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Full text of "Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods"

MOTOR VEHICLES 



BUSINESS PURPOSES 



WALLIS-TAYLER 



(I 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 

MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES. By A. J. \VALTJS 
TAYLER, A.M.Inst.C.E. With 134 Illustrations. 8x5|, 298pp. 
(Crosby, Lockwood and Son.) 9s.net. ''^"/l^^'' 
Although it is difficult to assert with the author of this book that the 
commercial motor vehicle has arrived at a state of perfection, it can 
readily be admitted that the utility and economy of this class of vehicle 
is now established beyond dispute. The demand for the cheap and rapid ^ 
transport of comparatively heavy goods of innumerable kinds has been ' 
met by the design and construction of a considerable variety of heavy- 
freight road cars, ranging from the municipal wagon to the motor omni- 
bus. It is therefore convenient to have this class of road craft co-ordin- 
ated and described in sufficient detail to enable the ordinary user to if 
select what is best adapted to his requirements. There is a doubt as to 
whether the first three chapters of Mr. WalKs Tayler's book will be I 
appreciated by the general reader. They are for the most part compiled 
from other sources, and they exhibit too little of the author's own view 
of the problem of traction ; moreover, they omit certain recent develop- 'J, 
ments with respect to air resistance and in regard to the measurement and 
recording of the starting and stopping efforts. The subsequent chapters 
will, however, be read with interest by all who are watching the develop- 
ment of this industry. The author describes the essential characteristics 
of the various cars and indicates their respective advantages ; his treat- 
ment of his subject is clear and precise, and he calls to his aid sketches, 
diagrams, and sectional drawings wherever necessary. He attributes the 
backwardness of certain branches of the industry to the fact that most 
of the firms hitherto have turned their attention to construction rather 
than to manufacture ; they have failed to produce vehicles of one size 
and of one pattern in sufficient numbers to ensure commercial success. 
The book concludes with a useful chapter on the cost of running and 
maintenance of motor cabs, omnibuses, and lorries. 



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more than by a hard tire ami that it * i 6 wag 1 

tho tiro. Other yiews ' S h^ the tad XSSw ^ i"? 1 * ^ 

Publishing and Editorial Offices : 

89, FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



A D VRRTISEMENTS 




And at 



Ill 



AD VERTISEMENTS 




MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 
PURPOSES 




MOTOR VEHICLES 

FOR 

BUSINESS PURPOSES 

A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK 

FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN THE TRANSPORT 
OF PASSENGERS AND GOODS 



BY 

A. J. WALLIS-TAYLER 

ASSOC.-MEMB. IXST. ClVIL ENGINEERS 
AUTHOR OF 

"MOTOR CARS OR POWER CARRIAGES FOR COMMON' ROADS," "MODERN CYCLES," 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND STREETS," " AERIAL OR WIRE-ROPE TRAMWAYS, 

"REFRIGERATING AND ICE-MAKING MACHINERY," "REFRIGERATION, COI.D STORAGE, 

AND ICE-MAKING," "THE POCKET-BOOK OF REFRIGERATION," "TEA MACHINERY 

AND TEA FACTORIES," "THE SANITARY ARRANGEMENT OF DWELLING 
HOUSES," "SUGAR MACHINERY," " BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION," ETC. ETC. 



WITH 134 ILLUSTRATIONS 




LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 
1905 

[All rights reserved} 

LIBRA 

JNIVERSITY OF CALIFOIOTA 1 
DAVIS 



PRINTED BY 

WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
LONDON AND BECCLES. 



PREFACE 

THE motor or self-propelled vehicle, as adapted for busi- 
ness purposes, may now be said to have arrived at a 
state of perfection, and its commercial utility to have been 
sufficiently proved by actual practical working to place its 
future on an assured basis. 

Advantages to be derived from the use of the self- 
propelled vehicle are : greater speed and economy in 
transporting heavy loads than with horse vehicles, and 
consequently saving of time and money ; a large reduc- 
tion of labour and expense as compared with the driving 
and care of horses and vehicles, provision of stabling, etc. ; 
an improved sanitary condition of the roads and streets, 
and of towns and cities generally ; economy in road 
maintenance ; and additional safety. 

It is not too much to say, indeed, that within a few 
years mechanically propelled vehicles for business purposes, 
and especially heavy-freight vehicles, will have practically 
a monopoly on the roads in the transport of both passen- 
gers and goods. 

Under these circumstances, a book containing within 
a moderate compass and in an accessible form such 
information as will enable intending purchasers or users 
of motor vehicles to ascertain the respective merits of 
the various systems, and their adaptability to special 



vi PREFACE 

requirements, should fulfil a useful purpose. This want 
it is hoped that the present volume will help to supply. 
For more extended description of many of the com- 
mercial vehicles here mentioned than has been found 
practicable, the reader is referred to the articles which 
have appeared in the technical press. 

During the past two years the Author contributed 
to the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review, now pub- 
lished weekly as The Industrial Motor Review, a series of 
articles on " Self- Propelled Vehicles for Business Purposes," 
which (through the kind permission of the Editor) he has 
been enabled to incorporate in a modified and amplified 
form in the present volume. Chapters have also been 
added dealing with self-propelled vehicles for municipal 
purposes ; miscellaneous types of motor vehicles, including 
motor railway carriages ; and the cost of running and 
maintenance. 

Thanks are also due to various manufacturers and 
others for their courtesy in furnishing much valuable infor- 
mation, and in many cases photographs and drawings for 
purposes of illustration. 

It is particularly desired to point out that where 
descriptions of machines of various makers have been 
omitted, such omissions are in no way to be attributed to 
any inferiority in the construction of these vehicles, but 
solely to the fact that the space at command has of neces- 
sity limited the descriptions to typical examples of each 

system. 

A. J. WALLIS-TAYLER. 

SUTTON, SURREY. 
July, 1905. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY 

fi 

Future of the Business Motor Vehicle Classes of Business 
Motor Vehicles Advantages of Business Motor Vehicles 
Propelling Powers or Prime Movers for Business Motor 
Vehicles 

CHAPTER II 
RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ON COMMON ROADS 

Rolling Resistance Traction on Rising Gradients and Distri- 
bution of Load on Wheels Width of Tyres Speed and 
Suspension General Result of Early Experiments in 
Resistance to Traction on Common Roads Sir John Mac- 
Neil's Experiments Resistance due to Rising Gradients 
Table calculated from MacNeil's Formulae showing Force 
required to draw Vehicles over Inclined Roads Recent 
Experiments on Traction on Common Roads Table com- 
piled from recent Tests giving Tractive Force required to 
haul a Load of One Ton on Various Grades, and Equivalent 
Length of each Mile of Grade in Miles of Level Road 
Resistance due to the Air Resistance due to Starting 
Adhesive Power of Motor Vehicles ..... 



CHAPTER III 
POWER REQUIRED FOR MOTOR VEHICLES 

Calculating the Power required for Motor Vehicles Testing the 
Engine and Gear Testing the Vehicle Graphic Calcu- 
lations ........... 4 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 

PAGF. 

General Observations Petrol Cabs Various Examples of 
Petrol Cabs Electric Cabs Efficiency of Electric Cabs 
Examples of Electric Cabs 52 

CHAPTER V 
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 

General Observations Steam Omnibuses Examples of Steam 
Omnibuses Petrol Omnibuses Examples of Petrol Omni- 
buses Compound or Petrol-Electric Omnibuses Electric 
Omnibuses Examples of Electric Omnibuses ... 76 

CHAPTER VI 
LIGHT GOODS VANS 

General Observations Light Petrol Vans Examples of Light 
Petrol Vans Light Steam Vans Light Electric Vans 
Examples of Light Electric Vans 148 

CHAPTER VII 
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 

General Observations Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles Wheels 
Driving Steering Transmission Boiler Engine 
Power required Results obtained with Heavy-freight Steam 
Vehicles Examples of Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles. . 161 

CHAPTER VIII 

HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued} 

Heavy-freight Internal Combustion or Explosion Engine Vehicles 
General Observations Various Examples of Heavy- 
freight Petrol Engine Vehicles Heavy-freight Petroleum or 
Heavy Oil Engine Vehicles Heavy-freight Petro-electric 
Vehicles . .219 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER IX 
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued} 

PAGE 

Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles General Observations Various 

Examples of Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles . . . 239 

CHAPTER X 

SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL 
PURPOSES 

Dust and Refuse Collection Waggons Street Watering and 
Washing Machines Street Sweeping Machines Removal 
of Snow, etc 243 

CHAPTER XI 
MISCELLANEOUS TYPES OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

Commercial Travellers' Motor Vehicles Furniture Removal 
Motor Vans Hospital Motor Ambulances Motor Fire 
Engines Self-propelled or Motor Railway Carriages Over- 
head Conductor Electric Omnibuses Motor Vehicles for 
Various Purposes The Pedrail 253 

CHAPTER XII 

COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 

General Observations Petrol Cabs Petrol Omnibuses Light 
Petrol Vans and Lorries Heavy-freight Petrol Lorries 
Heavy-freight Steam Lorries Comparison of Cost of 
Running for Various Systems Effect of Materials on Cost 
of Maintenance 273 



INDEX 289 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Principal Prize Winners May-Day Meet of Heavy-freight 
Vehicles, 1903 Frontispiece 

1. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power 

applied vertically 8 

2. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power 

applied horizontally . . . . . . . .10 

3. Diagram showing relation of the draught to the load for 

four-wheeled vehicles 13 

4. Diagram showing action of gravity on an inclined road 

surface 25 

5. Diagram showing resistance due to a rising gradient . . 29 

6. Diagram showing method of testing engine and gear . . 47 

7. Diagram showing method of testing motor vehicle . . 48 

8. Diagram showing the relation of the speed of vehicle, 

diameter and revolutions of drive wheels, and ratio of 
speeds of countershaft to drive wheels .... 49 

9. Diagram showing relation of speed of vehicle to traction, 

percentage of gradient, and horse-power under various 
conditions .......... 50 

10. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab. Side elevation of fore- 

carriage 57 

11. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab. Front elevation of fore- 

carriage .......... 58 

12. The London Express Motor Service petrol cab . . .61 

13. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric 

hansom cab 66 

14. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric 

cabriolet 70 

15. Clarkson 8-seated station steam omnibus .... 80 

1 6. Clarkson 12-20 seated public service steam omnibus . . 81 

17. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan of frame and driving 

mechanism 90 

1 8. Clarkson steam omnibus. Side elevation of frame and driving 

mechanism .......... 91 

19. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal section of multi-tubular 

boiler 93 

20. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of multi- 

tubular boiler 94 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



2 1 . Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal central section 

through one of the cylinders and crank chambers of engine 95 

22. Clarkson steam omnibus. Transverse section of crank 

chamber, showing crank shaft and valve gear ... 96 

23. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal longitudinal section 

showing differential gear and countershaft .... 97 

24. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of me- 

chanically driven force pump 98 

25. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal section of 

burner ........... 99 

26. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan view of automatic burner 

regulating device 100 

27. Clarkson steam omnibus. Elevation of automatic burner 

regulating device . . . . . . . 101 

28. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of auto- 

matic burner regulating device . . . . . .101 

29. Thornycroft 14-seated steam omnibus . . . . 103 

30. Thornycroft 3o-seated steam omnibus, closed char-a-banc type 104 

31. Thornycroft 3o-seated steam omnibus, open char-a-banc type 104 

32. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel . . 105 

33. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Part vertical section of wheel. 106 

34. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Underside view of transmission 

gear 106 

35. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Plan view of boiler . . . 107 

36. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Vertical central section of 

boiler 109 

37. The Liquid Fuel Company steam omnibus. Vertical section 

of burner no 

38. The Liquid Fuel Company steam omnibus. Horizontal 

section of burner . . . . . . . . .in 

39. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Sectional elevation 

of transmission gear 113 

40. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Side elevation of 

wheel 114 

41. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Horizontal section of 

wheel 115 

42. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Vertical central section 

of boiler 117 

43. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional plan . .119 

44. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional side elevation 119 

45. Straker standard 2o-seated steam omnibus .... 121 

46. Weidknecht steam omnibus. Part sectional view of rear or 

driving wheel and axle 125 

47. Weidknecht steam omnibus. Part sectional view of front or 

steering wheel and axle 125 

48. Serpollet system. Plan view of engine 127 

49. Serpollet system. Sectional side elevation of engine . .127 

50. Serpollet system. End elevation of engine . . . .127 

51. Serpollet system. Vertical central section showing alterna- 

tive arrangement of exhaust 129 

52. Serpollet system. Vertical section of boiler or steam gene- 

rator 129 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

KH;. PAGE 

53. Serpollet system. Horizontal section of boiler or steam 

generator . . ... - !3 O 

54. Longuemare liquid fuel burner used in Serpollet boiler. 

Plan view 130 

55. Longuemare liquid fuel burner used in Serpollet boiler. 

Vertical central section 130 

56. Serpollet system. Side elevation of oil and water controlling 

device 131 

57. Stirling i6-seated petrol omnibus 134 

58. Fischer petrol-electric omnibus. Diagram of running 

mechanism 137 

59. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric omnibus. Diagram 

of running gear 146 

60. Benz light petrol van. Diagram of running gear . . .150 

6 1. Daimler light petrol van. Sectional view of engine . .152 

62. Thornycroft light steam van 154 

63. The Vehicle Equipment Company light 8-cwt. electric van . 156 

64. Oppermann light electric van. Rear view of frame . .159 

65. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Original pattern of lorry 169 

66. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry 

with rigid body . . . . . . . . .170 

67. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry 

with tipping body 172 

68. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal 

section of boiler . . . . . . . . 173 

69. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Transverse section of 

boiler 174 

70. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Patent single eccentric 

reversing gear ......... 175 

71. Thornycroft heavy-freight steam vehicles. Colonial type of 

4-ton waggon 176 

72. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton 

lorry, loaded 178 

73. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton 

lorry, unloaded 179 

74. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Brewer's 

waggon . . . . . . . . . .180 

75. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of 

engine 181 

76. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of valve 

gear . . . .182 

77. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical 

central section of boiler 183 

78. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional view 

of compensating gear transmission shaft . . . .184 

79. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional view 

of second motion shaft ....... 185 

80. Savage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry. 186 

8 1. Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal 

section of boiler ......... 188 

82. Simpson-Bodman heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional 

front and side elevations and detail view of boiler . .189 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



83. Brightmore heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 

ton lorry . . .190 

84. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton covered 

waggon . . . . . .192 

85. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of engine 

and running gear with covers removed . . . -193 

86. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of rear axle . 194 

87. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan view 

of boiler 195 

88. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section 

of boiler 196 

89. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton 

waggon .... ..... 198 

90. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of 

engine 199 

91. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Longitudinal 

vertical section of engine 200 

92. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. View showing- 

driving wheel and differential gear on main axle . . 200 

93. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of standard 

5-ton waggon . . 202 

94. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Side elevation of 

standard 5-ton waggon 202 

95. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section 

of boiler 203 

96. Nayler heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton waggon 205 

97. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton 

waggon .......... 207 

98. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan of 

boiler 208 

99. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central 

section of boiler 209 

100. The Yorkshire heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard 

4-ton lorry 210 

101. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical 

central section of boiler 211 

102. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of shaft 

and axle bracket - 212 

103. The Wantage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 

4 -ton lorry 215 

104. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 -ton 

lorry 216 

105. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Covered waggon 217 

1 06. Milnes-Daimler heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton covered 

waggon 222 

107. Delahaye heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton lorry . . 223 

1 08. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 5 to 6 ton lorry with 

tipping body 226 

109. Cadogan heavy- freight petrol vehicles. Vertical longitudinal 

section of engine 226 

1 10. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Transverse section 

of engine .......... 226 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

FIG. PAGE 

in. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Sectional view of 

carburettor 227 

1 12. Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 3-ton military pattern 

waggon 229 

113. Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Plan of frame and 

running gear 231 

114. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Plan view of 

engine 233 

115. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Elevation of 

engine 234 

116. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Longitudinal 

section of engine 235 

117. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum vehicles. Cross-section of 

pump 236 

1 1 8. Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric vehicles. Standard 

lorry . . . . 237 

119. The Hudson heavy-freight electric waggon .... 241 

120. The Vehicle Equipment Company heavy-freight electric 

trolley 242 

121. Coulthard 5 to 6 ton municipal steam tip waggon . . 244 

122. Mann covered municipal steam dust waggon or cart with 

tipping body ......... 245 

123. Thornycroft standard municipal steam tip waggon, showing 

body tipped 246 

1 24. The Lancashire standard municipal steam dust waggon, 

with removable tipping body 247 

12 5. Thornycroft steam street watering and sweeping waggon . 250 

126. The Sadler municipal road-cleaning machine . . -251 

127. Thornycroft steam furniture van 254 

128. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric furniture van . 255 

129. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric ambulance . 256 

130. Thornycroft steam ambulance ...... 257 

131. The Merryweather steam motor fire engine . . . . 259 

132. Steam motor carriage. London and South Western 

Railway . . . . . . . . . .261 

133. Steam motor carriage. South Eastern and Chatham 

Railway . . . 263 



MOTOR VEHICLES 

FOR 

BUSINESS PURPOSES 

CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTORY 

Future of the Business Motor Vehicle Classes of Business Motor 
Vehicles Advantages of Business Motor Vehicles Propelling 
Powers or Prime Movers for Business Motor Vehicles. 

FUTURE OF THE BUSINESS MOTOR 
VEHICLE 

IN the opinion of all those well qualified to judge, the heavy 
motor vehicle has before it a most important future, and there 
can be but little doubt that the self-propelled vehicle will in time 
supersede the horse for the transport of freight. Indeed, for the 
conveyance of heavy loads of passengers and goods, which is 
the more legitimate field of mechanical locomotion both about 
the streets of towns and cities and in the country the motor- 
driven vehicle will, it may safely be predicted, in a very few years' 
time hold a practical monopoly. 

The objections inherent to tramways, and the impossibility of 
establishing them in many districts, have raised a problem the 
satisfactory solution of which has been found in the railless 
electric line. 

This system, which consists of electric motor-driven vehicles 
receiving current from overhead wires, and running on ordinary 
roads, is suitable for both passenger and goods traffic, and may 
at some future time go far towards, if not altogether, abolishing 
tram lines. 

i B 



2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

For long distances the cheapest system of land carriage is, 
and will, undoubtedly be found to be the railway. At short 
distances, however, the terminal charges form so heavy a pro- 
portion of the total cost, that this method of transport is rendered 
impracticable commercially, so far as goods are concerned. It is 
here that the heavy motor waggon or freight vehicle should more 
especially be brought into service, and being able to move from 
any one point to any other point, and thus to enable breaking 
bulk and carriage during the journey to be avoided, goods might 
be carried by this means at rates that would be impossible on 
railways for short distances. 

CLASSES OF BUSINESS MOTOR VEHICLES 

Self-propelled vehicles for business purposes or commercial 
use may be conveniently divided into two main classes, that is 
to say, first, those adapted for the conveyance of passengers, and, 
second, those adapted for the carriage of goods. 

Each of these main or principal classes may, for additional 
facility of description, be again subdivided into two kinds of 
vehicles, viz. light and heavy. 

In the first class, the light type of vehicle are those adapted 
to carry a small number of passengers, such as cabs or small 
omnibuses plying for public hire. The heavy type comprises 
such vehicles as large omnibuses and the like, carrying passengers 
on fixed routes or otherwise. 

In the second class, the light type of vehicles includes all 
those suitable for tradesmen for the quick delivery of goods; 
and the heavy type such vehicles as are adapted for the transport 
of freight or heavy loads of goods at comparatively slow speeds. 

ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS MOTOR 
VEHICLES 

Attention may here be appropriately drawn to the great and 
many advantages which motor vehicles of both the light and 
heavy types possess for the purposes indicated above. 

In the case of the lighter type of motor vehicle, mention may 
be made of the following : Greater rapidity of delivery by reason 
of quicker transit, and greater rapidity of stopping and starting, 



INTROD UCTOR Y 3 

and consequently fewer vehicles required. Saving in rent of 
premises as compared with horses and carts. Fewer hands 
wanted than in the case of stables, when not only have the 
vehicles to be cleaned but also the horses. No outlay for running 
except for fuel and sundries when actually on the road, whilst 
a horse is continually consuming food, and therefore requiring 
outlay whether working or not. Greater immunity from accidents, 
as has been shown by practical working. And finally, that motor 
vehicles are far more sanitary, not likely to be non-available when 
wanted, as horses frequently are through sickness or being tired, 
and not dependent to a great extent upon the weather, as is the 
case with horses. 

The above advantages apply equally to the case of motor 
vehicles adapted for heavy duty, and, in addition, motor vehicles 
of this class possess such special qualifications for the conveyance 
of goods for comparatively long distances, that it would be entirely 
impossible for animal traction of any kind to compete with them 
commercially with success. 

PROPELLING POWERS OR PRIME MOVERS 
FOR BUSINESS MOTOR VEHICLES 

As regards the propelling agencies which have been experi- 
mented with up to the present time, it may be safely asserted 
that almost every known motive power has been tried. Steam 
was successfully employed as early as 1820, and the motor vehicle 
would long ago have been perfected in this country had not the 
art been stifled in its early infancy by enactments, the passing of 
which were secured by the intrigues of interested parties, fearful 
lest their monopolies might be injured, and totally regardless of 
the public welfare when they imagined their private pockets might 
suffer. 

These restrictions would probably be still in force if the 
enlightened views of our present sovereign King Edward VII. 
and the example of what foreign nations were doing had not 
supported the desire of the British people for their removal, and 
for the according to those using mechanically propelled vehicles 
of the same liberty on the public highways as is possessed by 
those employing vehicles hauled by animal traction. This influence 
was successful in securing emancipation from these absurd and 



4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

galling restrictions. But meanwhile the labours of the eminent 
and enterprising engineers in this country of eighty-five years ago 
had been, of course, frustrated, and foreigners had been permitted 
to begin where our engineers had been forced to stop, and to get 
ahead of us in the art. 

Following on steam, the next experiments were in the line of 
internal combustion or oil engines, and by electrically driven 
vehicles, compressed air, carbonic acid, etc. 

As it is only purposed, however, to deal with the present 
types of commercially successful vehicles, the sources of power 
here dealt with will be confined to steam or external combustion 
engines, oil or internal combustion engines, and electricity. 

For light motor vehicles for business purposes, in which class 
are to be included all those intended for the rapid conveyance of 
limited numbers of passengers, or the delivery of comparatively 
light loads of goods about our cities and towns, all three of the 
above propelling agencies are suitable, and the same remark also 
applies to heavy motor vehicles intended for the transport of a 
considerable number of passengers, such as motor omnibuses and 
the like. 

In the case of heavy freight vehicles, however, where an 
abundant supply of power is required, internal combustion or 
explosive motors have not as yet been found in practical working 
to give quite such favourable results. 

The reason for this is not far to seek. The great weight of a 
self-propelled waggon and of its load, and the peculiar manner in 
which it operates, demands the employment of not only a motor 
of large power, but also of a flexible one, so that the natural 
action of the horse may, as far as possible, be imitated. The 
horse, on an emergency, is capable of exerting power equal to 
what we would term 15 horse-power or even more, but when the 
necessity for this effort ceases the horse only continues to exert 
sufficient power to haul the vehicle on the smoother surface. 
This the steam-engine can do by reason of its flexibility, but on 
the contrary the internal combustion or explosion engine, by 
reason of its construction, is of necessity run at a constant speed, 
and is non-reversible, and these defects are only imperfectly 
eliminated by the speed-changing devices applied, which consist 
mainly of such elements as spur and bevel gears, belts, chains, 
shifting wheels, friction wheels, pulleys with expanding faces, or 



INTR OD UCTOR Y 5 

various combinations of some of these devices with brakes and 
clutches. Attempts have likewise been made to employ hydraulic 
and electric combinations for the purpose. 

Needless to say, these speed-changing devices, whatever may 
be their success in the case of light or comparatively light vehicles, 
are more or less unsuitable for heavy freight vehicles, clutch and 
shifting gear wheels being in this case, owing to the impact of the 
moving masses, liable to frequently give rise to very serious 
trouble when being constantly brought into use to adapt the 
engine, which is running at a constant speed, to the speed 
requirements of the motor waggon wheels, which are ever changing. 

An internal combustion engine, besides, will not start with a 
load on, and even when it is running is dependent for its action 
on the even influx of the explosive mixture, and is liable to come 
to a sudden dead stop without any previous warning, should its 
capacity be at any time suddenly overtaxed. Again, the oil- 
motor is greatly influenced by the weather, owing to the effect 
exerted upon the carburettor by the atmosphere. The pounding 
of the large engine is liable to injure the frame of the vehicle. A 
certain amount of risk of explosion and fire exists, and there is 
the possibility of injury to the goods carried, when they consist of 
articles of a perishable nature and foodstuffs, by reason of the far 
from pleasant odour of the oil and exhaust. 

In short, although possessing many obvious advantages as a 
motive power for light and comparatively light motor vehicles, 
the use of internal combustion engines of large power on heavy 
motor waggons has not hitherto been attended with that amount of 
success which would seem to warrant the use of this type of motor 
in preference to the steam-engine, at least not until such time as 
an internal combustion engine has been designed which will be 
capable of varying its speed through a wide range, and will be 
likewise satisfactory in its operation in other respects. Theo- 
retically, of course, the internal combustion engine is the most 
economical. 



CHAPTER II 

RESISTAA?CE TO TRACTION ON COMMON 
ROADS 

Rolling Resistance Traction on Rising Gradients and Distribution 
of Load on Wheels Width of Tyres Speed and Suspension 
General Result of Early Experiments in Resistance to Traction 
on Common Roads Sir John Macneil's Experiments Resist- 
ance due to Rising Gradients Table calculated from Macneil's 
formulas showing Force required to draw Vehicles over Inclined 
Roads Recent Experiments on Traction on Common Roads 
Table compiled from recent Tests giving Tractive Force required 
to haul a Load of One Ton on Various Grades, and Equivalent 
Length of each Mile of Grade in Miles of Level Road Resistance 
due to the Air Resistance due to Starting Adhesive Power of 
Motor Vehicles 

BEFORE proceeding to give specific descriptions and illustrations 
of typical examples of self-propelled vehicles adapted for business 
purposes, in the order of the classification that has been already 
indicated, it has been thought desirable to deal at as great length 
as the space at command will admit of, with the subject of resist- 
ance to traction on common roads. 

This subject is one of paramount importance, inasmuch as the 
propulsion, and the maintenance of the speed of motion, of all 
wheeled vehicles can obviously only be effected by overcoming 
the various resistances by which such propulsion is opposed. 

These resistances are forces which are variable inversely to the 
force of traction expended. 

When moving slowly forward in a straight line, at a constant 
rate of speed, the force of propulsion will be equal to the resist- 
ance. The latter comprises the following elements : Resistance 
to rolling on the road surface, commonly denominated rolling 
friction ; resistance due to the friction of the wheels rotating on 
their axles ; and resistance due to wind pressure. 

6 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION ^ 

To the above must be added : 

In starting, the resistance due to inertia, which is the property 
possessed by any body of maintaining its condition of rest or 
motion if not acted upon by some force. This is the first law of 
motion, which is frequently spoken of as the law of inertia. 

Whilst travelling, the resistance due to weight, when passing 
over gradients, which resistance is of a positive or negative quality 
in accordance with the direction of motion, viz. whether the vehicle 
is going up or down. 

In running round curves resistance of a special nature is pro- 
duced, the value of which augments in a ratio corresponding to 
the diminution of the radii of the curves. 

All the above-mentioned resistances are common to all wheeled 
vehicles, being due to their traction or propulsion on any road 
surface. In the case of mechanically propelled vehicles, it is to 
be observed that there is yet another source of resistance to be 
taken into account, to wit, that arising from the use of the engines 
or motors, of whatever be their description, for purposes of pro- 
pulsion. This latter element, however, may be dismissed for the 
present, and those resistances to traction which wheeled vehicles 
have to overcome on a common road be dealt with seriatim. 

ROLLING RESISTANCE 

Rolling resistance or, as it is commonly called, rolling friction 
is that due to the resistance offered by the circumference of a 
wheel to the power by which it is propelled. 

This class of resistance is due to the greater or lesser in- 
equalities of the surface in the immediate vicinity of the points of 
contact of the wheels of the vehicle with this surface, and which 
inequalities form obstacles that must be overcome, thereby giving 
rise to a resistance that consumes a proportion of the propelling 
power corresponding to the extent of the inequalities. 

This proposition will be made clear by the diagram Fig. i, in 
which a is a cylinder having a radius p, and which cylinder a is 
standing on a horizontal plane surface b b l . Laterally and con- 
centrically upon the axis of the cylinder a is fixed, as indicated on 
the diagram, a small pulley c having a radius y. 

If tangentially to the pulley c a force d be applied vertically, 
such as a weight suspended on the end of a fine cord wound on 



8 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



the pulley c, it can then be demonstrated that it is possible to 
gradually increase the value of the force d up to a point just 
beyond which the equilibrium of the cylinder a will be upset, and 
it will be caused to move or travel in the direction indicated by 
the arrow. It will be seen that the cylinder a is subjected to three 
forces, that is to say, the weight e of the cylinder a, the vertical 
force </, and that resulting from the sum x of the resistances offered 
by the plane surface bb l . This latter force, which is necessarily 



CC 




Fig. i. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power 
applied vertically. 

a vertical one, will equal e + ^, as, however, the latter quantity is 
not sufficient to maintain the equilibrium of the cylinder a, and as 
we have just seen that the forces are so balanced that the cylinder 
a is in a state of equilibrium, it follows, then, that the sum of the 
forces e, d, x, round the horizontal axis projected to z l t is nil. 
From the above we find that 



dy = 



x 



_ 

e + d 



that is to say, that the product x of the resistances offered by the 
plane surface bb l must pass through a point x 1 beyond the vertical 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 9 

axial line zz l , and on that side of the latter to which the cylinder a 
tends to roll upon the plane surface bb l . 

The resistance offered to the cylinder a rolling on the plane 
surface bb l is equal to the maximum force applied at d that may 
be necessary to overcome the state of equilibrium of the cylinder a 
and to cause it to roll on the plane surface bb l in the direction of 
the arrow. Or, to be more accurate, the above-mentioned re- 
sistance is measured by the product d\\ because d and y will vary 
in an inverse ratio the one from the other, whilst all the other 
factors remain constant. 

The above considerations also apply when the application of 
the force d is made in a horizontal instead of a vertical direction. 
In this case the product x of the resistances offered by the plane 
surface bb l will be oblique respectively to this plane surface as the 
product of the forces d and e in the diagram Fig. 2. Indicating 
by g the component of y parallel to the plane surface bb l , and by 
x the line normal to the same plane, then on the instant at which 
the state of equilibrium of the cylinder a is on the point of being 
interrupted, we have the two following equations : 

e x = z 
and 

d-g = z 

to which equations must be also added the following equation of 
the turning movements around the point z 1 : 

d(y + p)=x$ 
from which is obtained 

d(y + P ) 



The horizontal component g of the product x forms the 
resistance to rolling, and it should be less than he, h being the co- 
efficient of resistance to slipping, in order to admit of the cylinder 
a rolling on the horizontal plane bb 1 . 

As it is assumed in the last equation that the movement of the 
cylinder a takes place in the same direction as the action of the 
force g, this gives us 



10 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Or, in other words, if the horizontal force d be applied above 
the axis z of the cylinder a, slip might occur between the latter 
and the plane surface bb l . This slip will take place if the force d 




Fig. 2. Diagram showing rolling resistance on plane surface, power 
applied horizontally. 

that is applied be greater than the friction between the cylinder 
and the plane surface bb l ; that is to say, when the condition of 
things may be expressed by 

d> he 

//, as has been already mentioned, being the coefficient of this 
friction. If, on the other hand, however, we have conversely 

d<he 

then the cylinder a would roll in the contrary direction to that 
exerted by the force </, and in this case the formula 

8 = d(y + P ) = d(y + P ) 
z e 

would be applicable provided the distance y be regarded as a 
positive one, and that even if that distance be then reckoned as 
being above the point z, and counting the distance to the right 
instead of to the left of the point z 1 . The location of the centre 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION n 

of reaction of the fulcrum at the point x l is evidently due to the 
two bodies in mutually compressing each other coming in contact 
with each other no longer through a generator of the cylinder, but 
through that of a band of which the point x l is an interior point. 

The resistance offered to rolling is explained thus by the fact 
that when a body is rolling or is on the point of rolling upon 
another body, the normal sources of resistances offered by the last- 
named have a product which is slightly in excess of the normal, at 
the geometrical point of contact, at that side towards which the 
rolling motion is taking place, or towards which the rolling motion 
is on the point of taking place. 

Regarding experiments with the view of a practical determina- 
tion of the resistance to rolling, the principal amongst the earliest 
workers in this field were Edgeworth (1797), Coulomb (1799), 
Rumford (1811), and Dupuit (1837). None of these experi- 
menters, however, were able to place a practical value upon the 
resistance offered to the rolling of wheeled vehicles upon road 
surfaces, and it was not until General Morin, in the year 1838, 
took up the experiments of Coulomb, and having proved the truth 
of the principle enunciated by this latter, that the resistance to 
rolling was in an inverse proportion to the radius, that the experi- 
ments in this direction were continued until practical data were 
arrived at. 

Although General Morin acknowledged the truth of the above 
principle, he nevertheless did not forget that the proportionateness 
between resistance and pressure was not a fixed general mathe- 
matical law, and that it was only extant in certain cases. He, 
however, admitted that, on solid macadam or stone roads, in a 
good state of repair, and on pavement, the proportionateness 
between resistance and pressure might be taken as being sufficiently 
exact for all practical purposes, and for ordinary applications. The 
amount of resistance encountered on pavement under light loads 
being less than that with heavy loads, no doubt because the latter 
had the effect of displacing the paving stones to a certain extent 
with regard to one another. 

General Morin determined the value of the coefficient a in 
the formula of Coulomb, which was as follows : 



12 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

In which R = the resistance at the circumference of the 

roller ; 

P = the pressure upon the roller ; 
r = the radius of roller ; 
a = the coefficient depending upon the nature of 

the surfaces in contact. 

The result of General Morin's researches are recorded in the 
following table : 

VALUE OF THE COEFFICIENT a OF COULOMB'S FORMULA. 

P 



Nature of the ground . 


Value of a. 


Very dry, even road, with a little dust ... 
Slightly wet road, or one covered with a heavy 
coating of dust ... 
Wet road free from mud ... 
Very solid road, wet, with a little mud, very 
dry, or dry, offering an appreciable disintegra- 
tion with dust, and detritus of materials 
Slightly worn road, covered with thick mud ... 
Pavement of Fontainebleau grit stone in ordi- 
nary condition . . 


0*010 to 0*011 

O'OI2 tO O*OI3 

0*014 to 0*015 
o'oi6 to 0*018 

O'O2O tO 0*027 
0*009 


Pavement covered with mud 


0*010 to 0*011 



General Morin estimated besides this that the value of 
a = o'oio was the minimum one for application to traction on 
roads made with silicious gravel during the fine periods of the 
summer season. 

In 1840 General Morin set himself to solve the problem of 
registering the resistances which are opposed to the traction of 
vehicles, at the same time preserving as far as possible a lasting 
record of the information obtained. This led him to invent a 
registering dynamometer, from which instrument all those sub- 
sequently designed have had their origin, and by the use of which 
he was enabled to determine the laws under which a wheeled 
vehicle could travel on different road surfaces. 

General Morin's experiments occupied several years of constant 
work, and he recorded the results in a work entitled " Experiments 
on the Traction of Vehicles." The following particulars, which 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 13 

are of great interest and value, in relation to the subject under 
consideration, are translated from selected extracts summarized 
from General Morin's book, and given in an excellent treatise, 
published in Paris, entitled " Voitures Automobiles," by C. 
Milandre and R. P. Bouquet, from which work has also been 
derived much of the information just given. 

The considerations which may exert a regular and noticeable 
influence upon the power required for traction, and which con- 





Fig. 3. 



P'+J> 



Diagram showing relation of the draught to the load for 
four-wheeled vehicles. 



siderations it is desirable to investigate and substantiate, are the 
following : 

1. The load or pressure exerted upon the ground. 

2. The diameter of the wheels. 

3. The width of the tyres. 

4. The rapidity of motion. 

5. The obliquity of the tractive force. 

6. The suspension, or the greater or lesser elasticity of the 
vehicle. 

The following are the formulae proposed by General Morin 
(see diagram, Fig. 3) for obtaining, with a sufficiently close 
approximation for practical purposes, the value of the resistance 
offered to the advance of four-wheeled vehicles on horizontal 
ground : 



14 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

R' = ( A +./W(*7 + P J>) + A (^ + f ''') ( vehicles with 4 wheels) 



R being the tractive force, parallel to the ground, which is 
necessary to overcome the resistance to rolling and the friction on 
the axles ; 

A the coefficient depending on the condition of the ground 
and the nature of the vehicle ; 

/ the coefficient of friction of the axles in the boxes of the 
wheels ; 

p the diameter of the axles, which are supposed to be equal ; 

P is the weight of the vehicle without the wheels ; 

P' and P" are the proportion of P borne on the front and rear 
axles, that is to say, the load on the axles ; 

/ and r" the radii of the wheels ; 

/' and/" the weight respectively of the front and rear wheels. 

The relation of the tractive effort developed to the total load 
moved forms the coefficient of traction, which is generally expressed 
in kilogrammes per ton or in thousandths. 

It will be seen in the formula that in order to equalize the 
traction on the two sets of wheels the load should be so distributed 
that 



and as without any appreciable error we can make- 

.1 .a 
P = P 

we have as a general rule 

P' P" 
r' = r' 1 

and as 

P = P' -f P", 
the formula becomes 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 15 

it being understood that we have 

F = P' = P 
t> r " / + ;-" 

The relation between the total resistance given and the total 
weight F =/ +/' is therefore 



R' _ A+/p 2P i\i j r" 
' - ' ' ' - 



In the case of a mechanically propelled vehicle, the weight of 
the wheels is only a small fraction of the total load, and it is 
therefore possible to neglect it, which then gives 



+ r" 



This latter formula shows that in the case of the supposed dis- 
tribution of the load, the relation of the traction to the total load 
falls with A, /, and p, and is in an inverse ratio to the diameter of 
the wheels. 

From the above the following interesting conclusions may be 
drawn : 

1. To increase as far as possible the diameter of the wheels. 

2. To give to the axles a sufficient diameter only to meet the 
resistance, and with that object to form them of metal of the best 
quality. 

3. To employ well-made and adjusted axle-boxes. 



i6 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



TABLE GIVING THE RELATION OF THE TRACTIVE FORCE TO THE TOTAL 
LOAD MOVED. 



Description of road 
run on. 


Values of 

r 
V* 

/P 


Gun 
carriages. 
o'io m to 0*12'" 

o 782'" 
o 00247 


Wheeled 
vehicles. 
o'io m to o'i2* u 

o- 75 o ra 
o "00208 


Stage 
coaches, 
yio"' to 0*12'" 

0*00208 


Pleasure 
carriages. 
o'o7'" to o"o8' u 
0*027'" 

' 45 


Stone roads 








(pt 0-023 


// O-O25 


In excellent condition, very\ 


(p o*oi6"l 


020 


I p 0'02I 


/ O'O2O 


dry, very even 


/ 


\t 0'020J 




j / 0*024 


/ 0-024 










\gt 0*025 


gt 0-025 


Slightly wet, or covered with 






/ 0-030 


/ 0-029 


dust, with some stones 


O"O22 


0*028 


t 0-037 


' 0-037 


flush with the surface 






gt 0-04I 


gt 0-04I 


Very hard, with large stones I c 
flush with the surface ...fl 


0*023 


p O-O25 
/ 0-038 


p 0-024 
' 0-037 










gt 0*044 


gt 0-044 


Hard, slightly worn, and) 
soft mud J'j 


0-037 


j p 0-038 
\ t 0*046 
\gt 0*050 


p 0-038 
/ 0*045 
gt 0-049 








j / 0-048 


p 0-047 


Hard, with mud and ruts ... 


0-035 


0-045 


< '0-054 


' 0-054 










\gt 0*058 


gt 0*058 










/ 0*056 


/ 0-055 


With detritus and 


thick mud 


0-04I 


0*053 


t 0*063 


t 0-063 










gt 0*067 


gt 0*067 


Much worn, ruts of from 6Y 
to 8 cm., and thick mud / 


O*O7O 


P 0-073 
/ 0'08 1 
gt 0-085 


p 0-072 
/ 0*080 
gt 0*084 


Much worn, ruts of from 10 
to 12 cm., thick mud, hard 
and uneven bottom 


o - o6i 


0*079 


( p 0-082 
I '0-095 


/ O'oSl 
t O'lOO 


Grit stone pavement 






P 0-017 


/ 0-017 


Ordinary dry 


... 


0-013 


0*017 


/ 0*026 


t 0-026 










gt 0-031 


gt 0*030 


Ordinary wet and muddy ... 


0*017 


O*O22 


/ P 0-023 
\ t 0-030 


p 0*022 
/ 0*030 



/ = width of tyre, 
p = radius of axle bearing. 
r' = radius of small wheels. 
r" = radius of large wheels. 



NOTE. 

/p = moment of friction of axle. 
/ = travel at foot pace (1-50 m. about). 
/ = travel at trot (3*50 m. about). 
gt travel at fast trot (5 m. about). 



the coefficient of friction of axle. // = travel at foot pace and trot (2-50 m.). 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 



TRACTION ON RISING GRADIENTS AND 
DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD ON WHEELS 

The advantage offered by wheels of large diameter is merely 
that of diminishing the resistance caused by the inequalities of 
the surface passed over, and has no influence whatsoever upon 
that due to the action of gravity on a rising gradient. The 
resistance due to gravity when on an up gradient is the component 
of the load to be transported, parallel to the plane of the surface 
travelled upon, and the value is consequently entirely independent 
of the diameter of the wheels. 

From this it will be obvious that if the load were to be raised 
to the highest maximum possible admitted by the diameter of the 
wheels on a level surface, the force required for propulsion might 
become excessive on a rising gradient, as it consists of the two 
following elements, viz. : 

First A constant fraction of the total load entirely dependent 
on the gradient. 

Second The resistance offered by the surface that is being 
traversed, which is the only quantity that diminishes in proportion 
to the increase in the diameter of the wheels. 

Attention should also be directed to the fact that in the case 
of vehicles having two trains of wheels of unequal diameter, the 
distribution of the load has an important influence on the tractive 
force required, because the amount of resistance due to the load 
upon the wheels of larger diameter is less than that upon the 
wheels of smaller diameter. It is obviously, therefore, an advan- 
tage to place a heavier load upon the first mentioned. 

Theoretically, it may be taken, as a general rule, that if the load 
be equally distributed between the two axles, the distance between 
these latter has no effect. In practice, however, it is found that 
the closer the axles are placed together the easier the vehicle 
will roll ; but, on the other hand, that the stability will be less. 

WIDTH OF TYRES 

General Morin's experiments with respect to the influence 
exerted by the width of tyres on the tractive force required, are 
embodied in the following three tables : 

c 



i8 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



TABLE I. 





Values of A. 










Sandy. 


Soft earth. 


45 


0*095 


0-0604 


90 


0-0788 





135 


0-0739 


0-0488 


i5 


0-0632 





225 


0-0362 





280 




O-O4II 



TABLE II. 



Nature of road surface. 


Values of A. 


Width of tyres. 


Very solid stone road with large stones) 
flush with surface (dry) / 


("0-0107 
\o-oo94 


0-175'" 
o-o6o m 


The same road (wet) ... 


(0-0155 


o - o6o m 




! 0-0229 


o'i75' n 


Earth road, covered with dust 


O'O2I2 


o*ii5 m 




0*0261 


o-o6o m 


Paved road 


(0-0106 to 


o-i75 m 




to'oui 






(0-0095 to 


o-ii5 m 




\0'0092 






0*0094 











TABLE III. 



Nature of road surface. 


Total load in 
kilos. 


Values of A. 


Width of tyres. 


Dry road with detritus of 
materials ... 




6992 
6140 

4580 
4590 


0*0164 
0-0163 
0*0159 
0*0140 


0-175'" 
0-175" 

0*175,; 

0'II5 



A critical examination of the above tables shows that on roads 
in a good state of repair, and even on those in a comparatively 
bad condition, as well as on pavements when the bottom is 
solid, the resistance follows the axiom that friction is independent 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 19 

of the area of the surfaces in contact, and the amount of resistance 
is practically independent of the width of the tyres, and conse- 
quently any increase in their width would only add unnecessarily 
to the weight of the vehicle. On the other hand, however, in the 
case of soft roads or on recently remetalled roads, and on roads 
constructed of friable materials, it is advantageous to increase the 
width of the tyres in proportion to the softness and penetrability 
of the road surface. From the point of view of the degradation 
of road surfaces, the best width of tyres for soft and compressible 
roads is one of 0^150 m., whilst in the case of ordinary roads 
and paved streets there is no advantage in exceeding o'ioo m. 
to 0*120 m. 



SPEED AND SUSPENSION 

Vehicles without Springs. In the case of soft and 
giving surfaces the resistance to rolling was, according to the 
experiments in question, found to be independent of speed, which 
fact is due to there being only compression of the surface without 
shocks, and without communication of speed to the medium com- 
pressed. This is no longer the case when the vehicle is rolling 
on a hard and uneven surface, as in this case, by reason of the 
repeated shocks to which the wheels are subjected in surmounting 
the inequalities, there will be a constant tendency to reduce the 
speed of motion, which must be made up by motive power. 

Vehicles hung on Springs. On earth roads and soft 
surfaces the resistance is independent of the speed, even when 
slight ruts exist. But on a stone road in good condition, and on 
pavement, the influence exerted by speed increases in proportion 
as the road surface becomes harder. 

At slow speeds and on hard road surfaces the effect of spring 
suspension is very slight, and, in fact, on stone roads in good 
condition, and on pavements, about the same value is found for A, 
both in the case of the most rigid description of vehicles, such as 
gun-carriages, for instance, and for those most carefully mounted 
on springs, such as diligences. 

The law regulating the variation of the resistance in relation 
to speed is an expression of the equation 

A - y 8(V -V) 



20 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



y being a constant representing in kilogrammes the value of A 
relatively to V; 8 being a constant coefficient numeral for each 
road corresponding to a given condition, and to a particular 
vehicle. 

Taking as a term of comparison the speed of i metre per 
second, then the above equation will become 



The following are the values obtained by General Morin for 
the constant 8 



naouc o; roaa sunace. .Description 01 venicie. 




Smooth roads 
Melz paving 

Paris paving 


("Diligence 
\Vehicle (carriage) with springs 
(Siege-gun carriage 
\Diligence 
(Vehicle without springs 
Same with six springs 
Waggon body jointed to frame 
hung on springs 


0-0022 

o'oooS 
0-0050 

0'0022 

0-0025 
(O-OO2O to 
\0-0022 



From the above it will be seen that on smooth roads the term 
S(V i) decreases in proportion to the greater perfection with 
which the vehicle is hung on springs. 

The following table gives the values of A corresponding to 
speeds between 3*6 kiloms. and 12*6 kiloms. per hour for the 
principal types of vehicles : 

TABLE GIVING VALUES OF "A" 



Speed in kilometres per hour 


3-6 


5-4 


7*2 


9-0 


10*8 


12*6 


Description of vehicle. 


