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Full text of "Mortality of the British army : at home and abroad, and during the Russian war, as compared with the mortality of the civil population in England ; illustrated by tables and diagrams"

MORTALITY 



OP THE 



BRITISH ARMY, 



AT HOME, AT HOME AND ABROAD, AND DURING THE RUSSIAN WAR, 



AS COMPARED WITH THE 



MORTALITY OF THE CIVIL POPULATION IN 

ENGLAND. 



Jlbsfratdr to Mies wit liwjritms, 



[Beprinted from the Report of the Royal Commission appointed to enquire into tke Regulations affectiny the Sanitary Stale of I he Army.] 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 

18 58. 



MORTALITY 



BRITISH ARMY, 



AT HOME, AT HOME AND ABROAD, AND DURING THE RUSSIAN WAR, 



AS COMPARED WITH THE 



MORTALITY OF THE CIVIL POPULATION IN 

ENGLAND. 



Illustrate k Sables snti gragrams. 



IReprintcdfrom the Report of the Royal Commission, appointed to enquire into the Regulations affecting the Sanitary State of the Army.' 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 

1858. 



CONTENTS. 



s 

We 



Paoe. 

Description of Diagrams of the Mortality iu the British Army ... .1 

Index to the Tables. 

Table A & B. Mortality of the British Army at Home 9 

Table C — a. Average Strength, Deaths, and Bate of Mortality each year, 1839 — 1853, of the Array at 

Home and Abroad, compared with that of the Civil Population . . . . .10 

Table C — b. Excess of Deaths among Non-Commissioned Officers and Men over what there would be 

if the Army were as healthy as the Civil Population in Country Districts . . .11 

Table D. Showing the same with the General Population in England and Wales . . . .11 

Table E — a. Two Life Tables showing the number of English Soldiers and of Englishmen living and 

dead between the ages of 20 and 40 12 

Table E — b. Table showing the Strength, Deaths, and Annual Kate of Mortality in the Army serving 
at Home from 1839 to 1853, as compared with the Mortality at the Army Ages in 
healthy Districts and in England and Wales ........ 13 

Table P— a. Showing the Annual Loss from Invaliding and Death among 10,000 Becruits between the 

ages of 20 and 40 14 

Table F — b. Strength and Invaliding in the Army serving at Home from 1839 to 1853 . . .15 

Table F — c. Proportion per 1000 of Troops serving at Home, who died or were invalided in three 

septennial periods ............. 15 

Table F — d. Showing the number of effectives, distinguishing young soldiers from veterans, 
remaining out of 10,000 Becruits annually. 1, in the Army as it is ; 2, in the Army 
in an improved state ............. 16 

Table Gr. Deaths and Annual Bate of Mortality per 1000 living, from different Classes of Diseases 

among the English Male Population, 15 — 45 years of age, and among the Infantry of 
the Line serving at Home ..... ....... 16 

Table H — a. Mortality in the Army of the East in Hospital during 2^ years, April 1, 1854, to June 

30, 1856 17 

I able H — 5. Annual Bate of Mortality per cent, from different classes of Disease in Hospital in the 

Army of the East, and in the English Male Population, of 15 to 45 years of age . 17 

Table K. fig, 1. Estimated Average, Monthly Strength of the Army in the East, and the Deaths and 
Annual Bate of Mortality per 1000 iu each month, from April 1854 to March 1856, 
from Zymotic Diseases, Wounds, and Injuries ; and all other Causes . . . .18 

Table K. fig. 2. Annual Bate of Mortality per cent, on the Sick Population at Scutari, October 1, 1854, to 

June 30, 1855 18 

General Beturn. Of the Primary Admissions, Deaths, and Diseases in the Hospitals of the Army in the 
East, from Ajjril 10, 1854, to June 30, 1S56, arranged according to Dr. Farr's pro- 
posed new Classification 19 

Table Z. Density of Population in the Quartermaster-General's Plans for Encampments, as com- 

pared with that in Town Districts in England . . ..... 21 



INDEX TO THE DIAGRAMS. 



Diagram A. 

Diagram B. 
Diagram C. 

Diagram D. 

Diagram E. 

Diagram F. 

Diagram G. 

Diagram H. 
Diagram I. 



Diagram K. 



Diagram K. 
fig. 2 



Diagram Z. 



Eepresenting the Relative Mortality of the Foot Guards, and of the English Male Popula- 
tion at corresponding ages. 

Eepresenting the same comparison for the Army at Home. 

Representing the Relative Mortality of Males of the Soldiers' Ages in Healthy Districts 
and in the Army at Home and Abroad. 

Representing the same comparison as regards the Male Population of England and 
Wales. 

Shewing the number, living and dead, at the several ages from 20 to 40 among, 1, English 
Soldiers. 2, Englishmen. 3, Englishmen in Healthy Districts. 

Representing the loss by Death and Invaliding, 1, in the Army at Home in its present 
state. 2, in the Army at Home in an improved state. 

Representing the Relative Annual Mortality from all causes, Zymotic Diseases, Chest and 
Tubercular Diseases, and other Diseases in the English Male Population, aged 15 — 45, 
and in the Infantry of the Line, serving at Home. 

Representing the Relative Mortality, from different causes, of the Army in the East in 
Hospital, and of the English Male Population, aged 15 — 15. 

Representing the Annual Rate of Mortality per 1000 in the Hospitals of the Army in the 
East for each month, from April 1854 to March 1856, compared with the Annual Rate 
of Mortality in Manchester. 

Representing the Relative Mortality from Zymotic Diseases, Wounds, and all other causes 
in the Hospitals of the Army in the East for each Month, April 1854, to March 1856. 

Showing the Annual Rate of Mortality per cent, on the Sick Population at Scutari, from 
October 1, 1854, to June 30, 1855. 

From the difficulty of introducing a sheet, of sufficient size, to represent such a Mor- 
tality into the folio, this figure has been projected on a tenth part of the scale of the 
other figures in the Diagram. Had it been on the same scale the longest Radius, repre- 
senting the Mortality in the Hospitals for Pebruay 1855, would have projected 40 
inches from the centre of the circle ! 

Illustrating the Relative Density of Population in London, in East Loudon, and in the 
Quartermaster-General's Plans for Encampment. 



Description of Diagrams of the Mortality in the 

British Army. 



DIAGRAMS are of great utility for illustrating certain questions of vital statistics by 
conveying ideas on the subject through the eye, which cannot be so readily grasped when 
contained in figures. This aid has therefore been called in to give greater clearness to the 
numerical results in the body of the Report and in the Appendix. 

Diagrams have been prepared illustrative of the comparative health of men of the army 
ages in England and of soldiers in Barracks on Home Stations. 

Likewise diagrams showing the same comparison for the whole army at home and 
abroad. 

These several diagrams give the comparison of the life of the soldier with the life of the 
civilian at the same ages in time of peace. 

There is another set of diagrams showing the same comparison in time of war. 

Two other diagrams exhibit the chief classes of disease in both sets of diagrams. We are 
thus enabled better to understand how far it is within the power of preventive science to 
diminish the risks to which the soldier is exposed, whether at home or in the field. 

Diagram A shows the relative mortality of the Foot Guards and of the English male 
population at the corresponding ages. 

It must be remembered that the Guards are, physically, the very select out of the Diagram A. 
population. Any impediment or disease is enough to prevent a man being taken for military Table A &B. 
service. And none but the strongest and best looking recruits are accepted by the Guards. 
The young Guardsman is, in every sense, a " picked " life, and would be considered as a 
first-class life by any insurance office. 

As soon as the recruit enters the service he is placed under the entire control of educated 
officers : his diet, cleanliness, personal habits are strictly attended to : he is lodged in barracks 
which have cost the country far more than was the relative cost of the house in which he was 
brought up : he never leaves the country in time of peace, but passes from his town-quarters in 
London to his country-quarters at Windsor or at Chichester, and whenever he suffers from die 
slightest ailment his medical adviser is instantly beside him : he has hospital accommodation, 
medicine, attendance, and every necessary comfort immediately. 

One would say that of all men a soldier in Her Majesty's Guards was the most likely to 
enjoy perfect health and long life. 

The men that were rejected when the Guardsman was selected have passed back into civil 
life. The civil population has lost a certain proportion of its good life which has gone into the 
army, and it has received back those lives which were not good enough for the army. The 
civil population has had all the loss, the army all the gain. 

Let us now see how the Guards die off under the, apparently, very favourable circumstances 
mentioned. 

Diagram A consists of alternate black and red Hues of different lengths. The black lines 
show the proportion of deaths per annum among 1,000 of the civil population for each 5 years 
from 20 to 40. The red lines show the proportion of deaths per annum among 1,000 Guards 
for the same ages. The excess in length of the red line over the black line in each pair of 
lines shews the excess of deaths among the Guards. There is however an important difference 
between the relative value of the black and red lines which must be noticed, otherwise the 
mortality in the Guards, great as it is, might appear less than it really is. The black line exhibits 
all the deaths in the civil population which occur between the ages of 20 and 40, but the red 
line does not exhibit all the deaths which occur among the men who had been selected for the 
Guards. Every year between the ages of 20 and 40, men are rendered unfit for service by 
organic disease, and are discharged to die among the civil population and to raise its rate of 



mortality. These are included in the black line, and are consequently not shown in the red line. 
These deaths are in fact deducted from the length of the red line and added to the length 
of the black line, so that in the comparison the Guards have a double advantage from their men 
who die invalided. 

The Guards, though the most unhealthy corps in the home service, is not the only one 
which suffers a great excess of mortality. All the army on home service suffers, though in a 
somewhat less proportion. 
Diagram B. This is shown in Diagram B, where the black lines again exhibit the mortality among 

Table A & B. the general English population, and the red lines the mortality among soldiers on home 
service. The excess of length in the red lines shows the excess of mortality among the 
troops, subject to the same correction as to invaliding as has been already mentioned for the 
Guards. 

The whole army, like the Guards, consists of carefully picked lives. To show the full 

bearing of this fact in any comparison between the health of the army and that of civilians, it 

is necessary to state that, of the civil population at the recruiting age, a certain part is unable 

from illness to present itself to the recruiting officer : that deaths among that part go to 

raise the civilian mortality : that of those who do present themselves for recruits, a third part 

at least, though probably a much larger proportion, are rejected as unfit for service : that of 

those rejected at least a fourth pail are suffering from diseases which shorten life. The lives 

rejected are thrown back into the general population ; but notwithstanding this process of 

selection and the apparently favourable circumstances under which the troops are placed, we 

have from some cause or other the extraordinary results exhibited by these diagrams. 

