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Nature Books With Colour Plates 


Witmer Stone and Wm Everitt Cram 


David Starr Jordan and Barton W Evermann 


A. R Dugmore 
Neltje Blanchan 
Neltje Blanchan 
Nina L. Marshall 
Neltje Blanchan 
Dr. W. J. Holland 
MaryC Dickerson 
Dr. Leland O. Howard 
Dr.W. J Holland 
Nina L. Marshall 
Raymond L. Ditmars 
Julia E. Rogers 




Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Page & Company 
OLD MAN'S BEARD, Usnea barbata, (L.) Fr. 
" The murmuring pines and the hemlocks, bearded with moss " 





Author of "The Mushroom Book" 







MOSSES AND LICHENS has been written with the hope that it 
may meet a need often expressed, for a book with pictures 
which will help to identify some of the many beautiful growths 
which, winter and summer, in wood and open, excite the 
admiration and arouse the curiosity of all nature lovers. 

It is the result of the author's desire to know something of 
the dainty plants which are so lavishly employed by nature in 
beautifying the trails and brooks of the North woods. The 
more striking mosses and lichens were collected and carried 
about until by the kindness of one friend and another "learned 
in mosses," names were secured for them. 

No book was found which offered an easy path to the 
knowledge desired. In truth, no book was found which could 
be used at all until many months of patient labor in a botankal 
laboratory gave the necessary foundation. 

Then the author, urged on by friends who would have an 
easy path or none, set to work to make pen-and-ink sketches of 
bits of moss and details of structure. After a number had been 
made with some degree of success, a new plan was suggested 
by experience. An accurate detail was made with the aid of 
a microscope or was procured from a rare work, Bryologia 
Europce ; and with this detail a tuft or cushion on a large scale 
was built up and then reduced to natural size with a camera. 
Later, with the success crowning persistent attempts, Mr. J. A. 
Anderson and Miss H. C. Anderson succeeded in photographing 
specimens not too small, direct from nature. The plates in the 
book are the measure of their success. 

Thanks are due to Dr. Lucien M. Underwood, of Columbia 
University, for his never-failing readiness to give encouragement 
and valuable assistance; also Mrs. E. G. Britton, who has named 
most of the mosses collected by the author and has been ever 
ready to suggest works for reference and to render assistance in 
other ways. Thanks also are due to Dr. Howe, of the New 


: I 

Mosses and Lichens 

York Botanical Gardens, and to Dr. Curtis, of Columbia, for 
assistance with certain subjects; and especially to Mr. Williams, 
a moss and lichen specialist of the New York Botanical Gardens, 
who named the lichens pictured in the book and undertook the 
laborious task of reading the copy before it was submitted to 
the publishers. 

The pen-and-ink drawings were made by the author direct 
from nature or were redrawn from the works mentioned in the 
''Authorities consulted." 







General comparison of Mosses and Lichens . 8 

Poets' conception of Mosses and Lichens . . 9 

Scientists' conception of Mosses and Lichens . 1 1 

Soil makers 12 

corroding rock 12 

decomposing vegetable matter . . . 12 

reclaiming marshes 15 

Marsh-building on Mt. Marcy . . . . 17 

Mosses which build up limestone . . . 17 


Mention by early Greek philosophers . . 19 

Use in dye industry 19 

Use as drugs 20 

Use as food 20 


Spontaneous generation 22 

Dual nature 22 

The fungus partner 22 

The alga partner 23 

Experiments in artificial production of lichens . 24 

How a lichen is made 24 

Free fungus spore with free algal cell . . 24 

Classification of algae associated . . . 25 

Classification of fungi associated . . 25 

Interest to the collector ..... 26 

External beauty and form . . . . 26 

Absorbing power of water . . . . 27 


Mosses and Lichens 



Sporophy tes in general 30 

Sporophyte of Hairy-cap in detail . . -35 

How spores escape from a spore-case . . , 37 

How a spore becomes a leafy-moss ... 38 

How a spore-case is formed .... 39 
How a Hairy-cap procures a maximum amount 

of light 42 

How a Hairy-cap avoids too strong light . 43 

Gametophyte 43 

Leaves in general 43 

Leaves of Hairy-caps 44 

Stem 45 

Antheridia 46 

Archegonia 47 

Development of a sporogonium .... 49 

Veil or calyptra 50 

Spore-case 51 

Lid or operculum 51 

Teeth or peristome 53 

Teeth of Polytrichum Mosses . . . 55 

Pedicel or seta 57 

Asexual reproduction. Protonema from spores, 
rhizoids, cellular bodies, sporogonium, leaves, 

stems, gemmae 59 


HOMOLOGOUS PARTS . . . . . . . 61 


How to collect Hepatics, Mosses and Lichens . 73 

How to preserve Hepatics, Mosses and Lichens . 73 

How to study Hepatics, Mosses and Lichens . 73 

with the naked eye 73 

with a lens 74 

How to dissect Hepatics, Mosses and Lichens . 74 

with a compound microscope ... 74 







Genus Cetraria 79 

Cetraria lacunosa 79 

Cetraria Islandica 79 

Genus Usnea 80 

Usnea barbata 80 

Usnea tricbodea 81 

Genus Thelochistes 81 

X author ia parietina 81 

Genus Parmelia 81 

Parmelia conspersa . 82 

pbysodes 82 

saxatilis 83 

" perlata 83 

" caperata 83 

Genus Physcia 84 

Pbyscia leucomela 84 

Genus Umbilicaria 84 

Umbilicaria pustulata 84 

vellea 85 

Dillenii 85 

Mublenbergii 85 

Genus Peltigera 85 

Peliigera canina 86 

apbtbosa 86 

" polydactyla 86 

Genus Sticta 86 

Sticta pulmonaria 87 

" amplissima 87 

Genus Stereocaulon 88 

Stereocaulon pascbale 88 

" tomentosum 88 

Genus Cladonia .88 

Cladonia pyxidata ..... 89 

jimbriata 89 

cristatella 89 

" rangiferina (typical) .... 90 

" cornucopioides 90 


Mosses and Lichens 




Ribbon-like or Thalloid Hepatics . . . 93 

Marcloantia polymorpha 93 

Names of parts 95 

Description of development 95 

Leafy Hepatics, Scale Mosses and Foliose Hepatics 99 

Porella platypbylla 99 

Names of parts 99 

Genus Porella 100 

Porella platypbylla 101 

Genus Frullania 102 

Frullania eboracensis 103 

Genus Ptilidium 104 

Ptilidium ciliare 104 

Genus Bazzania 150 

Bahama irildbaia 106 



Genus Sphagnum 109 

The method by which Peat-mosses encroach 

upon water to form land 109 

The pale tint of Peat-mosses 116 

The method by which Peat-mosses absorb water 1 16 

The development of organs 119 

Synopsis of Genus Sphagnum 1 22 

Sphagnum acuti folium 123 

" molle 123 

" subsecundum 124 

rubellum . . . . . . .125 

cuspidatum 126 

squarrosum 128 

cymbifolium 128 

Genus Andreaea 130 

Andrecea petropbila 132 

" rupestris 133 

Genus Sphaerangium 133 

Spbarangium muticum 134 

Genus Phascum 135 

Pbascum cuspidatum 136 



LEAFY-MOSSES (Continued) 

Genus Pleuridium . . ' 137 

Pleuridium subulatum 138 

Genus Bruchia 139 

Brucbia ftexuosa . . . . . . .139 

Genus Archidium 140 

Arcbidium Obiense 140 

Genus Astomum ......... 141 

A sternum Sullivantii 142 

Genus Gymnostomum 143 

Gymnostomum calcareum 143 

curvirostrum 144 

Genus Weisia 145 

Weisia viridula 146 

Genus Trematodon 147 

Trematodon ambiguum 149 

longicottis 150 

Genus Dicranella 150 

Dicranella beteromalla 151 

Genus Dicranum 152 

Dicranum flagellare . . . . . .154 

scoparium 155 

Genus Fissidens 157 

Fissidens adiantoides 160 

Genus Leucobryum , .161 

Leucobryum vulgare 163 

Genus Octoblepharum 165 

Octoblepbarum albidum 165 

Genus Ceratodon 166 

Ceratodon purpureum 167 

" " var. xantbopous . .169 

" " aristatus . . . .169 

" " minor 169 

Genus Pottia 169 

Pottia truncate 170 

Genus Ditrichum or Leptotrichum . . . .171 

Ditricbum pallidum 171 

Genus Barbula 172 

Barbula unguiculaia . . . ... . 1/3 

" ccespitosa 


Mosses and Lichens 

LEAFY- MOSSES (Continued) PAO E 

Genus Tortula . . . 1 76 

Tortula princeps 1 77 

" ruralis 178 

Genus Grimmia . 178 

Grimmia apocarpa 1 79 

Genus Racomitrium 180 

Racomitrium lanuginosum . . . . .181 

Genus Hedwigia 182 

Hedwigia ciliata 183 

Genus Ulota 184 

Ulota crispa 186 

" pbyllantba 187 

" Hutclinsice 188 

Genus Orthotrichum 1 88 

Oribotrichum strangulatum 189 

Genus Encalypta 190 

Encalypta ciliata 192 

Genus Georgia 193 

Georgia pellucida 195 

" geniculata 197 

Genus Tetradontium 198 

Tetradontium repandum 198 

Genus Schistotega 199 

Scbistotega osmundacea 201 

Genus Tetraplodon 202 

Tetraplodon mnioides 203 

Genus Splachnum . 204 

Splacbnum rubrum . , 206 

luteum 207 

Genus Physcomitrium 207 

Pbyscomilrium turbinatum 208 

Genus Funaria 209 

Funaria flaricans 210 

bygrometrica 210 

Genus Bartramia 214 

Bartramia pomiformis . . . . .1 . 215 

Genus Leptobryum 216 

Leptobryum pyrijorme . . . . . .217 




Genus Webera 218 

Webera nutans . . . 219 

albicans 220 

Genus Bryum 221 

Bryum argenteum 222 

" roseum 224 

Genus Mnium 225 

Mnium cuspidatum 228 

a/fine 229 

bornum 231 

punctatum 232 

var. elaium .... 234 

Genus Aulacomnium 234 

Aulacomnium androgynum 235 

palustre 236 

beterosticbum 237 


Key to Genera 239 

Genus Catharinea 240 

Caibarinea angustata 241 

undulata 242 

Genus Pogonatum 242 

Pogonatum brevicaule 243 

bracbypbyllum 245 

capillare 245 

urnigerum 246 

Alpinum 247 

Genus Polytrichum, with key to species . . . 248 

Polytricbum gracile 251 

Obiense 252 

formosum 252 

piltferum 253 

juniperinum 254 

commune 256 

Genus Diphyscium 258 

Dipbyscium foliosum 259 

Genus Buxbaumia 260 

Buxbaumta apbylla 261 

Genus Fontinalis 262 

Fontinalis antipyretica, var. gigantca . . . 263 

Mosses and Lichens 


Genus Neckera 265 

Neckera pennala 265 

Genus Anomodon 266 

Anomodon rostratus 267 

attenuatus 268 

" apiculatus 269 

Genus Climacium 271 

Climacium dendroides ...... 272 

" Americanum 273 

Genus Hypnum with synopsis of sub-genera . . 274 

Sub-genus Thuidium 280 

Tbuidium minutulum . . . 282 

" delicatulum . . . 282 

Brachythecium 284 

" Bracbytbecium rivulare . . 285 

Starkii ... 286 

Nava-Anglice . 287 

" Eurhynchium 289 

Eurbyncbium Boscii . . . 290 

" Plagiothecium 291 

" Plagiotbecium Muetterianum . 291 

Amblystegium 292 

Amblystegium varium . . . 293 

Harpidium 294 

Harpidium uncinatum . . 295 

" Ctenium 296 

Ctinium crista-castrensis . . 297 

Euhypnum 298 

Eubypnum reptile ... 299 

imponens . . .301 

" " curvifolium . . 303 

Calliergon 305 

Calliergon Scbreberi . . . 306 

Pleurozium 307 

Pleurofium splendens . . . 307 

Hylocomnium 309 

Hylocomnium triquetrum . . 310 


INDEX 317 




I. Old Man's Beard, Usnea barbaia, (L.) Fr Frontispiece 


1 1 . Yellow Wall-lichen, Tbelocbistes parietinus, (L.) Norm. 4 

III. Hypnum uncinatum Hedw 24 

Golden Cord Moss 24 

Georgia pellucida, Rabenh 24 

Neckera pennata, Hedw. 24 

Sphagnum cymbifolium, Ehrh 24 

IV. Ceratodon purpureum, Brid 42 

Catbarinea angustata, Brid. . . . . . .42 

Climacium dendroides, Web. & Mohr .... 42 

Pogonatum brevicaule, Beauv 42 

V. Parmelia conspersa, (Ehrh.) Ach. . . . . 58 

VI. A Forest Boulder . 70 

[VII. Iceland Moss, Cetr aria Islandica, (L.) Ach. . . no 

Sticta pulmonaria, Ach no 

Sticta amplissima, (Scop.) Mass no 

The Dog Peltigera, Peltigera canina, (L.) Hoffm. . no 

VIII. Reindeer Lichen and variety . . . . .130 

Reindeer Lichen, variety Alpestris . . . .130 

Reindeer Lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, (L.) Hoffm. . 130 

Pbyscia leucomela, (L.) Michx 130 

IX. Wood Path 152 

X. Hairy-cap Moss, Polytrichum commune, L. . . .162 

XI. Umbilicaria vellea, (L.) Nyl. 174 

Rock Tripe, Umbilicaria Mublenbergii, (Ach.) 

Tuckerm 174 

XII. Scarlet-crested Cladonia, Cladonia cristatella, Tuckerm. 1 84 
Brown-fruited Cup Cladonia, Cladonia pyxidata, 

(L.)Fr. 184 

XIII. A Thalloid Hepatic, Marcbantia polymorpba, L. . 204 

Mosses and Lichens 


XIV. Hepatic, Dry, Frullania eboracensis, Gottsche . . 228 

Hepatic, Porella platyphyUa 228 

Hepatic, Moist, Frullania eboracensis, Gottsche . 228 

Hepatic, Ptilidium ciliare, Nees 228 

XV. Climacium dendroides, Web. & Mohr . . . .250 

Climadum Americanum, Brid 250 

XVI. Hypnum curvifolium, Hedw. . . . . . 276 

xv I 



I. The ruby-throated humming-birds know these 
lichens and so use them in decorating their 
nests as to make it difficult to distinguish them 

from lichen-covered knot-holes .... 34 

II. The Pitted Cetraria, Cetraria lacunosa, Ach. . 80 

III. Old Man's Beard, Usnea barbaia, variety Florida 82 

IV. Old Man's Beard, Usnea longissima ... 84 
V. Parmelia pbysodes, (L.) Ach., variety vittata. . 86 

VI. Parmelia perlaia, (L.) Ach 90 

VII. Spotted Lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria, (L.) Ach. . 96 

VIII. StereocaulonPascbale, L 98 

IX. The Fringed Cladonia, Cladonia fimbriaia, (L.) Fr. 102 

X. Batfania trilobata, L. 106 

XI. Acute-leaved Peat-moss, Sphagnum acutifolium, 

Ehrh. 124 

XII. The Spread-leaved Peat-moss, Sphagnum squar- 

rosum, (Pers.) 128 

XIII. The Broom-moss, Dicranum scoparium, Hedw. . 154 

X I V. Whip-fork Moss young, Dicranum flagellare, Hedw. 1 70 
Whip-fork Moss old, Dicranum flagellare, Hedw. 170 

Ditricbum pallidum 170 

Ortbotricbum 170 

XV. The Curly-leaved Ulota, Ulota crispa, Mohr, and 186 

Lichen, Parmelia saxatilis, (L.) Fr. . . .186 

XVI. Top Moss, Pbyscomitrium turbinatum, Muell. ined. 210 

The Pale Funaria, Funaria flavicans, Michx. . 210 

The Water-measuring Cord-moss, Funaria bygro- 

metrica, Sibth 210 

XVII. Weber a nutans, Hedw 218 

Weber a albicans, Schimp. L c 218 

XVIII. The Rose Bryum, Bryum roseum, Schreb. . . 224 
XIX. Mnium punctatum, variety elatum, Bruch & 

Schimp 232 

Mosses and Lichens 


XX. Buxbaumia apbylla, L 

Aulacomnium heterostichum, Bruch & Schimp. 
XXI. Juniper Hair-cap, Polytricbum juniperinum,Wi\\d. 
XXII. Anomodon apiculatus, Bruch & Schimp. . 

XXIII. The Dainty Cedar-moss, Tbuidium delicatulum, 


XXIV. BracTjyihedum rivulare, Bruch, Ms. 

XXV. Bracbytbecium Navce-Anglice, (Sull. & Lesq.) 

Jaeger & Sauer 

Bracbytbecium Starkii, (Brid.) Br. & Sc. . 

XXVI. Hypnum Boscii, Schwaegr 

XXVII. Hypnum reptile, Michx 

Amblystegium varium, (Hedw.) Lindb. 
XXVIII. The Knight's-plume Moss, Hypnum crista- 

castrensis, L 

XXIX. Hypnum imponens, Hedw 

XXX. Hypnum Scbreberl, Willd 

XXXI. The Glittering Feather-moss, Hypnum splendens, 







XXXII. The Triangular Wood-reveller, Hypnum triquei- 

rum.L 310 




" Children of lowly birth, 
Pitifully weak ; 

Humblest creatures of the wood 
To your peaceful brotherhood 
Sweet the promise that was given 
Like the dew from heaven : 
1 Blessed are the meek, 
They shall inherit the earth* ; 
Thus are the words fulfilled : 
Over all the earth 
Mosses find a home secure. 
On the desolate mountain crest, 
Avalanche-ploughed and tempest-tilled, 
The sweet mosses rest ; 
On shadowy banks of streamlets pure, 
Kissed by the cataracts shifting spray, 
For the bird's small foot a soft highway 
For the many and one distressed . 

Little sermon of peace." 

Willis Boyd Allen. 

No FREQUENTER of the woods can be unfamiliar with the 
more conspicuous lichens and mosses. It is with them that 
nature adorns her bare unsightly children. She drapes the time- 
worn evergreens with gray fringes (see Frontispiece) and decks 
the old tree-stumps with red or yellow corals. Soft lichens 
spread over the ground in the deep shade of the pine trees, while 
pale green or yellow rosettes creep over the fence-rails and the 
big rocks in the pasture lot. (See Colour Plate II.) 

" Far above among the mountains the silver lichen spots rest, starlike, 
on the stone ; and the gathering orange stain upon the edge of yonder 
western peak reflects the sunsets of a thousand years." Ruskin. 

Lichens and mosses are met with all over the world, in the 
cold North and in the sunny South, in the East and in the West, 

Mosses and Lichens 

by the seashore and on the highest mountain peaks. They are 
the first growths to appear on the rocks and in the places which 
give no foothold to other plants. When the side of a mountain 
is torn away by frosts and floods, and the bared rocks, shorn of 
their forest trees and shrubs, are left unsightly with nothing to 
tempt other plants to make a home on their ledges, then the 
lichens come and cover the bared cliffs with delicate traceries and 
mantles of exquisite grays and greens. They need no soil, a 
polished rock will meet their need. 

"Meek creatures; the first mercy of the earth, veiling with hushed 
softness its dustless rocks ; creatures full of pity, covering with strange 
and tender honour the scarred disgrace of time." Ruskin. 

The foothold of the lichens is often so insecure that one must 
exclaim as he sees them, " How do you grow in such unfavour- 
able places? On what do you subsist ? No soil! No water! 
Dry as tinder! Crumbling at any rude touch!" If the plant 
could answer, no doubt it would say, "There must be pioneers 
to open up new territory for higher plants, so from the earliest 
times nature has employed us to do this work. We travel swift 
as the wind for we travel with the wind. We are fed by the 
rains and the dews, the hard rocks soften at our touch and give 
us food." 

" The chapel and bridge are of stone alike, 
Blackish-gray and mostly wet ; 
Cut hemp-stalks steep in the narrow dyke, 
See here again, how the lichens fret 
And the roots of the ivy strike." 

Browning By the Fireside. 

It is true that these little plants as they lie upon the rocks, 
secrete an acid which dissolves the hard minerals. It is true that 
they have the power to condense moisture from the air, however 
little it may be, for they must have water as an item of food and 
as a medium by which mineral-salts dissolved from the rocks may 
enter the interior of the plant and may pass from cell to cell to 
those parts where they are to be worked up into plant food. 

The lichens are often the forerunners of rock-loving mosses 
as without the scanty soil prepared by their chemical action and, 
without the slight foothold which their debris afford, many 
mosses would be unable to get a start upon the forbidding rock. 


Mosses and Lichens at Home 

With the mosses nature first clothes naked sides of ditches and 
clay banks and spaces between stubble of hay and corn. These 
otherwise unsightly spots she covers and makes attractive with a 
bright green carpet. Even the hard soil along the city pavement 
or in the tiny city yard she covers with a velvety coat of young 
moss plants, although they rarely develop further than this 
velvet stage. 

" All green was vanished save of pine and yew, 
That still displayed their melancholy hue ; 
Save the green holly with its berries red, 
And the green moss that o'er the gravel spread." 

Crabbe Tales of the Hall. 

The blackened embers of the picnic fire are hidden with Golden 
Cord-mosses (Colour Plate III) and the roadsides in the woods 
and the slopes to the lake are carpeted with sturdy Hairy-caps 
(Colour Plate X). The crumbling roofs of deserted cottages 
and the unused well-sweep and old oaken bucket are decorated 
with soft tufts of green. Indeed the mosses are lodged in the 
crevices of the stones which line the well itself and late in the 
winter when all the world is asleep under its blanket of soft 
white snow, these little mosses grow and flourish unaffected by 
the cold above. 

Nature distributes the mosses lavishly in all humid climates, 
regardless of altitude, cold or heat. They are found on trees 
living or dead, on earth or on rock, in streams and on the land. 

" The orange stain, which is time's finger mark on the gray wall, and 
the cups with scarlet edges spread for fairy banquets the soft green 
beds into which our feet sink, and all the loveliness which we think of 
when we think of mosses." Ruskin. 

Who has not loved the mossy banks and the little velvet 
cushions which cling to the plaster of the old wall (Colour Plate 
IV) or spring up in the crevices of the pavement, giving restful 
spots of green to the dreary monotony of brick and stone? 
Children play with mosses and lichens. Poets sing their charms. 
Artists endeavour to reproduce their wonderful colours traced on 
bark and rock. 

Aside from their artistic charm, mosses and lichens have 
other charms for all who will pause awhile to study their habits, 
and for all who will linger long enough to make out what the 
plants are doing in their humble way. They have wonderful 


Mosses and Lichens 

mechanical contrivances for the physicist, curious processes of 
interest to the chemist, and many suggestions for the philosopher. 
Go into the woods and pastures after a rain. You will find 
a beauty and loveliness on rocks and trees and fallen logs which 
were not even suggested on a dry sunshiny day. The wood is 
in her glory at such times, and everyone who once sees her in 
her splendour will visit her again. 

" Here are cool mosses deep, 
And thro' the moss the ivies creep.'' 

Tennyson The Lotos Eaters: Choric song. 

The habit the mosses and lichens have of changing form and 
colour is one full of interest. The crisp gray moss cushions, 
which quickly turn green in the rain, must excite curiosity 
(Colour Plate IV). Pause awhile by a fresh green bank of Hairy- 
caps (Colour Plate X) wet with dew, and as the sun comes 
out and shines upon the little plants, watch them shrink away, 
changing the fresh bank into one brown and bare. Watch them 
again in a rain or when the evening dew is falling, to see every 
apparently dead brown plant revive and become green as before. 
The cause of the change is easily seen by one looking closely. 
The plant does not die when the sun shines, it simply folds the 
edges of its leaves together and turns them up against the stem 
so that their horny tips, instead of their delicate leaf surfaces, are 
presented to the sun. 

The cause of the upturning of the leaves of the Hairy-caps, 
the change of colour of many mosses and lichens from gray to 
green, the methods by which they subsist on bare and barren 
rocks and soils, and endure extreme and sudden changes in the 
dryness and humidity of the air, are all interesting questions to 
be answered by the microscope, together with careful observa- 
tions in the field. 

Gray or crimson Bog-mosses (see Colour Plate III), steadily 
working their way over swamps and ponds, preparing a foothold 
for larger plants, illustrate to us how the great peat-bogs of 
Ireland and of other parts of world were made. 

Whether one study the mosses and lichens for their natural 
beauty, for their habits, or from a botanical standpoint, they 
are interesting. They are true lovers of fresh air and clear 
running water, beautiful creatures in beautiful homes. They are 


Mosses and Lichens at Home 

beautiful even when dried and pressed for the herbarium, so that 
one with a taste for collecting may regard the artistic as well as 
the useful. 

The wide distribution of the mosses and lichens and their 
power of enduring great cold renders them available for study at 
all times of the year. They are reported to have been found in 
all parts of the globe. 

Dr. Isaac I. Hayes who in 1854 discovered Grinnell Land, tells 
of finding "moss" as far north as Booth Bay in Greenland, in 
Latitude 76 30'. The uses to which the moss was put in their 
distress were varied. After improvising a hut from a crevice in 
the rock by filling open places with loose stones pried from the 
frozen ground, they made a roof of sails and thatched it a foot 
thick with "moss" dug with their tin dinner plates from under 
two feet of snow. All cracks were closed with the moss, and 
tapers of "moss" dipped in oil were depended upon to light 
their dismal quarters. 

The habit of using moss for filling in chinks and cracks is a 
common one among all pioneers, as one may see by observing 
the log huts in newly opened districts, for mixed with clay it 
forms a useful cement. This art is not known alone to man. 

" Within a thick and spreading hawthorn bush 
That overhung a molehill large and round, 
I heard from morn to morn a merry thrush 
Sing hymns of rapture, while I drank the 
Sound with joy and oft an unintruding guest, 
I watched her secret toils from day to day; 
How true she warped the moss to form her nest, 
And modell'd it within with wood and clay." 

Claire The Thrush's Nest. 



Under the name of moss, in the popular mind, are included 
all small flowerless plants which grow in cushion-like tufts on 
stone or wood or bark. The name "moss" is made to do duty 
for the lichens, the mosses and their near relatives, the Hepatics, 
plants which differ widely in structure and appearance, 
as those will see who give more than a passing glance. 


If a small plant, rootless, of almost any colour 
except bright green, grows as a dainty mat a ibal~ 
lus Hat (Colour Plate V) or ruffled (Plate II) on 
its support, one may suspect that it is a lichen. 
If in addition to this habit of growth, it bears its 
fruits in flattened coloured disks (Colour Plate 
VII) one may know it is a lichen, also if the 
plants branch like corals (Colour Plate XI), or 
hang in fringes (Colour Plate I) from the trees, 
and are without leaves, one may suspect 
that they are lichens and may be pretty 
sure of it if the fruits are little coloured 
disks or cushions on the tips of the 
branches. The "Florida Moss," which 
grows in long gray fringes from the 
trees in the South, is neither a lichen 
nor a moss, but is a true flowering 
plant with stamens and pistils, the 
old seed capsules are often 
found still clinging to this 
moss-appearing plant, 
in the season when it 

Aulacomnium Heterostichvm. 


How to Know the Lichens and Mosses 

Hepatic. Hepatic. Hepatic. 

is not in flower. It was probably to this plant Gannet referred 
when he wrote: 

"A cloister dim, where the gray moss waves, 
And the live-oaks lock their arms at will." 


If plants are small and green, 
with leafy stems, and have the 
habit of living in such close 
proximity as to form 

without lid. 



velvety cushions, (Cera- with lid re - 

. ., : \ moved to 

todon purpiireum) one 

with lid. 

Bryum argenieum. 

show teeth 

Hedwigia ciliata 

may suspect them of be- 
ing mosses, but if they 
have this habit of growth, or grow in clusters resembling tiny 
ferns or miniature trees and bear their spores in little cases 
opening by lids, one may feel confident that they are the true 
mosses as distinguished from hepatics. 

Hepatic. Spore-case split into 
four symmetrical valves. 

Ceratodon purpureum, Velvety Cushion. 


Mosses and Lichens 


If the plants are green, growing flat and ribbon-like or as 
prostrate stems with paired, veinless leaves and with fruits 
umbrella-like or cups which do not open by lids but split 
irregularly into symmetrical valves in order to permit their 
spores to escape, one may know them to be hepatics. 

The beauty which mosses lend to the surfaces upon which 
they live is pretty generally conceded. One has but to recall the 
frequent reference which our poets make to them to feel that 
they have always appealed to the poetic eye. 

Mnium ajfine. Moss. 

" On our other side is the straight-up rock ; 

And a path is kept 'twixt the gorge and it, 
By boulder-stones where lichens mock 

The marks on a moth, and small ferns fit 
Their teeth to the polished block. 

These early November hours, 

That crimson the creeper's leaf across 
Like a splash of blood, intense, abrupt, 

O'er a shield else gold from rim to base, 
And lay it for show on the fairy-cupped 

Elf -needled mat of moss." 

Browning By the Fireside. 

Ruskin says: "To them, slow-fingered, constant-hearted, is 
entrusted the weaving of the dark, eternal tapestries of the hills." 


How to Know the Lichens and Mosse 

Whittier in " The Bridal of Pennacook," to the query of "Why 
turns the bride's fond eye on him, in whose cold look is naught 
beside the triumph of a sullen pride ?" replies: 

" Ask why the graceful grape entwines 
The rough oak with her arm of vines ; 
And why the gray rock's rugged cheek 
The soft lips of the mosses seek : 
Why with wise instinct, Nature seems 
To harmonise her wide extremes, 
Linking the stronger with the weak, 
The haughty with the soft and meek ! " 

Shakespeare calls the mosses "idle": 

" It is dross, usurping ivy, brier, 
or idle moss." 

Comedy of Errors, Act II, Sc. a. 

Scientists of to-day tell us that the rock-loving mosses and 
lichens are at work upon the "everlasting hills" to convert them 
into new soil ; that the saprophytic mosses on dead logs in the 
forest are at work returning to Mother Earth the materials which 
her tree-children took from her many years ago. They tell us 
that bog-mosses are reclaiming the marshes for higher plants, 
and that the water-loving mosses are receiving from the brooks 
lime-solutions which were brought up from depths below, and 
are laying them down in places where they are useful to man. 
As our knowledge of their practical value increases we shall not 
lose sight of their beauty, a new wonder will be added to our 
knowledge and many new interests to our trips "among the 
nodding ferns and mosses cool." 

Their association with aged castles and trees is so familiar to 
everyone that the poet has but to mention mosses and lichens to 
picture lonely places and peaceful decay. "Moss-muffled for- 
ests dim" and "the rocks where the brown lichen whitens " 
give to us a feeling of loneliness, while the picture of Oliver 

" A wretched, ragged man o'ergrown with hair " 

is complete when Orlando finds him sleeping on his back 
" under an oak, whose boughs are mossed with age." 

As You Like It. Act. IV, Sc. 3. 

Wordsworth tells us: 

' ' There is a thorn it looks so old, 
In truth, you'll find it hard to say 


Mosses and Lichens 

How it could ever have been young, 

It stands erect and like a stone 
With lichens it is overgrown." 

Spenser expresses another idea when he saysof the ancient oak : 

"But now the gray moss marred his rine ;" 

and Shakespeare also when he introduces Tamora, Queen of the 
Goths, to 

" A barren, detested vale . . . 
The trees, though summer, yet forlorn 
O'ercome with moss, and baleful mistletoe." 

Titus Andronicus, Act II, Sc, 3- 

Mosses and Lichens are both soil-makers. They work by 
two methods. The one chemical, the other mechanical. By 
chemical action they either construct plant tissue of gases taken 
directly from the air or they first free from rock or wood or earth- 
mould, the minerals needed and then construct them into plant 
tissue. By mechanical action they pry off bits of soil from hard 
rock, arrest dust and debris brought to them by the wind, and 
constantly add to the mass, such plant tissue as they themselves 
are continually shedding. 

" Upon this herbless rock a small gray lichen 
Did fix her home. She came with meek intent, 
To bless her stern and sterile place of rest ; 
And presently her gentle sisters followed, 
Some vestal white , and some in robes of brown, 
And some in yellow vestures, labouring all 
At the same work, with tiny cups held out 
To catch the raindrops, and with mattocks small 
To pierce the rock. And well did they effect 
Their destined purpose." 

One of the most important sources of the nourishment of 
plants is carbon dioxide (C O 2 ). It is the gas which bubbles up 
from "soda water" and it is the gas breathed out by animals. 
It is formed wherever a candle, lamp, or wood is burning or 
wherever vegetable or animal matter is decomposing. The gas 
is itself a compound of an elementary gas, oxygen (O) united 
with an elementary solid, carbon (C) known by the common 
names of charcoal and graphite. Stated in a general way, the 
carbon dioxide passes through the walls of the plant cells into 
the cell-contents and there by the leaf-green (chlorophyll) the 


How to Know the Lichens and Mosses 

oxygen gas (O) is set free to return to the atmosphere, and the 
solid carbon (C) is worked up with water into plant foods called 
carbohydrates, compounds of carbon and water, of which starch, 
sugar, and plant tissues are examples. 

" A small sisterhood of plodding lichens 
Wrought on the rock ; the sun, the wind and rain, 
Helping then gladly, till each fissure filled 
And fit for planting, mosses came in haste 
And strewed small seeds (spores) among them, destined they 
To clothe the stern old rock with softest verdure 
With ferns and flowers, where yet the labouring bee 
May find pasture." 

Certain lichens carried by the winds to places unsuitable for 
other plants, begin their work of dissolving the inhospitable rock 
to obtain mineral salts which the leaf-green may, together with 
water, manufacture into plant food; the delicate threads of the 
lichen work their way in and out among the particles of rock too 
small to be visible to the naked eye, and as they swell with 
water absorbed from the atmosphere, they pry off tiny particles 
of rock, thus slowly but surely preparing soil for higher forms. 

The mosses also can take their start in life on bare and rugged 
rock, although not so generally as the lichens. 

If a tuft of Grimmia apocarpa is lifted away from the lime- 
stone upon which it is growing, one may see corroded depressions 
in the neighbourhood of the place where the stemlets of the moss 
colony meet, and one may see the rhizoids of the moss imbedded 
in loose particles of limestone which have been separated from 
the main rock by a dissolving fluid which the rhizoids secreted 
upon the rock. In this way the moss obtains mineral salts which 
are necessary for its growth. The solid rock is crumbled to a 
dust which may be blown by the wind to other localities, or 
which may remain on the spot and furnish soil for higher plants. 
In addition to the chemical action which the moss exerts in 
dissolving the rock, it, as well as the lichen, exerts a purely 
mechanical influence, for a growing rhizoid penetrates wherever 
the merest particle of limestone has been dissolved and by 
mechanical pressure separates the particles of limestone which 

The mosses and lichens are truly efficient agents in rendering 
rocks available for plant life by retaining minute particles of soil 


Mosses and Lichens 

but their work does not stop here, for as the older plants die and 
crumble and mingle with the disintegrated rock, an incredible 
amount of earth-mould is formed which is a favourable site for 
higher forms of mosses, ferns, and other spore-bearing plants. 

That the leafy parts above arrest to a remarkable degree the 
dust which pervades the atmosphere, not only along dusty road- 
sides and open plains, but also in remote mountain 
valleys, in Arctic ice fields, and in most of the 
elevated parts of the earth's crust, will be evident 
to one who detaches and examines a small tuft of 
Barbula, which everywhere occurs on roadside 
walls. He will be surprised to learn the extent to 
which the road dust has been lodged in the older 
dead parts of the plants, and he will be equally sur- 
prised to learn with what tenacity the dust is held. 
The power the older parts of the plants have of 
holding the dust is due to certain alterations which 
take place in the lifeless cell-tissue. To be con- 
vinced that fine dust is also carried to the more 
remote and elevated regions, one must examine the 
lichens and dark Grimmias, Andr&as and other rock 
mosses which grow in small cushion-like tufts on 
weather-beaten mountain crags, when he will find 
that not much less dust has been arrested by them 
than by the Barbula living near the dusty roadside. 
Old crumbled lichens, together with dust blown 

Andraa rupestnt ,.,.... , , , 

Plant with spore- thither by the wind, accumulate under the thallus, 
case - or leaf-like expansion of the lichen, and soon form 

a suitable home in which moss spores may grow. The mosses 
in turn add their share to the accumulation of humus preparatory 
to the coming of the ferns, and the ferns in turn prepare for the 
trees with winged seeds, the evergreens and birches, which 
require no very great depth of soil, sturdy pioneers of mountain 

It is true that all green plants do a similar work, but they do 
not work under such primitive conditions as do the mosses and 

Aquatic mosses possess, perhaps to a greater degree, the power 
of arresting and retaining mud and fine sand hurried along by a 
violent rush of water. The plants of Hypnum rusciforme and 


How to Know the Lichens and Mosses 

Atnblystegiwn riparium, which cling to rocks in streams, are so 
conglomerated by mud and sand that they cannot be freed from 
it until the plants have become dried and shrivelled. Limnobium 
molle, which grows in the turbid waters from glaciers, has such 
an abundance of earthly particles adhering to it that only the 
green tips of the leaf-bearing stems are visible above the gray- 
coloured cushions imbedded in the mud. It is the dead parts 
alone which retain in their thick felt of interwoven filaments, the 
firmly divided mud and sand. That they are able to do this is 
due to the fact that the cell-membranes swell up and become 
slightly mucilaginous. This mechanical retention and storage of 
dust by rock-plants, and of mud by aquatic plants, is of the 
greatest importance in determining the development of the earth's 
covering of vegetation. The first settlers are crustaceous lichens, 
minute mosses, and algae. Larger lichens and mosses are able 
to gain a footing on the substratum prepared by them. 

" Tis spring-time on the eastern hills! 
Like torrents gush the summer rills, 
Through winter's moss and dry dead leaves 
The bladed grass revives and lives, 
Pushes the mouldering waste away, 
And glimpses to the April day." 

Whittier Mogg Megone, Pt. HI. 

The dead filaments, stems, and leaves of this second genera- 
tion arrest dust in the air and mud in the water, and thus prepare 
a soft bed for the germs of a third generation, which on rocks 
consists of grasses, composites, pinks, and other small herbs, 
and in the water of pond- weeds, water-crowfoots, hornwort, and 
related plants. The second generation is produced in greater 
abundance than the first, and the third develops more luxuriantly 
than the second. The third may be followed by a fourth, fifth, 
and sixth, each successive generation crushing out and supplant- 
ing the one preceding it. 

Another marked and important change results from these 
small beginnings. Streams on rather flat lands are turned from 
their courses by the accumulation of debris made possible by the 
arrested sand and mud, ponds have their outlets choked so that 
often new outlets must be cut, and small lakes are often cut in two 
by a natural divide which is due to the accumulation of sand and silt 
bound together, first by water plants and later by shrubs and trees. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The fact that at the present time the lichens and mosses are 
the first plants to appear on the soil, leads one to think that in 
ages gone by these little plants may have been the first to appear 
on the earth, and that they may have reigned supreme for a time 
in the plant world. This view is not sustained by positive tes- 
timony from the rocks, as there is no fossil evidence that mosses 
existed in Paleozoic times, nor has any certain trace of a moss 
been found in the coal-measures. Fossil mosses have been 
obtained almost entirely from tertiary and quaternary deposits. 

Notwithstanding that there is no fossil evidence that mosses 
did exist, there is no evidence that they did not exist, as their 
absence from the plant records written in the older formations is 
probably to be accounted for by reason of their insignificant size 
and the difficulty of their preservation. 

Another use the lichens and mosses subserve in the economy 
of Nature is illustrated by their habit of retaining great quantities 
of water in their spongy mass both on lofty mountain heights and 
in the forests of the valleys. 

In many parts of the world it is principally the moss-covered 
soil of the forests which, by collecting the rainfall, prevents the 
pouring down from mountains of violent and excessive torrents 
of water. 

Above the tree-line, in slight depressions on the sloping, 
rocky mountain sides, one may often find extensive patches of 
Sphagnum-moss and Reindeer-lichens which are crisp and dry 
on the surface, and yet retain so much water in their matted 
bases as to render it possible for one to obtain a supply of clear 
water. From areas of moss more extensive and of greater depth, 
tiny rills often trickle on their way to join other rills of similar 
origin. The sources of many a babbling brook or purling spring 
in the valley may be traced to the supersaturated moss-bed of a 
mountain forest. 

" Desolate ledges, frost-riven and bare, 
A tiny rivulet bore on their breast ; 
Cloud-gray mosses and lichens fair 
Mutely besought her to slumber and rest.'' 

Willis Boyd Allen. 

"Thou hastenest down between the hills to meet me at the road, 
The secret scarcely lisping of thy beautiful abode 
Among the pines and mosses ot yonder shadowy height, 
Where thou dost sparkle into song, and fill the woods with light." 

Lucy Larcom. 


How to Know the Lichens and Mosses 


Upon the open summit of Mount Marcy, 5,344 feet above sea 
level, there are two small marshy areas. One is a decided 
depression in the northeast slope; the other is on the eastern 
slope and nearer the summit. The water necessary to maintain 
the character of these marshes is probably supplied in part by 
rainfall, and in part by melting of snows which have accumulated 
in the crevices of the rocks above. The two marshes are cold 
botanical gardens of natural formation, unique indeed, as there is 
no evidence that the soil for them could have been brought from 
other sources, while everything suggests that the mosses and 
lichens at the present time growing on the bare surfaces of the 
rocks are active soil-makers. The boulders of the summit are 
variegated by the different colours of the lichens growing on 
their hard and almost naked surface. The rock beneath the 
lichens is more soft and scaly than elsewhere, and the moss tufts 
have the spaces between their lower stems and leaves filled with 
dirt and sand. The soil in most places is but a few inches deep, 
and largely composed of dead vegetable matter. Only plants of 
the most hardy nature are found here, and these are small and 
imperfect representations of similar plants growing at lower alti- 
tudes. The total number of species found on the summit is 206, 
of which 103 just half of the total number are dependent for 
their existence on the other half, the Lichens, Liverworts, and 


In trickling springs of mountainous regions, and on the lime- 
stone rocks of Niagara Falls, and in other localities are found 
mosses which obtain part of the carbon dioxide (C O 2 ) they 
require by the decomposition of the bicarbonate of lime 
[H a Ca ( CO 3 ) 2 ] dissolved in the surrounding water. The mono- 
carbonate of lime (CaC O 3 ), which is insoluble in ordinary water, 
is then precipitated in the form of incrustations upon the leaves 
and stems of the plants. Gymnostomum curvirostre, Trichosto- 
mum tophaceum, Hypnum falcatum, and others which regularly 
occur in streams arising from springs loaded with bicarbonate of 
lime [H a Ca(CO 3 ) 2 ] in solution become completely incrusted with 
lime, but go on growing at the tips as the older and lower parts 
imbedded in lime die off. In consequence, the bed of the stream 

Mosses and Lichens 

itself becomes calcified and elevated, and, in the course of time, 
banks of calcareous tufa are formed, which may attain to consider- 
able dimensions. Banks raised in this manner are known which 
are not less than forty-eight feet in height. To construct them, 
it is estimated that mosses must have been at work on them for 
more than 2,000 years. 



Somewhat authentic reference to lichens is found in the 
writings of the Greek philosopher Theophrastus (382-287 B. C.), 
a pupil of Aristotle. He gives us imperfect descriptions of Old 
Man's Beard (Usnea barbata) and Roccella tinctoria. Dioscorides, 
a Greek physician, and the founder of botany, who flourished in 
the first and second centuries, and also Gaius Plinius, a Roman 
naturalist (23-79), wno perished in the eruption which destroyed 
Pompeii, both wrote of lichens which may have been those 
described by Theophrastus. It is not improbable, however, that 
they were speaking of Marchantia or some other liverwort. 
The fact that lichens had few qualities which rendered them 
particularly conspicuous, caused them to be largely neglected by 
the early botanists. They are not as a rule striking in colour, 
size, or form and they have no marked useful or harmful properties. 
The incentive which led to the early study of plants was a desire 
to find properties which would be of use in medicine or in the 
household, therefore the early herbalists gave their attention to 
plants with real or imaginary medicinal properties. 

The lichens which could yield a dye were among the first to 
receive attention. Roccella tinctoria is supposed to have yielded 
the blue and purple dye of the Old Testament (Ex. XXV: 4). 
The dye called oricello, was certainly in use before the first 
century of our era. The knowledge of the dye was lost after the 
fall of the Roman Empire, but in 1300, Federigo, a Florentine of 
German parentage, accidentally rediscovered the method of 
preparing and using it. He is said to have achieved great success, 
and to have become the head of a distinguished family, the 
Oricellari, Roccellari, and Rucellai. From which we have orseille, 
the name of the dye material, and Roccella, the name of the genus 
of which Roccella tinctoria is a member. A blue litmus solution 
is produced by fermenting this lichen. It may be turned red by 
adding an acid and then turned blue again by adding an alkali as 


Mosses and Lichens 

ammonia or limewater. For this reason it serves as a test for 
acid and alkaline substances. 


Since many lichens had a fancied resemblance to certain parts 
of the human body, they were supposed to be a cure for the 
disease of that part of the body which they resembled. Old 
Man's Beard (Usnea barbata, Colour Plate I) was used to 
promote the growth of hair. Yellow wall lichen (Xanthoria 
parietina, Colour Plate II) was given for jaundice. 

Peltigera canina dried and finely powdered and mixed with red 
pepper formed an anti-hydrophobia powder (Pulvis antilyssus) 
of the London Pharmacopoeia. In the history of the Royal 
Society it is recorded that several mad dogs belonging to the 
Duke of York were saved by this powder. 

A prescription of Dr. Mead reads: "Patient is bled and 
ordered to take a dose ofpeltt'gera in warm milk for four conse- 
cutive mornings thereafter. He must take a cold bath every 
morning for a month, and for two weeks subsequent, a bath 
three times a week." 


" Iceland moss" (Ceiraria Islandica, Colour Plate VII) is even 
now used as an article of food, as it contains a high per cent, of 

The Spotted Lungwort (Sticta pulmonaria, Colour Plate VII) 
was considered a sure cure for lung trouble and was used in a 
Siberian monastery for a beer which was noted for its peculiar 

The manna of the Israelites is supposed to have been a species 
of Lecanora (Lecanora esculenta). This lichen is plentiful in 
Algeria and Tartary, as well as in mountainous districts of other 
countries. It is its habit to grow and spread rapidly and, as it is 
loosely attached, it is often carried by the wind down the sides 
of mountains into the valley, where it is spoken of as " Rains of 
manna." Kirghiz Tartars eat it as "earth bread." 

It first forms thick-wrinkled and warted grayish-yellow crusts 
on the stones. Within, they are as white as parched corn. 


Lichens in History 

As the plant grows older the crust is rent and loosened from 
the substratum, while the edges curl over until the loosened piece 
forms an elliptical warted body about the size of a hazel-nut. 
The Manna Lichen is sometimes brought down in such quantities 
by the rain that it accumulates to a depth of several inches, and 
in the Steppe region, and in the high lands of southwest Asia is 
used as a substitute lor corn. 

From the time of Dioscorides in the first century, A. D., until 
1825, advance in exact knowledge of lichens was practically 
nothing. Between 1825 and 1868 considerable progress was 
made in the chemical study of lichens, the investigations still 
being primarily made with a view to improving the dye industry. 

France took the lead in improved methods of extracting dye 
as well as of applying it. 


" Little lichen, fondly clinging 
In the wild wood to the tree, 
Covering all unseemly places, 
Hiding all thy tender graces, 
Ever dwelling in the shade, 
Never seeing sunny glade." 

R. M. E.. Lichens. 


STRANGE opinions were entertained in regard to the origin of 
lichens. The belief was general that they were spontaneously 
generated. In them the philosopher found the origin of plant 
life. "Spontaneously, inorganic stone became living plant!" 
Dr. Hornschuch wrote in 1819, "Algae, lichens, and mosses may 
develop without seed from decomposing water. The decom- 
position of water induced by warmth and sunlight gives rise 
to the common ancestral type of algae, lichens, and mosses. 
This ancestral type is a vegetable infusorium known as 
monas lens which, when acted upon by light and air, under- 
goes an evolutionary transformation into algae, lichens, and 

Nees Von Esenbeck, in 1820, was wont to lead his pupils to 
an old castle in order to demonstrate ad oculos, how the green 
substance when occurring on rocks will develop into lichens. 

De Bary was the first author to hint at the true nature of 
lichens (1866). His conception of the lichen as a dual organism 
composed of a fungus and an alga, was upheld by the researches 
of Schwendener and Bornet in 1868. 

Further investigation seems to prove that the lichen is not an 
individual plant, but that it is the result of an alliance perhaps for 
mutual benefit between two forms of plant life, an alga and a 
fungus. The alga gives the green colour to the lichen and is a 
relative of the simple plants which make damp stone or wood- 
work green on the shady sides of streets and houses and trees. 
The fungus is a relative of the toadstools and moulds. If one 
look at a piece of white mouldy bread, or in the ground at the base 
of a toadstool, one can see a true fungus plant which is simply a 
network of fine white treads (hyphce) stealing their food instead of 
manufacturing it for themselves. They have lost their leaf-green 
granules, the tools with which plant-food is manufactured from 
air and water and mineral salts, but they have acquired the 


The Origin and Nature of Lichens 

An Alga-fungus company. The cut shows a 
magnified portion of a lichen, Stereocaulon ramu- 
losum, (Sw.), (h) colourless hyphae of a fungus en- 
veloping, (g) filaments of a blue-green alga 

power of absorbing great quantities of water and of resisting 
alternate drying and wetting. 

The alga will perish if exposed to dry air, but when kept 
moist is capable of taking elements from the air and 01 manufac- 
turing them into plant-food 
by means of little granules 
of leaf-green it has in its 

In the alliance the fungus 
is entirely dependent upon 
the food manufactured by 
the green alga and in return 
keeps the sun's rays from 
the alga and absorbs water 
for its work. 

The Alga-fungus com- 
pany, or lichen, is perhaps 
one of the earliest instances 
of division of labour, a 
little community in which 
one party manufactures and supplies food to the other which 
serves as protector. 

The gray-green of a lichen is then due to the fact that a bright- 
green plant is covered over by a translucent white plant, and the 
brighter green of the wet lichen is due to the fact that the wet 
strands of the fungus are rendered transparent by the absorbed 
moisture, and permit the colour of the imbedded green to be seen. 

A magnified portion of a dissected lichen very much resembles 
a tangle of fine white threads in which are scattered bits of green. 
The white threads of the fungus creep around in search of 
moisture and as a rule determine the shape the lichen is to be, 
while the green cells or threads of the alga follow their protecting 
fungus. However little moisture there may be in the surrounding 
air, the fungus threads absorb it for their working companion, 
and so the lichen can live in places too dry and parched for 
other plants. 

"Strong in loveliness, they neither blanch in heat nor pine in 

On account of this dual nature it has been difficult to decide 
where to place the lichens in the plant kingdom ; to decide 

Mosses and Lichens 

whether they belong with the algae, with the fungi or have a 
place as individual plants. 

It is claimed that with the microscope one may often deter- 
mine the species of the associated fungus, as well as that of the 
associated alga and that this alga freed from the lichen-fungus 
pursues its normal mode of life and can then be identified. 

It is also claimed that lichens have been formed from the 
spores of a fungus partner allowed to germinate on free-growing 
algae, and that a variety of lichens have thus been developed and 
that the same alga will produce different kinds of lichens if 
associated with different fungi, and that spores of the fungus- 
partner have been grown on nutrient solutions and have pro- 
duced a fungus. One instance is known of a fungus- partner 
(Cora pavonia) which can lead an existence independent of the 


According to this theory, if a wandering fungus spore meets 
a group of algal cells with which it can live in harmony, a lichen- 
fungus-company may be founded on the spot. This lichen may 

grow and flourish and may from time 
to time send forth representatives to 
found new colonies. 

By another method, which is some- 
what analogous to the budding of 
higher plants, the partners for the new 
colonies arise within the parent lichen 
company. Certain groups of cells (So- 
redia) separate from the rest, each group 
consisting of one or more algal cells 
enmeshed in a dense weft of fungus 
hyphae. At the proper time the surface 
of the parent lichen ruptures, and the 
numerous social groups appear, giving 
to the old lichen that attractive hoary 
or frosted appearance they so often 
have. With the aid of the wind these 
easily travel, to form new companies. 
The fungus spores (ascospores) which enter into partnership 
with groups of alga cells are produced in sacs (asci, singular 


Coccocarpia molybdia. A section 
of the thallus showing the green 
cells of the alga covered by the 
colourless cells of the fungus. When 
the lichen is damp the colourless 
cells are more translucent and the 
green cells show more and the 
lichen is greener than when dry. 




Funaria hygrometrica, Sibth. 


A moss creeping around the tree trunk . . . 


Copyright, 1907, by Doublcday, Page & Company 

. , . Crimson bog-mosses . . . illustrate how the peat-bogs . . . were made . . . 

The Origin and Nature of Lichens 

ascus) in organs of various shapes, knobs, or flat disks (apothe- 
cia), or cup and flask-like cavities (perithecia). In addition to 
these large spores (ascosporcs) of the knobs and cups there are 
smaller spores (conidia) 
produced in smaller cavi- 
ties scattered over the thai- ' 
lus. There is much conjee- 
ture as to what may be the 
function of these spores. 

In tropical countries there 
is found a very beautiful 
fanlike, greenish - yellow 
lichen (Cora pavonia) hav- 
ing a thallus marked with 
concentric ridges. This 
lichen bears its spores on 
the under surface on tiny 
clubs (basidia) instead of 
in sacs. The algal partner 
is one of the unicellular 
blue-green algae (Chrodcoc- 
cus) often found in muci- 

Usnea barbata. {Ft.) (A) A vertical section 
through a strand of the lichen. 

(B) A cross section of a strand at a point where 
a radiating strand was cut in vertical section. 
(*) Apex of strand, (r) cortex, (g) algae, (m) pith 
layer, (*) a central card, (ja) section of a radiating 
branch with its central cord, (*) 

laginous masses in damp 
places. Another tropical 
form (Dictyonema) grows 
as delicate blue-green, felt- 
like plates standing out 
from the tree-branches to 

to which they are attached. The algal partner in this case is a 
blue-green, branching, and thread-like species (Scytonema) found 
enveloped in a mucilaginous mass in fresh water. The fungus- 
partner in both the Cora pavonia and the Dictyonema is one of 
the group which forms leathery crusts on twigs and tree trunks. 

Another lichen, Laudatea, has the same partners as the Dic- 
tyonema. It is a crustaceous form and in it we find the exception 
to the rule, that the fungus is the leading member of the lichen 
firm. In it the alga has the upper hand and determines the 
direction of the growth. 

One lichen (Emericella -variecolour), which resembles a 
tiny puff-ball, is known to be due to the confederacy of a 

Mosses and Lichen* 

member of the pouch-fungi group (G aster omycetes) with an . 
alga (Palmella). 

In the majority of lichens the algae are arranged in definite 
layers, sometimes as in the gelatinous lichens they are distri- \ 
buted through the whole thickness of the thallus. The fungus 
partner which, with but few exceptions, directs the growth of 
the lichen, determines whether it shall encrust the surface so 
that it cannot be removed without injury, or whether it shall 
form shields and ribbons lightly attached, or corals and fringes 
fastened at one point. 

Although it is impossible without microscopic examination 
to determine the exact relations of one lichen to another, much 
pleasure may be derived from an acquaintance with their external 
form alone. No plants are more readily preserved and none will 

so satisfactorily respond 
to one's effort to revive 
them. Even after they 
have been dry for years 
they will become as beau- 
tiful as ever if placed in a 
.moist atmosphere. One 
may find them every- 
where and at all times of 
the year. Their power of 
absorbing moisture is tru- 
ly wonderful. It is stated 
that if living lichens which 
have become dry in the 
air, are left in a place 
saturated with moisture, 
they take up 35 per cent, 
of water in two days and 
as much as 56 per cent, in 
six days. Certain lichens 
after a long continuance 
of dry weather will absorb 
one-half their own weight 
of water in ten minutes and will lose it as quickly when exposed 
to dry air. It is an interesting experiment to put a mass of 
Reindeer-lichen in a glass of clear water, and note how quickly 


Stictima ]vliginosa. (Dicks.) Nyl. A section 
showing (o) the upper cortex, (u) the under cortex, 
with (r) rhizoids: (m) Pith layer showing hyphae 
in side and end views, (g) gonidial zone, with the 
blue-green alga chroococcus. 

The Origin and Nature of Lichens 

it will expand into a beautiful fresh 
plant. One may appreciate their 
wonderful absorbing power by 
comparing the dry forest trail with 
a wet one. The old tree stumps 
are decked, as for a banquet, with 
branching, coral-like Cladonia, a 
lavish display of fairy candelabra! 
The red tips of Cladonia cristatella and the brown tips of Cla- 
donia mitrula are in rich contrast with their frosted green 
branches. The gray goblets of Cladonia pyxidata and Cladonia 

A magnified portion of Cladonia fur- 
cola (Huds.) Fr. (g.) The alga protococcus 
enveloped by colourless strands (h) of a 


An ideal section through the thallus of a lichen at a point where an apolhecium is situated. 

gracilis are suggestive of many a wood-sprite revel. In cedar 
woods and on sunny mountain slopes, Reindeer-lichen (Cla- 
donia rangiferind), covers the ground with a carpet of loveli- 
est grays, crisp 
and crumbling 
when dry but 
soft as a sponge 
when moist, and 

"O'er yon bare 
knoll the pointed 
cedar shadows 
drowse on the 
crisp, gray moss." 
J. R. Lowell An 
Indian Summer 

Gyrophora cylindrica, (L) Ach. (A.) A magnified section of a lichen 
thallus at a point where a perithecium (Pycnidium) is situated: 
showing (o) the upper surface. () the under surface, (m)the pithy 
layer, (b) the interior and (c) the opering of the perithecium. 

