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Full text of "The moth book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the moths of North America .."

i 



THE MOTH Boo 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE I (FRONTISPIECE) 

LARVAE OF MOTHS 

1. Hyloicus cliersis Hiibner. 

2. Callosamia promethea Drury. 

3. Cucuilia convexipennis Grote & Robinson. 

4. Citheronia regalis Fabricius. 

5. Euchcetias egle Drury. 

6. Sibine stimulea Clemens. 

7. Catocala innubens Guenee. 

8. Samia cecropia Linnaeus. 

9. Prolimacodes scapha Harris. 

10. Seirarctia echo Abbot & Smith. 

11. Mamestra picta Harris. 
12 Achatodes zece Harris. 

13. Datana ministra Drury. 

14. Phobetron pithecium Abbot & Smith. 

15. Nerice bidenlata Walker. 

16. Eurycyttarus confederata Grote & Robinson. 

17. Lycia, cognataria Guenee. 

18. Cerura multiscripta Riley. 

19. Tortricidia testacea Packard. 



THE NEW NATURE LIBRARY 

THE MOTH BOOK 

A POPULAR~GUIDE TO A KNOWL- 
EDGE OF THE MOTHS OF NORTH 
AMERICA 



^ 



BY 



W. J. HOLLAND, D. D., PH. D., Sc. D., LL. D. 

DIRECTOR OF THE CARNEGIE MUSEUM, PITTSBURG, PA.; LATE CHANCELLOR OF THE 
WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA; PRESIDENT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA; FELLOW OF THE ZOOLOGICAL AND ENTOMOLOGICAL 
SOCIETIES OF LONDON ; MEMBER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FRANCE ; ETC., ETC. 



WITH FORTY-EIGHT PLATES IN COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY, 
AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT, REPRO- 
DUCING SPECIMENS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE AUTHOR, 
AND IN VARIOUS PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COLLECTIONS 




VOLUME FIVE 



GARDEN CITY NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

1916 



COPYRIGHT, 1903, BY 
W. J. HOLLAND 



TO MY HONORED FRIEND, 

ANDREW CARNEGIE, 

WHOSE NAME IS A SYNONYM FOR FINANCIAL 

SAGACITY AND PRACTICAL BENEVOLENCE, 

I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 



PREFACE 



\17HEN a few years ago I published "The Butterfly Book," I 
^' stated in the preface to that volume that I would follow it 
by the preparation of a similar work upon the moths of the United 
States and Canada, provided the reception given that venture 
should seem to justify me in so doing. "The Butterfly Book" 
was very favorably received, and not only I, but my publishers, 
have been besieged with letters from all parts of the continent, 
urging the fulfillment of the provisional promise made by me in 
1898. A prompt compliance with these requests has, however, 
unfortunately been impossible, owing to the fact that my official 
duties, which are numerous and exacting, prevent me from devot- 
ing any but the evening hours to the work of literary composition. 
In addition to the difficulties arising from this source, there were 
other and even greater difficulties which presented themselves. 
The species of moths known to occur in the United States and 
Canada vastly exceed in number the species of butterflies found 
within the same limits. While it was possible to bring together 
brief descriptions and numerous illustrations of the majority of the 
species of butterflies found in the region, it became evident at the 
outset that in dealing with the moths it would be necessary to 
resort to a different method. It became plain that a process of 
selection would have to be followed, if the volume were to be 
kept within proper limits as to size and cost. It would have been 
comparatively easy to have selected from the abundant material 
at my command a series of the more showy insects, and to have 
illustrated these, but as it is the purpose of the series of the books 
of which "The Moth Book" is one to provide in reasonably 
compact form manuals which will with tolerable completeness 
cover the whole field, the plan had to be materially altered. In- 
stead, therefore, of attempting to briefly describe and figure all 
the thousands of species of moths which have been ascertained to 



Preface 

occur in North America north of Mexico, the effort was made to 
select those species which would adequately represent the various 
families and the commoner and more important genera, thus pro- 
viding a work which might serve as an introduction to the study. 
This process of selection had to be made with much patience and 
care. Another cause of delay arose from the fact that it is some- 
times difficult to obtain perfect specimens" for purposes of photo- 
graphic reproduction. Even where species are well known and 
common, and are abundantly represented in the collections to 
which I have access, it has not infrequently happened that it was 
almost impossible to discover specimens so perfect as to allow 
of their being reproduced by color-photography in a satisfactory 
manner. Minor defects, which signify little to a working natural- 
ist, and which can easily be eliminated from sight by a draughts- 
man, become very serious blemishes when resort is had to methods 
of photographic illustration. Much time had, therefore, to be spent 
in searching through various collections for the kind of material 
which was required, and often in remounting specimens which, 
while good enough for the cabinet, were not so set as to permit 
them to be employed in the photographic laboratory. Patience 
and perseverance, however, always bring in due time their re- 
ward, and I have been able to assemble enough properly prepared 
material to enable me in the main to accomplish my purpose. 

"Brevity is the soul of wit," and this fact has not been 
forgotten by the writer in preparing the pages of this book. The 
limitations necessarily imposed by the space available precluded 
the preparation of lengthy descriptions. This brevity in descrip- 
tion is, however, as the writer believes, abundantly compensated 
for by the illustrations in the Plates. One good recognizable 
figure of a species is worth reams of mere verbal description. 
Those who desire to go deeply into the subject, and who wish 
to famiharize themselves with all its technicalities, will find in 
the list of works named in that part of the introduction devoted 
to the bibliography of the subject much that they desire. 

I am indebted to many scientific friends for assistance, but to 
no one am I more indebted than to Dr. L. O. Howard, the Ento- 
mologist of the United States Department of Agriculture and the 
Honorary Curator of Entomology in the United States National 
Museum, and to his amiable associates, Dr. William H. Ashmead 

viii 



Preface 

and Dr. Harrison G. Dyar. With unfailing courtesy these gentle? 
men most generously aided me by allowing me to use the 
material in the National Collection, when it became necessary to 
do so, and in many other ways gave me invaluable help. I 
gratefully acknowledge the kindness of Professor J. B. Smith, of 
Rutgers College, who very graciously went over the Plates con- 
taining the Noctuidce, thereby saving me in several instances 
from errors in determination. My best thanks are due to Mr. 
William Beutenmuller, the Curator of Entomology in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, for his most 
obliging courtesy and for much valued assistance. To Mrs. 
Beutenmuller's facile fingers I owe the frontispiece and many 
illustrations in the text. To Sir George F. Hampson, of the 
British Museum, and to the Trustees of that great institution, 
a debt of gratitude is due for many favors, and especially 
for permission to use some of the illustrations employed in 
their publications. From Dr. Henry Skinner, of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, and Mr. Jacob Doll, of the 
Brooklyn Institute, I received great assistance. To the Messrs. 
F. A. and H. S. Merrick, of New Brighton, Pa., to Dr. William 
Barnes, of Decatur, III., and to Mr. O. C. Poling, of Peoria, 111., I 
return thanks for the loan of specimens used for illustration. 
The Honorable Walter Rothschild and Dr. Carl Jordan, of Tring, 
England, placed me under special obligations by permitting me to 
see advance proofs of the pages of their great work upon the 
Sphingidce. To all of these gentlemen, as well as to scores of 
others, who have lent their aid in the preparation of the book, I 
extend my heartfelt thanks. 

While recognizing its imperfections, I trust that the volume 
will accomplish much to quicken an interest, especially among 
the young people in our schools and colleges, in that beautiful 
department of scientific inquiry, which it is designed to some 
extent to illustrate. 

DIRECTOR'S OFFICE, W. J. H. 

CARNEGIE MUSEUM, PITTSBURGH, PA. 
September 8, 1903. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Dedication ................. v 

Preface vii 

Table of Contents xi 

List of Illustrations in the Text xv 

List of Colored Plates xxiii 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAP. PAGE 

I. THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF MOTHS . . . 3-18 

How to distinguish a moth from a butterfly. The Eggs of 
Moths; Caterpillars: Structure, Form, Color, Habits, etc.; The 
Pupae of Moihs: Form, Covering, etc.; Anatomy of Moths: 
Head, Thorax, Abdomen, Legs, Wings. 

11. THE CAPTURE, PREPARATION, AND PRESERVATION OF SPECI- 
MENS 19-21 

Special Instructions for Mounting and Preparing the Smaller 
Forms. 

III. THE CLASSIFICATION OF MOTHS 22-26 

The Difficulties of Classification. Various Views Entertained 
by Writers. Key to the Families of North American Heterocera. 

IV. BOOKS ABOUT THE MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA . . . 27-38 

Early Writers. Periodicals.. General Catalogues and Lists. 
General Works Containing Information as to the Moths of ' 
North America. Works Particularly Useful in Studying the 
Different Families of the Moths of North America. 



Table of Contents 



THE BOOK 

THE MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO. 

PAGE 

Family I. The Sphingidae . . '-.' :' .' n . ..... 41 

Family II. The Saturniidae 80 

Family III. The Ceratocampidae 94 

Family IV. The Syntomidae v, * * 9 8 

Family V. The Lithosiidae 103 

Family VI. The Arctiidae , '. . ; ,. .114 

Family VII. The Agaristidae 140 

Family VIII. The Noctuidae . . . . 151 

Family IX. The Nycteolidae .... . . '. ".'" . .288 

Family X. The Pericopidae 289 

Family XI. The Dioptidae 291 

Family XII. The Notodontidae 292 

Family XIII. The Thyatiridae 303 

Family XIV. The Liparidae 305 

Family XV. The Lasiocampidae 311 

Family XVI. The Bombycidae 315 

Family XVII. The Platypterygidae 320 

Family XVIII. The Geometridae 322 

Family XIX. The Epiplemidae 356 

Family XX. The Nolidae 357 

Family XXI. The Lacosomidae 359 

Family XXII. The Psychidse . 360 

Family XXIII. The Cochlidiidae . ... .... . . .364 

Family XXIV. The Megalopygidae 368 

Family XXV. The Dalceridse . 369 

Family XXVI. The Epipyropidae 370 

Family XXVII. The Zygaenidae 371 

Family XXVIII. The Thyrididse 374 

Family XXIX. The Cossida? 375 

Family XXX. The ^geriidae 379 

Family XXXI. The Pyralidae 391 

Family XXXII. The Pterophoridae . . .'. . . . .415 
Family XXXIII. The Orneodidae 417 



Table of Contents 
PAGE 

Family XXXIV. The Tortricidae 417 

Family XXXV. The Yponomeutidae 423 

Family XXXVI. The Gelechiidae 424 

Family XXXVII. The Xyloricitidae . . . -. . . .428 

Family XXXVIII. The CEcophoridae 428 

Family XXXIX. The Blastobasidae . ... . . . .'429 

Family XL. The Elachistidae 430 

Family XLI. The Tineidae "... 430 

Family XLI I. The Hepialidae . . 443 

Family XLI 1 1. The Micropterygidae . 444 



DIGRESSIONS AND QUOTATIONS 



The World of the Dark 77 

"Splitters" and "Lumpers" 112 

Sugaring for Moths 146 

The Tragedy of the Night Moth (Thomas Carlyle) . . 209 

Walking as a Fine 'Art 270 

Das Lied vom Schmetterlinge (Herder) 290 

Ode to an Insect (Anacreon) ; 291 

Nasu-no Take 301 

Moth Song (Cortissoz) 310 

The History of Silk Culture 316 

Transformation (Henry Brooke) 321 

Living and Dying (Gosse) 355 

Far Out at Sea (Home) 363 

Faunal Subregions 387 

Cupid's Candle (Felix Carmen) . , 427 

Clothes-moths ' . 434 

The End of All (Tennyson) 445 



xni 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT 

FIG. . PAGE 

1. Dahlia hesperioides Pagenstecher ....;... 3 

2. Egg of Peridroma saucia 5 

3. Egg of Samia cecropia 5 

4. Larva of Hyloicus kalmiae 7 

5. PupaofTelea polyphemus 10 

6. Pupa of cut-worm in underground cell 10 

7. Front view of the head of a moth 12 

8. Lateral view of the head of a moth 12 

9. Antennae of moths ........ . . . 13 

10. Antenna of Telea polyphemus . . . , ... . . ..,. . 13 

1 1 . Legs of a moth '. 1 5 

12. Diagram showing the structure of the wings of a moth 16 

13. Neuration of the wings of Hepialus gracilis 17 

14. Figures showing the frenulum and the retinaculum . . 17 

1 5. Figure showing the maculation of the wings of a Noctuid 18 

16. Setting-needle used in mounting microlepidoptera . . 19 

17. Setting-board used in mounting microlepidoptera . . 20 

18. Double mount 21 

19. "As it is not done " 26 

20. Three joints of the antenna of Protoparce quinquemacu- 

latus 41 

21. Neuration of the wings of Sesia tantalus 42 

22. Pupa of Protoparce quinquemaculatus .. . , . . . 43 

23. Isoparce cupressi 48 

24. Hyloicus eremitoides . . . , 50 

25. Hyloicus canadensis 51 

26. Protambulyx strigilis 54 

27. Larva of Pholus satellitia 65 

28. Larva of Pholus achemon 66 

29. Larva of Darapsa myron . 68 

30. Parasitized larva of Darapsa myron 69 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

3 1 . Microgaster which preys upon the larva of Darapsa myron 69 

32. Pupa of Darapsa myron ." . . 69 

33. Larva and moth of Sphecodina abbotti 70 

34. Light form of larva of Celerio lineata 76 

35. Dark form of larva of Celerio lineata 76 

36. Philosamia cynthia ' l : . . . 81 

37. Cocoon of Samia cecropia .... 83 

38. Larva of Callosamia promethea . . , 85 

39. Cocoon of Callosamia promethea . . . . ; . . . . 85 

40. Larva of Actias luna ....... .... 87 

41. Larva of Telea polyphemus 88 

42. Cocoon of Telea polyphemus 88 

43. Larva of Automeris io 90 

44. Eggs of Buck-moth . . 92 

45. Larva of Buck-moth 92 

46. Anisota rubicunda, larva and pupa 95 

47. Crambidia pallida 104 

48. Crambidia casta 104 

49. Palpidia pallidior 105 

50. Hypoprepia fucosa 106 

51. Hsematomis mexicana 107 

52. Comacla simplex 107 

53. Bruceia pulverina 108 

54. Clemensia albata 108 

55. Illice unifascia 109 

56. Illice subjecta 109 

57. Lerina incarnata 1 1 1 

58. Dodia albertae 117 

59. Haploa lecontei 119 

60. Haploa contigua 119 

61. Euerythra phasma 120 

62. Larva of Ecpantheria deflorata 120 

63. Turuptiana permaculata 121 

64. Seirarctia echo 122 

65. Alexicles aspersa 122 

66. Estigmene prima 122 

67. Estigmene acraea 123 

68. Isia isabella 125 

xvi 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

69. Caterpillar and pupa of Isia Isabella 125 

70. Phragmatobia fuliginosa 126 

71. Phragmatobia yarrowi 127 

72. Apantesis anna 130 

73. Kodiosoma fulva 133 

74. Ectypia bivittata . . .133 

75. Euchaetias egle 135 

76. Pygarctia elegans 136 

77. Hypocrisias minima - '. '. ; . : '. . 136 

78. Egg of Copidryas gloved :> .'- s r V *'. . 141 

79. Pupa of Copidryas gloved . . .- . ! v- V' : . . : . - . . 142 

80. Larva and moth of Copidryas gloveri .' . V . . . . 142 

81. Tuerta sabulosa v ' 1' : . . ; . . 143 

82. Alypia disparata . .-'.' ; : .... 144 

83. Alypia octomaculata .' J , 144 

84. Alypiodes bimaculata 145 

85. Apatela populi, $ 154 

86. Apatela populi, larva 154 

87. Apatela oblinita 158 

88. Apharetra dentata 1 58 

89. Apharetra pyralis 1 59 

90. Cerma cora 161 

91. Copibryophila angelica 162 

92. Platyperigea praacuta 164 

93. Platyperigea discistriga 164 

94. Fishea yosemita3 170 

95. Momaphana comstocki 172 

96. Pyrophila pyramidoides, larva 173 

97. Larva of Laphygma frugiperda 174 

98. Moth of Laphygma frugiperda 174 

99. Podagra crassipes 178 

100. Abagrotis erratica 180 

101. Metalepsis cornuta 181 

102. Setagrotis terrifica 181 

103. Agrotis ypsilon 182 

104. Pronoctua typica 185 

105. Feltia subgothica .''.-'. . . 186 

106. Eucoptocnemis fimbdaris 190 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

107. Mamestra picta 194 

1 08. Trichopolia serrata 199 

109. Eupolia licentiosa 199 

1 10. Larva of Heliophila unipuncta 200 

in. Pupa of Heliophila unipuncta 200 

112. Moth of Heliophila unipuncta 201 

113. Larvae and eggs of Heliophila albilinea 202 

114. Neleucania bicolorata 203 

115. Stretchia muricina 205 

116. Perigrapha prim a 205 

1 17. Xylina antennata 206 

1 1 8. Asteroscopus borealis 209 

119. Bellura gortynides . . 211 

120. Gortyna immanis 212 

121. Larva of Papaipema nitela 213 

122. Ochria sauzselitse 214 

123. Pseudorthosia variabilis 216 

124. Selicanis cinereola 216 

125. Orrhodia calif ornica 218 

126. Tristyla alboplagiata . . 220 

127. Pippona bimatris 221 

128. Bessula luxa . 221 

129. Oxycnemis fusimacula 221 

130. Boll-worm feeding on tomato 223 

131. Heliothis armiger 223 

132. Derrima stellata . . 224 

133. Pseudacontia crustaria 225 

134. Grseperia magnifka 225 

135. Trichosellus cupes 226 

136. Eupanychis spinosae . . . 226 

137. Canidia scissa 226 

1 38. Palada scarletina 229 

139. Sympistis proprius 229 

140. Heliodes restrictalis 230 

141. Heliosea pictipennis 230 

142. Eupseudomorpha brillians 231 

143. Larva of Psychomorpha epimenis 232 

144. Pseudalypia crotchi 232 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

145. Larva of Euthisanotia grata 233 

146. Acherdoa ferraria 234 

147. Neumoegenia poetica 235 

148. Autographa brassicae 239 

149. Diastema tigris 241 

150. Eutelia pulcherrima . 242 

151. Alabama argillacea, egg, larva, and pupa 243 

152. Anepischetos bipartita 245 

153. Diallagma lutea 245 

154. Incita aurantiaca 246 

15*). Trtchotarache assimilis 246 

156. Thalpochares aetheria 249 

157. Gyros muiri 249 

158. Tornacontia sutrix 250 

159. Cerathosia tricolor :<.- i~"Y << ?. . . .253 

160. Hormoschista pagenstecheri 253 

161. Sylectra erycata . .:-'. . 254 

162. Melanomma auricinctaria 255 

163. Argillophora furcilla 255 

164. Parora texana 255 

165. Capnodes punctivena 277 

166. Selenis monotropa 277 

167. Latebraria amphipyroides 279 

1 68. Epizeuxis americalis 280 

169. Epizeuxis aemula 280 

170. Zanclognatha protumnusalis 281 

171. Sisyrhypena orciferalis 282 

172. Hypenula cacuminalis 283 

173. Hypenula opacalis 283 

174. Tetanolita mynesalis 284 

175. Dircetis pygmaea 284 

176. Salia interpuncta 285 

177. Lomanaltes eductalis 285 

178. Hypena humuli 287 

179. Eunystalea indiana 295 

1 80. Euphyparpax rosea 298 

181. Cargida cadmia . . . . .- . v'.'/-^U . . . .301 

182. Hemerocampa leucostigma, moth . . . . - . . . .306 

xix 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

183. Hemerocampa leucostigma, female moth, larva, and 

male and female pupae 307 

184. Hemerocampa leucostigma, full grown female larva . . 307 

185. Doa ampla 309 

1 86. Leuculodes lacteolaria 310 

187. Hypopacha grisea 312 

1 88. Malacosoma americana, eggs, larvae, and cocoon. . .313 

189. Malacosoma disstria, mature larva . . <-. '.!.>; ; > .313 

190. Malacosoma disstria *.?;.':,;. . 314 

191. Larva of Bombyx mori ..:*;. *j. . 316 

192. Cocoon of Bombyx mori . . . ..,,.-..-'.,<.. .316 

193. Moth of Bombyx mori . . . ...>,v .. . * . . . 316 

194. Eudeilinea herminiata 320 

195. Paleacrita vernata, egg, and larva . ,:\ ..*..-. : . .325 

196. Paleacrita vernata, male and female moths . . v . . 325 

197. Alsophila pometaria, egg, larva, and pupa 326 

198. Moths of Alsophila pometaria 326 

199. Larva of Eois ptelearia 334 

200. Moth and cocoon of Eois ptelearia 355 

201. Fernaldella fimetaria 337 

202. Cymatophora ribearia, moth 340 

203. Egg of Goose-berry span-worm 340 

204. Goose-berry span-worm 34 1 

205. Coniodes plumigeraria 34') 

206. Coniodes plumigeraria, larva 346 

207. Nigetia formosalis ,.,... . 3sS 

208. Oiketicus abboti 361 

209. Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis . ..-..,,..,.. .361 

210. Harrisina americana, larva, and moth 37? 

211. Harrisina americana, larvae on grape-leaf 373 

212. Zeuzera pyrina ; . . .. '. . . . 376 

213. Inguromorpha basalis 378 

214. Cossula magnifica 379 

215. Synanthedon acerni 386 

216. Desmia funeralis 392 

217. Glyphodes quadristigmalis ' 394 

218. Phlyctaenodes sticticalis 395 

219. Phlyctaenodes sticticalis, larvae ...-..... 396 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAGE 

220. Phlyctaenodes sticticalis, pupa 396 

221. Hypsopygia costalis 400 

222. Pyralis farinalis 401 

223. Diatraea saccharalis, larvae . . 403 

224. Cornstalk attacked by Diatraea saccharalis 404 

225. Moth and pupa of Diatrsea saccharalis 405 

226. The Bee-moth . . . H' ' .- . .'.'.. . . . 406 

227. Mineola juglandis 408 

228. Mineola indigenella, larvae and moth . . ! 409 

229. Mineola indigenella, larval case among leaves . . . .410 

230. Zophodia grossulariae . . 411 

231. Canarsia hammondi 411 

232. Ephestia kuehniella . . . 412 

233. Cocoons of Ephestia kuehniella 413 

234. Larva of Ephestia cautella 414 

235. Ephestia cautella 414 

236. Plodia interpunctella 415 

237. Oxyptilus periscelidactylus . . . . . . . . . .416 

238. Orneodes hexadactylus 417 

239. Eucosma scudderiana 418 

240. Ancylis comptana 419 

241. Cydia pomonella 420 

242. Alceris minuta 421 

243. Phthorimaea operculella 424 

244. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis 425 

245. Anarsia lineatella, larvae 426 

246. Anarsia lineatella, moths 427 

247. Depressaria heracliana 428 

248. Holcocera glandulella 429 

249. Walshia amorphella 430 

250. Bucculatrix canadensisella 431 

251. Bucculatrix pomifoliella 432 

252. Tineola bisselliella (The Clothes-moth) 432 

253. Tinea pellionella. (The Fur-moth) 433 

254. Trichophaga tapetzella. (The Carpet-moth) .... 434 

255. Prodoxus quinquepunctella, larvae ,. 438 

256. Prodoxus quinquepunctella, moth 439 

257. Prodoxus marginatus 439 

xxi 



List of Illustrations in the Text 

FIG. PAG* 

258. Prodoxus y-inversa 440 

259. Prodoxus reticulata 440 

260. Prodoxus coloradensis 440 

261. Prodoxus cinereus 441 

262. Pronuba yuccasella 442 

263. Pronuba yuccasella, pupae 442 



xxii 



LIST OF COLORED PLATES 

Produced by the color-photographic process of the American Colortype 
Company, New York and Chicago 

FACING 
PAGE 

I. Larvae of Moths Frontispiece 

II. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths) . . ..'.,.., .'... 42 

III. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths), &c. .".... . . 48 

IV. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths) 56 

V. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths) 62 

VI. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths) 70 

VII. Sphingidae (Hawkmoths) 76 

VIII. Saturniidae, Ceratocampidae, &c 80 

IX. Saturniidae, &c 84 

X. Saturniidae, Ceratocampidae, Lasiocampidae ... 88 

XI. Saturniidae, Ceratocampidae, Lasiocampidae, &c. . . 92 

XII. Saturniidae, Cossidae, Lasiocampidae 96 

XIII. Syntomidae, Lithosiidae, Arctiidae 108 

XIV. Arctiidae 116 

XV. Arctiidae 122 

XVI. Arctiidae, &c 134 

XVII. Arctiidae, Agaristidae, Noctuidae 140 

XVIII. Noctuidae 156 

XIX. Noctuidae 164 

XX. Noctuidae 176 

XXI. Noctuidae , 182 

XXII. Noctuidae 188 

XXIII. Noctuidae 194 

XXIV. Noctuidae 204 

XXV. Noctuidae . 210 

XXVI. Noctuidae . 218 



List of Colored Plates 

FACING 
PAGE 

XXVII. Noctuida 228 

XXVIII. Noctuidse 240 

XXIX. Noctuicte 252 

XXX. Noctuidse . 260 

XXXI. Noctuidse 262 

XXXII. Noctuidas 266 

XXXIII. Noctuidae 268 

XXXIV. Noctuidae 270 

XXXV. Noctuidaa 272 

XXXVI. Noctuidae 276 

XXXVII. Noctuid* 278 

XXXVIII. Pericopidae, Dioptidae, Liparidae, Megalopygidae, 

&c 290 

XXXIX. Notodontida 296 

XL. Notodontidae, Thyatiridae, &c. ..'..... 300 
XLI. Lasiocampidae, Hepialidae, Psychidae, Platyptery- 314 

gidae, Lacosomidae, &c 

XLII. Noctuidae, -Nycteolidae, Geometridas 330 

XLIII. Geometridae 338 

XLIV. Geometridae 348 

XLV. Geometridae 354 

XLVI. y^geriidae ; .' . . 382 

XLVII. Cochlidiidae, Zygaenidae, Thryrididae, Pyralidae . 394 

XL VIII. Pyralidae, Tortricidae, Tineidae, &c 412 



INTRODUCTION 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER I 

THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF MOTHS 

"I suppose you are an entomologist?" 

"Not quite so ambitious as that, sir. I should like to put my eyes on the 
individual entitled to that name. No man can be truly called an entomologist, 
sir; the subject is too vast for any single human intelligence to grasp." 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, The Poet at the Breakfast Table. 

THE great order of the scale-winged insects, or lepidoptera, 
by the consent of almost all naturalists has been subdivided into 
two suborders, the Rhopalocera, or Butterflies, and the Hetero- 
cera, or Moths. As Dr. David Sharp well says, " The only 
definition that can be given of Heterocera is the practical one that 
all Lepidoptera that are not butterflies are Heterocera."* 

The distinction made between butterflies and moths, accord- 
ing to which all lepidoptera having clubbed antennae are to 
be classified as Rhopalocera, or butterflies, and those without 
clubbed antennae are to be classified as Heterocera, or moths, 
while holding good in the main, yet is found with the increase 
of our knowledge to have exceptions, and there are a few fami- 
lies of lepidoptera, apparently forming con- 
necting links between the butterflies and the 
moths, in which, while most of the structural 
characteristics are those of the Heterocera, the 
antennae are distinctly clubbed. This is true 
of the Castniidce, found in tropical America, FIG. i. Dahlia 
the Neocastniida of the Indo-Malayan region, JSSS: 
the Euscbemonidce of Australia, and certain 
obscure genera of the Agaristidce, among them that remarkable 
insect, Dahlia hesperioides Pagenstecher, which occurs in the 

*Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VI. p. 366. 
3 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

Bismarck Archipelago and the island of Buru. When, a few 
years ago, I communicated a specimen of this strange little moth to 
Sir George F. Hampson, he suggested that a trick had been played 
and that the head of a butterfly (a skipper) had been affixed to 
the body of a moth, but such was not the case, as a considerable 
series of specimens in my possession showed. The incident 
reveals that in classification hard and fast lines, based upon the 
character of a single organ, can not be always adhered to. There 
is scarcely any generalization in reference to organic structures 
which students have made which has not been found with the 
increase of knowledge to have its limitations. While all this is 
true, it is nevertheless also true that, so far as the lepidoptera of 
the United States and the countries of British North America are 
concerned, the old distinction between the two suborders, based 
upon the form of the antennae, holds good, with the sole excep- 
tion of '"he insects belonging to the genus Megathymus, which 
are by many authors classified with the Castniidce, and by others 
with the Hesperiidce. In the "Butterfly Book" 1 have left these 
insects with the Hesperiidce. Leaving them out of sight, we may 
say that all lepidoptera found in the region with which this book 
deals, and which do not possess clubbed antennae, are moths. 
The easiest way for the beginner who lives in the United States, 
or Canada, to ascertain whether the insect before him is a moth, 
is to first familiarize himself with the structure of the antennae of 
butterflies, and then by comparison to refer the specimens before 
him to their proper suborder. 

Moths undergo metamorphoses analogous to those through 
which butterflies pass. They exist first in the embryonic form 
as eggs. When the eggs hatch the insects appear as larvae, or 
caterpillars. .They are then, after undergoing a series of molts, 
transformed into pupae, or chrysalids, which may be naked, or 
may be provided with an outer covering, known as the cocoon, 
which is more or less composed of silk. After remaining for 
some time in the pupal state, they appear as perfect four-winged, 
six-footed insects. 

THE EGGS OF MOTHS 

The eggs of moths, like those of butterflies, consist of a shell 
containing the embryo and the liquid food upon which it subsists 

4 




FIG. 2. Egg of 
Peridroma saucia, 
greatly enlarged. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

until it has attained the degree of maturity which permits it 
to hatch, or come forth in the first larval stage. The eggs 
of moths have various forms. Spherical, hemispherical, cylin- 
drical, and lenticular, or lens-shaped eggs 
are common. The eggs of the Cochlidiidx, or 
Slug-moths, are broad and very flat, looking 
like microscopic pancakes. The surfaces of 
the eggs of moths are seen under a micro- 
scope to be more or less ornamented by 
raised lines and sculpturings. While in some 
cases the eggs of moths are beautifully spotted and mottled, they 
are generally quite plain in color, white, pale green, bluish- 
green, or brown. Like the eggs of butterflies, they are provided 
with a micropyle. The micropyle, in the case of such eggs as 
are globular, conical, or cylindrical, is situated on top. In the 
case of those eggs which are flattened or lenticular, the micro- 
pyle is located on the outer margin or rim. 

The eggs are always laid by the female in a state of freedom 
upon that food-plant which is most congenial to the larva. In 
captivity moths will often deposit their eggs 
in the receptacle in which they are con- 
fined. In such cases, unless the observer 
knows the food-plant upon which the 
species feeds, he will be apt to have great 
difficulty in rearing the larvae, unless by a 
happy chance he succeeds experimentally 
in ascertaining the proper plant. This may 
sometimes be done by introducing the 
leaves of a number of plants found in the neighborhood and 
observing those to which the young caterpillars resort. 

The date of oviposition varies with different families and 
genera. Some moths deposit their eggs in the fall and the young 
insect passes the winter' in the egg, emerging when the early 
springtime brings opening flowers and leaves. Some moths 
lay their eggs in the late summer and early fall; the eggs hatch 
shortly afterward, and the larvae, after molting one or more 
times, hibernate in the caterpillar state, and in the following 
spring resume the process of feeding and molting until such 
time as they are ready to undergo further transformation. Most 

5 




rm 



FIG. 3. Egg of Samia 

cecropia, greatly 

enlarged. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

moths in temperate regions oviposit in the spring or early summer, 
and the eggs hatch shortly afterward. 

THE CATERPILLARS OF MOTHS 

The caterpillars of moths are of course extremely small when 
they first emerge trom the egg. '1 hey, however, rapidly increase 
in relative size as they continue the process of feeding and 
molting, and in the case of some of the larger species become 
to the ignorant and uninformed even formidable in appear- 
ance. The larva of the Royal Walnut-moth, or " Hickory Horn- 
Devil," as it is sometimes called, is a striking object. (See Plate 
I, Fig. 4.) Specimens six and seven inches in length are not at 
all uncommon. With its curved horns and numeruos spines it 
presents to the uninitiated a truly repellent aspect. 

The larvae of the Heterocera, like those of the Rhopalocera, are 
principally phytophagous, that is to say, they feed upon vege- 
table matter. The food of the vast majority consists of the leaves 
of grasses, shrubs, and trees. A few larvae feed upon woody 
tissues, and bore long galleries under the bark or in the wood 
of trees. Others feed upon the pith of herbaceous plants. A 
number of species feed upon the inside of growing fruits. Only 
a very few species are known to be carnivorous. In Australia 
there occurs a Galleriid moth, the larva of which burrows into 
the fatty tissues of one of the great wood-boring caterpillars of 
the region, and preys upon it somewhat as is done by the great 
family of parasitic Hymenoptera, known to scientific men as the 
Ichneumonidce. Certain Phycids and Noctuids feed upon scale- 
insects, in the same way in which the larva of the butterfly 
known as Feniseca tarquinius feeds upon the same class of in- 
sects. Among the Tineidce there are certain species which, as 
is well known, feed upon hair and on horn. Every house- 
wife is more or less acquainted with the ravages committed by 
the destructive larvae of the clothes-moth. 

There is considerable variety in the form of heterocerous 
larvae, and still greater variety in the manner in which their 
bodies are adorned by various growths and colors. The body, 
as is the case with the larvae of the Rhopalocera, is composed 
normally of thirteen rings or somites, anterior to which is the 
head. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

The head is usually prominent, and is provided with man- 
dibles, or jaws, eyes, rudimentary antennae, maxillae, palpi, and 
a spinneret for the production of silk. The head may be 
globular, hemispherical, or conoid. It is sometimes cleft on top, 
or bifid. It is generally more or less retractile, or capable of 
being drawn back, so as to be partially concealed in the folds of 
the anterior somite of the body. 

Of the thirteen somites forming the body of the caterpillar, 
the three foremost are thoracic, and each is furnished with a pair 
of legs which correspond to the six legs of the perfect insect, or 
imago. The last two somites of the body are often so closely 
united with each other as to be superficially indistinguishable. 
The somites from the third to the eleventh inclusive are provided 
on either side with spiracles connecting with the tracheae, through 
which the creature receives the external air in order to the oxy- 
dization of the waste products of the circulation. 




FIG. 4- LarvaotHyloicuskalmia:a, thoracic legs; b, prolegs; 
c, anal proleg; d, anal horn; e, head. 

The body is usually supported at the middle and at the end 
by prolegs, or false legs. In the majority of families there are 
four pairs of these prolegs, situated upon the sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth somites, and a fifth pair situated on the 
thirteenth or last somite. The latter pair are called the anal 
prolegs. In the larvae of the greater portion of the Geometridce, 
and in those of numerous Noctuidce, the prolegs are reduced in 
number, and in many of the Psychidce they appear to be wholly 
wanting. In most of the Geometridee the pair found on the 
ninth and thirteenth somites are the only prolegs, and therefore 
in order to progress the creature makes a series of movements 
in which the body is looped upward. These caterpillars are 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

known as " loopers " or "measuring-worms." When, as is the 
case with many genera of the Noctuidce, a less complete abortion 
of the prolegs occurs, and only a partial approximation to the 
movement employed by the larvae of the Geometridce is wit- 
nessed, the caterpillars are said to be " half-loopers," or "semi- 
loopers." As examples of such caterpillars we may cite those 
belonging to the genus Plusia, in which there are only two pairs 
of abdominal prolegs. In the family of the Megalopygidce the 
prolegs are supplemented by sucker-like pads on the somites 
ranging from the fifth to the tenth, inclusive. In the Cochlidiidce 
the prolegs are wanting, their function being wholly assumed by 
such sucker-like pads, ranging on the ventral surface from the 
fourth to the eleventh somites, inclusive. In the Eriocephalidce, 
which are regarded as ancestral forms, there are, as has been 
pointed out by Dr. T. A. Chapman, eight pairs of abdominal 
prolegs and an abdominal sucker situated upon the ninth and 
tenth somites, having the shape of a trefoil or clover leaf. These 
larvae are further remarkable in having well-developed antennae. 

After the larvae have emerged from the egg and fed for a 
longer or shorter period, the outer skin, or epidermis, becomes 
too small to admit of further growth, and the insect then molts, 
or sheds its skin, and resumes feeding until increased develop- 
ment makes another molt necessary. The number of such 
molts varies in the case of different species. Ordinarily, hetero- 
cerous caterpillars do not molt more than five times before trans- 
forming into pupae, but some genera molt as often as ten times, 
while others only molt thrice. The skin which is cast off pre- 
serves the outline not only of the body, but also of the horn-like 
processes, the hairs, and various other appendages attached to 
the body at the time of molting. The molting period is a 
critical time in the life of larvae, and those who are endeavoring 
to rear them should never disturb them in the least at this time. 

The bodies of the larvae of moths are covered with tubercles, 
the location and arrangement of which has in recent years 
received considerable attention from students, and is thought to 
furnish a clue to the lines of descent of certain families. These 
tubercles sometimes carry only a single hair, in other cases they 
carry large tufts of hairs; they may be small and inconspicuous, 
or they may be developed until they assume the form of great 

8 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

spines, horns, or bulbous projections. The hairs and spines 
with which some larvae are ornamented possess stinging proper- 
ties. This is true of some genera among the Saturniidce and the 
Cochlidiidce in temperate America and of many genera in the same 
families and among the Lasiocampidce in the tropics. The sting- 
ing hairs of a large caterpillar found in tropical Africa are 
employed by the natives in preparing the poison which they 
put upon their arrows. The inflammation caused by these hairs, 
even in the case of specimens long dead, I know from personal 
experience to be very severe. 

The coloration of caterpillars is often very striking and beau- 
tiful, and in most cases is such as to adapt them more or less to 
their surroundings in life. Cases of protective mimicry are very 
numerous. A beautiful illustration of this is seen on Plate I, 
fig. 1 5, where the singular form of the caterpillar, combined with 
its green tint, suggests the serrated edge of the leaf of the elm, 
upon which plant it feeds. There is almost endless diversity in 
the modifications of form and color in the larval stages of moths, 
and they are as characteristic as are the forms and colors of the 
perfect insects. 

There is much diversity in the social habits of the larvae of 
moths. Some are gregarious and exist in colonies which disperse 
at the time of pupation; but there are a few singular instances, in 
which the communistic instinct perdures, and leads the entire 
colony to form a common cocoon, or envelope of silk, in which 
each individual subsequently spins a smaller cocoon for itself. In 
1893 1 had the pleasure of communicating some information in 
regard to this curious phase of insect life to the pages of the 
journal of the Cambridge Entomological Club (See Psyche, Vol. 
VI., p. 385). This habit is characteristic of certain genera of 
African moths, but has not thus far been observed as occur 
ring in the case of any American species. 

THE PUP^E OF MOTHS 

When the caterpillar has gone through its successive molts 
and attained to full development it undergoes the transformation 
known as pupation. From a life of freedom and motion it 
passes into a condition in which freedom and almost all power 
of motion are lost. The flexible and more or less agile body is 

9 




FIG. 5. Pupa of Telea 
pclypkemus. (Riley.) 



The Life -History and Anatomy of Moths 

encased in hard chitinous rings and sheathings. As a measure of 
protection during this stage, the insect, before transforming into a 
pupa, descends into the earth, and forms there a cell at a greater or 
lesser depth beneath the surface, or else weaves a cocoon of silk 
about its body. In some cases the 
transformation takes place at the 
surface of the earth under leaves or 
under fallen branches and the loose 
bark of trees. In almost all such 
cases there is apparently an at- 
tempt, though often slight, to throw 
a few strands of silk about the body 
of the caterpillar, if only to hold in 

place the loose material amidst which transformation is to occur. 
The forms assumed in the pupal stage are not as remarkably 
diversified as in the larval or imaginal stages. The pupae of 
moths are generally brown or black in color, though a few are 
more or less variegated. The bright golden and silvery spots 
which ornament the pupae of many species of butterflies, causing 
them to be called chrysalids, are seldom, if ever, found. 

While the change into a pupa might at first sight appear to 
the superficial observer to be disadvantageous because of the loss 
of motion and the imprisonment 
within narrow bounds, it neverthe- 
less distinctly marks a progression 
in the life of the creature. The pupal 
case contains within it the moth, as 
may easily be ascertained by a care- 
ful dissection made in the very earliest 
period after the change has occurred, 




FIG. 6. Pupa of Cut- worm 
in earthen cell. (Riley.) 



and which becomes very evident at a later time when the period 
of the pupal life is drawing to its close. 

In the cocoon or in the cell in which pupation has taken place 
will always be found the exuviae, or the larval skin, etc., of the 
caterpillar, which have been cast off. 

When the time comes for the perfect insect to emerge from 
the pupa, nature has provided methods by which escape from 
the prison cell underground, or the tightly woven cocoon, can 
be effected. In the case of those pupae which lie deeply buried 

10 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

under the soil escape is made by means of the power possessed 
by the abdominal somites, or rings, of moving with a sort of 
spiral twist. The pupa "wriggles" itself upward through the 
soil until it reaches the surface, following in its course the line of 
least resistance, which is generally the line through which the 
larva burrowed downward to its hiding place. In this movement 
the pupae are often aided by spinous projections at the lower edge 
of the somites which prevent backward motion. When emer- 
gence from a cocoon occurs, the insect is provided with the power 
of ejecting from its mouth a fluid, which has the property of 
dissolving and cutting the silken threads. When the moth first 
emerges from the pupa its wings are soft and flabby and its body 
is long and vermiform. The first act is to secure a quiet resting 
place. The fluids of the body are in the process of circulation 
rapidly absorbed from the abdominal region, and, pressing out- 
ward under the action of the heart, cause the wings to expand 
and assume their normal form and the other parts to acquire 
adjustment. There is no more interesting spectacle than to 
witness the rapid development of a moth from its apparently 
helpless condition at emergence from the pupal stage into an 
insect strong of wing and often gloriously beautiful in color. 

THE ANATOMY OF MOTHS 

The body of all lepidoptera consists of three subdivisions, the 
head, the thorax, and the abdomen. The head bears the princi- 
pal organs of sense and of nutrition, the thorax those of locomo- 
tion, and the abdomen those of generation and in large part those 
of assimilation, respiration, and circulation. 

The reader who desires to ascertain the names and the func- 
tion of the various organs of the body of moths may consult in 
this connection the corresponding portion of the " Butterfly 
Book," in which the principal facts have been fully set forth as to 
the diurnal lepidoptera. The anatomy of moths does not radically 
differ in its main outlines from that of the Rhopalocera. The 
same names are applied to the parts, and the differences which 
occur are not so much differences in function as in outline. 

In studying the head of moths we find that as a rule the 
head is not as prominent as is the case in butterflies. It is 
more retracted, as a rule, though in the case of some families, 

II 




FIG. 7. Head of a 
moth viewed from in 
front, a, antenna; c, 
clypous ; e, eye ; oc, ocel- 
lus; p, proboscis. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

as the Sphingidce, it is produced well in advance of the thorax, but 
even in such cases it is generally more solidly attached to the ante- 
rior part of the thorax and is less mobile than in the butterflies. 
The suctorial apparatus is formed in 
the moths as in the case of the butter- 
flies by the peculiar modification of the 
maxillae into semi-cylindrical and inter- 
locking tubes forming the proboscis. 
This is enormously produced in some 
groups, enabling the insect to hover upon 
the wing over flowers and rob their cups 
of the honey which they contain. This 
is especially true of the Sphingidcv and 
some subfamilies of the Noctuidce. In 
other cases, as in the family of the Satur- 
niidce and Bombycidce, the proboscis is very feebly developed 
or aborted. In fact, we know that some of these creatures are 
without mouths and that they do not partake of nourishment in 
the winged state. They are simply animate, winged reservoirs 
of reproductive energy, and, when the sexual functions have been 
completed, they die. 

The eyes of moths are often greatly 
developed. This is especially true of those 
species which are crepuscular in their hab- 
its. The eyes of the heterocera are, as in 
all other insects, compound. They may be 
naked, or may be more or less studded with 
hairs, or lashes, projecting from points lying 
at the juncture of the various facets making 
up the organ. This fact has been utilized to 
some extent in classification. Ocelli, or 
minute simple eyes, subsidiary to the large 
compound eyes, occur in some forms, 
just above the latter, but are generally so 
concealed by the covering of the head as to be only recognizable 
by an expert observer. 

The labial palpi of moths, as of butterflies, consist of three 
joints, but there' is far greater diversity in the development of the 
palpi among the moths than among the butterflies. In some 




FIG. 8. Head of a 
moth viewed from the 
side, a, antenna; e, 
eye; oc, ocellus; m.p., 
maxillary palpus ; I. p. , 
labial palpus; p, pro- 
boscis. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

cases they are but very feebly developed, in others they attain 
relatively enormous proportions and strangely eccentric forms. 
Maxillary palpi are found in some groups. The maxillary palpi 
have two joints. 

The antennae of moths, 
which, as has already been 
pointed out, differ greatly in 
form from those of butterflies, 
are attached to the head in the 
same relative location as in 
butterflies. Antennae may be 
filiform, threadlike, fusiform, 
spindle-shaped, or dilate, 
more or less swollen toward 
the tip. They may be simple, 
i. e., without lateral projec- 




FIG. 9. Antennae of moths. I, 
fusiform; 2, filiform; j, dilate; 4, 
ciliate ; 5, bipectinate ; 6, setose- 
ciliate; 7, fasciculate; 8, dentate; 
p, serrate; 10, lamellate. 



tions, but this is rarely the 
case. The shaft may be set 
with cilia, or small hair-like 

projections on the side of the joints. Such antennae are said to be 
ciliate. Sometimes instead of cilia we find bristle-shaped projec- 
tions on the joints. These are called setose antennae. In some 




FIG. 10. Antenna of Telea polyphemus. Plu- 
mose; doubly bipectinate. (From " Insect Life," 
Vol. VII. p. 40.) 

forms both cilia and bristles occur on the antennae. When the 
bristles are arranged in clusters on the joints of the antennae they 
are said to be fasciculate. Many forms have tooth-like projections 
on the antennae; in such cases the antennae are described as den- 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

fate. The form and arrangement of the joints may be such as to 
suggest the teeth of a saw; such antennae are said to be serrate. 
When on the lower side of the joints of the antennae there are 
minute plate-like projections, the antennae are described as lamel- 
late. Many moths have pectinate antennae, the projections resem- 
bling little combs, which may be arranged singly or in pairs on 
each joint. Occasionally, but not often, there are two pairs 
of such appendages on each joint. When the pectination is 
excessive, so as to cause the antennae to resemble a feather, they 
are said to be plumose. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate some of 
these forms. In addition to the peculiarities which have just 
been mentioned, antennae may be variously adorned with scales, 
especially upon the upper side of the shaft, and they may be 
notched, or provided with knot-like enlargements, in which case 
they are said to be nodose, or they may be curved, or bent in 
peculiar ways, when they are described as sinuate. 

The thorax, as in butterflies, consists of three segments, the 
prothorax, the mesothorax, and the metathorax. The pro- 
thorax bears the tegulae or collar-lappets, the patagia, or shoulder- 
lappets, and the anterior pair of legs. The mesothorax carries 
the second pair of legs and the fore wings. The metathorax the 
last pair of legs and the hind wings. 

The abdomen, just as in butterflies, is normally composed of 
nine segments, though the modifications of the terminal seg- 
ments are often such as to make it difficult to recognize so many. 
At the base of the thorax is situated a pair of large tracheal 
spiracles, and on the other segments pairs of smaller spiracles. 
Through these spiracles respiration is carried on. At the end of 
the abdomen, more or less concealed by variously arranged tufts 
of hair, are the organs of generation, which have in recent years 
been studied quite closely by a few authors and are useful in 
distinguishing species. 

The legs of moths are composed of coxa, trochanter, femur, 
tibia, and tarsus, the latter composed of five joints, and armed 
at its end with two more or less developed hooks, or claws, 
known technically as the ungues, and also a pulvillus, or pad, just 
back of the claws on the lower side. The legs are armed with 
spines and spurs, and there are different sexual appendages in the 
males of various genera. The cut (Figure 1 1) shows the structure 

14 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

of the legs. It will be well for the student to thoroughly famil- 
iarize himself with the location and names of the different parts 
indicated in this and the following figure. 




U.T 



FIG. ii. Legs of a Moth. (From "Packard's Guide," p. 231.) 

i. FORE LEG. 2. MIDDLE LEG. 3. HIND LEG. 

c. Coxa. u. Ungues. 

t. Trochanter. p. Pulvillus. 

/. Femur. 9 sp. i . Single anterior spur. 

t. Tibia. sp. 2. Paired medial spurs, 

tor. Tarsus. sp . 3. Two pairs of posterior spurs. 

The structure of the wings of moths is essentially like that of 
butterflies, and consists of a framework of hollow tubes which 
support a double membrane which bears upon its surfaces the 
scales, which overlap each other like the tiles upon the roof of a 
house. The tubes, which are known as veins, communicate with 
the respiratory system and are highly pneumatic. They are also 
connected with the circulatory system, and are furnished, at least 
through their basal portions, with nerves. 

The fore wing has normally twelve veins. The hind wing 
has also in primitive forms, as the Hepialidce, twelve veins, but 
in the vast majority of cases this number has been reduced, and 
eight veins is the number which is found in the majority of cases 
in the hind wing. The accompanying figures, with their expla- 
nations, will suffice far better than any mere verbal explanation 
to explain the structure of the wings of moths. (See Figures 
12 and 13.) 

The relative position of vein five in relation to the median or 
subcostal systems has been much utilized in recent years by 
systematists in their classification of the various groups. 

15 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

The fore and hind wings in some of the primitive forms are 
not connected with each other in the operation of flight. In the 
Hepialidce there is a lobe near the base of the primaries which is 



sn 11 




FIG. 12. Diagram of Wings of a Moth. (After Hampson's "Moths of 
India," Vol. I., with modifications.) 

A. FORE WING. B. HIND WING. 

c.m. Costal margin. c.n. Costal nervure, vein 1 2 of fore wing, 

a.m. Outer margin. 8 of hind wing. 

i.m. Inner margin. s.n. Subcostal nervure. 

a. a. Apex. tn.n. Median nervure. 

i.a. Inner angle. ia,b,c. Three branches of internal nervure. 

c. Discoidal cell. 2,3,4. Three branches of median nervure. 

d. Discocellulars. 5. Lower radial. 

ar. Areole. 6. Upper radial 

f. Frenulum. 7,8,9,10,11. Five subcostal branches of fore wing. 
7. Subcostal nervure of hind wing. 

known as thejugum, but it does not appear to serve the practical 
functions of a yoke. This is illustrated in Figure 13. In the vast 
majority of cases a connection between the fore and hind wings 
is made by means of the frenulum on the hind wing, which hooks 
into the retinaculum upon the fore wing, as illustrated in Figure 14. 
The form of the frenulum is of use in determining the sex of 
specimens, as in the case of the males it consists of a single 
curved, hook-like projection, whereas in the case of the females 
it is split up into a number of bristles. However, in some 

16 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Moths 

groups, as the Phycitina:, the frenulum is simple in both sexes. 
In some of the families the frenulum is aborted, and its function 
is assumed by a lobe-like expansion of 
the basal portion of costa of the hind 
wing. The nomenclature of the parts 
of the wings of moths is not essentially 
different from that which is employed 
in describing the wings of butterflies. 
There are, however, certain conventional 
terms which have been applied by authors 
to the markings upon the wings, espe- 
cially of the Noctuidce, and Figure 15 will 
serve to explain and illustrate these terms. 

A great deal of useful information in regard to the anatomical 
structure of the Lepidoptera, and of moths in particular, may be 




FIG. 13. Win} 
Hepialus gracilis. J 
nified. /, jugum. 



s of 
[ag- 




FIG. 14. Frenulum and Retinaculum. (From "Moths of India," Vol. I.) 



i. $ ; 2. ?. A. FORE WING. 

/. Frenulum. 
r. Retinaculum. 
c.n. Costal nervure. 



B. HIND WING. 

s.n. Subcostal nervure. 
m.n. Median nervure. 
i.n. Internal nervure. 



derived from the study of various manuals and special papers, 
reference to which will be made hereafter a's the various families 
are successively taken up and studied. 

Among works to be particularly recommended in this connec- 
tion are those of Professor A. S. Packard and Professor Comstock's 
"Manual for the Study of insects." A very useful treatise is 
found in Professor David Sharp's two volumes upon the Insecta 
contained in the " Cambridge Natural History." Every student, 
as he advances in the study of the subject, will have frequent 
occasion to consult these useful books, which embody the results 
of the most recent researches and are invaluable for purposes of 



The Life- History and Anatomy of Moths 

reference. An even more valuable work than these is the great 
"Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalsense contained in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum," which is being prepared bv Sir 




FIG 15. Wing of Noctuid Moth. (After Beutenmuller, 
"Bulletin American Museum Natural History," Vol. XIV., p. 230.) 

C, collar lappet; tg, patagium or shoulder lappet; T, thorax; 
ab, abdomen; H, head; p, palpus; E, eye; ant, antenna; b, basal 
line; bd, basal dash; ta, transverse anterior line; cl, claviform; 
or, orbicular; ms, median shade; ren, reniform; tp, transverse 
posterior line; ap, apical patch; apex, apex; //, terminal lunules; 
st, subterminal line; fr, fringes; om, outer margin; ha, hind angle; 
ds, discal mark ; el, exterior line; an, anal angle; im, inner margin. 

George F. Hampson, and published by the Trustees. The 
endeavor in this work is to give a complete view of the entire 
subject in compact form, and the learned author has enlisted 
the cooperation of the most distinguished lepidopterists through- 
out the world in the prosecution of his great task. The work is 
of course somewhat expensive, but the working lepidopterist 
cannot well do without it. Much help may also be derived from 
the older works of Burmeister and Westwood, which, though 
old, are far from being obsolete and useless. 



18 



CHAPTER II 

THE CAPTURE, PREPARATION, AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS 

" Does he who searches Nature's secrets scruple 
To stick a pin into an insect ?" 

A. G. CEHLENSCHLJEGER, Aladdin's Lamp. 

EVERYTHING that has been said in "The. Butterfly Book" in 
reference to the capture, preparation, and preservation of speci- 
mens holds good in the case of the Heterocera. Inasmuch, 
however, as many of the moths are exceedingly minute in form, 
it is worth while to state that a greater degree of care must be 
observed in the collection and preservation of these minute 
species than is necessary in the case of even the smallest butter- 
flies. The best method of collecting the micro-lepidoptera is to 
put them, after they have been netted, into pill-boxes, which have 
glass covers, or into vials or test tubes of large size. These 
receptacles may be carried in a bag or pocket by the collector. 
When he has returned from the field, the specimens may be killed 
by subjecting them to the action of sulphuric ether applied to the 
corks of the vials, or introduced into the boxes on a camel's-hair 
pencil. By dipping the cork into the ether and moistening it 
with a drop or two and then replacing it in the vial the insect is 
stunned. Sometimes two or three successive applications of 
ether are necessary. When the insect has been killed and is still 



FIG. 1 6. Setting needle used in adjusting wings of micro- 
lepidoptera upon the glass surface of the setting board. 

lax, it is fixed upon a small silver pin of a size proportionate to 
that of its body, and is then transferred to the setting board. 
Setting boards for mounting micro-lepidoptera should be made 

19 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

differently from setting boards commonly used for butterflies and 
larger moths. The best form known to the writer is one, which has 
for many years been employed by Mr. Herbert H. Smith, the vet- 
eran collector. Small pieces of glass about one inch square, with 
their edges very lightly beveled, so as to remove all sharpness, 
are spaced upon a strip of cork fastened to a wide piece of soft 
pine in such a way that an interval of from one-sixteenth to one- 
eighth of an inch occurs between them. This serves as the 
groove to receive the body of the specimen. Having been fixed 
upon the pin the insect is placed in one of these grooves. The 
wings are then carefully expanded with a crooked needle 
fastened in a handle, as illustrated in Figure 16, and are then bound 




FIG. 17. Setting board for mounting micro-lepidoptera ; a, 
pieces of glass attached to papered cork with shellac ; b, base 
of soft pine ; co., cork ; d, white paper covering cork ; ee, brads, 
to which setting threads are tied ; ff, pins set firmly beyond 
groove to secure alignment of setting threads ; it, setting 
threads ; pp, pins to which setting threads are fastened, and 
which are stuck into the pine base to hold down the wings in 
position ; h, small silver pin transfixing thorax of specimen. 

in place by a thread which is held in place by a pin, as shown in 
Figure 17. Though the wings of these small insects may, when 
mounted, at first curl up a little under the pressure of the thread 
drawn across them, they generally recover their -position after 
removal from the setting board. The advantage of mounting 
these insects upon glass arises from the fact that the sharp point 
of the needle will glide over the glass and the surface is smooth, 

20 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

so that they are not torn, nor are the fringes and other delicate 
portions injured. In doing this work it is best to use a reading- 
glass mounted in a frame, so that the operator can seethe objects 
before him magnified two or three diame- 
ters. The mounting of micro - lepidoptera 
taken in the field and put into envelopes, as 
often has to be done, is a very trying opera- 
tion. After the insects have been sufficiently 
dried they may be set up as double mounts, 
the small silver pins being thrust through 
pieces of pith held upon a larger pin. The FIG. 18. Double 
Pyralidce, the Tortricidce and all the smaller 
micro-lepidoptera should, if possible, be collected in the way which 
has just been described, and it is only thus that specimens 
worthy of installation in a well ordered cabinet can be secured. 

Larger forms may be placed in envelopes if intended to be 
transmitted to great distances prior to study. Larvae may be 
inflated in the manner described in "The Butterfly Book." In 
all other particulars the directions contained in that volume may 
be safely followed by the student. 




As the moths around a taper, 

As the bees around a rose, 
As the gnats around a vapour, 

So the spirits group and close 
Round about a holy childhood, as if drinking its repose." 

E. B. BROWNING,/* Child Asleep. 



21 



CHAPTER III 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF MOTHS 

"The filmy shapes that haunt the dusk." 

TENNYSON, In Memoriam, xciii. 

THE insects of to-day, like the animals of all other classes 
found upon the globe, represent lines of descent from an ancestry, 
which runs back into the remote geologic past. The attempt to 
trace the lines of descent in any order by studying the resem- 
blance between genera and species as they exist to-day, while 
throwing considerable light upon the subject, can never yield 
wholly satisfactory results in the absence of testimony derived 
from the field of paleontological inquiry. The study of fossil insect 
life is as necessary to elucidate the story of the development of 
the insect world, as the study of fossil vertebrates is necessary in 
order to understand the manner in which existing mammals have 
been derived from preexisting forms. At best descent can only 
be positively asserted within the lines of those groups, to which 
naturalists have given the name of families. Within these it is 
possible to declare of this or that genus that it has been possibly, 
or even probably, derived from the same stock as another. 
Reference to a common ancestral form may safely be predicated 
of very few families, so far as such assertion of a common 
parentage rests upon evidences found in the living structures of 
to-day. 

All attempts to classify the lepidoptera in such a manner 
as to show the derivation of one of the existing families from 
another, and to maintain a lineal sequence in the order given, 
must necessarily prove wholly disappointing. The fact is, that 
the various families represent divergences from the parent stem, 
which may be likened to the divergence of the branches from the 
trunk of a tree. Any system of classification, which leaves this 

22 



The Classification of Moths 

fact out of sight, is necessarily defective, and as unnatural as it 
would be for a man to lop off the branches of a tree, and then, 
laying them down side by side, declare, as he contemplated the 
result of his labors, "This is a tree scientifically arranged." In- 
asmuch, however, as in books and cabinets serial order must be 
preserved, the best that the student can do is to collocate those 
forms, which display some traces of likeness, and give some hint 
of their common origin. 

Exceedingly different views have been entertained by natural- 
ists in recent years in reference to the matters which we are dis- 
cussing, and various schemes of systematic arrangement have 
been evolved, many of which are contradictory, and not a few 
of which appear to the unprejudiced to be more ingenious than 
natural. Inasmuch as this book is intended for the use not so 
much of advanced students, as of those who are entering upon the 
study of the subject, it does not seem to the writer worth while 
to encumber these pages with what would necessarily be a 
lengthy recital of the various schemes for classification to which 
he has alluded. He is inclined to regard the scheme which has 
been adopted by Sir George F. Hampson in the preparation of his 
great work upon the moths of the world, which is now being 
issued by the Trustees of the British Museum, as upon the whole 
as satisfactory as any which has recently been evolved. Inas- 
much, however, as Dr. Harrison G. Dyar has quite recently pub- 
lished a List of the Lepidoptera of the United States, which is 
certain for many years to come to be used very largely by Ameri- 
can students in arranging their collections, it has seemed upon 
the whole to be best to conform the text of the present volume 
to the serial arrangement given in Dr. Dyar's List, although the 
writer differs very positively from the learned author of that work 
in his views as to the position which should be held in relation 
to each other of a number of genera. The last word in reference 
to the classification of the insects contained in this group has 
certainly not yet been spoken by any one, and we are very far 
from having attained in our studies to conclusions which may be 
accepted as final. 

For the assistance of students the writer herewith gives a 
key to the families which are represented in this book, which is 
based upon the key given by Sir George F. Hampson in the first 

23 



The Classification of Moths 

volume of his "Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae," and in 
the preparation of which he has been assisted by Dr. Dyar. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF NORTH AMERICAN 
HETEROCERA. 

Antennae not clubbed or dilated, or frenulum present when clubbed 

or dilated. Frenulum present when not otherwise indicated. . i 

i Hind wing with cell emitting not more than six veins ; wings unlike 

in shape 2 

Hind wing with cell emitting more than six veins; wings similar in 

shape 44 

2 Hind wing with vein ic absent 3 

Hind wing with vein ic present 22 

3 Fore wing with vein 5 nearer 4 than 6 4 

Fore wing with vein 5 from middle of discocellulars or nearer 6 

than 4 15 

4 Hind wing with vein 8 absent Fam. 4, SyntomidcB. 

Hind wing with Vein 8 present 5 

5 Hind wing with vein 8 remote from 7 6 

Hind wing with vein S touching or approximate to 7 beyond cell . . : 1 2 
6 Hind wing with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to near or beyona 

middle 7 

Hind wing with vein G anastomosing with cell near base only 9 

Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell by a bar. .Fam. 14, Liparidce. 

7 Ocelli present Fam. 6, ArctiidcB. 

Ocelli absent 8 

8 Fore wing with tufts of raised scales in the cell. .Fam. 20, Nolidce. 

Fore wing withoiit such tufts Fam. 5, Lithosiidce. 

9 Antennae with shaft more or less dilated toward tip 

Fam. 7 , Agaristidce. 

Antennae with sliaft not dilated 10 

10 Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked Fam. 10, Pericopida. 

Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 not stalked 1 1 

ii Fore wing with costa and inner margin parallel, arched at base .... 

; . Fam. 9, Nycteolidae. 

Fore wing trigonatc Fam. 8, Noctu',d&. 

ia Hind wing with vein ia absent or not reaching anal angle 

Fam. 17, Platypterygidce. 

Hind wing with vein ia reaching anal angle 13 

13 Frenulum present Fam. 28, Thyrididce. 

Frenulum absent Fam. 15, Lasiocampidae. 

14 Hind wing with vein 8 diverging from cell from base 15 

Hind wing with vein 8 connected or approximate to cell 17 

15 Tongue absent; no tibial spurs; frenulum absent . . Fam. 2, Saturniida. 

Tongue and tibial spurs present; frenulum absent 

Fam. 3, Ceratocampidai. 

24 



The Classification of Moths 

16 Hind wing with vein 8j-emote from 7 '. 17 

Hind wing with vein 8 approximated to or united with 7 21 

17 Proboscis absent; frenulum absent Fam. 16, BombycidtB. 

Proboscis present 1 8 

1 8 Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell to near middle; vein 5 weak 
Fam. 1 2 , N otodontidcB . 

Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell near base only or vein 5 

strong 19 

19 Fore wing with veins 3 and 4 separate 20 

Fore wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked Fam. 1 1 , Dioptidce. 

ao Fore wing with vein 8 stalked with 9 Fam. 19, Epiplemidce. 

Fore wing with vein 8 not stalked with 9 . . Fam. 18, Geometridce. 
21 Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell by a bar . . Fam. i, Sphingidas. 

Hind wing with vein 8 not joined to cell by a bar.. Fam. 13, Thyatiridae. 
33 Wings divided into plumes 23 

Wings not divided into plumes 24 

23 Fore wing divided into four plumes Fam. 32, Pterophoridae. 

Fore wing divided into six plumes Fam. 33, Orneodidce. 

24 Hind wing with vein 8 absent Fam. 30, /Egeriida. 

Hind wing with vein 8 present 25 

25 Fore wing with vein 5 from middle of discocellulars or nearer 6 than 4 

Fam. 2 1 , Lacosomidce. 

26 Hind wing with vein 8 anastomosing with or closely approximated 
to vein 7 Fam. 3 1 , Pyralidae. 

Hind wing with vein 8 remote from 7 26 

27 Vein 8 of hind wing anastomosing with cell at base 28 

Vein 8 free or united to cell by a bar 29 

28 Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell to middle; fore wing with a 
branch to vein i below Fam. 24, Megalopygidce. 

Hind wing with vein 8 joined to cell at base; no branch to vein 

i below Fam. 23, Cochlidiidce. 

29 Mid spurs of hind tibiae very short or absent 30 

Mid spurs of hind tibiae, or at least one, well developed 34 

30 Proboscis absent t 31 

Proboscis present; vein 8 joined to the cell by a bar 

Fam. 2 7 , Zygce*id&. 

3 1 Female winged 32 

Female not winged Fam. 22, Psychidae. 

32 Abdomen extending beyond hind wings Fam. 29, Cossidce. 

Abdomen not extending beyond hind wings 33 

33 Antennas short; larvae free Fam. 25, Dalceridce. 

Antennas long as usual; larvae parasitic Fam. 26, Epipyropida. 

34 Palpi obtuse Fam. 34, Tortrtcida. 

Palpi more or less acute 35 

35 Head at least partly roughly haired Fam. 41, Tineida (part). 

Head smooth, or with loosely appressed scales .36 



The Classification of Moths 

36 Antennae with basal eye-cap Fam. 41, Tineidce (part). 

Antennae without basal eye-cap 37 

37 Maxillary palpi developed 38 

Maxillary palpi rudimentary 39 

38 Fore wing with vein 7 to outer margin 

Fam. 35, Y ponomeutidcB (part). 

Fore wing with vein 7 to costa Fam. 41, Tineidce (part). 

39 Hind wing with vein 8 more or less distinctly connected with cell; 

outer margin usually sinuate 40 

Hind wing with vein 8 not connected with cell 41 

40 Fore wing with vein 7 to outer margin or apex 

Fam. 37 , Xylorictida. 

Fore wing with vein 7 to costa Fam. 36, Gelechiidce. 

41 Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 nearly parallel 42 

Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 approximated or stalked 43 

43 Posterior tibiae hairy f Fam. 38, CEcophoridce. 

\ Fam. 39, Blastobasidce*. 

Posterior tibiae smooth Fam. 35, Y ponomeutidce . 

43 Hind wing elongated ovate, longer than fore wings 

Fam. 35, Y ponomeutidce (part). 

Hind wing lanceolate or linear, shorter than forewings 

Fam. 40, ElachistidcB. 

44 Maxillary palpi and tibial spurs absent Fam. 42, Hepialidae. 

Maxillary palpi and tibial spurs developed. .Fam. 43, Micropterygidae. 




* No good character has been shown at present for the separation of the CEcophorida 
and the Blastobasid.-e. 

26 



CHAPTER IV 

BOOKS ABOUT NORTH AMERICAN MOTHS 

THE literature of our subject is quite extensive, and the 
most important portions of it are contained in the publications of 
various learned societies and institutions. 

The first references to the subject are found in the writings 
of Linnaeus, Johanssen, Clerck, Fabricius, Cramer, Hubner, Geyer, 
Drury and John Abbot. The works of Clerck, Cramer, Hubner, 
Geyer and Drury are all illustrated, and contain figures of many 
of the more showy North American species. Abbot and Smith's 
"Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia" gives figures of a 
number of moths, with their larvae and food-plants. 

In 1841 the work of Dr. Thaddeus William Harris, entitled 
"A Report on the Insects of Massachusetts which are Injurious 
to Vegetation," was published. This was followed in 1852 by 
the work of A. Guenee on the Noctuelites, the Deltoides, and 
the Pyralites, constituting Volumes V.-VIII. of the "Species 
General des Lepidopteres," forming a portion of the "Suites a 
Buffon." Many North American species were here described 
for the first time, and some of them were figured in the Atlas of 
Plates accompanying the work. In 1850 G. A. W. Herrich- 
Schaeffer of Ratisbon began the publication of his " Sammlung 
Neuer oder Wenig Bekannter Aussereuropaischer Schmetter- 
linge," which, appearing in parts, was not completed until 1869. 
Good figures of a number of North American moths are con- 
tained in this important volume. In 1854 Francis Walker began 
the publication under the authority of the Trustees of the British 
Museum of his "List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects 
in the Collection of the British Museum." This work, which 
finally grew to thirty-five volumes, the last of which appeared 



Books about North American Moths 

in 1866, contains descriptions of a multitude of moths found 
within the United States and Canada. Unfortunately Walker's 
descriptions are not always recognizable, and his classification as 
to families and genera was at times very careless. In 1859 
Brackenridge Clemens published in the Journal of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. IV., pp. 97-190, a 
"Synopsis of the North American Sphingides." In 1860 the 
Smithsonian Institution issued a "Catalogue of the Described 
Lepidoptera of North America," compiled by the Rev. J. G. 
Morris. This catalogue, which was the first to appear, is now 
antiquated. In 1862 the same institution published a book by 
the same author, entitled "A Synopsis of the Described Lepi- 
doptera of North America." It is almost wholly a compila- 
tion. The first part is devoted to the butterflies of the region. 
From pp. 122-314 the book is devoted to descriptions of the 
moths, principally extracted from the writings of Harris, Clemens, 
and Walker, and these are continued in the Supplement, pp. 
330-350. The work is not wholly without value. 

This brief review of the literature issued previous to the out- 
break of the great Civil War in America, covers practically every- 
thing of importance upon the subject which had appeared up to 
that time. The period which has followed has been character- 
ized by greater activity in all scientific directions, and the prin- 
cipal works which have appeared upon the moths of the United 
States during the past forty years are herewith given in a list, 
which, while not by any means complete, is sufficiently full to 
enable the student to ascertain where to find information for the 
prosecution of his studies, when he shall have acquainted him- 
self with the contents of this volume. 

PERIODICALS CONTAINING MUCH INFORMATION IN REGARD TO 
THE MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA 

Bulletins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (Division of Entomology). 
(Published occasionally.) 

Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Vols. I-VII, 1878-1885. 

Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Vols. I-IV, 1873- 
1884. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vols. 1-XXXIV, 1869-1903, London, Ontario. 
(Published monthly.) 

Entomologica Americana, Vols. I-V, Brooklyn, 1885-1889. 

38 



Books about North American Moths 

Entomological News, Vols. I-XIII, 1890-1903, Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences. (Published monthly, except July and August.) 
Insect Life, Vols. I-VII, Washington, 1888-1895. 

Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vols. I-X, 1893-1903. 
(Published quarterly.) 

Papilio, Vols. I-III, 1881-1883, New York, Edited by Henry Edwards; 
Vol. IV, 1884, Philadelphia, Edited by Eugene M. Aaron. 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, Vols. I-VI, 
1861-1867. (Continued as the Transactions of the American Entomo- 
logical Society.) 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, Vols. I-V, 
1890-1903. (Published occasionally.) 

Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, Vols. I-XXVI, 
1878-1903. 

Psyche. Organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club, Cambridge, 
Mass., Vols. I-IX, 1877-1903. (Published bi-monthly.) 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vols. I-XXX. 
1867-1903. Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. (Published 
quarterly.) 

GENERAL CATALOGUES AND LISTS 

GROTE, A. R., AND List of the Lepidoptera of North America, I, 
ROBINSON, C. T. (Sphingidae to Bombycidae.) American Entomo- 

logical Society, Philadelphia, 1868. 

GROTE, A. R. List of the North American Platypterices, Attaci, 

Hemileucini, Ceratocampidee, Lachneides, Tere- 
dines, and Hepiali with Notes (Transactions Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, 1874). 
GROTE, A. R. A New Check List of North American Moths, New 

York, 1882, pp. 1-73. 
BROOKLYN ENTOMO- Check List of the Macro-Lepidoptera of America, 

LOGICAL SOCIETY North of Mexico (Brooklyn, 1882, pp. 1-25). 
SMITH, JOHN B. List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America ^Phila- 

delphia, American Entomological Society, 1891, 
pp. 1-124). 

KIRBY, W. F. A Synonymic Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Hetero- 

cera, Vol. I, Sphinges and Bombyces, London, 1892, 

DYAR, H. G. A List of North American Lepidoptera (Bulletin 

U. S. National Museum, No. 52), pp. i-xix, 1-723. 
GENERAL WORKS CONTAINING INFORMATION AS TO THE 

MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA 

COMSTOCK, J. H. A Manual for the Study of Insects, Ithaca, 1895. 
DRUCH, HERBERT Biologia Centrali- Americana, Insecta, Lepidoptera- 
Heterocera, Vols. I-II, Text; Vol. Ill, Plates, 
London, 1881-1900, 

39 



Books about North American Moths 

PACKARD, A. S. Guide to the Study of Insects. Numerous Editions. 

A Text-book of Entomology, New York, 1898. 
SHARP, DAVID The Cambridge Natural History: Insects, 2 Vols.; 

Vol. I, 1895; Vol. II, 1899. London and New York. 
STRECKER, HERMAN Lepidoptera, Rhopaloceres and Heteroceres, 

Indigenous and Exotic, with Descriptions and 

Colored Illustrations. Reading, Pa., 1872-1877. 

Three Supplements, 1898-1900. 
WALKER, FRANCIS List of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection 

of the British Museum. Vols. I-XXXV, London, 

1854-1866. 
RILEY, C. V. Reports on the Noxious, Beneficial, and Other 

Insects of the State of Missouri. Nos. 1-9, and 

Index, 1869-1878. 

WORKS PARTICULARLY USEFUL IN STUDYING THE DIP- 
FERENT FAMILIES OF THE MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA 

SPHINGID.* 

GROTE, A. R., AND A Synonymical Catalogue of North America Sphin- 

ROBINSON, C. T. gidae. (Proceedings Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, Vol. 
V, 1865, pp. 149-193.) 

GROTE, A. R. Catalogue of the Sphingidae of North America. 

(Bulletin Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, 1873, pp. 17-28.) 
New Check List of North American Sphingidae, 
(Bulletin Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, Vol. Ill, pp. 
220-225.) 

CLEMENS, B. Synopsis of the North American Sphingides. 

(Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Vol. IV, 
1859, pp. 97-190.) 

BOISDUVAL, J. A. Sphingides, Sesiides, Castniides. Paris, 1874. 
Vol. I, text; and a series of Plates in the Atlas 
accompanying the work, which forms a portion of 
the "Suites a. Buff on." 

BUTLER, A. G. Revision of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera of the 

Family Sphingidse. (Transactions Zoological Soc. 
London, Vol. IX, 1877, pp. 511-644, Plates XC- 
XCIV.) 

SMITH, JOHN B. An Introduction to a Classification of the North 

American Lepidoptera. Sphingidae. (Entomo- 
logica Americana, Vol. I, 1885, pp. 81-87.) 
List of the Sphingidae of Temperate North America. 
(Entomologica Americana, 1888, pp. 89-94.) 
A monograph of the Sphingidae of North America 
North of Mexico. (Transactions American Ent. 
Soc., Vol. XV, 1888, pp. 49-242, Twelve Plates.) 

30 



Books about North American Moths 

FERNALD, C. H. The Sphingidae of New England. Orcmo, Maine, 

1886. 
BEUTENMULLER, W. Descriptive Catalogue of the Sphingidae Found 

within Fifty Miles of New York City. (Bull. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. VII, pp. 275-320.) 

ROTHSCHILD, HON. A Revision of the Lepidopterous Family Sphingidae. 
W., AND JORDAN, K. (Novitates Zoologicae, 1903.) The most complete 

work upon the subject as yet written. 

SATURNIID.E 

SMITH, JOHN B. A Revision of the Lepidopterous Family Saturniidae. 

(Proc. U. S. National Museum, Vol. IX, pp. 414- 
43 7, Three Plates.) 

PACKARD, A. S. Synopsis of the Bombycidas of the United States. 

(Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, Vol. Ill, 1864, 
pp. 97-130 and 331-396.) 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 

DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 121-132.) 

GROTE, A. R. List of the North American Platypterices, Attaci, 

Hemileucini, Ceratocampidae, Lachneides, Tere- 
dines, and Hepiali, with Notes. (Proc. Am. Philos. 
Soc., Vol. XIV, pp. 256-264.) 

CERATOCAMPIDvE 

GROTE, A. R. List of the North American Platypterices, etc. 

(See Above.) 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 147-152.) 
SYNTOMID^; 
HAMPSON, G F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the 

British Museum, Vol. I, 1898. 

LITHOSIID^E 

BUTLER, A. G. On the Lepidoptera of the Family Lithosiidae, in 

the Collection of the British Museum. (Transac- 
tions Ent. Soc., London, 1877, pp. 325-377.) 

STRETCH, R. H. Illustrations of the Zygaenidas and Bombycidas of 

North America, San Francisco, 1874, pp. 242, Ten 
Plates. (Numerous Lithosiids are figured and 
described.) 

HAMPSON, G. F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the 

British Museum, Vol. II, 1900. 
ARCTIID^E 

HAMPSON, G. F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the 

British Museum, Vol. Ill, 1901. 



Books about North American Moths 

STRETCH, R. H. Illustrations of the Zygaenidae and Bombycidae of 

North America. (Numerous Arctiids are figured 
and described.) 

BEUTENMULLER, W. Descriptive Catalogue of the Bombycine Moths 
Found within Fifty Miles of New York City. 
(Bulletin Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. X., pp. 353- 
448.) 

SMITH, JOHN B Preliminary Catalogue of the Arctiidae of Temperate 

North America. (Canadian Entomologist, 1889, 
pp. 169-175, 193-200, and 213-219.) 
The North American Species of Callimorpha 
Latreille. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, pp. 342- 
353-) 

LYMAN, H. H. The North American Callimorphas. (Canadian 

Entomologist, Vol. XIX, pp. 181-191.) 

GROTE, A. R. Table of the Species of Euchaetes. (Canadian 

Entomologist, Vol. XIV, pp. 196-197.) 

AGARISTID^E 

HAMPSON, G. F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalasnae in the 

Collection of the British Museum, Vol. Ill, pp. 515- 
663, 1901. 

(Consult also Stretch, Neumoegen and Dyar, and 
Periodicals.) 

NOCTUID^; 

7IAMPSON, G. F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenas in the 

Collection of the British Museum, Vol. IV, et seq. 

GUENEE, A. Noctuelites. Sp6cies G6n6ral des L6pidopteres. 

Suites a Buff on, Vols. V-VIII. 

GROTE, A. R. List of the Noctuidae of North America. (Bulletin 

Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, Vol. II, pp. 1-77.) 
Introduction to the Study of the North American 
Noctuidag. (Proc. Amer. Philos. Society, Vol. 
XXI, pp. 134-176.) 

An Illustrated Essay on the Noctuidae of North 
America; with "A Colony of Butterflies," London. 
1882, pp. 1-85, four colored plates. 
Consult also the very numerous papers upon the 
Noctuidae published by Grote in the Bulletin of 
the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences; The 
Canadian Entomologist; the Bulletin of the U. S 
Geological Survey, Vol. VI; Papilio; and recently 
in the publications of the Roemer Museum at 
Hildesheim, Germany. 



Books about North American Moths 

SMITH, JOHN B. A Catalogue, Bibliographical and Synonymical, of 

the Species of Moths of the Lepidopterous Super- 
family Noctuidse Found in Boreal America, with 
Critical Notes. (Bulletin U. S. Nat. Museum, 
No. 44, pp. 1-424-) 

This is the most scholarly and complete work 
upon the Noctuidae of America which has up to 
the present time been published, and is indispensa- 
ble to the student. 

Consult also the very numerous papers by Professor 
Smith which have been published in the Proceedings 
of the U. S. National Museum; the Transactions of 
the American Entomological Society; The Canadian 
Entomologist; Papilio, and other periodicals. 

SMITH, JOHN B., AND A Revision of the Species of Acronycta and of 

DYAR, H. G. Certain Allied Genera. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, 

Vol. XXI, pp. 1-194.) 

HULST, G. D. The Genus Catocala. (Bulletin Brooklyn Ent. 

Society, Vol. VII, pp. 13-56.) 

NYCTEOLID.E 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. I, p. 117.) 
HAMPSON, G. F. The Fauna of British India, Moths, Vol. U, pp. 365- 

388. 

PERICOPID.* 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal of New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, p. 26.) 

DIOPTID^E 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal of New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, p. in.) 

NOTODONTID* 

PACKARD, A. S. Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of America, 

North of Mexico. Part I, Family I, Notodontidae. 
(Memoirs National Academy of Science, Vol. VII, 
pp. 1-390, Forty-nine Plates.) 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Lepidopterous 

DYAR, H. G. Family Notodontidae. (Transactions Am. Ent. 

Soc., 1894, pp. 179-208.) 

SCHAUS, W. A Revision of the American Notodontidae. (Trans- 

actions Ent. Soc. London, 1901, pp. 1:57-344, 
Plates XI and XII.) 

33 



Books about 'North American Moths 

THYATIRID^E 

GROTE, A. R. A Revision of the Species of Cytnatophorina Found 

in the United States and British America, with 
Descriptions of New Species. (Proceedings Ent. 
Soc. Philadelphia, Vol. II, pp. 54-59.) 

SMITH, JOHNS Bulletin 44, U. S. National Museum, pp. 27-29. 

LIPARID^E 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 

DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II j pp. 28-30 and 57-60.) 

LASIOCAMPID^B 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 152-160.) 

BOMBYCID.* 

HAMPSON, G. F Fauna of British India, Moths, Vol. I, pp. 31-40. 

PLATYPTERYGID.fi 

GROTE, A. R. On the North American Platypterygidae. (Trans- 

actions Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. II, pp. 65-67.) 
List of the North American Platypterices, etc. 
(Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc., Vol. XIV, pp. 256 
264.) 

NEUMOEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 61-62.) 

GEOMETRID.fi 

PACKARD, A. S. A Monograph of the Geometrid Moths or Phalaenidae 

of the United States. (U. S. Geological Survey 
of the Territories, Vol. X, pp. 1-607 > Thirteen Plates.) 

HULST, G. D. -A Classification of the Geometrina of North America 

with Descriptions of New Genera and Species 
(Transactions Am. Ent. Soc., 1896, pp. 245-386.) 

GUMPPENBERG, C.v. Systema Geometrarum Zonae Temperatioris Sep- 
tentrionalis (Nova Acta der Kaiser. Leop. Carol. 
Deutschen Akad. der Naturforscher, 1887-1897.) 

EPIPLEMID.fi 

HULST, G. D. Transactions American Ent. Soc., Vol. XXIII, 

PP- 309-310. 
HAMPSON, G. F. Fauna of British India, Moths, Vol. Ill, pp. 121-137 

NOLID.fi 

HAMPSON, G. F. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the 

Collection of the British Museum, Vol. II, 1900. 

34 



Books about North American Moths 

LACOSOMID^E 

NEUMGEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc. 

Vol. II, p. 120.) 

PSYCHID.* 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. III-I20.) 
COCHLIDIID^E 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 64-76.) 

MEGALOPYGID^ 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 109-110.) 

DALCERIDJE 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXV, p. 121. 
DYAR, H. G. 

DYAR, H. G. Journal New York Ent. Soc., Vol. VI, p. 232. 

EPIPYROPID^E 

DYAR, H. G. List of North American Lepidoptera, p. 359. 

WESTWOOD, J. O. Transactions Ent. Soc., London, 1876, p. 522. 

ZYG^NID^E 

PACKARD, A. S. Notes on the Family Zygaenidae. (Proceedings 

Essex Institute, Vol. IV, pp. 7-47.) 
GROTE, A. R. Catalogue of the Zygaenidae of North America. 

(Bulletin Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, Vol. I, pp. 29- 

36.) 
STRETCH, R. H. Illustrations of the Zygaenidae and Bombycidae of 

North America. 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND Journal New York Ent. Soc., Vol. II, p. 63. (Pyro- 
DYAR, H. G. morphidae.) 



HAMPSON, G. P. On the Classification of the Thyrididae, a Family of 

the Lepidoptera Phalaenae. (Proc. Zool. Soc., 
London, 1897, pp. 6o 3~33-) 

COSSID.fi 

NEUMCEGEN, B., AND A Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
DYAR, H. G. North of Mexico. (Journal New York Ent. Soc., 

Vol. II, pp. 160-166.) 



Books about North American Moths 



BAILEY, J. S. 



Some of the North American Cossidae, with Facts 
in the Life History of Cossus centerensis Lintner. 
(Bulletin No. 3, Division of Entomology, U. S. 
Dept. Agriculture, 1883.) 



JEGEKUVJE 



BEUTENMULLER, W. Monograph of the Sesiidae of North America North 
of Mexico. (Memoirs of the Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. I, Part 6, pp. 2 1 7-3 5 2 ; Plates XXIX-XXXVI.) 



GUENEE, A. Deltoides et Pyralites. Species General des L6pi- 

dopteres, Vol. VIII. 

GROTE. A. R. Preliminary Studies on the North American 

Pyralidae. (Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey of the 
Territories, Vol. IV, pp. 669705.) 
Preliminary List of North American Species of 
Crambus. (Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XII, pp. 
77-80.) 

HAMPSON, G. F. On the Classification of the Schcenobiinae and Cram- 

binae, Two Subfamilies of Moths of the Family 
Pyralidae. (Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1895, pp. 
8 97-974-) 

On the Classification of Three Subfamilies of Moths 
of the Family Pyralidae: the Epipaschiinae, Endo- 
trichinae, and Pyralinae. (Transactions Ent. Soc., 
London, 1896, pp. 451-550.) 

On the Classification of the Chrysauginas, a Sub- 
family of Moths of the Family Pyralidae. (Proc. 
Zool. Soc., London, 1897, pp. 633-692.) 
On the Classification of Two Subfamilies of Moths 
of the Family Pyralidae: the Hydrocampinae and 
Scopariinae. (Trans. Ent. Soc., London, 1897, 
pp. 127-240.) 

A Revision of the Moths of the Subfamily Pyraus- 
tinae and Family Pyralidae, Part I. (Proc. Zool. 
Soc., London, 1898, pp. 590-761.) 
A Revision of the Moths of the Subfamily Pyraus- 
tinae and Family Pyralidae, Part II. (Proc. Zool. 
Soc., London, 1899, pp. 172-291.) 

HULST, G. D. . The Phycitidae of North America. (Transactions 

Am. Ent. Soc., 1890, pp. 93-228.) 
The Epipaschiinae of North America. (Entomo- 
logica Americana, 1889, pp. 41-52 and 61-76.) 



Books about North American Moths 

FELT, E. P On Certain Grass-eating Insects. (Bulletin No. 64, 

Cornell Unix 7 . Agric. Experiment Station, 1894, 
pp. 47-102, Fourteen Plates.) 

FERNALD, C. H. The Crambidze of North America. (Annual Report 

Massachusetts Agricultural College, 1896, pp. 1-96, 
Nine Plates.) 

RAGONOT, E. L. Monographic des Phycitinae et des Galleriinae. 

(Romanoff's "Memoires sur les Lepidopteres, Vols. 
VII-VIII, 1893-1902.) Volume VIII was com- 
pleted by Sir George F. Hampson after the death 
of the author. 

PTEROPHORID^E 

FERNALD, C. H. The Pterophoridae of North America. (Special 

Bulletin, Mass. Agricultural College, 1898, pp. 164, 
Nine Plates.) 

TORTRICID^E 

FERNALD, C. H. A Synonymical Catalogue of the Described Tor- 

tricidse of North America North of Mexico. (Trans- 
actions Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. X, pp. 1-64.) 
On the North American Species of Choreutis and Its 
Allies. (Canadian Entomologist, 1900, pp. 236- 
245-) 

ROBINSON, C. T Notes on American Tortricidae. (Transactions 

Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. II, pp. 261-288, Plates I and 
IV-VIII.) 

WALSINGHAM, LORD North American Tortricidae. Illustrations of 
Typical Specimens of Lepidoptera Heterocera in 
the Collection of the British Museum, Part IV, 
pp. i-xii and 1-84, Plates I-XVII. 

ZELLER, P. C. Beitraege zur Kentniss der Nordamerikanischen 

Nachtf alter besonders der Microlepidopteren. 
(Verhandlungen d. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch, Wien, 
1873, pp. 447-556; 1873, pp. 201-334; 1875, pp. 207- 
360. Treats also of Tineidae. 

TINEID.E, ETC. 

CLEMENS, B. The Tineina of North America, by the late Bracken- 

ridge Clemens. Being a Collected Edition of his 
Writings on that Group of Insects. With Notes 
by the Editor, H. T. Stainton, London, 1872, 
pp. i-xv and 1-282. 

CHAMBERS, V. T. Index to the Described Tineina of the United States 
and Canada. (Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey of the 
Territories, Vol. IV, pp. 125-167.) 

37 



Books about North American Moths 

WALSINGHAM, LORD North American Coleophorae. (Transactions Ent. 
Soc., London, 1882, pp. 429-442, PI. XVII.) 
A Revision of the Genera Acrolophus Poey and 
Anaphora Clemens. (Transactions Ent. Soc., Lon- 
don, 1887, pp. 137-173, Plates VII, VIII.) 
Steps Toward a Revision of Chambers's Index with 
Notes and Descriptions of New Species. (Insect 
Life, Vol. I, pp. 81-84, 113-117, 145-150, 254- 
258, 287-291; Vol. II, pp. 23-26, 51-54, 77-8i, 
116-120, 150-155, 284-286, 322-326; Vol. Ill, pp. 
325-329, 386-389; Vol. IV, pp. 385-389.) 

DYAR, H. G. Notes on Some North American Yponomeutidas, 

(Canadian Entomologist, 1900, pp. 37-41, 84-86.) 

BUSCK, A. New Species of Moths of the Superfamily Tineina 

from Florida. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXIII, 
pp. 225-254.) 

New American Tineina. (Journal New York Ent. 
Soc., Vol. VIII, pp. 234-248, Plate IX.) 
A Revision of the American Moths of the Family 
Gelechiidae with Descriptions of New Species. 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXV, pp. 767-938.) 



" When simple curiosity passes into the love of knowledge as such, 
and the gratification of the esthetic sense of the beauty of complete- 
ness and accuracy seems more desirable than the easy indolence of 
ignorance ; when the finding out of the causes of things becomes a 
source of joy, and he is counted happy who is successful in the search, 
common knowledge of Nature passes into what our forefathers called 
Natural History, from whence there is but a step to that which used to 
be termed Natural Philosophy, and now passes by the name of Physical 
Science." THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, in The Crayfish. 



THE MOTHS OF NORTH AMERICA, 
NORTH OF MEXICO 



"The laugh at entomology is nearly spent. Known professors of the 
science, and members of its ' Society,' may now assemble in council and 
communicate their observations and inquiries without fear of becoming 
themselves subjects for a commission de lunatico inquirendo, and butterfly 
hunters, net in hand, may now chase their game without being themselves 
made game of." Acketa Domestica. 



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA 

SUBORDER HETEROCERA (MOTHS) 

FAMILY I. 
THE SPHINGID/E (HAWKMOTHS) 

"The Sphinx is drowsy, 
Her wings are furled." EMERSON. 

THE moths composing this family vary greatly in size. Some 
African species are very little more than an inch in expanse of 
wings. Those which occur in North America are medium-sized 
or large. 

The body is relatively very stout, the abdomen conic, cylin- 
dric, or flattened on the ventral surface, always protruding far 
beyond the hind margin of the secondaries, sometimes adorned 
with lateral or terminal tufts capable of expansion. The thorax 
is stout and often advanced beyond the insertion of the wings. 
The head is large and generally prominent. The eyes are often 
large, prominent, and generally naked, never hairy. The palpi 
are well, but never excessively, developed. 
The proboscis is generally long, some- 
times much longer than the body, but in a 
few genera among the Ambulicince greatly 
reduced and even obsolete. The antennae 

are well developed, stouter in the male 

FIG. 20. Greatly 

than in the female sex, thickening from the magnified view of 
base to the middle, or in some genera to ^ e under side of 

three joints of the 

nearly the end, usually hooked at the ex- antenna of P. guin- 
tremity, sometimes merely curved. The quemaculatus. 
joints of the antennae in the case of the males 
of some of the subfamilies are equipped at either end with pecul- 
iarly arranged fascicles of projecting hairs, or cilia, the arrangement 

41 




Sphingidae 

of which, as examined under the microscope, is seen to be quite 
different from that which prevails in any other family of moths. 
The accompanying illustration (Fig. 20) shows this arrange- 
ment in the case of the common Five-spotted Hawkmoth, 
(Protoparce quinquemaculatus) . 

The wings are small in comparison with the body. The 
front wings are very long in proportion to their width, and 
the costal veins are always very stoutly developed. The tip 
of the wing is usually pointed, and the margins are straight 
or evenly rounded, though in some genera, principally be- 
longing to the subfamily Ambulicinae, they have undulated 
or scalloped margins. The hind margin of the fore wings 
is always much shorter than the costal margin. The hind 
wings are relatively quite small. The venation of the wings 
is characteristic. The primaries have from eleven to twelve 
veins, the secondaries eight, reckoning the two internal veins, 
veins i a and i b, as one. Veins eight and seven are 
connected near the base of the wing 
by a short vein, or bar. The discal 
cell is relatively quite small in both 
wings. There is always a frenulum, 
though in the Ambulicina it is frequently 
merely vestigial. The general style of 
the venation is illustrated in Figure 21, 
which represents the structure of the 

Wi "g s Of S * si " MaluS Linn * US " The 
Linnaeus. hawkmoths have prodigious power of 

flight. A few genera are diurnal in their 

habits; most of them are crepuscular, flying in the dusk of evening, 
a few also about dawn. 

The larvae are usually large. There is great variety in their 
color, though the majority of the North American species are of 
some shade of green. They usually have oblique stripes on 
their sides, and most of them have a caudal horn, which in the 
last stages in some genera is transformed into a lenticular 
tubercle. In a few genera the anal horn is wanting. The 
anterior segments of the bodies of the larvae are retractile. When 
in motion the body is long and fusiform, but when at rest the 
head and the anterior segments are drawn back, the rings 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE II 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Hamorrhagia thetis Boisduval, cJ 1 . 

2. Hcemorrhagia tenuis Grote, 9 

3. Hcemorrhagia axillaris Grote & Robinson, J 1 . 

4. Hcemorrhagia axillaris Grote & Robinson, 9 . 

5. Hcemorrhagia thy she Fabricius, J 1 . 

6. Hcemorrhagia cimbiciformis Stephens, $ . 

7. Hcemorrhagia brucei French, tf. 

8. Proserpinus flavofasciata Walker, 9 . 

9. Euproserpinus phaeton Grote & Robinson, J>. 

10. Proserpinus darkies Boisduval, $ . 

11. Pogocolon gaurce Abbot & Smith, cJ 1 . 

12. Pogocolon fuanita Strecker, J 1 . 

13. Xylophones tersa Linnagus, c?. 

14. Celerio lineata Fabricius, cJ 1 . 

15. Deidamia inscriptum Harris, cJ 1 . 

1 6. Sesia titan Cramer, (J 1 . 

17. E pis tor lugubris Linnaeus, (J 1 . 

18. Ampkion nessus Cramer, tf. 

19. Sphecodina abbotti Swainson, (J 1 . 

20. Celerio intermedia Kirby, 9 

21. Cautethia grotei Henry Edwards, tf. 



THE MOTK BOOK. 




Sphingidae 

"telescoping" into one another, and the anterior portion of the 
body being often raised, as illustrated in Plate I, Figure i. It is 
alleged that the habit of assuming this posture, suggesting a 
resemblance to the Egyptian Sphinx, prompted the application 
of the name to these creatures. The larvae are not gregarious, 
but feed solitarily upon their appropriate food-plants. 

Some forms pupate in a cell deep under the soil, others spin 
a loose cocoon among damp fallen leaves and pupate at the sur- 
face. The pupae are as remarkable as the larvae. A few genera 
have the proboscis enclosed in a sheath which is separate along 
the greater portion of its course from the adjacent wall of the 
body. This is illustrated in Figure 22. 




FIG. 22. Pupa of Protoparce quinquemaculatus. (After Riley.) 



The Hawkmoths of the United States and Canada fall into 
five subfamilies, the Acherontiince, the Ambulicince, the Sesiince, 
the Philampelince, and the Chcerocampince. 

SUBFAMILY ACHERONTIINCE 
Genus HERSE Oken 

(i) Herse cingulata Fabricius, Plate VI, Fig. 3, $, (The 
Pinkspotted Hawkmoth.) 

Syn. convolvuli, var. Merian; affinis Goeze; drur&i Donovan; pungens 
Eschsholtz; decolor a Henry Edwards. 

This large and elegant hawkmoth, the larva of which feeds 
upon sweet-potato vines and various other Convolvulacece, has 
been confounded by writers with H. convolvuli Linnaeus, which 
it resembles, but from which it is abundantly distinct. The 
latter species is confined to the old world. H. cingulata, the 
only species of the genus occurring in the western hemisphere, 
ranges from Canada to northern Patagonia, and is also found in 
the Galapagos and Sandwich Islands. I have a specimen taken 
at sea in the Atlantic, five hundred miles from the nearest land. 

43 



Sphingidae 

It settled in the cabin of a ship and was caught by the captain of 
the vessel. 

Genus COCYTIUS Hvibner 

The genus Cocytius, which includes some of the largest 
hawkmoths which are known, contains five species, all of which 
are found in the tropics cf the new world. They may easily be 
recognized by the fact that the third joint of the labial palpi is in 
both sexes prolonged into a small, sharp, conical, naked horn. 
The larvae, which feed upon the Anonacece, are covered with fine 
hairs. Only one of the species is found within the faunal limits 
covered by the present work. It occurs in southern Florida, and 
in southern Texas as a straggler. 

(i) Cocytius antaeus Drury, Plate VI, Fig. I, $. (The 
Giant Sphinx.) 

Syn. caricce Muller (non Linnaeus); jatrophae Fabricius; hydaspui 
Cramer; tnedor Stoll; anotVB Shaw; lapayusa Moore. 

The species is somewhat variable, specimens from the 
Antilles being often lighter in color than those from Central 
America, and the continental portions of its habitat. This lighter 
form is accepted by Rothschild & Jordan as typical, and the 
darker form is called by them Cocytius anicem medor Stoll. The 
difference is hardly sufficiently constant to justify the separation 
into two subspecies. The insect ranges from Florida into 
southern Brazil. 

Genus PROTOPARCE Burmeister 
The head is prominent. The body is stout and heavy. The 
tongue in both sexes is at least as long as the body. The palpi 
are large, ascending, and appressed to the front, having the 
basal joint long, the second a little shorter, but broader, and 
the terminal joint minute. The eyes are large, feebly lashed. 
The tibiae are either without spines, or feebly armed with 
minute spinules. The mid tarsus is provided with a comb of 
long bristles. The venation of the wings is typically sphingi- 
form. The outer margins of the primaries are evenly rounded. 
There is a slight projection of the secondaries at the extremity 
of vein i b. The prevalent colors of the wings are shades of 
gray, banded and mottled with darker and lighter lines and 

44 



Sphingidae 

spots. The abdomen is generally marked on the sides by rows 
of yellowish spots. 

The larvae are cylindrical with the head rounded. The anal 
horn curves downward and is granulose. The prevalent colors 
are shades of green. The segments, from four to eleven 
inclusive, are marked on the sides with whitish diagonal stripes. 

The pupa has the tongue-case free, curved, and nearly 
touching the pectus. 

This genus, which is confined to the two Americas, includes 
thirty species, of which four occur within our faunal limits. 

(1) Protoparce sexta Johanssen, Plate IV, Fig. 2, ?. (The 
Tomato Sphinx.) 

Syn. Carolina Linnaeus; nicoiianas Mn6tris; lycopersici Boisduval. 

This is one of our commonest hawkmoths. Its larva feeds 
upon the potato, tomato, and other Solanacece. It ranges over 
the United States and is represented in Central and South 
America by several subspecies or local races. 

(2) Protoparce quinquemaculatus Haworth, Plate IV, 
Fig. i, ? . See also text figures 20 and 22. (The Five-spotted 
Hawkmoth.) 

Syn. celeus Hiibner; Carolina Donovan. 

Like the preceding species, this hawkmoth is very common. 
Its larva feeds upon the Solanacece and is particularly destructive 
to tobacco. It is familiarly known in the South as the 
"tobacco fly." 

(3) Protoparce occulta Rothschild & Jordan, Plate IV, 
Fig. 4, ? . (The Occult Sphinx.) 

This hawkmoth is found in a number of American collections 
confounded with P. sexta = Carolina Linnaeus. It may readily 
be distinguished by the different markings of the hind wings, 
the absence of the two rows of small white spots on the back 
of the abdomen, and by the small but conspicuous whitish dot 
at the end of the cell of the fore wing. It occurs in Texas and 
Arizona and ranges southward to Central America. Its larval 
habits are not known. 

(4) Protoparce rustica Fabricius, Plate VII, Fig. 5, $ . (The 
Rustic Sphinx.) 

Syn. chionanthi Abbot & Smith. , 

The caterpillar of this hawkmoth feeds upon the fringe-bush 
45 



Sphingidae 

( Chionanthus) and the jasmine. It is a common species in the 
southern States and Central America, but is only occasionally 
found in the northern States. I have not infrequently taken 
specimens in southern Indiana, and it is now and then 
captured in Pennsylvania and even in New England. 

Genus CHL^ENOGRAMMA Smith 

This genus, which is very closely allied to the preceding, 
may be distinguished from it by the fact that the comb of long 
bristles of the mid tarsus, which is characteristic of Protoparce, 
is wanting or reduced to at most one or two bristles. Pulvillus 
and paronychium present. The eyes are smaller than in 
Protoparce, and are not lashed. There are two species in the 
genus, one South American, the other found in the eastern 
portion of the United States. 

(i) Chlaenogramma jasminearum Guerin, Plate VII, 
Fig. 6, ? . (The Ash Sphinx.) 

Syn. rotundata Rothschild. 

The larva of this hawkmoth feeds upon the various species 
of ash (Fraxinus). It is found in the middle Atlantic States 
and southward, and ranges as far west as the Mississippi. 

Genus DOLBA Walker 

Head small; eyes small and lashed. The antennae are 
fusiform with a short abrupt hook at the tip. The tibiae are not 
spinose. The mid tarsus has a comb. 

The genus, which contains but a single species, is differenti- 
ated from all those in which the eyes are lashed by the non- 
spinose tibiae. 

(i) Dolba hylaeus Drury, Plate VI, Fig. 4, ? . (The Papaw 
Sphinx.) 

This small, but neatly colored hawkmoth, may readily be 
distinguished by the figure given in our plate. Its larva, which 
is green, marked with lateral oblique red bands, commonly feeds 
upon the papaw, ( ' Asimina triloba), and is generally abundant 
where that plant is common, as in the Valley of the Ohio. It 
is also said to feed upon Prinos. It ranges from Canada to the 
Gulf States and westward to Iowa and Missouri. 



Sphingidae 
Genus ISOGRAMMA Rothschild & Jordan 

This genus has been erected by Rothschild & Jordan for the 
reception of the single species which we figure. The learned 
authors say: "In the shortness of the fore tibia and first segment 
of the fore tarsus the only species of this genus agrees with 
the species of Ceratomia, and in the preservation of the pulvillus 
with CHtenogramma, while it differs from both genera in the 
fore tibia and the extreme apex of the mid tibia being armed 
with spines. The spinosity of the tibia is an advanced character, 
not acquired by Ceratomia, while the pulvillus is an ancestral 
structure already lost in Ceratomia." 

(i) Isogramma hageni Grote, Plate IV, Fig. 8, $ . (Hagen's 
Sphinx.) 

This obscurely colored hawkmoth, which is liable to be 
confounded with some of the species of Ceratomia, which it 
superficially resembles, may be distinguished at a glance by the 
slightly greenish shade of the primaries and by the absence 
of the dark-brown border of the hind wings, which is charac- 
teristic of all the species of Ceratomia. It occurs in Texas. 

Genus CERATOMIA Harris 

The tongue is reduced in size. The palpi are small. The 
eyes are small. The tibiae are unarmed. There is no comb 
of bristles on the mid tarsus, the pulvillus is absent, the 
paronychium is present. The primaries are relatively large with 
evenly rounded outer margin. The secondaries are slightly pro- 
duced at the end of vein i b. 

The species have dissimilar larvae. In the case of amyntor 
the larva has four horn-like projections on the thoracic seg- 
ments; in the case of the other two species of the genus the larvae 
are distinctly and normally sphingiform. 

The tongue-case of the pupa is not projecting. 

(i) Ceratomia amyntor Hiibner, Plate IV, Fig. 6, $. 
(The Four-horned Sphinx.) 

Syn. quadricornis Harris; ulmi Henry Edwards. 

This common hawkmoth, which may be easily recognized by 
our figure, lives in the larval state upon the elm. It ranges from 
Canada to the Carolinas and westward through the Mississippi 
Valley, wherever its food-plant is found. 

47 



Sphingidae 

(2) Ceratomia undulosa Walker, Plate VI, Fig. 7, ? , (The 
Waved Sphinx.) 

Syn. repentinus Clemens; brontes Boisduval (non Drury). 

This hawkmoth, which may easily be separated from its 
congeners by its lighter color and the distinct wavy maculation 
of the fore wings, lives in the larval stage upon the ash and the 
privet. It ranges from Maine and Canada to the Carolinas and 
westward into the trans-Mississippi region east of the great plains. 

(3) Ceratomia catalpae Boisduval, Plate IV, Fig. 7, ? . 
(The Catalpa Sphinx.) 

The larva feeds upon various species of catalpa, and has in 
recent years been charged with doing considerable damage to 
these trees by denuding them of their foliage. The insect ranges 
from New Jersey and southern Pennsylvania southward to 
Florida and westward through the Mississippi Valley, wherever 
its food-plant occurs. 

Genus ISOPARCE Rothschild & Jordan 

Tongue short and weak. Palpi small. Tibiae without spines. 
The first protarsal segment is short. Hind tibia armed with long 
spurs. Comb on mid tarsus wanting ; pulvillus wanting. 
Paronychium without lobes. Veins 6 and 7 of the hind wing on 
a long stalk. 

(i) Isoparce cupressi Boisduval. 
(The Cypress Sphinx.) 

The insect is of an almost uniform 
brown color on the upper surface of 
the wings, and may be distinguished 
from other species by the two con- 
spicuous parallel dark markings on 
the limbal area of the fore wings. It 
is extremely rare in collections, only FIG. 23. Isoparce cupressi 
three or four specimens being as yet Boisduval. 

known. It has been reported from Georgia and Florida. 

Genus DICTYOSOMA Rothschild & Jordan 

This genus has been erected by Messrs. Rothschild & Jordan 
for the reception of the single species originally described by 
Strecker as Sphinx elsa. 

48 




EXPLANATION OP PLATE III 

(When not otherwise indicated the specimens figured are contained 
in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Pholus vitis Linnaeus, cJ 1 . 

2. Pholus fasciatus Sulzer, cJ 1 . 

3. Darapsa pholus Cramer, <J*. 

4. Darapsa ntyron Cramer, <J*. 

5. Pholus achemon Drury, c? 1 . 

6. Pholus panddrus Hiibner, (J 1 . 

7. Lapara bombycoides Walker, tf. 

8. H enter o planes parce Fabricius, &. 
g. Psychomorpha epimenis Drury, cT. 

10. Dysodia oculatana Clemens, (J 1 . 

ir. Pholus labruscoe Linnaeus, c?. 

12. Pachylia ficus Linnaeus, $. 

13. Darapsa versicolor Harris, tf. 

14. Arctonotus lucidus Boisduval, &. 

15. Hcemorrhagia gracilis Grote & Robinson, <5\ 

1 6. Lapara conifer arum, Abbot & Smith, $ , U.S.N.M. 



THE MOTH BOOK 




Sphingidae 

(i.) Dictyosoma elsa Strecker, Plate V, Fig. 14, $ . (The 
Elsa Sphinx.) 

This peculiarly colored hawkmoth, which may easily be 
recognized by the figure in our plate, occurs in Arizona. A 
number of years ago Mr. Jacob Doll reared a large number of 
specimens from the larvae. Since then but few specimens have 
been obtained, and it is as yet comparatively rare in collections. 

Genus ATREIDES Holland 

The generic name Atreus proposed by Grote and adopted on 
structural grounds by Rothschild & Jordan for this genus, 
having been preoccupied by Koch in the Arachnida, I have 
given the name Atreides to the genus, which contains the single 
species named originally Sphinx plebeja by Fabricius. 

(i) Atreides plebeja Fabricius, Plate V, Fig. 6, $ . (The Ple- 
beian Sphinx.) 

This common species feeds in its larval state upon the 
trumpet-vine (Tecoma). It ranges from Canada to the Gulf 
States and westward to the Mississippi, wherever its food- 
plant is found. It is double-brooded in the Middle States, one 
brood appearing in June, the second in August. 

Genus HYLOICUS Hubner 

This genus, which includes some thirty species, most of 
which are found in America, though a few occur in Europe and 
Asia, is represented in our faunal limits by sixteen species, of 
which eleven are figured in our plates. It corresponds largely 
with the genus Sphinx as defined by many recent writers. 

(1) Hyloicus eremitus Hubner, Plate VI, Fig. 6,9. (The 
Hermit Sphinx.) 

Syn., sordida Harris. 

This hawkmoth, which is double-brooded, lives in the larval 
stage on spearmint (Mentha) and wild bergamot (Monarda). It 
ranges from New England southward to Georgia, and westward 
into the Mississippi Valley. It is not uncommon in western 
Pennsylvania, where it is double-brooded. 

(2) Hyloicus eremitoides Strecker. (The Hermit-like 
Sphinx.) 

Syn., lugens Grote (non Walker). 

49 




Sphmgidae 

This species, which is allied to the preceding, may be easily 
recognized by its pale, silvery-gray color, by the almost entire 
absence of a dorsal stripe on the 
abdomen, and by the marking 
of the secondaries, which are 
grayish-white, having on the 
outer margin a broad band which 
is black inwardly, fading into 
darkish gray near the margin, a 
median irregularly curved black 
band, and at the insertion of 
the wing a black basal patch. 
The cut (Fig. 24) will enable the 
student to recognize the species, 
which is not common in collec- FIG. 34. Hyloicus eremitoides. 
tions. The insect is found in 
Kansas and the southwestern States. 

(3) Hyloicus separatus Neumcegen, Plate VI, Fig. 10, $ . 
(Neumoegen's Sphinx.) 

Syn. andromedce Boisduval (partim.); lugens Smith (partim.). 

This species has been confounded with others, but may easily 
be recognized from the figure which we give in our plate. It 
ranges from Colorado southward through New Mexico and 
Arizona into Mexico. 

(4) Hyloicus chersis Hiibner, Plate I, Fig. I, larva ; Plate 
VII, Fig 8, ? . (The Chersis Sphinx.) 

This common and widely distributed species ranges from 
Canada to Florida, westward to the Pacific, and southward into 
Mexico. Several local races are recognized, that which occurs 
upon the Pacific coast having been named oreodaphne by Henry 
Edwards. The caterpillar feeds upon the wild-cherry, the ash, 
the privet, and other allied plants. The insect is double-brooded 
in the Middle States, appearing on the wing in the latter part of 
May, and again in August. 

(5) Hyloicus vancouverensis Edwards. 
Syn. vashli Strccker. 

Form albescens Tepper, Plate VI, Fig. 5, $ (The Van- 
wouver Sphinx.) 

There are two forms of this hawkmoth, one, Hyloicus van- 



Sphingidae 

couverensis vancouverensis in which the middle of the 
thorax is pale gray, and the other, Hyloicus vancouverensis 
albescens, which has a very dark thorax, and which is figured 
on our plate. The moth is found from northern California to 
British Columbia, and eastward to Montana and Alberta. 

(6) Hyloicus insolita Lintner, Plate V, Fig. 4, $ . 
(Lintner's Sphinx.) 

This species, which is well represented on our plate, occurs 
in Texas. It is not common in collections. Rothschild & Jordan 
regard it as a form of H. libocedrus Henry Edwards, and 
apparently with reason. 

(7) Hyloicus perelegans Henry Edwards. (The Elegant 
Sphinx.) 

This hawkmoth may be distinguished by the even dark 
silvery-gray color of the fore wings, which are crossed by a dis- 
tinct submarginal whitish band. The maculation recalls a dark 
chersis with the dark thorax and the body of H. drupiferarum. 
It is found on the Pacific coast. 

(8) Hyloicus canadensis 
Boisduval. 

Syn. plota Strecker. 

This species, which is not 
common, is represented by the 
accompanying cut (Fig. 25), 
drawn from a specimen in the 
Engel Collection in the Carnegie 
Museum, and taken in Massa- 
chusetts. It occurs in eastern 
Canada, northern New York, F , G 25 _ Hyloicus canadensis. 
and New England. 

(9) Hyloicus kalmiae Abbot & Smith, Plate VI, Fig. 8, $. 
(The Laurel Sphinx.) 

This hawkmoth feeds in the larval stage upon Kalmia, Cbi- 
onantbus, and Fraxinus. It is not uncommon in the Middle 
States of the Atlantic coast region, ranging from southern 
Canada to Georgia. 

(10) Hyloicus gordius Cramer, Plate V, Fig. 13, $ . (The 
Gordian Sphinx.) 

Syn. pcecila Stephens. 

51 




Sphingidae 

The larva of this hawkmoth feeds upon various rosaceous 
plants, as the wild rose and the crab-apple. It ranges over the 
Atlantic region from southern Canada and New England to 
Georgia, and westward to Colorado. 

(n) Hyloicus luscitiosa Clemens, Plate V, Fig. i, $. 
(Clemens' Hawkmoth.) 

The caterpillar feeds upon various species of willow. The 
insect occurs from Canada to the Carolinas, and westward 
through the eastern portion of the valley of the Mississippi. 

(12) Hyloicus drupiferarum Abbot & Smith, Plate VII, 
Fig. 7, $ . (The Wild-Cherry Sphinx.) 

This common and easily recognizable species ranges over the 
whole of temperate North America from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. The caterpillar feeds upon various trees and shrubs, but 
seems in the Middle Atlantic States to prefer the wild-cherry as 
a food-plant. 

(13) Hyloicus dolli Neumcegen. 

Form coloradus Smith, Plate IV, Fig. 3, ? . (The Colorado 
Sphinx.) 

Rothschild & Jordan recognize two forms of this species, H. 
dolli dolli Neumcegen, and H. dolli coloradus Smith. The 
latter we figure. The former is prevalently lighter in color than 
the form coloradus. The insect ranges from Colorado to 
Arizona. 

(14) Hyloicus sequoiae Boisduva'l, Plate V, Fig. 8, $ . 
(The Sequoia Sphinx.) 

Syn. coniferarum Walker (partim). 

The early stages of this insect we do not remember to have 
seen described. It occurs on the Pacific coast. Boisduval's type 
was found sitting on the trunk of a red-wood tree (Sequoia}. 

(15) Hyloicus pinastri Linnaeus. (The Pine Sphinx.) 

Syn. saniptri Strecker. 

The late Dr. Strecker reported this species as having been 
found by him in the vicinity of Reading, Pennsylvania, on one or 
two occasions. No one else has taken it, so far as is known. 
It is common in Europe, and has often been figured by European 
writers. 

Besides the species above given, there are one or two other 
species of the genus found in our territory. 

52 



Sphingida 

Genus LAPARA Walker. 

Head small. Palpi short and slender. Tongue very short, 
almost obsolete. Eyes small. Antennae slender. Thorax 
stout and short. Abdomen long and cylindrical, tapering. Legs 
weak. Fore and mid tibia spinulose. The larva is without an 
anal horn, cylindrical, tapering slightly from the middle forward 
and backward, pale green, striped with white, and checkered 
with darker green. The caterpillars feed upon various species of 
pine, and are not at all sphingiform in appearance. There are 
reputed to be four species of the genus found in our fauna, two 
of which we figure. L. halicarnice Strecker, of which only one 
specimen is known, which I have recently examined, appears to 
be a somewhat hypertrophied and, in consequence, aborted 
female of L. coniferarum Abbot & Smith. It is very doubtfully 
a valid species. 

(1) L. coniferarum Abbot & Smith, Plate III, Fig. 16, $. 
^Abbot's Pine Sphinx.) 

Syn. cana Martyn. 

This species is somewhat variable, especially in the size of 
the females and in the amount of marking upon the fore wings. 
It is a common insect in the foot-hills of the Alleghenies about 
the headwaters of the Potomac River. I found the larvae in great 
abundance upon pines at Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, in the 
summer of 1884. It ranges from Canada to Florida and west- 
ward into the basin of the Mississippi, but has never been 
reported from any point west of that river, south of Minnesota, 
so far as is known to the writer. 

(2) L. bombycoides Walker, Plate III, Fig. 7, $ . (The 
Bombyx Sphinx.) 

Syn. harrisi Clemens. 

This little hawkmoth, which may easily be recognized from 
the figure we give, has the same geographical distribution as the 
preceding species, and feeds upon the same forms of vegetation 
in the larval stage. 

Lapara pineum Lintner (Lintner's Pine Sphinx) is a 
species of which thus far only two specimens have turned 
up. They differ from the two species we have figured in 
being wholly devoid of discal streaks and markings upon 
the fore wings. It is believed by recent authorities that these 

53 



Sphingidae 

specimens represent an extreme variation of the very variable 
L. conifer arum. 

SUBFAMILY AMBULICIN^E 
Genus PROTAMBULYX Rothschild & Jordan 

This genus is represented in our fauna by a single species, 
which occurs as a straggler into the extreme southern limits of 
the United States, and is represented in Florida by a local race, 
to which Rothschild & Jordan have given the subspecific name 
of carteri in honor of Sir Gilbert T. Carter, the Governor of the 

Bahamas, an ardent lepidop- 
terist. From A. strigilis Lin- 
naeus, which is represented in 
the annexed cut, A. carteri 
may be distinguished by the 
fact that the fore wing is 
broader, less deeply excavated 
below the apex, and by the 
further fact that most of the 
lines and markings on the 
upper side of the wings and 
all the markings on the lower 




FIG. 36. Protambulyx strigilis. 
(Somewhat reduced.) 



side of the wings are ob- 
solete. While strigilis has 
not yet been reported from 
our territory, except as represented by the form above men- 
tioned, it is highly probable that it will be found to occur in 
southern Florida. 

Genus SPHINX Linnaeus 

The type of the genus Sphinx of Linnaeus is unquestionably 
the well-known European species named by the immortal Swede 
Sphinx ocellata. With this species the following two species, 
which have for many years been referred to the genus Smerinthus 
Latreille, which sinks as a synonym, are strictly congeneric. 

(i) Sphinx cerisyi Kirby, Plate VII, Fig. 3, $. (Cerisy's 
Sphinx.) 

The larva feeds upon different species of willows. There are 
several forms, or subspecies, whicn have received names, and 

54 



Sphingidae 

which run into each other to such an extent as to make it often 
impossible to distinguish them. These forms are Sphinx astarte 
Strecker, in which the outer margin of the fore wing is a little 
less dentate, and the brown markings of the same wing are a 
little narrower; Sphinx ophthalmica Boisduval, which has rather 
pale fore wings; Sphinx pallidulus Henry Edwards, in which 
the color of the fore wings is cinnamon-gray; and Sphinx saliceti 
Boisduval, in which the blue markings of the ocellus on the 
hind wing do not form a ring, but appear as two opposed 
crescents. 

The insect is comparatively rare in the eastern part of the 
continent, but is not uncommon in the western States. It 
ranges from Canada in the north to the upper portions of the 
Gulf States, and westward to the Pacific, extending its habitat 
southward along the high lands of Mexico. 

(2) Sphinx jamaicensis Drury. 

Normal form geminatus Say, Plate IV, Fig. n, $. (The 
Twin-spot Sphinx.) 

This beautiful hawkmoth was originally named and described 
in error by Drury as coming from the Island of Jamaica. He also 
was so unfortunate as to have had for his type an aberrant speci- 
men in which the ocellus of the hind wing had but one blue 
spot. Such specimens now and then occur, and have been 
obtained by breeding from the normal form, to which Say gave 
the name geminatus. Specimens also sometimes occur in which 
there are three blue spots in the ocellus, and Mr. Grote gave to 
this aberrant form the name tripartitus. 

The caterpillar feeds upon willows, birches, and various 
species of wild-cherry. The insect is quite common in the 
Middle Atlantic States, and ranges from southern Canada to the 
Carolinas and northern Georgia, and westward to eastern Kansas 
and Iowa. 

Genus CALASYMBOLUS Grote 

The genus differs from Sphinx in the fact that the head is 
crested, and the hind wing is on its costal margin toward the 
apex produced into a somewhat broad lobe. There are three 
species recognized as belonging to the genus, all of which we 
figure. 

55 



Sphingidae 

(1) Calasymbolus excsecatus Abbot & Smith, Plate VII, 
Fig. 4, $ . (The Blinded Sphinx.) 

Syn. pavonina Geyer. 

The larva feeds upon various plants of the order Rosacea, but 
does not strictly confine itself to these. It has been reported as 
found upon the willow, the hazel, iron-wood, and other allied 
plants. It is a common species, and in the region of Pennsyl- 
vania is double-brooded. It ranges from southern Canada to 
Florida and westward across the valley of the Mississippi to the 
borders of the great plains. 

(2) Calasymbolus myops Abbot & Smith, Plate IV, Fig. 
12, 9. (The Small-eyed Sphinx.) 

Syn. rosacearum Boisduval. 

The food-plants and the geographical distribution of this 
species are very much the same as those of the preceding 
species, though it seems to range a little further westward, 
examples having been received from Colorado. It is not nearly 
as common as C. exccecatus. 

(3) Calasymbolus astylus Drury, Plate IV, Fig. 10, $ . 
(The Huckleberry Sphinx.) 

Syn. to Gray; integerrinta Harris. 

A rather scarce species, which is found from New England to 
Pennsylvania. The caterpillar feeds upon various species of 
Vaccinium and allied plants. The moth is easily distinguished 
by the fact that the outer margins of the fore wings are almost 
even, whereas in myops they are distinctly produced at the 
end of vein 3, and in exccecatus they are scalloped. The 
transverse lines on the limbal area of the fore wings, which 
are distinct in myops, are almost wanting in astylus, and the 
inner margin of the primaries is heavily margined with dark 
brown. 

Genus PACHYSPHINX Rothschild & Jordan 

The genus Pachysphinx has been erected for the reception of 
the single species, two forms of which we figure on our plates. 
It is very different from the oriental genus Marumba, into which 
Mr. Dyar, following Kirby, has put it in his recent List. Any one 
who is familiar with the peculiar style of coloration of the species 
of Marumba, as well as with the structural differences, which 

56 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J, 
Holland.) 

1. Protoparce quinquemaculatus Haworth, $. 

2. Protoparce sexta Johanssen, 9 

3. Hyloicus dolli color adus Smith, 9 . 

4. Protoparce occulta Rothschild & Jordan, $ . 

5. Hamorrhagia senta Strecker, J. 

6. Ceratomia amyntor Geyer, 9 

7. Ceratomia catalpae Boisduval, 9 

8. Isogramma hageni Grote, cT. 

9. Xylophanes pluto Fabricius, c?. 
10. Calasymbolus astylus Drury, tf. 

n. Sphinx jamaicensis Drury, form geminatus Say, c? 

is. Calasymbolus myops Abbot & Smith, 9 . 



"HE MOTH BOOK 




Sphingidae 

present themselves, will recognize the propriety of the separa- 
tion, which has been made. 

(i) Pachysphinx modesta Harris, Plate VII, Fig. i, $. 
(The Big Poplar Sphinx.) 

Syn. prince ps Walker. 

Form occidentalis Henry Edwards, Plate VII, Fig. 2, ? . 
(The Western Poplar Sphinx. ) 

Syn. imperator Strecker. 

This noble hawkmoth feeds in the larval stage upon various 
species of the genus Populus and upon willows. There are a 
number of local races or subspecies, two of which we give ; the 
common eastern form and the western variety. The latter may 
at once be distinguished by its generally paler coloration. It 
ranges over the United States and as far south as northern 
Mexico. 

Genus CRESSONIA Grote & Robinson 

There is but one species in this genus. The insect is easily 
recognizable, in spite of the fact that it varies considerably in the 
color of the wings. 

(i) Cressonia juglandis Abbot & Smith, Plate VI, Fig. 9, $ . 
(The Walnut Sphinx.) 

Syn. instabilis Marty n; pollens Strecker; robinsoni Butler. 

The caterpillar feeds upon the black walnut, the butternut, 
and the hop-hornbeam. Some of the larvae are green, others are 
reddish, but the color of the larvae seems to have no relation to 
any variation in color of the perfect insects. The species is dis- 
tributed from Canada to Florida and westward to the eastern 
boundary of the great plains. 

SUBFAMILY SESIIN^E 
Genus PSEUDOSPHINX Burmeister 
There is but one species in this genus, which is structurally 
closely related to the species falling into the genus Erinnyis. It 
is a characteristic insect of the American tropics, and possesses a 
very wide range. 

(i) Pseudosphinx tetrio Linnaeus, Plate VI, Fig. 2, $ . 
(The Giant Gray Sphinx.) 

Syn. plumerice Fabricius; rustica Sepp; hasdrubal Cramer; asdrubal 
Poey; obscura Butler. 

57 



Sphingidae 

The larva of this hawkmoth has a long thread-like anal horn. 
It is very strikingly colored, the body being purplish black, 
girdled with yellow rings between the segments, and the head 
and anal claspers being bright red, of the color of sealing wax. 
It feeds upon various Euphorbiaceous plants, preferably Plum- 
eria. The insect occurs not uncommonly in southern Florida. 

Genus ERINNYIS Hubner 

This is a moderately large genus, the species of which are all 
confined to the tropical or subtropical regions of the Western 
Hemisphere, though one species, as we shall see, occasionally 
occurs as a straggler far north of the metropolis of the genus. 

(1) Erinnyis alope Drury, Plate V, Fig. 12, $ . (The Alope 
Sphinx.) 

Syn. flavicans Goeze; fasciata Swainson; edwardsi Butler. 

The caterpillar is brown on the upper side, and pale green on 
the lower side, the colors being separated by a dark brown inter- 
rupted lateral band on either side of the body. On the third 
segment from the head there is a dark spot relieved by a red ring 
in the centre. The anal horn is quite short. The larva feeds 
upon Jatropha and Carica. The insect occurs in southern 
Florida and ranges southward as far as northern Argentina. 

(2) Erinnyis lassauxi Boisduval. 

Form merianse Grote, Plate V, Fig. 2, ? . (Madame 
Merian's Sphinx.) 

Syn. janiphcB Boisduval. 

This hawkmoth, which is widely distributed through the 
tropics of the new world, displays considerable variation, and 
several forms, or local races, have been recognized. The one 
which occurs within our territory we have figured, and the 
student will have no difficulty in recognizing it. The larva, 
which is said to closely resemble that of the next species, is 
reported to feed upon Morrenia in the West Indies. It occurs in 
Florida. 

(3) Erinnyis ello Linnaeus, Plate V, Fig, 10, $ ; Fig. 3, 
? . (The Ello Sphinx.) 

This is quite the commonest of all the hawkmoths of the 
American tropics, and becomes a perfect drug in collec- 
tions made by amateur naturalists, who venture into those 

58 



Sphingidae 

regions, net in hand. It may at once be recognized by the 
figures we have given, which are taken from specimens bred 
on the Indian River by Mr. Wittfeld. The sexes are dissimilar, 
as the student may observe. It straggles north sparingly, even 
as far as Canada, and is common in the Gulf States. 

(4) Erinnyis cenotrus Stoll, Plate V, Fig. n, ?. (The 
CEnotrus Sphinx.) 

Syn. pen&us Fabricius; melancholica Grote; piperis Grote & Robin- 
son; picta Kirby. 

The sexes in this species are dissimilar, the female being as 
represented on our plate with light fore wings, marked with 
dark spots and lines, while the male is prevalently quite dark on 
the fore wings. The species may easily be recognized by the 
black spots on the under side of the abdomen. 

(5) Erinnyis crameri Schaus, Plate V, Fig 7, ? . (Cramer's 
Sphinx.) 

This species, which has often been confounded with the pre- 
ceding, may easily be distinguished from it by the pale shoulder 
lappets, the absence of black spots on the under side of the ' 
abdomen, and the more evenly colored fore wings, which recall 
those of E. meriance, from which it is at once distinguished by 
the absence of the white lateral markings on the abdomen. The 
species occurs in Florida and Texas. 

(6) Erinnyis obscura Fabricius, Plate V, Fig. 5, $ . (The 
Obscure Sphinx.) 

Syn. rustica Schaller; phalaris Kirby; stheno Hubner; pallida Grote; 
cinerosa Grote & Robinson; rhcebus Boisduval. 

This small species is well represented in our plate by a speci- 
men which in the main conforms to the most usual style of 
marking. It can always be distinguished from E. ello, which it 
resembles in having a dark longitudinal shade through the fore 
wings, by its much smaller size, and by the absence of the white 
and black lateral stripes upon the abdomen, which are character- 
istic of the latter species. It is common in Florida. 

(7) Erinnyis domingonis Butler, Plate V, Fig. 9, ? . (The 
Domingo Sphinx.) 

Syn. obscura Walker (non Fabricius) ; festa Henry Edwards. 
This species, which occurs in Florida and the Antilles, may 
be distinguished from the preceding by the darker color of the 

59 



Sphingidae 

primaries and the absence of the pale color on the outer margin 
of the shoulder lappets, which is characteristic of E. obscura. It 
is also considerably larger than E. obscura. 

There remains one other closely allied species in this group, 
to which Cramer gave the name caicus, and which occurs 
occasionally in Florida. The body is marked like E. ello-, the fore 
wings are dark with longitudinal paler stripes, the secondaries 
are red as in E. crameri, but almost wholly without the dark 
border found in that species, it being replaced by a series 
of dark stripes running inwardly from the border toward the 
middle of the wing. For this species, hitherto associated 
with the preceding in the genus Dilophonola, Rothschild & 
Jordan have erected the genus Grammodia, upon structural 
grounds. 

Genus PACHYLIA Walker 

This is a small genus, containing four species, of which one 
occurs in our territory. It is not likely to be confounded with 
anything else. 

(i) Pachylia ficus Linnaeus, Plate III, Fig. 12, ?. (The 
Fig Sphinx.) 

Syn. crameri M6n6tri6s; lyncea Clemens; venezuelensis Schaufuss; 
undalifascia Butler; aterrima Bonninghausen. 

This great hawkmoth, which is very common in Central and 
South America, occurs sparingly in Florida and Texas. 

Genus HEMEROPLANES Hubner 
This small genus, the species of which may at once be 
detected by the silvery spots of the fore wings, being the 
only American genus of sphingids thus adorned, is characteris- 
tically neotropical. It is represented in our fauna by a single 
species. 

(i) Hemeroplanes parce Fabricius, Plate III, Fig. 8, $. 
(The Silver-spotted Sphinx.) 

Syn. licastus Stoll; galianna Burmeister. 

The figure given on our plate is sufficiently accurate to make 
a verbal description unnecessary. The insect occurs in southern 
Florida in the vicinity of Biscayne Bay, and ranges thence south- 
ward over the Antilles into South America. 

60 



Sphingidae 

Genus EPISTOR Boisduval 

Five species belong to this genus, the type of which is the 
species which we figure, and the only representative of the 
genus found in our territory. 

