were shunned by wild animals because they feared 
men. Cf. also Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 35 and 5lair on 
Oppian, Cyn. ii. i207 (L.C.L.). 

'^ Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 113; [Aristotle], De Mir. 
Ausc. 5 ; Historia Animal. 611 a 23. 

« See Shorey on Plato, Republic, 423 e (L.C.L.) ; Leutsch 
and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, i, p. 147, Zenobius, 
V. 68 ; attributed by Zenobius to Archilochus (Diehl, Antho- 
logia Lyrica, i, p. 241, frag. 103 ; Edmonds, Elegy and 
Iambus, ii, p. 174, frag. 118) and to Homer, Zenobius also 
quotes five lines from Ion, of which the last two are Plutarch's 
next quotation. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(971) TTpoGLOVGrjs yap avrrjs, (^S (f>'r]OLV 6 "Icou,^ 

orpo^iXos apx^aKavdov' etAt^a? Se'jU-a?, 
KeZrat diyeZv re koL haKclv apiri-)(avos . 

yXa(f)vpcoT€pa S' earlv 7] Trepl tcov OKvpiviojv Trpo- 
voia- fji€T07T(jjpov yap vtto ras d/xTieAou? virohvo- 
jjLevog, Kal rot? ttool to.? pdyag airoGeioas rod 
^orpvog ;^a/xa^e Kal TTepLKvXivhr^deL? , dvaXajjL^dveL 
972 raXg oLKdvOats' Kal Trape^x^ Trore TraLolv^ -qpilv opoj- 
OLV oijjLV ipTTOvar]? rj jSaSt^ouai]? Gra(f)vXrjs* ' elra 
Karahvg els rov (f)coXe6v rots OKvpiVois XPV^^^'- '^"^ 
Xafx^dvecv dcf)^ avrov rapLievofievoLS^ Trapahihcooi. 
TO he KOLralov avrojv 0770,9 €;)^et Suo, rrjv fjiev irpos 
voTov TTjV Se TTpos jSopcov ^XeTTOvoav orav Se 
TTpoaLodojvrai ttjv Sta<^opav rod depo?, cjarrep 
LGriov KV^epvijrai pLeraXapL^dvovres epLcfypdrrovui 
TTjv Kar dvepLov rrjv 8' erepav dvoiyovGi. Kal 
rovro Tt? eV Ku^t/co) KarapiaBcov bo^av ea^^v co? 
d^' avrov rov pieXXovra TTveZv dvepLov Trpoayopevcuv. 
B 17. To ye pbrju koivojvlkov peer a rod ovverov rovs 
eXe^avras aTToSeiKwodaL (l)r]GLV 6 To/^a?. opvy- 
pLara yap avrolg ol drjpevovres vTrepyaadpievoi 
XeirroZs <f>pvydvoLS Kal (f)opvra)^ Kov(f)a) Karepe(f>ov- 

^ 6 "lojv Meziriacus : olov. 

^ d^(f>dKav9ov Salmasius : dix(f>' OLKavdav. 

^ TTaiaLv Kronenberg : Trdaiv. 

* CTTa^uAT^?] the MSS. add ovtcos dvaTrXew? e;^a)/3et ttj? OTrcopas, 
deleted by W. C. H. 

^ TafXL€v6fji€vos Andrews ; -o^evov W . C H. 

* (f>opvTa> Meziriacus : (f>6pTw. 

" Xauck, Traff, Graec. Frag. p. 7S9 ; fra^. 38, verses 4 f. 
(see the preceding: note). 

* The MSS. add an unnecessary explanation : " so covered 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 971-972 
for when the fox approaches, as Ion " says, it, 

CurUng its spiny body in a coil, 

Lies still, impregnable to touch or bite. 

But the provision that the hedgehog makes for its 
young is even more ingenious. When autumn comes, 
it creeps under the vines and with its paws shakes 
down to the ground grapes from the bunches and, 
having rolled about in them, gets up with them 
attached to its quills. Once when I was a child I 
saw one, like a creeping or walking bunch of grapes ! ^ 
Then it goes down into its hole and delivers the load 
to its young for them to enjoy and draw rations from. 
Their lair has two openings, one facing the south, 
the other the north ; when they perceive that the 
wind will change, like good skippers who shift sail, 
they block up the entrance which lies to the wind and 
open the other. '^ And a man in Cyzicus ^ observing 
this acquired a reputation for being able to predict 
unaided which way the wind would blow, 

17. Elephants, as Juba ^ declares, exhibit a social 
capacity joined with intelligence. Hunters dig pits 
for them, covering them ^^ith slender twigs and 

with fruit was it as it walked." Cf. Pliny, ]^at. Hist. viii. 
133 ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, iii. 10; Antk. Pal. vi. 169. 

" Cf. 979 A infra ; Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 6 
(612 b 4 ff.) ; Pliny, ^at. Hist. viii. 133 ; cf. viii. 138, of 
squirrels. On animals who predict the weather see Pliny, 
Nat. Hist, xviii. 361-364. 

^ Aristotle {loc. cit.) says Byzantium (and see infra, 979 b). 

* Muller, Frag. Hist. Graec. iii, p. 474 ; Jacoby, Frag, 
der griech. Hist, iii, pp. 146 f., frag, ola, 53 ; cf. Pliny, 
Nat. Hist. viii. 24 ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, viii. 15 ; 
vi. 61 ; and see the criticism in 977 d-e infra. On the 
mutual assistance of elephants see Philostratus, Vita Apoll. 
ii. 16. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(972) crtr- orav ovv rt? elaoXlGdrj, ttoXXwv ofiov nopevo- 
fievcov, ol XoLTTOi (f)opovvr€s vXr^v /cat Xidov? 
efi^dXXovGLVy dvaTrXrjpovvres rrjv KOiXorrjra rod 
opvypLaro^y ware pahiav eVetVoj yiveuQai rrjv €k- 
jSacrtv. laropel he kol €vxfj XPV^^^^ decov rovs iXe- 
(fyavrag dSihoLKraJS , dyvt^o/LteVou? re rfj daXdoGr] Kal 
Tov tJXlov €K(f>ai'evTa TrpouKwovvras ojGTxep x^f-pos 
dvaGX€G€L rrj? Trpo^oGKihos. odev Kal ^eo^tAeWa- 
C TOV €GTL TO dr)pLov , to? WroXepualos 6 ^iXoTrdrajp 
ijjLaprvprjGe. KparrjGas yap ^Avtloxov Kal jSouAo- 
fievog eKTTpeTrcjs TLfJLrJGai to Oelov dXXa re TrdfJiTToXXa 
KaredvGev eTTiviKia rrjs pidx'^]? Kal reGGapas iXe- 
(fyavrag- etra vvKrwp oveipaGLV evrvxcov, cus" rod 
deov jjier 6pyr\s dTreiXovvros avrco hid rrjv aAAo- 
Korov eKeiv-qv OvGiav, IXaGpiols re ttoXXoZs exprjGaro 
Kal x'^^'<ov£ eXe(f)avrag dvrl roJv G(f)ayevra>v dve- 
GrTjGe reGGapas . 

Ovx Tjrrov he KoivcDViKa rd rojv Xeovrcov. ol yap 
veoL rovs ^pahels Kal yepovras rjhr] Gvve^dyovGLV 
errl d-qpav ottov 8' dv dnayopevGajGLV , ol fiev 
Kddrjvrai Trepifievovres ol he drfpevovGi' kov Xd^oj- 
D GLV oriovv, dvaKaXovvrai, pLOGXov (jLVKT^fiarL rd 
^pvX'fJpio. TTOLOvvres dfiotov ol h^ evdvs aloddvovrat 
Kal TTapayevofjLevoL Koivfj rrjv dypav dvaXiGKovGiv. 

18. "EpcoTCS" he drjpitov^ ol puev dypioi Kal rrepi- 
/xavet? yeyovaGiv, ol 8' exovres ovk dTrdvdpwTTov 

^ drjpiojv W . C, H. : ttoXXwv. 

<• Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. I f. ; Oio C'assiiis, xxxix. 38. 5. 
396 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 972 

light rubbish ; when, accordingly, any elephant of a 
number travelling together falls in, the others bring 
wood and stones and throw them in to fill up the 
excavation so that their comrade can easily get out. 
He also relates that, without any instruction, ele- 
phants pray to the gods, purifying themselves in 
the sea " and, when the sun ^ rises, worshipping it 
by raising their trunks, as if they were hands of 
supplication. For this reason they are the animal 
most loved of the gods, as Ptolemy Philopator ^ has 
testified ; for when he had vanquished Antiochus 
and wished to honour the gods in a really striking 
way, among many other offerings to commemorate 
his victory in battle, he sacrificed four elephants. 
Thereafter, since he had dreams by night in which 
the deity angrily threatened him because of that 
strange sacrifice, he employed many rites of appease- 
ment and set up as a votive offering four bronze 
elephants to match those he had slaughtered. 

Social usages are to be found no less among lions. 
For young lions take along with them to the hunt the 
old and slow : when the latter are tired out, they rest 
and wait, while the young lions hunt on. When they 
have taken anything, they summon the others by a 
roaring like the bleat of a calf ; the old ones hear it 
at once and come to partake in common of the prey.*^ 

18. The loves of some animals are ^\ild and furious, 
while others have a refinement which is not far from 

* The moon in Aelian, De Natura Animal, iv. 10, but the 
sun in vii. 44 ; of tigers in Philostratus, Vita Apoll. ii. 28. 

" Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 44 : Ptolemy IV (c. 
244f-305 B.C.), who reigned 221-205. The decisive defeat of 
Antiochus III was at Raphia in 217. For the gods loving 
elephants see Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 3 ; al. 

^ Cf. Aelian, De Xatura Animal, ix. 1. 

S97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(972) (.opa'Coixov oi)S' avacf) pohtrov o/xtAtar. olos tjv 6 rod 
eXe(j)avTos eV 'AAe^avSpeta rov dvrepcovTog 'Apt- 
GTO(f)dv€i TO) ypaixjiarLKCi)- rrjs yap avrrjg yjpojv 
GT€(f)avo7TOjXLSo? , KOi ov^ rjTTOv TjV 6 eAe(/)a? hidSrj- 
Aos" €(f)€p€ yap avTjj rrj? oirajpas del rd^ Trpar-qpia 
TrapaTTopevofievog , /cat xP^^^v ttoXvv ixjyiararo Kal 

TTjV TTpO^OOKlha TOJV X^T OJV LiOV ivTO? a)G7T€p X^^P^ 

E TTapa^aXcbv drpe/xa TrjS irepl to orrjOog wpag 
eifjavev. 

*0 he SpdKwv 6 rrjS AtrojAtSo? ipaadelg i(f)OLra 
vvKTOjp Trap' avTTjv Kal rod awfiaro? VTTohvopLevos 
eV XP^ ^^'' TT^pi-'^XeKoiJLevo? ovSev ovB^ €Kcov out' 
aKwv e^Xaijjev, dXXd kogjjllws del nepl rov 6p- 
Opov dmqXXdrrero . ovvex^J^S he rovro rroiovvros 
avrov, fiercpKLGav ol TTpoaiqKovres dirairepcD rrjv 
dvdpojTTOv. 6 8e rpel? pLev tj rerrapag vvKrag^ ovk 
rjXdev aAA' c6? eoiKe TrepirjeL l^rjrdjv Kal TrXavojpievos' 
fjLoXis he 7TOJS e^avevpojv Kal TrepiTreaujv ov npao^^ 
(Lorrep eicodei dXXd rpaxvrepo?, rw piev dXXoj OTrei- 

F pdpLan rag ;)^etpa? avrrjs ehiqae irpos rd oajpua, ro) 
8' diToXriyovrL rrjs ovpds epLaortyov rds KvqpLag, 
eXacfypdv riva Kal (^iXoaropyov Kal rrXeov exovoav 
rod KoXdl,ovros rd (jyeihopievov dpyi-jv dTToheiKVV- 
ptevos. 

Tdv 8' eV Atytoj"* Traihepaarovvra XW^ '^'^^ '^^^ 
eTnOvpLrjaavra TXavKTjg rrjs KiOapcphov Kpiov, rrepi- 



X added by Hernardakis, after Heiske. 
2 vvKTa^ added by \\'yttenbach. 
^ TTpdos Bernardakis : ■npaoi's. 
* Alylcp Aelian : alrrw or alyvTTTO}. 



" Cf. Aelian, De Xatura Animal, i. 38 (c/. vii. 43) ; Pliny, 
Nat. Hist, viii, 13. 



398 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 972 

human and an intercourse conducted with much 
grace. Such was the elephant which at Alexandria 
played the rival to Aristophanes ° the grammarian. 
They were, in fact, in love with the same flower-girl ; 
nor was the elephant's love the less manifest : as he 
passed by the market, he always brought her fruit 
and stood beside her for a long time and would insert 
his trunk, like a hand,^ within her garments and 
gently caress her fair breasts. 

The serpent that fell in love with an Aetolian 
woman ^ used to visit her at night and slip under 
some part of her body next the skin and coil about 
her without doing her any harm at all, either in- 
tentional or accidental ; but always at daybreak it 
M'as decent enough to glide away. And this it did 
constantly until the kinsmen of the woman removed 
her to a house at some distance. The serpent did 
not come to her for three or four nights ; but all 
the time, we may suppose, it was going about in 
search of her and missing its goal. At last, when it 
had somehow found her with difficulty, it embraced 
her, not with that former gentleness it had used, but 
rather more roughly, its coils binding her hands to 
her body, and with the end of its tail it lashed the 
calves of her legs, displaying a light and tender anger 
that had in it more indulgence than punishment. 

As for the goose in Aegium that loved a boy and 
the ram that set his heart on Glauce ^ the harp- 

* Cf. Mair on Oppian, Cyn. ii. 5:34 for additional authori- 
ties. 

'^ Told somewhat differently, and of a Jewish woman, in 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, vi. 17. 

"^ Also a goose in Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 51. Both stories are 
in Aelian, iJe Xatura Animal, v. 29 {cf. i. 6 ; viii. 11) ; for 
Glauce see also Gow's note on Theocritus, iv. 31. 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(972) ^oTjTOL yap eloL koI ttoXXcov olfiaL hiriyrnjiaTcov hia- 
Kop€.Zs vfjid? elvat- 8to ravra {lev a(j)irip.i. 

19. ^Yd.p€S 3e Koi KopaKeg /cat i/jLTTaKol fjLavOd- 

vovres hiaXeyeoSai kol to rrjs (f)cov7Jg TTvevfia rot? 

SiSdoKOVGLv evTrXaoTov ovtoj kol fiifirjXov^ ^^^p- 

973 rveiv' kol pvdpiLt^eLV napexovreg ijjLol Sokovgl irpo- 

hlKeZv KOL GVV7]yop€LV Tolg dXXoiS ^CpOLS iv TO) 

fxavOdveiv, rporrov rivd hibdoKovres rjixdg on /cat 
7Tpo(f)opLKov Xoyov /Cat (f)a)vrj? ivdpdpov pLereonv 
avToZs' ff /cat ttoXvs KardyeXcog to 77/309 ravra 
KaraXiTteZv eKeivoig ovyKpioLv, ols 01)8' oaov (hpv- 
oaodai fxereonv ou8' ogov orevd^ai (f)ajvrjg. rou- 
rojv he /cat TOt? avrocjyvioi /cat Tot? aStSa/CTOt? 
yqpvfjLaGLv ogt] fxovGa /cat X^P^^ eVecjTtv, ot Xoyioj- 
raroL /cat KaXXL(f)Cov6raroL p.aprvpovGi, rd yj^LGra 
TTOirjpLara /cat /xcAt] kvkvcov /cat ai^Soyojv coSat? 
aTxet/ca^ovTe?. ivel Se rov fiadeZv ro StSa^at Aoyt- 
Kojrepov, rjhrj rreiGreov ^ApiGroreXeL Xeyovrt /cat 
B rovro rd ^coa TToieZv ocjidrivai yap drihova veoGGOv 
aheiv TTpohihdGKovGav . fiaprvpeZ S* avra> ro (f)av- 
Xorepov a8etv doais GVfJL^e^rjKe puKpaZs aXovoais* 
aTTorpocfiOLg rcov [jLrjrepajv yeveodai' SiSdGKovraL yap 
at Gvvrpe(f}6fi€vai /cat [JLav6dvovGLV ov Sta puGdov 
ovhk TTpds ho^av dXXd ro) ;)(at/3etv 8ta/LteAt^o^evat 
/cat TO KaXov dyajrav fxdXXov tj ro ;^/3etcI»8e? rrjg 
(fycxjvrjs. 

^ fXLfirjXoi' 6V Reiske. 

^ €$apTV€Lv Keiske {cf. 978 d) : e^apidfietu. 

^ ^ Wyttenbach : ^. * aXovaais Xylander : dbovaais. 

" More in Aelian, ])e XafKra minimal, xii. 37; a/. 
** Cf. Oellius, yorte.s ^ It f leaf, xiii. 21. 25 ; Alciphron, 
Epp. iii. 80. 1 : Philostratus, Ufa ApoU. i. 7 ; vi. .86: al. 

400 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 972-973 

player, since these are famous tales and I rather 
imagine you have had enough of such to spoil your 
appetite for more,** I omit them. 

19. As for starlings ^ and crows and parrots which 
learn to talk and afford their teachers so malleable 
and imitative a vocal current to train and discipline, 
they seem to me to be champions and advocates of 
the other animals in their ability to learn, instructing 
us in some measure that thev too are endowed both 
^\'ith rational utterance ^ and with articulate voice ; 
for which reason it is quite ridiculous to admit a 
comparison of them with creatures who have not 
enough voice even to howd or groan.^ And what 
music, what grace do we not find in the natural, un- 
taught warbling of birds ! To this the most eloquent 
and musical of our poets bear witness ^ when they 
compare their sweetest songs and poems to the sing- 
ing of swans and nightingales. Now since there is 
more reason in teaching than in learning, we must 
yield assent to Aristotle ^ when he says that animals 
do teach : a nightingale, in fact, has been observed 
instructing her young how to sing. A further proof 
that supports him is the fact that birds which have 
been taken young from the nest and bred apart from 
their mothers sing the worse for it ^ ; for the birds 
that are bred with their mothers are taught and 
learn, not for pay or glory, but for the joy of rivalling 
each other in song and because they cherish the 
beautiful in their utterance rather than the useful. 

•^ For the Aoyo? -npo^opiKos see, e.g., Mor. Ill b-c. 
^ Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, iv. 9 (535 b 14 ff.). 
« e.g., Bacchvlides, iii. 97 ; Anth. Pal. vii. 4-14. 
f Historia Animal, iv. 19 (535 b IT) ; cf. ix. 1 (608 a 18) ; 
cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, iii. 40. 
» Cf. 992 B-c infra. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^973) "^X^ ^^ TTepl rovTOv kcu Xoyov etVetv rrpog vfids, 

CLKovGas 'KXX-qvojv re 77oAAtov Kal 'Pco/xatcov irapa- 

yevojJLevojv. Kovpevs yap Tt? ipyaorrjpLov k)(OJV ev 

*P(jL)fxr] 7Tp6 Tov re/xeVou?, o koXovoiv 'EAAtJvcov 

C ayopaVy OavpLaorov tl ;)^p7]/xa ttoXvcJxJjvov koi ttoXv- 

cf)66yyov KLTTTis €rp€(f>€v, Tj^ Kal dvdpcorrov pr^para 

Kal drjpicxiv (f)66yyovs Kal ip6(f)OV9 opydvojv dvr- 

aTTehlSov, ju,7]8ev6? dvayKdt,ovTo? aAA' avrrjv idl- 

l^ovaa Kal (jycXoTLpLovpevr] p,r]hev dpprjrov dTToXiTTelv 

pLYjh* dpLLpirjTov. ervx^ Se ns eKelOev tojv rrXovaLCov 

eKKopiit,6p.€vos v7t6 odXTTiy^i TToXXals, Kal yevo- 

pL€vr]s wGTrep e'lcode Kara tov tottov eTTiGrdoecos , 

€vSoKLpiovvT€s OL oaXinyKTal Kal KeXevopLevot ttoXvv 

Xpovov ivSLerpupav' rj 8e Kurra per a rrjv r)p,€pav 

iKeLvrjv d(f)6oyyog rjv Kal dvavho?, ovSe rrjv avrrj? 

J) IttI rot? dvayKaloLS TrdBeoiv dcj^ieloa (jicovr^v. rols 

ovv TTporepov avrrjg 9avpdt,ovGL rrjV (f)a)vr]V rore 

davp,a p€it,ov 7] GiOJTTrj rrapelx^, kco^ov aKpoapLa 

rols GvvTjdojs^ TTapoSeiJovGL rov roTTov VTTOifsiai he 

(f)appLdKOJV e77t rovs opLordxvovs -i^crav ol Se TrXelGroi 

TO,? GdXrnyyas €LKat,ov iKTrXrj^ai rrjv aKotjv, rfj 8' 

dKofj GvyKareG^eGdai rrjv (f)a)V'ijv. '^v 8' ovherepa 

rovrcov, aAA' dGKrjGis d>s €olk6 Kal dvaxcop7]GLS elg 

iavro rod ptpiqriKov, KaOdirep opyavov e^aprvo- 

pi€vov rrjv (f)OJvrjv Kal TrapaGKevd^ovros' d(f)vco yap 

^ ■^ added by Bernardakis. 
^ a.Kpodfj.aTO'; ovvqdov? Reiske. 

4m 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 978 

On this subject I have a story to tell you which I 
heard myself from many Greeks and Romans who 
were eye-witnesses. A certain barber at Rome had 
his shop directly opposite the precinct which they 
call the Market of the Greeks." He bred up a 
wonderful prodigy of a jay ^ \Wth a huge range of 
tones and expressions, which could reproduce the 
phrases of human speech and the cries of beasts and 
the sound of instruments — under no compulsion, but 
making it a rule and a point of honour to let nothing 
go unrepeated or unimitated. Now it happened that 
a certain rich man was buried from that quarter to 
the blast of many trumpets and, as is customary, 
there was a halt in front of the barber-shop while 
the trumpeters, who were applauded and encored, 
played for a long time. From that day on the jay 
was speechless and mute, not letting out even a 
peep to request the necessities of life ; so those 
who habitually passed the place and had formerly 
wondered at her voice, were now even more as- 
tonished at her silence. Some suspected that she 
had been poisoned by rival bird-trainers, but most 
conjectured that the trumpets had blasted her hear- 
ing and that her voice had been simultaneously 
extinguished. Now neither of these guesses was 
correct : it was self-discipline, it would seem, and her 
talent for mimicry that had sought an inner retreat 
as she refitted and prepared her voice like a musical 
instrument. For suddenly her mimicry returned 

" Graecostadium (see Platner and Ashby, A Topographical 
Dictionary of Rome, s.v.) or Forum Graecorum. 

^ Cf. Porphyry, Be Ahstinentia, iii. 2 (p. 191. 8, ed. 
Nauck) ; Gow on Theocritus, v. 136 ; Aristotle, Historia 
Animal, ix. 13 (615 b 19 f.). See also the talking birds in 
Pliny, Xat, Hist. x. 118-134. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(y/3)au^tS" rjKe kol dveXafjuJjev ovSev rcjv ovviqOojv Koi 
E rraXaiibv jiLiir^fjidTajv eVetVcuv, dAAa rd fxiXr] rwv 
aaXTTLyycov aurat? nepLoSoLS <f)d€y'yojJL€V'q Kal fiera- 
jSoAas" Trdaas Kal Kpovjidrajv Ste^touaa Trdvrag 
pvdjJLOvg' cucrre, orrep €(f)r]v, rrj? eu/xa^eta? AoyiKOJ- 
repav elvai ttjv avrofjiddeiav ev avrols. 

HXrjv €v ye n jjLdOrjpia Kvvog ov Sokcj [jlol Trapi^- 
0€LV, y€v6fX€vos cV 'PcopLTj dear^qg. Trapdjv yap 6 
KTJOJV fXLjjLcp TrXoKrjv exovTi hpapLaTiKrjv /cat ttoXv- 
TTpooojTTov dXXag re fjLLfjLT^Geis aTreSlSov rols vtto- 
KeipLevoLS rrddeoL Kal TrpdyfJLaoL 7Tpoo(f)6pov<:, Kal 
^appidKov TToiovpLevojv ev avro) rrelpav vttvojtlkov 
pLev VTTOKeipievov S' elvai Oavaoipiov, rov r" dprov, 
d) SrjOev epiepLLKTO to (f)dppLaKov, ehe^aro Kal Kara- 
^ cfyaydjv oXlyov vorepov opLotos rjv VTTorpepLovri Kal 
G(j)aXXopeva) Kal Kaprj^apovvrf reXos Se Trporeivas 
eavTov wonep veKpds eKeiro, Kal TTapel^^v e'A/cetv 
Kal pLera(f)epeiv, d)s 6 rod hpdpiaros vrrqyopeve 
Xoyos. errel he rdv Kaipov eV tCjv XeyopievcDV Kal 
TTparropievajv evorjoev, r^uvx'fj to Trpajrov eKivqaev 
eavToVy cooTTep e^ vttvov ^adeos dvacfiepopLevos, Kal 
974 rrjv KecfiaXrjv eTrdpag hie^Xeifsev eTreira davpLaadv- 
TOiV, e^avaords e^dhil^e rrpos ov ehei kol rrpoar]- 
KaXXe^ Xalpcov Kal (jyiXo^povovpievos , wore rrdvras 
dvSpcoTTovg Kal Kataapa (naprjv yap 6 yepojv 
OveoTTaoiavos ev rep Map/ceAAou dedrpco) ovpLira- 
del? yeveodai. 

^ TTpoorjKaXXe Wyttenbach : TrpoarJKe fiev. 

" This is also the accomplishment of a honionynious bird 
in Aelian, De yatura Animal, vi. 19. 
** See 973 a supra. 

404 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 973-974 

and there blazed forth none of those old familiar 
imitations, but only the music of the trumpets," 
reproduced Avith its exact sequences and every 
change of pitch and rhythm and tone. I conclude, 
as I said before,^ that self-instruction implies more 
reason in animals than does readiness to learn from 
others. 

Still, I believe that I should not pass over one 
example at least of a dog's learning,*' of which I 
myself was a spectator at Rome. The dog appeared 
in a pantomime with a dramatic plot and many 
characters and conformed in its acting at all points 
with the acts and reactions required by the text. 
In particular, they experimented on it with a drug 
that was really soporific, but supposed in the story 
to be deadly. The dog took the bread that was 
supposedly drugged, swallowed it, and a little later 
appeared to shiver and stagger and nod until it 
finally sprawled out and lay there like a corpse, 
letting itself be dragged and hauled about, as the 
plot of the play prescribed. But when it recognized 
from the words and action that the time had come, 
at first it began to stir slightly, as though recovering 
from a profound sleep, and lifted its head and looked 
about. Then to the amazement of the spectators it 
got up and proceeded to the right person and fawned 
on him with joy and pleasure so that everyone, and 
even Caesar himself (for the aged Vespasian '^ was 
present in the Theatre of Marcellus), was much 
moved. 

<= Cf. the bears that acted a farce in Script. Hist. Aug., 
Vita Car. xix. 2. 

^ Vespasian became emperor in a.d. 69 when he was 60 
years old and died ten years later, so that this incident can 
be dated only within the decade. 

405 



PLITARC'HS MORALIA 

(974) 20. TeXoloL 8' LGOjg eafxev inl rco {jLavOdveLV ra 
^cpa (jefjLVVi'ovreg, chv 6 ^rffioKpLTOS a7TO<j>aiV€i 
fiadrjTOLS e'r rol<s iieyiorois y^yovoras rjixag- dpd- 
X^? ^'^^ V(f)avTLKfj Kal dK€GTLK7J, ;)^eAtSoros" iv oIko- 
Sofxla, Kal ra)v Xiyvpojv, kvkvov Kal d-qSovos, ev 
(phfj Kara fiLiJir]aLV. LarpLKrjs Se ttoXv tcov rpttuv 
B elScJov eKdorov Kal yevvalov iv avrols [jLopiov opco- 
ixev OX) yap jjlovov tw (^ap/xa/cefTi/coj ;)^paji^Tat, 
p^eAcovat jJLev opiyavov yaXal Se Trrjyavov, brav 
6(f)€cog (l)dya>GLV, iTreadiovaai' KVV€g Se ttoo, tlvl 
Kadaipovres iavrov? X'^Xepiajvras' 6 3e hpdKwv ro) 
{jLapddpcp rov 6(f)daXix6v dfJi^Xvcorrovra Actttwcov 
Kal SiaxoLpdrrwr- 7] S' dpKros, orav Ik rov (fycoXeov 
TTpoeXdrj, TO dpoi' ioOiovoa TTpcorov to dypiov j] 
yap SpLfJLVTrjg dvoiyei ovfiTre^VKOs^" avrrj? to €VT€- 
pov dXXcns S' doihhiqs yevofjievrj irpos rds fJLvppLT]- 
KtctS" rpeTTerai Kal Kddr]TaL Trpo^dXXovGa Xnrapdv 
Kal fjLaXaKTjv iKpidhi yXvKeia t7]v yXa)OGav, dxpi-? ov 
C fjLvpfJLiqKwv dvairXeajs yevqraf KararrivovGa yap 

^ €v added by Xylander. 
^ avfxfxcfxvKos Hernardakis. 

" On this chapter see T. A\'eidlich, Die Sympathie in 
A Iter t inn, p. 42. 

* Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok. ii, p. 173, frag. 154 ; cf. 
Bailey on Lucretius, v. 1379 (vol. iii, p. 1540 of his edition) ; 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, xii. 16. 

' Cf. 973 A supra. 

^ As given here, cure by (1) drugs, (2) diet, (3) surgery. 
There are five divisions in Diogenes Laertius, iii. 85 : al. 

* Cf. Mor. 918 c, 991 k ; Aelian, De yatura Animal, vi. 
12 and Thompson on Aristotle, Ilistoria Animal, ix. 6 (612 
a 24) ; of wounded partridges and storks and doves in 
Aelian, op. cit. v. 46 (Aristotle, op. cit. 612 a 32). 

f Aristotle, Hisforia Animal, ix. 6 (612 a 28). 

406 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 974 

20." Yet perhaps it is ridiculous for us to make a 
parade of animals distinguished for learning when 
Democritus ^ declares that we have been their pupils 
in matters of fundamental importance : of the spider 
in wea\dng and mending, of the swallow in home- 
building, of the sweet-voiced swan and nightingale ^ 
in our imitation of their song. Further, of the three 
divisions of medicine,^ we can discern in animals a 
generous portion of each ; for it is not cure by drugs 
alone of which they make use. After devouring a 
serpent tortoises ^ take a dessert of marjoram, and 
weasels ^ of rue. Dogs ^ purge themselves when 
bilious by a certain kind of grass. The snake ^ 
sharpens and restores its fading sight with fennel. 
When the she-bear comes forth from her lair,* the 
first thing she eats is wild arum ^ ; for its acridity 
opens her gut which has become constricted. At 
other times, when she suffers from nausea,^ she 
resorts to anthills and sits, holding out her tongue 
all running and juicy with sweet liquor until it is 
covered with ants ; these she swallows ^ and is 

' See Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 6 
(612 a 6) ; add Sextus Empiriciis, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 
i. 71. 

'^ Pliny, Nat. Hist. xx. 254. Other details of snake diet 
in Aelian, De Xatvra Animal, vi. 4. 

* As in 971 d-e supra. 

^ Probably the Adam-and-Eve {Arum maculatuyn L.), 
since the Italian arum {Arum italicum Mill.) was cultivated. 
See Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 17 (600 b 11); ix. 6 
(611 b 34) ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 129 ; Aelian, De Xatura 
Animal, vi. 3. Oribasius {Coll. Med. iii. 24. 5) characterizes 
wild arum as an aperient. 

*= When she has swallowed the fruit of the mandrake, 
according to Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 101, 

' Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 4 (594 b 9) ; Aelian, De 
Natura Animal, vi. 3 ; Sextus Empiricus, op. cit. i. 57. 

407 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

(974) (JocfjeXelraL. ttjs t t^etos" rov vTTOKXvafjLow aXfirj 
Kadaipofxevr^s AiyvTTTiOL avvLSelv Kal /xtjLtTJaacr^at 
XeyovGLV OL 8' tepet? vSan ;Ypa>rTat, Trepiayvit^ovres 
eavrovSy ef ov TreTTOJKev l^l?' dv yap ?) (^ap/xaKtoSes" 
Tj voGTjpov aXXcog to vSojp, ov Trpoo^LOiv. 

'AAAa Kal rpo(f)7Jg aTTOGX^oei evta OepaTreveraL,^ 
Kaddirep Xvkol /cat Xeovres, orav Kpecjv yevcovrat, 
StaKopels, r]ovxiav ayovoi KaraKelpLCi'oi Kal gvv- 
ddXTTovreg iavrovg. rlypiv 8e cf)aaiv, ipL(f)OV Trapa- 
SodevTog avTjj,^ ■)(^pwpievr]v hiairr] firj (f)ay€LV icf)* 
rjjjLepas Svo, rfj 8e Tplrr) Tretvcocrav alreZv dXXo Kal 
D T7]r yaXedypav GTrapdoo€LV' eKelvov 8e ^etcraCT^at 

olojJLeVTjV GVVTpO(f)OV €X€LV jjhr] Kal OVVOIKOV. 

Ov jJLTjv dXXd Kal x^eLpovpyia ;)(p7ycr^at rovs iXe- 
(f)avTag loropovoi' Kal yap ^vurd Kal X6y)(o.s Kal 
TO^evfiara, Trapiordpievoi rot? rerpajfjievoig, dvev 
GTrapayfJLOv paStcos Kal d^AajScD? e^eXKovGiv . at 8e 
K/37]Tt/<:at atyes", orav to hiKTapiVov (j>dyojGiv, eV- 
^dXXovGai rd ro^evpLara paSlaJS KarapLadelv rat? 
eyKVois TTjv pordvrjv TrapeG^ov €KTpa)TLK7]v Svvapnv 
exovoav eV ovSev yap dXXo rpajdelGat (f)epovrai 
Kal i,r]TOVGL Kal Slcokovglv t)^ to SiKrapLvov. 

^ depaTTeveraL Bernardakis : depaTTevovrai. 
^ A short lacuna is probable here. 



" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ii. 35 ; vii. 45 ; Pliny, 
Nat. Hist. viii. 97 ; Cicero, De Natura Deornm^ ii. 50. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura minimal, iv. 15 ; see the hippo- 
potamus in Amm. Marc. xx. 15. 23. 

" Of a leopard in Aelian, De Natura minimal, vi. 2. This 
account seems to indicate a lacuna in our text explaining why 

408 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 974 

alleviated. The Egyptians ^ declare that they have 
observed and imitated the ibis' clyster-like purging 
of herself Mith brine ; and the priests make use of 
water from which an ibis has drunk to purify them- 
selves ; for if the water is tainted or unhealthy in 
any way, the ibis will not approach it. 

Then, too, some beasts cure themselves by a short 
fast, like wolves ^ and lions who, when they are sur- 
feited with flesh, lie still for a while, basking in the 
sun. And they say a tigress, if a kid is given her, 
will keep fasting for two days without eating ; on 
the third, she grows hungry and asks for some 
other food. She will even pull her cage to pieces, 
but ^^-ill not touch the kid which she has now come 
to regard as a fellow-boarder and room mate.^ 

Yet again, they relate that elephants employ 
surgery : they do, in fact, bring aid to the wounded^ 
by easily and harmlessly drawing out spears and 
javelins and arrows without any laceration of the 
flesh. And Cretan goats,^ when they eat dittany,^ 
easily expel arrows from their bodies and so have 
presented an easy lesson for women with child to 
take to heart, that the herb has an abortive property ^ ; 
for there is nothing except dittany that the goats, 
when they are wounded, rush to search for. 

the tigress did not eat the kid in the first place : " because 
she had already had enough to eat." 

'* For an example see the anecdote of Porus in 970 d 
supra, 977 b infra ; Juba, frag. 52 (Jacoby) ; Aelian, De 
Xatura Animal, vii. 45. 

" Cf. 991 F infra ; Philo, 38 (p. 119); Vergil, Aen. xii. 415 ; 
Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 6 (613 a 3) ; 
Pease, Melanges Marouzeau, 1948, p. 472. 

^ Cretan dittany {Origanum, dictamnus L.) ; Pliny, Xat. 
Hist. XX. 156. 

? Cf. Pease, op. fit. p. 471. 

409 



PLITARCH'S MORALIA 

(974) "21. 'Httov 8e ravra davfiaGrd, Kaiirep ovra 
davfjLOLGLa, 7TOLOVGLV at v6r)GLv apLdjjLov /cat 8i;VajLttv 

E rod dpidfielv exovaau (/)vg€L9, wuir^p eyovuiv at 
77£pt Y^ovoa jSde?- etVt yap avrodi rov ^auiXiKov 
TTapdSeLGov dpSovaai TrepidKrots dvrXrjixaow, d)V 
wpiorai TO TrXrjdog' eVarov yap eVacjTr^ ^ovs dva- 
(jyipei KaB^ -qpLepav iKdaTrjv drrAT^jLtara ' TrX^LOva 8' 
ovK eoTLv ovre Xa^€LV^ ovre ^idciaoBaL ^ovXopievov' 
dXXd Kal 7T€Lpa? eVe/ca TToXXdKLs TTpoGTidevTajv, v<f)- 
Lararai Kal ov TrpoeioiVy dTToSovcra to rerayfie- 
vov ovTOJS dKpL^dj? ovvriBrjGL Kal KaTafjLvrjfioveucL 
TO K€(f)dXaLov, COS KTr^CTtas" o KvtStos" tGToprjKe. 
Aleves S' AlyvTTricov KarayeXcoGt pLvBoXoyovvrcuv 

F TTepl Tov opvyos, cos* (f)OJvrjv d<f)L€VTO? Tjfiepas e/cetVi]? 
Kal copas Tj? einreXXei to aGrpov, o Y^ojBlv avrol 
KlW he Kal Seiptov rjpielg KaXovpiev rds yovv^ ofxov 
TL^ rrdGas alyas, orav dvdG)(rj jxeB^ TjXiov ro aGrpov 
drpeKco^y eKel* Grpecfiopiivas diro^XeTreiv irpds rrjv 
dvaroXrji'' Kal reKji-qpLov rovro rrjs nepioSov 
^efSaLorarov efvat Kal pidXiora rols pLaBrjpLaTLKoZs 
KavoGiv ofxoXoyovfxevov . 
975 22. "Iva 8e Kopv(f)'r]v 6 Xoyo? eTTiBels iavro) 
TTavGrjraL, (fyepe KcvTjGavTes rr^v dcf)^ Upas ^pa^ea 
nepl BeLOTrjTos avToyv Kal jjiavTiKrjs etVaj/xev. ou 

^ Aa^ea-] Aa^eii- Meziriacus. 

^ yovi> \\ . C . H. : yap avTcbv. 

^ TL added by Bernardakis. 

* eVei early editors : l^^t. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, iv. 53. 
** Frap:. 53b, cd. Gilmore (p. 196) ; cf. Aelian, De Xatvra 
Animal, vii. 1. 

410 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 974-975 

21. These matters, though wonderful, are less sur- 
prising than are those creatures which have cognition 
of number and can count,'* as do the cattle near Susa. 
At that place they irrigate the royal park with water 
raised in buckets by wheels, and the number of 
bucketfuls is prescribed. For each cow raises one 
hundred bucketfuls each day, and more you could 
not get from her, even if you wanted to use force. 
In fact, they often try to add to the number to see ; 
but the cow balks and will not continue when once 
she has delivered her quota, so accurately does she 
compute and remember the sum, as Ctesias ^ of 
Cnidus has related. 

The Libyans laugh at the Egyptians for telling a 
fabulous tale about the oryx,^ that it lets out a cry ^ 
at that very day and hour when the star rises that 
they call Sothis,^ which we call the Dog Star or 
Sirius. At any rate, when this star rises flush with 
the sun, practically all the goats turn about and look 
toward the east ; and this is the most certain sign 
of its return and agrees most exactly with the tables 
of mathematical calculation.-^ 

22. But that my discourse may add its finishing 
touch and terminate, let me " make the move from 
the sacred line " ^ and say a few words about the 
divine inspiration and the mantic power of animals. 

^ See Mair on Oppian, Cyn. ii. 446. 

'^ A sneeze, according to Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 107 ; Aelian, 
De Xatura Animal, vii. 8. 

« Cf. Mor. 359 d, 376 a. 

^ They watched for the first sight of Sirius before daybreak 
about June -20 ; the date shifted in the Egyptian calendar. 

» See Mor. 783 b with Fowler's note ; also 1116 e ; Plato, 
Laics, 739 a ; and Gow on Theocritus, vi. 18. The meaning 
is probably something like " let me play my last trump," or 
" commit my last reserve." 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(975) ycip 'T^ fiLKpov oi)S' aho^oVy dAAa ttoXv koI TTafJUTrd- 

AaiOV fJLaVTLKTJS fJLOplOV olcxJVLGTLKT] KCKX'qTaf TO yOLp 

o^v Kal voepov avrojv Kal 8t' evGTpo(f)iav vtttJkoov 
arrdoris ^avTaata? cJOTrep opydvco^ ro) dew Trape^^ec 
XprjodaL Kal rpeTreiv erri re klvyjolv Ittl re (fxjjvds 
Kal yrjpvjjLara Kal G-)(ripiara vvv fiev evorariKa vvv 
he (f)opd KadaTTep TTvevfiara rds^ jJLev erriKOTrrovra 
rds S' enevOvvovra irpd^eis Kal opjid? els ro reXo?. 

B Sto KOLvfj jjLeu 6 EuptTTiS')]? " decbv KTjpvKas " ovo- 
fidt^ei rovg opvidas' Ihia he (f)'qGLv 6 lla>Kpdrr]s 
ofJLohovXov " eavrov voLeZodai " rcjv kvkvcov "' 
a)G7Tep av Kal rwv ^aGiXeojv deros [xev 6 Ilvppo? 
rjhero KaXovjJLevos, lepa^ S' o ^AvrloxoS' Ix^vs he 
rovs dfiadels Kal dvoijrovs Xoihopovvres rj^ gko)- 
rrrovres oi'o/xa^o/x€v. aAAd hrj pivpiojv jU-uptd/ct? 
elrrelv Trapovrcov, d TTpoheLKVVGLV rjfjuv Kal rrpo- 
GTuxaiveL rd 776 ^d kol Trrr^vd irapd rcov decov, ev 
ovK eGrt roLovrov d7TO(f)rjvaL ray TrpohiKovvri rcov 
evTjhpojv, dXXd KOJ(f)d jrdvra Kal rv(f)Xd rij? Trpovoias 
els rdv ddeov Kal riraviKov dTreppiTrrai roTTOv* 
a)G7Tep daejSdjv ;^cl»/3ov, ou ro XoyuKov Kal voepov 

C eyKareG^eorai rrjs ^'^X'^?, eoxdrco he riVL GVfJLTre- 

^ opyavov lieiske. 

^ TO? iJ.€v . . . ro.'s 8e \\'yttenbach : toIs fxkv . . . rals 8e. 

^ Tj] fidXXov rj Reiske. 

■* TOTTOV] TTOVrOV W. C. H. 

" Ornithoscopy or ornithomancy (c/. Leviticus xix. 26) ; 
Latin augurium^ auspicium. See also Plato, Phaedrus, 244 d, 
PhfiPfio, 85 B. 

'' Perhaps lon^ 159 ; cf. also Mor. 405 d for the phrase. 

412 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 975 

It is, in fact, no small or ignoble division of divination, 
but a great and very ancient one, which takes its 
name from birds " ; for their quickness of apprehen- 
sion and their habit of responding to any manifesta- 
tion, so easily are they diverted, serves as an instru- 
ment for the god, who directs their movements, their 
calls or cries, and their formations which are some- 
times contrary, sometimes favouring, as winds are ; 
so that he uses some birds to cut short, others to speed 
enterprises and inceptions to the destined end. It is 
for this reason that Euripides ^ calls birds in general 
" heralds of the gods " ; and, in particular, Socrates ^ 
says that he considers himself a " fellow-slave of the 
swans." So again, among monarchs Pyrrhus '^ liked 
to be called an Eagle and Antiochus ^ a Hawk. But 
when we deride, or rail at, stupid and ignorant 
people we call them " fish." Really, we can produce 
cases by the thousand of signs and portents mani- 
fested to us by the gods through creatures of land 
and air, but not one such can the advocate for 
aquatic creatures name.-'' No, they are all " deaf 
and blind ^ " so far as foreseeing anything goes, and 
so have been cast aside into the godless and titanic ^ 
region, as into a Limbo of the Unblessed, where the 
rational and intelligent part of the soul has been 
extinguished. Having, however, only a last remnant 

" Plato, Phaedo, 85 b. 

'* Cf. Mor. 184 D ; Life of Pyrrhus, x. 1 (388 a-b) ; Life 
of Aristides, vi. 2 {S22 a) ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, vii. 45. 

« Cf. Mor. 184 A. This Antiochus was not, strictly speak- 
ing, a king, but the younger son of Antiochus II. 

f This charge is answered in 976 c infra. 

^ Cf. the fragment of Epicharmus cited above in 961 a. 

^ Cf. Plato, Laws, 701 b-c (and Shorey, What Plato Said, 
p. 629 ) ; 943 a supra and Cherniss' note {Class. Phil, xlvi, 
1951, p. 157, n. 95) ; see also 996 c infra with the note. 

413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(975) <f)vpii€vr]<; Kal KaTaKeKXvGfievrjg aloBriaecos fJLopLOJ, 
GTTaipovoi ixdXXov t) ^tocrtv eoLKev. 

23. HPAKAEHN. " Avaye ra? 6(f)pvs, cS (/)tAe Oat- 
Stfie, Kal hUyeipe oeavrov r]plv rols ivdXois Kal 
vrjOLwrais' ov iraihia to xPVM-^ '^^^ Xoyov yiyovev, 
aXX eppajjievo? ayojv Kal prfropeia KLyKXiha>v eVt- 
hlovoa Kal ^rjfiarog. 

<f>AlAlM02. 'EveSpa jjiev ovv, c5 'Hpa/cAecov, crvv 
SoXqj Kara(f)avrig' KpaLrraXcboi yap ert to -xdiL^ov 
Kal ^e^aTTTLOjjLevoLg vrj(f)a>v, ws opag, 6 yevvato? 
eK TTapaGKevrjs iTTLredeLTai. TTapairelodaL S' ovk 
eariv ov yap ^ovXopiai Wivhapov ^t^Aojtt]? cov 
aKovoai TO 

D TLdejxevojv dycovojv 7Tp6(f>aaLS 

dp€rdv e? ahnvv e^aXe ctkotov. 

axoXr] jJLEV yap ttoXXtj TrdpeoTLV^ 'rjpuv,^ dpyovvrojv 
ov Xoycov^ dXXd kvvcov Kal 'iTmajv Kal Slktvov Kal 
Trdar]? oayrjvrjg, Sid rovs Xoyov? eK€-)(€.ipias KOLvfj 
rrdai rols ^cooig Kard re yrjv Kal Kara ddXarrav 
heSojJLevqs to orjfJLepov. dXXd [Jlt] (l)oPr]6rJT€- XPV' 
oofjiai yap avrfj fierplcos, ovre Sd^a? <J)lXoo6(I)ojv 
ovr AlyvTTTLWV fJLvOov? out' djiaprvpovs 'IvScov 
eTvayofJievos rj Al^vojv StrjyrjGeis' a 8e navraxov 

^ axoXrj fi€v yap ttoAAt) ndpeoTiv Bernardakis : axoXr) fieu 
ovv TToXXr} yap eoriv. 

^ TJIjLll' \\ . (". H. : VfllV. 

^ Xoyajv Wyttenbach : x^P^^' 

" That is, it is so realistic that one might imagine oneself 
in the lawcourts or the public assembly. 

4M< 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 975 

of sensation that is clogged with mud and deluged 
with water, they seem to be at their last gasp rather 
than alive. 

23. HERACLEOX. Raise your brows, dear Phaedi- 
mus, and rouse yourself to defend us the sea folk, the 
island-dwellers I This bout of argument has become 
no child's play, but a hard-fought contest, a debate 
which lacks only the actual bar and platform." 

PHAEDiMus. Not so, Hcraclcon, but an ambush 
laid with malice aforethought has been disclosed. 
While we are still tipsy and soused from yesterday's 
bout, this gentleman, as you see, has attacked us 
with premeditation, cold sober. Yet there can be 
no begging off. Devotee of Pindar ^ though I am, I 
do not want to be addressed ^ith the quotation 

To excuse oneself when combat is offered 
Has consigned valour to deep obscurity ; 

for we have much leisure ^ ; and it is not our discourse 
that will be idle, but our dogs and horses, our nets and 
seines of all kinds, for a truce is granted for to-day 
because of our argument to every creature both on 
land and sea. Yet do not fear : I shall use it ^ \\'ith 
moderation, introducing no opinions of philosophers 
or Egyptian fables or unattested tales of Indians or 
Libyans. But those facts that may be observed 

* Frag. 212, ed. Turyn {228 Schroeder, 215 Bowra) ; cf. 
Mor. 783 b ; Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemlographi 
GraecU i, p. 4-1 ; Plato, Cratylus, 421 d. 

<■ Perhaps merely a passing allusion to some such passage 
as Plato, Phaednis, 258 e rather than, as Bernardakis 
thought, a quotation from an unknown tragic poet (Xauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 869, Adesp. 138). 

'^ Either " our leisure " or " the truce," i.e. the holiday 
Plutarch has given his pupils (see the Introduction to this 
essay). 

415 



PLITARCH'S MORALIA 

(975) fJ-OLfyrvpag e)(€i rov'^ epyal^ofievovg rrjv ddXarrav 
6pojfJL€va Koi SlScxjul rfj oipei ttlotlv, tovtojv oXlya 
E TTapad-qoopLaL. KairoL rojv fjL€v^ iv yfj 7Tapa8eiy/xa- 
Tcou iTTLTTpoodovv ovhiv ioTLV, dAA' avecoypbivq 
vapex^L rfj aloOrjaet rrjV luropiav rj 8e ddXaaoa 
fjLLKpd K-artSetr Kal yXio-^pa SlScool, raJv Se rrXei- 
OTOJV KaTaKaXvTTret yevecet? Kal rpocjids eVt^ecretS" 
re Kal (f)vXaKd? dXXrjXa)V, iv at? ovk oXiya Kal 
ovvloecjs epya Kal iivrjfir]s Kal KOLva>VLag dyvoov- 
fieva ^XdrrreL rov Xoyov. eWira to, jLtev iv yfj 8ta 
Tr]v ofJLOcfivXLav Kal rrjv Gvvhiairr]oiv dpiOJoyeTTaJS 
avvavaxpcovvvpL€va toIs dvdpcoTrivoLS yjOeoiv diTo- 
F Xav€L Kal Tpocjyrjg Kal StSacx/caAia? Kal pupu-qoeajs' 

T] TO pikv TTlKpOV dvaV Kal GKvdpOJTTOV WGTTep ilTL- 

pLL^La TToripLov OdXaooav icjyrjSvvei, to Se Sva^vve- 
Tov^ OLTTav Kal vcodpov eTreyeipet rat? jLter' dvdpdjrrcov 
KOLVWvrjGeaiv^ dvappL7nt,6pi€vov . 6 he ra)V eVaAoJV 
^L09 Spots pieydXoLS rrjs rrpos dvSpcoTTovg dTTOJKio- 
jLteVo? opLiXias ImeiGaKrov ovhev ovhk GweidiGpievov 
976 e-)(<jjv tSto? ecTTt Kal avdiyevr^g Kal a/cparo? dAAo- 

rpiOlS T]d€GL StCt TOV TOTTOV , OV Sid TT^V ^VCJtV, 7^ ydp 

(fyvGiS oGov i^LKvelraL p-a^rjaeco? €</)' aurr]^ hexo- 
[Jievrj Kal GreyovGa irapex^^ TToXXds /xev eyx^Xeis 
dvdpwTTOLS ;!^etpoT7^et?, aiorrep rds Upas Aeyop-eva?* 
iv rfj ^ApedovGrj, TvoXXaxov S* Ix^vs vrraKovovras 

1 ixkv added by W. C. H. 

^ hva^vv€TOv Reiske : hva^vvderov. 

^ Koivcovrjoeoiv Eiiiperius : KLvrjaeaLv. 

