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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES. By A. J. \VALTJS
TAYLER, A.M.Inst.C.E. With 134 Illustrations. 8x5|, 298pp.
(Crosby, Lockwood and Son.) 9s.net. ''^"/l^^''
Although it is difficult to assert with the author of this book that the
commercial motor vehicle has arrived at a state of perfection, it can
readily be admitted that the utility and economy of this class of vehicle
is now established beyond dispute. The demand for the cheap and rapid ^
transport of comparatively heavy goods of innumerable kinds has been '
met by the design and construction of a considerable variety of heavy-
freight road cars, ranging from the municipal wagon to the motor omni-
bus. It is therefore convenient to have this class of road craft co-ordin-
ated and described in sufficient detail to enable the ordinary user to if
select what is best adapted to his requirements. There is a doubt as to
whether the first three chapters of Mr. WalKs Tayler's book will be I
appreciated by the general reader. They are for the most part compiled
from other sources, and they exhibit too little of the author's own view
of the problem of traction ; moreover, they omit certain recent develop- 'J,
ments with respect to air resistance and in regard to the measurement and
recording of the starting and stopping efforts. The subsequent chapters
will, however, be read with interest by all who are watching the develop-
ment of this industry. The author describes the essential characteristics
of the various cars and indicates their respective advantages ; his treat-
ment of his subject is clear and precise, and he calls to his aid sketches,
diagrams, and sectional drawings wherever necessary. He attributes the
backwardness of certain branches of the industry to the fact that most
of the firms hitherto have turned their attention to construction rather
than to manufacture ; they have failed to produce vehicles of one size
and of one pattern in sufficient numbers to ensure commercial success.
The book concludes with a useful chapter on the cost of running and
maintenance of motor cabs, omnibuses, and lorries.
more than by a hard tire ami that it * i 6 wag 1
tho tiro. Other yiews ' S h^ the tad XSSw ^ i"? 1 * ^
Publishing and Editorial Offices :
89, FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.G.
A D VRRTISEMENTS
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK
FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN THE TRANSPORT
OF PASSENGERS AND GOODS
A. J. WALLIS-TAYLER
ASSOC.-MEMB. IXST. ClVIL ENGINEERS
"MOTOR CARS OR POWER CARRIAGES FOR COMMON' ROADS," "MODERN CYCLES,"
THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND STREETS," " AERIAL OR WIRE-ROPE TRAMWAYS,
"REFRIGERATING AND ICE-MAKING MACHINERY," "REFRIGERATION, COI.D STORAGE,
AND ICE-MAKING," "THE POCKET-BOOK OF REFRIGERATION," "TEA MACHINERY
AND TEA FACTORIES," "THE SANITARY ARRANGEMENT OF DWELLING
HOUSES," "SUGAR MACHINERY," " BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION," ETC. ETC.
WITH 134 ILLUSTRATIONS
CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON
7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL
[All rights reserved}
JNIVERSITY OF CALIFOIOTA 1
WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
LONDON AND BECCLES.
THE motor or self-propelled vehicle, as adapted for busi-
ness purposes, may now be said to have arrived at a
state of perfection, and its commercial utility to have been
sufficiently proved by actual practical working to place its
future on an assured basis.
Advantages to be derived from the use of the self-
propelled vehicle are : greater speed and economy in
transporting heavy loads than with horse vehicles, and
consequently saving of time and money ; a large reduc-
tion of labour and expense as compared with the driving
and care of horses and vehicles, provision of stabling, etc. ;
an improved sanitary condition of the roads and streets,
and of towns and cities generally ; economy in road
maintenance ; and additional safety.
It is not too much to say, indeed, that within a few
years mechanically propelled vehicles for business purposes,
and especially heavy-freight vehicles, will have practically
a monopoly on the roads in the transport of both passen-
gers and goods.
Under these circumstances, a book containing within
a moderate compass and in an accessible form such
information as will enable intending purchasers or users
of motor vehicles to ascertain the respective merits of
the various systems, and their adaptability to special
requirements, should fulfil a useful purpose. This want
it is hoped that the present volume will help to supply.
For more extended description of many of the com-
mercial vehicles here mentioned than has been found
practicable, the reader is referred to the articles which
have appeared in the technical press.
During the past two years the Author contributed
to the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review, now pub-
lished weekly as The Industrial Motor Review, a series of
articles on " Self- Propelled Vehicles for Business Purposes,"
which (through the kind permission of the Editor) he has
been enabled to incorporate in a modified and amplified
form in the present volume. Chapters have also been
added dealing with self-propelled vehicles for municipal
purposes ; miscellaneous types of motor vehicles, including
motor railway carriages ; and the cost of running and
Thanks are also due to various manufacturers and
others for their courtesy in furnishing much valuable infor-
mation, and in many cases photographs and drawings for
purposes of illustration.
It is particularly desired to point out that where
descriptions of machines of various makers have been
omitted, such omissions are in no way to be attributed to
any inferiority in the construction of these vehicles, but
solely to the fact that the space at command has of neces-
sity limited the descriptions to typical examples of each
A. J. WALLIS-TAYLER.
Future of the Business Motor Vehicle Classes of Business
Motor Vehicles Advantages of Business Motor Vehicles
Propelling Powers or Prime Movers for Business Motor
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS
Rolling Resistance Traction on Rising Gradients and Distri-
bution of Load on Wheels Width of Tyres Speed and
Suspension General Result of Early Experiments in
Resistance to Traction on Common Roads Sir John Mac-
Neil's Experiments Resistance due to Rising Gradients
Table calculated from MacNeil's Formulae showing Force
required to draw Vehicles over Inclined Roads Recent
Experiments on Traction on Common Roads Table com-
piled from recent Tests giving Tractive Force required to
haul a Load of One Ton on Various Grades, and Equivalent
Length of each Mile of Grade in Miles of Level Road
Resistance due to the Air Resistance due to Starting
Adhesive Power of Motor Vehicles .....
POWER REQUIRED FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
Calculating the Power required for Motor Vehicles Testing the
Engine and Gear Testing the Vehicle Graphic Calcu-
lations ........... 4
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES
General Observations Petrol Cabs Various Examples of
Petrol Cabs Electric Cabs Efficiency of Electric Cabs
Examples of Electric Cabs 52
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
General Observations Steam Omnibuses Examples of Steam
Omnibuses Petrol Omnibuses Examples of Petrol Omni-
buses Compound or Petrol-Electric Omnibuses Electric
Omnibuses Examples of Electric Omnibuses ... 76
LIGHT GOODS VANS
General Observations Light Petrol Vans Examples of Light
Petrol Vans Light Steam Vans Light Electric Vans
Examples of Light Electric Vans 148
General Observations Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles Wheels
Driving Steering Transmission Boiler Engine
Power required Results obtained with Heavy-freight Steam
Vehicles Examples of Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles. . 161
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued}
Heavy-freight Internal Combustion or Explosion Engine Vehicles
General Observations Various Examples of Heavy-
freight Petrol Engine Vehicles Heavy-freight Petroleum or
Heavy Oil Engine Vehicles Heavy-freight Petro-electric
Vehicles . .219
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued}
Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles General Observations Various
Examples of Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles . . . 239
SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL
Dust and Refuse Collection Waggons Street Watering and
Washing Machines Street Sweeping Machines Removal
of Snow, etc 243
MISCELLANEOUS TYPES OF MOTOR VEHICLES
Commercial Travellers' Motor Vehicles Furniture Removal
Motor Vans Hospital Motor Ambulances Motor Fire
Engines Self-propelled or Motor Railway Carriages Over-
head Conductor Electric Omnibuses Motor Vehicles for
Various Purposes The Pedrail 253
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
General Observations Petrol Cabs Petrol Omnibuses Light
Petrol Vans and Lorries Heavy-freight Petrol Lorries
Heavy-freight Steam Lorries Comparison of Cost of
Running for Various Systems Effect of Materials on Cost
of Maintenance 273
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Principal Prize Winners May-Day Meet of Heavy-freight
Vehicles, 1903 Frontispiece
1. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power
applied vertically 8
2. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power
applied horizontally . . . . . . . .10
3. Diagram showing relation of the draught to the load for
four-wheeled vehicles 13
4. Diagram showing action of gravity on an inclined road
5. Diagram showing resistance due to a rising gradient . . 29
6. Diagram showing method of testing engine and gear . . 47
7. Diagram showing method of testing motor vehicle . . 48
8. Diagram showing the relation of the speed of vehicle,
diameter and revolutions of drive wheels, and ratio of
speeds of countershaft to drive wheels .... 49
9. Diagram showing relation of speed of vehicle to traction,
percentage of gradient, and horse-power under various
conditions .......... 50
10. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab. Side elevation of fore-
11. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab. Front elevation of fore-
carriage .......... 58
12. The London Express Motor Service petrol cab . . .61
13. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric
hansom cab 66
14. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric
15. Clarkson 8-seated station steam omnibus .... 80
1 6. Clarkson 12-20 seated public service steam omnibus . . 81
17. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan of frame and driving
1 8. Clarkson steam omnibus. Side elevation of frame and driving
mechanism .......... 91
19. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal section of multi-tubular
20. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of multi-
tubular boiler 94
xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
2 1 . Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal central section
through one of the cylinders and crank chambers of engine 95
22. Clarkson steam omnibus. Transverse section of crank
chamber, showing crank shaft and valve gear ... 96
23. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal longitudinal section
showing differential gear and countershaft .... 97
24. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of me-
chanically driven force pump 98
25. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal section of
burner ........... 99
26. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan view of automatic burner
regulating device 100
27. Clarkson steam omnibus. Elevation of automatic burner
regulating device . . . . . . . 101
28. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of auto-
matic burner regulating device . . . . . .101
29. Thornycroft 14-seated steam omnibus . . . . 103
30. Thornycroft 3o-seated steam omnibus, closed char-a-banc type 104
31. Thornycroft 3o-seated steam omnibus, open char-a-banc type 104
32. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel . . 105
33. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Part vertical section of wheel. 106
34. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Underside view of transmission
35. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Plan view of boiler . . . 107
36. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Vertical central section of
37. The Liquid Fuel Company steam omnibus. Vertical section
of burner no
38. The Liquid Fuel Company steam omnibus. Horizontal
section of burner . . . . . . . . .in
39. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Sectional elevation
of transmission gear 113
40. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Side elevation of
41. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Horizontal section of
42. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Vertical central section
of boiler 117
43. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional plan . .119
44. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional side elevation 119
45. Straker standard 2o-seated steam omnibus .... 121
46. Weidknecht steam omnibus. Part sectional view of rear or
driving wheel and axle 125
47. Weidknecht steam omnibus. Part sectional view of front or
steering wheel and axle 125
48. Serpollet system. Plan view of engine 127
49. Serpollet system. Sectional side elevation of engine . .127
50. Serpollet system. End elevation of engine . . . .127
51. Serpollet system. Vertical central section showing alterna-
tive arrangement of exhaust 129
52. Serpollet system. Vertical section of boiler or steam gene-
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii
53. Serpollet system. Horizontal section of boiler or steam
generator . . ... - !3 O
54. Longuemare liquid fuel burner used in Serpollet boiler.
Plan view 130
55. Longuemare liquid fuel burner used in Serpollet boiler.
Vertical central section 130
56. Serpollet system. Side elevation of oil and water controlling
57. Stirling i6-seated petrol omnibus 134
58. Fischer petrol-electric omnibus. Diagram of running
59. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric omnibus. Diagram
of running gear 146
60. Benz light petrol van. Diagram of running gear . . .150
6 1. Daimler light petrol van. Sectional view of engine . .152
62. Thornycroft light steam van 154
63. The Vehicle Equipment Company light 8-cwt. electric van . 156
64. Oppermann light electric van. Rear view of frame . .159
65. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Original pattern of lorry 169
66. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry
with rigid body . . . . . . . . .170
67. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry
with tipping body 172
68. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal
section of boiler . . . . . . . . 173
69. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Transverse section of
70. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Patent single eccentric
reversing gear ......... 175
71. Thornycroft heavy-freight steam vehicles. Colonial type of
4-ton waggon 176
72. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton
lorry, loaded 178
73. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton
lorry, unloaded 179
74. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Brewer's
waggon . . . . . . . . . .180
75. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of
76. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of valve
gear . . . .182
77. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical
central section of boiler 183
78. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional view
of compensating gear transmission shaft . . . .184
79. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional view
of second motion shaft ....... 185
80. Savage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry. 186
8 1. Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal
section of boiler ......... 188
82. Simpson-Bodman heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional
front and side elevations and detail view of boiler . .189
xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
83. Brightmore heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6
ton lorry . . .190
84. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton covered
waggon . . . . . .192
85. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of engine
and running gear with covers removed . . . -193
86. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of rear axle . 194
87. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan view
of boiler 195
88. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section
of boiler 196
89. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton
waggon .... ..... 198
90. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of
91. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Longitudinal
vertical section of engine 200
92. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. View showing-
driving wheel and differential gear on main axle . . 200
93. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of standard
5-ton waggon . . 202
94. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Side elevation of
standard 5-ton waggon 202
95. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section
of boiler 203
96. Nayler heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton waggon 205
97. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton
waggon .......... 207
98. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan of
99. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central
section of boiler 209
100. The Yorkshire heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard
4-ton lorry 210
101. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical
central section of boiler 211
102. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of shaft
and axle bracket - 212
103. The Wantage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard
4 -ton lorry 215
104. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 -ton
105. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Covered waggon 217
1 06. Milnes-Daimler heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton covered
107. Delahaye heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton lorry . . 223
1 08. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 5 to 6 ton lorry with
tipping body 226
109. Cadogan heavy- freight petrol vehicles. Vertical longitudinal
section of engine 226
1 10. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Transverse section
of engine .......... 226
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv
in. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Sectional view of
1 12. Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 3-ton military pattern
113. Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Plan of frame and
running gear 231
114. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Plan view of
115. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Elevation of
116. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Longitudinal
section of engine 235
117. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Cross-section of
1 1 8. Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric vehicles. Standard
lorry . . . . 237
119. The Hudson heavy-freight electric waggon .... 241
120. The Vehicle Equipment Company heavy-freight electric
121. Coulthard 5 to 6 ton municipal steam tip waggon . . 244
122. Mann covered municipal steam dust waggon or cart with
tipping body ......... 245
123. Thornycroft standard municipal steam tip waggon, showing
body tipped 246
1 24. The Lancashire standard municipal steam dust waggon,
with removable tipping body 247
12 5. Thornycroft steam street watering and sweeping waggon . 250
126. The Sadler municipal road-cleaning machine . . -251
127. Thornycroft steam furniture van 254
128. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric furniture van . 255
129. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric ambulance . 256
130. Thornycroft steam ambulance ...... 257
131. The Merryweather steam motor fire engine . . . . 259
132. Steam motor carriage. London and South Western
Railway . . . . . . . . . .261
133. Steam motor carriage. South Eastern and Chatham
Railway . . . 263
Future of the Business Motor Vehicle Classes of Business Motor
Vehicles Advantages of Business Motor Vehicles Propelling
Powers or Prime Movers for Business Motor Vehicles.
FUTURE OF THE BUSINESS MOTOR
IN the opinion of all those well qualified to judge, the heavy
motor vehicle has before it a most important future, and there
can be but little doubt that the self-propelled vehicle will in time
supersede the horse for the transport of freight. Indeed, for the
conveyance of heavy loads of passengers and goods, which is
the more legitimate field of mechanical locomotion both about
the streets of towns and cities and in the country the motor-
driven vehicle will, it may safely be predicted, in a very few years'
time hold a practical monopoly.
The objections inherent to tramways, and the impossibility of
establishing them in many districts, have raised a problem the
satisfactory solution of which has been found in the railless
This system, which consists of electric motor-driven vehicles
receiving current from overhead wires, and running on ordinary
roads, is suitable for both passenger and goods traffic, and may
at some future time go far towards, if not altogether, abolishing
2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
For long distances the cheapest system of land carriage is,
and will, undoubtedly be found to be the railway. At short
distances, however, the terminal charges form so heavy a pro-
portion of the total cost, that this method of transport is rendered
impracticable commercially, so far as goods are concerned. It is
here that the heavy motor waggon or freight vehicle should more
especially be brought into service, and being able to move from
any one point to any other point, and thus to enable breaking
bulk and carriage during the journey to be avoided, goods might
be carried by this means at rates that would be impossible on
railways for short distances.
CLASSES OF BUSINESS MOTOR VEHICLES
Self-propelled vehicles for business purposes or commercial
use may be conveniently divided into two main classes, that is
to say, first, those adapted for the conveyance of passengers, and,
second, those adapted for the carriage of goods.
Each of these main or principal classes may, for additional
facility of description, be again subdivided into two kinds of
vehicles, viz. light and heavy.
In the first class, the light type of vehicle are those adapted
to carry a small number of passengers, such as cabs or small
omnibuses plying for public hire. The heavy type comprises
such vehicles as large omnibuses and the like, carrying passengers
on fixed routes or otherwise.
In the second class, the light type of vehicles includes all
those suitable for tradesmen for the quick delivery of goods;
and the heavy type such vehicles as are adapted for the transport
of freight or heavy loads of goods at comparatively slow speeds.
ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS MOTOR
Attention may here be appropriately drawn to the great and
many advantages which motor vehicles of both the light and
heavy types possess for the purposes indicated above.
In the case of the lighter type of motor vehicle, mention may
be made of the following : Greater rapidity of delivery by reason
of quicker transit, and greater rapidity of stopping and starting,
INTROD UCTOR Y 3
and consequently fewer vehicles required. Saving in rent of
premises as compared with horses and carts. Fewer hands
wanted than in the case of stables, when not only have the
vehicles to be cleaned but also the horses. No outlay for running
except for fuel and sundries when actually on the road, whilst
a horse is continually consuming food, and therefore requiring
outlay whether working or not. Greater immunity from accidents,
as has been shown by practical working. And finally, that motor
vehicles are far more sanitary, not likely to be non-available when
wanted, as horses frequently are through sickness or being tired,
and not dependent to a great extent upon the weather, as is the
case with horses.
The above advantages apply equally to the case of motor
vehicles adapted for heavy duty, and, in addition, motor vehicles
of this class possess such special qualifications for the conveyance
of goods for comparatively long distances, that it would be entirely
impossible for animal traction of any kind to compete with them
commercially with success.
PROPELLING POWERS OR PRIME MOVERS
FOR BUSINESS MOTOR VEHICLES
As regards the propelling agencies which have been experi-
mented with up to the present time, it may be safely asserted
that almost every known motive power has been tried. Steam
was successfully employed as early as 1820, and the motor vehicle
would long ago have been perfected in this country had not the
art been stifled in its early infancy by enactments, the passing of
which were secured by the intrigues of interested parties, fearful
lest their monopolies might be injured, and totally regardless of
the public welfare when they imagined their private pockets might
These restrictions would probably be still in force if the
enlightened views of our present sovereign King Edward VII.
and the example of what foreign nations were doing had not
supported the desire of the British people for their removal, and
for the according to those using mechanically propelled vehicles
of the same liberty on the public highways as is possessed by
those employing vehicles hauled by animal traction. This influence
was successful in securing emancipation from these absurd and
4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
galling restrictions. But meanwhile the labours of the eminent
and enterprising engineers in this country of eighty-five years ago
had been, of course, frustrated, and foreigners had been permitted
to begin where our engineers had been forced to stop, and to get
ahead of us in the art.
Following on steam, the next experiments were in the line of
internal combustion or oil engines, and by electrically driven
vehicles, compressed air, carbonic acid, etc.
As it is only purposed, however, to deal with the present
types of commercially successful vehicles, the sources of power
here dealt with will be confined to steam or external combustion
engines, oil or internal combustion engines, and electricity.
For light motor vehicles for business purposes, in which class
are to be included all those intended for the rapid conveyance of
limited numbers of passengers, or the delivery of comparatively
light loads of goods about our cities and towns, all three of the
above propelling agencies are suitable, and the same remark also
applies to heavy motor vehicles intended for the transport of a
considerable number of passengers, such as motor omnibuses and
In the case of heavy freight vehicles, however, where an
abundant supply of power is required, internal combustion or
explosive motors have not as yet been found in practical working
to give quite such favourable results.
The reason for this is not far to seek. The great weight of a
self-propelled waggon and of its load, and the peculiar manner in
which it operates, demands the employment of not only a motor
of large power, but also of a flexible one, so that the natural
action of the horse may, as far as possible, be imitated. The
horse, on an emergency, is capable of exerting power equal to
what we would term 15 horse-power or even more, but when the
necessity for this effort ceases the horse only continues to exert
sufficient power to haul the vehicle on the smoother surface.
This the steam-engine can do by reason of its flexibility, but on
the contrary the internal combustion or explosion engine, by
reason of its construction, is of necessity run at a constant speed,
and is non-reversible, and these defects are only imperfectly
eliminated by the speed-changing devices applied, which consist
mainly of such elements as spur and bevel gears, belts, chains,
shifting wheels, friction wheels, pulleys with expanding faces, or
INTR OD UCTOR Y 5
various combinations of some of these devices with brakes and
clutches. Attempts have likewise been made to employ hydraulic
and electric combinations for the purpose.
Needless to say, these speed-changing devices, whatever may
be their success in the case of light or comparatively light vehicles,
are more or less unsuitable for heavy freight vehicles, clutch and
shifting gear wheels being in this case, owing to the impact of the
moving masses, liable to frequently give rise to very serious
trouble when being constantly brought into use to adapt the
engine, which is running at a constant speed, to the speed
requirements of the motor waggon wheels, which are ever changing.
An internal combustion engine, besides, will not start with a
load on, and even when it is running is dependent for its action
on the even influx of the explosive mixture, and is liable to come
to a sudden dead stop without any previous warning, should its
capacity be at any time suddenly overtaxed. Again, the oil-
motor is greatly influenced by the weather, owing to the effect
exerted upon the carburettor by the atmosphere. The pounding
of the large engine is liable to injure the frame of the vehicle. A
certain amount of risk of explosion and fire exists, and there is
the possibility of injury to the goods carried, when they consist of
articles of a perishable nature and foodstuffs, by reason of the far
from pleasant odour of the oil and exhaust.
In short, although possessing many obvious advantages as a
motive power for light and comparatively light motor vehicles,
the use of internal combustion engines of large power on heavy
motor waggons has not hitherto been attended with that amount of
success which would seem to warrant the use of this type of motor
in preference to the steam-engine, at least not until such time as
an internal combustion engine has been designed which will be
capable of varying its speed through a wide range, and will be
likewise satisfactory in its operation in other respects. Theo-
retically, of course, the internal combustion engine is the most
RESISTAA?CE TO TRACTION ON COMMON
Rolling Resistance Traction on Rising Gradients and Distribution
of Load on Wheels Width of Tyres Speed and Suspension
General Result of Early Experiments in Resistance to Traction
on Common Roads Sir John Macneil's Experiments Resist-
ance due to Rising Gradients Table calculated from Macneil's
formulas showing Force required to draw Vehicles over Inclined
Roads Recent Experiments on Traction on Common Roads
Table compiled from recent Tests giving Tractive Force required
to haul a Load of One Ton on Various Grades, and Equivalent
Length of each Mile of Grade in Miles of Level Road Resistance
due to the Air Resistance due to Starting Adhesive Power of
BEFORE proceeding to give specific descriptions and illustrations
of typical examples of self-propelled vehicles adapted for business
purposes, in the order of the classification that has been already
indicated, it has been thought desirable to deal at as great length
as the space at command will admit of, with the subject of resist-
ance to traction on common roads.
This subject is one of paramount importance, inasmuch as the
propulsion, and the maintenance of the speed of motion, of all
wheeled vehicles can obviously only be effected by overcoming
the various resistances by which such propulsion is opposed.
These resistances are forces which are variable inversely to the
force of traction expended.
When moving slowly forward in a straight line, at a constant
rate of speed, the force of propulsion will be equal to the resist-
ance. The latter comprises the following elements : Resistance
to rolling on the road surface, commonly denominated rolling
friction ; resistance due to the friction of the wheels rotating on
their axles ; and resistance due to wind pressure.
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ^
To the above must be added :
In starting, the resistance due to inertia, which is the property
possessed by any body of maintaining its condition of rest or
motion if not acted upon by some force. This is the first law of
motion, which is frequently spoken of as the law of inertia.
Whilst travelling, the resistance due to weight, when passing
over gradients, which resistance is of a positive or negative quality
in accordance with the direction of motion, viz. whether the vehicle
is going up or down.
In running round curves resistance of a special nature is pro-
duced, the value of which augments in a ratio corresponding to
the diminution of the radii of the curves.
All the above-mentioned resistances are common to all wheeled
vehicles, being due to their traction or propulsion on any road
surface. In the case of mechanically propelled vehicles, it is to
be observed that there is yet another source of resistance to be
taken into account, to wit, that arising from the use of the engines
or motors, of whatever be their description, for purposes of pro-
pulsion. This latter element, however, may be dismissed for the
present, and those resistances to traction which wheeled vehicles
have to overcome on a common road be dealt with seriatim.
Rolling resistance or, as it is commonly called, rolling friction
is that due to the resistance offered by the circumference of a
wheel to the power by which it is propelled.
This class of resistance is due to the greater or lesser in-
equalities of the surface in the immediate vicinity of the points of
contact of the wheels of the vehicle with this surface, and which
inequalities form obstacles that must be overcome, thereby giving
rise to a resistance that consumes a proportion of the propelling
power corresponding to the extent of the inequalities.
This proposition will be made clear by the diagram Fig. i, in
which a is a cylinder having a radius p, and which cylinder a is
standing on a horizontal plane surface b b l . Laterally and con-
centrically upon the axis of the cylinder a is fixed, as indicated on
the diagram, a small pulley c having a radius y.
If tangentially to the pulley c a force d be applied vertically,
such as a weight suspended on the end of a fine cord wound on
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the pulley c, it can then be demonstrated that it is possible to
gradually increase the value of the force d up to a point just
beyond which the equilibrium of the cylinder a will be upset, and
it will be caused to move or travel in the direction indicated by
the arrow. It will be seen that the cylinder a is subjected to three
forces, that is to say, the weight e of the cylinder a, the vertical
force </, and that resulting from the sum x of the resistances offered
by the plane surface bb l . This latter force, which is necessarily
Fig. i. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power
a vertical one, will equal e + ^, as, however, the latter quantity is
not sufficient to maintain the equilibrium of the cylinder a, and as
we have just seen that the forces are so balanced that the cylinder
a is in a state of equilibrium, it follows, then, that the sum of the
forces e, d, x, round the horizontal axis projected to z l t is nil.
From the above we find that
e + d
that is to say, that the product x of the resistances offered by the
plane surface bb l must pass through a point x 1 beyond the vertical
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 9
axial line zz l , and on that side of the latter to which the cylinder a
tends to roll upon the plane surface bb l .
The resistance offered to the cylinder a rolling on the plane
surface bb l is equal to the maximum force applied at d that may
be necessary to overcome the state of equilibrium of the cylinder a
and to cause it to roll on the plane surface bb l in the direction of
the arrow. Or, to be more accurate, the above-mentioned re-
sistance is measured by the product d\\ because d and y will vary
in an inverse ratio the one from the other, whilst all the other
factors remain constant.
The above considerations also apply when the application of
the force d is made in a horizontal instead of a vertical direction.
In this case the product x of the resistances offered by the plane
surface bb l will be oblique respectively to this plane surface as the
product of the forces d and e in the diagram Fig. 2. Indicating
by g the component of y parallel to the plane surface bb l , and by
x the line normal to the same plane, then on the instant at which
the state of equilibrium of the cylinder a is on the point of being
interrupted, we have the two following equations :
e x = z
d-g = z
to which equations must be also added the following equation of
the turning movements around the point z 1 :
d(y + p)=x$
from which is obtained
d(y + P )
The horizontal component g of the product x forms the
resistance to rolling, and it should be less than he, h being the co-
efficient of resistance to slipping, in order to admit of the cylinder
a rolling on the horizontal plane bb 1 .
As it is assumed in the last equation that the movement of the
cylinder a takes place in the same direction as the action of the
force g, this gives us
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Or, in other words, if the horizontal force d be applied above
the axis z of the cylinder a, slip might occur between the latter
and the plane surface bb l . This slip will take place if the force d
Fig. 2. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power
that is applied be greater than the friction between the cylinder
and the plane surface bb l ; that is to say, when the condition of
things may be expressed by
//, as has been already mentioned, being the coefficient of this
friction. If, on the other hand, however, we have conversely
then the cylinder a would roll in the contrary direction to that
exerted by the force </, and in this case the formula
8 = d(y + P ) = d(y + P )
would be applicable provided the distance y be regarded as a
positive one, and that even if that distance be then reckoned as
being above the point z, and counting the distance to the right
instead of to the left of the point z 1 . The location of the centre
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION n
of reaction of the fulcrum at the point x l is evidently due to the
two bodies in mutually compressing each other coming in contact
with each other no longer through a generator of the cylinder, but
through that of a band of which the point x l is an interior point.
The resistance offered to rolling is explained thus by the fact
that when a body is rolling or is on the point of rolling upon
another body, the normal sources of resistances offered by the last-
named have a product which is slightly in excess of the normal, at
the geometrical point of contact, at that side towards which the
rolling motion is taking place, or towards which the rolling motion
is on the point of taking place.
Regarding experiments with the view of a practical determina-
tion of the resistance to rolling, the principal amongst the earliest
workers in this field were Edgeworth (1797), Coulomb (1799),
Rumford (1811), and Dupuit (1837). None of these experi-
menters, however, were able to place a practical value upon the
resistance offered to the rolling of wheeled vehicles upon road
surfaces, and it was not until General Morin, in the year 1838,
took up the experiments of Coulomb, and having proved the truth
of the principle enunciated by this latter, that the resistance to
rolling was in an inverse proportion to the radius, that the experi-
ments in this direction were continued until practical data were
Although General Morin acknowledged the truth of the above
principle, he nevertheless did not forget that the proportionateness
between resistance and pressure was not a fixed general mathe-
matical law, and that it was only extant in certain cases. He,
however, admitted that, on solid macadam or stone roads, in a
good state of repair, and on pavement, the proportionateness
between resistance and pressure might be taken as being sufficiently
exact for all practical purposes, and for ordinary applications. The
amount of resistance encountered on pavement under light loads
being less than that with heavy loads, no doubt because the latter
had the effect of displacing the paving stones to a certain extent
with regard to one another.
General Morin determined the value of the coefficient a in
the formula of Coulomb, which was as follows :
12 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
In which R = the resistance at the circumference of the
P = the pressure upon the roller ;
r = the radius of roller ;
a = the coefficient depending upon the nature of
the surfaces in contact.
The result of General Morin's researches are recorded in the
following table :
VALUE OF THE COEFFICIENT a OF COULOMB'S FORMULA.
Nature of the ground .
Value of a.
Very dry, even road, with a little dust ...
Slightly wet road, or one covered with a heavy
coating of dust ...
Wet road free from mud ...
Very solid road, wet, with a little mud, very
dry, or dry, offering an appreciable disintegra-
tion with dust, and detritus of materials
Slightly worn road, covered with thick mud ...
Pavement of Fontainebleau grit stone in ordi-
nary condition . .
0*010 to 0*011
O'OI2 tO O*OI3
0*014 to 0*015
o'oi6 to 0*018
O'O2O tO 0*027
Pavement covered with mud
0*010 to 0*011
General Morin estimated besides this that the value of
a = o'oio was the minimum one for application to traction on
roads made with silicious gravel during the fine periods of the
In 1840 General Morin set himself to solve the problem of
registering the resistances which are opposed to the traction of
vehicles, at the same time preserving as far as possible a lasting
record of the information obtained. This led him to invent a
registering dynamometer, from which instrument all those sub-
sequently designed have had their origin, and by the use of which
he was enabled to determine the laws under which a wheeled
vehicle could travel on different road surfaces.
General Morin's experiments occupied several years of constant
work, and he recorded the results in a work entitled " Experiments
on the Traction of Vehicles." The following particulars, which
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 13
are of great interest and value, in relation to the subject under
consideration, are translated from selected extracts summarized
from General Morin's book, and given in an excellent treatise,
published in Paris, entitled " Voitures Automobiles," by C.
Milandre and R. P. Bouquet, from which work has also been
derived much of the information just given.
The considerations which may exert a regular and noticeable
influence upon the power required for traction, and which con-
Diagram showing relation of the draught to the load for
siderations it is desirable to investigate and substantiate, are the
1. The load or pressure exerted upon the ground.
2. The diameter of the wheels.
3. The width of the tyres.
4. The rapidity of motion.
5. The obliquity of the tractive force.
6. The suspension, or the greater or lesser elasticity of the
The following are the formulae proposed by General Morin
(see diagram, Fig. 3) for obtaining, with a sufficiently close
approximation for practical purposes, the value of the resistance
offered to the advance of four-wheeled vehicles on horizontal
14 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
R' = ( A +./W(*7 + P J>) + A (^ + f ''') ( vehicles with 4 wheels)
R being the tractive force, parallel to the ground, which is
necessary to overcome the resistance to rolling and the friction on
the axles ;
A the coefficient depending on the condition of the ground
and the nature of the vehicle ;
/ the coefficient of friction of the axles in the boxes of the
p the diameter of the axles, which are supposed to be equal ;
P is the weight of the vehicle without the wheels ;
P' and P" are the proportion of P borne on the front and rear
axles, that is to say, the load on the axles ;
/ and r" the radii of the wheels ;
/' and/" the weight respectively of the front and rear wheels.
The relation of the tractive effort developed to the total load
moved forms the coefficient of traction, which is generally expressed
in kilogrammes per ton or in thousandths.
It will be seen in the formula that in order to equalize the
traction on the two sets of wheels the load should be so distributed
and as without any appreciable error we can make-
P = P
we have as a general rule
r' = r' 1
P = P' -f P",
the formula becomes
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 15
it being understood that we have
F = P' = P
t> r " / + ;-"
The relation between the total resistance given and the total
weight F =/ +/' is therefore
R' _ A+/p 2P i\i j r"
' - ' ' ' -
In the case of a mechanically propelled vehicle, the weight of
the wheels is only a small fraction of the total load, and it is
therefore possible to neglect it, which then gives
This latter formula shows that in the case of the supposed dis-
tribution of the load, the relation of the traction to the total load
falls with A, /, and p, and is in an inverse ratio to the diameter of
From the above the following interesting conclusions may be
1. To increase as far as possible the diameter of the wheels.
2. To give to the axles a sufficient diameter only to meet the
resistance, and with that object to form them of metal of the best
3. To employ well-made and adjusted axle-boxes.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
TABLE GIVING THE RELATION OF THE TRACTIVE FORCE TO THE TOTAL
Description of road
o'io m to 0*12'"
o'io m to o'i2* u
o- 75 o ra
yio"' to 0*12'"
o'o7'" to o"o8' u
In excellent condition, very\
I p 0'02I
dry, very even
j / 0*024
Slightly wet, or covered with
dust, with some stones
flush with the surface
Very hard, with large stones I c
flush with the surface ...fl
Hard, slightly worn, and)
soft mud J'j
j p 0-038
\ t 0*046
j / 0-048
Hard, with mud and ruts ...
With detritus and
Much worn, ruts of from 6Y
to 8 cm., and thick mud /
/ 0'08 1
Much worn, ruts of from 10
to 12 cm., thick mud, hard
and uneven bottom
o - o6i
( p 0-082
Grit stone pavement
Ordinary wet and muddy ...
/ P 0-023
\ t 0-030
/ = width of tyre,
p = radius of axle bearing.
r' = radius of small wheels.
r" = radius of large wheels.
/p = moment of friction of axle.
/ = travel at foot pace (1-50 m. about).
/ = travel at trot (3*50 m. about).
gt travel at fast trot (5 m. about).
the coefficient of friction of axle. // = travel at foot pace and trot (2-50 m.).
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
TRACTION ON RISING GRADIENTS AND
DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD ON WHEELS
The advantage offered by wheels of large diameter is merely
that of diminishing the resistance caused by the inequalities of
the surface passed over, and has no influence whatsoever upon
that due to the action of gravity on a rising gradient. The
resistance due to gravity when on an up gradient is the component
of the load to be transported, parallel to the plane of the surface
travelled upon, and the value is consequently entirely independent
of the diameter of the wheels.
From this it will be obvious that if the load were to be raised
to the highest maximum possible admitted by the diameter of the
wheels on a level surface, the force required for propulsion might
become excessive on a rising gradient, as it consists of the two
following elements, viz. :
First A constant fraction of the total load entirely dependent
on the gradient.
Second The resistance offered by the surface that is being
traversed, which is the only quantity that diminishes in proportion
to the increase in the diameter of the wheels.
Attention should also be directed to the fact that in the case
of vehicles having two trains of wheels of unequal diameter, the
distribution of the load has an important influence on the tractive
force required, because the amount of resistance due to the load
upon the wheels of larger diameter is less than that upon the
wheels of smaller diameter. It is obviously, therefore, an advan-
tage to place a heavier load upon the first mentioned.
Theoretically, it may be taken, as a general rule, that if the load
be equally distributed between the two axles, the distance between
these latter has no effect. In practice, however, it is found that
the closer the axles are placed together the easier the vehicle
will roll ; but, on the other hand, that the stability will be less.
WIDTH OF TYRES
General Morin's experiments with respect to the influence
exerted by the width of tyres on the tractive force required, are
embodied in the following three tables :
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Values of A.
Nature of road surface.
Values of A.
Width of tyres.
Very solid stone road with large stones)
flush with surface (dry) /
The same road (wet) ...
o - o6o m
Earth road, covered with dust
Nature of road surface.
Total load in
Values of A.
Width of tyres.
Dry road with detritus of
A critical examination of the above tables shows that on roads
in a good state of repair, and even on those in a comparatively
bad condition, as well as on pavements when the bottom is
solid, the resistance follows the axiom that friction is independent
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 19
of the area of the surfaces in contact, and the amount of resistance
is practically independent of the width of the tyres, and conse-
quently any increase in their width would only add unnecessarily
to the weight of the vehicle. On the other hand, however, in the
case of soft roads or on recently remetalled roads, and on roads
constructed of friable materials, it is advantageous to increase the
width of the tyres in proportion to the softness and penetrability
of the road surface. From the point of view of the degradation
of road surfaces, the best width of tyres for soft and compressible
roads is one of 0^150 m., whilst in the case of ordinary roads
and paved streets there is no advantage in exceeding o'ioo m.
to 0*120 m.
SPEED AND SUSPENSION
Vehicles without Springs. In the case of soft and
giving surfaces the resistance to rolling was, according to the
experiments in question, found to be independent of speed, which
fact is due to there being only compression of the surface without
shocks, and without communication of speed to the medium com-
pressed. This is no longer the case when the vehicle is rolling
on a hard and uneven surface, as in this case, by reason of the
repeated shocks to which the wheels are subjected in surmounting
the inequalities, there will be a constant tendency to reduce the
speed of motion, which must be made up by motive power.
Vehicles hung on Springs. On earth roads and soft
surfaces the resistance is independent of the speed, even when
slight ruts exist. But on a stone road in good condition, and on
pavement, the influence exerted by speed increases in proportion
as the road surface becomes harder.
At slow speeds and on hard road surfaces the effect of spring
suspension is very slight, and, in fact, on stone roads in good
condition, and on pavements, about the same value is found for A,
both in the case of the most rigid description of vehicles, such as
gun-carriages, for instance, and for those most carefully mounted
on springs, such as diligences.
The law regulating the variation of the resistance in relation
to speed is an expression of the equation
A - y 8(V -V)
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
y being a constant representing in kilogrammes the value of A
relatively to V; 8 being a constant coefficient numeral for each
road corresponding to a given condition, and to a particular
Taking as a term of comparison the speed of i metre per
second, then the above equation will become
The following are the values obtained by General Morin for
the constant 8
naouc o; roaa sunace. .Description 01 venicie.
\Vehicle (carriage) with springs
(Vehicle without springs
Same with six springs
Waggon body jointed to frame
hung on springs
From the above it will be seen that on smooth roads the term
S(V i) decreases in proportion to the greater perfection with
which the vehicle is hung on springs.
The following table gives the values of A corresponding to
speeds between 3*6 kiloms. and 12*6 kiloms. per hour for the
principal types of vehicles :
TABLE GIVING VALUES OF "A"
Speed in kilometres per hour
Description of vehicle.
Nature of road
Values of A.
( Road in good
0*0141 o 0151 0-0162
o 0139 o 0158
Carriages jointed and)
hung on springs ... )
Very dry ...
Carriages hung on
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 21
From the above it will be seen that the resistance offered by
stone roads in good repair, and by good pavement, was found to
be almost the same in the case of carriages hung on springs when
moving at the higher velocity. It is further to be observed that
the resistance is always practically the same in the case of pave-
ment, whilst it increases in winter on a stone road, and conse-
quently that, when not greasy, a good hard pavement, well laid
and close jointed, frequently affords a better surface for rolling
than does a stone road in good repair. Moreover, the effects of
shocks diminishing in proportion to the perfection with which the
carriage is hung, it is obvious that the greater the speed at which
the vehicle is intended to travel, the greater should be the care
taken to secure the proper suspension of the vehicle.
The formula previously determinated
_ (A +/P) p
will allow, by substituting the values for the letters, the solution,
according to the case under consideration, of the amount of
resistance to rolling for a vehicle of any description.
The former tables give the values of A, which should be
applied in accordance with the conditions of traction, and the
latter table gives the values of the coefficients of traction corre-
sponding to the different types of vehicles at different speeds.
As regards the coefficient /(friction in axle boxes), its value
will vary in accordance with the nature of the axles, and the
method of lubrication employed, between 0*030 and 0-054. In
practical working with good lubrication it may be taken as 0*040.
GENERAL RESULT OF EARLY EXPERIMENTS
IN RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
The experiments of General Morin, although they did not
enable any mathematical law upon the resistance to rolling to
be arrived at, are, nevertheless, of great practical utility by reason
of the numerous results attained, and the careful manner in which
they were conducted. The general results obtained may be briefly
summarized as follows :
(a) Resistance to traction is in direct proportion to the load,
22 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
and in an inverse proportion to the diameter of the wheels of the
(b) On a pavement or a good stone road the resistance to
traction is independent of the width of the tyres when the latter
exceed 7*5 to 10 cms., or say 3 to 4 ins.
(c) At slow speeds, and other circumstances being equal, the
resistance to traction is the same for vehicles with and without
(d) On hard stone roads and on pavement the resistance to
traction increases proportionately with the velocity at speeds in
excess of 2-25 miles per hour. The increments to traction being
less in proportion to the smoothness of the road and the perfection
with which the carriage is hung.
(e) On earth roads, or roads freshly and thickly gravelled,
resistance to traction is independent of velocity.
(f) On good pavement the resistance to traction at slow
speeds is only about 0*75 of the resistance met with on stone
roads. At higher speeds the resistance is equal.
(g) The smaller the diameter of the wheels the greater will be
the destruction of the road surfaces, and vehicles without springs
are also more destructive to road surfaces than those hung on
SIR JOHN MACNEIL'S EXPERIMENTS
The experiments carried out by Sir John Macneil were made
with an instrument devised by him for measuring the tractive
force required on various road surfaces, to draw a waggon
weighing 21 cwts. at a very slow speed, the results obtained
being as follows :
Total tractive force Tractive force per
Description of road.
Well-laid pavement ... ... ... 33
Stone road, made with six inches of
broken stone of great hardness, laid on
foundation of large stone pavement, or
upon concrete ...
Old flint road, or road made with thick
coating of broken stone laid on earth 65 62
Road made with thick layer of gravel
required, in Ibs. ' ton, in Ibs.
laid on earth
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 23
From a large number of experiments Sir John Macneil de-
duced the following arbitrary formulae for the calculation of the
resistance to traction on the level, for roads of various kinds, and
at different speeds :
Let R = force required to move the vehicle, in Ibs. ;
W = weight of vehicle, in Ibs. ;
w = weight of load, in Ibs. ;
v velocity, in feet, per second ;
c a constant number depending on the nature of the
The values of c for different kinds of road surface are as
Timber ... ... ... ... ... ... c = 2
Paved road ... ... ... ... ... c = 2
Well-made broken stone road, in a dry, clean state c = 5
Well-made broken stone road, covered with dust c = 8
Well-made broken stone road, wet and muddy... c = 10
Gravel or flint road, dry and clean state ... c = 13
Gravel or flint road, wet and muddy state ... c = 32
W + w . w ,
Stage waggon, R = - - + -- h cv
Stage coach, R =
Divide the gross weight of the vehicle, in Ibs., loaded, by 93
for a waggon, or by ioo for a coach, and to the quotient add ~Q of
the weight of the load only. To the sum thus obtained add the
product of the velocity in feet per second, multiplied by the
constant for that particular kind of road. The sum will be
the force in Ibs. required to draw the carriage at a given velocity
upon that description of road.
According to the results of the experiments of Leahy, the use
of springs does not lessen the draught when the motion is so slow
as to allow the body of the vehicle to be elevated and depressed
just as much as the axle. The variation of the draught on hard
irregular surfaces is as the square of the velocity. The following
table of uniform draught is given :
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Broken stone surface (ordinary)
Close firm stone paving
Close timber paving
in 41 -5
Close timber track .
Close cut stone track
Iron tramway ...
The following deductions are given by Charie'-Marsaines, as
the result of experiments with respect to the durability, cost of
maintenance, and maximum load that can be supported on paved
surfaces, as compared with macadam roads. The wear on harness
is less on pavement. The wear and tear of vehicles is greater.
A horse lasts a shorter time on macadam. Harness lasts six
years on pavement and five years on macadam. A vehicle lasts
seven years on pavement and nine years on macadam.
The results obtained by Schwilgue are given in table below :
Work per hour in
Summer ... Macadam
RESISTANCE DUE TO RISING GRADIENTS
The additional resistance offered by an up gradient is dealt
with by Macneil as follows : Let ab in the diagram, Fig. 4,
represent a portion of an inclined road, c a vehicle just retained
in its position by a force d> acting in the direction shown by the
arrow. The vehicle c is retained in position by three forces, that
is to say, by its own weight, w, acting in the vertical direction ew,
by the force w applied in the direction df parallel to the road
ab, and by the pressure g which is exerted by the vehicle c
against the surface of the road, acting in the direction eg per-
pendicular to the surface. In order to determine the relative
magnitude of the above three forces, draw the horizontal line
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 25
a/i, and the vertical line hb. Now, as the two lines ew and bh
are parallel to one another, and as they both cut the line ab, it
follows that the two angles ewb and abh are equal, and as the
two angles egiv and ahb are right angles, the two remaining
angles weg and bah must be equal ones, and the two triangles
eu'g and abh are similar ones.
It has been shown that the three sides of the triangle ewg
Fig-. 4. Diagram showing action of gravity on an inclined road
are proportional to the forces by which the vehicle c is sustained,
therefore so also are the three sides of the triangle abh. That
is to say, the length of the road ab is proportional to #', the
weight of the vehicle c ; bg, the vertical rise, is proportional to
/, the force required to sustain the vehicle upon the incline ;
and ah) the horizontal distance for the rise, is proportional to g,
the force with which the vehicle presses upon the surface of the
ic' : ab : : f : hb
and w : ab ' g ' ah
26 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Thus, if ah be made of such a length that the vertical rise bh
of the road is exactly i foot, then
* w w . ..
/ = -7 = - = = w.sm. B
, wcih wak
and g = -- = = - = w. cos Q
<*b Jah* + i
/3 being the angle bah.
The above formulae can be reduced to the following verbal
To find the force requisite to sustain a vehicle upon an
inclined road (the effects of friction being neglected), divide the
weight of the vehicle in Ibs., including its load, by the inclined
length of the road, the vertical rise of which is one foot,
and the quotient is the force required.
To find the pressure of a vehicle against the surface of an
inclined road, multiply the weight of the loaded vehicle in Ibs.
by the horizontal length of the road, and divide the product
by the inclined length of the same ; the quotient is the pressure
To ascertain the resistance in passing up and down a hill,
the resistance on a level road should first be calculated according
to the rule before given (see Sir John Macneil's experiments).
To this is to be added the force necessary to sustain the vehicle
on the incline, in ascending, or in descending to subtract the same
force from the resistance on the level.
The following table, calculated from these rules, and showing
the force required to draw vehicles over inclined roads, ranging
by 25ths from i in 600 to i in 7, has been abstracted from a
treatise entitled " The Construction of Roads and Streets " (sixth
edition), by Messrs. H. Law, M.I.C.E., D. K. Clark, M.I.C.E.,
and A. J. Wallis-Tayler, A.M.I.C.E.,* and will be found useful for
reference and comparison :
* London : Crosby Lockvvood and Son. (Publishers of this work )
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
For a stage waggon of
For a stage coach of 3 tons
6 tons gross.
ho rt g
M u C
to a c
t-f. 'J ~
. O .
* s 1
'= : :/ -"5
'3 P. c
I in 600
o 5 44
o 5 59
o 6 15
o 6 33
o 6 53
2 3 8
o 7 14
o 7 38
o 8 36
o 9 10
o 9 49
o 10 35
o ii 51
I 7 6
o 12 17
o 12 44
o 13 13
o 13 45
o 14 19
o 14 57
o 15 37
O l6 22
200 17 II
I 9 7
o 18 6
o 19 6 338
o 20 13 343
O 21 29
o 22 55
o 24 33 360
o 26 27 367
o 28 39
o 31 15
o 34 23
o 86 ii
o 38 12
o 40 27
o 42 58
o 45 5 1
o 49 7
o 52 54
o 57 18
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
For a stage waggon of
6 tons gross.
For a stage coach of 3 tons
b/3 D C
a rt" 3
i in 55
559 l6 4
I 5 8
2 2 5
2 12 2
2 17 26
2 23 10
2 29 22
2 36 10
2 43 35
2 5i 21 933
3 o 46 970
3 10 47 1009
3 21 59
3 34 35
3 48 5i
807 ! -
4 5 H
4 23 56
4 45 49
5 ii 40
I 4 80
5 4 2 58
6 20 25
7 7 30
8 7 48
In the French work entitled "Ventures Automobiles," which
has been already referred to, the resistance offered by up-
gradients is dealt with as follows : Inclines are defined by the
elevation in millimetres corresponding to one metre traversed.
A vehicle on an incline is a mover which is displaced on an
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
inclined plane, and if a be taken to represent the angle formed
by this plane with the horizon (see diagram, Fig. 5), the power
which will retain the body in motion, and which is the component
Fig. 5 Diagram showing resistance due to a rising gradient
of the total load P 1 parallel to the inclined plane P, is of the
following value :
R 3 =
a more simple expression of which is to say that it equals as
many kilogrammes per ton as the incline measures millimetres
per metre. As has been already mentioned, the force will be
positive or negative in accordance with the direction in which
the vehicle is moving, viz. up or down the incline.
Traction on an incline has also the effect of altering the value
of the pressure on the axle bearings, which pressure, if it were
represented by P, would become equal to P cos a ; in practical
working, however, this variation, which is but a small one, can
RECENT EXPERIMENTS ON TRACTION
ON COMMON ROADS
The results obtained by General Morin have been confirmed,
and his experiments completed, by recent investigators, the advent
of mechanically propelled vehicles having again drawn considerable
attention to the subject. The most important of these recent ex-
periments have undoubtedly been those of a French gentleman,
30 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Mr. Andre Michelin, the manufacturer of the well-known tyres
that bear his name, and whose primary object was to ascertain,
for purposes of comparison, the results given from a tractional
point of view, by the use of various different forms of tyres, viz.
iron tyres, solid indiarubber tyres, and pneumatic tyres.
Before dealing with these comparatively recent experiments, it
will be interesting to remark that Mr. Debauve, Ingenieur en Chef
des Fonts et Chaussees, found, as the result of his experiments
carried out in 1873, tnat resistance to traction varied on macadam
roads from 32 kilogrammes per ton for heavy vehicles to 36 kilo-
grammes per ton for carriages ; on paved roads he found these
resistances to vary between 18 and 36 kilogrammes, for the same
description of vehicles, according to the condition of the pavement.
The resistance to rolling in an omnibus travelling at a speed
of 1 6 kilometres (9*94 miles) an hour he found to be as follows :
36 to 38 kilogrammes on macadam roads, and 29 to 31 kilo-
grammes on paved roads.
Clarke, as the result of his experiments, proposed to adopt the
following empirical formula :
RI = 30 + 4V+
R being the resistance given in Ibs. per ton, V the speed in miles
per hour, and the road being supposed to be a good macadam.
Mr, Andre' Michelin's experiments were carried out during the
years 1896-7, and as they were conducted with great skill and
care, the results obtained are of much importance.
The following details are extracted from an intelligent summary
of these experiments given in the French work already mentioned
(" Voitures Automobiles "), the question of comparison of the
different tyres used being neglected for the present.
The first experiments of Mr. Michelin were carried out at
Clermont-Ferrand with a well-hung brake, of which the following
are the main particulars : Diameter of front wheels, 0*92 m.
diameter of rear wheels, 1-12 m. ; weight of brake empty, without
driver, 570 kilogrammes.
Subjoined is a brief summary of the results obtained, which
are most pertinent to the present subject.
On a very even macadam road, with the brake empty, the
following tractive force was required :
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
Iron tyres ...
The speeds corresponding to the different paces of the horse
Wheels with iron tyres
Wheels with pneumatic tyres
The coefficients of traction resulting from the above figures are
tabulated below :
Description of tyre.
At walking pace.
4550 to 4900 m.
At a trot.
10500 to 10940 m.
At a fast trot.
The last experiments of Mr. Michelin date from 1897, and
were carried out by means of a steam motor drawing a vehicle
through a dynamometer mounted on another vehicle.
The coefficients of traction deduced from these experiments
are summarized in the following table :
TABLE GIVING COEFFICIENTS OF TRACTION (Michelin}.
Description of tyres.
