(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Motion and time study"

LI B RARY 

OF THL 

U N IVER_SITY 

Of ILLINOIS 

331.1 
y\o. \-2.5 



J 



•t<o&» 



MOTION-I> 
and 

TIME 





Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations 



NIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



I 



EDITORIAL NOTE This University of Illinois Bulletin is the 

second of three to be published by the Insti- 
tute of Labor and Industrial Relations on 
Industrial Engineering topics. The topics are 
Job Evaluation, Motion and Time Study, 
and Wage Incentives. These Bulletins are not 
intended to "promote" the use of these tech- 
niques, but to aid managements and unions 
which have decided to adopt them. 

The Institute of Labor and Industrial 
Relations was established at the University of 
Illinois in 1946 to "inquire faithfully, hon- 
estly, and impartially into labor-management 
problems of all types, and secure the facts 
which will lay the foundation for future 
progress in the whole field of labor relations." 

The Bulletin series is designed to carry 
out these aims by presenting information and 
ideas on subjects of interest to persons active 
in the field of labor-management relations. 
These Bulletins are nontechnical, for general 
and popular use. 

Additional copies of this Bulletin and 
others are available for distribution. 

ROBBEN W. FLEMING, BARBARA D. DEN.NIS, 

Director Editor 



I.L.I.R. BULLETIN NO. 24 

(The number 24 represents the total number of 6u//etins 
published by the Institute of Labor and Industrial Re- 
lations to date. This series was originally called Series A 
and later I.L.I.R. Publications, Bulletin Series, with Vol- 
ume and Number. Hereafter I.L.I.R. 6u//etins will be 
published at irregular intervals and will be numbered 
consecutively. I.L.I.R. Publications, Bulletin Series, Vol. 6, 
No. 1, Workers on fhe Move, published in September, 
1952, is the Bu//ef/n in this series immediately preceding 
this publication.) 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS BULLETIN 

\'alume 51, Number 73: June, 1954. Published seven 
times each month by the University of Illinois. Entered as 
second-class matter December 11, 1912. at the post office at 
Urbana. Illinois, under the Act of August 24. 1912. Office 
of Publication. 2(17 .Administration Building. Urbana, Illinois. 



Motion and Time Study 



by 



L. C. PIGAGE 

Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Labor and Indusfriol 
Relations 



J. L. TUCKER 

Chief Industrial Engineer, CofTing Hoist Company. Former Instructor of 
Mechanical Engineering in Labor and Industrial Relations and Extension 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction 7 

Why Have Motion and Time Study? 9 

Motion and Time Study in the Wage Structure 10 

Motion Study 11 

Process Chart 12 

Flow Chart 18 

Operation Chart 18 

Micromotion (Simo) Chart 22 

Conclusion 22 

Time Study 23 

Approaching the Employee and Job to Be Time-Studied . 23 

Determining the Job Content 24 

Determining the Elements of the Job 26 

Recording the Actual Time Values 27 

Determining the Average Time to Do the Job 

by a Certain Operator 34 

Determining the Base Time for the Job 

by Rating or Leveling 36 

Determining and Applying Allowances 37 

Applying the Standard as Determined 

by the Time Study 40 

Conclusion AA 

Selected Bibliography 45 



Introduction 



To mention motion and time study to a group of workers, or to a 
group of management representatives, is a eertain way to start an 
involved discussion. 

Even with a history of some 50 years, many points are still debated. 
Time study was first used by Frederick W. Taylor while he was working 
at the Midvale Steel Company in the 1890's. At about the same time 
Frank B. Gilbreth applied motion study to bricklaying as a means of 
improving his contracting business. 

Perhaps some day agreement may be reached on a scientific procedure 
to follow in motion and time study. But at the present time we can only 
suggest some general methods which can be modified to fit a situation 
being considered. 

Human judgment has always been a strong factor to be overcome in 
attempting to remove the difficulties that surround this subject. The 
people in the shop, particularly those who are organized into unions, are 
suspicious of motion and time study. They are especially critical of the 
rating phase of time study — which has not been too satisfactory in many 
instances. 

Motion and time study affects the way a man works and how much 
he gets for his work. These things are vital to him. He finds it difficult to 
accept any change without understanding the reason for it. In most cases, 
motion and time study is not fully understood by those not actually 
trained to work with the technique. Often the lack of understanding and 
the misapplication of motion and time study are responsible for much of 
the controversy. 

This Bulletin is written to explain methods used in motion and time 
study, to suggest an approach to its many problems, and to assist in 
developing a working program in the field. 



Why Have Motion and Time Study? 

Managements of manufacturing concerns feel that economy of effort 
and cost are extremely important factors in the operation of a plant. 
In many cases they use motion and time study as one of the techniques 
to achieve this economy. In addition, they give serious consideration to 
the effect of production economy on the buying public. They try to set 
the selling price of a product at a level the customer is willing and able 
to pay. Frequently, if the product is a good one, well known, and sold 
at a reasonable price, a manufacturer may gain a leading position in the 
field. Thus he is able to maintain good profits and security. 

In order to price a product, most manufacturers try to determine and 
lower three major cost factors — material, overhead, and labor. Motion 
and time study has dealt mainly with labor costs. Yet it is affected by 
many complex variables such as the understanding of the whole field of 
motivation. It is this technical treatment of the subject, without due 
regard for the human being, which has caused many motion and time 
study systems to get into untenable positions in industry. 

For example, Jim and Ed are two workers. Each does exactly the 
same work, and each is apparently trying to do a good job. Yet, upon 
closer examination, it is found that Jim produces quite a bit more than 
Ed — even though Ed appears to be working harder than Jim. This 
situation isn't serious enough to create an immediate price emergency 
for the company, but it does warrant an investigation to find out why 
Ed doesn't produce as much as Jim. Perhaps there is some way to find 
out exactly what Jim does that enables him to produce so well. If the 
"know-how" that Jim possesses can be divided into sini]jlc steps and 



explained clearly to Ed, and to the other Eds in the plant, their jobs will 
become easier to perform and will cause fewer headaches for everyone. 

Here motion study comes into the picture. Through the use of motion 
study, the job can be broken down into steps, and each step can be 
analyzed to see if it is being done in the simplest, easiest, and safest 
possible manner. Jim probably knows a few short-cuts that help him do 
his job in less time and with less effort. By using motion study, it will be 
possible to find out just what these are. 

At this point Ed can be helped by motion study. The job has been 
broken down into simple steps that are easy to explain, easy to under- 
stand, and easy to follow. Now he will be able to realize some good pro- 
duction results and get these results with less effort than he used before. 

Time study is the recording of the time needed to do a certain 
amount of work in a certain way. It is tied in directly with the specific 
method of doing the work and is good only for that method. The use of 
time study permits the company to complete the picture of labor cost 
and also provides a fixed base so the worker will know what is expected 
of him during a certain period of time. 

What does this mean to the company, and eventually to Jim and Ed? 
It means that the company can constantly improve its position in the 
competitive market and can maintain a good profit margin. This may 
result in more benefits for Jim and Ed — greater job security and higher 
wages. Moreover, their work will be easier. 



Motion and Time Study in the Wage Structure 

In the technical sense, motion and time study can be placed between 
the job evaluation system and the specific wage incentive plan used in 
the company. The motion and time study program establishes the 
minimum expected rate of production on each job to which it is applied 
for the base money rate being paid for that job. (The base money rate 
for the job may change from time to time due to changing economic 
conditions and social outlooks, but the time standard should remain the 
same as long as the method of doing the job is not changed.) 

Furthermore, motion and time study programs set the basis for wage 
incentive systems. Through the use of motion and time study, the unit base 
of measure for extra pay for extra production above the acceptable mini- 
mum is established. (This whole relationship is more fully explained in Job 
Evaluation, a Bulletin previously published by the University of Illinois.) 

10 



Motion Study 

Motion and time study is not scientific throughout. The techniques 
do attempt to follow a scientific procedure, but there is room for con- 
siderable inipro\ement. To achieve rational and reasonable results it is 
essential to use motion and time study together to determine a production 
standard. It is particularly important that reasonable effort be applied 
in motion study to insure equitable results when time study is used. In 
tact, much c^t the diflficulty with time study, aside from lack of scientific 
procedure, is a result of applying it without a thorough study of the 
motion pattern of the job. 

Basically, motion study is the foundation for time study. The time 
study determines the time to do the job according to a certain method 
and is valid only so long as the method is continued. Once a new way to 
do the job is developed, the time study must be changed to agree with 
the new method. Otherwise the time allowed for the job would be too 
great, and a loose standard would result. This, in turn, would mean 
inconsistent standards or unequal opportunity for all persons on incentive 
work to earn essentially equal bonuses. 

Motion study can be used successfully without time study — but time 
study cannot be used without motion study. Since motion study is the 
foundation for time study and should be done before a time study is 
made, this Bulletin will consider motion study techniques first. 

The purpose of motion study should be to find the greatest economy 
of effort with due regard for safety and the human aspect. The total 
cost lor human expenditure of effort can be reduced at the same time 
that the unit cost for human eflfort is increased. The same amount of 
work can be accomplished in less time with more efficient application of 
human effort which will justify higher hourly wage rates. 

Any job can be motion-studied. The achievement of reduced human 
effort may be harder to secure on some jobs than on others, but this is 
no excuse for not applying motion study in many places other than on 
factory jobs. In fact, motion study can be applied very effectively to jobs 
in the home, in the oflfice, in retail and distribution fields, and in many 
other areas. 

Stated simply, motion study means — 

1 . Find out how a job is being done now. 