416 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 975-976 

everywhere and have as witnesses the men who 
exploit the sea and acquire their credit from direct 
observation, of these I shall present a few. Yet there 
is nothing to impede illustrations drawn from land 
animals : the land is wide open for investigation by 
the senses. The sea, on the other hand, grants us 
but a few dubious glimpses. She draws a veil over 
the birth and growth, the attacks and reciprocal 
defences, of most of her denizens. Among these 
there are no few feats of intelligence and memory 
and community spirit that remain unknown to us 
and so obstruct our argument. Then too, land 
animals " by reason of their close relationship and 
their cohabitation have to some extent been imbued 
with human manners ; they have the advantage of 
their breeding and teaching and imitation, which 
sw^eetens all their bitterness and suUenness, like 
fresh water mixed with brine, while their lack of 
understanding and dullness are roused to life by 
human contacts. Whereas the life of sea creatures, 
being set apart by mighty bounds from intercourse 
with men and having nothing adventitious or ac- 
quired from human usage, is peculiar to itself, in- 
digenous, and uncontaminated by foreign ways, not 
by distinction of Nature, but of location. For their 
Nature is such as to welcome and retain such instruc- 
tion as reaches them. This it is that renders many 
eels tractable, like those that are called sacred in 
Arethusa ^ ; and in many places there are fish which 

" Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 1. 
^ Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, viii. 4. 

* lepas Xeyofievas follows iyx^Xeig in the Mss. ; transferred 
here by Kaltwasser. 

VOL. XII p 417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(976) avTcJov ovofiauLv axjTrep ttjv KpaGoov fivpatvav 
LorropovoLV, rjs aTTodavovor^? CKrAaucrev o Kpacrcros'- 
/cat TTore Ao/xertou rrpo'^ avTov eiTTOvros, " ov ov 
fivpaLvrjs arroBavovoTjs e/cAauaa? ; " dTTTJvTTjcrev, 
" ov Gv rpels Oonpas yvvalKa^ ovk eSaKpvoag ; 
Ot oe KpoKoheiXoL rcbv Upeojv ov [jlovov yvcjpi- 

B t,OVGl TTjV (jxjOVTjV KaXoVVTOJl' Kol rr]V XpaVGlV V7TO- 

[levovGLV, dXXa Kal Siaxavovreg 7Tap€)(ovGL Tov<i 
oSovrag eKKaBaipeiv rals X^P^^ ^'^'- TT^pi-fJ-o.TTeLV 
660VLOL?. evayxos Se OtAtyo? o ^eXriGros tJkwv 
TTerrXavripiivos iv AlyvTTTCo Trap' rjfJLdg hiiqyelTO 
ypavv tSetv eV 'Avratou TToXei KpoKoSetXco GvyKad- 
evSovGav Ittl gklijlttoSos €v /xaAa KOGfjLLOJS irapeK- 
Tera/jLevcp . 

riaAat 8' LGTopovGL, YlToXefxaiov rod jSaaiAecos" 
TTapaKaXovfJievov , rov lepov KpoKoheiXov pur] eiraKov- 
Gavra pr^be TreiGOevra XiTrapovvTi Kal SeopLevco^ 
ToXs UpevGL ho^at TrpoGiqpaiveiv rrjv pier ov ttoXv 
C Gvpi^aGav auTO) rod ^lov reXevrrjv wGre prjSe rrjs 
rroXvrLpLrjrov p,avrLKrjs ap^oipov elvai ro rojv ev- 
vhpmv y€vo<; pr]h^ ayepaGrov inel Kal vepl Soupav 
TTUvddvopLaL, KcjpLTjv €V rjj AvKia OeAAou jLtera^u 
Kal Mupcov, Kadet^opievovg eV lx^vgiv ojGTTep olcj- 

^ XiTtapovvTL KOL heofievio Reiske : Xnrapovai Kal Seo/xeVoi?. 

« Cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. x. 193: Aelian, De Xatura 
Animal, xii. 80. 

'' Not in the Life of Crassus, but derived from the same 
source as Aelian, JJe S'atura Animal, viii. 4. ; rf. the remarks 
in the Life of Solon, vii. -!• (8i a). The story is also recounted 
in J/or. 89 a, 811 a; Macroblus, Sat. iii. io. !■; Porphyry, 

418 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 976 

w'ill respond to their own names, ° as the story goes 
of Crassus' ^ moray, upon the death of which he 
wept. And once when Domitius ^ said to him, " Isn't 
it true that you wept when a moray died ? " he 
answered, " Isn't it true that you buried three wives 
and didn't weep ? 

The priests' crocodiles ^ not only recognize the 
voice of those who summon them and allow them- 
selves to be handled, but open their mouths to let 
their teeth be cleaned by hand and wiped with 
towels. Recently our excellent Philinus came back 
from a trip to Egypt and told us that he had seen in 
Antaeopolis an old woman sleeping on a low bed 
beside a crocodile, which was stretched out beside 
her in a perfectly decorous way. 

They have long been telling the tale that when 
King Ptolemy '' summoned the sacred crocodile and 
it would not heed him or obey in spite of his entreaties 
and requests, it seemed to the priests an omen of his 
death, which came about not long after ; whence it 
appears that the race of water creatures is not M'holly 
unendoMed with your precious gift of divination.-^ 
Indeed, I have heard that near Sura.^' a village in 
Lycia between Phellus and Myra, men sit and watch 
the gyrations and flights and pursuits of fish and 

De Abstinentia, iii. 5. Hortensius, too, wept bitterly at the 
death of his pet moray (Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 172). 

'^ L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in 54 b.c, a bitter 
political opponent of Crassus and the Triumvirate. 

^ Cf. Aelian, lor. cit. 

« Aelian, loc. cit., does not know which Ptolemy is meant ; 
cf. the story of Apis and Germanicus in Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 
185 ; Amm. Marc. xxii. 14. 8. 

^ Cf. 975 B supra ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 55. 

Aelian, De Xatura Animal, viii. 5 ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. 
xxxii. 17. 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(976) i^'ot? SiaiJL,avTev€GdaL rexvr] tlvl /cat Xoyoj eAi^ei?^ 
/cat (j)vyas Koi hiw^eis aurtDy €7nGK07Tovvrag . 

24«. 'AAAo, ravTa fxev earo) rov [jltj TravraTraoLV 
€K<j)v\ov [ir]h* davjJLTTadovg irpos rjfJid? t/cava Scty- 
fiara- rrjs 8' OLKparov /cat (f)VGLKrjs Gvveoecxjg fjueya 
SrjXciJiJLa TO o/ci'T^por" eGrtv ovhev yap ovrcos €V)(eL- 

pCOTOV dvdpWTTCp V7]Kt6v, O^ jJiTj TTcVpatS" 7T pOG e-)(€.Tai 

D /cat TrpoG7Te(f)VK€V, ouS' dXajGiyLov dvev Trpay/iaretas", 
OJS" AiJ/cot? /xer oVot /cat [xepoipL fieXuGGai, x^XlSogl 
8e remyes, iXdcfyois S' o(/)€t? ayo/u-evot paStoj? utt' 
auTttjy t) /cat rouVo/xa 7T€7TOLrjraL TrapwvvjjLov ov rrjs 
iXacfiporrjTog dXXd rrjs eX^ecog rod 6(f)€a>?. /cat to 
TTpo^arov TTpoGKaXelrai rw TTohl tov Ai;/cov, tt^ he 
TTaphdXei TO, TrAetCTTa npoGxcopelv x^ipovra rfj OGpifj, 
fidXiGra Se tov TriBrjKov XiyovGi. tojv Se daXar- 

TLCOV OfJiOV Tt TTaVTOJV 7) TTpoaiGdrjGlS VTTOTTTOS OVGa 

/cat TT€(f)vXayfjLevr] Trpog to,? emdeGets vtto GVveG€cos , 
ovx drrXovv to tt^S" dypag epyov ovhe (f)avXov aAA' 
E opydvojv re rravroSaTTcov /cat GocfycGixdrcjov err^ avrd 
heivcav /cat aTraTr^Atoy heojievov dTreipyaGrai. 

Kat rovro S-^Aov eGriv drro rcvv irdvv Trpox^ipcov. 
rov fiev yap dGTraXtevrLKov KdXajiov ov ^ovXovrat 
irdxps ^X^^^> Kairrep evrovov heop-evoi rrpos rovs 
GTTapayiJiovg rwv dXiGKOjJLevwv, dXXd pidXXov e/c- 
Aeyoi^Tat rov Xevrov, ottcos firj TrXarelav ejn^dXXojv 
GKidv eKrapdrrr) ro vnoTTrov avrcJov. erreura rr]v 

^ Xoyoj e'Ai^et? liryail : Adyoji' Ae^€ts. 
" OKVTjpov Post : KOLvov. ^ o Kciske : d. 

" A bird : Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 13 (615 b '26) ; 
Aelian, iJe Xatura Animal, v. 1 1 ; IMiny, Xat. Hist. x. IM). 
'' Aelian, iJe Xatura Animal, viii. «> ; v. IS. 
' Elaphrotes. 

420 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 976 

divine from them by a professional and rational 
system, as others do with birds. 

24. But let these examples suffice to show that sea 
animals are not entirely unrelated to us or cut off 
from human fellowship. Of their uncontaminated 
and native intelligence their caution is strong evi- 
dence. For nothing that swims and does not merely 
stick or cling to rocks is easily taken or captured 
without trouble by man as are asses by wolves, bees 
by bee-eaters," cicadas by swallows, and snakes by 
deer, which easily attract them.^ This, in fact, is 
why deer are called elaphoi, not from their swiftness,^ 
but from their power of attracting snakes. '^ So too 
the ram draws the wolf by stamping and they say 
that very many creatures, and particularly apes, are 
attracted to the panther by their pleasure in its 
scent. ^ But in practically all sea-creatures any sensa- 
tion is suspect and evokes an intelligently inspired 
defensive reaction against attack, so that fishing has 
been rendered no simple or trivial task, but needs all 
manner of implements and clever and deceitful tricks 
to use against the fish. 

This is perfectly clear from ready examples : no 
one wants to have an angler's rod too thick, though 
it needs elasticity to withstand the thrashing of such 
fish as are caught ; men select, rather, a slender rod 
so that it may not cast a broad shadow and arouse 
suspicion.^ In the next place, they do not thicken 

'^ Helxis opheos, a fantastic etymology. Neither deriva- 
tion is correct, elaphos being related to the Lithuanian elnis^ 
" deer." For the references see Mair on Oppian, Cyn. ii. 
234. 

^ See Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 6 
(612 a 13) ; add Aelian, De Natura Animal, viii. 6 ; v. 40. 

^ Cf. Gow on Theocritus, xxi. 10. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(976) opfjLLai' ov ttolovgl ttoXvttXokov tol? aiiiiaat roiv 
^poxoj^ ovhe rpayeZav eirel koI rovro rod SoXov 
yiverai reK^xripiov avrots. Kat twv rpL^cov ra 
KadrjKovra rrpos to dyKtarpov tu? eVt /xaAicjTa 
XevKOL <f)aLveGdaL firj^^avcovTaL- /xdAAov yap ovtojs €V 
F rfj daXdrrrj Si' opioionqra rrjs ;)(poas' Xavddvovdi. 
TO 8' VTTo Tov 7T0ir]Tov Xeyofievov 

7) 8e fjLoXvphaivrj iKeXr] is ^vcraov opovoev, 
T^Ve /car' dypavXoLO poos Kepas ifi^e^avla 
epx^TaL wp.r^GrfJGLV eV l-)(dvGL Kjjpa (f)epovGa- 

TTapaKovovres evLoi jSoetat? dpL^lv otovrai rrpos rds 
opfJLids XPV^^^'' '^ou? TTaXaiovs' " Kepas " yap rrjv 
rplxo. XeyeGdai /cat to KeipaodaL Sid rovro /cat tt^v 
Kovpdv /cat TOV Trap' 'Ap;(tAd;^aj " KeporrXdonqv "^ 
977 (fyiXoKOGfJLOV elvat irepl kojxtjv kgl KoXXcoTTiGrriv . 
ec7Tt 8' ovK dXr^des' LTTTTeiais ydp dpi^l xpdjvrai, rds 
TOiV dpp€VOJV XapL^dvovres' at ydp Q-qXeiai ro) ovpcp 
rr)v rpixo. ^e^peyiievqv dhpavrj ttolovglv. 'AptW- 
apxos^ 8e (f)r]GL firjhev ev rovroLS Xeyeodai Go<f)6v 
Tj rrepirrdv dXXd ro) ovri Kepdriov TrepirideGdai npo 
rod dyKLGrpov Trept rrjv opfxidv, eireV irpos dXXo 

^ Ke.fjo7TAdoT7]i' rurnel)iis : KrjpoTrXdaTrjv. 

^ ' Apiorapxog Piatt : ' XpiOToreXris. 

^ eVei Jannotius : eneiTa. 

422 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 976-977 

the line with many phes when they attach the loop 
and do not make it rough ; for this, too, betrays the 
lure to the fish. They also contrive that the hairs 
which form the leader shall be as white as possible ; 
for in this way they are less conspicuous in the sea 
because of the similarity of colour. The remark of 
the Poet « : 

Like lead she '' sank into the great sea depths, 
Like lead infixed in horn of rustic ox 
Which brings destruction to the ravenous fish- 
some misunderstand this and imagine that the 
ancients used ox-hair for their lines, alleging that 
keras ^ means " hair " and for this reason keirasthai 
means " to have one's hair cut " and koura is a " hair- 
cut " '^ and the keroplastes ^ in Archilochus ^ is one 
who is fond of trimming and beautifying the hair. 
But this is not so : they use horse-hair which they 
take from males, for mares by wetting the hair ^vith 
their urine make it weak." Aristarchus ^ declares 
that there is nothing erudite or subtle in these lines ; 
the fact is that a small piece of horn was attached 
to the line in front of the hook, since the fish, when 
they are confronted by anything else, chew the line 

« Homer, Iliad, xxiv. 80-8:?. 

*" Iris going to visit Thetis. 

'^ It means, of course, " horn " as above in Homer, Iliad, 
xxiv. 81. 

"* Or " lock of hair." 

* " Horn-fashioner," so called from the horn-like bunch- 
ing together of the hair : see the scholia on Iliad, xxiv. 81. 

^ Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, ii, p. 126, frag. 57 ; Diehl, 
Anth. Lyrica, i, p. 228, frag. 59. See the note on 967 f 
supra. » Cf. Mor. 915 f — 916 a. 

^ Not Aristotle, as the mss. read. See Piatt, Class. Quart. 
v. 255. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(977) ipX^fJ-^^'oi hieodiovGi. rcov 8' dyKLGrpcov rots jiev 
GTpoyyuXotg eVt Keorpeas kol d/xta? ;(ptovTat 
fiLKpoGTOfiov? ovr as ' TO yap evpvrepov^ euAa- 
^ovvrai' TToXXoLKLs 8e Kal to GrpoyyvXov 6 KeGrpevg 

V7T07TT€VWV cV KVkXcO 7T€piVrj)(€TaL , rfj OVpS. 7T€pip- 

B paTTL^oji' TO eScoSt/xov Kat dvaKOLTrrajv' to aTTo- 
/cpoud/xevoi'^- ay Se /lit^ SwT^Tat, Gvvayayojv* to 
GTOfJia Kal TTepLGTeiXas, rols ^(^eiXeGLV a/cpot? eVt- 
ipavwv OLTTOKVL^eL rod heXearos. 

'0 8e Xd^pa^ dvhpiKojrepov rod eXec^avros ov^ 
erepov dXX avros iavrov, orav 7T€pL7T€Grj rw ay- 
KLGrpo), ^€XovXk€l, rfj Sevpo /cd/cet TrapaXXd^ei ttJs 
K€(f)aXr]s dvevpvvojv to rpavfia Kal tov eV rod 
GTTapayfjLov ttovov vTTOjjievojv, o-XP^-'S dv eK^dXj] to 
dyKLGTpov. r) 8' dXdjTrr]^ ov TToXXdKis /xev dyKLGrpo) 
TrpoGeiGiv dXXd (f)€-uy€L rov 8oAov, dXovGa 8' €vdvs 
eKT peirer ai' 7r€<f)VK€ yap hi evroviav Kal vyporrjra 
/xeTajSctAAety to oco/xa Kal GTpe(f)€Lv, ojGre rcvv 

C ivTOS eKTOS yevofxevcov dTT07Ti7TT€iv TO dyKLGTpov. 
25. TauTa jitev ovv yvcjGLV ifxcfyalvei Kal XPV^'-^ 
€7rt Kaipo) TOV GvpicfyepovTOS €Vfxr]xo-vov kol TrepiTTrjv 

^ €vpvT€pov Reiske : evQvrepov. 

^ dvaKaTTTOiv Grynaeus : avaKaiJunajv. 

^ aTTOKpep-avvvfievov Reiske ; dnoKpepLafxevov Bernardakis. 

■* avvayaycov Bernardakis : awdycov. 

* " The section of horn was put around the line. It was 
therefore a tube. It was in front of the hook as one held it 
in his hand and attached it to the line. It was therefore at 
the hook end of the leader. Its hardness prevented the line 
from heinf? severed. Its neutral coloration prevented the 
fish from beinp: frijrhtened off. Xote that Oppian (Ifal. iii. 
I i7) comments on tiie use of a hook with an abnormally 
long shank for the same purpose " (Andrews). 

424. 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 977 

in two." They use rounded hooks ^ to catch mullets 
and bonitos, whose mouths are small ^ ; for they are 
Mary of a broader hook. Often, indeed, the mullet 
suspects even a rounded hook and swims around it, 
flipping the bait with its tail and snatching up bits 
it has dislodged ; or if it cannot do this, it closes its 
mouth and purses it up and with the tips of its lips 
nibbles away at the bait.^ 

The sea-bass is braver than your elephant " : it is 
not from another, but from himself without assistance, 
that he extracts the barb when he is caught by the 
hook ; he swings his head from side to side to widen 
the wound, enduring the pain of tearing his flesh until 
he can throw off the hook.-'' The fox-shark ^ does not 
often approach the hook and shuns the lure ; but if 
he is caught, he immediately turns himself inside 
out, for by reason of the elasticity and flexibility of 
his body he can naturally shift and twist it about, so 
that when he is inside out, the hook falls away. 

25. Now the examples I have given indicate intelli- 
gence and an ingenious, subtle use of it for opportune 

** A prototype of the Sobey hook. 

*^ See Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 37 
(621 a 19) ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. iii, 144. 

^ Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 145 ; Oppian, Hal. iii. 524 if. 

^ Cf. 974 D stfpra. 

f Cf. Aelian, De Satura Animal, i. 40, of the tunny ; 
Ovid,' Hal. 39 f. and Oppian, Hal. iii. 128 if., of the bass. 

^ Plutarch seems here to have confused this fish with the 
so-called scolopendra (of which he writes correctly in Mor. 
567 B ; see also Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 424). Cf. Aristotle, 
Historia Animal, ix. 37 (621 a 11); Aelian, De Xatura 
Animal, ix. 12 ; Varia Hist. i. 5 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. iii. 
144 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 145. " There are fish (but not 
sharks) which can disgorge their stomachs and swallow 
them again. Note that hasty reading of Aristotle I.e. could 
easily cause this misstatement " (Andrews). 

425 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(977) ctAAa S' eTTiheiKvvrai /xera tov avverov to koivco- 
VLKOV Koi TO (f)LXdXX'qXov , a)G7T€p avdiai KOL OKapoi. 
OKapov [lev yap ayKiorpov KaraTTLOvro?, ol nap- 
ovres (JKOLpoL TTpooaXXopievoi rrjv oppnav OLTTorpa)- 
yovGLV OL avTol^ 8e /cat rols et? Kvprov epLTTeoovcn 
ras ovpas irapahovres e^toQev eXKovoL SoLKvovrag 
TrpodvfjLOj? Kal Gvv€^dyovGLv. ot 8' dvdiai rep avfjL- 
(f)vXcp ^orjdovGLV LTap,(J)T€pov' rriv yap opfxidv dua- 
depievoi Kara rr^v pdy^LV Kal GrrjGavres dpdr^v rrfv 
D aKavdav iTTiX^ipovGL hiairpUiv rfj rpaxvriqTL Kal 
hiaKOTTTeiv . 

KatVot -)(€pGalov ouSev ta/xey irepco KLvhvvevovTL 
ToXpiiJov dpivveiv, ovK dpKrov ov gvv ovhk Aeaivav 
ovhe TrdpSaXtv dXXd Gvyx(^p^L [jl€v el? ravrov eV 
rot? BedrpoLS rd o/xd(^uAa Kal kvkXco pi€r* dXXiqXcov 
7T€pL€LGLV' irepcp 8* €Tepov OVK otSev ovSe (f)pOl'€L^ 
^orjOelv, dXXd (f)€vy€L Kal dirorr-qha rroppojrdrix} 
ycvofxeva rod Terpoj/jLevov Kal 6vtJgkovtos. r] he 
rajv iX€(f)dvrajv iGropia (jiopvrov^ els rd opvypLara 
(f)opovvrojv^ Kal rdv oXioOovra hid ;^66jU,aT09 avajSt- 

^ ol avTol Wyttenbach : ovtoi. 

2 <j>povel] <i>povTit,€L Rernardakis. 

^ (^opvTov Meziriacus : </)tAe rwv. 

* </)o/3ouvTtuv] (fyopvTov aviJ.<f>opovi>Tcov Reiske. 

" The anthias of the above passage is probably the 
Mediterranean barbier, Serranus anthias C.V., although 
elsewhere it is sometimes obviously a much larger fish of 
uncertain identity. On the identification rf. Thompson on 
Aristotle, ilistorUi minimal, vi. 17 (570 b 19); (ilossai'i/ of 
(Jreek Fishes, s.v. ; Mair, introd. to his ed. of Oppian, pp. 
liii-lxi : Marx, RE, i. 2375-^877; ii. ^'415: Schmid, 
Philologus, Suppb. xi, 1907-1910, p. 273 ; Brands, (Jrleksche 

426 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 977 

profit ; but there are others that display, in combina- 
tion with understanding, a social sense and mutual 
affection, as is the case with the barbier" and the 
parrot-fish. For if one parrot-fish swallows the hook, 
the others present swarm upon the line and nibble it 
away ; and the same fish, when any of their kind 
have fallen into the net, give them their tails from 
outside ; when they eagerly fix their teeth in these, 
the others pull on them and bring them through in 
tow.^ And barbiers are even more strenuous in 
rescuing their fellows : getting under the line with 
their backs, they erect their sharp spines and try to 
saw the line through and cut if off with the rough 
edge.^ 

Yet we know of no land animal that has the courage 
to assist another in danger — not bear or boar or 
lioness or panther. True it is that in the arena those 
of the same kind draw close together and huddle in a 
circle ; yet they have neither knowledge nor desire 
to help each other. Instead, each one flees to get 
as far as possible from a wounded or dying fellow. 
That tale of the elephants ^ carrying brushwood to 
the pits and giving their fallen comrade a ramp to 

Diernamen, pp. 147 f. ; Cotte, Poissons et animaux aqua- 
tiques au temps de Pline^ pp. 69-73 ; Saint-Denis, Le Vocabu- 
laire des animaux marins en latin classique, pp. 5-7. Cf. 
also 981 E infra. 

^ On this story cf, also Aelian, De Natura Animal, i. 4 ; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxii. 1 1 ; Ovid, Hal. 9 ff. ; Oppian, Hal. 
iv. 40 fF. Note also Aelian, Be Natura Animal, v. 22, on 
mice. 

" Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 182 ; xxxii. 13 ; Ovid, Hal. 
45 ff. ; Oppian, Hal. iii. 321 ff. 

<^ Cf. 972 B supra ; Jacoby, Frag, der griech. Hist, iii, p. 
146, frag. 51b. On the community spirit of elephants see 
also Aelian, De Natura Animal, v. 49 ; vi. 61 ; vii. 15 ; al. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(977) ^al,6vroJi' eKTonos^ icrri Seti'to? kcil aXXoSaTrr] , Kal 

KadoLTTep eK ^aaiXiKov SLaypd[JLfJLaTog emraTrovaa 

E 7noT€V€LV avTTJ Tojv 'lo^a ^L^XUov' dX-qdr]? 8' ovaa 

TToXXd hcLKl'VOl TCOV ivdXcOV fJLTjSeV OLTToXeiTTOfJieVa 

TO) KOLVcoviKO) Kal ovveTO) Tov oocjxjJTarov ra)V 

y^epaaiiov. dXXd nepl Koivcovias avrcbv I'Sto? eorai 

rdx*^ Xoyos. 

26. Ot S' dAtet? Gvvopojvres djGTrep dXe^rjfJLaGL^ 

TTaAatcr/xarcov to, TrXeXara hiaKpovojxeva ra? a?;' 

dyKLorpov jSoAa? errl ^ias irpdnrioav, KaBdirep ol 

IlepaaL, Gayrjvevovre? d>9 tols evux^deZoiv ovSefxiav 

€K XoyiGfiov Kal GO(f)las 8ta(/)eu^tv oucrav. dfX(j)i- 

^XiqGTpois /xey yap Kal vttoxolI? K€Grpels Kal lov- 

AtSes" dXiGKOvrai, fiopixvpoL re Kal Gapyol Kal 

F KOJ^Lol Kal XdppaKes- rd he ^oXiGTiKa KaXovfjieva, 

^ eKTOTTOs] (pevS-qs fJ-kv ovaa eKTonog Reiske. 
^ dXe^-qfJiaoL Coraes : d8o^T]ixaaL. 

" Juba was king of Mauretania (-25 n.c.~r. a.d. 23). 

* Cf. Herodotus, vi. 31 ; iii. 149; Plato, L«?r.-? 698 n ; 
Fraenkel on Aesch. Agam. 'i^o'^. On kinds of nets see Mair, 
L.C.L. Oppian, pp. xl ff. , 

" Cor is iulis Gth. Cf. Thonii)son on Aristotle, Historia 
Animal, ix. 3 (610 b 7) ; A Glossary of (Ireek Fishes, p. 91 ; 
Schmid, op. cit. p. 2^2 ; Brands, op. cit. p. 157 ; Cotte, op. 
cit. pp. o9-60 ; Saint-Denis, op. cit. p. 5i. 

'^ In ])articular, probably }\igdlits nionin/rus C.\ . On 
the identification cf. Thompson on Aristotle, Historia 

428 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 977 

mount is monstrous and far-fetched and dictates, as 
it were, that we are to beUeve it on a king's prescrip- 
tion — that is, on the writs of Juba." Suppose it to 
be true : it merely proves that many sea creatures 
are in no way inferior in community spirit and intelli- 
gence to the wisest of the land animals. As for their 
sociability, I shall soon make a special plea on that 
topic. 

26. Now fishermen, observing that most fish evade 
the striking of the hook by such countermoves as 
wrestlers use, resorted, like the Persians,^ to force 
and used the dragnet, since for those caught in it 
there could be no escape with the help of reason or 
cleverness. For mullet and rainbow- wrasse ^ are 
caught by casting-nets and round nets, as are also 
the bream ^ and the sargue ^ and the goby ^ and the 
sea-bass. The so-called net fish, that is surmullet ^ 

Animal, vi. 7 (570 b 20) ; Glossary, p. 161 ; Cotte, op. cit. 
pp. 105-107 ; Saint-Denis, op. cit. pp. 65-66. 

* In particular, probably Sar(/us vulgaris Geoff. On the 
identification cf. Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal. 
V. 9 (54-3 a 7) ; Glossary, pp. 221-22^ ; Cotte, op. cit. pp. 
104-105 ; Saint-Denis, op. cit. pp. 99, 107-108 ; Keller, Die 
antike Tierwelt, ii, p. 370 ; Gossen-Steier, RE, Second 
Series, ii. 365. 

^ A term mostly for the black goby, Gohius niger L., the 
most common Mediterranean species. On the identification 
cf. Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 13 (598 a 
12) ; Glossary, pp. 137-139 ; Gossen, RE, Second Series, 
ii. 794-796. 

^ The red or plain surmullet, Mullus harbatus L., and the 
striped or common surmullet, Mullus surmuletus L. On 
this fish cf. Cotte, op. cit. pp. 98-101 ; Keller, op. cit. ii, 
pp. 364 f. ; Prechac, Revue d. l^t. Lat. xiv (1936), pp. 102- 
105; xvii (1939), p. 279; Saint-Denis, op. cit. pp. 68 f . ; 
Schmid, op. cit. pp. 310-312; Steier, RE, xvi. 496-503; 
Thompson, Glossary, pp. 264-268 ; Andrews, Class. Weekly, 
xlii (1949), pp. 186-188. 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1 977) TpiyXav kol ■)(Pvo(x)7t6v Koi OKoprrLOV, ypi-noLS re /cat 
CTayT^vat? avpovGL rrepiXap.^dvovTes' rcJov Slktvojv 
ovv^ TO yevog opdojs "Opirjpos Travdypai^^ vpoGeLTrev. 
dXXd Kal TTpos ravra jj-rj^aval rat? yaAat? elaiv^ 
(ZoTTep to) Xd^paKL- dvpopLev-qv yap alodavofJLevog 

^LO. hlLGTl^GL KOL TV7TT€L KOiXaivCxiV* rOvha(f)OS' OTaV 

Se 7TOLT]Grj rrjg eTnSpofxrjg rod Slktvov )(Ci)pav, iveoj- 
G€v^ iavTov Kal TrpoGCX^raL, p-^XP^^ ^^ TrapeXdi]. 

AeA</>ts' Se TTepiXTjcjideis, orav GvvaiGdr]rai yeyovojs 
eV ayKTciAais" Gayrjvr]?, vTropLevei p,r) Taparro/xcvos" 
dAAa ;)(atpcov eua>;^etTat yap dv€V TTpaypLareias 
d(j)66vajv IxOvcvv TTapovTOJV orav Se ttXt^glov rfj yfj 
978 TTpoGLT), hia(j)ay<x)V^ to Slktvov aTTeiGLv. el he p,^) 
(f)daLr) (f)vywu,^ to rrpcorov ovhev eirade heivov dAAa 
Siappdipavreg avrov nepl rov X6(f)ov oXogxolvov? 
dcjyrJKav' avdis he Xr](f)6evTa TrXiqyals KoXdl^ovGL, 
yvcopiGavres e/c toO hiappdp.pLaTOS - GTravLOjg he 
rovTO Gvp^^atvet' GvyyvcofjL'qg yap rvyxdvovreg to 
TTpcorov evyvcDpiovovGLV ol nXelGTOL Kal (jyvXdrrovTai 

TO XoLTTOV pLT] dSt/CetV. 

"Eti he TToXXojv rcjv npos evXd^eiav Kal 7Tpo(f)v- 

^ ovv I^ernardakis : cLv. 

- ndvaypou Hatzidakis and Piatt {cf. Iliad, v. 1-87). 

^ yaXals eloLv Bernardakis : yaXalaiv. 

* TVTTTcov KoiXaivei Reiske. '^ evecoacv Hubert : eojcrev. 

^ 8La<f>ayd>v Reiske : (f>ayu)v. 

' (f)vya)v Pohlenz : Bia<f>vyct>v. 

" Chrysophrys aiirata C.\'., called g'ilthead from the 
golden band that runs from eye to eye. On this fish cf. Well- 
mann, RE, iii. 2517-^2518 ; Keller, op. cit. ii, pp. 869 ff. ; 
BE, vii. 1578 ; Schniid, op. cit. pp. :297-298 ; Thompson, 
(rlossary, pp. 2Q2-)i*d\ ; Cotte, op. cit. pp. 73-74 ; Saint- 
Denis, op. cit. pp. 80-81. 

*• Scorpaena acrofa I>. and S. porcus L. On this fish cf. 

430 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 977-978 

and gilthead " and sculpin,^ are caught in seines by 
traAvling : accordingly it was quite correct for Homer '^ 
to call this kind of net a " catch-all." Codfish,*^ like 
bass,^ have devices even against these. For when 
the bass perceives that the trawl is approaching, it 
forces the mud apart and hammers a hollow in the 
bottom. When it has made room enough to allow 
the net to overrun it, it thrusts itself in and waits 
until the danger is past. 

Now when the dolphin is caught and perceives 
itself to be trapped in the net, it bides its time, not 
at all disturbed but well pleased, for it feasts without 
stint on the fish that have been gathered with no 
trouble to itself. But as soon as it comes near the 
shore, it bites its way through the net and makes its 
escape. Yet if it should not get away in time, on 
the first occasion it suffers no harm : the fishermen 
merely sew rushes to its crest and let it go. But if it 
is taken a second time, they recognize it from the 
seam and punish it with a beating. This, however, 
rarely occurs : most dolphins are grateful for their 
pardon in the first instance and take care to do no 
harm in the future.^ 

Further, among the many examples of wariness, 

Cotte, op. cit. pp. 111-113; Saint-Denis, op. cit. pp. 103- 
104 ; Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, v. 9 (543 a 
7) ; Glossary, pp. 245 f. 

" Iliad, V. 487; cf. Piatt, Class. Quart, v, p. 255; Fraenkel, 
Aesch. Agam. ii, p. 190. 

^ Principally the hake and rockling, Phycis sp. and 
Motella sp. Not to be confused with yaXeos, a general term 
for sharks and dogfishes. Cf. Andrews, Journal of the 
Washington Academy of Sciences, xxxix (1949), pp. 1-16. 

« C/.^Oppian, Hal. iii. 121 tf. 

^ On the alliance of dolphins and fisherman see Aelian, 
De Xatura Animal, ii. 8 : xi. 12 ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 29 if. 

431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(978) XaK-qv Kal a-nohpaoLV ovrcov TrapaheLyfidrajw, ovk 
d^Lov €OTL TO TT]? OTjiTLag TTapeXdelu. TTjv yap Ka- 
Xovp.€vr]v jJLVTiv TTapd Tov Tpdx'qXov c^ouaa TrX-qpr] 
t,o(j)epas vyp6Ti]Tos, rjv OoXov KaXovGLV, orav Kara- 
B Xap^dv-qraL, fiedl-quLV e^w, rexvojpLevq rrjs OaXdr- 
TTjs SLaOoXojdeiGTjg rroLrjaaGa xrept avTrjv gkotos, 
V7T€Khvvai Kal aTiohpavai ttjv tov drjpevovTOS 
oipLV d7roijLLfjLov[JL€vr] Tovs 'Ofxripov Oeous " Kvavexj 
v€(f)€Xrj " TToXXdKLS ou? dv^ Ga)GaL BeXcjGiV V(f)aLpov- 
yilvovs Kal hiaKXirrT ovr as . dXXd tovtojv fikv dXis. 
27. T-yJ? S' eTTLX^iprjriKris Kal 6r]p€vrLKijs 8et- 
VOTT7TO? avTcov iv TToXXoiS GO(j)LGfj.ara Karihelv €.gtiv. 
6 pLev yap aGT-qp, (Lv dv dijjrjrat, Trdvra hiaXvopieva 
Kal Starry Ko/Lteva yivcoGKcov, eVStScuat to Gojpia Kat 
TTepiopa i/javopLevov vtto tojv Traparpexovrajv rj TrpoG- 
TTeXa^ovTcov. rrj? he vdpKrjs iGre hrjTTOv ttjv Svva- 
fiLV, ov pLovov TOV? OiyovTas avTTJ? iKTT-qyvvovGav, 
C dXXd Kal Sid TTJs Gayrjvrjg ^apvTrjTa vapKwSr] Tat? 
jj^epcrt TOJV dvTiXapi^avopdvoju ipLTTOLOvGav. evLoi 8' 
LGTopovGi, TTelpav avTTJs €ttI ttXIov Xapi^dvovT€9 , dv 
iKTTeGT] t,d)Ga, KaTaGKeSavvvvT€S vSojp dvojOev, al- 
oddveGdaL tov nddovs dvaTpexovTog eirl ttjv X^^P^ 
Kal TTjv d(f)r]v dpL^XvvovTOS d>s €olk€ hid tov vSa- 

^ ovs av early editors : orav. 

" Cf. Aristotle, llistoria AnimaL ix. 37 (631 b 28); 
Athenaeus, 323 d-e ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 84 ; Horace, Sat. 
i. 4. 100 ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, i. 34 ; Mairon Oppian, 
Hal. iii. 156. 

^ Aristotle, llistoria Animal, iv. 1 (.Vi4 h 15) ; De Part. 
Animal, iv. 5 (679 a 1). 

'^ " I'nder the mouth," says Aristotle. 

432 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 978 

precaution, or evasion, we must not pass over that 
of the cuttlefish ^ : it has the so-called ijii^tis ^ beside 
the neck ^ full of black liquid, which they call " ink." ^ 
When it is come upon, it discharges the liquid to the 
purpose that the sea shall be inked out and create 
darkness around it while it slips through and eludes 
the fisherman's gaze. In this it imitates Homer's ^ 
gods who often " in a dark cloud " snatch up and 
smuggle away those whom they are pleased to save. 
But enough of this. 

27. As for cleverness in attacking and catching 
prey, we may perceive subtle examples of it in many 
different species. The starfish,^ for example, know- 
ing that everything with which it comes in contact 
dissolves and liquefies, offers its body and is indifferent 
to the contact of those that overtake or meet it. 
You know, of course, the property of the torpedo ^ : 
not only does it paralyse all those who touch it, but 
even through the net creates a heavy numbness in 
the hands of the trawlers. And some who have 
experimented further ^vith it report that if it is 
washed ashore alive and you pour water on it from 
above, you may perceive the numbness mounting to 
the hand and dulling your sense of touch by way of 

^ Tholos, '' mud," " turbidity." 

* For example, Iliad, v. 345. 

^ [Aristotle], Hlstorla Animal, v. 15 (548 a 7 f.), an inter- 
polated passag:e ; nor can we be certain that it was known 
to Plutarch. See also Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 181. 

" Or " electric ray " or " crampfish " : for the ancient 
references see Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 
37 (620 b 12-23) ; Glossary, pp. 169-172 ; Aelian, De Natura 
Animal, i. 36 ; ix. 14 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 143 ; Mair, 
L.C.L. Oppian, p. Ixix, and on Hal. ii. oQ ; iii. 149 ; Philo, 
30 (p. 115) : Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 48 ; Boulenger, World 
Natural History, pp. 189 f. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(978) 7-0? rp€7TO}Ji€.VOV Koi 7Tp07T€7TOv66TOg . TaUTT^S- OVV 

eyovoa ovii(l>vrov aiod'qoiv /xa;(eTat /Ltev c^ evavrias 
Trpog ovSev ovSe Sta/ctvSuveuei • kvkXo) 8e nepuovGa 
TO drjpevofievov (Lorrep ^eXr) hiaaTTeipei ras airop- 
pods, cf)apiJ.drTOVGa to vSojp rrpcjrov, etra to t,a)OV 
D hid Tov vSaTO?, hV'^^ dpLVvaoOai Swdfievov pLrjTC 

(f)Vy€LV aAA' il'L(T)(6lJL€l'OV WGTTep VTTO heOflUJV KOi 

TTrjyvvfxevov. 

'0 Se KaXovfjLevog dXtevs yvajpipLos jxlv euTi 
TToXXols KOi hid Tovpyov avTO) yeyove Tovvofxa' w 
oocfiLGfjiaTL Kal TTjv GTjTTLav ;^p7)cr^at (hrjGLV 6 'Apt- 
GTOTeXrj?- Kadlrjai ydp cocrTrep opf-udv citto tov Tpa- 
\rjXov TrXeKTdvTjv, ixr^Kvveodai re iroppoj ■)(aXioa'Y]s 
Kal TrdXiv GVVTpex^LV ets" eavTrjv dvaXafx^avoiJorj? 
paoTa 7T€(f)VKvlav. orav ovv tl twv [iLKpaJv Ix^v- 
hiojv 'lStj TrXr]GLOv, ivSlScoGL SaKeTv Kal /cara pLLKpov 
dvajjLTjpveTai Xavddvovaa Kal TrpoadyeTai, /xe;^pts" civ 
eV i(f)LKTcp TOV oTOjiaTos yevrjTai to 7rpooiO')(6pievov } 
E TctJV 8e TToXvTTohuiV TTjS XP^^^ '^V^ dfienjjLV 6 T€ 
ritvSapO? 7T€pL^6r]TOV TTeTTOiTJKeV eLTTcbv 

7TOVTLOV diqpoS XP^'^'' jJidXiGTa voov 

7Tpoo(f)€pojv Trdoais ttoXUggiv o/xtAet* 

^ irpooiaxoyLevov A\ yttenbach : TrpoaxofJ-evov. 

" Cf. the " upward infection " of the basilisk, Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. viii. 78. 

* The fishing-frog, Lophius pincatorius L. : Aristotle, His- 

434 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 978 

the water which, so it seems, suffers a change and is 
first infected." Ha\ing, therefore, an innate sense 
of this power, it never makes a frontal attack or en- 
dangers itself ; rather, it swims in a circle around its 
prey and discharges its shocks as if they were darts, 
thus poisoning first the water, then through the 
water the creature which can neither defend itself 
nor escape, being held fast as if by chains and frozen 
stiff. 

The so-called fisherman ^ is known to many ; he 
gets his name from his actions. Aristotle ^ says that 
the cuttlefish also makes use of this stratagem : he 
lets do\ni, like a fishing line, a tentacle from his neck 
which is naturally designed to extend to a great 
length when it is released, or to be drawn to him 
when it is pulled in. So when he espies a little fish, 
he gives it the feeler to bite and then by degrees 
imperceptibly draws it back toward himself until the 
prey attached to the arm is within reach of his 
mouth. 

As for the octopus' change of colour,'' Pindar^ has 
made it celebrated in the words 

To all the cities to which you resort 

Bring a mind like the changing skin of the seabeast ; 

toria Animal, ix. 37 {620 b 12) ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 144- ; 
Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 86 ; Stromberg, Gr. Fischnamen, 
pp. 122 f. 

^ Historia Animah ix. 37 {622 a 1) ; cf. iv. 1 (524 a 3), iv. 
6 (531 b 6) i Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 83 ff. ; Mair on Oppian, 
Hal. ii. 122. 

•^ Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 37 {622 a 8) ; Mair 
on Oppian, Hal. ii. 233. Athenaeus, 316 f, 317 f, 513 d ; 
Pliny, yat. Hist. ix. 87 ; Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 25, 50 ; 
Aelian, Varia Hist. i. 1 ; and Wellman, Hermes, Ii, p. 40. 

« Frag. 43 Schroeder, 208 Turyn, 235 Bo\vra (p. 516, ed. 
Sandys L.C.L.) ; cf. Mor. 916 c and Turyn's references. 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(978) '<^cit Geoyi'i? ofiouog 

rrovXvTTohos voov lo)(e TToXvxpoov, o? ttotl Trerprj 
rfJTTep ojJLiXrjGTj, tolos ISelv i(f)dvrj. 

fieTa^dXXeL fiev yap 6^ ;)(ajLtatAea)v ovhev n pLT^^avco- 
fjLevos ou8e KaraKpvTTrajv eavrov dXX vtto hiov? 
dXXco9 rpeTTeraL, (f)va€L ijjo(f>oS€rjs wv kol SetAd?. 
ovv€7T€Tai he Koi TTvevfiaro? ttXtjOo?, co? ©cd^pacrTos" 
oXcyov yap aTToSel Trdv to acbfia rov t,cx)ov TrXrjpeg 
F elvai TTvevfjLovos, cL reKfjiaiperai to TTvevfiaTLKOv 
avTov Kal Sta tovto Trpo? rd? /xerajSoAd? evTpeTTTOv. 
Tov he TToXvTToSog epyov euTiv ov TrdOos r\ /xera- 
^oXrj- fxeTa^dXXeL yap eK rrpovolag, pLrjxo.vfj XP^~ 
fievos TOV XavOdveLP a SeSte Kal XayL^dveiv ols 
Tpe^eTai' TrapaKpovojjLevos yap rd /xev" alpel jjlt] 
(f)evyovTa, rd S' eK(f)evyeL Trapep^opieva. to fiev yap 
avTov Tag TvXeKTdvas KaTeuBieiv avTOv ijjevhos Iutlv 
TO he pvpaivav hehtevai Kal yoyypov dXrjdes eVrtv 
vtt' eKeivoji^ yap KaKCJS 7Tdcr;^€t, hpdv prj hwdpevos 
979 e^oXiodavovTOJV . cooTrep av irdXiv 6 Kdpa^o? eKei- 

^ fxkv yap 6 Reiske : yap 6 /xev. 
2 ra fx€v added by Meziriacus. 

« 215-216 ; cf. Mor. 96 f, 916 c. There are many textual 
variants, but none alters the sense. 
"> Or 

" Keep a mind as multicoloured as the octopus. 
With the rock whereon it sits homologous " 

(Andrews). 
" See Thompson on Aristotle, Hhtoria Animal, ii. 11 
(503 b 2) ; Ogle on Be Part. Animal, iv. 11 (692 a 22 ff.). 
See also Aelian, De Natvra Animal, iv. 33 ; and cf. Fliny, 
Nat. ?Ilst. viii. 122 for the chameleon's exclijsive diet of 
" air " : nee alio quam aeris alimento. 

436 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 978-979 

and Theognis " likewise : 

Be minded like the octopus' hue : 

The colour of its rock will meet the view. * 

The chameleon,^ to be sure, is metachromatic, but 
not from any design or desire to conceal itself ; it 
changes colour uselessly from fear, being naturally 
timid and cowardly. And this is consistent with the 
abundance of air in it, as Theophrastus '^ says ; for 
nearly the whole body of the creature is occupied by 
its lungs, ^ which shows it to be full of air and for 
this reason easily moved to change colour. But this 
same action on the part of the octopus is not an 
emotional response, but a deliberate change, since it 
uses this device to escape what it fears and to capture 
what it feeds on : by this deceit it can both seize the 
latter, which does not try to escape, and avoid the 
former, which proceeds on its way. Now the story 
that it eats its own tentacles ■'' is a lie, but it is true 
that it fears the moray and the conger. It is, in fact, 
maltreated by them ; for it cannot do them harm, 
since they slip from its grasp. On the other hand, 
when the crawfish ^ has once got them in its grasp, 

'^ Frag. 189 Wimmer (p. 2-2o) ; Aristotle says merely, 
" The change takes place when it is inflated by air." 

* Which confirms Karsch's emendation of Aristotle, His- 
torla Animal, ii. 1 1 (503 b 31 ) : for Theophrastus and Plutarch 
must have had " lungs " and not " membranes "' in their 
text of Aristotle. 

' See 965 e supra and the note ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 87 ; 
Mor. 1059 E, 1098 e, Comm. in Hes. fr. 53 (Bernardakis, 
vol. VII, p. 77). 

^ The langouste as distinguished from the homard ; see 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, i. 3:3 ; ix. 25 ; x. 38 ; Thompson 
on Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 2 (590 b 16) ; Glossary, 
pp. 103 ff . ; Pliny, Nat, Hist. ix. 185 ; Antigonus, Hist. 
Mirah. 93. 

437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(979) J'<^i' /^^'' ^^' AajSat? yevo/LieVcov Trepiyiverai, pahtojs' 
7] yap ipLXor-qs ov ^orjd^Z Tipos" rr]V rpaxvTrjTa' rov 
be TToXvTTohos e'ioaj ra^ TrXeKrdva? biajdovvros an- 
oXXvrai. Kal rov kvkXov tovtov /cat ttjv Trepiooov 
rats' Kar aXXr]Xojv hioj^eoi /cat (jivyals yvjJLvaafia 
/cat fieXerrjv rj (fivais avrols evaywviov TreTTOirjKe 
SetvoTTyro? /cat avveaeo)?. 

28. 'AAAd jJLTjv ixi'Vov ye riva x^poaiov^ birjyrj- 
oaro TTp6yvcx)(jLv ^ApiGTOTLfMos TTvevpidrcov, o? edav- 
fxal,e /cat yepdvcov ttjv ev rpiycovcp TrrrjaLV. eyo) 
8' e)(LVOV pLev ovheva Kf^t/cr^vov rj Bu^avrtov, aAAd 
B TTavras opLov rrapexopLai rovs daXarrtovs, orav 
alodiovrai pLeXXovra ;)(et/xtova /cat adXov, eppLan^o- 

pLeVOVS XldlhloLS, OTTCJJS pLT] TT e p IT peTTOJVTai hid KOV- 

(fyoTTjra jtxr^S' dTTOUijpcovraL yevopievov /cAuSojvo?, 
dAA' eTTipievojGLV dpaporojs rot? Trerpihiois. 

*H 8' av^ yepdvcov pLeTa^oXrj rrfs Trrrjoeajs irpos 
dvepLOV ovx^ eyd? yevovs eoriv, dXXd rovro KOivfj 
rrdvres Ixdveg voovvres del irpos KVpLa /cat povv 
a.VTtvT7;^ovTat /cat 7Tapa(f)vXdrrovaLV ottoj? pLT], Kar 
ovpdv 7TpoG(f)epopLevov rod TTvevpLaros, rj XeTrls dva- 
TTTVGGopLevrj XvTTrj TO GcopLa yvpivovpievov /cat 
hiaTpaxvvopLevov dOev del avvexovuLv eavTOvg 
C dvTLTTpcppovs' oxt-^opLevT] ydp ouTOJ Kara Kopv(f)rjv rj 

^ Xepoalov] rov p^cpaaiou Keiske. 

2 S' ad W. C. n. : U. 

^ ovx should perhaps be deleted ; or write ovx eVo? ixovov. 

" The octopus is worsted by the moray and the conger, 
which in turn are defeated by the crawfish, which (to com- 
plete the cycle) becomes the octopus' prey. The whole en- 
gagement is graphically portrayed in Oppian, Jfal. ii. 25S- 
418. For Nature's battle see, p.(/., Pliny, Xaf. Hist. viii. 79. 

** C/. i)7:i A }<upra. \'alentine liose, curiously enough, 

438 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 979 

it wins the victory easily, for smoothness is no aid 
against roughness ; yet when the octopus has once 
thrust its tentacles inside the crawfish, the latter 
succumbs. And so Nature has created this cycle " 
and succession of mutual pursuit and flight as a field 
for the exercise and competitive practice of adroitness 
and intelligence. 

28. We have, to be sure, heard Aristotimus ^ 
telling us about the hedgehog's foreknowledge of 
the winds ; and our friend also admired the V-shaped 
flight of cranes.^ I can produce no hedgehog of 
Cyzicus or Byzantium,'^ but instead the whole body 
of sea-hedgehogs,^ which, when they perceive that 
storm and surf are coming, ballast themselves with 
little stones ^ in order that they may not be capsized 
by reason of their lightness or be swept away by the 
swell, but may remain fixed in position through the 
weight of their little rocks. 

Again, the cranes' change of flight against the wind ^ 
is not merely the action of one species : all fish gen- 
erally have the same notion and always s\\'im against 
wave and current, taking care that a blast from the 
rear does not fold back their scales and expose and 
roughen their bodies. For this reason they always 
present the prow of their bodies to the waves, for in 
that way head first they cleave the sea, which de- 
emended to Aristotle (see Historia Animal, ix. 6, 612 b 4) 
and included this passage in Frag. 343. See further Mair on 
Oppian, Hal. ii. 22Q. 

" Cf. 967 B supra. 

^ Perhaps he is learnedly confuting Aristotimus (973 a 
supra) by drawing on Aristotle. 

* i.e. the sea-urchin, regarded by the ancients as a sort of 
marine counterpart of the hedgehog because of the similar 
spines. 

^ Cf. 967 B supra, of bees. » Cf. 967 b supra, 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(979) ddXacjoa rd re ^pdy)(La KaraoreXXeL kol Kara rrjg 
€Tn(j)aveias peovoa Xeloj? Tnit^et Kal ovk dvLGrrjCL 
ro (j)pLKCx)'6es . rovro jxkv ovv, ojuTrep €(f)rjv, kol- 
vov ear I rojv l)(dvojVy ttXtjv rod eXXoTTos' rovrov 8e 
(f)aoL^ /car' dvejjLov Kal povv vq-^eoBai, {jltj (f)o^ovfie- 
vov rr^v dvaxdpa^iv rrjs XerrihoSy are hr] jjltj rrpos 
ovpdv rds eiTLTTrvxds ixovG7]g. 