(i) Epistor lugubris Linnaeus, Plate II, Fig. 17, $ . (The 
Mourning Sphinx.) 

Syn. fegeus Cramer; luctuosus Boisduval. 

There can be no difficulty in identifying this well-marked 
but obscurely colored hawkmoth, which occurs in Florida and 
Georgia, and even straggles now and then as far north as New 
Jersey. It is very common in the Antilles and South America. 
In Florida it is double-brooded, appearing on the wing in May 
and September. The larva feeds on the Vitacece. 

Genus CAUTETHIA Grote 

There are three species of this genus, only one of which 
occurs within the limits of the United States. The figure we 
give will permit of its identification without difficulty. 

(i) Cautethia grotei Henry Edwards, Plate II, Fig. 21, $. 
(Grote's Sphinx.) 

The habitat of this species is southern Florida, where it 
apparently is not uncommon. 

Genus SESIA Fabricius 

The body is depressed, fusiform, without lateral tufts, but 
with a broad fan-shaped anal tuft, composed of coarse flattened 
scales. The abdomen is produced for more than half its length 
beyond the hind wings. The palpi are produced and appressed, 
forming a short snout-like projection beyond the head. The 
tongue is stout, but comparatively short. The antennae are 
slightly thickened at the end, and have a sharp recurved tip. 
The mid tibiae have terminal spurs, and the hind tibiae two pairs 
of spurs. The fore wings have eleven veins. The venation is 
characteristically sphingiform, and is illustrated in Figure 21. 
The prevalent colors are black and dark brown with white spots 
and bands on the wings and in some species on the abdomen. 
The moths fly in the hottest sunshine. 

The type of the genus Sesia established by Fabricius is the 
species named tantalus by Linne. Rothschild & Jordan, in the 

61 



Sphingidae 

latest Revision of the Spbingidce, recognize five species as 
belonging to the genus, three of which occur within the limits 
of the United States, tantalus Linnaeus, fadus Cramer, and the 
species we figure upon our plate. All three have by some 
recent writers been regarded as practically identical. Into the 
somewhat vexed question of their specific relationship it is not 
our purpose to enter in these pages. 

(i) S. titan Cramer, Plate II, Fig. 16, $. (The White- 
banded Day-Sphinx.) 

The white spots of the fore wings are semi-transparent. On 
the under side the wings are whitish at the base and on the 
inner margin of the secondaries. They are crossed about the 
middle by two parallel distinct dark bands, which are quite close 
to each other. 

The moth sometimes strays as far north as Massachusetts. 
It is very common in southern Florida and throughout tropical 
America. 

Genus H^MORRHAGIA Grote 

Moth. Head small. Tongue as long as the body. Antennae 
clavate, two-thirds the length of the costa, with a minute 
recurved hook at the tip. Thorax smooth, strongly projecting 
before the insertion of the wings. Abdomen more or less 
flattened beneath, and, especially in the males, adorned with a 
broad fan-shaped anal tuft. The primaries have eleven veins. 
Both primaries and secondaries are transparent about the 
middle; the outer margin of the former is evenly rounded, and 
of the latter slightly excavated between veins \b and 2. 

Larva. Characteristically sphingiform, provided with an 
anal horn. The epidermis in most species of the genus is more 
or less granulated. The caterpillars feed for the most part upon 
Symphoricarpus, Lonicera, Viburnum, Cratcegus, and allied 
plants. 

Pupa. The pupa, which is brown in color, is enclosed in 
a somewhat dense cocoon, formed on the surface of the ground 
under fallen leaves. 

(i) Haemorrhagia thysbe Fabricius, Plate I, Fig. 5, $. 
(The Humming-bird Clearwing.) 

Syn. pelasgus Cramer; ruficaudis Kirby; etolus Boisduval. 
62 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Hyloicus luscitiosa Clemens, c?. 

2. Errinyis lassauxi meriance Grote, $ . 

3. Errinyis ello Linnaeus, $ . 

4. Hyloicus libocedrus insolita Lintner, c?. 

5. Errinyis obscura Fabricius, J 1 . 

6. Atreides plebeja Fabricius, tf. 
j. Errinyis crameri Schaus, $ . 

8. Hyloicus sequence Boisduval, (J 1 . 

9. Errinyis domingonis Butler, 9 

10. Errinyis ello Linnaeus, &. 

11. Errinyis cenotrus Stoll, 9- 

12. Errinyis alope Drury, $ . 

13. Hyloicus gordius Stoll, cJ 1 . 

14. Dictyosoma elsa Strecker, <5*. 



THE Moxrt BOOK 




Sphingidae 

Form cimbiciformis Stephens, Plate II, Fig. 6, ? . 

Syn. ruficaudis Walker (partim) ; floridensis Grote ; uniformis Grote 
& Robinson; buffaloensis Grote; pyramus Boisduval. 

This is the largest and the commonest species of the genus. 
It may easily be recognized by the figures given on Plate II. It 
is subject to considerable variation. The form cimbiciformis 
is distinguished by the absence of the dentations on the inner 
side of the marginal brown band of the fore wings. It has been 
obtained by breeding from the eggs of H. thysbe, and thysbe has 
been bred from it. It is a dimorphic form of the species. The 
caterpillar of H. thysbe feeds upon Viburnum and allied plants. 
The insect ranges from Canada and Nova Scotia southward to 
Florida and westward to the Mississippi. 

(2) Haemorrhagia gracilis Grote & Robinson, Plate III, 
Fig. 15, $. (The Graceful Clearwing.) 

Syn. ruficaudis Walker (non Kirby) (partim). 

The thorax and basal segments above are olive-green. The 
middle segments are black, the two preterminal segments are 
margined laterally with reddish. The anal tuft is black, divided 
in the middle by red hairs. On the under side the palpi, pectus, 
and thorax are white, and the abdomen pale red. The pale area 
of the thorax is traversed on either side by a stripe of reddish 
hair, and there are three rows of white spots on the under side 
of the abdomen. It occurs in the States of the Atlantic seaboard 
from New England to the Carolinas. 

(3) Haemorrhagia diffinis Boisduval. (The Snowberry 
Clearwing.) 

Spring form tenuis Grote, Plate II, Fig. 2, ? . 

Syn. fumosa Strecker; metathetis Butler; diffinis Beutenmuller. 

Summer form diffinis Boisduval. 

Syn. marginalis Grote. 

Summer form axillaris Grote & Robinson, Plate II, Fig. 3, $ ; 
Fig. 4, ? - 

Syn. grotei Butler; cethra Strecker. 

This species is trimorphic. The life history has been in part 
very carefully worked out by Mr. Ellison Smythe of Blacksburg, 
Virginia. (See "Entomological News," Vol. XI, p. 584.) 
The form diffinis has the marginal band dentate inwardly. 

The caterpillar feeds upon Symphoricarpus, Lonicera, and 
Dier-villa. The insect has a wide range from New England to 

63 



Sphingidae 

Georgia and westward to the eastern boundaries of the great 
plains. 

(4) Hsemorrhagia senta Strecker, Plate IV, Fig. 5, $. 
(The Californian Clearwing.) 

Syn. rubens Hanham (non Edwards). 

The head, thorax, and basal segments of the abdomen are 
brownish-olivaceous. The abdomen is black. The two seg- 
ments immediately preceding the terminal segment are marked 
laterally by yellow tufts of hair. The anal tuft is wholly black. 
The wings are very narrowly bordered with brown. There is 
no rusty red spot at the apex of the primaries. The clear 
portions of the wing in certain lights have a bright steel-blue 
luster. The under side of the palpi, the pectus, and the 
abdomen are pale straw-yellow. In size this species is about 
as large as H. diffinis. 

The perfect insect occurs in Utah and California, frequenting 
the blossoms of Lupinus. 

(5) Haemorrhagia thetis Boisduval, Plate II, Fig. I, $. 
(The Thetis Clearwing.) 

Syn. palpalis Grote; rubens Edwards. 

Decidedly smaller than either of the two preceding species. 
The thorax is olive-green, passing on either side into pale 
yellow. This color is continued dorsally on the abdomen as far 
as the terminal segment, but is more or less lost in the broad 
yellow preanal band. The basal and middle segments of the 
abdomen are marked laterally with black, and the anal tuft is 
correspondingly marked with black on either side. The 
marginal band of the fore wings is narrow, as in H. diffinis, and 
is always distinctly marked above and below at the apex by a 
rust-red triangular spot. The wings at their insertion are more 
or less shaded with pale rusty red both above and below. 

This species ranges from Colorado and Wyoming westward 
and northward to Oregon and British Columbia. It has been by 
Dr. Dyar made synonymous with the following species, from 
which it is, however, quite distinct. 

(6) Haemorrhagia brucei French, Plate II, Fig. 7, $ . 
(Bruce's Clearwing.) 

This is a small species, in size approximating H. thetis, from 
which it may be at once distinguished by the green color of the 

64 



Sphingidae 

scales upon the thorax and the basal segments of the adbomen, 
and the fact that the anal tuft is wholly black, not divided by 
yellow scales in the middle as is the case in H. tbetis. 
The species is not uncommon in Colorado and Utah. 

SUBFAMILY PHILAMPELIN/E 
Genus PHOLUS Hubner 

This is a large genus, including nineteen species, and a num- 
ber of subspecies. It is confined to the Western Hemisphere. 
Six species occur 
within our territory. 
P. typbon Klug, which 
we have not figured, 
is occasionally found 
in Arizona. The larvae 
feed upon the Vitacea, 
and in the case of two 
of the species have 
done at times some 
damage to vineyards. 

(i) Pholus satel- 
litia Linnaeus. (The 
Satellite Sphinx.) 

Form pandorus 
Hubner, Plate III, Fig. 
6, <$. 

Syn. ampelophaga 
Walker. 

This insect which 
is widely distributed 
throughout the eastern 
United States, and 
ranges northward into 
southern Canada, is 
well-known to all 
growers of vines. The 
caterpillar, when it 
first emerges from 
the egg and for several successive molts is green in color and 




FIG. 27. Larva of Pbolus satellitia pan- 
dorus; a; mature larva; b, larva after third 
molt, head retracted; c, young larva. (After 
Riley.) 



Sphingidae 

has at the anal extremity a very long caudal horn, which begins 
gradually to curl up, as represented in the accompanying cut, 
and after the third molt entirely disappears, being replaced by 
a lenticular shining eye-like prominence. In the latter stages of 
development the larvae frequently become dark brown, and 
Professor Riley maintains that this is invariably the case in the 
neighborhood of the city of St. Louis. It is not invariably the 
case in other localities, as I know from experience. I have 
reared a number of specimens in which the green color perdured 
to the time of pupation, though the brown form is very common. 
Like the larva of the following species, the caterpillar of P. 
satellitia has the power of withdrawing the first two segments 
of its body into the third, when at rest, or when suddenly alarmed. 
When crawling or feeding the first segments are protruded, as 
represented in the cut by the larger figure. 

Several local races of P. satellitia are recognized as occurring 
in the Antilles and in South America, one of these, for which 
Mr. Grote proposed the name posticatus, occurs in Florida, as 
well as in Cuba and the Bahamas. It may be distinguished from 
the formpandorus by its slighter build, its narrower wings, which 
in the case of the primaries have the outer margin straighter than 
in pandorus, and by the presence of a large roseate spot cover- 
ing the anal angle of the secondaries. There are other differences 
of a minor character, but those mentioned will enable the student 
to discriminate this form from the one we have figured. 

(2) Pholus achemon Drury, Plate III, Fig. 5, $ . (The 
Achemon Sphinx.) 

Syn. crantor Cramer. 

Like the preceding species the caterpillar of this beautiful 
hawkmoth feeds upon vines, and shows especial fondness for 




FIG. 28. Larva of Pholus achemon. (After Riley.) 

the grape. It is also addicted to the Virginia creeper ( ' Ampe- 
lopsisj. The description of the habits of the larva given by 

66 



Sphingidae 

Professor C. V. Riley, "Missouri Reports," Vol. Ill, p. 75, is most 
excellent. The figure which we give is taken from that Report. 
The insect ranges over the entire United States from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from southern Canada to northern 
Mexico. 

(3) Pholus vitis Linnaeus, Plate III, Fig. I, $ . (The Vine 
Sphinx.) 

Syn. hornbeckiana Harris; linnei Grote & Robinson; fasc-iatus Grote 
(partim). 

The true Pholus vitis, which we figure in our plate, may 
easily be distinguished from its near ally, Pholus fasciatus 
Sulzer, by the absence of the pink outer marginal area on the 
upper two-thirds of the secondaries, by the inward prolongation 
of the large black spot near the inner margin of the secondaries 
into a well marked mesial band, and by its larger size. It 
occurs in Florida and in southern Texas and Arizona, whence it 
ranges southward over wide areas. 

(4) Pholus fasciatus Sulzer, Plate III, Fig. 2, $. (The 
Lesser Vine Sphinx.) 

Syn. vitis Drury (non Linnaeus); jussiencs Hubner; strigilis Vogel. 

The caterpillar is reported as feeding upon Jussieua in the 
tropics. In our territory it feeds upon various species of Vitacece. 
It is quite common in the region of the Gulf States and south- 
ward, and sometimes is even taken as a straggler as far north as 
Massachusetts. 

(5) Pholus labruscae Linnaeus, Plate III, Fig. n, $. (The 
Gaudy Sphinx.) 

Syn. clotho Fabricius. 

This beautiful creature is characteristic of the tropics, where 
it is not uncommon. It occurs quite abundantly in southern 
Florida and along the borders of the Gulf, and throughout the 
Antilles, Central, and South America. Specimens, in spite of 
the subtropical habitat of the species, have been taken in Canada, 
illustrating the wonderful power of flight which is possessed by 
these insects, the frail wings of which bear them in the dusk 
of evening, during the few days of their existence in the winged 
form, from the orange-groves of the south to the banks of the 
St, Lawrence, a thousand leagues, across rivers, plains, and 
mountains. 



Sphingidae 

Genus DARAPSA Walker 

We include in this genus three species, all of which 
occur within our territory, and all of which we figure upon 
our plates. 

(1) Darapsa pholus Cramer, Plate III, Fig. 3, $ . (The 
Azalea Sphinx.) 

Syn. choerilus Cramer; azaleas Abbot & Smith; clorinda Martyn. 

This medium-sized hawkmoth, which is one of our com- 
monest species in western Pennsylvania, may easily be distin- 
guished from its very near ally, D. myron, by its reddish color. 
The caterpillar feeds upon Viburnum and Azalea. 

(2) Darapsa myron Cramer, Plate III, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Hog Sphinx.) 

Syn. pampinatrix Abbot & Smith; cnoius Hiibner. 
The caterpillar, of which we give a figure, feeds upon wild 
and domestic grape-vines, and also upon the Virginia Creeper. 

It is a very common 
insect in the Atlantic 
States, and ranges as 
far west as Kansas and 
Iowa. It has been re- 
garded as injurious to 
vineyards, but the 
damage done is incon- 
siderable, and the in- 
sec t s can easily be 
combated by picking 
off the larvae from the 
vines and crushing 
them under foot. The 
reason why these in- 
sects do comparatively 
small damage is per- 
haps found in the fact that they appear to be especially subject 
to the attacks of a small hymenopterous parasite, belonging to 
the family Ichneumonidce. The female ichneumon-fly deposits 
her eggs upon the epidermis of the young caterpillar. As soon 
as the eggs hatch, the grub penetrates the body of the caterpillar 
and feeds upon the fatty tissues lying just under the skin. 

68 




FIG. 29. Larva of D. myron. 
(After Riley.) 




FIG. 30. Parasitized lar- 
(After 




Sphingidae 

Before the caterpillar reaches maturity the grubs emerge from 
beneath the skin, and attaching themselves to the epidermis, 
proceed to weave about themselves 
little white cocoons, in which they 
are transformed into perfect insects, 
emerging to repeat the cycle of 
life. Caterpillars which have been va" "of *D. myron. 
thus parasitized do not survive the Rilev -) 
ordeal. The accompanying cut (Fig. 30), shows a larva 
upon which the ichneumon-flies have done their deadly work. 
The insect, which accomplishes the task 
of destruction imposed upon it in the 
economy of nature, is very small. The 
figure given herewith shows it of its 
natural size, and also enlarged, so that its 
structural peculiarities 'may be more easily 
FIG. 31. -Micro- recognized. The species which we are con- 
ftroys larvae of D. sidering shares this liability to parasitism 
myron. w jth its congeners, as well as with the repre- 

sentatives of many other genera of the Sphingidce. I was greatly 
annoyed a number of years ago by having a large series of the 
larvae of the beautiful Darapsa versicolor, which I had collected 
in their early stages, destroyed by this ichneumon-fly, and the 
following summer, and, in fact, for several summers following, 
the larvae of D. versicolor, which had been for awhile quite 
abundant in certain localities known to me, almost entirely dis- 
appeared. In one ravine, where I had obtained them by the 
hundreds, they were not to be 
found. 1 account for their dis- 
appearance by the unusual num- 
bers of the parasites which had 
infested them that summer. 

The larva of myron under- 
goes pupation in a loose COCOOn FIG. 32. Pupa of D. myron . 
of coarsely woven threads of silk, which it spins under leaves at 
the surface of the ground. In this respect its habits are strictly 
like those of the other species of the genus. 

(3) Darapsa versicolor Harris, Plate III, Fig. 13, $ . (The 
Hydrangea Sphinx.) 




Sphingidae 

This lovely hawkmoth, which is accounted quite rare in 
localities, has been found very commonly at certain times in 
western Pennsylvania. Its larva feeds upon the wild hydrangea, 
which grows abundantly in deep wooded glens, along the 
margin of brooks. The insect ranges from New England to the 
mountains of the Carolinas and westward into the eastern border 
of the Mississippi Valley. 



Genus SPHECODINA Blanchard 

The head is broad. The proboscis is nearly as long as the 
body. The antennae are fusiform, with a recurved hook at the 
tip. The body is broad, flattened beneath. The abdomen has a 
pointed anal tuft, and the segments are adorned laterally with 
prominent truncated tufts of coarse hairs. The wings in theii 
outline closely resemble those of the genus Amphion. Only om 
species of the genus is known. 

(i) Sphecodina abbotti Swainson, Plate II, Fig. 19, $. 
(Abbot's Sphinx.) 

This beautiful hawkmoth is found throughout the Eastern 
States and southern Canada and ranges westward as far as Iowa 

and Kansas. The 
larva feeds on the 
Vitacea and is 
not uncommon 
o n Ampelopsis. 
The caterpillar is 
not provided with 
an anal horn, but 
has instead an 
eye-like tubercle, 
or boss, at the 
anal extremity. 
It has the habit, 
when disturbed, 
of throwing its 
head violently 
from side to side, a movement found in other sphingid larvae, 
and also in some of the Ceratocampidce. 




FIG. 33. Larva and moth of S. abbotti. 
(After Riley.) 



7 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Cocytius antcBUS Drury, ?. 

2. Pseudosphinx tetrio Linnaeus, c?- 

3. Herse cingulata Fabricius, c? 

4. Dolba hylceus Drury, 9 . 

5. Hyloicus vancouverensis albescens Tepper, c?. 

6. Hyloicus eremitus Hubner, 9 . 

7. Ceratomia undulosa Walker, 9 

8. Hyloicus kalmice Abbot & Smith, 9 

9. Cress on-ia juglandis Abbot & Smith, 9 
10. Hyloicus separatus Neumoegen, <5*. 



THE MOTH BOOK. 




Sphingidae 
Genus DEIDAMIA Clemens 

The head is small, narrow, retracted, crested. The eyes are 
small. The antennae are fusiform, with the tip bent back slightly, 
scarcely hooked. The thorax is stout, somewhat crested. The 
abdomen is conic, and in the male has a small anal tuft. The 
fore wings, which have twelve veins, are narrow, with the inner 
margin sinuate. The apex of the fore wings is truncated, and 
the outer margin is deeply excavated opposite the end of the cell 
and also just above the inner angle, which is distinctly produced. 
The hind wings are slightly crenulate on the outer .margin. 
There is only one species belonging to the genus. 

(i) Deidamia inscriptum Harris, Plate II, Fig. 15, $. 
(The Lettered Sphinx.) 

The caterpillar feeds upon the wild grape-vine. The moth 
appears in the early spring. It is a common species in western 
Pennsylvania, but seems elsewhere to be regarded as quite rare. 
It ranges from Canada to Virginia and westward to the 
Mississippi. 

Genus ARCTONOTUS Boisduval 

This small genus, in which there are reputed to be two 
species, is very closely related to the genus Proserpinus, from 
vhich, as has been pointed out by Rothschild & Jordan, it 
lifters in appearance "owing to the more woolly scaling." 
The chief structural difference is found in the fact that the 
antenna is not clubbed but fusiform, gradually curved, and 
the feet are without a pulvillus, and have only vestiges of the 
paronychium. 

(i) Arctonotus lucidus Boisduval, Plate III, Fig. 14, $ . 
(The Bear Sphinx.) 

This insect, which hitherto has been rare in collections, 
appears to have a wide range along the Pacific coast, from 
southern California to British Columbia. It appears upon the 
wing very early in the spring of the year. 

The name Arctonotus terlooi is applied to a species, reported 
from northern Mexico by Henry Edwards, and described by him, 
in which the hind wings are wholly vinous red, and the green 
basal band of the fore wings is wanting. 

71 



Sphingidae 

Genus AMPHION Hubner 

Head small. Eyes small, hemispherical. Palpi rather short. 
Tongue nearly as long as the body. Antennae fusiform with a 
long curved hook at the tip. Body plump, somewhat globose, 
the thorax projecting very little beyond the insertion of the 
primaries, and the abdomen terminating in a conspicuous fan-like 
tuft. The fore wings are comparatively short and narrow, exca- 
vated on the outer margin below the apex and above the inner 
angle, which is strongly produced. The inner margin is deeply 
sinuate. The hind wings are bluntly lobed at the anal angle. 
There is only one species in the genus. 

(i) Amphion nessus Cramer, Plate II, Fig. 18, $ . (The 
Nessus Sphinx.) 

This species, which may easily be recognized from the figure 
on the plate, is not uncommon in the Middle States. It ranges 
from Canada to Georgia and westward to Wyoming. It flies in 
the daytime on cloudy days and in the late afternoon before sun- 
set. The caterpillar feeds on Ampelopsis and the wild grape. 

Genus POGOCOLON Boisduval 

This small genus, which is closely related in many structural 
respects to Proserpinus, differs from it very decidedly in the form 
as well as in the habits of the insects belonging to it. In the 
structure of the antennas and neuration of the wings the insects 
belonging to Pogocolon show a close relationship to the insects 
referred to the genus Proserpinus, but the form of the abdomen 
is wholly different, elongated, cylindrical, and not bombyliform. 
The moths, moreover, are crepuscular, whereas the moths re- 
ferred to the genus Proserpinus are diurnal in their habits, in this 
respect resembling the species of the genus Hccmorrhagia. 
There are at least three species belonging to this genus. 

(i) Pogocolon gaurae Abbot & Smith, Plate II, Fig. n, $. 
(The Gaura Sphinx.) 

The upper side of this small species is sufficiently delineated 
in the plate to require no verbal description. On the under side 
the wings are vinous brown, shading on the outer third into 
olive-green, and reproducing the maculation of the upper surface. 
The hind wings are deep olive at the base, passing into yel- 
lowish green outwardly. 

72 



Sphingidae 

The insect feeds in the larval stage upon various species of 
Gaura, and ranges from Georgia to Texas and as far north as 
southern Kansas. 

(2) Pogocolon juanita Strecker, Plate II, Fig. 12, . 
(Strecker's Day-sphinx. ) 

The moth in the general style of its maculation is very much 
like the preceding species, but is considerably larger, and the 
colors are decidedly brighter. The caterpillar is quite different 
in its markings from the larva of L. gaurce, 

The habitat of this species is Texas, so far as is now known. 

One other species of Pogocolon, P. vega Dyar, occurs in our 
region. It is much darker in color than the two former species, 
which it otherwise somewhat closely resembles. 

Genus PROSERPINUS Hubner 

Head small ; proboscis moderate or long ; antennae clavate ; 
body stout ; abdomen with or without lateral tufts, but always 
with a more or less well developed anal tuft. Anterior tibiae 
stout, armed with spines outwardly and at tip. Fore wings 
elongate, generally somewhat curved outwardly about the 
middle, and with the inner angle more or less distinctly 
produced ; more or less densely clothed with scales over their 
entire surface. The moths are diurnal in their habits, and mimic 
bumblebees in their appearance. 

(i) Proserpinus flavofasciata Walker, Plate II, Fig. 8, ? . 
(The Yellow-banded Day-sphinx.) 

The head and thorax are pale yellow, the latter obscured with 
brownish hairs about the middle. The abdomen is black with 
the basal segment about the middle and the preterminal segment 
on either side pale yellow. The fore wings on the upper side 
are blackish, crossed by an oblique whitish band. The hind wings 
are deep black, crossed by a broad orange-yellow band. The fore 
wings on the under side are bright orange-yellow at the base. 

This is always a rare insect in collections. It ranges, so far 
as is known, through British America, and southward and east- 
ward to Maine and Massachusetts. It is found in very early 
summer hovering over flowers. 

(2) Proserpinus clarkiae Boisduval, Plate II, Fig. 10, ? . 
(Clark's Day-sphinx.) 

73 



Sphingidae 

Syn. victories Grote. 

The head, thorax and abdomen on the upper side are preva- 
lently pale olive-green, the fifth and the three anal segments of 
the abdomen being darker green. The fore wings are pale green 
with an oblique brownish median band, and a triangular paler 
brownish spot at the apex. There is a small black discal dot at 
the end of the cell. The hind wings are deep orange-yellow, 
margined with black. On the under side the wings are olive- 
green, darker at the base. The hind wings have a waved 
whitish band about their middle on the under side. The legs 
are greenish-white. 

This species is found from Oregon to northern California, and 
eastward to Utah and Montana. 

Genus EUPROSERPINUS Grote & Robinson 

This genus is discriminated by Rothschild & Jordan from 
Proserpinus by the fact that the antenna is more abruptly hooked 
and slenderer at its extremity than in Proserpinus, and by the 
absence of the pulvillus and paronychium, which are found in 
Proserpinus. Two species belong to the genus, both having 
white hind wings margined with darker color and the under side 
of the pectus and the wings also white. 

(1) Euproserpinus phaeton Grote & Robinson, Plate II, 
Fig. 9, $ . (The Phaeton Sphinx. ) 

Syn. errato Boisduval. 

The head and thorax above are gray, the abdomen blackish. 
The preterminal segment has yellow lateral tufts. The anal tuft 
is black. The fore wings above are of the same color as the 
thorax. The hind wings are yellowish-white with a broad black 
marginal band. Expanse 32 mm. 

The habitat of this species is southern California. 

(2) Euproserpinus euterpe Edwards. (The Euterpe 
Sphinx.) 

This species, which is only known to the writer through an 
examination of the type, is discriminated from the preceding by 
the absence of pale tufts on the side of the abdomen and the fact 
that the marginal band of the hind wing is bowed inwardly and 
not straight as in E. Phaeton. 

74 



Sphingidae 

SUBFAMILY CH^ROCAMPIN/E 
Genus XYLOPHANES Hu'bner 

This genus, which is American, is very large, containing fifty 
species and many subspecies. Of these species two only are 
found, so far as is now known, within our territory, though it is 
possible that a thorough exploration of southern Florida may 
show that one or two of the species which are found in the 
Antilles also occur in that State. The student will have no diffi- 
culty in recognizing the species occurring within our borders by 
means of the figures which are given upon our plates. 

(1) Xylophanes pluto Fabricius, Plate IV, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Pluto Sphinx.) 

Syn. bcerhavice Fabricius; crcesus Dalman; thorates Hiibner; eson 
Walker 

This beautiful hawkmoth, which is very common in the 
Antilles, ranging southward to southern Brazil, occurs in 
southern Florida. The larva feeds upon Erythroxylon. 

(2) Xylophanes tersa Linnaeus, Plate II, Fig. 13, $. (The 
Tersa Sphinx.) 

This common and easily recognized species has a wide range, 
occurring very rarely as far north as southern Canada, thence 
southward to Texas and Mexico, and as far south as northern 
Argentina. The larva feeds on Bowvardia, Spermacoce, and 
Marietta. 

Genus CELERIO Oken 

Head of moderate size. Eyes hemispherical, not prominent. 
Antennae distinctly clavate, and armed at the tip with a minute 
hook. The thorax is stout, projecting for about one-third of its 
length beyond the insertion of the fore wings. The abdomen 
is conic, untufted, produced more or less at the tip, and project- 
ing for half its length beyond the hind margins of the secondaries. 
The fore wings, which have eleven veins, are produced at the 
apex. Their outer margin is slightly and evenly bowed out- 
wardly. Their inner margin is very slightly sinuate. The hind 
wings have their outer margin evenly rounded, except at the 
extremity of vein i b, where they are slightly produced. The 
genus is well represented in the Old World, and there are several 
South American species. Only two species occur in our territory. 

75 



Sphingidoe 

(i) Celerio lineata Fabricius, Plate II,' Fig. 14, $ (The 
Striped Morning Sphinx.) 

Syn. daucus Cramer. 

This is probably the commonest of all the North American 
Sphingidse. The larva feeds upon Portulaca. There is con- 
siderable diversity in the maculation of the larva?. The two 
figures here given represent the two most usual forms of the 
caterpillar. The insect ranges over the southern portions of 




FIG. 34. Light form of larva of C. lineata. (After Riley.) 

British America to the Gulf of Mexico and southward to the 
Antilles and Central America. I have seen hundreds of the 
moths swarming about the electric lights in the streets of 
Denver, Cheyenne, and Colorado Springs. The moth flies con- 




FIG. 35. Dark form of larva of C. lineata. (After Riley.) 

stantly in bright sunshine on the Laramie Plains of Wyoming 
in the month of August, frequenting the blossoms of thistles. 
I have seen it busily engaged in extracting the sweets from dew- 
spangled beds of Soapwort (Saponaria), in the valleys of 
Virginia long after the sun had risen in the morning. 

(2) Celerio intermedia Kirby, Plate II, Fig. 20, ? . (The 
Galium Sphinx.) 

Syn. epilobii Harris (non Boisduval); chamanerii Harris; galii Walker; 
oxybaphi Clemens; canadensis Guene'e. 

This hawkmoth, which is the North American representant 
of Celerio gallii, which is found all over the north temperate 
regions of the Eastern Hemisphere, ranges from Canada to 

76 



EXPLANATION OP PLATE VII 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J 
Holland.) 

1. Pachysphinx modesta Harris, J 1 . 

2. Pachysphinx modesta occidental!* Henry Edwards, 9 . 

3. Sphinx cerisyi Kirby, 9 . 

4. Calasymbolus excoecata Abbot & Smith, c?. 

5. Protoparce rustica Fabricius, 9 

6. Chl&nogramma jasminearum Boisduval, 9 . 

7. Hyloicus drupiferarum Abbot & Smith, J 1 . 

8. Hyloicus chersis Hiibner, 9 . 



THE MOTH BOOK 




World of the Dark 

Vancouver and southward through the mountains of the 
Appalachian System and along the higher plateaus and mountain 
ranges of the West as far as Central Mexico. I have specimens 
taken in the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua. The identification 
of the species may easily be made by means of the figure 
on our plate. 

THE WORLD OF THE DARK 

" Sorrowing we beheld 

The night come on; but soon did night display 
More wonders than it veil'd; innumerous tribes 
From the wood-cover swarm'd, and darkness made 
Their beauties visible." 

SOUTHEY. 

There are two worlds; the world of sunshine, and the world 
of the dark. Most of us are more or less familiarly acquainted 
with the first; very few of us are well acquainted with the latter. 
Our eyes are well adapted to serve us in the daylight, but they 
do not serve us as well in the dark, and we therefore fail to 
know, unless we patiently study them, what wonders this 
world of the dark holds within itself. There are whole armies 
of living things, which, when we go to sleep, begin to awaken; 
and when we awaken, go to sleep. The eyes of the creatures 
of the dark are adapted to seeing with less light than our eyes 
require. The broad daylight dazzles and confounds them. 
Sunshine has much the same effect upon them that darkness has 
upon us. Our twilight is their morning; our midnight is their 
noonday. 

This is true even of many of the higher vertebrates. The 
lemurs, which are a low family of simians, are nocturnal in their 
habits. So also is the Aye-Aye of Madagascar, and that curious 
little member of the monkey tribe known as the Specter 
(Tar sins spectrum). No one can see the great eyes of these 
creatures without realizing at a glance that they love what we 
call d:irkness better than what we call light, though they are 
far from being evil-doers. The great family of the cats are 
principally nocturnal in their habits. Their eyes are capable of 
being used in daylight, for the beautifully contracting and ex- 
panding iris modifies the amount of light admitted to the retina 

77 



World of the Dark 

far more delicately and instantaneously than any device, attached 
to the most perfectly constructed camera, regulates the amount 
of light transmitted through its lens. The tiger in the jungle 
sees what is going on about him in the starlight as well as we 
see what is happening in the noontide. 1 have studied the 
eyes of lions and tigers in the dark. The yellowish- green iris in 
the night almost entirely disappears from view, and shrinks 
down into a narrow ring. The windows of the eyes have the 
curtains drawn back wide, so as to let in all the light which the 
darkness holds within itself. The great orbs then look like 
globes of crystal, framed in a narrow band of gold, lying on a 
background of the blackest velvet, while in their pellucid depths, 
fires, tinged with the warm glow of blood, play and coruscate. 

The eyes of many birds are adapted to the dark. This is 
true, as everybody knows, of the owls, and of their not distant 
relatives, the goat-suckers. I remember having, when a boy, 
dissected an owl, which I found dead after a long protracted 
period of intensely cold weather. The thermometer had stood 
at twenty degrees below zero for several nights in succession. 
The earth was wrapped deep in snow. Upon the sleety crust 
I found a great horned owl, lying dead, and frozen stiff. It may 
have died of old age, or it may have starved to death. The 
instinct of the child, who takes his toys to pieces in order to see 
how they are made, seized me, and, with a sharp penknife as a 
scalpel, and a few needles set in sticks of pine, I took my owl 
apart, and made drawings of what I found. I did not then 
know the names and functions of all the parts, but the drawing 
of the eye, which I made, I still have in an old portfolio, and 
there I saw it the other day. The eye of an owl is a wonderful 
piece of mechanism. It is a wide-angle lens of beautiful powers 
of adjustment. It is adapted to taking in all the light there is, 
when the light is almost all gone; and it is so contrived as to 
shut out light, when too much of its splendor would dazzle. 
and hurt. 

Among the insects thousands and tens of thousands of 
species are nocturnal. This is true of the great majority of the 
moths. When the hour of dusk approaches stand by a bed 
of evening primroses, and, as their great yellow blossoms 
suddenly open, watch the hawkmoths coming as swiftly as 

78 



World of the Dark 

meteors through the air, hovering for an instant over this 
blossom, probing into the sweet depths of another, and then 
dashing off again so quickly that the eye cannot follow them. 
My friend, Henry Pryer, had a great bed of evening primroses in 
his compound on the Bluff in Yokohama. Well I remember 
standing with him before the flowers, and, as the light began to 
fade upon the distant top of Fuji-no-yama, with net in hand 
capturing the hawkmoths, which came eagerly trooping to the 
spot. When it grew quite dark O-Chi-san held a Japanese 
lantern aloft to help us to see where to make our strokes. A 
dozen species became our spoil during those pleasant evenings. 
Ah ! those nights in Japan ! Can I ever forget them ? 

Did you ever reflect upon the fact that the wings of many 
moths, which lie concealed during the daytime, reveal their 
most glorious coloring only after dark, when they are upon the 
wing ? Take as an illustration, the splendid moths of the great 
genus Catocala, the Afterwings, as we familiarly call them. The 
fore wings are so colored as to cause them, when they are 
quietly resting upon the trunks of trees in the daytime, to look 
like bits of moss, or discolored patches upon the bark. They 
furnish, in such positions, one of the most beautiful illustrations 
of protective mimicry which can be found in the whole realm of 
nature. The hind wings are completely concealed at such times. 
The hind wings are, however, most brilliantly colored. In some 
species they are banded with pink, in others with crimson; still 
others have markings of yellow, orange, or snowy white on a 
background of jet-black. One European species has bands of 
blue upon the wings. These colors are distinctive of the species 
to a greater or less extent. They are only displayed at night. 
The conclusion is irresistibly forced upon us that the eyes of 
these creatures are capable of discriminating these colors in the 
darkness. We cannot do it. No human eye in the blackness of the 
night can distinguish red from orange, or crimson from yellow. 
The human eye is the greatest of all anatomical marvels, and the 
most wonderfu piece of animal mechanism in the world, but 
not all of power is lodged within it. There are other allied 
mechanisms which have the power of responding to certain 
forms of radiant energy to a degree which it does not possess. 

Let me commend to the study of my readers this world of the 

79 



Saturniidae 

dark of which I have been speaking. Some of the pleasantest 
excursions afield which can be made are those which the 
naturalist takes, when he has only moonlight or starlight to 
guide his steps. Always take a dark lantern with you. Without 
it you cannot see, and even with it you will not see much which 
it might be delightful to behold. But without a lantern you will 
not see a great deal, and you may in the thick wood get deeply 
mired in a boggy hole, or even break a limb. Your eyes are not 
made like those of the owl and the cat. Do not be afraid of the 
"night air." The air of the night has the same chemical com- 
position as the air of the day. It is cooler, of course, and some- 
times it has fog in it, but cool and even foggy air is not un- 
healthful. Scotchmen live half their lives in fog, but are healthy. 
The only things to be dreaded are the mosquitoes, carrying with 
them the germs of malaria, as we call it. These may be kept 
off if you only know how to anoint yourself with a properly 
prepared lotion. 

FAMILY SATURNIID/E 

"When ^hypocritically clad in dressing-gown and slippers, I stopped 
at my guest's inner door and Fontenette opened it just enough to let me 
hi, I saw, indeed, a wonderful sight. The entomologist had lighted up the 
room, and it was filled, filled ! with gorgeous moths as large as my hand 
and all of a kind, dancing across one another's airy paths in a bewildering 
maze, or alighting and quivering on this thing and that. The mosquito- 
net, draping almost from ceiling to floor, was Deflowered with them, 
majestically displaying in splendid alternation their upper and under 
colors, or, with wings lifted and vibrant, tipping to one side and another 
as they crept up the white mesh, like painted and gilded sails in a fairies' 
regatta." G. W. CABLE. 

This family is composed of moths, which are for the most 
part medium-sized or large. The larvae are cocoon-makers. The 
perfect insects have vein 8 of the hind wings .diverging from the 
cell from the base of the wings. The frenulum is wanting. The 
tongue is aborted, being at most extremely rudimentary. There 
are no tibial spurs on the legs. The antennae are either singly or 
doubly bipectinated to the tips in the case of the males, and 
often in the case of the females. Bipectination of the antennae 
occurs also in the family Ceratocampidce, but in the latter family 
it never extends to the tip of the organ. The family falls into 
three subfamilies: the Attacince; the Saturniince; and the Hemi- 

80 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of \7. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Samia cecropia Linnaeus, tf. 

2. Samia rubra Behr, <5\ 

3. Caliosamia angulifera Walker, <j\ 

4. Caliosamia angulifsra Walker, 9 . 

5. Automeris zephyria Grote, $ . 

6. Pinconia coo. Schaus, J 1 . 

7. Heteropacha rileyana Harvey, 9 . 

8. Samia Columbia Smith, $ . 

9. Anisota virginiensis Drury, <5\ 

10. Anisota virginiensis Drury, 9 . 

11. Anisoia rubicunda Fabricius, tf, 

12. Hylesia ahnda Druce, $. 



THE MOTH BOOK. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 



Saturniidae 

leucince. These subfamilies may be discriminated by the help of 
the following Key: 



Hind wings with one distinct internal vein. 
Discal cell of both wings open 
Discal cell of both wings closed 

Hind wings with two distinct internal veins 



Attacinae. 
Saturniinae. 
Hemileucmte. 




FIG. 36. Philosamia cynthia. 



a. Eggs; b. Larva; c. Cocoon; d. Pupa; e. Moth. 
(After Riley.) 

81 



Saturniidae 

SUBFAMILY ATTACIN/E 
Genus PHILOSAMIA Grote 

This genus, which may be distinguished from all others in our 
fauna by the tufted abdomen of the perfect insect, is represented 
by a single species, which, originally imported from the eastern 
parts of Asia, has become thoroughly acclimatized on the Atlantic 
seaboard in the vicinity of the larger cities, from which, as 
centres, it has spread to some extent to the surrounding country. 

(i) Philosamia cynthia Drury, Plate IX, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Ailanthus Silk-moth.) 

Syn. aurotus Fabricius; insularis Vollenhoven; vesta Walker; canningi 
Walker; walkeri Pelder; pryeri Butler. 

The cut (Fig. 36) and the representation on our plate obviate 
all necessity for mere verbal description of the species. The in- 
sect which was originally introduced into Europe about the 
middle of the last century was first introduced into America in 
the year 1861. It was hoped that it would prove a valuable silk- 
bearing species, but although a good grade of coarse silk may be 
made from it by the process of carding, and strong and service- 
able fabrics are manufactured from it in China, no method of 
successfully and economically reeling the cocoons has yet been 
invented. The caterpillar feeds upon the ailanthus, and these 
shade trees in some places have been known to be completely 
defoliated by the worms. 

Genus ROTHSCHILDIA Grote 

This characteristically neotropical genus may always be rec- 
ognized by the large more or less triangular translucent spots of 
the wings, and the general likeness to the species we figure 
upon our plate. The abdomen is without tufts. The antennae 
of both sexes are doubly bipectinated. The fore wings are 
generally considerably produced at the apex. Two species 
occur within our faunal limits. 

(i) Rothschildia orizaba Westwood, Plate X, Fig I, $. 
(The Orizaba Silk-moth.) 

From Rothschildia jorulla Westwood, the other species 
found in our territory, this is easily separated by its generally 
lighter color and the much larger size of the translucent spots 

82 



Saturniidae 

upon the wings. Both species occur in Arizona, where they 
are not, however, nearly as common as they are in Mexico. 

Genus SAMIA Hubner 

In this genus, composed of quite large moths, characterized, 
as are the moths of the two preceding and the next succeeding 
genera, by having the discal cells open, we find that the spots 
on the middle of the wings are opaque, not hyaline, as in the 
genus Rothschildia ; and, furthermore, the fore wings are more 
rounded and less produced than in that genus. 

(i) Samia cecropia Linnaeus, Plate VIII, Fig. i, $ ; Plate 
I, Fig. 8, larva. (The Cecropia Moth.) 

This splendid moth, which is very common, is one of a small 
number of our native silk-moths, which attract more or less 




FIG 37. Cocoon of Samia cecropia. (After Riley.) 

popular attention, and the spring of the year in our museums is 
always regarded as a period in which a certain portion of the 
time of the entomological staff will be consumed in replying to 
the letters of persons who, having for once opened their eyes to 
the wonders of the insect world, have sent in old matchboxes 
through the mails specimens of this insect, generally adding the 
information that the species is probably "new to science" or 
"excessively rare," they having for the first time in their lives 
noticed the moth. 

The larva feeds upon a great variety of deciduous trees and 
shrubs, though manifesting a predilection for the Rosacece, 
willows, maples, and the lilac. The cocoon is a familiar object. 
The insect is found over the whole Atlantic seaboard, and ranges 
westward to the eastern margin of the great plains. 



Saturniidae 

(2) Samia gloveri Strecker, Plate XII, Fig. 4, $ . (Glover's 
Silk-moth.) 

This species, which may be distinguished from the preceding 
by the more obscure, purplish color of the outer band, which 
in 5. cecropia is bright red, ranges over the region of the Rocky 
Mountains from Arizona in the south to Alberta and Assiniboia 
in the north. A small dwarfed form has been taken upon the 
high mountains of Colorado, to which Neumoegen gave the sub- 
specific name reducta. 

(3) Samia Columbia Smith, Plate VIII, Fig. 8, $ . (The 
Columbian Silk-moth.) 

This species, which is well represented in our plate, may be 
discriminated from its allies by its smaller size, and by the 
absence of the reddish outer shading of the transverse white line 
which crosses the wings about their middle. It ranges from 
Maine to Wisconsin, never, so far as is known at present, rang- 
ing south of the forty-first parallel of north latitude. While 
closely allied to 5. gloveri, it is much smaller, and the larva 
shows marked differences. The caterpillar feeds upon the larch. 
(4) Samia rubra Behr, Plate VIII, Fig. 2, $ . (The Ceano- 
thus Silk-moth. ) 

Syn. ceanoihi Behr; euryalns Boisduval; calij 'ornica Grote. 

The species which is easily separated from its congeners by 
its small size and prevalently redder cast of coloration, is found 
on the Pacific coast, ranging eastward to Utah and Wyoming, 
The larva feeds upon Ceanothus thyrsiflorus. 

Genus CALLOSAMIA Packard 

The structure of the moths of this genus is much like that of 
the preceding genus, but the species composing it may invari- 
ably be discriminated from others by the fact that the pectinations 
of the antennae of the females in the anterior pair on each joint 
are shorter than the posterior pair. The genus contains several 
species, two of which are common in portions of our territory, 
and the other is a straggler into our fauna from Mexico. 

(i) Callosamia promethea Drury, Plate I, Fig. 2, larva; 
Plate XI, Fig. II, , Fig. 12, ?. (The Spice-bush Silk-moth.) 

Every country boy who lives in the Atlantic States is familiar 
with the cocoons, which in winter and spring he has found 

84 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX 

(Except \.nen otherwise indicated the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Tele a polyphemus Cramer, $. 

2. Philosamia cynthia Drury, tf. 

3. Agapema galbina Clemens, d\ U. S. N. M. 

4. Automeris to Fabricius, <J*. 

5. Automeris io Fabricius, 9 

6. Automeris pamina aurosea Neumoegen, cJ 1 . 

7. Pseudohazis eglanterina nuttalli Strecker, (J 1 . 

8. Pseudohazis her a Harris, (J 1 . 

9. Zeuzera pyrina Linnaeus, <5* 



THE MOTH Boox 




Saturniidae 

hanging from the twigs of the spice-bush, the sassafras, and 
other trees. As they dangle in the wind they are easily de- 
tected, though they are often 
wrapped in the dead leaf in 
which the caterpillar originally 
spun them. The larva of which, 
in addition to the figure given in 
Plate I, we furnish a cut herewith, 
is a rather striking object, the 
coral-red tubercles on the second 
and third anterior segments 
showing conspicuously against 
the bluish-green epidermis. The 
insect subsists in the larval stage 
upon a great variety of deciduous 
shrubs and trees, showing a 





Fig. 38. Callosamia promethea. 
a, Young larva; b, front view of 
head; c, magnified view of a seg- 
ment of young larva; d, mature 
larva. (After Riley.) 



special predilection for the Lauracece, 
Liriodendron, Liquidambar, and the 
wild-cherry. It ranges over the Atlantic 
States from Florida to New England 
into southern Canada, and thence 
westward through the valley of the 
Mississippi to the eastern boundaries 
of the great plains. Whether the silk 
produced by this common and easily 
reared species could be utilized in 
such a way as to make its production commercially profitable 
is a problem to be solved in the future. No one up to 

8? 



Fig. 39. Cocoon of C. 
promethea. (After Riley.) 



Saturniidae 

the present time has succeeded either in reeling or carding 
the silk of the cocoons. 

(2) Callosamia angulifera Walker, Plate VIII, Fig. 3, $ , 
Fig. 4, ? . (The Tulip-tree Silk-moth.) 

This species may easily be discriminated from the last named 
by the fact that the males are not without discal spots as in that 
species, but have large angular white spots, causing them to 
resemble in this respect the females of C. promethea. The larva 
feeds commonly on the tulip-poplar (Liriodendron). The cocoon 
is not suspended from the twigs, as in the case of C. promethea. 

The only other species of the genus, which occurs in our fauna, 
is Callosamia calleta Westwood, which may be differentiated 
from the two foregoing species by the fact that it has a whitish 
band on the collar and at the base of the thorax. 

SUBFAMILY SATURNIIN^ 

The discal cells are closed. The antennae are pectinated in 
both sexes to the tip. The hind wings have but one internal 
vein distinctly developed. But four genera representing this sub- 
family are found within our territory. 

Genus AGAPEMA Neumcegen & Dyar 

The antennae of both sexes are doubly bipectinated, those of 
the female having both the anterior and posterior pectinations of 
equal length. Only one species is known. 

(i) Agapema galbina Clemens, Plate IX, Fig. 3, $ . (The 
Galbina Moth.) 

This interesting insect occurs in southern Texas, Arizona and 
Mexico. The larval stages have been described by Henry 
Edwards (see "Entomologica Americana," Vol. IV, p. 61). The 
specimen figured is considerably darker than the figures given 
by Strecker. Specimens as light as those he depicts have never 
fallen into the hands of the author. 

Genus ACTIAS Leach 

The species of this genus may easily be discriminated by their 
pale green color, and the tailed h.nd wings. The pectinations of 
the antennae in the female sex are shorter in the anterior pair on 

86 



Saturniidae 

each joint than the posterior pair. The genus is quite large, but 
only one species occurs in temperate North America. It is bettei 
represented in the Old World. 

(j) Actias luna Linnaeus, Plate XII, Fig. 7, 3. (The Luna 
Moth.) 

This common and well-known insect has an extensive range 
from Canada to Florida and westward to Texas and the trans- 
Mississippi States as far as the region of the great plains. The 
larva, of which we give 
a representation, feeds 
upon the various species 
of walnut and hickory, 
the sweet-gum (Liqui- 
dambar), the persimmon 
(Diospyros), and other 
trees. In North Caro- 
lina it appeared to be 
particularly fond of the 
persimmon. The cocoon 
is thin and papery, spun 
among leaves, and falls 
to the ground in autumn. 
In consequence it is not 
nearly as often found as those of some other species, which 
have been described in the preceding pages. 

Genus TELEA Hubner 

This is a very small genus, including only two or three 
species. It is confined to the New World. The only represen- 
tative in our faunal limits is the well-known species, which we 
figure. 

(i) Telea polyphemus Cramer, Plate IX, Fig. I, ?. (The 
Polyphemus Moth.) 

Syn. paphia Linnaeus; fenestra Perry; oculea Neumoegen. 

This very common moth feeds in the larval stage upon a 
great variety of trees and shrubs. I have found the caterpillar 
upon various species of oaks, upon the two species of Juglans, 
which grow in the Eastern States, upon hickory, basswood, elms, 
maples, birches, chestnuts, the sycamore (Platanus), wild- 

8? 




FIG. 40. Larva of A. luna. (After Riley.) 



Saturniidae 

roses, and the beech. Other observers have reported the larva 
as found upon a great variety of other trees. The caterpillar, 




FIG. 41. Larva of Telea polyphemus. (After Riley.) 

which is of a beautiful shade of green, is ornamented on the 
sides by raised lines of silvery white, and is altogether a beauti- 
ful object, so far as coloration is concerned. The cocoon is in 
form like that of Actias luna, but is much more dense, and, after 
it has been spun up, is injected by the larva with a fluid, which 
appears to precipitate a white chalky matter through the fibers 
after it has dried. Efforts to reel the silk have hitherto amounted 
to but little. The insect is double-brooded in the southern States. 

In Pennsylvania and north- 
ward it is single-brooded. 
The moth ranges across 
the entire continent and 
into Mexico in the South. 
We have given in Figure 5 
a representation of the 
FIG. 42. Cocoon of Telea polyphemus. pupa, in Figure io a cut 
(After Riley.) of the anten na greatly en- 

larged, and in Figures 41 and 42 are shown the larva and the 
cocoon. The latter, as is illustrated in the cut, is spun among 
leaves, and falls in the autumn to the ground. A number of 
aberrant forms and local races have been described, and there is 
considerable variety in the depth of the ground-color of the wings 

88 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE X 

(Except when otherwise indicated the specimens figured are in the 
collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Rothschildia orizaba Westwood, 9 

2. Basilona imperialis Drury, 9 . 

3. Cither onia regalis Fabricius, cT 

4. Cither onia mexicana Grote & Robinson, tf. 

5. Adelocephala bicolor Harris. cT. 

6. Adelocephala bicolor Harris, 9 

7. Syssphinx albolineata Grote & Robinson, cT 

8. Color adia pandora Blake, <$ . 

9. Malacosoma disstria Hiibner, c?, U. S. N. M. 

10. Malacosoma erosa Stretch, tf. 

11. Malacosoma californica Packard, c?. 

12. Malacosoma americana Fabricius, 9i U. S. N. M. 



Saturn iidae 

in a long series of specimens collected in the same locality. I 
have one or two fine melanic specimens, in which the wings are 
almost wholly black on the upper side. Albino specimens are 
also occasionally found. 

Genus SATURNIA Schrank 

This genus is represented in our fauna by a single species. 

(i) Saturnia mendocino Behrens, Plate XII, Fig. 6, $. 
(The Mendocino Silk-moth.) 

The insect inhabits northern California, where it is not 
uncommon. The larva feeds upon Arctostaphylos tomentosa. 

Genus AUTOMERIS Hxibner 

Four species of this genus occur within our borders. Three 
of them we figure on our plates. The other, Automeris ^elleri 
Grote & Robinson, may be distinguished from those we give by 
its much greater size, the female expanding fully five inches 
across the wings, and having three broad brown bands parallel 
to the margin of the hind wing, a large blind ocellus in the 
middle of that wing, and the fore wings purplish brown, marked 
with darker brown spots at the base, the end of the cell, and on 
the limbal area. 

(1) Automeris pamina Neumoegen, Plate IX, Fig. 6, $. 
(The Pamina Moth.) 

The figure we give is taken from an example of the form 
called aurosea by Neumcegen, in which the hairs along the inner 
margin of the hind wings are somewhat more broadly rosy red 
than in the specimens which he indicated as typical. The 
specimen was labeled by, and obtained from, the author of the 
species. 

(2) Automeris zephyria Grote, Plate VIII, Fig. 5, ? . 
(The Zephyr Silk-moth.) 

This beautiful insect which is found in New Mexico, is well 
delineated in our plate, and may easily be discriminated from 
other species by the white transverse lines of the fore wings. 

(3) Automeris io Fabricius, Plate IX, Fig. 4, $ , Fig. 5, $ . 
(The Io Moth.) 

Syn. corollaria Perry; varta, Walker; fabricii, Boisduval; argus 
Neumoegen & Dyar. 

8 9 



Saturniidae 

This common insect, which ranges from Canada to 
Florida, and westward and southward to Texas and 
Mexico, subsists in the larval stage upon a large variety of 

trees and shrubs; in fact, the 
caterpillar is almost omnivo- 
rous. The larva is a beautiful 
object, the body being green, 
ornamented with a lateral 
stripe of pink and creamy 
white and covered with 
clusters of branching spines. 
These are possessed of sting- 
ing properties, and the cater- 
pillar should be handled with 
extreme care, if painful con- 
sequences are to be avoided. 
In spite of this defense the 
larvae are greatly liable to 
the attack of ichneumon 

which 




Fio. 43.-Larva of Aulonteris io. 

(After Riley.) tudes of them. 

Genus HYLESIA Hiibner 

This is a neotropical genus of small size, one species of 
which, common enough in Mexico, is occasionally found in 
Arizona. It is a true Saturnian, the secondaries having but one 
inner vein and the discal cells in both wings being closed. 

(i) Hylesia alinda Druce, Plate VIII, Fig. 12, $. (The 
Alinda Moth.) 

The specimens I have were taken on the Mexican border of 
Arizona. So far as I remember, nothing has been written upon 
the life-history of the species. 

SUBFAMILY HEMILEUCIN^E. 

The moths of this subfamily may be structurally differentiated 
from their near allies by the fact that the hind wings have two 
distinct internal veins, i a and i b. The antennas of the male 
insect in the genus Coloradia are doubly bipectinated. In the 

90 



Saturniidae 

genera Hemileuca and Psettdoha^is, the antennae of the males 
are singly bipectinated. In the former genus the females have 
bipectinated antennae; in the latter the females have the antennae 
serrate, or very feebly pectinated. 

Genus COLORADIA Blake 

(i) Coloradia pandora Blake, Plate X, Fig. 8, $. (The 
Pandora Moth.) 

The range of this insect is from the eastern foot-hills of the 
Rocky Mountains to the Cascades, and from Montana to Mexico. 

Genus HEMILEUCA Walker 

Eight species of this genus are known from our territory, 
four of which we figure. H. electra Wright has the hind wings 
more or less red with a black border. H. grotei is a black 
species with a white collar, and a series of narrow white spots 
covering the middle of the wings, three on the fore wing, and 
those on the hind wing composing a narrow median band. 
H. neumcegeni is a beautiful insect with snowy white thorax and 
reddish brown abdomen. The wings are snowy white with 
orange discal marks crossed by two black bands on the pri- 
maries and one on the secondaries, the inner line of the primaries 
being relieved externally by an orange spot bordered with black. 
H. hualapai NeumcEgen has the wings dull pink, either without 
markings, or crossed by two pale lines. The form with the pale 
transverse lines has been dubbed sororius by Henry Edwards. 

(i) Hemileuca maia Drury, Plate XI, Fig. i, $. (The 
Buck-moth.) 

Syn. proserpina Fabricius. 

In the fall of the year, when the leaves are falling and the 
days are still mellow and warm, the Buck-moths may be seen 
flitting through the air at noonday. They especially frequent the 
edges of groves of oaks. Upon the twigs of these trees, as well 
as occasionally upon willows, wild cherry-trees, and hazels, they 
deposit their eggs in clusters, as represented in Figure 44. The 
larvae, which are gregarious and have stinging spines or bristles 
upon the somites, hatch in the latter part of April or in May, 
according to latitude, and after undergoing five molts, pupate in 

91 



Saturniidae 

the ground. The moths emerge in the fall, though a few winter 
over in the soil until the next spring, when they emerge, or 
they may even remain dormant until the following fall. 

The wings are semi-translucent, and in some 
specimens are apparently almost devoid of 
scales. The insects are diurnal, or semi-crepus- 
cular in their habit, and 1 have never known 
them to be attracted to artificial light. The 
name "Buck-moths" is said to have been given 
to them because they fly at the time when deer- 
stalking is in order. 

The insect ranges from Maine and Nova 
Scotia to Florida 
and westward to 
the eastern edge of 
the great plains. 
In the Carolinas it 
is very common, especially in 
groves of the Black-jack Oak, 
which grow on barren up- 
lands. 

(2) Hemileuca neva- 
densis Stretch, Plate XI, 
Fig 2, $. (The Nevada 
Buck-moth.) 

Syn. californica Wright ; 
artemis Packard. 

This species, which 
closely resembles the pre- 
ceding, may be distin- 



FIG. 44. Eggs 
of Buck-moth. 
(After Riley.) 




guished from it by the 

much wider expanse of the 

transverse discal bands in 

both wings, and the much 

redder tuft of anal hairs. 

It may be a mere local race of Hemileuca maia, 

authors have recently accorded it specific rank. 

(3) Hemileuca juno Packard, Plate XII, Fig. 8, 
Juno Moth.) 

Syn. yavapai Neumcegen. 

92 



FIG. 45. Buck -moth; a, mature 
larva; b, pupa; c-d, bristles on larvae in 
first stage; e, thoracic spine in second 
stage; /, spine in third stage; g, spine 
in fifth stage. (After Riley.) 



but most 



(The 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J 
Holland.) 

1. Hemileuca maia Drury, cJ 1 . 

2. Hemileuca nevadensis Stretch, <5\ 

3. Pseudohazis her a pica Walker, tf . 

4. Pseudohazis her a pica Walker, 9 . 

5. Pseudohazis eglanterina nuttalli Strecker, <^- 

6. Ctenucha brunnea Stretch, c?. 

7. Tolype velleda Stoll, J* . 

8. Tolype velleda Stoll, 9 . 

9. Anisota stigma Fabricius, <5*. 

10. Anisota stigma Fabricius, 9 

11. Callosamta promethea Drury, $. 

12. Callosamia promethea Drury, 9- 

13. Basilona imperialis Drury, (J*. 

14. Sys sphinx heiligbrodti Harvey, $. 

15. Cargida pyrrha Druce, c?. 

16. Fenaria longipes Druce, J 1 - 

17. Xanthopastis timais Cramer, 9- 

1 8. Euchcctias murina Stretch, 9 

19. Copidryas cosyra Druce, <j\ 

20. Apantesis intermedia Stretch, cJ 1 - 



THE MOTH BOOK 




Saturniidae 

This beautiful moth occurs in Arizona and northern Mexico. 

(4) Hemileuca tricolor Packard, Plate XII, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Tricolor Buck-moth.) 

This species, like the preceding, is found in Arizona and in 
New Mexico. The larvae feed upon the Grease-wood, according 
to report. 

Genus PSEUDOHAZIS Grote & Robinson 

This is a small genus of rather striking and exceedingly vari- 
able insects, the life histories of which have not been as thor- 
oughly studied as is desirable. The moths appear to be diurnal 
in their habits, and may be found in vast numbers in the morn- 
ing hours on bright days in their favorite haunts in the region of 
the Rocky Mountains. I have found them particularly abundant 
about Laramie Peak in Wyoming in the latter part of June and 
July. They appear to frequent flowers in company with diurnal 
lepidoptera, as. the various species of Argynnis, and they may 
then be easily taken. Their flight is rapid. They are character- 
istic of the country of the sage-brush, and the ranges of the 
western sheep-herder. 

(l) Pseudohazis eglanterina Boisduval. 

Form nuttalli Strecker, Plate IX, Fig. 7, $ ; Plate XI, Fig. 5, 
$ . (Nuttall's Sheep-moth.) 

Syn. shastaensis Behr; denudata Neumoegen. 

The two figures given on our plates show two forms of this 
well-known insect. Whatever the amount of black or purple 
upon the fore wings the specimens may always be distinguished 
from others by the presence just beyond the discal spot of the 
fore wings of a longitudinal dash of Indian yellow. This is 
characteristic, and I have never failed to find it in a long series 
of specimens, no matter how the other markings varied. 

(2) Pseudohazis hera Harris, Plate IX, Fig. 8, $ . (The 
Hera Moth. ) 

Form pica Walker, Plate XI, Fig. 3, $ ; Fig. 4, ? . (The 
Magpie Moth.) 

This extremely variable moth is represented by the typical 
form in the figure given upon Plate IX, and in the figures given 
upon Plate XI by two specimens showing the form, which is 

93 



Ceratocampiden 

most common in Colorado and Wyoming, in which the wings 
are greatly suffused with black. To this form Walker's name 
pica properly applies. 

FAMILY CERATOCAMPIDy^ 

" In Nature's infinite book of secrecy 
A little I can read." SHAKESPEARE. 

This family contains moths of large or medium size, the 
larvae of which do not produce cocoons, but undergo transforma- 
tion in the ground. The larvae are generally more or less orna- 
mented with spines and bristly protuberances. The moths have 
the tongue developed, but nevertheless feebly. The tibial spurs 
are present. The frenulum is lacking. The genera belonging to 
this family are American, and only five of them occur within our 
faunal limits. 

Genus ANISOTA Hubner . 

Of the five species, recognized as belonging to this genus and 
occurring within our borders, we have selected three for repre- 
sentation. Anisota senatoria, a common species found in the 
Atlantic States, is distinguished from its very near ally, Anisota 
virginiensis, not only by marked differences in the larval stage, 
but by the fact that the females are almost exactly like the female 
of Anisota stigma, profusely covered with black spots or freck- 
lings on the wings, while the females of virginiensis, as shown 
in the plate, are almost wholly destitute of such spots. The 
males of these two species are almost alike, the only difference 
being that the male insect in the case of -virginiensis is somewhat 
darker than in the case of Anisota senatoria, and less ochreous. 

(i) Anisota stigma Fabricius, Plate XI, Fig. 9, 3 ; Fig. 
10, $. (The Stigma Moth.) 

The caterpillar feeds upon various species of oak. It is orna- 
mented with short spines upon the segments, arranged in rows, 
those on the second segment from the head being long and 
recurved. The color of the larvae at maturity is a dull reddish 
brown, marked with small creamy-white and gray punctulations. 
The insect occurs in the Appalachian faunal region, from Canada 
to the Carolinas, and westward to Kansas and Missouri. 

94 



Ceratocampidae 

(2) Anisota virginiensis Drury, Plate VIII, Fig. 9, $ ; Fig. 
10, ? . (The Virginian Anisota.) 

Syn. astymone Olivier; pellucida Herrich-Schaeffer. 

The male insect has the fore wings almost transparent about 
the middle, as is the case with Anisota senatoria. as has already 
been pointed out, but the female is not heavily spotted, as is the 
case in that species. The caterpillar feeds upon oaks. The moth 
has the same geographical distribution as the preceding species. 

(3) Anisota rubicunda Fabricius, Plate VIII, Fig. n, $, 
(The Rosy Maple-moth.) 

The larva of this beautiful moth feeds commonly upon the 
silver-maple, which in many of our western cities has been 
extensively planted as a shade-tree. The depredations it commits 
upon the foliage have subjected it to the indignation of arbori- 
culturists. It was 
formerly very com- 
mon in the city of 
Pittsburgh, but for 
many years past it 
has almost entirely 
disappeared, so that 
it is now regarded as 
a rather rare insect by 
local collectors. The 
disappearance of the 

moth is due no doubt e 

to the combined influ- 
ence of the electric 
lights, Which annually FlG - 4<3. Anisota rubicunda. a. larva; b. 
VP u P a ; c - female moth. (After Riley.) 

destroy millions of 

insects, which are attracted to them, and to gas-wells, and 
furnaces, which lick up in their constantly burning flames other 
millions of insects. Perhaps the English sparrow has also had a 
part in the work of extermination. In Kansas the insect is very 
common. I recently saw in the city of Atchison numerous 
maples, which had almost been stripped of their leaves by these 
larvae. The range of the insect is practically the same as that of 
the other species of the genus. 




95 



Ceratocampidae 

Genus ADELOCEPHALA Herrich-Schaeffer 

As in the preceding genus, vein 1 1 of the fore wing is stalked 
with veins 6-8, but the outer margin of the wing is not straight 
as in that genus, and longer than the internal margin, but it is 
convex and shorter than the inner margin. There are a number 
of species belonging to the genus, which are indigenous in 
Central and South America, but only one occurs within our 
borders. 

(i) Adelocephala bicolor Harris, Plate X, Fig. 5, $ ; Fig. 6, 
? . (The Honey-locust Moth.) 

Syn. distigma Walsh. 

The larva feeds upon the Honey-locust (Gleditschia) and the 
Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus). It is a rather common 
insect in the valley of the Ohio, and ranges from the region of 
the Great Lakes southward to Georgia and Kansas. 

Genus SYSSPHINX Hubner 

The insects assigned to this genus by recent writers do not 
differ greatly in structure from those referred to the preceding 
genus. The principal structural differences consist in the fact 
that the antennae of the females are somewhat shorter and less 
strongly pectinated, and the abdomen is generally longer, in some 
species greatly exceeding the hind margin of the hind wings. 
The genus is well represented in Mexico and Central America. 
Only four species occur in our territory, two of which we figure, 
(i) Syssphinx albolineata Grote & Robinson, Plate X, Fig. 
7, $ . (The White-lined Syssphinx.) 

Syn. raspa Boisduval. 

The figure we give is sufficient to enable the student to iden- 
tify this species which is common in Mexico, and also occurs in 
southern Arizona. 

(2) Syssphinx heiligbrodti Harvey, Plate XI, Fig. 14, ? . 
(Heiligbrodt's Syssphinx.) 

This very pretty moth, which may easily be determined by 
the help of the figure we give, is not uncommon in southern 
Arizona. The caterpillar feeds, it is said, upon Grease-wood 
bushes. 

96 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII 

(Except when otherwise indicated the specimens figured are in the 
collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Cossus centerensis Lintner, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

2. Hypopla berthbldi Grote, 9 

3. Hypopta henrici Grote, c?, U. S. N. M. 

4. Samia gloveri Strecker, cT. 

5. Artace punctistriga Walker, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

6. Saturnia mendocino Behrens, cJ 1 . 

7. Actias luna Linnaeus, (J 1 . 

8. Hemileuca juno Packard, cJ 1 . 

9. Hemileuca tricolor Packard, c?. 



THE MOTH BOOK 




Ceratocampidae 
Genus CITHERONIA Hubner 

This genus of large and showy moths is characteristically 
neotropical, having its metropolis in Central America. Three 
species occur in our territory, two of them having an extensive 
northern range. 

1 i) Citheronia regalis Fabricius, Plate I, Fig. 4, larva ; Plate 

X, Fig. 3, $ . (The Royal Walnut-moth.) 

Syn. regia Abbot & Smith. 

The caterpillar, which is known by boys as the "Hickory 
Horn-devil," feeds upon a great variety of trees and shrubs, 
showing a decided preference for the walnut and butternut, the 
persimmon, and several species of arborescent sumac (Rhus). 

(2) Citheronia sepulchralis Grote & Robinson, Plate XLI, 
Fig. 5, $ . (The Pine-devil Moth.) 

The larva, which is smaller and more obscurely colored than 
that of the preceding species, feeds upon various species of pine, 
and the insect ranges from the Carolinas northward to Massa- 
chusetts along the coast. It is not uncommon in the valley of 
the Potomac, and at Berkeley Springs I have found it abundant in 
the larval state in the months of July and August. 

(3) Citheronia mexicana Grote & Robinson, Plate X, Fig. 
4, $ . (The Mexican Walnut-moth.) 

This species, which is in many respects very closely allied to 
C. regalis, occurs in Arizona, and southward. 

Genus BASILONA Boisduval 

The only representative of this genus within the limits of the 
United States is the species which is illustrated on our plates. 
There are a number of other species, which are Mexican or South 
American. 

(i) Basilona imperialis Drury, Plate X, Fig. 2, ? ; Plate 

XI, Fig. 13, $ . (The Imperial Moth.) 

Syn. imperaioria Abbot & Smith; punctatissima Neumregen. 

The larva feeds upon a vast number of trees and shrubs, and 
may almost be described as omnivorous. The larvae are eithei 
brown or green, the color having nothing whatever to do with 
the character of the perfect insects, which emerge from the 
pupae. Such cases of dichromatism among larvae are not at all 
uncommon. 

97 



Syntomidae 

FAMILY SYNTOMID/E 

" Whoever looks at the insect world, at flies, aphides, gnats, and innumerable 
parasites, and even at the infant mammals, must have remarked the extreme 
content they take in suction, which constitutes the main business of their life. If 
we go into a library or news-room, we see the same function on a higher plane, 
performed with like ardor, with equal impatience of interruption, indicating the 
sweetness of the act." EMERSON. 

This family, which quite recently has been monographed by 
Sir George F. Hampson, consists of moths which are small, or 
at most of medium size. They are diurnal in their habits, and 
frequent flowers. At first glance, they often are mistaken 
for wasps and other hymenoptera, which they mimic. The 
following characterization of the family is quoted from the 
learned author, to whom reference has just been made: 

" Proboscis usually well developed, but sometimes aborted; 
palpi short and porrect, long and downcurved, or upturned; 
frons rounded; antennae simple, ciliated, or bipectinate, usually 
with short branches dilated at extremity in both sexes; tibiae 
with the spurs short. Fore wing usually with the terminal area 
broad; vein \a forming a fork with \b, \c absent; 5 from below 
middle of discocellulars ; 7 stalked with 8, 9. Hind wing small; 
vein i a often absent; \c absent; 8 absent, rarely rudimentary 
and not reaching costa; frenulum present; retinaculum bar- 
shaped." Hampson, Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalcznce, 
Vol. 1, p. 20. 

Eleven genera comprised within this family are recognized by 
recent writers as holding place in the fauna of the United States 
and Canada. Most of these are southern, and represent a 
northern movement of the great complex of genera and species 
referable to the family, which inhabits the hot lands of equa- 
torial America. 

Genus COSMOSOMA Hubner 

This is a large genus, including at least eighty species, which 
are found in Central and South America. Only one species is, 
at present, known to occur within our faunal limits. 

(i) Cosmosoma auge Linnaeus, Plate XIII, Fig. I, $. 
(The Scarlet-bodied Wasp-moth.) 

Syn. omphale Hubner; melitta Moschler. 
9 8 



Syntomidac 

This beautiful little insect occurs throughout the tropics of 
the New World, and is not rare in southern Florida. The larval 
stages have been described by Dyar (see "Psyche," Vol. VII. 
p. 414). The caterpillar feeds upon Mikania scandens.. 

Genus SYNTOMEIDA Harris 

The type of this genus is Syntomeida tpomece. Six species 
have thus far been assigned to it, two of these occuring in the 
extreme southern portions of our territory. 

1 i ) Syntomeida ipomeae Harris, Plate XIII, Fig. 3 9 . 
(The Yellow-banded Wasp-moth.) 

Syn. ferox Walker; euterpe Herrich-Schseffer. 

This species is confined to the southern States along the 
borders of the Gulf of Mexico. The caterpillar, which according 
to report feeds upon the Convolvulacece, remains to be fully 
described. 

(2) Syntomeida epilais Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 2, $. 
(The Polka-dot Wasp-moth. ) 

The larva has been described by Dyar (see Journal New 
York Entomological Society, Vol. IV, p. 72, and " Insect Life," 
Vol. II, p. 360). The caterpillar feeds upon Nerium odorum. 

Genus PSEUDOMYA Hubner 

This is a small neotropical genus, including, so far as is 
known, but eight species, one of which occurs in the extreme 
southern part of Florida. 

(i) Pseudomya minima Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Lesser Wasp-moth.) 

The caterpillar, which has been described by Dr. H. G. 
Dyar in " Psyche," Vol. VIII, p. 42, feeds upon Myginda 
ilicifolia. 

Genus DIDASYS Grote 

Only one species has hitherto been referred to this genus. 
It is found in Florida. 

(i) Didasys belae Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 7, $, Fig. 8 ?. 
(The Double-tufted Wasp-moth.) 

As shown in our plate, the male has the end of the 
abdomen ornamented by two tufts, while the female is devoid 

99 



Syntomidae 

of these appendages. The insect is found on the Indian River 
in Florida, and southward. 

Genus HORAMA Hubner 

Ten species compose this genus, of which only one is found 
within the limits of the United States. 

(i) Horama texana Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 9, $. (The 
Texan Wasp-moth.) 

No difficulty should be experienced in identifying this moth 
by the help of the figure which is given. 

Genus EUCEREON Hubner 

Sixty-two species, all inhabiting the hot lands of North and 
South America, are assigned by Hampson to this genus. The 
only one thus far known to occur within the limits of the 
United States is figured on our plate. 

(i) Eucereon confine Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XIII, Fig. 10, 
$ . (The Floridan Eucereon.) 

Syn. Carolina Henry Edwards. 

This interesting little moth, which was described by Henry 
Edwards under the name Nelphe Carolina, had been figured by 
Herrich-Schaeffer under the specific name above cited thirty-two 
years before. It is rare in Florida, but is common in the 
Antilles, Mexico, and Central America. 

Genus LYMIRE Walker 

This is a small genus comprehending only five species. Its 
only representant within our borders was originally assigned by 
Grote to the genus Scepsis, which it superficially resembles. 

(i) Lymire edwardsi Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. II, $. 
(Edwards' Wasp-moth.) ., 

The larval stages, thanks to the labors of Dr. H. G. Dyar, are 
known. The caterpillar feeds upon Ficus pedunculata. The 
insect, when pupating, spins a small cocoon of hair and silk. 
For fuller knowledge upon the subject the reader is referred to 
"Insect Life," Vol. II, p. 361. 

Genus SCEPSIS Walker 

Three species of this genus, which does not range far into the 
Mexican territory, are recognized. Two of these we figure; 

100 



Syntomidae 

the third, Scepsis packardi Grote, =matthewi Grote, is a trifle 
larger in size, than the other two, much paler in color, and 
inhabits Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. 

(1) Scepsis fulvicollis Hubner, Plate XIII, Fig. 12, $. 
(The Yellow-collared Scape-moth.) 

Syn. semidiaphana Harris. 

This common insect, the larva of which feeds upon grasses, 
has a wide range from Canada to the Gulf States, and westward 
to the Rocky Mountains, and southward to Chihuahua in 
Mexico. The moths frequent the blossoms of the golden-rod 
(Solidago) in the late summer. 

(2) Scepsis wrighti Stretch, Plate XIII, Fig. 13, $ . (The 
White-collared Scape-moth.) 

The habitat of this species is southern California. The speci- 
men figured was sent me by Mr. Wright, labeled " Type," and 
may be accepted as typical of the species. 

Genus LYCOMORPHA Harris 

A small genus of moths, diurnal in their habits, having a 
preference for the flowers of the Compositor, upon which they 
may frequently be found in their habitats. 

( i ) Lycomorpha grotei Packard, Plate XIII, Fig. 14, ? . 
(Crete's Lycomorpha.) 

Syn. palmeri Packard. 

This pretty little insect occurs in Colorado and thence south- 
ward to Texas. So far as recalled by the writer its larval stages 
have not as yet received attention from any of our American 
students of the lepidoptera. 

(2) Lycomorpha pholus Drury, Plate XIII, Fig. 15, 6. 

This common insect, but not the less beautiful because it is 
common, is widely distributed throughout the United States. 
The larva is said to feed upon lichens. 

Genus CTENUCHA Kirby 

This genus, which includes about twenty species, is quite 
well represented in our fauna. Figures of all the species occur- 
ring within our territory are given in the plates. 

(i) Ctenucha venosa Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 20, $ . (The 
Veined Ctenucha.) 



Syntomidse 

From Ctenucha cressonana, its nearest ally, this species may 
be distinguished by its smaller size, the reddish tint of the stripes 
upon the fore wings and the edges of the shoulder lappets, and 
the fact that the fringe opposite the end of the cell on both wings 
is marked by fuscous, and not uniformly white throughout 
as in C. cressonana. The species ranges from Colorado to 
Mexico. 

(2) Ctenucha cressonana Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 21, $. 
(Cresson's Ctenucha.) 

This species, which is one of the largest in the genus, may 
easily be recognized by the figure we give and the remarks 
made in connection with what has been said in regard to the 
preceding species. 

(3) Ctenucha brunnea Stretch, Plate XI, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Brown-winged Ctenucha.) 

Easily recognized by the pale brown color of the primaries, 
upon which the veins stand forth in a darker shade of brown: 

(4) Ctenucha multifaria Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 19, $. 
(The Californian Ctenucha.) 

This species, which is closely allied to the next, may be dis- 
criminated by the fact that the fore wings are lighter in color, 
the collar is black, not orange spotted with black, as in C. 
rubroscapus, and the costal margin of the primaries is nar- 
rowly edged with white. 

(5) Ctenucha rubroscapus Menetries, Plate XIII, Fig. 
22, $ . (Walsingham's Ctenucha.) 

Syn. walsinghami Henry Edwards. 

This species, which may be distinguished by the aid of what 
has been said under the preceding species, as well as by our 
figure, may have the edges of the shoulder lappets either red, as 
in our figure, or orange yellow. It is found in the Pacific States. 

(6) Ctenucha virginica Charpentier, Plate XIII, Fig. 18, $ . 
(The Virginian Ctenucha.) 

Syn. latreillana Kirby. 

This moth, which is not at all uncommon in the northern 
portions of the Appalachian faunal region, may be found in the 
tetitude of New York City and Pittsburgh frequenting the blos- 
scms of blackberries at the end of May and in June. The larva 
feeds, as do the larvae of the other species, upon grasses. 

102 



Lithosiiclae 

Genus DAHANA Grote 

Only one species, the type of the genus, is known. 

(i) Dahana atripennis Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 23, $ . (The 
Black-winged Dahana.) 

The habitat of this species is southern Florida. The insect 
does not appear to be common in collections. 



FAMILY LITHOSIID/E 

"You would be another Penelope: yet, they say, all the yarn she spun 
in Ulysses's absence did but fill Ithaca full of moths." 

SHAKESPEARE, Coriolanus, I, 3. 

The moths belonging to this family have the larvae of the 
usual form displayed by the Arctiidae, with all of the prolegs 
present. They feed principally upon lichens. They pupate in 
cocoons spun up of silk, in which the hairs of the larva are 
mingled. 

The perfect insects, or imagoes, are of medium size or small. 
As a family, they present many variations in structure, both as 
to the venation of the wings and secondary sexual characteris- 
tics. The following general characterization of the group is 
taken from Hampson, "Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae," 
Vol. II, p. 80: 

" Proboscis usually well developed, but often aborted; palpi 
usually short and porrect, sometimes reaching well beyond the 
frons, often upturned, rarely reaching above the vertex of the 
head; antennae of male usually with bristles and cilia, often bipec- 
tinate, sometimes dilated or with tuft of scales on upper side of 
shaft; ocelli absent; tibiae with the spurs usually moderate, some- 
times long or absent. Fore wing typically long and narrow, but 
in a large section, short and broad, the narrow winged genera 
having vein 5, and often vein 4, absent. Hind wing with 
vein 8 coincident with the cell from base to one-third or to 
near end of cell." 

About a dozen genera have thus far been recognized as 
represented in the fauna of the region of which this book 
treats. 

103 



Lithosiidae 

Genus CRAMBIDIA Packard 

This small genus, consisting of moths displaying delicate 
shades of slaty-gray, pale yellow, or pearly white upon their 
wings, is represented in our fauna by six species, three of 

which we figure, one of them 
being hitherto undescribed. 
The genus falls into two sec- 
tions, in the first being included 
those species in which there is 
no areole in the fore wing, and 




FIG. 



, $ -f 



the areole developed. The first 

section is represented by Crambidia pallida, and contains, in 
addition, the species named lithosioides and uniformis by Dyar ; 
ihe second section is represented by Crambidia casta, and con- 
tains, in addition, the species named cephalica by Grote & 
Robinson, and the species herein described and named allegheni- 
ensis. The structure of the insects is sufficiently well set forth 
in the two cuts we give, which have been kindly furnished by 
Sir George F. Hampson, with the permission of the Trustees of 
the British Museum. 

(1) Crambidia pallida Packard. (The Pale Lichen-moth.) 
The moth is uniformly brownish-grey, with the hind wings 

a trifle paler than the fore wings. The wings on the under 
side are lighter than on the upper side. The species occurs 
in the northern Atlantic States. 

(2) Crambidia casta Sanborn, Plate XIII, Fig. 30, $ . (The 
Pearly-winged Lichen-moth.) 

On the under side the fore 
wings and the costal area of 
the hind wings are fuscous, 
and in some specimens the 
upper side of the wings is 
also slightly touched with pale 
fuscous. The insect appears 

to be not uncommon in Colorado and ranges thence south 
and north toward the Pacific coast. 

(3) Crambidia allegheniensis, sp. nov., Plate XIII, Fig. 31, $ . 
(The Alleghenian Lichen-moth.) 




FIG. 48. -Crambidia casta, $ . 



104 



Lithosiidae 

The head and anterior portions of the thorax are pale yellow. 
The patagia are of the same color. The thorax and the abdomen 
on the upper side are pale slaty-gray. The legs and the tip of 
the abdomen on the under side are ochreous, the middle of the 
abdomen on the under side being dark slaty-gray. The fore wing 
on the upper side is slaty-gray, with the costa evenly edged with 
pale yellow. The hind wings are translucent white. On the 
under side the wings are marked as on the upper side, but paler. 
The insect is slightly smaller than casta. It occurs in western 
Pennsylvania. The type, which is in the collection of the author, 
was taken by him in East Pittsburgh. 

Genus PALPIDIA Dyar 

The genus is represented by only one species, so far as is now 
known. 

(i) Palpidia pallidior Dyar. ( Dyar's Palpidia. ) 
This insect, a drawing of the type 
of which is given in the annexed cut, 
has the fore wings pale ochreous, with the 
interspaces between the veins strongly 
irrorated with dark scales. The hind FIG. 49 . Pa//>tfa 
wings are whitish. It is as yet a rare pallidior , ? . f 

insect in collections, and has only 
been recorded from Cocoanut Grove, in Dade County, Florida. 

Genus LEXIS Wallengren 

The genus Lexis is of moderate size, all of the species 
referred to it, with the single exception of the one figured 
on our plate, being inhabitants of the Old World. The 
metropolis of the genus appears to be southern Asia and 
the adjacent islands. One species is recorded from Australia, 
and the species, which is the type of the genus, is found in 
East Africa. 

(i) Lexis bicolor Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 29, $. (The 
Yellow-edged Lexis). 

Syn. argillacea Packard. 

The moth is pale slaty-grey, with the head, patagia, and 
anal tuft yellow. The fore wings are bordered on the costa 

105 




Lithosiidae 

with pale yellow, the band of this color running out to nothing 
before it quite reaches the apex. The specimen figured on 
the plate came from Colorado. It is also said to occur in 
Canada and the northern portions of the United States. 

Genus HYPOPREPIA Hubner 

A small genus of North American moths, all the species of 
which occur within the territory covered by this book. The 
insects closely resemble each other, and the student who has 
learned to recognize one of them cannot fail to refer the others 
correctly to their genus. It is not, however, so easy to discrimi- 
nate the species. The following little key, which is taken from 
Hampson's Catalogue, Vol. II, page 515, may help the student 
in making correct specific references : 

1 . Ground-color of the fore wing wholly scarlet miniaia 

2. Ground-color of the fore wing yellow and crimson fucosa 

3. Ground-color of the fore and hind wings yellow cadaverosa 

4. Ground-color of the fore wing fuscous brown, of the hind 

wing whitish inculta 

(1) Hypoprepia miniata Kirby, Plate XIII, Fig. 41, $. 
(The Scarlet-winged Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. viitata Harris; subornata Neumoegen & Dyar. 

This rather common insect ranges from Canada to the 
Carolinas and westward in the region of the Great Lakes to 
Minnesota. It comes freely, as do all the species of the genus, to 
light, and I have found it very abundant at times about the 
lamps in the village of Saratoga, New York. I have taken it at 
Asheville, North Carolina, and at the White Sulphur Springs in 
West Virginia, but have never received specimens from low 
altitudes on the Virginian and Carolinian coasts. 

(2) Hypoprepia fucosa Hubner, Plate XIII, Fig. 42, $ . 

(The Painted Lichen-moth.) 

Syn . tricolor Fitch ; plumbea Henry 
Edwards. 

This species, which may be 
easily distinguished from the 

^ i preceding by the fact that the 
FIG. 50. Hypoprepia fucosa, T- f. v. 

(After Hampson.) tip of the abdomen is not 

marked by a dark fuscous 

spot, and by the narrower marginal band of the secondaries, 

106 




Lithosiidae 



as well as by the difference in the color of the wings, is a com- 
mon species in the Atlantic States, and ranges westward into 
the basin of the Mississippi. 

Genus H^EMATOMIS Hampson 

This little genus includes, so far as is now known, but two 
species, both of which are Mexican, but one of which ranges 
into southern Arizona. The species are separated as follows by 
Hampson : 



Fore wing with yellowish streaks, on costa, through cell, and 



. . . .mextcana 
. . , .uniformis 

Fig. 34, $ 




FIG. 51. H&matomismexicana, $ 
(After Hampson.) 



on inner margin 

2. Fore wing with pale streak on the costa only 

(i) Haematomis mexicana Druce, Plate XIII 
(The Mexican Lichen- 
moth.) 

With the help of the illus- 
trations we have given the 
student should have no great 
difficulty in identifying this 
little moth. 

Genus COMACLA Walker 

This genus is represented in our fauna by two species. One 
other occurs in Europe and northern Asia, and another in 
tropical Africa. The two American species are very much 
alike in appearance, and it is difficult to distinguish worn 
or rubbed specimens. The following key will be of some 
assistance: 
i. Wings pale mouse gray, translucent; collar and abdomen 

ochreous; apex of fore wings rounded simplex Walker 

2. Wings and body uniformly 
pale mouse gray, wings trans- 
lucent only about the mid- 
dle, sprinkled with blackish 
scales and marked by an 
obscure discal dot, apex of 
fore wings less rounded and 
' more nearly square than in 




FIG. 52. Comacla simplex, $ 
(After Hampson.) 



preceding species.} uscipes Grote 

(i) Comacla simplex Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 34, $ . (The 
Mouse-colored Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. murina Walker; clarus Grote & Robinson; texana French. 

107 



Lithosiidae 

The species is common in Texas. C. fuscipes occurs in 
Arizona. 

Genus BRUCEIA Neumcegen 

One species is reckoned in this genus, the structural char- 
acters of which are well shown in the cut we give. 

(i) Bruceia pulverina 
Neumoegen, Plate XIII, Fig. 
33, $ . (The Powdered 
Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. hubbardi Dyar. 

The insect named hub- 




FIG. 53. Bruceia pulverina, S . 
(After Hampson.) 



bardi by Dyar seems to be 
only a smaller form of B. 
pulverina. 

Genus CLEMENSIA Packard 

To this genus Sir George F. Hampson refers a dozen species. 
All of these are inhabitants of the hot lands of America, except 
the species we figure. Cisthene lactea Stretch is by Hampson 
referred to the genus ttlice. Dr. Dyar places it in the genus 
Clemensia. The species is unknown to the writer, and does 
not exist in any collection which he has examined, so that we 
shall not attempt to discuss the vexed question of its proper 
location. 

(i) Clemensia albata Pack- 
ard, Plate XIII, Fig. 38, <$. (The 
Little White Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. albida Walker ; cana Walker ; 
umbrata Packard ; irrorata Henry 
Edwards ; patella Druce ; philodina 
Druce. 

The insect ranges from New 
England to Mexico and westward to the Pacific coast. 

Genus ILLICE Walker 

This is a moderately large genus comprising nearly thirty 
species, the most of which are found in tropical America. 
It has been subdivided into three sections, or subgenera, by 
Hampson. In the second section, equivalent to O^onadia, a 
genus erected by Dyar, are placed those species, in which 

108 




FIG. 54. Clemensia albata, $ . 
(After Hampson.) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 



the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Cosmosoma auge Linnseus, c? 1 . 

2. Syntomeida epilais Walker, tf. 

3. Syntomeida ipomece Harris, 9 23 

4. Triprocris rata Henry Edwards, 24 

cJ 1 - 2 5 

5. Triprocris latercula Henry Ed- 36 

wards, d> , U. S. N. M. 

6. Pseudomya minima Grote, c? , 27 

U. S. N. M. 28 

7. Didasysbelce Grote, cMJ.S.N.M. 29 

8. Didasys belce Grote, 9 . 30 

9. Horama texa na Grote, (?. 31 

10. Eucereon confine Herrich- 

Schaeffer, 9 , U. S. N. M. 32 

11. Lymire edwardsi Grote, 9- 33 

12. Scepsis fulvicollis Hiibner, 9- 

13. Scepsis wrighti Stretch, c?, 34 

type. 35 

14. Lycomorpha grotei Packard , 9- 36 

15. Lycomorpha pholus Drury, tf. 

1 6. Triprocris constans Henry Ed- 37 

wards, c?- 38 

17. Lycomorpha fulgens Henry Ed- 

wards, 9 . 39 

1 8. Ctenucha virginica Charpentier, 40 

9- 

19. Ctenucha multif aria Walker, 9 , 41 

U. S. N. M. 42 

20. Ctenucha venosa Walker, tf. 43 

21. Ctenucha cressonana Grote, J 1 . 44 

45. Kodiosoma fulva 



. Ctenucha rubroscapus Menetries, 
9 , U. S. N. M. 

. Dahana atripennis, Grote, c?. 

. Nola ovilla, Grote (J 1 . 

. Celama triquetrana Fitch, (J 1 . 

. Celama pustulata Walker, <5\ 
U. S. N. M. 

. Rceselia fuscula Grote, 9 

. Ptychoglene phrada Druce, tf . 

. Lexis bicolor Grote, tf. 

. Crambidia casta Sanborn, tf. 

. Crambidia allegheniensis Hol- 
land, c?. 

. Nigetia formosalis Walker, J 1 . 

. Bruceia pulverina Neumoegen, 
tf. 

. Comacla simplex Walker, cJ 1 . 

. Illice subjecta Walker, cT . 

. Illice unifascia Grote & Robin- 
son, (J 1 . 

. Illice nexa Boisduval, (J 1 . 

. Clemensia albata Packard , c^ 
U. S. N. M. 

. H&matomis mexicana Druce, c? . 

. Pygoctenucha funerea Grote, 9 , 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. 

. Hypoprepia miniata Kirby, 9 

. Hypoprepia fucosa Hiibner, $. 

. Kodiosoma eavesi Stretch, tf . 

. Kodiosoma tricolor Stretch, c?. 

Stretch, <?. 



THE MOTH BOOK 




Lithosiidae 

the nind wing is slightly produced at the anal angle. Here 
come two of the species found in our fauna, /. schwar^iorum 
and /. unifascia. In the third section, typical Illice, fall the 
species in which the anal angle is not produced. Here are 
placed five species. The student may find the following key 
helpful in determining his specimens: 

A. Hind wing slightly produced at the anal angle. 

Lappets and markings of fore wing yellow, hind wings 
crimson, fuscous at apex. 

1 . Fore wing with the band across the wing crimson on the 

inner margin ........................ schwarziorum Dyar 

2 . Fore wing with the band across the wing not crimson on 

the inner margin ........................ unifascia Grote 

B. Hind wing not produced at the anal angle. 
Abdomen crimson ; fore wing slaty-gray in ground color. 

1. Fore wing with crimson patch on the costa ....... subjecta Walker 

2. Fore wing without crimson patch on costa, and with a pink 

streak on the inner margin at the base . . . .striata Ottolengui 

3. Fore wing with whitish patch about the middle of the inner 

margin ................................ plumbea Stretch 

Abdomen orange or yellowish. 

1. Hind wing pale yellow, with apex blackish ........ nexa Boisduval 

2. Hind wing smoky-gray .................... faustinula Boisduval 

(i) Illice unifascia Grote 
& Robinson, Plate XIII : Fig. 
36, ? . (The Banded Lichen- 
moth.) 

Syn. lenuifascia Harvey. 

The insect ranges from 
the Ohio Valley southward to 




FlG . 55 .niice unifascia, $ . 
(After Hampson.) 



Texas, and from Virginia to Florida. The transverse band 

is often interrupted in the 
middle of the wing, and there 
is variation in the color of 
the hind wings, which, while 
usually red or crimson, may 
FIG. 56. Illice subjecta, $ . f al so be orange, or even 

(After Hampson.) yellow. 

(2) Illice subjecta Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 35, $ . (The 
Subject Lichen-moth.) 
Syn. packardi Grote. 




109 



Lithosiidae 

The distribution of this species is much the same as that 
of the preceding. Its range is slightly more northern than 
that of /. unifascia. 

0) lllice nexa Boisduval, Plate XIII, Fig. 37, $. (The 
Yellow-blotched Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. grisea Packard; deserta Felder. 

This species is found upon the Pacific coast, and is not 
uncommon in southern California. 

Genus PTYCHOGLENE Felder 

A small genus confined to the southwestern portions of 
our territory. The four species occurring within our fauna 
may be briefly characterized as follows: 

1 . Head, thorax, base of abdomen, basal two-thirds of prima- 

ries and basal half of secondaries bright carmine ; black 
marginal borders of both wings strongly dentate 
inwardly coccinea Henry Edwards 

2. Head, thorax, and abdomen black; fore wings crimson, 

narrowly edged with black on inner margin, and with 
a black marginal band covering the wing for about one- 
fifth of its length, dentate inwardly opposite end of 
cell. Hind wing blackish-brown, more or less broadly 
laved with crimson on costal margin phrada Druce 

3. Head, thorax, and abdomen black; fore wing crimson, with 

the costal margin narrowly edged with black; terminal 
black band of the same width as in the preceding 
species, but not dentate inwardly. Hind wing pale 
yellowish crimson, with the outer marginal band 
1 strongly toothed inwardly on vein 2 sanguineola Boisduval 

4. Head, thorax, and abdomen, deep black; patagia crimson; 

fore wings deep crimson, very narrowly edged on 
external margin with black, extending on costal margin 
a short distance from the apex toward the base. Hind 
wings deep bluoblack, very narrowly edged on the 
costa with crimson, the crimson fascia not quite reach- 
ing the apex tenuimargo sp. nov. 

(1) Ptychoglene phrada Druce, Plate XIII, Fig. 28, $. 
(Druce's Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. flammans Dyar. 

(2) Ptychoglene tenuimargo sp. nov., Plate XIII., Fig. 
17, ?. (The Narrow-banded Lichen-moth.) 

no 



Lithosiidae 

The type of this species, which I have received in recent 
years from Arizona and in great abundance from the State of 
Chihuahua in Mexico, is figured upon our plate. 

Genus PYGOCTENUCHA Grote 

A small genus containing three species, two of which are 
found within the limits of the United States. They may be 
discriminated as follows: 

1. Uniformly black, collar-lappets and tip of abdomen ochre- 

yellow ; size small funerea Grote 

2. Head, thorax, and abdomen black shot with brilliant blue; 

fore coxae, tegulae, patagia, and anal tuft scarlet, the 
latter white in the female ; fore wings black shot with 
green; hind wings black shot with blue. Fully one- 
third larger than preceding species terminates Walker 

(1) Pygoctenucha funerea Grote, Plate XIII., Fig. 40, $. 
(The Funereal Lichen-moth.) 

The specimen figured on our plate was kindly loaned for 
the purpose by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
The insect occurs in New Mexico. 

(2) Pygoctenucha terminalis Walker. (The Blue-green 
Lichen-moth.) 

Syn. harrisi Boisduval; pyrrhoura Hulst; votiva Henry Edwards. 

This insect, referred by Hampson to his genus Protosia, 
must be placed here, Pygoctenucha having priority over 
Protosia, which falls as a synonym. 

Genus LERINA Walker 

Only one species belongs to this genus. It was originally 
named by Walker, and made the type of the genus. Subse- 
quently it was redescribed by Boisduval as Ctenucha robinsoni, 
under which name it has 
passed current in American 
collections until recently. 

(i) Lerina incarnata 
Walker. (The Crimson- 
bodied Lichen-moth.) FIG. 57. Lerina incarnata, $ . f 

Syn. robinsoni Boisduval. (After Hampson.) 

The head, tegulae, and patagia, with the terminal half of 
the abdomen are deep crimson. The rest of the body and 

III 




14 Splitters " and " Lumpers " 

its appendages are black. The wings are bronzy-green. The 
insect inhabits Mexico and southern Arizona. 

"SPLITTERS" AND "LUMPERS" 

Every true naturalist is called upon to exercise the faculty of 
discrimination and the faculty of generalization. His work 
trains him to detect dissimilarities on the one hand and like- 
nesses on the other. His judgments as to likeness are expressed 
in the genera, the famiies, the orders, which he proposes. His 
judgment as to dissimilarities is most frequently expressed in his 
views as to species. When the two faculties of discrimination 
and generalization are well balanced and accompanied by the 
habit of patient observation, ideal conditions are reached, and 
the work of the naturalist in classification may be expected to 
stand the test of time. But where, as is often the case, one of 
these faculties is exalted at the expense of the other, there 
are certain to result perversions, which will inevitably cause 
trouble to other students. When a man cultivates the habit of 
discrimination to excess, he is apt to become, so far as his labors 
as a systematist are concerned, "a splitter." A "splitter" 
magnifies the importance of trivial details; he regards minute 
differences with interest; he searches with more than micro- 
scopic zeal after the little things and leaves out of sight the lines 
of general resemblance. Huber, the celebrated naturalist, said 
that by patient observation he had come to be able to recognize 
the different ants in a hill, and, as one by one they emerged from 
their subterranean galleries, he knew them, as a man living upon 
a certain thoroughfare in a great city comes at last to know by 
sight the men and women who are in the habit of daily passing 
his windows. No doubt the critical eye can detect as great 
individual differences in the lower animal world as are to be 
detected among men. A student comes to apply himself with 
great zeal to searching out and describing these differences, and 
when he undertakes to say that because of them one form 
should be separated specifically from another he becomes "a 
splitter." 1 recall an entomologist whose chief weapon of 
research was a big microscope. He would take a minute insect 
and study it until he was able to number the hairs upon its head. 
Then he would describe it, giving it a specific name. The next 

112 



" Splitters " and " Lumpers 

specimen he would subject to the same critical process, and if 
the number of hairs was not just the same, or a small wart was 
detected here or there, or a bristle grew in a place where 
a bristle did not grow in the specimen previously examined, it 
too, was described and a specific name was given it. It was as 
if a man, sitting and looking out on the throng upon Broadway, 
should resolve to give every individual a specific name and 
should declare he had seen as many species of men as he had 
seen men passing his window. The labors of such naturalists 
may be highly entertaining to themselves, but they are, to say 
the least, provocative of unpleasant feelings in the minds of 
others who come after them and are compelled to deal with and 
review their labors. 

The "lumper," on the other hand, is a man who detects no 
differences.' "All cocoons look alike to me!" he says. Any two 
moths which are of approximately the same size and the same 
color, are, by him, declared to belong to the same species. 
Questions of structure do not trouble him. General re- 
semblances are the only things with which he deals. No 
matter if eggs, larvae, legs, veins, and antennas are different it 
is "all one thing" to him. His genera are " magazines," into 
which he stuffs species promiscuously. The "lumper" is the 
horror of the "splitter," the "splitter" is anathema to the 
" lumper"; both are the source of genuine grief and much hard- 
ship to conscientious men, who are the possessors of normally 
constituted minds and truly scientific habits. Nevertheless, we 
are certain to have both "splitters" and "lumpers" in the 
camps of science until time is no more. "This kind goeth 
not forth" even for "fasting and prayer." 

" Look at this beautiful world, and read the truth 

In her fair page ; see every season brings 
New change to her of everlasting youth 

Still the green soil, with joyous living things 
Swarms the wide air is full of joyous wings." 

BRYANT. 



FAMILY ARCTIID^ 

"AH diamonded with panes of quaint device, 
Innumerable of stains, and splendid dyes, 
As are the Tiger Moth's deep damask wings." 

KEATS. 

"There is another sort of these caterpillers, who haue no certaine place 
of abode, nor yet cannot tell where te find theyr foode, but, like vnto 
superstitious Pilgrims, doo wander and stray hither and thither (and like 
Mise), consume and eat vp that which is none of their owne ; and these 
haue purchased a very apt name amongst vs Englishmen, to be called 
Palmer-worms, by reason of their wandering and rogish life (for they 
neuerstayin one place, but are euer wandering) , although by reason of 
their foughnes and ruggednes some call them Beare-wormes. They can 
by no means endure to be dyeted, and to feede vpon some certaine herbes 
and flowers, but boldly and disorderly creepe ouer all, and tast of all 
plants and trees indifferently, and liue as they list." TOPSELL, History of 
Serpents, p. 105 (1608). 

This is a large family including many genera and reckon- 
ing, according to recent lists, over two thousand species. 
The family is represented in our fauna by thirty-eight genera, 
and at least one hundred and twenty species. 

The following characterization of the family is adapted from 
Hampson, with special reference to the genera occurring within 
our territory: 

Proboscis more or less aborted in the typical genera Arctia, 
Diacrisia, and allies, fully developed in most neotropical 
genera, and in Utetheisa and its allies; palpi slight and porrect, 
or well developed and upturned; ocelli present; eyes rarely 
hairy; antennae pectinate or ciliate; tibial spurs typically small, 
but often well developed, the hind tibiae with the medial spurs 
absent in a few genera and the fore tibiae in others with curved 
apical claw, the mid and hind tibiae rarely spined. Wings 
usually well developed. Fore wing with vein \a separate from 
\b; *, from near lower angle of cell or well below angle of 
discocellulars; 6 from or from near upper angle; areole present 
in many genera. Hind wing with vein \a present; \c absent' 

114 



Arctiidae 

4 often absent; 5 from near lower angle of cell or well below 
angle of discocellulars; 6, 7 sometimes coincident; 8 coin- 
cident with the cell from or almost from base to near middle, 
or extremity of the cell and even in some genera beyond the 
extremity of the cell. In the genus Halisidota vein 8 is obsolete. 
The larvae have all the prolegs and are generally profusely 
clothed with hairs. They pupate in cocoons woven of silk 
mixed with the hairs which are shed during the process of 
spinning. The caterpillars of some species have received the 
common appellation of "woolly bears," and the moths are 
familiarly known as "tiger-moths." 

Genus HOLOMELINA Herrich-Schseffer 

The names Eubaphe and Crocota, proposed by Hubner, 
and applied recently by some writers to this group of insects, 
being what are known to students as nomina nuda, cannot 
stand. 

It may be said in passing that this genus from a classi- 
ficational standpoint is in a very unsatisfactory condition, so far 
as some of the species are concerned. The "Splitters" and the 
"Lumpers" have been hard at work upon it, and inasmuch as 
the insects show very little purely structural variation, and 
vary greatly in color and size, there has resulted great con- 
fusion. Within the limits of the space assigned to us in the 
present compendium we have not the opportunity to discuss 
these questions, but suggest to our readers that there is here 
an opportunity to use both eyes and mind to advantage in 
solving some of the vexed points. The test of breeding should 
be rigorously applied, and the larval stages of the insects 
should be critically observed. 

(1) Holomelina ostenta Henry Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 
17, $ . (The Showy Holomelina.) 

This conspicuous and very beautifully colored insect- ranges 
from Colorado through New Mexico and Arizona into Mexico. 

(2) Holomelina opella Grote, Plate XIV, Fig. 23, $ . (The 
Tawny Holomelina.) 

Syn. obscura Strecker; rubricosta Ehrman. 

This species is rather common in Pennsylvania and the 
Atlantic States as far south as Georgia. 

"5 



Arctiidae 

Form belmaria Ehrman, Plate XIV, Fig. 24, $. 
(Ehrman's Holomelina.) 

This insect, a paratype of which is figured as above cited, 
is regarded by Dr. Dyar as a varietal form of H. opella. The 
author is inclined to question the correctness of this determi- 
nation, because all specimens of the moth so far seen, and a 
considerable series has come under observation, appear to be 
structurally different from H. opella, in so far forth that the 
fore wings are narrower, longer and more produced at the 
apex. The mere fact that they are always black in itself could 
hardly constitute a valid ground for specific discrimination. 

(3) Holomelina immaculata Reakirt, Plate XIV, Fig. 20, 
$ . (The Plain-winged Holomelina.) 

The range of this species is the same as that of the 
preceding. 

(4) Holomelina diminutiva Grasf, Plate XIV, Fig. 22, ? . 
(The Least Holomelina.) 

Very common in Florida, and apparently quite constant in 
size and markings. It is sunk as a synonyn of aurantiaca, form 
rubicundaria, by Dyar, but the writer is not willing to admit 
that this is correct. 

(5) Holomelina brevicornis Walker, Plate XIV, Figs. 
19, 21, ? . (The Black-banded Holomelina.) 

Syn. belfragei Stretch. 

This species has also been sunk as a synonym of aurantiaca 
by recent writers, but with doubtful propriety. It is common 
in the Gulf States and particularly in Louisiana and Texas. 

(6) Holomelina quinariaGrote, Plate XIV, Fig. 18, $. (The 
Five-Spotted Holomelina.) 

Syn. choriona Reakirt; bimaculata Saunders. 

Characterized by the creamy white spots upon the fore 

wings. The depth of color of the primaries varies much, from 

dark brown to pale ferruginous, the specimen 'figured being 

representative of the latter form. The spots also vary much 
in size. 



'And there's never a blade nor a leaf too mean 
To be some happy creature's place." 

LOWELL. 

116 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 



the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Eupseudosoma involutum Sepp, 

dMJ. S. N. M. 

2. Bertholdia irigona Grote, $ . 

3. Pareuchtetesinsulata Walker, 9 

4 . Pareuchcetes eglenensis .Clemen s , 

9. 

5. Opharus astur Cramer, J 1 . 

6. Hemihyalea edwardsi Packard, 

9- 

7. Hemihyalea labecula, Grote, tf . 

8. Halisidoia argentata Packard, 

J. 

g. Halisidota argentata Packard, 
9- 

10. Halisidota carycE Harris, c?. 

11. Halisidota maculata Harris, J 1 . 

12. Halisidota tessellaris Abbot & 

Smith, tf. 

13. Halisidota cinct ipes Grote, c?. 

14. ^Emilia roseata Walker, 9 

15. ALmilia ambigua Strecker, &. 

16. Halisidota longa Grote, c?. 

17. Holomelina ostenta Henry Ed- 

wards, cJ 1 . 



1 8. Holomelina quinaria Grote, cJ 1 . 

19. Holomelina brevicornis Walker, 

9. 

20. Holomelina immaculata Reakirt, 

d- 

21. Holomelina brevicornis W T alker, 

9 , var. 

22. Holomelina diminutiva Grsef , J 1 . 

23. Holomelina opella Grote, J 1 . 

24. Holomelina belmaria Ehrman, 

9 , paratype. 
2 5 . Leptarctia California Walker, 9 . 

26. Leptarctia dimidiata Stretch,^ . 

27. Leptarctia decia Boisduval, <3\ 

28. Leptarctia lena Boisduval, (J 1 . 

29. Neoarctia beani Neumoegen, 9 , 

U. S. N. M. 

30. Neoarctia brucei Henry Ed- 

wards, <5*. 

31. Phragmatobia fuliginosa Lin 

naeus, 9 

32. Diacrisia rubra Neumoegen, 9 

U. S. N. M. 

33. Diacrisia vagans Boisduval, (J 1 . 



34. Diacrisia vagans Boisduval, 9- 



THE MOTH BOOK. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 19'.i3. 




Arctiidae 

Genus DODIA Dyar 

Only one species has thus far been assigned to this genus. 
It was named Dodia albertae by Dr. Dyar in the year 1901. 
The description both of the genus 
and the species will be found in the 
Journal of the New York Entomologi- 
cal Society, Vol. IX, p. 85. The an- 
nexed cut (Fig. 58) is taken from 
the type of the species in the United 
States National Museum. The in- *" S*-Dodia oB**.. 
sect has thus far only been found in the Territory of Alberta. 

Genus UTETHEISA Hubner 

A genus of small extent, represented both in the Old 
World and the New by nine species, two of which occur 
within our territory. 

(i) Utetheisa bella Linnaeus, Plate XV, Fig. 27, ?. (The 
Beautiful Utetheisa.) 

Syn. hybrida Butler; intermedia Butler; terminalis Neumcegen & Dyar. 

This common moth, which frequents the blossoms of the 
golden-rod (Solidago) in the late summer and fall, is widely 
distributed in the States of the Atlantic seaboard, and shows 
some tendency to local variation. 

(2) Utetheisa ornatrix Linnaeus, Plate XVII, Fig. 8, g . 
(The Ornamented Utetheisa.) 

Syn. stretchi Butler; pura Butler. 

This species may easily be distinguished from the preceding 
by the washed-out appearance of the primaries. In the form 
named pura by Butler the fore wings are white, immaculate, 
except for the red costal streak. The species is common in the 
Antilles, and occurs in southern Florida. 

Genus HAPLOA Hubner 

The genus Haploa, which is confined to our territory, has 
furnished a great deal of amusement to classificationists, who 
have busied themselves with the spots and markings on the 
wings of the species, which are very variable. In a long 
series of specimens of any one of the species it will be found 

117 



Arctiidae 

that scarcely two are exactly alike in the amount of black 
or white displayed upon the fore wings. The reader will 
do well in this connection to consult the Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum, Vol. X, pp. 338-353, where 
Prof. John B. Smith has written upon the subject, the Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XIX, p. 181 et seq., where Mr. H. H. Lyman 
has presented his views, and the Plate given by Mr. F. A. 
Merrick in the Entomological News for 1903, in which the 
extreme variability of H. lecontei in a given locality is 
illustrated. 

(1) Haploa clymene Brown, Plate XVII, Fig. 7, $. (The 
Clymene Moth.) 

Syn. interruptomarginata De Beauvois; comma Walker. 

This is one of the most constant species of the genus, 
and may easily be recognized by the figure we have given upon 
the plate. It ranges from southern New England to Georgia, 
and westward to the Mississippi. The larva feeds upon 
Eupatorium it is said, and the writer believes that the state- 
ment, which has been called in question, is correct, for, although 
he has never reared the larvae to maturity himself, he has observed 
the female moth ovipositing upon this plant in southern Indiana. 
It is also said to feed upon willows. 

(2) Haploa colona Hiibner, Plate XVII, Fig. 2, 9. (The 
Colona Moth.) 

Syn. Carolina Harris. 

Form consita Walker, Plate XVII, Fig. 5, $ . 

Syn. lactata Smith. 

This species, which is the largest of the genus, is very 
variable in the amount of the black shown upon the fore wings. 
We give two extremes. Other forms are recognized. The 
insect has its metropolis in the southwestern States, though it 
occurs also very sparingly in the northern Atlantic States, and 
more commonly in the southern Atlantic States. It is common 
in Texas. 

(3) Haploa lecontei Boisduval (Leconte's Haploa). 
Form dyari Merrick, Plate XVII, Fig. 9, &. 

Form militaris Harris, Plate XVII, Figs. 4, 10, $ ; 
Fig. i, 9 . 

Form vestalis Packard, Plate XVII, Fig. 3, $ . 

118 




FIG. 59. Haploa 
lecontei, $ . 



ArctJM* 

This is a protean species, of which a half dozen, or more, 
forms have been recognized, named, and described. We give in 
our cut (Fig. 59), a figure of the wings of 
a specimen, which agrees in its markings 
with the specimen figured by Boisduval, 
the author of the species, in his Plate given 
in the Regne Animal. Such specimens 
come in the form of their maculation very 
near the next species, which has been 
differentiated by Lyman under the name 
confusa. Haploa lecontei ranges from 
New England to Georgia and westward to the Mississippi. 
It is a very common insect in western Pennsylvania. The cater- 
pillar feeds upon Triosteum perfoliatum, and in localities where 
this plant is abundant the moths may be found in swarms at 
the end of. May and the beginning of June. 

(4) Haploa confusa Lyman, Plate XVII, Fig. 6, $ . (Lyman's 
Haploa.) 

This form, or species, is well represented in our plate. It 
appears to be constant, and is indigenous to the New England 
States. The specimen figured came from the neighborhood of 
Claremont, New Hampshire. 

(5) Haploa contigua Walker. (The Neighbor.) 

The cut we give (Fig. 60), shows the maculation of the 
wings of this species sufficiently well to 
enable it to be separated at once from its 
congeners. It occurs in the Atlantic region 
from New England northward and westward. 
It is found in the Catskills and the Adiron- 
dacks, and probably occurs in the mountains 
of northern Pennsylvania, although I do not 
recall any reference to its having been taken 
in that State, nor have I seen it on the 
Alleghenies, where I have passed several 




FIG. 60. Haploa 
contigua, $ 



summits of 
summers. 



the 



Genus EUERYTHRA Harvey 

There are two species of this genus known, Euerythra 
phasma Harvey, which is represented in the accompanying cut 

119 . 



Arctiidae 



(Fig. 61), and Euerythra trimaculata, which is figured on 
Plate XVI, Fig. 4. The insects occur in Texas and Arizona. 
They are not common in collections as yet, and so far as the 




PIG. 61. Euerythra phasma, $ . |. (After Hampson.) 

writer recalls, their larval habits have not been described. The 
student who desires to study the structure of the genus should 
consult Hampson's Catalogue, or Prof. Smith's Paper pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 
Vol. X, p. 335 et seq. 

Genus ECPANTHERIA Hubner 

This is a large genus, well represented in the tropics of 
America. Only two species occur within the limits of our 
fauna, Ecpantheria muzina Oberthur, which is found in 
Texas as a straggler from the Mexican territory, and Ecpan- 
theria deflorata Fabricius, which is more commonly known 
by its synonymical name, scribonia, 
given to it by Stoll. The larva of 
this handsome moth is itself a 
beautiful object. It is deep black, 
clothed with black hairs, and at 
the junction of the somites, or 
segments of the body, it is banded 
with rings of crimson. The male 
of the perfect insect is figured on 
Plate XVI. Fig. 16, and in the 
accompanying cut we give a figure 
of the larva. The Eyed Tiger-moth 
ranges from southern New England, where it is rare, through 
the southern parts of the United States into Mexico. It is 
quite common in the Carolinas, and in my boyhood I derived 
much pleasure from rearing the larvae, which fed very freely 
upon the plantain (Plantago). 

1 20 




6 



FIG. 62. E. deflorata; a larva; 

b magnified hair of larva. 

(After Riley.) 



Arctiidae 

Genus TURUPTIANA Walker 

There are eight species in this genus, but only one of them 
occurs within the limits of the United States. 

(i) Turuptiana permaculata Packard, Plate XVI, Fig. 
15, $' (The Many-spotted Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. reducta Grote ; caeca Strecker. 




FIG. 63. Turuptiana permacvlaia, $ . |. (After Hampson.) 



This neat moth is found in Colorado and thence southward 
as far as Arizona and Mexico. 

Genus LEPTARCTIA Stretch 

There is only one species in this genus, but the single 
species by assuming protean colors has caused a great multi- 
plication of names: We have figured a few of the varietal 
forms. 

(i) Leptarctia California; Walker, Plate XIV, Fig. 25, <?. 

Form lena Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 28, $ . 

Form decia Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 27, $. 

Form dimidiata Stretch, Plate XIV, Fig. 26, $ . 

The moth is found in southern California, where it is quite 
/ommon. The student will have little trouble in recognizing 
the commoner varieties by the help of the figures we have 
given, but these are only a few of the forms which occur. 



And with childlike credulous affection 
We behold those tender wings expand, 
Emblems of our own great resurrection. 
Emblems of the bright and better land." 

LONGFELLOW. 



Arctiidae 



Genus SEIRARCTIA Packard 



(i) Seirarctia echo Abbot & Smith, Plate I, Fig 10, larva; 
Plate XVI; Fig. 23, 9 . (The Echo Moth.) 

Syn. niobe Strecker. 

This beautiful moth, the caterpillar of which feeds upon the 




FIG. 64. Seirarctia echo, $ . \. (After Hampson.) 

sabal palmetto, occurs in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and 
Mississippi. 

Genus ALEXICLES Grote 



Alexicles Moth.) 




FIG. 65. Alexicles 
aspersa, $ . 



(i) Alexicles aspersa Grote. (The 

This moth is referred by Hampson 
to Hyphantria. It may belong there, 
but I leave it in the genus erected for 
it by Grote. The abdomen is 
vermilion-colored, with black dorsal 
spots. The wings are dark brown, 
the primaries somewhat lighter than 
the secondaries and showing obscure 
darker spots, arranged in transverse bands. 

Genus ESTIGMENE Hubner 

There are reputed to be four species of this genus found 
within the United States. Albida Stretch 
is possibly only an extreme white varia- 
tion of E. acrcea. E. prima Slosson is 
represented in Fig. 66. It is found in the 
New England States, northern New York, 
FIG. 66.Estigmene and Canada. The three species just named 
prtma, $ . a jj a g ree j n having the abdomen yellowish 
or orange above, and ornamented dorsally by a series of black 

122 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Apantesis rectilinea French, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

2. Arctia caia, var. wiskotli Staudinger, 9 . 

3 . A pantesis determinata Neumoegen , c? 

4. Apantesis proximo Guerin-Me"ncville, 9 

5. Arcita caia Linnaeus, 9 

6. Apantesis phalerata Harris, 9 . 

7. Apantesis nevadensis Grote & Robinson, cJ 1 . 

8. Apantesis persephone Grote, tf . 
g. Apantesis virguncula Kirby, (J 1 . 

10. Apantesis persephone Grote, 9 

11. Apantesis virgo Linnaeus, (J 1 . 

12. Apantesis figurata Drury, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

13. Apantesis parthenice Kirby, c?. 

14. Apantesis phyllira Drury, c?. 

15. Apantesis arge Drury, tf . 

1 6. Apantesis virguncula Kirby, <j\ var. 

17. Apantesis michabo Grote, 9- 

1 8. Platyprepia virginalis Boisduval, <?. 

19. Platyprepia virginalis "Boisduval, 9- 

20. Apantesis achaia Grote & Robinson, c?. 

21. Apantesis radians Walker, 9- 

22. Apantesis vittata Fabricius, 9- 

23. A pantesis radians Walker, J 1 . 

24. Apantesis achaia Grote & Robinson, $ . 

25. A pa ntesis vittata Fabricius, c?. 

26. Hyphantria cunea Drury. var. pallida Packard, cJ 1 . 

27. Utetheisa bella Linnaeus, 9 



THE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XV. 




22 



27 



COPYR.GHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 



Arctiidae 

spots. E. congrua has the abdomen white on the upper side. 
The genus is represented in Asia, Africa, and Tasmania, as well 
as in the temperate regions of North America. 

(i) Estigmene acrsea Drury, Plate, XVI, Fig. n, S, 
Fig. 12, ?. (The Acraea Moth.) 

Syn. caprotina Drury; menthastrina Martyn; pseuderminea Peck; 
cali) 'arnica Packard; packardi Schaupp; klagesi Ehrman. 

A western variety with the fore wings slightly shaded with 
brown has been dubbed dubia by Walker, and rickseckeri by 
Behr. In Mexico there is a local race in which the males have 
the hind wings white like the females, and to this race Hampson 
has applied the name mexicana. This is altogether one of 




FIG. 67. Estigmene acrcpa, $ . |. (After Hampson.) 

the commonest insects in the Middle Atlantic States, and with 
the illustrations we have given can be easily determined. 

(2) Estigmene congrua Walker, Plate XVI, Fig. 8, $ . 
(The white-bodied Estigmene.) 

Syn. antigonc Strecker; athena Strccker. 

A fairly common species in Pennsylvania and the Atlantic 
States generally, ranging westward as far as Colorado. 

Genus HYPHANTRIA Harris 

This small genus contains only three or four species, one of 
which is South African. 

(i) Hyphantria cunea Drury. (The Fall Web- worm 
Moth.) 

Form punctatissima Abbott & Smith, Plate XVI, 
Fig. 10, $*. 

*The specimens used on Plate XVI. Figs. 10 and 7, both unfortunately developed 
grease on their abdomens between the time when they were set up for the photographer, 
and the time when they were photographed. The abdomen in both cases is normally 
white, with darker markings 

123 



Arctiidae 

Form pallida Packard, Plate XV, Fig. 26, $ . 

The larvae are social in their habits, and spin great webs upon 
the foliage of almost all kinds of deciduous trees in the late 
summer and fall, and do a great deal of damage to orchards and 
nurseries. The insects pupate in loose cocoons, in crannies, 
and even under the loose surface of the soil. The species ranges 
over the United States from southern New England and New 
York to Texas and further west. 

(2) Hyphantria textor Harris, Plate XVI, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Spotless Fall Web-worm Moth.) 

This species, which is closely allied to the preceding in its 
habits, may be distinguished by the white antennae, and the un- 
spotted abdomen. There are specimens of the preceding 
species, which have the wings as immaculate as in H. textor. 
The range of the insect is from Canada to the Gulf, and from 
Nova Scotia to California. 

Genus ARACHNIS Geyer 

A small genus containing eight or nine species found in the 
southwestern States of the American Union, Mexico, and Central 
America. 

(1) Arachnis aulaea Geyer, Plate XVI, Fig. i, $ . (The 
Aulaean Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. incarnata Walker. 

The insect occurs in southern Arizona and ranges thence 
southwardly as far' as Guatemala. The larval stages have been 
described by Dyar in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXVI, 

P- 307. 

(2) Arachnis picta Packard, Plate XVI, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Painted Arachnis.) 

Names have been applied to a number of color varieties of 
this insect. It ranges from Colorado to southern California and 
northern Mexico. The larva feeds upon Lupinus. 

(3) Arachnis zuni Neumcegen, Plate XVI, Fig. 3, ? . (The 
Zuni Tiger-moth.) 

The figure we give will enable the student to recognize this 
pretty and rather rare species without any difficulty. It ranges 
from New Mexico to Arizona and southward on the table- 
lands. 

124 



Arctiidce 



Genus ISIA Walker 



Three species belong to this genus, one found in Argentina, 
the other in Turkestan, and the third in the United States 
and Canada. 




FIG. 68 Isia isabella, 3 . \. (After Hampson.) 

(i) Isia Isabella Abbot & Smith, Plate XVI, Fig. 13, 9- 
(The Isabella Tiger-moth.) 

This common insect is found everywhere in the United 
States. The caterpillar is the familiar "woolly bear," which 
may be often seen by the roadside rapidly making its way in the 
fall of the year to a hiding-place in which to hibernate, or, in 
the spring, to some spot where it may find food. It is reddish- 
brown in color, black at either end. When disturbed, it curls 
up and lies motionless, as if feigning death. To "caterpillar," 
in the slang phrase of the Middle West, is to silently succumb 




FIG. 69. Isia isabella. a. larva; b. pupa. 

and yield to the unavoidable. The larva feeds freely upon a great 
variety of herbaceous plants. It is fond of the grasses, and 
particularly likes the leaves of the plantain (Plantago\ There 
does not appear to be any marked tendency to variation in this 
species. Both the moth and the larva are common objects, with 
which eve/y American schoolboy who has lived in the country 

125 



Arctiidae 

is familiar; and unhappy is the boy who has not at some time or 
other in his life made the country his home. " God made the 
country, man made the town." 

Genus PHRAGMATOBIA Stephens 

A genus of modern extent, represented in Europe, Asia, 
and North America. The structural characteristics of the wings 
are displayed in Fig. 71. 

(i) Phragmatobia fuliginosa Linnaeus, Plate XIV, Fig. 
31, ? . (The Ruby Tiger-moth.) 
Syn. rubric os a Harris. 

The Ruby Tiger-moth is widely distributed, being found 
throughout boreal Asia, Europe, and the northern United States 

_j and Canada. A multitude of 

minor subvarietal forms have 
been distinguished, and to some 
of them names have been ap- 
plied, but there is compara- 
tively little difference between 
them, and the student who has 
once learned to recognize the 
species will find no difficulty 
in assigning to it any specimens 
which may come into his pos- 
session. The insect, so far as 
our fauna is concerned, is a 




FIG. 70. Phragmatobia fuliginosa. 
a. larva; b. cocoon; c. imago, $ . 
From "Insect Life," Vol. I, p. 236.) 



northern species, quite common 
in New England and Canada, 

and ranging southward along the Appalachian Mountains into 
the Carolinas, where it only occurs at high elevations above 
sea-level. It is also found ranging southward along the 
Rocky Mountains. The caterpillar feeds upon a variety of 
herbaceous plants, and is partial to the shoots of the golden- 
rod (Solid ago). 

(2) Phragmatobia brucei Henry Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 
30, $ . (Bruce's Tiger.) 

This species is found in Colorado upon the mountains. 

(3) Phragmatobia beani Neumoegen, Plate XIV, Fig. 29, $ . 
(Bean's Tiger-moth.) 

126 




Arctiidae 

The habitat of this species is the Rocky Mountains of Alberta 
and Assiniboia. 

(4) Phragmatobia yarrowi Stretch. ( Yarrow's Tiger- 
moth.) 

Syn. remissa Henry 
Edwards. 

This pretty little 
tiger - moth is found 
from the country south 
of Hudson Bay to FIG p ^. ^ ~ Hampson.) 

British Columbia, and 

ranges thence southward along the higher mountain ranges as 
far as northern Arizona. 

Genus M^ENAS Hiibner 

Only one species of this rather extensive genus, which is 
represented in South America by five species and by a con- 
siderable number in Africa and the Indo-Maluyan region, occurs 
in North America. 

(i) Maenas vestalis Packard, Plate XVI, Fig. 5,5. (The 
Vestal Tiger-Moth.) 

This insect, which closely resembles Estigmene congrua, 
figured on the same plate, may be distinguished from the latter 
not only by structural peculiarities, but unfailingly by the 
ordinary observer, by the presence of the two 'black spots on 
the hind wings, as shown in our illustration. 

Genus DIACRISIA Hiibner 

This large genus, which includes over one hundred and 
twenty-five species, according to the arrangement given in 
Hampson's Catalogue, not reckoning the species referred to 
the genus Isia, which he also places here, is represented in 
our fauna by four insects, of which we give illustrations. 

(i) Diacrisia virginica Fabricius. Plate XVI. Fig. 7, $. 
(The Virginian Tiger-moth.) 

The form figured on our plate is the slight variety named 
fumosa by Strecker. in which the fore wings are a little dusky 
at their tips as if they had been flying about in the smoke of 
the furnaces at Reading or Pittsburgh. Ordinarily the species 

127 



Arctiidae 

is pure white. The body of the specimen on our plate is 
greasy, and hence too dark 

(2) Diacrisia latipennis Stretch, Plate XVI, Fig. 6, $ . 
(The Red-legged Diacrisia.) 

The coxae and femora are pink or reddish. The insect is 
common in Pennsylvania, and the Atlantic States generally. 

(3) Diacrisia rubra Neumcegen, Plate XIV, Fig. 32, $. 
(The Ruddy Diacrisia.) 

The habitat of this species is British Columbia, Oregon, 
and Washington. 

(4) Diacrisia vagans Boisduval, Plate XIV ; Fig. 33, $ , 
Fig. 34, ?. (The Wandering Diacrisia.) 

Syn. pteridis Henry Edwards; bicolor Walker; rufula Boisduval; 
punctata Packard; proba Henry Edwards. 

The insect illustrates the phenomenon of sexual dimor- 
phism, the males and females being unlike in color. The 
species-makers have had some sport with it, as shown by the 
synonyms. 

Genus HYPHORAIA Hubner 

This is a sub-arctic genus, circumpolar in its distribution 
in the Northern Hemisphere. Three species occur in our terri- 
tory, one of which we figure. 

(i) Hyphoraia parthenos Harris, Plate XVI, Fig. 20, ?. 
(The St. Lawrence Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. borealis Moeschler. 

The moth, which is one of the most beautiful in the 
family, is comparatively rare in collections. It occurs in 
northern New England, and the valley of the St. Lawrence, 
westward to Manitoba. It is occasionally found in the Catskills. 

Genus PLATYPREPIA Dyar 

One species is found in our region. It is somewhat variable 
in the style and number of the spots upon the wings. 

(i) Platyprepia virginalis Boisduval, Plate XV, Fig. 18, 
$ . Fig. 19. ? . (The Ranchman's Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. ochracea Stretch; guttata Boisduval. 

A very beautiful insect, quite common in Colorado. 
Wyoming, and Montana, and thence ranging westward to 
northern California and the region of Puget's Sound. 

128 



Arctildee 

Genus APANTESIS Walker 

The metropolis of this genus is North America, only two 
species attributed to it being found in the Old World. There 
are over twenty valid species found within our limits, and 
numerous so-called subspecies and varietal forms. A small 
treatise might be written upon these, but in a volume like 
this, which is designed to cover in as compact form as pos- 
sible the most needed information, all that we can do is to 
help the student to the determination of the more important 
species. 

(1) Apantesis virgo Linnaeus, Plate XV, Fig. n, <3 . 
(The Virgin Tiger-moth). 

Found in the northern Atlantic States and Canada. 

(2) Apantesis parthenice Kirby, Plate XV, Fig. \j, $ . 
(The Parthenice Moth.) 

Syn saundersi Grote. 

The habitat of this species is the same as that of A. virgo, 
from which it may always be discriminated by its smaller 
size, the narrower white lines upon the fore wings and the 
absence of the dark spot at the origin of vein two on the 
hind wings, which is characteristic of the former species. 

(3) Apantesis intermedia Stretch, Plate XI, Fig. 20, $ , 
(The Intermediate Tiger-moth.) 

This species which is by some authors regarded as a 
southern form of A. parthenice, is intermediate in size between 
A. virgo and A. parthenice. It closely resembles the latter in 
the maculation of the wings, but the pinkish-white stripes on 
the primaries are broad as in A. virgo. 

(4) Apantesis oithona Strecker, Plate XVI, Fig. 30, $ . 
(The Oithona Moth.) 

This insect is undoubtedly genetically the same as A. recti- 
linea French. The difference is merely in the width of the 
pale lines on the fore wings, which, being narrower in recti- 
linea, give these wings a darker appearance. 

Form rectilinea French, Plate XV, Fig. i, ?. (The 
Straight-lined Tiger-moth.) 

This insect in its varietal forms ranges from the Atlantic 
States across the Mississippi Valley. 