Nature of road 
surface. 


Values of A. 


Diligences 


( Road in good 
) condition 
} Dry 


0*0120 


0*0125 


0*0130 


0*0135 


0*0140 


00145 




(Wet 


0*0141 o 0151 0-0162 


0*0173 0*0184 


0*0200 


Caleche 


( - 


O'OI2O 
0*0140 


o 0139 o 0158 
0*0151 0*0162 


0*0177 
0*0173 


o'oio,6 
0-0184 


0-0215 

0*0200 


Carriages jointed and) 
hung on springs ... ) 


Very dry ... 


o'oioo 


0-0104 


o 0108 


O*OII2 


o"on6 


O'OI2O 


Carriages hung on 


Grit stone 














springs 
Diligences 


pavement 
Ditto 


0*0080 
0*0070 


0-0093 

0*0083 


0*0105 

0-0094 


0-0115 
0*0105 


0*0130 
o'on6 


0*0142 
0*OT27 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 21 

From the above it will be seen that the resistance offered by 
stone roads in good repair, and by good pavement, was found to 
be almost the same in the case of carriages hung on springs when 
moving at the higher velocity. It is further to be observed that 
the resistance is always practically the same in the case of pave- 
ment, whilst it increases in winter on a stone road, and conse- 
quently that, when not greasy, a good hard pavement, well laid 
and close jointed, frequently affords a better surface for rolling 
than does a stone road in good repair. Moreover, the effects of 
shocks diminishing in proportion to the perfection with which the 
carriage is hung, it is obvious that the greater the speed at which 
the vehicle is intended to travel, the greater should be the care 
taken to secure the proper suspension of the vehicle. 

The formula previously determinated 

_ (A +/P) p 



will allow, by substituting the values for the letters, the solution, 
according to the case under consideration, of the amount of 
resistance to rolling for a vehicle of any description. 

The former tables give the values of A, which should be 
applied in accordance with the conditions of traction, and the 
latter table gives the values of the coefficients of traction corre- 
sponding to the different types of vehicles at different speeds. 

As regards the coefficient /(friction in axle boxes), its value 
will vary in accordance with the nature of the axles, and the 
method of lubrication employed, between 0*030 and 0-054. In 
practical working with good lubrication it may be taken as 0*040. 



GENERAL RESULT OF EARLY EXPERIMENTS 
IN RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 

The experiments of General Morin, although they did not 
enable any mathematical law upon the resistance to rolling to 
be arrived at, are, nevertheless, of great practical utility by reason 
of the numerous results attained, and the careful manner in which 
they were conducted. The general results obtained may be briefly 
summarized as follows : 

(a) Resistance to traction is in direct proportion to the load, 



22 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

and in an inverse proportion to the diameter of the wheels of the 
vehicle. 

(b) On a pavement or a good stone road the resistance to 
traction is independent of the width of the tyres when the latter 
exceed 7*5 to 10 cms., or say 3 to 4 ins. 

(c) At slow speeds, and other circumstances being equal, the 
resistance to traction is the same for vehicles with and without 
springs. 

(d) On hard stone roads and on pavement the resistance to 
traction increases proportionately with the velocity at speeds in 
excess of 2-25 miles per hour. The increments to traction being 
less in proportion to the smoothness of the road and the perfection 
with which the carriage is hung. 

(e) On earth roads, or roads freshly and thickly gravelled, 
resistance to traction is independent of velocity. 

(f) On good pavement the resistance to traction at slow 
speeds is only about 0*75 of the resistance met with on stone 
roads. At higher speeds the resistance is equal. 

(g) The smaller the diameter of the wheels the greater will be 
the destruction of the road surfaces, and vehicles without springs 
are also more destructive to road surfaces than those hung on 
springs. 

SIR JOHN MACNEIL'S EXPERIMENTS 

The experiments carried out by Sir John Macneil were made 
with an instrument devised by him for measuring the tractive 
force required on various road surfaces, to draw a waggon 
weighing 21 cwts. at a very slow speed, the results obtained 
being as follows : 

Total tractive force Tractive force per 



Description of road. 



Well-laid pavement ... ... ... 33 

Stone road, made with six inches of 

broken stone of great hardness, laid on 

foundation of large stone pavement, or 

upon concrete ... 
Old flint road, or road made with thick 

coating of broken stone laid on earth 65 62 

Road made with thick layer of gravel 



required, in Ibs. ' ton, in Ibs. 



46 44 



laid on earth 



147 140 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 23 

From a large number of experiments Sir John Macneil de- 
duced the following arbitrary formulae for the calculation of the 
resistance to traction on the level, for roads of various kinds, and 
at different speeds : 

Let R = force required to move the vehicle, in Ibs. ; 
W = weight of vehicle, in Ibs. ; 
w = weight of load, in Ibs. ; 
v velocity, in feet, per second ; 

c a constant number depending on the nature of the 
road surface. 

The values of c for different kinds of road surface are as 
follows : 

Timber ... ... ... ... ... ... c = 2 

Paved road ... ... ... ... ... c = 2 

Well-made broken stone road, in a dry, clean state c = 5 

Well-made broken stone road, covered with dust c = 8 

Well-made broken stone road, wet and muddy... c = 10 

Gravel or flint road, dry and clean state ... c = 13 

Gravel or flint road, wet and muddy state ... c = 32 

W + w . w , 

Stage waggon, R = - - + -- h cv 
93 4 

Stage coach, R = 



ioo 40 

Divide the gross weight of the vehicle, in Ibs., loaded, by 93 
for a waggon, or by ioo for a coach, and to the quotient add ~Q of 
the weight of the load only. To the sum thus obtained add the 
product of the velocity in feet per second, multiplied by the 
constant for that particular kind of road. The sum will be 
the force in Ibs. required to draw the carriage at a given velocity 
upon that description of road. 

According to the results of the experiments of Leahy, the use 
of springs does not lessen the draught when the motion is so slow 
as to allow the body of the vehicle to be elevated and depressed 
just as much as the axle. The variation of the draught on hard 
irregular surfaces is as the square of the velocity. The following 
table of uniform draught is given : 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Surface. 



Inclination. 



Broken stone surface (ordinary) 
Close firm stone paving 
Close timber paving 


Level 
in 48*5 
in 41 -5 


Close timber track . 


in ^i'67 


Close cut stone track 


in ^i'6? 


Iron tramway ... 


in 20/25 




in 28*5 


i 





The following deductions are given by Charie'-Marsaines, as 
the result of experiments with respect to the durability, cost of 
maintenance, and maximum load that can be supported on paved 
surfaces, as compared with macadam roads. The wear on harness 
is less on pavement. The wear and tear of vehicles is greater. 
A horse lasts a shorter time on macadam. Harness lasts six 
years on pavement and five years on macadam. A vehicle lasts 
seven years on pavement and nine years on macadam. 

The results obtained by Schwilgue are given in table below : 



Season of 
year. 


Description of 
roads. 


Load per 
horse. 


Distance run 
per hour. 


Work per hour in 
kilogrammetres. 


Ratio 


Winter ... 


Paved 


1-306 


3'3 


4,309,800 


1-644 


Winter ... 


Macadam 


0-85I 


3-080 


2,62I,o8o 


I '641 


Summer ... 


Paved 1-395 


3'5 


4,882,500 


I-22C 


Summer ... Macadam 


I-I4I 


3-480 


3.970,680 


I'22C 



RESISTANCE DUE TO RISING GRADIENTS 

The additional resistance offered by an up gradient is dealt 
with by Macneil as follows : Let ab in the diagram, Fig. 4, 
represent a portion of an inclined road, c a vehicle just retained 
in its position by a force d> acting in the direction shown by the 
arrow. The vehicle c is retained in position by three forces, that 
is to say, by its own weight, w, acting in the vertical direction ew, 
by the force w applied in the direction df parallel to the road 
ab, and by the pressure g which is exerted by the vehicle c 
against the surface of the road, acting in the direction eg per- 
pendicular to the surface. In order to determine the relative 
magnitude of the above three forces, draw the horizontal line 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 25 

a/i, and the vertical line hb. Now, as the two lines ew and bh 
are parallel to one another, and as they both cut the line ab, it 
follows that the two angles ewb and abh are equal, and as the 
two angles egiv and ahb are right angles, the two remaining 
angles weg and bah must be equal ones, and the two triangles 
eu'g and abh are similar ones. 

It has been shown that the three sides of the triangle ewg 




Fig-. 4. Diagram showing action of gravity on an inclined road 
surface. 



are proportional to the forces by which the vehicle c is sustained, 
therefore so also are the three sides of the triangle abh. That 
is to say, the length of the road ab is proportional to #', the 
weight of the vehicle c ; bg, the vertical rise, is proportional to 
/, the force required to sustain the vehicle upon the incline ; 
and ah) the horizontal distance for the rise, is proportional to g, 
the force with which the vehicle presses upon the surface of the 
road. 

Therefore 

ic' : ab : : f : hb 
and w : ab ' g ' ah 



26 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Thus, if ah be made of such a length that the vertical rise bh 
of the road is exactly i foot, then 



* w w . .. 

/ = -7 = - = = w.sm. B 

+ i 



, wcih wak 

and g = -- = = - = w. cos Q 

<*b Jah* + i 



/3 being the angle bah. 

The above formulae can be reduced to the following verbal 
rules : 

To find the force requisite to sustain a vehicle upon an 
inclined road (the effects of friction being neglected), divide the 
weight of the vehicle in Ibs., including its load, by the inclined 
length of the road, the vertical rise of which is one foot, 
and the quotient is the force required. 

To find the pressure of a vehicle against the surface of an 
inclined road, multiply the weight of the loaded vehicle in Ibs. 
by the horizontal length of the road, and divide the product 
by the inclined length of the same ; the quotient is the pressure 
required. 

To ascertain the resistance in passing up and down a hill, 
the resistance on a level road should first be calculated according 
to the rule before given (see Sir John Macneil's experiments). 
To this is to be added the force necessary to sustain the vehicle 
on the incline, in ascending, or in descending to subtract the same 
force from the resistance on the level. 

The following table, calculated from these rules, and showing 
the force required to draw vehicles over inclined roads, ranging 
by 25ths from i in 600 to i in 7, has been abstracted from a 
treatise entitled " The Construction of Roads and Streets " (sixth 
edition), by Messrs. H. Law, M.I.C.E., D. K. Clark, M.I.C.E., 
and A. J. Wallis-Tayler, A.M.I.C.E.,* and will be found useful for 
reference and comparison : 

* London : Crosby Lockvvood and Son. (Publishers of this work ) 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 







For a stage waggon of 


For a stage coach of 3 tons 






6 tons gross. 


gross. 






1. 


\* 


si 


si 


S v 


| 


* 5 





Rates of 


Angle 


oJS! 


"5 *"" 


5 


" 




" c 






inclina- 


with the 


So, 


2 1 


ho rt g 


M u C 


2 o, 


o ^ 


to a c 


t-f. 'J ~ 


tion. 


horizon. 


IP 


. O . 

si- i 


^li 


~1| 


1 J 


ill 


-Us? 


* s 1 






'= : :/ -"5 


^ b?-5 


"rt"rt k 


111 


IP 


'3 P. c 
571 ho"" 


Ill 


111 






fj 


II 


'If 




"J: 

o *"* 


o w 


H 


If 


jo/ // 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


miles. 


miles. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


miles. 


miles. 


I in 600 


o 5 44 


286 


241 


08 5 


0-9150 


375 


350 


I-030 


0-9690 


575 


o 5 59 


287 


240 


088 


0*9116 


373 


350 


1-032 


0*9676 


550 


o 6 15 


288 


2 39 


093 


0-9074 


374 


349 


033 


0-9662 


525 
500 


o 6 33 
o 6 53 


289 
291 


2 3 8 
237 


097 
IO2 


0*9029 
0*8979 


374 

375 


348 


035 
037 


0-9646 
0*9629 


475 


o 7 14 


292 


235 


107 


0-8926 


376 


347 


039 


0-9605 


45 


o 7 38 


294 


334 


113 


0-8869 


377 


347 


"041 


0-9588 


425 


085 


295 


232 


'I2O 


0-8801 


377 


346 


043 


0*9563 


400 


o 8 36 


297 


230 


128 


0-8725 


378 


345 


"046 


0-9535 


375 


o 9 10 


300 


228 


136 


0-8642 


38o 


344 


049 


0-9505 


350 


o 9 49 


302 


225 


146 


0-8543 




342 


053 


0-9469 


325 


o 10 35 


305 


222 


157 


0-8433 


382 


341 


"056 


0-9430 


300 


II 28 


309 


219 


I 7 


0*8301 


384 


339 


061 


0-938I 


290 


o ii 51 


310 


217 


I 7 6 


0-8245 


385 


338 


"064 


0-9358 


280 


o 12 17 


312 


216 


182 


0-8179 


386 


338 


066 


0-9336 


270 


o 12 44 


314 


2I 4 


I8 9 


O'8ll I 


386 


337 


068 


0-93I4 


260 


o 13 13 


315 


212 


196 


0-8039 


387 


336 


071 


0-9286 


250 


o 13 45 


317 


210 


204 


0-7963 


388 


335 


074 


0-9259 


240 


o 14 19 


320 


208 


212 


0-7876 


390 


334 


077 


0*9226 


230 


o 14 57 


322 


2O5 


222 


0-7785 


39 ! 


332 


080 


0-9I92 


220 


o 15 37 


325 


20 3 


232 


0-7683 


392 




084 


0-9156 


210 


O l6 22 


328 


200 


243 


0-7573 


394 


330 


088 


0-9II5 


200 17 II 


331 


I 9 7 


255 


Q'745 1 


395 


328 


092 


0-907I 


I9O 


o 18 6 


334 


193 


268 


0-7319 


397 


326 


097 


0-9024 


1 80 


o 19 6 338 


I8 9 


283 


0-7171 


399 


324 


103 


0-8968 


170 


o 20 13 343 


I8 5 


300 


0-7004 


401 


322 


109 


0-8908 


1 60 


O 21 29 


348 


180 


319 


0-6814 


404 


320 


116 


0-8839 


15 


o 22 55 


353 


174 


-341 


0-6587 


406 




123 


0-8761 


I4O 


o 24 33 360 


168 


364 


0-6359 


410 


3H 


132 


0-8673 


130 


o 26 27 367 


1 60 


392 


0-6079 




310 


142 


0-8573 


1 2O 


o 28 39 


376 


152 


425 


0-5752 


418 


306 


154 


0*8451 


110 


o 31 15 


386 


129 


451 


Q'549 1 


423 


300 


169 


0-8308 


100 


o 34 23 


398 


122 


5 IO 


0-4903 


429 


294 


185 


0-8142 


95 


o 86 ii 


405 


114 


"537 


0-4634 


432 


291 


195 


0-8045 


90 


o 38 12 


4i3 


106 


566 


0-4338 


436 


287 


206 


Q'7937 


85 


o 40 27 


422 


96 


600 


0*4004 


441 


282 


-219 


0-7801 


80 


o 42 58 


432 


85 


637 


0-3629 


446 


278 


232 


0-7677 


75 


o 45 5 1 


443 


72 


680 


0*3204 




272 


247 


0-7522 


70 


o 49 7 


456 


57 


728 


0-2719 


457 


266 


265 


0-7345 


65 


o 52 54 


470 


40 


784 


0*2161 


464 


258 


285 


0-7I43 


60 


o 57 18 


488 


19 


'850 


0-1505 


475 


250 


309 


0-6903 



28 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 







For a stage waggon of 
6 tons gross. 


For a stage coach of 3 tons 
gross. 


Rates of 


Angle 


l| 


|| 


si 


si 

JB 8 


fc 


'O 


si 


ii 


inclina- 
tion. 


with the 
horizon. 


|| 


If \ 


f II 


y 

ill 


ill 


18, 


|i| 


b/3 D C 
CTJ 

-2gf 






||| 


"3 0,33 


C< 


gjj 


HI 


ill 


= g 










a rt" 3 


ll.s 


Hi 




S> S 


llj 


"si g> 






V y 


D 








V * 










<-> J3 




|| 


$1 


o*"D 
W ** 


1 


0-5 


w| 


^1 




/ II 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


miles. 


miles. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


miles 


miles. 


i in 55 


2 30 


508 


1*926 


0-0736 


484 


239 


337 0*6620 


50 


8 6 


533. 





2*019 





496 


227 


371 


0-6283 


45 


16 24 


562 





2-133 


511 


212 


4 I2 


0-5871 


,, 40 


25 57 


600 


- 2*274 


530 


I 94 


464 


0-5354 


35 


38 14 


648 





2-456 


554 170 


"53 


0-4690 


. 34 


41 8 


659 


2-499 


559 l6 4 


-546 


Q-4535 


33 


44 12 


671 


2-544 


565 


I 5 8 


562 


0-4370 


3^ 


47 27 


684 


2-593 i 


572 


152 


5 80 


o-4i93 


" 31 


5 55 


697 




2-644 


578 


H5 


'599 


0-4007 


,, 30 


54 37 


712 





2-699 


586 


138 


t)I9 


0-3805 


29 


i 583* 


727 







593 


130 


640 


0-3592 


2> 


2 2 5 


744 





2-820 





602 


122 


66 3 


0-3363 


,, 27 


272 


762 i 





2-828 


610 


H3 


688 


0-3119 


26 


2 12 2 


78ij 





2*960 


620 


103 


714 


0-2854 


2 5 


2 17 26 


80 1 




3-038 





630 


93 


743 


0-2566 


,. 24 


2 23 10 


823 : 





3-120 





641 


82 


'774 


0-2257 


23 


2 29 22 


847 




3-2I3 





653 


69 




0-1919 


,, 22 


2 36 10 


874 


3-313 





666 


56 


844 


o-i554 


,, 21 


2 43 35 


903 


- J3-423 





68 1 


42 


884 


0-1150 


,, 20 


2 5i 21 933 


3-538 


696 


26 


926 


0-0780 


,, 19 


3 o 46 970 


3*677 




8 


'977 


O'O22I 


, 18 


3 10 47 1009 


3-826 





734 





2-032 





, 17 


3 21 59 


1053 


3-991 





756 





2-092 : 


, 16 


3 34 35 


1 102 


! 4-I78 





780 - 


2-160 





15 


3 48 5i 


H57 


; 4*388 





807 ! - 


2-234 


-- 


H 


4 5 H 


1221 





4-629 





839 - 


2*322 





13 


4 23 56 


1294 





4-906 





875 


2-423 


, 12 


4 45 49 


1379 


- 


5-229 





918 


2-540 ; 


II 


5 ii 40 


I 4 80 


, . 


5'6ll 





968 


2-679 


, IO 


5 4 2 58 


1600 i 





6-067 





1028 


2-846 


.__. 


9 


6 20 25 


1747 





6-623 





IIOI 


3*048 





> <"> 


7 7 30 


1929 





7-3I5 





1192 


3-300 





. 7 


8 7 48 


2162 





8*199 





1308 


3-621 














In the French work entitled "Ventures Automobiles," which 
has been already referred to, the resistance offered by up- 
gradients is dealt with as follows : Inclines are defined by the 
elevation in millimetres corresponding to one metre traversed. 
A vehicle on an incline is a mover which is displaced on an 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 



29 



inclined plane, and if a be taken to represent the angle formed 
by this plane with the horizon (see diagram, Fig. 5), the power 
which will retain the body in motion, and which is the component 




Fig. 5 Diagram showing resistance due to a rising gradient 

of the total load P 1 parallel to the inclined plane P, is of the 
following value : 



R 3 = 



sn a 



a more simple expression of which is to say that it equals as 
many kilogrammes per ton as the incline measures millimetres 
per metre. As has been already mentioned, the force will be 
positive or negative in accordance with the direction in which 
the vehicle is moving, viz. up or down the incline. 

Traction on an incline has also the effect of altering the value 
of the pressure on the axle bearings, which pressure, if it were 
represented by P, would become equal to P cos a ; in practical 
working, however, this variation, which is but a small one, can 
be neglected. 



RECENT EXPERIMENTS ON TRACTION 
ON COMMON ROADS 

The results obtained by General Morin have been confirmed, 
and his experiments completed, by recent investigators, the advent 
of mechanically propelled vehicles having again drawn considerable 
attention to the subject. The most important of these recent ex- 
periments have undoubtedly been those of a French gentleman, 



30 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Mr. Andre Michelin, the manufacturer of the well-known tyres 
that bear his name, and whose primary object was to ascertain, 
for purposes of comparison, the results given from a tractional 
point of view, by the use of various different forms of tyres, viz. 
iron tyres, solid indiarubber tyres, and pneumatic tyres. 

Before dealing with these comparatively recent experiments, it 
will be interesting to remark that Mr. Debauve, Ingenieur en Chef 
des Fonts et Chaussees, found, as the result of his experiments 
carried out in 1873, tnat resistance to traction varied on macadam 
roads from 32 kilogrammes per ton for heavy vehicles to 36 kilo- 
grammes per ton for carriages ; on paved roads he found these 
resistances to vary between 18 and 36 kilogrammes, for the same 
description of vehicles, according to the condition of the pavement. 

The resistance to rolling in an omnibus travelling at a speed 
of 1 6 kilometres (9*94 miles) an hour he found to be as follows : 
36 to 38 kilogrammes on macadam roads, and 29 to 31 kilo- 
grammes on paved roads. 

Clarke, as the result of his experiments, proposed to adopt the 
following empirical formula : 



RI = 30 + 4V+ 

R being the resistance given in Ibs. per ton, V the speed in miles 
per hour, and the road being supposed to be a good macadam. 

Mr, Andre' Michelin's experiments were carried out during the 
years 1896-7, and as they were conducted with great skill and 
care, the results obtained are of much importance. 

The following details are extracted from an intelligent summary 
of these experiments given in the French work already mentioned 
(" Voitures Automobiles "), the question of comparison of the 
different tyres used being neglected for the present. 

The first experiments of Mr. Michelin were carried out at 
Clermont-Ferrand with a well-hung brake, of which the following 
are the main particulars : Diameter of front wheels, 0*92 m. 
diameter of rear wheels, 1-12 m. ; weight of brake empty, without 
driver, 570 kilogrammes. 

Subjoined is a brief summary of the results obtained, which 
are most pertinent to the present subject. 

On a very even macadam road, with the brake empty, the 
following tractive force was required : 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 





Walking pace. 


Trotting. 


Fast trotting. 


Iron tyres ... 
Pneumatic tyres 


Kiloms. 
13-8 
I3-0 


Kiloms. 
17-0 

I3-5 


Kiloms. 
21'0 

I3'5 



The speeds corresponding to the different paces of the horse 
were : 



Walking pace. 



Trotting. 



Fast trotting. 





Metres. 


Metres. 


Metres. 


Wheels with iron tyres 


4-550 


10-940 


I5-I20 


Wheels with pneumatic tyres 


4-900 


10-500 


I5-I20 



The coefficients of traction resulting from the above figures are 
tabulated below : 



Description of tyre. 


At walking pace. 
4550 to 4900 m. 


At a trot. 
10500 to 10940 m. 


At a fast trot. 
151-20 m. 


Iron tyres 
Pneumatic tyres 


P 0228 
0*0242 


0*0239 
0-0300 


0-0239 
0*0368 



The last experiments of Mr. Michelin date from 1897, and 
were carried out by means of a steam motor drawing a vehicle 
through a dynamometer mounted on another vehicle. 

The coefficients of traction deduced from these experiments 
are summarized in the following table : 

TABLE GIVING COEFFICIENTS OF TRACTION (Michelin}. 



Description of tyres. 







Iron. 


Solid india- 
rubber. 


Pneu- 
matic. 




Metres. 










(11-700 (head wind) 


0*0272 


O*O245 


0-0223 


Good macadam, hard, 


1 1*700 (wind behind) 


0-0253 


O*O228 


0-0208 


dry, and dusty 


19-700 (head wind) 


0-0344 


0*0299 


0*0248 




19700 (wind behind) 


0-0276 


0*0252 


0*0238 


Good macadam, hard, J 1 1 -QOO (wind behind) 


0-0274 


0*0265 


0*0240 


slightly muddy ... ^20*000 (wind behind) 


0*0399 


0-0356 


0-0318 


Macadam, very wet 21 'ooo (wind behind) 


0*0456 


0*0426 


0*0350 


Old macadam, slightly) 
brokenup / 22 'OOO( wind behind) 


0-0338 


0*0280 


0-0225 



3 2 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



A comparison of the results obtained by Mr. Michelin with 
those gained by General Morin so many years before is very 
interesting, and the close way in which the figures obtained by 
the two experimenters approximate adds very considerably to 
their practical value. For example : the results obtained by 
General Morin on a good macadam road in a dusty condition 
were, at a walk 100, at a trot 127, at a fast trot 152, whilst those 
obtained by Mr. Michelin were respectively 100, 123, and 160. 
On good pavement, dry, the first experimenter obtained, at a 
walk 100, at a trot 151, and the second 100 and 146. These 
figures are as near as can be expected considering the impossibility 
of obtaining roads in precisely the same condition. The figures 
obtained by Mr. Michelin are in almost every case slightly under 
those obtained by the formulae of General Morin, a difference 
which is attributable to the superior manner in which the brake 
used by the former was hung upon springs, whilst the vehicle 
which was employed by General Morin was springless. 

In 1897 a series of experiments were undertaken by Professor 
H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S., M.I.C.E., for the Royal Lancashire 
Agricultural Society, the results obtained with respect to the 
tractive force for agricultural waggons being given briefly in the 
following table : 





Wheels. 


Tyres. 


Weight 
of 
vehicle. 


Load, 
in 
tons. 


Tractive force per 
ton of load. 


Fore. 


Hind. 


Fore. 


Hind. 


On turf. 


On road. 


Agricultural waggons 

J) 11 
! J 11 
11 11 


ins. 

39 
39 

il 


ins. 
42 
42 

41 

40 


ins. 

4 
4 

4 
4 


ins. 
4 
4 

4 
4 


Ibs. 
2142 

1895 
I8l 3 

1752 


3 
3 
3 
3 


235 
277 
289 

22 7 


I 4 8 
125 
139 
170 



A series of trials of self-propelled vehicles was carried out in 
1897 before the Royal Agricultural Society, on which Professor 
W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., M.I.C.E., made an interesting report. 

The experiments were made with the vehicles to determine the 
friction, by permitting them to run down an incline by gravity 
with the motors idle, and noting the speed acquired and the 
distance in which they came to rest. For the purposes of the 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 33 

trial, distances were marked off on the descending gradient, the 
vehicles gently started at a distance of 300 ft., and in some cases 
400 ft., from the first point, and from the speed attained between 
the second two of these fixed points, 200 ft. apart, a measure of 
the friction was obtained, another measure being obtained from 
the mean gradient from start to finish. 

Mr. I. O. Baker, M.Am.Soc.C.E. (whose investigations were 
made in 1902), assumes resistance to traction of a vehicle upon a 
road to consist of the three independent elements, axle friction, 
rolling resistance, and grade resistance, and as the latter is under- 
stood to equal 20 Ibs. per ton for i per cent, of grade, it is dismissed 
without further notice. 

As regards axle friction, this is independent of the road 
surface, and the coefficient of friction varies with the material of 
the journal and its bearings, and with the lubricant. It is nearly 
independent of the velocity, and Mr. Baker's experiments show it 
to vary apparently inversely to the pressure. For the heavier 
classes of vehicles it is given as 0*0151 of the weight on the axle ; 
with bad lubrication, however, these figures must be multiplied by 
from two to six. The tractive force required to overcome axle 
friction is given as from 3 to 3*5 Ibs. per ton of the weight on the 
axle for ordinary waggons, and from 3*5 to 4*5 Ibs. for waggons 
with medium-sized wheels and axles. 

The resistance to rolling caused by the yielding of the road, 
and the wheels in consequence continually climbing an incline, is 
measured by the horizontal force necessary at the axle to lift it 
over the obstacle, or to roll it up the incline, and varies with the 
speed, the presence or absence of springs, and the nature of the 
surface. 

The effect of the diameter of the wheels on rolling resistance 
is concluded to vary nearly inversely as the square root of the 
mean diameter. 

Experiments were carried out with the following three sizes of 
wheels, viz. : 44 ins. front and 56 ins. hind, equal to 50 ins. mean 
diameter; 36 ins. front and 40 ins. hind, equal to 38 ins. mean 
diameter; and 24 ins. front and 28 ins. hind, equal to 26 ins. 
mean diameter ; the load being in each case if ton, American, or 
3500 Ibs., and the tyres 6 ins. in width. From these experiments 
the table below has been deduced, showing the effect of the size 
of wheels on traction : 

D 



34 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



EFFECT OF THE SIZE OF WHEELS ON TRACTION (Baker}. 



Road surface. 


Tractive force in Ibs. per ton. 


Mean diamet 
50 ins. 


er of front and 
38 ins. 


rear wheels 
26 ins. 


Macadam, slightly worn, clear, fair con- 
dition 


57 
84 

"3 

69 

IOI 

132 

173 

178 

252 


61 

90 

132 

75 

119 

145 
203 

2OI 

303 


70 
1 10 
173 

79 

139 

179 
281 
265 

374 


Gravel road, dry, sand I in. deep, loose 
stones ... 
Gravel road, up-grade of 2'2 per cent., 
\ in. wet sand, frozen below ... 
Earth road, dry and hard 
,, \ in. sticky mud, frozen 
below, rough 


Timothy and blue grass sod, dry, grass cut 
tt wet, spongy 
Cornfield, flat culture, across rows, dry 
Ploughed ground not harrowed, dry, 
cloddy ... 



With respect to width of tyres, the traction is increased if the 
wheel cuts into the road, but where little or no indentation occurs 
the width of tyres has practically no effect on traction. 

The effect of speed is that the rolling resistance increases with 
the velocity owing to the effect of the shocks or concussions 
produced by the irregularities of the road surface. From two to 
six or eight times as much force is required to start a vehicle as to 
keep it in motion at 2 or 3 miles an hour. 

Springs decrease the traction by decreasing the concussions due 
to the irregularities of the ground, and are, therefore, more 
effective at high speeds than low, and on rough roads than on 
smooth. 

The tractive force on different road surfaces was determined by 
a Baldwin dynagraph. 

According to the New York Automobile , from tests made 
by the Government Office of Road Inquiry, the following table has 
been compiled, which shows the tractive force necessary to haul a 
load of one ton on roads of the best macadam on the gradients 
given. The table also gives the equivalent length of each mile of 
gradient in miles of level road : 



RESISTANCE TO TK ACTION 



35 











Rate of inclination. 


Angle with the level. 


Tractive force. 


Equivalent length of 
level road in miles. 




O III 


Ibs. 




Level 


00 00 


38 


I -00 


in 500 


o 6 53 


42 


no 


in 100 
in 80 


o 34 23 
o 42 58 


I 8 
63 


1-52 

r66 


in 60 


o 57 18 


71 


1-87 


in 50 


i 08 16 


78 


2-05 


in 40 


i 25 57 


88 


2-30 


in 30 


i 54 37 


104 


2'73 


in 25 


2 17 26 


118 


3-10 


in 20 


2 51 21 


138 


3-63 


in 15 


3 48 5 1 


171 


4'5 


I in 10 


5 42 58 


238 


6-26 



It is also stated that the extra force necessary to start a carriage 
on a gradient does not increase in proportion, but, relative to the 
running force, decreases as the gradient increases. 



RESISTANCE DUE TO THE AIR 

Regarding the resistance offered by the air, this is a quantity 
very difficult to appreciate, inasmuch as it comprises several 
elements liable to considerable variation. On a calm day the 
amount of resistance is entirely dependent upon the speed of the 
vehicle, and in the case of those travelling at very slow speeds 
the resistance is so small that it can be as a rule entirely neglected 
in practice. The opposition due to wind pressure, which, according 
to its direction, increases more or less the above resistance, is 
practically impossible of estimation with any degree of accuracy. 
From the experiments made by Mr. Thibault it appears that the 
resistance of the air against the square base of a prism, the lateral 
sides of which are placed in the direction of motion, relatively to 
the unity of the horizontal path traversed by the prism, has the 
following value : 

Ro = 0eSV 2 

R.., is the work required to overcome the resistance that the air 
opposes to the movement of the prism. 
6 = 0*0625 (constant). 



36 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

is the coefficient depending on the proportion of the length 
/ of the prism as compared to the side a of its base ; and if 

I $a e = 1*10 

/= a e = riy 

/< a (thin plate) e = 1-43 

In the case of motor-propelled vehicles, according to the 
authors of " Voitures Automobiles," in the majority of cases it is 
safe to take 

e = no 

S is the surface of the base of the prism in square metres. 

V is the speed of displacement of the prism in metres per 
second. 

Mr. Thibault's experiment demonstrated that in the case of 
two square surfaces placed directly behind each other and 
covering one another exactly, the resistance of the air against 
the second surface will be completely annulled so. long as the 
space between the two surfaces is a small one, and that the 
resistance on the second surface will be y 7 ^- of that on the first 
surface when the distance separating them is equal to the side of 
the surface. 

RESISTANCE DUE TO STARTING 

Theoretically, there should be no special resistance due to 
starting, and whatever resistance there may exist is caused by 
defective lubrication of the axles, or to irregularities of the road 
surface. The French authorities already mentioned state that it 
is prudent to count upon a resistance to starting on a stone road 
in bad condition, that will exceed in value from a fifth to an eighth 
that of the normal resistance to rolling. On a good stone road 
and on asphalt, however, the starting resistance should not exceed 
the normal rolling resistance. As the power required to start a 
mechanically propelled vehicle must be sufficient to overcome 
both the resistances opposed to its motion and also the inertia 
of the vehicle, it must necessarily increase with the speed of 
starting. Each mechanically propelled vehicle, therefore, will 
have a maximum speed of starting corresponding to the maximum 
power of its motor, and the normal speed of motion can only be 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 37 

attained after a considerable distance has been traversed. Starting 
may, therefore, be considered as a loss of time, which will be 
longer or shorter in extent in accordance with the greater or lesser 
speed of starting. 

The authority above quoted gives the following formula for 
the resistance of mechanically propelled vehicles 

R = R! + R-2 R 3 

R being the resistance developed during the traction of a self- 

propelled vehicle ; 
R 1} the resistance to rolling and that due to friction in the axle 

boxes ; 

R 2 , the resistance due to the air ; 
R 3 , the resistance due to gradients. 

If the expressions R x , R 2 , and R 3 be replaced by their values 
previously determined, then we have the following equation : 



A = coefficient depending on the nature of the road surface 

and the nature of the vehicle, the value of which has 

been given in the preceding tables. 
f = coefficient of friction of the axles in the boxes, varying 

from 0*03 to 0*054. 

p = the diameter of axles, supposed equal ; 
P! = the total weight of the vehicle ; 
r' = the radius of the front wheels ; 
;" = the radius of the rear wheels ; 
a = the angles of the inclines with the horizon ; 
= 0*0625 (constant); 
c = the coefficient depending on the proportion of the length 

of the vehicle as compared with its section ; 
S = the surface of the vehicle exposed to the wind ; 
V = the speed in metres per second. 

The following formula for calculating the necessary power to 
apply to motor-driven vehicles according to the load, the gradient, 
and the speed, is given by Messrs. Borame and Julien : 

F = P(o'025 -f 0*0007^ + p)S^ X 0*0048, 



38 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

in which F = the tangential effort on the driving-wheels ; 

P = the weight in kilogrammes of the entire load ; 
0-025 = coefficient of resistance to rolling on ordinary roads, 

and for wheels o'8o m. in diameter ; 
v = speed in kilometres ; 
o'oooy x v = the resistance due to the shocks caused by the 

irregularities in the road surface ; 
S = surface in square metres exposed to the resist- 
ance of the air ; 
S V* X 0-0048 = resistance of air. 

ADHESIVE POWER OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

The adhesive power of a mechanically propelled vehicle must 
exceed the tractive force of the motor on the road surface, other- 
wise the wheels will slip. This point, however, which is one of 
great importance in the case of railway locomotives, is of far less 
moment in that of mechanically propelled vehicles adapted to 
run on common roads, inasmuch as the coefficient of adhesion in 
the latter case is much higher. In fact, as a general rule, the 
adhesion of motor-propelled vehicles on common roads is in 
excess of the propelling power, and slip only occurs under 
exceptional circumstances, such as in the case of large vehicles 
provided with very powerful motors, when starting on greasy 
pavement or on asphalt. 

A mechanically propelled vehicle has therefore a limit to its 
tractive power entirely independent of that of its motor, and 
dependent entirely upon the load upon its driving-wheels. The 
adherence of a mechanically propelled vehicle can be computed 
by the following formula : 

= k'c 

ka < - d 

a being the tractive effort in pounds ; 

b, the resistance at the circumference of the driving-wheels ; 

c, the total weight of the vehicle ; 

, the coefficient of loss due to the transmission of power from 
the motors to the driving-wheels ; 

k', the coefficient of friction between the wheels and the road sur- 
face j 

d^ the portion of load carried on driving-wheels. 



RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 



39 



Up to the present no experiments, with which the writer is 
acquainted, have been carried out with a view to ascertaining 
the adherence of power-propelled vehicles on common roads, 
under various conditions of road surface. Turning again, there- 
fore, to the experiments made so many years ago by General 
Morin, we find the following results of experiments on the friction 
of various bodies given in his work entitled " Notions Fondamen- 
tales de Mecanique." 



Substances. 



Oak on oak, fibres parallel 

,, ,, ,, perpendicular... 
Oak on elm, fibres parallel 
Elm on oak, ,, ,, 
Wood on wood, dry 

soaped 

Metal on metal, dry 

,, ,, wet and clean ... 

Metals on oak, dry ... 
soapy 
Leather on metals, dry 

,, ,, wet 

greasy 

,, ,, oily 

Smoothest and best greased surfaces 



Angle of repose. ; Coefficient of friction. 



o 
31* 

28| 

I 4 - 4 26J 



i6| 
261-31 

29i 

20 



'4 

[f-2 



0-62 

o : 38 

0*69 

0-25-0-5 

0-04 

O"2 O"2 

0-I50-3 

0-5-0*6 

0'2 

0*56 

0*36 

0-23 

0-15 
0-03-0-036 



CHAPTER III 

POWER REQUIRED FOR MOTOR VEHICLES 

Calculating the Power required for Motor Vehicles Testing the 
Engine and Gear Testing the Vehicle Graphic Calculations. 

CALCULATING THE POWER REQUIRED 
FOR MOTOR VEHICLES 

To calculate the power required for a motor vehicle is a task of 
great difficulty, and one to which, owing to the varying nature of 
the resistances to be overcome, the answer can only be in any 
case an approximate one. It is always, moreover, advisable to 
allow a very considerable additional margin of power, as that 
found by calculation will generally be too low for practical 
work. 

In a paper read before the Society of German Engineers by 
Mr. Hugo Guldner, and published in the Motorwagen in 1900, 
the author gives a formula which is claimed to approximate 
as nearly as practicable to jexisting conditions, and which is 
introduced by the following observations, which have been 
abridged as far as possible consistent with giving the necessary 
explanations : 

i. Frictional resistance (Wr) of the wheels, resulting from 
the rolling friction of the tyres on the road and that between 
the hubs and the axles, the latter being a factor which may be 
neglected except in the case of heavy goods waggons. We have 
therefore 



For light vehicles, Wr = kilogs. . . . (i) 



r 



For heavy vehicles, Wr = i_f kilogs> ^ 

r -f- r^ 



40 



POWER REQUIRED 4 r 

Q = total weight in kilogrammes ; 
r = radius of front wheels ; 
1\ radius of rear wheels ; 
d = mean diameter of axle in millimetres ; 
f = coefficient of friction on road ; 
fj, = coefficient of friction on naves. 

In the second equation the deduction of the latter is made 
from W/YZ = X Qdr = 0785 Q^t, to which Wra = Q^t is 
added to allow for the additional friction due to jolting. 

Morin gives for f } at a speed of from 12 to 13 kiloms. per 
hour on ordinary good roads, a value between 0*01 6 and 0*02. 
/A under average conditions is less than 0*05, therefore /A is 
usually from 0*0025 to 0*003. 

Taking for lighter vehicles a mean wheel radius of 400 mms., 
and for heavier vehicles one of 525, say 400 to 425 for the front 
and 625 to 650 for the rear wheels, which gives, taking /at 0*0 1 8 
and dp. at 0*003, tne following formulae for (i) and (2) : 

Wr = o-oi8Q = Q = . 045 Q kilogs>) about ^ (IA) 

O*4 22 

Wr = Q(o_-oi8_+o-oo3) = Q = Q ku (2A) 

0-525 25 

2. The resistance due to the air. Assuming that the front 
of the vehicle is a flat surface, F square metres in area, forced 
through the air in a direction at right angles to the surface at a 
speed of v metres per second, then the resistance of dry air at zero 
centigrade and 7 60 mms. pressure will be 

Wj = o*i2248F2r kilogs ...... (3) 

If the front of vehicle be rounded 

W x = 0-08 5 Fz> 2 kilogs ...... (4) 

In practice, however, the coefficient must be increased to 0*125, 
and taking the surface F = bh, b being the width of the wheel 
gauge, and h the maximum height of the vehicle above the front 
axle, we have then for the fourth equation 



or 
and at a mean speed of 6*3 metres per second 

Wj = 6*3 x 6-3 x 0*1 25F = 5F kilogs., about . (4A) 



42 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The value of v depending upon both the speed of the vehicle 
and any independent motion of the air, a head wind will make v 
greater than the speed of the vehicle, and a wind behind will make 
it less. The latter cannot be taken into consideration, but allow- 
ance must be made for the former, and for this purpose 10 metres, 
which is an average wind speed, should be added to the speed of 
the vehicle. This gives us 

W l = 0-12 5(z; + 10)2 kilogs. . . . (4?,) 

3. The resistance due to gravity. If this be called Ws, we 
have 

Ws = Q sin a kilogs (5) 

a being the angle the road surface makes with the horizon. 
Taking, then, the usual practice for inclines, and denoting the 
quotient of the vertical height by the length of the road, in order 
to arrive at it by s, we have 

Ws = Qs kilogs (5 A) 

for s sin a. 

As, however, speed is always reduced on a rising gradient, 
and a portion of the power normally employed for the maintenance 
of speed is used for overcoming gravity, the value of Ws can be, 
as a rule, neglected. 

4. Friction due to the transmission of power from the motor 
to the driving axle. This factor will vary within a wide range in 
accordance with the type of gearing used. In practice not more 
than 60 per cent, of the actual power developed by the piston can 
be relied upon. 

From the different formulae, W being the power required and 
e the proportion transmitted to the driving wheels, we get the 
following : 



W=(^-^ ' 4- o-i2 5 F** + Qj) = <> kilogs. . (6) 



or without the factor for rising gradient, the values of/, d, u, r, 
and v being taken as before, and e = 0*6. 
For light vehicles 

Q+5 F kilogs. .....(,) 

o'o 



POWER REQUIRED 43 

For heavy freight vehicles 

W = ' 4 ^_5f kilogs ...... (8) 

For the motor power required we have 

+Q, 
0-6 - + 7 lH.P. . . ( 9 ) 

or Q.T may be again left out, and as it has been demonstrated that 
F is, in the case of large vehicles, usually about 2 square metres, 
and that 10 kiloms. per hour can be taken as the average speed, 
we finally arrive at 

w -p 0-04 X 1000 + 5X2 10000 

H.P = - - = 3 H.P., about (10) 

o'O 3600 x 75 

The following formula is given by the French engineers, 
Messrs. Borame and Julien : 



N ^ _ iP(o'o25 + 0*00072; -f^Sp 8 -f 0-0048) H p , x 

e being the speed of the vehicle in metres per second ; 

v the speed of the vehicle in kilometres per hour ; 

P the gross weight of the vehicle in kilogrammes ; 

/ the incline in z/H ; 

S the area of the front of the vehicle in square metres ; 

0*025 the coefficient of rolling friction for pneumatic tyres 800 

mms. in diameter. 

o'oooyz/ the loss of power through jolting ; 
the resistance of the air. 



This formula gives too low a result, and is only suitable for use 
in the case of very light vehicles on good roads. At least 70 per 
cent, should be added to its estimate of power required. 

The author observes on the impossibility of applying to motor 
vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines the science of 
thermodynamics. For example, the indicator diagram cannot 
be made use of. Numerous influences which cannot be reduced 



44 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

to arithmetic exist, and besides the calorific value of the fuel we 
have the proportion of air in the explosion chamber, the amount 
of compression, the greater or lesser completeness of combustion, 
the resistance of the piping, all of which factors vary largely 
within unknown limits. 

The mean pressure in kilogrammes per square centimetre, 
required to produce x h.p., the area of the piston being q square 

centimetres, and the speed c metres per second, will be 

which for an efficient coefficient of o'6 becomes - - . In 

qc 

stationary engines the coefficient reaches o'8 to 0^85 ; in motor 
vehicles, however, the irregularity of motion, and consequently 
the friction, are considerably more. Tests of a motor vehicle 
when stationary are, by reason of the above facts, of no practical 
value. 

The tables compiled from actual experiments with motor 

vehicles give the lowest value of ----------- at 3*16 kilogrammes, and 

the highest at 7*54. In trials conducted in 1894 the highest 
obtained was 5*1 with a motor exhausting at the pressure of 17 
atmospheres. 

For the class of vehicles under consideration 



H.P. = x x S/1 + (6o x 75 X 2) 



n being the number of revolutions made per minute, and d and s 
being put in metres, gives 



i oooo X 

H.P. = 



60.75. 2.4 

If the factors d, s, and n given for every motor be eliminated, 
the remaining fraction 

1.OOX 

1000 x Xii 



may be denoted by the symbol A, which then becomes a new 



POWER REQUIRED 45 

coefficient of the specific output of power, and admits of the 
following simple and easily remembered formula 

H.P. = AJ*sn 

The value of A varying from 2-07 to 4-69, and some trust- 
worthy averages being 



= 4-855 
A = 3-09 
From which is deduced the following empirical formula : 



H p 34 _ 

75 X 4 85 

qc being square centimetres and e metres per second, or 
H.P. = $d-sn 

a and s being in metres. 

There are two points that have to be given careful con- 
sideration to throughout, that is to say, the diminution in the 
weight of the reciprocating parts, and the great increase that 
has taken place in the number of revolutions. For instance, 
the first has been reduced to from 40 to 50 grammes per square 
centimetre of piston area, and the second, owing to the extremely 
limited time that it allows for the cycle of operations taking 
place at each stroke, causes the action of the ignition apparatus 
at the proper time to become a very important factor in the power 
required. 