29. '0 8e dvvvos ovrcxjs lorjixepias alad dver ai Kal 
rpoTTris, ojore Kal rov dvOpcoTTov SiSduKeiv jjLrjSev 
darpoXoyiKihv Kavovwv Seofievos^' ottov yap dv 
avrov x^^H-djvos 0.1 rporral KaraXd^ojGLv , drpefxet 

D Kal hiarpifiei Tvepl rov avrdv r ottov d^pi rrjg lotj- 
fxepias. dXXd rrjs yepdvov oo^dv t] rod Xidov 
TTepihpa^LS, ottoj? TTpo'Cefievq vvKrds^ e^vrrvil.'qraL- 
Kal TTOGci) GO(f)corepoVy co ^iXe, ro rod heX(^lvos, (I) 
GrrjvaL [xev ov Bepus ovhe navGaGdaL <^opds' deiKLvrj- 
ros ydp eoriv rj (f)VGLS avrov Kal ravrdv expvGa rod 
t,rjv Kal rod KLveloQaL Trepas' drav 8' vttvov heyjrai^ 
fjLereojpLGas dvcxj ro Gdjjjia rrpos rrjv emcjidveiav rrjs 
QaXdrrrjS, vrrriov d^rJKe hid ^dSovs, alojpas nvl 
GdXo) KOLfJLLl,6[JLeuos* ^XP^ TTpoGTTeGelv Kal ipadaac 
rrjs yrjs' ovroj S' e^vTrviodels dvappoi^el Kal rrdXtv 
dvco yevofievos evStScocrt, Kal ^eperai KiviqGeL rivd 

E fxeiJLiyiJLevrjv dvdrravGLV avrw [irjxoivcoiJLevos. ro S' 

^ (paoL early editors : (f)va€i. 

- Sed/Ltevo? Hubert : Seo')u.evov, 

^ vvKTos Kronenberg : ttvkvov {wpos t6v ktvttov Reiske). 

•* KOLfj.i^6fjL€vos Reiske : KOfxil^6[X€vos. 

" Probably usually the common sturgeon, Acipenser 
sturio : see Thompson, Hlossanj, pp. 62 f. ; Aelian, De 
yatura Animal, viii. 28, speaks of it as a rare and sacred 

440 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 979 

presses their gills and, flowing smoothly over the 
surface, keeps down, instead of ruffling up, the bris- 
tling skin. Now this, as I have said, is common to all 
fish except the sturgeon," which, they say, swims 
with wind and tide and does not fear the harrowing 
of its scales since the overlaps are not in the direction 
of the tail. 

29. The tunny ^ is so sensitive to equinox and 
solstice that it teaches even men themselves without 
the need of astronomical tables ; for wherever it 
may be when the winter solstice overtakes it, in that 
same place it stands and stays until the equinox. As 
for that clever device of the crane,'' the grasping of 
the stone by night so that if it falls, she may awake 
from sleep — how much cleverer, my friend, is the 
artifice of the dolphin, for w^hom it is illicit to stand 
still or to cease from motion.*^ For its nature is to 
be ever active ^ : the termination of its life and its 
movement is one and the same. When it needs 
sleep, it rises to the surface of the sea and allows 
itself to sink deeper and deeper on its back, lulled 
to rest by the swinging motion of the ground swell ^ 
until it touches the bottom. Thus roused, it goes 
whizzing up, and when it reaches the surface, again 
goes slack, de\'ising for itself a kind of rest combined 

fish ; see 981 d infra. Of. Milton's " Ellops drear " {P.L. 
X. 525). 

* Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ix. 42 ; Aristotle, 
Historia Animal, viii. 13 (598 b 25 f.). 

" See 967 c supra. 

^ Reiske may have been right in suspecting a trimeter of 
unknown origin in these words. 

* Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, xi. 22. The dolphin 
even nurses its young while in motion : Pliny, Nat. Hist, xi, 
235 ; and cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, ii. 13 (504 b 21 ff.). 

f As it were, the cradle of the deep. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(979) CLVTO hpdv Kal dvvvovs 0,770 ttJ? avrrjs alrias 
XeyovGLV. 

'ETT-et 8' apri ttjv fjLad-qiJLaTLKrjv avrcov^ rrjs rod 
rjXiov fxeTa^oXrjg eVeAecra^ TTpoyvcoGiv, rjg /xapru? 
WpLOToreXr]? eoriv, clkovgov yjSrj rr]U apidiJLrjTLKrjV 
€7rLGTrj[xr]v avrwv TTporepov he, vol fxa Ata, rrjv 
OTTTiK-qv, Tjv eoLK€ /xr^S' Atcr;^i^'Ao? dyvorJGaL- Xeyet 
yap 7T0V 

TO^ GKatov ofjifxa Trapa^aXojv dvvvov hiKiqv. 
TO) yap erepoj hoKovGiv a/xjSAuojTT€tv oOev ifi^dX- 
XovGLv et? Tov HovTov iv Sefta rrj? yrjs ixof^^^oL, 
Kal TovvavTLOV orav e^icoGiv ipLcfypovco? Travv /cat 
vovv€')(cJi)S del rr]V rod Gcofiaro? (f)vXaKrjv eirl ro) 
Kpeirrovi 770tou/xevot rcbv 6(f)daX[Ji(jJV. dpidfJLrjrLKrjs 
F §€ hid rrjv kolvcjvlktJv, cos eoLKe, Kal (f)LXdXXr]Xov 
dydTTTjGLV iavrwv heiqBlvres ovrws ctt' aKpov tJkovgl 
rod jJLadrjfxaro?, ojor , irrel rrdvv x^^^povGL rep gvv- 
rp€(f)€GdaL Kal GwayeXd^eodac fier^ dXXr^Xcov, del ro 
ttXtjOos ro) GXT^I-io-rL kv^lI^ovgl Kal Grepeov Ik Trdv- 
ra>v TTOLOVGLV, e^ laois eTTiTrehois 77epte;^d/xevov ctra 
v')7;!(ovTat rrjv^ rd^iv ovra> ro rrXaiGiov dpicjiiGropioV' 

^ avTcbv Keiske : ovrcos. 
- eVeAecra] iniX-qXvQa Keiske. 
^ TTov TO Meziriacus : tovto. 

* TTjv] Kara Reiske. 
^ dfj.<f>LOTOLxov W'yttenbach. 

4.4.2 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 979 

with motion.'^ And they say that tunnies do the 
same thing for the same reason. 

Having just a moment ago given you an account 
of the tunny's mathematical foreknowledge of the 
reversal of the sun, of which Aristotle ^ is a witness, 
I beg you to hear the tale of their arithmetical 
learning. But first, I swear, I must mention their 
knowledge of optics, of which Aeschylus ^ seems not 
to have been ignorant, for these are his words : 

Squinting the left eye like a tunny fish. 

They seem, indeed, to have poor sight in one eye. 
And it is for this reason that when they enter the 
Black Sea, they hug' one bank on the right, and 
the other ^ when they are going out, it being very 
prudent and sagacious of them always to entrust 
the protection of themselves to the better eye. Now 
since they apparently need arithmetic to preserve 
their consociation and affection for each other, they 
have attained such perfection of learning that, since 
they take great pleasure in feeding and schooling 
together,^ they always form the school into a cube, 
making it an altogether solid figure with a surface 
of six equal plane sides ; then they swim on their 
way preserving their formation, a square that faces 

** But see Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 210, where it is reported 
that dolphins " are actually heard snoring." 

^ Historia Animal, viii. 13 (598 b 25). 

'^ Xauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 96, frag. 308 ; cf. Aelian, 
De Natura Animal, ix. 42. 

^ See Thompson on Aristotle, Historia Animal, viii. 13 
(598 b 19 ff.) ; Glossary, p. 84 ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 50. 
They follow the opposite shore when returning, thus keeping 
the same eye towards the land. 

^ Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 2 C6 10 b 1 f.) ; 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, xv. 3, 5. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

J8() Sia(/)uAaTToz'T€?. o yovv Ovvvogkottos, dv aKpi^ajs 
Aa^ry Toi' dpiOjJiOV rrjs CTTK^ayetas", evdug a7TO(f>ai- 
verai rroaov /cat aTrav to ttXtjOo? ioriv, etSco? on 
Koi TO ^ddos avTOJV iv 'ioco rerayfjievov Grof)(€icp 
rrpos re to TrAaTO? eoTt /cat to firJKos. 

30. 'A/xtat? Se /cat Touvofia TrapeaxT^Kev 6 gvv- 
ayeXaapLog, otjLtat 8e /cat Tat? TTYjXapLVGL. roctv 8' d'A- 
Acor yevcov oVa ^aiverai koi l^fj /cotvcovt/cco? ju-ct' 
dAArjAa)^ dyeAo7SoF ou/c dV Tt? etVot rov dpidpiov, 
dXXd pidXXov eTTL rds Kar tStav Koivcovias avrcbv 
/cat GvpL^LOjaeig Ireov. Jjv iari /cat d to TrAeto-TOi^ 
e^avaAdjo-a? ^pvocTTTTov /xeAay Tnvvorijpa?,^ iv Travrl^ 
B /<^at (fyvoLKO) ^L^Xlcp /cat tjOiko) Trpoehpiav €)(a>v rov 
yap OTToyyoTiqpav ovk LGToprjKev, ov yap dv Trap- 

eXl7T€V. 6 [ji€V OVV TTLVVOTTlpaS l,Cl)6v GCTTt /Cap/CtvdjScS-, 

ojs (/>aot, /cat rfj TTLVvrj ovveori /cat rrvXcopel ttjv 

^ TTLVvoT-qpas \V,yttenbach : mvod-qpas. 
^ iv TTavTi] iv added by \\'yttenbach. 

" A watcher posted on a tall mast to -warn fishermen of 
the approach of a shoal and to ^ive a count. See Thompson 
on Aristotle, Hhtorla Animal, iv. 10 (537 a 10) ; (Jlossnry^ 
p. 87 ; Gow on Theocritus, iii. 26 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. 
iii. 638. Accounts of the ancient tunny fishery are given by 
Thompson, Glossary, pp. 84-88 ; Pace, Attl R. Ac. Archeo- 
loqia Napoli, N.S. xii (1931/3), pp. 326 flP . ; and Rhode, 
Jahrh. f. class. Phil., Suppb. xviii (1900), pp. 1-78. An 
account of the ancient and the modern tunny fishery is given 
by Parona, R. Coviitato Talasso-grajico Italiaiio, Memoria, 
no. 68, 1919. 

* Similarly, Athenaeus (vii. 278 a ; cf. 324- d) quotes 
Aristotle as defining avila as " not solitary," i.e. running in 
schools. Actually the term is probai)ly foreign, perhaps of 
Egyptian origin {rf. Thompson, (Hossary, p. 13). 

<= Plutarc^h takes pelaniys to be compound of peleiu " to 
be " and hama " with," with reference to their running in 

444 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 980 

both ways. Certainly a hooer " watching for tunnies 
who counts the exact number on the surface at once 
makes known the total number of the shoal, since he 
knows that the depth is equal one to one with the 
breadth and the length. 

30. Schooling together has also given the bonitos 
their name of amia ^ and I think this is true of year- 
old tunnies as well.^ As for the other kinds which 
are observed to live in shoals in mutual society, it 
is impossible to state their number. Let us rather, 
therefore, proceed to examine those that have a 
special partnership, that is, symbiosis. One of these 
is the pinna-guard,^ over which Chrysippus ^ spilled 
a very great deal of ink ; indeed it has a reserved 
seat in every single book of his, whether ethical or 
physical.^ Chrysippus has obviously not investigated 
the sponge-guard ^ ; otherwise he could hardly have 
left it out. Now the pinna-guard is a crab-like 
creature, so they say, who lives with the pinna ^ and 

schools. It was also anciently presumed to be a compound 
of pelos " mud " and myein " be shut in or enclosed," be- 
cause of its habit of hiding in the mud (c/. Aristotle, Historia 
Animal. 599 b 18 : Pliny, -Vai. Hist. ix". 47). Most scholars 
now regard it as a loan from the Mediterranean substratum, 
although Thompson {Glossary, p. 198) suggests that it may 
be of Asiatic origin, since it was used especially of the tunny 
in the Black Sea. 

^ See Thompson, Glossary, p. 303. 

« Von Arnim, *S'. V.F. ii, p. 308, frag. 739 b (Athenaeus, 
89 d). Cf. also fragments 739, 739 a, and 730. On the place 
of the pinna in Chrvsippus' theologv see A. S. Pease, Harv. 
Theol. Rev. xxxiv (1941), p. 177. 

/ Cf. 3Ior. 1035 b, 1038 b. 

^ A little crab that lives in the hollow chambers of a 
sponge. See Thompson, loc. cit. 

^ On this bivalve shellfish see Thompson, Glossary, p. 
200 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. ii. 186. 

445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(980) K6y)(rjv npoKadijiievos, €a)v dv€Ci)yiJL€vr]v /cat 8ta- 
Ke-)(rivvZav, o.-)(pLs ov Trpoaireorj n rcov dXajGifxcov 
avTOis LxdvSlcov' Tore Se rrjv odpKa Trjg TTivvrjS 
haKOJV TrapeiGTjXdeVy -q Se ovveKXeioe rrfv Koyx'^v, 
Kal KOivws TrjV dypav evros epKovs yevojjievrjv 
Kareodiovai. 

Toy Se OTToyyov rjVLox^t d'qpihiov ov KapKivcohes 
dXK dpdxyr] TTapaTrXiqaiov ov yap di/jvxov ovS* dv- 
aiod7]Tov ouS* dvatpLov 6 GTToyyos iorlv dXXd ralg 
C fiev TTerpais, co£ dXXa TToXXd, 7Tpoa7Te(f)VK€v, ex^i Se 
KLVTjGLv Ihiav e^ iavTOV Kal els lavrov, olov vtto- 
pLvrjaecos Kal Traihayajyias SeojJievrjv fJLavo? yap cov 
dXXojs Kal roZs dpaLcofiauLv dveifievo? vri" dpylag 
Kal dfJL^XvrrjTog , orav ejx^fj rt tujv eha>hL[xa>v, 
€K€Lvov GTipirjvavTos , ejjiVGe Kal KarrjvdXcoaev en 
he pLoXXov, dudpcoTTov TTpooiovros rj diyovros, 8t- 
haGKOfxevo? Kal ;>^apaCTcrojU,eyo? olov e(f)pL^e Kal gvv- 
eKXeiGe to GcJofxa mj^as Kal rrvKvcoGas, cocttc jxtj 
pahiav dXXd hvGepyov elvai ttjv vTTOTOfxrjv^ avTov 
rots' SrjpevovGiu. 

At he 7Top(f)vpaL GvvayeXal,6iJ.evaL to [lev K-qptov, 
wGTrep at /LteAtrrat, KOLvfj ttolovgcv, ev cb XeyovTai 
D yoveveiv rd S' eScoSt/xa tcov ^pvojv Kal tcuv (f)VKLCov 
dvaXafx^dvovGat TrpoGiGxdpieva^ rot? OGTpdKois olov 
ev TTepLoScp KVKXoviJLev7]v eGTiaGiv dXXiqXais nape- 
XOVGLV, erepav erepag e^rj?^ eTnvepLopLevrjg. 

31 . Kat Tt dv Tts" ev rouTOt? ttjv KowcovLav 

' aTTOToixT]v Meziriacus. 

^ TTpooiaxofxcva Keiske : Trpo'Caxoficva. 

^ cirjs Post : iiwdev. 

<• Nevertheless, it is a crab, Typton spongicola. 

^ Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, viii. 16 ; Aristotle, 

446 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 980 

sits in front of the shell guarding the entrance. It 
allows the pinna to remain wide open and agape until 
one of the little fish that are their prey gets within ; 
then the guard nips the flesh of the pinna and slips 
inside ; the shell is closed and together they feast 
on the imprisoned prey. 

The sponge is governed by a little creature not 
resembling a crab, but much like a spider." Now the 
sponge ^ is no lifeless, insensitive, bloodless thing ; 
though it clings to the rocks, ^ as many other animals 
do, it has a peculiar movement outward and inward 
which needs, as it were, admonition and supervision. 
In any case it is loose in texture and its pores are 
relaxed because of its sloth and dullness ; but when 
anything edible enters, the guard gives the signal, 
and it closes up and consumes the prey. Even more, 
if a man approaches or touches it, informed by the 
scratching of the guard, it shudders, as it were, and 
so closes itself up by stiffening and contracting that 
it is not an easy, but a very difficult, matter for the 
hunters to undercut it. 

The purplefish '^ lives in colonies which build up a 
comb together, like bees. In this the species is said 
to propagate ; they catch at edible bits of oyster- 
green and seaweed that stick to shells, and furnish 
each other with a sort of periodic rotating banquet, 
as they feed one after another in series. 

31. And why should anyone be surprised at the 

Historia Animal, v. 16 (548 a 28 ff.) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 
148 ; Antigonus, 83 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. v. 656 ; Thomp- 
son, Glossary, pp. 249-250. 

" Cf. W. Jaeger, Xemesios von Emesa, p. 116, n. 1. 

'^ See Aristotle, Historia Animal, v. 15 (546 b 19 ff.) 
quoted in Athenaeus, 88 d — 89 a ; De Gen. Animal, iii. 1 1 
(761 b 32 ff.) ; Thompson, Glossary, pp. 209-218. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(980) OoLVIJLOLG€L€V, 07T0V TO TTOLl'TCOV dfJLLKTOTaTOV KaV 07]- 

pLcuSeararov (hv rp€<f)ovGL norayiol /cat At/xvat kol 
BaXaoaai t,a)OV, 6 KpoKoSeiXos, davfjiaarov iavrov 
iTTiSeLKVVTai 7rp6? Koivioviav kol X^P^^ ^'^ '''O'-S' '^rpo'S 
Tov rpoj^iXov ovfi^oXaioLS ; 6 yap rpox^Xo? IotI 
jLtev opvLS Tcbv iXeiojv kol TTapaTTorapLLCDV , (fypovpel 

8e TOV KpOKoh^lXoV OVK OLKOGITOS oXXci TOt? eK€iVOV 

XeiifjOLVOL'^ Traparpe^ojLieFo?" orav yap a'ioBr]Tai, rod 
E KpoKohetXov KaB^vhovTos, eTTL^ovXevovra rov t^- 
vevfJLOva Trr^XovfjLevov eV avrov ojoirep dBX7]rrjV 
Koviojxevov, i7T€y€Lp€L (fiBeyyopievos Kal KoXdrmxJV 
6 8' ovTcxis i^rjpLepovraL npos avrov, ajcrre tov oto- 
fxaTOS hia)(^av<jL>v ivTos Trapirjoi, Kal y^aipei to, XeTTTa 
Tcov ivLGXop,€vajv Tolg dSoucTt oapKOJV eKXeyovTos 
drpejjLa tco pdpi(j)€L kol hiaoKaXe-uovTos' dv he /Ltc- 
rpicos exojv TJSr] ^ovXrjTai ovvayayelv to ard/xa Kal 
KXelaai, TrpoKXivei t7]v oiayova Kal SiaGrjpLaLvet Kal 
ov TTporepov KaBlrjaLV t) ovvaioBavopievov iKTTTrjvai 
tov TpoxiXov. 
F '0 8e /caAou/xevo? rjyejjLcov pieyiBei per €Gti Kal 

GX'TQP^O-TL KOJ^LCoSeS IxBySlOV, TTjV 8' €7Tl(f)dv€iaV 

opviBi <f)pLGGovTL Sto, TT^v TpaxvTrjTa TTJg AeTTtSo? 
ioLKevai Aeyerat, Kal del GvveGTLV evl tojv pLeyd- 
Aojv KTjTOJV Kal TTpovrixeTaiy tov Spopiov eTrevBvvojv , 

^ Kal Hubert : /cat to. 



" See Herodotus, ii. 68 ; Thompson on Aristotle, llistoria 
minimal, w. 6 ((J12 a 20) ; Clossary of <lreek Birds, p. 287. 
Some authorities such as Pliny, ynf. Hist. viii. 90 and 
Oppian, Cyti. iii. 415 ff., state that the ichneumon attacks the 
crocodile while its mouth is open for the plover's operations. 
Cf. lioulenger, Animal Mysteries, p. 104, for a modern 
factual account (see also his World Natural History, p. 146). 

448 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 980 

community life of these when the most unsociable 
and brutal of all creatures bred in river, lake, or sea, 
the crocodile, shows himself marvellously proficient 
at partnership and goodwill in his dealings with the 
Egyptian plover ? " The plover is a bird of the 
swamps and river banks and it guards the crocodile, 
not supplying its own food, but as a boarder making 
a meal of the crocodile's scraps.^ Now when it 
perceives that, during the crocodile's sleep, the ich- 
neumon ^ is planning to attack it, smearing itself 
with mud like an athlete dusting himself for the 
fray, the bird awakes the crocodile by crying and 
pecking at it. And the crocodile becomes so gentle 
^\'ith it that it will open its mouth and let it in and is 
pleased that the bird quietly pecks out, with its bill, 
bits of flesh which are caught in the teeth and cleans 
them up. When it is now satisfied and wants to close 
its mouth, it tilts its snout upward as an indication 
of its desire and does not let it down until the plover, 
at once perceiving the intention, flies out. 

The so-called " guide " '^ is a small fish, in size and 
shape Uke a goby ; but by reason of the roughness 
of its scales it is said to resemble a ruffled bird. It 
alM^ays accompanies one of the great whales, swim- 
ming in front of it and directing its course so that it 

^ Cf. Aehan, Be Natura Animal, iii. 11 ; xii. 15 ; [Aris- 
totle], Mir. Ausc. 7. « Cf. 966 d supra. 

^ The name and the activity are appropriate to the pilot- 
fish {cf. Oppian, Hal. v. 62 ff. ; Aelian, De Xatura Animal. 
ii. 13), but the description fits rather one of the globe-fishes, 
such as Diodon hystrix {cf. Thompson, Glossary, p. 75). See 
also Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 186 ; xi. 165, who calls it the sea 
mouse. " Actually the . . . pilot is just a ' sponger ' and 
accompanies the shoals . . . with the sole object of picking 
up such crumbs as may fall from their table." Boulenger, 
Animal Mysteries, p. 105. 

VOL. XII Q 449 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(980) orrojs ovk iva)(edrjG€raL ^pdx^GLV ou8' et? reVayo? 
981 '^ Ttva TTopOfjiov e/LtTTecretrat Svcre^oSov eTrerat yap 
auToi TO KTJroSy warrep ota/ct vau?, TTapayofievov^ 
evTreidcos. Kal roJv jLtev aAAcov, o rt av TrapaXd^r) 
to) -)(dGiJLaTL l,<2)ov Tj aKd(j)os r] Xldov, evdvs Ste- 
(f)dapTaL Kal aTToXcoXe irdv ifi^e^vdiajxevov eKeivo 
8e yivcJjGKov dvaXapi^dveL rco GTOfxari KaOdrrep 
ayKvpav ivrog- iyKaOevhei yap auTOj Kal ro Krjros 
earrjKev dvaTravopievov Kal opfiel' TrpoeXdovro? 8* 
avSis eTTaKoXovdeL /xt]^' T^/xepa? /xt^tc vu/cto? (xtto- 
AetTTO/xevov, t) pefi^eraL Kal TrXavdrai, Kal noXXd 
hL€(hddpr] Kaddrrep aKv^epv-qra"^ TTpo? yrjv e^evex~ 
devra. Kal yap T^/xet? rrepl ^AvrcKvpav ecopaKa/xev 
B ou^ TTCtAar /cat TTporepov loropovuiv ov iroppoi 
BouAtSos"* i^oKeiXavTog Kal KaraoaTrevros Xoifiov 
y^veaOai. 

"^Ap* ovv d^iov €gtC' ravrais rat? KOLvajviats Kal 
GVfJL7T€pi<^opaZs TTapa^dXXetv aGirep^ ^ ApLGroreXrjg 
LGTopel ^lAtas" dXojTTeKcov Kal 6(f)€a)v 8ta to kolvov 
avToZs TToXipiiov ctvat tov deToy, t) rd'S ojrihojv 
TTpos Ittttovs, on ■)(aipovGi TTpoGTTeXdt.ovGaL Kal 8ta- 
CT/caAAouoat tov ovQov ; iyoj fiev yap ovS^ iv 
IxcXirrais opco roGavrrjv dXX'qXcov cTn/xeActav ovS^ 
iv fJLvppLrj^L' TO yap kolvov av^ovGi Traoat Kal irdv- 

^ TTapayofxevov] TTcpiayofxevov W. C. H. 

^ Kal TToXXoLKLS (oF TO. TToXXo.) . . . KadoLTTcp irXola aKv^epvTjTa 
Reiske. 

^ ou Meziriacus : ov. 

* BovXlSog \V. C. H. after C. O. Miiller (BouAcojv) : Bovva>i>. 

^ iari ri. Reiske. 

450 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 980-981 

may not go aground in shallows or be cut off in some 
lagoon or strait from which exit may be difficult. 
The whale follows it, as a ship obeys the helm, chang- 
ing course with great docility. And whatever else, 
creature or boat or stone, it embraces in its gaping 
jaws is at once destroyed and goes to its ruin com- 
pletely engulfed ; but that little fish it knows and 
receives inside its mouth as in a haven. While the 
fish sleeps within, the whale remains motionless and 
lies by ; but when it comes out again, the beast 
accompanies it and does not depart from it day or 
night ; or, if it does, it gets lost and wanders at 
random. Many, indeed, have been cast up on the 
land and perished, being, as it were, without a 
pilot.** We, in fact, were witnesses of such a mishap 
near Anticyra not long ago ; and they relate that 
some time ago, when a whale came aground not far 
from Boulis ^ and rotted, a plague ensued. 

Is it, then, justifiable to compare with these 
associations and companionships those friendships 
which Aristotle ^ says exist between foxes and snakes 
because of their common hostility to the eagle ; or 
those between bustards and horses ^ because the 
former like to approach and pick over the dung ? 
As for me, I perceive even in ants or bees no such 
concern for each other. It is true that every one of 

" Cf. the whole passage in Oppian, Hal. v. 70-349 on the 
destruction of whales. 

^ For the unknown Bouna or Boiinae of the mss. C. O. 
Miiller {Orchomenos^, p. 482) proposed Boulis, a town to 
the east of Anticyra on the Phocian Gulf. 

" Frag. 354, ed. V. Rose. 

^ Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ii. 28 and Mair on 
Oppian, Cyn. ii. 406. 

^ da-nep Wyttenbach : o yap. 

451 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(981) Te? epyov, erepco he Kad' erepov erepov oroxciopLO? 
ovhels ovhe (Jypovrls €gtlv. 

32. ' Ert 8e /xaAAov Karoipoixeda rrjv hia(j>opav, 
C €7rt ra Trpea^vrara kol jieyLora rcov kolvcovlkojv 
kpycov KOI KaQrjKovTOJV ra Trepl ras yeveaetg Kal 
TCKvajcreL^ rov Xoyov rpiipavres. irpcoTov fji€v yap 
ol XlfJLvaLg TTapiqKovGav rj TTorafJiovg vTToSexofievT^v 
vepLOfjievoL ddXarrav IxOveg, orav /xeAAcocrt rtKreLV, 
dvarpexovGL, rcov TTOTLfJLOJV vSdrwv rr]v rrpaorrira 
Kal TO doaXov htojKovres' dyaOrj yap rj yaX'qvrj 
Xox^vaaf Kal to ddrjpov a/xa rat? At/xvat? eveori 
Kal TTorapLolg, ajcrre acnt^eodai ra riKropieva. 8to 
Kal vXelora Kal jidXiura yoveverai vepl rov Eu^et- 
vov TTovrov ov yap rp€(f)€L KTjrr] y'^ aAA' r) cfxjoKTjV 
dpaidv Kal S€X(f)2va puKpov. ert" 8' r] rojv TTorafiajv 
€77t/xt|ta, TrXeiorcxyv Kal /xeytarajv eVSiSorrcov etV 
D rov Wovrov, tJttlov TTape^^L Kal 7Tp6(T(f)opov rolg Xo- 
X^vofxevoLg Kpaaiv. ro 8e rod dvOlov OavpiacjLCjjrarov 
ioriVy ov "OfJLrjpog " Upov IxOvv " etpr]K€' Kairoi 
pieyav nve? olovrai rov Upov Kaddnep oorovv 
Upov ro fJLeya, Kal rrjV eTTtAr^i/ftav, ixeydXiqv vooov 
ovoav, Updv KaXovGLV ^vlol Se kolvo)? rov dcfycrov 
^ y added by Bernardakis. - In Xylander : on. 

" See 981 e infra ; Pliny, ^(li. Hist. ix. 71. 

^ Cf. Aristotle, H ist or ia Animal, viii. IS (598 b 2) ; Pliny, 

452 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 981 

them promotes the common task, yet none of them 
has any interest in or regard for his fellow individually. 
32. And we shall observe this difference even more 
clearly when we turn our attention to the oldest and 
most important of social institutions and duties, those 
concerned with generation and procreation. Now in 
the first place those fish that inhabit a sea that borders 
on lagoons or receives rivers resort to these when 
they are ready to deposit their eggs, seeking the tran- 
quillity and smoothness of fresh water, since calm is a 
good midwife. Besides, lagoons and rivers are devoid 
of sea monsters,*^ so that the eggs and fry may sur- 
vive. This is the reason why the Black Sea is most 
favoured for spawning by very many fish. It breeds 
no large sea beasts at all except an infrequent seal 
and a small dolphin ^ ; besides, the influx of rivers 
— and those which empty into the Black Sea are 
numerous and very large — creates a gentle blend 
conducive to the production of offspring. The most 
wonderful tale is told about the antkias,'^ which 
Homer ^ calls " Sacred Fish." ^ Yet some think that 
" sacred " means " important," just as we call the 
important bone os sacrum ^ and epilepsy, an important 
disease, the sacred disease.^ Others interpret it in 
the ordinary sense as meaning " dedicated " or " con- 

Nat. Hist. ix. 49 f. ; Aelian, De Xatura Animal, iv. 9 ; ix. 
59 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. i. 599 ; Amm. Marc. xxii. 8. 47 ; 
Thompson, Glossary, pp. 54, 281. 

" On the identity see note on 977 c supra. 

^ Iliad, xvi. 407. 

* See Gow on Theocritus, frag. 3. Homer does not call 
the anthias " Sacred Fish," but merely alludes to a sacred 
fish ; and in later times several were so regarded. 

f The last bone of the spine. 

» Cf. [Hippocrates], Be Morho Sacro (L.C.L., vol. ii, pp. 
138 fF.) ; Herodotus, iii. 33 ; Plato, Timaeus, 85 a-b. 

^53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

9S1) Kal Upajfjievov.^ 'Eparoadevqg he rov xp''^^0(f)pvv 



€OLK€1' 



T) SpofjLLr]v^ ^(^pvaeiov ctt' o^pvGiv tepov l)(6vv 

Xeyeiv ttoWoI 8e rov eXXorra, gttolvlos yap eon Kal 
ov paSios aAtui'at. (jyaiverai 8e Trept WapL^vXiav 
TToXXaKis- av ovv nore Xd^wuL, GTe(f)avovvTai jLtev 
avTOL, GT€(f)avovGL §6 TO,? ctAiaSa?, KpoTO) 8e Kal 
E TTardyo) KaranXeovTas avrovg VTrohexovrai /cat 

TLfXCOGLV. OL §€ TlAetCTTOt TOV OLvdiaV UpOV €LVaL 

Kal Xiyeodai voixit,ovGiv' ottov yap dv dvdias d(j)dfj, 
drjpLov ovK €GTLV, dXXd dappovvres /xev ot GTToyyo- 
drjpat KaraKoXvpL^ajGL , dappovvres he rUrovGLV ol 
l-)(Oves coGTTep eyyvqrrjv dovXias exovres. rj 8' 
alria hvoXoyiGros, e'lre cfyevyet rd drjpla rov dvdiav 
ojs Gvv eXecf)avreg , dXeKrpvova he Xeovre?- eir eon 
Grjiiela rovcjov dOrjpcov, d yiyvcjoKet Kal Trapa- 
(j)vXdrrei ovveros oiv Kal jjlvtjplovlko? 6 Ix^v?- 

33. 'AAA' -^ ye Trpovoia^ Koivrj rots riKrovai rchv 

yevvcofxevojv' ol S' dppeves ov rov avrcjv Kareadi- 

F ovai yovov, dXXd Kal TTpoohLarpi^ovGL rols Kvrj- 

fjLaGLV a)0(f)vXaKovvres co? LGroprjKev 'AptcrroreAT]?* 

ol he eTTOfxevoL rats drjXeiais, KarappatvovGL^ Kara 

^ Upcjofi€vov] Wvttenbach says all iMss. read Uyavov (a gloss 
to a(f)€Tovf dv€Lfi€vov ? dvcTov? See Athenaeus, '2S4- c-d), but 
Hubert gives no variant. 

2 Tj bpoixlrjv Athenaeus, 284 d : (vSponlrjv. 

^ dAA' Tj fiev Trpovoia Reiske. 

* Karappaivovoi Reiske : Karappiovoi. 
^ Kara, added by Reiske. 

" Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina, p. 60, frag. 12. 3 ; 
Hiller, frag. U (p. 31). 

* See Mair on Oppian, //a/, i. 169. 

' See 979 c supra. They are wrong, for while both the 

454 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 981 

secrated." Eratosthenes" seems to refer to the 
gilthead ^ when he says 

Swift courser golden-browed, the sacred fish. 

Many say that this is the sturgeon, <^ which is rare and 
hard to catch, though it is often seen off the coast of 
Pamphyha. If any ever do succeed in catching it, 
they put on wreaths themselves and wreathe their 
boats ; and, as they sail past, they are welcomed 
and honoured with shouts and applause. But most 
authorities hold that it is the anthias that is and 
is called " sacred," for wherever this fish appears 
there are no sea monsters. Sponge-fishers ^ may dive 
in confidence and fish may spawn without fear, as 
though they had a guarantor of their immunity. 
The reason for this is a puzzle : whether the monsters 
avoid the anthias as elephants do a pig ^ and lions a 
cock,^ or whether there are indications of places free 
from monsters, which the fish comes to know and 
frequents, being an inteUigent creature with a good 
memory. 

33. Then again the care of the young is shared 
by both parents : the males do not eat their own 
young, but stand by the spawn to guard the eggs, 
as Aristotle ^ relates. Some follow the female and 
sprinkle the eggs gradually with milt, for otherwise 

gilthead and the sturgeon were sacred fish, the description 
points clearly to the gilthead. 

** Cf. 950 c supra ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 153 ; Thompson, 
Glossary, p. 15. 

* Cf. Aelian, Be Natura Animal, i. 38 ; viii. 28 ; xvi. 
36; al. 

f Cf. Aelian, Be Natura Animal, iii. 31 ; vi. 22 ; viii. 
28 ; al. 

Historia Animal, ix. 37 (621 a 21 ff.) ; cf. Herodotus, ii. 93. 

4>55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(981) fJ-iKpov Tov dopov dXXcxjg yap ov ylverat fxeya to 
rexOev, dAA' dreXes jueVet /cat dvav^ov.^ Ibla 8' ai 
(jiVKihes €K rcov (f)VKL(x>v olov veoTTidv StaTrAaaa- 
jjievaL TTcpLapLTTexovGL TOV yovov /cat okIttovglv aTTo 

TOV KXvhixJVOS . 

982 Tov 8e yaAeou to (juXooTopyov ovhevl tcuv 'rjpie- 

pOJTaTWV I^WCOV V7T€p^oXr)V yXvKvOvfJLLaS TTpO? TCL 

€Kyova /cat ^(p'qaTOT'qTOS aTroAeAotTTe • tlktovol fxev 
yap (l)6v, €LTa l^wov ovk e/CTo? aAA' ivTog ev eavTolg 
/cat Tpe(j)ovoLV ovtco /cat (f)€povGiv wcnrep e/c 8eu- 
Tepas yeveoeuos- oTav 8e /xet^oya yevqTai, {jLeOidai 
dvpal^e /cat StSaa/couCTt vqx^odaL TrXrjaLOV etTa 
TraAtv etV eavTovs Sio. tov o-ro^aTO? inavaXapL- 
^dvovGi /cat TTapexovoLV evStatTcto^at to owpLa 
XcopoLV dpLa /cat Tpo(f)rjV /cat KaTa(f)vyrjv , d^pis dv iv 

8vvdpL€L TOV ^07]d€iV aVTols y€V7]TaL. 

B Savp^aoTTj Se /cat t^ tt^S" x^^^'^V^ Trepl ttjv yeveatv 
/cat GCjJTTjpiav T(x)v yevvcxjpievwv CTrt/xeAeta- tLkt^l 
jLtev yap eK^aivovoa ttj? daXaTTrjs ttXtjglov, eTTcpd- 
^etv 8e jLt-)] SvvajjLevrj pLrjSe ;Yepo-£r'etv tt-oAuv xP^vov 
ivTiOr^CTL TTJ ipafjipLO) TO, wa /cat to AetoTaTOi^ eV- 
ajLtaTat tt^? ^tvo? avTolg /cat jiaXaKcoTaTOV oTav 8e 
KaTaxcoGT] /cat dTroKpvifjj] ^e^atcos, ol pkv XeyovoL 

TOt? TTOulv dpLVTT€LV Kal KaTaOTlt^eiV TOV TOTTOVy 

^ dvav^es Hatzidakis. 

" The phycis is almost certainly one of the wrasses, pro- 
bably in particular CrenUahrus pavo C.V. See Mair, L.C.L. 
Oppian^ p. liii ; Thompson, Glossary, pp. 276-278 ; 
Andrews, Journal of The Wasliinqton Academy of Sciences, 
xxxix (1949), pp. 12-14. 

4-56 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 981-982 

the spawn will not grow, but remains imperfect and 
undeveloped. In particular the wrasse ° makes a 
sort of nest of seaweed, envelops the spawn in it, 
and shelters it from the waves. 

The affection of the dogfish ^ for its young is not 
inferior in warmth and kindliness to that of any of the 
tamest animals ; for they lay the egg, then sustain 
and carry the newly hatched young, not without, but 
within themselves, as if from a second birth. When 
the young grow larger, the parents let them out and 
teach them to s^im close by ; then again they collect 
them through their mouths and allow their bodies 
to be used as dwelling-places, affording at once room 
and board and sanctuary until the young become 
strong enough to shift for themselves.^ 

Wonderful also is the care of the tortoise for the 
birth and preservation of her young. To bear them 
she comes out of the sea to the shore near at hand ; 
but since she is unable to incubate the eggs or to 
remain on dry land for long, she deposits them on 
the strand and heaps over them the smoothest and 
softest part of the sand. When she has buried and 
concealed them securely,*^ some say that she scratches 
and scribbles the place with her feet, making it easy 

" Cf. Mor. 494 c ; 730 e ; Thompson on Aristotle, 
Historia Animal, vi. 10 {oQo a '22 ff., b :2 if.) ; Glossary, pp. 
39-42 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. i. 734. 

<= " Aristotle {Historia Animal. 565 b 24) reports that some 
dogfish brought forth their young by the mouth and took 
them therein again. Athenaeus (vii. 294 e) says that the 
dogfish took the young just hatched into its mouth and 
emitted them again. Plutarch has a somewhat garbled ver- 
sion of this presumed process, blended with data on the 
parental care of dolphins {cf. Plin. N.H. ix. 21) " (Andrews). 

<* Cf. Plinv, Xat. Hist. ix. 37 ; contrast the forgetful 
lizard (x. 187). 

457 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(982) €VGr)[j.ov iavrfj TTotovaav , ol 8e ttjv drjXeiav vtto rod 
dppevog OTpecfyoyLevrfV tvttovs ISlov? Kal a^paylhas 
ivaTToXeLTTeiv o Se tovtov davpuaoLwrepov ionv, 
rjfjiepav iK(f)vXd^aaa reuGapaKOGTi^v (eV rocraurats" 
C yap eKTrerrerai Kal TrepLpprjyvvTai rd ojol), irpoGeioL 
Kal yvojpiGaoa rov iavrrjs e/cacrrT^ Or^aavpov, cos 
ovSels xp^^^ov dr]Kr]v dvdpajrroSy dopievajs dvoiyei. 
Kal TTpoBvpLOJS. 

34. Twv 8e KpoKohelXcov rd p.€v dXXa rrapa- 
nX'^GLa, rrjs Se ;)^a)pa9 o oroxo-^^p-os eTTivoiav dv- 
QpojTTcp TTJs alrias ov SlScoglv o-uSe GvXXoyLcrpLov 
odev ov (f)a(JL XoyiKrjv dXXd pLavTiKrjv elvat rr^v 
€7tI^ tq-utov rod O'qpiov rrpoyvcooiv ovre yap irXeov 
ovr^ eXarrov eK^do^ dAA' ocrov et? wpav erovs 6 
NetAos" av^Tjdels eTrt/cAucret Kal iTTiKpvijfei rrjs y^S", 
iK€L rd cpd rldrjaiv coare rov ivrv^ovra rcov yeojp- 
D ydjv avrov re^ yivdiOKeiv erepois re </>pa^etv, onoaov 
avrols 6 TTorapLos rrpoeioiv ovroj owe pier prjGaro, 
/XT] ^pexopievcDV avros ^p€xopi€vos incodl^rj. eVAa- 
7T€vrcov^ Se rcov GKvpLvcov, OS dv evdvs dvaSvs p^rj 
Xd^T] n rcov TTpoorvxovTOJV, rj pivlav rj a€pL(f)ov rj 
yrjs evrepov r) Kdpcjios t) ^ordvrjv rep oropLari, 8ta- 
anapd^aaa rovrov rj pLTJr-qp direKreive SaKovoa- rd 
he OvpLoeibrj Kal hpaorripia orepyei Kal rrepLerrei, 

^ em Basil., Xylander : 77ept (77-0/50 liernardakis ; Meziria- 
cus deletes). 

^ avTov re Bernardakis : avTov. 

458 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 982 

for her to recognize ; others affirm that it is because 
she has been turned on her back by the male that 
she leaves peculiar marks and impressions about the 
place. But what is more remarkable than this, she 
waits for the fortieth day '^ (for that is the number 
required to develop and hatch out the eggs) and then 
approaches. And each tortoise recognizes her own 
treasure and opens it more joyously and eagerly 
than a man does a deposit of gold. 

34. The accounts given of the crocodile are similar 
in other respects, but the animal's ability to estimate 
the right place goes beyond man's power to guess 
or calculate the cause. Hence they affirm that this 
creature's foreknowledge is divine and not rational. 
For neither to a greater or a less distance, but just 
so far as the Nile will spread that season and cover 
the land in flood, just so far does she go to deposit 
her eggs, with such accuracy that any farmer finding 
the eggs may know himself and predict to others 
how far the river will advance.^ And her purpose in 
being so exact is to prevent either herself or her 
eggs getting wet when she sits on them. When they 
are hatched, the one which, upon emerging, does not 
immediately seize in its mouth anything that comes 
along, fly or midge or wprm or straw or plant, the 
mother tears to pieces and bites to death ^ ; but those 
that are bold and active she loves and tends, thus 

" Cf. Aelian, Varia Hist. i. 6. 

^ See Aelian, De Natura Animal, v. 52 ; and compare B. 
Evans, The Natural History of Nonsense^ p. 33. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ix. 3 ; contrast Pliny, 
Nat. Hist. X. 10 ; Antigonus, 46, of the sea eagle ; Lucan, ix. 
902 if., of the eagle. See also Julian, Epistle 59 (383 c) ; 78 
(418 D) with Wright's note (L.C.L. vol. iii, p. 259, n. 2). 

^ e/cAa7r€VTcov Bemardakis : iKXnrovTOJv or eKXeTnaOevTcov. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(982) KadoiTTep ol aocfycoraroL rwv avdpojTTcov ol^lovgl, 
Kpiuei TO (fyiXclv, ov Trddei vefiovaa. 

Kat Ijltjv at (f)Ci)KaL tlktovgl jjl€v ev rep ^rjpcp, 

Kara puKpov he Trpoayovaai ra OKvpivia yevovGL rrj? 

E daXoLTTT^g Kat ra^v ttolXli' e^dyovoi' kol tovto ttoX- 

XoLKLS TTOIOVOIV iv pL€p€L, p^^XP^ ^^ OVTCOS iOi^OpLeva 

Sapp-qor) Koi orip^-Q r-qv evaXov hiairav. 

01 he ^drpaxoL Trepl ra? ox^-io-S dvaKX-qoeoi 
XP^vraiy TTju Xeyop.evrjv TToiovvres oXoXvyova, (f)(x>- 
vTjv epcoTLKTjv Kal yapufjXiov ovoav orav 8e ttjv 
d-qXecav 6 dppiqv ovtoj TrpoGaydyrjraL, Koivfj^ rrjv 
vvKra TTepipLevovGiv iv vypcp puev yap ov hvvavrai, 
/xe^' rjpepav he hehuaGiv inl yrj? pLiyvvGdai' yevo- 
pLevov he GKOTOVS, aSecos" gv pLTrXeKovr at Trpo'Covres. 
dXXore^ he XapLvpvvovGL rrjv (fxjuvrjv, verov irpoG- 
hexop^voL' Kal rovro^ G-qpelov iv rot? ^e^aiordroL^ 

iGTLV. 

35. 'AAA' olov, CO (f)iXe YloGeihov, oXiyov rrddos 
COS" droTTov TTeTTovda Kal KarayeXaGrov , el pue hiarpL- 
F ^ovra TTepl (f)ci)Kag Kal parpdxovs ro GO(f)ix)TaTov Kal 
deocf)LXeGTarov i^e(f)vye Kal TraprjXde rcov ivdXojv. 
TToias yap drjhova? d^iov roj (f)LXopovGcp rrj? dX- 
Kvovos rj TO) (fnXoreKvcp* x^^^^^va? tj tco (faXdvhpo) 
TTeXeidhas rj to) rexvcKO) rrapa^dXXeiv pLeXirras ; 

^ KOLvfj early editors : kolvt]v. 

^ dXXoT€ W. C. H. : aAAoj?. 

^ TOVTO TO Emperius. 

* ^iXoTiKvco Meziriacus : (f>iXoT€xv(o. 

" Apparently with reference to Theophrastus, frag. 74 (cf. 
Mor. 482 b). 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura AninuiJ. ix. 9 ; C)pj)ian, //(//. i. 
686 ff. ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 41. 

460 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 982 

bestowing her affection by judgement, as the wisest 
of men think right, not by emotion." 

Furthermore, seals ^ too bear their young on dry 
land and little by little induce their offspring to try 
the sea, then quickly take them out again. This they 
do often at intervals until the young are conditioned 
in this way to feel confidence and enjoy life in the 
sea. 

Frogs in their coupling use a call, the so-called 
ololygon,'^ a cry of wooing and mating. When the 
male has thus attracted the female, they wait for the 
night together, for they cannot consort in the water 
and during the day they are afraid to do so on land ; 
but when the darkness falls, they come out and 
embrace with impunity. On other occasions when 
their cry is shrill, it is because they expect rain.^ 
And this is among the surest of signs. 

35. But, dear Poseidon ! What an absurd and 
ridiculous error I have almost fallen into : while I am 
spending my time on seals and frogs, I have neglected 
and omitted the wisest of sea creatures, the most 
beloved of the gods ! ^ For what nightingales are to 
be compared with the halcyon ^ for its love of sweet 
sound, or what swallows for its love of offspring, or 
what doves for its love of its mate, or w^hat bees for 
its skill in construction ? What creature's procreation 

'^ See Gow on Theocritus, vii. 139 ; Boulenger, Animal 
Mysteries, pp. 67 f. 

<* Cf. Mor. 912 c-D ; Aratus, Phaenomena^ 946 ff. ; cf. Ae- 
lian, De Natura Animal, vi. 19 ; ix. 13. 

^ As it is to Thetis : Virgil, Georgies, i. 399. 

^ See Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds, s.v. ; Kraak, 
Mnemosyne (3rd series), vii. 14^2 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 89 ff. ; 
Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii, 17 ; Gow on Theocritus, vii. 
57 ; and the pleasant work Halcyon found in mss. of Lucian 
and Plato. 

461 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(982) rivos Se yeveoeis koL tokovs Kal coStra? o Oeo? 

ovrojg eVt^r^cre; rd? fji€i' yap At^tolJ? yord? /utav 

eSpaadeiaav VTTohl^aodaL vrjaov loTopovoL, rfj 8' 

olXkvovl TiKTOvar) rrepl rpoTras Trdaav LdTrjGL 6a- 

983 Aacrcray aKVjJLova Kal aodXevrov } odev ovhev eon 

l,(x)OV aXXo, O fldXXoV^ <f)l.XoVGLV dvdpOJTTOL, Tj 8t'* 7]V 

€7TTa fjL6v Tj/jLepag €7Tra 8e vu/cra? iv aKpifj ^eifiuivos 
dSecD? TrXeovGLy rrjg Kara yrjv rropeias rrjVLKavra 
TTjv SiOL rrjs daXdaarjg dacfyaXeaTepav exovreg. el 
8e hel Kal nepl iKaarrjs rcov dpercov a? e;^et ^pax^a 
(fydvai, (f)LXavSpo? jJLev ovrcos eoriv, ware fxr] Kad* 
eva Kaipov dXXd hi erov? Gwelvai Kal 7Tpoahex^(yOcLL 
rrjv rod dppevos opuXiav ov Sid ro dKoXaarov {dXXco 
yap ov piiyvvrai ro Trapdrrav), dAA' vtt^ evvoiag 
wanep yvvrj yapierrj Kal (f>iXo(j)poovvris' orav 8e Std 
yrjpa? dadevr]? 6 dpprjv yevrjrai GweTTeadac Kal 
B ^apvs, VTToXa^ovoa yr)po(f>op€L Kal yrjporpocfyel, {jlt]- 
Safxov TTpo'CefJievr] fjLiqhe KaraXeuTTovaa* p^coptV, dAAd 
rot? a)fioiS eKelvop dvadepievr] Kal KOjJLLt,€L iravra- 
XO(J€. Kal depanevei Kal ovveoriv axpt reAeuTTJs'. 

Toj 8e (fyiXoreKvcp Kal TrecfypovriKon acjrrjpias 
rcbv yevvajfjievajv avvaLodavofxevr] Kvovaav eavrrjv 
rdxi'Crra r peirer ai rrpos epyauiav rijg veomds, ov 
(fyvpovcra ttt^Xov ovhk TrpoaepelSovcra roixois Kal 

^ daaAeuTOv LeonicuS : aardXaKTOV. 

^ /xaAAov added by Pohlenz. 

^ rj hi Reiske : hi. 

* KaToXciTTOvaa Bernardakis : KaTaXnrovaa. 

" Poseidon. 

^ For the birth of Apollo and Artemis. 

'^ Delos, the wandering island. 

462 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 982-983 

and birth pangs has the god " so honoured ? For 
Leto's parturition,^ so they say, only one island ^ was 
made firm to receive her ; but when the halcyon lays 
her eggs, about the time of the winter solstice, the 
god" brings the whole sea to rest, without a wave, 
without a swell. And this is the reason why there 
is no other creature that men love more. Thanks 
to her they sail the sea without a fear in the dead of 
winter for seven days and seven nights.'^ For the 
moment, journey by sea is safer for them than by 
land. If it is proper to speak briefly of her several 
virtues, she is so devoted to her mate that she keeps 
liim company, not for a single season, but throughout 
the year. Yet it is not through wantonness that she 
admits him to her company, for she never consorts 
at all v,-iih any other male ; it is through friendship 
and affection, as with any la^\-ful ^\-ife. When by 
reason of old age the male becomes too weak and 
sluggish to keep up with her, she takes the burden on 
herself, carries him and feeds him, never forsaking, 
never abandoning him ; but mounting him on her 
o^^^l shoulders, she conveys him everywhere she goes 
and looks after him, abiding with him until the end.^ 
As for love of her offspring and care for their pre- 
servation, as soon as she perceives herself to be 
pregnant, she applies herself to building the nest,^ 
not making pats of mud or cementing it on walls and 

^ The Halcyon Days (Suidas, s.v.) ; Aristotle, Historia 
Animal, v. 8 (542 b 6 if.) ; Aelian, De Natura Animal, i. 36 ; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist, xviii. 231 ; al. 