129 



Arctncrse 

(5) Apantesis michabo Grote, Plate XV, Fig. 17, $. 
(The Michabo Moth.) 

Syn. minea Slosson. 

The illustration we give is sufficient to enable the student 
to identify this species, which is discriminated from its con- 
geners most readily by observing the broad flesh-colored band 
on the costa of the fore wings. In the form minea the flesh- 
colored lines are deep-red. This is the only difference. 

(6) Apantesis arge Drury, Plate XV, Fig. 15, $. (The 
Arge Moth.) 

Syn. dione Fabricius; incarnatorubra Goeze; ccelebs Martyn; nerea 
Boisduval; doris Boisduval. 

Allied to the preceding species, but ascertained by the test 
of breeding to be distinct. The species is very variable. The 
hind wings are not often as free from dark markings as the 
specimen, and frequently are as much spotted and blotched with 
black as is the figure of A. michabo we give. The species is 
found almost everywhere within the United States and Canada. 

(7) Apantesis ornata Packard. (The Ornate Tiger-moth.) 
Form achaia Grote & Robinson, Plate XV, Figs. 20, 24, 

$ . (The Achaia Moth.) 

Syn. edwardsi Stretch. 

A variable insect to which a number of names have been 
given. The variety in which the hind wings are yellow is 
A. ochracea Stretch. The species is found on the Pacific 
coast. The larval stages have been described by Dyar, Psyche, 

Vol. V, p. 380, 556. 

(8) Apantesis anna Grote. 
(The Anna Moth.) 

Form persephone Grote, 
Plate XV, Fig. 8, $, Fig. 10, ?. 
(The Persephone Moth.) 

FIG. 7 a. Apantesis anna, $ . We g ive in Fi g ure 7 2 a cut 

representing a specimen of the 

typical anna, in which the hind wings are wholly black. 
Persephone is the normal form. The insect is very variable in 
the amount of black displayed upon the hind wings, and also 
to some extent in the width and extent of the light lines on the 
primaries. The species is found in the Atlantic States, and is 

130 




Arctiid* 

not at all uncommon in western Pennsylvania. The larva has 
been described by Dyar. 

(9) Apantesis quenseli Paykull, Plate XVI, Fig. 28, ? . 
(The Labrador Apantesis.) 

Syn. strigosa Fabricius: gelida Moeschler; liturata M6ne" trie's ; compli- 
cata Walker; turbans Christoph. 

This little moth is found in Labrador, Greenland, and Arctic 
America generally. It also occurs in Arctic Europe and Asia and 
upon the summits of the Swiss Alps. It doubtless will be found 
upon the American Alps in British Columbia. 

(10) Apantesis virguncula Kirby, Plate XV, Fig. 9,3, 
Fig. 16, $ . (The Little Virgin Moth.) 

Syn. dahurica Grote (nee Boisduval) ; speciosa Moeschler; otiosa Neu- 
mcegen & Dyar. 

A variable species. The form described as otiosa has traces 
of the transverse lines, characteristic of so many other species of 
the genus, and the fore wings have a more checkered appearance 
on this account. The insect occurs in the northern United 
States and Canada. 

(n) Apantesis proxima Guerin-Meneville, Plate XV, Fig. 
4, ? . (The Mexican Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. docta Walker; mexicana Grote & Robinson; arizonensis Stretch; 
mormonica Neumoegen. 

Form autholea Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 32, $ . 

From the varietal form autholea figured in the plate proxima 
may be discriminated by the fact that the latter has the hind 
wings marked with dark brown or black spots on the margins. 
The species occurs in southern California, Arizona, Mexico, and 
Central America. 

(12) Apantesis blakei Grote, Plate XVI, Fig. 31, $. 
(Blake's Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. bolanderi Stretch. 

This species is found in the mountains of California and 
adjoining States. 

(13) Apantesis nevadensis Grote & Robinson, Plate XVI, 
Fig. 29, $ . (The Nevada Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. behri Stretch. 

Form incorrupta Henry Edwards, Plate XV, Fig. 7, $ . 

Syn. shastaensis French. 



Arctiidae 

As the name indicates, this species is an inhabitant of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

(14) Apantesis williamsi Dodge. (Williams' Tiger-moth.) 
Form determinata Neumregen, Plate XV., Fig. 3, & . 

Syn. diecki Neumcegen. 

This easily recognized species is found in Colorado and 
adjacent States among the mountains. 

(15) Apantesis phyllira Drury, Plate XV, Fig. 14, 3. 
(The Phyllira Moth.) 

Syn. B-atra Goeze: plantaginis Martyn; dodgei Butler; excelsa 
Neumcegen; favorita Neumoegen; lugubris Hulst. 

This species is found in the Southern States, where it is 
not uncommon. It is rather variable in the disposition and 
extent of the dark and light markings. 

(16) Apantesis figurata Drury, Plate XV, Fig. 12, $, 
(The Figured Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. cer -arnica Htibner; f-pallida Strecker 

This is probably only a form of the preceding species, 
which occurs with considerable frequency. It is confined to 
the Southern States. 

(17) Apantesis vittata Fabricius, Plate XV, Fig. 25, 6, 
Fig. 22, ? . (Banded Tiger-moth.) 

Syn. decor ata Saunders. 

Form radians Walker, Plate XV, Fig. 23, $, Fig. 21 ?. 

Syn. colorata Walker; incomplete! Butler. 

Form phalerata Harris, Plate XV, Fig. 6, ?. 

Syn. rhoda Butler. 

A very common and variable species, which is probably 
the same as A. nais Drury, which has the abdomen preva- 
lently ochraceous, and not as strongly marked with black. 
The species seems to be, so to speak, in a liquid state. In 
a series of some hundreds of specimens before the writer, 
many of them bred from larvae, and undoubtedly all referable 
to the same species, any and all of the forms, which have 
been named by writers, can be found, yet the bulk of them 
came from one narrow little ravine in western Pennsylvania. 
We leave the synonymy as it stands in Dyar's list, so far as 
the things figured on our plate are concerned, but cannot believe 
that these insects represent different species, as maintained by 
some authors. 



Arctiidae 



Genus KODIOSOMA Stretch 

This little Californian genus, the structure of which is abun- 
dantly illustrated by the cut we give, contains but one species, 
which is represented in a number of varietal forms. 

(i) Kodiosoma fulva Stretch, Plate XIII, Fig. 45, $. 

Form eavesi, Stretch, Plate XIII, Fig. 43 $ . 

Form tricolor Stretch, Plate XIII, Fig. 44, $ . 

There are still other forms, 
one of which is wholly black, 
and has been named nigra by 
Stretch. The moth is found in 
California, and is there not at all 
uncommon. The life-history 
has been thus far only imper- 
fectly ascertained. 




F ' G - 



*' * 



Genus ECTYPIA Clemens 



Two species are referred to this genus. E. thona Strecker, 
from New Mexico is doubtfully referable to it, but the only 
specimen known, the type, is in too poor a condition to enable 
much to be told about it. 

(i) Ectypia bivittata Clemens. (The Two-banded Ec- 

typia.) 

Syn. nigroflava Graef. 

This very beautiful 
and rare moth occurs 
in Texas. Its charac- 
teristics are well dis- 
played in the figure 
we give in the accom- 




FIG. 74 Ectypia bivittata, ? 
(After Hampson.) 

panying cut. 



Genus EUVERNA Neumcegen & Dyar 

(i) Euverna clio Packard, Plate XVI, Fig. 22, ?. (The 
Clio Moth.) 

This chastely beautiful moth occurs in the Rocky Mountains 
of southern California. It is the sole representative of its genus, 
and is as yet rare in collections. 



Arctiidae 

Genus PARASEMIA Hiibner 

This genus is represented in our fauna by certain varietal 
forms, which agree in part with those found in the Old World, 
and in part differ from them. There is only one species in the 
genus, which has a wide circumpolar distribution, and a score 
or more of names have been given to mere color varieties. We 
figure two of the commoner variations. The larva feeds on 
Plantago and Myosotis. 

(i) Parasemia plantaginis Linnaeus. (The Small Tiger- 
moth.) 

Plate XVI, Fig, 25, $ . The usual form found in Colorado 
and Wyoming. 

Plate XVI, Fig. 26, $ . Form named geometrica by Grote. 

Genus ARCTIA Schrank 

A circumpolar genus of the Northern Hemisphere, containing 
four species, which are subject to considerable variation in color 
and size of spots. 

(1) Arctia caia Linnaeus, Plate XV, Fig. 5, ?. (The Great 
Tiger-moth.) 

The specimen figured on the plate was taken in Labrador. 
Form wiskotti Staudinger, Plate XV, Fig. 2, $ . 

Syn. utahensis Henry Edwards; auripennis Butler; transmontana 
Neumcegen & Dyar. 

The specimen portrayed on the plate was taken in Colorado. 

Genus PAREUCH-ffiTES Grote 

There are three species of this genus, two of which we 
figure. The species may be discriminated as follows: 

1. Hind wing yellowish insulata 

2. Hind wing white tenera 

3. Hind wing tinged with fuscous eglenensis 

(i) Pareuchaetes insulata Walker, Plate XIV, Fig. }, ?. 
(The Yellow- winged Pareuchaetes.) 

Syn. cadaverosa Grote; affints Grote; aurata Butler. 

Found in the Gulf States and the Antilles. 

(2) Pareuchaetes eglenensis Clemens, Plate XIV, Fig. 4, 
? . (The Gray-winged Pareuchaetes.) 

134 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained 



in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Arachnis aul&a Geyer, 9- 

2. Arachnis picta Packard, $ . 

3. Arachnis zuni Neumcegen, 9 , 

U. S. N. M. 

4 . Euerythra trimaculata Smith , tf , 

U. S. N. M. 

5. Manas vestalis Packard, J 1 . 

6. Diacrisia latipennis Stretch, c?. 

7 . Diacrisia virginica Fabricius , cT . 

8. Estigmene congrua Walker, c? . 

9. Hyphantria cunea Drury, c?. 

10. Hyphantria cunea Drury, tf , 

var. punctatissima, Abbot & 
Smith. 

11. Estigmene acrcea Drury, tf . 

12. Estigmene acroea Drury, 9- 

13. Isia Isabella Abbot & Smith, 9 . 

14. A coloithus falsarius Clemens, <3* . 

15. Turuptiana permaculata Pack- 

ard, c?. 

1 6. EC panther ia deftorata Fabricius, 

17. Pygarctia elegans Stretch, (?. 

1 8. Pygarctia spraguei Grote, tf ' 



19. Euchcetias oregonensis Stretch, 

d 1 - 

20. Hyphoraia parthenos Harris, 9 , 

U. S. N. M. 

21. EuchoBtias egle Drury, 9- 

22. Euverna clio Packard, 9- 

23. Seirarctia echo Abbot & Smith, 

9- 

24. Calidota strigosa. Walker tf . 

2 5 . Parasemia plantaginis Linnaeus, 
d\ U. S. N. M. 

26. Parasemia plantaginis var. geo- 

metrica, Grote, tf . 

27. Pygarctia abdominalis Grote, 

9, U. S. N. M. 

28. Apantesis quenseli Paykull, tf . 

29. Apantesis nevadensis Grote & 

Robinson, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

30. Apantesis oithona Strecker, cJ 1 , 

Engel Collection. 

31. Apantesis blakei Grote, d 1 , U. 

S. N. M. 

32. A pantesis proximo var . autholea . 

Boisduval, (J 1 . 



THE MOTH BOOK. 




26 



YRlGHTEC BY W. J, HOLLAND, 



Arctii&e 

This species occurs in the Carolinas and southward. 
Pareuchcetes tenera is found in the Atlantic States and is not 
uncommon in Pennsylvania. 

Genus EUCH-ffiTIAS Lyman 

The following key based upon that of Hampson may enable 
the student to differentiate the species in his collection: 

Abdomen red above. 

Fore wing with costal fascia. 

Fore wing with the costal fascia yellow antica Walker 

Fore wing with the costal fascia white albicosta Walker 

Fore wing without costal fascia. 

Hind wing with crimson patch on inner area perlevis Grote 

Hind wing without crimson patch on inner area. 

Fore wing uniform brownish murina Stretch 

Fore wing white tinged with fuscous bolteri Stretch 

Abdomen orange above. 

Fore wing gray- brown egle Drury 

Fore wing brownish white with the veins white . .oregonensis Stretch 
Abdomen whitish above pudens Henry Edwards 

(1) Euchaetias murina Stretch, Plate XI, Fig. 18, ?. 
(The Mouse-colored Euchaetias.) 

The habitat of this species is Texas. 

(2) Euchaetias egle Drury, Plate I, Fig. 5, larva; Plate 
XVI, Fig. 21, ?. (The Milk-weed Moth.) 




FIG. 75. Euchaetias egle, $ . {-. (After Hampson.) 

The figure given above in the text and those given on 
the plates will suffice for the identification of this common 
insect, which ranges from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and 
beyond. The larva feeds upon Milk-weed (Asclepias). 

(3) Euchaetias oregonensis Stretch, Plate XVI, Fig. 19, 
$ . (The Oregon Euchaetias.) 

This insect is found throughout the northern portions of 
the United States and Canada. 

135 



Arctiidae 

Genus PYGARCTIA Grote 

A small genus containing four species all found within our 
territory. The following table taken from Hampson will serve 
for the identification of the species, taken in connection with the 
cut and the figures we give: 

A. Fore wing with scarlet fasciae on costa and inner margin spraguei 

B. Fore wing with orange fasciae on costa and inner margin 

a. Abdomen scarlet vivida 

b. Abdomen orange abdominalis 

C. Fore wing without fasciae elegans 

(i) Pygarctia elegans Stretch, Plate XVI, Fig. 17, $ . (The 

Elegant Pygarctia.) 

The neuration and struc- 
tural characteristics of the 
genus are sufficiently well 
displayed in the accom- 
panying cut of this species 




scription unnecessary. The 
insect occurs in southern California, Texas, Arizona, and Mexico. 

(2) Pygarctia abdominalis Grote, Plate XVI, Fig. 27, ? . 
(The Orange-bodied Pygarctia.) 

The habitat of this species is Florida. 

(3) Pygarctia spraguei Grote, Plate XVI, Fig. 18, $. 
(Sprague's Pygarctia.) 

The home of this insect is Kansas, Colorado, and adjoining 
States. 

Genus HYPOCRISIAS Hampson 

A small genus of which a single representant is found within 
our limits, occurring as a straggler from the Mexican fauna. 

(i) Hypocrisias minima Neumoegen. 
(The Least Hypocrisias.) 

Syn. armillata Henry Edwards. 

The prevalent tints of the body and fore 
wings are ochreous and brown. The hind 
wings are yellowish white. The annexed 
cut will help the student to recognize the FlG - 77-Hypocri- 

, . . , . sias minima, 5 

insect, when a specimen comes into his 
possession. The habitat of the species is Mexico, but it is 
occasionally taken in southern Arizona. 

136 




Arctiidae 

Genus EMILIA Kirby 

A small neotropical genus, represented in our fauna by two 
species. The insect named occidentalis by French is a form of 
A. roseata, in which the red of the wings has been replaced by 
ochreous. 

(1) Emilia ambigua Strecker, Plate XiV, Fig. 15, $. 
(The Red-banded /Emilia.) 

Syn.' bolteri Henry Edwards; syracosia Druce. 

This beautiful insect is found in the Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado, and thence southward to northern Mexico. 

(2) Emilia roseata Walker, Plate XIV, Fig. 14. ?. (The 
Rosy /Emilia.) 

Syn. cinnamomea Boisduval;* sanguivenosa Neumoegen; significans 
Henry Edwards; occidentalis French. 

This rather rare insect occurs on the Pacific coast, 
and, according to report, ranges from British Columbia to 
Mexico. The specimen figured on the plate came from the 
latter country. 

Genus HALISIDOTA Hiibner 

An extensive genus, well represented in Central and South 
America, and containing about a dozen species, which are 
found within our faunal limits. Of these we figure a number 
of species, enough to enable the student to recognize the genus, 
and the commoner species, which he is likely to encounter. 

(1) Halisidota tessellaris Abbot & Smith, Plate XIV, Fig. 
12, $. (The Tessellated Halisidota) 

Syn. antiphola Walsh; harrisi Walsh. 

The form named Harrisi does not differ from tessellaris in 
the imaginal stage. The sole difference is in the color of the 
pencils of hairs in the larvae, which are orange in color, while 
in tessellaris they are black. This is scarcely sufficient ground 
upon which to establish a species. 

(2) Halisidota cinctipes Grote, Plate XIV, Fig. 13, 6 . 
(The Gartered Halisidota.) 

Syn. davisi Henry Edwards. 

This species,, which is southern in its habitat, and larger 
than its close northern ally, tessellaris, has the markings on 
the fore wings much more distinct than is the case in the latter 

137 



Arctiidae 

species. The tarsi are annulated with black bands, marked 
with small gray points. The insect occurs in the Gulf States 
and in South and Central America. 

(3) Halisidota maculata Harris, Plate XVI, Fig. n, $. 
(The Spotted Halisidota.) 

Syn. fulvoflava Walker; guttifera Herrich-Schaeffer. 

This species, which occurs in the northern portions of the 
Atlantic coast region, ranges westward to California. Several 
forms from the western territory have been discriminated by 
writers, and varietal names have been given to them. They are 
mere color forms. 

(4) Halisidota longa Grote, Plate XIV, Fig. 16, ? . (The 
Long-streaked Halisidota.) 

This species, which may easily be determined by the help 
of the figure we have given, occurs in Florida. The specimen 
delineated by the writer was taken by him at light in Jackson- 
ville in the month of February. 

(5) Halisidota caryae Harris, Plate XIV, Fig. 10, $ . (The 
Hickory Halisidota.) 

Syn. annulifascia Walker; porpbyria Herrich-Schaeffer. 

This well-marked and easily identified species is common 
in the northern Atlantic coast region, and ranges westward 
into the valley of the Mississippi. 

(6) Halisidota argentata Packard, Plate XIV, Fig. 8, $. 
Fig. 9, ? . (The Silver-spotted Halisidota.) 

This pretty species is found in Colorado, and thence west- 
ward and northward to the Pacific coast. A number of sub- 
species have been named in this connection, but it is doubtful 
whether the sexes of the insects on meeting each other would 
recognize any specific differences themselves. 

Genus HEMIHYALEA Hampson 
Two species of this genus occur within the limits of the 

United States. Edwardsi is distinguished from labecula most 

easily by the fact that the inner margin of the secondaries in 

the former is crimson, while in the latter it is not. 

(i) Hemihyalea edwardsi Packard, Plate XIV, Fig. 6, ?. 

(Edwards' Glassy-wing.) 

Syn. translucida Walker; quercus Boisduval. 

This is a Californian species. 
,38 



Arctiidse 

(2) Hemihyalea labecula Grote, Plate XIV, Fig. 7, $ . 
(The Freckled Glassy-wing.) 

This insect is not uncommon in Colorado. It occurs in 
early summer about Manitou, and among the mountains 
generally. 

Genus OPHARUS Walker 

An extensive neotropical genus, represented within the limits 
of the United States by but one species. 

(i) Opharus astur Cramer, Plate XIV, Fig. 5, 3. (The 
Astur Moth.) 

Syn. albicans, Walker; maculicollis Walker; pustulata Packard. 

The insect is common in Mexico and South America, and 
occasionally occurs in Arizona. 

Genus CALIDOTA Dyar 

A neotropical genus containing a dozen species or more, two 
of which are found within our limits. We figure one of these; 
the other, C. muricolor Dyar, has the wings mouse-gray, 
semihyaline, the secondaries paler than the primaries. The head 
is gray in front, yellowish above; the thorax is gray, the 
collar edged inwardly with ochreous; the abdomen is reddish 
buff, with a series of black dorsal spots and broad lateral bands 
of the same color. The pectus and coxae are ochreous, the 
legs gray. The type of the species came from Arizona. 

(i) Calidota strigosa Walker, Plate XVI, Fig. 24, $. 
(The Streaked Calidota.) 

Syn. cubensts Grote; laqueata Henry Edwards. 

This insect occurs in Florida, and is abundant in the 
Antilles. Its life-history has been described by Dyar in the, 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum, for 1900, 
p. 268. The food-plant is Guettarda elliptica. 

Genus EUPSEUDOSOMA Grote 

Three species are attributed by Hampson to this genus, 
one of which, the type of the genus, we figure. It is the only 
species of the genus occurring within our territory. 

(i) Eupseudosoma involutum Sepp, Plate XIV, Fig. i, <2 . 
(The Snowy Eupseudosoma.) 

Syn. nivea Herrich-Schxffer;^onWMw Grote; immaculata Graef. 

>39 



Agaristidae 

The life-history of this species has been given by Dyar, i. 
c., p. 258. The food-plants are Eugenia buxifolia, Eugenia pro- 
cera, and Psidium pyrifera. The insect has a wide range in 
tropical America, occurring from Florida to southern Brazil. 

Genus BERTHOLDIA Schaus 

A small neotropical genus represented in our fauna by one 
species. 

(i) Bertholdia trigona Grote, Plate XIV, Fig. 2, $. 
(Grote's Bertholdia.) 

The moth flies in Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and north- 
ern Mexico. 



FAMILY AGARISTID/E 

"Ye lovers of marvel and fairy lore, 
Say not that the days of enchantment are o'er, 
That the well-springs of Fancy and Fable fail. 

There are streamlets yet where the river-sprite 

With his Harlequin changes bewilders the sight; 

There are castles yet of ivory and gold, 

Hung with floral fabrics by sunshine unroll'd, 

Within whose luxurious recesses recline 

Fays of exquisite form, quaffing exquisite wine; 

Some in gossamer veiled of ethereal dyes, 

Which have only their match in the rainbow'd skies; 

Some in richest and softest of velvets arrayed, 

Or in mail that does shame to the armourer's trade. 

These are haunting us ever for ill, or for good, 

Through earth and through air, field, forest, and flood: 

To transport our thoughts, as by magic spell, 

From the sordid objects whereon they dwell, 

To a land of the Marvellous dimly displayed, 

Where the light-winged Fancy, by wonder stayed, 

Still delighteth to hover, and joyously say: 

'Oh! my darling elves, ye're not chased away, 

There's a region still where ye have a place 

The mysterious world of the Insect race.'" 

ACHETA DOMESTICA. Episodes of Insect Life. 

The Agaristidas compose a family of moderate size. The 
moths are day-flying in their habit, and in the tropics both 

140 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Haploa militaris Harris, $. 

2. Haploa colona Hubner, 9 

3. Haploa vestalis Packard, <5\ 

4. Haploa militaris Harris, c?. 

5. Haploa consita Walker, tf . 

6. Haploa confusa Lyman, cJ 1 . 

7. Haploa clymene Brown, J 1 . 

8. Utetheisa ornatrix Linnaeus, <5\ 

9. Haploa dyari Merrick, cT, Merrick Collection. 

10. Haploa militaris Harris, <j\ Merrick Collection, 

11. Copidryas gloveri Grote & Robinson, tf. 

12. Fenaria sevorsa Grote, 9 . 

13. Androloma maccullochi Kirby, cJ 1 . 

14. Alypia ridingsi Grote, (J 1 . 

15. Alypia mariposa Grote & Robinson, 9. 

1 6. Alypia langtoni Couper, tf . 

17. Alypia langtoni Couper, 9. 

1 8. Alypia wittfeldi Henry Edwards, tj 1 . 

19. Alypia wittfeldi Henry Edwards, 9 . 

20. Alypia octomaculata Fabricius, tf. 

21. Alypia octomaculata Fabricius, 9 

22. Alypiodes bimaculata Herrich-Schaeffer, cT. V 

23. Euthisanotia grata Fabricius, tf . 

24. Euthisanotia unio Hubner, <J*. 

25. Bailey a ophthalmica Guen6e, 9 . 

26. Baileya doubledayi Guene'e, (J 1 . 

27. Baileya australis Grote, J 1 . 

28. Aleptina inca, Dyar tf . 

29. Charadra decora Morrison, c?. 

30. Panthea portlandia Grote, <?, U. S. N. M. 

31. Panthea furcilla Packard, d\ U. S. N. M. 

32. Feralia jocosa Guen6e, tf. 



THE MOTH BOOK. 




- 

:v '*''-. '--,.. ,. .-, ' 

" 3 v is' 



31 



Agaristidae 

of the Old World and the New reckon in their number some 
of the most resplendently colored insects found upon the globe. 
They are regarded as being an offshoot of the Noctuidae. 

The following description of the characteristics of the family 
is adapted from Hampson with reference to the forms found within 
our faunal limits: 

'Proboscis fully developed; palpi upturned and well devel- 
oped, the third joint usually naked and porrect; frons with a 
rounded, conical, or corneous process; antennae cylindrical, 
almost simple, with slight bristles at the joints, not ciliated, 
and more or less distinctly dilated toward the extremity. 
Ocelli present; eyes sometimes hairy; tibial spurs well devel- 
oped, the tibiae rarely spined; the male claspers often very 
large; wings large and strongly formed. Fore wing with vein 
i a separate from ib; ic absent; 5 from or from close to angle 
of cell; the areole present in nearly all the genera. Hind wing 
with vein \a present; ic absent; 5 obsolescent from angle of 
discocellulars; 6, 7 from upper angle or shortly stalked; 8 free 
at base, then bent downward to anastomose with the cell at a 
point only. All the species have silvery blue scales on the fore 
wings. 

The larvae are noctuiform and have all the prolegs present. 
The pupa is naked/ 

Genus COPIDRYAS Grote 

Two species belonging to this genus occur within the limits 
of the United States. We give illustrations of both of them. 

(i) Copidryas gloveri Grote & Robin- 
son, Plate XVII, Fig. n, $. (Glover's 
Purslane-moth.) 

The life-history of this rather pretty 
moth has been well worked out by 
Professor C. V. Riley and from his article 
published in "Insect Life." Vol. I, p. 104, 
we have taken the cuts which are here- FIG. 78- Egg of Co- 

., ~p, , . r . pidryas gloven greatly 

with given. The drawings of the egg, enlarged. 

pupa, and cocoon were made by Mr. C. 
L. Marlatt. The excellent account given by Professor Riley is 
drawn upon for the following quotations: "The eggs are laid 

141 





FIG. 79. Pupa and cocoon cell 
of Copidryas gloveri. 



Agaristidae 

on the under side of the purslane leaf, either singly or in clusters 
of from two to five. The larva hatches in two or three days, and 
is at first light green or yellowish 
green with darker shading across 
the middle of the body. In eight 
or nine days it attains full growth 
after having passed through four 
molts. The full grown larva is 
light gray or dull white with black 
dashes on the sides of each seg- 
ment, and with the shadings of 
salmon pink." 

"The full-grown larvae enter 
the ground for pupation, excavat- 
ing a tubular burrow in the sur- 
face soil, gumming the lining 
and closing the opening with a 

thin layer of particles of soil. . . . The insect remains in 
this state in the neighborhood of twelve days." 

In the accompanying figures we show the egg, the pupa, 
and the adult larva and moth. The insect is very abundant 
at certain times in Nebraska, 
Kansas, and the southwestern 
States generally, and ranges into 
northern Mexico. It appears 
to feed exclusively upon purs- 
lane, and as this plant is of no 
particular economic value, but 
is justly accounted as a trouble- 
some weed, we may wish bless- 
ings upon Copidryas gloveri. 

(2) Copidryas cosyra 
Druce, Plate XI, Fig. 19, d. 
(The Cosyra Moth.) 

This pretty insect, which FlG So. Copidryas gloveri. a. 
belongs to the same genus as moth; b. larva. (After Riley.) 

the preceding, though assigned 

by the author of the species to the genus Euibisanotia, is found 

in Arizona and in Mexico. Its habits are undoubtedly very much 




142 




Agaristidae 

the same as those of Glover's Purslane Moth, though up to the 
present time no one has described them. 

Genus TUERTA Walker 

Only one species of this genus, which is better represented in 
Africa than in America, is found within our borders. 

(i) Tue,rta sabulosa Boisduval. (The 
Sand-dune Moth.) 

Syn. noctuiformis Moeschler. 

The moth has the primaries grayish-brown 
marked with white at the insertion of the 
wings. The secondaries are bright orange- 
yellow, with a wide black marginal border, 

, . , r~, , , . r , FIG. 81 Tuerta sa- 

as represented in the cut. The habitat of the h u i osa & i 

insect is Arizona and Mexico. 

Genus ALYPIA Hiibner 

This genus is well represented within our territory. The 
,'bllowing synopsis of the species is adapted from Hampson: 

I. (Androloma.) Fore wing of male with a dilation of costa and 

a groove of ribbed membrane below it from base ex- 
tending beyond middle , mac-cullochi 

II. Fore wing of male with a postmedial dilation of costa and 

groove of ribbed membrane below it ; wing elongated. 

a. Fore wing with the markings yellow disparata 

b. Fore wing with the markings white brannani 

III. (Alypia.} Fore wing of male without dilation of costal area 

or grove. 

A. Fore and mid tibiae, orange; hind wings marked with 

white. 

a. Discal spot of fore wing longitudinal octomaculata 

b. Discal spot of fore wing transverse wittfeldi 

Hind wings marked with yellow. 

c. Hind wing with subbasal yellow spot dipsaci 

d Hind wing without subbasal yellow spot langtoni 

B. Mid tibiae only orange. 

a. Wings with the spots not traversed by black veins . .mariposa 

b. Wings with the spots traversed by black veins . . . .ridingsi 

(i) Alypia mac-cullochi Kirby, Plate XVII, Fig. 13, &. 
(MacCulloch's Forester. ) 

Syn. lorquini Grote & Robinson; similis Stretch; edwardsi Boisduval. 

The habitat of this species is Canada and the Rocky 
Mountains northward to Alaska. 




FIG. 8 



Alypia disparata, $ 
(After Hampson.) 



Agaristidae 

(2) Alypia disparata Henry Edwards. (The Mexican 
Forester.) 

Syn. gracilenta Graef ; desperata Kirby. 

The structural features 
of this species are shown 
in the accompanying cut, 
for the use of which we 
tare indebted to the kind- 
ness of Sir George F. 
Hampson. The insect 
occurs in southern Texas, 
Arizona, and Mexico. The 

writer has a large series collected for him in the neighborhood of 
Jalapa, where it is apparently more common than farther north. 

(3) Alypia octomaculata Fabricius, Plate XVII, Figs. 16, 
20, S, Fig. 21, ?. (The Eight-spotted Forester.) 

Syn. bimaculata Gmelin; quadriguttalts Hubner; matuta Henry 
Edwards. 

This very common insect, which sometimes proves a 
veritable plague by the depredations which it commits upon 
the foliage of the Ampelopsis, 
which is extensively grown in 
our cities as a decorative vine, 
is found everywhere in the 
northern Atlantic States, and 
ranges westward beyond the 
Mississippi. One good thing 
which can be set down to the 
English sparrow is the work, 
which he has been observed by 
the writer to do in devouring 
the larvae of this moth from the 
vines with which his home is 
covered. 

(4) Alypia wittfeldi Henry 

Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 18, $ , Fig. 19, ? . (Wittfeld's Forester.) 

Sir George F. Hampson sinks this species as a synonym 

of A. octomaculata, but the writer cannot agree with him in 

this. The form of the spots on the primaries, the white at the 

144 




Os 

FIG. 83. Alypia octomaculata. 

a. larva; b. enlarged somite, 

showing markings ; c. moth. 

(After Riley.) 



Agaristidae 

base of the abdomen, and the white annulus near its extremity, 
are at all events marks quite as characteristic as those by which 
some other species in the genus are separated. Its habitat is 
southern Florida. 

(5) Alypia langtoni Couper, Plate XVII, Fig. 17, ?. 
(Langton's Forester.) 

Syn. sacramenti Grote & Robinson; hudsonica Henry Edwards. 

This species ranges from Canada westward through British 
Columbia into California in the south and Alaska in the north. 

(6) Alypia mariposa Grote & Robinson, Plate XVIII, Fig. 
15. (The Californian Forester.) 

This, undoubtedly the handsomest species of the genus, is 
confined to the Pacific coast. 

(7) Alypia ridingsi Grote, Plate XVII, Fig. 13, 6, Fig. 
14, ?. (Ridings' Forester.) 

A common species in the Rocky Mountain region at high 
elevations, and ranging northward to Sitka and the valley of 
the Yukon. 

Genus ALYPIODES Grote 

Two species of this genus are Mexican, the third is found 
in our fauna, though also occurring south of our boundary. 

(i) Alypiodes bimaculata Herrich-Schasffer, Plate XVII, 
Fig. 22. (The Two- 
spotted Forester.) 

Syn. trimaculata Bois- 
duval. 

The figure in the 
plate represents the typi- 
cal form, the figure in 

the CUt Shows the ab- F i G .*4.-*ypiodesbimacuU*a. <?. 

erration named ( After Hampson.) 

crescens by Walker, in 

which the hind wing has a yellow spot about the middle of 

the wing. The insect is fairly common in southern California, 

New Mexico, and Arizona. 

"The entomologist need not relax his endeavors day or night. Mothing 
is night employment." A. S. PACKARD. 



145 




SUGARING FOR MOTHS 

The day has been hot and sultry. The sun has set behind 
great banks of clouds which are piling up on the northwestern 
horizon. Now that the light is beginning to fade, the great 
masses of cumulus, which are slowly gathering and rising higher 
toward the zenith, are lit up by pale flashes of sheet-lightning. 
As yet the storm is too far off to permit us to hear the boom of 
the thunder, but about ten or eleven o'clock to-night we shall 
probably experience all the splendor of a dashing thunder- 
shower. 

Along the fringe of woodland which skirts the back pastures 
is a path which we long have known. Here stand long ranks 
of 'ancient beeches; sugar maples, which in fall are glorious in 
robes of yellow and scarlet; ash trees, the tall gray trunks of 
which carry skyward huge masses of light pinnated foliage; 
walnuts and butternuts, oaks, and tulip-poplars. On either side 
of the path in luxuriant profusion are saplings, sprung from the 
monarchs of the forest, young elm trees planted by the winds, 
broad-leaved papaws, round-topped hawthorns, viburnums, 
spreading dogwoods, and here and there in moist places clumps 
of willows. Where the path runs down by the creek, sycamores 
spread their gaunt white branches toward the sky, and drink 
moisture from the shallow reaches of the stream, in which duck- 
weed, arrow-weed, and sweet pond-lilies bloom. 

The woodland is the haunt of many a joyous thing, which 
frequents the glades and hovers over the flowers. To-night the 
lightning in the air, the suggestion of a coming storm which 
lurks in the atmosphere, will send a thrill through all the swarms, 
which have been hidden through the day on moss-grown trunks, 
or among the leaves, and they will rise, as the dusk gathers, in 
troops about the pathway. It is just the night upon which to 
take a collecting trip, resorting to the well-known method of 
"sugaring." 

Here we have a bucket and a clean whitewash brush. We 

146 



Sugaring for Moths 

have put into the bucket four pounds of cheap sugar. Now we 
will pour in a bottle of stale beer and a little rum. We have 
stirred the mixture well. In our pockets are our cyanide jars. 
Here are the dark lanterns. Before the darkness falls, while yet 
there is light enough to see our way along the path, we will pass 
from tree to tree and apply the brush charged with the sweet 
semi-intoxicating mixture to the trunks of the trees. 

The task is accomplished! Forty trees and ten stumps have 
been baptized with sugar-sweetened beer. Let us wash our 
sticky fingers in the brook and dry them with our handkerchiefs. 
Let us sit down on the grass beneath this tree and puff a good 
Havana. It is growing darker. The bats are circling overhead. 
A screech-owl is uttering a plaintive lament, perhaps mourning 
the absence of the moon, which to-night will not appear. The 
frogs are croaking in the pond. The fireflies soar upward and 
flash in sparkling multitudes where the grass grows rank near 
the water. 

Now let us light our lamps and put a drop or two of chloro- 
form into our cyanide jars, just enough to slightly dampen the 
paper which holds the lumps of cyanide in place. We will 
retrace our steps along the path and visit each moistened spot 
upon the tree-trunks. 

Here is the last tree which we sugared. There in the light 
of the lantern we see the shining drops of our mixture clinging 
to the mosses and slowly trickling downward toward the 
ground. Turn the light of the lantern full upon the spot, 
advancing cautiously, so as not to break the dry twigs under 
foot or rustle the leaves. Ha ! Thus far nothing but the black 
ants which tenant the hollows of the gnarled old tree appear 
to have recognized the offering which we have made. But 
they are regaling themselves in swarms about the spot. Look 
at them ! Scores of them, hundreds of them are congregat- 
ing about the place, and seem to be drinking with as mucn en- 
joyment as a company of Germans on a picnic in the wilds of 
Hoboken. 

Let us stealthily approach the next tree. It is a beech. 
What is there? Oho! my beauty! Just above the moistened 
patch upon the bark is a great Catocala. The gray upper wings 
are spread, revealing the lower wings gloriously banded with 

147 



Sugaring for Moths 

black and crimson. In the yellow light of the lantern the wings 
appear even more brilliant than they do in sunlight. How the 
eyes glow like spots of fire! The moth is wary. He has just 
alighted; he has not yet drunk deep. Move cautiously! Keep 
the light of the lantern steadily upon him. Uncover your 
poisoning jar. Approach. Hold the jar just a little under the 
moth, for he will drop downward on the first rush to get away. 
Clap the jar over him! There! you have done it! You have 
him securely. He flutters for a moment, but the chloroform acts 
quickly and the flutterings cease. Put that jar into one pocket 
and take out another. Now let us go to the next tree. It is an 
old walnut. The trunk is rough, seamed, and full of knotted 
excrescences. See what a company has gathered! There are a 
dozen moths, large and small, busily at work tippling. Begin 
with those which are nearest to the ground. When I was young 
my grandfather taught me that in shooting wild turkeys resting 
in a tree, it is always best to shoot the lowest fowl first, and 
then the next. If you shoot the gobbler which perches highest, 
as he comes tumbling down through the flock, he will startle 
them all, and they will fly away together; but if you take those 
which are roosting well down among the branches, those above 
will simply raise their heads and stare about for a moment to find 
out the source of their peril, and you can bag three or four before 
the rest make up their minds to fly. I follow the same plan with 
my moths, unless, perchance, the topmost moth is some 
unusual rarity, worth all that suck the sweets below him. 

Bravo! You have learned the lesson well. You succeeded 
admirably in bottling those Taraches which were sucking the 
moisture at the lower edge of the sweetened patch. There 
above them is a fine specimen of Strenoloma lunilinea. Aha! 
You have him. Now take that Catocala. It is amasia, a charm- 
ing little species. Above him is a specimen of cara, one of the 
largest and most superb of the genus. Well done! You have 
him, too. Now wait a moment! Have your captives ceased 
their struggles in your jar? Yes; they seem to be thoroughly 
stunned. Transfer them to the other jar for the cyanide to do its 
work. Look at your lantern. Is the wick trimmed? Come 
on then. 

Let us go to the next tree. This is an ash. The moist spot 

148 



Sugaring for Moths 

shows faintly upon the silvery-gray bark of the tree. Look 
sharply ! Here below are a few Geometers daintily sipping the 
sweets. There is a little Eustixis pupula, with its silvery-white 
wings dotted with points of black. There is a specimen of 
Harrisimemna, the one with the coppery-brown spots on 
the fore wings. A good catch! 

Stop! Hold still! Ha! I thought he would alight. That is 
Catocala coccinata a fine moth not overly common, and 
the specimen is perfect. 

Well, let us try another tree. Here they are holding a 
general assembly. Look! See them fairly swarming about the 
spot. A dozen have found good places; twc or three are 
fluttering about trying to alight. The ants have found the place 
as well as the moths. They are squabbling with each other. 
The moths do not like the ants. I do not blame them. I would 
not care to sit down at a banquet and have ants crawling all 
over the repast. There is a specimen of Catocala relicta, the 
hind wings white, banded with black. How beautiful simple 
colors are when set in sharp contrast and arranged in graceful 
lines! There is a specimen of Catocala neogama, which was 
originally described by Abbot from Georgia. It is not un- 
common. There is a good Mamestra, and there Pvrophila 
pyramidoides. The latter is a common species; we shall find 
scores of them before we get through. Do not bother with 
those specimens of Agrotis Ypsilon', there are choicer things to 
be had. It is a waste of time to take them to-night. Let them 
drink themselves drunk, when the flying squirrels will come and 
catch them. Do you see that flying squirrel there peeping 
around the trunk of the tree ? Flying squirrels eat insects. I 
have seen them do it at night, and they have robbed me of many 
a fine specimen. 

Off now to the next tree! 

And so we go from tree to tree. The lightning in the west 
grows more vivid. Hark! I hear the thunder. It is half-past 
nine. The storm will be here by ten. The leaves are beginning 
to rustle in the tree-tops. The first pulse of the tornado is 
beginning to be felt. Now the wind is rising. Boom! Boom! 
The storm is drawing nearer. We are on our second round 
and are coming up the path near the pasture-gate. Our 

149 



Sugaring for Moths 

collecting jars are full. We have taken more than a hundred 
specimens representing thirty species. Not a bad night's work. 
Hurry up! Here are the draw-bars. Are you through? Put 
out the light in your lantern. Come quickly after me. I know 
the path. Here is the back garden gate. It is beginning to 
rain. We shall have to run if we wish to avoid a wetting. 
Ah! here are the steps of the veranda. Come up! 

My! what a flash and a crash that was! Look back and 
see how the big trees are bowing their heads as the wind 
reaches them, and the lightning silhouettes them against the 
gray veil of the rain. We may be glad we are out of the 
storm, with a good roof overhead. To-morrow morning the 
sun will rise bright and clear, and we shall have work 
enough to fill all the morning hours in setting the captures we 
have made. Good-night! 



"it is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many 
plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects 
flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to 
reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each 
other, and dependent upon each other in so complex a manner, have all 
been produced by laws acting around us. These laws, taken in the largest 
sense, being Growth with Reproduction; Inheritance, which is almost 
implied by reproduction; Variability, from the indirect and direct action 
of the conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so 
high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural 
Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less 
improved forms. Thus, from the war of Nature, from famine and death, 
the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the 
production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur 
in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally 
breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one, and that, whilst 
this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from 
so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful 
have been and are being evolved." DARWIN. 



I 5 



FAMILY NOCTUID^E 

" Shall mortal man be more just than God ? 
Shall a man be more pure than his Maker ? 
Behold He put no trust in His servants; 
And His angels He charged with folly: 
How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, 
Whose foundation is in the dust, 
Which are crushed before the moth ? " 

JOB, Chapter IV, 17-19. 

The Noctuidcz are a huge complex of genera and species, 
the genera being reckoned by hundreds, and the species by 
thousands. Within the faunal limits intended to be covered by 
this book there are already known to occur in the neighborhood 
of three hundred and seventy-five genera, and many more than 
two thousand species which are referable to this family. In the 
arrangement of the genera and the species the author has in the 
main followed Dyar's Catalogue, which is based upon that of 
Prof. J. B. Smith, published in 1893 as "Bulletin 44 of the 
United States National Museum." 

The moths are nocturnal in their habits. The neuration is 
very constant, and is described as follows by Hampson ("Moths 
of India, "Vol. II, p. 160): 

" Fore wing with vein \a slight and not anastomosing with 
ibj \c absent; 2 from middle of cell; 3, 4, 5 from close to lower 
angle; 6 from upper angle; 8 given off from 7 and anastomosing 
with 9, which is given off from 10 to form an areole; 11 from 
cell; 12 long. Hind wing with \a and b present; \c absent; 
2 from middle of cell; 3 and 4 from lower angle; 5 from near 
lower angle or middle of discocellulars, rarely absent, but more 
or less aborted in the Acontiince and Trifince. Frenulum always, 
proboscis almost always, present." 

The larvae are generally naked, or at most pubescent. In 
some of the subfamilies the larvae are semiloopers, some of the 
prolegs being absent. Pupation generally takes place under 



Noctuidc 

ground without a cocoon, the earth being fashioned in some 
cases into a cemented cell about the pupa. 

Genus PANTHEA Hubner 

(i) Panthea furcilla Packard, Plate XVII, Fig. 31, $. 
(The Eastern Panthea.) 

Closely allied to the following species, from which it may be 
distinguished by the absence of the reniform spot at the end of 
the cell. 

(2) Panthea portlandia Grote, Plate XVII, Fig. 30, $ . (The 
Western Panthea.) 

Transverse markings less diffuse than in the preceding 
species, and reniform spot always present. 

P. furcilla occurs on the northern Atlantic, and P. portlandia 
on the northern Pacific coast. 

(For the other two species consult Proceedings U. S. Nat. Museum, Vol. XXI, 
p. 13.) 

Genus DEMAS Stephens 

(i) Demas propinquilinea Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 3, ?. 
(The Close-banded Demas.) 

The caterpillar feeds on various deciduous trees, making a 
case for itself by drawing two leaves together with strands of 
silk. It occurs in the Atlantic States. 

(For the other two species of genus see Proceedings U. S. Nat. Museum, Vol. 
XXI, p. 22.) 

Genus CHARADRA Walker 

(1) Charadra deridens Guenee, Plate XVIII, Fig. 4, ?. 
(The Laugher.) 

Syn. circulifer Walker; contigua Walker. 

A rather rare moth, the habitat of which is the Atlantic States, 
and the larva of which makes a case for itself, very much as 
done by the preceding species. 

(2) Charadra illudens Walker, Plate XVIII, Fig. 5, $. 
Fig. 2, ? . (The Sport.) 

Syn. pyttion Druce. 

A Mexican species, which I admit to the fauna of our territory 
on the authority of George Franck of Brooklyn., who reports its 
occurrence in Florida. 

152 



Noctuidse 

(3) Charadra decora Morrison, Plate XVII, Fig. 29, $ . 
(The Dandy.) 

Syn. felina Druce. 

This is likewise a Mexican species, which is said to occur 
in Arizona, but the fact of its being found there requires 
verification. 

One other species of the genus, C. dispulsa Morrison, occurs 
in the Southern States. 

Genus RAPHIA Hu'bner 

(i) Raphia frater Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 3, ?. (The 
Brother.) 

Syn. personata Walker; flexuosa Walker. 

There are three species belonging to this genus in our 
fauna. They are closely alike in appearance. The species we 
figure occurs in the Eastern States. R. abrupta Grote is also 
an eastern species, while R. coloradensis is found in the West. 

Genus APATELA Hubner 

This is a large genus, well represented in the temperate 
regions of both the Old World and the New. The latest 
Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of the United States credits our 
fauna with seventy-five species. The genus has been mono- 
graphed by Smith & Dyar. (See Proceedings U. S. Nat. Museum, 
Vol. XXI, pp. 1-104.) Within the compass of these pages we 
cannot do more than give a representation of a number of the 
forms, which have been described, leaving the student to 
further researches in the readily accessible literature of the 
subject. 

(1) Apatela americana Harris, Plate XVIII, Fig. 12, 9 . 
(The American Dagger-moth.) 

Syn. acericola Guen6e; obscura Henry Edwards; aceris Abbot & 
Smith (non Linnaeus). 

This is one of the largest species of the genus. 

The caterpillar feeds upon deciduous trees of many genera, 
and the insect occurs from New England to Utah and south 
to the Gulf States. 

(2) Apatela dactylina Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 17, $ . 
(The Fingered Dagger-moth). 

Easily distinguished from the preceding species, which it 




FIG. 85. Apatela populi, ? 
(After Riley.) 



Noctuidae 

resembles in the markings of the fore wings, by its smaller 
size and the white hind wings. It ranges from Canada to 
Virginia and westward to the Rocky Mountains. The caterpillar 
lives upon alder, willow, and birch. 

(3) Apatela populi Riley, Plate XVIII, Fig. 14, $ (The 
Cottonwood Dagger-moth.) 

The moth, of which we reproduce the figures of the larva and 
imago given by Professor Riley, who first described the species, 

ranges from Canada to the 
western parts of the Carolinas, 
thence across the continent to 
the Pacific coast, avoiding the 
warmer regions of the Gulf 
States and southern California. 
The imago is discriminated from 
Apatela lepusculina Guenee by 
the broader wings, especially of 
the female, by the paler ground- 
color of the primaries, and by the absence of the orbicular 
spot, which is very rarely as conspicuous as it appears in 
the figure given by Riley, and still further by the very short 
basal dash on the 
fore wings, which 
in A. lepusculina is 
long, reaching out- 
wardly as a sharply 
defined black line 
one-third of the 
length of the cell. 
The larva is also quite 
different in impor- 
tant particulars from 
that of the species, 
which has been 
named, but with 
which this species is 
often confounded in 
collections. The caterpillar feeds upon the foliage of different 
species of the genus Populus, and is particularly common in the 




FIG. 86. Apatela populi, larva. 
(After Riley.) 



'54 



Noctuidae 

States of the Mississippi Basin upon the Cotlonwood (Populus 
monilifera and Populus heterophylla.) 

(4) Apatela innotata Guenee, Plate XVIII, Fig. I}, $. 
(The Unmarked Dagger-moth.) 

Svn. graft Grote. 

The figure given in the plate represents a form intermediate 
between those depicted by Smith & Dyar. (See Proceedings 
U. S. Nat. Museum, Vol. XXI, Plate II, Figs. 17, 18). The ground 
color is a dirty yellowish-white. The species occurs in Canada 
and the northern Atlantic States. 

(5) Apatela morula Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 8, 6. (The 
Darkish Dagger-moth. ) 

Syn ulmi Harris. 

This insect occurs from Canada southward and westward to 
the Rocky Mountains. The caterpillar feeds upon elm, apple, 
and linden. 

(6) Apatela interrupta Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 5, 9. 
(The Interrupted Dagger-moth.) f ' 

Syn. occidentalis Grote & Robinson. 

The larva feeds upon the Rosacece, and also upon the elm 
and the birch. The insect has a wide range from the Atlantic 
seaboard to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the 
northern portions of the Gulf States. 

(7) Apatela lobeliae Guenee, Plate XVIII, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Lobelia Dagger-moth.) 

The caterpillar feeds upon oak, in spite of the fact that the 
author of the species attributed it to the Lobelia, which would 
no doubt poison it if administered. It ranges from Canada to 
Florida and Texas, and westward to the Rocky Mountains. 

(8) Apatela furcifera Guenee, Plate XVIII, Fig. 10, $ . 
(The Forked Dagger-moth.) 

The range of this species is practically the same as that of the 
preceding. The larva feeds upon various species of wild-cherry. 

(9) Apatela hasta Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 6, ?. (The 
Dart Dagger-moth.) 

Syn. telum Guenee. 

The insect is found in the northern Atlantic States and 
Canada. It is smaller and darker than the preceding species, to 

tfl 



Noctuidae 

which it is closely allied. The figure in the plate is hardly dark 
enough. 

(10) Apatela quadrata Grote. Plate XVI II. Fig. 15, $. 
(The Quadrate Dagger.) 

This species occurs on the Pacific coast and ranges eastward 
as far as Alberta in the north and Kansas in the south. The 
author does not recall a description of the larva. 

(n) Apatela superans Guenee, Plate XVI II, Fig. 26, ?. 
(The Chieftain Dagger.) 

This is a well-marked species, which cannot easily be mis- 
taken. It occurs in Canada, southward to the Carolinas, and 
westward through the valley of the Mississippi. The larva feeds 
on the same plants as its allies, which have been mentioned above. 
(12) Apatela lithospila Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 24, $. 
(The Streaked Dagger.) 

Ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The larva feeds 
upon oak, hickory, and chestnut. 

(13) Apatela connecta Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 19, $. 
(The Connected Dagger.) 

The habitat of this species is found from Canada to the Caro- 
linas and westward to the Mississippi. The larva feeds on wil- 
lows. 

(14) Apatela fragilis Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. i, $. (The 
Fragile Dagger-moth.) 

Syn. spectans Walker. 

This delicate little species has by some authors been referred 
to the genus Microccdia, but is a true Apatela, It ranges from 
Canada to the Carolinas and westward to the Mississippi. The 
caterpillar feeds on birch and various plants belonging to the 
Rosacece. 

(15) Apatela vinnula Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 25, ?. 
(The Delightful Dagger.) 

This pretty and easily recognizable species feeds in the larval 
stage upon the elm and ranges from the Atlantic coast to the 
border of the Great Plains. It comes very freely to sugar. 

(16) Apatela grisea Walker, Plate XVI 1 1 1, Fig. n, ?. 
(The Gray Dagger-moth.) 

Syn. pudorata Morrison. 

The caterpillar feeds on apple, birch, willow, elm, and arrow 
156 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Diphthera fallax Herrich-Schseffer, $. 

2. Charadra illudens Walker, 9 . 

3. Raphia frater Grote, $ , U. S. N. M. 

4. Charadra deridens Guenee, 9 . 

5. Charadra illudens Walker, cJ 1 . 

6. Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze, (J 1 . 

7. Merolonche lupini Grote, c?, 

Merrick Collection. 

8. Apatela morula Grote, (?. 

9. Apatela lobelia Guenee, cJ 1 . 

10. Apatela furcifera Guenee, cJ 1 . 

11. Apatela grisea Walker, $ . 

12. Apatela americana Harris, 9- 

13. Apatela innotata Guenee, tf . 

14. Apatela lepusculina Guen6e, (J 1 . 

15. Apatela quadrata Grote, 9 . 

1 6. Apatel-a radcliffei Harvey, o 1 . 

17. Apatela dactylina Grote, c?. 

1 8. Apatela oblinita Abbot & Smith, 9 

19. Apatela connecta Grote, tf. 

20. Apatela noctivaga Grote, 9- 

21. Apatela impressa Walker, tf, 

22. Apatela impleta. Walker, 9. 

23. Apatela brumosa Guen6e, c?. 

24. Apatela xyliniformis Guenee, (J 1 , 

Merrick Collection. 

25. Apatela vinnula Grote, 9 

26. Apatela super ans Guenee, 9 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATS XVIII. 



* 't 



>*/?. 




S$ 

>fc>J 



WU 




26 



Noctuidae 

wood (Euonymus). The insect is found from Canada to Georgia 
and westward to Missouri and Minnesota. 

(17) Apatela albarufa Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 16, $. 
(The Reddish-white Dagger.) 

A somewhat variable species characterized by a very faint 
reddish cast upon the primaries. It ranges from the Atlantic to 
New Mexico and Colorado. 

(18) Apatela brumosa Guenee, Plate XVIII, Fig. 23, $. 
(The Frosty Dagger-moth.) 

Syn. inclara Smith. 

Very closely allied to A. impressa Walker, but easily dis- 
tinguished from that species by the lighter hind wings. The 
larva feeds upon willow, birch, and alder. 

(19) Apatela noctivaga Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 20, ?. 
(The Burglar Dagger.) 

The larva feeds upon poplar and various herbaceous plants. 
The insect is found over almost the entire United States and 
southern Canada. 

(20) Apatela impressa Walker, Plate XVIII, Fig. 21, $. 
(The Printed Dagger.) 

The larva feeds upon willow, plum, hazel, currant, and 
blackberry. It is found from the Atlantic coast to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(21) Apatela impleta Walker, Plate XVIII, Fig. 22, ?. 
(The Yellow-haired Dagger.) 

Syn. luteicoma Grote. 

The range of this species is from Canada to Florida and 
westward far into the valley of the Mississippi. The larva 
feeds on a great variety of deciduous trees and shrubs. 

(22) Apatela oblinita Abbot & Smith, Plate XVIII, Fig. 
1 8, $ . (The Smeared Dagger.) 

Syn. salicis Harris. 

This is probably the commonest species of the genus. It 
occurs from eastern Canada to Florida and westward to the 
Rocky Mountains. The larva feeds on a great variety of shrubs 
and herbaceous plants. It never is found upon trees. It is very 
fond of the various species of smart-weed (Polygonum}, and in the 

57 



Noctuidae 

fall of the year it is very abundant in places where this plant grows. 

It does some damage to cotton-plants in the South, but by hand 

picking it can easily 
be kept under. The 
cocoon, which is com- 
posed of yellowish 
silk, is long and oval. 
There are two broods 
in the Middle States. 
The hibernating in- 
sects emerge from 
their cocoons in May, 
and lay their eggs. 
The caterpillars de- 
velop and the second 
brood of moths ap- 
pears upon the wing 

FIG. Sj.Apatela oblinata. a. Larva; 6. in July. They Ovi- 

Cocoon; c. Moth. (After Riley.) posit and the cater- 

pillars of this gene- 
ration, having made their cocoons, pass the winter in the 
pupal state. 

Genus APHARETRA Grote 

This is a small genus, the species of which have been 
separated from Apatela, in which they have been formerly 
placed. We give figures of both species known to occur within 
our territory. They have been drawn from the types, and will 
suffice for the identification of the perfect insects. Nothing is as 
yet known as to their larval stages. 

(i) Apharetra dentata Grote. (The Toothed Apharetra.) 
This insect occurs in Canada and the northern portions of 





FIG. 88. Apharetra dentata, 
New York and New England. It is, however, for some reason 
as yet very rare in collections. The annexed cut has been 

158 




Noctuidas 

drawn for me by Mr. Horace Knight from the type which is 
contained in the British Museum. 

(2) Apharetra pyralis Smith. (Smith's 
Apharetra.) 

The specimen represented in Fig. 89 is 
the type contained in the United States 
National Museum, a drawing of which I 
was kindly permitted to make. The species IG J 
is considerably darker than the preceding. 
It is thus far only known from the Territory of Alberta in British 
America. 

Genus ARSILONCHE Lederer 

Two species belonging to this genus are represented in our 
fauna. Arsilonche color ada was described by Smith in the Pro- 
ceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XXII, 
p. 414, in 1900. The other species, which is well known, we 
figure. 

(i) Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze, Plate XVIII, Fig. 6, $. 
(The White-veined Dagger.) 

The abdomen in our figure is dark, the specimen being greased. 
It should be light, like the thorax. The insect occurs quite com- 
monly in Canada and the northern portions of the United States, 
and also in Europe and northern Asia. 

Genus MEROLONCHE Grote 

For a full account of the three species contained in this genus 
the student is referred to the Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, Vol. XXI, p. 179. 

(i) Merolonche lupini Grote, Plate XVIII, Fig. 7, $. 
(The Lupine Dagger.) 

Like all the species of this genus the Lupine Dagger is an 
inhabitant of the Pacific States. Good specimens are rare in 
collections. 

Genus HARRISIMEMNA Grote 

Only one species of this genus is thus far known, 
(i) Harrisimemna trisignata Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 4, 
? . (Harris's Three-spot.) 

159 



Noctuidae 

The moth ranges from Canada to Texas, and from the 
Atlantic to the Great Plains. The larva feeds on the winterberry 
and the lilac. 

Genus MICROCCELIA Guenee 

This genus is like the preceding represented in our territory 
by but one species. 

(i) Microccelia diphtheroides Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 9, $ ; 
form obliterata Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 10, 6 . (The Marbled 
Microccelia.) 

The form obliterata in which the marblings are wanting is 
common. The species is found in the Atlantic Subregion of the 
United States. 

Genus JASPIDIA Hubner 

This is a moderately large genus embracing five species, 

which occur in our fauna. We figure two of them. 

(1) Jaspidia lepidula Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 7, $. (The 
Marbled-green Jaspidia. ) 

This is a common species in the Atlantic Subregion, ranging 
from Canada to the Carolinas and westward to the Mississippi. 

(2) Jaspidia teratophora Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XIX, 
Fig. 8, $, (The White-spotted Jaspidia.) 

The distribution of this species is practically the same as that 
of the preceding. 

Genus DIPHTHERA Hu'bner 

There is but one species of this genus in our fauna. 

(i) Diphthera fallax Herrich-Schzeffer, Plate . XVIII, 
Fig. i, $ . (The Green Marvel.) 

This beautiful little moth is not uncommon in the Appala- 
chian, or Atlantic, Subregion of the Continent. 

Genus POLYGRAMMATE Hubner 

This genus like the preceding is represented in our territory 
by but a single species. 

(i) Polygrammate hebraicum Hubner, Plate XIX, Fig. II, 
$ . (The Hebrew.) 

Syn. hebrcea Guenee. 

160 




Noctuidae 

The caterpillar feeds upon the sour gum-tree (Nyssa sylva- 
tica). The larval stages have been described by Dyar. (See 
Proceedings U. S. Nat. Museum, Vol. XXI, p. 9.) The insect is 
not uncommon in Pennsylvania and has much the same range 
as the preceding three or four species. 

Genus CERMA Hubner 

Three species of this genus are credited to. our fauna. The 
one of which we give a cut has been by some authors con- 
founded with Poly gr animate hebraicum. 

(i) Cerma cora Hubner. (The Cora Moth.) 

Syn. festa Gucnee. 

The ground-color of this pretty little moth is 
white shading into vinaceous gray, upon which 
the darker markings stand forth conspicuously. 
It is quite rare, and so far as is known is con- 
fined to the Atlantic Subregion of the continent. The figure 
was drawn by the author from a specimen in the possession of 
the Brooklyn Institute, belonging to the Neumoegen Collection. 

Genus CYATHISSA Grote 

(i) Cyathissa percara Morrison, Plate XIX, Fig. 12, $ . 
(The Darling Cyathissa.) 

This pretty little species is found in the Gulf States and has 
been reported as ranging northward as far as Colorado. A 
second species of the genus has during the past year been 
described by Prof. J. B. Smith, from southern California, under 
the name pallida. 

Genus CHYTONIX Grote 

(i) Chytonix palliatricula Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 13, $ ; 
Fig. 14, 6 . var. (The Cloaked Marvel.) 

Syn. iaspis Guenee. 

A common species in the Northern Atlantic States. It may 
be found in June and July in Pennsylvania seated upon the bark 
of oak-trees in the forest. It comes freely to sugar and to light. 

161 




Noctuida 

Genus COPIBRYOPHILA Smith 

Of the sole species, named angelica, belonging to this genus, 
which was erected by Prof. J. B. Smith 
in the year 1900 (see "Proceedings U. 
S. Nat. Mus.," Vol. XXII, p. 416), we 
give a cut made from a drawing of the 
FIG. 91. Copibryophila type, which is contained in the National 
angelica, <?. i- Museum at Washington. 

Genus ALEPTINA Dyar 

This genus has been erected by Dyar to accommodate the 
species named inca by him in the "Canadian Entomologist," 
Vol. XXXIV, p. 104. The male is figured on Plate XVII, Fig. 
28. The insect is found in Arizona and Texas. 

Genus BAILEYA Grote 

A small genus, the species in which have been commonly 
referred hitherto to the genus Leptina, but erroneously. 

(1) Baileya ophthalmica Guenee, Plate XVII, Fig. 25, ?. 
Not an uncommon species in the Appalachian Subregion. 

It comes freely to sugar, and is rather abundant in the forests of 
southern Indiana. 

(2) Baileya australis Grote, Plate XVII, Fig. 27, $ . 

This is smaller than the preceding species, and generally 
lighter in color, with a very pronounced blackish apical shade 
on the fore wings. It occurs in the Gulf States from Florida to 
Texas. 

(3) Baileya doubledayi Guenee, Plate XVII. Fig. 26, $ . 
Of the same size as ophthalmica, but differently marked. 

From australis it may readily be distinguished by its larger size, 
and by the different marking of the apex of the fore wings. 

Genus HADENELLA Grote 

(1) Hadenella pergentilis Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 24, ? . 
This inconspicuous, but neatly marked little insect, belongs 

to the region of the Pacific coast, and ranges eastward as far as 
Colorado. 

(2) Hadenella subjuncta Smith, Plate XIX, Fig. 25, S . 

162 



NeetuidJB 

The identification of this insect with minuscula Morrison, 
made by Dr. Dyar, is open to question. The range of this 
species is from the Atlantic to the mountains of Colorado, north 
of the Gulf States. 

Genus ACOPA Harvey 

(l) Acopa carina Harvey, Plate XIX, Fig. 16, <$ . 

The habitat of this species is Texas. Three other species 
belonging to the region of the Southwestern States have been 
referred to this genus. 

Genus CATABENA Walker 
(i) Catabena lineolata Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 15, $ . 

Syn. miscellus Grote. 

This is a common little moth which ranges from the Atlantic 
States to California. It is freely attracted to light. The larva 
feeds on Verbena. 

Genus CRAMBODES Guenee 

(i) Crambodes talidiformis Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 17, $ . 

Syn. conjugens Walker. 

A common species in the Appalachian Subregion, ranging 
westward as far as Colorado. Like the preceding species the 
larval form feeds on Verbena. 

Genus PLATYSENTA Grote 

(1) Platysenta videns Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 21, 9. 

Syn. indigens Walker; meskei Speyer; atriciliata Grote. 

This species has the same range as the preceding. It is 
common at sugar. 

(2) Platysenta albipuncta Smith, Plate XIX, Fig. 23, 6 . 
This moth was originally described from Colorado, but it 

occurs all through the Southwestern States. The specimen 
figured came from Texas. 

Genus BALSA Walker 
(i) Balsa malana Fitch, Plate XIX, Fig. 18, 6. 

Syn. obliquifera Walker. 

I6 3 





Noctuidw 

This is a very common species in the Atlantic States and is 
freely attracted to light. 

Genus PLATYPERIGEA Smith 

This genus has been erected by Prof. J. B. Smith for the 
reception of three species, two of which we figure in the 
annexed cuts, which have been made 
* r me fr m the types through the 

courtes y of 

Dr. H. G. Dyar, 
of Washington. 

FIG. 02. Plalypengea ... ,. , . 

pLacuta, I f All of the species 

have been re- 
corded from Colorado. They also occur 
in Wyoming, and I have specimens col- 
lected for me in the Freeze-out Mountains in that State. They 
probably have an extensive range in the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus ANORTHODES Smith 

(i) Anorthodes prima Smith, Plate XIX, Fig. 19, $ . 

This inconspicuous insect is quite common in central Ohio, 
and its range extends thence southward into the Southern 
States. It occurs in Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, and 
Georgia. 

Genus CARADRINA Ochsenheimer 

This is a genus of moderate extent, represented both in the 
Old World and the New. We have chosen a few species, 
familiarity with which will enable the student to recognize 
others. 

(1) Caradrina meralis Morrison, Plate XIX, Fig. 22, $ . 
(The Mooned Rustic.) 

Syn. bilunata Grote. 

The moth is distributed from the Atlantic seaboard to the 
interior of New Mexico. It is common in Texas. 

(2) Caradrina multifera Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 29, . 
(The Speckled Rustic.) 

Syn. fidicularia Morrison. 

The habitat of this species is the Atlantic Subregion. 
164 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens 
in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 



are contained 



1. Apatela fragilis Guenee, cJ 1 . 

2. Ciris wilsoni Grote, c?. 

3. Demas pro pinquilinea Grote. 

9, U. S. N. M. 

4. Harrisimemna trisignata 

Walker, .$ . 

5. Apatela interrupta Guenee, 9- 

6. Apatela hasta Guenee, 9 . 

7. Jaspidea lepidula Grote, tf . 

8. Jaspidea teratophora Herrich- 

Schreffer, <?. 

9. Microccelia diphtheroides 

Guenee, cJ 1 . 
10. Microccelia diphtheroides var. 

obliterata, Grote, (? 
n. Polygram mate hebraicum 

Hiibner, J 1 . 

12. Cyathissa per car a Morrison, c?, 

U. S. N. M. 

13. Chytonix palliatricula Guen6e, 

d 1 - _ 

14. Chytonix palliatricula Guen6e, 

var., <?. 

15. Catabena lineolata Walker, <3\ 

16. Acopa carina Harvey, tf , U. 

S. N. M. 

17. Crambodes talidiformis Guen6e, 

d 1 - 

1 8. o/sa malana Fitch, c?. 



19. Anorthodes prima Smith, <?. 

20. Orthodes vecors Guenee, c? 1 . 

21. Platysenta videns Guende, 9. 

2 2 . Caradrina meralis Morrison , & . 

23. Platysenta albipuncta Smith, <? . 

24. Hadenella pergentilis Grote, ? . 

U. S. N. M. 

25. Hadenella subjuncta Smith, $ . 

26. Caradrina extimia Walker, cJ 1 . 
2 7 . Caradrina punctivena Smith , tf . 

28. Caradrina spilomela Walker, <?. 

29. Caradrina multifera Walker, 9. 

30. Perigea xanthioides Guen6e, tf . 

31. Perigea vecors Guenee, 9- 

32. Oligia festivoides Guenee, J 1 . 

33. Oligia grata Hiibner, J 1 . 

34. Oligia fuscimacula Grote, tf. 

35. Hillia algens Grote, c?. 

36. Hadena passer Guen6e, c?. 

37. Hadena burgessi Morrison, of 1 . 

38. Hadena lateritia Hiibner, (5*. 

39. Hadena dubitans Walker, 9 

40. Hadena ducta Grote, 9 . 

41. Mamestra juncimacula Smith, 

42. Hadena nigrior Smith, 9 

43. Hadena verbascoides Guene'e, 9 

44. Hadena devastatrix Brace, cJ 1 . 

45. Hadena arctica Boisduval, cJ 1 . 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XIX 



*<fig$ t 




COPYHIGMTED BY W 



Noctuidae 

(3) Caradrina spilomela Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 28, 6. 
(The Convivial Rustic.) 

Syn. conviva Harvey. 

This is a neotropical species found all over the hotter parts 
of North and South America, and ranging northward into 
Arizona and Texas. 

(4) Caradrina extimia Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 26, I . 
(The Civil Rustic.) 

Syn. civica Grote. 

The moth occurs in Colorado and thence westward to the 
Pacific. 

(5) Caradrina punctivena Smith, Plate XIX, Fig. 27, $ . 
(The Brown-streaked Rustic.) 

The identity of this insect with C. rufostriga Packard has 
been suggested as probable. Its habitat is Colorado, among the 
mountains, and Labrador. It no doubt occurs at intermediate 
points at suitable elevations. It is evidently a strictly boreal 
form. 

Geaus PERIGEA Guenee 

This is a rather extensive genus, well represented in the 
warmer parts of the New World, and also occurring in the 
Eastern Hemisphere. Twenty-four species are credited to our 
fauna in the latest catalogue. We figure two of the commoner 
species, which have a wide range. 

(1) Perigea xanthioides Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 30, $ . 
(The Red Groundling.) 

This is not a scarce species in the Appalachian Subregion. 
It is particularly abundant in southern Indiana and Kentucky, 
where I have obtained it in large numbers. 

(2) Perigea vecors Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 31, ?. (The 
Dusky Groundling.) 

The distribution of this species is very much the same as that 
of the preceding. 

Genus OLIGIA Hu'bner 

Nine species belonging to this genus are credited to our terri- 
tory, of which number three are selected for illustration. 

(i) Oligia festivoides Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 32, 6. 
(The Festive Midget.) 

Syn. varia Walker. 

I6 5 



Noctuidae 

This is not an uncommon species in the Atlantic States. 

(2) Oligia fuscimacula Grote, Plate XIX Fig. 34, $ . (The 
Brown-spotted Midget.) 

A common species in the Gulf States. 

(3) Oligia grata Hilbner, Plate XIX, Fig. 33, <$ . (The 
Grateful Midget.) 

Syn. rasilis Morrison. 

This species is quite widely distributed through the Atlantic 
States. 

Genus HILLIA Grote 

There are three species in this genus. They are found in the 
-more temperate regions of our territory, being confined to the 
Northern States or to high elevations among the mountains of 
the West. 

(i) Hillia algens Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 35, $ . 

This obscurely colored moth is found in Maine, northern 
New York, southern Canada, and among the mountains of 
Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. 

Genus HADENA Schrank 

This is a very large genus which is represented in both the 
Old World and New. More than one hundred species are credited 
to our fauna. Of these we have selected a number for purposes of 
illustration, knowing that familiarity with these will enable the 
young collector presently to recognize other species, which he 
will then be able to determine with the help of accessible 
literature. 

(1) Hadena bridghami Grote & Robinson, Plate XX, Fig. 
2, $ . (Bridgham's Hadena.) 

A bright little species, the reddish color of the medial area of 
the fore wings being quite distinctive. It is found in the 
Appalachian Subregion. 

(2) Hadena transfrons Neumoegen, Plate XX, Fig. 7, ? . 
(Neumcegen's Hadena.) 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but with darker 
primaries, and dark hind wings. Habitat Alberta and British 
Columbia. 

166 



Noctuid. 

(j) Hadena violacea Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 12, ? . (The 
Violet Hadena.) 

This species, which ranges over the region of the Rocky 
Mountains from Colorado to California, may be distinguished 
from the preceding two species by its somewhat larger size, and 
by the fact that the secondaries are immaculately white. 

(4) Hadena claudens Walker, Plate XX, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Dark-winged Hadena.) 

Syn. hilli Grote. 

This species is apparently confined to the northern portion of 
the Atlantic Subregion. 

(5) Hadena modica Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 14, $. (The 
Black-banded Hadena.) 

Syn. subcedens Walker. 

Ranges from the Atlantic coast to the mountains of Colorado. 

(6) Hadena characta Grote, Plate XX, Fig. }, $ . (The 
Double-banded Hadena.) 

The habitat of this species is in the southwestern portion of 
the Rocky Mountains. It is not uncommon in Arizona. 

(7) Hadena mactata Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 8, $. (The 
Dark-spotted Hadena.) 

The distribution of this species is over the Appalachian 
Subregion and westward to the eastern ranges of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(8) Hadena turbulenta Hubner, Plate XX, Fig. 16, $ . (The 
Turbulent Hadena.) 

Syn. arcuata Walker. 

This little species is not uncommon in the Atlantic Subregion. 

(9) Hadena versuta Smith, Plate XX, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Albertan Hadena.) 

So far as is now known this species is found in the Territory 
of Alberta, but it probably has a wide range on the eastern slopes 
of the northern ranges of the Rocky Mountains. 

(10) Hadena miseloides Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 15, ?. 
(The White-spotted Hadena.) 

This is not a scarce species in the Atlantic States. It may 
easily be recognized by its greenish fore wings, generally marked 
near the middle by a large white spot. 

167 



Noctuidse 

(n) Hadena chlorostigma Harvey, Plate XX, Fig. 13. $ . 
(The Green-spotted Hadena.) 

This species is variable in color, some specimens having 
green spots on the disk of the fore wings, others being, as repre- 
sented in the plate, almost entirely brown. It is a common 
species in the central portions of the Mississippi Valley, ranging 
thence southward. The example figured was taken at Columbus, 
Ohio. 

(12) Hadena fractilinea Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 10, $ . (The 
Broken-lined Hadena.) 

Not a scarce species in the Appalachian Subregion. 

( 1 3) Hadena basilinea Fabricius, Plate XX, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Base-streaked Hadena.) 

Syn. cerivana Smith. 

This species, which is also found in Europe, occurs in Alberta, 
and the northwestern portions of British North America. 

(14) Hadena passer Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 36, $. (The 
Passerine Hadena.) 

Syn. incallida Walker; loculata Morrison; viralis Grote; conspicua 
Morrison. 

Not a very common species, ranging from southern Canada 
and the northern Atlantic States westward in the same latitudes 
to the Pacific, and southward into the mountains of Colorado. 

(15) Hadena burgessi Morrison, Plate XIX, Fig. 37, $. 
(Burgess's Hadena.) 

Syn. discors Grote. 

The habitat of this well-marked species is the Atlantic Sub- 
region and the valley of the Mississippi as far west as the Great 
Plains. 

(16) Hadena vultuosa Grote, Plate XX, Fig. n, $. (The 
Airy Hadena.) 

Not a very common species, confined to the Atlantic Subregion. 

(17) Hadena lateritia Hubner, Plate XIX, Fig. 38, $ . (The 
Red-winged Hadena.) 

Syn. molochina Hubner; obliviosa Walker. 

Found throughout temperate North America and Europe. 

(18) Hadena dubitans Walker, Plate XIX, Fig. 39, $ . (The 
Halting Hadena.) 

Syn. Insignata Walker; sputatrix Grote. 

1 68 



Noctuidae 

Much darker than the preceding species, which it somewhat 
resembles. It is found in the northern portions of the Atlantic 
Subregion. 

(19) Hadena ducta Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 40, ?. (The 
Speckled Gray Hadena.) 

The range of this species is the same as that of the last 
mentioned. 

(20) Hadena devastatrix Brace, Plate XIX, Fig. 44, $ . 
(The Destroying Hadena.) 

Syn. ordinaria Walker; contenta Walker; marshallana Westwood. 

Universally distributed throughout the United States and 
southern Canada. 

(21) Hadena arctica Boisduval, Plate XIX, Fig. 45, $. 
The Northern Hadena.) 

Syn. amputatrix Fitch. 

A large and handsome species, easily recognizable. It ranges 
from Canada and New England into the Carolinas and westward 
to Colorado. 

(22) Hadena occidens Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 20, $ . (The 
Great Western Hadena.) 

The species is distributed from Colorado to California. 

(23) Hadena verbascoides Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 43, ? . 
(The Mullein Hadena.) 

A peculiarly marked species, which cannot easily be mistaken 
for anything else. It occurs in the northern Atlantic States. 

(24) Hadena nigrior Smith, Plate XIX, Fig. 42, ? . (The 
Darker Hadena.) 

Allied to the preceding species, but with the light color of the 
costal area confined to the basal portion of the wing. Found in 
New England r.nd Canada. 

(25) Hadena lignicolor Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 5, $ . (The 
Wood-colored Hadena.) 

A well-marked species, in color recalling H. vultuosa, but 
larger. It ranges from the Atlantic to Colorado and Arizona. 

(26) Hadena semilunata Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 41, $. 
(The Half-moon Hadena.) 

Not uncommon in Colorado and ranging thence westward to 
the Pacific. 

169 



Noctuidae 

(27) Hadena vinela Smith, MS., Plate XX, Fig. 19, $ . (The 
Dark Ashen Hadena.) 

This species has been long distributed in collections as Fishea 
enthea, which it is not. I apply to the figure the manuscript 
name, which has been given me by Prof. J. B. Smith. It is 
found in New England and southern Canada. 

Genus CALOPHASIA Stephens 

The only species of this genus credited to our fauna is 
C. strigata Smith, represented. in Plate XX, Fig. 17, by a female 
specimen, loaned to me by the United States National Museum. 
It occurs in Colorado and Wyoming. 

Genus EPIDEMAS Smith 

This genus was erected by Professor J. B. Smith for the 
reception of the species figured in Plate XXIII, Fig. 2, from a 
female specimen in the National Collection, and named by him 
cinerea. It occurs in Colorado. 

Genus MACRONOCTUA Grote 

(i) Macronoctua onusta Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 18, ? . 
There is only one species of this genus, which occurs in the 
southern Atlantic States. 

Genus FISHEA Grote 

A small genus. There are only two species known. 
(l) Fishea yosemitae Grote, Plate XX, Fig. I, $ . (The 
Yosemite Fishea.) 

This species, which is gen- 
erally referred to the genus 
Aporophila Guenee, is placed 
here on the authority of Prof. 
J. B. Smith. In addition 
to the figure given in the plate 
FIG. 94. Fishea yosemitae, ? T- we have inserted a cut drawn 

from the type. By the help of 

these the student will no doubt be able to identify the species. 
The insect is found in California. 

170 




Noctuidse 
Genus POLIA Hubner 

A moderately large genus, which includes about twenty 
species in our fauna. Of these we have selected two for 
illustration. 

(1) Polia theodori Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 21, t . (Theodore's 
Polia.) 

The home of this species is the southwestern portion of the 
region of the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Polia diversilineata Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 22, $ . (The 
Varied-banded Polia.) 

Syn. illepida Grote. 

Like the preceding species this is an inhabitant of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Genus DRYOBOTA Lederer 

(i) Dryobota illocata Walker, Plate XX, Fig. 24, 9. (The 
Wandering Dryobota.) 

Syn. stigmata Grote. 

A native of the Atlantic Subregion wandering as far west as 
Colorado. 

Genus HYPPA Duponchel 

The genus is found in both hemispheres. Four species are 
credited to North America. 

(i) Hyppa xylinoides Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 23, $ . (The 
Common Hyppa.) 

Syn. contraria Walker; ancocisconcnsis Morrison. 

A very common species in the Atlantic Subregion. It is freely 
attracted to light in the spring of the year. 

Genus FERALIA Grote 

A small genus containing four species in our territory. The 
insects are generally found in groves of pine. 

(i) Feralia jocosa Guenee, Plate XVII, Fig. 32, $. (The 
Joker.) 

Found in suitable localities throughout the northern Atlantic 
States. 

171 




Noctuidae 

Genus MOMOPHANA Grote 

The only species of this genus known is a very rare insect so 
far as has been ascertained. The cut we 
give was drawn from a unique specimen 
in the Neumoegen Collection at the 
Brooklyn Institute. The type is at Cornell 
University. All the specimens which have 
FIG. ^.Momo^iuaM been taken have occurred in New York 
comstocki Grote. . and Canada. 

Genus VALERIA Germar 

This genus occurs on both sides of the Atlantic. The only 
species in our fauna is Valeria opina Grote, the male of which 
is figured in Plate XX, Fig. 25. It is found in California. 

Genus EUPLEXIA Stephens 

But one species of this genus, which is also found in Europe, 
occurs in North America. English entomologists call the moth 
"The Small Angle Shades." The scientific name is Euplexia 
lucipara Li.inreus, and it is depicted on Plate XX, Fig. 26. It 
occurs all over the United States and Canada. 

Genus TRACHEA HUbner 

This genus is also found in both hemispheres. Only one 
species is found in America, and is confined to the Atlantic Sub- 
region. It is known as Trachea delicata Grote, and the male 
is shown on Plate XX, Fig. 27. 

Genus DIPTERYGIA Stephens 

The genus Dipterygia is represented in the New World by 
the species named scabriuscula by Linnaeus, which also occurs 
in Europe. There are several Asiatic species. It is shown on 
Plate XX, Fig. 28. It ranges from the Atlantic westward to the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Genus ACTINOTIA Hiibner 

This small genus is represented in the United States and 
Canada by the insect to which Guenee applied the specific name 

172 



Noctuidae 

ramosula, and which is delineated on Plate XX, Fig. 29. It is 
very common in Pennsylvania. 

Genus PYROPHILA Hubner 

This genus is better represented in Europe and Asia than in 
America. 

(1) Pyrophila glabella Morrison, Plate XX, Fig. 32, 6. 
(The Gray Pyrophila.) 

Not nearly as common as the next species, but widely distrib- 
uted throughout the United States and Canada. 

(2) Pyrophila pyramidoides Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 30, <$ . 
(The American Copper Underwing.) 

This insect, which is one of the commonest moths in the 
Atlantic Subregion, and ranges westward as far as Colorado, 
conceals itself under the loose bark of trees during the daytime, 
and comes forth at night. It sometimes fairly swarms at sugar, 
and becomes a veritable 
pest to the collector, 
who desires rarer things. 
The caterpillar does a 
good deal of damage to 

vegetation. I have re- _ "" ^.. . , . , 

FIG. 96. Larva of Pyrophila pyramidoides. 
cently been annoyed by (After ^ ley) 

the ravages inflicted by 

the larvae in the spring of the year upon the foliage of imported 
rhododendrons, for which they seem to have a partiality in my 
garden. They feed freely on a great variety of shrubs and her- 
baceous plants. 

(3) Pyrophila tragopoginis Linnaeus, Plate XX, Fig. 31, $ . 
(The Mouse-colored Pyrophila.) 

Syn. repressus Grote. 

A circumpolar species ranging throughout the temperate zone. 

Genus HELIOTROPHA Lederer 

The genus is represented in the Atlantic States by a species, 
of which a light and a dark form occur. The typical, or light 
form, was named reniformis by Grote, and is depicted on Plate 
XX, Fig. 33, while the dark form, named atra by the same author, 
is shown on the same plate by Figure 34. 

'73 




Noctuid* 



Genus PRODENIA Guenee 



A small but widely distributed genus found in all parts of the 
globe. Illustrations of two of the three species found in our 
fauna are given. 

(1) Prodenia commelinae Abbot & Smith, Plate XX, Fig. 

36,?. 

This species, which occurs in the Atlantic Subregion, is 
common in the southern portion of its range. 

(2) Prodenia ornithogalli Guenee, Plate XX, Fig. 35, & . 
Not as common as the preceding species, but ranging over 

the entire United States. 

Genus LAPHYGMA Guenee 

A small but widely distributed genus, represented in our 
fauna by but one species. 

(i) Laphygma frugiperda Abbot & Smith, Plate XX, Fig. 
37, $ . (The Fall Army Worm.) 

Syn. macro, Guen6e ; signifera Walker ; plagiataWalker ; autumnalis Riley. 

This destructive insect, which is found all over the Atlantic 
States, the Mississippi Valley, and thence southward through 




f 




FIG. 97. Laphygma frugiperda. FIG. 98. Laphygma frugiperda. 

a. full grown larva; 6. head, mag- a . typical form of moth ; b. c. vari- 

nified; c segment of body, viewed .. t \t+~- p;i^r ^ 

from above; d. viewed from side, eties> (After *u*7-> 
enlarged. (After Riley.) 

Central and South America, feeds in its larval state upon a great 
variety of succulent plants, showing, however, a decided prefer- 

174 



Noctuidae 

ence for the cereals. It does considerable damage to garden 
crops, and attacks cotton. It is said to inflict damage upon 
winter wheat, blue-grass, and timothy. The moth is variable in 
its markings. The typical form is represented on Plate XX, and 
by the upper figure in the annexed cut. It has frequently been 
mistaken by observers for the true Army Worm (Leucania uni- 
puncta). Because its ravages are generally committed in the fall 
of the year it was named The Fall Army Worm by the late 
Prof. C. V. Riley. A very excellent account of the insect is given 
by this distinguished authority in the "Eighth Annual Report" 
of the State Entomologist of Missouri, p. 48, et seq., which the 
student will do well to consult. It is from this article that 
the two accompanying figures have been taken. 

Genus LUSSA Grote 

(i) Lussa nigroguttata Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 38, $ . 
This little moth is found in Florida. Not much is as yet 
known in regard to its life-history. 

Genus MAGUSA Walker 

(i) Magusa dissidens Felder, Plate XXI, Fig. 2, $ . 
Syn. divaricata Grote; angustipennis Mceschler; divida Moeschler. 

The sole species of the genus found within our territory, 
ranging from the southern Atlantic States into South America. 

Genus PSEUDANARTA Henry Edwards 
We figure three of the five species attributed to this genus 
and reported to occur within the limits of the United States. 

1 i ) Pseudanarta flava Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 39, $ . (The 
Yellow Pseudanarta.) 

Syn. crocea Henry Edwards. 

The range of this species is from Colorado and Arizona to the 
southern portions of British Columbia. 

(2) Pseudanarta singula Grote, Plate XX, Fig. 40, $ . (The 
Single Pseudanarta.) 

The habitat of this species is the southwestern United States. 

(3) Pseudanarta falcata Neumcegen, Plate XX, Fig. 41, $. 
(The Falcate Pseudanarta.) 

The species occurs in Arizona and Mexico. 

175 



Noctuida 

Genus HOMOHADENA Grote 

A considerable genus, one species of which we represent. 

(i) Homohadena badistriga Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. i, $. 

This is the only species of the genus, which occurs in the 
northern Atlantic States. Most of them are western and 
southern. The range of badistriga is from the Atlantic to 
Colorado. 

Genus ONCOCNEMIS Lederer 

An extensive genus, in which are included over forty species, 
most of which are found in the western and southwestern 
States. We have selected for representation seven of their 
number. 

(1) Oncocnemis dayi Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 4, $ . (Day's 
Oncocnemis. ) 

Not an uncommon species in Colorado and Wyoming. 

(2) Oncocnemis tenuifascia Smith, Plate XXI, Fig. 5, $ . 
(The Narrow-banded Oncocnemis.) 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the last 
mentioned. 

(3) Oncocnemis occata Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 8, ? . (The 
Harrow-moth.) 

This species occurs in Texas, Colorado, and the States lying 
westward of these, as far as the Pacific. 

(4) Oncocnemis chandleri Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 7, ? . 
(Chandler's Oncocnemis.) 

Indigenous to the Rocky Mountains. 

(5) Oncocnemis atrifasciata Morrison, Plate XXI, Fig. J, $ . 
(The Black-banded Oncocnemis.) 

This fine species is found in the northern portions of 
the Atlantic Subregion. The specimen figured was taken in 
Maine. 

(6) Oncocnemis iricolor Smith, Plate XXI, Fig. 6, ? . 
(The Iris-colored Oncocnemis.) 

So far this species has only been reported from Colorado and 
Wyoming. 

(7) Oncocnemis cibalis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 9, $ . (The 
Gray Oncocnemis.) 

The only specimens so far found have been taken in Colorado. 

176 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 



Fishia yosemitce Grote, c?. 
Hadena bridghami Grote & 

Robinson, tf . 
Hadena char acta Grote, tf. 
Hadena versuta Smith, cT . 
Hadena lignicolor Guen6e, cJ 1 . 
Hadena claudens Walker, <5* . 
Hadena transfrons Neumcegen, 

9- 

Hadena mactata Guen6e, 9 . 
Hadena basilinea Fabricius, c? 
Hadena fractilinea Grote, tf. 
Hadena vultuosa Grote, cJ*. 
Hadena violacea Grote, 9 
Hadenachloro stigma Harvey, c?. 
Hadena ntodica Guen6e, tf. 
Hadena miseloides Guen6e, 9 . 
Hadena turbulenta Hiibner, 9 
Calophasia strigaia Smith, 9 

U. S. N. M. 
Macronoctua onusta Grote, 9 

U. S. N. M. 

Hadena vinela Smith, <3* . 
Hadena occidens Grote, cJ 1 , U. 

S. N. M. 

Polia theodori Grote, c? . 
Polia diversilineata Grote, <J*. 
Hyppa xylinoides Guen6e, 9 



24. Dryobota illocata Walker, 9 

25. Valeria opina Grote, cJ 1 , U. S. 

N. M. 

26. Euplexia lucipara Linnaeus, 9 . 

27. Trachea delicata Grote, &. 

28. Dipterygia scabriuscula 

Linnasus, 9 

29. Actinotia ramosula Guen6e, 9 
3 o . Pyrophila pyramidoides Guen6e , 

ef. 

3 1 . Pyrophila tragopoginis Linneeus , 

d 1 - 

32. Pyrophila glabella, Morrison, tf. 

33. Helotropha reniformis Grote, 9 

34. Helotropha reniformis var. atra. 

Grote, 9. 

35. Prodenia ornithogalli Guen^e, 

9- 

36. Prodenia commelina Abbot & 

Smith, 9 . 

37. Laphygma frugiperda Abbot & 

Smith, <j\ 

38. Lussa nigroguttata Grote, <^, U. 

S. N. M. 

39. Pseudanarta flava Grote, c?. 

40. Pseudanarta singula Grote, tf . 

4 1 . Pseudanarta falcata Neumcegen , 



THE MOTH Boo* 



PLATE XX 




Noctuidae 

Genus LEPIPOLYS Guenee 

(i) Lepipolys perscripta Guenee, Plate XXI, Fig. n, ?. 
Only one species occurs in our territory, ranging from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Genus ADITA Grote 

(i) Adita chionanthi Abbot & Smith, Plate XXI, Fig. 10. 

A rather rare moth, which is found in the Atlantic Subregion, 
but is much commoner in Colorado and Wyoming. It is the 
only representative of its genus. 

Genus COPIPANOLIS Grote 

A small genus said to contain four species, which are not as 
distinctly separable as might be desired. 

(i) Copipanolis cubilis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 12, ?. 

The habitat of this insect is the northern United States. It 
appears upon the wing in Pennsylvania early in April. 

Genus EUTOLYPE Grote 

(i) Eutolype bombyciformis Smith, Plate XXI, Fig. 13, ?. 

The genus represented by this species contains four others 
within our limits. They all occur in the Atlantic Subregion, 
except the species named damalis by Grote, which is Californian. 

Genus PSAPHIDIA Walker 

Of the four species of this genus occuring within our territory 
we give illustrations of two. 

(1) Psaphidia grotei Morrison, Plate XXI, Fig. 14, ?. 

The home of this species is the northern Atlantic States. It 
occurs upon the wing very early in the spring of the year. 

(2) Psaphidia resumens Walker, Plate XXI, Fig. 15, ?. 
Syn. viridescens Walker; muralis Grote. 

The range of this insect is the same as that of the preceding 
species. 

Genus CERAPODA Smith 

Only one species of this genus is known. It was named 
Cerapoda stylata by Prof. J. B. Smith, and is shown on Plate 
XXIII, Fig. i. Its habitat is Colorado. 

177 




Noctuidae 

Genus FOTA Grote 

There are two species of this genus, both of which we figure. 
They both occur in Arizona and Mexico. 

(1) Fota armata Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 16, $. 

(2) Fota minorata Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 17, $. 

We do not recall any description of the habits of these two 
species. 

Genus PODAGRA Smith 

This genus has been quite recently erected by 
Smith for the reception of the species, a represen- 
tation of the type of which, based upon the 
specimen in the United States National Museum, 

FIG. 99. Poda- . . 

gra crassipes. IS given in Fig. 99. 

Genus RHYNCHAGROTIS Smith 

Over twenty species have been attributed to this genus. Of 
these we figure six. 

(1) Rhynchagrotis gilvipennis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 18, ? . 
(The Catocaline Dart-moth.) 

This pretty species is found in the northern parts of the 
United States, in Canada, and British America.. It is scarce in 
the eastern parts of its range south of Maine and the Adirondack 
Woods. 

(2) Rhynchagrotis rufipectus Morrison, Plate XXI, Fig. 22, 
? . (The Red-breasted Dart-moth.) 

The general distribution of this species is like the former, but 
it extends much farther southward. 

(3) Rhynchagrotis minimalis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 21, ?. 
(The Lesser Red Dart-moth.) 

This species is found in Maine, southern Canada, and also in 
Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. 

(4) Rhynchagrotis anchocelioides Guenee, Plate XXI, 
Fig. 19, ? . 

Syn. cupida Grote; velata Walker. 

A common species in the northern Atlantic Subregion, 
extending its habitat to the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

(5) Rhynchagrotis placida Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 23, $. 
(The Placid Dart-moth.) 

178 



Noctuidae 

A very common species in the northern United States, found 
as far westward as the Rocky Mountains. 

(6) Rhynchagrotis alternata Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 20, ? . 
(The Greater Red Dart-moth.) 

This species closely resembles in general appearance the 
species named minimalis, but may be distinguished by its larger 
size, and the darker color of the hind wings. 

Genus ADELPHAGROTIS Smith 

Of the five species belonging to the genus we select the 
commonest for illustration. 

(i) Adelphagrotis prasina Fabricius, Plate XXI, Fig. 24, ? . 
(The Green-winged Dart-moth.) 

This insect occurs all over Canada, the northern Atlantic 
States, the Rocky Mountains, and British Columbia. It occurs 
also in Europe. 

Genus PLATAGROTIS Smith 

The species of this genus are confined to the more temperate 
regions of our territory. 

(i) Platagrotis pressa Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 25, $. (The 
Dappled Dart.) 

Occurs in the northern portions of the Atlantic Subregion. 

Genus EUERETAGROTIS Smith 

Three species of the genus occur, all of them within the 
Atlantic Subregion. 

(1) Eueretagrotis sigmoides Guenee, Plate XXI, Fig. 26, $ . 
(The Sigmoid Dart.) 

From the following species distinguished readily by its larger 
size, and the darker coloration of the fore wings. 

(2) Eueretagrotis perattenta Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 27, ? . 
(The Two-spot Dart.) 

A common species in the Atlantic States. 

" Yon night moths that hover where honey brims over." 

JEAN INGELOW. Songs of Seven. 

179 




Noctuidw 

Genus ABAGROTIS Smith 

Only one species is attributed to this genus. It is represented 
by the accompanying cut, drawn from the 
type in the United States National Museum. 
Abagrotis erratica is thus far only recorded 
from California. It is rare in collections. The 

FIG loo co ^ or ^ the wm & s * s asn en gray in some 
Abagrotis erratica. specimens; in others pale reddish. 

Genus SEMIOPHORA Stephens 

(1) Semiophora elimata Guenee, Plate XXI, Fig. 29, ?. 
Form janualis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 30, 5 . (The Variable 
Dart.) 

Syn. dilucidula Morrison; badicollis Grote. 

Not at all an uncommon species, ranging from Canada to 
Georgia. 

(2) Semiophora opacifrons Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 28, ? . 
(The Black-fronted Dart.) 

This species is found in the more northern portions of the 
Atlantic Subregion ranging into Quebec. 

(3) Semiophora tenebrifera Walker, Plate XXI, Fig. 33, $ . 
(The Reddish Speckled Dart.) 

Syn. catharina Grote; manifestolabes Morrison. 

A well-marked species, the fore wings of which have a 
prevalently reddish cast. It ranges from New Jersey northward 
into Canada. 

Genus PACHNOBIA Guenee 

The species are mainly boreal, being found in the northern 
portions of our territory, principally in Canada, and on the 
higher mountain ranges. 

(1) Pachnobia littoralis Packard, Plate XXI, Fig. 32, $. 
(The Reddish Pachnobia.) 

Syn. pectinata Grote; ferruginoides Smith. 

The species occurs from the mountains of Colorado north- 
ward to Alberta. 

(2) Pachnobia salicarum Walker, Plate XXI, Fig. 31, 3. 
(The Willow Pachnobia.). 

Syn. orilliana Grote; claviformis Morrison. 

180 



Noctuidae 

This species, readily distinguished from all others by the well 
defined claviform spot, ranges from Massachusetts to Alberta 
and northward. 

Genus METALEPSIS Grote 

Two species of this genus are credited to our fauna. Of the 
type of one of these, preserved in the British Museum, I am able 
to give an excellent figure taken from Sir George F. Hampson's 




FIG. 101. Metalepsis cornuta, 



fine work upon the moths of the world, which is being published 
by the Trustees of the above named institution. The insect 
occurs in California. 



Genus SETAGROTIS Smith 

Eight species, all of them found in the northern parts of our 
territory or at considerable elevations among 
the mountains of the West, are attributed 
to this genus. I am able to give a figure 
of one of these, which Dr. Dyar kindly had 
drawn from the type in the United States 
National Museum. It occurs among the 
mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. The FlG I02 Setagrotis 
ground color of the wings is pale luteous. temfica, $ . f. 




Genus AGROTIS Ochsenheimer 

(i) Agrotis badinodis Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 37, $. (The 
Pale-banded Dart.) 

Not an uncommon species in the northern Atlantic States 
and Canada. 

Iftl 




Noctuidae 

(2) Agrotis ypsilon Rottemburg. (The Ypsilon Dart.) 

Syn. suff usa Denis & Schiffermuller; telifera Harris; idonea Cramer. 

This is an exceedingly common species, which occurs every- 
where in Canada and the United 
States. It is also found in Europe. 
Its larva is one of the species, 
which under the name of "cut- 
worms," are known to inflict ex- 
tensive injuries upon growing 
plants. They burrow into the 
loose soil during the day, and 
le yP silon - come forth at night and do their 
mischievous work. They are a 
plague to the market-gardener in particular. 

(3) Agrotis geniculata Grote & Robinson, Plate XXI, 
Fig. 36,. 9 . (The Knee-joint Dart.) 

Not a scarce species in the northern Atlantic Subregion. 

Genus PERIDROMA Hubner 

This is a moderately large genus, represented m the United 
States and Canada by about a dozen species. Half of these we 
illustrate. 

(1) Peridroma occulta Linnaeus, Plate XXI, Fig. 42, 9. 
(The Great Gray Dart.) 

The habitat of this insect is the northern portion of our 
territory. 

(2) Peridroma astricta Morrison, Plate XXI, Fig. 41, 9. 
(The Great Brown Dart.) 

The species is found in the northern parts of the Atlantic 
Subregion, and also in Colorado. 

(3) Peridroma nigra Smith, Plate XXI, Fig. 43, 9. (The 
Great Black Dart.) 

Found in Colorado and Wyoming. 

(4) Peridroma saucia Hubner, Plate XXI, Fig. 40, ? ; 
Egg, Text-figure No. 2. (The Common Cut-worm.) 

Syn. inermis Harris; ortonii Packard. 

Almost universally distributed throughout the United States 
and southern Canada. It also occurs in Europe. 

182 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXI 

(Except when otherwise indicated the specimens are contained in 
collection of W. J. Holland.) 



the 

1. Homohadena badistriga Grote, 22. 

d, U. S. N. M. 

2. Magusa dissidens Felder, d- 2 3- 

3. Oncocnemis atrifasciata 24. 

Morrison, 9 

4. Oncocnemis dayi Grote, d- 2 5- 

5. Oncocnemis tenuifascia Smith, 26. 

d 1 - 

6. Oncocnemis tricolor Smith, 9- 27. 

7. Oncocnemis chandleri Grote, 9 

8. Oncocnemis occata Grote, 9 28. 

9. Oncocnemis cibalis Grote, d- 

10. Adita chionanthi Abbot & 29. 

Smith, d, U. S. N. M. 30. 

11. Lepipolys perscripta Guene'e, 9. 

U. S. N. M. 

12. Copipanolis cubilis Grote, 9 

U. S. N. M. 

13. Eutolype bombyciformis Smith, 

9- 

14. Psaphidia grotei Morrison, 9 i 

U. S. N. M. 34. 

15. Psaphidia resumens Walker, 9* 35- 

1 6. Fota armata Grote, d- 36- 

17. Fota minor ata Grote, d- 

1 8 . Rhynchagrotis gilvipennis Grote , 37. 

9. 38. 

19. Rhynchagrotis anchocelioides 

Guene'e, 9 39- 

20. Rhynchagrotis alternata Grote, 40. 

9. 41- 

21. Rhynchagrotis placida Grote, 42. 

d* red variety. 43. 



Rhynchagrotis rufipectus 

Morrison, 9 

Rhychagrotis placida Grote, d- 
Adelphagrotis prasina Fabricius, 

9- 

Platagrotis pressa Grote, d- 
Eueretagrotis sigmoides Guen6e, 

d- 
Eueretagrotis perattenta Grote, 

9- 
Semiophora opacifrons Grote, 

9- 

Semiophora elimata Guen6e, (J 1 . 
Semiophora elimata var. janua- 

lis Grote, d 1 . 
Pachnobia salicarum Walker, 



3i- 
3 2 - 
33. Semiophora tenebrifera Walker, 



Pachnobia littoralis Packard, 



Noctua nor maniana Grote, d 1 - 
Noctua bicarnea Guenee, 9 
Agrotis geniculata Grote & 

Robinson, 9 

Agrotis badinodis Grote, d 1 - 
Peridroma simplaria Morrison, 

9- 

Peridroma incivis Guenee, d 1 - 
Peridro masaucia Hiibner, 9 
Peridroma astricta Morrison, d 1 - 
Peridroma occult a Linnaeus, 9 
Peridroma nigra Smith, d*- 



Tua MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXI 




Noctuidjs 

(5) Peridroma incivis Guenee, Plate XXI, Fig. 39, $ . (The 
Uncivil Dart.) 

Syn. alabamae Grote. 

Ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

(6) Peridroma simplaria Morrison, Plate XXi, Fig. 38, ? . 
(The Pale-winged Dart.) 

Not an uncommon species in Texas and Arizona. 

Genus NOCTUA Linnaeus 

This is a very extensive genus, to which over forty species 
found in our territory are referred in recent lists. 

(1) Noctua normanniana Grote, Plate XXI, Fig. 34, $ . 
(Norman's Dart.) 

Syn. obtusa Speyer. 

Found everywhere in the Atlantic Subregion. 

(2) Noctua bicarnea Guenee, Plate XXI, Fig. 35, ? . (The 
Pink-spotted Dart.) 

Syn. plagiata Walker. 

This is likewise a common species ranging from the Atlantic 
as far west as Colorado. 

(3) Noctua c-nigrum Linnaeus, Plate XXII, Fig. I, ?. (The 
Black-letter Dart.) 

Universally distributed through the Appalachian Subregion 
and also occurring in Europe. 

(4) Noctua jucunda Walker, Plate XXII, Fig. 5, ? . (The 
Smaller Pinkish Dart.) 

Syn. perconftua Grote. 

Very commonly found in the northern United States. 

(5) Noctua oblata Morrison, Plate XXII, Fig. 3, $ . (The 
Rosy Dart.) 

Syn. hilliana Harvey. 

The habitat of this species is the North. It is common in 
Alberta. 

(6) Noctua fennica Tauscher, Plate XXII, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Finland Dart.) 

Syn.. intractata Walker. 

A circumpolar species found throughout northern Europe, 
Asia, and America. 



Noctuidae 

(7) Noctua plecta Linnaeus, Plate XXII, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Flame-shouldered Dart.) 

Syn. vicaria Walker. 

The distribution of this small and well-marked species is some- 
what like that of the preceding, but it extends farther to the south. 

(8) Noctua collar-is Grote & Robinson, Plate XXII, Fig. 7, $ . 
(The Collared Dart.) 

Occurs in the northern parts of the Atlantic Subregion. 

(9) Noctua juncta Grote, Plate XXII, Fig, 12, $. (The 
Scribbled Dart.) 

Syn. patefacta Smith. 

The species ranges from Nova Scotia to Alberta. 

(10) Noctua haruspica Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 9, ?. (The 
Soothsayer Dart.) 

Syn. grandis Speyer. 

Widely distributed through the northern portions of our 
territory. 

(11) Noctua clandestina Harris, Plate XXII, Fig. 14, ?. 
(The Clandestine Dart.) 

Syn. unicolor Walker; nigriceps Walker. 

A common species ranging from the Atlantic to the Rocky 
Mountains, and readily separated from the preceding species by 
the narrower and darker fore wings. 

(12) Noctua havilae Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 18, 6 . (The 
Havilah Dart.) 

A smaller species than either of the preceding. It occurs from 
Colorado and Wyoming westward to California. 

(13) Noctua atricincta Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. n, $. 
(The Black-girdled Dart.) 

Thus far this species has only been reported as occurring in 
Alberta. 

(14) Noctua substrigata Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 10, 6. 
(The Yellow-streaked Dart.) 

This species, like the preceding, is found in Alberta. Both 
probably have a wider range. 

(15) Noctua calgary Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 13, $. (The 
Calgary Dart.) 

The remarks made as to the two preceding species apply to 
this also. 

184 




Noctuidas 

(16) Noctua lubricans Guenee, Plate XXII, Fig. 8, $ . 
(The Slippery Dart.) 

Syn. associans \Valker; illapsa Walker; beata Grote. 

A very common species, universally distributed throughout 
the United States. 

Genus PRONOCTUA Smith 

Only one species of this genus, named typica by Prof. 
J. B. Smith, is known. It is 
found in Colorado and Wyo- 
ming. Through the kindness 
of Dr. Dyar a drawing of the 
type was made for me at the 
United States National Museum 
and it is reproduced in the an- 
nexed CUt (Fig. 104). FIG. 104. Pronoctua typica. 

Genus CHORIZAGROTIS Smith 

Eight species are attributed to this genus by Dyar in his 
recent Catalogue of the moths of the United States. We figure 
three of them. 

(1) Chorizagrotis introferens Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 15, ? . 
(The Interfering Dart.) 

This insect is not scarce in Texas and Colorado, and thence, 
ranges westward to California. 

(2) Chorizagrotis inconcinna Harvey, Plate XXII, Fig. 22, $ . 
(The Inelegant Dart.) 

An obscurely colored species occuring in the southwestern 
States. 

(3) Chorizagrotis balanitis Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 17, $ . 
(The Acorn Dart.) 

The range of this insect is from Colorado to British Columbia. 

Genus RHIZAGROTIS Smith 

About a dozen species have been assigned to this genus by 
recent writers. We figure one of them, to which Prof. 
J. B. Smith has applied the name proclivis. It is represented 
by a female specimen on Plate XXII, Fig. 16. The insect occurs 
in Arizona and northern Mexico. 

185 



Noctuidae 



Genus FELTIA Walker 




FIG. 105. Feltia subgothic a . 
rai 



ever, in the West than in 
range over the northern 



This is a considerable genus, represented by species in the 
northern portions of both hemispheres. 

(1) Feltia subgothica Haworth. (The Subgothic Dart.) 

Of this common species, which is found in the northern 
portions of the United States and also in Canada, and which 

likewise occurs in Europe, 
we give a figure on Plate 
XXII. We also have re- 
produced a cut of the 
species taken from Prof. 
C. V. Ri ley's First 
Missouri Report. The 
larva is one of the com- 
monest cut-worms, found 

Moth with wings expanded; moth with more abundantly, how- 
wings closed. 

the East. The species has a wide 

portions of the United States and through southern Canada. 

(2) Feltia herilis Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 20, $. (The 
Master's Dart.) 

The insect ranges from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

(3) Feltia gladiaria Morrison, Plate XXII, Fig. 19, 9 . (The 
Swordsman Dart.) 

Syn. morrisoniana Riley. 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the 
previous. 

(4) Feltia venerabilis Walker, Plate XXII, Fig. 26, $ . (The 
Venerable Dart. ) 

Widely distributed throughout the United States. 

(5) Feltia vancouverensis Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 42, 9. 
(The Vancouver Dart.) 

Syn. hortulana Morrison; semiclarata Grote; agilis Grote. 

I have given the above name to the specimen figured on the 
Plate as cited upon the authority of Prof. J. B. Smith, who has 
kindly examined the figure. The specimen came from Labrador. 

(6) Feltia volubilis Harvey, Plate XXII, Fig. 23, 9 . (The 
Voluble Dart.) 

Syn. stigmosa Morrison. 

1 86 



Noctuid 

Found throughout our entire territory. 

(7) Feltia annexa Treitschke, Plate XXII, Fig. 28, $ . (The 
Added Dart.) 

Syn. decernens Walker. 

Found throughout the southern Atlantic and Gulf States and 
ranging into South America. 

(8) Feltia malefida Guenee, Plate XXII, Fig. 32, ? . (The 
Rascal Dart.) 

This species has the same range as that of the last mentioned 
form. 

Genus POROSAGROTIS Smith 

Eleven species are assigned by Dr. Dyar in his Catalogue to 
this genus. As representatives of these we have chosen five for 
Hlustration. 

1 i ) Porosagrotis vetusta Walker, Plate XXII, Fig. 25, $ . 
(The Old Man Dart.) 

Syn. muraenula Grote & Robinson. 

This pale-colored species extends in its range from the Atlantic 
to Colorado. 

(2) Porosagrotis fusca Boisduval, Plate XXII, Fig. 31, ?. 
(The Fuscous Dart.) 

Syn. septentrionalis Mceschler; patula Walker. 

The specimen figured was taken at Nain, Labrador. The 
insect is said also to occur in the Rocky Mountains. 

(3) Porosagrotis tripars Walker, Plate XXII, Fig. 24, $ ; 
Fig- 37. ? ( Tne Tripart Dart.) 

Syn. worthingtoni Grote. 

The specimens figured came from Colorado. 

(4) Porosagrotis rileyana Morrison, Plate XXII, Fig. 33, $ . 
(Riley's Dart.) 

This species is spread from the Atlantic to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(5) Porosagrotis daedalus Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 29, &. 
(The Daedalus Dart.) 

The insect is peculiar to the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus EUXOA Hubner 

This great genus, including nearly two hundred species, 
which are found in the region, with which this book deals, has 

187 



Noctuidae 

in recent years been ranged under the name Carneades after the 
teaching of Grote, but as Carneades, which was erected by 
Bates, includes a different concept, this name was abandoned 
by Dr. Dyar, and the name Paragrotis Pratt was substituted for 
it. This name, however, must yield to the older name proposed 
by Hiibner, and which we have adopted at the suggestion of 
Prof. J. B. Smith. 

(1) Euxoa quadridentata Grote & Robinson, Plate XXII, 
Fig. 30, $ . (The Four-toothed Dart. ) 

This insect is distributed from Colorado to Oregon. 

(2) Euxoa brevipennis Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 27, 9 . (The 
Short-winged Dart.) 

The range of this species is the same as that of the preceding. 

(3) Euxoa olivalis Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 34, $ . (The 
Olive Dart.) 

The species occurs in Colprado and Utah. 

(4) Euxoa flavidens Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 38, 6" . (The 
Yellow- toothed Dart.) 

This moth is spread through the region of the Rocky 
Mountains from Colorado to northern Mexico. The specimen 
figured came from the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua. It has 
been compared with the type in the National Museum at 
Washington. 

(5) Euxoa perpolita Morrison, Plate XXII, Fig. 36, 6 . (The 
Polished Dart.) 

It ranges from the States of the northern portion of the 
Atlantic Subregion to the mountains of Colorado. 

(6) Euxoa velleripennis Grote, Plate XXII, Fig. 35, $ . 
(The Fleece-winged Dart.) 

It has the same range as the preceding species. It may at 
once be distinguished from it by its slighter build, and by the 
whiter hind wings. 

(7) Euxoa detersa Walker, Plate XXII, Fig. 39, $ . (The 
Rubbed Dart.) 

Syn. pityochrous Grote; personata Morrison. 

A pale and inconspicuously colored insect, which has the 
same distribution as the two preceding species. 

(8) Euxoa messoria Harris, Plate XXII, Fig. 40, $ . (The 
Reaper Dart.) 

1 88 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXII 



(Except when otherwise indicated the specimens figured are con 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Noctua c-nigrum Linnaeus, 9 

2. Noctua phyllophora Grote, 9 
Noctua oblata Morrison, (J 1 . 
Noctua fennica Tauscher, cT. 



Noctua jucunda Walker, 9 



3- 

4- 
5- 

6. Noctua plecta Linnaeus, cJ 1 . 

7 . Noctua collaris Grote & 

Robinson, (J 1 . 

8. Noctua lubricans Guenee, tf . 

9. Noctua haruspica Grote, 9 
10. Noctua substrigata Smith, c?- 
ti. Noctua atricincta Smith, c?- 

12. Noctua juncta Grote, J 1 . 

13. Noctua calgary Smith, tf. 

14. Noctua clandestina Harris, 9 

15. Chorizagrotis introferens Grote, 

9. 

1 6. Rhizagrotis proclivis Smith, 9 

17. Chorizagrotis balanitis Grote, 

<?. 

1 8. Noctua havila Grote, J 1 . 

19. Feltia gladiaria Morrison, 9 

20. Feltia herilis Grote, cf 1 . 

21. Feltia subgothica. Haworth, (J 1 . 



22. Chorizagrotis inconcinna 

Harvey, 9 . 

23. Feltia volubilis Harvey, 9 . 

24. Porosagrotis tripars Grote, $. 

25. Porosagrotis vetusta Walker, (?. 

26. Feltia venerabilis Walker, c? 

27. Euxoa brevipennis Smith, 9 

28. Feltia annexa Treitschke, 9 

29. Porosagrotis d&dalus Smith, <J* 

30. Euxoa quadridentata Grote & 

Robinson, c?. 

31. Porosagrotis fusca Boisduval, 

32. Feltia malefida Guen6e, 9 

33. Porosagrotis rileyana Morrison. 

9- 

34. Euxoa olivalis Grote, c?. 

35. Euxoa velleripennis Grote, c?. 

36. Euxoa per polita Morrison, oT. 

37. Porosagrotis tripars Walker, tf 

38. Euxoa -ftavidens Smith, $. 

39. Euxoa detersa Walker, <$. 

40. Euxoa messoria Harris, cJ 1 . 

41. Hadena semiiunata Grote, cT- 



42. Feltia vancouverensis Morrison, 9 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXII 





Sfc^ 1 






COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLUN 



. Noctuidae 

Syn. spissa Guene"e; cochram Riley; repentis Grote & Robinson; dis- 
pliciens Walker, etc. 

This wretched little creature, the larva of which is one of our 
most destructive cut-worms, was described seven times by 
Walker under different names. The more inconspicuous, or the 
smaller an insect, the more names it bears. The littlest bugs 
have the biggest names. It is thus also, sometimes, with men. 

(9) Euxoa lutulenta Smith, Plate XXIII, Fig. 13, <$ . (The 
Muddy Dart.) 

An inconspicuous species, which ranges from Alberta in the 
north to Colorado in the south, and thence westward to 
California. 

(10) Euxoa dissona Moeschler, Plate XXIII, Fig. 5, $ . (The 
Dissonant Dart.) 

This moth is found in Labrador. 

(n) Euxoa titubatis Smith, Plate XXIII, Fig. 6; $. (The 
Tippling Dart.) 

The distribution of this species is coincident with that of the 
preceding. 

(12) Euxoa insulsa Walker, Plate XXIII, Fig. 3, ?. (The 
Silly Dart.) 

Syn. insignata Walker; expulsa Walker; declarata Walker; decolor 
Morrison; campestris Grote; verticalis Grote. 

This is another poor creature, which unconsciously has 
suffered much at the hands of the species-makers. It is found 
all over the United States. 

(13) Euxoa albipennis Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 7, $ . (The 
White-winged Dart.) 

Syn. nigripennis Grote. 

A common species in the Atlantic Subregion ranging across 
the valley of the Mississippi into Colorado. 

(14) Euxoa tessellata Harris, Plate XXIII, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Tessellate Dart.) 

Syn. mam, Fitch; atropurpurea Grote. 

Universally distributed throughout our region. 

(15) Euxoa basalis Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 8, $. (The 
Basal Dart.) 

This species is found in Colorado and Wyoming, and 
probably has a still wider range. 

189 



Noctuidae 

(16) Euxoa ochrogaster Guenee, Plate XXIII, Fig. 10, $ . 
(The Yellow-bellied Dart.) 

Syn. illata Walker; cinereomaculata Morrison; gularis Grote; turris 
Grote. 

This moth is found in the northern Atlantic States and thence 
westward to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. 

(17) Euxoa furtivus Smith, Plate XXIII, Fig. n, $. (The 
Furtive Dart.) 

The habitat of this species is the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(18) Euxoa obeliscoides Guenee, Plate XXIII, Fig. 12, $ . 
(The Obelisk Dart.) 

Syn. sexatilis Grote. 

Distributed over the northern Atlantic States, and across the 
valley of the Mississippi to Wyoming and Colorado. 

(19) Euxoa redimicula Morrison, Plate XXIII, Fig. 9, $. 
(The Fillet Dart.) 

The insect has exactly the same range as the last mentioned 
species. 

Genus EUCOPTOCNEMIS Grote 

There is but one species of the genus recognized in our 
fauna. To this Guenee gave the name 
fimbriaris. It was afterward named 
obvia by Walker. Its habitat is New 
England. It is a scarce species in col- 
lections. The figure we give was taken 
FIG. lot.-Eucoptocnemis from a specimen in the United States 
fimbriaris. National Museum. 

Genus RICHIA Grote 

A small genus of obscurely colored moths. They are found 
in the southwestern States. 

(1) Richia aratrix Harvey, Plate XXIII, Fig. 14, 3. (The 
Plough-girl. ) 

The species is found in Colorado and Texas. 

(2) Richia parentalis Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 15, $. (The 
Parental Dart.) 

190 




Noctuidae 

This is a New Mexican species. It also occurs in Texas, and 
in the mountains of northern Mexico. 

Genus ANYTUS Grote . 

Only a few species have been recognized as belonging to this 
genus. Of the five which have been named, we figure two. 

(1) Anytus privatus Walker, Plate XXI II, Fig. 16, $ . (The 
Sculptured Anytus.) 

Syn. sculplus Grote. 

A native of the Atlantic Subregion. 

(2) Anytus obscurus Smith, Plate XXIII, Fig. 17, <$ . (The 
Obscure Anytus.) 

Thus far this insect has only been reported from Alberta. 

Genus UFEUS Grote 

A small genus of rather large, plainly colored moths, having 
a robust habitus, which permits them to be easily distinguished 
from others. 

(1) Ufeus plicatus Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 19, (The 
Pleated Ufeus. ) 

Syn. barometricus Goossens. 

Distributed over the northern Atlantic States, and westward 
as far as California. The insect is not, however, very common. 

(2) Ufeus satyricus Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 20, $ . (The 
Satyr.) 

This moth ranges over the northern Atlantic States, but, like 
the other species of the genus, does not appear to be anywhere 
very common. 

Genus AGROTIPHILA Grote 

There are seven species attributed to this genus by recent 
authors. We can only figure one of them. 

(i) Agrotiphila incognita Smith, Plate XXIII, Fig. 18, &. 

The species occurs in Alberta and westward to British 
Columbia. 

Genus MAMESTRA Ochsenheimer 

A very large genus, represented in both hemispheres by a 
large number of species. The caterpillars of some species are 

191 



Noctuidae 

quite destructive to cultivated plants. Of the one hundred and 
ten or more species occurring in our territory we have selected 
thirty for purpose of illustration. This number of species, 
if correctly ascertained by the student, ought to enable him to 
form some idea of the general character of the complex of insects, 
with which we are now dealing. 

(1) Mamestra imbrifera Guenee, Plate XXIII, Fig. 32, ?. 
(The Cloudy Mamestra.) 

A native of the northern Atlantic States. It is not rare in 
New England. 

(2) Mamestra purpurissata Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 26, $ . 
(The Empurpled Mamestra.) 

This is a very common species in Maine and Quebec. It 
occurs less commonly south of these localities. 

(3) Mamestra juncimacula Smith, Plate XIX. Fig. 41, $. 
(The Fused-spot Mamestra.) 

The habitat of this species is Colorado. 

(4) Mamestra meditata Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 21, $. 
(The Studied Mamestra.) 

Quite a common species in the Appalachian Subregion. 

(5) Mamestra lustralis Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 22, $ . 
(The Lustral Mamestra.) 

Syn. suffusa Smith. 

The range of this species is through the Atlantic States south 
and west to Arizona and northern Mexico. 

(6) Mamestra detracta Walker, Plate XXIII, Fig. 24, $ . 
(The Disparaged Mamestra.) 

Syn. claviplena Grote. 

The range of this insect is the same as that of the last men- 
tioned species. 

(7) Mamestra farnhami Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 23, ? . 
(Farnham's Mamestra.) 

A native of the eastern portions of the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(8) Mamestra liquida Grote, Plate XXIII, Fig. 36, $ . (The 
Liquid Mamestra.) 

The range of this insect is in the northwestern part of out 
territory as far as British Columbia. 

193 



Noctuidae 

(9) Mamestra radix Walker, Plate XXIII, Fig. 25, $ . 
(Dimmock's Mamestra.) 

Syn. dimmocki Grote; desperata Smith. 

Distributed from Maine and Quebec across the northern parts 
of the United States and the southern portions of the British 
possessions to the Pacific. 

(10) Mamestra nevadae Grote, Plate XX11I, Fig. 33, ?. 
(The Nevadan Mamestra.) 

Found in Nevada and California. 

(n) Mamestra subjuncta Grote & Robinson, Plate XXIII, 
Fig. 27, $ . (The Harnessed Mamestra.) 

Not at all an uncommon species in the Appalachian Subregion, 
ranging across the Mississippi Valley to the foothills of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

(12) Mamestra grandis Boisduval, Plate XXIII, Fig. 41, $. 
(The Grand Mamestra. ) 

Syn. libera Walker. 

(13) Mamestra trifolii Rottemburg, Plate XXIII, Fig. 29, $ . 
(The Clover Mamestra.) 

Syn. chenopodii Fabricius; albifusa Walker; glaucovaria Walker; 
major Speyer. 

Found throughout Europe, northern Asia, and the United 
States and Canada. The caterpillar does at times considerable 
damage to crops. 

(14) Mamestra rosea Harvey, Plate XXIII, Fig. 30, ? . (The 
Rosy Mamestra.) 

Distributed generally through the northern portions of the 
United States and the southern portions of Canada and British 
Columbia. 

(15) Mamestra congermana Morrison, Plate XXIII, Fig. 31, 
? . (The Cousin German.) 

This insect ranges from the Atlantic to the eastern portions 
of the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

(16) Mamestra picta Harris, Plate I, Fig. n, larva; Plate 
XXIII, Fig. 34, $ . (The Painted Mamestra.) 

Syn. exusta Guen6e; coniraria Walker. 

This is one of the commonest species of the genus. The 
caterpillar is a conspicuous object, and in the fall of the year is 

193 




FIG. 



107. Mamestra picta. a. 
(After Riley.) 



larva; b. moth. 



Noctuidae 

generally very noticeable, feeding upon various herbaceous plants 
It is a promiscuous feeder, and to enumerate all the vege- 
tables w h i c h it 
attacks would al- 
most be to provide 
a list of the plants of 
the United States. 
They manifest, 
however, a decided 
preference, when 
accessible, for the 
cruciferous plants, 
and do much dam- 
age in fields of 
cabbages and beets. 
There are two 
broods in the 
Middle States. The 
species does not 
occur on the Pacific coast, so far as is known to the writer. Its 
range is from the Atlantic to the eastern foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(17) Mamestra lubens Grote, Plate XX 1 1 1, Fig. 28, $ . (The 
Darling Mamestra.) 

A denizen of the northern portions of the United States. 

(18) Mamestra latex Guenee, Plate XXI 1 1, Fig. 40, ? . (The 
Fluid Mamestra.) 

Syn. demissa Walker. 

This insect has the same range as the preceding species. 

(19) Mamestra adjuncta Boisduval, Plate XXIII, Fig. 38, ? . 
(The Hitched Mamestra.) 

This species occurs from southern Canada to the Carolinas 
and westward to Missouri and Minnesota. 

(20) Mamestra rugosa Morrison, Plate XXIV, Fig. 3, $. 
(The Rugose Mamestra.) 

The habitat of this species is Maine and Nova Scotia. 

(21) Mamestra lilacina Harvey, Plate XXIII, Fig. 39, $. 
(The Lilacine Mamestra.) 

Syn. illabefacta Morrison. 



194 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Cerapoda stylata Smith, c? , U. 

S. N. M. 

2. Epidemas cinerea Smith, 9 . 

U. S. N. M. 

3. Euxoa insulsa Walker, 9 . 

4. Euxoa tessellata Harris, c?. 

5. Euxoa dissona Moeschler, 9 

6. Euxoa titubatis Smith, <J* . 

7. Euxoa albipennis Grote, (J 1 . 

8. Euxoa basalis Grote, cJ 1 . 

g. Euxoa jedimicula Morrsion, $ . 

10. Euxoa ochrogaster Guene'e, J 1 . 

11. Euxoa furtivus Smith, <5\ 

12. Euxoa obeliscoides Guene'e, 9 . 

13. Euxoa lutulenta Smith, <j\ 

14. Richia aratrix Harvey, (J 1 . 

15. Richia parentalis Grote, c?. 

1 6. Anytus privatus Walker, <5\ 

17. Anytus obscurus Smith, c?. 

1 8. Agrotiphila incognita Smith, tf . 

19. Ufeus plicatus Grote, c?. 

20. Ufeus satyricus Grote, <j\ 

21. Mamestra meditata Grote, 9 

22. Mamestra lustralis Grote, 9 



specimens figured are contained in 

23. Mamestra jarnhami Grote, 9 

24. Mamestra detracta Walker, o\ 

25. Mamestra radix Walker, <5*. 

26. Mamestra purpurissata Grote, 

? 

27. Mamestra subjuncta Grote & 

Robinson, d 1 . 

28. Mamestra lubens Grote, <^. 

29. Mamestra trifolii Rottemburg, 

&'. 

30. Mamestra rosea Harvey, 9 

3 1 . Mamestra congermana Morrison , 

9- 

32. Mamestra imbrifera Guene'e, 9- 

33. Mamestra nevadce Grote, 9 

34. Mamestra picta Harris, c? 1 . 

35. Mamestra renigera Stephens, 9 

36. Mamestra liquida Grote, 9 

37. Mamestra olivacea Morrison, c?. 

38. Mamestra adjuncta Boisduval, 

9- 

39. Mamestra lilacina Harvey, <5*. 

40. Mamestra latex Guen6e, 9 

4 1 . Mamestra grandis Boisduval , $ . 



THE MOTH BOOK 



ELATE XXIII 




Noctuidae 

This moth ranges from the Atlantic coast to Colorado and 
New Mexico. 

(22) Mamestra renigera Stephens, Plate XXIII, Fig. 35, $ . 
(The Kidney-spotted Mamestra.) 

Syn. herbimacula Guene'e; infecta Walker. 

This prettily marked little moth is found from New England 
and Ontario to Colorado. It occurs also in Europe. 

(25) Mamestra olivacea Morrison, Plate XXIII, Fig. 37, $ . 
(The Olivaceous Mamestra.) 

For the very extensive synonymy of this insect the reader is 
referred to Dr. Dyar's "Catalogue of the Moths of the United 
States." It is too lengthy to impose upon these pages. The 
moth ranges over the northern portions of the United States and 
southern Canada. 

(24) Mamestra laudabilis Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. i, ?. 
(The Laudable Mamestra.) 

Syn. indicans Walker; strigicollis Wallengren. 

This species extends its range from New Jersey through the 
southern States to Texas and southern California and northern 
Mexico. 

(25) Mamestra lorea Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Bridled Mamestra.) 

Syn. ligata Walker; dodgei Grote. 

An obscurely colored species, which ranges from the Atlantic 
to the Rocky Mountains. 

(26) Mamestra erecta Walker, Plate XXIV, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Erect Mamestra.) 

Syn. constipata Walker; innexa Grote. 

This little moth occurs in Texas, Arizona, and northern 
Mexico. 

(27) Mamestra anguina Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 5, ? . (The 
Snaky Mamestra.) 

The insect occurs in the northern portions of our territory, 
and among the higher mountains of the States of Colorado and 
Wyoming. 

(28) Mamestra vicina Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 6, ? . (The 
Allied Mamestra.) 

Syn. teligera Morrison; acutipennis Grote. 

Ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
195 



Noctuidae 

(29) Mamestra neoterica Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 7, $. 
(The Modern Mamestra.) 

The range of this species is from Manitoba to Alberta, so far 
as is at present known. 

(30) Mamestra negussa Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 8, ?. 
(The Brown-winged Mamestra.) 

The species was originally described from Alberta. It occurs 
also in northern Montana. 

Genus ADMETOVIS Grote 

(i) Admetovis oxymorus Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 9, $ . 
This insect which is one of two species, which are attributed 
to the genus, is found from Colorado to California. 

Genus BARATHEA Hiibner 

(i) Barathra occidentata Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 10, ? . 

This is a New Mexican species. Another species of the 
genus, named curialis by Smith, has been described by him as 
coming from Maine and New Hampshire. 

Genus NEURONIA Hubner 

(i) Neuroma americana Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 12, $. 
(The American Neuronia.) 

This is the only species of the genus represented in our terri- 
tory. It occurs in Montana and Alberta. 

Genus DARGIDA Walker 

The only species of this genus found within the limits of the 
United States was named procinctus by Grote. It is represented 
by the figure of the male insect on Plate XXIV, Fig. n. It is 
found from Colorado to California and Oregon. 

Genus MORRISONIA Grote 

Six species are attributed to this genus. We figure two of 
them. 

(i) Morrisonia sectilis Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 13, $ . 
Syn. evicta Grote. 

Form vomerina Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 14, ? . 
196 



Noctuidae 

The home of this insect is the Northern Atlantic States. It 
occurs in both forms in western Pennsylvania and Indiana. 
(2) Morrisonia confusa Hubner, Plate XXIV, Fig. 15, $ . 

Syn. infructuosa Walker; multifaria Walker. 

Not uncommon in the Atlantic Subregion. 

Genus XYLOMIGES Guenee 

In our fauna are found fifteen species which have been 
assigned to this genus. From their number we have chosen 
seven to put before the students of this book. 

(1) Xylomiges simplex Walker, Plate XXIV, Fig. 17, $. 
(The Simple Woodling.) 

Syn. crucialis Harvey. 

A well marked and easily recognizable species, recalling the 
genus Apatela, so far as the pattern of the maculation is con- 
cerned. It is spread from Colorado westward to California. 

(2) Xylomiges dolosa Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 20, $ . (The 
Grieving Woodling.) 

Distributed over the northern Atlantic States, and westward 
to Colorado. 

(3) Xylomiges perlubens Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 19, $ . 
(The Brown Woodling.) 

Syn. subapicalis Smith. 

This species belongs to the fauna of the Pacific coast, ranging 
eastward to Colorado. 

(4) Xylomiges pulchella Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 21, <$. 
(The Beautiful Woodling.) 

Habitat British Columbia. 

(5) Xylomiges patalis Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 18, $ . 
( Fletcher's Woodling. ) 

Syn. fletcheri Grote. 

Found in the Pacific States. 

(6) Xylomiges cognata Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 22, & . 
(The Oregon Woodling.) 

Ranges from British Columbia and Oregon eastward to 
Colorado. 

(7) Xylomiges indurata Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 23, $ . 
(The Hardened Woodling.) 