2. Thoroughly question the reason for each step as it is being done 
now on the job. 

3. Remove the steps on the job which cannot be fully justified. 



11 



UBRARV 

UNivERsmr OF nnmni 



4. Install and standardize the new procedure for doing the job. 
The job study may be simple or elaborate — depending on the desires 
of those making the study and the people on the job. The amount of 
time and money to be spent may limit the scope of the study. 

The ideas as outlined in the following pages will give a fair concept 
of some of the possible motion study techniques which can be used. 
These samples of techniques, simply illustrated, with supporting pro- 
cedures, will give the reader an idea of relatively uniform practices now 
prevailing. No attempt is made to cover all the possible variations that 
may exist. 

The usual and tested procedures in motion study involve the use of ■ — 

1. Process charts. The study of a series of steps in making an article 
or the series of events a person goes through in completing a job 
assignment. 

2. Flow charts. A supporting route of travel that an article or person 
may take in completing a series of steps in a job assignment. This chart 
is usually used to supplement the process chart. 

3. Operations charts. A detailed analysis of just what an employee 
does in a specific step or task. 

4. Micromotion (simo) charts. An elaborate breakdown of an opera- 
tion chart into very fine motion patterns, showing what the employee 
does in a specific step or task. 

The above is the accepted order of study of processes and jobs. Not all 
are necessary, but usually the process, flow, and operation charts are 
made. This Bulletin will consider, in turn, each type of chart in the 
motion study procedure. But a person with a sheet of ordinary paper and 
a pencil can achieve equally good results — even though specific forms 
are shown in the subsequent illustrations. 

PROCESS CHART 

Before one studies each and every step in a series used to complete 
an article or product, it is well to take a look at the over-all picture. 
This means that all the steps should be considered in relation to each 
other. The idea of this over-all view is to decide — 

1. Are all the %teps now used to complete the product or task 
necessary? 

2. Are the various steps done in the proper order? 

3. Is there waste of time and cfTort between the various "do" parts 
of the series of steps? 

To study the over-all situation, one usually makes a process chart 
and a flow diagram. On the process chart, all the various steps involved 

12 



in furthering the product from raw material to final finish(>d form are 
listed in the order in which they now exist. It is essential that each and 
e\-ery phase of the series of steps in the over-all picture be shown. No 
assumptions should be made. Above all, it is highly desirable to observe 
the series of events on the actual scene instead of trying to picture what 
is taking place from a distant office. 

As an illustration of a process chart, consider the simple series of 
events encountered in preparing a bottled soda to drink. I'his might 
occur in any home, and the illustration was purposely selected so that 
the reader might duplicate the process chart in his own home. Note that 
every step in the series is shown, regardless of the extent of the step. 
Furthermore, this chart was made by actually observing a person per- 
forming the job sequence. See Figure I. 

It can be seen from this process chart that, along with the general 
identification material and summary, there are three detail parts to the 
body of the chart. These are (1) description of the step, (2) symbol, 
and (3) distance involved. A fourth detail, the time for each step, could 
be listed and often is. 

The symbols used may look somewhat queer, but, with usage, one 
will soon discover that they assist in spotting features about a series of 
steps which will lead to simplifying the process. The symbols used in this 
and anv chart are — 



o 



V- 
o 



an operation, a step which progresses the product through 
change in shape, etc., along to completion. 

O — a move operation, a transportation from one location to an- 
other, but not involving a change in shape of the product nor 

progressing the product along to completion. 

Nat/ — a temporary storage, a waiting of the article or product for the 

^ next event to happen. 

a permanent storage, a waiting of the article or product for 

the next event to happen. This differs from temporary storage 

in that an order is reciuired before the next event can take 

place. 

an inspection of a quality nature. 

rn — an inspection of a quantity nature. 

Now, returning to the illustrated process chart (Figure I), note 
several features that would and should be questioned. There are ( 1 ) sev- 
eral moves involving considerable distance to secure thi' finished product 
and (2) several operations which may be readily simplified. I'he extent 
of a change depends upon the costs one may be able to undertake. Siin]jlc 
changes usually can be made without actual — or with minor — money 
outlay. In this case, one-third of the distance traveled could be saved by 
relocating the refrigerator and bottle opener. (This is particularly evident 
when one looks at the flow chart. Figure II.) 

13 



PROCESS CHART 

"Present METHOD 

Page-Lof-L 

Pfnra^^ ~Preoare boltlect he.\iera<^ff -fodrinWi 

pppt<; Hoir>g Ports 5gda,Bc<"r i^ertf tor,QpgnerPart No's. N>Qng 

Charted by J^Wn Dna Date Ant^ 4-1 wg , 



Dia+aoctf 


Si^imbol 




Explanation 


V/ R«e^ om 4ofa 


(^ St^awd up 


3ort. 




\ 




Walk, to nyfrigerotor 


(^ Opffi refrigerator <Joor 


C^ Cast bottle of berenage 


CJ Closff r«fr>q« rotor door 


9 «. 




k 




Wallc to opener Con U3a\l) 


Q Open bottlff 


19 f+. 








Walk to boall cabinet 


C^ (Set tf glass 


12 ft. 




\ 




Walt to sink 


([p Pour beveraq<£> into qloss 


Q 5e^ bottle aside in sint 


30 ft. 




) 




Walk to sofa 


CP Sit dou>n 


\7 Kcst on sofa. 




Summary 




No 


of 


operatio 


ns 9 




No. 


of 


move men 


ta 5 




Distance 


ofmovemenits 99 ft- 




Mo. 


of sVora<)ss 


2 



FIGURE I 



14 



FLOW CHART 

Page_LofJL_ 

Prnrpss T'lou> diagram- Prvparv bottlxl b«v#rag# fo dnwh, 

pppts Hotv^tf pprfs Soaa.gafri^cator. Opwer pg^f Nf^'a Hon* 



Charted by JoHn ppg 



nnto Ant) flm* 






LCP-62-Form2 



Rfffri^arat'or O 




Scale- each squore.£il. 



FIGURE H 



15 



PROCESS CHART 



Improved METHOD 

Poge_Lof_L 

Prnrpo; P^apore bottted b«v»raqe fa driwb 

P>ptg Home Ports ^°*'<'- <'^'^'<»«'-at«r, Qpimr pgrt No's. -5i5!5S___ 



Chorted by Jon Po« 



Date ^°^*^ • <"*« 

Mm* 



Otshance 




£<^mbol 


E;(planotion 


^ Re«t on safoi 


^ Stand up 


24 a 








Walk, to uuill cabinet 


Q Get glas6 


6 ft. 




i 




Walk to refrigerator 


Q) Open refrigerator door 


C^ <a»t boM-le of bti^erage 


^) Close reFrigerafor door 


3f+. 








Walk +o opCAtr (an side of base cabinet^ 


Q Open bottle 


6 ft. 








Walk to aink. 


^P Pour berera^e into glasd 


C^ Set bottle Qfide in sink. 


30 ft. 








Walk to »ofa 


CP Sit down 


\/ Ee»t on sofa. 


SUKIM AR.Y 


Imf roK^a M<rtha<l Original M«tti»d Sntnuja 


No 


of 


operat- 


ons 


9 9 - 


Mo. 


of 


movements 


S s - 


Distance of mo\/emen\s 


69 ft. 99 ft. 3oft. 


Ho. 


of 


dtora^ 


e4 


2 2 - 



LCP-52-Foim I 



FIGUREin 



16 



FLOW CHART 

(mprovgd METHOD 

Page±.ofJ_ 

Process P'lom diagram - Pfeparo bottlgd bevaragtf to dnwte. 

ngpts. Home Porfs Sodo. Rgfn<}iratar,Opentfr p^y| Np's **on» 

Date LqV*r.an>j 



Charted by ^O"^ Pog 



[^HlD 



Table 



5ofa. 



LCP-52-Form2 




R«rrigeTa*o«r' 



Scale- each square2_ff_ 



FIGURE ET 



17 



These simple changes resuhcd in the improved process chart shown 
in Figure III and the corresponding improved flow chart shown in 
Figure IV. Further changes in equipment could have resulted in even 
more saving of time and eff"ort, but some money would have to be spent 
for these improvements. 

FLOW CHART 

This chart, as seen in Figure II, is really a "road map" of the series 
of events. It brings out more clearly the extent of the moving-around 
involved even in this simple illustration. The general practice is to have 
a flow chart accompany every process chart. The flow chart is drawn to 
any convenient scale. 

OPERATION CHART 

Even though no operations were eliminated in the improved process 
and flow charts illustrated, there are many cases where they could be. 
Because some operations can be eliminated or combined with others, an 
individual operation study should follow an over-all (process chart) 
study. In this way, time will not be wasted studying or retaining an 
unnecessary series of events. 

Each operation should be studied to find — 

1. What the operator does in accomplishing the task. 

2. Why the operator does each part in accomplishing the task. 

3. What is not absolutely necessary to accomplish the task so that a 
more eff^ective use of effort can be suggested. 

It does not take much time and energy to discover that many parts of 
a job involve the use of human effort to accomplish little or nothing — 
except that the worker gets tired. This does not imply an insult to the 
many skilled operators of today. It is simply that parts of many jobs, and 
in some cases whole jobs, "just grew up like Topsy" without sufficient 
thought as to why they are done as they are. In fact, some people on the 
job or very close to the job do not realize just how much eflfort is wasted 
until they stop and take stock of what is being done. 