(11-700 (head wind)
Good macadam, hard,
1 1*700 (wind behind)
dry, and dusty
19-700 (head wind)
19700 (wind behind)
Good macadam, hard, J 1 1 -QOO (wind behind)
slightly muddy ... ^20*000 (wind behind)
Macadam, very wet 21 'ooo (wind behind)
Old macadam, slightly)
brokenup / 22 'OOO( wind behind)
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
A comparison of the results obtained by Mr. Michelin with
those gained by General Morin so many years before is very
interesting, and the close way in which the figures obtained by
the two experimenters approximate adds very considerably to
their practical value. For example : the results obtained by
General Morin on a good macadam road in a dusty condition
were, at a walk 100, at a trot 127, at a fast trot 152, whilst those
obtained by Mr. Michelin were respectively 100, 123, and 160.
On good pavement, dry, the first experimenter obtained, at a
walk 100, at a trot 151, and the second 100 and 146. These
figures are as near as can be expected considering the impossibility
of obtaining roads in precisely the same condition. The figures
obtained by Mr. Michelin are in almost every case slightly under
those obtained by the formulae of General Morin, a difference
which is attributable to the superior manner in which the brake
used by the former was hung upon springs, whilst the vehicle
which was employed by General Morin was springless.
In 1897 a series of experiments were undertaken by Professor
H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S., M.I.C.E., for the Royal Lancashire
Agricultural Society, the results obtained with respect to the
tractive force for agricultural waggons being given briefly in the
following table :
Tractive force per
ton of load.
! J 11
I 4 8
A series of trials of self-propelled vehicles was carried out in
1897 before the Royal Agricultural Society, on which Professor
W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., M.I.C.E., made an interesting report.
The experiments were made with the vehicles to determine the
friction, by permitting them to run down an incline by gravity
with the motors idle, and noting the speed acquired and the
distance in which they came to rest. For the purposes of the
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 33
trial, distances were marked off on the descending gradient, the
vehicles gently started at a distance of 300 ft., and in some cases
400 ft., from the first point, and from the speed attained between
the second two of these fixed points, 200 ft. apart, a measure of
the friction was obtained, another measure being obtained from
the mean gradient from start to finish.
Mr. I. O. Baker, M.Am.Soc.C.E. (whose investigations were
made in 1902), assumes resistance to traction of a vehicle upon a
road to consist of the three independent elements, axle friction,
rolling resistance, and grade resistance, and as the latter is under-
stood to equal 20 Ibs. per ton for i per cent, of grade, it is dismissed
without further notice.
As regards axle friction, this is independent of the road
surface, and the coefficient of friction varies with the material of
the journal and its bearings, and with the lubricant. It is nearly
independent of the velocity, and Mr. Baker's experiments show it
to vary apparently inversely to the pressure. For the heavier
classes of vehicles it is given as 0*0151 of the weight on the axle ;
with bad lubrication, however, these figures must be multiplied by
from two to six. The tractive force required to overcome axle
friction is given as from 3 to 3*5 Ibs. per ton of the weight on the
axle for ordinary waggons, and from 3*5 to 4*5 Ibs. for waggons
with medium-sized wheels and axles.
The resistance to rolling caused by the yielding of the road,
and the wheels in consequence continually climbing an incline, is
measured by the horizontal force necessary at the axle to lift it
over the obstacle, or to roll it up the incline, and varies with the
speed, the presence or absence of springs, and the nature of the
The effect of the diameter of the wheels on rolling resistance
is concluded to vary nearly inversely as the square root of the
Experiments were carried out with the following three sizes of
wheels, viz. : 44 ins. front and 56 ins. hind, equal to 50 ins. mean
diameter; 36 ins. front and 40 ins. hind, equal to 38 ins. mean
diameter; and 24 ins. front and 28 ins. hind, equal to 26 ins.
mean diameter ; the load being in each case if ton, American, or
3500 Ibs., and the tyres 6 ins. in width. From these experiments
the table below has been deduced, showing the effect of the size
of wheels on traction :
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
EFFECT OF THE SIZE OF WHEELS ON TRACTION (Baker}.
Tractive force in Ibs. per ton.
er of front and
Macadam, slightly worn, clear, fair con-
Gravel road, dry, sand I in. deep, loose
Gravel road, up-grade of 2'2 per cent.,
\ in. wet sand, frozen below ...
Earth road, dry and hard
,, \ in. sticky mud, frozen
Timothy and blue grass sod, dry, grass cut
tt wet, spongy
Cornfield, flat culture, across rows, dry
Ploughed ground not harrowed, dry,
With respect to width of tyres, the traction is increased if the
wheel cuts into the road, but where little or no indentation occurs
the width of tyres has practically no effect on traction.
The effect of speed is that the rolling resistance increases with
the velocity owing to the effect of the shocks or concussions
produced by the irregularities of the road surface. From two to
six or eight times as much force is required to start a vehicle as to
keep it in motion at 2 or 3 miles an hour.
Springs decrease the traction by decreasing the concussions due
to the irregularities of the ground, and are, therefore, more
effective at high speeds than low, and on rough roads than on
The tractive force on different road surfaces was determined by
a Baldwin dynagraph.
According to the New York Automobile , from tests made
by the Government Office of Road Inquiry, the following table has
been compiled, which shows the tractive force necessary to haul a
load of one ton on roads of the best macadam on the gradients
given. The table also gives the equivalent length of each mile of
gradient in miles of level road :
RESISTANCE TO TK ACTION
Rate of inclination.
Angle with the level.
Equivalent length of
level road in miles.
o 6 53
o 34 23
o 42 58
o 57 18
i 08 16
i 25 57
i 54 37
2 17 26
2 51 21
3 48 5 1
I in 10
5 42 58
It is also stated that the extra force necessary to start a carriage
on a gradient does not increase in proportion, but, relative to the
running force, decreases as the gradient increases.
RESISTANCE DUE TO THE AIR
Regarding the resistance offered by the air, this is a quantity
very difficult to appreciate, inasmuch as it comprises several
elements liable to considerable variation. On a calm day the
amount of resistance is entirely dependent upon the speed of the
vehicle, and in the case of those travelling at very slow speeds
the resistance is so small that it can be as a rule entirely neglected
in practice. The opposition due to wind pressure, which, according
to its direction, increases more or less the above resistance, is
practically impossible of estimation with any degree of accuracy.
From the experiments made by Mr. Thibault it appears that the
resistance of the air against the square base of a prism, the lateral
sides of which are placed in the direction of motion, relatively to
the unity of the horizontal path traversed by the prism, has the
following value :
Ro = 0eSV 2
R.., is the work required to overcome the resistance that the air
opposes to the movement of the prism.
6 = 0*0625 (constant).
36 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
is the coefficient depending on the proportion of the length
/ of the prism as compared to the side a of its base ; and if
I $a e = 1*10
/= a e = riy
/< a (thin plate) e = 1-43
In the case of motor-propelled vehicles, according to the
authors of " Voitures Automobiles," in the majority of cases it is
safe to take
e = no
S is the surface of the base of the prism in square metres.
V is the speed of displacement of the prism in metres per
Mr. Thibault's experiment demonstrated that in the case of
two square surfaces placed directly behind each other and
covering one another exactly, the resistance of the air against
the second surface will be completely annulled so. long as the
space between the two surfaces is a small one, and that the
resistance on the second surface will be y 7 ^- of that on the first
surface when the distance separating them is equal to the side of
RESISTANCE DUE TO STARTING
Theoretically, there should be no special resistance due to
starting, and whatever resistance there may exist is caused by
defective lubrication of the axles, or to irregularities of the road
surface. The French authorities already mentioned state that it
is prudent to count upon a resistance to starting on a stone road
in bad condition, that will exceed in value from a fifth to an eighth
that of the normal resistance to rolling. On a good stone road
and on asphalt, however, the starting resistance should not exceed
the normal rolling resistance. As the power required to start a
mechanically propelled vehicle must be sufficient to overcome
both the resistances opposed to its motion and also the inertia
of the vehicle, it must necessarily increase with the speed of
starting. Each mechanically propelled vehicle, therefore, will
have a maximum speed of starting corresponding to the maximum
power of its motor, and the normal speed of motion can only be
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 37
attained after a considerable distance has been traversed. Starting
may, therefore, be considered as a loss of time, which will be
longer or shorter in extent in accordance with the greater or lesser
speed of starting.
The authority above quoted gives the following formula for
the resistance of mechanically propelled vehicles
R = R! + R-2 R 3
R being the resistance developed during the traction of a self-
propelled vehicle ;
R 1} the resistance to rolling and that due to friction in the axle
R 2 , the resistance due to the air ;
R 3 , the resistance due to gradients.
If the expressions R x , R 2 , and R 3 be replaced by their values
previously determined, then we have the following equation :
A = coefficient depending on the nature of the road surface
and the nature of the vehicle, the value of which has
been given in the preceding tables.
f = coefficient of friction of the axles in the boxes, varying
from 0*03 to 0*054.
p = the diameter of axles, supposed equal ;
P! = the total weight of the vehicle ;
r' = the radius of the front wheels ;
;" = the radius of the rear wheels ;
a = the angles of the inclines with the horizon ;
= 0*0625 (constant);
c = the coefficient depending on the proportion of the length
of the vehicle as compared with its section ;
S = the surface of the vehicle exposed to the wind ;
V = the speed in metres per second.
The following formula for calculating the necessary power to
apply to motor-driven vehicles according to the load, the gradient,
and the speed, is given by Messrs. Borame and Julien :
F = P(o'025 -f 0*0007^ + p)S^ X 0*0048,
38 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
in which F = the tangential effort on the driving-wheels ;
P = the weight in kilogrammes of the entire load ;
0-025 = coefficient of resistance to rolling on ordinary roads,
and for wheels o'8o m. in diameter ;
v = speed in kilometres ;
o'oooy x v = the resistance due to the shocks caused by the
irregularities in the road surface ;
S = surface in square metres exposed to the resist-
ance of the air ;
S V* X 0-0048 = resistance of air.
ADHESIVE POWER OF MOTOR VEHICLES
The adhesive power of a mechanically propelled vehicle must
exceed the tractive force of the motor on the road surface, other-
wise the wheels will slip. This point, however, which is one of
great importance in the case of railway locomotives, is of far less
moment in that of mechanically propelled vehicles adapted to
run on common roads, inasmuch as the coefficient of adhesion in
the latter case is much higher. In fact, as a general rule, the
adhesion of motor-propelled vehicles on common roads is in
excess of the propelling power, and slip only occurs under
exceptional circumstances, such as in the case of large vehicles
provided with very powerful motors, when starting on greasy
pavement or on asphalt.
A mechanically propelled vehicle has therefore a limit to its
tractive power entirely independent of that of its motor, and
dependent entirely upon the load upon its driving-wheels. The
adherence of a mechanically propelled vehicle can be computed
by the following formula :
ka < - d
a being the tractive effort in pounds ;
b, the resistance at the circumference of the driving-wheels ;
c, the total weight of the vehicle ;
, the coefficient of loss due to the transmission of power from
the motors to the driving-wheels ;
k', the coefficient of friction between the wheels and the road sur-
d^ the portion of load carried on driving-wheels.
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
Up to the present no experiments, with which the writer is
acquainted, have been carried out with a view to ascertaining
the adherence of power-propelled vehicles on common roads,
under various conditions of road surface. Turning again, there-
fore, to the experiments made so many years ago by General
Morin, we find the following results of experiments on the friction
of various bodies given in his work entitled " Notions Fondamen-
tales de Mecanique."
Oak on oak, fibres parallel
,, ,, ,, perpendicular...
Oak on elm, fibres parallel
Elm on oak, ,, ,,
Wood on wood, dry
Metal on metal, dry
,, ,, wet and clean ...
Metals on oak, dry ...
Leather on metals, dry
,, ,, wet
,, ,, oily
Smoothest and best greased surfaces
Angle of repose. ; Coefficient of friction.
I 4 - 4 26J
o : 38
POWER REQUIRED FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
Calculating the Power required for Motor Vehicles Testing the
Engine and Gear Testing the Vehicle Graphic Calculations.
CALCULATING THE POWER REQUIRED
FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
To calculate the power required for a motor vehicle is a task of
great difficulty, and one to which, owing to the varying nature of
the resistances to be overcome, the answer can only be in any
case an approximate one. It is always, moreover, advisable to
allow a very considerable additional margin of power, as that
found by calculation will generally be too low for practical
In a paper read before the Society of German Engineers by
Mr. Hugo Guldner, and published in the Motorwagen in 1900,
the author gives a formula which is claimed to approximate
as nearly as practicable to jexisting conditions, and which is
introduced by the following observations, which have been
abridged as far as possible consistent with giving the necessary
i. Frictional resistance (Wr) of the wheels, resulting from
the rolling friction of the tyres on the road and that between
the hubs and the axles, the latter being a factor which may be
neglected except in the case of heavy goods waggons. We have
For light vehicles, Wr = kilogs. . . . (i)
For heavy vehicles, Wr = i_f kilogs> ^
r -f- r^
POWER REQUIRED 4 r
Q = total weight in kilogrammes ;
r = radius of front wheels ;
1\ radius of rear wheels ;
d = mean diameter of axle in millimetres ;
f = coefficient of friction on road ;
fj, = coefficient of friction on naves.
In the second equation the deduction of the latter is made
from W/YZ = X Qdr = 0785 Q^t, to which Wra = Q^t is
added to allow for the additional friction due to jolting.
Morin gives for f } at a speed of from 12 to 13 kiloms. per
hour on ordinary good roads, a value between 0*01 6 and 0*02.
/A under average conditions is less than 0*05, therefore /A is
usually from 0*0025 to 0*003.
Taking for lighter vehicles a mean wheel radius of 400 mms.,
and for heavier vehicles one of 525, say 400 to 425 for the front
and 625 to 650 for the rear wheels, which gives, taking /at 0*0 1 8
and dp. at 0*003, tne following formulae for (i) and (2) :
Wr = o-oi8Q = Q = . 045 Q kilogs>) about ^ (IA)
Wr = Q(o_-oi8_+o-oo3) = Q = Q ku (2A)
2. The resistance due to the air. Assuming that the front
of the vehicle is a flat surface, F square metres in area, forced
through the air in a direction at right angles to the surface at a
speed of v metres per second, then the resistance of dry air at zero
centigrade and 7 60 mms. pressure will be
Wj = o*i2248F2r kilogs ...... (3)
If the front of vehicle be rounded
W x = 0-08 5 Fz> 2 kilogs ...... (4)
In practice, however, the coefficient must be increased to 0*125,
and taking the surface F = bh, b being the width of the wheel
gauge, and h the maximum height of the vehicle above the front
axle, we have then for the fourth equation
and at a mean speed of 6*3 metres per second
Wj = 6*3 x 6-3 x 0*1 25F = 5F kilogs., about . (4A)
42 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The value of v depending upon both the speed of the vehicle
and any independent motion of the air, a head wind will make v
greater than the speed of the vehicle, and a wind behind will make
it less. The latter cannot be taken into consideration, but allow-
ance must be made for the former, and for this purpose 10 metres,
which is an average wind speed, should be added to the speed of
the vehicle. This gives us
W l = 0-12 5(z; + 10)2 kilogs. . . . (4?,)
3. The resistance due to gravity. If this be called Ws, we
Ws = Q sin a kilogs (5)
a being the angle the road surface makes with the horizon.
Taking, then, the usual practice for inclines, and denoting the
quotient of the vertical height by the length of the road, in order
to arrive at it by s, we have
Ws = Qs kilogs (5 A)
for s sin a.
As, however, speed is always reduced on a rising gradient,
and a portion of the power normally employed for the maintenance
of speed is used for overcoming gravity, the value of Ws can be,
as a rule, neglected.
4. Friction due to the transmission of power from the motor
to the driving axle. This factor will vary within a wide range in
accordance with the type of gearing used. In practice not more
than 60 per cent, of the actual power developed by the piston can
be relied upon.
From the different formulae, W being the power required and
e the proportion transmitted to the driving wheels, we get the
W=(^-^ ' 4- o-i2 5 F** + Qj) = <> kilogs. . (6)
or without the factor for rising gradient, the values of/, d, u, r,
and v being taken as before, and e = 0*6.
For light vehicles
Q+5 F kilogs. .....(,)
POWER REQUIRED 43
For heavy freight vehicles
W = ' 4 ^_5f kilogs ...... (8)
For the motor power required we have
0-6 - + 7 lH.P. . . ( 9 )
or Q.T may be again left out, and as it has been demonstrated that
F is, in the case of large vehicles, usually about 2 square metres,
and that 10 kiloms. per hour can be taken as the average speed,
we finally arrive at
w -p 0-04 X 1000 + 5X2 10000
H.P = - - = 3 H.P., about (10)
o'O 3600 x 75
The following formula is given by the French engineers,
Messrs. Borame and Julien :
N ^ _ iP(o'o25 + 0*00072; -f^Sp 8 -f 0-0048) H p , x
e being the speed of the vehicle in metres per second ;
v the speed of the vehicle in kilometres per hour ;
P the gross weight of the vehicle in kilogrammes ;
/ the incline in z/H ;
S the area of the front of the vehicle in square metres ;
0*025 the coefficient of rolling friction for pneumatic tyres 800
mms. in diameter.
o'oooyz/ the loss of power through jolting ;
the resistance of the air.
This formula gives too low a result, and is only suitable for use
in the case of very light vehicles on good roads. At least 70 per
cent, should be added to its estimate of power required.
The author observes on the impossibility of applying to motor
vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines the science of
thermodynamics. For example, the indicator diagram cannot
be made use of. Numerous influences which cannot be reduced
44 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
to arithmetic exist, and besides the calorific value of the fuel we
have the proportion of air in the explosion chamber, the amount
of compression, the greater or lesser completeness of combustion,
the resistance of the piping, all of which factors vary largely
within unknown limits.
The mean pressure in kilogrammes per square centimetre,
required to produce x h.p., the area of the piston being q square
centimetres, and the speed c metres per second, will be
which for an efficient coefficient of o'6 becomes - - . In
stationary engines the coefficient reaches o'8 to 0^85 ; in motor
vehicles, however, the irregularity of motion, and consequently
the friction, are considerably more. Tests of a motor vehicle
when stationary are, by reason of the above facts, of no practical
The tables compiled from actual experiments with motor
vehicles give the lowest value of ----------- at 3*16 kilogrammes, and
the highest at 7*54. In trials conducted in 1894 the highest
obtained was 5*1 with a motor exhausting at the pressure of 17
For the class of vehicles under consideration
H.P. = x x S/1 + (6o x 75 X 2)
n being the number of revolutions made per minute, and d and s
being put in metres, gives
i oooo X
If the factors d, s, and n given for every motor be eliminated,
the remaining fraction
1000 x Xii
may be denoted by the symbol A, which then becomes a new
POWER REQUIRED 45
coefficient of the specific output of power, and admits of the
following simple and easily remembered formula
H.P. = AJ*sn
The value of A varying from 2-07 to 4-69, and some trust-
worthy averages being
A = 3-09
From which is deduced the following empirical formula :
H p 34 _
75 X 4 85
qc being square centimetres and e metres per second, or
H.P. = $d-sn
a and s being in metres.
There are two points that have to be given careful con-
sideration to throughout, that is to say, the diminution in the
weight of the reciprocating parts, and the great increase that
has taken place in the number of revolutions. For instance,
the first has been reduced to from 40 to 50 grammes per square
centimetre of piston area, and the second, owing to the extremely
limited time that it allows for the cycle of operations taking
place at each stroke, causes the action of the ignition apparatus
at the proper time to become a very important factor in the power
In an article by Mr. Gustav Mees that appeared in a subse-
quent number of the Motorwagen^ the author criticizes the formulae
developed by Mr. Guldner, which he states give results which
are far too high as regards the power required, and are not in
accordance with practical experience. Mr. Mees proceeds to
prove this statement by a comparison with the results realized by
Guldner's formulae of the performance of a 24-horse-power Daimler
racing car weighing 1400 kilogs., and capable of travelling at a
speed of 96 kiloms. an hour on a good level road. Taking
4 6 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the speed at 90 kiloms. an hour, and the total weight of vehicle
with passengers at 1600 kilogs., Guldner's formulae give for
the frictional resistance 0^04 X 1600 = 64 kilogs. Reckoning,
therefore, an efficiency of 60 per cent., the power required for the
above-mentioned speed would be
4 X = 35-5 H.P.
3600 X 75 X 0-6
Mr. Mees considers that Guldner has made a mistake (in
spite of the authority of Morin) in introducing into the resist-
ance formula the wheel diameters, which he thinks should be
left out of consideration altogether. This authority is also of
opinion that axle friction can be ignored for practical purposes.
These observations and criticisms, however, refer more par-
ticularly to motor vehicles intended to travel at high speeds,
and it does not therefore greatly concern us to investigate any
further into them. In the opinion of the writer, Guldner's
formulae by no means give too high results, and will be found of
service in making calculations respecting both the lighter and
heavier classes of mechanically propelled vehicles adapted for
The following data is given by Mr. Herschmann, in a paper
read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, for a
waggon capable of carrying a load of 3 tons and able to mount an
incline of i in 10 at 2 miles per hour :
Internal friction considered ; this would call for power to lift
about \ (equals an incline of i in 6) of the gross weight a height
of 10,560 feet per hour.
Assuming the gross weight to be 6*5 tons, we have
g-5 X 224 X
ft.-lbs. per minute = 427046 ft.-lbs.
In other words, to lift the waggon, irrespective of road
resistance, we require 12*94 horse-power. To overcome road
resistance (tractive effort assumed to be from 60 to 120 Ibs. per
ton) we require
60 X 6- 5 ( 2 X 6o 280 )(330^)(^o) = 3 ' 47 H ' P -
or 120 X 6- 5 ( 2 X 6 f ^X^oooXo^) = 6 ' 94 H ' P '
The waggon must, therefore, have machinery capable of pro-
ducing, when going uphill, about a total of 20 horse-power.
TESTING THE ENGINE AND GEAR
The following method of testing the engine and gear of a
motor waggon is given by the same authority : " The power of
a motor waggon should be always measured in foot-pounds at
the rim of the driving wheels; for this purpose the drivers may
rest on a revolving roller. The latter is in one with a pulley
(/) over which a strap is slung, fastened to a dynamometer (d)
at one end, and carrying a weight (w) at the other end (see
Fig. 6. Diagram showing method of testing engine and gear.
The work done at the rim is in foot-pounds.
2Tr(r) X n X (w d).
r = radius of pulley.
d = reading of dynamometer in pounds.
The friction of engine and gearing can thus be found.
TESTING THE VEHICLE
For the purpose of ascertaining the frictional resistance to
motion of the waggon itself, says the same authority, the latter
is placed on a measured incline at A, and permitted to roll down
48 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
and along the level portion of the road BC (see Fig. 7). While
passing the point D, between B and C, and at a distance of
(d) from A, its speed measures to be (v). We have then :
W (weight of waggon in pounds) X H = foot-pounds, due to
B p^ C
7. Diagram showing method of testing motor vehicle.
gravity work. FW^ = friction work in foot-pounds = WH
being work due to gravity less the kinetic energy of the
waggon in passing the point D. The friction is then found to be in
- - }~.
The following table gives the results obtained at different
trials with some heavy freight steam vehicles :
pounds per pound of WF -
DEAD WEIGHTS AND CARRYING CAPACITIES OF STEAM WAGGONS FROM
carried, in Ibs.
Per cent, of
Two- ton steam waggon
Four- ton ,,
From the above it will be seen that the percentage of useful
load carried by a heavy freight vehicle advances very considerably
as the dead weight increases, thus proving most conclusively that
the advantage is greatly on the side of the heavier classes of
The following diagrams (Figs. 8 and 9), published by The
Horseless Age, New York, are intended for the purpose of
quickly solving many calculations necessary in motor-car design.
The first diagram (Fig. 8) shows the relation of the speed of the
vehicle in miles per hour, the diameter and revolutions per
P" ''jx x
"" ; i- '.
Y T 1
~. , , * , * , ft, ,* ^^,.^^^^^^4 c ^^ j! ,- 2*
Fig:. 8. Diagram showing the relation of the speed of vehicle, diameter
and revolutions of drive wheels, and ratio of speeds of countershaft
to drive wheels.
minute of the drive wheels, and the ratio of speeds of the
countershafts or motor shaft to the drive wheels; the second
(Fig. 9) shows the relation of the speed of the vehicle to the
traction, the percentage of gradient, and horse-power required
under various conditions. No allowance is made in the diagram
for air resistance, and, if necessary, additional power will be
required to overcome this force.
The following examples are given, illustrating the use of the
diagrams or charts :
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Assuming a vehicle, whose drive wheels are 32 ins. diameter,
going at a speed of 15 miles per hour, the motor making four
revolutions to one of the drive wheels.
From Fig. 8 it will be found that the intersection of the
vertical line representing 15 miles per hour, and the diagonal
line representing a wheel 32 ins. in diameter, corresponds to
3 57 '5, the revolutions per minute of the drive wheel.
To find the speed of the motor, find the intersection of this
Fig. 9. Diagram showing relation of speed of vehicle to traction, per-
centage of gradient, and horse-power under various conditions.
same horizontal line with the diagonal line 4 i, representing
the ratio of the speed of the motor to the drive wheel, and
follow vertically down to the bottom of the chart, where the
revolutions per minute, 630, may be read.
The ratio of speeds may obviously be found in a similar
manner if it is desired to run the motor at a certain speed.
To ascertain the power required per hundredweight of the
vehicle and its load, it is necessary to know or assume the
traction and the gradient. The traction is represented on
POWER REQUIRED 51
Fig. 9 as a certain percentage of each hundredweight of the
vehicle. For instance, to find the required horse-power for a
vehicle going at 15 miles per hour when the traction is 10 Ibs.
per hundredweight, or 10 per cent.
The horizontal line at the intersection of the lines represent-
ing 15 miles per hour and 10 per cent, is 0*4 or o'4 horse-power
If the weight of the vehicle and its load is 6 cwt., then the
total horse-power required is 6 x o'4 = 2*4 horse-power. If in
the above case the vehicle is ascending a grade of 5 per cent., add
together the 10 per cent, and gradient 5 per cent., and solve as
before. The result will be 6 horse-power per hundredweight, or
6 x 0*6 = 3*6 horse-power instead of 2*4, as previously found.
The chart may be used conversely. For instance : At what
speed can a vehicle and load weighing 8 cwt., propelled by a
4-horse-power engine, ascend a i5-per-cent. grade, traction being
taken as 10 per cent. ? The sum ofio-f 15 = 25 per cent.
The horse-power per hundredweight = f = 0*5 horse-power.
At the intersection of the lines representing 5 horse-power and
25 per cent, resistance, is the corresponding speed of 7*5 miles
per hour the result sought.
When descending a grade subtract the percentage of gradient
from the traction and proceed as before.
A transparent ruler laid along the diagonal lines will prevent
confusion when solving problems on the charts.
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES
General Observations Petrol Cabs Various Examples of Petrol
Cabs Electric Cabs Efficiency of Electric Cabs Examples of
THE lighter class of passenger vehicles adapted for business
purposes comprise, as has been already mentioned, hackney cabs,
and small omnibuses, carrying a small number of passengers, and
plying for public hire. This is one of the most useful purposes
to which the lighter class of mechanically propelled vehicles can
be put, and their development towards this end cannot be too
strongly advocated. Naturally, the greater number of the makers
have hitherto chiefly concerned themselves with meeting the
demand for pleasure vehicles which has recently arisen amongst
the wealthy classes who have taken up motor-car driving as a new
It is satisfactory, however, to know that the development of
mechanically propelled vehicles for useful purposes is now
receiving the attention it deserves, and that the industry will
soon be founded on a more stable basis than that of providing
high-speed cars at fancy prices.
In spite of the high prices obtained at present for pleasure
vehicles, as a general rule their manufacture in this country does
not seem to pay. The reason for this is obviously the absence of
specialization and of enterprise. In fact, at the present moment,
most of the firms turning out motor cars here are rather con-
structors than manufacturers; they make many patterns of cars,
unsurpassed, it is true, as regards design and construction, but
hitherto they have failed to give their attention to the turning out
of one size and one pattern of vehicle in sufficient numbers to
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 53
make its manufacture pay. The advent of a general demand for
utilitarian automobiles will change all this, and will bring about
the specialization that is required to make the industry commer-
The fitness of the motor to supersede the horse is so obvious
that it needs no enlarging upon, and, with proper management,
there should be no doubt with respect to the financial success of
Up to the present petrol motors and electric motors are the
only two powers that have been used for the propulsion of cabs,
at least with any degree of commercial success, and of these the
first mentioned seems to possess the greater qualifications, and
will be therefore first dealt with.
EXAMPLES OF PETROL CABS
The "Leo" Petrol Cab
The " Leo " petrol cab, designed by Mr. Le'on Lefebvre, is
characterized by a great simplicity of construction. The working
mechanism is completely enclosed in a suitable casing, and a
transmission is provided, the toothed wheels of which are always
in gear. The motor used in this vehicle is a two-cylinder Lefebvre
" Pygmee," which is located at the rear of the vehicle.
The efficiency of the Pygmee Motor is high, and it is compact
in design, having, moreover, the advantage of being very easy to
manage. The engine is a balanced one, the pistons of the two
cylinders working cranks placed at 180 degress, and thus greatly
reducing vibration. Owing to the high compression employed,
the consumption of petrol is low (not above 0-968 Ib. per horse-
power of motor per hour) ; the admission valves are opened in the
usual manner by the suction action of the pistons, and the exhaust
valves are enclosed in boxes, and are operated by cams mounted
upon an intermediate shaft.
The motor is provided with an ingenious device for regulating
the speed comprising a rod carried by the fly-wheel and connected
with a centrifugal regulator. During the revolution of the fly-
54 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
wheel this rod is forced from right to left against a spring, which
latter can be adjusted, as regards tension, by means of a thumb
screw. Should the speed of the motor exceed the maximum
determined upon, the pull of the above spring will be overcome
and the rod will be moved so as to close the exhaust valve on one
cylinder and prevent the escape of the burnt gases therefrom, the
piston drawing a charge into the cylinder on the next stroke ; and
should this action be insufficient to reduce the speed of the engine
to within the prescribed limits, any further travel of the rod to the
left will operate the exhaust valve of the second cylinder in a
The carburettor is constructed with a spiral coil surrounding
the ignition burners, and either spirit or petroleum can be em-
ployed, in the latter case the spiral tube being arranged within the
burner. By means of a special arrangement of the air and
vapour admission ports, the gas is caused to whirl so as to form a
homogeneous mixture before entering the cylinder, and thus to
minimise the risk of failure to explode.
The changes of speed are effected in a very simple manner by
an ingenious device comprising a disc having slots in which engage
two gudgeons on a slide forming part with fork-pieces^ and forced
to move in a straight line by grooves. In accordance with the
position given to the above-mentioned disc through a horizontal
axis, the gudgeons can be brought into such positions that the
fork-pieces will operate the engagement of the differential gear in
the box with either of four pinions. As the gudgeon wheel
remains in engagement with a circular portion of the slot, it will
be seen that any failure in throwing any particular pinion into gear
when changing speed is rendered practically impossible, and the
disagreeable shocks occasioned by such failures are obviated.
Transmission from the shaft of the motor to that of the gearing is
effected by a loose belt normally kept tight by a jockey pulley on
the end of a lever, acted upon by a spiral spring. In order to
disconnect the motor and gear shaft, it is only necessary to operate
the above jockey pulley lever through a pedal lever, so as to com-
press the spiral spring, and by thus removing the pressure from
the belt to allow of its slackening and slipping on the faces of the
pulleys on the shafts.
Steering is effected by a vertical shaft operating to turn the
front steering wheels round their pivot, which shaft passes through
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 55
another hollow shaft mounted in a tubular piece fixed to the foot-
board. The hollow shaft is connected through suitable bevel gear
with the speed-change device.
The Triouleyre Petrol Cab
The petrol cab designed by Mr. L. Triouleyre is also said to
have given excellent results. This vehicle has a double suspen-
sion arrangement, and consists essentially of two distinct parts,
viz. first/.the frame upon which is mounted all the mechanism,
and which is supported directly on the axles, through suitable
springs ; and, second, the body of the vehicle, which is connected
with the frame by other springs, thus preventing the passengers in
the cab from experiencing any vibration.
The motor is an ordinary four-cycle one, revolving at an
average speed of from three to four hundred revolutions per
minute. It consists of a cylinder with a double casing, an
explosion or combustion chamber, and a frame upon which is
mounted the driving shaft.
Electric ignition of the intermittent type is used, comprising
an accumulator, an induction coil, a sparking plug, arid a trembler
or vibrator. The accumulator has a capacity of from 70 to 80
hours, and is perfectly tight, being capable when not in use of
preserving its electrical energy for several months. It can be
easily recharged from a primary battery, or from any available
current of two or three amperes. The sparking plug is fixed on
the explosion or combustion chamber by means of a metal sleeve
or tubular piece, and an internal metal bush or socket having a
circular hole or aperture is provided. A platinum stem or rod
insulated by a porcelain sleeve from the metal sleeve or tubular
piece is connected at its outer end to the terminal to which is
connected one of the circuits from the accumulator, the other
being connected to the fixed vibrator. The spark takes place
between the platinum stem and the shield or cap. One of the
two wires from the accumulator connected to the induction coil
passes through the sparking plug, and is secured to a terminal
mounted on a spring contact piece insulated from the motor,
through which spring contact piece a current can pass so long as
it is in contact with a cam. When, however, this spring contact
piece is no longer in connection with the cam piece, the current
is suddenly interrupted and the ignition spark results.
56 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The explosive mixture is automatically introduced into the
explosion chamber and the cylinder during the suction stroke of
the piston, and the exhaust of the burnt or waste gases during the
fourth cycle is effected through a valve operated by an arrangement
of gearing, cams, and levers.
The spirit tank has a capacity sufficient to last for a journey of
100 kilometres, and feeds directly to the carburettor, the bottom
of which latter is heated by a portion of the exhaust gases. The
air is admitted at the upper part, carburetted, and passed to the
combustion chamber, together with the additional air taken up
during its progress, through wire gauze strainers, which have the
effect of causing a more intimate admixture of the air and vapour,
and of preventing the occurrence of any back firing. The additional
air admitted to the mixture after leaving the carburettor can be
regulated by a valve from the driving seat. The exhaust is dis-
charged into a silencer, and the cooling water is circulated from a
suitable tank located at the rear of the vehicle.
The belt transmission comprises a double cone keyed on the
gear shaft in relation to three pulleys containing the differential
gearing, and motion is transmitted from the gear shaft to the rear
driving wheels by means of chain gearing. Forward or backward
motion can be respectively imparted by means of a straight and a
crossed belt, and an arrangement worked from the driving seat
admits of the speed being varied as may be desired. The motor
can be started from the driver's seat by means of a hand wheel
through suitable chain and toothed gearing.
The vehicle is fitted with two brakes, the one operated through
a lever and acting on the felloes of the rear wheels, the other
through a pedal lever so as to act on a suitable brake drum. The
steering is effected through a divided axle.
The Kuhlstein-Vollmer Petrol Cab
A pattern of petrol cab introduced some five or six years ago
in Berlin is a cab of the hansom type, fitted with the Kiihlstein-
Vollmer motor tractor, the application of which to the fore-carriage
is shown in Figs. TO and n.
As will be seen from our illustrations, which represent respec-
tively a side and front elevation of the fore-carriage, the motor and
the whole of the driving gear is arranged in a box or casing of a
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES
rectangular shape, the top plate of which is suspended on the
pivot plate, the casing being thus located above the centre of the
front axle. The top plate of this box or casing is fitted with an
internally toothed crown wheel or ring, connected with a hollow
Fig. 10. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab side elevation of fore-carriage.
pivot rotatably mounted on the hub of the pivot plate. On a
socket in the pivot plate is mounted the steering rod, having a
hand wheel at its upper extremity, and at its lower extremity
a toothed wheel or pinion, which gears or meshes with the above-
mentioned internally toothed crown wheel or ring. To diminish
58 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
friction, rollers running on a suitable circular path on the pivot
plate are provided.
For the purpose of economizing space as far as possible, the
differential gear is mounted directly upon the axle, which latter is
Fig. ii. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab front elevation of fore -carnage.
formed in two lengths, the shorter length being fitted within the
hollow or tubular portion of the longer length, by which arrange-
ment it is claimed that the axle bearings are relieved of all cross
strain, and at the same time the provision of an intermediate
bearing is rendered unnecessary. So that an equal load may be
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 59
supported through the springs upon each of the axle bearings,
power is transmitted through the chain wheels in such a manner
that both of them act simultaneously upon the bevel pinions of
the differential gear, this action being effected by means of a
sleeve mounted on the longer length of axle. The axle bearings
being constructed in two parts, enables the two lengths of axle to
be inserted, and the upper portions of the bearings which form
straps are each connected respectively with one of the springs by
which the casing and fore part of the vehicle are carried. The
lower portions of the axle bearings are connected by means of a
bent shaft, which gives the necessary rigidity and maintains the
distance between them constant in a transverse direction. Annular
lubricators supply the requisite lubrication.
The motor is arranged in the left-hand side of the space shown
in Fig. n, and is of the ordinary horizontal double-cylinder petro-
leum spirit type, provided with electrical ignition. Two speeds
are provided, and the transmission is by belts which normally run
slack, but either of which can be tightened when desired by means
of a jockey pulley. These jockey pulleys, together with the
operating levers, are carried upon the top plate of the casing.
Through the top plate of the engine-box, at the point at which
it is pivoted, is passed a hollow pin or pivot extending into the
pivot plate at its centre, so that when the fore-carriage is turned it
will be capable of angular displacement relatively to the top plate.
Within this hollow pin or pivot are arranged the vertical tubes by
means of which the regulation of the motive power is effected.
By means of this arrangement it will be seen that the vertical tubes
will turn with the top plate during the rotation of the latter, and
that the transmisson of the regulating action upon the under frame,
which is itself capable of turning, is rendered possible without
necessitating any complicated mechanism, at the same time that
the driver is able to see the position of the fore-carriage with
regard to the vehicle. The above-mentioned vertical regulating
tubes are enclosed in an outer tube or sleeve that is rigidly fixed
to the hollow pin or pivot of the top plate of the engine-box, and
the outermost of the vertical regulating tubes is connected with
the lowermost operating lever shown on the left-hand side of
Fig. ii, the inner vertical regulating tube being rigidly attached
to the other operating lever. At the upper end of the outer tube
or sleeve are provided locking discs for these levers. At the
60 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
lower extremities of the vertical regulating tubes are mounted
bevel or mitre pinions, by means of which the two horizontal
shafts shown journalled in the top plate can be rotated by turning
one of the operating levers to the right or left, as the case may be.
This arrangement admits of pairs of tension pulleys being
operated so that one of them only will act to tighten the belt and
give the desired ratio of transmission, the other tension pulley of
the pair meanwhile remaining motionless. The pairs of tension
pulleys are each mounted upon levers pivoted at opposite points
upon the top plate. When these tension pulleys are disengaged
the toothed pinions upon the pinion shaft are out of engagement
with the toothed segments connected with the tension pulley levers.
Besides this lever the lower teeth of the toothed segments on the
levers are elevated somewhat above the teeth of the operating
segmental toothed pinions, inasmuch as the noses upon the tension
pulley levers are supported upon the concentric portion of the
cam-shaped hubs or bosses of these segmental toothed pinions.
By rotating the pinion shaft to the left hand, for example,
through the uppermost hand lever, the nose of the tension pulley
will fall along a reduced cam-shaped portion provided on the
toothed wheel hub or boss, and the segment falling in gear will
displace one of the tension pulleys. Meanwhile the other tension
pulley will remain fixed, because its nose continues to slide upon
the concentric portion of the hub or boss of the segmental toothed
pinion, and is therefore not displaced. On drawing back the
operating lever the tension pulley will return to its normal position,
and upon continuing to rotate the lever the other tension pulley
will become operative and the former one remain fixed. The pair
of tension levers connected with the lower hand lever operate in a
precisely similar manner. The turntable is of such a construction
as to allow of a full lock being obtained.
The London Express Motor Service Petrol Cab
A more recent type of motor cab is the petrol hansom shown
in our illustration (Fig. 12), which is a direct reproduction of a
photograph of a cab, which is one of a number placed upon the
streets of London about a year ago by the London Express Motor
Service, of 37, Walbrook, E.G.
This petrol hansom is a well-designed vehicle, of elegant ap-
pearance, and it seems to possess every element requisite to ensure
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 61
its becoming a favourite mode of conveyance. It will be observed
that the driver sits in front of the passengers, but slightly on one
side, so that the view of the latter will not be materially obstructed
by him. The cab is, moreover, appreciably larger than the
common type of horse hansom, and is fitted with an extra drop-
down seat placed alongside that of the driver, so that a third pas-
senger can be comfortably carried when desired. When not in
use this seat can be folded up so as to be out of the way. A
handy form of spring attachment admits of the glass front being
operated by the persons occupying the vehicle, and a distance
indicator fixed within the cab allows of their seeing the exact
Fig. 12. The London Express Motor Service petrol cab.
distance travelled, thus avoiding disputes in that direction. At the
rear of the cab bed, and beneath the seat, is a boot, in which such
luggage as bags, portmanteaus, etc., can be carried.
The cab is provided with motive power in the form of a 12-
horse-power internal combustion engine of the Aster type, w r hich
is governed and set to run at a slow rate of speed, and the power
is transmitted from this engine through a gearing of the Panhard
type to a cardan driving axle. In order to obtain the utmost
possible efficiency, and also to reduce the chance of side-slip to a
62 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
minimum, the distribution of the weight has been very carefully
studied, and so as to allow of the vehicle possessing high hill-
climbing powers, and likewise to prevent the driver from running
it at an excessive speed upon the level at any time, the driving
wheels are geared down low. The full limit of speed on the level
is about twenty-six miles an hour.
The Aster petrol motor is built in two patterns, the one being
solely water cooled, and the other one being provided with a
mixed system of cooling. In one type of Aster motor flanges are
cast on the cylinder head and valves, and copper flanges, which
are found to be greatly superior to iron ones, are arranged round
the cylinder. The Panhard transmission gear consists of a friction
coupling on the motor shaft, which is normally in gear with a
main shaft carrying four pinions. Four toothed wheels gear with
these pinions, and are mounted on an auxiliary shaft located
immediately under the main shaft, which latter shaft carries at its
extremity a bevel pinion, with which the one or the other of the
two pinions on the differential gear can be caused to gear or mesh,
in accordance as the forward or backward movement of the
vehicle is desired. The disengagement of the pinions effects the
stopping of the vehicle. The four toothed wheels on the lower
auxiliary shaft can be thrown into or out of gear with the pinions
on the main shaft by the moving of a sliding sleeve or coupling
box. From the above it will be seen that it is not necessary to
employ the friction coupling for the purpose of stopping the
vehicle, but it can be used when desired to interrupt communica-
tion between the motor and the transmission gear in cases of
emergency, or whenever it is desirable or necessary to stop the
vehicle suddenly. The main purpose of the friction gear, how-
ever, is to allow of smooth starting, and to prevent jarring when
changing from one rate of speed to another. The chain wheels
gearing on to the driving wheels are carried by the differential
For use in towns on smooth pavements, and where only
moderate gradients have to be negotiated, electricity is an ideal
power. It is cleanly, can be handled by any one without special
skill, is flexible, silent, and entirely free from vibration and odour.
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 63
On the other hand, however, the battery is a source of trouble.
If improperly charged, rapid deterioration will be the result.
Charging and discharging at regular intervals, whether used or not,
is imperative, otherwise chemical action sets up and rapidly
reduces the efficiency. Proper attention must be paid to the
controller, the contacts must be properly cleaned, adjusted, etc.
The general mileage of electric-driven vehicles is from twenty to
forty miles on one charge.
Some few years ago electric cabs were put on the streets of
both London and Paris, but for various reasons failed to be com-
mercially successful. According to a statement made by the pro-
prietors, as given in Le Chauffeur at the time, the chief reason for
their failure in Paris was owing to the defective accumulators, and
they stated positively that the service would be renewed when a
suitable accumulator was available. This was, however, says the
above-mentioned publication, only a part of the trouble experi-
enced. When deciding on the design of vehicle to employ for
the service in question, the principal points kept in view were the
easy removal of the accumulators, and the efficient charging of
same. Unfortunately, the company took as their model an English
electric cab in which the batteries were suspended by chains,
although there existed at the time at least one efficient electrically
propelled vehicle that might have been preferably adopted.
Another error was made in constructing the charging station at a
distance of four miles from Paris, so that each cab had to
make daily a double journey of four miles each way to and from
the charging station ; that is to say, run eight miles a day without
any return. From the above it will be seen that the failure of
this electric cab service was due more to errors in judgment, and
to the bad management of the executive, than to any existing
defect in electricity as a motive power.
The London Electric Cab Company placed a number of electric
cabs upon the streets of London in the year 1898, and continued
the service until near the end of 1899. After a break in the
service, owing, it was said, to the vehicles being withdrawn for
repairs and alterations, they were again placed upon the streets,
and ran for a brief space of time, when the company was finally
wound up, and the whole plant and stock sold early in 1900.
64 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRIC CABS
The most important point in electrically driven cabs is the
duration and capacity of the battery ; indeed, any opinion, to be
reliable, should be founded on the condition of the battery after
the vehicle has been in actual practical work during a considerable
period of time, say, at least six months.
In the case of an electrically propelled cab, the exigencies of
bad roads, steep gradients, and heavy loads unavoidably entail
the necessity of drawing heavily and suddenly upon the store of
electricity in the accumulator, and these sudden and severe
discharges have the effect of causing a certain amount of expansion
of the grids or plates to take place, with a consequent loosening
of a certain proportion of the paste from them, which loosened
paste, being carried out by the motion of the acid, remains in
suspension in the latter between the plates, with the result of
internal short-circuiting. Should a cell be short of acid room the
grids will be expanded to such an extent by over-heating that
they will not again contract enough to form connection with what
paste remains, and besides, as has been pointed out by Professor
Hele-Shaw in his paper on " Road Locomotion," read before the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, splashes of acid are the
cause of much more loss than is usually suspected. The practice
of grouping cells in parallel, says the same authority, is open to
the serious objection that if a cell on one side becomes dead or is
reversed, those on the other expend energy in re-establishing
equilibrium. English, French and American tests prove that
after six months' running, even under the most careful supervision,
practically all secondary cells must have the positive plates
repasted or renewed at a cost not below one-fifth of the original
outlay ; while in many cases, as commonly used, they are practically
worthless at the end of this period, or even sooner. So long as a
range of 40 miles per charge, at speeds not exceeding 10 miles
per hour, meets the requirements, electricity, at a cost of not
more than 2d. per B.T.U., is at least on a par with steam or oil
even for heavy traffic. Where these limits are exceeded, electricity
is inadmissible. Distances greater than 40 miles, and speeds
greater than 10 miles an hour, involve prohibitive dead weight
and excessive discharge rates.
Although, as above intimated, the cells of a battery deteriorate
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 65
very rapidly if the vehicle be driven at high speeds, very surprising
results have notwithstanding been attained with electrically pro-
pelled vehicles. In 1899, Jenatzy, in a vehicle not specially
constructed for speed, covered a kilometre at the rate of 50 miles
an hour ; and in the same year the Count Chasseloup-Laubat, in
an ordinary Jeantaud electric car, obtained 57! miles an hour;
whilst later on in the same year Jenatzy, in an electrically propelled
carriage especially built for the purpose, succeeded in running a
kilometre at the rate of 65^- miles an hour. It must be noted
that the above speeds were obtained with running starts; the
average speed made with standing starts was, however, 46 \ miles
an hour, and the results obtained amply proved that, as regards
high speed, electricity could be made to give very remarkable,
though not practical, results, the latter being demonstrated by the
fact that even after the short runs made of two kilometres the
batteries were in each case to all intents and purposes destroyed
in the run, and the vehicles had to be towed home.
EXAMPLES OF ELECTRIC CABS
The Bersey Electric Cab
The above cabs were constructed from the designs of Mr.
W. C. Bersey, and, as the first hackney motor vehicle actually in
use for upwards of a year in the public service, the details of their
construction are of considerable interest. The vehicle in question
partakes in construction of the form of a closed coupe, and has a
capacity for two inside passengers and the driver, whose seat is
mounted on a raised front platform, the weight complete, with the
storage battery, being about two tons. The motor mechanism is
carried upon a lower rectangular-shaped frame constructed of
angle-iron bars, mounted on the axles through leaf springs, and
the body of the cab is suspended from this frame in such a way
as to avoid as much as possible all shocks and vibration. The
driver's seat is, as already mentioned, mounted on a platform,
and this platform is carried upon a raised framing rigidly connected
to the lower frame of the vehicle. The wheels are shod with
solid rubber tyres. The storage battery is placed in a box
suspended from the underframe, which latter arrangement is
claimed to admit of its being easily detached and replaced by a
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
newly-charged battery. The battery consists of 40 E.P.S. cells
capable of supplying current at an average pressure of 80 volts.
The average discharge on the level would be about 30 amperes,
and as the battery has a capacity of about 150 ampere hours, one
charge should therefore be sufficient for a run of from 25 to 30
miles, in accordance with the condition of the roads.
The motor and driving gear are mounted on the rear part of
Fig. 13. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric
the lower frame, and are covered in by the rear-box of the cab
body. Toothed gearing transmits power from the motor to a
counter-shaft, on which latter is mounted the differential gear, and
chain gearing transmits power from this counter-shaft to the axle
of the rear driving wheels.
The speed of the motor can be regulated by means of a
controller, which can be operated by means of a lever placed at
the left-hand side of the driver. There are four forward speeds,
the highest being about nine miles an hour, and one reverse
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 67
speed motion of two miles an hour. The same lever also admits
of the application of an electric brake, which latter is formed by
the reaction of the motor upon itself as a dynamo. To render it
impossible for any unauthorized person to start the vehicle when
left by the driver, a plug key, which admits of the main circuit
between the battery and the motor being broken, is provided in
the box situated beneath the driver's seat. There are also provided
two ordinary band brakes acting on brake drums connected with
the rear wheels of the vehicle, which brakes can be applied by
means of a pedal in front of the driver, the pedal also acting at
the same operation to first automatically break the electric circuit,
and thus to place the motor out of action previously to the
application of the brakes.
The steering mechanism consists of a hand wheel, operating
through a set of toothed gearing, and a locking plate connected to
the fore axle of the vehicle.
The motor is of the Lundell type, the armature being of the
laminated drum pattern, and there are two sets of windings con-
nected to independent commutators located at the extremities of
the spindle of the armature. The field magnet is constructed
of a form calculated to reduce the amount of the demagnetizing
effect of the armature upon the field as far as possible, and
thereby maintaining a maximum degree of constancy, even when
the load on the motor varies through a very wide range. This
arrangement allows of the brushes being set practically once for
all, and does away with the necessity for their being adjusted
between no load and the highest load to which the motor can be
subjected, to obviate sparking. The field magnet is formed of
two mild steel castings, and forms a cylindrical shell surrounding
the armature, the two parts thereof being connected together by
bolts, and the ends closed by covers having conical projections,
which latter surround the commutators, and at the extremities of
which are located roller bearings which support the armature
spindle. The poles of the field magnet are surrounded by
a coil also formed in two independent parts, like that of the
armature winding. Carbon brushes are used, which brushes are
set symmetrically between the pole tips of the field, and are
caused to press against the surfaces of the commutator under the
action of springs.
This motor, which is capable of developing 3-horse-power at
68 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the ordinary speed of the cab, is bolted to a cast-iron bed plate
through four feet or lugs formed integral with the end covers.
The various speeds of running are given to the cab by forming
different combinations between the two independent windings of
both the armature and field, a resistance coil and the storage
The controller consists of a drum or cylinder constructed of
wood, and mounted upon a spindle journalled to an iron tray or
bed-plate, upon which the several parts are mounted. This cylinder
is divided into five principal parts by vulcanite rings, and brass
contact pieces are secured on its periphery by means of counter-
sunk screws. In some cases these contact pieces are electrically
connected together, and in others they are insulated from one
another in such a manner as to admit of various combinations of
the battery and motor windings by forming interconnection of the
brushes of the controller, which are connected by means of suit-
able binding screws placed upon a wooden bar, and insulated
wires, with the storage battery, motor windings, and the resistance
coil. The positive terminal of the battery is connected to the
first, or number one, of the controller brushes, and the negative
pole of the battery to the eleventh, which is the last of the
brushes. The third brush is short-circuited with the first brush
through the resistance coil, which, together with the controller,
is enclosed in the box beneath the driver's seat, whilst the second
brush is electrically connected to one extremity of one of the
windings of the field magnet, the other extremity of this winding
being connected to the fifth brush. The remaining field-winding
is similarly connected to the fourth and seventh brushes, and the
sixth and ninth brushes are connected to the brushes of the com-
mutator at one extremity of the armature, and consequently to
the windings of this latter. The eighth and tenth brushes are in
like manner connected to the brushes of the commutator at the
other extremity of the armature, and consequently to the windings
The controller drum or cylinder can be moved by means of
a hand lever, toothed segment, and pinion, and the drum or
cylinder can be moved into eight distinct positions, in each of
which it is held spring tight by the engagement of one of the teeth
or projections on an eight-toothed ratchet, and a spring-actuated
roller pawl arrangement. The contact pieces on the periphery of
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 69
the drum or cylinder are so placed that the above eight positions
of the latter will give eight different combinations of the eleven
controller brushes, providing respectively four different forward
speeds, a breaking of the circuit, two combinations disconnecting
the armature windings from the battery and sending a current
through the field-windings, thereby giving rise to a powerful
braking action, and finally a combination by which the direction
in which the armature is revolving can be changed, and con-
sequently backward movement can be imparted to the vehicle.
The motor is mounted upon a bed-plate, which is secured to
the under-frame of the vehicle by longitudinal iron bars bolted
to cross bars uniting the side pieces of the under-frame. Power
is transmitted to the rear wheels by means of chain gear from a
counter-shaft, to which the motor is geared by toothed gearing, and
an arrangement of differential gearing.