197 



Noctuidae 

Readily distinguished from X. dolosa by the lighter color of 
the primaries and the pure white secondaries, as well as by the 
different maculation. It is found in Colorado. 

Genus SCOTOGRAMMA Smith 

Of the thirteen species belonging to this genus and occurring 
in our fauna we depict thtee. 

(1) ScotogrammasubmarinaGrote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 24, $ . 
A native of the region of the Rocky Mountains ranging from 

Arizona to Montana. 

(2) Scotogramma infuscata Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 25, $ . 
The figure given on the plate is taken from a specimen in the 

United States National Museum. The insect is found in 
Colorado. 

(3) Scotogramma inconcinna Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 
26, $.. 

This plainly colored species, like its predecessor, occurs in 
Colorado. 

Genus ULOLONCHE Smith 

A genus of moderate extent, all of the species belonging to 
which are western, except the one we figure, which occurs in 
the Atlantic Subregion. 

(i) Ulolonche modesta Morrison, Plate XXIV, Fig. 16, $ . 

The species is not common. 

Genus ANARTA Ochsenheimer 

A subarctic genus, represented in both hemispheres. The 
insects occur either in high northern latitudes, or at great eleva- 
tions upon high mountains. There are many species. We give 
illustrations of five of those found in our fauna. 

(1) Anarta cordigera Thunberg, Plate XXIV, Fig. 28, $. 
(The Catocaline Anarta.) 

Found in northern Canada, Labrador, Alaska, and thence 
southward along the summits of the higher ranges of the Rocky 
Mountains to Colorado. It also occurs in the north of Scotland, 
and from Norway to Kamschatka. 

(2) Anarta melanopa Thunberg, Plate XXIV, Fig. 2^, $. 
(The Black-mooned Anarta.) 

Syn. nigrolunata Packard. 

I 9 8 



Noctuidx 

A circumpolar species commonly found in both hemispheres. 

(3) Anarta schoenherri Zetterstedt, Plate XXIV, Fig. 30, $ 
(Schoenherr's Anarta.) 

Syn. leucocycla Staudinger. 

Its habitat is Labrador, Greenland, Norway, Lapland, and 
arctic Asia. 

(4) Anarta richardsoni Curtis, Plate XXIV, Fig. 29, ?. 
(Richardson's Anarta.) 

Ranges from Alaska to Labrador, and has been found on the 
mountains of Norway. 

(5) Anarta impingens Walker, Plate XXIV, Fig. 31, $ . 
(The Dull Brown Anarta.) 

Syn. nivaria Grote; curia Morrison; per pur a Morrison. 

Found on the mountains of Colorado. 

Genus TRICHOCLEA Grote 

A small genus confined in its range to the mountain regions 
of the West. 

(i) Trichoclea antica Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 32, $ . 

The specimen figured is one kindly loaned me from the 
national collection, and determined by the author of the species. 

Genus TRICHOPOLIA Grote 

Of this small genus we are able to 
give a figure of the type of the species 
named serrata by Professor Smith. The FI(J & 
moth occurs in Texas. serrat 

Genus EUPOLIA Smith 

Only one species has thus far been referred 
to this genus. It was named licentiosa by 
Prof. J. B. Smith. The annexed cut gives 
a figure of the type, which is preserved in the 
United States National Museum. Its home 

FIG. iQQ.Eupoha 
licentiosa. $ . f IS Utah. 

Genus NEPHELODES Guenee 

(i) Nephelodes minians Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 33, $. 

Syn. expansa Walker; sobria Walker; violans Guen6e ; subdolens Walker 

199 





Noctuidae 



A common species in the Atlantic States, 
the fall of the year in western Pennsylvania. 



It is abundant in 



Genus HELIOPHILA Hiibner 

A large genus well represented in both the eastern and the 
western hemispheres. Thirty-six species are credited to our 
fauna. Of these we give figures of eight, selecting the 
commoner and a few of the rarer forms. 

(i) Heliophila unipuncta Haworth, Plate XXIV, Fig. 40, $ . 
(The Army Worm.) 

Syn. extranea Guen6e. 

This species, the larva of which is known as the "Northern 
Army Worm," or simply as the "Army Worm," is found from 
the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and 
from Canada to Texas and southward at 
suitable elevations upon the higher plateaus 
of northern Mexico. It appears occasionally 
in vast numbers, and is regarded by the 
farmer and the horticulturist as one of those 
pests against the ravages of which they 
must direct a great deal of energy. The 
first appearance of these insects in great 
numbers is recorded as having occurred in 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the 
year 1743. In the year 1770 they devastated 
the fertile fields of the valley of the Con- 
necticut. They devoured the grasses and 
cereals, but neglected the pumpkins and 
potatoes. The chronicler of this invasion 
says: "Had it not been for pumpkins, which were exceedingly 
abundant, and potatoes, the people would have greatly suffered 
for food. As it was, great privation was felt 
on account of the loss of grass and grain." Suc- 
cessive attacks of the insect have been made 
since then upon the crops in various parts of the 
country. The year 1861 is memorable as having 
been marked by their ravages, which were 
particularly noticeable in the State of Missouri and in southern 
Illinois. An excellent account of this invasion has been published 




FIG. no. Larva of 
H. unipuncta. 
(After Riley.) 



3. in. Pupa 
H. unipuncta. 
(After Riley.) 



200 




Noctuidae 

by Prof. C. V. Riley in his "Second Annual Report" as State 
Entomologist of Missouri. It appears from the investigations of 
those who are familiar with the habits of the insect that they 
appear in greatest numbers in years which are characterized by 
being wet and cool, following 
years in which there has been 
drought. Such conditions seem 
to be favorable to the develop- 
ment of the insects in great 
swarms. Their appearance in the 
fields is often at first not observed; 
but when, having attained con- 

. , ,, .. - ic FIG. 112. Moth of H. umpuncta. 

siderable size, the supply of gram (After Riley } 

and grasses gives out, and they 

begin to migrate in vast bodies in search of provender, they at 

once attract attention. 

The best remedy for these pests is to burn over grass lands 
in the winter, to keep the fence-rows clear of grass and weeds, 
and to plough under the land in the spring or the fall. Untilled 
grass lands on which crops are not properly rotated become 
centres of infection. 

(2) Heliophila pseudargyria Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 
47, ? . (The False Wainscot. ) 

A common species in the Atlantic States, freely attracted to 
sugar. 

(3) Heliophila subpunctata Harvey, Plate XXIV, Fig. 
35, ? . (The Dark-winged Wainscot.) 

Syn. complicate Strecker. 

The range of this species is from New Mexico and Texas 
to Arizona. 

(4) Heliophila minorata Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 41, $. 
(The Lesser Wainscot.) 

This species is found in California and Oregon. 

(5) Heliophila albilinea Hubner, Plate XXIV, Fig. 34, $. 
(The White-lined Wainscot.) 

Syn. harveyi Grote. 

The insect is widely distributed, ranging from Nova 
Scotia to New Mexico and Texas, but apparently avoiding 
the Great Plains and the regions lying west of them. 

201 



Noctuidaa 

It is a very common species in the Atlantic States, 
and at times does considerable 
injury to the crops. It has never, 
however, equaled in destructiveness 
the first species of the genus, to which 
we have given our attention on the 
preceding pages. It is said to be 
particularly attracted to the wheat 
when the grain is in the milk and 
the heads are just maturing. The 
damage done at this time is, in the 
Middle States, where winter 
wheat is commonly grown, due to 
the first generation of the insects. 
There are in fact two broods, one 
appearing on the wing in spring or 
early summer, the second in the late 
summer. The latter brood, which 
generally is more numerous than the 
first, produces the caterpillars, the 
pupae of which yield the moths, 
which, coming out in the spring of 
the year, lay their eggs in the wheat- 
fields. It is said that the habit of 

FIG 113 Heliophila atbi- . . . . . . . , 

linea a. Larvae; b. Mass attacking wheat in its period of matu- 
of eggs laid on the stem ration has lately been acquired by this 
from h above%.Egg viewed insect, and is an illustration of the 
from the side; (eggs great- way in which species, long regarded 
Riley.) gnified) " (Af * ^ innocuous, develop with apparent 
suddenness destructive tendencies. 

(6) Heliophila heterodoxa, Smith, Plate XXIV, Fig. 36, $ . 
(The Heterodox Wainscot.) 

The insect ranges from British Columbia and northern 
California as far east as Minnesota. 

(7) Heliophila multilinea Walker, Plate XXIV, Fig. 39, $ . 
(The Many-lined Wainscot.) 

Syn. lapidaria Grote. 

Not a scarce species in the Atlantic States. 

202 





Noctuidae 

(8) Heliophila commoides Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 42, $ . 
( The Comma Wainscot.) 

The insect occurs from the Atlantic westward as far as 
Colorado. It is not very common. 

Genus NELEUCANIA Smith 

This is a small genus composed of species, which are, so far 
as is known, exclusively Western. 

(i) Neleucania bicolorata Grote. (The Two-colored 
Neleucania.) 

Of this species, which occurs in 
Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, 
and probably has a still wider distribu- 
tion, we are able to give a figure based 
upon a specimen contained in the United FIG. 114. Neleucania 
States National Museum. bicolorata. $ {. 

Genus ZOSTEROPODA Grote 

Only one species of this genus is known at present. 

(i) Zosteropoda hirtipes Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 46, $ . 

The insect occurs in California. 

Genus ORTHODES Guenee 

Of the ten species reputed to belong to the genus and said to 
be found in our territory four are figured. 

(1) Orthodes crenulata Butler, Plate XXIV, Fig. 37, $ . 
(The Rustic Quaker.) 

An exceedingly common species in the Atlantic States, rang- 
ing westward throughout the valley of the Mississippi. 

(2) Orthodes cynica Guenee, Plate XXIV, Fig. 38, $ . (The 
Cynical Quaker.) 

Syn. candens Guenee; tecta Walker. 

Quite as common as the preceding species, and having the 
same range. 

(3) Orthodes vecors Guenee, Plate XIX, Fig. 20, $ . (The 
Small Brown Quaker.) 

Syn. enervis Guenee; nimia Guene'e; togata Walker; velata Walker; 
prodeuns Walker; griseocincta Harvey; nitens Grote. 

203 



Noctuidse 

This is another small creature, which has caused the species- 
makers much exercise. It is found very generally throughout 
the Atlantic States. 

(4) Orthodes puerilis Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 45, $ . (The 
Boyish Quaker.) 

This insect is found in northern California. 

Genus HIMELLA Grote 

(i) Himella contrahens Walker, Plate XXIV, Fig. 44, ? . 
Syn. thecata Morrison. 

This insect is found from the northern Atlantic States south- 
ward and westward to New Mexico and Colorado. 

Genus CROCIGRAPHA Grote 

(i) Crocigrapha normani Grote, Plate XXIV, Fig. 43, $ . 
Not an uncommon insect in the northern portions of the 
Atlantic Subregion. 

Genus GRAPHIPHORA Hiibner 

This is an extensive genus, represented in both hemispheres, 
and containing thirty-six species, which occur within our ter- 
ritory. We illustrate four of them. 

(1) Graphiphora culea Guenee, Plate XXV Fig. I, ? . 

Syn. modified Morrison. 

This species is quite common in the Appalachian or Atlantic 
Subregion. 

(2) Graphiphora oviduca Guenee, Plate XXV, Fig. 2, $ . 
Syn. capsella Grote; orobia Harvey. 

The insect has the same range as the preceding species, and 
is equally common. 

(3) Graphiphora alia Guenee, Plate XXV, Fig. 3, 9 . 

Syn. instabilis Fitch; insciens Walker; hibisci Guenee; conftuens 
Morrison. 

Not a scarce species in the Atlantic Subregion. 

(4) Graphiphora garmani Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 5, $ . 

A rather scarce insect ranging from western Pennsylvania 
throughout the valley of the Mississippi as far as Illinois and 
Iowa. 

204 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV 



(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

i. Mamestra laudabilis Guen6e, 



9- 

2. Mamestra lorea Guene, tf . 

3. Mamestra rugosa Morrison, cT. 

4. Mamestra erecta Walker, <5*. 

5. Mamestra anguina Grote, 9 . 

6. Mamestra vicina Grote, 9 

7. Mamestra neoterica Smith, cJ 1 . 

8. Mamestra negus sa Smith, 9 

9. Admetovis oxymorus Grote, d 1 . 

10. Barathra occidentata Grote, 9 

11. Dargida procinctus Grote, tf. 

12. Neuronia americana Smith, d 1 - 

13. Morrisonia sectilis Guen6e, d 1 . 

14. Morrisonia sectilis var. vome- 

rina, Grote, 9 
1*5. Morrisonia confusa Hubner, tf. 

16. Ulolonche mo desta Morrison, d 1 - 

17. Xylomiges simplex Walker, d*- 

1 8. Xylomiges patalis Grote, 9 

19. Xylomiges perlubens Grote, d 1 - 

20. Xylomiges dolosa Grote, d 1 - 

21. Xylomiges pulchella Smith, <$ . 

22. Xylomiges cognata Smith, c?. 

23. Xylomiges indurata Smith, cT 

24. Scotogramma submarina Grote, 

J. 

25. Scotogramma infuscata Smith, 

d 1 , U. S. N. M. 



26. Scotcgramma inconcinna Smith, 

rf, U. S. N. M. 

27. Anarta melanopa Thunberg, J 1 . 

28. Anarta cordigera Thunberg, c?. 

29. Anarta richardsoni Curtis, 9 . 

30. Anarta schcenherri Zetterstedt, 

cf- 

31. Anarta impingens Walker, c?. 

32. Trichoclea antica Smith, c?, U. 

S. N. M. 

33. Nephelodes minians Guen6e, c?. 

34. Heliophilaalbilinea Hiibner, cJ 1 . 

35. Heliophila subpunctata Harvey, 

9. 

36. Heliophila heterodoxa Smith, c?. 

37. Orthodes crenulata Butler, c? 1 . 

38. Orthodes cynica Guenee, cT. 

39. Heliophila multilinea Walker, 

<?' 

40. Heliophila unipuncta Haworth, 

d 1 - 

41. Heliophila minor ata Smith, J 1 . 

42. Heliophila commoides Guenee, 

d 1 . 

43. Crocigrapha normani Grote, c?. 
-4.4. Himella contrahens Walker, 9 
45 Orthodes puerilis Grote, c?. 
46. Zosteropoda hirtipes Grote, <j\ 

U. S. N. M. 



47. Heliophila pseudargyria Guen6e, 9. 



THE MOTH BOOK 





V 





Noctuidae 
Genus STRETCHIA Henry Edwards 

This is an extensive genus, to which a number of Western 
species have been referred. It badly needs revision by a critical 
authority. We figure one of the best known forms. 

(i) Stretchia muricina, Plate XXV, Fig. 5, $ . 

In addition to the figure given on the 
plate we annex a cut made from a drawing 
of a specimen contained in the collection 
of the late Henry Edwards, and now in 
the possession of the American Museum of FIG. 115. _ Stretchia 
Natural History in New York. muricina. 

Genus PERIGONICA Smith 

This is a small genus, which we represent by a figure of 
the Coloradan insect to which Prof. J. B. Smith has 
applied the specific name fulminans. The male is depicted 
on Plate XXV, Fig. 6. 

Genus PERIGRAPHA Lederer 

The only species of this genus 
found in our fauna has been named 
prima by Professor Smith. It is 
represented by a drawing of the 
type, which is contained in the 
p IG Il6 _ Perigrapha American Museum of Natural History. 
The insect is a native of California. 




Genus TRICHOLITA Grote 
(i) Tricholita signata Walker, Plate XXV, Fig. 7, $. 

Syn. semiaperta Morrison. 

This is the only species of the genus found in the eastern 
portion ot the United States. There are four other species, 
but they are western in their habitat. 

Genus CLEOSIRIS Boisduval 

This is a small" genus found in Europe as well as in 
America. The species which has been chosen to represent 
the genus was named populi by Strecker, who first described 
it. It is not at all uncommon in Colorado and Wyoming. It 

205 



Noctuidae 

occurs abundantly about the city of Laramie. It is represented 
upon Plate XXV, Fig. 8, by a female specimen. 

Genus PLEROMA Smith 

(i) Pleroma obliquata Smith, Plate XXV, Fig. n, 6". 
The species of this genus are all found in the western half of our 
territory. 

Genus LITHOMOIA Hiibner 

(i) Lithomoia germana Morrison, Plate XXV, Fig. 12,9. 
This is not at all an uncommon species in the northern Atlantic 
States. 

Genus XYLINA Ochsenheimer 

An extensive genus found both in the New World and 
the Old. Thirty-five species are attributed to it as found in 
our fauna. Of this number ten are depicted in this book. 

(1) Xylina disposita Morrison, Plate XXV, Fig. 13, ?. (The 
Green-gray Pinion.) 

The moth is found in the northern Atlantic States. 

(2) Xylina petulca Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 9, ? . (The 
Wanton Pinion.) 

Not a common species, having the same range as the preceding. 

(3) Xylina antennata Walker. (The Ashen Pinion.) 

Syn. cinerea Riley. 

The moth is a native of the Atlantic States. The larva feeds 
upon the apple, poplar, hickory, and other deciduous trees. It 

has the habit of 
boring into apples 
and peaches, and 
the galls which are 
found upon oaks. 
The caterpillar is 
green, marked with 
a cream-colored lat- 
eral stripe, and 
spots of the same 
color. It pupates 
beneath the soil in 
a loose, filmy cocoon of silk, to which the particles of earth are 
adherent. Pupation takes place at the end of June, or the 

206 




FIG. 117. Xylina antennata. a. Larva boring 
into peach, b. Moth. 



Noctuidae 

beginning of July, and the moth emerges in September and 
October. 

(4) Xylina laticinerea Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 17, $ . (The 
Broad Ashen Pinion.) 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the last 
mentioned. 

(5) Xylina innominata Smith, Plate XXV, Fig. 10, 3. 
(The Nameless Pinion.) 

The range of the Nameless Pinion is from the Atlantic to 
Colorado. 

(6) Xylina unimoda Lintner, Plate XXV, Fig. 16, $ . (The 
Dowdy Pinion.) 

The species occurs in New England and the Middle States. 

(7) Xylina tepida Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 15, $. (The 
Warm Gray Pinion.) 

An eastern species, not uncommon in Pennsylvania. 

(8) Xylina baileyi Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 19, ? . (Bailey's 
Pinion.) 

A rather pretty species, which has thus far only been reported 
from northern New York. 

(9) Xylina thaxteri Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 18, ? . 
(Thaxter's Pinion.) 

The home of this species is New England. It was originally 
described from Maine. 

(10) Xylina pexata Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 20, ? . (The 
Nappy Pinion.) 

Syn. washingtoniana Grote. 

The species ranges from New England to Washington and 
Oregon. 

Genus LITHOLOMIA Grote 

There are only two species reckoned in this genus. The one, 
which we figure on Plate XXV, Fig. 22, by a male specimen, 
ranges over the entire northern portion of the United States from 
ocean to ocean, but is nowhere very common. The other 
species, L. dunbari Harvey, is only known from British Columbia. 

Genus CALOCAMPA Stephens 

The genus is found in both hemispheres. The species have 
a habitus which enables them to be easily recognized. Of the 

207 



Noctuidae 

six occurring within the faunal limits, with which this book 
deals, we illustrate two. 

(1) Calocampa nupera Lintner, Plate XXV, Fig. 24, $ . 
(The American Swordgrass.) 

A rather large moth, easily distinguished from the following 
species by the absence of the dark markings, which are found in 
the disk of the primaries of the latter insect. It occurs in the 
Atlantic Subregion. 

(2) Calocampa curvimacula Morrison, Plate XXV, Fig. 23, 
$ . (The Dot and Dash Swordgrass.) 

The species is found throughout the northern portions of the 
United States and also in Canada. 

Genus CUCULLIA Schrank 

This is a considerable genus, which occurs in the temperate 
regions of both the Old World and the New. Four of the 
fourteen species attributed to our territory are chosen for repre- 
sentation. The larvae feed on Solidago and other Composite. 

(1) Cucullia convexipennis Grote & Robinson, Plate I, 
Fig. 3, larva; Plate XXV, Fig. 29, &. (The Brown-bordered 
Cucullia.) 

A native of the Atlantic States. 

(2) Cucullia asteroides Guenee, Plate XXV, Fig. 27, ? . 
(The Asteroid.) 

Found in the same localities as the last named species. 

(3) Cucullia speyeri Lintner, Plate XXV, Fig. 26, 5 . 
(Speyer's Cucullia.) 

Ranges through Colorado, Wyoming, and the adjacent 
regions to the west. 

(4) Cucullia intermedia Speyer, Plate XXV, Fig. 30, $. 
(The Intermediate Cucullia.) 

An Atlantic species. 

Genus COPICUCULLIA Smith 

(i) Copicucullia propinqua Smith, Plate XXV, Fig. 28. ?. 
A native of Colorado and Wyoming 

208 



Noctuidae 

Genus RANCORA Smith 
(i) Rancora solidaginis Behr, Plate XXV, Fig. 25, ? . 

Syn. strigata Smith. 

The range of this insect is from northern California to British 
Columbia. 

Genus LATHOSEA Grote 

1 i ) Lathosea pullata Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 32, i . 
The species occurs in Oregon and eastward to Colorado. 

(2) Lathosea ursina Smith, Plate XXV, Fig. 31, ? . 

A native of Colorado and the southern portions of Wyoming. 

Genus ASTEROSCOPUS Boisduval 

We are able to give a cut of the sole 
species which has been assigned from our 
fauna to this genus. It is based upon 
the type of the species which was named 
borealis by Smith, and which is preserved 
in the United States National Museum at _ 

..... ~, . FIG. 118. Asteroscopus 

Washington. The insect is a male. 



TRAGEDY OF THE NIGHT-MOTH 

Magna ausus 

'Tis placid midnight, stars are keeping 
Their meek and silent course in heaven; 

Save pale recluse, for knowledge seeking, 
All mortal things to sleep are given. 

But see ! a wandering Night-moth enters, 
Allured by taper gleaming bright ; 

Awhile keeps hovering round, then ventures 
On Goethe's mystic page to light. 

With awe she views the candle blazing; 

A universe of fire it seems 
To moth-savante with rapture gazing, 

Or Fount whence Life and Motion streams. 

What passions in her small heart whirling, 
Hopes boundless, adoration, dread; 

At length her tiny pinions twirling, 

She darts, and puff ! the moth is dead. 

209 




Tragedy of the Night-Moth 

The sullen flame, for her scarce sparkling, 

Gives but one hiss, one fitful glare; 
Now bright and busy, now all darkling, 

She snaps and fades to empty air. 

Her bright gray form that spread so slimly, 
Some fan she seemed of pygmy Queen ; 

Her silky cloak that lay so trimly, 
Her wee, wee eyes that looked so keen. 

Last moment here , now gone forever, 

To nought are passed with fiery pain; 
And ages circling round shall never 

Give to this creature shape again ! 

Poor moth ! near weeping I lament thee, 

Thy glossy form, thy instant woe; 
'Twas zeal for "things too high" that sent thee 

From cheery earth to shades below. 

Short speck of boundless Space was needed 
For home, for kingdom, world to thee ! 

Where passed unheeding as unheeded 
Thy little life from sorrow free. 

But syren hopes from out thy dwelling 
Enticed thee, bade thee earth explore 

Thy frame, so late with rapture swelling, 
Is swept from earth forevermore ! 

Poor moth ! thy fate my own resembles. 

Me, too, a restless, asking mind 
Hath sent on far and weary rambles, 

To seek the good I ne'er shall find. 

Like thee, with common lot contented, 

With humble joys and vulgar fate, 
I might have lived and ne'er lamented, 

Moth of a larger size, a longer date ! 

But Nature's majesty unveiling 

What seemed her wildest, grandest charms, 

Eternal Truth and Beauty hailing, 
Like thee, I rushed into her arms. 

What gained we, little moth ? Thy ashes, 
Thy one brief parting pang may show : 

And thoughts like these, for soul that dashes 
From deep to deep, are death more slow ! 

THOMAS CARLYLE. 
210 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Graphiphora culea Guenee, 9 

2. Graphiphora oviduca Guenee, <3*. 

3. Graphiphora alia Guenee, 9 

4. Graphiphora garmani Grote, c? . Merrick Col- 

lection. 

5. Stretchia muricina Grote, cJ 1 . 

6. Perigonica fulminans Smith, c?. 

7. Tricholita signata, Walker, cJ 1 . 

8. Cleosiris populi Strecker, 9 , U. S. N. M 

9. Xylina petulca Grote, 9 

10. Xylina innominata Smith, J 1 . 

n. Pleroma obliquata Smith, cT, U. S. N. M. 

12. Lithomoia germana Morrison, 9 

13. Xylina disposita Morrison, 9 

14. Homoglcza carbonaria Harvey, 9 

15. Xylina tepida Grote, c?. 

16. Xylina unimoda Lintner, <J*. 

17. Xylina laticinerea Grote, <J*. 

1 8. Xylina thaxteri Grote, 9 

19. Xylina baileyi Grote, 9 

20. Xylina pexata Grote, 9 

21. Xylina capax Grote & Robinson. 

22. Litholomia nap&a Morrison, cJ 1 . 

23. Calocampa curvimacula Morrison, J*. 

24. Calocampa nupera Lintner, cJ 1 . 

25. Rancor a solidaginis Behr, 9 

26. Cucullia speyeri Lintner, c?. 

27. Cucullia aster aides Guen6e, tf . 

28. Copicucullia propinqua Smith, 9 

29. Cucullia convexipennis Grote & Robinson, tf. 

30. Cucullia intermedia Speyer, 9 

31. Lathosea ursina Smith, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

32. Lathosea pullata Grote, cT, U. S. N. M. 

33. Nonagria oblonga Grote, (?, U. S. N. M. 

34. Nonagria subflava Grote, 9 

35. Ommatostola lintneri Grote, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

36. Sphida obliqua Walker, 9 . 



HE MOTH Boos 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND. 




Noctuidae 

Genus BELLURA Walker 

We cause this genus to be represented by a figure of the 
species named gortynides by 
Walker. Synonyms are densa 
Walker, vulnifica Grote, mela- 
nopyga Grote. The insect is 
peculiar to the Atlantic States, 
so far as is known. The cut 
was drawn from a specimen 
in the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York. FIG. 119. Bellura gortynides. ? . {. 

Genus SPHIDA Grote 

(i) Sphida obliqua Walker, Plate XXV, Fig. 36, 2 . 

Syn. obliquata Grote & Robinson. 

The range of this moth is from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. 
The specimen figured was taken by the writer at light in 
Minneapolis. It feeds in the stems of Typha latifolia. 

Genus NONAGRIA Ochsenheimer 

A rather small genus of obscurely colored moths, the larvae 
of which burrow in the stems of aquatic plants, below the water- 
line. The genus is represented in both hemispheres. Six species 
belong to our fauna. 

(1) Nonagria oblonga Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 33, $ . (The 
Large Nonagria. ) 

Syn. permagna Grote. 

This is a Southern species, thus far only recorded as found in 
Florida. 

(2) Nonagria subflava Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 34, ? . (The 
Yellowish Nonagria.) 

The insect ranges from Maine to Illinois, where it is found in 
the vicinity of lakes and pools of water in which rushes grow. 

Genus OMMATOSTOLA Grote 

(i) Ommatostolalintneri Grote, Plate XXV, Fig. 356". 
Thus far this species has only been recorded from New York 
and New Jersey. 

211 



Noctuidae 

Genus ACHATODES Guenee 

(i) Achatodes zeae Harris, Plate I, Fig. 12, larva; Plate XXVI, 
Fig. i, $. 

This common insect, like those of the next three genera, is a 
stem-feeder, burrowing in the pith of its food-plants. It feeds 
in stems of elder (Sambucus), and Indian corn. 

Genus GORTYNA Ochsenheimer 

This genus is represented in the faunae of both hemispheres. 
It is quite extensive. 

(1) Gortyna velata Walker, Plate XXVI, Fig. 3, 6 . (The 
Veiled Gortyna.) 

Syn. sera Grote & Robinson. 

Not uncommon in the Atlantic States. 

(2) Gortyna nictitans Borkhausen, Plate XXVI, Fig. 2, $ . 
This species, which is also found in Europe, has an extensive 

synonymy. It is found from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and shows 
in different localities slight differences in ground-color and mark- 
ings, which have led to the creation of a' number of subspecific 
distinctions by writers. 

(3) Gortyna immanis Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 4 $ . (The 

Hop-vineGortyna.) 
The insect is 
not often found 
south of New York 
and New England 
to any great extent, 
though its occur- 
rence as far south 
as Maryland as a 
rarity has been 
noted. From 
western New York 
it ranges across the 
continent to the 
Pacific. As it 
particularly infests 




FIG. 1 20. Gortyna immanis. a. enlarged 
ment of larva; b. larva; c. pupa; d. adult 
(After Howard.) 



seg- 
d* 



the hop it will not be abundant in places where that plant is 
not grown. In the centre of the hop-growing region of 

212 



Noctuidae 

New York and Ontario it is very abundant at times, and its 
depredations have been complained about by those interested in 
this industry. The eggs are laid on the young shoots and the 
little larvae immediately bore into the stem near the tip. Here 
they remain until they are half an inch long, when they descend 
and attack the plant at the level of the ground. It has been rec- 
ommended to pinch the tips which are seen to be affected and 
thus to kill the young worms. Various applications to be put 
about the roots have been advocated, for which the reader 
may consult " Bulletin No. 7 (New Series) of the United States 
Department of Agriculture." The hop-vines should at all events 
not be hilled up until the end of July or the beginning of 
August. This prevents the larvae from having easy access to the 
stems at the level of the ground. 

(4) Gortyna obliqua Harvey, Plate XXVI, Fig. 13, $ . (The 
Oblique Gortyna.) 

The habitat of this species is the Atlantic States and the Miss- 
issippi Valley. 

Genus PAPAIPEMA Smith 

(1) Papaipema inquaesita Grote & Robinson, Plate XXVI, 
Fig. 5, $ 

This species is, so far as we know, confined to the northern 
Atlantic States. 

(2) Papaipema purpurifascia Grote & Robinson, Plate 
XXVI, Fig. 7, $ . 

The range of this, as well as of all the species subsequently men- 
tioned, is the same as that of the first species named in the genus. 

(3) Papaipema Nitela Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 9, $ . 
Form nebris Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 8, $ . 

The caterpillar inflicts a good deal of damage upon Indian 
corn by burrowing into the end of 
the ear when the seed is in the 
milk. Those who have had to do 
with the preparation of roasting 
ears well know the unsightly larvae, 
which, as they have stripped 
the husk from the cob, have revealed their presence. Cooks 
know more about these things than the farmer. The farmer 

213 




Noctuidae 

pulls his corn after the seed is hard and dry, but the "kitchen 
mechanic," who has to deal with green vegetables, often has light 
upon subjects which elude the observation of the grower. 

(4) Papaipema necopina Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 12, ?. 
The species occurs in the Middle States, and has been more 

frequently found in New York than elsewhere. . 

(5) Papaipema cerussata Grote & Robinson, Plate XXVI, 
Fig. 10, ?. 

A pretty species, which occurs in New England and the 
Northern States as far west as Minnesota. 

(6) Papaipema cataphracta Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 6, 6 . 
The species is found in the northern Atlantic States, and is 

not unusual in western Pennsylvania. 

(7) Papaipema marginidens Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 
II, $. 

A rather scarce species, which has the same range as the 
preceding. 

(8) Papaipema furcata Smith, Plate XXVI, Fig. 14, ? . 
The specimen shown on the plate was taken in western 

Pennsylvania. 

Genus OCHRIA Hubner 

Dr. Dyar in his recent list refers to this genus the insect 
which was accorded the specific name 
sauzaelitse by Grote. We give a 
figure of the moth taken from a 
specimen in the American Museum 
of Natural History, for the skilful 
delineation of which we are indebted 

FIG. 122. Ochnasauzaehtce.^. , /.,/- / \\ r -,,- 

T to the facile fingers of Mrs. William 

Beutenmuller, one of the most accomplished delineators of insect 
life in America. 

Genus PYRRHIA Hubner 

(i) Pyrrhia umbra Hufnagel, Plate XXVI, Fig. i$, ? . 

This species, which occurs in Europe, ranges in North 
America from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus XANTHIA Hubner 

(i) Xanthia flavago Fabricius, Plate XXVI, Fig. 16, $. 
Syn. togata Esper; silago Hubner. 

314 




Noctuida 

This is likewise a European species, which has a wide range 
in the northern parts of the United States. 

Genus JODIA Hiibner 

(i) Jodia rufago Hubner, Plate XXVI, Fig. 17, $. (The 
Red- winged Sallow. ) 

Syn. honesta Walker. 

A European as well as a North American species. 

Genus BROTOLOMIA Lederer 
(i) Brotolomia iris Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 19, ?. 

Not a very common moth, which occurs from New England 
to Colorado. 

Genus TRIGONOPHORA Hubner 

( i ) Trigonophora periculosa Guenee, var. v-brunneum 
Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 18, $ . 

This is a very common species, having the same range as the 
preceding. The form we figure has the V mark on the wings 
heavy and dark. In the typical form this mark is light in color. 

Genus CONSERVULA Grote 

( i ) Conservula anodonta Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 20, $ . 
A rather scarce species, which is found in the northern part 
of our territory, south of Canada, and east of the Mississippi. 

Genus EUCIRRCEDIA Grote 

(i) Eucirrcedia pampina Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 21, $. 

The moth comes out late in the fall. I have often found them 
when a warm day has occurred in the autumn, freshly emerged, 
and hanging from the stems of bushes from which all the leaves 
had already fallen. The insect is common in the Appalachian 
subregion. 

Genus SCOLIOPTERYX Germar 

(i) Scoliopteryx libatrix Linnaeus, Plate XXVI, Fig. 22, $ . 
(The Herald.) 

A common insect found in Europe and the entire temperate 
zone in North America. The larva feeds on willows. 

315 




Noctuidac 

Genus CHCEPHORA Grote & Robinson 

(i) Choephora fungorum Grote & Robinson, Plate XXVI, 
Fig. 23, ? . 

Not a very common moth. It is found among the Alleghanies 
in western Pennsylvania, and also occurs in other portions of the 
northern Atlantic subregion. 

Genus PSEUDORTHOSIA Grote 

The only species of the genus was named 
variabilis by Grote. It ranges from Cali- 
fornia to Colorado. We give a figure of the 
species drawn by Mrs. Beutenmuller from a 
specimen contained in the collection of the 

FIG. 123. Pseudor- ^ ate Henry Edwards, and now in the American 

thosia variability. \. Museum of Natural History. 

Genus PSEUDOGL^A Grote 
(i) Pseudoglsea blanda Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 24, $ . 

Syn. tcedata Grote; decepta Grote. 

The habitat of the species is the Pacific States, from which it 
ranges eastward to Texas and Colorado. 

Genus ANCHOCELIS Guenee 
(i) Anchocelis digitalis Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 25, $ . 
The only species in our fauna so far known is found in the 
northern Atlantic States. 



Genus SELICANIS Smith 

Under this generic name Prof. J. B. 
Smith in 1900 described a species from 
Colorado to which he gave the specific 
name cinereola. The type of this insect, 
which is preserved in the United States 
National Museum, is represented in the 
accompanying cut. 




FIG. 124. Selicams 
cinereola, cT . {. 



Genus TAPINOSTOLA Lederer 

(i) Tapinostola variana Morrison, Plate XXVI, Fig. 26, $ . 
The figure we give is taken from a specimen belonging to the 
United States National Museum and coming from Michigan. 



Noctuidae 
Genus FAGITANA Walker 

Two species, which were formerly attributed to the genus 
Pseudolimacodes Grote, occur in the United States. We figure 
both of them. 

(1) Fagitana obliqua Smith, Plate XXVI, Fig. 27, $ . 
The habitat of this species -is Florida. 

(2) Fagitana littera Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 28, ? . 

Syn. lucidata Walker; ntieicostatus Grote. 

This is a rare insect, which occurs in the Atlantic States. 

Genus COSMIA Ochsenheimer 

(i) Cosmia paleacea Esper, Plate XXVI, Fig. 32, 3 . (The 
Angle-striped Sallow.) 

Syn. discolor Walker; infumata Grote. 

This insect is found all over northern Europe and the United 
States. 

Genus ORTHOSIA Ochsenheimer 

The genus is well represented both in the New World and 
the Old. Of the fifteen species reckoned as belonging to our 
fauna two are selected for illustration. 

(1) Orthosia bicolorago Guenee, Plate XXVI, Fig. 29, $ . 
An eastern species, which is not uncommon. 

(2) Orthosia helva Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 30, 9 . 

A very common species in the Atlantic States, ranging west- 
ward as far as Colorado. 

Genus PARASTICHTIS Hiibner 

(i) Parastichtis discivaria Walker, Plate XXVI, Fig. 31,6. 
Syn. gcntilis Grote. 

Found throughout the northern Atlantic States. 

Genus SCOPELOSOMA Curtis 

This genus represented in Europe by a single species is 
represented in the United States and Canada by half a score of 
species. They appear upon the wing very early in the spring, 
when the nights are still cool and even frosty. This fact is the 
reason why they are for the most part not well represented in 

217 



Noctuidse 

collections. A good place to collect them is in maple-sugar 
camps, about the sap-buckets. 

(1) Scopelosoma moffatiana Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 33, 
$ . (Moffat's Sallow.) 

This as well as all of the other species is found in the northern 
portion of the Atlantic subregion. 

(2) Scopelosoma ceromatica Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 34, 
$ . (The Anointed Sallow.) 

Ranges from New Jersey to Maine. 

(3) Scopelosoma walkeri Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 35, $ . 
(Walker's Sallow.) 

The moth is known to fly from Texas to Iowa and eastward 
to Maine and Canada. The larva feeds upon oaks. 

(4) Scopelosoma devia Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 42, $ . 
(The Lost Sallow.) 

It occurs in northern New York and Canada. 

Genus ORRHODIA Hiibner 

The genus is found both in Europe and 
America. Prof. Smith has attributed to it a 
species to which he gave the name of cali- 
fornica. The type is in the United States 
National Museum and the annexed figure gives 
FIG. 125. Orrbodia a representation of it. 1 1 is the only species of 
califomica. the genus in our fauna. 

Genus GL.JEA Hubner 

(1) Glaea viatica Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 38, $. (The 
Roadside Sallow.) 

The species appears very late in the fall of the year. It ranges 
from Texas in the south to Massachusetts in the north. 

(2) Glaea inulta Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 37, $ . (The 
Unsated Sallow.) 

The moth ranges from Canada to Virginia and westward to 
Illinois and Iowa. 

(3) Glaea sericea Morrison, Plate XXVI, Fig. 36, 3 . (The 
Silky Sallow.) 

The range of this species is much the same as that of the 
preceding. 

218 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI 



(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Achatoaes zece, Harris cT.U. S. 21. Eucirrcedia pampina Guen6e, 

N. M. 9 

2. Gortyna nictitans Borkhausen, 

(?. 

3. Gortyna velata, Walker, tf . 

4. Gortyna immanis, Guenee, 9 

5. Papaipema inquasita Grote & 

Robinson, c?. 



22. Scoliopteryx libatrix Linnaeus, 

c?- 

23. Chcephora fungorum Grote & 

Robinson, 9 

24. Pseudoglaa blanda Grote, (J 1 , 

U. S. N. M. 



6. Papaipema cataphracta Grote, 25. Anchocelis digitalis Grote, cJ 1 , 

tf. U. S. N. M. 

7. Papaipema pur puri fascia Grote 26. Tapinostola variana Morrison, 



& Robinson, oT- 
8. Papaipema nitela, var. nebris, 27. 



c?, U. S. N. M. 
Fagitana obliqua Smith, 



Guenee, tf . 
g. Papaipema nitela Guenee, c?. 

10. Papaipema cerussata Grote & 

Robinson, 9 

1 1 . Papaipema marginidens 

Guenee, 9 . 

12. Papaipema necopina Grote, 9 

13. Gortyna obliqua Harvey, <jV 

14. Papaipema furcata Smith, 9 

15. Pyrrhia umbra Hiifnagel, 9 

16. Xanthia flavago Fabricius, cf- 

17. Jodia rufago Hubner, cT , U. S. 

N. M. 

18. Trigonophora v-brunneum 

Grote, c?. 

19. Brotolomia iris Guenee, 9 

20. Conservula anodonta Gucn6e, 9 , 

U. S. N. M. J>. 

42. Scopelosoma devia Grote, 



28. Fagitana littera Guenee, 9 

29. Orthosia bicolorago Guen6e, (J 1 . 

30. Ortliosia helva Grote, 9 

31. Parastichtis discivaria Walker, 

c?- 

32. Cosmia paleacea Esper, cJ 1 . 

33. Scopelosoma moffatiana Grote, 



34. Scopelosoma ceromatica Grote, 

9- 

35. Scopelosoma walkeri Grote, c?. 

36. Glaza sericea Morrison, J 1 . 

37. Glceainulta Grote, $ . 

38. Glaza viatica Grote, $ . 

39. Homoglcea hircina Morrison, cJ*. 

40. Epiglcea decliva Grote, <J*. 

41. Epiglcea pastillicans Morrison, 



~HE MOTH BOOK 




Noctuidae 
Genus EPIGL^EA Grote 

(1) Epiglaea pastillicans Morrison, Plate XXVI, Fig. 41, $ . 
(The Round-loaf Sallow.) 

The species occurs from West Virginia to Maine, and west- 
ward to Ohio. 

(2) Epiglaea decliva Grote, Plate XXVI, Fig. 40, $ . (The 
Sloping Sallow.) 

Syn. deleta Grote. 

The moth occurs from Canada to Virginia, and westward to 
Illinois. 

Genus HOMOGL^A Morrison 

(1) Homoglaea hircina Morrison, Plate XXVI, Fig. 39, 3. 
(The Goat Sallow.) 

The habitat of this species is the northern part of our territory. 
It ranges from Alberta to Nova Scotia, and southward along the 
Alleghany Mountains into the Western part of North Carolina. 

(2) Homoglaea carbonaria Harvey, Plate XXV, Fig. 14, ? . 
(The Smudged Sallow.) 

The species ranges from Washington and Oregon eastward 
to Colorado. It has been located in the genus Euharveya, but 
this name is a synonym for Homoglaa, according to Prof. J. B. 
Smith, and accordingly sinks. 

Genus CALYMNIA Hiibner 
(i) Calymnia orina Guenee, Plate XXVII, Fig. i, $ . 

Syn. canescens Behr. 

This easily identified moth ranges over the entire temperate 
portion of the North American continent. The larva feeds upon 
oaks. 

Genus ZOTHECA Grote 

(i) Zotheca tranquila Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Western Elder Moth.) 

Syn. sambuci Behr; viridula Grote. 

The larva feeds upon elder (Sambucus). The moth ranges 
from northern California to British Columbia and eastward to 
Wyoming. The greener form was named viridula by Grote. 
The difference is hardly subspecific, as the shade of green on the 
wings is hardly alike in any two specimens, and the color soon 
fades out. 

219 



Noctuidce 

Genus IPIMORPHA Hubner 

(i) Ipimorpha pleonectusa Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 3, & . 
(The Even-lined Sallow.) 

Syn. (zquilinca Smith. 

The species occurs from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus ATETHMIA Hubner 

(1) Atethmia subusta Hubner, Plate XXV11, Fig. 4, $. 

A very common species ranging through the warmer parts 
of the Gulf States through Central and South America as far as 
Argentina. 

(2) Atethmia rectifascia Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 5, $ . 
Found from New Jersey to Illinois and southward. 

Genus TRICHOCOSMIA Grote 

(i) Trichocosmia inornata Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 6, $. 
The insect is found in Arizona and northern Mexico. 

Genus TRISTYLA SMITH 

The genus was erected by Smith for the 
reception of a Californian species to which he 
gave the specific name alboplagiata. Through 
the kindness of the authorities of the United 
FIG. 1 2 6. Tristyla States National Museum I am able to give a 
alboplagiata, $ . representation of the type of this insect. 

Genus ANTAPLAGA Grote 

A small genus composed exclusively of western species. 
(i) Antaplaga dimidiata Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 7, $. 
Hitherto only reported from Colorado. 

Genus GROTELLA Harvey 

(I) Grotella dis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 8, $ . 
A small moth found in New Mexico and Arizona. 
220 




Noctuidae 

Genus PIPPONA Harvey 

The only species hitherto referred to this 
genus is found in Texas. We give in the cut, 
which is herewith presented, a figure of a speci- 
men which is contained in .the American 
Museum of Natural History, and which was care- 
fully drawn for this book by Mrs. Beutenmuller. FIG. 
It was named bimatris by Dr. Harvey. na bimatris,. 

Genus BESSULA Grote 

Through the kindness of the authorities of the British Museum 
and Sir George F. Hampson I am able to give herewith a figure 





FIG. 128. Bessula luxa. 

of the type of the genus and species, which is preserved in the 
Grote Collection. The moth occurs in New Mexico and Colorado. 

Genus OXYCNEMIS Grote 

This genus is composed wholly of species which are found 
in the southwestern portions of our ter- 
ritory. Of one of these, found in 
California, to which Smith has applied 
the specific name fusimacula, we are 
permitted to give a figure taken from a 
specimen preserved in the American 
Museum of Natural History. It was drawn by Mrs. Beutenmuller. 




FIG. 129. Oxycnemis 
fusimacula. $ . ^. 



Genus NYCTEROPH^ETA Smith 
(i) Nycterophaeta luna Morrison, Plate XXVII, Fig. 9, $ . 

Syn. magdalena Hulst; notatella Grote. 

The moth ranges from Dakota and Montana southward to 
southern Colorado. 



221 



Noctuidae 

Genus COPABLEPHARON Harvey 

(1) Copablepharon grandis Strecker, Plate XXVII, Fig. 10, $ . 
The species ranges from northern California and Oregon 

eastward to Montana. 

(2) Copablepharon longfrpenne Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 
II, ? 

From the preceding species it may easily be distinguished by 

its much greater size. It has thus far only been found in Montana. 

- (3) Copablepharon album Harvey, Plate XXVII, Fig. 12, $ . 

The fore wings in this species are pure white, and not shaded 
with yellow, as is the case with the other two species, which 
have been mentioned. It occurs from Oregon to Montana and 
southward to Colorado. 

Genus THYREION Smith 

(i) Thyreion rosea Smith, Plate XXII, Fig. 13, ?. 
This insect is thus far only known to occur in Colorado. 

Genus CHLOR1DEA Westwood 

(i) Chloridea virescens Fabricius, Plate XX VII, Fig. 14, $ . 
Syn. rhexice Abbot & Smith; speclanda Strecker. 

Found from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada 
southward into Mexico. 

Genus HELIOCHEILUS Grote 

(i) Heliocheilus paradoxus Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 15, $. 

The insect ranges from the middle of the Mississippi Valley 

south and west. It does not appear to be common in collections. 

Genus HELIOTHIS Ochsenheimer 

The genus is represented in both hemispheres by a number 
of species. It used to be made to include a large assemblage of 
insects, but latterly has been restricted by authors. 

(i) Heliothis armiger Hubner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 17, 5 . 
(The Boll-worm.) 

This insect, which is known to English entomologists as the 
''Scarce Bordered Straw," is unfortunately not scarce in the 

222 




FIG. 130. Boll-worm feeding upon a tomato. 
(After Riley.) 



Noctuidae 

United States, and being of a singularly gluttonous habit in the 

larval stage, has become the object of execration to farmers and 

horticulturists. It 

is a very promis- 
cuous feeder, but 

shows a special 

fondness for 

young Indian corn 

in the ear and for 

cotton bolls. On 

account of the 

latter peculiarity 

it has received the 

name we have 

applied above. It 

attacks the fruit 

of the tomato when still green, and causes it to rot on the vines. 

It also feeds upon pumpkins, peas, beans, hemp, and, it is said, 

upon tobacco. 

An excellent ac- 
count of its habits 
has been given by 
Prof. C. V. Riley in 
his "Third Annual 
Report" as State 
Entomologist of 
Missouri. It is from 
that paper that we 
have extracted the 
figures which are 
herewith given, and 
which serve to illus- 
trate the life-history 
of the insect. The 

FIG. iji.Heliothis armiger. a. Egg viewed from mc . t h ranw; all nvpr 
the side; b. Egg viewed from on top (both eggs n 1 ran g es a11 over 
magnified); c. Larva; d. Pupa; e-f. Moth. (After the United States and 

southern Canada. It 

is most abundant in the southern portion of our territory, where 
there are from three to four broods annually. It is here in the 




22^ 



Noctuidae 

cotton-fields and in the growing corn that the greatest damage 
is inflicted. There appears to be no way of applying remedies 
in a wholesale manner to the crops so as to prevent the depreda- 
tions of this insect. The only resort is for the grower to go 
carefully over the fields, and where he detects the presence of the 
insects in their early stages, to pick them off and destroy them. 
In the case of corn the presence of the worm is shown by the 
premature drying of the silk, and in the case of cotton by the 
fallen flower-buds, which lie withering on the ground. 

(2) Heliothis scutosus Fabricius, Plate XXVII, Fig. 16, $ . 
(The Spotted Clover-moth.) 

Syn. nucbalis Grote. 

This species, which occurs in Europe and Asia, is also found 
not infrequently in the western part of our territory. 

Genus DERRIMA Walker 

(i) Derrima stellata Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 67, $. 
(The Pink Star-moth.) 

Syn. henrietta Grote. 

The specimen figured was taken in Maine. 
We also give a cut taken from a specimen in 
the American Museum of Natural History. It 
is a rare insect, but widely distributed from 
FIG. 132. Derrima New England to the Mississippi through the 
stellata, rf. i- northern tier of states. 

Genus RHODOPHORA Guenee 

(1) Rhodophora gaurae Abbott & Smith, Plate XXVII, 
Fig. 1 8, $ . 

Syn. matutina Hiibner. 

A very common species in the southern and southwestern 
portions of our territory. The larva feeds upon Gaura biennis. 

(2) Rhodophora florida Guenee, Plate XXVII, Fig. 19, $. 
Ranges from Canada to the Carolinas and westward as far as 

Utah. 

(3) Rhodophora citronellus Grote & Robinson, Plate XXVI I, 
Fig. 20, $ . 

This is a common species in Texas and Arizona. It occurs 
also in Colorado. 

224 




Noctuidse 

Genus RHODOSEA Grote 

(i) Rhodosea julia Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 53, $. 
The moth occurs in New Mexico and southward to northern 
Mexico. The specimen figured on the plate is contained in the 
United States National Museum. 

Genus RHODODIPSA Grote 

(1) Rhododipsa volupia Fitch, Plate XXVII, Fig. 22, S. 
Habitat Colorado and Texas. 

(2) Rhododipsa miniana Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 23, $. 
The insect occurs in New Mexico. 

(3) Rhododipsa masoni Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 24, ?. 
This species has thus far only been reported from Colorado. 

Genus TRIOCNEMIS Grote 

There is only one species of this genus, to which Grote 
applied the specific name saporis. The male is depicted on 
Plate XXVI I, Fig. 21. It ranges from Washington and California 
eastward to Colorado. 

Genus PSEUDACONTIA Smith 

This is another genus represented thus far 
by one species. The insect received the specific 
name crustaria at the hands of Morrison. The 
figure we give was taken from a specimen 
contained in the United States National Museum 
at Washington. The insect ranges from Ne- FIG. 133. Pseuda- 
braska to Colorado and Wyoming. conlia crustaria. 

Genus GR^PERIA Grote 

The only species attributed thus far to this genus is still a 
rare insect in collections. We give a figure 
of the type contained in the collection of the 
late Berthold Neumcegen, which is preserved 
at the Brooklyn Institute. The insect occurs 
FIG. 134. Graperia in Texas. The fore wings are deep maroon, 
magnifica, d". \. edged anteriorly with pale creamy white. 

225 





Noctuidae 



Genus PORRIMA Grote 



(i) Porrima regia Strecker, Plate XXVII, Fig. 26, ?. 
This is a southern species, found in Texas, and also ranging 
northward as far as Kansas and Colorado. 



Genus TRICHOSELLUS Grote 

(i) Trichosellus cupes Grote. 

Syn. crotchi Henry Edwards. 

This little moth, which is the only one 
belonging to the genus, is represented in the 
annexed figure by a drawing of the type, 
which is preserved in the American Museum 
of Natural History. 




FIG. 135. Tricho- 
sellus cupes, . -J-. 



Genus EUPANYCHIS Grote 

The only species belonging to the 
genus was originally named spinosae by 
Guenee. Grote & Robinson subsequently 
called it hirtella. It occurs from Canada 
southward to the Potomac and westward 
to Illinois. The figure we give is from a i 
drawing of a specimen in the United States FlG . l36 .Eupanychis 
National Museum. spinosce, $ . 

Genus CANIDIA Grote 





FIG. 137. Canidia scissa. 

This is a Floridan species, a figure of the type of which has 
been prepared for this book under the supervision of Sir George 
F. Hampson. 

Genus SCHINIA Hubner 

This is a very extensive genus of small and rather pretty 
moths, which are particularly abundant in the grassy and semiarid 

226 



Noctuidae 

lands of the southwestern States. There are, however, a number 
of species, which occur in the Atlantic subregion. 

(1) Schinia chrysellus Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 28, ?. 
The fore wings are silvery white. The insect is strikingly 

beautiful, and is not at all uncommon in the States of Colorado. 
New Mexico, and Texas. 

(2) Schinia aleucis Harvey, Plate XXVII, Fig. 29, $. 
This species is smaller than the preceding, which it resembles 

in a general way. The hind wings are darker. It occurs in Texas. 

(3) Schinia cumatilis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 30, <3 . 

A beautiful species, with silvery-white wings. It may 
at once be distinguished from the two preceding species by the 
different arrangement of the bands upon the fore wings. It is 
found in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. 

(4) Schinia trifascia Hubner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 35, ? . 
Syn. lineata Walker. 

The moth is found from the Atlantic to the foothills of the 
Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming. 

(5) Schinia simplex Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 32, ? . 

The home of this species is Colorado. The fore wings in 
some specimens are much brighter green than shown on the plate. 

(6) Schinia nundina Drury, Plate, XXVII, Fig. 33, $ . 
Syn. nigrirena Haworth. 

This is a strikingly marked species, which cannot easily be 
mistaken for anything else. It ranges from New Jersey south- 
ward and westward to Illinois and Kentucky. 

(7) Schinia acutilinea Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 34, $. 
Syn. separata Grote. 

The moth is found in Colorado and Utah. 

(8) Schinia brucei Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 37, $ . 
The home of the insect is Colorado. 

(9) Schinia lynx Guenee, Plate XXVII, Fig. 38, $ . 

Is taken from Massachusetts to Florida and westward to the 
Mississippi. 

(10) Schinia roseitincta Harvey, Plate XXVI, Fig. 36, 6 . 
Syn. exaltata Henry Edwards. 

Has been found from Colorado to Texas, 
(n) Schinia saturata Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 43, $. 
Ranges from Massachusetts to Florida, and westward to 
Texas and southern California. 

227 



Noctuidae 

(12) Schinia tertia Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 39, ?. 
This species is common in Texas. 

(13) Schinia albafascia Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 45, ?. 
The habitat of this species is Utah and Colorado. 

(14) Schinia jaguarina Guenee, Plate XXVII, Fig. 41, $. 
The species ranges from western Pennsylvania to Nebraska 

and Colorado and southward to Texas. 

(15) Schinia arcifera Guenee, Plate XXVII, Fig. 42, ?. 

Syn. spraguei Grote. 

The species occurs from New England to New Mexico and 
southward. 

(16) Schinia packardi Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. }\, $. 
Syn. mortua Grote ; nobilis Grote. 

Distributed from Colorado to Texas and Arizona. 

(17) Schinia thoreaui Grote & Robinson, Plate XXVII, 
Fig. 46, <$ . 

Ranging from the valley of the Ohio southward into Texas. 

(18) Schinia marginata Haworth, Plate XXVII, Fig. 44, 6". 

Syn. rivulosa Guenee; diver gens Walker; contracta Walker; designator 
Walker. 

Found from New York to Iowa and thence southward. 

(19) Schinia brevis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 40, $ . 
Syn. atrites Grote. 

This species is spread from Massachusetts to Iowa and 
southward to New Mexico. 

Genus DASYSPOUD^A Smith 

(1) Dasyspoudaea lucens Morrison, Plate XXVII, Fig. 47, $ . 
A common insect in Nebraska and westward in Colorado 

and Wyoming. 

(2) Dasyspoudaea meadi Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 48, $ . 
Ranges from Montana southward to Colorado. 

Genus PSEUDANTHCECIA Smith 

(i) Pseudanthcecia tumida Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 49, 3. 
This insect occurs from Colorado to the higher plateaus of 
northern Mexico. It is common in Chihuahua. 

228 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 



1. Calymnia orina Guenee, cT. 

2. Zotheca tranquilla Grote, d 1 - 

3. Ipimorpha pleonectusa Grote, 

d 1 - _ 

4. Alethmia subusta Hiibner, d 1 . 

U. S. N. M. 

5. Atethmia rectifascia Grote, d\ 

U. S. N. M. 

6. Trichocosmia inornata Grote, 

d 1 , U. S. N. M. 

7. Antaplaga dimidiata Grote, d 1 - 

8. Grotella dis Grote, J 1 , U. S. N. 

M. 

9. Nycterophceta luna Morrison, 9 

10. Copablepharon grandis Strecker, 

d 1 - 

11. Copablepharon longipenne 

Grote, $ , U. S. N. M. 

12. Copablepharon album Harvey, 



13. 



14. 



Thyreion rosea 

S. N. M. 
Chloridea virescens 



Smith, $ , U. 
Fabricius, 
paradoxus Grote, 



15. Heliocheilus 
cf- 

1 6. Heliothis scutosus Fabricius, d 1 - 
17." Heliothis armiger Hiibner, J 1 . 
1 8. Rhodophora gaurcs Abbot & 
Smith, d- 

19. Rhodophora florida Guenee, d 1 - 

20. Rhodophora citronellus Grote & 

Robinson, d 1 . 

21. Triocnemis sapor-is Grote, d 1 . 

U. S. N. M. 

22. Rhododipsa volupia Fitch, d 1 - 

23. Rhododipsa miniana Grote, d 1 - 

24. Rhododipsa masoni Smith, 9 . 

25. Pseudotamilavanella Grote, d 1 . 

U. S. N. M. 

26. Porrima regia Strecker, 9 

27. Porrima gloriosa Strecker, 9 



28. Schinia chrysellus Grote, 9 . 

29. Schinia aleucis Harvey, d- 

30. Schinia cumatilis Grote, tf . 
3 1 . Schinia packardi, $ . 

32. Schinia simplex Smith, 9. 

33. Schinia nundina Drury, d 1 - 

34. Schinia acutilinea Grote, d*- 

35. Schinia trifascia Hubner, 9 

36. Schinia roseitincta Harvey, tf- 

37. Schinia brucei Smith, (J 1 - 

38. Schinia lynx Guenee, cJ*. 

39. Schinia tertia Grote, 9 . 

40. Schinia brevis Grote, (J 1 . 

41. Schinia jaguarina Guen6e, c?. 

42. Schinia arcijera Guenee, 9 . 

43. Schinia saturnta Grote, (J 1 . 

44. Schinia marginata Haworth, 



Schinia albafascia Smith, 9 
Schinia thoreaui Grote & Robin- 

son, (5>. 
Dasyspoudaa lucens Morrison, 

(DP-. 

48. Dasyspoudcca meadi Grote, c?. 

49. PseudanthcBcia tumida Grote, d*- 

50. Stylo poda cephalica Smith, 9 - 

51. Melicleptria sueta Grote, cJ 1 . 

5 2 . Meliclepiria pulchripennis 

Grote, J>. 
53. Rhodosea julia Grote, 9 , U. S. 

N. M. 
Mela par phyria oregona Henry 

Edwards, $. 
Dysocnemis belladonna Henry 

Edwards, d 1 - 
Heliaca diminutiva Grote, d*- 

57. Axenus arvalis Grote, d 1 - 

58. Heliolonche modicella Grote, 9 

59. Omianescea Smith, d\U.S.N.M. 

60. Xanthothrix neumcegeni Henry 

Edwards, 9 . 

61. Heliophana mitis Grote, d* 



47 



54 



55. 



56. 



THE MOTH BOOK 






Noctuidse 

Genus PALADA Smith 

There is but one species of the genus, and 
we are able to give a figure of the type of this 
through the kindness of the authorities of the 
United States National Museum. It received 
the specific name scarlatina at the hands of FIG. 138. 
Prof. J. B. Smith. Its habitat is California. scarletina, $. 

Genus STYLOPODA Smith 

(i) Stylopoda cephalica Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 50,?. 
This is a very common species in southern California. 

Genus SYMPISTIS Hubner 

This is another of the many genera among the Heliothid 
moths, which are represented thus far in 
America by but a single species. The insect 
was named proprius by Henry Edwards, 
and we give a figure of the type which is in 
FIG. 139. Sympis- his collection now in the possession of the 
Us proprius, & . \. American Museum of Natural History. 

Genus MELAPORPHYRIA Grote 

This little genus contains three species. Of these we select 
one for illustration. 

(i) Melaporphyria oregona Henry Edwards, Plate XXVII, 
Fig. 54, 3. 

The range of the species is from Colorado to Oregon. 

Genus DYSOCNEMIS Grote 

(i) Dysocnemis belladonna Henry Edwards, Plate XXVII, 
Fig. 55. <$ 

This beautiful little moth occurs in Utah. 

Genus PSEUDOTAMILA Smith 

(i) Pseudotamila vanella Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 25, $. 
Found among the mountains of Nevada and California. 

229 



Noctuidae 

Genus MELICLEPTRIA Hubner 

(1) Melicleptria pulchripennis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 

52, S. 

Syn. tanguida Henry Edwards. 

The range of this insect is from Colorado to California. 

(2) Melicleptria sueta Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 51, 3. 

Syn. californ-icus Grote. 

Is distributed from Colorado to California. 

Genus HELIOLONCHE Grote 

(i) Heliolonche modicella Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 58, $. 
The moth is distributed from California to Colorado and 
Wyoming. 

Genus OMIA Hubner 

(i) Omia nesaea Smith, Plate XXVII, Fig. 59, $. 
The habitat of this little moth is California. 

Genus HELIOPHANA Grote 

(l) Heliophana mitis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 61, 3 . 

Syn. obliquata Smith. 

Genus HELIODES Guene"e 

There are but two species so far known to 
belong to this genus. They both occur in 
California, and are among the smallest of the 
FIG. 140. Heliothids. We give in the annexed cut a repre- 
H eliod es restric- sentation of the type of the species named restric- 
talis, $ . talis by Prof. J. B. Smith. 

Genus HELIOSEA Grote 




FIG. 141. Heliosea pictipennis 



The figure of the type of the genus and the species is kindly 
loaned me for use in this book by Sir George F. Hampson. It is 

230 



Noctuidse 

taken from the "Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae," 
Vol. IV. The moth occurs in California. 

Genus XANTHOTHRIX Henry Edwards 

(i) Xanthothrix neumoegeni Henry Edwards, Plate XXVII, 
Fig. 60, ? . 

This pretty bright colored little moth occurs in California. 

Genus AXE N US Grote 

(i) Axenus arvalis Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 57, $ . 
Syn. ochraceus Henry Edwards; amptus Henry Edwards. 

A common insect ranging from Colorado to California and 
southward. 

Genus HELIACA Herrich-Schaeffer 

Five species are attributed to this genus, of which we 
illustrate one. 

(i) Heliaca diminutiva Grote, Plate XXVII, Fig. 56, <? . 

The range of this species is the same as that of the last 
mentioned. 

Genus EUPSEUDOMORPHA Dyar 

(i) Eupseudomorpha brillians Neu- 
mosgen. 

Of this beautiful insect, which is still 
very rare in collections, we give a figure 
drawn by the writer from the type, which 
is contained in the Neumcegen Collection. FIG. 142. Eupseudo- 
The moth inhabits Texas. morpha brillians, 9 f 

Genus XANTHOPASTIS Hubner 

(i) Xanthopastis timais Cramer, Plate XI, Fig. 17, 9 
Syn. regnatrix Grote. 

This insect has a very wide range all over the tropics of the 
New World. It occurs not infrequently in the Gulf States, and 
occasionally ranges as far north as New York. 





Noctuidae 

Genus PSYCHOMORPHA Harris 

(i) Psychomorpha epimenis Drury, Plate III, Fig. 9, $. 
This very beautiful little moth appears on the wing early in 
the spring in Pennsylvania. It is not uncommon in the Atlantic 

States. Hitherto it has 
been placed by many 
authors among the Agaris- 
tidce, but we incline to 
the opinion that it is better 
F.G. na.-Larva of pTychomorpha cpi- located where we have put 

menis. a, Full grown caterpillar; b, side it, among the NoctUtdCZ. 
view of segment enlarged; c, hump on Larval characteristics, hoW A 

eleventh segment. (After Riley.) ever, show a great likeness 

in this stage of develop- 
ment to the species included in the genus Alypia. The accom- 
panying cut, which we have reproduced from the writings of 
Prof. C. V. Riley, may be compared in this connection with the 
figure of the larva of Alypia octomaculata given on page 144. 

Genus PSEUDALYPIA Henry Edwards 

This genus, like the preceding, has been located by some 
recent writers among the Agaristidce. The 
moth is undoubtedly a Noctuid. I have 
placed it here in the order of arrangement, 
believing that upon the whole it is better 

located at this point in the serial arrangement Fl p , 

than anywhere else. The figure annexed is / y/> j- a cr ot c in, $ }. 

that of the type preserved in the American 

Museum of Natural History. It was drawn by Mrs. Beutenmuller. 

Genus EUTHISANOTIA Hubner 

(1) Euthisanotia unio Hubner, Plate XVII, Fig. 24, 6 . (The 
Pearly Wood-nymph.) 

This lovely moth has a wide range throughout the eastern 
portions of our territory as far west as the Mississippi. 

(2) Euthisanotia grata Fabricius, Plate XVII, Fig. 23, $. 
(The Beautiful Wood-nymph.) 

Syn. assimilis Boisduval. 

232 




Noctuidae 

This is a much larger species than the preceding. It 
has practically the same 
range of distribution. The 
affinity of the genus to the 
genus Psychomorpka i s 
clearly shown by the larva, 
a representation of which is 
given in the annexed cut 
taken from the writings of FlG - ^.-Eutbisanotia grata. a, Full- 
Prof C V Rilev who de- grown Iarva; *' enlarged Se 8 ment - Slde 

view; c, cervical shield from behind; 

voted considerable time to d> ana! hump from behind; e-f, top and 
the Study of the life-history side views of egg, enlarged. (After 

of these insects. Riley.) 




Genus CIRIS Crete 

(i) Ciris wilsoni Grote, Plate XIX, Fig. 2, $ . 

This insect occurs in Texas and Arizona. It has also been 
referred to the Agaristidce and to the Zygcenidce by various 
authors. There is, however, no doubt as to its being a true 
Noctuid. 



Genus NOROPSIS Guenee 



Fig. 



(i) Noropsis hieroglyphica Cramer, Plate XXVIII, 

i, ? 

This very pretty moth has a wide range in the hotter portions 
of America. It is found in Florida, and represents the invasion 
of our southern territory by the fauna of the Antilles, and South 
America. 

Genus FENARIA Grote 

(1) Fenaria longipes Druce, Plate XI, Fig. 16, $ . 

The species occurs in Arizona and ranges thence southwardly 
into Mexico. 

(2) Fenaria sevorsa Grote, Plate XVII, Fig. 12, ?. 

Syn. cedessa Druce. 

The species has the same range as the preceding. 

" I love the season well 

When forest glades are teeming with bright forms." 
LONGFELLOW. An April Day, 

233 




Noctuidae 

Genus ACHERDOA Walker 

Only one species of the genus is attributed to it from our 
fauna. It received the specific name ferra- 
ria a t the hands of the late Francis Walker, 
anc * was rename d ornata by Neumoegen. 
The cut we give was drawn by Mrs. Beuten- 
muller from a specimen in the American 
FIG. 146. Acherdoa Museum of Natural History. It represents 
jerraria, $ . f the male insect. 

Genus AON Neumoegen 

(i) Aon noctuiformis Neumoegen, Plate XLI, Fig. 18, 3 . 
This is not an uncommon moth in southern Texas. 

Genus CIRRHOPHANUS Grote 

(i) Cirrhophanus triangulifer Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 2, ? . 

The insect varies considerably in size, the specimen depicted on 

the plate being rather small. It is not an uncommon species in 

the southern States, and is also found as far north as Pennsylvania. 

Genus BASILODES Guenee 

(i) Basilodes pepita Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 7, ? . 
The genus Basilodes contains a number of species which are 
all, with the single exception of this species, natives of the south- 
western portions of our territory. The present species occurs 
from Pennsylvania to Florida and westward to Colorado. The 
insect has been occasionally taken in Pittsburgh. 

Genus STIRIA Grote 

(i) Stiria rugifrons Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 5, $ . 

The specimen figured on the plate was caught by the writer 
in southern Indiana. It is reported also from Kansas and 
Colorado. It probably has a wide range, but is as yet rare in 
collections. 

Genus STIBADIUM Grote 

(i) Stibadium spumosum Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 3, $ . 

The insect ranges from New York to Colorado and south- 
ward. It is very abundant in southern Indiana, where it comes 
freely to sugar. 

234 



Noctuidse 
Genus PLAGIOMIMICUS Grote 

There are five species reckoned as belonging to this genus. 
All of them are southwestern and western forms, except the one 
we figure. 

(i) Plagiomimicus pityochromus Grote, Plate XXVIII, 

Fig. 9, ? 

This moth is quite common in western Pennsylvania. It 
ranges southward and westward to the Gulf States and Colorado. 

Genus FALA Grote 

(i) Fala ptycophora Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 4, $ . 
The habitat of this insect, which is the sole representative of 
its genus, is California. 

Genus NARTHECOPHORA Smith 

This is another genus in which we recognize thus far only 
one species. 

(i) Narthecophora pulverea Smith, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
11,9. 

The figure is taken from a specimen determined by the author 
of the species, and contained in the United States National 
Museum. 

Genus NEUMCEGENIA Grote 

The only species of this genus was named poetica by Grote. 
It is a beautiful little moth, the fore wings 
being bright metallic green, with a golden 
reflection, the light spot, which is outwardly 
trifid, and the costa being creamy yellow. 
The drawing for the annexed cut was made 
from the type which is preserved at the FlG - 
Brooklyn Institute. 

Genus PLUSIODONTA Guenee 

The only species of this small genus recognized as found in 
North America was named compressipalpis by Guenee. Walker 
renamed it insignis. It is represented on Plate XXVIII, Fig. 6, 
by a male specimen. The insect is a native of the Atlantic 
subregion, and is locally very common in western Pennsylvania. 




Noctuidae 

Genus GONODONTA Hubner 

This genus is representative of the tropical fauna of America, 
and but two species occur within our limits, both of them in the 
warmer parts of Florida. 

(i) Gonodonta unica Neumcegen, Plate XXV1IJ, Fig. 10. $. 

The larval stages have been well described by Dyar in the 
" Proceedings of the United States National Museum," Vol. XXIII, 
p. 272. The caterpillar feeds on Anona laurifolia, the Custard- 
apple. 

Genus CALPE Treitschke 

The genus Calpe is found in the temperate regions of both 
hemispheres. Only one species occurs in America. 

(i) Calpe canadensis Bethune, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 8, ?. 
(The Canadian Calpe.) 

Syn. purpurascens Walker; sobria Walker. 

The range of this species is restricted to the colder portions 
of our territory. It is found in Canada, rarely in northern 
New York, and ranges westward to Alberta. 

Genus PANCHRYSIA Hubner 
This genus, which is generally known under Walker's name 

Deva, is better represented in the eastern hemisphere than in the' 

western. We figure one species of the four credited to our fauna, 
(i) Panchrysia purpurigera Walker, Plate XX VIII, Fig. 

13,5. 

This pretty little moth, which is not very common, ranges 

from New England and Canada to Colorado and New Mexico. 

Genus POLYCHRYSIA Hubner 

Two species, both of which we figure, are attributed to this 
genus as occurring within our territory. 

(1) Polychrysia moneta Fabricius, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 12, ? . 
Syn. trabea Smith. 

This is a European insect, which is found also in Alberta and 
Assiniboia. 

(2) Polychrysia formosa Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 14, $ . 

So far, all the specimens which have come under the obser- 
vation of the writer have been taken in New England or in 
New York. 

236 



Noctuidse 
Genus PLUSIA Hubner 

Three of the four species attributed to the genus as found in 
America are represented upon our plate. 

(1) Plusia aerea Hubner, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 16, $ , 

The moth ranges from Nova Scotia to Florida and westward 
to Texas and the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Plusia seroides Grote, Plate XX VIII, Fig. 17, $ . 

The distribution of this species is almost identical with that 
of Plusia cerea. The larva feeds on various species of Spiraea. 

(3) Plusia balluca Geyer, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 22, ? . 

The species is not uncommon in the northern Atlantic States. 

Genus EUCHALCIA Hubner 

(1) Euchalcia contexta Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 23, $ . 
The species is found from Maine to Wisconsin, and occasion- 
ally as far south as the mountains of central Pennsylvania. 

(2) Euchalcia putnami Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 1 5, $ . 
Dr. Dyar with questionable correctness treats this species as 

a form of the European festucce Linnaeus. There is no doubt of 
the distinctness of the two. 

(3) Euchalcia venusta Walker, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 21, ?. 
Syn. striatella Grote. 

The range of this species is from Nova Scotia and Canada 
southward to the mountains of West Virginia. 

Genus EOSPHOROPTERYX Dyar 

(i) Eosphoropteryx thyatiroides Guenee, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 1 8, $. 

This lovely moth is still very rare in collections. It ranges 
from New England and Canada to the mountains of Virginia and 
westward into the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Genus AUTOGRAPHA Hubner 

This is a large assemblage of species, about fifty being recog- 
nized as occurring in the United States. Of this number we are 
only able to figure about one third. 

237 



Noctuida 

(1) Autographa bimaculata Stephens, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
I93- 

Syn. u-brevis Guen6e. 

This is a common species in the northern Atlantic States. 

(2) Autographa biloba Stephens, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 24, $ . 
The species is distributed widely from the Atlantic to the 

Pacific. 

(3) Autographa verruca Fabricius, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 20, $ . 

Syn. omega Hubner; oo Cramer; omicron Hiibner; questionis Treitschke ; 
rutila Walker. 

The moth is scarce in the northern Atlantic States, but has 
been recorded as occurring in Massachusetts. It ranges from 
New England to Texas and southward through Central and 
South America. 

(4) Autographa rogationis Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 25, $ . 
Syn. h amifera Walker; dyaus Grote; includens Walker; culta Lintner. 

The range of this species is the same as that of the pre- 
ceding. 

(5) Autographa precationis Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
28, a. 

The insect is found in Canada and the United States east of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

(6) Autographa egena Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 29, $ . 
This is a southern species, occurring in Florida and the Gulf 

States, and ranging southward into South America. 

(7) Autographa flagellum Walker, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 27, $ . 
Syn. monodon Grote; insolita Smith. 

The species ranges from Quebec to Alberta. 

(8) Autographa pseudogamma Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 

35. *. 

The insect is indigenous in Quebec and Nova Scotia. 

(9) Autographa ou Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 33, 5 . 

Syn. fratetta Grote. 

This species is almost universally distributed through the 
United States and southern Canada. 

(10) Autographa brassicae Riley, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 36, <$ . 
Syn. echinocystis Behr. 

238 




Noctuidae 

This insect, which preys upon the Cruciferce in its larval 
state, has been well described and its habits fully set forth by 
Prof. C. V. Riley in 
the Missouri Reports. 
It is from his paper 
upon the species that 
we have been per- 
mitted to extract the 
figure which is here- 
with annexed of the 
insect in its various 
stages. The moth 
appears to be very 
generally distributed ^ . - 

throughout the United J '^Vv* ' 

States and Canada, FlG 148 ^ Autographa brassiccp . a , Full-grown 

and does a good deal larva; b, pupa; c, male moth. (Aftei Riley.) 

to diminish the supply 

of the raw material from which sauer-kraut is made. 

(n) Autographa oxygramma Geyer, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
30, 3. 

Syn. indigna Walker. 

The moth is found in the southern States, and thence south- 
ward to South America. 

(12) Autographa rectangula Kirby, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 32, ? . 
Syn. mortuorum Guenee. 

This lovely species is northern in its range. I found it quite 
abundant one summer at Saratoga, New York. 

(13) Autographa vaccinii Henry Edwards, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 34, <$ . 

This species may easily be distinguished by the strongly 
checkered fringes of the primaries. 

(14) Autographa selecta Walker, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 39, $ . 
Syn. viridisignata Grote. 

This is a somewhat large species, not very attractively 

colored. It is northern in its range. 

(15) Autographa angulidens Smith, Plate XX VIII, Fig. 
38, 3. 

239 



Noctuidse 

The species is found in Colorado, and probably has a wide 
range in the Rocky Mountains. 

(16) Autographa ampla Walker, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 31, $. 
This fine species is northern in its range, but extends its 

habitat southward along the ranges of the great mountains of the 
west 

(17) Autographa basigera Walker, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 26, $ . 

Syn. laticlavia Morrison. 

The insect occurs in the Appalachian subregion. 

(18) Autographa simplex Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 37, 6 . 
This is one of the very commonest species of the genus, 

which is apparently universally distributed throughout our 
country. 

Genus SYNGRAPHA Hubner 

This genus is composed of species which are subpolar in 
their habitat. Of the four species which are reckoned as belong- 
ing to the fauna of North America, we illustrate two. 

(1) Syngrapha hocheriwarthi Hochenwarth, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 41, <$ 

Syn. divergens Fabricius. 

Found everywhere in Arctic America. The specimen figured 
was taken in Labrador. 

(2) Syngrapha devergens Hubner, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 40, ? . 
Syn. alticola Walker. 

The species is found in Labrador, and has been reported from 
the high mountains of Colorado. It will probably be found to 
have a wide range. 

Genus ABROSTOLA Ochsenheimer 

We give representations of both the species which occur in 
our fauna. 

(1) Abrostola urentis Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig 42, 6" . 
The insect, which is by no means common, is found in the 

Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Abrostola ovalis Guenee, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 43, $ . 
The range of this insect is the same as that of the last 

mentioned. 

240 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII 



(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained 



in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Noropsis hieroglyphica Cramer, 

d- 

2. Cirrhophanustriangulifer Grote, 

d, U. S. N. M. 

3. Stibadium spumosum Grote, 

9. 

4. Fala ptychophora Grote, d> U. 

S. N. M. 

5. Stiria rugifrons Grote, d- 

6. Plusiodonta compressipalpis 

Guenee, d- 

7. Basilodes pepita Guenee, 9 . 

8. Calpe canadensis Bethune, 9 

U. S. N. M. 

9. Plagiomimicus pityochromus 

Grote, 9 . 

10. Gonodonta unica Neumoegen, 

9, U. S. N. M. 

11. Narthecophora pulverea Smith, 

9, U. S. N. M. 

12. Polychrysia moneta Fabricius, 

var. esmerelda, Oberthur, 9 

13. Panchrysia purpurigera 

Walker, &. 

14. Polychrysia formosa Grote, d- 

15. Euchalcia putnatni Grote, d- 

1 6. Plusia area Hiibner, d- 

17. Plusia oeroides Grote, 9- ' 

18. Eosphoropteryx thyatiroides 

Guenec, d- 

19. Autographa bimaculata 

Stephens, d- 

20. Autographa verruca Fabricius, 

(? 

21. Euchalciqvenusta Walker, <f , 



22. Plusia balluca Geyer, d- 

23. Euchalcia contexta Grote, d- 

24. Autographa biloba Stephens, d- 

25. Autographa rogationis Guenee, 

26. Autographa basigera Walker, 

27. Autographa flagellum Walker, 

28. Autographa precationis Guenee, 

29. A utographa egena Guenee, d- 

30. Autographa oxygramma Geyer 

31. Autographa ampla Walker, 9- 

32. Autographa rectangula Kirby, 

9- 

33. A utog rapha ou Guenee, d- 

34. Autographa vaccinii Henry 

Edwards, d- 

35. Autographa pseudo^amma 

Grote, d- 

36. Autographa brassica? Riley, d- 

37. Autographa simplex Guenee, d- 

38. Autographa angulidens Smith, 

39. Autographa selecta Walker, d- 

40. Syngrapha devergens Htibner, 

9- 

4 1 . Syngrapha hochenwarthi 

Hochemvarth, d- 

42. Abrostola urentis Guenee, d- 

43. A brostola ovalis Guenee, d- 

44. Behrensia conchiformis , Grote . 

d, U. S. N. M. 



THE MOTH BOO 



PLATE XXVIII 





Noctuidas 
Genus BEHRENSIA Grote 

Only one species has thus far been attributed to this genus, 
(i) Behrensia conchiformis Grote, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 

44, &- 

This little insect, which is as yet very rare in collections, is 
found in northern California and Oregon. 

Genus DIASTEMA Guenee 

(i) Diastema tigris Guenee. 
Syn. lineata Walker. 

The sole species belonging to the genus, 
which occurs within our borders, has been 
reported from Florida. We give in the ac- 
companying cut an illustration of a specimen 
which is found in the American Museum of p IG J49 ._ Diastema 
Natural History. tigris. 

Genus OGDOCONTA Butler 

(i) Ogdoconta cinereola Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. i, ?. 
Syn. atomaria Walker. 

This is not at all an uncommon species in the Atlantic sub- 
region. 1 have found it particularly abundant in southern Indiana, 
where it comes freely both to light and to sugar. 

Genus P^ECTES Hiibner 

Eight species are enumerated as belonging to this genus in 
Dyar's recently published Catalogue. Of these we have given 
illustrations of three in our plates. 

(1) Paectes abrostoloides Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 3, ?. 
The insect occurs in the Atlantic States, and ranges westward 

into the Mississippi Valley. 

(2) Paectes pygmaea Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 2, $ . 

This is a southern species. The specimen from which the 
figure on the plate was taken was captured in Texas. 

(3) Paectes oculatrix Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 4, $ . 

The species is by no means very common. It has a wide 
range from the Atlantic into the basin of the Mississippi. The 
specimen figured on the plate was taken in western Pennsylvania. 
I have specimens from Indiana and Illinois. 

241 



Noctuidae 

Genus EUTELIA Hubner 

(i) Eutelia pulcherrima Grote. 

Syn. dentifera Walker. 

The only species of this genus known to occur within our 
territory is that which is figured in the accompanying cut, which 




FIG. 150. Eutelia pulcherrima, $ . 



was made from the type now in the possession of the British 
Museum. The insect is found in New York and New Jersey, 
but probably has a wider southern range. It is as yet very rare 
in collections. 

Genus MARASMALUS Grote 

(1) Marasmalus inficita Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 6, $ . 

Syn. histrio Grote. 

This species is found from the northern Atlantic States and 
Canada southward and westward to Texas and Colorado. 

(2) Marasmalus ventilator Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 5, ?. 
This species, which is considerably larger than the preceding, 

has the wings more or less marked by reddish scales, which 
enables it to be easily discriminated from its congener. Its range 
is practically the same. 

Genus AMYNA Guenee 
(i) Amyna octo Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 7, ? . 
This little moth has suffered more than any other known to 
the writer by being made the sport of the makers of synonyms . 
No less than nineteen synonyms have been applied to it in addi- 
tion to its true name. In Dyar's Catalogue it appears under the 
name orbica Morrison, and tecta Grote is given as a synonym. 
The student who wishes to know what some of the other names 
are which have been given to it may consult Hampson's "Moths 
of India," Vol. II, p. 251. It is found throughout the hot lands of 
both hemispheres. 

242 



Noctuid* 



Genus PTER^ETHOLIX Grote 



(i) Pteraetholix bullula Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 8, $ . 
The habitat of this little moth is the Gulf States. 



Genus Alabama Grote 

(i) Alabama argillacea Hiibner, Plate XXIX, Fig. n, $. 
(The Cotton-worm Moth). 

Syn. xylina Say; grandipuncta Guenee; bipunctina Guene. 

The Cotton-worm Moth is one of a number of insects which 
annually inflict a vast amount of damage upon the crops in the 
southern por- 
tion of our 
country. In 
Prof. Com- 
stock's "Re- 
port upon the 
insects which 
are injurious to 
cotton," pub- 
lished in 1879, 
and in the 
"Fourth Re- 
port of the 
United States 
Entomological 
Commission," 
there is given 

a great deal of valuable and interesting information in regard to 
this species. Much may also be learned about it from the study 
of the "Missouri Reports" published by the late Prof. C. V. 
Riley. The range of the insect is very broad. It sometimes, 
though very rarely, occurs as far north as Canada. From this 
northernmost location it has been found ranging southward as 
far as Argentina. It sometimes appears to migrate in swarms. 
A number of years ago, during a heavy snowstorm in November, 
myriads of the moths suddenly appeared in the city of Pittsburgh, 
and they came flying in the evening to the electric lights. From 
one store the proprietor said that he had swept them out by the 

343 




FIG. 151. Alabama argillacea. a. Egg: b. immature 
larva; c. lateral view of mature larva; d. dorsal vievf 
of mature larva; e, leaf in which pupation takes 
place; /, pupa. (After Riley.) 



Noctuidae 

quart. I have a few of the insects which thus appeared, and 
the figure on the plate is taken from one of these specimens. 

Genus ANOMIS Hubner 

The species belonging to this genus are mainly southern. 
There is considerable uncertainty as to the identification of some 
of the species, which were named by the older authors. Of the 
four reputed to be found within our limits we figure the one 
which is commonest. 

(i) Anomis erosa Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 12, $. 

Occasionally found as far north as New England. Ranging 
thence southward into the South American continent. 

Genus SCOLECOCAMPA Guenee 

The only species of the genus so far known to occur in the 
United States was named liburna by Geyer. Guenee subse- 
quently called it ligni. The larva feeds in decaying wood, 
particularly that of oaks, chestnuts, and hickories. It tunnels its 
way through the softer parts, and after reaching maturity makes 
a loose cocoon composed of a few strands of silk mixed with 
chips and the frass left in the burrow, from which it emerges in 
due season as the moth, which is represented on Plate XXIX, 
Fig. 16, by a male specimen. 

Genus EUCALYPTERA Morrison 

A small genus, the species of which are confined to the 
southern States and to Mexico and Central America. 

(i) Eucalyptera strigata Smith, Plate XXIX, Fig. 9, <5 . 
The habitat of this species is Texas. 

Genus CIL.LA Grote 

(i) Cilia distema Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 10, $, . 
This obscure little moth, the only representative of the genus 
in our territory, has hitherto only been reported from Texas. 

Genus AMOLITA Grote 

(i) Amolitafessa Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 13, $. 
The moth occurs from Massachusetts to Florida and westward 
to Texas and Colorado. 

244 



Noctuidae 



Genus RIVULA Guenee 



(i) Rivula propinqualis Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 14, $ . 
The range of this insect is from Nova Scotia to Texas, and 
across the continent as far as the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus PSEUDORGYIA Harvey 

(i) Pseudorgyia versuta Harvey, Plate XXIX, Fig. 17, $ . 
This insect is thus far only known to us from Texas. 

Genus DORYODES Guenee 

(i) Doryodes bistriaris Geyer, Plate XXIX, Fig. 15, $ . 

Syn. acutaria Herrich-Schaeffer; divisa Walker; promptella Walker. 

There are three species of the genus found in our territory, 
one of them, so far as is known to the writer, as yet unnamed. 
The insect we are considering ranges from Maine to Florida and 
westward to Colorado. 

Genus PHIPROSOPUS Grote 

(i) Phiprosopus callitrichoides Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig 

18,?. 

Syn. nasutaria Zeller; acutalis Walker. 

The species ranges from New York to Texas. 

Genus ANEPISCHETOS Smith 

The only species thus far referred to this 
genus, which was erected by Smith in 1000 
for its reception, received at the hands of that 
author the specific name bipartita. A figure 
of the type, which is contained in the collec- 
tion of the United States National Museum, is 
given in the accompanying cut. 




jfackttos bipar* 

tita, $ . {. 




FIG. i^. 
ma lutea, 



Genus DIALLAGMA Smith 

This genus was erected at the same time 
as the preceding by the same author for the 
reception of the insect of which we give a 
representation in Fig. 153. Its habitat, as 
also that of the last mentioned species, is 
Florida. 



345 



Noctuidse 



Genus PLEONECTYPTERA Grote 



This is a genus of moderate size, which by some writers has 
heretofore been placed among the Pyralidce, though it is 
undoubtedly correctly located among the Noctuidce. Eight 
species are credited to our fauna in the latest catalogue. 

(i) Pleonectyptera pyralis Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 19, $. 

Syn. irrecta Walker; ftoccalis Zeller. 

The insect ranges through the southern Atlantic States to 
Central and South America. 

Genus ANNAPHILA Grote 

A genus of moderate extent, embracing over a dozen species, 
which are found within the United States. 

(1) Annaphila diva Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 20, $ . 
The habitat of this pretty little moth is California. 

(2) Annaphila lithosina Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 

21,9. 

The specimen figured in the plate came from southern 
California. 

Genus INCITA Grote 

Only a single species, the type of the 
genus, is known. The figure we give in the 
annexed cut is drawn from the type in the 
possession of the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York. 




FIG. 154. India 
aurantiaca, $ . {. 



Genus TRICHOTARACHE Grote 

The sole representative of this genus in our fauna is the 
insect the type of which is given in the accompanying figure, 
drawn for this work by Mr. Horace Knight, of London. 




FIG. 155. Trichotarache assimilis Grote, $. 

The habitat of the moth is California. 
246 



Noctuid* 
Genus EUSTROTIA Hubner 

This is quite an extensive genus, of which eighteen species 
are included in our fauna. Of this number we give illustrations 
of seven. 

(1) Eustrotia albidula Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 22, 9 . 

Syn. intractabilis Walker. 

This little moth ranges from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, 
and further west. 

(2) Eustrotia concinnimacula Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
23,?- 

Not an uncommon species in the Atlantic subregion. 

(3) Eustrotia synochitis Grote & Robinson, Plate XXIX, 
Fig. 24, $ . 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the last. 
It occurs from Canada to Texas. 

(4) Eustrotia musta Grote & Robinson, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
25,3. 

Found from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

(5) Eustrotia muscosula Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 26, ? . 
The moth has the same ranges as the last mentioned species. 

It is very common in Indiana. 

(6) Eustrotia apicosa Haworth, Plate XXIX, Fig. 27, $ . 

Syn. nigritula Guenee. 

A very common species, having the same range as its prede- 
cessor. 

(7) Eustrotia carneola Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 28, $ . 
Syn. biplaga Walker. 

What has been said of the last species applies also to this, 
except that it is, if anything, even more common. 

Genus GALGULA Guenee 

(i) Galgula hepara Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 31, 3. 

Syn. externa Walker. 

Form partita Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 32, $ . 

Syn. vesca Morrison; subpartita Guene'e. 

This common insect exists, as is shown in the plates, in two 
forms, one quite dark, the other lighter. It is an inhabitant of 
the Atlantic subregion, and is particularly abundant in western 
Pennsylvania. 

247 



Noctuidae 

Genus AZENIA Grote 

(i) Azenia implora Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 29, ?. 
Not an uncommon insect in Arizona. 

Genus LITHACODIA Hubner 

(i) Lithacodia bellicula Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 30, $. 

This little moth may be found from the Atlantic to the Rocky 
Mountains. It is the only species of its genus occurring in the 
United States. 

Genus PROTHYMIA Hubner 

(1) Prothymia rhodarialis Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 38, ? . 
Syn. coccineifascia Grote. 

The species ranges from Massachusetts to Texas. 

(2) Prothymia semipurpurea Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
36, ?. 

The species has the same range as the last. The specimen 
figured was taken at New Brighton, Pa., by the Messrs. Merrick, 
whose ardent and successful labors as collectors of the local 
fauna deserve all praise. 

(3) Prothymia orgyiae Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 37, $ . 
This is a Texan species. 

Genus EXYRA Grote 

(i) Exyra semicrocea Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 35, ? . 

There are four species of the genus Exyra attributed to our 
fauna, but only one of these is figured. The species are mainly 
southern in their range. Exyra semicrocea is found from New 
Jersey southward and westward as far as Texas. 

Genus XANTHOPTERA Guenee 

Two of the four species which are found within the limits 
of the United States are represented upon our plates. 

(i) Xanthoptera nigrofimbria Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 

33> ft. 

The insect is found in the southern portions of the Appalachian 
subregion. 

248 



Noctuidae 

(2) Xanthoptera semiflava Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 34, & . 
The distribution of this species is identical with that of the 
one last mentioned. 

Genus THALPOCHARES Lederer 

The only species of this genus found within our faunal limits 
is a native of Florida. It received the specific name aetheria 
at the hands of Mr. Grote. The illustration we give is drawn 




FIG. 156. Thalpochares cetheria, $ . f. 

from the type which is preserved in the British Museum, and 
was drawn for this book by Mr. Horace Knight under the 
direction of Sir George F. Hampson. The insect is not common 
in collections. 

Genus EUMESTLETA Butler 

Seven species are given by Dyar in his Catalogue as occurring 
within the limits of the United States. The insects have a 
southern and southwestern range, occurring in the Gulf States 
and in Arizona. We have selected one of them for illustration. 

(i) Eumestleta flammicincta Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 

39, a. 

Syn. patula Morrison; patruelis Grote. 

The habitat of this insect is Florida and Texas. 

Genus GYROS Henry Edwards 

There is only one species of this genus known. It received 
the name muiri through Mr. Henry Edwards in 
honor of his friend, John Muir, the well-known 
writer, whose charming descriptions of the 
natural beauties of the western portions of our 
continent have established for him an enviable 
position in the world of letters. The moth is FIG. 157. Gyros 
found in California, muiri, $ { 

249 




Noctuid* 

Genus TRIPUDIA Grote 

This is a genus of considerable size, represented in the 
western and southwestern States by nine species, and well 
represented in the fauna of Mexico and Central America. 

(i) Tripudia opipara Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
40, $ . 

This is a very common species in Texas. 

Genus METAPONIA Duponchel 

The genus is represented in both hemispheres. Three species 
occur in our fauna. Of these we figure two. 

(1) Metaponia obtusa Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XXIX, Fig. 

4>, 9. 

Syn. obtusula Zeller. 

The insect occurs from the valley of the Ohio southward to 
Texas. It is commoner in the south than in the north. 

(2) Metaponia perflava Harvey, Plate XXIX, Fig. 42, ?. 
Not an uncommon species in Texas. 

Genus CHAMYRIS Guenee 

(i) Chamyris cerintha Treitschke, Plate XXIX, Fig. 43, ?. 

The species is found from New England and Canada south- 
ward to the Carolinas aud westward to Kansas. The larva feeds 
on the Rosacecz. The insect is very common in Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Indiana. 

Genus TORNACONTIA Smith 

Two species have been attributed to this genus. One of 
them, which received the specific name sutrix at the hands of 
Grote, is represented in the annexed cut. 
It was drawn by Mrs. Beutenmuller from a 
specimen in the collection of the United States 
Museum of Natural History in New York. 
FIG. 158. Torna- The insect is found in the region of the Rocky 
contia sutrix, $. f Mountains. 

250 




Noctuidae 
Genus THERASEA Grote 

This is a small genus, represented in our fauna by two species, 
(i) Therasea flavicosta Smith, Plate XXIX, Fig. 47, 6. 
The moth occurs in the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus TARACHE Hiibner 

The genus is found in both hemispheres. It is well repre- 
sented in our fauna, thirty-five species being known to occur 
within the limits of the United States and Canada. Eleven of 
these are figured upon our plates. 

(1) Tarache termiriimacula Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 46, ? 
The species ranges from Massachusetts to Illinois. 

(2) Tarache delecta Walker, Plate XXIX, Fig. 48, ? . 
Syn. metallica Grote. 

The range of this species is along the Atlantic coast. It 
occurs in the salt-marshes on Long Island and New Jersey, and 
ranges thence southward to Texas. 

(3) Tarache flavipennis Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 52, $ . 
The habitat of this species is the Pacific coast. 

(4) Tarache lactipennis Harvey, Plate XXIX, Fig. 45, ? . 
Not at all an uncommon species in Texas. 

(5) Tarache lanceolata Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 49, $ . 
This species, like the preceding, occurs in Texas. 

(6) Tarache sedata Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 53 6 . 
The habitat of this insect is Arizona. 

(7) Tarache aprica Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 50, & . 

The range of this species is from the valley of the Ohio south- 
ward to Texas and westward to Colorado. 

(8) Tarache erastrioides Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 54, ? . 
The moth is found in New England and Canada and south- 
ward so far as West Virginia and Indiana. 

(9) Tarache virginalis Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 51, ?. 
The habitat of the species is from Kansas to Arizona. 

(10) Tarache binocula Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 44, $, . 
The range of this species is the same as that of the preceding, 
(i i) Tarache libedis Smith, Plate XXIX, Fig. 55, $ . 

The home of this insect is New Mexico and Colorado. 

251 



Noctuidse 

Genus FRUVA Grote 

The species belonging to this genus are southern and south- 
western in their distribution. Six are known. 

(i) Fruva apicella Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 56, ? . 

Syn. truncatula Zeller; accepla Henry Edwards. 

A very common species in the Gulf States. 

Genus SPRAGUEIA Grote 

A genus of small, but very attractively colored moths, which 
requent the flowers of the Composite in the later summer. 

(1) Spragueia onagrus Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 57, $ . 

The moth occurs quite abundantly in southwestern Pennsyl- 
vania and the valley of the Ohio, and ranges thence southwardly. 
It is common on the blossoms of the golden-rod (Solidago.) 

(2) Spragueia plumbifimbriata Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
S8, 9. 

This modestly colored species is found in Texas. 

(3) Spragueia dama Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 59, $ . 
Syn. trifariana Walker. 

This is a common species in the southern States. 

(4) Spragueia guttata Grote, Plate XXIX, Fig. 60, $ . 
This pretty moth ranges from Texas to Costa Rica. 

Genus CALLOPISTRIA Hvibner 

(i) Callopistria floridensis Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 61, S . 
As the name indicates, the species is from Florida. 

Genus METATHORASA Moore 

A genus represented in both hemispheres, and particularly 
well in Asia. 

(i) Metathorasa monetifera Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 62, 
?, 

A native of the Appalachian subregion, ranging from Canada 
to Florida. Thus far it does not appear to have been reported 
from any locality west of the Alleghany Mountains. I found it 
one summer quite abundantly at Saratoga, New York. 

252 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX 

(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 



1 . Ogdoconta cinereola Guenee, 9 

2. P&ctes pygmcea Hubner, cT. 

3. Pcectes abrostoloides Guenee, 9 

4. Pcectes occulatrix Guenee, <5\ 

Merrick Collection. 

5. Marasmalus ventilator Grote, 9 

6. Marasmalus inficita Walker, c? . 

7. AmynaoctoGuenee, 9 , U.S.N.M. 

8. Pteratholix bullula Grote, c?,U. 

S. N. M. 

9. Eucalyptera strigata Smith, c?. 

10. Cilia distema Grote, <J*. 

11. Alabama argillacea. Hubner, J 1 . 

12. Anomis erosa Hubner, 9- 

13. Amolitafessa Grote, J 1 .U.S.N.M. 

14. Rivula propinqualis Guenee, 9 

15. Doryodes bistriaris Geyer, J 1 . 

1 6. Scolecocampa liburna Geyer, c?. 

17. Pseudorgyia versuta Harvey, 9 

U. S. N. M. 

18. P hiproso pus callitrichoides 

Grote, 9 . 

19. Pleonectyptera pyralis Hubner, 

20. Annaphila diva Grote, J 1 . 

21. Annaphila lithosina Henry 

Edwards, 9 . 

22. Eustrotia albidula Guenee, 9.' 

2 3 . Eustrotia concinnimacula 

Guenee, 9 . 

24. Eustrotia synochitis Grote & 

Robinson, cj 1 . 

25. Eusirotia musta Grote & 

Robinson, <5\ 

26. Eustrotia muscosula Guen6e, 9 

27. Eustrotia apicosa Haworth, J 1 . 

28. Eustrotia carneola Guenee, 9 . 

29. Azenia implora Grote, 9 . 

30. Lithacodia bellicula Hubner, tf . 

31. Galgula he par a Guenee, tf. 

32. Galgula hepara var. partita 

Guenee, tf. 

33. Xanthoptera nigrofimbria Gue- 

nee, (5\ 

34. Xanthoptera semiftava Guenee, 



Eumestleta ftammicincta Walker, 
opipara Henry Ed- 



35. Exyra semicrocea Guenee, 9, 

U. S. N. M. 

36. Prothymia semipurpurea Walker, 

9 , Merrick Collection. 

37. Prothymia orgyice Grote, cf 1 . 

38. Prothymiarhodarial-isWalker, 9 . 
39- 

CT- 

40. Tripudia 

wards, tf. 

41. M etaponia obtusa Herrich- 

Schieffer, 9. 

42. M etaponia perflava Harvey, 9 , 

43. Chamyris cerintha Treitschke, 

9- 

44. Tar ache binocula Grote, <5\ 

45. Tar ache lactipennis Harvey, 9 . 

46. Tarac he terminimacula Grote, 9 . 

47. Therasea flavicosta Smith, <J*. 

48. T arache delecta Walker, 9 . 

49. Tarache lanceolata Grote, cT. 

50. Tarache aprica Hubner, J*. 

51. Tarache virginalis Grote, 9 . 

52. Tarache ftavipennis Grote, cT. 

53. Tarache sedata Henry Edwards, 

54. Tarache erastrioides Guenee, 9 

55. Tarache libedis- Smith, (J 1 . 

56. Fruva apicella Grote, 9 

57. Spragueia onagrus Guen6e, c?. 

58. Spragueia plumbifimbriata 

Grote, 9 . 

59. Spragueia dam a Guenee, <5*. 

60. Spragueia guttata Grote, (J 1 . 

61. Callopistria floridensis Guenee, 

d, U. S. N. M. 

62. Metathorasa monetifera Guene"e, 

9. 

63. Euherrichia mollissima Guenee, 

64. Cydosia imitella Stretch, c?. 

6 5 . Cydosia aurivitta Grote & Robin- 
son, c?. 

66. Cydosia majuscula Henry Ed- 

wards, 9 

67. Derrima stellata Walker, c? 



THE MOTH BOOK 




Noctuidse 



Genus EUHERRICHIA Grote 



A small genus represented by three species in our fauna. 
Euherrichia granitosa occurs in Florida ; Euherrichia cervina on 
the Pacific slope; and the species, which we figure, from Canada 
to Florida and westward to Colorado. 

(i) Euherrichia mollissima Guenee, Plate XXIX, Fig. 63, $ . 

Syn. rubicunda Walker. 

The specimen depicted was taken in the neighborhood of 
Saratoga, N. Y. 

Genus CYDOSIA Westwood 

A small genus represented in our fauna by three species, all 
of which we figure. The larva pupates in a small cocoon made 
of strands of silk woven into the form of a globular basket with 
open meshes, which is suspended from the under side of a leaf 
by a long cord. 

(1) Cydosia imitella Stretch, Plate XXIX, Fig. 64, $ . 
The moth is found in the southern States. 

(2) Cydosia aurivitta Grote & Robinson, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
65, $. 

The species occurs in Florida. 

(j) Cydosia majuscula Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 
66,?. 

The habitat of the insect is the same as that of the species last 
mentioned. 

Genus CERATHOSIA Smith 

The only species of the genus was 
named tricolor by Smith. The fore 
wings are pure white, spotted with 
black, the hind wings are pale yellow. 
The habitat of the species is Texas. 








FIG 

pagenstecheri, 



Genus HORMOSCHISTA Mceschler 

The only species of this genus, which 
occurs within our territory, was originally 
described by Moeschler from Porto Rico. 
h is found in. Florida and elsewhere along 
the borders of the Gulf of Mexico. 

257 



Noctuidae 

Genus PHAL/ENOSTOLA Grote 

There is only one species of the genus known to occur within 
our territory. 

(i) Phalaenostola larentioides Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. i, ? . 

The insect ranges from New York southward to the Carolinas 
and westward to Missouri. 

Genus PANGRAPTA Hubner 

(i) Pangrapta decoralis Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 3, ? . 

Syn. geometroides Guenee; epionoides Guenee; elegantalis Fitch; 
recusans Walker. 

The moth occurs from Nova Scotia to Florida and westward 
to the Mississippi. 

Genus SYLECTRA Hubner 

There is only one species of this genus which occurs within 
the faunnl limits covered by this book. It was originally named 
erycata by Cramer. Subsequently Hubner 
applied to it the specific name mirandalis, 
which, of course, falls as a synonym. It is 
found in Florida, and is also quite common in 
the entire equatorial belt of South America. 
The peculiarly scalloped wings and the 
nodose antennae serve to readily distinguish 
the insect, and it is not likely to be confounded 
with any other. The ground-color of the wings is luteous, 
variegated with reddish ochraceous. 

Genus HYAMIA Walker 

Three species of the genus are accredited to our fauna. Of 
these we figure two. 

(i) Hyamia sexpunctata Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 2, $ . 

The insect ranges from Massachusetts to Texas. 
(2) Hyamia perditalis Walker, Plate XXX, Fig. 4, ? . 

Syn. semilineala Walker; umbrifascia Grote. 

The range of this moth is the same as that of the preceding 
species. It is not uncommon in western Pennsylvania. 

254 




Noctuidae 



Genus MELANOMMA Grote 

This is another genus of which we know but the one species 
in our territory. It received the specific name auricinctaria 




FIG. 162. Melanomma auricinctaria, 



from Mr. Grote, who first described it. It occurs in the southern 
Atlantic States. The annexed figure is drawn from the type 
which is preserved in the British Museum. 

Genus ARGILLOPHORA Grote 

The sole representant of this species is shown in the annexed 
cut, which was prepared for this book by Mr. Horace Knighf 




FIG. 163. Argillophora furcilla, 



from the type, access to which was kindly given by Sir George 
F. Hampson. The insect was originally reported from Alabama, 
but is still rare in collections. It probably has a wide range. 

Genus PARORA Smith 

The sole species belonging to this genus was originally 
described by Prof. J. B. Smith, from Texas. 
The accompanying cut shows a figure of the 
type, which is preserved in the United States 
National Museum. The ground-color of the 
wings is pale reddish ochraceous. The moth F IG . ^64. Parora 
is found in Texas. texana, $ 

255 




Noctuidae 

Genus HOMOPYRALIS Grote 

Five species belong to this genus. We figure one of the 
commoner of these as representative. They come freely to 
sugar. 

(i) Homopyralis contracta Walker, Plate, XXX, Fig. 5, ? . 

Syn. zonata Walker; tactus Grote. 

The insect is widely distributed all over the Appalachian 
subregion. 

Genus ISOGONA Guenee 

(i ) Isogona natatrix Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 18, ? . 
Syn. tennis Grote. 

The moth occurs in the southern Atlantic States. 

Genus HYPSOROPHA Hubner 

(1) Hypsoropha monilis Fabricius, Plate XXX, Fig. 6, $ . 
The species is quite abundant in northern Florida in the 

spring of the year. It ranges westward and northward as far as 
Kansas. 

(2) Hypsoropha hormos Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 7, ? . 
The moth occurs from New York to Texas, and is not un- 
common in the eastern half of the valley of the Mississippi. 

Genus CISSUSA Walker 

Ten species are attributed to this genus in the latest Catalogue 
of the moths of North America. They are all western and 
southwestern species. We have selected three of them for 
purposes of illustration. 

(1) Cissusa spadix Cramer, Plate XXX, Fig. 9, $ . 
Syn. vegeta Morrison. 

The species occurs in the southwestern portions of the 
United States. 

(2) Cissusa inepta Henry Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 10, $ . 

Syn. tnorbosa Henry Edwards. 

The moth flies in Colorado. 

(3) Cissusa sabulosa Henry Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 1 1, ? . 
The habitat of this insect is the same as that of the preceding 

species. 

256 



Noctuidac 
Genus ULOSYNEDA Smith 

The only species of this genus was named valens by Henry 
Edwards. It is represented on Plate XXX, Fig. 12, by a speci- 
men of the male sex. Its home is Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. 

Genus DRASTERIA Hu'bner 

A widely distributed genus containing four species, which 
are peculiar to our fauna. All of these are figured on our plates. 

(1) Drasteria erechtea Cramer, Plate XXX, Fig. 14, ?. 

Syn. sobria Walker; narrata Walker; patibilis Walker; agricola Grote 
& Robinson; mundula Grote & Robinson. 

This is a very common species widely distributed from 
Canada to Florida and westward as far as Colorado and 
Wyoming. It frequents grassy places and may be found from 
April to October. 

(2) Drasteria crassiuscula Haworth, Plate XXX, Fig. 

15.3. 

Syn. erichto Guene"e. 

Quite as common as the preceding species, and having the 
same general distribution. 

(3) Drasteria caerulea Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 13, $ . 

Syn. aquamarina Felder. 

The habitat of this pretty species is the Pacific coast. It is 
one of the very few blue moths which are known. 

(4) Drasteria conspicua Smith, Plate XXX, Fig. 16, $ . 
This elegant moth is a native of Alberta and the adjacent 

territories of the British possessions. 

Genus C^NURGIA Walker 

(1) Caenurgia convalescens Guenee, Plate XXX, Fig. 17, $ . 
Syn. socors Walker; purgata Walker. 

The range of this insect is from Canada to Florida and west- 
ward to the Mississippi. 

(2) Csenurgia adversa Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 18, $ . 
The habitat of the species is California. 

Genus EUCLIDIA Ochsenheimer 

We show two of the four species which are known to occur 
within our faunal limits. 

257 



Noctuidae 

(1) Euclidia cuspidea Hiibner, Plate XXX, Fig. 20, $ . 

The moth is found from Canada to the Carolinas and Georgia 
and thence westward to the Mississippi. 

(2) Euclidia intercalaris Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 19, $ . 
This is a rather rare species in collections. It is found in New 

Mexico and the southwestern States. 

Genus PANULA Guenee 

(i) Panula inconstans, Plate XXX, Fig. 21, $. 
Not uncommon in the southern States. 

Genus MELIPOTIS Hubner 

This is a moderately large genus, represented in both the 
New World and the Old. Of the ten species known to occur 
within our faunal limits we show six on our plates. 

(1) Melipotis fasciolaris Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 22, ? . 
This is not an uncommon insect in the Antilles, and also 

occurs in Florida. The specimen figured on the plate was taken 
in the latter locality. 

(2) Melipotis pallescens Grote & Robinson, Plate XXX, 
Fig. 25, ?. 

An inhabitant of the southwestern portions of our territory, 
reported from Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. 

(3) Melipotis limbolaris Geyer, Plate XXX, Fig. 27, $ . 

Syn. grandirena Haworth. 

Found from New England to Florida and westward to the 
Mississippi. 

(4) Melipotis perlaeta Henry Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 
26, ?. 

The species has been found in Arizona and Texas. 

(5) Melipotis jucunda Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 24, $ . 

Syn. cinis Guenee; agrotipennis Harvey; hadeniformis Behr. 

The insect ranges from New York to Florida and westward to 
Texas and Colorado. 

(6) Melipotis sinualis Harvey, Plate XXX, Fig. 23, $ 

This easily recognizable species is an inhabitant of Texas and 
Arizona and ranges southward along the high table-lands of 
northern Mexico. 

258 



Noctuidsa 
Genus CIRRHOBOLINA Grote 

(i) Cirrhobolina deducta Morrison, Plate XXX, Fig. 36, $ . 

Syn. pavitensis Morrison. 

A common insect in Texas. 

(a) Cirrhobolina mexicana Behr, Plate XXX, Fig. 28, ? . 

Syn. incandescens Grote. 

The moth occurs quite commonly in the southwestern portions 
of our territory from Colorado to Arizona and Texas, and thence 
southward on the Mexican plateaus. 

Genus SYNEDA Guenee 

Twenty-five species are attributed to this genus and indicated 
as having their habitat within the territory with which this book 
deals. It is possible that a final revision of the genus will lead to 
the discovery that some of the so-called species are merely local 
races or varietal forms of others. There is considerable dissimi- 
larity between the sexes in some of the species, and it may be 
that there is in this fact also an element of confusion. The species 
which are figured on the plates are such as are for the most part 
well known and the identification of which is certain. 

(1) Syneda graphica Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 30, $ . 
Syn. capticola Walker. 

The insect ranges from New York to Florida westward to the 
Alleghany Mountains. 

(2) Syneda divergens Behr, Plate XXX, Fig. 32, $ . 

The insect is western and has an ascertained range from Colo- 
rado to California. 

(3) Syneda alleni Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 35, $ . 
Syn. saxea Henry Edwards. 

The species has a northern range and is reported from Maine 
and Canada, Manitoba and Montana. It extends its habitat south- 
ward along the elevated table-lands of the continent to Colorado 
and Wyoming. 

(4) Syneda adumbrata Behr, Plate XXX, Fig. 34, $ . 

This is a western species ranging from Montana and Arizona 
in the east to the Pacific. 

(5) Syneda socia Behr, Plate XXX, Fig. 38, $ . 

The range of this species is practically the same as that of the 
last mentioned. 

259 



Noctuidae 

(6) Syneda howlandi Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 33, $ . 
Syn. stretchi Behr. 

The insect is distributed from Colorado and Arizona westward 
to California. 

(7) Syneda edwardsi Behr, Plate XXX, Fig. 37, ? . 
The moth is thus far known only from California. 

(8) Syneda hudsonica Grote & Robinson, Plate XXX, Fig. 

31. a. 

This is a northern species, ranging from Ontario westward to 
Montana. 

(9) Syneda athabasca NeumoBgen, Plate XXX, Fig. 29, 6 . 
The moth has been taken in considerable numbers in Alberta 

and Assiniboia, and is also reported as occurring in British 
Columbia. 

Genus CATOCALA Schrank 

This is a very large genus represented in both hemispheres. 
The metropolis of the genus appears to be North America; at all 
events, there are more species found in our territory than occur 
elsewhere, though in eastern Asia and temperate Europe the 
genus is very well represented by many strikingly beautiful forms. 
There is considerable variation in the case of some of the species, 
and as they have always been favorites with collectors, a great 
deal has been written upon them, and many varietal names have 
been suggested. Over one hundred species are attributed to our 
fauna. Of these the majority are figured in our plates. We 
follow the order of arrangement given in Dyar's List of North 
American Lepidoptera. 

(1) Catocala epione Drury, Plate XXXI, Fig. 3, ?. (The 
Epione Underwing.) 

The insect is distributed from New England and Canada 
southward to the Carolinas and westward to Missouri and Iowa. 

(2) Catocala sappho Strecker, Plate XXXI, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Sappho Underwing.) 

This rare species has been found from western Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia as far west as Illinois and as far south as Texas. 

(3) Catocala agrippina Strecker, Plate XXXI, Fig. I, ?. 
(The Agrippina Underwing.) 

The species occurs from New York and the region of the 
Great Lakes southward to Texas. 

260 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX 



(Except when otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Phal&nostola larentioides Grote, 

9- 

2. Hyamia sexpunctata Grote, (? 

3. Pangrapta decoralis Hubner, 9 

4. Hyamia perditalis Walker, 9 . 

5. Homopyralis contracta Walker, 

9- 

6. Hypsoropha monilis Fabricius, 



7. Hypsoropha hormos Hubner, 9 

8. Hyblcea puera Cramer, 9 , U. S. 

N. M. 

9. Cissura spadix Cramer, J*. 

10. Cissura inepta Henry Edwards, 

(?. 

11. Cissura s abulosa Henry 

Edwards, 9 . 

12. Ulosyneda v a lens Henry 

Edwards, <?. 

13. Drasteria ccerulea Grote, cf- 

14. Drasteria erechtea Cramer, 9 

1 5 . Drasteria crassiuscula H aworth , 

C?- 

1 6. Drasteria cons picua Smith, c?. 

17. C&nurgia convalescens Guenee, 

d 1 - 

1 8. C&nurgia adversa Grote, cJ 1 . 

19. Euclidia intercalaris Grote, c?- 

20. Euclidia cuspidea Hubner, $ . 



21. Panula inconstans Guenee, cJ 1 . 

22. Melipotis fasciolaris Hubner, 9 

23. M elipotis sinualis Harvey, 9- 

24. Melipotis jucunda Hubner, (J 1 . 

25. Melipotis pallescens Grote & 

Robinson, 9 . 

26. Melipotis perlceta Henry 

Edwards, 9 . 

27. Melipotis limbolaris Geycr, o 1 . 

28. Cirrhobolina mexicana Behr, 9 

29. Syneda athabascce Neumoegcn, 

c?. 

30. Syneda graphica Hubner, $ . 

31. Syneda hudsonica Grote & 

Robinson, 9 

32. Syneda divergens Behr, tf. 

33. Syneda howlandi Grote, $. 

34. Syneda adumbrata Behr, c? . 

35. Syneda alleni Grote, c? . 

36. Cirrhobolina deducta Morrison, 

(?. 

37. Syneda edwardsi Behr, 9 

38. Syneda soda Behr, <5*. 

39. Litocala sexsignata Harvey, 9 

40. Hypocala andremona Cramer, 

C?. 

41.' Agnomonia anilis Drury, (5 1 . 
42. Epidromia delinquens Walker, 
9- 



["HE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XXX. 




AMERICAN COLORTYPE CO., N.Y. i ( 



Noctuidae 

(4) Catocala subviridis Harvey, Plate XXXI, Fig. 4, $ . 
(The Faintly Green Underwing.) 

The insect has been by some writers regarded as a variety of 
the preceding species. It is characterized by larger size, and 
brighter colored fore wings, on which the maculation is much 
more distinct. In certain lights there is a pronounced greenish 
shade visible upon the wings. 

(5) Catocala lacrymosa Guenee, Plate XXXI, Fig. 6, <3 . 
(The Tearful Underwing.) 

Form paulina Henry Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 12, ?. 
(The Paulina Underwing.) 

Form evelina French, Plate XXXI, Fig. 9, ? . (The Evelina 
Underwing.) 

The range of this variable species is practically the same as 
that of the hist mentioned. 

(6) Catocala viduata Guenee, Plate XXXI, Fig. 15,?. (The 
Widowed Underwing.) 

Syn. maestoso Hulst; guenei Grote. 

The metropolis of this species appears to be the Gulf States. 
It is abundant in Texas. 

(7) Catocala vidua Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXI, Fig. 5, <$. 
(The Widow Underwing.) 

Syn. desperata Guenee. 

The insect ranges from Canada to Florida through the Appa- 
lachian subregion. 

(8) Catocala dejecta Strecker, Plate XXXII, Fig. i, $. 
(The Dejected Underwing.) 

The species is found in the northern portions of the Atlantic 
subregion. 

Form Carolina subsp. nm>., Plate XXXII, Fig. 5, 5 . (Carrie's 
Underwing.) 

This insect, which occurs in western Pennsylvania, appears 
to be a form of dejecta, having the same relation to that species 
as that which is held by basalts to habilis. It is characterized by 
its smaller size, and by the black stripe which runs from the base 
of the wing to the apex, giving it quite a different facies from 
dejecta. The type is figured upon our plate, and it may from the 
illustration easily be recognized. 

261 



Noctuidae 

(9) Catocala retecta Grote, Plate XXXI, Fig. 8, $ . (Tha 
Yellow-Gray Underwing.) 

The moth is found from Canada to the Carolinas and westward 
to the Mississippi. 

(10) Catocala flebilis Grote, Plate XXXI, Fig. n, $. (The 
Mourning Underwing. ) 

The habitat of this species is the same as that of the last men- 
tioned. 

(i i ) Catocala robinsoni Grote, Plate XXXI, Fig. 7, ? . 
(Robinson's Underwing.) 

The moth ranges from New England to the Mississippi and 
southward to Tennessee and the Carolinas. It is particularly 
abundant in the Ohio valley. 

(12) Catocala obscura Strecker, Plate XXXI, Fig. 14, $ . 
(The Obscure Underwing.) 

The moth may be found from Canada to Maryland and west- 
ward to Colorado. 

(13) Catocala insolabilis Guenee, Plate XXXI, Fig. 10, ?. 
(The Inconsolable Underwing.) 

The species is found from Canada southward to the Carolinas 
and westward to the Mississippi. 

(14) Catocala angusi Grote, Plate XXXI, Fig. 13, $ . (Angus' 
Underwing.) 

The range of this species is the same as that of the preceding. 

(15) Catocala Judith Strecker, Plate XXXII, Fig. 2, $ . (The 
Judith Underwing.) 

The insect occurs from New England westward in the north- 
ern portions of the Atlantic subregion. 

(16) Catocala tristis Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 3, $ . (The 
Gloomy Underwing.) 

The species appears to be commoner in New England than 
elsewhere. 

(17) Catocala relicta Walker, Plate XXXII, Fig. 6, ? . (The 
Relict.) 

Form bianca Henry Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 7, Z . (The 
Bianca Underwing.) 

This fine moth is found in the northern portions of the Appa- 
lachian subregion. It is not uncommon in New England and 

262 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Catocala agripplna Strecker, cT. 

2. Catocala sappho Strecker, cJ*. 

3. Catocala epione Drury, tf. 

4. Catocala subviridis Harvey, c? . 

5. Catocala vidua Abbot & Smith, c? . 

6. Catocala lacrymosa Guen6e, c?. 

7. Catocala robinsoni Grote, 9- 

8. Catocala retecta Grote, cJ 1 . 

9. Catocala lacrymosa var. evelina, French, 9 . 

10. Catocala insolabilis Guen6e, $. 

1 1 . Catocala flebilis Grote, 9 . 

12. Catocala lacrymosa var. paulina Henry Edwards, $. 

13. Catocala angusi Grote, $ . 

14. Catocala obscura Strecker, tf . 

15. Catocala viduata Guen6e, 9 . 



PLATE XXXI 




Noctuidae 

northern New York, but it is rare in western Pennsylvania. It 
has a westward range to Colorado and Oregon. 

(18) Catocala cara Guenee, Plate XXXII, Fig. 9, <5 . (The 
Darling Underwing.) 

This large and splendid species is a native of the Appalachian 
subregion, and in it has a wide range. 

(19) Catocala amatrix Hubner, Plate XXXII, Fig. 12, $. 
(The Sweetheart.) 

Form nurus Walker, Plate XXXII, Fig. 13, ? . (The Nurse.) 
This is another fine species, which has the same geographical 
distribution as the last mentioned. 

(20) Catocala marmorata Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 9, ? . 
(The Marbled Underwing.) 

This is a rather rare species, which has a wide distribution. 
Its metropolis appears to be West Virginia and Kentucky, though 
it has been taken elsewhere. 

(21) Catocala concumbens Walker, Plate XXXV, Fig. 10. f . 
(The Sleepy Underwing.) 

This lovely moth has a wide range in the Appalachian sub- 
region. It is very common in New England and central New 
York, less common in western Pennsylvania. 

(22) Catocala californica Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. I, $ . 
(The California Underwing.) 

As the name implies, the species is a native of California. 

(23) Catocala cleopatra Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 
14, ? . (The Cleopatra Underwing.) 

This insect is regarded by some as a varietal form of the pre- 
ceding species. It has the same habitat. 

(24) Catocala luciana Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 
ll, . (The Luciana Underwing.) 

Syn. nebraska Dodge. 

Form somnus Dodge, Plate XXXV, Fig. 16, ? . 

The moth is found in Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and 
Wyoming. 

"(25) Catocala babayaga Strecker, Plate XXXV, Fig. 18, $. 
(The Babayaga Underwing.) 

The habitat of the species is Arizona. 

(26) Catocala stretchi Behr, Plate XXXV, Fig. 13, $. 
(Stretch's Underwing.) The species is Californian. 

263 



Noctuidae 

(27) Catocala augusta Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 
8, $. (The Augusta Underwing.) 

Like the preceding species, this is also confined in its range to 
the Pacific coast. 

(28) Catocala rosalinda Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 
15, $. (The Rosalind Underwing. ) 

The insect has been found in Kansas and Colorado. 

(29) Catocala pura Hulst, Plate XXXV, Fig. 17, $. (The 
Pure Underwing.) 

The moth is an inhabitant of the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(30) Catocala unijuga Walker, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 5, ?. 
(The Once-married Underwing.) 

This is a widely distributed species, the range of which is 
northern, extending from New England to Colorado, through 
Canada and the region of the Great Lakes. It is common in 
central New York. 

(31) Catocala meskei Grote, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 6, $. 
(Meske's Underwing.) 

By some students this species has been regarded as a variety 
of the preceding. Its range is the same. 

(32) Catocala groteiana Bailey, Plate XXXII, Fig. 4, $. 
(Grote's Underwing.) 

The moth occurs from Canada to New Mexico, and has been 
sometimes treated as a variety of Catocala briseis Edwards. 

(33) Catocala hermia Henry Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 
7, 9. (The Hermia Underwing.) 

The habitat of the species is Colorado and New Mexico. 

(34) Catocala briseis Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 12 $. 
(The Briseis Underwing.) 

The species is an inhabitant of the northern portions of the 
Appalachian subregion, and is also known to occur in Colorado. 

(35) Catocala faustina Strecker, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 3, & . 
(The Faustina Underwing.) 

The specimen figured on the plate was received by the writer 
from the author of the species, and may be accepted as typical. 
The range of the moth is from Colorado to California. 

(36) Catocala parta Guenee, Plate XXXIV, Fig. n, $. 
(The Mother Underwing.) 

264 



Noctuidac 

This fine species is quite common in the Appalachian sub- 
region and ranges northward into the region of Hudson Bay and 
westward as far as Colorado. 

(37) Catocala coccinata Grote, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 10, $ . 
(The Scarlet Underwing.) 

The moth is recorded as occurring from Canada to Florida 
and Texas, and westward to the Mississippi. It is not very 
common. 

(38) Catocala aholibah Strecker, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 15,$. 
(The Aholibah Underwing.) 

The specimen figured on the plate was obtained from the 
author of the species, and may be accepted as typical. The 
insect is found from New Mexico and Colorado to California and 
Oregon. 

(39) Catocala verrilliana Grote, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 16, $ . 
(Verrill's Underwing. ) 

A neat and prettily marked species which has much the same 
range as the preceding, though extending somewhat farther to 
the south. 

(40) Catocala ultronia Hiibner, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 2, $ . 
(The Ultronia Underwing.) 

Form celia Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 4, 3 . (The 
Celia Underwing.) 

Form mopsa Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 7, $ . (The 
Mopsa Underwing.) 

Besides the three forms of this variable species which we 
have selected for illustration, there are several others which have 
received subspecific names. The insect is very common, and 
occurs from the Atlantic to the Great Plains and from Canada to 
Florida. 

(41) Catocala ilia Cramer, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 14, $ . (The 
Ilia Underwing.) 

Form uxor Guenee, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 17, ?. (The Wife.) 
Form osculata Hulst, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 7, $ . (The Beloved 

Underwing.) 

This is a common and- variable species which is found 

generally throughout the United States and Canada. 

(42) Catocala innubens Guenee, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 13, $ ; 
Plate I, Fig. 7, larva. (The Betrothed.) 

265 



Noctuidae 

Form hinda French, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 10, $ . (The Hinda 
Underwing.) 

Form scintillans Grote, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 9, $. (The 
Glittering Underwing.) 

This is another very common and very variable species, which 
is found from Canada to the Carolinas and westward to the 
Mississippi. 

(43) Catocala nebulosa Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 16, ?. 
(The Clouded Underwing.) 

This fine species is found in the Middle Atlantic and Central 
States east of the Mississippi. It appears to be quite common in 
southern Indiana. 

(44) Catocala piatrix Grote, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Penitent) 

The moth is found throughout the United States east of the 
Rocky Mountains, and as far south as Arizona. It is a common 
species. 

(45) Catocala neogama Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXVI, 
Fig. 5, 9 . (The Bride.) 

This is another common and variable species which has the 
same geographical distribution as that of the last-named insect. 

(46) Catocala subnata Grote, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 15, ?. 
(The Youthful Underwing.) 

The species is found in the Appalachian subregion, and 
appears to be not uncommon in Kentucky and southern Indiana. 

(47) Catocala cerogama Guenee, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 6, $ . 
(The Yellow-banded Underwing.) 

Syn. aurella Fisher; eliza Fisher. 

This is a common species ranging from Canada to the 
Carolinas and westward to the Mississippi. 

(48) Catocala palaeogama Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 3, $ . 
(The Old wife Underwing.) 

Form phalanga Grote, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 4, $ . (The 
Phalanga Underwing.) 

The moth ranges from New England to Virginia and west- 
ward to the Mississippi. 

(49) Catocala censors Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIV, 
F'g- 5> $ (The Consort.) 

266 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI I 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. 
Holland.) 

1 . Catocala dejecta Strecker, <3* . 

2. Catocala Judith Strecker c? . 

3. Catocala tristis Edwards, $. 

4. Catocala groteiana Bailey, cf. 

5. Catocala Carolina Holland, cf . 

6. Catocala relicta Walker, 9 . 

7. Catocala relicta var. bianco Henry Edwards, (f . 

8. Catocala antinympha Hubner, tf . 

9. Catocala cara Guen6e, c?. 

10. Catocala badia Grote & Robinson, 9 

11. . Catocala muliercula Guene'e, c?. 

12. Catocala amatrix Hubner, cJ 1 . 

1 3 . Catocala amatrix var. nurus Walker, $ . 

14. Catocala olivia Henry Edwards, <5*. 

15. Catocala alabamce Grote, 9 

1 6. Catocalc arnica Hubner, J*. 

17. Catocala minuta Edwards, cJ 1 . 

1 8. Catocala ccelebs Grote, cJ 1 . 

19. Catocala lineella Grote, c?. 

20. Catocala nerissa Henry Edwards, 9 

2 1 . Catocala gisela Meyer, 9 



THE MOTH Boo* 



PLATE XXXII 




Noctuidae 

The insect is found from Pennsylvania southward and west- 
ward to Texas. 

(50) Catocala muliercula Guenee, Plate XXXII, Fig. \i,$. 
(The Little Wife.) 

The insect is an inhabitant of the central portions of the 
Appalachian subregion. 

(51) Catocala delilah Strecker, Plate XXXIV. Fig. 4, $. 
(The Delilah Underwing.) 

Syn. adoptiva Grote. 

The range of this species is from southern Illinois and Kentucky 
southward to the Gulf and westward to Kansas and Nebraska. 

(52) Catocala desdemona Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIV, 
Fig- 5 3 (The Desdemona Underwing.) 

The species is found in the southwestern States. 

(53) Catocala andromache Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIV, 
Fig. 2, $ . (The Andromache Underwing.) 

This species is found in southern California and Arizona. I 
am indebted to Mr. O. C. Poling for the fine specimen of this 
rare moth which is figured upon the plate. It is closely allied to 
the preceding species. 

(54) Catocala illecta Walker, Plate XXXIV, Fig. I, 6 . (The 
Magdalen Underwing.) 

Syn. magdalena Strecker. 

The moth is found from Indiana to Nebraska and southward 
to Texas. 

(55) Catocala serena Edwards, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 14, $ . 
(The Serene Underwing.) 

The insect ranges from Canada and New England westward 
into the valley of the Mississippi. It is said to also occur in 
eastern Siberia, but this is doubtful. 

(56) Catocala antinympha Hiibner, Plate XXXII, Fig. 8, & . 
(The Wayward Nymph.) 

The moth is reported from Canada to Maryland and west- 
ward as far as the Mississippi. I have found it very abundant at 
Saratoga, N. Y., and even more abundant on the summits 
of the Allegheny Mountains about Ctesson Springs in the month 
of August. 

(57) Catocala badia Grote & Robinson, Plate XXXII, 
Fig. 10. ? . (The Badia Underwing.) 

267 



Noctuidae 

The species is more common in New England than elsewhere. 
It is rather abundant on the north shore of Massachusetts Bay, 
and occurs also in central New York and the Adirondacks. I have 
never known it to be taken in western Pennsylvania, 

(58) Catocala coelebs Grote, Plate XXXII, Fig. 18, $ . (The 
Old-maid.) 

The range of this species, which is by some students regarded 
as a varietal form of the preceding, is from southern Canada 
through New England into central New York. 

(59) Catocala habilis Grote, Plate XXXIII, Fig. n, 3. 
Form basalis Grote, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 12, $ . 

The moth occurs from Canada to Virginia and westward to 
the Mississippi. The form basalis has a black longitudinal streak 
from the base of the fore wing along the lower side of the cell. 