In an article by Mr. Gustav Mees that appeared in a subse- 
quent number of the Motorwagen^ the author criticizes the formulae 
developed by Mr. Guldner, which he states give results which 
are far too high as regards the power required, and are not in 
accordance with practical experience. Mr. Mees proceeds to 
prove this statement by a comparison with the results realized by 
Guldner's formulae of the performance of a 24-horse-power Daimler 
racing car weighing 1400 kilogs., and capable of travelling at a 
speed of 96 kiloms. an hour on a good level road. Taking 



4 6 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the speed at 90 kiloms. an hour, and the total weight of vehicle 
with passengers at 1600 kilogs., Guldner's formulae give for 
the frictional resistance 0^04 X 1600 = 64 kilogs. Reckoning, 
therefore, an efficiency of 60 per cent., the power required for the 
above-mentioned speed would be 



4 X = 35-5 H.P. 

3600 X 75 X 0-6 

Mr. Mees considers that Guldner has made a mistake (in 
spite of the authority of Morin) in introducing into the resist- 
ance formula the wheel diameters, which he thinks should be 
left out of consideration altogether. This authority is also of 
opinion that axle friction can be ignored for practical purposes. 
These observations and criticisms, however, refer more par- 
ticularly to motor vehicles intended to travel at high speeds, 
and it does not therefore greatly concern us to investigate any 
further into them. In the opinion of the writer, Guldner's 
formulae by no means give too high results, and will be found of 
service in making calculations respecting both the lighter and 
heavier classes of mechanically propelled vehicles adapted for 
business purposes. 

The following data is given by Mr. Herschmann, in a paper 
read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, for a 
waggon capable of carrying a load of 3 tons and able to mount an 
incline of i in 10 at 2 miles per hour : 

Internal friction considered ; this would call for power to lift 
about \ (equals an incline of i in 6) of the gross weight a height 
of 10,560 feet per hour. 

Assuming the gross weight to be 6*5 tons, we have 

g-5 X 224 X 



ft.-lbs. per minute = 427046 ft.-lbs. 
60 



In other words, to lift the waggon, irrespective of road 
resistance, we require 12*94 horse-power. To overcome road 
resistance (tractive effort assumed to be from 60 to 120 Ibs. per 
ton) we require 

60 X 6- 5 ( 2 X 6o 280 )(330^)(^o) = 3 ' 47 H ' P - 
or 120 X 6- 5 ( 2 X 6 f ^X^oooXo^) = 6 ' 94 H ' P ' 



POWER REQUIRED 



47 



The waggon must, therefore, have machinery capable of pro- 
ducing, when going uphill, about a total of 20 horse-power. 

TESTING THE ENGINE AND GEAR 

The following method of testing the engine and gear of a 
motor waggon is given by the same authority : " The power of 
a motor waggon should be always measured in foot-pounds at 
the rim of the driving wheels; for this purpose the drivers may 
rest on a revolving roller. The latter is in one with a pulley 
(/) over which a strap is slung, fastened to a dynamometer (d) 
at one end, and carrying a weight (w) at the other end (see 
Fig. 6). 






Fig. 6. Diagram showing method of testing engine and gear. 

The work done at the rim is in foot-pounds. 

2Tr(r) X n X (w d). 

r = radius of pulley. 

d = reading of dynamometer in pounds. 

The friction of engine and gearing can thus be found. 



TESTING THE VEHICLE 

For the purpose of ascertaining the frictional resistance to 
motion of the waggon itself, says the same authority, the latter 
is placed on a measured incline at A, and permitted to roll down 



48 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

and along the level portion of the road BC (see Fig. 7). While 
passing the point D, between B and C, and at a distance of 
(d) from A, its speed measures to be (v). We have then : 
W (weight of waggon in pounds) X H = foot-pounds, due to 



T 

HJ 



J^v* ,| 



B p^ C 

7. Diagram showing method of testing motor vehicle. 



gravity work. FW^ = friction work in foot-pounds = WH 

being work due to gravity less the kinetic energy of the 

waggon in passing the point D. The friction is then found to be in 

- - }~. 
2gJ D 

The following table gives the results obtained at different 
trials with some heavy freight steam vehicles : 



pounds per pound of WF - 



DEAD WEIGHTS AND CARRYING CAPACITIES OF STEAM WAGGONS FROM 
ACTUAL PERFORMANCES. 





Dead weight, 
in Ibs. 


Useful load 
carried, in Ibs. 


Per cent, of 
dead load. 


Two- ton steam waggon 
Three-ton ,, 
Four- ton ,, 


5400 
6700 
6500 


4500 
8200 
9200 


About 84 

,, 122 

,, 140 



From the above it will be seen that the percentage of useful 
load carried by a heavy freight vehicle advances very considerably 
as the dead weight increases, thus proving most conclusively that 
the advantage is greatly on the side of the heavier classes of 
freight vehicles. 



POWER REQUIRED 



49 



GRAPHIC CALCULATIONS 

The following diagrams (Figs. 8 and 9), published by The 
Horseless Age, New York, are intended for the purpose of 
quickly solving many calculations necessary in motor-car design. 
The first diagram (Fig. 8) shows the relation of the speed of the 
vehicle in miles per hour, the diameter and revolutions per 



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Fig:. 8. Diagram showing the relation of the speed of vehicle, diameter 
and revolutions of drive wheels, and ratio of speeds of countershaft 
to drive wheels. 

minute of the drive wheels, and the ratio of speeds of the 
countershafts or motor shaft to the drive wheels; the second 
(Fig. 9) shows the relation of the speed of the vehicle to the 
traction, the percentage of gradient, and horse-power required 
under various conditions. No allowance is made in the diagram 
for air resistance, and, if necessary, additional power will be 
required to overcome this force. 

The following examples are given, illustrating the use of the 
diagrams or charts : 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Assuming a vehicle, whose drive wheels are 32 ins. diameter, 
going at a speed of 15 miles per hour, the motor making four 
revolutions to one of the drive wheels. 

From Fig. 8 it will be found that the intersection of the 
vertical line representing 15 miles per hour, and the diagonal 
line representing a wheel 32 ins. in diameter, corresponds to 
3 57 '5, the revolutions per minute of the drive wheel. 

To find the speed of the motor, find the intersection of this 




Fig. 9. Diagram showing relation of speed of vehicle to traction, per- 
centage of gradient, and horse-power under various conditions. 

same horizontal line with the diagonal line 4 i, representing 
the ratio of the speed of the motor to the drive wheel, and 
follow vertically down to the bottom of the chart, where the 
revolutions per minute, 630, may be read. 

The ratio of speeds may obviously be found in a similar 
manner if it is desired to run the motor at a certain speed. 

To ascertain the power required per hundredweight of the 
vehicle and its load, it is necessary to know or assume the 
traction and the gradient. The traction is represented on 



POWER REQUIRED 51 

Fig. 9 as a certain percentage of each hundredweight of the 
vehicle. For instance, to find the required horse-power for a 
vehicle going at 15 miles per hour when the traction is 10 Ibs. 
per hundredweight, or 10 per cent. 

The horizontal line at the intersection of the lines represent- 
ing 15 miles per hour and 10 per cent, is 0*4 or o'4 horse-power 
per hundredweight. 

If the weight of the vehicle and its load is 6 cwt., then the 
total horse-power required is 6 x o'4 = 2*4 horse-power. If in 
the above case the vehicle is ascending a grade of 5 per cent., add 
together the 10 per cent, and gradient 5 per cent., and solve as 
before. The result will be 6 horse-power per hundredweight, or 
6 x 0*6 = 3*6 horse-power instead of 2*4, as previously found. 

The chart may be used conversely. For instance : At what 
speed can a vehicle and load weighing 8 cwt., propelled by a 
4-horse-power engine, ascend a i5-per-cent. grade, traction being 
taken as 10 per cent. ? The sum ofio-f 15 = 25 per cent. 

The horse-power per hundredweight = f = 0*5 horse-power. 
At the intersection of the lines representing 5 horse-power and 
25 per cent, resistance, is the corresponding speed of 7*5 miles 
per hour the result sought. 

When descending a grade subtract the percentage of gradient 
from the traction and proceed as before. 

A transparent ruler laid along the diagonal lines will prevent 
confusion when solving problems on the charts. 



CHAPTER IV 
LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 

General Observations Petrol Cabs Various Examples of Petrol 
Cabs Electric Cabs Efficiency of Electric Cabs Examples of 
Electric Cabs. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

THE lighter class of passenger vehicles adapted for business 
purposes comprise, as has been already mentioned, hackney cabs, 
and small omnibuses, carrying a small number of passengers, and 
plying for public hire. This is one of the most useful purposes 
to which the lighter class of mechanically propelled vehicles can 
be put, and their development towards this end cannot be too 
strongly advocated. Naturally, the greater number of the makers 
have hitherto chiefly concerned themselves with meeting the 
demand for pleasure vehicles which has recently arisen amongst 
the wealthy classes who have taken up motor-car driving as a new 
pastime. 

It is satisfactory, however, to know that the development of 
mechanically propelled vehicles for useful purposes is now 
receiving the attention it deserves, and that the industry will 
soon be founded on a more stable basis than that of providing 
high-speed cars at fancy prices. 

In spite of the high prices obtained at present for pleasure 
vehicles, as a general rule their manufacture in this country does 
not seem to pay. The reason for this is obviously the absence of 
specialization and of enterprise. In fact, at the present moment, 
most of the firms turning out motor cars here are rather con- 
structors than manufacturers; they make many patterns of cars, 
unsurpassed, it is true, as regards design and construction, but 
hitherto they have failed to give their attention to the turning out 
of one size and one pattern of vehicle in sufficient numbers to 

52 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 53 

make its manufacture pay. The advent of a general demand for 
utilitarian automobiles will change all this, and will bring about 
the specialization that is required to make the industry commer- 
cially successful. 

The fitness of the motor to supersede the horse is so obvious 
that it needs no enlarging upon, and, with proper management, 
there should be no doubt with respect to the financial success of 
the former. 

PETROL CABS 

Up to the present petrol motors and electric motors are the 
only two powers that have been used for the propulsion of cabs, 
at least with any degree of commercial success, and of these the 
first mentioned seems to possess the greater qualifications, and 
will be therefore first dealt with. 



EXAMPLES OF PETROL CABS 
The "Leo" Petrol Cab 

The " Leo " petrol cab, designed by Mr. Le'on Lefebvre, is 
characterized by a great simplicity of construction. The working 
mechanism is completely enclosed in a suitable casing, and a 
transmission is provided, the toothed wheels of which are always 
in gear. The motor used in this vehicle is a two-cylinder Lefebvre 
" Pygmee," which is located at the rear of the vehicle. 

The efficiency of the Pygmee Motor is high, and it is compact 
in design, having, moreover, the advantage of being very easy to 
manage. The engine is a balanced one, the pistons of the two 
cylinders working cranks placed at 180 degress, and thus greatly 
reducing vibration. Owing to the high compression employed, 
the consumption of petrol is low (not above 0-968 Ib. per horse- 
power of motor per hour) ; the admission valves are opened in the 
usual manner by the suction action of the pistons, and the exhaust 
valves are enclosed in boxes, and are operated by cams mounted 
upon an intermediate shaft. 

The motor is provided with an ingenious device for regulating 
the speed comprising a rod carried by the fly-wheel and connected 
with a centrifugal regulator. During the revolution of the fly- 



54 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

wheel this rod is forced from right to left against a spring, which 
latter can be adjusted, as regards tension, by means of a thumb 
screw. Should the speed of the motor exceed the maximum 
determined upon, the pull of the above spring will be overcome 
and the rod will be moved so as to close the exhaust valve on one 
cylinder and prevent the escape of the burnt gases therefrom, the 
piston drawing a charge into the cylinder on the next stroke ; and 
should this action be insufficient to reduce the speed of the engine 
to within the prescribed limits, any further travel of the rod to the 
left will operate the exhaust valve of the second cylinder in a 
similar manner. 

The carburettor is constructed with a spiral coil surrounding 
the ignition burners, and either spirit or petroleum can be em- 
ployed, in the latter case the spiral tube being arranged within the 
burner. By means of a special arrangement of the air and 
vapour admission ports, the gas is caused to whirl so as to form a 
homogeneous mixture before entering the cylinder, and thus to 
minimise the risk of failure to explode. 

The changes of speed are effected in a very simple manner by 
an ingenious device comprising a disc having slots in which engage 
two gudgeons on a slide forming part with fork-pieces^ and forced 
to move in a straight line by grooves. In accordance with the 
position given to the above-mentioned disc through a horizontal 
axis, the gudgeons can be brought into such positions that the 
fork-pieces will operate the engagement of the differential gear in 
the box with either of four pinions. As the gudgeon wheel 
remains in engagement with a circular portion of the slot, it will 
be seen that any failure in throwing any particular pinion into gear 
when changing speed is rendered practically impossible, and the 
disagreeable shocks occasioned by such failures are obviated. 
Transmission from the shaft of the motor to that of the gearing is 
effected by a loose belt normally kept tight by a jockey pulley on 
the end of a lever, acted upon by a spiral spring. In order to 
disconnect the motor and gear shaft, it is only necessary to operate 
the above jockey pulley lever through a pedal lever, so as to com- 
press the spiral spring, and by thus removing the pressure from 
the belt to allow of its slackening and slipping on the faces of the 
pulleys on the shafts. 

Steering is effected by a vertical shaft operating to turn the 
front steering wheels round their pivot, which shaft passes through 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 55 

another hollow shaft mounted in a tubular piece fixed to the foot- 
board. The hollow shaft is connected through suitable bevel gear 
with the speed-change device. 

The Triouleyre Petrol Cab 

The petrol cab designed by Mr. L. Triouleyre is also said to 
have given excellent results. This vehicle has a double suspen- 
sion arrangement, and consists essentially of two distinct parts, 
viz. first/.the frame upon which is mounted all the mechanism, 
and which is supported directly on the axles, through suitable 
springs ; and, second, the body of the vehicle, which is connected 
with the frame by other springs, thus preventing the passengers in 
the cab from experiencing any vibration. 

The motor is an ordinary four-cycle one, revolving at an 
average speed of from three to four hundred revolutions per 
minute. It consists of a cylinder with a double casing, an 
explosion or combustion chamber, and a frame upon which is 
mounted the driving shaft. 

Electric ignition of the intermittent type is used, comprising 
an accumulator, an induction coil, a sparking plug, arid a trembler 
or vibrator. The accumulator has a capacity of from 70 to 80 
hours, and is perfectly tight, being capable when not in use of 
preserving its electrical energy for several months. It can be 
easily recharged from a primary battery, or from any available 
current of two or three amperes. The sparking plug is fixed on 
the explosion or combustion chamber by means of a metal sleeve 
or tubular piece, and an internal metal bush or socket having a 
circular hole or aperture is provided. A platinum stem or rod 
insulated by a porcelain sleeve from the metal sleeve or tubular 
piece is connected at its outer end to the terminal to which is 
connected one of the circuits from the accumulator, the other 
being connected to the fixed vibrator. The spark takes place 
between the platinum stem and the shield or cap. One of the 
two wires from the accumulator connected to the induction coil 
passes through the sparking plug, and is secured to a terminal 
mounted on a spring contact piece insulated from the motor, 
through which spring contact piece a current can pass so long as 
it is in contact with a cam. When, however, this spring contact 
piece is no longer in connection with the cam piece, the current 
is suddenly interrupted and the ignition spark results. 



56 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The explosive mixture is automatically introduced into the 
explosion chamber and the cylinder during the suction stroke of 
the piston, and the exhaust of the burnt or waste gases during the 
fourth cycle is effected through a valve operated by an arrangement 
of gearing, cams, and levers. 

The spirit tank has a capacity sufficient to last for a journey of 
100 kilometres, and feeds directly to the carburettor, the bottom 
of which latter is heated by a portion of the exhaust gases. The 
air is admitted at the upper part, carburetted, and passed to the 
combustion chamber, together with the additional air taken up 
during its progress, through wire gauze strainers, which have the 
effect of causing a more intimate admixture of the air and vapour, 
and of preventing the occurrence of any back firing. The additional 
air admitted to the mixture after leaving the carburettor can be 
regulated by a valve from the driving seat. The exhaust is dis- 
charged into a silencer, and the cooling water is circulated from a 
suitable tank located at the rear of the vehicle. 

The belt transmission comprises a double cone keyed on the 
gear shaft in relation to three pulleys containing the differential 
gearing, and motion is transmitted from the gear shaft to the rear 
driving wheels by means of chain gearing. Forward or backward 
motion can be respectively imparted by means of a straight and a 
crossed belt, and an arrangement worked from the driving seat 
admits of the speed being varied as may be desired. The motor 
can be started from the driver's seat by means of a hand wheel 
through suitable chain and toothed gearing. 

The vehicle is fitted with two brakes, the one operated through 
a lever and acting on the felloes of the rear wheels, the other 
through a pedal lever so as to act on a suitable brake drum. The 
steering is effected through a divided axle. 

The Kuhlstein-Vollmer Petrol Cab 

A pattern of petrol cab introduced some five or six years ago 
in Berlin is a cab of the hansom type, fitted with the Kiihlstein- 
Vollmer motor tractor, the application of which to the fore-carriage 
is shown in Figs. TO and n. 

As will be seen from our illustrations, which represent respec- 
tively a side and front elevation of the fore-carriage, the motor and 
the whole of the driving gear is arranged in a box or casing of a 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 



57 



rectangular shape, the top plate of which is suspended on the 
pivot plate, the casing being thus located above the centre of the 
front axle. The top plate of this box or casing is fitted with an 
internally toothed crown wheel or ring, connected with a hollow 




Fig. 10. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab side elevation of fore-carriage. 

pivot rotatably mounted on the hub of the pivot plate. On a 
socket in the pivot plate is mounted the steering rod, having a 
hand wheel at its upper extremity, and at its lower extremity 
a toothed wheel or pinion, which gears or meshes with the above- 
mentioned internally toothed crown wheel or ring. To diminish 



58 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

friction, rollers running on a suitable circular path on the pivot 
plate are provided. 

For the purpose of economizing space as far as possible, the 
differential gear is mounted directly upon the axle, which latter is 




Fig. ii. Kiihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab front elevation of fore -carnage. 

formed in two lengths, the shorter length being fitted within the 
hollow or tubular portion of the longer length, by which arrange- 
ment it is claimed that the axle bearings are relieved of all cross 
strain, and at the same time the provision of an intermediate 
bearing is rendered unnecessary. So that an equal load may be 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 59 

supported through the springs upon each of the axle bearings, 
power is transmitted through the chain wheels in such a manner 
that both of them act simultaneously upon the bevel pinions of 
the differential gear, this action being effected by means of a 
sleeve mounted on the longer length of axle. The axle bearings 
being constructed in two parts, enables the two lengths of axle to 
be inserted, and the upper portions of the bearings which form 
straps are each connected respectively with one of the springs by 
which the casing and fore part of the vehicle are carried. The 
lower portions of the axle bearings are connected by means of a 
bent shaft, which gives the necessary rigidity and maintains the 
distance between them constant in a transverse direction. Annular 
lubricators supply the requisite lubrication. 

The motor is arranged in the left-hand side of the space shown 
in Fig. n, and is of the ordinary horizontal double-cylinder petro- 
leum spirit type, provided with electrical ignition. Two speeds 
are provided, and the transmission is by belts which normally run 
slack, but either of which can be tightened when desired by means 
of a jockey pulley. These jockey pulleys, together with the 
operating levers, are carried upon the top plate of the casing. 

Through the top plate of the engine-box, at the point at which 
it is pivoted, is passed a hollow pin or pivot extending into the 
pivot plate at its centre, so that when the fore-carriage is turned it 
will be capable of angular displacement relatively to the top plate. 
Within this hollow pin or pivot are arranged the vertical tubes by 
means of which the regulation of the motive power is effected. 
By means of this arrangement it will be seen that the vertical tubes 
will turn with the top plate during the rotation of the latter, and 
that the transmisson of the regulating action upon the under frame, 
which is itself capable of turning, is rendered possible without 
necessitating any complicated mechanism, at the same time that 
the driver is able to see the position of the fore-carriage with 
regard to the vehicle. The above-mentioned vertical regulating 
tubes are enclosed in an outer tube or sleeve that is rigidly fixed 
to the hollow pin or pivot of the top plate of the engine-box, and 
the outermost of the vertical regulating tubes is connected with 
the lowermost operating lever shown on the left-hand side of 
Fig. ii, the inner vertical regulating tube being rigidly attached 
to the other operating lever. At the upper end of the outer tube 
or sleeve are provided locking discs for these levers. At the 



60 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

lower extremities of the vertical regulating tubes are mounted 
bevel or mitre pinions, by means of which the two horizontal 
shafts shown journalled in the top plate can be rotated by turning 
one of the operating levers to the right or left, as the case may be. 

This arrangement admits of pairs of tension pulleys being 
operated so that one of them only will act to tighten the belt and 
give the desired ratio of transmission, the other tension pulley of 
the pair meanwhile remaining motionless. The pairs of tension 
pulleys are each mounted upon levers pivoted at opposite points 
upon the top plate. When these tension pulleys are disengaged 
the toothed pinions upon the pinion shaft are out of engagement 
with the toothed segments connected with the tension pulley levers. 
Besides this lever the lower teeth of the toothed segments on the 
levers are elevated somewhat above the teeth of the operating 
segmental toothed pinions, inasmuch as the noses upon the tension 
pulley levers are supported upon the concentric portion of the 
cam-shaped hubs or bosses of these segmental toothed pinions. 

By rotating the pinion shaft to the left hand, for example, 
through the uppermost hand lever, the nose of the tension pulley 
will fall along a reduced cam-shaped portion provided on the 
toothed wheel hub or boss, and the segment falling in gear will 
displace one of the tension pulleys. Meanwhile the other tension 
pulley will remain fixed, because its nose continues to slide upon 
the concentric portion of the hub or boss of the segmental toothed 
pinion, and is therefore not displaced. On drawing back the 
operating lever the tension pulley will return to its normal position, 
and upon continuing to rotate the lever the other tension pulley 
will become operative and the former one remain fixed. The pair 
of tension levers connected with the lower hand lever operate in a 
precisely similar manner. The turntable is of such a construction 
as to allow of a full lock being obtained. 

The London Express Motor Service Petrol Cab 

A more recent type of motor cab is the petrol hansom shown 
in our illustration (Fig. 12), which is a direct reproduction of a 
photograph of a cab, which is one of a number placed upon the 
streets of London about a year ago by the London Express Motor 
Service, of 37, Walbrook, E.G. 

This petrol hansom is a well-designed vehicle, of elegant ap- 
pearance, and it seems to possess every element requisite to ensure 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 61 

its becoming a favourite mode of conveyance. It will be observed 
that the driver sits in front of the passengers, but slightly on one 
side, so that the view of the latter will not be materially obstructed 
by him. The cab is, moreover, appreciably larger than the 
common type of horse hansom, and is fitted with an extra drop- 
down seat placed alongside that of the driver, so that a third pas- 
senger can be comfortably carried when desired. When not in 
use this seat can be folded up so as to be out of the way. A 
handy form of spring attachment admits of the glass front being 
operated by the persons occupying the vehicle, and a distance 
indicator fixed within the cab allows of their seeing the exact 




Fig. 12. The London Express Motor Service petrol cab. 

distance travelled, thus avoiding disputes in that direction. At the 
rear of the cab bed, and beneath the seat, is a boot, in which such 
luggage as bags, portmanteaus, etc., can be carried. 

The cab is provided with motive power in the form of a 12- 
horse-power internal combustion engine of the Aster type, w r hich 
is governed and set to run at a slow rate of speed, and the power 
is transmitted from this engine through a gearing of the Panhard 
type to a cardan driving axle. In order to obtain the utmost 
possible efficiency, and also to reduce the chance of side-slip to a 



62 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

minimum, the distribution of the weight has been very carefully 
studied, and so as to allow of the vehicle possessing high hill- 
climbing powers, and likewise to prevent the driver from running 
it at an excessive speed upon the level at any time, the driving 
wheels are geared down low. The full limit of speed on the level 
is about twenty-six miles an hour. 

The Aster petrol motor is built in two patterns, the one being 
solely water cooled, and the other one being provided with a 
mixed system of cooling. In one type of Aster motor flanges are 
cast on the cylinder head and valves, and copper flanges, which 
are found to be greatly superior to iron ones, are arranged round 
the cylinder. The Panhard transmission gear consists of a friction 
coupling on the motor shaft, which is normally in gear with a 
main shaft carrying four pinions. Four toothed wheels gear with 
these pinions, and are mounted on an auxiliary shaft located 
immediately under the main shaft, which latter shaft carries at its 
extremity a bevel pinion, with which the one or the other of the 
two pinions on the differential gear can be caused to gear or mesh, 
in accordance as the forward or backward movement of the 
vehicle is desired. The disengagement of the pinions effects the 
stopping of the vehicle. The four toothed wheels on the lower 
auxiliary shaft can be thrown into or out of gear with the pinions 
on the main shaft by the moving of a sliding sleeve or coupling 
box. From the above it will be seen that it is not necessary to 
employ the friction coupling for the purpose of stopping the 
vehicle, but it can be used when desired to interrupt communica- 
tion between the motor and the transmission gear in cases of 
emergency, or whenever it is desirable or necessary to stop the 
vehicle suddenly. The main purpose of the friction gear, how- 
ever, is to allow of smooth starting, and to prevent jarring when 
changing from one rate of speed to another. The chain wheels 
gearing on to the driving wheels are carried by the differential 
shaft. 



ELECTRIC CABS 

For use in towns on smooth pavements, and where only 
moderate gradients have to be negotiated, electricity is an ideal 
power. It is cleanly, can be handled by any one without special 
skill, is flexible, silent, and entirely free from vibration and odour. 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 63 

On the other hand, however, the battery is a source of trouble. 
If improperly charged, rapid deterioration will be the result. 
Charging and discharging at regular intervals, whether used or not, 
is imperative, otherwise chemical action sets up and rapidly 
reduces the efficiency. Proper attention must be paid to the 
controller, the contacts must be properly cleaned, adjusted, etc. 
The general mileage of electric-driven vehicles is from twenty to 
forty miles on one charge. 

Some few years ago electric cabs were put on the streets of 
both London and Paris, but for various reasons failed to be com- 
mercially successful. According to a statement made by the pro- 
prietors, as given in Le Chauffeur at the time, the chief reason for 
their failure in Paris was owing to the defective accumulators, and 
they stated positively that the service would be renewed when a 
suitable accumulator was available. This was, however, says the 
above-mentioned publication, only a part of the trouble experi- 
enced. When deciding on the design of vehicle to employ for 
the service in question, the principal points kept in view were the 
easy removal of the accumulators, and the efficient charging of 
same. Unfortunately, the company took as their model an English 
electric cab in which the batteries were suspended by chains, 
although there existed at the time at least one efficient electrically 
propelled vehicle that might have been preferably adopted. 
Another error was made in constructing the charging station at a 
distance of four miles from Paris, so that each cab had to 
make daily a double journey of four miles each way to and from 
the charging station ; that is to say, run eight miles a day without 
any return. From the above it will be seen that the failure of 
this electric cab service was due more to errors in judgment, and 
to the bad management of the executive, than to any existing 
defect in electricity as a motive power. 

The London Electric Cab Company placed a number of electric 
cabs upon the streets of London in the year 1898, and continued 
the service until near the end of 1899. After a break in the 
service, owing, it was said, to the vehicles being withdrawn for 
repairs and alterations, they were again placed upon the streets, 
and ran for a brief space of time, when the company was finally 
wound up, and the whole plant and stock sold early in 1900. 



64 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRIC CABS 

The most important point in electrically driven cabs is the 
duration and capacity of the battery ; indeed, any opinion, to be 
reliable, should be founded on the condition of the battery after 
the vehicle has been in actual practical work during a considerable 
period of time, say, at least six months. 

In the case of an electrically propelled cab, the exigencies of 
bad roads, steep gradients, and heavy loads unavoidably entail 
the necessity of drawing heavily and suddenly upon the store of 
electricity in the accumulator, and these sudden and severe 
discharges have the effect of causing a certain amount of expansion 
of the grids or plates to take place, with a consequent loosening 
of a certain proportion of the paste from them, which loosened 
paste, being carried out by the motion of the acid, remains in 
suspension in the latter between the plates, with the result of 
internal short-circuiting. Should a cell be short of acid room the 
grids will be expanded to such an extent by over-heating that 
they will not again contract enough to form connection with what 
paste remains, and besides, as has been pointed out by Professor 
Hele-Shaw in his paper on " Road Locomotion," read before the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, splashes of acid are the 
cause of much more loss than is usually suspected. The practice 
of grouping cells in parallel, says the same authority, is open to 
the serious objection that if a cell on one side becomes dead or is 
reversed, those on the other expend energy in re-establishing 
equilibrium. English, French and American tests prove that 
after six months' running, even under the most careful supervision, 
practically all secondary cells must have the positive plates 
repasted or renewed at a cost not below one-fifth of the original 
outlay ; while in many cases, as commonly used, they are practically 
worthless at the end of this period, or even sooner. So long as a 
range of 40 miles per charge, at speeds not exceeding 10 miles 
per hour, meets the requirements, electricity, at a cost of not 
more than 2d. per B.T.U., is at least on a par with steam or oil 
even for heavy traffic. Where these limits are exceeded, electricity 
is inadmissible. Distances greater than 40 miles, and speeds 
greater than 10 miles an hour, involve prohibitive dead weight 
and excessive discharge rates. 

Although, as above intimated, the cells of a battery deteriorate 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 65 

very rapidly if the vehicle be driven at high speeds, very surprising 
results have notwithstanding been attained with electrically pro- 
pelled vehicles. In 1899, Jenatzy, in a vehicle not specially 
constructed for speed, covered a kilometre at the rate of 50 miles 
an hour ; and in the same year the Count Chasseloup-Laubat, in 
an ordinary Jeantaud electric car, obtained 57! miles an hour; 
whilst later on in the same year Jenatzy, in an electrically propelled 
carriage especially built for the purpose, succeeded in running a 
kilometre at the rate of 65^- miles an hour. It must be noted 
that the above speeds were obtained with running starts; the 
average speed made with standing starts was, however, 46 \ miles 
an hour, and the results obtained amply proved that, as regards 
high speed, electricity could be made to give very remarkable, 
though not practical, results, the latter being demonstrated by the 
fact that even after the short runs made of two kilometres the 
batteries were in each case to all intents and purposes destroyed 
in the run, and the vehicles had to be towed home. 

EXAMPLES OF ELECTRIC CABS 

The Bersey Electric Cab 

The above cabs were constructed from the designs of Mr. 
W. C. Bersey, and, as the first hackney motor vehicle actually in 
use for upwards of a year in the public service, the details of their 
construction are of considerable interest. The vehicle in question 
partakes in construction of the form of a closed coupe, and has a 
capacity for two inside passengers and the driver, whose seat is 
mounted on a raised front platform, the weight complete, with the 
storage battery, being about two tons. The motor mechanism is 
carried upon a lower rectangular-shaped frame constructed of 
angle-iron bars, mounted on the axles through leaf springs, and 
the body of the cab is suspended from this frame in such a way 
as to avoid as much as possible all shocks and vibration. The 
driver's seat is, as already mentioned, mounted on a platform, 
and this platform is carried upon a raised framing rigidly connected 
to the lower frame of the vehicle. The wheels are shod with 
solid rubber tyres. The storage battery is placed in a box 
suspended from the underframe, which latter arrangement is 
claimed to admit of its being easily detached and replaced by a 



66 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



newly-charged battery. The battery consists of 40 E.P.S. cells 
capable of supplying current at an average pressure of 80 volts. 
The average discharge on the level would be about 30 amperes, 
and as the battery has a capacity of about 150 ampere hours, one 
charge should therefore be sufficient for a run of from 25 to 30 
miles, in accordance with the condition of the roads. 

The motor and driving gear are mounted on the rear part of 






I 




Fig. 13. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company electric 

hansom cab. 

the lower frame, and are covered in by the rear-box of the cab 
body. Toothed gearing transmits power from the motor to a 
counter-shaft, on which latter is mounted the differential gear, and 
chain gearing transmits power from this counter-shaft to the axle 
of the rear driving wheels. 

The speed of the motor can be regulated by means of a 
controller, which can be operated by means of a lever placed at 
the left-hand side of the driver. There are four forward speeds, 
the highest being about nine miles an hour, and one reverse 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 67 

speed motion of two miles an hour. The same lever also admits 
of the application of an electric brake, which latter is formed by 
the reaction of the motor upon itself as a dynamo. To render it 
impossible for any unauthorized person to start the vehicle when 
left by the driver, a plug key, which admits of the main circuit 
between the battery and the motor being broken, is provided in 
the box situated beneath the driver's seat. There are also provided 
two ordinary band brakes acting on brake drums connected with 
the rear wheels of the vehicle, which brakes can be applied by 
means of a pedal in front of the driver, the pedal also acting at 
the same operation to first automatically break the electric circuit, 
and thus to place the motor out of action previously to the 
application of the brakes. 

The steering mechanism consists of a hand wheel, operating 
through a set of toothed gearing, and a locking plate connected to 
the fore axle of the vehicle. 

The motor is of the Lundell type, the armature being of the 
laminated drum pattern, and there are two sets of windings con- 
nected to independent commutators located at the extremities of 
the spindle of the armature. The field magnet is constructed 
of a form calculated to reduce the amount of the demagnetizing 
effect of the armature upon the field as far as possible, and 
thereby maintaining a maximum degree of constancy, even when 
the load on the motor varies through a very wide range. This 
arrangement allows of the brushes being set practically once for 
all, and does away with the necessity for their being adjusted 
between no load and the highest load to which the motor can be 
subjected, to obviate sparking. The field magnet is formed of 
two mild steel castings, and forms a cylindrical shell surrounding 
the armature, the two parts thereof being connected together by 
bolts, and the ends closed by covers having conical projections, 
which latter surround the commutators, and at the extremities of 
which are located roller bearings which support the armature 
spindle. The poles of the field magnet are surrounded by 
a coil also formed in two independent parts, like that of the 
armature winding. Carbon brushes are used, which brushes are 
set symmetrically between the pole tips of the field, and are 
caused to press against the surfaces of the commutator under the 
action of springs. 

This motor, which is capable of developing 3-horse-power at 



68 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the ordinary speed of the cab, is bolted to a cast-iron bed plate 
through four feet or lugs formed integral with the end covers. 

The various speeds of running are given to the cab by forming 
different combinations between the two independent windings of 
both the armature and field, a resistance coil and the storage 
battery. 

The controller consists of a drum or cylinder constructed of 
wood, and mounted upon a spindle journalled to an iron tray or 
bed-plate, upon which the several parts are mounted. This cylinder 
is divided into five principal parts by vulcanite rings, and brass 
contact pieces are secured on its periphery by means of counter- 
sunk screws. In some cases these contact pieces are electrically 
connected together, and in others they are insulated from one 
another in such a manner as to admit of various combinations of 
the battery and motor windings by forming interconnection of the 
brushes of the controller, which are connected by means of suit- 
able binding screws placed upon a wooden bar, and insulated 
wires, with the storage battery, motor windings, and the resistance 
coil. The positive terminal of the battery is connected to the 
first, or number one, of the controller brushes, and the negative 
pole of the battery to the eleventh, which is the last of the 
brushes. The third brush is short-circuited with the first brush 
through the resistance coil, which, together with the controller, 
is enclosed in the box beneath the driver's seat, whilst the second 
brush is electrically connected to one extremity of one of the 
windings of the field magnet, the other extremity of this winding 
being connected to the fifth brush. The remaining field-winding 
is similarly connected to the fourth and seventh brushes, and the 
sixth and ninth brushes are connected to the brushes of the com- 
mutator at one extremity of the armature, and consequently to 
the windings of this latter. The eighth and tenth brushes are in 
like manner connected to the brushes of the commutator at the 
other extremity of the armature, and consequently to the windings 
thereof. 

The controller drum or cylinder can be moved by means of 
a hand lever, toothed segment, and pinion, and the drum or 
cylinder can be moved into eight distinct positions, in each of 
which it is held spring tight by the engagement of one of the teeth 
or projections on an eight-toothed ratchet, and a spring-actuated 
roller pawl arrangement. The contact pieces on the periphery of 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 69 

the drum or cylinder are so placed that the above eight positions 
of the latter will give eight different combinations of the eleven 
controller brushes, providing respectively four different forward 
speeds, a breaking of the circuit, two combinations disconnecting 
the armature windings from the battery and sending a current 
through the field-windings, thereby giving rise to a powerful 
braking action, and finally a combination by which the direction 
in which the armature is revolving can be changed, and con- 
sequently backward movement can be imparted to the vehicle. 

The motor is mounted upon a bed-plate, which is secured to 
the under-frame of the vehicle by longitudinal iron bars bolted 
to cross bars uniting the side pieces of the under-frame. Power 
is transmitted to the rear wheels by means of chain gear from a 
counter-shaft, to which the motor is geared by toothed gearing, and 
an arrangement of differential gearing. 

The steering is effected by means of a hand-wheel at the top 
of a pillar provided in front of the driver's seat, and on the 
spindle of which hand-wheel is fixed a worm which gears with a 
worm-wheel on the top of a vertical spindle passing down the 
steering pillar, at the lower end of which spindle is a toothed 
pinion which gears or meshes with a toothed wheel, forming part 
of the locking gear that is supported by the front axle of the 
vehicle. This toothed wheel is connected by four arms with a 
cylindrical boss, which guides the turning movement of the wheel 
round a central fixed cylinder integral with the upper fixed half 
of the locking gear, the friction between the locking plates being 
reduced to as low a point as possible by a ring of balls running on 
ball races formed on the locking plates. 

Two band brakes, actuated by a pedal, are also provided, in 
addition to the electric brake already mentioned. The depression 
of the pedal first operates to break the connection between the 
battery and the motor through the opening of a switch placed in 
the main circuit, power being thus cut off before the application 
of the brakes is made. 

The Morris and Salom Electric Cab 

Electric cabs built by Messrs. Morris and Salom, of Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A., for the Electric Vehicle Co., of New York, have 
been sent to both London and Paris, and run on the streets of these 



7o 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



cities with more or less success. The designs of these cabs differ 
materially from that of the cab of the London company, which 
has just been briefly described. An important improvement in 
the details of construction is the carrying 'of the battery in the 
main body of the cab, thereby avoiding the jolting that was found 
to be so fatal in the case of the London cab. The driving [is 




Fig. 14. The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company 
electric cabriolet. 

effected, moreover, by means ol single gearing; pinions on the 
extremities of the spindles of the two motors, which are of the 
Westinghouse type, meshing with internally toothed rings fixed 
on the driving wheels, which in this case are the front ones ; 
and as the motors are independent, no differential gearing is 
required. 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 71 

The trays of batteries are shoved into the body of the cab 
from the rear, and, by an ingenious arrangement, the contacts 
are made automatically as the batteries are pushed into place. 
To effect this purpose the batteries are permanently connected to 
contact pieces provided on the trays, which, so long as the driver's 
switch is open, are out of circuit. 

The wheels are made of wood, and are of the artillery pattern, 
fitted with pneumatic tyres, 5 ins. diameter, inflated to a working 
pressure of about 60 Ibs. per square inch. Together with the 
storage battery, which latter weighs something over n cwts., this 
cab weighs 20 cwts., or just one ton. 

Space does not admit of entering fully into the details of con- 
struction of the cab ; the following, however, are the most salient 
features : 

The vehicle has no separate under-frame, as all the machinery 
is mounted upon the carriage axles, the requisite attachments 
being made to the transoms of the body of the vehicle. By an 
arrangement consisting of a pivoted projection upon the fore- 
axle, the distance of the spindles of the armature and their toothed 
pinions is kept constant, whatever may be the movement of the 
tail of the motor. This latter is hung by means of rods to the 
body of the vehicle, rubber buffers being provided to prevent 
undue shocks at the end of its range of movement in each 
direction. The internally toothed rings are secured, as has 
been already mentioned, to the rims of the front wheels. These 
latter are 36 ins. in diameter, and the hubs are fitted with roller 
bearings, with end-thrust balls and cones, the rollers being about 
5i ins. in length, and working on steel sleeves on the axle. 

The steering axle has steel fork castings receiving the pivoted 
Ackermann axles, which are placed in positions inclined to the 
horizon. The above fork castings have extensions to which the 
hanging links for the transverse springs are connected, which 
latter support the heavier end of the cab containing the battery 
box. The front end of the cab is supported upon springs 
pivoted at their front ends to the framework of the vehicle, and 
at their rear ends hung from links at the extremities of a transverse 
spring. 

The steering is operated by a lever working longitudinally of 
the vehicle. There are two band brakes on drums on the shafts 
of the armature worked by a pedal on the upper end of a lever 



72 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

connected at its lower extremity to a thin wire rope passing over 
a pulley and connected to a bar, which latter is in turn connected 
to the brake levers by two chains. These brakes are normally 
held out of action by spiral springs. 

The battery comprises 48 cells, and is divided into two 
sections, the series-wound fields of the motors being also placed 
in sections. This arrangement admits of a number of series and 
parallel combinations being made, by means of a controller, to 
effect the three speeds in a forward direction and the reverse 
movement of the vehicle. 

The controller can be actuated by a hand lever located at the 
left-hand side of the driver's seat, and the speeds given by its 
operation are 6, 9, and 12-15 miles per hour. It is of the rotary 
type, and it has eleven contact plates, coupled up by suitable leads. 
The connections to the reversing and ordinary forward working 
switch are operated by a pedal, which, under normal conditions, 
is kept in position for maintaining the switches in contact for the 
movement of the vehicle in a forward direction. When depressed 
for reversing the motion of the vehicle, the pedal operates to cut 
out one set of switch connections, which are pivoted to a rod, and 
to throw in another set, coupled with the wires of each motor. A 
socket is provided for a dual plug, to allow of the batteries being 
charged in position. 

The "Draulette" Electric Cab 

An electric hansom cab designed to accommodate four inside 
passengers, besides the driver on the dicky, is the " Draulette, " 
a description of which was given about three years ago in the 
Motorwagen. This vehicle, which is the invention of a Captain 
Draulette, is of somewhat novel construction. It is mounted on 
road wheels of the artillery pattern. The entrance is in front, the 
step being between the two lower front wheels, and the doors are 
practically similar to the wooden apron of an ordinary horse 
hansom. The four inside passengers are seated in a semicircle, 
whilst the driver's seat is located at the back, as is usual in 
hansom cabs. The power is derived from a battery composed of 
44 Fulmen cells, of the type 613, each of which cells contains 
six positive and seven negative plates. The capacity is stated to 
be 105 ampere hours, a supply which is calculated to be sufficient 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 73 

to last for running five hours at a speed of 12 miles per hour, 
or for a mileage of 60 miles per charging. The accumulators are 
stowed away in four chambers situated beneath the passengers' 
seat. 

The electro-motor was designed specially for use in this 
vehicle, and is of the two-poled type, provided with double 
carbon brushes. In order to allow the electro-motor a certain 
limited amount of freedom of movement, it is supported at the 
rear by means of an arrangement of springs and rollers, which is 
so designed that it does not interfere in any way with the con- 
nection with the toothed wheels. A toothed or spur wheel is 
keyed fast on the spindle of the motor, and gears or meshes with 
another toothed or spur wheel of larger diameter, which latter is 
either carried on an intermediate or counter shaft, or is combined 
with the differential gearing. At each end of the intermediate 
shaft is provided a toothed pinion, gearing or meshing with 
an internally toothed ring mounted concentrically with the rear 
wheels of the cab. 

The vehicle has four forward speeds, viz. 2^, 5, 8^-, and 12 
miles an hour, besides one of 3 miles an hour backwards. As 
in all the best types of electro-motors, the changes in the rates of 
speed are effected by changes brought about in the speed of the 
electro-motor itself, without the use of speed gearing of a com- 
plicated nature, the backward motion being, however, effected by 
the use of gearing of a special form. 

The motor is arranged so that it can be employed to act as an 
electric brake, and the resistance of the circuit can be adjusted 
in such a manner as to admit of four different brake powers being 
obtained. An arrangement is also provided by means of which 
an application of the foot brake by the driver will cause the electric 
brake to be automatically applied at the same time. 

As has been already mentioned, the vehicle is mounted upon 
four wheels of artillery pattern, the rear pair, which are used for 
driving, being 50 inches in diameter, and the front pair, which 
are used for steering, being 30 inches in diameter. The total 
weight of this electric hansom cab, with accumulators, and loaded 
with four inside passengers and the driver on the rear outside seat, 
is about 24 cwts. 



74 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company 
Electric Cabs 

The following is a brief description of the two vehicles shown 
in Figs. 13 and 14, built by the City and Suburban Electric 
Carriage Company, of York Street, Westminster. The electric 
hansom cab, shown in Fig. 13, is adapted either for private use 
or for public service. In the former case the upholstering and 
fittings would naturally be of a more luxurious nature, and it would 
be very suitable for a doctor or other business or professional man 
for making his rounds. 

This hansom has seating capacity for two passengers inside, 
besides the driver. The wheels are of wood and of the artillery 
pattern, the tyres being of solid rubber, 2\ inches in diameter. 

The front wheels are used for steering, and are mounted on 
Ackermann axles. Several different speeds are obtainable by 
various combinations of the battery and motor windings, which 
can be effected through the controller, the operating lever of 
which is shown on the left-hand side of the driver's seat. The 
maximum speed is one of 1 2 miles per hour, and the cab is also 
fitted with reversing gear, thus enabling it to run backwards on 
one or more speeds. 

The battery is the result of many years' experience and usage 
under very severe tests in practical work, and is claimed by 
the makers of the cab to be superior to any hitherto in use. 
The elements are specially manufactured for the company by the 
Electrical Power Storage Company, of Great Winchester Street, 
London, E.G. The battery is capable of propelling the vehicle 
with its full complement of passengers and the driver for a distance 
of 30 miles, more or less, according to the conditions of the road 
surface, gradients, etc., with one charge of current. 

Figure 14 shows a cabriolet constructed by the same makers, 
which is known as the " Essex Cabriolet," and is both a very 
serviceable as well as a very handsome vehicle, of a type adapted 
for business purposes or for a pleasure carriage. The vehicle is 
adapted to seat two passengers inside and one on the driving box 
beside the driver. The apron is made, as shown, with a deep 
hollow, so that a lady in evening dress can be seated with perfect 
comfort and without any fear of crushing or soiling her apparel, 



LIGHT PASSENGER VEHICLES 75 

and as the apron, moreover, is hinged at the front of the platform, 
it obviously allows ample space. By an ingenious but simple 
arrangement of rods and levers, the operating one being at the 
side of the driver, the apron can be opened or closed by the latter 
from the driving box. The front window can be folded up when 
desired, and the side windows are made to drop. The mechanical 
construction of this vehicle is similar to that of the hansom cab 
shown in Fig. 13, and the maximum speed is 12 miles per 
hour. The vehicle is capable of running 40 miles on one charge 
of current on hard level roads. 

The following particulars apply to both the hansom cab and the 
" Essex " cabriolet. The wheels are of wood, and heavy artillery 
pattern, fitted, as has been already mentioned, with solid india- 
rubber tyres 2^- inches in diameter, the back wheels being 36 inches 
and the front wheels 32 inches in diameter. Each vehicle has 
two electro-motors, each of which motors is arranged to drive its 
own wheel independently, thus enabling differential gearing to be 
dispensed with, and as the various speeds are obtained by con- 
troller combinations, no change-speed gear is required. The 
battery is in two sections of 24 cells each, or 48 cells in all, and 
one section of 24 cells is carried in the front part of each of 
the cabs, and the other section of 24 cells at the back, thereby 
distributing the weight equally on the back and front wheels. 
Together with the trays the complete battery of 48 cells weighs 
about 12 cwts., and the weight of each vehicle, with the battery, 
but without passengers, is exactly 30 cwts. 



