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Full text of "The Mormon prophet and his harem; or, An authentic history of Brigham Young, his numerous wives and children"

THE MORMON PROPHET 



HIS HAREM; 



M AUTHENTIC HISTOEY OF BEIGHAI YOUNG, 



NIBIEROUS WIVES AND CHILDREN. 



BY 

MRS. C. V. WAITE. 



" And with a piece of scripture, 

Tell them, — that God bids us do good for evil. 

And thus I clothe my naked villainy 
With old odd ends, stol'n forth of Holy Writ, 

And seem a saint, when most I play the devil." 



CAMBRIDGE: 

{Jrinteb at tlie tlitiersibe JJress, / 

AND FOR SALE BY HURD & HOUGHTON, NEW YORK, ^ 

S. C. GRIGGS AND COMPANY, CHICAGO, 

H. H. BANCROFT & CO., SAN FRANCISCO, 

AND BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY. 

1866. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by 
Catharine V. Waite, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Judicial District of the Territory of Idaho. 



EivEESiDE, Cambridge: 

STEREOTTPED AND PRINTED BT 
H. 0. HOUGHTON AND COMPANT. 





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PREFACE. 



No apology is offered for presenting to the public 
the only authentic account of Brigham Young, of his 
polygamous family, and of that complicated and incon- 
gruous system of social and political machinery, called 
Mormonism. 

;i^^''!rhe_onlj form of religion in this country "^hich re- 
fuses-tcucoftfopm-eitheiilo^the spirit of pr ogress jincL im- 
provement and enliglitened humanity which charac- 
terizes^^e age in which we live, or to our laws and 
tlie_genius_of- our free-institetions, — drawing constant- 
ly from foreign countries hosts of votaries, impelled 
hither not by a love of republicanism, but rather by 
a desire to exchange a political for a religious mon- 

I archy, — is Mormonism, which presents an antagonism 
to our Governme nt, and can jcarcelj fail to^result in 
nation al trouble . , ^' J / 1 / 

The elements of a second rebellion are in active pro- 
gress in Utah, and, as in the case of the slavery rebel- 
lion, the great danger Ifes in failing to place a proper 
estimate upon the power of those elements for mischief, 
and to take the proper precautions in time. Religious 
fanaticism is more active, and, when hostile, more dan- 
gerous, than political ambition ; hence the arrogant and 
intolerant spirit, and the bitter hostility of the Mor- 

/mons, are more worthy the serious attention of our 



IV PREFACE. 

statesmen than would be tlie opposition of so many 
mere political traitors. 

Again ; their power for mischief is much increased 
by the position they occupy upon the great thorough- 
fare between the eastern and western portions of our 
country. 

It is with the view of callino; the attention of the 
Goi§rnmeut . And of. ihe people... o_f ^ the country^ to the 
dangerous cliaracter of this monarchy growing up in 
the midst of the Republic, that the political history of 
Utah has been written. 

The chief interest of the work, however, with a 
large class of readers, will doubtless consist in the in- 
formation it contains, relative to the family and social 
relations of the celebrated Mormon leader. These, 
and all other facts contained in this volume, may be 
relied upon as true, and many of them are now pub- 
lished for the first time. 

The subject of polygamy is treated thoroughly, and 
as dispassionately as the writer's utter j,blK)ixej3ice of 
the system will permit. A residence of two years in 
the midst of this state of society, could not fail to afford 
me a tolerably good view of its inside workings, and 
this view I have presented to my readers. 

Some of the facts narrated in this volume have been 
furnished by persons in Salt Lake, who are thoroughly 
conversant with them ; in some cases, by persons who 
have long been in the service of Young, and know 
whereof they relate. While I am not at liberty to 
mention their names, I take this opportunity to return 
them my thanks for such valuable information. 

This book is believed to be a desideratum demanded ^ 
by the social and political well-being of the country, \ 



PREFACE. V 

and as such it is presented to the consideration of the 
people of this country, and especially to my own sex, 
who are deeply interested in preventing the frame- 
work of our social system from being broken up and 
superseded by the customs and maxims of the worst 
ages of barbarism. 

To the suffering women of Utah, I especially dedi- 
cate tliis result of my labors in their behalf; and I am 
not without hope that many of them may, upon a pe- 
rusal of its pages, be induced to retrace their steps, 
and rescue themselves from the snares of thereligious 
imp ostors now se eking their destruction. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EABLT HISTORY OF BRIGILVM TOUXG. 

PAGB 

The Birth and Parentage of Brigham Young. — His Brothers and 
Sisters. — He embraces Mormonism, and becomes a Leader. — Is 
appointed President of the Twelve, and finally placed at the Head 
of the Church, to succeed Joseph Smith. — Establishes the Mor- 
mons in Salt-Lake Valley 1 



CHAPTER n. 

POLmCAL. 

Brigham as Governor of Utah and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. — 
Formation of the State of Deseret. — Proceedings of the Utah Legis- 
lature. — Brigham's Proclamations. — Difficulties with the Federal 
Officers. — Proceedings of the First Judges 11 

CHAPTER III. 

POLITICAL HISTORY COXTLN-UED. 

Colonel Steptoe and Brigham Young. — Brigham reappointed Gov- 
ernor. — John F. Kinney. — Western Utah, or Xevada. — Letter of 
Hon. James M. Crane. — Judge Stiles and the Records. — W. W. 
Drummond 26 



CHAPTER IV. 

POLITICAL HISTORY COXTEs-UED. — THE MORMOJJ WAR. 

Report of the Secretary of "War. — Proclamation of Governor Brigham 
Yoimg, declaring Martial Law. — Correspondence. — Sermons of 
Young and Kimball. — Proclamation of Governor Gumming. — 



Viii CONTENTS. 



PAGK 

His Echo Canyon Adventures. — Col. Kane. — The Mormons leave 
Salt Lake. — Commissioners appointed by the President. — Peace 
restored 40 



CHAPTER V. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

The Mountain Meadow Massacre, and other Crimes of the Mormons. — 
Attempts to bring the Perpetrators to Justice. — Doings of Judge 
Cradlebaugh. — Governor Gumming and the Militar}^ Officers. — 
Judge Sinclair's Court. — Governor Dawson and his Misfortunes. — 
New Governor and Associate Justices appointed 60 

CHAPTER VI. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Arrival of the New Federal Officers, in Jvdy, 1802. — Colonel Connor 
ari-ives with his Command. — The Message of Governor Harding. — 
The Mormons Indignant. — The Legislature refuse to print the Mes- 
sage. — Action of the United States Senate thereon. — Forgery in 
the Mormon Legislature. — Bill of Judge Waite to amend the Or- 
ganic Act. — Indignation Meeting. — Governor Harding and Judges 
Waite and Drake requested to leave the Territory. — Their Replies. 
— Brigham. — The Federal Officers 78 

CHAPTER VII. 

BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

Organization of the Mormon Church. — Functions of the various Offi- 
cers. — The Two Priesthoods. — Mode of treating Dissenters or 
"Apostates." —Divisions in the Church. — The Gladdenites. — 
History of the Morrisites. — The Josephites. — Return to the True 
Mormon Church 114 

CHAPTER Vin. 

BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

Nature of the Trusteeship. — The Tithing System. — Brigham's Pri- 
vate Speculations. — The Emigration Fund. — The Hand-Cart Com- 
pany 132 

CHAPTER IX. 

BRIGHA3I AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

Brigham's Position as Head of the Church. — Mormon Theology. — 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

Brigham's Theology, or Utah Mormonism. — Adam as God. — 
Brigham Young as God. — Human Sacrifice. — Introduction of 
Polygamy. — Polygamy no part of the Original ]\Iormon Religion. 
— The Revelation, or Celestial Marriage. — The Ceremony of Seal- 
ing. — Consequences and Incidents of the Doctrine. — Incest. — 
Summary of the Mormon Religion 153 



CHAPTER X. 

BRIGHAil AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

Brigham's Block. — The Lion House. — The Tithing-House. — The 
Bee-Hive House, Office, etc. — Description of the Harem, — Plan, 
Rooms, etc., of each Floor, and who occupies the same. — Life at 
the Harem. — Brigham at Home 177 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE ^\^VES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

Mary Ann Angell Young, the first wife. — Her Family. — Lucy Decker 
Seely, the fii-st wife in Plurality. — More of " My Women " : Clara 
Decker, Harriet Cook, Lucy Bigelow, Twiss, Martha Bowker, Har- 
riet Barney, Eliza Burgess, Ellen Rockwood, Susan Snively, Jemi- 
ma Angell, Margaret Alley, Margaret Pierce, Mrs. Hampton, Mary 
Bigelow, Emeline Free, or the Light of the Harem. — Proxy Wo- 
men: Miss Eliza Roxy Snow, Zina D. Huntington, Amelia Par- 
tridge, Mrs. Cobb, Mrs. Smith, Clara Chase, the Maniac. — Amelia, 
the last love. — The Prophet in love the Thirtieth Time 191 



CHAPTER XIL 

POLYGAMY. 

Condition of Woman among various Heathen Nations. — Influence 
of Christianity. — Mormonism and Woman. — Brigham offers to 
set the Women Free. — Arguments in Favor of Polygamy. — The 
Argument against it. — Abraham and Sarah. — Appeal to Mormon 
Women. — Then- Unhappy Condition. —Evil Effects of the System. 
— Illustrations 215 



CHAPTER Xm. 

THE ENDOW3IENT, 

A Mormon Drama 244 



X CONTENTS. 

PAfiB 

CHAPTER XIV. 

BRIGHAM AS GRA^^) ARCHEE OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 

Organization of the Order of the Archees. — The Grand Archees. — 
The Archees. — The Danites. — Organization of Brigham's Celes- 
tial Kingdom. — Doctrine of Adoption. — Case of Dr. Sprague. — 
Description of Leading Danites: Bill Hickman, Porter Rockwell, 
Robert T. Bm-ton. — Affida%ats 261 

CHAPTER XV. 

CONCLUSION. 

Personal Appearance and Character of Brigham Young. — His Aims 
and Purposes. — Solution of the Mormon Question. — New Com- 
plications. — Military Reviews of Mormons. — Governor Durkee. — 
Counteracting Influences. — The Mines and Miners. — Eev. Nor- 
man McCloud. — The Salt Lake "Vedette." — Administration of 
General Connor 273 



THE MOEMON PEOPHET. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

The Birth and Parentage of Brigham Young. — His Brothers and Sisters. — 
He embraces Mormonism, and becomes a Leader.— Is appointed Presi- 
dent of the Twelve, and finally placed at the Head of the Church to 
succeed Joseph Smith. — Establishes the Mormons in Salt Lake Valley. 

Brigha^i Young was born at TVhitingham, Windham 
County, Vermont, June 1, 1801. A short sketch of the fam- 
ily of this noted adventurer may not be uninteresting. The 
following extract is from his autobiography : — 

" My grandfather, John Young, was a physician and surgeon 
in the French and Indian war. 

"My father, John Young, was born March 7, 1763, in Hopkin- 
ton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. He was very circumspect, 
exemplary and religious, and -was, from an early period of his life, 
a member of the Methodist Church. At the age of sixteen he 
enlisted in the American Revolutionary War, and ser\-ed under 
General AYashington ; he was in three campaigns in his own native 
State, and in New Jersey. In the year 1 785 he married Nabby 
Howe, daughter of Phineas and Susannah, whose maiden name 
was Goddard. 

" In January, 1801, he moved from Hopkinton to Whitingham, 
Windham County, Vermont, where he remained for three years, 
opening new farms. 

"He moved from Vermont to Sherburn, Chenango County, 
New York, in 1804, where he followed fai-ming, enduring many 
hardships and privations, incidental to new settlements. 
1 



2 EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

" My father's family consisted of five sons and six daughters, 
viz. : — 

" Nancy, born in Hopkinton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 
August 6, 1786. 

" Fanny, born in the same place, November 8, 1787. 

" Rhoda, born in Platauva District, New York, September 10, 
1789. 

" John, born in Hopkinton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 
May 22, 1791. 

" Nabby, born in same place, April 23, 1793. 

" Susannah, born in same place, June 7, 1795. 

" Joseph, born in the same place, April 7, 1797. 

" Phineas Howe, born in same place, February 16, 1799. 

" Brigham, born in Whitingham, Windham County, Vermont, 
June 1, 1801. 

" Louisa, born in Sherburn, Chenango County, New York, 
September 25, 1804. 

"Lorenzo Dow, born in same place, October 19, 1807." 

It is worthy of remark, that all of Brigham's family be- 
came Mormons. His father, John Y'oung, was constituted 
first patriarch of the church, and died at Quincy, Illinois, 
October 12, 1839. His brothers are all at Salt Lake, and 
are the devoted followers and satellites of the Prophet. 

Through the plurality system, the Y"oungs have formed 
connections so numerous, that almost half the people at Salt 
Lake are in some way related to the ruling dynasty. This 
is striking evidence of Brigham's ingenuity in consolidating 
and perpetuating his power. 

His early life was that of a farmer's son, but he afterwards 
acquired the trade of a painter and glazier, which he followed 
until his conversion to Mormonism. In 1832, being then 
thirty-one years of age, he heard and embraced this new 
religion. He was convinced by Samuel H. Smith, brother 
to the prophet Joseph, and was baptized by Eleazer Miller, 
now living at Salt Lake. 

Brigham " gathered " with the saints, at Kirtland, Ohio, 
and soon became intimate with Joseph Smith. He was 



TARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 3 

ordained an elder, and began preaching. His shrewdness, 
and almost intuitive knowledge of character, soon attracted 
the attention of his brethren, and gave him influence and 
position in this weak and despised church. They recognized 
in him a man born to rule and lead the masses. They were 
attracted by his strong, electrical will ; and from that time his 
power in the church has been undisputed. 

In 1835, on the 14th of February, at Kirtland, Brigham 
Young w^as ordained one of the newly-organized quorum of 
the Twelve Apostles. Armed with his new power, and fired 
with a zeal worthy of a better cause, he went forth, and 
preached and proselyted "with marked success. 

Thomas B. Marsh having apostatized, Brigiiam was cho- 
sen to succeed him, as President of the Twelve Apostles, in 
1836. 

Then came the dark days of Mormonism. Many of the 
prominent men of the church apostatized. The saints were 
driven from Kirtland. Smith fled to save his life ; Brig- 
ham accompanied him, and after many hair-breadth escapes, 
many trials and hardships, they again planted a new colony, 
and settled in Far West, Missouri. 

But the saints were destined again to endure persecution 
for their faitli. In a few years they were driven from INIis- 
souri, seekinfT a home this time in Illinois. Durinof all this 
time Brigham stood firm, counselling and directing his breth- 
ren, and, like the rock amid the storms, gathering fresh power 
of resistance as the waves of persecution increased in fury. 

In 1830 he was appointed, with others, to " open up the 
gospel " to the inhabitants of the British Isles. They landed 
at Liverpool on the 6th of April, 1840, and immediately 
commenced preaching. Brigliam superintended affairs, issued 
an edition of the " Book of Mormon," and commenced the 
publication of the " IMillennial Star," a periodical still hving. 
In 1841 he sailed for New York, having shipped seven hun- 
dred and sixty-nine of the faithful, and leaving many 
churches, with organizations completed. 



4 EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

Brigham was cordially received by Smith, and the saints 
generally, who appreciated and acknowledged his services, 
and it was evident that his influence and fame were rapidly 
increasing. 

In 1844: the whole aspect of affairs was changed. Smith 
was shot, Nauvoo threatened by a mob, and the Twelve 
Apostles scattered. Sidney Rigdon assumed the Presidency, 
he being Smith's first counsellor. Divisions were numerous, 
and the church was in imminent danger of falling into hope- 
less ruin. 

Brigham, with true Napoleonic foresight, saw his opportu- 
nity, and was not slow to improve it. He came hurriedly to 
Nauvoo, denounced Rigdon as an impostor and his revela- 
tions as emanations from the Devil, cut off both him and his 
adherents from the true church, cursed Rigdon, and " handed 
him over to the buffetings of Satan for a thousand years," and 
was himself elected President by an overwhelming majority. 

This exhibition of energy silenced all opposition. Those 
who did not love, feared him ; and all suffered themselves to 
be led, because they dared not resist, a man so determined to 
rule. 

Thus much accomplished, and visions of future power and 
aggrandizement, perchance of temporal sovereignty, floated 
through the brain of this modern Mohammed. He dreamed 
of the kingly robe and the jewelled crown in some far-off 
valley of the Rocky Mountains, where gentiles or their laws 
could not annoy the saints, or hinder the normal develop- 
ment of Mormonism. How and in w^hat manner these 
dreams came so near fulfilment, will be seen as the reader 
peruses these pages. 

But he did not lose sight of the present in these glowing 
visions of the future. He completed the Temple, the Man- 
sion-House was in a forward state, Nauvoo was increasing 
rapidly, and with it his power and popularity. 

Brigham, however, with his usual foresight, saw the storm 
arising. The saints were again to be driven. So he hur- 



EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 5 

ried the people through their endowments, bound them to 
him by oaths which made them shudder to recall, and still, 
by an art equal to that of Loyola, so inwound himself in 
their affections that they loved and reverenced him the more. 
He aroused their deepest hatred toward the '' gentiles ; " 
wrought upon their pride, ambition, and revenge, until they 
were ready to do and dare anything for their religion and 
their leader. When his power was thus fully established, he 
revealed to them " the will of the Lord concerning them." 
They must leave their beautiful Nauvoo, their sacred tem- 
ple, their altars and their homes, and follow him as the 
Moses of the new dispensation, and he would find for them 
a Canaan, a land flowing with milk and honey, where the 
gentiles should never come. This was a trial of their faith. 
Should they yield to the temptation, and, hankering after the 
flesh-pots of Egypt, lose their birthright ? They wept, they 
hesitated, but the strong will and iron nerve of Brigham con- 
quered, and they obeyed. 

In February, 1846, they crossed the Mississippi on the 
ice, and leaving home, property, and kindred, they took up 
their line of march for the land of the setting sun. As the 
long trains rolled by, Brigham comforted, counselled, and 
blessed the weeping emigrants. He told them of the land 
where they should worship " under their own vine and fig- 
tree, with none to molest or make them afraid." Alas for 
their fainting hearts ! Little did they suspect that the cruel 
ambition of their God-man would lead them to a land as 
barren as the Desert of Sahara, and as' devoid of vegetation 
as the Rock of Gibraltar. 

They established themselves in winter-quarters at Kanes- 
ville, now Council Bluffs, Iowa. Here new difficulties arose. 
The church was poor, and means were needed to supply the 
current necessities, as well as to defray the expense of the 
journey to their new Zion. Various schemes were resorted 
to for the purpose of " raising the wind." A band of Dan- 
ites was sent out to steal cattle and horses, and convey them 



6 EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

beyond the jurisdiction of the State authorities. Others 
were detailed to make and circidate counterfeit money. 
While these little speculations were progressing, Brigham 
was trying his hand at diplomacy. He is reported to have 
sent James C. Little to Washington, to request the privilege 
of raising a battalion of Mormons for the Mexican war. 

This movement was prompted by several considerations. 
First, it was thought necessary for the safety of the church 
that they should make a show of patriotism ; secondly, these 
soldiers would draw pay from the government, which Brig- 
ham could appropriate ; and thirdly, they were to be dis- 
charged in Mexico, where, at that time, he designed to found 
his theocratic monarchy. It has been asserted by some per- 
sons that Brigham received $20,000 from the government, 
as a bonus, for raising the battalion ; but 1 find no evidence 
to substantiate this assertion. The following aifidavit will 
show in what manner he was benefited by this transaction : — 

" Territory of Utah, > 

Great Salt Lake City. > 
" Alexander INIcCord says that he was mustered into the U. S. 
service in the Mormon Battahou, August 16th, 1846. That an 
advance of $42.50 was issued by the government per man, osten- 
siblv for the purpose of clothing the command, making a total to 
the battahon of S22,500. That this amount was received by 
Parley P. Pratt, and forwarded by him to Brigham Young, who 
proffered to apply the same for the benefit of the families of the 
battalion, who were in a state of destitution. That he, Brigham, 
informed them he would send to St. Louis, purchase goods, and 
deal them out for the benefit of said families at wholesale prices. 
Also made a covenant with them, calling upon God and angels to 
witness the same. That he would transport their families to them 
in Mexico, now CaHibrnia, even if he had to leave his OAvn family 
behind ; also would provide houses for them. That in his public 
address to the battahon, in relation to this subject, he strongly 
urged the advantages that would accrue to his church by their 
compliance with this requisition, making it entirely a matter of 
self-interest, with the sole view of accomplishing certain private 



EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUXG. 7 

ends ; and not In anywise appealing to tlieir loyalty, or setting 
forth the necessity of rendering assistance to the parent govern- 
ment. 

" That he did not fulfil the promises he had made. Some few 
articles were served out to their families at enormous rates, — his 
(Mc Cord's) wife having to take sole-leather, for which she had no 
use. That when their wives appealed to him, expecting in good 
faith to receive according to promise, he laughed, mimicked, and 
made fun of them on the public stand ; showing how they cried 
and whined. On the arrival of the money at Council Bluffs, 
some of the women, being entirely destitute, desired their hus- 
bands' share, and some cried for the want of it. Young ridiculed 
them, and told them if they insisted upon having the money, they 
must not look to him for support or protection ; thus compelling 
them to accept of his terms. 

" Two agents, John D. Lee and Major Egan, followed the 
battalion to Santa Fe, and there received a draft on Leavenworth, 
for the first month and a half's pay, with the understanding from 
the soldiers it was to be paid to their families. The authorities of 
the church drew the amount, and then took out the tithing for 
themselves, one tenth. 

" One of the inducements held out by the government, was to 
discharge them, with their arms in Mexico, which was done. 
When he (McCord) arrived in Utah, October, 1847, he found 
his family not here, and was prevented by the church authorities 
from going after them ; and was not permitted to leave until 
January following. When he reached his family at Winter Quar- 
ters, Missouri, he found no preparations made for their being for- 
warded to Utah, and there were none made afterwards. 

(Signed,) Alexander McCord. 

" Territory of UtaJi^ ss. 

" Alexander McCord, being duly sworn, says that the facts set 
forth in the foregoing statement by him subscribed, of his own 
knowledge, are true, and those set forth upon information and 
belief he verily beheves to be true. 

(Signed,) Alexander McCord.'* 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 4th day of May, 1864. 
" Thomas J. Drake, 
" Associate Justice U. S. Sup. Court, Utali" 



8 EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

By this operation, Brigham must have realized the neat 
little sum of $10,000. This enabled him to fit out an expe- 
dition to explore the country west of the Rocky Mountains. 
Accordingly, in the spring of 1847, with one hundred and 
forty-three of his tried adherents, he made the journey to 
Salt Lake, where they arrived July 24, 1847. A colony 
was at once established, and a part of the number left to 
commence farming operations. Brigham, with the remain- 
der, returned to " Winter Quarters." Here he found the 
people on the point of starvation, while fevers and the cholera 
were rapidly thinning their ranks. Brigham at once com- 
menced alleviating their suffering, and in the excess of their 
gratitude, these poor deluded creatures did not see that he 
was the cause of all their misery. 

Young was now ready to enact another scene in this Mor- 
mon drama. He was ruling the church in the capacity of 
President of the Twelve Apostles. He desired greater power ; 
he wished to occupy the place of the Prophet of the Lord. 
This was the more difficult, as the people venerated the mem- 
ory of Joseph Smith, sanctified as it was by the remembrance 
of his cruel and untimely death. Brigham knew well the 
extent of this feeling, and that it would be impossible to sup- 
plant Joseph in their affections, and extremely difficult to 
occupy his position. But his plans demanded that he should 
be in form what he was in fact, — the absolute head of the 
church. He resolved to execute a brilliant coup d'etat, and 
risk the consequences. 

On the morning of the 24th of December, 1847, he as- 
cended the pulpit to preach ; and with that power of mimicry 
and imitation for which he is so remarkable, aided, doubtless, 
by works of art to enable him to represent the features and 
personnel of Smith, he so completely assumed the tone and 
manner, and presented the appearance of Joseph, that the 
congregation believed that their dead prophet stood before 
them. The effect was electrical. Women screamed and 
fainted ; strong men wept ; the delusion was complete. " The 



EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 9 

manth of Joseph had fallen upon Brigham ; " he was hence- 
forth their Prophet, Seer, and Revelator, the rightful suc- 
cessor to the Presidency. One old brother told me that he 
really believed that Joseph was present in the flesh, so strong 
was the personal resemblance at the time. As soon as the 
tumult subsided, the people elected Brigham " President of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in all the 
world." He appointed Heber C. Kimball and Willard Rich- 
ards as his counsellors. These three constituted the " First 
Presidency." This action was subsequently confirmed, at a 
conference held April 6, 1848, at the same place. Brigham 
was now the nominal as well as the real leader of this strange 
community. 

A greater trial demanded his forethought. The whole 
church was to be removed over a thousand miles, through an 
almost unknown country, full of dangers and difficulties. 

The following account of the manner in which this difficult 
undertaking was executed, is from the pen of John Hyde, 
Jr.: — 

" Some ability is required to efficiently remove bodies of armed 
troops over such new and pioneering obstacles: well supplied, 
equipped, and mounted, it takes a commander's skill; but here 
were poor, unprovided, feeble men, women, and children, shaking 
with ague, pale with suffi?ring, hollow and gaunt with recent hun- 
ger. Without strife, without discord, almost without a murmur, 
this heterogeneous mass moved off. Many groaned with anguish, 
but none with complaint. Brigham's energy inspired them all ; 
his genius controlled them all. Marking their road with their 
gravestones, they arrived at Salt Lake Valley, destitute and 
feeble, in 1848. The desert to which they had come was as cheer- 
less as their past history. From cruel foes they had fled to as 
unfeeling a wilderness. Renewed difficulties demanded a renewed 
effort from Brigham. Everything depended on him. Starvation 
and nakedness stared in the gloomy faces of the desponding people. 
ISIurmurs and complaints were uttered. He quelled everything ; 
scolded, plead, threatened, prophesied, and subdued them. With 
a restless but resistless energy he set them to work, and worked 
hunself as their example. He directed their labors, controlled 



10 EARLY HISTORY OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

their domestic affairs, preached at them, to them, for them. He 
told foolish anecdotes to make them laugh, encouraged their danc- 
ing to make them merry, got up theatrical performances to distract 
their minds, and made them work hard, certain of rendering them 
contented by-and-by. Feared with a stronger fear, venerated 
with a more rational veneration, but not loved with the same 
clinging tenderness that the people still felt for Joseph Smith, 
Brigham swayed them at his will. They learned to dread his iron 
hand, and were daunted by his iron heart." * 

"While he was thus consolidating his power, laying plans 
for the foundation of a monarchy more despotic than that of 
Austria, important changes were going on in the political 
condition of the country. Mexico was conquered, and much 
of its territory, including Utah, was annexed to the United 
States, and the Mormons thus again brought within the juris- 
diction of the Federal Government. 

From this era in Mormon affairs Brigham appears in so 
many different characters that his history can only be fully 
written by considering him in his various roles^ — as " Gov- 
ernor of Utah and Superintendent of Indian Affairs ; " " Pres- 
ident of the Church, Prophet, Seer, and Revelator ;" " Trustee 
in Trust for the Church ;" " President of the Emigration Com- 
pany ; " " Lord of the Harem ; '* " Eloheim, or Head God ; " 
and " Grand Archee of the Order of the Gods." 

* Mormonism ; its Leaders and Designs, by John Hyde, Jr. New York: 
W. P. Fetridge & Co. 1857. Page 144. 



CHAPTER II. 

POLITICAL. 

Brigham as Governor of Utah and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. — 
Formation of the State of Deseret. — Proceedings of the Utah Legisla- 
ture. — Brighani's Proclamations. — Dithculties with the Federal Offi- 
cers. — Proceedings of the first Judges. 

Bt the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluded between 
the United States and Mexico in 1848, the country now em- 
braced in the Territory of Utah was transferred from the 
jurisdiction of the latter to that of the former, and on the 9th 
of September, 1850, Congress passed an Act to organize the 
Territory of Utah. 

The Mormons arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on the 24th 
of July, 1847, while the Territory yet belonged to Mexico. 
When the peace between the United States and Mexico was 
concluded, the Moimons were left without a government. 
They took advantage of this opportunity to set up an inde- 
pendent government. 

Early in 1849 they met in convention to frame a consti- 
tution for " the State of Deseret." The following is an ab- 
stract of the minutes of that convention : — 

On the loth of March, 1849, the convention appointed 
the following persons a committee to draft a constitution for 
the State of Deseret, to wit : Albert Carrington, Joseph L. 
Heywood, William W. Phelps, David Fullmer, John S. 
Fullmer, Charles C. Rich, John Taylor, Parley P. Pratt, 
John M. Bernhei?el, and Erastus Snow. 

March 18, 1849, Albert Carrington, chairman of the com- 
mittee, reported the following constitution, which was read. 



12 POLITICAL. 

and unanimously adopted by the convention : [The preamble 
only is here given.] 

" Constitution of the State of Deseret. 

" "Whereas a large number of the citizens of the United States, 
before and since the treaty of peace with the Republic of Mexico, 
emigrated to and settled in that portion of the territory of the 
United States lying west of the Rocky Mountains, and in the 
great interior basin of Upper California ; and whereas, by reason 
of said treaty, all civil organization originating from the Republic 
of Mexico became abrogated ; and whereas the Congress of the 
United States has failed to provide a form of civil government for 
the territory so acquired, or any portion thereof; and whereas civil 
government and law are necessary for the security, peace, and 
prosperity of society ; and whereas it is a fundamental principle in 
all republican governments that all political power is inherent in 
the people, and governments instituted for their protection, secu- 
rity, and benefit, should emanate from the same : 

" Therefore your committee beg leave to recommend the adop- 
tion of the following Constitution^ until the Congress of the United 
States shall otherwise provide for the government of the Territory 
hereinafter named and described, by admitting us into the Union. 

" We, the people, grateful to the Supreme Being for the bless- 
ings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a 
continuance of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and 
Independent Government, by the name of the State of Deseret ; 
including all the territory of the United States within the follow- 
ing boundaries, to wit : [Here follow the boundaries of the pro- 
posed new State.] 

It will be noticed by the phraseology of the foregoing pre- 
amble that this government was to be " free and indepen- 
dent," and was intended to remain such until the new State, 
thus constituted, should he admitted into the Union. In other 
words, they intended, through the machinery of this inde- 
pendent State, to harass and annoy the government, and the 
gentiles, until the " saints " could force themselves into the 
Union upon their own terms. This theory is fully sustained 
by the subsequent history of this inchoate State. The very 



POLITICAL. 13 

first steps taken were independent of, and in hostility to, the 
officers appointed by the Government of the United States, 
as will more fully appear in the following pages. 

The formation of this government for the State of Deseret 
was the first effort to throw off the yoke of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, — an effort which has been persistently persevered 
in to the present time. 

There never has been a time since Brigham Young crossed 
the Rocky Mountains, when he has honestly entertained the 
idea of being a good and loyal citizen of the United States. 

The following were the first officers of this infant mon- 
archy : — 

Governor, Brigham Young. 

Lieutenant-Governor, IIeber C. Kimball. 

Chief Justice, Daniel H. Wells. 

The Assembly met, and after listening to the Governor's 
Message, proceeded to frame a code of laws. This pseudo 
State government remained in force until the 2 2d of Septem- 
ber, 1851, when the Territorial Legislature convened. 

In the mean time Brigham, having been appointed Gov- 
ernor of the newly organized Territory, and Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, and seeing a fair prospect of lining his 
pockets from the treasury of the United States, concluded 
to forego for a time his ambitious projects, and consented 
that the new " State " should be merged into a United States 
Territory. 

The federal officers were appointed during the session of 
1850-51, but owing to the difficulty of transportation, did 
not arrive until July, 1851. Young, who had been appointed 
Governor, had, on the 3d of February, 1851, taken the oath 
of office before Wells, Chief Justice of Deseret. 

The first session of the Territorial Legislature was con- 
vened, in pursuance of the proclamation of the Governor, on 
the 22d day of September, 1851, and continued by adjourn- 
ment from time to time, until the 18th day of February, 
1852. This was succeeded by a special session, called by 



14 POLITICAL. 

proclamation of the Governor, commencing the following day, 
and continuing until the 6th day of March, 1852. What 
there was in the political condition of this community, sub- 
jected as they were, in almost all the relations of life, to a 
complete and comprehensive system of religious government, 
to require a continuous session of the Territorial Legislature 
for nearly six months, has never yet been explained. 

The following is extracted from the published proceedings 
of the first Legislative Assembly : — 

"Kepresextatives' Hall, Tuesday, Sept. 23, 1852. 

"10 o'clock, A. M. Both houses of the Legislative Assembly 
met in joint session, according to previous arrangement. The 
President of the Council in the chair. 

" The committee appointed to that duty appeared, escorting his 
Excellency Brigham Young, Governor of Utah Territory, who 
was seated immediately in front of the Speaker's chair. 

" The joint committee appointed to wait upon the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, and the Secretary of the Territory, appeared, 
escorting the Hon. Z. Snow [Mormon], one of said Judges. They 
reported that they had visited the Hon. Perry E. Brochus, and 
Mr. Secretary Harris. But the answer returned by them was so 
vague and indefinite that they did not know whether they would 
respond to the invitation or not. The committee also reported that 
they did not see the Hon. Judge Brandenburg. The United States 
District Attorney, Seth M. Blair, Esq., [Mormon,] was also seated 
within the bar." 

The hostility to the federal officers had already been so 
openly and offensively manifested, that the respect which 
these gentlemen owed to themselves and the government and 
people whom they represented, would not permit them to be 
present at the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly. It 
will be noticed that one of them was not seen at all, and the 
reply of the other two was not even reported ! 

" The House was called to order by the President of the Coun- 
cil, who then informed his Excellency the Governor, that the two 
Houses were now ready to receive any communication he might 
be pleased to make." 



POLITICAL. 15 

The Governor then presented his Message, as follows : — 

" Fellow-citizens of the Council and House of Representatives 
of Utah Territory : — 

" Having called you from your various avocations to convene 
in general assembly at an earlier day, and upon shorter notice 
than may appear desirable, I will proceed without delay to lay 
before you the chief reason for so doing, as well as such other sug- 
gestions as to me shall appear necessary and proper, and as shall 
occur to my mind." . . . 

" Through- the munificence of the General Government, we have 
extended unto us increased facilities for spending our time for the 
public weal ; for, however much the honest pride of gratuitous 
public service may flatter its humble recipient, yet whilst it im- 
poverishes all but his honorable name and his country's cause, his 
anxieties will scarcely be lulled, his daily supplies but rarely re- 
plenished," 

He again addressed them, January 5, 1852 : — 

"... The enjoyment of a free and independent people 
can be accomplished only through this principle : produce what 
you consume. Draw from the native elements the necessaries of 
life ; permit no vitiated taste to lead you into expensive luxuries, 
•which can only be obtained by involving yourselves in debt. Let 
home industry produce every article of home consumption." . . 

This Legislature, besides passing a code of laws for the 
government of the Territory, sent some twenty memorials to 
Congress, most of them calling for appropriations of public 
money, and divided up the canyons, ferries, pasture-lands, 
woodlands, water privileges, and, in fact, all the most valu- 
able portion of the public domain, among prominent " saints," 
giving always to Brigham the " lion's " share. To this he 
was entitled by his recognized appellation of " the Lion of 
the Lord." 

To this day he holds, by virtue of an Act of the Legisla- 
ture, the most valuable canyon, near Salt Lake, called City 
Creek, or Brigham's Canyon, — having taken actual posses- 
sion of the same, by fencing in the mouth of the canyon com- 



16 POLITICAL. 

pletely, and thus preventing all ingress or egress, except 
upon the payment of toll. General Connor, upon his arrival 
in Utah, in the fall of 1862, was justly indignant to find 
himself fenced out from one of the national thoroughfares, 
but thought it prudent not to add to the causes of irritation 
by interfering. 

During this session Brigham issued eight proclamations. 
The following is the most celebrated of these State Papers : — 
"Territory of Utah. 
" A Proclamation for a Day of Praise and Thanksgiving. 

" It having pleased the Father of all good to make known his 
mind and -will to the children of men in these last days, and 
through the administration of his angels to restore the holy priest- 
hood unto the sons of Adam, by which the gospel of his Son has 
been proclaimed, and the ordinances of life and salvation are ad- 
ministered ; and through which medium the Holy Ghost has been 
communicated to believing, willing, and honest minds ; causing 
faith, wisdom, and intelligence to spring up in the hearts of men, 
and influencing them to flow together, from the four quarters of 
the earth, to a land of peace and health, rich in mineral and vege- 
table resources, reserved of old in the councils of eternity for the 
purposes to which it is now appropriated ; a land choice above all 
other lands ; far removed from the strife, contentions, divisions, 
moral and physical commotions, that are disturbing the peace of 
the nations and kingdoms of the earth, — 

" I, Brigham Young, Governor of the Territory aforesaid, in 
response to the time-honored custom of our fathers at Plymouth 
Rock, by the governors of the several States and Territories, and 
with a heart filled Avith humiliation and gratitude to the Fountain 
of all good, for his multiplied munificence to his children, have felt 
desirous to, and do, proclaim Thursday, the 1st day of January, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-two, a Daij of Praise and Thanhs- 
giving^ for the citizens of this our peaceful Territory, in honor of 
the God of Abraham, who has preserved his children amid all the 
vicissitudes they have been called to pass ; for his tender mercies 
in preserving the nation undivided in which we live ; for causing 
the gospel of his kingdom to spread and take root upon the earth, 
beyond the power of men and demons to destroy ; and that he 



POLITICAL. 3, 

has promised a day of universal joy and rejoicing to all the inhab- 
itants who shall remain when the earth shall have been purified 
by fire, and rest in peace. 

" And I recommend to all good citizens of Utah, that they ab- 
stain from everything which is calculated to mar or grieve the 
spirit of their Heavenly Father on that day ; that they rise early 
in the morning of the first day of the new year, and wash their 
bodies with pure water; that all men attend to their flocks and 
herds with carefulness, and see that no creature in their charge is 
hungry, thirsty, or cold ; while the women are preparing the best 
of food for their households, and their children ready to receive it 
in cleanliness and cheerfulness ; then let the head of each family 
with his family, bow down upon his knees before the God of Israel,, 
and acknowledge all his sins, and the sins of his household ; call 
upon the Father, in the name of Jesus, for every blessing that he 
desires for himself, his kindred, the Israel of God, the universe of 
man ; praying with full purpose of heart and united faith that the 
union of the United States may be preserved inviolate, against 
all the devices of wicked men, until truth shall reign triumphant, 
and the glory of Jehovah shall fill the earth. Then, in the name 
of Jesus, ask the Father to bless your food ; and when you have 
filled the plates of your household, partake with them with rejoic- 
ing and thanksgiving ; and if you feel to make merry in your 
hearts, sing a song of thanksgiving ; and lift up your hearts con- 
tinually, in peace and acknowledgment of the unbounded mercies 
you are momentarily receiving. 

" I also request of all good and peaceful citizens, that they ab- 
stain from all evil thinking, speaking, and acting, on that day; 
that no one be offended by his neighbor ; that all jars and discords 
cease ; that neighborhood broils may be unknown ; that tattlers and 
strife may not be remembered ; that evil surmising may be forgot- 
ten ; that all may learn the truth, and have no need of priests to 
teach them ; that all may be well, and have no need of doctors ; 
that all may cease their quarrels, and starve the lawj'crs ; that all 
may do as they would be done unto, so that perfect love, which 
casteth out all fear, may reign triumphant, and there shall be 
nothing to disturb the quiet of an infant in all the Territory of 
Utah ; that there be no contention in the land ; and that the 
same peace may extend its influence to the utmost bounds of the 
everlasting hills, and from thence to the habitation of every man 
2 



I 



18 POLITICAL. 

and beast, to the ends of the earth ; till the leopard shall lie down 
with the kid, the lion shall eat straw like the ox, and the babe 
shall lay his hand upon the cockatrice's den, and find peace to its 
soul. 

" I further request, that when the day has been spent in doing 
good, in dealing your bread, your butter, your beef and your 
pork, your turkeys, your molasses, and the choicest of all the 
products of the valleys of the mountains, at your command, to the 
poor ; that you end the day in the same order, and on the same 
principle that you commenced it ; that you eat your supper with 
singleness of heart, as unto the Lord, after praise and thanksgiv- 
ing, and songs of rejoicing ; remembering that you cannot be filled 
with the Holy Spirit, and be preparing for celestial glory, while 
the meanest menial under your charge or control is in want of 
the smallest thing which God has given you power to supply ; 
remembering that it is dependent on you for its comforts, as you 
are dependent on your God for your constant support. 

" Retire to your beds early, that you may be refreshed, and 
rise early again, and so continue, until times and seasons are 
changed ; or finally, I say unto you, let the same process be con- 
tinued from day to day, until you arrive unto one of the days of 
Kolob, [where a day is 1000 of our years,] the planet nearest to the 
habitation of the Eternal Father ; and if you do not find peace 
and rest to your souls by that time, in the practice of these things, 
and no one else shall present himself to offer you better counsel, 
I will he there, and knowing more, will tell you what you ought to 
do next. 

" Done at the Executive Office, Great Salt Lake 
City. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the Territory to be 
affixed, this 19th day of December, a. d. 1851, and 
of the Independence of the United States the 
seventy-sixth. 
" By the Governor, BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

" W. Richards, Sec. pro tern., appointed hy the Governor.^ 

Amidst the verbosity of this singular document will be 
seen expressions of attachment to the Federal Union. The 
sincerity of these professions must be judged of in the light 
of his Gontemporaneous acts. The officers appointed by the 



POLITICAL. 1 9 

General Government were then in the States, or at Washing- 
ton, representing truly the condition of things in Utah, and 
the conduct of Brigham and his associates, which etiectually 
obliged them to leave the Territory, by rendering their pres- 
ence in Utah not only useless but dangerous. It is for our 
readers to say how much weight is to be given to that portion 
of the fulmination of the Prophet put forth under such cir- 
cumstances. 

At this first session of the Legislature, Brigham proceeded 
to give, in his Message, his views in relation to African 
slavery, fully indorsing it, and prescribing regulations for its 
establishment in the Territory. His views upon this subject 
may be gathered from the following extract : — 

" Thus while servitude may and should exist, and that too upon 
those who are naturally designed to occupy the position of servant 
of servants, yet we should not fall into the other extreme, and 
make them as beasts of the field, regarding not the humanity that 
is in the colored race ; nor elevating them, as some seem disposed, 
to an equality with those whom nature and nature's God has indi- 
cated to be their masters, their superiors." 

In accordance with the foregoing suggestions, the Legisla- 
ture passed a law regulating slavery in the Territory, and it 
has existed in full force and effect to the present time. There 
are now a considerable number of African slaves in the 
Territory, and a large number of Indians, " held to service." 

During the same session, the Legislature memorialized the 
President, setting forth that the federal officers had aban- 
doned the Territory ; reciting the formation of the provisional 
government of Deseret, and complaining that " all the author- 
ities of the Territory, including the governor and both houses 
of the Assembly, and marshal, had been set at naught as 
exercising their functions illegally and unconstitutionally." 

The causes which led to this petition were as follows : — 

When the Territory was organized, in the winter of 1850- 
51, the following nafned officers were appointed: — Brigham 
Young, Governor; Lemuel C. Brand^burg, Chief Justice; 



20 POLITICAL. 

Perry E. Brochus and Zerubbabel Snow, Associate Justices ; 
Seth M. Blair, Attorney General, and B. D. Han-is, Secre- 
tary. These otRcers did not arrive in Utah until July, 1851. 
Previous to their arrival, Brighara Young had issued a pro- 
clamation ordering an election for delegate to Congress and 
members of the Legislature, and providing for taking the 
census. 

The Secretary considered that Young had exceeded his 
authority, and on this ground refused to pay over the moneys 
in his hands for the expenses of the Legislature. 

The Supreme Court being then in session, Harris applied 
to the court for an injunction to stay the proceedings of the 
Legislature, which the court granted. This order, however, 
was nugatory, as the court had no power to enforce its judg- 
ments. This, of course, enraged the Mormons ; and the Gov- 
ernor instructed Blair, the District Attorney, who was a 
Mormon, to sue out a writ of injunction upon the Secretary, 
to prevent him from taking the money out of the Territory. 
The court decided against the injunction, thus again sustain- 
ing the Secretary. 

Again, Congress had appropriated $20,000 for the erec- 
tion of suitable buildings at the capital of the Territory. 
Brigham and his tools, the members of the Legislature, at- 
tempted to appropriate this money, and in exchange, palm 
off upon the government, for $20,000, a building which never 
cost over $8,000. 

These circumstances engendered much feeling between the 
Mormons and the gentile officers ; and this was in nowise 
lessened by an incident which occurred about this time. 

Hon. Perry E. Brochus, one of the Supreme Judges, in 
some remarks made in a Mormon assembly, commented 
rather severely upon the peculiar institution. He com- 
menced by addressing the women upon the subject of spirit- 
ual wife-ism ; pointing out to them its wickedness and the 
unhappy results that must follow to them and to their chil- 
dren, if the practice should be persisted in. He said it was 



POLITICAL. 21 

against the laws of man and God. This was undoubtedly 
the first time, at Salt Lake, that a gentile had ever spoken 
in public against Mormon institutions. 

The women were excited : the most of them were in tears, 
before he had spoken many minutes. The men were aston- 
ished and enraged, and one word of encouragement from 
their leader would have brought on a collision. Brighani, 
with his usual shrewdness, saw this, and was equal to the 
occasion. When the Judge sat down, he rose, and by one 
of those strong, nervous appeals, for which he is so famous 
among his brethren, restored the equilibrium of the audi- 
ence. Tho-e who, but a moment before, were bathed in 
tears, now responded to his broad sarcasm and keen wit, in 
screams of laughter; and having fully restored the spirits of 
the audience, be turned to the Judge, and administered the 
following rebuke : " I will kick you," he said, " or any other 
gentile Judge from this stand, if you or they again attempt 
to interfere with the affairs of our Zion." 

The Judge saw that he was beaten, and finding his life 
threatened and in danger, soon after left the Territory. 

After his departure, Brigham preached the following ser- 
mon : — 

" I am at the defiance of the rulers of the greatest nations on 
the earth, with the United States all put together, to produce a 
more loyal people than the Latter Day Saints. Have they, as a 
people, broken any law ? No, they have not. Have the United 
States ? Yes. They have trampled the Constitution under their 
feet with impunity, and ridden recklessly over all law, to perse- 
cute and drive this people. Admit, for argument's sake, that the 
Mormon elders have more wives than one, yet our enemies never 
have proved it. If I had forty wives in the United States, they 
did not know it, and could not substantiate it ; neither did I ask 
any lawyer, judge, or magistrate for them. I live above law, and 
so do this people. Do the laws of the United States require us 
to crouch and bow down to the miserable wretches who violate 
them ? No ! 

" I defy the world to prove that we have infringed upon that 



22 POLITICAL. 

law. You may circumscribe the* whole earth, and pass through 
every Christian nation, so called, and what do you find ? If you 
tell them a ' Mormon ' has two wives, they are shocked, and call 
it dreadful blasphemy. If you whisper such a thing in the ears of 
a gentile, who takes a fresh woman every night, he is thunder- 
struck with the enormity of the crime 

" I?sow, let me tell you the great, killing story. ' Governor 
Young has sixteen wives and fourteen babies.' Now, they did 
not see that sight, but the circumstance was as follows : I took 
some of my neighbors into the large carriage, and rode down to 
Father Chase's to eat watermelons. When driving out of the 
gate, in the evening. Brother Babbitt walks up, and I invited him 
into the carriage, and he rode up into the city with me, and I 
suppose he told the United States officers. That, I believe, is the 
way the story of the sixteen wives and fourteen children first came 
into circulation. 

" But this does not begin to be the extent of my possessions, 
for I am enlarging on the right hand and on the left; and shall 
soon be able, Abraham-like, to muster the strength of my house, 
and iaJce my rights, asking no favors of judges or secretaries." 

At another time he used the following language : — 

"When the officers returned from this Territory to the States, 
did we send them away ? We did not. I will tell you what I 
did, and what I will do again. I did chastise the poor, mean 
ruffian, — the poor, miserable creature who came here by the name 
of Brochus,— when he arose before this people, to preach to them, 
and tell them of ^leanness which he supposed they were guilty of, 
and traduce their characters. 

" It is true, as it is said in the report of these officers, if I had 
crooked my little finger he would have been used up. But I did 
not bend it. If I had, the sisters alone felt indignant enough to 
have chopped him in pieces. I did not do it, however, but suffered 
him to fill up the measure of his shame and iniquity, until his cup 
is running over. 

" I have no fears whatever of Franklin Pierce excusing me 
from office, and saying that another man shall be the Governor of 
this Territory. At the beginning of our settlements, when we 
sent Almon W. Babbitt to Washington with our constitution for a 
State government, and to ask leave to adopt it, he requested that 



POLITICAL. 23 

I should not sign my name to it as Governor ; ' for,' said he, ' if 
you do, it will thwart all our plans.' I said, ' My name will go as 
it is in that document, and stay there, from this time henceforth 
and forever. Now,' I continued, ' if you do not believe it, you 
may go to Washington, and give those papers to Dr. Bernheisel, 
and operate against him, and against our getting a State govern- 
ment, and you cannot hinder it.' 

'' I will be Governor still, after you have done everj'thing you 
possibly can to prevent it. We have got a Territorial Govern- 
ment, and I am and will be Governor, and no power can hinder it, 
until the Lord Almighty says, ' Brigham, you need not be Gov- 
ernor any longer;' and then I am wiUing to yield to another 
Governor." 

This '• sermon " was preached at Great Salt Lake City, 
June 19, 1853, and is published in the "Journal of Dis- 
courses," vol. i. p. 188. 

Brigham had appointed his second counsellor, Willard 
Richards, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the departure of 
Secretary Harris. So the saints had fairly succeeded in 
ridding themselves of the obnoxious officials, — the remaining 
Judge7' and' the "District Attorney, being Mormons in good 
standin»v 

The Hon. Z. Snow then proceeded to hold his court, un- 
molested by gentile law or judges. He tried and convicted 
several Spaniards of buying Indian children for slaves, took 
the children fiom the Spaniards, and turned them over to 
the. " brethren." 

The Indians now began to be hostile, and the brethren 
were obliged to cease pursuing the gentiles, and prepare to 
defend themselves against the " Lamanites." During the 
years 1852-53-54, more or less disturbances prevailed. 

In October, 1852, Judge Shaver arrived, as successor to 
Judge Brochus ; and Lazarus H. Reed, of New York, was 
appointed Chief Justice, to succeed Judge Brandenburg. 
Judge Reed arrived in the Territory in June, 1853. Of 
these, Brigham said, — 

" One of our judges, Judge Shaver, has been here during the 



24 POLITICAL. 

winter, and, as far as he is known, he is a straightforward, judi- 
cious, upright man, and a good adjudicator in the law. He and 
Judge Reed, who has lately arrived, I believe will do the best 
they can, and all is right." 

Judge Snow continued to hold his office until succeeded 
by Judge Stiles, in the fall of 1854. 

Judge Shaver lived among the saints until his death, and 
■was " buried with the faithful." 

It is currently reported, and believed by many, that 
Judge Shaver died from the effects of poison, administered 
by the hands of a Mormon. He was a Southerner by birth, 
agreed very well with the Mormons, gave suppers, and 
drank with them, and was considered a " hail-fellow well 
met." There was, however, some difficulty between the 
Judge and the Prophet, the nature of which was not distinctly 
known. The difficulty increased, and one morning the Judge 
was found dead in his bed. The heads of the church took 
great pains to have the affair investigated, and came to the 
conclusion that the Judge had died of some " disease of the 
head." He was followed to the grave by a large concourse 
of people, and preceded by a band of music. 

Less regard would be paid to these invidious reports, were 
it not for the fact that Brigham Young's connection with the 
violent death of divers other persons is too notorious to be 
denied. To say nothing of the Mountain Meadow massacre, 
in which he is distinctly implicated by evidence of an over- 
whelming character, there are other cases in which his 
agency in causing in some way the death of the party, is 
scarcely denied by himself. 

For instance, the death of Alraon "W. Babbitt, at the 
hands of " Indians," on the Plains. In the summer of 1862, 
Brigham was referring to this affair, in a tea-table conversa- 
tion, at which Judge Waite and the writer of this were pres- 
ent. On that occasiou, after making some remarks to im- 
press upon the minds of those present the necessity of main- 
taining friendly relations between the federal officers and the 



POLITICAL. ZO 

authorities of the church, he used language substantially as 
follows : — 

" There is no need of any difficulty, and there need be none, 
if the officers do their duty, and mind their own affairs. If they 
do not, if they undertake to interfere in affairs that do not con- 
cern tbem, I will not be far off. There tvas Almon W. Babbitt. 
He undertook to quarrel with me, hut soon afterwards teas killed 
by Indians. He lived like a fool, and died hke a fool." 

People determined to believe only that Brigham Young 
is a good citizen, and that he and his people are mostly in 
the right in their difficulties with the federal officers, will 
doubtless be able to put an innocent construction upon the 
foregoing language. But to the minds of those who heard 
it, and who were most interested in its meaning, it never had 
but one signification, and went far to disclose the dark and 
danuiing character of the man. 

But to return to our narrative. Judge Reed seems to 
have been more fortunate in his intercourse with these people. 
The Mormons wished to eradicate from his mind all unfavor- 
able impressions created by the sudden departure of his 
predecessors. They therefore treated him with marked con- 
sideration. They hoped, through his influence, to reinstate 
themselves with the authorities at Washington, and they 
partially succeeded. The Judge formed quite a favorable 
opinion of the Mormons, though not indorsing the adminis- 
tration of Brigham Young. He remained in the valley 
about a year, and then went to the States, intending to re- 
turn, but died suddenly, while at his home, in Bath, Steuben 
County, New Y^ork. 



CHAPTER III. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Col. Steptoe and Brigham Young. — Brigham reappointed Governor. — 
John F. Kinney. — Western Utah, or Nevada. — Letter of Hon. James 
M. Crane. — Judge Stiles and the Records. — W. "NV. Drummond. 

In 1854 CoL Steptoe, with about 300 men, came to Salt 
Lake. His command was intended for California and Ore- 
gon, but spent the winter of 1854-55 at Salt Lake City. 

About this time John F. Kinney, of Iowa, was appointed 
Chief Justice, to succeed Reed, and George P. Stiles, Asso- 
ciate Justice ; Joseph HoUman, al>o of Iowa, Attorney- Gen- 
eral, and Almon W. Babbitt, Secretary. In the spring of 
1855, W. W. Drummond, of Illinois, was appointed Asso- 
ciate Justice. 

During the winter of 1854-55, news reached Salt Lake 
that President Pierce had commissioned Col. Steptoe as 
Governor of Utah. This alarmed the saints exceedingly. 
The Lion of the Lord was roused. Something must be done. 

Col. Steptoe had the appointment under consideration for 
several weeks, and finally refused to accept it, and joined 
with Chief Justice Kinney and others in recommending the 
continuance in office of Governor Young. 

The question naturally arises, Why did Col. Steptoe re- 
fuse to accept the appointment, and recommend Brigham 
Young ? Mormons would tell you, in confidence, that Brig- 
ham " put a hook in his nose," and he was compelled to do 
as he did. The Prophet of the Lord had said he would be 
Governor, and no power but the Lord Almighty could hin- 
der it. 



POLITICAL HISTORY COXTIXUED. 27 

Daring and unscrupulous as a brigaud, having the means 
at his command, and the ingenuity to use them, why should 
he not outwit the government and deceive the people of the 
United States ? He was determined not to relinquish, with- 
out an effort to retain them, the power and emoluments of 
his position. The following narrative of the manner in 
which he accomphslied his purposes, has been furnished by 
a Mormon who was residing in Salt Lake City at the time, 
and the em[)loynient of similar appliances on more than one 
occasion afterward, gives the coloring of truth to the story. 

There were in Salt Lake City, at that time, two beautiful 
and fascinating women, one of whom was by marriage nearly 
related to the Prophet ; the other was an actress in the 
church theatre. Their husbands were both " on a mission." 
These ladies were a great deal in the society of Col. Steptoe 
and his otjficers. Much attention was paid to the military 
officers, and it would be but natural that these men should 
be both pleased and flattered by the attention of sisters occu- 
pying so high a place in the hierarchy. According to report, 
however, the character of these women was not such as their 
exalted position in the church would seem to require. 

One evening Brigliara called '' the girls " to him, and ex- 
plained that he had a plan in which he needed their assist- 
ance. They at once consented to do anything he might de- 
sire. The plan was soon agreed upon. He placed his Dan- 
ites at a convenient distance around the Colonel's office, and 
calmly awaited developments. In a short time one of the 
" police " came to the Prophet, and signified that it was time 
for him to appear on the field. He went immediately down 
to the Colonel's office, which was on Main Street, and knocked 
for admittance. For some time no one responded, but the 
knocking continuing violently. Col. Steptoe a-ked who was 
there. " Brigham Young," said the angry Prophet ; " and 
I want to come in, and I will come in." At this Steptoe 
opened the door, and Brigham entered the front office. He 
seemed excited, and without being seated, asked if Mary 



28 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

and Mrs. were there ; adding, — "I want the girls." 

Steptoe denied their presence ; but could a prophet be de- 
ceived ? "I know better," said he ; " I know they are here ; " 
at the same time walking into the back office. There, on the 
sofa, sat two young gentlemen dressed in the highest style, but 
wearing their hats. Brighani advanced, lifted the hats of 
the fancy gentlemen, and the ladies he was seeking sat before 
him. Of course, the righteous indignation of the Prophet 
knew no bounds. He threatened Steptoe with exposure and 
prosecution, and told him his life would not be safe if the 
friends of the ladies came to hear of the affair. He cen- 
sured the girls, and told them to go home, and finally calmed 
down, and left the office. 

Steptoe was greatly alarmed, and, as a compromise, offered 
to recommend Brigham for the appointment which had just 
been tendered to himself. With ill-concealed satisfaction on 
the part of Brigliam and his friends, the proposition was ac- 
cepted, and " the matter arranged." 

Soon after, a petition was sent to the President, dated 
December 30, 1854, and asking for the reappointment of 
Young as Governor. This was signed by Col. Steptoe and 
most of his officers, and by all the federal officers then in 
Utah. 

This array of gentile names was not to be disregarded, 
and Brigham Young was reappointed Governor of Utah. 

In 1854 John F. Kinney w^as appointed, by Franklin 
Pierce, Chief Justice of Utah, and came to the valley with 
his family and a large stock of goods the same year. He 
was known in Iowa as a " Jack Mormon," and subsequent 
events have proven that he was such. He sold goods and 
kept a boarding-house ; and at once entered into favor with 
the Mormon administration. He was pecuniarily interested 
in keeping the good-will of his trading customers ; and this 
fact, together with his undoubted sympathy with the church, 
will satisfactorily account for the course pursued by him in 
the complicated condition of the Territory. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 29 

It is not our purpose to detract from the merits of any one. 
TVe desire to do justice to all. But the impartial truth of 
history requires us to say that the uniform course of Judge 
Kinney has been to aid and abet Biigham Young in his 
ambitious schemes, with but little regard to the advancement 
of the interests of the whole country, or the requirements of 
indiscriminate justice. 

As to his merits as a jurist, the writer of these pages 
cannot undertake to decide. But it would seem, to one un- 
initiated, that a Judge cannot be vefy profound who will try, 
convict, and sentence men not within the jurisdiction of his 
court, and even men not in the land of the living. This was 
done by Judge Kinnoy, in the case of the Morrisites, — dis- 
senters or apostates from the ^Mormon Church. 

In the spring of 1863 a large number of these men were 
tried, convicted, and fined $100 each. Many of them were 
out of the Territory at the time, and one was dead. This 
statement is fully substantiated by affidavits which were 
taken at the time. Over ninety w^ere tried and convicted, 
about twenty of whom were out of the Territory, and one 
had died before the trial commenced. 

When the cases were called on for trial, it was stated that 
some of the accused were absent. The Judge remarked, it 
made no difference ; he was gratified that so many had made 
their appearance, and directed the trial to proceed. All 
were found guilty, and sentenced to pay a fine of $100 each, 
except a few of the leaders, who were sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary, — one of them for fifteen years. 

These men were accused of resisting the Mormon officers 
who came to arrest them. Robert T. Burton, the sheriff" of 
Salt Lake County, who was the principal one thus " resisted," 
had shot Morris, their Prophet, in cold blood, after he and his 
party had surrendered; and yet, while the Morrisites were so 
severely punished. Burton went scot free. The grand jury 
of Salt Lake County would not even find a bill of indictment 
against him. Burton stands high in the community, and was 
afterwards appointed Collector of Internal Revenue. 



30 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

But this is not all. Not only were all of the accused tried 
and convicted, but the bonds of those absent were declared 
hi) the clerk to be forfeited, and execution was issued against 
those resident in Utah, to collect the penalty of the bonds. 
At the same time, the records showed no judgments against 
the delinquents. One of these Morrisites, named Abraham 
Taylor, found his property, worth $2500, suddenly levied 
upon, under one of these executions. There being no gen- 
tile lawyer at Salt Lake, he applied to Judge Waite, who 
investigated the matter, and found there was no judgment of 
record. He then advised Mr. Taylor to apply to Judge 
Kinney for an injunction against the officer. This was done ; 
but the application was refused by Judge K. on the ground 
that if there was no judgment he could render one, as the 
court had not permanently adjourned, but only to meet on his 
own motion. This response to the application of a suitor is 
a sufficient indication of the abihty of Judge Kinney, and of 
his desire to administer impartial justice. 

The result of the whole matter was, that the homestead 
of Mr. Taylor was sold under the execution, to the clerk of 
Judge Kinney s court, for $200 ; the family of Taylor im- 
poverished, and literally turned into the street. After 
remaining out of doors, in front of the house, for a day or 
two, they took refuge at the camp of Gen. Connor. 

In his personal appearance Judge Kinney is pompous and 
conceited. He is of the medium size, rather stout, with dark 
complexion. Brusque and ready in conversation, and never 
declining to drink when invited, he is well adapted to the 
country in which he resides, and is immensely popular in the 
community in which he was placed " to administer the law," 
and which he now represents in Congress. He is an open 
apologist and advocate of polygamy. 

Mrs. Kinney is a sister of Judge Hall, of Iowa, and an 
accomplished lady. She was utterly di-gusted with Mormon 
society, and returned, with her daughters, to the States. 