(B) A highly magnified bit from the interior of A; (j) sterig- 
mata the tiny stalks upon which the spores are borne, (w) Wall 
of the pycnidium. (m) Side and end views of hyphae from the 

in Lapland feed P ittv laver - 

. ... (v) Sterigmata with spores from the lichen Cladonia Novae 

almost entirely 

The reindeer 

Mosses and Lichens 

upon this lichen, and in times when food has been scarce, even 

man has been glad to avail himself of it. 

In Sweden at one time the people made their bread 
from this lowly plant. 

In moist places, velvety green ruffles 
(Pdtigera, Colour Plate VII) spread on 
the ground or on stones and stumps, 
the edges of the ruffles set with fruit- 
disks curled in such a way as to resem- 
ble brown finger nails, or dogs' teeth. 
In the days when drugs were selected 
because of a fancied resemblance to the 
part of the body in need of cure, Pelti- 
gera canina was considered a cure for 
Section hydrophobia and received its specific 

ot thaiius toshow aig* and hyp- name canina because of the resemblance 

hae in definite layers. 

of its fruit-disks to a dog's teeth. When 

dry the surface of the ruffles is a light quaker-drab, which quickly 
changes to a bright green when the lichen is damp. 

It is on the bark of trees that one finds the richest har- 
vest of lichens. They are found in the greatest profusion 
on the north sides of -^ 

the trees and for this 
reason serve the wood- 
man as a guide through 
the forest. Emerson in 
"Wood Notes" refers 
to this, when he says: 

" The moss upon the for- 
est bark 
Was pole-star when the 

night was dark." 
(Colour Plate IX) 

The encrusted lichens, 
Parmelia (Colour Plate 
V), and Stic fa (Colour 
Plate VII) which grow flat on rocks and trees, cling so closeiy 
that they can with difficulty be separated. Their pretty gray or 
green mats dotted with shining brown fruits grow from the 
centre outward in an ever-widening circle, covering old fence 


Epkebe Kerneri. A gelatinous lichen with the alga 
distributed throughout the thallus. 

The Origin and Natuie of Lichens 

rails, unpainted cabins, and all other hard unsightly things which 
Nature wishes to render soft and beautiful. 

"O'er yon low wall, . . . whose rough, discordant 


Is massed to one soft gray by lichens fine 
The tangled blackberry, crossed and recrossed, 

A prickly network of ensanguined leaves." 

J . R. Lowell An Indian Summer Reverie. 

Coliema pulposum (nat. 
size). A gelatinous lichen 
with Nostoc as alga. 

The ruby-throated hummingbirds know 
these lichens and so use them in decorating 
their nests (Plate I) as to make it difficult to distinguish them 
from lichen-covered knot holes. The Lungwort (Sticta ptilmo- 
naria, Colour Plate VII), so called from the resemblance of the 
pitted surface to the surface of a lung, does not encrust the bark 
on which it grows, but clings lightly to its support when moist 
and curls up its under white surface when dry, to protect its 
green surface. On the same tree with 
the Lungwort one often finds an hepatic 
(Porella platyphylla, Colour Plate XIV), 
with braided strands, and a moss (Neck- 
era pennata, Colour Plate III) creeping 
around the tree trunk its strands in 
parallel rows. 

On overhanging cliffs by lake or 
stream, or on huge rocks in the forest, 
one finds the oddest lichen of all, the 
Rock Tripe (Colour Plate XI). When wet, 
the velvety green shields lie flat, held by 
a stout cord at their centres. As the air 
around them becomes dry, the edges 
begin to curl, bringing the soot-black 
under surfaces to the light to form black tubes here and there 
over the rocks. With every change in the moisture of the air 
the Rock Tripe curls and uncurls, writhes, and twists; at 
one time presenting its gray or green surface, at another its 
black. This lichen is also used for food and is said to have 
saved the life of Sir John Franklin in the Arctic seas, when he 
was reduced to starvation. 


Section of CV/Vma pulposvmto 
show uniform distribution of 
the alga throughout the whole 
thickness of the thallus. 



The tiny moss, whose silken verdure clothes 

The time-worn rock, and whose bright capsules rise, 

Like fairy urns, on stalks of golden sheen, 

Demand our admiration and our praise, 

As much as cedar, kissing the blue sky, 

Or Krubul's giant flower. God made them all, 

And what He deigns to make should ne'er be deemed 

Unworthy of our study and our love." 

All true mosses produce their 
spores in a spore-case of one shape 
or another which opens, with few 
exceptions, by a lid. The spore- 
case may be situated at the summit 
of the stem of the moss-plant or on 
one side of the stem. It may or 
may not be supported upon a 
pedicel (seta). 

Many species of moss have two 
rows of teeth about the rim of the 
spore-case, while some have one 
row and some have none. The 

Spore -case 
Plant with closed opening with- 
spore-case. out a lid. 

Andrea rupeslris. An exception 
to the rule that a moss spore-case 
opens by a lid. 

Pottia trun- 
cata; spore - 
case opening 
by a lid. 


Plant with 
spore-case im- 
Spore-case open mersed by the 
and spores falling. leaves. 

Archidium Ohiense. An excep- 
tion to the rule that a spore-case 
opens by a lid. 

Leafy Mosses 

with lid re- 
mo ved to show 
single row of 

Neckera pennata. 

Gymnostomum ca2- 
careum. Spore-case 
without teeth. 

Hypnum uncinalum. Por- 

teeth may vary greatly in shape and num- tion of penstome to show 
her; as a rule, there are four, sixteen, thirty- ciUa f nd teeth f the inner 

' membrane and one tooth 

tWO, Or SiXty-four. of outer membrane with 

The spore-case when immature is often annuius at the base. 
covered by a cap or veil (calyptra). The veils vary in shape 
and in size, sometimes persisting a long time, sometimes falling 
away in the early stages. 

All leafy mosses have 
leaves which may vary 
in size, in shape, in 

Funaria hygrometrica. Spore- 
cases borne on pedicels grow- 
ing at the summit of stem. 

Spore - case 
sho wi ng 
two rows 
of teeth. 

Brachythecium rivulare. Spore-case borne on a 
pedicel growing from the side of the stem. 


Mosses and Lichens 

texture, in colour, and in the nature of the margin, this being 
sometimes entire, and sometimes toothed, sometimes with a 
thickened margin or with one made up of cells very different 
from those within. 

The species of mosses are based on the characters of the 
plant, the spore-case, the pedicel, and the leaves, together with 
their habit of growth. 

Everything about the moss-plants indicates that their purpose 
in living is to reproduce their kind. Each part is designed and 
perfected with this end in view. In the struggle for existence 
they have come to adapt themselves to the most varied condi- 
tions, but a certain amount of water is as necessary to them as to 
all other forms of life. Without water the male cells can never 
reach the egg-cells and the leaf-green (chlorophyll) cannot manu- 
facture plant food. It is true that there are species which have 
ceased to attempt the formation of spores in localities where the 
rainy season is never long enough to permit their reaching 
maturity. In such species the plants become very dry, the leaves 

Funaria hy- 
trometrica. With 
an immature 
spore-case cov- 
ered by its veil. ' 

Spore-case with 
hairy veil 

Fissidens adi- 
antoides. Spore- 
case with one 
row of teeth. 

Dicrantlla heteromdla. Spore-case 
with and without a veil. 

um pilifer- 
um. Leaf 
with apex 
into an 


Spore -case 
with four 

Leafy Mosses 

and branches break off and are blown hither and thither by 
the wind, each piece being capable of growing into a new plant, 
if it has moisture long enough to permit it to get well started. 
It can then endure long periods of drought and can avail itself 
of small quantities of moisture which may be condensed from 
the air. 

It must be remembered that normally all plant food is manu- 
factured by the green colouring matter in the leaves and stems of 
plants, nnd that these little agents can work only in the light. 
The light must not be too weak, or the leaf-green becomes yellow 
and cannot work; again the light must not be too strong or the 
leaf-green is destroyed and the water in the plant is too rapidly 

evaporated, with the result that 

the plant dies. 

In order that moss plants 

may avail themselves of small 

quantities of water and may 

Polytrichum commune. Summit of spore- 
case showing membrane surrounded with 
sixty-four teeth. 

Apex of leaf to show 
entire margin. 

Catharinea undttlaia. 
Tip of spore-case with 
thirty-two teeth at- 
tached by their tips to 
a membrane. 

albidum. Spore- 
case with eight 

Spore-case. Part of peristome. 

Ulota Hutchinsue. 

Aulacomnium heterostichum. Leaf apex 
to show serrate margin. 

Mosses and Lichens 

withstand the fierce heat of the sun, they have various interesting 
contrivances for folding their leaves so as to retain what moisture 
they have absorbed, and they have methods of trans- 
ferring their delicate leaf-green from one part of the 
plant, too much exposed to the sun, to a part less 
exposed, or of surrounding the leaf-green-bearing cells 

Stem with 

Portion of leaves, 

leaf to show 
marginal cells 
different from 
body cells. 

Mnium punctatum. 

Mnium cuspidatum. 
Stem with leaves. 

Alpinum. Apex 
prolonged into 
an awn. Margin 
serrate- Surface 
covered with 
delicate cells. 

in a wall of large colourless cells. This arrange- 
ment accounts for the fact that some mosses, as 
the peat-mosses (Sphagnum, Plate XI), white- 
mosses (Leucobryum, Colour Plate IV), and others 
appear light gray when dry and green when wet. 
The luminous moss has given up- the struggle 
for a place in the outer world 
and has retreated to caves where 
but a few rays of light enter. It 
has adapted itself to the semi- 
darkness by 
devising a 
method where- 
by it can con- 
verge the sev- 
eral feeble rays 
which fall upon 
it so that they 
form one beam 


Sphagnum cymbifolium. Surface view of leaf- 

Bryum argenteum. 
Leal with open cell - 



The ruby-throated hummingbirds know these lichens and so use them in decorating their nests as to 
make it difficult to distinguish them from lichen-covered knot-holes. . . 

Leafy Mosses 

sufficiently strong to permit their leaf-green to manufacture plant 


Among the best subjects for a beginner are the 
Hairy-caps, the most common mosses, which every- 
one who frequents the woods will find bordering 
trails and wood-roads, or covering the ground in 


tcn-wtyxij UO.J- 

Leucobryum vulgare. Cross-section of open leaf. 

Pogonalum ur- 
nigerum. Leaf 
open to expose 
the delicate 

almost all open places. They are so large that with 
a hand-glass many of the principal parts may be made 
out and will thus serve as a foundation for a study of 
other mosses. 


The most striking part of the plant (Gametophyte) is 
the fruiting portion (sporophyte) with its parts. The 
spore-case is a thin-walled cylindrical box with 
four or six sharp edges running lengthwise. The 
spore-case is borne on a 
flexible pedicel (seta), the 
two together resembling a 
tiny Turkish pipe. In cer- 
tain stages of this moss the 
spore-case is entirely 

Folytrichutn , , . ' 

juniperinum. COVered With 3 COniCal 

Leaf closed to \\a\\\. - bro wn, hairy 

cover the del- . . , , 

icate surface, veil fringed about the 

S porf-caae 
o.po/hji : 


Mosses and Lichens 

base. When this veil falls, the case is tightly shut by a round 
lid, resembling in some species a tiny Tam-o-Shanter, and in 
others a tiny dunce-cap. 

The lid has a point in the centre and its edges fit closely 
about the rim of the spore-case. 

When the lid is thrown off, sixty-four blunt teeth are seen 
to border the rim of the case. They are bent inward, and bear 

at their extremities a thin mem- 
branous disk (epipkragm) which 
now closes the case. 

Spore -case 
without veil 

and with a Spore-case 
short-pointed with veil - 
Polytrichum juniperinum. 

gracile. Spore- 
case with 

Polytrichum piliferum. 
Moss Gametophyte. 

Polytrichum commune. Summit of 
spore-case with sixty-four teeth 
surrounding a membrane. 

Within the spore-case are 
myriads of green, dust-like 
spores, which, when scattered 


Leafy Mosses 

by the wind, will grow into new plants, 
if they fall in favourable places. 


When the weather is damp, although 
the spores are ripe, the teeth of the Poly- 
trichum mosses hold the membranous 
disk so that the spores cannot escape. 
When the weather is dry the teeth are so 
modified as to make a ring of holes be- 
tween the teeth and the edge of the disk, 
through which the spores may pass. 

There are mosses with their teeth trian- 
gular in shape. These have the bases of the 
triangles fastened at the rim and the points 

Tetraplodon mnioides. 
Spore-case with eight 
pairs of teeth turned 

Leucobryum vulgare. Portion 
of single peristome showing 
four teeth split half way to the 

.Jh. emir a HE. 


Polytrichum juni- 
per inum. An old 
sporophyte with 
lid removed. 

Georgia pellucida. 
Top of spore -case 
with four teeth. 

meeting at the centre. In some species the teeth simply arch up, 
remaining fastened at the points, and let the pores escape, while 
in other species they turn back like 
the ray flowers of a daisy. 

Some species have at the base 
of the teeth a single or double row 
of short bead-like cells (annulus) 
which swell up at the proper time 
to push off the spore-case lid. 





Funaria hygrometrica. Summit of 
spore -case. 

Mosses and Lichens 

When the spores of the Hairy-cap are mature, the pedicel 
bends to bring the spore-case into a horizontal position, and the 
sides of the spore-case wrinkle up, and by so doing oust the 


The spores which the wind carries from the spore-case to 
favourable places germinate. The spore first swells and sends 
forth a delicate tube which divides into a net-work of cells 
(protonema). Some cells (rhi^oids) of the pro- 
tonema contain leaf-green (chlorophyll) and 
extend over earth or wood or stone as a Tine 
green web. Upon this green web little bud-like 
structures appear which develop into leafy 


Widely branching protonema. Spore germinating. 
w. Rhizoid of the moss-plant starting at K. v>. Rhizoid; .. Outside wall 
h. A main filament of protonema from which branch- of spore; v. Vacuole; p. Pro- 
ing protonema h has grown. tomena. 

Funaria hygrometrica 

moss-shoots. The leafy structure is the part one ordinarily sees 
and knows as "moss." 

As a rule, when the Hairy-caps and other mosses are well 
grown, the protonema disappears. In a few species, as in the 
Beard Moss (Pogonatum brevicaule), it persists, being visible as a 
soft green covering on the ground, with small plants on its 
surface and conspicuous spore-cases erect upon the plants. 


Leafy Mosses 


Upon the leafy part which is known as the moss-plant there 
soon appear little organs which together are to produce the 
sporophyte, spore-case, pedicel and foot. 

Plant stripped of 
leaves to show male 
t and female 9 
Fertile branch. branches. 

Tetraplodon mnioides. Monoicous 

in florescence. Fvnaria hygromelrica. Monoicous inflorescence. 

One organ contains an egg-cell and is known as the arche- 
gonium; the other organ contains the fertilising cells (sperm- 
cells) and is known as the antheridium. 

The archegonia and antheridia of the Hairy-caps are on 


Mosses and Lichens 

different plants (dioicous, two households). This 
plan is common to many species of mosses, while 
other species have the antheridia 
and archegonia on the same plant 
(monoicous, one household). 

JftauU. ctttJtcr of 

ale cluster 
of first jj 

Terminal male 
Female plant. Male plant. flower-cluster. 

Polytrichum. Dioicous inflorescence. 

Sperm cell. 

Antheridium bursting and sending 
forth sperm cells. (See page 46.) 

Phascum cuspidatunt. Paroicous inflores- 
cence. Vertical section through stem to 
show (an) male and (ar) female flowers side 
by side on the same plant. (6) Leaf 
blades, (p) Paraphyses. 

Trematodon ambiguum. Examples of 
autoicous inflorescence. Two male 
clusters and one female cluster. 


Leafy Mosses 

The sperm-cells which develop in the antheridia are tailed and 
swim in water to an archegonium which contains an egg-cell. 

The sperm-cells pass down the necks of the 
archegonia, unite with the egg-cells, and after 

Cut leaf Vetx 

Funaria hygromelrica. 
Moss stem cut vertically 
to show (a) archej?onia 
alone, (b) leaf blades. 

Bryum binum. Stem cut vertically. 

the union, each egg-cell be- 
gins to divide, forming new 
cells until a spor- 
ogonium is com- 

As the spor- 
ogonium, still 
within the 
wall, grows up- 
ward, the wall 
of the archego- 
nium is torn 
away at the 
base and is 
carried up as 
a veil on the 

Summit of a stem 
with two perfect 
sporogonia and five 
withered antheri- 
dia. One sporogo- 
nium i s entirely 
within the arche- 
gonium wall, the 
other is raising the 
archegonium wall 
as a calyptra. 

Phascum cuspidatunt. Stem cut ver- 
tically to show , (ar ) archegonia on one 
branch and (on) antheridia nearby on 
another branch; (p) paraphyses and 
(b) leaf blades. 

Mosses and Lichens 

growing sporogonium, thus the veil of the spore-case is the old 
archegonium wall. 

Anomodon apicu- 
latus. Leaf with 
vein extending to 
the apex. 



The leaves of a Polyirichum have many points of interest. 
It is a recognised law in nature that the position of the leaves 
of a tree or plant is such as to admit the greatest amount of 
light and air possible to the great- 
est number of leaves. Since it 
is the habit of these mosses to 
grow perpendicularly with little 
or no branching and to have the 
leaves long and slender, the leaves 
are so placed on the stem as to 
form a spiral of leaves, every 
eighth leaf lying directly above 
the first one counted. If a line 
be started atone leaf, and wound 
about the stem joining all eight 
leaves, it will be found that it 
has coiled three times about the 
stem. The leaves joined form 
"one story." If a plant with 
several stories of eight leaves 
each has straight perpendicular 
lines drawn joining leaves which 
lie one directly above another, 
it will be found that the dis- 
tance between each line is % of 
the circumference of the stem. 
The fraction which represents 
distance will always have for a numerator the 
number of spirals in a story and will always have for the denomi- 
nator the number of leaves in a story. In some Polytrichum 
mosses every thirteenth leaf is directly over the first one counted, 
so that it would require a spiral of five coils to connect all 
thirteen and would require the circumference to be divided by 
thirteen perpendicular lines, each line % of the circumference 

Pogonatwm Alpinum. 
Upper view showing 
transparent base 
and lamelias cover- 
ing the surface ex- 
cepting along the 
serrate margin. 

Ceratodon purfur- 
eum. Cross section 
of leaf showing 
blade one cell 
thick, and vein 
several cells thick. 

the horizontal 


Leafy Mosses 

from the next line. If the two fractions are reduced to the same 
denominators ^ T and &$ and compared, it will be seen that the 
leaves were but little more crowded. The extra crowding is 
compensated for by the greater distance between two succeeding 
leaves in the same line and by the fact that the leaves in the 
second instance are narrower than the first. 


The devices for avoiding the extreme heat of the sun are per- 
haps still more wonderful than those for obtaining a sufficient 
amount. It is a fact that in the leaves of the Hairy-caps only the 
upper surface of the leaves is so constructed as to be injured by 
too dry heat. The cell walls of the lower surfaces are on the 
contrary thick and impervious to water, so that they cannot give 

Bryvm argenteum. Leaf 
with open cell - structure 
and midvein extending 
only part way to the apex. 

Catharinea ttndtilata. Cross 
section of leaf to show the leaf- 
blade one cell thick, and the 
lamellae rising from a thickened 

Dicranwm flagellate. Part 
of leaf to show open cell- 
structure of base. Solid vein 
on the right of cut. 

up moisture to the air when it is dry, a character which insures 
against loss by evaporation, for when the air is dry the mosses 
simply turn the awn-pointed leaves upwards with the points and 
the impervious under-surfaces to the sun and the delicate cells 
toward the stem. 


The structure of the leafy-mosses is mostly very simple. The 
leaves are generally but one cell thick from surface to surface, 
except along a line from apex to base where they form a 
mid-vein (costa). 


Mosses and Lichens 

The leaves have no epidermis' and no breathing pores as do 
the leaves of higher plants. 


The leaves of a Polytrichum represent about the highest stage 
in the development of mosses. The mid-vein is broad, and only 
at the extreme margins is the leaf-blade one-layered. 

The central tissue of the mid-ribs of the leaves 
continue so as to unite with the central axis of 
the stem in a manner quite analogous to that found 
in stems of higher plants. A cross section of a 
leaf shows that the marginal cells and a 
line of cells running through the central 
part are comparatively thin- walled and are 

Pogonatum Al- 
pinum. Upper face 
of leaf to show deli- 
cate lamellae. 

Catharinea angustata. Cross 
section of leaf to show the thin 
blade and two lamellae rising 
from the vein. 

Catharinea undulata. Upper 
surface of the apex of a leaf 
showing lamellae with thin 
leaf-blade on either side. 

empty water-conducting cells similar to the wood-ducts 
(tracheae) of a fibro-vascular bundle in a higher plant. The next 
layer is composed of similar but smaller cells containing starch. 
The rest are thick-walled cells (sclerenchyma) . The outer cells 
contain more or less leaf-green (chlorophyll). When breathing 
pores occur they are on the spore-case walls. 

The cells of the upper surfaces, have their walls exceedingly 
delicate, so that they can absorb gases and permit gases or water 
to leave them. The thin blades (lamella) are undoubtedly the 


Leafy Mosses 

result of an effort on the part of the plant to increase to the high- 
est degree its absorbing surface without widening the leaf-blade 
itself. By directing the growth of the delicate cells upward in 
thin blades, this end is accomplished. 

Polytrichum. Cross section of a portion of a leaf to show: Co) lamellae, (s) sclerenchyma. 
Thickened cells of vein. The leaf -blade one cell thick shows on the left. 

Polytrichum slrtctum. Cross section of leaf through the mid vein to show bead-like lamell 
on the upper surface and thick-walled cells on the under-surface. 


The stems of most mosses are simple in structure, they have 
no vascular bundles for strengthening the stem and for the pur- 
pose of carrying liquids from one part to another. The cells of 
one part differ but little from the cells of another part ; those on 
the exterior may have thicker walls so as to form a firmer rind- 
layer, and those of the interior may be elongated and serve for 
the storage and transmission of albumen and hydrocarbons. 

The stem of the Hairy-cap is perhaps the most highly devel- 
oped of all moss stems. 

A cross section shows a central portion of thick- walled cells 


Mosses and Lichens 

with here and there cells whose walls have remained thin and 
yellowish. Immediately without the central portion is a 
zone of several layers of thin-walled narrow cells, bounded 

_,. . . , .. Mnium undulatum. Cross 

Macomnium faluitre. Cross Chmacium dendrotdes ^.^ Q{ stem ^ ^^ ^ 

ection of central part of stem. Cross f >f central structure without fibro-vascu- 

part of stem. 

lar bundles. 

on the outside by from one to three layers of cells with 
thin, mostly dark-brown, walls. These as well as the cells 

lying immediately within are char- 
acterised by the starch contained in 
them as are the narrow cells of the 

The "roots" are very simple in 
structure, being either hair-like tubes 
or simply chains of cells. To dis- 
tinguish them from the roots of higher 
commune. plants they are called rhizoids. 

Cross section of stem. 


Antheridia, or the male organs of the Bryophytes, are spheri- 
cal, oval, or club-shaped bodies, with long or short stalks. They 
consist of an outer wall of a uniform layer of cells, and an interior 
tissue formed of numerous small cells, in each one of which a 
sperm-cell has its origin. (See diagram on page 40). 

The sperm-cell is a spirally coiled filament, thickened at the 
rear and pointed at the forward end with two long fine cilia 
projecting from the point. 

When mature, the antheridia walls rupture, and the sperm- 
cells, in virtue of their coils, spring from the antheridia and by 
means of their cilia swim in water to the archegonia. 


Leafy Mosses 


An archegonium is produced by a multiplication of cells which 
form a flask-shaped body. The lower or swollen part of the 

flask contains an 
egg-cell (ovum) 
and the upper 
portion is drawn 
out to form the 

IMUa^yein nec k which in 

- 711 the early stages 
is filled with a 
layer of cells. 
Later the chain of 
cells becomes 
a mucilaginous 
jelly, w h 
swelling with 
water, bursts 
neck, and lying 
on the summit 
arrests the sperm 
cells which pass 

that way in the water, and directs their course down the neck 
of the flask to the egg-cell (ovum) with which they are to blend. 


ivrc h, e o o n lu>n 

Cut leaf 


Bryunt binum. Vertical section of stem. 


___.. m b T 4 o OV, 

Sections of archegonia, Sphagnum cuspidatum. 


Mosset and Lichens 

The archegonia and antheridia are developed among the 
leaves of the moss-plant. As has been stated before, they may 
be on separate plants (dioicous, of two households), or they may 


Climaciunt dendroidet. Sporogo- 
nium. (a) Spore-case with lid. 

(b) Columella attached to lid. 

(c) Spore-case with lid lifted to 
show teeth, (d) Spore-case with 
veil. (See page 49.) 

Fun aria hygrometrica. 
Autoicous inflorescence. 

both be separated on different parts of one plant (autoicous), or 
side by side on the same plant (paroicous) or on the same part 
of the same plant (synoicous) Monoicous one household is a 
general term including the last three forms. 


Leafy Mosses 



After the union of the sperm-cell of the antheridia, with the 
egg-cell of the archegonium, a division of the egg-cell takes place, 

Vertical section through male flower-cluster, (a) Young Vertical section through 

ntheridium. (6) Mature antheridium. (c) Paraphysis. female flower-cluster, (a) Ar- 

(d) Leaf -vein, (e) Leaf -blade. chegonium. (6) Leaf-blade. " 

Funaria hygrometrica. Dioicous inflorescence. (See page 48). 

which brings about a multiplication of cells, the ultimate result of 
which is a mass of tissue called a sporogonium, which is the 

Sphterangtum muticum. Sporogonium 
with wall partly removed to show colum- 
ella with spores attached. 

Funaria kygrometrica. Summit of spore* 
gonium to show the annulus rolling back 
from the teeth. 

fruit of the moss made up of the lid, spore-case, teeth, annulus, 
spores, and columella. (See diagrams on pages 48 and 53.) 


Mosses and Lichens 


The calyptra or veil is the dry remains of the outer wall of 
the archegonium in which first the egg-cell and then 
the embryo moss-plant were developed, for as the em- 
bryo within enlarges, the wall of the archegonium sooner 

Funaria hygrometrica, 
Young sporogonium still 
covered with its veil. 

Encalypta ciliata. Old 
sporogonium with fringed 
and transparent veil. 

Two developing sporogonia 
with five shrivelled arche- 
gonia at their base. The 
figure on the left shows the 
archegonium wall severed 
from its base thus disclosing 
the pedicel of the spore-case 

Pogonatum brachy- 
pkyllum. Spore-case 
with hairy veil. 

or later ruptures near the base, 
and is carried up by the grow- 
ing spore-case. This severed 
archegonium wall may be thin 
and smooth and often split up 
one side, or it may be as in the 
Hairy-caps rough with hairs, 
caused by the stretching and 
ultimate rupturing of the fibres 
which composed the tissue of 
the walls. 

repandum. Spore- 
case with conical 

Leafy Mosses 


In the early stages of a developing spore-case the cells may 
be distinguished as forming two groups, first an outer wall con- 
sisting of a number of layers of cells and second an inner mass 
of cells; the outer wall is separated from the inner mass by a 

Veil split up one side. 

Spore-case borne on a short 
pedicel, lid wanting. 

Astomum Sullwantii. (See page 50). 

Spore-case with veil. 

space filled with air. The centre portion of the inner mass will 
become the columella and the enclosing stratum of cells (arche- 
sporium beginning of spores), will be the "mother-cells" of 
the spores. Just outside the mother-cells between them and the 
air-space will be a layer of cells (the endothecium). 

UJ ... 
.tu.rt tilth. 

2Tbn t of ttUt 
IfutUTt anx 

iVieH will** 
Covt (listen 
13. loVth tvatt* f-r ic tkt. 
Cdlt al>ov t to 
form *UL. 

Funaria hygrometrica. Portion of 
a vertical section through a young 

Sphagnum acutifolium. Ehrh. Vertical 
section through an early stage of a 


The upper part of the spore-case is in the leaf-bearing mosses 
usually thrown off as a lid (operculum). In order that the upper 
portion of the spore-case may be separated from the lower, either 


Mosses and Lichens 

one of two things happens : The walls of a zone of cells of the 
spore-case wall, in the exterior layer, separates from the adjoining 
walls when the spore-case is mature, or a zone of cells consisting 
of one or more rows has the cell-walls modified so that when 
they are distended by absorbed moisture, the zone of cells is dis- 
placed as a ring or annulus and so frees the outer layer of cells 
in the upper part of the spore-case to form a lid. 

Spore-case with lid. 

Mnium af/ 


Spore-case without lid, 

Polytrichwn commune. 


with lid. 


without lid. 

Bryum argenteum. 


Trtmalodon ambiguum. Vertical section of 
a single peristome. (See page 53). 


Ulota crispa . Double row of teeth. 
(See page 53). 

Spore-case with lid. Spore-case without lid, 
Polytrickum sexangvlare. 

Leafy Mosses 


When the lid falls, as a rule, one or two rows of teeth are 
discovered. They are the remains of the cell-walls lying just 
within the layer which separated as a lid. (See diagrams on 
page 52.) 

If the outer walls of this layer of cells become thickened and 
split from the summit downward, but one row of teeth will be 
formed; if the inner walls as well, become thickened, and only 


tcal I eaves. 

Sphagnum acuttfolium. Ehrh. Vertical section from & young sporogonium, 
(See page 49). 

Funaria hygrometrica. 


Fissidens adianioides. 
Old spore-case. 


Tetraplodon mnioidtt, 
Tip of spore-case. 

Mosses and Lichens 

the side walls break down, then an inner row of teeth or cilia 
will be formed. All the varied forms of teeth are determined by 
the portions of the cell-walls which remain. 

Upper part of 
epore-case with 
four teeth. 

Cross-section of the four teeth 
to show their solid nature. 

Georgia pellucida. 

Tayloria splachnoidts. Colum- 
ella attached to the base of the 

In the genus Georgia, after the outer layer of the upper part 
of the spore-case has fallen away as a lid, the whole inner layer 
splits into four triangular valves which form the teeth. 

Portion of peristome to show 
Summit of Spore-case Spore-case a s i ng ie row of teeth, 

spore-case. without lid. with lid. 

Tetraplodon mnioides. To show a single row of teeth in pairs. 

In Fontinalis antipyreiica the inner peristome forms a lattice 
work due to the breaking down of the inner cell-wall faces and 
the retention of the side walls. 

The columella of many mosses shrivels up and disappears 


Leafy Mosses 

when the spores are ripe; in some cases it remains attached to 
the base of the spore-case when the lid falls; in some cases it is 
severed from the base and remains attached to the lid. 

Spore-case with Spore-case with 
columella attached short pedicel and 
to the base and conical veil, 

Sph&rangiitm muticum. 


with lid. 

Snore-case Climacium dendroidet. 

...... (a) Spore-case with lid 

with shnv- Lid with colum- hfted to show teeth, 

elled lid. ella attached. (b) Columella attached 

Gymnostomitm curvvostrum. to the lid. 

In Polytrichum mosses it remains standing in the spore-case 
and retains at its summit a plate of cells (epiphragm) in the form 
of a thin membrane to the rim of which are attached the tips of 
the teeth. 



Thuidium minuiulum. 
Vertical section o f 
double peristome. 

The structure 
entirely different 
posed of bundles 
form. The ends 

Splachnum rubrum. 
Columella attached to 
the base of the spore- 
case ; teeth turned 

Pogonatum brevicavle. Up- 
per part of spore-case with 
thirty-two teeth surround- 
"ing the epiphragm. 

of the peristome in the Polytrichum mosses is 
from that of other mosses. The teeth are com- 
of thickened fibrous cells arranged in crescent 
of the crescent point upward and are united 


Mosses and Lichens 

with the adjacent ends of the bundle next to it. On the inner 
face of each tooth is a growth of cells extending inward as a thin 
blade; the tip of each tooth is connected with a thin, papery 
membrane which covers the opening of the spore-case. From 
the under surface of this membrane, processes like little curtains 

with lid. 

Spore-case with 
lid removed to show 

Polytrichum commune. 

Fontinalis antipyretics. Sum- 
mit of spore-case with inner 
teeth forming a cone; outer 
teeth curled in. 

Three teeth showing bundles 
of fibres. 

hang down and in the young stages of the spore-case reach the 
basal membranes, so that the case is completely closed. Later, 
when the spores are mature, the "curtains" shrink away from the 
basal membranes and leave little 
holes between the teeth for the exit 
of the spores. 

In the species of Catharinea the epi- 
phragm is not attached to the apices 
of the teeth, but hangs from them 
by processes which at first exactly 
line the inner surfaces of the upper 
parts of the teeth. As the spores 
within the spore-case mature they 
exert a pressure upon the under 
surface of the epiphragm which 
causes it to rise and at the same 
time to peel upward the lining of 
each tooth. As the linings of the 
teeth are torn away, they curve 
upward and inward until they lie 
against the under surface of the 
epiphragm, which then appears to 
rest upon the tips of the teeth. ^^SKSSSSJ" 
When in this position, the tiny Potytrichum commw*. 

Leafy Mosses 

spaces between the teeth open into the spore-case and through 
them spores may escape. 


The seta has undoubtedly been developed for the purpose of 
raising the spore-case to a height where the spores may be most 
advantageously scattered. In many mosses the seta becomes 



Catharine a undulata. 
Summit o f spore-cast 
with thirty-two teetj. 
attached to the epi 

Buxbaumia aphylla. 

Ulota crispa. 

Fuaariahygrontetrica. Cross-section 
of seta. 

abruptly larger just below th 
spore-case to form an apophysis. 
This may be long and cylindrical, 
or of many other forms. In the 
Polytrichum mosses it is a more 
or less flattened disk. 

The seta is surrounded at the 
base by a sheath which is the 
vaginule and may be the remains 
of the base of the archegonium. 

The pedicels (setce) have vari- 
ous methods of twisting or turn- 
ing while growing so as to bring 
the developing spore-case into 
positions most favourable with 
reference to light and moisture. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Lfucobryitm vulgare. 
(a) Young plant. (6) Terminal 
leaves with root-hairs, each 
capable of growing into a new 

Bryum erythrocarpum. Gemmae 
in the axis formed by leaf and 

Georgia pellucida. Vertical section of 
gemmae cluster. 

Ulola phyllantha. 
Portion of a leaf 
with gemmae on the 

Gemmse cluster 

Aulacomnium andiagynum. 



Copyright, 1907, uy DouLiieday, Page & Company 

Where lichens mock the marks of a moth . . . Elf-needled mat of moss " 


a . PedUt. 

Splachnutn rubrwn. 

Splachnum luteum. 


The ultimate aim of the plant in developing all these complex 
parts is to produce tiny dust-like spores which are found in a 
ripened spore-case, to insure their safe keeping until all conditions 
are favourable for their dispersal, and then to disperse them in 
the most effectual way. Why it has been 
favourable for the perpetuation of the mosses 
to evolve these complicated methods, is a 
marvel and past the mind of man to reveal, 
for the plants have other and simpler methods 
of reproducing their kind which are, as far as 
man can see, just as effectual as the com- 
plicated method. 

Almost any part of the moss plant is 
able to develop protonema cells from which new plants may 

Every one of the hair-like roots (rhi%pids) from any part of 
the plant has the power of developing protonema. 

The protonema of Phascum and Ephemerum lives on from 
year to year, reproducing new plants which live but one year. 

In the species Barbula, little cellular bodies covered with a dark 


Phascum. cuspidatum. 
Spore-case with veil 
and short pedicel. 

Mosses and Lichens 

membrane and with their cells filled with food material appear in 
abundance on the protonema. Each one of these is capable of 
growing directly into a moss-plant or of producing protonema 
upon which moss-plants may grow. 

Portions of a growing sporogonium, or of leaves, or of stems, 
may produce protonema. 

Special buds or gemmae are also formed on many species. 
Georgia pellucidd produces cellular bodies with stalks in clusters 
at the extremities of special stems, the clusters surrounded with 
a rosette of leaves. That all gemmae are modified leaves is an 
accepted theory. 

Plant with 

two gemmae Gemmse cluster 
clusters. enlarged. 

Georgia pellucida. 

Barbula unguicu- 
lata. Sporophyte 
with twisted seta. 

Tetraplodon mnioides. Plant 
with slender pedicel and apo- 
physis larger than the spore- 




" Quorsum, inquient multi, tantum laboris in rebus adeo tenuibus 
insumtum ? cui bono haec omnia ? Primo ; ut cognoscamus sapientiam 
creatoris, quas in minimis non minus elucet, quam in magnis plantis." 

Dillenius in prczfatione ad Hist. Muse. 

" Wherefore, many ask, is so much labour spent on such small things? 
for what good are all these things ? Primarily ; that we may know the 
wisdom of the Creator, which shows itself not less in the smallest plants 
than in the great ones. 

Dillenius, in the preface to The History of Mosses. 

" If by the microscopic glass 
Survey 'd, you'll see how far surpass 
The works of nature, in design, 
And texture delicately fine, 
And perfectness of every part, 
Each effort of mimetic art ; 
And as the gardener's watchful care, 
The ground, of native clothing bare, 
Indues with vegetable soil ; 
And with the waste's collected spoil 
The tender plants exposed defends ; 
So the Great Gardener, mindful, sends 
The mossy tribes wherewith to shun 
The pinching frost, the scorching sun." 

AFTER one has become familiar with the conspicuous parts of 
a thalloid and leafy hepatic, and a leafy moss, it is interesting to 
study the homologies or origin of the parts, and to determine the 
position of the plants in the plant kingdom. 

To quote Dr. L. M. Underwood : * 

"The group known since the time of Adanson as the 
Hepaticce stands in a unique position on the boundary line of 

*L. M. Underwood, Bot. Gazette Vol. xix, 1894, p. 347. 


Mosses and Lichens 

thallose plants, and its position is not only intermediate from a 
structural standpoint, but in its relation to the evolution of the 
higher plants it stands as a key or link between the lower or 
simpler, and the higher or more complex. 

"The hepatics possess almost no utilitarian aspect. Beyond 
the doubtful use of one or two for medicine, and the occasional 
occurrence of one or more tropical species as weeds, they are, so 
far as the physical condition of the human race is concerned, an 
entirely useless group of plants . . . and yet from the higher 
standpoint of genetic relationship, there is probably no single 
group of plants that occupies such a unique position in the plant 
world. What the group 'Vermes' is to the animal kingdom, 
the Hepaticce are to plants, with this difference, that we have here 
a much less complicated group of organisms with which to deal." 


To understand the relation of this plant group it is necessary 
to have some knowledge of the microscopic structure of a 
developing moss plant, both liverwort and leafy-moss, and a 
knowledge of plants less and more complicated in structure than 
the mosses. This knowledge can to a certain degree be acquired 
by a study of somewhat diagrammatic drawings of magnified 
sections of algae, mosses and ferns. If after this preliminary 
knowledge has been acquired, an opportunity occurs to see the 
sections themselves under a compound microscope, the interest 
will be intensified. 


As was stated, a germinating moss or hepatic spore results 
in a single cell or a group of cells (protonema.} A part of the cells 


Sphagnum cymbifolium. First or sexual generation. 

of the more elaborate protonema are without leaf-green (chloro- 
phyll) and seek the darkness afforded by the structure of the 


The Position of Hepatics and Mosses 

substratum in which they serve to anchor the protonema, while 
they assist in procuring food-materials. Another part of the 

Point wntrt plant will orcur. 

Sphagnum cymbifoliwm. Protonema. 
The protonema resembles a leaf-like thallophyte. 

protonema remains above ground, 
each cell containing leaf-green and 
in the light doing its work of con- 
verting mineral matter, gases, and 
liquids into plant foods. 

Upon this protonema appear 
plants which are to produce male 
and female organisms. 

These plants, together with the 
protonema are known as the first 
or sexual generation in the life- 
history of mosses and hepatics, in 
distinction from the spore-cases 
which, in connection with their 
pedicels and "foot" constitute the 
second generation. 

The protonema resembles some 
of the Thallophytes, examples of Branch stripped of 

... , . . - leaves to show S male 

which are bacteria, algae, and fungi, ^d ? feraale clusters . 
The Thallophytes are so called Tttrapiodo* 



Mosses and Lichens 

because their vegetative body is a "thallus," that is to say, is 
not divided into stem and leaf, like that of higher plants, but 
grows in water or over a substratum in the form of single cells, 

(b) Protonema branching from (h) a primary 

filament of protonema. 

(*) A bud from which a new plan t will grow, 
(if) ARhizoid. 

Funaria hygrometrica. 

Germinating spore 
(i) Spore wall. 
(w) Rhizoid. 

(v) Vacuole in protonema 

chains of cells, or ribbon-like patterns of varying designs. The 
Bryophytes or moss-plants agree in many of their stages of 
development with the Thallophytes. Many of the liverworts 
(Hepaticce),o\\e division of the Bryophytes, have never developed 

Under side showing stipules. 

Upper side. 

Ptttidivm ciliart. A leafy-hepatic. The magnified stipule shows 
the simple cell-structure. 

further in form than the ribbon-stage or thallus, while others 
show transitional stages from this ribbon-like form to a leafy 
stem such as all leafy-mosses possess. 


The Position of Hepatics and Mosses 


Porella plalyphylla. The 
leaf and stipule show 
the simple cell structure; 

Asexual generation. 

Asexual generation on the 
sexual generation. 

Viola crispa. 

A bit of the lichen 
Cladonia furcala,showing 
an alga of one cell (Pro- 
tococcus ) 1 i ving with a fun- 
gus consisting of chains 
of cells. 




A germinating 
spore produces an 
insignificant proto- 

A germinating 
spore produces a 
well-defined proto- 

A germinating 
spore produces a 
plate of cells (pro- 

Protonema pro- 
duces ordinarily, an 
hepatic plant (ga- 

Protonema pro- 
duces a moss plant 

Gamelophyte bears 
antheridia and arche- 

Gametophyte bears 
antheridia and arche- 

Prothallium bears 
antheridia and arche- 



gonia. Therefore, 
prothallium is game- 

All ferns develop from spores, the spores germinate to form 
generally a flat plate of cells (prothallium} large enough to be 
seen well with the naked eye. The prothallia are heart-shaped 


Mosses and Lichens 

and green. They are common around the bases of ferns in the 
woods and may be found in green-houses where ferns are propa- 
gated. The prothalJium is the sexual or first generation in the 

life-history of a fern, for on it 
are produced the antheridia 
and archegonia necessary for 
the production of the embryo 
which shall grow into a fern 

It is not an easy matter to 
keep clearly in mind the rela- 
tion of the fern parts and the 
leafy-moss parts. It will help 
to do this, if one remember 

The alga scytonema growing with a fungus that the Criterion by which 
to form the lichen Stereocaulon ramulosum. ^ decision k to he madf U 
Both alga and fungus consist of chains lfle aecisic 

of cells and belong to the group of Thaiio- one of origin of parts rather 

than of function and appear- 
ance. A glance at the parallel columns will show that if one 

.2rotKa.lliu.wx cell. 

A vertical section of an 
fche ;;oa : ua >r female organ 
t a torn* 

Hepatics with leafy stems. 

The leaves have no veins and are but on* cell thick. 


The Position of Hepatics and Mosses 

employ the origin and position of antheridia and archegonia as a 
criterion, then the vegetative part of hepatic plants and moss 
plants is an homologous stage with a fern prothallium. 


The sexual or first generation. 
Under side of a mature fern-pro- 
thallium on which are borne an- 
theridia male organs, and arche- 
gonia female organs. 

A young fern prothallium. 

Again, if one employ as a criterion that which originates 
from a fertilised archegonium, then the spore-case, foot, and 
pedicel (sporophyte) of an hepatic and moss are homologous 


Sperm cells coiled in little 
vesicles in an antheridium. 

..Sperm- tell. 

Sperm-cells escaping from an antheridium. 
Vertical sections of Antheridia. 

with the spore-cases, fronds, stems, and roots of a "fern-plant" 
(sporophyte). The sporophyte is known as the asexual gen- 


Mosses and Lichens 

Fern sporophyte. The asexual generation. 

Moss gametophyte Sexual generation supporting 
a sporophyte. 

Moss sporophyte. 
The asexual generation. 

Torn Rametophyte The sexual generation 
supporting a sporophyte. 


Hepatic gametophyte 
supporting a sporo* 


The Position of Hepatics and Mosses 




Archegonia pro- 

Archegonia pro- 

Archegonia pro- 

duce foot, and pedi- 

duce foot, and pedi- 

duce fern- "plants," 

cel, and spore-cases 

cel, and spore-cases 

roots, stems, 

containing spores 

containing spores 

fronds, and spore- 



cases containing 

spores (sporophyte). 


One pinnule from a leaf of 

Fern-prothallium (sexual generation) with 
young sporophyte (asexual generation), 

In comparing hepat- 
ics, mosses, and ferns 
with a view to deter- 
mining their relative 
positions in the plant 
kingdom one must be 
careful to compare 
homologous parts, gam- 
etophyte with gameto- 
phyte, sporophyte with 

A study of the asexual generation, the sporophyte, (spore- 
case, foot, and pedicel) of leafy-mosses, will show that they 
have suggestions of the more complex structure found in the 
asexual stage, (sporophyte), of the pteridophytes, a group 
including ferns (filices), horse-tails (equisetums), and Christmas- 
greens (lycopodiums), which possess tissue composed of tubular 
cells (vascular bundles), set apart for the purpose of strengthening 
the plant and of carrying liquids from one part to another. The 
Pteridophytes have also true roots or underground organs with 
a vascular tissue. 



Complete sporophyte Asplenium Ruta-muraria. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Equisetum arvense. Nat. 
size Vernal spore-bearing 
shoot with whorls of scale- 
like leaves. Asexual gen- 

Eguisetnm arvense. Natural size Summer sterile 
shoot with whorls of branches bearing scale-like 

Single spore- 
bearing scale, 
from 3. 

Spore with ela- 
ters coiled. 

Spore with elaters 


. i, ; 

, v . t^^^^fn 


Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Page & Conipanj 


A huge boulder showing all stages in Nature's preparations for plant growth. The lower sides are now 
covered with lichens alone, while the parts above are covered with leafy-mosses which made their start in lichen 
debris. Ferns nestle in the mosses and a spruce tree sits astride the rock . . . 

The Position of Hepatics and Mosses 

The hepatics and mosses are therefore classified between 
the lowest group of plant life (Thallophytes), bacteria, algae, 

fungi, etc., without stem, 

(Sport-Case leaves ' h and roots and the 
m i mir. man spore-bearing plants which 

Vttl I ] H ft/ have well-developed stems, 

leaves and roots, such as ferns, 
horse-tails, and lycopodiums, 

The genus Riccia has no 
foot and no pedicel, simply a 
spore case. 



Hepatic sporophyte. The asexual generation. 

Fvnaria hygrometrica. A cross-section 
from the pedicel of the sporophyte. The 
cells through the centre of the pedicel are 
modified to form rudimentary fibro-vascular 
bundles, which one may interpret as fore- 
shadowing the true fibro-vascular bundles 
found in the sporophyte of ferns, etc. 

Equisetum sylvaticum with fertile 
cone and whorls of branches. 

Male prothallium of a horse-tail with 
antheridia. Sexual generation. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Pores (stomata) for the inlet and outlet of gases which serve 
for food and respiration are found on certain parts of the 
sporophyte of leafy mosses and not on the gametophyte ; they 
are found on the sporophyte of ferns and not on the gametophyte 
(prothallium). They are on the gametophyte and not on the 
sporophyte of hepatics, (except in the Anthocerotacece). 

Fvnaria hygrometrica. A 
pore from the spore-case 
of the sporophyte. 

Hypnum Boxii. Sur- 
face view of pore from 
the sporophyte. 

Polytrichum juniperinum. Sur- 
face view of a pore from the 
spore-case of the sporophyte. 

Polytrichunt piliferum. Vertical 
section through a pore. 

M. polymer pha, 
Surface view of 

ct U. 

Marchantia polymorpha. Vertical section of a "plant" (gametophyte) through 
a pore which leads into an air chamber. 





Search for them in damp places at all times of the year. They 
are so much more beautiful when in a moist atmosphere that 
you will feel inspired to learn as much as possible about them. 
Collect the finest specimens you find, selecting some in fruit, 
if possible. 

Place your specimens in a convenient receptacle, box, bag or 
basket; in such a way as to keep them separate, each specimen 
with a few notes in pencil telling its habitat and the date and 
place of finding. 

Clasp-envelopes, such as are used by dry-goods merchants for 
samples, will be found particularly desirable as the mosses may 
be dried in them and may be kept indefinitely before being per- 
manently mounted. 


The specimens to be preserved should be laid between ab- 
sorbent paper, under a moderate pressure until dry, then they 
may be placed in envelopes which come for the purpose and 
these may be glued to regular herbarium sheets or the specimens 
themselves may be mounted directly upon sheets of paper. 

Several specimens of the same species from different localities 
may be mounted on one sheet; but it is undesirable to put 
different species on a sheet as this interferes with a proper 
classification of material. 


Have both fresh and dry material before you for comparison. 
If you have only dry material to start with, freshen part of it by 


Mosses and Lichens 

soaking in clean hot water and learn what you can with the 
unaided eye about the colour, texture, manner of branching, and 
character of pedicel and spore-case. Many of these pretty plants 
can be easily recognised with the naked eye. If necessary, use 
a hand lens to determine the shape of the leaves and the character 
of the spore-case rim. 

To study the specimens more in detail have a lens so mounted 
that it will be possible to dissect the parts with needles while 
watching the process through the lens. 


To remove leaves from stems, grasp them near their bases 
with a pair of forceps and strip them downward. 

To obtain cross sections of leaves, grasp a bunch between the 
thumb and forefinger and slice it across from apex to base with 
a sharp knife. Among the sections there should be found some 
which will show the structure. 

To study the spore-case, cut off the upper portion with a pair 
of scissors and then holding this on a slide with a needle, split it 
lengthwise and lay the two parts flat on the glass so that a view 
is given of the inner and outer surfaces. 

Cross sections of stems and rhizoids may be made while 
holding them between two pieces of pith or candle-wax. 


To study any part still more in detail, place it in a drop of 
water or dilute glycerine between two pieces of mica or glass 
and view it through a compound microscope. 

If it seems desirable to preserve the detail, let the glycerine 
mica-mount remain without- a cover-glass in a place free from 
dust until the water has entirely evaporated, then slightly warm 
the slide and place a drop of warm glycerine-jelly on a mica 
cover and invert this over the mount. 

Glycerine jelly and mica may be procured of any dealer in 
microscope supplies. Small bits of mica may also be procured 
at slight cost from wall-paper factories or from factories where 
mica is used in the manufacture of electrical supplies. 


The Herbarium 


When anyone for the first time refers a newly discovered 
species to a genus, he gives the species a specific name and 
appends his own name or an abbreviation of it as the authority, 
thus, Bryum argenteum, L. means that Linnaeus referred a species 
to Bryum and gave it the specific name argenteum and that his 
classification has not been changed. 

If a plant has been referred by one man to a certain genus 
that later is proved by another man to belong to a different genus, 
the name or abbreviation of the first author is placed in paren- 
thesis and followed by that of the second author thus: Ramalina 
ceruchis (Ach.) De Not., means that De Notaris placed the species 
ceruchis in its proper genus Ramalina after Acharius had placed 
it in another genus (Borrera). 


Ach. Acharius, Erik, 1757-1819. 

Beauv. Beauvois, Palisot de, A. M. F. J., 1752-1820. 

Bosc, Louis Augustin Guillaume, 1759-1828. 

Brid. Bridel, Samuel Elisee, 1761-1828. 

Bruch, Philipp, 1781-1847. 

Bruch. ms. A name in manuscript never printed by Bruch. 

Bruch & Schimper. 

Delise, Dominic Frangois, 1780-1841. 

De Not. De Notaris, Giuseppe, 1805-1877. 

Dicks. Dickson, James, 1738-1822. 

Dill. Dillenius, Johan Jacob, 1687-1747. 

Ehrh. Ehrhart, Friedrich, 1742-1795. 

emend. emended, corrected. 

Fee, Antoine Laurent Apollinaire, 1789-1874. 

f. fils, son. 

Fr. Fries, Elias Magnus, 1794-1878. 

Fuern. Dr. August Emanuel Furnrohr. 

Girgens. Girgensohn, Gustav Karl. 

Gottsche, Carl Moritz, 1808-1892. 

Gr. & Benn or B. Gr. Gray, Samuel Frederick. B. or Benn. 
Bennett, either Edward or John; two London surgeons who 
devoted their leisure time to botany in the first part of XIX century. 

Hall. Haller, Albrecht von, 1708-1777. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Hampe, Ernst. 
Hampe, I.e., locus citatus. 
Hedw. Hedwig, Joannis G., 1730-1799. 
Hoffm. Hoffman, Georg Franz. 
Hook. Hooker, William Jackson, 1785-1865. 
Hornsch. Hornschuch, Christian Friedrich, 1793-1850. 
Huds. Hudson, William, 1730-1793. 
Hueben. Huebener, J. W. P., -1847. 
Jaeger & Sauer. Jaeger and Sauerbach. 
Lindb. Lindberg, Sextus Otto, 1835- 
Lindle. Lindley, John, 1799-1865. 

Linn, or L. Linnaeus, Carolus, 1707-1778, or Linne, Carl von. 
Linn. 1. c. 1. c., locus citatus, previously cited. 
Marchant, Nicholas, -1678. 
Michx. Michaux, Andre, 1746-1802. 
Michx., f. Michaux, Francois Andre, 1770-1855. 
Mohr, Dr. Charles, 1824-1901. 
Muell. ined. Karl Mailer (Halle), 1818-1899. 
Note : ined. means unedited manuscript. 

Muell. Mueller, Jean (ofAargau), 1849-1851. 

Neck. Necker, Noel Joseph de, 1729-1793. 

Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried, 1776-1858. 

Norm. Norman, Johannes Musaeus., 

Nyl. Ny lander, William, 1822-1899. 

Pers. Persoon, Christian Henrik, 1755-1837. 

Rabenh. Rabenhorst, Ludwig Christian Gottloeb, 1806-1881, 

Raddi, Giuseppe, 1770-1829. 

Roehl. Roehling, Johann Christoph., 1757-1813. 

Schimp. Shimper, Wilhelm Philipp, 1808-1880. 

Schreb. Schreber, Johann C. D. 

Schwaegr. Schwaegrichen, Christian Friedrich, 1775-1853. 

Scop. Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio, 1723-1788. 

Sw. Swartz, Olaf, 1760-1818. 

Tayl. Taylor, Thomas. 

Timm, C. T. 

Tuckerm. Tuckerman, Edward, 1817-1886. 

Turner, Dawson, 1775-1853. 

Web. Weber, Friedrich, 1781-1823. 

Weis. Weiss, Frederigo Wilhelm, 1744- 

Willd. Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1765-1812. 



The Genus CETRARIA, (Ach.) Fries 

The Spanish-shield Lichens. The members of this genus 
are generally found on trees, although sometimes they are found 
on rocks or even earth. The colour on the upper surface is bright 
yellow, greenish-yellow, straw, olive, or brown. 

The thallus is expanded and leaf-like or shrubby (fruiiculose 
or fruticose) with branches compressed or channelled; the lobes 
are flattened and broad; root-like growths on the under surface 
(rhi^oids) are few or wanting. 

Fine hairs (cilia) are frequently present and sometimes are 

Soredia are rare. 

The fruiting disks (apothecia) are medium in size or large; they 
are attached on or near the margin of the lobes; the disk itself is 
shield-shaped, light chestnut to dark reddish-brown. The shape 
of the disk suggested the name Cetraria, from ceira, a Spanish 

The Pitted Cetraria, Cetraria lacunosa, Ach. See Plate II. 

Habitat. On trees and old fence-rails, easily detached. 

Vegetative organ (thallus). Leaf-like (foliaceous) the lobes 
rounded, the surface pitted (lacunose) ; pearl to slate colour above, 
white to darker below, margins scalloped. 

Fruiting disks (apothecia). Abundant on the lobes, some- 
what elevated, the disk light chestnut, growing darker, the 
margin entire. 

Name. The specific name lacunosa is from the Latin lacus, 
a saucer, referring to the pitted surface of the thallus. 

Iceland Moss, Cetraria Islandica, (L.) Ach. See Colour 
PJate VII. 

Habit and habitat. On earth. 

Vegetative organ (thallus). Cartilaginous and shrubby 
(fruticulose); usually brown above, lighter toward the base 
where there is sometimes a red stain. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Fruiting disks (apothecia). Not numerous, shield-like and 
dark chestnut. 

Branches. Flattened, not hollow, rolled in on the margin 
which is beset with a fringe of dark-coloured hairs 0.3 to 0.5 
mm. long. 

Name. The specific name (hlandica) refers to the fact that 
this lichen is very abundant in Iceland. 

Genus USNEA (Dill.) Ach. 

Thallus shrub-like (fruticulose) or pendulous, in cross-section 
round or angular, grayish-green, to greenish-white, sometimes 
straw-coloured ; the interior consisting of a central tough cord 

surrounded by a 
cottony layer. 

The fruits (apo- 
thecia) shield- 
shaped (scutellce- 
form), pale, with a 
fibrillous margin, 
spores more or less 
ellipsoid, undivi- 
ded, colourless. 

The name is de- 
rived from achneh, 
the Arabic for 

The Bearded 
Lichen, Usnea bar- 
bata, (L.) Fr. See 
Colour Plate I, fron- 
tispiece, also Plate 

Habitat. On 
trees, both living, 
and dead. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Shrubby (fruticulose) often 
pendulous, greenish, covered with numerous radiating fibrils of 
the same colour; the interior tissue (medulla) consisting of a 
central cord surrounded by a cottony layer. The branches are 
circular (terete) in cross-section and are rough with papillae. 