The steering is effected by means of a hand-wheel at the top
of a pillar provided in front of the driver's seat, and on the
spindle of which hand-wheel is fixed a worm which gears with a
worm-wheel on the top of a vertical spindle passing down the
steering pillar, at the lower end of which spindle is a toothed
pinion which gears or meshes with a toothed wheel, forming part
of the locking gear that is supported by the front axle of the
vehicle. This toothed wheel is connected by four arms with a
cylindrical boss, which guides the turning movement of the wheel
round a central fixed cylinder integral with the upper fixed half
of the locking gear, the friction between the locking plates being
reduced to as low a point as possible by a ring of balls running on
ball races formed on the locking plates.
Two band brakes, actuated by a pedal, are also provided, in
addition to the electric brake already mentioned. The depression
of the pedal first operates to break the connection between the
battery and the motor through the opening of a switch placed in
the main circuit, power being thus cut off before the application
of the brakes is made.
The Morris and Salom Electric Cab
Electric cabs built by Messrs. Morris and Salom, of Phila-
delphia, U.S.A., for the Electric Vehicle Co., of New York, have
been sent to both London and Paris, and run on the streets of these
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
cities with more or less success. The designs of these cabs differ
materially from that of the cab of the London company, which
has just been briefly described. An important improvement in
the details of construction is the carrying 'of the battery in the
main body of the cab, thereby avoiding the jolting that was found
to be so fatal in the case of the London cab. The driving [is
Fig. 14. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company
effected, moreover, by means ol single gearing; pinions on the
extremities of the spindles of the two motors, which are of the
Westinghouse type, meshing with internally toothed rings fixed
on the driving wheels, which in this case are the front ones ;
and as the motors are independent, no differential gearing is
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 71
The trays of batteries are shoved into the body of the cab
from the rear, and, by an ingenious arrangement, the contacts
are made automatically as the batteries are pushed into place.
To effect this purpose the batteries are permanently connected to
contact pieces provided on the trays, which, so long as the driver's
switch is open, are out of circuit.
The wheels are made of wood, and are of the artillery pattern,
fitted with pneumatic tyres, 5 ins. diameter, inflated to a working
pressure of about 60 Ibs. per square inch. Together with the
storage battery, which latter weighs something over n cwts., this
cab weighs 20 cwts., or just one ton.
Space does not admit of entering fully into the details of con-
struction of the cab ; the following, however, are the most salient
The vehicle has no separate under-frame, as all the machinery
is mounted upon the carriage axles, the requisite attachments
being made to the transoms of the body of the vehicle. By an
arrangement consisting of a pivoted projection upon the fore-
axle, the distance of the spindles of the armature and their toothed
pinions is kept constant, whatever may be the movement of the
tail of the motor. This latter is hung by means of rods to the
body of the vehicle, rubber buffers being provided to prevent
undue shocks at the end of its range of movement in each
direction. The internally toothed rings are secured, as has
been already mentioned, to the rims of the front wheels. These
latter are 36 ins. in diameter, and the hubs are fitted with roller
bearings, with end-thrust balls and cones, the rollers being about
5i ins. in length, and working on steel sleeves on the axle.
The steering axle has steel fork castings receiving the pivoted
Ackermann axles, which are placed in positions inclined to the
horizon. The above fork castings have extensions to which the
hanging links for the transverse springs are connected, which
latter support the heavier end of the cab containing the battery
box. The front end of the cab is supported upon springs
pivoted at their front ends to the framework of the vehicle, and
at their rear ends hung from links at the extremities of a transverse
The steering is operated by a lever working longitudinally of
the vehicle. There are two band brakes on drums on the shafts
of the armature worked by a pedal on the upper end of a lever
72 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
connected at its lower extremity to a thin wire rope passing over
a pulley and connected to a bar, which latter is in turn connected
to the brake levers by two chains. These brakes are normally
held out of action by spiral springs.
The battery comprises 48 cells, and is divided into two
sections, the series-wound fields of the motors being also placed
in sections. This arrangement admits of a number of series and
parallel combinations being made, by means of a controller, to
effect the three speeds in a forward direction and the reverse
movement of the vehicle.
The controller can be actuated by a hand lever located at the
left-hand side of the driver's seat, and the speeds given by its
operation are 6, 9, and 12-15 miles per hour. It is of the rotary
type, and it has eleven contact plates, coupled up by suitable leads.
The connections to the reversing and ordinary forward working
switch are operated by a pedal, which, under normal conditions,
is kept in position for maintaining the switches in contact for the
movement of the vehicle in a forward direction. When depressed
for reversing the motion of the vehicle, the pedal operates to cut
out one set of switch connections, which are pivoted to a rod, and
to throw in another set, coupled with the wires of each motor. A
socket is provided for a dual plug, to allow of the batteries being
charged in position.
The "Draulette" Electric Cab
An electric hansom cab designed to accommodate four inside
passengers, besides the driver on the dicky, is the " Draulette, "
a description of which was given about three years ago in the
Motorwagen. This vehicle, which is the invention of a Captain
Draulette, is of somewhat novel construction. It is mounted on
road wheels of the artillery pattern. The entrance is in front, the
step being between the two lower front wheels, and the doors are
practically similar to the wooden apron of an ordinary horse
hansom. The four inside passengers are seated in a semicircle,
whilst the driver's seat is located at the back, as is usual in
hansom cabs. The power is derived from a battery composed of
44 Fulmen cells, of the type 613, each of which cells contains
six positive and seven negative plates. The capacity is stated to
be 105 ampere hours, a supply which is calculated to be sufficient
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 73
to last for running five hours at a speed of 12 miles per hour,
or for a mileage of 60 miles per charging. The accumulators are
stowed away in four chambers situated beneath the passengers'
The electro-motor was designed specially for use in this
vehicle, and is of the two-poled type, provided with double
carbon brushes. In order to allow the electro-motor a certain
limited amount of freedom of movement, it is supported at the
rear by means of an arrangement of springs and rollers, which is
so designed that it does not interfere in any way with the con-
nection with the toothed wheels. A toothed or spur wheel is
keyed fast on the spindle of the motor, and gears or meshes with
another toothed or spur wheel of larger diameter, which latter is
either carried on an intermediate or counter shaft, or is combined
with the differential gearing. At each end of the intermediate
shaft is provided a toothed pinion, gearing or meshing with
an internally toothed ring mounted concentrically with the rear
wheels of the cab.
The vehicle has four forward speeds, viz. 2^, 5, 8^-, and 12
miles an hour, besides one of 3 miles an hour backwards. As
in all the best types of electro-motors, the changes in the rates of
speed are effected by changes brought about in the speed of the
electro-motor itself, without the use of speed gearing of a com-
plicated nature, the backward motion being, however, effected by
the use of gearing of a special form.
The motor is arranged so that it can be employed to act as an
electric brake, and the resistance of the circuit can be adjusted
in such a manner as to admit of four different brake powers being
obtained. An arrangement is also provided by means of which
an application of the foot brake by the driver will cause the electric
brake to be automatically applied at the same time.
As has been already mentioned, the vehicle is mounted upon
four wheels of artillery pattern, the rear pair, which are used for
driving, being 50 inches in diameter, and the front pair, which
are used for steering, being 30 inches in diameter. The total
weight of this electric hansom cab, with accumulators, and loaded
with four inside passengers and the driver on the rear outside seat,
is about 24 cwts.
74 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company
The following is a brief description of the two vehicles shown
in Figs. 13 and 14, built by the City and Suburban Electric
Carriage Company, of York Street, Westminster. The electric
hansom cab, shown in Fig. 13, is adapted either for private use
or for public service. In the former case the upholstering and
fittings would naturally be of a more luxurious nature, and it would
be very suitable for a doctor or other business or professional man
for making his rounds.
This hansom has seating capacity for two passengers inside,
besides the driver. The wheels are of wood and of the artillery
pattern, the tyres being of solid rubber, 2\ inches in diameter.
The front wheels are used for steering, and are mounted on
Ackermann axles. Several different speeds are obtainable by
various combinations of the battery and motor windings, which
can be effected through the controller, the operating lever of
which is shown on the left-hand side of the driver's seat. The
maximum speed is one of 1 2 miles per hour, and the cab is also
fitted with reversing gear, thus enabling it to run backwards on
one or more speeds.
The battery is the result of many years' experience and usage
under very severe tests in practical work, and is claimed by
the makers of the cab to be superior to any hitherto in use.
The elements are specially manufactured for the company by the
Electrical Power Storage Company, of Great Winchester Street,
London, E.G. The battery is capable of propelling the vehicle
with its full complement of passengers and the driver for a distance
of 30 miles, more or less, according to the conditions of the road
surface, gradients, etc., with one charge of current.
Figure 14 shows a cabriolet constructed by the same makers,
which is known as the " Essex Cabriolet," and is both a very
serviceable as well as a very handsome vehicle, of a type adapted
for business purposes or for a pleasure carriage. The vehicle is
adapted to seat two passengers inside and one on the driving box
beside the driver. The apron is made, as shown, with a deep
hollow, so that a lady in evening dress can be seated with perfect
comfort and without any fear of crushing or soiling her apparel,
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 75
and as the apron, moreover, is hinged at the front of the platform,
it obviously allows ample space. By an ingenious but simple
arrangement of rods and levers, the operating one being at the
side of the driver, the apron can be opened or closed by the latter
from the driving box. The front window can be folded up when
desired, and the side windows are made to drop. The mechanical
construction of this vehicle is similar to that of the hansom cab
shown in Fig. 13, and the maximum speed is 12 miles per
hour. The vehicle is capable of running 40 miles on one charge
of current on hard level roads.
The following particulars apply to both the hansom cab and the
" Essex " cabriolet. The wheels are of wood, and heavy artillery
pattern, fitted, as has been already mentioned, with solid india-
rubber tyres 2^- inches in diameter, the back wheels being 36 inches
and the front wheels 32 inches in diameter. Each vehicle has
two electro-motors, each of which motors is arranged to drive its
own wheel independently, thus enabling differential gearing to be
dispensed with, and as the various speeds are obtained by con-
troller combinations, no change-speed gear is required. The
battery is in two sections of 24 cells each, or 48 cells in all, and
one section of 24 cells is carried in the front part of each of
the cabs, and the other section of 24 cells at the back, thereby
distributing the weight equally on the back and front wheels.
Together with the trays the complete battery of 48 cells weighs
about 12 cwts., and the weight of each vehicle, with the battery,
but without passengers, is exactly 30 cwts.
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
General Observations Steam Omnibuses Examples of Steam
Omnibuses Petrol Omnibuses Examples of Petrol Omnibuses
Compound or Petrol-Electric Omnibuses Electric Omnibuses
Examples of Electric Omnibuses.
STEAM-PROPELLED road vehicles adapted to accommodate con-
siderable numbers of passengers, that is to say, steam coaches or
omnibuses, as well as lighter steam carriages adapted for fewer
numbers of passengers, occupied the attention of the first experi-
menters in mechanical road locomotion, and that these classes of
vehicles were brought by them to a considerable degree of perfec-
tion is proved by the steam coaches and carriages of Griffiths, Brunei,
Gurney, Hancock, Summers and Ogle, Church, Dance Macerone,
James, Hill, Yarrow and Hilditch, Rhodes, Holt, Knight, Catley
and Ayres, Todd, Randolph, Grenville, Mackenzie, Blackburn,
Thompson (the first inventor of the pneumatic tyre), and others.
Indeed, as has been already observed, there can be no reason-
able doubt but that the steam road carriage would have been per-
fected many years ago if the very success of the earlier examples
had not raised up a host of enemies against them, whose active
opposition, combined with the attraction of enterprise and capital
to the railways, then in their early infancy, and the condition of the
roads in this country, which was even more deplorable then than
now, finally stifled all efforts in that direction, and so the matter
rested in abeyance until again taken up within the last few years.
The revival of the movement in favour of mechanically pro-
pelled vehicles, which commenced some fourteen years ago, as
might be expected, again met with a large amount of opposition
from prejudiced and interested persons, and indifference from the
general public, and that although the many advantages possessed
by this type of vehicle should be obvious to any person who gives
the matter impartial consideration. This opposition, however,
has now, owing largely to the wide and progressive views of our
popular monarch, been to a great extent overcome, and most
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 77
people are prepared to admit the utility of the mechanically
propelled vehicle, at least for purposes of heavy passenger and
goods traffic on the public roads.
An important factor in the running of any line of motor
omnibuses is the condition of the road surfaces, and to ensure
success these will have to be maintained in far better condition
than is at present usually the case in this country. As it is,
several services of motor omnibuses have already had to be
abandoned owing to the shocking state of some of the main
country roads in Ireland ; and many of the English main roads are
in no better, if as good, a condition. The authorities in charge
of roads should see that it is obviously to their advantage to
encourage the extension of the use of mechanically propelled
vehicles, inasmuch as the damage done by them to the road
surfaces is far less than that of horse traffic, owing to the absence
of the pounding and tearing action of the horses' hoofs, and there
is also the saving that would be effected in the cleansing of the
streets, owing to the absence of droppings, which, in crowded
thoroughfares, constitutes such a serious item ; besides that, the
condition of the streets and roads, from a sanitary point of view,
would be incomparably superior.
Mechanically propelled omnibuses are successfully operated by
all three of the powers mentioned in the introduction to these
articles, viz. steam engines, internal combustion engines, and
electricity, the first of these being that which, as just mentioned,
was used by the pioneers in the movement, and which, for this
reason, will be first dealt with.
Before proceeding to give a few specific examples of the most
recent designs of steam omnibuses, which, if not perhaps quite
perfect with respect to some of the minor details of construction,
certainly, so far as the main features are concerned, have success-
fully solved the problem of omnibuses propelled by this power, it
will be interesting to note the results obtained with such passenger
vehicles a few years back. The particulars contained in the
following table have been abstracted from a table of results
obtained with some heavy steam vehicles, and given by Mr. John
S. Thorny croft, F.R.S., in a paper read before the mechanical
section of the British Association at the Dover meeting in 1899.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
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HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 79
An examination of this table shows that the results obtained
by the De Dion omnibus, with regard to fuel and water con-
sumption per gross ton-mile, were appreciably less than those of
the other vehicles. The reason for this smaller water consumption
is to be found in the high amount of superheating employed. As
regards fuel consumption, it should be borne in mind that this
item constitutes but a comparatively small part of the total
running expenses of a mechanically propelled vehicle according
to an estimate made by Mr. Thornycroft, not more, indeed, than
10 per cent, of the total running cost and is not, therefore, a
matter of such vital importance as supposed by some people.
EXAMPLES OF STEAM OMNIBUSES
Clarkson Steam Omnibuses
Figs. 15 and 16 show a small steam omnibus and a public
service steam omnibus built by Messrs. Clarkson, Limited, of
Moulsham Works, Chelmsford, a firm who have established a
reputation for the manufacture of high-class steam cars, and whose
liquid fuel burner is so well known to all those interested in the
subject of steam-propelled vehicles.
The smaller of the above omnibuses, shown in Fig. 15, is
adapted to seat 8 persons, and is suitable for station or long-
distance touring work, etc. Under most severe trials, this vehicle
has proved to be a thoroughly trustworthy and reliable vehicle,
one of a practically similar construction to that illustrated having
run four thousand miles without either repair or breakdown of any
Amongst the features of construction worthy of special notice,
mention may be made of the following : There is not a single
lubricator or oil cup to replenish and adjust, the whole of the
working parts, both of the engine and gears, being completely
enclosed in an oil-tight case, the bottom of which forms an oil
well, from which the lubricant is pumped to all the joints and
working parts in rotation, the oil draining back into the oil well
and being filtered and pumped over and over again, a gallon of
oil lasting in this manner for 1000 miles before requiring
replenishing. The burner is automatically controlled by the steam
pressure, thus enabling the vehicle to stand for hours if required
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
under steam, and be ready for starting immediately. Heavy oils
can be perfectly burnt without any appreciable amount of smoke
or smell, a number of different grades of paraffin being capable
of being used without alteration to the burner. The water-feed is
automatic, and a simple, strong form of controlling gear, which it
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
is practically impossible can become deranged or inoperative, is
The engine develops over 20 brake horse-power, and the
steam is condensed, the water of condensation returning to
the feed tanks, where it passes through niters, thus enabling the
vehicle to run over 100 miles on one supply of water and oil.
82 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The average speed is about 16 miles an hour, and the fuel
consumption is about id. per mile, the consumption of oil being
one-sixth of a gallon per mile, and that of water i| gallon per
mile when not condensing; when condensing, 0*283 of a gallon
per mile is found sufficient. The amount of water carried for a
run of 120 miles is 34 gallons. Either "Turner" 3-in. solid
rubber tyres or " Bailey " non-slipping pneumatic tyres are usually
The larger public service steam omnibus illustrated in Fig. 1 6
is built in several sizes, adapted to carry respectively 12, 16, and
A public service steam omnibus of the above type, adapted to
seat 1 6 passengers and the driver, or 17 persons in all, has been
built for the Torquay and District Motor Omnibus Company.
This omnibus, before delivery, was subjected to a very successful
test, of which the following are the particulars :
The number of persons carried on the test was 17. The length
of the run was 32 miles, during which no involuntary stops were
made. The test hill negotiated was a severe one, the steepest
pitch being i in 6*5 ; nevertheless, a speed of over 6 miles per
hour was maintained, the average speed made throughout the
journey of 32 miles being 13! miles per hour. The grade of
fuel used was Russian petroleum, " Rocklight " brand, and the
consumption during the test was 6*75 gallons. The consumption
of water was 1 6 gallons.
The above oil consumption made the cost of fuel per mile
during the test work out at 1*05^., and the cost of fuel per pas-
senger per mile at ~d.
The omnibus was subsequently run by road from Messrs.
Clarkson's works to Torquay, covering the journey without an
involuntary stop, although the road conditions were very severe,
and in some parts the floods were out, there being a depth of
fully 2 feet of water on the highway. This vehicle has since
done excellent service, carrying between four and five thousand
The following is the specification of the above omnibus :
Body. 'Bus body is built of well-seasoned wood, with seating
accommodation for sixteen passengers, in addition to the driver ;
twelve seats being in the body of the 'bus, two at the rear platform,
and two in front next to driver. Easy steps are fitted at the rear,
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 83
The rear platform is closed in, so as to form the opening of the
doorway, and fully glazed. Brass handrails are provided to the
steps. The side and front windows are made to slide up and
down, the frames being constructed of mahogany, varnished in
the clear wood, and fitted with plate glass securely fixed. Hand-
rails are provided along the roof on each side of the corridor.
Circular sliding plate glasses and frames are fitted in front of the
driver. Pressed steel wings are fitted to the front wheels. The
'bus is finished in the natural wood, varnished. The upholstery is
of the best leather, with plain spring cushions, and trimmed to
The Chassis is composed of the several parts enumerated
The Frame. Formed of mild steel rolled channel, bent at the
corners, and riveted with transverse members for the support of
the engine and other details of the machinery.
Axles. Of the best construction, with case-hardened bearings ;
the boxes accurately machined out and bushed with bronze.
Boiler. The shell of the boiler measures 22 inches in
diameter by 18 inches long, and ^ inch thick, and is constructed
of mild steel without longitudinal seams, being pressed out of the
solid plate. The tubes are of weldless solid drawn steel, yjr inch
outside diameter, 20 g. thick, expanded in the top and bottom
plates, and, in addition, beaded over, so that each tube forms a
stay. The boiler is tested by hydraulic pressure to 750 Ibs. per
square inch, and by steam to 500 Ibs. per square inch, and is
fitted with twin safety valves, set to blow off at 400 Ibs., an auto-
matic regulator set to 300 Ibs. to control the burner, and an extra
large Klinger gauge to indicate the water level, all the necessary
gauges and fittings being of the highest construction.
Draught. The draught is natural, and quite independent for
its action upon cowls, steam jets, and baffles, and a sheet-steel
flue carries the products of combustion clear of the roof.
Superheater. A steel superheating tube is fixed close beneath
the lower tube plate of the boiler.
Burner. This is the latest and most improved form of
" Clarkson " burner, capable of burning any grade of paraffin oil,
whether Kerosene, Rocklight, Testefas, etc., and is fitted with
patent express starter, which needs no spirit. It is automati-
cally regulated by the steam pressure at 300 Ibs., and entirely
84 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
self-contained, being enclosed in a sheet-steel burner box, lined with
nickel. An inspection door is provided, and also a measuring cup
and clockwork fan for the starter. The consumption of the burner
is tested to 25 Ibs. of oil per hour at a pressure of 40 Ibs. The oil
is supplied to the burner through a new combination valve, which
enables the vaporizer to be readily cleansed by steam, thereby
prolonging the life and preserving the efficiency of the burner.
Engine. Two cylinders, 4 ins. by 4 ins. horizontal, double
acting, high-pressure type, slide valves actuated by Joy's gear.
The cylinders, piston rings, and valves are of special hard close-
grain iron. Piston rods and cross heads are forged solid of steel,
with bored guides. Solid-ended and ribbed cast-steel connecting
rods, bushed with phosphor bronze. Crank shaft of forged steel,
bored hollow, and made in halves, riveted together with steel
driving wheel between, and enclosed in a cast aluminium case
with sheet-metal panels made removable, the top panel having
a circular inspection hole, fitted with a dust-tight but quickly
Differential Gear. The engine drives direct on to a bronze
gear ring, encircling the differential gear box, the sides of the box
being of cast steel, and the differential gear of the spur type ; all
six wheels are of phosphor bronze, cut out of the solid and work-
ing on hardened steel pins. The differential shafts are of steel,
forged solid with the wheels on the inner ends, the outer ends
coned and screwed and fitted with three keys for securing the
chain sprockets. Each shaft is carried on two double ball bear-
ings, fitted in heavy cylindrical races, hardened and ground to fit,
and the two inner bearings take all end thrust. The outer bearings
are fitted with ball and oil retainers. Each shaft carries two
eccentrics, which are keyed on, and fixed longitudinally by
distance tubes or sleeves.
Lubrication (General). A supply of oil is carried in a well in
the engine case or crank chamber, and the oil from all bearings
drains back into it. From the well a pump forces the oil into
each of the bearings in succession, by the action of a Clarkson
patent distributor. This arrangement ensures every bearing being
properly oiled, without any further attention than occasionally,
say once a week if in regular use, adding a little oil to the well.
Lubrication (Cylinder}. The cylinders are fed by a positive
pump contained in an aluminium reservoir, and driven by worm
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 85
gearing from the engine. The lid of the reservoir covers a large
opening, and is so arranged as to be quickly removable for
inspection and refilling.
Pumps. Four bronze force pumps, driven direct from the
differential shaft, deal with boiler feeding, return water, fuel, and
lubricating oil. The pumps are fitted with Clarkson patent
high-speed valve boxes, and are interchangeable. Two hand pumps
are also provided, one for the boiler feed, and the other for
charging the oil-pressure tank. A steel air vessel is connected to
the boiler feed pump to equalize delivery.
Piping. All pressure-pipe lines are made of seamless steel,
and the joints are flanged and secured by steel unions.
Tanks. Comprise a galvanized-iron water tank of 24 gallons
capacity, fitted with glass gauge, mud pocket, drain cock, filling
and suction strainer, and the top made removable for inspection
and cleansing. The main fuel tank, of 28 gallons capacity, made
of sheet steel, riveted together and galvanized, and fitted with glass
gauge, and graduated scale, filling and suction strainers, and paft
of the top made removable for inspection and cleansing. The
pressure tank of seamless steel, fitted with pressure and Klinger
gauges, and tested to 200 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic
Valves, Gauges, and Fittings. All of the highest class and of
practical construction. The gauges being placed conveniently
before the driver, so as to be easily read without the assistance of
Brakes. There are two independent brakes acting directly
upon the driving wheels, viz. a band brake worked by a foot
lever, and an internal expanding brake worked by hand, and
capable of locking. Both the above brakes have metallic surfaces,
which grip well, but cannot fire.
Steering. Irreversible, and operated by a wood- rimmed wheel,
suitably connected to the Ackermann axle.
Feed Water Heater. The feed water is forced through a coil
heated by the exhaust steam before entering the boiler.
Oil Separator. A cylindrical filter for the removal of the oil
and graphite is fitted in the water tank, so as to be conveniently
accessible. The weekly cleansing can be done easily in five
minutes, and no grease is dropped on the ground.
Condensers. Two condensers are supplied. The first of
86 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
rectangular form, made of Clarkson patent tubes, fitted into
aluminium side pockets, partitioned to cause the steam to traverse
a long path. The second condenser, behind the first, shaped to
fit round both sides of the pointed front, and with a single row of
Clarkson tubes fixed in curved copper headers. One drum,
forming a water pocket or " hot well," collects from both con-
densers, and any uncondensed vapour is permitted to escape into
Driving Chains. These are of steel roller chain i-f in. pitch,
having a breaking load of 5 tons.
Wheels. 34-in. diameter artillery pattern, with steel hubs and
rims and cleft oak spokes.
Tyres. "Turner" solid endless rubber tyres, 34-in. single to
the front wheels, and 34-in. twin to the rear wheels.
Tools and Spares. These comprise wrenches to fit all sizes of
nuts and heads in the chassis, pliers, screw-driver, oil-can, copper
wire and washers, one set spare pump valves, packing, rubber mat,
rubber hose, tank gauge glasses and rubber rings for same, split
pins, nuts and screws ; the whole of which are fitted into a tool
box conveniently arranged on the boiler.
Tests. The chassis is loaded with an equivalent weight of
10 stone per passenger during tests, and the vehicle is run 50
miles on ordinary roads, successfully climbing a test hill of i in
10 during the trials.
The makers undertake to supply free of cost a new part to
replace any that may fail through defective material or workman-
ship within six months of delivery.
It will be noticed that in both the omnibuses the drivers'
seats are efficiently protected at the front and overhead, thus
admitting of comparative comfort to those in charge during in-
clement weather. Aluminium enters largely into the construction
of the bodies, and the wheels are of the artillery pattern, fitted
with 3-in. solid rubber tyres. The entire driving mechanisms are
carried upon the main frames of the vehicles, which frames are
supported by semi-elliptic side springs located at the front and
rear. Two brakes, worked by pedal levers, are fitted to each
vehicle, operating directly on the hind wheels. These brakes are
of the shoe type, bearing against the inner surface of rings fixed to
the wheel spokes, and of the double-acting band pattern with the
brake drums secured to the chain wheels, the shoe and band
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 87
brakes on each vehicle being interconnected by means of steel
wire ropes, so as to equalize the pressure. The steering gears are
of the Ackermann type, and operated by means of hand wheels,
although in some instances the smaller omnibus is fitted with a
lever, so arranged that it can be turned up out of the driver's way
when not in use.
Referring to the smaller car shown in Fig. 15, the side windows
are so constructed that the upper halves can, if desired, be folded
down, and the two front windows can be opened so as to allow
the passengers to hold communication with the driver or other
persons on the front seat.
As the construction of the mechanisms in these vehicles is
practically the same, the following description of the smaller
omnibus will serve for both. The boiler is of the vertical fire-
tube type, fitted with solid drawn steel tubes. It is located at the
front of the vehicle, and the flue, which is oval in cross section, is
taken up centrally through the roof, its largest diameter being
placed lengthways of the vehicle so as to obstruct the view in front
as little as possible. Curved glass windows are provided on each
side of the flue, as shown, which windows are capable of being
opened when desired. The heating is effected by a Clarkson
burner, which, as has been already noticed, is capable of using
several grades of ordinary paraffin oil, automatic regulation being
effected by the pressure of steam in the boiler. At the rear of the
vehicle underneath the frame is provided an oil reservoir, fitted
with a gauge, by means of which the level of the oil can be
ascertained at any time. From the oil reservoir the oil for con-
sumption is forced by means of a small pump into a receiver
placed at the front end of the vehicle, which receiver contains an
air cushion serving as a storage of energy both to ensure an even
and uninterrupted supply of oil to the burner when running, and
also to provide means for feeding the oil thereto when the vehicle
is at rest, and the engine shut down. A relief valve is provided in
the oil delivery pipe, which is arranged to open when the desired
pressure is obtained, returning the surplus oil to the suction side
of the pump. For automatically regulating the burner, a small
spring-loaded plunger, actuated by the steam pressure in the boiler,
is provided. This device is so set that the supply of fuel will be
cut down to the lowest point when the boiler pressure is at the
normal working one, whilst the supply of fuel, on the other hand,
88 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
will be at its highest when the pressure in the boiler falls below
a certain predetermined pressure per square inch. For the pre-
liminary heating of the main burner, when starting, an auxiliary
burner using the same fuel is provided beneath the front footboard.
The feed water for the boiler is stored in two elongated reservoirs
located under the seats in the main part of the body of the
vehicle, and projecting towards the front beneath the driver's seat.
These reservoirs have each a capacity of 17 gallons, and a com-
bined capacity of 34 gallons, which, as already mentioned, is a
sufficient supply of water for a run of 120 miles, and the driver
can ascertain the amount of water present at any time by the
inspection of a gauge glass placed on the board in front of his
seat, which is termed by the makers, and not inappropriately, the
" dial board."
The steam engine comprises two double-acting cylinders, and
is mounted centrally under the floor of the vehicle, the cylinders
projecting to the rear, and the crank chamber, which also contains
the differential gear and a transverse countershaft mounted on
four double ball bearings, being completely enclosed, or cased in.
" Joy " valve gear is used to operate the slide valves, which latter
are placed beneath the engine cylinders. A steel spur wheel
placed between the two cranks transmits the power to a phosphor-
bronze wheel that surrounds the differential gear. The above-
mentioned countershaft drives four pumps, viz. a feed-water pump
for the boiler, a pump circulating the lubricating oil for the
working parts of the engine and gearing, a pump returning the
water of condensation from the condenser back to the main water
reservoirs, and, lastly, the pump forcing the paraffin from the oil
reservoir to the pressure receiver. On each extremity of the
countershaft are fixed chain wheels which are geared, through long
side chains of the roller pattern, with the rear driving wheels of
the vehicle. The usual swinging distance rods and means for
tightening the driving chains are also provided.
Each of the cylinders of the engine has a separate exhaust
pipe, these pipes passing along on each side of the vehicle, and
conducting the exhaust steam through feed-water heaters to the
condenser, situated in front of the bonnet, the first portion of
which condenser consists of two tubes, U-shaped in plan, placed
one above the other and connected by vertical tubes, in which
a small portion of the steam is partially condensed, the remainder
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 89
being delivered from the apex or bend of the uppermost U-shaped
tube to a large curved flat condenser box or casing, which is
carried in front of the vehicle. In this latter tube the bulk of the
exhaust steam is condensed, and the resultant water is delivered
into a receiver situated below, into which the water of condensation
from the U-shaped tubes is also delivered through a suitable pipe.
From this receiver the water is drawn by the pump driven from
the countershaft, and is delivered thereby to duplicate filters, and
thence into the water reservoir. The greater portion of the oil
carried over with the steam is removed from the water in the
above-mentioned filters, and what remains is taken up in a sponge
box or filter in the water reservoir, which sponge filter box is so
arranged that the sponges can be readily got at when desired, and
the covers of the various reservoirs are likewise so constructed as
to afford ready access. The several steam pipes are of weldless
steel, and the ends are spun over so as to admit of good sound
face joints being made.
The speed of the vehicle is chiefly controlled by manipulating
the throttle valve, which operation can be effected by means of a
large mahogany-rimmed wheel which extends from the dial board
in such a position as to be directly in front of the driver. On the
dial board are also placed the water gauge, which has been already
mentioned, and which is located close to the throttle-valve wheel,
a pressure gauge mounted at or near the centre of the board, and
an oil reservoir for cylinder oil having connected therewith two
small force pumps, which can be operated by the driver through
a projecting handle, so as to force a few drops of oil into the
cylinders against the upper parts of the pistons (about every five
miles being found to be sufficient when running), and, owing to
the slide valves being placed beneath the cylinders, this oil also
serves to lubricate the former. Owing to the slide valves being
placed in this position, moreover, any water that may result from
the condensation of steam in the cylinders when the engine is
shut down readily drains out of same into the exhaust pipe on
For operating the reversing gear and admitting of the driver
varying the cut-off of the slide valve with relation to its travel in
a forward direction, a lever is provided at the right-hand side of
the driver, in connection with which is a quadrant having several
" ahead " notches, a neutral notch, and a reversing notch.
90 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
For feeding the boiler and supplying the burner with fuel when
the vehicle is at rest and the engine shut down, and for obtaining
the necessary pressure in the pressure receiver when first starting,
two hand pumps are provided, either of which can be operated by
a lever extending up vertically through the floor on the left-hand
side behind the dial board.
The details of construction of the driving mechanism are shown
in Figs. 17 to 28. In Figs. 17 and 18 a indicates the rectangular
Fig. 17. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan of frame and driving
main framing made of channel steel ; b is the multi-tubular boiler
or steam generator, which is secured as shown to the front part
of the rectangular frame a ; c is the liquid fuel burner, which is
mounted directly under the boiler b ; d is the lamp for the initial
heating of the vaporizing coil of the burner, which lamp can be
readily got at under the floor of the driver's seat ; e is the oval
boiler flue projecting vertically from the bonnet ; f is the main
oil reservoir located at the rear of the frame a ; g is the pressure
receiver into which the oil is pumped from the main oil reservoir/,
either by the mechanically operated pump or by the hand pump g l
worked by the lever 2 , which also works the auxiliary boiler
feed pump, and which pressure receiver is placed at the rear of
the boiler b. The pressure receiver g is strongly made, and so
constructed that there will be a lodgment or cushion of air in the
top of the chamber, the oil being forced into it from the bottom,
and the compressed air in this space providing a sufficient store
of energy to feed the requisite supply of oil to the burner when
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 91
the vehicle is at rest and the engine shut down, as well as forming,
as already mentioned, a cushion, and tending to equalize the
pressure when running. Means are likewise provided for renewing
the supply of air, and two try-cocks, by means of which the driver
can ascertain the level of the oil when desired, project from the
dial board with a cup for catching any oil discharged therefrom,
and delivering same by means of a pipe to the preliminary heating
lamp d. From the pressure receiver g the oil passes directly
to the liquid fuel burner c, through a stop-cock, mounted on
Fig. 18. Clarkson steam omnibus. Side elevation of frame and
the dial board directly in front of the driver, h is an automatic
regulating device which operates to lower the flame when the steam
pressure in the boiler b rises to a certain predetermined point, and
to raise the flame to its maximum strength when the pressure
again becomes lowered.
The water for feeding the boiler b is stored in the two con-
nected water reservoirs /, which are mounted upon each side of
the frame a, and lengthways thereof, so that in the finished vehicle
they are situated beneath the seats at each side of the body, and
the ends project underneath the driver's seat in front. Large-
sized covers, i 1 , are provided so as to admit of easy access being
had to the interior of the reservoirs for cleansing and other pur-
poses, and a funnel-shaped filler fitted with a wire gauze strainer
enables the filling of the reservoirs to be effected. The feed
water from the water reservoirs i is passed through two feed-water
heaters,/, before being delivered into the boiler b.
k is the horizontal two-cylinder double-acting high-pressure
engine, which is secured underneath the frame a. The cylinders
92 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
are bolted to box castings, enclosing the stuffing boxes and glands,
which box castings are in turn secured to an enclosed crank box
or chamber, #, which latter, as well as the crank shaft bearings,
are bolted to a casing, /, enclosing the differential gearing and the
transverse countershaft, mentioned in the short preliminary general
description, and on which countershaft are four eccentrics for
working the feed water, lubricating oil circulating, condensed water,
and liquid fuel, pumps, m is a small oil receiver which is fixed
below the casing /, and into which passes the lubricating oil from
n are the exhaust pipes which deliver the exhaust steam from
the engine k to the feed- water heaters/, which latter are externally
wound with spiral coils of wire to help by air cooling in the re-
duction of the temperature of the exhaust steam before its delivery
into the flat curved condenser 0, through the U-shaped pipe p,
and connecting pipe ^, which pipe p forms practically the top of
the condenser, assisting to a certain extent in the condensation
of the exhaust steam, and being connected by the vertical wire-
covered pipes ?-, with a similar shaped pipe, s, situated below.
The greater portion of the exhaust steam passes along the upper
U-shaped pipe p, which is the direct course to the curved portion
o of the condenser, but a certain amount thereof also descends
the vertical wire-covered tubes r to the pipe j, and is condensed
therein. The curved portion o of the condenser is fitted with a
number of transverse tubes, and the water resulting from con-
densation in this portion of the condenser, as well as that from
the U-shaped portions thereof and vertical tubes, is delivered by
gravity into a collecting drum, /, located at the bottom of the
condenser, any of the exhaust steam remaining uncondensed
being passed into the boiler flue and escaping therefrom into
the atmosphere, as invisible vapour. From the collecting drum /
the water of condensation is passed through the filters ?/, and
the sponge filter box by which any oil carried over from the
cylinders is removed, into the water reservoir i situated on the
right-hand side. This sponge filter box consists of an open-ended
cylinder, arranged vertically inside a second and larger cylinder
closed at the lower end, but provided with perforations near its
upper and open extremity.
v is the reversing lever which is connected with the valve gear
through a set of levers and a rocking shaft mounted transversely
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
below the engine crank box or chamber, so that when rocked
on its pivots it will operate to move the reversing gear in the
one or the other direction. On the reversing lever v is provided
a notched quadrant, w, and a catch or detent not shown in the
drawing, but which is pivoted to the body of the vehicle is
arranged to engage with any one of these notches so as to hold
the lever firmly in any desired position. This arrangement allows
Fig. 19. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal section of multitubular
the driver to vary the cut-off of the engine when running in a
forward direction, and to reverse the direction of motion.
oc are the shoe brakes, and y are the band brakes, the former
being connected with the operating pedal z, and the latter with
the pedal z l , both of which project from the floor in convenient
positions in front of the seat of the driver. As before mentioned,
the shoe brakes bear against the inner faces of rings, x, fixed to
the rear wheels, whilst the band brakes work on drums secured
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
to the chain wheels, and each pair of brakes is so constructed,
moreover, that there will be a compensating action on each wheel.
The arrangement of brakes is such that they will operate just
the same were either of the driving chains to break or come off,
and, in addition to these brakes, the engine itself can be used as a
brake by closing the throttle valve and reversing the lever, so as
Fig. 20.- Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of
to cause it to act as a pump, and thus to arrest the motion of the
vehicle. The steering wheel is mounted on a vertical shaft
journalled to rotate in a suitable sleeve or bracket, and connected
in the well-known manner to the heads of the front or steering
The construction of the boiler b is shown in Figs. 19 and 20,
drawn to an enlarged scale. The shell is cylindrical, and, as will
be seen from Fig. 20, is formed in one piece with the top plate,
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
the circular bottom plate l being flanged and riveted to the
shell. The tubes # 2 , which are of small diameter, and of which
there are a large number, are expanded into the upper and lower
plates of the boiler. The shell and bottom plate b, P are of
steel, and the tubes & are weldless steel. The boiler is fitted
with twin safety valves, and has also all the other fittings generally
The construction of the engine k and differential gearing is
shown in Figs. 21, 22, and 23, which views are also drawn to an
enlarged scale. As will be seen from Fig. 21, the cylinders k are
Fig. 21. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal central section
through one of the cylinder and crank chambers of engine.
secured to intermediate castings, *, which latter are, in turn,
connected with the crank chamber k 1 by means of the long bolts
2 , &-*, which pass through the crank chamber k 1 and the cover k*
of the latter. The intermediate castings k* form chambers en-
closing the stuffing boxes and glands of the piston rods, and
extensions, 4 , formed integral with the castings *, project into
the crank chamber k 1 and serve as guides for the crossheads 5 .
The slide valves k* are, as has been already mentioned, operated
by valve gearing of the Joy radial type, k 1 are brackets secured
to the upper bolts 2 , and to which are fulcrumed the swinging
levers > 8 , coupled at their other extremities to the links / 9 ,
which latter are pivoted at their other, or lower, ends to the
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
piston connecting rods 10 . k u are double links, pivoted, as
shown, to the links /& 9 , and coupled at their lower extremities to
the slide valve connecting rods / 12 . > 13 are blocks mounted
to slide freely between guides, u , pivotally supported by means
of hollow trunnions journalled in suitable bearings secured to the
lower bolts 2 *.
The slide blocks are connected near their lower ends with
the double links k 11 through pins on the latter, which fit into
holes provided in the former, and by which means it will be seen
Fig. 22. Clarkson steam omnibus. Transverse section of crank
chamber, showing crank shaft and valve gear.
that whilst the slide valve connecting rods k 12 are operated by
the piston connecting rods (- 10 ) at the same time, the manner in
which this is effected, and, consequently, the direction in which
the engine rotates, is governed by the position to which the
guides u are adjusted on their pivots by the rocking shaft z' 1 ,
which is located beneath the crank chamber & l t and is con-
nected with arms or projections, 15 , on the guides / 14 , through
the crank arms or levers ^ 2 , and links ^ 3 , the rocking shaft z> 1
being, as has been already mentioned, coupled through an
arrangement of levers and connecting rods with the reversing
lever v (see Figs. 17 and 18), located at the right-hand side
of the vehicle. In this manner the throw of the slide valve can
HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
be altered, and the direction of motion of the engine can be
reversed, and the amount of cut-off can likewise be varied by
operating the reversing lever v, and
locking it in the desired position by
means of the notched quadrant a/,
and catch or detent on the side of
The crank shaft is formed with
two overhanging cranks, ^ 16 , set at
an angle of 90 to each ' other, and
supported in bearings, ^ l7 , provided
in the casing k l . k l * is a steel toothed
driving wheel, which is fixed centrally
upon the crank shaft, and which gears
or meshes with a phosphor bronze
toothed ring, /*, of double the dia-
meter, surrounding the differential
gearing / 2 , which is enclosed in a
casing, /, formed in two parts, divided
centrally and vertically. As will be
seen from Fig. 23, the differential
gearing / 2 and its countershaft / 3 is
enclosed in the casing /, and the
former consists of a train of toothed
wheels, the large phosphor bronze
toothed ring /\ by which it is driven
from the steel toothed driving wheel
18 on the engine crankshaft, being
bolted in the manner shown between
the two parts of the casing / 4 sur-
rounding the train of toothed wheels
r-. The casing / is provided with
four double ball bearings, / 5 , fitted
with j-inch balls, supporting the
countershaft / 3 , and the casing / is
secured by bolts at each extremity to
the main frame a of the vehicle, one
end of each of the side driving-chain tightening rods being likewise
secured to the casing a as shown at / 6 .
/ 7 are eccentric blocks fixed on the two halves of the counter-
Fig. 23. Clarkson steam
omnibus. Horizontal longi-
tudinal section showing 1
differential gear and coun-
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
shaft / 3 , which blocks serve to operate the four feed pumps, two
of which are located at each side of the vehicle, and the chain
wheels are mounted on the outer ends of the countershaft, motion
being communicated therefrom to the rear wheel axle by roller
chains meshing with chain wheels on this axle, in the usual
manner. The feed pumps driven by the eccentrics on the
countershaft / 3 are mounted vertically beneath it on the casing /.
These four pumps, the construc-
tion of which is clearly shown in
the sectional view, Fig. 24, serve,
one for feeding the boiler with
water from the main reservoirs *,
(Figs. 17 and 18), the second
for returning the water resulting
from the condensation of the
steam from the drum or hot
well / to the main reservoirs i ;
the third for pumping the liquid
fuel from the main liquid fuel
reservoir / to the pressure re-
ceiver g; and the fourth for
forcing the lubricating oil from
the reservoir m located be-
neath the differential gear to
the various moving parts of the
engine and countershaft, from
Fig. 24. Clarkson steam omm- . . . .
bus. Vertical central section whlch lt a ? am P asses mto the
of mechanically driven force above-mentioned reservoir. The
pump. first two of these pumps have
strokes of one inch, whilst the
two latter have half-inch strokes ; otherwise they are identical in
There are also provided, as already mentioned, two other
pumps adapted to be operated by hand, one of which is intended
for forcing liquid fuel from the main reservoir f into the
pressure receiver g t and the other for supplying feed water to
the boiler when the engine is shut down. These pumps are
shown at g l (Figs. 17 and 18), and are operated by a hand
lever, g*, which projects from the floor on the left-hand side of
the vehicle, and is connected by a series of levers, as more clearly
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
shown in Fig. 18, with the common piston rod, the two pumps
being arranged in line and facing each other.
Fig. 25 shows the general construction of the Clarkson burner.
The supply of air is regulated in this burner by altering the
amount of the opening of a rotary perforated disc, tr 1 , mounted
in connection with a fixed disc provided with air inlet holes or
apertures, the whole of this device being practically identical in
construction with an ordinary form of hit-and-miss ventilator.
The air admitted through the disc c l mixes thoroughly in the
Fig. 25. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal section of
mixing chamber c 1 , with the oil vaporized in the coil <: 3 , round
which the flame from the burner circulates, the vapour entering
the mixing chamber c* through an aperture, ^ 4 , in the nozzle c 5 ,
which aperture is governed by a small needle valve, ^. This
needle valve, c*, is so connected with the lid or cap c, forming
a larger valve at the burner, through a suitable system of levers, c 8 ,
that the outflow of the combined mixture of oil and air will be
correspondingly regulated by the automatic oil or fuel regulating
device //, shown in Figs. 26 to 28. The top of the lid or cap c 1
is fitted with a head, c 9 , of refractory material, and the flame
from the burner is baffled on the inside of a hollow cone con-
structed of nickel. The vaporizing coil c 3 is made from steel
tubing, and is wound round with nickel wire in order to prevent,
as far as possible, the oxidization of the steel.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The lamp d (Figs. 17 and 18), for starting the burner by
effecting the necessary amount of preliminary heating, consists of
a casting containing a wick made of asbestos, and it is so
arranged that the flame therefrom will impinge upon one end of
the vaporizing coil 3 . The requisite charge of oil, measured
in the manner previously described, is absorbed by the wick, and
the lighting can be effected without trouble by dropping a lighted
match through a small aperture at the top in the floor of the
vehicle under the driver's seat, which aperture is normally closed
by a suitable door or cover. The burning of the lamp d is then
accelerated by a forced draught produced by means of a fan
driven by clockwork mechanism,
which concentrates a blow-pipe
flame upon the vaporizing coil <?.
The clockwork fan is located
beside the starting lamp d under-
neath the floor, and the fan runs
for a sufficient length of time to
effect the heating of the vaporizer.
The winding up of the clockwork
mechanism for driving the fan
only occupies a few seconds.
Figs. 26, 27, and 28, drawn
to a greatly enlarged scale, show
clearly the construction of the device h for automatically
regulating the supply of oil to the burner. This automatic oil
regulator comprises two heads, 7/ 1 , secured to each other by two
long bolts 7z 2 , and the lowermost head having a cylindrical
extension, 7z 3 , in which is adapted to work a plunger, J. This
plunger, 7/t 4 , is acted upon by a taper piece, /i 5 , having a rod or
stem, yfc 6 , passing through a hole provided in the upper head 7* 1 ,
and its free end is secured by means of a four-armed nut, and
locking nuts, as shown, to a cross piece, 7* 7 , connected to the
short arms of bell-crank, levers A 9 , fulcrumed at 7* 9 to the top
head h l . The plunger Jfi is retained in its normal position at
the bottom of the cylinder by means of the powerful helical
spring ^ 10 , the exact relation of its position with regard to the
bottom of the cylinder A 3 and the bell-crank levers 7z 8 being
regulable by means of the above-mentioned nuts. The long
arms of the bell-crank levers h % are connected to the device
Fig. 26. Clarkson steam omni-
bus. Plan view of automatic
burner regulating device.
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
which operates to regulate the supply of oil and air to the
To the bottom inlet /i n in the cylinder /r 5 is connected a
steam pipe from the boiler b, and as the steam pressure in the
latter rises it will force the plunger fr upwards against the helical
spring /* 10 , compressing the latter, and through its rod or stem,
/i*, acting on the bell-crank levers h* to move them about the
fulcrum h g and to operate the closing of the device, so as to cut
Fig. 27. Clarkson
steam omnibus. Ele-
vation of automatic
burner regulating de-
Fig. 28. Clarkson steam
omnibus. Vertical central
section of automatic burner
off the supply of fuel and air from the burner c. On the other
hand, a reduction of the steam pressure in the boiler b will allow
the helical spring 7; 10 to reassert itself, and to force the plunger
// 4 back to its normal position in the cylinder ^ 3 , turning the
bell-crank levers h* in the reverse direction about the fulcrum
// 9 , and again opening the device so as to allow the full supply
of oil to pass to the burner c. The pressure found to be most
suitable for the fuel feed is one of about 40 Ibs. per square inch,
and this comparatively high degree of pressure, combined with
the special arrangements used for throttling, prevent any surging
io2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
from taking place, and ensure the production of an even flame.
Important features in the liquid fuel apparatus are the means for
regulating the amount of heat generated by the main burner, by
varying, in the same proportion, and also, at precisely the same
time, the quantities both of the oil and the air that are admitted
to the burner. In the above-described manner the heat generated
by the burner can be regulated through a very considerable range,
the lowest being calculated to be sufficient to maintain the steam
at working pressure. An advantage of this arrangement is that
the safety valve does not blow off when the vehicle is at rest,
except on rare occasions when, owing to very rapid steaming,
the boiler, etc., have become raised to a very high temperature,
and although when the vehicle is kept at rest the automatic
regulating device will come into operation, there is no fear of
the flame being extinguished by its action. The draught is
natural, no arrangements for forcing being provided or required,
and both the uptake and the chimney provide a practically vertical
path for the escape of the waste products of combustion into the
The time occupied in getting up steam from cold water is
about 1 2 minutes, and in order to ensure a supply of dry steam,
which is especially desirable in the case of a mechanically pro-
pelled vehicle, the steam from the boiler is passed through an
M-shaped superheater of the gridiron type, located just above the
liquid fuel burner c, before reaching the throttle valve of the
engine. Under normal conditions the power and speed of
the engine can be satisfactorily regulated by adjustments of the
throttle valve, the cut-off being set at about one-half stroke.
When mounting unusually steep gradients, however, the cut-off
should be varied, which can be done in a forward direction to
anything between nothing and three-quarter stroke.
The thermostatic device employed for automatically regulating
the supply of feed-water to the boiler is dependent for its opera-
tion on the difference in temperature between the feed-water and
the steam in the boiler. The construction of the apparatus is
such that when the water-level in the boiler rises above a pre-
determined point the device becomes surrounded with water
instead of steam, as is normally the case when the device is
operating to permit the feed-water to pass into the boiler, and
owing to the fall in temperature thus produced, the apparatus
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
operates to open a bye-pass between the delivery and suction
pipes of the feed pump, so that the water, or the greater part of
it, circulates back to the pump instead of passing into the boiler.
When, on the contrary, the water level in the boiler falls below a
certain predetermined level the device again becomes surrounded
with steam, and, owing to the temperature rising in consequence,
the apparatus operates to close the above-mentioned bye-pass and
allow the feed-pump to operate in the usual manner to feed the
Thornycroft Steam Omnibuses
The Thornycroft Steam Waggon Co., Ltd., of Chiswick and
Basingstoke, which is an off-shoot of the well-known Chiswick firm
of torpedo-boat builders, are makers of several different types of
Fig. 29. Thornycroft 14-seated steam omnibus.
steam omnibuses, and they have already established a high reputa-
tion both for these as well as for their heavy freight vehicles.
Fig. 29 is a diagrammatical view illustrating in side elevation
a steam omnibus adapted to accommodate fourteen passengers
inside, besides the driver in front, and about 10 cwts. of luggage
on the roof. The speed of this vehicle is from 10 to 12 miles
The firm also build a double-decked type of omnibus to carry
12 passengers inside and 24 outside, with a speed of 7 or 8 miles
an hour, and closed and open steam omnibuses, char-a-banc
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
type, and mounted on bogie carriages, each adapted to carry
30 passengers, the general appearance and arrangement of both
of which latter vehicles are shown respectively in Figs. 30
Steam omnibuses have been supplied by the Thornycroft
Fig. 30. Thornycroft 30-seated steam omnibus, closed char-a-banc type.
Steam Waggon Co., Ltd., amongst a number of customers, to the
Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, and, in spite of the bad
condition of the roads in the district where they are in use, are
said to give great satisfaction.
The following is a general description of the Thornycroft
Fig. 31. Thornycroft 30-seated steam omnibus, open char-a-banc type.
steam omnibuses (Figs. 32 to 36 showing the principal details of
construction). The framework a is of the best channel section
steel, and is strongly tied and braced. The wheels b, the details
of construction of which are shown in Figs. 32 and 33, are of the
artillery type, with metal naves (c) t oak spokes (d) t ash felloes (<?),
and steel tyres (/), the latter being pressed on by hydraulic
machinery so as to .avoid .the charring of the felloes, that would
HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
otherwise inevitably result from the process of shrinking on of
tyres of such size and thickness as have to be employed on these
The engine (A, Fig. 34) is of the two-cylinder compound type,
cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 5 ins. stroke, the cylinders
and valve chambers being made of two iron castings. It has a
constant lead, radial valve gear whereby any degree of linking up
can be obtained, and single eccentric reversing gear, both of
Fig. 32. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel.
special design. The whole is enclosed, the crank shaft and valve
gear in a dust-proof and oil-tight box or casing (B), and the
crossheads in cast-iron sleeves, bolted to the cylinders and crank
box or casing respectively, which latter, being partially filled with
oil, provides for the efficient lubrication of the working parts by
the splash method. The crank box or casing is provided with
an easily removable door to facilitate examination and adjustment
of the parts when necessary. At normal speed the engine gives
about 25 brake horse-power.
The transmission gearing is of the chainless pattern. The one
or other of two pinions, C, D, fixed on the engine crank-shaft
mesh with corresponding toothed wheels, E, F, mounted on the
first motion countershaft G. This countershaft, G, is constructed
in three separate parts, the central portion thereof being
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
connected with the first and third portions by enclosed types of
universal couplings. By means of this arrangement the vertical
motion of the bearing springs of the vehicle
is taken up, and a constant driving effort is
transmitted to the wheels without regard to
the road surface, or to the amount of load,
a free motion of 7 ins. being permitted
between the waggon frame and the driving
axle without in the least disturbing the
steady continuity of turning effort, and
without any possibility of jump in the gear-
ing. On one portion of the countershaft G
are mounted the' two change-speed gears,
E and F above mentioned, and the other
portion carries a double helical cast-steel
pinion, H, which meshes with a helical
steel-toothed wheel on the differential gear
J, which is mounted on the rear axle K.