Judge Kinney remained in Utah until 1856. In 1860 he 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 31 

was reappointed. Thus he was absent from the Territory 
dunng all the exciting scenes of 1857-8 and 9, and returned 
after something like harmony had been restored in the affairs 
of the Territory. He managed, however, by having his 
leave of absence extended from time to time, to retain the 
office and its emoluments until 1858. Since 18 GO he has 
been back and forth, spending about half his time in either 
portion of the country, but retaining his position as Chief 
Justice, until elected to Congress in 1863. 

Judge Stiles, who was appointed to succeed Snow, was 
assigned to the third, or Carson District. He immediately 
proceeded to his district, and held a term of court. 

The present Territory of Nevada was included mostly in 
the third judicial district, and much difficulty occurred be- 
tween Mormons and the miners in that section. 

A full account of the proceedings which go to make up the 
history of this part of Utah, will be found in a letter from 
the Hon. James M. Crane to Hon. William Smith, published 
in 1859. 

This letter is so complete and truthful in its statements, 
and presents such a correct view of the character and tenden- 
cies of Mormonism, that we insert it, nearly entire : — 

" Washixgtox, Januarv' 17, 1859. 
"Dear Sir,— 

" As you may need some facts not reported at length in the 
memorial and other documents, relating to the proposed Territory 
of Nevada, I herewith submit them. 

" The Mormons and Anti-Mormons began the settlement of 
Western Utah in the latter part of 1854. The former, hoAvever, 
succeeded, in 1855, in obtaining a numerical majority; and the 
Legislature of Utah, on being informed of this fact, organized the 
whole western part of the Territory, under the name of Carson 
County, and Governor Young appointed Orson Hyde, the Presi- 
dent of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles, its Probate Judge. Soon 
after the Judge arrived, adventurers from California, as well as 
from the Atlantic States, settled in Carson and other valle^JS on 
the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada, for the purpose of mining, 



32 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

farming, and raising stock. As they increased very fast, the 
Mormons became alarmed, and determined to expel them. 

" They therefore ordered them to leave the country. Of course 
the Christians, or Anti-Mormons refused to do so. The Mormons 
then assembled their forces, and attempted to expel them, vi et 
armis. The Anti-Mormons also organized, and fortified them- 
selves, with a view of defending their lives and property against 
their assailants. 

" For two weeks their armies campe^l nearly in sight of each 
other, without coming to a direct battle. 

" By this time, news had reached the miners in California of this 
state of affairs, and a large number had determined to cross the 
mountains, and afford protection to the Anti-Mormons. On hear- 
ing this, the Mormons became satisfied that, unless they retraced 
their steps, they would be driven themselves from the country, 
instead of the Anti-Mormons. They therefore proposed a truce, 
and agreed that all should enjoy a common heritage in that part 
of the Territory. 

" The Mormons now became satisfied that the Christians not 
only could, but would occupy these fertile valleys, on the ground 
that they were the common property of the United States. Wheij 
the Legislature of Utah heard of this affair, that body, in viola- 
tion of every constitutional right, repealed the county organiza- 
tion, recalled the Probate Judge, and removed all the county and 
court records to Salt Lake City, where they have ever since 
remained. Amongst these records were several indictments 
against certain persons for high crimes and misdemeanors. By 
this flagrant violation of all sacred, individual, collective, and 
constitutional rights, the people of Western Utah were not only 
denied all legal protection to life and property, but they were dis- 
franchised. They have ever been unrepresented in the Legisla- 
ture and in Congress. The history of our country presents no 
such a record of open defiance of law, and such cruelties to men 
under the form of laws. 

" For years the Anti-Mormons have been applying, both to the 
Territorial Legislature and to Congress, for protection, without 
success. 

" Their situation has ever been, and still is, pecuharly unsafe 
and annoying. Recently a Probate Judge was surreptitiously' 
appointed for Carson Valley, with a view of reorganizing the 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 33 

county of Carson, and thus extend over the people there the 
Mormon statutes of the Territory. 

" The Judge, soon after he received his commission, undertook 
to force on an election of county officers. Enough of the Anti- 
Mormons, however, turned out, to defeat his purpose, by the 
election of an opposite ticket, who, on being elected, refused to 
qualify, because they were required to obey the Mormon statutes. 
The Judge has been notified that if he undertakes to enforce the 
Mormon statutes he will be resisted, — peaceably if they can, forci- 
bly if they must. 

" They will not introduce, nor permit others to introduce among 
them, the vices of that wicked, perverse, and adulterous genera- 
tion, who have so long wielded the sceptre of authority in the 
Great Basin. They will not allow, with impunity, their wives and 
daughters to be kidnapped, dishonored, and defiled; nor submit 
to laws made by such a people, nor allow themselves to be ruled' 
by men who practise and uphold vices and crimes so revolting to 
the moral sense of the world ; and if the Mormons persist in their' 
present course, blood will flow. 

" The only loyal people of Utah are oppressed, annoyed, and 
scandalized, by a government intended by Congress to secure 
them in their rights, and to protect them in their property ; and' 
while the present Territorial organization exists, the Mormons, 
■who have control of the Legislature, will never ' let up on the 
gentiles.' 

" The onlv remedv for this unnatural war, now raging between' 
the Mormons and the Anti-Mormons in Utah, is to be found in 
the immediate separation of these people under two distinct gov- 
ernmental organizations. One thing is inevitable, — the Mormons 
and Anti-Mormons will never, and can never live together in 
peace, under one government. The conflicts which took place 
between them in Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa, and which 
are now going on in Utah, ought to convince any intelligent man 
of the justice and truth of this declaration. Indeed, the Mormons 
themselves acknowledge it ; and so long as they adhere to their, 
belief, — a belief founded upon their own scriptures, — that an 
absolute theocracy is the only government under which they can 
and should live, they never will be loyal to our government and 
countrymen, and hence their hostility to our institutions and peo- 
ple, and their inflexible devotion to their own. — 



34 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

" In every State where the Mormons have lived, it has cost the 
loyal people of the State thousands of dollars, as well as the loss 
of many lives, to compel them to obey the laws. In every instance 
they have resisted our laws, and in eyary State necessity demanded 
their expulsion. 

" In Utah, while they were charged with the administration of 
the government and execution of the laws, they proved them- 
selves not only traitors to our people, but treacherous to the gov- 
ernment, and openly rebelled against them and defied their author- 
ity, and it cost the Federal Government millions to conquer them. 
They have still control of the Territory, and they are inflexibly 
bent upon subduing the Anti-Mormons of Western Utah ; and if , 
the latter are not separated from them, and protected by law, it 
will require the expenditure of millions more to restore order in 
Utah. Congress can count the cost in this matter, while we will 
have the melancholy duty of burying our dead. The people of 
Nevada will never be conquered, — never be ruled by the Mor- 
mons. Come what will, they will resist to the bitter end. They 
prefer death to dishonor, and the government may choose which 
of these shall be meted out to them. 

" In addition to the above considerations, which should, I be- 
lieve, present conclusive and imposing evidence, sufficiently satis- 
factory to induce Congress to organize the Territory of Nevada, I 
may likewise mention others. 

" While the people of Western Utah have, in the Mormons, 
open and avowed enemies, they have likewise the savage tribes to 
defend themselves against. Some of these tribes are professed 
Mormons, while others are under their influence. Many conflicts 
have taken place between the Christians and some of these tribes, 
as well as between the emigrants, while crossing the Plains to the 
North Pacific, and the aforesaid savages ; and there is no hope of 
establishing amicable relations with these Indian tribes, until they 
are brought under other and better relations with the Anti-Mor- 
mons of Utah. Peace does not reign in Utah, and never will, 
under the present order of things 

" When our common country shall call forth her sons to defend 
her rights, the people of Nevada will come forth. They will be 
ready and wilhng to meet the enemy, on the beach and on the 
frontier, with a sword in one hand and a torch in the other. They 
will dispute every inch of ground, burn every blade of grass, and 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 3o 

the last intrenchment of liberty -R-Ill become their graves, rather 
than permit a foreign enemy to contaminate the soil of our coun- 
try. Can this be said of the Mormons ? I think not. If we can 
protect our countrymen abroad, why should we not, on our own 
soil? 

" Very respectfully, yours, 

'■ James M. Crane, 

'•'■ Delegate elect from Nevada. 
" To Hon. Wm. Smith." 

" Having read the above statement of Judge Crane, delegate 
from the proposed Ten-itory of Nevada, I Avill state from my own 
observation, having resided in the Ten-itory of Utah for over three 
years, for a portion of which time I was in Carson Valley, that I 
heartily concur with him, and fully indorse his statement in rela- 
tion to the condition of things in Western Utah, and seriously 
believe that the wants and necessities of the people of that por- 
tion of the Territory demand its immediate organization. 
" George P. Stiles, 

'■'Late Associate Justice for Utah" 

Nevada was erected into a Territory, and has made rapid 
and gigantic strides in all the essentials of a hio;h eiviliza- 
tion. Her mines are celebrated throughout the world, and 
she annually adds millions of dollars to the circulation of the 
country. 

Already are her valleys teeming with the life of the hus- 
bandman, and her soil jdelding up its rich harvests of golden 
grain, for the sustenance of her brave and patriotic sons. 
She has sent several hundred men into the field, and with 
unskaken loyalty stands ready to send more, if the cause of 
her country calls, — thus literally fulfilling the promise of 
Judge Crane made in the foregoing letter. Mark the con- 
trast between loyal and Christian Nevada, and disloyal and 
Mohammedan Utah ! One rushing on to a glorious and 
happy destiny, and the other falling rapidly back into the 
habits and customs of heathen nations. The genius of Lib- 
erty sits enthroned among the mountains of free Nevada, 
while despotism of the most hideous character clanks her 



36 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

chains in Utah. May the day of deliverance for the op- 
pressed thousands of Utah soon dawn. Then will she take 
her place among her sisters in the family of States, and the 
hand of oppression be no more felt in all her fair borders. 

When Brighara Young found that the gentile element was 
gaining ground rapidly in Carson County, his Legislature 
attached it to Great Salt Lake County, for judicial and other 
purposes. A large number of Mormons were sent on to 
colonize, and if possible to retain, the fertile Valley of Ne- 
vada. These missionaries were recalled in 1857, as well 
as many others, who were settling in different parts of Cali- 
fornia. 

Slowly and sullenly they relinquished their hold upon this 
rich and prosperous portion of the Republic. It rapidly ad- 
vanced in population, and not only prospered as a Territory, 
as already mentioned, but has lately been admitted as one of 
the States of the Union. The admission of Nevada, carved 
out of Utah, while the mother Territory still remains out in 
the cold, ought to be a sufficient hint that Congress and the 
people of the United States are not yet prepared for the 
establishment in their midst of a polygamic monarchy. 

Judge Stiles returned to Salt Lake City, and there held 
several courts. 

In the fall of 1856 a conflict arose, in regard to the juris- 
diction of the United States Marshal. Heretofore this officer 
had acted with the Mormons, and all had passed off smoothly. 
But a real gentile was now appointed, and this was the sig- 
nal for Mormon opposition. The Mormons claimed that the 
Territorial Marshal, instead of the United States Marshal, 
should act in the United States courts when doing territorial 
business. The United States Marshal contended that he 
should officiate in all business transacted in the United States 
courts, whether sitting as federal or territorial courts. Judge 
Stiles issued certain writs, directed to the officer, which he 
found it impossible to serve. Tlie people, instigated by the 
Mormon leaders, refused to obey the precepts of the court. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTIXUED. 37 

and set at naught its authority, proclaiming that the time 
had come when their laws, and none oihers, should be en 
forced in Utah. 

The question of jurisdiction was brought before the court, 
and James Ferguson, Hosea Stout, and J. C. Little, Mormon 
lawyers, loudly demanded that the Judge should decide in 
their favor. Ferguson, backed by an armed mob, told Judge 
Stiles, in open court, that if he dared to decide contrary to 
their wishes, he "would take him from the bench d — d 
quick " ; that the boys were there to do it, and he, with 
others, by threats and intimidations, riiially compelled the 
Judge to adjourn his court. 

Judge Stiles then appealed to Brigham Young, as Gov- 
ernor of the Territory, to sustain him, and protect him in 
the discharge of his duties. In reply, he was coolly told 
that " the courts had already cost him [Brigham] too much 
trouble ; that the boys had got their spunk up, and he would 
not interfere." He advised him, "if he could not sustain 
and enforce their [the United States] laws and institutions, 
the sooner he adjourned his court the better." 

These proceedings had a tendency to bring the Judge into 
disrepute with the Mormons. Thomas Williams, a lawyer, 
had his otHce with Judge Stiles, on Main Street. Williams, 
though a Mormon, was an independent man, and had openly 
opposed Brigham on some question of politics. He had 
also denounced some prominent murders, and was becoming 
obnoxious, and even dangerous, to Brigham and his com- 
peers. The Prophet once said to Williams's father and 
mother : "If Tom don't behave himself better, and stop 
causing me trouble, I must attend to him." Soon after, 
Williams apostatized, and started fur California, intending to 
remain, and send back for his family. He met the fate of 
Babbitt. He was waylaid and killed by " Indians " on the 
Plains. It is well understood at Salt Lake that these were 
white Indians, and that Williams was put to death by order 
of the church authorities. 



38 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTIXUED. 

The records of the United States District Courts were in 
Judge Stiles's ollice. He, and Williams also, had a good many- 
law books, which were private property. Brigham' asserted 
that the records were suffered to ''lie around loose," and 
suggested to the boys that they had better be cared for. This 
was suthcient, and " the boys " proceeded to " 'tend to it." 
James Ferguson, Hiram B. Clawson, and several others, re- 
paired to the office of the Judge when he was absent, and 
stationing one of the number to watch, they gathered up the 
records of the courts, first of all, and conveyed them to a 
fire-and-burglar-proof-safe, belonging to Young, and under 
the control of Clawson, who was his confidential clerk and 
son-in-law. 

Having deposited them safely, they returned, and taking 
some of the Judge's papers, tore them in pieces, and scat- 
tered them over the floor, and in the direction of an outhouse. 
About the same time a large number of the law books found 
their way into the houses of certain Mormon law3'ers, where 
they have ever since remained. They then took some of the 
books from the office, and placed them in the outhouse, set 
tire to the building, and burned it to the ground. 

When Judge IStiles returned he found the office robbed, 
and the books and papers, as he supposed, burned. 

Thus all business was suspended, and the records of the 
United States Courts and government property burned and 
stolen from the custody of the legal authorities. 

Judge Stiles left Utah in the spring of 1857, and when in 
Washington, made affidavit to the foregoing facts. It may 
be well here to state that Judge S. was entirely conscientious 
in making his affidavit, and the prevailing impression in the 
community was that the records had been destroyed. ' 

In the summer of 1855 W. W. Drummond, of Illinois, 
arrived in Utah, as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. 
The Mormons allege that he deserted his wife, and brought 
with him a mistress. This caused much righteous indigna- 
tion among the saints ! The Judge also professed to be a 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 39 

warm friend and advocate of Senator Douglas, whom the 
Mormons hate. 

When Drummond was about to hold court, he intimated 
that he would set aside all judgments rendered by probate 
Judges, and annul all their proceedings, except such as per- 
tained to the usual and legitimate business of the probate 
courts. Here was a direct issue, and a conflict w^as inevit- 
able. 

The court being about to be held in Fillmore, a Jew was 
hired for S25 to quarrel with Drummond. As a part of the 
programme, also, he was to strike the Judge. The Jew 
played his part, except the blow, which, for want of opportu- 
nity or courage, was omitted. Instead of this he sent to the 
Judge an insulting message, by the hands of a colored " boy " 
belonging to Drummond. The boy was sent back with a 
raw hide, and instructions to " lay on " the same to the back 
of the Israelite, which CufFy obeyed with much spirit. Com- 
plaint was made by the Jew to a local magistrate. A war- 
rant was issued, and Drummond and his negro were both 
arrested. 

The result of this emeute was a sort of compromise, in 
which it was understood that the Judge should not interfere 
with the probate courts, and he was set at liberty. 

After adjourning his court at Fillmore, Drummond located 
in Utah County in the winter of 1856. The following sum- 
mer he went to Carson to hold court forjudge Stiles. Thence 
he proceeded to California and to the States, and as the Mor- 
mons allege " contributed largely to the getting up of Bu- 
chanan's crusade." 



CHAPTER IV. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. — THE MORMON WAR. 

Report of the Secretary of War. — Proclamation of Gov. Brigham Young, 
declaring Martial Law. — Correspondence. — Sermons of Young and 
Kimball. — Proclamation of Gov. Gumming. — His Echo Canyon Ad- 
ventures. — Col. Kane. — The Mormons leave Salt Lake. — Commis- 
sioners appointed by the President. — Peace restored. 

• By these and similar outrages the Mormons had succeeded 
in ridding themselves of all the federal authorities, and 
were really in open rebellion against the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

As Congress was not in session, the matter was taken in 
hand by Floyd, Secretary of War, and President Buchanan. 

After due consultation it was deemed advisable to appoint 
new men to all the civil offices of the Territory, and to ac- 
company them with a military force sufficient for their pro- 
tection and the enforcement of the laws. Accordingly, Pres- 
ident Buchanan, during the summer of 1857, made the fol- 
lowing appointments for Utah : — Governor, A. Gumming ; 
Chief Justice, D. R. Eckels ; Associate Justices, John Cra- 
dlebaugh and Charles E. Sinclair; Secretary, John Hart- 
nett. 

An army of about 3000 men was armed and equipped, 
and ordered to march for Utah, early in the fall of 1857. 

Brevet Brigadier- General W. S. Harney was originally 
named as commander of this force, but it was subsequently 
deemed inadvisable to detach that officer from the special 
duties of his department in Kansas, and the troops sent to 
Utah were placed under the orders of Col. A. S. Johnson. 



THE MORMON WAR. 41 

The Secretary of War, in his report, dated December 5, 
1857, says : — 

" The Territory of Utah is peopled almost exclusively by the 
religious sect known as Mormons. . . . They have substituted 
for the laws of the land a theocracy, having for its head an indi- 
vidual whom they profess to believe a prophet of God. 

" This Prophet demands obedience, and receives it implicitly 
from his people, in virtue of what he assures them to be authority 
derived from revelations received by him from Heaven. When- 
ever he finds it convenient to exercise any special command, these 
opportune revelations of a higher law come to his aid. From 
his decrees there is no appeal ; against his will there is no resist- 
ance. . . . 

" From the first hour they fixed themselves in that remote and 
almost inaccessible region of our territory, from which they are 
now sending defiance to the sovereign power, their whole plan has 
been to prepare lor a successful secession from the authority of the 
United States, and a permanent estabhshment of their own. . . . 

" This Mormon brotherhood has scarcely preserved the sem- 
blance of obedience to the authority of the United States for 
some years past ; not at all indeed, except as it might confer some 
direct benefit upon themselves, or contribute to circulate public 
money in their community. ... I need not here recite the many 
instances in their conduct and history on which these general 
allegations are founded, especially the conduct they have adopted 
within, the last twelve months towards the civil authorities of the 
United States. 

" It has, nevertheless, always been the policy and desire of the 
Federal Government to avoid collision with this Mormon commu- 
nity. It has borne with the insubordination they have exhibited, 
under circumstances when respect for its own authority has fre- 
quently counselled harsh measures of discipline. And this forbear- 
ance might still be prolonged, and the evils rife among them be al- 
lowed to work out their own cure, if this community occupied any 
other theatre, isolated and remote from the seats of civilization, 
than the one they now possess. 

" But, unfortunately for these views, their settlements he in the 
great pathway which leads from the Atlantic States to the new 
and flourishing communities growing up upon the Pacific seaboard. 



42 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

They stand a lion in the path ; not only themselves defying the 
civil and military authorities of the government, but encouraging, 
if not exciting, the nomad savages who roam over the vast, unoc- 
cupied regions of the continent, to the pillage and massacre of 
peaceful and helpless emigrant families traversing the solitudes of 
the wilderness. The rapid settlement of our Pacific possessions ; 
the rights, in those regions, of emigrants, unable to afibrd the 
heavy expenses of transit by water and the Isthmus ; the facility 
and safety of military, political, and social intercommunication 
between our eastern and western populations and States, — all de- 
pend upon the prompt, absolute, and thorough removal of a hostile 
power besetting this path, midway of its route, at a point where 
succor and provisions should always be found, rather than obstruc- 
tion, privation, and outrage. . . . 

" From all the circumstances surrounding this subject at the 
time, it was thought expedient, during the past summer, to send 
a body of troops to Utah, with the civil officers recently appointed 
to that Territory. . . . Great care has been taken, in preparing for 
the march to Utah, that nothing should seem to excite apprehen- 
sion of any action on the part of the army in the least conflict- 
ing with the fixed principle of our institutions, by which the mil- 
itary is strictly subordinate to the civil authority. The instruc- 
tions of the commanding officer were deliberately considered, and 
carefully drawn, and he was charged not to allow any conflict to 
take place between the troops and the people of the Territory, 
except only in case he should be called upon by the Governor for 
soldiers to act as a posse comitatus in enforcing obedience to the 
laws. 

" In conformity with this sentiment, and to assure these people 
of the real intention of the movement, an active, discreet officer 
Jtvas sent in advance of the army to Utah, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing provisions for it, and of assuring the people of the Terri- 
tory of the peaceful intentions of the Government. This officer 
found, upon entering the Territory, that these deluded people had 
already, in advance of his arrival, or of any information, except 
as to the march of the column, determined to resist their approach, 
and prevent, if possible, and by force, the entrance of the army 
into the Valley of Salt Lake. Supplies of every sort were refused 
him. 

" The day after his departure from the city, on his way back, 



THE MORMON WAR. 43 

Brigham issued his Proclamation, substantially declaring war 
against the United States, and at the same time putting the Terri- 
tory under martial law." 

The following is a copy of this celebrated document : — 

''PROCLAMATION 

" Of Governor Brigham Young. 

" Citizens of Utah, — We are invaded by a hostile force, -who 
are evidently assailing us to accomplish our overthrow and destruc- 
tion. For the last twenty-five years we have trusted officials of 
the Government, from constables and justices, to judges, govern- 
ors, and presidents, only to be scorned, held in derision, insulted, 
and betrayed. Our houses have been plundered and then burned, 
our fields laid waste, our principal men butchered, while under 
the pledged faith of the Government for their safety ; and our 
families driven from their homes, to find that shelter in the barren 
wilderness, and that protection among hostile savages, which were 
denied them in the boasted abodes of Christianity and civilization. 

" The Constitution of our common country guarantees unto us 
all that we do now, or have ever claimed. If the constitutional 
rights which pertain unto us as American citizens were extended 
to Utah, according to the spirit and meaning thereof, and fairly 
and impartially administered, it is all that we could ask, — all 
that we have ever asked. 

" Our opponents have availed themselves of prejudice existing 
against us, because of our religious faith, to send out a formidable 
host to accomplish our destruction. We have had no privilege 
or opportunity of defending ourselves from the false, foul, and 
unjust aspersions against us, before the nation. 

" The Government has not condescended to cause an investi- 
gating committee, or other persons, to be sent to inquire and as- 
certain the truth, as is customary in such cases. We know those 
aspersions to be false, but that avails us nothing. We are con- 
demned unheard, and forced to an issue with an armed, merce- 
nary mob, which has been sent against us at the instigation of 
anonjTnous letter-writers, ashamed to father the base, slanderous 
falsehoods which they have given to the public ; of corrupt offi- 
cials, who have brought false accusations against us, to screen 
themselves in their own infamy ; and of hireling priests and howl- 
ing editors, who prostitute the truth for filthy lucre's sake. 



44 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

" The issue which has thus been forced upon us compels us to 
resort to the first great law of self-preservation, and stand in our 
own self-defence, — a right guaranteed to us by the genius of the 
institutions of our country, and upon which the Government is 
based. Our duty to ourselves — to our families — requires us not 
to tamely submit to be driven and slain, without an attempt to 
preserve ourselves. Our duty to our country — our holy religion 
— our God — to freedom and liberty, requires that we should not 
quietly stand still, and see those fetters forging around us, which 
are calculated to enslave and bring us in subjection to an unlaw- 
ful military despotism, such as can only emanate, in a country of 
constitutional law, from usurpation, tyranny, and oppression. 

" Therefore, I, Brigham Young, Governor and Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Utah, in the name of the 
people of the United States in the Territory of Utah, forbid, — 

" First. All armed forces, of whatever description, from coming 
into this Territory, under any pretence whatever. 

" Second. That all the forces in said Territory hold themselves 
in readiness to march at a moment's notice, to repel any and all 
such invasion. 

" Third. Martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Terri- 
tory, from and after the publication of this proclamation ; and no 
person shall be allowed to pass or repass, into, or through, or from 
this Territory, without a permit from the proper officer. 

" Given under my hand and seal, at Great Salt Lake City, 
Territory of Utah, this fifteenth day of September, a. d. eighteen 
hundred and fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the eighty-second. 

" Brigham Young." 

This proclamation was forwarded to the commander of 
the United States forces, then on the Plains. It was accom- 
panied by the following letter : — 

" FoKT Bridger, September 3, 1857. 

" Sir, — I have the honor to forward you the accompanying 
letter from his Excellency Governor Young, together with two 
copies of his proclamation, and a copy of the Laws of Utah, 185, 
chap. 7, containing the Organic Act of the Territory. 

" It may be proper to add, that I am here to aid in carrying out 
the instructions of Governor Younjj. General Robinson will de- 



THE MOmiON WAR. 45 

liver these papers to you, and receive such communication as you 
may wish to make. 

" Trusting that your answer and action will be dictated by a 
proper respect for the rights and liberties of American citizens, 
I remain, 

" Very respectfully, 

"Daniel H. Wells, 
" Lieut.-General commanding Nauvoo Legion.'* 



" Governor's Office, Utah Territory, 

Great Salt Lake City, September 29, 1857. 
" Sir, — By reference to the Act of Congress, passed Septem- 
ber 9, 1850, organizing the Territory of Utah, published in a 
copy of the Laws of Utah, herewith, p. 146, chapf 7, you will find 
the following : — 

" ' Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the executive power 
in and over said Territory of Utah shall be vested in a governor, 
who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall 
be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President 
of the United States. The governor shall reside within said Ter- 
ritory, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof,' &c., &c. 

" I am still the Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
for this Territory, no successor having been appointed and quali- 
fied, as provided by law, nor have I been removed by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

" By virtue of the authority thus vested in me, I have issued 
and forwarded you a copy of my proclamation, forbidding the 
entrance of armed forces into this Territory. This you have dis- 
regarded. I now further direct that you retire forthwith from the 
Territory by the same route you entered. Should you deem this 
impracticable, and prefer to remain until spring in the vicinity of 
your present encampment, Black Fork, or Green River, you can 
do so in peace, and unmolested, on condition that you deposit your 
arms and ammunition with Lewis Robinson, Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral of the Territory, and leave in the spring, as soon as the con- 
dition of the roads will permit you to march. And should you fall 
short of provisions, they can be furnished you by making the 
proper applications therefor. 



46 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

" Gen. D. H. Wells will forward this, and receive any commu- 
nications you may have to make. 

" Very respectfully, 

"Bkigham Young, 
" Governor and Superintendeiit of 

Indian Affairs, Utah Territory. 
" To the Officer commanding the Forces 
now invading Utah Territory." 

The legitimate result of this violent and treasonable proc- 
lamation, as might be supposed, was to incite the people to 
revenge and bloodshed. Every man who could bear arms 
was at once taken from his usual avocation and trained in 
the art of waf. Clothing was at this time very scarce, as 
no trains of goods had arrived from the States. The " sis- 
ters " were called upon to make up every article which they 
could possibly spare into uniforms for the troops. Accord- 
ingly the "brethren" appeared arrayed in pieces of bed- 
quilts, carpets, and old clo' made over, and presented to the 
eye as motley and mi^erable a crew as those of " the right 
valiant Sir John Falstaff." If we look at the leaders of these 
classical armies, however, the parallel fluls. The chivalric 
Jack had at least the courage to march at the head of his 
soldiers ; while Brigham, who acknowledges himself to be a 
natural coward, preferred to remain snugly ensconced among 
his numerous wives and children. The Lion of the Lord, 
though seemingly aroused, only shook himself and roared 
loudly several times. He then quietly lay down, and re- 
mained thenceforth couchant during the war. With all the 
assurance and assumption of Joseph Smith, he lacked his 
personal courage and manly daring. 

But the rank and file of these " warriors of the Lord " 
lacked neither courage nor enthusiasm. Their Zion was 
threatened, — their institutions in danger, — and with the 
fire of revenge burning in their hearts, at the remembrance 
of former injuries, they rushed forth, to conquer or to die. 

Many joined their brethren in Echo Canyon, without even 



THE MORMOX WAR. 47 

shoes to their feet, wading through snows several feet deep. 
Such devotion and heroism were worthy of a better cause. 

The feehng and determination of the people cannot be 
better expressed than by extracts from the sermons of their 
leaders at this critical period. 

Sunday morning, September 16, 1857, Brigham Young, in 
his public discourse, said : — 

" This people are free ; they are not in bondage to any govern- 
ment on God's footstool. We have transgressed no law, and we 
have no occasion to do so, neither do we intend ; but as for any 
nation's coming to destroy this people, God Almighty being my 
helper, they cannot come here. [The congregation responded a 
loud ' Amen.'] . . . 

" We have borne enough of their oppression and hellish abuse, 
and we will not bear any more of it, for there is no just law re- 
quiring further forbearance on our part. And I am not going to 
have troops here to protect the priests and hellish rabble in eiforts 
to drive us from the land we possess ; for the Lord docs not want 
us to be driven, and has said, ' If you will assert your rights, and 
keep my commandments, you shall never again be brought into 
bondage by your enemies.' . . . 

" They say that their army is legal ; and I say that such a state- 
ment is as false as hell, and that they are as rotten as an old 
pumpkin that has been frozen seven times, and then melted in a 
harvest sun. Come on with your thousands of illegally ordered 
troops, and I will promise you, in the name of Israel's God, that 
you shall melt away as the snow before a July sun. . . . 

" You might as well tell me that you can make hell into a pow- 
der-house, as to tell me that you could let an army in here, and 
have pea^e ; and I intend to tell them, and show them this, if they 
do not stay away. . . . And I say our enemies shall not slip 
the bow on old ' Bright's neck ' again. God bless you. Amen." 

In the afternoon of the same day, the " lion " again roars, as 
follows : — 

" There cannot be a more damnable, dastardly order issued, 
than was issued by the Administration to this people, while they 
were in an Indian country in 1846. Before we left Nauvoo, not 
less than two United States Senators came to receive a pledge 



48 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

from us that we would leave tlie United States ; and then, while 
we were doing our best to leave their borders, the poor, low, de- 
graded curses sent a requisition for five hundred men to go and 
fight their battles ! That was President Polk ; and he is now 
weltering in hell, with old Zaehary Taylor, where the present 
Administration will soon be, if they do not repent. 

" Liars have reported that this people have committed treason, 
and upon their lies the President has ordered out troops to aid in 
officering this Territory ; and if those officers are like many who 
have previously been sent here, — and we have reason to believe 
that they are, or they would not come where they know they are 
not wanted, — they are poor, miserable blacklegs, broken down 
political hacks, robbers and whoremongers ; men that are not fit 
for civilized society ; so they must dragoon them upon us for offi- 
cers. I feel that I won't bear such cursed treatment, and that is 
enough to say, — for we are just as free as the mountain air. . . 

" I have told you that if this people will live their religion, all 
will be well ; and I have told you that if there is any man or 
woman who is not willing to destroy anything or everything of 
their property that would be of use to an enemy if left, I wanted 
them to go out of the Territory. And I again say so to-day ; for 
when the time comes to burn and lay waste our improvements, if 
any man undertakes to shield his, he will be sheared down ; for 
* judgment will be laid to the line, and righteousness to the 
plummet.' 

" Now, the faint-hearted ^an go in peace ; but should that time 
come, they must not interfere. Before I will suffer what I have>- 
in times gone by, there shall not be one building, nor one foot of 
lumber, nor a stick, nor a tree, nor a particle of grass or hay that 
will burn, left in reach of our enemies. I am sworn, if driven to 
extremity, to utterly lay waste, in the name of Israel's God." 

On the same subject, Heber C. Kimball, first counsellor to 
Brigham, used the following language : — 

" Is there a collision between us and the United States ? No ; 
we have not collashed ; that is the word that sounds nearest to 
what I mean. But now the thread is cut between them and us, 
and we will never gybe again, — no, never, worlds without end. 
[Voices, ' Amen.'] ... 

" Do as you are told, and Brigham Young will never leave the 



THE MORMON WAR. 49 

governorship of this Territory, from this time henceforth and for- 
ever. !No, never. And there shall no wicked Judge with his 

w ever sit in our courts again ; for all who are against Israel 

are an abomination to me and to our God. 

" The spirit that is upon me this morning is the Spirit of the 
Lord, that is, the Holy Ghost, — though some of you may think 
that the Holy Ghost is never cheerful. Well, let me tell you, the 
Holy Ghost is a man ; he is one of the sons of our Father and our 
God, and he is that man that stood next to Jesus Christ, — just as 
I stand by brother Brigham. . . . You think our Father and' 
our God is not a lively, sociable, and cheerful man ; he is one of 
the most lively men that ever lived. . . . Brother Brigham 
is my leader, he is my Prophet and my Seer, my Revelator ; and 
whatever he says, that is for me to do, and it is not for me to 
question him one word, nor to question God a minute."* 

Many sermons were delivered, composed, throughout, of 
such material as the foregoing extracts. The genius of 
Mormonism is here fully displayed, — implicit obedience to 
their leaders, and especially to the teachings of Brigham 
Young. The people were commanded to be ready to leave 
their homes at an hour's notice, and flee to the mountains, — 
and this too, as the snows of winter were falling around them. 
They were commanded to have the torch ready to set fire to 
their dwellings, and the axe to cut down all their fruit-trees y 
and they were ready to obey ! The question naturally pre- 
sents itself, Can blind faith and fanaticism thus lead and con- 
trol a whole commxrnity? That some should be thus blindly 
infatuated, is not strange ; but that a whole community should 
thus lose their reason, and be willing to beggar themselves 
^nd families, in obedience to the call of their leader, is almost 
beyond belief. 

It is safe to say, had the INIormons been left free to choose, 
at least one half would have remained at home, and even 
welcomed the troops into the city. 

But the fiat of despotism had gone forth. " When the 
time comes to burn and lay waste our improvements, if any 

* Deseret News, November 18, 1857. 
4 






50 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

man undertakes to shield his, he will be sheared down ; for 
'judgment will be laid to the line, and righteousness to the 
plummet.' " This means, in plain English, that any man who 
fefused to obey Young should be put to death ; and the peo- 
ple well understood it. As it was certain death to resist his 
will, they vied with each other in seeming to render a wilHng 
obedience to a tyrant whom many hated, and all feared. 

They fortified Echo Canyon, a narrow pa-s, about eighteen 
m'.les in length, eastward from the city. Piles of huge stones 
were heaped up along the borders of the pi-eci pices, ready to 
be dashed against the troops, as they should essay to pass 
the gorge. Intrenchments were thrown up, and such other 
warlike preparations made as their facilities afforded. 

The United States troops had entered the Territory of 
Utah, and were encamped in Green River County, near Fort 
Bridger, a distance of 118 miles from Salt Lake City. From 
this place Governor Cumming issued the following procla- 
mation : — 

" Green Eiver County, near Fort Bridger, ) 
Utah Tekritory, 21st November, 1857. ) 

" To the People of Utah Territory : — 

" On the 11th day of July, 1857, the President appointed me 
to preside over the executive department of the government of 
this Territory. I arrived at this point on the 1 7th of this month, 
and shall probably be detained some time, in consecjuence of the 
loss of animals during the recent snow-storm. I will proceed at 
this point to make the preliminary arrangements for the tempo- 
rary organization of the territorial government. Many treasona- 
ble acts of violence have recently been committed by lawless indi- 
viduals, supposed to have been commanded by the late executive. 
Such persons are in a state of rebellion. 

" Proceedings will be instituted against them in a court organ- 
ized by Chief Justice Eckels, held in this county, which court will 
supersede the necessity of appointing military commissions for the 
trial of such offenders. 

" It is my duty to enforce unconditional obedience to the Con- 
stitution, and the organic law of this Territory, and to all the other 
laws of Congress applicable to you. 



THE MORMON WAR. 51 

" To enable me to effect this object, I will, in the event of re- 
sistance, rely first upon a posse comitalits of the well-disposed por- 
tion of the inhabitants of this Territory, and will only resort to a 
military posse in case of necessity. I trust this necessity will not 
occur. I have come among you with no prejudices or enmities ; 
and by the exercise of a just and firm administration I hope to 
command your confidence. 

'' Freedom of conscience, and the use of your own peculiar 
mode of serving God, are sacred rights, the exercise of which is 
guaranteed by the Constitution, and with which it is not the prov- 
ince of the Government or the disposition of its representatives in 
this Territory to interfere. In virtue of my authority as com- 
mander-in-chief of the military of this Territory, I hereby com- 
mand all armed bodies of individuals, by whomsoever organized, 
to disband, and return to their respective homes. 

" The penalty of disobedience to this command will subject the 
offenders to the punishment due to traitors. 

"A. Gumming, 
" Governor of Utah Territory." 

During this time the Mormon troops were busy stealing 
stock, burning supply-trains, and in every way weakening 
and embarrassing the United States forces. Being familiar 
with the country, they had greatly the advantage ; and could 
break suddenly upon a herding party, from some side can- 
yon, capture their stock, and before the alarm could be given, 
be safely ensconced in their own quarters. Much valuable 
stock was acquired in this way. 

"Forts Bridger and Supply were vacated and burned down. 
Orders were issued by Daniel H. Wells (Lleut.-Cjcneral Nauvoo 
Legion,) to stampede the animals of the United States troops on 
their march, to set fire to their trains, to burn the grass and the 
whole country before them and on their flanks, to keep them 
from sleeping by night surprises, and to block the roads by felling 
trees, and destroying the fords of rivers. 

*' On the 4th of October, 1857, the Mormons, under Capt. Lot 
Smith, captured and burned, on Green River, three of our supply 
trains, consisting of seventy-five wagons, loaded with provisions and 
tents for the army, and carried away several hundred animals." 



62 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Late in the fall of 1857 "the Army of Utah" arrived at 
Bridger, and made an encampment, \vhich was called Camp 
Scott. 

As the winter was severe, and the snow very deep, little 
progress was made by the army in quelling the Mormon re- 
bellion, while much suffering was endured by the soldiers. 
Some time during the winter of 1857-58 Col. Kane set out 
for Utah, to ascertain, if possible, the exact st<Ue of affairs 
in that Territory. He was not sent as the agent of the Gov- 
ernment, as is generally supposed, but his mission was ap- 
proved by President Buchanan, and the War Department. 
He went incognito, and by the southern route, and arrived in 
Utah in the month of January. He was accompanied by a 
servant only, and while on the desert to the south of Salt 
Lake City, was taken sick, and came near losing his life. 
Amasa Lyman and others were out exploring, with a view 
of ascertaining whether the Mormons could be attacked 
from the south. They found Col. Kane and his man on the 
desert. Lyman took him into his carriage, " laid hands on 
him, and administered unto him." Kane still remained un- 
known to him, but told him that he had business of impor- 
tance to transact at Salt Lake, — important both to the Mor- 
mons and to the nation. He was immediately taken to Salt 
Lake, where, for the first time, he made known his business 
and his name. 

Brigham was agreeably surprised to find an old friend and 
quasi Mormon in his guest, and of course treated him with 
the greatest consideration. It was well understood at Salt 
Lake that Col. Kane was baptized by the Elders some years 
before, while on a tour of exploration to the Rocky Moun- 
tains.* How much of Mormon ism he imbibed is not known, 
but certain it is, that the saints rely on his aid and influence, 
under all circumstances. 

* John Hyde, Jr., in his work on Mormonism, page 146, says: "Fill- 
more, by the advice and intercession of CoL Kane, who had embraced Mor- 
monism in Iowa, appointed Brigham as the Governor of Utah." 



THE MOKMON WAR. 53 

The negotiations were of the most friendly character, and 
Kane proceeded soon after, in his character as pacificator, to 
the " Head-quarters of the Army of Utah," at Fort Bridger. 
He was escorted by Porter Rockwell and Daniel Kimball 
past the limits of the Mormon camp. He held interviews 
with the officers of the army and with Governor Cumming, 
and succeeded in inducing the Governor to accompany him 
to Salt Lake. 

Of this journey Governor Cumiuing Miys : — 

" I left camp on the 5th, en route for this city, accompanied by 
Col. Kane, as guide, and two servants. ... I was escorted 
from Bear Eflver Valley to the western end of Echo Canyon, — the 
journey through the canyon being perfbnned, for the most part, 
in the night; it was about eleven o'clock when I an-ived at AVeber 
Station. 

" I have been everywhere recognized as the Governor of Utah, 
and, so far from having encountered insults and indignities, I am 
gratified in being able to state that, in passing through the settle- 
ments, I have been universally greeted with such respectful atten- 
tions as are due to the representative of the executive authority 
of the United States. . . . 

" When it was arranged with the Mormon ofiicer in command 
of my escort that I should pass through Echo Canyon in the 
night, I inferred that it was with the object of concealing the bar- 
ricades and other defences. I was therefore agreeably surprised 
by an illumination in honor to me. The bonfires kindled by the 
soldiers, from the base to the summit of the hills, completely illu- 
minated the valley, and disclosed the snoAV-covered mountains 
which surrounded us." 

The following is the 'Mormon account of the entree of 
Governor Cumming into the Valley of Salt Lake, and may 
go to explain to him why the journey was made through 
Echo Canyon in the night. 

Upon entering the Mormon lines they were rejoined by 
Rockwell and Kimball, who commanded the Governor's 
escort to Salt Lake City. Echo Canyon is a narrow pa?s, 
about eighteen miles in leno^th, and commands the entrance 



64 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

to Salt Lake Valley from the east. The Mormons had for- 
tified this canyon at several points. They also had four 
camps, or places of rendezvous, at convenient distances. 
Upon arriving at Cache Cave, the first " post," the party of 
the Governor came to a halt. His Excellency was escorted 
into camp with due honor, and an ox was slain to celebrate 
the occasion. After partaking of a sumptuous repast, the 
troops were ordered out for the Governor to review. About 
150 men were "drawn up," and after the review, the Gov- 
ernor " made a speech." He complimented '" the boys " on 
their order, discipline, and skill. 

Col. Kimball then proceeded to read various Orders to the 
troops. Various imaginary companies were ordered to relieve 
various other imaginary companies. Several new posts were 
ordered to be established, and others abandoned. Meanwhile, 
the Governor, not to he deceived, was noting down the differ- 
ent companies as they were called. This done, they again 
took the road. It was now about sundown ; and as they 
passed the stations, the troops were arranged on each side of 
the road, to salute the Governor, and be reviewed by him. 
Everything passed off smoothly until they reached the third 
station, when it suddenly occurred to Col. Kimball that the 
pickets at that post had not been apprised of their coming. 
He remarked, on n earing the camp, that " he saw no pickets, 
and he guessed the boys were in ambush." He therefore 
mounted a horse, and telling the driver to be sure and " halt " 
as soon as he heard the word, rode off. In a moment more, 
the guard shouted, " Halt ! who goes there ? " — and before 
a reply could be given, the crack of a rifle was heard. The 
Governor, trembling with fright, cried out, " I am your 
friend, the Governor of Utah ; don't fire, boys ; for God's 
sake, don't fire ! " "I know nothing about Governors, nor 
anybody else," replied the picket; "I must do my duty. 
This way, Sergeant of the Guard." By this time quite a com- 
pany rode up, and, as the Governor supposed, he was about 
to be taken prisoner. Col. Kimball now appeared, explained 



THE MORMON WAR. 55 

the whole matter, and relieved his Excellency from his em- 
barrassing position. But the Governor was entirely innocent 
of the joke, and believes, to this day, that he had a hair- 
breadtli escape. 

They then passed on to the mouth of Echo Canyon, where 
the troops were again reviewed ; and as the pai'ty bivouacked 
for the night, hundreds of camp-fires gleamed along the rug- 
ged sides of the canyon, furnishing incontestable evidence of 
the great number of the Mormon soldiers. There were at 
this time about* 150 men, all told, in the canyon, and these the 
Governor had revieived at every station. 

The next morning the Governor proceeded on his jour- 
ney, prepared to assert that the Mormons had from two to 
three thousand men under arms in and near Echo Canyon. 
When the com[)any arrived at Sessions, ten miles from Salt 
Lake City, tliey were met by a large concourse of citizen 
soldiery, preceded by a band of music, accompanied by the 
roaring of cannon. The Echo Canyon boys were also there, 
to see the fun. The Governor was quite bewildered by all 
this parade, and made up his mind that the Mormons were 
very numerous, and both ready and willing to '' wipe out " 
tlie handful of Government soldiers, whenever they could get 
permission from their leader. 

Upon arriving at the " Holy City," the best lodgings and 
the best biandy were provided for his Excellency. Brigham 
called in due time, and paid his compliments ; invited Gov- 
ernor Cumming to his office, and tendered to him " the hos- 
pitalities of the city." Governor Cumming was delighted,, 
and in a few days called at the office of Governor Young. 
This wily personage put on one of his blandest smiles, re- 
signed his office of Governor, turned over the papers and 
documents of the office to his legal successor, and, to crown 
all, produced the records of the courts, in the highest state of 
preservation. 

Governor Cumming was perfectly amazed. Was it possi- 
ble his eyes did not deceive him ? Were these the veritable 



56 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

records about which so much had been said ? They were ; 
and the Mormons had been belied, and the Government de- 
ceived. He immediately wrote to the President and to Col. 
Johnson, and explained how matters stood. 

The gifted and accomplished Col. Kane was the bearer of 
these documents to his venerable friend James Buchanan, 
who read with delight these " signs of repentance " on the 
part of his dear children, and immediately commenced writ- 
ing their pardon. 

It has been supposed by many that Col. Kane was, at 
that time, acting as the agent of the United States Govern- 
ment. But the following extract from a letter to him, writ- 
ten by President Buchanan, dated December 31, 1857, will 
at once determine the position which the Colonel occupied : — 

" My dear Sir, — You furnish the strongest evidence of 
your desire to serve the Mormons, by abandoning the comforts of 
friends, family, and home, and voluntarily encountering the })erils 
and dangers of a journey to Utah, at the present inclement season 
of the year, at your own expense, and without official position. 
. . . Nothing but pure philanthropy, and a strong desire to 
serve the Mormon people, could have dictated a course so much 
at war with your private interests." 

While the President was penning his proclamation of par- 
don, the Mormons were leaving their property and homes, 
and taking up their line of march for the South. Governor 
Cumming was unable to control the movements of Col. John- 
son, who was acting under instructions from the Secretary of 
"War. Hence Cumming could not save to Brigham, however 
much he might feel disposed to do so, the humiliation of see- 
ing the streets of the city filled with the federal soldiers, 
against whom he had been hurling his anathemas. Finding 
this catastrophe could not possibly be averted, he promul- 
gated an order, purporting to emanate from the Almighty, 
commanding the people to leave their homes and start for the 
South. This order was prompted partly by the fact that the 
" President of the Church " was committed to this course by 



THE MORilOX WAR. 57 

his repeated declaration.-s, and partly by the wish on his part 
to test his power over " this people." It was readily and im- 
plicitly obeyed by his deluded followers. They knew not 
where they were going. Many believed they were destined 
for Sonora. They only knew^ the Prophet of the Lord had 
spoken, and they must obey. 

On the 6th of April, 1858, their long trains moved south- 
ward, taking with tliem their household gods, and provisions 
for the journey. Brigham, Ileber, and the principal men, 
also removed their families from their comfortable homes, 
again to encounter the toils and privations incident to life 
on the Plains. They went to Piovo, 50 miles from the city, 
and there halted. The snow was still on the ground, and the 
pilgrims suffered much from the inclemency of the weather. 

On the 12th of April, Mr. Buchanan appointed L. W. 
Powell, of Kentucky, and Ben McCulloch, of Texas, Com- 
missioners to Utah, and by them sent on his proclamation of 
pardon. They reached Salt Lake on the 7th of June, and 
immediately made known their business to the Mormon au- 
thorities. They were instructed to say to the Mormons, in 
the language of the proclamation, " If you obey the laws, 
keep the peace, and respect the just rights of others, you wiU 
be perfectly secure, and may live in your present ft\ith, or 
change it for another at your pleasure. Every intelligent 
man among you knows very well that the Government has 
never, directly or indirectly, sought to molest you in your 
worship, to control you in your ecclesiastical affairs, or even 
to influence you in your religious opinions." 

The following extracts from the report of the Commission- 
ers will serve to show the result of their mission : — 

" We stated that we wished a free conference with them, and 
were ready to hear what they had to say. Ex-Governor Brigham 
Young, Lieut.-Governor Wells, and others, spoke. They expressed 
their gratification that the President had sent commissioners to 
Utah. They stated that they were attached to the Constitution 
and the Government of the United States ; they spoke harshly of 



58 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

many of the officials who had held office in the Territory ; they 
spoke of the wrongs and injuries hitherto done them ; they said 
they desired to live in peace, under the Constitution of the United 
States. They denied that they had ever driven any officials from 
Utah, or prevented any civil officer from entering the Territory. 
They admitted that they burned the army trains, and drove off the 
cattle from the army last fall, and for that act they accepted the 
President's pardon. All the charges that had been made against 
them, except the one last named, they denied. . . . We are 
pleased to state that the conference resulted in their agreeing to 
receive, quietly and peaceably, all the civil officers of the Govern- 
ment, and not to resist them in the execution of the duties of their 
offices ; and to yield obedience to the authorities and laws of the 
United States. 

" That they would offer no resistance to the army ; that the 
officers of the army would not be resisted in the execution of their 
orders within the Territory. In short, they agreed that the offi- 
cers, civil and military, of the United States, should enter the 
Territory without resistance, and exercise, peaceably and unmo- 
lested, all the functions of theu' various offices." 

Tiie Mormons, on their part, stipulated that the army 
should not be encamped within forty miles of the city ; that 
they should protect private property ; that they should march 
directly through the city, without halting ; and should not 
encamp until they cro.-*?ed the Jordan. These conditions 
were substantially complied with. "On the 26tli of June 
General Johnson marched the army under his command 
through Salt Lake City, and encamped on the banks of the 
river Jordan, just without the city limits. The place selected 
for a permanent camp was in Cedar Valley, about forty 
miles south of Great Salt Lake City, and known as Camp 
Floyd, now Fort Crittenden." 

On the oth of July, 1858, the Mormon refugees received 
orders to return to their homes. With joy and alacrity they 
prepared to obey the welcome summons. 

Governor Gumming had frequently urged them to return, 
without avail. But \vhen the " mighty man of God " sent 
forth his mandate, each man sprang to his feet as if by magic, 



THE MORMON WAR. 59 

rushed to his teams, and before the morning sun gilded the 
eastern hills, " the faithful " were again returning to their 
Mecca. 

A company of United States troops were stationed on 
what was called "the Dug Out," to prevent collision with 
the Mormons on their return to vSalt Lake. The officer com- 
manding related to me the following incident : — 

" I witnessed the most extreme destitution among the returning 
emigrants. I saw a number of women cooking around a camp- 
fire, and their clothing was extremely scanty. The supply of a 
family of fourteen persons could have been compressed into a 
small-sized trunk. One evening I saw two or three women cook- 
ing supper, and observing that they had neither tea nor coffee, I 
questioned them, and they replied they had had none for two or 
three years. At this time, according to report, it took a four-mule 
team to draw the Prophet's gold and silver, besides some that went 
in other conveyances." 

The saints again entered into possession of their deserted 
homes, and began, as well as the lateness of the season would 
permit, to cultivate their farms and gardens. 

Thus ended this crusade against the modern Mohammed 
and his followers. 



CHAPTER V. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

The Mountain Meadow Massacre and other Crimes of the Mormons. — 
Attempts to bring the Perpetrators to Justice. — Doings of Judge Cra- 
dlebaugh. — Governor Cumming and the Military Officers. — Judge Sin- 
clair's Court. — Governor Dawson and his Misfortunes. — New Gov- 
ernor and Associate Justices appointed. 

The darkest chapter of Mormon history is now before us. 
It becomes my duty to relate one of the most perfidious acts 
of cruelty and wholesale butchery to be found in the annals 
of this or any other country. In doing so, free use will be 
made of the statements of Judge Cradlebaugh and others 
who were thoroughly conversant with all the facts. 

The following is from the able speech of Judge Cradle- 
baugh, delivered in the House of Representatives on the 7th 
of February, 1863: — 

" As one of the Associate Justices of the Territory of Utah, 
in the month of April, 1859, I commenced and held a term of the 
District Court for the Second Judicial District, in the city of 
Provo, about sixty miles south of Salt Lake City. Upon my 
requisition, Gen. A. S. Johnson, in command of the military de- 
partment, furnished a small military force for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the court. A grand jury was empanelled, and their atten- 
tion was pointedly and specifically called to a great number of 
crimes that had been committed in the immediate vicinity, — cases 
of public notoriety, both as to the offence and the persons who 
had perpetrated the same ; (for none of these things had " been 
done in a corner"). Their perpetrators had scorned alike con- 
cealment or apology, before the arrival of the American forces. 
The jury thus instructed, though kept in session two weeks, utterly 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 61 

refused to do anything, and were finally diseliarged, as an evi- 
dently useless appendage of a court of justice. But the court was 
determined to try a last resource, to bring to light and to punish- 
ment those guilty of the atrocious crimes which confessedly had 
been committed in the Territory, and the session continued. 
Bench warrants, based upon sworn information, were issued 
against the alleged criminals, and United States Marshal Dotson, 
a most excellent and reliable officer, aided by a military posse^ 
procured on his own request, had succeeded in making a few 
arrests. A general stampede immediately took place among the 
Mormons, and what I wish to call your attention to, as particularly 
noticeable, is the fact that this occurred more especially among 
the church officials and civil officers. . . . 

" Sitting as a committing magistrate, complaint after complaint 
was made before me of murders and robberies. Among these I 
may mention, as peculiarly and shockingly prominent, the murder 
of Forbes, the assassination of the Parrishes and Potter, of Jones 
and his mother, of the Aiken party, of which there were six in 
all ; and, worst and darkest in the appalling catalogue of blood, 
the cowardly, cold-blooded butchery and robbery at the Moun- 
tain Meadows. At that time there still lay, all ghastly, under the 
sun of Utah, the unburied skeletons of one hundred and nineteen 
men, women, and children, the hapless, hopeless victims of the 
Mormon creed. . . . 

" The scene of this horrible massacre at the Mountain Mead- 
ows is situate about three hundred and twenty miles west of 
south from Great Salt Lake City, on the road leading to Los 
Angelos, in California. I was the first federal Judge in that part 
of the Territory after the occurrence, — my district extending 
from a short distance below Salt Lake City to the south end of 
the Territory. I determined to visit that part of my district, and, 
if possible, expose the persons engaged in the massacre, which I 
did in the early part of the year 1859. I accordingly embraced 
an opportunity of accompanying a small detachment of soldiers, 
who were being sent to that section by Gen. Johnson, — having 
requested the Marshal of the Territory to accompany, or to send 
a deputy. He accordingly sent deputy William H. Rodgers, who 
went with me. 

" The command went as far south as the St. Clara, twenty 
miles beyond the Mountain Meadows, where we camped, and re- 



62 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

mained about a week. During onr stay there I was visited by the 
Indian chiefs of that section, who gave me their version of the 
massacre. They admitted that a portion of their men were en- 
gaged in the massacre, but were not there when the attack com- 
menced. One of them told me, in the presence of the others, 
that after the attack had been made, a white man came to their 
camp with a piece of paper, which, he said, Brigham Young had 
sent, that directed them to go and help to whip the emigrants. 
A portion of the band went, but did not assist in the fight. He 
gave as a reason, that the emigrants had long guns, and were good 
shots. He said that his brother [this chief's name was Jackson] 
was shot while running across the Meadow, at a distance of two 
hundred yards from the corral where the emigrants were. He 
said the Mormons were all painted. He said the Indians got a 
part of the clothing ; and gave the names of John D. Lee, Presi- 
dent Ilaight, and Bishop Higbee, as the big captains. It might 
be proper here to remark that the Indians in the southern part of 
the Territory of Utah are not numerous, and are a very low, cow- 
ardly, beastly set, very few of them being armed with guns. They 
are not formidable. I believe all in the southern part of the Ter- 
ritory would, under no circumstances, carry on a fight against ten 
white men. 

" From our camp on the St. Clara we again went back to the 
Mountain INIeadows, camping near where the massacre had oc- 
curred. The Meadow is about five miles in length and one in 
width, running to quite a narrow point at the southwest end, 
being higher at the middle than either end. It is the divide 
between the waters that flow into the Great Basin and those 
emptying into the Colorado River. A very large spring rises in 
the south end of the narrow part. It was on the north side of 
this spring the emigrants were camped. The bank rises from the 
spring eight or ten feet, then extends off to the north about two 
hundred yards, on a level. A range of hills is there reached, 
rising perhaps fifty or sixty feet. Back of this range is quite a 
valley, which extends down until it has an outlet, three or four 
hundred yards below the spring, into the main meadow. 

" The first attack was made by going down this ravine, then 
following up the bed of the spring to near it, then at daylight 
firing upon the men who were about the camp-fires, — in which 
attack ten or twelve of the emigrants were killed or wounded ; 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 63 

the stock of the emigrants having been previously driven behind 
the hill, and up the ravine. 

^" The emigrants soon got in condition to repel the attack, shoved 
their wagons together, sunk the wheels in the earth, and threw 
up quite an intrenchment. The fighting after continued as a 
siege ; the assailants occupying the hill, and firing at any of the 
emigrants that exposed themselves, having a barricade of stones 
along the crest of the hill as a protection. The siege was con- 
tinued for five days, the besiegers appearing in the garb of Indians. 
The Mormons, seeing that they could not capture the train with- 
out making some sacrifice of life on their part, and getting weary 
of the fight, resolved to accomplish by strategy what they were 
not able to do by force. The fight had been going on for five 
days, and no aid was received from any quarter, although the fam- 
ily of Jacob Hamlin, the Indian agent, were living in the upper 
end of the Meadow, and within hearing of the reports of the 
guns. 

" Who can imagine the feelings of these men, women, and chil- 
dren, surrounded, as they supposed themselves to be, by savages ? 
Fathers and mothers only can judge what they must have been. 
Far off, in the Rocky Mountains, without transportation, — for 
their cattle, horses and mules had been run off, — not knowing 
what their fate was to be, — we can but poorly realize the gloom 
that pervaded the camp. 

" A wagon is descried, far up the Meadows. Upon its nearer 
approach, it is observed to contain armed men. See ! now they 
raise a white flag ! All is joy in the corral. A general shout is 
raised, and in an instant, a little girl, dressed in white, is placed 
at an opening between two of the wagons, as a response to the 
signal. The wagon approaches ; the occupants are welcomed into 
the corral, the emigrants little suspecting that they were enter- 
taining the fiends that had been besieging them. 

" This wagon contained President Haight and Bishop John D. 
Lee, among others of the Mormon Church. They professed to be 
on good tenns with the Indians, and represented the Indians as 
being very mad. They also proposed to intercede, and settle the 
matter with the Indians. After several hours of parley, they, hav- 
ing apparently visited the Indians, gave the ultimatum of the In- 
dians ; which was, that the emigrants should march out of their 
camp, leaving everything behind them, even their guns. It was 



64 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

promised by the Mormon bishops that they would bring a force, 
aud guard the emigrants back to the settlements. 

" The terms were agi'eed to, — the emigrants being desirous of 
saving the lives of their families. The Mormons retired, and sub- 
sequently appeared at the corral with thirty or forty armed men. 
The emigrants were marched out, the women and children in 
front, and the men behind, the Mormon guard being in the rear. 
When they had marched in this way about a mile, at a given sig- 
nal, the slaughter commenced. The men were most all siiot down 
at the first fire from the guard. Two only escaped, who fled to 
the desert, and were followed 150 miles before they were over- 
taken and slaughtered. 

" The women and children ran on, two or three hundred yards 
fiu'ther, when they were overtaken, and with the aid of the In- 
dians they were slaughtered. Seventeen only of the small chil- 
dren were saved, the eldest being only seven years. Thus, on the 
10th day of September, 1857, was consummated one of the most 
cruel, cowardly, and bloody murders known in our history. Upon 
the way fi-om the Meadows, a young Indian pointed out to me the 
place where the Mormons painted and disguised themselves. 

" I went from the Meadows to Cedar City ; the distance is thirty- 
five or forty miles. I contemplated holding an examining court 
there, should Gen. Johnson furnish me protection, and also pro- 
tect witnesses, and furnish the Marshal a posse to aid in making 
arrests. While there I issued warrants, on affidavits filed before 
me, for the arrest of the following named persons : — 

" Jacob Haight, President of the Cedar City Stake ; Bishop 
John M. Higbee and Bishop John D. Lee ; Columbus Freeman, 

William Slade, John Willis, William Riggs, Ingram, Daniel 

McFarlan, William Stewart, Ira Allen and son, Thomas Cart- 
wright, E. Welean, William Halley, Jabes Nomlen, John Man- 
gum, James Price, John W. Adair, Tyler, Joseph Smith, 

Samuel Pollock, John McFarlan, Nephi Johnson, Thorn- 
ton, Joel White, Harrison, Charles Hopkins, Joseph Elang, 

Samuel Lewis, Sims Matheney, James Mangum, Harrison Pierce, 
Samuel Adair, F. C. McDulange, Wm. Bateman, Ezra Curtis, 
and Alexander Loveridge. 

" In a few days after arriving at Cedar City, Capt. Campbell 
arrived, with his command, from the Meadows ; on his return, he 
advised me that he had received orders, for his command entire. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 65 

to return to Camp Floyd ; the General having received orders 
from Washington that the military should not be used in protect- 
ing the courts, or in acting as a posse to aid the Marshal in mak- 
ing arrests. 