Furthermore — and this is important — many operators on the same 
job and production-standard-time-allowed will produce at diff"erent rates 
because of the difTerent methods they use rather than because of how fast 
they work. This is especially true when the operators are left more or 
less on their own to develop their own methods on the job. This idea 
was suggested in the introductory pages of this Bulletin. The operator is 
placed in a very difficult position when he is given the production- 
standard-time-allowed without the specific method. He has to stumble 

18 



on thf proper or better method to meet the time standard while still 
working at a reasonable paee. 

Various means ean be used to seeure the information as to what an 
operator does to accomplish a task, but the most satisfactory has been a 
two-colunm chart. 

1 . For a single operator — one column shows what the left hand is 
doing- and thi^ other colunm shows what the right hand is doing at the 
same time throughout the task. See Figure V. (Additional colunms may 
be used to show foot lever operations, etc.) 

2. For an operator and a helper — one column shows what the 
operator is doing and the other shows what the helper is doing at the 
same time. 

3. For an operator and a machine — one column shows what the 
operator is doing and the other shows what the machine is doing at the 
same time. 

4. Various combinations of the above three situations. 

Turning to specifics and looking at Figure V, the reader can see what 
the operator actually was doing when he was straightening a welded "T" 
bracket. This particular method does not reflect on his intelligence. He 
was trying to get the task accomplished. But the reader will note that 
several times throughout the accomplishment of the task, one hand or 
the other was idle. Also, the operator spent a lot of time handling thi' 
work without actually straightening the bracket. The motion study 
engineer did not intend to overwork the operator in correcting these 
conditions, but aimed to help him use his eflfort more constructively. 
With these thoughts in mind, a simple straightening block was con- 
structed. This block retained the bracket in proper position for the 
straightening operation. Now an analysis of what the operator does 
reveals eflfective use of both hands. See Figure VI. 

These operation charts not only serve as a means to simplify an oper- 
ation, but — 

1 . They are excellent instruction guides to train new operators 
properly. 

2. I'hey are sound bases for the method being emplo\ed when the 
time study is made. 

3. They are highly useful when grievances on production standards or 
changes in production arise. 

Although further improvements could be realized through the use of 
a special arbor prc-ss in the specific task illustrated, it can he seen that 
inuch can be accomplished in operation analysis without excessive ex- 
penditure of money. Above all, human endeavor can be directed to ac- 
complishing the task more efTectively. 

19 



OPERATION CHART 



"Presenf 



-Porta 




Scale -each square akgf^ ^^*- 



METHOD 

Page 1 of ±- 

Dpprntinn ^^''Q'q^^'^'^ Welded "T' Brac ket 



Operation No.. 



W«ld "T" 
Port*? Brockat 



- Dept 



13 



Mochine 8g"ch 
Specif. No. '^°"g 



_ Part No. 'O'^o 
■ Mach.No. '^""g - 
. Draw. No. Hone- 



Operator a No. Ll. Pott pixt. No. '^""g 

Charted by ^°'» Po^ 



AniJ 

Date timg 



Left hand 


"Right hand 


Reach for part 9 


1 


j7 Wait for left hand 


Qrasp part O 






Carry to i/isc V 


< 


Reach for vise handle 


Position in viae Q) 




) (a rasp handle 


Hold for tightening vise W 


Q Tighten vise 


Relaase part C 


!) 


Q Release handle 






o Reach for hammer 






O Grasp hammer- 


Idle ^ 


7 


O Carrij hammer to fisa 






O Hit part to straighten 






o Carrjj hanomer aside 






Q Release hammer 


Reach for part < 


' 


9 Reac\n tor vise handle 


Caraap part C 


? 


Q) <3rasp vice handle 


Hold part ^ 


Q Open vise 


Remove part frow vise ^) 


Q) Release »/ise handle 


Car-rij part to \ai/e\ block <^ 




Sight part for 3trai<jW»i«S5 O 


^ 


7 Idle 


Asidff part ^ 






Release part O | 




Summary 


L.H. B.H. 


Y OperatioirtS 9 


5 Mot^enients 5 


3 Holds ft delays 2 



FIGURE 3Z: 



OPERATION CHART 

Suc)^e5ted METHOD 



^ 



fm 



F" 



bar r"^ '*>fot-^ . ■ 
. . . J^Optraior ■ ■ ■ 

:::;:::♦:::: 



Scale -each square -g^g"^ ' ^* 



Pagelof_L 

nnprntinn Straightgn Weld<?d "T" Brack et 



Operation No. i^ 



Wold 
Pnrt<; Sractegt 



.Dept._l3_ 



Machine _S*!lch_ 
Specif. No. H<"^g 



Operator a No. J=LO«ii 

Charted by ^°'^ P°e 



-Port No. 'O^o 
. Mach. No. ^o'nf 
. Draw. No. f*one 
_ Fixt. No. Sioi 
Date -time. 



Left hand 


"KighV hand 


Raoch for part <y 


9 Reacts for hammer 


Qrasp part (p 


O Grasp hammer 


Carrtj part to block. V 


<f Carri^ hammer H> blocb 


Position part in hole in bloct O 


W Wait 


Release part O 


Q Strike part 


l^eacVi for qoqs bar Q 


i Aside hammer 


Qragp qa^e har- O 


^ Release Hammer 


Corri^ qaqe bar to part 9 


i Rffach for parf 


Ga^e part for strai^htness O 


Q (jrasp part 


A.9ide gage bar 9 


o Aside part 


Release goge bar O 


O Release part 




SUMMflRY 


Com PARisoH 




LH. B.H. 


Original 
Me^Vtod 


SuqqCited 
Method 


<o OparaVions 5 


1 6 Operations 


II 


5 Mo</fftn<rntj S 


lO Mowements 


)0 


- Holds «i Dvloi^ 1 


5 Holds Cc Oelaijs 


1 





LCP-52-Form 3 



FIGURE 3ZE 



21 



MICROMOTION (SIMO) CHART 

In some cases it is found that a more detailed investigation is needed. 
The technique employed for detailed analysis is called micromotion study 
and the chart used is a micromotion or simo chart. Frank B. and Dr. 
Lillian Gilbreth, who originally developed this method of motion study, 
found that all work could be broken down into 17 basic body motions. 
These basic motions were called "therbligs" ( a form of Gilbreth in reverse ) 
and are still known by that name. All jobs involve various combinations 
of these basic motions, and their interrelationships play a very important 
part in the analysis of jobs which are short in duration and rapid in per- 
formance. In fact, micromotion study technique is favored over other 
motion study methods because it can measure rapid jobs more efTectively. 

Because these motions are small and difficult to record, the Gilbreths 
also developed the use of a motion picture camera and a timing device 
for studying and measuring the basic motion patterns involved in doing 
work. Micromotion study is not too widely used at the present time be- 
cause many work improvements can be realized with the more simple 
forms of analysis. A micromotion study program is costly, and this also 
limits its use by many organizations. 

Before rejecting micromotion study because of cost, serious considera- 
tion should be given to its many advantages. In long range planning, the 
detailed analysis may be well worth the investment. Son:ie of the advan- 
tages are that micromotion study — 

1. Provides more detail than other methods of observation. 

2. Is more accurate than other methods. 

3. Is more convenient than other methods. 

a. The work can be studied at leisure from a film. 

b. The film can be stopped at any place in the cycle and restudicd. 

4. Provides automatic timing. 

5. Provides a permanent record free of errors. 

6. Is useful in training operating personnel and methods analysts. 

7. Allows observer to study all types of jobs and various crews. 

8. Is useful as a basis for developing standard data. 

A more detailed discussion of micromotion study may bt- found in the 
many excellent texts mentioned in the bibliography. 

CONCLUSION 

To date there have been many ideas and principles developed for 
motion study. These principles or rules are good for checking a person's 
work to insure adequate coverage of the possibilities of work simplifica- 
tion. An open mind and plenty of common sense are essential in doing 
motion study work. 

22 



Time Study 



Once the method of doing the work has been determined by motion 
study, it is often desirable to find out liow much time is used to do the 
work. Many industries have adopted some sort of a time study system 
to record the time on a job. The name time study imphes that some sort 
of a time-measuring device must be used. In most cases it is a stopwatch. 
This particular area is more familiar to the employee because he is able 
to observe at least the physical aspects of a time study man with his 
stopwatch and board. 

Before taking a time study, it is necessary to understand just what a 
time study attempts to do. 

A time study attempts to find out the amount of work that a 
cjualified operator, properly trained, can do in a given time. The 
operator must do the work according to a certain method, under 
certain conditions, and at a certain pace which will produce a 
certain physical reaction. Certain allowances for personal and 
other delays are provided. 

In this explanation, "certain" is used several times. It is the problem 
of each individual plant to determine the exact specifications for the 
"certain" method, "certain" conditions, "certain" pace, "certain" physi- 
cal reaction, and "certain" allowances. Just how the specifications are 
determined — unilaterally by management or bilaterally by management 
and the employees or union — is decided in each case by the person or 
persons involved. But it must be remembered that the employees' ac- 
ceptance of the final answer — the production-standard-time to be al- 
lowed — is one of the criteria for the success of time study. 

All phases — job method, working conditions, pace, and allowances 
— must be carefully considered if the time study is to be rational. It is 
unreasonable to expect a production worker to accept and meet or exceed 
a production standard that is not based on these phases. It is with this 
idea in mind that the following suggested steps in time study, with the 
rationale expressed in each case, are considered. This is necessary because 
only a scientific procedure is attempted ; some parts of taking a time 
study are an art. 