(60) Catocala abbreviated Grote, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 9, $ . 
The insect occurs from Minnesota and Illinois southward to 

Texas and westward to Utah. 

(61) Catocala whitneyi Dodge, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 8, $ . 
(Whitney's Underwing.) 

The moth, which is probably only a varietal form of the pre- 
ceding species, has the same range. The specimen figured on 
the plate was received from the author of the species. 

(62) Catocala polygama Guenee, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 13, $ . 
(The Polygamist.) 

Form crataegi Saunders, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 12, $ . (The 
Hawthorn Underwing.) 

A common and variable species ranging all over the Appa- 
lachian subregion. 

(63) Catocala amasia Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXV, Fig. 
i, $. (The Amasia Underwing.) 

Syn. sancta Hulst. 

The geographical range of the species is from New York and 
Illinois southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 

(64) Catocala similis Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 2, $ . 
&yn. formula Grote. 

Form aholah Strecker, Plate XXXV, Fig. 3, $ . 
The moth occurs from Rhode Island to Texas. It is a widely 
distributed but not very common species. 

3*8 



EXPLANATION o* 1 PLATE XXXIII 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. 
Holland.) 

1. Catocala californica Henry Edwards, <f. 

2. Catocala ultronia Hubner, tf . 

3. Catocala faustina Strecker, c? . 

4. Catocala celia Henry Edwards, <5\ 

5. Catocala unijuga Walker, 9 

6. Catocala meskei Grote, cJ*. 

7. Catocala mopsa Henry Edwards, J 1 . 

8. Catocala augusta Henry Edwards, <3 '. 

9. Catocala scintillans Grote, <5*. 

10. Catocala hinda French, (5\ 

11. Catocala habilis Grote, (?. 

12. Catocala basalts Grote, c?. 

13. Catocala innubens Guene"e, c? 1 . 

14. Catocala serena Edwards, J 1 . 

15. Catocala subnata Grote, 9. 

16. Catocala nebulosa Edwards, 9 

17. Poo p/wVa quadrifilaris Hubner, $. 

1 8. Allotria elonympha Hubner, <^. 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXXIII 




Noctuidae 

(65) Catocala fratercula Grote & Robinson, Plate XXXV, 
Fig. 4, $ . (The Little Sister. ) 

Form jaquenetta Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 5, $ . 

Form gisela Meyer, Plate XXXII, Fig. 21, $ . 

The species is very variable within certain limits, and is 
widely distributed over the United States and Canada from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. 

(66) Catocala olivia Henry Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 14, 
$ . (The Olivia Underwing.) 

The species is a native of Texas. 

(67) Catocala praeclara Grote & Robinson, Plate XXXV, 

Fig. 7> * 

The insect belongs within the more northern portions of the 
Appalachian subregion. The specimen figured was taken in 
Massachusetts. 

(68) Catocala grynea Cramer, Plate XXXV, Fig. 6, $ . 
The moth is found from Canada to the Carolinas and westward 

to the Mississippi. 

(69) Catocala alabamae Grote, Plate XXXII, Fig. 15, $ . 
The habitat of the species is, as indicated by the name, the 

state of Alabama. 

(70) Catocala gracilis Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 8, $ . 
(The Graceful Underwing.) 

The species occurs from Canada to the southern States on the 
Atlantic seaboard and westward to the valley of the Ohio. 

(71) Catocala minuta Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 17, $. 
(The Little Underwing.) 

The moth is indigenous in the Eastern and Middle States. 

(72) Catocala arnica Hubner, Plate XXXII, Fig. 16, $. 
Form lineella Grote, Plate XXXII, Fig. 19, $ . 

Form nerissa Henry Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 20, $ . 

This small species is subject to considerable variation. It has 
a wide range from Ontario to Texas, and from the Atlantic to the 
Great Plains. 

" Place and time requiring, let this insect fly. 

It hovers round the wick with the wind of its wings the flame is 
extinguished." Sudraka, The Mrichchakati, or. The Toy-can. 



WALKING AS A FINE ART 

THE first act of all animals is that of absorption. Feeding is a 
primal necessity. The senses of smell, of touch, and of taste are 
involved in it. Sight has little to do with it at first, but is soon 
awakened. Coincident with this act among the lower animals is 
that of locomotion. Man, whose desire to annihilate space has 
become a supreme passion, approaches the act of locomotion 
later than all other animals. Young ducks and geese fly from the 
Arctic Circle to Florida a few months after they have been 
hatched. Babies do not often begin to crawl until they are twice 
as old, and rarely walk until more than a year of life has been 
passed. There is nothing more interesting than the sight of a 
child just beginning to walk. The look of glad surprise and 
immense satisfaction which is displayed when a few successful 
steps have been taken is delightful to the observer. The triumphs 
of the most successful men do not in later years afford them so 
much momentary pleasure as is experienced by the little fellow 
who realizes that at last after many failures he has "got his 
legs." 

In much of our going to and fro on this small globe we are 
aided by adventitious helps. Stephenson, Fulton, and the fathers 
of the science of magnetism and electricity have done much to 
pave the way for our rapid transportation from one spot to 
another. But there are some places to which we cannot be 
hauled, and we have not yet reached the point where we can 
dispense with the use of our pedal extremities. 

Happy is the man who has acquired the love of walking for 
its own sake! There is no form of exercise more health-giving, 
none which tends more thoroughly to invigorate, if it be wisely 
undertaken. The effect of the act is to quicken the venous 
circulation; to send the blood to the lungs, there to be purified 
by contact with the oxygen of the atmosphere; to harden and 
strengthen the muscles of the legs and to bring those of the arms 
and the chest into play. People who walk do not have over- 
loaded veins. The shop-girl who stands behind the counter all 
day suffers from varicosis, but the man or woman who walks 
avoids it. Standing is harder than walking; it is more fatiguing, 
and brings no return of health to the system. 

270 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J 
Holland.) 

1. Catocala illecta Walker, J*. 

2. Catocala andromache Henry Edwards, <3*. 

3. Catocala consors Abbot & Smith, tf. 

4. Catocala delilah Strecker, $ . 

5. Catocala desdemona Henry Edwards, tf. 

6. Calocala cerogama Guene'e, <3*. 

7. Catocala osculata Hulst, (J*. 

8. Catocala whitneyi Dodge, o 1 . 

9. Catocala abbreviatella Grote, $ . 
10. Catocala coccinata Grote, (5 1 . 
ir. Catocala parta Guene"e, (J 1 . 

12. Catocala cratcegi Saunders, &. 

13. Catocala polygama Guene"e, c?. 

14. Catocala ilia Cramer, cJ 1 . 

1 5 . Catocala aholibah Strecker, 9 . 

1 6. Catocala verrilliana Grote, <5*. 

17. Catocala uxor Guen^e, ?. 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXXIV 




Walking as a Fine Art 

In walking, the best results are secured when there is no 
burden upon the mind. The man who carries the load of daily 
care with him when he walks derives less benefit from the act 
than the man who dismisses all concern and simply gives 
himself over to the act. It is a mistake to suppose that it is an 
advantage in walking to have some definite object of pursuit. 
The woman who is advised by her physician to walk should not 
select as her path some busy street upon which she is certain to 
be diverted by the opportunity to unite with her exercise a 
number of shopping excursions. The man who goes out to 
walk should not choose a much frequented part of the town 
where he is sure to meet business friends and acquaintances. 
The person who desires to derive the best results from his strolls 
should select a retired spot in park or country where the "mad- 
ding throng" does not resort. It is hard to make Americans 
realize the importance of these suggestions. The demand is 
forever that exercise, if taken at all, shall have an aim ulterior to 
itself, in the pursuit of which the upbuilding of the system shall 
take place as a collateral incident. The popularity of golf is due 
to the fact that it answers the demand of a great class of persons 
to be amused while they are being invigorated. It is one of the 
least objectionable forms, in which the pill of exercise is sugar- 
coated for consumption by a race which is slowly but surely 
working itself to death in office, mill and factory. 

Walking for its own sake is pursued to a far greater extent in 
England and in Germany than in America. We may well learn 
to imitate our cousins on the eastern side of the Atlantic in this 
regard. 

If walking is to be pursued with an object, there is nothing 
which may be chosen as an aim better than the pursuit of that 
knowledge which is the end of the naturalist. To become 
acquainted with the fields and the flowers which bloom in them, 
with the forests and the myriad forms of animate life which 
frequent them, is an aim which leads far away from the cares 
and pursuits of the weary, workday world. I met the other day 
a friend, who, with quick step and alertness depicted in every 
feature, was hurrying along one of the avenues in the capital. I 
marveled at his gait, for I knew that the winters of fourscore 
and five years rested upon his head. "How is it that you have 

271 



Walking as a Fine Art 

found the fountain of eternal youth ?" 1 said. "My dear boy," 
he replied, " I have found it by living near to nature's heart, and 
by having my beloved science of entomology to refresh and 
quicken me in my daily walks." 

Would you cultivate walking as a fine art, learn to see and to 
hear what the world, which man has not made nor has entirely 
marred, is telling you of the wonders of that life which she kindly 
nourishes upon her bosom. 

"Cleon sees no charm in nature in a daisy, I; 
Cleon hears no anthem ringing in the sea and the sky, 
Nature sings to me forever earnest listener, I ; 
State for state, with all attendants, who would change ! Not I." 



Genus ALLOTRIA Hubner 

(i) Allotria elonympha Hubner, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 18, $. 
This handsome little species is found in the Appalachian sub- 
region. It is the sole species of the genus. 

Genus ANDREWSIA Grote 
(i) Andrewsia messalina Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. i, $. 

Syn. belfragiana Harvey; jocasta Strecker. 

The insect has been found to range from Kansas to Texas. It 
appears on the wing in the latter state in May. 

Genus EUPARTHENOS Grote 

(i) Euparthenos nubilis Hubner, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 2, $. 
The moth occurs from the northern Atlantic States to Arizona. 

Genus HYPOCALA Guenee 

(i) Hypocala andremona Cramer, Plate XXX, Fig. 40, $ . 
Syn. hilli Lintner. 

The insect is characteristic of the neotropical fauna. It occurs 
as a straggler into Texas, and is found very commonly throughout 
Mexico, Central America, and South America. 

Genus LITOCALA Harvey 

(i) Litocala sexsignata Harvey, Plate XXX, Fig. 39, * . 
The species occurs through the region of the Rocky Mountains 
to California. 

272 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXV 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collectior of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Catocala amasia Abbot & Smith, 9. 

2. Catocala similis Edwards, cJ 1 . 

3. Catocala aholah Strecker, (J 1 . 

4. Catocala fratercula Grote & Robinson, <5*. 

5. Catocala jaquenetta Henry Edwards, <$ . 

6. Catocala grynea Cramer, (J 1 . 

7. Catocala prceclara Grote & Robinson, <5V 

8. Catocala gracilis Edwards, 9 . 

9. Catocala marmorata Edwards, 9 

10. Ca tocala concumbens Walker, tf . 

11. Catocala luciana Henry Edwards, c?. 

12. Catocala briseis Edwards, (J 1 . 

13. Catocala stretchi Behr, J 1 . 

14. Catocala cleopatra Henry Edwards, 9 . 

15. Catocala rosalinda Henry Edwards, tf. 

1 6. Catocala somnus Dodge, 9 

17. Catocala pur a Hulst, cJ 1 . 

18. Catocala babayaga Strecker, (J 1 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXXV 




Noctuidae 
Genus TOXOCAMPA Guenee 

(i) Toxocampa victoria Grote, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 10, ? . 

This is a northern species found from New England to British 
Columbia and ranging southward along the higher mountain 
ranges of the west. 

Genus PHOBERIA Hiibner 

(i) Phoberia atomaris Hiibner, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 14, $ . 
Syn. orthosioides Guen6e; jorrigens Walker; ingenua Walker. 

The moth has been taken from Maine to Texas and westward 
as far as the Great Plains. 

Genus SIAVANA Walker 
(i) Siavana repanda Walker, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 15, 9. 

Syn. auripennis Grote. 

The moth ranges from the Valley of the Ohio southward to the 
Gulf of Mexico. It is not uncommon in Florida. 

Genus PALINDIA Guenee 

This is an extensive neotropical genus, represented by but 
two species, which have thus far been taken within our territory. 

(i) Palindia dominicata Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 17, $ . 

The moth occasionally occurs in Texas. It is very common 
in Central and South America. 

Genus PANAPODA Guenee 

(i) Panapoda rufimargo Hubner, Plate XXXVJ, Fig. 19, $ . 

Syn. rubricosta Guene'e; cressoni Grote. 

Form carneicosta Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 20, $ . 

Syn. scissa Walker; combinata Walker. 

The insect is found through the Appalachian subregion. It is 
quite common in parts of New England, and at certain times has 
been taken abundantly in western Pennsylvania. 

Genus PARALLELIA Hubner 

(i) Parallelia bistriaris Hubner, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 18, $ . 
Syn. amplissima Walker. 

The insect occurs from Nova Scotia to Florida and westward 
to the Rocky Mountains. 

273 



Noctuidae 

Genus AGNOMONIA Hiibner 
(i) Agnomonia anilis Dairy, Plate XXX, Fig. 41,3. 

Syn. sesquistriaris Hiibner . 

The moth is found from Pennsylvania to Missouri and Texas. 
It is common in Florida. 

Genus REMIGIA Guenee 

(i) Remigia repanda Fabricius, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 16, $. 

Syn. latipes Guen6e; perlata Walker \indentata Harvey; texana Morrison. 

The species, which is somewhat variable, is said to occur in 
Labrador, but the writer, though he has at various times received 
large collections from that country, is not in possession of any 
direct evidence of the correctness of the statement. The insect 
does, however, occur in northern Canada and ranges thence 
southwardly to Argentina, keeping, so far as is known, to the 
eastern side of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes. 

Genus GRAMMODES Guene'e 

A moderately large genus, which is represented in both hemi- 
spheres. Three species occur in our fauna, of which we figure 
one. 

(i) Grammodes smithi Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 22, ? . 

The moth occurs in the Gulf States and in Mexico. The 
specimen figured was taken in southern Texas. 

Genus EPIDROMA Guenee 

(i) Epidroma delinquens Walker, Plate XXX, Fig. 42, ?. 
The moth, which is common enough in Central and South 
America, has recently been found to occur in southern Florida. 

Genus POAPHILA Guenee 

This is a genus of large size, the insects belonging to which 
occur in the warmer regions of America. We figure but one of 
the twelve species, which are attributed to our fauna. 

(i) Poaphila quadrifilaris Hiibner, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 17, $ . 

The insect is known to occur from Massachusetts to Florida 
along the coast. 

274 



Noctuidae 

Genus PHURYS Guene'e 

Six species occurring within our territory are given as belong- 
ing to this genus in the latest list of the lepidoptera of North 
America. Of these we illustrate two. 

(1) Phurys vinculum Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 12, $ . 
The species occurs in the Gulf States and southward. 

(2) Phurys lima Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig 1 1, $. 

The range of this insect is the same as that of the preceding 
species. It may be easily distinguished by the presence of the 
small round dark dot near the base of the fore wings on the inner 
margin. 

Genus CELIPTERA Guenee 
(i) Celiptera frustulum Guenee, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 15, $. 

Syn. disci ssa Walker; elongatus Grote. 

The moth is found from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico east of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus ANTICARSIA Hubner 

Of the two species of the genus found within our limits we 
give a figure of the one which most commonly occurs. 

(i) Anticarsia gemmatilis Hubner, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 
10, $ . 

The moth is found through the valley of the Mississippi from 
Wisconsin to Texas. 

Genus ANTIBLEMMA Hubner 

(i) Antiblemma inexacta Walker, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 23, 3 . 

Syn. canalis Grote. 

This is a variable insect, to which a number of subspecific 
names have been given, based upon slight differences in the 
markings of the wings. It is found in the Southern States, and 
ranges thence to the southern portions of the South American 
continent. 

Genus LITOPROSOPSUS Grote 

(i) Litoprosopsus futilis Grote & Robinson, Plate XXXVII, 
Fig. 4, 6 . 

The insect occurs in Florida and Georgia and also in the 
hotter portions of America. 

275 



Noctuidae 

Genus OPHIDERES Boisduval 

This is a large genus of remarkably showy insects, which are 
more numerously found in the tropics of the Old World than in 
the New. There are several very beautiful species which 
are found in South America. Only one occurs sparingly as a 
straggler into our fauna. It is now and then taken in Florida. 
It is commoner in South America and is also found in Africa. 

(i) Ophideres materna Linnaeus, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 8, $ . 

Syn. hybrida Fabricius; calaminea Cramer. 

The insect is rare in Florida. 

Genus STRENOLOMA Grote 

(i) Strenoloma lunilinea Grote, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 9, $ . 

This fine moth is quite common in the valley of the Ohio, and 
ranges from Pennsylvania southward and westward as far as 
Missouri and the Gulf of Mexico. 

Genus CAMPOMETRA Guenee 

The species of this genus are principally found in the southern 
and southwestern portions of our territory. 

(1) Campometra amella Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 8, 9 . 
Syn. integerrima Walker; stylobata Harvey. 

The species ranges from Florida to Texas. 

(2) Campometra mima Harvey, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 9, $ . 
The moth occurs from Colorado to Texas and Arizona. 

Genus TRAMA Harvey 

Three species are assigned to this genus in recent lists. 
(i) Trama detrahens Walker, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 21, 3. 
Syn. arrosa Harvey. 
The habitat of this species is the Southern States. 

Genus MATIGRAMMA Grote 

A small genus, the species of which are southern, or south- 
western, in their distribution. 

(i) Matigramma pulverilinea Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 

11,9. 

The moth is found from Florida to Texas. 

276 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Andrewsia messalina Guenee, c?. 

2. Euparthenos nubilis Hiibner, 9 

3. Catocala pal&ogama Guenee, J 1 . 

4. Catocala pal&ogama var. phalanga Grote, (j" 1 . 

5. Catocala neogama Abbot & Smith, $ . 

6. Catocala piatrix Grote, (J 1 . 

7. Catocala hermia Henry Edwards, 9 

8. Ophideres materna Linnaeus, 9 

9. Strenoloma lunilinea Grote, & . 

10. Toxocampa victoria Grote, 9 

11. Phurys lima Guen6e, <$. 

12. Phurys vinculum Guenee, J 1 . 

13. Celiptera frustu lum Guenee, 9. 

14. Phoberia atomaris Hiibner, cJ*. 

15. Siavana re panda Walker, 9- 

16. Remigia re panda Fabricius, <5*. 

17. Palindia dominicata Guenee, c?. 

1 8. Parallelia bistriaris Hiibner, (J 1 . 

19. Panapoda rufimargo Hiibner, c? . 

20. Panapoda rufimargo var. carneicosta Guenee, c?. 

2 1 . Trama detrahens Walker, c? . 

22. Grammodes smithi Guenee, 9. 

23. Antiblemma inexacta Walker , 9 . 



THE MOTH Be 



PLATE XXXV 





Noctuidac 

Genus CAPNODES Guenee 

The genus is well represented in the 
tropics of both hemispheres. There is but 
one species in our fauna, Capnodes puncti- 
vena Smith, a representation of which is 
given in the accompanying cut, drawn from p, G 
the type in the National Museum. punctivena, $. 

Genus YRIAS Guenee 

Not a large genus, the species of which are confined to the 
southwestern portions of our territory. 

(1) Yrias clientis Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 13, $. 
The insect is found in Arizona. 

(2) Yrias repentis Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 12, $ . 
The moth, like its predecessor, is found in Arizona. 

Genus ZALE Hiibner 

(i) Zale horrida Hubner, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 3, $ . 
The moth is found throughout the United States east of the 
region of the Great Plains. 

Genus SELENIS Guenee 

The only species of the genus which occurs within our 
borders is monotropa Grote. It is found in Texas. The annexed 




FIG. 166. Selenis monotropa , 



cut was drawn from the type of the species which is preserved 
in the British Museum. It was made by Mr. Horace Knight, 
under the supervision of Sir George F. Hampson. 

277 



Noctuidae 

Genus PHEOCYMA Hubner 

(i) Pheocyma lucifera Hubner, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 5, ?. 
Syn. lineola Walker. 

Found in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus YPSIA Guenee 

(i) Ypsia undularis Drury, Plate XXXVI 1, Fig. 6, ? . 
The moth occurs from Canada to Florida and westward to 
Colorado. 

Genus PSEUDANTHRACIA Grote 

(i) Pseudanthracia coracias Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 

7> ? 

The insect, which is far from common in collections, has 
practically the same range as the preceding species, of which it 
appears at first glance to be a miniature reproduction. 

Genus HOMOPTERA Boisduval 

This is quite an extensive genus, species of which occur both 
in the Old World and the New. Some twenty or more so-called 
species are attributed to our fauna, but several of these will no 
doubt prove to be mere varieties or local races of others. We 
give figures of three of the commoner forms in our plates. 

(1) Homoptera lunata Drury, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 15, 6 . 
Form edusa Drury, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 16, $ . 

Syn. putrescens Guenee; saundersi Bethune; viridans Walker; involuta 
Walker. 

Almost universally distributed throughout the United States 
and Canada. 

(2) Homoptera cingulifera Walker, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 17, ? . 

Syn. intenta Walker; woodi Grote. 

The moth occurs from Massachusetts to Florida and westward 
to the region of the Great Plains. 

(3) Homoptera unilineata Grote, Plate XXXVI I, Fig. 14, ? . 
The insect ranges from eastern Canada to the Carolinas and 

westward to the Mississippi. It appears to be quite common in 
eastern Massachusetts. The specimen figured on the plate was 
taken at Magnolia, Massachusetts. 

278 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVII 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are. contained in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Thysania zenobia Cramer, o . 

2. Erebus odora Linnaeus, $ . 

3. Zale horrida Hiibner, cf. 

4. Litoprosopus futilis Grote & Robinson, cf 

5. Phceocyma lunifera Hubner, 9 

6. Ypsia undularis Drury, 9. 

7. Pseudanthracia coracias Guenee, 9 . 

8. Campometra amella Guenee, 9 . 

9. Campometra mima Harvey, cf. 

10. Anticarsia gemmatilis Hubner, cf. 

11. Matigramma pulverilinea Grote, 9, U. S. N. M. 

12. Yrias repentis Grote, cf. 

13. Yrias clientis Grote, cf. 

14. Homoptera unilineata Grote, 9. 
.15. Homoptera lunata Drury, cf. 

16. Homoptera lunata var. edusa Drury, cf. 

17. Homoptera cingulifera Walker, 9, Merrick Collection. 

18. Isogona natatrix Guenee, cf. 

19. Hormisa absorptalis Walker, cf. 

20. Zanclognatha lituralis Hubner, 9. 

21. Xanclognatha Icevigata Grote, cf. 

22. Zanclognatha ochreipennis Grote, cf. 

23. Chytolita morbidalis Guenee, 9. 

24. Renia discolor alis Guenee, cf. 

25. Palthis angulalis Hubner, 9 . 

26. Heterogramma pyramusalis W'alker, 9 

27. Epizeuxis denticulalis Harvey, cf. 

28. Epizeuxis scobialis Grote, 9 . 

29. Epizeuxis lubricalis Geyer, 9 . 

30. Philometra metonalis Walker, cf- 

31. Hormisa bivittata Grote, cf, U. S. N. M. 

32. Bleptina caradrinalis Guenee, cf. 

33. Capis curvata Grote, 9. 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXXVI I 





Noctuidse 
Genus LATEBRARIA Guenee 

(l) Latebraria arnphipyroides Guenee. 

There is only one species 
of the genus known to occur 
within the faunal limits cov- 
ered by this book. It is a 
straggler from the South 
American and Mexican ter- 
ritories, in which it is quite 
common. The accompanying 
cut based upon a drawing 
made from a specimen con- 
tained in the collection of 
the United States National 
Museum at Washington, will, 

no doubt, enable the Student FIG. 167. Latebraria amphipyroides, 

to readily recognize the ^ ' * 

species, which is not likely to be confounded with anything else. 

Genus EREBUS Latreille 

This is a genus of large moths most in evidence in the tropics of 
the New World. Only one species occurs in the United States, 
(i) Erebus odora Linnaeus, Plate XXX VII, Fig. 2, ? . 

Syn. agarista Cramer. 

This great moth is very common in the tropical regions of 
America. It occurs quite abundantly in southern Florida and the 
warmer portions of the Gulf States, and is universally distributed 
over the countries of Central America and throughout tropical 
South America. It is found as a straggler into the northern 
portions of the United States, and has even been taken in 
Canada. I have in my collection a specimen which was taken 
at Leadville, Colorado, in a snowstorm which occurred there 
one Fourth of July. The insect, blown to that lofty and desolate 
spot, was caught fluttering about in the drifts. 

Genus THYSANIA Dalman 

(i) Thysania zenobia Cramer, Plate XXXVII, Fig. I, 9 . 
This is another great South American moth, which occasion- 
ally occurs within our territory. It has been taken in Florida 

279 



Noctuid* 

and southern Texas. It is a very abundant species in Mexico 
and South America. 




Genus EPIZEUXIS Hubner 

This is a genus of considerable size. 
The larvae feed upon dried leaves for the 
most part. Eleven species are attributed 
to our fauna, five of which we figure. 

(i) Epizeuxis americalis Guenee. 

Syn. scriptipennis Walker. 

The range of this insect is from Can- 
ada to Texas east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It is exceedingly common in the 
woods of the Appalachian subregion, 
and is one of the moths which are most 

FIG. 1 68. Epize uxis commonly attracted to sugar. Thelifehis- 
amencalis. a. Larva en- * 

larged; b, Dorsal view of tory has been well ascertained, and has 

larval segment ;c. Lateral t> een entertainly described by Professor C. 

view of do. ; d, Cremaster .._,.. 

of pupa. (After Riley, V. Riley in the Fourth Volume of " Insect 
"Insect Life," Vol. IV, L jf e> T ne reader is re f er red to the ac- 
count there given for fuller details. 

(2) Epizeuxis scmula Hubner. 

Syn. mollifera Walker; herminioides 
Walker; effusalis Walker; concisa Walker. 

The range and the habits of this 
species are very much the same as 
those of the last mentioned species. 
Like it, the insect is also very frequent 
at sugar, and on a warm summer 
night, in the forests of southern 
Indiana, I have seen as many as twenty 
of these moths at one time, congre- 
gated about a spot on the trunk of a 
tree, which had been moistened with 
beer in which sugar had been dis- 
solved. 




FIG. 169. Epizeuxis 
cemula. a, Larva enlarged; 
b, Segment of larva viewed 
(9) Epizeuxis lubricalis Geyer, laterally; c, do. viewed dor- 

* sally; d, Tip of pupa; e, 

Moth. (After Riley," Insect 
Life," Vol. IV, p. no.) 



ni wvtni c- 

Plate XXXVII, Fig. 29, ?. 

Syn. ph(zal-isGuen6e; surrectalis Walker. 
280 



Noctuidae 

The species occurs generally throughout the United States and 
Canada. 

(4) Epizeuxis denticulalis Harvey, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 27, $ . 
The insect is found from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and 

from Canada to the Carolinas. 

(5) Epizeuxis scobialis Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 28, ? . 
The moth occurs from New England to the Trans-Mississippi 

States, east of the Great Plains. 

Genus ZANCLOGNATHA Lederer 

The genus is of moderate size. All of the species known are 
found in the Appalachian subregion, and have within it a wide 
range. 

(1) Zanclognatha laevigata Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 21, $ . 
The species is somewhat variable 

in the amount of dark shading upon 
the fore wings. It is distributed from 
Canada to the southern states. 

(2) Zanclognatha protumnusa- 
lis Walker. 

Syn. minimalis Grote. 

The moth has much the same 
range as the last-mentioned species. 
Its life history has been accurately FlG - ^-- Zanclognatha pro- 

j j r r /~wr>-i lumnusaus. a, Moth; o.Malc 

ascertained, and Professor C.V.Riley antenna; c> Larva; rf, Dorsal 
has given US an account Of the habits view of larval segment ;e,later- 

of the insect in the paper to which al view of do.; b, d, e, Enlarg- 
reference has already been made. ed. (After Riley. "Insect Life," 
The types of both Walker's and Vol. IV, p. in.) 
Grote's insects are preserved in the British Museum, and there is 
no doubt of their identity. 

(3) Zanclognatha ochreipennis Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 

22, 6. 

The habitat and the habits of this species are much the same 
as those of the preceding. 

(4) Zanclognatha lituralis Hubner, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 
20, ?. 

The moth is widely distributed throughout the Appalachian 
subregion. 

281 




Noctuidae 

Genus HORMISA Walker 

This is a small genus of which there are known to be four 
species inhabiting our territory. We figure the two commonest 
of these. 

(1) Hormisa absorptalis Walker, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 19, $ . 

Syn. nubilifascia Grote. 

The moth ranges from Canada to Virginia and westward to 
Illinois. 

(2) Hormisa bivittata Grote, Plate XXXVII, Rig. 31, $. 
The moth, which is not common in collections, is found from 

Quebec and Maine to Wisconsin and Iowa, and southward as far 
as Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

Genus SISYRHYPENA Grote 




FIG. 171. Sisyrhypena orciferalis, $ . | 



(i) Sisyrhypena orciferalis Walker. 

Syn. pupillaris Grote; harti French. 

The figure which we give was drawn for this book from the 
type of the species which is in the collection of Mr. Grote in the 
British Museum. The insect occurs in the southern States. 

Genus PHILOMETRA Grote 

Three species are reckoned as belonging to this genus. We 
give a figure of one of them. 

(i) Philometra m.etonalis Walker, Plate XXVII, Fig. 30, $ . 

Syn. goasalis Walker; longilabris Grote. 

The moth is found from Nova Scotia and the region of Hudson 
Bay to Virginia and westward to Illinois. 

Genus CHYTOLITA Grote 

(i) Chytolita morbidalis Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 23, $ . 
The moth is not at all uncommon in the Atlantic subregion. 

282 



NoctuidjB 
Genus HYPENULA Grote 

One species is reckoned as belonging to this genus. 





FIG. 172. Hypenula cacuminalis, 

(i) Hypenula cacuminalis Walker. 
Syn. biferalis Walker; opacalis Grote. 

The moth is a native of the southern portions of our territory. 
The figure we give is taken from Walker's 
type, which is preserved in the British 
Museum. We also give a figure of a 
specimen preserved in the American 
Museum of Natural History, and which 
was determined by Mr. Grote as his ^ 

FIG. 173. Hypenula opa- 
species, to which he gave the name calis G rotei 3 |. 

opacalis. The comparison of the two 

figures will serve to illustrate the variability of the species. 

Genus RENIA Guenee 

There are eight species belonging to the genus which are 
found within the region covered by this book. ' One of the 
commonest of these is selected for illustration. 

(i) Renia discoloralis Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 24, $ . 

Syn. fallacialis Walker; generalis Walker; thraxalis Walker. 

The insect is very common in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus BLEPTINA Guenee 

(i) Bleptina caradrinalis Guenee, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 32, $ . 

Syn. cloniasalis Walker. 

The moth occurs from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and west- 
ward to the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus TETANOLITA Grote 

Three species are assigned to this genus in the latest lists. 
Of these, we have selected the one which is the type of the genus 

283 



Noctuida 



for purposes of illustration. The specific name mynesalis was 
originally applied to the insect by Walker. Subsequently Grote 
gave it the name lixalis. The cut hereto annexed was drawn 




FIG. 174. Tetanolita mynesalis, . {. 

from Walker's type, which is contained in the collections of the 
British Museum. The moth ranges from Pennsylvania to Illinois 
and southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 



Genus HETEROGRAMMA Guenee 

(i) Heterogramma pyramusalis Walker, Plate XXXVII, 
Fig. 26, ? . 

Syn. gyasalis Walker; rurigena Grote. 

The species is found from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and 
westward to the region of the Great Plains. It is the only species 
in the genus. 

Genus GABERASA Walker 

(i) Gaberasa ambigualis Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 2, 5 . 

Syn. bifidalis Grote; indivisalis Grote. 

The male moth has the fore wings bifid. Grote described the 
female, which has not bifid wings, under the name indivisalis. 
The moth occurs from Canada to Texas. 

Genus DIRCETIS Grote 




FIG. 175. Dircetis pygm&a Grote, <j> . {. 

There are two species of the genus which are found within 
our borders. We give in the cut a figure of the type of Grote's 

284 



Noctuidse 

species to which he applied the name pygmaea. It is found 
from Florida to Texas along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Genus PALTHIS Hubner 

Two species of the genus are found within the United States. 
We figure both of them. 

(1) Palthis angulalis Hubner, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 25, 9. 
Syn. aracinthusalis Walker. 

The insect is very common everywhere from Canada to the 
Gulf of Mexico east of the Great Plains. 

(2) Palthis asopialis Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. i, ? . 

The distribution of the species is the same as that of the 
preceding. 

Genus CAPIS Grote 

(i) Capis curvata Grote, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 33, $ . 
The insect is found in Maine, northern New York, and 
Canada. It is the only species belonging to the genus. 

Genus SALIA Hubner 

Two species belonging to the genus are found within our 
territory. We figure in the accompanying cut the type of one of 
these, which received the specific name interpuncta at the hands 
of Mr. Grote. 




FIG. 176. Salia interpuncta, $ . }. 

The moth is found from Massachusetts to Arizona. 

Genus LOMANALTES Grote 
(i) Lomanaltes eductalis Walker. 

Syn. Ixtulus Grote. 

The figure of the moth which we give 
was drawn for this book by Mrs. Beuten- 
miiller of New York from a specimen 
contained in the collections of the 
American Museum of Natural History. 
The insect ranges from Nova Scotia to 
Minnesota and southward to New York and Pennsylvania 

285 




FIG. 177. Lomanalu 
eductalis, $ . {. 



Noctuidae 

Genus BOMOLOCHA Hubner 

Sixteen species occurring within oar limits are attributed to 
this genus in the latest List of the Lepidoptera of North America. 
Nine of these we illustrate. 

(1) Bomolocha manalis Walker, Plate XLH, Fig. 3, & . 
The moth ranges from Canada and Minnesota southward to 

the valleys of the Potomac and the Ohio. 

(2) Bomolocha baltimoralis Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. 4, ? . 
Syn. benignalis Walker; laciniosa Zeller. 

The geographical distribution of the species practically coin- 
cides with that of the last. 

(3) Bomolocha bijugalis Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 7, ? . 
Syn. jecialis Grote; pallialis Zeller. 

The insect occurs from Canada to Florida and westward to 
the Rocky Mountains. 

(4) Bomolocha scutellaris Grote, Plate XLII, Fig. 10, $ . 
The moth is found from New England to British Columbia, 

but does not range far to the south. 

(5) Bomolocha abalinealis Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 5, $ . 
The habitat of the insect extends from New England and 

Canada westward to Illinois and southward to Pennsylvania and 
the Virginias. 

(6) Bomolocha madefactalis Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. 6, $ . 

Syn. achatinalis Zeller; damnosahs Walker; caducalis Walker; profecta 
Grote. 

The insect is found from the Middle States southward to 
Texas. 

(7) Bomolocha toreuta Grote, Plate XLII, Fig. 9, $ . 
Syn. albisignalis Zeller. 

The moth ranges over the same region as the last-mentioned 
species. 

(8) Bomolocha deceptalis Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 8, 6 . 

Syn. perangulalis Harvey. 

The moth is found from Canada to Virginia. 

(9) Bomolocha edictalis Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. n, $ . 

Syn. lentiginosa G.~ote; vellifera Grote. 

The range of the species is the same as that of the last men- 
tioned. 

286 



Noctuidae 

Genus PLATHYPENA Grote 

Only one species of the genus is known to occur within our 
territory. 

(i) Plathypena scabra Fabricius, Plate XLII, Fig. 14, $. 
Syn. erectalis Guenee; palpalis Haworth; crassatus Haworth; obesalis 
Stephens. 

Universally distributed through the United States and Canada 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 



Genus HYPENA Schrank 

The genus is found in all parts of the globe. Three species 
are known to be found in our territory. Of these we figure the 
one which is commonest. 

(i) Hypena humuli Harris, Plate XLII, Fig. 12, 6" J Fig. 13, 
? , var. 

Syn. evanidalis Robinson ; germanalis Walker. 

This insect, the larva of 
which does considerable 
damage to the hop, is 
widelydistributed overthe 
whole of the United States 
and Canada., It is some- 
what variable in the shade 
of the wings and the 
amount of maculation 
upon them. For an account 
of the habits of the insect 
and the best manner to 
guard against the ravages 
which the larva commits 
the reader is referred to 
the excellent article by Dr. 
L. O. Howard of the De- 
partment of Agriculture 
in Washington upon insects injurious to the hop-vine, which 
was published as the Seventh Bulletin of the New Series of 
Bulletins issued by the Division of Entomology of the Department. 

Arm. Who was Samson's love, my dear Moth ? 
Moth. A woman, master 

SHAKESPEARE, Love's Labor's Lost, 7, 2. 

287 




FIG. 1 78. Hypena humuli. a, egg; b, larva; 
c, segment of do.; d, pupa; e, tip of do.; /, 
adult, a, c, e, greatly enlarged. (After 
Howard, Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric., New 
Series, No. 7, p. 44.) 



FAMILY NYCTEOLID/E 

"An vnredy reue thi residue shal spene, 
That menye moththe was maister ynne, in a mynte-while." 

PIERS PLOWMAN (C) xiii, 216. 

THE Nycteolidce are related to the Noctuidce, many of the 
genera, especially in the Old World, containing moths which are 
green in color and frequent trees. The apex of the fore wing is 
more or less produced to a point. The larvae have eight pairs of 
legs, and are fleshy, with the anal somite tapering to a point. 
They are either naked or slightly pubescent. But two genera are 
found in the United States. 

Genus NYCTEOLA Hiibner 

The genus is represented in both the Old World and the 
New. Two species are found in the United States. 

(i) Nycteola revayana Scopoli, form lintnerana Speyer, 
PlateXLII, Fig. 15, $. 

A large number of synonyms and subspecific forms have been 
erected by authors who have dealt with this species. The form 
which we figure is the one which is most commonly encountered 
in our territory. 

Genus HYBL^EA Fabricius 

This genus is extensively developed in the warmer portions 
of the Eastern Hemisphere, but is represented by only one species 
in our region. 

(i) Hyblaea puera Cramer, Plate XXX, Fig. 8, ? . 

Syn. saga Fabricius; mirificum Strecker. 

The insect, which is common in the tropics of the two hemi- 
spheres, occurs occasionally in Florida. The specimen figured on 
our plate is contained in the collection of the United States Na- 
tional Museum. 



288 



FAMILY PERICOPID^E 

Auctorum) 



" Loose to the wind their airy garments flew, 
Thin glittering textures of the filmy dew, 
Dipt in the richest tincture of the skies, 
Where light disports in ever-mingling dyes, 
While every beam new transient colours flings, 
Colours that change whene'er they wave their wings." 

PofK.Rape of the Lock. 

The following characterization of the family is taken from 
Hampson's "Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 495: "Proboscis present. 
Palpi smoothly scaled; the third joint long and naked. Legs 
smooth; mid tibiae with one pair of spurs, hind tibiae with two 
pairs. Frenulum present. Fore wing with vein \a separate from 
ib'j ic absent; 5 from near lower angle of cell. Hind wing with 
veins \a and ib present, \c absent; 5 from near lower angle of 
cell; 8 free from the base and connected by a bar with 7 at middle 
of cell. 

"Larva with all the legs present, sparsely covered with long 
hairs. 

" Cocoon slight." 

Genus DARITIS Walker 

A small genus of rather showy moths, which is represented in 
our fauna by two species. 

(i) Daritis thetis Klug, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 5, <?. 
The insect occurs in southern Arizona. 

Genus COMPOSIA Hubner 

(i) Composia fidelissima Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XXXVIII, 
Fig. 4, 3. 

Syn. olympia Butler. 

289 



Pericopidae 

This very beautiful moth is found throughout the Antilles and 
in southern Florida. It is the only representative of its genus 
which occurs within our territory. 

Genus GNOPH^ELA Walker 

Three species of this genus are found within the limits of the 
United States. Others occur in Mexico and Central America. 

(1) Gnophaela latipennis Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 
2, 6. 

Syn. hopfferi Grote & Robinson; discreta Stretch; arizonai French; 
tnorrisoni Druce. 

The habitat of this species is the southwestern portion of our 
territory and northern Mexico. 

(2) Gnophaela vermiculata Grote & Robinson, Plate XXXVIII, 
Fig. 3, 3 . 

Syn. continua Henry Edwards. 

The moth is found from southern Colorado westward and 
south-westward. 

(3) Gnophaela clappiana Holland, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. I, $ . 
The figure on our plate represents the type of the species, 

which was taken at Colorado Springs. It occurs from central 
Colorado to Arizona. 

DAS LIED VOM SCHMETTERLINGE 

44 Liebes, leichtes, luft'ges Ding, War's ein Sylphe, der dein Kleid 

Schmetterling, So bestreut, 

Das da uber Blumen schwebet, Dich aus Morgenduft gewebet, 

Nur von Thau und Bliiten lebet, Nur auf Tage dich belebet ? 

Blute selbst, ein fliegend Blatt, Seelchen, und dein kleines Herz 

Das, mit welchem Rosenfinger ! Pocht da unter meinem Finger, 

Wer bepurpurt hat ? Ftihlet Todesschmerz. 

Fleuch dahin, O Seelchen, sei 

Froh und frei, 

Mir ein Bild, was ich sein werde, 

Wenn die Raupe dieser Erde 

Auch wie du ein Zephyr ist 

Und in Duft und Thau und Honig 

Jede Blute kusst." 

HERDER. 

290 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIII 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Gnoph&la clappiana Holland, cf. type. 

2. Gnophcela latipennis Boisduval, cf. 

3. Gnophcela vermiculata Grote & Robinson, cf. 

4. Composia fidelissima Herrich-Schaeffer, cf . 

5. Daritis thetis Klug, 9 . 

6. Phryganidia californica Packard, cf. 

7. Olene leucophcea Abbot & Smith, Qj . 

8. Olene leucoph&a Abbot & Smith, 9 . 

9. Olene achatina Abbot & Smith, cf. 
JO. Gyncephora rossi Curtis, cf. 

11. Gyncephora rossi Curtis, 9. 

12. Porthetria dispar Linnaeus, cf 1 . 

13. Porthetria dispar Linnaeus, 9. 

14. Psilura monacha Linnzeus, o 71 . 

15. Psilura monacha Linnaeus, 9. 

16. Euproctis chrysorrhaa Linnaeus, cf. 

17. Hemerocampa definita Packard, cf, U. S. N. M. 

18. Notolophus antiqua Linnaeus, cf, U. S. N. M. 

19. Hemerocampa vetusta Boisduval, cf. U. S. N. M. 

20. Hemerocampa leucostigma Abbot & Smith, cf. 

21. Hemerocampa leucostigma Abbot & Smith, 9. 

22. Carama cretata Grote, cf, U. S. N. M. 

23. Lagoa crispata Packard, cf. 

24. Lagoa pyxidifera Abbot & Smith, cf. 

25. Megalopyge opercularis Abbot & Smith, cf. 



THE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 




FAMILY DIOPTID^ 

' ' Genius detects through the fly, through the caterpillar, through the 
grub, through the egg, the constant individual; through countless indi- 
viduals the fixed species, through many species the genus, through all 
genera the steadfast type ; through all the kingdoms of organized life the 
eternal unity." RALPH WALDO EMERSON. 

The moths belonging to this family are, so far as is known, 
closely related in many respects to the Geometridce. They differ, 
however, in having veins 3 and 4 of the hind wing arising from 
a common stalk at the lower angle of the cell. The family is 
well represented in the tropics of the New World, but is only 
known in our territory by the genus Phryganidia Packard, 
which occurs in southern California. 

Genus PHRYGANIDIA Packard 

(l) Phryganidia californica Packard, Plate XXXVIII, 
Fig. 6, $ . 

The moth, which is obscurely colored, is one of the least 
attractive insects belonging to the family which it represents. 
Many of the species are very bright and gay in color, as any 
student of the fauna of South America knows. The home of 
the species, as the name implies, is California, to the southern 
portion of which it is confined. 

" Happy insect, what can be 
In happiness compared to thee ? 
Fed with nourishment divine, 
The dewey morning's gentle wine ! 
Nature waits upon thee still, 
And thy verdant cup does fill ; 
"Tis filled wherever thou dost tread 
Nature "s self thy Ganymede. 

" Thou dost drink and dance and sing, 
Happier than the happiest king ! 
All the fields which thou dost see, 
All the plants belong to thee, 
All the summer hours produce, 
Fertile made with early juice, 
Man for thee does sow and plough, 
Farmer he, and landlord thou." 

From the Greek of Anacreon. 

291 



FAMILY NOTODONTID^ 

"The Beauty which old Greece or Rome 
Sung, painted, wrought, lies here at home; 

We need but eye and ear 
In all our daily walks to trace 
The outlines of incarnate grace, 

The hymns of gods to hear. " 

WHITTIER. 

The Notodontidae have been characterized by Sir George F. 
Hampson as follows: "A family of moths superficially resembling 
the Noctuidae. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs; hind tibia with 
two pairs; tarsi short and hairy. Fore wing with vein la form- 
ing a fork with iat the base; \c absent; vein 5 from the middle 
of the discocellulars, or rarely from just below the upper angle of 
the cell. Hind wings with two internal veins; vein 5 from the 
centre of the discocellulars or rarely absent; 8 free from the base, 
curved, and running close along the subcostal nervure or joined 
to it by a bar. 

''Larva without the anal prolegs, and carrying the anal 
somites more or less erect; these often bear paired processes and 
are sometimes swollen; the other somites are often prominently 
humped. 

"Pupa naked." 

An elaborate and very useful monograph dealing with the 
insects composing this family has been written by Professor A. 
S. Packard, and is published in the Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Science, Vol. VII, pp. 87-284. The student will do 
well to refer to this. 

Genus APATELODES Packard 
(i) Apatelodes torrefacta Abbot & Smith, Plate XL, Fig. 

20, $. 

The insect is not uncommon in the Appalachian subregion. 

It ranges from Canada to the southern States and as far west as 

the Mississippi. 

292 



Notodontidae 

(2) Apatelodes angelica Grote, Plate XL, Fig. 21, 3 . 

Syn. hyalinopuncta Packard. 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the 
preceding. It is rather common in western Pennsylvania. 

Genus MELALOPHA Hiibner 

Six species and a number of subspecies have been recognized 
as belonging to this genus and are found in the region with which 
this book deals. Of four of these we give figures. 

(1) Melalopha apicalis Walker, Plate XL, Fig. 18, $ . 

Syn. vau Fitch; indentata Packard. 

The figure upon our plate, cited above, represents the form 
of the species to which Grote & Robinson applied the name 
ornata and of which the name incarcerata Boisduval is a syno- 
nym. The insect is widely distributed all over the United States. 

(2) Melalopha inclusa Hubner, Plate XL, Fig. 19, $ . 

Syn. americana Harris. 

The insect is very widely distributed over the Appalachian sub- 
region. The larva feeds upon the leaves of various species of 
the genus Populus. 

(3) Melalopha strigosa Grote, Plate XL, Fig. 17, $ . 

The habitat of this species is the northern portion of the Appa- 
lachian subregion. 

(4) Melalopha albosigma Fitch, Plate XL, Fig. 16, $ . 

Widely distributed over the United States. Easily discrimi- 
nated from the other species by the broad brown shade on the 
apical half of the outer margin of the primaries, succeeded near 
the costa by a distinct s-shaped white line. 

Genus DATANA Walker 

Thirteen species which are properly referred to this genus are 
found within our limits. Of these we give figures of the four 
which are most commonly found. 

(1) Datana ministra Drury, Plate I, Fig. 13, larva; Plate XL, 
*'*' ii, $ 

This is a very common species, found throughout the Appa- 
lachian subregion. The larvae are gregarious and may be found 
in great masses upon the leaves of the walnut and allied trees in 
the latter part of August and early September. 

(2) Datana angusi Grote & Robinson, Plate XL, Fig. 12, $ . 



Notodontidae 

The habits and the distribution of this species are very much 
the same as those of the preceding. 

(3) Datana perspicua Grote & Robinson, Plate XL, Fig. 

14. & 

More nearly allied to D. ministra than to any other species of 
the genus, but readily distinguished from that insect by the paler 
color of the secondaries and the lighter, more yellowish color of 
the primaries. 

(4) Datana integerrima Grote & Robinson, Plate XL, Fig. 
i}, <$. 

The darker color of the primaries and the more numerous 
transverse bands enable this species to be at once separated from 
the other species which we have figured. 

Genus HYPER^SCHRA Butler 

(1) Hyperaeschra stragula Grote, Plate XL, Fig. i, 3. 

Syn. scitipennis Walker. 

The moth is found throughout the United States. With the 
help of the illustration we have given there should be no difficulty 
whatever in determining it. 

(2) Hyperaeschra georgica Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XL, Fig. 

7, 3. 

The moth is found in the Appalachian subregion, and is com- 
moner in the southern portions of its range than in the more northern 
portions thereof. It is, however, not very rare in Pennsylvania. 

(3) Hyperseschra tortuosa Tepper, Plate XL, Fig. 4, ? . 
The insect is as yet quite rare in collections. Its habitat is 

Colorado and Arizona. . 

Genus ODONTOSIA Hu'bner 

(i) Odontosia elegans Strecker, Plate XL, Fig. 3, 8. 

This elegant insect is found from Canada to Colorado and 
appears to be commoner in the region of the Rocky Mountains 
than elsewhere. 

Genus NOTODONTA Ochsenheimer 

The genus is represented in both hemispheres. There are two 
species which belong to our fauna. We give illustrations of both 
of them. 

394 



Notodontid* 

(1) Notodonta basitriens Walker, Plate XL, Fig. 5, ? . 
The moth is found in the Atlantic States. 

(2) Notodonta simplaria Graef, Plate XL, Fig. 6, ? . 

The moth, which is by no means common, occurs in the 
northern portions of the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus PHEOSIA Hubner 

(1) Pheosia dimidiata Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate "XL, Fig. 9, $ . 
Syn. rimosa Packard; californica Stretch. 

The moth, which is far from common, ranges from Canada and 
New England westward to the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Pheosia portlandia Henry Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 10, $ . 

Syn. descherei Neumoegen. 

The species replaces in the northwestern States the form, 
which has been described as dimidiata. Whether this is a valid 
species or a local race of the preceding is a question which is 
still open to discussion. 

Genus LOPHODONTA Packard 

(1) Lophodonta ferruginea Packard, Plate XL, Fig. 8, ? . 
The moth is not rare in the Appalachian subregion. The 

caterpillar feeds upon the linden (Tilia). 

(2) Lophodonta angulosa Abbot & Smith, Plate XL, Fig. 

15,<$. 

The insect is found in the same region as the last mentioned, 
and its habits are very much the same. 

Genus EUNYSTALEA Grote 

(l) Eunystalea Indiana Grote. 

This is one of the rarest insects of the family to which it 
belongs. Besides the type, which the writer believes to be con- 
tained in the collection of the 
British Museum, there is only one 
other specimen known, which is 
found in the collection of Dr. 
Barnes, to whom the author is 
indebted for the privilege of being 
allowed to make the cut which is 
given herewith. The insect occurs FlG . I?9 -Eunystalea indiana, 
in Florida. J . |. 

295 




Notodontidae 

Genus NADATA Walker 

(i) Nadata gibbosa Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 
i, ? 

This insect, the distribution of which is almost universal 
throughout our territory, has been described under a number of 
varietal or subspecific names, founded for the most part upon 
trifling variations in the ground-color of the wings. 

Genus NERICE Walker 

(i) Nerice bidentata Walker, Plate I, Fig. 15, larva; Plate 
XXXIX, Fig. 2, $ . 

The larva feeds upon the elm. The insect has a wide range 
through the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus SYMMERISTA Hubner 
(i) Symmerista albifrons Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, 

Fig. 7. 9 

A very common insect in the Appalachian subregion, ranging 
from the Atlantic westward as far as the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Genus HIPPIA Moeschler 

(i) Hippia packardi Morrison, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 18, ?. 
A rather scarce insect in collections. Its habitat is Texas. 

Genus DASYLOPHIA Packard 

(1) Dasylophia anguina Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, 

Fig. 5, 3 

Syn. cuculifera Herrich-S-haeffer; punctata Walker; cana Walker; 
signata Walker. 

The moth ranges from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Dasylophia thyatiroides Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 
6,?. 

Syn. internet Packard; tripartita Walker. 

The habitat of the moth is the Appalachian subregion. The 
specimen figured was taken in Indiana. 

Genus LITODONTA Harvey 

(i) Litodonta hydromeli Harvey, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 20, $ . 
The moth, which is the sole representative of the genus in 

296 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIX 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained 
in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Nadata gibbosa Abbot & Smith, 9. 

2. Nerice bidentata Walker, tf . 

3. Hy par pax venus Neumosgen, cJ 1 , U. S. N. M; 

4. Hy par pax aurora Abbot & Smith, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

5. Dasylophia anguina Abbot & Smith, <J*. 

6. Dasylophia thyatiroides Walker, 9 . 

7. Simmerista albifrons Abbot & Smith, 9 . 

8. Harpyia cinerea Walker, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

9. Harpyia borealis Boisduval, c?- 

10. Harpyia albicoma Strecker, tf , U. S. N. M. 

11. Harpyia scolopendrina Boisduval, c?. 

12. Cerura multiscripta Riley, tf. 

13. Schizura ipomeoe Doubleday, var. cinereofrons, 

Packard, J>. 

14. Schizura badia Packard, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

15. Schizura concinna Abbot & Smith, <J*. 

16. Schizura leptinoides Grote, c?. 

17. Schizura unicornis Abbot & Smith, c?. 

1 8. Hippia packardi Morrison, 9 

19. lanassa lignicolor Walker, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

20. Litodonta hydromeli Harvey, cJ*. 

21. Misogada unicolor Packard, 9- 

22. Heterocampa astarte Doubleday, J*. 

23. Heterocampa manteo Doubleday, c?. 

24. Heterocampa bilineata Packard, <5*. 

25. Heterocampa biundata Walker, $ . 

26. Heterocampa umbrata Walker, <$ . 

27. Gluphisia sever a Henry Edwards, c?, U. S. N. M. 

28. Gluphisia septentrionalis Walker, <?. 

29. Gluphisia wrighti Henry Edwards, c?. 

30. Fentonia marthesia Cramer, <j". 

3 1 . Ellida caniplaga Walker, 9 



THE MOTH BOOK 



PLATE XXXIX. 




W J. HOIAANO, U09 



Notodontidae 

our fauna, is not at all uncommon in Texas and Arizona, and 
ranges southward into northern Mexico. 

Genus HETEROCAMPA Doubleday 

Eleven species belonging to this somewhat extensive genus 
are recognized as occurring within the limits with which this 
book deals. Six of these have been selected for illustration. 

(1) Heterocampa astarte Doubleday, Plate XXXIX, 
Fig. 22, 3 . 

Syn. varia Walker; mends Harris. 

The moth is not uncommon in the southern States and ranges 
northward as far as Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

(2) Heterocampa obliqua Packard, Plate XL, Fig. 2, $ . 
The insect occurs in the northern portions of the Appalachian 

subregion. 

(3) Heterocampa umbrata Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 26, 3 . 

Syn. semiplaga Walker; pulverea Grote & Robinson; athereo Harris. 

The moth is rather common in the Appalachian subregion, 
ranging from the Atlantic as far west as the Mississippi. 

(4) Heterocampa manteo Doubleday, Plate XXXIX, 
Fig. 23, $ , 

Syn. cinerascens Walker; subalbicans Grote. 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the last 
mentioned. 

(5) Heterocampa biundata Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 25, 3 . 

Syn. olivatus Packard; mollis Walker. 

Like the preceding species, this is a native of the eastern 
portion of our territory, and occurs from Canada southward to 
Georgia. 

(6) Heterocampa bilineata Packard, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 24, $ . 

Syn. turbida Walker; associata Walker; ulmi Harris. 

Not uncommon in the eastern States. 

Genus MISOGADA Walker 

(i) Misogada unicolor Packard, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 21, ?. 

Syn. marina Packard; cinerea Schaus (non Packard); sobria Walker. 

This is the sole species of the genus. It inhabits the 
Appalachian subregion. 

297 




Notodontidae 

Genus EUHYPARPAX Beutenmuller 

The only species of the genus as yet known is that to which 
Beutenmuller applied the name 
rosea. It is a native of Colorado, 
and is as yet very rare in collec- 
tions, only one specimen, the 
type, being known. This is found 
in the collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History in 

rpax rosea, Ngw y^ The m()th ^ ^ 

rosy red in color, and marked as 

shown in the cut, which was drawn from the type by Mrs. 
Beutenmuller. 

Genus IANASSA Walker 

(i) lanassa lignicolor Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 19, ?. 

Syn. virgata Packard; lignigera Walker. 

The habitat of the species is the Appalachian subregion. Two 
other species, both of them inhabiting the southwestern portions 
of our territory, are known to belong to the genus. 

Genus SCHIZURA Doubleday 

(1) Schizura ipomoeae Doubleday, form cinereofrons Pack- 
ard, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 13, $ . 

The species is widely distributed throughout the United States. 
Several subspecific or varietal forms have been described, and a 
number of synonyms have been created for the species. For a 
knowledge of these the reader may refer to the Monograph by 
Professor Packard, to which allusion has already been made. 

(2) Schizura concinna Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 

15. a. 

Syn. nitida Packard. 

This is also a widely distributed species. The larva feeds upon 
the Rosacece. 

(j) Schizura unicornis Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 

17, * 

Syn. edmandsi Packard; humilis Walker; conspecta Henry Edwards. 

This is a very common species of wide distribution. Its 
habits are much the same as those of the last mentioned. 

298 



Notodontidae 

(4) Schizura badia Packard, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 14, ? . 

Syn. significata Walker. 

The habitat of the species is the Appalachian subregion. 

(5) Schizura leptinoides Grote, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 16, $. 

Syn. mustelina Packard. 

The insect ranges through the Atlantic States westward to the 
Mississippi. 

Genus HYPARPAX Hiibner 

(1) Hyparpax aurora Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 

4, *. 

Syn. rosea Walker; venusta Walker. 

The moth occurs in the Appalachian subregion, but is more 
common in Virginia than elsewhere, so far as the observations of 
the writer extend. 

(2) Hyparpax venus Neumoegen, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 3, g . 
The habitat of the insect is Colorado. 

(3) Hyparpax perophoroides Strecker, Plate XL, Fig. 28, $ . 
The insect has thus far been reported only from Florida. I am 

indebted to Mr. Beutenmuller for the loan of the specimen, which 
is figured upon the plate. 

Genus CERURA Schrank 

The genus is found in both hemispheres. Two species are 
attributed to it as being found in the United States. 

(i) Cerura scitiscripta Walker, form multiscripta Riley, 
Plate I, Fig. 18, larva; Plate XXXIX, Fig. 12, $. 

The moth is known to occur from New England to Mexico. 

Genus HARPYIA Ochsenheimer 

(1) Harpyia borealis Boisduval, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 9, $ . 
The range of the species is through the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Harpyia cinerea Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 8, ? . 

The moth occurs almost everywhere throughout the United 
States and southern Canada. 

(3) Harpyia scolopendrina Boisduval, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 
II, $. 

Syn. aquilonaris Lintner. 

Form albicoma Strecker, Plate XXXIX, Fig, 10, $ . 
290 



Notodontidae 

The insect is a denizen of Canada and the northern portions of 
the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Genus FENTONIA Butler 

(l) Fentonia marthesia Cramer, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 30, $ . 

Syn. tessella Packard; turbida Walker. 

The moth, which is by no means common, has a wide range 
through the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus GLUPHISIA Boisduval 

(i) Gluphisia septentrionalis Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 

28, $ . 

Syn. clandestine! Walker; trilineata Packard. 

Widely distributed throughout the entire territory. 

(a) Gluphisia wrighti Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 

29, $. 

Syn. albofascia Henry Edwards; rupta Henry Edwards; formosa 
Henry Edwards. 

The moth is found in southern California and Arizona, as well 
as in northern Mexico. 

(3) Gluphisia severa Henry Edwards, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 
27,3. 

Syn. danbyi Neumcegen; avimacula Hudson; slossoni Packard. 

The species, which is somewhat variable in the maculation of 
the wings, is found in the northern portions of our territory. 

Genus ELLIDA Grote 

(i) Ellida caniplaga Walker, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 31, ? . 
Syn. transversata Walker; gelida Grote. 

The moth in Pennsylvania is double-brooded. The first 
brood appears upon the wing in the early spring. The cater- 
pillar feeds upon the linden (Tilia). The second brood is 
matured about the end of July. The insect is not common in 
collections, because its habits have not been hitherto understood. 

Genus CARGIDA Schaus 

() Cargida cadmia Guenee. 
Syn. obliquilinea Walker. 

The moth is a native of the southern States, and ranges from 
Texas southward to Costa Rica. The cut which we give is 

300 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 



(When not otherwise indicated, 
in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Hyperceschra stragula Grote, (J 1 . 

2. Heterocampa obliqua Packard, 

3. Odontosia elegans Strecker, c?. 

4. Hyperceschra tortuosa Tepper, 

9, U. S. N. M. 

5. Notodonta basitriens Walker, 

9 , U. S. N. M. 

6. Notodonta simplaria Graef, 9 . 

U. S. N. M. 

7. Hyperceschra georgica Herrich- 

Schaeffer, J>. 

8. Lophodonta ferruginea Packard, 

9. 

9. Pheosia dimidiata Herrich- 

Schaeffer, (? 

10. Pheosia portlandia Henry 

Edwards, <? , U. S. N. M. 

11. Datana ministra Drury, (J 1 . 

12. Datana angusi Grote & 

Robinson, tf. 

13. Datana integerrima Grote & 

Robinson, J 1 . 

14. Datana perspicua Grote & 

Robinson, c?. 

15. Lophodonta angulosa Abbot & 

Smith, tf. 



the specimens figured are contained 

1 6. Melalopha albosigma Fitch, 

17. Melalopha strigosa Grote, <5\ 

U. S. N. M. 

1 8. Melalopha apicalis Walker, var. 

ornata Grote & Robinson, 
tf, U. S. N. M. 

19. Melalopha inclusa Hubner, 

9. 

20. Apatelodes torrefacta Abbot & 

Smith, cT. 

21. Apatelodes angelica Grote, cT 

22. Habrosyne scripta Gosse, c?. 

23. Euthyatira pudens Guen6e, J 1 , 

Merrick Collection. 

24. Euthyatira pudens var. pennsyl- 

vanica Smith, 9 , Merrick 
Collection. 

25. Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides 

Guen6e, (J 1 . 

26. Pseudothyatira expultrix Grote, 

(?, 

27. Bombycia tearli Henry 
' Edwards, <?, U. S. N. M. 

28. Hyparpax perophoroides 

Strecker, J* , Beutenmiiller 
Collection. 



THE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XL 




Notodontidat 



drawn from the type of Walker's species, which is contained in 
the British Museum. The insect is rare as yet in collections, 
though specimens coming from Central America are far more 




FIG. 181. Cargida cadmia, 



numerous in cabinets than specimens obtained from points within 
the limits of the United States. 

(2) Cargida pyrrha Druce, Plate XI, Fig. 15, $. 

The insect occurs in southern Arizona and in Mexico. 

Genus CRINODES Herrich-Schaeffer 

(i) Crinodes beskei Hiibner, Plate XLI, Fig. 4, $ . 

This very peculiar moth is the only representative of its genus 
which occurs within our territory. There are numerous species 
found in the tropics of the New World. The habitat of the 
present species is Arizona and Mexico. 

NASU-NO TAKE 

NASU-NO TAKE is a volcano in the interior of Japan. Tora-san 
came into my room on the upper floor of the tea-house where 
we had made our stay while exploring the summit of the moun- 
tain, which was in eruption at the time. Tora-san was my fidus 
Achates. He could make an insect box or repair a jinrickisha, 
for he was "an honorable carpenter." He did not disdain, 
when necessity demanded, to prove himself a capable cook, 
though this was not his calling. He could provide a meal of 
"America-no Chow" or "Nippon-no Chow," the cuisine of 
Anglo-Saxon and of Japanese being alike familiar to him. He 
was best of all an enthusiastic entomologist, and much preferred 
sugaring for moths to making curries. " Danna-san," he said, 
"Nasu-no Take have got many moth Tokio no have got." 
"Yea, verily! good Tora-san." "Danna-san, me catchee moth 

301 



Nasu-no Take 

ko komban sugar way. Danna-san go long ?" " With all my 
heart! Sayo! " And so it was arranged. 

In the oak-forest below the tea-house we sugared the trees. 
When the night came on we went with our lanterns to the spot. 
The black shadows clung to the woodland path. As the lanterns 
went bobbing along the narrow way, each turn produced a 
weird and beautiful effect. The gnarled old pines, the oaks and 
the bamboos, the wild yams festooning the shrubbery, thrust 
forth for a moment into relief against the universal darkness, 
were fascinating to look upon. Here and there white lilies held 
up their stately blossoms, and starry flowers, from which the 
moths fled as we came along, bloomed everywhere. The effect 
of moving lights in shrubbery and forest-growths is always 
charming. 

But the captures of that night were more memorable than all 
the witchery of the strange and beautiful scenery in the midst of 
which we walked. The gems of our catch were a dozen perfect 
specimens of the great Snowy Underwing, the most beautiful as 
well as one of the rarest species of the splendid genus to which 
it belongs. I never pull out the drawer in the cabinet, where 
these things have rested full many a day since then, without 
seeing visions and dreaming dreams of the happy past. How 
much "globe-trotters" miss when they are not students of 
nature! The memory of one such night spent in the wild woods 
is worth the memory of weeks spent in palaces. 

" The insect legions, prank'd with gaudiest hues, 
Pearl, gold and purple, swarm' d into existence. 
Minute and marvellous creations these. 

. . ''. ''"' . some proudly shone 
Like living jewels; some grotesque, uncouth, 
And hideous ..... 
Those lived deliciously on honey-dews, 
And dwelt in palaces of blossomed bells. 
Millions on millions, wing'd and plumed in front, 
Fill'd the dim atmosphere with hum and hurry. 

MONTGOMERY. Pelican Island. 



}02 



FAMILY THYATIRID/E 

"Feeble though the insect be, 
Allah speaks through that to thee! 
As within the moonbeam I, 
God in glory sits on high, 
Sits where countless planets roll, 
And from thence controls the whole : 
There with threads of thousand dyes 
Life's bewildered web he plies, 
And the hand which holds them all 
Lets not e'en the feeblest fall." 

CEHLENSCHL^GER. Aladdin's Lamp. 

The family has been characterized as follows by Sir George 
F. Hampson, in his work upon the moths of India: 

"A family of moths resembling the Noctuidce in appearance. 

Proboscis present. Antennae usually rather thickened and 
flattened. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs, hind tibia with two 
pairs. Fore wing with vein \a short and slight, not forming a 
fork with \b ; \c absent; 5 from the center of the discocellulars; 
veins 7 and 8 stalked; and 9 and 10 stalked, and almost or quite 
anastomosing with veins 7 and 8 to form an areole. Hind wing 
with two internal veins; vein 5 from the center of the discocellu- 
lars, or generally from below the center; veins 6 and 7 given 
off not far from the base; 8 bent down and quite or almost 
touching 7 after the bifurcation. 

Larva noctuiform, with five pairs of prolegs." 

Genus HABROSYNE Hiibner 

(i) Habrosyne scripta Gosse, Plate XL, Fig. 22, $ . 

The moth is quite common locally in the northern States of 
the Atlantic seaboard, and ranges westward to the central por- 
tions of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

303 



Thyatiridae 

Genus PSEUDOTHYATIRA Grote 

(i) Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides Guenee, Plate XL, 
Fig. 25, 6 . 

Form expultrjx Grote, Plate XL, Fig. 26, $ . 

The moth, which occurs in the two forms which we have 
delineated on the plate, is a native of the northern portions of the- 
Appalachian subregion. It is common in Pennsylvania. 

Genus EUTHYATIRA Smith 

(i) Euthyatira pudens Guenee, Plate XL, Fig. 23, 6 . 

Form pennsylvanica Smith, Plate XL, Fig. 24, ? . 

The moth emerges in the very early spring, and may be found 
where it is common, seated about three inches from the end of 
twigs in the woodlands, with its wings folded about the twig in 
such a way as to elude the observation of those who are not 
familiar with its habits. The form pennsylvanica is found in 
both sexes in every brood. It represents a curious case of 
dimorphism. 

Genus BOMBYCIA Hiibner 

(i) Bombycia improvisa Henry Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 

27, 5. 

Syn. tearli Henry Edwards. 

The habitat of the insect is on the Pacific slope, in the northern 
portions of the coast ranges. 



' Then rapidly with foot as light 
As the young musk-roe's, out she flew 
To cull each shining leaf that grew 
Beneath the moonlight's hallowing beams 
For this enchanted wreath of dreams, 
Anemones and Seas of Gold, 

And new-blown lilies of the river, 
And those sweet flowrets that unfold 

/Their buds on Camadeva's quiver." 

THOMAS MOORE. Lalla Rookh. 



304 



FAMILY 

"The study of entomology is one of the most fascinating of pursuits. It 
takes its votaries into the treasure-houses of Nature, and explains some of the 
wonderful series of links which form the great chain of creation. It lays open 
before us another world, of which we have been hitherto unconscious, and shows 
us that the tiniest insect, so small perhaps that the unaided eye can scarcely see it, 
has its work to do in the world, and does it." REV. J. G. WOOD. 

The following characterization of the family is adapted from 
the pages of Sir George F. Hampson's "Moths of India," Vol. I, 
p. 432: 

' A family of moths generally of nocturnal flight, though 
some genera, as Aroa of the Eastern Hemisphere and Hemero- 
campa, are more or less diurnal in their habits. The perfect 
insects are mostly clothed with long hair-like scales upon the 
body. The males have the antennae highly pectinated, the 
branches often having long terminal spines, and spines to retain 
them in position. The females often have a largely developed 
anal tuft of hair for covering the eggs. The proboscis is absent. 
The legs are hairy. The frenulum is present, except in the genus 
Ratarda, which does not occur in America. The fore wing with 
vein \a not anastomosing with \b ; i^absent except in Ratarda ; 
5 from close to lower angle of cell. Hind wing with two interna.l 
veins; 5 from close to lower angle of cell, except in the eastern 
genera Ga^alina and Porthesia, 8 nearly touching 7 at middle of 
cell and connected with it by a bar. 

Larva hairy; generally clothed with very thick hair or with 
thick tufts of hair, and forming a cocoon into which these hairs 
are woven, they being often of a very poisonous nature.' 

Genus GYN^EPHORA Hiibner 

(i) Gynaephora rossi Curtis, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 10, $, 
Fig. ii,?. 

The genus is arctic, and the species is found in the arctic 

305 



Liparidae 

regions of America, the specimens figured having been received 
by the writer from Point Barrow in Alaska. 

Genus NOTOLOPHUS Germar 
(i) Notolophus antiqua Linnaeus, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 18, $ . 

Syn. nova Fitch. 

The moth is found in Europe and in the northern portions of 
the United States and in Canada. 

Genus HEMEROCAMPA Dyar 

The females in this genus are wingless, or have the wings at 
most rudimentary. The eggs are deposited in masses, generally 
upon the surface of the cocoon from which the female has 
emerged. The larvae are voracious feeders; and as the species 
are generally very prolific, the insects inflict a great deal of dam- 
age upon vegetation. 

(1) Hemerocampa vetusta Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 

Syn. cana Henry Edwards ; gulosa Henry Edwards. 

The insect replaces on the Pacific coast the following species, 
which in its habits it closely resembles. 

(2) Hemerocampa leucostigma Abbot & Smith, Plate 
XXXVIII, Fig. 20, 3, Fig. 21, ?. (The White-marked Tussock 
Moth.) 

Syn. leucographa Geyer ; intermedia Fitch ; borealis Fitch ; obliviosa Henry 
Edwards. 

The moth is widely distributed in the Appalachian subregion, 
and its ravages upon shade-trees and shrubbery are matter of 
familiar observation. The insect is double-brooded in the more 
northern portions of its range, and triple- 
brooded farther south. The first generation is 
matured from eggs which, having been de- 
posited in the fall of the year, remain in situ 
upon the cocoons upon which they were de- 
posited until they are hatched by the heat of 
the sunshine of spring. The caterpillars rap- 
idly develop, and the second generation, which 
is always much more numerous than the first, 
begins to appear about the middle of July in 
the latitude of New York and Philadelphia. 
306 




FIG. 182 

leucostigma, 
(After Riley.) 




Liparidae 

A third generation follows in the month of September. This 
generation lays the eggs from which the larvae which appear in 
the following spring are hatched. 

The female, as has already been stated, is wingless, and lives 
solely for the purpose of oviposition. Having laid her eggs, 
which she covers with the hairy scales which she plucks from 
the abdomen, and mingles with a viscid secretion, which she 
deposits with the 
eggs, and which on 
drying becomes hard 
and brittle, she dies. 
The young larva on 
being hatched has the 
power of spinning a 
thin thread of silk, 
with which it lowers 

FIG. 183. //. leucostigma. a, female; 6, young 
itself from its resting- larva, magnified; c, female pupa; d, male pupa. 

place when disturbed, (After Rile 7-> 

and by means of which it regains the place from which it has 
dropped. This power is lost as the insect develops after succes- 
sive molts. The mature caterpillar is a rather striking and not 
unbeautiful creature. The head is brilliant vermilion in color; the 
body is white banded with black, and adorned with black-tipped 
tufts and bundles of cream-colored hairs. There is considerable 
disparity in the size of the larvae and the pupae of the two sexes, 
as is partially shown in Fig. 183. The larva and the pupa of the 
female moth are generally twice as large as those of the male. 

The best means of combating the ravages of this insect is to 
see to it that in the fall and winter the cocoons, which may be 

found adhering to the 
twigs of trees and 
shrubs and secreted in 
the nooks and crannies 
of fences, are gathered 
together and destroyed. 
It is also useful to spray 
the young foliage of 

trees which are liable 

to attack with any one 




FIG. 184. -#. leucostigma. 

(After Riley.) 



Larva of female moth. 



307 



Liparidae 

of the preparations which are made by reputable firms for the pur- 
pose of destroying the larvae of this and other destructive insects 
which attack our shade-trees. The spraying should take place at 
intervals when the young larvae are observed to be moving 
upward upon the trunks of the trees. 

(3) Hemerocampa definita Packard, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 

17. 3- 

This species, which is closely allied to the last, is found in the 
northern Atlantic States. What has been said as to the habits of 
H. leucostigma applies also to this insect. 

Genus OLENE Hubner 

(1) Olene achatina Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 9, $ . 

Syn. parallela Grote & Robinson ; tephra H iibner ; cinnamomea Grote & 
Robinson. 

The moth, which is somewhat variable in the style and 
intensity of the dark markings upon the wings, is found in the 
Appalachian subregion, but is somewhat more frequent in the 
south than in the north. 

(2) Olene leucophsea Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 
7, 6 , Fig. 8, ? . 

Syn. basiflava Packard ; atrivenosa Palm ; manto Strecker. 

This is likewise a variable insect, the range of which is prac- 
tically coincident with that of the last-mentioned species. 

Genus PORTHETRIA Hubner 

(i) Porthetria* dispar Linnaeus, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 12, $, 
Fig. 13, ?. (The Gypsy Moth.) 

This well-known insect is a native of the Old World. A 
number of years ago, a gentleman interested in entomology, and 
residing at the time in Cambridge, Massachusetts, received from 
a friend in Europe a number of cocoons of the moth, from which 
the insects in due season emerged. A few of the number were 
prepared and mounted in his cabinet, and the remainder were 
allowed to escape through the window of the room in which 
they were. Unchecked by the presence of parasites, which in 
their native habitat keep their numbers down, they rapidly mul- 
tiplied and became a scourge. Fully a million of dollars has thus 
far been expended in the effort to exterminate them. In spite of 

308 



Liparidse 

all the exertion which has been put forth, the insect appears to 
have obtained a permanent foothold in the New England States, 
though in recent years the destruction wrought has not been very 
great, owing to the incessant vigilance which is maintained by 
the civic authorities in repressing the nuisance. 

Genus PSILURA 

(i) Psilura monacha Linnaeus, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 14, <$ , 
Fig. 15, ?. 

This is another insect which is said to have been imported from 
Europe, and is reputed to have found a foothold on the soil of the 
New World. The specimens figured on our plate are from a 
brood which the writer is informed by Mr. George Franck, of 
Brooklyn, to have been found in the eastern suburbs of that place. 
Mr. Franck has assured me that it is certainly already well domi- 
ciled in the region. 

Genus EUPROCTIS Hiibner 

(i) Euproctis chrysorrhcea Linnaeus, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 
16, $ . (The Brown-tail Moth.) 

This insect, like the two preceding species, is an importation 
from Europe. It has become domiciled in the vicinity of Boston, 
Massachusetts, and is very common in the vicinity of Magnolia, 
Beverly Farms, and Manchester-on-the-Sea. 

Genus DOA Neumoegen & Dyar 

The only species of the genus, named ampla by Grote, is a 
native of Colorado, and ranges thence 
southward through Arizona to the 
higher mountain plateaus of Mexico. 
It also occurs not infrequently in 
northwestern Texas. It may easily 
be recognized with the help of the 

... . , FIG. 185. Doa ampla, 

accompanying cut, which is drawn 

from a specimen in the collection of the writer. 

" Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare, 
And Mammon wins his way where seraphs might despair." 

BYRON. Ckilde Harold, Canto I. 

309 




Liparidae 




Genus LEUCULODES Dyar 

The genus is thus far represented in our 
fauna by but a single species, to which Hulst 
applied the specific name lacteolaria. It is a 
native of Arizona. The figure which is here- 
with given was drawn by the writer from the 
type which is preserved in the United States 
National Museum. 



MOTH-SONG 

"What dost thou here, 
Thou dusky courtier, 
Within the pinky palace of the rose? 
Here is no bed for thee, 
No honeyed spicery, 
But for the golden bee, 
And the gay wind, and me, 

Its sweetness grows. 
Rover, thou dost forget ; 
Seek thou the passion-flower 
Bloom of one twilight hour. 

Haste, thou art late! 
Its hidden savors wait. 

For thee is spread 
Its soft, purple coverlet ; 
Moth, art thou sped ? 
Dim as a ghost he flies 
Thorough the night mysteries." 

ELLEN MACKAY HUTCHINSON CORTISSOZ. 



310 



FAMILY LASIOCAMPID^E 

"Now busily convened upon the bud 
That crowns the genial branch, they feast sublime, 
And spread their muslin canopy around, 
Pavilioned richer than the proudest kings." 

The Lasiocampidce have been characterized as follows by Sir 
George F. Hampson, in "The Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 402: 

"Moths mostly of large size. Palpi porrect and generally 
large. Proboscis absent; eyes small; antennae bipectinate in 
both sexes; legs generally with minute terminal pairs of spurs to 
mid and hind tibise and rather hairy. Fore wing with vein \a 
not forked with b ; \c rarely present; the cell medial in position; 
veins 6 and 7 from the angle; veins 9 and 10 always stalked and 
from before the angle. Hind wing with two internal veins; 6 
and 7 arising very near the base; 8 curved and almost touching 
7, or connected with it by a bar, thus forming a precostal cell ; 
accessory costal veinlets generally present. Frenulum absent. 

Larva with lateral downwardly-directed tufts of hair, and 
often subdorsal tufts or dorsal humps on anterior somites thickly 
clothed with hair. 

Cocoon closely woven of silk and hair." 

Seven genera belonging to the family are recognized as 
occurring within our faunal limits. 

Genus GLOVERIA Packard 

(1) Gloveria arizonensis Packard, Plate XLI, Fig. 3, ?. 

Syn. dentata Henry Edwards. 

The moth is found in Arizona and northern Mexico. 

(2) Gloveria psidii Salle, Plate XLI, Fig. 2, $ . 

The habitat of the species is the same as that of the foregoing. 

(3) Gloveria howardi Dyar, Plate XLI, Fig. i, ?. 

The specimen figured on the plate is one of several which are 
contained in the collection of the United States National Museum, 

3" 



Lasiocampidac 

and which constituted the material upon which the original 
description of the species was based by Dr. Dyar. 

Genus ARTACE Walker 
(i) Artace punctistriga Walker, Plate XII, Fig. 5, 3. 

Syn. rubripalpis Felder. 

This rather rare little moth has its habitat in the southern 
Atlantic States. 

Genus TOLYPE Hubner 

Five species are accounted as belonging to this genus. We 
give illustrations of the one which is commonest. 

(i) Tolype velleda Stoll, Plate XI, Fig. 7, $ , Fig. 8, ?. 
The species is found throughout the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus HYPOPACHA Neumcegen & Dyar 

The only species known to belong to this genus was named 
grisea by Neumregen. The only specimen 
of which the writer has knowledge is the type 
which is contained in the collection of the 
Brooklyn Institute. Of this I have, through 
the kindness of the authorities of that institu- 
tion, been permitted to make a drawing, which 
is reproduced in the annexed cut. The habitat 

. Io7. ** * i A 

$. f. of the species is Arizona. 

Genus MALACOSOMA Hubner 

(i) Malacosoma americana Fabricius, Plate X, Fig. 12, ?. 

Syn. decipiens Walker ; frutetorum Boisduval. 

The species, which is commonly known as "The American 
Tent-caterpillar, " is widely distributed throughout the Appalachian 
subregion, and at times inflicts considerable injury upon the foliage 
of trees. It especially affects trees belonging to the Rosacece, 
as the wild cherry and wild plum, and attacks apple-orchards 
with avidity. The great white webs woven by the caterpillars 
are familiar objects in the rural landscape, detested by the fruit- 
grower, and equally despised by the man who loves to see 
trees in perfect leaf. An orchard cobwebbed by the tent-caterpil- 

312 




Lasiocampidae 

lar is not pleasan. to 
contemplate. The bets 
way to combat these 
destructive insects is to 
diligently search for 
their webs when they 
first are being formed, 
and to cut off the 
branches to which they 
are attached and burn 
them. By following 
this method carefully, 
their ravages may be 
held in check. 

(2) Malacosoma 
californica Packard, 
Plate X, Fig. n, 3. 

Syn. pseudoneustria Bois- 
duval. 

The species, which 
is in its habits very 
closely allied to the 
preceding, has its home 

upon the Pacific coast. 

(3) Malacosoma disstria Hiibner, Plate X, 
Fig- 9> <3 ; form erosa Stretch, Plate X, Fig. 10 , 6 . 

Syn. sylvatica Harris ; drupacearum Boisduval ; thoracicoides 
Neumcegen & Dyar ; sylvalicoides Neumoegen & Dyar ; thoracica 
Stretch ; perversa Neumoegen & Dyar. 

The moth is universally distributed through the 
United States and Canada. It appears to be rather 
variable, and a number of subspecies or varietal forms 
have been recognized. Many of the races, if such 
they can be called, differ so little from the typical 
stock that it hardly appears worth while to regard 
the names which have been applied to them as 
other than synonyms. 

The habits of the larvae are almost identical with 
those of the species to which reference has already 
been made. Like them, they prefer to attack the 

313 




FIG. 1 88. M. americana. a, lateral view of 
larva ; b, dorsal view of larva ; e, mass of eggs ; 
d t cocoon. (After Riley.) 




FIG. 189. 
M. disstria, 
larva. (After 
Riley.) 




Lasiocampidae 

Rosacece, although they also at times feed upon other trees. 

The hickories of various species and the walnuts are not exempt 

from their ravages. The 
writer has never observed 
them feeding upon oaks, 
birch, or beeches. An ex- 
cellent account of the hab- 
its of these creatures may 
be found in Riley's Mis- 
souri Reports, Number III, 
from which the illustra- 
tions here given have been 
FIG. 190. M. disstria. a, egg mass; d, taken. The means of 

moth ; f, egg viewed from top ; d, eggs viewed , , . . 

from side ; <r, d, magnified. (After Riley.) holding the insects in 

check are the same which 
have been recommended in the case of M. americana. 

Genus HETEROPACHA Harvey 

(i) Heteropacha rileyana Harvey, Plate VIII, Fig. 7 $. 

The moth is not uncommon in the Valley of the Mississippi, 
ranging from western Pennsylvania to Kansas and Missouri, and 
southward into Texas. 

Genus EPICNAPTERA Ratnbur 

(i) Epicnaptera americana Harris, Plate XLI, Fig. 19. <? , 
Fig. 20, ? . 

Syn. occidentis Walker ; carpinifolia Boisduval. 

There are a number of color forms of this insect which have 
received names, and which appear to be local races of some mea- 
sure of stability in the regions where they occur. We have given 
in our plate the form which is common in the Mississippi Valley. 
The specimens figured were bred from larvae reared by Mr. Tallant 
at Columbus, Ohio. 



" The Baron was an entomologist. Both the Fontenettes thought we should 
be fascinated with the beauty of some of his cases of moths and butterflies." 

G. W. CARLE 

314 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLI 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained 
in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Gloveria howardi Dyar, $ , U. S. N. M. 

2. Gloveria psidii Salle, c?, U. S. N. M. 

3. Gloveria arizonensis Packard, $ , U. S. N. M. 

4. Crinodes beskei Hiibner, <5*. 

5. Citheronia sepulchralis Grote & Robinson, 9 . 

6. Or eta irrorata Packard, 9 

7. Falcaria bilineata Packard, 9. 

8. Eurycyttarus confederata Grote & Robinson, &. 

9. Cossus undosus Lintner, 9 . 
10. Prionoxystus robinice Peck, 9 . 
n. Prionoxystus robinice Peck, tf. 

12. Thyridopteryx ephemer&formis Haworth, c?. 

13. Sthenopis quadriguttatus Grote, c?. 

14. Sthenopis argenteomaculatus Harris, <$ . 

15. Hepialus hyperboreus Moeschler, c?, U. S. N. M. 

16. Hepialus lemberti Dyar, <?, U. S. N. M. 

17. Cicinnus melsheimeri Harris, 9 

1 8. Aon noctuiformis Neumcegen, c?. 

19. Epicnaptera americana Harris, cJ 1 . 

20. Epicnaptera americana Harris, 9 

21. Lacosoma chiridota Grote, (J 1 . 

22. Drepana genicula Grote, (?. 

23. Drepana arcuata Walker, (?. 
34. Oreta rosea Walker, 9 . 



THE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XLI. 



^ x^ j$3Ol 

V i \ 

v' ' I ' > o .,.-.^r = 




FAMILY BOMBYCID^E 

" And thou, the insect of an hour, 
O'er Time to triumph wouldst pretend ; 
With nerves of grass wouldst brave the power 
Beneath which pyramids must bend! " 

CARL GUSTAF AF LEOPOLD. 

The Bombycidce were originally confined to the Asiatic conti- 
nent, and more particularly to the southeastern portions of that 
great land mass. The family is quite small and includes only a 
few genera. Of these the genus Bombyx is the only one 
which is well known. The family has been characterized as 
follows by Sir George F. Hampson, in "The Moths of India," 
Vol. I, p. 31: 

"Proboscis absent, palpi rather small or absent; antennae 
bipectinated in both sexes; legs hairy, without spurs. Frenulum 
absent; vein 5 of both wings from or from above the middle of 
the discocellulars; veins 7, 8, and 9 of the fore wing generally 
more or less bent downward; vein la forming or not forming 
a fork with \b\ \c absent or present. Hind wing with two or 
three internal veins; vein 8 arising from the base of 7, or free 
from the base with a bar between them ; the inner margin irreg- 
ular and in part turned over. 

Larva elongate and not hairy; dorsal humps on some of 
the somites, or a horn on the terminal somite, or paired dorsal 
spines. 

Cocoon formed of fine silk of great commercial value." 

Genus BOMBYX Linnaeus 

(i) Bombyx mori Linnaeus. 

The silk-worm of commerce is not known to exist in a feral 
or wild state in the regions where it is now most commonly 

315 



Bombycidae 

reared. In this respect it is like many other domesticated animals. 
The caterpillar, of which a figure is herewith given, feeds upon 





FIG. 192. Cocoon of B. mori. 
(After Riley.) 



FIG. 191. Larva of Bombyx mori. (After Riley.) 

the leaves of the white mulberry, and will also feed freely upon 
the leaves of the Osage orange, an American hedge-plant. The 
insect was introduced at an early date 
into the American colonies, but its 
culture has not as yet risen in the 
New World to great proportions, 
though the manufacture of silk from 
imported material is at the present 
day an important American industry. 
The culture of silk is an industry 
which might be best undertaken 
and maintained in the Southern States of the American Union, 
where climatic conditions are wholly favorable to it. The Caro- 
linas and Georgia appear to fur- 
nish the best climate for the 
development of this industry, and 
it is believed by those who are 
most conversant with the matter 
that in time the rearing of the silk- 
worm may become in these States 
an exceedingly important and 
profitable branch of industry. 
Southern California and Arizona 
are also likely to become centres in which the growing of raw 
silk may be successfully pursued. 




FIG. 193. Moth of B. mori. 
(After Riley.) 



THE HISTORY OF SILK-CULTURE 

The greater portion of the silk of commerce is produced 



by the larvse of the moth known as Bombyx mori. 

316 



The in- 



Bombycidae 

sect, through ages of human culture, has become thoroughly 
domesticated. It has been wrongly maintained that the moth 
known as Tbeopbtla huttoni, and which is found in China and 
western India, is the ancestral or feral form from which the 
domesticated Bombyx mori has been derived. The common silk- 
worm does not exist in a wild state anywhere so far as is known, 
and is as much a domestic animal as the Jersey cow or the grey- 
hound. Chinese literature clearly shows that the silk-industry 
originated in that country. The Emperor Hwang-Ti, whose 
reign was in the eighteenth century B.C., fostered the culture of 
silk, and his empress, Si-Ling-Chi, who gave her personal atten- 
tion to the breeding of silk-worms and the manufacture of silk, 
was deified in consequence, and is reputed to be "the goddess 
of silk-worms." The methods of securing the silk and weaving 
fabrics from it were held secret by the Chinese for nearly two 
thousand years, and only after ages was a knowledge of the art 
transmitted to Corea, and thence to Japan. Silk in very small 
quantities was imported into Greece and Rome from China by 
way of Persia. Aristotle was the first writer in Europe to give a 
correct account of the manner in which silk is produced. He is 
supposed to have derived his information from those who had 
accompanied Alexander the Great on his victorious march into 
India. The price of silken fabrics in the West at the beginning 
of the Christian era, owing to the cost of transportation, was so 
great that only the very rich could possess garments of this 
material. Their use was restricted to wealthy women. For a 
man to use silken clothing was esteemed a sign of luxurious 
effeminacy. Under the reigns of Tiberius, Vespasian, and 
Diocletian the use of silken apparel by men was positively inter- 
dicted; but gradually, with the increase of importation of raw 
silk from Persia and its manufacture into stuffs in Asia Minor and 
elsewhere, the habit of using it grew, and its cost was slowly 
lowered. Under the reign of the Emperor Justinian, in the sixth 
century, positive steps to foster sericulture as an imperial monop- 
oly were taken. Silk-looms operated by women were estab- 
lished in the palace at Constantinople, and Justinian endeavored, 
in view of the loss of the supply of raw silk brought about by a 
war with Persia, to induce the Prince of Abyssinia to secure to 
him supplies of the article by a circuitous route. Relief was finally 



Bombycidae 

brought to the embarrassed imperial manufacturer when two 
Nestorian monks, who had lived long in China and had learned 
all the processes of silk-culture, were induced to go back to that 
far-away land and bring to Constantinople a stock of the eggs of 
the silk-worm. As it was among the Chinese a capital offense to 
reveal the secrets of the trade or to export the eggs from which 
the worms are hatched, the two priests had to proceed with the 
utmost caution. They concealed the eggs in the hollows of the 
bamboo staffs which they carried as pilgrims. From these eggs, 
thus transported to Constantinople in A.D. 555, all of the silk- 
worms in Europe, Africa, Asia Minor, and America until as 
recently as 1865 were descended. It was not until the last-men- 
tioned year that any importation of fresh eggs of the silk-worm 
from China took place. Those two bamboo sticks held within 
themselves the germ of a vast industry, countless costly ward- 
robes, the raiment of kings, queens, and emperors, and untold 
wealth. 

From the time of Justinian onward the growth of silk-culture 
in Greece and Asia Minor was rapid. It was introduced into 
Spain by the Saracens at the beginning of the eighth century. It 
found lodgment in Sicily and Naples in the twelfth century, and 
in the next century was taken up in Genoa and Venice. It was 
not begun in France until the latter part of the sixteenth century, 
but in the seventeenth century it made great progress in France, 
as well as in Belgium and Switzerland. The weaving of silk had 
begun at an earlier date than this in France, Germany, and Eng- 
land. Attempts made to introduce the culture of the mulberry- 
tree and of the silk-worm in Great Britain have always signally 
failed. The climate appears to be against the industry. James I, 
who had failed in his attempts to foster sericulture in England, 
undertook to plant the industry in Virginia AH 1609. But the eggs 
and mulberry-trees he sent out were lost by shipwreck. In 1619 
and the years immediately following the attempt was renewed, 
and the raising of silk-worms was enjoined by statute and en- 
couraged by bounties. In spite of every effort, little came of the 
attempt, the colonists finding the growth of tobacco to be far 
more profitable. In Georgia and the Carolinas similar attempts 
were made, and from 1735 to 1766 there were exported to Eng- 
land considerable quantities of raw silk from these colonies. From 



Bombycidac 

1760 onward the industry declined. Sericulture was at this time 
taken up in Connecticut and flourished there more than anywhere 
else for many years, though the raw silk was not exported, but 
woven on the spot into various fabrics. The production of raw 
silk in Connecticut for many years amounted to a sum of not less 
than $200,000 annually. In 1830 an effort was made to introduce 
into the United States the so-called Chinese mulberry (Morus 
multicaulis}. A popular craze in regard to this plant and the 
profits of silk-culture was begotten. Fabulous prices were paid 
for cuttings of the Morus multicaulis, as much even as five dol- 
lars for twigs less than two feet in length. Hundreds of people 
came to believe that the possession of a grove of these trees would 
be the avenue to fortune. But in 1839 the bubble burst, and 
many persons who had invested the whole of their small earnings 
were ruined. It was discovered that the trees would not with- 
stand frost and were practically worthless, as compared with the 
white mulberry (Morus alba). "Colonel Mulberry Sellers" re- 
mains in American literature a reminder of those days, and of the 
visionary tendencies of certain of our people. 

The manufacture of silk thread and of silken fabrics was begun 
in the United States at an early date. Machinery for reeling, 
throwing, and weaving silk was invented, and the importation of 
raw silk was begun. The industry has steadily grown until at 
the present time silk-manufacture has come to be an important 
industry, in which nearly a hundred millions of dollars are in- 
vested. The annual production of silken goods amounts to a 
sum even greater than the capital employed and gives employ- 
ment to seventy-five thousand persons. So much for the indus- 
trial importance of one small species, of those insects to which 
this volume is devoted. 



It was brown with a golden gloss, Janette, 

It was finer than silk of the floss, my pet ; 

'T was a beautiful mist falling down to your wrist, 

'T was a thing to be braided, and jewelled, and kissed 

'T was the loveliest hair in the world, pet." 

CHARLES G. HALPINE. Janette's Hair. 



FAMILY PLATYPTERYGID/E 

"Above the wet and tangled swamp 
White vapors gathered thick and damp, 
And through their cloudy curtaining 
Flapped many a brown and dusky wing- 
Pinions that fan the moonless dun, 
ut fold them at the rising sun." 

WHITTIER. 

The family has been described as follows by Sir George F. 
Hampson, "Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 326: 

"Small or moderate-sized moths of somewhat slender build, 
generally with the apex of the fore wing falcate. 

Palpi slender and slightly scaled, often very minute. Fore 
wing with vein \b forked at the base; \c absent; 5 from close to 
the lower angle of cell. Hind wing with one or two internal 
veins; \a short when present; 5 from near lower angle of cell; 
the discocellulars angled ; the origin of veins 6 and 7 before the 
angle of cell; 8 bent down and nearly or quite touching 7. 

Larva smooth, with the anal prolegs absent, except in the 
genus Euchera;* the anal somite usually with a long process, 
the others often humped. 

Cocoon spun among leaves." 

Genus EUDEILINEA Packard 

The only species of the genus known in our 
fauna is the one named herminiata by Guenee. 
It is a rather rare little moth in collections, being 
probably overlooked by collectors on account of 
its insignificant size and its general resemblance to 
FIG. 194. . commoner species. It is found in the Appalachian 

herminiata, $ . \. , 

1 subregion. 

* Not American. 
320 




Platypterygidae 

Genus ORETA Walker 

(1) Oreta rosea Walker, Plate XLI, Fig. 24, ?. 

Syn. americana Herrich-Schaeffer ; formula Grote. 

The moth js a native of the eastern portions of our territory. 

(2) Oreta irrorata Packard, Plate XLI, Fig. 6, ? . 

The range of this species is coincident with that of the last. 

Genus DREPANA Schrank 
(i) Drepana arcuata Walker, Plate XLI, Fig. 23, $. 

Syn. fabiila Grote. 

Form genicula Grote, Plate XLI, Fig. 22, $ . 

The species, which is dimorphic, inhabits the Appalachian 
subregion. The form genicula occurs in the spring, the form 
arcuata in the summer. 

Genus FALCARIA Haworth 

The genus is common to both hemispheres, 
(i) Falcaria bilineata Packard, Plate XLI, Fig. 7, ?. 
The insect, which is by no means common, is a native of the 
eastern portion of our territory. 

TRANSFORMATION 

" Who that beholds the summer's glistering swarms, 
Ten thousand thousand gaily gilded forms, 
In volant dance of mix'd rotation play, 
Bask in the beam, and beautify the day ; 
Who 'd think these airy wantons,, so adorn, 
Were late his vile antipathy and scorn, 
Prone to the dust, or reptile thro' the mire, 
And ever thence unlikely to aspire ? 
Or who with transient view, beholding, loaths 
Those crawling sects, whom vilest semblance cloaths ; 
Who, with corruption, hold their kindred state, 
As by contempt, or negligence of fate ; 
Could think, that such, revers'd by wondrous doom, 
Sublimer powers and brighter forms assume ; 
From death their future happier life derive, 
And tho' apparently entomb'd, revive; 
Chang'd, thro' amazing transmigration rise, 
And wing the regions of unwonted skies ; 
So late depress'd, contemptible on earth, 
Now elevate to heaven by second birth." 

HENRY BROOKE. Universal Beauty. 

321 



FAMILY GEOMETRID/E 

"... The sylvan powers 
Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 
The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 
And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 
That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 
And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 
But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 
Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 
Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 
Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 
They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 
That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 
Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 
The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 
All, all to us unlock their secret stores 
And pay their cheerful tribute." 

J. TAYLOR. Norwich, 1818. 

The Geometridce are a very large and universally distributed 
family of moths. There is no country where there is any vege- 
tation where they do not occur. Even in the inhospitable re- 
gions of the far North, upon the verge of the eternal ice, they may 
be found. They are more or less frail in their habit, with con- 
siderable expanse of wing in proportion to the size of the body. 
They are semidiurnal or crepuscular. They have been character- 
ized as follows by Sir George F. Hampson: 

". . . Proboscis present or rarely absent. Legs and tarsi 
slender, elongate, and naked, or slightly clothed with hair. Fore 
wing with vein la forming a fork with \b. \c absent; vein 5 
from or from above middle of the discocellulars, 7 rising from 8, 
9. Hind wing with the frenulum usually present, but absent in 
a few genera. Vein \a very short, apparently absent in some 
forms; vein \b running to anal angle; \c absent. 8 with a well- 
developed precostal spur. 

322 



Geometric! se 

Larvce with the three anterior pairs of abdominal claspers to- 
tally aborted, and progressing by bringing the posterior somites 
close to the thoracic, looping the medial somites.. In a few an- 
cestral forms there is tendency to develop additional prolegs and 
to a more ordinary mode of progression." 

The larvae, which are commonly known as "measuring- 
worms," "span-worms," or " loopers," have the power in many 
cases of attaching themselves by the posterior claspers to the 
stems and branches of plants, and extending the remainder of the 
body outwardly at an angle to the growth upon which they are 
resting, in which attitude they wonderfully resemble short twigs. 
Dichromatism is often revealed among them, part of a brood of 
caterpillars being green and the remainder brown or yellowish. 
Various explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested. 
In not a few cases the females are wingless. 

Over eight hundred species of Geometridce are known to 
occur within the limits of the United States and Canada, and 
when the region shall have been exhaustively explored, there is 
little doubt that this number will be greatly increased. It is im- 
possible within the limits of this book to mention and depict all 
of these species. We have therefore confined ourselves to the 
description through our plates of one hundred and seventy spe- 
cies, which are either more commonly encountered, or are pos- 
sessed of some striking character. Incidentally occasion has been 
taken to figure a few of the types of species in the collection of 
the author which have never before been delineated. 

The student who desires to familiarize himself with the fam- 
ily with which we are now dealing will derive much assistance 
from the writings of Packard and Hulst, the titles of which he 
will find in the portion of the Introduction of this book devoted 
to the literature of the subject. 

SUBFAMILY DYSPTERIDIN/E 
Genus DYSPTERIS Hubner 

(i) Dyspteris abortivaria Herrich-Schseffer, Plate XLII, Fig. 
21, $ . (The Bad-wing.) 

This pretty little moth may be easily recognized by the facl 
that the hind wings are so much smaller than the fore wings. 



Geometridae 

It is the only species of the genus found within our territory. It 
is not uncommon in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus NYCTOBIA Hulst 

Three species belong to this genus. One of them is selected 
for illustration. 

(i) Nyctobia limitata Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 22, $. 

Syn. lobophorata Walker ; vemata Packard. 

The habitat of this moth is identical with that of the last-men- 
tioned species. It is not at all uncommon in Pennsylvania. 

Genus CLADORA Hulst 

(i) Cladora atroliturata Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 23, $. 
(The Scribbler.) 

Syn. geminata Grote & Robinson. 

A neatly marked species, which is the sole representative of 
the genus in our fauna. The moths may be found in the early 
spring seated upon the trunks of trees in the forest. It is a native 
of the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus RACHELA Hulst 

Four species of this genus have been characterized by the late 
Dr. Hulst. The only one which occurs in the eastern portions 
of the continent we figure. 

(i) Rachela bruceata Hulst, Plate XLII, Fig. 24, $. 

The moth is found in the northern Atlantic States. It is not 
uncommon in western Pennsylvania. 

SUBFAMILY HYDRIOMENIN^E 
Genus PALEACRITA Riley 

There are reputed to be three species of the genus found in 
the United States. Only one of them, because of its economic 
importance, has received much attention thus far. 

(i) Paleacrita vernata Peck, Plate XLII, Fig. 25, $ , Fig. 26, 
? . (The Spring Canker-worm.) 

Syn. sericeiferata Walker ; autumnata Packard ; merricata Dyar. 

There are two insects known as canker-worms. One of 
these, the smaller of the two, is properly named the Spring 

324 




FIG. 195. Paleacrita ver- 
nata. a, mature larva; b, egg, 
magnified, natural size shown in 
mass at side; c, enlarged seg- 
ment of larva, side view; d, 
do., viewed dorsally. (After 
Riley.) 



Geometridae 

Canker-worm, because the great majority of the moths issue 
from the ground in the spring. It has been a great pest in 
orchards, and formerly in our East- 
ern cities was a nuisance, not only 
because of the injury which it inflicted 
upon the foliage of shade-trees, but 
because of the annoying manner in 
which the larvae, pendent from the 
branches by long threads of silk, were 
blown about over things and persons 
beneath them. It was to effect their de- 
struction that the English sparrow was 
originally imported into this country. 
The ravages of the insects upon the 
foliage of trees in parks and gardens have measurably decreased 
since this step was taken, but in the open country, especially in 

the Valley of the Mississippi, 
the insects are still numerous 
enough to do much harm 
to orchards. The females 
being apterous, the best 
method of preventing the 
multiplication of the insects 
upon trees is to prevent 
them from climbing up 
upon the foliage and ovipositing. A simple device, which has 
proved very effective, is to tie a piece of rope about the trunk 
of the tree which it is intended to protect, and to insert between 
the rope and the bark strips of tin, which, having been put into 
place, should be bent downwardly and outwardly, so as to form 
a collar with a downward flare. The insects have been found 
not to be inclined to pass such a barrier, and they will congregate 
just below it, and may there be captured and destroyed. Birds 
are the chief enemies of the canker-worm, and every wise or- 
chardist will see 'to it that all species of insectivorous birds are 
not molested in his neighborhood, but are encouraged to find in 
his -trees a hospitable welcome. The small amount of fruit 
which the birds take as toll is amply compensated for by the 
work which they perform in keeping down insect pests, such as 

325 




FIG. 196. Paleacrita vemata. a, male; b, 
female ; c, joint of antenna ; d, joint of ab- 
domen; e, ovipositor. (After Riley.) 



Geometridae 

the one under consideration. It is the part of wisdom in every 
way to protect the birds. 

The canker-worm is widely distributed from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific. 

Genus ALSOPHILA Hubner 

Only one species of the genus occurs within our limits. 

(i) Alsophila pometaria Harris. (The Fall Canker-worm.) 

Syn. restituens Walker. 

The Fall Canker-worm in many respects closely resembles 
the preceding species, but a critical eye can at once detect great 
differences both in the form and markings of the caterpillar and 
of the mature insect. The moths generally emerge from the 

pupal state in the late fall, or 
during mild spells of weather 
in the winter, and may even 
continue to come forth until 
the spring is well advanced. 
The eggs are not laid as those 
of the preceding species, sin- 
gly under the scales of bark, 
but are deposited in a com- 
pact mass fastened to the 
twigs by a strong gluey se- 
cretion, and are loosely cov- 
ered with gray hairs, which the female rubs from her abdomen. 
The caterpillars are not ornamented on the back by a multitude 
of fine lines, but have a broad brown stripe along the dorsal line. 
The moths are larger than those of the Spring Canker-worm, and 
have a distinct whitish spot 
on the costa of the primaries 
near the apex. The cater- 
pillar undergoes but two 
molts, and matures very 
rapidly. It has rudimentary 
prolegs on the eighth 
somite. The precautionary 
measures which have proved effective in combating the Spring 
Canker-worm are not efficacious in dealing with this species. 
To effectively destroy them the best means is to spray the foil- 

326 




FlG. 197. Alsophila pometaria. a, egg, 
side view; b, do., top view; c, side view 
of segment of larva; d, top view of seg- 
ment of larva ; f, mature larva ; g, pupa ; 
h, cremaster. (After Riley.) 




FlG. 198.^. pometaria. a, male; b, fe- 
male ; f, female antenna ; d, segment of body 
of female, enlarged. (After Riley.) 



Geometric! se 

age, just as the buds are opening, with some one of the poisonous 
mixtures which are prepared as insecticides. One of the very 
best means of keeping down the ravages of the insects is to 
encourage the cherry-birds (Ampelis) to stay about the place. 
They wage relentless war upon the pests. 

Genus EUDULE Hiibner 

(1) Eudule mendica Walker, Plate XL1I, Fig. 27, 3. (The 

Beggar. ) 

Syn. biseriata Herrich-Schseffer. 

This delicate little moth is widely distributed throughout the 
Appalachian subregion. It has been commonly placed in the 
genus Eupbanessa. 

(2) Eudule unicolor Robinson, Plate XLII, Fig. 38, $. 
(The Plain-colored Eudule.) 

The insect, which has been in most lists attributed to the 
genus Ameria, ranges from Colorado to Texas and Arizona. 

Genus NANNIA Hulst 

(i) Nannia refusata Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 31,9. (Har- 
vey's Geometer.) 

Syn. harveiata Packard. 

This is a common species in the spring of the year in the 
northern Atlantic States. 

Genus HETEROPHLEPS Herrich-Schaeffer 

(i) Heterophleps triguttaria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLII, 
Fig. 29, $. (The Three-spotted Fillip.) 

Syn. quadrinotata Walker ; hexaspilata Walker. 

This pretty little moth is widely distributed throughout the 
entire United States, and is very generally associated with the 
preceding species in locality and time of appearance. 

Genus TEPHROCLYSTIS Hubner 

This is a very extensive genus, composed for the most part 01 
small and inconspicuous species. It is found in both hemispheres. 
We select, for purposes of illustration, one of the commoner 
species, which is found in both Europe and America. 



Geometridas 

(i) Tephroclystis absinthiata Glerck, Plate XL1I, Fig. 32, 
$. (The Absinth.) 

Syn. minutata Treitschke ; notata Stephens ; etongata Haworth ; absynthiata 
Guenee; coagulata Guenee; geminata Packard. 

This inconspicuous little creature illustrates the truth of the 
remark, already made, that the smaller the insect the more and 
the lengthier the names which it bears or which have been im- 
posed upon it. 

Genus EUCYMATOGE Hubner 
(i) Eucymatoge intestinata Guenee, Plate XL1I, Fig. 30, ?. 

Syn. impleta Walker ; indoctrinata Walker. 

The moth is almost universally distributed throughout the 
United States. It is found in the spring of the year seated upon 
the trunks of trees, the gray bark of which it assimilates in 
color. 

Genus VENUSIA Curtis 

The genus is common to both hemispheres. Venusia cam- 
brica Curtis is found in Europe and the United States. Two 
other species of the genus occur in our territory, and of both of 
these we give figures. 

(1) Venusia duodecimlineata Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
15.5. 

The moth is very widely, if not universally, distributed 
throughout temperate North America. 

(2) Venusia comptaria Walker, Plate XL1I, Fig. 33, 6 . 

Syn. fondensata Walker; inclituitaria Walker; inclinata Hulst; perlineata 
Packard. 

The species is common in the eastern portions of the United 
States. 

Genus EUCHCECA Hubner 

(1) Euchceca albovittata Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 19, $. 
(The White-striped Black.) 

Syn. propriaria Walker ; reciprocata Walker. 

The moth is found from the Atlantic to the Pacific and ranges 
well up into Alaska, whence I have obtained specimens taken at 
Sitka and on Lake Labarge, in the Valley of the Yukon. 

(2) Euchceca californiata Packard, Plate XLIV, Fig. 20, $. 
(The Galifornian Black.) 

The moth .inhabits the Pacific States. 
328 



Geometridae 

(3) Euchoeca lucata Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 6, $ . (The 
Woodland Black.) 

The insect is distributed from western Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia to Illinois, and northward to Manitoba. It is not rare 
about Pittsburgh. 

Genus HYDRIA Hiibner 

4 (i) Hydria undulata Linnaeus, Plate XLfl, Fig. 34, ?. (The 
Scallop-shell Moth.) 

This neatly marked species is found in both Europe and 
America. It is the only species of the genus in the United States. 

Genus PHILEREME Hubner 

The species of this genus are all Western in their habitat, 
(i) Philereme californiata Packard, Plate XLII, Fig. 36, $. 
The specimen figured was taken on the slopes of Mt. Shasta. 

Genus EUSTROMA Hubner 

This is quite an extensive genus found in both the New World 
and the Old. Of the nine species recognized thus far as occurring 
within the United States, we figure three. 

(1) Eustroma diversilineata Hubner, Plate XLII, Fig. 42, $ . 
(The Diverse-line Moth.) 

The moth is not at all uncommon in the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Eustroma prunata Linnaeus, Plate XLII, Fig. 53, <3 . (The 
Plum Moth.) 

Syn. ribesiaria Boisduval ; triangulatum Packard ; montanatum Packard. 

The insect is found in both Europe and North America. 

(3) Eustroma atrocolorata Grote, Plate XLII, Fig. 43, $ . 
(The Dark-banded Geometer.) 

A denizen of the Appalachian subregion. It is one of the most 
beautiful of the geometrid moths found in the Atlantic States. 

Genus RHEUMAPTERA Hubner 

A genus of moderate size, the species of which are found in 
the temperate and boreal regions of both hemispheres. 

(i) Rheumaptera hastata Linnaeus, Plate XLII, Fig. 40, '$ , 
Fig. 41, $, var. (The Spear-mark.) 

The species is very variable, and half a dozen forms have been 
named. The only differences existing between these forms are 

329 



Geometridse 

in the relative amount of black and white upon the upper side of 
the wings. The moth is found all through northern Europe and 
Asia, and is widely distributed through the northern United States 
and Canada as far west as Alaska, where it is very common. 

(2) Rheumaptera luctuata Denis & Schiffermuller, Plate XL11, 

Fig. 39> <$ 

The remarks made as to the preceding species apply equally 
well to the present. I have received it in recent years in great 
numbers from Alaska. 

(3) Rheumaptera rubrosuffusata Packard, Plate XLII, Fig. 
38, $. 

The moth is a native of the Pacific States. 

Genus PERCNOPTILOTA Hulst 

This genus is represented in North America by a single species, 
Percnoptilota fluviata Hiibner, which is shown on Plate XLII, 
Fig. 48, by a male specimen. The moth also occurs in 'Europe 
and northern Asia, and has been described under at least fifteen 
different names. The synonymy is too extensive to burden the 
pages of this book with it. 

Genus MESOLEUCA Hiibner 

This is an extensive genus found in the temperate regions of 
the northern hemisphere on both sides of the Atlantic. 

(1) Mesoleuca ruficillata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 21, $. 
The habitat of the species is the northern United States and 

southern Canada. 

(2) Mesoleuca gratulata Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 47, $ . 

Syn. brunneiciliata Packard. 

The insect is found in the Pacific subregion. 

(3) Mesoleuca lacustrata Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. 50, $ . 
This is not an uncommon species in Europe and the northern 

portions of the United States and in Canada. 

(4) Mesoleuca intermediata Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. 49, $ . 
The moth occurs in the Atlantic States. 

(5) Mesoleuca hersiliata Guenee, Plate XLH, Fig. 46, $ . 

Syn. flammifera Walker. 

The home of the species is in the region of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It is not uncommon in Colorado. 

S )y> 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLII 

(The specimens figured are contained in the Collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Palthis asopialis Guenee, 9 

2. Gaberasa ambigualis Walker, tf. 

3. Bomolocha manalis Walker, 9 . 

4. Bomolocha baltimoralis Guenee, 9 . 

5. Bomolocha abalinealis Walker, <5>. 

6. Bomolocha madefactalis Guenee, <J*. 

7. Bomolocha bijugalis Walker, tf. 

8. Bomolocha deceptalis Walker, <^. 

9. Bomolocha toreuta Grote, c?. 

10. Bomolocha scutellaris Grote, 9 

11. Bomolocha edictalis Walker, J. 

12. Hypena humuli Harris, <3*. 

13. Hypena humuli var., <$. 

14. P lathy pena scabra Fabricius, <5*. 

15. Nycteola lintnerana Speyer, tf. 

16. Brsphos infans Moeschler, 9 

17. Calledapteryx dryopterata Grote, tf . 

18. Melanchrom geometroides Walker, $. 

19. Melanchroia cephise Cramer, $. 

20. Sphacelodes vulneraria Hubner, (J 1 . 

21. Dyspteris abortivaria Herrich-SchagfTer, cf. 

22. Nyctobia limitata Walker, tf. 

23. Cladora atroliturata Walker, (J*. 

24. Rachela bruceata Hulst, c?- 
25.. Paleacrila vernaia Peck, <j\ 

26. Paleacrita vernata Peck, 9 

27. Eudule mendica Walker, <5\ 

28. Eudule unicolor^ Robinson, J*. 

29. Heterophleps triguttaria Herrich-Schaeffer, (J 1 . 

30. Eucymatoge intestinata Guen6e, 9 

31. Nannia refusata Walker, c?. 

32. Tephroclystis absinthiata Clerck, <J*. 

33. Venusia comptaria Walker, ^. 

34. Hydria undulata Linnaeus, 9 

35. Hydriomena latirupta Walker, tf. 

36. Philereme calif orniata Packard, cf. 

37. Gypsochroa sitellata Guenee, $. 

38. Rheumaptera rubrosuffusata Packard, c?. 

39. Rheumaptera btctttata Denis & Schiffermuller, J. 

40. Rheumaptera hastata Linnaeus, cJ 1 . 

41. Rheumaptera hastata Linnaeus, var. tf. 

42. Eustroma diversilineata Hubner, <?. 

43. Eustroma atrocolorata Grote, tf. 

44. Gypsochroa designata Hufnagel, <5*. 

45. Trtphosa progressata Walker, J 1 - 

46. Mesoleuca hersiliata Guen6e, cJ 1 . 

47. Mesoleuca gratulata Walker, c?. 

48. Percnoptilota fluriata Hubner, (?. 

49. Mesoleuca intermediata Guen6e, <5*. 

50. Mesoleuca lacustrata Guenee, 9 

51. Hydriomena autumnalis Stromeyer, $. 

52. Hydriomena speciosata Packard, (J 4 . 

53. Eustroma prunata Linnaeus, cJ*. 

54. Hydriomena sordidata Fabricius, (5 1 . 



THE MOTH BOOK. 



PLATE XLII. 




." 

;?.. f 



T 



>* 




*V,, 



Geometridae 

Genus HYDRIOMENA Hubner 

This is a very extensive genus, which is well represented in 
the temperate portions of both the Eastern and the Western 
Hemisphere. There are nearly thirty species which have been 
reported to occur in our fauna. 

(1) Hydriomena sordidata Fabricius, Plate XLII, Fig. 54, ?. 

Syn. rectangulata Fabricius ; bicolorata Borkhausen ; birivata Borkhausen. 

The insect is found all over the northern United States and 
Canada, and is common in Europe. Various varietal forms have 
been described, based upon differences, more or less constant, in 
the markings of the wings. 

(2) Hydriomena autumnalis Stromeyer, Plate XLII, Fig. 
51,5. 

This is another species which is found in Europe, and also 
occurs in the Pacific subregion of North America. It has an ex- 
tensive synonymy, for a knowledge of which the student may 
refer to Staudinger & Rebel's Catalogue of the Moths of the Palae- 
arctic Region, or to Dyar's List. 

(3) Hydriomena speciosata Packard, Plate XLII, Fig. 52, $ . 

The home of this pretty species is in the southwestern por- 
tions of the United States. It occurs in Texas, Arizona, and 
southern California. 

(4) Hydriomena latirupta Walker, Plate XLII; Fig. 35, $ . 

Syn. lascinata Zeller. 

The insect is found almost everywhere in the United States 
and Canada. 

(5) Hydriomena custodiata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 10, 
$ , upper side ; Fig. 1 1, $ , under side. 

Syn. gueneata Packard. 

The moth is an inhabitant of the Pacific subregion. 

Genus TRIPHOSA Stephens 
(i) Triphosa progressata Walker, Plate XLII, Fig- 45, 3. 

Syn. indubitata Grote ; dubitata Packard. 

The species occurs in the northern portions of the Pacific 
subregion. 

" Soft-buzzing Slander ; silly moths that eat 
An honest name." THOMSON. Liberty, Pt. IV, 609. 



Geometridae 

Genus CCENOCALPE Hubner 

This is a moderately large genus, almost all the species of 
which are found in the Pacific subregion or in the southwestern 
portions of the United States. 

(1) Coenocalpe gibbocostata Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 16, $ . 

Syn. costinotata Walker ; strigularia Minot ; ceneiformis Harvey. 

The moth is one of the few species of the genus found in the 
Atlantic States. 

(2) Coenocalpe fervifactaria Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 4, $ . 
This rather pretty insect is found in the region of the Rocky 

Mountains. 

Genus MARMOPTERYX Packard 

(i) Marmopteryx marmorata Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
i, $. (The Marble-wing.) 

The insect ranges from Colorado in the east to California in 
the west. 

Genus GYPSOCHROA Hubner 

(1) Gypsochroa designata Hufnagel, Plate XLII, Fig. 44, $ . 

Syn. propugnata Denis & Schiffermiiller ; propugnaria Treitschke. 

The moth occurs in both Europe and North America. 

(2) Gypsochroa sitellata Guenee, Plate XLII, Fig. 37, $ . 

Syn. hcesitata Guene'e ; impauperata Walker ; albosignata Packard. 

The species is quite widely distributed throughout the United 
States. 

SUBFAMILY MONOCTENIIN^E 
Genus PAOTA Hulst 

(i) Paota fultaria Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 27, <$ . 
The habitat of the species is Arizona. 

Genus H^MATOPSIS Hubner 

(i) Haematopsis grataria Fabricius, Plate XLIII, Fig. 2, $ . 
(The Chick weed Moth.) 

Syn. saniara Hubner ; successaria Walker. 

This common but none the less beautiful little moth is often 
seen by the roadsides, where it has the habit of clinging to the 
stems of grasses, and of flying up when the footsteps of the 
passer-by approach. It is a native of the Appalachian subregion, 



Geometridse 

and ranges from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond. 
The larva feeds on chickweed. 

SUBFAMILY STERRHIN^ 
Genus ERASTRIA Hiibncr 

(i) Erastria amaturaria Walker, Plate XL1II, Fig. 22, $. 

This insect, which is not likely to be mistaken for anything 
else, is a native of the Appalachian subregion. It is common in 
Pennsylvania. 

Genus PIGEA Guen6e 

(i) Pigea mutilineata Hulst, Plate XL1I1, Fig. 3, $. 

The insect is found in Arizona. The specimen figured is one 
of the types of the species which was loaned to Dr. Hulst, and 
upon which he based his description. 

Genus COSYMBIA Hubner 
(i) Cosymbia lumenaria Hubner, Plate XLIII, Fig. 12, ?. 

Syn. pcndulinaria Guenee ; quadriannulata Walker. 

This is a common species in the Atlantic subregion. 
Genus SYN ELYS Hulst 

This is a small genus containing eight or nine species, all of 
which are found in the Southern States, except two. 

(i) Synelys alabastaria Hubner, Plate XLIII, Fig. 5, ?. 

Syn. reconditaria Walker ; ennucleata Packard (non Guene'e). 

The moth is very common in the Appalachian subregion. 
Genus LEPTOMERIS Hubner 

(1) Leptomeris quinquelinearia Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
9, ?. (The Five-lined Geometer.) 

A common species everywhere in the United States. 

(2) Leptomeris sentinaria Hubner, Plate XLIII, Fig. 14, $ . 

Syn. spuraria Christoph ; gracilior Butler. 

The habitat of this insect is the northern portion of the Ap- 
palachian subregion. 

(3) Leptomeris magnetaria Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 8, $ . 
(The Magnet Moth.) 

Syn. rubrolintaria Packard; rubrolineata Packard. 

The insect is found in the Pacific subregion. 
333 



Geometridae 

Genus EOIS Hubner 

(i) Eois ptelearia Riley. (The Herbarium Moth.) 
The moth which is the subject of consideration is interesting 
because of the fact that in recent years it has become known as a 
destructive herbarium pest. The larvae attack the flowers, to 




FIG. 199. Eois ptelearia. a, larva, from side; b, do., from 
above; c, side view of abdominal segment ; d, tubercle of same; e, 
pupa;/^ cremaster ; g, abdominal projection. All figures greatly 
enlarged. (After C. V. Riley, " Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 109.) 

some extent the leaves, and also to a less extent the hard fruits 
and seeds of specimens collected in the Southwestern States 
and in Mexico. Their ravages were first detected at the 
United States National Museum in the year 1890. Strangely 
enough, they show no appetite for species belonging to the flora 
of the Eastern and Northern States. It is believed that the insect 
is native to the region the plants of which it devours, but thus 
far no entomologist has reported its occurrence in the section of 
country from which it is supposed to come. The damage it 
is able to inflict upon specimens is very great, because of the 
very rapid multiplication of individuals which takes place. 

An exceedingly interesting account of the insect and its 

334 



Geometric! ae 

destructive work was given by the late Professor C. V. Riley in 
"Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 108 et seq. From this article the cuts 
which are herewith given have 
been extracted. Botanists can- 
not too carefully guard against 
this and other insect plagues 
which multiply in their collec- 
tions. A solution of corrosive 
sublimate and arsenic, such as 
is commonly employed for 
poisoning herbarium speci- 
mens, will do much to prevent 
the ravages of the larvse; but, 
as is pointed out by Professor 
Riley in the article to which 
reference has been made, addi- 
tional safety from attack will be 
secured if all specimens, as they 
are received in the herbarium, 
are subjected to at least twenty- 
four hours' exposure to the 
fumes of bisulphide of carbon 
in an air-tight box or receptacle. 
This substance, as experience 
has shown, is destructive to all forms of insect life. Care should, 
however, be exercised in its use, as the fumes mixed with atmo- 
spheric gases make a highly explosive compound. The opera- 
tion should never be undertaken in the presence of flame. It is 
not even safe to allow the fumes of carbon bisulphide to mingle 
in large quantity with the atmosphere of an apartment which is 
lighted by electricity. Accidental sparking, owing to some de- 
fect of the wires, may cause an explosion. Several bad accidents 
have occurred from the use in careless hands of this otherwise 
most valuable insecticide. 

(2) Eois ossularia Hubner, Plate XLIII, Fig..7, $ . 

The moth, which has an extensive synonymy, which we will 
omit, is widely distributed throughout the United States. 

(3) Eois inductata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 6, $ . 

Syn. consecutaria Walker ; sobria Walker ; suppressaria Walker. 




FIG. 200. Eois ptelearia. a, larva; 
b, cocoon ; c, moth ; d, egg. All figures 
greatly enlarged. (After C. V. Riley, 
" Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. no.) 



Geometridae 

The species is indigenous in the Appalachian subregion. 
(4) Eois sideraria Guenee, Plate XLI1I, Fig. 1 3, $ . 

Syn. californiaria Packard ; californiata Packard ; padficaria Packard. 

The species ranges over the northern portions of the United 
States. 

SUBFAMILY GEOMETRIN^E 
Genus CHLOROCHLAMYS Hulst 

(i) Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria Guenee, Plate XL1II, 
Fig. 17, ?. 

Syn. indiscriminaria Walker ; densaria Walker ; deprivata Walker. 

The insect ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It is freely 
attracted to light in the evening. 

Genus EUCROSTIS Hiibner 
(i) Eucrostis incertata Walker, Plate XLI1I, Fig. 18, $ . 

Syn. oporaria Zeller ; gratata Packard. 

Not at all uncommon in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus RACHEOSPILA Guenee 

A small genus, characteristic of the hot lands of the American 
continents. One species, R. lixaria, is found in the Appalachian 
subregion as far north as the Middle States; the four remaining 
species found within our territory have thus far been reported only 
from Florida. 

(1) Racheospila hollandaria Hulst, Plate XLIII, Fig. 19, ?. 
The specimen depicted on the plate is the type of the species, 

which was taken by the writer on the upper waters of the St. 
Johns River. 

(2) Racheospila saltusaria Hulst, Plate XLIII, Fig. 20, $ . 
The specimen depicted on the plate is likewise the type of 

the species and came from the same locality as the preceding 
species. 

Genus SYNCHLORA Guenee 
(i) Synchlora liquoraria Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 23, $. 

Syn. tricoloraria Packard. 

A species which is very widely distributed throughout the 
United States. 




Geometridae 

Genus ANAPLODES Packard 
(i) Anaplodes iridaria Guenee, Plate XLII1, Fig. 24, <$ . 

Syn. rectaria Grote. 

The moth ranges from Colorado to California. 

SUBFAMILY FERNALDELLINy 
Genus FERNALDELLA Hulst 

The genus is the only representative of the 
subfamily. There are two species in the genus, 
both of them natives of the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. One of these, originally named 
fimetaria by Grote & Robinson, and subse- 
quently named balesaria by Zeller, is repre- **&"*"*> $ - i- 
sented in the accompanying cut. It is a very common insect in 
central Texas as well as in Colorado and Arizona. 

SUBFAMILY ENNOMIN^E 

Genus EPELIS Hulst 

(i) Epelis truncataria Walker, Plate XLI11, Fig. 26, 9. 

Syn. faxoni Minot. 

This species, the only representative of the genus, ranges 
through the northern and cooler portions of the Appalachian 
subregion, westward to the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus EUFIDONIA Packard 
(i) Eufidonia notataria Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 25, $ . 

Syn. discopilata Walker ; fidoniata Walker ; bicolorata Minot ; quadripunctaria 
Morrison. 

This neatly marked moth is found in the Appalachian subregion. 
It is the only species in the genus. 

Genus ORTHOFIDONIA Packard 

(1) Orthofidonia semiclarata Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
30, 9. 

Syn. viatica Harvey. 

The moth is a native of the Atlantic States. 

(2) Orthofidonia vestaliata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 31, $. 

Syn. junctaria Walker. 

337 



Geometric! ae 

The habitat of this insect is the same as that of the preceding 
species, but it ranges a little farther to the West, and has been 
reported from Colorado. 

Genus DASYFIDONIA Packard 

(i) Dasyfidonia avuncularia Guenee, Plate XL1II, Fig. 
}2,$. 

This very pretty moth occurs from Colorado to California. It 
is the sole species in the genus. 

Genus HELIOMATA Grote 

There are reputed to be three species in this genus. Two of 
them we figure. 

(1) Heliomata infulata Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 28, ?. 

The habitat of the species is the Atlantic region of the 
continent. 

(2) Heliomata cycladata Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 29, 6 . 
The moth ranges from the Atlantic States westward as far as 

Montana. It is nowhere very common. 

Genus MELLILLA Grote 
(i) Mellilla inextricata Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 33, 6 . 

Syn. xanthometata "\Yalker; snoviaria Packard. 

The insect is a native of the Atlantic States. 

Genus CHLORASPILATES Packard 

(i) Chloraspilates bicoloraria Packard, form arizonaria, 
Plate XLIII, Fig. 34, <5 . 

The moth is found in the region of the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus PHYSOSTEGANIA Warren 

. (i) Physostegania pustularia Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
35.3. 

A native of the Atlantic States, ranging westward into the 
Valley of the Mississippi. 

Genus DEILINEA Hubner 
(i) Deilinea variolaria Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 36, ?. 

Syn. inletltata Packard. 

338 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL/Ill 

(The specimens figured are contained in the Collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Marmopteryx marmorata 32. Dasyfidonia avuncularia 

Packard, c?. Guenee, tf. 

2. Haematopis grataria Fabricius, 33. Mellilla xanthometata Walker, 

d 1 - d 1 - 

3. Pigea multilineata Hulst, cT . 34- Chloraspilates arizonaria Grote, 

Type. tf . 

4. Triphosa fervifactaria Grote, c? . 35. Physo stegania pustularia 

5. Synelys alabastaria Hubner, 9- Guenee, ci\ 

6. Eois inductata Guenee, J 1 . 36. Deilinea variolaria Guenee, 9. 

7. Eois ossularia Hubner, <J*. 37. Sciagra phagranitata Guenee, cT- 

8. Leptomeris magnetaria Guenee, 38. Deilinea behrensaria Hulst, <5\ 

d 1 Type. 

9. Leptomeris quinquelinearia 39. Philobia enotata Guenee, J 1 . 

Packard, 9 4- Macaria proeatomata Haworth, 

10. Hydriomena custodiata Guenee, 9 

d 1 . 41. Sciagrapha heliothidata Guenee , 

11. Hydriomena custodiata Guen6e, 9- 

d*i lower side. 42. Sciagrapha mellislrigata Grote, 

12. Cosymbia lumenaria Hubner, 9 . d*- 

13. Eois sideraria Guenee, (J 1 . 43. Macaria s-signata Packard, d 1 - 

14. Leptomeris sentinaria Hubner, 44. Macaria eremiata Guen6e, d- 

cJ*. 45. Cymatophora ribearia Fitch, 9 

1 5 . Venusia duodecimlineata 46. Cymatophora inceptaria Walker , 

Packard, d 1 - d 1 - 

16. Triphosa gibbicostata Walker, <j\ 47. Macaria hypathrata Grote, d . 

17. Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria 48. Cymatophora successaria 

Guenee, 9 . Walker, 9 - 

1 8. Eucrostis incertata Walker, J 1 . 49. Cymatophora coortaria Hulst, (J 1 . 

19. Racheospila hollandaria Hulst, 50. Cymatophora tenebrosata Hulst, 

9 , Type. d . ?>/*?. 

20. Racheospila saltusaria Hulst, 51. Sympherta tripunctaria 

c?, Type. Packard, 9. 