CHAPTER V 
HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 

General Observations Steam Omnibuses Examples of Steam 
Omnibuses Petrol Omnibuses Examples of Petrol Omnibuses 
Compound or Petrol-Electric Omnibuses Electric Omnibuses 
Examples of Electric Omnibuses. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

STEAM-PROPELLED road vehicles adapted to accommodate con- 
siderable numbers of passengers, that is to say, steam coaches or 
omnibuses, as well as lighter steam carriages adapted for fewer 
numbers of passengers, occupied the attention of the first experi- 
menters in mechanical road locomotion, and that these classes of 
vehicles were brought by them to a considerable degree of perfec- 
tion is proved by the steam coaches and carriages of Griffiths, Brunei, 
Gurney, Hancock, Summers and Ogle, Church, Dance Macerone, 
James, Hill, Yarrow and Hilditch, Rhodes, Holt, Knight, Catley 
and Ayres, Todd, Randolph, Grenville, Mackenzie, Blackburn, 
Thompson (the first inventor of the pneumatic tyre), and others. 

Indeed, as has been already observed, there can be no reason- 
able doubt but that the steam road carriage would have been per- 
fected many years ago if the very success of the earlier examples 
had not raised up a host of enemies against them, whose active 
opposition, combined with the attraction of enterprise and capital 
to the railways, then in their early infancy, and the condition of the 
roads in this country, which was even more deplorable then than 
now, finally stifled all efforts in that direction, and so the matter 
rested in abeyance until again taken up within the last few years. 

The revival of the movement in favour of mechanically pro- 
pelled vehicles, which commenced some fourteen years ago, as 
might be expected, again met with a large amount of opposition 
from prejudiced and interested persons, and indifference from the 
general public, and that although the many advantages possessed 
by this type of vehicle should be obvious to any person who gives 
the matter impartial consideration. This opposition, however, 
has now, owing largely to the wide and progressive views of our 
popular monarch, been to a great extent overcome, and most 

76 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 77 

people are prepared to admit the utility of the mechanically 
propelled vehicle, at least for purposes of heavy passenger and 
goods traffic on the public roads. 

An important factor in the running of any line of motor 
omnibuses is the condition of the road surfaces, and to ensure 
success these will have to be maintained in far better condition 
than is at present usually the case in this country. As it is, 
several services of motor omnibuses have already had to be 
abandoned owing to the shocking state of some of the main 
country roads in Ireland ; and many of the English main roads are 
in no better, if as good, a condition. The authorities in charge 
of roads should see that it is obviously to their advantage to 
encourage the extension of the use of mechanically propelled 
vehicles, inasmuch as the damage done by them to the road 
surfaces is far less than that of horse traffic, owing to the absence 
of the pounding and tearing action of the horses' hoofs, and there 
is also the saving that would be effected in the cleansing of the 
streets, owing to the absence of droppings, which, in crowded 
thoroughfares, constitutes such a serious item ; besides that, the 
condition of the streets and roads, from a sanitary point of view, 
would be incomparably superior. 

Mechanically propelled omnibuses are successfully operated by 
all three of the powers mentioned in the introduction to these 
articles, viz. steam engines, internal combustion engines, and 
electricity, the first of these being that which, as just mentioned, 
was used by the pioneers in the movement, and which, for this 
reason, will be first dealt with. 

STEAM OMNIBUSES 

Before proceeding to give a few specific examples of the most 
recent designs of steam omnibuses, which, if not perhaps quite 
perfect with respect to some of the minor details of construction, 
certainly, so far as the main features are concerned, have success- 
fully solved the problem of omnibuses propelled by this power, it 
will be interesting to note the results obtained with such passenger 
vehicles a few years back. The particulars contained in the 
following table have been abstracted from a table of results 
obtained with some heavy steam vehicles, and given by Mr. John 
S. Thorny croft, F.R.S., in a paper read before the mechanical 
section of the British Association at the Dover meeting in 1899. 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 





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HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 79 

An examination of this table shows that the results obtained 
by the De Dion omnibus, with regard to fuel and water con- 
sumption per gross ton-mile, were appreciably less than those of 
the other vehicles. The reason for this smaller water consumption 
is to be found in the high amount of superheating employed. As 
regards fuel consumption, it should be borne in mind that this 
item constitutes but a comparatively small part of the total 
running expenses of a mechanically propelled vehicle according 
to an estimate made by Mr. Thornycroft, not more, indeed, than 
10 per cent, of the total running cost and is not, therefore, a 
matter of such vital importance as supposed by some people. 

EXAMPLES OF STEAM OMNIBUSES 

Clarkson Steam Omnibuses 

Figs. 15 and 16 show a small steam omnibus and a public 
service steam omnibus built by Messrs. Clarkson, Limited, of 
Moulsham Works, Chelmsford, a firm who have established a 
reputation for the manufacture of high-class steam cars, and whose 
liquid fuel burner is so well known to all those interested in the 
subject of steam-propelled vehicles. 

The smaller of the above omnibuses, shown in Fig. 15, is 
adapted to seat 8 persons, and is suitable for station or long- 
distance touring work, etc. Under most severe trials, this vehicle 
has proved to be a thoroughly trustworthy and reliable vehicle, 
one of a practically similar construction to that illustrated having 
run four thousand miles without either repair or breakdown of any 
description. 

Amongst the features of construction worthy of special notice, 
mention may be made of the following : There is not a single 
lubricator or oil cup to replenish and adjust, the whole of the 
working parts, both of the engine and gears, being completely 
enclosed in an oil-tight case, the bottom of which forms an oil 
well, from which the lubricant is pumped to all the joints and 
working parts in rotation, the oil draining back into the oil well 
and being filtered and pumped over and over again, a gallon of 
oil lasting in this manner for 1000 miles before requiring 
replenishing. The burner is automatically controlled by the steam 
pressure, thus enabling the vehicle to stand for hours if required 



8o 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



under steam, and be ready for starting immediately. Heavy oils 
can be perfectly burnt without any appreciable amount of smoke 




I. 



o 

in 






or smell, a number of different grades of paraffin being capable 
of being used without alteration to the burner. The water-feed is 
automatic, and a simple, strong form of controlling gear, which it 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



81 



is practically impossible can become deranged or inoperative, is 
provided. 

The engine develops over 20 brake horse-power, and the 




steam is condensed, the water of condensation returning to 
the feed tanks, where it passes through niters, thus enabling the 
vehicle to run over 100 miles on one supply of water and oil. 

G 



82 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The average speed is about 16 miles an hour, and the fuel 
consumption is about id. per mile, the consumption of oil being 
one-sixth of a gallon per mile, and that of water i| gallon per 
mile when not condensing; when condensing, 0*283 of a gallon 
per mile is found sufficient. The amount of water carried for a 
run of 120 miles is 34 gallons. Either "Turner" 3-in. solid 
rubber tyres or " Bailey " non-slipping pneumatic tyres are usually 
fitted. 

The larger public service steam omnibus illustrated in Fig. 1 6 
is built in several sizes, adapted to carry respectively 12, 16, and 
20 passengers. 

A public service steam omnibus of the above type, adapted to 
seat 1 6 passengers and the driver, or 17 persons in all, has been 
built for the Torquay and District Motor Omnibus Company. 
This omnibus, before delivery, was subjected to a very successful 
test, of which the following are the particulars : 

The number of persons carried on the test was 17. The length 
of the run was 32 miles, during which no involuntary stops were 
made. The test hill negotiated was a severe one, the steepest 
pitch being i in 6*5 ; nevertheless, a speed of over 6 miles per 
hour was maintained, the average speed made throughout the 
journey of 32 miles being 13! miles per hour. The grade of 
fuel used was Russian petroleum, " Rocklight " brand, and the 
consumption during the test was 6*75 gallons. The consumption 
of water was 1 6 gallons. 

The above oil consumption made the cost of fuel per mile 
during the test work out at 1*05^., and the cost of fuel per pas- 
senger per mile at ~d. 

The omnibus was subsequently run by road from Messrs. 
Clarkson's works to Torquay, covering the journey without an 
involuntary stop, although the road conditions were very severe, 
and in some parts the floods were out, there being a depth of 
fully 2 feet of water on the highway. This vehicle has since 
done excellent service, carrying between four and five thousand 
passengers daily. 

The following is the specification of the above omnibus : 

Body. 'Bus body is built of well-seasoned wood, with seating 
accommodation for sixteen passengers, in addition to the driver ; 
twelve seats being in the body of the 'bus, two at the rear platform, 
and two in front next to driver. Easy steps are fitted at the rear, 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 83 

The rear platform is closed in, so as to form the opening of the 
doorway, and fully glazed. Brass handrails are provided to the 
steps. The side and front windows are made to slide up and 
down, the frames being constructed of mahogany, varnished in 
the clear wood, and fitted with plate glass securely fixed. Hand- 
rails are provided along the roof on each side of the corridor. 
Circular sliding plate glasses and frames are fitted in front of the 
driver. Pressed steel wings are fitted to the front wheels. The 
'bus is finished in the natural wood, varnished. The upholstery is 
of the best leather, with plain spring cushions, and trimmed to 
waist line. 

The Chassis is composed of the several parts enumerated 
below : 

The Frame. Formed of mild steel rolled channel, bent at the 
corners, and riveted with transverse members for the support of 
the engine and other details of the machinery. 

Axles. Of the best construction, with case-hardened bearings ; 
the boxes accurately machined out and bushed with bronze. 

Boiler. The shell of the boiler measures 22 inches in 
diameter by 18 inches long, and ^ inch thick, and is constructed 
of mild steel without longitudinal seams, being pressed out of the 
solid plate. The tubes are of weldless solid drawn steel, yjr inch 
outside diameter, 20 g. thick, expanded in the top and bottom 
plates, and, in addition, beaded over, so that each tube forms a 
stay. The boiler is tested by hydraulic pressure to 750 Ibs. per 
square inch, and by steam to 500 Ibs. per square inch, and is 
fitted with twin safety valves, set to blow off at 400 Ibs., an auto- 
matic regulator set to 300 Ibs. to control the burner, and an extra 
large Klinger gauge to indicate the water level, all the necessary 
gauges and fittings being of the highest construction. 

Draught. The draught is natural, and quite independent for 
its action upon cowls, steam jets, and baffles, and a sheet-steel 
flue carries the products of combustion clear of the roof. 

Superheater. A steel superheating tube is fixed close beneath 
the lower tube plate of the boiler. 

Burner. This is the latest and most improved form of 
" Clarkson " burner, capable of burning any grade of paraffin oil, 
whether Kerosene, Rocklight, Testefas, etc., and is fitted with 
patent express starter, which needs no spirit. It is automati- 
cally regulated by the steam pressure at 300 Ibs., and entirely 



84 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

self-contained, being enclosed in a sheet-steel burner box, lined with 
nickel. An inspection door is provided, and also a measuring cup 
and clockwork fan for the starter. The consumption of the burner 
is tested to 25 Ibs. of oil per hour at a pressure of 40 Ibs. The oil 
is supplied to the burner through a new combination valve, which 
enables the vaporizer to be readily cleansed by steam, thereby 
prolonging the life and preserving the efficiency of the burner. 

Engine. Two cylinders, 4 ins. by 4 ins. horizontal, double 
acting, high-pressure type, slide valves actuated by Joy's gear. 
The cylinders, piston rings, and valves are of special hard close- 
grain iron. Piston rods and cross heads are forged solid of steel, 
with bored guides. Solid-ended and ribbed cast-steel connecting 
rods, bushed with phosphor bronze. Crank shaft of forged steel, 
bored hollow, and made in halves, riveted together with steel 
driving wheel between, and enclosed in a cast aluminium case 
with sheet-metal panels made removable, the top panel having 
a circular inspection hole, fitted with a dust-tight but quickly 
removable lid. 

Differential Gear. The engine drives direct on to a bronze 
gear ring, encircling the differential gear box, the sides of the box 
being of cast steel, and the differential gear of the spur type ; all 
six wheels are of phosphor bronze, cut out of the solid and work- 
ing on hardened steel pins. The differential shafts are of steel, 
forged solid with the wheels on the inner ends, the outer ends 
coned and screwed and fitted with three keys for securing the 
chain sprockets. Each shaft is carried on two double ball bear- 
ings, fitted in heavy cylindrical races, hardened and ground to fit, 
and the two inner bearings take all end thrust. The outer bearings 
are fitted with ball and oil retainers. Each shaft carries two 
eccentrics, which are keyed on, and fixed longitudinally by 
distance tubes or sleeves. 

Lubrication (General). A supply of oil is carried in a well in 
the engine case or crank chamber, and the oil from all bearings 
drains back into it. From the well a pump forces the oil into 
each of the bearings in succession, by the action of a Clarkson 
patent distributor. This arrangement ensures every bearing being 
properly oiled, without any further attention than occasionally, 
say once a week if in regular use, adding a little oil to the well. 

Lubrication (Cylinder}. The cylinders are fed by a positive 
pump contained in an aluminium reservoir, and driven by worm 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 85 

gearing from the engine. The lid of the reservoir covers a large 
opening, and is so arranged as to be quickly removable for 
inspection and refilling. 

Pumps. Four bronze force pumps, driven direct from the 
differential shaft, deal with boiler feeding, return water, fuel, and 
lubricating oil. The pumps are fitted with Clarkson patent 
high-speed valve boxes, and are interchangeable. Two hand pumps 
are also provided, one for the boiler feed, and the other for 
charging the oil-pressure tank. A steel air vessel is connected to 
the boiler feed pump to equalize delivery. 

Piping. All pressure-pipe lines are made of seamless steel, 
and the joints are flanged and secured by steel unions. 

Tanks. Comprise a galvanized-iron water tank of 24 gallons 
capacity, fitted with glass gauge, mud pocket, drain cock, filling 
and suction strainer, and the top made removable for inspection 
and cleansing. The main fuel tank, of 28 gallons capacity, made 
of sheet steel, riveted together and galvanized, and fitted with glass 
gauge, and graduated scale, filling and suction strainers, and paft 
of the top made removable for inspection and cleansing. The 
pressure tank of seamless steel, fitted with pressure and Klinger 
gauges, and tested to 200 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic 
pressure. 

Valves, Gauges, and Fittings. All of the highest class and of 
practical construction. The gauges being placed conveniently 
before the driver, so as to be easily read without the assistance of 
a mirror. 

Brakes. There are two independent brakes acting directly 
upon the driving wheels, viz. a band brake worked by a foot 
lever, and an internal expanding brake worked by hand, and 
capable of locking. Both the above brakes have metallic surfaces, 
which grip well, but cannot fire. 

Steering. Irreversible, and operated by a wood- rimmed wheel, 
suitably connected to the Ackermann axle. 

Feed Water Heater. The feed water is forced through a coil 
heated by the exhaust steam before entering the boiler. 

Oil Separator. A cylindrical filter for the removal of the oil 
and graphite is fitted in the water tank, so as to be conveniently 
accessible. The weekly cleansing can be done easily in five 
minutes, and no grease is dropped on the ground. 

Condensers. Two condensers are supplied. The first of 



86 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

rectangular form, made of Clarkson patent tubes, fitted into 
aluminium side pockets, partitioned to cause the steam to traverse 
a long path. The second condenser, behind the first, shaped to 
fit round both sides of the pointed front, and with a single row of 
Clarkson tubes fixed in curved copper headers. One drum, 
forming a water pocket or " hot well," collects from both con- 
densers, and any uncondensed vapour is permitted to escape into 
the flue. 

Driving Chains. These are of steel roller chain i-f in. pitch, 
having a breaking load of 5 tons. 

Wheels. 34-in. diameter artillery pattern, with steel hubs and 
rims and cleft oak spokes. 

Tyres. "Turner" solid endless rubber tyres, 34-in. single to 
the front wheels, and 34-in. twin to the rear wheels. 

Tools and Spares. These comprise wrenches to fit all sizes of 
nuts and heads in the chassis, pliers, screw-driver, oil-can, copper 
wire and washers, one set spare pump valves, packing, rubber mat, 
rubber hose, tank gauge glasses and rubber rings for same, split 
pins, nuts and screws ; the whole of which are fitted into a tool 
box conveniently arranged on the boiler. 

Tests. The chassis is loaded with an equivalent weight of 
10 stone per passenger during tests, and the vehicle is run 50 
miles on ordinary roads, successfully climbing a test hill of i in 
10 during the trials. 

The makers undertake to supply free of cost a new part to 
replace any that may fail through defective material or workman- 
ship within six months of delivery. 

It will be noticed that in both the omnibuses the drivers' 
seats are efficiently protected at the front and overhead, thus 
admitting of comparative comfort to those in charge during in- 
clement weather. Aluminium enters largely into the construction 
of the bodies, and the wheels are of the artillery pattern, fitted 
with 3-in. solid rubber tyres. The entire driving mechanisms are 
carried upon the main frames of the vehicles, which frames are 
supported by semi-elliptic side springs located at the front and 
rear. Two brakes, worked by pedal levers, are fitted to each 
vehicle, operating directly on the hind wheels. These brakes are 
of the shoe type, bearing against the inner surface of rings fixed to 
the wheel spokes, and of the double-acting band pattern with the 
brake drums secured to the chain wheels, the shoe and band 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 87 

brakes on each vehicle being interconnected by means of steel 
wire ropes, so as to equalize the pressure. The steering gears are 
of the Ackermann type, and operated by means of hand wheels, 
although in some instances the smaller omnibus is fitted with a 
lever, so arranged that it can be turned up out of the driver's way 
when not in use. 

Referring to the smaller car shown in Fig. 15, the side windows 
are so constructed that the upper halves can, if desired, be folded 
down, and the two front windows can be opened so as to allow 
the passengers to hold communication with the driver or other 
persons on the front seat. 

As the construction of the mechanisms in these vehicles is 
practically the same, the following description of the smaller 
omnibus will serve for both. The boiler is of the vertical fire- 
tube type, fitted with solid drawn steel tubes. It is located at the 
front of the vehicle, and the flue, which is oval in cross section, is 
taken up centrally through the roof, its largest diameter being 
placed lengthways of the vehicle so as to obstruct the view in front 
as little as possible. Curved glass windows are provided on each 
side of the flue, as shown, which windows are capable of being 
opened when desired. The heating is effected by a Clarkson 
burner, which, as has been already noticed, is capable of using 
several grades of ordinary paraffin oil, automatic regulation being 
effected by the pressure of steam in the boiler. At the rear of the 
vehicle underneath the frame is provided an oil reservoir, fitted 
with a gauge, by means of which the level of the oil can be 
ascertained at any time. From the oil reservoir the oil for con- 
sumption is forced by means of a small pump into a receiver 
placed at the front end of the vehicle, which receiver contains an 
air cushion serving as a storage of energy both to ensure an even 
and uninterrupted supply of oil to the burner when running, and 
also to provide means for feeding the oil thereto when the vehicle 
is at rest, and the engine shut down. A relief valve is provided in 
the oil delivery pipe, which is arranged to open when the desired 
pressure is obtained, returning the surplus oil to the suction side 
of the pump. For automatically regulating the burner, a small 
spring-loaded plunger, actuated by the steam pressure in the boiler, 
is provided. This device is so set that the supply of fuel will be 
cut down to the lowest point when the boiler pressure is at the 
normal working one, whilst the supply of fuel, on the other hand, 



88 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

will be at its highest when the pressure in the boiler falls below 
a certain predetermined pressure per square inch. For the pre- 
liminary heating of the main burner, when starting, an auxiliary 
burner using the same fuel is provided beneath the front footboard. 
The feed water for the boiler is stored in two elongated reservoirs 
located under the seats in the main part of the body of the 
vehicle, and projecting towards the front beneath the driver's seat. 
These reservoirs have each a capacity of 17 gallons, and a com- 
bined capacity of 34 gallons, which, as already mentioned, is a 
sufficient supply of water for a run of 120 miles, and the driver 
can ascertain the amount of water present at any time by the 
inspection of a gauge glass placed on the board in front of his 
seat, which is termed by the makers, and not inappropriately, the 
" dial board." 

The steam engine comprises two double-acting cylinders, and 
is mounted centrally under the floor of the vehicle, the cylinders 
projecting to the rear, and the crank chamber, which also contains 
the differential gear and a transverse countershaft mounted on 
four double ball bearings, being completely enclosed, or cased in. 
" Joy " valve gear is used to operate the slide valves, which latter 
are placed beneath the engine cylinders. A steel spur wheel 
placed between the two cranks transmits the power to a phosphor- 
bronze wheel that surrounds the differential gear. The above- 
mentioned countershaft drives four pumps, viz. a feed-water pump 
for the boiler, a pump circulating the lubricating oil for the 
working parts of the engine and gearing, a pump returning the 
water of condensation from the condenser back to the main water 
reservoirs, and, lastly, the pump forcing the paraffin from the oil 
reservoir to the pressure receiver. On each extremity of the 
countershaft are fixed chain wheels which are geared, through long 
side chains of the roller pattern, with the rear driving wheels of 
the vehicle. The usual swinging distance rods and means for 
tightening the driving chains are also provided. 

Each of the cylinders of the engine has a separate exhaust 
pipe, these pipes passing along on each side of the vehicle, and 
conducting the exhaust steam through feed-water heaters to the 
condenser, situated in front of the bonnet, the first portion of 
which condenser consists of two tubes, U-shaped in plan, placed 
one above the other and connected by vertical tubes, in which 
a small portion of the steam is partially condensed, the remainder 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 89 

being delivered from the apex or bend of the uppermost U-shaped 
tube to a large curved flat condenser box or casing, which is 
carried in front of the vehicle. In this latter tube the bulk of the 
exhaust steam is condensed, and the resultant water is delivered 
into a receiver situated below, into which the water of condensation 
from the U-shaped tubes is also delivered through a suitable pipe. 
From this receiver the water is drawn by the pump driven from 
the countershaft, and is delivered thereby to duplicate filters, and 
thence into the water reservoir. The greater portion of the oil 
carried over with the steam is removed from the water in the 
above-mentioned filters, and what remains is taken up in a sponge 
box or filter in the water reservoir, which sponge filter box is so 
arranged that the sponges can be readily got at when desired, and 
the covers of the various reservoirs are likewise so constructed as 
to afford ready access. The several steam pipes are of weldless 
steel, and the ends are spun over so as to admit of good sound 
face joints being made. 

The speed of the vehicle is chiefly controlled by manipulating 
the throttle valve, which operation can be effected by means of a 
large mahogany-rimmed wheel which extends from the dial board 
in such a position as to be directly in front of the driver. On the 
dial board are also placed the water gauge, which has been already 
mentioned, and which is located close to the throttle-valve wheel, 
a pressure gauge mounted at or near the centre of the board, and 
an oil reservoir for cylinder oil having connected therewith two 
small force pumps, which can be operated by the driver through 
a projecting handle, so as to force a few drops of oil into the 
cylinders against the upper parts of the pistons (about every five 
miles being found to be sufficient when running), and, owing to 
the slide valves being placed beneath the cylinders, this oil also 
serves to lubricate the former. Owing to the slide valves being 
placed in this position, moreover, any water that may result from 
the condensation of steam in the cylinders when the engine is 
shut down readily drains out of same into the exhaust pipe on 
again starting. 

For operating the reversing gear and admitting of the driver 
varying the cut-off of the slide valve with relation to its travel in 
a forward direction, a lever is provided at the right-hand side of 
the driver, in connection with which is a quadrant having several 
" ahead " notches, a neutral notch, and a reversing notch. 



90 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

For feeding the boiler and supplying the burner with fuel when 
the vehicle is at rest and the engine shut down, and for obtaining 
the necessary pressure in the pressure receiver when first starting, 
two hand pumps are provided, either of which can be operated by 
a lever extending up vertically through the floor on the left-hand 
side behind the dial board. 

The details of construction of the driving mechanism are shown 
in Figs. 17 to 28. In Figs. 17 and 18 a indicates the rectangular 




Fig. 17. Clarkson steam omnibus. Plan of frame and driving 
mechanism. 



main framing made of channel steel ; b is the multi-tubular boiler 
or steam generator, which is secured as shown to the front part 
of the rectangular frame a ; c is the liquid fuel burner, which is 
mounted directly under the boiler b ; d is the lamp for the initial 
heating of the vaporizing coil of the burner, which lamp can be 
readily got at under the floor of the driver's seat ; e is the oval 
boiler flue projecting vertically from the bonnet ; f is the main 
oil reservoir located at the rear of the frame a ; g is the pressure 
receiver into which the oil is pumped from the main oil reservoir/, 
either by the mechanically operated pump or by the hand pump g l 
worked by the lever 2 , which also works the auxiliary boiler 
feed pump, and which pressure receiver is placed at the rear of 
the boiler b. The pressure receiver g is strongly made, and so 
constructed that there will be a lodgment or cushion of air in the 
top of the chamber, the oil being forced into it from the bottom, 
and the compressed air in this space providing a sufficient store 
of energy to feed the requisite supply of oil to the burner when 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 91 

the vehicle is at rest and the engine shut down, as well as forming, 
as already mentioned, a cushion, and tending to equalize the 
pressure when running. Means are likewise provided for renewing 
the supply of air, and two try-cocks, by means of which the driver 
can ascertain the level of the oil when desired, project from the 
dial board with a cup for catching any oil discharged therefrom, 
and delivering same by means of a pipe to the preliminary heating 
lamp d. From the pressure receiver g the oil passes directly 
to the liquid fuel burner c, through a stop-cock, mounted on 




Fig. 18. Clarkson steam omnibus. Side elevation of frame and 
driving mechanism. 

the dial board directly in front of the driver, h is an automatic 
regulating device which operates to lower the flame when the steam 
pressure in the boiler b rises to a certain predetermined point, and 
to raise the flame to its maximum strength when the pressure 
again becomes lowered. 

The water for feeding the boiler b is stored in the two con- 
nected water reservoirs /, which are mounted upon each side of 
the frame a, and lengthways thereof, so that in the finished vehicle 
they are situated beneath the seats at each side of the body, and 
the ends project underneath the driver's seat in front. Large- 
sized covers, i 1 , are provided so as to admit of easy access being 
had to the interior of the reservoirs for cleansing and other pur- 
poses, and a funnel-shaped filler fitted with a wire gauze strainer 
enables the filling of the reservoirs to be effected. The feed 
water from the water reservoirs i is passed through two feed-water 
heaters,/, before being delivered into the boiler b. 

k is the horizontal two-cylinder double-acting high-pressure 
engine, which is secured underneath the frame a. The cylinders 



92 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

are bolted to box castings, enclosing the stuffing boxes and glands, 
which box castings are in turn secured to an enclosed crank box 
or chamber, #, which latter, as well as the crank shaft bearings, 
are bolted to a casing, /, enclosing the differential gearing and the 
transverse countershaft, mentioned in the short preliminary general 
description, and on which countershaft are four eccentrics for 
working the feed water, lubricating oil circulating, condensed water, 
and liquid fuel, pumps, m is a small oil receiver which is fixed 
below the casing /, and into which passes the lubricating oil from 
the bearings. 

n are the exhaust pipes which deliver the exhaust steam from 
the engine k to the feed- water heaters/, which latter are externally 
wound with spiral coils of wire to help by air cooling in the re- 
duction of the temperature of the exhaust steam before its delivery 
into the flat curved condenser 0, through the U-shaped pipe p, 
and connecting pipe ^, which pipe p forms practically the top of 
the condenser, assisting to a certain extent in the condensation 
of the exhaust steam, and being connected by the vertical wire- 
covered pipes ?-, with a similar shaped pipe, s, situated below. 
The greater portion of the exhaust steam passes along the upper 
U-shaped pipe p, which is the direct course to the curved portion 
o of the condenser, but a certain amount thereof also descends 
the vertical wire-covered tubes r to the pipe j, and is condensed 
therein. The curved portion o of the condenser is fitted with a 
number of transverse tubes, and the water resulting from con- 
densation in this portion of the condenser, as well as that from 
the U-shaped portions thereof and vertical tubes, is delivered by 
gravity into a collecting drum, /, located at the bottom of the 
condenser, any of the exhaust steam remaining uncondensed 
being passed into the boiler flue and escaping therefrom into 
the atmosphere, as invisible vapour. From the collecting drum / 
the water of condensation is passed through the filters ?/, and 
the sponge filter box by which any oil carried over from the 
cylinders is removed, into the water reservoir i situated on the 
right-hand side. This sponge filter box consists of an open-ended 
cylinder, arranged vertically inside a second and larger cylinder 
closed at the lower end, but provided with perforations near its 
upper and open extremity. 

v is the reversing lever which is connected with the valve gear 
through a set of levers and a rocking shaft mounted transversely 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



93 



below the engine crank box or chamber, so that when rocked 
on its pivots it will operate to move the reversing gear in the 
one or the other direction. On the reversing lever v is provided 
a notched quadrant, w, and a catch or detent not shown in the 
drawing, but which is pivoted to the body of the vehicle is 
arranged to engage with any one of these notches so as to hold 
the lever firmly in any desired position. This arrangement allows 




Fig. 19. Clarkson steam omnibus. Horizontal section of multitubular 

boiler. 

the driver to vary the cut-off of the engine when running in a 
forward direction, and to reverse the direction of motion. 

oc are the shoe brakes, and y are the band brakes, the former 
being connected with the operating pedal z, and the latter with 
the pedal z l , both of which project from the floor in convenient 
positions in front of the seat of the driver. As before mentioned, 
the shoe brakes bear against the inner faces of rings, x, fixed to 
the rear wheels, whilst the band brakes work on drums secured 



94 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



to the chain wheels, and each pair of brakes is so constructed, 
moreover, that there will be a compensating action on each wheel. 
The arrangement of brakes is such that they will operate just 
the same were either of the driving chains to break or come off, 
and, in addition to these brakes, the engine itself can be used as a 
brake by closing the throttle valve and reversing the lever, so as 




Fig. 20.- Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical central section of 
multitubular boiler. 

to cause it to act as a pump, and thus to arrest the motion of the 
vehicle. The steering wheel is mounted on a vertical shaft 
journalled to rotate in a suitable sleeve or bracket, and connected 
in the well-known manner to the heads of the front or steering 
wheels. 

The construction of the boiler b is shown in Figs. 19 and 20, 
drawn to an enlarged scale. The shell is cylindrical, and, as will 
be seen from Fig. 20, is formed in one piece with the top plate, 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



95 



the circular bottom plate l being flanged and riveted to the 
shell. The tubes # 2 , which are of small diameter, and of which 
there are a large number, are expanded into the upper and lower 
plates of the boiler. The shell and bottom plate b, P are of 
steel, and the tubes & are weldless steel. The boiler is fitted 
with twin safety valves, and has also all the other fittings generally 
provided. 

The construction of the engine k and differential gearing is 
shown in Figs. 21, 22, and 23, which views are also drawn to an 
enlarged scale. As will be seen from Fig. 21, the cylinders k are 




Fig. 21. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal central section 
through one of the cylinder and crank chambers of engine. 

secured to intermediate castings, *, which latter are, in turn, 
connected with the crank chamber k 1 by means of the long bolts 
2 , &-*, which pass through the crank chamber k 1 and the cover k* 
of the latter. The intermediate castings k* form chambers en- 
closing the stuffing boxes and glands of the piston rods, and 
extensions, 4 , formed integral with the castings *, project into 
the crank chamber k 1 and serve as guides for the crossheads 5 . 
The slide valves k* are, as has been already mentioned, operated 
by valve gearing of the Joy radial type, k 1 are brackets secured 
to the upper bolts 2 , and to which are fulcrumed the swinging 
levers > 8 , coupled at their other extremities to the links / 9 , 
which latter are pivoted at their other, or lower, ends to the 



9 6 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



piston connecting rods 10 . k u are double links, pivoted, as 
shown, to the links /& 9 , and coupled at their lower extremities to 
the slide valve connecting rods / 12 . > 13 are blocks mounted 
to slide freely between guides, u , pivotally supported by means 
of hollow trunnions journalled in suitable bearings secured to the 
lower bolts 2 *. 

The slide blocks are connected near their lower ends with 
the double links k 11 through pins on the latter, which fit into 
holes provided in the former, and by which means it will be seen 




Fig. 22. Clarkson steam omnibus. Transverse section of crank 
chamber, showing crank shaft and valve gear. 

that whilst the slide valve connecting rods k 12 are operated by 
the piston connecting rods (- 10 ) at the same time, the manner in 
which this is effected, and, consequently, the direction in which 
the engine rotates, is governed by the position to which the 
guides u are adjusted on their pivots by the rocking shaft z' 1 , 
which is located beneath the crank chamber & l t and is con- 
nected with arms or projections, 15 , on the guides / 14 , through 
the crank arms or levers ^ 2 , and links ^ 3 , the rocking shaft z> 1 
being, as has been already mentioned, coupled through an 
arrangement of levers and connecting rods with the reversing 
lever v (see Figs. 17 and 18), located at the right-hand side 
of the vehicle. In this manner the throw of the slide valve can 



HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



97 



be altered, and the direction of motion of the engine can be 

reversed, and the amount of cut-off can likewise be varied by 

operating the reversing lever v, and 

locking it in the desired position by 

means of the notched quadrant a/, 

and catch or detent on the side of 

the vehicle. 

The crank shaft is formed with 
two overhanging cranks, ^ 16 , set at 
an angle of 90 to each ' other, and 
supported in bearings, ^ l7 , provided 
in the casing k l . k l * is a steel toothed 
driving wheel, which is fixed centrally 
upon the crank shaft, and which gears 
or meshes with a phosphor bronze 
toothed ring, /*, of double the dia- 
meter, surrounding the differential 
gearing / 2 , which is enclosed in a 
casing, /, formed in two parts, divided 
centrally and vertically. As will be 
seen from Fig. 23, the differential 
gearing / 2 and its countershaft / 3 is 
enclosed in the casing /, and the 
former consists of a train of toothed 
wheels, the large phosphor bronze 
toothed ring /\ by which it is driven 
from the steel toothed driving wheel 
18 on the engine crankshaft, being 
bolted in the manner shown between 
the two parts of the casing / 4 sur- 
rounding the train of toothed wheels 
r-. The casing / is provided with 
four double ball bearings, / 5 , fitted 
with j-inch balls, supporting the 
countershaft / 3 , and the casing / is 
secured by bolts at each extremity to 
the main frame a of the vehicle, one 
end of each of the side driving-chain tightening rods being likewise 
secured to the casing a as shown at / 6 . 

/ 7 are eccentric blocks fixed on the two halves of the counter- 




Fig. 23. Clarkson steam 
omnibus. Horizontal longi- 
tudinal section showing 1 
differential gear and coun- 
tershaft. 



9 8 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



shaft / 3 , which blocks serve to operate the four feed pumps, two 
of which are located at each side of the vehicle, and the chain 
wheels are mounted on the outer ends of the countershaft, motion 
being communicated therefrom to the rear wheel axle by roller 
chains meshing with chain wheels on this axle, in the usual 
manner. The feed pumps driven by the eccentrics on the 
countershaft / 3 are mounted vertically beneath it on the casing /. 

These four pumps, the construc- 
tion of which is clearly shown in 
the sectional view, Fig. 24, serve, 
one for feeding the boiler with 
water from the main reservoirs *, 
(Figs. 17 and 18), the second 
for returning the water resulting 
from the condensation of the 
steam from the drum or hot 
well / to the main reservoirs i ; 
the third for pumping the liquid 
fuel from the main liquid fuel 
reservoir / to the pressure re- 
ceiver g; and the fourth for 
forcing the lubricating oil from 
the reservoir m located be- 
neath the differential gear to 
the various moving parts of the 

engine and countershaft, from 
Fig. 24. Clarkson steam omm- . . . . 

bus. Vertical central section whlch lt a ? am P asses mto the 
of mechanically driven force above-mentioned reservoir. The 
pump. first two of these pumps have 

strokes of one inch, whilst the 

two latter have half-inch strokes ; otherwise they are identical in 
construction. 

There are also provided, as already mentioned, two other 
pumps adapted to be operated by hand, one of which is intended 
for forcing liquid fuel from the main reservoir f into the 
pressure receiver g t and the other for supplying feed water to 
the boiler when the engine is shut down. These pumps are 
shown at g l (Figs. 17 and 18), and are operated by a hand 
lever, g*, which projects from the floor on the left-hand side of 
the vehicle, and is connected by a series of levers, as more clearly 




HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



99 



shown in Fig. 18, with the common piston rod, the two pumps 
being arranged in line and facing each other. 

Fig. 25 shows the general construction of the Clarkson burner. 
The supply of air is regulated in this burner by altering the 
amount of the opening of a rotary perforated disc, tr 1 , mounted 
in connection with a fixed disc provided with air inlet holes or 
apertures, the whole of this device being practically identical in 
construction with an ordinary form of hit-and-miss ventilator. 
The air admitted through the disc c l mixes thoroughly in the 




Fig. 25. Clarkson steam omnibus. Vertical longitudinal section of 

burner. 

mixing chamber c 1 , with the oil vaporized in the coil <: 3 , round 
which the flame from the burner circulates, the vapour entering 
the mixing chamber c* through an aperture, ^ 4 , in the nozzle c 5 , 
which aperture is governed by a small needle valve, ^. This 
needle valve, c*, is so connected with the lid or cap c, forming 
a larger valve at the burner, through a suitable system of levers, c 8 , 
that the outflow of the combined mixture of oil and air will be 
correspondingly regulated by the automatic oil or fuel regulating 
device //, shown in Figs. 26 to 28. The top of the lid or cap c 1 
is fitted with a head, c 9 , of refractory material, and the flame 
from the burner is baffled on the inside of a hollow cone con- 
structed of nickel. The vaporizing coil c 3 is made from steel 
tubing, and is wound round with nickel wire in order to prevent, 
as far as possible, the oxidization of the steel. 



IOO 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 




The lamp d (Figs. 17 and 18), for starting the burner by 
effecting the necessary amount of preliminary heating, consists of 
a casting containing a wick made of asbestos, and it is so 
arranged that the flame therefrom will impinge upon one end of 
the vaporizing coil 3 . The requisite charge of oil, measured 
in the manner previously described, is absorbed by the wick, and 
the lighting can be effected without trouble by dropping a lighted 
match through a small aperture at the top in the floor of the 
vehicle under the driver's seat, which aperture is normally closed 
by a suitable door or cover. The burning of the lamp d is then 
accelerated by a forced draught produced by means of a fan 

driven by clockwork mechanism, 
which concentrates a blow-pipe 
flame upon the vaporizing coil <?. 
The clockwork fan is located 
beside the starting lamp d under- 
neath the floor, and the fan runs 
for a sufficient length of time to 
effect the heating of the vaporizer. 
The winding up of the clockwork 
mechanism for driving the fan 
only occupies a few seconds. 

Figs. 26, 27, and 28, drawn 
to a greatly enlarged scale, show 

clearly the construction of the device h for automatically 
regulating the supply of oil to the burner. This automatic oil 
regulator comprises two heads, 7/ 1 , secured to each other by two 
long bolts 7z 2 , and the lowermost head having a cylindrical 
extension, 7z 3 , in which is adapted to work a plunger, J. This 
plunger, 7/t 4 , is acted upon by a taper piece, /i 5 , having a rod or 
stem, yfc 6 , passing through a hole provided in the upper head 7* 1 , 
and its free end is secured by means of a four-armed nut, and 
locking nuts, as shown, to a cross piece, 7* 7 , connected to the 
short arms of bell-crank, levers A 9 , fulcrumed at 7* 9 to the top 
head h l . The plunger Jfi is retained in its normal position at 
the bottom of the cylinder by means of the powerful helical 
spring ^ 10 , the exact relation of its position with regard to the 
bottom of the cylinder A 3 and the bell-crank levers 7z 8 being 
regulable by means of the above-mentioned nuts. The long 
arms of the bell-crank levers h % are connected to the device 



Fig. 26. Clarkson steam omni- 
bus. Plan view of automatic 
burner regulating device. 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



101 



which operates to regulate the supply of oil and air to the 
burner. 

To the bottom inlet /i n in the cylinder /r 5 is connected a 
steam pipe from the boiler b, and as the steam pressure in the 
latter rises it will force the plunger fr upwards against the helical 
spring /* 10 , compressing the latter, and through its rod or stem, 
/i*, acting on the bell-crank levers h* to move them about the 
fulcrum h g and to operate the closing of the device, so as to cut 



J ^e 





Fig. 27. Clarkson 
steam omnibus. Ele- 
vation of automatic 
burner regulating de- 
vice. 



Fig. 28. Clarkson steam 
omnibus. Vertical central 
section of automatic burner 
regulating device. 



off the supply of fuel and air from the burner c. On the other 
hand, a reduction of the steam pressure in the boiler b will allow 
the helical spring 7; 10 to reassert itself, and to force the plunger 
// 4 back to its normal position in the cylinder ^ 3 , turning the 
bell-crank levers h* in the reverse direction about the fulcrum 
// 9 , and again opening the device so as to allow the full supply 
of oil to pass to the burner c. The pressure found to be most 
suitable for the fuel feed is one of about 40 Ibs. per square inch, 
and this comparatively high degree of pressure, combined with 
the special arrangements used for throttling, prevent any surging 



io2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

from taking place, and ensure the production of an even flame. 
Important features in the liquid fuel apparatus are the means for 
regulating the amount of heat generated by the main burner, by 
varying, in the same proportion, and also, at precisely the same 
time, the quantities both of the oil and the air that are admitted 
to the burner. In the above-described manner the heat generated 
by the burner can be regulated through a very considerable range, 
the lowest being calculated to be sufficient to maintain the steam 
at working pressure. An advantage of this arrangement is that 
the safety valve does not blow off when the vehicle is at rest, 
except on rare occasions when, owing to very rapid steaming, 
the boiler, etc., have become raised to a very high temperature, 
and although when the vehicle is kept at rest the automatic 
regulating device will come into operation, there is no fear of 
the flame being extinguished by its action. The draught is 
natural, no arrangements for forcing being provided or required, 
and both the uptake and the chimney provide a practically vertical 
path for the escape of the waste products of combustion into the 
atmosphere. 

The time occupied in getting up steam from cold water is 
about 1 2 minutes, and in order to ensure a supply of dry steam, 
which is especially desirable in the case of a mechanically pro- 
pelled vehicle, the steam from the boiler is passed through an 
M-shaped superheater of the gridiron type, located just above the 
liquid fuel burner c, before reaching the throttle valve of the 
engine. Under normal conditions the power and speed of 
the engine can be satisfactorily regulated by adjustments of the 
throttle valve, the cut-off being set at about one-half stroke. 
When mounting unusually steep gradients, however, the cut-off 
should be varied, which can be done in a forward direction to 
anything between nothing and three-quarter stroke. 

The thermostatic device employed for automatically regulating 
the supply of feed-water to the boiler is dependent for its opera- 
tion on the difference in temperature between the feed-water and 
the steam in the boiler. The construction of the apparatus is 
such that when the water-level in the boiler rises above a pre- 
determined point the device becomes surrounded with water 
instead of steam, as is normally the case when the device is 
operating to permit the feed-water to pass into the boiler, and 
owing to the fall in temperature thus produced, the apparatus 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



103 



operates to open a bye-pass between the delivery and suction 
pipes of the feed pump, so that the water, or the greater part of 
it, circulates back to the pump instead of passing into the boiler. 
When, on the contrary, the water level in the boiler falls below a 
certain predetermined level the device again becomes surrounded 
with steam, and, owing to the temperature rising in consequence, 
the apparatus operates to close the above-mentioned bye-pass and 
allow the feed-pump to operate in the usual manner to feed the 
boiler. 



Thornycroft Steam Omnibuses 

The Thornycroft Steam Waggon Co., Ltd., of Chiswick and 
Basingstoke, which is an off-shoot of the well-known Chiswick firm 
of torpedo-boat builders, are makers of several different types of 




Fig. 29. Thornycroft 14-seated steam omnibus. 

steam omnibuses, and they have already established a high reputa- 
tion both for these as well as for their heavy freight vehicles. 

Fig. 29 is a diagrammatical view illustrating in side elevation 
a steam omnibus adapted to accommodate fourteen passengers 
inside, besides the driver in front, and about 10 cwts. of luggage 
on the roof. The speed of this vehicle is from 10 to 12 miles 
an hour. 

The firm also build a double-decked type of omnibus to carry 
12 passengers inside and 24 outside, with a speed of 7 or 8 miles 
an hour, and closed and open steam omnibuses, char-a-banc 



104 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



type, and mounted on bogie carriages, each adapted to carry 
30 passengers, the general appearance and arrangement of both 
of which latter vehicles are shown respectively in Figs. 30 
and 31. 

Steam omnibuses have been supplied by the Thornycroft 




Fig. 30. Thornycroft 30-seated steam omnibus, closed char-a-banc type. 

Steam Waggon Co., Ltd., amongst a number of customers, to the 
Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, and, in spite of the bad 
condition of the roads in the district where they are in use, are 
said to give great satisfaction. 

The following is a general description of the Thornycroft 




Fig. 31. Thornycroft 30-seated steam omnibus, open char-a-banc type. 

steam omnibuses (Figs. 32 to 36 showing the principal details of 
construction). The framework a is of the best channel section 
steel, and is strongly tied and braced. The wheels b, the details 
of construction of which are shown in Figs. 32 and 33, are of the 
artillery type, with metal naves (c) t oak spokes (d) t ash felloes (<?), 
and steel tyres (/), the latter being pressed on by hydraulic 
machinery so as to .avoid .the charring of the felloes, that would 



HEA VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



105 



otherwise inevitably result from the process of shrinking on of 
tyres of such size and thickness as have to be employed on these 
wheels. 

The engine (A, Fig. 34) is of the two-cylinder compound type, 
cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 5 ins. stroke, the cylinders 
and valve chambers being made of two iron castings. It has a 
constant lead, radial valve gear whereby any degree of linking up 
can be obtained, and single eccentric reversing gear, both of 




Fig. 32. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel. 

special design. The whole is enclosed, the crank shaft and valve 
gear in a dust-proof and oil-tight box or casing (B), and the 
crossheads in cast-iron sleeves, bolted to the cylinders and crank 
box or casing respectively, which latter, being partially filled with 
oil, provides for the efficient lubrication of the working parts by 
the splash method. The crank box or casing is provided with 
an easily removable door to facilitate examination and adjustment 
of the parts when necessary. At normal speed the engine gives 
about 25 brake horse-power. 

The transmission gearing is of the chainless pattern. The one 
or other of two pinions, C, D, fixed on the engine crank-shaft 
mesh with corresponding toothed wheels, E, F, mounted on the 
first motion countershaft G. This countershaft, G, is constructed 
in three separate parts, the central portion thereof being 



io6 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



connected with the first and third portions by enclosed types of 

universal couplings. By means of this arrangement the vertical 
motion of the bearing springs of the vehicle 
is taken up, and a constant driving effort is 
transmitted to the wheels without regard to 
the road surface, or to the amount of load, 
a free motion of 7 ins. being permitted 
between the waggon frame and the driving 
axle without in the least disturbing the 
steady continuity of turning effort, and 
without any possibility of jump in the gear- 
ing. On one portion of the countershaft G 
are mounted the' two change-speed gears, 
E and F above mentioned, and the other 
portion carries a double helical cast-steel 
pinion, H, which meshes with a helical 
steel-toothed wheel on the differential gear 
J, which is mounted on the rear axle K. 