" While at Cedar City I was visited by a number of apostate 
Mormons, who gave me every assurance that they would furnish 
an abundance of evidence in regard to the matter so soon as they 
were assured of military protection. In fact, some of the persons 
engaged in the act came to see me in the night, and gave a full 
account of the matter, — intending when protection was at hand, 
to become witnesses. They claimed that they had been forced 
into the matter by the bishops. Their statements corroborated 
what the Indians had previously said to me. Mr. Rodgers, the 
Deputy Marshal, was also engaged in hunting up the children, sur- 
vivors of the massacre. They were all found in the custody of 
the Mormons. Three or four of the eldest recollect and relate 
all the incidents of the massacre, corroborating the statements of 
the Indians, and the statements made by the citizens of Cedsir 
City to me. >^ 

" These children are now in the south part of Missouri, or 
north part of Arkansas ; their testimony could soon be taken, if 
desired. No one can depict the glee of these infants, when they 
realized that they were in the custody of what they called ' the 
Americans,' — for such is the designation of those not Mormons. 
They say they never were in the custody of the Indians. I recol- 
lect of one of them, ' John Calvin Sorrow,' after he found he was 
safe, and before he was brought away from Salt Lake City, al- 
though not yet nine yeai*s of age, sitting in a contemplative mood, 
no doubt thin"king of the extermination of his family, saying : ' Oh, 
I wish I was a man ; I know what I would do ; I would shoot John 
D. Lee ; I saw him shoot my mother.' I shall never forget how 
he looked. 

" Time will not permit me to elaborate the matter. I shall 
barely sum up, and refer every member of this House, who may 
have the least doubt about the guilt of the Mormons in this mas- 
sacre, and the other crimes to which I have alluded, to the evi- 
dence published in the appendix hereto." / 

To the foregoing thrilling recital, I will only add : — The 
train consisted of 40 wagons, 800 head of cattle, and about 
60 horses and mules. As near as can be ascertained, there 
J5 



66 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

were about 150 men and women, besides many children. 
They passed through Salt Lake City, and were there joined 
by some few Mormons, who were disaffected, and sought to 
travel under their protection. 

A revelation from Brigham Young, as Great Grand Ar- 
chee, or God, was desj)atched to President J. C. Haight, 
Bishop Higbee, and J. D. Lee, commanding them to raise all 
the forces they could muster and trust, follow those cursed 
gentiles (so read the revelation), attack them, disguised as 
Indians, and with the arrows of the Almighty make a clean 
sweep of them, and leave none to tell the tale ; and if they 
needed any assistance, they were commanded to hire the In- 
dians as their allies, promising them a share of the booty. 
They were to be neither slothful nor negligent in their duty, 
and to be punctual in sending the teams back to him be- 
fore winter set in, for this was the mandate of Almighty 
God. 

On the following day a council of all the faithful was held 
at Cedar City. Many attended from the neighboring settle- 
ments ; the revelation was read, and the destiny of the unsus- 
pecting emigrants sealed. Plans were suggested, discussed, 
and adopted, and the men designated to carry out their hell- 
ish designs. Instructions were given for them to assemble 
at a small spring, but a short distance to the left of the road 
leading into the Meadows, — a number of intervening hills 
rendering it a fit place for concealment. Here they painted 
and disguised themselves as Indians, and when ready to 
commence operations, by a weU-known Indian trail proceeded 
to the Meadows. 

For the benefit of those who may still be disposed to 
doubt the guilt of Young and his Mormons in this transac- 
tion, the testimony is here collated, and circumstances given, 
which go, not merely to implicate, but to fasten conviction 
upon them, by "confirmations strong as proofs from Holy 
Writ." 

1. The evidence of Mormons themselves, engaged in the 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 67 

affair, as shown by the statements of Judge Cradlebangh 
and Deputy-Marshal Rodgers. 

2. The statements of Indians in the neighborhood of the 
massacre : these statements are shown, not only by Cradle- 
bangh and Rodgers, but by a number of military officers, and 
by J. Forney, who was, in 1859, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs for the Territory. To all these were such statements 
freely and frequently made by the Indians. 

3. The testimony of the children saved from the massacre. 

4. The children and the property of the emigrants found 
in possession of the Mormons, and that possession traced 
back to the very day after the massacre. 

5. The failure of Brigham Young to embody any account 
of it in his Report as Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
Also his failure to make any allusion to it whatever from 
the pulpit, until several years after the occurrence. 

6. The failure of the " Deseret News," the Church organ, 
and the only paper tlien published in the Territory, to notice 
the massacre, until several months afterward, and then only 
to deny that Mormons were engaged in it. 

7. The flight to the mountains of men high in authority 
in the Mormon Church and State, when this affair was 
brought to the ordeal of a judicial investigation. 

8. The testimony of R. P. Campbell, Capt. 2d Dragoons, 
who was sent in the spring of 1859 to Santa Clara, to pro- 
tect travellers on the road to California, and to inquire into 
Indian depredations. 

In his report to Major E. J. Potter, Assistant Adjutant- 
General U. S. Army, dated July 6, 1859, he says : — 

" These emigrants were here met by the Mormons (assisted by 
such of the wretched Indians of the neighborhood as they could 
force or persuade to join), and massacred, with the exception of 
such infant children as the Mormons thought too young to re- 
member, or tell of the affair. 

" The Mormons were led on by John D. Lee, then a high dig- 
nitary in the self-styled Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints, and Isaac Haight, now a dignitary in the same." 



68 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Again, after relating briefly the massacre, be says : — 

" These facts were derived from children who did remember, 
and could tell of the matter ; from Indians, and from the Mormons 
themselves." 

9. The testimony of Hon. J. Forney, Superintendent of 
Indian Affiiirs. 

In his letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at 
Washington, dated Provo City, U. T., March, 1859, he 
says :— 

*' Facts in my possession warrant me in estimating that there 
was distributed, a few days after the massacre, among the leading 
church dignitaries, $30,000 worth of property." 

Again, in another letter to the Commissioner, written from 
Great Salt Lake City, in August of the same year, he says : — 

" From the evidence in my possession, I am justified in the 
declaration that this massacre was concocted by white men, and 
consummated by whites and Indians. The names of many of the 
whites engaged in this terrible affair have already been given to 
the proper legal authorities. . . . The children were sold out 
to different persons in Cedar City, Harmony, and Painter Creek. 
Bills are now in my possession from different individuals, asking 
payment from the Government. I cannot condescend to become 
the medium of even transmitting such claims to the Depart- 
ment." 

The following is from the Annual Report of Superintend- 
ent Forney, made in September, 1859 : — 

" Mormons have been accused of aiding the Indians in the com- 
mission of this crime. I commenced my inquiries without preju- 
dice or selfish motive, and with the hope that, in the progress of 
my inquiries, facts would enable me to exculpate all white men 
from any partitipation in this tragedy, and saddle the guilt exclu- 
sively on the Indians ; but, unfortunately, every step in my in- 
quiries satisfied me that the Indians acted only a secondary pai't. 
. . . White men were present, and directed the Indians. John 
D. Lee, of Harmony, told me in his own house, last April, in 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 69 

presence of two persons, that be was present three successive days 
during the fight, and was present during the fatal day." . . . 

We close the testimony of Forney, by giving entire a letter 
from bim to the Department at Washington, — 

" Superintendent's Office, Utah, ) 

Great Salt Lake City, September 22, 1859. ) 
" Sir, — Your letter dated July 2, in which you request me to 
ascertain the names of white men, if any, implicated in the Moun- 
tain Meadow massacre, reached me several weeks since, about 300 
miles west of this city. 

" I gave, several months ago, to the Attorney-General, and 
several of the United States Judges, the names of those who I 
believed were not only implicated, but the hell-deserving scoun- 
drels who concocted and brought to a successful termination the 
whole affair. 

" The following are the names of the persons the most guilty : 
Isaac T. Haight, Cedar City, president of sevt-ral settlements 
south ; Bishop Smith, Cedar City ; John D. Lee,* Harmony ; John 
:M. Higby, Cedar City ; Bishop Davis, David Tullis, Santa Clara ; 
Ira Hatch, Santa Clara. These were the cause of the massacre", 
aided by others. It is to be regretted that nothing has yet been 
accomplished towards bringing these murderers to justice. I 
remain, 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" J. Forney, 
" Sup't of Indian Affairs, Utah Territory. 
" Hon. A. B. Greenwood, 

" Comyniss'r Indian Aff'airs, Washington, D. C" 

So far as Brigham Young himself is concerned, the evi- 
dence is not so direct, but is scarcely less conclusive. 

In addition to the circumstances mentioned, of his failing 
to report the massacre, or to make any motion of it in his 
public discourses, and the testimony of the Indians, already 
referred to ; in addition also to the facts concerning the reve- 
lation sent from him, — facts communicated by one intimately 
acquainted with the secret history of the church ; in addi- 

* John D. Lee is an adopted son of Brigham Young. 



\ 

70 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

tion to these things, if we reflect for a moment upon the 
framework of the Mormon Church, we will find therein still 
more cogent evidence. 

The organization of the church is such, that no project of 
importance is ever undertaken without the express or implied 
consent of Young, who is in temporal, as well as spiritual 
matters, the head and source of all authority. Now here was 
a large train, which had lately passed through the place 
where Young resided, and his fet-lings and views in relation 
to it would be well known to the leaders of the church. 
Can it for a moment be admitted, that members of a com- 
munity so organized would undertake so important a proj- 
ect as the destruction of that train, requiring, as it did, 
the concerted action of forty or fifty persons, without the 
express or implied sanction of him who sat at the head of 
the community, controlling its every action ? 

And if such a thing can be supposed possible, would not 
the perpetrators be immediately called to account for assum- 
ing so much responsibility ? Reason and evidence all 
point one way ; and add this to the many other acts which 
stamp Brigham Young as a murderer of the deepest dye, — 
adding to the guilt of homicide that of blasphemy and hypoc- 
risy. \ 

What was the motive which prompted the act ? Partly 
revenge. These emigrants were from Missouri and Arkan- 
sas, the scenes of the alleged injuries and persecutions of the 
Mormons. It was soon after the killing of Parley P. Pratt, 
in Arkansas, by McLane, whose wife Pratt had abducted. 
It was at the time, too, when the United States troops were 
marching to Utah, and a feeling of revenge and retaliation 
was prevalent, and was, as has been shown, fostered and 
encouraged by Brigham in his sermons. 

But the principal motive was plunder. The train was a 
very wealthy one. The spoil of the gentile was before them, 
and it must be appropriated by the Lord's people. 

A great portion of the property was taken to Cedar City, 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 71 

deposited in the tithing office, and there sold out. Forney 
says, in the Annual Report already quoted from, — 

" Whoever may have heen the perpetrators of this horrible 
deed, no doubt exists in my mind that they were intiuenced chiefly 
by a determination to acquire wealth by robbery." * 

It is not within the scope of this work to enter into a 
relation of the many other murders and outrages committed 
by the autliority or connivance of the Mormon Church. 
This is given as the most notable one, — ^^ ex uno disce 
omnesJ' Those who wish to examine into these crimes more 
fully, are refeiTcd to the appendix to the printed speech of 
Judge Ciadlebaugh. 

The " Mormon War " having closed, the federal officers, 
as soon as practicable, assumed their functions, and proceeded 
to transact business. Federal courts were held, and the au- 
thority of the United States again, at least nominally, estab- 
lished in Utah. 

In October, 1858, Judge Sinclair opened his court in Salt 
Lake City. Effi^rts were made to bring several noted crim- 
inals to justice, but everything failed. In the grand jury- 
room no indictments were found, and murderers and thieves 
were allowed to go " scot free." 

At this term of court a motion was made to expel James 
Ferguson from the bar, for contempt of court. Ferguson 
offijred to retire from the bar, which was not accepted. He 
then proposed to plead guilty ; but the Judge said, as it was 
alleged that a Judge of the United States had been insulted 

* Several years after the massacre, Major, now General Carlton, visited 
that region and erected a monument to the memory of the slain. " It was 
constructed hy raising a large pile of rock, in the centre of which was 
erected a beam, some twelve or fifteen feet in height. Upon one of the 
stones he caused to be engraved, ' Here lie the bones of one hundred and 
twenty men, women, and children, from Arkansas, murdered on the 10th 
day of September, 1857.' Upon a cross-tree, on the beam, he caused to be 
painted: 'Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay it.' This 
monument is said to have been destroyed the first time Brigham visited 
that part of the Territory." 



72 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

and intimidated, wlien in the discharge of his official duty, it 
was important that the country be put in possession of the 
facts, and no plea of crimination or stultification should pre- 
vent an exposure. 

The grand jury did, finally, in this case, make the follow- 
ing presentment : — 

" The grand jury find, that James Ferguson, of G. S. L. City, 
U. T, did use language and threats calculated to intimidate Judge 
George P. Stiles, U. S. District Judge, while in the discharge of 
his ofHcial duties, and presiding as Judge of this District Court, at 
the February Term, 1857. 

" Eleazer Miller, Foreman" 

The right of trial by jury is one guaranteed by the Con- 
stitution, and with which it would be highly dangerous to 
interfere, except in cases of extreme necessity, involving the 
safety of a whole people or community. The Mormons, with 
their usual shrewdness, take advantage of this, and manage 
to control the United States Courts through the grand and 
petit juries. The following extracts will show how it is 
done. 

March 2d, 1856, in his remarks, made in the Tabernacle, 
Jedediah M. Grant, then one of the " President's " coun- 
sellors, said : — 

" Last Sunday, the President chastised some of the Apostles and 
Bishops, who were on the grand jury. Did he fully succeed in 
clearing away the fog which surrounded them, and in removing 
bhndness from their eyes ? No, for they could go to their room 
and again disagree ; though to their credit it must be admitted 
that a brief explanation made them unanimous in their action." 

Again, in the same connection, Grant, speaking of a trial- 
jury, continues, — 

" Several have got into the fog, to suck and eat the filth of a 
gentile court ; ostensibly a court in Utah." 

Here is the highest evidence of the direct interference of 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 73 

Brigliam Young with the right of trial by jury, and tlie pros- 
titution of the jury-box to the accoraph'shment of his scliemes. 
How could he strike a more fatal blow at our free histitu- 
tions, or at the rights and liberties of American citizens who 
may happen to live within the sphere of his influence ? For 
this alone he should be hurled from the defiant position he 
occupies, and brought to the bar of impartial ju>tice. 

Though the evidence was perfectly plain and conclusive 
in the case of Ferguson, he was acquitted. Comment is un- 
necessary. 

The Judge, finding all efforts to bring criminals to justice 
unavailing, adjourned his court sine die. 

The Mormon Legislature had never made provision for 
defraying the expenses of the United States Courts, while 
doing territorial business, though their attention had fre- 
quently been called to the necessity of so doing. Their 
object was to throw all the business into the probate courts ; 
and in this they eventually succeeded, except in the court 
presided over by Judge Kinney, — the only one, after the 
'' war," which acted simply as an adjunct and* instrument of 
the church authorities. 

" During the sitting of Judge Sinclair's court, the Mormon 
grand jury promptly found a bill of indictment against one Ralph 
Pike, a sergeant in Company I, of the 10th Infantry, United States 
Army, for an assault with intent to kill, committed upon one How- 
ard Spencer, the son of a Mormon bishop, at the military reserve, 
in Rush Valley. Upon capias issued, Pike was an-ested, and 
brought to Great Salt Lake City. The day following, August 11, 
1858, about twelve o'clock, M., as Pike was entering the Salt 
Lake House, on ^lain Street, Spencer stepped up to him from 
behind, saying, ' Are you the man that struck me in Rush Val- 
ley ? ' at the same time, drawing his pistol, shot him through the 
side, inflicting a mortal wound. Spencer ran across the street, 
mounted his horse, and rode off*, accompanied by several noted 
' Danites.' Pike lingered in dreadful agony, two days, before he 
died. The ' Deseret News,' in its next issue, lauded young Spen- 
cer for his courage and bravery. 



74 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

" A man by the name of Drown, brought suit upon a promis- 
sory note for §480, against the Danite captain, Bill Hickman. 
The case being submitted to the court, Drown obtained a judg- 
ment. A few days afterwards. Drown and a companion named 
Arnold were stopping at the house of a friend in Salt Lake City, 
when Hickman, with some seven or eight of his band, rode up to 
the house, and called for Drown to come out. Drown, suspecting 
foul play, refused to do so, and locked the doors. The Danites 
thereupon dismounted from their horses, broke down the doors, 
and shot down both Drown and Arnold. Drown died of his 
wounds next morning, and Arnold a few days afterwards. Hick- 
man and his band rode off unmolested. 

" Thus, during a single term of the court, held in a Mormon 
community, the warm life-blood of three human victims is shed 
upon the very threshold of the court ; and although the grand jury 
is in session, no prosecution is attempted, and not one of the offend- 
ers brought to justice." 

Judge Cradlebaugh was assigned to the Second Judicial 
District, and held bis first term of court in Provo City, com- 
mencing April 8th, 1859. An account of his efforts to bring 
to justice the *iIMountain Meadow and other murderers has 
already been given in his own language. 

The following notice of this bold and energetic man is 
from the " Nevada Territorial Enterprise " : — 

" Judge Cradlebaugh, of the United States Court of Utah, is 
making his mark in that Territory, if half that is written of him 

is true Satisfied that many of the leading Mormons had 

taken part in or instigated the Mountain Meadow massacre, and 
the murder of Jones, Potter, Forbes, Parrish, and a dozen others, 

he determined to bring them to punishment He spoke and 

acted with the fearlessness and resolution of a Jackson ; but the 
jury failed to indict, or even report on the charges, while threats 
of violence were heard in every quarter, and an attack on the 
troops intimated, if he persisted in his course. 

" Finding that nothing could be done with the juries, they were 
discharged, with a scathing rebuke from the Judge. Sitting as a 
committing magistrate, he commenced his task alone. He ex- 
amined witnesses, made arreSts in every quarter, and created a 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 75 

consternation in the camps of the saints, greater even than was 
occasioned by the amval of the troops within the walls of Zion. 
At last accounts, terrified elders and bishops were decamping to 
save their necks ; and developments of the most startling character 
were being made, implicating the highest church dignitaries in the 
many murders and robberies committed upon the gentiles during 
the past eight years." 

Govenior Cumming did not sustain Judge Cradlebaugh, 
but, under the pretence of impartiality, sought to screen the 
Mormons from the demands of justice. 

Hence various diiferences between Cumming on one side, 
and Johnson and Cradlebaugh on the other ; and on one oc- 
casion the Governor went so far as to publish his protest 
against the use of the troops in aid of Cradlebaugh's pro- 
ceedings. 

Cumming was a native of Georgia. He had married a 
daughter of one of the most distinguished physicians of Bos- 
ton, a lady of many accomplishments, who accompanied him 
to Utah. 

During the dreadful reign of the cholera in 1836 he was 
Mayor of Augusta, Ga., and is said to have rendered efficient 
service in saving the lives of the citizens. 

For some years he was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, 
Missouri. At the commencement of the Mexican war he 
was at Point Isabel, and afterwards on the Southern line, 
attached to General Scott's staff. Subsequently he was de- 
tailed by the Government to visit several tribes of Indians in 
the far West. 

He had performed some service to the country, and was f 
man of many good qualities ; but was very vain, and fond of 
attention, and was unable to withstand the seductive influ- 
ences which the IMormons know so -svell how to bring to bear 
upon persons of his organization. 

Cradlebaugh, finding he was not supported by Buchanan's 
administration, left Utah, and settled in the Territory of Ne- 
vada ; whence he has been twice sent as delegate to Congress, 



76 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

and we look to see him, at no distant day, represent the new 
State of Nevada in the Senate of the United States. 

In 1860 John F. Kinney was reappointed Cliief Justice, 
succeeding Judge Eckels ; and Judges Crosby and Flenniken 
were appointed Associate Justices, to succeed Sinclair and 
Cradlebauiih. Judge Cradlebaugh did not resign, and not 
recognizing the right of the President to remove the Judges, 
he continued to perform the duties of his office for some time 
afterward. 

On the 3d of October, 1861, John W. Dawson, of Indiana, 
was appointed by President Lincoln Governor of Utah, to 
succeed Gumming, who had left the Territory some months 
previous. 

In tlie appointment of Dawson, Lincoln, to use his own 
language, was " imposed on." The Senate relieved him from 
the imposition, by refusing to confirm the appointment. 

The INIormons, however, anticipated the action of the Sen- 
ate, and speedily ejected Dawson from the governorship. 
The history of this emeute is briefly as follows : — 

Dawson arrived at Salt Lake about the commencement of 
the session of the Legislature. Having some notions of his 
own concerning legislative affairs, and not yielding, like his 
predecessor, to all the views of Brigham Young, he soon 
became involved in difficulties from which he was unable to 
extricate himself. He had not the nerve and ability to sus- 
tain himself in his position. The Mormons saw this, and at 
once resolved upon, planned, and accomplished a brilliant 
coup d'etat, similar to that practised upon Steptoe. Without 
going into details, the plan may be seen by the result ; which 
was the affidavit of a widow woman named Williams, to the 
effect that Dawson had insulted her, by making improper 
advances, which, of course, she had scornfully repelled and 
rejected. 

The indignation of the Mormons was aroused to the 
highest pitch by this base attempt upon Mormon virtue. 
Threats were made so freely, that the Governor became 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 77 

very much alarmed, and precipitately fled the Territory. 
Not satisfied with this, the " boys" waylaid him at one of 
the stations, and gave him a severe beating. 

In contemplating this serio-comic affair, one hardly knows 
which most to condemn, the lawless spirit which prompted 
such treatment, or the timidity and weakness which would 
submit to it. 

About the 1st of February, 1862, Judges Flenniken and 
Crosby left Salt Lake City, and the federal officers there 
immediately advised the President of the fact by telegraph, 
and recommended the appointment of their successors. Ac- 
cordingly on the 3d of February, 1862, Tiiomas J. Drave, 
of Michigan, and Charles B. Waite, of Illinois, were ap- 
pointed Associate Justices, and on the 31st of March follow- 
ing, Stephen S. Harding, of Indiana, was appointed Gov- 
ernor, to succeed Dawson. 



CHAPTER VI. 

POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Arrival of the New Federal Officers in July, 1862. — Colonel Connor ar- 
rives with his Command. — The Message of Gov. Harding. — The Jlor- 
mons Indignant. — The Legislature refuse to print the Message. — Ac- 
tion of the United States Senate thereon. — Forgery in the Mormon 
Legislature. — Bill of Judge Waite to amend the Organic Act. — Indig- 
nation Meeting. — Governor Harding and Judges Waite and Drake re- 
quested to leave the Territory. — Their Replies. — Brigham. — The Fed- 
eral Officers. 

Judges Drake and Waite arrived in Salt Lake City on 
the 11th of July, 1862. Governor Harding had arrived a 
few days previous. 

For several months everything passed off smoothly, and 
Brigham was more than once heard to say the officers now in 
the Territory were " good men." No circumstance.s occurred 
to develop any differences, and it was hoped by the federal 
officers themselves that none would arise. 

In the mean time, in October of the same year, Colonel 
(now General) Connor marched into and through Salt Lake 
City with his command, and established his camp on the 
"bench," or high land, about three miles east of the city. 
His forces at that time consisted of the Third Regiment of 
Infantry, California Volunteers, and the Second Regiment 
of Cavalry, under command of Col. George S. Evans. 

Some little excitement was caused hy the entrance of the 
troops, and rumors were rife of threats having been made by 
the Mormons that the volunteers should never "cross the 
Jordan," a stream a few miles south of the city, and which 
was directly on their line of march. But the Jordan was 
crossed, the camp established, and everything went on as 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 79 

usual, until the meeting of the Territorial Legislature in 
December. 

Then the pent-up fires began to break forth. The first 
pretext used by the Mormons for indulging in words and 
acts of hostility was the Message of Governor Harding to 
the Legislature. Therein he called the attention of the peo- 
ple, through their representatives, to the practice of polyg- 
amy in their midst, to the anomalous state of society it tended 
to establish, to its incompatibility with our free institutions, 
and especially to its violation of an Act of Congress recently 
passed. 

The following are the portions of the Message which gave 
most offence : — 

" Polygamy. 

" It would be disingenuous if I were not to advert to a question 
which, although seemingly it has nothing to do in the premises, 
yet is one of vast importance to you as a people, and which can- 
not be ignored. I mean that institution which is not only com- 
mended but encouraged by you, and which, to say the least of it, 
is an anomaly throughout Christendom. I mean poly<iamy, or, 
if you prefer the term, pluraUty of wives; In approaching tliis 
delicate subject, I desire to do so in no unkind or offensive spirit ; 
yet the institution, founded upon no written statute of your Terri- 
tory, but upon custom alone, exists. . . . 

" I lay it down as a sound proposition, that no community can 
happily exist with an institution so important as that of marriage 
wanting in all those qualities that make it homogeneal with in- 
stitutions and laws of neighboring civilized conununities having 
the same object. 

" Anomalies in the moral world cannot long exist in a state of 
mere abeyance ; they must, from the very nature of things, become 
aggressive, or they will soon disappear, from the force of conflict- 
ing ideas. 

" This proposition is supported by the history of our race, and 
is so plain that it may be set down as an axiom. If we grant this 
to be true, we may sum up the conclusion of the argument as fol- 
lows : either the laws and opinions of the communities by which 
you are surrounded must become subordinate to your customs and 



80 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

opinions, or, on the other hand, yours must yield to theirs. The 
conflict is irrepressible. 

" But no matter whether this anomaly shall disappear or remain 
amongst you, it is your duty at least to guard it against flagrant 
abuses. That plurality of wives is tolerated and believed to be 
right, may not appear so strange; but that a mother and her 
daughters are allowed to fulfil the duties of wives to the same hus- 
band, or that a man could be found in all Christendom who could 
be induced to take upon himself such a relationship, is, perhaps, 
no less a marvel in morals than in matters of taste. 

" Tlie bare fact that such practices are tolerated amongst you 
is sufficient evidence that the human passions, whether excited by 
religious fanaticism or otherwise, must be restrained and subjected 
to laws, to which all must yield obedience. No community can 
long exist, without absolute social anarchy, unless so important an 
institution as that of marriage is regulated by law. It is the basis 
of our civilization, and in it the whole question of the descent and 
distribution of real and personal estate is involved. 

" Much to my astonishment, I have not been able to find any 
law upon the statutes of this Territory regulating marriage. I 
earnestly recommend to your early consideration the passage of 
some law that will meet the exigencies of the people. 

" Act of Congress against Polygamy. 

" I respectfully call your attention to an Act of Congress, passed 
the 1st day of July, 1862, entitled ' An Act to punish and prevent 
the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States, 
and in other places, and disapproving and annulling certain Acts 
of the legislative assembly of Utah,' (chap, cxxvii. of the Statutes 
at Large of the last session of Congress, page 501.) I am aware 
that there is a prevailing opinion here that said Act is unconstitu- 
tional, and therefore it is recommended by those in high authority 
that no regard whatever should be paid to the same ; and still more 
to be regretted, if I am rightly informed, in some instances it has 
been recommended that it be openly disregarded and defied, 
merely to defy the same. 

" I take this occasion to warn the people of this Territory 
against such dangerous and disloyal counsels. Whether such Act 
is unconstitutional or not, is not necessary for me either to aflfirm 
or deny. The individual citizen, under no circumstances what- 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 81 

ever, has the right to defy any law or statute of the United States 
■with impunity. In doing so he takes upon himself the risk of the 
penalties of that statute, be they what they may, in case his judg- 
ment should be in error. 

" The Constitution has amply provided how and where all such 
questions of doubt are submitted and settled, namely, in the courts 
constituted for that purpose. To forcibly resist the execution of 
that Act would be, to say the least, a high misdemeanor ; and if a 
whole community should become involved in such resistance, 
would call down upon it the consequences of insurrection and re- 
bellion. 

" I hope and trust that no such rash counsel will prevail. If, 
unhappily, I am mistaken in this, I choose to shut my eyes to the 
consequences. 

" Liberty of Conscience. 

" Amongst the most cherished and sacred rights secured to the 
citizen of the United States, is the right to worship God according 
to the dictates of conscience. . . . 

" Religion was left a matter between man and his Maker, and 
not between man and the Government. 

"But here arises a most important question, — a question per- 
haps that has never yet been asked or fully answered in this coun- 
try, — How far does the right of conscience extend? Is there 
any limit to this right ? — and if so, where shall the line of de- 
marcation be drawn, designating that which is not forbidden from 
that which is V This is, indeed, a most important question, and, 
from the tendency of the times, must sooner or later be answered. 
I cannot, and will not, on this occasion, pretend to answer this 
question ; but will venture the suggestion, that when it is an- 
swered, the same rules will be adopted as if the freedom of speech 
and of the press were involved in the argument. 

. . . " There can be no limit beyond which the mind may 
not dwell, and our thoughts soar in our aspirations after truth. 
We may think what we will, believe what we will, and speak what 
we will, on all subjects of speculative theology. . . . But 
when religious opinions assume new manifestations, and pass from 
the condition of mere sentiment into overt acts, — no matter 
whether they be acts of faith or not, — they must not outrage the 



82 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

opinions of the civilized world, but, on the other hand, must con- 
form to those usages established by law, and which are believed to 
underhe our very civilization." 

In the same Message, the Governor, after giving his views 
upon the national topics of the day, fully sustaining the Ad- 
ministration and the war, proceeded to discuss all the more 
prominent subjects of local interest in the Territory. He 
referred to the attempts to procure the admission of the State 
of Deseret into the Union, — giving it as his opinion that 
those attempts were premature. He referred to provisions 
of the Organic Act, and claimed the right to nominate to the 
Council all general territorial officers. These had formerly 
been elected by the Legislature. 

He recommended a thorough revision and codification of 
the statutes ; a change in the mode of voting ; referred to 
the financial condition of the Territory ; adverted to the 
Indian troubles ; advised the organization of a common- 
school system, and closed by assuring them of his willingness 
and desire to work with them for the common good and wel- 
fare of the people of the Territory. 

The que.-tion of polygamy was boldly met and temper- 
ately discussed in this Message, and the people warned 
against the consequences of disobedience to the Act of Con- 
gress. Anything less than this on the part of the Governor 
would have been simply a neglect of duty. 

Yet the Mormons were very indignant, and professed to 
look upon that portion of the Message as exceedingly hostile 
and oflTensive in its character. Their religion had been at- 
tacked by the federal authorities ! 

It may be well here to remark, for the benefit of the ten- 
der-footed upon this subject, that polygamy is no part of the 
Mormon religion, so far as the same has any history, and can 
be di.^tinguished from the personal edicts of Brigham Young. 
It is not only not permitted but explicitly condemned in the 
" Book of Mormon " and the " Book of Doctrines and Cove- 
nants," wJiich are the Old and New Testaments of Mormon- 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 83 

isra. This subject is more fully examined in the last chapter 
of this work. 

From the delivery of this Message, the treatment which 
the Governor received at the hands of the Mormons was en- 
tirely changed. From respect it was immediately changed 
to disrespect and contumely. No contemptuous treatment 
was too marked, no indignity was too great, to be heaped 
upon him, for this simple pei-fbrmance of his duty as a swoni 
officer of the United States Government. 

The Message was never printed by the Legislature. The 
Journals did not even show that the Governor ever appeared 
before that body for any purpose whatever. 

The fact that the Message was not published having been 
communicated to Washington, a resolution was introduced 
into the Senate of the United States on the 16th of January, 
1863, instructing the Committee on Territories to inquire 
and report whether the publication of the Message of the 
Governor of the Territory of Utah to the Territorial Legis- 
lature had been suppressed, and if so by what causes, and 
what was the Message. 

In response to this resolution Mr. Wade, chairman of the 
Committee, on the 13th of February, submitted a Report, 
accompanied by a resolution, which was adopted, that one 
thousand copies of the Message be printed, and sent to the 
Governor for distribution. 

This Report of the Committee was less complimentary to 
the Mormons than the Message itself. 

The following extracts will indicate the character of the 
document : — 

" In pursuance of the instruction contained in this resolution, 
your committee have the honor to report, that they have collected 
all the facts, and taken all the testimony within their reach, — the 
substance of which, together with a copy of the Message, is here- 
with presented. 

" These sources of information disclose the fact, that the customs 
which have prevailed in all our other Territories in the govern- 



84 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

ment of public affairs have bad but little toleration in the Terri- 
tory of Utah ; but in their stead there appears to be, overriding 
all other influences, a sort of Jewish theocracy, graduated to the 
condition of that Territory. 

" This theocracy, having a supreme head who governs and 
guides every affair of importance in the Church, and, practically, 
in the Territory, is the only real power acknowledged here, and 
to the extension of whose interests every person in the Territory 
must directly or indirectly conduce. . . . 

" We have here the first exhibition, within the limits of the 
United States, of a Church ruling the ijtate. • . . 

" Another opinion — the subject of both public and private 
teaching — is, that the Government of the United States will not 
and ought not to stand. They make a difference between the 
Constitution and the Government of the United States; to the 
Constitution they claim to be very loyal. 

. . . " Because the Governor, in his Message, has animad- 
verted upon some of the customs of the Mormons, and has recom- 
mended that steps be taken to Americanize the same, he has 
given offence, and has had his Message suppressed. 

" Polygamy of the most unlimited character, sanctioning the co- 
habitation of a man with the mother and her daughters indis- 
criminately, is not the only un-American thing among them. 

. . . " The Message, on examination, is found to contain 
nothing that should give offence to any legislature willing to be 
governed by the laws oi' morality. 

" It is the opinion of your Committee that the Message is an 
able exposition of the manners and customs of the people in that 
Territory, and as such, brought down the censure of the leaders 
of the Mormon Church, and were it not for the animadversions 
therein contained, it would not have been suppressed." 

The printing and distribution of the Message is then rec- 
omraended. 

During the session of the Legislature an event occurred 
which caused much indignation among the federal officers, 
and served to render somewhat mutual the feelings of hos- 
tility which the leading saints already entertained. This was 
nothing less than a forgery committed in the Legislature upon 
a bill relating to the terms of one of the District Courts. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 85 

The facts were as follows : — 

The Territory was divided into three judicial districts. 
The First, sometimes called the Provo District, comprised a 
number of counties carved out of the centre of the Territory. 
This had been assigned to Judge Drake. The Second, called 
the " Cotton District," was assigned to Judge Waite, and 
consisted of the three southernmost counties, Beaver, Iron, 
and Washington. The Third District, Chief Justice Kin- 
ney's, comprised the northern part of the Territory, includ- 
ing Salt Lake City. 

On the 14th of January, 1863, the Legislature passed a 
bill, which was signed by the Governor, changing the county 
seat of Washington County from Washington to St. George, 
and in the same bill it was provided that the United States 
Court for the transaction of territorial business, should be 
ht'ld at St. George, on the third Monday of May. This 
time was the same as that provided by the law previously in 
force. 

This was before the assignment of the Judges had been 
made. 

After Judge Waite had been assigned to the Second Dis- 
trict [in which many murders had been committed, and the 
murderers still at large], the Legislature concluded they did 
not want court held in that district until fall. They accord- 
ingly passed a bill, providing, among other things, for hold- 
ing the court at St. George on the third Monday of October. 
But as they had already passed a bill fixing the term of 
court in May, and as the Judge preferred to hold the term in 
May, that being near the time when he was intending to 
hold court for the transaction of United States business in 
the same district, the Governor declined signing the second 
bill. 

Soon after, having occasion to examine the first bill for 
another purpose, he went to the Secretary's office and called 
for the bill, and behold, the word May had been erased, and 
tlie word October inserted instead / It appeared to have 



86 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

been done by the same hand which had penned the body of 
the bill. This had been written by one of the clerks of the 
House of Representatives. The Governor, after signing 
the bill, had inadvertently returned it to the Legislature, and 
it had been sent from that body to the Secretary's office, 
where it should have been sent by the Governor. It had 
been recorded in that office before the forgery was discov- 
ered. 

The Governor immediately caused the record to be cor- 
rected, changed the bill back from Qctober to May, by eras- 
ing the word " October " and interlining the word " May." 
He then made a statement of the forgery and its detection, 
over his own signature, on the margin of the bill. 

He then sent a special Message to the Legislature, calling 
their attention to the fact that a forgery had been committed; 
but, instead of taking steps to ferret out the guilty party, the 
Legislature made an issue of ft\ct with the Governor, and en- 
deavored to make out that it was all the time October, and 
that no forgery had been committed. When the matter was 
up in the House the second time, one member actually pro- 
duced a paper which he averred was the original draft, and 
which had October in it. And this in the face of the fact, 
that five persons had seen the bill in the Governor's office 
when the word May was in it, and that the bill showed 
plainly, upon inspection, that it had been changed ; the out- 
line of the letter " y," in the word erased, being distinctly 
visible. 

Thus the Legislature, by their collective action, implicated 
themselves all in the forgery. 

On the IGth of January the Legislature adjourned, without 
printing the Governor's Message, or sending any appropria- 
tion bills for his signature. * 

The day following, " the Legislature of the State of 
Deseret " met, and commenced doing business under Brig- 
ham Young, as Governor. A Message was delivered, and 
all the forms of legislation gone through with ; in reality, this 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 87 

de facto government was the only one for which the Mor- 
mons maintained even the show of respect. 

The judicial system of the Territory was manifestly very 
defective, and as constituted under the Organic Act of 1850, 
as the same had been construed by the Federal Judge-, was 
inadequate to the administration of justice. 

The greatest difiiculty was experienced in the formation 
of juries, and in the extraordinary jurisdiction assumed by 
the Probate Judges, all of whom were Mormons. 

The jurisdiction of the Probate Court, in the words of 
the Oiganic Act, was to be " as prescribed by law." Under 
this provision several of the United States Judges had held 
that it was competent in the Legislature to confer upon the 
Probate Courts any jurisdiction they pleased. The Mor- 
mons, never behind in availing themselves of all advantages, 
had accordingly granted to tlie Probate Courts concurrent 
jurisdiction with the District Courts, in all cases civil and 
criminal. 

Again ; the juries had been selected by these courts acting 
with other county authorities, and it was contended that the 
United States Courts could only try causes before juries thus 
selected. 

To remedy these defects, and to remove all doubt as to 
these complicated questions, a bill was drawn by Judge 
Waite, for an Act of Congress amendatory of the Organic 
Act of 1850. It provided for the selection of United States 
juries by the Marshal, under the direction of the court, as ia 
other district and territorial courts of the United States. 

The que>tion of jurisdiction was to be settled by an ex- 
press provision that the Probate Court should have no juris- 
diction to try any civil action whatsoever. It was to do the 
u%ual probate business, and have a limited criminal jurisdic- 
tion, subject to appeal to the District Court. The bill also 
provided for an organization of the militia of the Territory, 
under the Governor, and contained several other wholesome 
and salutary provisions. 



88 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

The bill was carefully drawn, and was submitted to the 
inspection of iiis as^ociate^-'s^Trflge Drake, and of Governor 
Harding, — Judge Kinney being absent from the Territory. 
It received the unqualified approval of Drake and Harding, 
and, with their indorsement upon it, was sent to Washing- 
ton. In due time it was introduced in Congress by Senator 
Browning, and referred to the proper committee. 

The introduction of this bill was the signal for another 
outbreak. The news w^as telegraphed to Salt Lake, and im^ 
mediately Brigham called a meeting at the Tabernacle. 

The meeting was held on the 3d of March, 1863. No- 
tice having been extensively circulated, some two or three 
thousand persons assembled, excited by exaggerated state- 
ments concerning attempts upon the part of the federal 
oflBcers to " interfere with their rights." 

Speeches of the most inflammatory character were made 
at this meeting, and the resentment and indignation of the 
^orant masses of the people were excited to the highest 
pitch. The following will serve as a specimen of these 
harangues. 

Elder John Taylor said : — 

"It has already been stated that these documents speak for 
themselves. They come from those who are ostensibly our 
guardians, and the guardians of our rights. They come from 
men who ought to be actuated by the strictest principles of honor, 
truth, virtue, integrity, and honesty, and whose high official posi- 
tion ought to elevate them above suspicion, — yet what are the 
results ? 

" In relation to the Governor's Message, enough, perhaps, has 
already been said. . . 

" We had a right to look for a friend in our Governor, who 
would, at least, fairly represent us. Instead, we have had a most 
insidious foe, who, through misrepresentations, base insinuations, 
and falsehood, is seeking with all his power, privately as well as 
officially, not only to injure us before the Government, but as well 
to sap the very foundations of our civil and religious liberties ; he 
is, in fact, in the furtherance of his unhallowed schemes, seeking 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 89 

to promote anarchy and rebellion, and dabbling in your blood. 
[Cries of ' hear, hear.'] Such, it would seem, were the Gover- 
nor's feelings and intentions when he concocted his Message, and 
such his purposes when he read it before the Legislature. That 
document Avas not hastily written, as it shows upon its face that 
it had been well digested, and every word and sentence carefully 
weighed. 

. . . " That he is the most vindictive enemy we have, is 
shown by the statement of our representatives at Washington. 

" He is the only man, it would seem, who is industriously striv- 
ing to sap the interests of our people, and to injure their reputa- 
tion, and yet, as our Governor, he professes to feel a deep interest 
in our welfare, and to represent our wishes. 

" Let us, for a short time, investigate the results of his acts, 
should his purposes be successful, leaving the allegations of treason 
from our consideration. [It was contended that the Governor 
and Judges had committed Treason against the Territory.'] 

" We have thought that we were living under a republican form 
of government, and had the right of franchise ; that we had the 
privilege of voting for whom we pleased, and of thus saying whom 
we would have represent us ; but it may be that we are laboring 
under a mistake, and that it is but a political illusion. We have 
likewise thought that if any one among us was accused of crimes, 
it was his privilege to be tried by a jury of his peers, among whom 
he had lived, who would undoubtedly be the best judges of his 
actions. 

" We have further been of the opinion that while acting in a 
military capacity, when called into service to stand in defence of 
our country's rights, we had the right of selecting our own officers. 
We have always had this privilege, in accordance with republican 
usage ; but we can do so no longer should the plotting of Gov- 
ernor Harding and our Honorable Judges be carried into effect. 
We shall be deprived of franchise, of the right of trial by an im- 
partial jury, and shall be placed, in a military capacity, under the 
creatures of Governor Harding, or of his successors. In other 
words, we shall be forever deprived of all the rights of freemen, 
and placed under a military despotism ; such would be the result 
of the passage of this Act. 

" Again, in regard to juries, already referred to, you know what, 
as regards this matter, the usage has always been. The Governor 



90 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

and Judges want to place the power in the hands of the United 
States Marshal of selecting such jurors as he pleases, and that, 
too, without reference as to who they are, or whence they come. 
This is what is attempted to be done by our honorable Judges and 
Governor. Your rights as freemen, and your liberties, are aimed 
at ; and you are to be disfranchised, and your liberties trampled 
under foot, by strangers, and you will have blacklegs and cut- 
throats sit upon your juries. Mr. Harding wants to select his own 
military, and have officers of his own selection to lead them, and 
then if you do not submit, he will have the authority to say, ' I 
will make you.' [Uproarious applause, and cries all over the house 
of ' Can't do it.'] We all know he can't do it, but this is what he 
is aiming at. [Clapping of hands, and great cheering.] When 
these rights are taken away, what rights have we left ? [Cries of 
* None.'] 

" It can scarcely be credited or believed, that any man in his 
position could so far degrade himself as to introduce such infamous 
principles, and it is equally a lamentable fact to reflect upon, that 
men holding the high and responsible position of United States 
Judges could so far forget themselves as to descend to such 
depravity, corruption, and injustice. [Applause.] These things 
are so palpable, that ' he that runneth may read,' and any man 
with five grains of common sense can readily comprehend them. 
It is for you to say whether you are willing to sustain such men 
in the capacity they act in, or not." [Loud clapping of hands, 
and a universal and emphatic cry of " No ! " on the part of the 
audience.] 

Brigham Young's Speech. 

At the close of Elder Taylor's speech Brigham arose, and 
on advancing to the speaker's desk was greeted with vocifer- 
ous applause, and immediately proceeded to address the 
assemblage as follows : — 

" I have no intention of delivering a lengthy address, but while 
I am speaking I desire the audience to remain quiet. I know 
well your feelings, but much prefer that you should suppress any 
demonstrations of applause to other times and places, when you 
may have less business and greater leisure. 

" You have just heard read the Message of Governor Harding, 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 91 

delivered to the last Legislative Assembly of this Territory. You 
will readily perceive that the bread is buttered, but there is poison 
underneath. When he came to Utah last July, the Governor 
sought to inoratiate himself into the esteem of our prominent citi- 
zens, with whom he had early intercourse, and professed great 
friendship and attachment for the people of the Territory. He 
was then full of their praises, and said he was ready to declare 
that he would stand in the defence of polygamy, or that he should 
have to deny the Bible ; and stated that he had told the President, 
prior to leaving Washington, that if he were called upon to discuss 
the question, he would have to take the side of polygamy, or to 
renounce the authority of the Scriptures. 

" In the face of all these professions, what has been his course ? 
While being fair of speech, and specious of promise, and lavish 
in his expressions of good-will toward us, he has been insidioui»ly 
at work to prejudice the General Government against us. and in 
the secrecy of his private room has concocted measuies which he 
urged upon Congress to pass, which, if successful, would deprive 
us of the dearest rights of freemen, and render us the abject sub- 
jects of this man, who has been sent here to govern the Territory. 
Man, did I say ? — thing, I mean, — a nigger-worshipper, — a 
black-hearted abolitionist is what he is, and what he represents ; 
and that I do naturally despise. He wants to have the telegraph 
torn down, and the mails stopped and turned by the way of Pan- 
ama. Do you acknowledge this man Harding for your Governor? 
[Voices all through the audience responded, ' No, you are our 
Governor.'] Yes, I am your Governor ; and I will let him know 
that I am Governor ; and if he attempts to interfere in my affairs, 
' Woe, woe unto him ! ' [Shaking his uplifted fist in a very excited 
manner, which was responded to with loud applause, and cries of 
' Yes, you are our Governor.'] 

" Will you allow such a man to remain in the Territory? 
[Voices, ' No ; put him out.'] Yes, I say put him out. Judges 
Waite and Drake are perfect fools, and the tools of Governor 
Harding, and they too must leave. If all three do not resign, or if 
the President does not remove them, the people must attend to it. 

" If they could get the power, as they want to do, to have the 
Marshal choose jurors of cut-throats, blacklegs, soldiers; and des- 
peradoes from California, and we are to be tried by such men, 
what would become of us ? 



92 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

" In regard to the war now desolating the country, it is but the 
fulfilment of the prophecies of Joseph Smith, which he told me 
thirty years ago. Brother Joseph said that the South would rise 
against the North, and the North against the South, and that 
they would fight until both parties were destroyed ; and for 
my part I give it God speed ; for they have spilt the blood of 
the Prophet. [To which the audience responded vociferously, 
' Amen ! '] 

" I would like to live in peace with the Government of the 
United States, but have no desire to live with the people who 
have brouglit ruin and disgrace upon their own heads. I do not 
wish to live in, or have anything to do with the United States ; I 
will have a free and independent government for myself, where I 
may live and enjoy my civil and religious liberties. [Loud cries 
of ' Amen,' and ' Yes, yes,' on the part of the entire assemblage.] 

" When our rights, and the protection of our liberties are taken 
from us, what is there remaining ? [Voices, ' Nothing,' ' Noth- 
ing.'] Yes, service to despots, — service to tyrants." 

Brigham also said that money had been appropriated for 
the purpose of turning the mail by the way of Panama ; and 
these men were not above taking money for such a purpose, 
under pretence of other business. 

The injustice and falsity of these statements concerning 
the bill introduced into Congress, and which was the imme- 
diate cause of this outbreak, will be manifest, when it is 
stated that so far from authoi-izing soldiers to sit as jurymen, 
it was expressly prohibited in the bill itself. Again ; the 
right of suffrage was actually extended by the bill, because, 
while by one section the militia officers were to be appointed 
by the Governor, the bill in other sections provided that 
nearly all civil officers of the Territory, who w^ere before 
elected by the Leg?slature, should be elected by the people. 

The effect of the bill w^ould have been, to enable the peo- 
ple, when they became generally dissatisfied with the spirit- 
ual tyranny to which they w^ere submitting, as many of them 
were already, to throw off the yoke of despotism, by having 
every question that might arise fairly and impartially adju- 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 93 

dicated upon in the court?. This was foreseen by Brigham. 
He saw that he was about to lose the powerful enginery of 
the judicial system of the Territory, then under his control. 
Hence the demonstration. 

Tiiere are but two ways in which this theocratic despotism 
can be met and overthrown. One is, by the people of the 
Territory, aided by some such legislation as that proposed. 
The other is by the strong arm of military power. The for- 
mer would be more congenial to our institutions. 

Time only can determine which must be reported to. Doubt- 
less the employment of force will become necessary in either 
case, — as the course taken by Young and his associates on 
this occasion shows that a peaceable remedy will be forcibly 
resisted. 

After listening to such speeches, the audience were, of 
course, ready to adopt or approve of anything; and the fol- 
lowing resolutions, prepared for the occasion, were passed 
without a dissenting voice : — 

*' Resolved, That we consider the attack made upon us by His 
Excellency Governor Harding, wherein our loyalty is impugned, 
as base, wicked, unjust, and false ; and he knew it to be so when 
uttered. 

" Resolved, That we consider the attempt to possess himself of 
all military authority and dictation, by appointing all the militia 
officers, is a stretch of military despotism, hitherto unknown in the 
annals of our Republic. 

" Resolved, That we consider his attempt to control the selection 
of juries as so base, unjust, and tyrannical, as to deserve the con- 
tempt of all free men. 

" Resolved, That we consider the action of Judges Waite and 
Drake, in assisting the Governor to pervert justice, and violate the 
sacred palladium of the people's rights, as subversive of the prin- 
ciples of justice, degrading to their high caUing, and repulsive to 
the feelings of honest men. 

" Resolved, That we consider that a serious attack has been 
made upon the hberties of this people, and that it not only affects 
us as a Territory, but is a direct assault upon Republican princi- 



94 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTIXCED. 

pies in our own nation and throughout the world ; and that we 
cannot either tamely submit to be disfranchised ourselves, nor 
witness, without protest, the assassin's dagger plunged into the 
very vitals of our national institutions. 

" Resolved, That while we will, at all times, honor and magnify 
all wholesome laws of our country, and desire to be subservient 
to their dictates, and the equitable administration of justice, we 
will resist, in a proper manner, every attempt upon the liberties, 
guaranteed by our fathers, whether made by insidious foes or 
open traitors. 

" Resolved, That a committee be appointed by the meeting to 
wait upon the Governor, and Judges Waite and Drake, to request 
them to resign their offices and leave the Territory. 

'•''Resolved, That John Taylor, Jetu Clinton, and Orson Pratt, 
Sen., be that committee. 

" Resolved, That we petition the President of the United States 
to remove Governor Harding, and Judges Waite and Drake, and 
to appoint good men in their stead." 

The following is the petition to the President, which was 
signed by several thousand persons : — 

" To His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States:— 

" Sir, — AVe, your petitioners, citizens of the Territory of Utah, 
respectfully represent that, 

" Whereas, From the most reliable information in our posses- 
sion, we are satisfied that His Excellency Stephen S. Harding, 
Governor, Charles B. Waite and Thomas J. Drake, Associate 
Justices, are strenuously endeavoring to create mischief and stir 
up strife between the people of the Territory of Utah and the 
troops now in Camp Douglas, (situated within the limits of Great 
Salt Lake City,) and, of far graver import in our nation's diffi- 
culties, between the people of the aforesaid Territory and the 
Government of the United States: 

" Therefore, We respectfully petition your Excellency to forth- 
with remove the aforesaid persons from the offices they now hold, 
and to appoint in their places men who will attend to the duties 
of their offices, honor their appointments, and regard the rights 
of all, attending to their own affairs and leaving alone the affairs 



POLITICAL HISTORY COXTIXUED. 95 

of others ; and In all their conduct demeaning themselves as honor- 
able citizens and officers worthy of commendation by yourself, 
our Government, and all good men ; and for the aforesaid removals 
and appointments your petitioners will continue most respectfully 
to pray. 

" Great Salt Lake City, Territonj of Utah, March 3, 1863." 

The best reply to the charges contained in the foregoing 
petition, is the counter-petition sent to the President by the 
military officers of General Connor's command, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

" Headquarters, Column for Utah, Camp Douglas, ) 
Utah Territory, near Salt Lake City, March 8, 1863. ) 

" To His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States : — 

" It is an unusual proceeding for officers of the army to join in 
representing to the Government their knowledge of facts and 
opinion of proceedings, having reference to civil authority, or to 
the actions of the people for expressing their displeasure at the 
conduct of their officers. 

" The condition of affairs in the Territory of Utah, however, 
and the result of this condition of affairs, which culminated in a 
mass meeting in Salt Lake City on the 3d inst, in our opinion 
demands from us a respectful statement to your Excellency of the 
matter having allusion to ourselves, simply as an act of duty we 
owe to our Government. 

" We do not propose to inquire into recommendations affecting 
the laws of the Territory, made by the Governor and Associate 
Judges of the Supreme Court of Utah. The Government must 
know, as regards the justice or injustice of the proposed amend- 
ments to existing laws, made by the officers above named. 

" But when the community residing in Salt Lake City solemnly 
declare in their petition to your Excellency, that Governor Hard- 
ing, and Judges Waite and Drake are studiously endeavoring to 
create mischief and stir up strife between the people of the Terri- 
tory and the troops now at Camp Douglas (situated within the 
limits of Salt Lake City), they simply assert a base and unquali- 
fied falsehood. 

" On the contrary, it has been the aim of these gentlemen to 



96 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

preserve friendly relations between the people of Utah and the 
troops, wlio have also labored to the same end, now stationed at 
Camp Douglas. 

" And further ; during a period of nearly five months, we know 
that Governor Harding, and Judges Drake and Waite ' have at- 
tended to the duties of their offices, honored their appointments, 
regarded the rights of all, attended to their own affairs,' and have 
not disturbed or interfered with the affairs of others, outside of 
their legitimate duty to the Government ; ' and in all their con- 
duct,' His Excellency Governor Harding, and Judges Drake and 
Waite, have, during our acquaintance with them, ' demeaned 
themselves as honorable citizens, and officers worthy of commen- 
dation by your Excellency, our Government, and all good men.' 

" And we further represent to your Excellency that these offi- 
cers have been true and faithful to the Government, and fearless 
in the discharge of their duties to all. They have, on all proper 
occasions, spoken plainly to the people of their duty. They have 
not been subservient to any person or persons, and they stand 
proudly jjrceminent as in contrast with other officers who have 
represented in the past, and who do now represent, the Federal 
Government in this Territory. 

" Our respectful opinion is, that there is no good and true cause 
for the removal of His Excellency Governor Harding, and Judges 
Drake and Waite, from the offices they now hold. 

" With much respect, we have the honor to remain your Excel- 
lency's obedient servants, — 

" P. Edward Connor, Colonel 3d Infantry, California Volun- 
teers, commanding District of Utah ; Geo. S. Evans, Colonel 2d 
Cavalry, Cal. Vol. ; P. A. Gallagher, Major 3d Infantry, C. V. ; 
J. M. Williamson, Surgeon, 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Robert K. Reid, 
Surgeon 3d Infantry, C. V. ; George AVallace, Capt. and Asst. 
Q. M. U. S. A. ; Thomas B. Gately, 1st Lieut, and Reg. Q. M. ; 
William L. Ustick, 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 3d Infantry, and A. A. A. 
G. ; T. S. Harris, 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Henry 
R. Miller, 2d Lieut, and Reg. C. S., 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; F. A. 
Peel, 2d Lieut, and Reg. Q. M. 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Charles Tup- 
per. Captain 3d Infantry, C. V.; John B. Urmy, Captain 
3d Infantry, C. V.; Samuel N. Hoyt, Captain 3d Infantry, 
C. V. ; David Black, Captain 3d Infantry, C. V. ; S. P. Smith, 
Captain 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Daniel McLane, Captain 2d Cav- 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 97 

airy, C. V. ; George F. Price, Captain 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; 
David J. Berry, Captain 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Josiab Hosmer, 1st 
Lieut. 3d lutantry, C. V. ; James W. Stillman, 1st Lieut. 3d In- 
fantry, C. V. ; Lysander Washburn, 2d Lieut. 3d Infantry, C. V. ; 
Michael McDermott, 1st Lieut. 3d Infantry, C. V. ; John Quinn, 
1st Lieut. 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; Cyrus D. Clark, 1st Lieut. 2d Cav- 
alry, C. V. ; Francis Honeyman, 2d Lieut. 3d Infantry, C. V. ; 
S. E. Joslyn, 2d Lieut. 3d Infantry, C. V. ; James Finnerty, 2d 
Lieut. 3d Infantry, C. V. ; Edward Ingham, 2d Lieut. 3d Infantry, 
C. V. ; Anthony Ether, 2d Lieut. 2d Cavalry, C. V. ; J. Bradley, 
2d Lieut. 2d Cavah-y, C. V. ; Geo. D. Conrad, 2d Lieut. 2d Cav- 
alry, C. V." * 

But to return to the meeting, and subsequent proceed- 
ings : — 

The next morning, the Committee appointed to wait upon 
the officers and " request " them to resign and leave the Ter- 
ritory, called upon Governor Harding, at his residence, and 
presented him with a copy of the " Deseret News," contain- 
ing the reported proceedings of the meeting. 

The Governor treated them with much courtesy, and after 
examining the paper, addressed the Committee, as follows : — 

" Gentlemen, I believe I understand this matter perfectly. You 
may go back and tell your constituents that I will not resign my 
office, and will not leave this Territory, until it shall please the 
President to recall me. I came here a messenger of peace and 
good-will to your people, but I must confess that my opinions have 
changed in many respects. But I came also, sirs, to discharge my 
duties honestly and faithfully to the Government, and I intend to 
do so to the last. It is in your power to do me personal violence,. 
— to shed my blood; but this will not deter me from my pur- 
pose. If the President can be made to believe that I have been, 
unfaithful to the trust he confided to me, he will doubtless remove 
me ; and I then shall be glad to return to my home in the States, 
and will do so, carrying with me no unjust resentments towards 
you or any one else. 

" But I will not be driven away ; I will not cowardly abandon 

* The above embraces all the commissioned officers then stationed at 
Camp Douglas. 



98 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

my post. I may be in danger in staying ; but my purpose is fixed. 
I desire to have no trouble ; I am anxious to live and again meet 
my family, — but if necessary, an administrator can setde my 
affairs. 

" Your allegations in this paper are false, — without the shadow 
of truth. You call my Message insulting, and you dare not print 
it for fear your people may read it for themselves. To say that I 
have ■wi'onged you when I said that you are disloyal, is simply 
preposterous. Your own people — your public teachers and bish- 
ops — admit the fact. 

" Let me say to you in conclusion, — and as this is said to be a 
land of prophets, I too will prophesy, — If, while in the discharge 
of my duties, one drop of my blood be shed by your ministers of 
vengeance, that it will be avenged, and not one stone or adobe in 
this city will be left upon another. I have now done, and you un- 
derstand me." 

Dur»'iig thi^: reply the Committee sat quiet, with the excep- 
tion of Elder Taylor, who several times attempted to make 
some explanation ; but the Governor refused to liear him, and 
went through with his remarks without stopping to listen, or 
reply to any new matter. 

Elder Taylor then turned to Judge Drake, and remarked 
that he might consider the resolutions as addressed also to 
him. 

The Judge responded as follows : — 

" The communications you have made are of some importance, 
and as they are intended to affect me, I desire to say something 
before you go. 

" It is no small thing to request a citizen to leave his country. 
Are you aware of the magnitude or of the baseness of what you 
have undertaken ? I deny that you have any cause for such con- 
duct toward me. I am an American citizen, and as such have a 
right to go to every part of the Republic. I have the right to 
petition, or ask the Government to pass laws, or to amend them. 
You, Taylor and Pratt, are men of experience, and reputed to be 
men of learning, and ought to know better than to insult a man 
by such means. 

*' It is mean and contemptible. On your part, Taylor, a for- 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 99 

eigner, it is impudence unequalled ; and Pratt, a citizen, ought to 
know better than to trample on the rights of a citizen by engaging 
in such a dirty enterprise. Your resolutions are false, and those 
■who drafted them knew them to be so ; and I am informed that in 
the meeting at the Tabernacle, Brigham Young called me a fool, 
and a tool of the Governor. [Here Taylor admitted that such 
was the fact.] 

" Go back to Brigham Young, your master, — that embodiment 
of sin and shame and disgust, — and tell him that I neither fear him, 
nor love him, nor hate him, — that I utterly despise him. Tell 
him, whose tools and tricksters you are, that I did not come here 
by his permission, and that I will not go away at his desire, or by 
his directions. I have given no cause of otifence to any one. I 
have not entered a ^Mormon's house since I came here ; your 
wives and daughters have not been disturbed by me, and I have 
not even looked upon your concubines and lewd women. 

" I am no skulk from the punishment of crimes. I tell you, if 
you, or the man whom you so faithfully serve, attempt to interfere 
with my lawful business, you will meet with trouble of a character 
you do not expect. 

" A horse-thief or a murderer has, when arrested, a right to 
speak in court ; and unless in such capacity, or under such cir- 
cumstances, don't you ever dare to speak to me again." 

The Committee rose to depart, and one of them said, " We 
have our opinions." " Y^es," replied the Judge, " thieves 
and murderers can have opinions;" and thus closed the in- 
terview. 

The Committee then proceeded to call on Judge Waite at 
his residence, where they were received politely and with 
due consideration. In answer to their request for his resig- 
nation and withdrawal from the Territory, he replied as fol- 
lows : — 

" To comply with your wishes, gentlemen, under such circum- 
stances, would be to admit, impliedly at least, one of two things, 
— either that I was sensible of having done something wrong, or 
that I was afraid to remain at my post and perform my duty. 

" I am not conscious either of guilt or fear. I must therefore 
respectfully decline to accede to your request." 



100 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

These replies were published in California, and in the 
Eastern papei'S, and gave general satisfaction. The people 
rejoiced that at last the Government had representatives in 
Utah who could neither be wheedled nor bullied out of their 
rights, nor frightened from the performance of their duty. 

In Utah the excitement for a time ran high, and doubtless 
nothing but the presence of the military saved the federal 
officers from personal violence. 

The state of popular feeling there is well shown by the 
following extracts from the correspondence of the " Chicago 
Tribune": — 

" Excitement ran high, and groups of men were to be seen on 
the corners of the various streets, busily engaged in canvassing 
the subject, their earnest gestures and eager attitudes portraying 
the depth and intensity of the frenzied feehug which actuated 
them. 

" One of the Judges sought to be ostracised (Judge Waite) was 
accosted, while passing quietly along the sidewalk, by a group of 
excited men, and threats of an alarming character made use of to 
intimidate him. 

. . . "The few ' gentiles ' resident here were also to be ob- 
served in earnest discussion of the question, and with compressed 
lip and countenance, on which ' thought sat sedate,' awaited, cold 
and determined, the approach of coming events. I opine that 
many a bowie and revolver were hastily examined and adjusted, 
of which the passer-by had no thought or knowledge, which, in an 
emergency, might have been made useful. 