APPROACHING THE EMPLOYEE AND JOB TO BE TIME-STUDIED 

From the technical aspect, this first step of the time study series is 
not too important. However, from the psychological point of view, it 
is perhaps the one which determines whether the idea of time study is 



23 



accepted or rejected. In most cases, the employee's first contact with 
time study comes when he sees the time study man with his board and 
stopwatch. 

Much has been written about approaching an employee and getting 
his cooperation in any endeavor. In this case, the time study engineer 
should consider all the ideas expressed by others and, after careful 
thought, use the ones most applicable to the situation. Assuming that the 
other phases outlined in the following pages are adequately covered, the 
approach to the employee when properly handled does much toward 
securing a good and sound time study with the facilities available today. 

The time study engineer should approach the employee with the idea 
of seeking cooperation and should make him feel at ease. But this cannot 
be done with a "mightier-than-thou" attitude. The engineer should give 
the employee an idea of what the study is all about. And he should 
welcome the employee's thoughts and ideas. 

Before the engineer takes any actual time values, he should establish 
that the job is properly set up and that the method used is the one to 
be used until changes are made. In other words, the job should be reason- 
ably standardized, and the cjualificd operator properly trained in the 
work method should be selected. 



DETERMINING THE JOB CONTENT 

The determination of job content involves recording the method of 
doing the job exactly as it is done when the time study is taken. This 
should be done in such detail that the work can be reproduced at any 
time in the future. Details include recording — 

1. The general information about the job. 

2. The workplace description. 

3. The conditions and environment surrounding the workplace. 

4. The method used by the operator. 

The record obtained is of the utmost importance for the administra- 
tion of a sound time study system because it provides information for ■ — 

1. Determining the magnitude of job changes as they occur. 

2. Training other operators in the standard method to enable them 
to meet the standard time. 

3. Developing standard time data. 

The importance of making the proper record of the time study is 
further emphasized when the consequences of an incomplete description 
are considered. An incomplete time study record can cause the standard 
times to become useless because the operators cannot be trained to meet 
them. Without proper records inaccuracies develop in the standard time 

24 



TIME STUDY SHEET 



operation Drill ^/if>" pin holg 
Operation No Lo 



Pa rts S<-atj pin 



PogeJ-Of 2_ 

Dept. Mac'^ing Shop 5^,^ 1^0^ J 

.Oper. No. 3^ Draw. r^ mo-o-Z T 



.Part No's -0-2T. 



MflRhinP Cijctone 



.Mach. Nq 357 



Study hy P S- Jone« 



.Approved by. 



. Specif. Ng'o^o 
_Fixt. NaOiU 
Date *>**** 



Sketch 



Tote fat\ of . . 
fini*h«cl pa'tsj 



-Drill fires* . . 



CTenr 

lis. 



■■Joftf.pan. 
pf . u«ifM«W 

OpenotoV" ' 
Scole- eoch squor* obout 4" 



Operation Description 



Notes 

1. Li^htinq qood- fairlij cl«an room 

2. Moderate nois? lavvl 

3. Comfortoblff saot -operator can etond 
4 Supplij boxeA poorlij supported - on 

uiooden crateo \8" hi^h 

5. Material 5upplie<:l to and talr«n from 
opeyator 

6. MacViine operated at I200 rpm uatng 
high *fted dn'U 

Allowed 



Left hand 



Open clamp, release^ ^<adp piece 



Atfide finished piece, release 



and ^eaeh for c^uick clamp 



ort jiq, and ^ratft and clamp 



Clan^p piece in ^19 and Wold 



damp 



Kold ctanrip 



"Right hand 



Raise drill to clear 5toclo 



Ka\s« drill to re«i- po4ition , 



release 



Reacti for next piece, qraap and 



Cdrri^ -to ^aiek ciatnp Jig 



Position piece to jig, release 



ReacV) for drill presj handle, 



qrasp and louier drill to atock. 



Drill 3/ife" pin hale ( hand feed^ 



LCP-S2-F«rni Ss 



Allowed time In per piece. 



FIGURE 3Zir 
Method description (front of form) 



25 



because of changes in method, equipment, workplace, and surroundings 
which cannot be checked. Perhaps the most chaotic result is the gradual 
development of undesirable attitudes on the part of the people on the 
job. They begin to associate standard times with production quotas 
rather than as measurements of the physical work required. This feeling 
leads to a resistance to change, even though the suggested method re- 
quires no increase in physical effort. 

Before considering the methods description complete, two important 
questions should be asked: 

1. Can the job be reproduced from the methods description? 

2. Does the description include everything the worker has to do? 
To show how a time study builds up to completion, the same job will 

be used as an illustration in all cases. Each step will be discussed and 
shown on the time study form in turn. The previous discussion dealt 
with determining the job content. Figure VII illustrates this step for a 
simple drill press job. 

DETERMINING THE ELEMENTS OF THE JOB 

Time values of a job can be secured in a number of different ways. 
Perhaps the two extremes would be ( 1 ) to secure the over-all time to do 
the whole job and divide this time by the number of pieces or pounds 
produced to get a unit measure and (2) to determine the time for each 
motion and a total of all the motion times for one unit produced to give 
a unit measure. Between these two extremes are any number of possi- 
bilities, and it is usually one of these other methods that is used. In other 
words, the job is broken down into parts and the parts are timed. The 
parts are known as elernejits. 

There are no fixed regulations as to how a job should be broken down 
into elements, but there are a few guides which can be used. The rest 
has to be built up through experience. The guides are — 

1. Contents of each element should be as homogeneous as possible. 
This means that a unit of work such as "insert a screw" should be in one 
element, but other units of work in the same job should be in other 
elements. 

2. Hand and machine times should be placed in different elements. 
Hand time is under the operator's control and is subject to rating or 
leveling. Machine time, under automatic feed, is a definite value de- 
pending upon the physical characteristics of the part being made and 
equipment used. This can be determined without actual time study. 

3. Each element should be either a relatively constant time value 
element or a variable time value element. The same element of work in 
one job will appear in many other jobs — especially in similar work. 

26 



However, in some cases because of the physical characteristic of the 
part being made (such as size), the time value for the same element will 
be different from job to job. This is known as a variable element. In 
other cases, the varying work factors such as size, weight, shape, and 
difficulty of handling will not affect the time for the same element from 
job to job. If this is the case, the clement will be classified as a constant 
element. The value of having an element variable or constant is much 
more apparent when standard data, or standard time values, are being 
developed. 

4. Each element should, insofar as possible, have a definite start and 
end point. In order to secure comparable time values for the same 
element, the start and end points should be fairly definite so the watch 
can be read at the right time each time the element occurs. 

One may find that the time recording means may not permit breaking 
a job into certain elements. For example, it is not advisable to use an 
ordinary stopwatch for elements less than 0.04 minutes. If the element 
is shorter, a different timing device, such as a movie camera, should be 
used ; or else two or more elements should be combined into one. 

To illustrate, Figure Villa shows the simple drill press job with 
th(^ HK^thod of doing the job broken down into elements for a stopwatch 
time study. The end point of each element — the point at which the stop- 
watch is read — is underscored. (The end point of one element is the 
starting point for the next element.) In the particular case illustrated, 
the right hand is the controlling one for each element, but this is not 
always the case. 

Figure Vlllb shows the element end points, or the points at which 
the watch is read, on the time recording side (back of form) of the time 
study sheet. 

Occasionally some elements may not appear every time a piece or 
part is made. These elements are described as if they were regular ele- 
ments, but time values will appear only at irregular intervals. A note 
usually accompanies the description of these irregular elements to sug- 
gest how often they occur, so that proportional amounts of time can 
be allowed for them on each piece or pound produced. (Figure I.X 
illustrates the irregular element as well as other features.) 

RECORDING THE ACTUAL TIME VALUES 

In recording the actual time values, two (juestions need to be 
answered : 

1. What method of reading a stopwatch is going to be used? 

2. When have an adequate number of stojjwatch readings hctn 
secured? 

27 



TIME STUDY SHEET 



Operation, 

Operation No.. 

Operator. 

Ports. 

Mochine. 

Study by. 



Dept. 

_Oper No.. 
.Part No's- 
. Mach, No. 



_ Page_of 

-Study No 

Draw. No 



Approved by. 



Specif, Na. 
_ Fixt. No 
Date . 



Sketch . 




Notes 






















Scale-each square 


No, 


Operation 


3escriplion 


Alldwe'l] 
Time 


1 


Left hand 


12igh+ hand 




Open damp, release^ <j rasp piece 


Raise drill tocleor stoct 


Aside fimished piece, reieose 


Raise drill to rest posi+ion, 


and reach -for q,uick clamp 


release 


on jig, and c^rosp and cSamp 


Reach for next piece, grasp and 




carrq to q,uict. clamp jiq 


2 


Clomp piece in jig and H«ld 


Position piece to jig, release 




clamp 


Reach for drill pr«ss Kindle, 




£^raap and louter drill ta 5taclc> 


3 


l-told damp 


Drill 3/,^" pin Woltf ChtnJ feed) 
























tCP-5 


2-Form 5o . 

A 


Mowed time In per piece 





FIGURE 3mia 
Element description (front of form) 



28 













Page ^ of 2 


End Point of Elements 






Start study 




S ^ 


S 

% s 

_ w 
- o 

1^ 


1^ 
II 




















Fnd study 




Notes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 






7 


R 


tIr 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


tIr 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T R 


t!r 


T 


R 


1 






1 




























1 








2 














































3 
















































4 












































5 














































6 
















































7 






































1 








8 






































1 








9 






































1 








10 












































II 


































1 








12 


1 






































13 














































14 






i 






































15 












































16 


























j 
















17 














































18 








1 




































19 












































20 












































21 












































22 














































23 
















































24 
















































25 
















































Summary 






Totol of "t" 


























No. of observations 
























Average "t" 
























Rating 
























Base time 
























Percentage allowance 
























Allowed time 


























LCP-52-for,.. 50 





FIGURE 3Znib 
Element description (back of form) 



29 



Poge^of 2 


End Point of Elements | 


Start gtudy lOtOI 
Fnrt study \OtOS 


J. 