Fig- 33- Thornycroft The ends of the countershaft G carrying
steam omnibus. Part ,1 j , , , ,. , . . TT
vertical section of the double helical P imon H are su PP orte d
w heel. by two triangular-shaped brackets, mounted
on the rear axle K, and a radius rod jointed
to the under frame of the omnibus, so as to admit of the bearing
Fig- 34. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Underside view of
springs of the vehicle having their full amount of play, is provided,
in order to prevent the brackets from rotating round the axle.
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
The rear wheels of the vehicle are driven through the plate
springs g, which are secured to the felloes, as shown in Fig. 33,
thus removing the strain of the driving effort from the spokes.
The boiler L for generating the necessary supply of steam,
is of the well-known Thornycroft central-fired water-tube type, in
which either coal or coke is used as fuel. This boiler is shown in
Figs. 35 and 36, drawn to an enlarged scale, and consists of two
annular-shaped chambers or casings, a 1 and *, connected by a
series of straight steel tubes, ^, usually numbering 168, and - in.
Fig. 35. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Plan view of boiler.
diameter, arranged at a slight angle so as to form a tapered hollow
cone. The uppermost chamber or casing, a 1 , comprises two
separate rings formed of -f^-in. steel, as shown in Fig. 36, which
are riveted to an annular steel channel-shaped piece, -J- in. in
thickness. The lower chamber or casing P is built up of three
pieces ; that is to say, of one tube plate -f in. thick, and two rings
-fs in. thick. The covers of both the chambers or casings a 1
and P are of steel, and that of the uppermost chamber a 1 is
secured in position by bolts, whilst that of the lowermost one b l
is secured by studs, d 1 is the uptake or funnel ; ^ is an
io8 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
aperture in the upper .annular casing for the introduction of fuel
into the furnace or combustion chamber f l , and g l is the ashpan
or ashpit. The connecting tubes c l between the two chambers
a 1 and b l are 35 inches in length, and they have a mean inclina-
tion of Yg in. to a foot.
The boiler is tested up to 350 Ibs. per square inch, and is
intended to work at a pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch. The
smaller size of boiler has a heating surface of 77 sq. ft., and a
grate area of 2*4 sq. ft., the total weight being 1375 cwts.
The steering of the omnibus is on the Ackermann principle,
as shown in Fig. 34, a hand wheel operating through worm gearing
being provided for turning the front wheels.
The Liquid Fuel Engineering Company Steam
The above firm, whose works are at East Cowes, Isle of Wight,
build both large and small omnibuses, which, as well as their
heavy vehicles, are known by the peculiar name of " Lifu "
vehicles. The frames of the vehicles are made of light channel
steel, and the front and rear axles are connected by tubular
stay rods. The engine is secured centrally to the frame, which
also carries the transmission gear, enclosed in an oil-tight casing,
motion being transmitted by means of a spindle located in a tube
on a sleeve carrying a bevil pinion at its extremity, which pinion
also runs in an oil-tight casing, and drives a countershaft, the
pinion gearing, with another pinion, forming part of the differential
gear. The latter drives a spindle in two parts, each part of which
carries at its outer end a toothed wheel or pinion, the teeth of
which are angled to correspond with those of internally toothed
rings secured to the spokes of the dished driving wheels by means
of clip bolts. The vertical movement of the differential gear
spindle is provided for by means of an arrangement of sliding or
telescopic transmission shaft.
The engine is of the compound horizontal reversing link type,
the cylinders being respectively of 3 ins. and 6 ins. in diameter,
by 5 ins. stroke. The glands are situated within distance pieces
or castings between the cylinders and the guide bars, and in
addition to the usual stuffing boxes and glands on the cylinders to
prevent the escape of steam, there are also others at the end of
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
the above-mentioned castings to prevent any water due to con-
densed steam from gaining access to the crank box or casing. The
Pig. 36. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Vertical central section of
valves are of the piston type, and are operated by dog links.
There are two boiler-feed pumps, one of which is driven by an
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
eccentric on the external extremity of a spindle driven by gear
wheels, and a forked connecting rod, secured to a crosshead
behind the pump ; and the other being an independent steam
pump located below the footplate, for use when the engine is at
rest. Between the cylinders is a receiver, at the high-pressure
end of which is a connection for admitting live steam from the
boiler to the low-pressure cylinder when necessary.
The boiler is located centrally at the front of the vehicle, and
is of the water-tube type, the extremities of the tubes being con-
nected to a central drum or cylindrical vessel, and to a circular
trunk tube, by gun-metal unions. On the top of the central
drum or cylindrical vessel is a
small steam dome, which in-
creases the steam space in
the former. The drum or
cylindrical vessel is formed of
copper, and its external dia-
meter is 14^ ins., the length
being 30 ins. It is secured
to a hollow bridge on the
lower circular trunk tube by a
screwed joint, the trunk tube
and bridge being of gun metal
and formed in one piece. The
water tubes connecting the
central drum and the lower
trunk tube are ^ in. internal
diameter. A flange or rib is cast round the trunk ring or tube,
upon which is supported a light iron casing lined with asbestos
sheeting. In order to provide for access to the burner for lighting
and cleaning purposes, a portion of the trunk ring or tube can
be raised. Below the boiler is an armed casting, which carries
the burner and coned and annular partly coned plates. The
water tubes rise vertically from the lower circular trunk for some
nine inches, after which they are given spiral bends in alternate
directions to the central drum. The water gauge is mounted on
a trunk pipe to the upper part of which is connected the steam
pressure gauge. The feed-water pipe has two check valves, which
are readily accessible.
The burner and vaporizer is shown in Figs. 37 and 38 in
37- The Liquid Fuel Company
steam omnibus. Vertical section
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES in
vertical and horizontal sections, the vaporizer being of cast iron,
and the construction readily understandable from the drawings.
Oil entering the vaporizer a through the oil inlet a 1 is forced to
take a circuitous path backwards and forwards and then down-
wards through the passages a? and pipe b to the burner b l t the
pressure in the oil tank being sufficient to cause the central valve c
and its pointed spindle to rise when only a small flame is required.
When, however, a more powerful flame is necessary, an increased
pressure is applied, in which case not only the above valve, but
also the larger one d at the bottom of the burner is raised, and a
large and powerful flame is produced, which impinges against and
envelops the flat cheese-shaped vaporizer, maintaining both this
and the igniter e at a high
temperature, and completely
rilling the interior of the
The igniter e is a hollow
casting somewhat of the
shape of a top, the hollow
stem or peg of which fits
into a central hole in the
vaporizer a, and the interior p . g ^ _ The Uquid ^ Company
space or chamber within steam omnibus. Horizontal section
which is partly filled with of burner,
refractory material, f. The
use of the igniter e is to store up sufficient heat to re-ignite the
vapour from the burner, should a strong gust of wind from the
exterior, or the compressed air in the oil supply tank being released
suddenly, blow out the flame, g are screw plugs which can be
removed to afford access to the passages a z for cleansing purposes.
A small air pump, driven from the head of the feed-pump plunger,
and having an air inlet protected by fine gauze wire, supplies air
at a pressure of about 15 Ibs. per sq. in. to the oil tanks, and this
pressure forces the oil through a filter to the vaporizer. The
supply of oil is regulated by a steam diaphragm which is in
connection with the steam pressure in the boiler.
The exhaust steam from the low-pressure cylinder is passed
through a feed-water heater, after leaving which heater it is
conducted into a silencer before passing into the uptake and
thence escaping into the atmosphere. The water resulting from
ii2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
condensation of the exhaust steam in the feed-water heater and
silencer is delivered into the feed-water tank, which is located
on the right-hand side of the boiler. The crank box or casing is
formed of bronze, except the front portion and that covering the
pump, which is of aluminium. The steering is of the Ackermann
De Dion and Bouton Steam Omnibuses
Steam omnibuses built by Messrs, de Dion and Bouton have
given very satisfactory results in France. As a typical example of
their system may be taken the steam omnibus that was run by this
firm in the 1897 trials organized by the Automobile Club of
France. This vehicle weighs, without passengers, 4 tons 10 cwts.,
and when fully loaded over two-thirds of the weight is carried
upon the rear wheels. The total length is 21 feet, 6-5 feet being
taken up by the space occupied by the boiler, coke box, and
driver's seat, 10*75 f eet being devoted to the accommodation of
passengers, in the body of the vehicle, and 375 feet being devoted
to a rear covered platform. The breadth of the vehicle is 6-50
feet. The omnibus seats sixteen passengers, twelve in the main
body and four on the rear platform.
The engine, which weighs, with the gearing and casing, 15-8
cwts., and develops 24-5 horse-power when running at a speed of
600 revolutions per minute, is mounted beneath the underframe
of the vehicle. It is of the horizontal compound type, the cranks
being at angles of 90 degrees, and the high and low pressure
cylinders 3*95 ins. in diameter and 7*5 ins. in diameter respec-
tively, by 67 ins. stroke in both cases. The cut-off in each of
the cylinders is at three-quarters of the stroke, and, by means of a
specially designed valve, the full steam pressure can be admitted
when desired to both cylinders. The cranks are of the disc
pattern, and are keyed on the extremities of the crank shaft, which
latter also carries two toothed pinions of different diameters,
either of which can be brought into gear with correspondingly
toothed wheels on a countershaft, thereby varying the speed of
the vehicle from 87 to 12*4 miles per hour. The slide valves,
which are situated above the cylinders, are operated by eccentrics,
the sheaves of which are mounted on a shaft geared to the crank
shaft through a suitable train of toothed wheels. The engine can
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 113
be reversed by effecting an alteration in the number of toothed
wheels in this train by means of a hand lever, which operates
through a link connected to one arm of a bell-crank lever, to bring
into gear an idle toothed pinion, mounted on a small spindle or
stud fixed in a double lever pivotally mounted to the frame. The
counter-shaft, driven by one or other of the toothed pinions on
the crank shaft, has fixed on it another toothed pinion, which
meshes with the driving wheel of the differential gear, and the
rear wheels of the vehicle are driven by the De Dion patent
system of transmitting power. This system consists briefly of
coupling boxes on the differential gear shaft, in which boxes are
Fig- 39. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Sectional elevation
of transmission gear.
pivotally mounted, or coupled through Cardan arrangements or
universal joints of special construction, the extremities of con-
necting rods or short shafts, which in turn are coupled to short
driving axles through other Cardan or universal joints, also of
special construction, which admit of these axles having such an
angular movement in all directions, as may be imparted by the
springs supporting the vehicle, whilst the differential gear shaft
rotatably mounted in its fixed brackets remains unaffected. The
short driving axles are rotatably mounted in bearings in blocks, and
sleeves or bushes carrying the wheels, and are rigidly connected
by a bent axle below, whilst supporting the bearing springs above,
and the ends of the driving axles have securely fixed to them
ii4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
centre pieces or driving discs or blocks connected to the rims or
felloes of the driving wheels of the vehicle through an arrange-
ment of radial spring arms.
The Cardan joint, various modifications of which are now in
common use, was devised, as is well known, by a French geome-
trician of that name, in the sixteenth century. The modification
Fig. 40. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel.
designed by the Comte de Dion is of considerably greater strength
than the usual patterns, and its application, as above described, to
the axle of the De Dion and Bouton omnibus is shown in Fig. 39,
in which a is a short axle journalled in two strong brackets, <r, fixed
to the frame b of the vehicle. This axle, a, carries the differential
gearing d, having an external toothed wheel or ring, D, to which
rotary motion is imparted through a toothed wheel or pinion
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 115
mounted upon the hereinbefore mentioned countershaft; e are the
connecting rods or short shafts, which are coupled to the short
driving axles/ by means of the Cardan or universal joints g. The
manner in which the power, of the engine is transmitted to the
driving wheels E is more clearly shown in Figs. 40 and 41, which
represent a side elevation and horizontal central section of one of
the wheels drawn to a considerably enlarged scale. From Fig. 41,
it will be seen that the hub or nave h of the wheel E is mounted
to rotate upon a flanged sleeve or bush, /, which is fixed, and
Fig. 41. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Horizontal section
through which sleeve or bush passes the short driving axle /,
which is coupled to the rim or felloes / of the wheel outside
the hub or nave, in the manner shown, by four spring arms, /,
extending radially from the centre piece or driving disc k secured
on the projecting extremity of the short driving axle f. In this
manner the strain of the driving effort is taken off the spokes of
the wheel, and the latter are only called upon to support the
weight of the vehicle.
As a result of the above driving arrangement, the wheels E are
both independent of each other and of the frame , and they are,
consequently, free to follow all the inequalities of the road surface
n6 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
without interfering with the suspension, or affecting in any way
the transmission of the motive power thereto.
The front or steering wheels are 31*5 inches in diameter, and
are fitted with 3'5-in. tyres, and the rear or driving wheels are
48 ins. in diameter, and fitted with 4-in. tyres. Steering is on
the Ackermann principle.
The whole of the gearing and moving parts of the engine are
enclosed in an oil-tight box or casing, and are arranged to run in
a bath of oil therein, so as to secure lubrication of the splash
description, the storage tank or reservoir for the lubricating oil
being located at the side of the boiler or steam generator.
The boiler F, which is shown in Fig. 42 in vertical central
section, has a water jacketed fire box, an outer annular casing,
and connecting tubes, and it is placed at the front of the vehicle.
It comprises two rings or annular vessels or casings, a 1 , b l > arranged
concentrically, the inner one projecting above the outer one, and
connected, as shown, by a number of inclined steel tubes, c l .
These two annular vessels or casings a\ l , and the inclined con-
necting tubes -1 , form the water and steam spaces, and the steam
from both the inner annular vessel a 1 , and outer annular vessel b l
is forced by a diaphragm, d l , to pass through the upper connecting
tubes, whereby it becomes more or less dried or superheated
before leaving the boiler. The rings or annular vessels or casings
a 1 and b l are closed at the top and bottom by covers, a, l> 1 *, held
together by stay bolts, a 2 *, lr*, in the manner shown.
Fuel, which is usually coke, is introduced into the furnace or
combustion chamber through the central annular vessel or casing,
the aperture at the top of which is closed by a suitable lid or
cover, ^, and the ashes are removed through a door, f l , at the side
of the ashpit g 1 below. The waste products of combustion escape
through an uptake or chimney, /i l , communicating with a light
casing, i\ surrounding the portion of the inner annular vessel or
casing a 1 that projects above the outer annular vessel or casing *,
and the pipe f- for carrying steam to the engine is connected to a
casting, k l t carrying the stop valve k l * and safety valve k^ near the
top of the steam space in the inner annular vessel or casing a 1 .
The feed water is normally supplied by a pump driven by an
eccentric on the rear axle, but an injector is also provided, and
before entering the boiler the water is heated by being passed
through a coil, /*, in the ashpit g l . The boiler is fitted with two
Fig. 42. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Vertical central
section of boiler.
n8 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
pressure and water gauges, one of which latter is shown at m l in
The grate area is 1*95 sq. ft., and the heating surface about
62 sq. ft. The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per sq. in., and some
6 Ibs. of water are evaporated per pound of coke. Steam can be
raised from cold water in about half an hour. The weight of the
boiler, empty, is 7-13 cwts., and with fuel and water 9*13 cwts.
A second coil, n l , is also provided in the ashpit g, 1 in which the
exhaust steam from the engine is superheated before being dis-
charged into the chimney or uptake #, so as to escape into the
atmosphere as invisible vapour. The receptacle, or bunker, for
fuel is situated round the boiler, and contains about 2*4 cwts.
The feed-water reservoirs are located beneath the passengers'
seat in the main compartment, and contain 100 gallons.
Two pairs of band brakes are provided, one of which acts
upon the naves of the driving wheels, and the other on drums or
pulleys keyed on the connecting rods or shafts on the outside of
the universal joints and next the differential gear.
At the trial mentioned, the consumption of coke, at an average
speed of 8-85 miles an hour, was 6-45 Ibs. per mile, or ro8 Ibs.
per ton-mile, and the water consumption was 40 Ibs. per mile.
De Dion and Bouton Steam Tractors
The De Dion and Bouton steam tractors are intended for
hauling heavy passenger or freight vehicles. The construction is
shown diagrammatically in plan and in sectional side elevation in
Figs. 43 and 44, and it will be seen to be practically a small road
locomotive, which is termed by the makers a steam bogie.
The frame B is constructed of angle or V-shaped bars, and is
supported upon the axles through coachsprings ; it is heavy, and
very strongly built, which is rendered necessary on account of the
work it is intended to perform. The frame is mounted on four
wheels, E, the front or steering ones being of considerably smaller
diameter, and the steering being on the Ackermann principle.
The engine A is of the compound type, and is located on the
frame B below the platform, that in the tractor under consideration
developing 20 horse-power, and having a high-pressure cylinder
472 ins. in diameter, and a low-pressure cylinder 7-08 ins. in
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
diameter by 5-11 ins. stroke in both cases. There is an inter-
mediate receiver between the two cylinders, and an automatic
oiling device ensures the regular lubrication of the moving parts.
Fig. 43. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional plan.
When desired, full pressure of steam can be admitted to both
cylinders, as in the case of the omnibus engine.
The boiler F is located, as shown on the diagrams, near the
Fig. 44. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional side elevation.
front of the frame, and is almost entirely surrounded by the fuel
bunker G. The fire-grate is 13 '4 ins. in diameter, and the inner
ring or annular casing 6 ins. in diameter. The connecting tubes
120 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
are of copper, 0^39 in. internal diameter by 0*12 in. in thickness,
and 4*40 ins. in length. In construction, the boiler is practically
similar to that already described and illustrated in Fig. 42, with
reference to the steam omnibus, with the exception that instead of
having an uptake, /i l , projecting upwards, as in the former case, the
chimney h l dips downwards, and passes in a backward direction
beneath the frame, discharging at the rear, as shown in Fig. 44.
The feed-water reservoir H is located beneath the driver's seat.
The motion is transmitted from the engine to the driving
wheels by a similar arrangement of countershaft, C, differential
gearing, D, and driving axle, /, to that already described and
illustrated in Fig. 39 with reference to the omnibus.
The weight of this tractor is 2 tons, and it is capable of draw-
ing a load of 2-5 tons at a speed of 20 miles an hour on the
level. Sufficient coke can be carried for a 6o-mile run, and
water for 25 miles.
The grate in the De Dion boiler is situated at about the same
level as the bottom of the outer concentric ring or annular
casing, the ashpit being placed below it, and, owing to its being
water-jacketed in the manner mentioned, it should be one of
very high efficiency. In practice, however, owing to its steaming
largely under forced conditions, the efficiency is found to be
thereby somewhat reduced, although the efficiency is still high.
The inventor guarantees a boiler of this type to be capable of
evaporating from 4-5 to 6 Ibs. of dry steam per square foot of the
heating surface, and from 6 to 8 Ibs. of steam per pound of coal,
with natural draught.
During trials carried out by a French firm, Messrs. Sautter,
Harle et Cie., with a De Dion boiler having a heating surface of
64-5 sq. ft., a grate surface of somewhat less than 3 sq. ft., and
weighing 12*7 cwts. empty, 550 Ibs. of steam was produced for a
consumption of 88 Ibs. of coal per hour, or 6*25 Ibs. of steam per
pound of coal.
The results obtained with a boiler having a heating surface of
60 sq. ft. and a grate area of rg sq. ft., in a i6-seated De Dion
omnibus, as given in previous table (see ante, p. 78), shows the
amount evaporated to be 6'2 per Ib. of coke.
The per cent, of efficiency in the first of these instances is 48*3,
and the latter 55*3.
That these efficiencies are not quite so high as those given by
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 121
some other boilers is probably due to the cause above mentioned.
There can be, however, no doubt that the De Dion boiler is a
steam generator having a high rate of efficiency, but on the other
hand its construction is somewhat delicate, which is an objection
for motor-car work, where skilled attendance is not always avail-
able. It is a boiler requiring to be carefully handled by a properly
qualified person in order to ensure safety, and, as has already been
observed by the writer elsewhere, is most decidedly not a boiler
to be entrusted to the charge of an inexperienced driver.
Straker Steam Omnibuses
The Straker Steam Vehicle Company, of London and Bristol,
are makers of steam omnibuses adapted to carry from 20 to 36
Fig. 45. Straker standard 20-seated steam omnibus.
passengers. Fig. 45 shows the standard Straker steam omnibus
for 20 passengers, and 10 cwts. of luggage on the roof. The firm
also build steam omnibuses of the double-deck type.
The over-all approximate dimensions of the omnibus shown in
the illustration are 20 ft. 6 ins. long by 6 ft. 6 ins. wide. The
maximum speed is 10 miles an hour, and.it is capable of ascending
gradients up to i in 7 on ordinary roads, and, if desired, of drawing
a trailer carrying an additional load of 12 passengers. A tele-
scopic ladder is provided at the side of the machine, for admitting
of access to the roof.
122 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Every effort has been made in the design to secure the strength
necessary to withstand the constant and heavy work to which
passenger vehicles intended for public service are liable, and also
to reduce vibration to a minimum. For the latter reason the
vehicle is mounted on wooden wheels of the artillery pattern, and
indiarubber chocks are inserted between the bearers of the body
and the frame. In this manner it is claimed that the vehicle rides
witn great ease, and that the vibration is less than that of an
ordinary street horse omnibus. In addition to the 20 passengers,
the car carries two attendants, viz. driver and conductor.
In general construction the Straker steam omnibus is practi-
cally similar to the firm's standard heavy-freight steam vehicles
described and illustrated in a subsequent chapter. All the parts,
however, are made lighter, in order to secure the higher speed
up to 10 miles an hour, and the gearing is of a higher ratio.
Scotte Steam Omnibuses and Tractors
The above makers build several patterns of steam omnibuses
besides the i2-seated one mentioned in the table on p. 78.
They also make a type of vehicle or tractor carrying 8 inside and
3 outside passengers, which hauls a trailer carrying 15 passengers,
besides luggage. The total weight of these vehicles without load
is 6 tons 6 cwts. The tractor is 18 ft. over all, and has a frame
built up of channel and T-bars, supported on the axles on four
plate springs. The wheels are of wood, with iron tyres, the rear
ones being 36 ins. diameter, with 4-f-in. tyres, and the front
1 8 ins. diameter, with 3-in. tyres. The weight of the vehicle is
3-87 tons, and this is pretty equally distributed on the wheels.
The engine is a vertical one, and has two cylinders 4^ ins.
diameter by 4f ins. stroke, developing 16 horse-power at 400
revolutions per minute, and weighing about 6 cwts. The cut-off
can be varied from | stroke to f stroke, and ordinary link
motion reversing gear is provided. Either of two pinions on the
crank shaft can be thrown into gear with toothed wheels on the
countershaft, thus giving speeds of 7-5 and 3*25 miles an hour.
The external toothed wheel of the differential gear is driven by a
pinion on the above-mentioned countershaft through a pitch chain,
and the differential gear is mounted on a countershaft driving
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 123
each of the rear wheels independently through ordinary chain
The boiler is of the Field type, with vertical tubes, and is
adapted to work at a pressure of 170 Ibs. per square inch. It has
a grate area of r6 sq. ft., and a heating surface of 120 sq. ft. ;
its weight, when empty, is 9*8 cwts., or, with water, in 6 cwts.
Pressure can be raised from cold in slightly over half an hour.
The fuel consumption on trial was 72 Ibs. of coke per square
foot of grate area per hour, and the evaporation 610*6 Ibs. of
steam to 115*2 Ibs. of coke or 5*3 Ibs. of water per pound of coke.
Gauge pressure, 170 Ibs. per square inch.
An ordinary feed pump, an injector, and a water circulator are
provided. The ashes, which fall into an enclosed ashpit, are
damped by the water resulting from the condensation of steam in
the feed-water heater.
The engine and boiler are placed near the front of the
vehicle, and the coke bunker, which is right in front, contains
Three water tanks are provided, two under the passengers'
seats and one beneath the footboard.
Two brakes are fitted to the vehicle, viz. a screw brake,
working shoes against the tyres of the driving wheels, and a
foot brake, operating Lemoine brakes coiled twice round the
The steering is operated by a hand wheel working a screw
through a jointed rod and mitre gearing, arrangement being made
to allow free vertical movement of the front axle. By working in
this manner a nut backwards and forwards on the screw the front
wheels are moved through bars and levers pivoted to the ends of
the fixed axle.
Weidknecht Steam Omnibuses
An example of this type of omnibus is one adapted to accom-
modate 16 passengers and 500 kilogrammes, or 9*8 cwts., of
The overall length of this vehicle is 18 feet, and the weight
5 tons 6 cwts.
The frame is constructed of light channel iron girders, sup-
ported in front through two leaf springs on the front axle, and
124 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the wheels are constructed with wooden spokes and felloes,
1*400 m., or about 55 ins., in diameter, with 99 mm., or 3*86 ins.,
iron tyres and are used for driving. The rear axle is secured
directly to the frame, thinned down at that end to give a certain
amount of elasticity, and the wheels are noo m., or 43*27 ins.,
The engine is horizontal, with two cylinders, each 4*92 ins.
diameter by 4*92 ins. stroke, with cranks set at 90 degrees. It is
fitted with variable expansion gear and reversing gear of the Sohn
type, worked by a lever placed between two toothed segments. A
variation of cut-off from OT to 0*83 of the stroke can be effected.
At a speed of 350 revolutions per minute the engine gives 197
horse-power. A cast-iron box or casing, open at the top, partially
encloses the moving parts.
The boiler is a vertical one of rectangular section, and fitted
with both water and smoke tubes. There are 87 I'iS-in. diameter
water tubes, which cross the upper part of the firebox diagonally.
The uptake consists of 16 smoke tubes, also acting as stays to the
crown of the firebox and boiler shell. This boiler has a heating
surface of 64 sq. ft., and 3 sq. ft. of grate area, and is claimed to
evaporate 572 Ibs. of water per hour at an average working pres-
sure of 150 Ibs. per square inch. At the before-mentioned tests
(see previous table on p. 78) the evaporation was 6*5 Ibs. of
water per pound of coke. Gauge pressure, 170 Ibs. per square
inch. The fuel, which is usually coke, is fed to the furnace by an
automatic stoker, which has to be supplied with fuel every 2^ miles.
The water tank holds 62 gallons, and the coke bunker at the side
of boiler i'i8 cwts.
Power is transmitted from the differential gear countershaft by
ordinary chain gearing, and two brakes are provided, viz. an
ordinary screw hand brake, and a Lemoine coiled wire hand
brake, operating on drums secured to the driving wheels. Speed-
change gearing allows of variations from 9-3 to 4*65 miles per
The steering is effected by moving the rear wheels, which are
pivoted at the ends of the fixed axle, through a hand wheel on
a vertical shaft carrying a pinion meshing with a rack on a rod,
the movement of which is transferred to the pivoted axles by a
steering lever and connecting links.
The wheels adopted by Mr. Weidknecht are shown in Figs.
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
46 and 47, the first being a part vertical central section, showing
one of the rear or driving wheels, and the latter a similar view
of one of the front or steering wheels, both of which are, as
will be seen from the dimensions already given, of considerably
larger diameter than those usually employed. The weight sup-
Fig 1 . 46. Weidknecht steam om-
nibus. Part sectional view of
rear or driving wheel and axle.
Fig. 47. Weidknecht steam om-
nibus. Part sectional view of
front or steering wheel and axle.
ported upon each of the wheels is 1750 kilogrammes, or i
ton 14*3 cwts.j when the vehicle is loaded. The naves a are
made of bronze, and form axle boxes of a patent self-oiling
type, which, however, does not differ in any material particular
from the well-known Collinge axle box, and the spokes b are
secured to the rim or felloes c by mortise and tenon joints, the
126 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
latter being formed with shoulders. The spokes b are secured
in the nave or hub a between two plates or flanges, d and e, the
one d being integral with the hub a, and the other e being clamped
to the former by bolts in the (usual or ordinary manner. The
central portions of the chain wheels f for communicating motion
to the driving wheels are formed integral with the brake drums or
pulleys g, and are mounted on the naves or hubs a.
The driving wheels are rotatably mounted on a fixed axle, /z,
and the steering wheels are mounted on short axles, z, pivoted to
a fixed central axle, h l .
The increased diameter of the wheels would most certainly
seem to be a move in the right direction, and is said to have
given the satisfactory results that were to be anticipated from the
experiments of Morin and others with reference to traction on
common roads, that the resistance opposed to rolling is in the
inverse proportion to the diameter of the wheels. Indeed, even
without the authority of these experiments, it is only rational to
suppose that wheels of large diameter would admit of the obstacles
due to inequalities of the surface being more readily overcome,
and with less jarring or jolting than is the case with those of
smaller diameter, and, moreover, wheels of large diameter, owing
to their rotating at a slower rate of speed, raise far less dust on
dusty roads, an advantage of no little value.
It is true that wheels of large diameter are not so strong as
those of a smaller diameter, or, at least, that, to make them so,
they would have to be of inordinately heavy construction, but
inasmuch as they are subjected to less severe strains, this objection
does not seem to be of any great moment, and there should be no
difficulty in constructing wheels of large diameter strong enough
to bear the strains to which they will be liable, and at the same
time light enough so as not to render their weight an objectionable
feature. With respect to the greater ground space occupied by
wheels of large diameter, it may be pointed out that as heavy
passenger vehicles are only required to run upon wide, or, at least,
moderately wide, roads, this is a point of practically no importance,
and is amply compensated for by the greater stability ensured by
the wider wheel base.
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
THE SERPOLLET SYSTEM
Although Mr. Leon Serpollet has of recent years turned his
attention to the perfection of steam tramway vehicles and motor
railway carriages, his steam generator and engine possess such
possibilities for use in steam omnibuses adapted to run on common
roads that this brief account
of the latter would be in-
complete without some refer-
ence to the Serpollet system.
The latest type of Ser-
pollet motor is especially
designed to work with the
highly superheated steam
supplied by the flash or in- Fig . 4 8. Serpollet system. Plan
stantaneous generation type view of engine,
of boiler that bears his
name, and the use of which forms so important a feature in the
system. The engine, which is shown in plan and side and end ele-
vation in Figs. 48, 49, and 50, has two single-acting cylinders, a (one
of which is shown in vertical central section in Fig. 49), so arranged
Fig. 49. Serpollet system. Sectional
side elevation of engine.
Fig. 50. Serpollet
system. End ele-
vation of engine.
opposite to each other that the two piston rods work on to the
same crank shaft. The piston rod b is pivoted in the bottom of
the hollow piston or plunger c, a special type of crosshead con-
necting both piston rods to a single crank working in an oil-tight
128 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
crank box or chamber, d^ which constitutes the frame of the engine,
and through glands in which crank box or chamber the crank
shaft e extends as shown, f are the steam admission valves,
which are placed on the tops of the cylinders a, and the spindles f l
of which are controlled by means of a small cam shaft, g, mounted
centrally between and above the cylinders a, and to which shaft
rotary motion is imparted by toothed gearing from the crank shaft,
both shafts running at the same speed, h is a cam sleeve, which
is so mounted on the shaft g that it is capable of longitudinal
displacement thereon, whilst being obliged to rotate therewith.
This displacement can be effected by means of a specially shaped
nut threaded on a screwed spindle, /, which latter is controlled by
a centrifugal governor, /, through the crank arm /, connected, as
shown, by the lever arms k l to the sliding sleeve m of the
governor, so that the movements of this sleeve under the action of
the balls ;/ will be imparted to the cam sleeve /$, and the latter
moved longitudinally of its shaft, to vary the action of the
cam upon the valve spindles, and impart a greater or lesser move-
ment to the latter. The extremities of the valve spindles/ 1 are
provided with antifriction rollers, which bear against the cam h,
the spindles being normally retained in that position by springs,/ 2 .
By this means it is stated that the steam admission can be varied
from o to 80 per cent.
For reversing, a second cam, 0, is provided, which can be
brought into position opposite the rollers on the valve spindles
when it is desired to reverse, by means of the crank arm /,
suitable provision being made for effecting this operation from the
The exhaust takes place through the orifices p in the cylinder
walls, near the termination of the strokes of the pistons, all excess
of steam above the pressure of the atmosphere escaping through
the ports or orifices p when communication is made between the
latter and the spaces at the rear of the pistons. Such steam as
remains in the cylinders at atmospherical pressure is not ex-
hausted, but, on the return strokes of the pistons, is compressed,
thus forming a cushion, and should the pressure exceed that of the
steam in the boiler, this steam will be forced back through the
valves /into the steam pipe.
Another method adopted of effecting the above object is shown
in the sectional view, Fig. 51. This latter arrangement is claimed
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES
Fig. 51. Serpollet system. Vertical
central section showing alternative
arrangement of exhaust.
to get rid of all troublesome condensation in the cylinders, without
interfering with the admission of steam thereto. In this case an
exhaust orifice or port, /, is
provided in an extension, c l ,
on the piston <r, working in a
small cylinder a 1 .
The latest type of Ser-
pollet boiler or steam gene-
rator is shown in vertical and
horizontal section in Figs. 52
and 53. This boiler has un-
dergone very considerable
modification since its first
introduction. As originally constructed, it consisted of a number
of thick tubes rolled into a kidney-shape in transverse section, and
connected together by bends, or return heads, on the exterior of
the furnace. A very narrow
space was left in the interior
of these tubes for the water
to pass through, and the
concave sides of the tubes
were placed so as to receive
the flames from the furnace.
The modified arrange-
ment of boiler shown in the
illustrations comprises two
portions, the first portion,
which is most exposed to
the heat of the furnace,
being composed of thick
steel tube, q, twisted into a
helical form, and so placed
as to intercept, as far as
possible, the flames from
the furnace r 1 , whilst the
second or upper portion is
Fig. 52. Serpollet system. Vertical
section of boiler or steam generator.
composed of any ordinary coil, r, of thinner section cylindrical
The boiler was originally fired with coke, but liquid fuel is now
employed, and Mr. Serpollet has devised an ingenious device for
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
automatically and synchronously controlling the supplies of oil to
the burner, and water to the boiler.
The type of burner employed is the Longuemare, shown in
g. 53. Serpollet system. Hori-
zontal section of boiler or steam
Fig". 54. Longuemare liquid fuel
burner used in Serpollet boiler.
plan and vertical central section in Figs. 54 and 55, which consists
of a row of coils, s, forming a vaporizer, to which the oil or spirit
delivered through the pipe s* is passed, and from which it is
delivered in the form of
vapour through a pipe, s 1 ,
way, or passage, s 2 , and regu-
lable needle valve t, to the
The oil and water con-
trolling device, shown in Fig.
56, comprises an oil or petrol
pump, , and a water pump,
v, the pistons or plungers, w 1 ,
z/ 1 , of which are coupled by
short connecting rods, & 2 , z> 2 ,
the one to a lever, w, and
the other to a sliding block,
w 1 , mounted upon this lever,
which latter is pivotally con-
nected at w 2 to a rigid bar,
x, the distance between the pivots, and the diameters of the
pump plungers being such that the amount of petrol pumped by
the petrol pump n at each stroke will be exactly sufficient to
Fig. 55. Longuemare liquid fuel
burner used in Serpollet boiler.
Vertical central section.
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 131
vaporize and superheat the amount of water pumped at each
stroke of the water pump v.
In order to be enabled to allow for any variations that might
occur owing to differences in temperature and in the quality of the
petrol, etc., a screw-threaded spindle,^, is provided for adjusting
the position of the sliding block w l , and, consequently, through
the connecting rod w 2 , varying the stroke of the plunger or piston
u l of the petrol or oil pump u. In this manner, the proper
proportions between the supply of oil or petrol and water can be
maintained or suitably modified, as desired.
In addition, however, to the above adjustment, it is also
ig- 56. Serpollet system. Side elevation of oil and water controlling
essential that the quantities of oil and water delivered be varied in
proportion to the amount of power that it is desired to develop in
the engine, in accordance with the requirements of the load,
gradient, condition of the road surface, speed, etc, For this
purpose the other extremity of the lever w is adjustably con-
nected by means of a connecting rod or link, w 3 , and sliding block
or piece, w 4 , with the oscillating bar or lever z, through which
reciprocating motion is imparted to the lever w, and, therefore,
through the connecting rods # 2 , z> 2 to the plungers or pistons u\ z ;1
of the oil pump ?/, and the water pump v. This oscillating bar or
lever, z t is pivoted at or about its centre, and motion is imparted to
132 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
it by means of an eccentric keyed on one of the shafts of the
transmission gearing. By means of a lever, z l , one end of which is
jointed to the upper extremity of the connecting rod or link w*
above the sliding block w 4 , and the other extremity of which
extends to within convenient reach of the driver, the position of
the sliding block w* upon the oscillating bar or lever z can be
altered, and the length of the arm of the lever acting upon the
lever w lengthened or shortened, as required, the throw of the
latter, and, consequently, the strokes of the pumps u and v,
obviously depending upon the radius of this lever arm.
By either placing the oil reservoir at a somewhat higher
elevation than the burner, or by providing a slight pressure
therein, the oil will pass slowly to the burner whilst the vehicle is
at rest, without being pumped or forced thereto by the pump z/,
and will raise the valve / ^sufficiently to allow of the passage of
enough oil to maintain a small flame and keep the generator ready
to get up steam immediately when required.
The steam consumption of the Serpollet engine is said to be
low, that of a two-cylinder engine, with cylinders 80 mm. (3' 15
ins.) diameter, by 80 mm. (3-15 ins.) stroke, developing 4-horse-
power at 510 revolutions per minute, being 10 kilogrammes, or
2 2 Ibs., of steam per horse-power hour.
The results obtained with a Serpollet tram with trailer carrying
100 persons and luggage, and having an engine with cylinders
5 '9 ins. and 5*9 ins. by 6*3 ins., are given in the previous table
on p. 78, the boiler used being in this case one of the old pattern,
and the fuel, coke.
The commercial success of any passenger transport scheme,
as, indeed, also that of any scheme having for its object the trans-
port of goods, is practically entirely dependent upon the lowness
of the running and maintenance charges.
Theoretically the internal combustion engine, having a high
rate of efficiency, should prove a suitable power for this purpose,
but in practice the results obtained from actual experience in
running public service omnibuses propelled by this source of
power, do not seem to have always given the satisfactory results
that might have been anticipated, and the internal combustion
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 133
engine, in its present stage of development, does not appear to
have completely solved the problem of mechanically propelled
omnibuses adapted for the accommodation of considerable numbers
of passengers, although its successful application to lighter vehicles
is now an established fact.
There are, nevertheless, a number of paying services of petrol
omnibuses running, especially in the provinces. In London, the
London Power Omnibus Company, Limited, has for some time
past had a service of petrol omnibuses between Kilburn and the
Marble Arch, which service they have recently extended to
Cricklewood. The Motor Omnibus Company, Limited, com-
menced early this year (1905) services of double-decked omnibuses
between Kilburn (Brondesbury) and Charing Cross, and elsewhere.
The General Omnibus Company have, at the time of writing, 100
motor omnibuses on order, which will shortly be put in service.
And several other companies are, or will soon be, running motor
omnibuses. In fact, by the time this work is out of the hands of
the printers motor omnibuses will doubtless be in a fair way to
becoming the rule instead of the exception in the London streets.
EXAMPLES OF PETROL OMNIBUSES
Stirling Petrol Omnibuses
Messrs. Stirling, Limited, of Granton-Harbour, Edinburgh,
build motor omnibuses, of various sizes, propelled by internal
combustion engines, and adapted to seat from 14 to 28 passengers.
The standard type of Stirling Petrol Omnibus (Fig. 57) is pro-
pelled by a four-cylinder internal combustion engine of the Stirling
type, having two independent ignition devices, and developing
24-horse-power. The transmission gear, which is of a special
design made by the firm, provides three changes of speed, with a
maximum one of 14 miles an hour, the average speed being about
12 miles an hour. The cooling is effected on the natural circu-
lation system, the cooling water being stored in a tank or reservoir
capable of holding about twelve gallons of water, and located at
a high level in front of the dashboard, practically, indeed, forming
part of the dashboard itself. This supply of cooling water has
been found amply sufficient in practical working to maintain the
engine in a satisfactory condition, and to prevent any undue rise
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
in temperature, it being only necessary to add a little fresh water
about once a week. The engine is placed below the driver's
footboard. The wheels are artillery pattern fitted with solid
indiambber tyres, and the weight of this omnibus having a seating
capacity for fifteen passengers and the driver, or sixteen persons
in all, complete with fuel, water, and all accessories, is i ton 18
cwts. Two powerful independent brakes are provided, one of
which is a quick-action one, operated by a pedal on the second
shaft. The other is a type of spring side lever brake, engaging
the driving rings of the rear wheels, which has been designed and
patented by the makers. By means of a special arrangement of
governor, provision is
made for rendering it
impossible for the driver
to exceed the maximum
The body of the
omnibus is supported
on long flexible springs,
which render travelling
easy, and make the
vehicle more comfort-
Fig- 57- Stirling 16-seated petrol omnibus, able. For hot weather
the glass windows at the
side are so constructed that they can be removed when desired.
Rails are provided at the sides of the roof, which latter is
raised to form a higher central gangway, and light luggage can
be carried on it, an iron ladder fitted at the front end of the
vehicle affording easy access for loading and unloading. This
provision for luggage, however, is only made on omnibuses in-
tended to run in rural districts, and is not shown on that
Stirling petrol omnibuses have been running in Scotland for
a considerable time, and, it is said, with great success. In 1903
a service of these omnibuses was started in London by a syndicate,
the route being from Cricklewood, through Kilburn, to Oxford
Circus. The average time occupied in the double journey was
one hour; a record time of 15 minutes for the single journey
was, however, made on one occasion. The time taken by the
horse-drawn omnibuses is abbut one hour for the single journey.
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 135
After running for a few months this service was discontinued.
The service between Brondesbury and Oxford Street was improved
and renewed by another syndicate, and, with the exception of a
fire that damaged several of the omnibuses, this service has been
successfully continued up to the present time.
So far as the running of the vehicles is concerned, the writer
has been informed, there is no fault to find. And it is to be
noted that the severe competition on this short route, and the
resulting low fares, render the earning of satisfactory dividends a
difficult matter. The possibility of continuing and even improving
the service is very satisfactory evidence, therefore, of the possi-
bilities of petrol omnibuses.
De Dietrich Petrol Omnibuses
A De Die'trich petrol omnibus gave very satisfactory results at
the heavy-weight trials in France in 1903, both in the preliminary
fuel consumption tests and in the run to Nice. The vehicle is
very strongly built in order to enable it to successfully withstand
the heavy strains to which omnibuses are subjected when on
service, otherwise it is practically on the same lines as the 24-
horse-power touring car, built by the same makers.
The omnibus is fitted with a 24-horse-power four-cylinder
engine, and has magnetic ignition. The change-speed gear pro-
vides for four speeds and a reverse.
The weight of the vehicle (which is adapted to accommodate
12 persons), including a load of 13 cwts. 18 Ibs., is 2 tons 10 cwts.
2 qrs. 4 Ibs. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and are fitted
with large pneumatic tyres.
The De Die'trich omnibus was the only vehicle that went
through the above-mentioned trials without accident of any
description, and the consumption of petrol was low, being about
6*5 gallons for the run of 52-6 miles. In the long run the average
speed attained was 18 miles an hour.
Halcrow-Vincke Petrol Omnibuses
The Halcrow-Vincke petrol omnibuses have frames of the
standard type made by the firm of that name, whose works are at
i36 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The body of the standard omnibus is divided into two classes
of compartments, providing accommodation for 6 passengers
and 10 passengers respectively. The driver's seat is situated
above the engine, and is partly protected from the weather by
carrying the roof over it. The weight of the vehicle in running
trim is about 32 cwts. The tyres are solid indiarubber.
Motive power is provided by a 1 2-horse-power two-cylinder
vertical engine. The main clutch is of the internal cone pattern, and
the change-speed gear is of the ordinary sliding toothed-wheel type.
Transmission to the rear wheels is effected by means of side-chain
gearing. Three speeds in a forward direction and a reverse are
provided, the maximum being 15 miles an hour. The steering is
of the rack and pinion type, having a vertical steering pillar and
Other Petrol Omnibuses
Amongst other petrol omnibuses now on the market, mention
may be made of those of the following makers : Straker and Squire,
London, double-decked type; Thornycroft Company, 24-horse-
power petrol omnibuses, double-decked type; The Lancashire
Steam Motor Company, petrol omnibuses; Maudslay Motor Com-
pany, i4-horse-power petrol omnibuses; Crossley Ley land, petrol
omnibuses ; and the Brush Electrical Engineering Company,
double-decked petrol omnibuses. This latter vehicle possesses the
special feature of having the entrance for the passengers located
at the front end, thus enabling the services of a conductor to be
Omnibuses of both the open and closed types, and brakes
adapted to be propelled by internal combustion engines, are also
built by Benz, Milnes-Daimler, Peugeot, Delahaye, De Dion,
Bouton and Company, and others.
Unfortunately, space does not admit of giving even brief
descriptions of these vehicles, but it may be observed that most of
the well-known makers of petrol vehicles build omnibuses with run-
ning mechanisms practically identical in construction with those
of their light pleasure and goods delivery vehicles, the main
difference being that, of course, the frames of the motor omnibuses
are much heavier and the engines are of considerably greater
power, in order to provide for the propulsion of the heavier
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES
COMPOUND OR PETROL-ELECTRIC
Motor vehicles propelled by electricity generated on the cars
themselves by dynamos driven by internal combustion engines,
and where the surplus power developed when descending hills,
etc., is stored in accumulators for use in emergencies, are built by
the Fischer Motor Vehicle Company, New Jersey, U.S., Jenatzy,
The Compagnie de 1'Industrie Electrique et Mecanique, of Geneva,
Fischer Petrol-Electric Omnibuses
Omnibuses of that kind or class wherein electric transmission
is employed, the power generated by a hydro-carbon motor or
internal combustion engine being used as a prime mover to
operate a dynamo or dynamos, and the electric current generated
Fig. 58. Fischer petrol-electric omnibus. Diagram of running
by the latter utilized to propel the vehicle through an electric
motor or motors, designed by the Fischer Motor Vehicle
Company, of Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S., have lately been
brought to this country by the Fischer Motor Vehicle Syndicate,
This type of mechanically propelled vehicle is said to have
proved very successful in the United States, and tests made
138 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
in London some time ago by the London General Omnibus
Company are stated to have been quite successful at any rate,
so far as the satisfactory running of the vehicle was concerned.
The omnibus subjected to the latter tests was one of the
double-decked type, adapted to carry 10 inside and 18 outside
passengers, or 30 persons altogether, including the driver and
conductor. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, the front
being 36 ins., and the rear 40 ins. in diameter, and the wheel
base 9 ft. 3 ins. The approximate weight of the vehicle is 5 tons
2 cwts. 3 qrs.
i The general principle of the Fischer system is shown in the
diagram Fig. 58, in which a indicates an internal combustion
engine, and b a dynamo direct coupled thereto ; c electric motors,
d an accumulator or storage battery, e a controller, and /a switch
for starting the engine.
The internal combustion engine a, which is mounted longitudi-
nally or lengthwise of the frame, is of the three- cylinder vertical
type, with the cranks set at angles of 120 degrees to each other,
and is directly coupled to the dynamo ^, which is mounted in
front of it. It has an enclosed crank chamber, with an inspection
aperture, closed by a suitable lid or cover at each side, and the
crank-shaft, which, owing to the position of the engine, is placed
at right angles to the axles, has a fly-wheel mounted as shown on
its rear extremity. The inlet valves, which are located above the
exhaust valves, are operated by the pressure of the atmosphere.
Ignition is effected by plugs of the high-tension type, and the
commutator is driven through bevel gearing from the cam shaft.
The storage battery or accumulator d consists of fifty chloride
cells, with a combined capacity of 90 ampere hours. When
starting the internal combustion engine the storage battery d is
switched on to the dynamo b by the driver, who can in this
manner effect the operation from his seat. During running the
storage battery is connected across the dynamo terminals, thus
keeping the speed of the engine practically constant, any excess
of current over and above that required by the electric motors c
being stored up in the storage battery or accumulator. A com-
bined ammeter and voltmeter is mounted on the driver's seat,
the latter being constantly connected across the dynamo terminals.
The controller e is of the parallel series type, having five
forward and three reverse positions, by means of which the forward
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 139
movement can be varied up to 10 miles an hour, and the reverse
up to 5 miles an hour. The forward positions comprise the
following connections, viz. : First, the motors in series with a
starting resistance introduced ; second, the motors in series with
resistance cut out ; third, the armatures in series and the fields in
parallel ; and fourth, the motors in parallel. In addition to this,
however, toothed wheels fixed on the outer ends of the motor
shafts gear with correspondingly toothed wheels on intermediate
shafts, and through toothed pinions on the latter, with toothed
wheels secured to the rear, or driving wheels. The above change-
speed gear is enclosed in a suitable casing, and by its means and
the controller combinations, practically any desired speed can be
provided for. The controller operating lever is connected with a
contact-making drum, and a suitable catch arrangement prevents
the lever from being moved into the reverse positions without
releasing this catch. The electric motors are shunt-wound and
bipolar, and are completely enclosed, being pivotally supported
from the rear axle, and through springs from the main frame, and
rigidly connected together, although their shafts are independent
of each other. On the inner extremities of the motor shafts,
brake drums are provided, a pedal on the right of the steering
pillar allowing of both brakes being applied simultaneously, and
the former being capable of being connected by a two-way switch,
so as to show the amount of current being generated, or the
amount being used by the motors.
The springs supporting the main frame are semi-elliptical, and
a transverse spring is provided at one end of the front ones. The
front axle is of the girder pattern, the steering axles being hinged
or jointed to it, and the front springs being bolted to it so that
they pass between the upper and lower members of the girder.
Steering is on the Ackermann principle, through a rack coupled by
a connecting rod to the front wheels, and a hand-wheel mounted
on the top of a vertical shaft, having at its lower extremity a
pinion gearing, with the above rack.
It will be seen from the above that the internal combustion
engine a is the primary source of power, the latter being transmitted
to the driving axle by means of the electricity generated. * In this
manner it is claimed that the advantages of the two systems are
retained, whilst their objectionable features are got rid of, or at
any rate reduced to a minimum.
140 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
According to the makers, the nett efficiency between the prime
mover and the wheels, with this system of transmission, is 64 per
cent., which bears favourable comparison with mechanical trans-
missions now in use. The above percentage is estimated on the
basis of the bulk of the electric current going directly from the
dynamo b to the electric motor c, and taking the efficiency of
the dynamo and electric motors at 80 per cent, each, a figure
somewhat under that usually guaranteed by manufacturers.
The device for controlling the speed and power of the engine
consists of an arrangement of levers which can be operated from
the driver's seat, and by means of which the time of ignition and
the richness of the explosive mixture can be varied at the will of
The main advantage possessed by this system is that it admits
of the internal combustion engine being run at a constant speed,
thus enabling the gas and air mixtures to be permanently set so
as to secure as near perfect combustion as possible, and in this
manner both effecting a saving in oil consumption and prevent-
ing the usual abominable stench given off from the exhaust
where more or less imperfect combustion results from the ever-
varying conditions under which the engine is called upon to
work when the power is utilized in the usual manner. It is
also stated that with this system a smaller engine can be used,
viz. one of one-third the power that would be otherwise
required, and it is, moreover, self-starting a not inconsiderable
So long as the vehicle is running on a level surface, under
normal conditions, the whole of the electric current generated
passes direct from the dynamo to the electric motors. When
running downhill, however, travelling at slow speed : in fact,
whenever less power is required for the propulsion of the vehicle,
the surplus current is stored in the storage battery or accumulator.
This store of energy is drawn upon whenever extra power is
required, such as when ascending steep gradients, starting heavy
loads, on bad roads, etc. It will, of course, be understood that
the above action is completely automatic, and takes place quite
independent of the driver. The output of the hydro-carbon
engine being constant, no mechanical governor is required, but
for the purpose of economy, and to prevent too heavy a current
from going into the storage battery, a contrivance is provided, by
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 141
which the hydro-carbon engine is automatically throttled when
the vehicle is at rest.
It is stated that the storage battery required in this system
being one of small capacity, it is practicable to build one that
will have a comparatively long life, and as applied in this com-
bination it is seldom required to furnish current for more than a
few minutes at any one time.
As is well known, ordinary use is necessary to keep a storage
battery in good condition. It is discharging too low, and then
allowing it to stand without immediate recharging that gives rise
to sulphating and buckling, and causes rapid destruction. Under
the conditions existing in this vehicle, it is therefore hardly
possible for the storage battery to become exhausted.
The reason for the storage battery not becoming over-charged,
as might be anticipated, when the vehicle is running with a light
load, is accounted for by the fact that, whilst it takes a pressure
of 2\ volts to charge the cell of a storage battery, during discharging
the pressure is practically 2 volts, thus making a difference of
20 per cent, in voltage between charging and discharging, and,
moreover, as in automobile work, the voltage is usually permitted
to run down to 1*7 volts per cell before the battery is considered
to be anywhere near exhausted; this makes a still greater difference.
A well-charged battery is what may be considered as being
lively, that is to say, the solution is rich in acid, which makes the
internal resistance low, and consequently the conductivity and
capacity for work high. On the other hand, a nearly discharged
battery is what may be termed sluggish, and although it may
register on the voltmeter when not in use, the capacity for work
is absent, because the act of discharging drives the acid out of
the solution and into the plates, thus leaving the solution a
comparatively poor conductor, which is the reason that a nearly
discharged battery does not take hold readily.