Diagram C. The wide extent of the British Empire, and the great variety of climates it presents, as 

TablesC— a, well as the topographical peculiarities of our various colonies and possessions scattered over the 

C—l. -whole earth, would lead us to expect a higher rate of mortality among soldiers born in the 

British Islands, when these soldiers are sent on service abroad, than would exist among the 

home population at the same ages. 

This difference is represented in Diagram C, which exhibits the mortality among English- 
men of the army ages, living in healthy districts, and the mortality of the whole army at home 
and abroad for the same period, subject to the same correction for invaliding. 
Diagram D. Diagram D shows the same fact with regard to the army and the general male population 

TablesC— a, of England at the army ages. 

v - In some years it will be found that the mortality in the troops is from 5 to 6' times greater 

than it is in civil life, as represented on Diagram C. 

Diagram E. These facts are represented in another way in Diagram E, each parallelogram of which 

Tables E — a, represents the total sum of life among 10,000 men, between 20 and 40 years of age, entering 

E— 6. the army, and remaining on home-service, and among the same number of Englishmen taken, 

first, all over the town and country districts, and, secondly, in the healthy districts at home 

at the same ages. The left-hand Hue of each parallelogram shows that all start alike ; but 

the black wedge, which represents the progress of death among the various classes, it will be 

observed, has a very different slope in each separate parallelogram. 

The proportion of death increases and that of life diminishes, in a very different ratio and 
to a very different extent in each. 

The mortality is greater and its progress more rapid among the English male population 
generally than among that in healthy districts. 

The general population has lost a third more by the time it arrives at the age of 40, than 
the healthy population has, while the soldiers have lost above a third more of their numbers 
than the general population, and more than twice as many as the healthy population. 

Each parallelogram also represents the total money value of 10,000 men between the ages 
of 20 and 40, as well as the loss of value from loss of life at each succeeding year between the 
two ages. It further shows the relative value of the amount of life in the army as contrasted 
with that of two classes of civil population, passing on from 40 years to the succeeding period 
of life, from which it will be seen that while among healthy civil populations about 8,500 lives 
out of 10,000 survive the wear and tear of the ages between 20 and 40, and thereafter add 
their quota to the wealth of the community, only 6,900 of the army lives are available for the 
same purpose. 

It may be said that the nation loses the money value of the excess of mortality existing in 
its general population over that of the population in healthy districts. 

In the case of the army, the country incurs great expense in educating the soldier for 
his duties, and it is difficult to estimate the value of a good soldier, for he can hardly be 
replaced. In the present state of sanitary knowledge, it may be fairly stated that the whole 
excess of money loss between that in healthy districts and that in the army, as represented by 
the difference in area of the black wedges, might be saved to the tax-payers of the country. 



3 



The general community incurs a still further loss of productive labour, became it *i I bo > .een 
that the number of lives at 40 years of age returned iuto the general civil population s«PPO^ng 
that the average age of discharge from service is 40 years), is much smaller in he arm than 
the proportion which survives in the healthy civil population -and the productive f»™oftha 
country is further taxed for the support, by poor-rates and otherwise of a large propoition ot 
men, temporarily or permanently disabled by diseases contracted in the service. Diagram F. 

The loss from invaliding has been already referred to as a serious cau se of m effic ency g™ 
in the army not shown in any of the preceding diagrams. Diagram F has ^«™S*? F-6, F-c. 
from Tables F-a. F-b, F-c, and F-d, to bring under one view the whole loss su a ined. F _ rf . 
This is shown in No. L, on which the black wedge represents the deaths, he J^^ffJ^ 
loss from invaliding, and the two wedges conjoined the total loss from both causes m an army 
of 200,000 men between the ages of 20 and 40. No. II. represents what the oss would be 
if the army were as healthy as the civil male population, and by comparing the red areas id ; both 
diagrams the great loss of efficiency in the army in its present state becomes moie apparent. 
Under the present system No. 1, 10,000 annual recruits would be required to sustain a torce 
of 141,764 men, while under the improved conditions as to health indicated on No. li, 10,000 
annual recruits would sustain an army of 166,910 men. 

These diagrams then show the loss of life, of service, and of money value entailed on the 
country by the neglect of sanitary measures in the army m time of peace. Diagram G. 

It is in the highest degree important to show the classes of disease from which the great ^ ^ 
losses in the army in time of peace arise, for it is in this way alone that we can ascertain 
whether, and to what extent, we can mitigate or prevent these diseases by known sanitary 

precautions.^ ^ on Diagram G repre8CTlt the cl sses of mortality from disease 

most prevalent in the Infantry on home-stations, as compared with the extent ot the same 
types of disease in civil life at the same ages. , 

The excess of length in the army parallelogram shows the total excess of mortality ra the 

Infantry over that in the civil population. . nI vfQ i;t,, 

We are at once struck by the remarkable fact that more than seven-ninths of the mortality 
in the Infantry are due to two classes of disease alone,— namely, to zymotic d,seases such as 
fevers, cholera, diarrhoea, and to chest and tubercular diseases, such as consumption, Sc. 

In fact the mortality from chest and tubercular diseases alone, in the Infantry on h«»me 
service, exceeds the total mortality from all causes among the civil population at the same 
a«res ; while the deaths from zymotic disease are above double what they are in civil lite 
Acrain, chest and tubercular affections are the scourge of the civil population and yet 
the civil population suffers less than one-half the mortality from these diseases that occurs 
in the Infantry, while the deaths from zymotic disease in the Infantry nearly equal the total 
deaths from chest affections in the civil population. It is necessary here also to repeat that 
while the area in diagram G representing the mortality of the English male population exhibits 
all the deaths from each class of diseases, the area representing the Infantry mortality does not. 
It takes no account of men discharged by reason of chronic, tubercular, and chest diseases whose 
deaths taking place after discharge among the civil population, go to swell the mortality trom 
these diseases, such as it is shown in the area which represents the civiliau mortality. 

These diagrams, then, exhibit clearly the frightful mortality continually going on in the 
British army, and the classes of disease to which this mortality is to be attributed. 

The first question which arises on looking at these diagrams is,-what can be the cause ot 
all this? By what possible procedure can it be that the elite of the British working popula- 
tion can be so guided as that such a result shall follow ? Is there anything in the food, clothing, 
duties, habits of the men to which it can be attributed \ Are the army medical men less 
skilful in their profession than those in civil life % To every such query we must reply that 
there is, on the contrary, everything in the soldier's favour in these particulars, except 
perhaps that he is not sufficiently worked. His barrack accommodation has cost the country 
enough of money. There has been no expense spared in that. Can there be anything there 
to occasion such fearful annual loss of life % .-,■■• r \ ■ i 

Let us see what sanitary experience teaches as to the causation of the diseases from which 

the soldier suffers . ,. . _ , . , . 

1st. Consumption and diseases of that class are the result of breathing foul air contami- 
nated by the breath of other persons. ' It is air polluted in this way which appears to be the 
special a*ent which predisposes people to consumptive diseases. How is such a state o the air 
chiefly produced ? Very easily -.-simply by crowding too many people into unventilated rooms, 
especially into sleeping-rooms. . „ . 

If barrack-rooms are crowded and unventilated, and if the atmosphere is close or foul 
during the hours of sleep when the system is more peculiarly predisposed to its effects, then you 



have the elements of consumption and tubercular disease. If you want to develop the seeds 
into activity, all you have to do is to take the men out of such au atmosphere which they have 
been breathing night after night, and expose them on guard to wet and cold, and the disease will 
soon develop itself. 

But mark, — exposure to wet and cold alone will not do it. The Crimean experience 
proved this ; and so it is fouud to be daily aud nightly, in night trades and occupations, except 
in the case of the soldier. 

To know whether the conditions requisite to produce consumption and tubercular disease 
exist in barracks, it is only necessary to read the disgusting evidence given before the Barrack 
Committee, and the statements in this Report on the subject, or simply to consult the tables in 
the Appendix showing the amount of cubic space allowed to the men in barracks, and to the sick 
in military hospitals. It would be difficult to frame conditions more likely to generate such 
diseases than those to which soldiers are exposed in barrack-rooms. They are in fact the 
self-same conditions as have been determined by direct experiment to be necessary for the 
production of tubercular disease in animals. 

When a sufficient cause is found it is not necessary to look for another. 

2nd. Zymotic diseases, namely, fevers, diarrheal, cholera, dysentery, he, are«known in civil 
life to be most intense in their activity where certain local conditions are present — 

First in prominence amongst these conditions, we have again overcrowding and defective 
ventilation, — the repeated breathing, in fact, of air already breathed, such air being further 
contaminated by moisture and exhalations from the skin. 

Next we have emanations proceeding from animal excretions, or from decaying vegetable 
matter together with moisture. The want of drainage and the foul state of the latrines and 
urinals in many barracks, as described in the Report, are sufficient illustrations of this class 
of causes. 

There are others of minor importance which need not be mentioned. Those enumerated are 
quite sufficient to account for most of the excess of zymotic mortality from which the army on 
home-stations suffers. If men returning from foreign service happen occasionally to be more 
susceptible to the operation of such causes, they will of course suffer more severely ; but allow- 
ance is made in the diagrams for even this contingency, as they do not exhibit any deaths 
occurring for the first six months after men have returned from foreign service. 

The next query is one which it is almost superfluous to put. It is whether there be any 
known means of diminishing this excessive mortality ; and whether there be any hope of 
reducing the lines of disease and mortality among the troops, as exhibited in these diagrams, 
to the same length as the lines for the civil population 1 

The reply is, that the line of the soldier's mortality on home service should, to say the 
least of it, never have been longer than that of the civil population, and that it might be 
shorter. The parallelogram showing the mortality and disease among the civil population on 
Diagram G, is the very one, towards the reduction of which to smaller dimensions the whole 
sanitary procedure under every sanitary Act of Parliament is directed. It was the large 
dimensions of such parallelograms that led to the agitation which ended in the Legislature 
giving a sanitary code to England. And it is hardly credible that it should be necessary at 
the present day to advocate similar measures for the army. 