It 

Q.""» 


i 

k 
- 


— 3 




1 ■ ■ 1 I 

. 1. First reading -end of 




^ 


element one. 
' 2. Second reading - end 
of element two 


Notes 


1 


2 


L^3 


< 


t^ 








T 


R 


Lp- 


■< 


^, 


^ 


■f 


R 


T^ 


'3. Third reading -end 

nf olpm«>n-f three. 


1 


6 


6 


s 


II' 


?o 


3/ 










2 


6 


37 


f 


42 


2/ 


&l 






^_ 4. Fourth reading -end 
of element one for 
the second piece of 




3 


5- 


6fl 


A 


7? 


2/ 


93 








4 


6 


>1 

lOI 


4- 


^ 


2o 


2S 








5 


6 


31 


J 


36 


2/ 


57 






work bi»inn timed. 


— 




6 


6 


6a 


3 


9/ 


22 


?3 








5 etc 








7 


7 


2o< 


4 


4 


2/ 


25 








1 t 1 1 1 1 














8 


^ 


30 


J 


3tf 


2/ 


5(^ 




































9 


7 


65 


^ 


6S 


2J 


«<; 




































10 


7 


9S 


_ 


X. 


c 
Zo 


34 


1 


































II 
















































12 
















































13 


































\C 






14 
































.A*^I<* J 




15 


























~~\ ' 


.0«>^^\<e-^ .A 1 




16 


























A^M^rxvo^irfA- J 




17 






















v.e<:.<s\^.«ft'^^'' J 




18 
















1 


.>s^::^e>^":v^*^ 


— 




19 














\ 


^o'^V*\t<^'^>jJ^.,e^^;x> 








20 














Vt>t^tV^ 


1 










21 
















V.^"^?..*^^ 


1 














22 


















xv^^x^e" 




















23 




















\\v 






















24 




















1 1 ' 






















25 










... 












_ 


_J 












_ 







/?- c/ri7/ binding 2 

B- fuml.l» 29^ 

C - blotu noitr ' — 3.29 *"' 


miiard rea 


Summary 












Total of "t" 
























No. of observations 
























Average "t" 
























Roting 
























Base tinne 
























Percentage allowance 
























Allowed time 

























LCP-5* Form 5b 



FIGURE IK 
Continuous method of stopwatch reading and 
recording 



30 



Pog* ^of 2 


End Point ot Elements | 


Start study lo:oi 
Fnd study IO:oS 


9 

o. 


9 

"C 

Z 3 
■0 


— 3 

— w 


^ 


A. Reading and also time 






tor element one. 
^2. Reading and also time 


Notes 


1 


2 ^ 


'^3 


4^ 




for element two. 






T 


R 


;i^ 


R 


J- 


< 


T 


R 


> 


-5. Reading and also time 


1 


6' 


r' 


-5- 


^ 


2o 




— 




for element three. 




2 


6 




,5- 




Zl 










4. etc. 1 




3 


5 




4 




21 












,,..., 1 1 








4 


fe 




4 




20 






































5 


6 




s\ 


Zl 






































6 


6 




% 




22 






































7 


7 




4 




2/ 






































e 


■5- 




S 




21 






































9 


7 




S 




20 






































10 


7 




z 




c 
20 






































II 
















































12 






























i 














13 












































14 


































Lc^*^.. 




15 






























XN^^>^' .^ 




16 


























. <e^>^>^^6^" ] 




17 






















.o\;,. V*^>^^ J 




18 




















J^^\^^'^\<^'' 


— 




19 


















* -'^>^^:'cc»':.^^"<^^!: . 








20 














^ 


^^''^^t.^'^W^N^'' 














21 














N\'^t\'^\o^>* 
















22 


















^%t* AO^ 


1 
















23 




















^\<r^ 






















24 










































25 


















1 1 





















fl- drill bindiHj 
S- -fumble 

hlotu naia 3o 



■ missal reading 

Summary 



Totol of "t" 
























No. of observations 
























Average "t" 
























Rating 
























Bose time 
























Percentage allowance 
























Allowed time 

























FIGURE Z 

Snapback method of stopwatch reading and 

recording 



31 



With rrspect to the method of stopwateh reading, it can be said that 
the accuracy and reliabiHty of the particular niethod depends entirely 
on the person handling the watch. In spite of the many pro and con 
arguments on the merits of continuous and snapback (known also as 
repetitive) fundamental methods of stopwatch reading, there is as yet 
insufficient proof that one system is better than the other. The selection 
of a method depends upon the time study department's preference and 
the acceptance of the selected method by the working force. 

The description of the two methods outlined below, with illustrations, 
should provide sufficient inlormation as to how each method of reading 
and recording operates. 

Continuous Stopwatch Reading and Recording. The stopwatch is 
started at the beginning of the first element of the job description and 
runs continuously until the study is completed. At the end of each ele- 
ment, in turn, the particular reading of the watch is recorded for the 
corresponding element. In Figure IX under R in column one, line one, 
the watch read 0.06 minutes at the end of the first element. The watch 
continued to run, and in the same column on line two, it read 0.11 
minutes at the end of element two. The reading at the end of the third 
element was 0.31 minutes. The watch continued to run so that at the 
end of the first element of the second piece of work, the watch read 0.37 
minutes. The decimal point is not shown in the recording since all values 
are in hundredths of a minute. A decimal minute watch, the most popu- 
lar, was used. 

The time for each element is secured by subtracting successive read- 
ings. For example, element one for the first piece was 0.06 minutes, since 
the watch started at zero and read 0.06 minutes at the end of the first 
element. For the second element of the same piece, the time was 0.05 
minutes. This was secured by subtracting the watch reading at the end 
of element one (0.06 minutes) from the reading at the end of element 
two (0.11 minutes) . All these "subtracted times," the time for the element 
in each case, appear in the T part of the vertical column. 

Snapback or Repetitive Stopwatch Reading and Recording. The 
stopwatch is started at the beginning of each element. At the end of 
each element, the watch is read and the hand is snapped back to zero. 
It starts again for the next element. Because in all cases the time values 
are for just the particular element being timed, the values can be re- 
corded directly in the T part of the vertical column. See Figure X for 
a recording of time values by the snapback method of stopwatch reading 
and recording. (As a inatter of interest, compare the respective T parts of 
the vertical columns of Figures IX and X. They should be the same if 
the readings are accurate.) 
32 



The second consideration when securing the actual time values in- 
\ olved in doing a job is to determine when an adequate number of values 
has been secured. In other words, how many time values must one secure 
to have a reasonable and sound sample to represent the job? There are 
two extreme possibilities here : ( 1 ) take a complete time study of the 
whole job from the first piece or pound to the last piece or pound (as- 
suming a sizable number of pieces), or (2) take enough readings of time 
values until it is felt that a reasonable sample has been secured. The first 
method is much too costly and the answer comes too late for use. It 
would mean issuing a production-standard-time-allowed after the job 
is done. 

The second method is most widely used, but the rationale of enough 
readings is left entirely up to the time study man. There is a way to over- 
come this disadvantage of the "feeling" of enough readings. By using 
statistics, actual limitations can be set. But for those who wish to make 
a reasonably rough check graphically, a simple means is available: Plot 
a frequency chart. To use a specific situation, consider the data from 
Figure X for element one. The time values are shown in Table I. 

TABLE I 
Time Values for Element One 

PIECE TIME PIECE TIME 
1 6 6 6 

2 6 7 7 

3 5 8 5 

4 8 9 7 

5 6 10 7 



Now two scales can be laid out at right angles to each othi-r on a 
sheet of cross-section paper. See Figure XI. The horizontal scales show 
the different time values secured in element one from the lowest to 
the highest. The vertical scale shows the number of times each time value 
appears in the element. Note that the distribution is bell-shaped around 
a time value which appears more frequently than others. There must 
be enough time values to give this bell-shaped distribution before a 
rational sample of the job has been secured. This procedure must be re- 
peated for each element to insure that all have the bell-shaped distribu- 
tion of time values. When each element meets this test, a reasonable 



33 



sample of the operator's time to do the job has been determined. If the 
distribution skews appreciably to the right or left, the time values should 
be rejected. 




Time value 



FIGURE 31 
Frequency distribution of time values for element one 



DETERMINING THE AVERAGE TIME TO DO THE JOB BY A CERTAIN OPERATOR 

The previous step assumed that all time values secured during the 
time study were proper. But questions always come up as to the validity 
of certain so-called "abnormal" time values — those which are too high 
or too low. This question has to be settled on a rational basis. To hide 
behind the idea that a time is abnormal is not enough. A sound, work- 
able policy that can be understood by anyone is necessary. To avoid the 
misuse of the idea of abnormal time values, consideration of this policy 
is suggested: 

All time values for an element are to be included in deter- 
mining the average time for an operator studied, unless a specific 
note is made in each case of a discarded time value that the job 
method was not followed. 

This means that if all the work called for in the element of the 
job is not done, the time value (which probably will be low) will 
be discarded. If the operator unnecessarily does more work than 

34 



the elrmcnt of the job calls for, the time value (which probably 
will be too high) also will be discarded. 