" It was a spectacle of true courage to see these federal officers, 
clothed with important duties, stand up and assert their rights, 
when they knew but too well that this * request ' upon the part 
of the meeting and the Committee had a far more grave signifi- 
cance, if that request were not complied with. 

" They have been called on by a number of citizens and gentle- 
men since the visit of the Committee, and have received but one 
expression of opinion as to what has passed ; and that is, that the 
proceedings throughout were an outrage, and only intended to get 
rid of men who cannot be used against the interest of the General 
Government, and whose fidelity to duty makes them alike hated 
and feared by the Mormon leaders." 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 101 

The following, from the same correspondence, will show 
the conduct of Young during this emergency : — 

" While the objects of all this wrath pursue the even tenor of 
their way, and sleep soundly, with scarce a casement barred, un- 
mindiul of the threatened storm without, yet not so with him, 
' the Lord's Anointed,' who appears to dream dreams and see 
visions, that to his distempered fancy seem to foreshadow the 
'handwriting on the wall,' at the great day of his judgment which 
is to come. Like unto the great magician, the famous Fakir, who 
upon a time, by his incantation, raised a demon which he could 
not control, which would not ' lay ' at the conqueror's command, 
and from which he tied in dismay ; so, in the present instance, the 
*■ Lion of the Lord ' is sorely atlrighted at the hideous aspect of the 
devil (' of a muss ') he has raised, which, he has the sagacity to see, 
may not ' down ' at his bidding, but may return to plague the in- 
ventor. 

" There is abundant evidence to show that he is alarmed at his 
own creation, and foreseeing that he has provoked justice, in- 
censed mercy, seeks to guard against the retribution which he 
knows the offended majesty of loyalty and law should visit upon 
him. 

" The night succeeding the action of the mass meeting, some 
fifty armed sentinels or guards were on duty, in and about Brig- 
ham's premises, which number has since been augmented to sev- 
eral hundreds, a portion of whom serve as pickets, or night-patrol, 
on the different streets leading toward Camp Douglas. It has 
been currently reported that orders have been issued to arrest 
Brlgham and his counsellors, and hence these precautionary meas- 
ui-es to guard against any sudden inroad of troops from Col. Con- 
nor's command. . . . 

" On the 8th inst, the Sabbath succeeding the date of the mass 
meeting, Brigham delivered a very treasonable and violent ha- 
rangue in the Tabernacle, to an immense audience, which filled 
almost to suffocation that capacious structure. . . . ' We have 
always,' he said, ' done everything in our power to show our loy- 
alty. Is there anything that could be asked that we would not 
do ? Yes ; let the present Administration ask us for a thousand 
men, or even five hundred, and I 'd see them damned first, and 
then they could n't have them ! What do you think of that ? 



102 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

[Loud cries of " Good, good ! " and great applause.] We have 
liars, murderers, and thieves among us, who are watching us, to 
report something against our loyalty. Their object is to send 
another army here to "wipe us out" ; but let me tell them that 
cannot be done ; " they can't come it," — putting his thumb to his 
nose, and making the peculiar gyrating movement with the fin- 
gers, so very expressive among rowdies and shoulder-hitters. At 
this antic, a long, and loud, and universal shout and laughter went 
up from all parts of the house, joined with clapping of hands, and 
stamping of the feet, in one general din and uproar. 

" ' It was said that we were disloyal because we burned some 
seventy government wagons, at the time Johnston's army came 
here. "Well, let me ask, what the devil were they doing out here ? 
Coming here to destroy, and wipe us from the face of the earth ; 
and we only took and destroyed some of their good things, so that 
they had to gnaw mules' hones, and eat cattle which had frozen to 
death ; that 's what they did. 

" ' I swear some, my brethren and sisters ; but it is always in the 
pulpit, — never anywhere else.' 

" Following Brigham came * brother Heber,' a large, gross man, 
bald-headed, and with a harsh and disagreeable voice, and appar- 
ently fast approaching the age of ' the lean and slippered panta- 
loon.' His remarks were in the main but a re-hash of those made 
•by Brigiiam, save in one or two noticeable points, as follows : — 
' They say I am a secessionist, hut that 's a lie. Then they say I 
have more than one wife ; well, I have several wives, and lots of 
children, and by the help of the Lord I '11 have many more of 
them ! ' 

" Speaking about anticipated trouble with the General Govern- 
ment, he said : — ' The entire power of the United States cannot 
destroy us, for the Lord will fight our battles.' 

" Brigham fears Arrest. 

" Yesterday Col. Connor rode into the city, and called on Judge 
Waite at his residence, and made a stay of perhaps an hour or so. 
Immediately after his departure, a signal of distress was hastily 
thrown to the breeze, from a small flaij-staff on Briorham's ' Lion 
House.' . . . Immediately a commotion was seen, and soon 
armed men began to pour along the different streets, and the 
report was carried, as on the wings of lightning, to the uttermost 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 103 

parts of the city, that an order was being made out for the arrest of 
Brigham and his counsellors, and that Col. Connor had been down 
to make arrangements for enforcing the writ. Men with muskets 
and rifles, — some few with antiquated swords, — of all ages, from 
the brawny youth to the old white-haired sexagenarian, came 
pouring along, singly and in groups, by twos, by threes, and the 
half- dozen or more, pressing hurriedly on towards Brigham's 
premises, zealous, and ready to yield up life, if need be, in de- 
fence of the ' Prophet of the Lord.' Altogether some two thou- 
sand ' citizen soldiery ' collected, and stood guard during the 
watches of the night, over the beloved Brigham and his harem. 
Verily, ' The wicked flee when no man pursueth.' " 

That Brigham really feared arrest at this time, and be- 
lieved that a movement was on foot for that purpose, is evi- 
dent from the following, taken from the " Latter Day Saints* 
Millennial Star," published in London. It is a portion of a 
letter written for that magazine by David 0. Calder, a clerk 
in the tithing-office : — \ 

" America. Great Salt Lake City, March 13th, 1863. 
" President G. Q. Cannon : 

"Dear Brother, — You of course have learned through the 
New York press of our ' expected collision between the military 
and citizens of Utah,' and will learn through Capt. Hooper, (he 
being just informed by telegraph to write to you,) that compara- 
tive peace is restored. I shall now give you some details of the 
trouble. 

" As you are aware, we have been of the opinion that the 
mission of the troops despatched from California last year was not 
altogether to be confined to the guarding of the mail and tele- 
graph lines, and the protection of the California emigration, and 
consequently have been watchful of their proceedings ; the more 
so, that they made their winter-quarters within the city limits, and 
on one of the most commanding benches above the city, instead of 
being distributed at the several posts along the line of travel. 

" We also have been made acquainted with the doings of Gov- 
ernor Harding, and Judges Waite and Drake ; that they were 
corresponding with the authorities at Washington, and moving 
everything that could be moved to bring the army here in con- 



104 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

tact with the people, and to have the War Department send on 
two or three thousand more troops. 

" These and other movements compelled the citizens to be on 
their guard, and prepared for any emergency. On Monday last, 
a rehable person overheard Colonel Connor and Judge Waite in 
conversation. The Colonel says, ' These three men must be sur- 
prised.' The Judge replied, ' Colonel, you know your duty.* 
In half an hour after, from a signal given, which was previously 
understood, about one thousand citizens were armed, and on duty, 
and in another half hour another thousand men were on duty. 
This sudden demonstration proved to them that their secret Avas 
known, and that we were fully prepared for them. In the mean 
time our ' outside ' friends in this city telegraphed to those inter- 
ested in the mail and telegraph lines, that they must work for the 
removal of the troops, Governor Harding, Judges Waite and 
Drake, else there ivoidd be difficulty, and the mail and telegraph 
lines would he destroyed. Their moneyed interest has given them 
great energy in our behalf. They have placed their line at the 
disposal of President Young, to be used to Washington, or New 
York. We fully expect the Colonel, Governor, and Judges will 
be recalled." 

Here, it will be noticed, is the same covert threat con- 
tained in Brigham Young's speech, that the mail and tele- 
graph lines would be destroyed, if the federal officers should 
be retained at their posts. It is to be regretted that this 
standing menace should so far have had its effect, as to in- 
duce the President, some two or three months afterward, to 
recall Governor Harding from his position. It is true, by 
transferring him to the Chief Justiceship of Colorado Terri- 
tory, his removal was disconnected with any censure of his 
administration. It still remained, however, a substantial 
yielding to the arbitrary demands of Brigham Young, and as 
such, had a direct tendency to encourage him in his lawless 
proceedings, and to postpone for years the solution of the 
Utah problem. 

Judges Waite and Drake had, immediately after the dem- 
onstration of the 3d of March, written to the President, 
giving it as their opinion that the laws were nugatory, and 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 105 

the Organic Act entirely inoperative in the Territory, and 
declining to hold any terms of the District Court in their 
respective districts until they should be properly supported 
by the mihtary power of the Government ; at the same time 
giving it as their opinion, that such a support should be at 
least five thousand men, well armed, equipped, and provided. 

The fiulure to furnish this force, and the subsequent change 
in the governorship of the Territory, satisfied them that the 
Government was not then prepared to meet the questions 
which had arisen in such a manner as the dignity and honor 
of the nation required, and accordingly all effort to further 
counteract the evil effects of this intolerant theocracy were, 
for the time, abandoned. 

J[udge Waite, after holding, with his associates, in July, 
1863, a term of the Supreme Court, at which there ivas not 
a single case on the docket, left the Territory in disgust, and 
established himself in the practice of his profession in Idaho 
City, Idaho Territory. He resigned his office, and was suc- 
ceeded, in the spring of 1864, by Judge McCurdy, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

Governor Harding was succeeded, in May, 1863, by James 
Duane Doty, who, at the time of his appointment, was Super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs. Governor Doty is a man of 
sound judgment, and of large experience in public affairs ; 
and does as well as any man could in his embarrassing posi- 
tion. But his governorship is merely nominal. With the 
form and semblance, he lacks all the substance of power ; 
and where he should order, he must satisfy himself with 
request and expostulation. 

Judge Drake still remains in Utah, and with all the talent, 
energy, and experience necessary to fill his position to the 
great benefit of the people, he is obliged to remain entirely 
inactive, and goes through the forms of holding court, with 
scarcely an attempt to administer justice to the whole peo- 
ple, so well persuaded is he that all such attempts are futile 
in the present condition of affairs. 



106 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

Gen. Connor also remains, and, considering the small 
force at his command, has accomplished wonders. By his 
bold and fearless vindication of the rights and interests of 
the Government, guided, at the same time, in all his acts by 
great discretion and moderation, he has compelled some 
show of respect for the federal authority. 

Neither Gen. Connor nor Judge Waite had the slightest 
intention of arresting Brigham Young at the time alluded 
to in March, 1863. The astute leader of the Mormons had 
a spy listening to the conversation of those gentlemen, and 
the spy aforesaid heard some things, and thought he heard 
others. He reported to headquarters the supposed result of 
his discoveries, and it must be admitted that those who had 
been placed under this insulting espionage took no great 
pains to correct the impression which prevailed, and which 
so quickly and so thoroughly developed the disloyal senti- 
ments which the people had imbibed under the infVmous 
teachings of Brigham and his corrupt priests, apostles, and 
bishoi)S. 

Mark the language used by Mr. Calder. " On Monday 
last, a reliable person overheard," &c. Here tlie infamous 
system of espionage maintained over the federal officers by 
Young, stands plainly confessed. But tlie fact was well 
known, and he reaped no gi*eat benefit from it. 

So thoroughly was he frightened, that, to save himself the 
ignominy and humiliation of a public and forcible arrest, he 
went privately to his friend. Chief Justice Kinney, and gave 
bis bonds for his appearance at Kinney's court, to answer to 
any indictment that might he found against him for polygamy. 

The grand jury, of course, found no indictment, and the 
incident is only worth mentioning as d&riously illustrative of 
the extent to which he was operated on by his fears on that 
occasion. 

A brief notice of the federal officers stationed and resid- 
ing in Utah, while the writer was living in that Territory, 
will close the present chapter. 




/a'^iuJ ^^r,(yn ^id^^ 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 107 

Hon. Stephen S. Harding, wbo was Governor from the 
spring of 1862 for about one year, is from Milan, Indiana. 
He is about fifty years of age ; is a sound lawyer, and a miui 
of extraordinary energy and decision of character. These 
traits are modified, in some degree, by considerable ambition, 
and great love of approbation. In his administration of 
Utah affiiirs, so far as he was governed by this feeling, he 
labored for the respect and approval of the great body of the 
American people, rather than of the masses by whom he was 
immediately surrounded. 

That he possesses much personal courage is evidenced by 
many of his official acts, some of which he had rea-on to be- 
lieve would subject him at once to personal danger. The 
presence of the military in the immediate neighborhood was 
sufficient to prevent any open outbreak ; still there were 
many ways in which his personal "safety might be jeopard- 
ized, without subjecting the pei^etrators of the acts to pun- 
ishment. 

So well is this understood in Salt Lake, that it requires a 
high degree of moral courage to enable one to do any act 
ofi'ensive to "' the powers that be " in the Holy City. 

Every attempt was made to seduce liim from the path of 
duty, not omitting the same appliances which had been 
brought to bear upon Steptoe and Dawson, but all in vain. 

His family remained at Milan, except his son, Attila, who 
was with the Governor at Salt Lake, and acted as his pri- 
vate secretary. 

Hon. James Duane Doty, the successor of Harding, and 
the present Governor of the Territory, was, for nearly two 
years previous to receiving the appointment of Governor, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory. He was 
appointed to succeed Harding in April or May, 1863. 

James Duane Doty, Governor of Utah, was born at Salem, 
in the County of "Washington and State of New York, on 
the oth day of November, a. d. 1799, the last year of the 
last century. 



108 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

He emigrated to Detroit, Michigan, where he was admit- 
ted to the Supreme Court, and settled in the practice of the 
law in the year 1818, and was one of the earliest emi- 
grants to that State. 

The next year he was elected Clerk of the Common Coun- 
cil of the City, and appointed Secretary to the Legislature, 
which was then composed of the Go\ernor and Judges of 
the Supreme Court ; and "was also appointed a Notary Pub- 
lie, and soon afterwards Clerk of the Supreme Court of the 
Territory by the Judges of that court. 

In 1820 he accompanied Governor Cass, as Secretary, in 
his expedition to the sources of the Mississippi, travelling a 
distance of over four thousand miles through the Indian 
Country in a birch-bark canoe, from the 20th of May to tlie 
20th of November. 

In this year he revised the laws of the Territory, which 
were published by the authority of the Legislature. 

In 1821 he was admitted an attorney of the Supreme 
Court of the United States at "Washington. 

In 1823 the country north of lakes Huron and Michigan, 
and west of lakes Michigan and Superior, was made by Con- 
gress a judicial district, and he w^as appointed by James Mon- 
roe its Judge, with the title of " an additional Judge of the 
Territory of Michigan." He performed the duties of this 
office until the year 1832, — having married, and fixed his 
residence at Green Bay, then the largest settlement in the 
country north or west of Detroit. 

In 1832 he was appointed by the Secretary of "War a 
Commissioner to locate Military Roads from Fort Howard, 
at Green Bay, to Fort Craw^ford on Prairie du Chien, and to 
Fort Dearborn at the mouth of Chicago Creek, now the site 
of the city of Chicago, — between which points there were 
then scarcely twenty white inhabitants. 

In 1834 and 1835 he served in the Legislative Council of 
Michigan, having been elected by the voters west of the 
Lake ; and introduced the measure of a State government, 
w^ich was adopted by the Council. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 109 

He contended for the right of the people to form a gov- 
ernment for themselves, under the provisions of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787. 

By this measure a territorial government was obtained for 
Wisconsin, and a permanent separation from Michigan of the 
country west of Lake Michigan, which had been attached to 
that Territory in 1818, when Illinois was admitted into the 
Union. It had been sought in vain of Congress from the 
year 1825, — the appHcation having been successfully op- 
posed by tlie party averse to laying the foundation of new 
non-slaveholding States. 

In 1837 he was elected Delegate to Congress from Wis- 
consin, and continued to serve in that office by reelection 
until the year 1841, when he was appointed Governor and 
Superintendent of Indian Affiiirs in that Territory ; and as 
Commissioner held treaties at Oeyoowurah, on Minnesota 
River, with the Dakotahs, and with the bands of that nation 
on the Mississippi River. 

It was in 1837 that he laid out the town of Madison, and 
succeeded in making it the seat of government, — one of the 
most valuable services which he ever rendered that State. It 
is now considered one of the most beautiful sites for a town. 
When selected by him there was not a white settler within 
forty miles, and it was occupied by Winnebago Indians. 

He was elected and served as a member of the Conven- 
tion to form a State Constitution in 1846 for Wisconsin. 

In 1849 he was elected in the Third District of Wisconsin 
a Representative in Congress, and was reelected in 1851, — 
serving; on several committees. It was durino; his first term 
as a member that he was declared an Abolitionist — now no 
longer a term of reproach — by Father Ritchie and the 
Southern leaders, because he declined to vote for a repeal 
of the duty on lead. 

In 1861 he was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
in the Territory of Utah ; and in 1862 was appointed a Com- 
missioner to negotiate treaties with the Shoshonees, — which 



110 POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 

were held by him in 1863. These were the first treaties 
ever made by the United States with this nation of In- 
dians. 

In May, 1863, he was appointed Governor of the Terri- 
tory of Utah. During his long public service he has had 
the acquaintance, and enjoyed the friendship, of most of the 
eminent men connected with the Government of our coun- 
try. Of those who were on the stage when he entered pub- 
lic life, it is believed that but one is now living, — Gen. Cass, 
who was his generous patron in boyhood, and lias been his 
friend during this long period of an eventful life. 

He is now believed to be the oldest pioneer living west of 
Lake Michigan. In the performance of his duties he has 
traversed the Continent, — having stood on the shores of the* 
Atlantic and Pacific ; on the latter of which he reached the 
point in his westward march, where, when the eye is directed 
over that vast ocean towards the East Indies, the West ap- 
pears to terminate and the East begins. 

Hon. Thomas J. Drake, Associate Justice, is from Pontiac, 
Michigan, where he had resided from early manhood. He is 
now over sixty years of age. He has a thin, wiry frame, 
dark hair, and a nervous, bilious temperament. 

His mind is vigorous and clear, and his virtue and integ- 
rity of the old Roman order. Of blameless life and man- 
ners, all the shafts of his accusers fall harmless at his feet. 

The wrongs and iniquities he has witnessed, added to per- 
sonal ill-treatment, has engendered an intense hatred of the 
despots who sit enthroned over the people of Utah, but he 
has the most kindly feelings toward the great body of the 
people. 

Lacking all adequate power, he is obliged to sit quietly 
by, and see wrongs perpetrated, which he is utterly unable 
to redress. 

Judge Waite, the Associate of Harding and Drake, was 
from the State of Illinois, where he had resided since the 
year 1840. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. Ill 

At the time of his appointment, in February, 1862, he 
was thirty-eight years of age. He was then hving near 
Chicago, in which city he had resided and practised law 
since 1853. i 

Of Chief Justice Kinney mention has ah'eady been made. 
Suffice it to add, he was, in the summer of 1863, elected as 
Dele^rate to Cono;ress from Utah, and took his seat the fol- 
lowing winter. He doubtless aspires to still higher honors 
from the same Territory. 

Hon. John Titus, who succeeded Kinney, and is the pres- 
ent Chief Justice of the Territory, is somewhat past fifty 
years of age, — a gentleman of much dignity and urbanity of 
manners. He is large and well formed, and has an active 
temperament. 

His duties as yet have been exceedingly light, and will 
probably continue so while he remains in the Territory. The 
Mormons withhold from him all the cases they can control. 
He is outspoken against polygamy, making no reserve what- 
ever of his opinions on that question. 

Chief Justice Titus was appointed from the Philadelphia 
bar. 

Dr. Frank Fuller was Secretary of the Territory about 
two years, and was succeeded by Mr. Reed, in the fall of 
1863. 

Dr. Fuller is from New Hampshire, and a dentist by pro- 
fession and practice. He was attentive and obliging in his 
official intercourse with all parties. He is a poli.-ihed gentle- 
man also in social intercourse. 

He was one of the few federal officers in Salt Lake at 
that time who was so fortunate as never seriously to offignd 
Brigham Young. Doubtless his position brought him less in 
collision with that gentleman than was the case with other 
officers. If he saw any difficulties approaching, by a little 
shrewd management he carefully avoided them. If in thus 
steering between Scylla and Charybdis he did not always 
meet the approbation of his fellow-officers, he managed at 



112 POLITICAL HISTORY COXTIXUED. 

least to avoid any open differences, and thus kept up the 
appearance of fiiendsliip with all. 

He enjoyed for a long time the confidence and apparent 
respect of Brigham, to a greater degree, perhaps, than Kin- 
ney himself. 

From Salt Lake he went to San Francisco, where he en- 
gaged in dealing in mining stocks. 

From the time of Dawson's hasty departure in tlie fall of 
1861, until Governor Harding's arrival in July, 1862, he 
acted as Governor of the Territory, and his administration 
gave general satisfaction to the Mormons. 

Amos Reed, Esq., who succeeded Dr. Fuller as Secretary 
in 1863, and who now holds that position, came into the Ter- 
ritory with Governor Doty from Wisconsin. 

During the winter of 1863-64, while Governor Doty was 
absent in Washington, Reed was the acting Governor, and 
as such evinced a high order of administrative talent. The 
affairs of the Territory were, during that time, conducted 
with much discretion and judgment, and so far as was in his 
power, the rights and interests of all classes were respected. 

Genei-ai P. Edward Connor was born in County Kerry, 
Ireland, and migrated to the United States, with his parents, 
at a very early period of life. 

Having reached the age of manhood, he enlisted in the 
regular army of the United States, and served an honorable 
term, as private, for five years, on the frontier. 

At the breaking out of the Mexican War, he raised a 
company of Texas Volunteers, and as captain, led them 
with distinguished success and heroism at the battle of 
Buena Vista. He was mentioned in official dispatches, with 
high encomiums for bravery. At this battle he was severely 
wounded, and received a pension from the Government. At 
the close of the war he settled upon the Pacific coast. 

Captain Connor resided in Stockton, California, for ten 
years, prior to the rebellion, engaged in private business, 
wherein he attained a handsome competence. 



POLITICAL HISTORY CONTINUED. 113 

He was married at Stockton, and now has two children 
living. During his residence in Stockton, Captain Connor 
took an active interest in military affairs, and commanded a 
uniform company. 

At the breaking out of the present rebellion, he was ten- 
dered the appointment of Colonel of the Third Regiment of 
Infantry, California Volunteers. With the expectation that 
his regiment was to be sent East, he promptly raised and 
organized it. 

The exigencies of the service, however, required his pres- 
ence in Utah, and in the summer of 1862 he led the 3d 
Infantry, and part of the 2d Cavalry, Cal. Vol., across the 
Plains, in a most successful, though arduous march, and es- 
tablished his camp where it would command the City of the 
Saints. 

Amid the snows and storms of the winter of 18fi2-63, he 
planned and pro:^ecuted a successful campaign against hostile 
Indians, and on the 29th of January, 1863, fougiit the hard 
battle of Bear River, defeating and almost annihilating the 
savages, under the leadership of Bear Hunter and Lehigh. 

For the brilliancy of this action. Col. Connor was pro- 
moted by the President to be Brigadier- General of United 
States Volunteers, which rank he now retains. 

He is a man of strong common sense, excellent and quick 
judgment, invincible energy and determination, firmness 
amounting to obstinacy, and the strictest integrity. 

His administration in Utah has been eminently successful. 
By Brigham Young he is at once hated and feared. He is 
but little past forty years of age. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BEIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

Organization of the Mormon Church. — Functions of the various Officers. 
The Two Priesthoods. — Mode of Treating Dissenters or "Apostates." — 
Divisions in the Church. — The Gladdenites. — History of the Morris- 
ites. — The Josephites. — Return to the true Mormon Church. 

In his capacity as President of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints, Brighara Young possesses and 
wields despotic power over " this people," and rules them by 
his single will, in all their affairs, both spiritual and tem- 
poral. 

This is owing, not to any peculiarity in the church organ- 
ization. Any organization which should recognize him as 
the absolute head of the church, and dispense with every 
system of checks and balances, would answer the same pur- 
pose. Once admit the necessity of a spiritual head, and fail 
to require from him any responsibility, and all that remains 
is, to establish a grade of agents and mediums for the trans- 
mission of his will and wishes to the masses, and the system 
is complete. 

Such a grade is fully established under the Mormon sys- 
tem. 

First, — The First Presidency. This consists of three, 
chosen from those who hold the high-priesthood and apostle- 
ship, and its office is to preside over and direct the affairs of 
the whole church. It consists of a President and two Coun- 
sellors. The President is also Seer, Revelator, Translator, 
and Prophet. He rules in all spiritual and temporal affairs. 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 115 

Secontlly, — TJie Apostles, These are to build up, organ- 
ize, and preside over churches, administer the ordinances, etc. 

Thirdly, — The Seventies. The Quorums of the Seventies 
are to travel in all the world, preach the gospel, and admin- 
ister its ordinances and blessings. There is, also, the Pa- 
triarch, whose duty is to bless the fatherless, to prophesy 
what shall befall tliem, etc. 

Fourthly, — High-Priests and Elders. The High-Priest is 
to administer the ordinances, and preside over the Stakes of 
the church ; that is, over the churches established abroad. 

The Elders are to preach and to baptize ; to ordain other 
Elders, also Priests, Teachers, and Deacons. All the fore- 
going officers are of the Melchisedec Priesthood. 

Fifthly, — The Aaronic Priesthood, which includes the 
offices of Bishop, Priest, Teacher, and Deacon. 

The Bishop presides over all the lesser offices of the 
Aaronic Priesthood, ministers in outward ordinances, con- 
ducts the temporal business of the church, and sits in judg- 
ment on transgressors. 

The Priest is to preach, baptize, administer the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, and visit and exhort the saints. 

The Teacher is to watch over and strengthen the church, 
etc. 

The Deacon is to assist the Teacher. 

There is also a High Council, consisting of Twelve High- 
Priests, with a President. The office of the Council is to 
settle all important difficulties. 

The Prie.>thood comes direct from Heaven, and was lost 
to man, until the keys of both orders of the Priesthood were 
given to Joseph Smith, by an angel from Heaven, in 1829. 
After the death of Smith, they came into the hands of Brig- 
ham Young. 

From this resume of the church organization, it will be 
seen that it is sufficient for the purpose. All these officers 
are but mediums for the transmission of the will of the Pres- 
ident. Nor is it confined to spiritual affairs. Under the 



116 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

form of a church organization, this system absorbs not only 
the religious, but all the civil and political liberty of the in- 
dividual member. The High Council forms an apparent 
check on the power of the President ; but when it is consid- 
ered thjit this body is composed of persons nearest the Pres- 
ident, and under his immediate influence and control, in other 
relations in the same organization, — as High-Priests, etc., — 
it will be seen that the check is only nominal, and forms no 
real protection to the rights of the people. 

The orders of the Priesthood, to which these officers are 
respectively attached, are thus distinguished : — 

The Melchisedec Priesthood hold the right of Presidency, 
receive revelations from Heaven, for the guidance of the 
church, and hold the keys of all its spiritual blessings. 

The Aaronic Priesthood hold the keys of the ministering 
of angels, and have the right to administer in outward ordi- 
nances. This Priesthood must be filled by lineal descendants 
of Aaron. 

It will be seen that the mission of all the officers of the 
Melchisedec Priesthood — the Apostles, High-Priests, Sev- 
enties, and Elders — is to propagate the gospel, and make 
converts ; while the government of the church and of the 
people is committed to the Aaronic Priesthood. 

Of these the chief is the Bishop, who is accordingly the 
civil and religious magistrate of the ward in which he re- 
sides. 

There are other civil magistrates, whose duties are but 
little more than nominal, except in Salt Lake City, where 
the occasional large influx of " gentiles " who will not sub- 
mit to this spiritual government, renders necessary an ap- 
proximation to the forms of civil proceedings to which they 
have been accustomed. 

The " saints " themselves are not expected to go before 
other than the ecclesiastical magistrates. When brought 
unwillingly before a civil magistrate, the same being a Mor- 
mon, the case receives a favorable consideration. 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 117 

Rare exceptions may be cited where, from motives of 
policy, this rule is relaxed or departed from. For instance, 
in the winter of 1863-64, Jason Luce, a Mormon, was tried, 
convicted, and shot, for the murder of a gentile in Salt Lake 
City. But the murder was of the most cruel and unpro- 
voked character, the crime was perpetrated on the street, 
and the evidence was open and abundant. Much indignation 
existed among the miners, many of whom were congregated 
in Salt Lake City at the time. 

If this had not been the first instance in the history of 
Utah of the execution of a Mormon, under judgment of a 
Mormon court, for the murder of a gentile, it might be taken 
as evidence of an intention to do justice to all. As it is, it 
should be marked to their credit ; and it is only to be hoped 
that subsequent events may not prove it to have been an act 
of policy merely. 

The machinery of the Mormon Church, through which 
the people are governed in all their affairs, civil as well as 
religion.-, is well described in the following extract from the 
Salt Lake Correspondence of the " Chicago Tribune " of May, 
1863: — 

" The machinery of the church consists of Brigham, who is 
greatly pleased and flattered by the blasphemous title of the 
* Lord's Anointed,' the Second and Third Presidents, College of 
Twelve Apostles, Patriarchs, Quorums of Seventies, Counsellors, 
Presidents of ' Stakes,' Bishops, Elders, and Teachers ; and last 
but not least, the Danites, or ' Destroying Angels,' who are scat- 
tered throughout the Territory, and who superintend the temporal 
and spiritual affairs of the people in every city, village, ' stake,' 
and hamlet in the same. 

" These various organizations and persons, from the Second 
President to the red-haired Danite, who is simply the employed 
assassin of the Great Head, are the shafts, driving-wheel, cog and 
spur-wheels, belts and pulleys of the great machine called the 
Church, and as such are made to perform their various functions 
with a precision and fitness of things that is wonderful indeed. 

. . . " Brigham, like a skilful engineer, stands on the plat- 



118 BRIGHAJl AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

form of bis locomotive, with hand placed upon the lever, sheltered 
in the caboose, with peep-holes in front, on the right and on the 
left, and the crook of whose finger causes the whole train to move 
forward or back, or to switch off on the track of some new dogma, 
to which he lures on the unsuspecting passengers and precious 
freight, with the catchpenny whistle of ' Revelation ! ' which is 
most persistently sounded when he hears the restive murmurings 
of those who may catch but a premonitory glimpse of the awful 
precipice to which he is hurrying them on, as to a ten-ible and 
eternal destruction." 

The motive-power is religious delusion, which is con- 
stantly applied by Brigham, who thus drives along the 
whole combination with fearful power. 

" And in that train may be found all that makes up the hopes 
and fears, the joys and sorrows, the love and hatred, of that ' moral 
and physical phenomenon,' the Mormon Church, — not only here, 
but scattered throughout all Europe, and the ' Isles of the Seas,' 
who have ventured their all — their lives and fortunes, their bodies 
and souls — on the solution of that dearest of all problems to their 
minds, the ultimate triumph of the ' Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints ' (as it is blasphemously called) over all gov- 
ernments, powers, and principahties of earth 1 " 

In reference to the organization of the church, and the 
functions of the respective priesthoods, the following is 
Brigham's own explanation of the whole matter. In this 
exhibit will be seen how little importance he attaches to the 
High Council. 

Speaking of laying the corner-stones of the Temple, he 
says : — 

" I am not a visionary man, neither am I given much to prophe- 
sying. When I want any of that done I call on Brother Heber, — 
he is my prophet ; he loves to prophesy, and I love to hear him. 

" Now, who do we set, in the first place, to lay the chief, the 
South-East corner-stone ? We begin Avith the First Presidency, 
and the Apostleship. Who comes next in the church ? The 
Bishop is the next standing authority in the Kingdom of God ; 
therefore we set the Bishop at the second corner-stone of the 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 119 

building. The Melchisedec Priesthood, with the altar, fixtures, 
and furniture, belonging thereto, is situated on the East, and the 
Aaronic Priesthood belongs on the West ; consequently the Pre- 
siding Bishop laid the second corner-stone. 

" The High-Priests' Quorum, do they come next in order ? No, 
not any more than the Elders, nor the Elders any more than the 
High Council, nor the High Council any more than the Teachers, 
Deaconsj or Priests. The High-Priests' Quorum is a standing 
quorum, abiding at home. So is the Elders' Quorum. But the 
place of the Bishop is in the temporal atfairs of the church. So, 
then, what shall we say ? Why, out of due respect to the High- 
Priesthood, which is nothing more than right and reasonable, we 
say to the High-Priests, ' Lay the third corner-stone.' 

" We started at the South-East corner, with the Apostleship ; 
then the lesser, Aaronic Priesthood, laid the second stone; we 
bring them in our ranks to the third stone, which the High-Priests 
and Elders laid ; we take them under our wing to the North-East 
corner, which the Twelve and Seventies laid, and then again join 
the Apostleship. It circumscribes every other priesthood, for it is 
the Priesthood of Melchisedec, which is after the order of the Son 
of God." * 

But all this arrangement and subordination does not suffice 
to prevent disaffection in the church. This will arise, and 
results in differences, schisms, and divisions. 

Not to notice smaller matters of difference, three system- 
atic and organized attempts have been made by large bodies 
of Mormons, since their arrival in Utah, to throw off their 
allegiance to Brigbam Young. They have all been met and 
treated by him with a fierce bitterness, indicating how thor- 
oughly he is alarmed by such movements. 

The third of these is now in progress, and promises to be 
successful. 

The first of the " apostasies," as they are called by the 
Mormons, was headed by Gladden Bishop, in 1852-53, and 
his followers were called " Gladdenites." 

Some idea of the manner in which they were met by 

* April 6, 1863. Jcmrn. of Dis., Vol. I. p. 135. 



120 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

Brigham, and of his mode of dealing with apostates gener- 
ally, may be gathered from the following extracts from a 
sermon preached by him in March, 1853 : — 

" I will ask, What has produced your persecutions and sorrow ? 
What has been the starting-point of all your afflictions ? They 
began with apostates in your midst ; those disaffected spirits caused 
others to come in, worse than they, who would run out and bring 
in all the devils they possibly could. That has been the starting- 
point and grand cause of all our difficulties, every time we were 
driven. I am coming to this place, — I am coming nearer home. 
. . . Do we see apostates among us now ? We do. 

" When a man comes right out like an independent devil, and 
says, ' Damn Mormonism and all the Mormons,' and is off with 
himself to California, I say he is a gendeman by the side of a 
nasty, sneaking apostate, who is opposed to nothing but Christian- 
ity. I say to the former, ' Go in peace, sir, and prosper if you 
can.' But we have a set of spirits here, worse than such a char- 
acter. When I went from meeting last Sabbath, my ears were 
saluted with an apostate, crying in the streets here. I want to 
know if any one of you who has got the spirit of iNIormonism in 
you, the spirit that Joseph and Hyrum had, or that we have here, 
would say, ' Let us hear both sides of the question. Let us listen 
and prove all things.' What do you want to prove ? Do you 
•want to prove that an old apostate, who has been cut off from the 
church thirteen times for lying, is anything worthy of notice ? I 
heard that a certain picture-maker in this city, when the boys 
would have moved away the wagon in which this apostate was 
standing, became violent with them, saying, ' Let this man alone; 
these cire saints that you are persecuting.' [Sneeringly.] 

" We want such men to go to Cahfornia, or anywhere they 
choose. I say to those persons, ' You must not court persecution 
here, lest you get so much of it you will not know what to do with 
it. Do NOT court persecution.' We have known Gladden Bishop 
for more than twenty years, and know him to be a poor, dirty 
curse. Here is sister Vilate Kimball, brother Heber's wife, has 
borne more from that man than any other woman on earth could 
bear ; but she won't bear it again. I say again, you Gladdenites, 
do not court persecution, or you will get more than you want, and 
it will come quicker than you want it. 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDE^'T OF THE CHURCH. 121 

"I say to you, Bishops, do not allow them to preach in your 
wards. Who broke the roads to these valleys ? Did this little 
nasty Smith, and his -wife ? No. They stayed in St. Louis while 
we did it, peddling ribbons, and kissing the gentiles. I know 
what they have done here, — they have asked exorbitant prices 
for their nasty, stinking ribbons. [Voices, ' That 's true.'] We 
broke the roads to this country. 

" Now, you Gladdenites, keep your tongues still, lest sudden 
destruction come upon you. I say, rather than that apostates 
should flourish here, I will unsheathe my bowie-knife, and conquer 
or die. [Great commotion in the congregation, and a simultane- 
ous burst of feeling, assenting to the declaration.] Now, you nasty 
apostates, clear out, or 'judgment will be laid to the line, and 
righteousness to the plummet.' [Voices generally, ' Go it, go it.'] 
If you say it is all right, raise your hands. [All hands up.] Let 
us call upon the Lord to assist us in this and every other good 
work." * 

In the same discourse he commanded the Bishops to " kick 
these men out of their wards," and warned the apostates 
themselves that " they were not playing with shadows," but 
" it was the voice and the hand of the Almighty they were 
trying to play with, and they would find themselves mistaken 
if they thought to the contrary." 

In accordance with this bloody teaching, many unfortunate 
apostates who were unwilling or unable to leave the country, 
" bit the dust." They felt the literal edge of the bowie-knife 
thus from the pulpit unsheathed for their destruction. Many 
of the murders committed during the succeeding six or seven 
years were fully authorized by these in>tructions ; and yet 
Brigham, unable to deny that they had been committed, has 
openly boasted that his enemies have been unable to trace 
any of them to him, and fasten them upon him. 

He unsheathes the bowie-knife, and issues a general man- 
date ; but when the murder of some individual dissenter is 
brought to his door, he turns away and says, " Thou canst 
not say, I did it." 

* March 27, 1853. Jour. oflHs., Vol. I. p. 82. 



122 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

The second organized opposition to Young was made by 
Joseph Morris and his followers. 

The rise and progress and subsequent history of the peo- 
ple called " Morrisites," is as follows : — 

On the 19th of November, 1860, a man dressed in ordinary 
working-clothes wended his way on foot from Slatersville, a 
settlement in Weber County, north of Salt Lake, to the Holy 
City. This was Joseph Morris, and the object of his visit 
was to deliver to Brighara Young two letters W'hich he had 
written, under the supposed influence of the Spirit. 

It seems that for some reason the life of Morris had been 
threatened, and having been driven from the place where he 
had been living, he was now going to appeal to the President 
in person for protection. Morris had received, previous to 
this time, many revelations, some of which looked to a puri- 
fication of the church, — all of which he had communicated to 
Brigham and the Apostles. 

On his way to Salt Lake he met John Cook, brother of 
Richard Cook, at that time a Mormon Bishop, presiding at 
South Weber. To him Morris communicated his views and 
projects, and made so favorable an impression that both the 
Cooks soon afterward espoused his cause, and became his 
zealous supporters. 

Morris delivered his letters to the President at his resi- 
dence, but received no reply. 

He then proceeded to the house of Mr. Cook, on the Weber 
River, about thirty miles northward from the city. 

Not only the Cooks, but a number of their neighbors, now 
began to entertain favorable opinions of the claim of their 
new acquaintance to inspiration. 

Others who conceived that the divine right of Brigham 
was being endangered or infringed upon, determined to put 
Morris to death, or drive him from their midst. But Bishop 
Cook stood in the way. 

In this emergency President Young was appealed to, who 
sent two high ecclesiastics, Messrs. John Taylor and Will- 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 123 

ford Woodruff, both Apostles, to investigate the matter. 
They appointed a general meeting at South Weber, and 
invited the Bishops of the surrounding settlements, ^vith as 
many of their people as possibly could, to attend. 

The meeting convened on the 11th of February, 1861, 
and the delegates commenced their court of inquiry by de- 
manding whether there was a man in the ward who professed 
to be a propliet? And whether there were any individuals 
who entertained him, or professed faith in his claims ? 

To the astonishment and consternation of the Mormons, 
seventeen of the believers, with Bishop Cook at their head, 
arose and declared that they would enjoy and defend the 
right of conscience, by adhering to their new faith, though it 
should bring upon them the most bitter persecution, and the 
loss of their lives. An old man named AVatts arose, and in 
an inflammatory speech, recommended that the adherents of 
the new Prophet should be " cut off under the chin," and laid 
away in the brush ; at the same time accompanying his 
words with a motion of the hand, drawing it across his 
throat. This, he said, was what ought to be done, according 
to his understanding of the laws of the church. 

After some further discussion, in which Watts was boldly 
rebuked by Cook for the utterance of such sentiments, the 
question was put to the parties on trial, whether they believed 
that Brigham Young was a Prophet, Seer, and Revelator. 
They all answered in the negative. Mr. Taylor testified 
that he knew Brigham to be such, and said those who believed 
to the contrary must be excommunicated from the church. 
They were then subjected to the process of excommunica- 
tion. 

It will be noticed that the right of Brigham to preside 
over the church as its temporal head, was not questioned by 
Morris or his followers. 

From this time the followers of Morris increased in num- 
bers with wonderful rapidity. 

On the 6th of April, 1861, five persons were baptized into 



124 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

the new church in the Weber River. On the same day of 
the same month, thirty-one years previous, the Mormon 
Church had been instituted by the baptism of six persons. 
Encouraged by this augury, a church was organized, and the 
work commenced in earnest. Converts flocked to them from 
all parts of the Territory. 

In three months the new church numbered about three 
hundred persons. Its highest number did not exceed five 
hundred. 

In the mean time difficulties arose between them and the 
surrounding Mormons. The Morrisites refused to train as 
militia. Heavy fines were imposed in consequence, and much 
property sold on execution for their payment. 

These fines and exactions were increased until the Morris- 
ites refused longer to submit to them. A number of fines of 
$60 each had been imposed. When the sheriff appeared and 
proposed to arrest those who would not or could not pay, he 
was resisted. Further proceedings were then suspended for 
the present. 

In the spring of 1862 a team, consisting of two yoke of 
cattle, which had been sent to mill from the Morrisite settle- 
ment, wa>, together with a load of flour, seized and retained 
by one William Jones, who threatened in like manner to 
retain all that should be sent until some difficulties between 
him and them should be settled to his satisfaction. The 
Morrisites, standing in immediate need of the flour, sent a 
posse of men, and took not only the flour, but Jones and two 
associates prisoners. 

Application was now made to Chief Justice Kinney, who 
immediately issued writs for the arrest of the leading Mor- 
risites, and writs of habeas corpus for the Mormons held in 
custody. 

These writs being disregarded, a posse of several hundred 
men, headed by Robert T. Burton, sheriff of Salt Lake 
County, well armed and equipped, and having several pieces 
of cannon, were sent to execute the writs, and enforce obe- 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 125 

dience. This force was augmented on the way by volunteers, 
and additional arms, until they approached the settlement of 
the Morrisites, with a force of about a thousand well-armed 
men, and five pieces of artillery. 

Early on the morning of the 13th of June, some of the 
posse appeared on the heights above South Weber settlement, 
and took possession of the Morrisites' cow-herd, killing such 
as they desired for beef. During the morning, Sheriff Bur- 
ton sent a proclamation to the leaders within the Morrisite 
"fort," — for such they had constructed, — calling upon them 
to come out and deliver themselves up, according to the re- 
quirements of the writs in his hands, and warning them of 
the consequences, if they refused. 

This not being responded to, about an hour later the posse, 
most of whom had been hitherto out of sight, commenced to 
defile over the bluffs, and to occupy a prominent position 
commanding the camp. 

Morris now called a meeting of those within the fort. 
Scarcely had they assembled, when a cannon-ball came into 
the congi-egation, killed two women, and wounded a girl. 
From this time cannonading and musketry fire was contin- 
ued with but little intermission. 

The camp consisted of a few houses built of willows, like 
basket-work, and plastered, and of tents, and covered wagons. 
Still the fight was kept up by the.>e deluded people for three 
days, during all which time, fighting with the energy of des- 
peration, they held this immense force at bay. On the eve- 
ning of the third day, a white flag was raised, and the whole 
camp surrendered. The Morrisites stacked their arms, under 
guard of a detail from the posse, who had by this time entered 
the fort. 

Amidst much confusion, the men and women were sepa- 
rated, and large numbers of the men were placed under arrest. 
Morris, and a leader by the name of Banks were shot in cold 
blood ; also two of the women. All these were killed after 
the Morrisites were unarmed, and their arms in the posses- 



126 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDEXT OF THE CHURCH. 

sion of the sheriff. The posse had two men killed. The 
Morrisites ten in all. 

After the Morrisites had been taken prisoners, their houses 
"Nvere searched and plundered, and property, consisting of 
watches, jewehy, clothing, &c., taken, to the amount of many 
hundreds of dollars. 

The prisoners were taken to Salt Lake City, and placed 
under bonds by Judge Kinney for their appearance at his 
court. They were afterwards tried, and large numbers of 
them were fined and imprisoned. All of those imprisoned 
w^ere afterward pardoned and released by Governor Harding. 

Thus ended " the Morrisite War." The Morrisites were 
now " scattered and peeled," and so remained until May, 
1863. At that time Gen. Connor established a military 
post at Soda Springs, a beautiful place at the northern bend 
of Bear River, about 175 miles north of Salt Lake City. 
Before starting with his expedition, Gen. Connor gave 
notice that all persons wishing to go up and form a settle- 
ment at that point, would be furnished by him with trans- 
portation. The result was, that about eighty families, con- 
sisting of over two hundred persons, nearly all Morrisites, 
availed themselves of this offer, — removed, with their goods 
and household gods, and established themselves at Soda 
Springs. 

This settlement continues to exist and flourish, and may 
now be looked upon, it is to be hoped, as a permanent point 
where the weary emigrant may pause and rest on his long 
journey over the Plains, and be free from the whims, ex- 
actions, and dangers of Mormonism. The place is now in 
Idaho Territory, and returned eighty-one votes at the terri- 
torial election of 1864. 

Although the court and juries were fast to bring to pun- 
ishment those who had resisted the writs, yet Burton, the 
leader of the posse, who shot four persons after they had 
surrendered, was not even indicted by a Mormon grand jury. 
The evidence was laid before them, but without avail. 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 127 

The following affidavit of a man of much respectability, 
now residing at Soda Springs, shows what was the conduct 
of Burton on the occasion alluded to : — 

" United States of America, | 
Territory of Utah. ) 
" Alexander Dow, of said Territory, being duly sworn, says : 
" In the spring of 1861, 1 joined the Morrisltes, and was present 
when Joseph Morris was killed. The Alorrisites had surrendered, 
a white flag was flying, and the arms were all grounded and 
guarded by a large number of the posse. 

" Robert T. Burton and Judson L. Stoddard rode in amongst 
the Morrisites. Burton was much excited. He said, ' Where is 
the man? I don't know him.' Stoddard replied, 'That's him,* 
pointing to Morris. Burton rode his horse upon Morris, and com- 
manded him to give himself up in the name of the Lord. Morris 
replied, ' No, never, never.' Morris said he wanted to speak to 
the people. Burton said, ' Be d — d quick about it.' Morris said, 

* Brethren, I 've taught you true principles,' — he had scarcely 
got the words out of his mouth before Burton fired his revolver. 
The ball passed in his neck or shoulder. Burton exclaimed, 

* There 's your Prophet.' He fired again, saying, ' What do you 
think of your Prophet now ? ' 

" Burton then turned suddenly and shot Banks, who was stand- 
ing five or six paces distant. Banks fell. Mrs. Bowman, wife of 
James Bowman, came running up, crying, ' Oh ! you blood-thirsty 
wretch.' Burton said, ' No one shall tell me that and live,' and 
shot her dead. A Danish woman then came running up to Mor- 
ris, crying, and Burton shot her dead also. Burton could easily 
have taken Morris and Banks prisoners, if he had tried. I was 
standing but a few feet from Burton all this time. And further 
saith not. 

" Alexander Dow. 
" Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 18th day of April, 
A. D. 1863. 

" Charles B. Waite, 

" Associate Just., U. T." 

This Burton is the same man who is now the Collector of 
Internal Revenue for Utah Territory ! 

The next movement, and one which promises seriously to 



128 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

interfere with the schemes of Brigham Young, is under the 
auspices of the Mormon Church East, or the " Josephites," 
as they are called, in contradistinction to the " Brigharaites." 

Joseph Smith, the son of the Prophet, resides at Nauvoo, 
in Illinois near where his father was put to death. He 
claims to be the head of the true Mormon Church, and of 
course repudiates Young for the same position. He is 
opposed to polygamy, is loyal to the Government and laws 
of the United States, and is said to be a good and worthy 
citizen. 

For several years there have been indications of a " break- 
ing up" among the followers of the Pretender, Brigham, and 
a rallying around the standard of the legitimate House of 
Joseph. In the States, those who have gone back to their 
first love are to be numbered by thousands. 

In Utah the progress of disintegration, and of secession 
from the church as there organized, is slower, and accom- 
panied by more danger. 

But in July, 1863, the "fulness of time " having come, the 
movement was commenced in earnest, and a system of prose- 
lyting inaugurated, which has already drawn hundreds of 
deluded people back to their duty to themselves and their 
country, and which even now threatens the power of Brig- 
ham so strongly that it seems almost tottering to its fall. 

During the latter part of the month mentioned, E. C. 
Briggs and Alexander McCord, two missionaries, sent by 
the Church East, for that purpose, arrived in Salt Lake, and 
announced themselves as harbingers of a better gospel, — as 
messengers of the true Church of Christ on earth. Taking 
their lives in their hands, they had crossed the Plains alone, 
and the Lord had protected and sustained them. 

It may be supposed that their arrival caused considerable 
excitement at Salt Lake City. 

Briggs called on Young and acquainted him with the na- 
ture of his "mission." The Prophet became very angry; 
refused him the use of the Tabernacle, or any other building 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 129 

in the city ; forbade him preaching to the people, and said 
if he remained in the city, he (Young) would not be respon- 
sible for his personal safety. Briggs declined to avail him- 
self of this polite hint to leave ; and notwithstanding these 
thunders from the Vatican, he went boldly to work, and 
" daily ceased not to teach and preach Jesus Christ." 

He talked with the people, visited them at their houses, 
prayed with them, and sang with them. 

The effect was electrical. Singly, by dozens, and by 
scores, the people began to fall off from the great apostasy, 
and to return to the mother-church. Persecution commenced 
from the first day of his labors. He and McCord were for- 
bidden all the houses of the city, by an order of Brigham 
which none dared to disobey. One house, that of a gentile, 
was still open to them, and there they held their meetings, 
which were well attended. 

Before spring their numbers had increased to over three 
hundred. About half of that number returned across the 
Plains in the spring of 1864, and so strong was the excite- 
ment, and so bitter the persecution and enmity of the "saints" 
toward this comparatively handful of seceders from Brig- 
ham's authority and dominions, that Gen. Connor deemed it 
necessary and advisable to send a strong escort with them as 
far as Green River, about 145 miles. 

Besides this number who departed for the region of the 
rising sun, large numbers of the westward-bound emigration 
were stopped, and having their eyes opened by missionaries 
of the same stamp, were induced to withhold their steps, at 
least until another season. 

The Josephites in Salt Lake, although the subjects of 
bitter and unrelenting persecution from the Mormons, found 
favor and protection from Gen. Connor and the military 
under his command. 

They will doubtless continue to flourish and increase, and 
it is possible that in this way Utah may be brought to loyalty 
and good citizenship, without bloodshed or commotion. It is 



130 BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 

but a possibility, however, as Brighara will not see himself 
thus undermiued without desperate efforts to prevent it. 

In Europe wliole churches have already changed, or " gone 
over," from the apostasy of Brigham to the old church, with 
Joseph at its head. 

Brigijs is President of the Twelve Apostles, and is admi- 
rably fitted for the work before him. He is a man of great 
energy and heroism, and takes hold of his mighty task as 
thougli it were but the work of a summer day. Nowhere 
can be found a better exemplification of the self-sacrifice and 
sublime heroism of the Christians of the Middle Ages. 

The following are the Articles of Faith of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the presidency of 
Joseph Smith, son of Joseph the Martyr : — 

" We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and his Son Jesus 
Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 

'' We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and 
not for Adam's transgressions. 

" We believe that through the atonement of Christ, all mankind 
may be saved by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the 
gospel. 

" We believe that these ordinances are : 1st. Faith in the Lord 
Jesus Christ ; 2d. Repentance ; 3d. Baptism by immersion for the 
remission of sins ; 4th. Laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy 
Spirit ; 5th. The Lord's Supper. 

" We believe that men must be called of God, by inspiration, 
and by laying on of hands by those who are duly commissioned to 
preach the gospel, and administer in the ordinances thereof. 

" We believe in the same organization that existed in the 
primitive church, viz. : Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, 
Evangelists, &c. 

" We believe in the powers and gifts of the everlasting gospel, 
viz., the gift of faith, discoursing of spirits, prophecy, revelation, 
visions, healing, tongues and the intrepretation of tongues, wis- 
dom, charity, brotherly love, &c. 

" We believe the word of God recorded in the Bible ; we also 
believe the word of God recorded in the Book of Mormon, and in 
all other good books. 



BRIGHAM AS PRESIDENT OF THE CHURCH. 131 

" We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does cow 
reveal, and we believe that he will yet reveal many more great 
and important things, pertaining to the kingdom of God and 
Messiah's second coming. 

" We believe in the Uteral gathering of Israel, and in the resto- 
ration of the ten tribes ; that Zion will be established upon the 
Western Continent ; that Christ will reign personally upon the 
earth a thousand years ; and that the earth will be renewed, and 
receive its paradisaical glory. 

" We believe in the literal resurrection of the body ; that the 
dead in Christ will rise first, and that the rest of the dead do not 
live again until the thousand years are expired. 

" We believe in being subject to kings, queens, presidents, 
rulers, and magistrates ; in obeying^ honoring, and sustaining the 
law. 

" We beheve in being virtuous, chaste, temperate, benevolent, 
and in doing good to all men. 

" We believe that the church in Utah, under the presidency of 
Brigham Young, have apostatized from the true order of the gos- 
pel. 

" We believe that the doctrines of polygamy, human sacrifice, 
or killing men to save them, Adam being God, Utah being Zion, or 
the gathering place for the saints, are doctrines of devils, instituted 
by wicked men, for the accomplishment of their own lustful desires, 
and with a ^^ew to their personal aggrandizement. 

" We believe in being true and loyal to the Government of the 
United States, and have no sympathy or fellowship for the treason- 
able practices or wicked abominations indorsed by Brigham Young 
and his followers.** 



CHAPTER VIII. 

BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IX TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

Nature of the Trusteeship. — The Tithing System. — Brigham's Private 
Speculations. — The Emigration Fund. — The Hand-Cart Company. 

— " He was a man 
Who stole the liverj' of the Court of Heaven 
To serve the Devil in ; in virtue's guise 
Devoured the widow's house and orphan's bread; 
In holy phrase, transacted villanies 
That common sinners durst not meddle with." 

As Trustee in Trust for the Church, Brigham Young is 
in his element. Here his genius shines preeminent, giving 
him the character, at home and abroad, of a good, as he cer- 
tainly is a successful, financier. 

But here, upon the outset, let no one be misled by the 
words employed to designate the capacity in which he han- 
dles and manages the funds >of the church. It is called a 
" trusty'' becau.^e he is supposed to use the money for the 
benefit of the church. 

But this Trust is very general and indefinite in its charac- 
ter. It has no prescribed duties or conditions. It has no 
guards or limits. It has no prescribed nor acknowledged 
mode of accountability. 

Many years ago, attempts were made at the General Con- 
ferences, to exhibit a balance-sheet of receipts and disburse- 
ments. These were confused and unsatisfactory ; and lest 
they should be too closely examined, they have of late years 
been entirely abandoned, — the increasing faith of the saints 
in their leader rendering it entirely unnecessary that any 
explanation should be made of the disposal of their funds. 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 133 

Again : a corps of clerks are employed in the tithing-office, 
and are paid out of the pubhc tithing-fund salaries ranging 
from $1000 upwards. They are supposed to keep a com- 
plete system of accounts, showing all the receipts from this 
net-work of fiscal veins, and all the disbursements through 
the various arteries of the religious body. But beyond the 
receipt and deposit of moneys, and the keeping of the tith- 
ing account with individual members of the church, the 
duties of these clerks are merely nominal. Each has an- 
other part to perform. The reader will smile to be informed 
that these clerks are really the principal stock actors in the 
Salt Lake Theatre. Having but little office business, their 
time is thus turned to a good account, reading novelettes and 
newspapers, a plentiful supply of which may be found in 
their several offices. The theatre is the private property of 
Brigham, and the proceeds go into his own pocket, discon- 
nected with any real or imaginary embarrassment arising 
from the relation of Trustee. Hence it will be seen to be 
good " financiering " for the tithing-clerk>:, under pay of " the 
church," to perform for the benefit of " Brother Brigham." 
Should they fail to comply with his wishes, he has only, as 
" Trustee in Trust," to dispense with their services. This 
may be mentioned as a notabje instance of the " shrewd 
financiering " of Brigham Young. 

These clerks simply keep the accounts with individuals, 
and receive and deposit the money and pro[)erty paid in to 
the tithing-fund. They also keep the accounts of laborers 
on the temple and other public works. 

It is needless to say they are entirely under the control of 
Brigham. According to the Mormon creed, the temporal 
affairs of the kingdom should be entirely directed and con- 
trolled by the Aaronic Priesthood. The presiding Bishops 
of this priesthood are agents to perform the will of the head 
of the order, who is the President himself. 

To keep the public mind quiet and satisfied, it is stated 
from the pulpit that the accounts of Brigham Young, as an 



IM BKIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

individual, and those which he keeps as trustee for the church, 
are entirely separate and distinct, and that not a dollar of 
church money goes to the private use of the President or 
his family, without being duly charged and accounted for. 
But these public declarations are all the assurance the people 
have that such is the fact. The system of book-keeping by 
double entry is entirely ignored as an invention of the gen- 
tiles ; and if an investigation of the accounts should be insti- 
tuted, it would be conducted under great disadvantages, and 
could have no certainty in its results. 

Notwithstanding these protestations so frequently made 
from the pulpit, there is a growing conviction among the 
masses that the increasing evidences of the individual wealth 
of Brighara, notwithstanding his immense outlays, can only 
be accounted for in one way, — by the gradual absorption 
and assimilation of the funds of the church with his own 
private moneys. Indeed he does not hesitate to afl&rm, 
boldly, that if he wishes to build a grist or a saw-mill, or to 
engage in any other enterprise, he borrows from the tithing 
or other public funds the necessary means, paying it back 
by instalments when convenient, or turning in some other 
property that he has no immediate use for. In these private 
arrangements and trades, between himself in propria persona 
and himself in his fiduciary capacity, it is not to be supposed 
that he would make them to his own disadvantage, or that 
he would voluntarily assume losses which he could just as 
well throw upon the church at large. With this scape-goat 
upon which to throw his unfortunate speculations, and with 
a large revenue derived from legislative gifts, in the shape 
of timber canyons, herding-grounds, ferries, and other fran- 
chises, it is not strange that his worldly store should be con- 
stantly and largely augmented. He boasts that he takes no 
thought how to make money or get rich, and yet riches con- 
stantly flow to him. He has said, he can " drop dollar for 
dollar with any monarch in Europe." He looks after the 
Lord's interests, and the Lord looks after his interests ! 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 135 

The following are some of the principal Legislative Acts in 
favor of Brigham Young, passed by the Legislative Assem- 
bly of UUih: — 

An Act in relation to City Creek Canyon, apjproved De- 
cemher 9, 1850. This gave Young the sole control of City 
Creek and Canyon, for which he was required to pay into 
the treasury the sum of $500. Under this grant Brigham 
exacts from those getting wood in the canyon, every third 
load ; and as this is the only wood within fifteen miles of the 
city, this alone is the source of an immense revenue. Be- 
sides, he has built upon City Creek two or three mills, — 
he having the exclusive use of the water. It is estimated 
that Young's income from this canyon alone is $10,000 per 
annum. 

An Act passed February 5th, 1852, granting to Brigham 
Young the waters from the channel of Mill Creek. 

January 20, 1854. An Act providing that all property 
left by any deceased or absconding person, to which there is 
no claimant, shall pass into the Perpetual Emigration Fund. 
Brigham is President of this Society, and custodian of the 
fund. This Act adds largely to the income of the Trustee 
President. 

January 19, 1855. An Act appropriating to Brigham 
Young $2500 for building an Academy in Salt Lake City. 
The Academy was never built. 

December 18, 1855. An Act granting to Brigham Young 
exclusive right of herd-ground known as Kansas Prairie. 

Same date. An Act granting to Brigham Young the 
whole of Cache Valley for a herd-ground. This valley is 
fifty miles long, and more than ten miles in width, and the 
richest and most productive valley in the Territory. 

December 27, 1855. An Act granting to Brigham Young 
all of Rush Valley, except the United States Reserve, for a 
herd-ground. Another extensive tract of country. 

January 4, 1856. An Act granting to Brigham Young 
exclusive right to establish a ferry over Bear River. 



136 BRTGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

January 5, 1856. An Act granting to Brigbam Young 
a ranch and herd-ground in Lone Rock Valley. 

January 12, 1856. An Act gi'anting to Brigham Young 
exclusive right to control the road and coal-beds in Coal 
Canyon, San Pete County. 

Same date. An Act making an appropriation to Brigham 
Toung of $1000 from the Territorial Treasury, to enable 
him to pay for a share in the Deseret Iron Company. 

January 22, 1864. An Act authorizing Brigham Young 
to establish a toll on the Tooele Road. 

After reading all these donations and munificent fran- 
chises, one can appreciate the point of the joke perpetrated 
by Brigham, when he says " he takes no thought how to get 
rich, and yet riches constantly flow to him." 

The Tithing System. 

The object of tithing, as stated in the " Book of Doctrines 
and Covenants," is to exalt the poor, and humble the rich, — 
taking from where it is not wanted the surplus property of 
the church, and placing it where it is needed. The law of 
tithing, as originally instituted, calls for one tenth of the an- 
nual increase and gains, after providing for the wants of the 
family. When the poor were amply supplied, the residue 
was to be used for purchasing inheritances for the saints, 
building houses for public worship, etc. 

Of late years, however, tithing assumes an entirely differ- 
ent form, and is much more comprehensive in its scope and 
exacting in its demands. The " saints " in Utah, Europe, and 
throughout the world, are required to pay one tenth of their 
income, without any reference to their ability to meet the 
demand. Thus the laboring man in Utah, who receives but 
one dollar and fifty cents per day, — not enough to support 
his family comfortably, — is assessed tithing to the amount 
of about forty-five dollars per annum. 