There is no reason why with proper sanitary measures the general health of the population 
should not be raised to the standard of the most healthy districts of the country, as indeed it 
has been in certain marked instances. And why should the health of the army on home service 
be any exception, seeing that the personal conditions of the soldier are so much more favourable? 
If this were done, and if our home army consisted of 100,000 Guards, we should save nearly 
1,500 good soldiers per annum, who from all experience in other cases are as certainly killed 
by the neglects specified as if they were drawn out and shot. 

By referring back to Diagrams C & D, which represent the armj mortality at home and 
abroad, as compared with that of an English population at the same ages, we cannot fail to be 
struck with the immense loss of life entailed on the army, and the corresponding cost to the 
country from foreign service. This loss is much less than it was in former times. It has been 
diminished by various sanitary means ; and there is no reason whatever, why, if intelligent 
inquiry were instituted, aud proper sanitary precautions taken, all the lines of army mortality 
on those melancholy tables might not be materially shortened. 

Unfavourable as those diagrams are to the sanitary system, or rather want of system, in the 
British army, they exhibit results which might be considered as in the highest degree favourable 
when contrasted with the mortality from disease among the British troops in time of war. 

It is at such times that the excessively defective state of sanitary science and practice in 
the army becomes pre-eminently remarkable, and leads to the most disastrous results. It is 
right, however, to state that such defects are not confined to the British army. All armies 
during war have suffered from the neglect of very ordinary hygienic precautions, and some 



armies have been all but destroyed in consequence Nearly six-sevenths of the vast army with 
which Napoleon the First invaded Russia had perished, or ceased to be effective before the 
Betting in of the fierce cold which destroyed the remainder. 

The actual losses in battle form a very small part of the calamities of a long war, so much 
so that if the excess of mortality caused by disease could be cut off, the loss in action would 
be hardly worthy of remark in the comparison. , 

The facts connected with the disastrous Walcheren expedition, as well as the ignorance 
and absence of the most ordinary precautions which led to so great a loss of life, are matters of 
history But up to the present time the experience of that expedition appears to have led to 
no beneficial result, so far at least as can be gathered from the still more disastrous 

Crimean war. . „ ,. , 

The linear Diagram H gives the comparative results of the mortality amongst the itaglisn 
male population of the army ages, and amongst the soldiers of the British army in the East. The 
first short black line gives the mortality from all causes among the English population. the 
second Ion" red line, nearly twenty-three times the length, gives the mortality in the army. 
For every Englishman of the army ages who died at home, nearly twenty-three died in the 
East The proportion of deaths from wounds, exclusive of those killed on the field, during 
the war was thirty times greater among the soldiers than among the civil population ; but even 
at that rate the mortality in hospital from wounds did not exceed 3 per cent, of the force, 
while the deaths from all causes were nearly 23 per cent, of the force in the field. 

When we examine the cause of this great mortality, the eye is arrested at once by the 
second loner red line marking the zymotic deaths. The short black line immediately above it 
shows the corresponding mortality from zymotic diseases among the home male population at 

the same ages. , 

We learn from these two most instructive lines, that for every man of the ages and 
numbers who died at home from zymotic maladies, 93 died in the army in the East! The 
remaining diseases shown in the diagram are not worth notice. If they were all expunged, 
and the deaths from wounds taking place in hospital expunged with them, the fact would remain 
that the army in the Crimea almost perished from zymotic disease. 

The awful mortality in that noble army is shown still more strikingly by Diagram I. b or the 
sake of comparison, the town of Manchester, one of the most unhealthy m England, and one very 
subject to zymotic diseases, lias been selected. The small black disc in the centre shows what 
would have been the mortality of the Crimean army, had it had been as healthy as Manchester. 
Now contrast with this the great black bat's wing on the right-hand of the diagram. I he 
whole of that black area outside the small innermost circle shows the excess of mortality in the 
army over that of one of the most unhealthy towns in England. 

The diagram is in two parts. The right hand part shews the mortality of the army 
during the first twelve months of the War from April 1, 1854, to March 31, 1 855. 

It shows how healthy the army was when it landed in the East. By comparing the 
dates it will be seen that, immediately on the army reaching Varna, sickness and death began 
to increase, showing the sudden exposure of the troops to some very unusual causes of mortality. 
It will be seen, that the whole time the army was in Bulgaria, it suffered severely— that the 
mortality declined when it left that pestiferous region for the Crimea— that from the moment 
it broke ground before Sebastopol, in a comparatively healthy district of country the mortality 
bewail to rise during October— that it progressed with frightful rapidity during November and 
December, attaining, during January 1855, an amount greater than the maximum ot the 
mortality of the great plague of London in September 1665. 

The diagram gives a pictorial representation of that great Crimean calamity during the hrst 
year of the\var. Except, perhaps, in one or two of the mediaeval epidemics, no pestilence ot 
which we have any record would form such a picture for eight consecutive months 

The left-hand diagram gives the mortality of the second year of the war. It was great, 
as will be seen by contrasting its black irregular surface with the small Manchester circle, but 
when compared with the first year's mortality it is insignificant. It will be seen that tor the 
last three months (but in reality for the last six months, January to June 1856 inclusive) the 
mortality retires within the Manchester circle and all but disappears. We have here at a 
glance the vital statistics of the Crimean war. 

The immense preponderance of zymotic diseases has been already referred to, and a glance 
at Diagram K will show that these diseases were the cause of the whole catastrophe. 1 he total 
mortality from wounds at Alma, Inkcrmann, and during five months in the trenches, exclusive 
of the killed in action, is all comprised in the small pink cone m the centre. The small b kick 
patch adjacent comprehends the total mortality from diseases not zymotic. The irregular olue 
surface, like the tail of a portentous comet, shows the zymotic diseases, the pests and scourges 
of camps and armies now, as they were of cities and towns in the middle ages, before the dawn 
of sanitary knowledge. 



Diagram H. 

Tables 
H— a, H— b. 



Diagram I. 



Diagram K. 

Table K, 

fig. 1. 



The analysis of the second year's mortality is given on the left-hand circle of Diagram IT. 
It exhibits an immense reduction in the deaths from all causes except from wounds, the legiti- 
mate result of war ; but even to the end the zymotic mortality retains its preponderance, and only 
disappears when the army had arrived at its most healthy condition. 

On comparing the total mortality as shown on Diagram I. 'with the zymotic mortality in 
Diagram K., it will be seen that the very first diseases from which the army suffered (as shown 
by the dates) in Bulgaria were zymotic diseases. They were principally fever aud cholera, brought 
on by neglect of sanitary precautions chiefly in the first bad selection of camp sites. The first 
outbreak began to subside only in September, and continued to decline until the army sate 
down before Sebastopol. Auother and far more terrible invasion of zymotic disease followed 
that event. 

The men were hard worked, but hard work by itself never induced zymotic disease. We 
must look for other causes, and these causes once existing, fatigue would co-operate powerfully 
with them. The men had no sufficient shelter. They were in want of clothing suitable to 
the weather. They suffered from wet and damp. They were exposed to the elements at all 
times and seasons. Their food was not sufficiently nutritious nor varied. They had no proper 
means of cooking, and little or no fuel, and they could not eat their rations. What wonder, 
then, if their very blood got into a disordered state, and zymotic maladies broke out among 
them 1 Scurvy and scorbutic diseases appeared at a very early period. Fever, cholera, diarrhoea, 
dvsentery increased, so as to threaten the total destruction of the force. The requirements 
of hygiene had been disregarded, and these diagrams show the natural results. 

During the summer of 1855, as shown on the left-hand diagram, zymotic diseases still 
prevailed, though to a comparatively insignificant degree. Sanitary defects in draining, 
cleansing, and ventilation, and over-crowding were then the prevailing causes of attacks. 
During the winter of 1S55 — 56 all the previous causes of disease had been removed. The 
men were well clothed, fed and sheltered. Their huts were properly drained and ventilated, 
and nuisances had been removed. The hard work had also ceased. 

Compare, then, the right with the left-hand diagram from the months of September to 
April ; and no more instructive lesson on army hygiene could be given. The men were the 
same, the conditions only had been altered. The requirements of nature had been disobeyed 
in every particular during the first winter, and she has left on that diagram an everlasting 
vindication of her broken laws. During the second winter, nature had been more perfectly 
obeyed, aud the stigma of her displeasure has almost ceased to appear. 

In discussing the causes of the teirible mortality of that fearful winter, we must not over- 
look another important point, namely, what chances a sick man had of proper care and 
treatment. 

The medical staff, it is known, exerted itself to the very utmost, and incurred a large 
proportionate mortality among its members in consequence. But the accommodation for the 
sick in camp was for several months most defective. There were no proper hospitals, and no 
suitable beds or other appliances. The suffering from exposure among the sick was perhaps 
greater, considering their diseased state, than among the army generally. 

The transport-ships were most defective at first, over-crowded and badly ventilated, and 
moreover, many cases were shipped in an unfit state for removal, particularly cases of choleraic 
disease. There was a great mortality on board the ships in consequence. During the period 
of 4J> months from the landing in the Crimea, to the end of January 1855, out of 13,093 sick 
shipped for Scutari, 976 died on a passage of only 300 miles, which is 75 per 1000. In 
January 1855, there were actually lost on the passage 10 to every 100 received alive. Of 
those who landed, two were lost out of every five treated in the Hospitals of the Bosphorus, 
during the month of February, and one out of every two at Koulali, the worst of all the 
Hospitals ; for, when the sick arrived they were crowded into buildings which had undergone 
no sufficient sanitary preparation for their reception. The drainage, ventilation, lime-washing, 
and other arrangements were so defective that the buildings were little better than pest- 
houses, and the result was, an enormous and needless mortality among the sick, which went to 
swell the losses of the army, and to raise its proportionate rate of mortality. 

The Scutari mortality was in fact a separate problem and must be considered by itself. 
It was the case of thousands of sick removed 300 miles from the causes which had occasioned 
their disease, and exposed to another class of risks in the buildings into which they were 
received. The buildings were spacious and magnificent in external appearance ; far more so 
indeed than any military buildings in Great Britain ; and several of them to all appearance 
were better suited for hospitals than any military hospitals at home. 

The mere external appearance was, however, fatally deceptive. Underneath these great 
structures were sewers of the worst possible construction, loaded with filth, mere cesspools in 
fact, through which the wind blew sewer-air up the pipes of numerous open privies into the 
corridors and wards where the sick were lying. 