Cross section through Vertical section through 

the thallus. the thallus. 

Usnea barbata. Fr. (*) central tough cord; (*) central tough 
cord of radiating fibre; (w) cottony layer; (g) algae; (so) radi- 
ating fibre; (r) cortical layer; (s) apex of thallus. 




Lichens, Genera and Species 

Fruiting organ (apothecia) Shield-like (scutellceform) with 
a pale disk. 

Name. The specific name barbata is the Latin for "bearded." 

The Hair-like Usnea, Usnea trichodea, Ach. 

Habit and habitat. On trees in long waving tufts. 

Vegetative organ (thallus). Pendulous, greatly elongated. 
The few secondary branches are smooth, bearing numerous lax 
fibrils of variable lengtli, cross-section circular (terete). 

Fruiting organ (apothecia). Small, disk pale flesh-colour 
with margin bearing very few fibrils. 

Name. The specific name trichodea is derived from the 
Greek rplxoeiS^, resembling hair, and refers to the thallus. 

Genus THELOCHISTES, Norm., emend. 

The thallus is leaf-like (foliaceous) or scale-like ; usually yellow, 
appressed or sometimes ascending and scrub-like; the fruits 
{apothecia) are yellow and shield-like (scutellceform). The spores 
are colourless, ellipsoid, simple, or with the ends divided off by 
partitions (polar-bilocular) the end spaces sometimes united by 
a tube running through the middle space. 

The Yellow Wall-lichen, Thelochistes parietinus (L.) 
Norm. (Xanthoria parietina) See Colour Plate II. 

Habit and habitat. On trees and rocks usually near bodies of 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Leaf-like, pale yellow to orange 
above, white below; loosely appressed to the surface on which 
it grows, the margins sometimes ascendant, not gelatinous 
when moist. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). The disk orange, the margin 
(thalline exciple) entire. 

Spores. Colourless, ellipsoid, polar-bilocular. 

Name. The specific name parietina, is from the Latin parie 
(/-) 5, a wall, referring to its habit of growing on stone walls. 

Genus PARMELIA, (Ach.) De. Not. 

Parmelias usually grow as horizontal mats, gray, blue-green, 
dark brown, or brown tinged with green. They are closely 
attached by black rhizoids to rocks and trees and are distinctly 


Mosses and Lichens 

branched and lobed. If the thallus is torn across and viewed 
with a hand lens, the torn edge shows that the thallus is com- 
posed of a layer of long, loose, white fibres (the medullary layer) 
between thin but more substantial surface tissues (cortical layers). 
Over the surface of the mat are scattered flat or saucer-shaped 
disks (apothecia) generally brown with a thin margin. These 
are numerous toward the centre. The apothecia have suggested 
the generic name Parmelia from parma, a small round shield. 
Many species have also a powdery appearance due to the bursting 
of the surface to emit little bodies (soredia) which may grow 
into lichens. 

Parmelia conspersa, (Ehrh.) Ach. See Colour Plate V. 

Habit and habitat. On rocks and stones; degenerate on dead 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Leaf-like, not gelatinous when 
moist. Pale green or straw-coloured above, blackening below, 
appressed, the margin sometimes ascendant; cartilaginous, mem- 
branaceous, the lobes mostly rather narrow sub-linear and much 
divided, smooth, not wrinkled, the centre often bearing little 
stalked bodies with knobs (isidiophorous) . 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Disks chestnut; margin (thai- 
line exciple) entire. 

Spores. Ellipsoid, simple, colourless. 

Name. The specific name conspersa, besprinkled, refers to its 
surface which looks as if sprinkled with little grains. 

Parmelia physodes, (L.) Ach. See Plate V. 

Habit and habitat. Common on dead limbs of pines and 
hemlocks, lightly attached to its support. When it completely 
encircles the smaller twigs the tree has a particularly attractive 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Gray-green above with finely 
cut, inflated lobes, usually overlapping; black beneath except at 
the margins where it is smooth and brown. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Large shallow cups; reddish- 
brown with entire margins. 

Name. The specific name physodes is from the Greek <f>vo-a, 
bellows, and olB, like, and refers to the inflated character of the 

NOTE : The illustration shows a variety (vittata) with the thallus 
more narrowly dissected than in the species. 




OLD MAN'S BEARD, Usnea barbata, variety Florida 

Lichens, Genera and Species 

Parmelia saxatilis, (L.) Fr. See Plate XV. 

Habit and habitat. On rocks. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Greenish or ashen-gray above 
(sometimes reddish) somewhat ornamented with a fine network 
and with shallow depressions; black beneath with dense hairs 
(rhi^oids) reaching the margin, much cleft with narrow lobes, 
with margins wavy and bordered with a fine white beading 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). -Chestnut border (thalline ex- 
ciple), rather thick, somewhat evenly notched. 

Spores. Simple, ellipsoid, colourless. 

Name. The specific name saxatilis, the Latin for "rock," 
refers to the habitat. 

Parmelia perlata, (L.) Ach. See Plate VI. 

Habit and habitat. The lichen is found on both rocks and 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Greenish-yellow, gray green, 
slate colour and even light brown above; black beneath with a 
reddish-brown border which rolls up so as to bring the brown 
lobes in rich contrast to the surface colours. The lobes have no 
fine hairs on their margins and are frequently covered with a 
white powder (soredia). 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Large, greenish-brown, entire 
margins which split down to the centre when the disk is mature. 

Name. The specific name perlata is the Latin for "widely 

The Wrinkled Parmelia, Parmelia caperata, (L.) Ach. 

Habit and habitat. Grows on trees and rocks to form light 
pea-green, wrinkled and wavy mats. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Leaf-like, appressed, hori- 
zontal, cartilaginous; lobes usually broad and rounded with 
entire margins; the upper surface usually covered with a 
very light green powder (soredia)] the under surface, black 
with a reddish-brown margin and scattered thread-like bodies 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Cup-shaped, with wavy 
margins often grainy (sorediferous). 

Spores. Ellipsoid. 

Name. The specific name caperata, the Latin for "wrinkled," 
describes the habit of growth. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Genus PHYSCIA, Fries. 

The vegetative portion (thallus) of the Genus Physcia is leaf 
like, star-like, or sometimes with narrowly linear divisions, 
beneath it has usual fibres of varying length; the generic name 
is from the Greek <j>v<rtcr), a blister, evidently referring to the 
inflated appearance of the thallus in some species. 

The fruiting portion (apothecia) are shield-shaped, with the 
surface often covered with a whitish powder: 

The spores are elliptical, brown, two-celled in our species. 

Physcia leucomela, (L.) Michx. See Colour Plate VIII. 

Habit and habitat. On trees, most common southward. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Ascendant and elongated, 
mostly smooth, often narrowly linear, the densely entangled 
lobes irregularly divided; beneath white, the margins beset with 
strong, branched blackish fibrils. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Medium-sized, on short pedi- 
cels, the disk white, powdery, the border lobed; the spores are 

Name. From the Greek \eu/co<?, white, and /*A,a?, black, 
referring to the strong contrast between fibrils and surface. 

Genus UMBILICARIA, Hoffm. 

Thallus horizontal, leaf-like (foliaceous), scarcely divided, 
leathery; either smooth or fibrillose beneath, attached to its 
support by a single point. 

Fruits (apothecia) black, round, convex or sometimes irregular 
in outline. 

Spores somewhat coloured, ellipsoid, either without cross- 
walls or with both horizontal and vertical walls. 

The generic name is from the Latin umbilicus, a navel, referring 
to the single point at which the thallus is attached to its support. 

The Blistered Umbilicaria, Umbilicaria pustulata, (L.) 

Habit and habitat. On rocks in dry localities. 

Vegetative, organs (thallus). Horizontal and leaf-like, carti- 
laginous; ash-coloured above, whitish toward the centre, 
pale brownish or ash- coloured below ; smooth on both surfaces, 




OLD MAX'S BEARD, Usnea longissima 

Used to promote the growth of hair. A member of the genus Ramalina is seen on the lower end of the 
twig, and a member of the genus Parmelia is seen on the upper end 

Lichens, Genera and Species 

often covered with a white powder (pruinose), with numerous 
pustular prolusions above and corresponding indentations below. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Somewhat shield-like. 

Name. The specific name pustulata is the Latin for "blistered" 
and refers to the protusions on the thallus. 

Rock Tripe, Umbilicaria vellea, (L.) Nyl. See Colour Plate 

Habit and habitat. On rocks in high mountains. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Large, one-leaved, leathery and 
somewhat smooth, ash-coloured with a bloom above; brownish 
to black, and hairy, below. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia) Small, appressed, orbicular and 
plaited, becoming convex. 

Name. From the Latin vellus, fleece, referring to the hairy 
nature of the under surface. 

Umbilicaria Dillenii, Tuckerm. 

Habit and habitat. On rocks. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Leaf-like, leathery, the largest 
species known; brownish-green above, smooth and even; in- 
tensely black below with crowded, short fibrils, attached only at 
one point. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Orbicular, convex, attached only 
at the centre, the disk ridged concentrically. 

Name. Named in honour of the great botanist Dillenius. 

Umbilicaria Muhlenbergii, (Ach.) Tuckerm. See Colour 
Plate XI. 

Habit and habitat. On rocks. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Large, leathery to rigid, irregu- 
larly pitted ; olive-brown above, darker below. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Oblong and appressed, passing 
into irregular, often star-like plaited clusters without a common 

Name. The specific name was given in honour of a Henry 
H. Muhlenberg. 

Genus PELTIGERA, (Willd.) Fee. 

The Crescent-shield Lichen. The vegetative portion 
(thallus) of the Genus Peltigera is leafy and often large; it is 
veiny and rough, hairy beneath; the algal layer is blue-green, 
excepting in two species (venosa and aphthosa). 


Mosses and Lichens 

The generic name Peltigera from the Latin pelta, a shield, and 
gerere, to carry, refers to the fruits which are shield-shaped with 
a more or less scalloped border; they are borne close to the upper 
surface of the thallus, usually some distance back from the margin 
but occasionally on the margin. 

The spores are long and narrow, four- to many-celled, at 
length colourless. It is a small genus of mostly cooler regions. 

The Dog Peltigera, Peltigera canina, (L.) Hoffm. See 
Colour Plate VII. 

Habit and habitat. This lichen grows in extensive patches 
on logs or on the ground. 

Vegetative organ (thallus). Large greenish-gray, ashy, or 
brownish: membranaceous, round-lobed; furrowed and downy 
on the upper surface: whitish beneath with light-coloured veins 
and hairs, sometimes becoming dark. 

Fruiting disks (apothecia). Reddish-brown; of large size; 
rounded, becoming semi-revolute and vertical. Supposed to 
resemble dogs' teeth and for this reason, on the supposition that 
"Like cures like," used as a remedy for hydrophobia. 

Name. The specific name canina from the Latin canis, a dog. 

Spores. Somewhat needle-shaped; four- to eight-celled. 

Peltigera aphthosa, (L.) Hoffm. and P. polydactyla, (Neck.) 
Hoffm., are quite similar in general appearance to P. canina, (L.) 
Hoffm. P. aphthosa however, has the thallus smooth above, 
more or less sprinkled over with brown warts, and contains green 
algae, not blue-green as in the two following species. P. poly- 
dactyla differs from canina in being smooth above and nearly 
naked beneath and conspicuously reticulated with brown veins. 

Genus STICTA (Schreb.) Fr. 

The thallus is leaf-like, variously lobed but with the lobes 
usually wide, rounded, or elongated. The under surface is some- 
times smooth but is commonly covered with short, soft hairs 
(vtllous), and dotted with little cups or rounded heaps (cyphels). 
A cross-section of this lichen shows that the irregular, coloured 
zone (gonimous layer) is composed of either green cells (gonidia) 
or bluish-green cells (gonimia). 

The fruiting organs (apothecia) are shield-like (scutcllceform), 
elevated, and near the margin of the thallus. 




PARMELIA PHYSODES, (L.) Ach., variety wa<a 
Lightly attached to its host reddish-brown fruiting disks, large and shield-shaped with entire margins 

Lichens, Genera and Species 

The generic name Sticta from the Greek CTTJ/CTOS, dappled, 
refers to the strikingly spotted appearance of some species. 

The spores are spindle or needle-shaped with 2 to 4 cross- 
walls; they are reddish or colourless; they vary but slightly in 
the different species. 

Sticta pulmonaria (L.), 
Ach. See Colour Plate VII ; ' 
also Plate VII. 

Habit and habitat. On g/ffiAsr^ 
rocks and trees. &$*&* 

Vegetative organs (thal- 
lus) . Leaf-like, leathery ; 
tawny or olive, loosely 
attached to the surface on 
which it grows, lobes 
large, entire, with 
rounded sinuses; upper 
surface netted and deeply 
pitted; under surface pale 
to white with rounded 
prominences outlined with 
slender hairs. Often bor- 
dered with little white 
grains (soredia). 

Fruiting organs (apothe- 
cia). Not very common sessile on the margin of the lobes. 

Name. The specific name pulmonaria, lung, refers to the 
resemblance the under surface has to the surface of a lung. 

Sticta amplissima, (Scop.) Mass. See Colour Plate VII. 

Habit and habitat. On fallen trunks and trees. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Extending over quite large areas, 
in an ever-widening circle appressed to the surface on which it 
grows; leathery, smooth, becoming wrinkled with age; ashen- 
green above; tawny, and covered with short, soft hairs (villous) 
beneath; the lobes elongated, wide, usually compacted, or narrow 
and repeatedly lobed. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Scattered, sometimes quite 
large, the disk chestnut; the margin entire and inflexed. 

Name. The specific name amplissima, the Latin for "very 
extensive," refers to its habit of growth. 


Stictina fuliginosa. (o) Upper cortex; (u) lower 
cortex; (r) rhizoids; (m) pith layer; (g) gonidial 

Mosses and Lichens 

Genus STEREOCAULON, Schreb. 

The vegetative organ or thallus is two-fold, consisting 01 a 
scale-like (squamulose) or granulose, horizontal growth which 
usually disappears, and a vertical growth which becomes shrub- 
like, with fruit-bearing branches (podetia}. The podetia are 
solid and clothed more or less with a white powder (soredia) 
and with granules (phyllocladia) which become scale-like or pass 
into coral-like branchlets. 

The fruiting organs (apothecia) are at first little disks soon 
becoming convex; solid, terminal, or lateral; dark-brown, or 

The generic name Stereocaulon is compounded of the Greek 
<rre/?eo9, solid, and tcav\b<j, a stalk. 

When dry these lichens are very brittle, but when moist they 
may be handled freely. 

Stereocaulon paschale, (L.) See Plate VIII. 

Habitat. On rocks. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Primary, usually wanting. 
Secondary, growing in round thick mats; podetia long and 
slender, much branched and covered with scale-like (squamulose), 
crenate, dark-gray granules and inconspicuous cottony fibres. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). At or near the apicus of the 
podetia, small, with disk convex dark-brown. 

Name. The specific name paschale is the Latin for "Pass- 
over." Its significance is not evident. 

NOTE : 5. paschale is closely related to S. tomentosum which is as its 
name implies conspicuously covered with cottony fibres. 

Genus CLADONIA, Hoffm. 

The horizontal thallus of the Genus Cladonia is scale-like, 
rarely granulose; and may or may not persist. 

The fruiting branches (podetia) are hollow, sometimes opening 
to the exterior; leathery, cup-shaped, or funnel-shaped; some- 
times shrub-like, and very much branched; rarely club-shaped. 

The fruiting organs (apothecia) are usually little heads (cepha- 
loid) hollow within, they are variously coloured, but never black. 
The spores are ovoid-oblong; simple; colourless. 

The generic name Cladonia from the Greek, /t\a8o9, a branch, 


Lichens, Genera and Species 

was given by Georg Franz Hoffman to describe the characteristic 
habit of growth. 

Brown-fruited Cup Cladonia, Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Fr. 
See Colour Plate XII. 

Habit and habitat. On stumps and on the earth. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Primary, thallus scale-like and 
variously lobed. Fruit-bearing branches (podetia) hollow, 5 to 
25 mm. tall, top-shaped, short-stalked, granulose, warty or 
scurfy; margin spreading, bearing sessile or stalked apothecia. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Brown. 

Name. The specific name pyxidata, suggested by the pode- 
tia, is derived from the Greek trv^ 1?, a small box. 

The Fringed Cladonia, Cladonia fimbriata, (L.) Fr. See 
Plate IX. 

Habitat. Earth, stumps, etc. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). The primary commonly per- 
sistent as little scales variously incised on the margin, sea-green 
above, olive to white or dusky below; often powdery (sorediate). 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Brown, sometimes on tooth-like 
projections of the goblet-shaped podetia. 

Fruit-bearing branches (podetia). Hollow, i to 3 cm. tall, 
goblet-shaped, rather long-stalked and slender; the margin erect, 
often with tooth-like projections sometimes bearing fruits (apo- 
thecia) ; surface (cortex) disintegrating into a fine white powder. 

Name. The specific namejimbriata, the Latin for "fringed," 
refers to the margin of the goblet-shaped branches. The forms 
of Cladonia fimbriata are extremely varied and difficult to deter- 
mine. Dr. Wainio recognises sixteen varieties and a large 
number of sub- varieties, twelve varieties are well known in 
North America. 

The Scarlet-crested Cladonia, Cladonia cristatella, 
Tuckerm. See Colour Plate XII. 

Habit and habitat. Dead wood, etc. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Coral-like (cladoniceform); fruit- 
ing branches (podetia) hollow, cylindrical, sometimes branched, 
2 to 4 mm. tall; smooth or with the surface wrinkled. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Scarlet knobs at the tips of the 
fruiting branches. 

Name. The specific name cristatella, suggested by the bright 
fruits, is derived from the Latin crista, a crest. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Reindeer Lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, (L.) Hoffm. See 
Colour Plate VIII. 

Habit and habitat. On earth often covering extensive areas. 

Vegetative organs (thallus). Shrubby (fruticulose). Fruit- 
ing branches (podetid) 4 to 10 cm. tall, branches cylindrical and 
hollow, 5 to 1.5 mm. thick, the divisions mostly wide-spreading; 
the sterile tips curved and drooping; without a distinct outer 
layer (ecorticate) , the surface fibrous sometimes mealy or warty; 
ashy-white or tinged with greenish straw-colour. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Tiny brown knobs on the tips 
of the fruiting branches. 

Name. "Reindeer lichen" because reindeer feed upon it in 

The Cornucopia Cladonia, Red-fruited Cup Cladonia, 
Cladonia cornucopioides, (L.) Fr. 

Habit and habitat. On the earth. 

Vegetative organs (thallus,). Branching like coral cladonia- 
form) ; fruiting branches Codetta) hollow, elongated-top-shaped, 
about 15 to 35 mm. tall; smooth, becoming warty. 

Fruiting organs (apothecia). Scarlet knobs on the tips of the 
fruiting branches. 

Name. The specific name cornucopioides, ^suggested by the 
podetia, is compounded of three Latin words: cornu, a horn, 
copia, plenty, and aid, like. 







Liverworts are as a rule found only in damp shady places, 
and it is not their habit to occupy very large areas of ground. 
With but few exceptions the plant lies close to the object upon 
which it grows holding to it by short hair-like cells (rhiqoids). 

Excepting the fruiting portion, the liverwort plant (the vege- 
tative body) is either ribbon-like (thalloid), or a stem with scale- 
like leaves (f otiose)] the greater number of liverworts are 
therefore distinguished as thalloid and foliose. 


Marchantia polymorpha (See Colour Plate XIII) is a good 
example of a thalloid form, and from it one may learn, without 
a microscope, the principal parts. 

Vertical section through 


showing pore. 

a pore. Gemma. _ , 

Surface view 

Marchantia polymorpha 

The plant itself lies flat upon the earth and has a distinct 
upper and lower tissue. 

The lower tissue develops short root-like hairs which serve 
to anchor the plant. 

The upper tissue appears as if marked off into small rhom- 
boidal spaces in tfc* centre of each of which a pore may be seen. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Little cups are often present on the upper surface, with green 
disks (gemmae) in them. 

Upright umbrella-like growths on which are borne the male 
and female organs are found also on the upper surface. 



Marchantia polymorpha. Vertical section of female receptacle. 

The male peduncle is capped with a flat, slightly lobed 
receptacle. The female peduncle is capped with a receptacle 
bordered with deep finger-like lobes. 

The male organs (antheridia) are developed in the upper 
surface of the scalloped receptacle. 

.7*a*etc Elater. 

Under-surface view of female receptacle. 
Marchantia polymorpha. 

A spore- case shedding its spores. 
See page 95. 

The female organs (archegonia) are developed on the under 
surface of the receptacle bearing the finger-like lobes. 

Spore-cases filled with spores and spirally twisted threads 
(daiers) later occupy the place of the archegonia between the 
long lobes. 


Liverworts or Hepatics 

A veil (calyptra) surrounds the spore-case. 

A false perianth surrounds the veil. 

A fringed covering (involucre] encloses all the spore-cases 
between two lobes. When the spore-case is mature, it bursts 
irregularly for the scattering of the spores. 

The spore germinates to form one cell or a small group of 
cells (protonema) from which later will be developed the plant 
already described. 

Marchantia polymorpha. Vertical sec- 
tion of male receptacle. See pags 94. 

Marchantia polymorpha. Vertical section of 
Antheridium from male receptacle, Sperm 
cells at the right. 

Marchantia polymorpha, (L.) 

habit and habitat. Along wet banks, in bogs, beside 
streams, about green-houses, and on damp ashes on the shady 
side of houses. 

Name. The generic name Marchantia was given by the son 
in honour of his father, Nicholas Marchant, a French botanist 
who died in 1678. The specific name polymorpha is com- 
pounded of the Greek, TroXu?, many, and popfyri, form. 

Plant (gametophyte) . Peculiar dull-green, with broad ribbon- 
shaped thallus generally once or twice forked. Costa or mid- 
vein broad. Upper surface divided off into rhomboidal spaces 
(areolce). One stoma or pore in the centre of each rhomboidal 
space. Gemmae cups, saucer-shaped with toothed margins, 
are often present. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Section of plant. (i) Shows well-marked epidermis. 

(2) Shows that each pore leads into an air-chamber. 

(5) That the side walls of each air-chamber support the 
epidermis as a roof. 

(4) That cells containing chlorophyll spring up from the floor 
of each chamber. These cells assimilate gases which enter the 
air-chamber through the pores, they also take in oxygen gas and 
give out carbon-dioxide gas. The floor-cells transmit or store 
up food. 

Marchantia polymorpha. Vertical section through the thallus at a point 
where a pore occurs. 

Habit of flowering. Antheridia or male organs are imbedded 
in the upper surface of a shield-shaped, radially lobed disk sup- 
ported by a peduncle and bearing scales on the 
under surface. This male receptacle (androecium) 
grows from the upper surface of the thallus. 
Archegonia or female organs are borne on the 
under side of a radially lobed disk supported 
upon a peduncle on the upper surface of the 
thallus. The lobes are finger-like, 8 to n, usually 
curved downward. 

Section of male disk. Shows antheridia con- 
cealed in depressions in the surface of the disk. 

Male flowers (antheridia). Oval upon a pedi- 
cel (seta}. Section shows a wall and numerous 
tdopment h of d a n cells containing spermatozoids, each with two 

antheridium. fine Cilia. 

Section of female disk. Shows archegonia on the under 
side of the disk. 


polymorpha. In 
ascending order 
the cuts show 



SPOTTED LUNGWORT, Slicta pulmonaria, (L.) Ach. 
. . " a sure cure for lung trouble " 

Liverworts or Hepatics 

Female flowers (archegonia). Flask-shaped. Cuts i, 2, }, 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, show stages in development. Section in early 
stage, 3, shows a wall of cells ; an egg-cell and canal-cell in the 

The false peri- 
anth is growing 
down to en- 
velope the old 


The false 
perianth en- 
velopes the 

enlarged base of the flask ; a canal in the neck of the flask and 
the summit of the neck closed. Section in a later stage, 6, shows 
a wall of cells: the egg-cell rounded up; the canal-cell shrivelled; 
the canal open at the summit of the neck. 

..._TcUt perianth. 



Spore -case. 

_.!. Maters. 


Spore-case discharging spores. 

Marchantia polymorpha. 

Development of sporophyte. A section, 7, of the archegonium 
after the spermatozoids have entered and fertilised the egg-cell 
shows the wall of the enlarged portion of the flask surrounded 
by an involucre, made up of segments, awl-pointed and finely 
cut, into an irregular fringe often reddish in colour; the egg-cell 
is divided into eight cells; the summit of the neck is shrivelled. 
Section later, 8, shows the eight cells multiplied to form an upper 


Mosses and Lichens 

portion, the future spore-case and a lower portion, the future 
foot and pedicel. 

Spore-case. At maturity is exserted, when it bursts some- 
what irregularly to discharge its spores. 

Spores. Yellow, nearly smooth, mingled with twice-spiral 

M. polymorpha. 

Gemmce. Receptacles bowl-shaped, on the upper-surface of 
the thallus, and open at the top. Gemmae flat, upright cellular 
bodies with two indentations at the sides, the growing points. 
When gemmae germinate, the side toward the light develops 
pores (stomata) for the admission of gases and for the egress 
of gases and water vapour. If germination takes place on land, 
the stomata are on the upper surface, but if in water lighted from 
below, then they are on the under surface. Gemmae are a means 
of reproducing plants. 




A gray lichen with black fruits 

Liverworts or Hepatics 


Porella platyphylla (See Colour Plate XIV), is a good ex- 
ample of the foliose or leafy hepatics and from a study of it 
one may become familiar with the conspicuous parts of this class 
of mosses. 

Margins irregular. 

Margin inrolled. 
Leafy hepatics. 

Margin toothed. 

The plants grow flat upon the bark of living trees. Each 
plant consists of a creeping stem, with side branches which may 
in turn bear branches. 

The principal leaves are set at right angles to the stem and 
their sides overlap so as to conceal the stems. 

They are two-lobed with one lobe above the stem and one 

A third row of leaves grows on the underside of the stem. 

Creeping stem and branch. 

Two leaves showing lobe 
and lobule. 

Under view of stem showing 

third row of leaves. 
Porella platyphylla. 

In some leafy hepatics, the tips of the leaves overlap the base 
of the leaf in front; in others the tips of the leaves are under- 
neath the bases of the leaves in front. 

The margins of the leaves of different species vary, they are 
recurved, toothed, fringed, inrolled, or entire. 

The apex may be blunt or pointed or of many other designs. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The male organs (antkeridia) are borne in the axils of the 
leaves of modified branches. 

The female organs (archegonia) are on the terminal branches. 

...TcUtt perianth. 

. -Telitti. 

.._(>?$ -C9U, 

! UtirS. 

Marchantia polymorpha. 

One leaf magnified to 
show cell structure. 

Porella platyphylla. 
Male branch. 

The spore-cases with their enveloping parts are terminal on 
the branches; although they appear often to be on the sides 
because a side branch has grown in the same direction and 
beyond the main stem. 




Female branch. Young Sporophyte. Sporophy te. 

Porella platyphylla. 

Beginning with the spore-case as a centre, and observing the 
parts in order outward, a veil (calyptrd) may be found, and then 
a perianth, and outside of all, several slightly modified leaves. 

Genus PORELLA, (L.) 

The Genus Porella is composed of large plants, dark-green 
to yellowish-brown, usually 2 to 3 times feather-branched. 

The lobes of the leaves are very deeply two-parted; the dorsal 
large, and roundish egg-shaped, usually entire, the ventral lobes 
smaller, sometimes nearly separate from the dorsal, varying in 
different species from ovate to lanceolate; underleaves large, 
entire or toothed. 


Liverworts or Hepatics 

The antheridia are spherical, in the axils of overlapping leaves 
which form short rigid branches. 

The perianth is oval to obovate, flattened at the mouth, which 
is fringed, toothed or entire. The spore-case is spherical to 
ovoid-oblong on a short stalk (seta) splitting nearly to the base 
into four parts. The spores are covered with spines. The elaters 
are once to thrice spiral. 

The generic name is a diminutive of the Latin porus, a pore. 
Its significance is not evident. 

Porella platyphylla, (L.) Lindle. Plant (gametophyte). 
Stems 2 or 3 inches long, prostrate, rigid with the tips bent 
upward; i to 3 times regularly or irregularly pinnate; root-hairs 
in tufts at the base of the under-leaves. 

View of upper surface of 
tern with two leaves. 

Two leaves showing lobe 
and lobule 

Under view of stem. 
Porella platyphylla. 

Leaves. Deeply two-parted, dorsal lobes overlapping in two 
rows so as to conceal the stem, obliquely placed relatively to the 
stem, oval to oblong, apex obtuse, toothed or entire. Ventral 
lobes oval to oblong obtuse, diagonally pressed to the surface of 
the upper lobes; margins recurved and entire or with a single 
tooth at the base; under leaves tongue-shaped, parallel with the 
stem, margins recurved, decurrent, entire, or sparingly toothed 
at the base. 

Name. The specific name platyphylla from the Greek TrXctrw, 
flat, and <f>v\\ov, a leaf, describes the prostrate habit of the plant. 

Perianth. Ovate, inflated, narrowed above, margin toothed 
with a notch on one side. 

Veil (calyptra). Persistent, globose, splitting above. 

Spore-case. Pale yellow-brown on a short pedicel, splitting 
into four, often irregular valves ; elaters bi-spiral. 

Spores. More or less spiny. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Habit of flowering. Male flowers (antheridid) and female 
flowers (archegonia) on separate plants (dioicous). 

Antheridia. Spherical, short-stalked, single in the axils of 
two-lobed, pouch-shaped leaves which lie opposite on the stem. 
These antheridial leaves are united by their margins to the under 
leaves, and with them form short oval branchlets on the sides of 
the main branches. 

Archegonia. Numerous, terminal on very short lateral 

Genus FRULLANIA, Raddi 

The plants are usually in shades of red or brown or even 
black, although sometimes green. They grow in delicate tra- 
ceries over the bark of trees or rocks. 

F. ecklonii. A lobule 
separated from its lobe. 
A tiny stylus is present 
at the point where the 
lobule is attached to 
the main stem. 

F. ecklonii Under view of a 
portion of the stem ; with eight 
inflated lobules, each on its 
lobe, the amphigastra have 
been removed. 

F.complanata, Under 

view of stem showing 3 
cup-like lobules each 
lying on its lobe: two 
notched amphigastra 
are on the stem. 

The stems are opaque and branched, each branch arising from 
the axil of a stem-leaf from which it is always free. 

The upper leaves are alternate and are inserted somewhat 
obliquely. They are two-lobed, one lobe folded to lie over the 
other. The upper and larger is known as the lobe and the lower 
and smaller as the lobule. 

The lobule, is an inflated water-sac, in shape resembling a 
helmet or hood or cylinder and often has at the base a tiny pro- 
cess (stylus). 


Liverwort! or Hepatic* 

The under leaves or stipules (amphigastrd) are strongly two- 
cleft and have often tufts of rootlets at their bases. 

The male flowers (antheridia) are found on short branches 
either on the same plant with the female flowers (archegonia) or 
on separate plants. 

The envelope of the flower (perianth') is free and exserted 
from the leaves. It is 3- to 4-angled and tipped with a short 
tubular beak (mucronate). The veil (calyptra} is free and included 

The involucre opened 


Perianth with beak. Amphigastra with 

F. tcklonii. rootlets. 

in the perianth. The spore-case is somewhat spherical on a 
stout pedicel 2 to 3 times longer than the perianth. It opens by 
four valves to eject its spores. There are about 150 species in all, 
which are well represented in both temperate and tropical zones; 
about twenty are found in North America. 

The generic name Frullania was given in honour of Signer 
Leonardo Frullani, an Italian minister of state. 

Frullania Eboracensis, Gottsche. See Colour Plate XIV. 

Transverse Upper view of 

section of the stem with two 

perianth. leaves. 

F. eboracencts, 

This dainty hepatic is usually found in some shade of green 
or red, forming delicate traceries on the bark of trees. It is par- 
ticularly beautiful on the smooth bark of the yellow birches in 
the North woods. 

The leaves lap as shingles (imbricate). The lobule is hood- 
like (galeate), bluntly terminating at the base. The perianth is 
somewhat compressed with a short, broad beak. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Genus PTILIDIUM, Nees 

The species of the Genus Ptilidium grow usually in dense 
and brownish mats, the stems prostrate or ascending, i to 2 
pinnate or irregularly and sparingly branched, without whip-like 
branches, the branches are lateral; root-hairs are few and short. 

The leaves are obliquely inserted, variously cut or fringed, a 
character which suggested the name Ptilidium, derived from the 
Greek TTT(\OV, down, the dorsal segment larger and with its tip 
lying over the base of the leaf next above it (incubus), under- 
leaves (ampbigastra) similar but much smaller. 

Male flowers (antberidia) short-stalked in the axils of more 
closely imbricate leaves. 

Female flowers (arcbegontd) terminal, sometimes apparently 
lateral because a side branch has grown on beyond the stem 
which bears it. Bracts commonly two pairs, similar to the leaves. 

Perianth free, several times longer than the bracts, cylindrical 
egg-shaped with constricted mouth. 

Veil (calyptrd) free. 

Spore-case egg-shaped on a moderately long stalk (seta) de- 
hiscing to the base by four rather rigid valves; spores dotted. 

Elaters two to three spiral. 

There are about eight species. 

Ptilidium ciliare, Nees. See Colour Plate XIV. 

Habit and Habitat. On fallen logs growing in loosely entan- 
gled purple, brown, or dark-green tufts. 

Upper view of Under view of stem to show Lobule enlarged to 

stem. show cell-structure. 

P. Ciliart. 

Name. The specific name ciliare, from the Latin cilia, lash, 
refers to the fine hairs on the margins of the leaves. 

Plants (gametopytbe). The plants have stems I to i inches 
long, mostly erect; root hairs few at the base. Branches short, 
once or twice pinnate. 


Liverworts or Hepatics 

Leaves. Crowded, hiding the stem, roundish; lobes lance- 
shaped, folded toward each other, the front lobe convex and 
parted half-way down, the back lobe similar, but much smaller; 
the margins all divided into numerous long hair-like teeth. Under 
leaves (ampbigastra) pressed to the stem, rectangular, nearly as 
large as the upper, four- to five-lobed with marginal teeth. Leaf- 
cells small, roundish, with thick walls. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants, dioicous. 

Perianth. Pear-shaped, pale, dull yellow, mouth narrow, and 
margined with small short teeth. The bracts at the base un- 
equally four-lobed with teeth like the leaves. 

Spore-case. Nearly spherical. 

Genus BAZZANIA, Gr. and Benn. 

The vegetative part of these plants grows in large mats, 
bright or dark green; the branching stems are 2 to 4 inches long, 
mostly creeping and bearing many long whip-like shoots with 
minute leaves and few whitish root-hairs. 


Leaf -apex 3-toothed. 

Leaves from the base of 
the perianth. 

Battania trilobata. 

Leaves from male branch. 

The leaves are egg-shaped, over-lapping and embracing the 
stem half-way around, they are narrowed to the apex which is 
bluntly three-to five-toothed. The leaf-cells are six-sided and 
opaque. The male and female flowers are on separate plants 
(dioicous). The perianth is white and tubular with slight folds in 
the wall and splits open at one side, the leaves at the base (bracts) 
are very small, scale-like and slightly toothed. 

The genus Bahama may be easily distinguished from all other 
genera by the leaves which are dark green, three-toothed and 


Mosses and Lichens 

have the anterior margin of each leaf lapping the posterior margin 
of the leaf in front. 

The genus was named for M. Bazzani, an Italian professor of 

Bazzania trilobata, L. See Plate X. 
Habit and habitat. On damp shady banks, forming extensive 

Name. The specific name trilobata is com- 
pounded of Ires (Iff-), three, and lobatus, lobed, 
referring to the apex of the leaf. 

Plants (gdmetopbyte). Shining olive-green; 
stems simple or once- or twice-forked, 3 to 5 
inches long; procumbent or creeping, rootlets 
few, beset on the under side with minute leafy 
scales; and numerous thread-like whips (flagella) 
about an inch long. 

Stem with sporo- Under 

phyte, the long View of under side of Stem with leaf leaf. 
slender pedicel ris- s tem to show the third enlarged to show 
ing from the per- row of leaves. cell-structure. 


Bazzania trilobata 

The tip 
of the per- 

Leaves Olive-green, the upper about i* times longer than 
broad and placed at right angles to the stem in two rows, the 
sides of the leaves overlapping like shingles, the anterior margin 
of one leaf overlapping the posterior margin of the leaf in front, 
apex with three acute teeth, texture firm; the under leaves 
(ampbigastra) broad, four-sided, apex three- to five-toothed. 

Habit of flowering. Female flowers on short branches on 
separate plants. Male flower-clusters minute aments, with folded 
and toothed bracts, antheridia solitary. 

Pmanto. Highly exserted, nearly white, oblong, narrower 
upwards; mouth slit on one side and with a few teeth. Bracts 
at the base oval, fringed at the apex and delicate in texture. 

Spore-case. Dark shining-brown, ovate, on a long, slender, 
white pedicel, the valves slit to the base to form a Roman cross; 
elaters twice spiral. 




Genus SPHAGNUM, Dill. 

THE peat- or bog-mosses are usually of large size, green or 
gray, dark-red, yellow, or purple, growing over extensive areas 
in the wet places of lowlands or mountain summits. They are 
attractive both to travellers and to botanists and are always a 
source of wonder on account of their habit of changing colour 
with every change in the humidity of the air. The individual 
plants are so perfectly preserved when carefully pressed that they 
are attractive to the collector, whether artist or botanist. Nature 
employs these mosses to redeem shallow waters for the use of 
higher plants. The geologist solves many problems by reading 
their life-history. The economist uses them for fuel in localities 
where other vegetation is scanty, and finds them useful packing 
for plants on account of their ability to hold moisture. 

The great Linnaeus calls them "flowers of Lapland " and tells 
us that the Lapland mothers use them for their children's cradles. 


The bog-moss plays an important part in the formation of 
peat. In a peat-moor the plants on the surface are the tips and 
branches of the very same plants whose under parts long ago 
died away. 

When a peat-moss spore germinates in water, a meshwork 
of fine thread-like strands is formed, called the protonema; upon 
this protonema bud-like growths occur which in later stages are 
known as the peat-moss plants. These plants very soon lose 
any root-like growth which they may have possessed, and con- 
tinue to grow, year after year, from the apex of the stem or from 
lateral branches just below the apex of the stem. 


Mosses and LIcbens 

As the floating plants multiply along the borders of a body of 
water, extending outward over the water as an anchored raft, 
the immersed dead parts of the moss are continually dropping 
disintegrated plant-tissue and so build soil from the bottom up- 
ward. The accumulation of vegetable matter attached to the 
living and floating plants on the under side causes the raft to 
sink gradually ; so gradually that the new growth always rests 
just at the surface of the water until the depth of the moss-raft is 
sufficient to permit it to reach the bottom. In time, the weight 
of the superimposed mass, together with chemical changes which 
take place in the dead plant-tissue, convert the moss plants into 
more or less compact peat. 

Ideal section of pond showing bog-moss growing outward from the shore. 

Ideal section of old pond showing bog-moss growing on the surface of the water 
and forming a " quaking-bog." 

Thus a border of peat-moss soil is built around the shore; 
and as new plants are continually growing on the water-line, 
forming new rafts which in turn sink and make new moss-soil, 
the body of water becomes gradually less until finally it dis- 
appears altogether. During this process of marsh building a 
"quaking bog" occurs, when the moss covers the whole surface 
of the water but has not yet filled up the underlying water. 
Both men and animals, while endeavouring to cross a "quaking 
bog," have sunk through the overlying moss to be entombed in 
the underlying peat; and, owing to the antiseptic quality of the 
peat, the bodies have been kept in a state of preservation for 
hundreds of vears, 




ICELAND MOSS, Cetraria Islandica, (L.) Ach. 

" A cure for lung trouble " 

Fruits in flattened coloured disks 

Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Pa; 


Peltigera canina, (L.) HofTm. 
" A cure for hydrophobia" 


The building of bog-mosses is not confined to depressions 
filled with water. Strange as it may seem, it is true, that they 
can climb the slopes of the surrounding shore and extend the 
marsh up a hill. The hill-climbing character of the moss is due 
to its habit of absorbing water like a sponge. If one recall the 
moss habit of making the new growth upon the dead and water- 
soaked remains of the old plants, he will readily understand 
that it is as simple for the moss plants to grow up a slope, if it is 
not too steep, as it is for .them to grow on a level. 

The value of the bog-mosses as peat producers in the belt 
over which the great continental glacier swept is greater than 
that of any water-loving plant. It will be remembered that the 
great glacier of the Ice Age moved in North America from the 
northwest in a southeasterly direction as far down as the northern 
part of New Jersey, and as the climate changed and the great ice 
sheet receded by melting backwards to its source, it left in its 
wake numerous small lakes, ranging from a few feet to several 
miles in diameter. It is in these lakes, when not over a mile in 
width, that the peat-mosses have found most favourable quarters 
for their work, for the smaller sheets of water are less liable to be 
lashed into waves by the wind. 

Examples of this method of marsh building are found all over 
the world. Professor H. W. Brewer reports finding peat-mosses 
building marshes on Lassen's Peak, California, at an altitude of 
5,000 feet. He found Sphagnum fimbriatum on the Sierra Nevada 
Chain, California, at an altitude of 11,000 feet; and Sphagnum 
mendocinum forming swamps near King River, California, at an 
altitude of from 800 to 900 feet. Examples may be found on the 
Palisades of the Hudson and on the summits of Mount Marcy and 
the Shawangunk Mountains in New York, or on the Pocono 
Mountains, Pennsylvania. 

In the pass between Mount Marcy and the highest point in 
New York State, and Mount Skylight, near the camp and about 
half a mile from the summits of the mountains, lies "Lake Tear 
of the Clouds." To-day it is a mere bog-hole, neither large nor 
deep, but when named by Verplanck Colvin not very many years 
ago, its clear waters nestling in a rocky basin suggested to him 
the pretty name. At that time a fringe of peat-moss wreathed 
its shores and was reflected from it as from a mirror. To-day it 
is surrounded by boggy shores and is dotted with little islands of 


Mosses and Lichens 

similar character; its bottom is soft mud made of decayed vege- 
table matter. There is no visible inlet that could bring in sedi- 
ment; it is fed only by the slight drainage of rain and melting ice 
under the rocks on the adjacent mountain sides, and yet it is 
never dry. 

There are many places all through the Adirondacks which 
illustrate the same thing in different stages of completion 
Connery Pond, Mud Pond, Calamity Pond, Hidden Swamp and 
Averyville Swamp are examples, all within walking distance of 
Lake Placid, New York. 

Mr. Charles H. Peck tells of an example within fifteen miles 
of Albany. He says: 

"A marsh covered with Sphagnum, in my boyhood days, 
was so soft and yielding that it seemed dangerous to go over 
some places. It was then productive of cranberries in nearly 
all parts. Now it is firm in nearly all parts. The cranberry 
vines have almost disappeared and shrubs and young trees 
have come up. It is greatly changed. The same sluggish stream 
flows through the centre; nothing has been done to ward draining 
it, but the mosses, growing at their summits and decaying at 
their base, have gradually made more dense the soft ooze beneath, 
till now there is sufficient soil to support sedges, marsh-shrubs 
and even young trees of tamarack, balsam, and spruce." 

The climbing bogs may be found on the east shores of Maine, 
near the Bay of Fundy, in New Hampshire, Michigan, and Min- 
nesota. They are rare in the United States on account of the 
short hot summers, and for the same reason, when they do occur, 
they do not climb declivities of more than 2. In northern 
Europe, on the other hand, they climb declivities of 5 and a bog 
often rises a score of feet above the water in which it stands. 

Peat bogs represent the accumulated remains of thousands of 
generations of plants, among which were the Sphagnum mosses. 
There is conclusive evidence that the Sphagnum mosses are an 
important constituent of peat-bogs now forming; and there is 
every reason to believe that in ages gone by they served as soil- 
makers for more complex peat-producing plants. Extensive 
peat-bogs occur in the northern parts of the world, New England, 
Ireland, India, and northern Europe, where the peat is used as 
fuel to a limited extent. 

Owing to a peculiar odour given off from burning peat, as 
well as to other contingencies, it is not popular as a fuel. Its 
great value lies in the fact that, when bogs are properly drained, 



they afford the most desirable land for farming purposes. One- 
fifth of the most fertile fields in Great Britain and Ireland have 
been won from bog districts by draining. During the time of 
the Saxon kingdoms, England was to a grea; extent occupied by 
morasses which have since been cleared away. Sites of ancient 
bogs in northern Germany and in the valley of the River Po, 
Italy, are indicated by the great and persistent fertility of the soil. 
Probably not far from ore-twentieth of :he tillable land in Europe 
was inundated and unfit for agri- 
culture in the eighth century. 

Sphagnum acutifolium, var. rubellum. 
A bit of stem with three stem-leaves 
and a fascicle of three branches, one 
appressed and two spreading. 

A bit of stem with one stem-leaf and a 
fascicle of five branches, two appressed 
and three spreading. 

Sphagnum cytnbifolittm. 


Peat-mosses are common, growing in more or less compact 
green or purple patches on the surface of bogs, or along mountain 

Mosses and Lichens 

springs and rivulets, or even floating on water. The genus is an 
easy one to recognise and the plants form an attractive feature 
of one's walk through woods or over fen-land. 

The name Sphagnum (Greek o-^cryvo?) was used by the an- 
cient botanists Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Pliny to indicate 
certain non-flowering plants. The name was restricted to a 
more limited use in 1719 by Johann Dillenius, a German, who 
was the first professor of botany 
at Oxford. 


Leaf magnified to show large cells with 
perforations and spiral thickenings and 
small cells with leaf-green grains. 

Sphagnum cymbifotium. 

Surface view of leaf cells. 

The plants are soft and weak-stemmed mosses, generally of 
large size, white or yellow, light green or sometimes red. The 
stems appear almost simple with clusters of branches at the 
summit and on the sides ; the branches at the summit are 
grouped to form a dense rosette (capitulum), while each side 
cluster (fascicle) consists of from 2 to 7 or more branches, some 
spreading and some appressed to the stem. A cross section of 
the stem shows three zones of cells the outer (cortex) of large 
loose cells, the central of pithy cells and the intermediate of 
woody cells. 

The leaves are translucent, without veins, and consist of a 
single layer of two kinds of cells : (i) Large colourless and 
transparent cells (utricles), generally perforated and lined with 



spiral or circular thickenings (fibrils) to secure them against 
collapse. They have lost the cell-contents which were present 
in a younger stage and are, when dry, filled with air. (2) 
Smaller cells (ducts), containing active cell-contents and leaf-green. 
They are narrowly linear and form a net of rhomboidal or hexa- 
gonal meshes around the large cells. The stem-leaves are distant, 
obliquely inserted, erect or bent downward, flat or 
concave, tongue-shaped, oval, inserted at the small 


Leaf from branch. Stem leaf. 

Leaf from base of 

Male branch 

Sphagnum cymbtfolium. 

or large end generally obtuse. The "branch-leaves are smaller, 
round, oval or lance-like, concave or rolled-up lengthwise. Each 
leaf apex overlaps the base of 
the next leaf above and every 
fifth leaf lies in a perpendicular 
line on the stem, directly over 
the first leaf counted, that is they 
are five ranked. 

The veil (calyptra) is a ragged 
membrane left at the base of 

5. acuiifolium, var. rubellum. Cross-sec- 
tion of leaf showing cells with cell contents 
and empty cells with perforations. 


as the latter 


The spore-cases are chestnut brown, globular, without teeth. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Normally they are in the crown (capihiluni) of the plant, but 
by an elongation of an erect branch near the apex of the stem 
they are often left behind so as to appear to have 
grown from the side. 

The pedicels are thick and stocky. [The Sphag- 
num pedicel (pseudopodium) does not have the same 
origin as the pedicel of other mosses]. 

The lids (opercula) are flattened in the form of 
an inverted saucer. These are normally cast off 
by the contraction of the spore-case wall. Some- 
times a lid remains attached at one point and opens 
to permit spores to escape or closes to protect 
them. Sometimes, if wet, a lid does not fall, then 
the spores germinate within the spore-case and 
the growing embryos burst the spore-case and 

The spores are of two kinds large four-angled 
spores (tetrahedral macrospores) and small many- 
angled spores (polyhedral microspores). The small 
spores are supposed to be the spores of a parasitic 
fungus which lives upon the developing spores of 
the moss. Two hundred and fifty-eight species in 
all are known, seventy-four being found in North 

tguarrosum. A 
plant with a 
rising from the 
leaves at its 
summit ; the 
slender pedicel 
bears a globu- 
lar spore-case 
closed with a 
saucer-like lid 
and having a 
ragged veil at 
its base. 


The pale tint of peat-mosses is due to the struc- 
ture of the leaves. When the moss is wet, the large cells are 
rendered more transparent and the colour of the small cells can 
be seen through them. When the moss is dry and the green 
cells are less evident, then it is paler green or even white. 


The tiny openings of the large cells communicate with similar 
openings in adjoining cells. When the atmosphere is dry, as 
has already been said, the large cells are filled with air; but as 
soon as the atmosphere is moist, the surrounding water rushes 
through the holes on one side of the large cells and the air is 



forced out through the holes on the opposite sides. When all 
the large cells are filled with water, the contents of the small 
cells can absorb through their thin walls the water from the 
adjoining large cells. 

It may help one to comprehend the structure to imagine a 
number of thin, transparent-glass capsules of irregular shape, 
with spiral or circular thickenings of glass in their walls and tiny 
openings here and there. Imagine the capsules piled up with 
the openings of each capsule contiguous to the openings of 
adjoining capsules and all the spaces between filled with very 
small capsules containing a colourless jelly and green granules. 

Diagram to show plan of cell-structure. 

If the base of this imaginary pile be immersed in water, immedi- 
ately the water will creep up through the whole system. This 
is in accordance with nature's law that water rises in fine hair- 
like tubes or crevices. To understand the process by which the 
water passes from a large cell to a small cell one must recall 
another of nature's laws, that whenever a non-crystallisable 
substance, as the cell-contents of the small cells, is separated by 
a membranous partition from a crystallisable liquid, as the water 
in the large cells, the crystallisable liquid will pass through the 
membranous wall into the non-crystallisable substance. 

It is evident that one function of the large cells is to procure 
water for the small cells to work with ; but since this same 
function would be performed as well if all the cells were filled 


Mosses and Lichens 

Point whtrt. 
Proton tmo,.*, ,. 

Protonema of Sphagnum cymbifolium. (See page 119.) 

Sphagnum acutifolium. Stem of moss-plant with 
leafy branches ; (ch) involucral leaves of the female 
flower ; (a) involucral leaves of the male flowers; 
(fc) stem leaves. (See pages 120 and 121.) 


Sphagnum acutifolium. (A) Male 
flower-cluster with involucral leaves 
stripped off to show male flowers (a) 
antheridia. (B) Antheridium burst- 
ing and emitting antherozoids. (0 
Coiled antherozoid with two lashes. 
(See pages 120 and lai.) 


with non-crystallisable cell-contents as in other mosses, one must 
conclude that the large cells serve other purposes beside that of 
water carriers. Perhaps they are, when filled with air, a protec- 
tion to the cells containing leaf-green, serving both as shields 
against excessive heat and light and as a barrier to excessive 


Protonema. The large spores germinate in water to form a 
thread-like protonema ; or, on land, to form a flat plate of cells, 
from which the moss-plant develops. Several stages from spore 
to adult plant are shown in diagrams i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. 
(See also diagrams on pages 118 and 120.) 

Sphagnum acutifolium. Vertica 
section to show: (or) archegon- 
ium; (ch) cut edges of perichaetial 
leaves; (y) involucral leaf. 
(Seepage 120.) 

Sphagnum acutifolium. 

Plant (gametopbyte).The cells of the protonema by division 
at one point form the plant stem, leaves and rhizoids then the 
protonema disappears. Upon the moss plant are developed the 
male flowers (antberidta) and the female flowers (archegonia) . 
In Sphagnum acutifolium the male and female flowers mature 
in late autumn and in winter and may often be found by digging 
under the snow. 

Antberidium.An antheridium has its origin in a cell of the 
outer wall of a branch. This cell divides to make two, one of 


Mosses and Lichens 

which divides to form a stem or pedicel, while the second divides 
to form the globular part of the antheridium. The mature 
antheridium bursts at the apex, the margins roll back and a cloud 


Sphagnum acutifolium. 
Male flower-cluster with 
sterile branch at base. 

Moss plant on protonema of Sphagnum acutifolium. 

of flattened membranous sacs (vesicles), each containing one 
spirally coiled antherosoid, are thrown out. The antherosoids 
are soon set free by the breaking down of the vesicle wall. 
Each antherosoid is a spirally coiled cell, club-shaped, with two 

vibratile lashes at the 
attenuated end. 


Young arche- 

Vertical sec- 
tion of a de- 
v e 1 o p i n g 

Sphagnum cuspidatum. Vertical 
section to show young embryo. 

Sphagnum cuspida- 
tum. Vertical section 
of a ripe archegonium 
to show egg-cell. 

Archegonium. The archegonium is developed by cell-division; 
it is similar to a tiny flask, at the base of which is an egg-cell 
(ovum) which, after fertilisation, is to become a spore-case (i, 2, 3). 



Fertilisation occurs early in the spring, that is, sperm-cells 
(antherosoids) from antheridia, swim over in water to a mature 
egg-cell of an archegonium, coalesce with it and make possible 
the development of an embryo spore-case (4). 

The Spore-case. The first embryos may be found late in 
February. A study of their development shows that the fertilised 
egg-cell divides into four cells and then by repeated division of 
cells takes the form of the several diagrams in order, A, B, C, and 
D. The embryo which has been formed as a result of fertilisation 
is divided into two regions, the 
three upper segments with the 

Okttr luxlX. 

Inner >nas 

Vertical section of developing embryo. 
Sphagnum acutifolium. 

apical cell give rise to spores, while the lower segments with the 
basal cell form a "foot." The rudimentary spore-case is at first 
sessile, but later is raised by the lengthening of the apex of the 
branch upon which it is borne. 

Veil (calyptrd). The veil is the fragmentary remains of the 
old archegonium wall which was burst by the enlarging spore- 
case within and left at the base, or carried up on the lid. 

Pedicel (seta). The "foot" of the Sphagnum* is homologous 
with the pedicel of other mosses, as it is due to a development 
of the base of the archegonium. The so-called pedicel (pseudo- 
podium] is the result of a lengthening upward of the apex of the 
branch which bears the archegonium. This branch so enlarges 
just below the developing spore-case as to completely envelop 
the "foot." 

Lid (operculum). When the spore-case is mature enough to 
open, the upper portion separates from the lower by the breaking 
down of the walls of a zone of cells. This zone of weak cells is 


Mosses and Lichens 

first noticeable in a young spore-case as a groove. This groove 
is due to one zone of cells growing less rapidly than the zones of 
cells on either side. The breaking along the groove is due to 
the thinner walls of the groove cells. One zone of thicker- 
walled cells forms a rim to the spore-case and the other zone of 
thicker-walled cells forms the rim of the lid. 


Vertical section of a young sporogonium. 

The character of the leaves and the manner of branching, 
both of which are visible to the naked eye, enable one to separate 
the species with some accuracy into eight groups, which are 
helpful to a beginner, in that they gave him some definite points 
of difference to look for in a genus of which to the novice all 
species appear alike. 


i. Acuta. With branch-leaves erect and stem leaves large. 
Examples: Sphagnum acutifolium and Sphagnum rubellum. (See 
diagram on page 123.) 



2. Cuspidata. With branch-leaves longer and narrower than 
the Acuta group, erect, spreading and wavy on the margins 
when dry; stem-leaves small. Example: Sphagnum cuspidaium. 

Stem leaves. 

Branch leaves. 
Sphagnum acutifolium. 

3. Squarrosa. Plants stout, branch-leaves spreading open 
widely and abruptly from the middle of the branch. Example: 
Sphagnum squarrosum. (See diagram below.) 

4. Mollia. Plants short, densely crowded, very soft when 

Stem leaves. Branch leaf. 

Sphagnum mollt. 

Branch leaves. 
Sphagnum cuspidaium. 


Branch leaf. 
Sphagnum squarrosum. 

Branch leaf. Stem leaf. 
Sphagnum subsecundum. 


Stem leaf. Branch leaf. 
Sphagnum cymbifolium. 

Mosses and Lichens 

wet, brittle when dry, branch leaves short. Example: Sphag- 
num molle. (See diagram, page 12^.) 

5. Subsecunda. Branch-leaves more or less turned to one 
side or strongly curved and more or less folded. 
Example: Sphagnum subsecundum. (See diagram, 
page 123.) 

6. Cymbijormia. Plants robust; stem-leaves 
large, tongue or boat-shaped, branch-leaves very 
concave. Example: Sphagnum 
cymbifolium. (See diagram, page 

7. Cyclophylla. Plants not 
crowded, stems short, usually 
without short hanging branches; 
leaves loosely overlapping, 
roundish or oval, with a broad 
blunt apex. 

Acute-leaved Peat-moss 
(Sphagnum acutifolium) , E h rh . 
See Colour Plate XI. 
Habit and habitat. Green or purple or red, common in open, 
shaded bogs, in valleys or on mountains; many varieties are 
noted; the variations due to their special habitat. 

Name. The specific name acutifolium is compounded of two 
Latin words acutus, sharp, and folium, a leaf, referring to the 
apex of the leaf. 

Plants (gametophyte). Stem without pores in the triple layer 
of cells which form the outer covering ] cluster branches spreading, 
3 to 5, one to two pendent. 