Fig- 33- Thornycroft The ends of the countershaft G carrying 

steam omnibus. Part ,1 j , , , ,. , . . TT 

vertical section of the double helical P imon H are su PP orte d 

w heel. by two triangular-shaped brackets, mounted 

on the rear axle K, and a radius rod jointed 

to the under frame of the omnibus, so as to admit of the bearing 





Fig- 34. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Underside view of 
transmission gear. 

springs of the vehicle having their full amount of play, is provided, 
in order to prevent the brackets from rotating round the axle. 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



107 



The rear wheels of the vehicle are driven through the plate 
springs g, which are secured to the felloes, as shown in Fig. 33, 
thus removing the strain of the driving effort from the spokes. 

The boiler L for generating the necessary supply of steam, 
is of the well-known Thornycroft central-fired water-tube type, in 
which either coal or coke is used as fuel. This boiler is shown in 
Figs. 35 and 36, drawn to an enlarged scale, and consists of two 
annular-shaped chambers or casings, a 1 and *, connected by a 
series of straight steel tubes, ^, usually numbering 168, and - in. 




Fig. 35. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Plan view of boiler. 

diameter, arranged at a slight angle so as to form a tapered hollow 
cone. The uppermost chamber or casing, a 1 , comprises two 
separate rings formed of -f^-in. steel, as shown in Fig. 36, which 
are riveted to an annular steel channel-shaped piece, -J- in. in 
thickness. The lower chamber or casing P is built up of three 
pieces ; that is to say, of one tube plate -f in. thick, and two rings 
-fs in. thick. The covers of both the chambers or casings a 1 
and P are of steel, and that of the uppermost chamber a 1 is 
secured in position by bolts, whilst that of the lowermost one b l 
is secured by studs, d 1 is the uptake or funnel ; ^ is an 



io8 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

aperture in the upper .annular casing for the introduction of fuel 
into the furnace or combustion chamber f l , and g l is the ashpan 
or ashpit. The connecting tubes c l between the two chambers 
a 1 and b l are 35 inches in length, and they have a mean inclina- 
tion of Yg in. to a foot. 

The boiler is tested up to 350 Ibs. per square inch, and is 
intended to work at a pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch. The 
smaller size of boiler has a heating surface of 77 sq. ft., and a 
grate area of 2*4 sq. ft., the total weight being 1375 cwts. 

The steering of the omnibus is on the Ackermann principle, 
as shown in Fig. 34, a hand wheel operating through worm gearing 
being provided for turning the front wheels. 

The Liquid Fuel Engineering Company Steam 
Omnibuses 

The above firm, whose works are at East Cowes, Isle of Wight, 
build both large and small omnibuses, which, as well as their 
heavy vehicles, are known by the peculiar name of " Lifu " 
vehicles. The frames of the vehicles are made of light channel 
steel, and the front and rear axles are connected by tubular 
stay rods. The engine is secured centrally to the frame, which 
also carries the transmission gear, enclosed in an oil-tight casing, 
motion being transmitted by means of a spindle located in a tube 
on a sleeve carrying a bevil pinion at its extremity, which pinion 
also runs in an oil-tight casing, and drives a countershaft, the 
pinion gearing, with another pinion, forming part of the differential 
gear. The latter drives a spindle in two parts, each part of which 
carries at its outer end a toothed wheel or pinion, the teeth of 
which are angled to correspond with those of internally toothed 
rings secured to the spokes of the dished driving wheels by means 
of clip bolts. The vertical movement of the differential gear 
spindle is provided for by means of an arrangement of sliding or 
telescopic transmission shaft. 

The engine is of the compound horizontal reversing link type, 
the cylinders being respectively of 3 ins. and 6 ins. in diameter, 
by 5 ins. stroke. The glands are situated within distance pieces 
or castings between the cylinders and the guide bars, and in 
addition to the usual stuffing boxes and glands on the cylinders to 
prevent the escape of steam, there are also others at the end of 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



109 



the above-mentioned castings to prevent any water due to con- 
densed steam from gaining access to the crank box or casing. The 




Pig. 36. Thornycroft steam omnibus. Vertical central section of 

boiler. 

valves are of the piston type, and are operated by dog links. 
There are two boiler-feed pumps, one of which is driven by an 



no 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



eccentric on the external extremity of a spindle driven by gear 
wheels, and a forked connecting rod, secured to a crosshead 
behind the pump ; and the other being an independent steam 
pump located below the footplate, for use when the engine is at 
rest. Between the cylinders is a receiver, at the high-pressure 
end of which is a connection for admitting live steam from the 
boiler to the low-pressure cylinder when necessary. 

The boiler is located centrally at the front of the vehicle, and 
is of the water-tube type, the extremities of the tubes being con- 
nected to a central drum or cylindrical vessel, and to a circular 
trunk tube, by gun-metal unions. On the top of the central 

drum or cylindrical vessel is a 
small steam dome, which in- 
creases the steam space in 
the former. The drum or 
cylindrical vessel is formed of 
copper, and its external dia- 
meter is 14^ ins., the length 
being 30 ins. It is secured 
to a hollow bridge on the 
lower circular trunk tube by a 
screwed joint, the trunk tube 
and bridge being of gun metal 
and formed in one piece. The 
water tubes connecting the 
central drum and the lower 
trunk tube are ^ in. internal 

diameter. A flange or rib is cast round the trunk ring or tube, 
upon which is supported a light iron casing lined with asbestos 
sheeting. In order to provide for access to the burner for lighting 
and cleaning purposes, a portion of the trunk ring or tube can 
be raised. Below the boiler is an armed casting, which carries 
the burner and coned and annular partly coned plates. The 
water tubes rise vertically from the lower circular trunk for some 
nine inches, after which they are given spiral bends in alternate 
directions to the central drum. The water gauge is mounted on 
a trunk pipe to the upper part of which is connected the steam 
pressure gauge. The feed-water pipe has two check valves, which 
are readily accessible. 

The burner and vaporizer is shown in Figs. 37 and 38 in 




37- The Liquid Fuel Company 
steam omnibus. Vertical section 
of burner. 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES in 

vertical and horizontal sections, the vaporizer being of cast iron, 
and the construction readily understandable from the drawings. 
Oil entering the vaporizer a through the oil inlet a 1 is forced to 
take a circuitous path backwards and forwards and then down- 
wards through the passages a? and pipe b to the burner b l t the 
pressure in the oil tank being sufficient to cause the central valve c 
and its pointed spindle to rise when only a small flame is required. 
When, however, a more powerful flame is necessary, an increased 
pressure is applied, in which case not only the above valve, but 
also the larger one d at the bottom of the burner is raised, and a 
large and powerful flame is produced, which impinges against and 
envelops the flat cheese-shaped vaporizer, maintaining both this 
and the igniter e at a high 
temperature, and completely 
rilling the interior of the 
fire-box. 

The igniter e is a hollow 
casting somewhat of the 
shape of a top, the hollow 
stem or peg of which fits 
into a central hole in the 
vaporizer a, and the interior p . g ^ _ The Uquid ^ Company 
space or chamber within steam omnibus. Horizontal section 
which is partly filled with of burner, 
refractory material, f. The 

use of the igniter e is to store up sufficient heat to re-ignite the 
vapour from the burner, should a strong gust of wind from the 
exterior, or the compressed air in the oil supply tank being released 
suddenly, blow out the flame, g are screw plugs which can be 
removed to afford access to the passages a z for cleansing purposes. 
A small air pump, driven from the head of the feed-pump plunger, 
and having an air inlet protected by fine gauze wire, supplies air 
at a pressure of about 15 Ibs. per sq. in. to the oil tanks, and this 
pressure forces the oil through a filter to the vaporizer. The 
supply of oil is regulated by a steam diaphragm which is in 
connection with the steam pressure in the boiler. 

The exhaust steam from the low-pressure cylinder is passed 
through a feed-water heater, after leaving which heater it is 
conducted into a silencer before passing into the uptake and 
thence escaping into the atmosphere. The water resulting from 




ii2 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

condensation of the exhaust steam in the feed-water heater and 
silencer is delivered into the feed-water tank, which is located 
on the right-hand side of the boiler. The crank box or casing is 
formed of bronze, except the front portion and that covering the 
pump, which is of aluminium. The steering is of the Ackermann 
type. 

De Dion and Bouton Steam Omnibuses 

Steam omnibuses built by Messrs, de Dion and Bouton have 
given very satisfactory results in France. As a typical example of 
their system may be taken the steam omnibus that was run by this 
firm in the 1897 trials organized by the Automobile Club of 
France. This vehicle weighs, without passengers, 4 tons 10 cwts., 
and when fully loaded over two-thirds of the weight is carried 
upon the rear wheels. The total length is 21 feet, 6-5 feet being 
taken up by the space occupied by the boiler, coke box, and 
driver's seat, 10*75 f eet being devoted to the accommodation of 
passengers, in the body of the vehicle, and 375 feet being devoted 
to a rear covered platform. The breadth of the vehicle is 6-50 
feet. The omnibus seats sixteen passengers, twelve in the main 
body and four on the rear platform. 

The engine, which weighs, with the gearing and casing, 15-8 
cwts., and develops 24-5 horse-power when running at a speed of 
600 revolutions per minute, is mounted beneath the underframe 
of the vehicle. It is of the horizontal compound type, the cranks 
being at angles of 90 degrees, and the high and low pressure 
cylinders 3*95 ins. in diameter and 7*5 ins. in diameter respec- 
tively, by 67 ins. stroke in both cases. The cut-off in each of 
the cylinders is at three-quarters of the stroke, and, by means of a 
specially designed valve, the full steam pressure can be admitted 
when desired to both cylinders. The cranks are of the disc 
pattern, and are keyed on the extremities of the crank shaft, which 
latter also carries two toothed pinions of different diameters, 
either of which can be brought into gear with correspondingly 
toothed wheels on a countershaft, thereby varying the speed of 
the vehicle from 87 to 12*4 miles per hour. The slide valves, 
which are situated above the cylinders, are operated by eccentrics, 
the sheaves of which are mounted on a shaft geared to the crank 
shaft through a suitable train of toothed wheels. The engine can 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 113 

be reversed by effecting an alteration in the number of toothed 
wheels in this train by means of a hand lever, which operates 
through a link connected to one arm of a bell-crank lever, to bring 
into gear an idle toothed pinion, mounted on a small spindle or 
stud fixed in a double lever pivotally mounted to the frame. The 
counter-shaft, driven by one or other of the toothed pinions on 
the crank shaft, has fixed on it another toothed pinion, which 
meshes with the driving wheel of the differential gear, and the 
rear wheels of the vehicle are driven by the De Dion patent 
system of transmitting power. This system consists briefly of 
coupling boxes on the differential gear shaft, in which boxes are 




Fig- 39. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Sectional elevation 
of transmission gear. 

pivotally mounted, or coupled through Cardan arrangements or 
universal joints of special construction, the extremities of con- 
necting rods or short shafts, which in turn are coupled to short 
driving axles through other Cardan or universal joints, also of 
special construction, which admit of these axles having such an 
angular movement in all directions, as may be imparted by the 
springs supporting the vehicle, whilst the differential gear shaft 
rotatably mounted in its fixed brackets remains unaffected. The 
short driving axles are rotatably mounted in bearings in blocks, and 
sleeves or bushes carrying the wheels, and are rigidly connected 
by a bent axle below, whilst supporting the bearing springs above, 
and the ends of the driving axles have securely fixed to them 



ii4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

centre pieces or driving discs or blocks connected to the rims or 
felloes of the driving wheels of the vehicle through an arrange- 
ment of radial spring arms. 

The Cardan joint, various modifications of which are now in 
common use, was devised, as is well known, by a French geome- 
trician of that name, in the sixteenth century. The modification 




Fig. 40. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Side elevation of wheel. 

designed by the Comte de Dion is of considerably greater strength 
than the usual patterns, and its application, as above described, to 
the axle of the De Dion and Bouton omnibus is shown in Fig. 39, 
in which a is a short axle journalled in two strong brackets, <r, fixed 
to the frame b of the vehicle. This axle, a, carries the differential 
gearing d, having an external toothed wheel or ring, D, to which 
rotary motion is imparted through a toothed wheel or pinion 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 115 

mounted upon the hereinbefore mentioned countershaft; e are the 
connecting rods or short shafts, which are coupled to the short 
driving axles/ by means of the Cardan or universal joints g. The 
manner in which the power, of the engine is transmitted to the 
driving wheels E is more clearly shown in Figs. 40 and 41, which 
represent a side elevation and horizontal central section of one of 
the wheels drawn to a considerably enlarged scale. From Fig. 41, 
it will be seen that the hub or nave h of the wheel E is mounted 
to rotate upon a flanged sleeve or bush, /, which is fixed, and 




Fig. 41. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Horizontal section 

of wheel. 

through which sleeve or bush passes the short driving axle /, 
which is coupled to the rim or felloes / of the wheel outside 
the hub or nave, in the manner shown, by four spring arms, /, 
extending radially from the centre piece or driving disc k secured 
on the projecting extremity of the short driving axle f. In this 
manner the strain of the driving effort is taken off the spokes of 
the wheel, and the latter are only called upon to support the 
weight of the vehicle. 

As a result of the above driving arrangement, the wheels E are 
both independent of each other and of the frame , and they are, 
consequently, free to follow all the inequalities of the road surface 



n6 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

without interfering with the suspension, or affecting in any way 
the transmission of the motive power thereto. 

The front or steering wheels are 31*5 inches in diameter, and 
are fitted with 3'5-in. tyres, and the rear or driving wheels are 
48 ins. in diameter, and fitted with 4-in. tyres. Steering is on 
the Ackermann principle. 

The whole of the gearing and moving parts of the engine are 
enclosed in an oil-tight box or casing, and are arranged to run in 
a bath of oil therein, so as to secure lubrication of the splash 
description, the storage tank or reservoir for the lubricating oil 
being located at the side of the boiler or steam generator. 

The boiler F, which is shown in Fig. 42 in vertical central 
section, has a water jacketed fire box, an outer annular casing, 
and connecting tubes, and it is placed at the front of the vehicle. 
It comprises two rings or annular vessels or casings, a 1 , b l > arranged 
concentrically, the inner one projecting above the outer one, and 
connected, as shown, by a number of inclined steel tubes, c l . 
These two annular vessels or casings a\ l , and the inclined con- 
necting tubes -1 , form the water and steam spaces, and the steam 
from both the inner annular vessel a 1 , and outer annular vessel b l 
is forced by a diaphragm, d l , to pass through the upper connecting 
tubes, whereby it becomes more or less dried or superheated 
before leaving the boiler. The rings or annular vessels or casings 
a 1 and b l are closed at the top and bottom by covers, a, l> 1 *, held 
together by stay bolts, a 2 *, lr*, in the manner shown. 

Fuel, which is usually coke, is introduced into the furnace or 
combustion chamber through the central annular vessel or casing, 
the aperture at the top of which is closed by a suitable lid or 
cover, ^, and the ashes are removed through a door, f l , at the side 
of the ashpit g 1 below. The waste products of combustion escape 
through an uptake or chimney, /i l , communicating with a light 
casing, i\ surrounding the portion of the inner annular vessel or 
casing a 1 that projects above the outer annular vessel or casing *, 
and the pipe f- for carrying steam to the engine is connected to a 
casting, k l t carrying the stop valve k l * and safety valve k^ near the 
top of the steam space in the inner annular vessel or casing a 1 . 

The feed water is normally supplied by a pump driven by an 
eccentric on the rear axle, but an injector is also provided, and 
before entering the boiler the water is heated by being passed 
through a coil, /*, in the ashpit g l . The boiler is fitted with two 




Fig. 42. De Dion and Bouton steam omnibus. Vertical central 
section of boiler. 



n8 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

pressure and water gauges, one of which latter is shown at m l in 
the drawing. 

The grate area is 1*95 sq. ft., and the heating surface about 
62 sq. ft. The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per sq. in., and some 
6 Ibs. of water are evaporated per pound of coke. Steam can be 
raised from cold water in about half an hour. The weight of the 
boiler, empty, is 7-13 cwts., and with fuel and water 9*13 cwts. 
A second coil, n l , is also provided in the ashpit g, 1 in which the 
exhaust steam from the engine is superheated before being dis- 
charged into the chimney or uptake #, so as to escape into the 
atmosphere as invisible vapour. The receptacle, or bunker, for 
fuel is situated round the boiler, and contains about 2*4 cwts. 
The feed-water reservoirs are located beneath the passengers' 
seat in the main compartment, and contain 100 gallons. 

Two pairs of band brakes are provided, one of which acts 
upon the naves of the driving wheels, and the other on drums or 
pulleys keyed on the connecting rods or shafts on the outside of 
the universal joints and next the differential gear. 

At the trial mentioned, the consumption of coke, at an average 
speed of 8-85 miles an hour, was 6-45 Ibs. per mile, or ro8 Ibs. 
per ton-mile, and the water consumption was 40 Ibs. per mile. 



De Dion and Bouton Steam Tractors 

The De Dion and Bouton steam tractors are intended for 
hauling heavy passenger or freight vehicles. The construction is 
shown diagrammatically in plan and in sectional side elevation in 
Figs. 43 and 44, and it will be seen to be practically a small road 
locomotive, which is termed by the makers a steam bogie. 

The frame B is constructed of angle or V-shaped bars, and is 
supported upon the axles through coachsprings ; it is heavy, and 
very strongly built, which is rendered necessary on account of the 
work it is intended to perform. The frame is mounted on four 
wheels, E, the front or steering ones being of considerably smaller 
diameter, and the steering being on the Ackermann principle. 

The engine A is of the compound type, and is located on the 
frame B below the platform, that in the tractor under consideration 
developing 20 horse-power, and having a high-pressure cylinder 
472 ins. in diameter, and a low-pressure cylinder 7-08 ins. in 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



119 



diameter by 5-11 ins. stroke in both cases. There is an inter- 
mediate receiver between the two cylinders, and an automatic 
oiling device ensures the regular lubrication of the moving parts. 



p 







\ 



innrr 



Fig. 43. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional plan. 

When desired, full pressure of steam can be admitted to both 
cylinders, as in the case of the omnibus engine. 

The boiler F is located, as shown on the diagrams, near the 



G 




s 





Fig. 44. De Dion and Bouton steam tractor. Sectional side elevation. 

front of the frame, and is almost entirely surrounded by the fuel 
bunker G. The fire-grate is 13 '4 ins. in diameter, and the inner 
ring or annular casing 6 ins. in diameter. The connecting tubes 



120 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

are of copper, 0^39 in. internal diameter by 0*12 in. in thickness, 
and 4*40 ins. in length. In construction, the boiler is practically 
similar to that already described and illustrated in Fig. 42, with 
reference to the steam omnibus, with the exception that instead of 
having an uptake, /i l , projecting upwards, as in the former case, the 
chimney h l dips downwards, and passes in a backward direction 
beneath the frame, discharging at the rear, as shown in Fig. 44. 
The feed-water reservoir H is located beneath the driver's seat. 

The motion is transmitted from the engine to the driving 
wheels by a similar arrangement of countershaft, C, differential 
gearing, D, and driving axle, /, to that already described and 
illustrated in Fig. 39 with reference to the omnibus. 

The weight of this tractor is 2 tons, and it is capable of draw- 
ing a load of 2-5 tons at a speed of 20 miles an hour on the 
level. Sufficient coke can be carried for a 6o-mile run, and 
water for 25 miles. 

The grate in the De Dion boiler is situated at about the same 
level as the bottom of the outer concentric ring or annular 
casing, the ashpit being placed below it, and, owing to its being 
water-jacketed in the manner mentioned, it should be one of 
very high efficiency. In practice, however, owing to its steaming 
largely under forced conditions, the efficiency is found to be 
thereby somewhat reduced, although the efficiency is still high. 

The inventor guarantees a boiler of this type to be capable of 
evaporating from 4-5 to 6 Ibs. of dry steam per square foot of the 
heating surface, and from 6 to 8 Ibs. of steam per pound of coal, 
with natural draught. 

During trials carried out by a French firm, Messrs. Sautter, 
Harle et Cie., with a De Dion boiler having a heating surface of 
64-5 sq. ft., a grate surface of somewhat less than 3 sq. ft., and 
weighing 12*7 cwts. empty, 550 Ibs. of steam was produced for a 
consumption of 88 Ibs. of coal per hour, or 6*25 Ibs. of steam per 
pound of coal. 

The results obtained with a boiler having a heating surface of 
60 sq. ft. and a grate area of rg sq. ft., in a i6-seated De Dion 
omnibus, as given in previous table (see ante, p. 78), shows the 
amount evaporated to be 6'2 per Ib. of coke. 

The per cent, of efficiency in the first of these instances is 48*3, 
and the latter 55*3. 

That these efficiencies are not quite so high as those given by 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 121 

some other boilers is probably due to the cause above mentioned. 
There can be, however, no doubt that the De Dion boiler is a 
steam generator having a high rate of efficiency, but on the other 
hand its construction is somewhat delicate, which is an objection 
for motor-car work, where skilled attendance is not always avail- 
able. It is a boiler requiring to be carefully handled by a properly 
qualified person in order to ensure safety, and, as has already been 
observed by the writer elsewhere, is most decidedly not a boiler 
to be entrusted to the charge of an inexperienced driver. 



Straker Steam Omnibuses 

The Straker Steam Vehicle Company, of London and Bristol, 
are makers of steam omnibuses adapted to carry from 20 to 36 




Fig. 45. Straker standard 20-seated steam omnibus. 

passengers. Fig. 45 shows the standard Straker steam omnibus 
for 20 passengers, and 10 cwts. of luggage on the roof. The firm 
also build steam omnibuses of the double-deck type. 

The over-all approximate dimensions of the omnibus shown in 
the illustration are 20 ft. 6 ins. long by 6 ft. 6 ins. wide. The 
maximum speed is 10 miles an hour, and.it is capable of ascending 
gradients up to i in 7 on ordinary roads, and, if desired, of drawing 
a trailer carrying an additional load of 12 passengers. A tele- 
scopic ladder is provided at the side of the machine, for admitting 
of access to the roof. 



122 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Every effort has been made in the design to secure the strength 
necessary to withstand the constant and heavy work to which 
passenger vehicles intended for public service are liable, and also 
to reduce vibration to a minimum. For the latter reason the 
vehicle is mounted on wooden wheels of the artillery pattern, and 
indiarubber chocks are inserted between the bearers of the body 
and the frame. In this manner it is claimed that the vehicle rides 
witn great ease, and that the vibration is less than that of an 
ordinary street horse omnibus. In addition to the 20 passengers, 
the car carries two attendants, viz. driver and conductor. 

In general construction the Straker steam omnibus is practi- 
cally similar to the firm's standard heavy-freight steam vehicles 
described and illustrated in a subsequent chapter. All the parts, 
however, are made lighter, in order to secure the higher speed 
up to 10 miles an hour, and the gearing is of a higher ratio. 



Scotte Steam Omnibuses and Tractors 

The above makers build several patterns of steam omnibuses 
besides the i2-seated one mentioned in the table on p. 78. 

They also make a type of vehicle or tractor carrying 8 inside and 
3 outside passengers, which hauls a trailer carrying 15 passengers, 
besides luggage. The total weight of these vehicles without load 
is 6 tons 6 cwts. The tractor is 18 ft. over all, and has a frame 
built up of channel and T-bars, supported on the axles on four 
plate springs. The wheels are of wood, with iron tyres, the rear 
ones being 36 ins. diameter, with 4-f-in. tyres, and the front 
1 8 ins. diameter, with 3-in. tyres. The weight of the vehicle is 
3-87 tons, and this is pretty equally distributed on the wheels. 

The engine is a vertical one, and has two cylinders 4^ ins. 
diameter by 4f ins. stroke, developing 16 horse-power at 400 
revolutions per minute, and weighing about 6 cwts. The cut-off 
can be varied from | stroke to f stroke, and ordinary link 
motion reversing gear is provided. Either of two pinions on the 
crank shaft can be thrown into gear with toothed wheels on the 
countershaft, thus giving speeds of 7-5 and 3*25 miles an hour. 
The external toothed wheel of the differential gear is driven by a 
pinion on the above-mentioned countershaft through a pitch chain, 
and the differential gear is mounted on a countershaft driving 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 123 

each of the rear wheels independently through ordinary chain 
gearing. 

The boiler is of the Field type, with vertical tubes, and is 
adapted to work at a pressure of 170 Ibs. per square inch. It has 
a grate area of r6 sq. ft., and a heating surface of 120 sq. ft. ; 
its weight, when empty, is 9*8 cwts., or, with water, in 6 cwts. 
Pressure can be raised from cold in slightly over half an hour. 
The fuel consumption on trial was 72 Ibs. of coke per square 
foot of grate area per hour, and the evaporation 610*6 Ibs. of 
steam to 115*2 Ibs. of coke or 5*3 Ibs. of water per pound of coke. 
Gauge pressure, 170 Ibs. per square inch. 

An ordinary feed pump, an injector, and a water circulator are 
provided. The ashes, which fall into an enclosed ashpit, are 
damped by the water resulting from the condensation of steam in 
the feed-water heater. 

The engine and boiler are placed near the front of the 
vehicle, and the coke bunker, which is right in front, contains 
270 Ibs. 

Three water tanks are provided, two under the passengers' 
seats and one beneath the footboard. 

Two brakes are fitted to the vehicle, viz. a screw brake, 
working shoes against the tyres of the driving wheels, and a 
foot brake, operating Lemoine brakes coiled twice round the 
drums. 

The steering is operated by a hand wheel working a screw 
through a jointed rod and mitre gearing, arrangement being made 
to allow free vertical movement of the front axle. By working in 
this manner a nut backwards and forwards on the screw the front 
wheels are moved through bars and levers pivoted to the ends of 
the fixed axle. 



Weidknecht Steam Omnibuses 

An example of this type of omnibus is one adapted to accom- 
modate 16 passengers and 500 kilogrammes, or 9*8 cwts., of 
baggage. 

The overall length of this vehicle is 18 feet, and the weight 
5 tons 6 cwts. 

The frame is constructed of light channel iron girders, sup- 
ported in front through two leaf springs on the front axle, and 



124 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the wheels are constructed with wooden spokes and felloes, 
1*400 m., or about 55 ins., in diameter, with 99 mm., or 3*86 ins., 
iron tyres and are used for driving. The rear axle is secured 
directly to the frame, thinned down at that end to give a certain 
amount of elasticity, and the wheels are noo m., or 43*27 ins., 
in diameter. 

The engine is horizontal, with two cylinders, each 4*92 ins. 
diameter by 4*92 ins. stroke, with cranks set at 90 degrees. It is 
fitted with variable expansion gear and reversing gear of the Sohn 
type, worked by a lever placed between two toothed segments. A 
variation of cut-off from OT to 0*83 of the stroke can be effected. 
At a speed of 350 revolutions per minute the engine gives 197 
horse-power. A cast-iron box or casing, open at the top, partially 
encloses the moving parts. 

The boiler is a vertical one of rectangular section, and fitted 
with both water and smoke tubes. There are 87 I'iS-in. diameter 
water tubes, which cross the upper part of the firebox diagonally. 
The uptake consists of 16 smoke tubes, also acting as stays to the 
crown of the firebox and boiler shell. This boiler has a heating 
surface of 64 sq. ft., and 3 sq. ft. of grate area, and is claimed to 
evaporate 572 Ibs. of water per hour at an average working pres- 
sure of 150 Ibs. per square inch. At the before-mentioned tests 
(see previous table on p. 78) the evaporation was 6*5 Ibs. of 
water per pound of coke. Gauge pressure, 170 Ibs. per square 
inch. The fuel, which is usually coke, is fed to the furnace by an 
automatic stoker, which has to be supplied with fuel every 2^ miles. 
The water tank holds 62 gallons, and the coke bunker at the side 
of boiler i'i8 cwts. 

Power is transmitted from the differential gear countershaft by 
ordinary chain gearing, and two brakes are provided, viz. an 
ordinary screw hand brake, and a Lemoine coiled wire hand 
brake, operating on drums secured to the driving wheels. Speed- 
change gearing allows of variations from 9-3 to 4*65 miles per 
hour. 

The steering is effected by moving the rear wheels, which are 
pivoted at the ends of the fixed axle, through a hand wheel on 
a vertical shaft carrying a pinion meshing with a rack on a rod, 
the movement of which is transferred to the pivoted axles by a 
steering lever and connecting links. 

The wheels adopted by Mr. Weidknecht are shown in Figs. 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



I2 5 



46 and 47, the first being a part vertical central section, showing 
one of the rear or driving wheels, and the latter a similar view 
of one of the front or steering wheels, both of which are, as 
will be seen from the dimensions already given, of considerably 
larger diameter than those usually employed. The weight sup- 




Fig 1 . 46. Weidknecht steam om- 
nibus. Part sectional view of 
rear or driving wheel and axle. 



Fig. 47. Weidknecht steam om- 
nibus. Part sectional view of 
front or steering wheel and axle. 



ported upon each of the wheels is 1750 kilogrammes, or i 
ton 14*3 cwts.j when the vehicle is loaded. The naves a are 
made of bronze, and form axle boxes of a patent self-oiling 
type, which, however, does not differ in any material particular 
from the well-known Collinge axle box, and the spokes b are 
secured to the rim or felloes c by mortise and tenon joints, the 



126 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

latter being formed with shoulders. The spokes b are secured 
in the nave or hub a between two plates or flanges, d and e, the 
one d being integral with the hub a, and the other e being clamped 
to the former by bolts in the (usual or ordinary manner. The 
central portions of the chain wheels f for communicating motion 
to the driving wheels are formed integral with the brake drums or 
pulleys g, and are mounted on the naves or hubs a. 

The driving wheels are rotatably mounted on a fixed axle, /z, 
and the steering wheels are mounted on short axles, z, pivoted to 
a fixed central axle, h l . 

The increased diameter of the wheels would most certainly 
seem to be a move in the right direction, and is said to have 
given the satisfactory results that were to be anticipated from the 
experiments of Morin and others with reference to traction on 
common roads, that the resistance opposed to rolling is in the 
inverse proportion to the diameter of the wheels. Indeed, even 
without the authority of these experiments, it is only rational to 
suppose that wheels of large diameter would admit of the obstacles 
due to inequalities of the surface being more readily overcome, 
and with less jarring or jolting than is the case with those of 
smaller diameter, and, moreover, wheels of large diameter, owing 
to their rotating at a slower rate of speed, raise far less dust on 
dusty roads, an advantage of no little value. 

It is true that wheels of large diameter are not so strong as 
those of a smaller diameter, or, at least, that, to make them so, 
they would have to be of inordinately heavy construction, but 
inasmuch as they are subjected to less severe strains, this objection 
does not seem to be of any great moment, and there should be no 
difficulty in constructing wheels of large diameter strong enough 
to bear the strains to which they will be liable, and at the same 
time light enough so as not to render their weight an objectionable 
feature. With respect to the greater ground space occupied by 
wheels of large diameter, it may be pointed out that as heavy 
passenger vehicles are only required to run upon wide, or, at least, 
moderately wide, roads, this is a point of practically no importance, 
and is amply compensated for by the greater stability ensured by 
the wider wheel base. 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



127 



f 



THE SERPOLLET SYSTEM 

Although Mr. Leon Serpollet has of recent years turned his 
attention to the perfection of steam tramway vehicles and motor 
railway carriages, his steam generator and engine possess such 
possibilities for use in steam omnibuses adapted to run on common 
roads that this brief account 
of the latter would be in- 
complete without some refer- 
ence to the Serpollet system. 

The latest type of Ser- 
pollet motor is especially 
designed to work with the 
highly superheated steam 
supplied by the flash or in- Fig . 4 8. Serpollet system. Plan 
stantaneous generation type view of engine, 

of boiler that bears his 

name, and the use of which forms so important a feature in the 
system. The engine, which is shown in plan and side and end ele- 
vation in Figs. 48, 49, and 50, has two single-acting cylinders, a (one 
of which is shown in vertical central section in Fig. 49), so arranged 






Fig. 49. Serpollet system. Sectional 
side elevation of engine. 



Fig. 50. Serpollet 
system. End ele- 
vation of engine. 



opposite to each other that the two piston rods work on to the 
same crank shaft. The piston rod b is pivoted in the bottom of 
the hollow piston or plunger c, a special type of crosshead con- 
necting both piston rods to a single crank working in an oil-tight 



128 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

crank box or chamber, d^ which constitutes the frame of the engine, 
and through glands in which crank box or chamber the crank 
shaft e extends as shown, f are the steam admission valves, 
which are placed on the tops of the cylinders a, and the spindles f l 
of which are controlled by means of a small cam shaft, g, mounted 
centrally between and above the cylinders a, and to which shaft 
rotary motion is imparted by toothed gearing from the crank shaft, 
both shafts running at the same speed, h is a cam sleeve, which 
is so mounted on the shaft g that it is capable of longitudinal 
displacement thereon, whilst being obliged to rotate therewith. 
This displacement can be effected by means of a specially shaped 
nut threaded on a screwed spindle, /, which latter is controlled by 
a centrifugal governor, /, through the crank arm /, connected, as 
shown, by the lever arms k l to the sliding sleeve m of the 
governor, so that the movements of this sleeve under the action of 
the balls ;/ will be imparted to the cam sleeve /$, and the latter 
moved longitudinally of its shaft, to vary the action of the 
cam upon the valve spindles, and impart a greater or lesser move- 
ment to the latter. The extremities of the valve spindles/ 1 are 
provided with antifriction rollers, which bear against the cam h, 
the spindles being normally retained in that position by springs,/ 2 . 
By this means it is stated that the steam admission can be varied 
from o to 80 per cent. 

For reversing, a second cam, 0, is provided, which can be 
brought into position opposite the rollers on the valve spindles 
when it is desired to reverse, by means of the crank arm /, 
suitable provision being made for effecting this operation from the 
driver's seat. 

The exhaust takes place through the orifices p in the cylinder 
walls, near the termination of the strokes of the pistons, all excess 
of steam above the pressure of the atmosphere escaping through 
the ports or orifices p when communication is made between the 
latter and the spaces at the rear of the pistons. Such steam as 
remains in the cylinders at atmospherical pressure is not ex- 
hausted, but, on the return strokes of the pistons, is compressed, 
thus forming a cushion, and should the pressure exceed that of the 
steam in the boiler, this steam will be forced back through the 
valves /into the steam pipe. 

Another method adopted of effecting the above object is shown 
in the sectional view, Fig. 51. This latter arrangement is claimed 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



129 




a 



Fig. 51. Serpollet system. Vertical 
central section showing alternative 
arrangement of exhaust. 



to get rid of all troublesome condensation in the cylinders, without 
interfering with the admission of steam thereto. In this case an 
exhaust orifice or port, /, is 
provided in an extension, c l , 
on the piston <r, working in a 
small cylinder a 1 . 

The latest type of Ser- 
pollet boiler or steam gene- 
rator is shown in vertical and 
horizontal section in Figs. 52 
and 53. This boiler has un- 
dergone very considerable 
modification since its first 
introduction. As originally constructed, it consisted of a number 
of thick tubes rolled into a kidney-shape in transverse section, and 
connected together by bends, or return heads, on the exterior of 
the furnace. A very narrow 
space was left in the interior 
of these tubes for the water 
to pass through, and the 
concave sides of the tubes 
were placed so as to receive 
the flames from the furnace. 

The modified arrange- 
ment of boiler shown in the 
illustrations comprises two 
portions, the first portion, 
which is most exposed to 
the heat of the furnace, 
being composed of thick 
steel tube, q, twisted into a 
helical form, and so placed 
as to intercept, as far as 
possible, the flames from 
the furnace r 1 , whilst the 
second or upper portion is 




Fig. 52. Serpollet system. Vertical 
section of boiler or steam generator. 



composed of any ordinary coil, r, of thinner section cylindrical 
tube. 

The boiler was originally fired with coke, but liquid fuel is now 
employed, and Mr. Serpollet has devised an ingenious device for 

K 



130 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



automatically and synchronously controlling the supplies of oil to 
the burner, and water to the boiler. 

The type of burner employed is the Longuemare, shown in 





g. 53. Serpollet system. Hori- 
zontal section of boiler or steam 
generator. 



Fig". 54. Longuemare liquid fuel 
burner used in Serpollet boiler. 
Plan view. 



plan and vertical central section in Figs. 54 and 55, which consists 
of a row of coils, s, forming a vaporizer, to which the oil or spirit 
delivered through the pipe s* is passed, and from which it is 

delivered in the form of 
vapour through a pipe, s 1 , 
way, or passage, s 2 , and regu- 
lable needle valve t, to the 
burner t\ 

The oil and water con- 
trolling device, shown in Fig. 
56, comprises an oil or petrol 
pump, , and a water pump, 
v, the pistons or plungers, w 1 , 
z/ 1 , of which are coupled by 
short connecting rods, & 2 , z> 2 , 
the one to a lever, w, and 
the other to a sliding block, 
w 1 , mounted upon this lever, 
which latter is pivotally con- 
nected at w 2 to a rigid bar, 

x, the distance between the pivots, and the diameters of the 
pump plungers being such that the amount of petrol pumped by 
the petrol pump n at each stroke will be exactly sufficient to 




Fig. 55. Longuemare liquid fuel 
burner used in Serpollet boiler. 
Vertical central section. 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 131 

vaporize and superheat the amount of water pumped at each 
stroke of the water pump v. 

In order to be enabled to allow for any variations that might 
occur owing to differences in temperature and in the quality of the 
petrol, etc., a screw-threaded spindle,^, is provided for adjusting 
the position of the sliding block w l , and, consequently, through 
the connecting rod w 2 , varying the stroke of the plunger or piston 
u l of the petrol or oil pump u. In this manner, the proper 
proportions between the supply of oil or petrol and water can be 
maintained or suitably modified, as desired. 

In addition, however, to the above adjustment, it is also 




ig- 56. Serpollet system. Side elevation of oil and water controlling 

device. 

essential that the quantities of oil and water delivered be varied in 
proportion to the amount of power that it is desired to develop in 
the engine, in accordance with the requirements of the load, 
gradient, condition of the road surface, speed, etc, For this 
purpose the other extremity of the lever w is adjustably con- 
nected by means of a connecting rod or link, w 3 , and sliding block 
or piece, w 4 , with the oscillating bar or lever z, through which 
reciprocating motion is imparted to the lever w, and, therefore, 
through the connecting rods # 2 , z> 2 to the plungers or pistons u\ z ;1 
of the oil pump ?/, and the water pump v. This oscillating bar or 
lever, z t is pivoted at or about its centre, and motion is imparted to 



132 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

it by means of an eccentric keyed on one of the shafts of the 
transmission gearing. By means of a lever, z l , one end of which is 
jointed to the upper extremity of the connecting rod or link w* 
above the sliding block w 4 , and the other extremity of which 
extends to within convenient reach of the driver, the position of 
the sliding block w* upon the oscillating bar or lever z can be 
altered, and the length of the arm of the lever acting upon the 
lever w lengthened or shortened, as required, the throw of the 
latter, and, consequently, the strokes of the pumps u and v, 
obviously depending upon the radius of this lever arm. 

By either placing the oil reservoir at a somewhat higher 
elevation than the burner, or by providing a slight pressure 
therein, the oil will pass slowly to the burner whilst the vehicle is 
at rest, without being pumped or forced thereto by the pump z/, 
and will raise the valve / ^sufficiently to allow of the passage of 
enough oil to maintain a small flame and keep the generator ready 
to get up steam immediately when required. 

The steam consumption of the Serpollet engine is said to be 
low, that of a two-cylinder engine, with cylinders 80 mm. (3' 15 
ins.) diameter, by 80 mm. (3-15 ins.) stroke, developing 4-horse- 
power at 510 revolutions per minute, being 10 kilogrammes, or 
2 2 Ibs., of steam per horse-power hour. 

The results obtained with a Serpollet tram with trailer carrying 
100 persons and luggage, and having an engine with cylinders 
5 '9 ins. and 5*9 ins. by 6*3 ins., are given in the previous table 
on p. 78, the boiler used being in this case one of the old pattern, 
and the fuel, coke. 

PETROL OMNIBUSES 

The commercial success of any passenger transport scheme, 
as, indeed, also that of any scheme having for its object the trans- 
port of goods, is practically entirely dependent upon the lowness 
of the running and maintenance charges. 

Theoretically the internal combustion engine, having a high 
rate of efficiency, should prove a suitable power for this purpose, 
but in practice the results obtained from actual experience in 
running public service omnibuses propelled by this source of 
power, do not seem to have always given the satisfactory results 
that might have been anticipated, and the internal combustion 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 133 

engine, in its present stage of development, does not appear to 
have completely solved the problem of mechanically propelled 
omnibuses adapted for the accommodation of considerable numbers 
of passengers, although its successful application to lighter vehicles 
is now an established fact. 

There are, nevertheless, a number of paying services of petrol 
omnibuses running, especially in the provinces. In London, the 
London Power Omnibus Company, Limited, has for some time 
past had a service of petrol omnibuses between Kilburn and the 
Marble Arch, which service they have recently extended to 
Cricklewood. The Motor Omnibus Company, Limited, com- 
menced early this year (1905) services of double-decked omnibuses 
between Kilburn (Brondesbury) and Charing Cross, and elsewhere. 
The General Omnibus Company have, at the time of writing, 100 
motor omnibuses on order, which will shortly be put in service. 
And several other companies are, or will soon be, running motor 
omnibuses. In fact, by the time this work is out of the hands of 
the printers motor omnibuses will doubtless be in a fair way to 
becoming the rule instead of the exception in the London streets. 



EXAMPLES OF PETROL OMNIBUSES 
Stirling Petrol Omnibuses 

Messrs. Stirling, Limited, of Granton-Harbour, Edinburgh, 
build motor omnibuses, of various sizes, propelled by internal 
combustion engines, and adapted to seat from 14 to 28 passengers. 

The standard type of Stirling Petrol Omnibus (Fig. 57) is pro- 
pelled by a four-cylinder internal combustion engine of the Stirling 
type, having two independent ignition devices, and developing 
24-horse-power. The transmission gear, which is of a special 
design made by the firm, provides three changes of speed, with a 
maximum one of 14 miles an hour, the average speed being about 
12 miles an hour. The cooling is effected on the natural circu- 
lation system, the cooling water being stored in a tank or reservoir 
capable of holding about twelve gallons of water, and located at 
a high level in front of the dashboard, practically, indeed, forming 
part of the dashboard itself. This supply of cooling water has 
been found amply sufficient in practical working to maintain the 
engine in a satisfactory condition, and to prevent any undue rise 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



in temperature, it being only necessary to add a little fresh water 
about once a week. The engine is placed below the driver's 
footboard. The wheels are artillery pattern fitted with solid 
indiambber tyres, and the weight of this omnibus having a seating 
capacity for fifteen passengers and the driver, or sixteen persons 
in all, complete with fuel, water, and all accessories, is i ton 18 
cwts. Two powerful independent brakes are provided, one of 
which is a quick-action one, operated by a pedal on the second 
shaft. The other is a type of spring side lever brake, engaging 
the driving rings of the rear wheels, which has been designed and 
patented by the makers. By means of a special arrangement of 

governor, provision is 
made for rendering it 
impossible for the driver 
to exceed the maximum 
speed. 

The body of the 
omnibus is supported 
on long flexible springs, 
which render travelling 
easy, and make the 
vehicle more comfort- 
Fig- 57- Stirling 16-seated petrol omnibus, able. For hot weather 

the glass windows at the 
side are so constructed that they can be removed when desired. 

Rails are provided at the sides of the roof, which latter is 
raised to form a higher central gangway, and light luggage can 
be carried on it, an iron ladder fitted at the front end of the 
vehicle affording easy access for loading and unloading. This 
provision for luggage, however, is only made on omnibuses in- 
tended to run in rural districts, and is not shown on that 
illustrated. 

Stirling petrol omnibuses have been running in Scotland for 
a considerable time, and, it is said, with great success. In 1903 
a service of these omnibuses was started in London by a syndicate, 
the route being from Cricklewood, through Kilburn, to Oxford 
Circus. The average time occupied in the double journey was 
one hour; a record time of 15 minutes for the single journey 
was, however, made on one occasion. The time taken by the 
horse-drawn omnibuses is abbut one hour for the single journey. 




HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 135 

After running for a few months this service was discontinued. 
The service between Brondesbury and Oxford Street was improved 
and renewed by another syndicate, and, with the exception of a 
fire that damaged several of the omnibuses, this service has been 
successfully continued up to the present time. 

So far as the running of the vehicles is concerned, the writer 
has been informed, there is no fault to find. And it is to be 
noted that the severe competition on this short route, and the 
resulting low fares, render the earning of satisfactory dividends a 
difficult matter. The possibility of continuing and even improving 
the service is very satisfactory evidence, therefore, of the possi- 
bilities of petrol omnibuses. 

De Dietrich Petrol Omnibuses 

A De Die'trich petrol omnibus gave very satisfactory results at 
the heavy-weight trials in France in 1903, both in the preliminary 
fuel consumption tests and in the run to Nice. The vehicle is 
very strongly built in order to enable it to successfully withstand 
the heavy strains to which omnibuses are subjected when on 
service, otherwise it is practically on the same lines as the 24- 
horse-power touring car, built by the same makers. 

The omnibus is fitted with a 24-horse-power four-cylinder 
engine, and has magnetic ignition. The change-speed gear pro- 
vides for four speeds and a reverse. 

The weight of the vehicle (which is adapted to accommodate 
12 persons), including a load of 13 cwts. 18 Ibs., is 2 tons 10 cwts. 
2 qrs. 4 Ibs. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and are fitted 
with large pneumatic tyres. 

The De Die'trich omnibus was the only vehicle that went 
through the above-mentioned trials without accident of any 
description, and the consumption of petrol was low, being about 
6*5 gallons for the run of 52-6 miles. In the long run the average 
speed attained was 18 miles an hour. 

Halcrow-Vincke Petrol Omnibuses 

The Halcrow-Vincke petrol omnibuses have frames of the 
standard type made by the firm of that name, whose works are at 
Malines, Belgium. 



i36 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The body of the standard omnibus is divided into two classes 
of compartments, providing accommodation for 6 passengers 
and 10 passengers respectively. The driver's seat is situated 
above the engine, and is partly protected from the weather by 
carrying the roof over it. The weight of the vehicle in running 
trim is about 32 cwts. The tyres are solid indiarubber. 

Motive power is provided by a 1 2-horse-power two-cylinder 
vertical engine. The main clutch is of the internal cone pattern, and 
the change-speed gear is of the ordinary sliding toothed-wheel type. 
Transmission to the rear wheels is effected by means of side-chain 
gearing. Three speeds in a forward direction and a reverse are 
provided, the maximum being 15 miles an hour. The steering is 
of the rack and pinion type, having a vertical steering pillar and 
wheel. 

Other Petrol Omnibuses 

Amongst other petrol omnibuses now on the market, mention 
may be made of those of the following makers : Straker and Squire, 
London, double-decked type; Thornycroft Company, 24-horse- 
power petrol omnibuses, double-decked type; The Lancashire 
Steam Motor Company, petrol omnibuses; Maudslay Motor Com- 
pany, i4-horse-power petrol omnibuses; Crossley Ley land, petrol 
omnibuses ; and the Brush Electrical Engineering Company, 
double-decked petrol omnibuses. This latter vehicle possesses the 
special feature of having the entrance for the passengers located 
at the front end, thus enabling the services of a conductor to be 
dispensed with. 

Omnibuses of both the open and closed types, and brakes 
adapted to be propelled by internal combustion engines, are also 
built by Benz, Milnes-Daimler, Peugeot, Delahaye, De Dion, 
Bouton and Company, and others. 