The wards had no means of ventilation, the walls required constant lime-washing, and the 
number of sick placed in the hospitals during the winter was disproportionately large, especially 
when the bad sanitary state of the buildings is taken into consideration. The population of 
the hospitals was increased, not only without any sanitary precautions having been taken, but 
while the sanitary conditions were becoming daily worse, for the sewers were getting more and 
more dangerous, and the walls more and more saturated with organic matter. Some slight 
improvements were made in the beginning of March, 1855, but it was not till the 17th that 
effectual means were put into operation for removing the causes of disease in the buildings. By the 
end of June the improvements were nearly completed, and the proportion of sick had fallen off. 

The small diagram (fig. 2) on Diagram K. shows the whole history of that frightful Scutari diagram K. 
calamity. It exhibits the annual rate of mortality per cent, on the sick population of the T g ble 2 K ' 
hospitals. It will be observed that even from the very commencement of the occupation of s ' ' 
these buildings in October, 1854, and before the sufferings of the winter had begun, the 
mortality was very high, although the number of sick was small, indicating the unhealthy 
state of the buildings from the very first. Nothiug was done to improve them even then ; 
only fresh ship loads of sick were passed into them. The mortality of course continued to 
advance. Still nothing was done. Then came the great Crimean catastrophe, and ship after 
ship arrived with sick in so susceptible a condition that the foul air of these hospitals was 
almost certain death to them, and accordingly, as the diagram shows, they died, in the 
month of February, at the rate of 415 per cent, per annum. In 12 months at such a rate 
the whole sick population of the hospitals would have perished four times. 

The reduction in the mortality after the sanitary works were begun is most striking, and • 
it falls eventually in June 1855 to less than a sixth part of what it was when the Barrack and 
General Hospitals were occupied together in October, 1854, and to a nineteenth part of what 
it was in February 1855. Our General Hospitals have been so deplorably mis-managed in 
all our wars that the question has been raised as to whether it would not be better to do 
without them altogether The experience of Scutari, as shown on the diagram, proves that 
General Hospitals may become pest-houses from neglect, or may be made as healthy as any 
other buildings. 

The question of these zymotic diseases is of infinitely greater importance during war than 
during peace, for no weapons are so destructive of armies in the field as they are. The 
slaughter of battles and sieges is cast into the shade by that of pestilence, which during long 
wars is the real arbiter of the destinies of nations, for it exhausts their resources more 
completely than all other losses in the field. 

In a country like ours with a limited population, an entirely voluntary system of recruit- 
ment, and colonies and possessions in all climates and latitudes, the question of military 
hygiene is rapidly becoming a question of vital importance to the interests of the Empire. 
Upon the British race alone the integrity of that empire at this moment appears to depend. 
The conquering race must retain possession. Experieuce has shown that without special 
information and skilful application of the resources of science in preserving health, the drain 
on our home population must exhaust our means. The introduction, therefore, of a proper 
sanitary system into the British army is of essential importance to the public interests. 

The Crimean experience has proved the whole case, both as regards the disastrous results 
of defective administrative arrangements, and the possibility of foreseeing and obviating similar 
evils in future. 

And it has, moreover, shown that, with troops like ours, whose bravery and uncomplain- 
ing endurance of hardships the most severe and fatal, have been the admiration of the world, 
England has nothing to dread but the results of her own inexperience and want of foresight. 



DIAGRAM Z. . 

Illustrative of the Quartermaster-General's Regulations for Encampments. 

Diagram Z is introduced to illustrate an important sanitary principle in camping troops, Diagram Z. 
viz., the relative density of the population of a camp according to the number of tents pitched Table Z. 
on a given area of ground. 

The Quartermaster-General's "Regulations for Encampments" of I lth May, 1853, con- 
tain three plans for encamping a battalion 850 strong. 

In plan No. 1, 60 tents are arranged in 10 lines of 6 tents to a line. Four of the 
lines are double, and there are two single lines. 



8 

Plan No. 2 shows a " compressed" order in -which the tents are arranged in 10 double 
lines of three tents to a line. 

Plan No. 3 has the tents arranged in 10 equidistant lines of six tents to a line. 

Fifteen men are allotted by the regulations to each tent. 

The occupied area in Plan No. 1, measured from the outer margin of the tents, is 
210x36 = 7560 square yards. 

In plan No. 2, it is 220 x 18=3,960 square yards. 

In plan No. 3, the area occupied is the same as in No. 1, viz. 7,560 square yards. 

In all the plans the areas given include the spaces between the tents, and they correspond 
to what are called the " built" and " unbuilt" areas in towns. 

Plans Nos. 1 and 2 are so arranged that each double line of tents corresponds to the " built" 
area of a town, and the intervening spaces would represent the " unbuilt" area. 

In plan No. 1 the area absolutely covered by two lines of tents, six in a line, and 2 yards 
between the lines is, yards 14 x 36 = 504 square yards. 

In plan No. 2, six tents in two lines touching each other, cover a space = 12x18 
216 square yards. 

The following, on these data, would be about the population on the area of the camps 
reduced to a common unit : — 

Plan No. 1 = 3-18,000 per square mile. 
„ „ 2 = 664,000 

„ „ 3 = 347,000 

The occupied areas alone, without the open spaces intervening between the rows of tents 
are as follows : — 

Plan No. 1 = 1,044,820 per square mile. 
„ „ 2 = 1,290,000 

Sanitary principles of great importance are involved in the question of density of popula- 
tion upon a given area, and the whole subject has accordingly attracted considerable 
attention, more especially as it has been found that, other things being equal, the sickness and 
mortality among given populations bear a certain ratio to the density. The most densely 
peopled towns and districts are generally the most unhealthy. The prevailing diseases are 
fever, cholera, diarrhoea, consumption, and other diseases connected with atmospheric pollution. 
The air circulates less freely in densely populated districts, and the amount of organic refuse 
to be removed is, of course, much greater in proportion to the area where the population is 
more densely crowded than where such is not the case. 

Enquiries into the density of town populations have shown that the densities vary from 
10,000 or 12,000 inhabitants per square mile on the "built" and "unbuilt" area to 
175,000 per square mile. In certain districts the population on the " built" area greatly 
exceeds these estimates. 

Diagram Z shows the comparison between the density of population on the built and 
unbuilt area of the whole of London aud on the Quartermaster-General's plans. Each point 
represents a human being; the angular spaces the area allotted to each in the different densities, 
and the blue lines the distance from person to person. 

It will be seen that the least crowded of the Quartermaster-General's plans affords about 
a twentieth part of the area per man allotted to each inhabitant of the metropolis ; that it is 
about half the amount of that in the most densely peopled part of London ; and that 
the population on the occupied area of the camp is above 50 times more crowded than the 
population of London. 

If the metropolitan area were equally crowded as the camp No. 3 on the diagram, it 
would contain 42,000,000 of people.* 

If crowded as No. 2, it would contain 81,000,000. 

And if the metropolis were as crowded as the occupied area shown in the diagram, it 
would hold 127,000,000 or about four times the population of the three kingdoms ! 

These comparisons will be sufficient to show the great importance of this element of over- 
crowding to the health of camps. A great part of the disease and mortality in towns is due 
to its operation, and there can be no doubt that in camps formed of unventilated tents and 
huts, and overcrowded to such extreme degrees of density, it is one of the most powerful 
operative causes of camp diseases. 

It may be sometimes necessary in war to overcrowd camps, but it is evidently a measure 
only to be resorted to under pressing necessity, for camps can only be crowded by a consider- 
able sacrifice of the force from disease. 

* The number of square miles within the area of the metropolis is 12T92. 

Square Mile. Persons. Square Miles. Persons. 

Then aa 1 : 347,000 :: 121-02 : 42,000,000 nearly. 



Tables A and B, showing what would be the Mortality of the British Army if the rates were the 
same as those in (1) The Household Cavalry, (2) Dragoon Guards and Dragoons, (3) Infantry 
ot the Line, (4) Foot Guards. 





Effectives 


Deaths ii 


i the British Army at Home if the Mortality 


Ages. 


of the 
British Army. 




were the same as in — 




Numbers 

living 
in 1851. 


Household 
Cavalry. 


Dragoon 

Guards and 

Dragoons. 


Infantry 

of 
the Line. 


Foot 
Guards. 


rotal of the 

British 

Army at 

Home. 


Under 20 . . 


11,911 


90 


99 


157 


133 


146 


20—25 


50,387 


588 


626 


896 


1087 


858 


25—30 


38,242 


394 


547 


758 


806 


702 


30—35 


22,099 


293 


326 


438 


431 


406 


35—40 


10,005 


84 


153 


211 


224 


193 


40 & upwards. 
Total 


3,633 


49 
1,498 


67 


85 


95 


76 


136.277 


1,818 


2,545 2,776 


2,381 


Total 

Under 20 


Rate of Mortality per 1,000. 


Household 

Cavalry. 


Dragoon 

Guards and 

Dragoons. 


Infantry 

of 
the Line. 


Foot 
Guards. 


Total of the 

British 

Army at 

Home. 


11-0 


13-3 


18-7 


20-4 


17-5 


7-5 


8-3 


,13-1 


11-2 


12-2 


20—25 


11-7 


12-4 


17-8 


21-6 


170 


25—30 


10-3 


14-3 


19-8 


21-1 


183 


30—35 


13-3 


148 


19-8 


195 


18-4 


35—40 


8-4 


153 


21-0 


22-4 


19-3 


40 and upwards 


13-4 


18*3 


23-4 


26-2 


21-0 



The Annual Deaths among the 136.277 Effectives of the British Army a .Home and Abroad 
if the Mortality were the same as in the Household Cavalry, would be 1498 ; mike Dragoon 
Guards, 1™18; in the Infantry of the Line 2,545 ; in the Foot Guards 2,776 ; and in the Men of 
All Arms in the British Service 2,381. 

The Annual Rate of Mortality to 1.000 of the Household Cavalry is 110; of the Dragoon 
Guards 13-3 ; of the Infantry of the Line 18-7 J of the Foot Guards 20-4 ; and of the Men ol All 
Arms in the British Service at Home 17"5. 

If the 136.277 soldiers had been subject to the rate of mortality which prevails in the healthiest 
districts of England, the annual deaths would have been 1,051 ; in one of the unhealthiest cities 
(Manchester) 1,688 ; and in all England 1,248. 

Note— The numbers of men living in the British Army in 1851 were obtained from the 
Census Report of 1851. Vol. I. (Occupations) p. cccxlvi. 



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Table C— b. 