Branch. Leaf. 

Sphagnum cyckphylla. 

Transverse section of leaf. 

Part of cross section of stem 
showing triple layer of cells. 

Sphagnum acutifolium. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves large, erect, oval or tongue-shaped ; apex 
irregularly notched ; with the large cells lined with a few or no 



spiral thickenings; branch-leaves deeply concave, erect, oval 
lance-shaped and awl-shaped, apex toothed; margin in-rolled. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous) or on separate plants (dioicous) ; male branches 
usually red. 

Leaves at the base of the spore-case (perichatial leaves). Ob- 
long, gradually narrowed to a point, apex sinuous, toothed, 

Sphagnum- acutifolittm. Stem of moss plant with leafy 
branches; (d) involucral leaves of the female flower; (a) 
involucral leaves of the male flowers. 

Male branch, 

Sphagnum acuttfolium. 

Spore-case. Numerous, on long false pedicels. 
Spores. Rust-colour, mature in July. 
Distribution. Universal. 

The Reddish Peat-moss (Sphagnum rubellum), Weis. 
Habit and habitat. Common in the Adirondack Mountains. 
The plants cover sunny bogs with a deep red carpet. 

Name. The specific name is the Latin rubellum, somewhat red. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Stem with three leaves 
and three branches, two 
spreading and one pen- 

Female branch. 

Sphagnum rubellum. 

Branch leaf. 

Plant (gametophyte). Resembling Sphagnum acutifolium, 
stems softer and more slender. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves broad, obtuse, sometimes with fibrils in 
the cells ; branch-leaves shorter, oval oblong, apex obtuse, three- 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate plants 

The Pointed Peat-moss (Sphagnum cuspidatum), Ehrh. 

Habit and habitat. Green or brown, floating in loose tufts in 
ponds and on the borders of streams flowing from bogs. 


Leaves of divergent 

Stem leaves. 

Sphagmim rubellum , 

Peat- Mosses 

Male branch 

Sphagnum rubellum. 


Sphagnum rubellum. Portion 
of cross section of stem. 

Branch leaves. 
Sphagnum cuspidatum. 

Name. The specific name is the Latin cuspidatum, sharpened 
at the end, referring to the cluster-branches. 

Plants (gametophyte). Long and slender, 6 to 18 inches or even 
several feet; cluster-branches (fascicles), spreading or hanging, 
not closely appressed to the stem, 3 to 5, tapering to a stout point 
owing to the fact that the terminal leaves are rolled lengthwise. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves small, triangular, apex 2- to jj-toothed ; 
branch-leaves loose, erect spreading, wavy on the margins when dry, 
lance-like and taper-pointed, deeply concave, apex with several 
small teeth; awl-shaped at the ends of the branches. 

Leaves at the base of the spore-case. Distant, broadly ovate, 
apex cut square or obtuse; large cells lined with fibrils. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Spore-case. Scattered down the stem, small, the false pedicel 
often half an inch long. 

Spores. Light brown, mature in July. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Sphagnum squarrosum. Transverse 
section of leaf. 


Leaves from divergent branch. 
Sphagnum squarrosum. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The Spread-leaved Sphagnum (Sphagnum squarrosum), 
Pers. See Plate XII. 

Habit and habitat. Bluish-green, stout, loosely crowded, the 
summits appearing like edelweiss, almost white when dry; com- 
mon in boggy places. 

Name. The specific name is the Latin squarrosum, scurfy, 
applied to describe the scale-like leaves of the stem. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Stems solid, simple or 
forking, red; cluster-branches 
4 to 5, 2 to 3 divergent, the 
others pendent and appressed. 

Stem leaves: 

Leaf at base of 


Sphagnum squarrosum. 

Leaves. Stem leaves soft, spreading or turned backward from 
the stem, tongue-shaped; apex rounded and ragged; branch-leaves 
spreading widely and abruptly from the middle of the branch 
oblong lance-shaped, apex four-toothed. 

Leaves at tbe base of tbe spore-case (perichcetial leaves). Very 
broad, thin apex rounded and notched. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers generally on the 
same plants (monoicous). 

Spore-case. Large, nearly spherical, shining dark brown, 
numerous at and near the summit of the plant. 

Spores. Yellow, mature in August and September. 

Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia, Africa. 

The Boat-leaved Moss (Sphagnum cymbi folium), Ehrh. 
See Plate III. 

Habit and habitat. Common in bogs, robust, yellow-green 
or red, densely crowded when growing out of water, rarely 
floating, male plants slender with thick flower-clusters. 



Name. The specific name cymbifolium is compounded of two 
Latin words, cymba, a small boat, and folium, a leaf, referring to 
the branch-leaves. Stem solid, simple or two-parted; cortical 
cells in 3 to 4 layers; cluster-branches (fascicles), swollen, 4 to 5, 
2 to 3 hanging, the rest curved. 

Leaves. Stem leaves large, tongue-shaped or spatulate, gener- 
ally turned back from the stem ; apex rounded and irregularly 
notched; branch-leaves broadly oval and 
boat-shaped, apex finely serrate and 
rough, densely overlapping; translucent 


Bit of stem with one leaf 
and fascicle of four branches, 
two appressed and three 

Cross section of stem 

Female Bract of 
branch, male branch. 

Perichsetial Apex of Male 

leaf. leaf- flower-cluster. 

Sphagnum cymbifolium. 

cells (utricles) large, with spiral thickenings (fibrillose) and few 
pores, green cells (ducts) narrowly oval. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Leaves at the base of the spore-case (pericbcetial leaves). Small, 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous), male branches rather thick, yellow-brown, red, 
or olive-green. 

Veil (calypird). As in genus. 

Spore-case. Large, almost spherical, dark brown. 

Stem leaf. 

Branch leaves. 
Sphagnum cytnbifoliutn. 

Pedicel. As in genus. 

Lid (operculum). Saucer-like. 

Teeth (peristome). None. 

Spores. Rust-colour, mature in July. 

Distribution. Universal. 


Genus ANDRE^A, Ehrh. 

The species of the Genus Andreaea are found in small, brown 
or black, fragile tufts on granite or slate rocks in high altitudes. 
They are among the first mosses to grow on rock and are 

Andreato Hartmanii. Leaves. 

Andrecea - 
pes-tris. Spore- 
case open ins 
by four valves. 

efficient agents in preparing soil for higher forms of plant life. 
The plants are small with forked branches which start from just 
below the flower-bearing apex. The leaves are thick, open or 







Cladonia rangijerina, (L.) Hoffm. 
Reindeer feed upon it ... 

Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Page & Company 


Peat- Mosses 

spreading, ovate to lance-shaped and usually have their surface 

covered with projecting points. 

The terminal oval spore-cases are immersed among the leaves 

before maturity, but later are protruded by the elongation of the 

cellular sheath (vaginule) surrounding the base of the spore-case. 
This is known as a false pedicel (pseudo- 
podium). There is no lid, as the case 
opens by splitting perpendicularly into 
four or rarely six equal segments 
which cohere at the apex. There are, 


Fertile plant. 

A sporophyte 
separated from 
the cellular 
Andrecea Hartmanii. 

Sterile plant. 

of course, no teeth when there is no lid. The small spores are 
at first coherent in fours, later, when the case splits into valves, 
they are disseminated by the wind, if the weather is dry; if it is 
damp, the valves draw together to protect the spores. 

There are about one hundred species known at present, six 
or more of them occurring in North America. The specific char- 
acters are drawn mainly from the leaves. 


Mosses and Lichens 

By the early writers these mosses were classed with the leafy 
hepatics (Jungermania) on account of their manner of opening 
the spore-case by valves instead of by a lid. They agree in 
structure with the true mosses. Their proper place seems to lie 
between the peat-mosses and leafy-mosses. They agree with 
the peat-mosses because the spore-case is first enclosed in a sac- 
like vail and then elongated on a false pedicel. They agree with 
the genus Grimmia in habitat, manner of growth and in structure 
of their leaves, differing chiefly in the opening of the spore-case. 

The name was given by Fredrich Ehrhart, in honour of his 
friend J. G. R. Andreae, a Hanoverian naturalist. 

The Stone-loving Andresea (Andrecea petrophila), Ehrh. 
Habit and habitat. Found in small olive or dark brown tufts 
on wet rocks of high mountains. 

Name. From irerpa, a rock, and <f>i\eiv, 
to love, referring to its choice of habitat. 

Plants (gametophyte). Stems slender, $ 
to i inch long, leafless below. 

A . petrophila. Vertica 
section of spore-case. 

A. petrophila. Leaves. 

Leaves. Spreading or turned to one side, lance-shaped, rough 
on the back with projecting points; apex sometimes oblique, 
transparent; vein none, margin incurved, entire. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on one plant 
(monoicous) . 

Veil (calypird). Thin, closely fitting the spore-case. 

Spore- case. Egg-shaped, immersed in the leaves at its base 
until maturity and then protruded by the elongation of the cel- 
lular sheath (vaginule) surrounding its base. 

Pedicel (seta). None. 

Lid (operculum).None. 

Teeth (peristome) . None. 


Peat- M os sea 

Spores. Small, mature in June- August. 

Distribution. Widely distributed in cooler regions. 

The Rock Andreaea (Andrecea rupestris), Turner. 

Andreaea rupestris has lance-shaped leaves, smooth 
with a vein extending beyond the apex. 

This moss is common 
in the mountains of 
Georgia and North Caro- 
lina, descending to the 
plains northward. 

The specific name 
from the Latin rupes, a 
rock, refers to its habitat, spore-case 




Fertile plant, spore- 
case immersed. 

still carrying its 
veil, one peri- 
chaetial leaf at 
the base of the 

A. ruptstris. 

Genus SPH^iRANGIUM, Schimp. 

The Species of the Genus Sphasrangium are minute bud-like 
plants with spore-case immersed, without stems, growing on the 
ground in clusters, but with no protonema at the base. The lower 
leaves are small, while the upper are large, somewhat twisted and 
overlapping as shingles. They are concave or keeled and covered 
with minute protuberances on the back or on both surfaces. The 
spore-cases are spherical and for this reason Wilhelm Philipp 
Schimper gave them their generic name Spbarangium, from the 
Greek <r<f>aipa, a ball, and ayyeiov, a vessel. The cases with their 


Mosses and Lichens 

tiny erect veils are borne on pedicels and are enclosed in the 
leaves at their base; when mature they split irregularly and 
transversely for the emission of the spores, which are small, 
somewhat globular, minutely granulous and brown. 

There are fourteen species known in all, four of them in North 


Spore -case. 

split open to 
show columella 
of spores. 


S. muticuin. 

Leaf -cells. 

Sphaerangium muticum, Schimp. Individual plants are 
more or less separated. 

Habit and habitat. On bare clay or sandy soil. 

Name. The specific name muti- 
cum, blunt, refers to the apex of 
the spore-case. 

Plants (gametophyte). Like 
yellow-brown buds j of an inch 

Leaves. The lower and middle 
oval and long taper-pointed; apex 
recurved, with a short sharp point; 
vein passing beyond the apex ; the 
upper two or three, twice as large 
as the lower; apex irregularly toothed. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Very small, erect, conical, with a long beak. 

Spore-case. Orange, spherical, immersed. 

Pedicel. Very short. 

Lid (operculum). None. 

Teeth (peristome). None. 

Spores. Mature in winter and early spring. 

Distribution. Europe, Africa, and North America. 


Spore-case split- 
ting irregularl y and 
emitting spores. 

Sfheerangium Schimferanum. 


Male and female 
branches at the left 
and (a) rhizoids. 

Lower leaf. 

Upper leaves. 


Spharangium muticum 

Genus PHASCUM, Linn. 

The plants of the Genus Phascum are very small with 
simple distinct stems. They grow in loose clusters on bare 
ground under old willows and along brooks and garden paths. 
The protonema is not persistent. 

The leaves are crowded, forming small 
heads and are lance-shaped with taper-pointed 
apex and a broad base with a 
vein extending as an awn be- 
yond the apex. The cells are 
distinct and pale below, smaller 
and green above, sometimes 
with minute projecting points 
on one or both faces. 

The spore-cases are spherical 
or egg-shaped with a short point 
or a blunt beak. They are raised 
on a short, erect or curved 
pedicel and break irregularly and transversely for the emission of 
the large, rough spores, which are borne on a thick, central 
column (columella) . 

There are ten species known in all, three of them in North 
America. By some they are believed to be mosses in a primitive 
condition ; by others they are believed to be degenerate forms of 
higher mosses. 



Spore - case 
with veil. 
Pedicel short, 
with the vag- 
inule a t the 

split open to 
show colu- 

Phascum cuspidalum. 

Mosses and Lichens 

The generic name Pbascum is derived from the Greek <j>do-/cov t 
an ancient name for a moss. It was originally applied by Theo- 
phrastus to a lichen, Usnea barbata, and first used as a generic 
name for these mosses by Linnaeus in 1753. He enumerated 
three species, all founded on figures made by Dillenius and pub- 
lished in 1741. Schreber limited the name more closely to its 
modern sense. In a quaint little pamphlet printed in 1770, he 
praises the invention of lenses which make it possible to see the 
tiny mosses as if they were of greater stature, and says that the 
ancients spoke well and wisely when they said "Nature is never 
more perfect than in small things." 

Plant with immersed 
spore-case and new 

Plant with nodding 

Male flower. 
Phase-urn cuspidatum. 

Phascum cuspidatum, Schreb. 

Habit and habitat. In loose yellow-green tufts in old fields. 

Name. The specific name cuspidatum, pointed, refers to the 
apex of the leaves. 

Plants (gametopbyte). Stems simple or branched, ITT to TTF of 
an inch high, often bushy with numerous fertile stems, dividing 
from the base or branching above, occasionally whip-like. 

Leaves. Small and few below, much larger and crowded 
above, broadly lance-like, twisted when dry: apex awl-like; 
margins recurved, entire \vein thick and extending beyond the 



apex; basal cells large, clear; upper cells small, green, with 
tiny projecting points. 

Habit of flowering, Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous) ; male flowers sessile in the axils of the upper 

Veil (calyptra). Split on one side. 

Spore-case. One or several on a plant, erect or nodding, 
spherical with a sharp point at the top, -$ f an i ncn i n diameter. 

Pedicel. Short and curved, immersed or slightly emergent. 

Spores. Brown, rough, mature in March and April. 

Distribution. North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa. 

P. nenosum. Vertical 
section of spore-case to 
show columella and 

P. tubulatum. Plants. 

P. tubulatum. Leaves. 

P. subulatum. Spore- 
case split open to show 


Genus PLEURIDIUM, Brid. 

The plants of the Genus Pleuridium are minute and erect 
with simple or branching stems clustered to form dense cushions 
on the ground. 

The leaves are small and few below, but longer and crowded 
above; they are oval at the base, tapering to a long awl-like 
point with a broad vein forming most of the apex. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The spore-cases are solitary and terminal, immersed on a 
short pedicel. They are almost spherical with a point on the 
summit and a persistent columella. 

There are thirty-six species known in all, five in the United 

The generic name Pleuridium is derived from the Greek 
7r\vpiSiov, at the side. The name is suggestive of the position of 
the spore-cases, which in some species appear to be on the sides 
of the stems instead of on the summits, because a side branch has 
grown from near the base of the spore-case but in the same 
direction as the main stem leaving the spore-case behind. 
Pleuridium subulatum, (Huds.), Rabenh. 

Habit and 'habitat. In loose bright-green and 
silky tufts on earth and clay, along woods, banks 
and heaths. 

Name. The specific name subulatum, from the 
Latin subula, an awl, refers to the shape of the 
upper leaves. 


Spore-case Veil. 

Leaves. with veiL 

P. subulatum. 

Plants (gametopbyte). Minute, ^ to -nrof an inch high, simple 
or branching. 

Leaves. The lower distant, short, oval and taper-pointed; the 
upper longer, more crowded, spreading; apex an awn minutely 
toothed and rough on the back; vein broad, forming most of the 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers close together 
on the same plant (paroicous) ; male flowers naked in the axils of 
the leaves at the base of the spore-case. 

Veil (calyptra). Split on one side. 

Spore-case. Immersed in the leaves at the base, egg-shaped 
with a tiny point at the apex (apiculate). 

Pedicel (seta). Short, immersed. 

Lid (operculum). None. 


Peat- Mosses 

Teeth (peristome). None. 

Spores. Rough, mature from March to June. 

Distribution. Quite universal. 

Genus BRUCHIA, Schwaegr. 

The species of the Genus Bruchia are minute, with simple 
or two-forked stems. They are found growing in loose clusters 
on the ground. 

The stem-leaves are 
small and distant, those 
toward the apex being long- 
er and crowded to form a 
rosette. The vein of all 
leaves is distinct to the apex. 

The spore-cases are 
emergent, oval and beaked, 
with a base which tapers 
into a long solid neck 
(collum). They open irregu- 
larly for the emission of the 
spores as they have no lid. 

There are eighteen 
species in all, two in Europe 
and eleven in North 

The generic name 
Bruchia was applied by D. Fridericus Schwaegrichen in 1824, 
in honour of the distinguished bryologist Ph. Bruch, one of 
the authors of " The Bryologia Europaea." 

Bruchia flexuosa, Muell. 

Habit and habitat. Found on clay or OR fcase soil in fields or 
under old willows and along brooks. 

Name. The specific name flexuosa, the Latin for "crooked," 
refers to the curving of the stems near the bases. 

Plant (gametophyte) . In loose tufts, stems comparatively 
long, curved downward at the base. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves distant, very small, nearly smooth, 
narrowly lance-shaped and prolonged into an awn; apex ob- 
scurely serrate. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers close together on 



Leaf, side view 
Plant. showing vein. 

Bruchia flexuosa. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Bruchia flex- 


the same plant (paroicous) or in separate buds on the same plant. 
Veil (calyptrd). Resembling a bishop's mitre, thin, lobed, or 
torn at the base. 

. Spore-case. Not immersed in the leaves at the 

base, egg-shaped with a neck (collum) shorter or equal 
to the spore-sac, long-beaked. 

Pedicel. One-tenth to two-tenths of an inch long. 
Lid (operculum). None. 
Teeth (peristome). None. 
Spores. Mature in the fall. 
Distribution. Found in the central part of North America. 


Genus ARCHIDIUM, Brid. 

The species of the Genus Archidium are minute terrestrial 
plants having stems with branches short and erect or long and 

The leaves are narrowly or broadly lance- 
shaped ; with a vein ; the cells are loose and contain 
but little leaf-green. 

The spore-cases are terminal, sessile and 
globular, opening irregularly and 
transversely for the exit of the 
spores, which are few, smooth 
and larger than those of any other 

There are thirty-five species in 
all, five of them in North America. 
Their structure is more simple 
than that of most mosses; and 
for this reason Bridel gave it the generic name Archidium from 
the Greek apxt&on, a beginning. 
Archidium Ohiense, Schimp. 
Habit and habitat. Moist meadows and waste fields. 
Name. The specific name Ohiense refers to the fact that this 
moss was first found in Ohio. 

Plant (gametophyte). Minute; stems slender. 
Leaves. Narrowly lance-shaped, spreading; apex awl-like, 
finely toothed; vein extending into the apex of the leaf-blade. 


ense. Vertical 
section through 
sporophyte to 
show large spores, 
foot immersed in 
the upper part 
(vaginule) of the 

Archidium Ohiense. 
Exit of spores. 

The Primitive Mosses 

Leaves at the base of the spore-case (pericljcetical leaves). 
Broader and longer. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers in separate clus- 
ters on the same plant (autoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Very thin, irregularly torn below. 

Spore-case. Spherical, on short side branch. 

Pedicel. Very short. 

Lid (operculum). Wanting. 

Teeth (peristome). Wanting, 

Spores. Sixteen to twenty, angular, smooth, mature in fall 
and winter. 

Distribution. North America, Ohio and southward. 


Archidium Ohienst. 

Sporophyte. Spore- 
case with veil. 

Plant with spore-case 
Leaf. immersed in leaves. 

Astomum Stdlivantii. 

Genus ASTOMUM, Hampe 

The species of the Genus Astomum are minute, simple or 
branching plants, living in matted tufts on the ground. 

The leaves are lance-shaped, tufted and curling toward the 
apex of the stems. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The spore-cases are erect and symmetrical on a short pedicel 
and are immersed in the leaves. They have distinctly formed, 
beaked lids, which are not easily detached. There are no teeth. 

The generic name Astomum, from a, privative, without, and 
a-rofj.a, a mouth, was given because when first known this moss 
was supposed to have no lid. 

There are seventeen species in all. 



Upper leaves. 

Papillose leaf. Veil. 


Astomum Suilivantii. 

Astomum Suilivantii, Schimp. 

Habit and habitat. In fields and gardens, living from year to 

Name. The specific name Suilivantii was applied to this 
moss by Wilhelm Philipp Schimper, in honour of William S. 
Sullivant, a noted bryologist. 
; Plant (gametophyte). Minute, simple, or branched. 

Leaves. The lower leaves small, narrowly oval; the upper 
narrowly lance-shaped, densely tufted, covered on the back with 
tiny projections papillosa; curled in various directions when dry; 
apex pointed ; margins rolled in ; vein round, extending beyond 
the apex of the leaf-blade (percurrenf). 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 


The Primitive Mosses 

Veil (calyptrd). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Bright orange, symmetrical. 

Pedicel (seta). Shorter than the spore-case. 

Lid (operculum}. Short, conical. 

Teetb (peristome). None. 

Spores. Bright, rusty brown, mature in autumn. 

Distribution. North America. 


The species of the Genus Gymnostomum are found in 
matted tufts on the ground and on limestone walls and rocks. 

The plants have slender stems branching 
twice or many times to form clusters, with 
terminal erect spore-cases, cylindrical or globose, 
exserted on erect pedicels. 

The leaves are small, generally larger upwards 
and tufted at the apex of the stem ; they are 
lance-shaped with a solid vein prominent on 
the back. 

The lid is long-beaked and falls to permit the 
escape of the spores. There are no teeth, a 
character which suggests the generic 
name, from the Greek 71/^1/0?, naked, 
and (TTOfj,a, a mouth. 

There are fifty-five species in all, 
eight of them known in North America. 

Gymnostomum calcareum, 
Nees & Hornsch. 

Habit and habitat. Densely tufted, 
bright-green above, rusty below ; on 
shaded limestone rocks. 

Name. From calcarius, pertaining 
to lime, a name suggested by the 
plant's habit of depositing lime. 

Plants (gametophyte) . Stems 1 to 
| of an inch long, covered with root- 

. Leaf and 

IclS. cross -section 

Leaves. The lower very small, t show 

11 . . prominent 

gradually or abruptly larger upward ; ve in. 

slender lance-shaped ; apex blunt ; Gymnostomum cakargum. 

Mosses and Lichens 

vein extending to near the apex ; margin minutely blunt-toothed. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Exserted, oblong, yellow-brown, slightly con- 
stricted under the mouth when dry. 


with veil. 
Gymnostomum cakareum 


Pedicel. to f of an inch long. 

Lid (operculum). Base conical ; beak awl-like. 

Teeth (peristome). None. 

Annulus. Short and persistent. 

Spores. Rare, mature in summer. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Gymnostomum curvirostrum, Hedw. 

Habit and habitat. This moss is found on limestone rocks 
and on deposits of carbonate of lime about springs 
and streams. The plants obtain the carbonic acid 
gas (CO 2 ) which they need, from bicarbonate of 
lime which is dissolved in the surrounding water. 
By decomposition of the bicarbonate of lime [H a 
Ca (CO 3 ) a ], which is soluble in water, the mono- 
carbonate of lime (Ca CO 3 ), which is insoluble in 
water is precipitated in the form of incrustations 
upon the leaves and stems of the moss, so that 
in time a very appreciable deposit of limestone 
is made.* 

Name. From the Latin curvus, curved, and rostrum, a beak. 

G. curvirostrum. 
with long beak. 

*See page 17. 


The Primitive Mosses 

Plants (gametopbyte) . Dark red or brown, matted, stems % to 
5 inches long ; branches of equal height, in close clusters, covered 
with a felt of red radicles. 

Leaves. Spreading, slightly incurved when dry, pointed, 
lance-shaped, keeled, smooth, or with tiny projections ; base 
transparent ; margin entire or slightly serrate and recurved above 
the base ; vein vanishing below the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case . E gg- 
shaped, oblong, or nearly 
spherical, thick-walled, 
chestnut colour, shining, 
top-shaped when dry and 

Pedicel I to f of an 
inch long. 

! Lid (operculum). With 
a long oblique beak, at base attached to a central column (coin- 
melld) in the spore-case, by which it is held long after it has 
split away from the rim. 

Annulus. Two rows of persistent cells. 

Spores. Mature in late summer. 

Distribution. Common in North America, Europe, and Asia. 
Very abundant in Niagara Falls. 

Genus WEISIA, Hedw. 

The species of this genus are small and 
slender, growing in tufts or cushions on the 
ground. The leaves are lance-shaped and 
twisted when dry, the apex is awl-like and 
the vein single. 


Spore-case with lid lif- 
with lid. ted. 
G. curvirostrum. 


Portion of peristome. 
Weisia viridula. 



Mosses and Lichens 

The spore-case is erect, oval-oblong, symmetrical or rarely 
incurved on an erect exserted pedicel. There is but one row of 
sixteen teeth, often imperfect or wanting, granular and trans- 
versely barred. 

The generic name Weisia was given in honour of Frederigo 
Wilhelm Weiss, a German professor of botany. 
About twenty-four species are known in all. 

Weisia viridula, Brid. 
Habit and habitat. Common, 
forming more or less compact cush- 
ions on the ground in meadows, 
broken fields, borders of ditches 
and grassy roadsides, where it is 
conspicuous for its bright green 
colour. Very variable. 

Name. The specific name viri- 
dula is the Latin diminutive of 
viridis, green. 

Plants (gametopbyte). Stems 
about \ of an inch long, simple or 

Lid in veil. 
Weisia viridula. 

with veil. 

Leaves. The lower minute ; the upper much larger, narrowly 
lance-shaped and curled when dry; base enlarged, pale, concave; 
vein (costa) stout and extending beyond the apex into a short 
sharp point ; margin inrolled in the upper part to form a tube, 
flat toward the base ; cells opaque, dot-like, with tiny pro- 
jecting points. 


The Primitive Mosses 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Smooth, split on one side and reaching to 
the middle of the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Light-brown, oval, 
oblong, of thick texture, slightly con- 
stricted under the mouth, wrinkled 
lengthwise when dry. 

Dry spore-case. 

Top of spore-case 
with peristome. 

Portion of peristome. 

Weisia viridula. 

Pedicel (seta).-^ to of an inch long and twisted to the right. 

Lid (operculum). Beak, long, straight or bent obliquely. 

Teeth (peristome). Orange-red, variable, slender or broad, 
often ending abruptly (truncate) or split into two parts with 
2 to 5 cross bars, sometimes rudimentary. 

Annulus. Narrow, persistent. 

Spores. Mature from March to May. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Genus TREMATODON, Michx. 

The species of the Genus Tremato- 
don are short plants, sparingly branched 
and forming pale-green or dusky-brown 
tufts on the ground. The leaves are 
lance-shaped, tapering toward the apex; 
a vein is present, and the cells are large 
and long-hexagonal. The spore-cases 
are oblong, slightly arched with a long 
neck (coUum) once or twice as long as 
the spore-case. They have long-beaked 
lids with conical bases and are raised on 
slender pedicels % to i inches long. A 
simple or compound annulus is present and a single row of 
sixteen red-brown narrowly lance-shaped teeth cleft to near the 
base into two unequal forks. 


r ambiguum Portionof 

Mosses and Lichens 

The generic name, compounded of two Greek words: 
a perforation, and 6So>v, a tooth, was suggested by the character 
of the teeth of one species, Trematodon ambiguum, which often 
have a cleft or perforation running lengthwise of each tooth. 


T. ambiguum. 


The Primitive Mosses 

There are sixty-four species in all, two in the United States. 

Trematodon ambiguum, Hornsch. 

Habit and habitat. Wet sandy places on hills ; in peat-bogs, 
ditches, etc., of Alpine regions. 

Name. The specific name ambiguum, doubtful, was given to 
this species at the time it was classified in the genus Dicranum 
(1792) and expressed the doubt as to its rightful position, which 
was determined in 1803. 

Plants (gametophyte) . Short, | to I inch long. 

Leaves. Open, lance-shaped, channelled ; apex long and 
slender ; base concave, oval-oblong ; margins entire, inrolled ; 
vein extending beyond the leaf-blade (excurrent). 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel. Large, oblong, 
with a short tapering point. Perichaetial leaves. 

Plant stripped of 
leaves to show two 
male and one fe- 
male cluster. 


Spore-case with 

veil. Lid. 

T. anibiguum. 

Vertical section of peristome 
showing two cells of the annulus 
at the base of a single tooth. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers in different places 
on the same plant (autoicous) ; male flowers terminal on a basal 
branch, bracts small, taper-pointed. 

Veil (calyptra). Translucent, slit on one side (cucullate). 

Spore-case. Oblong, straw-coloured or orange-brown ; in 
length equal to or shorter than the slightly arched neck (collum) 
which is swollen on one side at the base. 

Pedicel (seta) .Long, twisted, to i inches long, straw- 

Lid (operculum). Conical at the base; beak, long and oblique. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Teeth (peristome}. Cleft to near the base or in the middle 
only; segments sometimes irregularly torn. 

Annulus. Large, rolling 
back when mature. 

Spores. Mature in July and 

Trematodon longicollis, 

Trematodon longicollis, the 
long-necked Trematodon, may be 
distinguished from Trematodon 
ambiguum by the neck, which is 
twice as long as the spore-case, 
by the shorter plants, and by 
the slender character of the teeth 
and the leaves at the base of 
the pedicel. The specific name 
longicollis is compounded of two 
Latin roots, longum, long, and 
collum, a neck. 

T. ambiguum. (a) and (b) old spore- 
cases; (c) mature spore-case; (d) young 

Genus DICRANELLA, Schimp. 

The species of this genus are generally small with slightly 
branching stems. The leaves are very long and narrow from a 
broader often clasping base and are never curled, but spread on 
all sides or turn in one direction. Usually they are smooth with 
the margins plane and the vein broad. 

The spore-cases are erect or inclined, symmetrical or un- 
equal on yellow or red pedicels. They have lids with long 
awl-like points. 

The peristome consists of sixteen large teeth, two-cleft to 
about the middle, closely cross-barred and marked with fine 
parallel bars running lengthwise. 

There are one hundred and twelve species in all, thirty-two 
known in North America. 

The generic name Dicranella, is the diminutive of Dicranum, 
from Sfapavos, a fork. 



Dicranella heteromalla, Schimp. 

Habit and habitat. Forming silky, green 
tufts of moderate size on rocks, clay banks, naked 
soil and roots of trees. 

Name. The specific name heteromalla is de- 
rived from the Greek ere/ao'/iaXXo?, having hair 
only on one side, referring to the habit the 
leaves have of turning to one side. 

Plants (gametophyte) . Stems simple or fork- 
ing, % to 2 inches high. 

Leaves. Glossy, crowded, turned to one 
side, lance-shaped from the base; apex slender, 
awl-shaped, toothed or entire. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perich&tial 
leaves). Abruptly and narrowly awl-shaped from 
a half-clasping base. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers 
on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptrd). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Egg-shaped or oblong with the 
summit inclined. The base tapers to form a 
short neck (collum) and is slightly constricted 
under the mouth. Plaited when dry. 

Pedicel. Slender and pale yellow, 
to i inch long. 

D. htteromaUa. Leaves. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Lid (operculum). Long-beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). Showy, red, two- or three-forked to the 

Annulus. Simple, very narrow. 

Spares. Mature from November to February. 

Distribution. North America, Europe and Asia. 

a e d e f 

D.heteromalla. (a) Spore-case with veil; (b) veil; (c) and (d) spore-cases with lid; () spore- 
case with peristome; (f) portion of peristome. 

Genus DICRANUM, Hedw. 

The species of this genus are universally distributed, and 
include some of our most easily recognised mosses. They 

usually grow in dense tufts or 
cushions on the ground or on 
old decaying logs or even on 
rocks. About two hundred and 
thirty-four species are known in 
all ; about sixty-three are found 
in North America, six of these 
within the limits of New York 
City. Their showy dark-green 
or glossy yellow-green cushions 
are often conspicuous in damp 
shady places and consist of 
numerous more or less erect and 
forking stems, often crowded 
together and covered with a felt of reddish hairs at least below, 
with lance-shaped often curved leaves above that spread all 
about the stem or turn to one side. 


Tuft of Dicranum scoparium 



Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Page & Company 


" The moss upon the forest bark 
Was polestar when the night was dark " 


The leaves have a slender apex with a vein usually broad and 
extending into the apex. The character of the vein and the cell- 
structure are relied upon for perfect classification of the species. 
The cells vary from short to linear oblong in the upper part of th e 
leaf, to long and narrow in the lower part ; four-sided, inflated, 
orange or brown, in the angles of the base. The leaves at the 
base of the pedicel are sheathing and abruptly pointed. The 
spore-cases are erect or turned to one side, the base, which is 
often swollen so as to be unsymmetrical, tapers to an erect 
pedicel, long and smooth. An annulus 
is generally present. The lid is conical 
with a long beak. The perisiome is sin- 
gle, of sixteen teeth, two-cleft to the 
middle and red-brown at the base. 

D. scoparium. 
Perichaet ial 

D. subidatum. 

D. congestum. 

D.scoparium. Leaf. 

The name of the genus is derived from a Greek word. 
o?, a flesh-hook or fork, from a supposed resemblance of 
its teeth to that instrument. The American Indians call Fork- 
mosses "Women's heads," "because when you trample them 
under foot they spring right up again." 

Although at first glance the Dicranums appear to have their 
spore-cases on the sides of the plants, they truly belong to the 
group of mosses which bears them on the summits of the 
stems (acrocarpi) and not to the group which bears them on 
the sides of the stems (pleurocarpi), for a closer examination 
shows that a side stem grows on after the spore-case has 


Mosses and Lichens 

begun to develop, leaving the spore-case and pedicel behind 
on the apex of the main stem. The felt of hairs on the 
stems serves as a sponge through which water may creep to 
the upper parts of the plants. 

" How glorious are the summer woods, 
Where the bright Broom Fork-moss grows, 
With their gush of love-born melody, 
And their world of verdant boughs." 

Perforated Portion of leaf to show 
leaf -cells. basal leaf -cells. 

D. scopariutn. 

D. undulatum. 

Whip Fork-Moss, Dicranum flagellare, Hedw. See Plate 

Habit and habitat. Growing in bright green, dense tufts 
producing fragile, small-leaved branches (flagelke) in the axils of 
the upper leaves. Common on decayed trunks in deep woods. 

Name. The specific name flagellum, the Latin for "whip," 
refers to the young branches, which are so small as to be easily 
overlooked. They fall away as the plant dries. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Repeatedly branching ; stems I to 2 
inches high ; covered with a thick felt of hairs. 

Leaves. Forming little clusters on the summits of the stems ; 
lance-shaped, convolute ; apex toothed, turned back from the 
stem, the upper twisted when dry ; margin below entire, 
incurved ; vein broad, compressed, extending to the apex ; 
cells inflated at the basal angles, yellow-brown, four-sided. The 
leaves of the "whips" have no vein. 

Leaves at tie base of the pedicel (pericbcetial leaves). Rolled 
about the pedicel. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 



Veil (calyptra). Split on one side. 

Spore-case. Erect symmetrical, long, cylindrical, grouped 
lengthwise when dry. 

Pedicel (seta). Pale, twisted to the left when dry. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, with long 
oblique beak. 

Annulus. Narrow. 

Teeth (peristome). Sixteen, narrow, cleft 
nearly to the base. 

Spores. Mature in autumn. 

Distribution. North America, Asia, 
Africa ; rare in Great Britain. 

Spore-case with lid. 

Old spore-case 
Basal leaf -cells. with teeth. 

D. flagellare. 


The Broom-moss, Dicranum scoparium, Hedw. See Plate 

Habit and habitat. The Broom-moss, Dicranum scoparium, 
is a conspicuous species. It commonly grows in the woods 
forming large and symmetrical cushions on the ground, although 
it may extend in large patches over decaying stumps and logs or 
on the ground where there is a rich vegetable mould. The long- 


Mosses and Lichens 

beaked spore-cases, tilted on one side, commonly point one way, 
and the leaves also are all turned to one side pointing in the 
same direction as the beaks. Children fancy they resemble duck 
heads and see in them flocks travelling toward the water. Some 
call them soldiers and sing "The troops of Dicranum are tilting 
their lances." 

Name. The specific name scoparium, the Latin for "broom," 
is suggested by the resemblance of the plants to small counter- 

D. scoparium. Leaves. 

D. scoparium. Sections of vein toward 
apex of leaf. 

Plant (gametopbyte) . Large ; stems 2 to 5 inches high in 
loose yellow, rarely green, tufts, covered with rootlets to the 
newest growth, forking once or twice. 

Leaves. Glossy, turned to one side, or scythe-shaped, rarely 
erect, crowded at the tops of the stems ; apex awl-shaped ; base 
lance-shaped ; vein compressed, with four-toothed ridges on the 
back toward the apex ; margin sharply serrate and wavy toward 
the apex ; cells perforated, elongated in the upper part, narrow 
and worm-like toward the base, large, four-sided and orange- 
coloured at the angles. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (periclcelial leaves) . Sheathing 
at the base. 



Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on different 
plants (dioicous}. 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, smooth, beaked and split 
up one side. 

Spore-case. Long, with summit somewhat in- 
clined, rarely erect, cylindrical, somewhat incurved, 
arched and grooved when dry. 

Pedicel (seta). Solitary, golden-yellow. 

Lid (operculum). Conical at the base, gradually 
narrowed into a strong beak, reddish, and as long 
as the spore-case. 

Teeth (peristome) . Sixteen, dark-red, cleft to the 

Annulus. None. 

Spores. Mature in summer. 

Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia. 



leaf cells 

Tuft of D. scoparium. 

Basal leaf -cells. 
D. scoparium. 

Genus FISSIDENS, Hedw. 

The species of this genus are metallic green, plume-like, 
simple or sparingly branched, growing in mats upon shady 
wet banks and rocks ; sometimes on tree-trunks, and sometimes 
floating in water. 

The leaves grow in two opposite rows (distichous), and are 
double below as if folded together, they are winged along the 


Mosses and Lichens 

back and expanded toward the apex into a vertical simple blade; 
the vein extends to or beyond the apex ; the cells are small and 
filled with leaf-green. 

The spore-cases are erect, horizontal or pendent, always 
smooth and terminal, unless they have been thrust to one side 
by the growth of a branch at the base of the pedicel. 

Leaf with double- 
base lid. 

Portion of peristome. 

The apex of the main stem is 
at the base of the pedicel ; a side 
branch on the right has grown 
on beyond the main stem. 

Cross sections 

of leaf. 
F. adiantoides. 

Spore-case with veil. 

The peristome is single with sixteen teeth, red at the base and 
cleft at the apex, a character which has suggested the generic 
name from the Latin fissus, split, and dens, a tooth. When dry 
the teeth are incurved. The annulus consists of from one to 
four rows of large cells. 


Fork- Mosses 

Five hundred and seventy-eight species are known in 'all, 
seventy-four in North America. The genus is represented 
throughout all the tropical and temperate regions of the world. 
It is probably to this pretty moss that Mungo Park, the African 
traveller, referred when he wrote the lines : 

" Sad, faint and weary, on the sand 
Our traveller sat him down ; his hand 
Oover'd his burning head. 
Above, beneath, behind, around, 
No resting for the eye he found ; 
All nature seemed as dead. 
One tiny tuft of moss alone, 
Mantling with freshest green a stone, 
Fix'd his delighted gaze ; 
Through bursting tears of joy he smiled, 
And while he raised the tendril wild, 
His lips o'erflowed with praise. 
Oh ! shall not He who keeps thee green, 
Here in the waste, unknown, unseen, 
Thy fellow-exile save ? 
He who commands the dew to feed 
Thy gentle flower, can surely lead 
Me from a scorching grave. 
Thy tender stalks, and fibres fine, 
Here find a shelter from the storm ; 
Perhaps no human eye but mine 
Ere gazed upon thy lovely form. 
He that form'd thee, little plant, 
And bade thee flourish in this place, 
Who sees and knows my every want, 
Can still support me with His grace.' 


Cross section of 

Stem to show distichous 

F. taxifolium. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Fissidens adiantoides, Hedw. 

Habit and habitat. In bright or dark-green mats on moist 
shady ground, wet rocks and roots of trees. Varying according 
to locality. 

Name. The specific name is compounded of aSiavros, maiden- 
hair, and the suffix olB, like, referring to the habit the leaves of the 
maidenhair have of shedding water, aSiairo?, being compounded 
of a, without, and Statvw, wet. 

Plant (gametophyte) . Stems I to 5 inches long ; branches 
growing from the apex or base of 
the stem, with root-like fibres at 
their base. 

Portion of peristome. 

Empty spore-case. 
F. adiantoides. 

Stem with male flower- 
cluster at the base and 
female cluster above on 
the right. 

Leaves. Numerous, close, overlapping like shingles, linear- 
oblong, clasping at the base ; apex taper-pointed and tipped with 
a short point continuous with the vein, the wing long and con- 
tinuous ; margins transparent, irregularly and minutely serrate. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on different parts 
of the same plants (autoicous)] male flower-clusters small, 
axillary, bud-like. 

Veil (calyptrd). Split on one side. 

Spore-case. Oval, red-brown, much constricted under the 
orifice when empty. 

Pedice. Red, % to I inch long, appearing as if attached to the 
side- of the stem. 


White Mosses 

Lid (operculum). Conical, with a long beak. 
Teeth (peristome). Red, sixteen, each cleft into two slender 
segments with numerous cross-bars; inclined when dry. 
Annulus. One or two rows of large cells. 
Spores. Mature in December. 
Distribution. Universal. 


Genus LEUCOBRYUM, Hampe 

The white mosses are found in conspicuous greenish-white 
cushions about the roots of trees, in woods and on the borders 

of swamps. The moist 
cushions are soft and 
spongy and decidedly 
greener than the dry, which 
are so brittle that they can 
be readily crumbled to 
dust; and so colourless that 
they lead one to think they 
are parasitic or sapro- 
phytic plants. The change 
from brittle to soft is due 
to large cells in the leaves 
being filled alternately with water and air. 

The pale colour is due to the fact that the cells which contain 
leaf-green and active cell-contents are relatively small and are 
hidden between transparent cells many times as great. This 
arrangement of the cells is a contrivance for protecting the 

Leucobryum vulgare. Cross-section of leaf. 


Mosses and Lichens 

delicate leaf-green bearing cells from the fierce heat of the sun, 
and for providing a means by which water may be quickly trans- 
ferred to all parts of the plants. 



Leucobryum vulgare. Model to show structure. 

The walls of these large colourless cells are very thin and are 
punctured with small holes which communicate with the holes 
of adjacent cells, so that the moment the plants are moistened, 
the cells fill with water by capillary attraction. The large cells 
when filled with water serve as reservoirs to the adjacent small 
cells, making it possible for the leaf-green to do its work of 
assimilating plant food. The greater transparency of the water- 
filled cells makes the leaf-green of the small 
cells more apparent from the exterior and gives 
the plants their deeper hue, when wet. 

Dry spore- 
Empty case to show 
spore-case, swollen base. 


Leucobryum vulgare. 



White Mosses 

The name Leucobryum, from the Greek Xev*o<?, white, and 
fipvov, a moss, was suggested by the pallid colour. 

The leaves are lance-shaped with 
an awl-like apex and a vein occupy- 
ing the width of the leaf with the 
exception of a few rows of cells on 
each side. 

The spore-cases are exserted on 
long pedicels, they are erect or have 
the summit somewhat inclined, and 
the base more or less swollen on 
one side. When dry the wall is 
grooved lengthwise. 

The lids have an awl-like beak 
and the teeth are two-parted and 
purple at the base. 

The genus is universal, with 
seventy-four species in all, nine 
of them being known in North 

America L. glaucttm. Portion of peristome. 

Common White Moss, Leucobryum vulgare, Hampe. 

Habit and habitat. Conspicuous in white cushions about the 
roots of trees in woods and on the borders of swamps. It is 
not uncommon to find on the terminal leaves of female plants 

a b 

(a) Young plant. (6) Terminal 

Leucobryum vulgare. 

minute tufts of root-like hairs developing a cluster of young 
plants, which may fall to the ground and form a new colony. 
Name. From the Latin, vulgaris, common. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Plant (gametophyte). Whitish ; stems 2 to 8 inches high, 
two-forked with the primary branches of equal height and the 
secondary in clusters (fastigiate). 

Leaves. Half-clasping at the base, lance-shaped, and tubular 
from the middle upward ; vein occupying most of the leaf blade ; 
apex acute or obtuse with a short, sharp point. 

Female pknt. 

Male plant. 
Leucobryum vulgare. 


Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate plants 
(diofcous). The male plants in distinct tufts, and more slender, 
with the flower-clusters terminal, in a rosette of six oval bracts. 

Veil (calyptra). Large, white. 

Spore-case. Oblong-egg-shaped, chestnut colour, black when 
old, slightly wrinkled lengthwise when dry. The base (collum) 
distinctly swollen on one side. 


White Mosses 

Pedicel (seta). Dark-brown, twisted to the left when dry ; 
i to | of an inch long. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, long-beaked, oblique. 

Annulus. None. 

Teeth (peristome'). Sixteen, lance-shaped, red at the base, 
cleft to below the middle into two unequal forks. 

Spores. Mature in winter or early spring. 

Distribution. Common all over the 
world, except in Asia. 



Leucobryum vulgore. 

Portion of peristome. 


The Genus Octoblepharum very much resembles the genus 
Leucdbryum, the principal difference being that the genus Octoble- 
pharum has but eight teeth instead of sixteen. This characteristic 
gives it its name from the Greek OKTW, eight, and fi\e<j>dpov, eye- 

There are fifteen species in all, eight of them in North America. 

The Eight-toothed White Moss, Octoblepharum albidum, 

Habit and habitat. In small white cushions on bark and on 
shady rocks. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Name. The specific name albidum, white, refers to the 
colour of the leaves. 

Plant (gametopbyte) . Spongy, soft when wet, brittle and 
white when dry. 

Leaves. Close, thick, composed, except on the borders, of 
two or three superimposed layers of large porous cells without 
leaf-green, these separated by a layer of simple, narrow cells 
containing leaf-green. 

Veil (calyptrd). Large, split on one side. 

Spare-case. Erect. 

Pedicel (seta) .Short. 

Ltd (operculum). Plane at the base with 
an oblique and awl-shaped beak. 

Natural size. 

Spore-case with 
eight teeth. 


O. albidum. 

Teeth (peristome). Eight, short, broadly lance-shaped, pale- 
yellow and transparent. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Common in the warmer parts of the world 
except Europe. 

Genus CERATODON, Brid. 

The species of this genus are small erect plants growing in 
bright or dark-green cushions on soil or in the crevices of rocks. 

The leaves are lance-shaped and keeled, with entire or toothed 
margins, and a vein extending to or beyond the apex. 

1 66 

The Horn-tooth Mosses 

The mature spore-cases are long-egg-shaped, erect or slightly 
arched, with a short neck. They are dark or pale-red with wine- 
red or yellow pedicels, and short-beaked, conical lids, becoming 
deeply furrowed, inclined, and contracted below the mouth 
when old. 



C. purpureum. 

There is but one row of teeth, each tooth being cleft into two 
equal and strongly jointed segments, which suggest the generic 
name Ceratodon, a compound of two Greek words, fcepa<;, Keparo?, 
a horn, and 6Sa>v, a tooth. The two characteristics by which one 
may feel sure that his 
moss is a horn-tooth, 
are the cleft teeth and 
the shape and groov- 
ing of the spore-cases. 

There are eighteen 
species in all, one 
common in North 

The Purple 
Horn-tooth Moss, 
Ceratodon purpureum, 
Brid. See Colour 
Plate IV. 

Habit and "habitat. Look for the Purple Horn-tooth Moss on 
rocky ledges in open sunny places of the woods, in pastures and 
along roadsides, and in vacant city lots. Bright-green cushions 
of this moss may be found in depressions of the rocks during 


C ' 

Mosses and Lichens 

February and March. At this time the pedicels are often numer- 
ous and well-grown and their wine-red colour makes the moss 
conspicuous even while the spore-cases themselves thus early in 
the season are but little larger in diameter than the pedicels and 
are concealed by their veils. With the 
approach of warmer weather they mature 
rapidly still carrying their transparent veils. 
These are discarded before a great while 
and then the spore-cases and their conical 
short-beaked lids are glossy and wine-red. 
Later the lids fall, exposing a fringe of horn- 
like teeth about the rim. The spore- 
cases finally become deeply furrowed, 
inclined, and contracted below the 
mouth and in this condition may be 
found during most of the year. 

Name. The specific name pur- 
pureum is the Latin for "purple," It 
refers to the colour of the spore-cases 
and pedicels. 

Plant (gametophyte). 
Slender, erect, branch- 
ing from the base of the 
pedicels ; stems to 3 
inches long. 

Leaves. Lance- 
shaped, keeled ; vein ex- 
tending to or beyond the 
apex ; margin somewhat 
irregularly toothed re- 
flexed, opaque ; surface 
with slight protuber- 
ances; cells distinct. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on 
separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Smooth, transparent, split on 
one side. 

Spore-case. Long, egg-shaped with a short neck, dark-red, 
erect, somewhat arched ; four- or five-angled and deeply 
furrowed when dry. 


C. purpureum. 

C. purpureum. 

The Horn-tooth Mosses 

Pedicel. Slender, wine-red, erect. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, short-beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). Purple, each split into two equal, strongly 
cross-barred segments, with tiny projections toward the apex. 

Annulus. Large, rolling back as the lid falls. 

Spores. Mature in early spring, when they are ousted by the 
shrinking of the wall tissue. 



Spore-case with 

Spore-case. Annulus. 

C. purpure-um. 

Distribution. Almost universal. 

Variety Xanthopous. Greek fayflo's, yellow, and 77-01)9, a foot; 
has a pale-yellow pedicel. 

Variety Aristatus. Latin "awned"; has the spore-case and 
pedicel pale and the mid-vein of the leaf extending beyond the 
apex of the leaf blade. 

Variety Minor. Latin "smaller"; is said to have narrower 
teeth jointed only from the middle downward. 

Genus POTTIA, Ehrh. 

The species of this genus are small and grow in tufts or 
cushions on the ground or in crevices of rocks. The stems are 
simple or sparingly branched from the base. The 
leaves are oval to oblong and obovate, soft, opaque, 
smooth or covered with tiny projections; 
the apex is usually taper-pointed, or 
hair-pointed ; the base transparent ; the 
vein round in section. 

The cylindrical to obovate spore-case 
nas sometimes a very short pedicel and 


P. truncate. Leaves. 

Mosses and Lichens 

sometimes a long one. The peristome may have imperfect 
teeth or none or sixteen tiny flat ones. 

There are about eighty-three species in all, fourteen in North 

The genus was named for Professor D. F. Pott, 
a German botanist. 

Pottia truncata, Fuern., 1. c. 
Habit and babitat. Common in loose brighb-green 
tufts in fields and gardens and along hedge-rows. 
Name. The specific name is the Latin truncata, 
cut off squarely, and refers to the abrupt 
summit of the spore-case which appears as 
if it had been sliced off. 

Plant (gametopbyte'). Small, J of an inch 
high and simple, or longer and branching. 

Leaves. Long-oval with the narrow end 
attached to the stem, concave, smooth ; 
apex taper-pointed, tipped with a sharp 
point ; margin flat ; vein extending below 
or beyond the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split on one side, smooth. 
Spore-case. Egg-shaped, broad end up (truncate). 
Pedicel. Short, red. 

P. truncata. 

Spore-cases with 



Spore -cases. 
P. truncata. 

with Jifted 

Lid (operculum). Plano-convex with an oblique beak, falling 
with the columella attached. 
Teeth (peristome). None. 
Spores. Brown, mature in fall and winter. 
Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia. 


The Ditrichum Mosses 

Ditrichum pallidum. (a) cells 
from annulus ; (6) annulus ; (c) 
portion of peristome. 

Genus DITRICHUM, Timm, (1788) 

LEPTOTRICHUM, Hampe, (1842) 

The species of this genus are smooth and glossy plants 
growing in pale yellow-green tufts on soil or on rocks. The 

plants are dwarf, or tall and slender 
with lance-shaped, long- pointed 
leaves, and oval or cylindrical, erect 
spore-cases on long and straight, 
rarely flexuous, pedicels. 

The peristome has a compound 
annulus, and a single row of purple 
teeth cleft to the base into two slender, 
cross-barred segments, which have 
suggested the name of the genus. 

The generic name Leptotricbum, 
used by some for the genus, from 
Xe7TT09, narrow, and 0plg, T/J^W, a 
hair, has been shown by Hampe to be 
untenable, having previously been 
given to a genus of fungi. It has been 
replaced by Ditrichum, from 845, two, and 6pl%, T/W^W, a hair. 
This name has also the right of priority, 

There are seventy-two species in all, seventeen in North 

Ditrichum pallidum, Leptotricbum pdllidum, Hampe, 1. c. 
See Colour Plate XIV. 

Habit and habitat. Common in loose tufts, pale or yellow- 
green, on bare sandy or clay-soil, in fields or by roadsides. 
Name. The specific name pallidum, pale, refers to the colour. 
Plant (gametopbyte). Slender, erect. 

Leaves. Open, erect, spreading or curved to one side, lance- 
shaped at base and prolonged to an awl-shaped apex ; vein 
extending beyond the apex and distinctly toothed. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same plant 
(monoicous) ; the male flower-clusters bud-like at the apex of 
the stem. 

Veil (calyptrd). Split up one side. 
Spore-case. Long, egg-shaped, brown. 
Pedicel. Bright yellow, I to 2 inches long. 
Lid (operculum). Conical, short-beaked. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Teeth (peristome) . Dark-red, each tooth divided into two 
unequal forks, free or united by the cross-bars. 
Annulus. Double. 

Spores. Very small, smooth, mature in early spring. 
Distribution. Nearly universal, but not found in Great Britain. 


Vein at Spore-case Spore-case 
apex. with veil, with lid. 
D. pallidum. 



and the 

Genus BARBULA, Hedw. 

species of this genus are found in tufts or cushions 

with rusty-brown, on stone walls, rocks, tree-trunks 


leaves usually much curled and twisted when dry are 

small, and gradually 
lance-shaped from an 
oval base, with a 
round vein vanishing 
below or rarely ex- 
tending beyond the 
apex ; the basal cells 
are small rectangular 
and transparent ; the 
upper are small, round 
or four-sided, often 

B. caspiiosa. Leaves. 

I 7 2 

The Little-beard Mosses 


B. coespitosa. 
Tip of spore- 
case to show 
twisted teeth. 

The spore-cases are egg-shaped or cylindrical on long pedi- 
cels, and have lids with either long or short beaks. The 
peristome consists of a very 
short membrane with sixteen 
short, straight, imperfect teeth, 
or of sixteen long teeth each cleft 
to the base into two long slender 
forks very much twisted. 

The generic name from barba, 
a beard, refers to the long twisted 
teeth of some species. 

There are in all three hundred 
and ninety-four species, nineteen being found 
in North America. 

The Claw-leaved 
Barbula, Barbula ungui- 
culata, Hedw. 

Habit and habitat. Com- 
mon and variable in soft 
bright or dirty-green tufts 
on damp black soil, along 
fences, on rocks, stones, etc. 
Name. The specific 
name unguiculata from the 
Latin unguis, a claw, refers 
to the sharp-pointed leaves. 
Plant (gametophyte). 
Variable, J to i inch high. 
Leaves. Narrowly ob- 
long, apex obtuse with an 
abrupt sharp point ; vein 
rough with tiny points and passing beyond the 
apex ; margin rolled back from the middle down- 
ward ; cells, the upper obscure, nearly square, 
the basal longer, small, narrow, transparent. 
Leaves at the base of the spore-case (perichatial 
leaves). Transparent to near the apex. 
Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate plants 
(dioicous) ; male plants more slender, flower-clusters terminal 
and bud-like, bracts broadly egg-shaped. 


B. caespitosa. 
Fertile plant. 

Barbula unguiculata. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Veil (calyptra). Narrow, long-beaked. 

Pedicel (seta). Brown-red or purple, variable in length. 

Spore-case. Oblong-elliptical or sub-cylindrical, regular or 

Lid (operculum). Conical, beak long, straight, or curved. 

Teeth (peristome). Long and slender, deep-red and twisted 
two or three times. 

Annulus. None. 

Spores. Mature in winter or spring. 

tion of leaf to 
show round 



with twisted 
teeth and 
twisted pedi- 

Spore-case with veil. 

B. unguiculata. 


Spore -case 
with veiL 

with lid. 




ROCK TRIPE, Umbilicaria Muhlenbergii, (Ach.) Tuckerm 

The Little -beard Mosses 

The Tufted Barbula, Barbula ccespitosa, Schwaegr. 

Habit and habitat. Common and variable, roots of trees in 
grassy places. 

Name. The specific name ccespitosa, from the Latin ccespes, 
turf, refers to the tufted manner of growth. 

B. ctespitosa. Leaves. 

B. ceespitosa. 

B. caspitosa. Spore-cases. 

Plant (gameiopkyte) . Loosely tufted, soft, variable in size. 

Leaves. Long and narrow, more or less wavy, curled or bent 
in various directions and with a very narrow wavy point when 
dry; apex bearing a short sharp point; vein strong, yellow, 
prolonged beyond the leaf-blade; cells, the basal loose and 
transparent, the upper green and indistinct. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 

Mosses and Lichens 

plant (monoicous) ; male flowers in axillary buds, with short pedi- 
cels and two or three leaves. 