Figure XII shows the calculations of the average time for each 
element for the operator studied. These values are secured by adding 













Poge. of 


— 


End Point of Elements 






Start study 
End study 


























Notes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


6 


9 


10 


II 






T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


1 
















































2 
















































3 
















































4 
















































5 
















































6 
















































7 
















































8 
9 






























































































10 
















































II 














































12 






























1 
















13 
















































14 
















































15 
















































16 






























. i 
















17 














' 




' 1 '. 






1 








18 














' 




19 












, 1 ne reason tor « oDservations is 




20 












" / that one time value was discarded i 




21 












/ because of variations In method 
/ and one time value was missed 






22 














23 












/ TT r\w "V 








24 












f 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 










25 










/ 














/ Summary 






Totol of "T" 


o.as 


0.37^ 


2.0 7 




















No of observotions 


lO 


s' 


lO 


















Average "t" 


O.0& 


O.OS 


O.ZI 


















Rating 
























Base time 
























Percentage ollowance 
























Allowed time 


























LCP-52-Form 3b 







FIGURE 2IL 
Average time for job by a certain operator 



35 



the time values for each element in turn and dividing the total by the 
number of time values considered in each case. For example, element one 
time values total 0.63 minutes. Ten time values make up this total. Di- 
viding the total (0.63 minutes) by ten gives an average time of 0.06 
minutes for element one. Note that this average time is for the specific 
operator studied. 

DETERMINING THE BASE TIME FOR THE JOB BY RATING OR LEVELING 

So far, the average time value secured for each element of the job 
was that displayed by a certain operator. But it must be remembered that 
in any field of human endeavor — whether it is housework, farming, or 
industrial work — observation will show that people differ in manner 
and speed at which they accomplish a task. The situation is not any 
different in time study work. It is reasonable to expect that no two 
persons will perform a given task at exactly the same speed, although 
this may happen occasionally. Yet, when a standard time is set for a job, 
the time study engineer is saying that a certain worker, following a 
certain method, working at a certain speed, and under certain conditions, 
should be able to do the job properly in at least the standard time. 

The problem confronting the observer is how to watch different 
people doing work at different speeds and how to compare them to some 
person who is working at a certain speed already determined for a certain 
existing area, industiy, or plant. The process of comparing a worker's 
rate of performance with the performance expected of a person working 
at the selected speed for the area, industry, or plant is called rating or 
levelitig. 

The rating process is a systematic attempt to relate the observed 
performance to the performance expected from a certain type of indi- 
vidual who has certain skill qualifications, who follows a certain method, 
and who works under certain conditions and at a certain pace. 

Although many methods of rating have been devised, none has yet 
been able to remove the factor of human judgment satisfactorily. In the 
future a better practice may be found. At the present time, rating based 
on sound judgment developed through extensive training is the best pro- 
cedure to follow. Achieving satisfactory rating also means achieving 
equity for all employees affected by the time study program. If rating 
equity is not realized, a very unfavorable situation of unbalanced costs 
and employee dissatisfaction may develop. 

Achieving equity of rating involves consideration of several rules : 

1 . All raters must practice fairness. 



36 



2. All raters in any one plant must use the same basic reference. 

3. All raters must be consistent and accurate in their judgment. 

4. Rating must be concrete and based on some observable, demon- 
strable basis. 

5. It is desirable that both management and labor understand and 
agree to the basis of rating. 

6. Rating judgment must involve the determination of the effect of 
the operator's skill, aptitude, and degree of exertion on his performance 
compared to the definition of standard performance. Consideration of 
these factors shows that — 

a. Skill determines how rapidly a job can be done by a certain 
method. Hence, skill is reflected in pace. 

b. Aptitude under a given method determines what speed of pace 
can be maintained. Hence, aptitude is reflected in pace. 

c. Exertion is a function of job difficulty and pace. Hence, exertion, 
which is the physical effort of work, is reflected in pace. 

Therefore, it is suggested that the observer rate only pace or rate of 
activity. Selecting some physical representation of standard performance 
is an extremely important step which can influence the success of the 
rating program. The selection can be successful if a typical job is care- 
fully chosen for the particular situation considered — provided that the 
pace for the typical job is agreeable to both management and labor. 
Selecting a typical job satisfies the need for a basic reference that is con- 
crete, observable, and demonstrable. Proper training of the raters can 
meet the need for consistency and accuracy. This usually can be done 
effectively by using a motion picture film loop of typical jobs for rating 
practice. 

With the "certain" pace represented as 100 (some use 60), the pace 
displayed by the operator time-studied is determined and shown on the 
time study sheet. Figure XHI shows the calculations for the base time 
(minimum acceptable) for C|ualified operators working under the con- 
ditions listed in the above definition. In element one the rating was 110 
per cent. Hence, the average time multiplied by rating gives the base time. 

DETERMINING AND APPLYING ALLOWANCES 

Regardless of the occupation, certain interruptions will occur during 
a regular working day. No operator can be reasonably expected to work 
a full shift without some stoppages that are beyond his control. Inter- 
ruptions vary from those of very short duration, which are diflficult to 
measure, to those of moderate or long duration, which arc fairly easy 
to measure. Delays which are caused by the nature of the work situation 

37 













Page of 


End Point of Elements 






Start study 
Fnd study 






























Notes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 






T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


1 
















































2 
















































3 
















































4 
















































5 
















































6 
















































7 
















































8 
















































9 
















































10 
















































II 
















































12 
















































13 
















































14 






1 








































15 
















































16 
















































17 
















































18 
















































19 
















































20 
















































21 
















































22 
















































23 
















































24 
















































25 
















































Summary 






Totol of "T" 


























No. of observations 
























Average "t" 


o.oc 


o.oS 


o.zi 


















Rating 


no 


to 


1 oo 


















Base time 


0.07 


a.o4 


O.ZI 


















Percentage allowance 
























Allowed time 


























LCP-J2-Form 9b 





FIGURE Zm 
Using rating to secure base time 



38 



should not be permitted to act as a penalty upon the operator. Stoppages 
which are long enough to be recorded on a time card do not present a 
measurement problem because the time card is the measurement device 
in this case. However, a definite policy should establish which type and 
duration of delays are to be covered in the delay allowances in time study 
and which are to be covered by the time card. 

Minor, varied delays of short duration present an extremely difficult 
measurement problem. They are often difficult to detect or determine 
properly without exhaustive study, and consequently they are overlooked 
in many cases. This should not be. A properly administered, workable 
time study system is based upon fair play. Proper allowances for delays — 
no matter how minor — are essential if fairness to all is to be achieved. 
These allowances can be determined only by careful, extensive studies 
taken on the job under regular working conditions. No attempt should be 
made to apply standard reference tables which may not fit the situation. 

Although delay studies may not be absolutely accurate, they are valu- 
able if carefully and conscientiously taken. Allowances for personal needs, 
such as food, drink, and toilet, and rest allowances can be determined by 
study and agreement between management and labor. 

All studies made to determine the amount of delay that can be ex- 
pected in various types of work have a definite relationship to the pro- 
duction time. Basically, the acceptable total work day is composed of net 
production time and acceptable delay times. 

Because at this point the base time or net production time is known 
(see Figure XIII), it would be convenient to apply the delays to be 
allowed as a percentage of the base time after the various delay per- 
centages are known. The per cent allowance for delay for each class of 
delay can be computed from the studies made for the delay times ex- 
pected. The formula is — 

delay time 

Per cent allowance for delav = — : , ' . -: X 100; 

net production time ' 

Then, 

Production-standard-time-allowed = base time X ( 1 .00 + per cent 

allowance for delay). 

The application of the total allowance per cent figure for the sum of 
the various allowances to the base time for each element is shown in 
Figure XIV. This results in the allowed time for each element of the job. 

Now, transferring these final allowed times for each cl(>ment ( from 
Figure XIV) to the front of the time study sheet and summing them 
result in the production-standard-time-allowc-d. in this case, for one 
piece. A completed study which brings together all entries on Figures VII. 
VIII, IX, XII, XIII, and XIV is shown in Figures XVa and XVb. 

39 













Poge of 


End Point of Elements ] 






Start «tudy 
Fnd itudy 


























Notes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 






T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T 


R 


1 
















































2 
















































3 
















































4 
















































5 
















































6 
















































7 
















































8 
















































9 
















































10 
















































II 
















































12 
















































13 
















































14 
















































15 
















































16 
















































17 
















































18 
















































19 
















































20 
















































21 
















































22 
















































23 
















































24 
















































25 
















































Summary 






Total of "t" 


























No. of observotions 
























Averoge "t" 
























Roting 
























Base time 


0.07 


0.04- 


a.zi 


















Percentage allowance 


IS 


IS 


2S 


















Allowed time 


o.oa 


o.oS 


o.ZC 




















LCP-52-Form 5b 





FIGURE ZE 
Applying allowances 

APPLYING THE STANDARD AS DETERMINED BY THE TIME STUDY 

The application and administration of the time study program is 
perhaps the most vital part of the process. All of the other phases of 



40 



the program may be technically correct and practiced with conscientious 
diligence. However, they may be unacceptable to the people affected by 
the program because the administration fails to instill a feeling of honesty 
and fair play, because everyone affected does not understand the program 
thoroughly, or because the administration lacks a systematic approach 
to the workings of a time study program. 

If the trust, respect, and cooperation of the people affected by the 
time study program are to be gained and kept, a definite policy for sys- 
tematic operation of the time study program and the various activities of 
that program must be formed, definitely stated, and widely understood. 
The statement of policy is vital to all phases of plant activity and must 
include a statement of procedures, aims, and rules by which the organiza- 
tion functions under varying or recurring situations. 