Number of Deaths of Non-Commissioned Officers and Men, showing also the Number of 
Deaths that would have occurred if the Mortality were 7 '7 per 1.000. such as it was among 
Englishmen of the Soldier's Age in Healthy Districts, in the Years 1849-53, which fairly 
represented the Average Mortality. 





Deaths that would 


Actual Deaths 


Excess of 




have occurred in 


of 


Deaths 


Years. 


Healthv Districts 


Noiv commissioned 


among Non- 




among Males of 


Officers 


commissioned 




the Soldier's Ages.* 


and Men. 


Officers and Men. 


1839 


763 


2.914 


2,151 


1840 


829 


3,300 


2,471 


1841 


857 


4,167 


3,310 


1842 


888 


5,052 


4,164 


1843 


914 


5,270 


4.356 


1844 


920 


3,867 


2 947 


1845 


911 


4.587 


3,676 


1846 


930 


5.125 


4,195 


1847 


981 


4.232 


3.2.51 


1848 


987 


3,213 


2,226 


1849 


954 


4.052 


3.098 


1850 


919 


3,119 


2,200 


1851 


901 


2,729 


1,828 


1852 


915 


3,120 


2,205 


1853 


920 


3,392 


2,472 


Total . . 


13,589 


58,139 


44,550 



The Table may be read thus : — In the year 1839 the number of deaths among non-commissioned 
officers and men was 2,914 out of the strength (98.912 — see preceding Table) ; whereas the deaths 
among the same number of men, of the same ages, in the Healthy Districts of England, would have 
been only 763 ; consequently the excess of deaths, in the Army, amounted to 2,151. 

* The exact Mortality among Englishmen of the Soldiers' ages, in the Healthy Districts, is "0077122, the 
logarithm of which (3'38718C1) has been used in making this calculation. 



Table D. 



Number of Deaths of Non-Commissioned Officers and Men, showing also the Number of 
Deaths that would have occurred if the Mortality were 9-2 per 1,000, such as it was among 
Men of the Soldier's Ages in England and Wales, in the Years 1849-53. 



Yeaes. 


Deaths that would 

have occurred in 

England and Wales 

among Males of 

the Soldiers' Ages. 


Deaths of 

Non-commissioned 

Officers 

and Men. 


Excess of 
Deaths 
among Non- 
commissioned 
Officers and Men. 


1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 


910 

989 
1,022 
1,060 
1,091 
1,098 
1.086 
1,110 
1,171 
1,177 
1,138 
1,096 
1,075 
1,091 
1,097 


2,914 
3.300 
4,167 
5,052 
5,270 
3.867 
4 587 
5,125 
4,232 
3,213 
4,052 
3,119 
2,729 
3.120 
3,392 


2.004 
2,311 
3,145 
3,992 
4,179 
2,769 
3,501 
4,015 
3,061 
2,036 
2,914 
2.023 
1,654 
2.029 
2,295 


Total . . 


16,211 


58,139 


41,928 



This Table may read thus : — In the year 1839 the number of deaths among non-commissioned 
officers and men was 2.914 out of the Strength (98,912 — see preceding Table) ; whereas the deaths 
among the same number of men, of the same ages, living in England and Wales, would have been 
only 910 ! Consequently the excess of deaths in the Army amounted to 2,004. 

B 2 



12 



Table E.- 



(1) Two Life Tables deduced from the Mortality of Soldiers in the English Army at Home 
(2) and from the Mortality of the Males of England at the same Age, 1849-53. 

(Facts relative to Soldiers, supplied by Sir A. Tulloch and Dr. Balfour's Report, 1853, ^>. 31.) 
Facts relative to Englishmen, supplied by the Registrar-General. 



Age. 


English 
Soldiers 
Living. 


Englishmen 
Living. 


English 

Soldiers 

Dying 

Yearly. 


Englishmen 
Dying 
Yearly. 


Excess of 
Deaths among 
English Soldiers 

at Home. 


20 


10,000 


10,000 


169 


82 


87 


21 


9,831 


9,918 


168 


83 


85 


22 


9,663 


9,835 


166 


84 


82 


23 


9,497 


9,751 


164 


85 


79 


24 


9,333 


9,666 


162 


86 


76 


25 


9,171 


9,580 


160 


87 


73 


26 


9,011 


9,493 


159 


88 


71 


27 


8,852 


9,405 


158 


89 


69 


28 


8,694 


9,316 


157 


91 


66 


29 


8,537 


9,225 


155 


91 


64 


30 


8,382 


9,134 


153 


93 


60 


31 


8,229 


9,011 


150 


94 


56 


32 


8,079 


8,947 


147 


95 


52 


33 


7,932 


8,852 


145 


97 


48 


34 


7,787 


8,755 


144 


97 


47 


35 


7,643 


8,658 


144 


99 


45 


36 


7,499 


8,559 


143 


101 


42 


37 


7,356 


8,458 


141 


102 


39 


38 


7,215 


8,356 


138 


103 


35 


39 


7,077 


8,253 


135 


106 


29 


40 


6,942 


8,147 









The Table, enables you to follow 10,000 Soldiers, from the Age of 20 to the Age of 40 ; showing 
how many die in each year of age, and how many remain alive at the end of each year of age. Thus 
of 10,000 Soldiers alive at the exact age 20, 169 die in the next year of age, leaving alive 9,831 at 



the age 21 



For the sake of comparison, 10,000 of the male population of England are followed through the 
same ages. It will be noticed that of 10,000 soldiers, 7,077 live to the age 39, out of whom 135 die 
in the next year of age; whereas out of 10,000 men of all trades and occupations at the age 20, 
8,253 attain the age of 39, and of these 106 die in the year of age following. 



13 



Table E. — b. 

Table showing the Strength, Deaths, and Annual Rate of Mortality in the Household Brigade, and 
the Cavalry and Infantry of the Line, serving in the United Kingdom 1839-53; also showing 
what the Deaths would have been under more favourable circumstances. 



Years. 


Strength. 


Deaths. 


Annual Eate 

of 

Mortality 

per 1,000. 


Number of Deaths 

that would have occurred 

if the Mortality 

had been the same as it 

was among the 

Males at corresponding ages 


Excess of 

Deaths in Army at 

Home over the 

Deaths that would have 

occurred 

had the rate been 

Annually 


In Healthy 
Districts. 


In England 
and Wales. 


7-7 
per 1,000 


9-2 
per 1,000 


1839 


24,132 


417 


17-28 


186 


222 


231 


195 


1840 


19,^59 


321 


16-75 


148 


176 


173 


145 


1841 


21,986 


346 


15-74 


169 


202 


177 


144 


1842 


23,019 


360 


15-64 


177 


212 


183 


148 


1843 


31,164 


502 


16-11 


240 


287 


262 


215 


1844 


37,265 


635 


17-04 


287 


343 


348 


292 


1845 


33,948 


562 


16-55 


261 


312 


301 


250 


1846 


30,280 


577 


1906 


233 


279 


344 


298 


1847 


33,353 


663 


19-88 


257 


307 


406 


356 


1848 


37,766 


629 


1666 


291 


347 


338 


282 


1849 


44,842 


851 


18-98 


345 


413 


506 


438 


1850 


36,794 


479 


1302 


283 


339 


196 


140 


1851 


34,095 


522 


15-31 


263 


314 


259 


208 


1852 


35,067 


469 


13-37 


270 


323 


199 


146 


1853 


28,671 


362 


1263 


221 


264 


141 


98 


Total and 1 
Mean. . J 


471,541 


7,695 


16-32 


3,631 


4,340 


4,064 


3,355 



The facts for this Table have been taken for the Years 1839-44, from the Report (1853, 
pp. 5 — 16), of Sir A. Tulloch and Dr. Balfour; and from 1845 to 1853 from data supplied by Dr. 
Balfour. The Deaths from accident are included with the Deaths from disease. The other facts 
have been supplied to the Commission by the Adjutant-General. 



14 



F — a 



Table showing, of 10,000 Recruits, at the Age 20, the Numbers remaining at each successive 3-ear 
of Age, up to 40, and also the Numbers annually eliminated by Invaliding or by Death. — It has 
been constructed from the facts supplied by the Army Reports and by the Paper of Dr. B ilfour, 
on Invaliding. The principle of construction is the same as that employed at the General 
Register Office, in constructing Life Tables. It is assumed that the Soldiers enter the Service 
at the age of 20 years. 







English Soldiers. 






Age. 








Completed 
Years of 
Service. 


Living. 


Dying 
and 

Invalided. 


Dying. 


Invalided. 


20 


10,000 


350 


169 


181 





21 


9,650 


325 


168 


157 


1 


22 


9,325 


305 


166 


139 


2 


23 


9,020 


289 


164 


125 


3 


24 


8,731 


278 


162 


116 


4 


25 


8,453 


270 


160 


110 


5 


26 


8,183 


265 


159 


106 


6 


27 


7,918 


264 


158 


106 


7 


28 


7,654 


263 


157 


106 


8 


29 


7,391 


266 


155 


111 


9 


30 


7,125 


271 


153 


118 


10 


31 


6,854 


275 


150 


125 


11 


32 


6,579 


282 


147 


135 


12 


33 


6,297 


288 


145 


143 


13 


34 


6,009 


296 


144 


152 


14 


35 


5,713 


302 


144 


158 


15 


36 


5,411 


307 


143 


164 


16 


37 


5,104 


313 


141 


172 


17 


38 


4,791 


315 


138 


177 


18 


39 


4,476 


318 


135 


183 


19 


40 


4,158 











15 



Table F. — b. 



Strength and Invaliding in the Array serving at Home, during the Years 1839—1853. 

(See Dr. Balfour's Paper). 



Years Service. 


Strength. 


Household 
Cavalry. 


Cavalry 
Line. 


Foot 
Guards. 


Infantry, 
Line. 


All 
Arms. 


All periods of Service 


18,114 


87,129 


73,720 


308,409 


487,372 


TEAKS. 

0—7 

7—14 

14_21 Infantry 

14 — 24 Cavalry 

21 and upwards Infantry 
24 and upwards Cavalry 


8,332 
4,988 

4.188 

606 


48,541 
21,721 

15,453 

1,414 


36,761 
20,731 

12,707 

3,521 


195,628 
70,549 
39,097 

3.135 


289,262 

117,989 

51,804 

19,641 

6,656 

2,020 


Invalided. 


All periods of Service 


589 


2,836 


2,282 


9,859 


15,566 


YEARS. 