Unfortunately, space does not admit of giving even brief 
descriptions of these vehicles, but it may be observed that most of 
the well-known makers of petrol vehicles build omnibuses with run- 
ning mechanisms practically identical in construction with those 
of their light pleasure and goods delivery vehicles, the main 
difference being that, of course, the frames of the motor omnibuses 
are much heavier and the engines are of considerably greater 
power, in order to provide for the propulsion of the heavier 
vehicles. 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 



137 



COMPOUND OR PETROL-ELECTRIC 
OMNIBUSES 

Motor vehicles propelled by electricity generated on the cars 
themselves by dynamos driven by internal combustion engines, 
and where the surplus power developed when descending hills, 
etc., is stored in accumulators for use in emergencies, are built by 
the Fischer Motor Vehicle Company, New Jersey, U.S., Jenatzy, 
The Compagnie de 1'Industrie Electrique et Mecanique, of Geneva, 
and others. 

Fischer Petrol-Electric Omnibuses 

Omnibuses of that kind or class wherein electric transmission 
is employed, the power generated by a hydro-carbon motor or 
internal combustion engine being used as a prime mover to 
operate a dynamo or dynamos, and the electric current generated 




Fig. 58. Fischer petrol-electric omnibus. Diagram of running 
mechanism. 



by the latter utilized to propel the vehicle through an electric 
motor or motors, designed by the Fischer Motor Vehicle 
Company, of Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S., have lately been 
brought to this country by the Fischer Motor Vehicle Syndicate, 
of London. 

This type of mechanically propelled vehicle is said to have 
proved very successful in the United States, and tests made 



138 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

in London some time ago by the London General Omnibus 
Company are stated to have been quite successful at any rate, 
so far as the satisfactory running of the vehicle was concerned. 

The omnibus subjected to the latter tests was one of the 
double-decked type, adapted to carry 10 inside and 18 outside 
passengers, or 30 persons altogether, including the driver and 
conductor. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, the front 
being 36 ins., and the rear 40 ins. in diameter, and the wheel 
base 9 ft. 3 ins. The approximate weight of the vehicle is 5 tons 
2 cwts. 3 qrs. 

i The general principle of the Fischer system is shown in the 
diagram Fig. 58, in which a indicates an internal combustion 
engine, and b a dynamo direct coupled thereto ; c electric motors, 
d an accumulator or storage battery, e a controller, and /a switch 
for starting the engine. 

The internal combustion engine a, which is mounted longitudi- 
nally or lengthwise of the frame, is of the three- cylinder vertical 
type, with the cranks set at angles of 120 degrees to each other, 
and is directly coupled to the dynamo ^, which is mounted in 
front of it. It has an enclosed crank chamber, with an inspection 
aperture, closed by a suitable lid or cover at each side, and the 
crank-shaft, which, owing to the position of the engine, is placed 
at right angles to the axles, has a fly-wheel mounted as shown on 
its rear extremity. The inlet valves, which are located above the 
exhaust valves, are operated by the pressure of the atmosphere. 

Ignition is effected by plugs of the high-tension type, and the 
commutator is driven through bevel gearing from the cam shaft. 

The storage battery or accumulator d consists of fifty chloride 
cells, with a combined capacity of 90 ampere hours. When 
starting the internal combustion engine the storage battery d is 
switched on to the dynamo b by the driver, who can in this 
manner effect the operation from his seat. During running the 
storage battery is connected across the dynamo terminals, thus 
keeping the speed of the engine practically constant, any excess 
of current over and above that required by the electric motors c 
being stored up in the storage battery or accumulator. A com- 
bined ammeter and voltmeter is mounted on the driver's seat, 
the latter being constantly connected across the dynamo terminals. 
The controller e is of the parallel series type, having five 
forward and three reverse positions, by means of which the forward 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 139 

movement can be varied up to 10 miles an hour, and the reverse 
up to 5 miles an hour. The forward positions comprise the 
following connections, viz. : First, the motors in series with a 
starting resistance introduced ; second, the motors in series with 
resistance cut out ; third, the armatures in series and the fields in 
parallel ; and fourth, the motors in parallel. In addition to this, 
however, toothed wheels fixed on the outer ends of the motor 
shafts gear with correspondingly toothed wheels on intermediate 
shafts, and through toothed pinions on the latter, with toothed 
wheels secured to the rear, or driving wheels. The above change- 
speed gear is enclosed in a suitable casing, and by its means and 
the controller combinations, practically any desired speed can be 
provided for. The controller operating lever is connected with a 
contact-making drum, and a suitable catch arrangement prevents 
the lever from being moved into the reverse positions without 
releasing this catch. The electric motors are shunt-wound and 
bipolar, and are completely enclosed, being pivotally supported 
from the rear axle, and through springs from the main frame, and 
rigidly connected together, although their shafts are independent 
of each other. On the inner extremities of the motor shafts, 
brake drums are provided, a pedal on the right of the steering 
pillar allowing of both brakes being applied simultaneously, and 
the former being capable of being connected by a two-way switch, 
so as to show the amount of current being generated, or the 
amount being used by the motors. 

The springs supporting the main frame are semi-elliptical, and 
a transverse spring is provided at one end of the front ones. The 
front axle is of the girder pattern, the steering axles being hinged 
or jointed to it, and the front springs being bolted to it so that 
they pass between the upper and lower members of the girder. 
Steering is on the Ackermann principle, through a rack coupled by 
a connecting rod to the front wheels, and a hand-wheel mounted 
on the top of a vertical shaft, having at its lower extremity a 
pinion gearing, with the above rack. 

It will be seen from the above that the internal combustion 
engine a is the primary source of power, the latter being transmitted 
to the driving axle by means of the electricity generated. * In this 
manner it is claimed that the advantages of the two systems are 
retained, whilst their objectionable features are got rid of, or at 
any rate reduced to a minimum. 



140 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

According to the makers, the nett efficiency between the prime 
mover and the wheels, with this system of transmission, is 64 per 
cent., which bears favourable comparison with mechanical trans- 
missions now in use. The above percentage is estimated on the 
basis of the bulk of the electric current going directly from the 
dynamo b to the electric motor c, and taking the efficiency of 
the dynamo and electric motors at 80 per cent, each, a figure 
somewhat under that usually guaranteed by manufacturers. 

The device for controlling the speed and power of the engine 
consists of an arrangement of levers which can be operated from 
the driver's seat, and by means of which the time of ignition and 
the richness of the explosive mixture can be varied at the will of 
the operator. 

The main advantage possessed by this system is that it admits 
of the internal combustion engine being run at a constant speed, 
thus enabling the gas and air mixtures to be permanently set so 
as to secure as near perfect combustion as possible, and in this 
manner both effecting a saving in oil consumption and prevent- 
ing the usual abominable stench given off from the exhaust 
where more or less imperfect combustion results from the ever- 
varying conditions under which the engine is called upon to 
work when the power is utilized in the usual manner. It is 
also stated that with this system a smaller engine can be used, 
viz. one of one-third the power that would be otherwise 
required, and it is, moreover, self-starting a not inconsiderable 
advantage. 

So long as the vehicle is running on a level surface, under 
normal conditions, the whole of the electric current generated 
passes direct from the dynamo to the electric motors. When 
running downhill, however, travelling at slow speed : in fact, 
whenever less power is required for the propulsion of the vehicle, 
the surplus current is stored in the storage battery or accumulator. 
This store of energy is drawn upon whenever extra power is 
required, such as when ascending steep gradients, starting heavy 
loads, on bad roads, etc. It will, of course, be understood that 
the above action is completely automatic, and takes place quite 
independent of the driver. The output of the hydro-carbon 
engine being constant, no mechanical governor is required, but 
for the purpose of economy, and to prevent too heavy a current 
from going into the storage battery, a contrivance is provided, by 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 141 

which the hydro-carbon engine is automatically throttled when 
the vehicle is at rest. 

It is stated that the storage battery required in this system 
being one of small capacity, it is practicable to build one that 
will have a comparatively long life, and as applied in this com- 
bination it is seldom required to furnish current for more than a 
few minutes at any one time. 

As is well known, ordinary use is necessary to keep a storage 
battery in good condition. It is discharging too low, and then 
allowing it to stand without immediate recharging that gives rise 
to sulphating and buckling, and causes rapid destruction. Under 
the conditions existing in this vehicle, it is therefore hardly 
possible for the storage battery to become exhausted. 

The reason for the storage battery not becoming over-charged, 
as might be anticipated, when the vehicle is running with a light 
load, is accounted for by the fact that, whilst it takes a pressure 
of 2\ volts to charge the cell of a storage battery, during discharging 
the pressure is practically 2 volts, thus making a difference of 
20 per cent, in voltage between charging and discharging, and, 
moreover, as in automobile work, the voltage is usually permitted 
to run down to 1*7 volts per cell before the battery is considered 
to be anywhere near exhausted; this makes a still greater difference. 

A well-charged battery is what may be considered as being 
lively, that is to say, the solution is rich in acid, which makes the 
internal resistance low, and consequently the conductivity and 
capacity for work high. On the other hand, a nearly discharged 
battery is what may be termed sluggish, and although it may 
register on the voltmeter when not in use, the capacity for work 
is absent, because the act of discharging drives the acid out of 
the solution and into the plates, thus leaving the solution a 
comparatively poor conductor, which is the reason that a nearly 
discharged battery does not take hold readily. 

The electric motors used in automobile work have a speed 
corresponding to the voltage, that is to say, when the voltage is 
high the speed will be high, and vice versa. Consequently when 
the vehicle is running with so light a load, or on a down gradient, 
that there is power to spare, the voltage will climb up to the 
highest possible point, and the motors, and consequently also the 
vehicle, will run faster, and owing to the increased speed, a 
greater amount of power will be consumed. When, however, the 



142 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

vehicle is heavily loaded, or is mounting a steep gradient, so that 
an excessive amount of power is required for propulsion, the 
engine will slow down, and the voltage will drop sufficiently to 
admit of the battery furnishing the extra power demanded. At 
this reduced voltage, the motors, and, consequently, the vehicle, 
will run at a slower speed, the result of which is claimed to be 
that even with a heavy load considerably less power is used in 
proportion. 

Under normal conditions the engine works with a constant 
power output ; the current and pressure, however, vary according 
to the conditions. For example, if the voltage is high, the current 
outputs will be low, whilst if the voltage should be low, a corre- 
sponding increase in the current output will take place. In this 
manner it is claimed that there is a general tendency to equalize 
matters all round, that is to say, that the motors are constantly 
endeavouring to adapt themselves to the amount of power furnished 
by the engine. 

Practical working has shown that the damage done to storage 
batteries by overcharging is trifling in comparison with that 
resulting from allowing them to run down too low. The result of 
overcharging is merely the evaporation of the solution and the 
boiling of the battery, that is to say, that the greater part of the 
acid will be driven out of the plates, and inactive material has 
been converted into active material. An additional current sent 
through the batteries is used up in evaporating the water of the 
solution, which can be easily replenished. During the discharge 
the process is reversed, the acid acts on the active material and 
reduces it to inactive, and when the battery is in that condition 
the acid will combine and form sulphate of lead, which takes up 
more room than the original material, thereby causing the plates 
to warp and pull themselves to pieces. When this sulphate is 
once formed, it can never be brought back again to active 
material, and this is the reason that batteries lose their capacity 
if allowed to stand for any length of time after being discharged, 
without recharging. 

As regards the cost of running the Fischer motor omnibus, 
results deduced from actual working in this country are not at 
present available. For purposes of comparison, however, it may 
be mentioned that in the case of a motor waggon on the Fischer 
principle, running in New York, the cost of working has been 



HE A VV PASSENGER VEHICLES 143 

found to be 2\ cents., or ijd., per mile on average roads. This 
vehicle weighs four tons, and is capable of carrying a load of 
eight tons. It is driven by a 12 -horse-power internal combustion 
engine, the power generated by which is transformed into electricity 
by means of a dynamo, and operates a pair of 7 ^-horse-power 
electric motors, one of which is geared to each rear wheel. The 
maximum speed is six miles an hour. It may be mentioned that 
the motors are guaranteed to carry 100 per cent, over-load for one 
hour, and will in cases of emergency work up to over 50 horse- 
power for short periods. 

In conclusion, it may be remarked that the weight of the 
machinery required in the Fischer compound system is not by 
any means so much in excess of that of an internal combustion 
engine only, operating direct, as might be expected, as in the 
former case the engine required is of much smaller capacity than 
in the latter. It is, nevertheless, undoubtedly, somewhat heavier 
than would be the case were the propelling power derived from 
an internal combustion engine fitted with the usual change-speed 
mechanism, without the electric transmission, and it would appear 
probable that the cost of the renewal of the storage batteries, the 
maintenance of the electric generating and driving mechanism, 
and the additional repairs and renewals required for the proper 
maintenance of the vehicle and tyres, due to this extra load, 
would be, therefore, somewhat higher in the case of the compound 
system. 

Against this, however, there is the advantage derived from the 
abolition of the highly objectionable change-speed gear, and the 
other advantages already enumerated. There is, furthermore, 
the reserve stock of electric power in the storage battery to fall 
back upon in the event of a failure a by no means unlikely 
occurrence of the internal combustion engine, which would 
generally be sufficient to carry the 'bus to its destination. 



Jenatzy Petrol-Electric Omnibuses 

The Jenatzy compound petrol-electric motor omnibuses are 
driven by a somewhat novel arrangement of internal combustion 
engine and electricity. The primary motive power is derived 
from a petrol or internal combustion engine, the usual fly-wheel 



i 4 4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

of which is replaced by a dynamo mounted on the crank shaft, 
which latter takes both the place and performs the functions of 
the fly-wheel, and at the same time charges a storage battery or 
accumulator. 

The advantage of this arrangement is that the internal com- 
bustion engine need only be sufficiently powerful to propel the 
vehicle on a level surface at the highest speed it is intended to 
run at. The energy stored in the accumulator can be utilized 
for driving through an electric motor when any extra power is 
required. The consumption of petrol is said to be reduced about 
50 per cent. 

The vehicle can be started by means of the electric motor, 
whenever there is a sufficient storage of electricity in the accumu- 
lator, and the internal combustion engine can then be brought 
into use. 

This type of omnibus is said to have been tried in France with 
considerable success. 

ELECTRIC OMNIBUSES 

The advantages and disadvantages of electricity as a means of 
propulsion for road vehicles have been already briefly enumerated. 
As a power, the electric motor is incontestably a most suitable 
medium for automobile work, by reason of its being practically 
perfectly safe, its capacity for direct application, its high ratio of 
efficiency, and the facility with which it can be controlled. Not 
only does the electric motor automatically control the consumption 
of energy, both with light and heavy loads, in proportion to the 
power delivered, but it will also work, should occasion arise, with 
an overload of several hundred per cent, for brief periods of time, 
without any appreciable inconvenience. Other by no means 
inconsiderable advantages are the practically total absence of 
smell, heat, and vibration, and the capacity for running equally 
well in either direction. 

These advantages, however, as well as the counterbalancing 
disadvantages of excessive weight of storage batteries, the limited 
amount of miles that can be run on each charge, loss of time re- 
charging, and cost of renewing batteries, etc., have been, as above 
mentioned, already gone into as fully as the space at command 
will allow. 



HEAVY PASSENGER VEHICLES 145 



EXAMPLES OF ELECTRIC OMNIBUSES 

The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company 
Electric Omnibuses 

The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company, of York 
Street, Westminster, S.W., are builders of a number of different 
patterns of electric omnibuses. One pattern has a capacity to 
seat eight inside and seven outside passengers, or fifteen persons 
in all, including the driver. The other omnibuses have capacities 
for six inside and seven outside, or thirteen passengers; eight 
inside and two outside, or ten passengers ; and six inside and 
two outside, or eight passengers. The two first-mentioned 
vehicles have also accommodation for a certain amount of 
luggage on the roof. 

The driving mechanism of these omnibuses is practically 
similar to that of the electric hansom built by the same firm, 
which has been already described. The maximum mileage of all 
the omnibuses is 25 miles on one charge, and the maximum 
speed in each instance is 10 miles an hour. The sixteen-seated 
electric omnibus, as also that adapted to seat six persons inside 
and seven outside, are fitted with 3-inch solid indiarubber tyres, 
and the other two omnibuses with similar tyres 2 J-inches diameter. 



The Vehicle Equipment Company's Electric Omnibuses 

As another example of an electric omnibus may be cited that 
of the Vehicle Equipment Company, of New York, the sole 
agents for whom in this country are the Anglo-American Motor 
Car Company, Limited, of Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 

A type of electric omnibus built by the above company for 
hotel service has a carrying capacity of about 9 cwts., a maximum 
speed of 12 miles an hour, and a maximum mileage of 35 miles 
on one charge. 

The arrangement of the running gear of this vehicle is shown, 
in side elevation, in the diagrammatical view, Fig. 59, in which a 
indicates the body frame, b the storage battery cradle, c one of 
the electric motors, d the pedestals supporting the axles, and c the 
top of the driver's seat. 

L 



146 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



The body frame a being of steel and of ample strength, 
relieves the body of the vehicle of any strain or tendency to 
buckle, and also affords a substantial support for suspending the 
battery, so as to leave the interior of the vehicle absolutely clear. 

The running gear is of a " pedestal " type, patented by the 
makers, and consists of a single steel casting secured to the steel 
body frame a. The axles are supported in the jaws of the 
pedestals d, in such a manner as to have perfect freedom of 
motion in a vertical direction, through a sufficient range to permit 
full play of the springs. 

Each of the rear, or driving, wheels of the vehicle is operated 




Fig- 59- The Vehicle Equipment Company electric omnibus. 
Diagram of running gear. 

independently by an electric motor, c, and the controller is located 
beneath the driver's seat, and is operated by direct connection 
with a hand lever. Four different speeds ahead, and two speeds 
in a reverse direction, can be effected by means of the controller. 
Steering is on the Ackermann principle, and the arrangement is 
strong and reliable. On the heavier class of vehicle it is operated 
by a steering wheel, and on the lighter ones by means of a steering 
bar, or lever. 

The storage battery is made in sectional trays, adapted to 
slide into the battery cradle , which latter is so constructed that 
the trays can be drawn out on whichever side of the vehicle may 
be found to be the most convenient. An important advantage 
possessed by this arrangement of battery cradle is that the 
batteries are thus made accessible in a few minutes without 



HE A VY PASSENGER VEHICLES 147 

necessitating the use of a hydraulic lift. The storage battery is 
charged at 100 to 115 volts, direct current, and at an amperage of 
from 30 to 60. 

The wheels are of the artillery pattern, wooden spokes and 
felloes with metal hubs, and are shod with solid indiarubber tyres, 
which latter are, according to the makers, found preferable in 
practical working owing to the avoidance of difficulties with 
punctures, etc., whilst quiet and easy riding is ensured by 
mounting the body frame a on extra long and flexible springs. 
Ample brake power is provided, and the vehicle is fitted with 
electric side-lights, etc. 



CHAPTER VI 

LIGHT GOODS VANS 

General Observations Light Petrol Vans Examples of Light Petrol 
Vans Light Steam Vans Light Electric Vans Examples of 
Light Electric Vans. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

SELF-PROPELLED vehicles of this class comprise, as has been 
already mentioned, all those suitable for tradesmen for the quick 
delivery of goods, and adapted for loads up to about 20 or 
30 cwts. Internal combustion engines, steam engines, and 
electricity are all three found to be suitable sources of power for 
the propulsion of light goods vans, and each seems to possess 
some special qualifications for the purpose. 

As regards the advantages to be derived from the use of motor 
vehicles for the work in question, they have been already briefly 
specified in the introduction to these articles, and need not there- 
fore be further referred to. The cost of running and maintenance 
is dealt with in a separate chapter. 

LIGHT PETROL VANS 

Internal combustion engines offer many special advantages for 
the propulsion of light delivery vans, and vehicles of this type are 
now built in a great variety of patterns and of different capacities 
by a very large number of firms; in fact, by most of the makers of 
motor vehicles propelled by means of internal combustion engines. 
The systems of driving employed are consequently the same as 
those used in the pleasure vehicles made by the same firms, which 
are now so well known as to need no description here. The bodies 
of the vans are, of course, adapted to meet the requirements 

148 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 149 

of various businesses, and are suited for the quick delivery of all 
manner of goods. 

The number of light petrol vans is so large that it is im- 
possible to give here more than a very brief description of a few 
representative vehicles, nor, indeed, is more necessary, inasmuch 
as they are, as has been already mentioned, driven in practically 
the same manner as the pleasure vehicles built by the same 
makers, and only differ in some minor details of construction. 



EXAMPLES OF LIGHT PETROL VANS 
Horsfall and Bickham Light Petrol Vans 

Light delivery vans are built by Messrs. Horsfall and Bickham, 
of Manchester, capable of dealing with loads up to 10 cwts., and 
providing accommodation for two persons, with driver. 

The source of power is an internal combustion or hydrocarbon 
engine having two cylinders each 4-^ inches in diameter, by 4! 
inches stroke, giving ic-horse-power at a normal speed of 800 
revolutions per minute, and capable of developing 11*5 brake 
horse-power when run at an accelerated speed. The heads and 
cylinders are cast integral, and the valve gear is of the enclosed 
pattern, and an improved type of governor acting on the throttle 
valve is provided. Lubrication is on the splash system. The 
carburettor is of the constant level float-feed type, and the electric 
ignition is effected by means of accumulators and a high-tension 
coil. 

The vehicle is fitted with change-speed gear of the Panhard 
type, in which a sleeve is mounted on the transmission shaft, so 
as to be free to move laterally thereon, whilst at the same time 
it is forced to rotate therewith by a key or feather. This sleeve 
carries three toothed or spur wheels which gear or mesh with the 
one or other of a set of toothed or spur wheels mounted upon 
another or second transmission shaft placed parallel with the first 
transmission shaft. The mechanism is so arranged that no change 
from one rate of speed to another can be effected until the toothed 
wheels are completely out of gear and the driving and intermediate 
shafts are disconnected. There are three forward speeds of 4, 
8, and 12 miles an hour, and a reverse, and the highest speed 



150 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

is direct driven, manipulation of the sliding sleeve being effected 
by means of a lever placed within convenient reach of the 
driver. The axle is fitted with Cardan, or universal joints, the 
wheels being of the artillery pattern, both front and rear being 
30 inches diameter, and fitted with solid indiarubber tyres. Both 
the road wheels and the differential gearing are provided with 
ball bearings. 

The steering is operated by an inclined wheel, through a worm 
and worm wheel, and is irreversible, and there are three double- 
acting brakes, one an external expanding hand brake on rear 
wheels, besides a powerful foot brake acting on the differential 
shaft. 

In addition to the regulation that can be effected by means of 
the change-speed gear and brakes, the supply of mixture to the 
engine can be effectively controlled through a throttle valve 
operated by a lever. 



Benz Light Petrol Vans 

Light delivery vans with carrying capacities of 2 cwts., 3 cwts., 
15 cwts., and about 20 cwts. respectively, are built by Messrs. 
Benz and Co., of Mannheim, Germany, the sole agents for whom 

in this country are Messrs. 
Hewetson, Limited, London. 
As is well known to those inte- 
rested in the subject, the first 
patent for a vehicle propelled 
by an internal combustion 
engine was granted to Messrs. 
Benz in January, 1886, for a 
spirit motor car made in 1885, 
and being the result of many 
years' study of the subject by 
Mr. Charles Benz. The Benz 
motor has proved itself a very 
efficient one, and, besides being 

used in their own vans and other motor vehicles, is also extensively 
employed as a prime mover in those of other manufacturers. 

The lightest types of Benz delivery vans have the following 
approximate dimensions : length, 7 \ ft. ; width, 6^ ft. ; and height, 




Fig. 60. Eenz light petrol van. 
Diagram of running gear. 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 151 

6f ft. The approximate weight is 8 cwts. 2 qrs. The engines 
are 3-horse-power and 3 ^-horse-power, and there are three forward 
speeds and a reverse. The wheels are bicycle pattern in one type 
and artillery pattern in the other, and are fitted with solid india- 
rubber tyres, rubber brake blocks, and Salter's springs. Chain- 
driving is used, Brampton-Hewetson chains being employed, and 
the highest speed is 12 miles an hour. These vans are capable 
of climbing a gradient of i in 5, or 20 per cent., with facility. 
The 15 cwts. capacity van is fitted with a 6 to 8-horse-power 
engine. 

Fig. 60 is a diagrammatical view, showing the arrangement of 
running gear of a Benz vehicle, in which a indicates the wheels, 
b the axle, c the engine, d the crank shaft, and e the intermediate 
shaft. 

In the single cycle Benz motor, which is a very constant and 
powerful motor of its class, the gas is compressed in a clearance 
at one end of the cylinder during the stroke of the piston in a 
forward direction, electric ignition being provided at the side of 
the cylinder. The air that has filled the cylinder at the other 
side of the piston is then forced into a reservoir through a port 
or aperture governed by a slide-valve, which closes the port or 
aperture at the end of the stroke, and the cylinder end is opened 
to the atmosphere, so as to allow of a fresh supply of air being 
sucked in during the reverse stroke of the piston. An exhaust 
valve is also operated during this stroke to admit of the escape of 
the burnt or waste gas, and the opening of another valve at about 
half-stroke permits the charge of compressed air to pass from the 
reservoir into the cylinder, through which it rushes and passes out 
of the exhaust, thus completely sweeping out all the burnt or 
waste gas in its passage. The above-mentioned valves are then 
automatically closed, the fresh air still remaining in the cylinder 
is compressed, the petroleum vapour is injected through a valve 
which is automatically actuated by a lever, and the explosive 
mixture thus formed is fired or ignited at the commencement of 
the next stroke. 

The objection to this type of motor is that the operation 
entails the provision of a considerable number of parts, and con- 
sequently is somewhat complicated in construction and rather 
heavy. The Benz motor, arranged to work on the Otto cycle, 
is far simpler in construction, and has a cylinder open at one 



152 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

extremity and but two pipes that is to say, an admission pipe 
and an exhaust pipe. The complications of slide and valve gear 
are also dispensed with. 



Milnes-Daimler Light Petrol Vans 

The Milnes-Daimler Company, Limited, are builders of several 
types of light delivery petrol vans, a useful size being that adapted 
to carry loads up to half a ton, and having a 6-horse-power engine. 

The company also build a van to 
carry loads up to one ton, and 
fitted with a y-horse-power engine. 
The most important feature in 
these vans is the engine or motor, 
which is of the well-known Daimler 
type, extensively used by many 
other builders of motor vehicles. 
The construction and operation of 
this type of motor will be under- 
stood by reference to the sectional 
diagrammatical view, Fig. 61. 

A small tank, a, shown at the 
right-hand top corner, is fed with 
oil spirit, the level of the latter 
being regulated by the float valve 
shown, through a suitable check 
valve. When the piston b makes 
its stroke in an outward direction 
air enters the way or j assage c, 
and, by flowing over the end of 
the oil-pipe d, draws a small 
quantity of oil into the passage c by induction in the form of fine 
spray. The air and oil then pass into the cylinder e through the 
automatic admission valve /"on the left hand. 

On the return stroke of the piston b the automatic valve /"is 
closed, and the charge is compressed into the ignition tube g. 
The exhaust passes out through the valve h, which is situated 
below the admission valve, and is raised by the rod i. 

The governing of the engine is effected by an arrangement for 
keeping the exhaust valve h open and allowing the burnt or waste 




Fig. 61. Milnes-Daimler light 
petrol van. Sectional view of 
engine. 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 153 

gases to return to the cylinder, and so destroying the partial 
vacuum in the latter, and preventing the admission valve f from 
opening. 



Delahay Light Petrol Vans 

A typical example of a light van by these makers is one adapted 
to carry loads up to 12 cwts. This vehicle has a horizontal 10- 
horse-power engine, and is fitted with single belt transmission 
from the engine shaft to the intermediate shaft, having a patent 
arrangement for preventing slip. There are three speeds in a 
forward direction and a reverse. The maximum speed is 12 
miles an hour. The operation of a belt transmission gives rise 
to less friction than chain or wheel transmission, and is in every 
way preferable, provided, of course, that excessive slip can be 
avoided. 

Chenard Light Petrol Vans 

Amongst other patterns, a very useful little light delivery van 
is built by these makers, which is remarkably silent in running, 
and can be steered in heavy traffic with great ease. It is also 
especially noticeable by reason of its very low oil consumption, 
and took a high place in the consumption trials held in France 
last year. 

Gardner-Serpollet Light Petrol Vans 

Light vans adapted for delivering parcels, and capable of 
carrying loads up to 4 cwts., are made by the Gardner-Serpollet 
Company. This little van, which is built in one pattern only, 
weighs, complete with body, about 9 cwts. It is lightly but strongly 
constructed, with a tubular frame, and is fitted with a double- 
cylinder vertical type of petrol engine of y-horse-power, which is 
located in front beneath the bonnet. There are three speeds and 
a reverse, the maximum speed being 28 miles an hour. 

The body of this van can be removed when desired, and seats 
fitted so as to adapt it for use as a pleasure or passenger vehicle. 
It is handy, easily steered, and can be managed with facility by 
any one after a little preliminary practice. 



154 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Other Light Petrol Vans 

Amongst the numerous other light petrol vans which space 
does not admit of even briefly describing, mention may be made 
of those of Hagen, the Hozier Company, Gillet, Forest & Co., 
S. F. Edge, Limited (the " Gladiator "), and Farman & Co. (the 
"Argyll"). 



LIGHT STEAM VANS 
Thornycroft Light Steam Vans 

Light delivery vans propelled by steam power are made by a 
number of different makers, a typical example being the steam 
van shown in Fig. 62, which view is a direct reproduction of a 



I 




Fig. 62. Thornycroft light steam van. 

photograph of one of these vehicles built by the Thornycroft 
Steam Waggon Company, Limited, for the Middlesex Hospital 
Laundry, Hendon, which vehicle has been running successfully 
for some time, and is adapted to carry loads up to one ton. 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 155 

Light steam delivery vans of a practically similar form of con- 
struction have been also supplied to the Mid-Sussex Steam 
Laundry Company, Limited, Lindfield, Sussex, and several other 
concerns. 

The over-all dimensions of this type of vehicle are approxi- 
mately : length, 15 ft. 6 ins.; width, 6 ft. 6 ins.; height, 10 ft. 
The approximate inside dimensions are : length, 8 ft. 3 ins. ; 
width on floor, 4 ft. 3 ins. ; width over raves, 5 ft. 3 in. ; height, 
5 ft. 8 ins. The body is of wood, canvas-covered and painted, 
the wheels are of the artillery pattern, with metal naves and 
wooden spokes and felloes. 

The boiler, engine, and the rest of the driving mechanism is 
practically of the same pattern as that of the Thornycroft steam 
omnibuses that have been already described. The vehicle is 
capable, as already mentioned, of carrying loads up to 20 cwts., 
and the maximum speed is 12 miles an hour. 

Other Light Steam Vans 

There are many other makers of light steam vans. Those of 
Clarkson, Limited, are constructed on the same principle as their 
omnibuses described and illustrated on pp. 79 to 103. The 
Gillett Motor Company, Gillet, Forest and Company, and the 
White Steam Car Company are makers of excellent light vans 
propelled by steam power. 



LIGHT ELECTRIC VANS 

Electricity is a power much used in the United States, and, it 
is averred, with very great success, for the propulsion of light 
goods vans. As has been already mentioned, the use of electricity 
for lighting and power is more general in that country than 
it is here, consequently it is not surprising that this source of 
power should have become a favourite one for both light and 
heavy motor vehicles. Moreover, it must be acknowledged that 
electricity already possesses many advantageous features for the 
work, whilst it is not improbable that in the near future improve- 
ments in storage batteries, and the further development of the 
application of electricity generally in this direction, may place 
it in the premier position. 



156 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Light delivery vans propelled by electric power are built by a 
considerable number of firms abroad, and a few makers in this 
country, the following being fair examples of the class : 



EXAMPLES OF LIGHT ELECTRIC VANS 
The Vehicle Equipment Company Light Electric Vans 

This company, whose sole agents here, as has been already 
mentioned with respect to electric omnibuses, are the Anglo- 
American Motor Car Company, Limited, are builders of several 
patterns and sizes of light delivery electric vans, one of which, having 
a capacity of about 8 cwts., is illustrated in Fig. 63. The maximum 




Fig. 63. The Vehicle Equipment Company light 8-cwt. electric van. 

speed per hour of this vehicle is 12 miles, and the radius on one 
charge is 35 miles. The running gear is practically similar 
to that described (and shown in Fig. 59) with reference to their 
electric omnibuses, which gear is, indeed, common to all their 
vehicles, and consequently needs no further description. 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 157 



The International Motor Car Company Light Electric 

Vans 

The above company, whose works are at Indianapolis, U.S.A., 
and whose agents in this country are the Locomobile Company of 
Great Britain, build several sizes of light delivery electric vans, a 
typical example being that known as the " Waverly," which is 
adapted to carry up to 15 cwts. of goods, and capable of running 
40 miles with full load on a single charge. The storage battery 
or accumulator consists of a battery of 40 Sperry cells, with a 
capacity of 150 ampere-hours, and is also in this case suspended 
beneath the van, thus securing the advantage of the discharged 
cells being easily removed and replaced by a charged set. Each 
of the rear wheels is driven by a separate electric motor of 
3-horse-power, through double helical gear, with staggered teeth, 
a type which both makes a silent drive and is also free from back- 
lash. The battery being carried beneath the van body, the entire 
platform is free to receive goods, the space available being 5 ft. 
2 ins. by 3 ft. by 4 ft. 2 ins. in height. 

The over-all length of the body is 8 ft. 3 ins., and the greatest 
height from the ground 6 ft. 3 ins. The wheel base is 6 ft. 8 ins. 
by 4 ft. 6 ins., and the wheels are of wood, each 30 ins. diameter, 
shod with 3Hn. wide detachable pneumatic tyres. 

The change speed is effected by various controller combina- 
tions, the controller being placed at the left-hand side of the 
driver's seat, and three forward speeds of from 5 to 12 miles an 
hour and a reverse are arranged for, as well as an electric brake 
position. A powerful band-brake, operated by a foot lever, is also 
provided. The steering is of the lever type. The condition of 
the accumulator can be ascertained by the driver from a Keystone 
combined volt and ampere meter, attached to the sloping foot- 
board, which can be lighted up at night. 

Although the electric motors are nominally 3-horse-power 
each, they are so designed as to be capable of working up to a 
temporary overload of 100 per cent, when required, without 
injury. 



158 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



The City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company 
Light Electric Vans 

Amongst the light delivery electric vans built by the above 
firm is one adapted for loads up to half a ton. The maximum 
speed of this vehicle is 12 miles an hour, and the maximum 
mileage on one charge of current, with full load, is 35 miles. The 
wheels are wood, of artillery pattern, and shod with 3-in. diameter 
solid indiarubber tyres. 

The details of construction of the running gear and the 
general arrangement of the mechanism of the above van are 
substantially the same as in the case of the hansom cab built 
by this company, which has been previously described and 
illustrated on pp. 74 and 75. 



Oppermann Light Electric Vans 

One pattern of the light delivery vans driven by electricity 
built by the Carl Oppermann Electric Carriage Company, Limited, 
London, is shown in Fig. 64. 

The van is capable of running a distance of 50 miles with a 
load of 1 5 cwt. on one charge. The frame is constructed of cold- 
pressed steel; the wheels are of the artillery type, with ash 
felloes and oak spokes, mounted on steel hubs with roller bearings, 
and solid indiarubber tyres 3 in. wide and 32 ins. diameter. The 
axles are of the best hammered steel, the front one being fitted 
with Ackerman steering and ball-bearing sockets, and either a 
hand wheel or lever. The frame (a perspective view of which is 
shown in Fig. 64) is quite complete and self-contained. 

The electric motor employed is of the enclosed type, 5-horse- 
power nominal, capable of withstanding considerable overloads, 
and fitted with self-acting lubricators. Power is transmitted direct 
from the motor to the rear axle by means of an improved arrange- 
ment of worm gearing enclosed in a dust-proof casing. 

The accumulator consists of 44 A.B.C. cells, each fitted in an 
ebonite box, and these are in turn enclosed in strong wooden 
cases for convenience of handling, and divided so as to enable the 
available space beneath the body to be fully utilized. The cells 
are composed of a number of leaden plates or grids (five positive 



LIGHT GOODS VANS 



T 59 



and six negative) pasted or filled with oxides of lead and some 
suitable binding material, so as to render the entire mass very 
solid and firm, and to form together what is termed the active 




Fig. 64. Oppermann light electric van. Rear view of frame. 

material. The plates are separated by sheets of perforated 
ebonite, and are secured together by ebonite bolts before being 
placed in the ebonite boxes, in which they are immersed in dilute 
sulphuric acid. The weight of the battery is 10 cwts. It gives 
E.M.F. of 83 volts, and has a capacity of 150 ampere-hours. 



The Maxwerke Electric Vans 

In the Maxwerke electric vans, which are built by Messrs. 
Harff and Schwarz, of Cologne, the electric motor is carried on 
springs at the centre of gravity of the vehicle, and drives the rear 
axle direct through a toothed wheel cast on the hub. The 



160 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

storage battery is in front, and the different speeds are secured by 
acting on the motor. The lever controlling the speeds, when moved 
to its extreme limit of travel, operates the brakes. This latter 
arrangement prevents the brakes from being applied whilst the 
motor is running. 

Other Light Electric Vans 

Amongst other light electric vans which limit of space 
prevents being described, mention may be made of those of 
Messrs. Shippley Brothers, Limited (the Still system), constructed 
to carry 10 cwts., i ton, 2 tons, etc., and the Columbia electric vans. 



CHAPTER VII 
HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 

General Observations Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles Wheels 
Driving Steering Transmission Boiler Engine Power 
Required Results obtained with Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 
Examples of Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

HEAVY-FREIGHT vehicles will undoubtedly form in a few years 
the most important branch of the self-propelled vehicle industry, 
as in this direction the possibilities of mechanically propelled road 
vehicles are admittedly unbounded. It is characteristic of the 
different temperaments of the French, English, American, and 
German nations, that whilst the first have mainly confined them- 
selves, and it must be admitted with considerable success, to the 
perfection of motor vehicles for pleasure purposes, the three 
latter have, on the other hand, largely concerned themselves with 
those of a utilitarian description. The present more or less 
ephemeral boom in pleasure vehicles amongst the idle and 
moneyed classes in this and other countries has naturally turned 
considerable attention in that direction, and the phenomenal 
demand that has arisen for pleasure vehicles has given birth to 
a number of new undertakings specially devoted to their manu- 
facture, or practically so. Many of our well-known and old- 
established firms of engineers, and also a number of more 
recently established firms, however, have devoted themselves to 
the serious and important task of the perfection of the heavy- 
freight vehicle, and that, too, with acknowledged success; and 
when the pleasure-seeking class tire of the doubtful amusement 
of tearing aimlessly about the roads, with the usual accompani- 
ment of clouds of dust, stinks, and noise, to their own and other 
people's discomfort, and to the danger of the public, and the 

161 M 



1 62 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

inevitable slump in fast pleasure vehicles arrives, the first- 
mentioned concerns will likewise turn their attention to the con- 
struction of vehicles of a more solid and useful description. 

Heavy-freight vehicles are built with steam, electricity, and 
internal combustion engines as propelling powers, and each of 
these systems possesses certain distinct advantages, the two first 
being, however, up to the present the most practically successful. 

In this country steam-driven freight vehicles for heavy loads 
are most favoured, but in the United States, where electricity is 
more extensively used as a motive power, this latter is also 
employed with considerable success. 

In France, where the internal combustion engine has practically 
displaced the steam engine, the former has naturally been more 
extensively applied to heavy-freight vehicles, and also with very 
considerable success. At one time, indeed, it was generally sup- 
posed that the heaviest load capable of being dealt with by the 
internal combustion engine was about one ton, but recent 
improvements have rendered it possible to carry with ease con- 
siderably heavier loads, waggons being built with capacities up 
to five tons and over. 

The results obtained with steam waggons in Great Britain and 
the United States have been exceptionally good. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT STEAM VEHICLES 

The following extracts from a paper by Mr. Arthur Hersch- 
mann, read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
in which he gives his opinion on the best form of steam waggon, 
as deduced from the results of a two years' investigation made 
by him in the interests of the Adams Express Company, of New 
York, to which concern he acted as mechanical engineer, will 
be of interest. 

Wheels 

As regards wheels, Mr. Herschmann is of opinion that no 
form of indiarubber tyre will give satisfaction on a commercial 
waggon intended to carry a net load of, say, one ton or more, 
being not only expensive, but giving poor satisfaction under the 
combined action of great weight and speed. Well-constructed 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 163 

springs of ample proportion, he thinks, are the only means of 
lessening the shock to which a waggon wheel is subjected. In 
the case of dished or cored wheels, which he considers the best 
adapted for heavy work, a steel tyre is indispensable, since it 
binds the wheel together and prevents the spokes from being torn 
out when striking an outer obstruction. As regards the width of 
wheels, he thinks that the width of the tyres in inches should be 
at least twice the number of gross tons carried, where small 
waggons are concerned, say, of a capacity of two tons net load ; 
this coefficient of two to decrease in the case of very heavy 
waggons to one and even under. Small driving wheels are used 
on motor waggons owing to the difficulty of designing large wheels 
which will stand such severe strains as motor waggon wheels are 
subjected to. In this case, the spokes of the wheel not only 
support the load, as in a horse-drawn vehicle, but they are more 
or less affected by the action of the driving power, and, moreover, 
there is also a tendency to twist them. With the ideal waggon 
the power should be applied directly where the wheel touches 
the ground. Usually the drive is into a spur wheel, or chain 
wheel, concentric with the wheel, but, of course, of a smaller 
diameter, and such an arrangement makes it desirable that the 
wheel shall be also small. Another reason making small wheels 
desirable lies in the requirements of the waggon, and the working 
of a high-speed motor. In other respects, Mr. Herschmann con- 
siders that a large driving wheel, say, of 4 feet diameter, would 
answer much better than a 3-foot wheel, such as has been almost 
exclusively applied to steam waggons. Not only does a 4-foot 
wheel allow of a more powerful starting torque, but it also saves 
the driving gear by not sinking so deep as a small wheel when 
passing over a depression in the road surface. 



Driving 

With respect to front driving, Mr. Herschmann says that 
any advantage which it possesses as regards better steering is 
more than outbalanced by the disadvantages introduced in con- 
nection with awkward location of the machinery. He thinks 
that if a practical arrangement for driving through all four wheels 
could be introduced, it would prove an excellent feature in a 
waggon. 



1 64 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Steering 

Referring to the two main systems of steering, viz. steering 
with a fifth wheel, and steering with' pivoted axle ends, Mr. 
Herschmann considers that the first-mentioned arrangement is 
theoretically the best adapted for heavy work, inasmuch as it 
leaves the waggon axle unbroken. In reality, however, this 
system cannot be as satisfactorily applied as steering with pivoted 
axle ends. To effect the steering of heavy waggons, spur-gearing 
of suitable purchase has to be used, or a worm and worm-wheel 
device. The latter arrangement he considers, however, to be less 
desirable than steering by spur gearing, since it locks the gear, 
and besides causes a severer strain on the waggon in case the 
front wheels strike an obstruction. In rounding a curve, the 
inner wheels necessarily describe a smaller circle than the outer 
wheels. To make this practicable, the steering device has to be 
correctly designed, and the two driving wheels have either to be 
driven by independent motors or have to be linked together by 
means of a compensating gear, or, as it is often called, "jack-in- 
the-box." It will be found that in a heavy waggon, particularly 
one with dished wheels, this driving and the arrangement of the 
compensating gear are rather troublesome, and that there is still 
great scope for improvement in this connection. 

Transmission 

The transmission gear, forming the link between the rear 
wheels and the engine, which is almost invariably placed in 
front of the driving wheels, can, says Mr. Herschmann, only 
be reliably effected by means of accurate spur wheels, immersed 
in an oil bath. With a steam waggon it is not necessary to use 
any kind of a clutch whilst running, seeing that the steam engine 
is a very flexible prime mover. Nevertheless, a speed reduction 
gear which can be best provided by means of two sets of spur 
wheels of varying diameters, one set stationary, the other movable 
axially on a square shaft, forms a desirable adjunct to the 
mechanism, and can be shifted when the waggon is at rest so as 
to increase its traction power, and enable it to negotiate any 
special hill, or extricate the waggon from a bad position. And 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 165 

it cannot be denied that for many years to come, both in America 
and in this country, greasy and hilly roads, or deep snow, will 
be the greatest difficulties to contend with. Attempting on a 
damp day to take a load of four tons up an incline of about i 
in 20, covered with Belgian blocks, trouble was experienced 
through the drivers racing. The engine was geared i to 14, 
and the wheels were 3 feet in diameter. In Mr. Hersch- 
mann's opinion, larger and heavier driving wheels and a much 
lower gear would have taken the waggon up. With the slightest 
turn of the valve the engine, without difficulty, started, and, on 
account of the poor adhesion and the light machinery, ran away 
before the inertia of the heavy waggon was overcome. 

Boiler 

Coming to the boiler and engine, this authority considers that 
the desiderata for a suitable boiler for a motor waggon are that it 
should be of the greatest safety, of small proportions, quick steam- 
ing and economic, and in addition it should be of the simplest 
possible construction, and free from joints likely to work loose by 
jarring on the road. Pipe boilers, whilst perhaps a little safer than 
shell boilers, carrying little water, are for the same reason undesir- 
able for the varying demands made of a waggon boiler. Other 
objections to small-calibre pipes are that they are necessarily ex- 
posed to intense heat, and are liable to burn, and without a large 
dry steam tank or dome they will make wet steam. A shell boiler, 
on the other hand, can be made of ample proportions, and, if well 
constructed and watched during its use, should give no apprehen- 
sions as to its safety, and the water level can be more evenly 
maintained, which is a point of some importance. A superheating 
device is an all-round advantage, provided that it is correctly 
applied to the boiler. 

In addition to the engine feed pump, there should always be a 
second steam-driven pump, instead of an injector, which latter, 
when of small proportions, has not yet been made to give satis- 
faction on a waggon, in practical working. 

For firing coal and coke are preferable to oil for fuel, being 
besides cheaper in use. It is difficult to keep oil burners in good 
trim in all kinds of weather, and they will " roar " and occasionally 
give trouble and make smoke. Solid fuel can be conveniently 



1 66 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

stowed away around the boiler, which latter is generally fixed in 
front of the waggon, where the fuel acts as a compressible safe- 
guard to the boiler in case of a bad collision. In using a shell 
boiler it is found convenient to fire through the boiler top, after 
the fashion of the De Dion boiler. 

Difficulties to be contended with in steam waggons are that 
they will occasionally show a little steam, and during a sharp frost 
it is difficult to prevent a pipe from being frozen up. Blowing off 
is largely caused by neglect of the driver. By the use of a con- 
denser there would be practically no visible exhaust in all weathers, 
but Mr. Herschmann does not favour the use of a condenser, 
owing to the chance of leaky pipes, and the difficulties of running. 
Difficulties in connection with smoke have been already overcome. 