^ Cf. Alcman's famous lines : frag. 26 Edmonds {Lyra 
Graeca, i, p. 72, L.C.L.), frag. 94 Diehl {Anth. Lyrica, ii, 
p. 34) ; Antigonus, Hist. Mirab. 23 ; al. 

f Cf. Mor. 494 a-b ; Aristotle, Historia Animal, ix. 13 
(616 a 19 fF.) ; Aelian, De Natura Animnl. ix. 17. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(983) op6(f)OLg coGTTep at ^eXiSoveg, ovSe ■)(^p(jjyL€vr] ttoXXoZs 
rod (jcofiaros ivepyols piip^Giv, wairep rrj? /xeAtm]? 
ivSvofJLevT]? TO) cra)[jLaTL Kal^ to KiqpLov di'OiyovGrjs 
ojiov ij)avovr€S ol e^ rroSes^ et? i^dycova to Trdv^ 
C dyyeta hiaipovGiv rj S' dXKvojv ev opyavov aTrXovv, 
ev ottXov, ev epyaXelov e;^oucra, to GTOfia, /cat 
[xrjSev dXXo tov cfyiXoTTovov Kal (j)iXoT€-)(yov* avvep- 
yov, Ota jX'q-)(avdTaL Kal hrjpiiovpyeZ -^aXeiTov ecrrt 
TTCLGdrjuac pjr] KaTapLaOovTa? oipei to irXaTTopLevov 
V7T* avrrjg, fidXXov 8e vav7T7]yoviJL€vov, o-)(r]pLdTix)V 

TToXXoJv'' IMOVOV d7T€pLTp€TTTOV Kal d^dTTTLGTOV GvX- 

Xe^aGa yap Tag Trjg jSeAovT]? a/ctSa? gvptlOt^gl Kal 
GvvSel Ttpog dXXrjXas iyKaTanXeKovGa rcts" jLtev ev- 
deias TO,? 8e nXayta?, oiGrrep iirl GT'qpiovL KpoKiqv 
ifji^dXXovGa, 7TpoG)(pa>[jLev'q KafiTraX? Kal TT^ptayco- 
yais hi dXX-qXwv, wGTe Stap/xoaat /cat yeveodai 
GTpoyyvXov ev, -qpefxa'^ TrpopuriKe?' tov Gxrjp^oiTOS, 
J) dXcevTiKco KvpTCp TTaparrX-qGLOv . OTav 8c ovvTeXeGj], 
(f)6povGa TTapeOrjKe rrapd to KXvGfia tov KVjiaTOSy 
07T0V TTpoGTTLTTTovGa /jLaXaKO)? T) OdXaGoa TO [xev ov^ 
KaXcijs dpapos ihlSa^ev d/ceo-ao'^at /cat KaTairvKvoj- 
o-at, ;!^aA66/Lxevov opwGav vtto ttJ? TrXrjyrjg' ra 8* 
rippLOGpLeva KaTaG(j)iyyei Kal rnqyvvGiv , <jjgt€ Kal 
Xidcjp Kal GiSi^pcp SvGSidXvTOV €LvaL Kal SvGTpa>TOV. 
ovSevog 8' tjggov d^to^aujLtao-roi^ Igtlv t] re Gvpi- 

^ Koi added by Meziriacus. 

2 Ol e^ TToSc? added by Meziriacus. 

^ eiV e^dycova to rrdu Meziriacus : els dytoua tottov, 

* (j>i\oTix^ov Keiske : (fyiXoTCKvov. 

^ TToXXoJv] TTaVTCOV ? 

^ Iv, Tjpe^a Post : evqpe^ov {evrjpei \\ . C. H., cf. Vita Ant. 
65 ; €in]p€(f>€? van Herwerden). 
' 7Tp6fji7]K€? Reiske : 7rpo/n^/cei. 

^ OV] OVK€TL ? 

464- 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 983 

roofs like the house-martin " ; nor does she use the 
activity of many different members of her body, as 
when the bee employs its whole frame to enter and 
open the wax, with all six feet pressing at the same 
time to fashion the whole mass into hexagonal cells. 
But the halcyon, having but one simple instrument, 
one piece of equipment, one tool — her bill and nothing 
else, co-operating ^\dth her industry and ingenuity — ■ 
what she contrives and constructs would be hard to 
believe without ocular evidence, seeing the object 
that she moulds — or rather the ship that she builds. 
Of many possible forms, this alone cannot be cap- 
sized ^ or even wet its cargo. She collects the spines 
of garfish <^ and binds and weaves them together, 
some straight, others transverse, as if she were 
thrusting woven threads through the warp, adding 
such bends and knots of one with another that a 
compact, rounded unit is formed, slightly prolate in 
shape, like a fisherman's weel. When it is finished, 
she brings and deposits it beside the surging weaves, 
where the sea beats gently upon it and instructs her 
how to mend and strengthen whatever is not yet good 
and tight, as she observes it loosened by the blows. 
She so tautens and secures the joints that it is difficult 
even for stones or iron to break or pierce it. The 
proportions and shape of the hollow interior are as 

" Cf. 966 D-E supra. 

^ Aristotle {loc. cit.), on the contrary, seems to say (though 
his text is corrupt ; see Thompson ad loc.) : " The opening 
is small, just enough for a tiny entrance, so that even if the 
nest is upset, the sea does not enter." 

'^ Belone was usually a term for the garfish and the 
needlefish, neither of which has spines of any size. Thomp- 
son {Glossary, pp. 31-32) rightly regards the meaning of 
belone here as indeterminable. Cf. also 3for. 494 a, which 
is almost certainly mistranslated in the L.C.L. edition. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(983) lJ.€TpLa TO T€ oxrjfJia rrjs rod dyyeiov KoiXorrjTos' 
TTeTToi-qrai yap aurryi' iKCLvrjv [lovrjv evhvoixlvr^v 
hex^odaiy roig S' aAAot? TV(f}X6v elvau Travrrj /cat 
E Kpv(f)Lov, a)Gr€ TTapievai /xT^Sev etGOJ firjSe rrjs daXdr- 
T7]?. olfjiai {lev ovv inqhev^ vjjlojv ddearov etvai rrjs 
veoTTta?" ifjiol 8e ttoXXolkls IhovTL /cat diyovri irap- 
LGrarai Xiyeiv /cat aSctv 

At^Ao) 817 770T€ Totov ' ATToAAojyoc TTapo. vaco^ 

Tov Kepdnvov ^cufiov elSov iv tols eTrrd KaXovpie- 
vois OedfjLaaiv u/xvoujLtevov, on fjLrjTe /coAArys" Seo- 
ixevos fjLijre rtvo? aAAof heopLov hid jjlovcov tcov 8c- 
^tctjv GvpLTTeTTrjye /cat ovvr]pixooraL Kepdrojv. tXeojs 
8' o ^eo? €17] /cat TTpooiqKei^ rov^ [iovglkov ovra /cat 
vqGLwrrjv, VjJLVovfxevqg* rrjs ireXayiov oeipijvoSy €v- 
fjievcb? KarayeXdv^ rcjv epcorrjixdrajv €K6lvcov, d 
OKWTTrovres ipcxjrdjGLV ovroi, 8ta ri 'Att-oAAojv ov 
yoyypoKrovos^ ovhe rpiyXo^oXog rj "Apre/xt?, are' 
817 yu'CjOGKOvra rr]V e/c daXdrrrjg yevojJLevr^v 'A(/>po- 
F hlrrjv ofiov n rrdvra rd^ /caret OdXarrav rroiovfxe- 
vrjv avrrjg lepd /cat dheX^d /cat fjLrjhevl (fiovevojJLevq)^ 

1 vaw] ^cofio) the Mss. of Homer. 

- 7Tpoay]K€L van Herwerden : Trpos. 

^ TOV Post : Ti. 

•* vfivoviJLCvrjS old editors : vfievrjg. 

^ Kal li>cfore KarayeXdv deleted by W. C. H. 

^ ov yoyypoKTOvo? Salniasius : avd\ 

' TpiyXo^oXos 7] "Apre/xt?, are added by Bernardakis after 
Salinasius. 

^ T^v eV da\arrT]s added by Bernardakis ; yevofievTjv by 
W. C. U. ; Ti by Bernardakis ; TravTa to. by Wyttenbach. 

' ^TjSevt <l>oi'€vofjL€vcp Wyttcnbach : /XTjStv oveuo^eVoj. 

466 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 983 

admirable as anything about it ; for it is so con- 
structed as to admit herself only, while the entrance 
remains wholly hidden and invisible to others — with 
the result that not even a drop of water can get in. 
Now I presume that all of you have seen this nest ; 
as for me, since I have often seen and touched it, it 
comes to my mind to chant the w^ords 

Once such a thing in Delos near Apollo's shrine " 

I saw, the Altar of Horn, celebrated as one of the 
Seven Wonders of the World ^ because it needs no 
glue or any other binding, but is joined and fastened 
together, made entirely of horns taken from the 
right side of the head.'' Now may the god '^ be pro- 
pitious to me while I sing of the Sea Siren ^ — and 
indeed, being both a musician and an islander, he 
should laugh good-naturedly at my opponents' 
scoffing questions. Why should he not be called a 
" conger-slayer " or Artemis be termed a " surmullet- 
slayer " ? ^ Since he well knoMS that Aphrodite, 
born of the sea, regards practically all sea creatures 
as sacred and related to herself and relishes the 

<* Homer, Odyssey, vi. 162. " That there was some re- 
ligious mystery associated with the so-called nest is indicated 
by the close of Plutarch's description." (Thompson on 
Aristotle, loc. cit.) 

^ Cf. Strabo, xiv. 2. 5. 

" Curiously enough, the Life of Theseus^ xxi. 2 (9 e) says 
the " left side." 

^ Apollo. From this point on the text of the rest of this 
chapter is very bad and full of lacunae. The restorations 
adopted here are somewhat less than certain. 

* This is not fulfilled and so is presumably an indication 
of another lacuna toward the end of Phaedimus' speech, the 
location of which we cannot even guess. 

f Cf. 966 A supra. 

467 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(983) x^ttpo^crctv. eV 8e AeVret rovg Upetg rod lloCTeiSto- 
vog ovSev evaXov ro TrapaTrav eodlovras, rpiyXav 8e 
Tovs €V 'EAeucrtvi fivaras ae^ofievovg lgt€, Kal rrjg 
"Hpas" ev "Apyeu ttjv llpeiav a-ne^^opLevqv inl ripifi 
rod l^cpov rov yap OaXdmov Xayojov, o? eVrtv dv- 
dpcxJTTOj davdoipioSy Kreivovaiv at rpiyXai pLoXiora 
Kal KaravaXioKovoL' 8to ravrrjv oj? (f)iXdvdpa)7Ta Kal 
GOJTiqpia t^cha ry]v dhetav exovut. 
984 36. Kat fJLTjv 'AprejLttSo? ye A.LKrvvvqg AeXcfycvlov 
T 'ATToAAajvo? tepa koX jSco/xot irapd ttoXXol? elaiv 
'EAAt^vcov ov 8' avTog eavrcp tottov e^alperov 6 
deos 7T€7TOLrjraL (fyrjGLV 6 TrotT^To^?/ Kpi^rojv diro- 
yovovg OLKovvras^ y^yeyiovi SeA^tvt ;^p')]cra/xeVou?' oi) 
yap o ^eo?^ Trpoevrix^TO^ rov gtoXov piera^aXdjv to 
et8o?, tL>s" ot pLvdoypd^oL Xeyovoiv, dXXd 8eA^tva 
TTefJu/fas Tolg dvhpdoLV Wvi'ovTa rov ttXovv Karrj- 
yayev els Ktppay. loTopovGL 8e Kal rovg 7re/x<^- 
Oevras^ els HiLVojTT'qv vtto UroXefiatov rod Hojrijpos 
eirl TTjv SapctTTtSo? Kopah-qv, ILwreXnf Kal Atovucrtov, 
aTTcoGdevras' dvepiw j3tatco Kopiit^eGdai Trapd yvcopirjv 
B vTTep MaAeav, ev Se^id YleXoTTovvrjGov e)(ovras, elra 
pepj3opievovs Kal SvGOvpLovvras avrovs Trpo^avevra 

^ <j>-qaLv 6 TTOLTjTT^s adclcd by van Herwerden. 
- dnoyovoug OLKOvvras] a-noLKLav rjyovuTaL MeziriaClIS ; dnoL- 
KovvTa? Bernardakis ; iTnjyaye tovs oiKovvra? Post. 
^ ov yap 6 ^eo?] ov ^rjv 6 deos ye ? 
* TTpoivrjx^ro X via rider ; Trpoevrjvox^ to. 
^ 7T€fX(f)d€VTas Xylander : TreptAet^^eVra?. 
•> l^wTeX-q added by Kaltwasser from Mo?'. 361 f. 
' 6.77 CO ad euT as Xylander : aTrcoaOevTa. 

" Andrews suspects a confusion here and at 31or. 730 d 
468 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 983-981 

slaughter of none of them. In Leptis,^ you know, the 
priests of Poseidon refrain entirely from any sea 
food, and those initiated into the mysteries at 
Eleusis hold the surmullet in veneration, while the 
priestess of Hera at Argos abstains from this fish to 
pay it honour. For surmullets are particularly good 
at killing and eating the sea-hare, which is lethal to 
man.^ It is for this reason that surmullets possess 
this immunity, as being friendly and life-saving 
creatures. 

36. Furthermore, many of the Greeks have temples 
and altars to Artemis Dictynna ^ and Apollo Del- 
phinios ; and that place which the god had chosen 
for himself the poet ^ says was settled by Cretans 
under the guidance of a dolphin. It was not, however, 
the god who changed his shape and swam in front of 
the expedition, as tellers of tales relate ; instead, 
he sent a dolphin to guide the men and bring them 
to Cirrha.^ They also relate that Soteles and Diony- 
sius, the men sent by Ptolemy Soter ^ to Sinope to 
bring back Serapis, were driven against their will by 
a violent wind out of their course beyond Malea, 
with the Peloponnesus on their right. When they 
were lost and discouraged, a dolphin appeared by the 

with Lepidotonpolis on the Nile, not far below Thebes, 
apparently a focal point of a taboo on eating the bynni, 
allegedly due to its consumption of the private parts of 
Osiris when they were thrown into the river (c/. 3/or. 358 b). 

^ Cf. Aelian, De Natura Animal, ii. 45; ix. 51 ; xvi. 19; 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 155 ; Philostratus, Vita Apoll. vi. 32. 

'^ As though " Artemis of the Net " ; see Callimachus, 
Hymn iii. 198. 

^ Homer, Hymn to Apollo, iii. 393 ff. (as restored by van 
Herwerden). For Delphinian Apollo see lines 495 f. 

« The port of Delphi. 

f Cf. Mor. 361 F ; Tacitus, Histories, iv. 83-84. 

469 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(984) SeA^iva TrpcopaOew woTrep eKKaXelodai KaOrjyovjjLe- 
vov elg TO. vavXo)(a Kal adXovs^ fxaXaKovg exovra 
rrjs -x^cLpas kol^ ao(j>aXelsy ct;^pt? ov tovtov tov rpoTTov 
ayojv Kal TTapaTTejjLTTCov to ttXolov et? Ktppap' Kar- 
iaTTjoev. oBev dva^aTi^pLa^ dvoavres, eyvojcrav on 
Set hvelv dyaXfJLaTOJv ro fiev rod YiXo-urojvos dv- 
eXeodat Kal Kopiil^eLV, ro Se T19? KopT)? dTTopLd^aodai 
Kal KaraXiTTeZv . 

EtVo? pLev ovv Tjv Kal ro <f)iX6pLovaov dyarrdv rod 
drjpLov rov Oeov <1> Kal Ylu'Sapos dnciKal^iov iavrov 
ip€dil,€Gdai (f)7j(jlv 

C dXiOV* ScA^tVOS" VTTOKpiGLV^- 

rov pL€v dKvpLovos eV TTovrov TTeXdyei 
avXcbv €Kivr]G* iparov piiXos. 

dXXd pidXXov eoLK€ ro (fiiXdvO pcoTTov avrov ^eo<^tAe9 
etvai' pLOVo? yap dvdpcjTTOv dcrTra^erat, Kad^ o dv- 
dpojTTos €ori. rdjv 8e x^paaicov rd pi€V ovSeva rd 
8' rjpL€pa)rara puovovs rrepieTrei rovs rpe(j)ovras vtto 
XP^las, Kal Tou? (Tvviqdetg 6 kvojv 6 lttttos 6 eAe<^a?' 
at 8e x^Xihdves docov pcev heovrai rvyxdvovaiv 
elooLKLodpLevai, oKids Kal dvayKaias ducfyaXeias, 

^ adXov^ Madvig: : otoXov?. 

^ Kal Reiske : ehai or /fara/LieVciv. 

^ ava^aT-qpia Reiske : dva^arTjpiov (aTTOjSaTT^pia van Her- 
werden). 

* dXlov from Mor. 70i f Reiske : ov. 
^ vTTOKpiaiv Xylander : d-noKpiaiv. 

* €v Wyttenbach : ov, eij, or eV. 

470 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 984. 

prow and, as it were, invited them to follow and led 
them into such parts as had safe roadsteads with but 
a gentle swell until, by conducting and escorting the 
vessel in this manner, it brought them to Cirrha. 
Whence it came about that when they had offered 
thanksgiving for their safe landing, they came to see 
that of the two statues they should take away the 
one of Pluto, but should merely take an impress of 
that of Persephone and leave it behind.^ 

Well might the god be fond of the music-loving 
character of the dolphin,^ to which Pindar ^ likens 
himself, saying that he is roused 

Like a dolphin of the sea 

Who on the waveless deep of ocean 

Is moved by the lovely sound of flutes. 

Yet it is even more likely that its affection for men ^ 
renders it dear to the gods ; for it is the only creature 
who loves man for his own sake.^ Of the land animals, 
some avoid man altogether, others, the tamest kind, 
pay court for utilitarian reasons only to those who 
feed them, as do dogs and horses and elephants to 
their familiars. Martins take to houses to get what 
they need, darkness and a minimum of security, but 

" That is, in Sinope. 

* Cf. Mor. 162 F ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 137. 

" Page 597, ed. Sandys (L.C.L.) ; frag. 125, lines 69-71 
ed. Bo%vTa (O.C.T.) ; frag. 222. U-17, ed. Turyn. The 
quotation is found also in Mor. 704 f — 705 a. The lines 
were partially recovered in Oxyrhynchus Papyri, iii. 408 b 
(1903) ; for the critical difficulties see Turyn's edition. 

^ Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 24. For Dionysus and the pirate- 
dolphins see the seventh Homeric Hymn and Frazer on 
Apollodorus, iii. 5. 3 (L.C.L., vol. i, p. 332). 

* " The hunting of dolphins is immoral " : Oppian, Hal. 
v. 416 (see the whole passage). 

471 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(984) (f>€vyovGL he Kal (j)o^ovvraL rov avSpcjirov ojoTrep 
Bi^piov. TO) he SeA^aa Trapa Trdvra Kal jJLOVCp to 
CrjTovfJLei'ov vtto rcov apiGTCov (f)LXoGO(p(x)v €K€lvo, to 
D (f)LX€Lv di'€v xp^^OL^^ v-napx^f-' fJirj^evos yap et? fi-qScv 
dvdpcuTTov Seofievos Trdaiv evfjLevq? re ^t'Ao? icrTi 
Kal pe^orjdrjKe ttoXXol?' tuv rd fiev '' Xpiovos ovhels 
dyvoel' nepL^or^Ta ydp iuTLV 'HatoSou 8e /card 
Kaipdv avTos r){J.d?, d> c/n'Af, dveiivqaas, 

dTdp ov TeXog Ik€o pLvOcxJV. 

e8et 8e tov Kvva hiiqyrjGdixevov'^ [ir] TTapaXiTTelv tovs 
SeXcfylvag- TV(f)X6v ydp tjv to firji'vpia tov kvvos, 
vXaKTOvvTos Kal /xerd ^otjs €Tn(f)epo[JLevov TOt? </>o- 
vevGLV, el ixTj tov veKpdv^ irepl to Ne/xetov BaXduor) 
hiacjiepoiievov dpdfievoL heX(f)lve?, eTepoi Trap eTepcov 
eKhexdpievoi TTpoBvpLWS, et? to 'Viov eKdevTes eSei- 
^av eG(f)ayfJLevov. 
E "Ei'aAov Se TOV AloXea MupcrtAos"* d Aeu^Los loto- 
pel, TTJs ^jJLLvdeo)?^ ipa)VTa dvyaTpds pL<f)eLGr]s Kard 

XprjGfJiOV TTJ? WlJ.(f)LTpLT7]? VTTO Tcbv HevOlXihcOV ,^ Kal 

avTOV e^aXojJLevov' elg TrjV ddXaGGav vtto heX(j)lvos 
gG)ov e^eve;(^'^vat Trpos ttjv AeG^ov. 

*H 8e TTpos Tou 'laorea Tralha tov 8eA</)tvo? evvoia 

^ Xpeias:^ the Mss. follow with the words ^u'aet irpos dvdpu)- 
7TOVS ; deleted by W. C. H. 

^ BLr]yT]odfi€vov Bernardakis : alr-qadixevov. 

^ el fiT] rov veKpov added by Meziriacus. 

* yivpaiXog (S. M tiller: pLvpriXos. 

^ ^fnvdeojs Emperius : <J)lv€ojs. 

^ Ilei/^tAiScDv Meziriacus : TTivdihcov. 

~ e^aXoixevov Reiske : e^aXXofievoi'. 

472 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 984 

avoid and fear man as a dangerous wild beast. '^ To 
the dolphin alone, beyond all others, nature has 
granted what the best philosophers seek : friendship 
for no advantage. Though it has no need at all of 
any man, yet it is a genial friend to all and has helped 
many. The story of Arion ^ is familiar to everyone 
and widely known ; and you, my friend, opportunely 
put us in mind of the tale of Hesiod,^ 

But you failed to reach the end of the tale.*^ 

When you told of the dog, you should not have left 
out the dolphins, for the information of the dog that 
barked and rushed mth a snarl on the murderers 
would have been meaningless if the dolphins had not 
taken up the corpse as it was floating on the sea near 
the Nemeon ^ and zealously passed it from group 
to group until they put it ashore at Rhium and so 
made it clear that the man had been stabbed. 

Myrsilus ^ of Lesbos tells the tale of Enalus the 
Aeolian who was in love with that daughter of 
Smintheus who, in accordance with the oracle of 
Amphitrite, was cast into the sea by the Penthilidae, 
whereupon Enalus himself leaped into the sea and 
was brought out safe on Lesbos by a dolphin. 

And the good^\ill and friendship of the dolphin for 

" Cf. Mor. 728 a ; but see Aelian, De Xatura Animal, i. 53 ; 
Arrian, Anabasis, i. 25. 8. 

^ Herodotus, 1. 24 ; Mair on Oppian, Hal. v. 448. In 
Mor. 161 A if. the story is told by an eye-witness at the 
banquet of the Seven Wise Men. 

" Cf. 969 E supra. 

^ Homer, Iliad, ix. 56. 

* The shrine of Zeus at Oeneon in Locris. 

^ Miiller, Frag. Hist. Graec. iv, p. 459 ; Jacoby, Frag. d. 
griech. Hist, ii, frag. 12 ; cf. Mor. 163 b-d ; Athenaeus, 
466 c gives as his authority Anticleides. 

473 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(984) KOii^ (jaXia hi v7T€p^oXr]v epa>? eSo^e* cruveTrat^e yap 
avTO) Kal GVV€vri)(eTO Kad^ rjixepav /cat Trapel^ev iv 
XP<i> ifjavoixeyog- eTreira rrepi^aivovro'S ovk e^euyey, 

aAA' 6(f)€p€ X^lpCOV, TTpOS O €KafJL7TT€ kXu'OJV, OjLtOU 

TTavTiov 'laaecov eKaorore ovvrpe^^ovrajv inl tt^v 
ddXaTTav. opi^pov he ttot€ ttoXXov /xera x^Xd^rjs 
F €7tl7T€g6vtos , 6 [ji€v TToZs OLTToppvels i^eXiTTev, 6 he 
heXcfylv vrroXa^ajv dpca tw veKpo) Gvve^ecoaev avros 
eavrov eVt rrjv yrjv Kal ovk aTreoTT] rod CTco/xaro? 
eojs drredave, hiKaicjoas fieraax^iv rj? ovvairios 
eho^e yeyovevai reXevrrj?. Kal rod rrddovs eTrior]- 
jjLOV ^laaevcTL to ;^apay/xa rod vo/xtcr/i-aro? eVrt, 
TTais VTTep h€X(f)Lvos 6xovp.evos. 

'Eac he TOVTOV Kal rd irepl Kotpavov dvra p^vdcohrj 
985 TTiGTLV eox^- Oapto? ydp wv to yevos ev Bu^avrto) 
heX(f)Lva)V ^oXov, evax^d^VTOJV Gayrjvr) Kal Kivhv- 
vevovTOJV KaTaKOTTTJvai, Trpidpievos pLedrJKe rrdvTas' 
oXiycp 8' voTepov enXec TTevTiqKovTopov e;^cov, to? 
(jyaai, Xtjotcov^ TrevT-^KovTa^ dyovaav iv he tco 
fxeTa^v Na^ou Kal Ildpov TTopOfjLO) ttj? vecbs dva- 
TpaTTeiG7)s Kal rtov dXXwv hia<^dapevTCx}v , eKelvov 
XeyovoL, heX(j)lvos VTrohpapuovTog aura) Kal dvaKov- 

^ Xtjotcov] XrjaTOLs Meziriacus ; MiAt/ctioji^ Kohde. 
2 TrevTTJKovTa ( — v') Naber, after Reiske: dvSpas. 



° Aelian, De Natura Animal, vi. 15 (c/. viii. 11), tells the 
story in great detail and with several differences ; cf. also 
the younger Pliny's famous letter (ix. 83) on the dolphin of 
Hippo and the vaguer accounts in Aelian, De Xatura Animal. 
ii. 6; Antigonus, 55 ; Philo, 67 (p. 182). GuHck on Athe- 
naeus, ()()(> c-d collects the authorities ; see also the dolphin 
stories in Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 25 ff. and Mair on Oppian, 
474 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 98i-985 

the lad of lasus ^ was thought by reason of its great- 
ness to be true love. For it used to sw^m and play 
with him during the day, allowing itself to be touched ; 
and when the boy mounted upon its back, it was not 
reluctant, but used to carry him with pleasure wher- 
ever he directed it to go, while all the inhabitants of 
lasus flocked to the shore each time this happened. 
Once a violent storm of rain and hail occurred and the 
boy slipped off and was drowned. The dolphin took 
the body and threw both it and itself together on the 
land and would not leave until it too had died, think- 
ing it right to share a death for which it imagined that 
it shared the responsibility. And in memory of this 
calamity the inhabitants of lasus have minted their 
coins with the figure of a boy riding a dolphin.^ 

From this the wild tales about Coeranus ^ gained 
credence. He was a Parian by birth who, at By- 
zantium, bought a draught of dolphins which had 
been caught in a net and were in danger of slaughter, 
and set them all free. A little later he was on a sea 
voyage in a penteconter, so they say, with fifty 
pirates aboard ; in the strait between Naxos and 
Paros the ship capsized and all the others were lost, 
while Coeranus, they relate, because a dolphin sped 
beneath him and buoyed him up, was put ashore at 

Hal. V. 458 ; Thompson, Glossary, pp. o4 f. lasus is a city 
in Ionian Caria on the gulf of the same name. 

^ The story has a happier ending in one version found in 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 37 : the dolphin dies, but Alexander the 
Great makes the boy head of the priesthood of Poseidon in 
Babylon. 

** Aelian, De Xatura Animal, viii. 3 ; Athenaeus, 606 e-f 
cites from Phylarchus, Book XII (Jacoby, Fraff. d. griech. 
Hist, i, p. 340). There are many other examples of dolphins 
rescuing people, such as the fragment of Euphorion in Page, 
Greek Literary Papyri, i, p. 497 (L.C.L.). 

475 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(985) <f)it,ovTOS, e^evexOrjvat rrj? Hlklvov^ Kara (T777}Aatov, 
o heLKwrai /xc;^pt vvv kol KaXelrai Kotpavetov eVt 
TovTco Se Aeyerat TTOL-qaai rov 'Ap;^tAo;(OV 

77eyT7]/<:oi'T' dvSpair Xl7T€ Kolpavov jjinog YloGeiSaJv. 

B €7T€L 8' VGrepov OLTTodavovTos avTov TO Gcbfjia ttXt]- 

oiov TTJ? daXoLTTT]? ol TTpOGT^KOVTe? €KaOV, e7T€(f)aL- 

vovTO TToXXol 8eA</>tv€? TTapoi rov alyiaXoVy cjGTTCp 
imSeLKrvvTe? eavrovs rJKovras irrl rag ra(j>as, kol 
TTapajJLeLvavres o-XP^ ou ovvereXiodriGav . 

H yJovGoews aoTTLS on fxev eTTLGr^fiov CL^e 
ScA^tva Kal ^TiqGiXopos LGToprjKev i^ rjs 8' alrias, 
TjaKvvdiOi S ia fJLVT) fjLovevovG Lv y (1)9 Kptdevs fxaprvpeZ- 
vTjTTLos yap a)v 6 T'qXeiJ.axog, cu? (fyaoiv, els o.yx'^' 
^aBes rrfs BaXdrnr]? oXiodajv IgojOt], heXcjiivajv vtto- 
Xa^ovrcov Kal dvavrj^aiJLevcov' odev eTTOirjGaro yXv(f)'rjv 
rfj G(j)payt6i Kal rrjg aaTTtSo? KOGfiov 6 Tranqp, 

C dpLei^6fJi€V0S TO l,<X)OV. 

'AAA' €7761 TTpOeiTTCOV (1)9 OvSe {JLvOoV Vfxlv €pCO 

Kal avTOS ovK ot3' ottco? TTpos Tols SeXcfytGLv eXadov 
TToppojrepco rod TTidavov GVve^oKeiXas els rov 
'OSuCTCTea Kal Y^oipavov, €7TiriBr]ixi Slk7]v ipLavro)- 
Travofiai yap rjSrj Aeycov. 

37. API2T. "Fj^€GTiV ovv vfJiLV, d) di'Spes SiKa- 
Graiy TTjv ifjrj(f)ov (jyepetv. 

1 Xi/ciVou Palmerius {cf. Cobet, Coll. Crit. p. 589) : Si- 
Kwdov (said to be an ancient name of Faros). 

" An island south of Paros. 
^ Cf. Edmonds, Ele^y and Ia)yibus, ii, p. 821 (L.C.L.). 

i-76 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 985 

Sicinus," near a cave which is pointed out to this day 
and bears the name of Coeraneum.^ It is on this 
man that Archilochus is said to have written the hne 

Out of fifty, kindly Poseidon left only Coeranus. " 

When later he died, his relatives were bm^ning the 
body near the sea when a large shoal of dolphins 
appeared off shore as though they were making it 
plain that they had come for the funeral, and they 
waited until it was completed.^ 

That the shield of Odysseus had a dolphin em- 
blazoned on it, Stesichorus ^ also has related ; and 
the Zacynthians perpetuate the reason for it, as 
Critheus ^ testifies. For when Telemachus was a 
small boy, so they say, he fell into the deep inshore 
water and was saved by dolphins who came to his aid 
and swam with him to the beach ; and that was the 
reason why his father had a dolphin engraved on 
his ring and emblazoned on his shield, making this 
requital to the animal. 

Yet since I began by saying that I would not tell 
you any tall tales and since, without observing what 
i was up to, I have now, besides the dolphins, run 
aground on both Odysseus and Coeranus to a point 
beyond belief, I lay this penalty upon myself : to 
conclude here and now. 

37. ARiSTOTiMus.^ So, gentlemen of the jury, you 
may now cast your votes. 

•^ Edmonds, op. cit. ii, p. 164- ; Diehl, Anth. Lyrica, i, p. 24-3, 
frag. 117. 

<* On the grief of dolphins see Pliny, Xat. Hist. ix. 25, 33. 

* Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, ii, p. QQ, frag. 71. 

■'' Nothing whatever is known about this author, whose 
name may be given incorrectly in our mss. 

" Perhaps rather Heracleon (975 c) or Optatus (965 d). 

477 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(985) SriKA. *AAA' rjiilv ye TrdXai ro rod ^o(f)OKXeovg 
hehoyp-evov eoriv 

eu yap /cat hixoorarcjv Aoyo? 
ovyKoXXd r d/x^otv is jxeaov^ reKTaiveraL. 

ravrl yip, a irpos d\Xr]\ovs elpijKare, Gvvdevreg 
els ravTOv diji(f)6T€poL /caAo)? dywvie'Lode kolvjj rrpos 
rovs rd ^coa Xoyov Kal ovveoecos dTToarepovvras . 

^ auyfoAAa r ayi<j)olv is fj-eaov Brunck and Person : ovy- 
KoXXdr^ is fieaov a.yi<f>olv. 



" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 314, frag. 783 ; Pearson, 
iii, p. 69, frag. 867. 

^ The Stoics, as always in this essay. 



478 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS, 985 

socLARUs. As for us, we have for some time held 
the view of Sophocles " : 

It is a marvel how of rival sides 
The strife of tongues welds both so close together. 

For by combining what you have said against each 
other, you ^\ill together put up a good fight against 
those ^ who would deprive animals of reason and 
understanding.*' 

'^ To some critics the ending is suspicious because of its 
brevity and vagueness ; they regard it as added by an 
ancient editor who could not find the original termination. 
But the sudden turn at the end may merely indicate that the 
whole debate is in reality a single argument to prove the 
thesis that animals do have some degree of rationality (see 
also the Introduction to this dialogue). 



479 



APPENDIX 

A WORD of caution is needed : Plutarch emphatically was 
no naturalist. The zoological material is a hodge-podge of 
misinformation dredged up from various zoological sources, 
seasoned here and there with personal contributions, which 
are not necessarily correct. In the original sources, terms 
for specific types of animals were probably used with con- 
siderable precision. It is my impression that Plutarch often 
had only a vague idea of the meaning of such terms. For 
example, he consistently uses the specific term for a rock 
dove, but probably had in mind any type of domestic dove. 
Similarly, dorcas was used in Greece commonly as a term 
for the roedeer, but in Asia Minor for the common gazelle. 
In the original sources the word probably denoted specifically 
one or the other, depending on where the man lived ; but 
Plutarch may well have used the term vaguely for any type 
of small deer, including gazelles and antelopes. 

Alfred C. Andrews 



481 



CLASSIFIED ZOOLOGICAL INDEX 

\. Mammals 

AtXovpos : wild cat of Egypt (Fells ocreata Gm.) and of 

Europe (F. silvestrls Schreb.) and domestic form (F. do- 

mestka Briss.). 
At^ : domestic goat, Capra hircus L. 
W^wTTT)^ : fox, esp. Valpes vulgaris Flam. 
'XpKTos : bear, more esp. the European brown bear, Ursus 

arctos L. 
Bou? : domestic ox, Bos taurus L. 
TaXer} (yaXf]) : the weasel {Putorius vulgaris Cuv.), and such 

similar animals as the marten {Martes sp.) and the polecat 

or foumart {Mustela putorius L.). 
^aavTTOvs • hare (see Aaycoo?). 
AcA^i? : dolphin, esp. Delphinus delphis L. 
AopKttj : in Greece, usually a term for the roedeer, Capreolus 

capreolus L. ; in Asia Minor, usually a term for the com- 
mon gazelle, Gazella dorcas L. 
"EAa^o? : in Greece, usually a term for the red-deer, Cervus 

elaphus L. ; in Ionia, usually a term for the fallow-deer, 

C. da ma L. 
'EAe^a? : elephant, Elephas indicus L. and E. africanus 

Blumenb. 
"EpK^oj : usually a kid (see At|) : sometimes a very young 

lamb (see "Ols). 
'Exivo? ix^paaZos) : common hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus L. 
'Il/xtoi^o? : mule, usually by mare and he-ass, sometimes by 

stallion and she-ass ; in Syria, a term for the wild ass 

(Asinus onager Sm.) or the dschigetai {A. hemionus Sm.). 
'Itttto? : horse, Caballus cabal lus L. 

'Ittttos TTOTapLLos '. hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius L. 
'lxv€vixajv : ichneumon, Ilerpestes ichneumon L. 
Ka/LiT/Ao? : the Bactrian camel, Camelus bactrianus L., and 

the Arabian camel or dromedary, C. dromedarius L. 
Kd-npog : wild boar, mostly Sus scrofa ferus Riitimeyer. 
48^2 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS 

KrJTos : in Plutarch usually whale, as in 980 f. See also 

KrJTos under Fishes. 
Kptos : ram (see "O'Cs). 
Kvcov : dog, Canis familiaris L. 
Aayojog : hare, esp. the common European hare {Lepus 

europaeus Pall.), to a lesser degree the variable hare (L. 

timidus L.). 
AcW : lion, Felis leo L. 

Avyl : lynx. Lynx lynx L. ; caracal, Lynx caracal Giild. 
AvKO£ : wolf, Canis lupus L. 
'Ot? : domestic sheep, Ovis aries L. 
"Ovos : domestic ass, Asinus domesticus Sm. 
'Opevs : mule (see 'H/itovo?). 
"Opv^ : chiefly the scimitar-horned oryx {Oryx leucoryx 

Pall.) and the straight-horned oryx (0. beisa Riippel). 
IlapSaAis : panther or leopard, Felis pardus antiquorum 

Smith. 
Ilpo^aTov : sheep (see "OCs). 
Hvs : pig, *S'?/6' scrofa domesticus Riitimeyer. 
Havpos : bull (see Bow?). 
TiypLs : tiger, i^^/<"5 ^?^rw L. 
OcoKT/ : seal, including the common seal {Phoca vitulina L.) 

and the monk seal (P. monachus Herm.). 

2. Birds 

'Aerdj : eagle, esp. Aquila sp. 

'At^Scov : nightingale, chiefly Luscinia megarhyncha Brehm. 

'AAe/crpucuv : domestic cock, Gallus domesticus Briss. 

WXkvcou : kingfisher, Alcedo ispida L. 

Tipavos : common crane, Grus grus L. 

'EpojStd? : heron, including the common heron {Ardea 

cinerea L.), the greater European egret {Herodias alba 

Gray), the lesser European egret {Garzetta garzetta L.), 

and the bittern {Botaurus stellaris L.). 
^l^Ls : ibis, including the sacred white ibis {Ibis aethiopica 

111.) and the black ibis {Plegades falcinellus Kaup.). 
'lepa^ : smaller hawks and falcons generically. 
'I/cTtvo? : kite, including the common kite {Milvus ictinus 

Sav.) and the black kite (3/. ater Gm.). 
KtTTa : jay, Garrulus glandarius L. ; sometimes the magpie. 

Pica can data L. 
KoAoids : jackdaw, Corvus monedula L. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kopa^ : raven, Corvus corax L. 

Kopciiv-q : crow {Corviis corone L.) and hooded crow (C. 
comix L.). 

KvKvos : swan, Cygnus olor Gm. and C. miislnis Bkst. 

Mepoip : bee-eater, Merops apiaater L. 

ITeAapyo's' : stork, esp. C icon la alba L. 

IlepSi^ : partridge, esp. the Greek partridge, Alectoris graeca 
Kanp ; in Italy also the red-legged partridge, A. rufa Kaup. 

IlepiCTTepa : rock-dove, Colnmba livia L. ; domestic rock- 
dove, C. lii'ia domestica L. 

TpoxiAo? : Egyptian plover, Pluvianus aegypt'ius Viell. ; 
elsewhere also the common European wren, Troglodytes 
troglodytes L. 

XeAtSojv: swallow, including the chimney swallow {Chelidon 
rustica L.) and the house-martin {Chelidon urbica Bole). 

Xrjv : as a wild type, the gray or graylag goose {Anser 
cinereus Meyer) and the bean goose {Anser segetum 
Bonn.), often the domestic type of the gray goose. 

Tap : starling, Sturnus vulgaris L. 

H'tTxa/cds : parrot, perhaps esp. Psittacus alexandri L. and 
P. torquatns Gm. 

'Drt's : bustard, Otis tarda L. 

''Dto? : a horned or eared owl, not more specifically identifi- 
able. 

8. Reptiles and Amphibia 

"Bdrpaxos : frog, Rana sp. and allied genera. 

KpoKoSeiXo? : Nile crocodile, Crocodilns niloficus Laur. 

"0(^1? : serpent generically. 

Xa/iaiAe'cuv : the African chameleon, Chanieleo vulgaris Latr. 

XeAoii^ {x^poaia) : tortoise, Testudo graeca L. and T. mar- 

ginata Schoepff. ; {daXarria) : sea-turtle, Thalassochelys 

corticata Rondel. 

4. Fishes 

'AAi€us : fishing-frog, Lophius piscatorivs L. 

'AXwn-q^ : fox-shark. Alopecias vulpes Bp. 

'A/ii'a : bonito, more esp. the pelamid or belted bonito, Sarda 

sarda Cuv., to a lesser degree the bonito or striped-bellied 

tunny, Katsuwonus pelamis Kish. 
*Av6ias : in 977 c probably the Mediterranean barbier, 

Serranus anthias C.V. ; sometimes spoken of as a much 

larger fish, then of uncertain identity. 

484 



THE CLEVERNESS OF ANIMALS 

BeXovT) : usually the pipefish {Syngnathus rubescens Risso 

and S. acus L.) and the garfish {Belone imperialis Vincig. 

and Strongylura acus Lacep.) ; in 983 c indeterminable. 
FoAeds : generic term for sharks and dogfishes, more esp. 

Scyllium canicula Cuv., S. catulus Cuv., and Mustelus 

vulgaris Miill. 
TaXrj : principally the hake and rockling, Phycis sp. and 

Motella sp. 
Toyypos : conger-eel, Conger vulgaris Cuv. 
"EAAoi/f : probably mostly the common sturgeon, Acipenser 

sturio L. 
'Hyencov : usually the pilot-fish, Naucrates ductor Cuv. ; in 

980 F apparently also one of the globe-fishes, such as 

Diodon hystrix L. 
Qpiaoa : probably the shad, Alosa vulgaris C.V., or the 

sardinelle, Sardinella aurita C.V. 
Qvvvos : tunny, mostly the common tunny, Thunnus thyn- 

nus L. 
'lepd? : " sacred," an epithet applied to several fish, more 

especially the avdias, the gilthead, the sturgeon, the dolphin, 

and the pilot-fish. 
'louAi's : rainbow-wrasse, Coris iulis Gth. 
KeCTTpeu? : the gray mullet in general, sometimes the common 

gray mullet, Mugil capita Cuv., in particular. 
KiyTos- : sometimes a large sea monster (as in 981 d), in other 

authors sometimes a huge fish (such as a large tunny), but 

more commonly, and usually in Plutarch, a whale. 
KoXias : coly-mackerel, Pneumatophorus colias Gm. 
Koj^td? : goby, chiefly the black goby, Gohius niger L. 
Ad^pa^ : sea-bass, Lahrax lupus Cuv. 
Mop^Mvpos : type of sea bream, the mormyrus, Pagellus 

mormyrus C.V. 
Mvpaiva : moray or murry, Muraena helena L. 
NapK-q : torpedo or electric ray, esp. Torpedo marmorata 

Risso, less commonly T. narce Nardo and T. hebetans 

Lowe. 
liipaLas : a type of gray mullet {Mugil sp.). 
li-qXapivs : year-old tunny (see Qvvvo?). 
Sapyd? : sargue, esp. Sargus vulgaris GeoiF. 
YiKapos : parrot-fish, Scarus cretensis C.V. 
HKop-TTios : sculpin, Scorpaena scrofa L. and S. porcus L. 
TpiyXa : the red or plain surmullet, Mullus barbatus L., and 

the striped or common surmullet, M. surmuletus L. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

OuK-iV : a wrasse, probably specifically Crenilabrus pavo C. V. 
XpvaojTTos : gilthead, Chrysophrys aurata C.V. 

5. Molluscs 

KdyxT? : mussels in general, including oysters. 

Aayojos {daXaTTLos) : sea-hare, Aj)hjski depilans L. 

"Oarpiov : sometimes a generic term for mussels ; more 
commonly a specific term for the common European oyster, 
Ostrea edulls L. ; occasionally a term for other species of 
oyster, such as 0. lamellosa Brocchi and 0. cristata Lam. 

ritVvT; : pinna, especially Pinna nobilis L. ; but also P. 
rudis L., P. rotundata L., and P. pectinata L. 

IIoAuTrous : octopus. Octopus vulgaris Lam. 

Ilop<f>vpa : purplefish, Murex trunculus L., M. brandaris L., 
and Thais haemastoma Lam. 

Hrj-nia : cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. 

6. Crustacea 

KapajSos : rock lobster, Palinurus vulgaris Latr. 

KapKivos : crab, Decapoda brachyura Lam. 

Hdyovpos : probably the common edible crab, Cancer 

pagurus L. 
Hlvvott]P7]s : pinna-guard, Pinnoteres veterum L. 
liTTOYyoT-qprjs : sponge-guard, Typton spongicola Costa. 

7. Insects and Spiders 

\\.pdxvr)s : spider (class Arachnoidea, order Araneida). 
Mc'AiTTtt : bee generically, but mostly domestic honeybee. 

Apis mellifera L. 
MvpfxT)^ : ant generically (family Formicidae). 
TcTTi^ : cicada, esp. Cicada plebeia Scop, and C. orni L. 

8. EcHINODERMS 

'Acttt^p : starfish generically, Asterias sp. 
'Extws (^aAaTTios) : sea-urchin, especially Echinus esculentus 
Lam. and Strongylocentrotus lividus Brdt. 

9. PORIFERA 

LTToyyos : sponge, chiefly Euspongia officinalis Bronn. and 
Hippospongia equina Schmidt. 

486 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL 

(BRUTA ANIMALIA RATIONE UTF 



INTRODUCTION 

Many will find this little jeu d'esprit as pleasant 
reading as anything in Plutarch. In part, this may- 
be due to its (perhaps accidental) brevity ; but its 
originality and freshness are undeniable. These 
qualities have, to be sure, puzzled a number of 
scholars who are still disputing whether the sources 
are principally Epicurean or Peripatetic or Cynic. 
Nothing quite like it is known elsewhere,^ which sad 
lack baffles the Quellenforscher . So, rather than allow 
a touch of spontaneous imagination to Plutarch, it 
has been confidently asserted that the dialogue must 
come from the school of Menippus, or be an attempt 
to turn the tables on Polystratus, and so on. 

Everything must have a source (if only the author's 
ingenuity) and the source here, so far as it can be 
predicated with any certainty, is the tenth book of 
the Odyssey seen through the humorous eyes of a 
young Boeotian.^ We have here, then, a Boeotian 

" But talking animals were not new (Hirzel, Der Dialog, 
i, p. 338 f.). 

^ So the sensible Hirzel (op. cit. ii, p. 131) ; see also 
Hartman, De Plutarcho, p. 576. Stylometry, however, does 
not encourage the view that this is an early work (Sandbach, 
Class. Quart, xxxiii, p. 196). 

489 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

pig instructing the favourite of Athena." It was once 
fashionable to assert, or imply, that since Plutarch 
was once a young Boeotian himself, matters could 
not be so simple, nor could he be the author. But 
the climate of scholarship is, perhaps, changing. 
There are few of Plutarch's admirers who will not 
claim this lively work for one of his more admirable 
achievements, written, perhaps, when he was quite 
young. 

Even if the authorship is accepted without hesita- 
tion, there is little else that is certain except that 
the Stoics are constantly under attack, though rather 
less directly than in the preceding dialogue. There 
is grave doubt about the title : is it no. 127 or no. 
135 in the Lamprias Catalogue ? Or, as it has be- 
come popular to call it, is it really the Grylhis ? ^ 
There are a number of troublesome lacunae ; the 
work, as it stands, ends suddenly with a gay witti- 
cism instead of being continued to a more conven- 
tional termination.^ It is only too likely that the 
more mature Plutarch would have gone on and on ; 
but what would the clever young man who concocted 
this conceit have done ? '^ 

For once, there is a good translation, or paraphrase, 
the German one of Bruno Snell in his Plutarch 

° Plutarch actually quotes the proverb in his Life of 
Demosthenes^ xi. 3 (851 b) and Mor. 803 d, but does not seem 
to realize its possible application here. See the note on 995 f 
infra. 

* Ziegler {RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," 743) says that Gryllus 
is impossible in spite of the Platonic examples, but appears 
to admit jivimonius (no. 81 in the Lamprias Catalogue). 

'' See the last note on 99^3 e infra. 

^ Curiously enough, Xenophon is the most famous son of 
the historical Grylhis and he is said to have been once a 
prisoner in Boeotia (Philostratus, Vit. Soph. 1*2). 

490 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL 

(Zurich, 1948), though this version gives almost too 
exciting an impression of vivacity and wit by omitting 
the more tiresome sections. 

Those interested in Gryllus' remarks on the in- 
decent ways in which men pervert animals to their 
taste will find a sympathetic exposition in E. G. 
Boulenger's Animal Mysteries (London, 1927). 



491 



nEPi 

TOT TA AAOTA AOTOl XPHSGAI 

OAT22ET2, KIPKH, rPTAA02 



(985) 
D 



1. OAT22ET2. Taura fJLev, d> ¥s.ipKrj, [jLejJLadrjKevaL 
SoKOj Kal StafJLirqiJLOvevaeLV -qSecog 8' aV^ gov ttvOol- 
firjv, €L TLvas e'x^t? "KXX7]va? iv tovtols, ovs Xvkovs 
Kal Xeovras i^ dvOpomajv 7T€7roL7]Kas. 

E KIPKH. Kat TToXXovg, d) 7To8oV}X€v' ^OhvGU€V. 

TTpog Tt 8e TOVTO ipcordg ; 

OA. "On VTj Ata KaXrjv av fioi Sokco yeviodai 
(fyiXoTLfiLav TTpog rovs "KXX-qvag, el )(dpLTL off AajScov 
TQ-urov^y au^t? etV dvd pujTTovs eraipovs dvaoojoaipn 
Kal jjLT] TTepuhoiiu KaTayqpdcravras napd (j)VOiv iv 
GcopLaai OrjpLOJV, OLKrpdv Kal driiiov ovtoj hiairav 
e^ovTa?. 

KIP. OuTo? o dvrjp ovx avrco fiovov ovhk rolg 
iralpoLS, dXXd rot? fjir^Sev Trpoo-qKovaiv o'Urat 8etv 
U77' d^eXreplas ov}i(j)opdv yeveudai ttjv avrov ^lAo- 

TL/JLLaV. 

OA. "Krepov av riva rovrov, to Y^ipKr), KVKetova 
Xoyojv Tapdrret? Kal VTrocfyappdrreig , ifxe yovv dre- 

^ 8' dv] 8e Kav ? 
- mj] iiiissiiiji: in sonic .mss. ; rfj afj ? 
^ €is added by Diibner. 
4.92 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL 

(The speakers in the dialogue are Odysseus, 
Circe, and Gryllus.) 

1. ODYSSEUS. These facts," Circe, I believe I have 
learned and shall not forget them ; yet I should be 
happy to learn from you further whether there are 
any Greeks among those whom you have changed 
from the shape of men into wolves and lions. 

CIRCE. Quite a few, beloved Odysseus. But what 
is your reason for asking this question ? 

ODYSSEUS. It is, I swear, because it would bring 
me noble glory among the Greeks if by your favour 
I should restore comrades of mine to their original 
humanity and not allow them to grow old in the 
unnatural guise of beasts, leading an existence that 
is so piteous and shameful. 

CIRCE. Here's a lad who finds it appropriate that 
not only himself and his companions, but even total 
strangers should, through his stupidity, find his am- 
bition their ruin. 

ODYSSEUS. This is a new potion ^ of words that you 
are stirring and drugging for me, Circe. It will cer- 

°- For the beginning cf. Horace, Sat. ii. 5. 1 : 

" Haec quoque, Teresia, praeter narrata . . .," 

a form which is assumed to go back to Menippus. 

^ By which she transformed men into beasts : Odyssey^ 
X. 236.' 

493 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(985) X^^^ TTOLOvaa drjplov, el Treioo^ai crot co? <7Vfji(f)opd 
F eoTiv^ avdpiOTTOv Ik OrjpLov yevioBai. 

KIP. Ov yap Tjhri tovtojv aroTTcoTepa 7T€7T0Li]Ka? 
oeavTov, o? rov aOdvaTov Kal dyrjpoj ovv ipLol 
^iov d(f)€L? IttI yvvoLKa dvrjrrjv, tu? S' iyco (f)r][jLL, 
Kal ypavv rjSrj Std fivplajv en KaKCJV OTrevSeLg, 
986 <^? St)^ TTepL^XeTTTo^ eV tovtov Kal ovofxaaros en 
fxaXXov Tj vvv yevofxevo?,^ Kevov dyadov Kal etScoAov 
dvrl TTJ? 0X7)6 eias hiojKwv ; 

OA. 'E;)(eTa> ravra cog Xeyeis, c5 KlpKT]- ri yap 
8er TToXXdKLS l^vyofiaxetv rjjJLds nepl toju avrwv ; 
TOVTOV? §€ jLtot 80? avaAucracra Kal ;)(aptorat toj)? 
dvSpag. 