21. Mesoleuca rufocillata Guenee, 52. A pacasia defluata Walker, cJ 1 . 

J 1 . 53. Catopyrrha dissimilaria 

22. Erastria amaturaria Walker, <J* . Hubner, c?. 

23. Synchlora liquoraria Guenee, <J*. 54. Catopyrrha color aria Fabricius, 

24. Anaplodes iridaria Guenee, c?. d* 

25. Eufidonia notataria Walker, (J 1 . 55. Enemera juturnaria Guenee, J 1 . 

26. Epelis truncataria Walker, 9. 56. Platea trilinearia Packard, J 1 . 

2 7 . Paota fultaria Grote .J*. 57. Platea californiaria Her rich- 

28. Heliomata infulata Grote, 9. Schaeffer, J*- 

29. Heliomata cyclada ta Grote, c?. 58. Caripeta divisata Walker, tf . 

30. OrthofidoniasemiclarataWafeer, 59. Philedia punctomacularia 

9 . Hulst, d 1 Type. 

31. Orthofidonia vestaliata Guenee, 60. Nepytia semiclusaria Walker, 



THE MOTH BOOK 




COPYRIGHTED 3' W J. HOLL 



Geometridae 

The moth occurs q.uite commonly in the Atlantic subregion. 
(2) Deilinea behrensaria Hulst, Plate XL1I1, Fig. 38, $. 
A native of the Pacific subregion. The specimen figured is 
one of the types. 

Genus SCIAGRAPHIA Hulst 

(1) Sciagraphia granitata Guenee, Plate XL1I1, Fig. 37, <$ . 
(The Granite Moth.) 

This small moth, which is a common species in the Appa- 
lachian subregion, has been described under no less than nineteen 
names by various authors. The student who is curious as to the 
synonymy may consult Dyar's List. 

(2) Sciagraphia heliothidata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 41, 
9 . (The Sun-flower Moth.) 

Syn. ocellinata Guenee; restorata Walker; stibcolumbata Walker; duplicaia, 
Packard. 

The moth occurs throughout the region of the Great Plains 
and the Rocky Mountains. 

(3) Sciagraphia mellistrigata Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 42, 6 . 
(The Honey-streak.) 

The insect is found in the northern portions of the United 
States, and ranges westward and southward, being not at all 
uncommon in northern Texas and in Colorado. 

Genus PHILOBIA Duponchel 
(i) Philobia enotata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 39, c5 . 

Syn. (Ztnulataria Walker; sectomaculata Morrison; notata Cramer (nan 
Linnseus). 

The insect appears to be common everywhere throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

Genus MACARIA Curtis 

A considerable genus, represented in both hemispheres. 

(1) Macaria s-signata Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 43, <3 . 
The species occurs from Colorado westward to California. 

(2) Macaria eremiata Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 44, $ . 

Syn. retectata Walker; gradata Walker; retentata Walker; subcinctaria 
Walker. 

The habitat of the species is the Appalachian subregion. 

(3) Macaria hypsethrata Grote, Plate XLIII, Fig. 47, $ . 

339 



Geometridae 

The insect flies in Colorado and adjoining States. 

(4) Macaria praeatomata Haworth, Plate XLIII, Fig. 40, 2. 

Syn. consepta Walker. 

Not a rare species in the Atlantic States. 

(5) Macaria glomeraria Grote, Plate XLIV, Fig. 3, ? . 
The range of this species is the same as that of the preceding. 




FIG. 202. Cymatophora ri- 
bearia, <j> . \. (After Riley.) 



Genus -CYMATOPHORA Hiibner 

(i) Cymatophora ribearia Fitch, Plate XLIII, Fig. 45, ? . 
(The Gooseberry Span-worm.) 

Syn. sigmaria Guene"e; annisaria Walker; aniusaria Walker; grossulariata 
Saunders. 

The gooseberry and the currant are subject in the United 
States and Canada to the attack of various insects, which do a 
great deal of damage to them. One of the most frequent causes 
of injury to these plants are the larvae of 
the Gooseberry Span-worm, which is 
represented in Fig. 204. It is, when 
mature, about an inch in length, bright 
yellow in color, marked with dark-brown 
spots upon the segments. The eggs, 
which are laid by the mature female at 
the end of June or the beginning of July, 
are very minute, but upon examination 
under the microscope are seen to be beautifully ornamented with 
deep pits or sculpturings. They are pale bluish-green. The eggs 
are attached by the female to the stems and branches of the plants, 
not far from the ground. Being almost 
microscopic in size, they readily elude 
observation, and this, it is known, accounts 
for the fact that the insects are often, by the 
transplantation of the shrubs, transferred 
from one locality to another in which they 
have been previously unknown. The eggs, 
having been laid, remain through the sum- 
mer and fall and all of the succeeding winter 
in a dormant state, and do not hatch until 
early in the following spring, when the 
leaves are beginning to put out upon the bushes. As soon as the 

340 




FIG. 203. Egg of 
Gooseberry Span-worm. 
a, enlarged ; b, natural 
size. (After Riley.) 



Geometridse 

eggs are hatched, the larvae begin to feed upon the young leaves, 
and they mature very quickly, the rate of their development being 
marked by a correspond- 
ing devastation of the 
plants upon which they 
have established them- 
selves. Pupation takes 
place at the end of May 
or in the beginning of 
June. The caterpillar bur- 
rows into the loose soil 
about the roots of the 
bushes, or simply crawls 
under loose leaves, and, 
without spinning a co- 
coon, undergoes transfor- 
mation into a chrysalis, 
which is smooth and of a 
shining mahogany color. 
In this state the insects 
remain for about two 
weeks, when they emerge 
as moths, and the cycle 
of life is repeated. 

The most effectual method of combating the larvae is to 
sprinkle the bushes with powdered white hellebore. This is a 
good remedy, not only for the species we are considering, but for 
several other insects which are likely to occur upon the plants at 
the same time. 

(2) Cymatophora inceptaria Walker, Plate XLI1I, Fig. 46, 6 . 

Syn. argillacearia Packard; modestaria Hulst. 

A native of the Appalachian subregion. 

(3) Cymatophora successaria Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 
48, 9. 

Syn. perarcuata Walker. 

Form coortaria Hulst, Plate XLIII, Fig. 49, $ . 
A widely distributed species, which is not at all uncommon in 
the Middle Atlantic States. 

(4) Cymatophora tenebrosata Hulst, Plate XLIII, Fig. 50, & . 

341 




FIG. 204. Gooseberry Span-worm, a, b, larvae; 
c, pupa. (After Riley.) 



Geometridae 

The specimen represented upon the plate is one of Dr. Hulst's 
types. The moth is found in Arizona. 

Genus SYMPHERTA Hulst 

u) Sympherta tripunctaria Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 51, ? . 
The moth is found in northern California, and ranges north- 
ward into British Columbia. 

Genus AP^CASIA Hulst 
(i) Apsecasia defluata Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 52, . 

Syn. subaquaria Walker. 

The habitat of the species is the northern portion of the 
Appalachian subregion. 

Genus CATOPYRRHA Hubner 
(i) Catopyrrha coloraria Fabricius, Plate XLIII, Fig. 54, 6 . 

Syn. accessaria Hubner; cruentaria Hubner; atropunctaria Walker. 

Form dissimilaria Hubner, Plate XLIII, Fig. 53, 6 . 

The insect, which in the mature form presents many varietal 
differences, due to variation in the form and shade of the mark- 
ings, is found in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus ENEMERA Hulst 

(i) Enemera juturnaria Guenee, Plate XLIII, Fig. 55, 6. 
The moth is found in the region of the Rocky Mountains, 
westward to California and northward to Alaska. 

Genus CARIPETA Walker 

(1) Caripeta divisata Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 58, 6. 

Syn. albopunctata Morrison. 

The insect is found in the Atlantic States. 

(2) Caripeta angustiorata Walker, Plate XLIV, Fig. 2, $ . 

Syn. piniaria Packard. 

The moth, which is as yet quite rare in collections, is, like the 
preceding species, a native of the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus PLATEA Herrich-Schaeffer 
(i) Platea californiaria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLIII, Fig. 

57. t. 

Syn. uncnnaria Guenee. 

342 



Geometridae 

The moth flies from Colorado to California. 

(2) Platea trilinearia Packard, Plate XLIII, Fig. 56, $ . 

Syn. dukearia Grote. 

The insect ranges from northern Wyoming to Arizona. 

Genus PHILEDIA Hulst 

(i) Philedia punctomacularia Hulst, Plate XLIII, Fig. 59, $ . 
The insect, which is found in the Pacific States, is represented 
on the plate by a figure of the type. 

Genus NEPYTIA Hulst 

(1) Nepytia nigrovenaria Packard, Plate XLIV, Fig. 15, 9. 
The insect is a native of the Pacific subregion. 

(2) Nepytia semiclusaria Walker, Plate XLIII, Fig. 60, $ . 

Syn. pulchraria Minot; pellucidaria Packard; pinaria Packard. 

The moth occurs in the northern portions of the United States. 

Genus ALCIS Curtis 

(1) Alcis sulphuraria Packard, form baltearia Hulst, Plate 
XLIV, Fig. 1,3. 

This insect, which is somewhat variable, is represented in 
the plate by the type of the form to which the Rev. Dr. Hulst 
applied the name baltearia. The species is widely distributed 
throughout the United States. 

(2) Alcis metanemaria Hulst, Plate XLIV, Fig. 5, <5 . 

The moth occurs in Arizona and southern California. The 
figure on the plate is that of the type of the species. 

Genus PARAPHIA Guende 
(i) Paraphia subatomaria Wood, Plate XLIV, Fig. 10, $. 

Syn. nubecularia Guenee ; mammurraria Guenee ; impropriata Walker ; ex- 
superata Walker. 

Form unipuncta Ha worth, Plate XLIV, Fig. n, ?. 

Syn. unipunctata Guenee; triplipunctaria Fitch. 

The moth, which is variable in the shade of the wings and 
the markings, is found in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus PTEROSPODA Dyar 

(i) Pterospoda opuscularia Hulst, Plate XLIV, Fig. 18, ?. 
The insect is a native of California. The specimen figured on 

343 



Geometric! ae 

the plate is the type upon which Dr. Hulst based the description 
of the species. 

Genus CLEORA Curtis 

(1) Cleora pampinaria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 4, $ . 

Syn. sublunaria Guenee ; frugallaria Guenee ; collecta Walker ; tinctaria 
Walker ; fraudulentaria Zeller. 

The moth is a native of the Appalachian subregion, ranging 
from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond. 

(2) Cleora atrifasciata Hulst, Plate XLIV, Fig. 8, ?. 

The specimen figured on the plate is the unique type which 
was described by Hulst in " Entomologica Americana," Vol. Ill, 
p. 214. The species has been overlooked in Dyar's List. 



Genus MELANOLOPHIA Hulst 
(i) Melanolophia canadaria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 7, $ . 

Syn. signataria Walker; imperfectaria Walker; contribuaria Walker. 

A common species in the early spring throughout the United 
States. 

Genus ECTROPIS Hiibner 

(i) Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & Schiffermiiller, Plate 
XLIV, Fig. 9, 6 . 

This species, which is found alike in Europe and America, 
has an extensive synonymy, for a knowledge of which the student 
may refer to Dyar's List or to Staudinger & Rebel's Catalogue. 
The species is widely distributed throughout the continent of 
North America. 

Genus EPIMECIS Hubner 

(i) Epimecis virginaria Cramer, Plate XLIV, Fig. 28, $, 
Fig. 29, ? . 

Syn. hortaria Fabricius ; liriodendraria Abbot & Smith ; disserptaria Walker ; 
amplaria Walker. 

The insect is found in the Appalachian subregion, but is far 
more common in the South than in the North. I have taken it 
in Pennsylvania on rare occasions, but it has been found in great 
abundance by me in Florida. 

344 



Geometridae 

Genus LYCIA Hubner 

(i) Lycia cognataria Guenee, Plate I, Fig. 17, larva; Plate 
XLIV, Fig. 13,6. 

Syn. sperataria Walker. 

This is a common species in the Atlantic States. The larva 
depicted on the plate is brown. In every brood there are many 
specimens of the larvae which are green, and some are even yel- 
lowish. The moth has in the vicinity of Pittsburgh latterly shown 
a fondness for ovipositing upon imported rhododendrons, and the 
caterpillars have proved troublesome. 

Genus NACOPHORA Hulst 
(i) Nacophora quernaria Abbot & Smith, Plate XLIV, Fig. 

14,?- 

The species is not as common as the last, but is not rare. It 
has the same habitat, being a native of the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus APOCHEIMA Hubner 

The genus is found in the boreal regions of both hemispheres. 
Only one species occurs in our fauna. 

(i) Apocheima rachelae Hulst, Plate XLIV, Fig. 12, $. 
(Rachel's Moth.) 

The moth is found in Montana, Assiniboia, and northward to 
Alaska. 

Genus CONIODES Hulst 

(i) Coniodes plumigeraria Hulst. (The Walnut Span- 
worm.) 

In recent years the groves of English walnuts in southern Cal- 
ifornia have been found to be liable to the attack of a span-worm, 
which previously had been unknown or unobserved. The trees 
had up to that time been regarded as singularly immune from the 
depredations of insect pests, and considerable alarm and appre- 
hension were felt when it was found that a small caterpillar had 
begun to ravage them. The insect feeds also upon the leaves of 
various rosaceous plants, and upon the oak. The taste for the 
foliage of the English walnut has evidently been recently acquired. 

An excellent article upon these insects was published in 1897 

345 



Geometridae 

by D. W. Coquillet in the " Bulletins of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture," New Series, No. 7, p. 64. From this 




FIG. 205. C. phimigeraria. a, male; b, female, magnified. (After 
Coquillet, " Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric.," New Series, No. 7, p. 66.) 

article we have taken the accompanying cuts, and from it we 
draw some of the facts herein set forth. In describing the insect 
Mr. Coquillet says: "The color of the caterpillar is a light pinkish 
gray, varied with a darker gray or purplish, or sometimes with 

black and yellow, but never 
marked with distinct lines; 
the piliferous spots are black 
or dark brown, and the spir- 
acles are orange yellow, ringed 
with black, and usually situ- 
ated on a yellow spot. The 
worms become full grown in 
the latter part of April or dur- 
ing the month of May; they 

nf^.- fK P p-irth to n 

nt 

of from tWO tO four 

p itlcheS and f rm Sma11 CelIS ' 

but do not spin cocoons. 

The change to the chrysalis takes place shortly after the cells are 
completed, and the chrysalis remains unchanged throughout the 
entire summer and until early in the following year, when they 
are changed into moths, which emerge from the ground from the 
first week in January to the last week in March. The male moth 

346 




FIG. 206. C. plumigeraria. a, larva, 
magnified; b, segment viewed laterally; c t 
do. viewed dorsally. (After Coquillet, depth 



Geometric! ae 

is winged, but the female is wingless and is so very different in 
appearance from the male that no one not familiar with the facts 
in the case would ever suspect both belong to the same species." 
The best means of combating these pests has been found to 
be to spray the trees, when the caterpillars are just hatching, with 
a solution of Paris green and water, one pound of the poison to 
two hundred gallons of water. 

Genus PHIGALIA Duponchel 
(i) Phigalia titea Cramer, Plate XLIV, Fig. 16, $ . 

Syn. titearia Guenee; revocata Walker; strigataria Minot. 

The species is found in the Appalachian subregion, and is 
very common in Pennsylvania. 

Genus ERANNIS Hiibner 

(i) Erannis tiliaria Harris, Plate XLIV, Fig. 17,6. (The 
Linden Moth.) 

The species ranges from the Atlantic coast to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Genus CINGILIA Walker 

(i) Cingilia catenaria Drury, Plate XLIV, Fig. 21,6. (The 
Chain-streak Moth.) 

Syn. humeralis Walker. 

The range of this species is much the same as that of the one 
which has just been mentioned above. 

Genus SICYA Guenee 

(i) Sicya macularia Harris, Plate XLIV, Fig. 22, $ , Fig. 23, 
? , var. 

This species has an extensive synonymy, the insects being 
variable in the amount of red which they show on the yellow 
ground-color of the wings. The student who wishes to go into 
these matters may consult Dyar's List. The insect is very gen- 
erally distributed throughout our territory. 

Genus THERINA Hiibner 

(i) Therina endropiaria Grote & Robinson, Plate XLIV. 
Fig. 26, $ . 

347 



Geometriflae 

A native of the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Therina athasiaria Walker, Plate XLIV, Fig. 27, $ . 

Syn. siccaria Walker; seminudata Walker; seminudaria Packard; bibularia 
Grote & Robinson. 

The habitat of this species is the same as that of the preceding. 

(3) Therina fiscellaria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 25, 3 . 

Syn. flagitaria Guene'e ; panisaria Walker ; aqualiaria Walker. 

The insect ranges from the Atlantic to Colorado. 

(4) Therina fervidaria Hiibner, Plate XLIV, Fig, 24, $ . 

Syn. pultaria Guenee ; sciata Walker ; invexata Walker. 

The moth is quite common in the Atlantic States, 

Genus METROCAMPA Latreille 

(i) Metrocampa praegrandaria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 
30, $. 

Syn. perlata Guenee ; perlaria Packard ; viridoperlata Packard. 

The home of the species is the northern part of the United 
States and southern Canada. 

Genus EUGONOBAPTA Warren 

(i) Eugonobapta nivosaria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 31, & . 
(The Snowy Geometer.) 

Syn. nivosata Packard. 

This is a very common species in the Appalachian subregion. 
It is particularly abundant in western Pennsylvania. 

Genus ENNOMOS Treitschke 

The genus is found in both Europe and America. Three spe- 
cies are attributed to our fauna, two of which we figure. 

(1) Ennomos subsignarius Hubner, Plate XLIV, Fig. 35, &. 

Syn. niveosericeata Jones. 

The moth ranges from the Atlantic westward as far as 
Colorado. 

(2) Ennomos magnarius Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 34, o . 
(The Notch-wing.) 

Syn. alniaria Packard (non Linnaeus) ; antumnaria Mreschler (tion Werne- 
burg) ; lutaria Walker. 

This is one of the larger and more conspicuous species of the 
family. It is rather a common insect in the northern United States, 

348 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIV 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J. 
Holland.) 

1. Alcis baltearia Hulst, ft, Type. 21. Cingilia catenaria Drury, c?. 

2. Caripeta angustiorata Walker, 22. Sicya macularia Harris, c?. 

9 23. Sicya macularia Harris, var., 

3. Macaria glomeraria Grote, 9 . 9 

4. Cleora pampinaria Guenee, c?. 24. Therina fervidaria Hiibner, $. 

5. Alcis metanemaria Hulst, <j\ 25. Therina fiscellaria Guenee, c?. 

Type. 26. Therina endropiaria Grote & 

6. Euchceca lucata Guenee, (J 1 . Robinson, tf . 

7. Melanolophia canadaria 2 7 . Therina athasiaria Walker, tf . 

Guen6e, <5*. 28. Epimecis virginaria Cramer, 

8. Cleora atrifasciata Hulst, 9, d 1 . 

Type. 29. Epimecis virginaria Cramer, 

9. Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & 9 

Schiffermuller, c? . 30. Metro cam pa pragrandaria 

10. Par aphia subatomaria Wood, Guenee, (?. 

d 1 . 31. Eugonobapta nivosaria Guenee, 

11. Par aphia unipuncta Havvorth, d 1 - 

9 . 32. Plagodis emargataria Guenee, 

12. Apocheima rachelae Hulst, d- 9 

13. Lycia cognataria Guenee, tf . 33. Plagodis serinaria Herrich- 

14. Nacophora quernaria Abbot & Schasffer, <^. 

Smith, 9 34- Ennomos magnarius Guenee, 

15. Nepytia nigrovenaria Packard, <?. 

9 35- Ennomos subsignarius Hiibner, 

1 6. Phigalia titea Cramer, tf . $ . 

17. Erannis tiliaria Harris, <?. .36. Plagodis keutzingi Grote, c?. 

18. Pterospoda opuscularia Hulst, 37. Ania limbata Haworth, 9 

9 , Type. 38. Hyperitis amicaria Herrich- 

19. Euchceca albovittata Guenee, Schasffer, (J 1 . 

(J 1 . 39. Xanthotype crocataria 

20. Euchceca californiata Packard, Fabricius, tf. 

J*. 40. Xanthotype ccelaria Hulst, c?. 



THE MOTH BOOK 



- - 

f * \ A 




UGHTEO BY W. 0. HOU.AN3 



Geometridae 

and appears on the wing most abundantly in the late summer and 
early fall. 

Genus XANTHOTYPE Warren 

(i) Xanthotype crocataria Fabricius, Plate XLIV, Fig. 39, 
$ . (The Crocus Geometer.) 

Syn. citrina Hiihner. 

Form cselaria Hulst, Plate XLIV, Fig. 40, $ . 

Quite a common species in the Appalachian subregion. The 
insect shows great variability in the amount of the dark spots 
and cloudings upon the upper side of the wings. 

Genus PLAGODIS Hiibner 

(1) Plagodis serinaria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLIV, Fig. 

33> * 

Syn. subprivata Walker ; floscularia Grote. 

A common species of the Appalachian subregion, particularly 
abundant among the Alleghany Mountains. 

(2) Plagodis keutzingi Grote, Plate XLIV, Fig. 36, $ . 

Syn. keutzingaria Packard. 

The habitat of this species is identical with that of the 
preceding. 

(3) Plagodis emargataria Guenee, Plate XLIV, Fig. 32, ? . 

Syn. arrogaria Hulst. 

The range of the moth is throughout the northern portions of 
the Atlantic subregion. 

Genus HYPERITIS Guene"e 

(i) Hyperitis amicaria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLIV, Fig. 
38,5. 

Syn. nyssaria Guene"e; exsimaria Guene"e; insinuaria Guene"e; laticincta 
Walker ; subsimtaria Guene"e ; neoninaria Walker ; neonaria Packard ; (?sionaria 
Walker. 

A very variable species, which has a wide distribution 
throughout the eastern portions of our territory. 

Genus ANIA Stephens 
(i) Ania limbata Haworth, Plate XLIV, Fig. 37, ?. 

Syn. vestitar'u* Herrich-Schseffer ; resistaria Herrich-Schaeffer ; filimentaria 
Guenee. 

By no means rare in the eastern portions of our territory. 
349 



Geometridae 



Genus GONODONTIS Hubner 



(1) Gonodontis hypochraria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLV, 
Fig. 1,6. 

Syn. refractaria Guenee ; mestusata Walker. 

The insect ranges from the Atlantic coast to the central por- 
tions of the Rocky Mountains. It is very variable in color and 
in the distribution of the spots and markings. 

(2) Gonodontis duaria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 2, ? . 

Syn. hamaria Guenee ; agreasaria Walker; adustaria Walker. 

The distribution of this species is coincident with that of the 
preceding. 

(3) Gonodontis obfirmaria Hubner, Plate XLV, Fig. 14, $ . 
The moth is found in the Atlantic States. It is common in 

western Pennsylvania. 

Genus EUCHLAENA Hubner 

(1) Euchlaena serrata Drury, Plate XLV, Fig. 4,$. (The 
Saw-wing.) 

Syn. serrataria Packard ; concisaria Walker. 

This rather large and showy species is not at all uncommon 
in the eastern portions of the region with which this book deals. 

(2) Euchlaena obtusaria Hubner, Plate XLV, Fig. 3, $ . 

Syn. propriaria Walker ; decisaria Walker. 

Like the preceding species, a native of the eastern half of the 
continent. 

(3) Euchlaena effectaria Walker, Plate XLV, Fig. 24, $ . 

Syn. muzaria Walker. 

A denizen of the Appalachian subregion. 

(4) Euchlaena amcenaria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 7, $ . 

Syn. deplanaria Walker ; arefactaria Grote & Robinson. 

The habitat of the insect is the same as that of the preceding 
species. 

(5) Euchlaena astylusaria Walker, Plate XLV, Fig. 8, $ . 

' Syn. madusaria Walker ; oponearia Walker ; vinosaria Grote & Robinson. 

A native of the Atlantic States. 

(6) Euchlaena pectinaria Denis & Schiffermuller, Plate XLV 

Fig. 25, $ . 

Syn. deductaria Walker. 

Found from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. 



Geometric! ae 

Genus EPIPLATYMETRA Grote 

(i) Epiplatymetra coloradaria Grote & Robinson, Plate 
XLV, Fig. 15, 3. 

The insect is common in Wyoming and Colorado. 

Genus PHERNE Hulst 

(1) Pherne parallelia Packard, Plate XLV, Fig. 9, ?. 

Syn. paralleliaria Packard. 

The moth is a native of the Pacific subregion. 

(2) Pherne jubararia Hulst, Plate XLV, Fig. 20, ?. 

The insect occurs in the State of Washington. The specimen 
depicted in the plate is the type of the species originally described 
by Hulst. 

(3) Pherne placearia Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 21,6. 

Syn. mellitularia Hulst. 

The habitat of the species is California. 

Genus METANEMA Guen<5e 

(1) Metanema inatomaria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 13, $. 
A widely distributed species, found throughout the entire 

territory. 

(2) Metanema determinata Walker, Plate XLV, Fig. 12, ?. 

Syn. carnaria Packard. 

The moth occurs in the northern portions of the Appalachian 
subregion. 

(3) Metanema quercivoraria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 28, ? . 

Syn. celiaria Walker ; trilinearia Packard. 

The insect has a wide range in the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus PRIOCYCLA Guende 

(i) Priocycla armataria Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLV, Fig. 
6,3. 

Very commonly found in the eastern portions of our territory. 

Genus STENASPILATES Packard 

(i) Stenaspilates zalissaria Walker, Plate XLV, Fig. 5, ? . 
The moth occurs in the region of the Gulf of Mexico, and is 
common in Florida. 

351 



Geometridae 

Genus AZELINA Guene"e 
(i) Azelina ancetaria Hubner, Plate XLV, Fig. 23, $. 

Syn. hubneraria Guenee ; hubnerata Packard ; honestaria Walker ; peplaria 
Hubner; stygiaria Walker; atrocolorata Hulst; morrisonata Henry Edwards. 

A very common and a very variable species, which is widely 
distributed throughout the entire continent, except in the colder 
portions. 

Genus SYSSAURA Hubner 

(i) Syssaura infensata Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 10, ?, var. 
biclaria Walker. 

Syn. ephyrata Guenee ; olyzonaria Walker ; cequosus Grote & Robinson ; ses- 
quilinea Grote ; Ktnearia Walker; puber Grate & Robinson; varus Grote & Robin- 
son ; juniperaria Packard. 

This species, which has a very extensive range in the southern 
Atlantic and Gulf States, has been frequently redescribed, as a 
reference to the above synonymy will show. 

Genus CABERODES Guene"e 

(1) Caberodes confusaria Hubner, Plate XLV, Fig. 29, $. 

Syn. remissaria Guenee; imbraria Guenee; superaria Guene"e; ineffusaria 
Guenee ; floridaria Guenee ; phasianaria Guenee ; interlinearia Guenee ; varadaria 
Walker ; arburaria Walker ; amyrisaria Walker ; myandaria Walker, etc. 

This is a very common moth, universally found throughout the 
temperate portions of the territory with which this book deals. 
It is somewhat variable, but there is hardly any excuse for the 
application to it of the multitude of names which have been 
given. The student is likely to recognize it in any of its slightly 
varying forms from the figure we have supplied in our plate. 

(2) Caberodes majoraria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 31, ?. 

Syn. pandaria Walker. 

This is a larger species than the preceding, with more delicate 
wings. It ranges from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. 

Genus OXYDIA Guene"e 

(^i) Oxydia vesulia Cramer, Plate XLV, Fig. n, &. 

This moth has a very lengthy synonymy, which we will not 
attempt to give. It. is one of the larger species found within our 
territory, and ranges from Florida and Texas southward to the 
Valley of the Rio de la Plata in South America. 

352 



Geometridae 

Genus TETRACIS Guen<e 
(i) Tetracis crocallata Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 16, $. 

Syn. allediusaria Walker ; aspilata Guenee. 

This is a common species in the Atlantic subregion. 

Genus SABULODES Guenee 

(1) Sabulodes sulphurata Packard, Plate XLV, Fig. 18, ?. 

Syn. imitata Henry Edwards. 

A native of the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Sabulodes arcasaria Walker, Plate XLV, Fig. 17, $. 

Syn. depontanata Grote. 

The moth has the same habitat as the preceding species. 

(3) Sabulodes lorata Grote, Plate XLV, Fig. 19, $ . 
Common in the eastern portions of our territory. 

(4) Sabulodes truxaliata Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 26, ? . 
The insect ranges from Colorado to California. 

(5) Sabulodes transversata Drury, Plate XLV, Fig. 34, ? . 

Syn. transmutans Walker; contingens-'WaSkeT} Iran sfindens Walker ; goniata 
Guen6e ; transvertens Walker ; transposita Walker ; incumata Guenee. 

This is one of the commonest species which are found in the 
Atlantic subregion. It is very abundant in Pennsylvania in the 
late summer and early autumn. There is also a brood which 
appears in the early summer. 

(6) Sabulodes politia Cramer, Plate XLV, Fig. 30, $ . 

The moth, which is found in Florida, and southward through 
the warmer portions of America, has a very extensive synonymy, 
which will be found in Dyar's List. 

Genus ABBOTANA Hulst 

(i) Abbotana clemataria Abbot & Smith, Plate XLV, Fig. 

32, ? , Fig. 33, 6 , var. 

Syn. transferens Walker ; transducens Walker. 

A somewhat variable species, which is widely distributed 
through the Appalachian subregion. It is not uncommon in 
Pennsylvania. 

" Moths, which the night-air of reality blows to pieces." 

CLIVE HOLLAND. My Japanese Wife. 

353 



Geometridae 

SUBFAMILY MECOCERATIN/E 
Genus MECOCERAS Guene"e 
(i) Mecoceras nitocris Cramer, Plate XLV, Fig. 22, $. 

Syn. nitocraria Hiibner ; peninsularia Grote. 

The habitat of the species is Florida. 

Genus ALMODES Guene~e 
(i) Almodes terraria Guenee, Plate XLV, Fig. 27, $ . 

Syn. stelliJaria Guenee; squamigera Felder ; balteolata Herrich-Schaeffer ; 
assecoma Druce; calvina Druce; rlvularia Grote. 

This is a tropical species, the sole representative of its genus 
found within our borders. It ranges from Florida southward 
into Central and South America. 

SUBFAMILY PALYADIN^E 

Genus PALYAS Guen6e 

(i) Palyas auriferaria Hulst, Plate XLV, Fig. 36, $. 
The specimen figured in the plate is the type which was 
loaned by the writer to the author of the species. 

Genus PHRYGIONIS Hiibner 
(i) Phryigonis argenteostriata Strecker, Plate XLV, Fig. 

35,?- 

Syn. cerussata Grote ; obrussata Grote. 

This moth, like the preceding species, is a native of Florida. 

SUBFAMILY SPHACELODIN/E 
Genus SPHACELODES Guen<e 
(i) Sphacelodes vulneraria Hubner, Plate XLII, Fig. 20, $ . 

Syn. floridensis Holland. 

. The moth is found from the southern portions of North Caro- 
lina along the Atlantic coast to Florida, and ranges southward 
into South America. 

SUBFAMILY MELANCHROIIN^E 

Genus MELANCHROIA Hubner 

(i) Melanchroia cephise Cramer, Plate XLII, Fig. 19, $ . 

354 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLV 

(The specimens figured are contained in the collection of W. J 
Holland.) 

1. Gonodontis hypochraria Herrich-Schasffer, J 1 . 

2. Gcnodontis duaria Guenee, 9 . 

3. Euchlcena obtusaria Hiibner, tf . 

4. Euchlcena serrata Drury, tf . 

5. Stenaspilates zalissaria Walker, 9 

6. Priocycla armataria Herrich-Schaeffer, tf. 

7. Euchlcena amcenaria Guenee, <J*. 

8. Euchlcena astylusaria Walker, (J 1 . 

9. Pherne parallelia Packard, 9 

10. Syssaura infensata Guenee, var. biclaria Walker, 9 

11. Oxydla vesulia Cramer, (5 1 . 

12. Metanema determinata Walker, 9 

13. Metanema inatomaria Guenee, J 1 . 

14. Gonodontis obfirmaria Hiibner, cJ 1 . 

15. Epiplatymetra coloradaria Grote & Robinson, & . 

1 6. Tetrads crocallata Guen6e, cT- 

17. Sabulodes arcasaria Walker, tf . 

1 8. Sabulodes sulphurata Packard, 9- 

19. Sabulodes lorata Grote, c?. 

20. Pherne jubararia Hulst, 9 , Type. 

21. Pherne placearia Guenee, <J*. 

22. Mecoceras nitocris Cramer, tf. 

23. Azelina ancetaria Hiibner, (J*. 

24. Euchlcena effectaria Walker, c?. 

25. Euchlxna pectinaria Denis & Schiffermtiller, <?. 

26. Sabulodes truxaliata Guenee, 9 

27. Altnodes terraria Guen6e, tf . 

28. Metanema quercivoraria Guen6e, 9 

29. Caberodes confusaria Hiibner, J*. 

30. Sabulodes politia Cramer, tf . 

31. Caberodes major aria Guenee, 9 

32. Abbotana clemitaria Abbot & Smith, 9 . 

33. Abbotana clemitaria Abbot & Smith, cj\ var. 

34. Sabulodes transversata Drury, 9 

35. Phrygionis argenteostriata Strecker, 9 

36. Palyas auriferaria Hulst, <?, Type. 



Qeometridae 

Found throughout the region ot tne Gulf southward to South 
America. 

(2) Melanchroia geometroides Walker, Plate XLII, Fig. 
1 8, 3; 

Syn. man Lucas. 

The moth occurs in Florida and southern Texas, and ranges 
thence southward into Brazil. 

SUBFAMILY BREPHIN/E 
Genus BREPHOS Ochsenheimer 

(i) Brephos infans Moeschler, Plate XLII, Fig. 16, ?. (The 
Infant.) 

This is a boreal insect which occurs upon the White Moun- 
tains in New Hampshire, in northern Maine, and ranges thence 
northwardly to Labrador. 



LIVING AND DYING 

" Then let me joy to be 

Alive with bird and tree, 
And have no haughtier aim than this, 
To be a partner in their bliss. 

So shall my soul at peace 

From anxious carping cease, 
Fed slowly like a wholesome bud 
With sap of healthy thoughts and good 

That when at last I die 

No praise may earth deny, 
But with her living forms combine 
To chant a threnody divine." 

EDMUND GOSSE. The Farm. 



355 



FAMILY EPIPLEM1D/E 

" And I will purge thy mortal grossness so, 
That thou shall like an airy spirit go. 
Peaseblossom! Cobweb! Moth! and' Mustardseed!" 

SHAKESPEARE. Midsummer Nighfs Dream, III, i. 

This is a family of small moths in many respects closely allied 
to the Geometridce, so far as the structure and general appearance 
of the mature insects are concerned. The larvae are, however, 
quite different. The family has been described as follows by 
Hampson, "The Moths of India," Vol. Ill, p. 121: 

" Proboscis and frenulum present. Fore wing with vein \a 
separate from \b; \c absent; 5 from or from above the middle of 
the discocellulars; 7 widely separated from 8, and usually stalked 
with 6. Hind wing with two internal veins; vein 5 from or from 
above the middle of the discocellulars; 8 free from the base. 

Larvce with five pairs of prolegs and sparsely clothed with 
hair." 

The family is much better represented in the tropics of the 
New World than in our territory, and even better represented in 
the tropics of the Old World than of the New. Only four genera 
are known to occur within the United States, Philagraula, Cal- 
li^ia, Calledapteryx, and Schidax. Of these we have selected one 
for purposes of illustration. 

Genus CALLEDAPTERYX Grote 
(i) Calledapteryx dryopterata Grote, Plate XLII, Fig. 17, $> . 

Syn. erosiata Packard. 

This little moth, which may easily be distinguished by its 
deeply eroded or scalloped wings, is not uncommon in the Appa- 
lachian subregion. It has the habit of alighting upon old rails 
and the trunks of trees, and, before composing itself on its new 
station, of waving its wings three or four times upward and 
downward. This peculiar habit enables the collector to quickly 
recognize it. 

356 



FAMILY NOLID/E 

" I would bee unwilling to write anything untrue, or uncertaine out of mine 
owne invention ; and truth on every part is so deare unto mee, that I will not lie to 
bring any man in love and admiration with God and his works, for God needeth 
not the lies of men." TOPSELL, writing upon the Unicorn in The Historic of Four- 
footed Beasts. 

This is a small family of quite small moths, which have by 
many authors been associated with the Lithosiidce. They are 
characterized by the presence of ridges and tufts of raised scales 
upon the fore wings. They frequent the trunks of trees, and the 
larvae feed upon lichens growing upon the bark. The caterpillars 
have eight pairs of legs and are thinly clad with minute hairs. 
Four genera occur within the limits with which this book deals. 

Genus CELAMA Walker 

Seven species occurring within our territory are attributed to 
this genus. 

(1) Celama triquetrana Fitch, Plate XIII, Fig. 25, $ . 

Syn. trinotata Walker ; sexmaculata Grote. 

The moths may be found in the early spring of the year, sitting 
upon the trunks of trees in the forest. They are easily recognized 
by the three black tufts of raised scales upon the costa of the fore 
wing. 

(2) Celama pustulata Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 26, $ . 

Syn. nigrofasciata Zeller ; obaurata Morrison. 

This species, like the preceding, is common in the Appalachian 
subregion. It may be at once distinguished from the former by 
the wide black band running across the middle of the primaries. 

Genus NOLA Leach 

There are three species of the genus found within our fauna. 
We select the commonest for purposes of illustration, 
(i) Nola ovilla Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 24, 3 . 

357 



Nolidae 

The habits of this insect are much like those of the species de- 
scribed under the preceding genus. It is found associated with 
them at the same time and in the same localities. The moth has 
a considerable range in the Atlantic States, and is always very 
abundant in the forests of Pennsylvania in the early spring. It 
seems to prefer the trunks of beeches and oaks. 

Genus RCESELIA Hiibner 
(i) Roeselia fuscula Grote, Plate XIII, Fig. 27, ?. 

Syn. conspicua Dyar. 

This moth is a native of Colorado, where it is not uncommon. 
An allied species, Roeselia minuscula Zeller, is found in the At- 
lantic States. 

Genus NIGETIA Walker 

(i) Nigetia formosalis Walker, Plate XIII, Fig. 32, $. 

Syn. melanopa Zeller. 

This rather pretty little creature is common in the woodlands 

of the Appalachian subregion. 
It is freely attracted to sugar, 
and when sugaring for moths 
in southern Indiana I have 
taken it very frequently. In 
fact, it appears to be commoner 

FIG. 207. N. formosalis, $ . f . in southern Indiana than in 

(After Hampson.) any Qther j oca jj ty where ] 

have found it, though it is by no means rare in Pennsylvania. 



' ... all you restless things, 
That dance and tourney in the fields of air : 

Your secret 's out ! I know you for the souls 
Of all light loves that ever caused heartache, 
Still dancing suit as some new beauty toles! 
Nor can you e'er your flitting ways forsake, 
Till the just winds strip off your painted stoles, 
And sere leaves follow in your downward wake." 

EDITH M. THOMAS. 



358 




FAMILY LACOSOMID^E 

" Everything lives by a law; a central balance sustains all." 

C. L. VON KUEBEL. 

This is a small family of moths peculiar to the Western Hemi- 
sphere. While the perfect insects show structural resemblances 
to the Platypterygidce, the caterpillars, which have the habit of 
constructing for themselves portable cases out of leaves, which 
they drag about with them, resemble in some respects the 
Psychidce. The young larva of Cicinnus melsbeimeri, imme- 
diately after hatching, draws together two small leaves with 
strands of silk, and makes between them its hiding-place. 
Afterward, when more mature, it detaches two pieces of leaves 
and makes out of them a case which it carries about with it, and 
which it can desert at will. When at rest it ties the case to a 
station selected with a few strands of silk, which it bites off 
when it desires again to start on a journey among the branches. 
The larva of Lacosoma makes a case by doubling a leaf at the 
midrib, cutting it off at the petiole, and taking it with it as a 
portable house. There are only two genera of this family in our 
fauna. It is more abundantly represented in the tropics of South 
America. 

Genus CICINNUS Blanchard 

(i) Cicinnus melsheimeri Harris, Plate XLI, Fig. 17, ?. 
(Melsheimer's Sack-bearer.) 

Syn. egenaria Walker. 

The species occurs in the eastern portions of our territory. 
It is not uncommon in Pennsylvania. 

Genus LACOSOMA Grote 

(i) Lacosoma chiridota Grote, Plate XLI, Fig. 21, <$ . 
(The Scalloped Sack-bearer.) 

The distribution of this species is the same as that of the 
foregoing. It occurs quite frequently in western Pennsylvania. 
Specimens from Florida in the possession of the author are 
smaller and much darker in color. 

359 



FAMILY PSYCHID^E 

" The habits of insects are very mines of interesting knowledge, and it is im- 
possible carefully to watch the proceedings of any insect, however insignificant, 
without feeling that no writer of fiction ever invented a drama of such absorbing 
interest as is acted daily before our eyes, though to indifferent spectators." 

J. G. WOOD. 

A family of small or medium-sized moths, the larvae of which 
feed in a case composed of silk covered with bits of leaves, grass, 
twigs, or other vegetable matter, which are often arranged in a 
very curious manner. From this fact has arisen the custom of 
calling the caterpillars " basket-worms." In certain species found 
in Asia and Africa, these "baskets," or "cases," are spiral in 
form, and so closely resemble the shells of snails that they were, 
in fact, originally sent to the British Museum as shells by the first 
person who collected them. The pupa is formed within the 
larva-case. The males are winged, but the females are without 
wings. The female in almost all of the genera is possessed of a 
very lowly organization, being maggot-like, and in truth being 
little more than an ovary. She is known to deposit her eggs in 
the larval skin which lines the sack in which she was developed. 
Copulation takes place through the insertion of the abdomen of 
the winged male into the sack where the female is concealed. 
Parthenogenesis is ascertained to occur in one at least of the 
genera. The moths are obscurely colored. The wings of the 
males have numerous scales upon them, but they are in many 
species so loosely attached that they are lost in the first few 
moments of flight. In consequence the male insects appear to 
have diaphanous wings. 

Eight genera, including the genus Solenobia, which has by 
most authors heretofore been reckoned among the Timidce, are 
attributed by Dyar to this family as occurring within our territory. 
Much remains to be learned both as to the structure and the life- 
history of these interesting, but obscure, moths. 

360 



Psychidae 




FIG. 208. 
Oiketicus abboti, 



Genus OIKETICUS Guilding 

The genus is found in the hotter parts of Amer- 
ica, the typical species having originally been 
found in Central America. It is also represented 
in southern Asia and in Australia. Three species 
occur in the United States one in southern Cali- 
fornia, another in New Mexico, and a third in 
Florida. The latter species was named abboti by 
Grote, and the male is delineated in Fig. 208. 
The wings are pale smoky brown, with darker 
maculation at the end of the cell and just beyond in the primaries. 

Genus THYRIDOPTERYX Stephens 
(i) Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Ha worth, Plate XLI> 
Fig. 12, $. 

Syn. coniferarum Packard. 

The common "Bag-worm," as it is usually called, occurs 
throughout the Appalachian subregion, from the Atlantic to the 




c f 

FIG. 209. Thyridopteryx ephemer&formis. (Bag-worm.) 
<r, larva ; b, male pupa ; c, female pupa ; </, male moth ; e, 
female chrysalis in cocoon, showing eggs in situ ; f, full-grown 
larva ; g, young larvae with small cones of silk over them. 
(After Riley.) 

borders of the Great Plains. It is a very promiscuous feeder, 
attacking trees and shrubs of many genera, but, so far as is 

361 



Psychidse 

known, abstaining from the Graminece. It evinces special fond- 
ness for the conifers, and above all for the red cedar and arbor- 
vitae. It has proved very injurious to shade-trees in some of our 
cities, and its ravages in St. Louis and Washington have been 
made the subject of repeated comment in the literature of eco- 
nomic entomology. A very full and interesting account of the 
habits of this peculiar insect was published by the late Professo. 
C. V. Riley in the "First Annual Report of the State Entomologist 
of Missouri, " to which the reader will do well to refer. The ' ' bag, " 
or "basket," of the male insect is smaller than that of the female. 
The males escape from the lower end of the case in the winged 
form, and having copulated with the females, which remain in 
their cases and are apterous and sluggish, die. The female de- 
posits her eggs, which are soft and yellow, in the sack where she 
has her home, and ends her existence by leaving what little of her 
body remains after the ova have been extruded, as a sort of loose 
plug of desiccated tissue at the lower end of the sack. The eggs 
remain in the case till the following spring, when they hatch. 
The young larvse emerge, and placing themselves upon the 
leaves, where they walk about on their fore feet, with their anal 
extremities held up perpendicularly, proceed to construct about 
themselves little cones of vegetable matter mixed with fine silk. 
After a while they cease to hold these cones erect, and seizing 
the leaves and branches with their feet, allow the bag to assume 
a pendant position. They moult within their cases four times 
before reaching maturity and pupating. 

The remedy for these insects is to simply collect the cases 
which may be found in the fall and winter hanging from the 
branches, and burn them. In one of the parks in St. Louis sev- 
eral years ago, the superintendent caused the cases to be col- 
lected, and they were destroyed by the bushel, with great benefit 
to the trees the next summer. 

Genus EURYCYTTARUS Hampson 

This is a small genus of very small case-bearing moths, twc 
species of which are known to occur in the United States. E. 
carbonaria is found in Texas. The other species, which we figure, 
is a native of the Appalachian subregion. 

362 



Psychidae 

(i) Eurycyttarus confederata Grote & Robinson, Plate I, 
Fig. 16, larval case; Plate XLI, Fig. 8, <5 . 

The insects feed upon grasses and herbaceous plants in the 
larval state. When ready to pupate they attach their cases to 
the under side of rails, the stringers of fences, and fallen branches 
of trees. The insect is very common in western Pennsylvania 
and in the city of Pittsburgh. 

FAR OUT AT SEA 

" Far out at sea the sun was high, 

While veered the wind and flapped the sail ; 
We saw a snow-white butterfly 
Dancing before the fitful gale 
Far out at sea. 

The little wanderer, who had lost 

His way, of danger nothing knew; 
Settled a while upon the mast ; 

Then fluttered o'er the waters blue 
Far out at sea. 

Above, there gleamed the boundless sky; 

Beneath, the boundless ocean sheen ; 
Between them danced the butterfly, 

The spirit-life of this vast scene, 
Far out at sea. 

The tiny soul that soared away, 

Seeking the clouds on fragile wings, 
Lured by the brighter, purer ray 

Which hope's ecstatic morning brings 
Far out at sea. 

Away he sped, with shimmering glee, 

Scarce seen, now lost, yet onward borne! 
Night comes with wind and rain, and he 

No more will dance before the morn, 
Far out at sea. 

He dies, unlike his mates, I ween 

Perhaps not sooner or worse crossed ; 
And he hath felt and known and seen 
A larger life and hope, though lost 
Far out at sea." 

R. H. HORNE. Genius. 

363 



FAMILY COCHLIDIID/E 

"The rearing of larvae . . . when joined with the entomological collection, 
adds immense interest to Saturday afternoon rambles, and forms an admirable 
introduction to the study of physiology." 

HERBERT SPENCER, in Education. 

This family, which has generally been known as the Limaco- 
didce, is described as follows by Hampson, "The Moths of 
India," Vol. I, p. 371 : 

"Fore wing with two internal veins; vein \b forked at the 
base. Hind wing with vein 8 arising free, then bent down and 
usually anastomosing shortly with 7 near the base of the cells; 
three internal veins. 

Larva limaciform, and either bearing series of spinous sting- 
ing tubercles, or smooth and segmented, or unsegmented with 
very thick transparent cuticle; the head, legs, and claspers small 
and often retractile. 

Cocoon hard and compact; round or oval in shape, with a 
lid for the escape of the imago prepared by the larva." 

These curious insects, the larvae of which are commonly 
known as "slug-caterpillars," are better represented in the tropics 
of both hemispheres than in the more temperate regions. Never- 
theless our fauna contains quite a large number of genera and 
species. Of the majority of these we give illustrations. 

Genus SIBINE Herrich-Schaeffer 

(i) Sibine stimulea Clemens, Plate I, Fig. 6, larva; Plate 
XLVII, Fig. 9, $ . (The Saddle-back.) 

Syn. ephippiatus Harris. 

The green caterpillars with their little brown saddle on the 
back are familiar to every Southern boy who has wandered in the 
corn-fields, and many a lad can recall the first time he came in 
contact with the stinging bristles as he happened to brush against 
the beastie. Nettles are not to be compared in stinging power to 
the armament of this beautifully colored larva. 

364 



Cochlidiidae 

Genus EUCLEA Hiibner 
(j) Euclea nanina Dyar, Plate XLVII, Fig. 25, 6. 

Syn. nana Dyar (non Herrich-Schaeffer). 

The moth is a native of Florida. The writer took it in some 
numbers, in the spring of the year 1884, on the upper waters of 
the St. Johns. 

(2) Euclea delphkiii Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 24, ?. 
(The Spiny Oak-slug.) 

Syn. strigala Boisduval; qnercicola Herrich-Schseffer; tardigrada Clemens; 
ferruginea Packard ; argentatus Wetherby. 

Form viridiclava Walker, Plate XLVII, Fig. 23, <5 . 

Syn. monitor Packard. 

Form paenulata Clemens, Plate XLVII, Fig. 5, $ . 
This is a very variable species. It occurs in the eastern portion 
of our territory, and is not at all uncommon. 

(3) Euclea indetermina Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 10, 6 . 

Syn. vernata Packard. 

The species is found in the States of the Atlantic seaboard. 

(4) Euclea chloris Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLVH, Figs. 15 

and 29, ? , Fig. 26, $ . 

Syn. viridis Reakirt ; fraterna Grote. 

The insect has the same range as the species last mentioned. 

Genus MONOLEUCA Grote & Robinson 

The insects belonging to this genus are subtropical so far as 
they are known to occur in the United States. The genus is well 
represented in Central and South America. 

(i) Monoleuca semifascia Walker, Plate XLVII, Fig. 22, $ . 

The moth is found in the Gulf States. 

Genus ADONETA Clemens 

(1) Adoneta spinuloides Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLVII, 
Fig- 3, <$ 

Syn. valuta Clemens ; ferrigera Walker ; nebulosus Wetherby. 

This is a common species in western Pennsylvania, and is 
widely distributed through the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Adoneta pygmaea Grote & Robinson, Plate XLVII, Fig 
19, 3. (The Pygmy Slug.) 

The moth has thus far been found only in Texas. 
365 



Cochlidiidae 

Genus SISYROSEA Grote 

(i) Sisyrosea textula Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLVII, Fig. 
14. 9- 

Syn. inornata Grote & Robinson. 

The insect occurs in the eastern portion of our territory. It is 
not rare about Pittsburgh. 

Genus NATADA Walker 

(i) Natada nasoni Grote, Plate XLVII, Fig. 13, $ . (Nason's 
Slug.) 

Syn. daona Druce ; rude Henry Edwards. 

The moth ranges from the southern portions of the Atlantic 
coast westward and southward to Texas and Mexico. 

Genus PHOBETRON Hubner 

(i) Phobetron pithecium Abbot & Smith, Plate I, Fig. 14, 
larva; Plate XLVII, Fig. 6, 6 , Fig. 7, ? . (The Monkey Slug.) 

Syn. abbotana Hubner; nigricans Packard; hyalinus Walsh; tetradactylus 
Walsh ; nondescriptus Wetherby. 

The perfect insects are quite dissimilar in the two sexes. The 
larva, which is a very curious object, feeds upon the Rosacece, the 
Cupuliferce, and .various low-growing shrubs, as the sassafras, 
alder, and Spircea. The species is found in the Appalachian sub- 
region, and was quite common in western North Carolina in 
former years, and may be so still. The larvae are generally to be 
found close to the ground. 

Genus ISOCH/ETES Dyar 

(i) Isochaetes beutenmiilleri Henry Edwards, Plate 
XLVII, Fig. 17, ?. 

This is a rare little insect, which has practically the same dis- 
tribution as the preceding species. 

Genus ALARODIA Mceschler 

(i) Alarodia slossonise Packard, Plate XLVII, Fig. 18, ?. 
(Slosson's Slug.) 

This remarkable little species inhabits in the larval stage the 
mangroves which grow in the swampy lands on the southern 
coast of Florida. A good account of its habits has been pub- 

366 



Cochlidiidae 

lished by Dr. Dyar in the "Journal of the New York Entomologi- 
cal Society," Vol. V, and indeed the student who desires to 
know about the habits of this and all other species of the Cocbli- 
diidce found in North America must consult the writings of this 
author, who has made these insects the subject of special and ex- 
haustive inquiry. 

Genus PROLIMACODES 

(i) Prolimacodes scapha Harris, Plate 1, Fig. 9, larva; Plate 
XLVI1, Fig. 8, ? . (The Skiff Moth.) 

Syn. undifera Walker. 

The moth has a wide distribution throughout the Appalachian 
subregion. The larva feeds upon a great variety of shrubs and 
trees. It appeared to me in my boyhood, when I reared it often, 
to have a particular fondness for the leaves of the sycamore 
(Platanus). 

Genus COCHLIDION Hiibner 

(1) Cochlidion biguttata Packard, Plate XLVII, Fig. 4, ?. 

Syn. tetraspilaris Walker. 

A native of the eastern portions of the region. 

(2) Cochlidion rectilinea Grote & Robinson, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. 27,6. 

The insect is quite common locally, and has the same distri- 
bution as the preceding species. 

(3) Cochlidion y-inversa Packard, Plate XLVII, Fig. 21,6. 
The distribution of the species is the same as that of the two 

preceding. The larva frequents hickory. 

Genus LITHACODES Packard 

(i) Lithacodes fasciola Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLVII, Fig. 

2,6. 

Syn. divergens Walker. 

The caterpillar feeds on a great variety of low shrubs and trees ; 
it is especially fond of the leaves of the various species of wild 
cherry. It is common in western Pennsylvania, and is well dis- 
tributed throughout the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus PACKARDIA Grote & Robinson 
(i) Packardia elegans Packard, Plate XLVII, Fig. 16, ?. 

Syn. nigripunctata GoodelL 



Megalopygidae 

The larvae feed upon a great variety of trees and shrubs, and 
are commonly found in the deep glens and ravines of the Appa- 
lachian subregion, where there is much shade and moisture. The 
insect is not uncommon in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. 

(2) Packardia geminata Packard, Plate XLV1I, Fig. i,$. 

The larvae frequent places exactly opposite in character to 
those resorted to by the previous species, being fond of dry open 
woods, and living upon low shrubs and bushes. The insect is 
a native of the Appalachian subregion. 

Genus HETEROGENEA Knoch 

(i) Heterogenea shurtleffi Packard, Plate XLV11, Fig. 20, $ . 

This, which is one of the very smallest of all the Cochlidiida, 
feeds in its larval stage upon black oak, chestnut, beech, and 
ironwood. The genus is found both in the Old World and the 

New. 

Genus TORTRICIDIA Packard 

(1) Tortricidia flexuosa Grote, form caesonia Grote, Plate 
XLVII, Fig. 12,?. 

A native of the Appalachian subregion, the larva feeding on 
chestnut, oak, hickory, and wild cherry. It is not uncommon in 
western Pennsylvania. 

(2) Tortricidia testacea Packard, Plate I, Fig. 19, larva; 
Plate XLVII, Fig. n,6. 

The insect, which has the same habitat as the preceding 
species, feeds upon the same species of plants. It is not uncom- 
mon at light in western Pennsylvania. 

FAMILY MEGALOPYGID/E 

" Simple and sweet is their food: they eat no flesh of the living." 

C. L. VON KUEBEL. 

This is a small family characteristic of the neotropical regions, 
and represented by three or four genera, which have a foothold 
in the southern portions of our territory. 

Genus CARAMA Walker 
(i) Carama cretata Grote, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 22, $ . 

Syn. pura Butler. 



Dalceridae 

The insect feeds in its larval stage upon the red-bud (Cercis). 
The caterpillars are gregarious at first, but during the later part 
of their life separate. The cocoon is made in the ground. The 
insect occurs from New Jersey and southern Pennsylvania south- 
ward in the Appalachian region at comparatively low elevations. 

Genus MEGALOPYGE Hiibner 

(i) Megalopyge opercuiaris Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXVIII, 
Fig. 25, 6 . 

Syn. lannginosa Clemens ; subcitrina Walker. 

The moth is found in Georgia and the region of the Gulf 
States. 

Genus LAGOA Harris 

(1) Lagoa crispata Packard, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 23, $. 
(The White Flannel-moth.) 

The caterpillar feeds upon the flowering blackberry (Rubus 
villosus), and ranges from Massachusetts southward along the 
coast. 

(2) Lagoa pyxidifera Abbot & Smith, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 
24, $ . (The Yellow Flannel-moth.) 

This is a rare moth in collections. It is no doubt common 
enough in its proper locality, but thus far few collectors have 
succeeded in finding it. Its home is on the seaboard of the 
Southern States. 

FAMILY DALCERID^E 

" So man, the moth, is not afraid, it seems, 
To span Omnipotence, and measure night 
That knows no measure, by the scanty rule 
And standard of his own, that is to-day, 
And is not ere to-morrow's sun go down." 

COWPER. The Task, VI, 211. 

This is another family which is represented in our fauna only 
by a small number of species. Besides the insect known as 
Dalcerides ingenita Henry Edwards, there is only one other 
species referable to the family known to occur within the Unite I 
States. This insect is Pinconia coa Schaus, a moth which is 
not uncommon in Mexico, and occurs in Arizona as a straggler 
into our territory. Dalcerides ingenita is likewise an inhabitant 

369 



Epipyropidae 

of Arizona. In Central and South America the Dalceridae are 
more numerously found. Of Pinconia coa we give a represen- 
tation on Plate VIM, Fig. 6. 



FAMILY EPIPYROPIDAE 

" So, naturalists observe, a flea 
Has smaller fleas that on him prey ; 
And these have smaller still to bite 'em, 
And so proceed ad infinitum." 

SWIFT. A Rhapsody, 

The Epipyropidce are a very remarkable little family of para- 
sitic moths, of which, as yet, comparatively little is known. 
Professor J. O. Westwood of Oxford, in the year 1876, pub- 
lished an account of a lepidopterous insect, the larva of which 
lived upon Fulgora candelaria, the great tree-hopper, which is 
abundant at Hong-Kong and elsewhere iri southeastern Asia. 
The caterpillar, according to Westwood, feeds upon the white, 
cottony secretion, which is found at the base of the wings of 
Fulgora. In 1902 Dr. Dyar described another species, the moth 
of which was bred from a larva which was found attached to the 
body of a tree-hopper belonging to the genus Issus. The speci- 
men came from New Mexico, and was taken at Las Vegas Hot 
Springs. The moth, cocoon, and an alcoholic specimen of the 
larva are preserved in the United States National Museum. Mr. 
Champion, the veteran explorer of Central America, who has done 
so much to instruct us as to the biology of those lands, has re- 
corded in a note in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of London for 1883, p. xx, that a similar phenomenon was 
observed by him while collecting in Central America. There is 
here a field of interesting study for some patient observer whose 
home is in New Mexico. Dr. Dyar named the New Mexican 
insect Epipyrops barberiana. 

" The little fleas that do so tease, 
Have smaller fleas that bite 'em, 
And these again have lesser fleas, 
And so ad infinitum. " 

SWIFT. As popularly but incorrectly quoted. 

370 



Zygaenidae 



FAMILY ZYG/ENID^E 

" Every traveller is a self-taught entomologist." 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. The Autocrat of the Breakfast-table. 

The Zygcenidce are not very well represented in the fauna of 
North America. They are more numerous in the Old World than 
in the New, and the genera found in the New World are mainly 
aberrant. The family has been characterized as follows by 
Hampson, "Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 228: "Closely allied to 
the Syntomidce, but distinguished by vein \a of the fore wing 
being present, except in Anomoeotes l \ vein 8 of the hind wing 
present and connected with 7 by a bar; veinlets in the cell of both, 
with wings generally present. Frenulum present except in Hi- 
mantopterus. l 

Larva short and cylindrical. 

Pupa in a silken cocoon." 

Genus ACOLOITHUS Clemens 
(i) Acoloithus falsarius Clemens, Plate XVI, Fig. 14,3. 

Syn. sanborni Packard. 

The larva feeds upon the grape and the Virginia creeper 
(Ampelopsis). The insect is not scarce in the Atlantic States. 

Genus PYROMORPHA Herri ch-Schaeffer 
(i) Pyromorpha dimidiata Herrich-Schaeffer, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. 33.^- 

Syn. perlucidula Clemens. 

The insect is not very common. It is a native of the eastern 
portions of the territory with which this book deals. 

Genus TRIPROCRIS Grote 

There are eight species assigned to this genus in recent lists. 
They are all found in the southwestern portions of our territory, 
(i) Triprocris rata Henry Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 4, $ . 
A native of Arizona. 

1 Genera found in Asia and Africa. 
371 



Zygaenidae 

(2) Triprocris latercula Henry Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 

5, a. 

Has the same habitat as the preceding species. 

(3) Triprocris constans Henry Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 
16,3. 

The moth occurs in New Mexico. 

(4) Triprocris smithsonianus Clemens, Plate XLVII, Fig. 

The insect is not uncommon in the southern portions of Col- 
orado, and is found in New Mexico and northern Texas. 

Genus HARRISINA Packard 

Three species belonging to the genus occur within the United 
States. Two of these are indigenous to Texas and Arizona. The 
other has a wide range through the Appalachian subregion. We 
have selected it for illustration. 

(i) Harrisina americana Guerin-Meneville, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. 34. $ 

Syn. texana Stretch. 

The habits of this insect have been so well described by Pro 
fessor C. V. Riley that we cannot do better than quote sorm 

passages from his account, 
which is to be found in the 
" Second Annual Report of the 
State Entomologist of Mis- 
souri," at page 85. He says: 
" During the months of July 
^ and August, the leaves of the 

^7^f^^^fr^ If I%I)M r , r 

grape-vine may often be found 
denuded of their softer parts, 

FIG. 210. -H. americana a, larva; w j t h nothing but the Veins, and 
6, pupa; c, cocoon; a, e, moths. (After 

Riley.) sometimes only a few of the 

larger ribs left skeleton-like, to 

tell the mischief that has been done. Very frequently only por- 
tions of the leaf will be thus denuded, and in that event, if we 
examine such a leaf closely, we shall find the authors of the mis- 
chief drawn up in line upon the yet leafy tissue with their heads 
all toward the margin, cutting away with their little jaws and 
retreating as they feed. 

372 





Chalcosiidze 

These soldier-like files are formed by worms in black and 
yellow uniforms which produce a moth popularly known as 
the American Procris. 
The eggs from which 
they hatch are laid in 
small clusters on the 
under side of the leaves, 
and while the worms 
are small, they leave un- 
touched the most deli- 
cate veins of the leaf, 
which then presents the 
appearance of fine net- 
work, as shown in the 
right of the figure (211); 
but when they become 
older and stronger they 
devour all but the larger 
ribs, as shown at the 

. ,. . . ., FlG. 2l\.Ifarrisina atnencana. Larvae. 

left of the figure. . . . (A f te r Riiey.) 

When full grown 

these worms disperse over the vines or forsake them entirely, 
and each spins for itself a small, tough, whitish, flattened cocoon, 
within which, in about three days, it changes to a chrysalis, three 
tenths of an inch long, broad, flattened, and of a light shining 
yellowish-brown color. In about ten days afterwards the moths 
begin to issue." 

The insect is double-brooded. It is common in the Appala- 
chian subregion, ranging from the Atlantic to the borders of the 
Great Plains in the West. 




FAMILY CHALCOSIID/E 

" Daughters of the air." DE LA FONTAINE. 

This family is represented in our fauna by but a single insect, 
belonging to the genus Gingla, established by Walker. It is an 
obscure little moth known as Gingla laterculae Dyar. Its habi- 
tat is Arizona. 



313 



ThyrididJB 



FAMILY THYRIDIDjE 

" And yet I will exercise your promised patience by saying a little of the 
Caterpillar, or the Palmer-fly or worm, that by them you may guess what a work it 
were in a discourse but to run over those very many flies, worms, and little living 
creatures with which the sun and summer adorn and beautify the river-banks and 
meadows, both for the recreation and contemplation of us Anglers : pleasures which, 
I think, myself enjoy more than any other man that is not of my profession." 

IZAAK WALTON. The Compleat Angler, Chap. V, Pt. I 

The Thyrididce are a small family of moths revealing decided 
affinity to the Pyralidce. They have been characterized as follows 
by Hampson, "Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 352: "Moths generally 
with hyaline patches and striae on the wings. Palpi obliquely 
upturned and slender. Antennae almost simple. Fore wing 
with vein \a forming a fork with \b at base; \c absent; 5 from 
near lower angle of cell. Hind wing with two internal veins; 
vein 8 nearly touching vein 7 just before or after the end of 
the cell. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs; hind tibia with two 
pairs. 

Larva pyraliform, with five pairs of legs." 

Six genera are attributed to this family in the last list of the 
species found within the United States which has been pub- 
lished. Of four of these we give illustrations. 

Genus THYRIS Laspeyres 

(1) Thyris maculata Harris, Plate XL VI I, Fig. 30, 8 . 
(The Spotted Thyris.) 

Syn. perspicua Walker. 

The moth is a native of the Eastern States. It is not common. 

(2) Thyris lugubris Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 31, $. 
(The Mournful Thyris.) 

Syn. sepulckralis Boisduval ; nevadce Oberthur. 

The range of the species is coincident with that of its only 
other congener in the United States. 

Genus DYSODIA Clemens 

(i) Dysodia oculatana Clemens, Plate III, Fig. 10, $. (The 
Eyed Dysodia.) 

374 



Cossidae 

Syn. plena Walker ; fasciata Grote & Robinson ; motitana Henry Edwards ; 
aurea Pagenstecher. 

The species is widely distributed throughout the entire United 
States. It is very common in western Pennsylvania. 

Genus HEXERIS Grote 
(i) Hexeris enhydris Grote, Plate XLVII, Fig. 35, $. 

Syn. reticulina Beutenmiiller. 

The moth occurs in the subregion of the Gulf. 

Genus MESKEA Grote 

(i) Meskea dyspteraria Grote, Plate XLVII, Fig. 36, $ . 
The moth is found in Florida and the region of the Antilles. 



FAMILY COSSIDAE 

Bright insect, ere thy filmy wing, 
Expanding on the breath of spring, 

Quivered with brief enjoyment, 
'T was thine for years immured to dwell 
Within a lone and gloomy cell, 

To eat, thy sole employment." Acheta Domestica. 

The Cossidce, "Goat-moths," or "Carpenter-worms," as they 
are familiarly called, have sorely puzzled systematists. Some 
writers have been inclined to regard them as allied to the Tortri- 
cidce. We assign them the position in the linear series which is 
accorded them by Hampson and also by Dyar. They form a very 
distinctly defined group, whatever their relationships may be. 
They are succinctly described by Hampson in "The Moths of 
India," Vol. I, p. 304, as follows: "Proboscis absent; palpi usu- 
ally minute or absent; antennae bipectinated to tip or with distal 
half simple in both sexes, or wholly simple in female. Tibiae with 
spurs absent or minute. Fore wing with vein ib forked at base; 
\c present; an areole formed by veins 7 and 10; veins 7 and 8 
forking after the areole; the inner margins usually more or less 
lobed. Hind wing with three internal veins; vein 8 free from 
the base or connected with 7 by an erect bar at end of cell. Both 
wings with forked veinlets in cell. The female may have as 
many as nine bristles to the frenulum. 

375 



Cossidae 

Larva. Smooth, with a few hairs; internal feeders, boring 
galleries in wood or the pith of reeds, etc., and often doing con- 
siderable damage. 

Pupa in a cocoon formed of silk and chips of wood." 
Six genera are recognized as occurring within our fauna. 

Genus ZEUZERA Latreille 

(i) Zeuzera pyrina Linnaeus, . Plate IX, Fig. 9, $. (The 
Leopard-moth.) 

Syn. hypocastrina Poda ; tzsculi Linnaeus ; hilaris Fourcroy ; decipiens Kirby. 

This insect is a native of the Old World, but has within recent 
years become introduced and acclimated on Long Island, and has 




FIG. 212. The Leopard-moth, a, dorsal view of larva; l>, lateral view of do. ; 
c, male; d, female; e, burrow in wood made by larva. (After Pike, "Insect Life," 
Vol. IV, p. 317.) 

multiplied to a great extent in the environs of the city of Brooklyn. 
It has already inflicted much damage upon trees, and, apparently 
being firmly established, is destined to work still greater injury. 
It is a promiscuous feeder, but evinces a particular fondness for 
elms and maples. 

376 



Cossidae 

The eggs are generaiiy laid near the crotch of the tree, and 
watch should be kept in the spring of the year to detect their 
presence and destroy them before they are hatched. 

Genus COSSUS Fabricius 

The genus is found on both sides of the Atlantic. Cossus 
cossus Linnaeus is a large species which does great damage to 
trees in Europe. As I am writing, my friend, Dr. Ortmann, relates 
that when he was a boy of eleven, living in his native village in 
Thuringia, his attention was called to a notice posted by the 
Biirgermeister offering a reward for information which would lead 
to the detection and punishment of the individuals who by boring 
into the trunks of a certain fine avenue of birch-trees, upon which 
the place prided itself, had caused great injury to them. Already 
the instincts of the naturalist had asserted themselves, and the 
prying eyes of the lad had found out the cause of the trouble. 
He went accordingly to the office of the Biirgermeister and in- 
formed him that he could tell him all about the injury to the trees. 
The official sat wide-mouthed and eager to hear. "But you 
must assure me, before I tell you, that the reward you offer will 
surely be paid to me." "Yes, yes, my little man; do not be in 
doubt on that score. You shall certainly be paid." "Well, 
then, Herr Burgermeister, the holes from which the sap is flowing 
were not made by boys who were after the birch-sap to make beer, 
but by the Weidenbolrer. " l A small explosion of official 
dignity followed. The act of the presumptuous boy was reported 
to a stern parent, and the result was, in Yankee phrase, a "lick- 
ing," which was certainly undeserved. 

(1) Cossus centerensis Lintner, Plate XII, Fig. I, $. 
The insect is quite rare. It is found in the Atlantic States. 

(2) Cossus undosus Lintner, Plate XLI, Fig. 9, ? . 

Syn. brucel French. 

The moth occurs in the region of the Rocky Mountains. The 
specimen figured was taken on the Arkansas River in Colorado, 
near Canyon City. 

It is undoubtedly the most attractively marked and most ele- 
gant species found in our territory. 

1 The common German name for the Cossus. 

377 



Cossidae 

Genus PRIONOXYSTUS Grote 

There are two species of this genus found in the United 
States. One of them, Prionoxystus macmurtrei Guerin-Mene- 
ville = querciperda Fitch, is a rather rare species. It bores its larval 
passages in oak. The female, which resembles the female of the 
other species, is quite large, sometimes four inches in expanse of 
wing. The male, on the other hand, is quite diminutive. I have 
never seen a male much more than an inch and a half in expanse 
of wing. The species has been taken most frequently in recent 
years in western Pennsylvania by local collectors. The other 
species, Prionoxystus robiniae Peck, is very common. It fre- 
quents various trees, but shows a preference for the wood of the 
common locust (Robinia pseudacacia) and various species of 
the genus Populus. The male is depicted on Plate XLI, Fig. 1 1, 
and the female by Fig. 10 on the same plate. The insect is 
widely distributed throughout the United States. I have found 
the males exceedingly abundant about the electric lights in some 
of our Western cities, as St. Paul and Omaha. 

Genus INGUROMORPHA Henry Edwards 

Two species of this genus occur within 
our limits. Both are found in the extreme 
southern portions of the United States. /. 
arbeloides Dyar is a native of Arizona. I. 
basalis Walker, which is shown in the an- 
nexed figure, is found in Florida and Mexico. 

The general color of the fore wings is pale 
FIG. 2\$.inguro- ashen-gray, with the outer border dull ochre- 
ous > marked with dark-brown stride, and 
broader spots and blotches toward the outer 
margin. The hind wings are darker gray. 



" I recognize 

The moths, with that great overpoise of wings 
Which makes a mystery of them how at all 
They can stop flying." 

E. B. BROWNING. Aurora Leigh. 

378 





Genus COSSULA Bailey 

Only one species of this genus is known from our fauna. Il 
occurs in Florida and Mexico. It was named magnifica by 
Strecker, and subsequently also 
by Bailey. Druce in the year 
1891 applied to it the specific 
name norax. It is represented 
in the annexed cut one third 
larger than the size of life. It 
is as yet a rare insect in collec- 
tions, only a few specimens hav- FlG . a , 4 ._cw& magnifica, $ . f. 
ing been found. No doubt it is 

locally common, and when some shrewd observer discovers its 
haunts and mode of life, we shall all have a good supply of speci- 
mens in our cabinets. 

Genus HYPOPTA Hubner 

Nine species are said to belong to this genus and are reputed 
to occur within our territory. They are all Southern or South- 
western forms. 

(1) Hypopta bertholdi Grote, Plate XII, Fig. 2, $ . 

The specimen figured on the plate came from California. 
The author has also received it from Colorado. 

(2) Hypopta henrici Grote, Plate XII, Fig. 3, $ . 
The moth is found in Arizona and New Mexico. 



FAMILY 

" I '11 follow you, I '11 lead you about a round 
Through bog, through bush, through brake, through brier." 

SHAKESPEARE. Midsummer Night's Dream, III, I. 

The name Sesia being, according to the laws of priority, 
strictly applicable to a genus of the Sphingidce, as has been 
pointed out on page 61, the name of the family which we are 
now considering must be that which is given above. The name 
" Sesiidce" must yield to the name " /Egerndce." This is on 
some accounts regrettable, as the former name has for many 
years been consistently applied to the family by many authors. 

379 



The name which we use has also been applied by a multitude 
of writers, and is already well established in use in certain 
quarters. 

The /Egeriidce are diurnal in their habits, flying in the hottest 
sunshine. They are very rapid on the wing. Their larvae are 
borers, feeding on the inner bark or the pith of trees and lesser 
plants. The pupae are generally armed with hook-like projec- 
tions, which enable them to progress in a forward direction in 
the galleries in which they are formed. Some of the genera have 
at the cephalic end a sharp cutting projection, which is used to 
enable the insect to cut its way out of the chamber before the 
change into a moth takes place. The moths have been described 
as follows by Hampson in "The Moths of India," Vol. I, p. 189: 
"Antennae often dilated or knobbed. Legs often with thick 
tufts of hair; mid tibiae with one pair of spurs; hind tibiae with 
two pairs. Frenulum present. Wings generally more or less 
hyaline; fore wing with veins \a and ib forming a fork at base; 
\c absent; veins 4 to 1 1 given off at almost even distances from 
the cell. Hind wing with three internal veins; vein 8 coincident 
with 7." 

The American species have been very thoroughly monographed 
by Mr. Beutenmiiller, the amiable and accomplished Curator of the 
Section of Entomology in the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory in New York. It is through his kindness that the author is 
able to give on Plate XLVI of the present volume so many illus- 
trations of the species which are found in our fauna. The stu- 
dent who desires to know more about these things must consult 
Mr. Beutenmuller's great work. 

Genus MELITTIA Hiibner 

(i) Melittia satyriniformis Hubner, Plate XLVI, Fig. i, ? . 

Syn. cucurbitce Harris; ceto Westwood; anuzna Henry Edwards. 

The larva of the insect is commonly known as the "Squash- 
borer," or the "Pumpkin-borer." The insect has an extensive 
range from New England to the Argentine States. It attacks the 
Cucurbitacece generally, laying the eggs upon all parts of th* 
plant, but preferably upon the stems, into which the caterpillai 
bores, and in which it develops until the time of pupation, when 
it descends into the ground, makes a cell beneath the surface in 

380 



^Egeriidse 

which it hibernates, and is transformed into a chrysalis the follow- 
ing spring. The moths emerge, according to locality, from June 
to August. It is said to be double-brooded in the southern parts 
of our region, but is single-brooded in the Northern States. 

(2) Melittia snowi Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 2, $ . 
This species is very closely allied to the preceding, but the 

fore wings are devoid of the metallic tints which appear in that 
species, and there are other minor differences which present 
themselves upon comparison of the two forms. The life-history 
remains to be worked out. It is thus far known only from 
Kansas. 

(3) Melittia grandis Strecker, Plate XLVI, Fig. 3, ? . 
The insect is reported to occur in Texas and Arizona. 

Genus GJEA Beutenmuller 

(1) Gaea emphytiformis Walker, Plate XLVI, Fig. 5, ?. 
The types of this species are found in the British Museum. 

Nothing is known definitely as to its true locality, except that the 
specimens came from the United States. Of course the life-history 
is also unknown. It is to be hoped that some reader of this book 
will rediscover the species and let us all know its true history. 

(2) Gaea solituda Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 4, $ . 
The species occurs in Kansas and in Texas, but the history of 

its mode of development from egg to imago remains to be 
written. 

Genus EUHAGENA Henry Edwards 

There is only one species of this genus known at the present 
time. It was named nebraskse by Henry Edwards in the year 
1881. A male specimen is depicted on Plate XLVI, Fig. 34. The 
species may easily be recognized by its red wings. Its early his- 
tory is unknown. I received several specimens of the insect some 
time ago from a friend who sent them to me, but so wretchedly 
packed that nothing came to hand but fragments. The well- 
meaning sender had done them up in cotton as if they were birds' 
eggs, and of course they were all smashed. Never wrap cotton 
about moths or butterflies, and then ram cotton down into the 
box to make the specimens ride well. Particularly avoid the 
"ramming" process. 

381 



/Egeriidae 

Genus ALCOTHOE Henry Edwards 

(i) Alcothoe caudata Harris,. Plate XLVI, Fig. 6, $ . 

The larvae bore in the roots of various species of clematis. 
The insect is widely distributed, occurring from Canada to Florida, 
and westward to the Mississippi. The moths come out in April 
and May in the South, and from June to August in the North. 
The larvae hibernate in their galleries in various stages of growth. 

Genus SAN NINA Walker 
(i) Sannina uroceriformis Walker, Plate XLVI, Fig. 7, $ . 

Syn. quinquecaudatus Ridings. 

The larva feeds on the tap-root of the persimmon (Diospyros) 
at a depth of from eighteen to twenty-two inches under the 
ground. The species occurs from Virginia to Florida, and west- 
ward as far as the food-plant ranges. 

Genus PODOSESIA Mceschler 
(i) Podosesia syringae Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 17, ?. 

Syn. longipes Mceschler. 

The larvae feed on the ash and the lilac. They tunnel their 
passages straight into the wood for many inches. They cut their 
way out almost to the surface just before pupating, leaving only 
a thin layer of fiber to close the end of the gallery ; this is broken 
through by the emergent pupa as it comes forth from its cocoon, 
and then the pupal envelope is split and the perfect winged insect 
appears. The moths are on the wing in western Pennsylvania 
in June, and are to be found on the blossoms of Syringa. 

Genus MEMYTHRUS Newman 

(1) Memythrus tricinctus Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 14, ?. 
The larvae infest the small trunks of willows and poplars. 

The moths appear in the latter part of June and the beginning of 
July; the caterpillars hibernate in their galleries. Transformation 
occurs in a tough cocoon located at the outer end of the gallery. 
The species is found in New England and the Middle States, 
ranging westward as far as Ohio and Michigan. 

(2) Memythrus polistiformis Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. n, 
3. Fig. 12,?. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVI 

(The figures in this plate are taken by the kind permission of Mr. 
William Beutenmuller from the plates illustrating his Monograph of the 
Sesiidae of North America.) 

1. Melittia satyriniformis Hubner, 9- 

2. Melittia sn~owi Henry Edwards, (J 1 . 

3. Melittia grandis Strecker, 9 . 

4. Gaza solituda Henry Edwards, c?- 

5. Gaea emphytifonnis Walker, 9 

6. Alcathoe caudata Harris, J*. 

7. Sannina uroceriforinis Walker, (J*. 

8. ALgeria apiformis Linnaeus, 9 

9. Bembecia marginata Harris, 9 

10. Memythrus simulans Grote, 9 

11. Memythrus polistijormis Harris, $ . 

12. Memythrus polistiformis Harris, 9- 

13. Memythrus admirandus Henry Edwards, c?. 

14. Memythrus tricinctus Harris, 9 

15. Palmia prcecedens Henry Edwards, 9 

1 6. Parharmonia pini Kellicott, tf. 

17. Podosesia syringa; Harris, 9- 

1 8. Sanninoidea exitiosa Say. cT. 

19. Sanninoidea exitiosa Say, 9 

20. Vespamima sequoia Henry Edwards, $ . 

21. Synanthedon bassiformis Walker, cJ 1 . 

22. Synanthedon rileyana Henry Edwards, (J 1 . 

23. Synanthedon rileyana Henry Edwards, 9 

24. Synanthedon pictipes Grote & Robinson, 9 

25. Synanthedon pyri Harris, 9 

26. Synanthedon tipuliformis Clerck, 9 

27. Synanthedon albicornis Henry Edwards, 9 

28. Synanthedon acerni Clemens, 9 

29. Synanthedon scitula Harris, 9 . 

30. Synanthedon neglecta Henry Edwards, 9 

31. Synanthedon rutilans Henry -Ed wards, (J 1 . 

32. Synanthedon rutilans Henry Edwards, 9 

33. Synanthedon aureopurpurea Henry Edwards, (J 1 . 

34. Euhagena nebraskce Henry Edwards, $. 

35. Paranthrene heucherce Henry Edwards, <?. 

36. Calasesia coccinea Beutenmuller, 9 

37. Albuna pyrajnidalis , var. montana Henry Edwards, ^. 



THE MOTH BOOK 



T* 6 




COPYRIGHTED Br W. J. HOL 



/Egeriida 

The insect, which is popularly known as the "Grape-root 
Borer," ranges from Vermont to the Carolinas, and westward as 
far as Missouri. It inflicts considerable damage upon both wild 
and cultivated grape-vines. The moth resembles the wasps of 
the genus Polistes, whence the name. 

(3) Memythrus simulans Grote, Plate XLVI, Fig. 10, ? . 
The insect, which is known to occur from New England to 

Minnesota, not ranging below the Potomac and the Ohio, feeds 
in its larval stage upon the wood of the red oak. 

(4) Memythrus admirandus Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 13,3. 

The habitat of the species is Texas. 

Genus PALMIA Beutenmuller 
(i) Palmia prsecedens Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 

IS ? 

The moth is known to occur in North Carolina. It is very 
rare in collections as yet, and nothing is known of its life-history. 

Genus ^GERIA Fabricius 
(i) ^geria apiformis Clerck, Plate XLVI, Fig. 8, ?. 

Syn. vespiformis Hufnagei; crabroni/ofmisDznis & Schiffermiiller. 

This insect, which in England is known as the "Hornet- 
moth," because of its resemblance to a hornet, is found abun- 
dantly in Europe, but less commonly in North America. Its 
larva lives in the roots and lower portions of the trunks of poplars 
and willows, and requires two years in which to undergo trans- 
formation. 

Genus BEMBECIA Hiibner 
(i) Bembecia marginata Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 9, 9 . 

Syn. pleciaformis Walker; odyneripennis Walker; rubi Riley; flavipes Hulst. 

The insect, which is popularly known as the "Blackberry- 
borer," is not at all uncommon. The grub-like larvae infest the 
roots of blackberries and raspberries, and when mature eat their 
way up about three inches through the pith of the dead cane, and 
cutting their way outwardly, leave only a thin layer of the epi- 
dermis between themselves and the outer air. The pupa is armed 
at its head with a triangular chisel-shaped process, with which 

383 



^geriidae 

it cuts through the epidermis of the plant, and then wriggling 
forward, until half of the body is extruded, the pupal case bursts, 
and the moth emerges. The males come out in the early after- 
noon, the females about four o'clock, copulation occurs almost 
immediately, and the female begins to oviposit before the sun 
sets. The moths appear at the end of July and throughout 
August in Pennsylvania. The larvae overwinter in the canes. 

Genus VESPAMIMA Beutenmiiller 
(i) Vespamima sequoiae Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 

20, $ . 

Syn. pinorum Behrens. 

This species is said to be very destructive to coniferous trees 
upon the Pacific slope. The larvae do their mischievous work at 
the forking of the branches. 

Genus PARHARMONIA Beutenmiiller 

(i) Parharmonia pini Kellicott, Plate XLVI, Fig. 16, $. 

The species is found from Canada to New Jersey. The larvae 
live under the bark of pine-trees. The moths appear in July and 
August. 

Genus SANNINOIDEA Beutenmiiller 

(i) Sanninoidea exitiosa Say, Plate XLVI, Fig. 18, 3, Fig. 
19, ? 

Syn. persica Thomas ; pepsidiformis Hiibner ; xiphiaformis Boisduval. 

This is the well-known " Peach-borer." The larvae infest the 
trunks of peach-trees and wild cherries near the ground, and also 
attack the upper roots. The species ranges from Canada to 
Florida, and westward to the Rocky Mountains. It does a large 
amount of damage in peach-orchards. 

Genus ALBUNA Henry Edwards 

(i) Albuna pyramidalis Walker, form montana Henry Ed- 
wards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 37, $ . 

This is a variable species, of which several varieties have been 
described. It ranges from Nova Scotia into New England, and 
westward to the Pacific in the same latitudes. Nothing is known 
of its early history or food-plants. 

384 



Ageriidae 
Genus SYNANTHEDON Hiibner 

(Stfs/Vz auctorum.) 

The name Sesia being properly restricted to a genus of the 
Spbingidce, we apply to the genus the name proposed by Hubner 
in the " Verzeichniss Bekannter Schmetterlinge," p. 129. This 
appears to be the proper and logical method of procedure under 
the circumstances. 

The genus is very extensive. Fifty-eight species are found in 
our fauna, of which we delineate eleven. 

(1) Synanthedon rileyana Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 22, $ , Fig. 23, ? . 

Syn. brnnneipennis Henry Edwards ; hyperici Henry Edwards. 

The species ranges from the Virginias and Carolinas west- 
ward through Ohio and Illinois as far as California and Oregon. 

(2) Synanthedon rutilans Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. }i, $, Fig. 32, ?. 

Syn. aureola Henry Edwards; hemizona Henry Edwards; lupini Henry Ed- 
wards ; perplexa Henry Edwards ; impropria Henry Edwards ; -washingtonia Henry 
Edwards ; madarice Henry Edwards. 

This insect is known as the "Strawberry-borer." It not 
only infests the crown of these plants, which it generally destroys, 
but also frequently attacks raspberries and blackberries at the 
crown of the roots. It ranges from Nova Scotia westward across 
the continent, and in the Mississippi Valley southward into north- 
ern Texas. 

(3) Synanthedon neglecta Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 30, ? . 

The insect is found in California and Washington. Its early 
stages are unknown. 

(4) Synanthedon bassiformis Walker, Plate XLVI, Fig. 
21,6. 

Syn. lustrans Grote; consimilis Henry Edwards; bolli Henry Edwards; 
eupatorii Henry Edwards ; sexfasdata Henry Edwards ; infirma Henry Edwards ; 
imitata Henry Edwards. 

The larva feeds in the stems of Eupatorium purpureum. The 
insect ranges from New England to Texas. 

(5) Synanthedon tipuliformis Clerck, Plate XLVI, Fig. 
26,?. 

The insect, which is found in Europe and Asia, and has also 

385 



/Bgeriidje 

been transported to Australia, is an importation into this country 
from Europe. It feeds in the stems of gooseberry- and currant- 
bushes. 

(6) Synanthedon pictipes Grote & Robinson, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 24, ?. 

Syn. inusitata Henry Edwards. 

The larvae feed under the bark of plums, wild and cultivated 
cherry-trees, peach-trees, the June-berry (Amelancbicr}, and the 
chestnut. The eggs are laid on the trunks and the branches of 
the trees. The moths are on the wing in June and July. 

(7) Synanthedon acerni Clemens, Plate XLVI, Fig. 28, ? . 

Syn. acericolum Gennadius. 

This is the common " Maple-borer." The larvae tunnel in the 
sap-wood and do a great deal of damage to trees, especially in 
our -larger cities. At times trees are completely girdled by the 
galleries made by the insects, and 
are thus killed; at other times they 
are so weakened that on the occasion 
of high winds or storms they are 
broken off and greatly disfigured. 
The insects emerge from the pupae 
early in the morning, and may be 
seen at times in small swarms about 
the trunks of the trees, ovipositing 
upon the bark. The time of emer- 
gence is the latter part of May and 
the beginning of June. The pupae 
are formed in small cocoons com- 
posed of silk and pellets of excre- 
ment interwoven upon the surface. 
Just before the moths emerge, the 
chrysalids work their way partially 
FIG. 215. s. acerni, a, larvae; out of the tunnels in which they are, 

b, cocoons; c, male; d, pupa pro- , , , , , . r .. 

jecting from burrow. (After Riiey.) and then the outer sheathing of the 
pupa splits open and the perfect 

insect crawls forth, in a few moments to be upon the wing; foi 
the development of the power of flight is with this species, as 
with almost all the ALgeriidce, exceedingly rapid. 

The moth is found from New England as far west as Nebraska. 
386 




^geriidae 

(8) Synanthedon aureopurpurea Henry Edwards, Plate 
XLVI, Fig. 33, $ . 

The moth occurs in Texas. No history of its habits has as yet 
been written. 

(9) Synanthedon pyri Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 25, ? . 

Syn. kabelei Henry Edwards. 

This is a common species everywhere, infesting the bark of 
pear- and apple-trees. In the vicinity of Pittsburgh many trees 
have been killed by these mischievous little creatures. 

(10) Synanthedon scitula Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 29, ?. 

Syn. gallivomm Westwood ; hospes Walsh ; amula Henry Edwards. 

The larvae inhabit the bark of chestnut, dogwood, oak, willow, 
hickory, and the galls of oaks. The moth ranges from Canada to 
Virginia, and westward through the Valley of the Ohio. 

(n) Synanthedon albicornis Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 27, ? . 

Syn. proximo. Henry Edwards ; modesta Kellicott. 

The moth is not known to occur south of the Potomac and 
the Ohio. It ranges from New England to Oregon. The larvae 
feed upon the trunks and shoots of willows. 

Genus CALESESIA Beutenmuller 

(i) Calesesia coccinea Beutenmuller, Plate XLVI, Fig. 
^6,?. 

The habitat of this rare insect is New Mexico. The male and 
the early stages are as yet unknown. 

Genus PARANTHRENE Hiibner 
(i) Paranthrene heucherse Henry Edwards, Plate XLVI, 

Fig. 35, * . 

There are several species in the genus found in the United 

States, which are all, as yet, rare in collections, and little is known 

as to their life-history. The present species has been found in 

New Mexico. 

FAUNAL SUBREGIONS 

This volume is an attempt to bring together into compact 
form an account of the commoner and more striking species of 

.387 



^geriidae 

moths which are found in the United States and Canada. The 
area is vast, and zoologists as well as botanists have for the pur- 
poses of science subdivided the region into what are known as 
"faunal subregions," or "botanical subregions." These subdi- 
visions of the territory are entirely natural and are based upon a 
knowledge of the flora and fauna of each area. Both flora and 
fauna are more or less dependent upon conditions of soil, rainfall, 
and temperature. 

Beginning with the Atlantic coast, we find a large area ex- 
tending from Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario, southward 
through New England, the Middle States, and the Eastern Cen- 
tral States as far south as the Carolinas and northern Georgia, 
Alabama, and Mississippi, westward into Arkansas, Missouri, and 
eastern Kansas, then northward through eastern Iowa and Minne- 
sota, in which, with some slight variations, the predominant fea- 
tures of the vegetation and of the fauna are alike. In a broad 
way this territory is known as the Appalachian subregion. It 
has been subdivided into two parts, to the more northern of 
which has been applied the name Canadian, and to the southern 
the name Carolinian. These minor subdivisions of the broader 
subregion are quite natural, and are based upon the fact that cer- 
tain groups of plants and animals are characteristic of the one 
which are not characteristic of the other; yet upon the whole the 
character of the vegetation and of the animal life of the two lesser 
areas is in most respects quite similar. The genera are practi- 
cally the same throughout these territories. It was, when the 
country was first discovered by white men, a region of trees, 
except in northern Indiana and parts of Illinois, Iowa, and Minne- 
sota, where there were prairies; but on these prairies, where trees 
grew, they were for the most part representatives of the same 
genera which were found through the eastern parts of the domain, 
and in many cases were the same species. Accompanying the 
plants are the insects which feed upon them. 

Beginning on the extreme southern portions of the coast of 
North Carolina and running along the coast of South Carolina 
through eastern and southern Georgia, northern Florida, and 
westward along the Gulf of Mexico, we have a strip of territory 
preserving many of the floral and faunal peculiarities of the Appa- 
lachian subregion, but possessing distinctive features of its own. 

388 



We detect here the influence of warmer skies and the life of the 
not-far-off tropics. It is the region of the long-leaved pine, the 
cypress, the live-oak, the evergreen magnolia, and the palmetto. 
It is the subregion of the Gulf. It has a fauna of its own. 

In the extreme southern portion of Florida and on the out- 
lying islands we find established a northern offshoot of the plant- 
life and of the fauna of the West Indies. The conditions are dis- 
tinctly tropical here. 

A sharp division takes place west of the Mississippi River, at 
those points where the heavily wooded lands terminate and are 
succeeded by the grassy, woodless plains, which lie between the 
western borders of the Valley of the Mississippi and the eastern 
ranges of the Rocky Mountains. While the Great Plains are 
traversed by numerous river valleys, in which there is abundant 
arboreal vegetation, nevertheless the whole region in part only 
preserves the faunal and floral characteristics of the Appalachian 
subregion. The southern part of this territory, lying in New 
Mexico, western Texas, and Arizona, with which, in part, south- 
ern California is identified, has a large number of genera and 
species which range southward along the plateaus and treeless 
highlands of Mexico and Central America. This may be called 
the Arizonian or Sonoran subregion. 

The northern half of the belt of the Great Plains is invaded by 
forms of both plant and animal life which are related to types 
predominant in the colder regions of the continent. This is 
especially true where the plains reach a great altitude above the 
level of the sea. This subregion may be called the Dakotan. It 
stretches from northern Colorado northward to the British 
provinces of Assiniboia and Alberta. 

West of the Great Plains is a territory traversed from north to 
south by the ranges of the Rocky Mountains, in which there 
occurs a commingling of genera and species, some coming in 
from the far north on the higher ranges, others coming in from 
the south on the lower levels, and a multitude of forms mingling 
with these which show the influence of migration both from the 
Great Plains and from the Pacific slope. The region of the 
Rocky Mountains is a region in which there are singular com- 
plexities, owing to the great differences in elevation. Species of 
the arctic zone may be found having their habitat within a few 

389 



/Egeriidae 

miles of species which are in many cases distinctly subtropical. 
On the high peaks holarctic genera occur, and in the valleys genera 
which have their metropolis in Mexico. In a general sense the 
territory may be called the Coloradan subregion. 

The Pacific subregion includes central and northern California 
and the valleys lying between the coast and the western outliers 
of the central Cordillera. The subregion extends northward into 
British Columbia. There is shown here a distinct resemblance to 
the fauna of Europe and temperate Asia. 

Beginning in Labrador on the east and 'extending across the 
entire northern portion of the continent into Alaska is a region 
which we may call the Holarctic subregion, in which the genera 
and species alike of plants and animals are for the most part the 
same which are found in similar latitudes in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere. In Alaska there is evidence of a distinct connection be- 
tween the flora and fauna of Asia. Greenland and Labrador, 
together with some of the adjacent islands, show remarkable 
affinities to the flora and fauna of boreal Europe and the Alps. 

Various subdivisions of these broader areas have been sug- 
gested, but in the main the subregions which the writer has 
indicated suffice to show the differences in these tracts. 



"... From every chink 
And secret corner, where they slept away 
The wintry storms or rising from their tombs 
To higher life by myriads, forth at once, 
Swarming they pour, of all the varied hues 
Their beauty-beaming parent can disclose. 
Ten thousand forms ! ten thousand different tribes ! 
People the blaze." 

THOMSON. Summer, 



390 



FAMILY PYRALID/E 

" All multiplicity rushes to be resolved into unity. Anatomy, osteology, ex- 
hibit arrested or progressive ascent in each kind ; the lower pointing to the higher 
forms, the higher to the highest, from the fluid in an elastic sack, from radiate, 
mollusk, articulate, vertebrate, up to man ; as if the whole animal world were only 
a Hunterian Museum to exhibit the genesis of mankind." EMERSON. 

The Pyralidce constitute an enormous complex of subfamilies, 
genera, and species. They are found in all the temperate and 
tropical parts of the world, but are more numerous in hot lands 
than in the colder portions of the globe. Nearly eight hundred 
species belonging to this family are already known to occur 
within the United States and Canada, and the region will 
undoubtedly yet yield many new species to science. We cannot 
in these pages undertake to give even an outline of the genera 
and the species, but we have selected a few for illustration in 
order that the student, encountering these interesting insects, 
may be able to at least recognize their relative position in the 
great suborder with which this book deals. 

The moths of this family are described as follows by Sir 
George F. Hampson in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London for 1898, page 590: "Proboscis and maxillary palpi 
usually well developed; frenulum present. Fore wing with vein 
\a usually free, sometimes forming a fork with \b\ \c absent; 5 
from near lower angle of cell; 8, 9 almost always stalked. Hind 
wing with veins \a, b, c present; 5 almost always from near 
lower angle of cell; 8 approximated to 7 or anastomosing with it 
beyond the cell. 

Larva elongate, with five pairs of prolegs. Pupa with seg- 
ments 9-1 1 and sometimes also 8 and 12 movable, not protruding 
from cocoon on emergence." 

The Pyralidce have been divided into a number of subfamilies. 
Of the subfamilies represented in our fauna, we shall in the fol- 
lowing pages give illustrations of a few species which are com- 



Pyralidae 

monly encountered or possess interesting traits. While it is to 
be wished that we might be able to give a monographic view of 
the entire family, such a procedure is wholly out of the question, 
in view of the limits imposed upon us in the matter of space by 
such a volume as that which has been undertaken. 

SUBFAMILY PYRAUSTIN^ 

The genera of this family may be distinguished by the fact 
that the median nervure is not pectinated upon the upper side, or 
is at most very slightly pectinated, by the absence of tufts of scales 
in the cell of the fore wing, and by the further fact that vein 10 of 
the fore wing rises from the cell. In the hind wing, vein 7 and 
vein 8 almost invariably anastomose. 

Fifty-seven genera are found in our territory, represented by 
two hundred and twenty-four species. 

Genus ZINCKENIA Hiibner 
(i) Zinckenia fascialis Cramer, Plate XLVII, Fig. 28, $. 

Syn. angustalis Fabricius ; recurvalis Fabricius ; diffascialis Hiibner; albifas- 
cialis Boisduval. 

The moth is found all over the temperate and subtropical 
regions of both hemispheres. It is common in the southern por- 
tions of the United States. 

Genus DESMIA Westwood 

(i) Desmia funeralis Hubner, Plate XLVII, Fig. 37, $. 
(The Grape-leaf Folder.) 

A 




FIG. 2\6. Desmia funeralis. i, larva secreted between folds of leaf; 2, 
head of larva, magnified; 3, pupa; 4, male moth; 5, female moth. (After 
Riley.) 

The caterpillar of this pretty little moth feeds upon the leaves 
392 



Pyralidae 

of various wild and cultivated grapes, showing a preference for 
those species the leaves of which are thin and tender. The 
caterpillar is of a transparent green color, and is very lively when 
disturbed. The insects, which do considerable damage in vine- 
yards, may be kept down by crushing the larvae and the pupae 
when found in the folded leaves, which are easily detected. The 
moth is found from Canada to the Gulf east of the Great Plains. 

Genus SAMEA Guenee 
(i) Samea ecclesialis Guenee, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 2, ?. 

Syn. castellalis Guenee ; luccusalis Walker ; disertalis Walker. 

The insect is widely distributed throughout the hotter parts 
of the Western Hemisphere. It is common in Florida and ranges 
south as far as Argentina. 

Genus DIASTICTIS Hiibner 

(i) Diastictis fracturalis Zeller, Plate XLVIII, Fig. i, 3. 
This is a neatly marked species, which is found in Texas and 
Arizona, and ranges southward into Mexico and Central America. 

Genus CONCHYLODES Guenee 
(i) Conchylodes platinalis Guenee, Plate XLVII, Fig. 60, 6 . 

Syn. ffvulalis Guent*e ; erinalis Walker ; magicalis Felder ; concinnalis 
Hampson. 

The moth is found in western Pennsylvania and southward 
through the southern portions of the United States into South 
America. 

Genus PANTOGRAPHA Lederer 

(i) Pantographa limata Grote & Robinson, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. 38, $ 

Syn. suffusalis Druce. 

The insect occurs from Maine to Patagonia. 

Genus AGATHODES Guene"e 
(i) Agathodes monstralis Guenee, Plate XLVIII, Fig. }, $. 

Syn. designalis Guenee ; floridalis Hulst. 

The moth ranges from Florida to the Rio de la Plata in South 
America. 

393 



Pyralida; 



Genus GLYPHODES Guenee 



This is a large genus, represented in both hemispheres by 
numerous species. We give figures of three. 

(1) Glyphodes nitidalis Stoll, Plate XLVII, Fig. 43, 6. 
(The Pickle-worm.) 

The insect feeds in its larval stage upon cucumbers and 
melons, into which the caterpillar bores. A good account of its 
habits is given by Riley in the "Second Annual Report of the 
State Entomologist of Missouri, " page 67. It has, like most of the 
Pyralidce, a wide range, and extends from the southern portions 
of the United States to the southern portions of South America. 

(2) Glyphodes hyalinata Linnaeus, Plate XLVII, Fig. 39, $ . 

Syn. marginahs Stoll; lucernalis Hubner; hyalinatalis Guenee. 

The range of this species is very much the same as that of 
the last mentioned. 

(3) Glyphodes quadristigmalis Guenee. (The Privet- 
moth.) 




s 



FIG. 217. Glyphodes quadristigmalis. , lateral view of larva; b, dorsal view; 
c, cocoon ; d, moth ; e, lateral view of two segments of larva, enlarged ; /, anal 
segment of pupa from below, greatly enlarged. (After Riley, " Insect Life," 
Vol. I, p. 24.) 



This moth has in recent years proved at times troublesome as 
an enemy of privet-hedges in the southern portions of the country. 
As many as four broods of the moths have been detected in one 

394 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVII 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens represented are con- 
tained in the collection of W. J. Holland.) 



Packardia geminata Packard, 

d 1 - 

Lithacodes fasciola Herrich- 
Schaeffer, J 1 . 
Adoneta spinuloides Herrich- 

Schaeffer, $. 

Cochlidion biguttata Packard, 9 . 
Euclea pcenulata Clemens, <5*. 
Phobetron pithecium Abbot & 

Smith, <?. 
Phobetron pithecium Abbot & 

Smith, 9. 

Prolimacodes scapha Harris, 9 
Sibine stimulea Clemens, c?. 
Euclea indetermina Boisduval, 

d 1 , U. S. N. M. 
Tortricidia testacea Packard, c?. 
Tortricidia cazsonia Grote, $ , 

U. S. N. M. 
Natada nasoni Grote, tf, U. S. 

N. M. 
Sisyrosea textula Herrich- 

Schaeffer, 9 , U. S. N. M. . 
Euclea Moris Herrich-Schaeffer, 

$, U. S. N. M. 
Packardia elegans Packard, 9 . 
Isochcetes beutenmulleri Henry 

Edwards, $ , U. S. N. M. 
Alarodia slossonice Packard, 9 , 

U. S. N. M. 
Adoneta pygmcsa Grote & 

Robinson, tf, U. S. N. M. 
Heterogenea shurtleffi Packard, 

tf, U. S. N. M. 
Cochlidion y-inversa Packard, 



22. Monoleuca semifascia Walker, ' 

d 1 - 

23. Euclea viridiclava Walker, <?. 

24. Euclea delphinii Boisduval, 9 

25. Euclea nanina Dyar, J 1 . 

26. Euclea Moris Herrich-Schaeffer, 

d 1 - 

27. Cochlidion rectilinea Grote & 

Robinson, <5\ 



28. Zinckenia fascialis Cramer, tf. 

29. Euclea Moris Herrich-Schasffer, 

9- 

30. Thyris maculata Harris, c?. 

31. Thyris lugubris Boisduval, d 1 - 
3 2 . Triprocris s mith s o nianus 

Clemens, <?. 
33. Pyromorpha dimidiata Herrich- 

Schasffer, J>. 
34- Harrisina americana Guerin- 

Meneville, c?. 

35. Hexeris enhydris Grote, <5*. 

36. Meskea dy spier aria Grote, $. 

37. Desmia funeralis Hubner, <$. 

38. Pantographa limata Grote & 

Robinson, c?. 

39. Glyphodes hyalinata Linnaeus, 

40. Cindaphia bicoloralis Guenee, 

41. Pyraus ta insequalis Guenee, d 1 - 

42. Pyrausta niveicilialis Grote, 9 . 

43. Glyphodes nitidalis Stoll, (J 1 . 

44. Pyrausta tyralis Guenee, d 1 - 

45. Evergestis straminalis Hubner, 

d 1 - 

46. Herculia himonialis Zeller, 9 

47. Phlyctcenia tertialis Guen6e, d 1 - 

48. Pyrausta illibalis Hubner, 9 

49. Pyrausta orphisalis Walker, tf. 

50. Pyrausta funebris Strom, d*- 

51. Pyrausta unifascialis Packard. 

52. Pyrausta langdonalis Grote, d 1 - 
53. Pyralis farinalis Linnaeus, 9- 

54. Pyrausta pertextalis'Lederer, $. 

55. Pyrausta fumalis Guenee, d 1 - 
' 56. Pyrausta unimacula Grote & 

Robinson, c?. 

57. Pyrausia ochosalis Fitch, MS., 

58. Eustixia pupula Hubner, d 1 . 

59. Hypsopygia costalis Fabricius, 

60. Conchylodes platinalis Guenee, 



E MOTH BOOK 




Pyralidae 

summer in Washington, D. C. The insect has a wide range, 
being known to occur in the West Indies and Central America. 



Genus PHLYCT^ENODES Guen6e 



There 



This is a genus well represented in both hemispheres, 
are over thirty species found in the United States. 

(1) Phlyctaenodes triumphalis'Grote, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 5, $ . 
This species, which is found in the vicinity of San Luis Obispo, 

California, was described by Grote in the "Canadian Entomolo- 
gist," Vol. XXXIV, p. 295. It does not appear in Dyar's List. 

(2) Phlyctaenodes sticticalis Linnaeus. (The Sugar-beet 
Moth.) 

' Syn. fuscahs Hiibner; tetragonalis Haworth; sordida Butler. 

The moth, of which we give an enlarged representation in Fig. 
218, has becmee in recent years the object of attention in 
those portions of the 
West in which the 
cultivation of the 
sugar-beet has be- 
come an industry of 
magnitude. It has 
done considerable 
damage to the crop 
in Nebraska. There 
are two and perhaps 
three broods pro- 
duced in a year. The 
insect multiplies with 
great rapidity, and 
large areas planted FIG 2 ^_ Phlyctanodes sticticaUs , Twicethesize 

With the beet have of life. (After Riley, "Insect Life," Vol. V, p. 320.) 

been defoliated by the 

caterpillars in comparatively a short time. The larvae hibernate 
in cases woven of silk to which particles of earth are adherent, 
and which are formed at a small depth under the surface of the 
soil. By harrowing the ground it has been ascertained that many 
of the cases are thrown up, and are emptied of the larvae by the 
meadow-larks and other insectivorous birds, or are killed by the 
frosts of winter. Many of them, however, escape such treat- 

395 




Pyralidae 

ment, being possessed of vitality enough to withstand a great 
degree of cold. It has been suggested thai a better way in 
which to rid the fields of the pests is to apply Paris green to the 
beets, in a solution composed of one pound of the poison to two 
hundred gallons of water. The spraying of the plants by the 
mixture is said to have proved efficacious in cases where the 





FlG. 219. P. sticticalis. a, larva, 
magnified ; b, dorsal view of segment 
of do. ; c, lateral view of segment. 
(After Riley, "Insect Life," Vol. V, 
p. 321.) 



FIG. 220. P. sticticalis. a, 
outline of larval case ; b, cocoon 
of parasite in larval case ; c, 
pupa, enlarged. (After Riley, 
"Insect Life," Vol. V, p. 321.) 



application was made as soon as it was ascertained that the in- 
sects were at work upon the leaves. Nature in this case, as in 
multitudes of others, comes to the assistance of the agriculturist, 
and there is a parasite which destroys many of the larvae. The 
cocoon of one of these is shown in Fig. 220. 

The moth occurs in Europe as well as in America, and it is 
possible that the insect has been imported from the Old World. 

(3) Phlyctsenodes oberthuralis Fernald, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 
4,3. 

The species occurs in California and Arizona. 

Genus TITANIO Hiibner 

(i) Titanic proximalis Fernald, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 6, $ . 
The moth is a native of California. The genus to which it 
belongs is represented in our fauna by a number of species. 

" And your spoil shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpillar." 

ISAIAH. xxxni, 4. 

39 6 



Pyralidae 

Genus PHLYCT^NIA Hiibner 
(i) Phlyctaenia tertialis Guenee, Plate XLVII, Fig. 47, $ . 

Syn. plectilis Grote & Robinson ; syringicola Packard. 

This is a common species in the eastern portion of the region. 
It is very abundant about Pittsburgh. The genus is represented 
in our fauna by a dozen species. 

Genus CINDAPHIA Lederer 
(i) Cindaphia bicoloralis Guenee, Plate XLVII, Fig. 40, $ . 

Syn. julialis Walker ; incensalis Lederer ; amiculatalis Berg ; pulchripictalis 
Hampson. 

The moth occurs from New York and New England south- 
ward to the temperate regions of South America. It is the only 
representative of the genus in our fauna. 

Genus PYRAUSTA Schrank 

This is a very large genus, which is well represented in both 
hemispheres. There are about sixty species known to occur 
within our territory. 

(1) Pyrausta pertextalis Lederer, Plate XLVII, Fig. 54, $ . 

Syn. gentilis Grote ; thesealis Zeller. 

The species ranges from New England to the extreme southern 
portions of our region. 

(2) Pyrausta langdonalis Grote, Plate XLVII, Fig. 52, $ . 
The moth occurs in western Pennsylvania and Ohio and 

Indiana. 

(3) Pyrausta orphisalis Walker, Plate XLVII, Fig. 49, $ . 

Syn. adipaloides Grote & Robinson. 

The insect is not uncommon in the Middle Atlantic States. 

(4) Pyrausta fumalis Guenee, Plate XLVII, Fig. 55, 6. 

Syn. orasusalis Walker ; badipennis Grote. 

The species is found in the eastern portions of our territory. 
It is not uncommon in Pennsylvania. 

(5) Pyrausta illibalis Hiibner, Plate XLVII, Fig. 48, ? . 

Syn. arsaltealis Walker; euphcesalis Walker; guttulosa Walker; fascia/is 
Walker ; subjectalis Lederer ; magniferalis Walker. 

The moth, which is somewhat variable in its markings, is 
found in the Appalachian subregion. 

(6) Pyrausta unifascialis Packard, Plate XLVII, Fig. 'i,$. 

W7 



Pyralidse 

Syn. subolivalis Packard; hircinalis Grote ; olnigralis Ilulst. 

The moth is known to occur in the northern portions of the 
United States and to range westward to California. 

(7) Pyrausta insequalis Guenee, Plate XLV1I, Fig. 41,3. 

Syn. subsequalis Guenee; madetesalis Walker; repletalis Walker; efficitalis 
Walker. 

The species inhabits the Appalachian subregion. 

(8) Pyrausta ochosalis Fitch, MS., Plate XLVII, Fig. 57, 3 . 
This species, which is not at all uncommon in Pennsylvania, 

is in many collections confounded with P. generosa Grote & 
Robinson, which it resembles in a general way. The insect is 
prevalently smaller than the latter species, and the markings are 
different. The species has been correctly discriminated in the 
collection of the United States National Museum from P. generosa, 
and the name applied to it in manuscript by Fitch is there given 
it. I have used this name in designation of the species. 

(9) Pyrausta tyralis Guenee, Plate XLVII, Fig. "44, $. 

Syn. erosnealis Walker ; diffissa Grote & Robinson ; bellulalis Hulst. 

The species ranges from the Valley of the Ohio southward to 
Texas. 

(10) Pyrausta unimacula Grote & Robinson, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. 56, $ 

The insect is common in Pennsylvania and the Valley of the 
Ohio. 

(i i) Pyrausta funebris Strom, Plate XLVII, Fig. 50, <5 . 

Syn. octomaculata Linnseus ; glomeralis Walker. 

This pretty and distinctly marked species, which in the pat- 
tern of its wings recalls the markings of the genus Alypia, is 
found in the northern parts of temperate North America and in 
Europe. 

(12) Pyrausta niveicilialis Grote, Plate XLVII, Fig. 42, ?. 

The moth is found from New England to western Pennsyl- 
vania and the Valley of the Ohio as far west as southern Indiana. 

Genus EUSTIXIA Hiibner 

(i) Eustixia pupula Hubner, Plate XLVII, Fig. 58, $ . 

The insect is found throughout the Appalachian subregion. 
It is freely attracted to light and also to sugar. It is common in 
Indiana. 



Pyralidae 

Genus CORNIFRONS Lederer 

(i) Cornifrons simalis Grote, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 7, $. 
The range of the moth is from Montana to Oregon. 

nus NOCTUELIA Guen<e 
(i) Noctuelia thalialis Walker, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 9, $. 

Syn. peruviana Walker; gelidalis Walker; novalis Grote; coslcemaculalis 
Snellen. 

The insect is found in the Gulf States and southward through 
South America. 

SUBFAMILY NYMPHULIN^E 

The insects composing this family are generally found in the 
vicinity of water, the larvae feeding for the most part upon aquatic 
plants. Four genera belonging to the subfamily are recognized 
as occurring within our limits. We give an illustration of one of 
the commoner species. 

Genus NYMPHULA Schrank 

(i) Nymphula obscuralis Grote, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 10, ?. 
The insect occurs from Maine to Minnesota, and southward 
into Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 

SUBFAMILY SCOPARIIN/E 

The Scopariince are represented in our fauna by the genus 
Scoparia alone. Seven species belonging to this genus are 
attributed to it in the last published list of the Lepidoptera of the 
United States. 

SUBFAMILY PYRALIN^E 

Five genera belonging to this subfamily occur within our ter- 
ritory. Of these we have selected for illustration specimens rep- 
resenting three of the genera. 

Genus HYPSOPYGIA HUbner 

(i) Hypsopygia costalis Fabricius, Plate XLVII, Fig. 59, 3. 
(The Clover-hay Worm.) 

Syn. fimbrialis Denis & Schiffermiiller. 

399 



Pyralidae 

This troublesome little species is no doubt an importation from 
Europe, where it is very common. It has spread from the Atlantic 

to the Rocky Mountains. It 
has the habit of infesting 
stacks of clover-hay, and 
often does a great deal of 
damage by weaving its webs 
of fine whitish silk mixed 
with excrement in the hay 
and devouring the leaves. 
Many cases have been re- 
ported in which hay had been 
rendered entirely unfit for use 
by the presence ofthese pests. 
As the larvae feed upon 
dried clover, it has been rec- 
ommended to make it a 
point not to stack new hay in places where the old hay is known 
to have been infected. Furthermore, as the larvae are known to 
prefer hay which is somewhat moist, it is recommended to make 
it a point to stack the hay in such a manner that it cannot be 
subjected to an excess of moisture. This may be done by build- 
ing the stacks upon a framework of rails elevated a little distance 
above the ground, so as to permit of the circulation of air beneath. 




FlG. 221. Hypsopygia costalis. 1-2, 
larvae ; 3, cocoon ; 4, pupa ; 5-6, moth ; 7 
larva covered with silken web. (After 
Riley.) 



(The 



Genus PYRALIS Linnaeus 

(i) Pyralis farinalis Linnaeus, Plate XLVII, Fig. 53, ? . 
Meal Snout-moth.) 

This is a cosmo- 
politan species, being 
quite abundant every- 
where. It manifests 
a decided preference 
for cereals in almost 
any form, and feeds 

Upon meal, bran, and FIG. 2^^. Pyralis farinalis. a, moth; 

pvpn thf straw anH c > cocoon - (After Chittenden, " Bull. U. S. Dept. 

even tne straw and Agric>> ,, New Series> Volt IVj p< 1JQ-) A11 figu f es 

husks. It Undergoes twice the size of life. 
400 




Pyralidae 

transformation quite rapidly and is known to produce as many 
as four generations in a year. The caterpillars prefer the dark 
corners of meal-bins and the nooks of granaries and elevators 
which are least disturbed, and here will, unless they are detected 
and their ravages checked, establish centers of infection, from 
which they will go forth to do a vast amount of mischief. The 
caterpillars form long cases or tunnels of silk mixed with the 
debris of their food, in which they are quite effectually concealed 
from view. The best remedy is cleanliness, and frequent moving 
of stored products. 

Genus HERCULIA Walker 

(1) Herculia olinalis Guenee, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 13, $. 

Syn. trentonalis Lederer. 

The species is widely distributed throughout the United States 
and Canada. The larvae feed upon the leaves of the oak. 

(2) Herculia himonialis Zeller, Plate XLVII, Fig. 46, ? . 
The moth is found from New England to Pennsylvania. It is 

not uncommon among the Alleghany Mountains about Cresson. 

SUBFAMILY CHRYSAUGIN/E 

This is a small subfamily, represented in our fauna by nine 
genera. Two of these we have selected for representation. 

Genus SALOBRANA Walker 

(i) Salobrana tecomae Riley, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 1 1, $. 

This curious little moth feeds in its larval state upon the inte- 
rior of the seed-pods of the common trumpet-vine (Tecoma). 
The eggs are deposited when the pods are forming, and the larvae 
develop within them until in the fall, when they become dormant, 
hibernating in their burrows until the following spring, when 
they prepare for their escape by making an orifice in the outer 
shell of the pod and transforming into pupa;. An excellent 
account of their habits has been given by the late Professor C. V. 
Riley in the "American Entomologist," Vol. Ill, p. 288. The 
moth is found in the southwestern portions of the United States, 
in the West Indies, and in Mexico and Central America. 

401 



Pyralidae 

Genus TOSALE Walker 
(i) Tosale oviplagalis Walker, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 33, $ . 

Syn. nobilis Grote ; anthcecioides Grote & Robinson. 

This is a common insect in western Pennsylvania, coming 
freely to sugar. It ranges from the eastern portions of our terri- 
tory southward into South America. 

SUBFAMILY SCHCENOBIIN^E 

This is a small subfamily of peculiar moths in which the pro- 
boscis is wanting, and which are represented in our territory by 
four genera and a dozen or more species. Of these we have 
selected one for illustration. 

Genus SCIRPOPHAGA Treitschke 
(i) Scirpophaga perstrialis Hiibner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 

12, ?. 

Syn. serriradiellus Walker ; macrinellus Zellner. 

The habitat of this moth is the southern part of Florida. 
SUBFAMILY CRAMBIN/E 

The Crambince, or "Grass-moths," as they are commonly 
called, constitute a large subfamily. The North American species 
have been well described and delineated by Fernald in his little 
book entitled "The Crambidae of North America," which was 
published in 1896. To this the student will do well to refer. 
There are fourteen genera in our territory, and over eighty species. 
Only a few of these can be represented in our plates. 

Genus CRAM BUS Fabricius 

(1) Crambus laqueatellus Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 17, $ . 

Syn. semifusellus Walker. 

The moth ranges from New England to Texas. Like all the 
other species of the genus, it feeds in its larval state upon the 
grasses. 

(2) Crambus alboclavellus Zeller, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 18, $. 
The insect is very common in the Appalachian subregion. 

(3) Crambus turbatellus Walker, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 19, ?. 

Syn. bipunctellus Zeller. 

4O2 



Pyralidae 

The insect occurs from Canada and New England in the North 
to the Potomac and the Ohio in the South. 

(4) Crambus trisectus Walker, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 20, $ . 

Syn. interminellus Walker ; exsiccatus Zeller ; biliturellus Zeller. 

This is a very common and widely distributed species, rang- 
ing from the Atlantic to the Pacific through more temperate 
latitudes. 

Genus DIATR^EA Guilding 

(i) Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. (The Larger Corn-stalk 
Borer.) 

Syn. leucaniellus Walker; lineosellus Walker; obliteratellus Zeller; crambi- 
doides Grote. 

As early as the year 1828 the attention of the world was called 
to the damage inflicted upon the sugar-cane in the West Indies 
by the larva of a lepidopterous insect. The author of the paper 
in which it was described was the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, who 
was awarded a gold medal by the Society of Arts for his account 
of the insect. About thirty years later, attention was called to 
the ravages of 
a similar insect 
in the island of 
Mauritius, into 
which it had 
been intro- 
duced. From 
the West In- 
dies the insect 
was transport- 
ed to Louisi- 
ana, and a 
study of its 
pernicious 
habits was ac- 
curately made 
in the year 1 88 1 
by Dr. L. O. 
Howard of the 

United States Department of Agriculture. 
Louisiana as a pest since 1855. 

403 




FIG. 223. D. saccharalis. 
larged ; d, third thoracic segment; 



varieties of larva, en- 
eighth abdominal seg- 



ment ; /, abdominal segment from side ; g, same from above, 
enlarged. (After Howard, "Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 101.) 



It had been known in 



Pyralidae 

The ravages of the insect are not confined to the sugar-cane. 
It attacks with equal avidity sorghum and the stalks of the com- 
mon Indian corn, or maize. The insect has gradually worked its 
way northward from the region of the Gulf, having found lodg- 
ment here and there throughout the Southern States, and is now 
known to occur quite abundantly at times as far north as Mary- 
land. It is double-brooded in Virginia. 

The most serious damage is inflicted upon the crop where 
the larvae attack young stalks. Plants which are older and well 

established, though 
they may suffer to 
some extent from the 
insects, are generally 
not damaged suffi- 
ciently to prevent the 
maturing and harden- 
ing of the grain; but 
where the stalks are 
young and quite ten- 
der, they fail to mature, 
are stunted, sicken, and 
ultimately die. The 
accompanying figure 
shows the dwarfed 
and sickly appearance 
of such a stalk, which 
has been invaded by 
the borer. The life- 
history of the insect 
has been briefly given 
by Howard as follows : 
" In early spring the 
parent moth lays her 
eggs upon the young 
cane near the axils, and 
the young borer pene- 
trates the stalk at or 
near the joint, and commences to tunnel, usually upward, through 
the soft pith. The larval growth is rapid, and the borer is active, 

404 




FIG. 224. D. saccharalis. a, appearance of 
corn-stalk infested by larva; b, stalk cut open to 
show larval tunnel and pupa. (After Howard, 
"Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 99.) 



Pyralidae 

and frequently leaves the stalk at one place and enters at another, 
making several holes in the course of its growth. When ready 
to transform, it burrows to the surface, making a hole for the 
exit of the future moth, and transforms to the pupa state. There 
are several generations in the course of a season, and the insect 
hibernates in the larval state within the stalks." 

The fact that the insect makes its home in the winter months 
in the dry stalks furnishes the means for most effectually com- 
bating its attacks. The remedy is found in destroying the 
stalks, either by burning 
them or by gathering them 
up and feeding them to live 
stock. It is well known 
that where crops are ro- 
tated, and the stalks are" 
not left standing in the 
fields all winter, the insect 
does not succeed in inflict- 
ing much damage. Care- 
ful and intelligent tillage of 
the soil, cleanliness in the 
fields, will do much to pre- 
vent the increase of these 
insects, as well as of many 
other injurious species 
which might be named. 




FIG. 225. D. saccharalis. a, female, en- 
larged ; b, wings of male ; c, pupa, enlarged. 
(After Howard, "Insect Life," Vol. IV, 
P- 95-) 



In addition to feeding 

upon sugar-cane, sorghum, and corn, it has be,en ascertained 
that the insect will attack " Gama-grass" (Tripsactim dactyloides), 
and it is recommended to burn over fields in which this grass 
grows in proximity to corn-fields. The student who is desirous 
to know more about this insect may consult the pages of " Insect 
Life," Vol. IV, p. 95, where Dr. Howard has written at length 
upon its habits. It is from this article that much of the infor- 
mation contained in the preceding paragraphs has been drawn. 

SUBFAMILY GALLERIIN/E 

This is a subfamily the larvae of at least one species of which 
have the remarkable habit of making their abode in the hives of 

405 



Pyralidae 

bees, where they feed upon the wax and destroy the young of 
the insects upon whose industry they prey. 

Genus GALLERIA Fabricius 
(i) Galleria mellonella Linnaeus. (The Bee-moth.) 

Syn. cereana Linnaeus ; cerella Fabricius ; obliqnella Walker. 

The Bee-moth was undoubtedly introduced into this country 
from Europe. It is a well-known enemy of the apiarist, and has 
been active in doing mischief on this side of the Atlantic for more 




a- c 

FIG. 226. The Bee-moth. a, larva: , cocoon ; c, pupa; </, 
female moth with wings expanded; e, male moth with wings closed. 
(After Riley.) 

than a century, while it has been known from time immemorial 
in Europe as one of the most dreaded pests of the hive. The 
moth is double-brooded, the first generation appearing on the 
wing in the latter part of May and the beginning of June, and 
the second in August. We cannot do better than to quote in 
this connection the following account of the insect which is given 
by Professor C. V. Riley in the " First Annual Report of the State 
Entomologist of Missouri," p. 166: 

" During the daytime these moths remain quietly ensconced in 
some angle of the hive, but, as night approaches, they become 
active, and the female uses her best endeavors to get into the 
hive, her object being to deposit her eggs in as favorable a place 
as possible. Wire-gauze contrivances are of no avail to keep her 
out, as she frequently commences flying before all the bees have 
ceased their work. But even if she were entirely prevented from 
entering the hive, she could yet deposit her eggs on the outside s 
or, by means of her extensile ovipositor, thrust them in between 
the slightest joint or crack, and the young worms hatching from 
them would readily make their way into the hive. The moment 

ao6 



Pyralida 

the worm is hatched, it commences spinning a silken tube for its 
protection, and this tube is enlarged as it increases in size. The 
worm cuts its channels right through .the comb, feeding on the 
wax, and destroying the young bees on its way. When full- 
grown, it creeps into a corner of the hive or under some ledge at 
the bottom, and forms a tough white cocoon of silk mingled 
with its own black excrement, as shown in Figure 226, b. In due 
time the moth emerges from this cocoon. 

A worm-infested hive may generally be known by the dis- 
couraged aspect which the bees present, and by the bottom- 
board being covered with pieces of bee-bread mixed with the 
black gunpowder-like excrement of the worm. . . . If a hive is 
very badly infested with the worm, it is better to drive out the 
bees and secure what honey and wax there may be left than to 
preserve it as a moth-breeder to infest the apiary. If put into a 
new hive, the bees may do something; and if they do not, there 
is no loss, as they would have perished, finally, from the ravages 
of the worm." 

SUBFAMILY EPIPASCHIIN^E 

This subfamily is represented in our fauna by fourteen genera 
and about thirty species. The insects may generally be recog- 
nized and separated from allied forms by the fact that the cell of 
the fore wing is adorned -by tufts of raised scales. We have 
only space to give an illustration of a single genus and species. 

Genus YUMA Hulst 
(i) Yuma trabalis Grote, Plate XLVI1I, Fig. 14, ? . 

Syn. adulatalis Hulst. 

The insect is found in Colorado and Wyoming, and ranges 
southward into Texas. Almost all of the Epipascbiince found 
within our territory are native to the West and the Southwest, 
only a few species being found in the eastern portions of the 
United States. 

SUBFAMILY PHYCITIN/E 

This is a very extensive group of moths, which have been 
admirably monographed by the late Mons. E. L. Ragonot of 
Paris, in the " Memoires sur les ^Lepidopteres," Vols. VII and 

407 



Pyramids 

VIII. There are represented in our fauna over sixty genera and 
more than two hundred species. We can give our readers 
merely a glimpse into this corner of the field, but trust that what 
they shall see may impel them to undertake for themselves the 
pleasant task of diligent exploration, assuring them that they will 
find here a world of wonders with which to deal. 

Genus ACROBASIS Zeller 

(i) Acrobasis betulella Hulst, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 15, ?. 

This is a common species, ranging from New England to 
Colorado. There are nearly a dozen other species of the genus 
known to occur in our fauna, and no doubt many more which 
have not yet been discovered and described. 



Genus MINEOLA Hulst 

(i) Mineola juglandis Le Baron. (The Walnut Case-bearer.) 

This little moth lives in its larval stage upon the leaves of 

the hickory and walnut. It has the habit of drawing together 

two of the opposite leaves 
attached to the long peti- 
ole, and between them it 
builds a case, which is 
quite straight and is com- 
posed of silk, attached to 
which is excrementitious 
matter, which is neatly 
and closely applied to 
the whole. In this case 
the larva lives until the 
cooler airs of autumn 
warn it to leave the 
petiole of the compound 
leaf, which will fall pres- 
ently, and it then anchors its little case to the twig near by, and 
in a half-grown state prepares for the cold winds and icy tem- 
perature of winter. When again spring sends the sap up the 
branches, and the leaves begin to unfold, it cuts the bands of silk 
which held the case in place, and completing its development 

408 




FIG. 227. M. juglandis. , case woven 
between leaves ; b, case ; c, e, wing of M. indi- 
genella and variety; d, wing of M. juglandis. 
(After Riley.) 



Pyralidae 

upon freshly grown and sapid food, it is transformed into a pupa, 
from which the moth presently emerges. The moth closely 
resembles the next species, but the student, by the study of its 
habits and of the case, which is always straight, and not crooked, 
as is that of the following species, may at once discriminate it. 
(2) Mineola indigenella Zeller. (The Rascal Leaf-crumpler.) 

Syn. nebula Walsh; zelatella Hulst. 

This moth is common in 
the Valley of the Mississippi 
and in Ontario, but does not 
appear to be very common in 
the Eastern States, and is un- 
known in the extreme south- 
ern portions of our region. 
It is very common in western 
Pennsylvania. 

Professor C. V. Riley de- 
scribes its habits as follows: 
"It is one of those insects 
which is hardly noticed while 
it is carrying on its most de- 
structive work; for it is most 
voracious during the leafy 
months of May and June, 
and is then more or less hid- 
den by the foliage of the tree, 
which it so effectually helps to denude. 




FIG. 228. M. indigenella. a, case; b, 
case wrapped in debris of leaves; c, head 
of larva; d, moth, enlarged. (After Riley.) 



But the nakedness of 
winter, though it does not reveal the surreptitious worm, lays 
bare and renders conspicuous its little house, and these houses 
these "larval cases whether closely attached in clusters to the 
twigs as in Figure 228, b, or hidden in a few seared and silk-sewn 
leaves as at Figure 229, are unerring tokens of past injury to the 
tree, and symbols of increased injury in the future, unless re- 
moved. The bunches of leaves anchored to the tree by strong 
silken cables and breasting defiantly every winter's wind are, 
indeed, significant insignia upon which is written in characters, 
if not in words 'result of careless culture and unpardonable 
neglect.' 

There is but one brood a year, and the larva, about one-third 
409 




FlG. 229. Cluster of leaves 
hiding larval case of M. indi- 
genella. (After Riley.) 



Pyralidse 

grown, invariably passes the winter protected in its case. At 
this season of the year it is always of a deep reddish-brown 
color. As the leaves expand in spring 
it rouses from its winter lethargy, 
and after 'heaving anchor' to use a 
nautical expression by severing the 
silken connections of its case, travels 
in search of food, and having found 
ir, secures its case again, and breaks 
its long fast. Toward the end of 
May it acquires its growth, wnen the 
earlier brown color frequently takes 
on a more or less decided deep green 
hue. It is a smooth worm with the 
head and thoracic joints as represented 
ate. The case at this time usually 
presents the appearance of Figure 228, 
a, being crooked and twisted like a 
little horn, gradually enlarging, cornucopia-fashion, from tip to 
mouth, and reminding one strongly of a piece of bird-dung. It 
is formed of the worm's excrement and other debris, interwoven 
with silk, and is completely lined on the inside with a carpet of 
the last-named material. The worm leaves it for feeding pur- 
poses mostly during the night. The chrysalis is formed inside 
this case, and the moths commence to make their appearance 
during the fore part of June, and later as we go farther north." 
The insect feeds principally upon the Rosacece, and is very 
injurious to orchards, attacking apple-trees, plums, quinces, cher- 
ries, and certain varieties of pears, especially the Seckel pear. 