The electric motors used in automobile work have a speed
corresponding to the voltage, that is to say, when the voltage is
high the speed will be high, and vice versa. Consequently when
the vehicle is running with so light a load, or on a down gradient,
that there is power to spare, the voltage will climb up to the
highest possible point, and the motors, and consequently also the
vehicle, will run faster, and owing to the increased speed, a
greater amount of power will be consumed. When, however, the
142 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
vehicle is heavily loaded, or is mounting a steep gradient, so that
an excessive amount of power is required for propulsion, the
engine will slow down, and the voltage will drop sufficiently to
admit of the battery furnishing the extra power demanded. At
this reduced voltage, the motors, and, consequently, the vehicle,
will run at a slower speed, the result of which is claimed to be
that even with a heavy load considerably less power is used in
Under normal conditions the engine works with a constant
power output ; the current and pressure, however, vary according
to the conditions. For example, if the voltage is high, the current
outputs will be low, whilst if the voltage should be low, a corre-
sponding increase in the current output will take place. In this
manner it is claimed that there is a general tendency to equalize
matters all round, that is to say, that the motors are constantly
endeavouring to adapt themselves to the amount of power furnished
by the engine.
Practical working has shown that the damage done to storage
batteries by overcharging is trifling in comparison with that
resulting from allowing them to run down too low. The result of
overcharging is merely the evaporation of the solution and the
boiling of the battery, that is to say, that the greater part of the
acid will be driven out of the plates, and inactive material has
been converted into active material. An additional current sent
through the batteries is used up in evaporating the water of the
solution, which can be easily replenished. During the discharge
the process is reversed, the acid acts on the active material and
reduces it to inactive, and when the battery is in that condition
the acid will combine and form sulphate of lead, which takes up
more room than the original material, thereby causing the plates
to warp and pull themselves to pieces. When this sulphate is
once formed, it can never be brought back again to active
material, and this is the reason that batteries lose their capacity
if allowed to stand for any length of time after being discharged,
As regards the cost of running the Fischer motor omnibus,
results deduced from actual working in this country are not at
present available. For purposes of comparison, however, it may
be mentioned that in the case of a motor waggon on the Fischer
principle, running in New York, the cost of working has been
HE A VV PASSENGER VEHICLES 143
found to be 2\ cents., or ijd., per mile on average roads. This
vehicle weighs four tons, and is capable of carrying a load of
eight tons. It is driven by a 12 -horse-power internal combustion
engine, the power generated by which is transformed into electricity
by means of a dynamo, and operates a pair of 7 ^-horse-power
electric motors, one of which is geared to each rear wheel. The
maximum speed is six miles an hour. It may be mentioned that
the motors are guaranteed to carry 100 per cent, over-load for one
hour, and will in cases of emergency work up to over 50 horse-
power for short periods.
In conclusion, it may be remarked that the weight of the
machinery required in the Fischer compound system is not by
any means so much in excess of that of an internal combustion
engine only, operating direct, as might be expected, as in the
former case the engine required is of much smaller capacity than
in the latter. It is, nevertheless, undoubtedly, somewhat heavier
than would be the case were the propelling power derived from
an internal combustion engine fitted with the usual change-speed
mechanism, without the electric transmission, and it would appear
probable that the cost of the renewal of the storage batteries, the
maintenance of the electric generating and driving mechanism,
and the additional repairs and renewals required for the proper
maintenance of the vehicle and tyres, due to this extra load,
would be, therefore, somewhat higher in the case of the compound
Against this, however, there is the advantage derived from the
abolition of the highly objectionable change-speed gear, and the
other advantages already enumerated. There is, furthermore,
the reserve stock of electric power in the storage battery to fall
back upon in the event of a failure a by no means unlikely
occurrence of the internal combustion engine, which would
generally be sufficient to carry the 'bus to its destination.
Jenatzy Petrol-Electric Omnibuses
The Jenatzy compound petrol-electric motor omnibuses are
driven by a somewhat novel arrangement of internal combustion
engine and electricity. The primary motive power is derived
from a petrol or internal combustion engine, the usual fly-wheel
i 4 4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
of which is replaced by a dynamo mounted on the crank shaft,
which latter takes both the place and performs the functions of
the fly-wheel, and at the same time charges a storage battery or
The advantage of this arrangement is that the internal com-
bustion engine need only be sufficiently powerful to propel the
vehicle on a level surface at the highest speed it is intended to
run at. The energy stored in the accumulator can be utilized
for driving through an electric motor when any extra power is
required. The consumption of petrol is said to be reduced about
50 per cent.
The vehicle can be started by means of the electric motor,
whenever there is a sufficient storage of electricity in the accumu-
lator, and the internal combustion engine can then be brought
This type of omnibus is said to have been tried in France with
The advantages and disadvantages of electricity as a means of
propulsion for road vehicles have been already briefly enumerated.
As a power, the electric motor is incontestably a most suitable
medium for automobile work, by reason of its being practically
perfectly safe, its capacity for direct application, its high ratio of
efficiency, and the facility with which it can be controlled. Not
only does the electric motor automatically control the consumption
of energy, both with light and heavy loads, in proportion to the
power delivered, but it will also work, should occasion arise, with
an overload of several hundred per cent, for brief periods of time,
without any appreciable inconvenience. Other by no means
inconsiderable advantages are the practically total absence of
smell, heat, and vibration, and the capacity for running equally
well in either direction.
These advantages, however, as well as the counterbalancing
disadvantages of excessive weight of storage batteries, the limited
amount of miles that can be run on each charge, loss of time re-
charging, and cost of renewing batteries, etc., have been, as above
mentioned, already gone into as fully as the space at command
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 145
EXAMPLES OF ELECTRIC OMNIBUSES
The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company
The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company, of York
Street, Westminster, S.W., are builders of a number of different
patterns of electric omnibuses. One pattern has a capacity to
seat eight inside and seven outside passengers, or fifteen persons
in all, including the driver. The other omnibuses have capacities
for six inside and seven outside, or thirteen passengers; eight
inside and two outside, or ten passengers ; and six inside and
two outside, or eight passengers. The two first-mentioned
vehicles have also accommodation for a certain amount of
luggage on the roof.
The driving mechanism of these omnibuses is practically
similar to that of the electric hansom built by the same firm,
which has been already described. The maximum mileage of all
the omnibuses is 25 miles on one charge, and the maximum
speed in each instance is 10 miles an hour. The sixteen-seated
electric omnibus, as also that adapted to seat six persons inside
and seven outside, are fitted with 3-inch solid indiarubber tyres,
and the other two omnibuses with similar tyres 2 J-inches diameter.
The Vehicle Equipment Company's Electric Omnibuses
As another example of an electric omnibus may be cited that
of the Vehicle Equipment Company, of New York, the sole
agents for whom in this country are the Anglo-American Motor
Car Company, Limited, of Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.
A type of electric omnibus built by the above company for
hotel service has a carrying capacity of about 9 cwts., a maximum
speed of 12 miles an hour, and a maximum mileage of 35 miles
on one charge.
The arrangement of the running gear of this vehicle is shown,
in side elevation, in the diagrammatical view, Fig. 59, in which a
indicates the body frame, b the storage battery cradle, c one of
the electric motors, d the pedestals supporting the axles, and c the
top of the driver's seat.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The body frame a being of steel and of ample strength,
relieves the body of the vehicle of any strain or tendency to
buckle, and also affords a substantial support for suspending the
battery, so as to leave the interior of the vehicle absolutely clear.
The running gear is of a " pedestal " type, patented by the
makers, and consists of a single steel casting secured to the steel
body frame a. The axles are supported in the jaws of the
pedestals d, in such a manner as to have perfect freedom of
motion in a vertical direction, through a sufficient range to permit
full play of the springs.
Each of the rear, or driving, wheels of the vehicle is operated
Fig- 59- The Vehicle Equipment Company electric omnibus.
Diagram of running gear.
independently by an electric motor, c, and the controller is located
beneath the driver's seat, and is operated by direct connection
with a hand lever. Four different speeds ahead, and two speeds
in a reverse direction, can be effected by means of the controller.
Steering is on the Ackermann principle, and the arrangement is
strong and reliable. On the heavier class of vehicle it is operated
by a steering wheel, and on the lighter ones by means of a steering
bar, or lever.
The storage battery is made in sectional trays, adapted to
slide into the battery cradle , which latter is so constructed that
the trays can be drawn out on whichever side of the vehicle may
be found to be the most convenient. An important advantage
possessed by this arrangement of battery cradle is that the
batteries are thus made accessible in a few minutes without
HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 147
necessitating the use of a hydraulic lift. The storage battery is
charged at 100 to 115 volts, direct current, and at an amperage of
from 30 to 60.
The wheels are of the artillery pattern, wooden spokes and
felloes with metal hubs, and are shod with solid indiarubber tyres,
which latter are, according to the makers, found preferable in
practical working owing to the avoidance of difficulties with
punctures, etc., whilst quiet and easy riding is ensured by
mounting the body frame a on extra long and flexible springs.
Ample brake power is provided, and the vehicle is fitted with
electric side-lights, etc.
LIGHT GOODS VANS
General Observations Light Petrol Vans Examples of Light Petrol
Vans Light Steam Vans Light Electric Vans Examples of
Light Electric Vans.
SELF-PROPELLED vehicles of this class comprise, as has been
already mentioned, all those suitable for tradesmen for the quick
delivery of goods, and adapted for loads up to about 20 or
30 cwts. Internal combustion engines, steam engines, and
electricity are all three found to be suitable sources of power for
the propulsion of light goods vans, and each seems to possess
some special qualifications for the purpose.
As regards the advantages to be derived from the use of motor
vehicles for the work in question, they have been already briefly
specified in the introduction to these articles, and need not there-
fore be further referred to. The cost of running and maintenance
is dealt with in a separate chapter.
LIGHT PETROL VANS
Internal combustion engines offer many special advantages for
the propulsion of light delivery vans, and vehicles of this type are
now built in a great variety of patterns and of different capacities
by a very large number of firms; in fact, by most of the makers of
motor vehicles propelled by means of internal combustion engines.
The systems of driving employed are consequently the same as
those used in the pleasure vehicles made by the same firms, which
are now so well known as to need no description here. The bodies
of the vans are, of course, adapted to meet the requirements
LIGHT GOODS VANS 149
of various businesses, and are suited for the quick delivery of all
manner of goods.
The number of light petrol vans is so large that it is im-
possible to give here more than a very brief description of a few
representative vehicles, nor, indeed, is more necessary, inasmuch
as they are, as has been already mentioned, driven in practically
the same manner as the pleasure vehicles built by the same
makers, and only differ in some minor details of construction.
EXAMPLES OF LIGHT PETROL VANS
Horsfall and Bickham Light Petrol Vans
Light delivery vans are built by Messrs. Horsfall and Bickham,
of Manchester, capable of dealing with loads up to 10 cwts., and
providing accommodation for two persons, with driver.
The source of power is an internal combustion or hydrocarbon
engine having two cylinders each 4-^ inches in diameter, by 4!
inches stroke, giving ic-horse-power at a normal speed of 800
revolutions per minute, and capable of developing 11*5 brake
horse-power when run at an accelerated speed. The heads and
cylinders are cast integral, and the valve gear is of the enclosed
pattern, and an improved type of governor acting on the throttle
valve is provided. Lubrication is on the splash system. The
carburettor is of the constant level float-feed type, and the electric
ignition is effected by means of accumulators and a high-tension
The vehicle is fitted with change-speed gear of the Panhard
type, in which a sleeve is mounted on the transmission shaft, so
as to be free to move laterally thereon, whilst at the same time
it is forced to rotate therewith by a key or feather. This sleeve
carries three toothed or spur wheels which gear or mesh with the
one or other of a set of toothed or spur wheels mounted upon
another or second transmission shaft placed parallel with the first
transmission shaft. The mechanism is so arranged that no change
from one rate of speed to another can be effected until the toothed
wheels are completely out of gear and the driving and intermediate
shafts are disconnected. There are three forward speeds of 4,
8, and 12 miles an hour, and a reverse, and the highest speed
150 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
is direct driven, manipulation of the sliding sleeve being effected
by means of a lever placed within convenient reach of the
driver. The axle is fitted with Cardan, or universal joints, the
wheels being of the artillery pattern, both front and rear being
30 inches diameter, and fitted with solid indiarubber tyres. Both
the road wheels and the differential gearing are provided with
The steering is operated by an inclined wheel, through a worm
and worm wheel, and is irreversible, and there are three double-
acting brakes, one an external expanding hand brake on rear
wheels, besides a powerful foot brake acting on the differential
In addition to the regulation that can be effected by means of
the change-speed gear and brakes, the supply of mixture to the
engine can be effectively controlled through a throttle valve
operated by a lever.
Benz Light Petrol Vans
Light delivery vans with carrying capacities of 2 cwts., 3 cwts.,
15 cwts., and about 20 cwts. respectively, are built by Messrs.
Benz and Co., of Mannheim, Germany, the sole agents for whom
in this country are Messrs.
Hewetson, Limited, London.
As is well known to those inte-
rested in the subject, the first
patent for a vehicle propelled
by an internal combustion
engine was granted to Messrs.
Benz in January, 1886, for a
spirit motor car made in 1885,
and being the result of many
years' study of the subject by
Mr. Charles Benz. The Benz
motor has proved itself a very
efficient one, and, besides being
used in their own vans and other motor vehicles, is also extensively
employed as a prime mover in those of other manufacturers.
The lightest types of Benz delivery vans have the following
approximate dimensions : length, 7 \ ft. ; width, 6^ ft. ; and height,
Fig. 60. Eenz light petrol van.
Diagram of running gear.
LIGHT GOODS VANS 151
6f ft. The approximate weight is 8 cwts. 2 qrs. The engines
are 3-horse-power and 3 ^-horse-power, and there are three forward
speeds and a reverse. The wheels are bicycle pattern in one type
and artillery pattern in the other, and are fitted with solid india-
rubber tyres, rubber brake blocks, and Salter's springs. Chain-
driving is used, Brampton-Hewetson chains being employed, and
the highest speed is 12 miles an hour. These vans are capable
of climbing a gradient of i in 5, or 20 per cent., with facility.
The 15 cwts. capacity van is fitted with a 6 to 8-horse-power
Fig. 60 is a diagrammatical view, showing the arrangement of
running gear of a Benz vehicle, in which a indicates the wheels,
b the axle, c the engine, d the crank shaft, and e the intermediate
In the single cycle Benz motor, which is a very constant and
powerful motor of its class, the gas is compressed in a clearance
at one end of the cylinder during the stroke of the piston in a
forward direction, electric ignition being provided at the side of
the cylinder. The air that has filled the cylinder at the other
side of the piston is then forced into a reservoir through a port
or aperture governed by a slide-valve, which closes the port or
aperture at the end of the stroke, and the cylinder end is opened
to the atmosphere, so as to allow of a fresh supply of air being
sucked in during the reverse stroke of the piston. An exhaust
valve is also operated during this stroke to admit of the escape of
the burnt or waste gas, and the opening of another valve at about
half-stroke permits the charge of compressed air to pass from the
reservoir into the cylinder, through which it rushes and passes out
of the exhaust, thus completely sweeping out all the burnt or
waste gas in its passage. The above-mentioned valves are then
automatically closed, the fresh air still remaining in the cylinder
is compressed, the petroleum vapour is injected through a valve
which is automatically actuated by a lever, and the explosive
mixture thus formed is fired or ignited at the commencement of
the next stroke.
The objection to this type of motor is that the operation
entails the provision of a considerable number of parts, and con-
sequently is somewhat complicated in construction and rather
heavy. The Benz motor, arranged to work on the Otto cycle,
is far simpler in construction, and has a cylinder open at one
152 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
extremity and but two pipes that is to say, an admission pipe
and an exhaust pipe. The complications of slide and valve gear
are also dispensed with.
Milnes-Daimler Light Petrol Vans
The Milnes-Daimler Company, Limited, are builders of several
types of light delivery petrol vans, a useful size being that adapted
to carry loads up to half a ton, and having a 6-horse-power engine.
The company also build a van to
carry loads up to one ton, and
fitted with a y-horse-power engine.
The most important feature in
these vans is the engine or motor,
which is of the well-known Daimler
type, extensively used by many
other builders of motor vehicles.
The construction and operation of
this type of motor will be under-
stood by reference to the sectional
diagrammatical view, Fig. 61.
A small tank, a, shown at the
right-hand top corner, is fed with
oil spirit, the level of the latter
being regulated by the float valve
shown, through a suitable check
valve. When the piston b makes
its stroke in an outward direction
air enters the way or j assage c,
and, by flowing over the end of
the oil-pipe d, draws a small
quantity of oil into the passage c by induction in the form of fine
spray. The air and oil then pass into the cylinder e through the
automatic admission valve /"on the left hand.
On the return stroke of the piston b the automatic valve /"is
closed, and the charge is compressed into the ignition tube g.
The exhaust passes out through the valve h, which is situated
below the admission valve, and is raised by the rod i.
The governing of the engine is effected by an arrangement for
keeping the exhaust valve h open and allowing the burnt or waste
Fig. 61. Milnes-Daimler light
petrol van. Sectional view of
LIGHT GOODS VANS 153
gases to return to the cylinder, and so destroying the partial
vacuum in the latter, and preventing the admission valve f from
Delahay Light Petrol Vans
A typical example of a light van by these makers is one adapted
to carry loads up to 12 cwts. This vehicle has a horizontal 10-
horse-power engine, and is fitted with single belt transmission
from the engine shaft to the intermediate shaft, having a patent
arrangement for preventing slip. There are three speeds in a
forward direction and a reverse. The maximum speed is 12
miles an hour. The operation of a belt transmission gives rise
to less friction than chain or wheel transmission, and is in every
way preferable, provided, of course, that excessive slip can be
Chenard Light Petrol Vans
Amongst other patterns, a very useful little light delivery van
is built by these makers, which is remarkably silent in running,
and can be steered in heavy traffic with great ease. It is also
especially noticeable by reason of its very low oil consumption,
and took a high place in the consumption trials held in France
Gardner-Serpollet Light Petrol Vans
Light vans adapted for delivering parcels, and capable of
carrying loads up to 4 cwts., are made by the Gardner-Serpollet
Company. This little van, which is built in one pattern only,
weighs, complete with body, about 9 cwts. It is lightly but strongly
constructed, with a tubular frame, and is fitted with a double-
cylinder vertical type of petrol engine of y-horse-power, which is
located in front beneath the bonnet. There are three speeds and
a reverse, the maximum speed being 28 miles an hour.
The body of this van can be removed when desired, and seats
fitted so as to adapt it for use as a pleasure or passenger vehicle.
It is handy, easily steered, and can be managed with facility by
any one after a little preliminary practice.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Other Light Petrol Vans
Amongst the numerous other light petrol vans which space
does not admit of even briefly describing, mention may be made
of those of Hagen, the Hozier Company, Gillet, Forest & Co.,
S. F. Edge, Limited (the " Gladiator "), and Farman & Co. (the
LIGHT STEAM VANS
Thornycroft Light Steam Vans
Light delivery vans propelled by steam power are made by a
number of different makers, a typical example being the steam
van shown in Fig. 62, which view is a direct reproduction of a
Fig. 62. Thornycroft light steam van.
photograph of one of these vehicles built by the Thornycroft
Steam Waggon Company, Limited, for the Middlesex Hospital
Laundry, Hendon, which vehicle has been running successfully
for some time, and is adapted to carry loads up to one ton.
LIGHT GOODS VANS 155
Light steam delivery vans of a practically similar form of con-
struction have been also supplied to the Mid-Sussex Steam
Laundry Company, Limited, Lindfield, Sussex, and several other
The over-all dimensions of this type of vehicle are approxi-
mately : length, 15 ft. 6 ins.; width, 6 ft. 6 ins.; height, 10 ft.
The approximate inside dimensions are : length, 8 ft. 3 ins. ;
width on floor, 4 ft. 3 ins. ; width over raves, 5 ft. 3 in. ; height,
5 ft. 8 ins. The body is of wood, canvas-covered and painted,
the wheels are of the artillery pattern, with metal naves and
wooden spokes and felloes.
The boiler, engine, and the rest of the driving mechanism is
practically of the same pattern as that of the Thornycroft steam
omnibuses that have been already described. The vehicle is
capable, as already mentioned, of carrying loads up to 20 cwts.,
and the maximum speed is 12 miles an hour.
Other Light Steam Vans
There are many other makers of light steam vans. Those of
Clarkson, Limited, are constructed on the same principle as their
omnibuses described and illustrated on pp. 79 to 103. The
Gillett Motor Company, Gillet, Forest and Company, and the
White Steam Car Company are makers of excellent light vans
propelled by steam power.
LIGHT ELECTRIC VANS
Electricity is a power much used in the United States, and, it
is averred, with very great success, for the propulsion of light
goods vans. As has been already mentioned, the use of electricity
for lighting and power is more general in that country than
it is here, consequently it is not surprising that this source of
power should have become a favourite one for both light and
heavy motor vehicles. Moreover, it must be acknowledged that
electricity already possesses many advantageous features for the
work, whilst it is not improbable that in the near future improve-
ments in storage batteries, and the further development of the
application of electricity generally in this direction, may place
it in the premier position.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Light delivery vans propelled by electric power are built by a
considerable number of firms abroad, and a few makers in this
country, the following being fair examples of the class :
EXAMPLES OF LIGHT ELECTRIC VANS
The Vehicle Equipment Company Light Electric Vans
This company, whose sole agents here, as has been already
mentioned with respect to electric omnibuses, are the Anglo-
American Motor Car Company, Limited, are builders of several
patterns and sizes of light delivery electric vans, one of which, having
a capacity of about 8 cwts., is illustrated in Fig. 63. The maximum
Fig. 63. The Vehicle Equipment Company light 8-cwt. electric van.
speed per hour of this vehicle is 12 miles, and the radius on one
charge is 35 miles. The running gear is practically similar
to that described (and shown in Fig. 59) with reference to their
electric omnibuses, which gear is, indeed, common to all their
vehicles, and consequently needs no further description.
LIGHT GOODS VANS 157
The International Motor Car Company Light Electric
The above company, whose works are at Indianapolis, U.S.A.,
and whose agents in this country are the Locomobile Company of
Great Britain, build several sizes of light delivery electric vans, a
typical example being that known as the " Waverly," which is
adapted to carry up to 15 cwts. of goods, and capable of running
40 miles with full load on a single charge. The storage battery
or accumulator consists of a battery of 40 Sperry cells, with a
capacity of 150 ampere-hours, and is also in this case suspended
beneath the van, thus securing the advantage of the discharged
cells being easily removed and replaced by a charged set. Each
of the rear wheels is driven by a separate electric motor of
3-horse-power, through double helical gear, with staggered teeth,
a type which both makes a silent drive and is also free from back-
lash. The battery being carried beneath the van body, the entire
platform is free to receive goods, the space available being 5 ft.
2 ins. by 3 ft. by 4 ft. 2 ins. in height.
The over-all length of the body is 8 ft. 3 ins., and the greatest
height from the ground 6 ft. 3 ins. The wheel base is 6 ft. 8 ins.
by 4 ft. 6 ins., and the wheels are of wood, each 30 ins. diameter,
shod with 3Hn. wide detachable pneumatic tyres.
The change speed is effected by various controller combina-
tions, the controller being placed at the left-hand side of the
driver's seat, and three forward speeds of from 5 to 12 miles an
hour and a reverse are arranged for, as well as an electric brake
position. A powerful band-brake, operated by a foot lever, is also
provided. The steering is of the lever type. The condition of
the accumulator can be ascertained by the driver from a Keystone
combined volt and ampere meter, attached to the sloping foot-
board, which can be lighted up at night.
Although the electric motors are nominally 3-horse-power
each, they are so designed as to be capable of working up to a
temporary overload of 100 per cent, when required, without
158 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company
Light Electric Vans
Amongst the light delivery electric vans built by the above
firm is one adapted for loads up to half a ton. The maximum
speed of this vehicle is 12 miles an hour, and the maximum
mileage on one charge of current, with full load, is 35 miles. The
wheels are wood, of artillery pattern, and shod with 3-in. diameter
solid indiarubber tyres.
The details of construction of the running gear and the
general arrangement of the mechanism of the above van are
substantially the same as in the case of the hansom cab built
by this company, which has been previously described and
illustrated on pp. 74 and 75.
Oppermann Light Electric Vans
One pattern of the light delivery vans driven by electricity
built by the Carl Oppermann Electric Carriage Company, Limited,
London, is shown in Fig. 64.
The van is capable of running a distance of 50 miles with a
load of 1 5 cwt. on one charge. The frame is constructed of cold-
pressed steel; the wheels are of the artillery type, with ash
felloes and oak spokes, mounted on steel hubs with roller bearings,
and solid indiarubber tyres 3 in. wide and 32 ins. diameter. The
axles are of the best hammered steel, the front one being fitted
with Ackerman steering and ball-bearing sockets, and either a
hand wheel or lever. The frame (a perspective view of which is
shown in Fig. 64) is quite complete and self-contained.
The electric motor employed is of the enclosed type, 5-horse-
power nominal, capable of withstanding considerable overloads,
and fitted with self-acting lubricators. Power is transmitted direct
from the motor to the rear axle by means of an improved arrange-
ment of worm gearing enclosed in a dust-proof casing.
The accumulator consists of 44 A.B.C. cells, each fitted in an
ebonite box, and these are in turn enclosed in strong wooden
cases for convenience of handling, and divided so as to enable the
available space beneath the body to be fully utilized. The cells
are composed of a number of leaden plates or grids (five positive
LIGHT GOODS VANS
and six negative) pasted or filled with oxides of lead and some
suitable binding material, so as to render the entire mass very
solid and firm, and to form together what is termed the active
Fig. 64. Oppermann light electric van. Rear view of frame.
material. The plates are separated by sheets of perforated
ebonite, and are secured together by ebonite bolts before being
placed in the ebonite boxes, in which they are immersed in dilute
sulphuric acid. The weight of the battery is 10 cwts. It gives
E.M.F. of 83 volts, and has a capacity of 150 ampere-hours.
The Maxwerke Electric Vans
In the Maxwerke electric vans, which are built by Messrs.
Harff and Schwarz, of Cologne, the electric motor is carried on
springs at the centre of gravity of the vehicle, and drives the rear
axle direct through a toothed wheel cast on the hub. The
160 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
storage battery is in front, and the different speeds are secured by
acting on the motor. The lever controlling the speeds, when moved
to its extreme limit of travel, operates the brakes. This latter
arrangement prevents the brakes from being applied whilst the
motor is running.
Other Light Electric Vans
Amongst other light electric vans which limit of space
prevents being described, mention may be made of those of
Messrs. Shippley Brothers, Limited (the Still system), constructed
to carry 10 cwts., i ton, 2 tons, etc., and the Columbia electric vans.
General Observations Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles Wheels
Driving Steering Transmission Boiler Engine Power
Required Results obtained with Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Examples of Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles.
HEAVY-FREIGHT vehicles will undoubtedly form in a few years
the most important branch of the self-propelled vehicle industry,
as in this direction the possibilities of mechanically propelled road
vehicles are admittedly unbounded. It is characteristic of the
different temperaments of the French, English, American, and
German nations, that whilst the first have mainly confined them-
selves, and it must be admitted with considerable success, to the
perfection of motor vehicles for pleasure purposes, the three
latter have, on the other hand, largely concerned themselves with
those of a utilitarian description. The present more or less
ephemeral boom in pleasure vehicles amongst the idle and
moneyed classes in this and other countries has naturally turned
considerable attention in that direction, and the phenomenal
demand that has arisen for pleasure vehicles has given birth to
a number of new undertakings specially devoted to their manu-
facture, or practically so. Many of our well-known and old-
established firms of engineers, and also a number of more
recently established firms, however, have devoted themselves to
the serious and important task of the perfection of the heavy-
freight vehicle, and that, too, with acknowledged success; and
when the pleasure-seeking class tire of the doubtful amusement
of tearing aimlessly about the roads, with the usual accompani-
ment of clouds of dust, stinks, and noise, to their own and other
people's discomfort, and to the danger of the public, and the
1 62 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
inevitable slump in fast pleasure vehicles arrives, the first-
mentioned concerns will likewise turn their attention to the con-
struction of vehicles of a more solid and useful description.
Heavy-freight vehicles are built with steam, electricity, and
internal combustion engines as propelling powers, and each of
these systems possesses certain distinct advantages, the two first
being, however, up to the present the most practically successful.
In this country steam-driven freight vehicles for heavy loads
are most favoured, but in the United States, where electricity is
more extensively used as a motive power, this latter is also
employed with considerable success.
In France, where the internal combustion engine has practically
displaced the steam engine, the former has naturally been more
extensively applied to heavy-freight vehicles, and also with very
considerable success. At one time, indeed, it was generally sup-
posed that the heaviest load capable of being dealt with by the
internal combustion engine was about one ton, but recent
improvements have rendered it possible to carry with ease con-
siderably heavier loads, waggons being built with capacities up
to five tons and over.
The results obtained with steam waggons in Great Britain and
the United States have been exceptionally good.
HEAVY-FREIGHT STEAM VEHICLES
The following extracts from a paper by Mr. Arthur Hersch-
mann, read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
in which he gives his opinion on the best form of steam waggon,
as deduced from the results of a two years' investigation made
by him in the interests of the Adams Express Company, of New
York, to which concern he acted as mechanical engineer, will
be of interest.
As regards wheels, Mr. Herschmann is of opinion that no
form of indiarubber tyre will give satisfaction on a commercial
waggon intended to carry a net load of, say, one ton or more,
being not only expensive, but giving poor satisfaction under the
combined action of great weight and speed. Well-constructed
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 163
springs of ample proportion, he thinks, are the only means of
lessening the shock to which a waggon wheel is subjected. In
the case of dished or cored wheels, which he considers the best
adapted for heavy work, a steel tyre is indispensable, since it
binds the wheel together and prevents the spokes from being torn
out when striking an outer obstruction. As regards the width of
wheels, he thinks that the width of the tyres in inches should be
at least twice the number of gross tons carried, where small
waggons are concerned, say, of a capacity of two tons net load ;
this coefficient of two to decrease in the case of very heavy
waggons to one and even under. Small driving wheels are used
on motor waggons owing to the difficulty of designing large wheels
which will stand such severe strains as motor waggon wheels are
subjected to. In this case, the spokes of the wheel not only
support the load, as in a horse-drawn vehicle, but they are more
or less affected by the action of the driving power, and, moreover,
there is also a tendency to twist them. With the ideal waggon
the power should be applied directly where the wheel touches
the ground. Usually the drive is into a spur wheel, or chain
wheel, concentric with the wheel, but, of course, of a smaller
diameter, and such an arrangement makes it desirable that the
wheel shall be also small. Another reason making small wheels
desirable lies in the requirements of the waggon, and the working
of a high-speed motor. In other respects, Mr. Herschmann con-
siders that a large driving wheel, say, of 4 feet diameter, would
answer much better than a 3-foot wheel, such as has been almost
exclusively applied to steam waggons. Not only does a 4-foot
wheel allow of a more powerful starting torque, but it also saves
the driving gear by not sinking so deep as a small wheel when
passing over a depression in the road surface.
With respect to front driving, Mr. Herschmann says that
any advantage which it possesses as regards better steering is
more than outbalanced by the disadvantages introduced in con-
nection with awkward location of the machinery. He thinks
that if a practical arrangement for driving through all four wheels
could be introduced, it would prove an excellent feature in a
1 64 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Referring to the two main systems of steering, viz. steering
with a fifth wheel, and steering with' pivoted axle ends, Mr.
Herschmann considers that the first-mentioned arrangement is
theoretically the best adapted for heavy work, inasmuch as it
leaves the waggon axle unbroken. In reality, however, this
system cannot be as satisfactorily applied as steering with pivoted
axle ends. To effect the steering of heavy waggons, spur-gearing
of suitable purchase has to be used, or a worm and worm-wheel
device. The latter arrangement he considers, however, to be less
desirable than steering by spur gearing, since it locks the gear,
and besides causes a severer strain on the waggon in case the
front wheels strike an obstruction. In rounding a curve, the
inner wheels necessarily describe a smaller circle than the outer
wheels. To make this practicable, the steering device has to be
correctly designed, and the two driving wheels have either to be
driven by independent motors or have to be linked together by
means of a compensating gear, or, as it is often called, "jack-in-
the-box." It will be found that in a heavy waggon, particularly
one with dished wheels, this driving and the arrangement of the
compensating gear are rather troublesome, and that there is still
great scope for improvement in this connection.
The transmission gear, forming the link between the rear
wheels and the engine, which is almost invariably placed in
front of the driving wheels, can, says Mr. Herschmann, only
be reliably effected by means of accurate spur wheels, immersed
in an oil bath. With a steam waggon it is not necessary to use
any kind of a clutch whilst running, seeing that the steam engine
is a very flexible prime mover. Nevertheless, a speed reduction
gear which can be best provided by means of two sets of spur
wheels of varying diameters, one set stationary, the other movable
axially on a square shaft, forms a desirable adjunct to the
mechanism, and can be shifted when the waggon is at rest so as
to increase its traction power, and enable it to negotiate any
special hill, or extricate the waggon from a bad position. And
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 165
it cannot be denied that for many years to come, both in America
and in this country, greasy and hilly roads, or deep snow, will
be the greatest difficulties to contend with. Attempting on a
damp day to take a load of four tons up an incline of about i
in 20, covered with Belgian blocks, trouble was experienced
through the drivers racing. The engine was geared i to 14,
and the wheels were 3 feet in diameter. In Mr. Hersch-
mann's opinion, larger and heavier driving wheels and a much
lower gear would have taken the waggon up. With the slightest
turn of the valve the engine, without difficulty, started, and, on
account of the poor adhesion and the light machinery, ran away
before the inertia of the heavy waggon was overcome.
Coming to the boiler and engine, this authority considers that
the desiderata for a suitable boiler for a motor waggon are that it
should be of the greatest safety, of small proportions, quick steam-
ing and economic, and in addition it should be of the simplest
possible construction, and free from joints likely to work loose by
jarring on the road. Pipe boilers, whilst perhaps a little safer than
shell boilers, carrying little water, are for the same reason undesir-
able for the varying demands made of a waggon boiler. Other
objections to small-calibre pipes are that they are necessarily ex-
posed to intense heat, and are liable to burn, and without a large
dry steam tank or dome they will make wet steam. A shell boiler,
on the other hand, can be made of ample proportions, and, if well
constructed and watched during its use, should give no apprehen-
sions as to its safety, and the water level can be more evenly
maintained, which is a point of some importance. A superheating
device is an all-round advantage, provided that it is correctly
applied to the boiler.
In addition to the engine feed pump, there should always be a
second steam-driven pump, instead of an injector, which latter,
when of small proportions, has not yet been made to give satis-
faction on a waggon, in practical working.
For firing coal and coke are preferable to oil for fuel, being
besides cheaper in use. It is difficult to keep oil burners in good
trim in all kinds of weather, and they will " roar " and occasionally
give trouble and make smoke. Solid fuel can be conveniently
1 66 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
stowed away around the boiler, which latter is generally fixed in
front of the waggon, where the fuel acts as a compressible safe-
guard to the boiler in case of a bad collision. In using a shell
boiler it is found convenient to fire through the boiler top, after
the fashion of the De Dion boiler.
Difficulties to be contended with in steam waggons are that
they will occasionally show a little steam, and during a sharp frost
it is difficult to prevent a pipe from being frozen up. Blowing off
is largely caused by neglect of the driver. By the use of a con-
denser there would be practically no visible exhaust in all weathers,
but Mr. Herschmann does not favour the use of a condenser,
owing to the chance of leaky pipes, and the difficulties of running.
Difficulties in connection with smoke have been already overcome.
With regard to the engine, Mr. Herschmann says that in all
cases a light, well-designed, quick-revolution, compound engine
will answer the purpose, if it is fitted with reversing gear and
means to admit high-pressure steam to the low-pressure cylinder.
The cylinder ratio should be larger than in stationary practice,
seeing that the pressure used is higher, and that a large low-
pressure cylinder means a powerful starting movement under live
steam. Especial care should be taken to connect the engine to
the frame in an efficient manner. A fly-wheel is sometimes fitted,
in which case it is used as a brake wheel ; he considers it, however,
to be unnecessary.
Generally, says Mr. Herschmann, it is to be observed that
most of the waggons constructed are by far too light to stand the
severe strain of their work ; the cost of actual propulsion per
gross ton is by no means so important an item in the case of a
steam waggon as it is in that of an electric vehicle, and provision
for durable construction can therefore be amply provided for, and
a heavy vehicle is just as easy to bring to a standstill as a light
one, in fact easier, since it may be fitted with quicker acting
brakes, which, on account of their severe action, could not be
fitted to one of light construction.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 167
For a waggon capable of carrying a load of 3 tons and able to
mount an incline of i in 10 at 2 miles per hour, the machinery
should be capable of producing, when going uphill, a total of
Such a waggon should have a boiler with about 100 feet of
heating surface exposed to hot gases. Its speed should not be
above 6 miles per hour to operate economically. The brakes
should enable the driver to stop the waggon when descending the
above-mentioned incline in a distance of about 10 yards.
The table on page 168 gives the results obtained with a number
of steam heavy-freight vehicles.
EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT STEAM
Mann Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Several types of heavy-freight motor vehicles are manufactured
by Mann's Patent Steam Cart and Waggon Company, Limited, at
their works at Hunslet, near Leeds. As will be seen from the
illustrations, Mr. Mann has utilized his previous experience in
traction engine work, adopting what he esteems to be the most
valuable features of a traction engine, and has designed a type of
motor vehicle of an entirely novel form of construction.
As originally designed, the Mann steam lorry consisted of two
parts, the platform forming a separate vehicle or trailer on its own
wheels, which were of the same diameter as the engine wheels,
the space between them being just sufficient to allow of their
coming outside the latter (as shown in Fig. 65), and being con-
nected to them by bolts so that they became driven wheels instead
of trailers. The object of this arrangement was to comply with
the old motor-car restrictions to 3 tons weight, the lorry weighing
over 4 tons without infringing the regulations.
The following are the approximate over-all dimensions and
weight of this engine and lorry: length, 18 ft. 6 ins.; width,
6 ft. 4 ins. The body of the lorry, 12 ft. in length, by 6 ft. 4 ins.
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
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in width. The net weight of the engine, 3 tons ; the approxi-
mate net weight of lorry, i ton 5 cwts. The lorry wheels are
of iron, 3 ft. 6 ins. in diameter by 5 ins. in width, and con-
nected by three driving pins or bolts to the engine road wheels,
which are of the same diameter and width. The two thus come
close together as shown, with the lorry wheels on the outside, and
the width of the driving-wheel tyres are thus 10 ins. on each side
of the engine.
The frame of the lorry is constructed of channel steel, firmly
braced together by flanged
steel ends, and covered by a
wood flooring. The body is
balanced, and can be tilted in
order to render the engine
more readily accessible for
adjustment and examination.
Figs. 66 and 67 show re-
spectively the most recent
pattern of non-tipping and
tipping waggons constructed,
each of 5 ton tare weight, to
take advantage of the recent
The engine used in the
Mann heavy-freight vehicles
. 65. Mann heavy-freight steam
vehicles. Original pattern of lorry.
is of the horizontal compound
type, the high-pressure cylin-
der being 4 ins. in diameter,
and the low-pressure cylinder 6\ ins. in diameter by 8 ins.
stroke in each case. The cylinders are cast integral, and all the
wearing surfaces are made extra large and are case-hardened
where necessary, so as to render the engine suitable for quick
running. The working parts of the engine are enclosed in an
oil-tight casing, and work in an oil bath. The piston speed is
350 revolutions per minute. The reversing gear is of Mann's
patent single eccentric type (Fig. 70), which can be notched up,
and can thus be utilized as a third brake, when required. The
engine is placed between the side plates to avoid a separate oil-
bath, and to allow of the quick-running gear being in the same
1 70 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 171
The crank shaft, intermediate shaft, and axles are of forged
steel, supported in long hardened gun-metal bearings carried in
steel brackets, having turned projections which fit accurately into
holes of large diameter bored in the horn plates, thus relieving
the bolts from the working strain of the engine.
The gearing is all of cast steel, two speeds being provided,
viz. a fast one of 5 miles per hour, and a slow one of 2\ miles
per hour, no pitch chains being used, and compensating gear
being provided for turning corners.
The boiler (which is shown in Figs. 68 and 69) is of the
horizontal locomotive type, strongly stayed, and fitted with a
firebox suitable for burning either coke or smokeless coal. It is
constructed of Siemen-Martin mild steel plates, the edges of which
are planed, and the riveting is effected by hydraulic machinery.
The firebox shell sides are extended for carrying the engine shafts
and axle brackets, all of which pass through the same plates. The
working pressure of the boiler is 200 Ibs. per square inch.
The boiler feed pump is of gun-metal, fitted with phosphor
bronze valves of large diameter, it is continuous acting, and
the feed to the boiler can be regulated to a nicety. Either
an auxiliary donkey pump or an injector is also provided for
supplying the boiler when the engine is standing. The feed water
is stored in a tank carrying 120 gallons of water, and a water
lifter, fitted with 20 feet of suction hose, is provided for filling this
tank with water from a wayside brook or pond.
Steering is effected by means of a simple but effective gearing,
comprising a worm arranged to mesh directly with a toothed
quadrant cast on the fore-carriage bracket. Two brakes are pro-
vided, viz. a foot lever strap brake, and a screw brake acting on
the rims of the lorry road wheels.
The engine is practically a small compound road locomotive
mounted upon springs, with coke bunkers round the boiler and a
footplate at one side of the firebox, the water tanks being at the
The body of the lorry is constructed of mild steel plates
flanged at the corners, and strongly braced and stayed by angle
The exhaust from the engine is passed through a separator
near the chimney to remove water, and afterwards through a
tubular superheater before being discharged into the lower part of
172 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the chimney and passing away into the atmosphere in a thoroughly
dried and invisible condition. By this arrangement, and the good
blast maintained, no steam remains in the uptake.
The lorries are capable of carrying loads up to 5 tons, and, in
the case of the tipping lorry, a suitable windlass is provided for
hauling back the body after the load has been tipped. The
vehicles are capable of surmounting gradients of i in 5, and the
fuel consumption is light, 14 Ibs. of ordinary gas coke per mile
being sufficient when fully loaded.
Figs. 68 and 69 are respectively a vertical longitudinal central
Fig. 68. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal
section of boiler.
section and a transverse section, through the boiler firebox, showing
the details of construction.
The barrel a is formed of a single sheet of steel -^ in. thick, and
is i ft. 8 ins. internal diameter. The firebox b and rear end plate c^
are of -f^ in., and the front plate d of f in. steel plate, the rivets
being f in. diameter, and the pitch in the case of single joints
i-j-g- in., and of double joints 2^ ins., the rows in the latter case
being if in. apart, and placed zigzag. Double joints are provided
at the longitudinal barrel seam, the crown and horn plate joint,
and the back plate and horn plate joint. The tubes ^, of which
there are 24, are of steel, if in. diameter by 36 ins. in length, and
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
are enlarged to i J in. at the smoke-box end. The rear end plate
c is stiffened by two angle irons,/", placed back to back. The side
plates for supporting the frame are f 5 6 - in. thick, and are riveted to
the firebox i ft. 10 in. apart, the top and bottom plates constituting
a girder on which are bedded
the engine and water tanks,
and which plates are longer
in the case of the non-tipping
or rigid bodied lorry; g are
In the latest designs the
boiler is made separate from
the side plates so as to be
capable of being easily re-
moved for repairs, etc.
As before mentioned, a
patent type of single eccentric
reversing gear is used, and
the construction of this device
(shown in Fig. 70) is simple,
being substantially as follows :
A wheel #, having four lugs,
carrying pins, or projections,
which form fulcrum s for a
bell-crank lever, <r, and a dis-
tance lever, d, is keyed on
Fig. 69. Mann heavy-freight steam
vehicles. Transverse section of
the crank shaft a. The bell-
crank levers and distance link
d are equal in depth to the diameter of the shaft a, and they are
provided with pin centres of precisely equal length. An eccentric
e is formed with similar lugs to those on the wheel b, which are
arranged to receive pins by which it is connected to the ends
of the bell-crank lever c and distance link d. The bell-crank
lever c can be moved laterally along the crank shaft a by means
of a hand lever operating on a sleeve connected to the former.
The eccentric e can be shifted from the position for full forward
to that for full backward gear, whilst the amount of lead remains
unaltered, and the cut-off can be varied in the same manner as
in a link motion by notching up. Advantages claimed for this
arrangement are that no particular parts are subjected to an
abnormal amount of wear, as the eccentric is maintained in a
fixed position ; and, moreover, that comparatively little space is
The driving wheels consist of two pressed steel flanged plates,
and a T-section steel rim rendered additionally stiff by a rolled
steel tyre. The hubs or naves are steel castings fitted with
phosphor bronze bushes.
The toothed pinions on the crank shaft are forged and cut from
the solid, and the whole of the rest of the spur or toothed gear
wheels used on the vehicles are of cast steel.
Fig. 70. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles,
Patent single eccentric
The vehicles shown in Figs. 65 and 66, not having the divided
road wheels of the original pattern, are much simpler, and, more-
over, as there are no outside brackets, the wheels can be easily
removed. The whole machine, besides, is heavier and stronger
and better sprung, and the increased tare weight allows of bunkers
for fuel round the boiler, which takes off the traction-engine appear-
ance which was a somewhat prominent feature in the old type of
Thornycroft Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The Thornycroft Steam Waggon Company, Limited,, of Chis-
wick and Basingstoke, are makers of a number of different patterns
of heavy-freight steam vehicles, the performance of which at the
trials held by the Liverpool Self-propelled Traffic Association
1 76 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
attracted considerable attention, and, in conjunction with their
success in practical work, has stamped them as reliable and
Amongst the types of heavy-freight steam vehicles manu-
factured by this company, mention may be made of their standard
waggons adapted for loads of from 2 to 4 tons ; box vans
carrying loads up to 2 tons and up to 4 tons ; lorries with rim
sides and dwarf tail-boards, with rail sides, and side-loading
lorries, to carry loads up to 4 tons, and lorries with rail or board
Fig. 71. Thornycroft heavy-freight steam vehicles. Colonial type of
sides to carry loads up to 6 tons ; combination lorry and furniture
vans to carry loads up to 4 tons ; waggons with rail sides, and
with rail sides and wooden roofs, to carry loads up to 4 tons ;
colonial waggons to carry loads up to 4 tons,, and to 6 tons ;
also tipping waggons adapted for municipal purposes, military
A typical example of the Thornycroft heavy-freight vehicle is
the colonial waggon, shown in Fig. 71. This waggon is built in
two sizes, viz. that shown in the illustration, which is adapted to
carry a load of 4 tons, and a larger vehicle adapted to carry a
load of 6 tons. Under ordinary conditions the first-mentioned
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 177
vehicle is capable of drawing a trailer carrying an additional load
of from 2 to 2\ tons.
The framework of the colonial waggon is, like the standard
waggon for home use, made of channel section steel strongly
tied and braced, but is in the former case constructed stronger
throughout, a remark which also applies to other parts, the springs
being stiffer and the driving axle-boxes being provided with extra
stays. Instead of the wooden artillery pattern wheels used on
the home type of waggon, which are similar to those already
described and illustrated (Figs. 32 and 33) with reference to
the Thornycroft heavy passenger vehicles, wheels made entirely
of steel and of larger diameter are employed. The tyres are
made up to 12 inches in width, and are fitted with diagonal
The engine and boiler are also similar to those described and
illustrated (Figs. 34 to 36) with reference to the heavy passenger
vehicles, the first mentioned, however, being much more powerful
and developing 45-horse-power at normal speed, whilst the boiler
is, of course, proportionately larger. The gearing is all enclosed
in dust-proof oil-tight gear cases.
The vehicle, when fully loaded, is capable of travelling at a
speed of about 6 miles an hour on fair roads, and can surmount
gradients of i in 9. A daily average of from 35 to 40 miles can
be made, one day a week being devoted to cleaning of boiler and
general overhaul. Sufficient water is carried for a run of 15 to
20 miles under ordinary conditions.
The boiler is arranged for burning coal, coke, or good burning
wood as fuel, and the bunkers have a sufficient capacity to store
enough coal for a run of about 50 miles. When desired, the
boiler can be adapted, and the necessary arrangements fitted, to
burn crude or other oil as fuel.
These vehicles can be supplied with any type of body, the
frame and running gear remaining practically the same in each
Coulthard Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The firm of Messrs. T. Coulthard and Company, Limited,
of Preston, have also gained a reputation for the various types of
heavy-freight steam vehicles which they build, Figs. 72 and 73
i 7 8
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
being two views of one of their 5 to 6 ton lorries showing the
vehicle loaded and unloaded.
The principal dimensions of this vehicle are : length over all,
19 ft. 9 ins. ; width over all, 6 ft. 6 ins. ; height over chimney, 8 ft.
10 ins. platform, 14 ft. by 6 ft. 6 ins. ] area of carrying platform,
91 square feet.
The main frame is of channel steel, braced and so designed
and constructed as to carry the whole of the machinery, boiler,
water tank, etc. The frame is supported on the axles through
long laminated springs.
The engine is of the vertical compound condensing type, fitted
Fig. 72. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton
with link motion reversing gear, and enclosed in an oil-tight casing,
which latter is extended so as to also carry enclosed all the reducing
and compensating gear and shafts, and to ensure very efficient
lubrication of the splash type.
From the engine motion is communicated to the driving wheels
by means of chain transmission gearing operating through a
The boiler is of the vertical fire-tube doorless type, the fuel,
which is coal or coke, being fed in from a central aperture at
the top, and it is calculated to withstand a working pressure of
200 Ibs. per square inch, being hydraulically tested to 400 Ibs.
per square inch. The boiler feed pump is of a. patented
HEAVY FREIGHT VEHICLES 179
dust-proof type designed by the makers, and connected directly to
the engine, an independent steam pump being also fitted as an
emergency feed. Both these pumps are fitted with independent
motion and delivery from the feed-water tank to the boiler.
The fuel bunker has a capacity of 4 cwts., which is sufficient
for a run of about 30 miles, and the feed-water tank is capable
of holding a sufficient supply of water to last for from 12 to
The wheels are of the artillery pattern, or gun-carriage con-
struction, fitted with steel hubs, oak spokes, and ash felloes, the
Fig- 73. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton
tyres being of weldless steel hydraulically fitted, 5 inches in width
to front, and 7 inches in width to rear wheels. The front wheels
are 33 inches in diameter, and the rear wheels 36 inches in diameter.
The drive is transmitted to the road-driving wheels through an
improved patented triangular attachment which communicates the
driving effort direct to the felloes or rims of the wheels and relieves
the spokes of this strain.
Double-acting brakes are fitted to the road-driving wheels,
which brakes are sufficiently powerful to be capable of holding the
vehicle on any reasonable gradient in either direction.
There are two speeds of gearing provided, viz. a fast one of
5 miles an hour, and a slow one of 2^ miles an hour, and the
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
vehicle is capable of carrying the full load ; that is to say, from
5 to 6 tons on good macadam or paved roads, and of surmounting
therewith grades not exceeding T in 10. On bad roads or gradients
exceeding the above, the load will have to be reduced to meet
the circumstances of the case. The tare weight of the vehicle is
approximately 4*75 tons.
The Lancashire Steam Motor Company Heavy-
freight Steam Vehicles
The heavy motor vehicles manufactured by this company, who,
it may be remarked, built a steam motor lorry capable of carrying
a load of 4 tons and fitted with a coal-fired boiler as far back as
Fig. 74. The Lancashire heavy- freight steam vehicles.
1883, have been very successful at Liverpool and elsewhere, and
have attracted very favourable attention.
The standard type of steam road waggon (Fig. 74) built by
these makers has a vertical boiler located as in the Thornycroft
waggon at the extreme fore end of the frame, instead of just
behind the front wheels, as is the practice with some other
The waggon has a platform of the ordinary lorry type, 1 2 ft.
6 ins. in length by 6 ft. 5 ins. in breadth over all. The available
space for goods inside the beading is 75 square feet. The main
frame supporting the platform is entirely constructed of channel
steel. When loaded with 4 tons the height of the platform from
the ground is 3 ft. 6 ins.
The wheels are of the artillery pattern, having steel naves,
- 75. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles,
oak spokes, and ash felloes, the front wheels being 34 inches
in diameter with tyres 4 inches wide, and the rear or driving
wheels 36 inches in diameter with tyres 5 inches wide. The tyres
are weldless and specially rolled, and are put on by hydraulic
The engine (Fig. 75) is of the horizontal compound reversing
type, having cylinders 3^ ins. and 6 ins. diameter by 6 ins. stroke,
and running at a speed of 420 revolutions per minute. The
engine, change gear, and compensating gear are all completely
enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-proof casing providing efficient
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
lubrication of the splash type. The wearing surfaces are all
exceptionally long and large, and an arrangement is provided for
admitting high-pressure steam to both cylinders when required.
The valve gear is shown in Fig. 76. The valves are of the
balanced type, specially designed, and devoid of springs or com-
plications liable to give trouble.
The boiler for generating the necessary steam supply, which
is shown in vertical central section in Fig. 77, and as before
Fig. 76. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Views of
mentioned, is placed in front of the driver's seat, is of the fire-
lube type, fired from the top through a central chute, the fuel
used being gas coke. The tubes are of tough seamless steel, and
a fusible plug is fixed in the crown plate of the firebox. The
boiler has no sq. ft. of heating surface, and 4/9 sq. ft. of grate
area, the working pressure being 200 Ibs. per sq. in. The fire is
regulated by a hinged ashpan, and also by a lid covering the
central firing chute.
Feed water is supplied to the boiler by an automatic feed
pump working off the compensating gear shaft, and an arrange-
ment is provided whereby any feed water in excess of that
required to feed the boiler is pumped back into the feed-water
tank, this operation being regulated by means of a hand wheel
near the driver's seat. A small steam pump is also provided
beneath the driver's seat, which can be used as an auxiliary boiler
Fig- 77- The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles,
central section of boiler.
feed pump. Double check valves are fitted to both these boiler
The fittings include a Klinger safety water gauge and a
safety valve set to blow off at 250 Ibs. pressure per square inch.