0—7 

7—14 

14 — 24 Cavalry 

21 and upwards Infantry 
24 and upwards Cavalry 


52 
68 

147 

322 


713 
510 

568 

1,045 


526 
335 
254 

1,167 


3,105 
1.486 

2,174 

3,094 


4,396 
2,399 
2,428 
715 
4,261 
1,367 



Proportion of Troops Invalided to 1,000 serving, at each period of Service, at Home. 

All periods of Service .. .. 31 -93 

0-7 15-19 

7—14 20-34 

14 - 21 1 .... 43-98 

24 J 

21 and upwards ^ 648-46 

24 „ J 



Table F.— c. 

Proportion of Troops, serving at Home, who died or were invalided out of 1,000 serving in 
the Household Cavalry, Cavalry, and Infantry in three septennial periods of Service. 



Ages. 


Years 

of 
Service. 


Deaths 
at Home. 


Invalided at 
Home. 


Invalided and 
Deaths 


to 1,000 Serving. 


20—27 
27—34 
34—41 


0— 7 

7—14 

14—21 

or24 


17-41 
18-31 
19 15 


15-19 
20-34 
43-98 


32-60 
38-65 
63-13 



The Table may be read thus :— To 1,000 Troops who have served under 7 Years, of the Ages 
20 and under 27, 17-41 Die, 15-19 are Invalided, and 32-60 Die or are Invalided Annually. 

Note. — Table F. — a was constructed from the facts in Tables F. — b. and F.— c. 



16 



T.—J. 



Table showing the Number of Effectives (distinguishing Young Soldiers from Veterans) 
remaining (1) in the Army as it is; (2) in the Army in an Improved State —if the number 
of Annual Recruits were 10,000, and the Army served only at Home in a time of Peace. 





Years 

of 
Service. 


Ages. 


To 10,000 Annual Recruits. 


Excess of 
Strength in the 

Army in an 
Improved State. 


Army in its 

present 
Sanitary State. 


Army in 
an 

Improved State. 


Upon the above hypothesis. 


Effectives 

Young Soldiers .... 


0—20 


20—40 


141,764 


166,910 


25,146 


0—10 
10—20 


20—30 
30—40 


84,888 
56,876 


92,305 
74,605 


7,417 
17,729 



The Table is intended to show more particularly the large number of Veterans lost to the 
Army as it is at present constituted : — Thus in the Army as it is, the number of Young Soldiers at 
the Ages 20—30 is 84,888, and of Veterans of the Ages 30 — 40 56,876, while in an improved 
state the numbers would be respectively 92,305 and 74,605, showing an addition to the strength 
of the Army of 7,417 Young Soldiers and 17,729 Veterans. 

The number of Veterans actually in the Army, owing to Service in unhealthy stations abroad, 
is much less than in either of the above estimates; in 1851, of 120,733 men, 88,629 were of the 
Age 20—30, and only 32,104 were 30 — 40. 



Table G. 



Deaths and Annual Rate of Mortality per 1.000 Living, from all Causes, Zymotic Diseases, 
Chest and Tubercular Diseases, and all other Diseases, amongst the English Male Population 
Aged 15-45, (1848-54), and amongst the Infantry of the Line serving at Home (1837-46.) 



Causes of Death. 



Deaths. 



OfMalesagedl5 

to 45, in 
England & Wales 

during the 
7 Years 1848-54 



Infantry of the 

Line Serving 

at Home during 

the 10 Years 

1837-46. 



Annual Rate of Mortality per 
1,000 living. 



Of Males aged 15 

to 45, in 

England & Wales 

during the 

Years 1848-54 



Of Infantry of 

the Line Serving 

at Home during 

the 10 Years 

1837-46. 



All Causes 

Zymotic Diseases 

Chest and Tubercular Diseases 

All other Diseases (including 1 
Violent Deaths) . . j 



283,167 



2,865 



9-8 



17-9 



56,347 
130.753 

96,067 



659 
1,612 

594 



2-0 
4-5 

3-3 



4-1 
10-1 

3-7 



Males aged 15-45 living in England and Wales in the } 
middle of 1851 f 

Aggregate Strength of Infantry of the Line (serving | 
at Home) in 10 Years, 1837-46 J 



4,130,331 
160,103 



Note. — The Deaths in England and Wales (1848-54) are taken from the 18th Annual Report of the Registrar- 
General, p. 150, and the Population (1851) from the Census Report, "Occupations," vol. I., p. clix. The Deaths and 
Aggregate Strength of the Infantry of the Line (1837-46) are taken from Sir A. Tulloch's Report on the Health of 
the Army for 1853, pp. 9, 62. At p. 9, in addition to the 2.6S3 deaths from disease (p. 62), are returned the parti- 
culars of 127 deaths by violence: leaving, however, 55 deaths unaccounted for. 2,683 + 127 + 55, make the above 
2,S65 deaths. 

Bronchitis and influenza have no place in the Army nomenclature. The chronic catarrh of the Army Returns is 
believed to be really phthisis, in the great majority of cases; acute catarrh comprehends probably both epidemic 
catarrh, or influenza and bronchitis. The 55 deaths from acute catarrh have been treated as influenza and referred 
to zymotic diseases. The deaths from tubercular and chest diseases comprise scrofula, 24 (including apostema 
lumbare, 10 ; hydrarthrus, 1) ; phthisis, 1,241 ; hsemoptysis, 36; chronic catarrh, 135; hydrocephalus, 2; asthma, 2; 
dyspnea, 7; pleurisy, 10; pneumonia, 155. The zymotic diseases are, as far as the nomenclature allows, the same 
as those enumerated in the Registrar General's 16th Annual Report, pp. 83-5 of the Appendix. 



Table H. — a. 



Mortality in the Army of the East in Hospital during 2j years, from April 1st, 1854, to 

June 30th, 1856. 



Period. 


Years of Life, 

or aggregate 

Strength. 


Average 

Strength of 

the Army. 


Deaths. 


Annual 

Mortality per 

Cent. 


April 1st, 1854, to June 30th, 1 
1856. (2± years) J 


79.273 


34,526 


18,057 


22-78 



Note — The years of life and the average strength of the Armv have been derived from the 
Weekly .Return of the strength from April 1855, to May 1856, (inclusive), and for the previous 
period; April 1854, to March 1855. (inclusive), from the Return (A) of the Deaths during each 
Month, and from a Return of the Rate of Mortality during the same periods. 









Of the Total 






Number of 


Of the Total 


Deaths, (exclusive 


Deaths- 

Annually, to 100 

Living. 


Class of Diseases. 


Deaths from 
Specified 


Deaths, the pro- 
portion per cent. 


of violent Deaths), 
the proportion 




Causes. 


from each Class. 


per cent, from 








each Class. 




1 Zymotic 


14,507 


81-9 


94-3 


18-7 


2 Constitutional . . 


204 


11 


1-3 


•3 


3 Local 


668 


3-8 


4-3 


•9 


4 Developmental 


19 


■1 


•1 


, , 


5 Violent 


2,314 


13-1 


■■ 


3-0 



Table K.—b 



Annual Rate of Mortality per Cent., from different classes of disease, in Hospital in the Army 
of the East, and in the English Male Population of the Ages 15-45. 



Class of Diseases. 


Deaths Annually, to 100 
Living. 


In the Army of 
the East. 


English Male 

Population, 15-45 

(1848-54). 


2 Constitutional Diseases 
4 Developmental Diseases 

All Causes 


18-7 
•3 
•9 

3-0 


•20 
•42 
•26 

•10 


22-9 


•98 



18 



Table K. — Figure 1. 



Table Showing the Estimated Average Monthly Strength of the Army ; and the Deaths 
and Annual Rate of Mortality per 1.000, in each Mouth, from April, 1854, to March, 1856, 
(inclusive), in the Hospitals of the Army in the East. 













Annual Rate of Mor- 




Estimated 




Deaths. 




tality per 1,000. 


Months 


Average 
Monthly 




























Strength of 
the Army. 


Zymotic 
Diseases. 


Wounds 

and 
Injuries. 


All other 
Causes. 


Zymotic 
Diseases. 


Wounds 

and 
Injuries. 


All other 
Causes. 


1854 April .. .. 


8,571 


1 




5 


1-4 




7-0 


May 


23.333 


12 


. . 


9 


6-2 


. , 


4-6 


June 


28,333 


11 




6 


4-7 


. . 


25 


July 


28,722 


359 


, , 


23 


150-0 


, . 


9-6 


August 


30,246 


828 


1 


30 


328-5 


•4 


11-9 


September 


30,290 


788 


81 


70 


312-2 


32-1 


27-7 


October 


30,643 


503 


132 


128 


197-0 


51-7 


50-1 


November 


29,736 


844 


287 


106 


340-6 


115-8 


42-8 


December 


32,779 


1,725 


114 


131 


631-5 


41-7 


48-0 


1855 January 


32,393 


2,761 


83 


324 


1022-8 


30-7 


1200 


February 


30,919 


2,120 


42 


361 


8228 


16-3 


140-1 


March 


30,107 


1,205 


32 


172 


480-3 


12-8 


68-6 


April 


32,252 


477 


48 


57 


177-5 


17-9 


21-2 


May 


35,473 


508 


49 


37 


171-8 


16.6 


12-5 


June 


38,863 


802 


209 


31 


247-6 


64-5 


9-6 


July 


42,647 


382 


134 


33 


107-5 


37-7 


9-3 


August 


44,614 


483 


164 


25 


129-9 


44-1 


6-7 


September 


47.751 


189 


276 


20 


47-5 


69-4 


50 


October 


46,852 


128 


53 


18 


32-8 


13-6 


4-6 


November 


37,853 


178 


33 


32 


56-4 


10-5 


10-1 


December 


43,217 


91 


18 


28 


25-3 


5-0 


7-8 


1856 January 


44,212 


42 


2 


48 


11-4 


•5 


13-0 


February 


43,485 


24 


, . 


19 


6-6 


. . 


5-2 


March . . 


46,140 


15 




35 


3-9 




91 



The Deaths under the head of " Wounds and Injuries,'' comprise the following causes : — 
Luxatio, Sub-Luxatio, Vulnus Sclopitorum, Vulnus Incisum, Contusio, Fractura, Ambustio, and 
Concussio Cerebri. 



Table K.— Figure 2. 



Annual Rate of Mortality per Cent., on Sick Population at Scutari, from October 1st. 1854, 

to June 30th, 1855. 