A statement of policy for a time study program should answer clearly 
at least the following: 

1. What does standard time represent? Because this is a unit of 
measurement it must be defined, and the definition must be generally 
known throughout the plant. 

2. Who determines standard method? Responsibility for determining 
methods must be delegated so that standard times will be used only with 
the methods they were designed for and so that there will be a constant 
striving for better methods. 

3. How will standard titne be determined? Time study, rating, and 
allowance procedures should be specified as well as any deviations that 
will be allowed in unusual cases. This will establish uniform practice. 
Policy for standard time should indicate — 

a. Nature of the method record. 

b. The manner of timing and possible use of standard data. 

c. Basis of rating. 

d. Standard allowances. 

e. Manner of handling irregular elements. 

f. Designation of responsibility for above work and authority for 
procedure modification. 

4. How will the standard method be installed? 

a. Standard method in written practice form is supplied to oper- 
ator. 

b. Standard time is supplied to operator. 

c. Full value can be obtained by use of improved methods. 

d. The practice form can be designed for use by operator, group 
leader, foreman, or instructor — the more detailed the form, 
the better the control. 



41 



TIME STUDY SHEET 



Opprntinn Drill ■?.& pin hole 



Page±of-2_ 



Operation No. Lo_ 



nppt Machine Snpp ctfa^jy No._1 

Opprntnr 'g W SmWh Qper. No. 36 Draw. No iod2 7 



Pnrts -Staij pio 



.Part No's P-^^ 



Machine C>jcloi>>«» 



. Mach. No. 3ST 



Study by P g. Jontfs 



.Approved by. 



^C^ 



Specif. Naio+o 
_Fixt.No.Dii7 

Date *ims 



Sketch 



Tote pqn .of . 
finislned .par+# 



3&-' 



Prjll. press, . 
:Qijii:\c,c\antf.yq 






. ^Totp par of 
unfini4h<d 

J. XZ7- U p'^'^* ■ • 

C^ operator 

Scale- eoch squareq^aat'4* 



Notes 

1. LigViting good - Fairlij clean room 

2. Moderate noise Icfcl 

3. Connfortable seat-operator can stand 

4. 5uppl«j boxes poorlij supported -on 
uteoden crates l8"hi9H 

5. Material supplied to and Trom 
operator 

6. MateriAi operated at i2aorpin usinq 

high spired drill 



Operation Description 



Allowed 
TInne 



Lffft hand 



Open clamp, r«>leo9e, gra«p piec« 



Aside -finiaWed piece, release 



jnd reach for c^uict clamp 



on jig, and grasp and clamp 



Kiijht hand 



Raise drill to c\ean- stock. 



Raise drill t<9 rest position, 



release 



Reach for ne^ P'*ce, qraap and 



carrn to <^uicle clamp jig 



0.08 



Clamp piecff in jig and hold 



Poait-jon pi'gce to jig, release 



clomp 



R«ach for drill press handle, 



grasp and lomer drill to stock. 



0.05 



Hold clamp 



Drill ^\Ct»n hole (hamd feed) 



0.26 



LCP-52-Fofm 5o 



Allowed time inJ2lii!Lper_J piece=_ 0.39 



FIGURE. 22a 
Complete study (front of form) 



42 













Page 2 of 2 


End Point of Elements 






Start study lotoi 
Fnd study lO : OS 


"6 




■5 -J 

il 

■= 3 

i 1 




















Notes 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 






T 


R 


T _RJ 


tIr 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T |r 


T 


R 


T 


R 


T R 


T R 


T 


R 


1 


6 


G 


5 // 


2o 


3/ 
































2 


(. 


37 


S 


42 


21 


63 


































3 


S 


68 


4 


72 


21 


93 


































4 


a 


/O) 


4. 5^ 


Zo 


25 


' 
































5 


6 


5/ 


i- 36 


2/ 


57 


































6 


& 


63 


6 


7f 


2Z^93 


































7 


TjZoo 


A 


4 


21 ZS- 


j 
































8 


S 


50 


S 


L3J 


21 S6 


i 
































9 


7 


65 


6 


6£ 


20 ae 


































10 


7 95 


- 


z 


203^ 


































1 1 














































12 


, 








































13 




























j 






L 








14 






























1 II 1 

1 






IS 






























.*^*» ^ 




16 






















..ce^^r^e*^^" . 




17 






1 


' 






.O^^T-^^lo^^^C<<* 




18 












. .^^>*\o^^^:.6*r^<^^^ 




19 






t 




^<^''VTt<i^%^^>* 








20 












^V!!o^^f.^e<^:to. 










21 














V>>*' 
















22 














1 V\\o^ . 


















23 
















x\<«^'^ 


1 




















24 








































25 
















H ' ' 






























A -drill binding Z - m.jied rffadina 
B- fumble ,qa „ -" 

c- bio<« nose ^11% 30 Summary 






Totol of "T" 


0.63 


0.37 


2.07 




















No. of observations 


10 


S 


lO 


















Average "t" 


0.O6 


0.05 


O.ZI 


















Roting 


no 


90 


lOO 


















Base time 


O.OT 


0.04- 


0.2I 


















Percentage allowance 


15 


15 


25 


















Allowed time 


0.00 


0.05 


0.26 




















LC^-SZ-fOJin 5b 





FIGURE 21b 
Complete study (bock of form) 



43 



5. liliat are the conditions for change of standard time or method? 

a. Properly set standards are guaranteed against revision except 
in specified cases, whereas poorly set standards require constant 
revision and lead to industrial chaos. 

b. Only a change in job method, working conditions, or job ma- 
terials above a certain per cent of the total standard justifies a 
change in the standard. 

Conclusion 

This Bulletin has attempted to explain the various methods, uses, and 
ways of applying motion and time study. No attempt has been made to 
guide various groups into acceptance or rejection of this technique. Most 
managements decide whether or not they should use it after consideration 
of costs, possible economic benefits, and the effect on industrial relations. 

In some cases, employee groups have completely rejected any appli- 
cation of motion and time study especially when it is used as a basis 
for an incentive wage system. Others have accepted the idea reluctantly 
at management's repeated insistence. On the other hand, many find the 
idea very attractive and accept it readily. Usually acceptance or rejection 
depends upon such things as tradition, experience, feelings of the mem- 
bers and officers, the group's strength as a bargaining unit, the type of 
plan being offered, its benefits, and relations with management. Whatever 
the reasons, if acceptance is decided upon, there are various ways of 
dealing with the situation. 

Some employee groups refrain from any comment until after the 
methods and rates have been established, taking action on disagreement 
through the grievance procedure. Others have obtained the right to re- 
view before installations and also to use the action of the grievance pro- 
cedure. The reviewing action may be taken by individuals selected in 
various sections of the shop, a committee, or both, depending on the 
situation. Active participation in some or all phases of method and rate 
determination is another procedure that many groups have accepted. 
This technique may vary from the use of observers who merely check and 
suggest to trained personnel who make motion and time studies in co- 
operation with company engineers. 

The preceding discussion was intended to give an idea of some of the 
various approaches to the application of motion and time study. It was 
not intended to be a recommendation to anyone. The technique adopted 
depends entirely upon the complexity of the labor-management relation- 
ship that exists in each individual situation. 

44 



Selected Bibliography 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS 

Abruzzi, A. Work Measurement, Columbia University Press, \ew York, 1952, 
290 pages. 

Adams, S., and Weston, H. C. On the Relief of Eyestrain Amongst Persons Per- 
forming Very Fine Work. Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Report No. 49, 
1928. 

Barnes, R. M. Motion and Time Study, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 
3rd Edition, 1949, 559 pages. 

Bills, .\. G. The Psychology of Efficiency, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943. 

Brooke, R. St. C, and Farmer, E. Motion Study in Metal Polishing, Industrial 
Fatigue Research Board, Report No. 15, 1921, pp. 1-65. 

Carroll, Phil., Jr. Timestudy Fundamentals for Foremen, McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York, 1951, 225 pages. 

Carroll, Phil., Jr. How to Chart Timestudy Data, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
New York, 1950, 323 pages. 

Carroll, Phil., Jr. Time Study for Cost Control, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
New York, 1944, 172 pages. 

Chane, G. W. Motion and Time Study, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1942, 
88 pages. 

Committee on Work in Industry, National Research Council. Fatigue of Workers: 
Its Relation to Industrial Production, New York, 1941. 

Gillespie, J. J. Dynamic Motion and Time Study, Chemical Publishing Company, 
Brooklyn, 1951, 140 pages. 

Gomberg, W. A Trade Union Analysis of Time Study, Science Research Associ- 
ates, Chicago, 1948, 243 pages. 

Hendry, J. W. A Manual of Time and Motion Study, Pitman and Sons, Ltd., 
London (Pitman Publishing Corp., New York), 1944, 215 pages. 

Holmes, W. G. Applied Time and Motion Study, Ronald Press, Inc., New York, 
1938. 

Lowry, S. M., Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Time and Motion Study, 
McGraw-HillBook Company, New York, 3rd Edition, 1940, 532 pages. 

Mathewson, S. B. Restriction of Output Among Unorganized Workers, \'iking 
Press, Inc., New York, 1931. 

Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Methods-Time Measurement, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, New York, 1944, 85 pages. 

Maynard, H. B., Stegemerten, G. J., and Schwab, J. L. Methods-Time Measure- 
ment, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1948, 292 pages. 

Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Operation Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York, 1939, 298 pages. 

Morrow, R. L. Time Study and Motion Economy, Ronald Press, Inc., New York, 
1946, 338 pages. 

Mundel, M. E. Motion and Time Study, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1950, 
457 pages. 

Myers, H. J. Simplified Time Study, Ronald Press Company, New York, 1944, 
140 pages. 

Presgrove, R. Dynamics of Time Study. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 
2nd Edition, 1945, 238 pages. 

Ryan, T. A. Work and Effort, Ronald Press Company, New York, 1947, 323 
pages. 

45 



Sampter, H. C. Motion Study, Pitman Publishing Company, New York, 1941, 

152 pages. 
Schutt, W. H. Time Study Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 

1943, 426 pages. 
Shumard, F. W. Primer of Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 

1940, 519 pages. 

Sylvester, L. .\. The Handbook of Advanced Time-Motion Study, Funk & 

Wagnalls Company, New York, 1950, 273 pages. 
Uhrbrock, R. S. A Psychologist Looks at Wage Incentive Methods, American 

Management Association, Institute of Management Series, No. 15, 1935. 
United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America. 

U .A.W .-C.I.O. Looks at Time Study, International Union, Detroit, 1947, 

31 pages. 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America. U. E. Guide to Wage 

Payment, Time Study and Job Evaluation, The Union, New York, 1943, 

129 pages. 
\'aughan, L. M., and Hardin, L. S. Farm Work Simplification, John Wiley and 

Sons, Inc., New York, 1949, 145 pages. 
Vernon, H. M. Industrial Fatigue and Efficiency, E. P. Button and Company, 

New York, 1921. 
Wyat, S. Incentives in Repetitive Work, Industrial Health Research Board (Great 

Britain), Report No. 69, 1934. 

MAGAZINE ARTICLES 

Adams, S., and Weston, H. C. "Observations on the Design of Cotton Machinery 

in Relation to the Operator," Journal of National Institute of Industrial 

Psychology, April, 1930, pp. 97-107. 
Alford, L. P. "Looms per Weaver: Data from the Recent Silk and Rayon Work 

.Assignment Study,"" Textile World, January, 1936, pp. 72-73. 
"Applying Motion Study Principles: R. C. A. Manufacturing Company,'" Factory 

Management and Maintenance, August, 1942, pp. 182-189. 
Barkin, S. "Labor Views the Working Day," Advanced Management, 1942, 

pp. 32-37. 
Basset, W. R. "Modern Production Methods: Pt. XXVI — Time Study on 

Automatic Machines," American Machinist, January 19, 1922, pp. 87-90. 
Bernard, V. "Time Studies in Foundry Work," Foundry Trade Journal. August 

10, 17, 24, 1933, pp. 75-78, 96-98,' 109-110. 
Bernstein, P. "How Many Automatics Should a Man Run?"' Factory, March 

1941, pp. 85, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164. 

Bitterman, M. E. "Fatigue Defined as Reduced Efficiency," American Journal of 
Psychology, 1944, pp. 565-572. 

Brecht, R. P. "Motion Study in the Office," Society for the Advancement of 
Management Journal, July-September, 1936, pp. 110-114. 

Campbell, J. F. "The Problem of Allowances in Time Studies as Viewed by the 
Industrial Engineer," Taylor Society Bulletin and Society of Industrial Engi- 
neers, January, 1935, pp. 46-49. 

Carr, C. B. "Setting Time Standards When Machine Times Vary," Factory, 
December, 1939, pp. 48-50. 

Carroll, Phil., Jr. "Exposing Some Fallacies of Time Study Technique," Proceed- 
ings of National Time and Motion Study Clinic, Industrial Management So- 
ciety, 1939, pp. 62-81. 

46 



Carroll, Phil., Jr. "Time Studies from Standard Data," Society for the Advance- 
ment of Management Journal, January, 1939, pp. 20-24. 

Dickey, R. C. "Time Sheets of Definite \'alue in Wood-Working Plants," Wood 
Worker, February, 1941, pp. 24-26. 

Eyre, A. B., Lester, A. M., and Mitchell, J. H. "An Investigation in an Assembly 
Shop," Human Factor, July-August, 1935, pp. 268-273. 

Fiske, R. A. "Synthetic Time Setting in a Jobbing Factory," Iron Age, April 27, 

1933, pp. 6'55-659. 

Gordy, C. B. "Variations in the Time Required for Skilled Operators to Perform 

a Simple Motion Task," American Journal of Psychology, 1943, pp. 56, 181. 

Gore, J. O. "Time Studies of Drivers," National Cleaner and Dyer, October, 

1934, pp. 29-30. 

Grecnbergcr, G. "You Can Use Time Studies and Standards," Inland Printer, 

August, 1940, pp. 27-28. 
Habel, O. W., and Kearful, G. G. "Machine Design and Motion Economy," 

Mechanical Engineering, December, 1939, pp. 897-899. 
Hartmon, W. C. "Application of Motion Study in Sears, Roebuck and Co.," 

Society for the Advancement of Management Journal, July-September, 1936, 

pp. 118-122. 
Herzberg, A. A. "Inspection Keeps Pace," American Machinist, March 22, 1939, 

pp.' 163-164. 
Keever, H. K. "Time Study in a Plant Manufacturing a Variety of Machines," 

Machinery, May, 1928, pp. 702-703. 
Lathrop, P. J. "Making Hand Labor Effective," Modern Packaging, July, 1941, 

p. 80. 
Laufcr, T. G. "Assembly Analysis," American Machinist, January 12, 1938, 

pp. 9-10. 
Laufer, T. G. "Improving Machine Tool Efficiency with Time Study," Mill and 

Factory, April, 1936, pp. 39-40. 

Lee, P. H. "Time Study Related to Bulk and Line Pioduction," Mechanical 

Handling, July, 1941^ pp. 130-131. 
Marshall, G. P. "Reducing Cleaning Costs in the Shop," Mill and Factory, 

October, 1936, p. 57. 
Matthews, P. M., and Brechin, C. H. "Incenti\es Cut Painting Costs," Factory 

Management and Maintenance, June, 1941, pp. 94-95. 
Mogensen, .'\. H. "Motion Study: Why Has the Machine Designer Ignored It?" 

Mechanical Engineering, December, 1933, pp. 727-731. 
Mundel, M. E. "Motion Study Aids Materials Handling," Mill and Factory, 

October, 1945, pp. 104-105. 
Nissley, H. R. "Do Time Studies Result in Speed Up?" (abstract). Management 

Review, June, 1942, pp. 203-204. 
Xuttall, J. H. "Time Studies of Refuse Ck)lkction Activities," American City. 

August, 1929, pp. 112-116. 
Pollack, K. W. "The Use of Therblig. Times for Rate Setting," Society for the 

Advancement of Management Journal. March, 1937, pp. 35-40. 
Rittcnhouse, J. F., Jr. "Motion Study for Foremen and Shop Stewards," Factory 

Management and Maintenance, March, 1945, pp. 96-101. 
Rvan, T. A. "Varieties of Fatigue," American Journal of Psychology, 1944, pp. 

565-569. 
Saute, .■\. J. "Ladles and Pouring Efficiency," Foundry. September, 1933, pp. 

36-40. 

47 



Saxton, D. W. "Inspectors on Piece Rates Up Quality, Output, and Earnings,'" 

Factory, February, 1940, pp. 50-51. 
Stegemerten, G. J. "Gage and Inspect — 1. Before Motion Study," Factory, 

February, 1936, pp. 66-67; "2. After Motion Study,'" Factory, March, 1936, 

pp. 104-105. 
Tidball, L. D. "Time and Motion Study for Job Order Shops,'" Rubber Age, 

May, 1936, pp. 88-91. 



I.L.I.R. BULLETINS 

Single copies of these Institute Bulletins are available at ten cents per copy. 

WORKERS ON THE MOVE 

JOB EVALUATION 

UNIONS, MANAGEMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 

RECENT TRENDS IN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE LEGISLATION 

TRENDS AND PROBLEMS IN UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 

ASSIGNMENT AND GARNISHMENT OF WAGES IN ILLINOIS 

I.LJ.R. BOOKS 

LEGISLATION BY COLLECTIVE BARGAINING (THE AGREED BILL PROCESS), by Gilbert Y. Steiner 

CLOTH $1.50 
PAPER $1.00 

CHANNELS OF EMPLOYMENT (INFLUENCES ON THE OPERATIONS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

AND OTHER HIRING CHANNELS IN LOCAL JOB MARKETS), by Murray Edclman and others 

CLOTH $3.50 

PAPER $2.50 

THREE-CHAPTER EDITION 50 CENTS 

UNION DECISION-MAKING IN COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: A CASE STUDY ON THE LOCAL LEVEL, 

by Arnold R. Weber 

^ PAPER BOUND, 

MIMEOGRAPHED TEXT $1.00 

LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS IN ILLINI CITY, VOL. 1 THE CASE STUDIES, by \V . ElHson 

Chalmers, Margaret K. Chandler, Louis L. McQuitty, Ross Stagner, Donald E. 
Wray, and Milton Berber, Coordinator 

CLOTH $10.00 
CASE STUDY REPRINTS $1.25 

LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS IN ILLINI CITY, VOL. 2 EXPLORATIONS IN COMPARATIVE 

ANALYSIS, by \V. Ellison Chalmers, Margaret K. Chandler, Louis L. McQuitty, 
Ross Stagner, Donald E. Wray, and Milton Derber, Coordinator 

CLOTH $7.50 
BOTH VOLUMES $15.00 



1