Veil (calypira). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Red, thin, long, egg-shaped, more 
or less incurved. 

Pedicel. Long and slender, twisted when dry. 
Lid (operculum) . Conic, taper-pointed. 
Teeth (peristome). Basilar membrane none or 
scarcely visible; teeth very long, purple, twice or 
three times twisted. 
Annulus. None. 

Spores. Minute, greenish, translucent, smooth; 
mature in May and June and late summer. 
Distribution. Hills of the Southeastern States; also in Europe, 
Asia, Africa, South America 

B. unguicu- 
lata. Tip of 
spore-case with 
twisted teeth. 

Genus TORTULA, Hedw. 

The plants of this genus are variable in size with simple stems 
forming yellow-green tufts on walls, rocks, or rarely on trees. 

The leaves are oblong or spatulate and are covered with 
tiny protuberances. The apex is obtuse with the vein extending 

T. princeps. (a) Leaf, (b) Apex of leaf 
tip with transparent awn. 

beyond as a point or as a long transpar- 
ent hair. Toward the apex the cells are 
six-sided, opaque and filled with chloro- 
toward the base they are transparent 
and elongated. 

The spore-cases are erect, oblong or cylindrical and 
somewhat incurved on usually long pedicels. The 


T. princeps. 
Portion of 

phyll grains: 

T. ruralis. 
Tip of spore- 
case, (a) Bas- 
i lar m em - 
b r a n e . (b) 

The Tortula Mosses 

peristome is sometimes absent; when present, it consists of thirty- 
two thread-like teeth remotely cross-barred and covered with tiny 
protuberances. The teeth are either straight, incurved, or spirally 
twisted, all united at the base into a distinct tubular more or less 
elongated basal membrane. The spores are small and nearly 

The generic name Tortula, the diminutive of the Latin tortus, 
twisted, refers to the teeth. 
Tortula princeps, De Not. 

Habit and habitat. In tall, loose, red-brown tufts on rocks, 
walls, and sometimes trunks of trees. A fine moss, easily known 
by its interrupted stems and dense, 
broad, rust-coloured leaves. 

Name. The specific name prin- 
ceps, the Latin for "chief" refers to 
the striking character of the moss. 
It is described under the name of 
Barbula Muelleri, Bruch and 
Schimp., in Lesquereux & James 

Plant (gametophyte) . Stems re- 
peatedly interupted by new growths 
with root-like fibres at their bases. 
Leaves. Soft, dense, broad and 
rust-coloured in interrupted rosettes 
along the stem and at the summits 
of the branches ; apex obtuse ; margin 
rolled back to below the middle; 
vein red, extending beyond the apex 
in a slender transparent, faintly 
spiny hair-point; cells at the base 
loose, rectangular and transparent. 
Habit of flowering. Male and 
female organs in the same flower (synoicous). 
Veil (calyptra). Split on the side. 
Spore case. Cylindrical, brown, arched like a bow. 
Pedicel Red. 

Lid (operculum). Long and conical. 

Teeth (peristome}. The lower half tubular and pale, the 
teeth red. 


T, prince ps. 
with veiL 

T. princeps. 

T. princeps. 

Tip of 

Mosses and Lichens 

Annulus. Double. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Headquarters in the Mediterranean basin; 
rare in England, common in the western states of 
North America. 

Tortula ruralis. 

Tortula ruralis is much like the 
preceeding, but smaller, with flowers 
dioicous. It grows on thatched 
roofs or stony ground, in tall 
cushions I to 3 inches deep; bright 
green above and bright red- 
brown below. The awn at the apex of 
the leaf is strongly spiny, transparent 
above and often red at the base, some- 
times equalling the rest of the leaf. 
The spore cases are narrowly cylin- 
drical with a lid half as long and a 

T. ruralis. Tip , ,. , 

of spore-case, (a) StOUt red pedicel about 3tt inch long, 
basilar mem- T. ruralis. 

brane , (6) twisted Awn at the apex 

teeth. of the leaf. 

Genus GRIMMIA, Ehrh. 

The species of the Genus Grimmia sometimes form con- 
spicuous gray tufts, often hoary from the white hair-points which 
terminate the leaves; sometimes they form soft fragile patches on 
exposed rocks of higher mountain regions. The tufts vary in 
size from little dense cushions one-third of an inch high, to the 
mats of Gr. bypnoides, whose stems attain a length of eight inches. 

The dingy colour of their leaves, tipped with long or short 
white hairs is their most striking character. The chlorophyll is 
not only absent from the hair-point but often from the apex of the 
leaf-blade as well, thus adding to the grayish-white appear- 
ance of the tufts. The plants are usually short, with forked 
stems, crowded with lance-shaped leaves, frequently thick- 
ened along the margin, which is mostly entire; the vein is 
percurrent or extends into the transparent hair; the cells 
of the lower part are rectangular, of the upper part small, 
often obscure. 


The Grimmia Mosses 

The generic name was given in honour of J. F. C. Grimm, a 
German botanist, who was a physician of Gotha. 

The spore-cases are oval nd smooth, borne on arched or 
straight pedicels. The peristome consists of sixteen red, lance- 
shaped teeth, entire or cleft at the apex and often perforated below. 
There are about two hundred and forty species known at 
present, fifteen of them in North America. 
Grimmia apocarpa, Hedw. 

Habit and habitat. Loosely tufted to form olive-green or 
black tufts on rocks or stone walls or even on roofs. There are 
varieties which grow in streams. 

Name. The specific name apocarpa from airo, without and 
tcapTros, a fruit, was given by J. G. Hedwig, in 1787, to describe 
the hidden spore-case. 

Plant (gametophyte). Robust, the stems one inch 
long, branching in pairs, free from root-like fibres. 

Leaves. Lance-shaped, open when moist, erect 
when dry; apex sometimes slightly toothed, the upper 
leaves usually prolonged into a short, rough hair about 
one-quarter as long as the leaf; the base is concave, 
becoming keeled upward; margin recurved; the vein 
continued into the transparent hair, or vanishing below 
the apex ; cells, the basal rectangular, then narrow, the 
upper rounded. 

Leaves at the base of iloe -pedicel (pericbcetial leaves'). 
Broader, thinner; vein narrow; apex with or without short 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate part 
of the same plant (autoicous); male flower-clusters bud-like. 

Veil (calyptra).Very small, not reaching 
below the lid, lobed at the base. 

Spore-case. Egg-shaped, almost concealed 
in the leaves at the base, red. 
Pedicel. Very short. 

G.apocarpa. ^id (o^fCM/WW). Bdght-red, tipped With 

Spore - case . 

with lid. a sharp point ; columella attached to the lid 
and falling with it. 

Annulus. None. 

Teeth (peristome'). Arising below the mouth, large, purple- 
red, entire or perforated, spreading when dry. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Spores. Mature in winter. 
Distribution. Universal. 

R. lanugino- 



The species of the Genus Racomitrium are usually of large 
size, with stems branching in pairs, the branches simple and all 

reaching the same height, 
or unequal, in lateral clus- 
ters. They are widely and 
loosely tufted on rocks in 
mountainous regions. 
Many of the species resem- 
ble the Hypnum mosses on 
account of their long pros- num. veil, 
trate stems, their numerous short 
branches, and their apparently lateral 
spore-cases. . 

The name is from the 
Greek pd/cos, a shred, and 
fiirptov, a veil, referring to 
the torn base of the veil. 

The leaves are not tufted 

Racomitrium lanuginosum. at the tOp Of the Stems but 

are close, nearly equal, long, lance-shaped, concave 
and channelled, with an apex blunt or ending in a fine 
point or hair; the margin is recurved; 
the cells are usually obscure, rounded 
or four-sided in the upper part, and 
long and narrow in the lower part. 

The spore-cases are oblong cylin- 
drical, narrowed at the orifice and 
usually erect on erect pedicels. The R.\ 
lids are small and more or less beaked v * rticalse f ion 

o i penstome 

and the peristome consists of a single with two ceils 
row of sixteen long teeth cleft two or ( ^ * nnulu * 

Portion ot peris- , .... at the base of 

tome. three times to below the middle, or one tooth. 

divided into two thread-like, knotty, nearly equal segments, 


The Torn-veil Mosses 

erect when dry, rarely spreading. The annulus is compound, 
rolling back when the lid falls. 

Eighty-one species are known at present, twenty in North 
America. They are mostly distinguished from the species 
of the genus Grimmia by the peculiar narrow and wavy cell- 
structure of the leaf-base in conjunction with their habit of 

The Woolly Torn-veil Moss, Racomitrium lanuginosum, 

Habit and habitat. Common on the tops of walls and on 
rocks in mountainous regions. The thick grayish-white tufts 
extending in wide patches. 

Spore-case with lid. 

with veil. 

R. lanuginosum. 

R. lanuginosum. 
Apex of leaf. 

R, lanuginosum. Leaf. 

Name. The specific name lanuginosum, woolly, was applied 
by Bridel to describe the white appearance due to the transparent 
tips of the leaves. 

Plant (gametopbyte) . Long and slender, stems I to 12 
inches long, prostrate, branches in pairs, the side branches 

Leaves. Close, long-spreading, erect or recurved narrowly 
lance-shaped, bent to one side toward the apex; apex tapering to 
a white transparent hair-point often longer than the leaf-blade; 


Mosses and Lichens 

vein narrow ; margin from the middle upward a pellucid mem- 
brane bearing tiny protuberances, and bordered with hair-like 
teeth, wavy when dry; cells, those of the 
margin very small, dot-like; those of the 
leaf-blade narrow. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil. Resembling a bishop's mitre, 
long-beaked, rough at the apex only. 

Spore-cases. Oblong, egg-shaped, pale- 
brown, finally darker. 

Pedicel. Short, to ^ of an inch long 
on a lateral branchlet. 

Lid (operculum). Tapering from a con- 
ical base. 

Teeth (peristome). Long, cleft into two 
forks ; orange-red. 

Annulus. Broad. 

Spores. Mature in summer. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Vertical section of peristome 
showing two cells of the an- 
nul us at the base of one tooth 
R. laMuginosum. 


Genus HEDWIGIA, Ehrh. 

The species of the Genus Hedwigia have two-forked stems 
with roots at the base. They are usually 
found in hoary fragile patches 
on rocks. 

The leaves are broad, oval, 
veinless, and coarsely toothed 
or fringed on the margins. 

The spore-cases are globu- 
lar, immersed with almost no 
pedicel and no peristome. 

There are ten species in 
all, three in North America. 

The generic name was 
given in honour of J. G. Hed- 
piant stripped of wig, a distinguished German 

leaves to show two male flower- , . ... , . n 

clusters on the stem and one botanist, who llVCd in 1782. 

spore-case surrounded with 
three fringed leaves. 



Hcdwig's Moss 

Hedwig's Fringe-leaf Moss, Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. 
Habit and "habitat. In small or wide patches, loosely tufted, 

and hoary-green ; common on rocks. 
Name. The specific name ciliata, 

H. ciliata. Apex of perichaetiai leaf. 

H. ciliata. Sterile plant. 

Vefl. Veil. 

H. ciliata. 

I8 3 

Mosses and Lichens 

referring to the fringed perichaetial leaves, is derived from the 
Latin cihum, an eyelash. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Pale-green, stems slender, I to 4 inches 
long, at first erect, then procumbent, repeatedly twice-forked. 

Leaves. Spreading all round when moist, crowded and over- 
lapping like shingles when dry, broadly lance-shaped; apex re- 
curved, translucent by the absence of leaf-green ; margins wavy, 
base growing down the stem and yellow at the point of attach- 
ment; cells with tiny projections. 

Leaves at the base of the spore-case (perichcetial leaves). Thin 
and transparent, taper-pointed, fringed on the margins. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on one plant 
(monoicous) . 

Veil (calyptrd). Small, covering the lid, conical, with or 

without hairs. 

Spore-case. Immersed, globular, light- 
brown, red at the mouth. 

Pedicel. Almost none. 

Lid(operculum). Convex, with or with- 
out an obtuse point in the centre. 

Annulus. None. 

Teeth (peristome}. None. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Universal. 

H. ciliata. Plant stripped 
of leaves to show spore- 
case surrounded with three 
fringed leaves; two male 
flower-clusters on the stem. 


H. ciliata. 

Genus ULOTA, Mohr 

The species of the Genus Ulota usually grow in small 
rounded cushions, which live year after year on trees but never 
on soil. They are common on the trunks and small stems of 
mountain trees. 




SCARLET-CRESTED CLADONIA, Cladonia cristatetta, Tuckerm. 

Copyright, 1907, hy Doubleday.Page & Company 
BROWN-FRUITED CUP CLADONIA, Cladonia pyxidata, (L.) Fr. 

The Curled-leaf Mosses 

The leaves are narrowly lance-shaped from a broad oval base 
and are usually curled when dry. It is this character which 
gives them their generic name from 6v\oTr)<; t curled. 

The cells are very narrow, coloured and thickened along the 
median line while the marginal cells below are transparent in 
several rows. 

Fresh spore-case with vaginule 
at the base of the pedicel. 

Plant with exserted 

Perigonial leaf. 


Dry spore-case. 

Male flower- 

The veils are conical bell-shaped, usually covered with erect, 
yellow hairs; they are lobed at the base and folded lengthwise 
in plaits. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The spore-cases are exserted on straight pedicels; they are 
pear-shaped, narrowed at the base into a long neck, 8-striate 
and twisted to the left when dry. 

The peristome is single or double, the outer of the sixteen 
white teeth usually united in pairs; the inner of 8 to 16 narrow 
processes alternate with the teeth or wanting. 

There are fifty-seven species in all, sixteen in North America. 
The Curly-leaved Ulota, Ulota crispa, Brid. See Plate XV. 
Habit and habitat. In small dense round cushions, yellow- 
green on the surface and rust-colour within. Common in 
mountain woods on trunks and branches of trees, especially 
beeches, firs and birches. 

Name. The specific name from the Latin crispus, curled, 
refers to the special curling of the dry leaves. 
Plant (gametophyte). Small, erect. 

Leaves. Linear, lance-shaped from an enlarged oval concave 
base ; apex narrow or 
hair-like, curled when 
dry ; cells at base long 
and narrow, worm- 
like, thick-walled, on 
the margin enlarged 
and 4-sided. 

Habit of flowering. 
Male and female flow- 
ers on same plant (mo- 
noicous) ; male flower- 
clusters bud-like. 

Veil (calyptra). 
Yellow, bell-shaped, 
split at the base, 
plaited lengthwise and covered with soft hairs. 

Spore-case. Pale-green or light-brown, thin-walled, pear- 
shaped, narrowed end extending almost to the base of the 
pedicel, constricted under the mouth and deeply grooved when 
dry and empty. 

Pedicel (seta). Short and erect. 
Lid (operculum) . With a comparatively short beak. 
Teeth (peristome). The outer of eight pairs, at first spreading, 
then recurved, the inner eight, rarely sixteen. 


U. crispa. 

U. crispa. Sporophyte 
spore-case with a long 
neck and tooth, pedicel 
short with vaginule. 



THE CURLY-LEAVED ULOTA, filota crispa, Mohr. 
The lichen is Parmelia saxatilis, (L.) Fr. 

The Curled-leaf Mosses 

Spores. Mature in August. 
Distribution. Universal. 

The Bud-leaved Ulota, Ulota pbyllantba, Brid. 
Ulota pbyllantba grows in dense cushions ^ to i^ inches 
high, green or yellow above and rich red or brown below. 

U. Hulchinsite. 
Dry spore-case. 

U. fhyllantha. 
Leaf apex with gemmae. 

Ulota Hutchinsia. 

Ulota Hutchinsia. 

U. Hutchinsice. Leaves. 

The leaves are acutely pointed with percurrent vein, upon 
the apex of which are abundant red-brown, club-shaped and 
jointed gemmae which have suggested the specific name from 
the Greek <f>v\\ov, a leaf, and avOos, a flower or young bud. 

This moss has been found on the highest plant-line of Chim- 
borazo as well as close to sea-level, and is widely distributed 
over the world. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Hutchins's Ulota; Ulota Hutclinsice, Schimp. 
Habit and habitat. The plant grows in dark red-brown tufts, 
rigid and fragile. They are common on granite rocks in the 

Name. The specific name was given by Wilhelm Philipp 
Schimper in honour of Miss Hutchins, who first collected the 
plants on the lake shore near Bantry, Ireland. 

Leaves. Close and overlapping like shingles, rigid and 
appressed when dry; erect or slightly spreading when moist; 
oblong, lance-shaped; apex obtuse; base oval or oblong; margins 
turned back; vein strong; cells, the basal linear or worm-like, the 
marginal somewhat 4-sided, the upper small. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous) ; the male flower- 
clusters bud-like. 

Veil (calyptra). Very hairy. 
Spore-case. Oval, narrowed to a 
very long neck 8-furrowed the whole 
length, hardly contracted at the mouth. 
Pedicel (seta). Long. 
Lid (operculum). Conical, taper- 

U. Hutchinsicc. Portion nointed 

of peristome with four cilia * 

and six teeth in pairs. Teeth (peristome). Eight; long, 

lance-shaped, in pairs, entire or split at the apex, reflexed when 
dry ; the inner segments eight, a little shorter than the teeth. 

Spores. Mature in summer. 

Distribution. Common in mountainous regions 

Genus ORTHOTRICHUM, Hedw. (See Plate XIV.) 

The species of the Genus Orthotrichum grow in round 
cushions on rocks, trees and walls. The plants are usually erect, 
with branching stems having radicles at the bases. 

The leaves are lance-shaped, lapping like shingles, rarely 
twisted when dry, the surface is covered with minute protuber- 
ances, or is rarely smooth in the upper part; the margin is 
recurved; the cells toward the apex of the leaf are dot-like and 
contain chlorophyll, toward the lower part they are longer and 

1 88 

Mosses with Straight-haired Veils 

transparent; the veil is bell-shaped, more or less split at the base 
and keeled or deeply grooved throughout, it may be naked or may 
have a few straight hairs, a character which suggested the name 
Orthotrichum, from o/30oV, straight, and Opll;, r/at^o'?, hair. The 
spore-cases are immersed or exserted on a short pedicel and have 
usually, when dry, 8 to 16 grooves running lengthwise, but they 
may be smooth. The pedicels are gen- 
erally short with an enlarged base (vagi- 
nule] crowned with a minute cup-like 
sheath. The peristome is simple or 
double, the outer consisting of 16 single 
teeth or 8 pairs, with either no annulus 
or a very narrow one. 

In all there are two hundred and 
thirty-five species, fifty-seven being 
found in North America. 

Orthotrichum strangulatum, Beauv. 

Habit and habitat. In small, loose 
dirty-green tufts ^ of an inch deep; on 
trees, rarely on rocks. 

Name. The specific name strangula- 
tum, strangled, refers to the constriction 
under the mouth of the spore-case. 

Plant (gametophyte) . One-quarter of 
an inch long. 

Leaves. Linear lance-shaped from an 
oblong base, keeled; apex pointed or 
blunt; margins rolled back; cells, the 
upper, round, small, close, with slight 
protuberances; the basal, long and quad- 

Leaves at the base of the -pedicel (peri- 
chcetial leaves'). Longer, erect, some- 
what sheathing. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on the same plant (monoicous} . 

Veil (calyptra). Resembling a bish- 
op's mitre (mitriform) furrowed and 
nearly naked. 

Spore-case. Oblong egg-shaped, 


Portion of peristome, w ith 

two cilia and four teeth. 

0. strangulatum. 

Mosses and Lichens 

half-emergent, dirty-brown when old, strongly constricted under 
the mouth. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, obtusely short-pointed. 
f Teeth (peristome) . The outer eight double teeth, dirty-yel- 
low, granulose, reflexed when dry; the inner, of eight filiform 
strong segments. 

Spores. Mature in May and June. 
Distribution. North America only. 

With veil. Without veil 

Mature sporophyte. 

O. rtipestris. 

O. strangulatum 
Dry spore-case. 

O. strangulatum. 

O. rupestris. 
Dry sporo- 
phyte with- 
out lid. 

Mature sporo- 
phyte with 

O. strOKguiatum. 

O. strangulatum. 
Spore-case without lid. 

O. ruptstris. Plant. 

Genus ENCALYPTA, Schreb. 

The species of the Genus Encalypta grow on bright-green 
cushions on rocks or on the ground. 

The leaves are linear, spatulate or tongue-shaped and are 


The Extinguisher Mosses 

covered with tiny double-pointed projections. The cells toward 
the base are thin and transparent, while those toward the apex 
are small and opaque with leaf-green. 

The spore-cases are borne on long solid pedicels ; they are 
regular, erect and ribbed or twisted 
when dry with conic and long-beaked 

E.ciliato, Leaf. 

E, ciliata. Veil 

E. ciliata. 
Plant with spore-case still in the veil. 



E. ciliata. 

E. ciliata. Lid. 

The veils are large, cylindrical and bell-shaped, longer than 
the spore-cases, tapering at the apex and sometimes fringed at 
the base. This character suggested the generic name, from the 
Greek eweaXvTrro?, veiled. The peristome is variable, having 
no teeth or a single or double row. The spores are large and 
beset with small projections. 


Mosses and Lichens 

In all there are thirty-nine species, sixteen being found in 
North America. 

The Extinguisher Mosses with Fringed Veils, Encalypia 
ciliata, Hedw. 

Habit and 'habitat. In loose bright or pale-green tufts on 
shaded rocks and soil; not rare. 

Name. The specific name ciliata, from the Latin cilium, an 
eyelash, refers to the fringed base of the veil. 


E. ciliata. Portion of peristome. 


E. ciliata. Spore-case 
(a) with lid, (fc) with- 
out lid. 

E. ciliata. Spore-cases in their veils. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Stems ^ to 2 inches high, thick, cov- 
ered with rooting filaments, simple or sparingly branched. 

Leaves. Soft, large, crowded, recurved-spreading, oblong, 
egg-shaped or tongue-shaped, slightly concave; apex short, taper- 
pointed with a tiny sharp point; margin wavy; vein pale-yellow, 


Pour-toothed Mosses 

vanishing below the apex or passing into it; cells, toward the 
base loose, red, the marginal of several rows narrower and paler. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on one plant 

Veil (calyptra). Straw-colour, descending far below the 
base of the spore-case, bordered at the base by lance-shaped 
solid white or orange segments. 

Pedicel. Long; yellow or pale- red. 

Spore-case. Cylindrical, smooth, slightly constricted under 
the mouth when dry, the neck short and indistinct. 

Lid (operculuni). Conic, with a long slender beak. 

Teeth (peristome). Rarely absent, single, of 16 narrowly 
lance-shaped red teeth, sometimes divided into two irregular seg- 
ments, connivent when dry, incurved when moist. 

Distribution. Mountain regions of New England, the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific slope, Europe and Africa. 

Genus GEORGIA, Ehrh. 

The species of the Genus Georgia are erect, growing in clus- 
ters but not matted, on the ground, on rotten wood and sandstone. 

The lower leaves are small, distant and scale-like; the upper 
leaves are longer, broadly lance-shaped, close and tufted at the 
apex of the stems; the vein reaches to below the apex; the cells 
are somewhat six-sided, less crowded and linear rectangular at 
the base. Linear root-leaves (frondiform) or whip-like leafy 
branches are often present. These frondiform leaves appear in 
some species only in the protonemal stage, while in other species 
they persist at the base. 

The spore-cases are cylindrical or oval on long slender, smooth, 
brown pedicels which are straight or abruptly bent. The lids 
are conical with mitre-like veils. The four teeth arising from 
just below the rim of the box are a conspicuous character of the 
genus. They are formed by the splitting of a solid mass of pithy 
tissue within the lid into four slender triangular segments, red 
and slightly furrowed on the back. A cross section of a tooth 
shows it to be triangular and composed externally of large trans- 
parent cells and internally of small thick-walled pointed cells. 
There is no annulus. 


Mosses and Lichens 

G. pellucida. Cross section 
of four teeth to show that 
they were formed by the 
splitting of a solid mass. 

With veil. With lid. 
G. pellucida. Spore-case. 

G. Brovmii. 
Prondiform leaves 

G. pellucida. 
Branch with 
gemmae cluster. 

G. pellucida. 

G. pellucida. 
Side view of gemma cup. 

G. pellucida. 
Bract from gemma cup. 


Tip of spore-case, with teeth. 
G. pellucida. Lid. G. pellucida. Veil. G. pellucida. Tooth. G, pellucida. 


Four-toothed Mosses 

There are but two spe- 
cies known and both of 
these are found in North 

The genus was named 
by Friedrich Ehrhart, in 
honour of King George III. 
of England, whom he con- 
St sidered one of the greatest 

' patrons of botany. 

Georgia pellucida, 
Rabenh. See Colour 
Plate III. 

Habit and "habitat. Erect, 
rather densely crowded, 
bright-green above, red 
damp places, 

G. pettwcida. Vertical section of gemma cup 
showing gemmae with slender stems and cut 
edges of leaves on either side. 

below. On decayed wood in 

Name. The specific name pellucida from the 
Latin per, through, and lucida, transparent, refers 
to the texture of the leaves, which are very 

Plant (gametophyte). Stems of two kinds, ( i ) 
the fertile ^ to I inch long, pale red, simple or 
branching in pairs, fibrous at the base with 
crowded leaves tufted at the summit of the stem; 
(2) gemmae-bearing, the gemmae disk-like with 
short stalks, greenish, transparent, inclosed in a 
rosette of 4 to 5 bracts. 

Leaves. The lower leaves 
are small, remote, erect, ap- 
pressed, broadly lance-shaped 

G. pcttucidd. 
Lower leaves of fertile plant. 

G. pellucida. 
Upper leaf of gem- 
mae plant. 


G. pellucida. 
Pericluetial leaf. 

Mosses and Lichens 

and red ; the upper leaves are larger, broader, not lying against 
the stem; margin entire; vein vanishing below the apex; cells 
round-hexagonal above, elongated and 
rectangular at the base. It is not an 
uncommon thing to find gemmae which 
have fallen from the cups, entangled and 
growing among the leaves. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (peri- 
cbcetial leaves'). Lance-shaped, sheath- 
ing elongated, rather obtuse. 

H obit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on the same plant (monoicous) ; 
male flower-clusters bud-like at the 
apex of the shoots which arise in 

Veil (calyptra). White below, more 
solid and red above, mitreform, reach- 
ing to the middle of the spore-case, 
irregularly folded lengthwise into 8 
or 9 ridges, somewhat ragged at the 

Spore-case. Erect, elongated, 
cylindric, pale-brown with the mouth 

Pedicel (seta). Straight, smooth, 
purple; when dry twisted to the left in 
the lower part, to the right above, }4 to 
Y^ of an inch long. 

Lid (operculuni) . Thin, conical, 
straight or oblique, 

Annulus. None. 

Teeib (peristome). Four, erect, brown, 
pyramidal, grooved lengthwise on the 
back, arising from below the rim of the 

Columella. Slender, cylindrical. 

Spores. Small, smooth, green, ma- 
ture from July to September. 

Distribution. Widely in America, 
Europe and Asia. 

G. pettucida. Fertile 
plant, with male branch 
at the left. 


Four-toothed Mosses 

Georgia geniculata, Girgens. 

Georgia geniculata may be distin- 
guished from G. pellucida in having the 
pedicel suddenly bent near the middle, a 
character which suggested the specific 
name geniculata from the Latin geniculum, 
a little knee. 

It is found in Japan and in North 

Gemmae -bearing 

G. pellucida. 

G. geniculata. 
Sporophyte with 
four teeth and a 
twisted spiny pedi- 

G. geniculata. Plant with two spore-cases on 
bent pedicels; male branch on the right. 


Mosses and Lichens 


with veil. 


Genus TJETRADONTIUM, Schwaegr. 

This genus was established by Schwaegrichen, but 
differs so little from the genus Georgia that many think 
it should not be considered a separate genus. 
There are two species in all, one in North 

It differs from Georgia in having both 
teeth and stems shorter, in having the 
spore-case oval instead of cylindrical and 
in having the veil cover the spore-case. 
The name is derived from the Greek 

Tetradontium TCTpa, four, and 68a>V, 3. tOOth. 

repandum Tetradontium repan- 


with veil. dum, Schwaegr. 

Habit and habitat. 

small, growing 
shaded rocks. 

in loose 

clusters on 

Name. The specific name repan- 
dum, the Latin for "curved," refers to the 
margin of the mouth of the spore-case. 

Plant (gametophyte) . Stems very 
short, bearing little gemmae at the base 
of thread-like leafy branches. 

Leaves. Ovate-lance-shaped, rigid, 
red-brown, closely overlapping like 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (peri- 
chcetial leaves). Ovate and oblong, very 
concave, vein obscure; scales about the 
male flowers (perigonium) smaller, 
thinner, vein absent. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on the same plant (monoicous). with male branch 

Veil(calybird). Conical, resembling ntheri htattl > e 

x * * & unci tnrcso- 

a bishop's mitre and covering the spore- like branch on 
case to the base. 
Spore-case. Thick, oval, the margin of the orifice somewhat 
notched between the teeth. 

T. rcpandum. 
Female branch 

male plant with 
thread- like 
branch at the 

Four-toothed Mosses 



Two teeth and curved spore-case Perigonium and 

margin. perigonial leaves. 

Tetradontium repandnm. 

Pedicel (seta). Thick and rigid. 
Lid (operculum) . Conical, erect, short. 
Teeth (peristome). Simple, of four short, triangular teeth. 
Spores. Mature in autumn. 

Distribution. Near Glen House and at Dixville Notch, White 
Mountains. Very rare. 


The Genus Schistostega contains but one species; this is 
found growing in bright-green patches on the ground in caverns 
and grottoes and under the shade of rocks. The protonema is 
persistent, and shines with a weird light in the semi-darkness 
where it grows. The most striking character of the moss is the 
highly refractive power of the protonema cells. These are able 
to converge the feeble rays of light which enter the caves and 

Vertical section of a protonema to show paths of refracted 
and reflected light rays; (5) an incident ray refracted to t, 
then reflected from * to t and again reflected and refracted 
T. repandum. Thread- from * to 5'; (v) clear cell contents; (c) chlorophyll grains; 
like branch. (P) plasma. 


Mosses and Lichens 

grottoes so that they fall upon the chlorophyll grains and enable 
them by light-energy to build up plant foods from gases and 
water. When searching for this moss one must be careful not 
to intercept the rays of light which enter the cave and then one 
may be fortunate enough to get the feebly reflected rays which 


Protonema in natural position, very highly magni- 
fied. Illumination from above. 

with lid. 

Three cells of protonema from L to show position 
of chlorophyll grains when the light rays enter per- 
pendicular to the surface. 

Three cells of protonema to show position of chloro- 
phyll grains when light rays enter obliquely. 
Schistostega osmundacea 

Spore-case with 
lid raised show- 
ing spores. 

5. osmundacea. 

emerge from it. The four diagrams if taken in Older with their 
legends, will give one a clear idea of how the light rays are 
refracted and reflected by the cell-contents and of how the chlo- 
rophyll grains move to that part of the cell which is illuminated. 


The Luminous Moss 

Schistostega osmundacea, Web. & Mohr. 
Plant (gametopbyte) . Living but one year, produced from a 
persistent, thread-like growth (protonema); stems tender and deli- 
cate, usually simple, ^ of an inch high with root-like filaments 

at the base. Two 

forms are found, 

the barren which 

are naked below 

and have two rows 

of vertically placed 

leaves above, 

the fertile which 

resemble the bar- 
ren or are naked 

except for a small 

tuft of terminal 


Name . The 

specific name os- 

mundacea suggests 

a resemblance to 

the ferns of the 

same name. 

Leaves. Ob- 
long-pointed, con- 
fluent at the base; 
cells large, rhom- 
boidal, containing 

Habit of flower- 
ing. Male and fe- 
male On Separate S. osmundacea. Barren 
..... plant with male branch at 

plants (dlOlCOUS) the left. 

male flower -clus- 
ters bud-like. 

Veil (calyptra). Minute, narrow, 
resembling a bishop's hat, covering the lid only. 
Spore-case. Small, almost spherical, soft. 
Spore-sac (sporangium). Distinct. 
Columella. Present, thick. 

S. osmundacea. Fertile plant. 

2O I 

Mosses and Lichens 

Pedicel. Long and soft. 

Lid (operculum). Small, convex, with a red border. 
Teeilo (peristome). None. 
Spores. Minute, maturing in the spring. 
Species. But one known. 

Distribution. It has been found in northern and central Europe 
and in New York and the White Mountains. 

Genus TETRAPLODON, Bruch & Schimp. 

The plants of the Genus Tetraplodon are perennial, growing 
in densely crowded cushions. They closely resemble the plants 

T. mnioides. Growing on porcupine bones. 

T. mnioides. Leaf apex. 


T. mnioides. 

of the genus Splacbnum, but differ 
principally in that the enlarged part 
(apopbysis) of the pedicel under 
the spore-case is not inflated and 
is of the same colour and consis- 
tency as the spore-case. The plants 
are peculiar in their choice of hab- 
itat, being invariably found on ani- 
mal substances. Tetraplodon an- 


spore- gustdtus JS Said tO have been found T. mnioides. Per- 
case. . ..... istome of sixteen 

growing on an old stocking near double teeth. 


The Quartette Moss 


T. mnioides. 

7*. mnioides 

the summit of Ingles- 
borough, Yorkshire, 
and also on an old hat 
on Mt. St. Bernard, 
Switzerland. The 
stems are branching 
and bear root-like 
filaments. The leaves 
are lance -shaped or 
oval-oblong, and are 
prolonged into an 
awl-like point. 

The spore-cases are small and erect 
with conical-convex, obtuse lids. They 
are borne on pedicels which are enlarged 
just under the spore-case to form a club- 
shaped apophysis. The apophysis is of 
importance as an assimilating and trans- 
piring organ and is the only part of the 
moss which bears pores (siomata). 

The peristome is single with sixteen 
dark-purple double teeth 
r e fl e x e d when dry. 
These are at first in 
T. mnioides. groups of four, and af- 

terward in pairs, a character which 
has suggested the generic name 
Tetraplodon from the Greek 
T6T/3a7rXo'o9, four-fold, and oSovs, 
oSoVro?, a tooth. 

Nine species are known in 
all, four being found in North 

Tetraplodon mnioides, Bruch 
& Schimp. 

Habit and habitat. Growing in 
dense tufts on decaying animal 
matter in mountainous regions. 
The specimen illustrated was 
Le a f. found on porcupine bones in 

T. mnioides. Plant 
stripped of leaves to 
show ( t ) male and 
(?) female flower- 

Mosses and Lichens 

Vermont. The specific name mnioides is derived from 
moss, and the suffix olS, like. 

Plant (gametopbyte) . Robust, pale-green, J4 to 3 inches high, 
stems branched, covered with matted root-like filaments below. 

Leaves. Crowded, ovate-lance-shaped or narrowly obovate- 
lance-shaped ; apex pointed, suddenly narrowed into a flexuous yel- 
low awn ; vein prolonged to form the awn ; margin yellow, entire. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on one plant 
(monoicous) . 

Veil (calyptra}. Small, conical, usually split 
up one side. 

T. mnioides. Portion of peristome 
to show teeth. 

T. mnioides. Tip of spore- 
case to show position of 
teeth when closed. 

T. mniodes. Per- 
istome with reflect- 
ed teeth. 

Spore-case. Short-cylindrical, fawn-colour, with a cylindrical 
green apophysis, both become dark-red, and the spore-case is 
contracted below the mouth when empty. 

Pedicel (seta). Stout, orange to red, variable in length, to 
2 inches long. Enlarged under the spore-case. 

Lid (operculum). Obtusely conic. 

Teeib (peristome). Reflexed when dry, orange-red. 

Spores. Small, mature in summer. 

Distribution. Universal. 


Genus SPLACHNUM, Linn. 

The species of the Genus Splachnum are easily recognised 
by the extraordinary enlargement of the pedicel at the base of the 
spore-cases. They are perennial and grow in tufts, invariably 
on the dung of animals. The branches are soft and slender 
with broadly lance-shaped leaves, the lower distant and open; 
the upper tufted ; all with a vein. 


Collar Mosses 

The name is the Greek <nr\dyxvov, used by Dioscorides for 
some lichen or non-flowering plant. 

The spore-cases are small, oval or short-cylindrical with con- 
vex mammillate lids, and a central column (columella) capped 
and generally exserted after the falling of the lid. 


5. lutewm. 

S. rubrutn. Sporophyte with spore- 
case open showing the exserted colu- 
mella and bell-shaped apophysis. 

rubrutn. Fertile plant, all but the 
lower part of the pedicel removed. 

S. rubrum. 

The pedicels are long and 
very much enlarged under the 
spore-case, the enlarged portion (apophysis) increasing after 
maturity and becoming pear-shaped, round or umbrella-like and 
diversely coloured. There are sixteen linear teeth in pairs 


Mosses and Lichens 

5. rubr-unt. Leaf. 

(geminate), orange-coloured and formed ol two layers, the outer 
thicker and covered with tiny protuberances. The spores are 

Eight species are 
known in all, five of 
them in North America. 

The Red Collar- 
moss, Splacbnum ru 
brum, Linn., 1. c. 

Habit and habitat. 
Chiefly on dung in peat- 

Name. The specific 
name, Latin rubrum, red, 
refers to the colour. 

Plant (gametopbyte) . 
Living but one year, 
small, the male plants 

Leaves. Large, open; 
apex recurved ; base nar- 
rowed from an enlarged 
middle, above more 
s. rubrum. Tip of spore- abruptly narrowed to a 

case with columella exert- 
ed and teeth reflexed. long taper-point; mar- 
gin distinctly serrate from below the middle; 
leaves of the male plant smaller. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Small, conical, slightly split or mostly en- 
tire at the base, soft and falling early. 

Spore-case. Small, oval and ending abruptly at the summit as 
if cut off, thin, membranous and dirty-yellow. 

Pedicel (seta). Very long and red, enlarged just below the 
spore-case to form a purple, bell-shaped or umbrella-like portion 

Lid. Highly convex. 

Teeth (peristome). Sixteen, large, densely cross-barred, joined 
in pairs at the base and sometimes at the apex. 

Spores. Small, mature in summer. 


5. rubrum. Veil. 

The Bladder-cap Mos 

Distribution. In the Rockies and in Maine, also in Europe. 

The Yellow Collar-moss, Splachnum luteum, Linn., 1. c. 

The Yellow Collar-moss differs from the Red Collar-moss in 
having the margins of the leaves not so coarsely toothed and in 
having the enlarged portion of the pedicel under the spore-case 
convex, umbrella-like, bright-yellow, and an inch in diameter. 
The pedicel is often six inches long. 

The name is from the Latin luteum, a weed, probably a yellow 
one as the derivatives all signify "yellow." This moss is also 
found on dung in bogs. The spores are mature in autumn. 



The species of the Genus Physcomitrium rarely live more 
than one year. They have a delicate texture and grow in loose 
tufts. The plants are sparingly branched, and bear compara- 
tively large, soft, obovate or spatula-shaped, taper-pointed leaves 


P. twrbinatwm. 


with large transparent cells. The spore-cases are ovate or spher- 
ical, and erect upon immersed or exserted pedicels. They have 
convex lids but no teeth, and the spore-sac (sporangium) is free 
from the spore-case wall, adhering to it only by thread-like 
strands. The veils are lobed at the base and scarcely descend 
to the middle of the spore-case. 

The generic name Physcomitrium is a combination of two 


Mosses and Lichens 

Greek words, fyixricwv, a fat paunch, and jurpiov, a conical cap. 
The two words together describe the veil (calyptra) as a conical 
cap with an inflated base. 

L. Top-moss, Physcomitrium turbmatum, Muell. ined. See 
Plate XVI. 

Habit and habitat. Top-moss is everywhere common in 
old fields and grassy open places in gardens. It is conspicuous 
both with and without spore-cases, and maybe easily recognised 
from its picture. In September and October the bright-green 
rosettes of both male and female plants may be found in loose 

Young plant 
with spore-case 

Spore-case with 

Physcomitrium pyriforme, Brid. Ideal 
vertical section through a green spore- 


Spore-cas* with lid. 
P. turbinatum. 

clusters growing on the ground in protected spots, and if exam- 
ined with a compound microscope, may reveal the archegonia 
and antheridia. About the middle of May the same locality 
should show colonies of plants with their perfect spore-cases on 
slender pedicels (setae). One is almost sure of finding this moss 
about flower-pots in green-houses where the ground has not 
been too recently worked over. The shape of the spore-cases, 
the contraction below the mouth of the dry spore-case and the 
amount of thickening of the elongated cells about the mouth, 
and the degree of roughness of the spores, all depend upon the 
stage reached in their development before they become dry and 
shrivelled; and again the stage in their development depends 
upon the amount of rain and heat in their environment. 


Cord Mostei 

The differences resulting from changes in environment were 
shown in an interesting manner by plants examined from pots 
which were under steam-pipes in comparative darkness in the 
New York Botanical gardens. In September the plants were 
small with pedicels only about half an inch long. In January the 
pots were removed to benches with bottom heat and more light 
and then plants were developed with pedicels twice as long, paler 
of colour, and with spore-cases more top-shaped and smaller. 

Name. The specific name, turbinatum, the Latin for "pointed 
like a top," refers to the top-shaped spore-case. 

Plants (gametophyte). Light-green, stems short and simple, or 
taller and branching, -fa to I inch long. 

Leaves. Broadly-lance-shaped or egg-shaped with the broad 
end tapering toward the stem (obovate) ; margin serrate above the 
middle; vein vanishing below the apex or extending beyond to 
form a tapering point. Cells, the lower oblong, the upper rhom- 
boidal or hexagonal, the marginal longer and narrower, often 
yellow and inflated at their upper ends. 

Veil (calyptrd). Conical, oblique, and cleft unequally 5- to 
8-lobed and beaked, covering about half the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect, green and round pear-shaped when fresh; 
becoming dark-brown, and urn-shaped, often contracted below 
the rim, when dry and empty. 

Pedicel (seta). Erect or twisted, sometimes arched, % to ^ 
of an inch long. 

Lid (operculum). Convex or tipped with a small nipple 
(mammillate) occasionally with an acute point (apiculate). 

Teeih (peristome). None; the rim is bordered by 8 to 12 rows 
of transversely, elongated cells, the uppermost very narrow and 

Annulus. Persistent, of transparent, bladder-like cells 
incurved after the falling of the lid. 

Spores. Rough, maturing in spring. 

Distribution. Ontario to Florida, west to the Rocky Moun- 

Genus FUNARIA, Schreb. 

The species of the Genus Funaria are short, simple, or 
branching, growing in clusters on the ground. The leaves are 


Mosses and Lichens 

variable; with loose transparent cells. The spore-cases are pear- 
shaped, erect and symmetrical, or oblique and curved on long 
pedicels, straight or arched above. The pedicels twist one about 
another when dry, a habit suggesting the generic name Funaria, 
from the Latin funis, a cord. The lids are plano-convex. Some- 
times there is a compound annulus which rolls back as the lid falls. 
The teeth are sometimes rudimentary but more generally they 
are double, the outer sixteen obliquely 
curving to the right and connected at 
the apex by a small mesh-like disk. 
The outer surface of the teeth is pale 
and granulose and the inner face is 
marked with prominent purple cross- 
bars. The inner membrane is divided 
into sixteen more or less rudimentary 
segments opposite to the outer teeth 
and adhering at the base. They are 
yellow and lance-shaped with longi- 
tudinal median line. 

The spore-sac is much smaller than 
the spore-case and is attached to it by 
loosely entangled filaments. The 
spores are often very large. 

Seventy-nine species are known in 
all, fourteen being found in North 

The Pale Funaria, Funaria flari- 
cans, Michx. See Plate XVI. 

This species is found in the Middle 
and Southern States. It differs from 
Funaria hygrometrica in being paler in 
colour. The leaves are more abruptly 
narrowed into a long flexuous point, 
the mouth of the spore-case is more enlarged and less oblique. 

The Water-measuring Cord-moss, Funaria hygrometrica, 
Sibth. See Colour Plates III and XVI. 

Habit and habitat. Like Cinderella, the Cord-moss is to be 
found among the ashes. One may look for it where picnic fires 
have been, or in wood-lots which have been swept by flames. 
One may also expect to find it in vacant lots used as dump 


F. hygrometrica. Portion of 
peristome with two inner teeth 
and with two outer teeth attached 
to a terminal disk. 



Physcomitrium turbinatum, Muell. ined. 


Funaria flaricans, Michx. 

THE WATER-MEASURING CORD-MOSS. Funaria hygrometrica, Sibth. 

Cord Mosses 

grounds, or even on the crumbling mortar of old 
stone houses and neglected walls. 

Name. The specific name hygrometrica is a com- 
pound of two Greek words, 7/009, water, and 
measuring, and refers to the habit the 


(fc) Branching protonema with a moss plant starting at (k); 
(w) rhizoid; (A) a primary filament of protonema. 

Ftinaria hygrometrica. 

Germinating spores. 
(v) Vacuole; (if) rhizoid 
) spore wall. 

F. hygrometrica. 

F. hygrometrica. Fe- 
male flower in vertical 
section, (a) archegon- 
ium; (b) leaf. 


F. hygrometrica. 
Plant with imma- 
ture spore -case still 
in its veil. 

Mosses and Lichens 

plants have of twisting and untwisting their pedicels as they 
are alternately moistened or dried. 

Plant (gametophyte). The young plants 
are found in the fall. They are yellow-green 
with simple or branching stems, living but 
one year, or continuing by new growths. 

Leaves. Variable; tufted at the apex of the 
stem, usually erect and pressed together; ob- 
long egg-shaped; apex short-pointed; margin 
entire ; vein reaching the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flow- 
ers on the same plant (monoicous) ; terminal; 
the male on prirflary stems, the female on sec- 

F. hygrometrica. Leaf. 

L pyrtforme. 
(See page 2 1 7.) 

F. hygrometrica. Cross section of young 

Veil (calyptra). Conical, shining, inflated at the base, split 
up one side, composed of bladder-like cells. 

Spore-case. When immature, erect, nearly symmetrical; 
when mature, pear-shaped, with the small end narrowed to an 
elongated and curved neck (collum). One side is more swollen 
than the other (gibbous) ; leathery, reddish, and deeply furrowed 
when old. 

Spore-sac. Much smaller than the spore-case, attached to it 
by loosely tangled threads. 

Pedicel (seta). Straight or arched above, 
i to "2\ inches high, twisting and untwisting 
with the changes in the humidity of the air. 

Lid (operculwri). Small like a flat saucer. F. hygrometrica. 


Cord Mosses 

F. hygrometrica. Plant with two 

/Innulus. Com- 
pound, rolling back 
as the lid falls. 

Teeth (peris- 
tome). The outer 
teeth sixteen, ob- 
liquely curving to 
the right, with hor- 
izontal prominent 
purple cross - bars 
on the inner face 
(trabeculate) : pale and granular on the 
outer face, connected at the apex by 
a small disk with mesh-like veins 
(reticulated); the inner teeth sixteen, 
lance-like or more or less rudimentary, 
opposite to the outer teeth and adher- 
ing at the base, yellowish with a line 

F. hygrometrica. Breath- 
ing pore from the spore- 

Tip of female shoot with 
archegonia, two containing 
sporogoniums half -grown. The 
one on the left has severed F. hygrometrica. Vertical section through a male 
the upper part of the arche- flower: (o) young antheridium in vertical section . (6) old 
gonium wall, calyptra, from antheridium in vertical section; (c) paraphysis; (d) vein 
the base. of leaf in section; (<?) blade of leaf in section. 


Mosses and Lichen* 

running from apex to base, distinctly beset with minute points 

Spores. Of medium 
size, maturing all summer. 
Distribution. U n i v e r - 

CoUunt. \ sal. 

F . hygrometrica. Portion 
of peristome with two outer 
teeth attached at their tips 
to a reticulated disk; and two 
innner teeth free. 

F. hygrometrica. A plant with a female branch 
supporting a sporophyte on the left; a male branch 
with male flower-cluster on the right. 

Genus BARTRAMIA, Hedw. 

The species of the Genus Bartramia live from year to year, 
their erect, two-forked stems with soft felted hairs toward the 


Bartram's Moss 

base forming extensive tufts on soil and rock, or occasionally on 

The leaves are long and narrow, opaque and yellowish-green ; 
with a round vein which vanishes in the serrated apex or passes 
beyond to form a rough point. 

The spherical spore-cases marked with parallel ridges are 
erect, or nodding, on long erect pedicels. The lids are small, 
convex or obtusely pointed. 

Teeth are rarely absent or simple, usually double, the outer 
attached to basilar membrane. There is no annulus. 

The genus contains one hundred and three species in all, thir- 
teen of them being known in North America. The name was 
given by J. G. Hedwig in hon- 
our of John Bartram, one of 
the earliest American botanists. 

The Apple-moss, Bartra- 
mia pomiformis, Hedw. See 
cut on page 216. 

Habit and habitat. In soft 
bright or yellow-green tufts 
on shady banks and in clefts 
of rocks. 

Name. From the Latin po- 
mum, apple, and forma, form, 
referring to the spore-cases. 

Plant (gametopbyte). 
Stems i to 3 inches high with 
densely felted hairs below. 

Leaves. Long, open, and 
somewhat twisted when 
moist, more erect and crisped 
when dry. Narrowly linear 
and awl-like from a paler base; 
vein extending beyond the 
apex to form a spiny awn; 
margin sharply serrate above, 
rolled back from the middle 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

B. pomiformis. Plant stripped of leaves 
toshowantheridia.archegonia, and paraphy- 
ses on the left branch; the base of an old 
pedicel lies between the two branches. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Veil (calyptra). Conical, split up one side, falling early. 
Spore-case. Spherical, grooved longitudinally. 

Pedicel (seta}. Slender, an inch high. 

Teeth (peristome}. Outer teeth regular, 
densely cross-barred, inner segments 
shorter than the teeth and cleft, cilia imper- 
fect or none. 

Annulus. None. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Universal. 

B. pomiformis. 

Bartramia pomiformis. 

B. pomiformis. Leaves. 

Genus LEPTOBRYUM, Schimp. 

The species of the Genus Leptobryum live but one year, the 
plants are unbranched above, new growths coming only from 
the base. The generic name from the Greek XeTrro?, slender, and 
fipvov, a moss, refers to the slender character of the plants. 

The leaves are narrow, glossy, and turn in different directions. 
The apex is like an awl and the cells are narrowly rhomboidal 
above, looser toward the base and rectangular-six-sided. 

The spore-cases are inclined or pendent, long-necked and 
thin-coated with convex lids tipped with a small point. The 
teeth are double, the intermediate hair-like segments having cross- 
bars projecting beyond the edge. 

There are but few species known at present, one of these is 
found in North America. 



The Pear-shaped Thread-moss, Leptobryum pyriforme, 
Schimp. See cuts on page 218. 

Habit and habitat. In dense silky green patches on shady 
rocks and walls, and sandy or turfy soil, also on burnt and decay- 
ing trees. Common. 

W. nutans. Leaves. (See page 219.) 

L. pyriforme. Por- 
tion of peristome. 

L. pyriforme. Spore-case with lid and 
long neck. 

W. nutans. 

(See page 219.) 

Name. The specific name pyriforme is from the Latin pyrum, 
a pear, and forma, form, referring to the spore-case. 

Plant (gametophyte). Slender, simple, stem short. One- 
half to one inch high. 

Leaves. The lower distant, narrowly lance-shaped, the upper 
tufted and longer; apex awl-like, flexuose, serrate; cells above, 


Mosses and Lichens 

narrow and long, below, broader. Vein dilated at the base, ex- 
tending below the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers together, (syn- 

Spore-case. Pear-shaped or oval, yellow-brown, glossy, sym- 
metrical, neck long. 

Pedicel. Red, slender, i to 2 inches long. 
Lid (operculum). Convex, with a tiny nipple. 
Teeth (peristome). Pale yel- 
low, lance-shaped, segments of 
the inner membrane keeled 
and perforated; the thread- 
like segments bearing little 
knots on the edges. 

Annulus. Broad, rolling 
back as the lid falls. 

Spores. Mature in May 
and June. 

Distribution. Universal. 

L. pyriforme. Plant 
with pyriforme. 
(See page 217.) 

L. pyriforme. 
Apex of leaf. 

Genus WEBERA, Hedw. 

The members of this genus 
are similar to those of the 
genus Bryum, the essential 
characters which separate the 
two are that Webera has rhom- 
boidal-hexagonal, narrow, and 
more or less linear leaf-cells 
with a 

Bryum has rhomboidal-hexa- 
gonal, smooth, usually broad 
and loose cells, with a solid, 
round vein generally passing 
beyond the apex of the leaf. 

The name was given by 
J. G. Hedwig, a German bot- 
anist, in honour of G. H. 


W. albicans. Stem. 

slender vein, while (See page 2 j ). 

L. pyriforme 

W. nuians. Spore- 




WEBERA ALB1CANS, Schimp, 1. c. 


Webera nutans, Hedw. See Plate XVII. Also see cuts 
on page 217. 

Habit and habitat. This pretty moss is common, growing in 
soft cushions on moist ground, in peat 
bogs and swamps and in fissures of rocks. 



W. nutans. 

Inner membrane. 

Name. The specific name nutans, the Latin for "nodding," 
describes the spore-case. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Yellow-green ; stem slender and flexible, 
\ to 2, inches high. 

Leaves. The lower ovate-lanceolate, margin entire ; the upper 
linear-lanceolate, serrate at the apex; vein thick, reddish, glossy, 
vanishing below the apex. 


Tip of spore-case with 
two rows of teeth. 

Empty spore-cases 

without lids. 
W. albicans. (See page 220.) 

Spore-cases with lids. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

Spore-case. Oblong-ovate with a broad opening, yellow- 
brown, short-necked, inclined or pendent. 

Pedicel. Glossy red, often two inches high. 

Lid (operculum). Highly convex, with a tiny nipple. 

Teeth (peristome). Dark orange, pale and thread-like at the 
apex, the segments of the inner membrane pale-yellow, split, 
slender segments (cilia) 2 to 3 strongly jointed, as long as the 


Mosses and Lichens 

Annulus. Large, rolling back as the lid falls. 
Spores. Mature in summer. 
Distribution. Almost universal. 
Webera albicans, Schimp. See Plate 

Habit and habitat. This pretty moss 
grows in soft tufts of a light-green colour in 
wet sand on the borders of streams, and in 
swampy land along wheel ruts. 

Name. The specific name albicans, whitish, 
has reference to its peculiar pale-green colour. 
Plant (gametopbyte). Simple, erect or 
inclined; i to 4 inches long; stem reddish or 

Leaves. The lower ovate, oblong and taper-pointed, the upper 
oblong-lanceolate, soft, yellowish or pale-green; vein vanishing 
below the apex; margin serrate near apex; leaves around the male 
flowers broad and concave at the base, open and lanceolate above. 

W. albicans. 
Male plant. 

W. albicans. Leaves. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants, male flowers in a disk-like head. 

Spore-case. Inclined or pendent, short-pear-shaped, inflated 



at the neck (collum) ; green with a bloom, becoming brown ; 
somewhat round and wide-mouthed when empty. 

Pedicel. Long, generally reddish and bent at the base. 

Lid (operculum). Conical with a nipple (mammittaie) . 

Teeth (peristome). Large, orange-coloured. 

Annulus. None. 

Spores. Mature in spring and early summer. 

Distribution. Almost universal. 

Genus BRYUM, Dill. 

The plants of the Genus Bryum live on from year to year on 
the ground or on rocks, seldom on trees. The stems are covered 
with small red-brown filaments. 

The generic name is an ancient word for moss used both by 
Gaius Plinius, "The Elder," a Roman naturalist, who perished in 
the eruption that destroyed Pompeii, 
and by Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek 
physician, who was the founder of 

Spore-case Spore-case 

with lid. without lid. 

B. roseum. 

B. argenteum. Portion 
of peristome. 

B. argenteum. Leaf. 

botany and flourished in the first and second century. The name 
Bryum was restricted to the present genus by Johann Dillenius, 
a German, who was the first professor of botany at Oxford. 

The leaves are smooth with a solid round vein generally 
extending beyond the apex; the cells are smooth, six-sided and 
more or less elongated. 

The spore-cases are leathery, pear-shaped, narrowing down 
to a solid neck (collum) with breathing pores (stomata) on the 
surface; they are regular or rarely recurved. They have convex 
lids with a tiny blunt point at the centre and are borne on long 
and stout pedicels. 


Mosses and Lichens 

The peristome is double, the outer teeth are long and linear or 
lance-shaped, marked with many cross-bars internally, prominent 
below; the inner membrane is divided above into keeled seg- 
ments adherent to or free from the teeth, and separated by usually 
two to five hair-like divisions (cilia) mostly with spurs attached 
at intervals to the margin. 

The annulus is large, compound, and rolls back as the lid falls. 

There are 800 or more described species, one hundred and 
thirty-two in North America. 


Plant with sporo- 


B. argenteum. 

With lid. Without lid. 
Spore -cases. 

The Silvery Bryum, Bryum argenteum, Linn. 

Habit and habitat. In green or silvery-white irregular cushions, 
on exposed ground, roofs, pavements, burnt places and almost 
everywhere except on trees. Very common. 

Name. The specific name refers to the colour. Latin argen- 
teum, silvery. Johann Dillenius, a German botanist, called this 
moss "Catkin-stemmed Silver Moss" from its resemblance to the 
catkins of a poplar tree. 



Plant (gametopbyte) . Stems short, | to i inch high covered 
with root-like filaments; there are numerous shining catkin-like 
branches, each tipped with a brush of hairs. 

Leaves. At the apex of the stem, oblong-lance-shaped, taper- 
pointed, silvery-gray; stem and branch leaves broadly oval, or 
inverted oval, deeply concave; apex abruptly pointed; margin 
entire, flat; vein (cosla) vanishing above the middle; cells loose. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female on separate plants 
(dioicous). Male flowers terminal. 