Annual Rate 




of Mortality 


1854 October 1st to October 14th . . 


per Cent. 


148 


October 15th — November 11th .. 


101 


November 12th — December 9th . . 


121 


December 10th — January 6th 


202 


1855 January 7th — January 31st 


319 


February 1st — February 28th . . 


415 


February 25th — March 1 7th . . 


235 


March 18th— April 7th .. 


125 


April 8th — April 28th . . 


79 


April 29th — May 19th . . 


60 


May 20th — June 9th . . 


56 


June 10th — June 30th ., 


34 



li) 



General Retitrn Showing the Primary Admissions into the Hospitals of the Army in the East, 
from the 16th April, 1854, to the 30th June, 1856 ; also the Deaths from Primary as well as 
Secondary Admissions, together with those occurring on board Transports, conveying Sick and 
Wounded, during the same period. — Arranged According to the Classificatian of Causes of 
Death proposed by Dr. Fair, in the 16th Annual Report of the Registrar-General, pp. 82 — 96, 
so far as this is practicable under the imperfect system of nomenclature in use. 



Class. 


Causes of Death. 


Admissions 


Deaths. 


Class. 


Causes of Death. 


Admissions 


Deaths. 




All Causes 


162,123 


18,057 


III. 


Diseases of the : — 








Specified Causes 


161,297 


17,712 




















1. Nervous System 


4,051 


117 












2. Organs of Circulation 


263 


41 




DISEASES :— 








3. Respiratory Organs ... 

4. Digestive Organs 


2,607 
4,592 


384 
84 


I. 


Zymotio 


112,651 


14,507 




5. Urinary Organs 


239 


6 


II. 


Constitutional 


828 


204 




6. Organs of Generation 


— 


— 


III. 


Local 


25,043 


668 




7. Organs of Locomotion 


129 


1 


IV. 
V. 


Developmental 
■Violent 


214 
22,561 


19 
2,314 




8. Integumentary System 


13,162 


35 


IV. 


1 — 3. Not occurring in the 


























Army. 


— 


— 




ORDERS. 
1. Miasmatic 


108,577 


14,503 


V. 


4. Diseases of Nutrition 
I. Accident 


214 


19 


I. 


2,484 


532 




2. Enthetic 


3,74S 


4 




2. Battle 


18,283 


1,761 




3. Dietic (included in 1 
Order I.) ... J 








3. Homicide 


. — 













4. Suicide 


20 


20 




4. Parasitic 


326 


— 




5. Punishment and Exe- "1 
cution.. 


1,774 


1 










II. 


1. Diathetic 


458 


84 












2. Tubercular 


370 


120 




Causes not Specified 


826 


345 




Order 1. 






III. 


Order 1. 






I. 


Smallpox 


21 


4 




Cephalitis ... 


11 


7 




Measles 


5 


2 




Apoplexy 


87 


70 




Scarlatina ... 


3 


— 




Paralysis 


42 


10 




Quinsey 


924 


9 




Insanity (Dementia) 


44 


4 




Erysipelas 


78 


21 




Epilepsy 


261 


17 




Phlebitis 


3 


— 




Tetanus 


10 


8 




Typhus (and continued 1 
Fever) ] 


25,841 


3,075 




Cephalalgia 

Neuralgia ... 


128 

28 


— 




Carbuncle ... 


* 


* 




Ophthalmitis 


3,307 


— 




Influenza ... 


9,506 


144 




Otitis 


133 


1 




Dysentery... 
Diarrhoea ... 


8,278 
44,164 


2,259 
3,651 






















Cholera 


6,970 


4,512 






* 






Ague 


2,406 


60 












Remittent Fever 


2,957 


311 


III. 


Order 2. 








Rheumatism (Acute and 1 
Chronic) J 


5,044 














233 




Pericarditis 


24 


4 












A Ti An riQin 


9 


8 
29 












' 1 1 1 1 J l.ill mma amm _ , 

Heart Disease 


127 




Order 2. 








Varix .. 

Palpitatio 


58 
45 





I. 


Syphilis 


3,748 


4 









. 




Hydrophobia 


» 


* 


III. 


Order 3. 
















Order 3. 








Epistaxis 


10 


_ 


I. 


Privation ... 


1* 


1* 




Laryngitis... 


* 


# 




Purpura and Scurvy 








Bronchitis ... 


1,688 


199 




(see above under Dy- V 


2,096 


178 




Pleurisy ... 


264 


23 




sentery) 








Pneumonia 


590 


161 




Alcoholism (includes only "1 








Asthma and Dyspnoea 


55 


1 




Delirium Tremeus,other I 


281 


44 




Other Lung Diseases . . 


— 


— 




cases not returned) 
Order 4. 






III. 


Order 4. 




















I. 


Scabies 


257 







Gastritis ... 


29 


8 




Worms 


68 







Enteritis ... 


36 


11 




Dracununculus 


1 


— 




Peritonitis... 
Ascites 


16 

• 


9 












Ulceration of Intestines ... 


. V 


* 


II. 


Order 1. 








Hernia 

Ileus et Constipatio 


101 
1,862 


2 
5 




Gout 


* 


* 




Intussusception 


1 


1 




Dropsy 


294 


63 




Stricture of Intestines 


■ 


* 




Cancer et Tumores 


62 


1 




Fistula 


129 


3 




Mortification 


79 


20 




Dyspepsia ... 


906 


3 




Cachexia 


23 


— 




Htemorrhois 

TTnum i t.pmptiiQ 


358 
15 


2 












Singultus ... 


1 




II. 


Order 2. 








Pancreas ... 
Hepatitis ... 


251 


17 




Scrofula 


90 


3 




Jaundice ... 


878 


22 




Phthisis 


279 


116 




Other Liver Diseases 


* 


• 




Hydrocephalus 


1 


1 




Spleen Disease 


9 


1 



No admissions or deaths were returned under any of these heads. 



Class. 



III. 



III. 



III. 



III. 



IT. 



IV. 



Causes of Death. 



Order 5. 

Nephritis (and Nephria) . 

Ischuria 

Nephria fsec above; 

Diabetes 

Stone 

Hematuria 

Cystitis 

.Stricture of Urethra 

Hydrocele... 

Varicocele ... 



Order 6. 

(Not applicable, to the 
Army.) 



Order 7. 

Arthritis ... 
Ostitis and Periostitis 
Joint Disease 
Exostosis ... 
Necrosis, Caries, &c. 



Order 8. 

Phlegmon ... 

Ulcer 

Skin Diseases 



Orders 1 — 3. 

(Not applicable to the 
Army.) 



Order 4. 
Atrophy and Debility 



Admissions, 



26 
39 



1 

9 

139 

15 



Deaths. 



Class. 



V. 



25 
2 



8,323 

4,090 

749 



214 



23 

11 

1 



19 



V. 



Causes of Death. 



Order 1. 

Gelatio (Frostbite) 
Pernio (Chilblain) 
Sunstroke ... 
Asphyxia ... 
Poisoning ... 
Other violent Deathsf 



Order 2. 

(It is not stated that all 
these wounds and injuries 
were incurred in fighting, 
but. there being no means 
of distinction, they have 
all been referred to this 
Order.) 

Luxatio 

Subluxafio... 

Vulnus Sclopitornm 
„ Incisum ... 

Contusio ... 

Fractura ... 

Ambustio ... 

Concussio Cerebri... 



Order 3. 
Homicide ... 



Admissions 



2.3S9 

9 

13 

2 

6 

65 



Deaths. 



Order 4. 



SuicideJ: 



Order 5. 



Execution ... 
Punishment 



80 

1,453 

10,691 

1,270 

4. iim; 
380 



463 

o 
2 

65 



1 

1 

1,706 

18 

21 

14 



20 



1§ 

1,773 



Causes not Specified 



826 



20 



1§ 

345 



* No admissions or deaths were returned under any of these heads. 

t These are not properly returned, but appear under the collective head of "Accidental, Sadden, Ebrietas, and 
Cold, &c. 

i Unsuccessful attempts at suicide were, apparently, not recorded. 
§ This case was returned simply as hanging. 

Note.— The names of certain Orders as well as those of certain specific Diseases are omitted, as not applicable to the 
Armv. ^ 



21 



Table Z. 



DENSITY OF POPULATION. 
A few Districts of Great Density — consisting of Built Area and Streets. 





Persons to a 


Districts and Towns. 


Square Mile, 




1841-50* 


East London 


175,816 


Strand 




161,556 


St. Luke 




151,104 


Holborn 




148,705 


St. James', Westminster . 




144.008 


Liverpool 




69,368 


Birmingham 




37,554 


Leeds 




28,965 


Bristol 




22,606 


Nottingham 




19,082 


East Stonehouse . . 




18,028 


London 




17,678 


Plymouth 




17,368 


Hull 




16,082 


Manchester 




10,664 



Quarter- Master General's Plans for Encampments. 



Zy' \ Occupied and Unoccupied J 

( Area. I 



No. 3 



Occupied Area 



664,000 
348.000 
347,000 

1,044,820 



* The number of persons to a square mile in the districts and towns of England, calculated on the mean 
population of 1841 and 1851, has been taken from the Registrar- General's Sixteenth Annual Eeport, Supplemental 
Tables, pp. 150-153. 



>S£j> 



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j) of the /Von -Commisswned Officers and Men 
nd Colonial Corps 7 1839- 1853 



YdJ 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healtliy Districts 
Soldiers 

. Slates in Health if Districts 
Soldiers 



Mads m HealHiy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Mates in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 

Soldiers 



Males in Dent thy Districts 

Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 

Soldiers 



Males in Hecdlky Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Heidthy Districts 
Soldiers 



. Males inHealihy Districts 
. . Soldiers 



Mates in Healthy Districts 
Seldicrs 



tTiZtfiS'yrc £ Sons Iffli St XcurUn* La-n» 



is represented, as uniCerm in each oftfa. years airen in fht Jh{«ijra?n 



(C.) 