But this is not all. Every emigrant and new-comer is 
expected to pay one tenth of his entire possessions. Upon 



BEIGHAM AS TKUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 137 

this point much strictness prevails. On tlie arrival of the 
faithful in Zion, they are visited by a bishop and clerk, and 
inventories of all their property taken. One tenth of every- 
thing must then be sent to the tithing-office, not even except- 
ing household furniture, cooking utensils, or clothing. Should 
the party be in possession of a little money, he is urged to 
pay the tithing all in cash. 

A very good idea of the extent to which this tithing sys 
tern is carried may be formed from the following tithing- 
song, sung at a meeting of one of the quorums, and pub- 
lished in the " Deseret News," No. 6, Vol. V. : — 

" TiTHING-SONG. 

[Air. The King of the Cannibal Islands.] 

" Come, Mormons all, attention pay, 
Whilst 1 attempt to sing my say ; 
I 've chosen for my text to-day, 
' Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 
These may not be the very words. 
Which ancient Holy Writ records ; 
But Malachi, I think, affords 
A verse which with the sense accords. 
It seems that he had cause to scold 
The saints, or Israelites of old ; 
In fact, they needed to be told, 

* Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 

Chorus. 
" Then if to prosper you desire, 
And wish to keep out of the fire, 
Nay, if you to be saints aspire, 
Come forward, and pay up your tithing. 

" Just as it was in the olden times. 
With ancient saints in other climes, 
The call is now, ' Bring out your dimes,' — 

* Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 



138 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCIL 

Our Prophet says, ' When Elders preach, 
The law of tithing they should teach ; 
Pay up themselves, and then beseech 
All those who come within their reach.* 
This makes me now entreat of you 
To follow counsel ; right pursue ; 
And whilst all evil you eschew, 

* Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 

Chorus. 
" Then if to prosper, etc. 

" Now, male and female, rich and poor, 
Who wish to keep your standing sure, 
That you salvation may secure, 

* Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 
A tenth, that is, and nothing less, 

Of all you do or may possess, 
In flocks and herds, and their increase, 
With pigs and poultry, ducks and geese : 
A tenth, indeed, of all your toil. 
Likewise the produce of the soil ; , 
And if you 've any wine or oil, 

* Come forward, and pay up your tithing.* 

Chorus. 

" Then if to prosper, etc. 

"Hexry Maiben. 
"Great S. L. City, 1855." 

Not only the extent of this exaction, but the penalty for 
non-payment, is fully set forth in this song, to wit, exclusion 
from the church, and deprivation of all spiritual blessings. 
What greater penalty can be placed before a true Mor- 
mon? 

The administration of the law of tithing has been exces- 
sively cruel in Europe. Many of the saints in England, 
who, from infirmity, age, or incapacity to labor, have been 
supported by the piarish, receiving one, two, or three shillings 
per week, have been anathematized and cut off from the 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 139 

church, because they could not pay their tithing out of their 
parish allowance, and support life from the remainder ! 

From the European Mission alone, over $500,000 of Brit- 
ish gold has found its way into the pockets of Brigham 
Young. No account has ever been made of this vast 
amount, nor is there any public work or project requiring 
expenditure of church-money, which has not been more than 
provided for by the home tithing-fund. 

The poor in Utah suffer severely from this exaction. You 
may see families barefooted, women and children nearly 
naked, destitute of even the necessaries of life, the husband 
making every effort to meet the day of tithing, fearful of 
losing his soul's salvation should he fail. Cases of extreme 
destitution have not been, in former years, comparatively 
numerous ; but as the rich become richer and the poor poorer, 
by the operation of this system, these cases become more 
marked and frequent, and already a rumbling of discontent 
is beard among the masses, which occasionally reaches the 
throne, and which will soon break forth in loud peals of 
thunder, demanding justice for a long oppressed and out- 
raged people. 

Again, there is a standing tithing-price which must be 
paid for flour and other necessaries, by those who are en- 
gaged upon the public works, or who are obliged to work for 
their richer brethren. These always pay their laborers in 
produce at tithing-prices. But these prices are usually far 
beyond the cash value of the same article in the market. 
In 1862-63, the tithing-office price of flour was $6 per 
hundred. The wages of workmen were nominally $2 
per day. But if a poor saint worked for his more afflu- 
ent brother, as in most cases he was obliged to do, he 
uniformly received his pay in flour at $6. It was not 
uncommon to see a laboring man going home at night, 
with his sack of flour, the result of his day's work, or of the 
labor of two or three days. At the same time the market- 
price of flour did not exceed $3 per hundi-ed. If the poor 



140 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IX TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

man, who was obliged to take all. his pay in flour, wished to 
purchase some sugar or groceries for his family, he must 
exchange for the same his flour, at half the price paid for it. 
Thus did the dignitaries of the church " grind the face of the 
poor." 

The masses were induced to submit to this state of things, 
by the assurance that flour would rise to a price much greater 
than $6, and when it should do so, the balance would be 
upon the other side, and the poor would be the gainers, as 
they should never pay more than that sum. 

In the winter of 1863-64, flour rose rapidly, owing to the 
new markets opened up in Idaho and other mining regions. 
Now the time had come when the predictions and prophecies 
concerning the rise of flour had been fulfilled. But the 
church authorities, notwithstanding the solemn promises 
which had been made to the people, raised the tithing-price 
of flour to $12 per hundred. This was "the last straw that 
broke the camel's back," and came near producing a revo- 
lution. One day a w^orkman in the " church " {alias 
Brigham's) blacksmith shop, called at the " tithing-store " 
for his flour, as was customary, the same being his wages for 
work for a stated period. At the store the flour was weighed 
out, and he was given a ticket at $12 per hundred. This 
was the first time he had been charged over $6. The black- 
smith left his bag of flour at the store, and proceeded, fired 
with indignation, to the President's office. Inquiring for him, 
he was told the President was out, and he could not see him. 
He replied he must see him, and should remain until he did. 
After some time the President appeared. " Brother Brig- 
ham," said the excited workman, " you are a liar and a hypo- 
crite." This caused a great excitement at once. The clerks 
sprang instantly from their places, some surrounding Brig- 
ham, others the blacksmith. The latter proceeded : " Have 
you not repeatedly given the people your solemn promise 
that they should never be charged by the church over $6 per 
hundred for flour ? You with your wives and families are 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 141 

rolling in wealth, surrounded with everything the heart can 
wish. But go with me, and 1 will show you cases of desti- 
tution and sutfering which -will cause your soul, if you have 
one, to shudder with horror." 

The clerks were here ordered to put him out of the office, 
which was done immediately, but the enraged man, now that 
his lips were unsealed, continued to talk in a loud tone of 
voice, until a number of people, attracted by curiosity, gath- 
ered around him. To them he explained the cause of the 
difficulty, and inveighed in unmeasured terms against those 
who were living in luxury and extravagance upon the indus- 
try and hard-earned savings of the poor. 

The crowd was finally dispersed, and one of the clerks sent 
to the outraged blacksmith to inform him that he could have 
the flour at $6. He replied that he w^ould die of hunger ere 
he would ever taste of it or touch it. The next day Brig- 
ham drove down to the poor man's house, taking the flour in 
his carriage, and induced him to accept it, and the same day 
the tithing-price of flour was reduced to $6 per hundred. 

The best articles of everything paid in for tithing — the 
choice hams and beef, the best butter, cheese, etc. — are laid 
away until the families of the first Presidency, the clerks, and 
a few of the elect are supplied. The balance is served out 
to the mechanics and laborers. Thus the church dignitaries 
literally live oflf of " the fat of the land." Often when butter, 
or some other article not quite so abundant as usual, is called 
for by the workman, he is told '• there is none in the store," 
while at the same time large quantities are stowed away ; and 
scarcely is he out of sight, before some member of higher 
standing in the church visits the same store, and his wants 
are amply supplied. 

As Brigham is not scrupulous on the subject of appropri- 
ating the means of the " church," that is, of the people, minor 
officers, as Bishops of settlements, do not hesitate to specu- 
late upon their own account. This is more or less tolerated, 
according to the faithfulness of the party to the interests of 



142 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IX TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

the heads of the church, and his diligence in " attending to 
counsel," or, in otlier words, in obeying orders. It is notori- 
ous that the Bishops all become quickly wealthy. Appoint 
a man Bishop of a settlement, and in two or three years his 
fortune is made ; and he who previously Uved in a log-cabin, 
with barely the necessaries of life, is soon in possession of a 
fine house, with carriages, horses, &c., at his command. 
Every Bishop is expected to " build up the kingdom " by 
having numerous wives. If he has less than half a dozen, he 
is scarcely considered as "doing his duty to the church," and 
at once exposes himself to remark, if not to censure. 

Many incidents might be mentioned illustrative of the 
manner in which property is accumulated by the Bishops. 
When the army under Col. Johnson was located at Camp 
Floyd, a Bishop of one of the southern settlements sold to 
the officers at the camp, at fifty cents per pound, all the butter 
which had been paid in for tithing, and accounted for it at 
the general tithing-office, at the tithing price, — twenty-five 
cents per pound. 

Frequently the people would in this way be deprived of 
luxuries which had been sold, and the proceeds of which had 
gone into the pockets of the Bishops and other officers of the 
church. On one occasion Kimball alluded in his sermon to 
the complaints of the people, that they could not get butter 
or anything else to eat on their bread. In response he told 
them, if their bread was hard and dry, " dip it in City Creek." 

On the departure from the Territory of the army under 
Col. Johnson, Brigham bought a large quantity of bacon at 
one cent per pound, selling it again to the laborers on the 
public works at twenty-five cents. The large contracts of 
purchase are usually awarded to him, partly because he has 
more money with which to fulfil them, and partly because 
men of lesser means do not wish to cross his path, by inter- 
fering with his financial operations. A large quantity of 
condemned crackers were purchased at the same time, at 
a nominal sum, many of which were afterward dealt out 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 143 

to the laborers on the public works, at fifteen cents per 
pound. 

Soon after the arrival of the saints in Utah, their attention 
was especially directed to the building of a temple. Promises 
were made to them, that upon its completion, the Saviour, 
together with angels, would enter therein, and minister unto 
those who remained faithful. There they were to receive 
blessings that could be obtained in no other place, '^'his has 
been held out as a strong inducement for the payment of 
money. Over $100,000 has been paid for the accomplish- 
ment of this object by the British saints alone. Not a dollar 
of this money has been used for that purpose, as all that has 
been done upon the temple has been more than paid for by 
the people of Utah.* 

The work upon the temple has proceeded very slowly, and 
the foundation is but Httle above the surface. Many of the 
saints are dissatisfied with its progress, and ask each other 
why more has not been accomplished during the fifteen years 
that have rolled away since its commencement ; and espe- 
cially while such ample means have been constantly on hand, 
— the tithing system furnishing an immense revenue, and no 
other public work on which to expend it ? And why it is 
that $200,000 should be expended by Brigimm Young upon 
a theatre for his own benefit, and nearly as much more upon 
a hotel now being built, and house added to house and build- 
ing to building in his own enclosure, while the temple is 
neglected ? These questions have much significance, and 
doubtless the day is not far distant when the people will 
insist upon an answer more satisfactory than they have yet 
received. 

The immense fund realized from the tithing system, and 
which is constantly at Brigham's disposal, enables him to im- 

* Persons who are known to possess property, are called upon to pay for 
seats in the temple. A lady residing in one of the northern settlements, 
was cajoled into paying £50 for that purpose. The good lady, upon arriv- 
ing in Utah, found that the famous temple, in which she had purchased a 
seat, was scarcely above its foundations. 



144 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

prove many opportunities that are offered for private spec- 
ulations. These he is not slow to perceive, nor does he 
permit any advantage of that kind to escape him. A very 
common speculation is to send a brother who is doing well, 
and accumulating a handsome property, upon a foreign mis- 
sion. The call to go upon a mission is considered a trial of 
the brother's faith, and he is not expected to decline. Should 
he desire to sell his house or other possessions, rather than to 
leave them in the hands of agents, brother Brigham stands 
ready to purchase them at a reduced price. In this way a 
large amount of property falls into his hands. If the mission- 
ary returns at all, he comes nearly impoverished, and com- 
mences anew to acquire property. 

In 1862 there were two distilleries in Salt Lake City, the 
owners of which. Moon & Bradley, were rapidly increasing 
in wealth. Brigham professed much indignation, telling 
them " they should welter in hell for manufacturing the in- 
toxicating draught to destroy their brethren." As a sort of 
expiatory act for their offence he sent them upon a mission 
to raise cotton in Southern Utah. As soon as they were gone, 
he opened a distillery himself, in the name and under the 
sanction of the city council, under pretence of regulating the 
traffic by law. Thus he managed to monopolize tlie large 
profits from the manufacture of ardent spirits, an immense 
quantity of which is used in Salt Lake City and throughout 
the Territory. 

Among the various inducements held out to the poor saints 
in Europe, has been the promise to each of a city lot in Salt 
Lake, of one acre and a quarter, upon the payment of the 
cost of survey, $1.25. On their arrival, they find to their 
astonishment, although there are plenty of vacant and un- 
fenced lots, that they have to pay to Young or Kimball $100 
or $150 for a lot. On one occasion a poor Dane having 
purchased a lot upon credit, built a small house upon it, but 
his wife falling sick he was unable to pay for the lot at the 
time agreed upon. Kimball compelled him to pull down the 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 145 

house and remove the material ; and the Dane was obliged, 
in consequence, to pass the winter, with his family, in his 
covered wagon. Fortunately the winter was a mild one, or 
they might have perished. 

The saints are fond of dancing, and in the winter season 
social parties for that purpose are numerous. Each ward 
has a commodious house, built by taxation, which is used for 
schools and public meetings. But for dancing their use is 
forbidden, and the people are obliged to pay Brigham $100 
per night for a building called the " Social Hall." Yet this 
hall was built from the proceeds of tithing paid in by the 
very people who are thus obliged to pay for the rent of it ! 

Mr. Taussig, a simple and unpretending man, had suc- 
ceeded in establishing a substantial tannery well stocked with 
leather. By some designing persons he was induced to re- 
fuse the payment of his taxes, on the ground that they were 
exorbitant, and the Territorial Collector sold the property, 
which was bought by one of Brigham's agents, and the poor 
man reduced to poverty. 

In the fall of 1857, Brigham called a mass meeting in 
the Tabernacle, and after dilating upon the disadvantages the 
people were laboring under in being without a currency, 
established a bank, calling upon the faithful to bring in all 
their gold and silver, and receive the new paper currency in 
exchange. This was done. In a few months the bank was 
suspended, and depositors were paid in labor tithing, for the 
currency held by them, in exchange for their gold and silver. 

One Mr. Tennant, a gentleman residing in Lancashire, 
England, embraced Mormonism. His property was estimated 
at over $70,000. He was soon marked as a victim. By 
appliances and representations brought to bear with much 
assiduity, he was induced to purchase of Brigham Young a 
house in Salt Lake, which he had never seen, and pay for 
the same the sum of $20,000 ; about four times its value. In 
addition to this, large sums of money were obtained from 
him by the Elders, under pretence of his becoming a share- 
10 



146 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

holder and partner with Young in grist-mills, sugar machin- 
ery, iron-works, &c., solemnly assuring him in relation to its 
safe investment and future profits. Mr. Tennant died while 
crossing the Plains, leaving a wife, with a young child. On 
arriving in Salt Lake, Mrs. Tennant, instead of being com- 
fortably installed in the house purchased by her husband, 
found herself placed in lodgings, the carriage, horses, and 
other property seized upon, and herself placed under the con- 
trol of a guardian. This, together with the loss of her hus- 
band, so worked upon her mind, that she became insane. 
Afterward Brigliara gave her in marriage to Daniel Spencer, 
as his fourth or fifth wife, and thus completed the wrongs for 
which the poor woman will call him to account in the day of 
judgment. She now lives upon a miserable pittance doled 
out from the tithing-office. 

A Mr. Williams, well known to the writer, became a 
Mormon in England. He was a man of considerable prop- 
erty, and while on his way crossing the Plains, was induced 
to invest $15,000 in an iron company formed for working the 
iron mines in Southern Utah. The money was paid over, and 
invested by the Elders, in goods, in St. Louis. The goods 
were duly transported across the Plains, and unloaded within 
the enclosure of Young, in Salt Lake City. Mr. Williams 
received, in St. Louis, a receipt for his money, stating that 
the same would entitle him, upon his arrival in Utah, to cer- 
tificates of stock in the company. But he never was able to 
get any stock or other equivalent for his money, nor any state- 
ment of the affairs of the company. Indeed, the dignitaries 
of the church, after one or two conversations upon the sub- 
ject, refused to converse with him further in relation to it. 
Soon after, the Legislature of Utah, composed in good part 
of the same men, repealed the Act incorporating the company, 
and thus the whole thing "vanished into thin air." In 1862, 
which was several years after the money had been paid, Mr. 
Williams took legal advice, and. was told he could file a bill 
in chancery, against all persons implicated in the transaction, 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IX TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 147 

requiring them to answer under oath. He hesitated to do so, 
giving as a reason that he thought " the time had not yet 
come," and that such a course would imperil his life. 

This mode of getting money by the Elders from the 
wealthy saints, and the retaining the same, is not only ex- 
cused, but openly justified and encouraged by Brigham. The 
following extract from one of his published sermons will 
show his views upon these questions, and the character of 
his morality and financial integrity : — 

" I wish to impress another thing on your minds. An Elder who 
is willing to preach the gospel, borrows a hundred or a thousand 
from you, and you never breathe a word of complaint against him, 
until you come home to this valley ; but after you have been here 
for a few days, you follow me round and fill my ears with com- 
plaints against this brother, and ask me what he has done with 
your money V I say ' I do not know.' Thus you are distressed, and 
in misery all the day long, to get it back again. If an Elder has 
borrowed from you, and you find he is going to apostatize, then 
you may tighten the screws upon him ; but if he is willing to 
preach the gospel without purse or scrip, it is none of your business 
what he does with the money he has borrowed from you. If you 
murmur Of) ain St that Elder, it,will prove your damnation. . . . 

" No man need judge me. You know nothing about it, whether 
I am sent or not ; furthermore, it is none of your business, only to 
listen with open ears to what is taught you, and serve God with an 
undivided heart." * 

Stephen Goddard owned a store on Main Street, Salt Lake 
City, which he desired to selL He was oflfered its value by 
a gentile, but before selling, consulted " Brother Brigham." 
The President said he wanted the store, and would give him 
$8,000 for it. To this Goddard demurred, as the sum was 
less than half what he had been offered. Young said when 
the Lord wanted his property, that should be the end of it, 
and the price was none of his business. Goddard and Bishop 
Woolley, who was present, retired outside and talked the 
matter over. The Bishop remarked, " He thought when a 
* Jour, of Bis., Vol. I. p. 340. 



148 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

man had worked bard to accumulate property for the benefit 
of his family, he sbould be permitted to sell it for a fair 
price." This was overheard by a spy, and reported to head- 
quarters. The Bishop was sent for and sharply reprimanded. 
He was told that he was in a spirit of apostasy. Goddard, 
afraid to do otherwise, sold the store to Young for $8,000. 

Besides the property acquired through the machinery of 
the tithing system, a large amount is obtained under the 
" law ot consecration." Under this law, those saints who 
can be induced to do so, place their whole property in the 
hands of the President, as trustee in trust for the church, to 
be used when the necessities of the church require it. The 
object is to guard against apostasy. Brigham Young says : — 

*' The rulers of Great Britain have tried to make every capital- 
ist identify his interest with the Government that has sustained 
the kingdom. Brethren, do you wish this heavenly kingdom to 
stand ? . . . hnitate the policy of that earthly kingdom ; iden- 
tify our interest with the kingdom of God, so that if our hearts 
should ever be weaned from loyalty to the sovereign, all our 
earthly interest is bound up there, and cannot be taken away. . . . 

" If a man has the purse in his pocket, and he apostatizes, he 
takes it with him ; but if his worldly interest is firmly united to 
the kingdom of God, when he arises to go away, he finds the calf 
is bound, and, like the cow, he is unwilling to forsake it. If his 
calf is bound up here, he will be inclined to stay." * 

The Emigration Fund. 

The published object and design of this fund is to emigrate 
the poor saints from Europe and other foreign countries to 
Utah, the Zion of the church. In those foreign countries 
there is a continual weekly subscription paid in for that pur- 
pose. 

Every emigration season, each Conference is permitted to 

send persons at the rate of one for every £10 sterhng so 

subscribed. Each one so emigrating, is required to enter 

into obligations, before leaving Liverpool, for the repayment 

* Jour. o/Dis. Vol. I. p. 202. 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 149 

of the same, as soon as possible after his arrival in Salt Lake 
City. Parties in Utah, also, wishing their relations brought 
over, must pay the required amount, before they are sent 
for, unless in some special cases, where notes are accepted 
in payment. The sum of £4 10s. is required to pay the 
transportation of each person to the first American port, and 
the remaining £5 IO5. thence to Salt Lake City. The emi- 
grants are stowed away like cattle, on the freight cars and 
on the decks of the boats and vessels, and thus by having 
them conveyed in the cheapest manner possible, considerable 
of the amount paid for transportation is saved, making a 
large sum in the aggregate, all of which goes into that "treas- 
ury of the church," — the pocket of Brigham Young. 

Again: as all are obliged to pay their passage-money, 
either in advance or after their arrival in Utah, and as a 
large portion of the sum is previously raised by contribution, 
of course the amount, in thousands of cases, is duplicated, 
and paid twice into the same treasury. 

The transportation across the Plains costs the church 
nothing at all, except a slight diminution of the tithing-fund 
prospective. The teams are furnished, so many from each 
ward and settlement, and the owners are given credit for the 
use of the same in tithing account. Large quantities of pro- 
visions are furnished and sent out to meet the incoming 
saints, but these, although donated and sent l)y their friends, 
are all charged to them by the careful priests and elders. 

Before starting across the Plains, meetings are held, and 
the saints are counselled to give up all their money and valu- 
ables, so that they may be preserved on their journey. One 
man, in obedience to this " counsel," gave up his money, to- 
gether with a valuable gold watch and chain. Afterwards, 
remembering that he had not provided any tobacco for the 
journey, he asked for a dollar back, to purchase some, which 
was refused him. 

Much cruelty is exercised on the Plains for the slightest 
disobedience. A young man, brother of Walter Sanders, of 



150 BRIGIIAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

Salt Lake, was whipped nearly to death for being unable to 
travel as required. 

Several years since, Brigham, with the view of saving still 
more from the emigration fund, projected the plan of bring- 
ing the saints across the Plains in hand-cart companies. 
Under this arrangement, every person, male and female, was 
expected to assist in drawing a hand-cart ; each cart being 
drawn by three persons, and containing a certain quantity of 
provisions, clothing, &c. 

One of the companies, under the lead of Franklin D. 
Richards, was detained on the frontiers until common pru- 
dence should have dictated their remaining until another 
year. In consequence of the lateness of the season, before 
the journey was half performed, winter was upon them, and 
their sufferings beggar all description. 

Mrs. Ciiapman, a very intelligent English lady, who 
crossed the Plains in this company, related to me many inci- 
dents of this dreadful journey. 

They started from the frontier very late, sometime in Oc- 
tober, I think ; and to allay the fears and forebodings of the 
saints, Richards prophesied, in the name of Israel's God, that 
the elements should be controlled ; and that the winds and 
snows of winter should be stayed until the faithful arrived in 
Zion. Entirely unacquainted with the country and the route 
before them, they were reassured, and went boldly forward, 
trusting in their leader. 

In order to lighten their loads and facilitate their prog- 
ress, every article of clothing that they could possibly spare, 
was left behind ; barely sufficient being taken to prevent 
them from freezing. 

It may be supposed that only the very poor were subjected 
to this terrible ordeal. Not so. Many families of means 
made the journey in this way, being assured that this sacri- 
fice would add to their exaltation in the eternal world. 
They had not proceeded far when the snow began to fall, 
and many became sick from want and exposure. When a 



BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 151 

river was to be crossed, they were driven into the water, — 
men, women, and children, — and were told, if they had suf- 
ficient faith, they should, hke the Israelites of old, go over 
dry shod. Many of the men carried their wives and children 
over the streams, as long as they were able. If any were 
unable longer to drag their carts, they were obliged to lighten 
them by throwing away clothing, cooking utensils, and even 
provisions, — thus necessitating a reduction from their daily 
allowance of food. Fuel was scarce, and it was often neces- 
sary to go into the snow, waist-deep, to procure it. Mrs. 
Chapman's husband, a strong, athletic man, formerly a mem- 
ber of the Queen's Guards, from constant exertion and ex- 
posure, at length fell sick, and though there were a few wag- 
ons for the sick and feeble to ride in, they were not admitted 
into them so long as they were able to walk. 

The poor man continued to grow worse, and it soon became 
evident that he must die. One morning, when the train was 
ready to start, the Captain came to the tent of the sick man, 
and finding him dying, said to Mrs. Chapman, " Your hus- 
band must die ; leave him in the hands of God, and proceed 
on your journey." " What ! " said the heart-stricken woman, 
" leave my husband on this barren waste, a prey to wolves ? 
No ; while there is breath in his body, I shall remain by his 
side, and share his fate. Leave us if you will, for the wild 
beasts of the desert cannot be more cruel than you have 
been." In five minutes more, he breathed his last ; and 
throwing him into a hole dug in the sand, they dragged the 
w^eeping wife and children from all they held dear on earth. 
In a few days the same woman left her baby, too, on the 
sands of the desert, a prey to wolves. She says, " I never 
see Franklin D. Richards, but I feel hand-carts from the 
crown of my head to the sole of my feet " 

One day, as they approached their Mecca, an old white- 
haired saint said to the Captain, in a weak voice, — " Captain, 
I feel as if I should die, drawing in this hand-cart ; can't I 
ride a little while ? " — " Draw till you die then," replied the 



152 BRIGHAM AS TRUSTEE IN TRUST FOR THE CHURCH. 

hard-hearted wretch, " for I '11 be d d if you can ride." 

" Oh, well," said the old man, " I suppose I shall draw till I 
die." He took out his watch. " A quarter of four. It will 
soon be over. Ten minutes. Oh dear ; oh, my God ! Five 
minutes to four, — four ; " — and the old man fell down in his 
place, — he was dead. 

Every day witnessed the death of large numbers by cold 
and starvation. Those who survived were more like walk- 
ing skeletons than human beings. They were covered with 
vermin, and loathsome to behold. Some were so badly frozen 
that their flesh fell from their bones. Many remained dis- 
abled for life. 

" Oh Religion ! what crimes are perpetrated in thy name ! " 
"When Mormons speak of the hand-cart company, they shud- 
der and grow pale. All this suffering was the result of an 
attempt, on the part of the leaders of the church, to save a 
still larger sum from the emigration fund. It was a specula- 
tive experiment, which was never repeated. These people 
bought their carts with their own money ; but on their ar- 
rival in Salt Lake, the carts were claimed by Brigham, in 
behalf of the church, and were afterwards sold from the 
tithing-office at five dollars each. 



CHAPTER IX. 

BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

Brigham's Position as Head of the Church. — Mormon Theology. — Brig- 
ham's Theology, or Utah Mormonism. — Adam as God. — Brigham 
Young as God. — Human Sacrifice. — Introduction of Polygamy. — Po- 
lygamy no part of the original Mormon Religion. — The Revelation, 
or Celestial Marriage. — The Ceremony of Sealing. — Consequences 
and Incidents of the Doctrine. — Incest. — Summary of the Mormon 
Religion. 

Not only is Brigham Young the temporal l^ead of the 
church, its chief business agent, and the sole custodian of its 
funds, but he is the spiritual head, the established fountain, 
in whom is gathered from on high all spiritual blessings, 
and from whom they are expected to flow through the 
various officers of the priesthood, and thus be distributed to 
the faithful among the masses. Standing in this capacity 
between the people and the Supreme Being, he is at once 
Prophet, Seer, and Revelator. As Prophet and Seer, he 
sees and foretells to the people what is to befall them, as 
the result of certain courses of action. As Revelator, he 
reveals and translates, to the comprehension of the people, 
the hidden will of God concerning them. 

An acknowledgment of this relationship of Brigham with 
the Di\dne Being is made a test of fellowship ; as in the 
case of the Morrisites, who, although they admitted his right 
to preside over the church as its temporal head, denied him 
the attributes of prophet and revelator. Hence they were 
cut off from the church. 

Acting in this capacity, he not only prescribes a course of 
conduct for his followers, but promulgates, from time to time, 



15-i BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

doctrines, to be received, believed, and advocated. Tlius the 
theology or creed of the church changes, from time to time, 
to suit the changing opinions, the whims and caprices, or the 
passions and lusts, of its head and leader. What is here 
said, therefore, of the Mormon religion, must be understood 
in reference to the received doctrines and tenets of the 
church in former years, — many of which still remain, but 
incorporated with new dogmas, and any part or all of which 
are liable at any time to be changed, modified, or entirely 
overthrown. 

Mormon Theology. 

There are many Gods, and they are of both sexes. But 
to us there is but one God, — the Father of mankind, and 
the Creator of the earth. 

Men and women are literally the sons and daughters of 
Go4, — our spirits having been literally begotten by God, in 
the heavenly world, and having been afterwards sent to the 
earth, and invested with these tabernacles. 

God is in the form of man. He has a body, composed of 
spiritual matter. There is no difference between matter and 
spu-it, except in quality. Spirit is matter refined. 

God is omnipotent, but not personally omnipresent. He is 
everywhere present by his Holy Spirit. His personality is 
generally expressed by the phrase, " He has body, parts, and 
passions." He resides in the centre of the universe, near 
the planet Kolob. This planet revolves on its axis once in 
a thousand of our years, and one revolution of Kolob is a 
day to the Almighty. 

Jesus Christ was the Son of God, literally begotten by the 
Father, and had the Spirit of God in the body of a man. 
After his resurrection, he had a body of flesh and bones only, 
typical of man's resurrected body. He differs in nothing 
from the Father, except in age and authority, — the Father 
having the seniority, and consequently the right to preside. 

The Holy Spirit is a subtle fluid, like electricity. It is 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 155 

the subtlest fomi of matter, and pervades all space. By its 
agency all miracles, so called, are performed. Miracles are 
simply the effects of the operation of natural laws. But 
they are laws of a higher character than those with which 
we are acquainted. This Holy Spirit is communicated by 
the laying-on of hands by one of the properly authorized 
priesthood, and the recipient is then enabled to perform 
wonderful things, according to his gift, — some having the 
gift of prophecy, some of healing, some of speaking in un- 
known tongues, etc. 

There are three heavens, — the telestial, the terrestrial, 
and the celestial. 

The telestial and terrestrial heavens are to be occupied by 
the various classes of persons who have neither obeyed nor 
rejected the gospel. The telestial is typified by the stars, — 
the terrestrial, by the moon. 

The celestial^ or highest heaven, has for its type the sun, 
and is reserved for those who received the te.-timony of 
Jesus, and believed on His name, and were baptized by one 
having authority from Him, and who afterwards lived a holy 
life. 

The earth, as purified and refined, after the second coming 
of Christ, is to be the final habitation of those entitled to the 
glories of the celestial kingdom. Jerusalem is to be rebuilt, 
and Zion, or the New Jerusalem, is to be built in Jackson 
County, Missouri, whence the saints were expelled in 1833. 

There is a fourth class of persons, not entitled to either of 
these heavens. They are those who sin against the Holy 
Ghost ; that is, those who apostatize after receiving the 
Holy Spirit. These go into everlasting punishment, to re- 
main with the devil and his angels. 

The gospel, which people are called upon to obey, in 
order to gain a place in the celestial kingdom, is, — Firsty 
They must believe in Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and 
in His authorized priesthood. Secondly, They must repent 
of their sins ; Thirdy, They must be baptized by immersion 



156 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

for the remission of their sins ; and, Fourthly, They must re- 
ceive the laying-on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

God, having become nearly lost to man, revived His work, 
by revealing himself to Joseph Smith, and conferring upon 
him the keys of the everlasting Priesthood, — thus making 
him the mediator of a New Dispensation, which is immedi- 
ately to precede the second coming of Christ. All those who 
recognize the divine authority of Smith, and are baptized by 
one having authority, are the chosen people of God, who are 
to introduce the Millennium, and to reign with Christ, on 
earth, a thousand years. 

Previous to the year 1852, it was also an orthodox prin- 
ciple of the Mormon religion, that a man should have but 
one wife, to whom he should be true and faithful. 

Those who have any curiosity to pursue the subject fur- 
ther, will find these views and doctrines fully explained and 
illustrated in the religious writings of the Mormons, — of 
which the following are some of the principal : Book of 
Mormon ; Book of Doctrine and Covenants ; Works of Or- 
son Pratt; Key to Theology, by P. P. Pratt; The Only 
Way to be Saved, etc., by L. Snow ; Pearl of Great Price ; 
Voice of Warning, by P. P. Pratt ; Catechism for Children, 
by John Jaques ; De>eret News, 14 vols. ; Journal of Dis- 
courses, 6 vols. ; Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star, London, 
26 volumes. 

BrigharrCs Theology ; or Utah Mormonism. 

The doctrines taught and practised by the present head of 
the Mormon Church differ so much from the previously es- 
tablished tenets of the church, that they require a separate 
consideration. 

One of the most important innovations upon the estab- 
lished doctrines of the church, is in relation to the Godhead. 
In April, 1852, Brigham put forth the startling doctrine that 
Adam is God, and to be recognized and honored as such ! 
This announcement created some consternation among the 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REYELATOR. 157 

Mormon theologians, and some of them had the courage to 
oppose it. The following is the " Revelator's " own expo- 
sition of this doctrine : — 

*' When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father 
had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by 
the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father ? He is the first of the 
human family ; and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten 
by his Father in heaven, after the same manner as the tabernacle 
of Cain, Abel, and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and 
Eve. . . . It is true that the earth was organized by three 
distinct characters, namely : Elohim, Yahovah, and Michael, 
[Adam;] these three forming a quorum, as in all heavenly bodies, 
and in organized element perfectly represented in the Deity, as 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

" When our Father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he 
came with a celestial body, and brought Eve^ one of his wives, with 
him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is Michael, 
the Archangel, the Ancient of Days. He is our Father and our 
God, and the only God with whom we have to do. . . . Jesus, 
our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same charac- 
ter that was in the garden of Eden, and who is our Father in 
heaven." * 

It is manifest that Young is not so much at home in theol- 
ogy as when engaged in financial schemes and money spec- 
ulations. So disgusting and blasphemous are these ideas, 
and so unacceptable were they, even to Mormons, who were 
not prepared to see the basis of their religion thus rudely 
overthrown, that Brigham finally felt compelled to caution 
the Elders not to preach the new doctrine concerning Deity, 
until the people should be better prepared to receive them. 

Mahomet is the great exemplar and prototype whom 
Brigham Young aims to imitate, and doubtless he took from 
the Koran his ideas about the deity of Adam. Thus in 
chapter two of the Koran, we have the following : — 

" And when we said unto the angels, < worship Adam,' they all 
worshipped him, except Eblis, [Lucifer,] who refused." 

From the following afiidavit of John Stiles, father of Judge 
* Jonr. ofDis. Vol. I. p. 50. 



158 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

Stiles, formerly one of the United States Judges in Utah, a 
man of much probity of character, and well known in Salt 
Lake City as " Father Stiles," it appears that the bla>plie- 
mous pretensions of Brigham Young do not stop with Adam, 
but that, among the brethren, he has encouraged a doctrine, 
which he dare not put in print ; — no less than to arrogate to 
himself the attributes of Deity. 

" Territory of Utah, ) „„ 
\ ss. 
Great Salt Lake Citv. ) 

" In the spring of 1856," John Stiles says, " I resided in the 11th 
Ward of Great Salt Lake City, in the Territory of Utah. I was 
appointed by the quorum to which I then belonged, as a Mission- 
ary High-Priest for the said Ward. My duty was to look after 
the morals of the people of the Ward, and especially to see that 
there was no false doctrine taught there. I subsequently found 
that there were not only immoralities, but also false doctrines 
among some of the people, as I supposed at the time. INIany peo- 
ple believed and taught the doctrine, that Brigham Young was 
all the God that we were amenable to. I found by opposing that 
doctrine, that I gave offence to the authorities of the Ward, and 
was consequently called to answer for my opposition before the 
Bishop of the Ward, although he had no jurisdiction over me. As 
a High-Priest I was amenable to a higher authority, but not to 
him. 

" In a public assembly he wished me to state my views on the 
question, whether if Brigham Young was not God, who tvas f I 
told him I would do so. I rose and stated that my idea of the 
being of God was expressed in a passage of Scripture, and I need 
only repeat the passage to explain the idea. The passage was : 
' To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, 
and we in Him, and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, 
and we by Him.' I subsequently, in explanation, cited this pas- 
sage of Scripture : ' This is life eternal, that we might know thee, 
the only living and true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast 
sent.' I then sat down, and the Bishop rose and said : ' Brethren, 
we perceive that Father Stiles runs round Brigham.' 1 replied, 
* Yes ; I do not mention Brigham Young on the same day with 
God, as of the same Godhead.' His (the Bishop's) First Counsellor, 
then moved that Father Stiles be cut off from the church. This 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 159 

■was seconded by the Second Counsellor. This was proposed to 
the assembly as a question by the Bishop, and I was cut off ac- 
cordingly. I subsequently discovered that by my opposition and 
er^planatipn, I gave offence to the authorities of the Mormon 
Church, and was cut off from the church and dismissed from the 
place of Missionary High-Priest of that Ward. I have never been 
restored as Missionary High-Priest. 

(Signed,) John Stiles. 
" Sworn to and subscribed before me at Great Salt Lake City, 
this April 26th, 1864. 

"John Titus, 

" Ch. Justice of Utah." 

Another doctrine of a startling character, promulgated by 
one of Young's counsellors and endorsed by him, is that of 
human sacrifice for the remission of sins. 

It was first announced by Jedediah M. Grant, Second 
Counsellor to the President, in the following language : — 

" Brethren and sisters, we want you to repent and forsake your 
sins. And you who have committed sins that cannot be forgiven 
through baptism, let your blood be shed, and let the smoke ascend^ 
that the incense thereof may come up before God as an atonement 
for your sins, and that the sinners in Zion may be afraid." * 

Again : — 

" We have been trying long enough with this people, and I go 
in for letting the sword of the Almighty be unsheathed, not only 
in word, but in deed." f 

In accordance with such bloody teaching, it is said that an 
altar of sacrifice was actually built by Grant, in the temple 
block, upon w^iich these human sacrifices were to be made. 
On the 21.-t of September, 1856, Grant said : — 

" I say there are men and women here that I would advise to 
go to the President immediately, and ask him to appoint a com- 
mittee to attend to their case ; and then let a place be selected, 
and let that committee shed their blood." % 

* Deseret Neics, October 1, 1856. t Ibid, 

t Ibid. Vol. VI. p. 235. 



160 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

This horrible proposal to immolate upon the altar of sacri- 
fice the erring saints, was fully endorsed by Brigham Young 
as follows : — 

" There are sins that men commit for which they cannot receive 
forgiveness in this world, or in that which is to come ; and if they 
had their eyes open to see their condition, they would he perfectly 
willing to have their blood spilt upon the ground, that the smoke 
thereof might ascend to Heaven as an offering for their sins, and 
the smoking incense would atone for their sins ; whereas, if such 
is not the case, they will stick to them, and remain upon them in 
the spirit-world. 

" I know, when you hear my brethren telling about cutting peo- 
ple off from the earth, that you consider it is strong doctrine. It 
is to save them, not to destroy them. I will say further, I have 
had men come to me, and offer their lives to atone for their sins. 
It is true that the blood of the Son of God was shed for sins, 
through the fall, and those committed by man, yet men can com- 
mit sins Avhich it can never remit. As it was in ancient days, so 
it is in our day ; and though the principles are taught publicly 
from this stand, still the people do not understand them ; yet the 
Law is precisely the same. There are sins that can be atoned for 
by an offering upon the altar, as in ancient days, and there are sins 
that the blood of a lamb, of a calf, or of turtle-doves cannot remit, 
but they must be atoned for by the blood of the man. That is the 
reason why men talk to you as they do from this stand. They 
understand the doctrine, and throw out a few words about it."* 

But the greatest change of all in the Mormon religion, 
made by Brigham Young, was the introduction and estab- 
lishment of polygamy. 

Tins was no part of the Mormon system of religion as 
originally established. On the contrary, it was expressly 
repudiated by all the Mormon writers and speakers, previous 
to 1852, and in Europe for some years afterward. 

The Mormon religion was founded by Joseph Smith and 
his coadjutor:^, and the principles and doctrines of the religion 

* Sermon by Brigham Yoimg, published in the Deseret News, October 
1st, 1866. 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 161 

were, in the first instance, such as they established. The 
Book of Mormon is the historical foundation, corresponding 
with the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Afterward, 
a volume of revelations to Smith and others was collected 
and published, called the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. 
This corresponds to the Christian's New Testament. It may- 
be safely asserted, therefore, that previous to the innovations 
of Young, the Mormon religion was embodied in these two 
volumes. Their authority in the church is universal and 
unquestioned. 

Let us examine these volumes, and see whether they teach 
or countenance polygamy. 

The Book of Mormon nowhere contains a word in favor 
of it. On the contrary all of its principal characters were 
monogamists. Such was Lehi, the patriarch of Mormon 
history. Such also were Ishmael and Nephi.* That the- 
people of Zarahemla were monogamists, is evident from what 
is said conceraing them on page 146. 

But we are not left to inference as to the testimony of this 
volume concerning this practice. On page 119 we have the 
following : — 

" Behold the Lamanites, your brethren, whom ye hate because 
of their filthiness and the cursings which hath come upon their 
skins, are more righteous than you ; for they have not forgotten 
the commandment of the Lord, which was given unto our fathers, 
that they should have, save it were one wife ; and concubines they 
should have none ; and there should not be whoredoms committed 
among them. And now, this commandment they observe to keep ;; 
wherefore, because of this observance, in keeping this command- 
ment, tlie Lord God will not destroy them, but will be merciful, 
unto them ; and one day they shall become a blessed people." f 

Again : — 

" And it came to pass that Riplakish did not do that which was-- 
right in the sight of the Lord, for he did have many wives and 
concubines, and did lay that upon men's shoulders which was 

* BookofMormm, pp. 3, 12, 33, 43. t Ibid. p. 119. 

U 



162 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

grievous to be borne ; yea, he did tax them with heavy taxes ; and 
with the taxes he did build many spacious buildings." * 

And again : — 

" And he [Noah] did not walk in the ways of his father, [Ze- 
niff.] For behold, he did not keep the commandments of God, 
but he did walk after the desires of his own heart. And he had 
many wives and concubines. And he did cause his people to 
commit sin, and to do that which was abominable in the sight of 
the Lord. Yea, and they did commit whoredoms and all manner 
of wickedness. And he laid a tax of one fifth part of all they 
possessed." ..." All this did he take to support himself, and 
his wives and his concubines ; and also his priests, and their wives 
and their concubines ; thus he had changed the affairs of the 
kingdom." f 

" And it came to pass that he placed his heart upon his riches, 
and he spent his time in riotous living, with his wives and his con- 
cubines ; and so did also his priests spend their time with har- 
lots." t 

As if to place this matter beyond any question, we have 
the following still more explicit testimony, on pages 115 and 
118: — 

" And now it came to pass that the people of Nephi, under the 
reign of the second king, began to grow hard in their hearts and 
indulge themselves somewhat in wicked practices, such as like 
unto David of old, desiring many wives and concubines, and also 
Solomon his son." ... 

" The word of God burdens me because of your grosser crimes. 
For behold, thus saith the Lord, this people begin to wax in iniq- 
uity ; they understand not the Scriptures ; for they seek to ex- 
cuse themselves in committing whoredoms, because of the things 
which were written concerning David, and Solomon his son. Be- 
hold David and Solomon truly had many wives and concubines, 
which thing was abominable before me, saith the Lord ; wherefore, 
thus saith the Lord, I have led this people forth out of the land 

* Book of Mormon, p. 535. 5th sec. of 4th chap, of Book of Ether, 
t Book of Mormon, p. 167. 
X Ibid. p. 168. 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 163 

of Jerusalem, by the power of mine arm, that I might raise up 
unto me a righteous branch fi'om the fruit of the loins of Joseph. 
Wherefore, I the Lord God, will not suffer that this people shall 
do like unto them of old. Wherefore, my brethren, hear me, and 
hearken to the word of the Lord ; for there shall not any man 
among you have, save it be one wife ; and concubines he shall have 
none ; for I, the Lord God, delighteth in the chastity of women. 
And whoredoms are an abomination before me ; thus saith the 
Lord of Hosts." * 

Here it is stated as coming from God himself, that the 
polygamy and concubinage of David and Solomon were 
abominable before the Lord. And yet we every day hear 
David and Solomon, as well as Abraham, Jacob, and others, 
cited by those practising polygamy, as their illustrious proto- 
types, whose example is worthy of all imitation. 

Orson Pratt, the ablest writer on Mormon theology, is 
compelled to admit that the Book of Mormon is opposed to 
polygamy. He says : — 

" Do you believe that the Book of Mormon is a divine revela- 
tion ? AVe do. Does that book teach the doctrine of plurality 
of wives ? It does not. Does the Lord in that book forbid the 
plurality doctrine ? He forbid the ancient Nephites to have any 
more than one wife." f 

Elder Pratt then endeavors to blunt the force of this testi- 
mony in the following manner : — 

" Why were the ancient Nephites restricted to the one-wife 
system ? Because, first, the number of males and females among 
them, at the time the command was given, was about equal. Sec- 
ondly, there was no probability that judgments, wars, or any other 
calamities which were to befall their nation, would produce a dis- 
proportionate number of males and females. Thirdly, this small 
remant of the tribe of Joseph, were, at that time, about equally 
righteous ; and one was about as capable of raising up a family in 

* Book of Mormon, pp. 115, 118. 1st and 2d chapters of the Book of 
Jacob. 

t Article on Celestial Marriage, in The Seer, Vol. I. p. 30. 



164 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

righteousness as another. And, lastly, the Lord himself informs 
them, in the same connection with the quotation which I have 
just made, that if He would have them practise differently from 
what He had previously taught them, it must be by His com- 
mand." * 

Thus, in the attempt to weaken the force of the evidence 
furnished by the Book of Mormon against polygamy, Pratt 
acknowledges, in the most explicit manner, the validity of 
the argument against it, founded upon the equality in the 
numbers of each sex. Two of the four reasons why the 
Nephites were to retain monogamy, relate to the equality in 
the numbers of the sexes. But there is a substantial equal- 
ity in the numbers of the sexes, not only in the United States, 
but in Utah Territory. (See U. S. Census.) 

Let us now turn to the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, 
and see if we can find in that volume any authority for 
polygamy. The following passages will determine the ques- 
tion : — 

" Thou shalt love thy wife with all thy heart, ,and shalt cleave 
unto her, and none else ; and he that looketh upon a woman to 
lust after her, shall deny the faith, and shall not have the spirit; 
and if he repents not he shall be cast out." f 

Again. In 1845, the year after Smith's death, an Appen- 
dix was authoritatively added to the Book of Doctrine and 
Covenants, containing the following, which is extracted from 
the section entitled " Marriage " : — 

" 2. Marriage should be celebrated with prayer and thanks- 
giving ; and at the solemnization, the persons to be married stand- 
ing together," etc., " he [the person officiating] shall say, calling 
each by their names, ' you both mutually agree to be each other's 
companion, husband and wife, observing the legal rights belonging 
to this condition ; that is, keeping yourselves wholly for each other, 
and from all others, during your lives.' And when they have an- 

* The Seer, Vol. I. p. 30. 

t Doctrine and Covenants, p. 125. 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 165 

swered ' yes,' lie shall pronounce them ' husband and wife,* in the 
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and by virtue of the laws of the 
country, and authority vested in him. . . . 

"4. . . . Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been re- 
proached with the crime of fornication and polygamy ; we declare 
that we believe that one man should have one wife ; and one 
woman but one husband, except in case of death, when either is 
at liberty to marry again." * 

Can anything be more explicit than this ? Polygamy is 
not only expressly repudiated by the church, but is classed 
by the side of fornication as a crime. 

Tims we find that polygamy is contrary to both books of 
the ]Nrbrmon Bible. That it is, in fact, strongly condemned 
in those volumes. 

It is, therefore, no part of the Mormon religion, as given 
to the world by Joseph Smith. 

But polygamy is practised in Utah. Whence did it arise, 
and upon wliat foundation does it rest ? 

Like slavery, and all other great so cial e vils, it had its 
origin, doubtless, in an abuse of the passions of man. 

It was first publicly announced and recommended in Utah 
Territory on the 29th of August, 1852, by Orson Pratt and 
Brigham Young, at a politico-religious meeting, held in 
Great Salt Lake City. 

On that occasion, President Young said : — 

" You heard Brother Pratt state, this morning, that a Revela- 
tion would be read this afternoon, which was given previous to 
Joseph's death. It contains a doctrine a small portion of the 
world is opposed to ; but I can deliver a prophecy upon it. Though 
that doctrine has not been preached by the Elders, this people 
have beheved in it for years. 

" The original copy of this Revelation was burnt up. William 
Clayton was the man who wrote it fi-om the mouth of the Prophet. 
In the mean time it was in Bishop Whitney's possession. He 
wished the privilege to copy it, which Brother Joseph granted. 
Sister Emma (wife of Joseph Smith) burnt the original. The rea- 

* Book of Doctrine and Covenants, pp. 330, 331. j 



166 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 

son I mention this is, because that the people who did know of the 
Revelation, suppose it was not now in existence. 

" The Revelation will be read to you. The principle spoken 
upon by Brother Pratt this morning, we believe in. 

. . . " Many others are of the same mind. They are not 
ignorant of what we are doing in our social capacity. They have 
cried out proclaim it ; but it would not do a few years ago ; every- 
thing must come in its time, as there is a time to all things. I am 
now ready to proclaim it. 

" This Revelation has been in my possession many years ; and 
who has known it ? None but those who should know it. I keep 
a patent lock on my desk, and there does not anything leak out 
that should not." * 

The Revelation, so called, which was read at the close of 
this sermon, purports to have been given to Joseph Smith, 
July 12, 1843. It is very lengthy, consisting of twenty-five 
sections or paragraphs. It is published in full, in Burton's 
" City of the Saints," and in various other publications. The 
following synopsis exhibits all that is essential of this extra- 
ordinary Revelation. 

THE REVELATION. 

Section 1. "Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my 
servant Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired of my 
hand to know and understand wheiein I, the Lord, justified 
my servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as also Moses, Da- 
vid, and Solomon, my servants, as touching the principle and 
doctrine of their having many wives and concubines : Be- 
hold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee 
as touching this matter." [The balance of this section is 
prefatory, declaring that a new law and everlasting covenant 
is about to be revealed, and that he who abides not that cov- 
enant shall be damned.] 

Sec. 2. All covenants, contracts, vows, etc., not made and 

* Sermon of Brighara Young, pubhshed in the Deseret News, Extra, 
of September 14, 1852. 



BRIGHA^r AS PROPHET, SEER, AXD REVELATOR. 167 

sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise, of liim who is anointed 
(Joseph Smith) both as well for time and for all eternity, 
are of no efficacy or force after the resurrection. 

Sec. 3 represents the necessity of having everything sanc- 
tioned by the Almighty. 

Secs. 4 and 5. Persons married for life only, or for time 
and eternity, but not by the proper authority, not bound to 
each other after this life. 

Sec. 6 provides that if a man marry a wife by the law of 
God, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and if they 
abide in the covenant, and do not shed innocent blood, then 
the covenant shall be binding throughout time and eternity, 
*' and they shall pass by the angels, and the gods which are 
set there, to their exaltation and glory in all thing.-." 

Sec. 7 declares that such shall be gods in the eternal 
world. 

Sec. 8 states that none can receive such exaltation except 
tho=e who receive and abide the law of God. 

Sec. 9. "' Verily, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a 
wife according to my word, and they are sealed by the Holy 
Spirit of promise according to mine appointment, and he or 
she shall commit any sin or transgression of the new and 
everlasting covenant whatever, and all manner of blasphe- 
mies, and if they commit no murder wherein they shed inno- 
cent blood, yet they shall come forth in the first resurrection, 
and enter into their exaltation, but they shall be destroyed 
in the flesh, and shall be dehvered unto the buffetings of 
Satan unto the day of redemption, saith the Lord God." 

Sec. 10 explains that shedding innocent blood, and assent- 
ing unto the death of Clu-ist, is the blasphemy against the 
Holy Ghost, which shall not be forgiven in tiie world nor out 
of the world. 

Secs. 11 and 12 refer to Abraham as the father of the 
faithful, and him to whom the promises were made. " This 
promise is yours also, because ye are of Abraham, and the 
promise was made unto Abraham." " Go ye, therefore, and 



168 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

do the works of Abraham ; and enter ye into my law, and 
ye shall be saved." 

Sec. 13 intimates that Sarah acted in accordance with 
the command of God in giving Hagar to Abraham. 

Sec. 14 refers to the concubines which Abraham received, 
and says, " they bare him children, and it was accounted unto 
him for righteousness." The latter part of the section is as 
follows : " David also received many wives and concubines, 
as also Solomon, and Moses my servant ; and also many 
others of my servants, from the beginning of creation until 
this time ; 'and in nothing did they sin save in those things 
which they received not of me." 

Sec. 15. " David's wives and concubines were given unto 
him, of me, by the hand of Nathan, my servant, and others 
of the prophets who had the keys of this power ; and in none 
of these things did he sin against me, save in the case of 
Uriah and his wife ; and therefore he hath fallen from his 
exaltation, and received his portion ; and he shall not inherit 
them out of the world ; for I gave them unto another, saith 
the Lord." 

Sec. 16 prescribes certain regulations concerning those 
who commit adultery, and provides that in case tlie husband 
commits adultery, and the wife is innocent, and the fact is 
revealed by God to Joseph, the wife shall be given by Smith 
to one who has not committed adultery, " but hath been 
faithful, for he shall be made ruler over many." 

Sec. 17. "And verily, verily I say unto you, that what- 
soever you seal on earth shall be sealed in heaven ; and 
whatsoevet you bind on earth in my name and by my word, 
saith the Lord, it shall be eternally bound in the heavens ; 
and whosesoever sins you remit on earth shall be remitted 
eternally in the heavens ; and whosesoever sins ye retain on 
earth shall be retained in heaven." 

Sec. 18. " And again, verily I say, whomsoever you bless 
I will bless, and wliomsoever you curse I will curse, saith 
the Lord ; for I, the Lord, am thy God." 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 169 

Sec. 19. "And again, verily I say unto yon, my servant 
Joseph, that whatsoever you give on earth, and to whomso- 
ever you give any one on earth, by my word, and according 
to my law, it shall be visited with blessings, and not cursings, 
and with my power, saith the Lord, and shall be without 
condemnation, on earth and in heaven." Then follows a dec- 
laration to the effect that Smith has found favor with God, 
and that he will forgive his sins, etc. 

Sec. 20 commands Emma vSmith "that she stay herself, 
and partake not of that which I commanded you to offer 
unto her ; for I did it, saith the Lord, to prove you all," etc., 
and continues as follows : " And let mine handmaid, Emma 
Smith, receive all those that have been given unto my ser- 
vant .Jo>e[)h, and who are virtuous and pure before me ; and 
those who are not pure, and have said they are pure, shall 
be destroyed, saith the Lord God ; for I am the Lord thy"" 
God," etc. 

Sec. 21 commands Emma Smith, wife of Joseph, to abide 
and cleave unto Joseph and none else, under penalty of de- 
struction. She is also exhorted to forgive Joseph his tres- 
passes. 

Sec. 22 forbids Joseph putting his property out of his 
hands. 

Sec. 23 touches upon the law of the priesthood, and says 
of any one who is called of God, as was Aaron, " if he do 
anything in my name, and according to my law, and by my 
word, he will not commit sin, and I will justify him." Jo- 
seph is to be justified, etc. 

The last two sections are as follows : — 

Sec. 24. " And again, as pertaining to the law of the 
priesthood : if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to es- 
pouse another, and the first gives her consent ; and if he 
espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to 
no other man. then he is justified ; he cannot commit adul- 
tery, for they are given unto him ; for he cannot commit 
adultery with that that belongeth unto them, and to none 



170 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 

else ; and if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, 
he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, and they 
are given unto him ; therefore is he justified. But if one, or 
either of the ten virgins, after she is espoused, shall be with 
another man, she has committed adultery, and shall be de- 
stroyed ; for they are given unto him to multiply and replen- 
ish the earth, according to my commandment, and to fulfil 
the promise which was given by my Father before the foun- 
dation of the world, and for their exaltation in the eternal 
worlds, that they may bear the souls of men ; for herein is 
the work of my Father continued, that he may be glorified." 
Sec. 25. '' And again, verily, verily I say unto you, if any 
man have a wife who holds the keys of this power, and he 
teaches unto her the law of my priesthood as pertaining to 
these things, then shall she believe, and administer unto 
him, or she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord your God ; for 
I will destroy her ; for I will magnify my name upon all 
those who receive and abide in my law. Therefore it shall be 
lawful in me, if she receive not this law, for him to receive 
all things whatsoever I, the Lord his God, will give unto 
him, because she did not believe and administer unto him, 
according to my word ; and she then becomes the transgressor, 
and he is exempt from the law of Sarah, who administered 
unto Abraham according to the law, when I commanded 
Abraham to take Hagar to wife. And now, as pertaining to 
this law : Verily, verily I say unto you, I will reveal more 
unto you hereafter ; therefore let this suffice for the present. 
Behold, I am Alpha and Omega. Amen." 

Such is the foundation upon which is built the superstruct- 
ure of Utah polygamy. And the system itself, what is it in 
its theory and practical application ? The mode of its insti- 
tution has been shown. Its ceremonials, and many facts 
illustrative of its tendency and effects, will be given ; and it 
is for our readers to determine how much it is better than 
promiscuous intercourse, and to discover, if they can, its 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 171 

redeeming features, as distinguished from such a state of 
society. 

No man who has a wife already, has any right to make 
propositions of marriage to a lady, until he has consulted the 
President of the whole church, and through him obtained a 
revelation from God upon the subject. If the revelation be 
favorable, he must next obtain the approbation of the parents, 
and thirdly, he is to consult the lady lierself. 

It is also necessary that the first wife be consulted. If she 
refuses her consent, however, the lover husband may take an 
appeal to the President ; and unless the wife can give to the 
President satisfactory reasons why her consent is withheld, 
the husband may proceed to introduce another wife into the 
family, against her will. The plan is, either to divorce the 
first wife, and damn her eternally, or to torment her daily, 
until, with a broken heart and a crushed spirit, she goes to 
the altar, and there gives another to her husband. Thus the 
semblance of her approbation is obtained. 

The e xquisite cru eltx of this abominable practice will ap- 
pear most vividly fi'om the marriage ceremony. 

" When the day set apart for the solemnization of the marriage 
ceremony has arrived, the bridegroom and the loife, and also the 
bride, together with their relations, and such other guests as may 
be invited, assemble at the place which they have appointed. The 
scribe then proceeds to take the names, ages, native towns, coun- 
ties. States, and countries of the parties to be married, which he 
carefully enters on record. The President, who is the Prophet, 
Seer, and Revelator over the whole church, throughout the whole 
world, and who alone holds the keys of authority in this solemn 
ordinance, calls upon the bridegroom and his wife, and the bride, 
to arise, which they do, fronting the President. The wife stands 
on the left hand of her husband, while the bride stands on her 
left. The President then puts this question to the wife : ' Are you 
willing to give this woman to your husband, to be his lawful and 
wedded wife, for time and all eternity ? If you are, you will 
manifest it by placing her right hand within the right hand of 
your husband-' The right hands of the bridegroom and the bride 



172 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

being thus joined, the wife takes her husband by the left arm, as 
if in the attitude of walking. The President then proceeds to ask 
the following questions of the man : ' Do you, brother, (calling him 
by name) take sister (calling the bride by name) by the right 
hand, to receive her unto yourself, to be your lawful and wedded 
wife, and you to be her lawful and wedded husband, for time and 
for all eternity, with a covenant and promise on your part, that 
you fulfil all the laws, rites, and ordinances pertaining to this holy 
matrimony, in the new and everlasting covenant, — doing this in 
the presence of God, angels, and these witnesses, of your own free 
will and choice ? ' The bridegroom answers, ' Yes.* The President 
then puts the question to the bride : ' Do you, sister, (calling her 
by name) take brother (calling him by name) by the right hand, 
and give yourself to him to be his lawful and wedded wife, for 
time and for all eternity, with a covenant and promise, on your 
part, that you will fulfil all the laws, rites, and ordinances pertain- 
ing to this holy matrimony, in the new and everlasting covenant, — 
doing this in the presence of God, angels, and these witnesses, of 
your own free will and choice ? ' The bride answers, ' Yes.' The 
President then says : ' In the name of the Lord Jesus Chi-ist, and by 
the authority of the Holy Priesthood, I pronounce you legally and 
lawfully husband and wife, for time and all eternity ; and I seal upon 
you the blessings of the holy resurrection, with power to come forth 
in the morning of the first resurrection, clothed with glory, im- 
mortality, and eternal lives; and I seal upon you the blessings of 
thrones, and dominions, and principalities, and powers, and exal- 
tations ; together with the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; 
and say unto you, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the 
earth, that you may have joy and rejoicing in your posterity, in 
the day of the Lord Jesus. All these blessings, together with all 
other blessings, pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, I 
seed upon your heads, and enjoin your faithfulness unto the end, by 
the authority of the Holy Priesthood, in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.' " 

The scribe then enters the marriage on the records, and 
the parties retire. The wedding is then celebrated with a 
feast at the husband's house, and a " Mormon dance." The 
new wife is assigned a room, — if indeed the happy husband's 
domicil contains two rooms, — and her experience in " plu- 
rality " begins. 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 173 

In well-regulated Mormon families, the first wife stands at 
the head of domestic concerns. She carries the keys of the 
storehouse, makes the purchases for the family, and deals 
them out to the plural wives, in much the same manner as 
other housekeepers do to their cooks. The husband's will ia 
law, and from it there is no appeal, except in extreme cases, 
when the Bishop may be consulted. 