KIP. Ovx ovTOJ y' aTrXcog, /xa tt^v 'E/<:aT7jv ov 
yap ol TVxdvTeg elaiv dXX epov rrpdjTov avrovg, 
el deXovGiv dv he fxr) cfxJocn, SuaXexdels, w yevvaie, 
TTeloov edv 3e pLTj Trelarjs, dXXd Kal rre puy evojVTaL 
SLaXeyofieuoL, LKavov euTCO gol rrepl oeavTOV Kal 
Twv <f)iXcov KaKOJS ^e^ovXevadai. 
B OA. Tt jJLOv KaTayeXas y to fJLaKapia ; rrcos yap 
dv r) hoZev ovtol Xoyov rj Aa/3oiev, ecos ovot Kal 
Gveg Kal XeovTes ^Igl ; 

KIP. QdppeL, (^iXoTipLOTaT^ dvdpconcov iyco gol 
TTape^cj Kal GVVievTas avTOVS Kal SiaXeyofxevovg- 
pLaXXov S' els LKavog CGTai Kal StSou? Kal XapL^d- 
vojv v-nep TrdvTCov Xoyov ISov, tovtco SiaXeyov. 

^ eoTLv] y' eoTiv ? 

* 877] av Bernardukis. 

^ yevofjLfvog] y€VT]a6fjL€vos Hartman. 

<» Hecate, goddess of black magic, who was invoked for 
4.94 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 985-986 

tainly transform nie literally into a beast if I am to 
take your word for it that changing from beast to man 
spells ruin. 

CIRCE. Haven't you already worked a stranger 
magic than this on yourself ? You who refused an 
ageless, immortal life at my side and would struggle 
through a thousand new dangers to a woman who is 
mortal and, I can assure you, no longer so very 
young — and this for no object other than to make 
yourself more gaped at and renowned than you 
already are, pursuing an empty phantom instead of 
what is truly good. 

ODYSSEUS. All right, let it be as you say, Circe. 
Why must we quarrel again and again about the 
same matters ? Now please just grant me the favour 
of letting the men go free. 

CIRCE. By the Black Goddess," it's not so simple 
as that. These creatures are no run of the mill. You 
must ask them first if they are willing. If they say 
no, my hero, you'll have to argue with them and 
convince them. And if you don't, and they win the 
argument, then you must be content with having 
exercised poor judgement about yourself and your 
friends. 

ODYSSEUS. Dear lady, why are you making fun of 
me ? How can they argue with me or I with them 
so long as they are asses and hogs and lions ? 

CIRCE. Courage, courage, my ambitious friend. 
I'll see to it that you shall find them both receptive 
and responsive. Or rather, one of the number will 
be enough to thrust and parry for them all. Presto ! 
You may talk with this one. 

such functions at least from the time of Euripides' Medea 
(394 ff.). 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(986) OA. Kat TLva tovtov, co KlpKr^, Trpoaayopev- 
GOfiev ; 7] rt? 7]i' guto? dvdpcoTTCov ; 

KIP. Tt yap TOVTO TTpos Tov \6yov ; dAAd /cctAet 
avrov, €i jSouAet, TpvXXov. iyoj 8' iKGrrjOOfiaL 
vfjuv, fiT] Kal TTapa yvcoiJLrjv Ifxol SoKrj ■)(^a.pil,6yi€vo<^ 
SiaXeyeadaL. 
C 2. rPTAAOS. Xatpe, 'OSucrcreu. 

OA. Kat Gv VT] Aia, TpvXXe. 

rp. Tt ^ovXeL ipcurdv ; 

OA. 'Eyd> yiv(x)GK(jJv^ vfids dvOpojirovg yeyo- 
voras olKTeipoj jikv drravras ovrcug e)(0VTas, etAcd? 
8e {JLOL {xaXXov Sta</>ep€tv ogol "KXXrjveg ovreg elg 
ravrrjv dcfylxd^ rr^v hvGrvx^iav' vvv ovv eTTOirfGajxr^v 
rrjg l^LpKiqg her^Giv ottojs tov ^ovX6pi€VOV vfxwv 
dvaXvGaGa Kal KaraGTTjGaGa ttolXlv el? to dpxcuov 

CtSo? d7r07T€fjnJj7] fJLed^ TjflCOV. 

rp. riaue, 'OSucrcreu, Kal Trepatrepco fi-qSev 
etTTT^S" CO? Kal GOV TTavre? rjfJLelg /irara^povou/xcv, 
60? pLarrjv dpa Setyo? iXeyov Kal tco (jypovelv ttoXv 
D rojv dXXa)v di'dpconcDV iBoKetg hia<^ep€iv, os avro 
TOVT* eSeLGag, ttjv /Ltera^oA-r)!' eV x^tpovwv et? 
d/xetvco, pLT] GKeifjdfievo?' co? y^P^ ot TratSe? rd 
(jyapfiaKa rcov larpajv (f)o^ovvTaL, Kal rd /xa^r^/xara* 
(f)€vyovGLV, d fxera^dXXovra Ik voGepwv Kal dvorj- 
TOJV vyieivoripovs Kal (f)povLiJLa>Tepovs ttolovglv 
avrovs, ovrco gv hi^KpovGCj to d'AAo? ef d'AAou 
y€V€GdaL, Kal vvv auTO? re (jypirTcov Kal vrroSeL- 

^ yLvuiOKojv Janiiotius : yivcoaKU). 

^ CO? yap Wyttenbach : (Zanep, 

^ fj.a9-qij.aTa St('))lianus : nadrniaTa. 

496 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 986 

ODYSSEUS. And how am I to address him, Circe ? 
Who in the world was he : ^ 

CIRCE. What's that to do with the issue ? Call 
him Gryllus,^ if you like. I'll retire now to avoid any 
suggestion that he is arguing against his own con- 
victions to curry favour with me. 

2. GRYLLus. Hello, Odysseus. 

ODYSSEUS. And you too, Gryllus, for heaven's sake ! 

GRYLLUS. What do you want to ask ? 

ODYSSEUS. Since I am aware that you have been 
men, I feel sorry for all of you in your present plight ; 
yet it is only natural that I should be more concerned 
for those of you who were Greeks before you fell into 
this misfortune. So now I have asked Circe to remove 
the spell from any Greek who chooses and restore 
him to his original shape and let him go back home 
with us. 

GRYLLUS. Stop, Odysseus ! Not a word more ! 
You see, we don't any of us think much of you either, 
for evidently it was a farce, that talk of your clever- 
ness and your fame as one whose intelligence far 
surpassed the rest — a man who boggles at the simple 
matter of changing from worse to better because he 
hasn't considered the matter. For just as children 
dread the doctor's doses ^ and run from lessons, the 
very things that, by changing them from invalids 
and fools, will make them healthier and wiser, just 
so you have shied away from the change from one 
shape to another. At this very moment you are not 
only living in fear and trembling as a companion of 

'^ After the Homeric formula, e.g., Odyssey, x. 325. 

^ " Grunter," " swine." 

" Cf. Lucretius, iv. 11 if. ; Plato, Laws 720 a. If one 
takes Laws, 646 c literally, there was some reason for 
fear. 

497 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(980) jLtatVtuv rfj KupKr) (TuVet/ /x>j oe ttolt^ot] XaOovoa 

Gvv r] XvKov, rijxds re TreWeig, ev d(f)d6voLg ^tuvra? 

dyaOols, dTToXiTTovras a/xa rorjroLS Tr]V ravra rrapa- 

E GKevdt^ovaav e/cvrAetv /Lterd gov, to ttcivtcuv pdpv- 

TTOTjU-orarov^ ^oiov au^t? dvdpcjTTovs yevofxevovs- 

OA. 'E/XOt C7U, FpuAAe, hoK€LS OV TTjV pLOp^TlV 

pLovov dXXd Koi rr^v hidvoiav vtto tov TTo/xaros" 
EKelvov hie(j)Sdpdai kol yeyovevai pieGTog drorrajv 
Kal hLaXeXaj^7]pL€vwv TTavrdiTaGL So^tuv 7] G€ tl? 
av^ Gvrjvlag* r]hovr] irpos rohe to Gcopia Karaye- 
yo'qrevKev ; 

rP. Ovherepa to-utojv, d> /SacrtAeu Ke^aAAr^vajv 
dv 8e StaAeyecr^at pidXXov ideXrjg rj XoihopelGdaL, 

ra^'O G€ pL€Ta7T€LGOpL€V, 6KaT€pOV TWV /3tC0V e/XTTCt" 

pojg exovres, on ravra Trpo cKetvcov eiKorcog aya- 

TTCOpLGV. 

OA. 'AAAa pLT^v iydj TTpodvpLos^ dKpoaGOai. 
F 3. rp. Kat rjpLelg roivvv Xeyeiv. dpKrlov 8e 
TTpojrov 0.770 roJv dpercov, icf)^ at? opcopLev vpidg 
p,eya (f)povovvrag, a»? rcbv OrjpLOJv ttoXv Kal St/cato- 
GVVTj Kal (f)povt]G6L Kal dvSp6La Kal rat? aAAatS" 
dperals hia<^ipovras . dTTOKpLvac Stj p,OL, GO(f)a)rar 
dvSpojv' rJKovGa ydp gov rrore hi7]yovpiivov rfj 
KipKr) TTepl rrjs ra)v KvkXcjottojv yrjs, co? ovr^ dpov- 
pL€vr) ro TTapdrrav, ovre rLVOs els avrrjv (j)vr€Vovro9 
Oj)8eV, ovrojg eGrlv dyadrj Kal yevvaia rrjv (fyvGiv, 

^ ovi'eL Keiske : avv^lvai. 

2 PapvTTOTfioTaTOv Reiske : (j^LXoTrorixorarov (^lAoTuc^oTarov 
Koi SvaTTOTfxoTaTov Post, " the vanity-loving and ill-foted 
animal l)eyond all others "). 

^ av] dpa Post ; Hartman deletes. 

* avT]VLas Hartnian : avv-qOelas. 

^ -npodvfios Reiske : npos u/nd? {(x^ Trpodvucog \'alckenaer). 

498 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 986 

Circe, frightened that she may, before you know it, 
turn you into a pig or a wolf, but you are also trying 
to persuade us, who live in an abundance of good 
things, to abandon them, and with them the lady 
who provides them, and sail away with you, when we 
have again become men, the most unfortunate of all 
creatures ! 

ODYSSEUS. To me, Gryllus, you seem to have lost 
not only your shape, but your intelligence also under 
the influence of that drug. You have become in- 
fected with strange and completely perverted no- 
tions. Or was it rather an inclination to swinishness 
that conjured you into this shape ? " 

GRYLLUS. Neither of these, king of the Cephal- 
lenians.^ But if it is your pleasure to discuss the 
matter instead of hurling abuse, I shall quickly make 
you see that we are right to prefer our present life in 
place of the former one, now that we have tried both. 

ODYSSEUS. Go on. I should like to hear you. 

3. GRYLLUS. And I, in that case, to instruct you. 
Let us begin with the virtues, which, we note, inspire 
you with pride ; for you rate yourselves as far superior 
to animals ^ in justice and wisdom and courage and 
all the rest of them. But answer me this, wisest of 
men ! Once I heard you telling Circe about the land 
of the Cyclopes,^ that though it is not ploughed at 
all nor does anyone sow there, yet it is naturally so 
fertile and fecund that it produces spontaneously 

* That is, you were always a swine. It is only your shape 
that is altered. 

^ After Homer, Iliad, ii. 631 ; Odyssey, xxiv. 378 ; or, 
taking the pun, " King of Brains," " Mastermind." 

" Cf. 962 A supra ; on the virtues of animals see Aristotle, 
Historia Animal, i. 1 (488 f. 12 if.) ; Plato, Laches, 196 e ; al. 

^ Homer, Odyssey, ix. 108 if. 

499 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(986) tocr^' CLTTavTag eK^epeiv rovs KapTTovg d(f)^ avTrjs' 
9jj;7 7TOT€pov ovv ravrr^v eTratvet? /xaAAov 17 riqv atyi- 
jSoTOV ^IdoLK-qv Kal rpax^lav, 7] /xoAt? aTr' epycov re 
TToXXcov Kal SiOL TTovuiv pLeydXcvv fXLKpd Kal yXiGXpOL 
Kal fjLTjSevo^ d^ia toIs yecopyovaiv di'aStScocri ; /cat 
OTTOJS ov xoiXeTTcbs oLG€Lg, TTapd TO (j)aLv6pLevov evi'oia 
rrjs TTaTpihos aTroKpLvofievos. 

OA. 'AAA' ov Set ipevSeadai' (f)LXa) fikv yap Kai 
daTTa^ojJLaL ttjv epLavrov Trarpiha Kal ;^oj/3av fiaXXov, 
eTraivcb 8e Kal davpidl,w rrjv €K€lv<jjv. 

rp. OvKovv Tovro jjLev ovtcjjs ^x^lv (f)-^ooiiev, to? 
o (f)povifjLCjoraros dvdpwTTOJV dXXa fiev o'Urai Setv 
B eTTaivelv Kal hoKLfidl,€LV dXXa 8' alpeLGdai Kal aya- 
TTav, €K6LVO 8' ot/xat ere Kal rrepl rrj? ^^XV^ oltto- 
KeKpLoOai- ravrov yap eon ro) irepl rrjs x^P^^> ^^ 
dpieivcjv rjns dvev ttovov rrjv dperriv couTrep avro- 
(f)vrj KapTTOv dvaScScDGLV. 

OA. "Ecrroj GOL Kal rovO^ ovrojg. 

rp. "H87] 8' ovv^ ofJLoXoyelg rr^y tojv drjpicxjv 
ipvx^v evc^veorepav elvat Trpos yeveotv dperrjs /cat 
reXeiorepav dveiriraKros yap Kal dhihaKros ojOTrep 
doTTopos Kal dvTjporo? eKcfyepei Kal av^et Kara <f)VGLV 
rr^v eKdoTCp rrpoGrjKOVGav dpertji'. 

OA. Kat rivos ttot' dperrjs, ch TpyXXe, jiereGri 
TO 19 d-qpiois ; 

\-. rp. TtVos" p-ev ovv ovx} pidXXov tj tw GO(f)a)- 

C raroj rcov dv6pd)7ra>v ; GKorrei he TTpwTOV, el ^ovXeL, 

TTjV dvhpeiaVy e</)' fj gv <j)povels fieya Kal ovk ey/ca- 

XvnTri " OpaGvs " Kal " tttoXlttopOo? " dnoKaXov- 

^ B' ow Benseler : ovv. 
" Odyssey, xiii, 24-2 ff. ; cf. iv. 606. 
500 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 986-987 

every kind of crops. Do you, then, rate this land 
higher than rugged, goat-pasturing Ithaca,*^ which 
barely yields the tiller a meagre, churlish, trifling 
crop after great efforts and much toil ? And see 
that you don't lose your temper and give me a 
patriotic answer that isn't what you really believe. 

ODYSSEUS. I have no need to lie ; for though I love 
and cherish my native soil more, the other mIus my 
approval and admiration. 

GRYLLUS. Then this, we shall say, is the situation : 
the wisest of men thinks fit to commend and approve 
one thing while he loves and prefers another. Now 
I assume that your answer applies to the spiritual 
field also, for the situation is the same as with the 
land ^ : that spiritual soil is better M'hich produces a 
harvest of virtue as a spontaneous crop without toil. 

ODYSSEUS. Yes, this too you may assume. 

GRYLLUS. At this moment, then, you are conceding 
the point that the soul of beasts has a greater natural 
capacity and perfection for the generation of virtue ; 
for without command or instruction, " unsown and 
unploughed," as it were, it naturally brings forth and 
develops such virtue as is proper in each case. 

ODYSSEUS. And what sort of virtue. Gryllus, is ever 
found in beasts ? 

4. GRYLLUS. Ask rather what sort of virtue is not 
found in them more than in the \\-isest of men ? Take 
first, if you please, courage, in which you take great 
pride, not even pretending to blush when you are 
called "valiant" and " sacker of cities."'^ Yet you, 

^ The principle ubi hene^ ihi patrla : Pacuvius, frag. 380 
(Warmington, Remains of Old Latin, ii, p. 303) ; Aristo- 
phanes, Phitifs, 1151 ; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. v. 37, 108; 
Appian, B.C. ii. 8. 50. 

<= Iliad, ii. 278. 

501 



PIA'TARCH'S MORALIA 

(987) fjLevog, ogtls, co Gx^rXuxjrare , 8oAots" Kal /x')7;^avat? 
ai'dpcoTTovs olttXovv Kal yevvalov elSoras ttoX^jiov 
rpoTTOv OLTrdrT]? Se Kal ipevhcov aireipovs rrapaKpov- 
odfievoSy ovofia rfj Travovpyla TTpoOTidiqs rrjs dp€Trjg 
rrjg^ rJKLGra Travovpyiav TrpooLepievris. dWd rtov 
ye drjpiwv rovg npog aXX-qXa Kal rrpog u/xd? dyco- 
vas opas CO? dSoAot Kal dre-xyoi Kal /x€r' e/Ltc^a- 
vovs yvfJLVov re rod Oappelv npos dXrjSivrjg dXKT]s 

D TTOiovvraL ret? dpivvas' Kal ovre v6p,ov KaXovvro? 
ovT^ dorpareias SeSot/cora ypa<f)rjv dXXd (f)VG€L (f)€v- 
yovra to Kparelad ai jJLexpi tcov ioxdrtov eyKapre- 
pet Kal hiacjyvXdrrei to drjTTrjrov' ov yap rjrrdTai 
KparovjJieva rols GwpLaGLV ovS^ aTrayopeuet rat? 
ipvxalg dXXd rats ju,d;(at? evaTTodvr^GKeL. ttoAAcuv 
8e dvTjGKovrwv rj dXKT) pLerd rod dvpLoeihovs diro- 
X<iipr](JaGd TToC Kal GwadpotGdelGa nepl eV rt rod 
crtojLtaTo? pLopLov dvOiGTarai ro) kt€lvovtl Kal Tn^Sa 
Kal dyavaKrel,^ puexpi^s dv coGrrep rrvp iyKaraG^eGSfj 
vavrdvaGL Kal dTToXr^rai. 

AeT^crt? S' ovK eGTiv ou8' o'lktov TrapaLrr]GLS ovS^ 
i^opoXoyrjGLs yJTrr]';, ovSe SovXevei Xiojv Xeovn Kal 

E Ittttos Ittttw hi dvavSplav * cjGirep dvdpcoTTOs dv- 
6pd)7Tcp, TTjV rrjg SetAta? eTTcovvpiov evKoXoj? iv- 
aG7ra^6pL€Vos . oGa 8' dvOpajTroi rrdyais r] 8oAot? 
ix€tpcoGavTO, rd pL€v rjSr) reAeta^ Tpo(f)rjV dnwad- 
jLteva Kal npog hiipav eyKaprep-qGavra rdv npo Sov- 

^ T-fjs added by W. C. H. after Hartnum. 

^ 77-01 ]?ernardaki.s : ttov. 

' dyavaKT€i] dva^cl Kronenberg. 

* avavhpiav Meziriacus : avhp^iav. 

502 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 987 

you villain, are the man who by tricks and frauds 
have led astray men who knew only a straightforward, 
noble style of war and were unversed in deceit and 
lies ; while on your freedom from scruple you confer 
the name of the virtue that is least compatible with 
such nefariousness. Wild beasts, however, you will 
observe, are guileless and artless in their struggles, 
whether against one another or against you, and 
conduct their battles ^vith unmistakably naked 
courage under the impulse of genuine valour. No 
edict summons them, nor do they fear a \^Tit of 
desertion. No, it is their nature to flee subjection ; 
with a stout heart they maintain an indomitable 
spirit to the very end. Nor are they conquered even 
when physically overpowered ; they never give up 
in their hearts, even while perishing in the fray. In 
many cases, when beasts are dying, their valour 
mthdraws together with the fighting spirit to some 
point where it is concentrated in one member and 
resists the slayer ^vith convulsive moveinents and 
fierce anger " until, like a fire, it is completely ex- 
tinguished and departs. 

Beasts never beg or sue for pity or acknowledge 
defeat : lion is never slave to lion, or horse to horse 
through cow^ardice, as man is to man when he 
unprotestingly accepts the name whose root is 
cowardice.^ And when men have subdued beasts by 
snares and tricks, such of them as are full grown 
refuse food and endure the pangs of thirst until they 

" Like eels or snakes whose tails continue to twitch long 
after they are dead. 

^ " Slavery " (douleia) as though derived from " cowar- 
dice " {deilia). 

^ Te'Aeia Hartman : reAeta Kol. 

503 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(987) Aeta? eVctyerat^ Kal dyaTra ddvarov veooools 8e 
Kal GKVfjLvoLS TovTcov, 8t' rjXLKLav evaycoyoL? /cat dna- 
XoLS ovGLV, TToAAd Kal OLTrarrjXd jLtetAty/Ltara Kal 
VTroTreTTevfjiara' 7TpoG(f)dpovr€? Kal /cara^ap/xar- 
Tovres, rjSoi'cov napd (f)VGLV yevojjLeva Kal StatTT^? 
dSpavrj ■)(p6v(x> KareipydoavTO , 'icxjs^ Trpoaehe^avro 
Kal vTTefJLeLvav Tr]v KaXov[X€V7]v i^rjixepcoGLV a)G7Tep 
Y aTToyvvaiKCOGiv rod dvpLoethovs. 

Of? 8r]* fxdXiGTa SrjXov on rd B-qpia Trpog ro 
Sappelv €v 7T€(f)VK€. Tols S' dvdpojTTOLS T] 7Tappr]GLa'' 
Kal TTapd (fyvGLV IgtLv eKeWev 8' dv, d> ^eArtCTx' 
'OSucro-eu, fxdXiGra Karafxddois' eV yap rols dripiois 

LG0pp07T€L TTpOS dXKTjV T) (f)VGLg Kal TO drjXv TOV 

dppevos ovhev ajToSel TTOvelv re tovs errl rolg 
dvayKaiois rrovov^ dycxjviH^eGdai re tovs virep rd)V 
reKvwv dyojvas. dXXd ttov" Kpofx/JLvajvlav rivd gvv 
dKov€L9,' rj TTpdypiara iroXXd, drjXv drjpLOV ovGa, 
988 TO) ©T^cret TrapcGx^' Kal Tr^v ^(fylyya eKeivqv ovk 
dv Ci)vrjG€V Tj Go<f)ia Trepl to ^lkiov dvco KaOet,o- 
jievrjv, alviyiiara Kal ypi^ovs TrXeKovGav, el jjltj 
pcopij] Kal di'Spela ttoXv tcov KaS/ietcuv eTre/cparet. 
eVel 8e ttov Kal TeUjurycrtar* dXco7T€Ka " fjiepfiepov 
XP'^P'CL " Kal TrXrjGLOi' 6<l)iv tw ^ AttoXXwvl irepl rov 

^ eVayerat] aaTra^erai Beniardakis. 

^ V7T07T€TTevfxaTa] VTTOTTe^ixara Meziriacus. 

•' ecos- NN'yttenbac'h (who put it earlier) : /cat. 

■* ols hrj] TolaSe St) !" " Now the following facts ..." 

^ 7TappT]oia] evOdpocia Emperius. 

^ TTOV W. C. H. : Kal. 

' dKOV€Ls] a.K'^Koas ? 

® TevixTjalav] most MSS. have reXfi-qaiav. 

** Thev also refuse to breed in captivity : Pliny, Nat. Hist, 
X. 182; al. 

504 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 987-988 

induce and embrace death in place of slavery.'^ But 
nestlings and cubs, which by reason of age are tender 
and docile, are offered many beguiling allurements 
and enticements that act as drugs. These give them 
a taste for unnatural pleasures and modes of life, and 
in time make them spiritless to the point where they 
accept and submit to their so-called " taming," which 
is really an emasculation of their fighting spirit. 

These facts make it perfectly obvious that bravery 
is an innate characteristic of beasts, while in human 
beings an independent spirit is actually contrary to 
nature. The point that best proves this, gentle 
Odysseus, is the fact that in beasts valour is naturally 
equal in both sexes '^ and the female is in no way 
inferior to the male. She takes her part both in the 
struggle for existence and in the defence of her brood. ^ 
You have heard, I suppose, of the sow of Crommyon ^ 
which, though a female beast, caused so much trouble 
to Theseus. That famous Sphinx ^ would have got 
no good of her wisdom as she sat on the heights of 
Mt. Phicium, weaving her riddles and puzzles, if she 
had not continued to surpass the Thebans greatly in 
power and courage. Somev/here thereabouts lived 
also the Teumesian-^ vixen, a "thing atrocious"^; 
and not far away, they say, was the Pythoness who 

^ Cf. the Cynic doctrine in Diogenes Laertius, vi. 12 : 
virtue is the same for women as for men. 

<= Cf. Plato, Laws, 814 b. 

'^ Cf. Life of Theseus, 9 (4 d-e), which gives a rationalizing 
version of the story and converts the sow Phaea into a female 
bandit of the same name. See also Frazer on ApoUodorus, 
Epitome i. 1 (L.C.L., vol. ii, p. 129) ; Plato, Laches, 196 e. 

'^ Cf. Frazer on ApoUodorus, Library, iii. 5. 8 (L.C.L., 
vol. i, p. 34.7). 

^ Cf. Frazer on Pausanias, ix. 19. 1. 

' Presumably a quotation which has not been identified. 

505 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(988) XPV'^'^VP^^^ fjiovofiaxovaav iv AeA</>ot? yevea^at Ae- 
yovGi. rrjv S' AW'qv 6 /3acrtAeu? vfjicbv e'Aa^e Trapa 
Tov ^LKVcovLOV jjllg96v acTTpareta?, apiara ^ovXev- 
adfxevos os SeiXov TTpovTifji'qaev dvSpog lttttov dya- 
drjv Kal (f)LX6i'LKov. avTog Se Kal TTapSdXet? /cat 
AcatVa? TToAAa/ct? iojpaKas, (hs ovSev tl rd Sr^Xea 
B rols dppeoiv {xpUrau Ovjjlov Kal dXKrj?- ojGTTep^ rj 
or] yvvTj, GOV TToXejJLovvrog, o'lkol Kddrjrai rrpos 
iaxdpa^ TTvpos, ovk dv ou8' ogov at ;(eAtSove? 
d/JLVVopLevr) rovs ctt' avrrjv Kal tov oIkov ^aSl^ov- 
ra?, Kal ravra Aa/catva ovoa. ri ovv en gol Aeyoi 
rds KaptVas" rj MatovtSa? ; dAA' €k tovtojv ye Srj- 
Xov Igtiv, otl rot? dvSpacrtv ov (f)VG€L jJLereGTL rrjg 
di^Spctas" ixerrjv yap dv op^oicos Kal rals yvvai^lv 
dXKTJg. 0)00^ vpL€iSy Kara vopuxiv dvdyKTjv ovx 
eKovGLov ovSe ^ovXopLevqv dXXd SovXevovGav edeat 
Kal ijjoyois Kal ho^ais eTT-qXvGi Kal Xoyois TrXarro- 
C pevrjv, p^eXerdre dvhpeiav Kal rovs ttovovs ix^iGra- 
ode Kal Tovs klvSvvovs, ov rrpds ravra dappovvrc? 
dXXd rw erepa pudXXov rovrwv hehiivai. ajGrrep 
ovv rdJv Gcov eraipayv 6 (f)ddGas irpcbros eTrl rrjv 
eXa<j)pdv dviGrarai k(jl)7T7]v, ov Karacfypovcov iKCtvrjs 
dXXd heSidjs Kal (f)€vyajv rrjv ^apvrepav ovrw? 6 

^ a)07T€p] dAA' ovx ^cTTrep Post, which may well he right. 
^ rrpos eaxo-pa. van Herwerden : rrpos iaxoLpav. 

" Cf. Mor. 293 c, 4'il c ; Frazer on Apollodorus, i. 4. 1 
(L.C.L., vol. i, p. 27). 

* Agamemnon (Iliad, xxiii. 295-299). 

" A racing mare. 

•^ Echepolus. 

« As a daughter of Icarius, the brother of Tyndareiis, she 
was a first cousin of Helen. 

506 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 988 

fought ^\-ith Apollo for the oracle at Delphi." Your 
king ^ received Aethe ^ from the Sicyonian '^ as a 
recompense for excusing him from military service, 
making a very wise choice when he preferred a fine, 
spirited mare to a cowardly man. You yourself have 
often observed in panthers and lionesses that the 
female in no way yields to the male in spirit and 
valour. Yet, while you are off at the wars, your wife 
sits at home by the fire and troubles herself not so 
much as a swallow to ward off those who come against 
herself and her home — and this though she is a 
Spartan born and bred.^ So why should I go on to 
mention Carian or Maeonian women ? •'' Surely from 
what has been said it is perfectly obvious that men 
have no natural claim to courage ^ ; if they did, 
women would have just as great a portion of valour. 
It follows that your practice of courage is brought 
about by legal compulsion, which is neither voluntary 
nor intentional, but in subservience to custom and 
censure and moulded by extraneous beliefs and argu- 
ments.'* When you face toils and dangers, you do so 
not because you are courageous, but because you are 
more afraid of some alternative.^ For just as that 
one of your companions who is the first to board ship 
stands up to the light oar, not because he thinks 
nothing of it, but because he fears and shuns the 
heavier one ^ ; just so he who accepts the lash to 

' Extreme examples of female lassitude, when even the 
Spartan Penelope is hopeless by Gryllus' high standards. 

^ Cf. Epicurus, frag. 517 (Usener). 

^ Cf. Aelian, I)e Natura Animal, vi. 1. 

* Cf. Lucan, vii. 104 f. : ",Multos in]summa pericula misit | 
venturi timor ipse mali." 

^ He chooses the light oar, not because it is a mere nothing 
to work, but because he dreads the heavier one. 

507 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(988) TrXriyriv vrrofxevcoi^, Iva fjcr] Xd^rj rpavyLara, /cat irpo 
atKLa? TLVOS rj davdrov TioAe^tov rtv' d/xuvd/xevos"^ 
ov Trpo? ravra dappaXeos dAAct irpos CKelva SetXos 
ioTiv. ovTco 8' di'a</)atveTat" vplv 7] fiev dvhpeia 
SeiAta (f)p6vipio<s ovaa, to Se Bdpaos (f)6^o9 €7Tlgt7]- 
jjLTjv €)(^ujv rod 8t' irepojv ere pa <l)€vy€iv. oXcos 8e, 
D et irpos dvhpeiav oteoOe ^eXriovs elvai tcDv drjpLwv, 
Tt 770^' vficov ol TTOLrjral Tovs KpdrcGTa rot? 
TToXe/jLLOLS pLaxopievovs " XvKocfipovas " Kal " dvpo- 
Aeorra? " Kal " gvl ecKeXovs dXKrjv " Trpooayop^v- 
ovGLV, dXX ov Xeovrd rt? avTOJv " dvdpa>Tr6dvpiov," 
ov Gvv " dvhpl eiKeXov dXKrjv " Trpooayopeveu ; 
dAA' wonep olpuai rovs rax^ls " TToSrjvepLovs " Kal 
rovs KaXovs " ^eoetSet? " V7T€p^aXX6pL€VOL rats et- 

KOGLV 6vopLdl,OVGLV, OVTCx) Tchv h^LVchv pidx^Gdai TTpOS 

rd KpeiTTOva Troiovvrai rds d</)o/xoia)cret?. atrtov 
Se, on rrj? pL€v dvSpetas olov jSa</)rj rig 6 dvpLO? 
eGTL Kal GTOpiOjpia' tovtoj S' aKpdrcp rd drjpla 
Xprjrai Trpds rovs dycjvas, vplv he TTpoGpnyvvpie- 
E vos TTpds rdv XoytGpidv ojGTrep olvog Trpds vhojp i^- 
LGTarai irapd rd Sctvd Kal diToXeiTTei rdv Kaipov. 
evLOL 8' vpLOJV ovS^ dXws (f)aGl XPW^^ rrapaXap,- 
^dveiv iv rat? pidxcus rdv dvpLov dAA' €K7ToSdjv 
deptevovg vrjcfiovrt p^pT^c^at to) XoyiGpLw, Trpds ju.ev 
GCOT'qplag dG(f)dX€Lav opdcos, irpos 8' dXKrjv Kal 
dpLVvav a'lGX^fyTa Xeyovres. rrdjg ydp ovk drorrov 
alridGdaL pcev vpids tt^v (fyvGiv, on pLTj Kevrpa irpoG- 

^ riv* a^vvo^tevos] avrayivvo^tevos Post. 
^ ava<f>aiv€Tai] most MSS. have ava^aiVet (ave^ai^ Reiske). 

« Vf. Plato, Phaedo, 68 u. 

^ In H<)uier(///ar/, XV. 430) and elsewhere used onlyasapro- 
per name. Plutarch's source is probably the lost Epic Cycle, 

508 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 988 

escape the sword, or meets a foe in battle rather than 
be tortured or killed, does so not from com'age to face 
the one situation, but from fear of the other. So it is 
clear that all your courage is merely the cowardice 
of prudence and all your valour merely fear that has 
the good sense to escape one course by taking 
another," And, to sum up, if you think that you are 
better in courage than beasts, why do your poets call 
the doughtiest fighters " wolf-minded " ^ and "lion- 
hearted " ^ and " like a boar in valour," ^ though no 
poet ever called a lion " man-hearted " or a boar 
" like a man in valour " r But, I imagine, just as when 
those who are swift are called " wind-footed " ^ and 
those who are handsome are called " godlike," ■'' there 
is exaggeration in the imagery ; just so the poets 
bring in a higher ideal when they compare mighty 
warriors to something else. And the reason is that 
the spirit of anger is, as it were, the tempering or 
the cutting edge of courage. Now^ beasts use this 
undiluted in their contests, whereas you men have 
it mixed with calculation, as wine with water, so that 
it is displaced in the presence of danger and fails you 
when vou need it most. Some of you even declare 
that anger should not enter at all into fighting, but 
be dismissed in order to make use of sober calcula- 
tion ^ : their contention is correct so far as self- 
preservation goes, but is disgracefully false as regards 
valorous defence. For surely it is absurd for you to 
find fault ^\'ith Nature because she did not equip 

" Iliad, v. 639 ; vii. 22S : of Odvsseus himself in Odyssey, 
iv. 724. 

^ Iliad, iv. 253. 

* Iliad, ii. 786 and often (of Iris). 

^ Iliad, iii. 16 and often. 

For the calculation of fear see Plato, Lav:s, 644 d. 

509 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(988) €<f)VG€ Tols ooj^aoi [Jir]^^ dfJLVvrrjpLovs oSovrag /Lt7]S* 
dyKvXovg ovvxa?, avrovg Se rrjs ^vxt]? to aviJL(f)VTov 
d(j)aip€Zv ottXov kol koAouciv ; 

5. OA. YlaTTaiy co FpuAAe, heivos /xot So/cet? ye- 

F yovevai GO(f)L(TTrjs , 6s ye /cat vuy eV rrjs ovrjvias 

(jyOeyyofievos ovtcd veavLKOJS irpos rrjv vvodeoLV 

eTTLKe-x^eipriKas • dXXd ri ov rrepl rrjg Gaj(f)po(TVvrjg 

€(f)€^rjs Sie^rjXdes ; 

rp. "On (x)jj.'r]v G€ TCx)v elprjfjievojv Trporepov im- 
XTjipeoOaL- ov Se CTTrevSet? OLKovoai to nepl rrjs 
o(x>(f)poGvvr)?, erret (jaxfypoveGraTrjs /xev dvr^p el 
yvvatKos, aTToSei^Lv 8e aa)(f)poovvr)5 avro? o'Ul 
SeSojKevai, rchv KtpKT^? d(j)pohiOLOJV rrepLc^poviqaa'S. 
Kav^ TorjTcp [lev ovSevo? rchv Orjpimv Sta^cpet? rrpos" 
eyKpdreiav ovhe yap eKelva rots KpeirroGLV €7tl- 
989 dvfjLel 7TXr)Gid^€LV dXXd Kal tqs" rjSovds Kal rovs 
epcoras Trpog rd o/xo(/)uAa TToielrai. ov davjjLaGrov 
ovv Igtiv, el KadaTTep 6 MerST^atos" eV AlyvTTTO) 
rpdyos Xeyerai TToXXats Kal KaXals Gvveipyvvpievos 
yvvai^lv ovK elvai pLiyvvGdai TrpoBvyios dXXd rrpo? 
rds alyas eTTTorjodaC fxdXXov, ovtco gv x^ipajv 
d(f)pohLGLOLg Gvi'TjOeGLV OV deXeis dvBpcoTTos d)v dea 
GvyKadevSeLV. rrjv Se IlrjveXoTTT]? Gco(f)poGvvrjv 
ixvpiai Kop<jL)vaL Kp(jjt,ovGai yeXcora dijoovrai Kal 
Kara^povriGovGiv , cbv eKdorr],^ dv drroddvr] 6 dpprjv, 

^ KOLV Reiske : Kal. 

" €7TTorjadai Wyttenbach : (TTTorjTai. 

^ eKaoTTj Wyttenbach : eKaoT-qs. 

" " Comparative anatomy teaches us that man resembles 
frugivorous animals in everything, and carnivorous in no- 
thing ; he has neither claws wherewith to seize his prey, nor 
distinct and pointed teeth to tear the living fibre " (Shelley, 
A Vindication of Natural Diet ; see the introduction to the 

510 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 988-989 

your bodies with natural stings, or place fighting 
tusks among your teeth, or give you nails like curved 
claws,** while you yourselves remove or curb the 
emotional instrument that Nature has given. 

5. ODYSSEUS. Bless me, Gryllus, you must once 
have been a very clever sophist,^ one may judge, 
since even as things are, and speaking from your 
swinishness, you can attack the subject with such 
fervent ardour. But why have you failed to discuss 
temperance, the next in order ? 

GRYLLUS. Because I thought that you would first 
wish to take exception to what I have said. But 
you are eager to hear about temperance since you 
are the husband of a model of chastity and believe 
that you yourself have given a proof of self-control 
by rejecting the embraces of Circe. And in this you 
are no more continent than any of the beasts ; for 
neither do they desire to consort with their betters, 
but pursue both pleasure and love with mates of like 
species. So it is no wonder that, like the Mendesian ^ 
goat in Egypt which, when shut up with many 
beautiful women, is said not to be eager to consort 
with them, but is far more excited about nannies, 
you likewise are contented with the kind of love that 
is familiar to you and, beincr a mortal, are not eao;er 
to sleep with a goddess. As for the chastity of 
Penelope, the cawing of countless crows will pour 
laughter and contempt upon it ; for every crow, if 
her mate dies, remains a Midow, not merely for a 

following essay). For some modern remarks cf. Boulenger, 
Animal Mysteries, p. 196. 

^ Gryllus acknowledges the truth of this soft impeachment 
later on, 989 b infra. 

*= Cf. Herodotus, ii. 46 ; Strabo xvii. 19 ; and contrast 
Aelian, De Xatura Animal, vii. 19. 

511 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(989) ovK oXlyov xpovov dAA' ivvea ^(rjpeveL yevea? dvdpu)- 
B TTOJV a)GT€ OOL Trjv KaXrjv Ylr^veXoTTTiv ivvaKL? dno- 
XcLTTCodaL ro)^ Gco(f)poveLV rjg ^ovXeu Kopojvqs- 

6. 'AAA' 67761 CT6 fXT] XeXrida 00(j)LGrr]9 wv, <f>€p€ 
■X^p-qoojfiai rd^ei rivl rod Xoyov, rrjg jjLev oco(f)po- 
ovvrj? opov defxevo?, /caret yivos 8e^ ra? eTnBvpiiag 
SieXojjLevo?. 7] {jLev ovv GCjL>(f)poGvvrj ^paxvrrjs^ ris 
eoTiv iTTidvjjLLaJv Kal rd^iSy dvaipovaa fiev rag err- 
etadKrov? Kal nepLrrds, Kaipo) Se koI fieTpLorr^TL 
KoopLOVua Tcts" dvayKaias. rals S' iTndvjjLLai? iv- 
opag* 7TOV fivpiav hiac^opdv . . . kol rrjv rrepl ttjv 
^pajGLV Kal rr^v" ttoolv a/xa roi (^volko) Kal to 
dvayKalov exovaav at Se rcov dc^pohiGiajv alg 
C dpxd? Tj (j)VGis ivSiSojGLV, ecrrt Se ttov Kal firj XP^~ 
fievov ex^f'V cKavcog drraXXayevra, (j>vaiKal fxev ovk 
dvayKaZai 8' eKX-qdiquav. ro 8e rcDv /xt^t' dvay- 
Katojv fJLrjre cf)VGLKa)v dAA' €^(j}dev vtto ho^rjs Kevrj? 
8t' d-Treipo/caAtar i7nK€XviJLeva>v yevo? vpiiov [lev 
oXlyov Selv rd? (fiVGiKag dneKpyipev vtto TrXrjdovs 
dirdGas, ex^i' 8e Kaddirep ^evos o^Ao? eTrrjXvs iv 
St^/xo) Kara^Lal,6jJL,evo£ Trpos roijs iyyeveXg TroXlrag. 
rd 8e diqpia TravrdnaGLv d^drovs Kal dveTTLfJLLKTOvg 
exovra tols iTreiGdKroLS TrddeGC rd? ipvxds Kal rols 
^ioLS TToppw rrj? Kevrjg So^rjs a>G7Tep daXdGGi]? 
diTcpKLG piiva- TO) fxev^ yXacfyvpo)? Kal nepLTTCos 8td- 

^ Toi Wyttenbach : tov. ^ Se] kot' e'Sri Se Heiske. 

^ ^paxvTTjs] ^pa8vT7]9 Keiske. 

•* evopas Einperius : e(f)opas. 

^ TTcpl TTjv ^piooiv Kai TTjv aclcled by Meziriacus. 

^ to) /x.ev W. C. H. : rov. 

" Cf. Mor. 41. J c and the note there. 

* See Epicurus, fra^, 4o6 (Usener); contrast Aristotle, 
Nic. Ethics iii. 10 ff. (1117 b ;23 ff.); [Plato], Def. 411 e; al. 

512 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 989 

short time, but for nine generations of men." It 
follows that your fair Penelope is nine times inferior 
in chastity to any crow you please. 

6. Now since you are not unaware that I am a 
sophist, let me marshal my arguments in some order 
by defining temperance and analysing the desires 
according to their kinds. Temperance,^ then, is a cur- 
tailment and an ordering of the desires that elimi- 
nate those that are extraneous or superfluous and 
discipline in modest and timely fashion those that 
are essential.'^ You can, of course, observe countless 
differences in the desires ^ . . . and the desire to 
eat and drink is at once natural and essential, M'hile 
the pleasures of love, which, though they find their 
origin in nature, yet may be forgone and discarded 
without much inconvenience, have been called 
natural, but not essential. But there are desires of 
another kind, neither essential nor natural, that are 
imported in a deluge from without as a result of 
your inane illusions and because you lack true culture. 
So great is their multitude that the natural desires 
are, every one of them, all but overwhelmed, as 
though an alien rabble were overpowering the native 
citizenry. But beasts have souls completely inacces- 
sible and closed to these adventitious passions and 
live their lives as free from empty illusions as though 
they dwelt far from the sea.^ They fall short in the 
matter of delicate and luxurious living, but solidly 

For the temperance of animals see Aristotle, De Gen. Animal, 
i. 4 (717 a 27). 

<= Cf. Mor. 127 A, 584 d f. 

^ There is probablv a short lacuna at this point. 

« See Plato, Lau'5, 704 e ff. (and Shorey, What Plato Said, 
ad loc. p. 630) : the sea is the symbol of mischievous foreign 
influence. Cf. Aristotle, Politics, 1327 a 11 ff . 

VOL. XII s 513 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

J^ yeiv OLTToXeLTTCTai, to 8e aaj(f)pov€lv /cat ^aAAov evvo- 
ixelodai Totg eVt^ujU-tat?, ovre TroXXalg ovvoLKovaaLs 
ovr* aAAorptat?, 0(f)6Spa Sia^uAarrerat. 

'E/xe yovv rrore /cat avrov ov^ rjTTov rj ae vvv 
e^€7TXr]Tr€ jLtev ■)(pvo6s cLs Krijixa rojv^ dXXojv ovSevl 
TTapa^X-qrov , fjp€L S' apyvpos koI e'Ae^a?' o Se 
TrXdlora rovnov K€Krr][j.evo^ eSd/cet /xa/captd? rts" 
€tvat K-at d€0(f)iXrjg dvrjp, etre Opi)f t^v etre Kct/a 
Tou AdAojvo? dyevvecrrepog /cat rou DptayLtou ^apv- 
TTOTfioTepo?. ivravda 8'^ dvqpTTjjjLevos det rat? 
iTridvjJLLas ovre ■)(^dpLV ov6^ -qSovrjv oltto twv dXXojv 
TTpayjjidTcov dt^dovcov ovtcov /cat LKavcov €Kap7Tov- 

E fJ''^^, lx€.pi(j)6jxevos^ rov ijjLavTov ^lov, co? rcov fJLeyt- 
arcov ivSerj? /cat dfiotpos dyaOcov dTToXeXeLixjxevos . 
Toiyapovv cr* o)?* iieyn'ruxai iv Kp-^rrj deaaafxevog 
dfi7T€)(6vri K€KOGpirjp,€VOV 7Tav7]yvpLKco?y ov rrjv <f>p6- 
VTjOLv €t,riXovv ovSe ttJv dperrjv, dXXd rod ;;^tTaj- 
vog elpyaGjilvov TrepLrraJs rrjv XeTTTOTTjra /cat rrf^ 
xXajivSog ovoTjs dXovpyov rrjv ovXorT^ra /cat to 
/caAAo? dyancov /cat Tedrjna)? (et;\;e 8e tl /cat tJ 
TTopTTT] ■)(pvG6g ovua TTaiyviov otfiai ropetat?^ Str^- 
KpL^ojfjievov) /cat eiTTOjjLrjv yeyoTjTevfJLevog , axjTTGp 
at yurat/c€?. dAAa vuv dTrr^XXay/jievog eKelvcov tcov 
K€vd>v So^cov /cat K€KadapiJL€vog xpvaov fxev /cat 

F dpyvpov a)G7T€p rous" ctAAou? Xtdov? Trepiopcov vrrep- 
paivix), rat? 8e oals X'^ctvtat /cat Tdir-qaiv ovhev dv 
/Ltd At" rjSiov Tj ^adel /cat fiaXdaKw TrrjXa) [leoTog 

^ KTTJfia TCOV Keiske, confirmed by mss. : KT-qfxariov. 

"^ 8' added by Bernardakis. 

^ ^€/x0o^ei'O9 added by Wyttenbach. 

* cj' (u? Meziriaciis : tS? ae. 

514 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 989 

protect their sobriety and the better regulation of 
their desires since those that dwell within them are 
neither numerous nor alien. 

Certainly there was a time when I myself, no less 
than you now, was dazzled by gold and held it to be 
an incomparable possession ; so likewise I was caught 
by the lure of silver and ivory and the man who had 
most property of this sort seemed to me to be a 
blissful favourite of the gods, whether he was a 
Phrygian or a Carian, one more villainous than 
Dolon " or more unfortunate than Priam. ^ In that 
situation, constantly activated '^ by these desires, I 
reaped no joy or pleasure from the other things of 
life, which I had sufficiently and to spare. I grumbled 
at my life, finding myself destitute of the most im- 
portant things and a loser in the lottery of fortune. 
This is the reason why, as I recall, when I saw you 
once in Crete tricked out in holiday attire, it was not 
your intellect or your virtue that I en\ied, but the 
softness of the elegantly woven garment and the 
beautiful wool of your purple cloak that I admired and 
gaped at (the clasp, I believe, was of gold and had 
some frivolity worked on it in exquisitely fine inta- 
glio). I followed you about as enchanted as a woman. 
But now I am rid and purified of all those empty illu- 
sions. '^ I have no eyes for gold and silver and can 
pass them by just like any common stone ; and as for 
your fine robes and tapestries, I swear there's nothing 
sweeter for me to rest in when I'm full than deep, 

" See Iliad, x, where Dolon betrays Troy. 

" See especially his speech, Iliad, xxii. 38-76. 

'' Like a puppet on strings. 

^ Man alone has luxury : Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 5. 

^ Topeims Reiske, confirmed by mss. : Topcias. 

515 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(989) tTtv iyKaraKXideLrji' draTTauo^evo?. rcov Se tolov- 
rojv^ Tojv €7T€LodKTCOi' eTTiSvixiiov oi)8e/Ltta rat? ^'^jLte- 
repais eVotxri^erat i/jvxo.'lS' dXXa rd fxev TrXetora 
rals dvayKaiais 6 ^los rjfJLOJV eVt^UjLttat? Kal rjSovals 
SioLKelTaL, rats' S' ovk avay/catat? dAAa (^voiKaZs 
fjLOVOV OVT drdKTOJS ovr' dirXriGTaJS ofuXovjJLev. 
990 7- Kat raura? ye npcoTov SteA^co/xcv. i^ /Ltev 
ouv Trpos" rd evajSr] Kal Ktvovvra rat? d7TO(f)opdL^ 
rrfv 6o(i)pi]oiv oLKeLOjg -qSovrj irpog ro) to 6(f)€Xo? Kat 
irpoLKa Kal dnXovv '^x^iv d/xa xpeiav nvd ovfi^dX- 
Xerai rfj hiayvojoei rrjs rpo(f)rj?. rj fiev ydp yXcorra 
rod yXvKeos Kal Spt/xeo? Kal avcrrrjpov yvcjfjLOJv ecrrt 
re Kal Ae'yerat, orav rep yevoriKcJo' TrpoapLLyevrc? ol 
X'^H'Ol ovyxyoiv riva Xd^axjLV rj 8* 6o(f)pr]GLg rjpLcov 
rrpd rcx)v x^p.ihv yvwp.ojv ovaa rrj<; Suvdjitetos" e/cd- 
orov TToXv raJv ^acnXiKcov Trpoyevorayv GKeTrrLKO)- 
repov hiaLodavopLevq , rd jLtev olk€lov eiaoj TrapiiqGL 
rd 8' dAAdrptov dTieAauvet kol ovk id diyelv ovSe 
B XvTTTioai r-qv yevoiv dXXd 8tajSdAAet Kal Kar-qyopeZ 
rrjv (f)avX6rrjra jrplv rj ^Xa^rjvai' rdXXa 8' ovk eV- 
oxAet, Kadd-nep vplv, rd dvpadpiara Kal Kivvdficopia 
Kal vdpSov? Kal (f)vXXa Kal KaXdfjLovs 'ApajSt/cou?, 
fxerd hetvrjs nvos hevoorroiov Kal^ ^ap/xa/<:t8o? 
rexvqsy fj ixvp^^LKrjs ovofjLa, ovvdyeiv els ravrd Kal 

^ ToJv §€ TOiovTcov MeziriclCUS : ra Se TOiaura. 

^ yevoTiKU) Meziriacus : yvwoTiKw. 

^ SeuaoTTOtou Kal Post : /cat Bevaorroiov. 

" Cf. Aelian, De Natura minimal, v. 45. 

^ The servant who pretasted the dishes at a king's table to 
make certain that none of them was ])oisoned ; cf. Athe- 
naeus, 171 b ff. On the collegium praegustatorum at Home 
see Furneaux on Tacitus, Annah, xii. 66. 5 and Class. Phil. 
xxvii, p. 160. 

516 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 989-990 

soft mud.° None, then, of such adventitious desires 
has a place in our souls ; our life for the most part is 
controlled by the essential desires and pleasures. As 
for those that are non-essential, but merely natural, 
we resort to them without either irregularity or excess. 
7. Let us, in fact, first describe these pleasures. 
Our pleasure in fragrant substances, those that by 
their nature stimulate our sense of smell, besides the 
fact that our enjoyment of this is simple and costs 
nothing, also contributes to utility by providing a 
way for us to tell good food from bad. For the 
tongue is said to be, and is, a judge of what is sweet 
or bitter or sour, when liquid flavours combine and fuse 
with the organ of taste ; but our sense of smell, even 
before we taste, is a judge that can much more 
critically distinguish the quality of each article of 
food than any royal taster ^ in the world. It admits 
what is proper, rejects what is alien, and will not let 
it touch or give pain to the taste, but informs on and 
denounces what is bad before any harm is done. And 
in other respects smell is no nuisance to us, as it is to 
you, forcing you to collect and mix together incense 
of one kind or another and cinnamon ^ and nard ^ 
and malobathrum ^ and Arabian aromatic reeds ,-^ 
with the aid of a formidable dyer's or witch's art, of 
the sort to which you give the name of unguentation, 

'^ The aromatic bark of various species of Cinnamomum, 
especially C. zeylanicum Breyne, imported from India. 