DIAGRAM representing the relative Mortality of Males of ffu Soldiers Ages limng w Healthy Distrusts . and of tin Non Commissioned Officers and Men 
serving in thi Army abroad and al homt exclusive of ' Artillery. Hoy al Engineers Wesl India . and Colonial Corps, 1639-1853 



r« 



Ms i 



Annual H/'X 

at Mot <«i,>>. 
i„, WOO 



7 ■ y 

7 7 

3a- 7 
7 7 

37 ■ J 



7 ■ 7 



-. -, ■ ' 

7 ■ 7 

■ M " T 

7 7 



dj 3 

7- 7 

,'. ■ / 

7- 7 

7- 7 
U J 

7- 7 
XV ■ S 

7- 7 
M3 

7 7 



7 ■ 7 
SS 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Hmirlni Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



. Mates in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

Ma lis in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

Mult h m i/riitrjii/ Districts 

Si lilurs 

Males m Huttthij Districts 
Soldiers 



Mates in Ih nil '/?t/ Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 

. Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Males m Healthy Districts 
Soldiers 



Mates in Hmltliy Districts 
Soldiers 



Mnlrs in Hml ih if Districts 
Soldiers 



Males in Healthy Districts 
Scldiers 






.■> n tivtuti ( . 



NOTE T/f Mortality if Wales '*' ^" VtaUty Districts isbastd an an arvayt <t '.< Years "t-.i in this vuw is represented as xuuferm ui each ■■■' ,■ ,'"" >*> th* Diagram 



MA 



WzZes; and tdfife 2Vbrh-&mmzssioried 
'nd &lo7iiai T Corps, l<939 -1853, 



y earj 



MX 

lS4c 

I84i 

184Z 
l<943 
lS4d\ 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 

18SI 
/8S2 

1853 



Average 

/ 839-53 



NOT£.T/A 



Males zriJElrig'land & Wales 
. .Soldiers 

. .Males m jEnglancL & Wales 
. . Soldiers 

_ Males in Sna/le^nd & Wals 
. .ooldzers 

. Males in Slnijland & Wales 
. .Soldiers 

.Males in Slnalmul & Wiles 
. .Soldiers 

Males in, 2? norland & Tildes 

. . Soldiers 

*. Males in. dUngland & Wales 

. .Soldiers 

Miles in dins/land $ Wiles 
. .Soldiers 

_ .Males m xxnylands & Jfales 
. _ a Soldiers 

. .Males in Unglznd & Wales 

. _ Soldiers 

. _ Males wdl/arland & Vlhles 

. Soldiers 

. - Males m Jjnaland a\ Wales 
. Soldiers 

Males in S^u/leaid & Wales 

. Soldiers 

. Males in Sny land & Wales 
. .Soldiers 

. . Males m Sine/land. & Wiles 
_ . j,Solde-ers 

. .. Males in Sin aland £ diodes 
. .Soldiers 



z /SoZtiiers Agres m Eivqlarui "■./ //?>.' - 



-. • ,- " -. ! ! ' : r ' v - 



M, I 



DIAGRAM- rqjresentin? lie relative Mortality ol 'Males or 'the < ■• 'Idiers Apes living in England and Wales; and- //'//;< . Von t o7nmissioned 
Officers and Men serving inttte-Army, ,.r- lascre erf Artillery. Eayal Engineers, Jtfest India .and Colonial Corps, 7(9.39 -7853, 



Yec 



18-3$ 

1840 

184/ 

/<$4Z 

7843 

*844 

76 V. , 

7846 .. 

784 7 

7848 

7849 

7830 

78J7 

7852 

7853 

Avemge 

7839-33 



Anruin/ Ji.^l.: 
Pfr J pop; 



9 ■ 2 

29 ■ 5 

9 ■ 2 

30 ■ 7 

9 ■ 2 

37 ■ 5 

9 ■ Z 

43 -9 

9 ■ Z 

44 -5 

9 ■ Z 

32 ■ 4 

9 ■ Z 

38 ■ 8 

9 ■ 2 
4-2 ■ 5 

9 Z 

33 ■ 3 

9 Z 
23 ■ / 



32 ■ S 

9 Z 
26 ■ 2 

9 ■ 2 
23 4 

9 ■ Z 
26 ■ 3 

9 ■ 2 
28 ■ 4 

9 2 
.33 ■ O 



DEATHS 



. . Males znEngland ii Wales 
Soldiers 



Males in England, & Wolfs 
Soldiers 

.Males in England £ Hales 
,/joldeers 

Males ai England & Wales 
Soldiers 

.Males m Enalanel S Hides 
. Ooldiers 

Males m England & Hales 

.Soldiers 

. Males in Em/land & Wales 

_ < Soldiers 

Males in. England & Hales 

Aoldiers 



. Males m England & Wales 
. , Soldiers 



Males rn 2,iu/land & Wales 
Soldiers 



. . Wales mE/u/land <(•' Mda 
Soldiers 

. . Hales in Enaland & Wales 
Soldiers 



Males in Enaland & Hales 

Soldiers 



Males in Enaland £ Wales 
<51 'Idlers 

. Males in Eni/linet ' £ Ha Mr 
. Soldiers 



Aides a> Enaland <.¥ Holes 
' Yoldiers 



JVC TA T/L TdortaZi&jjt f Males tr hated on an Average cf J Years and ir^Oit.- view V presented eumuSbrm in each afthe years, ffiren. in lA.e Duzyram <rf a u <SoHeersAges in England. ' 





7O00 

2000 
,30 O0 
JO 00 
JO 00 
. 6000 
7000 
$000 

,9000 

/oooo 



(Iv) 

DIAGRAM 
t VAowing the NumZers L / iwy mid Dead attke Several Ayes from ZO - 40 

I.ENGLISH SOLDIERS. 



25 



Age. 
30 



35 



40 































LIVING 


































____—-- 


— ~~~~~ 






^^ 


~~~~~~~~~':-' 


DEAD 


__— WS 


- 







2. ENGLISHMEN 

Atfe. 



o 

70OO 

2000 

3O0O 

WOO 

SO0O 

6000 

7O0O 

c?0OO 

300O 

/OOOO 



O 
/OOO 

2000 

3000 
400O 
oOOO 

6000 
7ooo 

#000 

<9OO0 

/oooo 



lo 25 30 35 46 




































LI VINC 




































— - : ' 


— ^~"~~ 


: —~~ 




DEAD 



25 



3. ENGLISHMEN IN HEALTHY DISTRICTS 

Age. 
30 



35 



40 





































LI VINC 




































_____ : 


_______ 






DEAD 



TAus:- the Diayrasn. (!)*&#** that out of 7O.OO0 Soldiers al^e at tie- Age of 20, aloul 
7000 are 0rO, v and 3OO0 are dead a£ the Jy< 40. 



..<.•,,,... } -■., sie* '"'■ . ■ 1 



Warnw - ' f ■ '■' ■ • ~*< ■ '' ' 



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in 



APRIL 1854 to MAKII 1855 




II.) 



ARMY [N THE EAST. 



m 



APRJl, I8SS roMAKCH 1856 



An III. 1854 ro MAKII 185. 



I 




EXPLANATION. 

Tfu Diagrams rgtrtsonZ th ANNUAL RATE ot Mortahtu per fQOQ in th* 

//, tpitafji pi fhi Amy in tin East for each Mmifli from April 1854 i< Mm cftfS56 

■ U IToU '■in IPS Hi, MiTlit/ihi wiurh llu :\rtmi WOldd ho,Yi < xp> in nrni 
-■■,,//;,., subject Irlh, mijih i tth Which jH'M'ilni Hi rtu il'llu /////,, nllilli si 

d England (Manchester) Tfu distances oohrecn th Centd wuLthi second 
the second and thi Until drvlts &c each rgoreseni 100 deaths ft> 4000 favmg 
Tfu Annual rui' of Mnhihii, in any particular Month is shown.hu tfu length 
oi Hi, radial lent aCUndi/ia from Vu cenirt in iht direction dike Month indicated 
iii Hit outer niih 

flu.- in .hiiiiini-if IS.Vi On Annual ntti of Mrrttthtn j>n it 1 1 wou f/74 

(fluifhir nth lituti Vitii which prevailed during flu Wattk{^timiher)ithtn 
ih, Miriiilih, washujfusl ui tin year gfih Great I'luum 1665 






'iS (/>/<«■/; i 



PRIL 1854 TO MARCH /H. r ), r ) 



JULY 





!DIA,&\RAM6 



r, ll ,,,, ll n M ih.ni,,n r ,)hriM l ,r n ,„r/ni<mrimrJ '„/> and from, ALL OTHER CAWSS 7 Hack) 

in tiik. HOSPITALS of tiik ARMY m the EAST 



FOR EACH MONTH FROM APRIL 1SS4 t,> MARCH 1856 



APRIL 1854 to M VRCH 1855 



showing iin AwutqlltaiU i>t' Wwiatittj VtrCovt en ii" 
SICK POPULATION u SCUTARI, 

i'l'ii.M OCTOBER 17 1864 TO JUNE 307 1855 





>A 


ar^ 




\ 


1 








; -■ 




1 








Had Fig ' <'■•" pryttUd on Ih mu Scab at 

ih, ,i/„, Fyurti •„■//„.. ■•ih,,, //,. /„,.,,. ,i /;„„;„. 
•r Ih, Sl,il„hh, a, i;i„-,„„,i „„„/,//„„, 

' ' "■'•.. h,„, ii„ i„,i,; ,/■,/„ c,,,/, 




«.*»* 



©QA© 



1851. 



UONDOyy 





density Aperson 160 Square Yds to a person 

proximity <n. o per , sm /4 £ Yds from person io person. 

fhe average amouM of ground to each 

\ person, meludiuq the space occupied by the faiy 



lei 



Sarnsor. » Sons .liflio St.M*rlMisI.sJrie 



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DJABiRAM-iS CflDHOTORQlClTIEIB) M TIME M7>\ FQJMgffilE® BV TBI 

QUARTER MASTER GENERALS PLANS FOR ENCAMPMENT. 






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DENSITY 6 9 ffuart YcU tea Person 
PROXIMITY erdirtam from To m ■'■ Pe> ton 3 2 TSh 



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Stfuor*. Ydi !'■ ■■ person 
Yds from p>> « n i> person 



OCCUPIED AREA 



Sguart Y3s i< >< pa ton 
9 h/' fivmperstm /■ person 



1851 



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6 Sffuart Yds to a person 
i Yds frornperson ib person 



160 Squan Yds to a person 
if it Yds. from person h person 



T}t. Number of Print* <-> represents tht Density oftfa Population, flu six ndedFigures represent tfn averagt amount of ground $o each 



person and ifu blut tines fromjjovnl topoinl indicate &u Proximity >■■• niton distance fromjperson toperscn. wdudmq tin spaa occupied by tin hath 



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