V'il (calyptra). Narrowly hood-like, falling before the 
spore-case ripens. 


Young spore- 
case with veil. 


With lid. Empty. 


Portion of peristome with two outer 
teeth, two inner and five cilia. 

B. argenteum. 


Spore-case. Abruptly pendulous, oblong, deep purple when 
ripe, constricted under the mouth when old. 

Pedicel. Long and curved at the summit, inch high, dark 
red when mature. 

Lid (operculum). Convex, slightly pointed, dark-orange. 

Teeth (peristome'). As in the genus. Inner membrane yellow. 

Annulus. Present. 

Spores. Mature in fall and winter. Rarely fruiting in Great 

Distribution. Found in America, Europe and Asia. This is 
one of the five mosses which Sir Wm. Jackson Hooker found in 
the early part of the igth Century at "Ultima Thule" of Antarctic 


Mosses and Lichens 

The Rose Bryum, Bryum roseum, Schreb. See Plate XVIII. 
Habit and habitat. Bryum roseum is one of the largest and 
showiest of the Bryums known outside the tropics. It is found 
in shaded woods at the bases of trees and 
decayed logs. Under favourable circum- 
stances this species forms tufts, but usually 
the plants are scattered among other mosses. 
Name. The specific name refers to the 
rose-like arrangement of the crown leaves, 
Latin roseus, a rose. 

Plant (gametophyte). Fine and large, 

Plant with stolons. 


B. roseum. 

stems i to 2 inches long, with few branches; creeping stems 
(stolons) present, from which new plants arise. 

Leaves. At the apex crowded to form a rosette, each leaf spat- 
ulate; apex taper-pointed; margin acutely toothed from the middle 
upward, reflexed to the base, wavy when 
dry ; -vein (costa) broad and reddish at the 
base, narrowed upward and produced be- 
yond the apex ; cells loose and filled with 
chlorophyll. Stem-leaves lying close to the 
stem, oblong-lance-shaped, small and thin. 

Apex of leaf. 

Male flower and bracts. 
Bryum roseum. 


Male plant. 


Mnium Mosses 

Habit of flowering. Male flowers in separate tufts from the 
female flowers (dioicous), arranged at the apex of the stems and 
surrounded with radiating leaves. 

Veil (calyptra). Split up 
one side. 

Spore-case. Single or in clus- 
ters, oblong-conical, pendent, 
and slightly incurved, solid and 
not constricted under the mouth 
when dry. 

Pedicel (seta). Dark purple, 

With lid. Without lid. 

long and solid. I to i inches 

B. roseum. Portion 
of peristome. 


Lid (operculum). Slightly convex with a tiny nip- 
ple in the centre, dark-purple. 

Teeth (peristome}. Very long, inner segments 
orange-coloured, perforated along the keel. 
Annulus. Compound, rolling back as the lid falls. 
Spores. Mature in autumn. 

Distribution. On the Eastern and Western slopes of North 
America, also in Europe, Asia and Africa. 

Genus MNIUM, Linn. 

The species of the Genus Mnium are handsome mosses, usu- 
ally tall and robust, with large, translucent leaves. They may 
be looked for about the bases of trees, on lawns, along roadsides, 
and in damp woods. They are especially attractive on the banks 
of mountain brooks or in the cool water of bubbling springs. 
The beginner may recognise some members of the genus 
by the dainty rosettes on the summits of the male plants, 

M . pttnctatum. Var. elatum. 

M. affine. Apex of leaf- 
spiny border, single. 

Mosses and Lichens 

each rosette made of pale-green leaves with a beaded centre of 
darker green. Some species have the fertile stems erect with 
branches growing from near their bases or from creeping stems. 
The branches are often different from the main stems, being fern- 
like, prostrate, or curved with rooting tips so as to form succes- 
sions of miniature arches. 

The great Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus, named the 
group from the Greek pvfov, an ancient word for "moss." 

M. cuspidatum. Spiny border, single. 

M. hornum. Spiny 
border, double. 

M. punctatum. 
Border entire. 

Af . punctatum. Apex of leaf 

M . cuspidatum. 
Spiny border, 

Af. hornum. Apex of leaf. 

f The leaves of all the Mniums are dainty and fresh and their 
cell-structure and their colour are so delicate that it will repay one 
to examine them with a hand lens or the low power of a com- 
pound microscope. The leaves are usually large, rounded, more 
or less elliptic or tongue-shaped ; the margin usually has a dis- 
tinct border and is frequently spiny toothed; the vein either van- 
ishes below or extends beyond the apex; the cells are smooth, 
rounded-hexagonal or rarely elongated. 


Mniutn Mosses 

'M.cuspidatwr.. Plant with 
fertile branch on the right 
and sterile branch on the left. 

The spore-cases are more or 
less pendulous, on long and 
slender, often clustered pedicels. 
They are oblong-cylindrical or 
oval, never pear-shaped. The 
lids are convex, long-beaked, 
taper-pointed, or tipped with a 
tiny blunt point. The annulus 
is usually conspicuous, rolling 
back as the lid falls. 

The peristome is double, the 
outer teeth being long and nar- 
row or lance-shaped, closely 
cross-barred below, with the 
bars evident on the inner surface; 
the inner membrane is keeled 
and reaches to the middle of 
the outer teeth, where it divides 
into large segments alternating 
with two or three thread-like 

M. affine. Portion of 

M . cuspidal-urn. 
Inner membrane. 

M. cuspidatum. 


Mosses and Lichens 

segments (cilia). Sometimes the cilia have spurs attached at 
intervals to the margins. 

There are ninety-nine species in all, thirty-three in North 
America. Of the fifteen species which appear in the Eastern 
States, five will be found with entire borders to the leaves, five 
with a single row of teeth, and five with a double row. 

The Pointed Mnium, Mnium cuspidatum, Hedw. 

Habit and habitat. The Pointed Mnium (Mnium cuspidatum) 
is one of the prettiest of the genus and is to be found in shaded 
places on the ground in almost every state and territory in the 

Name. J. G. Hedwig, a German botanist, named this species 
from the Latin cuspidatum, a point, on account of the apex of 
the leaves. 


M, cuspidatum. 

Branch leaf. 

Plants (gametophyte). Simple, the young shoots bright pale- 
green, the older stems dark-green, the sterile shoots prostrate 
or somewhat erect. 

Leaves. All with a short sharp point at the apex, vein 
extending beyond the apex to form the point. Stem-leaves 
with the base growing downward on the stem (decurrent) 
oval-oblong or obovate-spatulate ; branch-leaves smaller, 
rounded-oval; all much crisped when dry; margin with 3 to 5 
rows of yellow cells, and a single row of spiny teeth in the 
upper half. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichatial leaves). Spat- 





Frullania Eboracensis, Gottsche 


Frullania Eboracensis, Gottsche 


Porella platyphylla 

Copyright, 1907, by Doubleday, Page & Company 

Plilidium ciliare, Nees 


Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers in the same 
cluster (synoicous). 

Veil (calyptrd). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Solitary, somewhat pendulous, oval-oblong. 

Pedicel. Solitary, pale. 

Lid (pperculum). Conical, obtuse. 

Annulus. Narrow, rolling back as the lid is pushed off. 

Teeth (peristome). The outer yellow, the inner orange, solid, 
the segments open on the keel, thread-like and sharp-pointed at 
the apex ; cilia usually three between each tooth. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. In almost every state of the Union, also in 

Mnium affine, Bland. 

Habit and habitat. Common on shaded banks and roots of 
trees. Bright, pale-green, loosely tufted with long sterile shoots 
arched or prostrate. 

Name. The specific name, affine, from the 
Latin affinis, related, refers to the resemblance of 
this species to Mnium cuspidatum with which it 
has often been confused. 

Plant (gametophyte}. One to two inches 
high with brown filaments at the base. 

Leaves. Spreading, recurved and crisped on 
the borders when dry; the lower stem-leaves 
round egg-shaped with the narrow end next to 
the stem; the middle stem-leaves oblong egg- 
shaped, growing more or less down the stem; the upper 

Stem with leaves. 

Apex with vein and marginal cells. 
M. cuspidatum. 

Spore -case 
without lid. 

Mosses and Lichens 

stem-leaves inverted egg-shaped and long spatulate crowded 
into a rosette; margins acutely toothed all round; vein extending 
beyond the apex to form a sharp point. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous) ; male plants terminating in disks. 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one 

Spore-case. Clustered, i to 
3, rarely 5 to 6; pendent, oblong; 
green until fully ripe, then yel- 

Pedicel (seta). Slender, i to 
inches long. 

Jl. cMspidatum. Spore-cases with lids. 


M . affine. 


Lid (operculum). Convex, short, sharp-pointed. 
Teeth (peristome). As in the genus. The outer yellow, the 
inner orange. 

Annulus. Narrow, rolling back as the lid falls. 
Spores. Mature in spring. 
Distribution. Universal. 



Portion of peristome 
with three outer teeth, 
four inner and groups 
of cilia. 

Inner peri- 
gonial leaf 

with an- 
ther idi a 
and para* 


M. afflnt. 

with lid. 

Mnium hornum, Linn. 
Habit and habitat. Robust in dense tufts, on damp earth in 
woods, about the roots of trees, and on rocks. 

Name. The specific name, hornum, probably refers to the 
horny border. 

Plant (gametophyte). The young plants are bright-green, the 
older are dark-green ; stems, \ to 2 inches high, simple erect; 
sterile shoots, erect from the base. 

Leaves. The lowest minute, the upper gradually increasing 
in size, the terminal forming a rosette, all oblong-lance-shaped, 

apex more or less acute with a 
sharp little point; base growing 
slightly down the stem ; margin 
with a strong red border, spiny 
toothed from below the middle, 
the teeth in a double row ; vein 

Plant with 

Spiny margin; 
the spines in a 
double row. 

Mosses and Lichens 

vanishing below the apex, spiny above at the back ; cells thick- 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). Male flowers surrounded with a rosette of 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Narrowly oval with a narrow tapering neck 
somewhat pendulous, finally horizontal, somewhat inflated when 
empty, pale-yellow with a red rim. 

Pedicel (seta). Solitary, I to i inches long, arched above. 
Lid (operculum). Conical, tipped with a short, sharp point. 
Annulus. Narrow. 
Teeth (peristome). As in the genus. 
Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Europe, Africa, and North America. 
The Dotted Mnium, Mnium punctatum, Hedw. 
Habit and habitat. The Dotted Mnium may be looked for 
about cold springs and along the borders of mountain brooks. 

It grows in loose dark or yellowish 
green tufts, each plant standing stiff and 
erect with rusty-brown hairs. 

The leaves are large, not very close 
together on the stem and of a delicate 
translucent green. A hand lens will 
show them to have a hard, brown, entire 
margin notched at the rounded apex, 
and a tiny little point in the notch. 
The fruits are not often found, but when present are oval, green 
cylinders with sharp-pointed lids, hori- 
zontal or inclined on slender pedicels. 

Name. The specific name, the Latin 
punctatum, dotted, was given by J. G. 
Hedwig, on account of the cell structure. 
Plant (gametophyte). Tall, robust, j 
to 6 inches high, the dark-green sterile 
shoots erect; all covered the whole length 
with brown filaments. 

Leaves. Remote on branches and 
stems, open, turned back from the stem, 
large, the lower round, oval, inserted onl 


M.hornum. Spore-case with 
lid and with a bract on the 

M . hornum. Apex of leaf 
to show spiny margin. 





by the enlarged vein ; the upper 4 to 6 
in a rosette, each leaf broadly oval, 
tapering toward the base; apex slightly 
notched, with a sharp point in the notch; 
margin entire, brown, thick and hard; 
vein purplish, abruptly vanishing near 
apex, extending down the stem. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous); 
male plants more slender than the female, 
with but few stem leaves, and the leaves at the summit arranged 
as a rosette about the male flowers (antheridia). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side, remaining on the spore- 
case all winter but falling early in the spring. 

Spore-case. Oval, green when mature, brown when older, 
ovate-oblong, somewhat pendulous, finally horizontal. 

Stem with 

M. punctatutn. 

Var. elatum. 

M. punctatum. 

Spore-case with lid. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Aulacomnium palustre, Schwaegr. 

Habit and habitat. In loose or dense tufts i to 5 inches 
deep, yellow or dirty-green above, red-brown within. Found on 
borders of swamps, on plains, or on mountains. 

Name. The specific name palustre, Latin, palus, a swamp, 
refers to the habit of the moss. 

Female plant with sporophyte and two 
Whip-like"branch sterile branches with rhizoids at their Stem with whip- 

with gemmae, base. like branch. 

A. palustre. 

Plants (gametophyte). Robust, closely covered with red- 
brown felted filaments, often producing whip-like branches with 
clusters of bud-like growths at the apex. 

Leaves. Usually crowded, more or less crisped and twisted 
when dry, narrowly lance-shaped; apex obtuse or pointed; 
margin finely toothed toward the apex, rolled back below; vein 
vanishing below the apex; cells with tiny projections on both 








Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). Male flower-clusters bud-like. 
Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 
Spore-case. Oblong, unsymmetrical. 
Pedicel. i to 2 inches long. 
Lid (operculum). Conical. 
Annulus. Large, compound, rolling 
back as the lid falls. 

Teeth (peristome}. Long, acute, the seg- 
ments of the inner membrane about as long, 
with 3 to 4 cilia intermediate. 

Spores. Maturing in early summer. 
Distribution. Universal. 
Aulacomnium heterostichum, Bruch & 
Schimp. See Plate XX. 

Habit and habitat. In wide pale- 
green tufts on shady banks and slopes in 
the woods. 

Name. The specific name, hetero- 
stichum, is a compound of two Greek 
words, ere/905, other, and ort^o?, rank, 
referring to two kinds of leaves. 

Plant (gametophyte). Stems densely 
covered with red-brown filaments (to- 

Leaves. Inclined to one side; lower 
obovate, upper gradually longer and ob- 
ovate-oblong, incurved on one side ; apex 
nearly flat, obtusely pointed (apiculate) ; 

A. androzynum. 
Old spore-case. 
(Seepage 235.) 

Cross section of central 
strand of stem. 
A, falustre 

Cross section of leaf. Spore-case with veil. 

A. heterostichum. 


Mosses and Lichens 

A. hetetoftichum. 

margin saw-toothed from the middle up- 
ward; vein (costa) yellow-brown, vanishing 
below the apex. 

Habit of flowering. 
Male and female flowers on 
one plant (monoicous). 
The male flower-clusters, 
sessile along the stems, 
and with rootlets at the 
base. The inner leaves of 
the clusters broadly ovate- 
concave, abruptly pointed 
and veined. 

Veil (calyptra). Split 
up one side. 

Spore-case. Oblong, slightly incurved 
and inclined. 

Pedicel (seta), Short, erect. 

Lid (operculuni). Con- 
vex, obtusely short-beaked. 
Annulus. Large, roll- 
ing back as the lid falls*. 

Teeth ( peristome ) . 
Large, the inner segments 
open, but not disjoined, 
cilia 2 to 3. 

Spores. Mature 
in June. 

Asia, Japan, North 

Old spore-case. . 

A. heterostichum. America. 

Antheridia and 


A. heterostichttm. Leaves. 



The Polytrichaceae form a large family which has been 
divided into some three tribes, nine genera, and about two 
hundred species, if the plants of the whole world are considered. 

The species are often of large size and are probably the most 
highly developed of all the mosses. One may look for the Amer- 
ican species by roadside banks, in fields and open woods. They 
grow in conspicuous patches and may be easily recognised by 
their mitrate or hood-like veils, their long wiry pedicels, their 
regularly cylindrical or angular spore-cases with mouths covered 
by a thin membrane bordered with 32 or 64 blunt teeth, and by 
their firm and rigid leaves with delicate vertical blades of cells 
(lamella?) on the upper surface. 


Veil. Hood-like, spore-case symmetrical or nearly so; leaves 
wavy and crisp when dry, lamellae few (2 to 8), 
straight, teeth 32 Catharinea. 

Lamellae (two). 
Cross sections of leaves. 

P. brachyphylltMn. 
Spore -case with 
hairy veiL 

tenue. Spore- 
case, not angu- 


Tip of spore-case; teeth 

C. undulata. 

Veil. Mitrate, densely hairy. 

Spore-case not angular, teeth often 32 
Spore-case 4- to 6-angled, teeth 64 . . 

P. pili]crv.m. 



. Pogonatum. 

Mosses and Lichens 


Genus CATHARINEA, Ehrh. 

The members of this genus will always attract attention from 
their habit of growing in extensive patches in partly shaded 
places. The leafy part of the plant is erect and large enough to 

form soft and luxuriantly 
green areas very conspicuous 
when beset with slender ped- 
icels bearing either pale im- 
mature spore-cases or shining 
rich-coloured mature ones. 
The genus was founded by 
Friedrich Ehrhart in honour of 
Catharine II, Empress of Rus- 
sia. The leaves are strap- 

P, commune. Teeth sixty-four, summit , . 

of spore-case. (See page 239.) shaped Or OVal-Oblong, rich 111 

leaf-green and wavy when fresh, and curled 
or twisted in various directions when dry; 
the apex is acute or obtuse and the base is 
not sheathing; the vein bears a few lamellae 
toward the apex. 

The veils are split up one side and are 
sometimes rough. 

Pogonatum. Teeth 
thirty-two. (See p. 239.) 

The spore-cases are oval cylindrical, nodding, or arched, with 
long-beaked lids and are borne on long exserted pedicels. 

The little column (columella) within the spore-case is termin- 
ated by a disk-like mem- 
brane (epiphragm). 

The peristome is 
simple, of 32 tongue- 
like teeth united at the 
base; the tips are united 
by their inner faces to 
processes on the edge of 
the epiphragm so that 
the epiphragm hangs 
down irom them by 
the length of the pro- 

C. undulata. Apex of leaf 
with lamellae. 

With lid. With veil 
C. angustata. Spore- 


Catharine Mosses 

Apex of leaf. 

C , angustata. 

There are about forty-eight species known in all, nineteen 
being found in North America. 

The Slender Catharinea, Catharinea angustata, Brid. See 
Plate IV. 

Habit and habitat. Very com- 
mon in conspicuous patches on the 
ground at the bases of trees, along 
roadsides, and in 
woods. The fruits 
and the bright red 
rosettes of the male 
plants may be found 
in winter. In cold 
or dry weather this 
moss curls up its 
leaves so as to protect the upper deli- 
cate surface from frost and too 
rapid evaporation. 

Name. The specific name 
angustata, the Latin for "narrow- 
ed," refers to the slender habit of 
the plant. 

Plant (gametophyte). Simple or 
forked, erect, bearing one to three 

Leaves. Long, narrowly strap- 
Male plant shaped, wavy on the borders. Apex 
serrate; base not sheathing; mar- 
gin serrate only in the upper half. Lamellae 5 to 7. 

Habit of flowering. Dioicous, male flower on one plant, 
female flowers on another. 

Veil (calyptra). Membranous, split up one side, hairy at the 

Spore-case. Nearly erect, narrowly cylindrical, green or dark- 
purple, shining. 

Pedicel (seta). Red, about one inch high. 
Lid (operculum). Dome-like, abruptly long-beaked. 
Teeth (peristome) . Thirty-two, blunt, connected at the 
base, attached by the tips to the disk at the summit of the 


Female plant. 

C. angustata. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Spores. Mature in winter. 

Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia. 

The Wavy-leaved Catharinea, Catharinea 
undulata, Web, & Mohr. 

Catharinea undulata differs from C. angustata 
in the leaves being more acute and with margins 
toothed throughout. Also it is a rather larger plant 
with less-prominent lamellae and 
with a monoicous inflorescence. 

Apex of leaf. 

Top of spore-case with 

Spore-case the teeth united near Cross section of a leaf to show 
with veiL their tips to an epiphragm. lamellae erect from the vein. Leaf. 

C. undulata. 


Genus POGONATUM, Beauv. 

The Pogonatum mosses grow in tufts on the ground, often 
with a green felt of thread-like cells (protonema) at the base. The 
plants are short and simple, or long and robust; with branches 
starting below the leaves at the base of the pedicel, or half-way 
up to the stem. The male plants continue to grow from the cen- 
tre of a terminal rosette of bracts. 

The leaves are erect or spreading, the upper-half lance-shaped 
or strap-shaped; the base is clasping, with large pale cells; 
the margins are entire or serrate; the vein is broad, with numer- 
ous lamellae occupying almost the entire width of the leaf-blade, 
and with their terminal cells smooth or bearing tiny projections 

The generic name Pogonatum, from the Greek Tr&xy&n/, a beard, 
refers to the veil, which is hairy and almost covers the spore-case. 

The spore-cases are cylindrical, but not angular. They are 


Hair-cap Mosses 

P. brevicaule. Top of spore-case with 33 teeth 
united by their tips to a membrane. 

P. Alpinum Leaf 
with serrate mar- 
gin and numerous 

P. brevicaule. 
Stem with peri- 
chaetial leaves. 

P. breviccuk. 
Spore-case with 

P. urnigerum. 
Spore-case with 

nearly symmetrical, erect, or 

turned to one side, with flat 

lids having a central point. They 

are borne on erect pedicels. 
The peristome is simple, of 

32 blunt teeth, orange in the 

middle, united at the base and 

appearing as if attached at the 

apices to a membranous disk 

(epiphragni) . 

There are one hundred and 

fifty-six species known in all, 

nine in North America. 

The Short-stemmed Hair- 
cap Moss, Pogonatum brevi- 

caule, Beauv. See Colour Plate 


Habit and habitat. The short- 
stemmed Pogonatum is remarkable 
because of its habit of retaining the 
protonema, which persists as a 
bright-green felt covering the 
ground at the base of the plants. 
It binds the crumbling earth so that 
one may gather it in sheets. As 
the moss commonly grows in clay- 
banks, in ditches, and in places 
rather insecure, it may be that the 
habit of retaining the protonema 
has been evolved in the struggle for 
existence to enable it to live in situ- 
ations too insecure to be occupied by other mosses. 


P. brevicavle. 
Spore-case with 


Mosses and Lichens 

Name. The specific name brevicaule, from the Latin brevis, 
short, and caulis, stem, refers to the height of the plant. 

Plant (game topbyte) . Short, sim- 
ple; J to i of an inch high. The 
male plants are minute and bud- 

Leaves. Five or six, erect, lance- 
shaped; apex awned; base broad, 
transparent; margin serrate, with 
appressed teeth ; lamella few, 5 to 6 
cells deep, the terminal one smooth 

Blunt teeth. 


P. brevicaule. 


P. brevicaule. Plant 
with a sporophyte. 

and elliptic in section. Male-duster 
leaves erect, curved back from the 
middle, lapping as shingles,broadly 
obcordate; vein passing beyond the 
apex to form a sharp point. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel. 
Sheathing, long, membranous, ab- Section of lameAe . 
ruptly narrowed to a long, erect, P. brevicaule. 
obtusely serrate point. 
Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). Male plants bud-like. 

Veil (calyptra). Hairy, reaching to the base of the 

Spore-case. Cylindrical, broadest at the mouth, 
below the mouth when dry, rough with tiny 

Pedicel (seta}. Twisted, i to 2 inches long. 
Lid (operculum). Flat, with a point at the centre. 
Teetb (peristome). White, simple, of 32 blunt teeth. 
Spores. Mature in winter. 



Hair-cap Mosses 

Distribution. North America ; Eastern States, north to New- 
foundland, west to Ontario. 

The Short-leaved Hair-cap Moss, Pogonatum brachyphyl- 
lum, (Michx.) Beauv. 

Habit and habitat. The short-leaved Pogonatum is found on 
sandy or loamy soil. The plants do not grow close together, 
but scattered somewhat, on a persistent green felt of slender alga- 
like threads. 

Name. The specific name brachyphyllum is compounded of 
the Greek fipaxu, short, and <j>v\\ov, a leaf. 

Plants (gametopbyte) . Olive-green or dark-brown when old; 
stems rigid, short, to f of an inch long. 

Leaves. In rosettes at the 
summit of the stems, curved, 
appressed and brown when 
dry, very short, strap-shaped; 
apex blunt; margin entire; 
vein broad; lamellce numer- 
ous, 6 to 7 cells deep, irregu- 
lar, the terminal cell smooth, 
elliptic in section; base clear 
with large cells. 

Habit of flowering. Male 
and female flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Hairy, dirty-brown, reaching to the middle 
of the spore-case. 

Sport -case. Yellow-brown, erect or curved, broadest at the 
mouth, rough with tiny projections. 

Pedicel (seta). Erect, short i to i inches long, twisted. 
Lid (operculum). Flat, beak short, blunt-pointed. 
Teeth (perislome). Simple and blunt. Thirty-two in num- 

Spores. Mature in winter. 

Distribution. Pine barrens of New Jersey, south to Florida 
and Louisiana. 

The Hair-like Hair-cap, Pogonatum capillare, (Michx.) Brid. 
Habit and habitat. Pale-green plants growing rather close 

Name. The specific name capillare is the Latin for "hair- 
like," referring to the slender character of the stem, leaves and teeth. 


P. brachyphyllum. 
Spore-case with veil. 

P. brachyphyllum. 
Spore-case with lid. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Plant (gametopbyte). Simple, or increasing by shoots from 
the summit of the main stem, I to } inches high, naked below, 
loosely leafy above. 

Leaves. Curled when dry, spreading when moist, \ to f of an 
inch long, broadly lance-shaped; base transparent; margin ser- 
rate, with many-celled, triangular teeth; lamellae, numerous, 30 to 
35, cells of the lamellae 5 to 7 deep, the terminal broadest in sec- 
tion with tiny projections on the flat surface. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Hairy, covering the spore-case to the base. 

Spore-case. Erect, egg-shaped, -^ of an inch long, with tiny 
projections on the surface, not contracted below the mouth when 

Pedicel (seta). One-half to one and a half inches long, 
slender, flexuous, erect. 

Lid (operculum). Hemispherical at the enlarged base, abruptly 

Teeth (peristome) . Thirty-two in number, long and narrow. 

Spores. Mature in winter. 

Distribution. Rare in the mountains of New York, common 
in the mountains of New England; also along the Gaspe Coast to 
Newfoundland, west to the Rocky Mountains. 

The Urn-bearing Hair-cap Moss, Pogonatum urnigerum, 
(L.) Beauv. 

Habit and babitat. Pale-green or with a bloom, growing in 
wide mats but not crowded. On the banks and by streams. 

Name. The specific name urnigerum, urn-bearer, refers to 
the spore-case. 

Plants (gametopbyte). Erect, i to 3 inches high, the branches 
reaching the same height and densely leafy, each branch of the 
female plant bearing a spore-case. Male plants continue to grow 
from the centre of the terminal rosette. 

Leaves. Pale-green or brown, lance-shaped, erect when 
dry, spreading when wet; apex acute; base short, clasping; vein 
extending slightly beyond the apex of the leaf as an awn; lamel- 
lae numerous, 40 to 50; 6 cells high, the terminal oval, with tiny 
projections (papillose}, lower leaves scale-like. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the summits 
of separate plants (dioicous). 


Hair-cap Mosse 

Veil (calyptrd). Yellow-brown, covering the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect, red-brown, 
cylindrical or egg-shaped, con- 
tracted below the mouth when 
dry, the surface rough with tiny 
projections (papillose), the neck 

nearly SmOOth. r^'w^of^ameUas 

Pedicel. Red-yellow, slender, ceils, the terminal 
i to i inches long. 

Lid (operculwri) . Broad, coni- 
cal, beak short and straight, sur- 
face rough with tiny projections. 

Teeth (peristome). Thirty-two, 
symmetrical, short and broad. 

cell papillose. 

Spores. Mature 
and winter. 

in autumn 

. Leaf. 

p - w * iger :., 

The Alpine Hair-cap Moss, Pogonatum Alpinum, (L.) 

Habit and habitat. Growing in wide mats on rough stony 
and grassy places on all mountains. This is a 
pretty moss, larger than most Hair-cap mosses 
and may be readily distinguished from the others 
by its smooth spore-case, narrower at the mouth 
than below, obliquely inclined to the red pedi- 
cel, and by its veil which does not reach to the 
base of the spore-case. 

Name. The name refers to its habit of grow- 
^ ing in mountain regions. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Erect, 2$ 
to 7 inches high, the branches at- 
taining an equal height, and densely 
leafy; stems naked and subterra- 
nean at the base. Male plants i to 2^ 
inches high. 

Leaves. Erect, or recurved, 
narrow iy lance-shaped ; apex awl- 

tical row of cells J 

from lamellae, shaped, spiny on the back; base 
white ' sheathing, margins incurved, 
red, serrate; lamellae numerous p - Al & m - Leaf. 



Mosses and Lichens 

20 to 30, covering most of the upper half of the blade, 6 to 7 
cells deep, the terminal cell oval in section with tiny projection 

Leaves at the base of the -pedicel (pericbcetial leaves). Sheath- 
ing, longer, without lamellae. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the summits 
of separate plants, (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Hairy, not covering the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Nearly cylindrical to egg-shaped, smooth, light- 
green, inclined or horizontal, somewhat curved. 

Pedicel (seta). Flexuose, i to 2 inches long. 

Lid (operculum). Small with a slender beak. 

Teeth (peristome). Thirty-two in number, blunt. 

Spores. Mature in late summer. 

Distribution. In mountainous regions. 



sJioot Found in extensive patches by 

roadsides and in P en woods - 

Brown and unattractive when dry, 

fresh and luxuriantly green when 

moist, owing 

to the habit of 

inrolling the 

ale cluster thin margins 

of Jt-rst year, of the leaves 

and folding 
them against the stem 
in dry air and of un- 
rolling and turning 
them at right angles to 
the stem in damp air. 
The Genus Poly- 
trichum contains 
plants which were 
the first to be recog- 


P. j-uniperinum. . . . 

Male plant. niSCd 3S plants With- 

P. juniperinum. Leaves with 
inrolled margins. 


Hairy-cap Mosses 

out flowers." Pliny called them "golden maiden-hair." They 
were dedicated to Venus and afterward to the Virgin Mary. 
Because of this fancied resemblance of the veils to a maiden's 
tresses, they were used to make a wash which was supposed to 
strengthen the hair. 

Polytrichum commune. Crc ss- 
section of stem. 

With lid. Without lid. With veil 

P. commune. Spore-cases. 

The plants are very tall, i to 18 inches high, and live on year 
after year, growing perpendicularly from the centre of the male 
(aniberidial) flower-heads or from horizontal underground stems, 
or from the side of main stems. The stems (see 
page 45) are stout, with almost woody fibres run- 
ning up through them. 

The leaves are long and slender, with a lance- 
shaped, awned apex and a membranous sheathing 
base; the vein is broad and covered by numerous 
thin green blades (lamella, see page 44), and the 
margins are entire or serrate, often inrolled. 

The generic name Polytrichum is composed of 
two Greek words, TTO\W, many, and 0pl%, a hair, 
and refers to the large mitrate, hairy veil which 
may partially or entirely cover the spore-case. 

The spore-cases are erect or horizontal with 4 to 
6 angles, a distinct basal portion (apophysis, see 
page 57), and lids conical or flattened-convex with 
a point at the centre. 

The peristome is single, of 64 short, rigid teeth 
united at the base and joined above to a thin circular 
disk (epiphragm) which terminates a central column. 


M. juniperin- 
um. Leaf with 
unrolled mar- 

Mosses and Lichens 

The spores small and smooth. 

There are ninety-nine species in all, about fifteen of them 
known in North America. 



I. Leaves entire, margins inflexed, 
apex obtuse, P. sexangulare. 

Apex rough-awned. 

Awn coloured brown or red, 
short. Leaves spreading 
when moist, somewhat re- 
curved . . P. funiperinum. 

Awn whitish, transparent, 

long P. piliferum. 

II. Leaves serrate. 

Marginal cells of lamellae not 
enlarged in section, higher 
than broad. 

Spore-case egg-shaped, ob- 
scurely angled. 

Lid beaked P. gracile. 

Spore-case oblong, 4- to 6- 

Lid acutely conic, P. formosum. 

Marginal cells of lamellae en- 
larged, broader than high, 
2 to i P. Ohiense. 

Marginal cells of lamellae semi- 
lunar, with two prominent 
horns at corners, P. commune. 

P. in nipsrinum. 

P. piliferum. 

P. Ohiense. 

Vertical rows of cells from lamella. 
(a) Terminal cell broader than 
high; (6) terminal cell semilunar. 


P. gracile. 

Hairy-cap Mosses 

Slender Hairy-cap, Polytrichum gracile, Dicks. 

Habit and habitat. The slender Polytrichum is not common. 
It may be found densely tufted on the ground in woods, or on 

Name. The specific name gracile is from the Latin gracilis, 

Plant (gametopbyte). Light green, erect, I to 4 inches high, 
simple above, divided at the base and covered with soft matted hairs. 

Leaves. Spreading or erect when 
dry, broadly lance-shaped ; apex sharply 
taper- pointed ; base sheathing ; vein 
broad ; margins serrate ; lamellae 50 to 40, 
not covering all of the leaf blade, 4 to 6 
cells deep, the terminal cell elliptic in 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (peri" 
cbcetial leaves}. Sheathing, an inch long. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants, (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Orange, not quite 
covering the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect or horizontal, 
broadly egg-shaped; indistinctly six- 
angled, mouth small ; apophysis obscure. 

Pedicel (seta). Slender, orange, 
2 inches long. 

Lid(operculum). Conic, beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). With 64 teeth often confluent and unequal. 

Spores. Mature in summer. 


P. gracile. 

Portion of peristome. 

Spore-case with lid. 

P. gracile. 

Distribution. From the mountains of Virginia to .Newfound- 
land and west to the Rocky Mountains. Also in Europe, Asia 
and the Pacific Isles. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Ohio Hairy-cap, Polytrichum Ohiense, Ren. and Card. 

Habit and habitat. Found on the ground growing loosely in 
patches. Distinguished from P. formosum* by the form of the 
spore-case, which is more or less narrowed toward the base and 
has an indistinct apophysis, but chiefly distinguished by the form 
of the marginal cells of the lamellae, a character which separates 
it from all our other species of Polytrichum. 

Name. The specific name Ohiense refers to the fact that the 
type specimen came from Ohio. 

Plant (gametophyte). Erect, simple or divided, i to 3 inches 
high, woolly below. 



Vertical sections of lamellae to show terminal cells. 
P. Ohiense. 

Leaves. Spreading when moist, erect and slightly twisted 
when dry; apex narrowly taper-pointed, the awn spiny; base 
white, sheathing; margin serrate; lamella 30 to 40; cells 5 to 7 
deep, the marginal cell much larger, broader than high, stirrup- 
shaped in section. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichatial leaves). Resembling 
the stem-leaves, longer and with a longer transparent base. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Pale, small, ragged, not concealing the 

Spore-case. Erect, finally horizontal, with 4 to 6 acute angles, 
the base tapering into an indistinct apophysis. 

Pedicel (seta). Red below, paler above, 2 to 4 inches long. 

Lid (operculum). Conic and taper-pointed, bordered with 

Teeth (peristome) . Si xty-four. 

* NOTE. Polytrichum formosum seems to be rare in America, having 
been reported only from Miquelon Island, near Newfoundland. 


Hairy-cap Mosses 

Spores. Rust colour, ripe in summer. 
Distribution. North Carolina to Prince 
Edward's Island, and west to Minnesota and 
British Columbia. Also in Norway and Sweden. 
The Awned Hairy-cap, Polytricbum pili- 
ferum, Schreb. 

Habit and babitat. Found in sandy fields, on 
rocks or on old roofs, conspicuous on account of the white 

hair-like tips and the bluish- 
white bloom of the leaves; 
the plants in clusters but not 
matted together. The male 
flower-clusters surrounded with 
red bracts. The specific name 
piliferum is compounded of two 
Greek words, mXc?, hair, and 
<e/3&), to bear, referring to the 
numerous white hairs of the 

Plants (gametopbyte) . Short, 
I to i finches high, simple from 
subterranean creeping shoots, 
wiry and naked below, densely 
leafy above. 

Leaves. The upper long 
lance-shaped, the lower oval, 
appressed to the stem when dry, 
spreading when moist ; apex 
smooth on the back, prolonged 
iectylifr into a rough, hair-like awn; 
margin entire, inflexed upon the 
upper surface of the leaf-blade; 
vein red, becoming suddenly 

I YoUnj Shoot' transparent at the apex; lamella 

about 30, 4 to 7 cells deep, the 
upper cell pointed in section. 

Leaves at the base of the seta 
(pericbcetial leaves). Narrowly 
tongue-shaped, erect, concave, 


P. piltferum. Plant with sporophyte and 
with creeping shoots at the base. 

Mosses and Lichens 

without lamellae; base sheathing, transparent, shorter than the 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Mitrate, covering the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect, finally 
horizontal, egg-shaped, 
4-angled. Apophysis distinct, 
constricted above where it 
passes into the spore-case. 
\ /N Pedicel (seta). Erect, I to 

\ \ii l ^ mcnes l n g- 

Lid (operculum). With a 

short stout beak, red or orange. 

Teeth (peristome). Sym- 
metrical, sixty-four in number. 

Spores. Smooth, ripe in 

Distribution. America, 
Europe and Asia. 

P. filiferum. 
Perichaetial leaves. 

P. piliierum. 


Perigonial leaves. 
P. piliferum. 

Vertical section 
of lamellate show 
pointed terminal 

Juniper Hairy-cap, Polytrichum juniperinum, Willd. See 
Plate XXI. 

Habit and habitat. Common by damp sandy roadsides, or in 
peat-bogs. This is one of the Hairy-caps which in dry air turns 
its leaves up against the sun in order to protect the delicate 
lamellae from his rays. It as well as P. piliferum, is conspicuous 
for its bluish-white bloom, but differs from P. piliferum in that 
the leaves are tipped with a short red awn instead of with one 
long, white, and hair-like. 

Name. Carl Ludwig Willdenow named this pretty moss 
juniperinum from its resemblance to tiny Juniper trees. 


Hairy-cap Mosses 

Plant (gametophyte). Simple or forked, erect, i to 4 inches 
high from subterranean shoots. 

Leaves. Erect, when dry, spreading when 
moist, lance-like ; apex a rough red awn ; base 
enlarged and sheathing; vein rough; margins 
entire, indexed lamella 40 to 50, 5 to 6 cells deep ; 
cells square in section, the terminal ^-toothed. 
Bracts of male flower-cluster short and abruptly 

P. p&ifentm. 
Subterranean shoot. 

P. juniperinutn. Vertical 
sections of lamellae to show 
papillose terminal cell. 

Spore-case Spore-case 
with veil. with lid, 
Cluster- P. juniperinum. 

P. juniperinum. 

JITS* ije,an 

two years growth marked by the 
bracts of a terminal rosette. 

Leaves at He base of the pedicel 
(perichatial leaves). Sheathing, with- 
out lamellae. 

Habit of flowering. Male and 
female flowers on separate plants 

Veil (calyptra). Large, covering 
the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect, finally hori- 
Male plant with zo ntal, 4~angled ] apophysis small, 
red, shield-like. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Pedicel (seta). Red-orange, becoming brown, stout, glossy, 
to 2\ inches high. 

Lid (operculum). Red, flattened-convex with a short beak. 
Teeth (peristome). Pale, symmetrical, 
rather short, sixty-four in number. 
Spores. Ripe in summer. 
Distribution. From Florida to Alaska, 
also in Europe. 

The Common Hairy-cap, Poly- 
tricbum commune, L. See Colour Plate X. 
Habit and habitat. This moss is 
widely distributed and attains its largest 
size in peat-bogs where it may usually 
be recognised by the long stems covered 
below by the silvery bases of the leaves 
and by the angular 
spore -case which 
bears a flat disk at the 
base. It has the dis- 
tinction of being one 
of a few mosses 
which have served in 
the economy of the 
household. In the 

P. juniperinum. Spore-cases. 

north of England the plants are made into small dust- 
ing brooms and mats. Withering states that the 
plants are used for bedding by bears, and Carolus 
Linnaeus, the renowned Swedish botanist, is said, 


f . conttnttnt, 


P. juttiperinum. Cross section of leaf to show (a) lamellae growing from the inner 
surface of the vein, (s) The vein. On the left, the blade is shown one cell thiok 
and seven cells wide. 

Hairy-cap Mosses 

while on a trip in the North, to have used the dry 
plants as stuffing for his pillow and mattress and to 
have recommended it as not harbouring fleas and 
infectious diseases. 

Name. The specific name commune, common, 
describes the general distribution of this moss. 

Plant (gametopbyte} . Tall, 6 to 18 inches high; 
dark-green or red-brown. The male plants often with 
the flower-heads in an ascending series of five to six, 
marking the age of the plant; stems simple, 
rarely forking; below, leafless, with the 
basal portions of old leaves adhering; 
growth erect from the centre of the male 
heads or directly from the ground. 

Leaves. Crowded above, about ^ of 
an inch long; apex spreading and recurved, 
lance-shaped and pointed, base enlarged, 
white, glossy, sheathing; vein rough on the 
back 2nd bearing from 50-60 lamellae on the 
upper surface; margin inrolled when dry, 
serrate ; lamella 5 to 6 cells deep, the ter- 
minal the largest, semilunar or concave in 

Leaves at tbe base of the pedicel (pericbcetial leaves). White, "$. 
of an inch long, without lamellae; awn long and horny. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants, (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Covered with long silky hairs, 
concealing the spore-case. 

Spore-case. Erect, finally horizontal, 
4-angled; apophysis distinct, disk-like. 

Pedicel (seta). Stout, 
2\ to 4 inches long. 

Apex of leaf. Leaf. 

P. commune. 

Polytrichum lamella seen 
from the side. 

P. commune. 


Veil on spc re- 

Mosses and Lichens 

Lid (operculum). Flattened with an acute point at the centre. 
Teeth (peristome). Sixty-four, blunt at the apex, continuous 
at the base. United at the tips with a thin disk (epiphragm). 
Spores. Red-brown, ripe in summer. 
Distribution. Universal. 



Portion of peristome. 

P. commune. 

Summit of spore-case with 64 
teeth around the thin disk. 


The species of the Genus Diphyscium are minute stemless 
plants growing scattered on the ground and on rocks. The leaves 
are strap-shaped or lance- 
shaped with a vein. The 
cells are a to 3 layers 
deep. The leaves at the 
base of the spore-cases 
are large, saw-toothed 
or cut into a ragged 

fri n ere ' il* SMm - Growing on the ground. 

The spore-cases are immersed or exserted on an 
inconspicuous pedicel, they are oval and taper-pointed, 
oblique and swollen on one side, with a conical lid. 
The outer teeth are none, or rudimentary and the 
inner membrane forms a pale blunt cone of 16 
twisted folds. 

The name, from Sk, twice, and <f>vatctov, a vesicle, 
refers to the double wall of the spore case, which is 
due to the spore-sac being widely separated from the outer wall. 
There are eleven species known in all, one of them being 
found in North America. 


D. folum, 

The Genus Diphyscium 

The Leafy Diphyscium, Diphyscium foliosum, Mohr. 

Habit and habitat. Dark-green, widely tufted; growing on 
clay soil and shady banks along roads, also on rocks. 

Name. From the Latin foliosus, leafy. 

Plant ( gametophyte} . Simple with short stems. 

Leaves. Strap-shaped, thick, or curled in various directions 
when dry, vein (costa) present ; margin roughened with minute 
projections above and sometimes with a few distinct teeth, cells 
small and containing leaf-green. 

Top of spore-case 
with inner teeth. 

D. foliosum. 

Top of spore 
case with outer 



Leaves at the "base of ike spore-case. Ovate lance-shaped, mem- 
branous, and without leaf-green; vein excurrent, forming a 
bristle point almost as long as the blade of the leaf. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants, (dioicous). 

Veil. Acute, conical, covering the lid. 

Spore-case. Immersed in colourless 
leaves; swollen on oneside, ovate, lance- 
shaped, yellowish-green. 

Pedicel (seta). Very short. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, acute. 

Teeth (peristome). Double, the outer short, triangular, grainy, 
and with transverse bars, often perforated in the middle, pale- 
yellow, purple at the apex; the inner membranaceous, and form- 
ing a blunt cone of twisted folds. 

Spores. Small, mature in summer. 

Distribution. Europe, Asia and North America. 


Male plant. Veil. 

D. foliosum. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Genus BUXBAUMIA, Hall. 

The species of the Genus Buxbaumia are tiny stemless 
plants growing scattered over decayed wood or on the ground. 
The leaves are extremely minute, some broadly 
oval or oblong terminating in broad, spread- 
ing cilia. 

The spore-cases are the conspicuous part 
of the plant, they are egg-shaped with a con- 
ical cap, depressed above, swollen on the 
lower side, and are borne obliquely on a thick 
pedicel covered with wart-like protuberances. 
The outer skin at the margin of the mouth is 
split into irregular fragments which roll back 
from the thickened rim which is formed of 
several layers of cells (the pseudo-annulus). The teeth are in 
several rows, the outer short and rudimentary; the inner mem- 
brane (endostome) is conical tubular, of 32 fan-like plaits, slight- 
ly twisted to the right. 

There are five species known at present, three of them in 
North America. 

Albrecht von Haller, the founder of the genus, named it 
Buxbaumia in honour of its discoverer, J. C. Buxbaum. 

B. aphylla. Young 
plant with spore-case 
with a veil and sur- 
rounded by leaves. 

B. aphylla. Sporophyte 
with depressed spore-case ; and 
hairy vaginule at the base of a 
rough pedicel. 

B. aphylla. Inner membrane. 

The Genus Buxbaumia 

Buxbaumia aphylla, L. See Plate XX. 

Habit and habitat. Small stemless plants growing on earth 
and decayed wood. Coloured patches of a peculiar green-black 
felt appear at first, and on this felt, which under the microscope 
is shown to be a web of minute-branched threads (protonema), 
young plants, minute and spherical, appear. The moss has an 
annoying habit of disappearing from a station so that one can- 
not rely upon finding it the second time in the same locality. 
This sporadic habit and the scanty numbers of this moss invest 
its discovery with a charm known only to 
one who has collected it. The young spore- 
cases appear early in September. During 
the winter they remain green and with the 
warm days of early spring begin growth 
again and the colour changes from green to 
brown. By the middle of March the plants 
are ready to disperse their spores. 

Name. The specific name aphylla is a B.aphyOa. Leaf, 
compound of a, privative, without, and <f>v\\ov, a leaf. 

History. In 1712, J. C. Buxbaum, a German botanist, dis- 
covered the curious plant on which the genus was founded. He 
collected it near Astrakhan, on the banks of the Volga, and says, 
"I wished to make it into a new genus and name it after my 
father, but called to mind the fox, who was derided by the others, 
because he begged the grapes, not for himself, but for his sick 
mother." It was for a time regarded as a fungus; but in 1741 
Johann Dillenius correctly referred it to the mosses. Schimdel 
made a careful study of it in 1758, and Linnaeus also wrote of it. 

Plant (gametophyte) . Stemless, the male plants solitary in 
red-brown felt at the base of the female plant. 

Leaves. Extremely minute, oval or palm-shaped, soon disap- 
pearing; margin in shreds, or coarsely saw-toothed; cells, loose, 
colourless, long six-sided; leaves of the plant only two and with- 
out a shredded margin. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on 
separate plants (dioicous). 
Veil (calyptra). Conical. 

Spore -case. Inclined, boat-shaped, and 
depressed above, swollen below, smooth, greenish- 

B. aphylla. , _ , , ... , , 

Veil. brown; coat, firm, glossy, and thickened on the 


Mosses and Lichens 

margin, rolling back at the mouth irregularly to form a crown-like 

Pedicel (seta). Rigid, erect, 
straight, i inch high, deep pur- 
ple, rough; the base (vaginule) 
thick, covered with rusty hairs. 

Lid (operculum) . Short, 
conic, obtuse, remaining for 
a time attached to the columella 
after separating at its margin. 

Teeth (peristome). The outer 
of short irregular teeth; the inner, 
a deeply plicate, funnel-shaped 

Spores. Very small, mature 
from April to September. *. <*Wfa. 

_ . \ ., , . r . . A , . . phyte with de- 

DlStnbUtlOn North Amen- pressed spore-case 

ica, Europe and Asia. and hairy vaginule 

at the base of rough 

B. aphylla. Top 
of spore-case show- 
ing the peristome 
with cone of inner 
membrane rising 
from a cone of 
outer teeth. 


The species as the name suggests grow either submerged or 
floating in streams and ponds. 

Peristome with latticed cone 
protruding from outer teeth. 


F. antipyretica. 

Female branch with 
immersed spore-case 
at the summit. 

The plants are branched, often naked at the base. Every 
third leaf is directly over the first one counted ; usually concave 
or keeled, with a base often auricled and growing slightly down 


The Fountain Mosses 

the stem. They have no vein. The cells are linear, those of the 
basal angles more or less enlarged. 

The spore-cases are oval or cylindrical with conical lids and 
are immersed in the leaves at the base. 

The peristome is double, the 
outer of sixteen lance-shaped 
teeth, the inner of sixteen slender 
cilia united into a latticed cone. 

There are about forty species 
in all, over twenty-five being 
known in the United States. 

Fontinalis antipyretica, 
var. gigantea, Sulliv. 

Habit and habitat. Glossy, 
yellow-green or bronzed plants 
growing in fresh water. 

Name. The specific name 
antipyretica is a compound of 
the Greek avrl, against, and 
irvpeicTuccK, fever, given because 
of a belief in its efficacy in fevers. 
The varietal name gigantea re- 
fers to its size. 

Fontinalis antipyretica with tiny female 

Plants. One to two feet 
long, rooting only at the base 
and growing attached to stones, 
and roots of trees in streams. 

Leaves. Keeled and overlap- 
ping; vein none; apex finely 
toothed; cells of the basal angles 


F. antipyretica. Leaves. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Leaves at the base of ibe pedicel (pericbcetial leaves). Over- 
lapping, broad and blunt. 

Perichaetial leaves. 

F. antipyretica. 

Spore-case with lid. 

Habit of flowering. Fruiting branch an inch long, male and 
female flowers on separate plants. 
Veil (calyptra). Beaked. 
Spore-case. Cylindrical. 

Top of spore -case with 
the inner teeth forming a 
latticed cone in the centre 
of the outer teeth. 


Portion of peristome show- 
ing one outer tooth on the 
left and a portion of the inner 
membrane on the right. 

F. antipyretica. 

Lid (operculum). Conical. 
Teeth (peristome}. As in the genus. 
Spores. Mature in summer. 

Distribution. In temperate regions of both continents. 


The Genus Neckera 

Genus NECKERA, Hedw. 

The species of the Genus Neckera grow in extensive mats 
on tree-trunks or rocks. The primary stems are creeping, and 
the secondary are once or twice feather-branched, erect or pen- 
.LU. dent, often whip-like, and covered at the 
base with red-brown filaments. 

The leaves are glossy, translucent, often 
flat and generally wavy. The cells are 
minute rhomboidal, oblong in the upper 
part, linear in the middle and quadrate 
on the borders. 

N. pennata. Sporophyte The spore-cases are immersed or ex- 
with paraphyses at the serted, with a short or somewhat elongated 
pedicel. They are erect and symmetrical 
with conical beaked lids. 

The peristome is double, without an annulus, the outer 
teeth being long, linear, lance-shaped, and closely cross-barred. 
The inner membrane consisting of a basal por- 
tion with 1 6, often short, processes without 
intermediate cilia. 

The genus was named by J. G. Hedwig in 
honour of J. N. Necker, a distinguished botanist. 
158 species are known at present, 8 being found 
in North America. 

The Feathered Neckera, Neckera pennata, 

Hedw. See Colour Plate III. N. pennata. Por- 

u 7 ., 777 M j r- j t tion of peristome 

Habit and habitat. Growing in widely -withf our long outer 
spreading pale-green matted tufts (cespitose) on teeth and three 

. short inner. 

tree trunks. It is a conspicuous moss on trees 
of the Adirondack woods. The older parts of the plants are 
shabby, while the newer parts are pale yellow-green and grow 
horizontally around the tree. 

Name. The specific name pennata, from the Latin penna, a 
feather, was suggested by the arrangement of the branches. 

Plant, (gametophyte). The primary stems are long, the 
secondary 2 to 4 inches long in opposite rows (distichous), close 
or distant, erect. 

Leaves. In the same plane with the branches, spreading, 
glossy, broadly lance-shaped, transversely wrinkled ; apex 
acute ; margin entire or slightly saw-toothed from the middle 


Mosses and Lichens 

upward ; vein faint and short, single, or two-forked, or want- 
ing ; base slightly unequal ; cells very small, rhomboidal-oblong, 
4-sided at the basal angles. 

Leaves at tie base of the 
pedicel (perichcetial leaves). 
Long and sheathing, taper- 
pointed, surpassing the spore- 

Habit of flowering. Male 
and female flowers on the 
plant (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Small, 
white, covering the lid only, 
oval-oblong, dirty-yellow, brown 

N. pennata. Leaves. 

Spore-case. Immersed, 
when old, thin-walled. 

Pedicel. None, the 
cellular sheath at the base 
of the spore-case hairy. 

Lid (operculum.) 
Conical, beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). 
Pale-yellow, the outer of 
linear awl-shaped teeth 
from a narrowly lance- 
shaped base, cohering at 
the apex, densely cross- 
barred, irregularly 
divided, the inner segments rudimentary. 

Spores. Mature in spring. 

Distribution. Common in North America 

Perichaetial leaves. 

N. pennata. 

Old spore- ( 9 ) Female 
case with- branch. ( 4 ) 
out lid. Male branch. 


Genus ANOMODON, Hook & Tayl. 

The species of the Genus Anomodon are found on the roots 
of trees in woods, on rocks and on decayed logs. 

The primary stems are prostrate, with horizontal shoots from 
the base and erect secondary stems irregularly branched. The 
stem-leaves are distant and minute, while the leaves of the branch- 
lets are crowded, spreading, or turned to one side, and have 
minute cells, usually with tiny protuberances on both faces. 


The Genus Anomodon 

The spore-cases are erect, cylindrical, regular, chestnut- 
coloured with conical beaked lids, and are borne on more or 
less elongated pedicels. Annulus narrow or wanting. 

The peristome is pale, with narrowly lance-shaped 
teeth, and the segments of the inner membrane short, 
narrow and more or less irregular from a narrow base. 
The character of the teeth was not very well understood 
at first and so the genus was named Anomodon, from 
ai>o/zo9, irregular, and 6Swv, tooth, from the supposed 
unusual construction. 

There are forty-nine species known in all, eleven 
being found in North America. 

Anomodon apiculats. 


Anomodon rostratus, Schimp. 

Habit and habitat. Densely tufted, bright green at the sur- 
face, yellow-brown within. Growing on trees, roots, and 
limestone rocks. v 

Perichaetial leaves. 


A. rostratus. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Spore -case. 
A. rostratus. 


Name. The specific name rostratus, beaked, refers to the lid. 
Plant (gametopbyte) . Primary stems brittle and bearing 
numerous thread-like branches, forming dense tufts. 

Leaves. Dense, overlapping as shingles, lance- 
shaped ; apex long-pointed ; vein solid, vanishing 
below the apex ; base oval. 

Leaves at tie base of the pedicel (peri- 
cbcetial leaves). Long, white and thin; 
apex of the inner leaves narrowed into a 
thread-like, reflexed point as 
long as the leaf-blade. 

Habit of flowering. Male ;tnd 
female flowers on separate plants 

Veil (calyptrd). Split up one 

Spore-case. Red-brown, 

Pedicel (seta). Short. 
Lid (operculum). Long-beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). The segments of the inner membrane 
about as long as the teeth, keeled, dirty-yellow, with cilia 
between, solitary, rudimentary or none. 
Spores. Mature in Fall. 

Distribution. North America, Europe and Asia. 
Anomodon attenuatus, Hueben. 

Habit and babitat. In loose wide tufts on roots of trees and 
on rocks along streams ; common. 

Name. The specific name 
attenuatus, slender, refers to 
the branches. 

Plants (gametopbyte). 
Irregularly branched and intri- 
cate, the branches short and 
rather obtuse; i to 2 inches 
high, or elongated and whip- 
like with minute leaves. 

Leaves. Spreading or 
turned to one side ; oblong lance-shaped from a widely oval 
base ; apex acute with a tiny sharp point ; base narrow at the 


A. attenuatus. Perichastial leaves. 

The Genus Anomodon 

point of attachment and growing slightly down the stem; 
margin plane, minutely wavy, with papillae ; vein translucent, 
vanishing below the apex ; surfaces densely covered with tiny 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on 
separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Pedicel (seta}. Twisted, f of an inch long. 

Spore-case. Red-brown, shining, cylindrical, straight 
or slightly curved. 

Lid (operculuni). Conic and beaked. 

Teeth (perislome}. Narrowly lance-shaped ; segments 
of the inner membrane, thread-like, fragile and irregular. 

Annulus. Narrow. 

Spores. Mature in autumn, not found in Britain. 

Distribution, North America, Europe and Asia. 


Spore -case. 



A. attenuates. 


Anomodon apiculatus, Bruch & Schimp. See Plate XXII. 

Habit and Habitat. Loosely and widely tufted on trees and 
rocks in mountains. 

Name. The specific name apiculatus from the Latin apex, 
apicis, refers to the short-pointed leaves. 

Plants (gametophyte). Green, with a bloom, dirty-red when 
old. Primary stems prostrate and whip-like ; secondary stems 
straight, simple or divided at the base. 

Leaves. Two-ranked, tongue-shaped, thick, opaque ; apex 
pointed; margin wavy; vein transparent, vanishing below the 


Mosses and Lichens 

apex ; surface covered with tiny protuberances ; base oblong-oval 

with ear-like and fringed appendages; cells dense, minute, round. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichcetial leaves}. 

Long and sheathing, tongue- 
shaped toward the apex. 