^ As an import from north-eastern India (probably meant 
here), the rootstock of spikenard, Nardostachys jata- 
mansi DC. 

« The leaves of a plant of uncertain identity that grew in 
the Far East, perhaps Indian patchouli, Pogostemon Patch- 
ouly Pellet., or perhaps a tvpe of cinnamon : cf. Pliny, Nat. 
Hist, xxiii. 93. ' 

f Probably here sweet flag, Acorus calamus L. 

517 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(990) cjviJL(f)Vpdv^ dvayKdl,ovGa, yi^piqiidrcov TToWayv r]Sv- 
TTadcLav dvavhpov /cat KopaauoSrj Kal Trpos ovhkv 

Ovha/JLCO? )(pTJGLfJLOV (X)VOVpL€VOLS .^ dXXd KaiTTCp OVGa 

TOLavrrj StecfydapKev ov pLovov Trdaag yvvoLKa? dXXd 
Kal rojv dvSpcor rihrj rov? TrXeiGrovs, c5s" /xT^Se rats' 
avTOJV ideXeLv Gvyyiveudai yvvai^iv, el pirj pivpojv 

C vpuv oScoSutat Kal StaTracTjU-arcav els ravro (jyoiTchev. 
dXXd KdTTpovs T€ GV€S Kal rpdyovs atyes Kal rdXXa 
dt^Xea rot)? Gvvvopiovs avrcbv rats tStat? oa/xat? 
eTrdyerai, hpoaov re Kadapds Kal XeipLoyvcov oSo)- 
hora Kal x^o7]s cru^^eperat npos rovg ydpiov? vtto 
KOLvrjs ^iXo(f)poovviqs , ovxl dpVTrropLevaL /Ltev at O-q- 
Aetat Kal 7Tpo'io)(6pievaL rrj? eVt^u/xtas" aTraras" /cat 
yorjTeiag Kal dpyijaeLS, ol 8* dppeves vtt* olorpov 
Kal pLapyorriros iovovpievoi pbiudujv /cat ttovov /cat 
Xarpeias to rrjg yeveueoj^ epyov, dSoXov^ 8e gvv 
Kaipo) Kal dp^LoOov 'A^poStVi^v pLenovres, t] Kad* 
wpav erovs woTrep ^vrojv ^XdaTr]v eyeipovoa rcov 

D ^cpcov rr^v eTndvpilav evOv? ea^eaev, ovre rod O-qXeog 
TTpooiepievov pLerd rrjv KTjrjcnv ovre rreLpdjvrog en 
rod dppevos. ovrco puKpdv ex€i Kal daOevrj rtpLTjv 
TjSovrj Trap' rjpuv, ro 8' oXov rj (f)VGLS. odev ovr* 
dppevos TTpds dppev ovre Q-qXeos rrpog drjXv pl^iv at* 
Tcov SripicjDV eiTidvpiiai p^e^p^' y^ vvv €V)7Vo;)(ao'ty. 
vpLOJV be TToXXd roiavra rcbv uepLVcov Kal dyadcjv 

^ avij,(f)vpdv Bernardakis : ovfi<f>ay€LV or ovfjL<f>oiT€Lv (avfi- 
Trayiji'aL Post). 

^ ihvovfievois Wyttenbach : (Lvovfxevovs. 

^ dbovXov Reiske. 

* at Meziriacus : ehai. 

" Cf. Pliny's frequent and indignant remarks, e.g. Nat. 
Hint. xii. 29 and 83 ; also Seneca, Qu. Nat. vii. 30-31. 

518 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 990 

thus buying at a great price an effeminate, emascu- 
lating luxury which has absolutely no real use. Yet, 
though such is its nature, it has depraved not only 
every woman, but lately the greater part of men as 
well, so that they refuse to sleep even ^\'ith their own 
wives unless they come to bed reeking with myrrh 
and scented powders.^ But sows attract boars and 
nannies bucks and other female creatures their con- 
sorts by means of their own special odours ; scented, 
as they are, with pure dew and grassy meadows, they 
are attracted to the nuptial union by mutual affec- 
tion.^ The females are not coy and do not cloak 
their desires with deceits or trickeries or denials ; 
nor do the males, driven on by the sting of mad lust, 
purchase the act of procreation by money or toil or 
servitude. No ! Both parties celebrate at the 
proper time a love without deceit or hire, a love 
which in the season of spring ^ awakens, like the 
burgeoning of plants and trees, the desire of animals, 
and then immediately extinguishes it. Neither does 
the female continue to receive the male after she has 
conceived, nor does the male attempt her.^ So slight 
and feeble is the regard we have for pleasure : our 
whole concern is with Nature. WTience it comes 
about that to this very day the desires of beasts have 
encompassed no homosexual mating.^ But you have 
a fair amount of such trafficking among your high 
and mighty nobiUty, to say nothing of the baser 

^ Cf. Mor. 493 r ; Plato, Laws, 840 d ; Oppian, Cyn. i. 
378. 

' Cf. Pliny, Xat. Hist. x. 171 ; Philo, 48 (p. 123) ; Aelian, 
De Natura Animal, ix. 63 ; Oppian, Hal. i. 473 ff. 

** But see Oppian, Cyn. iii. 146 ff. 

« Cf. Plato, Lairs, 836 c ; but see Pliny, Xat. Hist. x. 166 ; 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, xv. 11 ; Varia Hist. i. 15 ; al. 

519 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(990) e'^ yap Tou? ovSevos ol^lovs' 6 S' 'AyajLte/xvojv rr]v 
BotojTiai' eTTTjXde Kvvqyercov rov " \pyvvvov^ vno- 
(f)evyovTa Kal KaraipevSofievos rrjs OaXdaar]? Kal 
E Ttov 7TV€Vfxdrcov . . . etra /caAoi^ KaAto? eaurov 
jSaTTTtfcoi^ et? TT^v Ka>7rat8a Xiyiviqv, to? avrodi Kara- 
o^eacov rov epwra /cat r-^? emSvixias (XTraAAa^o- 
l.L€vos. 6 8' 'Hpa/cAr)? ojJiOLCo^ iralpov dyeveiov 
eTTihiJoKCDV d7T€X€L<j)9'q Tcov dpiGrlojv Kal npovSojKe 
Tov (JToXov Iv he rfj doXco rod Ylrcoov ^AttoXXcovos 
Xadwv Tt? Vfjicov iveypaipev " 'A^tAAeus" KaXos," 
yjSr] rod 'A;)^tAAetoS" vlov e)(ovros' Kal rd ypajxpiara 
TTVvddvofxaL 8ta/xeVetv. dXeKrpvojv 8* dXeKrpvovos 
eTTL^aLvajv, drjXeLas (jltj TrapovGT]?, /caraTrt/xTrparat 
^coos", fjidvreijjs nvog rj reparoGKorrov fieya Kal heivdv 
d7TO(f)aLVovros elvai rd yuvopLevov. ovrco Kal Trap* 
avrojv dvajjJLoXoyqrai rchv dvdpco7Ta)v, on /xaAAov 
F roLS drjpLOLg Ga>(f)pov€LV TrpoarJKei Kal jjltj napaftid- 
t,eodai rals rjSovals r7]v (f)VGLV. rd 8' iv vpuv aKo- 
Xaara ovhe rov vojjlov e^ovaa avixpLaxov -q (hvGis 
evrog opcov KadelpyvvGiv, aAA' wGuep vtto pevfxaros 
€K<j)€p6iieva 7ToXXa-)(ov^ rals eVt^u/xtatS" heivr]v v^piv 
Kal rapaxrjv Kal GvyxvGLV ev rols d(f)poSiGiOi9 direp- 
ya^erat tt)? (f)VG€U}s. Kal ydp alycov eTreLpddrjGav 
dvSpes Kal voJv Kal lttttwv fiLyvvpievoL Kal yvvacKes 

^ "Apyw^ov Leopardus : dpyalov. 
2 TToAXaxov] TToXXaKig Hartnian. 

" See Barber and Butler on Propertius, iii. 7. 21. 
* Probably a lirief lacuna should be assumed. 
'^ The story of llylas is related by 'J'heocritus, xill, Apol- 
lonius Khodius, i. Ii?07-bi7'2, Propertuis, i. 20; al. 

^ The Argonauts. * The famous shrine in l^oeotia. 

520 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 990 

sort. Agamemnon « came to Boeotia hunting for 
Argynnus, who tried to elude him, and slandering 
the sea and ^v^inds ^ . . . then he gave his noble self 
a noble bath in Lake Copais to drown his passion 
there and get rid of his desire. Just so Heracles,^ 
pursuing a beardless lad, lagged behind the other 
heroes ^ and deserted the expedition. On the 
Rotunda of Ptoian Apollo ^ one of your men secretly 
inscribed fair is achii.les ^ — when Achilles already 
had a son. And I hear that the inscription is still in 
place. ^ But a cock that mounts another for the lack 
of a female is burned alive because some prophet or 
seer declares that such an event is an important and 
terrible omen. On this basis even men themselves 
acknowledge that beasts have a better claim to 
temperance and the non-\'iolation of nature in their 
pleasures. Not even Nature, with Law for her ally, 
can keep within bounds the unchastened vice of 
your hearts ; but as though swept by the current of 
their lusts bevond the barrier at many points, men 
do such deeds as wantonly outrage Nature, upset her 
order, and confuse her distinctions. For men have, 
in fact, attempted to consort with goats ^ and sows 
and mares, and women have gone mad with lust for 

^ On the formula see Robinson and Fluck, " Greek Love 
Names" {Johns Hopkins Archaeol. Stud, xxiii, 1937). 

» Reiske acutely observes that this is presumably an 
annotation of Plutarch himself, speaking not from Gryllus' 
character, but from his own. wSince Odysseus, Achilles, and 
Gryllus were contemporaries, it would hardly be surprising 
that the inscription should still i)e there. And if it were, how 
would Gryllus know ? 

'' See Gow on Theocritus, i. 86 ; Bergen Evans, op. cit. 
101 f., and on the " vileness " of animals, p. 173. For the 
general problem see, e.g., J. Rosenbaum, Geschichfe der Lust- 
seuche im Altertume (Berlin, 1904.), pp. 274 ff. 

521 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

991 dppcoL drjpLOLS e7T€p.avy]Gav €k yap twv tolovtojv 
ydfjLOJV vpuv ^lu'wravpoL /cat AtytTraves', cos" 8* 
iyJjfjiaL Kal ^(f)Lyyes dva^Xaardvovai /cat Kev- 
ravpoL. KatTOi 8ta Xljjlov ttot' dvdpcoTTov /cat kvcov 
e(j)ay€V /cat vtt^ dvdyKTjS^ dpvis dir^yevoaro- TTpos 
hk Gvvovoiav ovhenore di]piov eTTex^iprjacv dvdpcoTTCi) 
XP'qaacrdaL. drjpla 8' dvdpojTToi /cat irpos ravra 
/cat npog dXXa TToXXd^ Kad* rjSovd? Bid^ovrai /cat 
vapavofjLovaLv. 

8. OvTCi) 8e (fyavXoL /cat dKparels nepl rds ^Iprj- 
/Ltevas" eTTidvpiias ovres €rL fxaXXov eV rat? dvay/catats" 
eXiy)(ovTai ttoXv rct> oaj(f)pov€LV aTroAetTrdjitevot rcDv 
drjpLCOv. avrai 8* etortv at Trept ^pcbaiv /cat Trocrtv 
B CUV rjfjLels jLtev to '>]8u /xera ;!^peta? rtvo? aet Aa/xj8avo- 
jLtev, v[Jielg 8e tt^v rjSovrjv fidXXov rj to /caret (f)vaLV 
rrjg rpo(f)rjg Slcokovt€s vtto ttoXXcov /cat puaKpcov 
KoXdl,€ode voor)ixdrojv , direp e/c /xta? 7rr]yrj? eVav- 
rAoujLteva^ tt^S" TTXrjafJiovrjs* TravroSaTrwv nvevpidrajv 
Kal hvuKaddpTCJV vp.ds ipLTrLTrXrjGL. npajrov jikv 
yap e/caCTTOj yeVet t,d)ov p,ta Tpo(f)rj GVfi(f>vX6£ iari, 
Tols /xev TToa rot? 8e ptfa rt? -^ Kapiros' daa 8e 
aapKO(f)ayel, Trpos ov'6ev dXXo rpeTrerat f^opds ethos 
ouS' d</)atpetrat rtuv dudeveGrepcnv ttjv rpocfy'qv, dAA' 
ca vifJL€odai /cat Aea)v eXa<j)ov /cat Au/co? Trpo^arov 

Q Tj V€(f)VK€V. 6 8* dvdpCOTTOS €771 TTClVTa Tat? 778oVatS' 

^ /cat utt' dvay/CTj? W. C. H. : utt' dvayKr;? /cai. 
2 Kal Trpo? . . . TToAAd] these words should perhaps be 
deleted. 

■* €TTavTXovfX€va Wyttenbach : airavrXovfieva. 
* TrXrjaixovrjs ^V^ C. H. : TrXTjafiovrjs toi? ou>ixaaL. 

" C/. Frazer on Apollodorus, iii. 1. 4 (L.C.L., vol. i, pp. 
305-307); Philo, 66 (p. 131). 

522 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 991 

male beasts. From such unions your Minotaurs ^ 
and Aegipans,^ and, I suppose, your Sphinxes ^ and 
Centaurs ^ have arisen. Yet it is through hunger 
that dogs have occasionally eaten a man ; and birds 
have tasted of human flesh through necessity ; but 
no beast has ever attempted a human body for lustful 
reasons.^ But the beasts I have mentioned and many 
others have been ^ictims of the violent and lawless 
lusts of man. 

8. Though men are so vile and incontinent where 
the desires I have spoken of are concerned, they can 
be proved to be even more so in the case of essential 
desires, being here far inferior to animals in temper- 
ance.^ These are the desires for food and drink, in 
which we beasts always take our pleasure along with 
some sort of utility ; whereas you, in your pursuit 
of pleasure rather than natural nourishment, are 
punished by many serious ailments which, welling 
up from one single source, the surfeit of your bodies, 
fill you with all manner of flatulence that is difficult 
to purge. ^ In the first place each species of animal 
has one single food proper to it, grass or some root 
or fruit. Those that are carnivorous resort to no 
other kind of nourishment, nor do they deprive those 
weaker than themselves of sustenance ; but the lion 
lets the deer, and the wolf lets the sheep, feed in its 
natural pasture. But man in his pleasures is led 

'' " Goat Pans " ; cf. Hyginus, fable 155; Mela, i. 8. 48. 

" See Frazer on Apollodorus, iii. 5. 8 (L.C.L., vol. i, 
p. 347). 

^ See Frazer on Apollodorus, Epitome, i. 20 (L.C.L., vol. 
ii, p. 148) ; Oxford Classical Dictionary, s.v. " Centaurs." 

« But see, e.g., Aelian, Be Natura Animal, xv. 14. 

f Cf. Philo, 47 (p. 122). 

" Cf. Mor. 131 F. 

523 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(991) ^770 XaLfxapyiag e^ayoji^vos kol Tretpwiievog ttolvtcov 
Kal aTToyevofievos, to? ovSerrco ro Trpoocfyopov Koi 
oiKelov eyvcjJKcos, [lovos yeyove tojv ovrcov rra/x- 
(j)dyov. 

Kat aap^l ;\;p7^rat rrpcoTov utt' ouSe/xta? airopias 
ovh^ a.pLri)(avias , (!> TrdpearLV del Kad^ ojpav d'AA' 
€77* aAAot? dno (f)urojv Kal Girepixdrajv rpvycovTi Kal 
XafJL^dvovTL Kal SpeTTopLevco p.ovovov^ KdiJLvecv 8td 
ttXtjOo?' dAA' VTTO rpv(f)rj? Kal Kopov rcov dvay/catcov 
/SpcoCTet? dve7TLTr]h€Lovs Kal ov KaOapdg cr^ayat? 
l,cocov iJL€T6px6[Ji€vo? TToXv Tcov dypLoordrLov B-qpicov 
ojfjLOTepov. alfxa fxev yap Kal (f)6vog Kai aapKes 

D IKTiVCO Kal XvKO) Kal hpdKOVTL GLTLOV oIk€LOV , aV- 

dpajTTO) S' oifjov eoriv. eTreira Travrl yevei XP^' 
fievos ovx <^S" TO. drjpia tojv TrXeiorwv aTTex^Tat, 
oXlyoLS he TToXefiel Sid ttjv rrjg rpocfyrj? dvdyKTjV' 
dXX ovre tl TTrrjvdv ovre vrjKTov, to? eVo? eLTretv, 
ovre ;^epcratov eKTrecjyevye rds rjfjiepovs Srj XeyojJLevas 
Vfiojv Kal (fyiXo^evovs Tpa7Tet,as. 

9. Kiev dAA' oifjoLS XPV^^^ Tovrois e(f)r]SvvovTe? 
TTJV Tpo(f)'^v' TL ovv €77* avrd ravra . . . (f)a)vras ;^ 
dAA' Tj T(x)v drjpicov (f)p6vr]ois tojv fjuev dxpT^crrojv Kal 
fiaraiajv rex^wv ovSefXid ;;^t6pav StSoxTt, rds S' 
dvayKalas ovk eTreiodKrovs Trap* erepojv ovSe [jll- 

^ fiovovov Reiske : fiij. 
^ <f>u)VTas] Tpv<j>a)VTas Bernardakis. 

° Cf. 964 F supra ; and with the whole passage rf. the 
impressive proem to the seventh book of Pliny's Natural 
History. 

^ " Man is the only animal liable to the disease of a con- 
tinuously insatiable a]>petite." Flinv, Xat. Hist. \\. ;?9S ; cf. 
Philo, 62 (p. 136) ; Lucan, iv. 373-881 ; al. 

524 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 991 

astray by gluttony to everything edible " ; he tries 
and tastes everything as if he had not yet come to 
recognize what is suitable and proper for him ; alone 
of all creatures he is omnivorous.^ 

In the first place his eating of flesh is caused by no 
lack of means or methods,'' for he can always in 
season harvest and garner and gather in such a 
succession of plants and grains as will all but tire 
him out with their abundance ; but driven on by 
luxurious desires and satiety with merely essential 
nourishment, he pursues illicit food, made unclean 
by the slaughter of beasts ; and he does this in a 
much more cruel way than the most savage beasts 
of prey. Blood and gore and raw flesh are the proper 
diet of kite and wolf and snake ; to man they are an 
appetizer. '^ Then, too, man makes use of every kind 
of food and does not, like beasts, abstain from most 
kinds and consequently make war on a few only that 
he must have for food. In a word, nothing that flies 
or swims or moves on land has escaped your so-called 
civilized and hospitable tables. 

9. Well, then. It is admitted that you use animals 
as appetizers to sweeten your fare.* Why, therefore ^ 
. . . Animal intelligence, on the contrary, allows no 
room for useless and pointless arts ; and in the case 
of essential ones, we do not make one man with con- 

" Cf. 993 D infra. 

^ Cf. 993 D, 995 c infra. 

* Or "as supplementary food to make your basic fare 
more agreeable " (Andrews). 

f There is probably a considerable lacuna at this point ; 
it is indicated in one of the mss. The sense may perhaps 
be : " Why, in providing yourselves with meat for your 
luxurious living, have you invented a special art whose 
practitioners make cookery their sole study ? Animal intelli- 
gence, on the contrary," etc. 

525 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

J, odov SiSa/cra? ovSe KoXXwaa /xeAerr/ /cat avfinr]- 
ywovaa yXlaxpco? tcov deajprjixdrajv eVaarov rrpos 
eKaoTov aXy avrodev i^ avrrjg olov t^ayevets" Kal 
avfjL(f)VTovs dvahlScoGL. rov? fxev yap AlyvvTiovs 
TTavras larpovg dKovofxev etvat, tcov 8e t^cowv e/ca- 
OTOV ov fiovov TTpog laGLv avTOTexvov loTiv dXXd 
Kal TTpos hiarpo(j)r]v Kal Trpos dXKrjv O-qpav re Kal 
(f)vXaK7]v Kal fJLOVGLKTJ? oGov iKaoTOJ TTpoG-^KCi Kara 
(f)vaLV. TTapd rlvog yap rjixel'^ ipLadofjiev voGovvreg 
€7tI tot)? TTorajiovs X^P^^ '^^^ KapKiViov ^aSi^eLV ; 
TtV 8e ra? ;)(;eAa)va? eStSa^e rrjs ex^cjg (f)ayovGas 
rrjv opiyavov eVecr^tetv ; ris Se rds Y^prfriKas alyag, 
F orav 7T€pnT€.GOJGi rols ro^evpLaGL, to SiKrafivov 
Slcok€lv, ov ^pa>d€VTog eK^aXXovGi to? d/ctSa? ; dv 
yap eiTrrjs, orrep dXrjdes eoTLy tovtojv ScSaGKaXov 
etvat TTjv (f)VGLV, et? rrjv Kvpicxirdr'qv Kal cto^cutoltt^v 
dpx'TjV dva(f)€p€LS rrjV rujv 6rjpLa)v <^p6vrjGLV' r]v el 
[jLTj Xoyov o'ceGde Selv /Ltr^Se (j)p6vr]GLV KaXeiv, c5pa 
GKOTTelv ovofxa KaXXiov avrfj Kal TLfjLicjrepov,^ oyGirep 
djjieXeL Kal 8t' epya>v dfielvova Kal davfiaGiwrepav 
992 TTapex^raL rr^v SvvafiLV ovk dfiaOrj? ouS' dnal- 
SevTOS, avTOfiaOrjg Se Tt? ^aAAov ouaa /cat dnpoG- 
8e7]?, ov 8t' doOeveiav dXXd pcofJir] Kal TeAetOTr^Tt 
rrjs Kara (f)VGLV dperrjg, ;^atpety etooa rov Trap' 
irepojv 8ta jjLadiJGecog rod (f>poveZv GwepaviGjiov. 
oGa yovv dvdpcoTToi rpvcfxjjvre? "^ nal^ovres et? to 
^ TifxicoTCpov Meziriaciis : TiixLcoraTov. 

° This curious statement may come from a misreading of 
Herodotus, ii. S4. 

526 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 991-992 

slant study cling to one department of knowledge 
and rivet him jealously to that ; nor do we receive 
our arts as alien products or pay to be taught them. 
Our intelligence produces them on the spot unaided, 
as its own congenital and legitimate skills. I have 
heard that in Egypt " everyone is a physician ; and 
in the case of beasts each one is not only his own 
specialist in medicine, but also in the providing of 
food, in warfare and hunting as well as in self-defence 
and music, in so far as any kind of animal has a 
natural gift for it. From whom have we swine 
learned, when we are sick, to resort to rivers to catch 
crabs ? Who taught tortoises to devour marjoram 
after eating the snake ? ^ And who instructed Cretan 
goats,'' when they are pierced by an arrow, to look 
for dittany, after eating which the arrowhead falls 
out ? For if you speak the truth and say that Nature 
is their teacher, you are elevating the intelligence 
of animals to the most sovereign and wisest of first 
principles. If you do not think that it should be 
called either reason or intelligence, it is high time 
for you to cast about for some fairer and even more 
honourable term to describe it, since certainly the 
faculty that it brings to bear in action is better and 
more remarkable.'' It is no uninstructed or untrained 
faculty, but rather self-taught and self-sufficient — 
and not for lack of strength. It is just because of 
the health and completeness of its native virtue that 
it is indifferent to the contributions to its intelligence 
supplied by the lore of others. Such animals, at any 
rate, as man for amusement or easy living induces to 

^ Cf. 974 B supra and the note. 

" Cf. 974 D supra and the note. 

'^ That is, " better " than human intelligence. 

527 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(992) jJLavddveLV Kal fieXerdv dyovoc, tovtojv tj htdvoLa 
Kal TTapd (f)vaLv rod GOJixaros^ TrepLovola ovveaeois 
dvaXafi^dv€L ra? /xa^T^crei?. ea> ydp Ixveveiv okv- 
XaKas Kal ^ahit^eiv ev pydjia) ttcoAou? /xeAercovTa? 
Kal^ KopaKag ScaXeyeaOaL Kal Kvvag a'AAecr^at Sta 
Tpoxd)v Tr€pLcf)€pofievojv . LTTTTOL Se Kal /Sde? eV ded- 

B rpois KaraKXioeis ko.1 ;^opetas" Kal ardoeLS irapa- 
^oXov? Kal KLVT^aeis ouS' dvdpcoTTOLg rrdvv paSuag 
aKpL^ovGLV eKSiSaGKOfievoL Kal fjLvqpLovevovreg ev- 
fxadelag eViSetf tv et?^ aAAo ouSev ovhafid)? ;(p7Jcrtju.ov 
exovaav.* el S' dTrtcTTet? ort rexyQ-? pLavOdvofxeu, 
aKovGov on Kal SthdoKOfiev. at re ydp nep^LKeg 
ev TO) 7Tpo(f)evyeLV rovg veorrovg e9il,ovGLV dno- 
KpvTTreGdaL Kal TTpoLGx^crdo-L ^cbXov dvd^ eavrdjv 
rolg ttogIv VTrriovs dvaTreGovras' Kal rolg neXapyc- 
SevGLv Spas errl rcov reywv d)S ol reXeioL napovreg 
dvaTTeipajpLevoLg v(f)r]yovvTaL rr^v TrrrJGLV. at 8' 

C d'qSoveg rovg veoGGovg TrpoSiSdGKovGLv aSeiv ol 
Se Xvi^Oevreg en vt^ttlol Kal rpacfyevreg ev ;^6po"tv 
dvdpcoTTCjov ;^etpov aSovGLV, wGTiep irpd wpag (xtto 
SihaGKdXov yeyovoreg. . . . KaraSvg 8' elg rovrl 
TO GajfjLa davfjidt^o) rovg Xoyovg eKeivovg olg dv- 
eTreLdofjLrjv vrro rojv Go<j>iGrcx)V dXoya Kal dvorjra 
ndvra ttXtjv dvdpwTTov voiJiLi,eLV. 

10. OA. Nuv iiev ovv, d) TpvXXe, jjLera^e^XrjGaL 

^ ou)fjLaTos Reiske : aivfiaros Kal. 

2 Kal Hartman : dXXa (aifia Kal Post). 

"* els Reiske : cis. * exovaav Wyttenbach : exovaiv. 

" Like our trotters or pacers. 

^ A somewhat similar performance of elephants is de- 
scribed in I'hiio, 'I (])]). 11. S f.). 

528 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 992 

accept instruction and training have understanding 
to grasp what they are taught even when it goes 
contrary to their physical endowment, so superior 
are their mental powers. I say nothing of puppies 
that are trained as hunters, or colts schooled to keep 
time in their gait," or crows that are taught to talk, 
or dogs, to jump through revolving hoops. In the 
theatres horses and steers go through an exact routine 
in which they lie down or dance or hold a precarious 
pose or perform movements not at all easy even for 
men ^ ; and they remember what they have been 
taught, these exhibitions of docility which are not in 
the least useful for anything else. If you are doubtful 
that we can learn arts, then let me tell you that we 
can even teach them. When partridges '^ are making 
their escape, they accustom their fledglings to hide 
by falling on their backs and holding a lump of earth 
over themselves with their claws. You can observe 
storks on the roof, the adults showing the art of 
flying to the young as they make their trial flights.*^ 
Nightingales ^ set the example for their young to 
sing ; while nestlings that are caught young and 
brought up by human care are poorer singers, as 
though they had left the care of their teacher too 
early.''' . . . and since I have entered into this new 
body of mine, I marvel at those arguments by which 
the sophists ^ brought me to consider all creatures 
except man irrational and senseless. 

10. ODYSSEUS. So now, Gryllus, you are trans- 

•^ Cf. 971 c supra ; Mor. 494. e and the note. 
** In Aelian, De Xatiira Animal, viii. 2-2 will be found the 
tale of a stork who did not learn in time. 

* Cf. 973 B supra. 

* There is probably a long lacuna at this point. 

" Probablv the Stoics are meant (by anachronism). 

529 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(992) ov /cat to Trpoparov XoyiKOV a'no(f>aiv€is koI rov 
ovov ; 

rp. AvroLS fiev ovv rovrois, to jSeAriare 'OSuct- 
oev, /xaAicrra Set reKfialpeadaL rr^v rcx)v Bripiujv 
(f)VGLV, o)? Xoyov Kal avveaeajs ovk ecrrtv a/xotpos". 

D to? yctp^ OVK eoTL SevSpov erepov irepov fidXXov ouS* 
rJTTOV aipvxov, aAA' ofioicog ex^t- Travra npog di'ai- 
oOrjGtav {ovSevl yap aurtor iJjvxt]? /xeVecTTtv), ovrto? 
oi)/<: av eSo/cet ^ojov erepov erepov rch (fypovelv 
dpyorepov elvat /cat hvojxadeorepov, el fxr] iravra 
\6yov /cat ovveoecxj'^ , aAAa Se /xaAAov /cat rjrrov 
aAAtov 77to? fierelx^v. evvorjaov S' ort ras eviojv 
d^eXrepcas /cat j3Aa/ceta? eXiyxovaiv erepcov Travovp- 
ytat /cat SpLp.vrrjreg, orav dXw7T€KL /cat Av/cto /cat 
lieXirrrf Trapa^dX'i]'^ ovov /cat rrpo^arov worrep el 
uavro) rov Y[oXvcf)7]iJ.ov rj rep TrdTTTTco gov rw Avro- 

E XvKcp rov KopotjSov CKetvov rov jicopov.^ ov yap 
olfiaL drjpLOV TTpos drjplov drroGraGLV etvat roGavrrjv , 
oGov dvdpojTTos dvdpcjoTTOv ro) (fypovetv /cat Aoyt^e- 
CT^at /cat fjLvrjfjioveveLV d(f)eGr7]Kev. 

OA. 'AAA' opa, FpijAAe, (JLT] SeLvov fj /cat ^laiov 
dTToXLTTelv Xoyov ot? OVK eyyiverai deov voyjgls. 

^ a>? yap \\"vtt»'iihac"li : cjoTrep. 
530 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 992 

formed. Do you attribute reason even to the sheep 
and the ass ? 

GRYLLUS, From even these, dearest Odysseus, it 
is perfectly possible to gather that animals have a 
natural endowment of reason and intellect. For just 
as one tree is not more nor less inanimate than 
another, but they are all in the same state of in- 
sensibility, since none is endowed with soul, in the 
same way one animal would not be thought to be 
more sluggish or indocile mentally than another if 
they did not all possess reason and intellect to some 
degree — though some have a greater or less propor- 
tion than others. Please note that cases of dullness 
and stupidity in some animals are demonstrated by 
the cleverness and sharpness of others — ^as when you 
compare an ass and a sheep with a fox or a wolf or a 
bee. It is like comparing Polyphemus to you or that 
dunce Coroebus " to your grandfather Autolycus.* I 
scarcely believe that there is such a spread between 
one animal and another as there is between man and 
man in the matter of judgement and reasoning and 
memory. 

ODYSSEUS. But consider, Gryllus : is it not a fearful 
piece of violence to grant reason to creatures that 
have no inherent knowledge of God ? 

° For Haupt's fine correction {Hermes, vi, p. 4!=0puscula, 
iii, p. 552) cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi 
Graeci, i. 101 (Zenobiiis, iv. 58) ; Lucian, Phllopseudis, 3. 
Coroebus was proverbially so stupid that he tried to count 
the waves of the sea. 

^ Odyssey, xix. 394 ff. : Autolycus surpassed all men " in 
thefts and perjury," a gift of Hermes. 

2 Koi fxeXtTTr]] should perhaps be deleted. 

^ Tov Kopoi^ov eK€ivov Tov fjLwpov Haupt : Tov Koplvdiou 

€K€lVOV OfJLTJpOV. 

531 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(992) rP- Efra oe /lit) (fxjjfjiev, a) ^OSvcrorev, GO(f)6v 
OVTOJS ovra /cat Trepirrov ^iGV(f}ov yeyovevai ; 

° Most critics (and very emphatically Ziegler) believe that 
the end, perhaps quite a long continuation, is lost ; but 
Reiske ingeniously supposes (iryllus' final answer to mean : 
" If those who do not know (lod cannot possess reason, then 
you, wise Odysseus, can scarcely be descended from such a 
notorious atheist as Sisyphus." (For Sisyphus' famous 
assertion that " the gods are only a utilitarian invention " 
see Critias, Slsypfniti, frag. 1 : Nauck, Trag. (rraec. Frag. 
pp. 77 If.). 

There would, then, be no further point in prolonging the 
discussion ; and no doubt by this time Odysseus has changed 
his mind about the desirability of any further metamorphosis 



532 



BEASTS ARE RATIONAL, 992 

GRYLLus. Then shall we deny, Odysseus, that so 
wise and remarkable a man as you had Sisyphus for 
a father ? ° 

of his interlocutor, since the last argument touches him 
nearly. Sisvphus was said by some to be his real father 
(Mo/. SOI D). 

Others, howeyer, belieye that some discussion of further 
virtues, such as natural piety, must haye followed : and per- 
haps the account closed with a consideration of justice. But 
would Odysseus have been convinced (r/. 986 b) ? Or is this 
as good a place as any to end ? Plutarch used no stage 
directions, so that, as in the classical Platonic dialogues, 
when the characters stop speaking, the discussion is over 
and we are left to draw our own conclusions. The undoubted 
fact, howeyer, that the work is mutilated in several other 
places allows us to leave the question open. 



533 



ON THE EATING OF FLESH 

(DE ESU CARNIUM) 

I AND n 



INTRODUCTION 

These two badly mutilated discourses, urging the 
necessity for vegetarianism, are merely extracts 
from a series (see 996 a) which Plutarch delivered in 
his youth, perhaps to a Boeotian audience (995 e)." 
In spite of the exaggerated and calculated rhetoric ^ 
these fragments probably depict faithfully a foible 
of Plutarch's early manhood, the Pythagorean or 
Orphic ^ abstention from animal food. There is 
little trace of this in his later life as known to us, 
though a corrupt passage in the Symposiacs (635 e) 
seems to say that because of a dream our author 
abstained from eggs for a long time. In the De 
Sanitate Tuenda also (132 a) Plutarch excuses flesh- 
eating on the ground that habit " has become a sort 
of unnatural second nature." 

The work appears, on the whole, rather immature 
beside the Gryllus and the De Sollertia Animalium, 
but the text is so poor that this may not be the 
author's fault. In fact the excerptor responsible for 
our jumbled text, introducing both stupid interpola- 
tions (see especially 998 a) and even an extract from 
an entirely different work (99^ b-d), may well have 

" This was Hirzel's opinion (Der Dialog, ii, p. 1:^6, n. 2), 
which Ziegler {RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col, 734) combats. 

* F. Krauss, Die rhetorischen Schriften Plutarchs, pp. 77 if. 

" Plato, Lmcs, 782 c. Plutarch, Mor. 159 c, makes Solon 
say, " To refrain entirely from eating meat, as they record of 
Orpheus long ago, is rather a quibble than a way of avoiding 
wrong diet." 

537 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

altered Plutarch's wording in many other places 
where we have not the means to detect him. 

Porphyry " {De Abstinentia, iii. 9,\) says that Plu- 
tarch attacked the Stoics and Peripatetics in many 
books ; in this one the anti-Stoic polemic has only 
just begun (999 a) when the work breaks off. For a 
more complete assault the reader must turn back to 
the two preceding dialogues. 

It is interesting to learn that Shelley found these 
fragments inspiring. In the eighth book of Queen 
Mab (verses 211 ff.) we read : 

No longer now 
He slays the lamb that looks him in the face, 
And horribly devours his mangled ilesh. 
Which, still avenging Nature's broken law. 
Kindled all putrid humours in his frame. 
All evil passions, and all vain belief, . . . 
The germs of misery, death, disease, and crime. 

To this passage the poet appended, more suo, a long 
note which ended with four quotations from our essay 
in Greek, untranslated (a compliment to the public 
of his day, one may suppose). This note he subse- 
quently republished as A Vindication of Natural Diet 
(1813), omitting the Greek ; and in the same year he 
>^Tote to Thomas Hogg that he had " translated the 
two P'ssays of Plutarch, lie pi a-apKOffiayLWi." But this 
has been lost ; it has not, at least, been found among 
the unpublished Shelley material in the Bodleian.* 

" It is, of course, possible that Porphyry used some portion 
of the missing parts of our work ; but this cannot be proved 
and may even be thought unlikely in view of the fact that he 
makes no use of any extant portion. 

' These facts I owe to the kindness of Professors J. A. 
Notopoulos of Trinity College and J. E. Jordan of the Uni- 
versity of California ; see also K. N. Cameron, The Young 
Shelley, pp. 224 f. 
538 



THE EATING OF FLESH 

This is one of the eighteen works of the received 
Corpus of Plutarch that do not appear in the Lamprias 
Catalogue. Such a fact is not, however, to be ad- 
duced against its genuineness, since the Symposiacs 
themselves are not to be found there." 

" It is important to observe that H. Fuchs, Der geistige 
Wider stand gegen Rom, p. 49, n. 60, athetizes this work. A 
further discussion by this great critic would be warmly 
welcomed, especially since Wilamowitz recognized here also 
" den unverkennbaren Stempel der plutarchischen Art." 



539 



993 nEPI SAPKOOAriAS 

Aoro^ A' 

1. *AAAd Gv fxev epioras tlvl Xoycx) Ylvdayopa? 
d7T€L)(€TO aapKo^ayias ; €y(l) 8e 9aviJidl,oj Kal tlvl 
B TrdOei Kal ttolo, 4'^xf} V ^^ycp 6 Trpojros dvdpcjrros 
rjiparo (f)6vov GTOfxarL Kal redvrjKOTO? ^a)ov x^iXeoL 
TTpoGTjiJjaTO aapKos Kal v€Kpa)V CTco/xctrtuv Kal eojAcov^ 
TTpodefxevo? rpaTrel^as oipa Kal rpocfyds^ TrpoaeLTrev^ 
rd pLLKpov eiiTTpoadev ^pu;)(co/xeya fjieprj Kal (f)deyy6- 
fxeva Kal KLVovfJLeva Kal jSAeVovra. 7760? r) di/jLg 
V7T€fi€LV€ Tov (f)6vov cr^a^o/xeVojv Sepojjievcov 8ta- 

pLeXLt^OpieVCJV, TTCU? T] 6G(f)pT]GLS 7]V€yK€ rr]V aTTO- 

(f)opdv, TTcos" TT^v yevGLV ovK dnerpeipev 6 fjioXvGfxos 
1\kcx)V ipavovGav dXXorpLCOv Kal rpavfidrajv davaGL- 
jjLOJV ■)(viJLovs Kal L^ojpas diToXajJi^dvovGav ;* 

C etpnov [JL€V pLvoL, Kpea 8' djU(/)' o^eXols IpLepiVKei 
OTTraAea re Kal (hpid, pocov 8' a»? yiyvero (fycxjvrj' 

Tovro jJL€V^ nXdGfUL Kal fJLvdo^ €GTL, TO 8e ye Selnvov 
dXrjdoJS reparajSe?, TreLvrjv TLva tcx>v piVKOjfJieva>v 

^ €U)Xcov van Ilerwerden : elbujXcov. 

2 Tpv(f>a?] Aiss. and early editions have also Tpo(f>rjv, rpuc^a?, 
and rpu^iyi^ (see Sandbach, Class. Quart. xxxv(1941), p. 114). 
^ TTpoaelTTev Kronenherp: (rf, 095 c) : Kal Trpoae'ri cIttcIv. 
* dvaXafx^dvovoav W'yttenbaeh. 

540 



ON THE EATING OF FLESH 

I 

1 . Can you really ask what reason Pythagoras " 
had for abstaining from flesh ? For my part I rather 
wonder both by what accident and in what state of 
soul or mind the first man ^ who did so, touched his 
mouth to gore and brought his lips to the flesh of a 
dead creature, he who set forth tables of dead, stale ^ 
bodies and ventured to call food and nourishment 
the parts that had a little before bellowed and cried, 
moved and lived. How could his eyes endure the 
slaughter when throats were slit and hides flayed and 
limbs torn from limb ? How could his nose endure 
the stench ? How was it that the pollution did not 
turn away his taste, which made contact with the sores 
of others and sucked juices and serums from mortal 
wounds ? 

The skins shivered ; and upon the spits the flesh bellowed. 
Both cooked and raw ; the voice of kine was heard/ 

Though this is an invention and a myth, yet that sort 
of dinner is really portentous — when a man craves the 

« Cf. 964 F su^ra. ^ Cf. 959 e supra. 

'^ Cf. 991 D supra, 995 c infra. 
^ Homer, Odyssey, xii. 395-396. 

^ /xev added by Reiske. 

541 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(993) €TL^ hLSaGKovra d<f)* wv Set rpe^eoOaL ^ojvtojv €tl 
/cat XaXovvrojv Kal^ Stararro/xevoy dprvcreLs nvas 
Kal oTTT-qaeL? Kal TrapadeoeLS' rovrujv^ eSet t^7]T€LV 
Tov 7Tpd)TOv dp^dpLevov ov Tov oipe TTavadpLCvov . 

2. "H rots' jLtev Trpcorois eK€LvoLS eTrLX^LprjaaGL 
oapKO(j}ayeZv rr^v alriav eiTTOL rrdg dv TrjV ■)(peiav^ 
/cat TrfV drTopiav ; ov yap eVt^u/xiat? dvopLotg gvv- 
D Stayovre? ovS^ iv TTepiovoia rcjv^ dvayKciicov v^pi- 
aavre? el? rjSovds rrapd <f)VGiv dGvpL<f)vXovs eVt ravr 
rjXdov dAA' etTTOtev dv alodrfcnv iv ro) rrapovrL Kal 
(fxjjvr^v Xa^ovreg' " c5 pLaKapioi /cat deo(j)LXels ot vvv 
6vT€s vpLelg, OLOV ^lov XaxdvTeg alcova KapTTovade 
Kal vdpLeode KXrjpov dyaOojv d(f)dovov' ocra ^uerat 
vpuVy ooa Tpvydrat, doov ttXovtov e/c TreSlcov, doas 
aTTO (fyvTCJV rjSovdg^ SpeTreudai TTapeoTiv. e^eanv 
vplv Kal Tpv(j)dv pLTj pLiaivopL€voLs . Tjpids Se GKvdpO)- 
TTorarov Kal ^ojSepcoraTor eSc^aro jStou /cat xP^^ov 
IxepoSy ft? TToXXrjV Kal dpnqxo-yov eKrrcGovrag vtto 
rrj? TTpcoTT]? yeveaeojg drToplav ert /Ltev ovpavov 
E eKpvnrev drjp Kal dorpa doXepo) Kal SuaStaara- 
tovvtl' 7Te(f)vpiJi€Vos^ vypo) Kal irvpl Kal ^aAat? dv€- 

^ €TL Stephanas : In koI. 

2 Kal added by vStephanus. 

^ TovTwv Turneljus : tovtov. 

* et-noL rrds av ttjv ;^petai' Sandbach, after Aniyot : ai' cinoi 

TTCLOaV. 

^ TU)V Dials : TLVI. 

^ r}hovas Stephanas : -qhova's a?. 

' hvahiaaraTovvrL Xylander : hvararovi'TL. 

® TT€<f)VpfJ.€VOg WilainOWitZ : TT€(f>VpfJ.€Va. 

" " Hyperbius . . . first killed an animal, Prometheus an 
ox." (Pliny, Xtif. Hist. vii. 20f).) See also the amusing 

542 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 993 

meat that is still bellowing, giving instructions which 
tell us on what animals we are to feed while they are 
still alive uttering their cries, and organizing various 
methods of seasoning and roasting and serving. It 
is the man ^ who first began these practices that one 
should seek out, not him \vho all too late desisted.^ 

2. Or would everyone declare that the reason for 
those who first instituted flesh-eating was the neces- 
sity of their poverty ? It was not while they passed 
their time in unlawful desires nor when they had 
necessaries in abundance that after indulgence in 
unnatural and antisocial pleasures they resorted to 
such a practice. If, at this moment, they could re- 
cover feelings and voice, they might, indeed, re- 
mark : " Oh blessed and beloved of the gods, you 
who live now, what an age has fallen to your lot 
wherein you enjoy and assimilate a heritage abound- 
ing in good things ! How many plants grow for you ! 
What vintages you gather ! What wealth you may 
draw from the plains and what pleasant sustenance 
from trees ! W^hy, you may even live luxuriously 
without the stain of blood. But as for us, it was a 
most dismal and fearful portion of the world's history ° 
that confronted us, falling as we did into great and 
unbearable poverty brought on by our first appear- 
ance among the li\'ing. As yet the heavens and the 
stars were concealed by dense air that was con- 
taminated with turbid moisture, not easily to be 
penetrated, and fire and furious wind. Not yet was 

analysis of Prometheus and the vulture ( = disease) in 
Shelley's A Vindication of Natural Diet. 
^ Pythagoras. 

" Cf. Empedocles, frag. B 2. 3 (Diels-Kranz, Frag, der 
Vorsok. i, p. 309) ; the whole passage is received as a 
doubtful fragment (B 154 ; i, pp. 371 f.). 

543 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(993) l-icvy ovrroj 8' tJXlo? Ihpvro arrXavri kol /3ej3atov 

e-)(OJV hpojxov, TjO) 
Koi hvGLV €KpLvev, 7T€pl S' rjyayev avdig OTriaoto 

Kap7TO(f)6pOLGLV €.77 LOT eipaS KaXvKOGT€(f)dvOLGiV^ 

ojpaig- yrj 8' v^pcGTO 

TTorapLcov eVjSoAat? dra/crot?, /cat ra ttoAAo," " At- 
pLvatGLV a.ixop(f>a " /cat vqAolg jSa^eat /cat X6)([Jia.Lg 
d(f)6poL? /cat uAat? i^rjypLCoro- <f)opd S' rjpLepojv /cap- 
7760V K'at T€.')(yr]S opyavov ovhev r^v^ ouSe iJLrj)(avrj 
GO(f)La^' 6 Se Xljjlo? ovk eStSou ;)^pdyov ou8' ojpas eriq- 

GLOVS GTTOpOS TTVpCJV* TOt' dvep.€V€. TL daVfiaGTOV 

et t,ix)(ji)v ixprjGOLfjLeOa Gap^l Trapd (fiVGiv, or tAi)?^ 
F rjGdUro /cat ^Aotos" i^pcodrj ^vXov, /cat dypcoGnv 
evpelv ^XaGrdvovGav t) cfyXeco^ riva pt^av £i)Tu;;(es' 
T^v ; ^aXdvov Se yevGdpLevoi /cat <^ay6vres l^op^v- 
Gafiev^ V(f)^ TjSovrjs rrepl Spvv nva /cat (fyrjyov, ^etSoj- 
pov /cat fiTjrepa /cat rpo<f)6v aTTOKaXovvres' eK€Lvr]v 
994 jJLOvrjv^ 6 rore j8io? eoprrjv eyvco, rd 8' aAAa (jyXey- 
pLOvrjg rjv drcavTa jxeGrd /cat GTvyvorrjros . vjjids 8e 
Tou?^ vuv Tts" Avcrcra /cat rts" olGrpos dyei rrpds 
/Lttat^ovtav, ot? roaavra tt^pUgtl rd)v dvayKaiojv ; 
Tt KaraipevSeGde rrjg yij? d>s rpe^ctv /i,')7 Swafxevr}? ; 
TL TTjv d€G[JLO(f)6pov (iCTejSetTe AtjfjLrjTpa /cat tov 

^ KaXvKoaT€<f>dvoLCH> Jacobs : K-aAu/<o? arccfxii'Oioiv. 

2 Ttt TToAAa Bernardakis : tvoAAq. 

^ tIJv added by Wilamowitz. 

* TTvpojv Dit'ls : wv. * lAi)?] 8pvs Bernardakis. 

* (^Aectj Stephanus : (f>XoLov. 

' €xop€vaafjL€v Sieveking : €x°P^'^°^^- 

* fxovrjv Xylander : ■^v. 

* Tou? Stephanus : -ncog. 

544. 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 993-99* 

the sun established undeviating 

In his firm course, 
Dividing day and night : he brought them back 
Again and crowned them with the fruitful hours 
All wreathed with bloom, while violence 

had been done to earth by rivers pouring forth their 
floods at random and most parts were deformed by 
pools." Earth was made a wilderness by deep quag- 
mires and the unfruitful growth of thickets and 
forests ; nor was there as yet any agricultural pro- 
duction or professional tool or any resource of skill. 
Our hunger gave us no respite nor was there any 
seed at that time awaiting the annual season of 
sowing. What wonder if, contrary to nature, we 
made use of the flesh of beasts when even mud was 
eaten and the bark of trees devoured, and to light on 
sprouting grass or the root of a rush was a piece of 
luck ? When we had tasted and eaten acorns we 
danced for joy around some oak,^ calling it " life- 
giving " ^ and " mother " and " nurse." This was the 
only festival that those times had discovered ; all 
else was a medley of anguish and gloom. But you 
who live now, what madness, what frenzy drives 
you to the pollution of shedding blood, you who 
have such a superfluity of necessities ? Why slander 
the earth by implying that she cannot support you ? 
Why impiously offend law-giving Demeter ^ and 

" You could not tell land from water, because invading 
water made pools that dried up later. 

^ " Drys was a term used especially for Quercus robur L. ; 
phegos for Q. aegilops L. Actually the early Greeks ate the 
acorns mostly of Q. aegilops.'"' (Andrews.) 

"= The epithet properly meant " wheat-giving " (as in 
Homer, Iliad, ii. 548), but was early misinterpreted. 

^ Cf. Mor. 1119 E. 
VOL. XII T 545 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(994) rjfji€pLSrjv Kal /MetAt;(tov alaxvi'eTe ^lovvoov, a>? ov^ 
LKava TTapa tovtojv Xaii^dvovres ; ovk alSeladc 
rovs Tjiiepovs Kapnovs at/xart Kal (f)6vcp pnyvvovres ; 
dAAa hpaKovras dyptovg KaXelre Kal TraphdXeLS Kal 
XeovraSy avrol he [iLaL(f)ov€Lr€ els cxJixorrjTa Kara- 
B XiTTovres eKelvoLS ouSev eVetvot? fxev yap 6 (f)6vos 
Tpo(f)7], vpuv 8' oiliov eartV." 

3. Ov yap St] Xeovrds y' dfivvojjLevoL Kal Xvkovs 
eodiopiev dXXd ravra fiev eajjjLev, rd S* d^Xa^rj Kal 
)(eipo'qdTj Kal aKevrpa Kal vojhd rrpog to SaKelv 
GvXXajx^dvovres dfroKrivvvopLev , a vtj Ata Kal KdX- 
Xovs eveKa Kal ;^aptTO? -q (j)VGis eoiKev e^evey- 

K€LV . . . 

["OjLXotov CO? et TLS rov NetAoy opcov TrX-qpLpLvpovvra 
Kal TTjv xcJopav efjLTTLTrXdvTa^ yovijiov Kal Kapiro- 
<l>6pov pevfiaros firj tovto Oavfid^oL rov (fyepofievov, 
TO (fyvTdXfjLLOv Kal evKapTTOv rcov r^pLepiordrcov Kal 
^LCo(f)eXeordTCOv KapTTCov, dAA' IScov ttov Kal KpoKO- 
SetXov evvri-)(6jxevov Kal doTTiha KaraavpofJLevrjv Kal 
C pivpla^ dypta ^wa,^ ravra? Xeyoi rds air las rrjg 
fxefjupeo)? Kal rrjs rod Trpdyfiaros dvdyKTjs' rj vrj Ala 
rrjv yrjv ravriqv Kal rrjv dpovpav dno^Xeipag ep.- 
TTeTrXrjGpievrjv -qpuepcov Kaprrcov Kal ^plOovaav dara- 
)^vcov, eireiO^ vno^Xei/ja?* ttov rots XtjIols rovroLS 

^ e^TTiTTXdvTa van Herwerden : efnrnrXwvTa. 

^ fjivpia \\ ilamowitz : fivas or fivlas. 

^ l^ioa Wilamowitz : ^(Za Kal ^iiapa. 

* i-m^Xdipas van Herwerden. 

" Cf. Mor. 451 c (where the epithet is otherwise inter- 
preted), 663 u, 69-2 E. 