Engine 

With regard to the engine, Mr. Herschmann says that in all 
cases a light, well-designed, quick-revolution, compound engine 
will answer the purpose, if it is fitted with reversing gear and 
means to admit high-pressure steam to the low-pressure cylinder. 
The cylinder ratio should be larger than in stationary practice, 
seeing that the pressure used is higher, and that a large low- 
pressure cylinder means a powerful starting movement under live 
steam. Especial care should be taken to connect the engine to 
the frame in an efficient manner. A fly-wheel is sometimes fitted, 
in which case it is used as a brake wheel ; he considers it, however, 
to be unnecessary. 

Generally, says Mr. Herschmann, it is to be observed that 
most of the waggons constructed are by far too light to stand the 
severe strain of their work ; the cost of actual propulsion per 
gross ton is by no means so important an item in the case of a 
steam waggon as it is in that of an electric vehicle, and provision 
for durable construction can therefore be amply provided for, and 
a heavy vehicle is just as easy to bring to a standstill as a light 
one, in fact easier, since it may be fitted with quicker acting 
brakes, which, on account of their severe action, could not be 
fitted to one of light construction. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 167 



Power required 

For a waggon capable of carrying a load of 3 tons and able to 
mount an incline of i in 10 at 2 miles per hour, the machinery 
should be capable of producing, when going uphill, a total of 
about 2o-horse-power. 

Such a waggon should have a boiler with about 100 feet of 
heating surface exposed to hot gases. Its speed should not be 
above 6 miles per hour to operate economically. The brakes 
should enable the driver to stop the waggon when descending the 
above-mentioned incline in a distance of about 10 yards. 

The table on page 168 gives the results obtained with a number 
of steam heavy-freight vehicles. 



EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT STEAM 
VEHICLES 

Mann Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Several types of heavy-freight motor vehicles are manufactured 
by Mann's Patent Steam Cart and Waggon Company, Limited, at 
their works at Hunslet, near Leeds. As will be seen from the 
illustrations, Mr. Mann has utilized his previous experience in 
traction engine work, adopting what he esteems to be the most 
valuable features of a traction engine, and has designed a type of 
motor vehicle of an entirely novel form of construction. 

As originally designed, the Mann steam lorry consisted of two 
parts, the platform forming a separate vehicle or trailer on its own 
wheels, which were of the same diameter as the engine wheels, 
the space between them being just sufficient to allow of their 
coming outside the latter (as shown in Fig. 65), and being con- 
nected to them by bolts so that they became driven wheels instead 
of trailers. The object of this arrangement was to comply with 
the old motor-car restrictions to 3 tons weight, the lorry weighing 
over 4 tons without infringing the regulations. 

The following are the approximate over-all dimensions and 
weight of this engine and lorry: length, 18 ft. 6 ins.; width, 
6 ft. 4 ins. The body of the lorry, 12 ft. in length, by 6 ft. 4 ins. 



i68 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



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HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



169 



in width. The net weight of the engine, 3 tons ; the approxi- 
mate net weight of lorry, i ton 5 cwts. The lorry wheels are 
of iron, 3 ft. 6 ins. in diameter by 5 ins. in width, and con- 
nected by three driving pins or bolts to the engine road wheels, 
which are of the same diameter and width. The two thus come 
close together as shown, with the lorry wheels on the outside, and 
the width of the driving-wheel tyres are thus 10 ins. on each side 
of the engine. 

The frame of the lorry is constructed of channel steel, firmly 
braced together by flanged 
steel ends, and covered by a 
wood flooring. The body is 
balanced, and can be tilted in 
order to render the engine 
more readily accessible for 
adjustment and examination. 

Figs. 66 and 67 show re- 
spectively the most recent 
pattern of non-tipping and 
tipping waggons constructed, 
each of 5 ton tare weight, to 
take advantage of the recent 
concession. 

The engine used in the 
Mann heavy-freight vehicles 




. 65. Mann heavy-freight steam 
vehicles. Original pattern of lorry. 



is of the horizontal compound 
type, the high-pressure cylin- 
der being 4 ins. in diameter, 

and the low-pressure cylinder 6\ ins. in diameter by 8 ins. 
stroke in each case. The cylinders are cast integral, and all the 
wearing surfaces are made extra large and are case-hardened 
where necessary, so as to render the engine suitable for quick 
running. The working parts of the engine are enclosed in an 
oil-tight casing, and work in an oil bath. The piston speed is 
350 revolutions per minute. The reversing gear is of Mann's 
patent single eccentric type (Fig. 70), which can be notched up, 
and can thus be utilized as a third brake, when required. The 
engine is placed between the side plates to avoid a separate oil- 
bath, and to allow of the quick-running gear being in the same 
bath. 



1 70 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 




HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 171 

The crank shaft, intermediate shaft, and axles are of forged 
steel, supported in long hardened gun-metal bearings carried in 
steel brackets, having turned projections which fit accurately into 
holes of large diameter bored in the horn plates, thus relieving 
the bolts from the working strain of the engine. 

The gearing is all of cast steel, two speeds being provided, 
viz. a fast one of 5 miles per hour, and a slow one of 2\ miles 
per hour, no pitch chains being used, and compensating gear 
being provided for turning corners. 

The boiler (which is shown in Figs. 68 and 69) is of the 
horizontal locomotive type, strongly stayed, and fitted with a 
firebox suitable for burning either coke or smokeless coal. It is 
constructed of Siemen-Martin mild steel plates, the edges of which 
are planed, and the riveting is effected by hydraulic machinery. 
The firebox shell sides are extended for carrying the engine shafts 
and axle brackets, all of which pass through the same plates. The 
working pressure of the boiler is 200 Ibs. per square inch. 

The boiler feed pump is of gun-metal, fitted with phosphor 
bronze valves of large diameter, it is continuous acting, and 
the feed to the boiler can be regulated to a nicety. Either 
an auxiliary donkey pump or an injector is also provided for 
supplying the boiler when the engine is standing. The feed water 
is stored in a tank carrying 120 gallons of water, and a water 
lifter, fitted with 20 feet of suction hose, is provided for filling this 
tank with water from a wayside brook or pond. 

Steering is effected by means of a simple but effective gearing, 
comprising a worm arranged to mesh directly with a toothed 
quadrant cast on the fore-carriage bracket. Two brakes are pro- 
vided, viz. a foot lever strap brake, and a screw brake acting on 
the rims of the lorry road wheels. 

The engine is practically a small compound road locomotive 
mounted upon springs, with coke bunkers round the boiler and a 
footplate at one side of the firebox, the water tanks being at the 
other. 

The body of the lorry is constructed of mild steel plates 
flanged at the corners, and strongly braced and stayed by angle 
irons. 

The exhaust from the engine is passed through a separator 
near the chimney to remove water, and afterwards through a 
tubular superheater before being discharged into the lower part of 



172 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 




HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



173 



the chimney and passing away into the atmosphere in a thoroughly 
dried and invisible condition. By this arrangement, and the good 
blast maintained, no steam remains in the uptake. 

The lorries are capable of carrying loads up to 5 tons, and, in 
the case of the tipping lorry, a suitable windlass is provided for 
hauling back the body after the load has been tipped. The 
vehicles are capable of surmounting gradients of i in 5, and the 
fuel consumption is light, 14 Ibs. of ordinary gas coke per mile 
being sufficient when fully loaded. 

Figs. 68 and 69 are respectively a vertical longitudinal central 




Fig. 68. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical longitudinal 
section of boiler. 

section and a transverse section, through the boiler firebox, showing 
the details of construction. 

The barrel a is formed of a single sheet of steel -^ in. thick, and 
is i ft. 8 ins. internal diameter. The firebox b and rear end plate c^ 
are of -f^ in., and the front plate d of f in. steel plate, the rivets 
being f in. diameter, and the pitch in the case of single joints 
i-j-g- in., and of double joints 2^ ins., the rows in the latter case 
being if in. apart, and placed zigzag. Double joints are provided 
at the longitudinal barrel seam, the crown and horn plate joint, 
and the back plate and horn plate joint. The tubes ^, of which 
there are 24, are of steel, if in. diameter by 36 ins. in length, and 



174 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



are enlarged to i J in. at the smoke-box end. The rear end plate 
c is stiffened by two angle irons,/", placed back to back. The side 
plates for supporting the frame are f 5 6 - in. thick, and are riveted to 
the firebox i ft. 10 in. apart, the top and bottom plates constituting 

a girder on which are bedded 
the engine and water tanks, 
and which plates are longer 
in the case of the non-tipping 
or rigid bodied lorry; g are 
the stays. 

In the latest designs the 
boiler is made separate from 
the side plates so as to be 
capable of being easily re- 
moved for repairs, etc. 

As before mentioned, a 
patent type of single eccentric 
reversing gear is used, and 
the construction of this device 
(shown in Fig. 70) is simple, 
being substantially as follows : 
A wheel #, having four lugs, 
carrying pins, or projections, 
which form fulcrum s for a 
bell-crank lever, <r, and a dis- 
tance lever, d, is keyed on 




Fig. 69. Mann heavy-freight steam 
vehicles. Transverse section of 
boiler. 



the crank shaft a. The bell- 
crank levers and distance link 

d are equal in depth to the diameter of the shaft a, and they are 
provided with pin centres of precisely equal length. An eccentric 
e is formed with similar lugs to those on the wheel b, which are 
arranged to receive pins by which it is connected to the ends 
of the bell-crank lever c and distance link d. The bell-crank 
lever c can be moved laterally along the crank shaft a by means 
of a hand lever operating on a sleeve connected to the former. 
The eccentric e can be shifted from the position for full forward 
to that for full backward gear, whilst the amount of lead remains 
unaltered, and the cut-off can be varied in the same manner as 
in a link motion by notching up. Advantages claimed for this 
arrangement are that no particular parts are subjected to an 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



175 



abnormal amount of wear, as the eccentric is maintained in a 
fixed position ; and, moreover, that comparatively little space is 
taken up. 

The driving wheels consist of two pressed steel flanged plates, 
and a T-section steel rim rendered additionally stiff by a rolled 
steel tyre. The hubs or naves are steel castings fitted with 
phosphor bronze bushes. 

The toothed pinions on the crank shaft are forged and cut from 
the solid, and the whole of the rest of the spur or toothed gear 
wheels used on the vehicles are of cast steel. 




Fig. 70. Mann heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
reversing gear. 



Patent single eccentric 



The vehicles shown in Figs. 65 and 66, not having the divided 
road wheels of the original pattern, are much simpler, and, more- 
over, as there are no outside brackets, the wheels can be easily 
removed. The whole machine, besides, is heavier and stronger 
and better sprung, and the increased tare weight allows of bunkers 
for fuel round the boiler, which takes off the traction-engine appear- 
ance which was a somewhat prominent feature in the old type of 
vehicle. 



Thornycroft Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The Thornycroft Steam Waggon Company, Limited,, of Chis- 
wick and Basingstoke, are makers of a number of different patterns 
of heavy-freight steam vehicles, the performance of which at the 
trials held by the Liverpool Self-propelled Traffic Association 



1 76 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

attracted considerable attention, and, in conjunction with their 
success in practical work, has stamped them as reliable and 
trustworthy vehicles. 

Amongst the types of heavy-freight steam vehicles manu- 
factured by this company, mention may be made of their standard 
waggons adapted for loads of from 2 to 4 tons ; box vans 
carrying loads up to 2 tons and up to 4 tons ; lorries with rim 
sides and dwarf tail-boards, with rail sides, and side-loading 
lorries, to carry loads up to 4 tons, and lorries with rail or board 




Fig. 71. Thornycroft heavy-freight steam vehicles. Colonial type of 
4-ton waggon. 

sides to carry loads up to 6 tons ; combination lorry and furniture 
vans to carry loads up to 4 tons ; waggons with rail sides, and 
with rail sides and wooden roofs, to carry loads up to 4 tons ; 
colonial waggons to carry loads up to 4 tons,, and to 6 tons ; 
also tipping waggons adapted for municipal purposes, military 
waggons, etc. 

A typical example of the Thornycroft heavy-freight vehicle is 
the colonial waggon, shown in Fig. 71. This waggon is built in 
two sizes, viz. that shown in the illustration, which is adapted to 
carry a load of 4 tons, and a larger vehicle adapted to carry a 
load of 6 tons. Under ordinary conditions the first-mentioned 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 177 

vehicle is capable of drawing a trailer carrying an additional load 
of from 2 to 2\ tons. 

The framework of the colonial waggon is, like the standard 
waggon for home use, made of channel section steel strongly 
tied and braced, but is in the former case constructed stronger 
throughout, a remark which also applies to other parts, the springs 
being stiffer and the driving axle-boxes being provided with extra 
stays. Instead of the wooden artillery pattern wheels used on 
the home type of waggon, which are similar to those already 
described and illustrated (Figs. 32 and 33) with reference to 
the Thornycroft heavy passenger vehicles, wheels made entirely 
of steel and of larger diameter are employed. The tyres are 
made up to 12 inches in width, and are fitted with diagonal 
cross strips. 

The engine and boiler are also similar to those described and 
illustrated (Figs. 34 to 36) with reference to the heavy passenger 
vehicles, the first mentioned, however, being much more powerful 
and developing 45-horse-power at normal speed, whilst the boiler 
is, of course, proportionately larger. The gearing is all enclosed 
in dust-proof oil-tight gear cases. 

The vehicle, when fully loaded, is capable of travelling at a 
speed of about 6 miles an hour on fair roads, and can surmount 
gradients of i in 9. A daily average of from 35 to 40 miles can 
be made, one day a week being devoted to cleaning of boiler and 
general overhaul. Sufficient water is carried for a run of 15 to 
20 miles under ordinary conditions. 

The boiler is arranged for burning coal, coke, or good burning 
wood as fuel, and the bunkers have a sufficient capacity to store 
enough coal for a run of about 50 miles. When desired, the 
boiler can be adapted, and the necessary arrangements fitted, to 
burn crude or other oil as fuel. 

These vehicles can be supplied with any type of body, the 
frame and running gear remaining practically the same in each 
instance. 



Coulthard Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The firm of Messrs. T. Coulthard and Company, Limited, 
of Preston, have also gained a reputation for the various types of 
heavy-freight steam vehicles which they build, Figs. 72 and 73 

N 



i 7 8 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



being two views of one of their 5 to 6 ton lorries showing the 
vehicle loaded and unloaded. 

The principal dimensions of this vehicle are : length over all, 
19 ft. 9 ins. ; width over all, 6 ft. 6 ins. ; height over chimney, 8 ft. 
10 ins. platform, 14 ft. by 6 ft. 6 ins. ] area of carrying platform, 
91 square feet. 

The main frame is of channel steel, braced and so designed 
and constructed as to carry the whole of the machinery, boiler, 
water tank, etc. The frame is supported on the axles through 
long laminated springs. 

The engine is of the vertical compound condensing type, fitted 




Fig. 72. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton 

lorry, loaded. 

with link motion reversing gear, and enclosed in an oil-tight casing, 
which latter is extended so as to also carry enclosed all the reducing 
and compensating gear and shafts, and to ensure very efficient 
lubrication of the splash type. 

From the engine motion is communicated to the driving wheels 
by means of chain transmission gearing operating through a 
countershaft. 

The boiler is of the vertical fire-tube doorless type, the fuel, 
which is coal or coke, being fed in from a central aperture at 
the top, and it is calculated to withstand a working pressure of 
200 Ibs. per square inch, being hydraulically tested to 400 Ibs. 
per square inch. The boiler feed pump is of a. patented 



HEAVY FREIGHT VEHICLES 179 

dust-proof type designed by the makers, and connected directly to 
the engine, an independent steam pump being also fitted as an 
emergency feed. Both these pumps are fitted with independent 
motion and delivery from the feed-water tank to the boiler. 
The fuel bunker has a capacity of 4 cwts., which is sufficient 
for a run of about 30 miles, and the feed-water tank is capable 
of holding a sufficient supply of water to last for from 12 to 
15 miles. 

The wheels are of the artillery pattern, or gun-carriage con- 
struction, fitted with steel hubs, oak spokes, and ash felloes, the 




Fig- 73. Coulthard heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5 to 6 ton 
lorry, unloaded, 

tyres being of weldless steel hydraulically fitted, 5 inches in width 
to front, and 7 inches in width to rear wheels. The front wheels 
are 33 inches in diameter, and the rear wheels 36 inches in diameter. 
The drive is transmitted to the road-driving wheels through an 
improved patented triangular attachment which communicates the 
driving effort direct to the felloes or rims of the wheels and relieves 
the spokes of this strain. 

Double-acting brakes are fitted to the road-driving wheels, 
which brakes are sufficiently powerful to be capable of holding the 
vehicle on any reasonable gradient in either direction. 

There are two speeds of gearing provided, viz. a fast one of 
5 miles an hour, and a slow one of 2^ miles an hour, and the 



j8o 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



vehicle is capable of carrying the full load ; that is to say, from 
5 to 6 tons on good macadam or paved roads, and of surmounting 
therewith grades not exceeding T in 10. On bad roads or gradients 
exceeding the above, the load will have to be reduced to meet 
the circumstances of the case. The tare weight of the vehicle is 
approximately 4*75 tons. 



The Lancashire Steam Motor Company Heavy- 
freight Steam Vehicles 

The heavy motor vehicles manufactured by this company, who, 
it may be remarked, built a steam motor lorry capable of carrying 
a load of 4 tons and fitted with a coal-fired boiler as far back as 




Fig. 74. The Lancashire heavy- freight steam vehicles. 

waggon. 



Brewer's 



1883, have been very successful at Liverpool and elsewhere, and 
have attracted very favourable attention. 

The standard type of steam road waggon (Fig. 74) built by 
these makers has a vertical boiler located as in the Thornycroft 
waggon at the extreme fore end of the frame, instead of just 



HEAVY-FRETGHT VEHICLES 



iSi 



behind the front wheels, as is the practice with some other 
makers. 

The waggon has a platform of the ordinary lorry type, 1 2 ft. 
6 ins. in length by 6 ft. 5 ins. in breadth over all. The available 
space for goods inside the beading is 75 square feet. The main 
frame supporting the platform is entirely constructed of channel 
steel. When loaded with 4 tons the height of the platform from 
the ground is 3 ft. 6 ins. 

The wheels are of the artillery pattern, having steel naves, 




- 75. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
of engine. 



Plan view 



oak spokes, and ash felloes, the front wheels being 34 inches 
in diameter with tyres 4 inches wide, and the rear or driving 
wheels 36 inches in diameter with tyres 5 inches wide. The tyres 
are weldless and specially rolled, and are put on by hydraulic 
pressure. 

The engine (Fig. 75) is of the horizontal compound reversing 
type, having cylinders 3^ ins. and 6 ins. diameter by 6 ins. stroke, 
and running at a speed of 420 revolutions per minute. The 
engine, change gear, and compensating gear are all completely 
enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-proof casing providing efficient 



182 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



lubrication of the splash type. The wearing surfaces are all 
exceptionally long and large, and an arrangement is provided for 
admitting high-pressure steam to both cylinders when required. 

The valve gear is shown in Fig. 76. The valves are of the 
balanced type, specially designed, and devoid of springs or com- 
plications liable to give trouble. 

The boiler for generating the necessary steam supply, which 
is shown in vertical central section in Fig. 77, and as before 




Fig. 76. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Views of 

valve gear. 



mentioned, is placed in front of the driver's seat, is of the fire- 
lube type, fired from the top through a central chute, the fuel 
used being gas coke. The tubes are of tough seamless steel, and 
a fusible plug is fixed in the crown plate of the firebox. The 
boiler has no sq. ft. of heating surface, and 4/9 sq. ft. of grate 
area, the working pressure being 200 Ibs. per sq. in. The fire is 
regulated by a hinged ashpan, and also by a lid covering the 
central firing chute. 

Feed water is supplied to the boiler by an automatic feed 
pump working off the compensating gear shaft, and an arrange- 
ment is provided whereby any feed water in excess of that 
required to feed the boiler is pumped back into the feed-water 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



183 



tank, this operation being regulated by means of a hand wheel 
near the driver's seat. A small steam pump is also provided 
beneath the driver's seat, which can be used as an auxiliary boiler 





Fig- 77- The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
central section of boiler. 



Vertical 



feed pump. Double check valves are fitted to both these boiler 
feed pumps. 

The fittings include a Klinger safety water gauge and a 
safety valve set to blow off at 250 Ibs. pressure per square inch. 
The boiler gives 80 sq. ft. of heating surface, is tested to a 
pressure of 425 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure, and is 
intended to work at a pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch. 



1 84 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The fuel bunkers are located on each side of the boiler, and 
are capable of containing a sufficient supply of coke to last for an 
ordinary day's work. 

The feed-water tank has a capacity of 130 gallons, and is 
fitted with a removable strainer, a water lifter bsing provided for 
filling same. 

The boiler is so designed that it can be readily taken to pieces 
for cleaning purposes, the upper and lower shells being bolted 
together, as shown in the drawing. 

The whole of the gearing is steel, all the wheels having machine- 
cut teeth, and the drive from the end of the compensating gear 
shaft is applied to the driving-wheel felloes by an improved form 
of Hans Renold's patent roller chain, which has all the links 




Fig. 78. The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional 
view of compensating gear transmission shaft. 

bushed with hardened steel, and large diameter steel pins also 
hardened. The Renold chain is one particularly well suited for 
heavy motor work, as it meets in a most effective manner the 
alterations of pitch due to wear, and also reduces the wear upon 
the pins to a minimum. 

An important feature in the transmission gear is the arrange- 
ment of cushion drive in the small pinions on the compensating 
gear shaft, by means of which the driving chains, and working 
parts of the engine, are relieved of all shocks and injurious strains 
when starting under a heavy load, the arrangement being such 
that the engine crank shaft can make almost a complete revolution 
before full power is exerted at the driving wheels. 

The compensating gear shaft, which is shown in Fig. 78, is of 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 185 

special construction, being hollow or tubular from end to end, 
and a bolt passing through this shaft is arranged to take up the 
end thrust caused by the bevel or mitre wheels, and thereby to 
relieve the bearings of same, and in this manner to effect a very 
considerable reduction in the amount of friction engendered. No 
keys are employed in the construction of the mechanism, all 
the wheels being put on flanges, and castellated nuts are used 
throughout, each being secured by a split pin. The parts are all 
made to gauge and template, and are interchangeable, and all 
the castings being numbered makes it a comparatively easy 
matter to obtain replacements. An internal clutch arrangement, 
which can be operated by means of a lever placed under the 
frame of the vehicle, admits of the compensating gear being 




Fig- 79- The Lancashire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional 
view of second motion shaft. 

locked when desired. Fig. 79 shows the construction of the 
second motor shaft. 

The driver's seat is capable of accommodating comfortably 
three persons, one man, however, being sufficient to handle the 
machine. 

This waggon is stated by the makers to be capable of per- 
forming a journey of 50 miles in a day of 12 hours, with a load 
of 4 tons, provided that the roads are in good condition and the 
gradients not too severe. 

Savage Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Although Messrs. Savage Brothers, Limited, of King's Lynn, 
have been long well known as makers of traction engines, it is 
only comparatively recently that they have turned their attention 



1 86 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

to the manufacture of steam motor lorries. They have, however, 
succeeded by utilizing their long experience in road traction to 
very great advantage in the production of a very efficient heavy 
motor vehicle of this description. 

The following are the principal dimensions of Messrs. Savage's 
standard type of steam lorry, shown in Fig. 80 : extreme length, 
1 8 ft.; width, 6 ft. 6 ins.; height of floor, 4 ft.; floor space, 
75 sq. ft. ; diameter of front wheels, 33 ins., width of tyres, 5 ins. ; 
hind wheels, 39 ins., width of tyres, 7 ins. The frame is of 
special channel steel, strongly riveted and bolted together. 



Fig. 80. Savage heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton lorry. 

The engine is of the horizontal compound piston valve type, 
cylinders respectively 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter giving off 30 
brake horse-power at 450 revolutions per minute. The crank 
shaft, connecting rods, piston rods, and guide bars are of steel, 
and the reversing gear is of the single eccentric type, the whole 
being enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-proof casing, and a 
Rochester pony pump lubricator being provided for cylinder 
lubrication. 

The boiler, which is situated at the front end of the vehicle, is 
of the water tube type, the circulating tubes being f in. diameter, 
and the return tubes i j- in. diameter, of Maunesmana steel manu- 
facture and solid drawn. The bottom tube plate is of mild 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 187 

steel, having a steel- domed cover to which are attached patent 
accessible inlet valves and blow-off cock. The upper steam and 
water dome is of malleable steel and solid drawn, having fixed to 
it the usual steam gauges, safety valves (Empire type), steam stop 
valves, and cocks for supplying steam to engine water lifter and 
auxiliary steam pump. The outer casing is of mild steel lined 
with asbestos sheets. 

The boiler is fitted with a Klinger water gauge, and doors are 
provided at each end to admit of easy access being had to the 
tubes. It has a heating surface of 90 sq. ft. in tubes, and 4 sq. 
ft. of grate area. The working pressure is 220 Ibs. per square 
inch. There are two feed pumps, an ordinary and an auxiliary. 

A feed- water tank having a capacity of 130 gallons is provided, 
and there is bunker capacity for 3 cwts. of fuel. There is steel 
spur gearing giving two speeds, with machine-cut teeth and com- 
pensating gear on the intermediate shaft with a special locking 
arrangement. The consumption of coke is 2 Ibs. per ton per 
mile, and the water consumption 8 to 10 gallons per mile. 

In working, the exhaust steam is discharged into a copper 
cylinder or receptacle, thereby heating the feed water on its way 
to the boiler, which feed water passes through a copper coil 
arranged within this cylinder. The exhaust steam is subsequently 
discharged through the chimney as invisible vapour. 

The average speed of the vehicle is 5 miles an hour, and the 
load from 4 to 5 tons. At a recent trial near King's Lynn the 
author saw one of these steam waggons, fully loaded, successfully 
surmount a gradient of i in 7. 

Clarkson Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Messrs. Clarkson, Limited, Chelmsford, are the makers of 
excellent steam lorries, the running mechanism of which is 
substantially similar in construction to that of the steam public 
service omnibuses made by the same company, and which, having 
been already described at some length on pp. 79 to 103, need 
be no further dealt with here. 

Musker Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Messrs. C. and A. Musker, Liverpool, manufacture heavy 
steam motor vehicles which differ from any of those already 



i88 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



described, in having a horizontal boiler of the flash or instantaneous 
generation type, which is placed transversely under the centre of 
the body frame, and fired with liquid fuel, a special fan creating a 
draught for the burner and enabling a chimney to be. dispensed 
with. In this system, moreover, a separate auxiliary engine is 
provided, which both supplies oil and air to the burner, and feed 
water to the boiler, in the proper proportions. The air for the 
burner is drawn through the condenser, and is thus raised in tem- 
perature before being delivered by the fan into the combustion 
chamber. 

Fig. 8 1 is a vertical longitudinal central section showing the 




Fig. 81. Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
section of boiler. 



Vertical longitudinal 



Musker boiler, which, it will be seen, consists of three cylindrical 
steel tube coils, a, through the annular space or clearance between 
which the flames from the burner pass. The air passes inwardly 
through the heated passage b, into which project ribs or gills, r, 
on the wall of the ignition chamber d. The oil is dropped in 
through the pipe , on to the hot wall of the ignition chamber d, 
where it is instantly vapourized and mixes with the heated air, 
being further mixed before reaching the ignition or combustion 
chamber </, by passing through holes, /, in a block, g. 

The engines are placed horizontally, and approximately in the 
centre of the vehicle, motion being transmitted to the driving 
wheels by means of toothed gearing. An advantage offered by 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



189 



the Musker system is the large platform area available for the 
accommodation of goods. 

Simpson-Bodman Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Messrs. Simpson and Bodman build a type of motor waggon 
characterized by the use of a pair of small three-cylinder engines 
working separately and independently the two driving wheels, 
thus enabling differential gearing to be dispensed with. Motion 
is transmitted from each of the engines to its countershaft by 
means of interchangeable toothed wheels, admitting of change of 
speed gear being readily effected, and the drive is transmitted 
from the countershafts to the road wheels by chain gearing. The 
position of the engines and gearing at the rear of the vehicle both 
renders them readily accessible and distributes their weight on 
the driving wheels, which is advantageous when running empty. 

The boiler employed, which is shown in sectional front and 
side elevation in Fig. 82, and is of the flash or instantaneous 




Fig. 82. Simpson-Bodman heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional 
front and side elevations and detail view of boiler. 



type, and is said to be one of considerable efficiency. It consists 
essentially of a set of heavy steel tubes, a, which are indented in 
a similar manner to those of the Row condenser, and are con- 
nected on the exterior of the furnace by Hay thorn joints, b, 
one of which is shown in vertical central section, drawn to an 
enlarged scale on the right-hand side of the illustration. These 
indentations occurring a large number of times so baffle the passage 
of the water or steam as to expose the same thoroughly to the 



igo 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



action of the heated surfaces, c is a dome to receive the steam 
and prevent its attaining too high a temperature, d is the furnace 
which is adapted for the consumption of coal. 



Brightmore Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The latest standard pattern of steam lorry from the designs of 
Dr. A. W. Brightmore, M.I.C.E., is shown in Fig. 83. A lorry 
on this system formed, it will be remembered, a conspicuous 
exhibit at the Stanley Show a year or two ago. The Brightmore 
steam vehicles are now built by Messrs. Turner, Atherton and 
Company, Limited, Denton, Manchester. 




Fig. 83. Brightmore heavy- freight steam vehicles. 
5 to 6 ton lorry. 



Standard 



The driving and steering of this lorry are both effected on the 
front wheels; and a special feature in the construction is that, 
contrary to the usual practice in lorries designed with front steering 
and driving wheels, the entire weight of the machinery is supported 
on them, thus ensuring sufficient adhesion when running light, 
whilst the construction at the same time admits of the steering 
being readily operated. The machinery is carried on the under- 
carriage, and a platform on the latter, extending in front of the 
lorry, is provided for the driver, all the handles necessary for the 
control of the vehicle being within his reach. 

The steering gear consists of an arrangement of brake-drums 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 191 

placed on each side of the differential gear, and the steering is 
performed by applying the one or other of these brakes, and thus 
causing the one or other of the front wheels to slow down and the 
other wheel to run at an increased speed, according to the direction 
in which it may be required to steer. The sensitiveness of the 
steering is controlled by means of a resistance which has to be 
overcome by the steering brakes, and is capable of adjustment to 
suit the average road surfaces in any particular district. 

A special form of water-tube boiler is provided for the 
generation of steam, and the motive power is derived from a 
standard type of compound cased-in engine, which drives on to 
the front wheels through a second or auxiliary motion shaft and 
a differential gear shaft through Renold's silent chains. The 
cylinders are 4^ in$. and 1\ ins. diameter by 6 ins. stroke. The 
cranks are at right angles, giving a nearly uniform effort on 
the crank pin, and thus permitting a fly-wheel to be dispensed 
with. The normal speed of the engine is 500 revolutions per 
minute, and it is geared down to give a speed of 6 miles per 
hour on the road, whilst this speed can be varied either by the 
throttle valve or cut-off gear. A slow-speed gear is, however, 
also provided for very steep hills, but the variable cut-off makes 
its use seldom necessary. 

The lorry under consideration has a carrying capacity of from 
5 to 6 tons, and the dimensions of the carrying platform are 16 ft. 
by 7 ft. 3 in., one of the advantages of the design being that this 
platform extends practically the whole length of the vehicle. The 
over-all length of the vehicle is i8J ft. The frame is of rolled 
steel bulb angle section, and the platform flooring of i^-in. pitch 
pine. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, 3 ft. 3 ins. diameter, 
with 8-in. treads. 

Another advantage claimed for this type of lorry is that the 
load is carried on all four wheels, thus effecting a reduction of the 
maximum resulting pressure on the roads. 

The steering is undoubtedly very sensitive, being always 
exerted on the direction of motion, and, owing to the short wheel 
base, the vehicle can be turned in a short radius. 

The forecarriage carrying the machinery is connected to the 
carrying platform by a ball-and-socket joint, and is kept parallel 
to it by a roller (connected to the back of the forecarriage) 
moving in a segmental channel attached to the platform. This 



192 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

method of connection permits the front axle to assume any angle 
relative to the back axle whether in the horizontal or vertical 
plane, thus permitting of steering, and of the vehicle accommo- 
dating itself to any unevenness of the ground without a strain 
on the springs. Both splash and forced lubrication are employed. 



Straker Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Fig. 84 shows the standard pattern of covered steam waggon, 
adapted for a load of 5 tons, built by the Straker Steam Vehicle 
Company, London. The 5-ton Straker vehicles are fitted with 




Fig. 84. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton 
covered waggon. 

long-stroke slow-running engines of 40 indicated horse-power of 
the compound open horizontal type, which affords the advantage 
of permitting of ready access to the working parts. The cylinders 
are 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 7 ins. stroke, and the reversing gear 
is of the single eccentric type, and has been designed with the view 
of keeping the mechanism as free as possible from valve rods, etc. 
The cylinders are lagged with non-conducting material, covered 
with a casing of planished steel, and a bye-pass is provided for the 
admission of live steam into the low-pressure cylinder at starting, 
or at any other time when extra power is required. The bearings 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES, 193 

are of gun-metal or phosphor bronze, and a continuous system of 
oil feed is provided. 

The engine is protected from dust by a light casing, which is 
normally held in position by two sliding bolts, and can be easily 
removed when required. A fly-wheel is mounted on the crank 
shaft, and the engine can be readily disconnected and run inde- 
pendently from the car. The crank shaft has a square extension 
upon which is arranged to slide a double steel pinion, which can 
be thrown into or out of gear by suitable actuating gear, and this 




Fig. 85. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of engine 
and running gear with covers removed. 

pinion meshes with steel gear wheels mounted on a countershaft 
rotatably mounted on a channel frame carrying a sprocket pinion. 
Fig. 85 is a plan view of the engine and running gear with the 
covers removed. 

Two speeds are provided, the ratios of the gear being 9*2 to i 
and 167 to i, which give speeds of from 3 to 7 miles an hour. 
Power is transmitted to the rear axle (shown in Fig. 86), which is 
of the live type, and rotates in axle boxes fitted with phosphor- 
bronze bearings and having grease-pad lubrication, by means of a 
compound silent antifriction roller chain. 



i 9 4 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The chain-drive sprocket wheel is mounted on a differential 
gear, one bevel wheel of which is keyed to the rear axle, and the 
other to the driving sleeve secured to one of the driving wheels. 
A special arrangement is also provided for admitting of the inser- 
tion of a locking pin in any position of the wheels, so as to connect 
up both driving wheels when desired. A radius rod extends from 
each axle box to a lug on the countershaft bearing, each rod 
having screw and nut adjustment. All the wearing surfaces are 
case-hardened. 

The boiler, which is mounted over the front or steering axle, 
is shown in sectional plan in Fig. 87, and in vertical central section 
in Fig. 88. It is of the water-tube type, and has 70 sq. ft. of 
heating surface, and 2-2 sq. ft. of grate area. The working 




Fig. 86. Straker heavy- freight steam vehicles. View of rear axle. 

pressure is 205 Ibs. per square inch. It consists essentially of four 
concentric shells forming an inner and outer annular water space, 
closed at top and bottom by rings connected together by stay 
bolts. Between the two annular water spaces are radial connecting 
tubes. This arrangement is claimed to ensure absolutely equal 
expansion of the parts, and to avoid leaky tubes ; and no rivets 
being used, the boiler can be easily taken to pieces when desired. 
The smoke box is so arranged that it can be readily disconnected 
when the flues are exposed for cleaning, and a superheater is 
attached to the fire box. A reheater is also provided for dealing 
with the exhaust steam. Coke fuel is employed, the feed being 
through a central down-take, and a regulating damper is provided 
in the base of the funnel. Normally the necessary draught is 
secured by the discharge of the exhaust steam into the funnel 
through a nozzle, but a live-steam blower is also fitted. Both an 
injector and a gear- driven plunger pump are provided for feeding 
the boiler, either of them being of ample capacity singly. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 195 

The rear portion of the body is supported upon strong springs 
mounted upon the bearings carrying the driving axle, and connected 
with the frame by adjustable radius rods. The fore part of the 
body is supported upon the front axle through a powerful spring 
cradle and an antifriction or ball bearing, the axle being mounted 
in a central pivot, thus securing a three-point support and obvi- 
ating any undue twisting strain. 




Fig. 87. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan view 

of boiler. 

The road wheels are made of mild steel, with special cast-iron 
hubs. The driving wheels are 3 ft. 6 ins. by 9 ins. tread, with tyres 
f in. thick. The front or steering wheels are 2 ft. 6 ins. by 5 ins. 
tread, with tyres f in. thick, the tyre plates being cut in sections 
in order to provide for expansion. 

The steering is by steel worm and segment, with an inclined 
spindle and an aluminium hand wheel. A powerful block or shoe 



196 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

brake is provided, and a second brake can be obtained by revers 
ing the engine. The body is built of well-seasoned timber ribbed 
up with angles, plates, and beads, and has a superficial area of 




Fig. 88. Straker heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical central section 

of boiler. 

72 sq. ft., a total length of 12 ft., with 6 ft. width, inside measure- 
ment. A double bunker at the front of the vehicle is capable of 
holding sufficient fuel for a 6-hours' run, and a galvanized iron 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 197 

tank holds a supply of 140 gallons of water, the usual fittings for 
lifting water being provided. The frame is of strong steel channel, 
well braced together with transverse channels, tee-irons, and 
angles. 

The dimensions of the Straker 5-ton lorry are, approximately, 
1 8 ft. in length by 6 ft. 6 ins. extreme width, with a wheel base of 
10 ft., and a wheel gauge of 5 ft. 3 ins. from centre to centre. The 
maximum speed is 7 miles an hour, and it is capable of surmount- 
ing gradients up to i in 6 on ordinary roads, and of drawing a 
trailer carrying an additional load of 2 tons on level surfaces. The 
details of construction are practically the same as those of the 
covered waggon just described. 

A 7 -ton lorry is also made, which is identical in construction 
to the standard 5-ton lorry, with the exception that it is, of course, 
more solidly built throughout, and has an engine of 55 indicated 
horse-power. 

The 2-ton van is fitted with a 25 indicated horse-power engine 
of high rotary speed and of relatively small dimensions, which is 
enclosed and lubricated on the splash system. 



The Londonderry Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard type of heavy-freight steam vehicle, built by the 
Marquis of Londonderry at his works at Seaham Harbour, has 
come successfully through some very severe tests, one of the 
vehicles last summer having been run without stopping, with a full 
load of 5 tons, from Seaham Harbour to Whitehall, London, a 
distance of 294 miles, the time occupied in the journey being 
54 hours. 

The most noticeable features in thre vehicle, the manufacture 
of which has been introduced into the Seaham Harbour Works by 
Mr. J. Donovan, the manager, are the arrangement of cast-steel 
side frame and the spur driving gear. With reference to the 
latter, it is stated that toothed wheels in the driving gear of some 
of these lorries have been run over 13,000 miles with practically 
no signs of wear. The engine is of the compound type, fitted 
with flat or locomotive slide-valves, and steam is generated in a 
fire-tube boiler. 

During the above-mentioned trial the consumption of gas coke, 



198 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

including that used in cleaning the fire at intervals, was i cwt. for 
every 1 1 miles run. 

Fig. 89 shows a standard pattern of 5-ton Londonderry steam 
waggon, which is built to conform to the new regulations, the 
principal dimensions being 19 ft. in length over all, 6 ft. 6 ins. 
in width, and 8 ft. in height to the boiler chimney top. The 
carrying platform is 12 ft. 6 ins. by 6 ft. 3 ins., and is fitted 
with i8-in. sides, hinged to drop, or entirely removable, as 
required. This platform rests on the main frame, the latter 
being constructed of channel steel and strongly braced. When 
loaded, the height of the platform from the ground is 3 ft. 3 ins. 




Fig. 89. Londonderry heavy- freight steam vehicles. Standard 
5- ton waggon. 

The road wheels (Fig. 92) are of solid cast steel, no rivets or 
joints being employed in their construction, rear, 3 ft. 3 ins. 
diameter, with tyres 10-5 ins. in width, and front wheels 2 ft. 
9 ins. diameter, with tyres 6 ins. wide. When preferred, the 
Londonderry patent composite wheels can be substituted for 
the above. These latter are cut from prime, well-seasoned teak, 
and are hooped with rolled steel rims and renewable protection 
tyres. The naves are of cast-steel, and the drive is transmitted 
to the peripheries by extended arms or naves. The main axle is 
5 ins. diameter, and carried in axle boxes supported by heavy 
springs of finest quality steel. 

The engine, which is shown in plan and vertical longitudinal 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



199 



section in Figs. 90 and 91, is of the horizontal compound type, 
fitted with locomotive pattern slide valves. The high-pressure 
cylinder is 4*25 ins. diameter, and the low-pressure cylinder 
6*75 ins. diameter, by a stroke of 7 ins. The valve motion 
is of the single eccentric type, with constant lead, and permitting 
cut-off at any desired point of stroke. The wearing surfaces are 
ample, and the whole engine is enclosed in an aluminium dust- 
proof casing. Provision is provided for working both cylinders 




Fig. 90. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. 

engine. 



Plan view of 



with high-pressure steam when desired, and the engine is capable 
of taking the waggon fully loaded up a gradient of i in 8. The 
lubrication of the engine is partly on the splash principle, the slide 
valves and cylinders being oiled automatically by a positive feed 
pump lubricator. 

The gearing is of steel throughout, the wheels on crank shaft 
and second shaft having machine-cut teeth, and all the bearings 
being thoroughly dust-proof. The construction admits of each 
separate part of the mechanism being taken adrift without dis- 
turbing the adjacent gear, and is, at the same time, as simple as 
possible. Fig. 92 shows the driving wheel and differential gear 



2OO 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



on the main axle, which is of mild steel. The crank-shaft pinions 
slide on a machine-squared portion of shaft, and the driving 
pinion on the second shaft is securely fitted on a square portion 




Fig. 91. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. Longitudinal 

vertical section of engine. 

i 

of the latter. The crank shaft and second shaft are 2*25 ins. and 
3 ins. diameter respectively, and are carried in swivel bearings. 
The lubrication of the axles and shafts is by grease lubricators. 




Fig. 92. Londonderry heavy-freight steam vehicles. View showing 
driving wheel and differential gear on main axle. 

A two-speed gearing is provided for hill climbing and ordinary 
road running, and change of speed is effected by a single lever, 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 201 

within convenient reach of the driver. The low gear gives a 
speed of 2-5 miles an hour, and the high gear one of 5*5 miles 
an hour, to the vehicle. 

The boiler, which is placed in front of the driver's seat, is of 
the fire-tube central-feed type, and is strongly built and certificated 
for a safe working pressure of 200 Ibs. per square inch. The shell 
contains the firebox and central tube, which is also used for feed- 
ing the boiler with fuel. Attached to this central tube is the top 
tube plate, the fire tubes, which are \ in. thick and of the finest 
grade weldless steel, being expanded in the furnace crown and 
tube plate. There are four large cleaning doors, giving access to 
the firebox sides and tube plate, and wash-out and mud-hole 
doors are provided at the top and bottom of the shell. The 
boiler is fired from the top, and the firebars with ashpan can 
be raised or lowered by the driver, an arrangement which allows 
of the fire being cleaned out or relighted in three minutes. 

To sweep out the fire tubes, all that is required is to disconnect 
the smoke box, to which is attached the chimney, the whole length 
of the tubes being then exposed. The ordinary working water 
level is i ft. 9 ins. above the firebox crown. The heating surface 
is 95 sq. ft., and the grate area 3*5 sq. ft. The boiler is fitted 
with all the necessary mountings of the best gun-metal. 

An automatic feed pump, geared down from the crank shaft, 
and capable of being thrown out of gear for pumping purposes 
when the engine is standing, supplies the feed water, and an 
injector is fitted to feed independently when required. The 
temperature of the feed water is raised to about 180 degrees 
before entering the boiler by passing through a feed-water heater. 
Two side bunkers are provided for the fuel, which may consist of 
either coke or coal. The water tank holds a sufficient supply for 
an ordinary run of 25 miles under load, and a suitable water lifter 
is provided. 

The steering is effected by a worm and quadrant, with only 
four working joints, ball bearings and ball socket joints being 
provided to facilitate the operation and counteract uneven 
motions on rough roads. There is a live fore axle, which 
gives the vehicle a three-point support. 

A powerful screw brake acting through renewable shoes on 
the tyres of the main wheels is provided, and is capable of 
bringing the vehicle to a stand within 20 feet on the steepest 



202 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

gradient. Another brake is formed by the reversing gear of 
the engine. 

Ellis Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard type of heavy-freight steam vehicle built by 
Messrs. Jesse Ellis and Company, Limited, Maidstone, and 




Fig. 93. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Plan view of standard 
5-ton waggon. 

illustrated in Figs. 93 to 95, is adapted to carry 5 tons on 
body, or 4 tons on body and 2 tons by trailer. 




Fig. 94. Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles. Side elevation of 
standard 5-ton waggon. 

The framing is of channel section mild steel, well braced and 
bracketed, and the engine, boiler, and gearing are mounted on an 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



203 



auxiliary suspension frame connected to the front and hind axles 
in such a manner as to be independent of the body frame. The 
front, or steering, wheels are 36 ins. diameter, with 5-in. steel 
tyres -J in. thick. The rear, or driving, wheels, 42 ins. diameter, 
with 8-in. steel tyres i in. thick. Both front and rear wheels 
are of artillery pattern, and the 
steerage is on the Ackermann 
principle. The brakes com- 
prise a band brake on engine 
flywheel, worked by a foot 
lever, and a hand-screw brake 
acting on both driving wheels. 

The engine is of the hori- 
zontal compound reversing 
type, enclosed in a dust-proof, 
oil-tight casing, with top lid 
and side hand holes. A bye- 
pass valve admits high-pressure 
steam to both cylinders when 
desired. 

The boiler (Fig. 95) is of 
the Ellis-Balmforth pattern, 
fired from top through a central 
flue, and with removable outer 
shell. The plates are mild steel, 
shell plate f in. thick, fire-box 
plates T 7 g in. thick, and tube 
plates J in. thick. There are 
119 solid cold-drawn steel tubes, 
i^ in. diameter and -- in. thick. 
The heating surface is 90 sq. 
ft, the grate area 3*5 sq. ft., 
the working pressure 290 Ibs., 
the water capacity 460 Ibs., 
and the efficiency is given as 
8 Ibs. of steam per Ib. of coke, 

and 8 Ibs. of steam per square foot of heating surface. The boiler 
is tested to 400 Ibs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure. The 
dome is fixed by 43 f-in. bolts, 2-in. centres. There are two tanks, 
having a combined capacity of 150 gallons, one of which forms 




g- 95. Ellis heavy-freight steam 
vehicles. Vertical central section 
of boiler. 



204 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the driver's seat, and the rear tank having a strainer. The 
water lifter is fitted with 30 ft. of iin. three-ply indiarubber 
suction hose, with strainer on end. The water supply is 
sufficient for 12 miles. The fuel bunkers are in front, and 
capable of holding sufficient fuel for an ordinary day's run of 
12 hours. 

The transmission is by means of steel toothed gearing. 
Double helical wheels on the first and second shaft connect 
by spur gear with the rear axle, the spurs being renewable by 
simply detaching the toothed rims and fixing others by helicoid 
spring nuts. There are two speeds, giving 6 and 3 miles per 
hour. Suitable compensating gear is provided, and the driving 
axle, which is of steel 3^ ins. diameter by 6 ft. 3! ins. in length, 
is fitted with patent roller bearings. 