If a husband has lost his wife by death, before he had the 
opportunity of attending to this holy ordinance, and securing 
her as his lawful wife for eternity, then it is the duty of the 
second wife, first, to be sealed or married to the husband, for 
and in the name of the deceased wife, for all eternity ; and, 
secondly, to be married for time and eternity herself, to the 
same man. Thus, by this holy ordinance, both the dead and 
the living wife will be his in the eternal worlds. But if, pre- 
vious to marriage for eternity, a woman lose her husband by 
death, and marry a second, and if her first husband was a 
good man, then it is the duty of the second husband to be 
married to her for eternity, not for himself, but in the name 
of her deceased husband, while he himself can only be mar- 
ried to her for time ; and he is obliged to enter into a cov- 
enant to deliver her up, and all her children, to her deceased 
husband, in the morning of the first resurrection. 

Thus, by these refijiements, a religious veil, captivating to 
the fancy, is thrown over the institution to hide its deformity. 
The same distinctions are carried through all the various re- 
lations of life ; hence in case a widow is married to a wid- 
ower, three ceremonies are necessary, in order fully to estab- 
lish the eternal relations of all the parties. 

Incest is the practical result of some of the branches of 
this new-fangled system of sealing and marriage. It has 
already been shown, by the report of the Committee on 
Territories in the United States Senate, and the Message of 
Gov. Harding, that a mother and her daughters (by a former 
husband) all live together, as wives of the same husband.* 

* The marriage of brothers and sisters was at one time openly encour- 



171 BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVEL ATOR. 

A still more revolting relation is sometimes maintained. 
It is called " heirship," and is plainly enough sanctioned by 
Young, as follows : — 

" The text is, the right of heirship. I will, however, make an 
addition to the scripture, before I proceed further with my re- 
marks, and say, ' the right of heirship in the Priesthood.' " 

After asserting that the right of heirship belongs to the 
first-born son, he says : — 

" There are sisters in the church that have been bereaved of 
their husbands, who died full of faith in the Holy Gospel, and full 
of hope for a glorious resurrection to eternal hfe. One of them is 
visited by a High Priest, of whom she seeks information touching 
her situation, and that of her husband. At the same time the 
woman has a son, twenty-five years of age, who is an Elder in 
one of the Quorums of the Seventies, and faithful in all the duties 
connected with his calling. She has also other sons and daugh- 
ters. She asks this High-Priest w^hat she shall do for her husband, 
and he very religiously says to her, ' You must be sealed to me, 
and I will bring up your husband, stand as proxy for him, receive 
his endowments, and all the sealing, keys, and blessings, and Eter- 
nal Priesthood for him, and be the father of your children.' Hear 
it, ye mothers ! The mother that does that, barters away the 
sacred right of her son. Does she know it ? No. But you that 
will hear, and be made to understand the true principles that gov- 
ern this matter, go from this place, and do hereafter as has been 
done in by-gone days ; instead of the children being robbed of 
their just rights, the woman shall lose her children, and they shall 
yet stand in their place, and be put in possession of their rights. 
Let mothers honor their children. If a woman has a son, let her 
honor that son." * 

aged by President Brigham Young. George D. Watt, reporter for the Des- 
eret News, married his half-sister, and lived with her as a wife, for about 
twelve years. She passed as the wife of Young, for several years, owing 
to the presence of gentiles and the prejudices of the saints. She has since 
been convinced of her error, and joined the "new organization," and with 
her three children returned to the States. 
* April 8, 1853, Deseret News, Vol. III. No. 12. 



BRIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, A^D REVELATOR. 175 

But we will not pursue these disgusting details further. 
Capt. Robert Burton, the famous English traveller, thus 
epitomizes the Mormon faith : — 

" In the Tessarakai Decalogue above quoted, we find syncre- 
tized the Shemitic iSIonotheism, the Persian DuaHsm, and the Tri- 
ads and Trinities of the Egyptians and the Hindoos. The Hebrews 
also have a personal Theos ; the Buddhists, avataras and incarna- 
tions ; the Brahmins, self-apotheosis of man by prayer and pen- 
ance ; and the East generally holds to quietism, — a belief that re- 
pose is the only happiness, and to a vast comphcation of states, in 
the world to be. 

" The Mormons are like the Pythagoreans, in their procreation, 
transmigration, and exaltation of souls ; hke the followers of Leu- 
cippus and Democritus in their atomic materialism ; like the Epi- 
cureans in their pure atomic theories, their summuin bonum, and 
their sensuous speculations ; and like the Platonists and Gnos- 
tics in their belief of the iEon, of ideas, and of moving principles 
in element. They are Fetichists in their ghostly fancies, their 
evestra, which became souls and spirits. They are Jews in their 
theocracy, their ideas of angels, their hatred of gentiles, and their 
utter segregation from the gi'eat brotherhood of mankind. They 
are Christians, inasmuch as they base their faith upon the Bible, 
and hold to the divinity of Christ, the fall of man, the atonement, 
and the regeneration. They are Arians, inasmuch as they hold 
Christ to be ' the first of God's creatures,' a ' perfect creature, but 
still a creature.' 

" They are Moslems in their views of the inferior status of wo- 
mankind, in their polygamy, and in their resurrection of the mate- 
rial body. Like the followers of the Arabian Prophet, they hardly 
fear death, because they have elaborated ' continuation.' They 
take no leap in the dark ; they spring from this sublunary stage 
into a known, not into an unknown world ; hence also their wor- 
ship is eminently secular, their sermons are political or commercial, 
and — religion being with them not a thing apart, but a portion 
and parcel of every-day life — the intervention of the Lord in 
their material affairs becomes natural, and only to be expected. 

" Their visions, prophecies, and miracles are those of the Ulumi- 
nati ; their mysticism that of the Druses, and their belief in the 
Millennium is a completion of the dreams of the Apocalyptic sects. 



176 BKIGHAM AS PROPHET, SEER, AND REVELATOR. 

Masonry has evidently entered into their scheme ; the Demiurgus 
whom they worship is ' as good at mechanical inventions as at any 
other business.' 

" With their later theories, Methodism, Swedenborgianism, — 
especially in its view of the future state, — and Transcendental- 
ism are curiously intermingled. And, finally, we can easily dis- 
cern, in their doctrine of affinity of minds and sympathy of souls, 
the leaven of that faith which, beginning with the Mesmer, and 
progressing through the Rochester Rappers, and the Poughkeep- 
sie Seer, threatens to extend wherever the susceptible nervous 
temperament becomes the characteristic of the race." * 

According to this learned author, Mormonism is a con- 
glomeration of all the isms from Adam to the present 
time. 

The predominant characteristics of Mormonism are, the 
concentration of power in one individual, — the entire unity of 
church and state, — and the united efforts of the people and 
their leaders to establish and maintain a kingdom, spiritual 
and temporal, which shall spread over the whole earth, and 
result in the complete subjugation and subordination of all 
other kingdoms, principalities, and powers. 

The establishment of polygamy among such a people, was 
no difficult matter. It was but an easy step from materialism 
to sensualism. Here the passions and lusts harmonize with 
the love of power and dominion. 

The following toasts were given at a celebration on the 
24th of July,t 1856. Therein the Mormons speak for them- 
selves. 

" Mormonism. A plurality of worlds, a plurality of gods, and 
a plurality of wives, with all truth in all eternity." 

" President Brigham Young. With the keys of heaven and 
earth to open and shut, and all Israel to sanction." 

* City of the Saints, pp. 397, 398. 

t The 24th of July, 1847, was the day when the first Mormons arrived in 
Salt Lake Valley. The 24th of July is therefore celebrated by them as the 
4th is by gentiles. 



:gi^^^ll!if|| 




.J^^r-^^-Si I III WfflU\\M\\M\\\M\\il\\<lW^' 



CHAPTER X. 

BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

Brigham's Block. — The Lion House. —Th« Tithing-House.— The Bee- 
hive House. Office, etc. — Description of tlie Harem. — Plan, Rooms, 
etc., of each Floor, and who occupies the same. — Life at the Harem. — 
Brighani at Home. 

Brigham's Block consists of about twenty acres, situ- 
ated in the northern part of the city, and on the "first bench.'* 
These "benches? are level plateaus, or ridges running along 
at the base, and parallel with the mountain sides, and rising 
one above another, in regular succession. They are supposed 
to have been formed by the action of water, which doubtless 
at one time, covered the whole country, half way to the 
mountain tops. These benches overlook the city, which is 
mostly built on the flats, or bottom lands of the Jordan River. 
From Brigham's Bench the view is particularly beautiful, 
including the lake spread out in all its grandeur to the west- 
ward, with mountains rising in and beyond it, and mountains 
bounding the horizon in every other direction. 

The grounds are surrounded by a wall from eight to ten 
feet in height, built of pebble-stones, cemented with mortar, 
and strengthened and supported by semicircular buttresses, 
at equal distances. The main entrance faces south, and the 
gateway is sui-mounted by a huge eagle carved in stone, 
which sits in a very uncomfortable position, and looks as 
though desirous of soaring to his native hills, or of making a 
descent upon some of the denizens of earth. His business is 
to watch and see who enters this sacred precinct, and to see 
that every third load of wood brought from City Creek (or 
12 



/, 



178 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

Brigham's) Canyon, which leads into this enclo-ure from the 
north, is deposited at the Prophet's door. The only entrance 
into this canyon is through this gate, and the canyon itself 
contains the only wood within fifteen miles of the city. The 
gold also, which it is well understood lies embedded in City 
Creek Canyon, is thus pretty well guarded. 

The grounds are regularly laid out by William C. Staines, 
one of Brigham's adopted sons. The Prophet himself is 
very fond of fruit, and has carried its culture to a considera- 
ble degree of perfection. Large numbers of apple, pear, 
peach, and apricot trees, have been set out, and are producing 
every year. Grape culture also has not been neglected. It 
is a custom here to present the President with a specimen 
of every new variety of fruit and vegetable raised, and he 
receives very graciously anything presented, from a barrel- 
of brandy to an umbrella, and is sure to think more of the 
donor, ever afterward. 

Everything bears the mark of utility, and nothing is ex- 
pended for show, or merely to gratify taste. No expensive 
flower-garden or green-house is to be seen, and this is per- 
fectly characteristic of the Prophet, who is thoroughly utili- 
tarian in all his views and tendencies. 

On the southwest corner, and fronting the temple block, 
stands the tithing-store and office, and the Deseret printing- 
office. A description of the tithing-office and store, with its 
concomitant system, is given elsewhere. Back of the tithing- 
office, is a cattle-yard and barn, and numerous other build- 
ings connected with tithing operations. Also a long row of 
buildings for various mechanical purposes : a carpenter's 
shop, shoe-shop, etc., with a blacksmith's shop in the rear. A 
number of small tenements are scattered over the premises, 
in which some of the employees reside. 

The next large building, east of the Deseret store and 
printing-office, is the " Lion House," or Harem. 

Further to the east, and connected with the- Harem by a 
covered passage-way, is Brigham's general business office. 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HARE3I. 179 

This is a large room, with three desks on either side ; those 
to tlie left on entering, being appropriated to the cleiks of 
" Brigliam Young, Trustee in Trust for the Church," and 
those to the right, used by the clerks of " B. Young & Co." 
At the end opposite the door is a large platform railed off, 
and a gallery runs round the upper wall. The bookcases 
are of the yellow box elder-wood, highly polished. A busi- 
ness-like air pervades the room, and all is neat and clean. 

Still further east and connected by another passage-way, is 
the private office of the '' President." This is a plain, neat 
room, about twenty-five feet square. A large writing-desk 
and money-safe, tables, sofas, and chairs, and , a " store " 
carpet, make up the furniture of the room. Back of, and 
adjoining this, is the sanctum sanctorum ; the Prophet's own 
private bedroom. Few, even of the family, are permitted 
to enter this room without special invitation. Here is the 
" veil," behind which the Prophet receives his " revelations." 
Here he consults on his most private and important matters. 
He usually occupies this room alone, and when he desires 
the company of one of his wives, sends a message to that 
effect. AVhen he is sick, he designates one of them to attend 
upon him. 

The next building to the eastward is the Bee-Hive House, 
so named from models of bee-hives, on the top and in front 
of it. The honey-bee is the IMormon symbol, as according to 
" Reformed Egyptian," Deseret means " the honey-bee." As 
yet, however, the term applies only by faith, to Utah, as that 
industrious insect is almost an utter stranger to her borders. 

The Bee-Hive House is a large, handsome adobe building, 
excellently plastered on the outside, and dazzlingly white. 
It is a two-storied tenement, and balconied from ground to 
roof. On the top is an observatory, surmounted by a bee- 
hive. Its cost was about $65,000, and it is the best edifice 
in the Territory. 

Eastward still, and farther back from the road, stands the 
school-house, a white building, with green blinds, and a cu- 



180 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

pola. Here the children of the Prophet, about fifty in num- 
ber, are educated. Though not an educated man himself, 
nor a patron of learning, among the people he employs good 
teachers, and takes considerable pains in the education of his 
children. 

Farther to the right, upon an eminence, stands the " White 
House," occupied by Mrs. Young, the first wife, and her 
children. This is a very lonesome-looking old house, just 
such a one as you might foncy to be haunted. It was the 
first one built by Young, and glass being then very expen- 
sive, the windows are few and small. 

These, with other smaller buildings, make up the improve- 
ments on the Prophet's Block, and constitute a small town 
of themselves. 

The Harem. 

The " Lion House " is a three-storied building. First, a 
basement, built of stone ; then the main building, of wood, 
with peaked gable, and narrow-pointed Gothic windows, and 
steep roof. This house cost over $30,000, and would have 
cost more, but for the economy of the owner. It was com- 
pleted, ready for the shingles, and the shingles were waiting. 
At a meeting in the Tabernacle on Sunday, he announced 
that he had a mission for all the carpenters, and asked if 
they would accept it. They raised their hands, and were 
then coolly told to " shingle the Lion House in the name of 
the Lord, and by the authority of the Holy Priesthood." A 
large lion, carved in stone, is placed upon a pillared portico, 
in front of this edifice, " resting, but watchful." 

The following is the inside plan of the Lion House : — 
Principal Story. — No. L Parlor. You enter the parlor 
from the left, and find a long, narrow room, with a large 
window in front, and four on the side, all heavily curtained. 
A beautiful Brussels carpet — design, a large bouquet of flow- 
ers, a rose, surrounded with other flowers and leaves, with a 
light ground — covers the floor. Two centre-tables, of solid 



PLA>sS OF THE LION HOUSE. 



BASEMENT STOKY 
East. 



Coach- _ . 
Pantrv. man-B WeaTjng 
v„ i< Room. 



General Cellar. No. 14. 



! iiniii II 



Main Uall. No. 
Bajemeut. 



Kitchen. 
No. *>. 



Ill Ill^' 



Dining R<hiu, No. "^4. 



" Li o 



92 feet. 

West. 



PHlXrirAL STORY 
Ejist. 



Fanny's 
Room. 



EmilT 

Partridge. 

No. 9. 



Loot 
Bi^eloir. 
.No. 7. 



1)77 »»" 



Main Hall. No 



r Jitair.- 



Clara Chase. 
No. 4. 



— I Emelinc's i 



Cobb. 
No. i. 



Parlor. No. 



^_lj^ 



UPPER STORY. 

East. 



Hired 

Help. 

1 No. 


Mar^-aret 
Pierce. 
No. 37. 


No. 30. 


EUza 
Snow. 
No. 36, 


Mrs. 

Weston. 
No. 34. 


Harriet 
Cook. 
No. :B. 


Mra. 

Hampton. 

No. -.a. 


HaU 
leading 
to Porti- 

No. 31. 


No. .*>. 


Ti»i».-. 
No. 2!). 












I.iii. Uall. 


N... 4!J. 










Upper 1 
Portico. 1 




J— -1 







1 




^ 


' 1 


Susan 
Bnivelv. 


EUeu 

Rockwoo<l. 

No. 47. 

^ J- 


No. 4.;. 


Spare 
1 No. 4.-.. 


Martha 
Bowker. 

|No.44. 


I'^i 


Charlotte 
Cobb. 


1 Harriet 
ieeley. 
No. 41. 


Kliia 
Burgee,-. 
No. 4<i. 


Harriet 
Harney. 
No. 39. 





West. 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 181 

mahogany, are placed at equal distances from the ends of the 
room. An elegant rose- wood piano sits at the lower end of 
the room. Between the windows hangs a large miiTor, under 
which is a melodeon. A large sofa, upholstered with dark 
crimson velvet, occupies the opposite side, and near this is a 
bureau, with silver candlesticks and other ornaments. The 
chairs are painted to represent mahogany, and gilded. The 
room is painted and gilded in the same manner. A large 
stove in the corner, near the door, completes the furniture of 
the drawing-room of the Harem. 

The family meet in this room, every morning and evening, 
at the ringing of the bell, to attend family prayers. The 
favorite wives, Emeline, Lucy, and Clara Decker, receive 
their com{)any in the parlor, while the less favored ones en- 
tertain theirs in their rooms. 

There are said to be underground passages from Brigham's 
houses to Kimball's on the north, and Wells's on the south. 
Also apartments under the Lion House, where he secretes 
his wealth and punishes his refractory wives. I cannot vouch 
for the truth of this assertion, but give it as a rumor. I am 
credibly informed, however, that all the carpenters and ma- 
sons who worked on the lower story of this building have 
disappeared. 

The three favorite wives before named, receive and en- 
tertain the friends of the Prophet, who visit at the Lion 
House. He very seldom introduces here any outside the 
church. Gentile visitors are usually entertained at the Bee- 
Hive. 

No. 2 is Emeline's room, just back of the drawing-room. 
She formerly occupied No. 4, but was removed to No. 2, 
because Brigham, in going to her room, was obliged to pass 
several other rooms, thus creating remark and jealousy 
among the other women. He therefore had a hall, No. 8, 
prepared, leading from his office to No. 2, to which room he 
removed his favorite wife. Here he formerly spent much of 
his time. She dressed his artificial curls, petted and caressed 



182 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

him, and woi^shipped liim alternately as her God. The fur- 
niture in Emeline's room consists of a three-ply carpet, mostly 
red, a high post bedstead, with white and red curtains, sofo, 
table, chairs painted to resemble oak, a large square mirror, 
oil-shades, wardrobe, and fireplace. 

No. 3. Mrs. Cobb formerly occupied this room, but now 
resides in a neat cottage outside the walls. A three-ply car- 
pet, red and yellow, common bedstead, standing in a recess, 
fall-leaf table, chairs painted oak, oil-shades with white cur- 
tains, a small mirror, also a small closet and a fireplace, con- 
stitute the furniture of this room. This was the houie of a 
w^oman who had li\ed in a comfortable and commodious 
house in Boston, as its mistress and head, with a large and 
interesting family around her. All this she left for the ridic- 
ulous delusion called Mormonism. To what extremes will 
not religious fanaticism and mistaken zeal lead its devotees ! 

No. 4 is a large, pleasant rpom, with bedroom attached. 
This was occupied by Clara Chase and her children, before 
her death. She was once a favorite with Brigham, which 
will account for her superior accommodations. This room is 
furnished as follows : a carpet similar to Emeline's, common 
bedstead placed in a recess, common table, nice large gilt 
mirror, red and white curtains, wardrobe, and fireplace. 

No. 5. This room, opposite the parlor, belongs to Lucy 
Decker, the first wife in plurality, and is rather plainly fur- 
nished. Rag-carpet, common bedstead, stand, mirror, oak 
chairs, wardrobe, small cupboard and a fireplace, curtains of 
the prevailing colors i-ed and white. A sitting-room and two 
bedrooms are allowed Mrs. Lucy Decker, as she has a num- 
ber of children. 

No. 6. In Clara Decker's room stands a beautifully carved 
bedstead, arched overhead with heavy damask curtains, 
chairs like parlor, stand, settee, Venetian blinds, and oil- 
shades. Brigham's portrait in oil, half size, hangs on the 
wall, also a large mirror. A rag-carpet covers the floor. A 
bedroom and recess are attached to this room, and from its 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 183 

superior furniture it is easy to infer that its occupant is a 
woman fond of show, as well as a favorite with the Prophet. 

No. 7. Lucy Bigelow's room contains a common bedstead, 
three chairs, a stand, wardrobe, carpet, mirror, and white 
curtain-. 

No. 8. Hall leading to Emeline's room. 

No. 9. Emily Partridge, one of the '"proxies," occupies 
this room. A common carpet, calico curtains, a fall-leaf 
table, bedstead, and the usual quota of chairs, make up the 
furniture of this woman's home. 

Formerly a tin pail and tin wash-dish constituted the toilet 
set of most of the wives, but since the Prophet has had so 
many fat government contracts, and his [)urse has become 
plethoric with public money, and from the continued inflow 
of tithing, he has indulged his '" women folks " with crockery 
ware. As Uncle Sam is rich, and a good easy-going soul, 
why should he not furnish "Harems" for his "loyal and law- 
abiding citizens ?" 

No. 10 is Aunt Fanny Murray's room. Her furniture 
consists of a red and yellow carpet, home-made bedsteads, 
oak chairs, a fall-leaf table, and oil-shades. A sitting-room 
and a small bedroom belong to Aunt Fanny. But you ask,. 
Who is Aunt Fanny ? She was in her young days, Fanny 
Young, and had a great awkward brother, called Brigham. 
She married a Mr. Murray, to whom she was devotedly 
attached. She was a gentle, kind creature ; and when her 
husband died, she became dependent on her brother. She 
had long been a believer in Mormonism, and was with the 
Mormons at Nauvoo. After the death of her husband, she 
was, by the earnest persuasion of her brother Brigham, in- 
duced to be sealed to another. She protested at the time, 
and said it would break her heart. And in relating the story 
to a young friend, years afterward, — " Bessie," said she,. 
" my poor, poor heart is breaking now ; " and laying her 
hand on her heart, she wept aloud. Aunt Fanny has gone 
to her rest. She has suffered want and privation, mental 



184 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

anguish and bodily pain, for her religion. Who shall say- 
that her dear heavenly Father, Avhom she so blindly wor- 
shipped, will not reward her with a crown of glory in His 
king<lom above, when she shall rejoin the partner of her 
youth, free from the shackles of tyranny and superstition ? 

No3. 11 and 12 are staircases. 

No. 13. Main Hall, extending the whole length of the 
building ; it is lighted from a large window at the further end. 

This completes the principal story of the Lion House. 

The Basement Story. — No. 14. General cellar, where aU 
kinds of vegetables and provisions are stored. 

No. 15. Ash-house. 

No. 16. Weaving-room. The wives spin, color, and pre- 
pare the yarn, and a man is kept employed in weaving. A 
large quantity of cloth is made at the Harem every year. 
Brio-ham's motto is, " No drones in the hive." 

No. 17 is the coachman's room. 

No. 18. Pantry. Milk, pies, cake, bread, and cooked pro- 
visions, are kept in this place. 

No. 19. Back Hall. 

No. 20 was formerly occupied as a school-room and dan- 
cing academy for the Youngs. 

No. 21. Wash-room. 

No. 22. Kitchen. 

No. 23. Dish-room. 

No. 24. The Dining-room is about fifteen by forty feet. 
Two tables extend its whole length, allowing only a passage- 
way at each end. A third table extends two thirds of the 
length of the room. Also a side-table, and chairs of different 
sizes, to accommodate the various ages of the family group. 

Each wife has her seat at the table, and her children sit 
with her. The wives who have children are seated at the 
heads of the tables in the order in which they came into the 
family, — they taking the preference over those who have 
no children. This is the case in every well-regulated Mor- 
mon family. Among Mormons, the title of mother includes 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 185^ 

that of queen, and is consequently the highest distinction a 
woman can attain. If a w oman has no children, she is m is- 

eraklp, nnil lie.r.pQ:dtiX)a in society n vpry |^np|Ha^flnf. onft^ She 

can only redeem herself by urging her husband to take more 
wives. Many women do this, and afterward labor incessantly 
for the new mistresses and their children. 

Lucy Decker, the first " plurality " woman, presides at 
one of the long tables. At the head of the short table, Brig- 
ham always presides, when he takes his meals at the Harem. 
On his right sits Clara Decker, with her children, and on the 
left, Emeline, with hers. This order is strictly observed. 
This preference causes much unhappiness on the part of 
other wives less favored. 

No. '2b. Main Hall. 

Nos. 26 and 27 are staircases. 

No. 28. Small side Hall. 

Third Story. — This floor is divided in the centre by a 
wide hall, and ranged on either side arc ten small rooms, of 
nearly uniform size, with one door and window each. These 
rooms are about twelve by fifteen feet, and are occupied 
principally by those of " the women " who have no children. 
The windows are of the Gothic style. 

No. 29 is occupied by " Twiss," and has a carpet, common 
bedstead, three oak chairs, a little toilet-stand, small mirror, 
and plain white curtains. 

All these rooms are similarly furnished. All are neat and 
clean. Harriet Cook, Ellen Rockwood, and Twiss, display 
more taste than the others in the arrangement of their little 
cages. 

In addition to these articles, Harriet Cook has mahogany 
chairs, instead of oak, and a large cupboard, painted to rep- 
resent mahogany. All the rooms are furnished with stoves, 
except three, which have fireplaces. 

No books, except the Book of Mormon, Book of Doctrine 
and Covenants, and Mormon Hymn-Book, will be seen in 
any room except Eliza Snow's ; she being a woman of con- 



'186 BPJGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAKEM. 

siderable literary taste, and withal a writer, — having made 
a number of contributions to Mormon literature, — her room 
is indicative of the same, being well supplied with books and 
papers. 

What the Women do. 

The interaal arrangement of affairs at the Harem is very- 
similar to that of a young ladies' boarding-school. Each 
woman having her o\Yn room, her affairs are all centred 
there. The culinary department is under the control of such 
of the wives as Brigham from time to time ai)points. She 
is the stewardess, and carries the keys. A cook is employed, 
— generally a man, — and several servants besides, who are 
all under the control of the stewardess. 

When the meals are prepared and ready, the bell rings, 
and each woman, with her children, if she have any, files 
down to the dinner-table, and is seated as before stated. 

Each, on rising, has her children to attend to, and get 
ready for breakfast ; this over, she commences the business 
of the day, arranges her rooms, and sits down to her sewing 
or other work, as the case may be. 

A sewing-machine is brought into requisition, and one of 
the number api)ointed to use it. For the benefit of those 
who w'ant a sewing-machine, it may be well to state how 
this one was procured. One day a man from St. Louis 
came to offer one for sale, stating that his price was ninety 
dollars. Brigham bought it, promising to pay the man when- 
ever he should call. The man being poor, called in a few 
days. He did not get his pay. He called again, a number 
of times, with the same result. One of the wives became 
quite indignant, and said, — "If I was in his place, I never 
would ask it from one so high in the priesthood. He had 
better give it to him than to ask pay of him." The poor 
man never received his money, and as soon as he could get 
the means, left the Territory. This is the manner in which 
the Prophet becomes possessed of much of his property. 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HARE:\I. 187 

Most of the women spin and make thein every -day cloth-^ 
ing, doine: their own coloring. They are quite proud of the \ 
quimtity of cloth manufactured in their establishment every \ 
year. All work hard, and take but very little out-of-door \ 
exercise. Parties and the theatre are the favorite amuse- ^ 
ments. At the theatre, Brigham and one or two of the fa- \ 
vored wives sit together in " the King's box," but the remain- 
der of the women and the children sit in what is called '' Brii^- 
ham's corral."' This is in the parquette, about the centre of / 
the area. The Prophet goes down once or twice during the / 
evening to the corral, and chats for a few moments with one 
and another, but in a short time he can be seen beside his 
" dear Amelia " again. 

At the Mormon parties, much gayety prevails. Appear- 
ances are maintained, somewhat, by paying more respectful 
deference to the first wives, on such occasions. Gentiles, 
with whom the saints are on good terms, are well received 
and kindly entertained at these parties, and all join in giving 
themselves up to the influences of mirth and festivity. Danc- 
ing is not only a favorite amusement, it is more ; it is culti- 
vated to such an extent that it becomes a passion. 

Brigham's women, though better clothed than formerly, 
still work very hard. They are infatuated with their relig- 
ion, and devoted to their husband. If they cannot obtain 
his love, they content themselves with his kindness, and 
endeavor to think themselves happy. As religion is their 
only solace, they try to make it their only object. If it doe\^ 
not elevate their minds, it deadens their susceptibilities, and \ 
as they are not permitted to be women, they try to convinc^--^ 
themselves that it is God's will they should be slaves. 

A music-master, a dancing-master, and a teacher of the \ 
ordinary branches of an English education, are employed in \ 
the family school. Also a teacher of French. His children^^ 
have much better advantages than any other in the Territory. 
Dancing and music are the leading accomplishments, and 
everything else is made subordinate to these. 



188 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

Brigham at Home. 

Much interest naturally attaches to the inner life of 3uch a 
man as Brigham Young. His time is much occupied. He 
rises early, calls the whole family together ; they sing a 
hymn ; he prays fervently, and they separate for the duties 
of the day. In past times, he ate at the Harem. His fare 
is very simple, usually consisting of a bowl of milk, covered 
with cream, and dry toast or bread. 

His next duty used to be, to " see the women folks," to 
whom he was friendly and kind, but no more. He is not 
Brigham the husband, but Brigham the Prophet and Seer. 
The women fear and reverence him as their God, watch his 
countenance as he gives them counsel, and look upon every 
word he utters as the " key " to some great mystery. He 
pays much less attention to them now than formerly, but is 
kind and considerate in his conduct toward tliem. 

This duty done, he next proceeds to his office, to receive 
his visitors, and to transact any business that may be there 
awaiting his attention. His counsel is sought upon all sub- 
jects, even in the minutest domestic affairs of the people. 
So numerous are these applications for advice and assistance, 
that many are turned away with a very brief answer, while 
some are denied access entirely. 

Theoretically, no one but he can " seal " or give plural 
wives in marriage, and such at first was the practice. But 
in later years, this power has been delegated to Kimball and 
others, and to the Bishops of distant wards. The divorces 
of such can only come from him ; and from this source alone 
he derives a handsome revenue. He once said from the pul- 
pit to the people, that " the divorce money which he received 
through their d — d fooleiy, furnished him with plenty of 
spending money." 

No speculations are entered upon, no enterprises begun, 
without consulting " Brother Brigham." This he encourages 
and commands. " If you do not know what to do, in order 



BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAROI. 189 

to do right, come to me at any time, and I will give you the \ 
word of the Lord on the subject." y 

This mode of directing the people, though laborious and 
perplexing, has its advantages. Their secret thoughts and 
plans are thus laid open to his view, and facts are sometimes 
brought to his knowledge very important and essential to be 
known, having a direct bearing upon the permanent mainte- 
nance of his rule and authority. The people, too, by such 
frequent consultations, are led to believe that their prosper- 
ity, happiness, and safety, are all dependent upon the favor 
and assistance of their leader. If any one becomes contu- 
macious and troublesome, he has the earliest information of 
the fjict, and soon devises means to be rid of the annoyance. 

It is a common expression among the people at Salt Lake, 
'• When I obey counsel, I am prospered in everything ; when 
I neglect it, I prosper in nothing." 

Years ago, Brigham was kind and fatlierly toward his 
followers. If he met one of them in the street, he gave him 
a cordial greeting and a hearty shake of the hand, with an 
inquiry concerning his family and prospects. But of late, 
the Prophet, having become rich, has grown haughty and 
proud, and as lie rides along in his fine carriage, surrounded 
by his courtiers and sycophants, the toiling, hard-handed 
brethren, who receive no friendly recognition, sometimes 
shake their heads and mutter sentiments strangely discord- 
ant with those generally exprCvSsed in conversation. 

The feeling of dissatisfaction at the distance placed by the 
Prophet between himself and his followers, has grown, as 
that distance became more perceptible, until it has become 
quite universal among the poorer classes. The poverty- 
stricken saint, as he takes home upon his back or his wheel- 
barrow a sack of flour, or piece of meat, obtained with diffi- 
culty by his daily toil, beholds his Prophet, his spiritual 
guide, clothed in fine raiment, seated in a splendid carriage, 
by his side a courtesan, a so-called wife. He sees the smile 
and kind word, which should be given to his suffering and 



190 BRIGHAM AS LORD OF THE HAREM. 

down-trodden people, lavished upon a harlot. He turns in' 
disgust, and with a weary and troubled spirit, seeks tempo- 
rary rest in his own liumble home. Here kind poverty has 
protected him from the vices of his leaders, and he thanks 
God inwardly, after all, that he has not yet abandoned the 
wife of his youth. To such, the new preachers sent by the 
" Josephites," to bring the people back to virtue, to loyalty, 
and to the original Mormon reb'gion, appear as angels from 
heaven, and hence the ready assent given to their teachings, 
and the rapid defection from the estabhshed church. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

Marv Ann Angell Young, the first wife. — Her Familj'. — Lucy Decker 
Seely, the first wife in Phirality. — More of " My Women " : Clara 
Decker, Harriet Cook, Lucy Bigelow, Twiss, Martha Bowker, Harriet 
Barney, Kliza Burgess, Ellen Rockwood, Susan Snively, Jemima An- 
gell, :\Iargaret Alley, Margaret Pierce, Mrs. Hampton, Mary Bigclo-vv, 
Emeline Free, or the Light of the Harem. — Proxy Women: Miss Eliza 
Eoxy Snow, Zina D. Huntington, Amelia Partridge, Mrs. Cobb, Mrs. 
Smith, Clara Chase, the Maniac. — Amelia, the last love. — The Prophet 
in Love the Thirtieth Time. 

Mrs. Mary Ann Angell Toung. 

This lady is the first living and legal wife of the Prophet. 
She is a native of New York, and is a fine-looking, intelligent 
woman. She is large, portly, and dignified. Her hair is 
well sprinkled with the frosts of age ; her clear, hazel eyes 
and melancholy countenance indicate a soul where sorrow 
reigns supreme. ' She has been very much attached to her 
husband, and his infidelity has made deep inroads upon her 
mind. Her deep-seated melancholy often produces flights of 
insanity, which increase with her declining years. 

Bereft of her husband's society, she naturally clings to her 
children, of whom she has five : Joseph, Brighara A., John, 
Alice, and Luna. They all reside with her. She formerly 
occupied " the Bee-Hive House," but as the number of her 
husband's wives increased, it became necessary that additional 
accommodations should be furnished the " plural " portion of 
the family. The first wife was obliged to vacate her resi- 
dence for the benefit of new comers. She was removed to 
a great barn-like house on the hill. This building looks more 



102 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUXG. 

like a penitentiary than anything else. It was the first house 
built upon the premises, and, as before stated, is very deficient 
in the number and size of its windows. 

Mrs. Young seldom receives guests, and her husband him- 
self scarcely ever pays her a visit. 

When I looked upon this poor, suffering woman, as she 
sat at church, surrounded by her husband's mistresses, I 
seemed for the first time fully to realize the true character 
of that " institution " which has crushed the hearts of many 
noble women. 

She is very kind to her children and dependents, and is 
much beloved by them. She has not succeeded so well in 
gaining the affection of " the wives." With them she is very 
unpopular, and by some of them she is often mocked and up- 
braided. It is said, "one hates whom he has injured." Tiiis 
may account for much of this feeling among the " plurals." 

Joseph, or " Joe Young," as he is familiarly known in 
Utah, is a fast young man. He has been on a " mission," 
travelled in Europe, smokes, chews, gets drunk, swears, 
preaches the gospel, has three wives whom he whips and 
otherwise shamefully abuses, and is a good Mormon, in full 
fellowship in the church. While at a fashionable watering- 
place, at Great Salt Lake, in the summer of 18G3, he insulted 
a gentile lady. The gentleman who accompanied her, being 
an officer, promptly knocked him down, and this not seeming 
to be satisfactory, afterwards challenged him. Joseph's friends 
interfered, and obtained a settlement of the difficulty. 

Brighara A. is more respectable. He has also been on a 
" mission." This is equivalent to saying that he has been 
wild and reckless, as it is the Mormon custom to send all 
who are unruly and hard to manage, or w4io have committed 
crimes, on a mission. It is thought that by " bearing the 
pure vessels of the Lord " to such poor wicked wretches as 
the gentiles, they will perchance themselves become purified. 

John, being the youngest, has not developed his tastes so 
fully. He seems inclined to seek after the loaves and fishes 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 193 

of office. He was Sergeant-at-Arms of the Council in the 
winter of 1863-64, and will doubtless be one of its members 
when he is old enough, should his father then reign in Utah. 

Mrs. Alice Clawson is the oldest daughter. Rather amia- 
ble, with fair hair, blue eyes, and of petite stature. She is 
one of the performers in her father's theatre. As an artiste 
she is " flat, stale, and unprofitable." But being Brigham's 
daughter, and good looking, she is applaudf^d to the echo. 
She is one of three wives of Hiram B. Clawson, who is the 
Prophet's chief business agent and manager. Quick, shrewd, 
and unscrupulous, he is a fit instrument with which to accom- 
plish the purposes of such a man. 

In the year 1851, a Mr. Tobin came to Salt Lake with 
Capt. Stansbury. While there, he. met Miss Alice, fell in 
love with her, and they were engaged to be married. Mr. 
T. had occasion to leave Salt Lake on business, and did not 
return until 1856. He then renewed liis engagement with 
Alice, but afterward, for reasons satisfactory to himself, broke 
it. This subjected him to the vengeance of her father, which 
never slumbers. Tobin and his party were followed, attacked 
in the night, on Santa Clara River, 370 miles south of Salt 
Lake City. Several of the party were severely wounded. 
They lost six horses, and were compelled to abandon their 
baggage, which was completely riddled by bullets. During 
Tobin's absence, Alice had been engaged to another, who 
had been sent off to the Sandwich Islands, by her watchful 
father. Hiram B. Clawson, the confidential clerk of the 
President, next appeared as a candidate for the young lady's 
hand. He had already one wife, but was anxious to secure 
a second. 

A little incident in their courtship, will illustrate the man- 
ner of obtaining No. 2. 

" Good-morning, sister Clawson,^* said a young friend 
whom she met in walking. 

" What do you wish me to understand ? " said Alice. 

" Nothiig more than that your father gave his consent 
13 



194 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

this morning, in my presence, to your marriage with Hiram 
Clawson." 

" There, Alice," said brother Clawson, who at this moment 
made his appearance, " did I not tell you ? You would not 
believe me." 

" This matter begins to be serious," said Alice, " now that 
my father has given me away to a man that has one wife 
already, and is courting another beside me, both of them 
much handsomer than I am." 

Hiram was nettled, for it was true that he was courting a 
third wife, and of the three Alice was the least beautiful. 
She then proposed, playfully, to elope with an old gentleman, 
a friend of the family. " I would do so," she said, " before I 
would be given away like an old mule, to a man who already 
has one wife, and is seeking for others." 

Yet Alice, though doubtless giving expression at this time 
to the sentiments of her heart, was afterward prevailed upon, 
and consented to become No. 2 in the harem of Hiram B. 
Clawson. Hiram, having commenced at a much earlier age 
than his father-in-law, may, if unchecked in his career, yet 
rival him in the number of his wives and the extent and 
magnificence of his " plural " estabhshment. 

Luna Young is a character. She is very wilful and head- 
strong. She always governed her sister Alice, and even her 
father could not control this wayward child. 

She is the fourth daughter, by the first wife, two having 
died. She has light hair, blue eyes, and a fair complexion. 
She is very haughty and beautiful. Slender as the gazelle, 
and ^YQQ and joyous as a bird, brooking no control, she was 
the light, and often the annoyance of her father's house in 
her girlish days. She is now married, and very likely will 
become amiable and docile, under Mormon discipline. 

Lucy Decker Seely. 

This is the first wife in "plurality," — or ihe second 
" woman." 



J 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUXG. 195 

Lucy Decker was married to Isaac Seely, and bad two 
children. She afterward became a Mormon, and went to 
Nauvoo to reside. Her hniband, Seely, was somewhat dis- 
sipated, but treated her well. She, however, saw Brother 
Brigham, and loved h'm. He visited her, told her that 
Seely could never give her an " exaltation " in the eternal 
world ; that he, being " high in the priesthood," could ma^e 
her a queen, in the first resurrection. 

She yielded to these inducements and the promptings of 
her inclination, left her husband, and was " sealed " to Brig- 
ham Young. 

Lucy Decker has brown hair, dark eyes, small features, a 
fair skin, and of short stature ; but quite en bon j)oint. She 
would strongly remind you of a New-England housewife, 
*' fat, fair, and forty." In common with nearly all the inmates 
of the Harem, she is of very ordinary intellect, and limited 
education. 

Her first child, after marrying Young, was named Brig- 
ham Heber, and was the first-born in Mormon polygamy. 
He is now a lad of about eighteen years of age. 

Lucy Decker is still one of the favorite wives. She lives 
in the " Bee-Hive," and keeps a sort of boarding-house for 
the work-hands. She has had eight children by Brigham, 
all of whom are living. A story is told which illustrates 
well the disposition and character of these polygamous chil- 
dren. " Brigham Heber " was in the habit of playing while 
the family were at breakfast. One morning, after breakfast 
was over, this boy, then only ten or twelve years of age, 
went into the kitchen, and undertook to help himself to any- 
thing he could find. Mr. Smith, the cook, would not permit 
it. Brigham Heber seized a fork, and with oaths that would 
put a pirate to shame, swore he would stab the cook. Smith 
caught him, wrenched the fork from his hand, and pushed 
him into the hall. He and Oscar, son of Harriet Cook, 
swore they would kill Smith the first time they should catch 
him out. 



196 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

More of " My Women" 

Clara Decker, sister of Lucy Decker, is a short, tliick-set 
person, very much like Lucy in u'^pearance. She is much 
more intelligent and agreeable than her sister, and in every 
way her superior. 

She is also quite a favorite with the Prophet; has three or 
four children, and is much attached to her " husband." 

Harriet Cook was early in plurality ; having been sealed 
to Brigham, at " Winter Quarters," on the Missouri River, 
while the Mormons were on their way to Utah. This was 
five years before polygamy was publicly proclaimed in Utah 
as a divine institution. Harriet is very tall, has light hair, 
blue eyes, a fair complexion, and sharp nose. She is rather 
slender, but has much power of endurance, and a look of de- 
termination. 

When all is going on smoothly, she is as calm and serene 
as a ]May morning ; but let Brigham or any one else in the 
establishment cross her path, and the blue eyes at once light 
up, and give evidence of a coming storm. When irritated 
and aroused, she denounces the whole Mormon religion, in- 
cluding polygamy, and says, " the whole thing is a humbug, 
and may go to the devil for aught she cares." Brigham, 
though a stern disciplinarian, makes good his escape, at 
such times, and the " women " all keep at a respectful dis- 
tance. 

When she is in a religious mood, which is seldom the 
case, she says : " I don't profess to know much, but there is 
one thing I do understand, and that is Mormonisni. When- 
ever Brother Brigham (all the wives call him Brother) goes 
behind the veil, I make him tell me what he sees and hears 
there. I mean to know all about it." She is the " smartest " 
of all the women. She has one son in plurality, named 
Oscar. He is a wild, ugly boy, and curses his mother ad 
libitum. Brigham cares nothing for this woman, and avoids 
her as much as possible. 



THE Wm:S OF BRIGHA^I YOUNG. 197 

Lucy Bigelow is of middKng stature, has dark brown hair, 
blue eyes, aquiline nose, and a pretty mouth, and is very 
pleasant and affable. She is very pretty and ladylike in the 
ball-room, but does not appear to so good advantage in the 
nursery and kitchen. She is the one who was the subject 
of a well-turned repartee at the anniversary ball in Salt 
Lake City, on the 24th of July, 1863. Governor Harding, 
on that occa-ion, having danced with several of the waves of 
"Governor" Young, became somewhat enthusiastic and ex- 
travagant in his compliments. Among other fine sayings, he 
remarked to one of the wives, upon leading her on to the 
floor, — " The President has introduced several of his wives 
to me as ' Mrs. Young,' ' Mrs. Young,' ' Mrs. Young.' As well 
might the astronomer point me to the stars of heaven, with- 
out giving me their names." " Governor, I understand 
your comi)liment, and appreciate it. The name of this par- 
ticular star is Lucy." 

She has but little influence over Brigham, and he seldom 
visits her. 

Twiss has sandy hair, inclined to curl, round features, 
blue eyes, low forehead, complexion fair, face somewhat 
freckled. She is short and stout. This woman makes a 
good servant, and is always ready to wait on her lord and 
master. She prepares his linen, and is content. She has no 
children. 

Martha Bowher is low" in stature, with black hair and eyes. 
She is very quiet. Is plain and sensible ; neither showy nor 
interesting. Very neat in dress, very ordinary in intellect 
and acquirements. She is of few words, and rather quick- 
tempered. Very little influence over the Prophet. 

Harriet Barney. — This lady is tall, slender, and graceful. 
She has hazel eyes, light-brown hair, mild, sweet expression 
of countenance, and is indeed a beautiful woman. Her char- 
acter is as lovely as her face, and the suffering and sorrowing 
always find a friend in her. She is patient and forbearing, 
and would rather suffer wrong than do wrong. Her kind 



198 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

and sympathetic nature, and excellent character, place her 
far above all the other inmates of the Harem. 

Believing in polygamy, she left her husband, and became 
one of the plural wives of the President of the church in 
which she beheved. She loves, with all the intensity of her 
nature, him for whom she has sacrificed everything. Of 
course, she deeply feels his neglect, but, like a true woman, 
complains not. Having sacrificed her happiness upon the altar 
of her faith, she continues to love, to endure, and to suffer. 

She had three children by her first husband ; none since. 

Eliza Bui^gess. — Her parents resided in Manchester, 
England, and came to Nauvoo in the early days of Mormon- 
ism. Soon after, they both died, leaving P21iza an orphan. 
She was thrown upon the cold charities of the world, and 
Brother Brigham, ever the friend of youth and heaiity, took 
her into his family. She served seven years, and then de- 
sired to marry another. She applied to Young for his con- 
sent, but the Prophet had other projects inconsistent in their 
nature with the proposed marriage. " Eliza," he said, " you 
have been so long in the family, that I need you. I wish to 
marry you myself. Will you not be my wife ? Brother S. 
is a very good man, but I can give you a greater exaltation. 
I can make you a queen." This argument was conclusive, 
and Eliza gave up her lover, and married Brigham Young. 

In person Eliza is small, with large dark eyes, dark hair, 
and dark complexion. She is quick-tempered, and is of the 
class — English serving-girl. She is the only one of the 
Prophet's women who is not American. She has several 
children. 

EUen Rockwood is of medium size, slender, with light 
hair, light-brown eyes, and fair complexion. She is the 
daughter of the warden of the penitentiary, who is a " regu- 
lar down-east Y''ankee." Ellen is rather quiet, even-tempered, 
but quite narrow-minded. Her health is poor, and she spends 
most of her time in embroidery and needle-work. She has 
no children, and, per consequence, very little influence with 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 199 

her husband. He calls upon her in her little room, about 
once in. six months. 

Suscm Snively. — A middle-aged woman, of medium size, 
dark hair, light eyes, dark complexion, and expressionless 
face ; the plainest of all the women. She is good and kind 
in her nature, quiet and retiring. She spins and colors yarn, 
and is a good housewife, of the type — New-England farmer's 
wife. Having no children, she adds nothing to the kingdom 
and glory of her husbaiid, and is estimated accordingly. 

Jemima Angell is the sister of Mary Ann, the lawful 
wife. She is an elderly lady, with dark hair, gray eyes, and 
pensive countenance. Of low stature, but quite robust. Her 
first husband died out of the church, and she is merely sealed 
to Young, for her exaltation in anotlier state. She lives in 
a little house by herself, and seldom receives a visit from 
her spiritual husband. 

Margaret Alley. — Short and small ; light hair and eyes, 
rather lengthened features, but mild expression of counte- 
nance. Being much neglected by her husband, she became 
very melancholy. She died in 1853, leaving two children. 

Margaret Pierce. — Of medium height, light hair, and 
blue eyes, sharp nose, and very variable in temper. She 
has several children, but not much influence with her hus- 
band. 

Mrs. Hampton. — This woman is very tall, and noble in 
appearance, has round features, large lustrous eyes, dark 
hair, and fair complexion. She was early married to Mr. 
Hampton, by whom she had six children. They removed to 
Nauvoo, where Hampton died. Mrs. Hampton was after- 
ward sealed to Young. 

When the Mormons were driven from Nauvoo, Mrs. 
Hampton was, for some reason, left behind. She then mar- 
ried a Mr. Cole, by whom she had one daughter, named Vi- 
late. When this child was about four years old, Cole went 
to California. Young then sent for Mrs. Hampton to come 
and live with him. She obeyed, and became, a second time, 



200 THE WIVES OF B. a YOUNG. 

one of his plural wives. During this tijie Cole wrote letters 
frequently, and sent her his likeness. 

About this time, Feramorz Little, one of Young's nephews, 
mamed Julia Hampton, daughter of Mrs. H., and half sister 
to Vilate Cole. Mrs. Hampton lived at the Harem about 
eight years, and superintended the culinary department. 
Some misunderstanding having arisen between her and the 
Prophet, he again cast her off. It is said that she was un- 
willing to be sealed over the altar for eternity to Young, 
preferring her first husband in the eternal world. Her son, 
Nephi Hampton, provided a house for her at Ogden, a pleas- 
ant town forty miles north of Salt Lake, where she now 
resides. 

Vilate is now about fourteen years of age, beautiful and 
accomplished. She and Brigham Heber, now about twenty 
years old, were engaged to be married, but his father dis- 
approved the match, and laid a plan to defeat it. In the 
fall of 1863, Feramorz Little sent for Vilate to come down 
to the city, and proposed to have her board with him and 
attend school. His real object was to secure her for his 
fourth wife and at the same time prevent her marrying the 
son of the President. During all this time the girl frequently 
inquired, with much anxiety, about her father. 

In 1863 Cole enlisted in the 2d Regiment of Infantry, 
Nevada Volunteers, and came to Salt Lake City expressly 
for the purpose of finding his daughter. After much inquiry 
he ascertained where his wife and child were living, and 
wrote a letter to Vilate. The mother received the letter, 
read it, and put it in the fire. Thus the matter rested, until 
Vilate came to the city. One day she said to her sister Julia, 
(Mrs. Little,) " Would it not be strange if my father was 
among the soldiers ? " Said Julia, " He is. Did n't you 
know it? Nephi told me all about it." This gave her new 
courage, and thenceforth she made every effort to see her 
father. For some time she was closely watched, and Cole, 
who had found where she was, was denied admission to her j 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 201 

but the girl's resolution remaining firm, Little, fearing she 
would leave him, finally permitted an interview. The happy- 
meeting of the father with his only child, after an absence of 
eleven years, who shall describe ? Cole still remains in 
Utah, devoted to his daughter, whom he visits frequently, 
and is not without hope of getting her away from her unfor- 
tunate associations. The task is a delicate and difficult one, 
and in his efforts to accomplish it, he has the sympathy of 
every father. 

Mary Bigelow. — I can give no description of this woman. 
She was sealed to Young at " Winter Quarters," and came 
on with him to Utah. After a time she left the Harem, and 
what became of her is unknown to me. 

Emeline Free, or the Light of the Harem. 



" O Nounnahal ! 



Thou loveliest, dearest of them all ; 
The one whose smile shone out alone 
Amidst a world, the only one 
Whose light, among so many lights, 
Was like that star, on starry nights, 
The seaman singles from the sky, 
To steer his bark forever by ! " 

Emeline is tall and graceful; with mild, violet eyes, fair 
hair, inclined to curl. She has long been the favorite of 
the Prophet, — the light of his eyes, and the joy of his 
heart. 

]yir. and Mrs. Free, her father and mother, were opposed 
to polygamy, and Brigham went one day to convince them of 
their error. The beautiful Emeline w^as the first he sought 
to win, and he argued and expounded the new doctrine with 
wonderful zeal and fervor. At length the parents were con- 
vinced. The Prophet of the Lord stepped up to Emeline, 
laid his saintly hand upon her shoulder, and said, in fervid 
accents, " Emeline, will you be my wife ? " " Yes, sir," was 
the reply. This was their courtship. She at once became 
the favorite, and many a heart grew sad when she became 
an inmate of the Harem. 



202 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

Brigham distinguished her in eveiy way ; gave her better 
rooms than the rest, and servants to wait upon her. She 
grew to love him, and obtained a powerful influence over 
him. There is no weapon so powerful as a woman's tears. 
This Emeline believed, and often acted upon, to bring back 
her truant lover, when she thought too much attention was 
paid to others. Finally, so great became the jealousy of the 
other wives, that the husband of these contending fair ones 
constructed a private hall leading from his office to Emeline's 
room, that he might visit her without observation or con- 
straint. He devoted himself to her exclusively, and she 
reigned supreme over the sisters. She received her company 
in the grand saloon ; she occupied the seat of honor at the 
table, at the right hand of her husband. In short, she was 
the mistress of the Harem. 

At that time the most of the women did their own work, 
and stayed in their own rooms, so that there was but little 
communication with each other. She has eight children, but 
is still a young-looking woman. 

But, alas ! " the course of true love never did run smooth," 
and Emeline was doomed to have a rival. When the Prophet 
" took " Amelia, his last love, poor Emeline was heart-bro- 
ken. She was taken very sick, and her life was, for a long 
time, despaired of. From her " sisters " she received no 
sympathy. The bitter cup which they had been obliged to 
drink, was now commended to her own lips. From the con- 
fiding and happy wife, she has become the rejected and suf- 
fering mistress, and must now drag out the remainder of 
her days a faded, cast-off woman. And Amelia, the present 
queen, what of her ? She too, will soon take her place by 
the side of Emeline and Mary Ann. Other and younger 
women will take the place she now occupies, and in their 
turn be cast off, to suffer with her. 

^^ Proxy Women." 

This is a very common term in Utah, and signifies that a 
woman is married to one man for "time," and sealed to 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 20b- 

another for eternity. All her children belong to the man to 
whom she is sealed, no matter which may be their father, or 
whether the mother ever married the celestial husband "in 
time." This is a refinement upon the Jewish doctrine, which 
required a man to " raise up children to his dead brother." 

Of this class of women Biigham Young has four, all of 
whom, while they live with him for '' time," are sealed to 
Joseph Smith for eternity, and to Joseph must they be deliv- 
ered over, with their children, in the first resurrection. 

" Mis's " Eliza Roxy Snoio is of middling stature, dark 
hair, well silvered with gray ; dai'k eyes, noble intelligent 
countenance, and quiet and dignified in manner. She is the 
most intellectual of the women. 

Her literary taste and acquirements are good, and she has 
composed some very creditable hymns for the church of 
which she is a conscientious and devoted member. A volume 
of her poems has also been published, some of which evince 
genius of a high order. 

She is quite exclusive in her tastes, and associates but 
little with the '• women." She occupies a small room on the 
third floor of the Haivm, about twelve by fifteen feet in size. 
A neat carpet covers the floor ; a common bedstead occu- 
pies one corner. There are some oak chairs grained, with 
crochet covers, wliite wiiidow-curtains and bed-spread, her 
" own handiwork." Behind the door is a neat little ward- 
robe. On a shelf over the window, stands a vase of artifi- 
cial flowers. A stand, covered with books, usually occupies 
the centre of the room, and these articles, \v'ith a neat httle 
stove, make up the furniture. 

This is the home of " the sweet singer of Israel." She 
has cast the charm of her genius over the rude materials, 
and there is an air of neatness, comfort, and refinement about 
her little sanctum which is not apparent in any other por- 
tion of the house. Here she receives and entertains her 
company. She occupies her time chiefly in writing, and in 
needle-w^ork. She is highly respected by the family, who 



204 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

call her " one of the nobles of the earth." When tired of 
writing and study, she walks out and visits her friends. If 
any one is sick in the house she looks after the invalid, and 
shows every kindness and attention. She soothes the afflicted, 
and cares for the infirm and aged. She and Zina D. Hunting- 
ton are the most lady-like and accomplished of the wives. 

The followmg verses, written by Miss Eliza R. Snow, will 
show her style as well as the religious fervor and fanati- 
cism for which she is remarkable. 

[For the Deseret Neics.'\ 
" The Ladies of Utah to the Ladies of the United States Campy 
in a Crusade against the Mormons. 

BY Miss E. R. SXOW. 

Why are you in these mountains, 

Exposed to fi'osts and snows ? 
Far from your sheltering houses, 

From comfort and repose ? 

Has cruel persecution, 

With unrelenting hand, 
Thrust you from home and kindred, 

And from your native land ? 

Have you been robbed and plundered, 

Till you are penniless. 
And then in destitution 

Driven to the wilderness ? 

No, no ; you 've joined a crusade 

Against the peace of those 
Driven to these distant valleys 

By cruel, murderous foes. 

Amid the dreary desert, 

AVhere hideous red men roam ; 
Where beasts of prey were howling. 

We 've made ourselves a home. 



THE WIVES OF BKIGHAM YOUNG. 205 

Can woman's heart be callous, 

And made of flint and steel ? 
Perhaps you '11 learn to pity, 

When you are made to feel. 

Should sickness prey upon you. 

And children cry for bread. 
With bitter self-reproaches 

You '11 rue the path you tread. 

We love with purest feelings. 

Our husbands, children, friends ; 
We 've learned to prize the blessings 

Which God in mercy sends. 

We have the ancient order 

To us by prophets given ; 
And here we have the pattern 

As things exist in Heaven. 

We 'd fain from human suffering 

Each barbed arrow draw. 
But yet self-preservation 

Is God's and Nature's law. 

The Scriptures are fulfilling, 

The spoiler 's being spoiled ; 
All Satan's foul devices 

'Gainst Zion will be foiled. 
Great Salt Lake City, Oct. 13, 1857." 

This is given not as a fair specimen of her poetry, for she 
has written much better, but to illustrate how completely she 
was devoted to the interests of her people at that exciting 
period of their history. 

Zina D. Huntington Jacobs is of large form, well propor- 
tioned, high forehead, with light hair and eyes. She is of a 
melancholy temperament, as is plainly indicated by the ex- 
pression of her countenance She has three children, and 
has charge of the children of Clara Chase. 



206 THE WIVES. OF BRIGHAM YOUXG. 

Zina lias some literary ability, and sometimes M'rites poetry. 
She has a special ofiice in the family, which is to act as gov- 
erness for all the young ladies, accompanying them in their 
attendance to singing-schools and other public places. Zina 
came to Utah with her husband, Dr. Jacobs. Young became 
attached to her, sent the Doctor on a mission, and in his ab- 
sence appropriated to himself the wife and children. Dr. 
Jacobs is still in California, and is an "apostate." Zina 
stands in great awe of Brigham, who treats her with marked 
coldness and neglect. 

Amelia Partridge is rather tall, with a fine form, black 
hair, dark eye?, dark complexion, sweet expression of coun- 
tenance, and very mild and amiable in disposition. She and 
her sister Eliza had been servants in the i'amily of Joseph 
Smith, in Nauvoo. 

Amelia has four children, to whom she is devotedly at- 
tached. She is a kind and gentle mother, patient and for- 
giving, — one of the excellent ones of earth. She takes but 
little interest in family matters, outside of the circle of her 
own children. 

Mrs. Augusta Cobb is a native of Massachusetts, and for- 
merly resided in Boston. She is a large, fine-looking person, 
— dark hair, gray eyes, and clear complexion. She is very 
stylish in appearance, and of dignified demeanor. She was 
converted to Monnonism at Boston, fifteen years ago, left 
her husband and a very interesting family of children, and 
with one little girl, Charlotte, came to Utah, and took up her 
residence at the Harem, as a plural wifie of Brigham Young. 

She is high-spirited and imperious. She once returned to 
her family in Boston, and remained two years, but was too 
deeply involved in the meshes of Mormonism to be satisfied 
away from Zion, and again returned to Salt Lake. She now 
lives in a neat little cottage near the Lion House, and is sup- 
ported by Young. Her son, James Cobb, after finishing his 
course of study in the East, came to Salt Lake, and after 
some years, through the influence of his mother, joined the 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 207 

church. Previous to becoming a Mormon, he expressed 
much anxiety about his mother and sister Charlotte, — now 
an interesting young lady, — and used many arguments and 
entreaties to induce them to leave, but finally himself yielded 
to the seductive influences which surrounded him. 

Charlotte at one time enjoyed the proud title of " the belle 
of Salt Lake." She has steadfastly opposed polygamy, and 
hence has remained unmarried. 

Mrs. Smith is an elderly woman, who admired Brother 
Brigham very much, and desired to be sealed to him, to in- 
sure her salvation. Young did not reciprocate her senti- 
ments toward him, but compromised the matter by sealing 
her to Joseph Smith for eternity, and to himself for time. 
After this ceremony had been performed, he' committed her 
to the care of the Bishop of the ward, directing him to sup- 
port her. 

There are many of this class of women in the Territory. 

Clara Chase, the Maniac. 

This woman was of medium height, dark hair and eyes, 
rather sullen expression of countenance, low forehead, and 
her features indicative of deep-seated melancholy. When 
Young married her, he treated her with marked considera- 
tion. He assigned to her an elegant apartment, in which 
hung the only oil-painting of himself. She from the first 
distrusted the principle of polygamy, and had many misgiv- 
ings of conscience in regard to her course in marrying the 
Prophet. 

For a time she lived in this way, in a strait between two 
opinions. When her husband treated her kindly, she tried 
to be happy, but when he was cold and unfeeling toward 
her, she was driven well-nigh to desperation. In the mean 
time she had four children, two of whom are now living. 
They are bright and intelligent girls, fourteen and sixteen 
years of age. 

As she approached her fourth confinement, her fits of 



208 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

remorse became more frequent and more terrible. She re- 
proached herself with having committed the unpardonable 
sin. Her condition was truly pitiable. During her sickness 
Brigham treated her with such coldness and neglect, that she 
became actually insane, and raved incessantly. — " Oh, I 
have committed the unpardonable sin ! Oh, warn my poor 
children not to follow my bad example. I am going to hell. 
Brigham has caused it. He has cursed me, and 1 shall soon 
be there. Oh ! do not any of you go into polygamy. It will 
curse you, and damn your souls eternally." When her hus- 
band appeared, she cursed him as the author of her destruc- 
tion. 

The " President " and his two " counsellors " " laid hands " 
on her, but all of no avail. Dr. Sprague, the family phy- 
sician, was sent for ; but her poor WTecked spirit would no 
lonorer abide where it had suffered so much, and she died a 



Amelia, or the Last Love. 

Amelia Folsom is a native of Portsmouth, N. H. She 
is tall, and well formed, with light hair and gray eyes, 
and regular features. She is quite pale, owing to ill health. 
Has but little refinement of manner. When at the theatre, 
sitting in the King's box, with her husband, the observed 
of all observers, she may be seen eating apples, throwing the 
skins about, chatting with Brigham, and occasionally level- 
ling her glass at some one in the assembly. 