546 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 994. 

bring shame upon Dionysus, lord of the cultivated 
vine," the gracious one, as if you did not receive 
enough from their hands ? Are you not ashamed to 
mingle domestic crops with blood and gore ? You 
call serpents and panthers and lions savage, but you 
yourselves, by your own foul slaughters, leave them 
no room to outdo you in cruelty ; for their slaughter 
is their living, yours is a mere appetizer." ^ 

3. It is certainly not lions and wolves that we eat 
out of self-defence ; on the contrary, we ignore these 
and slaughter harmless, tame creatures without 
stings or teeth to harm us, creatures that, I swear, 
Nature appears to have produced for the sake of 
their beauty and grace, . . . ^ 

[It is as though one, seeing the Nile overflow 
its banks, filling the landscape with its fertile and 
productive stream, should not marvel at this, its 
nourishing of plants and its fruitfulness in such crops 
as are most to be cultivated and contribute most 
to the support of life, but should espy a crocodile 
swimming there somewhere or an asp being swept 
along or a thousand other savage creatures and should 
cite them as the reasons for his censure and his 
compulsion to do as he does.^ Or, I swear, it is as 
though one fixed one's gaze on this land and its soil 
covered with cultivated crops and heavy \vith ears 
of wheat, and then, looking beneath these rich 
harvests, one were to catch sight somewhere of a 

^ As above in 991 d. See the interesting observations in 
G. Murray, Rise of the Greek Epic^, p. 64 and the note. 

" The rest of this chapter, though possibly by Plutarch, is 
probably from another quite different work. Chapter 4 
follows quite naturally upon this sentence. 

^ These words, plainly out of context as the passage 
stands, are too vague to he rendered with any certainty. 

547 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(i>l)4) Kal TTov TWO? atpa? Grd)(vv Ihwv Kal opo^dyxiqv ,^ 
(It d(f)€LS eVeti'a Kapirovodai Kal X-qil^eodaL /Lte/Lt- 
ijjaLTO^ TTepl rovrcov. roLovrov tl, /cat Xoyov prjro- 
po? opcov ev Slktj tlvl Kal avvqyopia TrXrjdvovra Kai 
(j)€p6pi€vov eVt porjOeia KLvhvvojv, r) vr] At" IXeyx^ 
1) Kal KarrjyopLa ToA/XT]/xaTC0V /cat aTTohel^eajv, peovra 
8e /cat ^epo/xevov ou;^ aTrAcos' ouSe AtTto?, dAA' ojLtou 
TTadeoL TToAAots' jLtaAAov 8e TravroSaTrotj, et? ijjvxds 
opioicos TToXXds Kal TTOiKiXas Kal hia(j>6povs tcuv 
aKpoajfjievajv rj tojv St/ca^ovrcov, a? Set rpeipat /cat 
/xerajSaAetv -^ vt^ Ata Trpavvai Kal rjpLepojoai /cat 
KaraarrJGai,' etra napelg tovto rod rrpdypLaros opdv 
/cat pL€rp€iv TO Ke(f)dXaiov KaraycovLGpLa,^ napap- 
pTjaets eKXeycov, a? /cartcuv o Aoyo? CTuy/car^jvey/ce 
T7y pvp^J) T"^? (f)opd9, GvveK7T€GovGas Kal TTapoXiGdov- 
cra? to) AotTTfij tou Adyou. /cat S7]pLr]y6pov tlvos 
opcov. . . .] 

4. 'AAA' ovSev rjpids SvGWTTel, ov ;\;pda? dvdrjpov 
E etSos", oi) (fxjjvrjs e/x/xeAou? TndavoTrjg, ov* to KaSd- 
piov ev hiairr] Kal TTepirrov iv gvv€G€l tojv dOXiojVy 
dXXd GapKihiov puKpov ;^apty dcfyaipovpieda 4'^XV^ 
T^Atov, <f)w?y Tov Tov ^Lov xRovov , 6^' (1)'' ylyove Kal 
iricjjvKev. eW a? (fydeyyerat Kal StaTptJct^ (f>a>vds 
dvdpBpovs elvat hoKovpiev, ov TrapatTT^o-et? /cat 
SeT^CTet? Kat 8t/catoAoyta? iKdorov Xiyovros " ov 

•^ opo^ayxqv Xylander : opi^dxrjv and the like. 

^ ficfujjaLTO W. C. H. : /Lte/M(/(OiTO. 

^ Ke(f)dXaLOv KaraywvLOfia Post after Turnehns : (^vXatov koX 
dywvLOfxa {(f>iX6Tifioi' Sandbacli). 

■* ov] in the mss. the words ov Travovpyia tpvxrj£ precede ; 
deleted by W. C. H. ^ €(f>' a Rciske. 

' 8taT/3i^€i van Herwerden : SUrpcae. 

54-8 



THE EATING OF FLESH I. 99i- 

growth of darnel or broom-rape and, without more 
ado, ceasing to reap the benefit and claim the booty 
of the good crops, burst into a tirade about the weeds. 
Another example : if one should see an orator 
making a speech at some trial where he was advocate, 
a speech in which his eloquence in full flood was ad- 
vancing to the succour of someone in jeopardy or 
(so help me) to the conviction or denunciation of rash 
acts or defaults — a flood of eloquence not simple or 
jejune, but charged with many (or rather all kinds 
of) emotional appeals for the simultaneous influen- 
cing of the many different kinds of minds in the 
audience or jury, which must either be roused and 
won over or (by heaven I) soothed and made gentle 
and calm — then if one neglected to observe and take 
into account this main point and issue of the matter, 
but merely picked out flaws of style that the flood of 
oratory, as it moved to its goal, had swept along by 
the momentum of its current, flaws that came rushing 
out and slipped by with the rest — and seeing ... of 
some popular leader. . . . °] 

4.. But nothing abashed us, not the flower-like 
tinting of the flesh, not the persuasiveness of the 
harmonious voice, not the cleanliness of their habits 
or the unusual intelligence that may be found in the 
poor wretches. No, for the sake of a little flesh we 
deprive them of sun, of light, of the duration of life 
to which they are entitled by birth and being. Then 
we go on to assume that when they utter cries and 
squeaks their speech is inarticulate, that they do 
not, begging for mercy, entreating, seeking justice, 

" The rest of this perplexing fragment has been lost, so 
that we do not know what the object of these three com- 
parisons is. 

54.9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(994) TTapaLTovfxai, gov rr]v dvcty/cryv dAAa Tr]v v^piv Iva 
(f)dyr]g OLTTOKTeLvov, tva 8' rjSiov (f)dyrj? firj fi* 
dvalpeL." CO rrjs (LfjLOTrjTos- Seivov {jl€V ion /cat 
TidejjLevrjv tSeu' rpaTrel^av dvdpa)7Tcov ttXovglojv cus"^ 
F vcKpoKOfxoiS^ ;)(pa;^eVcov p.ayeipois kol oipoTroiOLS , 
Seivorepov 8' aTroxrojitt^OjueVT^v TiAetova yap rd 
XeiTTopLCva Tcov ^€^paj[jL€i>ajv iariv. ovkovv ravra 
jjLdrrjv direOavev. erepot^ he (fyeiSofievoL rcov napa- 
redevTCov ovk ecooi refiveiv ovhe KaraKorrreLV , 
7TapaiTovp.€voi v€Kpd* t,(x>VT(x)v 8' OVK i(f}€Laavro. 

5. "AXoyov yap elvai (^afiev^ eK^ivovs Aeyetv rovs 
dvhpas dpx'Tjv ex^iv ttjv (f)VGLV' on yap ovk eonv 
dvOpcjircp Kara (J>vglv to GapKO(j)ayelv , Trpcnrov fxev 
dno rcjv GiOjJLdrcov Sr]XovTaL rrjs KaraGKevrjs. 
ovhevl yap eoiKe to dvdpcoTrov Gcofia ra)v iirl 
GapKo^ayia yeyovonov, ov ypvnorrj? ;)(etAous", ovk 
995 o^vrT^s ovv^o?, ov rpa^vri^s dhovros TTpooeGnv, ov 
KOiXua? evTOvia Kal TTvevpLaros depfJLorrjs, Trej/rat* 
/cat KarepydGaodai Svvarr) to jSapu /cat /cpetoSes"* 
dAA' avTodev rj (f)VGLS Tjj Aetorr^rt rcov oSovtojv /cat 

rrj GfXLKpOTTjTL TOV GTOfiaTOS Kal TTJ fJLaXaKOTTJTi 
TTJS yXcx)GG7)S Kal TTj TTpog TTeifjLV dpL^^XvTTJTL TOV 

TTvevfjLaTos i^ofJLVVTai ttjv GapKocfyayuav. et 8e Ac- 
y€LS 7T€(f)VK€vaL GeavTov irrl ToiavTrjv iScoSrjv, o 
jSouAet (fyayelv npcoTov avros dTroKTCivov, dXX avros 

1 chs added by W. C. H. 

^ veKpoKOfjLOLs Stuart Jones : veKpoKoofxois. 

^ erepot] iripcos ? (erepa Wilaniowitz). 

* viKpa W'vtteiibach : Kp4a. 

^ aXoyov yap elvai (f)apL€v Bernardakis : dAA' dye TrapeiX-q- 
<f>afi€v. 

* TTcipai. Cobet : Tpeipai, 

550 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 994^-995 

each one of them say, " I do not ask to be spared in 
case of necessity ; only spare me your arrogance ! 
Kill me to eat, but not to please your palate I " Oh, 
the cruelty of it I What a terrible thin^ it is to look 
on when the tables of the rich are spread, men who 
employ cooks and spicers to groom the dead ! And 
it is even more terrible to look on when they are 
taken away, for more is left than has been eaten. 
So the beasts died for nothing I There are others who 
refuse when the dishes are already set before them 
and will not have them cut into or sliced. Though 
they bid spare the dead, they did not spare the 
living.^ 

5. We declare, then, that it is absurd for them to 
say that the practice of flesh-eating is based on 
Nature. For that man is not naturally carnivorous 
is, in the first place, ob\1ous from the structure of his 
body.^ A man's frame is in no way similar to those 
creatures who were made for flesh-eating ; he has 
no hooked beak or sharp nails or jagged teeth, no 
strong stomach or warmth of vital fluids able to 
digest and assimilate a heavy diet of flesh. ^ It is 
from this very fact, the evenness of our teeth, the 
smallness of our mouths, the softness of our tongues, 
our possession of vital fluids too inert to digest meat 
that Nature disavows our eating of flesh. If you 
declare that you are naturally designed for such a 
diet, then first kill for yourself what you want to eat. 
Do it, however, only through your own resources, 

" Post believes that there is another lacuna after this 
chapter : and Stephanus posited another one after the first 
sentence of chapter 5, rightly, if Bernardakis' emendation is 
not accepted. 

^ See 988 e supra and the note. 

" Cf. Mor. 87 B, 643 c. 

551 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(995) Sta oeavrov, fir] ^(^piqodyi^vos kottlSl /xt^Sc rvfXTTdvco^ 
TLvl fXTjhe rreXeKci- dAAa, co? Xvkol koi ap/crot /cat 
B Xlovres avTol oaa^ ladiovai <J)ov€tjovglv , aveXe hr^y- 
jiaTL ^ovv T) CTTo/xan gvv, t) dpva rj Xaywov btdp- 
pTj^ov Koi <j)dye npoGTreGchv en ^aiyro?, a>5 eKelva. 
el 8' dva/xeVet? veKpov yeveodai to iodLopievov^ Kal 
hvGOJTTel 06 TTapovoa 4''^XV dnoXaveLV* rrj? uapKos, 
Tt napd (f)VGiv iadUis to epufjvxov ; dAA' ou8* 
difjv)(ov dv TL? (f)dyoL Kal vcKpov olov eoriv, dXX 

eipOVGLV OTTTCOGL pL€Ta^dXXoVGL StCt TTVpOS Kal (f)ap- 

pidKcov, dXXoLovvres Kal rpeTTovres Kal a^evvvovTes 
rjhvGpLaGL pjvpiois rov ^ovov, Iv" rj yevaus l^aTrar-q- 
delua 7T poGhi^rjT ai rdXXorpiov. 

KatVot x^piiv ye to rov AdKOJvo?, os IxOvhiov ev 
C rravhoKeicp TrpidpLevog ro) TravhoKel GKevdaai irap- 
ehcoKev alrovvros S' eKeivov rvpov Kal o^os" Kal 
eXaiov, " dAA' el ravr el^ov," elnev, " ovk dv 
IxOvv Itt pidpLTji' ." TjpeTg 8' ovtojs ev rw piiai<j)6vii) 
rpv(f)a)jjiev, coot' oipov to Kpeas TrpoGayopevopiev, 
efr* oifjojv rrpo? avTO to Kpeas Seop^eda, dvapay- 
vuvres eXatov olvov pieXi ydpov o^os rjSvGp,aGL 
YivpiaKols 'ApajStKot?, ajGrrep ovrcos veKpov ev- 

^ rvpLTTovw] rvTTavo) wSalinasius ; TVKavrj Meziriacus ; tuttciSi 
Bernardakis. 

"^ oaa Reiske : <x»s". 

^ ioBiofxivov Stephanus : aladofxevov. 

* TTapovoa ifivxT) OLTroXaveiv Eiuperiiis : irapovaav fpvx'rji' dn- 
eXavveiv. 

" '* Let the advocate of animal food force himself to a 
decisive experiment on its titness, and, as Plutarch recom- 
mends, tear a living la ml) with his teeth, and, plunging his 

552 



THE EATING OF FLESH L 99-5 

unaided by cleaver or cudgel of any kind or axe. 
Rather, just as wolves and bears and lions themselves 
slay what they eat, so you are to fell an ox with your 
fangs or a boar Mith your jaws, or tear a lamb or 
hare in bits. Fall upon it and eat it still living, as 
animals do.^ But if you wait for what you eat to be 
dead, if you have qualms about enjoying the flesh 
while life is still present, why do you continue, 
contrarv to nature, to eat what possesses life ? Even 
when it is lifeless and dead, however, no one eats the 
flesh just as it is ; men boil it and roast it, altering 
it by fire and drugs, recasting and diverting and 
smothering \Wth countless condiments the taste of 
gore so that the palate may be deceived and accept 
what is foreign to it. 

It was, indeed, a \\'itty remark of the Spartan ^ 
who bought a little fish in an inn and gave it to the 
innkeeper to prepare. When the latter asked for 
cheese and vinegar and oil,^ the Spartan said, " If I 
had those, I should not have bou2:ht a fish." But we 
are so refined in our blood-letting that we term flesh 
a supplementary food "^ ; and then we need " supple- 
ments " for the flesh itself, mixing oil, wine, honey, 
fish paste, vinegar, with Syrian and Arabian spices,* 
as though we were really embalming a corpse for 

head into its vitals, slake his thirst with the steaming blood " 
(Shelley, op. cit.). 

*> Cf. Mor. -2S4 e-f, where it is meat, not fish, that is 
bought : see also 1-2S c. 

•^ To make a sauce for the fish. The innkeeper's action 
was natural enough, in view of Hegesander's comment 
(Athenaeus, 564- a) that apparently everyone liked the 
seasonings, not the fish, since no one wanted fish plain and 
unseasoned. 

** See 991 u (and the note), 998 b, 991 b supra. 

* See 990 b supra. 

55S 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

(995) Ta(f)Ldl,ovT€g. Kal yap ovnos avrwv hiaXvdevTOJV 

Kal [jLaXaxd€VTCov Kal rpoTTov riva TTpooa7T€vrojv^ 

epyov iarl T?]y Trei/jtv Kparrjaat, Kal htaKpaTrjdelGrj^ 

Sctvas"'' ^apvT7]Ta<^ e/xTTotet Kal voacoheis aTreipla^. 

6. Aioyevrjs 8' cJofiov (fyayelv ttoXvttovv eToXpLrjacv, 

D Lva rrjv hia rod nvpo? eK^aXr] Karepyaoiav rcbv 
Kpewv^' Kal TToXXcbv 7T€ p Lear COT ojv avTov* dvdpo)- 
TTioVy iyKaXvi/joLfjievos ro) rpt^coi^t Kal ra> OTOfiaTi 
7Tpoo(f)epwv TO Kpeag, " VTiep vjxcov," (j)r]aiv, " iyoj 
TTapa^dXXoiiai Kal TTpoKLvhvvevoj." KaXov, cS 
Zeu, KLvSvvov ov yap, (Ls HeXoTrihas vnep rrjs 
SrjPaLCOV^ iXevBepias t) (hs 'ApfMohiog Kal 'Aptaro- 
yetrojv vrrep rrj?^ ^Adrjvaiojv, TrpoeKivSvvevaev 6 
<f)LX6GO(f)og cojLto) TToXvTToSi 8tajLta;)^o/xevos', lva rov 
^iov aTTodrjpLCJGrj ; 

Ov roivvv [xovov at Kpeo^ayiai rols ouipLaoL 

E ytvovrai napd <f)VGLV, dXXd Kal rds ipvxds vtto 
TrXrjcTiJLovrjg Kal Kopov TraxvvovGLV " olvos yap Kal 

OapKOJV €[JL(j)OpT]GL€S CTOJ/Xa jjiEV LGXVpOV TToUoVOl Kal 

pcxjjjiaXeov, ifjvxy]^ Se dcr^evea." Kal lva {jltj rots 
dOXrirals aTTexOdviDpiai, Gvyyevloi ;)^pd)/xat irapa- 
Sety/xacrr rovs yap Botcorou? T7^ta? ol ^ Attikol 
Kal TTax^lg Kal dvaiGd'qTOV? Kal rjXidLov?, pidXiGra 
hid TOL? dhrj(f)ayLa? 7TpoG7]y6p€Vov " ovroi 8* au 

^ 7Tpooa7T€VTiov Klliperius : Kpioaa-niVTcov. 

^ Seivd? Post : hk Setm?. 

^ Tojv Kpiwv van Hcrwerden : tojv 8' Upecov. 

* auToi'J should perhaps be deleted. 

^ (-)r)^aiiov Bernardakis : (^rj^wv. 

554i 



THE EATING OF FLESH L 995 

burial. The fact is that meat is so softened and 
dissolved and, in a way, predigested that it is hard 
for digestion to cope with it ; and if digestion loses 
the battle, the meats affect us with dreadful pains 
and malignant forms of indigestion. 

6. Diogenes " ventured to eat a raw octopus in 
order to put an end to the inconvenience of preparing 
cooked food. In the midst of a large throng he 
veiled his head and, as he brought the flesh to his 
mouth, said, " It is for you that I am risking my life." 
Good heavens, a wondrous fine risk ! Just like 
Pelopidas ^ for the liberty of the Thebans or Har- 
modius and Aristogiton ^ for that of the Athenians, 
this philosopher risked his life struggling with a raw 
octopus — in order to brutalize our lives ! 

Note that the eating of flesh is not only physically 
against nature, but it also makes us spiritually coarse 
and gross by reason of satiety and surfeit. " For wine 
and indulgence in meat make the body strong and 
vigorous, but the soul weak." ^ And in order that I 
may not offend athletes, I shall take my own people as 
examples. It is a fact that the Athenians used to call 
us Boeotians ^ beef-witted and insensitive and foolish, 
precisely because we stuffed ourselves/ " These 

" Cf. 956 B supra where the context is quite different. See 
also Athenaeus, 341 e : Lucian, Vit. Auctio 10 ; Julian, 
Oration, vi. 181 a, 191 c ff. ; Diogenes Laertius, vi. 76; al. 

* Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chapters 7-11. 

'^ Cf. Thucydides, vi. 54-59. 

^ A quotation from the medical writer Androcydes ; see 
Mor. 472 B and the note. 

« Cf Rhys Roberts, The Ancient Boeotians, pp. 1-5. 

^ The passage that follows is badly mutilated : it probably 
contained other quotations and fuller ones than the mss. 
indicate. 

^ vTTcp TTJs Bernardakis : vnkp. 

555 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(i)'J5) ovs ..." /cat o MevavSpog " oV yvdOovs exovai," 
/cat o ritVSapo? " yvcovaL r eVetra . . . " " avt) 
8e^ ipvxT] Go<j)cordTri " Kara rov 'H/aa/cAetrov ol 
K€voL TTidoL^ KpovodivT€^ rjxovGL, yevofievoL 8e ttAtJ- 
pet? ovx VTTaKovovGL rats' TrAi^yat?- rcov ;^aA/ca>- 
^ fxarajv rd XeTrrd rovg ipocfyovs iv kvkXco StaStSojcrtv, 
^XP'-^ ou ificfypd^r) /cat TVcf)Xoj(j7] tls* rfj x^^pt r^s" 
TrXrjyrjs -n^pLcfyepoiiivri^ eVtAa^^avo^evo?- ocfidaXpLOS 
vypov nXeovdaavTog dvaTrX-qoOels fiapavyel /cat 
arovet 7r/)o? to oIkclov epyov rov rjXtov 8t' dlpos 
vypov /cat dvadvpudoeojv ttXtjOov? aTreTncov dQpi)- 
aavreg ov Kadapov ovhe XapLTTpov dXXd ^vOlov /cat 
dxXva)Sr] /cat oAtcr^avovra rat? auyat? opcofiev. 
ovTOJ hrj /cat 8ta craj/xaro? BoXepov /cat 8ta/copou 
/cat papwofJilvov Tpo(j)aL? davpL^yXois ttclg^ dvdyKT] 
TO ydvajfia rrj? ijjvx'^'S f<al ro (f)eyyos dfi^Xvrrjra 
/cat o-i;y;^L'CTtv ^x^f^v /cat irXavdoOaL /cat (fyvpeuQai,^ 
TTpds rd AeTTTO. /cat hvadeojprjTa reXrj rd)v npay- 
fxdrwv avyrjv /cat rovov ovk exovorjs. 

7. Xcopts" 8e rovTcov 6 npo? ^iXavd pioir iav idi- 
OjLio? oi) 8o/cet davjJLaGTov etvat ; rt? yap av aSt/cr^- 
oftev dvdpiOTTov, OVTOJ rrpds dXXorpia /cat dGVpi(f>vXa 

^ Ol] vd)v or oi'ojv Meinekf. 
^ auT] Se W. C. H. after Hatzidakis : avy-q CvPV- 

^ ol K€Vol TTldoL Relske : €OLK(l'. Ol TTldoi. 

* T19 added by Ste})haniis. 
^ (f)vpeodai Reiske : <f>€pcodai. 

* Cf. the proverbial " sow and Athena " (Life of Demos- 
thenes, xi. 5, 851 H and Mar. 803 d) and the Introduction to 
the (rryllus. 

* Kock, Coyn. .It/. Fnif/. iii. p. 238 (trap. 748 Koerte) : tlie 
words probably mean " Who are greedy fellows." 

556 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 995-996 

men are swine " " : . . . and Menander ^ says, " Who 
have jaws " ; and Pindar '^ " And then to learn . . . " ; 
" A dry soul is wisest " according to Heraclitus.^ 
Empty jars make a noise when struck, but full 
ones do not resound to blows,* Thin bronze objects 
will pass the sounds from one to another in a circle 
until you dampen and deaden the noise with your 
hand as the beat goes round/ The eye ^ when it is 
flooded by an excess of moisture grows dim and 
weakened for its proper task. When w^e examine the 
sun through dank atmosphere and a fog of gross 
vapours, we do not see it clear and bright, but sub- 
merged and misty, with elusive rays. In just the 
same way, then, when the body is turbulent and sur- 
feited and burdened with improper food, the lustre 
and light of the soul inevitably come through it 
blurred and confused, aberrant and inconstant, since 
the soul lacks the brilliance and intensity to pene- 
trate to the minute and obscure issues of active life. 

7. But apart from these considerations, do you not 
find here a wonderful means of training in social 
responsibility ? Who could wrong a human being 
when he found himself so gently and humanely dis- 

" Olympians, vi. 89, which continues " whether we are 
truly arraigned by that ancient gibe, ' Boeotian swine.' " 
(For this interpretation see G. Norwood, Pindar, pp. 82 
and 237.) 

** Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok. i, p. 100, frag. B 118; cf. 
the note on Mor. 43:2 f. 

' Cf. Mor. 721 B-D. 

f Mor. 721 c-D suggests that Plutarch is talking about a 
single cauldron with a wave going around it rather than 
about a circular arrangement of tuning forks. " Sounding 
brass " : cf. L. Parmentier, Recherches sur Vlsis et Osiris 
{Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg. ii, vol. II, 1912/13), pp. 31 ff. 
*• « Cf. Mor. 714 D. 

557 



PLrTARCH'S MORALIA 

(996) SiaKelfievo'^ kol Trpdajs Kal (fyiXavdpcoTroj^ ; ifxvrjodrjv 

Se TpLTTjv r^fxepav hiaXeyojievos to rod 'RevoKpd- 

Tovg OTL^ ^Adr^valoL TOJ ^ajvra tov Kpiov eKheipavTL 

Slktjv eTTedrjKav ovk eon 8', ot/xat, ;^etpt(jv o ^coyra 

B ^aoavit^cjjv tov TTapaipovpiivov to i^rjv /cat </>oi^euov- 

TO?" aAAa pLoiXXov', co? €olk€, tcDv napd ovvrjdeLav rj 

TOJV napd (f)VGLV aladavofjLeda. Kal raOTa fiev eKeZ 

KOLVOTcpov cXeyov ttjv Se fieydXr^v Kal iivaTTjpLOjSr] 

Kal aTTLGTOV avSpacrt Sctrots"/ 7^ (f)rjaLV 6 nAarctJi-', 

Kal dvrjTa (jypovovoiv dp)(r^v tov hoyjiaTOS okvcj fiev 

€TL^ TO) Xoycx) KLvelv, wanep vavv ev xeifiajvi vav- 

KXrjpog Tj iJirj-)(avr)v atpetv* ttoltjtlkos dvrjp iv ded- 

Tpcp GKrjvrjg TTepLcfyepofjLevqg. ov x^^pov 8* uawg Kal 

TTpoavaKpovoaodai Kal Trpoava<f)a)vrJGaL to. tov 'EjLt- 

77eSo/cAeoi>?* . . . dXXrjyopel yap ivTavda TO.^ ifjv)(ds, 

OTL <f)6vcxjv Kal ^pcoueu)? oapKcov Kal dXXrjXocfya- 

C yea? hiKiqv TLVovaai cr co/xaat OvrjTols eVSeSevrat. 

KaiTOi SoK€L TTaXaioTepos ovTO? 6 Xoyog elvav tcl 

yap St) rrepl tov lS^lovvgov pLepivSevpiiva Trddrj tov 

SLapLeXiGpLov Kal to. Tiravcov ctt* avTOV roA/xry/Ltara, 

KoXdG€Lg T€ TOVTCOV Kal K€pavva)G€L? y€VGapL€Va)V 

TOV (f)6vov, rjVLypiivos^ €GtI pLvdos et? ttjv TTaXty- 

^ on Pohlenz : kol oti. 

2 Sfivot? Hernardakis : SeiAoi?. 

' ert Keiske : eVi. 

* aipeiv Turnebus : epcl. 

* fjviyfiivos Keiske : dyrjy^evos. 

* See Heinze, Xenokrates, p. 151, frag. 99. 
' Phaedrus, 345 c. 

" The Greek is both difficult and ambifruous ; perhaps 
" hesitates to set his ship in motion while a storm is raging." 

558 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 996 

posed toward other non-human creatures ? Two days 
ago in a discussion I quoted the remark of Xeno- 
crates," that the Athenians punished the man w^ho 
had flayed a ram while it was still alive ; yet, as 
I think, he who tortures a living creature is no worse 
than he who slaughters it outright. But it seems 
that we are more observant of acts contrary to con- 
vention than of those that are contrary to nature. In 
that place, then, I made my remarks in a popular 
vein. I still hesitate, however, to attempt a discus- 
sion of the principle underlying my opinion, great as 
it is, and mysterious and incredible, as Plato ^ says, 
with merely clever men of mortal opinions, just as a 
steersman hesitates to shift his course '^ in the midst 
of a storm, or a playwright to raise his god from the 
machine in the midst of a play. Yet perhaps it is 
not unsuitable to set the pitch and announce the 
theme by quoting some verses of Empedocles.^ . . . 
By these lines he means, though he does not say so 
directly, that human souls are imprisoned in mortal 
bodies as a punishment for murder, the eating of 
animal flesh, and cannibalism. This doctrine, how- 
ever, seems to be even older, for the stories told about 
the sufferings and dismemberment of Dionysus ^ and 
the outrageous assaults of the Titans upon him, and 
their punishment and blasting by thunderbolt after 
they had tasted his blood — all this is a myth which 
in its inner meaning has to do with rebirth. For to 

^ The verses have fallen out, but may be, in part, those 
quoted infra, 998 c, or a similar passage. 

' See I. M. Linforth, The Arts of Orpheus, chapter 5, 
" The Dismemberment of Dionysus," and especially pp. 
334 if., on this passage. A good illustration is the fragment 
of Dionvsius in D. L. Page, Greek Literary Papyri, i(L.C.L.), 
pp. 538-541. 

559 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(99()) yevecjLai" to yap eV rjiilv dXoyov Kal ara/crov Kat 
^iaiov ov delov dXXa 8atjLtovt/c6v ov^ ol TraXaiol 
TtTaras- chvofjiaaav, Kal tovt" €.gti KoXa^ofievovs 
Kal hiKrjv hihovras .^ . . . 

^ ov added by Heiske. 

^ K-oAa^o/xeVouj Kal hU-qv hihovras W'vttenhacli : /coAa^o- 

fjL€VOV Kal 8lKr)V SlSoVTOS. 

" See Hesiod's etymology, Theogony^ 209 f. For this 



560 



THE EATING OF FLESH I, 996 

that faculty in us which is unreasonable and dis- 
ordered and violent, and does not come from the 
gods, but from evil spirits, the ancients gave the 
name Titans," that is to say, those that are punished 
and subjected to correction. . . . ^ 

" Greek equivalent of original sin " see Shorey on Plato, 
Laws, 701 c ( What Plato Said, p. 6-29), Mor. 975 b supra ; and 
Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational, pp. 155 and 177. 
^ The first discourse breaks off at this point. 



561 



^'^'^^ nEPI SAPKOOAriAS 

1 . 'E77t ra eojXa T17? aapKocfyaylas TTpoo(f>arovs 
rjfidg 6 X6yo9 TTapaKaXel rdls re 8tavotat9 Kal rals 
TTpodvjJLLaig yeviodai. jj^qActtov fikv yap, wairep 
Karojv €(f)'qG€, Xeyetv Trpos yaorepa? cbra [xrj exov- 
oas' Kal 7T€7TOTaL 6 rrjg GvvqOeias kvk€wv, ojortep 
6 rrjg ¥^ipK7]s 

E (hhivas T ohvvas re KVKecov^ aTTOLTas re yoovs re* 

Kal TO ayKLorpov e/cjSaAAetv tt^? crapKOcfyayias co? 
ipLTTeTrXeyiievov^ rfj (f)LXr]SovLa Kal 8ta7re7rap/xevov ov 
pahiov ioTLV. eirel KaXcog €^X^^> tSaTrep AlyvTmoL 
Tcov veKpayv rrfv KoiXiav i^eXovres Kal Trpos tov 
tJXlov dvaaxi^ovreg eK^aXXovaiv wg alriav arravrcov 
(Lv 6 avdpojTTos yjijiaprev, ovrws rj/xd? eaurtov^ rrjv 
yaoTpipiapyiav Kal /Lttat^ovtay iKrefxovras dyvevoat 
TOV XoLTTov ^iov cTTel T^ y€ yaaTTjp ov pLLaL<f)6vov 

^ (JoBtvas t' oBwas re KVKiojv Wilamowitz : cbSivas oSvvas 

KVK€OJV, 

^ eixrrfTrXeyfievov Stephanus : ifiTTeTrXTjanevov or (fnre'rrqYfj.evov. 
* eauTaJv I'urnebus : (airrovs. 

" Cf. Plutarch's introduction to the second essay on the 
Fortune of Alexander (Mar. 333 d). 

^ Cf. .Mor. 131 D, 198 D ; Life of Cato Major, 8 (340 a). 

562 



ON THE EATING OF FLESH 

H 

1. Reason urges us with fresh ideas and fresh zeal 
to attack again our yesterday's discourse '^ on the 
eating of flesh. It is indeed difficult, as Cato ^ re- 
marked, to talk to bellies which have no ears. And 
the potion of familiarity has been drunk, like that of 
Circe « 

Commingling pains and pangs, tricks and tears '^ ; 

nor is it easy to extract the hook of flesh-eating, en- 
tangled as it is and embedded in the love of pleasure. 
And, like the Egyptians ^ who extract the viscera of 
the dead and cut them open in view of the sun, then 
throw them away as being the cause of every single 
sin that the man had committed, it would be well 
for us to excise our own gluttony and lust to kill and 
become pure for the remainder of our lives, since it 
is not so much our belly that drives us to the pollution 

'^ Odyssey, x. 236. 

^ Perhaps a verse of Empedocles : Diels-Kranz, Frag, der 
Vorsok. i, p. 372, frag. 154 a ; cf. Wilamowitz, Hermes, xl, 
p. 165. (Andrews prefers to adopt the reading KVKecov, 
" potion," assuming a verbal form, " dulls " or " bkmts," 
in the preceding or following line.) 

" Cf. Herodotus, ii. 86 ; Diodorus, i. 91 ; Mor. 159 b ; 
Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 10 (p. 244, ed. Nauck). 

563 



PLITAKCH'S MORALIA 

(996) eoTLV dXXa fjLLaLvofjLevov 0,770 rrjg oLKpaala?' ou ^ijv 
dAA' el Kal dSvvaTov vtj Ata hta} rrjv Gvvqdeiav 
F TO dvandprrjTov, alo-)(yv6pi€voi rw diiaprdvovTi XPV' 
GOfjieda Slol rov Aoyov, ehofieda adpKas, dXXd 
7T€Lva)vr€s ov Tpv(f)covr€S' dvaip-qoopiev l,a)ov, dAA' 
OLKT€Lpovr€s Kal dXyovvT€s, ovx 'u^pit,ovres ovhk 
BaoavL^ovTes' ola vvv TioAAd^ SpoJaiv ol fiev et? 
997 G(f)ayr]v vcov (hSovvres o^eXovs Siarrvpovs, Iva rfj 
^CLcf)fj rod glSY]pov TrepLajSevvvpLevov to atpia Kal Sta- 
X^opLcvov TTjv odpKa OpvxpTj Kal pLaXd^Tj- ol 8* ov- 
daai avojv eTnroKcov ivaXX6pL€i^oL Kal XaKTc^ovre^, 
iv' at/xa Kal ydXa Kal Xvdpov ipi^pvajv opLov avp.- 
(f)6ap€VTOJV iv chhiGLV dvaSevaavres , c5 Zeu Kaddp- 
Gie, (f)dya)GL rod Icpov to ptdXiara (^Xcypalvov 
dXXoL TC^ yepdvcov opipLara Kal kvkvcov* dirop- 
pdipavres Kal aTTOKXeioavres ev OKorei Tnaivovcriv, 
dXXoKoroLS pLLypLaaL Kal KapvKeiais tlgIv avTOJV rrjV 

odpKa 6ip07TOlOVVT€S . 

2. 'E^ (1)V Kal pidXiora StJAov iuTLV, ojg ov 8td 
B rpo(f)r)v ot)8e ;;^petav ou8' dvay/catco? dAA' vtto Kopov 
Kal v^pecos Kal rroXvreXeias tjSovtjv TreTTocrjvraL ttjv 
dvop-Lav eW^ cooTrep epojs" iv yvvai^lv Kopov rjSovrjs 
ovK exovaaig, dTTOTreipcjpievos Trdvra Kal TrXavco- 
pLevos aKoXaoraivwv e^eTveaev els rd appr^ra^' 
ovTOJS at TTepl ttjv iScohrjv aKpaoiai to c^volkov 
TTapeXOovaat Kal dvayKalov reXo? ev ajponqn Kal 

1 VT] L^ia 8ta l^ernardakis : tj 8ia. 

'^ TToXXa] 77oAAot TToAAd vuii Herwerden. 

^ T€ added by Hernardakis. 

* KVKvuiv~\ xr)i'U)v ^^ yttenliach. 

^ wanep (pws Keiske : cLonep, * (Is to. appfva Kmperiu.s. 

564 



THE EATING OF FLESH K, 996-997 

of slaughter ; it is itself polluted by our incontinence. 
Yet if, for heaven's sake, it is really impossible for us 
to be free from error because we are on such terms 
of familiarity with it, let us at least be ashamed of 
our ill doing and resort to it only in reason. We shall 
eat flesh, but from hunger, not as a luxury. We shall 
kin an animal, but in pity and sorrow, not degrading 
or torturing it — which is the current practice in many 
cases, some thrusting red-hot spits into the throats 
of swine so that by the plunging in of the iron the 
blood may be emulsified and, as it circulates through 
the body, may make the flesh tender and delicate. 
Others jump upon the udders of sows " about to give 
birth and kick them so that, when they have blended 
together blood and milk and gore (Zeus the Purifier !) 
and the unborn young have at the same time been 
destroyed at the moment of birth, they may eat the 
most inflamed part of the creature. Still others sew 
up the eyes of cranes ^ and swans, '^ shut them up in 
darkness and fatten them, making the flesh appetizing 
with strange compounds and spicy mixtures. 

2. From these practices it is perfectly evident that 
it is not for nourishment or need or necessity, but 
out of satiety and insolence and luxury that they 
have turned this lawless custom into a pleasure. 
Then, just as with women who are insatiable in 
seeking pleasure, their lust tries everything, goes 
astray, and explores the gamut of profligacy until at 
last it ends in unspeakable practices ; so intemper- 
ance in eating passes beyond the necessary ends of 
nature and resorts to crueltv and lawlessness to give 

" Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 210-211 is not quite so gruesome. 
" Pliny, Xat. Hist. x. 60. 

" Wvttenbach reasonablv suggested " geese," but see 
Athenaeus, 131 f; 393 c-d.' 

565 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(997) TTapavojjLLa ttolklXXovctl ttjv ope^cv. ovvvooel yap 
aAAi^Aots' Tct aladrjr-qpia /cat avvavaTreiSerai /cat 
aura/coAacTTatret pLTj Kparovvra roJv (f)VGLKa)v [le- 
rpujv. ovTOJS OLKOJ) vooiqaaoa p.ovGLKrjV hi€(j)8€ip€v, 
d(f)^ rjs TO dpvTTTOfjLCvov /cat iKXvojjievov atcrp^pas* 
TTodeV ilj7]Xa<f)rjoeis /cat yvvaiKOiheis yapyaXiopiovS' 
C ravra rrjv oijjiv e8i8a^e /xt^ 7Tvppi-)(aiS ;(atp€iv purihk 
X^t-povofiiais jLtr^S' opx^jfioLori' yXacfyvpols firjh'' ayaA- 
/xacrt Kat ypa^at?, dAAa (f)6vov /cat ddvarov dvdpco- 
TTOJV /cat rpavjxara /cat pid^as deap^a TToielodai 
TToXvreXeoTarov . ovrojg errovraL 7Tapav6p,OLS rpa- 
TTc^at? ovvovGiaL dKparels, d(j)pohioiois atcr;^pot? 
dKpodoeis dpLovGoi, /xeAecrt /cat d/coucr/xacrtv dvat- 
(T;(i;vT0t9 dearpa €K(f)vXa, OedpiaGiv dvr]p,€poL? drrd- 
Beia npog dvOpconov? /cat co/xdro]?. Std rovro 
hUrarrev^ 6 OeXos AvKovpyos eV rtcrt^ p-qrpais ro 
0,770 TTpiovos /cat TxeAe/cecos" ytVea^at rd dvpcopiara 
D TcDv OLKLOJV /cat rd? epeipets,^ dXXo 8' opyavov pi'qhev 

7TpOG<j)€p€Gdai, OV TToXepiCOV S'qTTOV T€p€TpOLS Kal 
GK€7TdpVOlS Kal OGa XeTTTOVpyetv 7T€(f)VK6V dAA* 

6t86l»9 oTt 8td rotouTcov epycov^ ovk elGoiaeis 

kXiVlSlOV iTTLXpVGOV OvSc ToXpLrJG€L9 Ct? OLKLaV XlTrjV 

dpyvpds €LG€V€yK€LV rpaTTe^a? /cat 8d77t8a9 dAoup- 
yov? /cat Xldovg TToXvreX^Xs^ • dAA' eVerat /Ltev' olklo. 

* TTO^ei Turnebus : ri^et. 

2 SieVaTTev added by \\'yttenbach. 
"* TiCTi W. C. H. : Tat? rpial. 

* ipeijjeig Xylander : repipeis. 
^ epycov] QvpoJv Em peri us. 

® aXovpyiis Koi KvXiKas SiaXldovg voXvTeXels van Herwer- 
den. 

' /xev added by Benseler. 

« See Plato, Laws, 816 b. 
566 



THE EATING OF FLESH H, 997 

variety to appetite. FoMt is in their own company 
that organs of sense are infected and won over and 
become licentious when they do not keep to natural 
standards. Just so the art of hearing has fallen sick, 
"corrupting musical taste. From this our luxury and 
debauchery conceives a desire for shameful caresses 
and effeminate titillations. These taught the sight 
not to take pleasure in warlike exercises " or gesticu- 
lations or refined dances or statues and paintings, but 
to regard the slaughter and death of men, their 
wounds and combats, as the most precious sort of 
spectacle.^ Just so intemperate intercourse follows 
a lawless meal, inharmonious music follows a shame- 
ful debauch, barbarous spectacles follow shameless 
songs and sounds, insensitivity and cruelty toward 
human kind follow savage exhibitions in the theatre. 
It was for this reason that the godlike Lycurgus ^ 
gave directions in certain rhetrae ^ that the doors and 
roofs of houses should be fashioned by saw and axe 
alone and no other tool should be used — not of course 
because he had a quarrel with gimlets and adzes and 
other instruments for delicate work. It was because 
he knew that through such rough-hewn work you 
will not be introducing a gilded couch, nor will you 
be so rash as to bring silver tables and purple rugs 
and precious stones into a simple house. The corol- 

* Referring to the gladiatorial combats which came to be 
substituted for the more refined exhibitions of an earlier age. 
Plutarch urges the expulsion of such practices from the 
State in Mor. 822 c ; for further examples of this kind of 
opposition to Roman policy see H. Fuchs, Der geistige 
Widerstand gegen Rom, p. 49, n. 60. 

" Life of Lycurgus, xiii. 5-6 (47 b-c) ; Mor. 189 e, 227 c, 
285 c ; Comment, on Hesiod, 42 (Bernardakis, vii, p. 72). 

^ Or " unwritten laws " ; the mss. here say " in the three 
rhetrae.''^ 

567 



PLl TARCH'S MORALIA 

V)i)7) Kal kXlvt] Kal rpaTreJr^ kol kvXlkl roiavrr] helTTVov 
d(f)€X€? Kal apiOTOv SrjfjLOTLKOv, apxfl Se fjLoxO'qpdg 

aOrjXog LTTTTcp ttojXo^ CO? djjia rp€)(^€L 

TTaoa rpv(f)r] Kal 77oAuTeAeta. 

3. notov ovv ov TToXvreXes hetTTvov, et? o^ ^ava- 
Tovrai rt ep^ipvxov ; puKpov dvdXojfia r^yovjieda 

E ifjvxTjv ; ovTTOJ Xeyco rdxa fir^rpos rj rrarpos rj 
(fiiXov rivos rj 77at8o?, cos eXeyev 'EjuttcSokAt)?* aAA' 
alodrioeajs ye' fjLerexovoav , 6ip€a>s dKo-qs, (f)ai'Ta- 
oias Gvveaecos, t^v eirl Krrjoei rod oiKeiov Kal <f)vyfj 
rdXXorpiov Trapd rrjg ^voecjs cKaarov elXiqx^' 
GKOTTei 8' rfpids TTorepoi ^eXriov i^-qpLcpovcn rojv 
(f)iXoG6(f)a>v, ol Kal T€Kva Kal (fyiXov? Kal irarepas^ 
Kal yvvalKas icrdUtv KcXevovres dTTodavovrag * rj 
Ilvdayopas Kal 'EjU,7re8o/cA'^? edil,ovres elvac Kal 
TTpos rd dXXa yevrf hiKaiovs. av fxev KarayeXas 
rod rd Trpo^arov p.7) eodiovros' dXX rjfJLets ce/ 
(f)rjaovGL, deaadiJLevoL rod narpog redvrjKoros rj rrjs 

F p.r)rpds diTor^ixovra fieplhas Kal rd)V ^iXcxJV dno- 
TTefjLTTOjJLevov roLS l-irj Trapovai, rovs 8e Ttapovras 
rrapaKaXovvra' Kal rrapariBevra rcbv uapKcbv d(f)€L- 

^ o Xylandcr : o ov. 

^ ye Xylander : re. 

' TTarcpa?] Kal fi-qrepas old editors add. 

* OLTTodavovTa^ Wyttenbach : cos aTTodavovTas. 

^ y€vrj Xylander : ^idpy], 

^ ae Wyttenbach : ye. 

' TxapaKaXovvra Kronenlierg^ : KaXovvTa. 



" Semonides, frag. 5 ; see Mor. \\6 r. and the note. 
* That is, " the reincarnated life." 



568 



THE EATING OF FLESH U, 997 

lary of such a house and couch and table and cup is 
a dinner which is unpretentious and a lunch which 
is truly democratic ; but all manner of luxury and 
extravagance follow the lead of an evil way of life 

As new-weaned foal beside his mother runs." 

3. For what sort of dinner is not costlv for which 
a living creature loses its life ? Do we hold a life 
cheap ? I do not yet go so far as to say that it may 
well be the life ^ of your mother or father or some 
friend or child, as Empedocles ^ declared. Yet it does, 
at least, possess some perception, hearing, seeing, 
imagination, intelligence, which last every creature 
receives from Nature to enable it to acquire what is 
proper for it and to evade what is not. Do but con- 
sider which are the philosophers who serve the better 
to humanize us : those '^ who bid us eat our children 
and friends and fathers and wives after their death, ^ 
or Pythagoras ^ and Empedocles who try to accustom 
us to act justly toward other creatures also ? You 
ridicule a man who abstains from eating mutton. 
But are we, they ^ will say, to refrain from laughter 
when we see you slicing off portions from a dead 
father or mother and sending them to absent friends 
and inviting those who are at hand, heaping their 

" As in frag. B 137 (Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok. i, p. 
275). 

^ Cf. von Arnim, S.V.F. iii, p. 186. 

^ That is, they tell us to eat meat without compunction, 
because human beings are only mortal, and their souls are 
not reincarnated in animals. 

^ Cf. 993 A supra. The argument is somewhat weakened 
l)y the fact (certainly well known to Plutarch, e.g. Mor. 386 
d-e) that P}i:hagoras placed an even more stringent taboo 
on beans than he did on meat. 

^ Pythagoras and Empedocles. 

569 



PIATARCHS MORALIA 

(<)07) St^S", fJ-rj Tt yeXdocofJiev ;^ aXXa Kal vvv lgoj? 
a^aprdvoixev , orav d\p(x>iieda tcov ^l^Xlojv tovtcov, 
fj-T] KadaipofxevoL ;^€tpa? Kal oj/ret? Kal TioSa? Kal 

OLKods, €L jJiTj VT] At" €K€LVCOV KadapjJiO^ eCTTt TO 

7T€pl TOVTCOV hiaXeyeodai , " TroTifio) Xoyco," cos" (f)r]- 
998 CTLV 6 IIAarcur, " dX/jLvpav clkot^v d7TOKXvl,oiJL€vovs -" 
€1 hk Oelrj TLS TOL ^if^Xia irap* d'AAi^Aa Kal tovs 
Xoyovs, eKelva p^ev HKvdais <^iXoGo<^elT ai^ Kal 
ILoyhiavols Kal MeAay;^AatVot?, Trept wv ^WpohoTos 
LOTopcJbv dTTLGTe'iTaL' ' TO. §6 Ylvdayopov Kal 'E/Lt- 
TrehoKXeovs Soy/xara vopuoi twv TraXaLOJV Tycrav 
*KXXr)va>v Kal at TTvpcKal* Statrat. . , . [ort npos 
TOL dXoya Jwa 8t/catov rjpXv ovSev ecrTt.^] 
4. TtVes" ovv VGTepov tout' eyvwaav ; 

ot TTpcJTOL KaKoepyov e-)(aXKevoavTO pid-)(aipav 
elvoSlrjVy TTpWTOi 8e jSooov eirdoavT dpoTrjpcov. 

OVTOJ rot Kal ol TVpavvovvTes dpxovoL jittat^ovta?. 

B a)G7T€p ydp^ TO TTpOJTOV^ d7TeKT€LVaV ^ KOrjVrjGL TOV 

KdKLGTOv Tctjv GVKoSavTcbv KaV SevTepov opLoioJS 
Kal TpiTOV etT* eK tovtov Gvvrjdeis y€v6p,evoL 

^ yeAacra)/x.6v Bernardakis : yeAaaai/xfv. 
'^ <f)i\oao<l>€iTai Reiske : <f)LXoao<f>€Ladai. 
^ 7T€pl . . . oLTTLGrdTaL slioukl perliaps be deleted. 
* TTVpiKal Post : TTvpia or TTvpela Kal. 
^ oTt . . . ecTL dek4ed by Sleziriacus. 
^ (jiOTTip yap Bernardakis : wanep. 

^ TO TrpojTOv van Herwerden : tov npcoTov or dno ruyv irpcjjTojv. 
^ Kal] in the mss. preceded by the words Ss eVtTTySetos' rrpoa- 
TjyopevOr], interpolated from 959 d ; deleted by W. C. H. 

" Phaedrus, 243 d ; cf. Mor. 627 f, 706 e, 711 d. 
^ That is, of the two schools of philosophy mentioned 
above in 997 k. 

" Plutarch seems to have confused the Black Cloaks 

570 



THE EATING OF FLESH H, 997-998 

plates with flesh ? But as it is, perhaps we commit 
a sin when we touch these books of theirs without 
cleansing our hands and faces, our feet and ears — 
unless, by Heaven, it is a purification of those mem- 
bers to speak on such a subject as this, " washing," 
as Plato " says, " the brine from one's ears with the 
fresh water of discourse." If one should compare 
these two sets of books and doctrines,^ the former 
may serve as philosophy for the Scyths and Sogdians 
and the Black Cloaks, whose story as told by Hero- 
dotus ^ gains no credit ^ ; but the precepts of 
Pythagoras ^ and Empedocles were the laws for the 
ancient Greeks along with their diet of wheat. . . / 
[Because there is no question of justice between us 
and the irrational animals.] 

4. Who, then, were they who later decreed this ? 

The first to forge the highway's murderous sword, 
And first to eat the flesh of ploughing ox.' 

This is the way, you may be sure, in which tyrants 
begin their course of bloody slaughters. Just as, for 
instance, at Athens ^ they put to death initially the 
worst of the sycophants, and likewise in the second 
and third instances ; but next, having become accus- 
tomed to bloodshed they allowed Niceratus,* the 

(Herodotus, iv. 20, but cf. iv. 107) with the Issedones (iv. 26) ; 
and perhaps the Sogdians (iii. 93) with the Padaei (iii. 99) ; 
cf. also i. 216 and iii. 38. 

'^ But this clause looks like a semi-learned addition. 

* Cf. 964 E-F supra. 

f There seems to be a lacuna here followed by an inter- 
polation from chapter 6 or 7. 

» Aratus, Phaenomena, 131 f. ; cf. Lucilius' parody in the 
Palatine Anthology, xi. 136. 

'' Cf 959 D supra and the note. 

* Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, ii. 3. 39. 