Genus AMBESA Grote 

(i) Ambesa laetella Grote, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 16, $. 
The moth is not uncommon in Colorado, Wyoming, and 
Utah. It is found in the sage-brush in August. 

Genus MELITARA Walker 

(i) Melitara fernaldialis Hulst, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 8, ?. 
The insect is not at all uncommon in Arizona, and is also said 
to occur in Mexico. 

410 



Pyralidae 



A 

11 





FIG. iy>.Z.grossulariiE. 
Moth and cocoon. (After 
Riley.) 



Genus ZOPHODIA Hiibner 

(i) Zophodia grossulariae Riley. (The Gooseberry Fruit- 
worm.) 

Syn. turbitella Grote. 

The larva of this little moth, which is glass-green, feeds 
upon currants and gooseberries as they are forming upon the 
branches, hollowing out their interiors, and often fastening a 
cluster of them together with a web of 
silk. The berries attacked by the larvae 
do not generally fall to the ground, but 
shrivel up where they are, attached to 
the stalk. The caterpillars transform into 
pupae on the ground, under leaves and 
among rubbish. There is but one brood 
during the year. 

The insect is widely distributed from New England and 
southern Canada westward and southward into the Valley of the 
Ohio and the upper portions of the Mississippi Valley. 

Genus CANARSIA Hulst 

( i )Canarsia hammondi Riley. (The Apple-leaf Skeletonizer. ) 
The larva of this little moth feeds upon the parenchyma, or 
soft green pulpy covering of the leaves, of the apple and allied 
trees, leaving the framework of 
veins and veinlets untouched. 
Sometimes it devours all of the 
upper surface of the leaf and 
completely skeletonizes it; more 
frequently it only eats portions 
here and there. In the fall of 
the year orchards are often made 
to appear quite sear and blighted 
by the inroads of the minute larvae, 
which are gregarious and are at 
times found literally in millions 
upon the trees. 

The insect has an extensive 
range, and is found from New 
411 




FIG. 231. C. hammondi. a, larva ; 

b, enlarged dorsal view of segment ; 

c, enlarged view of head and anterior 
segments; d, moth. (After Riley.) 



Pyralidae 

England and Ontario southward through the valleys of the Ohio 
and the Mississippi as far as northern Texas. 

By weakening the trees the larvae cause the fruit to fall pre- 
maturely, and not a little damage is thus caused to the crop. It 
has been recommended to treat trees which are infested by the 
insect to a dust-bath made of air-slaked lime. It is said that this 
has the effect of destroying the larvae. A better method of pro- 
cedure is to give the trees a spraying with a very weak solution of 
one or the other of the coal-oil emulsions which are in use as 
disinfectants in orchards. 

Genus EPHESTIA Guenee 
(i) Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. (The Flour-moth.) 

Syn. gitonella Druce. 

This wretched pest, the original habitat of which is not 
known, has within recent years caused a great deal of trouble 
and expense to millers and dealers in grain on both sides of the 
Atlantic. It is believed by many European entomologists to be 
of American origin, but this cannot be proved. Others hold that 




FIG. 232. E. kuehniella. (All figures greatly enlarged.) a, larva; , pupa; 
c, moth; d, enlarged head of larva; e, enlarged segment; /, moth at rest; g, front 
wing, showing characteristic markings ; h, i, neuration of wings. (After Riley, 
" Insect Life," Vol! II, p. 166.) 

it is an importation from the Orient, and it goes under the name 
of the Mediterranean Flour-moth in some localities. Wherever 
the creature came from, it is a decided plague. Rapidly multi- 
plying, it takes possession of mills and grain-warehouses, and. 

412 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIII 

(Unless otherwise indicated, the specimens figured are contained in 
the collection of W. J. Holland.) 

1. Diastictis fracturalis Zeller, J 1 , U. S. N. M. 

2. Samea ecclesialis Guenee, $ , U. S. N. M. 

3. Agathodes monstralis Guenee, tf , U. S. N. M. 

4. Phlyctanodes oberthuralis Fernald, d\ U. S. N. M. 

5. Phlyctcsnodes triumphalis Grote, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

6. Titanio proximalis Fernald, cT, U. S. N. M. 

7. Cornifrons simalis Grote, tf , U. S. N. M. 

8. Melitara fernaldialis'Hulst, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

9. Noctuelia thalialis Walker, d\ U. S. N. M. 

10. Nymphula obscuralis Grote, $ , U. S. N. M. 

11. Salobrana tecomaz Riley, 9. 

12. Scirpophaga perstrialis Hiibner, 9 . U. S. N. M. 

13. Herculia olinalis Guenee, <j\ U. S. N. M. 

14. Yuma trabalis Grote, 9 , U. S. N.. M. 

15. Acrobasis betulella Hulst, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

1 6. Ambesa latella Grote, tf. 

17. Crambus laqueatellus Clemens, <J*. 

1 8. Cravibus alboclavellus Zeller, <5*. 

19. Crambus turbatellus Walker, 9 

20. Crambus trisectus Walker, 9 

21. Archips cerasivorana Fitch, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

22. Tortrix albicomana Clemens, cT, U. S. N. M. 

23. Amorbia hunter osana Clemens, 9 , U. S. N. M 

24. Platynota flavedana Clemens, 9 . var. 

25. Platynota labiosana Zeller, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

26. Commophila macrocarpana Walsingham, cJ 1 , U. S. N. M. 

27. Eucosma dorsisignatana Clemens, c?. 

28. Cenopis groteana Fernald, c?- 

29. Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, 9 

30. Archips purpurana Clemens, c?. 

31. Archips parallela Robinson, <?. 

32. Archips* rosaceana Harris, 9 

33. Tosale oviplagalis Walker, J 1 . 

34. Archips argyrospila Walker, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

35. Cenopis pettitana Robinson, 9 , U. S. N. M. 

36. Atteva aurea Fitch, c?, U. S. N. M. 

37. Atteva gemmata Grote, <J*, U. S. N. M. 

38. Semioscopis merricella Dyar, 9 

39. Eulia alisellana Robinson, 9 

40. Epagoge tunicana Walsingham, d 1 , U. S. N. M. 

41. Stenoma schlcegeri Zeller, & , U. S. N. M. 

42. Anaphora popeanella Clemens, c?. 

43. Acrolophus plumtfrontellus Clemens, (J 1 . 

44. Yponomeuta multipunctella Clemens, c?, U. S. N. M. 

45. Adela bella Chambers, <5*. 



PLATS XLVI11. 




? 
















19 




*- 



T 



EBWAN COLORTYPE CO., N.Y 



Pyialidae 

seems to defy attempts to eradicate it. Each female lays from 
six to seven hundred eggs, and the process of generation seems, 
where buildings are warm, to go on continuously. Moving and 
airing the wheat does no good, as the insect seems to multiply 
in the pipes in which flour is transported in a mill from one place 
to another by air-pressure. Much damage is done by the habit 
which the larvae pos- 
sess of gnawing the 
fine gauze of the 
screens in a flour- 
mill. 

When the insect 
has once established 
itself in an elevator or 
mill, the only remedy 
appears to be to shut 
down, and thorough- 
ly clean the place from 
top to bottom, and 
keep shut down and 
go on cleaning until 
not a nook or cranny 
is known to harbor 
the larvae, cocoons, or 
moths. The accom- 




FIG. 233. a, Enlarged view of cocoon of Flour- 
moth from below, showing pupa through thin silk 
which was attached to a beam. f>, Cocoon viewed 
from above, with meal clinging to it. (After Riley, 
"Insect Life," Vol. II, p. 167.) 



panying illustrations, 
which are taken from the pages of "Insect Life," Vol. II, will 
enable the student to recognize this creature in its various stages 
of development. 

Thus far it has not become universally distributed throughout 
the country, but it has appeared in alarming numbers in some 
parts of Canada and New England. In England, Germany, and 
Belgium its attacks have been the subject of frequent comment. 
It shares an unenviable reputation with another species of the 
same genus, which we shall presently speak of, and with a spe- 
cies of Plodia, of which we shall also have something to say. 

" Bee to the blossom, moth to the flame ; 
Each to his passion ; what 's in a name? " 

HELEN HUNT JACKSON. Vanity of Vanities. 




E. 



FIG. 234 



(After ^ 
* e " 



Pyralidae 

(2) Ephestia cautella Walker. (The Dried-currant Moth.) 

Syn. cahiritella Zeller ; pasulella Barrett ; desuetella Walker. 

This insect, which in many respects closely re- 
sembles the preceding species, like it is destructive 
to stored food-products. It is known to feed upon 
Zante currants, raisins, cacao-beans, or chocolate- 
nuts, on flax-seed, flax-meal, and figs. It is re- 
garded as probable that upon occasion it may de- 
velop a tendency to feed upon almost any substance 
which, containing nutriment, accords in its general 
character with the commodities which have been 
named. It is especially likely to attack dried fruits 
cautella. of any kind in which there is sugar or oil. That the 
tw jf^ e insect has been introduced from abroad into our 
chit- fauna is beyond reasonable doubt. Its ravages on 

u. ' s. i?ept! the other side of the Atlantic have been described by 

Agric.," New writers long ago, while its appearance in this coun- 
try seems to date from about the time of the At- 
lanta Cotton Exposition. 
Just as most of the common weeds in our fields are of 

European origin, having been brought over in the seeds which 

were originally imported, 

or at a later time in the 

hay and straw which are 

used to stuff crates and 

packing-boxes, so many 

of the destructive insects, 

which have greatly multi- 
plied in America, are for- 
eign in their origin. It is 

not without reason that 

the government maintains 

a set of officers, whose 

function it is to inspect 

vegetable importations for 

the purpose of quarantin- 




FIG. 235. E. cautella. a, moth ; b, vena- 
tion of wings ; d, eggs. All figures enlarged. 
(After Chittenden, "Bull. U. S. Dept. 
Agric.," New Ser., No. 8, p. 8.) 



ing those which appear to be likely to introduce insect pests. 
Had the custom of quarantining plants been instituted earlier, our 
farmers would to-day be happier. 
4M 



Pteropboridae 



Genus PLODIA Guene"e 
(i) Plodia interpunctella Hiibner. (The Indian-meal Moth.) 

Syn. zees Fitch. 

The larva of this moth has a propensity to feed upon almost 
anything edible which comes in its way. It feeds upon Indian 
meal with particular avid- 
ity, but does not disdain 
grain of any kind, whole 
or ground. It breeds in 
all sorts of dried fruits 
and vegetables. It eats 
English walnuts, is said 
to invade beehives, and is 
known at times to dam- 
age herbariums and to 




FIG. 236. P. interpunctella. a, moth ; 
pupa ; c, larva ; d, front view of head of larva ; 
e, lateral view of segment of larva. All figures 
enlarged. (After Chittenden, "Bull. U. S. 
Dept. Agric.,"New Ser., No. 4, p. 119.) 



attack collections of dried 
insects. There is nothing 
which seems to come 
amiss to its appetite, and 
it is, when established in a house or store-room, a veritable nui- 
sance. There are, according to the temperature of the building 
which it inhabits, from four to seven generations a year, and the 
reader cf these lines will do well to remember that if the thing 
has establis " itself under his roof it will require industry, pa- 
tience, and great regard to cleanliness and order to get rid of it. 



FAMILY PTEROPHORID/E 

" Nature never did betray 
The breast that loved her ; 't is her privilege, 
Through all the years of this our life, to lead 
From joy to joy." 

WORDSWORTH. 

The Plume-moths, as they are called, constitute a comparatively 
small family of elegant insects, in which the wings are divided 
in such a manner as to suggest feathers. The hind wings are 
generally trifid, sometimes quadrifid; the fore wings are gener- 
ally bifid, sometimes trifid. The larvae are slow in movement, 
clumsy in appearance, and live on the surface of leaves. They 

415 



Pteroporidaeh 

are generally hairy. The pupae are very remarkable, being soft 
and hairy like the caterpillars, and attached in pendant position 
by the cremaster, very much as the chrysalids of some butterflies, 
though a few have rudimentary cocoons in the form of strands 
of silk thrown about them. There are six genera and about 
sixty species of Plume-moths known to occur in the United 
States. We can take space to represent only one- of these 
species. 

Genus OXYPTILUS Zeller 

(i) Oxyptilus periscelidactylus Fitch. (The Grape-vine 

Plume.) 

An exceedingly readable and very interesting account of the 

habits of this insect, which is universally distributed over the 
whole Appalachian subregion, is 
given by the late Professor Riley 
in the "Fourth Missouri Report." 
The moths may generally be found 
in vineyards and about grape-vines, 
when they are beginning to put out 
their leaves. The eggs are laid on 
the branches before they begin to 
blossom, and about the time the 
third bunch of grapes on a given 
shoot is beginning to mature, it will 
be found that the terminal leaves 
have been drawn together with a 

few strands f silk > and in tne tan - 

gle thus prepared, under cover from 

heat anc * ra ' n> w ^' k g found the curi- 
ous little caterpillars of the Plume- 
moth. The accompanying cut, taken 
from the paper of Professor Riley to 
which allusion has been made, will 
serve to tell the story better than can 
be done in brief compass by words. 
The damage done by the insects is not usually very great, and 
it is an easy matter for the vine-grower, when he discovers the 
leaves drawn together in the way pointed out, to pluck off the 
end of the shoot and destroy the insects. 

416 




FIG. 237. The Grape-vine 
Plume, a, larvae ; b, pupa ; c , en- 
larged view of process on back of 
pupa ; d, moth ; e, lateral view of 
segment of larva. (After Riley.) 



Orneodidae 



FAMILY ORNEODIDyE 

" Very close and diligent looking at living creatures, even through the best 
microscope, will leave room for new and contradictory discoveries." 

GEORGE ELIOT. 

This is a very small family of moths, represented in our 
fauna by but a single genus and species. The moth has both 
the fore and the hind wings divided into six plumes, as is the 
case in all the insects of the family. 

Genus ORNEODES Latreille 

(i) Orneodes hexadactyla Linnaeus. (The Six-plume 
Moth.) 

The moth, which measures half an inch 
in expanse of wings, is found in Europe 
and in the cooler portions of North America, 
exclusive of the arctic regions. It has 
been reported to occur as far south as Mis- 
souri, but is more commonly found in 
New England, New York, Canada, Mani- FlG g _ Q 
toba, and the Northwestern States on the dactyia. 
Pacific coast It is nowhere apparently a 
common insect, or else is overlooked by collectors on account 
of its small size. 



FAMILY TORTRICID/E 

" Die Kritik nimmt oft dem Baume 
Raupen und Bliithen mit einander." 
JEAN PAUL RICHTER. 

The Tortricidce constitute a very large assemblage of genera 
and species. Because of the habit of the larvae of many species 
of rolling up the leaves of the plants on which they feed, these 
insects have been often called "Leaf-rollers." Many of the 
larvae live in the inside of the stems of plants, or burrow in fruits, 
and the famous " jumping-beans " of New Mexico and Arizona 
are simply the seeds of a species of Croton or Sebastiania in 




Tortricidae 

which is lodged the larva of a species of Tortricid, which has the 
power, by changing its position on the inside of the seed, of 
making the seed move. In the case of Croton seeds the insect is 
Cydia saltitans Westwood ; in the case of Sebastiania seeds the 
insect imparting the motion to the thing is the larva of Enar- 
monia sebastianice. 

It is quite impossible for us in a work of the present scope to 
give even an epitome of the nearly five hundred species of Tor- 
tricids which are at present known to occur within the limits of 
the United States and Canada. We shall content ourselves with 
an account of a few species, which will serve to show the reader 
what a mine of interesting inquiry presents itself to view in this 
single family of beautiful little moths. 



Genus EUCOSMA Hubner 

(1) Eucosma scudderiana Clemens. (The Misnamed Gall- 
moth.) 

Syn. saligneana Clemens ; affusana Zeller. 

The moth was called " the Misnamed Gall-moth" by Professor 

Riley because Clemens 
had given it a specific 
name which implied that 
it was a denizen of wil- 
low-trees or willow- 
galls, when in fact it has 
been ascertained to live 
in the galls of the Golden- 
rod (Solidago). The in- 
sect is not uncommon in 
western Pennsylvania, 
and is possibly an inqui- 
line or intruder in the 
galls, which are pro- 
duced by another spe- 
cies, Gnorimoschema gallcesolidaginis Riley. 

(2) Eucosma dorsisignatana Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 

27, $ . ; 

Syn. similana Clemens ; distigmana Walker ; clavana Zeller ; graduatana 
Walsingham. 

4 l8 




FIG. 239. .. scudderiana. a, moth; b, lar- 
val skin protruding from a gall of the Golden- 
rod. (After Riley.) 




Tortricidse 

This is a common species in the Appalachian subregion. It 
is found abundantly in western Pennsylvania. 

Genus ANCYLIS Hubner 

(i) Ancylis comptana Frolich. (The Strawberry Leaf- 
roller.) 

Syn. conflexana Walker ; fragaria Walsh & Riley. 

This little insect has proved a very destructive foe of the 
strawberry in parts of the Mississippi Valley. There are two 
broods annually. The insects roll up the leaves, and feeding 
upon the tender paren- 
chyma, cause the plants 
to wither and dry. So 
bad have the ravages of 
the larvae proved in some 
places that horticultur- 
ists have been led to Fl * ^ _ * ^^ fl> natural 

abandon growing Straw- size; b, enlarged view of anterior portion of 

berries in those localities. ^ ^ moth; d > anal se s ment of larva - < After 
The insect is found in 

Canada and in the portions of the United States immediately 
south of the Great Lakes. Although the moth occurs in western 
Pennsylvania, no great loss from its attacks has as yet been re- 
ported from this part of the country. 

Genus ECDYTOLOPHA Zeller 

(i) Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, Plate XLVI1I, Fig. 29, ? . 

The larva of this species has the habit of boring under the 
bark and causing gall-like excrescences to appear upon the twigs 
of the common locust (Robinid). 

Genus CYDIA Hubner 

(i) Cydia pomonella Linnaeus. (The Coddling-moth.) 
This well-known and most destructive little insect is estimated 
to inflict an annual loss upon the fruit-growers of America which 
amounts in the aggregate to tens of millions of dollars. Every 
one is familiar with the pinkish worm which is encountered at 
the heart of apples and pears. But for every apple and pear 

419 




Tortricidae 

which survives the attacks of these insects and develops suffi- 
ciently to come to market and to the mouth of the consumer, 

there are scores of apples 
and pears the development 
of which is entirely ruined, 
and they fall to the ground 
undersized and worthless. 
There are two broods of the 
insects annually. The sec- 
ond brood hibernates in the 
cocoon. We quote again 
from Riley: "The same 
temperature which causes 
our apple-trees to burst their 
beauteous blossoms releases 
the coddling-moth from its 
pupal tomb, and though its 
wings are still damp with 
the imprint of- the great 
Stereotyping Establishment 
of the Almighty, they soon 
dry and expand under the genial spring-day sun, and enable each 
to seek its companion. . . . The moths soon pair, and the female 
flits from blossom to blossom, deftly depositing in the calyx of 
each a tiny yellow egg. As the fruit matures, the worm develops. 
In thirty-three days, under favorable circumstances, it has become 
full-fed; when, leaving the apple, it spins up in some crevice, 
changes to a chrysalis in three days, and issues two weeks after- 
wards as moth, ready to deposit again, though not always in the 
favorite calyx this time, as I have frequently found the young 
worm entering from the side." 

The best remedy for the coddling-moth is to destroy all wind- 
falls and immature fruit lying upon the ground. Make it a duty 
to keep the wind-fallen fruit garnered up once a week and fed to 
the pigs. Let the pigs into the orchard, if possible. Bind bands 
of hay about the trees. The caterpillars will form their cocoons 
among the hay in preference to any other place. Once a week 
crush the hay with the cocoons in it, and move the band up and 
down. Burn the wisp of hay if it gets full of cocoons, and bind 

420 



FIG. 241. C. pomonella. a, burrow in 
apple; b, point where egg is laid; e, full- 
grown larva; d, pupa; /, moth at rest; 
^.moth with wings expanded; A, enlarged 
head of larva; i, cocoon. (After Riley.) 



Tortricidae 

on another. The coddling-moth is an importation from Europe. 
Not all the live stock brought into America from Europe, biped 
or hexapod, has turned out well. 



Genus ALCERIS Hubner 
(i) Alceris minuta Robinson. (The Green Apple Leaf-tier.) 

Syn. malivorana Le Baron ; vacciniivorana Packard ; variolana Zeller. 

The larvae of this insect feed in the early spring upon the 
young leaves of apple- and pear-trees, which they crumple up and 
tie together with threads of silk. Under the folded leaves they 
live and at last undergo their transformation into the pupal state. 
The caterpillars are green in color, and very nimble when dis- 
turbed, dropping to the ground or 
lowering themselves quickly upon 
a strand of silk. The chrysalis, as 
shown in the annexed cut, has a 
peculiar horn-like boss or projec- 
tion at the upper end. The insect 
does much damage in the spring 
by preventing the proper expan- 
sion of the leaves in the terminal 
buds and by devouring the blos- 
soms. The writer has for several 
years been greatly interested in i ary a; 
observing the manner in which 
these pernicious little creatures 

have steadily robbed him of all fruit upon a 'couple of dwarf 
pear-trees which are growing at the rear of his city home. It has 
been found that a thorough spraying with a strong infusion of 
tobacco stems and slaked lime brings their work to a speedy 
end, and it is recommended to fruit-growers to resort to the 
application of this old-fashioned remedy when needed. 




FlG< 242 ._ 



minuta . at 
pupa; c, moth; d, folded 
concealing pupa " (After 



Genus EPAGOGE Hubner 
(i) Epagoge tunicana Walsingham, Plate XLVIII, 



Fig. 



40, $ -. 

This rather neatly marked moth, which may be accepted as a 
good representative of its genus, inhabits the Pacific subregion. 

421 



Tortricidae 

Genus CENOPIS Zeller 

(1) Cenopis pettitana Robinson, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 35, ?. 
The habitat of this species is the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Cenopis groteana Fernald, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 28, $-. 
The insect is not uncommon in the Valley of the Ohio. 

Genus ARCHIPS Hubner 

(1) Archips rosaceana Harris, Plate XLVIII, Fig. }2, ?. 

Syn. vicariana Walker ; gossypiana Packard ; arcticana Mceschler. 

This is a common species found all over the northern por- 
tions of the United States and southern Canada. The larvae in- 
flict considerable damage at times upon roses and the foliage of 
allied plants. 

(2) Archips purpurana Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 30, $ . 

Syn. gurgitana Robinson ; lintneriana Grote. 

In many respects this species is very closely allied to the last 
mentioned, from which it may be distinguished by the darker, 
more smoky color of the primaries. It has the same distribution 
as rosaceana. 

(3) Archips cerasivorana Fitch, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 21, ?. 
The larva of this insect, as its name implies, is addicted to 

feeding upon the leaves of various species of wild cherry. It is 
found in the northern portions of the United States and southern 
Canada. 

(4) Archips parallela Robinson, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 31, $ . 
The species ranges from New England westward into the 

Valley of the Mississippi. 

(5) Archips argyrospila Walker, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 34, ? . 

Syn. furvana Robinson; v-signatana Packard. 

The species, which is not at all uncommon, ranges through 
the northern portions of the United States from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific. 

Genus PLATYNOTA Clemens 

(1) Platynota flavedana Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 24, ?. 

Syn. concursana Walker ; laterana Robinson. 

The moth is a native of the Appalachian subregion. 

(2) Platynota labiosana Zeller, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 25, ? . 

422 



Yponomeutidae 

The insect is found in the southwestern portion of our terri- 
tory, having been reported from Colorado and Texas. 

Genus TORTRIX Linnaeus 

(i) Tortrix albicomana Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 22, 6 . 
The moth flies in the eastern portions of our region, being 
commoner in the Atlantic States than elsewhere. 

Genus EULIA Hiibner 

(i) Eulia alisellana Robinson, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 39, ?. 
The insect is common in the Valley of the Ohio. It occurs in 
western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. 

Genus AMORBIA Clemens 

(i) Amorbia humerosana Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 23, ? . 
The species is indigenous in the northern portions of the 
Appalachian subregion. 

Genus COMMOPHILA Hiibner 

(i) Commophila macrocarpana Walsingham, Plate XLVIII, 

Fig. 26, ? . 

The insect is a native of the Pacific subregion. 

FAMILY YPONOMEUTID/E 

" Thus hath the candle sing'd the moth." 

SHAKESPEARE. Merchant of Venice, I, 9. 

This is a family of moderate size, represented in our fauna by 
twenty-two genera and over sixty species. The species have a 
characteristic facies, which when once recognized will enable the 
student to readily separate them from their allies. We are able 
to figure only three species, owing to the necessary limitations 
of space. 

Genus YPONOMEUTA Latreille 

(i) Yponomeuta multipunctella Clemens, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 

44,5- 

Syn. ordinatellus Walker ; euonymella Chambers ; orbimaculella Chambers ; 
wakarusa Gaumer. 

423 



Gelechiidae 

The insect is found in the Appalachian subregion, but more 
particularly in the southeastern portions thereof. 

Genus ATTEVA Walker 

(1) Atteva aurea Fitch, Plate XLVI11, Fig. 36, $ . 

Syn. compta Clemens. 

The insect is common in the southern portions of our region, 
being distributed from the Gulf States southward and westward 
in o Mexico and lands still farther South. 

(2) Atteva gemmata Grote, Plate XLVII1, Fig. 37, 6 . 

Syn. fastuosa Zeller ; floridana Neumoegen. 

The moth is found in the warmer parts of Florida. 



FAMILY GELECHIJD/E 

" He buildeth his house as a moth." JOB. xxvii, 18. 

This is a very extensive family of small moths which possess 
habits of considerable interest to students. Many of them are 




FIG. 243. P. operculella. a, section of tuber showing eye and eggs deposited 
about it, natural size ; b, egg, dorsal view ; c, egg, lateral view, greatly enlarged ; 
d, k, mines of larva in potato ; j, pupa at end of mine, seen through skin of potato, 
somewhat reduced ; e, larva, dorsal view ; f, larva, lateral view ; g, larva, third ab- 



dominal segment, lateral view; h, do., dorsal view, still more enlarged; 
/, moth, enlarged. (After Riley, " Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 239.) 

424 



pupa; 



Gelcchiidae 

known to be more or less injurious to vegetables, in which they 
either burrow in their larval state, or upon the foliage of which 
they prey. We can speak of only a few of them. 

Genus PHTHORIM^A Meyrick 
(i) Phthorimaea operculella Zeller. (The Potato-moth.) 

Syn. terrella Walker ; solanella Boisduvat ; tabacella Ragonot. 

This insect, represented in Fig. 243, the ravages of which upon 
potatoes in Algiers and other Mediterranean countries have been 
well known for many years, and which has more recently caused 
much mischief in New Zealand and Australia, has quite recently 
found lodgment in California, having been apparently accidentally 
imported from Australia. In Algiers it is known in certain years 
to have destroyed fully two thirds of the potato-crop. It is a dan- 
gerous and annoying pest. The best 
remedy for it is said to be the total de- 
struction of infected potatoes, and the 
protection of the stored tubers from 
access by the ovipositing females. 

Genus GNORIMOSCHEMA 
Busck 

(i) Gnorimoschema gallaesoh- 
daginis Riley. (The Solidago Gall- 
moth.) 

The man who has loitered by the 
waysides in the country must often 
have noticed the manner in which the 
stems of the common golden-rod are 
frequently swollen and enlarged about 
two thirds of their length from the 
root. This swelling may be caused by 
the larvae of several insects, but one a 6 

of the most frequent causes of the ab- FIG. 244. Galls of the Soli- 
normal growth is the larva of a little J^Jaitt^254!^ 

moth tO Which the above SCSquipeda- row at d, larva at e; b, gall, 

lian name has been given. The life- P ening at c ' 
history of the insect was carefully worked out by Professor 
Riley, and from his interesting paper upon the subject, contained 

425 




Gelechiidae 

in the "First Missouri Report," the accompanying cut has been 
taken. It shows a gall as it appears from the outside, and also a 
section of a gall, revealing the home which the larva constructed 
for itself in the enlargement of the stem. 

The moth is very common in many parts of the country, but 
particularly in western Pennsylvania. 



Genus ANARSIA Zeller 
(i) Anarsia lineatella Zeller. (The Peach-twig Borer.) 

Syn. pruniella Clemens. 

The insect which we are considering was in all probability intro- 
duced into California, where it is now most firmly established, from 

Asia, probably from Japan. 
The eggs are deposited at 
the point where the leaves 
are attached to the stems, 
or where the stem of the 
fruit is located. The larvae 
make minute burrows un- 
der the bark of the twigs 
and into the stem of the 
fruit, and thus cause dam- 
age both to the trees and to 
the peaches. The insect is 
double-brooded. The larvae 




FIG. 245. A. lineatella. a, new shoot 
of peach withering from attack of larva ; b, 



larva, enlarged; c, pupa, enlarged. (After 
Marlatt, "Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric.," New 
Ser., No. 10, p. u.) 



are secretive, and hide so 
effectually that it is said to 



be very difficult to detect 
them. The insect remains 
in the pupal state about ten 

days, when the moth emerges. The imago is about half an inch 
in expanse of wing. The fore wings are of a beautiful gray 
color, clouded on the costa with darker markings. The insects 
of the second generation hibernate as larvas in their burrows in 
the bark of the twigs. 

A very full and excellent account of the habits of this 
insect has been published in the " Bulletin of the United 
States Department of Agriculture " by Mr. C. L. Marlatt. It is 

426 



Gelechiidae 

from -this paper that we have been with great kindness per- 
mitted to draw the illustrations which are herewith given. 

As a means of combating 
this pest, it has been recom- 
mended to spray the peach- 
trees, just as the leaves are 
beginning to open in the 
spring, with a solution of 
one pound of lime and one 
pound of Paris green mixed 
in two hundred gallons of 
water. It is also recom- 
mended to spray the trees in 
February, or even injanuary, 
with kerosene emulsion, 
which is said to penetrate 



the little burrows in which 
the larvae hibernate and kill 
them. The latter method is 
undoubtedly preferable. 




FlG. 246. A. lineatella. a, moth with 
wings expanded; b, c, moths with wings 
folded. All figures enlarged. (After Marlatt, 
" Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric.," New Ser., No. 

IO, p. 12.) 



CUPID'S CANDLE 

' Round her flaming heart they hover, 

Lured by loveliness they go 
Moth-like, every man a lover, 
Captive to its gleam and glow. 

Old and young, the blind and blinking, 

Fascinated, frenzied things, 
How they flutter, never thinking 

What a doom awaits their wings! 

It is all the same old story, 

Pleasure hung upon a breath : 
Just a chance to taste of glory 

Draws a legion down to death. 

Fire is dangerous to handle ; 

Love is an uncertain flame ; 
But the game is worth the candle 

When the candle 's worth the game! " 

FELIX CARMEN, in Life, Vol. XLI, p. 494. 

427 



Xylorictidae 



FAMILY XYLORICTID^E 



A small family which contains in our fauna two genera and 
nine species. The group may be represented by Stenoma 
schlaegeri Zeller, which is portrayed on Plate XLVIII, Fig. 41, 
by a male specimen. The insect is very common in the Appa- 
lachian subregion, and is particularly abundant in western 
Pennsylvania. 

FAMILY CECOPHORID/E 

" Entomology is a science, not a pastime." WESTWOOD. 

This is another comparatively small family of interesting in- 
sects, numbering in our fauna about ninety species, which are 
distributed into thirteen genera. We can represent only a couple 
of them, for the purpose of showing the readers of " The Moth 
Book " what they are like. 

Genus DEPRESSARIA Haworth 

(i) Depressaria her-acliana De Geer. (The Parsnip Web- 
worm.) 




FIG. 247. D. heracliana. a, larva, side view ; b, dorsal view ; c, pupa : 
anal extremity of pupa ; e, moth, enlarged ; f, umbel of parsnip webbed together by the 
larvae, natural size. (After Riley.) 

Syn. heraclei Retzius ; umbellana Fabricius ; wnbellella Zetterstedt ; pasti- 
nacella Duponchel ; ontariella Bethune. 

The Parsnip Web-worm is an importation from Europe, 

428 



Blastobasidac 

where it has been known from time immemorial as an enemy of 
umbelliferous plants. A full account of the insect is given by 
Riley in "Insect Life," Vol. I, p. 94. To this the reader may 
refer. The remedy for the insect is to gather the portions of the 
plants which have become infested, and to burn them. The in- 
sects, many of which conceal themselves in the stems or are hid- 
den in the foliage, are thus most conveniently destroyed. 

Genus SEMIOSCOPIS Hiibner 

(i) Semioscopis merricella Dyar, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 38, ?. 

This is not at all an uncommon insect in western Pennsyl- 
vania. There are numerous specimens in the collection of the 
writer which have been taken during the past twenty years. 




FAMILY BLASTOBASIDyE 

This is a considerable family of minute moths, as representa- 
tive of which we have selected for illustration a species of the 
genus Holcocera, to 
which Professor Riley 
applied the specific 
name glandulella, be- 
cause it infests acorns. 
The Acorn-moth is an 
inquiline; that is to 
say, it takes possession 
of the remnants of the 

, f - , FIG. 248. H. glandulella. a, acorn showing 

repast left in the acorn larva; ^ acorn snowmg opening left for moth; c, 

by the grub Of a Wee- enlarged view of head of larva ; d, lateral view of 

;i u; u u A i segment; e, dorsal view of segment; /, moth; g, 

Vll, Which has devel- nodule to which antenna articulates. (After Riley.) 

oped within the fruit 

and forsaken its burrow in order to undergo transformation else- 
where. Between the weevil and the larva of the moth very little 
is left of the contents of the acorn, and farmers who expect to 
derive sustenance for their hogs from the oak-mast are often dis- 
.ippointed. The accompanying cut shows the different stages in 
the development of the larva, and also the moth. The insect is 
quite common in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. 

429 



ElachistidcE 



FAMILY ELACHISTID^E 

This is a large family of moths, many of which are almost 
microscopic in size, but all are very beautiful. One of the larger 

species we have se- 
lected for illustra- 
tion. It lives in 
the galls which its 
presence produces 
in the stems of the 




FIG. 249. Walshia amorphella. 



pba fruticosa). It 
belongs to the genus 
Walshia, and was 
described under the 
specific name amor- 
phella by Clemens. 
In its habits it re- 



minds us somewhat of the moth with the frightful name which 
lives in the galls of the Golden-rod, about which something has 
already been said. The accompanying cut, which has been taken 
from Professor Riley's "Second Missouri Report," shows at a a 
figure of the female moth enlarged. The larva, which is a soft 
white little affair, is delineated at b, and the figures c and d show 
the galls as they appear. The insect is found in the Appalachian 
subregion. 

FAMILY TINEID^E 

"Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth 
corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal : but lay up for yourselves trea- 
sures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do 
not break through nor steal." MATTHEW. VI, 19, 20. 

The Tineidx are a very great family of moths, some of which 
are of moderate size, but most of which are very minute. Among 
them there are many insects which are exceedingly beautiful, 
although they are so small, while many of them have great 
economic importance, being destructive or beneficial. Of a few 
of these we shall take opportunity to speak briefly. 

430 



Tineidae 



Genus BUCCULATRIX Zeller 
(i) Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers. (The Birch- 

ieaf Bucculatrix.) 

This little insect in its larval stage is known to infest the 

leaves of the birch and the wild cherry. The caterpillars feed 

upon the parenchyma of 

the leaves, attacking both 

the upper and the lower 

sides, and completelyskel- 

etonizing them. Forests 

of birches in New England 

are known to have been 

completely stripped of liv- 
ing tissue in the fall of the 

year, in such a manner as 

to suggest that a fire had 

passed over the trees. The 

larvae are sluggish in their 

movements, when dis- 
turbed dropping down by 

a silken cord. The cocoons 

are white and ribbed, as 

represented in the annexed 




FlG. 250.^. canadensisella. , skeletonized 
birch-leaf ; b, pseudo-cocoon ; c, larva ; d, head 
of same ; e, anal segments of do. ;f, anal segment 
of pupa; g, cocoon with extended pupal skin; 
lined. (After Pack- 



h, moth. All figures mz 
ard, "Insect Life, "Vol. 



p. 14.) 



figure. They turn dark 

after they have been spun 

up for some time. The 

insect is not uncommon 

in Rhode Island, and is 

known to occur throughout New England, northern New York, 

and Canada. It probably has even a wider range, and may be 

found in the mountains of Pennsylvania, where its food-plant is 

abundant. The best account of its habits has been given by 

Professor A. S. Packard in "Insect Life," Vol. V, p. 14. 

(2) Bucculatrix pomifoliella Clemens. (The Apple-leaf 
Bucculatrix.) 

Syn. pomonella Packard ; curvilineatella Packard. 

The minute moth, a greatly enlarged figure of which is given 
in the annexed cut, has the habit of denuding the leaves of apple- 

43' 




Tineidae 

trees of their parenchyma. While it does not appear to have 
wrought great destruction generally, nevertheless there are in- 
stances on record where 
it has done much damage 
in orchards. The larvae 
have the habit of form- 
ing their cocoons in com- 
pany, attaching them to 
the twigs in great clus- 
ters, as represented in 
Fig. 251. This fact has 
led to the recommen- 
dation that the trees, 

FIG. a 5 ,.-A pomifoliella. a, cocoons clus. When infeSted ' sh uld be 
tered upon end of twig; b, cocoon, greatly en- lightly pruned all Over in 
larged ; c, moth, very greatly magnified. (After the fa)1> and the twjgs 

carefully collected and 

burned. As the cocoons are located at the ends of the twigs, this 
may be a partially effective remedy. Another remedy is to 
thoroughly spray the trees with coal-oil emulsion or with linseed- 
oil. The greasy application is said to destroy the pupae in the 
thin papery cocoons. 

Genus TINEOLA Herrich-Schaeffer 
(i) Tineola bisselliella Hummel. (The Clothes-moth.) 

Syn. crinella Treitschke ; destructor Stephens ; biselliella Zeller ; lanariella 
Clemens. 

There are several species of Tineid insects which attack gar- 
ments made of woolen fiber and furs. One of the commonest 
and most widely distrib- 
uted of these is the insect 
which we are now consid- 
ering. In Pennsylvania and 
in Maryland and south- 
ward, so far as observation 
shows, this is the common- 
est of the ' ' Clothes-moths. " 
The damage, it is needless 

tO Say, is not done by the FIG. 252. T. bisselliella. (After Riley.) 

432 




Tineidae 

imago, or perfect insect, but by the larva, or caterpillar. This is 
represented in all its destructive ugliness in the annexed cut. 
Its food is animal fibers, and it constructs for itself a cocoon 
of bits of wool or hair, in which transformation into a pupa finally 
takes place. It is partial to a\\ animal hair. It feeds upon furs, 
woolens, carpets, horsehair mattresses, and even to some extent 
upon silken fabrics, though it has no positive preference for the 
latter. The insect, like all the others of its class, has been intro- 
duced into this country from the Old World. In a separate 
article the writer will speak of the best method of preventing its 
ravages. 

Genus TINEA Linnaeus 
(i) Tinea pellionella Linnaeus. (The Fur-moth.) 

Syn. flavescentella Haworth; merdella Zeller; dtibiella Stainton; griseella 
Chambers. 

This insect makes for itself a movable case in which it travels 
about in the larval stage. Its food is very much the same as that 
of the preceding 
species, and it 
is equally de- 
structive. The 
moth differs 
from the pale- 
coloredClothes- 
moth in having 
the fore wings 
darker. They 
are, in fact, 
quite gray, mot- 
tled with darker 




FIG. 253. T. pellionella. (After Riley.) 



gray, as shown in the cut which we have herewith caused to be 
reproduced. A comparison between the figures of this and the 
succeeding species will enable the student to readily discrimi- 
nate them. The lower left-hand figure gives a good representa- 
tion of the case made out of bits of hair in which the caterpillar 
performs its migrations. The insect is many-brooded, according 
to the temperature of its domicile. In the warmer parts of the 
country the processes of generation no doubt go on continuously. 




Tineidae 

In the colder parts of the country winter arrests development 
temporarily. 

The insect is widely distributed all over the continent, and in 
fact all over the world. 

Genus TRICHOPHAGA Ragonot 

(i) Trichophaga tapetzella Linnseus. (The Carpet-moth.) 

The nature and habits of this species are very closely allied to 

those of the last two species of which we have spoken. Like 

them, it was originally intro- 
duced into America from the 
Old World. It differs from 
them in the larval state in 
that, instead of simply mak- 
ing a cocoon for itself out of 
bits of hair as the Clothes- 
moth, or forming a movable 

Yi G .*U.-T.tapetzella. (After Riley.) case for itsdf ^ ^ Fur _ 

moth, it weaves together, out of the debris of the material in which 
it is carrying on its ravages, long galleries lined inside with strands 
of silk. Theselong, tortuousgalleries, cutthroughthepileof carpets, 
are familiar objects to the careful housewife, whose horror and anx- 
iety have often been expressed to the writer. It is one of the sad 
prerogatives of the entomologist to be made from time to time 
the recipient of the household woes of his neighbors, who dis- 
cover that the moth and the buffalo-bug "corrupt," and that the 
white ant and the cockroach "steal." 

The perfect insect, as shown in the annexed cut, is in appear- 
ance a very different moth from either of the foregoing species. 

CLOTHES-MOTHS 

"The moth shall eat them up like a garment, and the worm shall eat them like 
wool." ISAIAH. LI, 8. 

From the accounts which have been given in the preceding 
pages of the three species of Clothes-moths, the ravages of which 
are commonly encountered in the household, it has been learned 
that they may each be discriminated from the other by the habits 
of the larvae. The Carpet-moth makes a gallery of the substance 

434 



Tineidae 

on which it feeds; the Fur-moth makes a small portable case, 
which it carries with it; while the insect which we have called 
the Clothes-moth lives for the most part free until the time of 
pupation, when it constructs for itself a cocoon out of bits of 
fiber. 

All of these three species are equally destructive, and there is 
no question which is more frequently asked of the writer than 
how best to destroy the insects when once they have found lodg- 
ment in a house, and how to prevent their attacks. 

All of these creatures "love darkness better than light, their 
deeds being evil." When it is suspected that furs or garments 
are infected by their presence, the first step which should be 
taken is to expose them to full sunlight, the hotter the better. 
Garments in which moths are known to exist should be hung up 
in the open air. And this airing and exposure to sunlight should 
not be for an hour or two, but, if possible, it should extend over 
a number of days, and should take place in the latter part of May 
or the early part of the month of June, at which time the female 
moth is engaged in ovipositing. Where it is impossible to air 
and expose to sunlight the fabrics which have been attacked, as 
is sometimes the case with carpets in dark corners, they should 
be thoroughly saturated with benzine. It is "needless to say that 
this operation should never be undertaken in the presence of a 
candle or other exposed light. Furniture in carpeted rooms 
should in the spring of the year be removed from the place where 
it has long stood, and the spot should be thoroughly sponged 
with benzine. A solution of corrosive sublimate in alcohol, so 
weak that it will not leave any white mark upon a black feather 
which has been dipped into it and afterward dried, may be 
applied effectively to carpets and to fabrics which are exhibited 
in museum cases. At the Carnegie Museum we make it a rule to 
spray all substances which might be exposed to the attack of 
'inoths, when hung in cases, with a solution of corrosive sub- 
limate and strychnine in alcohol. 

In carpet warehouses and in establishments where woolen 
goods are stored in quantity it is well to have on the roof of the 
building an apartment fitted up with large air-tight chests. Into 
these chests, or compartments, fabrics supposed to have been 
attacked by moths may be put and exposed for twenty-four or 



Tineidae 

more hours to the fumes of carbon bisulphide. This fluid should 
be placed in large quantity in shallow pans at the bottom of the 
disinfecting-chambers, in such a way that it will not come directly 
in contact with the fabrics. Being volatile, the fumes will grad- 
ually fill the entire chamber, and will destroy all animal life. 
Inasmuch as carbon bisulphide, as has already been stated else- 
where in this book, is, when mixed with atmospheric air, highly 
explosive, no lights should be allowed to come near the chests, 
or the apartment in which the disinfection is taking place. The 
writer has in his own household made it a rule in the spring of 
the year to take all rugs and have them placed in a large chest 
about four feet long, three feet wide, and three feet deep, at the 
bottom of which there is a slatted support beneath which is a long, 
shallow pan. Into this pan the bisulphide is poured. The rugs 
are loosely placed in the chest, and then it is closed tightly and 
they are left there for forty-eight hours. 

The storage of furs and woolen garments during the summer 
months is an important matter. The one thing to be perfectly 
ascertained before placing garments in storage is that they are 
thoroughly disinfected and that not a single female moth capable 
of depositing fertile eggs is present. This fact being known with 
certainty, all that it Is necessary to do is to place the garments in 
clean air-tight receptacles and close them up so that nothing can 
get into them. Garments may be put into perfectly tight paper 
bags with all openings pasted shut with a piece of tough paper. 
The boxes in which tailors send home garments are good storage 
receptacles, provided the garments are free from pests when put 
into them and provided every opening in the box is pasted shut 
with a piece of paper. It is not an altogether unwise precaution 
to put in "moth-balls" or crystals of naphthaline or bits of 
camphor, but it must be borne in mind that neither naphthaline 
nor camphor will kill the larvae of moths that have once found 
access to the garments upon which they are in the habit of feed-- 
ing. A great deal of money has been uselessly expended upon 
such substances, when all that is necessary is simply to insure 
the exclusion of the pests. 

The annual loss occasioned by these minute yet most annoy- 
ing insects is vast, and it is not unreasonable to say that their 
mischievous depredations cost the citizens of the United States 

436 



Tineidae 

annually a sum of money which is enough in amount at the 
present time to pay the interest upon the national debt. 

Genus ADELA Latreille 

The moths of this genus are remarkable for the enormous 
length of their antennae in proportion to their size. We have 
represented one of the commoner species on Plate XLVIII, Fig. 
4=;. It received the specific name bella at the hands of the late 
Mr. V. T. Chambers. The base of the antennae is black, and the 
extremity is white. This fact has prevented the photographer 
from getting a full representation of the length of the organ in our 
cut. This is much to be regretted, and the student must add in 
his imagination to the antennae, as they are shown, a thread-like 
extension, extending fully three eighths of an inch beyond the 
apparent ending of the organs as depicted. The moths may be 
found in shaded woods in June feeding upon the flowers of 
Asclepias. 

Genus PRODOXUS Riley 

The relation of the insect world to the life of plants has been 
the subject of a great deal of interesting inquiry in recent years. 
It has been discovered that many genera and species depend for 
their fructification and consequently for their continued preserva- 
tion upon the agency of insects. Without the kind attention 
which they receive from the tiny creatures of the air, they would 
not produce seed, and the race would speedily become extinct. 
One of the most beautiful illustrations of the interdependence of 
the world of plants and the world of insects has been discovered 
in the case of the Tineid genus Pronuba. This insect has be- 
come specialized to a remarkable degree, as we shall have occa- 
sion to show in speaking of it. In fact, without its agency the 
pollenation of the plants belonging to the genus Yucca is never 
accomplished. But, curiously enough, associated with it and 
closely resembling it superficially is a genus of moths which does 
not possess the power of pollenizing the Yucca, but which is 
represented by many species the larvae of which feed in the stems 
of the various species of Yucca. The Yucca plants depend for 
the perpetuation of the species upon the moth Pronuba. The 
moth Prodoxus depends upon the Yucca plants for life, and thus 

437 



Tineidse 

indirectly upon the labor of Pronuba. The whole story is one of 
the most interesting in the annals of insect life, and the student 
who is curious to know all about its interesting details should 
consult the fourth volume of " Insect Life," where Professor Riley 
has with minute patience worked out the wonderful story, with 
all the skill of a Sherlock Holmes. 

(i) Prodoxus quinquepunctella Chambers. (The Bogus 
Yucca Moth.) 

Syn. decipiens Riley ; paradoxica Chambers. 

This little moth, which superficially resembles Pronuba yuc- 
casella, has no maxillary tentacle such as is found in the latter 

insect. Its absence 
is characteristic, in 
fact, of all the species 
of the genus. The 
ovipositor is homolo- 
gous to that of Pro- 
nuba, but is a stronger 
instrument intended 
for making incisions 
in the tender bark of 
the stem, while the 
ovipositor of Pronu- 




\ organ which is used 

f \f \ r^I to thrust the e into 
the ovarian cavity of 

the growing seed- 
vessel. 

The larvae of the 
various species of 
Prodoxus are without 
feet, quite maggot- 
like, and remain in 
their burrows in the stems of the Yucca plants, not descending to 
the ground to pupate, as do those of Pronuba. The pupae, when 
the time for emergence arrives, protrude themselves from the 
stems, and the moth escapes from the pupal skin, very much in the 
way in which the same act is performed by various species 'of 

438 



FIG. 255. P. quinquepunctella. 

i, left jaw and antenna ; 



larva; d, head 

from above ; c, d, left jaw and antenna ; e, pupa ; f, in- 
fested stem, showing burrows, castings, cocoons, and 
pupa-shell, h. All enlarged. (After Riley.) 




FIG. 256. P. quinquepnnc- 
tella. a, moth with wings folded ; 

b, moth with wings expanded ; 

c, enlarged maxillary palpus. 
(After Riley.) 



Tineidae 

wood-burrowing y^Egerians. The cut, Fig. 255, taken from the 
writings of Professor C. V. Riley, has more value as an explan- 
ation of the facts in the case than a 
whole page of verbal description 
would have. The species of the genus 
Prodoxus all appear upon the wing 
before those of the genus Pronuba, 
the former having no function to per- 
form in connection with the fertiliza- 
tion of the flowers, and being on the 
spot to oviposit while the flower-stems 
are still soft and easily capable of be- 
ing cut into by the ovipositor of the 
female, while Pronuba must wait until the flowers are opening and 
the tissues of these portions of the plant are ready for the peculiar 
operations which the perpetuation of the life both of the plant 
and the insect call for. 

(2) Prodoxus marginatus Riley. 

The accompanying cut serves to show the characteristic fea- 
tures of this species of the genus. The figure at a gives a view of 

the last abdominal segment of the 
female magnified twenty-six di- 
ameters. The basal joint of the 
ovipositor is represented at bjo, 
the terminal joint at tjo, and the 
oviduct at ov. Figure c repre- 
sents the claspers of the male 
viewed from above. A view of 
the fore wing magnified five 

FIG. 2S 7 .-P. marginatus. (After * imes is given at pr., and by it 
Riley, "insect Life," Vol. iv, p. 373.) the species may be known. 

(3) Prodoxus y-inversa Riley. 

The main characteristics of a third species of the genus are 
given, in Fig. 258. The left front wing is represented at a, the 
hair-line beneath serving to show the natural size of the wing. 
By looking at the figure upside down the reader will understand 
why the specific name which was given to the moth originally 
suggested itself. The genitalia of the male moth are represented 
at b enlarged fourteen diameters. This view is taken from above 

439 





FIG. 258. P. y-inversa. (After Riley, 
sect Life," Vol. IV, p. 373.) 



Tineidae 

and gives the dorsal aspect of these organs. At c we have a lateral 
view of the same parts magnified eighteen diameters. The ovi- 

positor of the female is 
shown at d exserted from 
the anal joint of the abdo- 
men. At e there is given 
another lateral view of 
the tip of the ovipositor 
much more enlarged. 
This view shows the pe- 
culiar saw-like structure 
of the organ, by help of 
which incisions are made 
in the soft outer bark of the growing stems of the Yucca. Both 
this and the preceding species are found in California. 

(4) Prodoxus reticulata Riley. 

This pretty little moth, the habits of which are much the same 
as those of the preceding three 
species, is a native of the State of 
Colorado. The figure represents 
a female with her wings ex- 
panded, and the drawing is mag- 
nified more than three times 
the size of life. The insect is 
undoubtedly, so far as the mark- 
ings of the wings are concerned, the most attractive species in the 
entire genus. 

(5) Prodoxus coloradensis Riley. 

Fig. 260 is devoted to the illustration of the salient specific 
features of a fifth insect belonging to the genus Prodoxus. As 

the name implies, this species, 
like the preceding, is found in 
Colorado. The front wing is 
shown four times the size of life, 
the hair-line below the figure in- 
dicating the natural size. The 
genitalia of the male are shown 
at b viewed from above, and at 
c viewed laterally. 
440 




FlG . 259 ._/>. reticulata. (After 
ley, " insect Life," Vol. iv, P . 374.) 




FIG. 260. P. coloradensis, (After 
Riley, " Insect Life," Vol. IV, p. 374.) 



Tineidse 



(6) Prodoxus cinereus Riley. 

This species is known to breed in the flower-stems of Yucca 
whipplei. The best way in which to set the species before the 




FIG. 261. P. cinereus. a, larva; b, head and first thoracic 
joint ; c, anal hooks ; d, pupa ; e, pupal shell protruding from 
stalk ; f, adult female ; g, side view of clasper of adult male. All 
figures greatly enlarged. (After Riley, " Insect Life," Vol. V, 
p. 306.) 

reader seems to be to reproduce, as we have done, the figure 
given by the author of the species, in which its characteristic 
features are carefully depicted. It is found in California. 

Genus PRONUBA Riley 

(i) Pronuba yuccasella Riley. (The Yucca Moth.) 
No discovery in recent ydars has been more interesting to 
students of insect and plant life than that which was made in 
1872 by Professor Riley, of the intimate relationship which sub- 
sists between the beautiful plants, known as Yuccas, and the 
genus of moths to which the present species belongs. It has 
been ascertained that the fructification of the various species of 
Yucca is almost absolutely dependent upon the agency of the 
female moth ; and, strangely enough, it has also been ascer- 
tained that the pollenation of the flowers is not the result of 
mere accidental attrition of the wings and other organs of the insect 
when engaged in seeking for nectar in the flower and when en- 
gaged in laying her eggs, but that she deliberately collects the 

441 




FIG. 262. P. yuccasella. a, lar- 
va; b, female moth with closed 
wings ; c, do. with wings expanded 

d, side view of larval segment 

e, head of larva from below ; _/j do 
from above ; g, thoracic leg of do. 
h, maxilla; i, mandible; _/', spin 
neret and labial palpi; k, antenna, 
enlarged. (After Riley 

Life," Vol. IV, p. 360.) 



Insect 



Tineidae 

pollen with her mouth, which is peculiarly modified to enable 
her to do this, and then applies the pollen to the stigma with in- 
finitely better care than it could be 
done by the most skilful horticul- 
turist using the most delicate human 
appliances. 

There are several species of the 
genus Pronuba, and they hold a 
positive and well-ascertained re- 
lationship to the various species 
of the plants in the economy of 
which they perform so important 
a function. Pronuba yuccasella 
pollenizes in the Eastern States 
the blossoms of the common Yucca 
filamentosa, and on the Western 
plains it performs the act for the 
blossoms of Yucca angustifolia. 
Yucca brevifolia is pollenized by Pronuba synthetica. Yucca 
wbipplei is pollenized by Pronuba maculata. No doubt there are 
other species of Yucca which will be ultimately discovered to have 
species of Pronuba which are adapted in their organs to the 
work of pollenation according to their peculiar requirements. 

The larva of Pronuba, after it has attained to full size, drops to 
the ground, having three pairs of thoracic legs, which enable it 
to move about and burrow into the earth. It 
then undergoes transformation into the pupal 
state. The chrysalis, which is depicted in Fig. 
263, has the back armed with peculiar spinous 
processes, which enable it to make its way 
through the loose soil. 

The student who desires to become fully 
acquainted with this interesting chapter in 
insect life must consult the altogether admi- 
rable papers written upon the subject by Pro- caseiia. /, malechry 
fessor Riley, to whom we are indebted for 
almost all that we know in regard to the 
subject. These papers may be found in the IV> p ' 3 V 
Publications of the St. Louis Academy of Science, the "Fifth 

442 




FIG. 263. P.yuc- 
e chry- 
salis ; m, female chry- 
salis. (After Riley, 
" Insect Life," Vol. 



Tineidse 

Annual Report of the State Entomologist of Missouri," and in the 
fourth and fifth volumes of "Insect Life." 



Genus ACROLOPHUS Poey 

(i) Acrolophus plumifrontellus Clemens, Plate XLV1II, 
Fig. 43, 6 . 

Syn. bombycina Zeller. 

As a representative of this well-marked genus, quite a number 
of species of which are found in our fauna, we have selected the 
species which is most common in the Appalachian subregion. 
The other species are mainly Southern and Western. 

Genus ANAPHORA Clemens 
(i) Anaphora popeanella Clemens, Plate XLV11I, Fig. 42, $ . 

Syn. agrotipennella Grote ; scardina Zeller. 

The insect ranges from the Atlantic States to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. There are other species in the genus, which are found in 
the South and the West. 

FAMILY HEPIALID^E 

This family is composed of large or moderately large insects. 
They are very peculiar in their structure, and are now by syste- 
matists generally accorded a position of inferiority at the bottom 
of the series of lepidopterous families, being regarded as repre- 
senting an ancestral stock. Some go even so far as to deny that 
they are lepidoptera at all. This is, however, an untenable 
position. 

Genus STHENOPIS Packard 

(1) Sthenopis argenteomaculatus Harris, Plate XLI, Fig. 
14, $ . (The Silver-spotted Ghost-moth.) 

Syn. argentata Packard ; alni Kellicott. 

The larvae feed at first upon the roots of the alder, and then 
enter the stems. The insect is found in the northern portions of 
the United States and Canada. The moths have the habit of 
dancing in the air at sunset, and perform very peculiar gyrations 
over the spot where oviposition is to take place. 

(2) Sthenopis quadriguttatus Grote, Plate XLI, Fig. 13, $ . 

Syn. stmiaitratus Neumcegen & Dyar. 

44.3 



Hepialidse 

The range of this species is the same as that of the preceding. 
It occurs rather abundantly in Assiniboia and Alberta. 

Genus HEPIALUS Fabricius 

(1) Hepialus hyperboreus Mceschler, Plate XLI, Fig. 15, $. 

Syn. pulcher Grote ; macglashani Henry Edwards. 

The moth is found in New England and southern Canada. 

(2) Hepialus gracilis Grote. (The Graceful Ghost-moth.) 
This species, the neuration of the wings of which is repre- 
sented in the text at Fig. 12, is not an uncommon species in the 
northern portions of our territory. . 

(3) Hepialus lemberti Dyar, Plate XLI, Fig. 16, $. (Lem- 
bert's Ghost-moth.) 

The moth is found in California. It is not as yet common in 
collections. 



FAMILY MICROPTERYGID/E 

This family is represented in our fauna by two genera of 
minute insects and six species. They are remarkable because 
revealing certain anatomical features which are believed to point 
to an ancestral connection between them and other orders of 
insects. One of the remarkable features which they reveal is the 
persistence in them of mandibles in the pupae, which are lost in 
the irnaginal form in the genus Micropteryx, which is not repre- 
sented in our fauna, but are persistent in the genus Eriocepbala, 
which does occur in North America. 

We have arrived at last at the end of our necessarily com- 
pacted but rather extensive survey of the families of moths rep- 
resented in the fauna of the United States and Canada. We have 
thrown the doors of our subject open to the curious. We have 
thrown them wide open. Much has been omitted which might 
have been said ; possibly some things have been said which will 
have little interest for the general reader; but, upon the whole, 
we feel, in bringing this book to its end, that we have given a 
fuller and more complete review of the whole subject to Ameri- 
can students than has ever been essayed in any book by any 

444 



Micropterygidae 

other writer. Throughout the task has been to a large degree a 
labor of love, with the purpose of popularizing knowledge and 
helping those who havfe eyes to see and ears to hear, to under- 
stand something of the wonders of a world which becomes the 
more wonderful the more we know of it. 



THE FINAL GOAL 

; O, yet we trust that somehow good 
Will be the final goal of ill, 
To pangs of nature, sins of will, 
Defects of doubt and taints of blood ; 

That nothing walks with aimless feet ; 

That not one life shall be destroyed, 

Or cast as rubbish to the void, 
When God hath made the pile complete ; 

That not a worm is cloven in vain, 

That not a moth with vain desire 

Is shrivelled in a fruitless fire, 
Or but subserves another's gain." 

TENNYSON. In Memoriam, I, III. 



THE END 

'When the moon shall have faded out from the sky, and the 
sun shall shine at noonday a dull cherry-red, and the seas shall be 
frozen over, and the ice-cap shall have crept downward to the 
equator from either pole, and no keels shall cut the waters, nor 
wheels turn in mills, when all cities shall have long been dead and 
crumbled into dust, and all life shall be on the very last verge of 
extinction on this globe; then, on a bit of lichen, growing on the 
bald rocks beside the eternal snows of Panama, shall be seated a 
tiny insect, preening its antennae in the glow of the worn-out sun, 
representing the sole survival of animal life on this our earth, 
a melancholy "bug." 

445 



INDEX 



Abagrotis. genus; erratica, 180 

abalinealis, Bomolocha, 286 

Abbot, John. 27 

Abbotana. genus; clematana, transducens, 

transferens, 353 
abbotana, Phobetron, 366 
abboti, Oiketicus, 361' 
abbotti, Sphecodina, 70 
abbreviatella, Catocala, 268 
Abdomen, 14, 1 8 
abdominalis, Pygarctia, 136 
abortivaria, Dyspteris, 323 
Abrostola, genus; ovalis urentis, 240 
abrostoloides, Psectes. 241 
abrupta, Raphia, 153 
Absinth, The, 328 
absinthiata, Tephroclystis, 328 
absorptalis, Hormisa, 282 
absynthiata, Tephroclystis, 328 
accepta, Fruva, 252 
accessaria, Catopyrrha, 342 
acericola, Apatela, 153 
acericolum, Synanthedon, 386 
aceris, Apatela, 153 
acerni, Synanthedon, 386 
achaia, Apantesis, 130 
achatina, Olene, 308 
achatinalis, Bomolocha, 286 
Achatodes, genus; zeae, 212 
achemon, Pholus, 66 
Acherdoa, genus; ferraria, ornata, 234 
Acherontiinae, 43 

"Acheta Domestica," quoted, 140 
Acoloithus, genus; falsarius, sanborni, 371 
Acopa, genus; carina, 163 
Acorn-moth, The, 429 
acraea, Estigmene, 122, 123 
Acrobasis, genus; betulella, 408 
Acrolophus, genus; bombycina, plumifrontel- 

lus, 443 

Actias, genus, 86; luna, 87, 88 
Actinotia, genus, 172; ramosula, 173 
acutalis, Phiprosopus, 245 
acutaria, Doryodes, 245 
acutilinea, Schinia, 227 
acutipennis, Mamestra, 195 
Adela, genus; bella, 437 

Adelocephala, genus, 96; bicolor, distigma, 96 
Adelphagrotis, genus; prasina, 179 
adipaloides, Pyrausta, 397 
Adita, genus; chionanthi, 177 
adjuncta, Mamestra, 104 
Adrnetovis, genus; oxymorus, 196 
admirandus, Memythrus, 383 
Adoneta, genus; "ferrigera, nebulosus, pyg- 

maea, spmuloides voluta, 365 
adoptiva, Catocala, 267 
adulatalis, Yuma, 407 
adumbrata, Syneda, 259 
adustaria, Gonodontis, 350 
ad versa, Caenurgia, 257 
ssdessa, Fenaria, 233 



^Egeria, genus; paiformis, crabroniformis, 

vespiformis, 383 
JE^eriidsB, Family, 25, 36, 379 
aeliaria, Metanema, 351 
Emilia, genus; ambigua, bolteri, cinnamo- 

mea, occidentalis, Red-banded, Rosy, 

sanguivenosa, significans, syracosia, 13? 
aemula, Epizeuxis, 280; Synanthedon, 387 
aemulataria, Philobia, 339 
aequaliaria, Therina, 348 
aequilinea, Ipimorpha, 220 
aequosus, Syssaura, 352 
serea, Plusia, 237 
aeroides, Plusia, 237 
aesculi, Zeuzera, 576 
aesionaria, Hyperitis, 349 
aetheria, Thalpochares, 249 
aethra, Haemorrhagia, 63 
affinis, Herse, 43 
affusana, Eucosma, 418 
Agapema, genus, 86; galbina, 86 
agarista, Erebus, 279 
Agaristidae, 3, 24, 32, 140, 232, 233 
Agathqdes, genus; designalis, nondahs, mon- 

stralis, 393 
agilis. Feltia, 186 

Agnomonia, genus; anilis, sesquistnans, 274 
agreasaria, Gonodontis, 350 
agricola, Drasteria, 257 
agrippina, Catocala, 260 
agrottpennella, Anaphora, 443 
agrotipennis, Melioptis, 258 
Agrotiphila, genus; incognita, 191 
Agrotis, genus; badinodis, 181; geniculata, 

idonea, suffusa, telifera, ypsilon, 182 
aholah, Catocala, 268 
aholibah, Catocala, 265 
Ailanthus, 82 
Alabama, genus; argillacea, bipunctina, 

grandipuncta, xylina, 243 
alabamas, Catocala, 269; Peridroma, 183 
alabastaria, Synelys, 333 
Alarodia, genus; slossoniae, 366 
albafascia, Schinia, 228 
albarafa, Apatela, 157 
albata, Clemensia, 108 
albertae, Dodia, 117 
albescens, Hyloicus, 50 
albicans, Opharus, 139 
albicoma, Harpyia, 299 
albicomana, Tortrix, 423 
albicornis, Synanthedon, 387 
albicosta, Eucha>tias, 135 
albida, Clemensia, 108; Estigmene, 123 
albidula, Eustrotia, 247 
albifascialis, Zinckenia, 392 
albifrons, Symmerista, 296 
albifusa, Mamestra, 193 
albilinea, Heliophila, 201 
albipennis, Euxoa, 189 
albipuncta, Platysenta, 163 
albisignalis, Bomolocha, 286 
alboclavellus, Crambus, 402 
albofascia, Gluphisia, 300 
albolineata, Syssphinx, 96 



447 



Index 



alboplagiata, Tristyla, 220 

albopunctata, Caripeta, 344 

albosigma, Melalopha, 293 

albosignata, Gypsochroa, 332 

albovenosa, Arsilonche, 159 

albovittata, Euchoeca, 328 

album, Copablepharon, 222 

Albuna, genus; montana, pyramidalis, 384 

Alceris, genus; malivorana, minuta, vac- 
ciniivorana, variolana, 421 

Alcis, genus ; baltearia, metanemaria, sulphu- 
raria, 343 

Alcothoe, genus; caudata, 382 

Aleptina, genus; inca, 162 

aleucis, Schinia, 227 

Alexicles, genus; aspersa, 123 

algens, Hillia, 166 

alia, Graphiphora, 204 

alinda, Hylesia, 90 

alisellana, Eulia, 423 

allediusaria, Tetrads, 353 

allegheniensis, Crambidia, 104 

alleni, Syneda, 259 

Allotria, genus; elonympha, 272 

Almodes, genus; assecoma, balteolata, cal- 
vina, rivularia, squamigera, stellidaria 
terraria, 354 

aini, Sthenopis, 443 

alniaria, Ennqmos, 348 

alope, Erinnyis, 58 

Alsophila, genus; pometaria, restituens, 326 

alternata, Rhynchagrotis. 179 

alticqla, Syngrapha, 240 

Alypia, genus, 143, 232; bimaculata. 144; 
brannani, 143; desperata, 144; dipsaci, 
143; disparata, 143, 144; edwardsi, 143; 
gracilenta, 144; hudsonica, 145; langtoni, 
143, 145; lorquini, mac-cullochi, 143; mari- 
posa, 143, 145; matuta, 144; octomaculata, 
143, 144; quadriguttalis, 144; ridingsi, 
143. 145; sacraments, 145; similis, 143, 
wittfeldi, 143, 144 

Alypiodes, genus; bimaculata, trimaculata 

amasia, Catocala, 148, 268 

amatrix, Catocala, 263 

amaturaria, Erastria, 333 

Ambesa, genus; laetella, 410 

ambigua, Emilia, 137 

ambigualis Gaberasa ; 284 

Ambulycinae, 41, 42, 54 

Amelanchier, 386 

amella, Campometra, 276 

Ameria, genus, 327 

americalis, Epizeuxis, 280 

americana, Apatela, 153; Epicnaptera, 314; 
Harrisina, 372; Malacosoma, 312; Mela- 
lopha, 293; Neuronia, 196; Oreta, 321 

arnica, Catocala, 269 

amicaria, Hyperitis, 349 

amiculatalis, Cindaphia, 397 

amcena, Melittia, 380 

amoenaria, Euchlaena, 350 

Amolita, genus; fessa, 244 

Amorbia, genus; humerosana, 423 

Amorpha Fruticosa, 430 

amorphella, Walshia, 430 

ampelophaga, Pholus, 65 

Ampelopsis, 66, 70, 72, 144, 371 

Amphion, genus, 72; nessus, 72 

amphipyroides, Latebraria, 279 

ampla, Autographa, 240; Doa, 309 

amplaria, Epimecis, 344 

amplissima, Parallelia, 273 

amplus, Axenus, 231 

amputatrix, Hadena, 169 

Amyna, genus; octo, orbica, tecta, 242 



amyntor, Ceratomia, 47 

amyrisaria, Caberodes, 352 

Anacreon, Ode to an Insect, quoted, 291 

Anal angle, 18 

Anaphora, genus; agrotipennella, popeanella 

scardina, 443 

Anaplodes, genus; iridaria, rectaria, 337 
Anarsia, genus; lineatella, primiella, 426 
Anarta, genus; Black-mooned, Catocaline, 

cordigera, 198; curta, Dull Brown, im- 

pingens, leucocycla, 199; nigrolunata, 198; 

nivaria, perpura, richardsoni, Richardson's, 

schoenherri, Schoenherr's, 199 
Anatomy of moths, 10 
ancetaria, Azelina, 352 
anchocelipides, Rhynchagrotis, 178 
Anchocelis, genus: digitalis, 216 
ancocisconensis, Hyppa, 171 
Ancylis, genus; fragariae, comptana, con- 

flexana, 419 

andremona, Hypocala, 272 
Andrewsia, genus; belfragiana, jocasta, 

messalina, 272 
andromache, Catocala, 267 
andrqmedae, Hyloicus, 50 
Anepischetos, genus; bipartita, 245 
angelica, Apatelodes, 293; Copibryophila, 

162 

anguina, Dasylqphia, 296; Mamestra, 195 
angulalis, Palthis, 285 
angulidens, Autographa, 239 
angulifera, Callosamia, 86 
angulosa, Lophodonta, 295 
angusi, Catocala, 262; Datana, 293 
angustalis, Zinckenia, 392 
angustiorata, Caripeta, 342 
angustipennis, Magusa, 175 
Ania, genus; filimentaria, limbata, resistaria, 

yestitaria, 349 
anilis, Agnomonia, 274 
Anisota, genus, 94; astymone, pellucida, 

rubicunda, 95; senatoria, stigma, 94; 

Virginian, 95; virginiensis, 94, 95 
aniusaria, Cymatophora, 340 
anna, Apantesis, 130 
Annaphila, genus: diva, lithosina, 246 
annexa, Feltia, 187 
annisaria, Cymatophora, 340 
annulifascia, Halisidota, 138 
anodonta, Conservula, 215 
Anomis, genus; erosa, 244 
Anona laurifolia, 236 
anonae, Cocytius, 44 
Anomoeotes, genus, 371 
Anorthodes, genus; prima, 164 
antasus, Cocytius, 44 
Antaplaga, genus; dimidiata, 220 
Antennas, 3, 4, 13, 18; of Eriocephalid lar- 

vas, 8; of Telea polyphemus, 13 
antennata, Xylina, 206 
anthcecioides, Tosale, 402 
Antiblemma, genus; canalis, inexacta, 275 
antica, Euchstias, 135; Trichoclea, 199 
Anticarsia, genus; gemmatilis, 275 
antigone, Estigmene, 123 
antinympha, Catocala, 267 
antiphola, Halisidota, 137 
antiqua, Notolophus, 306 
Ants, 147 
Anytus, genus; Obscure, obscurus, privatus. 

Sculptured, scxjlptus, 191 
Aon, genus; noctuiformis, 234 
Apascasia, genus; defluata, subasquaria, 342 
Apantesis, genus, 129; achaia, anna, arge, 

130; arizonensis, autholea, 131; b-atra, 

132; behri, blakei, bolanderi, 131; cera- 

mica, 132; coelebs, 130; colorata, 132; 



448 



Index 



Apantesis Con tinned 

complicata, dahurica, 131; decolorata, 
determinata, diecki, 132; dione, 130; 
docta, 131; dodgei, 132; doris, edwardsi, 
130; excelsa, favorita, figurata, f-pallida 
132; gelida, 131; incamatorubra, 
incompleta, 132; incorrupta, 131; 
media, 129; liturata, 131; lugubris, 
mexicana, 131; michabo, minea, 
mormonica, 131; nais, 132; nerea, 
nevadensis, 131; ochracea, 130; oith 
129; ornata, 130; otiosa, 131; partheni e 
129; persephone, 130; phalerata, 
proxima, quenseli, 131; radians, 
rectilinea, 129; rhoda, 132; saundersi, 
shastaensis, speciosa, strigosa, tur' 
131; virgo, 129; virguncula, 131; vittata 
williamsi, 132 

Apatela, genus, 153, 157, 197; acericola 
aceris, 153; albarufa, 157; americana, 153 
brumosa, 157; connecta, 156; dactylina 
153; fragilis, 156; furcifera, graefi, 155 
grisea, 156; hasta, 155; impleta, impressa 
inclara, 157; innotata, interrupta, 155 
lepusculina, 154; lithospila, 156; lobelia: 
155; luteicoma, 157; morula, 155; noctivaga 
oblinita, 157; obscura, 153; occidentalis 
155: populi, 154; pudorata, quadrata, 156 
salicis, 157; spectans, superans, 156; 
telum, ulrni, 155; vinnula, 156 

Apatelodes, genus; angelica, hyalinopuncta 
293; torrefacta, 292 

Apex of wing, 18 

Apical patch, 18 

apicalis, Melalopha, 293 

apicella, Fruva, 252 

apicosa, Eustrotia, 247 

apiformis, ^Egeria, 383 

Apharetra, genus; dentata, 158; pyralis, 
Smith's, 159; Toothed, 158 

Apocheima, genus; rachete, 345 

Aporophila, genus, 1 70 

Apple-leaf Skeletonizer, The, 411 

Apple-leaf Tier, The Green, 421 

aprica, Tarache, 251 

aquamarina, Drasteria, 257 

aquilonaris, Harpyia, 299 

Arachnis, genus; aulaea, incarnata, Painted, 
picta, zuni, 124 

aracintnusalis, Palthis, 285 

aratrix, Richia, 190 

arbeloides, Inguromorpha, 378 

arburaria, Caberodes, 352 

arcasaria, Sabulodes, 353 

Archips, genus; arcticana, argyrospila, cera- 
sivorana, furvana, gossypiana, gurgitans, 
lintnerana, parallela, purpurana, rosaceana 
yicariana, v-signatana, 422 

arcifera, Schinia, 228 

Arctia, genus, 114, 134; auripennis, caia 
transmontana, utahensis, wiskotti, 134 

arctica, Hadena, 169 

arcticana, Archips, 422 

Arctiidae, 24, 31, 114 

Arctonotus, genus, 71; lucidus, terloo!, 71 

Arctostaphylos tomentosa, 89 

arcuata, Drepana, 321; Hadena, 167 

arefactaria, Euchlaena, 350 

arge, Apantesis, 130 

argentata, Halisidota 138; Sthenopis, 443 

argentatus, Euclea, 365 

argenteomaculatus, Sthenopis, 443 

argenteostriata, Phrygionis, 3^4 

argillacea, Alabama, 243; Lexis, 105 

argillacearia, Cymatophora, 341 

Argillophora, genus; furcilla, 255 

argus, Automeris, 89 



argyrospila, Archips, 422 

arizona, Gnophzla, 290 

arizonaria, Chloraspilates, 338 

arizonensis, Apantesis, 131; Gloveria, 311 

armata, Fota, 178 

armataria, Priocycla, 351 

armiger, Heliothis, 222 

armillata, Hypocrisias, 136 

Army Worm, The, 200 

Army Worm, The Fall, 174 

Aroa, genus, 305 

arrogaria, Plagodis, 349 

arrosa, Trama, 276 

arsaltealis, Pyrausta, 397 

Arsilonche, genus; albovenosa, colorada, 159 

Artace, genus; punctistriga, rubripalpis, 312 

artemis, Hemileuca, 92 

arvalis, Axenus, 231 

Asclepias, 135, 437 

asdrubal, Pseudosphinx, 57 

Ashmead, William H., viii. 

Asimina triloba 46 

asopialis, Palthis, 285 

aspersa, Alexicles, 122 

aspilata, Tetrads, 353 

assecoma, Almodes, 354 

assimilis, Euthisanotia, 232; Trichotarache, 

246 

associans, Noctua, 185 
associata, Heterocampa, 297 
astarte, Heterocampa, 297; Sphinx, 55 
asteroides, Cucullia, 208 
Asteroscopus, genus; borealis, 209 
astricta, Peridroma, 182 
astur, Opharus, 139 
astylus, Calasymbolus, 56 
astylusaria, Euchtena, 350 
astymone, Anisota, 95 
aterrima, Pachylia. 60 

Atethmia, genus; rectifascia, subusta, 220 
athabasca, Syneda, 260 
athasiaria, Therina, 348 
athena, Estigmene, 123 
athereo, Heterocampa, 297 
atomaria, Phoberia, 273 ; Ogdoconta, 241 
atra, Heliotropha, 173 
Atreides, genus, 49; plebeja, 49 
Atreus, genus, 49 
atriciliata, Platysenta, 163 
atricincta, Noctua, 184 
atrifasciata, Cleora, 344; Oncocnemis, 176 
atripennis, Dahana, 103 
atrites, Schinia, 228 
atrivenosa, Olene, 308 
atrocolorata, Azelina, 352; Eustroma, 329 
atroliturata, Cladora, 324 
atropunctaria, Catopyrrha, 342 
atropurpurea, Euxoa, 189 
Attacinz, 80, 81 
Atteva, genus; aurea, compta, fastuo 

floridana, gemmata, 424 
auge, Cxjsmosoma, 98 
augusta, Catocala, 264 
aulaea, Arachnis, 124 
aurantiaca, Incita, 246 
aurea, Atteva, 424; Dysodia, 375 
aurella, Catocala, 266 
aureola, Synanthedon, 385 . "' " 

aureopurpurea, Synanthedon, 387 
auricinctaria, Melanomma, 255 
auriferaria, Paly as, 354 
auripennis, Arctia, 134; Siavana, 273 
aurivitta, Cydosia, 253 
aurora, Hyparpax, 299 
aurosea, Automeris, 89 
aurotus. Philosamia, 82 
aust rails, Baileya, 162 



449 



index 



autholea, Apantesis, 131 

Autographa, genus 237; ampla, 240; anguli- 
dens, 239; basigera, 240; biloba, bimacu- 
lata, bfassicje, culta, dyaus, echinocystis, 
egena, flagellum, fratella, hamifera, in- 
cludens, 238; indigna, 239; insolita, 238; 
laticlavia, 240; monodon, 238; mortuorum, 
239; omega, omicron, oo, ou, 238; oxygram- 
ma, 239; precatipnis, pseudogamma, ques- 
tionis, 238; rectangula, 239; rogationis, 
rutila, 238; selecta, 239; simplex, 240; 
u-brevis, 238; vaccinii, 239; verruca, 238; 
viridisignata, 239 

Automeris, genus, 89; argus, aurosea, corol- 
laria, fabricii, io. pamina, varia, zelleri, 
zephyria, 89 

autumnata, Paleacrita, 324 

autumnalis, Hydriomena, 331; Laphygma, 

autumnaria, Ennqmos, 348 

avimacula, Gluphisia, 300 

avuncularia, Dasyfidonia, 338 

Axenus, genus; amplus, arvalis, ochraceus, 

axillaris, Haemorrhagia, 63 

Aye-Aye, 77 

azaleae, Darapsa, 68 

Azelina, genus; ancetaria, atrocolorata, 
honestaria, hubneraria, hubnerata, mor- 
risonata, peplaria, stygiaria, 352 

Azenia genus- implora, 248 

B 

babayaga, Catocala, 263 

badia, Catocala, 267; Schizura, 299 

badicollis, Semiophora, 180 

badinodis, Agrotis, 181 

badipennis, Pyrausta, 397 

badistriga, Homohadena, 176 

Bad-wing, The, 323 

Bag-worm, The, 361 

Bailey, J. S., 36 

Baileya, genus; australis, doubledayi, oph- 

thalmica, 162 
baileyi, Xylina, 207 
balanitis, Chorizagrotis, 185 
balluca, Plusia, 237 
baltearia, Alcis, 343 
balteolata, Almodes, 354 
baltimoralis, Bomolocha, 286 
Balsa, genus; malana, obliquifera, 163 
Barathra, genus; curialis, occidentata, 196 
barberiana, Epipyrops, 370 
Barnes, Dr. William, ik 
barometricus, Ufeus, 191 
Basal dash, 18; line, 18 
basalis, Catocala, 261 268; Euxoa, 189; 

Inguromorpha, 378 
basiflava, Olene, 308 
basigera, Autographa, 240 
basilinea, Hadena, 168 
Basilodes, genus; pepita, 234 
Basilona, genus; imperatoria, imperialis 

punctatissima, 97 
basitriens, Notodonta, 295 
bassiformis, Synanthedon, 385 
b-atra, Apantesis, 132 
Bats, 147* 

beani, Phrapmatobia, 126 
beata, Noctua, 185 
Bee-moth, The, 406 
Begfiar, The, 327 
behrensaria, Deilinea, 339 
Behrensia, genus; conchiformis, 241 
behri, Apantesis, 131 
belae, Didasys, 99 



belfragiana, Andrewsia, 273 

belfragei, Holomelina, 116 

bella, Adela, 437; Utetheisa, 117 

belladonna, Dysocnemis, 229 

bellicula, Lithacodia, 248 

bellulalis, Pyrausta, 398 

Bellura, genus; densa, gostynides, melano- 
pyga, vulnifica, 2 1 1 

belmaria, Holomelina, 116 

Beloved, The, 265 

Bembecia, genus; flavipes, marginata, ody 
neripennis, pleciaeformis, rubi, 383 

benignalis, Bomolocha, 286 

beskei, Crinodes, 301 

Bessula, genus; luxa, 221 

bertholdi, Hypopta, 379 

Bertholdia, genus; Grote's, trigona, 140 

Betrothed, The, 265 

betulella, Acrobasis, 408 

Beutenmuller, W. 31, 32, 36, 380 

beutenmnlleri, Isochfetes, 366 

bianca, Catocala, 262 

bibularia, Therina, 348 

bicarnea, Noctua, 183 

biclaria, Syssaiira, 352 

bicolor, Adelocephala, 96; Diacrisia, 128, 
Lexis, 105 

bicolora.oro, Orthosia, 217 

bicoloralis, Cindaphia, 397 

bicoloraria, Chloraspilates, 338 

bicolorata, Eufidonia, 337; Hydriomena, 
.331; Neleucania, 203 

bidentata, Nerice, 296 

biferalis, Hypenula, 283 

bifidalis, Gaberasa, 284 

biguttata, Cochlidion, 367 

bijugalis, Bomolooha, 286 

bilineata, Falcaria. ^21; Heterocampa, 297 

biliturellus, Crambus, 403 

biloba, Autographa, 238 

bilunata, Caradrina, 164 

bimaculata, Alypia, 144; Alypiodes, 145. 

Autographa, 238; Holomelina, 116 
bimatris, Pippona, 22 r 
binocxila, Tarache, 251 
bipartita, Anepischetos, 245 
biplaga, Eustrotia, 247 
bipunctellus, Crambus, 402 
bipunctina, Alabama, 243 
birivata, Hydriomena, 331 
biselliella, Tineola, 432 
biseriata, Eudtile, '327 
bisselliella, Tineola, 432 
bistnaris, Doryodes, 245; Parallelia, 273 
biundata Heterocampa, 297 
bivittata, Ectypia, 135; Hormisa, 282 
Black, The Californian, The White-striped, 

328; Woodland, 329 
blakei. Apantesis, 131 
blanda, Pseudoglsea, 216 
Blastobasida?, 26, 429 

Bleptina, gemis; caradrinalis, cloniasaHs, 283 
bcerhaviffi, Xylophanes, 75 
Boisduval, T. A., 30 
bolanderi, Apantesis, 131 
bolli, Synanthedon, 385 
Boll-worm, The, 222 
bolteri, ^Emilia, 137, Euchaetias, 135 
Bombycia, genus; improvisa, tearli, 304 
Bombycidae, Family, 12, 25, 34, 315 
bombyciformis, Eutolype, 177 
bombycina, Acrolophus, 443 
bombycoides, Lapara, 53 
Bombyx, genus; mori, 315 
Bomq'.ocha, genus; abalinealis, achatinaHs, 
albisignalis, baltimoralis, benignalis, biju- 
galis, caducalis, damnosalis, deceptalis 



450 



Index 



Bomolocha Continued 

edictalis, fecialis, laciniosa, lentitjinosa, 

madefactalis, manalis, pallialis, perangu- 

lahs, profecta, scutellaris, toreuta, velli- 

fera, 286 

Books about North American Moths, 27 
borealis, Asteroscopus, 209; Harpyia, 290; 

Hemerocampa, 306; Hyphoraia, 128 
Borer, The Peach-twig, 426 
Bouvardia, 75 
brannani, Alypia, 143 
brassicae, Autographa, 238 
Breeding larvae, 5 
Brephinae, Subfamily, 355 
Brephos, genus; infans, 353 
brevis, Schinia, 228 
brevicornis, Holomelina, 116 
brevipennis, Euxoa, 188 
Bride, The, 266 
bridghami, Hadena, 166 
brillians, Eupseudomorpha, 231 
briseis, Catocala, 264 
British Museum, Trustees, ix 
brontes, Ceratomia, 48 
Brooke, Henry, quoted, 321 
Brother, The, 153 
Brotolomia, genus; iris, 215 
Browning, E. B., quoted, 21, 378 
Brown-tail Moth, The, 309 
bruceata, Rachela, 324 
brucei, Cossus, 377; Haemorrhagia, 64; 

Phragmatobia, 126; Schinia, 227 
Bruceia, genus; hubbardi, pulverina, 108 
brumosa, Apatela, 157 
brunnea, Ctenucha ; 102 
brunneiciliata, Mesoleuca, 330 
brunneipennis, Synanthedon, 385 
Bryant, W. C, quoted, 113 
Bucculatrix, genus; Apple-leaf, Birch-leaf, 

canadensiselia, cnrvilmcatella, pomifoli- 

ella, pomonella, 431 

Buck-moth, 01; Nevada. 02; Tricolor, 93 
Budgeon, Miss, Acheta Domestica, quoted, 

buffaloensis, Haemorrhagia, 63 

bullula, Pteraetholix, 243 

burgessi, Hadena, 168 

Busck, A., 38 

Butler, A. G., so 

" Butterfly Book, The," 4 

Byron, quoted, 309 



Caberodes, genus; amyrisaria, arburaria, 
confusaria, floridaria, imbraria, ineffusaria, 
interlinearia, majoraria, myandaria, pan- 
daria, phasianaria, remissaria, superaria, 
varadaria, 352 

Cable, G. W., quoted, 80; 314 

cacuminalis, Hypenula, 283 

cadaverosa, Hypoprepia, 106 

cadmia, Cargida, 300 

caducalis, Bomolocha, 286 

caeca, Turuptiana, 121 

caelaria, Xanthotype, 349 

Caenurgia, genus; ad versa, convalescens, 
purgata, socors, 257 

caerulea, Drasteria, 257 

caesonia, Tortricidia, 368 

cahiritella, Ephestia, 414 

caia, Arctia, 134 

caicus, Erinnyis, 60 

calaminea, Ophideres, 276 

calasymbolus, ge-'us, 55; astylus, excascatus, 
integerrima, i( Tiyops, pavonina, rosace- 
arum, 56 



Calesesia, genus; coccinea, 387 

calgary, Noctua, 184 

Cahdota, genus; cubensis, laqueata, muri- 

color, Streaked, strigosa, 139 
calif orniae, Leptarctia, 121 
californiaria, Eois, 336; Platea, 342 
californiata, Eois, 336; Euchceca, 328; 

Philereme, 329 
californica, Catocala, 263; Estigmene, 123; 

Hemileuca, 92; Malacosoma, 313; Orrhodia, 

218; Pheosia, 295; Phryganidia, 291; 

Samia, 84 

californicus, Melicleptria, 230 
Calledapteryx, genus; dryopterata, erosiata 

3S6 

calleta, Callosamia, 86 
callitrichoides, Phiprosopus 245 
Callizia, genus, 356 
Callopistria, genus; floridensis, 252 
Callosamia, genus, 84; angulifera, calleta, 

86; promethea, 84 
Calocampa, genus, 207; curvimacula, nupera, 

Calophasia, genus; strigata, 170 

Calpe, genus; canadensis, Canadian, pur- 

purascens, sobria, 236 
calvina, Almodes, 354 
Calymnia, genus; canescens, orina, 219 
cambrica, Venusia, 328 
"Cambridge Natural History," 17 
campestris, Euxoa, 189 
Campometra, genus; amella, integerrima, 

mima, stylobata, 276 
cana, Clemensia, 108; Dasylophia, 296; 

Hemerocampa, 306; Lapara, 53 
canadaria, Melanolophia, 344 
canadensis, Calpe, 236; Celerio, 76; Hyloicus 

canadensiselia, Bucculatrix, 431 

canalis, Antiblemma. 275 

Canarsia, genus; hammondi, 411 

candens, Orthodes, 203 

canescens, Calymnia, 219 

Canidia, genus; scissa, 226 

caniplaga, Ellida, 300 

Canker-worm, The Fall, 326; The Spring, 324 

canningi, Philosamia, 82 

Capis, genus; curvata, 285 

Capno'des, genus; punctivena, 277 

caprotina, Estigmene, 123 

capsella, Graphiphora, 204 

capticola, Syneda, 259 

Capture of specimens, 19 

cara, Catocala, 148, 263 

Caradrina, genus; bilunata, 164; civica 

conviva, extimia, 165; fidicularia, meralis, 

multifera, 164; punctivena, rufostriga, 

spilomela, 165 
caradrinalis, Bleptina, 283 
Carama, genus; cretata, pura, 368 
carbonaria, Eurycyttarus, 362; Homoglaea, 

219 
Cargida, genus; cadmia, obliquilinea, 300- 

pyrrha, 301 
Carica, 58 
caricae, Cocytius, 44 
carina, Acopa, 163 
Caripeta, genus; albopunctata, angustiorate 

divisata, piniaria, 342 
Carlyle, Thomas, quoted, 210 
Carmen, Felix, quoted, 427 
carnaria, Metanema, 351 
Carnegie. Andrew, Dedication to, V 
Carneades, genus, 188 
carneola, Eustrotia, 247 
Carolina, Catocala, 261; Eucereon, 100 

Haploa, 1 1 8; Protoparce, 45 



451 



Index 



Carpenter- worms, 375 

Carpet-moth, The, 434 

carpinifolia, Epicnaptera, 314 

Carter, Sir Gilbert T., 54 

caryae, Halisidota, 138 

Case-bearer, The Walnut, 408 

casta, Crambidia, 104 

castellalis, Samea, 393 

Castniidae, 3. 4 

Catabena, genus; lineolata, miscellus, 163 

Catalogues and Lists, 29 

catalpae, Ceratomia., 48 

cataphracta, Papaipema, 214 

catenaria, Cingilia, 347 

Caterpillars, 6; Coloration of , 9; gregarious, 9 

catharina, Semiophora, 180 

Catocala, genus, 79, 147, 148, 260; abbrevia- 
tella, 268; adoptiva, 267; agrippina, 260; 
aholah, 268; aholibah, 265; alabamas, 269; 
amasia, 268; amatrix, 263; arnica, 269 
andromache, 267; angusi, 262; antinympha, 
267; augusta, 264; aurella, 266; babayaga, 
263; badia, 267; basalis, 261, 268; bianca, 
262; briseis, 264; californica, cara, 263; 
Carolina, 261; celia, 265; cerogama, 266; 
cleopatra, 263; coccinata, 263; coelebs, 
268; concumbens, 263; consors, 266; 
crataegi, 268; dejecta, 261; delilah, 267; 
desdemqna, 267; desperata, 261; eliza, 
266; epipne, 260; evehna, 261; faustina, 
264; flebilis, 262; formula, 268; fratercula, 
gisela, gracilis, 269; groteiana, 264; grynea, 
269; guenei, 261; habilis, 268: hermia, 
264; hinda, 266; ilia, 265; illecta, 267; 
innubens, 265; insolabilis, 262; jaquenetta, 
269; Judith, 262; lacrymosa, 261; lineella, 
269; luciana, 263; maestosa, 261 ; magdalena, 
267; marmorata, 263; meskei, 264; minuta, 
269; mopsa, 265; muliercula, 267; nebraskae, 
263; nebulosa, neogama, 266; nerissa, 
269; nurus, 263; obscura, 262; olivia, 269; 
osculata, 265; palaeogama, 266; parta, 
264; paulina, 261; phalanga, piatrix, 266; 
polygama, 268; praeclara, 269; pura, 264; 
relicta, retecta, robinsoni, 262; rosalinda, 
268; sappho, 260; scintillans, 266; serena, 
267; similis, 268; somnus, stretchi, 263; 
subnata, 266; subyiridis, 261; tristis,- 262; 
ultronia, 265; unijuga, 264; uxor, verril- 
liana, 265; vidua, viduata, 261; whitneyi, 
268 

Catopyrrha, genus; accessaria, atropunctaria, 
coloraria, cruentaria, dissimilaria, 342 

caudata, Alcothoe, 382 

cautella, Ephestia, 414 

Cautethia, genus, 61; grotei, 61 

ceanothi, Samia, 84 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, 84 

cecropia, Samia, 83, 84 

Celama, genus; nigrofasciata, obaurata, 
pustulata, sexmaculata, trinotata, trique- 
trana, 357 

Celerio, genus, 75; canadensis, chamaenerii, 
daucus, epilobii, galii, intermedia, lineata 
oxybaphi, 76 

celeus, Protoparce, 45 

celia, Catocala, 265 

vJeliptera, genus; discissa, elongatus, frustu- 
:um, 275 

Cempis, genus; groteana, pettitana, 422 

lenterensis, Cossus, 377 

tephalica, Crambidia, 104; Stylopoda, 229 

tephise, Melanchroia, 354 

ceramica, Apantesis, 132 

Cerapoda, genus; stylata, 177 

cerasivorana, Archips, 422 

Cerathosia, genus; tricolor, 253 



Ceratocampidae, Family, 24, 31, 70, So, 94 
Ceratomia, genus, 47; amyntor, 47; brontes 

48; catalpae, 48; quadricornis, 47;repenti 

nus, 48; ulmi, 47; undulosa, 48 
Cercis, 369 

cereana, Galleria, 406 
cerella, Galleria, 406 
cerintha, Chamyris, 250 
Cerisyi,. Sphinx, 54 
cerivana, Hadena, 168 
Cerma, genus; cora, festa, 161 
cerogama, Catocala, 266 
ceromatica, Scqpelosoma, 218 
cerussata, Papaipema, 214; Phrygionis, 354 
Cerura, genus; multiscripta, scitiscripta, 209 
cervina, Euherrichia, 253 
ceto, Melittia, 380 
Chalcosiidae, Family, 373 
chamaenerii, Celerio, 76 
Chambers, V. T., 37 
Chamyris, genus; cerintha, 250 
chandleri, Oncocnemis, 176 
Chapman, T. A., 8 
characta, Hadena, 167 
Charadra, genus; circulifer, contigua, 152. 

decora, 153; deridens. 152; dispulsa, 

felina, 153; illudens, pythion, 152 
chenqpodii, Mamestra, 193 
chersis, Hyloicus, 50 
chionanthi, Adita, 177; Protoparce, 45 
Chiqnanthus, 46, 51 
chiridota, Lacosoma, 359 
Chlaenogramma, Genus, 46; jasminearum 

rotundata, 46 
Chloraspilates, genus; arizonaria, bicolor- 

aria, 338 
Chloridea, genus; rhexias, spectanda, vire- 

scens, 222 
chloris, Euclea, 365 
Chlorpchlamys, genus; chloroleucaria, den- 

saria, deprivata, indiscriminaria, 336 
chloroleucaria, Chlorochlamys, 336 
chlorostigma, Hadena, 168 
Choephora, genus; fungorum, 216 
chosrilus, Darapsa, 68 
Chrerocampinae, Subfamily, 75 
choripna, Holomelina, 116 
Chorizagrotis, genus; balanitis, inconcinna 

introferens, 185 
Chrysauginae, Subfamily, 401 
chrysellus, Schinia, 227 
chrysorrhoea, Euproctis, 309 
Chytolita, genus; morbidalis, 282 
Chytpnix, genus; iaspis, palliatricula, 161 
cibalis, Oncocnemis, 176 
cinnus, genus; egenaria, melsheimeri, 359 
ilia, genus; distema, 244 
cimbicifqrmis, Haemorrhagia, 63 
Cindaphia, genus; amiculatalis, bicoloralis, 

incensalis, juliaJis, pulchripictalis, 397 
cinerascens, Heterocampa, 297 
cinerea, Epidemas. 170; Harpyia, 299; 



8! r 



Misogada, 297; Xylina, 206 
cinereofrons, Schizura, 298 
cinereola, Ogdoconta, 241; Selicanis, 216 
cinereomaculata. Euxoa, 190 
cinereus, Prodoxus, 441 
cinerosa, Erinnyis, 59 

Cingilia, genus; catenaria, humeralis, 347 
cingulata, Herse, 43 
cingulifera, Homoptera, 278 
cinis, Melipotis, 258 
cinnamomea, Emilia, 137; Olene, 308 
circulifer, Charadra, 152 
Cms, genus; wilsoni, 233 
Cirrhobolina, genus; deducta, incandescens 

pavitensis, mexicana, 259 



Index 



Cirrhophanus, genus; triangulifer, 234 
Cissusa, genus; inepta, morbosa, sabulosa, 

spadix, vegeta, 256 
Cisthene lactea, 108 
Citheronia, genus; mexicana, regalis, regia, 

sepulchralis, 97 
citrina, Xanthotype, 349 
citronellus, Rhodophora, 224 
eivica, Caradrina, 165 

Cladora, genus; atrqhturata, gemmata, 324 
clandestina, Gluphisia, 300; Noctua, 184 
clappiana, Gnophaela, 290 
clarkiae, Proserpinus, 73 
clarus, Comacla, 107 
Classification of moths, 22 
claudens, Hadena, 167 
clavana, Eucosma, 418 
claviform spot, 18 
claviformis, Pachnobia, 180 
claviplena, Mamestra, 192 
Clearwing, Bruce's, 64; Californian, 64; 
Graceful, 6?; Humming-bird, 62; Snow- 
berry, 63; Thetis, 64 
clemataria, Abbotana, 353 
Clematis, 382 

Clemens, Brackenridge, 28, 30, 37 
Clemensia, genus; albata, albida, cana, 
irrorata, patella, philodina, umbrata, 108 
cleopatra, Catocala, 263 

Cleora, genus; atrifasciata, collecta, fraudu- 
lentaria, frugallaria, pampinaria, sublu- 
naria, tinctaria, 344. 
Cleosiris, genus; populi, 205 
clientis, Yrias, 277 
clio, Euverna, 133 
cloniasalis, Bleptina, 283 
clorinda, Darapsa, 68 
Clothes-moth, The, 432, 434 
clotho, Pholus, 67 
Clover-hay Worm, The. 399 
clymene, Haploa, 118 
c-nigrum, Noctua, 183 
cnotus, Darapsa, 68 
coa, Pinconia, 369 
coagulata, Tephroclystis, 328 
coccinata, Catocala, 149, 265 
coccinea, Calesesia, 387, Ptychoglene, no 
coccineifascia, Prothymia, 248 
Cochlidiidae, Family, 8, 9, 25, 35, 364 
Cochlidion, genus; biguttata, rectilinea 

tetraspilaris, y-in versa, 367 
cochrani, Euxoa, 189 

Cocytius, genus, 44; anonae; antaeus; caricae; 
hydaspus; jatrophae; medor; tapayusa, 44 
Codd ling-moth, The, 419 
coelebs, Apantesis, 130; Catocala, 268 
Coenocalpe, genus, costinotata, fervifactaria, 
gibbocostata, ceneiformis, strigularia, 332 
cognata, Xylomiges, 197 
cognataria, Lycia, 34* 
Collar lappet, 18 
collaris, Noctua, 184 
collecta, Cleora, 344 
colona, Haploa, 118 
colorada, Arsilqnche, 159 
coloradaria, Epiplatymetra, 351 
coloradensis, Prodoxus, 440; Raphia 15 j 
Coloradia, genus, 90, 91; pandora, 91 
coloradus, Hyloicus, 52 
coloraria, Catopyrrha, 342 
colorata, Apantesis, 132 
Columbia, Samia, 84 
Comacla, genus; clarus, fuscipes, murina, 

simplex, texana, 107 
comma, Haploa, 118 
eommelinse, Prodenia, 174 
commoides, Heliophila, 203 



Commpphila, genus; macrocarpana, 423 

complicata, Apantesis, 131; fleliophila, 201 

Composia, genus; fidelissima, olympia, 289 

Compositse, 101, 252 

compressipalpis, Plusiodonta, 235 

compta, Atteva, 424 

comptana, Ancylis, 419 

comptaria, Venusia, 328 

Comstock, J. H., 29 

comstocki, Momophana, 172 

conchiformis, Behrensia, 241 

Conchylodes, genus; concinnalis, erinalis 
magicalis, ovulalis, platinalis, 393 

concinna, Schizura, 298 

concinnalis, Conchylodes, 393 

concinnimacula, Eustrotia, 247 

concisa, Epizeuxis, 280 

concisaria, Euchlaena, 350 

concumbens, Catocala, 263 

concursana, Platynota, 422 

condensata, Venusia, 328 

confederata, Eurycyttarus, 363 

confine, Eucereon, 100' 

conflexana, Ancylis, 419 

confluens Graphiphora, 204 

confusa, Haploa, 119; Morrisonia, 197 

confusaria, Caberodes, 352 

congermana, Mamestra, 193 

congrua, Estigmene, 123 

coniferarum, Hyloicus, 52; Lapara 53; 
Thyridopteryx, 361 

Coniodes, genus; plumigeraria, 345 

conjungens, Crambodes, 163 

connecta, Apatela, 156 

consecutaria, Eois, 335 

consepta, Macaria, 340 

Conseryula, genus; anodonta, a 15 

consimilis, Synanthedon, 385 

consita, Haploa, 118 

consors, Catocala, 266 

Consort, The, 266 

conspicua, Drasteria, 257; Hadena *68' 

Roeselia, 358 
conspecta, Schizura, 298 
constipata, Mamestra, 195 
contenta, Hadena, 169 
contexta, Euchalcia, 237 
contigua, Charadra, 152; Haploa, 119 
contingens, Sabulodes, 353 
continua, Gnophaela, 290 
contracta, Hpmopyralis, 256; Schinia 228 
contrahens, Himella, 204 
contraria, Hyppa, 171; Mamestra, 193 
contribuaria, Melanolophia, 344 
convalescens, Caenurgia, 257 
con'vexipennis, Cucullia, 208 
conviva, Caradrina, 163 
Convolvulaceae, 99 
convolvuli, Herse, 43 
coDrtaria, Cymatophora, 341 
copablepharon, genus; album, grandis lon- 

gipenne, 222 

Copibryophila, genus; angelica, 162 
Copicucullia, genus; propmqua, 208 
Copidryas, genus, 141; cosyra, 142; gloveri 

141 

Copipanolis, genus; cubilis, 177 
Coquillet, D. W., 346 
cora, Lerma, 161 
coracias, Pseudanthracia, 278 
cordigera, Anarta, 198 
Cornifrons, genus; simalis, 399 
Corn-stalk Borer, The Larger, 403 
cornuta, Metalepsis, 181 
corollaria, Automeris, 89 
Cortissos, Ellen Mackay Hutchinson. quoted, 
310 



453 



Index 

Cosmia, genus; discolor, infumata, paleacea, 

Cosmosoma, genus; auge, melitta, omphale, 

98 

Cossidae, Family, 25, 35, 375 
Cossula, genus; magnifica, norax, 379 
Cossus, genus; hrucei, centerensis, undosus, 

costaemaculalis, Noctuelia, 399 

costalis, Hypsopygia, 399 

costinotata, Cosnocalpe, 332 

Cosymbia, genus; lumenaria. pendulinaria 

quadriannulata, 333 
cosyra, Copidryas, 142 
Cotton-worm, 243 
Cowper, quoted, 369 
Coxa, 14 15 

crabroniformis, Algeria, 383 
Crambidia, genus-; allegheniensis, casta 

cephalica, Ethosioides, pallida, uniformis, 

104 

Crambinae, Subfamily, 402 
Crambodes, genus; conjungens, talidiformis 

163 
Crambus, genus; alboclavellus, 402: bili- 

turellus, 403; bipunctellus, 402; exsiccatus, 

interminellus, 403; laqueatellus, semi- 

fusellus, 402; trisectus, 403; turbatellus 

crameri, Erinnyis, 59; Pachylia, 60 

crar.tor, Pholus, 66 

crassatus, Plathypena, 287 

crassipes, Podagra, 178 

crassiuscula, Drasteria, 257 

crataegi, Catocala, 268 

Cratsegus, 62 

crenulata, Orthodes, 203 

crepuscularia, Ectropis, 344 

cressonana, Ctenucha, 102 

Cressonia, genus, 57; instabilis, juglandis 
pallens, robinsoni, 57 

cretata, Carama, 368 

crinella, Tineola, 432 

Crinodes, genus; beskei, 301 

crispata, Lagoa, 369 

crocallata, Tetracis, 353 

crocataria, Xanthotype, 349 

crocea, Pseudanarta, 175 

Crocigrapha, genus; normani, 204 

Crocota, genus, 115 

croesus, Xylophanes, 75 

crotchi, Pseudalypia, 232; Trichosellus, 226 

Croton, 417 

crucialis, Xylomiges, 197 

Cruciferae, 239 

cruentaria, Catopyrrha, 342 

crustaria, Pseudacontia, 225 

Ctenucha, genus, 101; brunnea, cressonana, 
latreillana, multifaria, rubrqscapus, 102; 
venosa, 101; virginica, walsinghami, 102 

cubensis, Calidota, 139 

cubilis, Copipanolis, 177 

cuculifera, Dasylophia, 296 

Cucullia, genus; Asteroid, asteroides. Brown- 
bordered, convexipennis, intermedia, Inter- 
mediate, speyeri, Speyer's, 208 

cucurbits, Melittia, 380 

culea, Graphiphora, 204 

culta, Autographa, 238 

cumatilis, Schinia, 227 

cunea, Hyphantria, 123 

cupes, Trichosellus, 226 

cupida, Rhynchagrotis, 178 

Cupid's Candle, 427 

cupressi, Isoparce, 48 

Cupuliferae, 366 

curialis, Barathra, 190 



curta, Anarta, 199 

curvata, Capis, 285 

curvilineatella, Bucculatrix, 431 

curvimacula. Calocampa, 208 

Custard-apple, 236 

custodiata, Hydriomena, 331 

Cyathissa, genus; Darling, pallida, percara 161 

cycladata, Heliomata, 338 

Cydia, genus: pomonella, 419; saltitans, 418 

Cydosia, genus; aurivitta, imitella, majuscula, 
253 

Cymatophora, genus; aniusaria, annisaria, 
340; argillacearia, coortaria, 341; grossu- 
lariata, 340; inceptaria, modestaria, perar- 
cuata, 341; ribearia, sigmaria, 340; succes- 
saria, tenebrosata, 341 

cymatophoroides, Pseudothyatira, 304 

cynica, Orthodes, 203 

cynthia Philosamia, 81, 82 



dactylina, Apatela, 153 

daedalus, Porosagrotis, 187 

Dagger (Dagger-moth), American, 153; 
Burglar, 157; Chieftain, Connected, 156; 
Cottonwood, 154; Darkish, Dart, 155; 
Delightful, 156; Fingered, 153; Forked, 
155; Fragile, 156; Frosty, 157; Gray, 156; 
Interrupted, Lobelia, 155; Lupine, 159; 
Printed, 157; Quadrate, 156; Reddish-white, 
Smeared, 157; Streaked, 156; Unmarked, 
155; White-veined, 159; Yellow-haired, 157 

Dahana, genus; atripennis, 103 

Dahlia hesperioides, 3 

dahurica, Apantesis,- 131 

Dalceridae, Family, 25, 35, 369 

Dalcerides, genus; ingenita, 369 

dama, Spragueia, 252 

damalis, Eutolype, 177 

damnqsalis, Bqmolocha, 286 

danbyi, Gluphisia, 300 

Dandy, The, 153 

Darapsa, genus, 68; azaleas, chocrilus, clo- 
rinda, cnotus, myron, pampinatrix, pholus 
68; versicolor, 69 

Dargida, genus; procinctus, 196 

Daritis, genus; thetis, 289 

Dark, World of the, 77 

Dart (Dart-moth), Acorn, 185; Added, 187; 
Basal, 189; Black-fronted, 180; Black- 
girdled, !4; Black-letter, 183; Calgary, 
184; Catocaline, 178; Clandestine, Collared, 
184; Daedalus, 187; Dappled, 179; Disso- 
nant, 189; Fillet, 190; Finland, 183; 
Flame-shouldered, '84; Fleece-winged, 
Four-toothed, 188; Furtive, 190; Fuscous, 
187; Great Black, Great Brown, Great 
Gray, 182; Greater Red, Green-winged, 
179; Havilah, 184; Inelegant, Interfering, 
18.5; Lesser Red, 178; Masters, 186; Muddy, 
189; Norman's, i8r. Obelisk, 190; Old Man, 
187; Olive, 1 88; Pale-banded, 181; Pale- 
winged, i8v, Parental, 190; Pink-speckled, 
185; Placid, 178; Polished, .188; Rascal, 
187; Reaper, 188; Red-breasted. 178; 
Reddish-speckled, 180; Riley's, 187; Rosy, 
183; Rubbed, 188; Scribbled, 184; Short- 
winged, 1 88; Sigmoid, 179; Silly, 189; 
Slippery, 185; Smaller Pinkish, 183; 
Soothsayer, 184; Subgothic, Swordsman, 
1 86; Tessellate, Tippling, 189; Tripart, 187; 
Two-spot, 179; Uncivil, 183; Vancouver, 
186; Variable, 180; Venerable, Voluble, 
1 86, White-winged, 189; Yellow-bellied, 
190; Yelk>w-streaked, 184; Yellow-toothed, 
1 88; Ypsilon, 183 



454 



Index 



Darwin, quoted, 150 

Dasyfidoma, genus; avuncularia, 338 

Dasylophia. genus; anguina, cana, cuculi- 

fera, interna, punctata, signata, thyatiroi- 

des, tripartita, 296 

Dasyspoudaa, genus; lucens, meadi, 228 
Datana, genus; angusi, 293; integerrima, 

294; ministra, 293; pcrspicua, 294 
daucus, Celerio, 76 
davisi, Halisidota, 137 
dayi, Oncocnemis, 176 
Day-sphinx, White-banded, 62 
decepta, Pseudoglaea, 216 
deceptalis, Bomolocha, 286 
decernens, Feltia, 187 
decia, Leptarctia, 121 
decipiens, Malacosoma, 312; Prodoxus, 438; 

Zeuzera, 376 

decisaria, Euchlaena, 350 
declarata, Euxoa, 189 
decliva, Epiglsea, 219 
decolor, Euxoa, 189 
decolora, Herse, 43 
decolorata, Apantesis, 132 
decora, Charadra, 1 53 
decoralis, Pangrapta, 254 
deducta, Cirrhobolina, 250 
deductaria Euchlaena, 350 
definita, Hemerocampa, 308 
deflorata, Ecpantheria, 1 20 
dettuata, Apaecasia, 342 
Deidamia, genus, 71: inscriptum, 71 
Deilinea, genus, 338; behrensaria, 339; in- 

tentata, variolaria, 338 
dejecta, Catocala, 261 
delecta, Tarache. 251 
deleta, Epiglaea, 219 
delicata, Trachea, 172 
delilah, Catocala, 267 
delinquens, Epidroma, 274 
delphinii, Euclea, 365 
Demas, genus; Close-banded, propinquilinea, 

15.2 

demissa, Mamestra, 194 
densa, Bellura, 211 
densaria, Chlorochlamys, 336 
dentata, Apharetra, 158; Gloveria, 311 
denticulalis, Epizeuxis, 281 
dentifera, Eutelia, 242 
denudata, Pseudohazis, 93 
deplanaria, Euchtena, 350 
depontanata, Sabulodes, 353 
Depressaria, genus; heracliana, heraclei, 

ontariella, pastinacella, umbellana, um- 

bellella, 428 

deprivata, Chlorochlamys, 336 
deridens, Charadra, 152- 
Derrima, genus; henrietta, stellata, 224 
descherei, Pheosia, 295 
desdemona, Catocala, 267 
deserta, Illice, no 
designalis, Agathodcs, 393 
designata, Gypsocbroa, 332; Schinia, 228 
Desmia, genus, funeralis, 392 
desperata, Alypia, 144; Catocala, 261; 

Mamestra, 193 

Destruction of insects by electric lights, 95 
destructor, Tineola, 432 
desuetella, Ephestia, 414 
determinata, Apantesis, 132; Metanema, 351 
detersa, Euxoa, 188 
detracta, Mamestra, 192 
detrahens, Trama, 276 
Deva, genus, 236 
devastatnx, Hadena, 169 
devergens, Syngrapha, 240 
devia, Scopelosoma, 218 



Diacrisia, genus, 114, 127; bicolor, 128; 

funwsa, 127; latipennis, proba, punctata, 

pteridis, Red-legged, rubra, Ruddy, rufula, 

vagans, 128; virginica, 127; Wandering, 128 
Diallagma, genus, lutea, 245 
Diastema, genus; lineata, tigris, 241 
Diastictis, genus; fracturalis, 393 
Diatra;a, genus; crambidoides, leucaniellus, 

lineosellus, obliteratellus, saccharalis, 403 
Dictyosoma, genus, 48; elsa, 49 
Didasys, genus; bete, 99 
diecki, Apantesis, 132 
Diervilla, 63 

diffascialis, Zinckenia, 392 
diffinis, Heemorrhagia, 63 
diffissa, Pyrausta, 398 
digitalis, Anchocelis, 216 
Dilophonota, genus, 60 
dilucidula, Semiophora, 180 
dimidiata, Antaplaga, 220; Leptarctia, 121; 

Pheosia, 295; Pyromorpha, 371 
diminutiva, Heliaca, 231; Holomelina, 116 
dimmocki, Mamestra, 193 
dipne, Apantesis, 130 
Dioptida, Family, 25, 33, 291 
Diospyros, 87, 382 
Diphthera, genus; fallax, 160 
diphtheroides, Microcoslia, 160 
dipsaci, Alypia, 143 
Dipterygia, genus, scabriuscula, 17* 
Dircetis, genus; pygmaea, 284 
dis, Grotella, 220 
Discal mark, 18 
discissa, Celiptera, 275 
discistriga, Platyperigea, 164 
disci varia, Parastichtis, 217 
discolor, Cosmia, 217 
discolqralis, Renia, 283 
discopilata, Eufidonia, 337 
discors, Hadena, 168 
discreta, Gnophala, 290 
disertalis, Samea, 393 
dispar, Porthetria, 308 
disparata, Alypia, 143, 144 
displiciens, Euxoa, 189 
disposita, Xylina, 206 
dispulsa, Charadra, 153 
disserptaria, Epimecis, 344 
dissidens, Magusa, 175 
dissimiiaria, Catopyrrha, 343 
dissona, Euxoa, 189 
disstria Malacosoma, 313 
distema, Cilia, 244 
distigma, Adelocephala, 96 
distigmana, Eucosma, 418 
diva, Annaphila, 246 
divaricata, Magusa, 175 
divergens, Lithacodes, 367; Schini?,, 220 

Syneda, 259; Syngrapha, 240 
diversilineata, Eustrortia, 329; Polia, 171 
divida, Magusa, 175 
divisa, Doryodes, 245 
divisata, Caripeta, 342 
Doa, genus ; ampla, 309 
docta, Apantesis, 131 
clodgei, Apantesis, 132; Mamestra, IP.I 
Dodia, genus; albertse, 117 
Dolba, genus, 46; hylaeus, 46 
Doll, Jacob, ix, 49 
dolli, Hyloicus, 52 
dolosa, Xylomiges, 197 
domingonis, Ennnyis, 59 
dominicata, Palindia, 273 
doris, Apantesis, 130 
dorsisignatana, Eucosma, 418 
Doryodes, genus; acutaria, bistriaris, divisa 

promptella, 245 



455 



Index 



doubledayi, Baileya, i6 

Double mount, 21 

Drasteria, genus; agricola, aquamarina, 
caerulea, conspicua, crassiuscula, erechtea, 
erichto, mundula, narrata, patibilis, sobria, 

Drepana, genus; arcuata, fabula, genicula, 

Dried-currant Moth, The, 414 
Druce, Herbert, 29 
drupacearum, Malacosoma, 313 
drupiferarum, Hyloicus, 52 
druraei, Herse, 43 

Dryobota, genus; illocata, stigmata, Wander- 
ing, 171 

dryopterata, Calledapteryx, 356 
duana, Gonodontis, 350 
dubia, Estigmene, 123 
dubiella, Tinea, 433 
dubitans, Hadena, 168 
dubitata, Triphosa, 331 
ducta, Hadena, 1 69 
dulcearia, Platea, 343 
dunbari, Litholomia, 207 
duodecimlineata, Venusia, 328 
duplicata, Sciagraphia, 339- 
Dyar, Harrison G., ix, 23, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 

dyari, Haploa, 118 
dyaus, Autographa, 238 
Dysocnemis, genus; belladonna, 229 
Dysodia, genus, 374; aurea, 375; Eyed, 374; 
fasciata, montana, oculatana, 374; plena, 

dyspteraria, Meskea, 375 
Dyspteridinae, Subfamily, 32-? 
Dyspteris, genus: abortivaria, 323 

E 

eavesi, Kodiosoma, 133 

ecclesialis, Samea, 393 

Ecdytolopha, genus; insiticiana, 419 

echinocystis, Autographa, 238 

echo, Seirarctia, 122 

Ecpantheria, genus; deflorata, muzina, scri- 
bonia, 120 

Ectropis, genus; crepuscularia, 344 

Ectypia, genus; bivittata, nigroflava, Two- 
banded, 133 

edictalis, Bomolocha, 286 

edmandsi, Schizura, 298 

eductalis, Lomanaltes, 285 

edusa, Homoptera, 278 

edwardsi, Alypia, 143; Apantesis, 130; 
Erinnyis, 58; Hemihyalea, 138; Lymire, 
100; Syneda, 260 

effectaria, Euchlaena, 350 

efficitalis, Pyrausta, 398 

effusalis, Epizeuxis, 280 

egena, Autographa, 238 

egenaria, Cicinnus, 359 

Eggs, of moths, 4, 5 

eglanterina, Pseudohazis, 93 

egle, Euchaetias, 133 

eglenensis, Pareuchaetes, 134 

Elachistidae, Family, 26, 430 

electra, Hemileuca, 91 

elegans, Odontosia, 294; Pygarctia, 136 

legantalis, Pangrapta, 254 

elimata, Semiophora, 180 

Eliot, George, quoted, 417 

eliza, Catocala, 266 

Ellida, genus; caniplaga, gelida, transversata, 

ello, Erinnyis, 58 

ekmgata, Tephroclystis, 328 



elongatus, Celiptera, 275 
elsa, Dicty 



tyosoma, 49 

emargataria, Plagodis, 349 
Emerson, R. W., quoted, 41, 98, 88, 391, 

391 

emphytiformis, Gaea, 381 
Enarmonia sebastianas, 418 
End of All, 44 s 
endropiaria, Therina, 347 
Enemera, genus; juturnaria, 342 
enervis, Orthodes, 203 
enotata, Philobia, 339 
English sparrow, 95 
enhydris, Hexeris, 375 
Ennominae, Subfamily, 337 
Ennomos, genus ; alniaria, autumnaria, lutaria, 

magnarius, niveosericeata, subsignarius, 

348 

ennucleata, Synelys, 333 
enthea, Fishea, 170 
Eois, genus, 334; calif orniaria, californiata, 

336; consecutaria, inductata, ossularia, 

335', pacificaria, 336; ptelearia, 334; 

siderana, 336; sobria, suppressaria, 335 
Eosphoropteryx, genus; thyatiroides, 237 
Epagoge, genus; tunicana, 421 
Epeks, genus; faxoni, truncataria, 337 
ephemerseformis, Thyridopteryx, 361 
Ephestia, genus, 412; cahiritella, cautella, 

desuetella, 414; gitonella, kuehniella, 412; 

pasulella, 414 
ephippiatus, Sibine, 364 
ephyrata, Syssaura, 35? 
Epicnaptera, genus; americana, carpinifolia, 

qccidentis, 314 

Epidemas, genus; cinerea, 170 
Epidroma, genus; delinquens, 274 
Epiglaea, genus; decliva, deleta, pastilhcans, 

219 

epilais, Syntomeida, 99 
epilobii, Celerio, 76 
Epimecis, genus; amplaria, disserptana, 

hortaria, Tiriodendrana, virginaria, 344 
epimenis, Psychomorpha, 232 
epione, Catocala, 260 
epipnoides, Pangrapta, 254 
Epipaschiinae, Subfamily, 407 
Epiplatymetra, genus; coloradaria, 351 
Epiplemidae, Family, 25, 34, 356 
Epipyropidae, Family, 25, 35, 370 
Epipyrops, genus, barberiana, 37 
Epistor, genus, 61; fegeus, luctuosus, lugu- 

bris, 6 1 
Epizeuxis, genus; aemula, americalis, concisa, 

280; denticulalis, 281; effusalis, hermin- 

ioides, lubricalis, mollifera, phaealis, 280; 

scobialis, 281; scriptipennis, surrectabs, 

280 

Erannis, genus; tiliaria, 347 
Erastria, genus; amaturaria, 333 
erastrioides, Tarache, 251 
Erebus, genus; agarista, odora, 279 
erechtea, Drasteria, 257 
erecta, Mamestra, 195 
erectalis, Plathypena, 287 
cremiata, Macaria, 339 
eremitoides, Hyloicus, 49 
eremitus, Hyloicus, 49 
erichto, Drasteria, 257 
Erinnyis, genus, 57. 58; alope, 58; caicus, 60; 

cinerosa, crameri, domingonis, 59; ed- 
wardsi, ello, fasciata, 58; festa, 59, flavicans, 

janipha?, lassauxi, 58; melancholica, 59; 

merianae, 58, 59; obscura, oenotrus, pal- 

lida, penaeus, picta, phalaris, piperis, 

rhcebus, rustica, 59 
Eriocephala. genus, 444 



456 



Index 



ennalis, Conchylodes, 393 

Eriocephalidae. 8 

erosa, Anomis, 244; Malacosoma, 313 

erosiata, Calledapteryx, 356 

erosnealis, Pyrausta, 398 

erratica, Abagrotis, 180 

errato, Euproserpinus, 74 

erycata, Sylectra, 254 

eson, Xylophanes, 75 

Estigmene, genus, 122; acrsea, 122, 123; 
albida, 122; antigone, athena, californica, 
caprotina, congrua, dubia, klagesi, men- 
thastrina, mexicana, packardi, 123; prirna. 
122; pseuderminea, rickseckeri, White- 
bodied, 123 

etolus, Haemorrhagia, 62 

Eubaphe, genus, 115 

Eucalyptera, genus; strigata, 244 

Eucereon, genus, Carolina, confine, Floridan, 
100 

Euchaetias, genus; albicosta, antica, bolteri, 
egle, Mouse-colored, inurina, Oregon, 
oregonensis, perlevis, pudens, 135 

Euchalcia, genus; contexta, festucae. put- 
nami, striatella, venusta, 237 

Euchlasna, genus; amcenaria, arefactaria, 
astylusaria, concisaria, decisaria, dcduc- 
taria, deplanaria, effectaria, madusaria, 
muzaria, obtusaria, oponearia, pectinaria, 
propriaria, serrata, serrataria, vinosaria, 

Euchceca, genus; albovittata, californiata, 
328; lucata, 329; propriaria, reciprocata 
328 

Eucirroedia, genus; pampma, 215 

Euclea, genus; argentatus, chlons, delphinii, 
femiginea, fraterna, indetermina, monitor, 
nana, nanina, paenulata, quercicola, stri- 
gata, tardigrada, vernata, viridiclava, 
viridis, 365 

Euclidia, genus, 257; cuspidea, intercalaris, 
258 

Eucoptocnemis, genus; fimbriaris, obvia, 190 

Eucosma, genus; affusana, clavana, distig- 
mana, dorsisignatana, graduatana, salig- 
neana, scudderiana, similar.a, 418 

Eucrostis, genus; gratata, incertata, oporaria, 
336 

Eucymatoge, genus; impleta, indoctrinata, 
intestinata, 328 

Eudeilinea, genus; herminiata,' 320 

Eudule, genus; biseriata, mendica, Plain- 
colored, unicolor, 327 

Eueretagrotis, genus; perattenta, sigrr.oides, 
179 

Euerythra, genus; phasma, trimaculata, 120 

Eufidonia, genus; bicolorata, discopilata, 
fidoniata, notataria, quadripunctaria, 337 

Eugenia, buxifolia, procera, 140 

Eugonobapta, genus; nivosaria, nivosata, 348 

Euhagena, genus; nebraskae, 381 

Euharyeya, genus, 219 

Euherrichia, genus; cervina, granitosa, gran- 
itosa, moilissima, rubicunda, 253 

Euhyparpax, genus: rosea, 298 

Eulia, genus; alisellana, 423 

Eumestleta, genus; flammicincta, patruelis, 
patula, 249 

Eunystalea, genus; indiana, 295 

euonymella, Yponomeuta, 423 

Euonymus, 157 

Eupanychis, genus; hirtella, spinosae, 226 

Euparthenos, genus; nubilis, 272 

eupatorii, Synanthedon, 385 

Euphanessa, genus, 327 

euphoesalis, Pyrausta, 397 

Euplexia, genus; lucipara, 172 



Eupolia, genus; licentiosa, 199 
Euproctis, genus; chrysorrhoea, 309 
Euproserpinus, genus, 74; errato, euterpe. 

phaeton, 74 

Eupseudomorpha, genus; brillians, 231 
Eupseudosoma, genus; floridum, immaculata, 

involutum, nivea, Snowy, 139 
euryalus, Samia, 84 
Eurycyttarus, genus; carbonaria, 362; con- 

federata, 363 
kuscnemonidae, 3 
Eustixia, genus; pupula, 398 
Eustroma, genus; atrocolorata, diversilineata, 

montanatum, prunata, ribesiaria, triangu- 

latum, 329 
Eustrotia, genus; albidula, apicosa, biplaga, 

carneola, concinnimacula, intractabilis, 

muscosula, musta, nigritula, synochitis, 

247 

Eutelia, genus; dentifera, pulcherrima, 242 
euterpe, Euproserpinus, 74; Syntomeida, 99 
Euthisanotia, genus, 142, 232; assimilis, 

grata, unio, 232 
Euthyatira, genus; pennsylvanica, pudens, 

Eutolype, genus; bombyciformis, damalis, 

Euverna, genus; clio, 133 

Euxoa, genus, 187; albipennis, atropurpurea, 
basalis, 189; brevipennis, 188; campestris, 
189; cinereomaculata, 190; cochrani, de- 
clarata, decolor, 189; detersa, 188; dis- 
pliciens, dissona, expulsa, 189; flayidens 
1 88; furtivus, gularis, illata, 190; insignata, 
insulsa, lutulenta, maizi, 189; messoria, 
1 88; nigripennis, 189; obeliscoides, ochro- 
gaster, 190; olivalis, perpolita, personata, 
pityochrous, quadridentata, 188; redimicu- 
la, 190; repentis, 189; sexatilis, 190; 
spissa, tessellata, titubatis, 189; turris, 
190; velleripennis, 188; verticalis, 189 

evanidalis, Hypena, 287 
velina, Catocala, 261 
victa, Morrisonia, 196 
xaltata, Schinia, 227 
xcaecatus, Calasymbolus, 56 
xcelsa, Apantesis, 132 
xitiosa, Sanninoidea, 384 

expansa, Nephelodes, 199 

expulsa, Euxoa, 189 

expultrix, Pseudothyatira, 304 

exsiccatus, Crambus, 403 

exsimaria, Hyperitis, 349 

exsuperata, Paraphia, 343 

Exterior line, 18 

externa, Galgula, 247 

extimia, Caradrina, 165 

extranea, Heliophila, 200 

exusta, Mamestra, 193 

Exuvias, larval, 9 

Exyra, genus; semicrocea, 248 

Eyes; of cats, 78; of moths, 12, 18; of noc- 
turnal animals, 77; of owls, 78 



fabricii, Automeris, 89 

fabula. Drepana, 321 

fadus, Sesia, 62 

Fagitana, genus; littera, lucidata, nivei- 

costatus, obliqua, 217 
Fala, genus, ptycophora, 235 
Falcana, genus; bilineata, 321 
falcata, Pseudanarta, 175 
fallacialis, Renia. 283 
fallax, Diphthera, 160 
Fall Web-worm. 123 



457 



Index 



falsarius, Acoloithus, 371 

False Indigo 430 

Families of North American moths, Key to, 24 

Far out at Sea, 362 

farinalis, Pyralis, 400 

farnhami, Mamestra, 192 

"Far Out at Sea," 363 

fascialis, Pyrausta, 397; Zinckenia, 392 

fasciata, Dysodia, 375; Erinnyis, 58 

fasciatus, Pholus, 67 

fasciola, Lithacodes, 367 

fasciolaris, Melipotis, 258 

fastuosa, Atteva, 424 

Faunal Subregions, 387 

faustina, Catocala, 264 

faustinula, Illice, 109 

favorita, Apantesis, 132 

faxoni, Epelis, 337 

fecialis, Bqmolocha, 286 

fegeus, Epistor, 61 

felina, Charadra, 153 

Felt, E. P., 37 

Feltia, genus, 186; agilis, 186: annexa, 
decernens, 187; gladiaria, herilis, hortulana, 
186; malefida, 187; morrisoniana, semi- 
clarata, stigmosa, subgpthica, vancouver- 
ensis, venerabilis, volubilis, 186 

Femur, 14, 15 

Fenaria, genus; asdessa, longipes, sevorsa 
233 

fenestra, Telea, 87 

Feniseca tarquinius, 6 

fennica, Noctua, 183 

Fentonia, genus; marthesia, tessella, turbida, 
300 

Feralia, genus: jocosa, 171 

Fernald, C. H., 31, 37 

Fernaldella, genus; fimetaria, halesaria, 337 

Fernaldellinae, Subfamily, 337 

fernaldialis, Melitara, 410 

ferox, Syntomeida, 99 

ferraria, Acherdoa, 234 

ferrigera, Adoneta, 365 

ferruginea, Euclea, 365; Lophodonta, 295 

ferruginoides, Pachnobia, 180 

fervidaria, Therina, 348 

fervifactaria, Coenocalpe, 332 

fessa, Amolita, 244 

festa, Cerma. 161; Erinnyis, 59 

festivoides, Oligia, 165 

festucae, Euchalcia, 237 

ficus, Pachylia, 60 

Ficus pedunculata, 100 

fidelissima, Composia, 289 

fidicularia, Caradrina, 164 

fidoniata, Eufidonia, 337 

figurata, Apantesis, 132 

filimentaria, Ania, 349 

Fillip, The Three-spotted, 327 

fimbrialis, Hypsopygia, 399 

fimbriaris, Eucoptocnemis, 190 

fimetaria, Fernaldella, 337 

Final Goal, The, 445 

fiscellaria, Therina, 348 

Fishea, genus; enthea, Yosemite, yosemitae, 

flagellum, Autographa, 238 
flagitaria, Therina, 348 
flammans, Ptychoglene, no 
flammicincta, Eumestleta, 249 
flammifera, Mesoleuca, 330 
Flannel-moth, White, Yellow 369 
flava, Pseudanarta, 175 
flavago, Xanthia, 214 
flavedana, Platynota, 422 
flavescentella, Tinea, 433 
flavicans, Erinnyis, 58 



flavicosta, The 
flavidens, Euxoa, 



erasea, 251 



flavipennis, Tarache, 251 

flavipes, Bembecia, 383 

flavofasciata, Proserpinus, 73 

flebilis, Catocala, 622 

fletcheri, Xylomiges, 197 

flexuosa, Raphia, 153; Tortricidia, 368 

Flight, Great powers of, 67 

floccalis, Pleonectyptera, 246 

florida, Rhodophora, 224 

floridalis, Agathodes, 393 

floridana, Atteva, 424 

floridaria, Caberodes, 352 

floridensis, Callopistria, 252; Haemorrhag'a 

63; Sphacelodes, 354 
nondum, Eupseudosoma, 139 
floscularia, Plagodis, 349 
Flour-moth, The, 412 
fluviata, Percnoptilota, 330 
Flying Squirrels, 149 
Fontaine, De La, quoted, 373 
Forester, Californian, 145; Eight-spotted, 

144; Langton's, 145; MacCulloch's, 143; 

Mexican, 144; Ridings', Two-spotted, 145: 

Wittfeld's, 144 
formosa, Gluphisia, 300 
formosa, Polychrysia, 236 
formosalis, Nigetia, 358 
formula, Catocala, 268 
formula, Oreta, 321 
forrigens, Phobena, 273 
Fota, genus; armata, minorata, 178 
f-pallida, Apantesis, 132 
fractilinea, Hadena, 168 
fracturalis, Diastictis, 393 
fragariae, Ancylis, 419 
fragilis, Apatela, 156 
fratella, Autographa, 238 
f rater, Raphia, 153 
fratercula, Catocala, 269 
fraterna, Euclea, 365 
fraudulentaria, Cleora, 344 
Fraxinus, 46, 51 
Frenulum, 16, 17 
Fringes, 18 

frugallaria, Cleora, 344 
frugiperda, Laphygma, 174 
Fruit-worm, The Gooseberry, 411 
frustulum, Celiptera, 275 
frutetorum, Malacosoma, 312 
Fruva, genus; accepta, apicella, truncatula 

252 

fucosa, Hypoprepia, 106 . 