A. apiculatus. 


A. apiculatus. 
Male flower-cluster. 

Habit of flowering. Male 
and female flowers on separate 
plants, (dioicous}. 
Veil (calypira). Split up one side. 
Spore-case. Egg-shaped or elliptical. 
Pedicel (seta}. Short. 
Lid (operculum). Conic, beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). Narrowly lance-shaped and awl-shaped, 
cross-barred and knotty. Segments of the inner membrane very 
short from a very narrow base, sometimes wanting. 



Female branch. 

. Lid. 

leaf. Spore-case. 

A, apiculatus. 


Annulus. None. 
Spores. Mature in autumn. 
Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia. 


Tree Mosses 

Genus CLIMACIUM, Web. & Mohr 

The species of the Genus Climacium are large, resembling 
miniature evergreen trees. They are common in shady woods, 
in damp places on decayed logs, on roots of trees and on 
hummocks in swamps, and will be easily recognised from the 

The primary stem is creeping, and the secondary 
erect and robust, with stout branches. The stem- 
leaves are scale-like ; the branch-leaves oblong lance- 
shaped with a thin vein, and 
the leaves at the base of the 
pedicel are long and sheath- 

The spore-cases are clus- 
tered on long, erect 
pedicels ; they are 
cylindrical with a 
beaked lid and a long 
calyptra split up one 
side and embracing the base. 

The peristome is double, the outer teeth large 
and united at the base ; the inner keeled and 



Branch leaves 

leaf (base of 
pedicel) . 

Spore-case with 

Top of spore-case 
with columella ex- 
tending above the 
inner teeth. 

C. dendroides. 


Portion of peristome. 

Mosses and Lichens 

The generic name Climacium is derived from the Greek 
K\ifjidKiov, a little ladder, referring to the appearance of the 
inner teeth. 

Six species are known at present, two in North America. 
Climacium dendroides, Web. & Mohr. See Colour Plate 
IV ; also Colour Plate XV. 

Habit and habitat. Bright green, tree-like,found in wet places. 

Name. The specific name 
is from the Greek SevSpov, a 
tree, and eiSo?, like. 

Plant (gametophyte}. 
Primary stem creep- 
ing, secondarysimple, 
erect, often sharp- 
pointed at the apex, 
2 to 4 inches high; 
branches clustered at 
the summit. 

Leaves. Stem- 
leaves broad, clasp- 
ing ; branch leaves nar- 
rower, oblong, folded 
lengthwise; base only 

a c d e 

(a) Spore-case with lid ; (J>) lid with columella ; 

(c) spore-case with lid lifted ; (d) spore-case with 
veil ; (e) veil. 

Cross-section of stem to 
show central strand. 

Top of spore-case 

with columella ex- Portion of peristome with five outef 
tending above the and fi ve inner teeth - 

inner teeth. 

C. dendroides. 

Tree Mosses 

slightly growing down on the stem at the hollow basal angles; 
apex sharply serrate; vein vanishing below the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

yeil (catyptrd). Thin, smooth, extending below the spore- 

Spore-case. Erect, cylindrical, red-brown. 

Pedicel (seta). An inch long or more, 

Lid (operculum). Straight, acutely 
beaked, remaining for some time attached 
to the central column of the spore-case. 

Teeth (peristome). As in the genus. 

Annulus. None. 

Spores. Olive-green, small, mature in 
the autumn and winter. 

Distribution. Common in North Amer- 
ica, Europe, Asia and Africa. 

Climacium Americanum, Brid. See 
Colour Plate XV. 

This species closely resembles the last, 
but may be distinguishedby the long de- 
current stem-leaves broadly eared at the 
base and coarsely serrate at the apex, as well 
as by the longer and more narrowly cylindrical spore-cases with 
more abruptly, longer beaked lids. 

with lid. 


C. Americanum. 


" Where, through some meadows, soft and green, 
Gemm'd with the daisy's silver bloom, 
A gentle stream is wandering seen, 
'Mid flowering banks of rare perfume ; 
There you may look beneath the waters 
Sweetly gliding on serene, 
For one of Beauty's lovely daughters 
Lovely though of humble mien ; 
And where the stream, in childish glee, 
Leaps o'er the rocks with infant pride, 
This little moss, in eddying swirl 
Of foaming waves, its head doth hide." 


Mosses and Lichens 

Genus HYPNUM, Dill. 

The species of the Genus Hypnum in its wider sense all 
agree in having the peristome double and perfect, the outer of 
sixteen, strong, lance-shaped, taper-pointed and densely cross- 
barred teeth; the inner a broad membrane 
divided to the middle, or about, into 
sixteen, keeled, yellow segments, dis- 
tantly cross-barred, entire, or cleft more 
or less along the keel, the segments 
generally separated by i to 3 filiform 
divisions (cilia) cross-barred and often 
bearing tiny spurs on the margin. 

The difference in the species will 
perhaps better be understood by refer- 
ence to the following synopsis of the 
sub-genera represented by the species 
which follow. 

Dr. Johnston in speaking of the 
genus Hypnum said that perhaps it 
formed one-fourth of the vegetable cloth- 
ing of Great Britain. 

The word bypnum is the Greek 
VTTVOV, an ancient name for some sort of 
moss supposed to promote sleep. 

Hyfmum triquetrunt. Por- 
tion of peristome showing one 
outer tooth on the left with 
annulus cells at its base, two 
keeled inner teeth on the 
right with three spurred cilia 


Thuidtum. Primary stems prostrate 
and irregularly divided; leaves with tiny 
protuberances (papillose} ; paraphyllia 
more or less numerous. 



Thuidium delicatuhim. 


of leaf to show 


Spore -case 
with lid. 

i The Genus Hypnum 

Secondary stems regularly feather-branched ; stem-leaves 
differing decidedly from the branch-leaves ; vein translucent; 
spore-case curved ; lid conic, beaked. 

Brachythecium. Plants often large, prostrate, irregularly 
divided, the branches erect; leaves usually smooth with folds 

Brachythecium Starkii. 

Brachythecium rivulare. Plant 
with sporophyte. 

Brachythecium Starkii. Base of 
leaf to show cells enlarged at the 

extending lengthwise of the leaf and veined to the middle or 
above; cells loose, elongated, rhomboidal, enlarged at the base 
and angles ; lid conical, obtuse, or short-pointed. 

Eurhynchium. Plants somewhat feather-branched ; leaves 
heart-shaped, growing down the stem at the basal angles, 


Mosses and Lichens 

serrate ; cells narrowly rhomboidal; spore-case oval, nodding 
or horizontal, inflated and with long sharp beak. 

Lid. Leaf. 

Eurhynchium; Hypnutn Boscii. 

Plagiothecium. Stems irregularly branching, 
not pinnate ; leaves usually flattened out in 
the same plane or all turned in one direction, 
ovate or oblong lanceolate, often somewhat 
oblique at base, two-veined or veinless. Leaf- 
cells elongated hexagonal to linear; seta smooth, 

spore-case oblong to cylindrical, curved. Lid from conical 

to short-beaked. 

Hypnum Boscii. 


Leaf -cells. 
Plagiothecium Muellerianum. 


Amblystegium. Plants usually small or medium size with 
numerous irregular entangled branches, often forming broad 
soft mats over the ground. Leaves mostly small, ovate acute, 
spreading regularly around the stem, straight or sometimes 


The Genus Hypnum 

slightly curved. Leaf-cells comparatively broad, short six-sided, 
usually not abruptly enlarged in the angles. Pedicel tall and 
smooth. Spore-case more or less 
cylindrical and curved, with conical 
lid obtuse or acute. 


Leaf -cells. 


Amblystegittm varium. 

Harpidium. Stems usually tall, more or less feather- 
branched ; leaves scythe-shaped and turned to one side, very 
acutely pointed ; win simple, often reaching the apex ; cells 

Portion of leaf to show 
Leaf. enlarged alar cells. 

Harpidium -uncinatum. 

narrow, linear, the alar much inflated. Plants often growing 
in water. 

Ctenium. Plants in compact tufts of a pale yellow-green, 
the branches and branchlets regularly and closely placed feather- 


Mosses and Lichens 

like, giving the plant a beautiful plume-like appearance. Leaves 
hooked and turned to one side, with short double veins or 


Spore-case without 

Ctenium: Hypnum crista-castrensis. 

none, somewhat serrate at apex. Spore-case large, curved 

Euhypnum. Plants variously divided ; branches more or 
less densely feather-branched ; leaves obscurely two-veined, 

Leaf-cells. Leaf. Spore-case. 

Euhypnum: Hypnum curuiiolium. 

Spore-case. Leaf. 

Euhypnum: Hypnum imponens. 

membranous, shining, usually curved ; cells compact, narrowly 
linear, distinctly four-sided at the angles ; spore-case oblong 
cylindrical, curved, usually somewhat inclined or horizontal. 


The Genus Hypnum 

Calliergon. Large plants with stem erect or inclined and 
with few cylindrical branches ; leaves very concave, mem- 
branous, round to oblong or heart-shaped ; cells very com- 
pact, narrow, alar sells inflated ; spore-case oblong, horizontally 


Calliergon: Hypnum Schreberi. 

Pkurofium. Plants feather-like, branches twice to three 
times divided ; leaves membranous, shining ; veins short, single 
or double; paraphyllia numerous; cells 
linear, uniform ; spore-case short, egg- 
shaped ; lid beaked. 

Hylocomnium. Plants of large size with 
few irregular branches, or sometimes more 
or less feather-branched. Leaves widely 


Spore -case. 
Pleiurosium: Hypnum splendens. 


Mosses and Lichens 

spreading or recurved ; -veins two, and short ; cells long and 
narrow ; spore-case short, broadly ovate, horizontal. 


Hylocomnium: Hypnum triquetrum. 


HYPNUM: Sub-genus THUIDIUM, Schimp. 

The species of this sub-genus are fern-like and grow in 
dense flat mats on decaying wood. 

The generic name is derived from the Greek Ova, or 0via, an 
ancient name for some resinous-bearing evergreen. The moss 
was so called by Wm. Philipp Schimper, from its resemblance 

to a tiny cedar tree. 

The primary stems are densely 
covered with rootlets, and the sec- 
ondary are i to 3 times pinnately 
branching. The leaves 
on the stem are tri- 
angular heart-shaped 
with a strong vein, a 
more or less long- 
pointed apex, and a 
base extending down- 
ward on the stem ; 
papillae are found on 
one or both faces ; 
leaf-'ike organs (para- 

Vertical section 
of peristome show- 
ing three cells of 
the annulus and an 
Inner and outer Spore-case 
tooth. without lid. 

Spore-cases with 

Thuidium delicatulum. 


The Cedar Mosses 

phyllia) on the stem between the true leaves are numerous 
and of many forms. The leaves on the branches are smaller, 
ovate, lance-shaped, concave 
and overlapping; the cells are 
small, round, six-sided, some- 
times long, linear at the base 
and four-sided on the borders. 
The leaves at the base of the 
pedicel are long, and over- stem-leaf. 

The spore-cases are nar- 
rowly ovate or cylindrical and 
arched, with conical or more 
or less long-beaked lids and 
long pedicels. The teeth are 
as in the genus Hypnum. 

Two hundred and forty- 
four species are known at 
present, fifteen of them in 
North America. 

of leaf to show 


Leaf at base 
of pedicel. 

Thuidium delicatulum. 


Vertical section of peristome showing 
three cells of the annulus on the right and 
an outer and an inner tooth. 

(a) and (6) Spore-cases with 
lids ; (c) spore-case without lid , 
(J) spore-case with lid. 

Portion of peristome showing 
four outer teeth on the left with 
the inner membrane on the right, 
annulus at the base of the tooth 
on the extreme left. 
Tkuidittm minutulitm. 



Mosses and Lichens 


Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Oblong-egg-shaped, nodding or horizontal, dark 
yellow-brown when old. 

Pedicel (seta). Smooth and f to I inch long. 
Lid (operculuni). With a long awl-shaped beak. 
Annulus. Large, of three rows of cells. 
Teeth (peristome). Double, as in genus Hypnum. 
Spores. Mature in autumn. 
Distribution. North America, Europe, Africa. 
The Tiny Cedar Moss, Hypnum ( Thuidimn) minutulum, 

Habit and habitat. Tiny fern-like mosses growing in woods 
on decaying trees and stumps. 

Name. Hedwig, a great German botanist, 
gave this dainty moss its specific Latin name, 
minutuium, tiny, on account of its small size. 
Plant (gametophyte) . Minute, twice pin- 
nate; stem irregularly divided, densely covered 
with soft matted hairs ; branches pinnately 

Leaves. Stem-leaves triangular, opaque ; 
apex taper-pointed or with an abrupt short 
point ; margins somewhat rolled back ; vein 
stout, vanishing near the apex ; branch-leaves 
oval, with taper point, concave ; vein shorter; 
leaves covered with tiny protuberances. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel. Thin, 
nearly smooth, the inner lance-shaped with 
a taper point. 

Leaf-like organs (paraphyllia). Numer- 
ous, and of various shapes covered with tiny 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on the same plant ; monoicous. 
The Dainty Cedar Moss, Hypnum (Thuidium) delicatulum, 
Linn. See Plate XXIII. 

Habit and "habitat. Creeping fern-like plants on ground, 
roots of trees, and rocks. Common and exceedingly beautiful. 
The specimen photographed grew on a stone in a babbling 


Leaf at base Ot 

T. minutultttn. 

The Cedar Mosses 

Name. The Dainty Cedar Moss is most attractive ; it was 
well known to the great Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus, 
who gave it the specific name delicatulum, dainty. 

Plant (gametophyte). Three times feather-branched, the 
primary stems densely rooting. 

Leaves. The stem-leaves densely crowded, enlarged at the 
base ; branch-leaves broadly oval ; apex long-pointed ; base 
concave ; "vein strong ; margin serrate ; cells small, the apical 
truncate and crowned with 2 to 3 acute papillae ; paraphyllia of 
varied forms. 

Vertical section 
of peristome show- 
ing three cells of 
the annulus on the 
left and an inner 
and outer tooth. 

Stem -leaf with 

Stem -leaf. 

with peris- 
tome. Spore-cases with lids. 

Thuidium delicatulum. 


Leaves at the base of the pedicel. Long-ciliate. 
Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 
Spore-case. Cylindrical, arched. 
Pedicel (seta). One to one-and-a-half inches long. 
Lid (operculum). Conical. 
Annulus. Double. 

Teeth (peristome). Double as in Hypnum. 
Spores. Mature in winter. 
Distribution. Europe, North and South America. 


Mosses and Lichens 


The plants of this sub-genus are generally large, prostrate 
or creeping, forming loosely matted tufts ; the stems branch 
irregularly, the branchlets somewhat regularly branching again, 
and covered densely with leaves. 

The leaves are broadly oval and oblong-lance-shaped, usually 
with folds lengthwise; the apex is acutely pointed, either broadly 
or narrowly so ; the base is heart-shaped (cordate)] the vein is 
single, continuous or vanishing half-way ; the cells are usually 
smooth and much elongated, the alar enlarged. There are no 
small leaf-like organs (paraphyllia). 

Spore -cases. 


Portion of the base of leaf to show 
enlarged cells at the angle . 

Brachythecium Starkii. 

The spore-cases are oval or oblong, short, nodding, usually 
arched with a convex-conical, obtuse, or short-pointed lid ; they 
are borne on smooth or rough pedicels. 

The generic name Brachythecium is derived from two Greek 
words, @pa%v<;, short, and #77/07, a case, relating to the short 

The peristome is double, the outer teeth being united at the 
base, slender, lance-shaped, closely and regularly cross-barred, 
with a distinct median line ; the inner teeth are lance-shaped 
with 2 to 3 well-developed cilia all attached to a wide basal 

There are one hundred and sixty-three species known at 
present, about forty being found in North America. 


The Sub-genus Brachythecium 

Brachythecium rivulare, Bruch, Ms. See Plate XXIV. 

Habit and habitat. Growing in dark or yellow-green mats 
on rocks and stones about springs and in swamps of moun- 
tainous woods. 

Namt. The specific name rivulare refers to the habit of 
growing in wet places 

Portion of peristome with one outer tooth 
on the right with annulus cells at its base, 
two keeled and perforated inner teeth are 
seen on the left with cilia between. 

(a) Spore-case 
with lid showing 
point; (6) spore- 
case without lid. 


Brachythecium rivulare. 

Plants (gamefophyte). Woody, prostrate, naked, or with 
rooting filaments, secondary stems ascending from old stems, 
arched to 3 inches long, nearly free from branches below, 
irregularly branching above. 

Leaves. Branch leaves erect spreading, oval to oval lance- 


Mosses and Lichens 

shape, concave or somewhat grooved ; apex acute to short taper- 
pointed ; margin with small sharp-pointed teeth above ; base grow- 
ing somewhat down the stem; -vein extending Z /T, of the length 
of the leaf; cells, median, linear; basal, broader; alar, enlarged. 
Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on different 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Large, oblong or egg-shaped, horizontal or 

Pedicel (seta). Thick and rough, red-brown, I to i inches 

Lid (operculum). Conical, with an abrupt slender point. 
Teeth (per is tome} . As in the genus. 
Annulus. Large. 

Spores. Chestnut colour, mature in 

Distribution. Universal in mountainous 

Brachythecium Starkii, (Brid.) Br. 

Habit and habitat. In dark-green, loose 
mats on fallen logs and old tree-trunks in 
moist mountain regions. 

Name. The specific name was given 
in honour of Robert M. Starke. 

Plant (gametophyte). Prostrate, branch- 
ing, the branches ascending, arched, % to i 
inch long. 

Leaves. Branch-leaves distant, spread- 
ing, oval, lance-shaped, narrowly acute or 
taper-pointed; apex usually half twisted; 
base somewhat decurrent; margin 
serrate; vein extending beyond the 
middle; cells, the middle linear, the 
basal shorter and broader; the alar 
starku. plant. f ew> r homboidal to quadrate; stem- 
leaves broadly oval and long taper-pointed, less strongly serrate, 
cells looser. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichatial leaves'). Longer 
and narrower. 


The Sub-genus Brachythecium 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on one plant 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Abruptly horizontal, short egg-shaped, dark red- 
brown, black when old. 

Pedicel (seta). Rough, red-brown, 
1 to iX inches high. 


Portion of peristome show- 
ing two outer teeth on the left 
with annulus cells at the base, 
two keeled and perforated cells 
with cilia are seen at the right. 

Spore-case Plant w ith female branch 
with peri- on the left and male branch 
stome. on the right. 

Brachythecium Starkii. 


Lid (operculum). Convex, conical, tipped with a short, sharp 

Annulus. Large, of about two rows of cells. 
Teeth (peristome'). As in the genus. 
Spores. Chestnut, maturing in autumn and winter. 
Distribution. In the northern United States and Canada, 
across the continent, south to New Jersey; Europe. 

Brachythecium Novae- Angliae, (Sull. & Lesq.) Jaeger & 
Sauer. See Plate XXV. 

Habit and habitat. On earth and 

Name. The specific name is the 
Latin for "New England." 

Plant (gametophyte). Forming 
loosely entangled mats; stem i to 2 
inches long, irregular; branches cylin- 
drical, with rather short, overlapping, 
slightly spreading leaves. 

Leaves. Erect, spreading, some- 
times very concave, not plaited, 
not glossy, incurved, broadly ovate, 

Female plant. Male plant. 
B. Novce-Anglice. 

Mosses and Lichens 

narrowly taper-pointed; base growing down the stem; decur- 
rent; vein reaching the middle: margin finely saw-toothed all 

around; cells narrowly oblong- 
hexagonal, shorter and broader 
at the basilar angles. 

Leaves at the base of the pedi- 
cel. Ovate, long, taper-pointed, 
recurved from the middle; vein 
not easily distinguishable. 

Habit of flowering. Male and 
female flowers on separate plants. 
P erichaiial leaves (dioicous). 
Veil (calyptra). Thin, split 

B. Novce-Anglice. Spore-cases. uo one side 

Spore-case. Oblong, erect, slightly curved. 
Pedicel (seta). Rough, purple. 
Lid (operculum). Long, conical, taper-pointed. 
Annulus. Double, large. 


Leaves at base of pedicel. 
B. Novce-Anglice. 

Teetb (peristome). Teeth denseiy articulate, segments of the 
inner membrane as long as the teeth. Cilia well developed but 
without transverse spurs attached at intervals to the margin. 




BRACHYTHECIUM NOV.E-ANGLLE, (Sull. & Lesq.) Jaeger & Sauer 


The Sub-genus Eurhynchium 

Spores. Mature in late fall and early spring. 
Distribution. Northeastern United States and Canada. 



B. Novae-Anglice. 

HYPNUM: Sub-genus EURHYNCHIUM, Schimp. 

The species of this genus are robust, glossy plants, more or 
less feather-branched, prostrate or creeping. 

The leaves are open, overlapping as 
shingles ; they resemble the bowl of a 
spoon, with the apex abruptly drawn out 
into a slender point and the margin serrate 
all around ; a vein extends to 
the middle or beyond ; the 
cells are smooth or slightly 
covered in a few species with 
tiny protuberances, they are 
narrowly rhomboidal, some- 
what worm-like and enlarged 
at the basal angles. The 
leaves at the base of the 
pedicel have root-like filaments. 

The spore-cases are oval-oblong nodding or horizontal, on a 
smooth or rough pedicel, with lids more or less long-beaked. 
This character suggested the generic name from the Greek eu, well, 
and pvyx *' a beak. The annulus is compound or rarely none. 



H. Boscit. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Seventy-four species are known in all, nineteen in North 

Hypnum (Eurhynchium) Boscii, Schwaegr. See Plate 

Habit and habitat. A very beautiful and easily identified 
moss, growing in thick soft-golden cushions or in loose thin 
mats on the ground among grass or on 
the ground and on rocks in shady places 
and open fields. 

Name. The specific name Boscii 
was given by D. Fridericus Schwae- 
grichen, in honour of Louis Augustin 
Guillaume Bosc, a distinguished natur- 

Plants. Stems prostrate, somewhat 
pinnately branching ; branches mostly 
simple, inflated, blunt, and cylindrical 
by the arrangement of the leaves. 

Leaves. Thin, dry and shining, 
closely overlapping, oblong-oval, very 
concave ; apex narrowed to a twisted 
slender point ; base clasping ; margin 
finely serrate to the base ; cells narrowly 
linear, those of the base shorter, thick 
and yellow-brown. 
Leaves at the base of the pedicel. Narrowly long taper- 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Brown, oblong, erect-incurved, gradually nar- 
rowed into the pedicel, strongly arched under 
the mouth when dry. 

Pedicel (seta). Smooth, red to red-brown, 
slightly twisted to the right. 

Lid (operculuni). Conic, the beak about 
the length of the urn. 

Teeth (peristome). As in the genus 

Annulus. Compound. 


H. Boscii. 

H. Boscii. 
Breathing pore. 




HYPNUM BOSCH, Schwaegr. 

The Sub-genus Plagiothecium 

Spores. Mature in autumn. 

Distribution. Vermont to Florida and Louisiana, west to 
Missouri and Illinois. 


The species of this genus are partly prostrate, irregularly 
branching plants with rooting stems. They are soft and vari- 
able in size. 

The leaves are thin, glossy and mostly entire ; a vein is 
wanting or double ; very short and thin ; the 
cells are long and narrowly rhomboidal- 
hexagonal; larger at the base. 
Male and female flowers are usually 
found on the same plant. 

The veil is narrow and falls 
early. The spore-case is somewhat 
erect, oblique or almost horizontal, 
oval-oblong to cylindri- 
cal, somewhat arched, 
short-necked, thin, 
smooth or rarely wrin- 
kled when dry. 

The teeth are whitish. 
The name is derived 

from the Greek TrXayio?, oblique, and dqictov, a little 
chest, referring to the spore-case. 

Plagiothecium Muel- 
lerianum, Schimp. 

Habit and habitat. 
This moss is found in rocky 
ravines ; it grows in loose, 
bright and shining green 

Name. The specific 
name, Muellerianum, 
was given by William 
Schimper in honour of 
Baron Ferdinand Mueller, 
Government botanist of 



P. Muellerianum. 

with lid. 

Leaves at base of pedicel. 
P. Muellerianum. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Portion of peris- 
tome showing one 
outer tooth on the 
right with annulus 
cells at its base, one 
keeled inner tooth 
and two cilia on the 

spore -case. 

Plant (gametophyte). Very small; stems with runners, 
creeping, with branches erect, rooting at the base and some- 
times at the apex. 

Leaves. In two rows, spreading, concave, 
ovate-lance-shaped at the base, taper-pointed, 
with an abrupt, short, acute point ; margin 
entire ; vein wanting ; base not growing down 
the stem ; cells narrow, uniform. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichcetial 
leaves). Half-clasping at the base, oblong-ovate, 
taper-pointed, entire. 

Habit of flowering. 
Male and female 
flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). 

Somewhat nodding, 
tapering from the en- 
larged mouth toward 
the pedicel, long- 
necked, enlarged at the mouth and bell-shaped when dry. 
Pedicel (seta}. Short, purple. 
Lid (operculum). Conical, short-beaked. 
Teeth (peristome). Distantly jointed, cilia short, robust, 

Annulus. Narrow, simple. 

Spores. The fruit is very rare. 

Distribution. Found in Europe and eastern North America. 


The species of the Sub-genus Amblystegium vary in size 
from minute to large and robust and vary in colour from bright 
yellow-green to dark dull-green. The stems are prostrate, creep- 
ing, decumbent, ascending, or erect. The male and female 
flowers are usually on separate plants. 

The stems are usually tender and soft, but are occasionally 
rii>id. They are repeatedly branched, commonly irregularly so, 
\vith the branches more or less erect. 


Spore-cases with 

P. Muellerianum. 





A. varium. Leaves. 

The Sub-genus Amblystegium 

The leaves spread in all directions. They are narrowly lance- 
shaped to broadly egg-shaped, concave, or flat, never eared at 
the base and never with the cells 
narrowly linear. The base may 
or may not grow downward on the 
stem. Vein absent or prominent, 
margins entire or serrate. 

The spore-cases are oval to cylin- 
drical, symmetrical or unsymmetrical, 
erect to horizontal and usually con- 
stricted under the mouth when dry. 
The base tapers into a large or small 
collum. The colour varies from 
uniformly purple or brown through 
two shades to pale throughout. The 
peristome is normal, with usually 2 to 
4 cilia, although in a few cases they 
are absent or rudimentary. The 
generic name from the Greek 

a/*/3\t"?, blunt, and trr^yo?, a cover, refers to the character of the 
lid, which is convex or conic, usually bluntly pointed, rarely 
sharply pointed. The annulus consists of from i to 3 rows of 
cells. The calyptra is small and falls early. Sixteen species are 
known in North America, ten of them being found in both 

America and Europe. 

Amblystegium varium, (Hedw.) 
Lindb. See Plate XXVII. 

Habit and habitat. This species is 
found growing in extensive loose or 
crowded tufts, bright green, dull dark- 
green or pale yellow-green, on ground, 
decayed wood, bases of trees and 
rocks in moist, wet or shady places. 

Name. The specific name, varium, 
refers to the variable character of the 

Plant (gametoplyte) . The plants are of small or medium size, 
the stems obscurely angled, prostrate and branched, the branches 
slender, irregular, erect or ascending, never plume-like, straight 
or with tips incurved. 


Base. Apex. 

A. varium. Leaf -cells. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Leaves. Leaf-cells spreading or appressed, flat or concave; 
variable in size and shape, lance-shaped to ovate-lance-shaped or 
broadly ovate; apex usually slender, straight or slightly curved; 
margin entire to toothed above; vein extending to the apex or 
well into the point; cells broad and applied end to end (parencby- 
matous) toward the base, and narrow, with the ends overlapping 
(prosenchymatous) toward the apex. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 

Veil (calyptra). Small and falling early, equal to or shorter 
than the spore-case, split half the length. 

Spore-case. Cylindrical, unsymmetrical, upright to horizontal, 
pale yellow-green when young, chestnut when mature; con- 
stricted under the mouth when dry; neck i to i the length of the 

Pedicel (seta). One-half inch to 2 inches long, stout, reddish 
at the base, pale-yellow or dark throughout. 

Lid (operculum) . Obliquely pointed from a high convex or 
conical base. 

Annulus. With two to three rows of cells. 

Teeth (peristome) . Cinnamon brown or yellow, paler above, 
lance-shaped; cilia 2 to 4. 

Spores. Mature in late spring. 

Distribution. Common and widely distributed. 

HYPNUM: Sub-genus HARPIDIUM, Sulliv. 

The species of the Sub-genus Harpidium are found usually 
in marshes. They have stems divided irregularly into long 
ascending rootless branches sometimes plume-like with short 
branchlets which are all more or less 
curved at the apex like a boat-hook. 

The leaves are firm and membranous 
with the apex prolonged into a slender 
point and turned to one side as a scythe- 
blade ; a single vein extends to above 
the middle or to the apex ; the cells are 
narrow, enlarged and inflated at the 
basal angles. 

H. uneinatum. Leaf. 

The Sub-genus Harpidiurc 

The name Harpidium, the Latin for "hook," describes the 
hooked leaves, the important character of the sub-genus. 

The spore-cases are borne on long smooth pedicels, they 
are oblong-cylindrical, often arched, with short and conical 
lids. The teeth are as in 
the genus Hypnum. 

H. uncinatum. (a) and (6) Spore-cases with 
Kds ; (c) spore-case without lid. 

H. uncinatum. (a) Vertical section 
of peristome showing three annulus 
cells on the right at the base of an 
outer tooth, inner tooth on the left ; 
(b) portion of peristome showing on 
the right one outer tooth, on the left 
two keeled inner teeth and four cilia 
below three rows of annulus cells. 

There are numerous species. 
In the "Kryptogamen Flora," of 
1898, K. Gustav von Limpricht, 
a prominent bryologist, devotes 
about seven pages to a most intricate classification of the 
sub-genus Harpidium. 

The Hooked Boat-hook Mosses, Hypnum (Harpidium) 
uncinatum, Hedw. See Colour Plate III. 

Habit and habitat. In pale yellow- 
green tufts, erect or drooping, on stones 
bordering streams, or on shaded ground, 
rarely on decayed wood, common and 
variable in mountain regions. 

Name. The specific name, Latin un- 
cinatum, hooked, refers to the character 
of the leaves. 

Leaves. Long, lance-shaped, grooved 
lengthwise, the taper-point spreading, 
scythe-shaped or hooked ; apex minutely 
serrate; vein thin; cells narrow, more en- 
larged at the base, broader and rectangu- 
lar at the angles, which are slightly hollow. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichaztial leaves). Very long, 


H. uncinatum. Right side 
from base of a leaf to show en- 
larged cells in the angle. 

Mosses and Lichens 

the outer recurved from the middle, the inner soft, long, with a 
slender thread-like point; apex sharply serrate; vein present. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
plant (monoicous) . 

Veil (calyptra). Split up one side. 

Spore-case. Nodding, cylindrical, incurved, constricted under 
the mouth when dry, brown-orange, darker when old. 

Pedicel (seta). Variable in length, smooth. 
Lid (operculum). Orange, highly convex, conical, 

Teeth. Orange at the base, yellowish above; seg- 
ments of the inner membrane slightly cleft; cilia two, 
as long as the outer teeth. 

Annulus. Broad, of three rows of cells. 
Spores. Mature in summer and autumn. 
Distribution. Universal. 



The species of the Sub-genus Ctenium are large 
and grow in loose tufts with stems erect or prostrate, 
rigid and compressed, simple and two-forked, closely 

H . uncinatum. (a) Leaf from 
base of pedicel ; (b) perigonial 
leaf ; (c) an antheridium 
and a paraphysis. 

C.crista-castrensis. Stem -leaves. 

and regularly feather-branched; the branches are fern-like and the 
branchlets close, resembling the teeth of a comb, a characteristic 
which has suggested the generic name from the Greek, /cret? 
a comb. 


Sub-genus Ctenium 

The leaves have longitudinal folds with the apex turned to 
one side. 

The spore-cases are raised on long pedicels; they are cylin- 
drical-oblong, arched, and with broadly conical lids 
tipped with a point. 


Cells at base of leaf. 
C. crista-castrensis. 

Female plant. 

The Knight's Plume Moss, Hypnum (Ctenium) crista- 
castrensis, L. See Plate XXVIII. 

Habit and habitat. In loose, rigid, yellow-green tufts on 
decaying logs, in mountainous regions. 

Spore-case with lid. 

Leaf at base 
Spore-case without lid. of pedicel. 

C. crista-castrensis. 


Name. The great Linnaeus named this pretty moss crista- 
castrensis from its resemblance to a military plume or crest Latin 
crista, a crest, and castrensis, military. 

Plant (gametopbyte).The stems prostrate, 3 to 5 inches long, 
the tips upright ; simple or twice-branched, closely and 


Mosses and Lichens 

regularly feather-branched, the branches resembling a fern frond ; 
branchlets close, diverging horizontally and curved back at the 
apex like a plume. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves broad, gradually long lance-like and 
taper-pointed, thin, turned to one side as a scythe blade, with 
longitudinal folds ; vein double or none ; margin sharply serrate 
from the middle upward. 

Leaf -like organs (paraphyllia). 
Numerous, long, narrowly lance-shaped. 
Leaves at the base of the pedicel (peri- 
chcetial leaves'). Long, sheathing, white, 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, smooth, 
pointed and split up one side. 

Spore-case. Cylindrical-oblong, 
arched, green-brown when ripe, dirty- 
yellow when empty. 

Pedicel (seta). One-and-a-half to two 
inches long. 

Lid (operculum) . Broadly conical, 

Teeth (peristome). The outer teeth orange below, pale, 
serrate, and awl-pointed above ; the inner teeth long-pointed 
and cleft ; cilia three or four, thick and as long as the teeth. 
Annulus. Simple and narrow. 
Spores. Mature in summer and autumn. 
Distribution. North America, Europe, Asia. 


The plants of this group generally 
have creeping stems which are more or 
less regularly feather-branched. The 
leaves are usually scythe-shaped and 
turned to one side, ovate lanceolate be- 
low and narrowly taper-pointed. The 
vein (costa) is short and double or none. 
The cells are linear and narrow, 4-sided 


C. crista-castrensis. Portion 
of peristome showing on the 
left two outer teeth; on the 
right two keeled teeth of the 
inner membrane and six cilia. 

H. curvifolium. 
Branch -leaf. 

H. imponens, 
with lids. 

The Sub-genus Euhypnum 

at the angles ; the inner leaves at the base of the pedicel are 
deeply folded; small leaf-like organs (paraphyllia) on the stem 
are few. The spore-cases are cylindrical-oblong on smooth 


Spore-case with lid. 

H , curvifolium. 


Leaf at base* of 


H. imponens. 

pedicels ; the lids are large, from very acutely pointed to 
convex-conical. The prefix ev, proper, indicates that this 
sub-genus is the most typical among the different groups of 

Hypnum (Euhypnum) reptile, Michx. See Plate XXVII. 

Habit and habitat. Found in pale- or dusky-green, wide 
and loose tufts on the bark of living or decayed trees. Com- 
mon and variable in sub-alpine regions, rare in the plains except 

Name. From the Latin rcptilio, creeping. 

Plant (gametophyte). Drooping, stems branching, the 
branches feather-branched, the branchlets erect and incurved. 

Leaves. Crowded, concave, long taper-pointed from an ob- 
long base ; margin sharply serrate above, flat or recurved below ; 
vein double, short, yellowish; leaf -like organs (paraphyllia) on 
the stem, few and very small, lance-shaped or palm-like. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichcetial leaves}. The 
inner long, taper-pointed, longitudinally grooved with double 
vein and toothed apex. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on the same 
stems, (monoicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, split up one side. 

Spore-case. Somewhat erect, cylindrical, yellowish, curved 
when dry. 

H. reptile. Stem-leaves. 

Pedicel. Smooth. 

Lid (operculum). Large, yel- 
low, shortly beaked from a highly 
convex base. 

Teeth (peristome}. Long taper- 
pointed, orange at the base, seg- 
ments of the inner membrane cleft 
between the cross bars ; cilia shorter 
than the segments. 

Annulus. Large, compound. 

H. reptile. Plant. 

Spore-cases with lids. 

Portion of the peris- 
tome showing on the 
left two outer teeth ; on 
the right two inner 
teeth and four cilia. 

H. reptile. 


Spore-cases with- 
out lids. 

The Sub-genus Euhypnum 

Spores. Mature in August. 
Distribution, North America and 

Perigonial leaves. 

Male and female 

H. reptile. 

Leaves at base of pedicel. 

Hypnum imponens, Hedw. See Plate XXIX. 

Habit and habitat. This moss is exceedingly handsome, 
growing in flat yellowish-green 
tufts on decayed trunks and about 
the bases of trees. 


Stem leaves. 

H. imponens. 

Plant )gametophyte). Prostrate, stems feather-branched. 

Leaves. The stem-leaves overlapping, lying in two rows on 
the lower side, base broadly ovate, orange, at the angles minutely 
ear-like ; apex thread-like, and turned to one side ; borders 
reflexed below, minutely toothed all around or almost entire ; 
vein double or none ; cells very narrow, linear, somewhat 


Mosses and Lichen* 

worm-like, enlarged, and 4-sided at tne basilar angles, the 
branch-leaves narrower, hooked, and rolled together at the apex 
of the branches ; the leaf-like appendages (paraphyllia) attached 
to the stem, large, palm-like or lance-like. 


Leaf at base of 

H. imponens. 

Apex of leaf. 

Leaves at the base of the -pedicel (perichcetial leaves). Without 
a vein, gradually narrowed to a long thread-like flexuous and 
finely toothed point. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, split up one side- 

Female plant 

Perigonial leaf. 
H. imponens. 

with lids. 

Spore-case. Cylindrical, pale-brown, somewhat erect or 
slightly incurved. 

Pedicel (seta). Long and slender. 

The Sub-genus Euhypnum 

Lid (operculum). Convex, with an oblique point, orange 
at the apex. 

Teeth (peristome). Inner segments slightly cleft and as long 
as the cilia; outer, normal, cilia single, with small transverse 
spurs attached to the margin. 

Annulm. Large, compound, adherent to the mouth. 
Spores. Mature in the autumn. 

Distribution. Common in sub-alpine America, 
rare in Europe. 

with peristome. 

Spore -case 
with lid. 
H. imponens. 

Portion of peristom* 
showing on the left two 
outer teeth ; on the right 
two inner teeth and two 

Hypnum curvifolium, Hedw. See Colour Plate XVI. 

Habit and habitat. This attractive moss grows in intricate 
tufts, yellowish-green and glossy. It is very common on 
decayed logs in shady woods. 


H . curvifolium- 



Mosses and Lichens 

Name. The specific name, is from the Latin curvum, bent, 
and folium, a leaf. 

Plant (gametophyte). Large, stems, 3 to 4 inches long, 

prostrate with but few 

branches, these feather- 

branchlets compressed, 

unequal, and short 

Spore-case, dry. 

fc>pore-case with lid. 

H. curvijolium. 



Leaves. Crowded, in two rows, each leaf overlapping 
one in front, scythe-shaped concave and turned to 
one side; base, eared; apex gradually long taper- 
pointed; margin slightly serrate; vein absent or 
slightly evident at the base, cells above pale, narrow, 
linear and worm-like; cells of the base and angles, 
shorter, broader, and golden-yellow. 



Leaves at base of pedicel. 

H. curvifoltttm 

Sub-genus Calliergoa 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (pericb&tial leaves). Numerous, 
whitish, erect ; and close, the cells loose. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separate 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin and split up one side. 

Spore-case. Large, oblong, swollen, and arched, when young; 
thin and distinctly ribbed, when dry. 

Pedicel. Long and slender. 

Lid (operculum). Conical, with a short abrupt point. 

Teeth (peristome). Yellow with small blade-like projections 
on the inside ; segments of the inner membrane slightly cleft ; 
cilia 2 to 3, nearly as long as the segments. 

Annulus. With three rows of cells, rolling back as the 
lid falls. 

Spores. Mature in fall. 

Distribution. North America. 


The species of the Sub-genus Calliergon are large, erect, or 
prostrate plants growing in wide mats on the ground, or on 
rocks; the branches are simple or compound and have but a few 
rooting filaments. 

The sub-generic name is the Greek word Ka\\tepyov, beauti- 
fully made. 

Stem-leaves. Spore-cases with lids. 

H. Schreberi. 

The leaves are heart-shaped, oval or oval-oblong, deeply con- 
cave, spreading or overlapping, rarely turned to one side; the 
apex is obtuse, the vein variable, and the cells linear above and 
four-sided at the basal angles. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Spore-cases with lids 

H . Schreberi. 

Spore -case 
without lid. 

The spore-cases are borne on variable pedicels; they are oblong 
and incurved with convex-conical lids. An annulus is sometimes 
present, and the teeth are as in the genus Hypnum. 

The Red-stemmed Feather-moss, Hypnum (Collier gon) 
Schreberi, Willd. See Plate XXX. 

Habit and habi tat . On 
shaded ground of hills and 
mountains. The specimen 
photographed grew on the 
dry knolls of a swamp in Lake 

Name. The specific name 
was given by Karl Ludwig 
Willd enow in honour of 
D. J. C. Schreber. 

Plant (gametopbyte). Stems rigid, dark-red, branching, the 
branches with somewhat regularly arranged branchlets; branches 
and branchlets obtuse at the apex. 

Leaves, Pale-green or yellow, loosely overlapping, broadly 
oval-oblong, slightly concave; apex btuse or obtusely 
pointed, incurved; base recurved on the borders; vein double, 
short; margin entire; base extending down the stem; cells 
narrow, four-sided, orange at the base and the basal angles. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel 
(pericbcetial leaves'). The inner 
sheathing, erect, not plaited; apex 
short-pointed; vein none. 

Leaf -like organs among the leaves (para- 
pbyllia). None. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female 
flowers on separate plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, split up one 

Spore-case. Oblong, dark-coloured, 

Pedicel (seta). Dark-red, long, 
twisted above. 
-Red, conical, with a sharp point. 

H. Schreberi. 
Leaves at base of pedicel. 

Lid (operculum) .- 
Annulus. None. 
Teeth (peristome). Long, with lamellae on the inside, inner 

The Sub-genus Pleurozium 

segments split nearly the whole length ; hair-like segments three, 
slightly shorter. 

Spores. Mature in autumn. 

Distribution. North and South America, Europe and Asia. 



The species of this sub-genus increase yearly by arched 
branches or by rigid erect growths, the branches are short, 
unequal, and grow outward from the main stem, a character 
which suggested the name Pleurozium, a compound of the 
Greek m-\evpbv, a side, and of 09, a branch. 

The leaves on the stem are larger than those on the branches, 
and are different in shape. Besides these leaves there are numer- 
ous large and many-parted leaf-like organs (parapbyllid). 

The other characters of this sub-genus are similar to those of 
the genus Hypnum. 

HYPNUM (PLEUROZIUM) splendens, Hedw. 

(See Plate XXXI.) 

Habit and babitat. The Glittering Feather-moss is one of the 
most beautiful species. It is common on rocks in deep woods, 
in swampy places, on stumps, and on fallen trees. 

" Glittering with yellow, red and green, 
As o'er the moss, with playful glide, 
The sunbeams dance from side to side." 

Female plant. 

Male plant. 
H. splendens. 


Mosses and Lichens 

Name, J. G. Hedwig showed his appreciation of its beauty 
when he called it splendent. 

Plant (gametophyte).ln loose tufts, rigid, pale olive-green; 
stems glitterjng, 4 to 8 inches high, increasing by annual arched 
branches, or by rigid, upright branches; 
branches once or twice feather-branched. 

Leaves. Stem-leaves, at the base, distant, 
small and scale-like; above, loosely overlap- 
ping, slightly concave, broadly oval-long, often 
narrowed into a long wavy point; vein (costa) 



Perigonial leaf 
with paraphysis 
and antheridium. 
H. splendens. 


faintly double; margin finely toothed; branch-leaves smaller, 
oval-oblong, shorter pointed. 

Leaves at the base of the pedicel (perichcetial leaves). Narrowly 
pointed, sub-erect or recurved at the apex. 

Leaf-like organs (paraphyllia) . Numerous, large, varied in 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on different 
plants, (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra). Thin, transparent, pointed, split on one side, 
large and persistent. 

Spore-case. Egg-shaped, horizontal by a curve of the pedicel 
under the base. 

Pedicel (seta). Curved under the spore-case, about one inch 
high, smooth. 

Lid (operculum). Large and beaked. 

Teeth (peristome). Double, as in the genus Hypnum. 


Sub -genus Hyloc omnium 

Annulus. Single. 

Spores. Fruit not common, mature in spring. 
Distribution. Common in mountains or northward, America, 
Europe, northern Asia and Africa. 

Portion of peristome showing on the 
left four outer teeth ; on the right 

two cilia, two inner teeth split along Spore-case Leaves at base of 

their length. with peristome. pedicel. 

H. splendcns. 

HYPNUM: Sub-genus HYLOCOMNIUM, Schimp. 

The species of the Sub-genus Hylocomnium are large and 
robust, two or three times irregularly feather-branched. The 
stems grow from the apex only, or produce lateral 

The generic name Hylocomnium is derived from 
the Greek v\r), wood, and *o//,t>5, a reveller; it was 
given to these mosses by William Philipp Schimper, 
to describe their habit of growing on wood. 

The leaves spread abruptly from the base, or 
spread and turn to one side. There are no leaf-like 
organs (paraphyllia) among the leaves. 

The spore-cases are red-brown, swollen egg- 
shaped or nearly globular, abruptly horizontal, inclined when dry on 
pedicels twisted to the right. The lids are convex, or conic, with 
no annulus, or a double one. The teeth are as the genus Hypnum. 


H. triquetrum. 
Spore-case with- 
out lid. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Twenty-one species are known in all, five in America. 

The Triangular Wood-reveller, Hypnum (Hylocomnium) 
triquetrum, Linn. See plate XXXII. 

Habit and habitat. In large yellow or light-green mats 4 to 
8 inches deep, on decayed wood in plains and mountains. 

H. triquetrum. Female plant. 

Name. The specific name triquetrum was given to the moss 
by Linnaeus to describe its habit of pointing its branches in three 
directions, the Latin triquetrum meaning "having three angles." 

Plants (gametopbyte) . Stems stout and rigid, erect, simple 
or slightly divided, branched unequally and irregularly or with 
feather branches not all in the same plane. 

H. triquetrum. Branch leaves. 

Leaves. Very large, horizontally spreading both when wet or 
dry, stiff and membranous, glossy, triangular; apex acute; vein 


The Sub-genus Hylocomnium 

double to the middle; margin closely toothed; base auriculate; 
cells of the basal angles wide, transparent, oblong six-sided. 
Branch-leaves narrower, and gradually smaller upward. 

Habit of flowering. Male and female flowers on separata 
plants (dioicous). 

Veil (calyptra*). Split up one side. 

Leaf at base of 


Stem leaves. 
H. triqtutrum. 

Apex of leaf. 

Spore-case. Oblong, horizontal or inclined by a curve of its 
pedicel under the base, narrowed at the mouth when dry. 

Pedicel (seta). Curved below the spore-case, i to i inches 

Base of leaf. 

(a) Spore-case with veil; 
(6) Spore-case with lid. 

H. trigtutrvm. 

Mosses and Lichens 

Lid (operculum). Convex with a tiny point in the centre. 
Annulus. Simple. 

Teeth (peristome) . As in the genus Hypnum. 
Spores. Mature in autumn and winter. 
Distribution. Common in Europe; widely spread in America; 
common in the Adirondacks. 

H. triquetrum. Portion of 
peristome showing on the left 
one outer tooth with annulus 
cells at its base ; on the right 
two keeled and perforated in- 
ner teeth with three spurred 
cilia between. 


BRAITHWAITE. The Sphagnaceae of Europe and North America. 

London, 1880. 

BAUER. Mosses Collected in California, in Linnea. 1859. 
BRIDEL. Bryologia Universa. Leipsic, 1826-1827. 
BRITTON. How to Study the Mosses. The Observer, 1894-1897. 

Contributions to American Bryology. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 


BRUCH AND SCHIMPER. Bryologia Europaea. Stuttgard, 1836-1855. 
CHENEY. North American Species of Amblystegium. Botanical 

Gazette, 1897. 
CORRENS. Unterauchungen tiber die Vermerung der Laub- 

moose. Jena, 1899. 

CROMBIE. British Lichens. London, 1894. 
ENGLER AND PRANTL. Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig, 


EKHART. Synopsis Jungermaniarum. Coburg, 1832. 
EVANS. Hepatics. Trans, of the Conn. Ac., Vol. III. 1892. 
GOEBEL. (Dr. K.., Professor in University of Rostock, Germany). 

Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants. 

Polytrichum commune. Translated by H. E. F. Garnsey, 

M. A., Revised by I. B. Balfour, M. A., Oxford, 1887. 
GROUT. Revision of North American Isotheciacea and Brachy- 

thecia. Memoirs Torr. Bot. Club, 1897. 
GROUT AND SMITH. The Bryologist. Brooklyn, 1898. 
HAMPE. Mosses Collected in Southern United States by Beyrich, 

in Linnea. 1839. 
HEDWIG. Species Muscorum Frondosorum. Edited by Schwaeg- 

richen. Species Muscorum. Leipsic, 1801-1842. Musci 

Frondosi. Leipsic, 1787-1792. 

HOOKER. WM. JACKSON. British Flora. London, 1830. 
HOOKER AND TAYLOR. Muscologia Britannica. 1827. 
HOWE. Hepaticae and Anthocerotes of California. Memoirs Torr. 

Bot. Club, New York, 1899. 
JAGER AND SAUERBACH. Adumbratio Florae Muscorum. 1870-1878. 

Mosses and Lichens 

KINDBERG. European and North American Bryineae. 1897. 
LESQUEREUX AND JAMES. Manual of the Mosses of North America. 

Boston, 1884. 

LIMPRECHT. Die Laubmoose. 1895. 
MICHAUX. Flora Boreali Americana. 
MUELLER. Synopsis Muscorum Frondosorum. 
PARIS. Index Bryologicus. 1894-1898. 
PIERCE. The Nature of the Association of Algae and Fungi in 

Lichens. Proceedings Calif. Acad. Sci. 1899. 
SCHIMPER. Synopsis Muscorum Europaeorum. Stuttgard, 1860. 
SCHNEIDER. General Lichenology. 
SULLIVANT AND LESQUEREUX. Icones Muscorum. Musci Alleghani- 

ensis. Columbus, O., 1846. 
SULLIVANT. Mosses and Hepatics of the United States. New 

York, 1856. 
TUCKERMAN. North American Lichens. Boston, Parti, 1882; and 

New Bedford, Part II, 1888. 
UNDERWOOD. North American Hepaticae. 1883. 
WILSON. Bryologia Britannica. London. 


Abbreviations, 75 
Achneh, 80 
Acrocarpi, 153 
Adanson, 61 
Air chamber, 7 a 
Albumen, 45 
Alga, chain-celled, 66 

determination of, 24 

green colour of lichen, a a 

one-celled, 65 

producing different lichens, 24 

scytonema, 66 

thallophyte, 66 
Algae, 71, 80 
Amblystegittm riparittm, conglomerated with 

mud, i s 

Amphigastra, 102 (cut) 
Amphigastrum, 100 (cut) 
Andreae, J. G. R., 132 
Andre cea, genus, 130-133 

pelrophila, 132 (cuts) 

rupestris, 133 (cuts) 

exception to rule that spore-case 

opens by lid, 30 
plant with spore-case, 14 
Andreaeas, retainers of dust, 14 
Androecium, 96 
Annulus, 52, 55 (cuts) 

defined, 37 

function of, 51 (cut) 

origin of, 49 

rolling away, 49 (cut) 
Anomodon, genus, 266-270 

apiculatus, 269 
leaf, 42 

attenuates, 268 (cuts), 269 

rostratus, 267 (cut) 
Antheridia, 41 (cut), 65 

defined, 46 

stages in development of, 96 (cut) 

where developed, 48 
Antheridium, bursting, 118 (cut) 

criterion for classification, 67 

development of, 119 (cuts) 

immature, 49 

mature, ^49, 49 (cut) 

of Equisetum, 71 (cut) 

on prothallium, 67 

position of, 39, 40, 118 (cut) 

sending forth sperm-cells, 40, 46 (cuts) 

sperm-cells coiled in, 67 
escaping from, 67 

vertical section of, 67 
Antherozoid, 118, 120, 121 
Apiculate, 237 
Apophysis, 35 (cut), 37, 52, (cuts), 205 

bell-shaped, 59 

defined, 57 

in Polytrichum mosses, 57 

larger than spore-case, 6 

umbrella-shaped, 59 

varieties of, 57 
Apothecia, 25 
Apothecium, 27 (cut) 
Apple-moss, 215 
Archepronia, 6.s 

criterion for classification, 67 (cut) 

Archegonia, origin of, 47 

section of archegonia, 47 (cut) 
where developed, 48 
Archegonium, 49 (cut), 50 
character of wall, 50 
development of, 120 (cuts) 
position of, 39, 40, 119 (cuts) 
stages in development of, 96 (cut) 
wall in Marchantia, 98 (cut) 

severed from base, 50 (cut) 
Archesporium, defined, 51 
Archidium, genus, 140, 141 

Ohiense, spore-case not opening by 

lid, 30 (cut), 140, 141 
Aristotle, 19 
Asci, 24 

Ascospores, 24, 25 
Ascus, 24 

Asexual, generation, 65, 68, 69, (cuts) 
Equisetum, 70 (cut) 
fern, 68, 69 (cut) 
Hepatic, 71, (cut) 
moss, 68 (cut) 
reproduction, aim of, 59 
Asplenium Ruta-muraria, 69 (cut) 
Astonrnm, genus, 141143 

Sullivantii, 51 (cut), 141 (cut), 14* 

Aulacomnium, genus, 234-239 

androgynum, 235 (cut), 237 (cut) 

gemmae cluster enlarged, 58 (cut) 
plant, 58 (cut) 
heterostichum, 237 (cut), 238 (cuts) 

leaf apex to show margin, 33 (cut) 
plant, 8 (cut) 
palustre, 236 (cuts), 237 
annulus, 237 (cut) 
branch, 236 (cut) 
cross-section of stem, 237 (cut) 
lid, 237 (cut) 
plant, 236 (cut) 
stem, 46 (cut) 

with whip-like branch, 236 


veil, 237 (cut) 

whip-like branch, 236 (cut) 
Authorities, 75 
Autoicous, 40, 48 
Awned Hairy-cap, 253 (cut) 

Bacteria, 63, 71 
Barbula, genus, 172-175 

ccespii-osa, 173 (cut), 175 (cuts) 
protonema of, 59 
retainer of dust, 14 
unguiculata, 173, 174, 176 (cut) 

sporophyte with twisted seta, 

60 (cut) 

Bartram, John, 215 
Basidia, 25 
Bazzania, genus, 150 

trilobata, 106 
Bazzani, M., 106 
Beard Moss, protonema of, 38 
Bicarbonate of lime, 17, 144 
Bladder-cap Moss, 207 
Boat-leaved Moss, plate III., 128 * 


Bog-mosses, colour plate III. 
crimson, 6 

forming peat-bogs, no, iia 
gray, 6 

reclaiming marshes, n 
see Sphagnum (under Mosses), 109 
Booth Bay, 7 
Bornet, 22 

Brachythecium rivulare, 31 (cut) 
Branch, fertile, 58 

sterile, 58 
Breathing pores, 44 
Brewer, H. W., in 
Broom-moss, 155 
Browning, 4, 10 
Bryum, genus, 221-225 

argenteum, leaf, 34 (cut), 222 (cuts), 223 
leaf of, 43 (cut) 

spore-case without lid, lid of, 9, 52 
stem cut vertically, 41, (cut) 
binum, stem cut vertically, 41 (cut) 

vertical section of stem, 47 
erythrocarpum, gemmae in axis of leaf 

and stem, 58 (cut) 
roseum, 224 (cuts), 225 (cuts) 
Bryophytes, compared with thallophytes, 64 
Bud-leaved Ulota, 187 
Buxbaum, J. C., 260, 261 
Bttxbaumia, genus, 260-262 

aphylla, plate XX., 57, 261, 262 
collum of, 57 (cut) 
inner membrane, 260 (cut) 
leaf, 261 (cut) 

sporophyte of, 57 (cut), 260, 262 
top of spore-case, 262 (cut) 
vaginule of, 57 
veil, 261 (cut) 
young plant, 260 (cut) 

Calyptra, 122 

denned, 50 

Hepatic, 95 (cut) 

origin of, 41 (cut) 

Sphagnum, 115 (cut) 

variation of, 31 
Canal-cell, 97 (cut) 
Carbohydrates, 13 
Carbon, i 2 

dioxide, 12, 17 
Carbonate of lime, 17, 144 
Caiherinea, genus, 240242 

angustata cross section of leaf, 44, (cut) 
epiphragm of, 56 

undulata; cross section of leaf, 43 (cut), 
242 (cuts) 

summit of spore-case, 57 (cut) 
surface of leaf, 44 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 242 (cut) 
Catkin-stemmed Silver Moss, 222 
Cells, 134 (cut) 

chains of 23, 46, 65, 66 

contents, 12, 99 (cut) 

floor-cells, 72 (cut) 

large loose, 114 

mother, 51 

open at base, 43 

pithy, 114 

single 27 

structure open, 43 

tubular, 69 

without leaf -green, 62 

woody, 114 

zone which forms lid, 53 
Cellular bodies of Barbula, 59 

sheath, 131, 132 (cuts) 
Central cord, 80 
Cephaloid, 88 
Ceratodon purpureum, 9 

cross section of leaf, 42 
Cetraria Islaiidica as food, ao 


Chimborazo, 187 

Chlorophyll, 12, 32, 38, 44, 62, 67, 199 (cut) 

Christmas-greens, see Lycopodiums, 69 

Chroococcus, 25, 26 

Cilia, origin of, 54 

Cinderella, 210 

Cladonia, genus, 88 

coral-like, colour plate XII., 27 

cornucopioides, 90 

cristatella, colour plate XII., 27, 89 

fimbriata, plate X., 89 

furcate, 27 (cut) 

bit showing alga and fungus, 27 (cut) 

tnitrula, 27 

Novce-Anglicc, 27 

pyxidata, colour plate XII., 89 

rangiferina, colour plate VIII., 27 
Cladoniaeform, 89 
Claw-leaved Barbula, 173 
Climacium, genus, 271-273 

Americanum, 273 

dendroides, 271, 272 

lid with columella attached, 55 (cut) 
spore-case with lid lifted to show 

teeth, 55 (cut) 
sporogonium, 48 (cut) 
Coccocarpia molybdcea, 24, 28 (cuts) 
Collar Mosses, 204 
Collema pulposum, 29 (cut) 

section of, 29 
Collum, 39, 147, 149 

in Buxbauwia, 57 

Leptobryum pynforme, 58 (cut) 

Ulola crispa, 57 (cut) 
Columella, 31, 49, 59, 122, 135, 205 (cuts) 

attached to base and summit, 55 (cut) 

development of, 53 (cut) 

lid, 35 (cut) 

origin of, 49, 51 

varieties of 55, 
Colvin, Verplanck, in 
Common Hairy-cap, 256 
Continental glacier, in 
Cora pavonia, 24 
Cord-moss, 209 

mosses on blackened embers, 5, colour 

plate III. 