571 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(998) Nt/CT^paroi' Ttepieojpwv^ a7ToXXv}X€vov rov NtKrtou /cat 
Qripajjievrj rov arpanqyov Kal YloXefjLapxov rov 
<f)LX6GO(f)ov' ovroj ro rrpcjrov aypiov rt l^coov i^pcodrj 
Kal KaKovpyov, cfr* opi'ts" ri? rj Ixdv? 09' etA/cuCTro* 
Kal yevadfievov ovroj Kal TTpofJieXerrjcrav eV eKeivois 
ro (fiovLKOv^ €ttI ^ovv epyar-qv rjXOe Kal ro Koofitov* 
Trpo^arov Kal rov otKovpov aXeKrpvova- Kal Kara 
fXLKpov ovro) rrjv aTTXrjGriav GropLcoaavre? ettl acpa- 
C yoLS dvdpcoTTOJV Kal TToXepiovs Kal (f)6vovs npoi^Xdo- 
fxev.^ dXX' idv Trrf TTpoaTTohel^r)' ris, on ;)(pt5yrat 
KOLVols at ifjuxo.1 ocopLaGLV iv rat? 77aAtyyev£atat? 
Kal ro vvv XoyiKov au^t? ytVerat dXoyov Kal irdXtv 
'qpLepov ro vvv dypiov, dXXdaaei 8' r) <f>vcn? drravra 

Kal pL€rOLKLC,€i 

aapKcov dXXoyvcorc TrepioreXXovaa ;)^tTajvt, 

ravr ovk dTTorpeiTei rcov dvrjprjpLevwv^ ro d/coAa- 
CTTOV rov^ Kal crcopLan voaovs Kal ^apvrrjras e'ju,- 
TTOieZv Kal i/jvx'^v ^.ttI roXp-av (hpiorepav^^ rpenop^evrjv 
hia<jideipeLV orav dTrediadcopLev^^ pLrj at/xaro? dvev Kal 
<f)6vov purj ^€vov iandv, pLTj ydpLov eoprdt^eiv, /xt] 
(fylXoL? ovyyiveadai ; 

^ TT€pL€ajpcov Stephanas : ewpwv. 

- OS added by Post. 

^ <f>ovLK6i> Turnebus : vlkcov or vlkovv. 

* Koofiiov Turnebus : Koofiovv. 

^ TTporjXdoiJ.ei' W. C ]\. : TrporjXdov. 

^ TTT] post : fXTj. 

' TTpoa-nohei^rj Sieveking : TTpoaarrohei^rj. 

•* rcov dvTjprjiJ.evwv] to dvrmepov Stephanus. 

» Tov \y. C. H. : TO. 

^" ToXfiav wpLoripav Haiipt (Ihrmfft, vi, p. 'i59) : -noXipt-ov 
dvofioiTipcov. 
^^ d-ncdiaOwpLCv Post : ediadwpLev, 

57-2 



thp: eating of flesh ii, 998 

son of Nicias, to be killed and the general Thera- 
menes ^ and the philosopher Polemarchus.^ Just so, 
at the beginning it was some wild and harmful 
animal that was eaten, then a bird or fish that had 
its flesh torn. And so when our murderous instincts 
had tasted blood and grew practised on wdld animals, 
they advanced to the labouring ox and the well- 
behaved sheep and the house-warding cock ; thus, 
little by little giving a hard edge to our insatiable 
appetite, we have advanced to wars and the slaughter 
and murder of human beings. Yet if someone once 
demonstrates that souls in their rebirths make use of 
common bodies and that what is now rational reverts 
to the irrational, and again what is now ^\'ild becomes 
tame, and that Nature changes everything and 
assigns new dwellings 

Clothing souls with unfamiliar coat of flesh'' ; 

will not this deter the unruly element in those who 
have adopted the doctrine from implanting disease 
and indigestion ^ in our bodies and perverting our 
souls to an ever more cruel lawlessness, as soon as 
we are broken of the habit of not entertaining a 
guest or celebrating a marriage or consorting with 
our friends without bloodshed and murder ? 

" Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, ii. 8. 56. 

* The son of Cephalus and brother of Lysias ; a prominent 
character in Plato, RepubUc, i. For the circumstances of his 
death see Lysias' oration Against Eratosthenes. It is, how- 
ever, somewhat unlikely that Plutarch should call Pole- 
marchus " the philosopher " even though he appeared in 
the Republic and his philosophic bent was mentioned in the 
Phaedrus (■251 b) ; so that, once again, we may be faced with 
interpolation. 

" Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok. i, p. 362 ; Empedocles, 
frag. 126. '^ Cf. Mor. 128 b-e. 

573 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(998) , T' ' - ^ ' . / . , , 

' 5. KatTOi TTjg AeyojjievTjg rat? iffuxcLLS et? Gcofiara 

ttolXlv fieTa^oXrjg et fjir] TTLcrreajg a^Lov to a77-o8et/<:vi;- 

fjLevov, dXX* €vXa^€Lag ye^ iieydXr]? Kal Seovg to 

a.fi(f)i^oXov . olov €1 Tts" €v vvKToyia-)(iaL<^ crrparo- 

TreStov dvSpl tt^tttcokoti koL to GWfJLa KpvnroyLeva) 

TOtS" OTrXoLg i7n(f)€pcxjv ^L(f)OS aKOVGeie^ tlvos Xeyovros 

ov Trdvv fiev etSeVat jSc^atto?, oleadai 8e koI So/cctv 

vlov avTov rov Kelfievov tj dSeA</)ov t) jrarepa rj 

ovoKTivov €LvaL' Tt ^eXriov , VTTovoia TrpoadepLevov 

ovK dXrjdel TrpoloOai rov ix^pov d>9 <j)iXov, tj Kara- 

(fypovqaavra rov firj jSejSatou rrpog TTiariv dveXelv 

rov oLKelov a»? TToXefitov ; eKelvo heivov (f)7]G€r€ 

E 7TavT€S". GKOTrei 8e Kal rrjv iv rfj rpaycjphia Mepo- 

Tn^v 6771 Tov VLOV avrov CO? (f)ov€a rod vlov rreXcKw 

dpaij.€vrjv Kal Xiyovaav 

wvqrepav Sr] rrjvS^ iycb 8iSa>/xt Got 
TrXriyriv, 

oGov €v rw Bedrpo) KLvqfia TToiel, Gvve^op6idt,ovGa 
(f)6^cp^ fir) (fiddGT) rov einXapL^avopLevov yepovra Kal 
rpcoGTj ro jxeipdKiov . et 8' er^pos yepcov rrapeGrrj- 
KOL* Xeycov, " TraiGov, TToXefjao? eoriv "• erepo? 8e, 
jjLrj rraLGT]?, vlos ion "• norepov dhiKrjpia fX€il,ov, 
ixdpov KoXaGLV eKXiTTetv 8ta tov vlov rj reKVOKrovla 
7T€pL7T6G€LV VTTO T"^? TT/Do? rov i^dpov opyrj'^ ; oTTore 

^ ye Reiske : tc. 

^ oLKovaeie an early corrt-ction : olkovooi or aKovaei. 

^ (f>6Poj van licrwerden : (f)6vov (or (f>6^oj) Kal Sto?. 

* TTapcoT-qKOL van lierwerden : TrapeiaT^/cei. 

574 



THE EATING OF FLESH H, 998 

5. Yet even if the argument of the migration of 
souls from body to body is not demonstrated to the 
point of complete belief, there is enough doubt to 
make us quite cautious and fearful. It is as though 
in a clash of armies by night ^ you had drawn your 
sword and were rushing at a man whose fallen body 
was hidden by his armour and should hear someone 
remarking that he wasn't quite sure, but that he 
thought and believed that the prostrate figure was 
that of your son or brother or father or tent-mate — 
which would be the better course : to approve a 
false suspicion and spare your enemy as a friend, or 
to disregard an uncertain authority and kill your 
friend as a foe ? The latter course you will declare 
to be shocking. Consider also Merope ^ in the play 
raising her axe against her son himself because she 
believes him to be that son's murderer and saying 

This blow I give you is more costly yet — 
what a stir she rouses in the theatre as she brings 
them to their feet in terror lest she wound the youth 
before the old man can stop her ! Now suppose one 
old man stood beside her saying, " Hit him ! He's 
your enemy," and another who said, " Don't strike ! 
He is your son " : which would be the greater mis- 
deed, to omit the punishment of an enemy because 
of the son, or to slay a child under the impulse of 

" Cf. Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach : 

" And we are here as on a darkling plain 
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight. 
Where ignorant armies clash by night." 
^ Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 500, frag, 456 from the 
Cresphontes. Aristotle, Poetics, xiv. 19 (1454 a 5) tells us 
that all turns out well : Merope recognizes her son before 
she can kill him ; but it was a close thing, as Plutarch 
implies. 

575 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(998) roivvv ov jiloos eorlv ovSe dvfjLog 6 irpos rov ^ovov 
i^dycov rjfids ov8* djJLvvd rts ovSe (f)6^os virep av- 
F TOW, dAA' elg r]Soi'rjg fiepog eorrjKev Upetov dvaKe- 
KXaopievtp rpa)cqXcp {7TOK€Lpievov, elra Aeyet tcxjv 
(jiiXoGoc^cxJv 6 fiev, " KaraKoipov , dXoyov lori n^ 
!^a)OV," 6 8e, " dvaaxov ri yap el avyyevovs rj 
owTjOovs:^ TWOS ii'Tavda i/'t'X''? KexcjoprjKev ; " lgos 
y\ d) deoL, /cat ofJuoLog 6 klvSvvos c/cet/ dv aTret^oj 
(fyayelv Kpias rj /cav^ dTrio-ra) </)ove{'o-ai tIkvov tj 

€T€pOV OLKeloV. 

999 6. OvK LGos 8' €TL Kal" ovTog 6 dyd>v toIs 
Utojckols VTTep tt)? GapKO(j)ayias ' ris yap 6 ttoXvs 
Tovos etV rrjv yaGTcpa Kal rd OTrraveta ; tl ttjv 
rjSovTjv dr]XvvovT€S Kal Sta^dAAovre? djs ovt dya- 
dov ovT€ TTpo-qyfxevov^ ovt oIkcIov ovtw irepl 
TOVTOJv' Tcjv TjSovcov ecTTTouSd/caat ; Kal fjLrjv dKO- 
Xovdov rjv avTOLS, et fjLvpov i^eXavvovGi Kal TrepLpia 
Twv GvpLTTOGLCov, jLtctAAov atjLta Kal GdpKa SvGx^paL- 

V€iV. VVV S' (x)GTr€p Ct? TG? e^T^jLtCptSa? (jiiXoGO- 

(f)ovvT€s handvTjv d(f>aLpovGL tcov SeLTTvcov Iv rot? 
dxp'TjGTOis Kal rrepiTTols, to S' dvqpepov ttjs ttoXv- 
TcXelas Kal (f)ovLK6v ov TrapaiTovvTai. " val," 
(f)aGLV,^ " ovSev yap r)puv Trpos tg dXoya hiKaiov^ 
B €GTLV." ovSe yap irpos ro pvpov, (j)aL7] tl? dv, 
ovhe TTpog Ta ^evtKa tcov rjSvGpLdTOJv dXXd Kal 

^1 Tl W. C. H. : r6. 

2 avv-qdovs Kronenberg" : deov. 

' €K€L Reiske : l;^et. * rj kuv W. C. H. : av. 

^ 8' €TL Kat Reiske : Be tls. 

^ ■nporjyfiivov Stephanus : nporjyovfievov. 

' TT€pl TOVTOJV W. C". H. : TTpOS TO. TTipl. 

^ (f)aaiv Bernardakis : f^rjaiv. 
576 



THE EATING OF FLESH H, 998-999 

anger against an enemy ? In a case, then, where it 
is not hate or anger or self-defence or fear for our- 
selves that induces us to murder, but the motive of 
pleasure, and the victim stands there under our power 
with its head bent back and one of our philosophers 
says, " Kill it ! It's only a brute beast " ; but the 
other says, " Stop ! What if the soul of some relative 
or friend has found its way into this body ? " — Good 
God ! Of course the risk is equal or much the same 
in the two cases — if I refuse to eat flesh, or if I, 
disbelieving, kill my child or some other relative ! 

6. There remains yet another contention with the 
Stoics " about flesh-eating, and this is not " equal," 
either. For what is this great " tension " ^ on the 
belly and the kitchen ? Why, when they count 
pleasure effeminate and denounce it as being neither 
a good nor an " advanced principle " ^ nor " commen- 
surate with Nature," '^ are they so concerned with 
these pleasures ? It would certainly be consistent for 
them, since they banish perfume and cakes from their 
banquets, to be more squeamish about blood and flesh. 
But as it is, confining as it were their philosophy to 
their ledgers, they economize on their dinners in 
trivial and needless details while they do not depre- 
cate this inhuman and murderous item of expense. 

Of course," they say, " we human beings have no 
compact of justice with irrational animals." ^ Nor, 
one might reply, have you with perfume or exotic 
sweetmeats either. Refrain from animals also, if you 

« Cf. von Arnim, S. V.F. iii, pp. 91, 374. 

* A technical term of Stoic philosophy. 

^ Further Stoic technical terms. 

** Cf. 970 B supra. 

* hiKaiov Stephanus : oiKeiov. 
VOL. XII u 577 



PLITARCH'S MORALIA 

(999) TOVTWV arroTpeiTeode, to /xt^ ;)^p7)crtjLtov jLtr^S' dvay- 
Kalov iv rjSovf] TravraxoOev i^eXavvovreg . 

7. Ov fxrjv dXXa Kal rovr rjSr] GKei/jajfjieda, ro 
fiTj^ev e?vat Trpog rd ^oja hiKaiov tjijlIv, fJi'^re Te;(vt- 
Kojg fxiqre^ GO(f)LGTLKa)9, dXXd rot? TrddeGLV e/xjSAe- 
ijjavreg rots iavrcov Kal rrpos eaurou? dvOpcDTTLKcbs 
XaXiJGavreg /cat dvaKplvavTeg . . . 

^ fxT]T€ . . . fj.T]Te HtM-nardakis : ^rjhe . . . n-qbe. 



578 



THE EATING OF FLESH H, 999 

are expelling the useless and unnecessary element in 
pleasure from all its lurking-places. 

7. Let us, however, now examine the point 
whether we really have no compact of justice with 
animals ; and let us do so in no artificial or sophistical 
manner, but fixing our attention on our own emotions 
and conversing like human beings with ourselves and 
weighing . . .'^ 

° The rest is lacking. 



579 



INDEX 

OF PROPER NAMP:S AND OF 
SELECTED SUBJECTS 



[The subject index makes no claim whatever to completeness, con- 
taining only what the compiler thought was interesting. A classi- 
fied zoological index, collected systematically by A. C. Andrews, 
will be found on pp. 482-486. Here the animal references have 
been added and are probably reasonably complete.] 



Academy, the, 53, 55 note b: the 
school of philosoi)hy founded 
by Plato at Athens 

Acheron, 247 : river of the lower 
world 

Achilles, 161. 521 : Greek hero in 
the Trojan War 

Acropolis, 383 : at Athens 

Aeacides, 355 : a Delphian 

Aegipans, 523 : Goat Pans 

Aegium, 399 : city in Achaia 

Aeolian, 473 

Aeolus, quoted, 321 : a lost play 
of Euripides 

Aeschylus, 57 : quoted 59, 161, 
257, 353, 443 : Athenian tragic 
poet, circa 525-456 B.C. 

Aethe, 507 : a racing mare 

Aetna, 81, 275: mountain in 
Sicily 

Aetohan, 399 

Affection, 85 (cf. 267) : one of the 
two active forces in the physics 
of Empedocles 

Africa, 265 

Agamemnon, 506 note b, 521 : 
the Greek general at Troy 

Agesianax, quoted, 39, 43 : Alex- 
andrian poet (see 39 note a) 

Alcman, 273 note a : quoted, 175 : 

580 



lyric poet of the second half of 
the 7th cent. B.C. 

Alexander, 385-389 : the Great, 
356-323 B.C. 

Alexandria, 399 : metropolis of 
Egypt 

alibantes, 293 : the dead 

Aloeus, 145 : father of Otus and 
Ephialtes 

Altar of Horn, 467 : at Delos 

Amphitrite, 473 : consort of 
Poseidon 

Anaxagoras, 59 note d, 121 ; 
quoted, 101 : first Ionian philo- 
sopher to reside in Athens ; 
circa 500-428 B.C. 

Anaximenes, 241 : Ionian philo- 
sopher, ^or. circa 546 B.C. 

Androcydes, quoted 555 : Greek 
medical writer 

anonvmous citations : 249, 269, 
357, 369, 393. 505, al. 

ant(s), 369-373, 407, 451 (and see 
364 note b) 

Antaeopolis, 419 : city of Egypt 

antelope, 323 : see also deer, 
gazelle 

anthias, 426 note a, 453, 455 

Anticyra, 451 : Phocian port east 
of Cirrha 



INDEX 



Antiochus, 397 and note c : III, 
the Great, king of Syria 223- 
187 B.C. 

Antioclaus, 413 and note e : 
Hierax, the son of Antiochus II 
(who reigned circa 287-247 

B.C.) 

Antipater, 341 and note c : prob- 
ably the Stoic philosopher of 
the 2nd cent. B.C. 

Antipodes, 63 note d 

apes, 339, 421 

Aphrodite, 85, 467, 518 

Apollo, 257, 361, 467, 469, 507 

ApoUonides, 39, 43, 71, 133, 143, 
149 : an expert in geometry, 
speaker in the dialogue. The 
Face on the Moon (see p. 5) 

Arabian, 173, 517, 553 

Aratus, quoted, 371, 571 : Cili- 
cian poet, circa 315-249 B.C. 

Archelaus, 281 : philosopher of 
the 5th cent. B.C. 

Archiloclius, 119, 423 ; quoted 
259, 393 (?), 477 : iambic and 
elegiac poet of the 8th or 7th 
cent. B.C. 

Arethusa, 417 : the name of 
several ancient fountains 

Argonauts, 520 note d 

Argos, 469 

Argynnus, 521 : beloved of Aga- 
memnon 

Arion, 473 : dithyrambic poet of 
7th cent. B.C. 

Aristarchus, 55, 75, 121 : of 
Samos, the great mathemati- 
cian and astronomer, circa 310- 
230 B.C. 

Aristarchus, 165, 423 : of Samo- 
thrace, the Homeric scholar, 
circa 217-143 B.C. 

Aristogiton, 555 : Athenian ty- 
rannicide, killed in 514 B.C. 

Ariston, 307 : Stoic pMosopher, 
3rd cent. B.C. 

Ariston, 355 : Plutarch's cousin 

Aristophanes, 399 : of Byzantium, 
the greatest scholar of antiquity, 
circa 257-180 B.C. 

Aristotimus, 319, 325, 355-359, 
439, 477 and note g : a pupil of 
Plutarch's ; speaker in the dia- 
logue. The Cleverness of Animals 

Aristotle, 39 (and notes passim). 



121, 241, 249, 255, 295, 328 
note a, 335 note c, 357, 358 flF. 
in the notes passim, 401, 423 
note h, 435, 438 note b, 443, 451, 
455 : the philosopher, founder 
of the Peripatetic School, 384- 
322 B.C. 

Aristotle, 39. 97, 99 : a speaker in 
the dialogue. The Face on the 
Moon (see p. 6). 

Artemis, 49, 167, 221, 356 note b, 
361, 467, 469 

Asclepius, 381 : hero and god of 
healing. 

asp, 547 

ass(es), 341, 352 note d, 353, 421, 
495, 531 

Assyrians, 141 

Astronomy, 45 note b, 167, 189, 
191 note a, al. 

Athena, 49, 161, 163 

Athenian(s), 199, 383, 555, 559 

Athens, 323, 381, 383, 571 

Athos, 147 : a mountain peak of 
Chalcidice 

Atlantis, 181 note d, 183 note d : 
the island of Plato's Timaeus 
and Critias 

Atlas, 59 : the Titan who held 
the sky aloft 

Atropos, 221 and note b : one of 
the three Fates 

Autobulus, 318 note a, 319, 321. 
325, 327, 335, 337, 343, 349, 
355, 357 : Plutarch's father, 
one of the speakers in the dia- 
logue. The Cleverness of Ani- 
mals 

Autolycus, 531 : Odysseus' grand- 
father 

Bahbier, 426 note a, 427 : see 

also anthias 
bass, 359, 425, 429, 431 
bear(s), 323, 389, 393, 407, 427, 553 
bee(s), 335, 364 note b, 367, 421, 

447, 451, 461, 465, 531 and note 

2 
bee-eaters, 421 
beef, 353 : see also bulls, calf, 

cattle, cow(s), etc. 
Bion, 355 ; the Borysthenite 

philosopher, circa 325-255 B.C. 
Black Cloaks, 571 : a Scythian 

tribe 

581 



INDEX 



Black Goddess, 495 : Hecate (see 

494 note a) 
IJlack Sea, 443. 453 
boar(s), 301. 363, 389, 427. 509, 

519, 553 : see also pig, so\v(s), 

swiiic 
Boeotia, 521 

Bocotian(s). 213, 555, 557 note c 
l'onito(s), 361, 425, 445 
JSoreal (239), 249 : from tlie 

north wind 
Boulis. 451 and note b : a town 

on tlie rhocian Gulf 
Bouna(-ae) : see 451 note b 
bream, 428 note d, 429 
Jiriaieus, 181, 183 note a : a 

hundrcd-lianded monster 
Britain, 181 
Britons, 43 
Bucephalas, 387 : Alexander's 

favourite liorse 
bucks : see goat(s) 
Bull. 185 : Taurus, sign of the 

Zodiac 
bull:^ 352 note d, 353, 363 : see 

also cattle, cow(s), etc. 
bustards, 451 
Byzantium, 439, 475 : the city 

on the Bosporus 

Caesar, 405 : Vespasian ; 253 : 
probably Trajan (see 252 note n) 

calf, 397 : see also cattle, cow(s), 
etc. 

Callimachus, 249 note b : Alex- 
andrian poet, circa 305-240 

B.C. 

Cah us, 379 : a Roman 

camel, 343 

Capparus, 381 : an Athenian dog 

Carian, 507, 515 

Carthage, 191 

Caspian, 183 and note/, 209 

Cato, 563 : M. Porcius Cato the 

Censor, circa 234-149 B.C. 
catoptrics, 107 ff., 151 ff., al. 
cats, 323 
cattle, 345, 411 : .see also bulls, 

cow(s), etc. 
centaurs, 523 

Ccpiiallenians, 499 and note b 
Ccramicus, 383 : a district of 

Athens 
chameleon, 430 note c, 437 
Chaos. 271, 291 

582 



charm(s), 35, 219, 349 : see also 

magic 
Chios, 93 : a large island off tlie 

coast of Asia Minor 
Clirysippus, 47 note a, 267, 269. 

331 note c, 445 ; quoted, 207, 

331, 333, 335 ; see also Stoic(s) 
cicadas, 339, 421 
Cilicia, 367 
Circe, 493-499, 511, 563: the 

enchantress of Odyssey, x 
Cirrha, 469, 471 : the port of 

Delphi 
civil wars, 379 : at Rome 
Cleantlies, 55, 369 : Stoic philo- 
sopher, 331-232 B.C. 
Clearchus, 39 and note c, 41, 45 : 

of Soli, i)upil of Aristotle, circa 

300 (?) B.C. 
Cleomenes, 331 : III, king of 

Sparta, circa 260-219 B.C. 
Clotho, 221 and note b : one of 

the tlu-ee Fates 
Cnidus, 411 : a Greek colony in 

southern Asia Minor 
cock, 455, 521, 573 
codfish, 431 and note d 
Coeraneum, 477, a cave on 

Sicinus 
Coeranus, 475, 477 : a Parian 
cold, the principle of, 231 IT. 
colts, see horse(s) 
contiagration, universal, 135 note 

c, 291 note e 
conger, 359, 361, 437, 467 
Copais, Lake, 521 : in Boeotia 
Cora, 193 and note d, 195, 470 : 

a name of Persephone 
Coroebus, 531 and note a : the 

stupid man par excellence 
Corybants, 213 : ecstatic devo- 
tees of Cvbele or Attis 
cow(s), 323, 352 note rf, 411, 541 : 

see also cattle, etc. 
crab(s), 333, 445 and note g, 447, 

527 
crampfish, 433 note g 
crane(s), 367, 389, 439, 441, 

565 
Crassus, 419 : M. Licinius Crassus, 

the triumvir, circa 112-53 B.C. 
Crates, 165 : of Mallos, philo- 

logian with a strong Stoic bias, 

2nd cent. B.C. 
crawtlsh, 437 and note g, 439 



INDEX 



Cresphonies, quoted, 575 : a lost 

plav of Euripides 
Cretan(s), 367, 409, 469, 527 
Crete, 213, 515 
Cretheus, 477 and note /: an 

unknown writer 
crocodUe(s), 363, 419, 449, 459, 547 
Crommyon, 383, 505 : a castle in 

the Megarid 
Cronian, 183 
Cronus, 181, 185-191, 213, 223 : 

father of Zeus 
crows, 365, 401, 511, 513, 529 
Ctesias, 411 : of Cuidus, lustorian 

of the late 5tli cent. B.C. 
cuttlelisl), 433, 435 
Cyclopes, 499 : gigantic one-eyed 

creatures 
Cydias, 117 : Greek lyric poet of 

unknown date before 420 B.C. 
Cynic, 293 : Diogenes 
Cyzicus, 395, 439 : Milesian 

colony on an island of the Pro- 

pontis 

Dactyls, 213 : mythical Cretan 

dw'arfs 
Danube, 253 
Darkness, 271 
daw, 389 
deer, 321, 323, 333, 335, 343, 361, 

421, 523 : see also hinds, 

stag(s) 
Delos, 467 : sacred Aegean island 
Delphi, 219, 273, 355, 507 : 

Apollo's oracle in Phocis 
Delphinios, 469 : epithet of 

Apollo 
Demeter, 193, 194 note a, 199, 545 
Denietrians, 199 : the dead 
Democritus, 243, 407 : of Abdera, 

atomic philosopher, circa 460- 

370 B.C. 
Deucalion, 377 : the Greek Noah 
Dew (Ersa), 173, 175 : daughter 

of Zeus and Selene 
Dictynna, 357, 469 : epithet of 

Artemis 
Diogenes, 293, 555 : of Sinope, the 

first to adopt for himself the 

name " Cynic," circa 400-325 

B.C. 

Diomedes, 355 : son of Tydeus ; 

hero of the Trojan War 
Dionysius, 355 : a Delphian 



Diouysius, 469 : ambassador of 
Ptolemy Soter 

Dionysus, 547, 559 : god of fer- 
tility and wine 

dithvrambic poet, quoted, 269 

divination, 411, 413, 419, 421, al. 

dog(s), 323, 333, 341, 345, 347, 
352 note d, 353, 365, 377-385, 
385 note d, 387-391, 405, 407, 
415, 471, 473, 523, 529 ; see 
also hounds 

Dog Star, 411 : Sirius 

dogfish, 457 

Dolon, 515 : a Trojan traitor 

dolphin(s), 431, 441, 453, 469-477 

Domitius, 419 and note c : Aheno- 
barbus, consul 54 B.C. 

dovp(s), 323, 341, 377, 461 

dreams, 35, 189, 217, al. 

Eagle(S), 339, 367, 385, 413, 
451 

Earth, 45, 51 ff., 121, 181, 195, 
269 ff., 299, 545, al. 

Echepolus, 506 note d 

eels, 417, 503 note a 

Egypt, 171, 398 note 4, 419, 511, 
527 

Egyptian(s), 121, 161, 409, 411, 
415, 449, 563 

Eileithyia : see Ilithyia 

elephant(s). 343, 363, 373, 385, 
395-399, 409, 425, 427, 455, 471 

Eleusis, 469 : a large town of 
Attica west of Athens 

Elysian, 211 

Elysium, 195 and note d 

Empedocles, 51, 83, 85, 119 note j, 
245, 267, 271 note d, 275, 351, 
559, 569, 571 ; quoted, 37, 73, 
83, 91, 103, 105, 137, 253, 545, 
563 (?), 573 : Sicilian philo- 
sopher of the 5th cent. B.C. 

Enalus, 473 : an Aeolian 

Endymion, 217 : beloved by 
Selene, he fell into an immortal 
sleep 

Ephialtes, 145 note b : one of the 
giant Aloadae 

Epicharmus, quoted, 331, 413 : 
Sicilian comic poet of the 5th 
cent. B.C. 

Epicurus, 45, 349 : Athenian 
philosopher, 342-271 B.C. 

Epimenides, 177 : Cretan re- 

583 



INDEX 



ligiou3 teacher of uukuow'u date 
before 500 H.c. 

Eratosthenes, quoted, 455 (see 
also 175 note a): of Cyrene, 
great all-round Alexandrian 
scholar, circa 275-194 H.c. 

Erebus, 271 : the underworld 

Eros, 85 : god of love 

Ersa, 174 : Dew, daughter of 
Zeus and Selene 

Ethiopia, 171 

Ethiopians, 59 

Eubiotus, 355 : a friend of Plu- 
tarch's father 

Eubocan, 355 : from the long 
island east of Boeotia 

Euripides, 299 note b, 321, 413 ; 
quoted, 321, 349, 357, 575: 
Athenian tragic poet ; circa 
484-406 B.C. 

Euthydanius, 355 : a Boeotian (?) 

Face on the Moon, 35 ff. 

falcon : see hawk(s) 

Fates, 221 

Favorinus, 227 f., 231, 253, 285 : 
the famous Gallic rhetorician, 
circa a.d. 80-150 

fire, 49, 51, 267, 291 ff., al. ; see 
also Hepiiaestus 

fishing-frog, 434 note b, 435 

Flavins : see Vespasian 

fly, 459. 546 note 2 

Forum Graecorum, 403 note a 

fox(es), 251, 345, 377, 389, 393, 
395, 451, 531 ; see also vixen 

fox-shark : see shark 

frogs, 355, 461 ; see also fishing- 
frog 

Ganyctor, 381 : father of 
Hesiod's murderers 

garfish, 465 and note c 

gazelle, 361 

Gedrosia, 171 : modern Baluchis- 
tan 

geese : see goose 

geometry, 39, 57 note </, 111, 189, 
al. 

Giants, 83 

gilthead, 430 note a, 431, 455 

gladiators, 321, 567 note b ; see 
also spectacles 

Glance. 399 : a harp-player 

goat(s), 352 note d. 353, 409, 411, 

584 



501, 511, 519, 521, 523 note b, 

527 ; see also kid(8) 
goby, 429 and note b 
goose (geese), 323, 353 and note e, 

367, 399 and note d, 565 note c 
(Jraecostadiinn, 403, note a 
gravflsh, 358 note c, 359 
Great Island, 191 
Greece, 299 
Greek(s), 55, 141, 183, 185. 193, 

299, 403, 469, 493, 497, 571 ; 

see also Hellenic 
Gryllus, 493, 497 and note b, 499- 

533 : a companion of Odysseus 

metamorphosed into a hog 
guide (fish), 449 and note d 

Hades. 180, 193, 195, and note d, 
201, 205, 215, 247, 271 ; see also 
Pluto, Tartarus 

Hagnon, 375 : Academic philo- 
sopher of the 2nd cent. B.C. 

halcyon, 461 and note /, 463-467 

hare(s), 323, 361, 389-393, 553 

Harmodius, 555 : Athenian ty- 
rannicide, killed in 514 B.C. 

hawk(s), 339, 343, 413 

Heat, principle of, 231, al. 

Hecate, 158 note c, 209 and note 
g, 494 note a : an ancient 
Chthonian goddess, sometimes 
identified with the moon ; mis- 
tress of black magic 

Hecatompedon, 3S3 : the Par- 
thenon at Athens 

hedgehog(s), 393, 395, 439 

hedgehog (sea)-, 439 

Hegesianax : see 39 note a, 43 
note a 

Hellenic, 185 : see also Greek(s) 

Hephaestus, 49, 257, 307 ; see 
also fire 

Hera, 469 : goddess and consort 
of Zeus 

Ueracleon, 318 note c, 319, 355, 
415, 477 note g : a speaker in 
the dialogue, The Clevernexs of 
Animals 

Heracles, 185, 209, 369, 521 

Heraclitus, 351 : quoted 205, 
247, 299, 557 : of Ephesus, 
philosopher of the 6th and 5th 
cent. B.C. 

Hermes. 199 

Herodotus, 571 : of Halicarnas- 



INDEX 



sus, the historian of the Persian 
Wars 

herons, 369 

Hesiod, 85, 271 note c, 381, 473 ; 
quoted 177, 245, 247, 291, 349, 
359 

Hestia, 242 note b, 281 : goddess 
of the hearth (see also 55) 

hibernation, 393 

hinds, 393 : see also deer, stag(s) 

Hipparchus, 45 and notes : great- 
est of the Greek astronomers, 
2nd cent. B.C. 

Hippolytics of Euripides, quoted, 
321 

hippopotamuses, 339 

hogs, 495 : see also pig, sow(s), 
swine, etc. 

Homer, 257, 273 note a, 283 note 
d, 423, 469 note d ; quoted, 57, 
119, 135, 139, 165, 179, 181, 
195, 215, 239, 245, 247, 265, 
355, 369, 385, 387, 423, 431, 
433, 453, 467, 473, 499, 501, 
509, 541 

Horn, Altar of, 467 : at Delos 

horse(s), 323, 333, 345, 352 note d, 
353, 415, 423. 451, 471, 503, 
529, 569 : see also colts, 
mare(s) 

hounds, 321, 389 : see also dog(s), 
puppies 

house-martins, 363 : see also 
swallow(s) 

Hungerbane, 177 

Hunting, Praise of, 318 note e, 
319 : probably a work of Plu- 
tarch's 

Huntress, 357 : Artemis 

Hylas, 520 note c : beloved of 
Heracles 

Hyrcanian, 385 

Iasus, 474 note a, ilb : city of 

Caria 
ibis, 409 

ichneumon, 363, 449 
Idaean, 213 : of Mt. Ida, in Crete 
Iliad, quoted : see Homer 
Ilithyia, 221 : goddess protector 

of childbirth 
India, 299 
Indian(s), 163, 415 
Introductions, 331 and note c : 

titles used by Chrysippus 



Ion, quoted, 99, 395 : of Chios, 

poet and dramatist of the 5th 

cent. B.C. 
Isis, 173, 192 note b : Egyptian 

goddess 
Isthmians of Pindar, quoted, 249 
Ithaca, 501 : the island home of 

Odysseus 
Ixion(s), 158 note b, 159 

Jay, 403 

Juba, 395, 429 : II, the literary 

king of Mauretania, circa 50 

B.C.-A.D. 23 

KlD(s), 353, 403 ; see also goat(s) 
kine : see cow(s) 
kingfisher : see halcyon 
kite, 525 

Lachesis, 221 and note b : one 

of the Fates 
lamb, 553 : see also sheep 
Lamprias, 35 note e, 157, 181, 

223 ; speaks 39-53, 61-97, 117, 

123, 133-157, 163-181, 193: 

Plutarch's brother (see pp. 

3-5) 
Laws of Plato, quoted, 359 
Lebadeia, 213 note e : the only 

active oracle in Boeotia 
Lemnian, 146 
Lemnos, 145 : a large island in 

the north Aegean 
Leonidas, 319 : king of Sparta, 

487-480 B.C. 
leopard : see panther(s) 
Leptis, 468 note a, 469 : an 

African port 
Lesbos, 473 : a large island off 

the coast of Asia Minor 
Leto, 463 : mother of ApoUo and 

Artemis 
leverets : see hare(s) 
Libya, 171, 264 
Libyan(s), 365, 411, 415 
Licinius : see Crassus 
lion(s), 159, 335, 341, 363, 389, 

397. 409, 455, 493, 495, 503, 

509, 523, 547, 553 
lioness(es), 427, 507 
lizards, 63 
lobster, 437 note g 
Love, 267 : see Affection 
love-restorers, 173 

585 



INDEX 



Lucius. 47, 55, 61, 97, 105, 107, 
117, 125, 133 : a speaker in the 
dialogue, The Face on the Moon 
(see p. 6) 

Lycia, 419 

Lvcurgus, 567 : the traditional 
■founder of the Spartan consti- 
tution 

Ivnxes. 341 

Lysimachus, 385 : a companion 
and successor of Alexander, 
circa 360-281 B.C. 

Mackerel, 361 
Maeonian, 507 : Lydian 
Maeotis, 183 and note e : the Sea 

of Azov 
magic, 333, 335, 494 note a, 517 ; 

see also charm(s) 
Malea, 469 : south-eastern pro- 
montory and cape of the Pelo- 
ponnesus 
Marcellus, 405 : nephew of Au- 
gustus 
mare(s), 423, 507, 521, (569) : 

see also horse(s) 
Market of the Greeks, 403 and 

note a : at Eome 
martins : see house-martins, swal- 

low(s) 
mathematics, 45 note b, 55, 71, 

107, 109, 119, 133, 191 note a, 

al. 
Medes. 141 
Megara, 355 : city of the isthmus 

of Corinth, south-west of 

Athens 
Megasthenes, 163, 177: Ionian 

writer on India, i?or. 300 B.C. 
Menander, quoted, 557 : Athenian 

comic poet, 342-290 B.C. 
Mendesian, 511 : of Mendes in 

Egypt 
Menelaiis, 107 : see pp. 7 f. 
Mercurv, 73: the planet; see also 

StUbon 
Merope, 575 : the heroine of 

Euripides' Cresphontes 
Metrodorus, 92 note b, 93 : of 

Chios, atomic philosopher 
midge, 459 
Mimnermus, 117: of Colophon, 

early elegiac poet of uncertain 

date 
Mind, 331 : in Epicharmus 

586 



Minotaurs, 523 : creatures like 
the " Minos bull," half-man, 
half-beast 

Moirae : see Fates 

moon, 35 ff., 49 ff., 55 ff., al. 

morav, 419, 437 

Mouthless Men, 163, 177 : fabri- 
cations of Megasthenes 

mule(s), 337, 383, 389, 391 

mullet(s), 358 note c, 359, 425, 
429 : see also surmullet 

mussel, 369 

mutton : sec sheep 

Myra, 419 : a city of Lycia 

Myrsilus, 473 : of Methymna, 
historian of Lesbos, flor. circa 
250 B.C. 

Nannies : see goat(s) 

natural science : see physics 

Nature : 2G3, 293, 341 ff., 351, 
417, 439, 509, 511, 519, 521, 527, 
551, 559. 565, 569, 573. 577, 
al. 

Naupactian. 381 : from the city 
in western Locris 

Naxos, 475 : island of the central 
Aegean 

Necessity, 351 

Nemeon, 473 and note e : shrine 
of Zeus in Locris 

Nicander, 355 : a friend of Plu- 
tarch's father 

Niceratus, 571 : sonofNicias 

Nicias, 573 : Athenian poUtician, 
circa 470-413 B.C. 

nightingale(s), 401, 407, 461, 529 

Nightwatchman, 185 : the planet 
Saturn 

Nile, 459, 547 : river of Egypt 

Nomads, 347 

north wind : see Boreal 

Notus : see south wind 

Nycturos : see Nightwatchman 

Ocean, 41 ff., 175. 183, al. 
octopus, 359, 435-439, 555 : see 

also squid 
Odysseus, 397, 477. 493-533 : the 

Homeric hero 
Odyssey, quoted : see Homer 
Ogygia, 181, 183 : a fabulous 

Atlantic island 
Oij/W7)?an^ of Pindar, quoted 291, 

557 



INDEX 



Optatus, 319, 355, 357, 477 note 
g : a speaker in the dialogue. 
The Cleverness of Animals 

oryx, 411 

Otus, 145 note b : one of the giant 
Aloadae 

owl, horned, 335 

ox, 423, 553, 573 : see also cattle, 

oyster, 369 
oyster-green, 447 

Paeans of Pindar, quoted, 119 
pagoi, 274 note c, 275 
Pamphylia, 455 : a district on the 

coast of southern Asia Minor 
panther(s), 421, 427, 507, 547 
Parian, 475 
Parmenides, 85 ; quoted, 101 : 

Eleatic philosopher of the 5th 

cent. B.C. 
Parnassus, 273 : the sacred moun- 
tain above Delphi 
Paros, 475 : the second largest of 

the Cyclades 
parrots, 401 
parrot-fish, 359, 427 
Parthenon, 382 note a : at Athens 
partridges, 339, 341, 391, 529 
Pelopidas, 555 : distinguished 

Theban general, circa 410-364 

B.C. 

Peloponnesus, 121, 159, 331, 469 : 

the large peninsula of southern 

Greece 
Penelope, (495), (507), 511, 513 : 

wife of Odysseus 
Penthilidae, 473 : descendants of 

Orestes ; they became a noble 

family of Mitylene 
Pericles, 383 : the Athenian 

statesman, circa 495-429 B.C. 
Peripatetics, 39 note d, 347 : the 

school of Aristotle 
Persephone, 192 note b, 471 : see 

also Cora, Phersephone 
Persians, 259, 429 
Phaedimus, 319, 325, 355, 357, 

415 : a pupil of Plutarch's, 

speaker in the dialogue. The 

Cleverness of Animals 
Phaedra, 321 : the unhappy hero- 
ine of Euripides' Hippolytiis 
Phaenomena of Aratus, quoted, 

371, 571 



Phaenon, 184 note a : the planet 
Saturn 

Pharnaces, 47, 53, 59, 61, 133-137. 
175 : a speaker in the dialogue. 
The Face on the Moon (see p. 
6) 

Phellus, 419 : a city of Lycia 

Pherecydes, 163 : early Greek 
cosmologist, flor. circa 550 B.C. 

Phersephone, 193, 199, 211 : see 
also Cora, Persephone 

Phicium, 505 : mountain in 
Boeotia near Thebes 

Philinus, 419 : a friend of Plu- 
tarch's 

Philostratus, 355 : of Euboea, 
present at the dialogue. The 
Cleverness of Aniinals 

Phoenicia, 299 

Phosphorus, 72, 86 : the planet 
Venus 

Plirygia. 213 

Phrygian, 515 

physics, 45 note b, 133, 191 and 
note a, al. 

pig, 323, 352 note d, 455, 499 : see 
also boar(s), hogs, sow(s), swine 

Pillars of Heracles, 209 : at the 
strait of Gibraltar 

pilot-fish, 449 note d 

Pindar, quoted, 59. 119, 249, 291, 
415, 435, 471, 557 : the great 
lyric and choral poet, circa 518- 
438 B.C. 

pinna, 445, 447 

pinna-guard, 445, 447 

pipefish : see garfish 

Plato, 35 notes and notes passim, 
85, 109, 207, 243, 307, 337, 351, 
513 note e, 559 ; quoted, 87, 
157, 165, 281, 359, 413, 571 : 
Athenian philosopher, circa 
427-347 B.C. 

plover, 449 

Pluto, 471 : god of the lower 
world : see also Hades 

Polemarchus, 573 : brother of 
Lysias 

Polyphemus, 531 : see also Cy- 
clopes 

Pontus, 264 note a, 265 

Porcius : see Cato 

Porphyry : see the notes on 323- 
349 : pMosopher and scholar, 
circa a.D. 232-305 

587 



INDEX 



Poms, 385 : an Indian kintj 

Poseidon, 257. 461, 409, 477 : god 
of the sea 

Posi(loni\is, 41 note c, 103. 145 
note a, 265: quoted, 123 (see 
also pp. 23-25) : philosopher 
and scientist, circa 135-50 B.C. 

Praise of Hunting, 318 note e, 319: 
probably a lost work of Plu- 
tarch 

Priam, 515 : last kins; of Troy 

Prometheus, 293, 252, 542 note a : 
tiie Titan, discoverer of lire 

Promethem Bound of Aeschylus, 
quoted, 59 

Prometheus Unbound of Aeschy- 
lus, quoted, 353 

proverbs, 39, 243, 259, 393, 411, 
490 note a, 531, 556 note a, 
al. 

Ptoian, 520 note e, 521 : epithet 
of Apollo 

Ptolemv, 469 : I, Soter, circa 367- 
282 B.C. ; 397 and note c : IV, 
Philopator, circa 244-205 B.C. : 
kings of Egypt 

Ptolemy, 419 and note e : identity 
not established 

puppies : see dog(s) 

Purifier, 565 : epithet of Zeus 

purplefish, 447 

Pvrrhus, 379, 381, 385, 413 : king 
of Epirus, 319-272 B.C. 

PyrJ-hus, 385 : identity not estab- 
lished 

Pythagoras, 351, 541, 543 note b, 
509, 571 : philosopher of the 
0th cent. B.C. 

Pythagoreans, 323 

Python, 219 : the fabulous mon- 
ster 

Pythoness. 505 : its female 
counterpart 

Il.viNBOw(s), 41 and note c, 155 
rainbow-wrasse. 429 : see also 

wrasse 
ram, 399, 421, 559 : see also 

sheep 
ray, 433 note y 
Red Sea, 209 and note e 
rhetra^, 507 : of Lycurgus 
Rhium, 473 : promontory at the 

entrance of the Corinthian Gulf 
rock-dove : see doveCa) 

588 



Roman(9), 379. 403 

Rome, 343. 373, 375, 403, 405 

Sacuku Fish, 453, 455 

Samian. 55 

Sappho. 273 note a : the Oth-cent, 
poetess of Lesbos 

sargue, 429 and note e 

scolopendra, 425 note g 

sculpin, 430 note b, 431 

Scythia, 205 

Scyths, 571 

sea-bass : see bass 

sea-hare, 469 

Sea Siren, 467 

sea-urchin, 439 note e 

seal(s), 453, 461 

Selene. 175 : the moon goddess 

Semonides, quoted, 569 : of 
Amorgos, the iambic poet of 
uncertain date 

Serapis, 409 : brought to Egypt 
from Sinope 

serpent(s), 364 note a, 365. 399, 
407, 547 : see also 3nake(s) 

shad, 333 

shark, 358 note c, 425 

sheep, 323, 341, 352 note d, 353, 
523, 531, (509), 573 : see also 
lamb, ram 

Shelley and Plutarch, 538 

Sicinus, 477 : a small Aegean island 

Sicynthus, 470 note 1 

Sicyonian. 507 

Sinope, 409 : city on the south 
shore of the Black Sea 

Sirius, 411 : tlie Dog Star 

Sisyphus, 532 note a, 533 : the 
first mythical atheist 

Sizes and Distances, On, 75, 121 
note (/ : a work of Aristarchus 

Smintheus, 473 : one of the 
colonists chosen to found Les- 
bos 

snake(8), 407, 421, 451, 503 note a, 
525, 527 : see also serpent(s) 

Soclarus, 318 note b, 319, 321, 
325, 327, 335, 337, 343, 347. 
351. 355, 357, 479 : a friend of 
Plutarch's, speaker in the dia- 
logue. The Clevertiess of Ani- 
mals 

Socrates, 139, 337, 413 : the 
Athenian philosopher, 469-399 
B.C. 



INDEX 



Sogdians, 570 note c, 571 

Solon, 357 : Athenian statesman 
and poet, circa 6-10-560 B.C. 

Sophocles, quoted, 63, 147, 323, 
479 : Athenian dramatist, circa 
496-40G B.C. 

Sosius Senecio, 252 note a : a 
friend to whom Plutarch dedi- 
cated several of his works, con- 
sul A.D. 99 and later 

Soteles, 469 : ambassador of 
Ptolemy Soter 

Soter, 469 : Ptolemy I 

Sothis, 411 : Egyptian name for 
the Dog Star 

south wind, (239), 249 

sow(s), 505, 519, 521, 565 : see 
also pig, swine, etc. 

Spartan, 507, 553 

spectacles, 343, 353, 373-377, 427, 
529, 559, 567 and note b, bib, 
al. : see also gladiators 

Sphinx(es), 505, 523 

spider(s), 364 note b, 365, 407, 447 

Spirits, 211, 213 

Splendent, 185 : the planet 
Saturn 

sponge, 445, 447 

sponge-divers, 255, 455 

sponge-guard, 445, 447 

squid, 293 : see also octopus 

stag(s), 341, 361, 389, 393 : see 
also deer, etc. 

starfish, 433 

starlings, 401 

steers, 529 : see also cattle, etc. 

Stesichorus, 119, 477 : lyric poet 
of the 6th cent. B.C. 

Stilbon, 72, 184 note a : the 
planet Mercury 

Stoa, 325 : the Stoic Porch 

Stoic(s), 47, 55, 61 note a, 65 note 
d, 68 note c, 76 note a, 79 note 
a, 81 note d, 84 note c, 88 note 
a, 95, 131, 141, 233, 245, 249, 
291 note d, 331 note b, 335 note 
c, 347 and note a, 478 note b, 
529 note g, 577 

storks, 339, 529 

Strato, 245, 329 : Peripatetic 
philosopher, died circa 270 B.C. 

Strife, 83, 267 : one of the two 
active forces in the physics of 
Empedocles 

sturgeon, 440 note a, 441, 455 



Styx, 279 and note b 

Sulla (Sextius ?), 35, 105, 157, 181, 

193, 197, 223 : a speaker in the 

dialogue. The Face on the Moon 

(see p. 3) 
Sun, 37, 51, 53, 69 ff., 93, 101. 

Ill flF., 185, 207, 213 and note g, 

219, 269, 557, 563, al. 
Suppliants of Aeschvlus, quoted, 

161 
Sura, 419 : village in Lycia 
surmullet, 361, 429 and note g, 

467, 469 : see also raullet(s) 
Susa, 411 : capital city of Elam 

and Persia 
swallow(s), 335, 341, 364 note b, 

407, 421, 461, 465, 471, 507 : 

see also house-martins 
swan(s), 401, 407, 413, 565 
swine, 499 and note a, 511, 527, 

565 : see also hogs, pig, etc. 
Syene, 171 : a city of Egypt just 

below the First Cataract 
Syria, 375 
Syrian, 553 

Taexarum, 279 and note b : the 
cape of the central peninsula of 
the Peloponnesus 

Tantalus, 158 note a, 159 : pun- 
ished in Hades with everlasting 
fear or with hunger and thirst 

Taprobanians, 59 and note c : 
from Ceylon 

tartarize, 247 

Tartarus, 181, 247 : the lower 
world : see also Hades 

Taurus, 185 note b : sign of the 
zodiac 

Taurus, Mt., 367 : in Cilicia 

Telemachus, 477 : son of Odys- 
seus 

Telmesian, 504 note 8 

Teumesian, 505 : fabulous vixen 

Thales, 389 : early Milesian philo- 
sopher, 7th or 6th cent. B.C. 

theatre : see spectacles 

Theatre of Marcellus, 405 : at 
Eome 

Thebans, 505, 555 : of Thebes in 
Boeotia 

Thebes, 171 : a city in Egypt 

Theognis, quoted, 437 : of Me- 
gara, elegiac poet, flor. circa 
540 B.C. 

589 



INDEX 



Theogony, quoted : see Hesiod 

Theon. 61. 63. 117, 12.5, 155, 163. 
167, 175 : speaker in the dia- 
logue. The Face on the Moon 
(see p. 7) 

Theoplirastus. 265. 273, 328 note 
a. 437 : Peripatetic philosoplier, 
circa 372-288 B.C. 

Theramenes. 573 : Athenian poli- 
tician, circa 455-404 B.C. 

Theseus. 505 : ancient king of 
Athens 

Tliirty, tlie, 323 (c/. 571) : ty- 
rants at Athens, 404-403 B.C. 

Thrace. 265 

Tlu-acians, 251 note d, 377 

Thyiades, 273 and note c : Attic 
women, devotees of Dionysus 

tigress, 409 

titanic, 189, 413 

Titans, 83, 559, 561 : pre-Olyni- 
pian divinities 

Tityus. 219 : confined in Hades 
for assaulting Leto 

torpedo-fish, 433 and note g 

tortoise(s). 339, 407, 457. 459, 527 

Trajan, 252 note a : M. Ulpius 
Traianus, Roman emperor a.d. 
98-117 

Troglodytes, 161 (c/. 170), 347 : 
cave-dwellers 

Trophoniads, 213 :" devotees of tlie 
Trophonius oracle in Boeotia 

tunny, 361, 441-445 

Typho, 219 : a fabulous monster 

Tyrtaeus, 319 : elegiac poet of 
tlie 7th cent. B.C. 



Udor.\, 213 and note e 

Ulpius : see Trajan 

urchin, sea- : see hedgehog (sea)- 

Venus. 73. 87 : the planet 
Vespasian. 405 : Titus Flavius 

Vespasianus, Roman emperor 

\.D. 69-79 
vixen, 377, 505 : see also fox(e3) 

War, 351 

weasels, 323. 407 

wiiale(s), 449, 451 

Wise Men, the Seven, 389 

wolf (-ves), 323, 361, 389, 409, 

421, 493, 499, 509, 523, 525, 

531, 547. 553 
Wonders of tlie World, 467 
Works ami Days, quoted : see 

Hesiod 
worms, 63. 459 
wrasse, 456 note a, 457 : see also 

rainbow-wrasse 

Xanthus, 257 note b : river of 

Troy 
Xenocrates, 207, 243 note c, 354 

note a, 559 : philosopher, head 

of the Academy from 339 to 

314 B.C. 

Zacynthians, 477 : islanders 
west of the Peloponnesus 

Zeus, 66, 81, 85. 106, 124, 160. 
175, 181, 187, 189, 290. 332. 
492, 496, 514, 548, 565, 570 



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