Fulgpra candelaria, 370 
fuliginosa, Phragmatobia, 126 
fulminans, Perigonica, 205 
fultaria, Paota, 332 
fulva, Kodiosoma, 133 
fulvicollis, Scepsis, 101 
fulvoflava, Halisidota, 138 
fumalis, Pyrausta, 397 
fumosa, Diacrisia, 127; Haemorrhagia, 63 
funebris, Pyrausta, 398 
funeralis, Desmia, 392 
funerea, Pygoctenucha, 1 1 1 
fungorum, Choephora, 216 
furcata, Papaipema, 214 
furcifera, Apatela, 155 
furcilla, Argillophora, 255; Panthea, 152 
Fur-moth, The, 433 
furtivus, Euxoa, 190 
furvana, Archips, 422 
fusca, Porosagrotis, 187 
fuscalis, Phlyctaenodes, 395 
fuscimacula, Oligia, 166 
fuscipes, Comacla, 107 



458 



Index 



fuscula, Roeselia, 358 
fusimacula, Oxycnemis, 221 
futilis, Litoorosoous, 275 



Gaberasa, genus; ambigualis, bifidalis, 

divisalis, 284 

Gaea, genus; emphytiformis, solituda, 381 
galbina, Agapema, 86 
Galgula, genus; externa, hepara, partita, 

subpartita, vesca, 247 
galianna, Hemeroplanes, 60 
galii, Celerio, 76 

galtesolidaginis, Gnorimoschema, 418, 425 
Galleria, genus; cereana, cerella, mellonella, 

obliquella, 406 
Gallerimae, Subfamily, 405 
gallivorum, Synanthedon, 387 
Gall- moth, The Misnamed, 418; The Solidago, 

425 

Gama-grass, 405 
garmani, Graphiphora, 204 
Gaura biennis, 224 

Ee, Pogocolon, 72; Rhodophora, 224 
lina, genus, 305 
:hiidae, Family, 26, 38, 424 
gelida, Apantesis, 131; Ellida, 300 
gelidalis, Noctuelia, 399 

geminata, Cladora, 324; Tephroclystis, 328 
geminatus, Sphinx, 55 
gemmata, Atteva, 424 
gemmatilis, Anticarsia 275 
generalis, Renia, 283 
generosa, Pyrausta, 398 
genicula, Drepana, 321 
geniculata, Agrotis, 182 
gentilis, Parastichtis, 217; Pyrausta, 397 
Geometer, Crocus, 349; Dark-banded, 329; 

Five-lined, 333; Harvey's, 327; Snowy, 348 
Geometers, 149 
geometrica, Parasemia, 134 
Geometridae, Family. 7, 25, 34, 322 
Geometrinae, Subfamily, 336 
geometroides, Melanchroia, 355; Pangrapta, 

254 

georgica, Hyperaschra, 294 
germana, Lithomoia, 206 
germanalis, Hypena, 287 
gibbocostata, Ccenocalpe, 332 
gibbosa, Nadata, 296 
gilvipennis, Rhynchagrotis, 178 
Gingla, genus; laterculae, 373 
gisela, Catocala, 269 

S'tonella, Ephestia, 412 
host-moth; Graceful, Lembert's, 444; 
Silver-spotted, 443 
glabella, Pyrophila, 173 
gladiaria, Feltia, 186 

Glaea, genus; inulta, sericea, viatica, 218 
glandulella. Holcocera, 429 
Glassy-wing, Edwards', 138; Freckled, 139 
glaucovaria, Mamestra, 193 
Gleditschia, 96 
glomeralis, Pyrausta, 398 
glomeraria, Macaria 340 

gloveri, Copidryas, 141; Samia, 84 
loveria, genus; arizonensis, dentata, how- 

ardi, psidii, 311 
Glover's Purslane-moth, 141 
Gluphisia, genus; albofascia, avimac"ula, 

clandestina, danbyi, formosa, rupta, sep- 

tentrionalis severa, slossoni, trilineata, 

wrighti, 300 
Glyphodes, genus; hyalinata, hyalinatalis, 

lucernalis, marginalis, nitidalis, quad- 



ristigmalis, 394 



Gnophaela, genus; arizonae, clappiana, con- 

tinua, discreta, hopfferi, latipennis, mor- 

risoni, .vermiculata, 290 
Gnorimoschema, genus, 425; gallaesolidaginis, 

418, 425 

goasalis, Philometra, 282 
Goat-moths, 375 
goniata. Safaulodes, 353 
Gonodonta, genus; unica, 236 
Gonodontis, genus; adustaria, agreasaria 

duaria, hamaria, hypochraria, mestusata 

obfirmaria, refractaria, 350 
Gooseberry Fruit-worm, The, 411 
Gooseberry Span-worm, The, 340 
gordius, Hyloicus, 51 
Gortyna, genus; immanis, Hop-vine, nicti- 

tans, 212; obliqua, Oblique, 213; sera. 

Veiled, velata, 212 
gortynides, Bellura, 211 
Gosse, Edmund, quoted, 355 
gossypiana, Archips, 422 
gracilenta, Alypia, 144 
gracilior, Leptomeris, 333 
gracilis, Catocala, 269; Haemoirhagia, 63; 

Hepialtas, 444 
gradata, Macaria, 340 
graduatana, Eucosma, 418 
graefi, Apatela, 155 
Graeperia, genus; magnifica, 225 
Grammodes, genus; smithi, 274 
Grammodia, genus, 60 
grandipuncta. Alabama, 243 
grandirena, Melipotis, 258 
grandis, Copablepharon. 222; Mamestra, 193; 

Melittia, 381; Noctua, 184 
granitata, Sciagraphia, 339 

S-anitosa, Euhernchia, 253 
rape-leaf Folder, The, 392 
Grape-vine Plume, The, 416 
graphica, Syneda, 259 
Graphiphora, genus; alia, capsella, confluens, 

culea, garmani, hibisci, insciens, instabilis, 

modifica, orobia, oviduca, 204 
Grass-moths, 402 

grata, Euthisanotia, 232; Oligia, 166 
grataria, Haematopsis, 332 
gratata, Eucrostis, 336 
gratulata, Mesoleuca, 330 
Grease-wood, 96 
Green Apple-leaf Tier, The, 421 
grisea, Apatela, 156; Hypopacha, 312; 

Illice, no 

griseella, Tinea, 433 
griseocincta, Orthodes, 203 
grossulariae, Zophodia, 411 

S-ossulariata, Cymatophora, 340 
rote, A. R., 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36 
groteana, Cenopis, 422 

grotei, Hasmorrhagia, 63; Hemileuca, 91; 
Lycomorpha, 101; Psaphidia, 177 

Sroteiana, Catocala, 264 
rotella, genus; dis, 220 
Groundling; Dusky, Red, 165 
grynea, Catocala, 269 

gaeneata, Hydriomena, 331 
uen^e, A., 27, 32, 36 
Sienei, Catocala, 261, 
uettarda elliptica, 139 
Guilding, Lansdown, 403 
gularis, Euxoa, 190 
gulosa, Hemerocampa, 308 
Gumppenberg, C. v., 34 
gurgitans, Archips, 422 
guttata, Platyprepia, 128; Spragueia, 25* 
guttifera, Halisidota, 138 
guttulosa, Pyrausta. 397 
gyasahs, Heterogramma, 284 



459 



Index 



Gymnocladus, 96 

Gynaephora, genus; rossi. 305 

Gypsochroa, genus; albosignata. designata 

haesitata, impauperata, propugnata, pro- 

pugnaria, sitellata, 332 
Gypsy Moth, The, 308 
Gyros, genus; muiri, 249 

H 

habilis, Catocala, 268 

Habrosyne, genus; scnpta, 303 

Hadena, genus, 166; Airy, 1 68 ; Albertan, 167; 
amputatrix, arctica, 169; arcuata, 167; 
Base-streaked, basilinea, 168; Black- 
banded, 167; bridghami, Bridgham's, 166; 
Broken-lined, Burgess', burgessi, cerivana, 
1 68; characta, 167; chlorostigma, 168; 
claudens, 167; conspicua, 168; contenta, 
169; Dark Ashen, 170; Darker, 169; 
Dark-spotted, Dark-winged, 167; Destroy- 
ing, devastatrix, 169; discors, 168; Double- 
banded, 167; dubitans, 168; ducta, 169; 
fractilinea, 168; Great Western, 169; 
Green-spotted, 168; Half-Moon, 169; Halt- 
ing, 1 68; hilli, 167; incallida, insignata, 
lateritia, 168; lignicolor, 169; loculata, 168; 
mactata, 167; marshallana, 169; misel- 
oides, modica, 167; molochina, 168; 
Mullein, 169; Neumoegen's, 166; nigrior, 
Northern, 169; obliviosa, 168; occidens, 
ordinaria, 169; passer, Passerine, Red- 
winged, 1 68; semilunata, Speckled Gray, 
169; sputatrix, 168; subcedens, 167; 
transfrons, 166; Turbulent, turbulenta, 
167; verbascoides, 169; versuta, 167; 
vinela, 170; violacea, Violet, 167; viralis, 
vultuosa, 1 68; White-spotted, 167; Wood- 
colored, 169 

Hadenella, genus, 162; minuscula, 163; 
pergentilis, subjuncta, 162 

hadeniformis, Melipotis, 258 

Haematomis, genus; mexicana, unifprmis, 107 

Hasmatopsis, genus; grataria, saniaria, suc- 
cessaria, 332 

Haemorrhagia, genus, 62, 72; aethra, axillaris, 
63; brucei, 64; buffaloensis, cimbiciformis, 
diffinis, 63; etolus, 62; floridensis, fumosa, 
gracilis, grotei, marginalis, metathetis 
63; palpalis, 64; pelasgus, 62; pyramus, 
63; rubens, 64; ruficaudis, 62, 63; senta, 
64; tenuis, 63; thetis, 64; thysbe. 62; 
uniformis, 63 

hassitata, Gypsochrea, 332 

hageni, Isogramma, 47 

halesaria, Fernaldella, 337 

halicarniae, Lapara, 53 

Halisidota, genus, 115, 137; annulifascia, 
138; antiphola, 137; argentata, caryas, 
138; davisi, 137; fulvoflava, 138; Gartered 
137; guttifera, 138; harrisi, i37;'Hickory, 
tonga. Long-streaked, maculata, porphy- 
ria, Silver-spotted, Spotted, 138; Tessel- 
lated, tessellaris, 137 

Halpine, Charles G., quoted, 319 

hamaria, Gonodontis, 350 

hamifera, Autographa, 238 

hammondi, Canarsia, 41*1 

Hampson, 'Sir George F., ix, 18, 23, 31, 32, 
33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 98, 103, 114, 140, 151, 
288, 289, 292, 303, 306, 311, 315, 320, 
322, 356, 364, 371, 374, 375, 380, 391 

Haploa, genus, 117; Leconte's, 118; Lyman's, 
119; Carolina, clymene, colona, comma, 
118; confusa, 119; consita, 118; contigua, 
19; dyari, interruptomarginata, lactata, 
militaris, vestalis, 118 



Harpyia, genus; albicoma, aquilonaris, bore- 

ahs, cinerea, scolopendrina, 299 
Harris. Thaddeus William, 27 
Harris' Three-spot, 159 
harrisi, Halisidota 137; Lapara, 53; Pygoc- 

tenucha, in 

Harnsimemna, 149, 159; trisignata, 159 
Harrisina, genus; americana, texana, 372 
harti, Sysyrhypena, 282 
haruspica, Noctua, 184 
harveiata, Nannia 327 
harveyi, Heliophila, 201 
hasdrubal, Pseudosphinx, 57 
hasta, Apatela, 155 
hastata, Rheumaptera, 329 
havilae, Noctua, 184 
Hawkmoth, 78; Clemens', 52; Five-Spotted, 

Head; anatomy of, 12, 18; larval, 7 
hebraea, Polygrammate, 160 
hebraicum, Polygrammate, 160, 161 
Hebrew, The, 160 
heiligbrodti, Syssphinx, 96 
Heliaca, genus; diminutiva, 231 
Heliochilus, genus; paradoxus, 222 
Heliodes^ genus; restrictalis, 230 
Heliolonche, genus; modicella, 230 
Heliomata, genus; cycladata, infulata, 338 
Heliophana, genus; mitis, obliquata, 230 
Heliophila, genus, 200; albilinea, 201; com- 

moides, 203; complicata, 201; extranea, 

200; harveyi, 201; heterodoxa, lapidaria, 

202; minorata, 201; multilinea, 202; 

pseudargyria, subpunctata, 201; uni- 

puncta, 200 

Heliosea, genus; pictipennis, 230 
helipthidata, Sciagraphia, 339 
Heliothis, genus; armiger, 222; nuchalis 

scutosus, 224 

Heliotropha, genus; atra, reniformis, 173 
helva, Orthosia, 2 1 7 
Hemerocampa, genus, 305; borealis, cana, 

305; definita, 307; gulosa, intermedia, 

leucographa, leucostigma, obliviosa, ve- 

tusta, 306 
Hemeroplanes, genus, 60; galianna, licastus, 

parce, 60 
Hemihyalea, genus; Edwards', edwardsi, 

138; Freckled, labecula, 139; quereus, 

translucida, 138 
Hemileuca, genus, 91; artemis. californica, 

92; electra, grotei, hualapai, 91; iuno, 92; 

maia, neumosgeni, 91; nevadensis, 92; 

proserpina, sororius, 91; tricolor, 93; 

yayapai, 92 

Hemileucinae, Subfamily, 80, 81, 90 
hemizpnae, Synanthedon, 385 
henrici, Hypopta, 379 
henrietta, Derrima, 224 
hepara, Galgula, 247 
Hepialids, Family, 15, 16, 26, 443 
Hepialus, genus; gracilis, hyperboreus, lem- 

berti, macglashani, pulcher, 444 
hera, Pseudohazis, 93 
heraclei, Depressaria, 428 
heracliana, Depressaria, 428 
herbimacula, Mamestra, 195 
Herculia, genus; himonialis, olinalis, tren- 

tonalis, 401 

Herder, Das Lied vom Schmetterlinge, 290 
herilis, Feltia, 186 
hermia, Catocala, 264 
herminiata, Eudeilinea, 320 
herminioides. Epizeuxis, 280 
Herrich-Schasffer, G. A. W., 27 
Herse, genus, 43; affinis, cingulata, convol- 

vuli, decolora, drurasi, pungens. 43 



460 



Index 



hersiliata, Mesoleuca. 330 

hertaria, Epimecis, 344 

Heterocampa, genus; associata. astarte, 
athcrco, bilineata, biundata. cinerascens, 
manteo, menas, mollis, obliqua, olivatus, 
puiverea, seraiplaga, subalbicans, turbida, 
ulmi, umbrata, varia, 297 

Heterocera, defined, 3 

heterodoxa, Heliophila, 202 

Heterogenea, genus; shurtleffi, 368 

Heterogramma, genus; gyasalis, pyramu- 
salis, rarigena, 284 

Heteropacha, genus; rileyana, 314 

Heterophleps, genus; hexaspilata, quadrino- 
tata, triguttaria, 327 

heuchera, Paranthrene, 387 

hexadactyla, Orneodes, 417 

hexaspilata, Heterophleps. 327 

Hexeris, genus; enhydris. reticulina, 375 

hibisci, Graphiphora, 204 

"Hickory Horn-devil," 6, 97 

hieroglyphica, Noropsis, 233 

hilaris, Zeuzera, 376 

hilli, Hadena, 167; Hypocala, 272 

Hillia, genus; algens, 166 

hilliana, Noctua, 183 

Himantopterus. genus, 371 

Himella, genus; contrahens, thecata, 204 

himonialis, Herculia, 401 

hinda, Catocala, 266 

Hippia, genus; packardi, 296 

hircina, Homoglaea, 219 

hircinalis, Pyrausta, 398 

hirtella, Eupanychis, 226 

hirtipes, Zosteropoda, 203 

histrio, marasmalus, 242 

Hoboken, 147 

hochenwarthi, Syngrapha, 240 

Holcocera, genus; glandulella, 429 

Holland, Clive, quoted, 353 

hollandaria, Racheospila, 336 

Holmes, O. W., quoted, 3, 371 

Holomelina, genus, 115; choriona, belfragei, 
belmaria, bimaculata, Black-banded, brevi- 
cornis, diminutiva, Ehrman's, Five-spotted, 
immaculata, Least, Plain-winged, 116; 
obscura, opella, ostenta, rubricosta, Showy, 

Homoglaea, genus; carbonaria, hircina, 219 
Homohadena, genus; badistriga, 176 
Homoptera, genus; cingulifera, edusa, in- 

tenta, involuta, lunata, putrescens, saun- 

dersi, unilineata, viridans, woodi, 278 
Homopyralis, genus; contracta, tactus, zonata, 

256 

honesta, Jodia, 215 
honestaria, Azelina, 352 
Honey-locust, 96 
Honey-streak, The, 339 
hopffen, Gnophaela, 290 
Hops, 287 

Horama, genus; texana, 100 
Hormisa, genus; absorptalis bivittata, nu- 

bilifascia, 282 
hormos, Hypsoropha, 256 
Hormoschista, genus; pagenstecheri, 253 
hornbeckiana, Pholus, 67 
Horne, R. H., quoted, 363 
horrida, Zale, 277 
hortaria, Epimecis. 346 
hortulana, -Feltia, 186 
hospes, Synanthedon, 387 
Howard, L. O., viii, 403, 405 
howardi, Gloveria, 311 
howlandi, Syneda, 260 
hualapai, Hemileuca, 91 
Huber, 112 



hubbardi, Bruceia, 108 

hubneraria, Azelina, 352 

hubnerata, Azelina, 352 

hudsonica, Alypia, 145, Syneda, 260 

Hulst, Rev. G. p.. 33, 34, 36 

humeralis, Cingilia, 347 

humerosana, Amorbia, 423 

humilis, Schiznra, 298 

humuli, Hypena, 287 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, quoted, 38 

hyalinata, Glyphodes, 394 

hyalinatalis, Glyphodes, 394 

hyalinopuncta, Apatelodes 293 

hyalinus, Phobetron, 366 

Hyamia, genus; perditalis, semilineata, sex- 
punctata, umbrifascia, 234 

Hyblrea, genus; mirificum, puera, saga, 288 

hybrida, Ophideres, 276; Utetheisa, 117 

Hydria, genus; undulata, 329 

Hydriomena, genus; autumnalis, bicolorata, 
birivata, custodiata, gueneata, lascinata, 
latirupta. rectangulata, sordidata, specio- 
sata, 331 

hydrome1i ; Litodonta, 296 

hyteus, Dolba, 46 

Hylesia, genus, 90; alinda, 90 

Hyloicus, genus, 49; albescens, 50; andro- 
medae, 50; canadensis. 51; chersis, 50; 
coloradus, 52; coniferarum, 52; dolli, 52 
drupiferarum, 52; eremitus, 49; eremitoides 
49; gordius, 51; insolita, 51; kalmiae, 51 
libocedrus, 51; lugens, 49, 50; luscitiosa 
52; oreodaphne, 50; perelegans, 51 
pinastri, 52; plota, 51; pcecila, 51; saniptri 
52; separatus, 50; sequoiae, 52; sordida, 49 
vancouverensis, 50; vashti, 50 

Hyloicus kalmiae, larva of, 7 

hyp;ethrata, Macaria, 339 

Hyparpax, genus; aurora, perophoroides, 
rosea. venus, venusta, 299 

Hypena, genus; evanidalis, germanalis, 
humuli, 287 

Hypenula, genus; biferalis, cacuminalis, 
opacalis, 283 

Hyperaeschra, genus; georgica, scitipennis, 
stragula, tortuosa, 294 

hyperboreus, Hepialus, 444 

hyperici, Synanthedon, 385 

Hyperitis, genus; aesionaria, amicaria, ex- 
simaria, insinuaria, laticincta, neonaria, 
neoninaria, nyssaria, subsinuaria, 349 

Hyphantria, genus, 122, i23;cunea, i23;pal- 
lida, 124; punctatissima, I23;textor, 124 

Hyphoraia, genus; borealis, parthenos, 128 

Hypocala, genus; andremona, hilli, 272 

hypocastrina, Zeuzera, 376 

hypochraria, Gonodontis, 350 

Hypocrisias, genus; armillata, Least, minima, 
136 

Hypopacha, genxis; grisea, 312 

Hypoprepia, genus; cadaverosa, fucosa, 
inculta, miniata, plumbea, subornata 
tricolor, vittata, 106 

Hypopta, genus; berthqldi, henrici, 379 

Hyppa, genus; ancocisconensis, Common, 
contraria, xylinoides, 171 

Hypsopygia, genus; costalis, fimbrialis, 399 

Hypsoropha, genus; hormos, monilis, 256 

I 

lanassa, genus; lignicolor, lignigera, virgata 

298 

iaspis, Chytonix, 161 
Ichneumon-flies, 69 
Ichneumonida?, 6, 68 
idonea, Agrotis, 182 



461 



Index 



ilia, Catocala, 265 

illabefacta, Mamestra, 194 

illapsa, Noctua, 185 

illata, Euxoa. 19 

illecta, Catocala, 267 

illepida, Polia, 171 

illibalis, Pyrausta, 397 

Illice, genus, 108; deserta, no; faustinula, 

109; grisea, no; nexa, 109, 110; packardi, 

plumbea, schwarziprum, striata, subjecta, 

tenuifascia, unifascia, 109 
illocata, Dryobota, 171 
illudens, Charadra, 152 
imbraria, Caberodes, 352 
imbrifera, Mamestra, 192 
imitata, Sabulodes, 353; Synanthedon, 385 
imitella, Cydosia, 253 
immaculata, Eupseudosoma, 139; Holo- 

melina, 1 1 6 

impauperata, Gypsochroa, 332 
imperator, Pachysphinx, 57 
imperatoria, Basilona, 97. 
imperfectaria, Melanolophia, 344 
imperialis, Basilona, 971 
impingens, Anarta, 199 
impleta, Apatela, 157; Eucymatoge, 328 
implora, Azenia, 248 
impressa, Apatela, 157 
impropria, Synanthedon, 385 
impropriata, Paraphia, 343 
improvisa, Bombycia, 304 
inatomaria, Metanema, 351 
inca, Aleptina, 162 
incallida, Hadena, 168 
incandescens, Cirrhobolina, 259 
incarcerata, Melalopha, 293 
incarnata, Arachnis, 124; Lerina, in 
incarnatorubra, Apantesis, 130 
incensalis, Cindaphia, 397 
inceptaria, Cymatpphora, 341 
incertata, Eucrostis, 336 
Incita, genus; aurantiaca, 246 
incivis, Peridroma, 183 
inclara, Apatela, 157 
inclinata, Venusia, 328 
inclinataria, Venusia, 328 
includens, Autographa, 238 
inclusa, Melalopha, 293 
incognita Agrotiphila, 191 
incompleta, Apantesis, 132 
inconcinna, Chorizagrotis, 185; Scotogramma 

198 

inconstans, Panula, 258 
incorrupta, Apantesis, 131 
inculta, Hypoprepia, 106 
incurvata, Sabulodes, 353 
indentata, Melalopha, 293; Remigia, 274 
indetermina, Euclea, 365 
indiana, Eunystalea, 295 
Indian-meal Moth, The, 415 
indicans, Mamestra, 195 
indigenella, Mineola, 409 
indigens, Platysenta, 163 
indigna, Autographa, 239 
indiscriminaria, Chlorochlamys 336 
indivisalis, Gaberasa, 284 
indoctrinata, Eucymatoge, 328 
indubitata, Triphosa, 331 
inductata, Eois, 335 
indurata, Xylomiges, 197 
ineffusaria, Caberodes, 352 
inepta, Cissusa, 256 
inermis, Peridroma, 182 
inexacta, Antiblemma, 275 
inextricata, Mellilla, 338 
infans, Brephos, 355 
infecta, Mamestra, 195 



infensata, Syssaura, 352 

inficita, Marasmalus, 242 

infirma, Synanthedon, 385 

infructuoga, Morrisonia, 197 

infulata, Heliomata, 338 

infumata, Cosmia, 217 

infuscata, Scotogramma, 198 

ingenita, Dalcendes, 369 

ingenua, Phoberia, 273 

Inguromorpha, genus; arbeloides basalis, 

378 

mnexa, Mamestra, 195 
innominata, Xylina, 207 
inornata, Sisyrosea, 366; Trichocosmia, 220 
innotata, Apatela, 155 
innubens, Catocala, 265 
inquaesita, Papaipema, 213 
insciens, Graphiphora, 204 
inscriptum, Deidamia, 71 
insequalis, Pyrausta, 398 
insignata, Euxoa, 189; Hadena, 168 
insignis, Plusiodonta, 235 
insinuaria, Hyperitis, 349 
insiticiana, Ecdytolopha, 419 
insolabilis, Catocala, 262 
insolita, Autographa, 238; Hyloicus, 51 
insularis, Philosamia, 82 
insulata, Pareuchaetes, 134 
instabilis, Cressonia, 57; Graphiphora, 204 
insulsa, Euxoa, 189 
integerrima, Calasymbolus, 56; Campometra, 

276; Datana, 294 
intenta, Homoptera, 278 
intentata, Deilmea, 338 
interlinearia, Caberodes, 352 
intermedia, Apantesis, 129; Celerio, 76; 

Cucullia, 208; Hemerocampa, 308; Utethe- 

isa, 117 

intermediata, Mesoleuca, 330 
interminellus, Crambus, 403 
interna, Dasylophia, 296 
interpuncta, Saha, 285 
interpunctella, Plodia, 415 
interrupta, Apatela, 155 
interruptomarginata, Haploa, 118 
intestinata, Eucymatpge, 328 
intractabilis, Eustrotia, 247 
intractata, Noctua, 183 
introferens, Chorizagrotis, 185 
inulta, Glaea, 218 
inusitata, Synanthedon, 386 
invexata, Therina, 348 
involuta, Homoptera, 278 
involutum, Eupseudosoma, 139 
io, Automeris, 89; Calasymbolus, 56 
Ipimorpha, genus; aequilinea, pleonectusa, 

ipomceas, Schizura, 298; Syntomeida, 99 

iricolor, Oncocnemis, 176 

iridaria, Anaplodes, 337 

iris, Brotolomia, 215 

irrecta, Pleonectvptera, 246 

irrorata, Clemensia, 108; Oreta, 321 

Isabella, Isia, 124 

Isaiah, quoted, 396, 434 

Isia, genus, 125, 127; Isabella, 125 

Isogona, genus; natatrix, tenuis, 256 

Isoohaetes, genus; beutenmulleri, 366 

Isogramma, genus, 47; hageni, 47 

Isoparce, genus, 48; cupressi, 48 

Issus, genus, 370 



Jackson, Helen Hunt, quoted, 413 
jaguarina, Schinia, 228 
jamaicensis, Sphinx, 55 



462 



Index 



Janette's Hair, 319 

janiphae, Erinnyis, 58 

janualis, Semiophora, 180 

Japan, 79. 37 

laquenetta, Catocala, 269 

jasminearum, Chlaenogramma, 46 

Jaspidia, genus; lepidula. Marbled-green, 

teratophora, White-spotted, 160 
Jatronha, 58 
jatrophae, Cocytius, 44 
Jean Ingelow, quoted, 179 
Job, quoted, 151, 424 
joeasta, Andrewsia, 272 

;' acosa, Feralia, 171 
odia, genus; honesta, rufago, 215 
oker, The, 171 
ordan, Dr. Karl, ix, 31 
jorulla, Rothschildia, 82 
juanita, Pogocolon, 73 
jubararia, Pheme, 351 
jucunda, Melipotis, 258; Noctua, 183 
Judith, Catocala 262 
juglandis, Cressonia, 57; Mineola, 408 
Juglans, 87 
Jugum, i 6 
julia, Rhodosea, 225 

J'ulialis, Cindaphia, 397 
umping beans, 417 
juncimacula, Mamestra, 192 
juncta, Noctua, 184 
junctaria, Orthofidonia, 337 
June-berry, 386 
juniperaria, Syssaura, 352 
juno, Hemileuca, 92 
Jussieua, 67 
jussieuae, Pholus, 67 
juturnaria, Enemera, 342 

K 

Kalmia, 51 

kalmias, flyloicus, 51 

Keats, quoted, 114 

Kentucky Coffee-tree, 06 

keutzingaria, Plagodis, 349 

keutzingi, Plagodis, 349 

Key to families of North American moths, 24 

Killing specimens, 19 

Kirby. W. F., 29 

klagesi, Estigmene, 123 

Kodiosoma, genus; eavesi, fulva, nigra, 

tricolor, 133 

kcebelei, Synanthedon, 387 
Kuebel, C. L. von, quoted, 359, 368 
kuehniella, Ephestia, 412 



labecula, Hemihyalea, 139 
labiosana, Platynota, 422 
labruscae, Pholus, 67 
laciniosa, Bomolocha, 286 
Lacosoma, genus; chiridota, 339 
Lacosomidae, Family, 25, 35, 359 
lacrymosa, Catocala, 261 
lactata, Haploa, 1 1 8 
lacteolaria, Leuculodes, 310 
lactipennis, Tarache, 251 
lacustrata, Mesoleuca, 330 
lastella, Ambesa, 410 
laetulus, Lomanaltes, 285 
laevigata, Zanclognatha, 281 
Lagoa, genus; crispata, pyxidifera, 369 
lanariella, Tineola, 432 
lanceolata, Tarache, 251 
langdonalis, Pyrausta, 397 
langtoni, Alypia, 143, 145 



languida, Melicleptria, 230 

lanuginosa, Megalopyge, 369 

Lapara, genus, 53; bombycpides, cana, coni- 
ferarum, halicarniae, harrisi, pineum, 53 

Laphygma, genus; autumnalis, frugiperda, 
macra, plagiata, signifera, 174 

lapidaria, Heliophila, 202 

Lappet, collar and shoulder, 18 

laqueata, Calidota, 139 

laqueatellus, Crambus, 402 

larentioides, Phalasnostola, 254 

Larvae; food of, 6 

lascinata, Hydriomena, 331 

Lasiocampidas, Family, 9, 24, 34, 311 

lassauxi, Erinnyis, 58 

Latebraria, genus: amphipyroides, 279 

laterana, Platynota, 422 

laterculas, Gingla, 373 

lateritia, Hadena, 168 

latex, Mamestra, 194 

laticincta, Hyperitis, 349 

laticinerea, Xylina, 207 

laticlavia, Autographa, 240 

latipennis, Diacrisia, 128; Gnophaela, 290 

latipes, Remigia, 274 

latirupta, Hydriomena, 331 

Lathosea, genus; pullata, ursina, 209 

latreillana, Ctenucha, 102 

laudabilis, Mamestra, 195 

Laugher, The, 152 

Lauraceae, 85 

Leaf -rollers, 417 

lecontei, Haploa, 118 

Legs of moths, 14, 15 

lemberti, Hepialus, 444 

lena, Leptarctia, 121 

lentiginosa, Bomolocha, 286 

Leopard-moth, The, 376 

lepidula, Jaspidia, 160 

Lepipolys, genus; perscripta, 177 

Leptarctia, genus; californiae, decia dimi- 
diata, lena, 121 

Leptina, genus, 162 

leptinoides, Schizura, 299 

Leptomeris, genus, gracilior, magnetaria, 
quinquelinearia, rubrolinearia, rubrolinea- 
ta, sentinaria, spuraria, 333 

lepusculina, Apatela, 154 

Lerina, genus; incarnata, robinsoni, in 

leucocycla, Anarta, 199 

leucographa, Hemerocampa, 308 

leucophaea, Olene, 308 

leucostigma, Hemerocampa, 308 

Leuculodes, genus; lacteolaria, 310 

Lexis, genus; argillacea, bicolor, 105 

libatrix, Scoliopteryx, 215 

libedis, Tarache, 251 

libera, Mamestra, 193 

libocedrus, Hyloicus, 51 

Libraries, Readers in, 98 

liburna, Scolecocampa, 244 

licastus. Homeroplanes, 60 

licentiosa, Eupolia, 199 

Lichen-moth; Allgehenian, 104; Banded, 109; 
Blue-green, Crimson-bodied, in; Druce's, 
no; Funereal, in; Little White, 108: 
Mouse-colored, 107; Narrow-banded, no; 
Powdered, 108; Subject, 109; Mexican, 
107; Painted, 106; Pale, Pearly-winged, 
104; Scarlet-winged, 106; Yellow-blotched, 
no 

ligata, Mamestra, 195 

ligni, Scolecocampa, 244 

lignicolor, lanassa, 298; Hadena, 169 

lignigera, lanassa, 298 

lilacina, Mamestra, 194 

lima, Phurys, 275 



463 



Index 



limata, Pantographa, 393 

limbata, Ania, 349 

limbolaris, Melipptis, 258 

limitata, Nyctobia, 324 

lineata, Celerio, 76; Diastema, 241; Schima. 

227 

lineatella, Anarsia, 426 
lineella, Catocala, 269 
lineola, Pheocyma, 278 
lineolata, Catabena, 163 
Lines, on wings of Noctuid moth, 18 
linnei, Pholus, 67 

lintnerana, Archips, 422; Nycteola, 288 
lintneri, Ommatostola, 211 
Liparidae, Family, 24, 34, 305 
liquida, Mamestra, 192 
Liquidambar, 85, 87 
liquoraria, Synchlpra, 336 
lirwdendraria, Epimecis, 344 
Liriodendron, 85 

Lithacodes, genus; diyergens, fasciola, 367 
Lithacodia, genus; bellicula, 248 
Litholomia, genus; dunbari, napaea, 207 
Lithomoia, genus; germana, 206 
Lithosiidas, Family, 24, 31, 103 
lithosina, Annaphila, 246 
lithosioides, Crambidia, 104 
lithospila, Apatela, 156 
Litocala, genus; sexsignata, 272 
Litodonta, genus, hydromeli, 296 
Litoprosopus, genus; futilis, 275 
littera, Fagitana, 217 
Little Wife, The, 267 
littoralis, Pachnobia, 180 
lituralis, Zanclognatha, 381 
liturata, Apantesis, 131 
Living and Dying, 354 
lixaria, Racheospila, 336 
Lobelia 155 
lobelias, Apatela, 155 
lobophorata, Nyctobia, 324 
loculata, Hadena, 168 

Lomanaltes, genus; eductalis, laetulus, 285 
longa. Halisidota, 138 
Longfellow, H. W., quoted, 121, 233 
longilabris, Philometra, 282 
longipenne, Copablepharon, 222 
longipes, Fenaria, 233; Podosesia, 382 
Lonicera, 62, 63 
"Loopers," 8 
Lophodonta, genus; angulosa, ferruginea, 

295 

lorata, Sabulodes, 353 
lorea, Mamestra, 195 
lorquini, Alypia, 143 
Lowell, Tames Russell, quoted, 116 
lubens, Mamestra, 194 
lubricalis, Epizeuxis, 280 
lubricans, Noctua, 185 
lucata, Euchreca, 329 
luccusalis, Samea, 393 
lucens, Dasyspoudaea, 228 
lucernalis, Glyphodes, 394 
luciana, Catocala, 263 
lucidata, Fagitana, 217 
lucidus, Arctonotus, 71 
lucifera, Pheocyma, 278 
lucipara, Euplexia, 172 
luctuata, Rheumaptera, 330 
luctuosus, Epistor, 61 
lugens, Hyloicus, 49, 50 
lugubns, Apantesis, 132; Epistor, 61; Thyns, 

lumenaria, Cosymbia, 333 

luna, Actias, 87; Nycterophasta, 221 



lunata, Homoptera, 278 
lunilinea, Strenoloma, 276 



lupini, Merolonche, 159; Synanthedon, 385 

Lupinus, 64, 124 

luscitiosa, Hyloicus, 52 

Lussa, genus; nigroguttata, 175 

lustralis, Mamestra, 192 

lustrans, Synanthedon, 385 

lutaria, Ennomos, 348 

lutea, Diallagma, 245 

luteicoma, Apatela, 157 

lutulenta, Euxoa, 189 

luxa, Bessula, 221 

Lycia, genus; cognataria, sperataria, 345 

Lycomorpha, genus; grotei, palmeri, pholus. 

101 

lycopersici, Protoparce, 45 
Lyman. H. H., 32, 118 
Lymire, genus; edwardsi, 100 
1 yncea, Pachylia, 60 
lynx, Schinia, 227 



Macaria, genus, 339; consepta, 340; eremiata, 
339; glomeraria, 340; gradata, hypaethrata, 
339". prasatomata, 340; retectata, retentata, 
s-signata, subcinctaria, 339 

mac-cullochi, Alypia, 143 

macglashani, Hepialus, 444 

Mackay, C. W., quoted, 272 

macmurtrei, Prionoxystus, 378 

macra, Laphygma, 174 

macrinellus, Scirpophaga, 402 

macrocarpana, Commophila, 423 

Macronoctua, genus; onusta, 170 

mactata, Hadena, 167 

macularia, Sicya, 347 

maculata, Halisidota, 137; Thyris, 374 

maculicollis, Opharus, 139 

madariae, Synanthedon, 385 

madefactalis, Bomolocha, 286 

madetesalis, Pyrausta, 398 

madusaria, Euchlaena, 350 

Ma?nas, genus: vestalis, 127 

maestosa, Catocala, 261 

magdalena, Catocala, 267; Nycterophajta, 

221 

magicalis, Conchylodes, 393 

magnarius, Ennomos, 348 

magnetaria, Leptomeris, 333 

magniferalis, Pyrausta, 397 

magnifica, Cossula, 379: Grasperia, 225 

Magusa, genus; angustipennis, dissidens, 
divaricata, divida, 175 

maia, Hemileuca, 91 

maizi, Euxoa, 189 

majoraria, Caberodes, 352 

majuscula, Cydosia, 253 

Malacosoma, genus; americana, 312: cali- 
fornica, 313; decipiens, 312; disstria, 
drupacearum, erosa, 313; frutetorum, 312, 
perversa, pseudp-neustria, sylvaticoides, 
thoracica, thoracicoides, 313 

malana, Balsa, 163 

Malaporphyria, genus; oregona, 229 

malefida, Feltia, 187 

malivorana, Alceris, 421 

Mamestra, genus, 191; acutipennis, 195 
adjuncta, 194; albifusa, 193; Allied 
anguina, 195; Brown-winged, 196; cheno 
podii, 193; claviplena, Cloudy, 192 
Clover, congermana, 193; constipata, 195 
contraria, Cousin-German, 193; Darling 
demissa, 194; desperata, 193; detracta 
192; dimmocki, Dimmock's, 193, Dispar 
aged, 192; dodgei, 195; Empurpled, 192 
Erect, erecta, 195; exusta, 193; farnhami 
Farnham's, 192; Fluid, 194; Fused-spot 



464 



Index 



Mamestra Continued 

192; glaucovaria, Grand, grandis, Har- 
nessed, 193; herbimacula, 195; Hitched, 
illabefacta, 194; imbrifera, 192; indicans, 
infecta, innexa, 195; juncimacula, 192, 
latex, 194; Laudable, laudabilis, 195; 
libera, 191; ligata, 195; Hlacina, Lilacine; 
194; Liquid, Hquida, 192; lorea, 195; 
lubens, 194; Lustral, lustralis, meditata, 
192; Modern, negussa, neoterica, 196; 
nevadae, Neyadan, 193; olivacea, Olivace- 
ous, 195; Painted, picta, 193; purpunssata, 
192; radix, 193: renigera, 195; rosea, 
Rosy, 193; rugosa, Rugose, 194; Snaky, 
strigicollis, 195; Studied, 192; subjuncta, 
193; suffusa, 192; teligera, 195; trifolii, 193; 
vicina, 195 

mammurraria, Paraphia, 343 

manalis, Bomolocha, 286 

Mandibles of larvae, 7 

Manetta, 75 

manifestolabes, Semiophora, 180 

manteo, Heterocampa, 297 

manto, Olene, 308 

"Manual for the Study of Insects," by 
Comstock, 17 

Maple-borer, The, 386 

Maple-trees, 95 

Marasmalus, genus; histrio, inficita, venti- 
lator, 242 

Marble-wing, The, 332 

Margin of wings, 18 

marginalis, Glyphodes, 394 

marginalis, Haemorrhagia, 63 

marginata, Bembecia, 383; Schinia, 228 

marginatus, Prodoxus, 439 

marginidens, Papaipema, 214 

marina, Misogada, 297 

mariposa, Alypia, 143, 145 

Marlatt, C. L., 426 

Marmopteryx, genus; marmorata, 332 

marmorata, Catocala, 263; Marmopteryx, 

marshallana, Hadena, 169 

Marumba, genus, 56 

Marvel, The Cloaked, 161; The Green, 160 

masoni, Rhododipsa, 225 

materna, Ophideres, 276 

Matigramma genus; pulverilinea, 276 

Matthew, quoted, 430 

matthewi, Scepsis, 101 

matuta, Alypia, 144 

matutina, Rhodophora, 224 

meadi, Dasyspoudaea, 228 

Meal Snout-moth, The, 400 

"Measuring -worms," 8 

Mecoceras, genus; nitocraria, nitocris, penin- 

sularia, 354 

Mecoceratinae, Subfamily, 354 
Median, shade, 18 
medita, Mamestra, 192 
medor, Cocytius, 44 
Megalopyge, genus; lanuginosa, opercularis, 

subcitrina, 369 
Megalopygidae, 8, 25, 35, 368 
Melalopha, genus; albosigma, americana, 

apicalis, incarcerata, inclusa, indentata, 

ornata, strigosa, vau, 293 
melancholica, Erinnyis, 59 
Melanchroia, genus; cephise, 354; geome- 

troides, mors, 355 
Melanchroiinae, Subfamily, 354 
Melanolophia, genus; canadaria, contribuaria, 

imperfectaria, signataria, 344 
Melanomma, genus; auricinctaria, 255 
melanopa, Ni ' ' 



Melicleptria, genus; californicus, languida, 

pulchripennis, sueta, 230 
Melipotis, genus; agrotipennis, cinis, fascio- 

laris, grandirena, hadeniformis, jucunda, 

limbolaris, pallescens, perlaeta, sinualis 

258 

Melitara, genus; fernaldialis, 410 
melitta, Cosmosoma, 98 
Melittia, genus; amoena, ceto, cucurbitae, 

380; grandis, 381; satyriniformis, 380; 

snowi, 381 
Mellilla, genus; inextricata, snoviaria, xan- 

thometata, 338 

mellistrigata, Sciagraphia, 339 
mellitularia, Pherne, 351 
mellonella, Galleria, 406 
melsheimeri, Cicinnus, 359 
Memythrus, genus, 382; admirandus, 383; 

polistiformis, 382; simulans, 383; tricinctus, 

382 

menas, Heterocampa, 297 
mendica, Eudule, 327 
mendocino, Saturnia, 89 
Mentha, 49 

menthastrina, Estigmene, 123 
meralis, Caradrina, 164 
merdella, Tinea, 433 
merianae, Erinnyis, 58, 59 
Merolonche, genus; lupini, 159 
merricata, Paleacrita, 324 
merricella, Semioscopis, 429 
Merrick, F. A., ix, 118 
Merrick, H. S., ix 
Meskea, genus; dyspteraria, 375 
meskei, Catocala, 264; Platysenta, 163 
Mesoleuca, genus; brunneiciliata, flammifera, 

gratulata, hersiliata, intermediata, lacus- 

trata, ruficillata, 330 . 
messalina, Andrewsia, 272 
messoria, Euxoa, 188 
mestusata, Gonodontis, 350 
Metalepsis, genus; cornuta, 181 
metallica, Tarache, 251 
Metamorphoses, 4 
Metanema, genus; aeliaria, carnaria, deter- 

minata, inatomaria, quercivoraria trili- 

nearia, 351 

metanemaria, Alcis, 343 
Metaponia, genus; obtusa, obtusula, per- 

flava, 250 

metathetis, Haemorrhagia, 63 
Metathorasa, genus; monetifera, 252 
metonalis, Philometra, 282 
Metrocampa, genus; perlaria, perlata, prae- 

grandaria, viridoperlata, 348 
mexicana, Apantesis, 131; Cirrhobolina, 259; 

Citheronia, 97; Estigmene, 123; Haema- 

tomis, 107 

michabo, Apantesis, 130 
Microcoelia, genus, 156, 160; diphtheroides, 

Marbled, obliterata, 160 
Microgaster, 69 

Micropterygidae, Family, 26, 444 
Mjcropteryx, genus, 444 
Micropyle, 5 
Midget, Brown-spotted, 166; Festive, 165; 

Grateful, 166 
Mikania scandens, 99 



militaris, Haploa, 118 
mima, Campometra, 274 



elanopa, Nigetia, '358 
elanopyga, Bellura, 211 



nporne 

minea, Apantesis, 130 
Mineola, genus, 408; indigenella, 409; jug- 

landis, 408; nebulo, zelatella, 409 
miniana, Rhododipsa, 225 
minians, Nephelodes, 199 
miniata, Hypoprepia, 106 
minima, Hypocrisias, 136; Pseudomya, 99 



465 



Index 



minimalis, Rhychagrotis, 178, 179; Zan- 
clognatha, 281 

ministra, Datana, 293 

minorata, Fota, 178; Heliophila, 201 

minuscula, Hadenella, 163; Roeselia, 358 

minuta, Alceris, 421; Catocala, 269 

minutata, Tephroclystis, 328 

mirificum, Hyblaea, 288 

miscellus, Catabena, 163 

miseloides, Hadena, 167 

Misnamed Gall-moth, The, 418 

Misogada, genus; cinerea, marina, sobria, 
unicolor, 297 

mitis, Heliophana, 230 

modesta, Pachysphinx, S7; Synanthedon, 
387; Ulolonche, 198 

modestaria, Cymatophora, 341 

modica, Hadena, 167 

modicella, Heliolonche, 230 

modifica, Graphiphora, 204 

moffatiana, Scopelosoma, 218 

mollifera, Epizeuxis, 280 

mollis, Heterocampa, 297 

mollissima, Euherrichia, 253 

molochina, Hadena, 168 

Molts, larval, 8 

Momophana, genus; comstocki, 172 

monacha, Psilura, 309 

Monarda, 49 

moneta, Polychrysia, 236 

rnonetifera, Metathorasa, 232 

monilis, Hypsoropha, 256 

monitor, Euclea, 365 

monodon, Autographa, 238 

Monoleuca, genus; semifascia, 365 

monotropa, Selenis, 277 

mopsa, Catocala, 265 

monstralis, Agathodes, 393 

montana, Albuna, 384; Dysodia, 375 

montanatum, Eustroma, 329 

Montgomery, James, quoted, 302 

Moore, Thomas, quoted, 304 

morbidalis, Chytolita, 282 

morbosa, Cissusa, 256 

mori, Bombyx, 315 

mormonica, Apantesis, 131 

Morrenia, 58 

Morris, Rev. J. G., 28 

Morrisonia, genus, 196; confusa, 197; evicta, 
196; infructuosa, multifaria, 197; sectilis, 
vomerina, 196 

morrisonata, Azelina, 352 

morrisoni, Gnophaela, 290 

morrisoniana, Feltia, 186 

mors, Melanchroia, 355 

mortua, Schinia, 228 

mortuorum, Autographa, 239 

mcrula, Apatela, 155 

Moths; Achaia, 130; Acorn, 429; Acraea, 123; 
Alinda, 90; Anna, 130; Arge, 130; Astur, 
139; Carpet, 434; Chain-streak, 347; 
Clio, 133; Clymena, 118; Colona, 118; 
Cora, 161; Cosyra, 142; Cotton-worm, 243; 
Diverse-line, 329; Dried-currant, 414; 
Echo, 122; Fall Web-worm, 123; Flour, 
412; Fur, 433; Galbina, 86; Glover's 
Purslane-, 141; Granite, 339; Gypsy, 308; 
Harrow, 176; Hera, 93; Herbarium, 334; 
Honey-locust, 96; Imperial, 97; Indian- 
meal, 415; To, 89; Juno, 92; Leopard, 376; 
Linden, 347; Luna, 87; Magnet, 333; 
Magpie, 93; Michabo, 130; Milk-weed, 
135; Oithona, 129; Pandora, 91 ; Parthenice, 
129; Persephone, 130; Plum, 329; Poly- 
phemus, 87; Potato, 425; Privet, 394; 
Mexican Walnut-, 97; Pine-devil, 97; 
Rosy Maple-, 95; Royal Walnut-, 97; 



Moths Continued 

Sand-dune, 143; Scallop-shell, 329; Six- 

lume, 417; Skiff, 367; Solidago Gall-, 425; 
potless Fall Web-worm, 124; Stigma, 94; 
Sugar-beet, 395; Sun-flower, 339; Yucca, 

Moth-Song, 310 

Muir, John, 249 

muiri, Gyros, 249 

muliercula, Catocala, 267 

multifaria, Ctenucha, 102; Morrisonia, 197 

multifera, Caradrina, 164 

multilinea, Heliophila, 202 

multilineata, Pigea, 333 

multipuncteila, Yponomeuta, 423 

multiscripta, Cerura, 299 

mundula, Drasteria, 257 

murasnula, Porosagrotis, 187 

muralis, Psaphidia, 177 

muricina, Stretchia, 205 

muricolor, Calidota, 139 

murina, Comacla, 107; Euchaetias, 135 

muscosula, Eustrotia, 247 

musta, Eustrotia, 247 

mustelina, Schizura, 299 

muzaria, Euchlaena, 350 

muzina, Ecpantheria, 120 

myandaria, Caberodes, 352 

Myginda ilicifolia, 99 

mynesalis, Tetanolita, 284 

myops, Calasymbolus, 56 

Myosotis, 134 

myron, Darapsa, 68 

N 

Nacophora, genus; quernaria, 345 

Nadata, genus; gibbosa, 296 

nais, Apantesis, 132 

nana, Euclea, 365 

nanina, Euclea, 365 

Nannia, genus; harveiata, refusata, 327 

napsea, Litholomia, 207 

narrata, Drasteria, 257 

Narthecophora, genus; pulverea, 235 

nasoni, Natada, 366 

Nasu-no Take, 301 

nasutaria, Phiprosopus, 245 

Natada, genus; daona, nasoni, rude, 366 

natatrix, Isogona, 256 

nebraskse, Catocala, 263; Euhagena, 381 

nebulo, Mineola, 409 

nebulosa, Catocala, 266 

nebulosus, Adoneta, 365 

necopina, Papaipema, 214 

neglecta, Synanthedon, 385 

negussa, Mamestra, 196 

Neighbor, The, 119 

Neleucania, genus; bicolorata 203 

Nelphe Carolina, 100 

Neocastniidas, 3 

neogama, Catocala, 149, 266 

neonaria, Hyperitis, 349 

neoninaria, Hyperitis, 349 

Nephelodes, genus; expansa, minians, sobria, 

subdolens, violans, 199 
Nepytia, genus; nigrovenaria, pellucidaria, 

pinaria, pulchraria, semiclusaria, 343 
nerea, Apantesis, 130 
Nerice, genus; bidentata, 296 
Nerium odorum, 99 
nesaea, Omia, 230 
nessus, Amphion, 72 
Neumcegen, B., 31, 33, 34, 35 
neumoegem, Hermleuca, 91; Xanthothrix 231 
Neumcegenia, genus; poetica, 235 
Neuronia, genus; americana, 196 



466 



Index 



nevadse, Mamestra, 193: Thyris, 374 

nevadensis, Apantesis, 131; Hemileuca, 92 

nerissa, Catocala, 269 

nexa, Illice, 109, no 

nicotianae, Protoparce, 45 

Nigetia, genus; formosalis, melanopa, 358 

Night air, 80 

nigra, Kodiosoma, 133; Peridroma, 182 

nigricans, Phobetron, 366 

nigriceps, Noctua, 184 

nigrior, Hadena, 169 

nigripennis, Euxoa, 189 

nigrirena, Schinia, 227 

nigritula, Eustrotia, 247 

nigrofasciata, Celama, 357 

nigrofimbria, Xanthoptera, 248 

nigroflava, Ectypia, 133 

nigroguttata, Lussa, 175 

nigrolunata, Anarta, 198 

nigrpvenaria, Nepytia, 343 

nimia, Orthodes, 203 

niobe, Seirarctia, 122 

nitela, Papaipema, 213 

nitens, Orthodes, 203 

nitida, Schizura, 298 

nitidalis, Glyphodes, 394 

nitocraria, Mecoceras, 354 

nitocris, . .ecoceras, 354 

nivaria, Anarta, 199 

nivea, Eupseudosoma, 139 

niveicilialis, Pyrausta, 398 

niveicostatus, Fagitana, 217 

niveosericeata, Ennomos, 348 

nivosaria, Eugonobapta, 348 

nivosata, Eugonobapta, 348 

nobilis, Schinia, 288; Tosale, 402 

noctivaga, Apatela, 157 

Noctua, genus, 183; associans, 185; atricincta, 
184; beata, 185; bicarnea, 183; calgary, 
clandestina, collaris, 184; c-nigrum, fen- 
nica, 183; grandis, haruspica, havilse, 184; 
hilliana, 183; illapsa, 185; intractata, 
jucunda, 183; juncta, 184; lubricans, 185; 
nigriceps, 184; normanniana, oblata, ob- 
tusa, 183; patefacta, 184; perconflua, 
plagiata, 183; plecta, substrigata, uni- 
color, vicaria, 184 

Noctuelia, genus; costasmaculalis, gelidalis, 
novalis, peruyiana, thalialis, 399 

Noctuidae, Family, 7, 24, 32, 151 

noctuiformis, Aon, 234; Tuerta, 143 

Nola, genus; ovilla, 357 

Nolidae, Family, 24, 34, 357 

Nonagria, genus; Large, oblonga, permagna, 
subflava, Yellowish, 211 

nondescriptus, Phobetron, 366 

notata, Philobia, 339; Tephroclystis, 328 

notataria, Eufidonia, 337 

notatella, Nycterophasta, 221 

Notch-wing, The, 348 

Notodonta, genus, 294; basitriens, simplaria, 

Notodontidae, Family, 25, 33, 292 

Notolophus, genus; antiqua, nova, 306 

norax, Cossula, 379 

normani, Crocigrapha, 204 

normanniana, Noctua, 183 

Noropsis, genus; hieroglyphica, 233 

nova, Notolophus, 306 

novalis, Noctuelia, 399 

nubecularia, Paraphia, 343 

nubihfascia, Hormisa, 282 

nubilis, Euparthenos, 272 

nuchalis, Heliothis, 224 

nundina, Schinia, 227 

nupera, Calocampa, 208 

Nurse, The, 263 



nurus, Catocala, 263 

nuttalli, Pseudohazis, 93 

Nycteola. genus; lintnerana revayana, 288 

Nycteolidae, Family, 24, 33, 288 

Nycterophseta, genus; luna magdalena, 

notatella, 221 
Nyctobia, genus; limitata, lobophorata, 

vernata, 324 

Nymphula, genus; obscuralis, 399 
Nymphulinas, Subfamily, 399 
Nyssa sylvatica t 161 
nyssaria, Hyperitis, 349 



obaurata, Celama, 357 

obeliscoides, Euxoa, 190 

oberthuralis, Phlyctasnodes, 396 

obesalis, Plathypena, 287 

obfirmaria, Gonodontis, 350 

oblata, Noctua, 183 

oblinita, Apatela, 157 

obliqua, Fagitana, 217; Heterocampa, 297, 

Sphida, 211 
obliquata, Heliophana, 230; Pleroma 206; 

Sphida, 211 

obliquella, Galleria, 406 
obliquifera, Balsa, 163 
obliquilinea, Cargida, 300 
obliterata, Microcnelia, 160 
obliviosa, Hadena, 168; Hemerocampa, 305 
oblqnga, Nonagria, 211 
obnigralis, Pyrausta, 398 
obrussata, Phrygionis, 354 
obscura, Apatela, 153; Catocala, 262; Erin- 

nyis, 59; Holomelina, 115; Pseudosphinx, 

obscuralis, Nymphula, 399 

obscurus, Anytus, 191 

obtusa, Noctua, 183; Metaponia, 250 

obtusaria, Euchlsena, 350 

obtusula, Metaponia, 250 

obvia, Eucoptocnemis, 190 

occata, Oncocnemis, 176 

occidens, Hadena, 169 

occidentalis, Emilia, 137; Apatela, 155; 

Pachysphinx, 5 7 
occidentata, Barathra, 196 
occidentis, Epicnaptera, 314 
occulta, Peridroma, 182; Protoparce, 45 
ocellata, Sphinx, 54 
Ocelli, 12 

ocellinata, Sciagraphia, 339 
ochosalis, Pyrausta, 398 

ochracea, Apantesis, 130; Platyprepia, 128 
ochraceus, Axenus, 231 
Ochria, genus; sauzaelitas, 214 
ochreipennis, Zanclognatha, 281 
ochrogaster, Euxoa, 1 90 
octo, Amyna, 242 
octomaculata, Alypia, 143, 144; Pyrausta, 

398 

oculatana, Dysodia, 374 
oculatrix, Paectes, 241 
oculea, Telea, 87 
Ode to an Insect, 291 
Odontosia, genus; elegans, 294 
odora, Erebus, 279 
odyneripennis, Bembecia, 383 
CEcophoridas, Family, 26, 428 
CEhlenschlaeger, quoted, 303 
osmearia, Syssaura, 352 
ceneiformis, Ccenocalpe, 332 
cenotrus, Erinnyis, 59 

Ogdoconta, genus; atomaria, cinereola, 241 
Oiketicus, genus; abboti, 361 
oithona, Apantesis, 129 



467 



Index 



Olene, genus; achatina, atrivenosa, basi- 
flava, cinnamomea, leucophaea, man to, 
parallela, tephra, 398 

Ohgia, genus; festivoides, 165; fuscimacula 
grata, rasilis, 166; varia, 165 

olinalis, Herculia, 401 

olivacea, Mamestra, 195 

olivalis, Euxoa, 188 

olivatus, Heterocampa, 297 

olivia, Catocala, 269 

olympia, Composia, 289 

olyzonaria, Syssaura, 352 

omega, Autographa, 238 

Omia, genus; nesaea, 230 

omicron, Autographa, 238 

Ommatostola, genus; lintneri, 211 

omphale, Cosmospma, 98 

onagrus, Spragueia, 252 

Oncocnemis, genus; atrifasciata, Black- 
banded, chandler!, Chandler's, cibalis, 
dayi, Day's, Gray, tricolor, Iris-colored, 
Narrow-banded, qccata, tenuifascia, 176 

ontariella, Depressaria, 428 

onusta, Macronoctua, 170 

oo, Autographa, 238 

opacalis, Hypenula, 283 

opacifrons, Semiophora, 180 

opella, Holomelina, 115 

opercularis, Megalopyge, 369 

operculella, Phthorimaea, 424, 425 

Opharus, genus; albicans, astur, maculicollis, 
pustulata, 139 

Ophideres, genus; calaminea, hybrida, ma- 
terna, 276 

ophthalmica, Baileya, 162; Sphinx, ss 

opipara, Tripudia, 250 

opina, Valeria, 172 

oponearia, Euchlaena, 350 

oporaria, Eucrostis, 336 

opuscularia, Pterospoda, 343 

orbica, Amyna, 242 

Orbicular spot, 18 

orbimaculella, Yponomeuta, 423 

orciferalis, Sysyrhypena, 282 

ordinaria, Hadena, 169 

ordinatellus, Yponomeuta, 423 

oregona, Melaporphyria, 229 

oregonensis, Euchastias, 135 

oreodaphne, Hyloicus, 50 

Oreta, genus; americana, formula, irrorata, 
rosea, 321 

orgyiae, Prothymia, 248 

orilliana, Pachnobia, 180 

orina, Calymnia, 219 

orizaba, Rothschildia, 82 

ornata, Acherdoa, 234; Apantesis, 130; 
Melalopha, 293 

ornatrix, Utetheisa, 117 

Orneodes, genus; hexadactyla, 417 

Orneodidae, Family, 25,' 417 

ornithogalli, Prodenia, 174 

orobia, Graphiphora, 204 

orosusalis, Pyrausta, 397 

orphisalis, Pyrausta, 397 

Orrhodia, genus, calif ornica, 218 

Orthodes, genus; candens, crenulata, cynica, 
enervis, griseocincta, nirr.ia, nitens, pro- 
deuns, 203; pueriiis, 204; tecta, togata, 
vecors, velata, 203 

Orthofidonia, genus; junctaria, semiclarata, 
vestaliata, viatica, 337 

Orthosia, genus; bicolorago, helva, 217 

orthosioides, Phoberia, 273 

Ortmann, A. E., 377 

ortonii, Peridroma, 182 

osculata, Catocala, 265 

ossularia, Eois, 335 



ostenta, Holomelina, 115 

otiosa, Apantesis, 131 

ou, Autographa, 238 

ovalis, Abrostola, 240 

ovjduca, Graphiphora, 204 

ovilla, Nola, 357 

oviplagalis, Tosale, 402 

Oviposition, Time of, 5 

ovulalis, Conchylodes, 393 

Owls, 78 

oxybaphi, Celerio, 76 

Oxycnemis, genus; fusimacula, 221 

Oxydia, genus; vesulia, 352 

oxygramma, Autographa, 239 

oxymorus, Admetovis, 196 

Sxyptilus, genus; periscelidactylus, 416 
zonadia, genus, 108 



Pachnobia, genus; claviformis, ferruginoides, 

littoralis, orilliana, pectinata, Reddish, 

salicarum, Willow, 180 
Pachylia, genus, 60; aterrima, crameri, ficus, 

lyncea, undatifascia, venezuelehsis, 60 
Pachysphinx, genus, 56; imperator, modesta, 

occidentalis, princeps, 57 
pacificaria, Eois, 336 
Packard, A. S., p. 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 145 
packardi, Estigmene, 123; Hippia 296; 

Mice, 109; Scepsis, 101; Schinia, 228 
Packardia, genus; elegans, 367; geminata, 

368; nigripunctata, 367 
Paectes, genus; abrostoloides oculatrix, 



pygmasa, 241 
paenulata, Euclea, 



365 



pagenstecheri, Hormoschista, 253 

Palada, genus; scarletina, 229 

palaeogama, Catocala, 266 

paleacea, Cosmia, 217 

Paleacrita, genus; autumnata, merricata, 

sericeiferata, vernata, 324 
Paleontology, 22 
Palindia, genus; dominicata, 273 
pallens, Cressonia, S7 
pallescens, Melipotis, 258 
pallialis, Bomolocha, 286 
palliatricula, Chytonix, 161 
pallida, Crambidia, 104; Cyathissa, 161; 

Erinnyis, 59; Hyphantria, 124 
pallidior, Palpidia, 105 
pallidulus. Sphinx, 55 
palmeri, Lycomorpha, 101 
Palmer-worms, 114 
Palmia, genus; praecedens, 383 
palpalis, Haemorrhagia, 64; Plathypena, 287 
Palpi, 7, 12 

Palpidia, genus; pallidior, 105 
Palthis, genus; angulalis, asopialis, aracin- 

thusalis, 285 

Palyadinae, subfamily, 354 
Palyas, genus; auriferaria, 354 
pamina, Automeris, 89 
pampjna, Eucirrosdia, 215 
pampinaria, Cleora, 344 
pampinatrix, Darapsa, 68 
Panapoda, genus; carneicosta, combinata, 

cressoni, rubricosta, rufimargo, scissa 273 
Panchrysia, genus; purpurigera, 236 
pandana, Caberodes, 352 
pandora, Coloradia, 91 
pandorus, Pholus, 65 
Pangjapta, genus; decoralis, elegantalis, 

epionoides, geometroides, recusans, 254 
panisaria, Therina, 348 
Panthea, genus; Eastern, furcilla, portlandia, 

Western, 152 



468 



Index 



Pantographa, genus; limata, suffusalis, 393 

Panula, genus; inconstans, 258 

Paota, genus; fultaria, 332 

Papaipema. genus, 213; cataphracta, cerus- 
sata, furcata, 214; inquassita, 2 1 3 ; margini- 
dens necopina, nitela, 213, 214; purpu- 
rifascia, 213 

Pawpaw, The, 46 

paphia, Telea, 87 

paradoxica, Prodoxus, 438 

paradoxus, Heliochilus, 222 

Paragrotis, genus, 188 

parallela, Archips, 422; Olene, 308 

Parallelia, genus; amplissima, bistriaris, 273 

parallelia, Pherne, 351 

paralleliaria, Pherne, 351 

Paranthrene, genus; heucherae, 387 

Paraphia, genus; exsuperata, impropriata, 
mammurraria, nubecularia, subatomaria, 
triplipunctaria, unipuncta, unipunctata, 

Parasemia, genus; geometrica, plantaginis, 

Parasitized larva, 69 

Parastichtis, genus; discivaria, gentilis, 217 

parce, Hemeroplanes, 60 

parentalis, Richia, 190 

Pareuchaetes, genus; eglenensis, Gray-winged, 
insulata, 134; tenera, 134, 135; Yellow- 
winged, 134 

Parharmonia, genus; pini, 384 

Parora, genus; texana, 255 

parta, Catocala, 264 

parthenice, Apantesis, 1 29 

parthenos, Hyphoraia, 128 

partita, Galgula, 247 

passer, Hadena, 168 

pastillicans, Epiglaea, 219 

pastinacella. Depressaria, 428 

pasulella, Ephestia, 414 

Patagium, p. 18 

patalis, Xylomiges, 197 

patefacta, Noctua, 184 

patella, Clemensia, 108 

patibilis, Drasteria, 257 

patruelis, Eumestleta, 249 

patula, Eumestleta, 249; Porosagrotis, 187 

paulina, Catocala, 261 

pavitensis, Cirrhobolina, 259 

pavonina, Calasymbolus, 56 

Parsnip Web-worm, The, 428 

Peach-borer, The, 384 

Peach-twig Borer, The, 426 

pectinaria, Euchlaena, 350 

pectinata, Pachnobia, t8o 

pelasgus, Hasmorrhagia, 62 

pellionella, Tinea, 433 

pellucida, Anisota, 95 

pellucidaria, Nepytia, 343 

penasus, Erinnyis, 59 

pendulinaria, Cosymbia, 333 

peninsularia Mecoceras, 354 

Penitent, The, 266 

pennsylvanica, Euthyatira, 304 

pepita, Basilodes 234 

peplaria, Azelina, 352 

pepsidiformis, Sanninoidea, 384 

perangulalis, Bomolocha, 286 

perarcuata, Cymatophora, 341 

perattenta, Eueretagrotis, 179 

percara, Cyathissa, 161 

Percnoptilota, genus; fluviata, 330 

perconflua, Noctua, 183 

perditalis, Hyamia, 254 

perelegans, Hyloicus, 51 

perflava, Metaponia, 230 

pergentilis, Hadenella, 162 



Pericopidae, Family, *4, 33, 289 

periculosa Trigonophora, 215 

Peridroma, genus, 182; alabamae, 183, 

astricta, 182; incivis, 183; inermis, nigra, 

occulta, ortonii, saucia, 182; simplaria, 

183 

Pengea, genus; vecors, xanthioides, 165 
Perigonica, genus; fulminans, 205 
Perigrapha, genus; prima, 205 
Periodicals containing information as to 

moths, 28 

periscelidactylus, Oxyptilus, 416 
perlaria, Metrocampa, 348 
perlata, Metrocampa, 348; Remigia, 274 
perlaeta, Melipotis, 258 
perlevis, Euchaetias, 135 
perlineata, Venusia, 328 
perlubens, Xylomiges, 197 
perlucidula, Pyromorpha. 371 
permaculata, Turuptiana, 121 
permagna, Nonagna, 2 1 1 
perophoroides, Hyparpax, 299 
perplexa, Synanthedon, 385 
perpolita, Euxoa, 188 
perpura, Anarta, 199 
perscripta, Lepipolys, 177 
persephone, Apantesis, 130 
persica, Sanninoidea, 384 
Persimmon, 87, 382 
personata, Euxoa, 188; Raphia, 153 
perspicua, Datana, 294; Thyris, 374 
perstrialis, Scirpophaga, 402 
pertextalis. Pyrausta, 397 
peruviana, Noctuelia, 399 
perversa, Malacosoma, 313 
pettitana, Cenopis, 422 
petulca, Xylina, 206 
pexata, Xylina, 207 
phaealis, Epizeuxis. 280 
phaeton, Euproserpinus, 74 
Phalaenostola, genus; larentioides, 254 
phalanga. Catocala. 266 
phalaris Erinnyis, 59 
phalerata, Apantesis, 132 
phasianaria. Caberodes. 352 
phasma, Euerythra, 120 
Pheocyma, genus; lineola, lucifera, 278 
Pheosia, genus; californica, descherei, dimi- 

diata, portlandia, rimosa, 295 
Pherne, genus; jubararia, mellitularia, paral- 
lelia, paralleliaria, placearia, 351 
Phigalia, genus; revocata, strigataria, titea, 

titearia, 347 
Philagraula, genus, 356 
Philedia, genus; punctomacularia, 343 
Philereme, genus; californiata, 329 
Philobia, genus; aemulataria, enotata, notata, 

sectomaculata, 339 
philodina, Clemensia, 108 
Philometra, genus; goasalis, longilabris, 

metonalis, 282 
Philosamia, genus, 82; aurotus, canningi, 

82; cynthia, 81, 82; insularis, pryeri, vesta, 

walkeri, 82 
Phiprosopus, genus; acutalis, callitrichoides, 

nasutaria, 245 
Phlyctsenia, genus; plectilis, syringicola, 

tertialis, 397 
Phlyctsenodes genus; fuscalis, 39S; oberthur- 

alis, 396; sordida, sticticalis, tetragonalis, 

triumphalis, 395 
Phoberia, genus; atomaria, forrigens, in- 

genua, orthosioides, 273 
Phobetron, genus; abbotana, hyalinus, nigri- 

cans, nondescriptus, pithecium, tetradac- 

tylus, 366 



469 



Index 



Pholus, genus, 65; achemon, 66; ampelo- 
phaga, 65, clotho, 67; crantor, 66, fascia- 
tus, hornbeckiana, jussieuae, labruscae, 
linnei, 67; pandorus. 65; posticatus, 66; 
satellitia, 65; strigilis, 67; typhon, 65; 
vitis, 67 

pholus, Darapsa, 68; Lycomorpha, 101 

phrada, Ptychoglene, no 

Phragmatobia, genus; beani, brucei. fuligi- 
nosa, 126; remissa, 127; rubricosa, 126; 
yarrowi, 127 

Phryganidia, genus; californica, 291 

Phrygionis, genus; argenteostriata, cerussata, 
obrussata, 354 

Phthorimaea, genus, 425; operculella, 424, 
425; solanella, tabacella, terrella, 425 

Phurys, genus; lima, vinculum, 275 

Phycitinae, Subfamily, 407 

Physpstegania, genus; pustularia, 338 

piatrix, Catocala., 266 

pica, Pseudohazis, 93 

Pickle-worm, The, 394 

picta, Arachnis, 124; Erinnyis, 59; Mamestra, 



pictipes, Synanthedon, 386 

Piers Plowman, quoted, 288 

Pigea, genus; multilineata, 333 

pinaria, Nepytia, 343 

pinastri, Hyloicus, 52 

Pinconia, genus; coa, 369 

pineum, Lapara, 53 

pini, Parharmonia, 384 

piniaria, Caripeta, 342 

Pinion; Ashen, 206; Bailey's, Broad Ashen, 

Dowdy, 207; Green Gray, 206; Nameless, 

Nappy, Thaxter's, 207; Wanton, 206; 

Warm Gray, 207 
pinorum, Vespamima, 384 
piperis, Erinnyis, 59 
Pippona, genus; bimatris, 221 
pithecium, Phobetron, 366 
pityochromus, Plagiomimicus, 235 
pityochrous, Euxoa, 1 88 
placearia, Pherne, 351 
placida, Rhynchagrotis, 178 
plagiata, Laphygma, 174; Noctua, 183 
Plagiomimicus, genus; pityochromus, 235 
Plagodis, genus; arrogaria, emargataria, 

floscularia, keutzingaria, keutzingi, seri- 

naria, subprivata, 349 
plantaginis, Parasemia, 134 
Plantago, 120, 125, 134 
Platagrotis, genus; pressa, 179 
Platanus, 87, 367 
Platea, genus; californiaria, 342; dulcearia, 

trilinearia, 343; uncanaria 342 
Plathypena, genus; crassatus, erectalis, 

obesalis, palpalis, scabra, 287 
platinalis, Conchylodes, 393 
Platynota, genus; concursana, flavedana, 

labiosana, laterana, 422 
Platyperigea, genus; discistriga, praeacuta, 

164 
Platyprepia, genus; guttata, ochracea, vir- 

ginalis, 128 

Platypterygidae, Family, 24, 34, 320 
Platysenta, genus; albipuncta, atriciliata, 

indigens, meskei, videns, 163 
plebeja, Atreides, 49 
pleciasformis, Bembecia, 383 
plecta, Noctua, 184 
plectilis. Phlyctasnia, 397 
plena, Dysodia, 375 
pleonectusa, Ipimorpha, 220 
Pleonectyptera, genus; floccalis, irrecta, 

pyralis, 246 



polyg 
Polyg 



Pleroma, genus; obliquata, 206 

plicatus, Ufeus, 191 

Plodia, genus; interpunctella, zeae, 415 

plota, Hyloicus, 51 

plumbea, Hypoprepia, 106; Illice, 109 

plumbifimbriata, Spragueia, 252 

Plume, The Grape-vine, 416 

Plumeria, 58 

plumeriae, Pseudosphinx, 57 

plumifrontellus, Acrolophus, 443 

plumigeraria, Coniodes, 345 

Plusia, genus, 8, 237; aerea, aeroides, balluca, 

237 
Plusiodonta, genus; compressipalpis, in- 

signis, 235 

pluto, Xylophanes, 75 
Poaphila, genus; quadrifilaris, 274 
Podagra, genus; crassipes, 178 
Podosesia, genus; longipes, syringae, 382 
pcecila, Hyloicus, 51 
poetica, Neumcegenia, 235 
Pogocolon, genus, 72; gaurae, 72; juanita, 

vega, 73 

Polia. genus; diversilineata, illepida, Theo- 
dore's, theodori, Varied-banded, 171 
Poling, O. C., ix 
polistiformis, Memythrus, 382 
politia, Sabulodes, 353 
Polychrysia, genus; formosa, moneta, trabea, 

236 

jlygama, Catocala, 268 

Dlygamist, The, 268 
Polygonum, 157 
Polygrammate, genus; hebraea, hebraicum, 

1 60 

polyphemus, Telea, 87 
pometaria, Alsophila, 326 
pomifoliella, Bucculatrix, 431 
pomonella, Bucculatrix, 431 
Pope, Alexander, quoted, 289 
popeanella, Anaphora, 44^ 
populi, Apatela, 154; Cleosiris, 205 
Populus, 57, 155, 378 
Porosagrotis, genus; da?dalus, fusca, muras- 

nula, patula, rileyana, septentrionalis, 

tripars, vetusta, worthingtoni, 187 
porphyria, Halisidota, 138 
Porrima, genus; regia, 226 
Porthesia, genus, 305 
Porthetria, penus; dispar, 308 
portlandia, Panthea, 152; Pheosia, 295 
posticatus, Pholus, 66 
Potato-moth, The, 425 
praeacuta, Platyperigea, 164 
prascedens, Palmia, 383 
pneclara, Catorala, 269 
prasgrandaria, Metrpcampa, 348 
pragatomata, Macaria, 340 
prasina, Adelphagrotis, 179 
precationis, Autographa, 238 
pressa, Platagrotis, 179 
prima, Anorthodes, 164; Estigmene, 122. 

Perigrapha, 205 
princeps, Pachysphinx, 57 
Prinos, 46 

Priocycla, genus; armataria, 351 
Prionoxystus, genus; macmurtrei, querci- 

perda, robinia?, 378 
pnvatus, Anytus, 191 
Privet -moth, The, 394 
proba, Diacrisia, 128 
Proboscis, 12 
procinctus, Dargida, 196 
proclivis, Rhizagrotis, 185 
Prodenia, genus; commelinae, ornithogalli, 

prodeuns, Orthodes, 203 



470 



Index 



Prodoxus, genus; cinereus, 441 1 coloradensis, 

440; decipiens, 438; margmatus, 439; 

paradoxica, quinquepunctella, 438; reti- 

culata, 440; y-inversa, 439 
profecta. Bomolocha, 286 
progressata, Triphosa, 331 
Prolegs, abdominal, anal, 7 
Prolimacodes, genus; undifera, scapha, 367 
promethea, Callosamia, 84 
promptella, Doryodes, 245 
Pronoctua, genus; typica, 185 
Pronuba, genus, 441; maculata, synthetica, 

442; yuccasella, 441 
propinqua, Copicucullia, 208 
Dropinquajis, Rivula, 245 
propinquilinea, Demas, 152 
propriaria, Euchoeca, 32&; Euchlaena, 350 
proprius, Sympistis, 229 
propugnata, Gypsochroa, ,132 
propugnaria, Gypsochroa 332 
proserpina, Hemileuca, 91 
Proserpinus, genus, 72, '.-3, 74; clarkiae, 

flavofasciata, 73 

Protambulyx, genus, 54; strigilis, carteri, 54 
Prothymia, genus; coccineifascia, orgyiae, 

rhodarialis, semipurpurea, 248 
Protoparce, genus, 44; Carolina Linnaeus; 

Carolina Donavan; celeus; chionanthi; ly- 

copersici; nicotianae occulta, 45; quinque- 

maculatus, 41, 43, 45; rustica sexta, 45 
Protosia, genus, in 
protumnusalis, Zanclognatha, 281 
proxima, Apantesis, 131; Synanthedon, 387 
proximalis, Titanio, 396 
prunata, Eustroma, 329 
pruniella, Anarsia, 426 
Pryer, Henry, 79 
pryeri, Philosamia 82 
Psaphidia, genus; grotei, muralis, resumens, 

viridescens, 177 

Pseudacontia, genus; crustaria, 225 
Pseudalypia, genus; crotchi, 232 
Pseudanarta, genus; crocea, falcata, Falcate, 

flava, Single, singula, Yellow, 175 
Pseudanthoecia, genus; tumida, 228 
Pseudanthracia, genus; coracias, 278 
pseudargyria, Heliophila, 201 
pseuderminea, Estigmene, 123 
pseudogamma, Autographa, 238 
Pseudoglaea, genus; blanda, decepta, tasdata, 

216 
Pseudohazis, genus, 93; denudata, eglanteri- 

na, hera, nuttalli, pica, shastaensis, 93 
Pseudolimacodes, genus, 217 
Pseudomya, genus; minima, 99 
pseudoneustria, Malacosoma, 313 
Pseudorgyia, genus, versuta, 245 
Pseudorthosia, genus; variabilis, 216 
Pseudosphinx, genus, 57; asdrubal, hasdrubal, 

obscura, plumeriae, rustica, tetrio, 57 
Pseudotamila, genus; vanella, 229 
Pseudothyatira, genus; cymatophoioides, 

expultrix, 304 
psidii, Gloveria, 311 
Psidium pyrifera, 140 
Psilura, genus; monacha, 309 
Psychidas, Family, 7, 25, 35, 360 
Psychomorpha, genus; epimenis, 232 
ptelearia, Eois, 334 
Pteraetholix, genus; bullula, 243 
pteridis, Diacrisia, 128 
Pterophoridaa, Family, 25, 37, 415 
Pterospoda, genus; opuscularia, 343 
Ptychoglene, genus; coccinea, flammans, 

phrada, sanguineola, tenuimargo, no 
ptycophora, Fala, 235 
puber, Syssaura, 353 



pudens, Euchaetias, 135; Euthyatira, 304 

pudorata, Apatela, 156 

puera, Hyblaea, 288 

puerilis, Orthodes, 204 

pulchella, Xylomiges, 197 

pulcher, Hepialus, 444 

pulcherrima, Eutelia, 242 

pulchraria, Nepytia, 343 

pulchripennis, Melicleptria, 230 

pulchripictalis, Cindaphia, 397 

pullata, Lathosea, 209 

pultaria, Therina, 348 

pulverea, Heterocampa, 297; Narthecophora 
235 

pulverilinea, Matigramma, 276 

pulverina, Bruceia, 108 

Pulvillus, 14, IS 

punctata, Dasylophia, 296; Diacrisia, 128 

punctatissima, Basilona, 97; Hyphantria, 123 

punctistriga, Artace, 312 

punctivena, Capnodes, 277; Caradrina, 165 

punctomacularia, Philedia, 343 

pungens, Herse, 43 

Pupae, 9 

pupillaris, Sysyrhypena, 282 

pupula, Eustixia, 149, 398 

pura, Carama, 368; Catocala, 264; Utetheisa, 
117 

purgata, Csenurgia, 257 

purpurana, Archips, 422 

purpurascens, Calpe, 236 

purpurifascia, Papaipema. 213 

purpurigera, Panchrysia, 236 

purpurissata, Mamestra, 192 

pustularia, Physostegania, 338 

pustulata, Celama, 357; Opharus, 139 

putnami, Euchalcia, 237 

putrescens, Homoptera, 278 

Pygarctia, genus; abdominalis, elegans, Ele- 
gant, Orange-bodied, spraguei, Sprague's, 
vivida, 136 

pygmasa, Adoneta, 365; Dircetis, 284; 
Paectes, 241 

Pygoctenucha, genus; funerea, harrisi, pyr- 
rhoura, terminalis, votiva, 1 1 1 

PyralidcE, Family, 21, 25, 36, 246, 391 

Pyralinae, Subfamily, 399 

Pyralis, genus; farinalis, 400 

pyralis, Apharetra, 159; Pleonectyptera, 246 

pyramidalis, Albuna, 384 

pyramidoides, Pyrophila, 149, 173 

pyramus, Hasmorrhagia, 63 

pyramusalis, Heterogramma, 284 

Pyrausta, genus; adipaloides, arsaltealis, 
badipennis, 397; bellulalis, diffissa, emci- 
talis, erosnealis, 398; euphoesalis, fascialis, 
fumalis, 397; funebris, generosa, 398; 
gentilis, 397; glomeralis, 398; guttulosa, 
397; hircinalis, 398; illibalis, 397; inse- 
qualis, 398; langdonalis, 397; madetesalis, 
398; magniferalis, 397; niveicilialis, ob- 
nigralis, ochosalis, octomaculata, 398; 
orasusalis, orphisalis, pertextalis, 397; 
repletalis, 398; subjectalis, 397; subolivalis, 
subsequalis, 398; thesealis, 397; tyralis, 
398; unifascialis, 397; unimacula, 398 

Pyraustinae, Subfamily, 392 

pyri, Synanthedon, 387 

pyrina, Zeuzera, 376 

Pyromorpha, genus; dimidiata, perlucidula 

Pyrophila, genus; glabella, Gray, Mouse- 
colored, pyramidoides, repressus, trago- 
poginis, 173 

pyrrha, Cargida, 301 

Pyrrhia, genus; tunbra, 214 

pyrrhoura, Pygoctenucha, 111 



471 



Index 



pythion, Charadra, 152 
pyxidifera, Lagoa, 369 

Q 

quadrata, Apatela, 136 

quadriannulata, Cosymbia, 333 

quadricornis, Ceratomia, 47 

quadridentata, Euxoa, 188 

quadrifilaris, Poaphila, 274 

quadriguttalis, Alypia, 144 

quadriguttatus, Sthenopis, 443 

quadrinotata, Heterophleps, 327 

quadripunctaria, Eufidoma, 337 

quadristigmalis, Glyphodes, 394 

Quaker, Boyish, 204; Cynical, Rustic, Small 

Brown, 203 

quinquecaudatus, Sannina, 382 
quinquelinearia, Leptomeris, 333 
quinquemaculatus, Protoparce, 45 
quinquepunctella, Prodoxus, 438 
quenseli, Apantesis, 131 
quercicola, Euclea, 365 
querciperda, Prionoxystus, 378 
quercivoraria, Metanema, 351 
quercus, Hemihyalea, 138 
quernaria, Nacophora, 345 
questionis, Autographa, 238 



Rachela, genus; bruceata, 324 

rachelse, Apocheima, 345 

Racheospila, genus; hollandaria, lixaria, 

saltusaria, 336 
radians, Apantesis, 132 
radix, Mamestra, 193 
Ragonot, E. L., 37, 408 
ramosula, Actinotia, 173 
Rancora, genus; solidaginis, strigata, 209 
Raphia, genus; abrupta, coloradensis, flex- 

uosa, f rater, personata, 153 
Rascal Leaf-crumpler, The, 409 
rasilis, Oligia, 166 
raspa, Syssphinx, 96 
Ratarda, genus, 305 
reciprocata, Euchoeca, 328 
reconditaria, Synelys, 333 
rectangula, Autographa, 239 
rectangulata, Hydriomena, 331 
rectaria, Anaplodes, 337 
rectifascia, Atethmia, 220 
rectilinea, Apantesis, 129; Cochlidion, 367 
recurvalis, Zinckenia, 392 
recusans, Pangrapta, 254 
redimicula, Euxoa, 190 
reducta, Turuptiana, 121 
refractaria, Gonodontis, 350 
refusata, Nannia, 327 
regalis, Citheronia, 97 
regia, Citheronia, 97; Porrima, 226 
regnatrix, Xanthopastis, 231 
Relict, The, 262 
relicta, Catocala, 149, 262 
Remigia, genus; indentata, latipes, perlata, 

repanda, texana, 274 
remissa, Phragmatobia, 127 
remissaria, Caberodes, 352 
Renia, genus; discoloralis, fallacialis, gener- 

alis, thraxalis, 283 
Reniform spot, 18 
reniformis, Heliotropha, 173 
renigera, Mamestra, 195 
repanda, Remigia, 274; Siavana, 273 
repentinus, Ceratomia, 48 
repentis, Euxoa, 189; Yrias, 277 
repletalis, Pyrausta, 398 



repressus, Pyrophila, 173 

resistaria, Ania, 349 

restituens, Alsophila, 326 

restrictalis, Heliodes, 230 

restorata, Sciagraphia, 339 

resumens, Psaphidia, 177 

retecta, Catocala, 262 

retectata, Macaria, 339 

retentata, Macaria, 339 

reticulata, Prodoxus, 440 

reticulina, Hexeris, 375 

Retinaculum, 17 

revayana, Nyctepla, 288 

revocata, Phigalia, 347 

Rheumaptera, genus; hastata, 329; luctuats, 

rubrosuffusata, 330 
rhexiae, Chloridea, 222 
Rhizagrotis, genus; proclivis, 185 
rhoda, Apantesis, 132 
rhodarialis, Prothymia, 248 
Rhododendrons, 173 
Rhododipsa, genus ;masoni, miniana, volupia, 

Rhodophora, genus; citronellus, florida, 

gauras, matutina, 224 
Rhodosea, genus; julia, 225 
rhcebus, Erinnyis, 59 
Rhopalocera, 3 
Rhynchagrotis, genus; alternata, 179; ancho- 

celioides, cupida, gilvipennis, 178; mini- 

malis, 178, 179; placida, rufipectus, velata, 

178 

ribearia, Cymatophora, 340 
ribesiaria, Eustroma, 329 
richardsoni, Anarta, 199 
Richia, genus; aratrix, parentalis, 190 
Richter, Jean Paul, quoted, 417 
rickseckeri, Estigmene, 123 
ridingsi, Alypia, 143, 145 
Riley, C. V., 30, 141, 154, 175, 201, 223, 

232. 233, 239, 243, 280, 281, 33S, 362, 

rileyana, Heter'opacha, 314; Porosagrotis, 

187; Synanthedon, 385 
rimosa, Pheosia 295 
Rivula, genus; propinqualis, 245 
rivulana, Almodes, 354 
rivulosa, Schinia, 228 
Robinia, pseudacacia, 378, 419 
robiniae, Prionoxystus, 378 
Robinson, C. T., 29, 30, 37 
robinsoni, Catocala, 262; Cressonia, 57; 

Lerina, 1 1 1 
Roeselia, genus; conspicua, fuscula, minuscula, 

358 

rogationis, Autographa, 238 
Rosaceae, 83, 155, 366, 410 
rosaceana, Archips, 422 
rosacearum, Calasymbolus, 56 
rosalinda, Catocala, 268 
rosea, Euhyparpax, 298; Hyparpax, 299; 

Mamestra, 193; Oreta 321; Thyreion, 222 
roseitincta, Schinia, 227 
rossi, Gynasphora, 305 
Rothschild, Hon. Walter, ix, 31 
Rothschildia, genus, 82, 83; jorulla, orizaba, 

82 

rotundata, Chlasnogramma, 46 
Royal Walnut-moth, 6 
rubens, Hsemorrhagia, 64 
rubi, Bembecia, 383 

rubicunda, Anisota, 93; Euherrichia, 253 
rubra, Diacrisia, 128; Samia, 84 
rubricosa, Phragmatobia, 126 
rubricosta, Holomelina, 115 
rubripalpis, Artace, 312 
rubrolinearia, Leptomeris, 333 



472 



Index 



mbrolineata, Leptomeris, 333 

rubroscapus, Ctenucha, 102 

rubrosunusata, Rheumaptera, 330 

rude, Natada, 366 

rufago, Jodia, 215 

ruficaudis, Hasmorrhagia, 62, 63 

ruficillata, Mesoleuca, 330 

rufipectus, Rhynchagrotis, 178 

rufostriga, Caradrina, 165 

rufula, Diacrisia, 128 

rugifrons, Stiria, 234 

rugosa, Mamestra, 194 

rupta, Gluphisia, 300 

rurigena, Heterogramma, 284 

Rustic; Brown-streaked, Civil, Convivial, 

165; Mooned, Speckled, 164 
rustica, Erinnyis, 59; Protoparce, 45; Pseu- 

dosphinx, 57 
rutila, Autographa, 238 
rutilans, Synanthedon, 385 



Sabal palmetto, 122 

Sabulodes, genus; _ arcasaria, cpntingens, 
depontanata, goniata, imitata, incurvata, 
lorata, politia, sulphurata, transfindens, 
transmutans, transposita, transvertens, 
truxaliata, 353 

sabulosa, Cissusa, 256; Tuerta, 143 

Sack-bearer, Melsheimer's, Scalloped, 359 

sacramenti, Alypia, 145 

Saddle-back, The,' 364 

saga, Hyblaea, 288 

Salia, genus; interpuncta, 285 

salicarum, Pachnobia, 180 

saliceti, Sphinx, 55 

salicis, Apatela, 157 

saligneana, Eucosma, 418 

Sallow; Angle-striped, 217; Anointed, 218; 
Even-lined, 220; Lost, Moffat's, 218; 
Red-winged, 215; Roadside, 218; Round- 
loaf, 219; Silky, 218; Sloping, Smudged, 
219; Unsated, Walker's. 218 

Salobrana, genus; tecomse, 401 

saltusaria, Racheospila, 336 

sambuci, Zotheca, 219 

Sambucus, 212, 219 

Samea, genus; castellalis, disertalis, ecclesi- 
alis, luccusalis, 393 

Samia, genus, 83; calif ornica, ceanothi, 84; 
cecropia, 83, 84; Columbia, euryalus, 
gloveri, rubra, 84 

sanborni, Acoloithus, 371 

sanguineola, Ptychoglene, no 

sanguivenosa, ^Emilia, 137 

saniaria, Haematopsis, 332 

saniptri, Hyloicus, 52 

Sannina, genus; quinquecaudatus, uroceri- 
formis, 382 

Sanninoidea, genus; exitiosa, pepsidiformis, 
persica, xiphiasforniis, 384 

saporis, Triocnemis, 225 

sappho, Catocala, 260 

satellitia, Pholus, 65 

saturata, Schinia, 227 

Saturnia, genus, 89; mendocino, 89 

Saturniidae, Family, 9, 12, 24, 31, 80 

Saturniinas, 80, 81, 86 

satyricus, Ufeus, 191 

satyriniformis, Melittia, 380 

saucia, Peridroma, 182 

Sauer-kraut, 239 

saundersi, Apantesis, 129; Homoptera, 278 

sauzaslitas, Ochria, 214 

saxea, Syneda, 259 

scabra, Plathypena, 287 



scaftnuscula, Dipterygia, 172 

Scale insects, fed upon by larvae, 6 

Scape-moth, The Yellow-collared, The White- 
collared, I 01 

scapha, Prolimacodes, 367 

Scarce Bordered Straw, 222 

scardina, Anaphora, 443 

scarletina, Palada, 229 

Scepsis, genus, 100; fulvicollis, matthewi, 
packardi, semidiaphana, wrighti, 101 

Schaus, W., 33 

Schidax, genus, 356 

Schinia, genus, 226; acutilinea, 227; alba- 
fascia, 228; aleucis, 227; arcifera, atrites, 
brevis, 228; brucei, chrysellus, 227; con- 
tracta, 228; cumatilis, 227; designata, 
divergens, 228; exaltata, 227; jaguarina, 
228; lineata, lynx, 227; marginata, mortua, 
228; nigrirena, 227; nobilis, 228; nundina, 
227; packardi, rivulosa, 228; roseitincta, 
saturata, separata, simplex, 227; spraguei, 
tertia, thoreaui, 228; trifascia, 227 

Schizura, genus; badia, 229; cinereofrons, 
concinna, conspecta, edmandsi, humilis, 
ipomceas, 298; leptinoides, mustelina, 
299; nitida, 298; significata, 299; unicornis, 
298 

schlaegeri, Stenoma, 428 

schoenherri, Anarta, 199 

Schcenobiinae, Subfamily, 402 

schwarziorum, Illice, 109 

Sciagraphia, genus; duplicata, granitata, 
heliothidata, mellistrigata, ocellinata, res- 
torata, subcolumbata, 339 

sciata, Therina, 348 

scintillans, Catocala, 266 

Scirpophaga, genus; macrinellus, perstrialis, 
serriradiellus, 402 

scissa, Canidia, 226 

scitipennis, Hyperasschra, 294 

scitiscripta, Cerura, 299 

scitula, Synanthedon, 387 

scobialis, Epizeuxis, 281 

Scolecocampa, genus; liburhi, ligni, 244 

Scoliopteryx, genus; libatrix, 215 

scolopendrina, Harpyia, 299 

Scoparia, genus, 399 

Scopariinse, Subfamily, 399 

Scopelosoma, genus, 217; ceromatica, devia, 
moffatiana, walkeri, 218 

Scotchmen, 80 

Scotogramma, genus; inconcinna, infuscata, 
submarina, 198 

Scribbler, The, 324 

scribonia, Ecpantheria, 120 

scripta, Habrosyne, 303 

scriptipennis, Epizeuxis, 280 

scudderiana, Eucosma, 418 

sculptus, Anytus, 191 

scutellaris, Bomolocha, 286 

scutosus, Heliothis, 224 

Sebastiania, 417 

Seckel pear, 410 

sectilis, Morrisonia, 196 

sectomaculata, Philobia, 339 

sedata, Tarache, 251 

Seirarctia, genus; echo, niobe, 122 

selecta, Autographa, 239 

Selenis, genus; monotropa, 277 

Selicanis, genus; cinereola, 216 

semiaperta, Tricholita, 205 

semiauratus, Sthenopis, 443 

semiclarata, Feltia, 186; Orthofidonia, 337 

semiclusaria, Nepytia, 343 

semicrocea, Exyra, 248 

semidiaphana, Scepsis, 101 

semifascia, Monoleuca, 365 



473 



Index 



semiflava, Xanthoptera, 249 

semifusellus, Crambus, 402 

semilineata, Hyamia, 254 

semilunata, Hadena, 169 

seminudaria, Therina, 348 

seminudata, Therina, 348 

Semiophora, genus; badicollis, catharina, 

dilucidula, elimata, janualis, manifesto- 

labes, opacifrons, tenebrifera, 180 
Semioscopis, genus; merricella, 429 
semiplaga, Heterocampa, 297 
semipurpurea, Prothymia, 248 
senatoria, Anisota, 94 
senta, Haemorrhagia, 64 
sentinaria, Leptomeris, 333 
separata, Schinia, 227 
separates, Hyloicus, 50 
septentrionalis, Gluphisia, 300; Porosagrotis, 

187 

sepulchralis, Citheronia, 97; Thyris, 374 
Sequoia, 52 

sequoias, Hyloicus 52; Vespamima, 384, 
serena, Catocala, 267 
sericea, Glaea, 218 
sericeiferata, Paleacrita, 324 
serinaria, Plagodis, 349 
serrata, Euchlaena, 35; Trichopolia, 199 
serrataria, Euchlaena, 350 
serriradiellus, Scirpophaga, 402 
Sesia, genus, 61, 379; fadus, tantalus, titan 

62 

Sesiidae, Family, 379 
Sesiinas, Subfamily, 57 
sesquilinea, Syssaura, 352 
sesquistriaris, Agnomonia, 274 
Setagrotis, genus; terrifica, 181 
Setting-board, 20 
Setting-needle, 1 9 
severa, Gluphisia, 300 
sevorsa, Fenaria, 233 
sexatilis, Euxoa, 1 90 
sexfasciata, Synanthedon, 385 
sexmaculata, Celama, 357 
sexpunctata, Hyamia, 254 
sexsignata, Litocala, 272 
sexta, Protoparce, 45 

Shakespeare, quoted, 94, 103, 356, 379, 423 
Sharp, David, quoted, 3, 17, 30 
shastaensis, Apantesis, 131; Pseudohazis, 93 
Sheep-moth, Nuttall's, 93 
Siayana, genus; auripennis, repanda, 273 
Sibine, genus; ephippiatus, stimulea, 364 
siccaria, Therina, 348 
Sicya, genus; macularia, 347 
Sideraria, Eois, 336 
sigmaria, Cymatophora, 340 
sigmoides, Eueretagrotis, 179 
signata, Dasylophia, 296; Tricholita, 203 
signataria, Melanolophia, 344 
signifera, Laphygma, 174 
significans, ^Emilia, 137 
significata, Schizura, 299 
silago, Xanthia, 214 
Silk -culture, The History of, 316 
Silk -moth, The Ailanthus, 82; Ceanothus, 

Columbian, Glover's, 84; Mendocino, 89; 

Orizaba, 82; Spice-Bush, 84; Tulip-tree, 

86; Zephyr, 89 
simalis, Cornifrons, 399 
similana, Eucosma, 418 
similis, Alypia, 143; Catocala, 268 
simplaria, Notodonta, 295; Peridroma, 183 
simplex, Autographa, 240; Comacla, 107; 

Xylomiges, 197 
simulans, Memythrus, 383 
singula, Pseudanarta, 175 
sinualis, Melipotis, 258 



Sister, The Little, 269 

Sisyrosea, genus; inornata, textula, 366 

sitellata, Gypsochroa, 332 

Six-plume Moth, The, 417 

Skeletonizer, The Apple-leaf, 411 

Skinner, Henry, ix 

slossoni, Gluphisia, 300 

slossoniae, Alarodia, 366 

Slug; Monkey, 366; Nason's, 366; Pygmy. 

365; Slosson's, 366, Spiny Oak-, 365 
Small Angle Shades, 172 
Smerinthus, 54 
Smith, Herbert H., 20 
Smith, John B., viii, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 118, 

smithi, Grammodes, 274 

Smythe, Ellison, 63 

Snout-moth, The Meal, 400 

snoviaria, Mellilla, 338 

snowi, Melittia, 381 

sobria, Calpe, 236; Drasteria, 257; Eois, 335; 

Nephelodes, 199 
socia, Syneda, 259 
socors, Caenurgia, 257 
Solanaceae, 45 
solanella, Phthorimaea, 425 
Solenobia, genus, 360 
solidaginis, Rancora, 209 
Solidago, 101, 117, 126, 252, 418 
Solidago Gall-moth, The, 425 
solituda, Gaea, 381 
Somites, in body of larvae, 6 
somnus, Catocala, 263 

sordida, Hyloicus, 49; Phlyctaenodes, 395 
sordidata, Hydriomena, 331 
sororius, Hemileuca, 91 
Southey, quoted, 77 
stellata, Derrima, 224 
stellidaria, Almodes, 354 
Stenaspilates, genus; zalissaria, 351 
Stenoma, genus; schlaegeri, 428 
Sthenopis, genus; alni, argentata, argenteo- 

maculata, quadriguttattis, semiauratus, 

443 

Stibadium, genus; spumosum, 234 
sticticalis, Phlyctaenodes, 395 
stigma, Anisota, 94 
stigmata, Dryobota, 171 
stigmosa, Feltia, 186 
stimulea, Sibine, 364 
Stinging Caterpillars, 90; spines, 9 
Stiria, genus; rugifrons, 234 
stragula, Hyperaeschra, 294 
Strawberry-borer, The, 385 
Strawberry Leaf -roller, 419 
Strecker, Herman, 30, 52 
Strenoloma, genus; lunilinea, 147, 276 
Stretch, R. H., 32, 35 
stretchi, Catocala, 263; Syneda, 260; Utethe- 

Stretchia, genus; muricina, 205 

striata, Illice, 109 

striatella, Euchalcia, 237 

strigata, Calophasia, 170; Euclea, 36^; 

Eucalyptera, 244; Rancora, 209 
strigataria, Phigalia, 347 
strigicollis, Mamestra, 195 
strigilis, Pholus, 67 
strigosa, Apantesis, 131; Calidota, 139; 

Melalopha. 293 
strigularia, Cosnocalpe, 332 
stygiaria, Azelina, 352 
stylata, Cerapoda, 177 
stylobata, Campometra, 276 
Stylopoda, genus; cephalica, 229 
spadix, Cissusa, 256 
Span-worm; Goose-berry, 340; Walnut, 345 



474 



Index 



Sparrows, English, 325 

Spear-mark, The, 329 

Specimens, capture of, killing, mounting, 19 

speciosa, Apantesis, 131 

speciosata, Hydriomena, 331 

spectanda, Chloridea, 222 

spectans, Apatela, 156 

Spectre, The, 77 

Spencer, Herbert, quoted, 364 

sperataria, Lycia, 345 

Spermacoce, 75 

speyeri, Cucullia, 208 

Sphacelodes, genus; floridensis, vulnerana, 

Sphacelodinae, Subfamily, 354 
Sphecodina, genus, 70; abbotti, 70 
Sphida, genus; obliqua, obliquata, 211 
Sphingidae, 12, 25, 30, 41 
Sphinx, genus, 54; astarte, 55 ; cerisyi, 54; 

geminatus, jamaicensis, 55; ocellata, 54; 

ophthalmica, pallidulus, saliceti, triparti- 

Sphinx, Abbot's, 70; Abbot's Pine, 53; 
Achemon, 66; Alope, 58; Ash, 46; Azalea, 
68; Bear, 71; Big Poplar, 57; Blinded, 
56; Bpmbyx, 53; Catalpa, 48; Cerisy's, 54; 
Chersis, 50; Clark's Day-, 73; Colorado, 
52; Cramer's, 59; Cypress, 48; Domingo, 
59; Ello, 58; Euterpe, 74; Fig, 60; Four- 
horned, 47; Galium, 76; Gaudy, 67; Gaura, 
72; Giant Gray, 57; Gprdian, 51; Grote's, 
61; Hermit, Hermit-like, 49; Hog, 68; 
Huckleberry, 56; Hydrangea, 69; Laurel, 
51; Lesser Vine, 67; Lettered, 71; Lintner's. 
51; Lintner's Pine, 53; Madame Merian's, 
58; Mourning, 61; Nessus, 72; Neumcegen's, 
50; Obscure, 59; Occult, 45; CEnotrus, 59; 
Papaw, 46; Phaeton, 74; Pine, 52; Pluto, 
75; Rustic, 45; Satellite, 65; Sequoia, 52; 
Silver-spotted, 60; Small-eyed, 56; 
73; Striped Morning, 76; 

.; Tomato, 45; Twin-spot, 55; 

Vancouver, 50; Vine, 67; Walnut, 75; 
Waved, 48; Western Poplar, 57; White- 
banded Day-, 62; Wild Cherry, 52; Yellow- 
banded Day-, 73 

spilomela, Caradrina, 165 

Spinneret, 7 

spinosae, Eupanychis, 226 

spinuloides, Adoneta, 365 

Spiraea, 237, 366 

spissa, Euxoa, 189 

"Splitters" and "Lumpers," 112 

Sport, The, 152 

Spots on wings of noctuid moth, 18 

spraguei, Pygarctia, 136; Schinia, 228 

Spragueia, genus; dama, guttata, onagrus, 
plumbifimbriata, trifariana, 252 

spumosum, Stibadium, 234 

spuraria, Leptomeris, 333 

Spurs, tibial, 14, 15 

sputatrix, Hadena, 168 

squamigera, Almodes, 354 

s-signata, Macaria, 339 

subaequaria, Apaecasia, 342 

subalbicans, Heterpcampa, 257 

subapicalis, Xylomiges, 197 

subatomaria, Paraphia, 343 

subcedens, Hadena, 167 

subcinctaria, Macaria, 339 

subcitrina, Megalppyge, 369 

subcolumbata, Sciagraphia, 339 

subdolens, Nephelodes, 199 

subflava, Nonagria, 211 

subgothica, Feltia, 186 

sutyecta, Illice, 109 

subjectalis, Pyrausta, 397 



Strecker's, 
Tersa, 



subiuncta, Hadenella, 162; Mamestra, 193 

sublunaria, Cleora, 344 

submarina, Scotogramma, 198 

subnata, Catocala, 266 

subolivalis, Pyrausta, 398 

subornata, Hypoprepia, 106 

subpartita, Galgula, 247 

subprivata, Plagpdis, 349 

subpunctata, Heliophila, 201 

Subregions, Faunal, 387 

subsequalis, Pyrausta, 398 

subsignarius, Ennomps, 348 

subsinuaria, Hyperitis, 349 

substrigata, Noctua, 184 

Subterminal line, 18 

subusta, Atethmia, 220 

subviridis, Catocala, 261 

successaria, Cymatophora, 341; Haematopsis, 

332 

Sudraka, quoted, 269 
sueta, Mehcleptria, 230 
suffusa, Agrotis, 182; Mamestra, 192 
suffusalis, Pantographa, 393 
Sugar-beet Moth, The, 395 
Sugar-cane, 403 
Sugaring for moths, 146 
sulphuraria, Alcis, 343 
sulphurata, Sabulodes, 353 
superans, Apatela, 156 
superaria, Caberpdes, 352 
suppressaria, Eois, 335 
surrectalis, Epizeuxis, 280 
sutrix, Tornacontia, 250 
Sweetheart, The, 263 
Swift, quoted, 370) 

Swordgrass ; American, Dot and Dash, 208 
Sylectra, genus; erycata, 254 
sylvaticpides, Malacosoma, 313 
Symmerista, genus; albifrons, 296 
Sympherta, genus; tripunctaria, 342 
Symphoricarpus, 62, 63 
Sympistis, genus; proprius, 229 
Synanthedon, genus; acericolum, acerni, 386; 

aemula, albicornis, 387; aureola, 385; 

aureopurpurea, 387; bassiformis, bolli, 

brunneipennis, consimilis, eupatorii, 385; 

gallivorum, 387; hemizonae, 385; hospes, 

387; hyperici, imitata, imprppria, infirma, 

383; inusitata, 386; kcebelei, 387; lupini, 

lustrans, madariae, 385; mpdesta, 387; 

neglecta, perplexa, 385; pictipes, 386; 

proxima, pyri, 387; rileyana, rutilans, 385; 

scitula, 387; sexfasciata, tipuliformis, 

washingtonia, 385 

Synchlora, genus; liquoraria, tricoloraria, 336 
Syneda, genus; adumbrata, alleni, 259; 

athabasca, 260; capticola, divergens, 259; 

edwardsi, 260; graphica, 259; howlandi, 

hudsonica, 260; saxea, socia, 259; stretchi, 

260 
Synelys, genus; alabastaria, ennucleata, 

reconditaria, 333 

Syngrapha, genus; alticola, devergens, diver- 
gens, hochenwarthi, 240 
synochitis, Eustrotia, 247 _ 
Syntomeida, genus; epilais, euterpe, ferox, 

ipomeae, 99 
Syntomidae, 24, 31, 98 
syracosia, ^Emilia, 137 
Syringa, 382 
synngae, Podosesia, 382 
syringicola, Phlyctaenia, 397 
Syssaura, genus; aequosus, biclaria, ephyrata, 

infensata, juniperaria, cemearia, olyzonaria, 

puber, sesquihnea, varus, 352 
Syssphinx, genus, 96; albolineata, heilig- 

brodti, raspa, White-lined, 96 



471 



Index 



Sysyrhypena, genus; harti, orciferalis, pupil- 
laris, 282 



tebacella, Phthorimaea, 425 

tactus, Homopyralis, 256 

tasdata, Pseudoglaea, 216 

talidiformis, Crambodes, 163 

tantalus, Sesia, 42, 61, 62 

tapayusa, Cocytius, 44 

tapetzella, Trichophaga, 434 

Tapinostola, genus; variana, 216 

Tarache, genus; aprica, binocula, delecta, 

erastrioides, flavipennis, lactipennis, lanceo- 

lata, libedis, metallica, sedata, terminima- 

cula, virginalis, 251 
tardigrada, Euclea, 365 
Tarsius spectrum, 77 
Tarsus, 14, 15 
Taylor, J., quoted, 322 
tearli, Bombycia, 304 
Tecoma, 40, 401 
tecomae, Salobrana, 401 
tecta, Amyna, 242; Orthodes, 203 
Telea, genus, 87; fenestra, oculea, paphia, 

polyphemus, 87 
telifera, Agrotis, 182 
teligera, Mamestra, 195 
telum, Apatela, 155 
tenebrifera, Semiophora, 1 80 
tenebrosata, Cymatophora, 341 
tenera, Pareuchaetes, 134 
Tennyson, Alfred, quoted, 22, 445 
tenuifascia, Illice, 109; Oncocnemis, 176 
tenuimargo, Ptych9glene, no 
tenuis, Haemorrhagia, 63; Isogona, 256 
tepida, Xylina, 207 
tephra, Olene, 308 
Tephroclystis, genus, 327; absinthiata, ab- 

synthiata, coagulata, elongata, geminata, 

minutata, notata, 328 
teratophora, Jaspidia, 160 
terlooi, Arctonotus, 71 
Terminal lunules, 18 

terminalis, Pygoctenucha, 1 1 1 ; Utetheisa, 1 1 7 
terminimacula, Tarache, 251 
terraria, Almodes, 354 
terrella, Phthorimaea, 425 
terrifica, Setagrotis, 181 
tersa, Xylophanes, 75 
tertia, Schinia, 
tertial: 
tessella 

tessellata, Euxc ... 
testacea, Tortricidia, 368 
Tetanqlita, genus, 283; mynesalis, 284 
Tetracis, genus; allediusaria, aspilata, crocal- 

lata, 353 

tetradactylus, Phobetron, 366 
tetragonalis, Phlyctaenodes, 395 
tetraspilaris, Cochlidion, 367 
tetrio, Pseudosphinx, 57 
texana, Comacla, 107; Harrisina, 372; 

Horama, 100; Parora, 255; Remigia, 274 
textor, Hyphantria, 124 
textula, Sisyrosea, 366 
thalialis, Noctuelia, 399 
Thalpochares, genus; sstheria, 249 
thaxteri, Xylina, 207 
thecata, Himella, 204 
theodori, Polia, 171 
Therasea, genus; flavicosta, 251 
Therina, genus, 347; sequaliaria, athasiaria, 

bibularia, 348; endropiaria, 347; fervidaria, 

fiscellaria, flagitaria, invexata, panisaria, 

pultaria, sciata, seminudaria, seminudata, 

siccaria, 348 



i, Schinia, 228 

ilis, Phlyctasnia, 397 

llaris, Halisidota, 137 



thesealis, Pyrausta, 397 

thetis, Haemorrhagia, 64; Daritis, 289 

Thomas, Edith M., quoted, 358 

Thomson, James, quoted, 331, 390 

thoracica, Malacosoma, 313 

thoracicoides, Malacosoma, 313 

thorates, Xylophanes, 75 

Thorax, 14, 18 

thoreaui, Schinia, 228 

thraxalis, Renia, 283 

Thyatiridae, Family, 25, 34, 303 

thyatiroides, Eosphoropteryx, 237; Dosylo- 

phia, 296 

Thyreion, genus; rosea, 222 
Thyrididae, Family, 24, 35, 374 
Thyridopteryx, genus; coniferarum, ephe- 

merasformis, 361 
Thyris, genus; lugubris, maculata, Mournful, 

nevadae, perspicua, sepulchralis, Spotted, 
^,374 . 

Thysama, genus; zenobia, 279 
thysbe, Hasmorrhagia, 62 
Tibia, 14, is 
Tiger, 78 
Tiger-moths, 115; Aulaean, 124; Banded, 132; 

Bean's, 126; Blake's, 131; Brtice's, 126; 

Eyed, 120; Figured, 132; Great, 134; 

Intermediate, 129; Isabella, 125; Labrador, 

Little Virgin, 131; Many-spotted, 121; 

Mexican, 131; Nevada, 131; Ornate, 130, 

Phyllira, 132; Ranchman's, 128; Ruby, 

126; Small, 134; St. Lawrence, 128; 

Straight-lined, 129; Virgin, 129; Virginian, 

Vestal, 127; Williams', 132; Yarrow's, 127; 

Zuni, 124 

triangulatum, Eustroma, 329 
triangulifer, Cirrhophanus, 234 
tigris, Diastema, 241 
Tilia, 300 

tiliaria, Erannis, 347 
timais, Xanthopastis, 231 
tinctaria, Cleora, 344 
Tinea, genus; clubiella, flavescentella, grise- 

ella, merdella, pellionella, 433 
Tineidae, Family, 6, 25, 26, 37, 430 
Tineola, genus; biselliella, bisselliella, crinella 

destructor, lanariella, 432 
tipuliformis, Synanthedon, 385 
titan, Sesia, 62 

Titanio, genus; proximalis, 396 
titea, Phigalia, 347 
titearia, Phigalia, 347 
titubatis, Euxoa, 189 
togata, Orthodes, 203; Xanthia, 214 
Tolype, genus; velleda, 312 
Topsell, "Histqrie of Serpents," quoted, 

114; "Historic of Four-footed Beasts," 

quoted, 357 

toreuta, Bomolocha, 286 
Tornacontia, genus; sutrix, 250 
torrefacta, Apatelodes, 292 
Tortricidae, Family, 2;., 25, 37, 417 
Tortricidia. genus; caesonia, flexuosa, testa- 
cea, 368 

Tortrix, genus; albicomana, 423 
tortuosa, Hyperasschra, 294 
Tosale, genus; anthoecioides, nobilis, ovi- 

plagalis, 402 

Toxocampa, genus; victoria, 273 
trabalis, Yuma, 407 
trabea, Polychrysia, 236 
Trachea, genus; delicata, 172 
Tragedy of the Night-moth, 209 
tragopoginis, Pyrophila, 173 
Trama, genus; arrosa, detrahens, 276 
tranquila, Zotheca, 219 
transducens, Abbotana, 353 



476 



Index 



transferens, Abbotana, 353 

transfindens. Sabulodes, 353 

transfrons, Hadena, 166 

translucida, Hemihyalea, 138 

transmontana, Arctia, 134 

transmutans, Sabulodes, 353 

transposita, Sabulodes, 353 

transversata, Ellida, 300; Sabulodes, 353 

Transverse, anterior line, 18; posterior line, 

18 

trentonalis, Herculia, 401 
Trichoclea, genus; antica, 199 
Trichocosmia, genus; inornata, 220 
Tricholita, genus; semiaperta, signata, 205 
Trichophaga, genus; tapetzella, 434 
rrichopolia, genus; serrata, 199 
Trichosellus, genus; crotchi, cupes, 226 
Trichotarache, genus; assimilis, 246 
tricinctus, Memythrus, 382 
tricolor, Cerathosia, 253; Hemileuca, 93; 

Hypoprepia, 106; Kodiosoma, 133 
tricoloraria, Synchlpra, 336 
trifariana, Spragueia, 252 
trifascia, Schinia, 227 
trifolii, Mamestra, 193 
trigona, Bertholdia, 140 
Trigonophora, genus; periculosa, v-brun- 

neum, 215 

triguttaria, Heterophleps, 327 
trilinearia, Metanema, 351; Platea, 343 
trilineata, Gluphisia, 300 
trimaculata, Alypiodes, 145; Euerythra. 120 
trinotata, Celama, 357 
Triocnemis, genus; saporis, 225 
tripars, Porosagrotis, 187 
tripartita, Dasylophia, 296 
tripartitus, Sphinx, 55 
Triphosa, genus; dubitata, indubitata, pro- 

gressata, 331 

tnphpunctana, Paraphia, 343 
Triprocris, genus, 371; cqnstans, latercula, 

372; rata, 371; smithsonianus, 372 
Tripsacum dactyloides, 405 
Tripudia, genus; opipara, 250 
tripunctaria, Sympherta, 342 
triquetrana, Celama, 357 
trisectus, Crambus, 403 
tristis, Catocala, 262 
Tristyla, genus; alboplagiata, 220 
triumphalis, Phlyctaenodes, 395 



, 

Trochanter, 14, 15 
truncataria, Epelis, 337 



truncatula, Fruva, 252 

truxaliata, Sabulodes, 353 

Tubercles, larval, 8 

Tuerta, genus; noctuiformis, sabulosa, 143 

tumida, Pseudanthoecia, 228 

tunicana, Epagoge, 421 

turbans, Apantesis, 131 

turbatellus, Crambus, 402 

turbida, Heterocampa, 297 

turbitella, Zophodia, 411 

turbulenta, Hadena. 167 

Turkeys, Shooting wild, 148 

turns, Euxoa, 190 

Turuptiana, genus; caeca, permaculata, re- 

ducta, 121 
Typha latifolia, 211 
typhon, Pholus, 65 
typica, Pronoctua, 185 
tyralis, Pyrausta, 398 



u-brevis, Autographa, 238 
Ufeus, genus; barometricus, plicatus, satyri- 
cus, 191 



ulmi, Apatela, 155; Ceratomia, 47; Hetero- 
campa, 297 

Ulolonche, genus; modesta, 198 

Ulosyneda, genus; valens, 257 

ultronia, Catocala, 265 

umbellana, Depressaria, 428 

umbellella, Depressaria, 428 

umbra, Pyrrhia, 214 

umbrata, Clemensia, 108; Heterocampa, 297 

umbrifascia, Hyamia, 254 

uncanaria, Platea, 342 

Underwings, The, 260; Agrippina, 260; 
Aholibah, 265; Amasia, 268; American 
Copper, 173; Andromache, 267; Angus', 
262; Augusta, 264; Babayaga, 263; Badia, 
267; Bianca, 262; Briseis, 264; California, 
263; Carrie's, 261; Celia, 265; Cleopatra, 
263; Clouded, 266; Darling, 263; Dejected. 
261; Delilah, Desdemona, 267; Epione, 
260; Evelina, Faintly Green, 261; Faustina, 
264; Glittering, 266; Gloomy, 262; Graceful, 
269; Grote's, 264; Hawthorn, 268; Hermia, 
264; Hinda, 266; Ilia, 265; Inconsolable, 
Judith, 262; Little, 269; Luciana, 26^; 
Magdalen, 267; Marbled, 263; Meske's, 
264; Mopsa, 265; Mother, 264; Mourning, 
Obscure, 262; Old-Maid, 268; Oldwife, 266; 
Olivia, 269; Once-married, 264; Paulina, 
261; Phalanga, 266; Pure, 264; Robinson's, 
262; Rosalind, 264; Sappho, 260; Scarlet, 
265; Serene, 267; Sleepy, Stretch's, 263; 
Tearful, 261; Ultronia, Yen-ill's, 265; 
Wayward, 267; Widow, Widowed, 261; 
Whitney's, 268; Yellow-banded, 266; 
Yellow -gray, 262; Youthful, 366 

undatifascia, Pachylia, 60 

undifera, Prolimacodes, 367 

undosus, Cossus, 377 

undularis, Ypsia, 278 

undulata, Hydria, 329 

undulosa, Ceratomia, 48 

Ungues, 14, 15 

unica, Gonodonta, 236 

unicolor, Eudule, 327; Misogada 297; 
Noctua, 184 

unicornis, Schizura, 298 

unifascia, Illice, 109 

unifascialis, Pyrausta, 397 

uniformis, Cratnbidia, 104; Haematomis, 107, 
Hasmorrhagia, 63 

unijuga, Catocala, 264 

unilineata, Homoptera, 278 

unimacula, Pyrausta, 398 

unimoda, Xylina, 207 

unio, Euthisanqtia, 232 

unipuncta, Heliophila, 200; Leucania, 175; 
Paraphia, 343 

unipunctata, Paraphia, 343 

urentis, Abrostola, 240 

uroceriformis, Sannina, 382 

ursina, Lathosea, 209 

Utahensis, Arctia, 134 

Utetheisa, genus, 114; The Beautiful, The 
Ornamented, bella, hybrida, intermedia 
ornatrix, pura, stretchi, terminalis, 117 

uxor, Catocala, 265 

V 

vaccinii, Autographa, 239 
vacciniivorana, Alceris, 421 
Vaccinium, 56 
vagans, Diacrisia, 128 
valens, Ulosyneda, 257 
Valeria, genus; opina, 172 
vancouverensis, Feltia, 186; Hyloicus, 50 
vanella, Pseudotamila, 229 



477 



Index 



varadaria, Caberodes, 352 

varia, Automeris, 89, Heterocarapa, 297; 

Oligia, 165 

variabilis, Pseudorthosia, 216 
variana, Tapinostola, 216 
variolana, Alceris, 421 
variolaria, Deilinea, 338 
varus, Syssaura, 352 
vashti, Hyloicus, 50 
vau, Melalopha, 293 
v-brunneum, Trigonophora, 215 
vecors, Orthodes, 203; Perigea, 165 
vega, Pogocolon, 73 
vegeta, Cissusa, 256 

velata, Orthodes, 203; Rhynchagrotis, 178 
velleda, Tolype, 312 
velleripennis, Euxoa, 188 
vellifera, Bomolocha, 286 
Venation of wings, 16 
venerabilis, Feltia, 186 
venezuelensis, Pachylia, 60 
venosa, Ctenucha, 101 
ventilator, Marasmalus, 242 
venus, Hyparpax, 299 
Venusia, genus; cambrica, comptana, con- 

densata, duodecimlineata, inclinata, in- 

clinataria, perlineata, 328 
venusta, Euchalcia, 237; Hyparpax, 299 
verbascoides, Hadena, 169 
Verbena, 163 

vermiculata, Gnophaela, 290 
vernata, Euclea, 365; Nyctobia, 324; Palea- 

crita, 324 

verrilliana, Catocala, 265 
verruca, Autographa, 238 . 
versicolor, JDarapsa, 69 
versuta, Hadena, 167; Pseudorgyia, 245 
verticalis, Euxoa, 189 
vesca, Galgula, 247 

Vespamima, genus; pmorum, sequoias, 384 
vespiformis, .digeria, 383 
vesta, Philosamia, 82 
vestaliata, Orthofidonia, 337 
vestalis, Hapk>a, 118; Maenas, 127 
vestitaria, Ania, 349 
vesulia, Oxydia, 352 
vetusta, Hemerocampa, 306; Porosagrotis, 

187 

viatica, Glaea, 218; Orthofidonia, 337 
Viburnum, 62, 63 
vicaria, Noctua, 184 
vicariana, Archips, 422 
vicina, Mamestra, 195 
victoria, Toxocampa, 273 
videns, Platysenta, 163 
vidua, Catocala, 261 
viduata, Catocala, 261 
vinculum, Phurys, 275 
vinela, Hadena, 170 
vinnula, Apatela, 156 
vinesaria, Euchlaena, 350 
violacea, Hadena, 167 
violans, Nephelodes, 199 
viralis, Hadena, 168 
virescens, Chloridea, 222 
virgata, lanassa, 298 
virginalis, Platyprepia, 128; Tarache, 251 
virginaria, Epimecis, 344 
virginica, Ctenucha, 102; Diacrisia, 127 
virginiensis, Anisota, 94, 95 
virgo, Apantesis, 129 
virguncula, Apantesis, 131 
viridans, Homoptera, 278 
virjdescens, Psaphidia, 177 
viridiclava, Euclea, 365 
viridiSj Euclea, 365 
viridisignata, Autographa, 239 



vmdoperlata, Metrocampa, 348 

viridula, Zotheca, 219 

Vitaceae, 61, 65, 70 

vitis, Pholus, 67 

vittata, Apantesis, 132; Hypoprepia, 106 

vivida, Pygarctia, 136 

volubilis, Feltia, 186 

volupia, Rhododipsa, 225 

voluta, Adoneta, 365 

vomerina, Morrisonia, 196 

votiva, Pygoctenucha, 1 1 1 

v-signatana, Archips, 422 

vulneraria, Sphacelodes, 354 

vulnifica, Bellura, 211 

vultuosa, Hadena, 168 

W 

Wainscot; Comma, 203; Dark-winged, 
False, 201; Heterodox, 202; Lesser, 201; 
Many-lined, 202; White-lined, 201 

wakarusa, Yponomeuta, 423 

Walker, Francis, 27, 30 

walkeri, Philosamia, 82; Scopelosoma, 218 

Walking as a Fine Art, 270 

Walnut Case-bearer, The, 408 

Walnut Span-worm, The, 345 

Walshia, genus; amorphella, 430 

Walsingham, Lord, 37, 38 

walsinghami, Ctenucha, 102 

Walton, Izaak, quoted, 374 

washingtonia, Synanthedon, 385 

washingtoniana, Xylina, 207 

Wasp-moth; Double-tufted, 99; Edwards', 
100; Lesser, 99; Polka-dot, 99; Scarlet- 
bodied, 98; Texan, 100; Yellow-banded, 99 

Web- worm, The Parsnip, 428 

Westwood, J. O., 35, 370, 428 

whitneyi, Catocala, 268 

Whittier, J. G., quoted, 292 320 

Wife, The, 265 

williamsi, Apantesis, 132 

wilsoni, Ciris, 233 

Wings, structure of, p. 15 

wiskotti, Arctia, 134 

Wittfeldi, Alypia, 143, 144 

Wood, Rev. J. G., quoted, 360 

woodi, Homoptera, 278 

Woodling, Beautiful, Brown, Fletcher's 
Grieving Hardened, Oregon, Simple, 197 

Wood-nympn, Beautiful, Pearly, 232 

Woolly bears, 115, 125 

Wordsworth, quoted, 415 

worthingtoni, Porosagrotis, 187 

wrighti, Gluphisia, 300; Scepsis, 101 



Xanthia, genus; flavago, silago, togata, 214 

xanthioides, Perigea, 165 

xanthometata, Mellilla, 338 

Xanthopastis, genus; regnatrix, timais, 231 

Xanthoptera, genus; nigrofimbria, 248; 
semiflava, 249 

Xanthothrix, genus; neumosgeni, 231 

Xanthotype, genus; caelaria, citrina, cro- 
cataria, 349 

xiphiseformis, Sanninoidea, 384 

Xylina, genus; antennata, 206; baileyi, 207; 
cinerea, disposita, 206; innominata, latici- 
nerea, 207; petulca, 206; pexata, tepida, 
thaxteri, unimoda, washingtoniana, 207 

xylina, Alabama, 243 

xylinoides, Hyppa, 171 

Xylomiges, genus; cognata, crucialis, dolosa 
fletcheri, indurata, patalis, perlubens 
pulchella, simplex, subapicalis, 197 



478 



Index 



Xylophanes, genus, 75; boerhaviae, croesus 

eson, pluto, tersa, thorates, 75 
Xylorictidge. Family, 26, 428 



Yarrowi, Phragmatobia, 127 

yavapai, Hemileuca, 92 

y-inversa, Cochlidion, 367; Prodoxu, 439, 

yosemitre, Fishea, 170 *, j ^ 

Yponomeuta, genus; euonyniellfl|HlB- 

punctella, orbimaculella, ordinafellus, \va- 

karusa, 423 

Yponomeutidae, Family, 26, 38, 423 
Ypsia, genus; undularis, 278 
ypsilon, Agrotis, 140, 182 
Yrias, genus; clientis, repentis, 277 
Yucca, 437; angustifolia, filamentosa, 442; 

whipplei, 440, 442 
Yucca-moth, 441 
yuccasella, Pronuba 
Yuma, genus; adulatalis, trabalis, 407 



Zale, genus; horrida, 277 

zalissaria, Stenaspilates, 351 

Zanclognatha, genus; laevigata, lituralis, 

minimalis, ochreipennis, protumnusalis, 281 
zeae, Achatodes, 212; Plodia, 415 
zelatella, Mineola, 409 
Zfller. P. C., 37 
,zelleri, Automeris, 89 
zenobia, Thysania, 279 
zephyria, Automeris, 89 
Zexizera, genus; sesculi, decipiens, hiiaris 

hypocastrina, pyrina, 376 
Zinckenia, genus; albifascialis, angustalis, 

diffascialis, fascialis, recurvalis, 392 
zonata, Homopyralis, 256 
Zophodia, genus; grossulariae, turbitella, 411 
Zosteropoda. genus; hirtipes, 203 
Zotheca, genus; sambuci, tranquila, viridula 

219 

zuni, Arachnis, 124 
Zygaenidae, Family, 25, 35, 233, 371 



479 



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