The boiler gives 80 sq. ft. of heating surface, is tested to a
pressure of 425 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure, and is
intended to work at a pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch.
1 84 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The fuel bunkers are located on each side of the boiler, and
are capable of containing a sufficient supply of coke to last for an
ordinary day's work.
The feed-water tank has a capacity of 130 gallons, and is
fitted with a removable strainer, a water lifter bsing provided for
The boiler is so designed that it can be readily taken to pieces
for cleaning purposes, the upper and lower shells being bolted
together, as shown in the drawing.
The whole of the gearing is steel, all the wheels having machine-
cut teeth, and the drive from the end of the compensating gear
shaft is applied to the driving-wheel felloes by an improved form
of Hans Renold's patent roller chain, which has all the links
Fig. 78. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional
view of compensating gear transmission shaft.
bushed with hardened steel, and large diameter steel pins also
hardened. The Renold chain is one particularly well suited for
heavy motor work, as it meets in a most effective manner the
alterations of pitch due to wear, and also reduces the wear upon
the pins to a minimum.
An important feature in the transmission gear is the arrange-
ment of cushion drive in the small pinions on the compensating
gear shaft, by means of which the driving chains, and working
parts of the engine, are relieved of all shocks and injurious strains
when starting under a heavy load, the arrangement being such
that the engine crank shaft can make almost a complete revolution
before full power is exerted at the driving wheels.
The compensating gear shaft, which is shown in Fig. 78, is of
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 185
special construction, being hollow or tubular from end to end,
and a bolt passing through this shaft is arranged to take up the
end thrust caused by the bevel or mitre wheels, and thereby to
relieve the bearings of same, and in this manner to effect a very
considerable reduction in the amount of friction engendered. No
keys are employed in the construction of the mechanism, all
the wheels being put on flanges, and castellated nuts are used
throughout, each being secured by a split pin. The parts are all
made to gauge and template, and are interchangeable, and all
the castings being numbered makes it a comparatively easy
matter to obtain replacements. An internal clutch arrangement,
which can be operated by means of a lever placed under the
frame of the vehicle, admits of the compensating gear being
Fig- 79- The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional
view of second motion shaft.
locked when desired. Fig. 79 shows the construction of the
second motor shaft.
The driver's seat is capable of accommodating comfortably
three persons, one man, however, being sufficient to handle the
This waggon is stated by the makers to be capable of per-
forming a journey of 50 miles in a day of 12 hours, with a load
of 4 tons, provided that the roads are in good condition and the
gradients not too severe.
Savage Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Although Messrs. Savage Brothers, Limited, of King's Lynn,
have been long well known as makers of traction engines, it is
only comparatively recently that they have turned their attention
1 86 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
to the manufacture of steam motor lorries. They have, however,
succeeded by utilizing their long experience in road traction to
very great advantage in the production of a very efficient heavy
motor vehicle of this description.
The following are the principal dimensions of Messrs. Savage's
standard type of steam lorry, shown in Fig. 80 : extreme length,
1 8 ft.; width, 6 ft. 6 ins.; height of floor, 4 ft.; floor space,
75 sq. ft. ; diameter of front wheels, 33 ins., width of tyres, 5 ins. ;
hind wheels, 39 ins., width of tyres, 7 ins. The frame is of
special channel steel, strongly riveted and bolted together.
Fig. 80. Savage heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry.
The engine is of the horizontal compound piston valve type,
cylinders respectively 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter giving off 30
brake horse-power at 450 revolutions per minute. The crank
shaft, connecting rods, piston rods, and guide bars are of steel,
and the reversing gear is of the single eccentric type, the whole
being enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-proof casing, and a
Rochester pony pump lubricator being provided for cylinder
The boiler, which is situated at the front end of the vehicle, is
of the water tube type, the circulating tubes being f in. diameter,
and the return tubes i j- in. diameter, of Maunesmana steel manu-
facture and solid drawn. The bottom tube plate is of mild
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 187
steel, having a steel- domed cover to which are attached patent
accessible inlet valves and blow-off cock. The upper steam and
water dome is of malleable steel and solid drawn, having fixed to
it the usual steam gauges, safety valves (Empire type), steam stop
valves, and cocks for supplying steam to engine water lifter and
auxiliary steam pump. The outer casing is of mild steel lined
with asbestos sheets.
The boiler is fitted with a Klinger water gauge, and doors are
provided at each end to admit of easy access being had to the
tubes. It has a heating surface of 90 sq. ft. in tubes, and 4 sq.
ft. of grate area. The working pressure is 220 Ibs. per square
inch. There are two feed pumps, an ordinary and an auxiliary.
A feed- water tank having a capacity of 130 gallons is provided,
and there is bunker capacity for 3 cwts. of fuel. There is steel
spur gearing giving two speeds, with machine-cut teeth and com-
pensating gear on the intermediate shaft with a special locking
arrangement. The consumption of coke is 2 Ibs. per ton per
mile, and the water consumption 8 to 10 gallons per mile.
In working, the exhaust steam is discharged into a copper
cylinder or receptacle, thereby heating the feed water on its way
to the boiler, which feed water passes through a copper coil
arranged within this cylinder. The exhaust steam is subsequently
discharged through the chimney as invisible vapour.
The average speed of the vehicle is 5 miles an hour, and the
load from 4 to 5 tons. At a recent trial near King's Lynn the
author saw one of these steam waggons, fully loaded, successfully
surmount a gradient of i in 7.
Clarkson Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Messrs. Clarkson, Limited, Chelmsford, are the makers of
excellent steam lorries, the running mechanism of which is
substantially similar in construction to that of the steam public
service omnibuses made by the same company, and which, having
been already described at some length on pp. 79 to 103, need
be no further dealt with here.
Musker Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Messrs. C. and A. Musker, Liverpool, manufacture heavy
steam motor vehicles which differ from any of those already
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
described, in having a horizontal boiler of the flash or instantaneous
generation type, which is placed transversely under the centre of
the body frame, and fired with liquid fuel, a special fan creating a
draught for the burner and enabling a chimney to be. dispensed
with. In this system, moreover, a separate auxiliary engine is
provided, which both supplies oil and air to the burner, and feed
water to the boiler, in the proper proportions. The air for the
burner is drawn through the condenser, and is thus raised in tem-
perature before being delivered by the fan into the combustion
Fig. 8 1 is a vertical longitudinal central section showing the
Fig. 81. Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles,
section of boiler.
Musker boiler, which, it will be seen, consists of three cylindrical
steel tube coils, a, through the annular space or clearance between
which the flames from the burner pass. The air passes inwardly
through the heated passage b, into which project ribs or gills, r,
on the wall of the ignition chamber d. The oil is dropped in
through the pipe , on to the hot wall of the ignition chamber d,
where it is instantly vapourized and mixes with the heated air,
being further mixed before reaching the ignition or combustion
chamber </, by passing through holes, /, in a block, g.
The engines are placed horizontally, and approximately in the
centre of the vehicle, motion being transmitted to the driving
wheels by means of toothed gearing. An advantage offered by
the Musker system is the large platform area available for the
accommodation of goods.
Simpson-Bodman Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Messrs. Simpson and Bodman build a type of motor waggon
characterized by the use of a pair of small three-cylinder engines
working separately and independently the two driving wheels,
thus enabling differential gearing to be dispensed with. Motion
is transmitted from each of the engines to its countershaft by
means of interchangeable toothed wheels, admitting of change of
speed gear being readily effected, and the drive is transmitted
from the countershafts to the road wheels by chain gearing. The
position of the engines and gearing at the rear of the vehicle both
renders them readily accessible and distributes their weight on
the driving wheels, which is advantageous when running empty.
The boiler employed, which is shown in sectional front and
side elevation in Fig. 82, and is of the flash or instantaneous
Fig. 82. Simpson-Bodman heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional
front and side elevations and detail view of boiler.
type, and is said to be one of considerable efficiency. It consists
essentially of a set of heavy steel tubes, a, which are indented in
a similar manner to those of the Row condenser, and are con-
nected on the exterior of the furnace by Hay thorn joints, b,
one of which is shown in vertical central section, drawn to an
enlarged scale on the right-hand side of the illustration. These
indentations occurring a large number of times so baffle the passage
of the water or steam as to expose the same thoroughly to the
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
action of the heated surfaces, c is a dome to receive the steam
and prevent its attaining too high a temperature, d is the furnace
which is adapted for the consumption of coal.
Brightmore Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The latest standard pattern of steam lorry from the designs of
Dr. A. W. Brightmore, M.I.C.E., is shown in Fig. 83. A lorry
on this system formed, it will be remembered, a conspicuous
exhibit at the Stanley Show a year or two ago. The Brightmore
steam vehicles are now built by Messrs. Turner, Atherton and
Company, Limited, Denton, Manchester.
Fig. 83. Brightmore heavy- freight steam vehicles.
5 to 6 ton lorry.
The driving and steering of this lorry are both effected on the
front wheels; and a special feature in the construction is that,
contrary to the usual practice in lorries designed with front steering
and driving wheels, the entire weight of the machinery is supported
on them, thus ensuring sufficient adhesion when running light,
whilst the construction at the same time admits of the steering
being readily operated. The machinery is carried on the under-
carriage, and a platform on the latter, extending in front of the
lorry, is provided for the driver, all the handles necessary for the
control of the vehicle being within his reach.
The steering gear consists of an arrangement of brake-drums
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 191
placed on each side of the differential gear, and the steering is
performed by applying the one or other of these brakes, and thus
causing the one or other of the front wheels to slow down and the
other wheel to run at an increased speed, according to the direction
in which it may be required to steer. The sensitiveness of the
steering is controlled by means of a resistance which has to be
overcome by the steering brakes, and is capable of adjustment to
suit the average road surfaces in any particular district.
A special form of water-tube boiler is provided for the
generation of steam, and the motive power is derived from a
standard type of compound cased-in engine, which drives on to
the front wheels through a second or auxiliary motion shaft and
a differential gear shaft through Renold's silent chains. The
cylinders are 4^ in$. and 1\ ins. diameter by 6 ins. stroke. The
cranks are at right angles, giving a nearly uniform effort on
the crank pin, and thus permitting a fly-wheel to be dispensed
with. The normal speed of the engine is 500 revolutions per
minute, and it is geared down to give a speed of 6 miles per
hour on the road, whilst this speed can be varied either by the
throttle valve or cut-off gear. A slow-speed gear is, however,
also provided for very steep hills, but the variable cut-off makes
its use seldom necessary.
The lorry under consideration has a carrying capacity of from
5 to 6 tons, and the dimensions of the carrying platform are 16 ft.
by 7 ft. 3 in., one of the advantages of the design being that this
platform extends practically the whole length of the vehicle. The
over-all length of the vehicle is i8J ft. The frame is of rolled
steel bulb angle section, and the platform flooring of i^-in. pitch
pine. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, 3 ft. 3 ins. diameter,
with 8-in. treads.
Another advantage claimed for this type of lorry is that the
load is carried on all four wheels, thus effecting a reduction of the
maximum resulting pressure on the roads.
The steering is undoubtedly very sensitive, being always
exerted on the direction of motion, and, owing to the short wheel
base, the vehicle can be turned in a short radius.
The forecarriage carrying the machinery is connected to the
carrying platform by a ball-and-socket joint, and is kept parallel
to it by a roller (connected to the back of the forecarriage)
moving in a segmental channel attached to the platform. This
192 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
method of connection permits the front axle to assume any angle
relative to the back axle whether in the horizontal or vertical
plane, thus permitting of steering, and of the vehicle accommo-
dating itself to any unevenness of the ground without a strain
on the springs. Both splash and forced lubrication are employed.
Straker Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Fig. 84 shows the standard pattern of covered steam waggon,
adapted for a load of 5 tons, built by the Straker Steam Vehicle
Company, London. The 5-ton Straker vehicles are fitted with
Fig. 84. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton
long-stroke slow-running engines of 40 indicated horse-power of
the compound open horizontal type, which affords the advantage
of permitting of ready access to the working parts. The cylinders
are 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 7 ins. stroke, and the reversing gear
is of the single eccentric type, and has been designed with the view
of keeping the mechanism as free as possible from valve rods, etc.
The cylinders are lagged with non-conducting material, covered
with a casing of planished steel, and a bye-pass is provided for the
admission of live steam into the low-pressure cylinder at starting,
or at any other time when extra power is required. The bearings
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES, 193
are of gun-metal or phosphor bronze, and a continuous system of
oil feed is provided.
The engine is protected from dust by a light casing, which is
normally held in position by two sliding bolts, and can be easily
removed when required. A fly-wheel is mounted on the crank
shaft, and the engine can be readily disconnected and run inde-
pendently from the car. The crank shaft has a square extension
upon which is arranged to slide a double steel pinion, which can
be thrown into or out of gear by suitable actuating gear, and this
Fig. 85. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of engine
and running gear with covers removed.
pinion meshes with steel gear wheels mounted on a countershaft
rotatably mounted on a channel frame carrying a sprocket pinion.
Fig. 85 is a plan view of the engine and running gear with the
Two speeds are provided, the ratios of the gear being 9*2 to i
and 167 to i, which give speeds of from 3 to 7 miles an hour.
Power is transmitted to the rear axle (shown in Fig. 86), which is
of the live type, and rotates in axle boxes fitted with phosphor-
bronze bearings and having grease-pad lubrication, by means of a
compound silent antifriction roller chain.
i 9 4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The chain-drive sprocket wheel is mounted on a differential
gear, one bevel wheel of which is keyed to the rear axle, and the
other to the driving sleeve secured to one of the driving wheels.
A special arrangement is also provided for admitting of the inser-
tion of a locking pin in any position of the wheels, so as to connect
up both driving wheels when desired. A radius rod extends from
each axle box to a lug on the countershaft bearing, each rod
having screw and nut adjustment. All the wearing surfaces are
The boiler, which is mounted over the front or steering axle,
is shown in sectional plan in Fig. 87, and in vertical central section
in Fig. 88. It is of the water-tube type, and has 70 sq. ft. of
heating surface, and 2-2 sq. ft. of grate area. The working
Fig. 86. Straker heavy- freight steam vehicles. View of rear axle.
pressure is 205 Ibs. per square inch. It consists essentially of four
concentric shells forming an inner and outer annular water space,
closed at top and bottom by rings connected together by stay
bolts. Between the two annular water spaces are radial connecting
tubes. This arrangement is claimed to ensure absolutely equal
expansion of the parts, and to avoid leaky tubes ; and no rivets
being used, the boiler can be easily taken to pieces when desired.
The smoke box is so arranged that it can be readily disconnected
when the flues are exposed for cleaning, and a superheater is
attached to the fire box. A reheater is also provided for dealing
with the exhaust steam. Coke fuel is employed, the feed being
through a central down-take, and a regulating damper is provided
in the base of the funnel. Normally the necessary draught is
secured by the discharge of the exhaust steam into the funnel
through a nozzle, but a live-steam blower is also fitted. Both an
injector and a gear- driven plunger pump are provided for feeding
the boiler, either of them being of ample capacity singly.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 195
The rear portion of the body is supported upon strong springs
mounted upon the bearings carrying the driving axle, and connected
with the frame by adjustable radius rods. The fore part of the
body is supported upon the front axle through a powerful spring
cradle and an antifriction or ball bearing, the axle being mounted
in a central pivot, thus securing a three-point support and obvi-
ating any undue twisting strain.
Fig. 87. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan view
The road wheels are made of mild steel, with special cast-iron
hubs. The driving wheels are 3 ft. 6 ins. by 9 ins. tread, with tyres
f in. thick. The front or steering wheels are 2 ft. 6 ins. by 5 ins.
tread, with tyres f in. thick, the tyre plates being cut in sections
in order to provide for expansion.
The steering is by steel worm and segment, with an inclined
spindle and an aluminium hand wheel. A powerful block or shoe
196 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
brake is provided, and a second brake can be obtained by revers
ing the engine. The body is built of well-seasoned timber ribbed
up with angles, plates, and beads, and has a superficial area of
Fig. 88. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section
72 sq. ft., a total length of 12 ft., with 6 ft. width, inside measure-
ment. A double bunker at the front of the vehicle is capable of
holding sufficient fuel for a 6-hours' run, and a galvanized iron
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 197
tank holds a supply of 140 gallons of water, the usual fittings for
lifting water being provided. The frame is of strong steel channel,
well braced together with transverse channels, tee-irons, and
The dimensions of the Straker 5-ton lorry are, approximately,
1 8 ft. in length by 6 ft. 6 ins. extreme width, with a wheel base of
10 ft., and a wheel gauge of 5 ft. 3 ins. from centre to centre. The
maximum speed is 7 miles an hour, and it is capable of surmount-
ing gradients up to i in 6 on ordinary roads, and of drawing a
trailer carrying an additional load of 2 tons on level surfaces. The
details of construction are practically the same as those of the
covered waggon just described.
A 7 -ton lorry is also made, which is identical in construction
to the standard 5-ton lorry, with the exception that it is, of course,
more solidly built throughout, and has an engine of 55 indicated
The 2-ton van is fitted with a 25 indicated horse-power engine
of high rotary speed and of relatively small dimensions, which is
enclosed and lubricated on the splash system.
The Londonderry Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard type of heavy-freight steam vehicle, built by the
Marquis of Londonderry at his works at Seaham Harbour, has
come successfully through some very severe tests, one of the
vehicles last summer having been run without stopping, with a full
load of 5 tons, from Seaham Harbour to Whitehall, London, a
distance of 294 miles, the time occupied in the journey being
The most noticeable features in thre vehicle, the manufacture
of which has been introduced into the Seaham Harbour Works by
Mr. J. Donovan, the manager, are the arrangement of cast-steel
side frame and the spur driving gear. With reference to the
latter, it is stated that toothed wheels in the driving gear of some
of these lorries have been run over 13,000 miles with practically
no signs of wear. The engine is of the compound type, fitted
with flat or locomotive slide-valves, and steam is generated in a
During the above-mentioned trial the consumption of gas coke,
198 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
including that used in cleaning the fire at intervals, was i cwt. for
every 1 1 miles run.
Fig. 89 shows a standard pattern of 5-ton Londonderry steam
waggon, which is built to conform to the new regulations, the
principal dimensions being 19 ft. in length over all, 6 ft. 6 ins.
in width, and 8 ft. in height to the boiler chimney top. The
carrying platform is 12 ft. 6 ins. by 6 ft. 3 ins., and is fitted
with i8-in. sides, hinged to drop, or entirely removable, as
required. This platform rests on the main frame, the latter
being constructed of channel steel and strongly braced. When
loaded, the height of the platform from the ground is 3 ft. 3 ins.
Fig. 89. Londonderry heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard
5- ton waggon.
The road wheels (Fig. 92) are of solid cast steel, no rivets or
joints being employed in their construction, rear, 3 ft. 3 ins.
diameter, with tyres 10-5 ins. in width, and front wheels 2 ft.
9 ins. diameter, with tyres 6 ins. wide. When preferred, the
Londonderry patent composite wheels can be substituted for
the above. These latter are cut from prime, well-seasoned teak,
and are hooped with rolled steel rims and renewable protection
tyres. The naves are of cast-steel, and the drive is transmitted
to the peripheries by extended arms or naves. The main axle is
5 ins. diameter, and carried in axle boxes supported by heavy
springs of finest quality steel.
The engine, which is shown in plan and vertical longitudinal
section in Figs. 90 and 91, is of the horizontal compound type,
fitted with locomotive pattern slide valves. The high-pressure
cylinder is 4*25 ins. diameter, and the low-pressure cylinder
6*75 ins. diameter, by a stroke of 7 ins. The valve motion
is of the single eccentric type, with constant lead, and permitting
cut-off at any desired point of stroke. The wearing surfaces are
ample, and the whole engine is enclosed in an aluminium dust-
proof casing. Provision is provided for working both cylinders
Fig. 90. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles.
Plan view of
with high-pressure steam when desired, and the engine is capable
of taking the waggon fully loaded up a gradient of i in 8. The
lubrication of the engine is partly on the splash principle, the slide
valves and cylinders being oiled automatically by a positive feed
The gearing is of steel throughout, the wheels on crank shaft
and second shaft having machine-cut teeth, and all the bearings
being thoroughly dust-proof. The construction admits of each
separate part of the mechanism being taken adrift without dis-
turbing the adjacent gear, and is, at the same time, as simple as
possible. Fig. 92 shows the driving wheel and differential gear
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
on the main axle, which is of mild steel. The crank-shaft pinions
slide on a machine-squared portion of shaft, and the driving
pinion on the second shaft is securely fitted on a square portion
Fig. 91. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Longitudinal
vertical section of engine.
of the latter. The crank shaft and second shaft are 2*25 ins. and
3 ins. diameter respectively, and are carried in swivel bearings.
The lubrication of the axles and shafts is by grease lubricators.
Fig. 92. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. View showing
driving wheel and differential gear on main axle.
A two-speed gearing is provided for hill climbing and ordinary
road running, and change of speed is effected by a single lever,
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 201
within convenient reach of the driver. The low gear gives a
speed of 2-5 miles an hour, and the high gear one of 5*5 miles
an hour, to the vehicle.
The boiler, which is placed in front of the driver's seat, is of
the fire-tube central-feed type, and is strongly built and certificated
for a safe working pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch. The shell
contains the firebox and central tube, which is also used for feed-
ing the boiler with fuel. Attached to this central tube is the top
tube plate, the fire tubes, which are \ in. thick and of the finest
grade weldless steel, being expanded in the furnace crown and
tube plate. There are four large cleaning doors, giving access to
the firebox sides and tube plate, and wash-out and mud-hole
doors are provided at the top and bottom of the shell. The
boiler is fired from the top, and the firebars with ashpan can
be raised or lowered by the driver, an arrangement which allows
of the fire being cleaned out or relighted in three minutes.
To sweep out the fire tubes, all that is required is to disconnect
the smoke box, to which is attached the chimney, the whole length
of the tubes being then exposed. The ordinary working water
level is i ft. 9 ins. above the firebox crown. The heating surface
is 95 sq. ft., and the grate area 3*5 sq. ft. The boiler is fitted
with all the necessary mountings of the best gun-metal.
An automatic feed pump, geared down from the crank shaft,
and capable of being thrown out of gear for pumping purposes
when the engine is standing, supplies the feed water, and an
injector is fitted to feed independently when required. The
temperature of the feed water is raised to about 180 degrees
before entering the boiler by passing through a feed-water heater.
Two side bunkers are provided for the fuel, which may consist of
either coke or coal. The water tank holds a sufficient supply for
an ordinary run of 25 miles under load, and a suitable water lifter
The steering is effected by a worm and quadrant, with only
four working joints, ball bearings and ball socket joints being
provided to facilitate the operation and counteract uneven
motions on rough roads. There is a live fore axle, which
gives the vehicle a three-point support.
A powerful screw brake acting through renewable shoes on
the tyres of the main wheels is provided, and is capable of
bringing the vehicle to a stand within 20 feet on the steepest
202 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
gradient. Another brake is formed by the reversing gear of
Ellis Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard type of heavy-freight steam vehicle built by
Messrs. Jesse Ellis and Company, Limited, Maidstone, and
Fig. 93. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of standard
illustrated in Figs. 93 to 95, is adapted to carry 5 tons on
body, or 4 tons on body and 2 tons by trailer.
Fig. 94. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Side elevation of
standard 5-ton waggon.
The framing is of channel section mild steel, well braced and
bracketed, and the engine, boiler, and gearing are mounted on an
auxiliary suspension frame connected to the front and hind axles
in such a manner as to be independent of the body frame. The
front, or steering, wheels are 36 ins. diameter, with 5-in. steel
tyres -J in. thick. The rear, or driving, wheels, 42 ins. diameter,
with 8-in. steel tyres i in. thick. Both front and rear wheels
are of artillery pattern, and the
steerage is on the Ackermann
principle. The brakes com-
prise a band brake on engine
flywheel, worked by a foot
lever, and a hand-screw brake
acting on both driving wheels.
The engine is of the hori-
zontal compound reversing
type, enclosed in a dust-proof,
oil-tight casing, with top lid
and side hand holes. A bye-
pass valve admits high-pressure
steam to both cylinders when
The boiler (Fig. 95) is of
the Ellis-Balmforth pattern,
fired from top through a central
flue, and with removable outer
shell. The plates are mild steel,
shell plate f in. thick, fire-box
plates T 7 g in. thick, and tube
plates J in. thick. There are
119 solid cold-drawn steel tubes,
i^ in. diameter and -- in. thick.
The heating surface is 90 sq.
ft, the grate area 3*5 sq. ft.,
the working pressure 290 Ibs.,
the water capacity 460 Ibs.,
and the efficiency is given as
8 Ibs. of steam per Ib. of coke,
and 8 Ibs. of steam per square foot of heating surface. The boiler
is tested to 400 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure. The
dome is fixed by 43 f-in. bolts, 2-in. centres. There are two tanks,
having a combined capacity of 150 gallons, one of which forms
g- 95. Ellis heavy-freight steam
vehicles. Vertical central section
204 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the driver's seat, and the rear tank having a strainer. The
water lifter is fitted with 30 ft. of iin. three-ply indiarubber
suction hose, with strainer on end. The water supply is
sufficient for 12 miles. The fuel bunkers are in front, and
capable of holding sufficient fuel for an ordinary day's run of
The transmission is by means of steel toothed gearing.
Double helical wheels on the first and second shaft connect
by spur gear with the rear axle, the spurs being renewable by
simply detaching the toothed rims and fixing others by helicoid
spring nuts. There are two speeds, giving 6 and 3 miles per
hour. Suitable compensating gear is provided, and the driving
axle, which is of steel 3^ ins. diameter by 6 ft. 3! ins. in length,
is fitted with patent roller bearings.
The overall dimensions of the vehicle are : 1 6 ft. 6 ins. long ;
9 ft. in height to top of funnel ; 6 ft. 6 ins. wide ; wheel base, 8 ft.
9 ins. The inside dimensions of the standard body are 9 ft. 3 ins.
by 6 ft. 3 ins. by 3 ft. 3 ins., with a capacity of 7 cubic yards.
This lorry has been successfully subjected to very exhaustive
Nayler Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Messrs. Nayler and Company, Limited, Hereford, build several
patterns of steam waggons, presenting some novel features in
design. The frame of the standard type of 5-ton lorry (Fig. 96)
is formed of heavy steel channel, strongly braced together with
T-irori gussets and angles, carefully riveted, the rivet holes being
all drilled. The length of the body is 12 ft., and the width
6 ft. 6 ins., and a level platform or any other type of body
can, of course, be adapted. The superficial area is 78 sq. ft.
The wheels are of the traction-engine type, the rear 3 ft.
diameter by 7 ins. wide, the front 2 ft. 6 ins. diameter by 5 ins.
wide. A double shoe brake, worked from the driver's seat, and
bearing on the rear wheel tyres, is provided, and the link motion
is also available for braking purposes.
The engine is of the compound horizontal reversing type, with
cylinders 375 ins. and 6*75 ins. diameter, by 6 ins. stroke, with
link motion reversing gear, and enclosed in a sheet-iron casing.
The cylinders are well lagged, and covered with blue steel. The
normal engine speed is 400 revolutions per minute
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 205
The boiler is of the fire-tube type, easily accessible for cleaning
purposes, and fitted with firebox, smoke box, double funnel, and
the usual fittings. The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per square
206 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
inch. A i4o-gallon water tank, provided with a filter, and a bunker
with a fuel capacity for one day's work are provided.
The engine crank shaft is extended in square section, and
carries a double pinion of the usual type, which can be thrown in
and out of gear by means of a lever working in a quadrant, and
the vehicle must be stopped to change the gear. These pinions
mesh with gear wheels upon the second motion shaft, which is
supported in long gun-metal bearings secured to the frame and
carries the chain pinion. Motion is transmitted from the second
motion shaft to the driving axle by a chain capable of standing a
working strain of 20 tons.
The rear, or driving, axle is mounted in axle boxes bushed
with gun-metal, and radius rods with screw adjustment are pro-
vided. It is of the best mild steel, and has a strong set of
differential gearing with a locking arrangement. Coupling to the
driving wheels is effected by special bolts and nuts in long gun-
metal bearings fitted to the axle boxes and secured to the springs.
The front axle is also of mild steel, and has a central turning
pivot, thus providing a three-point support. Two speeds are
provided, giving 2 and 6 miles an hour.
Robertson Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard type of 5-ton steam waggon or lorry shown in
Fig. 97 is built by Messrs. James Robertson and Sons, Fleetwood,
and has a total length of, approximately, 18 ft. 9 ins., with a width
of 6 ft. 5 ins. over all. The wheel base is 9 ft., and the wheel
gauge, centre to centre of tyres, is 5 ft. 8 ins. The lorry platform
has a useful area of 78*5 sq. ft, the length being 13 ft. 4 ins. and
the width 6 ft. 5 ins.
The rear portion of the vehicle is supported on strong laminated
springs, the extremities of which work in steel shoes with hard
The rear, or driving, axle is of rolled mild steel girder section
with forged steel ends accurately machined and riveted, and held
in position by radius rods secured to the steel pedestals of the
second motion shaft. The fore part of the vehicle is carried by
the front axle, which is guided by steel horn plates, and the weight
is taken centrally by a powerful laminated spring, thus providing a
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 207
The front axle is a mild-steel forging with long bearings and
hardened pins. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, having ash
felloes, oak spokes, and steel malleable naves, with hard gun-metal
bushes, and steel tyres 6 ins. wide on front wheels, which are
2 ft 9 ins. diameter, and 8 ins. wide on the back wheels, which
are 3 ft. 3 ins. diameter. The steering is on the Ackermann
principle, actuated by a vertical screw, and a brake operated from
the driver's seat is provided in addition to the reversing lever.
The engine is of the horizontal compound reversing type,
cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 5 ins. stroke, running
Fig. 97- Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard
normally at a speed of 435 revolutions per minute and developing
25 brake horse-power. It is enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-
proof box. The crank shaft is of forged steel, with balanced
cranks and eccentric sheaves solid therewith and all machined
together. By moving the change-speed lever near the driver's
seat to the central position, the engine can be run independently
for boiler feeding purposes, and an auxiliary cock is provided for
admitting live steam to the low-pressure cylinder when required.
The boiler, which is of the multitubular fire-tube design, presents
some special features, and is shown in sectional plan and side
elevation in Figs. 98 and 99. It is constructed of mild steel with
seamless steel tubes, and is fired centrally. The coke bunkers
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
have a sufficient capacity for a run of about 30 miles. The working
pressure is 200 Ibs. per square inch, and it is tested to 400 Ibs. per
square inch by hydraulic pressure. The grate area is 2*6 sq. ft. and
the heating surface 80 sq. ft. The tubes are fixed radially between
the fire box and the outer shell, the latter being almost completely
enclosed by an easily removable smoke-box casing. All the tubes
Fig. 98. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan of
are entirely under water. The fire bars with the ashpan are slung
beneath the boiler.
A feed-water heater with aluminium body, brass-tube plates,
and -Row tubes, capable of heating the feed water to 190 degrees
Fahr. is provided, the condensed steam being filtered and returned
to the feed-water tank.
Both a main feed pump driven from crank shaft through gearing
in the engine box or casing, and an auxiliary feed pump with
separate steam and water connections are provided.
A square sectional extension is formed on the crank shaft,
upon which slides a double steel pinion of the usual type, operated
by a lever to gear with the differential gearing on the second
motion shaft. From this latter shaft motion is transmitted to the
Fig"- 99- Robertson heavy- freight steam vehicles. Vertical central
section of boiler.
driving wheels by sprocket or chain wheels at each end, gearing
through large roller chains with hardened steel bushes, with large
sprocket or chain wheels carried by steel brackets secured to the
felloes of the driving wheels. A steel clutch moved into or out
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
of gear by a small steam cylinder operated from the footplate is
provided for locking the differential gearing.
The Yorkshire Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
Figs. TOO to 1 02 illustrate one of the standard 4-ton lorries
built by the Yorkshire Patent Steam Waggon Company, Hunslet.
The framing of the vehicle is of substantial construction, being
built of channel steel fixed to cast-steel cross girders and well
braced with diagonal stays.
The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and the steering is on
the Ackermann principle, operated by a screw and levers. A
Fig. 100. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 4-ton
powerful screw brake, which acts directly upon the tyres of the
driving wheels, is provided.
The design of the engine presents the distinctive feature of
the cylinders being fixed outside the frame, the high pressure on
one side, and the low pressure on the other. The crosshead runs
in cylindrical guides with dust-proof covers, and the cranks and
connecting rods are also enclosed in dust-proof metal casings and
run in oil baths. A simple single eccentric reversing gear, having
no open parts and operated from the driver's platform, is
The boiler is of a special patented design, and is fixed across
the frame at the front end, forming a very compact arrangement.
As will be seen from the sectional view (Fig. 101), the boiler is of
the locomotive type as regards the firebox, the principal difference
being that there are two short barrels instead of one long one, and
two sets of fire tubes connect the firebox with the chamber or
Fig. ioi. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical
central section of boiler.
smoke boxes at the outer ends of the barrels, return tubes con-
ducting the gases therefrom to another chamber above the firebox
and at the base of the chimney. The exhaust steam is discharged
into the smoke boxes, where it is thoroughly superheated and
passes through a series of small jets into each of the return tubes.
This arrangement is claimed to ensure both an invisible and
silent exhaust, and also rapid steaming without the discharge of
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
sparks from the chimney. The boiler is fed by a large force
pump worked from a second motion shaft, and an injector is also
provided. The feed-water tank is placed at the rear of the vehicle,
and a water lifter is fitted. All the tubes in the boiler are well
below the normal water level.
The transmission is through spur gearing, and the arrangement
is shown in the diagrammatical view, Fig. 102. The crank shaft is
supported in two inverted pedestals secured to the frame, and
to each of these pedestals a steel bracket is hinged, carrying the
second motion shaft and the rear axle bearings, the other ex-
tremities of the brackets being free to slide on strong guides.
The frame is supported upon laminated springs attached by
Fig. 102. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of shaft
and axle bracket.
joint pins to the brackets, so as to be capable of rising and falling
without any material variation in the working centres of the shafts.
Each shaft has but two bearings, all the gearing being between
them, and as the second motion shaft and rear axle are supported
in swivel bearings, unequal loading or rough roads cannot cause
binding of the shafts in the necks.
This vehicle, it is stated, can travel 40 miles per day under
average conditions, with a consumption of from 3 to 4 cwts. of
gas coke. With a load of 4 tons, and drawing a trailer with a
load of 2 tons, the vehicle is said to be capable of ascending
gradients of i in 10.
Gillett Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard steam-driven 3-ton waggon built by the Gillett
Motor Company, Limited, Hounslow, has a channel frame, the
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 213
side pieces of which curve round in front and are joined
The front and rear axles are tied together by tubular stays
fixed at the fore ends and hinged at the rear ends. Full elliptic
springs support the fore part of the frame on the front axle, and
semi-elliptic springs, each sliding in guides at one end, carry the
rear. The hind wheels are 4 ft. in diameter, and the front wheels
3 ft. in diameter with steel tyres, the wheel base being 1 2 ft. The
rear axle is a live one, and is supported by four bearings in a
casting forming an oil-tight casing surrounding the crank shaft, the
valve gear, the differential gear, and the toothed gearing driving
Powerful band brakes are fitted to the rear wheels. The
weight of the vehicle unladen is about 2| tons.
The engine is of the horizontal compound type, with double-
acting cylinders, 4 and 8 ins. diameter respectively by 6 ins.
These valves are of the piston type, and they are placed
below the cylinders, and are operated by Joy valve gear, a special
valve being provided for admitting live steam to the low-pressure
cylinder when desired. The engine runs normally at 400 revolu-
tions per minute, and lubrication is effected by a sight feed drop
lubricator connected with the steam pipe.
The boiler is of the Gillett water-tube pattern, consisting essen-
tially of a vertical cylindrical vessel, from which a large number
(200) of f-in. steel tubes radiate outward and extend downwards
to an annular water chamber. In addition to the above tubes,
there are two large tubes forming a similar connection. The heat-
ing surface is about 100 sq. ft. The flue extends downwards and
a steam blast gives the requisite draught, a hinged lid at the top
being provided for opening when starting the boiler.
The feed water is supplied by an ordinary force pump, and an
auxiliary Worthington steam pump is also provided.
The safety valve is set to blow off at 240 Ibs. per square inch,
and the normal working pressure is 220 Ibs. per square inch.
Oil fuel is used, the burner being of the Gillett type, in which
the pressure of the oil in the vaporizer automatically regulates the
velocity of the oil issuing from the nozzle.
The oil storage tank, which is circular, has a capacity of 40
gallons, and is located inside a square water tank, the water
214 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
capacity being 30 gallons ; a second 3o-gallon water tank is also
placed beneath the driver's seat.
The oil from the storage tank is pumped into a pressure tank,
having a capacity of 2 gallons, against an air cushion, by a force
pump, or by a hand pump near the driver, the pressure being
afterwards maintained by the fuel pumps.
The normal pressure maintained is 80 Ibs. per square inch, a
relief valve on the delivery pipe preventing this being exceeded.
A small hand pump admits of the supply of air in the pressure
tank to form the cushion, being renewed when necessary.
The oil feed to the burner is automatically controlled by a
diaphragm acted upon by live steam and arranged to shut down
when the pressure in the boiler reaches 220 Ibs. per square inch. An
arrangement is also provided for controlling the oil feed by hand.
The transmission comprises a toothed wheel or pinion mounted
centrally on the crank shaft and gearing with a larger toothed
wheel surrounding the differential gear. The drive from the axle
is communicated to the felloes of each wheel by two carrier arms,
which admit of a certain amount of play of the springs.
With a load of 3 tons the water consumption is stated to be
about 3 gallons per mile, with a fuel consumption of about two-
thirds of a gallon of oil per mile.
The Wantage Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard 4-ton steam lorry built by the Wantage En-
gineering Company, Limited, Wantage, is shown in Fig. 103.
The underframe is constructed of channel steel stayed with cross
channels and angle plates and riveted up throughout.
The front wheels are 2 ft. 10 ins. diameter, and the rear wheels
3 ft. 6 ins. diameter, with 4-in. tyres. They are of artillery pattern,
with oak spokes, ash felloes, and steel naves bushed with hard
gun-metal, and having weldless steel tyres.
The platform, which is entirely independent of the working
parts and the main frame, measures 12 ft. 6 ins. by 6 ft. 5 ins., the
space available for goods being 75 sq. ft.
The engine is of the horizontal compound reversing type, with
cylinders 3^5 ins. and 6*25 ins. by 6 ins. stroke, running at 500 revo-
lutions per minute. It is entirely cased in, but presents no special
features of novelty.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 215
The boiler is either of the water-tube or fire-tube type, having
a removable external shell, a central firing chute for coke fuel, and
a hinged ashpan, the latter, as also the cover of the firing chute,
serving to regulate the fire. The working pressure is 225 Ibs. per
square inch. The boiler is normally fed by an automatic feed pump,
having double check valves to suction and delivery, and driven
by an eccentric from the compensating gear shaft. An auxiliary
Fig. 103. The Wantage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 4-ton
steam pump is provided for use when the engine is standing. The
feed- water tank has a capacity of 130 gallons.
Two changes of speed are given by the transmission gear, and
the gear wheels are secured by bolts to turned-up flanges without
keys. The compensating gear shaft is hollow, and a bolt passed
through it takes the end thrust of the bevel wheels off the bearings.
The drive is taken from the ends by roller chains to the felloes
of the wheels. The compensating gear can be locked by an
internal clutch arrangement operated by a lever beneath the frame.
The English Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The standard type of 5-ton lorry (Herschmann's system) built
by the English Steam Waggon Company, of Hebden Bridge, Yorks ,
is shown in Fig. 104.
The main frame is of steel girder section, and the wheels
216 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
are of extra strong artillery pattern, rear 3 ft. 9 ins. diameter with
6-in. tyres, front 3 ft. diameter with 5-in. tyres. The platform
measures 12 ft. in length by 6 ft. 6 ins. in width over all.
The engines are of the horizontal compound link reversing type,
with cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 9 ins. chute, covered
by a sheet-steel casing, and fitted with controlling valve for
admitting live steam to low-pressure cylinder.
The boiler is placed behind the driver's seat and front axle,
and is of the fire-tube type, fired through a central shoot, and the
top cover being made easily removable for cleaning purposes.
Fig. 104. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton
The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per square inch, and the steam is
superheated. The feed water is heated, and a steam pump and
auxiliary injector are provided for boiler feeding purposes. The
exhaust steam is passed through a reheating coil in the firebox.
The gearing is steel with machine-cut teeth, and provides for
two speeds, viz. 3 and 6 miles per hour. The compensating gear
has a patent self-locking arrangement actuated by a foot lever
from the driver's seat. The drive consists of pinions swung from
the stationary rear axle by radius links, and further connected to
the waggon frame by links, which pinions mesh with internal gear
rings attached to the road wheels. The result of this arrangement
is that, on starting the engine, the tendency of each pinion will be
to mount upon the internally toothed gear wheels, which tendency,
being resisted by the load on the vehicle, gives a substantial force
against which to work as purchase at starting.
The steering gear is operated by a hand wheel on a vertical
pillar through steel screws and levers, and the front axle is designed
to give a bearing support close to both wheels, and to allow for
inequalities of road surface. There is a brake acting on the rim
Fig. 105. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles,
of each gear ring attached to the driving wheels, besides that
obtainable through the reversing gear, and the usual feed-water
tank, coke bunkers, water lifter, etc., are provided.
Fig. 105 shows a covered waggon built by the same makers.
Mr. Herschmann, the designer of these vehicles, is the engineer
to the Adams Express Company, New York, and president of the
American Steam Waggon Company, and his heavy-freight vehicles
have proved themselves most successful in the United States.
Other Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles
The typical examples of steam vehicles for heavy freight
described in the previous pages must not be taken as being any-
thing like complete ; space, however, does not permit of even a
218 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
brief description of the many other excellent vehicles on the
market, amongst which mention may be made of those built by
Messrs. Bomford and Evershed, Limited, Pershore ; E. S. Hindley
and Sons, Bourton, Dorset ; Edwin Foden, Sons and Company,
Limited, Sandbach ; Wm. Glover and Sons, Limited, Warwick ;
J. and F. Howard, Bedford ; the St. Pancras Ironworks Company,
Limited, King's Cross (the Hercules) and Atkinson and Phillipson
(fitted with Towcord high-pressure boiler).
Many of the old firms of traction-engine makers who have not
yet commenced to build steam motor vehicles are now making
light steam motor traction engines adapted to work under the
Light Locomotive Acts, for instance, Messrs. Aveling and Porter,
Limited, Rochester ; Wm. Fowler and Company, Limited, Lincoln;
F. C. Southwell and Company, London ; Wm. Tasker and Sons,
Limited, Andover ; Wallis and Stevens, Basingstoke, etc.
HE A VY-FREIGHT VEHICLES. (Continued}
Heavy-freight Internal Combustion or Explosion Engine Vehicles
General Observations Examples of Heavy-freight Petrol Engine
Vehicles Heavy-freight Petroleum or Heavy Oil Engine Vehicles
Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles.
HEAVY-FREIGHT INTERNAL COMBUSTION
OR EXPLOSION ENGINE VEHICLES
As has been already mentioned in the commencement of the
preceding chapter, recent improvements have enabled heavy-freight
vehicles driven by internal combustion engines with carrying
capacities of 5 tons and over to be successfully constructed, and
it is acknowledged that the internal combustion engine offers
many advantages for the purpose. One important advantage
possessed by this type of motor is that the propelling mechanism
is considerably (some 50 per cent.) lighter, and the available
platform area is greater by some 25 per cent., than in the case of
a steam engine with its steam generator, fuel bunkers, etc., and,
besides, the delay and difficulty of obtaining water during the
journey suitable for boiler feeding purposes, or, indeed, frequently
water of any description at all, is obviated. Theoretically at
least, moreover, the internal combustion engine is the most
economical method of producing power yet known. The compact
nature of the fuel used, its economical consumption, and its
general high efficiency, place this type of engine in a high place as
a prime mover. For with its many good qualities the steam
engine must, nevertheless, always be theoretically a more expensive
means of producing power than the internal combustion engine,
inasmuch as the principle on which it works necessarily entails
220 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the production of steam as an elastic medium from the non-elastic
substance water, at a great cost in fuel.
The chief objections to internal combustion engines as prime
movers have been already dealt with (see ante, pp. 4, 5), and need
not be again alluded to. It may be remarked, however, that one
of them, viz. the danger inseparable from the use of a light spirit
or essence such as that commonly known as "petrol," which
readily evaporates at ordinary temperatures, and is highly inflam-
mable, can be obviated by the use as a prime mover of internal
combustion engines adapted to consume as fuel heavy oils, such as
ordinary petroleum lamp oils, which, besides imparting greater
safety, would create a large saving in running expenses, as the
latter are some 50 per cent, cheaper per unit measure.
The chief difficulty experienced in applying heavy-oil fuel to
an internal combustion engine for motor vehicle work has been
the imperfect combustion of the hydro-carbon fuel when the engine
is working against a varying load or amount of work, as must be
the case in traction on common roads. Once this imperfect
combustion has been satisfactorily dealt with, however, there can
be no doubt as to the superiority of the heavy-oil engine. Owing
to " petrol " evaporating very readily, it is easily evaporated in its
entirety, whilst the heavier petroleums have a tendency to imme-
diately condense and resume their liquid form. This is of less
importance in the case of stationary engines, in which the regular
speeds at which they are run, and the even loads, reduces the
difficulty of imperfect combustion to a minimum, and where,
moreover, long exhaust pipes can be used to carry away the fumes.
In the case of motor vehicles, however, as already observed,
the above regular conditions are not practicable, and, more-
over, offensive emanations due to imperfect combustion are
Much has been done to overcome the objections to the internal
combustion engine as a motor for road vehicles. Its simplicity is
a great point in its favour, and its economical running. These
features have enabled it to compete more or less successfully with
the steam engine, even in the case of heavy-freight vehicles,
although the characteristics of the latter are silence and elasticity,
whilst those of the former are noise and inelasticity.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 221
EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT PETROL
Milnes- Daimler Heavy-Freight Petrol Vehicles
Fig. 106 illustrates a type of 2-ton petrol lorry built by Messrs.
M lines-Daimler, Limited. The length of the vehicle is 16 ft.
ii ins. by 6 ft. 5 ins. wide, the wheel base 10 ft. u ins., and the
floor space 9 ft. 6 ins. The frame is constructed of channel steel,
and is capable of bearing a total dead load of 2^ tons. The
diameter of the rear wheels is 3 ft. 5^ ins., and that of the front
wheels is 2 ft. 7^ ins. by 4 ins. wide.
The motor is a two-cylinder light hydro-carbon engine, cylinder
105 mms. (about 4^ ins.) and stroke 130 mms. (about 5^ ins.), built
on the Daimler principle and having the Daimler float feed,
throttle, and patent water cooler of the marine condenser pattern.
Automatic pressure lubrication is provided to all the bearings, and
a gear-driven rotary pump circulates the cooling water. A portion
of the exhaust is utilized to provide pressure for feeding the
petrol, and ignition is on the Simms-Bosch magneto-electric
system. The engine runs at 800 revolutions per minute and
develops 97 brake horse-power.
Single friction cone transmission on the Daimler system is
employed, and motion is transmitted from the main longitudinal
shaft through differential gear on the Counstatt principle, two
pinions meshing with two internally toothed wheels or rings fixed
to the rear wheels. Speed-changing gear on the Counstatt
principle, giving speeds of i^, 3^, 6, and 8 miles an hour, is pro-
vided. In this type of gear one lever controls the first and
second, and the third and fourth speeds, so that the two couples
of speeds being independent of each other, when changing, neither
of the couples affect the other set of gear wheels. For reversing,
a special toothed wheel giving a speed of four miles an hour is
brought into gear. There are t\vo circumferential brakes acting
on the rear w r heels, and operated through worm gearing by hand
from the driver's seat, a double-acting brake-clutch on the first
speed shaft and a scrag on the rear axle.
222 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Delahaye Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
Another 2-ton petrol lorry is shown in Fig. 107. This vehicle
is built on the well-known Delahaye system. The lorry has falling
sides and back. The characteristic features of the system are the
single belt transmission and the horizontal type of engine
employed. This type of drive is claimed to be both thoroughly
Fig. 107. Delahaye heavy- freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton lorry.
reliable and to couple very gently, thus avoiding in a great
measure the wear and tear due to shocks and jars experienced
with ordinary coupling devices when carelessly handled. Three
forward speeds and a reverse are provided, which admit of the
driver regulating the speed up to a maximum of 1 2 miles an hour,
at which rate the vehicle is capable of travelling loaded on fairly
Hagen Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
These vehicles are built in standard types with 2 and 3 tons
capacities and capable of hauling a trailer.
The frame of the vehicle is constructed of channel steel,
stiffened with wood and steel plates. The front springs are double
elliptic, the axle working on massive horn plates. The rear axle
has an ordinary single long elliptic spring.
The wheels are artillery pattern, front 3 ft. 3 ins. and rear 4 ft.
diameter. Steering consists of pinion and spur gear acting
through a spur quadrant on an Ackermann axle. The available
platform area is 58^ sq. ft.
224 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The engine is of the horizontal single cylinder type, and
develops 7 brake horse-power at 450 revolutions per minute.
The cylinder is cast with its water jacket, and is attached by four
studs to a main frame formed of a steel casting. The inlet valve
is placed over the exhaust valve and is operated automatically by
the suction of the piston ; the exhaust valve is opened by a
rocking lever, and both valves are located inside the combustion
The ignition is magneto-electric, the magneto spindle working
directly on the ignition plug, and timed from the driver's seat. A
belt-driven centrifugal pump is provided for circulating the cooling
water, only six gallons of which are carried, the consumption
being stated to be under half a gallon per ten hours' work.
The transmission gear comprises a crank disc at the end of
the shaft, to which is fitted a connecting rod actuating a swinging
lever with a fixed stroke. This swinging lever is placed parallel
to and alongside another swinging lever pivoted in the centre and
having rods at the top and bottom. The motion is imparted to
this second double-ended lever by a connecting block, capable of
sliding up and down, and according to its position the stroke of
this second lever is varied between nothing and maximum. This
motion of the lever is transmitted to the hind axle by two con-
necting rods, and the reciprocating motion is here converted to a
rotary motion by means of positive friction mechanism. These
friction discs are massive and run in oil. Alongside this gear box
on the hind axle is a reversing gear, connecting with the trans-
mission, so that any speed from zero to maximum in either
direction can be obtained. The actual transmission is free from
gear wheels, chains, belts, and clutches, and at all times the engine
is working at maximum power.
The silencer consists of a very large exhaust box fitted with
concentric mufflers, and a small exhaust for the waste gases.
Powerful brakes are provided, one acting on a band 6 ins. wide
outside the differential is operated through a pedal lever, and the
other is worked by a locking lever on the rear wheels.
The Orion (Swiss) Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
Petrol lorries of various sizes are built on this system. The
following is a brief description of a vehicle of 2 to 3 tons capacity.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 225
The frame is constructed of channel steel, and the petro
engine, which is of the single-cylinder horizontal type, is located
in the fore part of the vehicle. The engine is of 12 horse-power,
and is adapted to run at a normal speed of about 700 revolutions
per minute. Ignition is effected by means of a magnet, and there
is pump-water circulation, and a fan-cooled radiator. There are
four speeds forward and a reverse, and motion is transmitted
from the engine to the gear box by a Renold silent chain, the
gear box being in turn coupled to the driving wheels by side
chains. The wheels are fitted with 6-in. solid indiarubber tyres.
During a practical trial of one of these lorries, in 10 days, 105
tons of coal were carried in 2 and 2^ ton loads, on a consump-
tion of 57 gallons of petrol, the vehicle negotiating, fully loaded, all
the principal hills in the London district. A trial trip made by
the lorry to Hatfield and back (20 miles each way), with over 2
tons of sand in bags, was performed in about 3^ hours without a
stop, and the consumption of petrol for the entire double journey
of about 40 miles, loaded each way, was 10 gallons.
Cadogan Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
The petrol lorry shown in Fig. 108 is built by the Cadogan
Garage and Motor Company, Limited, London, and is intended
to carry a load of from 5 to 6 tons and to draw a trailer with a
load of about 3 tons. The over-all measurement is 16 ft. by 6 ft. ;
wheel base, 9 ft. by 5 ft. 6 ins. ; effective platform, 1 1 ft. 6 ins. by
6 ft. ; and the weight when unladen, 2\ tons.
The frame of the lorry is constructed of oak, and the engine
frame of channel steel and well stayed. The body of the vehicle
is supported on the axle by long springs, the front ones having
indiarubber cushions between the springs, and the dumb irons,
which arrangement is claimed to give great resiliency and freedom
from vibratory shocks.
The wheels are of artillery pattern, with oak spokes and felloes,
steel hubs and tyres, and are 3 ft. in diameter by 6J ins. on
face. The chain rings are of forged steel, and are fixed by steel
bolts and nuts to each spoke.
The motive power is derived from a two-cylinder Gobron-
Brillic type of petrol engine, shown in Figs. 109 and no, develop-
ing 34 brake horse-power. Each cylinder is water jacketed and
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
has two pistons, and the explosion takes place between them,
thereby imparting one impulse to every revolution. The inlet
Fig. 1 08. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 5 to 6-ton lorry with
Fig. 109. Cadogan heavy-freight
petrol vehicles. Vertical longi-
tudinal section of engine.
Fig. no. Cadogan heavy-freight
petrol vehicles. Transverse
section of engine.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 227
valves are above the exhaust valves and are automatic and acces-
sible by removing one nut The ignition, controlled by a Bowdon
wire affixed to steering column, is of the high-tension kind, with a
4-volt accumulator, high-speed trembler coil, and readily accessible
commutator on the front part of the engine.