She plays and sings, but with indifferent skill and taste. 
She was, for a long time, unwilling to marry the President, 
but he continued his suit with a pertinacity worthy a better 
cause, and by repeated promises of advancement made to 
herself and her parents, finally succeeded. For several 
months he had urged his suit, during which time his carriage 
might be seen, almost any day, standing at her father's door, 
for hours at a time. He told her she was created expressly 
for himself, and could marry no one else on pain of everlast- 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 209 

ing destruction. She plead, protested, and wept, but he per- 
severed, and at length, when all other arguments failed, he 
told her he had received a special revelation from Heaven 
on the subject. She had always believed in Mormonism, \ 
and had been taught to have fjiith in revelation. " Amelia," \ 
he said, " you must be my wife ; God has revealed it to me. \ 
You cannot be saved by any one else. If you will marry \ 

me, I will save you, and exalt you to be a queen in the / 
celestial world, but if you refuse, you will be destroyed, both / 
soul and body." / 

Tiie poor girl believed this hellish impostor, and yielding 
to his wishes, became his wife. P'or several months after 
her marriage, Amelia was sad and dejected, but of late she 
has rallied, and now appears the gayest of the gay. This 
marriage took place on the 29th day of January, 1863, — 
more than six months after the passage by Congress of the 
anti-polygamy law, — and was public and notorious. Here 
was perpetrated in one act, the double crime of destroying 
forever the happiness of a young lady and setting before his 
people the example of an open violation of a law of the 
land. Yet for both crimes he goes unpunished, and con- 
tinues to sit in his chair of state, clothed in authority and 
power, not only the wonder, but the admiration, of thousands 
outside of the Mormon Church ! 

Amelia is evidently living under constraint, and acting an 
assumed character. She is playing the role of a happy wife, 
with a breaking heart. At the time of her marriage, her 
heart had been given to another, to whom she should have 
been married. That she compromised her character, in 
marrying Young under the circumstances, is a fact too noto- 
rious to be concealed, — and this connection has brought 
more odium upon polygamy than any the " President " ever 
formed. 

Nevertheless, Amelia stands the recognized Queen of the 
Harem. She leads the ton, and is the model woman for the 
saints. Thousands bow low as she passes, and think them- 
14 



210 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

selves happy to receive her passing recognition. She is now 
a queen, and is to be a goddess in the celestial world. The 
new wife sometimes becomes restive and impatient, and 
treats her liege lord rather shabbily.- She is at times 
notional and imperious, and somewhat coquettish, — to all 
of which her husband submits with good grace for the pres- 
ent, and pets her as a child. 

The Bee-Hive House, formerly occupied by Mrs. Young 
and her family, has been vacated for Amelia. Servants are 
at her disposal, and her establishment is extensive and im- 
posing. 

Brigham spends much of his time with his new wife, and 
often dines with her. One evening a friend was taking tea 
with the newly-married couple. Amelia behaved quite 
naughtily toward her lord. After tea was jQnished, they 
remained at the table, eating nuts and confectioneries. 
Amelia threw her shells through an open window, on the 
opposite side of the room. Her husband said, " Amelia, 
don't do that; put your shells by your plate." "I sha'n't 
do it," replied the fair one; "I'll throw them where I 
please." Young was silent for a time, but became so an- 
noyed that he again said : " Amelia, I wish you would n't 
do that any more." " I don't care," replied the spouse, pet- 
tishly, " I '11 throw the shells where I please, and I '11 do as 
I please, and you may help yourself." And pulling her 
guest by the dress, she said : " Come, let 's go up-stairs, and 
let him grunt it out." 

The theatre was dedicated by prayer and a grand ball. 
This was in the winter of 1862-63. Brigham led off in the 
dance with Amelia, and all was smiles and sunshine. On 
another occasion, he honored another one of " the women " 
with his hand for the first cotillon. This so displeased Amelia, 
that she refused to dance with him at all. He coaxed, she 
shrugged her shoulders, and shook her head. It was only 
after much condescension and solicitation on his part that 
she granted her forgiveness, and consented to dance with him. 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHA:\[ YOUNG. 211 

This gay Lothario of sixty-three then led forth his blushing 
mistress, and "' all went merry as a marriage-bell." 

Amelia has lovers still, for one of whom she entertains 
considerable feeling. He was sent to " Dixie," or the Cotton 
District, in Southern Utah, on a mission. He soon returned, 
however, to Salt Lake, and by his presence in the city, causes 
the Prophet considerable anxiety. 

Amelia is tyrannical, and rules the women of the Harem 
with a strong hand. Poor Emeline is quite broken-hearted. 
Naturally very sensitive, this blow prostrated her upon abed 
of sickness, from which it was feared she would never re- 
cover. But she lives to drag out a miserable life, — neither 
wife nor mistress, but a castaway. 

In fact all the women are miserable and unhappy. A 
common remark, in reply to the usual salutation, is, " Oh, I 've 
got the blues to-day." 

The Prophet in Love the Thirtieth Time. 

Miss Selima Ursenback is a native of Geneva, Switzer- 
land, and with her parents and brother came to Utah in the 
fall of 18f)2. She is an accomplished musician, and at once- 
became a favorite with the Mormons. Several concerts were 
given, at which she figured as prima donna, and although 
she sang in French, the melody of her voice and the artistic 
character of her music gained for her an established reputa- 
tion. 

Brigham heard, and was delighted. Her voice was music 
to his ravished ear, and, for the thirtieth time, the little god- 
let slip his arrow, and launched it into the Prophet's heart. 

Says a celebrated writer : — 

" Now there are various ways of getting in love. A man falls 
in love just as he falls down-stairs. It is an accident. But when 
he runs in love, it is as when he runs in debt : it is done know- 
ingly, intentionally, and very often rashly and foohshly, even if 
not ridiculously, miserably, and ruinously. 



212 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

" The rarest and happiest marriages are between those who 
have grown in love. Take the description of such a love in its 
rise and progress, ye thousands and tens of thousands who have 
what is called a taste for poetry. Take it in the sweet words of 
one of the sweetest and tenderest of English poets, and then say 
whether this is not the way that leads to happiness and bliss. 

" ' Ah ! I remember well (and how can I 
But evermore remember well) when first 
Our flame began; when scarce we knew what was 
The flame we felt. When as we sat and sighed, 
And looked upon each other, and conceived 
Not what we ailed, — yet something we did ail; 
And yet were well, and yet we were not well; 
And what was our disease, we could not tell. 
Then would we kiss, then sigh, then look; and thus, 
In that first garden of our simpleness. 
We spent our childhood. But when years began 
To reap the fruit of knowledge, ah, how then 
Would she with graver looks, with sweet, stern brow, 
Check my presumption, and my forwardness; 
Yet still would give me flowers, still would me show 
What she would have me, yet not have me know.' 

" Falling in love, and running in love, are, as everybody knows, 
common enough, and yet less so than what I shall call catching 
love. Where the love itself is imprudent, that is to say, where 
there is some just, prudential cause or impediment why the two 
parties should not be joined together in holy matrimony, there is 
culpable imprudence in catching it, because danger is always to 
be apprehended, which may have been avoided." 

It is plain to be seen, our Prophet did not walk into love, 
^he did not run into it. He caught it, as a man catches 
the measles. It broke out, and showed itself all over, in 
smiles, bows, and sweet honeyed tones. It is also plain that 
he should not have caught it. Had he not the charming 
Amelia, dear Emeline, sweet Lucy, pretty Twiss, his darling 
Lucy No. 2, poetic Eliza, meek Zina, and his dear, dear 
Jemima, Martha, Ellen, Susan, Hattie, etc., etc. How could 
any man, much less a prophet, wish for more ? 



THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 213 

But he said to himself, " I have not a French lady in the 
family to teach my daughters that charming language. I 
have no prima donna to conduct their musical education. 
Then my last love — my pretty, naughty, bewitching Ame- 
lia — is so cross and fitful, she leads me such a crazy life, she 
frets and scolds, and I cannot drown her voice, even with my 
* sacred fiddle.' [He had frequently boasted that with his 
violin he could put a stop to the scolding of any of his 
women.] 

" Then my French lady is accomplished. She can receive 
my foreign guests. She is so clever, that she can assist me 
in my business projects and plans ; and if she should prove 
unkind, — which God grant she may not, — and if her sweet 
lips should scold, I should have a great advantage, — 1 could 
not understand her. Then her name, — Selima ! How poetical. 
None of my wives have such a poetical name. With her in 
my Harem, I could rival the Sultan himself. Yes, sweet, 
adored Selima, you shall he mine. You shall be the high 
priestess of my affections, and all my common women shall 
serve you." 

The Prophet plead his suit, but Selima was like stone. He 
had a young man in his employ who dared to love Selima. 
The rival lovers met face to face. The Prophet was furious, 

— " She is not for you, sir, she is not for you. Leave my 
service, and never dare to aspire to that young lady's hand 
again." 

Alas, that love so devoted, so pure and disinterested as 
Brighara's, should fail to be rewarded by the object of its 
choice. But no sooner had the poor singing-master, for 
such he w^as, left the Territory for California, than an- . 
other rival appeared in the field, — a California volunteer^ 

— a dangerous rival; one who would not fear to follow 
up any advantage he might gain over his spiritual com- 
petitor. 

To destroy the romance of the whole story, Selima, charm- 



214 THE WIVES OF BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

ing but sensible Selima, becoming disgusted with the whole 
affair, soon after left for Switzerland again, leaving her lov- 
ers to settle the matter among themselves. 

For once in his life, Brigham Young was foiled, and that 
by a woman. 



CHAPTER XII. 

POLYGAIMY. 

Condition of "Woman among various Heathen Nations. — Influence of 
Christianity. — Mormonism and "Woman. — Brigham offers to set the 
"V\"omen Free. — Arguments in Favor of Polygamy. — The Argument 
against it. — Abraham and Sarah. — Appeal to Mormon Women. — 
Their Unhappy Condition. — Evil Effects of the System. — Illustrations. 

Woman is looked upon and treated by all heathen nations 
as an inferior being, created for the convenience and comfort 
of man. 

" According to the ancient Rabbis, the rib which had been 
taken from Adam, was laid down for a moment, and in that mo- 
ment a monkey came and stole it, and ran off with it, full speed. 
An angel pursued, and though not in league with the monkey, he 
could have been no good angel ; for, overtaking him, he caught 
him by the tail, brought it maliciously back instead of the rib, and 
out of that tail was woman made. What became of the rib with 
which the monkey got clear oflf ' was never to mortal known.' 

" The Hungarians think it infamous to be governed by a woman, 
— and when the crown fell to a female, they called her King 
Mary instead of Queen. 

" Aristotle calls woman a monster, and Plato makes it a ques- 
tion whether she ought not to be ranked among irrational crea- 
tures. 

" Mahomet, too, was not the only person who has supposed that 
women have no souls. Among the Afghans, twelve young women 
were given as compensation for the slaughter of one man. Six 
for cutting off a hand, an ear, or a nose ; three for breaking a 
tooth, and one for a wound of the scalp. By the laws of the Vene- 
tians, and of certain other Oriental people, the testimony of two 
women was made equivalent to that of one man. 



216 POLYGAMY. 

" According to the Brahmins, the widow who burns herself with 
the body of her husband, will, in her next state, be born a male ; 
but the widow who refuses to make the self-sacrifice, will never be 
anything better than a woman, let her be born again as often as 
she may." 

The Jew begins his public prayer with a thanksgiving to 
bis Maker for not having made him a woman. The Moors do 
not allow women to enter their mosques or places of worship. 

Mussulmen hold that there is a separate paradise for wo- 
men, considering them unworthy to occupy the same as the 
men, except such beautii'ul women as are assigned to the 
male occupants as a reward for a virtuous and religious life 
on earth. " Sit not in the midst of women," said the son of 
Sirach, in his wisdom ; " for from garments cometh a moth, 
and from women wickedness." 

" It is a bad thing," said Augustine, " to look upon a wo- 
man, a worse to speak to her, and to touch her, worst of all." 
John Bunyan thanked God that he had made him shy of the 
women. " The common salutation of w^omen, I abhor," said 
he, " their company alone, I cannot away with." " Look at 
the very name woman," says another author, " it evidently 
means woe to man, because by woman was w^oe brought into 
the world." 

The Turk does not exclude woman from his heaven, but 
she is there only to minister to his passions and wants. She 
bears to his lips the golden goblet, filled with the nectar of 
the gods. 

The Indian hunter believes his squaw, as well as his faith- 
ful dog, will bear him company to those shadowy hunting- 
grounds beyond the dark river. 

Among all these heathen and degraded nations, polygamy 
has prevailed. Among them all, woman has been but the 
slave of the stronger sex. Her feelings have been outraged, 
her spirit crushed, and her heart broken ; or, which is still 
worse, her nature has become imbruted and insensible to all 
the finer feelings and nobler impulses of her sex. 



POLYGAMY. 217 

But behold the day-star from on high, the lowly Jesus. 
He came to bring deliverance to the captive, to let the op- 
pressed go free. No longer is woman to be degraded and 
despised. The holy covenant of marriage which Moses, by 
reason of the hardness of their hearts, permitted tlie Jews to 
break, was henceforth to be kept inviolate. "■ It hath been 
said, whosoever shall put away his icife, let him give her a 
writing of divorcement. But I pay unto you, that whosoever 
shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, 
causeth h^r to commit adultery ; and whosoever shall marry 
her that is divorced, committeth adultery." And again, — 
" For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and 
shall cleave to his wife ; and ihe^ twain shall be one flesh." 

The position of woman, and her duties in life, are well 
defined in the New Testament Scriptures. If married, she is 
to direct her household affairs, raise up children, be subject 
unto her husband, and use all due benevolence toward him ; 
but his duties are equally well defined. He must love his 
wife, even as Christ loved his church and gave himself for 
it ; and the fourth verse of the seventh chapter of Corinthi- 
ans distinctly states that the rights and duties of the marriage 
relation should be reciprocal, granting no exclusive privilege 
to either. Is not this reciprocity necessarily and entirely 
destroyed, when the husband brings other wives into the 
family ? 

In the face of the direct and positive teachings of Jesus 
and his Apostles, the " Latter-Day Saints " of Utah, or rather 
their leaders, have instituted the heatheni-h and horrible 
practice of polygamy. And to add to the blasphemy of the 
scheme, it is all done in the name of the Lord. In this "^ 
nineteenth century, they have reduced women to the heathen 
and Jewish standard. 

Foremost in the ranks of their oppressors stands Brigham 
Young. Following in the footsteps of Mohammed, he declares 
that women have no souls, — that they are not responsible 
beings, that they cannot save themselves, nor be saved, ex- 



218 POLYGAMY. 

cept through man's intervention. To be saved, a woman 
must be " sealed " to a good man, — he can save her ; or. if 
he does not, her sins will be upon his head. Under this sys- 
tem, woman was created expressly for the glory of man ; 
hence the more women and children a man has, the more 
glory. 

This doctrine is openly put forth in the most disgusting 
form. 

Said Brigham, in a public discourse, Sept. 20th, 1856, — 

" It is the duty of every righteous man and woman to prepare 
tabernacles for all the spirits they can ; hence if my women leave, 
I will go and search up others who will abide the celestial law, 
and let all I now have go where they please." 

And in accordance with the same view, he publicly pro- 
claimed that after a certain day which he named, all of his 
women who were dissatisfied should be free to leave him. 
The following is his language : — 

" Kow for my proposition : it is more particularly for my sisters, 
as it is frequently happening that women say that they are unhappy. 
Men will say, — ' My wife, though a most excellent woman, has 
not seen a happy day since I took my second wife.' ' No, not a 
happy day for a year,' says one : and another has not seen a happy 
day for five years. It is said that women are tied down and 
abused ; that they are misused, and have not the liberty that they 
ought to have ; that many of them are wading through a perfect 
flood of tears, because of the conduct of some men, together with 
their own folly. 

" I wish my own women to understand that what I am going to 
say is for them as well as others, and I want those who are here 
to tell their sisters, — yes, all the women of this community, — 
and then write it back to the States, and do as you please with it. 
I am going to give you from this time to the 6th day of October 
next (the day the semi-annual Conference was to meet) for reflec- 
tion, that you may determine whether you wish to stay with your 
husbands or not, and then I am going to set every woman at lib- 
erty, and say to them, ' Now go your way, — my women with the 
rest, — go your way.' And my wives have got to do one of two 



POLYGAMY. 219 

things : either round up their shoulders to endure the afflictions of 
this world, and live their religion, or they may leave, for I will 
not have them about me. I will go into heaven alone, rather 
than have scratching and fighting around me. I will set all at 
liberty. ' What, first wife too ? ' Yes, I will liberate you all. I 
know what my women will say. They will say, ' You can have 
as many women as you please, Brigham.' But I want to go some- 
where, and do something to get rid of the whiners." * 

It does not appear that these unhappy women availed 
themselves of this opportunity of getting rid of their misery, 
by being cast oflf upon the world, in an Indian country, 
nearly a thousand miles from civilization. 

It may seem very strange, that so many women are led 
into the snare of polygamy. The most specious arguments 
are advanced, and inducements held out, by the wicked and 
designing leaders of the Mormon Church, to blind and de- 
ceive unsuspecting and simple-minded women. They are 
told that " the laws of Christendom differ widely from those 
of the other three fourths of the whole family of man ; " that 
they are the laws and practices of " a wicked and perverse 
generation," and differ also from the doctrines taught in the 
Bible. It is a noticeable fact that the Bible is only quoted 
on the subject of polygamy. On all other topics, the books 
of Mormonism are used. These being, as already shown, 
adverse to their favorite institution, resort is had to the Old 
Testament Scriptures. 

Abraham is constantly cited as the great exemplar and 
pattern. It is urged that the family order observed by him 
is the order established among celestial beings, in the celes- 
tial world. That God sanctioned the practice, and is himself 
a polygamist. 

That many virtuous and high-minded women should infi- 
nitely prefer to unite their fortunes to one good man, rather 
than to have each a wicked husband who could bring her no 
exaltation in another world. " Shall such virtuous and inno- 
cent females, though they may be poor, and low in the scale 
* Deseret News, October 1, 1856. 



220 POLYGAMY. 

of fortune's partial smiles, — shall they be denied the right 
to choose the objects of their love ? Must they, through the 
operation of hideously contracted laws, be virtually doomed 
to resort to infamous prostitution, entailing disease, infamy, 
and death upon themselves and their offspring, or to marry 
an inferior grade of corrupt, vicious men, — debauchees, 
gluttons, drunkards, and idlers, — or remain in perpetual 
celibacy, and frustrate the designs of their creation, and vio- 
late the first and foremost command of God, — to multiply 
and replenish the earth ? " 

They are pointed to Jacob, also, who had several wives, 
and who was the father of the twelve patriarchs, after whom 
all the tribes of Israel were named. From one of these 
wives, Christ himself lineally descended. Various other in- 
stances are cited from the Jewish Scriptures, — especially 
the fact that tlie Lord gave unto David some of the wives 
of Saul. " Hereby we learn that God himself gives many 
wives to those who are faithful, and takes them away from 
transgressors^ The faith of Abraham was indorsed by 
Christ and his Apostles, and those who have the same faith 
are called heirs of the promise. Hence an effort is made to 
bring the New Testament also to the support of polygamy, 
notwithstanding it is so plainly condemned in that volume. 
Indeed, it is unblushingly asserted that not only the Apostles 
but Christ himself practised polygamy ! " The grand rea- 
son," said J. M. Grant, one of the First Presidency, in a 
discourse delivered in the Tabernacle in Great Salt Lake 
City, " why the gentiles and philosophers of that school per- 
secuted Jesus Christ, was because he had so many wives. 
There were Elizabeth and Mary, and a host of others, who 
followed him." 

To Abraham and Sarah was the promise made — " In thee 
and in thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 
The sisters are called upon to follow the example of Sarah, 
and to give plural wives to their husbands, even as Sarah 
gave Hagar unto Abraham. " If you suffer with her (Sarah) 



POLYGAMY. 221 

jou shall reign with her. You shall be heirs of the same 
promise, and crowned with glory in the celestial world." 

By these specious arguments and falsehoods, are thousands 
lured on to their destruction. Oh ! could this volume reach 
the eye of all such, — as it surely will of many, — to them 
I appeal to examine carefully the foundation of the system 
to which they are committing themselves. To them I re- 
spectfully and earnestly submit some considerations and facts 
worthy of their serious attention, before they enter irretriev- 
ably upon their own ruin. 

Polygamy, or plurality, so called, is not only contrary to 
the laws of our country, which we are all in duty bound to 
uphold and obey, but it is adverse to the genius of our free 
institutions, and is, moreover, contrary to the laws and in- 
stincts of our nature, and to the suggestions of a sound 
reason. 

In the first place, is polygamy reasonable or natural ? 

In pursuing this inquiry, the first fact that stares us in the 
face is the equality in the numbers of the male and female 
sexes, in all countries, and in all ages of the world. If 
polygamy were the natural relation between the sexes, the 
number of females bom into the world would far exceed the 
number of males. So far from that being the case, there is 
a larger number of males, and the excess about equal to the 
greater loss of life, among males, by wars and accidents ; 
thus leaving a substantial equality in the numbers of those 
living. 

The following? fio;ures will show the number of males and 
females in the United States, at the close of each of the last 
five decades : — 









Excess of 


Per cent. 


Tear. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


of Excess. 


1820 


4,898,127 


4,740,004 


158,123 


3.2 


1830 


6,529,696 


6,336,324 


193,372 


3 


1840 


8,688,532 


8,380,921 


307,611 


3.5 , 


1850 


11,837,661 


11,354,215 


483,446 


4.1 


1860 


16,086,059 


15,359,021 


727,038 


4.5 



222 POLYGAMY. 

Thus it will be seen, that nature has made no provision 
for the practice of polygamy in this country. On the con- 
trary, there has continually been an excess of the male pop- 
ulation. This fact is owing, in part, to the large excess of 
males in the immigration from foreign countries. 

Let us pursue this subject a little farther. In 1851, the 
population of Great Britain and Ireland was, — males, 13,- 
537,052 ; females, 14,082,814. Excess of females, 3 per cent. 
But emigration, and the heavy wars in which that country 
had been engaged, had been draining off the male population 
for many years previous. 

In Prussia, in 1849, there were then living, — males, 8,162, 
805 ; females, 8,1 62,382. 

The mortality of males is greater than that of females. 
To compensate for this, more males are born. 

In England, the excess of male births is 5 per cent. ; in 
France and Russia, 6 per cent. ; in the United States, from 
5 to 12 per cent., according to the locality. 

If, now, we turn our attention to the Territory of Utah, 
we shall find a similar state of facts. By reference to the 
United States Census of 1850, it will appear that there was, 
at that time, an excess of males in every county in the Ter- 
ritory, amounting, in the aggregate, to 712; the total num- 
ber of males being 6,046, and of females, 5,334. The na- 
tional census of 1860 shows the following result: males, 
20,255, — females, 20,018. 

There has always been in this Territory, as there is in 
every new country, a scarcity of females. No person, there- 
fore, could take more than one wife, without, as a necessary 
consequence, compelling some other person to live without 
any. 

This subject is placed in a still stronger light, by reference 
to the report of the Territorial Superintendent of Common 
Schools, dated January 14, 1863, and published in the " Des- 
eret News," A^ol. XIL No. 31. 

By that report it appears that the number of boys between 



POLYGAMY. 223 

the ages of six and eighteen, is greater than the number of 
girls between four and sixteen, in every county in the Terri- 
tory but one. The total, so far as the Superintendent had 
been able to obtain reports, is as follows : — 

Number of boys between six and eighteen 3950 

Number of girls between four and sixteen 3662 

Showing an excess of boys, to the number of 288 

The thanks of the public are due to Mr. Campbell, for 
bringing to light facts having so important a bearing on this 
subject. 

Thus it will be seen that in this Territory, as well as in 
all other parts of the country, has nature failed to make 
any provision for the practice of polygamy. On the con- 
trary, ever true to herself, even now, after polygamy has been 
practised over ten years, during which time it has been 
openly encouraged, nature is reestablishing her own laws, 
and maintaining the substantial equality in the numbers of 
the sexes ; thus placing ihe seal of condemnation on this 
practice, and saying, in the jilainest language, "' Let every 
man have his own wife, and let- every woman have her own 
husband." 

In considering whether polygamy is reasonable or natural, 
other arguments present themselves. 

This practice tends necessarily to the degradation of w^oman. 
Instead of being a companion of man, socially his equal, sym- 
pathizing with his moral and intellectual nature, and sharing 
in all his pursuits and enjoyments, she becomes, under this 
system, merely the minister to his passions and physical com- 
fort, or the servant to assist in the increase of his worldly 
store. 

It is impossible that several women should live on terms 
of such intimacy with the same man, all at the same time 
on a social equality with him and with each other. The idea 
of plurality necessitates that of subordination and inferiority. 
Rules must be established and observed, to insure even the 



224 POLYGAMY. 

appearance of harmony. But this necessary assumption of 
superiority and power, on the part of tlie man, at once mars, 
if it does not destroy, all the finer and holier of the marriage 
relations. The husband loses respect for her who sits at his 
feet, rather than by his side. A full and perfect communion 
of thought and feeling ceases to exist. A sense of inferiority 
on the part of the wife blunts her pride and ambition, and 
renders her careless of intellectual and moral progress, and 
insensible to many of the highest and noblest duties of her 
sex. She gradually conforms herself to her position, how- 
ever hard it may be at first to do so, and thus her place in 
the social scale is lowered. 

It need scarcely be asked whether this is an evil. Both 
reason and history answer the question plainly in the affirm- 
ative. In all ages of the world, the most enlightened and 
prosperous nations have been those who sought to refine 
and elevate woman by the practice of monogamy, or the 
one-wife system. Witness Egypt, Greece, and Rome, among 
the ancient nations ; and among the moderns, the United 
States, Great Britain, France, and other European countries. 

A reference to those nations will also illustrate and prove 
the remark already made, that the practice of polygamy is 
adverse to free institutions. In all countries where the most 
freedom has prevailed, has monogamy existed, — a coinci- 
dence so remarkable as to authorize the deduction that the 
relation of cause and effect exists between these facts. The 
love of home is intimately associated with the love of coun- 
try and of liberty, and whatever tends to refine and purify 
the former will inevitably exalt and strengthen the latter. 

Again : polygamy tends to destroy the unity and sanctity 
of home, by permitting a man to have families in different 
places at the same time. "The supposition," says an emi- 
nent jurist, " that a man can have two domicils, would lead 
to the absurdest consequences." Hence such an idea has 
always been rejected in courts of justice. And yet this very 
thing is attempted in Utah, where it is not uncommon to 



POLYGAMY. 225 

have different families of wives and children located some- 
times many miles apart. Indeed, one of the Twelve Apos- 
tles has fomilies scattered all along between Salt Lake City 
and the southern boundary of the Territory, — a distance 
of over three hundred miles. 

Polygamy requires a law of descent peculiar to itself, and 
this law, differing, as it necessarily must, from that in force 
in all the surrounding States and Territories, leads to endless 
difficulty and confusion in the titles to property. 

The evils of polygamy are aggravated by the fact that the 
consent of the first wife is not made necessary to the union 
of the husband with subsequent ones. The prevailing doc- 
trine on this subject is authoritatively stated in the following 
words : — 

" "When a man who has a wife, teaches her the law of God, as 
revealed to the ancient patriarchs, and as manifested by new rev- 
elation, and she refuses to give her consent for him to marry an- 
other according to that law, then it becomes necessary for her to 
state before the President the reasons why she withholds her con- 
sent ; if her reasons are sufficient and justifiable, and the husband 
is found in the fault, or in transgression, then he is not permitted 
to take any step in regard to obtaining another. But if the wife 
can show no good reason why she refuses to comply with the law 
which was given unto Sarah of old, then it is lawful for her hus- 
band, if permitted by revelation through the Prophet, to be mar- 
ried to others without her consent, and he will be justified, and 
she will be condemned, because she did not give them unto him, 
as Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham, and as Rachel and Leah gave 
Bilhah and Zilpah to their husband Jacob." * 

In the case last supposed, in the foregoing extract, if the 
marriage ceremony is performed in the usual manner, the first 
wife is obliged to stand between her husband and the hated, 
bride, and falsely admit that she gives her consent, when asked: 
if she " is willing to give this woman to her husband to be his- 
lawful and wedded wife, for time and for all eternity." 

The result of such a state of things is what might be ex- 

* Tht Seer, Vol. I. p. 41. 
15 



226 POLYGAMY. 

pected. Jealousies, strifes, and heart-burnings ari>e, result- 
ing in most cases in the breaking-up of the family, or the 
casting-off of the less congenial elements. 

It is useless to deny these resuhs. The facts are too patent 
to admit of any dispute. The alarming frequency, and I 
may say recklessness, with which divorces are apjilied for 
and granted, is a fact familiar to all, and can only be traced 
to the causes just stated, unless, indeed, we should — as I 
am unwilling to do — impute it to the promptings of caprice 
and passion. Having resided in the Teriitory nearly two 
years, it would be impossible for me, unless I had, in the 
mean time, shut my eyes to what was going on around me, 
to be ignorant of the state of things to wliich I have briefly 
alluded. 

It has been urged as an argument in favor of polygamy, 
that it tends to lessen the evils of prostitution. Even if this 
were true, the argument would have no validity, if at the 
same time that this evil is abated or suppressed, others are 
introduced, more serious, lasting, and wide-spread in their 
influence upon society, our country, and the w^orld. But it 
never has been clearly shown that polygamy has such an 
effect. The argument is made by comparing the most favor- 
able localities where polygamy prevails with the most un- 
favorable monogamic districts ; for instance, with the large 
cities of the United States. But it remains to be seen what 
condition any one of those cities would be in, with polygamy 
in full blast ; and until it be shown that its condition would 
be improved, the argument remains of but little force. 

Another argument in favor of polygamy, perhaps worthy 
of notice, is, that it tends to a more rapid increase of popula- 
tion. Admitting the object is a desirable one, it has not been 
shown that it can be attained in that way. As has been 
remarked by an able writer, the question is, not whether ten 
men would not have more children by forty women than by 
ten ; but whether the forty women would not have more 
children, each woman having " her own husband." 



POLYGAMY. 227 

Some other reasons have been given in justification of po- 
lygamy, which I consider too absurd to require even a pass- 
ing notice. 

In a former chapter, the so-called Revelation on Celestial 
Marriage has been given, and it was there shown that po- 
lygamy was an innovation upon the Mormon religion. 

I desire now to call the attention of the women of Utah 
to a few observations on the nature of this pretended revela- 
tion, and the circumstances under which it was given to the 
world. 

1. It was, even if given as assumed, kept secret for nine 
years. Polygamy was privately practised by the leaders of 
the church for several years, during which time, according 
to Brigham's admission, it was not " preached by the Elders," 
and was therefore studiou.^ly concealed from new converts. 
Indeed, not only was it " not preached," but it was strongly 
denounced during the same period. 

On the first of February, 1844, the" following notice ap- 
peared in the " Times and Seasons," the church organ, pub- 
lished at Nauvoo. 

« NOTICE. 

' As we have lately been credibly informed, that an Elder of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, by the name of 
Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and other false and 
corrupt doctrines, in the County of Lapeer, and State of Michigan : 
' This is to notify him and the church in general, that he has 
been cut off from the church for his iniquity ; and he is further 
notified to appear at the Special Conference, on the 6th of April 
next, to make answer to these charges. 

" Joseph Smith, 

" Hyrum Smith, 

" Presidents of the Church" * 

This was seven months after the time when, according to 
Brigham Young and his associates, the Revelation concerning 
Celestial Marriage had been given to Smith. But here both 

* Times and Seasons, Vol. V. p. 423. 



228 POLYGAMY. 

Joseph and Hyrum Smith call polygamy a "false and corrupt 
doctrine." Can any true follower of Smith, or believer in his 
divine mission, believe for a moment, in the face of this dec- 
laration, that Smith had received any revelation on the 12th 
of July, 1843, sanctioning polygamy ? 

Again, six weeks later, Hyrum Smith wrote as follows : — 

" Nauvoo, March 15, 1844. 

" To the Brethren of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, living on China Creek, in Hancock County, Greeting : 

" Whereas, Brother Richard Hewett has called on me to-day, to 
know my views concerning some doctrines that are preached in 
your place, and states to me that some of your Elders say, that a 
man having a certain priesthood^ may have as many wives as he 
pleases, and that doctrine is taught here ; I say unto you, that that 
man teaches /a/se doctrine^ for there is no such doctrine taught here, 
neither is there any such thing practised here ; and any man that 
is found teaching privately or publicly any such doctrine, is culpa- 
ble, and will stand a chance to be brought before the High Council, 
and lose his hcense and membership also ; therefore he had better 
beware what he is about." * 

Polygamy was condemned at the General Conferences of 
the European churches, in England, during the year 1846, 
and subsequently. 

In July, 1845, Parley P. Pratt, in the " Millennial Star," 
published at Liverpool, had denounced the " Spiritual- Wife 
doctrine of J. C. Bennett," — which was one of the earliest 
manifestations of polygamy in the church, — as a "doctrine of 
devils " and of " seducing spirits," using this language : " It 
is but another name for whoredom, wicked and unlawful con- 
nection, and every kind of confusion, corruption, and abomi- 
nation." t 

In May, 1848, Orson Spencer, then editor of the " Star,' 
used the following language : — 

*' In all ages of the church truth has been turned into a lie, and 

* Times and Seasons, Vol. V. p. 474. 
t Millennial Star, Vol. VI. p. 22. 



POLYGAMY. 229 

the grace of God converted into lasciviousness, by men who Lave 
sought to make ' a gain ' of godliness, and feed their kists on the 
creduhty of the righteous and unsuspicious. . . . Next to the 
long-hackneyed and bugaboo whisperings of polygism, is another 
abomination that sometimes shows its serpentine crests, which we 
shall call sexual resurrectionism. . . . The doctrines of corrupt 
spirits are always in close affinity with each other, whether they 
consist in s[)iritual wife-ism, sexual resurrection, gross lascivious- 
ness, or the unavoidable separation of husbands and wives, or the 
communism of property." * 

In July, 18.30, at a discussion held at Boulogne, France, 
John Taylor, a well-known Mormon Apostle, when charged 
with the belief iind practice of this doctrine, said : — " We 
are accused here of polygamy, and actions the most indeli- 
cate, obscene, and disgusting, such that none but a corrupt 
and depraved heart could have contrived. These things are 
too outrageous to admit of belief. Therefore, leaving the 
sisters of the ' White Veil,' the ' Black Veil,' and all the 
otlier veil-, with those gentlemen to dispose of, together with 
their autliors, as they think best, I shall content myself by 
reading our views of chastity and marriage, from a work 
published by us, containing some of the articles of our faith." t 
He then read from the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, the 
article on marriage, already quoted from. 

Here we have the following facts : — 

In 1830 the Mormon Church organized, and the Book of 
Mormon was published, in which polygamy is strongly con- 
demned. 

In 1831, the same doctrine condemned, in a revelation to 
Joseph Smith, which was afterward published in the Book 
of Doctrine and Covenants. 

In July, 1843, the revelation in favor of polygamy, said 
to have bee?i given to Joseph Smith. 

In February, 1844, polygamy publicly denounced by 
Joseph and Hyrum Smith. 

* Millennial Star, Vol. X. p. 137. 

t Taylor's Jjiscussion at Buulugne, p. 8. 



230 POLYGAMY. 

In March, 1844, the same practice again denounced by 
Hyrum Smith. 

In June, 1844, the death of Smith. 

In 1845, the publication of the article on Marriage, in the 
Appendix to the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, in which 
polygamy is called a " crime," and is again strongly con- 
demned and repudiated. The same year the Spiritual- Wife 
doctrine of J. C. Bennett, denounced by P. P. Pratt, in 
England. 

In 1846, polygamy condemned at the Conferences of the 
European Mormon churches in England. 

In 1848, "polygism" and "sexual resurrectionism " se- 
verely denounced in the " Millennial Star," published in 
Liverpool. 

In 1850, polygamy denounced and repudiated by Apostle 
John Taylor, in France. 

And yet, in the face of all these facts, in 1852, we have 
the same doctrine publicly given to the chm'ch, accompanied 
by the announcement, that it had been believed and prac- 
tised by the church for many years. 

Now, it will not be pretended by any one, that polygamy 
was any part of the Mormon religion previous to 1843. 

Take, then, the period from 1843 to 1852. How was it 
during those nine years ? Which shall be taken as evidence 
of what was the teaching of the Mormon religion, on that 
subject, during that time ? The Book of Doctrine and Cov- 
enants, the Notices published by Joseph and Hyrum Smith, 
the declarations of Pratt and Spencer, the action of the 
churches in England, and the assertions of Taylor in France, 
or the announcement made in Great Salt Lake City in 1852 ? 
Are we not, at least, as much authorized to take the former as 
the latter ? 

If the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, the writings of 
Joseph and Hyrum, the continued and persistent declarations 
of the Mormon leaders, and the action of the Mormon 
churches be taken, then polygamy was no part of Mormon- 



POLYGAMY. 231 

ism up to 1852. And if not previous to that time, it was not 
afterward, for Young did not pretend to give it at that time 
as a new revelation, but rested the doctrine entirely on the 
revelation said to have been given to Joseph in 1843. 

2. A singular feature of this revelation is, that in it God 
is made expressly to contradict what he is represented as 
having said in the Book of Mormon. 

According to the Book of Mormon, as already quoted, 
God said the polygamy and concubinage of David and Solo- 
mon were abominable before him. The following is the lan- 
guage : " Behold David and Solomon truly had many wives 
and concubines, which thing was abominable before me, saith 
the Lord." 

Tiiis was the testimony of the Almighty, as to the man- 
ner in which he viewed the conduct of David and Solomon, 
up to July, 1843, when he is represented in this revelation 
as indorsing those very acts which, in the Book of Mormon, 
he had so strongly condemned. 

3. Again: This revelation classes Isaac and Moses with 
Abraham, Jacob, David, and Solomon, as polygamists ; when 
in fact neither Isaac nor Moses ever practised polygamy. 
How could the All-wise Being make such a mistake ? 

4. The most remarkable circumstance connected with this 
revelation remains to be considered, — It was in direct con- 
tradiction to the laws of the land. 

At that time, July 12, 1843, Smith resided at Nauvoo, 
Illinois, and was, of course, together with all the other inhab- 
itants of that city, amenable to the laws of Illinois. 

The following statute was then in force in that State, the 
same having been passed February 12, 1833 : — 

" Sec. 121. Bigamy consists in the having of two wives or two 
husbands at one and the same time, knowing that the former hus- 
band or wife is still alive. If any person or persons within this 
State, being married, or who shall hereafter marry, do at any time 
marry any person or persons, the former husband or wife being 
alive, the person so offending shall, on conviction thereof, be pun- 



232 P0LYGA3IY. 

ished by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprison- 
ment in the penitentiary not exceeding two years." [The remain- 
der of this section relates to evidence, and prescribes certain ex- 
emptions.] 

"Sec. 122. If any man or woman, being unmarried, shall 
knowingly marry the husband or wife of another, such man or 
woman shall, on conviction, be fined not more than five hundred 
dollars, or imprisoned not more than one year." * 

In the face of this law, which was then in full force, the 
revelation to Smith declares : " If any man espouse a virgin, 
and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent ; 
and if he espouse the secon'', and they are virgins, and have 
vowed to no other man, then is he justified." f Thus justi- 
fying the violation of both sections of the law. People may 
well hesitate, before believing in the authenticity of such a 
revelation. 

Here, again, God is made to contradict himself; for not 
only in the Christian but in the Mormon Bible, He is repre- 
sented as enjoining upon His disciples to obey the laws and 
civil authorities. The Book of Mormon abounds in such 
teachings. Tiie Book of Doctrine and Covenants is to the 
same effect : — 

" We believe that every man should be honored in his station ; 
rulers and magistrates as such being placed for the protection of 
the innocent and the punishment of the guilty ; and that to the 
laws all men owe respect and deference, as without them peace 
and harmony would be supplanted by anarchy and terror." f 

Here, again, I may quote from Mr. Orson Pratt, whose 
writings have been freely used, as of high authority in " the 
church." 

" Would it be right for the Latter Day Saints to marry a plu- 

* JlUnois Lmcs o/* 18:33, p. 198. See also Gales' Revised Statutes of 1839, 
p. 220, and Revised Statutes of 18-45, p. 173, the same law having been re- 
enacted in 1845. 

t Revelation, Sec. 24. 

J Book of Doctrine and Covenants, p. 332. 



POLYGAMY. 

rallty of wives in any of the States or Territories, or nations, 
where such practices arc prohibited by the laws of man ? "We 
answer, No ; it would not be right ; for we are commanded to be 
subject to the powers that be." * 

Since, then, it was not right to violate the laws of the 
land, then in force in Illinois on this subject, how came God 
to give a revelation sanctioning such a violation of the State 
law ? And that too, without making, in the revelation, the 
least allusion to the law which was to be so grossly violated? 

Again : Who was authorized to keep this revelation secret, 
no secrecy being enjoined in the revelation itself? 

But enough concerning this extraordinary document. It 
seems strange, indeed, that any reasonable man or woman can 
look upon this so-called revelation, announced under such 
suspicious circumstances, and involved in so many contradic- 
tions, as a sutficient authority or excuse for the establishment 
of a custom which would overturn our most cherished social 
institutions, and throw us at once back thousands of years in 
civilization. 

The conclusion would not be changed if it were admitted 
that the doctrine of celestial marriage is a part of the Mor- 
mon religion ; for that has nothing to do with polygamy. On 
the contrary, this doctrine is expressly founded upon the 
rehition between Adam and Eve before the fall. The follow- 
ing is the language : — 

" The first marriage we have on record is that of our first 
parents. . . . Here was a marriage in which the Lord in person 
officiated, — a marriage between two immortal beings. . . . 
He joined them in one, as one flesh, to be indissolubly united, 
while eternal ages should roll on, or God himself endure. . . . 
Did death tear asunder husband and wife, divorce that which God 
had joined together as ' one flesh,' immortal and eternal in its 
nature ? The atonement of Christ will repair the breach, will 
restore the immortal Eve to the immortal Adam, will join them 
again as one flesh, never more to be separated, and will again let 
the lawful husband enjoy the society of his lawful wife. . . . 
* The Seer, Yol. I. p! 111. 



234 POLYGAMY. 

" Tlierefore, if the children have been married for eternity, as 
■well as for time, by the authority of God, the same as their first 
parents were, they will, with them, raise up, after the resurrec- 
tion, an endless posterity of immortal beings. . . . But those 
who do not, in this life, enter into the eternal covenant of mar- 
riage, after the pattern set by the first immortal pair, can never 
obey the first great command." * 

The foregoing extracts convey a very intelligible idea of 
this doctrine ; and from them it will be seen it is founded 
entirely upon the relation between Adam and Eve. Those 
who would enjoy the blessings of celestial marriage, must, 
" in this life, enter into the eternal covenant of marriage, 
after the pattern set by the first immortal pair." What was 
that pattern ? Adam and Eve were monogamists. Adam 
lived with the wife of his youth, and had no other, for nine 
hundred and thirty years, and according to Pratt, he is to 
live with the same woman, in the same capacity, throughout 
all the ages of eternity. Surely he must be very astute who 
can discover in this " pattern " any sanction for polygamy. 

I might enlarge, indefinitely, upon the arguments against 
polygamy. I might go into the Jewish and Christian Scrip- 
tures, and show that it had been, in many ways, condemned 
by the Almighty. That not only had Adam been limited to 
one wife at the creation, but when the world was destroyed 
by a flood, one wife only to each man was taken into the 
ark ; — that God blessed Abraham's posterity through the 
issue of his first and lawful wife, and in order to do that, 
worked a miracle upon Sarah ; thus sanctioning monogamy 
in the strongest manner possible. I might refer to the 
warning of Malachi : " Take heed to your spirit, and let 
none deal treacherously with the wife of his youth." I 
might refer to the fact that Lamech, the first polygamist, 
was a murderer ; and that the most prominent polygamists of 
old were men guilty of the most heinous crimes. And turn- 
ing from the Old Testament to the New, I might quote the 
* n^5eer, Vol. I. pp. 43-47. 



POLYG-AJklY. 235 

words of Paul, — " To avoid fornication, let every man have 
his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband ; " 
and the words of Christ, — " From the beginning of creation, 
God made them male and female. For this cause shall a 
man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife ; and . 
they twain shall be one flesh." 

But I choose to pass over all these things, and for my 
present purpose rest the moral character of this practice 
upon the assertion, already quoted from tlie Book of Mor- 
mon, that the polygnmy and concubinage of David and Sol- 
omon were abominable before God. No Mormon can gainsay 
this testimony. 

In conclusion, to review what has been said. I have en- 
deavored to show that polygamy is unreasonable, and con- 
trary to the plain provisions and teachings of Nature ; that it 
tends to degiade woman, and to confuse and break up the 
family relation, thiis weakening the attachment to home and 
country. Other evils consequent upon this system have been 
pointed out. The arguments by which it is supported have 
been examined, and have been shown to be weak or invalid. 

A word fuither as to the case of Abraham and Sarah. 
Did God sanction the polygamy of Abraham ? 

" Now Sarai, Abram's wife, bare him no children ; and 
she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. 
And Sarai said unto Abram, 'Behold now the Lord hath 
restrained me from bearing; I pray thee go in unto my 
maid ; it may be that I may obtain children by her.' " From 
this it appears that Sarah, and not God, was the author of 
Abraham's polygamy. She had lost all hope of having chil- 
dren herself, and was willing to adopt those of her hand- 
maid. Hagar being her slave, she intended to own her cliil- 
dren. She soon, however, perceived her fatal error. Hagar 
wished to assume the rights and privileges of a wife. This 
Sarah would not listen to for a moment. 

Hagar despised her mistress, and Sarah appealed to Abra- 
ham. Abraham said, " Behold thy maid is in thy hand, do 



236 POLYGAMY. 

urjto her as it pleaseth thee." "And Sarah dealt hardly 
with her, and she fled from her face." Isaac was born. The 
son of Hagar was seen mocking, and Sarah desired Abra- 
ham to cast him out. "And the thing was grievous in 
Abraham's sight, because of his son. And God said unto 
Abraham, ' Let it not be grievous in thy sight, because of 
the lad, and because of thy bond-woman ; in all that Sarah 
hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice ; for in Isaac 
shall thy seed he called.' " 

Again : " God tempted Abraham, saying, ' Take now thy 
son, thine ordy son, Isaac,' " &c. And again : " Thou hast not 
withheld thy son, thine only son." For this reason God 
blessed Abraham, and said, " In blessing I will bless thee, 
and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of 
the heaven, or the sands on the sea-shore ; " but, " in Isaac 
shall thy seed be called." 

God thus plainly and unequivocally condemned Abra- 
hamic polygamy, refused to recognize Ishmael as a legiti- 
mate son, and disinherited him. He thence went forth, as a 
cast-out bastard, whose " hand was against every man, and 
every man's hand against him." 

Sisters in Israel ! You are told that Sarah is the mother 
and pattern for all women. She is held up as a bright ex- 
ample of conjugal loyalty and faith for females — wives and 
mothers — of all ages. Follow, then, her example. If 
through a mistaken faith and false doctrines, you have been 
induced to give mistresses to your husbands, turn them from 
you; purify your homes, as Sarah did, and the same God 
who blessed her will bless you, and multiply your children. 

Sisters in Israel ! If you have been led astray by wicked 
and designing men, and have been caught in their snares, 
arise, and by the help of the Lord your God, break the 
bonds of wickedness, and go forth and purify yourselves by 
fasting and prayer ; and the God who blessed Hagar in the 
wilderness will bless you, and show you a fountain, even the 
blood of Christ, which will cleanse you from all sin. 



POLYGAMY. 237 

May God guide and direct the afflicted women of Utah, 
and speedily deliver them from their thraldom. 

The practical working of polygamy is wliat might be ex- 
pected from 9. system the fundamental principles of which 
are in direct opposition to the laws of God and man. 

A few instances and illustrations will be given, from 
among a thousand which might be adduced to show the un- 
happiness and misery it entails upon all parties concerned, 
and especially upon those females who are so unfortunate as 
to be drawn into it. 

A Mr. Cushion was engaged to be married to IMiss Susan 
McBride, when he was taken sick and died. He had been 
a great favorite of Heber C. Kimball, Second President of 
the Church, who desired he should be saved and glorified 
in another world. But to that end, he must have a family. 
Accordingly Heber visited Miss McBride, and urged her to 
marry the man whom she had loved, by proxy ; explaining 
to her that it was a reh'gious duty which she owed to her 
affianced husband. The poor girl, puzzled and troubled, 
and desirous of being in the society of the loved one, and 
contributing to his happiness in the next, world, consented. 

Heber then applied to Robert T. Burton, and induced him 
to marry the girl. Burton is the Sheriff of Salt Lake Coun- 
ty, and Collector of Internal Revenue for the United States 
Government ! He is a fit instrument to carry out any scheme 
of the heads of the church, and required but little induce- 
ment to undertake this one. The poor girl was thus disposed 
of, by being sealed to Cushion for eternity, and to Burton, as 
bis third wife, for time. She was taken home, and domiciled 
with the other two. 

These worthy matrons were not pleased with the appear- 
ance of a new wife, and claiming their rights as the only 
real wives, who had been sealed to their husband both for 
time and eternity, resolved at once to make it exceedingly 
uncomfortable for the new-comer. This they did effectually, 
and Susan's life was a very unhappy one. But time passed 
on, and she became the mother of several children. 



238 POLYGAMY. 

Susan was not allowed equal privileges with the other two. 
She had but one small room, in which she cooked, ate, slept, 
and spun, while the other two had splendid chambers and 
parlors, — for Burton is wealthy. When she complained 
to Burton, he said, — " Susan, you know I have only married 
you for time, and you must not expect the same privileges 
which I grant to my other wives, who are married for eter- 
nity, and who will exalt and glorify me in the celestial king- 
dom. You ought to be thankful for what you do receive, 
and not fi-et about my other wives." 

The first wife takes control of Susan's children, in contra- 
diction to the entire theory of this complex and unnatural 
relationship, and the mother is frequently obliged to see them 
severely punished, and suffer in silence. One day the first 
wife's boys and one of Susan's were in the barn, doing some 
mischief. The first wife went out and commanded tlie boys 
to come away. Her own boys ran past unharmed, but when 
Susan's boy, the youngest of the three, came out, she caught 
him, beat him, threw him on the ground, and kicked him. 

This is but one of many instances, where women are living 
in this way, being married to one man for time, and sealed 
to another for eternity. This narrative was given me by 
one who had lived in the family for several months, and saw 
and heard what is herein stated. 

A coarseness of feeling and sentiment, scarcely credible, 
is another result of this state of society. Kimball one day 
met a Mr. Taussig, a Prussian brother. " Brother Taussig," 
he said, " are you doing well ? " " Yes, sir," was the reply. 
" Then you do well for the church too," said the Second Pres- 
ident ; " how many women have you ? " " Two, sir." " That 
is not enough ; you must take a couple more. I '11 send them 
to you. Do you hear?" "Yes, sir." On the following 
evening, when the brother returned home, he found two 
women sitting there. His first wife said : " Brother Taussig," 
(all the women call their husbands " brother,") " these are the 
sisters Pratt." They were two widows of Parley P. Pratt. 



POLYGAMY. 239 

One of the ladies, Sarah, then said : " Brother Taussig, Brother 
Kimball told us to call on you, and you know what for." 
" Yes, ladies," replied Brother Taussig, '• but it is a very hard 
task for me to marry two." The other remarked, " Brother 
Kimball told us that you were doing a very good business, 
and could support more women." Sarah then took up the 
conversation : " Well, Brother Taussig, I want to get mar- 
ried, anyhow." The good brother replied, " Well, ladies, I 
will see what I can do, and let you know." 

The next day, Brother Taussig visited the Bishop, and 
effected a compromise. By marrying Sarah he was released 
from the other. After he had lived awhile with the three 
wives, Sarah became dissatisfied, and applied to Brother 
Brigham for a divorce. Brother Taussig was summoned 
before the President, and made but feeble resistance to the 
application, admitting that he could not properly maintain 
more than two wives. The divorce was granted, and Brother 
Taussig was called upon by the clerk for $10. For not 
having the money, he received a cursing from the clerk, 
and Sarah was retained in the royal presence, with the as- 
surance that it was '' no divorce," until the money was brought 
in. Brother Taussig went on to the street, borrowed it, and 
brought it into the office, — and thus ended this disgusting 
serio-comic conjugal farce.* 

Other incidents are more serious in their nature. One of 
them, which came to my knowledge, would be too horrible 
to relate, were not the facts well authenticated. 

An old man, a brewer by occupation, married a young 
girl, as a second wife. The husband and the first wife 
abused her shamefully. Finally, after a long course of ill- 
treatment, the husband descended to the level of the brute. 
On one occasion, which was but a few days after her confine- 

* To explain the part which Brother Kimball actefd in this affair, it after- 
ward appeared that he was anxious to have Sarah provided for because he 
•wanted the house that Sarah lived in, for his daughter, who was about to 
marry a son of Parley P. Pratt. 



240 POLYGAMY. 

ment, exasperated by her refusal to yield to his wishes, he 
dragged her out of bed by the hair, took her down cellar, 
and kept her there several days and nights, upon bread and 
water, until her cries and entreaties were overheard by per- 
sons in the Overland Stage-Office, which was near by. The 
matter was investigated, and the poor and almost dying 
woman released from the clutches of the fiend. She was 
taken violently ill, and soon after lost her reason entirely. 

No notice was taken of this transaction by the church 
authorities, and the inhuman husband went unpunished. 

Wife-whipping is by no means uncommon in Utah. Many 
names might be mentioned of men of high standing in the 
church, who make no scruple of using personal violence to 
keep their wives in due subordination. It is a common say- 
ing, that a man who is good at managing cattle, will be able 
to manage his women. 

One would suppose that it would be very difficult to induce 
women to go into " plurality " under such circumstances. 
On the contrary, so infatuated are they with the religious 
view of the subject, that many of them look upon it as a 
duty to be performed, and a cross to be borne, no matter at 
what saciifice. 

One of the sisters, in conversation with me, expressed her 
views upon polygamy as follows : " Oh, it is hard," she said, 
" very hard ; but no matter, we must bear it. It is a correct 
principle, and there is no salvation without it. We had one, 
(meaning a plural wife,) but it was so hard, both for my hus- 
band and myself, that we could not endure it, and she left us 
at the end of seven months. She had been with us as a ser- 
vant, several months, and was a good girl; but as soon as 
she was made a wife, she became insolent, and told me she 
had as good a right to the house and things as I had, and 
you know," she said, " that did n't suit very well. But," 
continued she, " I wish we had kept her, and I had borne 
everything, for we have got to have one, and don't you think 
it would be pleasanter to have one you had known, than a 



POLYGAMY. 241 

Stranger?" I told her I thouG^ht it would, if it had to be 
done, but I hoped my husband would not take one. She 
said, *' He '11 have to do it, if you and he want to be 
saved." 

That the system of polygamy is really distasteful to the 
women of Utah, — that they are unhappy and dissatisfied, 
especially the first wives, is sufficiently shown by the public 
admissions of the church authorities. The admission of 
Young to that effect, made in the strongest language, has al- 
rea<ly been given. Jedediah Grant, one of the " three," also 
conceded the same fact in a sermon preaclied at the Bowery, 
in September, 1856, in the following language : — 

" We have women here, who like anything but the Celestial 
Law of God ; and if they could break asunder the cable of the 
Church of Christ, there is scarcely a mother in Israel hut would do 
it this day. And they talk it to their husbands, to their daughters, 
and to their neighbors, and say they have not seen a week's happi- 
ness since they became acquainted with that law, or since their hus- 
bands took a second wife'* 

Nothing but the strong appeals constantly made to their 
religious faith and moral sentiments, could hold them where 
they are for a single day. Many instances might be given, 
illustrating the workings of the system. 

The writer has no disposition to bring private individuals 
into public notice, especially those who deserve only to sink 
into obscurity. But as this is a subject which affects the 
whole country, and must eventually be disposed of, upon the 
basis of yac^s, we shall give two or three other instances, cit- 
ing cases of persons so well known, that the facts will not be 
questioned for a moment. 

Mr. Townsend, a hotel-keeper at Salt Lake, married a 
young wife. The other wife became disgusted, and refused 
to remain in the house. So, in another house back of the 
hotel, lived the first wife, leading a miserable, unhappy life, 
looking upon the second wife as an interloper, having 
16 



242 POLYGAMY. 

an unutterable contempt for her, and refusing to speak 
to her. 

Mrs. Captain Hooper, an intelligent and lady-like woman, 
says she does not like to think of the subject, — would rather 
not talk about it ; admits that if her husband were to take a 
second wife, it would make her very unhappy, but says it is 
a part of her religion, and she believes it would be her duty 
to submit. It is known that Brigham urges Captain H. to 
take a second wife, and it is thought the Captain will be 
forced into it by the absolute power, whose behests he must 
obey, no matter how contrary to his own inclinations it may 
be. He was once seen to come out of the President's office 
with tears in his eyes, after having had a conversation upon 
the subject. 

T. B. H. Stenhouse, an active, intelligent man, holding 
the office of Postmaster at Salt Lake, under the Federal 
Government, has a beautiful and accomplished wife, and an 
interesting family of eight children. For a long time after 
arriving in Utah, he remained true to his wife. She lived 
in constant apprehension that her husband would " go into 
polygamy," and so much was she opposed to it, that she once 
said to me in his presence, that if he did, she could not and 
M'ould not live with him longer. 

Mr. Cook, the Superintendent and Assistant Treasurer of 
the Overland Stage Company, who was accidentally killed 
in California, was, during his lifetime, on intimate terms with 
Stenhouse, and is supposed to have exercised considerable in- 
fluence to prevent him from embracing the pernicious sys- 
tem. It is known that on one occasion. Cook, hearing that 
Stenhouse contemplated something of the kind, threatened 
him with a prosecution under the Anti-Polygamy Law of 
Congress. 

Cook was killed, as stated, and soon after, Stenhouse, freed 
from any restraint except the church and his own pliable 
conscience, married Celia, daughter of Parley P. Pratt, a 
pert little miss, fourteen years of age, and took her into his 



POLYGAMY. 243 

family, with his eight children and the wife with whom he 
had lived so many years. And this too, in open violation of 
a law of the United States, under the govenmient of which 
he holds a lucrative commission ! 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE ENDOWMENT. 

Dramatis PersoncB. 

Eloheiih, or Eead God, Brigham Young. 

Jehovah, Heber C. Kimball. 

Jesus, Daniel H. Wells. 

Michael, or Adam, W. C. Staines. 

Sata>^ W. W. Phelps. 

Apostle Petek, Orson Pratt. 

Apostle James, John Taylor. 

Apostle John, Erastus Snow. 

W^ASHER, Dr. Sprague. 

Clerk, David 0. Calder. 

Eve, Miss Eliza R. Snow. 

Timothy Broadbrim, a Quaker, Wilford Woodruff. 

Deacon Smith, a Ifethodist, Orson Hyde. 

Parson Peabody, a Presbyterian, Franklin D. Richards. 

Elder Smooth-Tongue, a Baptist, Phineas H. Young. 

Father Boniface, a Catholic, George A. Smith. 

Brother and Sister Jones, 

Brother and Sister White, 

Sister Mary Brown, to be sealed }• Endowees. 

to Brother White, 
Several other Candidates, 

ACT I. Scene I. 

\^Enter Candidates. 
Clerh Good-morning, brethren and sisters. Be seated. 
Brother White, please state the time and place of your 
birth, date of your marriage, and the time when you were 
baptized into the church. 

Bro. W. I was born November 3d, 1801, in the town of 
Portsmouth, in New Hampshire. I was married January 1st, 
1824, and was baptized into the church April 1st, 1860. 



THE ENDOWMENT. 245 

Cleric. Have you paid your tithing punctually? If so, 
produce your receipts. [These are read, and handed back.] 
That is sufficient. You are entitled to receive your endow- 
ments. 

Sister White, will you state when and where you were 
born, and when you became a member of the church ? 

Sister W. I was born September 18th, 1815, in the State 
of New York, and became a member of the church in 1852. 

Clerk. Sister Mary Brown, please state when and where 
you were born, and when you became a member of the 
church. 

Sister Mary. I was born June 20th, 1849, in Great Salt 
Lake City, and was baptized into the church in 1860. 

[The Clerk propounds the same questions to all the candi- 
dates, and enters their answers in the record.] 

Clerk. You will now proceed to the washing-room, the 
brethren on the right, and the sisters on the left. 

Apostle Peter. You will remove your shoes, that the dust 
of earth may not pollute the holy ground on which you are 
about to tread. 

[The candidates are then washed in tepid water, and each 
member blessed with a blessing peculiar to each. They are 
then pronounced clean from the blood of this generation, and' 
a new name is given to each by the Apostle Peter. They 
then return to the waiting-room, where the brethren are 
anointed with oil, the sisters receiving their anointing in their 
own washing-room. 

This ceremony consists in pouring olive-oil upon the head 
of each, well rubbed into the hair, nose, eyes, and mouth, and 
allowed to run down over the person. It is accompanied by 
a blessing, similar to that received at the washing. Brain to 
be strong, ears to be quick to hear the words of God's ser- 
vants, eyes to be sharp to perceive, and feet to be swift to 
run in the ways of righteousness. This is the anointing ad- 
ministered preparatory to being ordained a " King and Priest 
unto God and the Lamb." 



246 THE ENDOWMENT. 

Thus greased and blessed, the " garments " are put on. A 
dress of muslin or linen is worn next to the skin, reaching 
from the neck to the ankles and wrists, and in shape like a 
little child's sleeping garment. Over this a shirt, then a 
robe, made of fine linen, crossing and gathered up in plaits 
on one shoulder, reaching to the ground before and behind, 
and tied around the waist. Over this is fastened a small, 
square apron, similar in size and shape to a masonic apron, 
made of white Hnen or silk, with imitation of fig-leaves painted 
or worked upon it. A cap made from a square yard of linen, 
and gathered into a band to fit the head, and w^hite linen or 
cotton shoes, complete the dress of the candidates.] 

SCENE II. Creation. 

Moheirrij seated upon his Throne. 

[Enter Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael. 

Elohehn. " Ye powers of Heaven ! " This day hath 
Satan, our rebellious foe, been vanquished. Lest he again 
presumptuous rise, let us create new worlds, and people them 
with beings who by slow degrees shall rise and fill the place 
of those by him deceived. Go forth, ye heavenly messen- 
gers ; examine well the boundless realms of space, and bring 
report from thence back to the Eternal Throne. 

Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael, [all]. Eternal father ! Great 
Eloheim, Maker and King of the celestial worlds. Joyful 
we go, thy mandates to fulfil. 