Cornucopia Cladonia, The, 90 
Cortex, 87 

Cortical layer, 80, 82 
Costa denned, 43 
Cottony layer, 80 
Crabbe, 5 
Criterion for relation between ferns and 

mosses, 66 
Cucullate, 149 
Cups with scarlet edges, 5 
Curled-leaf Mosses, 184 
Curtains in peristome of Polytrichum 

mosses, 55 
Cyphels, 86 

De Bary, 22 

Development of organs, 119 

Dicranella heteromalla, spore-cases, 32 (cut) 

Dicranum ftagellare, leaf for cell-structure, 

43 (cut) 
Dictyonema, 25 

Dillenius, Johann, 61, 114, 136, 221, 222, 261 
Dioicous, 40, 48 
Dioscorides, 19, 21, 205, 221 
Diphysctum, genus, 258 

ioliosum, 259 

leaf, 258 (cut) 

lid lifted to show teeth, 259 (cut) 

male plant, 259 (cut) 

perigonial leaf, 259 (cut) 

peristome, 259 (cut) 

plant, (250 (cut) 

spore-case, 259 (cut) 


Diphyscium, veil, 259 (cut) 
Distichous, 157 
Dotted Mnium, 232 
Ducts, 115, 129 

Duke of York, dogs belonging to, 20 
Dust of open plains in mountain valleys ot 
Arctic ice fields, 14 

Earth bread, 20 

Ecorticate, 90 

Egg-cell, 39, 41, 47, 49, 120 (cut) 

division of, 49 

Ehrhart, Friedrich, 132, 195 
Eight-toothed White Moss, 165 
Elater, 70, 94 
Embryo, 50 

of ferns, 66 

Emericella variecolour, 25 
Emerson, 28 
Endothecium, 51 
Ephebe Kerneri, 28 (cut) 
Ephemerunt, protonema of, 59 
Epidermis, 72 (cut) 
Epiphragm, 36 55, 56 (cut), 

of Catharinea, 56 
Equisetum, 69 

arvense, 70 (cut) 

asexual generation of, 70 (cut) 
fertile cone, 70 (cut) 
plant with fertile cone, 71 (cut) 
sexual generation of, 71 (cut) 
spore bearing scale, 70 (cut) 

shoot, 70 (cut) 
spore with elaters coiled, 70 (cut) 

expanded, 70 (cut) 
sterile, shoot 70 (cut) 
sylvaticum, 71 (cut) 
Excurrent, 149 
Extinguisher Mosses, 190 

False pedicel, 122 

defined, S3 (cut) 
Fascicle, 113, 114 
Female flower-cluster, vertical section of, 

49 (cut) 
Fern, antheridium of, 67 

archegonium of, 67 

gametophyte, 69 

life history, 66 

pinule, 68, 69 

prothallium of, 65, 66, 67 

relative position of in plant kingdom, 69 

Ruta-muraria, 69 

sporophyte of, 67 

stem, 69 
Fibrillose, 129 
Fibrils, 115 
Filices, see ferns, 69 
Fissidens, genus, 157-161 

adiantoides, 32 (cut), 158 (cuts), 160 
old spore-case, 53 

taxifolium, 139 (cut) 
Flagellae, 106 (cut) 
Florida Moss, 8 

Flower-cluster, vertical section, 49 (cut) 
Flowers of Lapland, no 
Foliaceous, 80 
Foliose, 93 

Hepatics, see Hepatics, leafy, 99 
Fontinalis, genus, 262-264 

antipyretica, 262 (cuts), 263 

formation of peristome, 54, 56 (cuts), 
Foot, S3 (cut), 67, 122 (cut), 140 

in Marchantia, 98 (cut) 

origin of, 39 
Forests, moss-muffled, 11 
Four-toothed Mosses, 193-198 
Franklin, J., 29 
Frondiform, 193, 194 (cut) 

Frullani, Signor Leonardo, 103 
Fruticulose, 79 
Futtaria, genus, 209-214 

flavicans, plate XVI., 210 
hygrontetrtca, colour plates III. and XVI., 

annulus, S3 (cut) 

archegonia of, 41 (cut) 

bud from which new plant will grow. 

64 (cut) 

cross section of seta, 57 (cut) 
of stem, 71 (cut) 
dioicous inflorescence, 49 (cut) 
germinating spore, 64 (cut) 
immature plant, 32 (cut) 
infloresence, 48 (cut) 
mature plant, 31 (cut) 
plant to show parts and monoicous 

inflorescence, 39 (cut) 
protonema, 64 (cut) 
spore germinating, 38 (cut) 
summit of spore-case, 37, 49 (cuts) 
surface view of pore, 72 
vertical section through young 

sporogonium, 51 (cut) 
widely branching protonema, 38 


young sporogonium, 50 (cut) 
Fungi, 63, 71 
Fungus, chain-celled, 66 
determination of, 24 
partner in lichen, 23 
stealing food, 22 
Fungus-partner, independent of, 34 

Gaius Plinius, 221 
Galeate, 103 
Gannet, 9 

Gametophyte, 35, 36, 43 
fern, 68 (cut) 
Hepatic, 68 (cut), 69 
Marchantia showing pore, 72 (cut) 
moss, 68 (cut) 
without pores, 72 
Gasteromycetes, 26 
Gemma, 58 
Gemmae, 58 (cut) 

cluster of Georgia pellucida, 60 (cut) 
homology of, 60 

in axis formed by leaf and stem, 58 
producing protonema, 59, 60 
terminal cluster, 58 (cut) 
terminal head, 58 (cut) 
tip of leaf, 58 (cut) 
Gemmate, 206 

Generations, succession of, 15 
Georgia, genus, i93-iQ7 < 

character of teeth in genus, 54 
Brownii, frondiform leaves, 194 (cut) 
geniculata, 197 

spore-case, 32 (cut) 
pellucida, 195 

cluster enlarged, 60 (cut) 

cross-section of four teeth, 54 (cut) 

gemmae cluster, 58 (cut) 

plant with gemmae cups, 60 (cut) 

produces cellular bodies, 60 

spore-case, 198 (cut) 

tip of spore-case, 37, S4(cuts) 

vertical section of gemmae cluster, 

. 58 (cut) 

Glycerine ielly, 74 
Gonidja, 27 (cut) 
Gonidial layer, 87 

zone, 26 
Gonimia, 86 
Gonimous layer, 86 
Gray fringes, i, 8 
Grimm, J. F. C., 179 



Grimmia, genus, 178, 179 
apocarpa, 179 

corroding work of, 13 
Gritnmias, retainers of dust, 14 
Hair-like Hair-cap, 245 
Hairy-cap Mosses, 242, 248 
short-stemmed, 243 
subjects for beginners, 35 
Hairy-caps, plate X., 5 
hairy veils due to, 50 
how to avoid too strong light, 43 

to procure maximum amount of 

light, 42 

leaves proof against dryness, 43 
stem most highly developed, 45 
upturning of leaves, 6 
Haller, Albrecht von, 260 
Hayes, Dr. Isaac I., 7 
Hedwig, J. Q., 182, 215, 228 
Hedvrigia ciliata, 183, 184 

spore-case with lid removed, 9 (cut) 
Hepatics, 9, 91, 93 

Bazzania, leaf apex, 105 (cut) 

leaves from base of perianth. 105 

male branch, 105 (cut) 
perianth, 105 (cut) 
stem with leaf, 106 (cut) 

sporophyte, 105 (cut) 
tip of perianth, 106 (cut) 
trtolobata, plate X., 106 (cut) 
under leaf, 106 (cut) 
view of underside of stem, 106 (cut) 
classified between, 71 (cut) 
compared with leafy moss and fern, 65 
genetic relationships, 62 
foliose, 93 
Frullania, genus, 102 

amphigastra with rootlets, 103 

complanata, 102 (cut) 

cross section of perianth, 103 

eboracensis, 103 

transverse section of perianth 

103 (cut) 

upper view of stem, 103 (cut) 
ecklomt, 102 (cut) 

lobule of, 102 (cut) 
stylus of, 102 (cut) 
under view of stem, 102 (cut) 
gametophyte, 65 
how to collect, 73 
to dissect, 73 
to know them, 10 
to preserve, 73 
to study, 73 

involucre opened out, 103 (cut) 
leafy, inrolled, 99 (cut) 
irregular, 99 (cut) 
stipule of, 64 (cut) 
third row of leaves, 99 (cut) 
toothed, 99 (cut) 
with lobe and lobule, 99 (cut) 
Marchantia polymorpha, air-chamber, 96 
androecium of, 96 
antheridia, stages in development of, 

96 (cut) 

archegonia of, 96 
areolae of, 95 
canal-cell, 97 (cut) 
egg-cell of, 07 (cut) 
elater, 94 (cut), 98 (cut) 
epidermis of, 96 (cut) 
false-perianth, 94, 97, 98 
floor-cells of, 96 (cut) 
foot of, 98 (cut) 
fringed involucre of, 94 
gemmae of, 93, 94, 97, 98 (cut) 
peduncle of, 94, 97, 98 


Marchantia polymorpha, 
pores of, 96 (cut) 
protonema of, 95 
ray, 94 

sperm-cells of, 95 (cut) 
spore-case of, 94 (cut) 
sporophyte developing, 97, 98 (cut) 
stages in a developing archegonium, 

96 (cut) 

surface of pore, 93 (cut) 
under surface of female receptacle, 

95 (cut) 

vertical section of antheridium, 
95 (cut) 

female receptacle, 94 (cut) 
male receptacle, 95 (cut) 
through pore, 93 (cut), 96 
no utilitarian aspect, 62 
perianth, 103 (cut) 

Porella platyphylla, colour plate XIV.. 
29, 99 

amphigastrum, 100 (cut) 
antheridia of, 100 
archegonia of, 100 
calyptra, 100 (cut) 
creeping stem, 99 (cut) 
female branch, 100 (cut) 
leaf magnified to show cell structure 

100 (cut) 

lobes and lobules, 99 (cut), 100 
lobule, 100 (cut) 
male branch, 100 (cut) 
pedicel, 100 (cut) 
perianth, 100 (cut) 
spore-case, 100 (cut) 
sporophyte, 100 (cut) 
under view of stem, 99, 100 (cuts) 
upper surface of stem, 101 
veil, 100 (cut) 

position in plant kingdom, 61 
Ptilidiwn ciliare, colour plate XIV., 
104 (cut) 

lobule of, 104 (cut) 
under view of stem, 104 
upper view of stem, 104 (cut) 
relative position in plant kingdom, 69 
ribbon-like, 93 
spore-case, 71 (cut) 

cut into four symmetrical valves, 9 
sporophyte, 71 (cut) 
veil, 71 

Hepaticce, analogous to Vermes, 62 
degree of development, 64 
unique position of, in plant kingdom, 61 
Herbarium, the, 73 
Hermaphrodite, 235 
Hoffman, G. F., 89 
Homologies, study of, 61 
of fern parts, 61 
of Hepatic, 61 
of moss, 6 1 
Homologous parts, 61 
Hooker, Sir Wm. J., 223 
Horn-tooth Mosses, 166 
Hornschuch, Dr. Christian Friedrich, 22 
Horse-tails, 69, 71 
Humming-bird, 29 
Hutchins, Miss, 188 

Ulota, 1 88 
Hypnunt, 180 

Boscii, surface view of pore, 72 (cut) 
falcatum, 17 

rusciforme, conglomerated with mud, 14 
uncinatum, to show cilia, teeth and 

annulus, 31 (cut) 
Hyphae, 22, 24, 26, 28 

Ice Age, in 
Iceland Moss, 20 

3 l8 


Inflorescence, 39, 40 

autoicous, 48 

dioicous, 48, 49 

monpicous, 48 

paroicous, 48 

synoicous, 48 
Involucre, 94 (cut), 95 
Isidiophorous, 82 

Jaundice, 20 
Jungermania, 132 
Juniper Hairy-cap, 254 
Jumper inum, 249 

Key to genera of Polytrichaceae t *3Q 

to species of Genus Polytrichum, 250 
King George III., 195 

Lake Tear of the Clouds, 1 1 1 

Lamellae, 35, 43 (cut), 44 (cut), 45 (cut), 239 

(cut), 240 (cut) 
Lapland, 27 
Larcom, Lucy, 16 

Leaf apex prolonged into an awn, 32, 34 (cuts) 

cell-structure in hepatic, 100 (cut) 

cross section of, 1 24 

mf ~sin entire, 33 (cut) 
serrate, 33 , 34 (cut) 

structure of, 43 

with antheridium, 125 
Leaf -green, 12, 32, 62, 67 

transparence of, 34 

variation of, 3 1 

work of, 33 

Leafy Diphyscium, 259 
Leafy Hepatics, 99 

mosses, 30 
Leaves defined, 36 (cut) 

frondiform, 194 (cut) 

modified to form gemmae, 60 

producing protonema, 60 

scale-like, of Equisetums, 70 

variation of, 31 

with root hairs, 58 
Lecanora, earth bread, 20 

esculenta, 20 

manna of Israelites, 20 
Leptobryum pyriforme, 217 

collum, 58 

spore-case, 58 
Leptotrichum, 171 
Leucobryum, genus, 34, 161 

colour due to, 161 

vulgar e, 163 

portion of peristome, 37 (cut) 
section of open leaf, 35 (cut) 

closed leaf, 35 (cut) 
terminal leaves with root-hairs, 58 


young plant, 58 (cut) 
Lichens, absorbing power of, 26 

advance in exact knowledge of, 21 

algae distributed, 26 

in definite layers, 26 

alliance for mutual benefit, 22 

as drugs, 20 

bearded, 80 

Blistered UmbiUcaria, The, 84 

blue-green felt-like plates, 25 

branching like corals, 8 

Brown-fruited Cup Cladonia, colour plate 
XII., 89 

cause of neglect of, by early botanists, 19 

Cetraria Iskmdica, colour plate VII., 79 
Jacunosa, 79 

check against torrents, 16 

chemical action of, 13 
work of, 12 


Cladonia carnucopioides, 90 

cristatella, colour plate XII., 89 
fimbriata, plate IX., 89 
pyxidata. colour plate XII., 89 
rangiferina, colour plate VIII., 90 
colour due to, 23 
common ancestral type of, 22 
condense moisture, 4 
constant hearted, 10 
Cornucopia Cladonia, The, 90 
cortical layer of, 80 (cut) 
cortex of, 87 
cottony, 80 (cut) 
debris of, a source of humus, 14 
delicate threads prying rock, 13 
dissolving rock, 13 
distribution, i, 7 

Dog Peltigera, The. colour plate VII., 86 
dual organism, 22 
dye industry, 21 
encrusted, 28 
endurance of cold, 7 
exact relation of one to another, 26 
fancied resemblance to injured parts, 20 
fan-like greenish-yellow, 24 
first growths, 4 

first plants to appear on soil, 16 
forerunners of rock-loving mosses, 4 
fossil evidence of, 16 
from spores of fungus, 24 
fruits of fungus, 24 
fruits in flattened coloured disks, 8 
gelatinous, 26, 28 (cut) 
genera and species, 77 
gonidial layer of, 87 
growing flat or ruffled, 8 
Hair-like Usnea, The, 81 
how they are made, 24 
how to collect, 73 

to dissect, 73 

to know them, 8 

to preserve, 73 

to study, 73 

Iceland Moss, colour plate VIII., 79 
ideal section to show apothecium, 27 
in history, 14 
in moist atmosphere, 26 
isidiophorous, 82 
magnified portion of, 23 
manufacturing plant food, 13 
mechanical action of, 13 

work of, 12 
meek creatures, 4 
"mock the marks on a moth," 10 
not an individual plant, 22 
origin and nature of, 22 
Parmelia, genus. Si 

caperata, 83 

conspersa, colour plate V., 82 

perlata, plate VI., 83 

physodes, var. vittata, plate V., 82 

saxatilis, plate XV., 83 
Peltigera, genus, 85 

apthpsa, 85, 86 

canina, colour plate VII., 86 

polydactyla, 86 

venosa, 85 

Physcia leucomela, colour plate VIII., 84 
pioneers, 17 

among plants, 17 
pith, layer of, 87 

Pitted Cetraria, The, plate II., 79 
place in plant kingdom, 23 
"plodding," 13 
poem to R. M. E., 21 
Red-fruited Cup Cladonia, The, 90 
Reindeer, The, colour plate VIII., 90 

used for bread, 27 
resembling puff-ball, 25 



Lichens, retainers of rainfall, 16 
of soil, 13 
of water, 16 

Rock Tripe, colour plate XI., 85 
ruffled on support, 8 
Scarlet-crested Cladonia, The, colour 

plate XII., 89 
scutellseform, 80 
secrete acid, 4 
sections of thallus, 80 (cut) 
"silver spots" Ruskin, 3 
"slow fingered," 10 
soredia, 82 

sought for medicinal properties, 19, 20 
source of brooks, 16 
spontaneous generation of, 22 
starch, 20 
Stereocaulon, genus, 88 

paschale, plate VIII., 88 
tomentosum, 88 
Sticta, genus, 86, 87 

amplissima, colour plate VII., 87 
pulmonaria, colour plate, VII., 87 
Stictina fuliginosa, 87 (cut) 
surface, hoary, 25 
flat disks, 25 
ruptured, 24 
with knobs, 25 
Thelochistes, genus, 81 

parietinus, colour plate II., 81 
true nature of, 22 
Umbilicaria, genus, 84, 85 
Dillenii, 85 

Muhlenbergii, colour plate XI., 85 
pustulata, 84 

veiled, colour plate XI., 85 
uniform distribution of alga, 29 
Usnea, genus, 80 
barbata, 80 

cross sections of thallus, 80 (cut) 
trichodea, 81 

vertical section of thallus, 80 (cut) 
what they are doing on rocks and trees, 8 
which yield a dye, 19 
with coloured disks or cushioned, 8 

concentric edges, 25 

work done under primitive conditions, 14. 
Wrinkled Parmelia, The, 83 
Xanthoria parietina, colour plate II.,8i 
Yellow Wall-lichen, The, colour plate 

II.. So 

yielding litmus, 19 
Lid, 35 

defined, 36 
development of, 51 
origin of, 49 

with columella attached, 55 
Limestone, 17, 144 
Limnobium molle, in turbid water of glaciers, 


Linnaeus, Carolus, 109, 136, 261 
Little -beard Moss, 172 
Little Fork-Mosses, 150 
Litmus, how obtained, a test for acid and 

alkalies, 19 
Liverworts, 93 

pioneers, 17 
Lobe, 99 (cut) 
Lobule, 99 (cut), 102 (cut) 
Lowell, James Russell, 27, 29 
Luminous moss, 34 

power of conveying light, 34 
Lungwort, 29 
Lycopodiums, 69, 71 

Male flowers-cluster, vertical section, 49 


Male flowers, 125 
Mammillatc, 221 
Manna, lichen, 20 

Manna of Israelites, 20 
Marchantia, genus, 19, 93, 98 
polymorplia, 93-98 (cuts) 

surface view of pore, 72 (cut) 

vertical section of pore, 72 (cut) 
Marsh building on Mt. Marcy, 17 
Medulla, 80 
Medullary layer, 82 
Membrane, 33 (cut), 56 
Mica, 74 
Minute structure, how to gain a knowledge 

of, 62 

Mnium, genus, 225-234 
affine, 10, 229 

anmilus, 231, (cut) 

apex of leaf. 225, 231 (cut) 

leaves, 230 

lid, 231 (cut), 52 

male plant, 230 (cut) 

perigonial leaf, 231 (cut) 

peristome, 227 (cut), 231 (cut) 

spore-case with lid, 52 (cut) 

spore-cases, 231 (cut) 

stem, 230 (cut) 

tuft, 230 (cut) 
cuspidatum, 226-230 

annulus, 228 (cut) 

apex of leaf, 226 (cut) 
of leaves, 229 (cut) 

border of leaf, 226 (cut) 

inner membrane, 226 (cut), 339 

leaves, 228 (cut) 

plant, 226 (cut) 

spore-case, 229 (cut), 236 (cut) 

stem with leaves, 34 (cut), 229 (cut) 

tuft 226, (cut) 
hornum, 231 

apex of leaf, 226 (cut) 

leaves, 231 (cut) 

plant, 231 (cut) 

spiny leaf border, 226 (cut) 

spore-case, 232 
futtctaium var. elatum, 225, 234, plate 

apex of leaf, 226 (cut), 233 (cut) 

leaf border, 226 (cut), 235 

leaves, 233 (cut) 

marginal cell of leaf, 226 (cut) 

spore-case, 233 (cut) 

stem, 233 (cut) 

with hairs, 233 (cut) 
with leaves, 34 (cut) 
undulatum, stem, 46 
Monocarbonate of lime, 144 
Monoicous, 40, 48 
Mosses, 107, 109 

and Lichens, poem by Willis Boyd 

Allen, 3 
as a cement, 7 

at work on the everlasting hills, u 
change of colour, 6 
check against torrents, 16 
chemical work of, n 
classified between, 71 
distinguishing character, 30 
distribution, 5, 7 
"elf-needled mat," 10 
endurance of cold, 7 
first plants to appear on soil, 16 
fossil evidence, 16 
fruiting portion, 35 
gametophyte, 65 
how to collect, 73 

to dissect, 73 

to know them, 8 

to preserve, 73 

to study, 73 
idle, 10 
in rock crevices, 5 



Mosses, mechanical work of, 1 2 
method of obtaining water, 34 
necessity for light, 33 
pioneers, 15, 17 
plants wrongly so called, 8 
pores of, 72 

position in plant kingdom, 61 
produced without spores, 33 
relative position in plant kingdom, 69 
reproduction of, 32 
resembling miniature trees, 9 

tiny ferns, 9 
retainers of rainfall, 16 
of soil, 13 
of water, 16 

retention of mud by aquatic, 14 
rock-loving, 5 
saprophytic, n 
"soft lips of," 10 
soil makers, 12, 17 
source of brooks, 16 
species based on, 32 
start in life not general on rocks, 13 
velvet stage, 5 
velvety coat of young, 5 

cushions, 5 

what they are doing on rocks and trees, 8 
which build up limestone, 17 

do not produce spores, 32 
with straight-haired veils, 188 
work done under primitive conditions , 1 4 
Andrecea, genus, 130-^133 

Hartmanii, fertile plant, 131 (cut) 
leaves, 130 (cut) 
sporophyte, 131 (cut) 
sterile plant, 131 (cut) 
petrophila, 132 

leaves, 132 (cut) 

vertical section of spore-case, 

132 (cut) 

rupestris, fertile plant, 133 (cut) 
leaves, 133 (cut) 
spore-case open, 133 (cut) 
sporophyte, 133 (cut) 
with four valves, 130 (cuts) 
Archidium, genus, 140, 141 
Ohiense, 140, 141 

exit of spores, 140 (cut) 
plant, 141 (cut) 
sporophyte with veil, 141 (cut) 
vertical section of sporophyte, 

140 (cut) 
Astomum, genus, 141 

Sttliivantii, bract, 142 (cut) 
leaves, 142, (cut) 
plant, 141 (cut) 
spore-case with veil, 142 (cut) 
sporophyte, 142 (cut) 
upper leaves, 142 (cut) 
veil, 142 (cut) 
Attlacomnium, genus, 234 
androgynum, 235 

head of gemmae, 234 (cut) 
plant, 234 (cut) 
spore case, 234 (cut), 235, 237 
heterostichunt, plate XX., 237 
annuhis, 238 (cut) 
cross section of leaf, 237 (cut) 
lid, 237 (cut) 
male flower, 230 (cut) 
spore cases, 237, (cut), 238 (cut) 
palustre, 236 

antheridia and paraphyses, 238 


leaves, 238 (cut) 
plant, 238 (cut)- 
stem, 238 (cut) 
Barbula, genus, 172-176 
caspitosa, 175 

fertile plant, 173 (cut) 

Mosses, Barbula, 

caspitosa, leaves, 172, 175 (cuts) 
male flower-cluster, 175 (cut) 
plant, 173, 175 (cuts) 
spore-case, 175 (cut) 
tip _ of spore-case, 173 (cut) 

Muellcri, 177 (cut) 

unguiculata, 173 

cross-section of leaf, 174 (cut) 
leaves, 174 (cut) 
plant, 173 (cut) 
spore-cases, 174 (cut) 
sporophyte, 174 (cut) 
_tip of spore-case, 174 (cut) 
Bartramia porni]onnis, 214, 215 

leaves, 216 (cut) 

plant, 216 (cut) 

stripped, 215 (cut) 

tuft, 216 (cut) 
Bruchia flexuosa, 139 

leaves, 139 (cut) 

plant, 130 (cut) 

sporophyte, 140 (cut) 
Bryum, genus, 221-225 

argenteum, 222 

annulus, 223 (cut) 

leaf, 221 (cut) 

lids, 222 (cut) 

peristome, 221, 222 (cuts) 

plants, 222 (cut) 

spore-case, 221, 222, 223 (cut) 

veil, 223 (cut) 

roseum, plate XVIII., 224 
annulus, 225 (cuts) 
apex of leaf, 224 (cut) 
leaves, 224 (cut) 
peristome, 225 (cut) 
plants, 225 

spore-case, 225 (cut) 
Ceratodon, genus, 166-169 

ptirpureum, colour plate IV., 167 
annulus, 169 (cut) 
leaf, 167, 1 68 (cuts) 
lid, 169 (cut) 
peristome, 167, 169 (cut) 
plant, 1 68 (cut) 
spore-cases, 167, 169 (cuts) 
tuft, 167 (cut) 
variety aristatus, 169 
minor, 169 
xanthopous, 169 
veil, 169 (cut) 
Dicranella, genus, 150152 

heteromalla, 151 

leaves, 151 (cut) 
peristome, 152 (cut) 
plant, 151 (cut) 
spore-cases, 152 (cut) 
Dicranunt, genus, 152 

congestum, 153 (cut) 

flagellare, plate XIV., 154 

basal leaf -cells, 155 (cut) 
leaves, 155 (cut) 
spore-cases, 155 (cut) 

xopariunt, plate XIII., 152,155 
base of leaf, 154, 157 (cuts) 
leaf -cells, 154, 157 (cuts) 
leaves, 153, 156, 157 (cuts) 
sections of vein, 156 (cut) 
tuft, 152, 157 (cuts) 

subulatum, 153 um. 154 
Ditrichum pallidunt, genus, colour plate 

XIV, 171-172 

annulus, 171 (cut) 
leaves, 172 (cut) 
peristome, 171 (cut) 
plant, 171 (cut) 
spore-cases, 172 (cut) 
vein, 173 (cut) 



Mosses, Encalypta, genus, 190-193 
ciliata, 192 

leaf, 191 (cut) 
perigonial leaves, 191 (cut) 
perigonium, 191 (cut) 
peristome, 192 (cut) 
plant, 191 (cut) 
spore-cases, 192 (cut) 
veil, 191 (cut) 
Fissidens, genus, 157-161 
adiantoides, 158, 160 

cross section of leaf, 158 (cut) 
flower-clusters, 160 (cut) 
leaves, 138 (cut) 
peristome, 158, 160 (cuts) 
plant, 158 (cut) 
_ spore-cases, 158, 160 (cuts) 
taxifoUum, 159 (cuts) 

cross section of leaf, 159 (cut) 
leaf, 159 (cut) 
spore-case, 159 (cut) 
stem, 159 (cut) 
Funaria, genus, 209-214 

hygrometrica, colour plates III. 
XVI., 210 

annulus, 212 (cut) 
breathing pore, 213 (cut) 
cross-section of young pedicel 

212 (cut) 

female flower, 211 (cut) 
leaf, 212 (cut) 
peristome, 210, 214 (cut) 
plant immature, 211, 214 (-. % ut) 
plants, 211, 213 (cuts) 
protonema, 211, 213 (cuts) 
spores, 21 1 (cut) 
tip of female shoot, 213 (cut) 

spore-case, 211 (cut) 
vertical section of female flower, 
211 (cut) 

through male flower, 213 
. (cut) 

Georgia, genus, 193-197 

Braumii, frondiform leaves, 194 
geniculata, gemmae-bearing branch 
197 (cut) 
plant, 197 (cut) 
sjxwophyte, 197 (cut) 
pellttcida, colour plate III., 195 

bract from gemma cup, 194 

branch with gemmae clusters, 

1 94 (cut) 

cross section of four teeth, 194 


gemma, 194 (cut) 
leaves, 195 (cut) 
lid, 194 (cut) 
plant, 196 (cut) 
side view of gemma cup, ip4(cut) 
spore-cases, 194 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 194 (cut) 
tooth, 194 (cut) 
veil, 194 (cut) 
vertical section of gemma cup 

195 (cut) 
Grtmmta, genus, 178, 181 

hypnotdes, 178 

apocarpa, 179 

plant, 179 (cut) 
spore-cases, 179 (cut) 
Gymnostomum, genus, 143-145 

calcareum, 143 

leaf and cross section, 143 (cut) 
leaves, 144 (cut) 
plant, 143, (cut) 
spore-cases, 144 (cut) 

dtrvirostrum, 144, 145 
lid, 145 (cut) 
spore-case, 145 (cuts) 

Mosses, Hedwigia, genus, 182-184 

ciliata, 183 

apex of leaf, 183 (cuts) 
leaves, 182, 183 (cuts) 
plant sterile, 183 (cut) 

stripped, 183, 184 (cuts) 
spore-cases, 184 (cut) 
Leptobryum, genus, 216-218 

pyriforme, 216, 217 

annulus, 218 (cut) 
apex of leaf, 218 (cut) 
leaves, 217 (cut) 
peristome, 217 (cut) 
plant, 218 (cut) 
spore-case, 217 (cut) 
Leitcobryutn, genus, 161-165 

glaucum, 163 

portion of peristome, 163 (cut) 

vulgare, 163 

cell structure, 162 (cut) 
cross section of leaf, 161 (cut) 
leaves, 162, 164 (cuts) 
peristome, 1 65 (cut) 
plants, 164 (cut) 
spore-cases, 162, 163, 165 (cuts) 
terminal leaves, 163 (cut) 
young plant, 163 (cut) 
Octobiepharum, genus, 165, 166 

aloidum, 165 

leaf, 1 66 (cut) 
plants, 1 66 (cut) 
spore-case, 166 (cut) 
Ortitotrichum, genus, plate XIV., 188-194 

rupestris, 190 

plant, 190 (cut) 
sporophytes, 190 (cut) 

strangulatum, 189 
leaf, 190 (cut) 
peristome, 189 (cut) 
plant, 189 (cut) 
spore-cases, 100 (cut) 
sporophyte, 190 (cut) 
Phascum, cenus, 135-137 

cuspidatum, 136 
leaf, 135 (cut) 
male flower, 136 (cut) 
plants, 136 (cut) 
spore-case split to show colum- 

ella, 135 (cut) 
with veil, 135 
veil, 136 (cut) 
Physcomitrium, genus, 207-209 

pyrifortne, ideal section of young 
spore-case, 208 (cut) 

tttrbinatum, plate XVI., 208 
leaf, 207 (cut) 
plants, 207 
fid, 208 (cut) 
spore-cases, 208 (cut) 
young plant, 208 (cut) 
Pleuridium, genus, 137, 138 

subidalum, 138 

leaves, 137, 138 (cut) 
plants, 137 
spores, 138 (cut) 
spore-case split, 137 (cut) 

with veil, 138 (cut) 
veil, 138 (cut) 

nervosunt, spore-case split to show 

columella, 137 
Pottia, genus, 169, 170 

truncata, 169, 170 (cut) 
leaves, 169 (cut) 
lid, 170 (cut) 
plants, 170 (cut) 
spore-cases, 170 (cut) 
veil, 170 (cut) 
Racomitrium, genus, 180-182 

lanuginosum, 181 

apex of leaf, iSi (cut) 



Mosses, Racomitrium, 

fanuginosum, leaves, 181 (cut) 
peristome, 180, 182 (cut) 
spore-cases, 181 (cut) 
veil, 1 80 (cut) 
vertical section of peristome 

1 80, 182 (cuts) 
Schistostega, genus, 199-30* 
osmundacaa, 201 

barren plant, 201 (cut) 
fertile plant, 201 (cut) 
protonema in natural position, 
201 (cut) 

cells light, perpendicular, 
200 (cut) 

oblique, 200 (cut) 
veil, 200 (cut) 
vertical section of protonema, 

200 (cut) 

Sphaerangium, genus, 133-135 
muticum, 134 

branches, male and female, 135 


leaves, 135 (cut) 

Schimperanum, leaf cells, 134 (cut) 
spore-case emitting spores, 134 


Sphagnum, genus, colour plate XI., 113- 
130 (cuts) 

absorbing quality of, in, 116 
acutq, 122 
acutifolium, 124 

antheridia, 118 (cut) 
antheridium bursting, nS(cut) 
development, 119, 120 
mature, 119 

antherozoid, n8(cut), 120 
archegonia mature when, 119 
branch leaves, 123 
development of spore-case, 121 

female branch, 123 (cut), 126 


gametophyte, 126 
male flower-cluster, 118 (cut) 

120 (cut), 125 (cut) 
moss plant on protonema, 120 


penchastial leaf, 125 (cut) 
perigonial branch, 125 (cut) 

leaf, 125 (cut) 
protonema, 119 (cut) 
section of leaf, 124 (cut) 

stem, 1 24 (cut) 
stem leaves, 123 

of moss plant, 118 (cut) 

120, 121, 125 
vertical section to show arche- 

gpnium, 119 (cut) 
antiseptic quality of, no 
cell, structure of, 113, 114, 115, 

117, (cuts) 

change of colour, 109 
climbing habit of, in, 112 
euspidata, 123, 126 

branch leaves, 127 

stem leaves, 127 

vertical section of ripe arche- 

gonium, 1 20 (cut) 
young embryo, 120 (cut) 
cyclophylla, 124 

branch, 1 24 (cut) 
leaf, 124 (cut) 

cymbifoliutn, 1 23, plate III., 124, 128 
antheridium, 130 
apex of leaf, 115 (cut), 127 
bit of stem, 113 (cut), 129 
bract, 115 (cut), 129 
branch leaves, 130 

Mosses, Sphagnum, 

cymbifolium, cross section of leaf, 
115 (cut) 

stem, 113 (cut), 129 
female branch, 115 (cut), 129 
leaf from branch, 115 (cut) 
from base of pedicel, 115 


magnified, 114 (cut) 
male branch, 115 (cut) 
perichastial leaf, 129 
protonema of, 118 (cut) 
stem leaf, 113 (cut), 130 
surface view of leaf cells, 114. 

zones of cells in stem, 115 (cut) 

foot of, 121 

formation of peat by, 109, no 
quaking bog by, no (cut) 
raft by, no 

germination of spore in water, ioj> 

growth from apex, 109 

outward from shore, no (cut) 

lid of, 121 

loss of root-like growth, 109 

marsh building by, in 
at Albany, 112 
in Averyville swamp, na 
in Connery Park, 112 
in Hidden Swamp, iia 
in King River, Cal., in 
at Mt. Marcy, in 
at Mt. Pocono, in 
at Mud Pond, 112 
near Palisades of Hudson, in 
in Shawangunk Mts., 111 

tnendocinum, 1 1 1 

methods by which they encroach 
upon water, 109 

molle, 124 

branch leaves, 124 (cut) 
stem leaves, 124 (cut) 

tnollia, 123 

pale tint of, due, 116 

papillosum, vertical section of 
developing archegonium, 120 

pedicel of, 121 

problem solved by geologists, 109 

protonema of, 109 

pseudopodium, 121 

rubellum, 122, 123 

apex of leaf, 126 (cut) 
branch leaf, 126 (cut) 
female branch, 126 (cut) 
leaves of divergent branch, 

126 (cut) 

male branch, 127 (cut) 
perigonial leaf, 127 (cut) 
section of leaf, 115 (cut) 

stem, 127 (cut) 
stem, 113 (cut), 126 (cut) 

squarrosa, 123 

squarrosum, plate XII., 128 
branch leaf, 123 (cut) 
female branch, 128 (cut) 
leaf at base of pedicel, 1 28 (cut) 
leaves of branch, 127 (cut) 
sporophyte, 116 (cut) 
stem leaves, 128 (cut) 
transverse section of leaf, 127 

subsecundum, 124 

leaves, 123 (cut) 

young archegonium, 120 (cut) 

synopsis of, 123 

use to economist, 109 

veil of, 121 

vertical section of young sporo 
gonium, 122 



Moses, Splachnum, genus, 204-207 

iwteum, 207 

sporophyte, 205 (cut) 

rubrum, 206 

capsule, 205 (cut) 
fertile plant, 205 (cut) 
leaf, 206 (cut) 
male plant, 206 (cut) 
sporophyte, 205 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 206 (cut) 
veil, 206 (cut) 
Tetradontium, genus, 198, 199 

repandum, 198 

leaves, 199 (cut) 
perigonial leaves, 199 (cut) 
perigonium, 199 (cut) 
plants. 198 (cut) 
teeth, 199 (cut) 
thread-like branch, 199 (cut) 
Tetraplodon, genus, 202 

mnioides, 203 

leaf, 203 (cut) 

leaf apex, 202 (cut) 

peris tome, 202, 204 (cuts) 

plant, 203 (cut) 

plant with male and female 

flower-clusters, 203 (cut) 
tuft, 202 (cut) 
veil, 203 (cut) 
Tortula, genus, 176-178 

princeps, 177 

leaves, 176 (cut) 
peristome, 176 (cut) 
plant, 177 (cut) 
spore-case, 177 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 177 (cut) 

ruralis, 178 

awn of leaf, 178 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 1 76, 1 78 (cuts) 
Trematodpn, genus, 147-150 

ambtguum, 149 

annulus, 148 (cut) 
leaves, 148 (cut) 
ltd, 149 (cut) 
peristome, 147, 149 (cuts) 
plants, 148, 149 (cuts) 
spore-cases, 148, 149, 150 (cuts) 

longicottis, 150 
Ulota, genus, 184-188 

congesium, spore-cases, 153 (cut) 

crispa, plate XV., 186 

leaves, 185, 186 (cuts) 
peristome, 185 (cut) 
plant, 185 (cut) 
male flower-cluster, 185 (cut) 
spore-case, 185 (cut) 
sporophyte, 185, 186 (cuts) 

Hutchinsice, 188 

leaves, 187 (cut) 
peristome, 188 (cut) 
plant, 187 (cut) 
spore-case, 187 (cut) 
sporophyte, 187 (cut) 
veil, 187 (cut) 

phyllantha, 187 

leaf apex with gemmae, 187 

subulatum, spore-cases, 153 (cut) 

undulatum, spore-cases, 154 
Webera, genus, 218-221 

albicans, 220 

leaves, 220 (cut) 

lid, 219 (cut) 

male plant, 220 (cut) 

peristome, 220 (cut) 

spore-cases, 219 (cut) 

stem, 218 (cut) 

tip of spore-case, 219 (cut) 

nittans, 218 

annulus, 219 (cut) 

Mosses, Webera, 

nutans, apex of leaf, 217 (cut) 
inner membrane, 219 (cut) 
leaves, 217 (cut) 
lids, 219 (cut) 
plant, 217 (cut) 
spore-case, 218, 219 (cuts) 
Weisia, genus, 143-147 
viridula, 146 

leaves, 145 (cut) 
lid with veil, 146 (cut) 
peristome, 145, 157 (cuts) 
plant, 146 (cut) 
spore-cases, 146, 147 (cuts) 
Mother cells, 51, 53 (cut), 121 (cut), 122 (cut) 
Mucronate, 103 
Mungo Park, 159 
Mount Marcy, height of, 17 
marsh building on, 17 
variety of flora on, 17 

Nomenclature, 75 

Oak, "moss marred," 12 
Octoblepharunt, genus, 165 
albidum, 33 (cut), 165 

spore-case, 33 (cut) 
Ohio Hairy-cap, 252 
Old Man's Beard, 19, 20 
Oliver, picture of, n 
Operculum, development of, 51 
Orange stain, 3 
Orlando, 1 1 
Ovum, 47, 120 (cut) 
Oxygen, 1 2 

Palmella, 26 

Papillate, 214 

Paraphyllia, 279 

Paraphyses, 40 (cut) 

Paraphysis, 49 (cut), 213 

Parma, 82 

Parmelia, 28 

Paroicous, 48 

Pear-shaped Thread -moss, 217 

Peat bogs, 6 

Peat-moss, 126 

Peat-mosses (see Spliagnwm under Mosses) , 34, 


Peck, Chas. H., 112 
Pedicel, 30, 35 (cut) 

cross section of, 57 

defined, 36 (cut) 

function of, 37 

origin of, 39 

purpose of, 57 

change in position of, 57 

to show rudimentary bundles, 71 (cut) 

twisted, 60 (cut) 
Peltigera, genus, 8s, 86 

apthpsa, 86 

canina, 20 

a cure for hydrophobia, 28 
for hydrophobia, 20 

polydactyla, 86 
Perichaetial leaves, 53 (cut) 
Percurrent, 142 
Perigonium, 115 (cut), 125 
Peristome, character in genus Catharinea, 56 

opening of, in Catherinea, 56 

structure of, in Polytrichum mosses, 55 
56 (cut) 

vertical section of double, 55 

of single, 52 
Perithecia, 25 
Perithecium, 27 (cut) 



Phascum, genus, 135-13? 

cttspidatum, 59 (cut), 135, 136 

paroicous inflorescence, 40, 41 
protonema of, 59 (cut) 
Pinnule, 68, 69 (cuts) 
Pith layer, 26, 87 
Plants, nourishment of, 12 
Plasma, 199 
Pleurocarpi, 153 
Pliny, 249 
Porella, genus, 100102 

platyphylla, 99 (cuts), 100, ica 
cell structure of, 65 (cut) 
Podetia, 88 
Pogonatum, genus, 242-248 

Alpinum, 34 (out), 42, 247 
lamellae, 247 (cut) 
leaf, 242 (cut) 
brachyphyllum, 245 (cut) 

spore case, 32, 50 (cuts) 
brevicaule, colour plate IV., 243 (cut) 
leaf, 244 (cut) 
lid, 244 (cut) 
plant, 244 (cut) 
protonema of, 38 
section of lamellae, 244 (cut) 
spore-cases, 243 
stem, 243 (cut) 
teeth, 244 (cut) 
tip of spore case, 243 
capHlare, 245 (cut) 
tenue, spore-case, 239 (cut) 
urnigerum, 246, 247 (cuts) 
lamellae, 247 (cut) 
leaf, 35 (cut), 247 (cut) 
spore-case, 47 (cut) 
Pointed Mnium, The, 228 
Pompeii, 221 
Polytrichacece, 239 

Catherinea, genus, 239, 240 
angustata, 241 

apex of leaf, 241 (cut) 
female plant, 241 (cut) 
leaf, 241 (cut) 
male plant, 241 (cut) 
spore-cases, 240 (cut) 
undulata, 242 

apex of leaf, 240 (cut), 242 (cut) 
cross section of 239 
leaves, 239 (cut), 240 (cut) 
spore-case, 242 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 239 (cut), 
242 (cut) 

Polytrichwn, genus, 239, 248, 250 
arrangement of leaves, 42 
commune, 256 

apex of leaf, 257 (cut) 
cross section of stem, 46 (cut), 

249 (cut) 

lamella see from side, 257 (cut) 
leaf, 250 (cut), 257 (cut) 
lid, 258 (cut) 

row of lamellae cells, 350 (cut) 

spore-cases, 249, 256, 237 (cuts) 

with lid, 5- (cut), 56 

without lie!, 52, 56 (cuts) 

summit of spore-case, 33, 36, 

240 (cuts), 
teeth around membrane, 258 


veil, 257 (cut) 
cross section of leaf, 45 (cut) 
dioicous inflorescence, 40 (cut) 
female plant, 40 (cut) 
forntosum, 252 
gracile, 251 

leaves, 257 (cut) 
peristome, 251 (cut) 
spore-case, 231 (cut), 250 (cut) 
with pointed lid, 36 (cut) 


juniperinum, cross section of leaf. 
257 (cut) 

leaves, 248 (cut) 
leaves, 44 

chlorophyll, 44 
mid-vein, 44 
sclerenchyma, 44, 45 
male plant, 40, 255, 248 (cuts) 
Ohiense, spore-case, 252 (cut) 
old sporophyte, 37 (cut) 
piliferum, 250 (cut) 
leaf, 32 (cut) 
leaves, 254 (cut) 
perichaetial leaves, 254 (cut) 
perigonial leaves, 254 (cut) 
plant, 253 (cut) 
spore-case, 239, 254 (cuts) 
subterranean shoot, 255 (cut) 
vertical cells of lamella, 254 

sexangulare, leaves, 250 (cut) 

spore-case with lid, without 

lid, 52 (cuts) 

spore-case, 35, 355, 356 (cuts) 
strictum, 45 

structure of peristome, 55 
surface view of spore, 72 (cut) 
vertical cells of lamellae, 255 (cut) 
Pores, 72, 203 
Primitive Mosses, 140 
Protococcus, 27, 65 (cuts) 
Protonema, defined, 62 

development of, 120 (cut), 118 
of Barbula, 59 
of Ephemerum, 59 
of fern, 65 
of Hepatic, 65 
of leafy moss, 6 5 
of Phascum, 59 
origin of, 38 

permanent in Beard-moss, 38 
persistence, 38 
Prothallia, of ferns, 66 
Prothallium, defined, 65 
mature, of fern, 67 
young, of fern, 67 
Pseudopodium, 122, 131 (cust) 
Pteridpphytes, 69, 71 
Ptilidium, genus, 104, 105 
ciliare, 64 (cut) 
stipule, 64 
under side, 64 
upper side, 64 
Pycnidium, 27 (cut) 

Quartette-moss, The, 203 

Rays of light, 199 
Red Collar-moss. 206 
ReddHi Feat-moss, 125 
Reindeer-lichen, 27 

as food, 28 

Reproduction, asexual, by cellular bodies o 
protonema, 59 

gemmae, 60 

portions of leaves, 60 
sporogonium, 60 
stems, 60 

rhizoids, 59 
Rhizoids, 26, 64 (cut) 

defined, 36 (cut) 

dissolving fluid from, 18 

imbedded in limestone, 18 

mechanical action of, 13 

origin of, 38 
Ribbon stage, 64 
Roccella, a source of Etmus, 19 

tinctoria, 19 



Rock Andreaea, The, 133 

Rock tripe, The, colour plate XI., 99 

Root-hairs, terminal, 58 

Roots, 69 

definition of, 46 
Ruskin, 4 

Scale-mosses, see Hepatics, leafy, 99 

Schimper, Wilhelm Philipp, 142, 188 

Schimdel, 261 

Schreber, Johann C. D., 76, 136 

Scutellaeform, 80 

Schwaegrichen, Christian Friedrich, 76, 198 

Schwendener, 22 

Scytonema, 23, 25 

Seta, 30 

cross-section of, 57 

enlargement under spore-case, 57 

purpose of, 57 

change in position of, 57 
sheath at base, 57 
Sexual generation, 65 

of ferns, 66 
Shakespeare, n, 12 
Short-leaved Hair-cap, 245 
Silvery Bryum, 222 
"Silver lichen spots," 3 
Slender Catherinea, plate IV., 241 

Hairy-cap, 251 
Soreciia, 24, 82 

Spanish-shield Lichens, see Cetraria, 79 
Spenser, 12 
Sperm-cells, 39, 40 (cut), 41, 49 

defined, 46 
Sphccrangif.'m, genus, 133-133 

muticum, 49 (cut), 134 (cuts) 

sperm-case of, 55 (cut) 
Schimperanum, 134 (cuts) 
Sphagnum, genus, 34, 109-130 

acutifolium, 51 (cut), 118, 119, 121, 123, 
124 (cuts) 

vertical section of young sporogon- 
ium, 51 (cut) 
to show development of young 

spore-case, 53 (cut) 
cuspidatutn, 120 (cuts), 123, 126 

sections of archegonia, 47 (cut) 
cymbifolium, n (cut), 114, 115, 118 
(cuts), 128, 129 

first or sexual generation, 62 (cut) 
protonema, 63 (cut) 
resemblance to thallophyte, 63 (cut) 
surface view of leaf, 34 (cut) 
rubellutn, 125 
squarrosum, 128 
SpJachnum, genus, 204-207 
luieunt, 207 

apophysis, 59 (cut) 
columella, 59 (cut) 
rubrum, 31 (cut), 206 
Sporangium, 207 

of fern, 69 
Spores, 30, 38 (cut) 
defined, 36 
ellipsoid, 80 
exit of, in genus Catharinea, 56, 57 

in Polytrichum mosses, 55 
germination of, 38 (cut) 
fern, germinating, 65 
Hepatic, germinating, 65 
how they escape from Polytrichum 

mosses, 37 

leafy-moss, germinating, 65 
origin of, 51 (cut) 
polar-bilocular, 81 
Soreciia, 82 


Spore-case, borne on side of stem, 3 1 (cut) 
borne on summit of pedicel, 31 (cut) 
cell structure of, 51 
closed, s (cut), 
columella exposed, 55 (cut) 
defined, 35 (cut), 36 
developing in Marchantia, 97 (cut) 
development of, 49 

illustrated by Sphagnum acuti- 

folium, 53 (cut) 

favourable positionsfor obtaining light, 5 7 
formation of, 39 
homologies of, 67 
immature, 31 
immersed, 30 (cut) 
of fern, 68 

opening by a lid, 30 (cut) 
opening without lid, 30 (cut) 
rim, origin of, 53 
situation, 30 
split in four valves, 9 
spores falling, 30 
teeth four, 37 
teeth in one row, 30 
in two rows, 30 
of, in Catharinea, 56 
wanting, 9 
thirty-two teeth surrounding an ept- 

phragm, 55 (cut) 
to show columella, 54 (cut) 
twisted, 60 (cut) 
two rows of teeth, 31 (cut) 
wall, origin of, 53 (cut) 
with anmilus rolling away, 37 
conical veil, 50 (cut) 
eight teeth in pairs, 37 (cut) 
four teeth, 32, 54, (cuts) 
hairy veil, 32, 50, (cuts) 
lid, 9, 48 (cut), 52 
lifted, 48 (cut) 
short pedicel, 51 
thirty-two teeth, 57, 123 (cut) 
veil, 48 (cut), 51 
without lid, 52, 57 

teeth, 30 

wrinkling of wall to oust spores, 38 
Spore-sac, 207, 53 
Sporogonia, 41 
Sporogonium, 48, 49 
defined, 49 

producing protonema, 60 
wall removed, 49 (cut) 
Sporophyte, 35 
fern, 68 (cut) 
Hepatic, 68, 69, (cuts) 
homologies of, 67 
moss 68, 69, (cuts) 
origin of, 39 
with pores, 72 

Spotted Lungwort, a cure for lung trouble, 30 
Spread-leaved Sphagnum, plate VII., 128 
Squamulose, 88 
Starch, 44 
Stem, The, 45 

cross section of, 46 (cut), 124 
producing protonema, 60 
Stereocaulon ramulosum, 23, 66 
Sterigmata, 27 (cut) 
Sticta, genus, 28, 86, 87 
amplissima, 87 
pulmonaria, colour plate XIV. 39, 87 

used for beer, 20 

Stictina fuliginosa, 26, 87, (cuts) 
Stipule, 64 (cut) 
Stolons, 224 (cut) 
Stomata, 203 

function of, 73 
of Funaria, 72 (cut) 
of Hypnum. 72 (cut) 
of Marchantia, 72 (cut) 


Stomata, of Polytrichum, 72 (cut) 

vertical section of, 72 (cut) 
Stone-loving Andreaea, 132 
Stylus, 102 (cut) 
Sugar, 13 

Sulliyant, William S., 142 
Synoicous, 48 

Tayloria splachnoides, 54 (cut) 

columella attached to base of spore-case, 

54 (cut) 
Thuidium, sub-genus, 280, 281 

delicatulunt, 31, 282, 283 (cuts) 
minutulum, 55, 282, (cuts) 

vertical section of double peristome. 

55 (cut) 

Teeth, attached by tips, 33 (cut) 
cross-section of four, 54 (cut) 
development of, 53 
eight, 33. 37, (cuts) 
four, 37 , 54 (cut) 
function of, 37 
in pairs, 54 (cut) 

lattice work, character of, 54, 56 (cut) 
methods of opening, 37 
opening of, in Catharinea, 56 
origin of varied forms, 54 
sixty-four, 33 (cut) 
split half-way to base, 37 
thirty-two, 33 (cut) 
varieties of, 37 
with crescent-shaped fibres, 56 
Tennyson, 6. 
Terete, 80 

Tetraplodon, genus, 202204 
angustatus, 202 
mnioides, 203, 204 (cuts) 

branch with male and female 

clusters, 39 (cuts) 
female branch, 63 
monoicous inflorescence fertile 

branch, 39 (cut) 
peristome with single row of teeth 

in pairs, 54 
plant sho wing male and female 

branches, 39 (cut) 
spore-case without lid, 54 (cut) 
summit of spore-case, 54 (cut) 
with lid 54 (cut) 
with teeth, 37 (cut) 
tip of spore-case, 53 (cut) 
with apophysis larger than spore- 
case, 60 (cut) 
Tetradontium, genus, 198 

repandum, 198 (cuts), 199 

spore-case with conical veil, 50 (cut) 
Thalline exciple, 27 
Thalloid, 93 
Thallophytes, 66, 71 
algae, 63 
bacteria, 63 

compared with bryophytes, 63 
fungi, 63 
why so called, 63 
Thallus, 8, 64 

cross section of, 80 (cut) 
denned, 64 

vertical section of, 80 (cut) 
Theophrastus, 19 

"Thorn with lichens overgrown," 12 
Thread -moss, 216 
Tooth, 52 (cut) 
Top-moss, 208 
Torn-veil Mosses, 180 
Trabecvdate, 213 
Tracheae, 44 

"Trees o'ercome with moss," 12 
Trematodon, genus, 147-150 
ambiguum, 149 (cuts) 

autoicous inflorescence, 40 


ambiguum, vertical sections of single 
peristome, 52 (cut) 

longicollis, 150 
Trichostomum tophaceum, 17 
True mosses, distinguishing characters, 9 

Ulota, genus, 184-188 

asexual generation, 65 
crispa, 186 

collum of, 57, 65 
double row of teeth, 52 
lid, 65 
pedicel, 65 
spore-case, 65 
vaginule, 57, 65 
veil, 65 (cut) 

Hutchinsia, 187 (cuts), 188 (cut) 
part of peristome, 33 (cut) 
spore-case, 33 (cut) 
phyllantha, 187 

portion of leaf with gemmae on the 

apex, 58 

Ultima Thule, 223 
Underwood, Dr. L. M., 61 
Usnea, genus, 80, 81, 

barbata, 19, 25 (cut), 80 (cuts), 136 

promotes growth of hair, 20 
trichodea, 81 
Utricles, 114, 129 

Vacuole, 38 (cut), 64 (cut) 
Vaginule, 57 (cut), 122 (cut) 

defined, 53 (cut) 

homology of, 57 

of Ulota crispa, 57 (cut) 
Vascular bundles defined, 69 

rudimentary, 71 
Vegetative part, 43 

homologies of, 67 
Veil, 31 

conical, 50, 55 (cuts) 

covering young sporogonium, 50 (cut) 

defined, 35 

hairy, 32, 50 (cuts) 
due to, 50 

of Hepatic, 71 (cut), 94 (cut), 95 

split up on one side, 51 (cut) 
Vein defined, 43 

extending part way to apex, 43 (cut) 
to apex, 42 

solid, 43 (cut) 

thickened cells of, 45 (cut) 
Venus, 249 

Vermes compared with Hepaticce, 62 
Vesicle, 67 
Villous, 86 
Virgin Mary, 249 

Wainio, Dr., 86 

Water, necessity of, 32 

Water-measuring Cord-moss, 210 

Wavy-leaved Catharinea, 242 

Weiss, Frederigo Wilhelm, 146 

Whip Fork-nioss, 1 54 

White mosses, 34, 161 

Whittier. n, 15 

Wildenow, Carl Ludwig, 254 

Wood-ducts, 44 

Woolly Torn- veil Moss, 181 

Wordsworth, n 

Xanthoria parictina, colour plate II., 20, 81 
a cure for jaundice, 20 

Yellow Collar-moss, 207 
rosettes, 3 
Wall-lichen, 20. 81 




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