The carburettor, which is shown in section in Fig. in, is of
Fig. in. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Sectional
view of carburettor.
the positive feed type, and is supplied by a rotating truncated
cone having a series of recesses or pockets to receive the petrol,
which are emptied one at a time into a perforated cylinder, from
whence the petrol passes to the mixing chamber, and thence
through the valve chamber into the cylinders, where the explosion
takes place between the pistons and gives two impulses, one to
each piston in the cylinder.
The arrangement for transmitting the impulse to the crank
228 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
shaft is clearly shown in Figs. 109 and no, and all the gearing
is cut out of nickel steel hardened, and enclosed in a dust-proof
and oil-tight aluminium casing. Chain transmission is provided
to each driving wheel, the chain wheels having a good ground
clearance. The drive from crank shaft is through a gearing box
on an intermediate shaft, having speeds of approximately if, 3^,
6, and 10 miles an hour, with load, each speed being increased
50 per cent, when empty. The change of speed is operated from
the driver's seat by a single lever. The water circulation is by
pump, and the radiator, being located in front, requires no fan.
There are two metal-to-metal brakes, a water-cooled foot
brake on the differential shaft capable of causing the wheels to
skid, and a hand brake on the travelling wheels. The chain is a
2-in. pitch roller. The sprocket bracket is of forged steel. An
efficient exhaust silencer is provided. Gradients of i in 4 on an
unmetalled road with a 5-ton load have been easily negotiated
when in a muddy condition. The cost of fuel and lubricating
oil is given as 0-3^. per ton-mile.
Stirling Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
A good example of the heavy-freight petrol vehicles designed
and constructed by the Stirling Motor Construction Company,
Granton Harbour, is a military waggon capable of carrying a load
of 3 tons on the roughest possible ground, such as would have to be
passed over during a campaign. As will be readily understood,
the chief aim has been to avoid all complications, and to secure
the greatest possible simplicity and compactness of construction,
combined with the maximum of strength.
The total length of the vehicle, which is shown in Fig. 112, is
only 1 6 ft., with a width of 6J ft. over the hubs, and a wheel base
of 9 ft. The seat for the driver, being placed over the mechanism,
allows of a good view being obtained ahead, and permits of the
length of the vehicle being reduced. The body is 10 ft. 6 ins.
long by 4 ft. 3 ins. in width. The driving wheels are 3 ft. in
diameter, with g-in. steel tyres, and the steering wheels have 7-r-in.
The motive power is provided by a four-cylinder petrol engine,
developing fully 24 brake horse-power at about 800 revolutions
per minute. The inlet valves are operated mechanically, and the
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 229
cylinder heads are solid. In addition to the magneto, high-
tension electric ignition, with accumulators, is provided.
The power is transmitted by a large metal friction clutch to
change-speed gears giving three speeds, and enclosed in an air-
tight oil bath. The rear wheels are driven by a shaft, fitted with
universal or Cardan joints, from a bevel pinion driving a counter-
shaft fitted with steel toothed wheels meshing with driving rings
constructed of special metal, and fixed to the inside of the wheels.
The brakes comprise a foot brake working on a water-cooled
drum on the shaft, and a powerful hand-lever brake operating a
system of internal expansion blocks inside the driving rings on
the rear wheels.
Wheel steering is provided with a special buffer spring to
Fig. ii2. Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 3-ton military pattern
absorb shocks when passing over obstructions. No circulating
pumps are used, the cooling water being circulated naturally.
A special feature is the provision of a large winding drum
close to the rear axle, fitted with a long steel cable, and so
arranged that by a movement of a hand lever the drum can be
geared to the engine, and if the vehicle is itself anchored, it can
be used as a windlass to haul other vehicles out of difficulties.
By attaching the rope to an anchor or any available point,
moreover, the winding drum or windlass can be used to haul the
vehicle itself out of difficulty. Spuds or paddle blades are also
provided, which can be bolted on the rear wheels, and enable soft
ground to be readily crossed.
2 3 o MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
This lorry was successfully subjected to very severe tests with
a total load of 7 tons.
Benz Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
Petrol lorries are constructed on the well-known Benz system
(see Fig. 60, p. 150), to carry maximum loads of i ton 5 cwts.,
2 tons 10 cwts., and 5 tons.
These lorries are : the first, 1 1 ft. 10 ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins.
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, 8 ft. 2^ ins. in length by 4 ft.
1 1 ins. wide ; the second, 1 3 ft. 9^ ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins.
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, 10 ft. 3 ins. in length by 4 ft.
ii ins. wide; and the third, 14 ft. 10 ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins.
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, n ft. 3 ins. in length by
4 ft. ii ins. wide. The platform in each case is 3 ft. 5 ins.
high from the ground level.
The wheels are of artillery pattern, very strongly made, and
fitted with Kelly solid indiarubber tyres in the case of the 25~cwt.
lorry, and with either steel or solid indiarubber in that of the
The motors, which are of the horizontal two-cylinder Benz
type, are respectively 6, 10, and 15 horse-power.
The vehicles are gear-driven with single belt, four speeds
being provided besides a reverse motion. They have also each
a suitable radiator and circulating pump, and a central lubricator.
The tares of these lorries are respectively 22 cwts., 28 cwts.,
and 2 tons. The maximum speed, when loaded, on the level is
10 miles an hour, and gradients of 10 per cent, can be ascended.
Frick Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
Petrol vehicles on the Frick system are built by Messrs.
Dougill's Engineering, Limited, Leeds, adapted to carry loads
from 10 cwts. up to 5 tons, the small sizes having single-cylinder
engines of g-horse-power nominal, and the larger sizes two-cylinder
engines of i4-horse-power nominal, three-cylinder engines of 20-
horse-power nominal, and four-cylinder engines of 28-horse-power
The length of the platform of the 30-cwt. lorry is 9 ft.
6 ins., and the breadth 5 ft. 3 ins. The wheel track is 4 ft.
6 ins. The framing is of steel channel, strongly stayed; the
wheels of artillery pattern, 30 ins. diameter, with iron tyres. The
engine cylinder is s|-in. bore by 6-in. stroke, completely water
jacketed, and the engine runs at 800 revolutions per minute.
The exhaust valves are of the mechanical pattern, and a rotary
governor is provided. The bed plate is bolted direct to the
main frame, and the engine, curburettor, and magneto, or
sparking plugs, are enclosed in a bonnet. The single-cylinder
engine is fitted with a rotary magneto, and the curburettor is of
the float feed type. The front axle is solid forged steel with
swivel ends, and the rear axle is of the live pattern, running in
ball bearings, and fitted with differential gear running in an oil-
tight case, and having a brake drum for a foot actuated brake.
Fig. 113. Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
Plan of frame and
Long laminated steel springs are provided for supporting the
The cooling is by a multitubular radiator with fan and circu-
lating pump, and a duplicate connection for gravity circulation is
The transmission is by a special patent variable friction gear,
the construction of which is shown in the plan view, Fig. 113. It
consists essentially of two friction wheels or discs, mounted on a
countershaft, the first disc being the actual working disc, and the
latter a dummy disc, merely serving to increase the friction
surface. The working disc is so mounted upon the countershaft
as to be capable of being moved or adjusted in the direction of
its axis, so as to attain the different degrees of speed required,
232 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the dummy disc transmitting the power from the disc-shaped
fly-wheel through a counter disc to the first or actual working
disc or wheel. The fly-wheel and counter disc can be moved in
the direction of their axes, so as to be brought into contact with
the friction wheels or discs, and thereby impart motion to the
latter; and there is a chain drive from the countershaft to the
differential gear on the rear axle.
The contact between the fly-wheel and the friction-wheel disc,
and consequently the motion of the vehicle, can only take place
when a hand lever provided for the purpose is slightly drawn.
When the friction wheel is near the centre of the fly-wheel disc,
that is to say, at the lowest speed, it is stated that the vehicle can
ascend gradients up to 30 per cent.
Other Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles
Amongst other heavy-freight petrol vehicles, those of the
following makers may be cited : The Maudslay Motor Company
standard 5 -ton lorry; Crossley Leyland lorries; Wolseley lorries;
Straker and Squire lorries ; and the N. A.G. Automobile Company,
Limited, standard 3-ton lorry.
Allsop Heavy-freight Petroleum or Heavy Oil
The characteristic feature of this system is that the motive
power is derived from an engine adapted to use ordinary petro-
leum or lamp oil, and as the engine in question is practically
smokeless, it is a type of motor particularly suitable for the
propulsion of heavy and other freight vehicles.
This engine, which is shown in Figs. 114 to 117, has been
designed, and patented both in this country and abroad, by Mr.
R. Owen Allsop, Orpington, Kent, who has devoted many years
to the solution of the problem of constructing an internal com-
bustion engine adapted for the use of heavy petroleum oils.
The main distinctive features of the Allsop engine is the
provision of a small auxiliary cylinder, which may be termed a
vapour pump or carburettor, and the piston working in which is
connected, to a crank on the main shaft, set at an angle of 180
degrees relatively to the main or driving crank. The function of
this small cylinder or pump is to draw in, vaporize, compress, and
measure the charge, which latter is then delivered to the larger
cylinder, in which, after mixture with the necessary additional
amount of air, it is exploded.
The engine shown is of the single-cylinder vertical type, and
the construction will be readily understood from the illustrations.
The two, three, and four cylinder engines are operated on the
same principle, differing only in details of construction.
The small auxiliary cylinder or pump is located on the left-
hand side of the main cylin-
der, and the following is the
complete cycle of operations.
During the outward or
suction stroke of the above
pump, the requisite charge
of oil, together with a small
quantity of air, is sucked in
through the oil supply inlet
and air inlet, passing through
the inlet valve, which is
governed by a suitably ad-
justable spring. The oil is
sprayed into a conical or
funnel-shaped passage sur- F ig. 114. -Allsop heavy-freight petro-
rounded by a casing, and leum vehicles. Plan view of engine,
the exhaust or waste gases
are passed into this casing before being allowed to escape into
the atmosphere. These gases thus serve to heat and partially
vaporize the entering oil, this operation being completed on the
return stroke of the pump piston or plunger by reason of the heat
of the adiabatic compression stroke added to the heat of the
parts. On the next outward stroke of the pump piston or
plunger, the vaporized oil is permitted to expand, and on the
fourth or second return, or inward stroke, the gas or vapour is
forced to pass through a non-return valve shown in Fig. 117, and
a pipe which likewise passes through a box or casing surrounding
a portion of same, and in which box or casing the exhaust is
likewise permitted to circulate, and the gas or vapour is thus
superheated on its way to the main or working cylinder.
During the inward movement of the pump piston or plunger,
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the working piston makes an outward stroke, thus forming a
partial vacuum, which serves to draw in through an air inlet the
necessary additional supply of air to support combustion, which
air is mixed with the oil vapour before entering the working
On the return stroke of the working piston, the charge is
compressed and ignited, and, by reason of the expansion taking
place, the piston is forced outwards, forming the third stroke.
On the fourth or final inward stroke of the piston, the waste
products of combustion are
discharged through the ex-
haust in the usual manner;
thus it will be seen com-
pleting the ordinary "Otto"
Electric ignition, com-
prising a commutator with
brush contact, sparking plug,
starting handle, etc., is pro-
vided, and a very important
feature in the motor under
consideration is that, owing
to there being practically no
condensation in the working
cylinder, high-tension elec-
tric ignition with a single
sparking plug can be used
with equal certainty and
regularity of firing with heavy
petroleum oils to that obtain-
able with tube ignition.
Another advantage possessed by this system is that the fuel
enters the working cylinder in what is practically a gaseous
mixture, and consequently is in a very favourable condition for
rapid ignition and combustion.
Practically perfect combustion is secured at all times after
starting the engine, by spraying the oil into the heated pump, as
only dry gas is passed into the working cylinder, and there are
therefore no particles of spray to condense in the working
cylinder, and by partial oxidation cause imperfect combustion.
Fig. 115. Allsop heavy- freight petro-
leum vehicles. Elevation of engine.
When once the motor has become heated up, the combustion
continues to be perfect, and the exhaust remains invisible and
odourless even at loads and speeds varying within a wide
In addition to the immunity from failure owing to impoverish-
ment of the explosive mixture, which under the conditions
described remains constant and inflammable, an additional safe-
guard against failure is provided by the fuel vapour pump, which
is so designed that even at the lowest speeds the oil fuel will
be subjected to a powerful
atomizing action, whereas in
engines working with direct
spraying into the working
cylinder, on a reduction of
speed due to any sudden aug-
mentation of load, the spray-
producing effect of the suction
stroke is considerably re-
duced, and a less perfectly
atomized and inferior explo-
sive charge enters the cylinder.
The engine is admirably
suited for the generator valve
type of fuel feed used, that
is to say, one in which the
fuel passes through a small
hole in the inlet valve seating,
which feed cannot be applied
economically direct to the
working cylinder, as it is ex-
ceedingly difficult in that case
to adjust the spring so as to properly throttle the valve
Fig. 116. Allsop heavy-freight petro-
leum vehicles. Longitudinal section
ensure effectual spraying of the oil fuel.
The governing of the engine can be effected as easily as that
of an ordinary gas engine, and when the vapour supply is cut off,
a charge of gas still remains in the pump, which charge is
alternately expanded and compressed, so as to effectually prevent
any condensation taking place, and this charge is vented into the
working cylinder directly the gas valve again opens, no fresh
charge of fuel being sprayed into the vapour pump until such
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
time as the gas valve is opened and the contained charge of gas
passes to the working cylinder.
The result of the absence of all, or nearly all, condensation,
which causes practically
perfect combustion to take
place, is an absolute im-
munity from all fouling or
choking with sooty or tarry
deposits from the oil fuel.
The gas and exhaust
valves are operated by
hardened steel cams or
wipers, mounted on a hori-
zontal cam shaft and work-
ing against anti-friction
rollers on the lower ends
of the valve spindles, and
driven from the motor
crank shaft in the ordinary
manner. The motor and
cam shafts are enclosed
in a dust-proof, oil-tight
casing, and run in an oil
bath with splash lubrica-
An arrangement is fitted which admits of the engine being
started with " petrol," and run until the parts become sufficiently
heated to allow of the heavy oil fuel being turned on. This
device obviates the necessity of a preliminary heating of the parts
by means of a blow lamp also provided.
Fig. 117. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum
vehicles. Cross-section of pump.
Wolseley, Thorny croft, and other Heavy- freight
Heavy-freight petroleum or heavy oil engine vehicles are also
built by the Thornycroft Company, Wolseley Company, and
others. The latter vehicle is fitted with the same type of trans-
mission gear as that so successfully employed on the well-
known Wolseley touring cars, slightly modified, of course, in
order to render it more especially suitable for the purpose of the
An excellent example of one of the latter type of vehicles is
the 4-ton military transport waggon, which was shown at the
Motor Car Exhibition held at Islington this year (1905).
This waggon is fitted with a 4o-horse-po\ver four-cylinder
horizontal type of petroleum or heavy oil engine, having cylinders
6 ins. diameter by 7 ins. stroke respectively, and running at
600 revolutions per minute.
Amongst other heavy oil or petroleum engines in the market
said to give good results, mention may be made of the following :
The Kromhout (Dutch) heavy oil engine ; that built by the Devon
Engineering Company, Limited, The Harbour, Paignton ; and the
Vosper, Gardner, Hillier, Tolch, Roots, etc.
Fischer Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles
These heavy-freight vehicles, the standard pattern of which is
shown in Fig. 118, are built upon the same principle as the
Fig. 118. Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric vehicles.
238 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
omnibus described on pp. 137-143, and that description, as also
the diagram illustrating the running gear of the omnibus in
question, apply equally well in the present case.
The Fischer Company build heavy-freight vehicles on this
system with capacities of 5, 8, and 19 tons, the weights of the
5 and 8-ton vehicles, unloaded, being 3 and 4 tons respectively. .
The maximum speed is 6 miles an hour, and any gradients
usually encountered and surmounted by horse-drawn vehicles can
be negotiated with ease.
The cost of running is given as i\d. (2*5 cents) per mile on
Thury Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles
Self-propelled heavy-freight vehicles on this system (Thury 's
patents) are also constructed by the Compagnie de 1' Industrie
Electrique et Mecanique, of Geneva.
A feature in the dynamos made by this firm, and used in these
vehicles, is the arrangement for compensating to a certain extent
for a fall in voltage when at full load, by providing the shunt with
a fine-wire winding placed in derivation, and with a compound
winding of thick wire.
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued]
Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles General Observations Examples
of Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles.
HEAVY-FREIGHT ELECTRIC VEHICLES
THE backwardness that has hitherto existed in this country in the
use of electricity has naturally tended to retard the development
of the electric-driven motor vehicle, and more especially has this
been the case with respect to heavy-freight electric vehicles.
Electrically propelled vehicles present undoubted advantages
for use on the comparatively smooth streets and roads that ought to
be met with in and about large towns and cities, and consequently
they are pretty extensively employed abroad, and especially in
the United States ; but here the general bad condition of the
paved thoroughfares, and the deplorably bumpy macadam and
soft, foundationless gravel roads which, in spite of the scandalously
high rates, are the general rule, especially in and around London,
has discouraged and kept back the use of electric motor vehicles,
as it has, indeed, to a lesser extent, other self-propelled freight
The electric equipment of a vehicle renders it both clean,
inoffensive, and easy to handle. The suitable commutation of
battery cells forming a feature of the electric system of propulsion,
and which can be brought about through interconnection of con-
tacts on the "controller," in conjunction with the series and
multiple arrangement of the motor, gives considerable flexibility
in the power and speed conditions of the driving mechanism,
and the electric-driven vehicle may be said to be practically
flexible and noiseless, as well as clean, inoffensive, and easy to
240 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
handle, devoid of heat and vibration, or practically so, and is,
besides, the only power which checks automatically and naturally
the consumption of energy even with light loads, almost in pro-
portion to the power delivered. The electric motor will run
equally well in either direction, and will work with an overload
of several hundred per cent, for short periods.
For long distances, however, the use of storage batteries in
heavy-freight vehicles is found in practice to be fraught with
many disadvantages, so much so, indeed, as to become prohibi-
tive, and on rough roads with heavy-freight vehicles and more
especially with those fitted with iron or steel tyres the jarring
and vibration imparts such severe punishment to the batteries as
to render their use all but impracticable. This latter feature
must obviously, therefore, greatly limit the use of electrically driven
heavy-freight vehicles in this country until such time as the
ratepayers insist upon a proper return for their money from the
authorities in the direction of paving and road-making.
As regards cost, the best traction cell has a capacity of about
7 watts to each pound of its weight, and if this be taken as
a basis to go upon, it will be easy to calculate what the dead
weight will be that would be required for the propulsion of a
heavy load for a long distance with one charge. In addition to
the actual cost of charging, however, the maintenance of batteries
forms a considerable item.
EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT ELECTRIC
Hudson Heavy-freight Electric Waggon
This waggon, which is shown in Fig. 119, with the body
tipped for unloading, was built to the designs of the Hudson
Coal Company, Jersey City, New York, and is especially intended
for the delivery of coal ; the carrying capacity of the waggon is
The main feature of this waggon is the arrangement for
tipping, and the long sheet-iron chute which is adapted beneath
the vehicle. The mechanism employed comprises a small but
powerful electric windlass, driven by an independent electric
motor, geared with large reduction through toothed gearing on
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 241
the right-hand side of the vehicle to a transverse shaft 2 ins.
in diameter, and mounted centrally in the frame. Upon this
shaft wind two chains, which slowly draw the forward end of an
extended set of toggle levers towards the centre of the frame,
and thus cause the middle portion of the levers to rise and force
Fig. 119. The Hudson heavy-freight electric waggon.
the body of the vehicle upwards, the front end rising to a height
of 5 ft. and the rear end to a height of 2 ft. above the frame.
This vehicle is said to afford every satisfaction, being entirely
successful from a commercial point of view. It makes from four
to six trips daily, according to distance, from Jersey City to
New York, with 5-ton loads, one man only being required in
The Vehicle Equipment Company Heavy-freight
Several types of heavy-freight vehicles propelled by electric
power are built by the Vehicle Equipment Company, who are
represented in this country by the Anglo-American Motor Car
Company, Limited, London.
Fig. 120 shows a 4-ton trolley built by this company, and
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
used for the transport of flour, which it is claimed to perform
with complete success. They have also constructed a number of
lorries, waggons, furniture vans, and other heavy-freight electric
Fig 1 . 120. The Vehicle Equipment Company heavy-freight electric
vehicles, the frames and running gears of all of which are designed
upon the same principle as those of their electric omnibuses,
which have been already described and illustrated on pp. 145
to 147, and which consequently need not be again gone into.
SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES FOR
Dust and Refuse Collection Waggons Street Watering and Washing
Machines Street Sweeping Machines Removal of Snow, etc.
AN important field for the use of self-propelled or motor vehicles
has been found in the various works now commonly undertaken
with more or less success by municipal authorities in this country,
such as the collection and cartage of refuse, water sprinkling and
street washing, street sweeping, sprinkling of sand and gravel,
removal of snow, and, amongst many other obvious services,
that of the cartage of road metal, paving stones, and such other
materials as may be required from time to time in connection
with municipal work.
Hitherto the municipal waggon has been almost exclusively
steam-driven, but in all probability the advent of motor waggons,
having some efficient types of heavy oil or petroleum engines as
prime movers, will result in the latter entering the field as com-
petitors with steam for municipal purposes. The present advan-
tage of the latter power rests in the fact that the fuel used coal,
coke, or refuse oil is cheaper than the petrol spirit employed in
petrol waggons, not to mention the element of danger always
present where the latter fuel is employed. The cost for fuel in
case of a steam-driven waggon may be put at less than id. per
mile for a gross load of 6 tons, a performance which is scarcely
possible in the case of a petrol waggon when used on such duties
as are demanded in municipal work, wherein frequent stoppages,
reversing, etc., are of necessity required. A well-designed com-
pound steam engine, with enclosed cranks and connecting rods,
moreover, requires no other attention for months on end beyond
the necessary supply of lubricating oil to the crank chamber. By
means of the reversing lever the power can be varied through a
244 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
considerable range, which is capable of being increased when
necessary by the admission of live steam into the low-pressure
cylinder. There is also a greater uniformity of driving effort in
the case of a double-acting steam engine in which each cylinder
gives two driving impulses to each revolution, instead of one
impulse to two revolutions, as in the case of the internal combus-
tion engine. Finally, the transmission gear is simpler in the case
of a steam engine, and reversing can be effected in a comparatively
The advantage possessed by the internal combustion engine
in the absence of a boiler, and the consequent reduction of the
Fig. I2i. Coulthard 5 to 6-ton municipal steam tip waggon.
tare weight of the vehicle, besides that stoppages to take up water
are not required, do not count for so much in the case of muni-
cipal work, confined, as it is, to a comparatively restricted area.
These and other advantages, however, now more prominent
where the work is over long distances, will, when joined to cheap
and safe petroleum fuel, place the internal combustion engine on
practically equal terms with steam for municipal service.
As regards the removal of household refuse, the body of a
vehicle intended for this work must obviously be constructed to
tip, and preferably should consist of a separate part easily attach-
able or detachable from the under frame. It is also very desirable
that the cart should be fitted with proper lifting or sliding metal
covers. The tipping can be effected either by a screw or some
other equivalent mechanical contrivance.
VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 245
246 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Motor dust-carts are made with capacities of from 6 to 10
cubic yards, against the 2^ to 4 cubic yards of the horse carts.
Motor dust-carts or waggons are built by most of the makers
of steam lorries or waggons, and several vehicles suitable for the
purpose have been already illustrated, the general construction of
the vehicles being, moreover, in all cases similar to that of the
lorries or waggons with non-tipping or rigid bodies constructed by
the same makers.
Fig. 121 is an illustration, giving a side view, of a 5 to 6-ton
Fig. 123. Thorny croft standard municipal steam tip waggon, showing
steam motor tip waggon built by Messrs. T. Coulthard &
Company, Limited, Preston. Fig. 122 shows a covered steam
motor tip waggon or dust-cart built by Messrs. Mann's Patent
Steam Cart and Waggon Company, Limited, Leeds. Fig. 123
illustrates a steam motor tip waggon having a capacity of 7 cub.
yds., built by the Thorny croft Steam Waggon Company,
Limited, Chiswick, and Fig. 124 shows a steam motor waggon
with a capacity of 9 cub. yds., constructed by the Lancashire
Steam Motor Company, Limited, Leyland, all of which firms
VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 247
have supplied quite a number of the above vehicles to municipal
bodies. As already observed, the general arrangement of these
waggons is similar to that of the steam lorries built by the same
makers, which will be found described and illustrated in a previous
Messrs. James Robertson & Sons, of Fleetwood, whose
standard 5-ton waggon has been described and illustrated on
pp. 206 to 210, also make, amongst other patterns, a waggon fitted
Fig. 124. --The Lancashire standard municipal steam dust- waggon,
with removable tipping body.
with an hydraulic tipping device, consisting of a ram into which
water can be forced from the usual i5o-gallon storage water-tank.
The question of cost of running and maintenance will be
found dealt with generally in a subsequent chapter, but as regards
the advisability or otherwise of employing steam waggons for
dust collection, the following remarks made by Mr. A. Ventris,
engineer to the Strand Board of Works, in a statement to the
Liverpool Self-propelled Traffic Association, and by other authori-
ties upon the subject, will be of interest. " I have every confi-
dence," says Mr. Vestris, " in urging, not merely recommending,
248 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the adoption of motors for use in operations similar to those so
admirably carried out in the Strand district. The warnings I
would give are : (a) concentrate sufficient dustmen upon the
motor to permit of its large capacity being taken advantage of;
(b) arrange for all repairs to be made promptly, and for periodic
tightening of the wheels in an hydraulic tyre-setting machine ; (c)
work the motor two shifts per day."
According to Mr. Winter, of Hampstead, after having two
steam dust-carts at work for nine months, it was found that a
good deal of time and value was lost when the motor was about
the street for collection purposes, and the result was that, com-
pared to horse haulage, it did not work out economically, even
with the use of a trailer worked in connection with the motor. It
may be observed that the destructor plant for Hampstead is
located some three miles outside the boundary of the district,
which circumstance should be in favour of the use of motor dust-
carts or waggons.
Three or four months' experience of the use of the above
motors for street watering and haulage, on the other hand, resulted
in a very distinct advantage, each motor being found to perform
the work of four horses and carts. The horses and carts cost
qs. %d. each, or i 18.$-. M. for the four, whilst the motor (in-
cluding driver's wages, allowance for depreciation and repairs)
cost -i 8s., thus showing a saving of IQS. per day, or about ^"155
a year. The Hampstead motor carts cost ^700 each, including
two bodies, one for the collection of dust and the other for street
The saving effected by the use of motors for dust collection
and street watering is estimated by Mr. Ventris at ^173 125-. per
motor ; or if the water van be fitted with foot levers, so as to
enable the services of an attendant at 255-. per week to work the
levers on day shift to be dispensed with, the saving would be
^238 per motor.
The collection of dust or house refuse is undoubtedly the most
variable item to be found in municipal work, and the advantages
to be gained by the use of motor dust-carts or waggons must of
necessity differ considerably in accordance with existing local
Mr. T. W. E. Higgens, A.M.I.C.E., Chelsea, is of the opinion
that for general cartage and street watering, and sweeping, motor
VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 249
vehicles are preferable, but that for the collection of street dust
and house-to-house refuse too much time is wasted in stoppages.
Mr. \V. Weaver, M.I.C.E., Kensington, also recommends
motors for street sweeping and watering.
Mr. A. Sharp, B.Sc., A.M.I. C.E., in a paper on "Municipal
Motor Waggons," read before the Sanitary Institute Congress, at
Manchester, says : " To secure the maximum economy in working
motor tip waggons, the collection of refuse and the filling of the
vehicle should be done as expeditiously as possible. The capacity
of the motor tip waggon (7 cub. yds.) being two to three times
that of a horse-drawn collecting cart, the number of labourers
employed in filling should be greater. The speed of travelling
being twice that of the horse-drawn cart, the time spent in travel-
ling to and from the destructor, or tipping place, is halved. The
same staff of fillers may keep a number of tip waggons going, one
being filled while the others are on their way to or from the
destructor. The average distance between the destructor and
the points of collection will determine the number of motor
waggons for a complete refuse disposal plant. In any case, as
large a staff of labourers as is found convenient should be con-
centrated on filling one motor waggon, so that the lime the motor
remains practically idle is a minimum. One motor dust-cart has
thus twice the speed and two and a half times the capacity of a
" For street watering and sweeping purposes the motor waggon
is undoubtedly specially qualified. The work in this case is of a
regular and definite character, and the road surfaces to be run on
should be at least moderately good. The substitution for the
tipping body of a water tank of considerably more than double
the capacity of a horse-drawn watering cart is only a matter
occupying a few minutes' time. In the watering carts employed
by Mr. Weaver, M.I.C.E., at Kensington, two water distributors
are provided in conjunction with the water tank, viz. an ordinary
sprinkler and a discharge valve for flooding or washing the roads
before sweeping them. Obviously, motor watering carts can also
be employed for the flushing of gutters and street drains with
For street sweeping either a horse-power rotary sweeper of
the usual type may be hauled behind the motor, or a street
cleansing machine propelled by steam power may be employed.
250 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The first of these arrangements has been successfully used in
Chelsea, the latter machine being in use in Kensington. An
arrangement of the Thornycroft standard pattern of steam waggon,
fitted with a water tank and a rotating brush, which latter can be
replaced when desired by a spiral rubber squeegee, is illustrated
in Fig. 125, and forms a very efficient machine. The requisite
rotary motion is imparted to the brush from the driving axle of
the motor through a set of toothed and chain gearing. This
machine is said to have a capacity of 14,000 sq. yds. per hour,
and to be capable of doing the work of eight ordinary horse-
drawn rotating road-sweeping machines.
A motor road cleaner designed by Mr. F. Sadler for municipal
Fig. 125. Thornycroft steam street watering and sweeping waggon.
purposes, which combines four distinct instruments, is shown in
The main frame of this machine is constructed of channel
steel of large cross section, and has also an underframe serving to
stiffen the two axles, and carrying the main clutch of the motor
and the change-speed gear, the arrangement of which does not
differ essentially from that generally found on chain-driven cars.
The rear wheels are driven through chain gearing from
sprocket wheels on the extremities of a transverse differential
countershaft. The steering gear is of the usual type.
At the front of the main frame is mounted a large revolving
brush, having its axis placed at a convenient angle to the direction
VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 251
of travel, so as to enable the sweepings to be delivered to the side,
as in the case of ordinary horse-drawn road-sweeping machines.
A crane arm fixed to the frame takes the weight of the brush, and
the latter can be raised or lowered by the driver through a hand
wheel on a horizontal shaft operating a vertical screw through a
nut and bevel gearing, as shown in the illustration. The brush is
driven by chain gearing from a horizontal shaft on the main
frame, which shaft is in turn driven by bevel gearing and chains
from the rear wheels, the power being thus transmitted by one set
of chains to the driving wheels, that required for revolving the
brush being again transmitted back to another countershaft by
another set of chains. Immediately in front of the brush are
Fig. 126. The Sadler municipal road-cleaning machine.
provided narrow rakes to break up the hard mud and enable it to
be dealt with by the revolving brush.
Four overlapping squeegees placed at an angle to the frame
are provided at the rear, and are so arranged that any or all of
them can be brought into contact with the road surface by gear
worked from the driver's seat. A similar number of scrapers are
mounted behind the squeegees.
The numerous other uses for which motor vehicles can be
advantageously employed in municipal work are obvious, and
cannot be enlarged upon in the brief notice which the space at
disposal permits of, but a few words must be said respecting the
peculiar adaptability of the motor vehicle for the removal of snow.
A motor vehicle having non-slipping devices attached to the
driving wheels, or fitted with a suitable sanding arrangement in
252 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
connection with the latter, and a snow-plough fixed in front, would
be capable of dealing easily with a fall of snow several inches in
depth. For lighter falls a trailing scraper would probably be the
most convenient. Where motor vehicles are in extensive use,
therefore, the provision of the above comparatively inexpensive
snow removal attachments would provide a satisfactory solution
of the problem of clearing snow from the roadway, and enable
municipal authorities to deal with comparative facility with
falls of snow, the difficulty of providing for the removal of which
has hitherto been found practically unsurmountable.
In concluding this short chapter on municipal motor vehicles,
the writer would point out that the satisfactory results which have
been obtained when employing both horse-drawn and motor
vehicles would be much enhanced were the former completely
superseded by the latter. In this case the size of the plant would
warrant the employment of a thoroughly competent foreman
mechanic and sufficient skilled assistants to carry out all small
repairs, periodical examinations, and replacing of worn parts, etc.,
and thus to admit of the vehicles being maintained in the highest
practicable condition of efficiency, and consequently worked to
the best possible advantage.
MISCELLANEOUS TYPES OF MOTOR
Commercial Travellers' Motor Vehicles Furniture Removal
Motor Vans Hospital Motor Ambulances Motor Fire Engines
Self-propelled or Motor Railway Carriages Overhead Con-
ductor Electric Omnibuses Motor Vehicles for Various Purposes
COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS' MOTOR
A USEFUL type of self-propelled vehicle for business purposes is
a motor brougham for the use of commercial travellers. The
best power for a vehicle of this description seems to be the
internal combustion engine, and as an excellent example of one
of these machines may be taken that built by the Putney Motor
Company, Putney, London. This vehicle is designed to stand
hard work and to carry a load of 10 cwts. of samples. The driver
is completely protected from the weather, and there is normally
accommodation for two passengers, whilst by removing the upper
part of the car four more can be seated. The interior is fitted
up with a writing desk and electric light. Power is generated by
a 1 6-horse-power petrol motor of the Craig-Dorwald type, which
is capable of developing 24-horse-power on the brake.
Another pattern of commercial vehicle is that built by Messrs.
Benz and Company, of Mannheim, Germany (sole agents for whom
in this country are Messrs. Hewetson, Limited, London), which car
is fitted up for the use of commercial travellers, and is driven by
a 3-horse-power petrol engine.
The dimensions of this car are 7 ft. 6 ins. in length, 4 ft. 6 ins.
in width, and 7 ft. in height. It is, as above mentioned, specially
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
arranged to suit the convenience of commercial travellers, and is
provided with a hood, giving effectual shelter in the worst of
weather. The compartment or case at the rear is fitted up with
shelves to receive samples, from 4 to 5 cwts. of which can be
carried, and it has secure lock-up doors. The weight of the
vehicle, unloaded, is about 7*5 cwts. The sample case can,
when desired, be easily removed, thus leaving the vehicle fit for
A brief description of the Benz system will be found in a
FURNITURE REMOVAL MOTOR VANS
For long distances self-propelled furniture vans should possess
undoubted advantages, but for short journeys horse traction must,
for the present at least, hold its own. A useful type of motor
Fig. 127. Thorny croft steam furniture van.
furniture van is that with a removable van body fitted with slings.
This arrangement not only admits of the van body being re-
moved for transport by rail or on shipboard, but it leaves the
lorry platform free, and the vehicle disposable for other purposes.
Fig. 127 shows a combination steam lorry and furniture van
MISCELLANEOVS MOTOR VEHICLES 255
of the above-mentioned description, which is fitted with extra
strong frame and springs, and is capable of carrying a load of
4 tons. This vehicle is built by the Thornycroft Steam Waggon
Company, Limited, and the construction of the running mechanism
is practically the same as that of the standard steam waggon made
by the company.
A steam furniture van similar to that shown in the illustration
has been in constant use by Messrs. W. Whiteley, Limited, and
obtained a first prize at the May Day Motor Van and Waggon
Parade, in 1903.
An example of an electrically driven furniture van is shown
in Fig. 128. This vehicle is built by the Vehicle Equipment
Fig. 128. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric furniture van.
Company of New York (the sole agents for whom in this country
are the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited), the running
gear being similar to that described in a previous chapter with
reference to the delivery vans by the same makers.
HOSPITAL MOTOR AMBULANCES
For motor ambulances electricity would appear to be an ideal
power. Absence of danger, smell, a minimum of vibration,
and ease of control are essential features for this service. An
electrically propelled vehicle is besides, so long as care is taken
to keep the storage battery charged, available at any time for
instant use, and the absence of any delay in starting is obviously
256 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
a most important consideration in the case of an ambulance.
Steam is, however, also used, and in some ways possesses special
advantages. The vibration of internal combustion engines
renders them unsuitable for the purpose.
The above facts have been long recognized in the United
States, and electric ambulances are in extensive use by all the
best hospitals in that country. Fig. 129 is an example of an
electric ambulance built by the Vehicle Equipment Company. As
will be seen from the illustration, the vehicle is of the rear
opening type. The bed is self-supporting when pulled out, and
Fig. 129. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric ambulance.
its dimensions are 7 ft. 6 ins. in length by 3 ft. 4 ins. in width.
The overall length of the vehicle is u ft., and the width of
the body 3 ft. 9 ins. The interior is lined with white enamel
veneering, and trimmed in either rubber cloth or leather, and a
surgeon's seat, medicine cabinet, and all the other necessary
appurtenances are provided, as well as a head light, side lights,
and inside lights.
The ambulance has a maximum speed of 16 miles an hour,
and a radius on one charge of 30 miles.
Another pattern of electric ambulance, having a side opening,
and a lighting and ventilating lantern in the roof, is also built by
the same makers.
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 257
Fig. 130 is a photographic reproduction of a Thornycroft
steam ambulance which has been supplied to the Metropolitan
Asylums Board, and run by them for some time with complete
Fig. 130. Thornycroft steam ambulance.
success. The running gear is practically of the same pattern as
that already described with reference to the heavy-freight vehicles
and omnibuses made by the same firm.
MOTOR FIRE ENGINES
The application of the motive power of a steam fire engine to
the propulsion of the machine along the roads to and from the
scene of operation is an obvious one. It is not surprising, therefore,
that a motor fire engine should have been one of the first motor
vehicles to appear on the passing of the Motor Car Act.
In 1899 a self-propelled steam fire engine was built for abroad,
by Messrs. Merry weather and Sons, Limited, Greenwich, the well-
known fire engineers, who would doubtless long before have
brought out a practical machine had an encouragement been
forthcoming from the authorities in this country.
258 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
This machine differs but little from the firm's ordinary type
of steam fire engine. The propelling mechanism is especially
designed so as to be as simple as possible and to occupy the
minimum of space, consistent with proper regard to strength, and
free access to the various parts. The engine, when fully manned
and carrying the necessary supplies of fuel and water, weighs
under 3 tons. The boiler, in which steam can be raised in about
six minutes from the time of lighting the fire, is of the pattern
used in the engines supplied to the London Fire Brigade, the
pumps being capable of delivering 300 gallons of water per
minute, and throwing a jet to a height of about 150 ft. The
steering wheel, throttle valve lever, reversing gear lever, and
foot-brake lever are all located within convenient reach of the
driver on the off side of the front seat, and an auxiliary screw
brake can be operated from the footplate at the rear.
Tests of this machine before being despatched abroad proved
that it was able to surmount with ease gradients of i in 10 at a
speed of 10 miles an hour, whilst on ordinary roads from 15 to 20
miles an hour could be easily maintained.
Messrs. Merryweather have constructed several patterns of
steam fire engines adapted to be either propelled by their own
power or drawn by horses, as may be desired, the machines being
practically replicas of their ordinary horse-drawn patterns adapted
to travel by steam power.
The propelling machinery of this type of machine consists
essentially of a countershaft supported in gun-metal swivel bearings
secured to the frame. This countershaft is driven by toothed-
wheel gearing from the crank shaft of the engine, and on its outer
extremities are fixed bronze chain wheels, which latter are geared
to the driving sprocket wheels secured to the spokes of the driving
wheels, through chains of the roller pattern, with suitable provision
for taking up wear. Balance gear provided on the countershaft
enables the engine to negotiate sharp corners with safety. The
main frame of these machines consists of two parallel bars of
channel steel firmly fixed together by means of angle-steel box
In Fig. 131 is illustrated a more recent type of self-propelled
steam fire engine built by the above-mentioned firm, one of which
machines, supplied to the fire brigade of Leyland, Lancashire, is
the first motor fire engine to be placed in service in this country,
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 259
many other motor fire engines having, however, been previously
The motor fire engine under consideration has a quick-steaming
boiler, of the water-tube type, petroleum or liquid fuel being
employed, reservoirs for which are placed beneath the hose box.
The engine is a double-cylinder one, and is coupled to the driving
wheels through sprocket and chain gearing and a countershaft
with a clutch, which admits of the power of the engine being
disconnected therefrom when required. By means of a coupling
Fig. 131. The Merryweather steam motor fire engine.
device of very simple construction, the water pumps, which are of
gun-metal with a capacity of 300 gallons per minute, can be
connected up with the engine when the machine has arrived at the
scene of operation.
The steering is on the Ackermann principle, starting, stopping,
and reversing levers, and the pedal lever of foot brake being
within convenient reach of the driver on the front seat, and the
hand wheel of a powerful screw brake admits of the latter being
worked by the man on the footplate at the rear. The feed-water
tanks for the boiler are placed at each side of the latter, and
260 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
sufficient water and fuel is carried for a run of several hours'
At a test of this self-propelled steam fire engine, steam was
raised in the boiler to working pressure in two minutes, and the
motor started on the trial run.
Electrically propelled chemical fire engines or waggons fitted
with hook ladders are used by the Vienna Fire Brigade, who have
three of these chemical engines at headquarters and one at each
The above brigade have also a number of steam-propelled fire
engines, three at headquarters, one in each of the district fire
stations and four steam-engine stations. These steam fire engines
are of the three-cylinder type built by Messrs. William Knaust and
Company, engineers, Vienna.
SELF-PROPELLED OR MOTOR RAILWAY
The great increase in competition during recent years, and the
demand of the public for more frequent train services, at reduced
fares, has led railway companies, both in this country and abroad,
to consider whether the loss necessarily entailed by the running of
long and heavy trains, frequently only scantily occupied by
passengers, might not be avoided by the use of self-propelled or
motor railway coaches or carriages, and a much-desired economy
be effected in this manner.
The steam motor railway carriage shown in Fig. 132 shows the
most recent and standard type built at their Nine Elms Works, and
now in use on the London and South Western Railway. The
illustration is a direct reproduction from a photograph, for which
the author is indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Dugald Drummond,
M.I.C.E., the locomotive superintendent of the line.
The body of the carriage is supported, as shown in the illus-
tration, upon a frame formed of channel section, and is mounted
on two four-wheel bogies.
The engine and boiler are enclosed, as shown, and the cab is
located at the extreme forward end. The design throughout is
such as to secure the greatest possible amount of compactness
consistent with efficiency. The cylinders are set on an incline,
the connecting rods driving direct on to crank pins provided on
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 261
262 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
the front wheels. The boiler is of the vertical type. The con-
struction of the running mechanism is such as to admit of speed
being very rapidly attained ; the degree of acceleration is at the
rate of about a mile per second, and will consequently give the
carriage a speed of about 30 miles an hour in half a minute from
Adjoining the engine is a compartment for 8 first-class
passengers, access to which can be had from a platform protected
by folding or collapsible gates of the Bostwick type. The third-
class passenger compartment, which is adapted to accommodate 32
passengers, is approached from the same platform. At the rear
of the carriage is a compartment capable of containing about a
ton of luggage. Levers are provided in this rear compartment
which enable the steam valves and brakes to be operated through
suitable connecting rods, and the carriage to be started or stopped
from either end, thus avoiding the necessity for turning at terminal
stations. Electric communication is also fitted up between the
cab and the body of the carriage.
A former type of motor railway carriage placed in use on the
same line two or three years back had an overall length of 56 ft.,
and a passenger compartment divided into two sections by means
of a sliding door, comprising a first-class compartment adapted to
accommodate 12 passengers with the seats arranged longitudinally,
and a third-class compartment capable of seating 30 persons with
the seats placed in pairs transversely on each side of a central
The boiler in this type of carriage is arranged at the extreme
forward end, a cab of the usual pattern being provided, next to
which is a compartment capable of containing about a ton
of luggage, separated by a platform protected by collapsible
or folding gates of the Bostwick type from the passenger
Another platform similarly protected, and resembling that for
brakemen on electric cars, is provided at the rear, and arrange-
ment is made for enabling the carriage to be worked from this
The weight of the complete motor carriage is stated to be
somewhat less than that of one of the ordinary bogie carriages in
use on the London and South Western Railway.
These motor railway carriages are capable of being worked by
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 263
264 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
two men, a driver and a conductor, and the cost of working is said
to be about 2'$d. per mile, including wages, etc.
Fig. 133 shows a steam motor railway carriage built by Messrs.
Kitson and Company, Leeds, and the Metropolitan Amalga-
mated Railway Carriage and Waggon Company, Limited, Oldbury,
for the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, to the designs of
Mr. Harry S. Wainwright, M.I.C.E., chief mechanical engineer to
the line, to whose kindness the author is indebted for the photo-
graph from which the illustration is reproduced, and for the
following particulars respecting the vehicle.
The engine is carried on a four-wheel bogie, the bogie centre
pivot being fixed to a cross beam at the end of the carriage under-
frame, and the wheel base of the engine bogie being 8 ft., with
coupled wheels 3 ft. 7 ins. diameter. The cylinders are placed
outside the frames, and are 10 ins. diameter by 15 ins. stroke. The
valve gear is of the Walschaerts type.
The boiler is of the locomotive type, and is fitted with a Belpaire
firebox. It has the following heating surface : firebox, 44*5 sq. ft. ;
tubes, 337 sq. ft. ; total, 381-5 sq. ft. The grate area is 8 '8 sq. ft.
The working pressure is 160 Ibs. per square inch. Water tanks are
placed at the sides and between the bogie frames, having a total
capacity of 400 gallons. The coal bunkers are at the ends of the
side tanks, and are capable of carrying about 15 cwt.
The engine can, if desired, be readily detached from the
carriage, and can be run separate, when in steam.
The total length of the steam motor carriage over buffers is
64 ft. n ins., and the centres of bogies 42 ft.
The total weight of the steam motor carriage, when unloaded,
is about 38 tons, which is distributed as follows : 24^ tons on
engine bogie, and 13 J tons on carriage bogie.
This steam motor carriage is capable of taking, when required,
an additional trailer carriage, weighing 1 6 tons, at a speed of over
35 miles per hour on a level, and at an average speed, including
gradients, of 30 miles per hour.
The car runs very smoothly, indiarubber being largely em-
ployed to prevent vibration. The engine coal consumption is
extremely small, and, as economy in maintenance has been
especially studied in the design, a considerable saving in several
directions will no doubt result.
The carriage body is 48 ft. 4 ins. long outside, and is divided
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 265
into three compartments, viz. a third-class non-smoking, next to
engine, 19 ft. lof ins. long; a third-class smoking, 14 ft. lof ins.
long ; and a luggage and guard's compartment at the end, 6 ft.
8 ins. long.
There is a vestibule at the end, next to the engine, and also
at that next the luggage compartment. Ordinary hinged doors,
opening inwards, are placed on the side of the body, and sliding
doors are arranged in the passenger and guard's compartments.
The passenger compartments are finished in teak, and the
seats are arranged back to back, with a gangway down the centre.
Ventilation is provided over each window and in the roof.
Entrance to the car is effected by the end vestibule, leading to
the non-smoking and the smoking compartments respectively.
The seating accommodation is as follows : thirty-two non-smoking
and twenty-four smoking. Electric lighting on Stone's system is
The underframe of the car is constructed of steel, and is
carried at one end by a four-wheel carriage bogie, 8-ft. wheel
base, with 3 ft. 6 in. wheels. The other end of the car, which is
supported on the engine bogie, is cushioned with indiarubber pads.
A vacuum automatic brake is provided, and, in addition, a
hand brake on the carriage and engine. The steam regulator,
reversing gear, whistle, vacuum, and hand brakes can be worked
by the driver from either end, and the guard can communicate
with the driver by means of electric bells.
This steam motor carriage is now running on the Sheppey
A steam railway carriage, designed for the Barry Railway
Company by Mr. J. H. Hosgood, M.I.C.E., the locomotive super-
intendent to the line, has been built by the North British Loco-
motive Company, Limited, and accommodates 51 passengers,
viz. 10 in the first-class compartment and 41 in the third-class
The underframe carrying the body is constructed of steel
channels 9 ins. by 3^ ins., with angle-iron stretchers 8 ins. by
3-j ins., with headstocks of the same size. The sole bars are
stiffened with truss rods and formed in one length. The boiler
seating consists of two stretchers of channel section 9 ins. by
3-j ins., shaped to suit the boiler, and strengthened by 8 ins. by
3-j ins. by \ in. angles riveted to the frame stretchers.
2 66 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Over the headstocks the frame is 60 ft. 10 ins., and over the
buffers 64 ft. 10 ins., the extreme width being 8 ft. 6 ins. A
water tank capable of holding 500 gallons and a coal bunker
with a capacity of 15 cwts. are provided.
The first-class compartment has the seats arranged longitu-
dinally of the car, and is 8 ft. 3 ins. long; and the third-class
compartment has the seats placed in pairs transversely of the car
at each side of a central gangway, and is 25 ft. io-|- ins. in length.
The latter compartment is further divided into two sections, a
smoking and a non-smoking. There is a gangway between the
first and third-class sections protected by folding or collapsible
gates. The luggage compartment, which is situated between the
engine and the third-class compartment, is 5 ft. in length by 7 ft.
8^- ins. in height at centre.
The engines are horizontal, with cylinders 1 2 ins. diameter by
a stroke of 16 ins., fitted with Smith's patent piston valves and
Walschaert's valve gear. They are arranged to drive direct on to
the driving wheel, which is 3 ft. 7^- ins. in diameter on the tread.
From the centre of the cylinders to the centre of the driving axle
is ii ft., and from the centre of one cylinder to that of the other
is 6 ft. 7 ins.
The boiler is 9 ft. 2 ins. high by an outside diameter of 6 ft.
o| ins., and 4 ft. 6 ins. diameter at the seating resting on the
frame. It has 462 tubes of i\ in. diameter, with 133 copper
stays i in. diameter. The heating surface is as follows : firebox,
45-41 sq. ft.; tubes, 550-00 sq. ft. ; making a total of 595*41 sq. ft.
The normal working pressure is 160 Ibs. per square inch.
All the compartments, as also the tail and head lamps, are
lighted by electricity on Stone's system, and an electric com-
munication is provided between the guard and the driver.
An arrangement is also provided which admits of the valves,
etc., being worked from either end of the carriage.
Another example of what has been done in this direction is
a steam motor railway carriage which has been recently built
from the designs of Mr. Manson, locomotive and carriage super-
intendent, at the Kilmarnock works of the Glasgow and South
The car is 60 ft. 8 ins. over the buffers, and is divided into
three sections for passengers, having the guard's compartment at
the rear, and the locomotive in front, with a cab of the usual type.
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 267
Each of the passenger compartments has a separate entrance
door, and they are separated from one another by sliding doors.
The seating accommodation is for 50 persons, and a central gang-
way admits of free passage from end to end of the carriage. The
lighting is by Pintsch's oil gas.
The underframe of the carriage is of steel, and is carried on
two suspension link bogies, that at the rear being of the ordinary
standard type, whilst the front bogie is practically a small outside
cylinder locomotive which is complete in itself, and so connected
to the carriage that it can be easily detached. The cylinders are
9 ins. diameter by 15 ins. stroke. They are fixed horizontally
on the bogie frame, and drive on to the trailing wheels, which
latter are coupled to the leading wheels. The slide valves are
placed on the top of the cylinders, and are operated by rocking
shafts, link motion, and eccentrics of the standard pattern used
on other locomotives on the line.
The boiler is of the locomotive type, with a copper firebox
and 138 brass tubes if in. external diameter. It has a firegrate
area of 8 sq. ft. ; the heating surface of the firebox is 40 sq. ft.,
and that of the tubes 400 sq. ft.
Hand and vacuum brakes that can be operated from each end
of the vehicle are provided, as also electrical communication
between the guard and driver, and an arrangement whereby the
former can sound the steam whistle from his van.
The dimensions of the carriage are as follows : length over
buffers, 60 ft. 8 ins. ; length over headstocks, 57 ft. 2 ins.; length
of body, 41 ft. ; from centre to centre of bogies, 39 ft. 4 ins. ;
bogie wheel base, 8 ft. ; wheel diameter, 3 ft. 6 ins.
There is a water tank located beneath the car, having a
capacity for 500 gallons, and coal bunkers are provided capable
of containing 1 5 cwts. of fuel.
Hinged steps at the guard's compartment, worked by a lever,
allow passengers to enter from the road level.
Efforts have also been made to adapt the internal combustion
engine to the propulsion of motor railway carriages, in the
United States, on the Continent, and also to a very limited
extent in this country.
In the United States experiments have been made with more
or less success in the direction of the propulsion of motor railway
carriages by means of electricity generated on the car. For this
268 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
purpose a dynamo is coupled direct to an internal combustion
engine, the electricity thus generated being conveyed to electric
motors coupled direct to the driving wheels. This plan is, it will
be seen, an adaption of the petro-electric system which has been
described with reference to omnibuses and lorries.
OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR ELECTRIC
A system that has met with considerable favour abroad, and
has secured some attention in this country, is one in which
omnibuses, arranged to be driven by means of electric motors,
derive the necessary supply of electric current from overhead
conductors. The plan offers several important advantages, and
affords an excellent means for working a service of omnibuses
on a fixed route where, owing to the narrowness of the road-
ways, congestion of the traffic, or both these causes, the use of
tramways is undesirable.
The chief advantages possessed by a system of electric
omnibuses worked on the trolley system are, absence of rails on
the road, which are a constant source of danger and annoyance ;
ability of the omnibuses to steer over any part of the roadway,
instead of practically monopolizing it, as is the case with tramways ;
facility of installation and of removal from one route to another
at a comparatively trifling expense; and lastly, an important
feature in many cases, cheapness of first cost of the installation.
Experiments in this system of locomotion were first made in
1882 by Messrs. Siemens and Halske, of Berlin. The first
practically successful installation, however, was that constructed
by Mr. Max Schiemann, of Dresden, in conjunction with Messrs.