[Exeunt Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael. 

Eloheim. Far into chaos proudly ride my messengers. 
Winds bear them onward, o'er the deep profound. 

[Reenter Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael. 

Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael, [dlY]. Almighty Ruler. The 
way is clear. Send forth thy Word alone, and worlds will 
rise, and circle into space, obedient to thy call. 

Elo. " Silence, ye troubled waves ! your discord end. 
Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds. This be thy circum- 
ference, world ! " 



THE E^TDOWMEXT. 247 

Jeh. Behold the Earth. " Matter unformed and void ; 
darkness profound covers the abyss." 

Mich. But see, "the Spirit of God outspread, and vital vir- 
tue infused, and vital warmth throughout the fluid mass. Like 
things to like ! The rest to several place disparted." And 
in the air, " the Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hangs." 

Eh. " Let there be light." 

Jesus. " Hail ! Holy light. Offspring of Heaven, first 
born." 

Elo. The light is good. Let darkness flee into the shades 
of night, and light make up the day. 

Mich. Hark ! " the celestial choirs, when orient light, ex- 
haling first from darkness, they behold, — birthday of Heaven 
and Earth; with joy and shout, the hollow, universal orb 
they fill." 

Elo. " Let there be a firmament amid the waters, and let 
it divide the waters from the waters." 

Jeh. " Behold the firmament, — expanse of liquid, pure, 
transparent, elemental air. diffused in circuit to the uttermost 
convex ; partition firm and sure, the waters underneath from 
those above dividing." 

Jesus. The water still doth compass all the Earth, mould- 
ing the plastic mass, and doth implant, within her genial 
breast, the seeds of various life. 

Elo. " Be gathered, now, ye waters under Heaven, into 
one j)lace, and let dry land appear." Land, freed from your 
prison-house, arise, and be called Earth. Ye waters, — sens. 
Now " let the Earth put forth the verdant grass, herb yield- 
ing seed, and fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind, whose 
seed is in herself, upon the Earth." 

Mich. Oh, sight sublime! The Earth, till now, barren 
and fruitless was; "her universal face" now clothed in 
" pleasant green." Listen, ye Gods ! The morning stars, 
which in the vast expanse of Heaven, circle their rounds, 
together sing. The sons of God, swift-winged angels, shout 
for joy. 



248 THE ENDOWMENT. 

Elo. " Let there be lights, high in the expanse of Heaven, 
to divide the day from the night ; and let them be for signs, 
for seasons and for days, and circling years ; and let them 
be for lights, as I ordain their office, in the firmament of 
Heaven, to give hght on the Earth." " Two great lights, — 
great for their use to man, — the greater to have rule by 
day, the less by night ; the stars I also set in the high firma- 
ment, to illuminate the Earth, and rule the day in their 
vicissitude, and rule the night, and light from darkness to 
divide." 

Jeh. Behold, " the thousand, thousand stars, that now 
appear, spangling the hemisphere," the luminaries bright, 
that rise and set, and crown the glory of the fourth new day. 

Elo. '' Let the waters generate reptile, with spawn abun- 
dant ; living soul ; and let fowl fly above the Earth, with 
WMugs displayed, on the open firmament of Heaven, and the 
great whales, and each soul living, each that creeps, and in 
the waters generate, and each bird of its kind, — let each be 
blessed ; " " be fruitful, multiply, and in the seas and lakes, 
and running streams, the waters fill : and let the fowl be 
multiplied." 

Jesus. Let Heaven rejoice, let Earth be glad, and hail 
the dawning of the fifth new day. 

Elo. This is the sixth and last morn of creation. Let 
every creature forth, from his genial mother, cattle and 
creeping thing, and beast of earth, each of his kind. All, all 
is good, and pleasing in my sight. 

Jesus. " Now Heaven in all her glory shines. Earth, in 
her rich attire, consummate, lovely, smiles ; air, water, earth, 
fowl, fish, and beast are here, and yet there wants the master 
work of all yet done ; a creature endued with reason, which 
erect may stand, and self-acknowledged, govern all the rest." 

Elo. " Let us make man, in our own image, man in our 
similitude, and let them rule over the fish and fowl of sea 
and air, beast of the field, and over all the earth, and every 
creeping thing, that creeps the ground." Thou art created 



THE ENDOWMENT. 249 

male and female, in the form and likeness of the Gods. Go 
forth, be blessed; "be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth, 
subdue it, and throughout dominion hold " over all, all else 
that breathes upon its bosom. Now all is finished, all com- 
plete and perfect. Immortal Gods, let us to our high seat 
ascend, that from our lofty throne our perfect works we may 
behold. 

[To represent the creation of man, Jehovah, Jesus, and 
Michael stroke each candidate separately, pretending to 
form ; and by blowing into their faces, pretend to vivify 
them. They are then supposed to be as Adam, newly made, 
and perfectly ductile in the hands of their makers. A deep 
sleep then falls upon the new Adam, and ribs are extracted, 
out of which, in another apartment, their wives are formed. 
They are then commanded to awake, and their wives are 
introduced to them ; after which they file by twos into the 
garden.] 

SCENE III. Garden of Eden. 

[Enter Adam and Eve, and Endowees. 

Eve. " Well may we labor, still to dress this garden, — 
still to tend plant, herb and flower, our pleasant task en- 
joined." " Let us divide our labors," each where seemeth 
good ; and thus, as night draws on, our task will be accom- 
plished. 

Adam. " Sole Eve, associate sole, to me beyond compare, 
above all living creatures dear ! A doubt possesses me, lest 
harm befall thee, severed from me ; for thou knowest what 
hath been warned us, what malicious foe envies our happi- 
ness." 

IJve. " Offspring of Heaven, and all Earth's Lord ! That 
such an enemy we have, who seeks our ruin, both by thee 
informed, and from the parting angel overhead ; but that 
thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt, to God or thee, 
because we have a foe may tempt it, I expected not to hear." 

Adam. "Daughter of God and man, immortal Eve, — 



250 THE ENDOWMENT. 

for such thou art ; from sin and blame entire ; I, from the 
influence of thy looks, receive access in every virtue. Why 
shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel when I am 
present, and thy trial choose with me, — best witness of thy 
virtue tried." 

Eve. "' If this be our condition, thus to dwell in narrow 
circuit, straitened by a foe, how are we happy still, in fear of 
harm ? " 

Adam. " woman, best are all things as the will of God 
ordains them ; therefore go ; for thy stay, not free, absents 
thee more." 

Eve. " With thy permission then, and thus forewarned," 
I go. 

[Enter Satan, in the form of a serpent, half man, half 
snake. He discovers Eve in a bower of roses, and watches 
her at a distance.] 

Satan. "Thoughts, whither have ye led me? — what 
hither brought us ? Hate, not love, but all pleasure to de- 
stroy." [He approaches Eve.] " Wonder not, sovran mis- 
tress, fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair, at my appear- 
ance, half man, half beast, but approach and view tliis goodly 
tree, the fruit of which such wonders work." 

Eve. " Serpent, we might have spared our coming hither," 
for " of this tree we may not taste or touch ; thus hath our 
God commanded." 

Sata?i. " Indeed ! Hath God then said, that of the fruit 
of all these garden trees ye shall not eat, yet lords declared 
of all in earth or air ? " 

Eve. " Of the fruit of each tree in the garden we may 
eat, but of the fruit of this fair tree, amidst the garden, God 
hath said, ' Ye shall not eat thereof, nor shall ye touch it, 
lest ye die.' " 

Satan. " O sacred, wise, and wisdom-giving plant ; mother 
of science ! Now I feel thy power within me clear, not only 
to discern things in their causes, but to trace the ways of 
highest agents, deemed however wise. Queen of this Uni- 



THE ENDOWMENT. 251 

verse! Do not believe these rigid threats of death; — ye 
shall not die.'' Your tyrant ruler knows full well, that in 
the day ye eat thereof, ye shall be as Gods, and good from 
evil know. " Goddess humane, reach then, and freely taste." 

[Satan plucks the fiiiit and presents it. Eve receives it, 
and after considerable hesitation, tastes, and finally eats it. 
Adam soon after enters.] 

Eve. " Hast thou not wondered at my stay ? Thee have 
I missed ; '' for I have tasted of the tree to us forbidden, and 
such delight till now have never felt. Taste thou, [oflfers him 
the fruit,] and be a God. 

[Adam stands amazed and sorrowful, dropping a garland 
from his hand.] 

Adam. " fairest of creation ! Some cursed fraud of 
enemy hath beguiled thee, and me with thee hath ruined ; 
for with thee certain my resolution is to die." [He eats.] 
Oh, fruit delicious, fit indeed for Gods. From us withheld, 
lest being Gods, we cease to obey our tyrant Lord. 

[They soon begin to see their true condition. They re- 
proach each other. They discover their nakedness, make 
aprons of fig-leaves, and wear them. The voice of Eloheim 
is heard in another part of the garden.] 

Elo. " Adam, where art thou ? Why hast thou fled and 
hid thyself? What hast thou done?" 

Adam. O Lord, my Maker and Preserver ! Thy voice I 
heard, when thou didst walk amid the trees, but being naked, 
I did fear to see thy face. Confusion dire and shame filled 
all my soul. 

Elo. " AV^ho told thee thou wast naked ? Hast thou then 
eaten of that tree, to thee forbidden ? " 

Adam. The woman whom Ihou gavest me did give this 
fruit unto my lips ; and 1 did eat. 

Elo. O woman, fair but frail. Why hast thou done this 
deed of sin ? 

Eve. " The serpent me beguiled, and I did eat." 

Elo. "Because thou hast done this, thou art accursed 



252 THE ENDOWMENT. 

above all cattle, each beast of the field. Upon thy belly 
grovelling thou shalt go, and dust shalt eat, all the days of 
thy life. Between thee and the woman I will put enmity, 
and between thine and her seed : her seed shall bruise thy 
head, tliou bruise his heel." And thou, Eve, " thy sorrow 
I will greatly multiply by thy conception : children thou 
shalt bring in sorrow forth, and to thy husband's will thine 
shall submit ; he over thee shall rule." And thou, Adam, 
" because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and 
eaten of the tree concerning which I charged thee, saying, 
*Thou shalt not eat thereof;' cursed is the ground for thy 
sake ; thou in sorrow shalt eat thereof all the days of thy 
life ; thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth unbid ; 
and thou shalt eat the herb of the field ; in the sw^eat of thy 
face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground ; 
for thou out of the ground wast taken ; know thy birth ; 
for dust thou art, and shalt to dust return." 

Elo. [To Jehovah, Jesus, and Michael.] "Behold the 
man is become as one of us, knowing good from evil ; and 
now, lest he in some unguarded hour put forth his hand, 
take of the tree of life, and live forever, we must forth from 
hence expel him." We will place from Eden eastward cher- 
ubims, and flaming sword, turning which way soever he may 
attempt an entrance. 

Adam. " miserable of happy ! Is this the end of this 
new, glorious world ? — and me, so late the glory of that 
glory ? Accursed of blessed, hide me from the face of God, 
whom to behold was once my height of happiness." 

Eve. " O unexpected stroke, worse than of death ! Must 
I thus leave thee, Paradise ? — thus leave thee, native soil, 
— these happy walks and shades, fit haunt of Gods, where I 
had hoped to spend, quiet though sad, the respite of that day 
that must be mortal to us both ? O flowers ! that never will 
in other climate grow, my earliest visitation and my last 
at even, which I bred up with tender hand, from the first 
opening bud, and gave ye names ! Who now shall rear ye 



THE ENDOWMENT. 253 

to the sun, or rank your tribes, and water from the ambrosial 
fount ? Thee, lastly, nuptial bower I by me adorned with 
what to sight or smell was sweet ! From thee, how shall I 
part, and whither wander, down into a world, to this ob- 
scure and wild ? How shall we breathe in other air, less 
pure, accustomed to immortal fruits ? '* 

Elo. O man, thy cries of penitence and woe have reached 
my ears. I will a plan unfold, obedience to which, rendered 
w^th deep humility, shall by degrees redeem and bring you 
back to Heaven. 

My holy priesthood I henceforth establish upon Earth. To 
those endowed with that high calling, as unto me, shalt thou 
with reverence bow. Their power supreme, commands in- 
disputable, in my stead, I appoint them unto you. They are 
to act henceforth as I myself. 

[Here oaths of inviolable secrecy, with the penalty of 
throat-cutting, are administered to the awe-stricken and in- 
timidated neophytes. They are sworn to render implicit 
obedience to the priesthood, and to depend upon them for 
everything ; especially not to touch any woman, unless given 
through the priesthood. 

A sign, a grip, and a key-word are given to the endowees, 
and the First Degree of the A aronic Priesthood is conferred.] 

Elo. You are now endowed with one law of purity, one 
key of truth, and one power of priesthood. Go forth into 
the world, ye fallen ones, and seek for trutii. Obey the 
voice of God and his holy priesthood, and I will send to 
Earth a Saviour, that through faith and obedience you shall 
again inherit your lost estate, again enjoy the ambrosial fruits 
in the celestial kingdom of the Gods. 

[Exeunt all. 

SCENE rV. The World. 

[Enter Adam, Eve, Endowees, and Sectarians. 
Timothy Broadbrim. I feel the movement of the Spirit 
to speak unto thee. Thou knowest that the world is lost in 



254 THE ENDOWMENT. 

sin and wickedness. But ye should "resist not evil," but 
" overcome evil with good." " If a man take away thy cloak, 
give him thy coat also." Raise not thy hand to harm a fel- 
low-creature. " Charity suffereth long and is kind ! " See 
that no brother be in want ; look ye after the widow and the 
fatherless. 

Deacon Smith. Brethren and Sisters, — I rise to address 
you a few words, founded upon the following passage of 
Scripture : — " And there shall be weeping and wailing, 
and gnashing of teeth." Oh, this is a fearful doom. Oh, ye 
sinners, hear. There is a lake which burns with fire and 
brimstone ; you are on the very brink ; do you not see thou- 
sands of the damned weltering in its burning waves ? You 
are, as it were, on a greased plank, sliding, and sliding, as 
swift as the wheels of Time can roll, down to this awful gulf. 
[Sisters begin to shriek and faint.] Flee from the wrath to 
come ; fly to Jesus ; come to the mourners' bench ; cry 
mightily to God for help. He alone can save you. Come, 
come, come to Jesus. Brethren and sisters, sing, — 
" Where shall the guilty soul find rest? " etc. 

Parson Peahody [speaking through his nose]. My dear 
hearers, this is a fallen world. We are all in the gall of 
bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. Satan, the great 
enemy of mankind, is ever seeking our destruction. Let us 
close our hearts against his wiles, and come to Jesus, and if 
we are of the elect, foreordained from before the creation of 
the world, we shall be saved ; and if not, we shall be lost. 
We can do nothing of ourselves. We are in the hands of a 
just and wise God, who doeth all things well. 

In the language of the divine poet, — 

*' If you can, if you can't; 
If you will, if you won't; 
You '11 be damned if you do, 
You '11 be damned if you don't." 

Let the brethren remember their covenants, and let them 
bring their offspring to the altar, and there consecrate them 



THE EXDOWilENT. 255 

to Grod, through the ordinance of sprinkling; and if they are 
to be saved, they will be saved. Otherwise, though not a 
span long, they will go down to the bottomless pit. 

Eldei' Long face. Brethren, — The subject of my discourse 
will be found in the following text : " Whom he did predes- 
tinate," &c. 

We learn from this, — 1st, That we are sinners. 2d, We 
need a Saviour. 3d, That we must be baptized by immer- 
sion. 4th, That we should exclude from the communion- 
table all such as are not immersed. 5th, That many are 
called, but few chosen. 6th, That those who are chosen will 
be saved, without their own action in the matter. 7th, That 
those who are not chosen w^ill be damned, no matter what 
they do, in and of their own strength ; and lastly, in order to 
have the least opportunity to be saved, you must join the 
Baptist Church. 

The Lord grant that many may embrace the truth as it is 
in Christ Jesus, and unite with " our church," and be saved. 
The brethren will sing, — 

" O, when shall we see Jesus," &c., 

Father Boniface [with pages, robes, candles, &c.]. Te 
Deum laudamiis. [They sing.] O Divine Queen of the 
skies. Holy Mother of God, to thee we lift up our voices. 
Grant us thy divine intercession with thy dear Son, that we, 
through his precious blood, may be made clean. Bless thy 
believing children, make them faithful to their Holy Father 
the Pope, diligent in counting their beads, and saying their 
matins and vespers. O Holy Mother, keep them from all 
sin ; especially grant them grace to eat no meat on Friday, 
and we will ever adore and bless thee, Father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit. Amen. 

Let the choir sing Ave Maria, Benedicite. 

[Enter Satan. 

Satan. Good-morning, brethren. I love you all; you 
are my friends. I am gratified to find you so faithful in 



256 THE ENDOWIVIENT. 

assisting me to build up my kingdom. Rest assured, you 
shall be rewarded. You shall be kings and princes when I 
succeed in setting up my throne upon the Earth. 

[Enter A})ostles Petkk, James, and John. 

Peter. Why dost thou tempt the children of men, and lie 
in wait to deceive them ? 

Satan. " Let me alone. What have I to do with thee," 
thou follower of Jesus ? I know thou hast the holy priest- 
hood of God, — 

Peter, James, and John, [all.] And in the name of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and of the holy priesthood, we command 
you to depart from hence. 

[The Devil foams, hisses, and rushes out, chased by the 
Apostle Peter.] 

James. My children, hearken now unto my voice. When 
in these last days God saw the lost condition of mankind, his 
heart was moved with pity, and He sent with me Peter and 
John, and commanded us, saying, " Go ye to Earth, and seek 
me a good man, of the lineage of Joseph, who was carried 
away into Egypt, and of the lineage of the prophets, even 
Joseph Smith." Restore to him the lost priesthood. Be- 
stow upon him the keys of power ; make him Prophet, Seer, 
and Revelator, and let him reestablish my church upon the 
Earth." Behold, this was done, and the same power and au- 
thority has now descended from Joseph to Brigham. Hear ye 
him, the representative of God on Earth. Him reverence and 
obey, and ye shall advance toward the kingdom of Heaven. 

[An oath, penalty, the heart to be plucked out, with ago- 
nizing details, is administered. The utmost secrecy is im- 
pressed, and the Second Degree of the Aaronic Priesthood is 
conferred, with signs, grips, &c.] 

ACT 11. Scene I. 
Room with an altar in the centre. 

[Enter Ajjostles Peter, James, and John, with the candidates for endow- 
ment. 

Peter. Dearly beloved, you are now in the way of salva- 



THE ENDOWMENT. 257 

tion. Be faithful to each other, and all your brethren. 
Betray not the secret things of Zion to the ungodly gentiles. 
Think not with your own thoughts, but come to the priest- 
hood. They are the mediators between God and man. 
Obey, without murmuring, whatever they command, though 
it may seem to you unjust or unreasonable. Your hearts are 
not so fully sanctified as to enable you to judge as to the 
merit of their acts. Be ever ready and wilhng to forsake 
father or mother, husband or wife, houses or lands, for the 
glory of Zion, and the upbuilding of God's kingdom on the 
Eaith. And more especially, brethren, as you value your 
eternal salvation and temporal welfare, speak no evil of the 
Lord's anointed. 

[An oath is now administered, with particulars the most 
disgusting and revolting, Another sign, key-word, and grip, 
are communicated, and the First Degree of the Melchisedec 
Priesthood is conferred.] 

SCENE II. 

Another room with an altar in the centre; on it the BihUy 
Book of Mormon, and Book of Doctrine and Covenants. 
Jehovah in the room, and Eloheim in the next, looking on. 
The candidates are ranged round the altar. The Apostles 
are also present. 

Peter. You are now in a saved condition, and acceptable 
in the sight of God. You are to enter on the work of the 
Lord, in truth and sincerity. 

" Behold now," saith the Lord, " the wicked and ungodly 
gentiles ; they have slain the Prophet Joseph, persecuted 
the saints, and mocked at my priesthood. Therefore, O 
Israel, arise in thy strength, go forth and revenge the wrongs 
of my people on this perverse generation. They have spilled 
the blood of the saints, and wasted their substance. There- 
fore let their blood be spilled, and let their substance be 
wasted." 

17 



258 THE ENDOWMENT. 

Let the curse of God rest on this nation and Government. 
Let wars and famine, and cruel pestilence overtake them, and 
let the Church of God, in its glory and power, rule over all 
the nations, and fill the whole earth. 

Therefore, brethren, be ye vigilant ; and let no opportunity 
pass to vindicate the name of your God ; and if you cannot 
do it, teach it to your children. Let them take it from their 
mother's breast. Teach it to them from your bed of death, 
and leave it for an inheritance, that all people may know that 
the God of Israel has set his hand to gather his people, and 
to destroy the wicked from off the face of the earth. 

[Here another oath is administered, binding the endowee 
to revenge the death of Joseph Smith on this generation ; to 
cherish constant enmity toward the United States Govern- 
ment, doing all in his power for its overthrow ; to baffle its 
designs, to refuse submission and renounce all allegiance, and 
to obey the church authorities, and no other. 

Curses the most frightful, penalties the most barbarous, 
accompany the obligation, to add to its binding elhcacy, and 
to insure secrecy. A new sign, grip, &c., complete the 
Second Degree of the Melchisedec Priesthood.^ 

John. You are the children of the Most High, endued 
with powers and blessings. Your robes of righteousness, 
which you must henceforth wear, in token of your covenants, 
are on the wrong shoulder, and none but God's priesthood 
can set them right. [The robes are changed to the other 
shoulder, and the candidates are stationed in a circle, around 
the altar.] 

Peter. Little children, you are now chosen of God to carry 
on his mighty work, and He, through his servant, will teach 
you how" to pray, that your supplications may reach the eter- 
nal throne, and call down an immediate answer. 

[Peter kneels on his right knee, takes hold of the hand of 
one of the standing brethren, all of w^hom are united by a 
fantastic intertwining of hands, and prays slowly, all repeat- 
ing his words after him :] 



THE ENDOWMENT. 259 

" 0, God, ruler of the celestial world, we have this day 
taken upon ourselves covenants and powers from thy hand. 
Make us faithful to those covenants ; and if we obey not thy 
commands, let thy curses descend upon our heads. Make us 
quick to hear and obey God's servants in the holy priest- 
hood, and if we ever divulge anything that we have received, 
let the curses this day pronounced, fall upon our heads. 
Make us faithful in Zion and in the upbuilding of her cause, 
and at last receive us into thy celestial kingdom, with all the 
gifts, powers, and blessings this day pronounced upon the 
faithful in Israel. Amen. 

Peter. Brethren, you are now members of the holy orders 
of God's priesthood. Henceforth you are entitled to all the 
blessings and privileges of the same. 

[The endowees, fitted for Heaven and celestial glory, pass 
" behind the vail," a new name is whispered very softly and 
quickly to each ; certain marks, resembling the Masonic 
square and compass, are cut in the under garment, on the 
left breast ; also a similar one on the knee. The candidates 
are then ushered into the full light and glory of the celestial 
kingdom. The brethren turn back to the vail, and admit their 
wives, whose garments are marked in a similar manner.] 

SCENE III. The Celestial Kingdom. 

In the centre of this apartment is an altar, nicely cushioned, 
with a cushioned ledge to kneel upon. The men kneel upon 
one side and the icomen upon the other, each brother hold- 
ing the hand of his wife, also of the woman to whom he is 
to be sealed, with the patriarchal grip. The ceremony of 
sealing for eternity then cojnmences. 

Eloheim. Children of Earth, you have been redeemed by 
the blood of the Lamb, and the power of my holy priesthood. 
You have been faithful unto the end, and shall now receive a 
crown of glory. In like manner as I gave Eve unto your 
father Adam, while he was yet pure and holy, I give unto 



260 THE ENDOWMENT. 

you wives and children, that you may be Gods in your season, 
and that worlds may be peopled by your posterity. [Each 
candidate is asked the usual questions, and after the answers 
have been received, Eloheim proceeds :] 

Because of your faithfulness in all these things, I seal upon 
you the blessings of the Holy Resurrection, with power to 
come forth in the morning of the first resurrection, clothed 
with glory, immortality, and eternal lives ; and I seal upon 
you the blessings of thrones and dominions, and principali- 
ties, and powers, and exaltations ; together with the blessings 
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and say unto you, be fruitful 
and multiply, and replenish the earth, that you may have joy 
and rejoicing in your posterity, in the day of the Lord Jesus. 
All these blessings, together with all other blessings pertain- 
ing to the new and everlasting covenant, I seal upon your 
heads, and enjoin your faithfulness unto the end. 

[The candidates dress, get a lunch, and return to the 
" celestial kingdom " to hear a lecture by Kimball, explanatory 
of the whole scheme. The signs, tokens, marks, and ideas, 
are many of them taken from the Masonic Order. " The in- 
tention of the mystery is to teach unlimited obedience to 
Brigham, and treason against the country."] 



CHAPTER XIV. 

BRIGHAM AS GRAXD ARCHEE OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 

Organization of the Order of the Archees. — The Grand Archees. — The 
Archees. — The Danites. — Organization of Brigham's Celestial King- 
dom. — Doctrine of Adoption. — Case of Dr. Sprague. — Description of 
Leading Danites: Bill Hickman, Porter Rockwell, Robert T. Burton. — 
Affidav-its. — Recent Attacks on Emigrant Trains. 

" There on that throne, to which the blind belief 
Of millions raised him, sat the Prophet Chief. 



On either side, with ready hearts and hands, 
His chosen guard of bold believers, stands; 
Young fire-eyed disputants, who deem their swords 
On points of faith more eloquent than words; 
And such their zeal, there 's not a youth with brand 
Uplifted there, but, at the Chief's command, 
Would make his own devoted heart its sheath. 
And bless the lips that doom'd so dear a death." 

The Order of the Danites has been, for many years, an 
established institution in the Mormon Church. 

Bri^ham and liis two Counsellors form the First Pres- 
idency of this Order, under the style of Gods, or Grand 
Archees. These are, at present, Young, Kimball, and Wells. 
A few, also, of the Apostles, hold the rank of Grand Archees. 
These have the power of life and death. 

Next in importance, is a body of men called Archees. 
They are entitled to sit in Council with the Gods or Grand 
Archees, in matters relating to the taking of life. This 
" Quorum," as it is called, also includes some of the Bishops 
and Presidents of other quorums in the church. Their office 
is to examine cases of offenders thought to require a sum- 
mary disposal, and submit the result of such examination to 



262 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE 

the Grand Archees. In some cases, where the utmost dis- 
cretion is required, they act as agents and swift-winged mes- 
sengers, to carry into effect the decrees of the Gods. 

The Archees have discretionary and independent power 
over the lives of all gentiles and " apostates." 

Next in rank are the Danites, whose office is to assist the 
Archees in the execution of their bloody deeds. These are 
formed into bands of fifty men each. One band, at least, 
belongs to each Archee, they serving under him as minute- 
men. These " Danite Bands " are generally composed of 
inferior officers and teachers, constables, and policemen, and 
those who, having committed heinous crimes, as murder, theft, 
adultery, &c., would sooner be sworn to serve in this bloody 
office, than have their deeds exposed and receive their justly 
merited punishment. 

The officers in all these grades are solemnly sworn to 
secrecy, and to the duties of their respective offices, on pain 
of instant death. 

Where the danger of discovery is imminent, and the 
matter in hand too important to be trusted to the Danites, 
the Archees meet and perform the dirty work themselves ; 
as in the case of Secretary Babbett, Brewer, and the unlucky 
attempt on Dr. Hurt. In other cases, the Danites are called 
upon ; instance the Parishes, Potter, Bowman, Mountain 
Meadows, &c. 

The Danites are also expected to act as spies upon the 
federal officers and other gentiles ; to watch the feelings and 
spirits of the saints, and to report the first indications of 
disaffection. Such cases are at once attended to, and if 
they are deemed of a dangerous character, are summarily 
disposed of. 

The spoil is divided, one half going to the Grand Archees, 
and the other half to the Archees and Danites who are em- 
ployed in the commission of the crime. 

When Judge Cradlebaugh attempted to bring to justice 
the perpetrators of the Mountain-Meadow Massacre, and 



OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 263 

Tarlou? other crimes, several bishops and many other lead- 
ing Mormons fled to the mountains, where they remained 
several weeks. Their place of refuge they named " Mount 
Kolob," which means " the residence of the Gods." 

The remark i> frequently made in Utah, — " Brigham is the 
only God I care ad — about." The deep meaning of this 
is only to be explained by reference to this organized system 
of crime, taken in connection with the organization of the 
" celestial kingdom." 

The theory is, that Brigham Young is a God in embryo. 
That he is laying the foundation here for a celestial king- 
dom. That there will be created for him a world, which 
his posterity will inhabit, and of which he will be the King 
and God. 

His kingdom will be constituted as follows : — 

1st. Himself as God. 

2d. His wives as Goddesses and Queens, each ruling her 
own posterity, with Brigham as husband and God. 

3d. His sons and their families. 

4th. Tiie daughters, by the celestial law, would, when 
married, pass out of their father's kingdom, and be added to 
the husbands'. To obviate this difficulty, every man who 
marries one of the President's daughters, is obliged to be 
adopted by and sealed to his father-in-law. The daughter 
is thus retained to augment her father's kingdom, by the 
addition of her fomily. This is one reason why female chil- 
dren are so lightly esteemed in Utah. They cannot add to 
the father's glory, but must go to glorify others. 

oth. Many young men who have no families, and there- 
fore no kingdoms, are sealed to Brigham, to add to his celes- 
tial glory, — in some instances, also, men of families, who 
have not ambition enough to aspire to kingdoms of their 
own. This relationship pertains to this world as well as to 
the next. Brigham becomes a father to them here, supports 
them if necessary, and demands their respect and obe- 
dience. 



264 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE 

A case recently occurred in Salt Lake, which fully illus- 
trates the power which Young exercises over this class of 
his subjects. 

Dr. Sprague, an Eastern man, has been at Salt Lake about 
twelve years. During most of that time he has officiated in 
the Endowment House, in the washings and anointings. He 
has also had charge of the Tabernacle, and acted as family 
physician to the inmates of the Harem. 

He has a wife and two children. His son is on a mission, 
and the daughter, a little girl of thirteen, is an invalid. 
Mrs. Sprague is a model New-England housewife. She has 
toiled early and late to procure the comforts, and some of 
the luxuries of life. By the most persevering effort, they at 
length succeeded in building a beautiful house, and Doctor 
Sprague's garden is the prettiest in Salt Lake. 

The fiiraily removed to their new residence in the fall of 
1862, and had but just furnished it. By the Mormon law of 
adoption, the property of the adopted child belongs to the 
father, or is under his control. Dr. Sprague is the adopted 
son of Brigham Young. His whole property is worth not 
less than $10,000. 

Mrs. Emeline Free Young has been very melancholy since 
Brigham married Amelia. Her health continued to decline 
until it w^as thought advisable to remove her from the Lion 
House, the scene of her joys and sorrow, and situate her 
more pleasantly. Accordingly one day Brii2;ham called on 
Dr. Sprague and wife, and coolly told them that he wanted 
their place for three or four years, for Emeline, until he could 
build her one. At the end of that time they could have it 
again, and in the mean time they could live in the house for- 
merly occupied by J. M. Grant, which he would have re- 
paired for their use. 

The husband and wife were astonished and confounded at 
this request, and Mrs. Sprague, under the first impulse'of her 
indignation, said " she did not relish the idea of giving up 
her house to people who read novels every day." " Very 



OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 265 

well," replied the Prophet, "if you prefer to incur my dis- 
pleasure rather than to let me have your home, you. can do 
so." With this he let\ them. 

The Doctor and his wife, began thinking the matter over. 
It would never do to incur the displeasure of Brother Brig- 
ham. He was their father in this world, and their God in 
the celestial kinirdom. Then the Doctor was advaneinsr in 
yeai'S, and should he lose his situation in the Endowment 
House and Tabernacle, where would be the support for him- 
self and family in his declining years ? He had served his 
adopted father so long and faithfully, should he break with 
him now ? It would never do ; so, after many sleepless nights 
and much anguish of spirit, he made up his mind to make 
the sacrifice. As to Mrs. Sprague, she cared not lor herself, 
but her poor sick child ! She had lived for years almost en- 
tirely in the beautiful garden, and how could she leave it 
now ? With frail and faltering step she had wandered amid 
the flowers and fruit, culling this bright geranium and that 
lovely rose, plucking this beautiful strawberry, and that lus- 
cious bunch of grapes, and by this sweet communion with 
Nature, the child seemed to receive afresh the life-giving 
principle. She was now to be torn from her little paradise, 
by whom, and for what ? No wonder if the heart of the 
mother grew somewhat stony at the reflection. 

When the poor girl heard that she must leave these " de- 
lightful shades," she wept until oblivion wrapt her senses, 
and in a fit of convulsions, she forgot, for the time being, at 
least, her cruel fate. 

The sisters came to condole with Sister Sprague ; said it 
was too bad. " Sister Sprague, it is too bad, but you had 
better do it than to have Brother Brigham's curse resting 
upon you." 

Emeline, who is really a kind-hearted creature, came and 
wept with Sister S., saying she did not w^ant her home, " but 
Brigham," said she, " has set his mind upon it, and we don't 
any of us dare to speak to him about it." 



266 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE 

Young remained inexorable, — the change was made ; and 
to-daj the whilome favored wife and now cast-off mistress 
of Brigham Young, occupies the beautiful residence of Dr. 
Sprague, the fruit of his many years of toil and economy. 

Bill Hickman is one of the most notorious of the Danite 
leaders. He is now about fifty years of age. He is a man 
of medium size, heavy set, of florid complexion, troubled of 
late years with weak eyes, causing him to wear goggles. He 
is of Southern birth, and a strong secessionist, but professes 
much friendship for the United States Government, and the 
federal officers. He is wily and cunning, with much of the 
suaviter in modo, and is something of a lawyer. He glories 
in a household of seven " women " and about twenty children, 
but does not maintain them in the highest style. 

Porter Rockwell, another noted character, is somewhat of 
the same style of Hickman. Shorter of stature, with the 
Utah fioridity of complexion, and very voluble in conversation. 
Anything that is all right with Rockwell, is " on thi^ square.*' 
It is " wheat " ; and nearly every act and expression of a 
stranger, is of that character. 

Robert T. Barton, Sheriff of Salt Lake County, and Col- 
lector of Internal Revenue, who bids feir to rival or outdo 
all the others in his lawless deeds, is a tall, wiry man, one it 
would be hard to hit with a bullet. He is cool and imper- 
turbable ; in fact, never thrown off his balance, never want- 
ing in case of an emergency. No fitter person to carry out 
the plans of Young could be found within or without the 
Territory, and upon him Brigham relies implicitly. With 
or without a " writ," he is always ready. 

It is not my pur[)Ose to enter into a history of the many 
crimes to be traced with more or less certainty to the doors 
of these and other Mormon leaders. Some of them will be 
found collated in the appendix to the speech of Judge Cradle- 
baugh, already mentioned. Others are touched upon in the 
pages of this volume. 

One or two affidavits, from a large number in the writer's 



OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 267 

possession, will here be given, to illustrate the workings of 
the Mormon system, and to show how little the perpetration 
of crime stands in the way of the prosecution of the plans 
and pui'poses of the church leaders. 

" United States of America, ) 
Territoky of Utah. ) *^* 

" of said Territor}', being duly sworn, says : — 



" About years ago, I was living on the River, in the 

Ward, and was Bishop of that Ward. Was in good stand- 
ing in the Mormon Church. 

" During that summer, a man who had had a difficulty with a 
Bishop living near me, was killed. When the man was missed, 
the Bishop refused to help look for him. Myself and several oth- 
ers turned out, and after considerable search, found the body. It 
was perforated by two balls. One had entered the back, the other, 
the back of the head. The difficulty related to a girl, whom the 
Bishop wanted to marry, for a plural wife. 

" A relative of the murdered man went to Salt Lake City, and 
related all the facts to Elias Smith, Probate Judge of Great Salt 
Lake County, (Mormon.) asking his advice. Tliis relative told 
me afterward, that Judge Smitli said, ' Keep still for a while.* 
Nothing was ever done. No examination, coroner's jury, or inves- 
tigation of any kind. 

" Some time in the summer of 1851, I went to the Mint, in Salt 
Lake City, on business. John Kay was there. He had charge 
of the Mint. The building is now inside of Brigham's Wall. On 
a table, a little to one side of the room, I saw a human skeleton 
complete, attached by wires. I asked him how it came there. 
After some reluctance, he stated, that it was the skeleton of an 
emigrant, who was passing through Salt Lake, and who had 
boasted how he had assisted in persecuting the Mormons in Mis- 
souri. He said he would continue to persecute them, and lived 
for that purpose, or something like that. Kay said, ' We asked 
Brigham what we were to do with him.' Brigham replied, ' He 
supposed the boys knew their business.* I then asked Kay how 
they managed it. He said they invited the emigrant to the Mint, 
to see the works, and take a drink with them. Having arrived 
there, as he was stepping down some steps which led to the fur- 
nace, Kay struck him, as he said, on the top of the head, with a 



268 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE 

wooden mallet, which knocked him senseless. He did not say 
how he proceeded after that. I asked him how he took the flesh 
from the bones. He said, with vitriol and lime. 

" Kay is now in England, on a mission. I have mentioned it to 
my wife and brother, and a few others, but never said but very 
little about it. Kay was not practising medicine, nor teaching. 
He kept the skeleton as a curiosity. He stated these facts with 
considerable reluctance at first. I thought then that he was in 
earnest, and had really killed the man, and I think so now. 

(Signed) ^ 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me, at Salt Lake City, this 
18th day of April, a. d. 1863. 

" Charles B. Waite, 
^^ Associate Justice for Utah Territory.** 

[Taken in presence of two witnesses.] 



"United States of America, 
Territory of Utah. 

-, of said Territory, being duly sworn, says : — 



*' I have resided in the Territory of Utah about eight years. 
Some time in the fall of 1855, two men, one of them named 
Frank Keene, rented a house on East Weber, in Weber County, 
in this Territory. They rented of a Mr. Cox, and paid the rent 
up to the last day of March ensuing. Some time in February Cox 
endeavored to take possession of the house. The tenants remon- 
strated, and the matter was referred to the Teacher of the district. 
Cox was a Mormon ; the tenants were not. The Teacher decided 
they should remain until the lease expired. Cox appealed to 
the Bishop of the Ward, Abiah Wadsworth. AVads worth heard 
the case. The Bishop at first confirmed the decision of the Teacher; 
but immediately afterward, he said, as the tenants were gentiles, 
they must leave ; and turning round to his clerk, directed him to 
write a notice to them to leave within a week. There were two 
or three feet of snow on the ground. Frank Keene was destitute 
of means. They both left as ordered. Nearly a month remained 
of the time for which rent was paid, and there was no pretence 
that the lease had been broken. It was a very severe winter, and 
a famine was prevailing. 

" The next winter, a man by the name of Jones was denounced, 



OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 269 

and his life threatened, in a church meeting. The cause was this : 
He had loaned Lorenzo Snow, in England, one hundred pounds 
sterling, to print the ' Book of Mormon ' in the Italian language. 
Upon arriving in the Territory, Jones tried to get payment of the 
money, but could not. It was because he insisted upon having 
his money, that he was denounced. 

" The meeting was held at Ceutreville ; and so much excitement 
was raised against Jones, and so many threats made against him, 
that he lied tor his life. At the same time, the order was given, 
that no one should feed or entertain him, but he should be left to 
perish. Stoddard, one of the High-Priests, told me that the Bishop 
was so angry that he came down from the stand to kill Jones, in 
the meeting, but he fled. I saw Jones some weeks afterward. He 
corroborated these statements, and said the Bishop tried to kill 
him. 

" I have often heard the doctrine of cutting the throats of apos- 
tates preached from the pulpit, particularly during the year 1856, 
when, for several months, I scarcely attended meeting without 
hearing such preaching. They would say, ' If you find a man 
with his throat cut, pay no attention to it.' 

" At one time, my life was threatened by a Danite, and his in- 
tention to take my life was sanctioned at a meeting, by the Bishop 
and authorities. No cause was alleged, except a trivial remark 
made by my wife, reflecting slightly on one of the First Presidents. 
The remark had been exaggerated and attributed to me, and 
although it was fully explained, I was followed and threatened 
for over a year. At that time my wife and myself were members 
of the Mormon Church, in good standing. 

" In December, 1857, Bishop Abiah Wadsworth, of East Weber 
"Ward, gave permission to his friends to steal cattle for beef, from 
gentile merchants, and aided, them in so doing. In carrying on 
these operations, they took cattle belonging to Mormons who had 
purchased them of gentile merchants. Having the brand of those 
merchants upon them, it was supposed they belonged to gentiles. 
The taking of the Mormon cattle gave rise to a church meeting 
to investigate the afiair. I was present at that meeting. The 
result was, that those who had taken cattle which were proved to 
belong to Mormons, should pay for them. It was also determined 
at the same meeting, that those who had taken cattle belonging 
to gentiles, should pay their value to Brigham Young, as Trustee 



270 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE 

of the Emigrating Fund. The gentile owners of these cattle had 
been driven out of the Territory. 

(Signed) 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 2d day of May, a. d. 
1863, at Great Salt Lake City. 

" Charles B. Waite, 
^^ Associate Justice for Utah Territory.** 

The names of these affiants, and some of the circum- 
stances tending to identify them, are omitted, as the writer 
does not feel at liberty to place their lives in danger. We 
do not hesitate to say, however, that the evidence furnished 
by them is entirely reliable. Both of these witnesses saw 
Burton shoot Morris, and corroborate Dow's affidavit on that 
point. 

Many of the murders committed on the Plains, and attacks 
on emigrant trains, usually tittributed to Indians, may be 
traced to the Mormons. Some light is thrown upon these 
transactions by the following statements furnished by men 
who were crossing the Plains in the summer of 1863. 

Statement of James P. Veatch. 

"I am going to Oregon. Am from Newbern, Marion County, 
Iowa. 

" We travelled on the road from Salt Lake City to within eight 
miles of the City of Rocks, when we turned north, and went 
about three miles. There we struck the old California Road, 
which passes by the City of Rocks. Just before reaching the 
road, we came to a large camping-ground, or corral, covering 
about an acre. 

" Here we saw rifle-pits and entrenchments, and some half a 
dozen ox-yokes, — also bones of cattle. We then proceeded east, 
on the same road, some three or four miles, where we found a 
wagon-bed, — also a letter written by a man named Bradley, and 
directed to Indianola, Warren County, Iowa. About half a mile 
farther, we found a small provision-box. [This statement was 
made at a camp on Snake River, a few days after Veatch and his 
party had passed the scene of the massacre.] We also found a 
Bible, a copy of Wesley's Sermons, and a large Testament. These 



OF THE ORDER OF THE GODS. 271 

books were pretty well decayed. Some of them we still have. 
Also a volume entitled ' The Wide, Wide World.' 

" About seventy-five yards farther, we found two graves of 
grown persons ; no names on them. They had the appearance of 
being last year's graves. We then drove four or five miles, and 
camped near a creek emptying into Raft River. 

" Next morning, after going about two miles, we came to where 
five or six wagons had been corralled. Here feather-beds had been 
opened, and feathers scattered ; many were still matted on the 
ground. There was an old chair or two partly burned ; also a 
chest, with the hinges torn off, and the lock broken open. Also 
several books : a spelling-book, Bible, melodeon note-books, etc. 
Also ' The Journeyings of the Children of Israel.' The name of 
James H. Smith was in the Bible and another book ; that of Caro- 
line Smith in another. [Some of these books are now in the 
writer's possession.] 

*' There were also the bones of twelve or fifieen head of cattle, 
which must have been killed last summer. There were signs of 
men having been there within a few days. There is no emigra- 
tion on the road this season ; but there were the fresh tracks of 
three wagons, — mule and horse teams. 

" About three fourths of a mile beyond this place, we crossed 
the creek. There I saw three or four skull-bones. Others of the 
company saw more of them. At this place a skeleton was found, 
nearly complete. A little farther on, we found a cast-iron cook- 
ing stove, broken in pieces. ^len had lately been at this place. 
A handful of buckshot was found. 

" Near the junction of this with the Oregon road, we saw two 
graves, — one of a man from Keokuk, Iowa, buried in August, 
1862 ; the other, of a lady 23 years of age, named E. J. Adams, 
and marked, ' Shot by Indians on the 9th, and died on the 12th 
of August, 1862.' 

" Fourteen wagon-tires and a twelve-pound cannon-ball were 
found at this place. We carried the ball to our camping-ground, 
and there left it. 

" Two young men, Francis Kelsey and Harrison Edwards, told 
us, that when they went down, about five weeks ago, they saw 
two wagons nearly complete, at the place where we noticed the 
wagon-bed, but when we passed, they were gone. 

" I know that a train went from Newbern, Iowa, starting about 



272 BRIGHAM AS GRAND ARCHEE. 

the 11th of May, 1862, bound for Oregon. George Leeper, from 
that train, was killed by Indians. A train from Indianola, Iowa, 
was attacked by Indians last summer, their property taken, and 
several of their number killed and wounded. The survivors were 
assisted back to Salt Lake City, by the Mormons. John Gamble, 
of Knoxville, Iowa, can give further information concerning this 
matter; also Eev. Joseph Howard, Newbern, Marion County, 
Iowa." 

Statement of W. F. Lawrence. 

" I am from Appanoose County, Iowa. At our first camp, after 
striking the Oregon Road, I saw three wagons approaching ; they 
were going eastward. A man from the wagons came to our camp. 
He was a short, thick-set person, with light complexion, light hair, 
and full, round face, considerably freckled ; downcast look. He 
said he was from the outside settlements of Salt Lake, near Love- 
lands, and was out here gathering up old irons. Said they came 
to a place on Snake River, where they could walk across on the 
rocks, but did not dare to go farther, for fear the Indians would 
steal their horses. Said his party consisted of three white men 
and one Ute Indian, whom they had brought along to recover 
their horses, should the Indians steal them. 

" He asked if they could camp with us ; and being told they 
could, said he would go up and drive the wagons down ; but in- 
stead of doing so, the party went ofi' in a direction which would 
be twenty miles to water, — and this was near sundown. 

" The night before, a man had been among our cattle, and when 
our guide cried ' Halt ! ' he ran off toward the road. This man 
■was supposed to be young Bernard, the ' Mormon from the outside 
settlements.' " 



CHAPTER XV. 

COXCLUSION. 

Personal Appearance and Character of Brigham Young;. — His Aims and 
Purposes;. — Solution of the Mormon Question. — New Complications. — 
Military Reviews of Mormons. — Governor Durkee. — Counteracting In- 
fluences.— The Mines and Miners. — Rev. Norman McCloud. — The Salt 
Lake " Vedette." — Administration of General Connor. 

Brigham Young is a man of medium height, compact 
frame, witli a manner deliberate and impressive. There is 
less of ostentation, however, in his bearing toward strangers 
than might be expected in a religious pretender. His hair 
is sandy, and inclined to curl ; featui'es regular, and expres- 
sive of great determination. 

In conversation he is pleasant and affable, but is restive 
under the slightest contradiction or opposition. Strangers 
are favorably impressed with the first visit to his office. 
They go to see and hear, and Brigham looks well and is a 
good talker. He has talent, and is not destitute of genius ; 
when, therefore, he is master of the field, and has the choice 
of topics, he never fails to make himself interesting, if so 
disposed. Indeed, is it not in itself interesting to see and 
hear the Mohammed of America ? 

His early education was very limited, and his sermons are 
illiterate. But in that most important of all fields of educa- 
tion, a knowledge of mankind and of human nature, he is 
proficient. It is true, that even here he sometimes grossly 
errs in his estimate of men. This is because his experience 
is mostly confined to certain phases of human nature. In 
18 



274 CONCLUSION. 

those phases he is an adept. Outside of them, he brings to 
bear a strong judgment, upon a limited range of facts, and if 
he misses the coiichision, he has the tact to retrieve his error as 
speedily as possible. He has no pride of consistency, which 
conflicts in the slightest degree with the accomplishment of his 
purposes. If necessary to attain his ends, he is one thing to- 
day, and another to-morrow, and all in the name of the Lord ! 

Much has been said as to his sincerity in his religious pro- 
fessions and belief. In his younger days he may have been 
sincere; doubtless was. The character of his religion, and 
the degree of his sincerity, at the present time, may be in- 
ferred from the following incident. 

A physician at Salt Lake was urged by Brigham to join 
the church. He had lived in the city several years, and was 
doing a good business, and it was pressed upon him as a re- 
ciprocal duty. The Doctor, like too many of his profession, 
was tainted with infidelity. " I would n't mind joining your 
church," said he, " but I don't believe in your religion. In 
fact," he added, with emphasis, " I don't believe in any 
religion." " Oh," replied Brigham, " that don't make any 
difference. Come and be baptized, and it will all be right ! " 

The Doctor was baptized, and became a good enough Mor- 
mon. He received as his reward, from the hand of Brigham, 
a beautiful young lady as a " second wife." 

Young's talent is all of a practical character, — his shrewd- 
ness is ever ready to extricate him from any difficulty or 
emergency. As a financial and political leader, he is far 
superior to Joseph Smith. As a religious leader, he is much 
his inferior. Smith was brave ; Young is cowardly. Smith 
was enthusiastic and impetuous, while Young is cool and cal- 
culating. 

Brigham is a good speaker. Oratory, however, he uses 
as a means to accomplish certain ends ; and he seldom, even 
when most excited, says anything that has not its object. 
His manner in the pulpit is impressive and authoritative ; 
and he sometimes rises to a high degree of eloquence. His 



CONCLUSION. 27o 

illustrations are apt, his sentences frequently pungent and 
sarcastic. 

He is lamentably deficient in moral sense. No falsehood 
staggers him, no blasphemy shocks him. Why, then, should 
he hesitate at the perpetration of any crime which will con- 
duce to the accomplishment of his life-purpose. Even the 
traveller Burton, his admirer and panegyrist, thus frankly 
expresses his doubts as to this phase of his character : " I 
cannot pronounce about his scrupulousness ; all the world 
over, the sincerest religious belief, and the practice of devo- 
tion, are sometimes compatible not only with the most dis- 
orderly life, but with the most terrible crimes ; for mankind 
mostly believes that '7/ est avec le ceil des accomodements.' 
He has been called hypocrite, swindler, forger, murderer. 
No one looks it less." This is, perhaps, true ; but therein 
lies his hypocrisy. 

We have already shown that polygamy originated in the 
passions and lusts of himself and followers, and was after- 
ward reduced to a system and promulgated as part of the 
Mormon religion. So with other phases of the system. The 
Celestial Kingdom, the Grand Archee, the Prophet, the Seer, 
the Revelator, — all tend to self and self-aggrandizement. 
Everything must yield and become subservient to the pur- 
poses of his unholy ambition. Principles, conscience, 
the moral sense, Christianity, the divine brotherhood of 
man, human liberty and republican institutions, jthe sa- 
cred associations of the home-fireside and of the family 
altar, all the thrilling sentiment and ennobling effect of 
love, the purity and fidelity of the marriage relation, all 
the rights of property and life, all the relations of man to 
God, — yea, God himself, with all the machinery of Heaven 
and the spiritual world, including angels, spirits, and demons, — 
are brought under contribution to this one man, and made to 
revolve about him, — a confused constellation of chaotic ele- 
ments from the mental and moral world. Neither social nor 
political restraint does he recognize. Setting himself above 



276 CONCLUSION. 

all law, human and divine, he becomes a law to himself and 
his deluded tbllowers. 

How long this state of things is to last, how big this God- 
defying creature is yet to swell ere he is checked in his 
tyrannical and blasphemous career,\how long this theocratic 
monarchy is to stand in the centre of the Republic, remains 
to be seen. 

But the question will be asked, " Is there any remedy 
other than by the strong hand? And would not that increase 
rather than diminish the number of his followers ? Whether 
there can be any pt^aceful solution of the question is doubt- 
ful. Inflamed by power, blinded by ambition, he wilPiiot 
tamely submit to tlie laws and the constituted authorities, so 
long as he has thousands of obedient followers around him, 
ready to move as a single man at his word of command. 

The only hope of a peaceful result lies in the gradual as- 
similation of the "gentile" with the Mormon element. A 
wonderful change is already in progress in this respect, 
caused by the presence of United States volunteers, the 
influx of miners, and the preaching of true religion. This 
is seen by Young, who already trembles, as he turns his 
thoughts into the future. 

Fearful that the migration of miners into the Territory 
would tend to lessL-n his power, and desirous of removing the 
government troops from Camp Douglas, he spent several 
months in the spring of 1864, in inducing the farmers to 
unite in raising the price of their produce, and enlisting the 
people generally in favor of a combination against the gen- 
tiles. To tlie same end he has been laboring for years. 

On Monday, the 8th of August, 1864, a Convention of 
Delegates from the several Wards in the Territory assem- 
bled, in accordance with this scheme and by direction of the 
" President," at the Tabernacle, in Great Salt Lake City, to 
adopt measures for the establishment of the prices of produce 
upon a gold basis. 

The scheme signally failed. Temporarily, supplies for the 



CONCLUSION. 277 

troops were brought across the Plains, and were purchased 
as they could be had. But General Connor more than hint- 
ed tliat if this plan should be persisted in, what supplies he 
could not purchase at a fair price with the currency of the 
country, he would take. This had the desired effect, and 
after some further spasmodic efforts, this attempt to lay an 
embargo upon the traffic of the people with the Government, 
was abandoned. 

This meeting, like every other in Utah, merely gave ex- 
pression to the preconceived views and preconcerted meas- 
ures of the leaders. No steps were taken to raise the wages 
of the mechanic or laborer. Brigham denounced the me- 
chanics bitterly, because they were oppo-ed to raising the 
price of produce, calling them a parcel of thieves and rascals. 
He indulged in a tirade of abuse and vulgar language, unfit 
for publication. 

This may be cited as one of the instances in which he 
misjudged human nature. By espousing the interests of one 
class against those of the other, instead of attempting to 
reconcile them, he introduced a new element of discord into 
his already inharmonious kingdom. Two of the delegates 
at the meeting had sufficient manly dignity and moral courage 
to plead the cause of the mechanic and laborer ; also of the 
poorer class generally ; showing the amount of misery and 
suffering that would be entailed upon them by the adoption 
of the proposed measures. To which Young replied, in a 
tone of sarcasm and contempt, that even if he were to build 
houses for the poor, and provide them with all the necessaries 
and comforts of life, they would not be satisfied unless they 
had free admission to his house and the privilege of listening 
to his daughters playing on the piano. 

The fact that leading Mormons were found to vindicate the 
people, notwithstanding the degraded condition which such 
language implies, and openly to oppose Young s measures in 
a public meeting, is a hopeful one, and of deep significance. 

In pursuance of the same policy of segregation of the 



278 CONCLUSION. 

faithful, and preparatory to the accomplishment of his am- 
bitious schemes, Young has established a system of militia 
training and reviews, confined exclusively to Mormons. This 
system he sedulously fosters and maintains, commanding the 
Mormon militia as Governor of the State of Deseret. 

On the 2d of November, 1865, such a review was held on 
the plains of Salt Lake Valley, near the Jordan River. On 
that occasion Governor Durkee, who had lately arrived in 
the Territory as the successor of the lamented Doty, visited 
the Mormon troops and marched in a procession headed by 
Brigham Young. The Organic Act of Utah makes the 
Governor the Commander-in-Chief of the Militia, and it 
would seem to have been more consonant with the spirit of 
that provision, and more conservative of the dignity of his 
position, to have headed the procession, or if not permitted to 
do so, to have dispersed it as an illegal assemblage. 

General Connor, who has lately returned to Salt Lake 
from a brilliant Indian campaign, is the nylitary commander 
of the Department of Utah. He does not look with favor 
upon the marshalling of military forces composed exclusively 
of Mormons, and considers such gatherings but little better 
than displays of rebels in arms. The progress of events 
will soon determine whether the military organization of 
the Mormon militia is conducive to loyalty and good order, 
or to anarchy and rebellion. 

Notwithstanding these attempts to organize and national- 
ize his followers, there are, within the dominions of Brigham 
Young, and among the masses of his adherents, various con- 
flicting elements, furnishing hopeful indications to the states- 
man and the lover of his country. It may reasonably be 
expected that Young will soon appear to the deluded people 
in his true character; not as a branch of the Divinity, but 
as a selfish, corrupt, ambitious, and very dangerous man. 

To this end, every attempt to enlighten and disabuse them, 
should be encouraged, and such changes in the Organic Act 
should be made as may be necessary to protect the rights of 



COXCLUSION. 279 

gentiles resident in the Territory. The extraordinary juris- 
diction now exercised by the Probate Courts should be taken 
away and limited to the District Courts. The Governor 
should not only be authorized, but required to take the leader- 
ship and control of the militia of the Territory. The laws of 
Congress against polygamy should be rigidly enforced. Mor- 
mon postmasters and other Mormon federal officers should 
be removed. These and kindred measures should be adopted 
and enforced, mitil the authority of the Federal Government 
shall be fully vindicated and acknowledged. 

Among the agencies already at w^ork to accomplish this 
desirable end, and to redeem Utah from her enthralment, 
may be mentioned the discovery of mines of precious metals, 
and the large influx of miners, — the preaching not only of 
a purer Mormon faith, under the auspices of Joseph Smith 
Jr., but the promulgation of the Gospel itself, and of the 
principles of Christianity in their purity, by Rev. Norman 
McLeod, a Congregational minister of great boldness and 
talent, who is now firmly established in the Territory, — the 
extended and controlHng influence of the " Union Vedette," 
a daily and weekly pa[)er published at Salt Lake City, and 
edited with an ability which is but a synonym for immense 
moral, intellectual, and political power, — and above all, the 
military administration of General Connor, who, by the dis- 
creet but firm hand with which he has held a check upon the 
movements of unprincipled church leaders, by the establish- 
ment and support of the journal just mentioned, and by the 
encouragement given to gentiles and disaffected Mormons, 
has done more to undermine and overthrow the whole system 
of Mormonism than all other influences combined ! 

Much is to be expected from the discovery of valuable 
mines of gold, silver, and copper, in various localities in Utah. 
Already mining camps have been established, raining com- 
panies formed, and villages and settlements of miners are 
springing up in different directions. In Rush Valley, west of 
the Oquirrh, or West Mountain, about forty miles southwest 



\ 



280 CONCLUSION. 

from Salt Lake City, is a flourishing mining town called 
Stockton, which has been built entirely since the Avinter of 
18G3-4. Tiie mines in this valley are good, and are attract- 
ing much attention abroad. Over fifty ledges have been dis- 
covered, which prospect well in gold and silver. In Cotton- 
wood Canyon copper mines have been discovered yielding 75 
per cent, of pure ore. Extensive arrangements have been 
made for bringing on machinery, building mills, &c. 

It has steadily been the policy of Brigham to discourage 
prospecting, and to prevent, if possible, the opening of these 
mines to the gentile public. It has long been known that 
such mines existed, not only from the whisperings and tra- 
ditions of dissatisfied saints, but by the boastings of Young 
himself, whose vanity would not permit him to be entirely 
silent upon a subject so well calculated to magnify his own 
importance. On one occasion he said to Bishop Simpson, "I 
can stand in my door and see plenty of gold and silver." 

These hidden riches, thank God, have been brought to 
light. Miners are flocking in by thousands, and their rights 
will be protected, if necessary, by the strong arm of a strong 
government. 

Mormonism must soon give way before the advancing tide 
of American civilization. 

Brigham Young, with his band of desperadoes, may not 
much longer despise and trample upon our laws, and outrage 
the rights of our people. If he is to be permitted to continue 
his system of heathen polygamy, he will be obliged to leave 
the Republic he has discarded and would have overthrown, 
and fleeing from the scenes of his impieties and his crimes, 
set up his kingdom in some new refuge, — perchance in the 
Sandwich Islands, which have long been one of the stakes 
of Zion. 

THE END. 



NEW YORK AND IDAHO 
GOLD AND SILVER J^IINIXG COMPANY. 



This Company was organized in December, 1864, under 
the Corporation Law of Idaho Territory. 

Capital Stock, $2,000,000. 

Of this amount $250,000 has been already subscribed, 
and invested in some of the richest Gold and Silver Lodes 
of the Territory, situated in the Counties of Boise and Al- 
turas. 

The Company own 12,385 feet, in forty-eight different 
Lodes, two thirds of which are in Discovery Claims, and 
the ledges struck in most of the remainder. These ledges 
are not only rich in gold and silver, but very large ; some of 
them being from ten to fifteen feet in width. 

For the purpose of obtaining funds to purchase mills and 
machinery to place upon these mines, books are now opened 
for subscriptions to the amount of $250,000, or for 2500 
shares of $100 each, payable in monthly instalments of $5 
per month per share. An opportunity is thus offered to 
men of moderate means, as well as capitalists, to become 
interested in some of the richest mines in the United States. 

Orders for stock will be sent to the Treasurer, Paul Cor- 
nell, Esq., Chicago, 111., with the amount of the first instal- 
ment, and the same will be issued forthwith. 

G. Van Valkenburg, General Agent. 

C. B. WAITE, President. 

D. Mclaughlin, secretary. 
Idaho City I. T., Feb., 1865. 



EMIGRANT'S GUIDE 



TO THE 

GOLD AND SILVER MINES OF IDAHO, 

PLACER AND QUARTZ MINES 

OF THE 

BOISE BASIN, SOUTH BOISE, AND OWYHEE. 

By C. B. WAITE, of Idaho City. 

1865. 

This pamphlet also contains a complete list of all the 
Mines, forty-eight in number, belonging to the New York 
and Idaho Gold and Silver Mining Company. 



FOR SALE BY 

S. C. GRIGGS AND COMPANY, 

CHICAGO, 

And all the principal Booksellers in the West. 



HYDE-PAEK SEMINAKY, 

NEAR CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 



This Institution is situated at Hyde Park, on the shore 
of Lake Michigan, thirty minutes' ride from the Central 
Depot, two miles from the City Limits, on the line of the 
Illinois Central Railroad. The building, grounds, etc., are 
well calculated for a 

YOUNG LADIES' BOARDING SCHOOL, 

the rooms being large and pleasant, affording a splendid 
view of the Lake and surrounding country. The internal 
arrangements are complete ; which, together with an unex- 
ceptionable corps of teachers, extremely healthy location, 
and thorough course of study and discipline, must make 
Hyde-Park Seminary one of the most attractive institutions 
in the land. 

Miss ANNA G. TEMPLE, 

Principal. 

Mr. chandler ROBBINS, 

General Superintendent. 

To whom all letters of inquiry or business should be 
addressed. 

Chicago, El. 



V' 



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