Siemens and Halske, running from Koenigstein, Saxon Switzerland,
along the Biel valley. The system was also exemplified both at
the Turin Exhibition and the French Exhibition at Vincennes in
The omnibuses are made both semi and completely closed,
both types being arranged for the accommodation of 26 passengers.
The body of each vehicle is mounted on two single-wheel bogie
trucks, the axles being supported in roller bearings, and the trucks
being connected by cross pieces, so that the axles will move
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 269
equally. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and all of the
same diameter, no differential gearing being employed.
The body is connected to each truck by means of four vertical
pivots, and the steering is effected by a like number of horizontal
ones, an arrangement that leaves the central portion of the truck
free for the brake lever, and allows of the brake being applied
when running round curves without interfering with the movement
of the bogie trucks.
An 8'5-horse-power electric motor, suspended at the centre of
gravity, is connected to each of the rear wheels. The speed of
the motors averages 900 revolutions per minute, and there is
independent transmission to each wheel through single reduction
(one-tenth) Grisson gear.
The driver's seat is placed in front on the frame of the omni-
bus, and is protected from the weather by a forward extension
of the roof. The shaft or spindle of the steering gear passes
through the hollow or tubular shaft of the speed regulator, and
hand wheels upon these shafts are placed one above the other
within convenient reach of the driver's seat. The weight on the
front steering wheels is about one-third of the total weight, and
the frame is supported upon six springs.
The shoes or skates forming connection with the overhead
wires are forked, and have soft metal linings, and grooves to
contain lubricating material are provided. The shoes are free to
move both on horizontal and vertical axes, and springs ensure
proper contact, the arrangement being such, moreover, that the
shoes and the vehicle are always parallel to one another.
Two overhead wires, about 20 ins. apart, are provided, one of
which is for the return current, and the shoes are carried upon
rods of light cane or steel tubing, and the omnibus is permitted a
play of 10 feet on each side of the wires, which latter are
suspended from cross wires or hangers in the ordinary manner.
A speed of 14 kiloms., or 8 '698 miles, an hour can be attained.
An installation on the above principle, working in the environs
of Paris, has a pair of trolley wires supported on short brackets on
one side of the road, on which wires runs a two-wheeled trolley
fitted with a small electric motor for its own propulsion, and con-
nected with the omnibus by means of a flexible cable connected
to a pole on the roof. Suitable devices are also provided for
keeping this cable taut, and for preventing derailment of the trolley.
270 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Through the trolley wheels and flexible cable a current at 500
volts is supplied to the motor of the omnibus, and the cable also
contains three small conductors, which serve to convey back to
the trolley motor the three-phase current by which it is driven.
This current is derived from the main motor on the omnibus,
which has three collecting rings on the armature at the end furthest
from the commutator, and is connected to suitable points in the
winding. This arrangement ensures synchronism between the
speeds of the vehicle and trolley motor. In addition to this, an
electro-magnetic brake is provided on the trolley motor, which
can be energized through a sixth wire in the flexible cable.
The omnibuses each weigh about 3 tons empty and 5 tons
fully loaded. The wheels are shod with solid indiarubber tyres.
The power required for propulsion at ordinary speeds and on
level roads is found to be from 130 to 160 watt-hours per ton-mile.
MOTOR VEHICLES ADAPTED FOR VARIOUS
As has been already mentioned, the heavy motor vehicles
described in the foregoing pages can be fitted with bodies of
various types adapted to suit different services without the general
principles of construction being departed from in any material
manner. A few of these heavy-freight vehicles for particular
duties have been already briefly described and illustrated. The
following are some of the numerous other uses to which such
motor vehicles can be advantageously adapted.
For engineers' use for the transport of machinery, girders, etc. ;
for boiler makers, safe makers, and other manufacturers or trans-
porters of heavy goods and plant. These vehicles can with advan-
tage be provided with hoists for facilitating the handling of the loads.
Vehicles with specially designed bodies are also made for the use
of brewers, millers, pianoforte makers, farmers, market gardeners,
builders and contractors, general carriers, dairies, bottlers, florists,
advertising contractors, chocolate, cocoa, and sweet manufacturers,
the transport of theatrical scenery and properties, the transport of
canes on sugar estates, tank waggons for the conveyance of oil,
and for many other special purposes too numerous to mention.
In agriculture, besides the obvious use of the motor in the
form of various types of waggons for the transport of farm produce
MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 271
it can be advantageously employed in the form of a tractor for
the haulage of any description of three-furrow ploughs, scufflers,
mowing machines, reapers and binders, and, in fact, any description
of agricultural implement.
A motor specially adapted for this description of work is that
made by the Ivel Agricultural Motors, Limited, of London and
Biggleswade. This machine is capable not only of acting as a
tractor, but also of driving all kinds of agricultural machinery.
The motor is driven by a i4-horse-power petrol engine, and is
supported upon three wide wheels, two at the rear, used for driving,
and a single front one, which is used for steering.
The weight of this motor being only 28 cwts., it can be run on
most roads, and makes scarcely any impression on the land.
In trials carried out with this tractor, hauling a three-furrowed
plough, 6 acres i rood 9 poles of very hard-surfaced land was
ploughed to an average depth of 7 ins. in 8 hours and 54 minutes,
the cost working out at the rate of 5^. per acre, including every-
thing. Drawing a reaping and mowing machine, 19 acres of
wheat were cut in ten hours, at a cost of is. yd. per acre, and
9 acres ofgrass were cut in 5 hours 13 minutes at a similar cost.
Driving a chaff-cutter, 12^ cwts. of chaff were cut to a f-in. gauge
in 47 minutes at a cost of 2s. 6d.
This ingenious invention of Mr. B. J. Diplock, termed the
Pedrail, has attracted considerable attention. It has been favour-
ably reported upon by Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw and others,
and has come successfully through severe trials.
The tractor belongs to the family of walking machines, and
the invention consists essentially in substituting for the wheels of
an ordinary traction engine revolving frames comprising sliding
arms or spokes, each of which has at its extremity a circular foot,
and at a short distance above the latter a roller. At the side
of the machine in connection with each series of revolving arms
or spokes is mounted a frame, of a shape somewhat resembling
that of an inverted heart. On the revolution of the axle the
spokes are carried round, placing the circular feet at their ends
upon the ground in turn one after the other. Simultaneously,
the rollers running round in contact with the heart-shaped
272 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
frame, on arriving beneath or on the broader portion thereof,
act alternately to support the frame and to allow of its gliding
over them. The machine is thus supported in turn through
the rollers by the spokes which happen at the time to be resting
with their feet upon the ground. The heart-shaped frame is so
jointed and governed by springs that, on any of the feet meeting
with an obstruction or inequality in the road surface, it will give
to a sufficient extent to admit of its being surmounted.
In fact, the pedrail may be said to consist practically of two
main parts; the one, a railway fixed to the axle box and non-
revolving, the other, a species of circular box fitted with sliding
spokes, rollers, and feet, so arranged that the feet are placed in
succession on the ground and the rail runs over the rollers.
The feet are most ingeniously constructed, and possess not
only great flexibility, but also have the arms or spokes so attached
by sliding boxes, combined with ball and socket joints, as to be
free to slide in every direction, a feature necessary to admit of
the vehicle being turned. The pedrail is said to be capable of
walking over 9-in. obstructions with ease.
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
General Observations Petrol Cabs Petrol Omnibuses Light Petrol
Vans and Lorries Heavy-freight Petrol Lorries Heavy-freight
Steam Lorries Comparison of Cost of Running for Various
Systems Effect of Materials on Cost of Maintenance.
THE actual working cost of a motor vehicle cannot be ascertained
with the same accuracy as can be done in that of a stationary
engine working with a practically constant load. In the latter
case it is possible to get out the fuel consumption to several
places of decimals, to work out theta phi diagrams, to estimate
the actual brake horse-power per pound of fuel consumed, etc.
In the case of motor vehicles this is rendered impossible, at least
with any degree of mathematical accuracy, on account of the
numerous factors entering into the question of their economical
employment. It will be readily seen, indeed, that a few minutes
delay in starting, varying conditions of the traffic, slip due to
greasy roads, and many other contingencies, have important
bearings upon the fuel consumption. In fact, in the case of
a motor vehicle it is totally impossible to eliminate all personal
elements as it is in that of a stationary engine.
As regards maintenance, this item must, in the case of motor
vehicles, be unusually high, owing to the severe strains due to
passing over uneven road surfaces, surmounting steep gradients,
etc. Competent engineering supervision should be kept over the
driver's work, and this is an item which must consequently be
allowed for in estimates of cost. Heavy-freight vehicles should
only be worked on five days a week, the sixth being devoted to
a thorough overhauling, and some four or five weeks in each year
will, in addition, have to be devoted to more extensive repairs.
274 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The driver's and assistants' wages for the day devoted to the
weekly overhauling (the washing out of the boiler in steam
lorries, cleaning, overhauling, repairing, etc.) must be reckoned
and added to the paying days. On the other hand, however,
during the weeks devoted to extensive repairs neither the fuel
nor the wages bill will run on. From this it will be seen that the
annual working cost can only be estimated as spread over
about 240 working days. Finally, it must be borne in mind that,
in the case of heavy-freight vehicles, full loads must be carried in
order to make them pay. Journeys with light loads or short
journeys can only be profitably performed under very special
circumstances, and where there is very little or no competition.
THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
OF PETROL CABS
At the present time it is not possible to give any actual
positive data respecting the running and maintenance of petrol cabs
founded on practical commercial working over a lengthy period,
and estimates of cost made from purely theoretical deductions
will doubtless be somewhat discounted in actual practice. Never-
theless, by making some allowances, such estimates may be taken
as being sufficiently near the mark to enable useful comparison
to be made as to cost relatively to horse-drawn vehicles.
The following figures are abstracted from a paper on the
" Possible Development of Automobilism and Automobiles," read
before the Scottish Automobile Club by Mr. William Weir, of
A 7^-horse-power petrol motor cab, adapted to carry three
persons, the driver, and luggage, could, according to Mr. Weir,
be sold in lots of 50 for ^350 each, which price would, he says,
allow of a good honest job all through, pneumatic tyres, and a speed
of 1 8 miles an hour. For depreciation ^50 per annum is allowed,
or 075^. per mile run, the vehicle having thus a life of seven
years, and the distance run is estimated at 16,000 miles per
annum, or nearly double that of an ordinary cab. For repairs,
renewals, lubricating oil, and lamp oil, ^45 per annum is allowed,
or, including the cost of tyres, which latter item is based on French
prices, nearly o'6S$d. per mile. This estimate has been founded
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 275
by Mr. Weir on a careful analysis of touring car results, and is
given by him as being a very ample allowance.
For horse-drawn cabs, the above authority allows two horses
for each cab, the total daily average being 28 miles, which at
300 working days per annum gives 8400 miles. The capital
account he estimates as
Two horses at ^"30 each .. .. 60
One cab .......... 105
Harness .......... 10
The life of the horses is put at seven years, that of the cab at
fifteen years, and that of the harness at four years, the annual
depreciation being ;i8 is. 5*/., or 0*5 16</. per mile.
Food for two horses would cost ^65 per annum, or i'8$d. per
mile, whilst petrol for the motor should not exceed o'37$d. per
mile. The wages of both horse and motor cab drivers are put
down at 305". a week, the first working out at 2*22^. per mile, and
the latter at 1*17^. per mile. The rent of stables, rates, taxes,
and stablemen's wages (not taking into account the management
and office staff) is placed at ^28 I2S. per annum, or o'8i*/. per
mile for the horse cab, a figure which could be reduced two- thirds
in the case of motor cabs, owing to the smaller space required.
The cleaning, supervision, rent, rates and taxes, foreman, and all
the other direct charges outside of management and orifice ex-
penses, is estimated by Mr. Weir at ^23 per annum, or about
0*345^. per mile for a motor cab, provided there be at least fifty
cabs on the establishment. The non-requirement of the removal
of horse manure is likewise a very considerable advantage on the
side of the motor cab.
The above figures give as the total cost per mile run, without
making any allowance for interest on capital in either case, for
the horse cab 5*686^. and for the motor cab 3*325^., and adding
in both cases 5 per cent, interest on capital, we have respectively
5-936^. and 3*585^., thus showing the estimate for the running
expenses of the motor cab to be very considerably less per mile
than that of the horse cab.
It must not be overlooked, however, that the advantage
shown in the above estimate on the side of the motor cab is
largely due to the greater distance that the latter vehicle is put
276 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
down as being capable of running in the year, and that in actual
work the number of miles run is dependent on the ability to
obtain fares, and not upon a capacity of running a given distance.
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE OF
Petrol omnibuses have been, and are being now, run in many
localities with profitable results, whilst in others, owing to severe
competition, shortness of routes, and other local causes, they have
not proved to be commercially successful.
In a lecture delivered by the Hon. C. S. Rolls at the London
Institution early in 1904, mention was made of a number of
services working successfully, and the following figures were given,
showing the results obtained with one of the vehicles over a period
of eleven days: Mileage covered, 820; passengers carried, 5312 ;
receipts, ^55 12^.7^.; petrol consumed, 109 gallons; cost per
mile for fuel and oil, 2*85^. ; gross receipts per mile, i6*i5</. This
is claimed to leave for wages, depreciation, upkeep, and profit,
I 3'3^' P er mile, whilst net takings of nd. per mile are said to
assure the financial success of such an undertaking.
The following figures were given in the report of the first year's
working of the Eastbourne motor omnibus service : The number
of passengers carried was 294,922, the total receipts from fares
being ^2069. The expenditure included the following items :
Wages, ^367 ; general repairs, ^84 ; tyre repairs, ;8 ; machinery
repairs, ^205 ; petrol, oil, waste, and cleaning materials, ^365 ;
worn-out tyres and depreciation on tyres still in use, 626. The
total distance run was 36,800 miles, and the cost 13*6^. per car-
mile ; the cost of tyres was 4*09^. per car-mile ; the cost per week
of each car was 17 9^. This service has been a loss.
Mr. John Stirling states that the revenue on omnibuses, with
a maximum capacity of fourteen passengers, run by the London
Power Omnibus Company, is, according to their manager, 8^/.
per car-mile, whilst the working costs and expenses come out at
4^. per car-mile.
As a comparison with the above, the cost of running an up-to-
date electrical tramway is put down roughly at 6d. per car-mile,
whilst the revenue of the West London lines of the London
United Tramways is about nd. per car-mile.
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 277
THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
OF PETROL VANS
The cost of running and maintenance of light petrol vans is a
matter regarding which practical information is still very scarce,
and respecting which, in any case, it would be difficult to give any
precise universally applicable data, inasmuch as it depends largely
upon a variety of considerations relating to the manner in which
they are used. It may, however, be safely calculated that under
ordinary conditions of working the expense would be appreciably
less than that of horse delivery vans.
The following particulars will give some idea of the probable
cost of running light motor delivery vans.
At the Richmond trials in 1899 a Daimler motor (Post Office)
van, and a light lorry of 1*5 ton capacity each, gave gross oil
consumptions for the run of 50 miles of 24 pints and 22 pints,
costing 35-. and 2s. yd. respectively, the oil spirit being 6'68 sp.gr.,
and the price being taken at is. per gallon.
This makes the cost of oil spirit per mile for the van work out
at i '&d., and per mile per ton at o'^d. for the light lorry the
figures being r6d. and 0*75^.
The total weight of the van loaded is 3-95 tons. The engine
has four cylinders, 3*56 ins. diameter each, by 4*75 ins. stroke,
and makes 800 revolutions per minute. There are four changes
of speed, the mean speed per hour being five miles. The total
weight of the light lorry loaded is 2*14 tons. The engine has
two cylinders 3*81 ins. diameter each, by 5*37 ins. stroke, and
makes 660 revolutions per minute. There are four changes of
speed, the mean speed per hour being 5-8 miles. The power of
the latter engine is 6-horse-power nominal. Both the above motors
have electric ignition.
The following estimate is given as applicable to a van on the
Hagen system :
Cost of purchase (30 to 40 cwts.) 375 o o
4 per cent, interest on ,375 15 o o
16 per cent, depreciation on ,375 37 10 o
Cost of fuel on average of 30 miles per day, is.
per 30 miles 15 o o
Grease 2 10 o
Repairs per year 12 10 o
^82 10 o
The daily work of 30 miles can be increased as much as desired.
278 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
The average speed of the petrol van being from 8 to 12 miles
an hour, there would be an obvious saving of time for driver.
As compared with the above the cost of a two-horse van, four
horses, two sets of harness, and necessary stable requisites is put
down as 292 io.f., and 4 per cent, interest on this sum, 20 per
cent, for depreciation, plus cost of food, litter, shoeing, rent of
stable, repairs, and veterinary expenses is estimated at ^"265.
THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
OF PETROL LORRIES
To ensure the commercial success of a petrol lorry service, as,
indeed, also that of a steam lorry, it is absolutely essential that a
sufficient mileage be covered, and in the case of a petrol lorry
the minimum should be about 30 miles a day, or, say, 180 miles
a week, with an average load of 3 tons. The minimum average
rate should be 4\d. per ton-mile, including expense of collection
Mr. Rolls places at about 245-. per week the working cost of
a 4-ton lorry for a daily run of 40 miles for 5 days per week, with
a short run on Saturdays, inclusive of interest, depreciation, fuel,
repairs, wages, etc.
According to tabulated statistics compiled by a Birmingham
firm of brewers, showing 6 months' and 28 months' working by
horses and motors respectively, the cost of running the latter,
including upkeep, wages, depreciation, insurance, etc., for 28
months (2 years and 4 months) was found to be ^1086. The
load carried during this period totalled to 2837 tons, and the
distance covered was 5384 miles. The load carried by the lorry
in 6 months was 819 tons, and the distance covered was 2734
miles. This firm consider the advantage of the motor lorry over
a pair-horse dray to be about 200 per annum.
In an article on " Cartage Rates by Various Methods," pub-
lished last August in the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review r ,
the writer says :
" The initial outlay on a petrol lorry and trailer is more than
for steamers, but the actual working cost per ton-mile is slightly
better owing to a greater average mileage being more easily main-
ta;ned with the same loads. There are no delays for getting up
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 279
steam or watering, and they generally travel faster under loads, as
their tare weight is less, a great advantage on indifferent highways.
Returning empty, a petrol waggon can run at the speed of a motor
car. Assuming the cost of a petrol internal combustion lorry of
the Cadogan type to carry 5 tons at ,750, the annual expenditure
will approximate as follows :
Driver, 35^. weekly ... ... ... ... 91 o o
Man, 26s. ... ... ... ... 67 12 o
Repairs ... ... ... ... ... 45 o o
Oil (lubricating and fuel) ... .. ... ... 50 o o
Insurance ... ... ... ... ... 15 o o
Interest ... ... ... ... ... 37 10 o
Depreciation ... ... ... ... ... 112 10 o
Total ... 418 12 o
" Working 300 days per annum, the minimum amount to be
earned daily will be 1 'js. lod. As 50 miles with 1500 bricks
can be run every day, the average cost per 1000 bricks per mile
loaded both ways will be 4*45^. As in the case of the steamer on
good roads, more weight can be carried over an increased mileage.
For very long runs the petrol waggon is the most economical, as it
can easily carry fuel for 200 miles. The advantages of a petrol
waggon for up-country colonial work are comparable only with the
oil fuel steamer, which, however, has its disadvantages when water
for the boiler is scarce."
THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE
OF STEAM LORRIES
Varying local conditions render it very difficult to give any
definite cost for running expenses per ton-mile.
As a rule it may be assumed that with loads of 6 tons and
over, and all from one place and to one place, steam lorries are
cheaper than horses. For journeys of 20 miles and over, and
with loads of 4 tons and over, the steam lorry is cheaper than the
horse. For shorter journeys, however, of, say, 10 miles, the load
must be between 5 and 6 tons.
Stopping to collect or to deliver portions of the load is fatal
to economical working. It entails a deadened fire, cooled
2 8o MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
cylinders, and unproductive consumption of fuel, with no counter-
balancing advantage as a set-off.
The approximate annual expenditure on a 5-ton steam motor
lorry or a 5-ton light locomotive with trailer costing .500 is given
in the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review as follows :
Wages s . d. s. d.
Driver at 35^. ... ... 91 o o
One man at 26s. ... ... 67 12 o
158 12 o
, Repairs ... ... ... ... ... 44 7 6
Oil ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 12 6
Coal, 41^ tons ... ... ... ... ... 49 o o
Insurance ... ... ... ... ... n 18 o
Interest on cost ... ... ... ... ... 25 o o
Depreciation ... ... ... ... ... 70 o o
Incidentals ... ... ... ... ... 4 10 o
Total ... ... 380 o o
Given 300 working days, the minimum amount to be earned
daily will be 25^. \d. As 40 miles with 1500 bricks can easily be
performed, the average cost per 1000 bricks per mile works out at
$'6d. when loading both ways. The steam motor thus carries
three horse loads, and is capable of travelling daily twice the
distance, thus performing the work of six horses at a difference
of A^,d. per i ooo bricks per mile cheaper. Where roads are ex-
ceptionally good, and there is plenty of help at each end of the
journey, a greater weight can be carried, and more daily mileage
covered. The motor will put in 144 hours weekly if required.
The following estimate for the annual expense of a steam
waggon or lorry costing ^650 is given by Mr. R. G. L. Markham,
an engineer connected with the Thornycroft Steam Waggon Com-
pany, Limited, of Chiswick, in an article recently contributed to a
monthly magazine :
Interest on capital, 4 per cent. ... ... ... 26 o o
Depreciation, 15 per cent. ... ... ... 97 10 o
Maintenance and repairs ... ... ... ... 60 o o
Rent and rates ... ... ... ... ... 19 o o
Oil and stores ... ... ... ... ... 10 o o
Driver at 35.r. per week ... ... ... ... 91 o o
Lad at 2OJ. per week ... ... ... ... 52 o o
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 281
No allowance is made in this estimate for fuel or for insur-
ance, whilst an item of ^19 for rent and rates, not allowed for
in the previous estimate, is included. If these matters be adjusted,
and allowance be made for the greater cost of the second vehicle,
the two estimates will be found to approximate very closely.
An analysis of the performance of a Thornycroft steam dray
during 15 months' work is given by Messrs. Fuller and Company,
brewers, Chiswick, as follows :
Average total mileage per working day ... ... 33
Working days per annum ... ... ... ... 260
Net ton-miles per annum ... ... ... ... 25000
The total cost per net ton-mile, inclusive of interest, de-
preciation, wages, fuel, adjustments, repairs, and stores, is 3 'd.
Taking the usual allowance of 5 barrels (each 36 gallons) per ton,
it appears, therefore, that the cost of transport per barrel-mile is
o - 68^. Messrs. Fuller and Company state that the vehicle easily
does the work of three of their two-horse drays.
Messrs. Savage Brothers, Limited, give the following estimate of
working cost of one of their 5-ton steam lorries costing ^550 :
Driver at 30^. per week ... ... ... ... 78 o o
Fuel ... ... ... ... 40 o o
Oil and waste at 5-r. per week ... ... ... 13 o o
Maintenance ... ... ... ... 50 o o
Interest on cost (,550) at 5 per cent. ... 27 10 o
Depreciation at 15 per cent. ... ... ... 82 10 o
291 o o
In this estimate it will be seen that no allowance has been
made by Messrs. Savage for a man to assist the driver, insurance,
and incidentals. Adding, say, ^85 for these items, the total
would be raised to .376, or nearly that of the previous estimates.
A practical test of one of the Savage steam lorries transporting
loads of from 4 to 5 tons for brewers and millers, and doing about
40 miles per day at an average rate of 5 miles an hour, is stated
to have shown the cost of transport to be 2*25^. per ton-mile.
In an address delivered by Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith before the
Liverpool Chamber of Commerce in 1901, the estimate given for
the average annual working cost, for Lancashire, of motor waggons,
according to roads and loads, is as follows :
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Class of work.
70 hours per week under steam.
Self-contained Motor waggon
50 weeks per annum.
Interest at 5 per cent, per annum ...
Depreciation at 15 per cent, per annum
Fuel coke at 1 $s. per ton
Wages driver at 35^. per week
assistant at 17.?. 6d. per week
Repairs and adjustments ...
Water, lubricants, and sundries
Total per annum
Vehicle-miles per annum (280 days)
A. On bumpy and badly paved roads ;
30 miles per day
B. On average granite setts, etc. j 35
miles per day ...
C. On good macadam ; 45 miles per day
Net ton-miles per annum
/ with full load
A.] with | load
( with load
with full load ...
B. with f load
with J load
I with full load
C. i with
Cost per net ton-mile
with full load
with f load
( with full load
B. j with | load
I with j load
j with full load
C. ] with % load
I with J load
The performance of a Robertson steam lorry (the first vehicle
of the type built by these makers), owned by the Fylde Motor
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 283
Carrying Company, gives a very good idea of what these vehicles
are capable of doing in actual practical work under more than
ordinarily trying conditions.
The waggon in question has been used for transport purposes
between Fleetwood and Blackpool, a distance of about 12 miles,
and a district where the roads are excessively soft, but little metal
having been used in their construction. During the first season
(1903) the distance covered exceeded 6000 miles, with loads of
from 4 tons to 5 tons 5 cwts., and two journeys each way were
frequently made. Owing to the unusually wet season, the condition
of the roads was abnormally bad, but, notwithstanding this fact, it
is stated that no trouble was experienced.
The lorry worked, moreover, under the disadvantage of having
to pick up any available loads, and consequently the mileage
varied daily, and, besides this, portions of the loads being con-
signed to parties at considerable distances apart, and in opposite
directions, the delivery occupied a considerable time, and caused
a very large increase in the fuel consumption. It may be also
mentioned that on the return journeys the loads were almost
always bricks, which necessitated the negotiation of the bad roads
which are universally found about brickyards.
Upon the next page will be found a table giving the details of
working of this lorry during 30 working days. The consumption
of coke fuel varied from 4 J to 6 cwts. per day.
The following is an estimate of the running charges of a
Straker steam waggon; prime cost, ^700 :
Driver at 35^. per week ... ... ... ... ... 91
Labour, loading and unloading ... ... ... ... 35
Fuel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45
Lubricating oil ... ... ... ... ... II
Repairs ... ... ... ... ... ... 50
Depreciation at 15 per cent. ... ... ... ... 105
Interest on capital at 5 per cent. ... ... ... ... 35
Insurance at ; 1 5 per annum ... ... ... ... 15
Rent of shed at ^20 per annum ... ... ... ... 20
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
On the basis of 200 ton-miles per day, or 52,000 per annum,
the running charges amount to somewhat less than 1*25^. per ton-
mile, and the standing charges to 075^. per ton-mile. The total
charge is thus 2d. per ton-mile.
ACTUAL WORKING OF ROBERTSON LORRY FOR 30 DAYS.
Fleetwood and Blackpool
Corn and bricks
,, Blackpool and Lytham
,, and Blackpool
Sat. ,, Cleveleys and Blackpool
1?:f "1 ,, and Blackpool
Corn and bricks
?^ 5> >
,, Singleton and Blackpool
,, and Blackpool
Total ton-miles 2983 -r- 30 working day?, 99*43 average per day.
light ,, 301 -4- ,, I0'03 5, 55
,, waggon 3284
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 285
The Lancashire Steam Motor Company, Limited, give the
following estimated annual expenditure, based on 300 working
days; prime cost of waggon, ^"550 :
Depreciation at 15 per cent, on ;5 50 ... ... 82 10 o
Interest on capital outlay at 5 per cent. ... ... 27 10 o
Driver at 305-. per week ... ... ... ... 78 o o
Loader at \ per week ... ... ... ... 52 o o
Coke at 12 s. per ton ... ... ... ... 37 16 o
Water, lubricants, and sundries ... ... ... 20 o o
Repairs and adjustments ... ... ... ... 50 o o
347 16 o
Calculations based on the above estimate on the basis of
2 2, 644 net ton-miles only per annum, give the total charges as
3*6^. per ton-mile.
The following is an estimate of cost from an actual week's work
of a Londonderry steam waggon :
Interest and depreciation at 20 per cent. ... ... i 12 6
Driver, wages paid ... ... ... ... I 16 o
Fireman, ,, ... ... ... ... 140
Fuel, 31 cwts. of coke at %d. ... ... ... i o 8
3 gals, oil at 2s. ... ... ... ... ... 060
2 Ibs. motor grease at 4</. ... ... ... ... 008
1 gal. paraffin at "jd. ... ... ... ... 007
2 Ibs. waste at zd. ... ... ... ... 004
Firewood ... ... ... ... ... oio
Third man assisting delivery ... i o o
Set aside for repairs ... ... ... ... o 15 o
7 16 9
Taking 50 weeks, or 300 working days, to the year, this would
make the annual expenditure ^"391 TJS. And ^7 16^. qd.
per week = i 6s. \\d. per day. 7 i6s. yd. -r 897 ton-miles
during week = about 2d. per ton-mile.
The steepest gradient negotiated during the test was i in 7,
and the time of the year was January, with the roads in bad
MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
Estimate by the makers of the approximate weekly working
expenses of a Wantage steam lorry ; prime cost,
Depreciation at 5 per cent.
Coke fuel at 3;-. 6d. per day
Oil grease and waste
I 10 O
O 10 O
o 17 6
In this estimate no allowance is made for interest, or stoker's
or loader's wages, and the allowance for depreciation and repairs
is considerably less than that in previous estimates. An adjust-
ment of these points will be seen to bring the estimate to approxi-
mate pretty closely with those already given.
The following table is taken from an interesting paper read by
Mr. Douglas Mackenzie at a meeting of the Society of Engineers
in October, 1903 :
TABLE GIVING THE COST OF WORKING MOTOR LORRIES.
Tons per journey
Capital cost of motor >
waggon ... j
Ton-miles per day . .
o 10 3
o ii 3
O 12 2
o 13 i
o 14 o
o 15 o
Stores, oil, etc.
o i 6
o i 6
o i 6
o i 6
o i 6
o i 8
Repairs and renewals
O IO O
Interest on capital ...
o 10 5
o 12 9
o 13 6
o 14 4
o 15 i
o 15 10
o 16 8
2 2 II
2 8 7
2 II 4
2 14 4
2 17 10
3 i TO
Cost of same work >
with horses ... 3
i 7 6
i 15 o
2 17 6
3 12 6
In the above table the cost has been worked out at per day on
the assumption that the motor is in use for 240 days in the year,
and the working day is taken at 10 hours. It is assumed that the
return journey is made empty. It is also presumed that, the
COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 287
weight of the usual load being known, a motor designed to carry
that load will be used. If the load be under 5 tons it is best to
carry it all on the motor. If, however, the load be 5 tons or over,
it is best to distribute it between the motor and a trailer, and the
cost of a trailer is therefore included with that of a waggon for
loads of 5 tons and upwards.
As regards depreciation, the above authority considers that in
the case of a motor lorry by one of the best makers, a fair allow-
ance to write off is 25 per cent, the first year, and on each
succeeding year 25 per cent, of the value as reduced by the
deduction of the depreciation.
COMPARISON OF COST OF RUNNING FOR
The following table will be of interest, as it shows at a glance
the cost of running in pence per ton-mile for both light goods
delivery vehicles and of heavy-freight vehicles driven respectively
by petrol, steam, and electric motors, of stated horse-powers, load
capacities, and maximum speeds per hour.
TABLE OF COMPARATIVE CHARGES OF VARIOUS FREIGHT MOTORS.
Light goods delivery vehicles.
speed per hour,
The apparent superiority of the light goods delivery vehicles is
due to the faster speeds at which they run under light loads. The
maximum speed under load is about half that running light.
288 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS
EFFECT OF MATERIALS ON COST OF
To ensure the utmost economy in expenses of maintenance,
none but the best procurable materials should be employed in
the building of the motor vehicle, whether adapted for light or
heavy duties. Steel enters very largely into the construction of
motor vehicles for crankshafts, axles, springs, hollow shafts, tubes
for framework, etc., and it is obvious that the best will in the long
run be the most economical. The use of nickel steel, or, better
still, of the new chrome vanadium steel, should therefore be insisted
Chrome vanadium steel not only has a high tensile strength
and high elastic limit, but also possesses resistance to torsion
shock, and reversal of stresses, and is therefore most suitable for
the work in question.
A DHESIVE power of motor
/\ vehicles, 38, 39
Advantages of business motor
vehicles, 2, 3
of complete plant of municipal
Advertising contractors' motor ve- ;
Agricultural motors, 271
Agriculture, use of motor vehicles in,
Air, resistance due to, 35, 36
Allsop heavy-freight petroleum engine
Ambulances, motor, 255-257
American Society Mechanical En-
gineers on power for motor vehicles,
Anglo-American Motor Car Com-
pany electric omnibuses, 145-147,
I 5 6
furniture vans, 255
heavy-freight electric ve- 1
hides, 241, 242
Aster internal combustion engine, 6r, j
Atkinson and Phillipson steam
Automobile Commercial Vehicle Re-
view on cost of running petrol
lorries, 278, 279
Automobile^ New York, on force \
required on various grades, 34, 35
Aveling and Porter, Ltd., light
traction engines, 218
Ay res. See Catley and Ayres
BAKER, I. O., investigations of,
Belt transmission, 56, 59, 151, 153
Benz commercial vehicle, 253
heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 230
light petrol vans, 150-152
motor, 151, 152
petrol motor omnibuses, 136
Bersey, W. C., electric cab, 65-69
Blackburn steam vehicle, 75
Bodman. See Simpson Bodman
Boiler makers, use of motor vehicles
most suitable for heavy-freight
steam vehicles, 165, 166
Boilers, steam. See Steam omnibuses,
Light steam vans, Heavy-freight
steam vehicles, etc.
Bomford and Evershed, Limited,
steam vehicles, 218
Borame, formula for calculating power
of motor vehicles, 37, 38, 43
Bottlers, use of motor vehicles by, 270
Bouquet, R. P., on resistance to
Brewers, use of motor vehicles by,
270, 278, 281
Brightmore heavy - freight steam
Brunei steam vehicle, 76
Brush Electrical Engineering Com-
pany petrol omnibuses, 136
Builders, use of motor vehicles by,
Burners, liquid fuel, 83, 84, no, ill,
Business motor vehicles, advantages
of, 2, 3
classes of, 2
future of, i, 2
prime movers for, 3-5
/""CABRIOLET, electric, 74, 75
V_^ Cabs, electric, 62-75
Cabs, petrol, 53-62
Cabs, petrol, cost of running, 274-2/6
Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
petrol lorry, cost of running, 279
Calculations, graphic, for motor-car
Calculating power required for motor
Canes, transport of, by motor vehicles,
Carburettors, 54, 56, 152, 227
Carrying capacities of steam waggons,
Catley and Ayres steam vehicle, 76
Characteristics of the internal com-
bustion engine, 220
of the steam engine, 220
Charie-Marsaines, experiments, 24
Charts for graphic calculations, 49-51
Chasseloup-Laubat, Count, speed of
electric car, 65
C/iatt/ettr, Le, on failure of electric
cabs in Paris, 63
Chemical electric driven fire engines,
Chenard light petrol vans, 153
Chocolate manufacturers, use of motor
vehicles by, 270
Church steam vehicle, 76
City and Suburban Electric Carriage
Company electric cabs, 74, 75
Clark, D. K., table of force required
on inclined roads, 26
Clarke, formula for rolling resistance,
Clarkson heavy-freight steam vehicles,
light steam vans, 155
steam omnibuses, 79-103
Classes of business motor vehicles, 2
Clermont-Ferrand, experiments, 30
Cocoa manufacturers, use of motor
vehicles by, 270
Coefficients of traction, 31
Colonial type of heavy-freight steam
Columbia electric vans, 160
Commercial travellers' motor vehicles,
Common roads, recent experiments
on traction on, 29-35
- resistance to traction on, 6-39
Compagnie de Hndustrie Electrique
et Mecanique petrol-electric omni-
Compagnie de 1'Industrie Electrique
et Alechanique. SeeafsoThury
Comparison of cost of running of
various systems, 287
Compound or petrol-electric heavy-
freight vehicles, 237, 238
Comte de Dion. See De Dion and
Continent, use of internal combustion
engine railway carnages, 267
Contractors, use of motor vehicles by,
Cost of running and maintenance,
Coulomb, experiments of, II, 12
Coulthard heavy - freight steam
municipal tip waggon, 246, 247
Craig-Dorwald petrol motor, 253
Crossley Ley land petrol omnibuses,
DAIRIES, use of motor vehicles
Dance steam vehicle, 76
Dead-weights and carrying capacities
of steam waggons, 48
Debauve, experiments of, 72, 73
De Dietrich petrol omnibuses, 135
De Dion and Bouton petrol omni-
fuel and water consumption, 78,
steam omnibuses, 112-118
Delahaye heavy-freight petrol vehicles, \
light petrol vans, 153
petrol omnibuses, 136
Devon Engineering Company heavy
oil engine, 237
Differential gear. See Driving gear,
Transmission gear, etc.
Diplock, B. J. See Pedrail
Distribution of load on wheels, 1 7
Dorwald. See Craig-Dorwald
Dougill's Engineering, Limited. See
Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles
Draulette, Captain, electric motor, 73
electric cab, 72, 73
Driving gear. See Transmission gear
power for municipal waggons,
243. 2 44
steam vehicles, 163
Drummond, Dugald, steam motor
railway carriage, 260-264
Dupuit, experiments of, 1 1
Dust collection. See Household
Dutch heavy oil engine, 237
EARLY experiments in resistance
to traction, 21, 22
Eastbourne omnibus service, cost of,
Edge, S. F., light petrol vans, 154
Edgeworth, experiments of, 1 1
Efficiency of electric cabs, 64, 65
Electric cabs, 62-75
examples of, 65-75
furniture vans, 156-160
overhead conductor, 268-270
transmission. See Compound or
petrol-electric omnibuses, etc.
vans, light, 155-156
Vehicle Company electric cabs,
Electrical fire engines, 260
Power Storage Company storage
Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles,
Empirical formula for rolling resist-
Engine and gear, testing, 47
most suitable for heavy steam
Engines. See Motors
Engineers, use of motor vehicles by,
English heavy-freight steam vehicles,
Essex electrical cabriolet, 74
Evershed. See Bomford and Evershed
Examples of electric omnibuses, 145-
of heavy-freight electric vehicles,
petrol-electric vehicles, 237, 238
petrol vehicles, 221-232
petroleum vehicles, 232-237
steam vehicles, 167-218
of light electric vans, 156-160
petrol vans, 149-154
of petrol cabs, 53-62
Experiments in resistance to traction,
Experiments on traction on common
roads, recent, 29-35
Explosion engines. See Internal com-
FARM AN and Company light
petrol vans, 154
Farmers, use of motor vehicles by,
Farm produce, transport of, by motor
Feed- water regulating devices, 102,
Field type of boiler, 123
Fire engines, motor, 257-260
Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric
vehicles, 237, 238
petrol-electric omnibuses, 137-143
Flash boilers, 127, 129, 188, 189, 190
Florists, use of motor vehicles by, 270
2 9 2
Foden, Edwin, Sons and Company
steam vehicles, 218
Formula for rolling resistance, 30
P'ormulse for calculating power of
motor vehicles, 40-47
Fowler, Wm., and Company, Limited,
light traction engines, 218
Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
Fuller and Company, cost of working
steam lorries by, 281
Furniture removal motor vans, 254,
Future of the business motor vehicle,
Fylde Motor Carrying Company, per-
formance of Robertson steam lorry,
/"^ARDNER heavy oil engine,
Gardner-Serpollet light petrol vans,
Gear, testing, 47
General carriers, use of motor vehicles
observations on cost of running,
etc., 273, 274
heavy-freight vehicles, 161, 162
electric vehicles, 239, 240
internal combustion engine
vehicles, 219, 220
heavy passenger vehicles, 76,
General observations on light goods
passenger vehicles, 52, 53
results of early experiments in
resistance to traction, 21, 22
Gillet, Forest and Company light
steam vans, 155
heavy-freight steam vehicles, 212-
Motor Company light steam vans,
Glover and Sons, Limited, steam
Goods vans, light, 148-160
Gradients, rising, resistance due to,
traction on, 17
Graphic calculations, 49-51
Grenville steam vehicle, 76
Griffiths steam vehicle, 76
Guldrier, Hugo, formulae for calculat-
ing power of motor vehicles, 40-43
Gurney steam vehicle, 76
HAGEN heavy-freight petrol
Hagen light petrol vans, 154
Halcrow-Vincke petrol omnibuses,
135, I3 6
Halske. See Siemens and Halske
Hancock steam vehicles, 76, 147
Hansom cabs, electric, 74, 75
Harffand Schwarz. See Maxwerke
Harle. See Sautter, Harle et Cie.
Heavy-freight vehicles, 161-242
electric vehicles, 239-242
internal combustion engine
steam vehicles, 162-218
Heavy motor vehicle, future of, I
oil engine vehicles, 232-237
Hele-Shaw, Professor H. S., experi-
ments of, 32
on pedrail, 271
Herschmann on power required for
motor waggons, 46, 47
steam vehicles, 215-217
Hewetson, Limited. See Benz
Higgins, T. W. E., on use of motors
for street watering, etc., 248-249
Hilditch. See Yarrow and Hilditch
Hill steam vehicle, 76
Hillier heavy oil engine, 237
Hindley, E. S., and Sons steam
Holt steam vehicle, 76
Horse, supersession of, by motor
Horsefall and Bickham light petrol
vans, 149, 150
Horseless Age, graphic calculations,
Hosgood, J. H., steam railway
carriage, 265, 266
Hospital motor ambulances, 255-257
Household refuse, removal of, 244-249
Howard, J. and F., steam vehicle,
Hozier Company light petrol vans,
Hudson heavy-freight electric vehicle,
T XSTANTANEOUS generation
J_ boiler. See Flash boilers
Internal combustion engine railway
carriages, 267, 268
vehicles, 53-62, 132-144, 219-
International Motor Company light
electric vans, 157
Ivel agricultural motor tractor, 271
JAMES steam vehicles, 76
Jeantaud speed of electric cars,
Jenatzy petrol-electric omnibuses, 137,
speed of electric cars, 65
Julien, formula for calculating power
of motor vehicles, 43
KING EDWARD VIL, help of,
to remove restrictions on
motors, 3, 76
Knaust and Company steam fire
Knight steam vehicle, 76
Kromhout heavy oil engine, 237
Klihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab, 56-60
T AXC AS HIRE, cost of working
J , motor waggons in, 282
Lancashire Steam Motor Company,
cost of working lorry, 285
Lancashire Steam Motor Company,
heavy-freight vehicles, 180-185
municipal tip waggon,
petrol omnibuses, 136
Land carriage, cheapest system, 2
Law, H., table of power required on
inclined roads, 26
Leahy, experiments of, 23, 24
Lefebvre, Leon, petrol cab, 53-55
Leo petrol cab, the, 53-55
Ley land, steam fire engine supplied
. See also Crossley Ley land
Light electric vans, 154, 155
goods vans, 148-160
petrol vans, 148-154
steam vans, 155-160
Liquid fuel burner, Clarkson, 83,
Engineering Company steam
- regulating device, 100-102,
Locomobile Company light electric
London Electric Cab Company
electric cabs, 63
Express Motor Service petrol cab,
Londonderry heavy-freight steam
steam waggon, cost of running,
Longuemare liquid fuel burner, 130
Lorries, petrol, cost of running and
maintenance, 278, 279
steam, cost of running and main -
Lundell electric motor, 67
MACERONE steam vehicle,
Mackenzie Douglas, on cost of work-
ing motor lorries, 2
steam vehicle, 76
Macneil, Sir John, experiments on
resistance to traction, 22-28
Manu heavy-freight steam vehicles,
municipal tip waggon, 246
Manson, Mr., steam motor railway
carriage, 266, 267
Market gardeners, use of motor
vehicles by, 270
Markham, R. G. L., on cost of
running steam lorries, 280, 281
Marsaines. See Charie-Marsaines
Martyn steam omnibus, fuel con-
Maudslay heavy-freight petrol vehi-
petrol omnibuses, 136
Maxwerke electric vans, 159, 160
Mees, Gustav, on Guldner's formulae,
Merry weather and Sons, Limited,
motor fire engines, 257-260
Metropolitan Railway Carriage and
Waggon Company steam motor
railway carriage, 264
Michelin, Andre, experiments of, 30-
Middlesex Hospital Laundry steam
Milandre, C., on resistance to traction,
Millers, use of motor vehicles by,
Mimes-Daimler heavy-freight petrol
light petrol vans, 152, 153
petrol omnibuses, 136
Morin, General, experiments of, II-
Morris and Salom electric cab, 69-
Motor railway carriages, 260-268
tractor, agricultural, 271
tractors, 56, 118-122, 271
vehicles, adapted for special pur-
poses, 270, 271
adhesive powers of, 38, 39
power required for, 40-51
Motors, electric. See Electric cabs,
Light electric vans, Heavy-freight
electric vehicles, etc.
heavy oil, 232-237
petrol. See Petrol cabs, Petrol
omnibuses, Light petrol vans,
Heavy-freight petrol vehicles, etc.
steam. See Steam omnibuses,
Heavy - freight steam vehicles,
Motorwagen "Draulette" electric
formula for calculating power, 40
Mowing by motor traction, 271
Municipal purposes, self-propelled
vehicles for, 243-252
Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles,
NA. G. heavy-freight petrol
. vehicles, 232
Nayler heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
North British Locomotive Company
steam motor railway carriage, 265,
"Notions Fondamentales de Me-
canique," results of experiments on
/RESERVATIONS, general, on
V_y heavy passenger vehicles, 76,77
Observations, general, on heavy-
freight vehicles, 161, 162
on light goods vans, 148
on light passenger vehicles, 52,
Ogle. See Summers and Ogle
Oil and water controlling device,
Omnibuses, petrol, 132-144
cost of running, 276
Oppermann light electric vans, 158,
Orion heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
Other heavy-freight steam vehicles,
Overhead conductor electric omni-
PANHARD transmission gear,
62, 149, 150
Paraffin. See Heavy oil-engine ve-
Paving-stones, cartage of, by motor
Pedrail, the, 271, 272
Petrol cabs, 53-62
cost of running, 274-276
electric omnibuses, 137-144
heavy-freight vehicles, 237
engine vehicles, 53-62, 133-144,
lorries, cost of running, 278, 279
cost of running, 276
vans, light, 148-154
cost of running, 277, 278
Petroleum. See Heavy oil-engine ve-
Peugeot petrol omnibuses, 136
Phillipson. See Atkinson and Phil-
Pianoforte makers, use of motor
vehicles by, 270
Pintsch oil gas, 267
Ploughing by motor traction, 271
Porter. See Aveling and Porter
Power of motor vehicles, adhesive,
required for motor vehicles, 40-
for steam vehicles, 167
Prime movers for business motor
Propelling power. See Motors, Prime
Putney Motor Company commercial
travellers' motor brougham, 253
Pygmee petrol motor, 53, 54
RAILLESS electric lines, i, 268-
Railway motor carriages, 260-268
Randolph steam vehicle, 76
Reaping by motor traction, 271
Recent experiments on traction on
common roads, 29-35
Resistance due to the air, 35, 36
to rising gradients, 24-29
to starting, 36-38
to traction on common roads,
Results obtained with heavy-freight
steam vehicles, 168
of early experiments in resistance
to traction, 21, 22
Rhodes steam vehicle, 76
Rising gradients, resistance due to,
traction on, 17
Robertson heavy-freight steam ve-
municipal tip waggon, 247
steam lorry, performance of, 282,
Rolling resistance, 7-16
Rolls, Hon. C. S., on cost of running,
etc., of petrol lorries, 278
Roots heavy oil engine, 237
Rumford, experiments of, II
SADLER, F., road - cleaning
machine, 250, 251
Safe makers, use of motor vehicles
Salom. See Morris and Salom
Sand, sprinkling of, by motor
Sautter, Harle et Cie., trials by, of
De Dion boiler, 120
Savage Brothers, Limited, cost of
working steam lorry, 281
heavy-freight steam vehicles, 192-
Saving by use of motors for street
Schiemann, Max. See Siemens and
Schwarz. See Maxwerke
Schwilgue, experiments of, 24
Scotte steam omnibus, 122, 123
fuel and water consumption,
Self-propelled vehicles for municipal
or motor railway carriages, 260-268
Serpollet steam tram fuel and water
. See also Gardner-Serpollet
Sharp, A., on municipal motor wag-
Shippley Brothers light electric vans,
Siemens and Halske overhead con-
ductor electric omnibuses, 268-270
Simpson Bodman heavy-freight steam
vehicles, 189, 190
Smith, E. Shrapnell, on cost of motor
waggons, 281, 282
piston valves, 266
Snow, removal of, by motor-driven
plough, 243, 251, 252
Society of German engineers, Paper
on power for motor vehicles, 40-43
Southwell, F. C., and Company
light traction engines, 218
Speed and suspension, 19-21
Springs. See Speed and suspension
Squire. See Straker and Squire
Starting, resistance due to, 36-38
Steam ambulances, 257
furniture removal vans, 254, 255
lorries, cost of running and main-
Steering steam vehicles, 164
Stevens. See Stevens and Wallis
Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
John, on cost of running, 276
petrol omnibuses, 133-135
Stone system of electric lighting rail-
way carriages, 265, 266
St. Pancras Ironworks Company,
Limited, steam vehicles, 218
Straker and Squire heavy-freight
petrol vehicles, 232
heavy-freight steam vehicles, 192-
steam lorries, charges of, 283, 284
omnibuses, 121, 122
Sugar estates, use of motor vehicles
Summers and Ogle steam vehicle, 76
Suspension. See Speed and suspension
Sweeping machines, street, 243, 249,
Sweet manufacturers, use of motor
vehicles by, 270
Swiss heavy-freight petrol vehicles,
r I ^ABLE giving value of a in
J_ Coulomb's formula, 12
Table giving relation of tractive force
to total load moved, 16
influence exerted by width of
Table giving values obtained by
Morin for constant 5, 20
values of A, 20
results of experiments by Mac-
uniform draught, 24
results of experiments by
force required to draw vehicles
on inclined surfaces, 27, 28
- coefficients of traction, Miche-
results of experiments by Hele-
effect of size of wheels on
traction, Baker, 34
- tractive force necessary on
various grades, 35
- friction on various bodies,
dead weight and carrying
capacities of steam waggons, 48
results obtained with steam
passenger vehicles, 78
tractive force required at
various speeds, 31
results obtained with heavy-
freight steam vehicles, 168
average annual cost of motor
waggons in Lancashire, 282
actual working cost of Robert-
son lorry for thirty days, 284
cost of working motor lorries,
comparative charges of various
freight motors, 287
Tasker, Win., and Sons, Limited,
light traction engines, 218
Testing the engine and gear, 47
the vehicle, 47, 48
Theatrical scenery, motor vehicles for
transport of, 270
Thermostatic device, 102, 103
Thibault, experiments of, 36
Thompson steam vehicle, 76
Thornycroft, J. S., on steam vehicles,
furniture removal vans, 254,
heavy-freight petroleum vehicles,
steam vehicles, 175-177
light steam vans, 154, 155
municipal tip waggon, 246
petrol omnibuses, 136
steam ambulance, 257
dray, cost of running, 281
Thornycroft steam omnibuses, 103-
- street watering and sweeping
Thury heavy-freight petrol-electric
Todd steam vehicle, 76
Tolch heavy oil engine, 237
Traction, coefficients of, 31
on common roads, experiments,
resistance to, on common roads,
Tractors, 56, 118-121, 122, 271
Tramways, objections to, I, 268
Transmission gear. Sec Light
passenger vehicles, Heavy passenger
vehicles, Light goods vans, Heavy-
freight vehicles, etc.
Triouleyre, L., petrol cab, 55, 56
Torquay and District Motor Omnibus
Company omnibus service, 82
Turner, Atherton and Company
steam vehicles, 190-192
Tyres, width of, 17-19
T TNITED STATES, use of
\_) electric vehicles in, 162
United States, use of petrol-electric
railway carriages in, 267, 268
Unwin, Professor W. C., report on
motor vehicle trials, 32, 33
VANS, light goods, 148-160
Vans, petrol, cost of running,
etc., 277, 278
Vaporisers. See Burners, liquid fuel,
Various systems of motor vehicles,
comoarison of cost of running, 287
Vehicle Equipment Company electric
furniture van, 255
heavy-freight electric ve-
hicles, 241, 242
light electric vans, 156
motor, testing, 47, 48
Vehicles, business motor, advantages
of, 2, 3
classes of, 2
heavy passenger, 76-147
light passenger, 2, 52-75
prime movers for, 3-5. See also
running and maintenance, 273-287
with springs, 19-21
without springs, 19
Vestris, A., on steam waggons for
dust collection, 247, 248
Vienna, motor fire engines in, 260
Vincke. See Halcrow-Vincke
Voitures Automobiles, extracts from,
13, 28, 29, 36
Vollmer. See Kiihlstein-Vollmer
Vosper heavy oil engine, 237
WAGGONS, steam, dead weight
and carrying capacities of, 48
Wainwright, Harry S., steam motor
railway carriage, 264, 265
Walking machine. See Pedrail
Wallis and Stevens, light traction
Walschaert valve gear, 264, 266
Wantage heavy-freight steam ve-
hicles, 214, 215
steam lorry, working expenses, 286
Washing streets by motor vehicles,
Watering streets, use of motors, 248
Water regulating devices, 102, 130-
Weaver, W., on use of motors for
street sweeping and watering, 249
Weidknecht steam omnibuses, 123-
omnibus fuel and water con-
Weights and carrying capacities of
steam waggons, 48
Weir, William, on cost of running
petrol cabs, 274-276
Westinghouse electric motor, 70
Wheels, distribution of load on, 17
most suitable for steam vehicles,
Wheels. See also Heavy passenger ve-
hicles, Light goods vans, Heavy-
freight vehicles, etc.
White light steam vans, 155
Whiteley, Messrs., use of steam furni-
ture vans by, 255
Width of tyres, 1 7
Winter, Mr., on steam dust carts,
on street watering, 248
Wolseley heavy-freight petroleum
petrol vehicles, 232
\ /ARROW and Hilditch, 76
j[ Yorkshire heavy-freight steam
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