The overall dimensions of the vehicle are : 1 6 ft. 6 ins. long ; 
9 ft. in height to top of funnel ; 6 ft. 6 ins. wide ; wheel base, 8 ft. 
9 ins. The inside dimensions of the standard body are 9 ft. 3 ins. 
by 6 ft. 3 ins. by 3 ft. 3 ins., with a capacity of 7 cubic yards. 

This lorry has been successfully subjected to very exhaustive 
tests. 

Nayler Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Messrs. Nayler and Company, Limited, Hereford, build several 
patterns of steam waggons, presenting some novel features in 
design. The frame of the standard type of 5-ton lorry (Fig. 96) 
is formed of heavy steel channel, strongly braced together with 
T-irori gussets and angles, carefully riveted, the rivet holes being 
all drilled. The length of the body is 12 ft., and the width 
6 ft. 6 ins., and a level platform or any other type of body 
can, of course, be adapted. The superficial area is 78 sq. ft. 

The wheels are of the traction-engine type, the rear 3 ft. 
diameter by 7 ins. wide, the front 2 ft. 6 ins. diameter by 5 ins. 
wide. A double shoe brake, worked from the driver's seat, and 
bearing on the rear wheel tyres, is provided, and the link motion 
is also available for braking purposes. 

The engine is of the compound horizontal reversing type, with 
cylinders 375 ins. and 6*75 ins. diameter, by 6 ins. stroke, with 
link motion reversing gear, and enclosed in a sheet-iron casing. 
The cylinders are well lagged, and covered with blue steel. The 
normal engine speed is 400 revolutions per minute 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 205 

The boiler is of the fire-tube type, easily accessible for cleaning 




I 



I 



bi 





purposes, and fitted with firebox, smoke box, double funnel, and 
the usual fittings. The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per square 



206 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

inch. A i4o-gallon water tank, provided with a filter, and a bunker 
with a fuel capacity for one day's work are provided. 

The engine crank shaft is extended in square section, and 
carries a double pinion of the usual type, which can be thrown in 
and out of gear by means of a lever working in a quadrant, and 
the vehicle must be stopped to change the gear. These pinions 
mesh with gear wheels upon the second motion shaft, which is 
supported in long gun-metal bearings secured to the frame and 
carries the chain pinion. Motion is transmitted from the second 
motion shaft to the driving axle by a chain capable of standing a 
working strain of 20 tons. 

The rear, or driving, axle is mounted in axle boxes bushed 
with gun-metal, and radius rods with screw adjustment are pro- 
vided. It is of the best mild steel, and has a strong set of 
differential gearing with a locking arrangement. Coupling to the 
driving wheels is effected by special bolts and nuts in long gun- 
metal bearings fitted to the axle boxes and secured to the springs. 
The front axle is also of mild steel, and has a central turning 
pivot, thus providing a three-point support. Two speeds are 
provided, giving 2 and 6 miles an hour. 



Robertson Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard type of 5-ton steam waggon or lorry shown in 
Fig. 97 is built by Messrs. James Robertson and Sons, Fleetwood, 
and has a total length of, approximately, 18 ft. 9 ins., with a width 
of 6 ft. 5 ins. over all. The wheel base is 9 ft., and the wheel 
gauge, centre to centre of tyres, is 5 ft. 8 ins. The lorry platform 
has a useful area of 78*5 sq. ft, the length being 13 ft. 4 ins. and 
the width 6 ft. 5 ins. 

The rear portion of the vehicle is supported on strong laminated 
springs, the extremities of which work in steel shoes with hard 
brass liners. 

The rear, or driving, axle is of rolled mild steel girder section 
with forged steel ends accurately machined and riveted, and held 
in position by radius rods secured to the steel pedestals of the 
second motion shaft. The fore part of the vehicle is carried by 
the front axle, which is guided by steel horn plates, and the weight 
is taken centrally by a powerful laminated spring, thus providing a 
three-point support. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 207 

The front axle is a mild-steel forging with long bearings and 
hardened pins. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, having ash 
felloes, oak spokes, and steel malleable naves, with hard gun-metal 
bushes, and steel tyres 6 ins. wide on front wheels, which are 
2 ft 9 ins. diameter, and 8 ins. wide on the back wheels, which 
are 3 ft. 3 ins. diameter. The steering is on the Ackermann 
principle, actuated by a vertical screw, and a brake operated from 
the driver's seat is provided in addition to the reversing lever. 

The engine is of the horizontal compound reversing type, 
cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 5 ins. stroke, running 




Fig. 97- Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 
5-ton waggon. 

normally at a speed of 435 revolutions per minute and developing 
25 brake horse-power. It is enclosed in an oil-tight and dust- 
proof box. The crank shaft is of forged steel, with balanced 
cranks and eccentric sheaves solid therewith and all machined 
together. By moving the change-speed lever near the driver's 
seat to the central position, the engine can be run independently 
for boiler feeding purposes, and an auxiliary cock is provided for 
admitting live steam to the low-pressure cylinder when required. 

The boiler, which is of the multitubular fire-tube design, presents 
some special features, and is shown in sectional plan and side 
elevation in Figs. 98 and 99. It is constructed of mild steel with 
seamless steel tubes, and is fired centrally. The coke bunkers 



208 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



have a sufficient capacity for a run of about 30 miles. The working 
pressure is 200 Ibs. per square inch, and it is tested to 400 Ibs. per 
square inch by hydraulic pressure. The grate area is 2*6 sq. ft. and 
the heating surface 80 sq. ft. The tubes are fixed radially between 
the fire box and the outer shell, the latter being almost completely 
enclosed by an easily removable smoke-box casing. All the tubes 




Fig. 98. Robertson heavy-freight steam vehicles. Sectional plan of 

boiler. 



are entirely under water. The fire bars with the ashpan are slung 
beneath the boiler. 

A feed-water heater with aluminium body, brass-tube plates, 
and -Row tubes, capable of heating the feed water to 190 degrees 
Fahr. is provided, the condensed steam being filtered and returned 
to the feed-water tank. 

Both a main feed pump driven from crank shaft through gearing 
in the engine box or casing, and an auxiliary feed pump with 
separate steam and water connections are provided. 

A square sectional extension is formed on the crank shaft, 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



209 



upon which slides a double steel pinion of the usual type, operated 
by a lever to gear with the differential gearing on the second 
motion shaft. From this latter shaft motion is transmitted to the 




Fig"- 99- Robertson heavy- freight steam vehicles. Vertical central 
section of boiler. 

driving wheels by sprocket or chain wheels at each end, gearing 
through large roller chains with hardened steel bushes, with large 
sprocket or chain wheels carried by steel brackets secured to the 
felloes of the driving wheels. A steel clutch moved into or out 



210 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



of gear by a small steam cylinder operated from the footplate is 
provided for locking the differential gearing. 



The Yorkshire Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

Figs. TOO to 1 02 illustrate one of the standard 4-ton lorries 
built by the Yorkshire Patent Steam Waggon Company, Hunslet. 

The framing of the vehicle is of substantial construction, being 
built of channel steel fixed to cast-steel cross girders and well 
braced with diagonal stays. 

The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and the steering is on 
the Ackermann principle, operated by a screw and levers. A 




Fig. 100. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 4-ton 

lorry. 

powerful screw brake, which acts directly upon the tyres of the 
driving wheels, is provided. 

The design of the engine presents the distinctive feature of 
the cylinders being fixed outside the frame, the high pressure on 
one side, and the low pressure on the other. The crosshead runs 
in cylindrical guides with dust-proof covers, and the cranks and 
connecting rods are also enclosed in dust-proof metal casings and 
run in oil baths. A simple single eccentric reversing gear, having 
no open parts and operated from the driver's platform, is 
provided. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



211 



The boiler is of a special patented design, and is fixed across 
the frame at the front end, forming a very compact arrangement. 
As will be seen from the sectional view (Fig. 101), the boiler is of 
the locomotive type as regards the firebox, the principal difference 
being that there are two short barrels instead of one long one, and 
two sets of fire tubes connect the firebox with the chamber or 




Fig. ioi. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. Vertical 
central section of boiler. 



smoke boxes at the outer ends of the barrels, return tubes con- 
ducting the gases therefrom to another chamber above the firebox 
and at the base of the chimney. The exhaust steam is discharged 
into the smoke boxes, where it is thoroughly superheated and 
passes through a series of small jets into each of the return tubes. 
This arrangement is claimed to ensure both an invisible and 
silent exhaust, and also rapid steaming without the discharge of 



212 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



sparks from the chimney. The boiler is fed by a large force 
pump worked from a second motion shaft, and an injector is also 
provided. The feed-water tank is placed at the rear of the vehicle, 
and a water lifter is fitted. All the tubes in the boiler are well 
below the normal water level. 

The transmission is through spur gearing, and the arrangement 
is shown in the diagrammatical view, Fig. 102. The crank shaft is 
supported in two inverted pedestals secured to the frame, and 
to each of these pedestals a steel bracket is hinged, carrying the 
second motion shaft and the rear axle bearings, the other ex- 
tremities of the brackets being free to slide on strong guides. 

The frame is supported upon laminated springs attached by 




Fig. 102. The Yorkshire heavy-freight steam vehicles. View of shaft 
and axle bracket. 

joint pins to the brackets, so as to be capable of rising and falling 
without any material variation in the working centres of the shafts. 

Each shaft has but two bearings, all the gearing being between 
them, and as the second motion shaft and rear axle are supported 
in swivel bearings, unequal loading or rough roads cannot cause 
binding of the shafts in the necks. 

This vehicle, it is stated, can travel 40 miles per day under 
average conditions, with a consumption of from 3 to 4 cwts. of 
gas coke. With a load of 4 tons, and drawing a trailer with a 
load of 2 tons, the vehicle is said to be capable of ascending 
gradients of i in 10. 

Gillett Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard steam-driven 3-ton waggon built by the Gillett 
Motor Company, Limited, Hounslow, has a channel frame, the 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 213 

side pieces of which curve round in front and are joined 
centrally. 

The front and rear axles are tied together by tubular stays 
fixed at the fore ends and hinged at the rear ends. Full elliptic 
springs support the fore part of the frame on the front axle, and 
semi-elliptic springs, each sliding in guides at one end, carry the 
rear. The hind wheels are 4 ft. in diameter, and the front wheels 
3 ft. in diameter with steel tyres, the wheel base being 1 2 ft. The 
rear axle is a live one, and is supported by four bearings in a 
casting forming an oil-tight casing surrounding the crank shaft, the 
valve gear, the differential gear, and the toothed gearing driving 
the axle. 

Powerful band brakes are fitted to the rear wheels. The 
weight of the vehicle unladen is about 2| tons. 

The engine is of the horizontal compound type, with double- 
acting cylinders, 4 and 8 ins. diameter respectively by 6 ins. 
stroke. 

These valves are of the piston type, and they are placed 
below the cylinders, and are operated by Joy valve gear, a special 
valve being provided for admitting live steam to the low-pressure 
cylinder when desired. The engine runs normally at 400 revolu- 
tions per minute, and lubrication is effected by a sight feed drop 
lubricator connected with the steam pipe. 

The boiler is of the Gillett water-tube pattern, consisting essen- 
tially of a vertical cylindrical vessel, from which a large number 
(200) of f-in. steel tubes radiate outward and extend downwards 
to an annular water chamber. In addition to the above tubes, 
there are two large tubes forming a similar connection. The heat- 
ing surface is about 100 sq. ft. The flue extends downwards and 
a steam blast gives the requisite draught, a hinged lid at the top 
being provided for opening when starting the boiler. 

The feed water is supplied by an ordinary force pump, and an 
auxiliary Worthington steam pump is also provided. 

The safety valve is set to blow off at 240 Ibs. per square inch, 
and the normal working pressure is 220 Ibs. per square inch. 

Oil fuel is used, the burner being of the Gillett type, in which 
the pressure of the oil in the vaporizer automatically regulates the 
velocity of the oil issuing from the nozzle. 

The oil storage tank, which is circular, has a capacity of 40 
gallons, and is located inside a square water tank, the water 



214 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

capacity being 30 gallons ; a second 3o-gallon water tank is also 
placed beneath the driver's seat. 

The oil from the storage tank is pumped into a pressure tank, 
having a capacity of 2 gallons, against an air cushion, by a force 
pump, or by a hand pump near the driver, the pressure being 
afterwards maintained by the fuel pumps. 

The normal pressure maintained is 80 Ibs. per square inch, a 
relief valve on the delivery pipe preventing this being exceeded. 

A small hand pump admits of the supply of air in the pressure 
tank to form the cushion, being renewed when necessary. 

The oil feed to the burner is automatically controlled by a 
diaphragm acted upon by live steam and arranged to shut down 
when the pressure in the boiler reaches 220 Ibs. per square inch. An 
arrangement is also provided for controlling the oil feed by hand. 

The transmission comprises a toothed wheel or pinion mounted 
centrally on the crank shaft and gearing with a larger toothed 
wheel surrounding the differential gear. The drive from the axle 
is communicated to the felloes of each wheel by two carrier arms, 
which admit of a certain amount of play of the springs. 

With a load of 3 tons the water consumption is stated to be 
about 3 gallons per mile, with a fuel consumption of about two- 
thirds of a gallon of oil per mile. 

The Wantage Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard 4-ton steam lorry built by the Wantage En- 
gineering Company, Limited, Wantage, is shown in Fig. 103. 
The underframe is constructed of channel steel stayed with cross 
channels and angle plates and riveted up throughout. 

The front wheels are 2 ft. 10 ins. diameter, and the rear wheels 
3 ft. 6 ins. diameter, with 4-in. tyres. They are of artillery pattern, 
with oak spokes, ash felloes, and steel naves bushed with hard 
gun-metal, and having weldless steel tyres. 

The platform, which is entirely independent of the working 
parts and the main frame, measures 12 ft. 6 ins. by 6 ft. 5 ins., the 
space available for goods being 75 sq. ft. 

The engine is of the horizontal compound reversing type, with 
cylinders 3^5 ins. and 6*25 ins. by 6 ins. stroke, running at 500 revo- 
lutions per minute. It is entirely cased in, but presents no special 
features of novelty. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 215 

The boiler is either of the water-tube or fire-tube type, having 
a removable external shell, a central firing chute for coke fuel, and 
a hinged ashpan, the latter, as also the cover of the firing chute, 
serving to regulate the fire. The working pressure is 225 Ibs. per 
square inch. The boiler is normally fed by an automatic feed pump, 
having double check valves to suction and delivery, and driven 
by an eccentric from the compensating gear shaft. An auxiliary 




Fig. 103. The Wantage heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 4-ton 

lorry. 

steam pump is provided for use when the engine is standing. The 
feed- water tank has a capacity of 130 gallons. 

Two changes of speed are given by the transmission gear, and 
the gear wheels are secured by bolts to turned-up flanges without 
keys. The compensating gear shaft is hollow, and a bolt passed 
through it takes the end thrust of the bevel wheels off the bearings. 
The drive is taken from the ends by roller chains to the felloes 
of the wheels. The compensating gear can be locked by an 
internal clutch arrangement operated by a lever beneath the frame. 



The English Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The standard type of 5-ton lorry (Herschmann's system) built 
by the English Steam Waggon Company, of Hebden Bridge, Yorks , 
is shown in Fig. 104. 

The main frame is of steel girder section, and the wheels 



216 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

are of extra strong artillery pattern, rear 3 ft. 9 ins. diameter with 
6-in. tyres, front 3 ft. diameter with 5-in. tyres. The platform 
measures 12 ft. in length by 6 ft. 6 ins. in width over all. 

The engines are of the horizontal compound link reversing type, 
with cylinders 4 ins. and 7 ins. diameter by 9 ins. chute, covered 
by a sheet-steel casing, and fitted with controlling valve for 
admitting live steam to low-pressure cylinder. 

The boiler is placed behind the driver's seat and front axle, 
and is of the fire-tube type, fired through a central shoot, and the 
top cover being made easily removable for cleaning purposes. 




Fig. 104. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles. Standard 5-ton 

lorry. 

The working pressure is 200 Ibs. per square inch, and the steam is 
superheated. The feed water is heated, and a steam pump and 
auxiliary injector are provided for boiler feeding purposes. The 
exhaust steam is passed through a reheating coil in the firebox. 

The gearing is steel with machine-cut teeth, and provides for 
two speeds, viz. 3 and 6 miles per hour. The compensating gear 
has a patent self-locking arrangement actuated by a foot lever 
from the driver's seat. The drive consists of pinions swung from 
the stationary rear axle by radius links, and further connected to 
the waggon frame by links, which pinions mesh with internal gear 
rings attached to the road wheels. The result of this arrangement 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



217 



is that, on starting the engine, the tendency of each pinion will be 
to mount upon the internally toothed gear wheels, which tendency, 
being resisted by the load on the vehicle, gives a substantial force 
against which to work as purchase at starting. 

The steering gear is operated by a hand wheel on a vertical 
pillar through steel screws and levers, and the front axle is designed 
to give a bearing support close to both wheels, and to allow for 
inequalities of road surface. There is a brake acting on the rim 







Fig. 105. The English heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
waggon. 



Covered 



of each gear ring attached to the driving wheels, besides that 
obtainable through the reversing gear, and the usual feed-water 
tank, coke bunkers, water lifter, etc., are provided. 

Fig. 105 shows a covered waggon built by the same makers. 

Mr. Herschmann, the designer of these vehicles, is the engineer 
to the Adams Express Company, New York, and president of the 
American Steam Waggon Company, and his heavy-freight vehicles 
have proved themselves most successful in the United States. 



Other Heavy-freight Steam Vehicles 

The typical examples of steam vehicles for heavy freight 
described in the previous pages must not be taken as being any- 
thing like complete ; space, however, does not permit of even a 



218 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

brief description of the many other excellent vehicles on the 
market, amongst which mention may be made of those built by 
Messrs. Bomford and Evershed, Limited, Pershore ; E. S. Hindley 
and Sons, Bourton, Dorset ; Edwin Foden, Sons and Company, 
Limited, Sandbach ; Wm. Glover and Sons, Limited, Warwick ; 
J. and F. Howard, Bedford ; the St. Pancras Ironworks Company, 
Limited, King's Cross (the Hercules) and Atkinson and Phillipson 
(fitted with Towcord high-pressure boiler). 

Many of the old firms of traction-engine makers who have not 
yet commenced to build steam motor vehicles are now making 
light steam motor traction engines adapted to work under the 
Light Locomotive Acts, for instance, Messrs. Aveling and Porter, 
Limited, Rochester ; Wm. Fowler and Company, Limited, Lincoln; 
F. C. Southwell and Company, London ; Wm. Tasker and Sons, 
Limited, Andover ; Wallis and Stevens, Basingstoke, etc. 



CHAPTER VIII 

HE A VY-FREIGHT VEHICLES. (Continued} 

Heavy-freight Internal Combustion or Explosion Engine Vehicles 
General Observations Examples of Heavy-freight Petrol Engine 
Vehicles Heavy-freight Petroleum or Heavy Oil Engine Vehicles 
Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles. 

HEAVY-FREIGHT INTERNAL COMBUSTION 
OR EXPLOSION ENGINE VEHICLES 

General Observations 

As has been already mentioned in the commencement of the 
preceding chapter, recent improvements have enabled heavy-freight 
vehicles driven by internal combustion engines with carrying 
capacities of 5 tons and over to be successfully constructed, and 
it is acknowledged that the internal combustion engine offers 
many advantages for the purpose. One important advantage 
possessed by this type of motor is that the propelling mechanism 
is considerably (some 50 per cent.) lighter, and the available 
platform area is greater by some 25 per cent., than in the case of 
a steam engine with its steam generator, fuel bunkers, etc., and, 
besides, the delay and difficulty of obtaining water during the 
journey suitable for boiler feeding purposes, or, indeed, frequently 
water of any description at all, is obviated. Theoretically at 
least, moreover, the internal combustion engine is the most 
economical method of producing power yet known. The compact 
nature of the fuel used, its economical consumption, and its 
general high efficiency, place this type of engine in a high place as 
a prime mover. For with its many good qualities the steam 
engine must, nevertheless, always be theoretically a more expensive 
means of producing power than the internal combustion engine, 
inasmuch as the principle on which it works necessarily entails 

219 



220 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the production of steam as an elastic medium from the non-elastic 
substance water, at a great cost in fuel. 

The chief objections to internal combustion engines as prime 
movers have been already dealt with (see ante, pp. 4, 5), and need 
not be again alluded to. It may be remarked, however, that one 
of them, viz. the danger inseparable from the use of a light spirit 
or essence such as that commonly known as "petrol," which 
readily evaporates at ordinary temperatures, and is highly inflam- 
mable, can be obviated by the use as a prime mover of internal 
combustion engines adapted to consume as fuel heavy oils, such as 
ordinary petroleum lamp oils, which, besides imparting greater 
safety, would create a large saving in running expenses, as the 
latter are some 50 per cent, cheaper per unit measure. 

The chief difficulty experienced in applying heavy-oil fuel to 
an internal combustion engine for motor vehicle work has been 
the imperfect combustion of the hydro-carbon fuel when the engine 
is working against a varying load or amount of work, as must be 
the case in traction on common roads. Once this imperfect 
combustion has been satisfactorily dealt with, however, there can 
be no doubt as to the superiority of the heavy-oil engine. Owing 
to " petrol " evaporating very readily, it is easily evaporated in its 
entirety, whilst the heavier petroleums have a tendency to imme- 
diately condense and resume their liquid form. This is of less 
importance in the case of stationary engines, in which the regular 
speeds at which they are run, and the even loads, reduces the 
difficulty of imperfect combustion to a minimum, and where, 
moreover, long exhaust pipes can be used to carry away the fumes. 
In the case of motor vehicles, however, as already observed, 
the above regular conditions are not practicable, and, more- 
over, offensive emanations due to imperfect combustion are 
inadmissible. 

Much has been done to overcome the objections to the internal 
combustion engine as a motor for road vehicles. Its simplicity is 
a great point in its favour, and its economical running. These 
features have enabled it to compete more or less successfully with 
the steam engine, even in the case of heavy-freight vehicles, 
although the characteristics of the latter are silence and elasticity, 
whilst those of the former are noise and inelasticity. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 221 



EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT PETROL 
ENGINE VEHICLES 

Milnes- Daimler Heavy-Freight Petrol Vehicles 

Fig. 106 illustrates a type of 2-ton petrol lorry built by Messrs. 
M lines-Daimler, Limited. The length of the vehicle is 16 ft. 
ii ins. by 6 ft. 5 ins. wide, the wheel base 10 ft. u ins., and the 
floor space 9 ft. 6 ins. The frame is constructed of channel steel, 
and is capable of bearing a total dead load of 2^ tons. The 
diameter of the rear wheels is 3 ft. 5^ ins., and that of the front 
wheels is 2 ft. 7^ ins. by 4 ins. wide. 

The motor is a two-cylinder light hydro-carbon engine, cylinder 
105 mms. (about 4^ ins.) and stroke 130 mms. (about 5^ ins.), built 
on the Daimler principle and having the Daimler float feed, 
throttle, and patent water cooler of the marine condenser pattern. 
Automatic pressure lubrication is provided to all the bearings, and 
a gear-driven rotary pump circulates the cooling water. A portion 
of the exhaust is utilized to provide pressure for feeding the 
petrol, and ignition is on the Simms-Bosch magneto-electric 
system. The engine runs at 800 revolutions per minute and 
develops 97 brake horse-power. 

Single friction cone transmission on the Daimler system is 
employed, and motion is transmitted from the main longitudinal 
shaft through differential gear on the Counstatt principle, two 
pinions meshing with two internally toothed wheels or rings fixed 
to the rear wheels. Speed-changing gear on the Counstatt 
principle, giving speeds of i^, 3^, 6, and 8 miles an hour, is pro- 
vided. In this type of gear one lever controls the first and 
second, and the third and fourth speeds, so that the two couples 
of speeds being independent of each other, when changing, neither 
of the couples affect the other set of gear wheels. For reversing, 
a special toothed wheel giving a speed of four miles an hour is 
brought into gear. There are t\vo circumferential brakes acting 
on the rear w r heels, and operated through worm gearing by hand 
from the driver's seat, a double-acting brake-clutch on the first 
speed shaft and a scrag on the rear axle. 



222 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 




bo 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



223 



Delahaye Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

Another 2-ton petrol lorry is shown in Fig. 107. This vehicle 
is built on the well-known Delahaye system. The lorry has falling 
sides and back. The characteristic features of the system are the 
single belt transmission and the horizontal type of engine 
employed. This type of drive is claimed to be both thoroughly 




Fig. 107. Delahaye heavy- freight petrol vehicles. 2-ton lorry. 

reliable and to couple very gently, thus avoiding in a great 
measure the wear and tear due to shocks and jars experienced 
with ordinary coupling devices when carelessly handled. Three 
forward speeds and a reverse are provided, which admit of the 
driver regulating the speed up to a maximum of 1 2 miles an hour, 
at which rate the vehicle is capable of travelling loaded on fairly 
level roads. 

Hagen Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

These vehicles are built in standard types with 2 and 3 tons 
capacities and capable of hauling a trailer. 

The frame of the vehicle is constructed of channel steel, 
stiffened with wood and steel plates. The front springs are double 
elliptic, the axle working on massive horn plates. The rear axle 
has an ordinary single long elliptic spring. 

The wheels are artillery pattern, front 3 ft. 3 ins. and rear 4 ft. 
diameter. Steering consists of pinion and spur gear acting 
through a spur quadrant on an Ackermann axle. The available 
platform area is 58^ sq. ft. 



224 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The engine is of the horizontal single cylinder type, and 
develops 7 brake horse-power at 450 revolutions per minute. 
The cylinder is cast with its water jacket, and is attached by four 
studs to a main frame formed of a steel casting. The inlet valve 
is placed over the exhaust valve and is operated automatically by 
the suction of the piston ; the exhaust valve is opened by a 
rocking lever, and both valves are located inside the combustion 
chamber. 

The ignition is magneto-electric, the magneto spindle working 
directly on the ignition plug, and timed from the driver's seat. A 
belt-driven centrifugal pump is provided for circulating the cooling 
water, only six gallons of which are carried, the consumption 
being stated to be under half a gallon per ten hours' work. 

The transmission gear comprises a crank disc at the end of 
the shaft, to which is fitted a connecting rod actuating a swinging 
lever with a fixed stroke. This swinging lever is placed parallel 
to and alongside another swinging lever pivoted in the centre and 
having rods at the top and bottom. The motion is imparted to 
this second double-ended lever by a connecting block, capable of 
sliding up and down, and according to its position the stroke of 
this second lever is varied between nothing and maximum. This 
motion of the lever is transmitted to the hind axle by two con- 
necting rods, and the reciprocating motion is here converted to a 
rotary motion by means of positive friction mechanism. These 
friction discs are massive and run in oil. Alongside this gear box 
on the hind axle is a reversing gear, connecting with the trans- 
mission, so that any speed from zero to maximum in either 
direction can be obtained. The actual transmission is free from 
gear wheels, chains, belts, and clutches, and at all times the engine 
is working at maximum power. 

The silencer consists of a very large exhaust box fitted with 
concentric mufflers, and a small exhaust for the waste gases. 

Powerful brakes are provided, one acting on a band 6 ins. wide 
outside the differential is operated through a pedal lever, and the 
other is worked by a locking lever on the rear wheels. 

The Orion (Swiss) Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

Petrol lorries of various sizes are built on this system. The 
following is a brief description of a vehicle of 2 to 3 tons capacity. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 225 

The frame is constructed of channel steel, and the petro 
engine, which is of the single-cylinder horizontal type, is located 
in the fore part of the vehicle. The engine is of 12 horse-power, 
and is adapted to run at a normal speed of about 700 revolutions 
per minute. Ignition is effected by means of a magnet, and there 
is pump-water circulation, and a fan-cooled radiator. There are 
four speeds forward and a reverse, and motion is transmitted 
from the engine to the gear box by a Renold silent chain, the 
gear box being in turn coupled to the driving wheels by side 
chains. The wheels are fitted with 6-in. solid indiarubber tyres. 

During a practical trial of one of these lorries, in 10 days, 105 
tons of coal were carried in 2 and 2^ ton loads, on a consump- 
tion of 57 gallons of petrol, the vehicle negotiating, fully loaded, all 
the principal hills in the London district. A trial trip made by 
the lorry to Hatfield and back (20 miles each way), with over 2 
tons of sand in bags, was performed in about 3^ hours without a 
stop, and the consumption of petrol for the entire double journey 
of about 40 miles, loaded each way, was 10 gallons. 



Cadogan Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

The petrol lorry shown in Fig. 108 is built by the Cadogan 
Garage and Motor Company, Limited, London, and is intended 
to carry a load of from 5 to 6 tons and to draw a trailer with a 
load of about 3 tons. The over-all measurement is 16 ft. by 6 ft. ; 
wheel base, 9 ft. by 5 ft. 6 ins. ; effective platform, 1 1 ft. 6 ins. by 
6 ft. ; and the weight when unladen, 2\ tons. 

The frame of the lorry is constructed of oak, and the engine 
frame of channel steel and well stayed. The body of the vehicle 
is supported on the axle by long springs, the front ones having 
indiarubber cushions between the springs, and the dumb irons, 
which arrangement is claimed to give great resiliency and freedom 
from vibratory shocks. 

The wheels are of artillery pattern, with oak spokes and felloes, 
steel hubs and tyres, and are 3 ft. in diameter by 6J ins. on 
face. The chain rings are of forged steel, and are fixed by steel 
bolts and nuts to each spoke. 

The motive power is derived from a two-cylinder Gobron- 
Brillic type of petrol engine, shown in Figs. 109 and no, develop- 
ing 34 brake horse-power. Each cylinder is water jacketed and 

Q 



226 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



has two pistons, and the explosion takes place between them, 
thereby imparting one impulse to every revolution. The inlet 




Fig. 1 08. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 5 to 6-ton lorry with 

tipping body. 





Fig. 109. Cadogan heavy-freight 
petrol vehicles. Vertical longi- 
tudinal section of engine. 



Fig. no. Cadogan heavy-freight 
petrol vehicles. Transverse 
section of engine. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 227 

valves are above the exhaust valves and are automatic and acces- 
sible by removing one nut The ignition, controlled by a Bowdon 
wire affixed to steering column, is of the high-tension kind, with a 
4-volt accumulator, high-speed trembler coil, and readily accessible 
commutator on the front part of the engine. 

The carburettor, which is shown in section in Fig. in, is of 




Fig. in. Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles. Sectional 
view of carburettor. 

the positive feed type, and is supplied by a rotating truncated 
cone having a series of recesses or pockets to receive the petrol, 
which are emptied one at a time into a perforated cylinder, from 
whence the petrol passes to the mixing chamber, and thence 
through the valve chamber into the cylinders, where the explosion 
takes place between the pistons and gives two impulses, one to 
each piston in the cylinder. 

The arrangement for transmitting the impulse to the crank 



228 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

shaft is clearly shown in Figs. 109 and no, and all the gearing 
is cut out of nickel steel hardened, and enclosed in a dust-proof 
and oil-tight aluminium casing. Chain transmission is provided 
to each driving wheel, the chain wheels having a good ground 
clearance. The drive from crank shaft is through a gearing box 
on an intermediate shaft, having speeds of approximately if, 3^, 
6, and 10 miles an hour, with load, each speed being increased 
50 per cent, when empty. The change of speed is operated from 
the driver's seat by a single lever. The water circulation is by 
pump, and the radiator, being located in front, requires no fan. 

There are two metal-to-metal brakes, a water-cooled foot 
brake on the differential shaft capable of causing the wheels to 
skid, and a hand brake on the travelling wheels. The chain is a 
2-in. pitch roller. The sprocket bracket is of forged steel. An 
efficient exhaust silencer is provided. Gradients of i in 4 on an 
unmetalled road with a 5-ton load have been easily negotiated 
when in a muddy condition. The cost of fuel and lubricating 
oil is given as 0-3^. per ton-mile. 

Stirling Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

A good example of the heavy-freight petrol vehicles designed 
and constructed by the Stirling Motor Construction Company, 
Granton Harbour, is a military waggon capable of carrying a load 
of 3 tons on the roughest possible ground, such as would have to be 
passed over during a campaign. As will be readily understood, 
the chief aim has been to avoid all complications, and to secure 
the greatest possible simplicity and compactness of construction, 
combined with the maximum of strength. 

The total length of the vehicle, which is shown in Fig. 112, is 
only 1 6 ft., with a width of 6J ft. over the hubs, and a wheel base 
of 9 ft. The seat for the driver, being placed over the mechanism, 
allows of a good view being obtained ahead, and permits of the 
length of the vehicle being reduced. The body is 10 ft. 6 ins. 
long by 4 ft. 3 ins. in width. The driving wheels are 3 ft. in 
diameter, with g-in. steel tyres, and the steering wheels have 7-r-in. 
steel tyres. 

The motive power is provided by a four-cylinder petrol engine, 
developing fully 24 brake horse-power at about 800 revolutions 
per minute. The inlet valves are operated mechanically, and the 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 229 

cylinder heads are solid. In addition to the magneto, high- 
tension electric ignition, with accumulators, is provided. 

The power is transmitted by a large metal friction clutch to 
change-speed gears giving three speeds, and enclosed in an air- 
tight oil bath. The rear wheels are driven by a shaft, fitted with 
universal or Cardan joints, from a bevel pinion driving a counter- 
shaft fitted with steel toothed wheels meshing with driving rings 
constructed of special metal, and fixed to the inside of the wheels. 
The brakes comprise a foot brake working on a water-cooled 
drum on the shaft, and a powerful hand-lever brake operating a 
system of internal expansion blocks inside the driving rings on 
the rear wheels. 

Wheel steering is provided with a special buffer spring to 




Fig. ii2. Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles. 3-ton military pattern 

waggon. 

absorb shocks when passing over obstructions. No circulating 
pumps are used, the cooling water being circulated naturally. 

A special feature is the provision of a large winding drum 
close to the rear axle, fitted with a long steel cable, and so 
arranged that by a movement of a hand lever the drum can be 
geared to the engine, and if the vehicle is itself anchored, it can 
be used as a windlass to haul other vehicles out of difficulties. 
By attaching the rope to an anchor or any available point, 
moreover, the winding drum or windlass can be used to haul the 
vehicle itself out of difficulty. Spuds or paddle blades are also 
provided, which can be bolted on the rear wheels, and enable soft 
ground to be readily crossed. 



2 3 o MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

This lorry was successfully subjected to very severe tests with 
a total load of 7 tons. 



Benz Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

Petrol lorries are constructed on the well-known Benz system 
(see Fig. 60, p. 150), to carry maximum loads of i ton 5 cwts., 
2 tons 10 cwts., and 5 tons. 

These lorries are : the first, 1 1 ft. 10 ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins. 
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, 8 ft. 2^ ins. in length by 4 ft. 
1 1 ins. wide ; the second, 1 3 ft. 9^ ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins. 
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, 10 ft. 3 ins. in length by 4 ft. 
ii ins. wide; and the third, 14 ft. 10 ins. long over all, 5 ft. 3 ins. 
wide, 6 ft. 5 ins. high; and platform, n ft. 3 ins. in length by 
4 ft. ii ins. wide. The platform in each case is 3 ft. 5 ins. 
high from the ground level. 

The wheels are of artillery pattern, very strongly made, and 
fitted with Kelly solid indiarubber tyres in the case of the 25~cwt. 
lorry, and with either steel or solid indiarubber in that of the 
larger ones. 

The motors, which are of the horizontal two-cylinder Benz 
type, are respectively 6, 10, and 15 horse-power. 

The vehicles are gear-driven with single belt, four speeds 
being provided besides a reverse motion. They have also each 
a suitable radiator and circulating pump, and a central lubricator. 

The tares of these lorries are respectively 22 cwts., 28 cwts., 
and 2 tons. The maximum speed, when loaded, on the level is 
10 miles an hour, and gradients of 10 per cent, can be ascended. 



Frick Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

Petrol vehicles on the Frick system are built by Messrs. 
Dougill's Engineering, Limited, Leeds, adapted to carry loads 
from 10 cwts. up to 5 tons, the small sizes having single-cylinder 
engines of g-horse-power nominal, and the larger sizes two-cylinder 
engines of i4-horse-power nominal, three-cylinder engines of 20- 
horse-power nominal, and four-cylinder engines of 28-horse-power 
nominal. 

The length of the platform of the 30-cwt. lorry is 9 ft. 
6 ins., and the breadth 5 ft. 3 ins. The wheel track is 4 ft. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



231 



6 ins. The framing is of steel channel, strongly stayed; the 
wheels of artillery pattern, 30 ins. diameter, with iron tyres. The 
engine cylinder is s|-in. bore by 6-in. stroke, completely water 
jacketed, and the engine runs at 800 revolutions per minute. 
The exhaust valves are of the mechanical pattern, and a rotary 
governor is provided. The bed plate is bolted direct to the 
main frame, and the engine, curburettor, and magneto, or 
sparking plugs, are enclosed in a bonnet. The single-cylinder 
engine is fitted with a rotary magneto, and the curburettor is of 
the float feed type. The front axle is solid forged steel with 
swivel ends, and the rear axle is of the live pattern, running in 
ball bearings, and fitted with differential gear running in an oil- 
tight case, and having a brake drum for a foot actuated brake. 




Fig. 113. Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 
running gear. 



Plan of frame and 



Long laminated steel springs are provided for supporting the 
body. 

The cooling is by a multitubular radiator with fan and circu- 
lating pump, and a duplicate connection for gravity circulation is 
also fitted. 

The transmission is by a special patent variable friction gear, 
the construction of which is shown in the plan view, Fig. 113. It 
consists essentially of two friction wheels or discs, mounted on a 
countershaft, the first disc being the actual working disc, and the 
latter a dummy disc, merely serving to increase the friction 
surface. The working disc is so mounted upon the countershaft 
as to be capable of being moved or adjusted in the direction of 
its axis, so as to attain the different degrees of speed required, 



232 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the dummy disc transmitting the power from the disc-shaped 
fly-wheel through a counter disc to the first or actual working 
disc or wheel. The fly-wheel and counter disc can be moved in 
the direction of their axes, so as to be brought into contact with 
the friction wheels or discs, and thereby impart motion to the 
latter; and there is a chain drive from the countershaft to the 
differential gear on the rear axle. 

The contact between the fly-wheel and the friction-wheel disc, 
and consequently the motion of the vehicle, can only take place 
when a hand lever provided for the purpose is slightly drawn. 
When the friction wheel is near the centre of the fly-wheel disc, 
that is to say, at the lowest speed, it is stated that the vehicle can 
ascend gradients up to 30 per cent. 

Other Heavy-freight Petrol Vehicles 

Amongst other heavy-freight petrol vehicles, those of the 
following makers may be cited : The Maudslay Motor Company 
standard 5 -ton lorry; Crossley Leyland lorries; Wolseley lorries; 
Straker and Squire lorries ; and the N. A.G. Automobile Company, 
Limited, standard 3-ton lorry. 

Allsop Heavy-freight Petroleum or Heavy Oil 
Engine Vehicles 

The characteristic feature of this system is that the motive 
power is derived from an engine adapted to use ordinary petro- 
leum or lamp oil, and as the engine in question is practically 
smokeless, it is a type of motor particularly suitable for the 
propulsion of heavy and other freight vehicles. 

This engine, which is shown in Figs. 114 to 117, has been 
designed, and patented both in this country and abroad, by Mr. 
R. Owen Allsop, Orpington, Kent, who has devoted many years 
to the solution of the problem of constructing an internal com- 
bustion engine adapted for the use of heavy petroleum oils. 

The main distinctive features of the Allsop engine is the 
provision of a small auxiliary cylinder, which may be termed a 
vapour pump or carburettor, and the piston working in which is 
connected, to a crank on the main shaft, set at an angle of 180 
degrees relatively to the main or driving crank. The function of 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



233 



this small cylinder or pump is to draw in, vaporize, compress, and 
measure the charge, which latter is then delivered to the larger 
cylinder, in which, after mixture with the necessary additional 
amount of air, it is exploded. 

The engine shown is of the single-cylinder vertical type, and 
the construction will be readily understood from the illustrations. 
The two, three, and four cylinder engines are operated on the 
same principle, differing only in details of construction. 

The small auxiliary cylinder or pump is located on the left- 
hand side of the main cylin- 
der, and the following is the 
complete cycle of operations. 

During the outward or 
suction stroke of the above 
pump, the requisite charge 
of oil, together with a small 
quantity of air, is sucked in 
through the oil supply inlet 
and air inlet, passing through 
the inlet valve, which is 
governed by a suitably ad- 
justable spring. The oil is 
sprayed into a conical or 

funnel-shaped passage sur- F ig. 114. -Allsop heavy-freight petro- 
rounded by a casing, and leum vehicles. Plan view of engine, 
the exhaust or waste gases 

are passed into this casing before being allowed to escape into 
the atmosphere. These gases thus serve to heat and partially 
vaporize the entering oil, this operation being completed on the 
return stroke of the pump piston or plunger by reason of the heat 
of the adiabatic compression stroke added to the heat of the 
parts. On the next outward stroke of the pump piston or 
plunger, the vaporized oil is permitted to expand, and on the 
fourth or second return, or inward stroke, the gas or vapour is 
forced to pass through a non-return valve shown in Fig. 117, and 
a pipe which likewise passes through a box or casing surrounding 
a portion of same, and in which box or casing the exhaust is 
likewise permitted to circulate, and the gas or vapour is thus 
superheated on its way to the main or working cylinder. 

During the inward movement of the pump piston or plunger, 




234 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



the working piston makes an outward stroke, thus forming a 
partial vacuum, which serves to draw in through an air inlet the 
necessary additional supply of air to support combustion, which 
air is mixed with the oil vapour before entering the working 
cylinder. 

On the return stroke of the working piston, the charge is 
compressed and ignited, and, by reason of the expansion taking 
place, the piston is forced outwards, forming the third stroke. 
On the fourth or final inward stroke of the piston, the waste 

products of combustion are 
discharged through the ex- 
haust in the usual manner; 
thus it will be seen com- 
pleting the ordinary "Otto" 
cycle. 

Electric ignition, com- 
prising a commutator with 
brush contact, sparking plug, 
starting handle, etc., is pro- 
vided, and a very important 
feature in the motor under 
consideration is that, owing 
to there being practically no 
condensation in the working 
cylinder, high-tension elec- 
tric ignition with a single 
sparking plug can be used 
with equal certainty and 
regularity of firing with heavy 
petroleum oils to that obtain- 
able with tube ignition. 

Another advantage possessed by this system is that the fuel 
enters the working cylinder in what is practically a gaseous 
mixture, and consequently is in a very favourable condition for 
rapid ignition and combustion. 

Practically perfect combustion is secured at all times after 
starting the engine, by spraying the oil into the heated pump, as 
only dry gas is passed into the working cylinder, and there are 
therefore no particles of spray to condense in the working 
cylinder, and by partial oxidation cause imperfect combustion. 




Fig. 115. Allsop heavy- freight petro- 
leum vehicles. Elevation of engine. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



235 



When once the motor has become heated up, the combustion 
continues to be perfect, and the exhaust remains invisible and 
odourless even at loads and speeds varying within a wide 
range. 

In addition to the immunity from failure owing to impoverish- 
ment of the explosive mixture, which under the conditions 
described remains constant and inflammable, an additional safe- 
guard against failure is provided by the fuel vapour pump, which 
is so designed that even at the lowest speeds the oil fuel will 
be subjected to a powerful 
atomizing action, whereas in 
engines working with direct 
spraying into the working 
cylinder, on a reduction of 
speed due to any sudden aug- 
mentation of load, the spray- 
producing effect of the suction 
stroke is considerably re- 
duced, and a less perfectly 
atomized and inferior explo- 
sive charge enters the cylinder. 

The engine is admirably 
suited for the generator valve 
type of fuel feed used, that 
is to say, one in which the 
fuel passes through a small 
hole in the inlet valve seating, 
which feed cannot be applied 
economically direct to the 
working cylinder, as it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult in that case 
to adjust the spring so as to properly throttle the valve 




Fig. 116. Allsop heavy-freight petro- 
leum vehicles. Longitudinal section 
of engine. 



and 



ensure effectual spraying of the oil fuel. 

The governing of the engine can be effected as easily as that 
of an ordinary gas engine, and when the vapour supply is cut off, 
a charge of gas still remains in the pump, which charge is 
alternately expanded and compressed, so as to effectually prevent 
any condensation taking place, and this charge is vented into the 
working cylinder directly the gas valve again opens, no fresh 
charge of fuel being sprayed into the vapour pump until such 



236 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



time as the gas valve is opened and the contained charge of gas 
passes to the working cylinder. 

The result of the absence of all, or nearly all, condensation, 

which causes practically 
perfect combustion to take 
place, is an absolute im- 
munity from all fouling or 
choking with sooty or tarry 
deposits from the oil fuel. 
The gas and exhaust 
valves are operated by 
hardened steel cams or 
wipers, mounted on a hori- 
zontal cam shaft and work- 
ing against anti-friction 
rollers on the lower ends 
of the valve spindles, and 
driven from the motor 
crank shaft in the ordinary 
manner. The motor and 
cam shafts are enclosed 
in a dust-proof, oil-tight 
casing, and run in an oil 
bath with splash lubrica- 
tion. 

An arrangement is fitted which admits of the engine being 
started with " petrol," and run until the parts become sufficiently 
heated to allow of the heavy oil fuel being turned on. This 
device obviates the necessity of a preliminary heating of the parts 
by means of a blow lamp also provided. 




Fig. 117. Allsop heavy-freight petroleum 
vehicles. Cross-section of pump. 



Wolseley, Thorny croft, and other Heavy- freight 
Petroleum Vehicles 

Heavy-freight petroleum or heavy oil engine vehicles are also 
built by the Thornycroft Company, Wolseley Company, and 
others. The latter vehicle is fitted with the same type of trans- 
mission gear as that so successfully employed on the well- 
known Wolseley touring cars, slightly modified, of course, in 

4 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 



237 



order to render it more especially suitable for the purpose of the 
heavy-freight vehicles. 

An excellent example of one of the latter type of vehicles is 
the 4-ton military transport waggon, which was shown at the 
Motor Car Exhibition held at Islington this year (1905). 

This waggon is fitted with a 4o-horse-po\ver four-cylinder 
horizontal type of petroleum or heavy oil engine, having cylinders 
6 ins. diameter by 7 ins. stroke respectively, and running at 
600 revolutions per minute. 

Amongst other heavy oil or petroleum engines in the market 
said to give good results, mention may be made of the following : 
The Kromhout (Dutch) heavy oil engine ; that built by the Devon 
Engineering Company, Limited, The Harbour, Paignton ; and the 
Vosper, Gardner, Hillier, Tolch, Roots, etc. 



HEAVY-FREIGHT PETROL-ELECTRIC 
VEHICLES 

Fischer Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles 

These heavy-freight vehicles, the standard pattern of which is 
shown in Fig. 118, are built upon the same principle as the 




Fig. 118. Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric vehicles. 

lorry. 



Standard 



238 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

omnibus described on pp. 137-143, and that description, as also 
the diagram illustrating the running gear of the omnibus in 
question, apply equally well in the present case. 

The Fischer Company build heavy-freight vehicles on this 
system with capacities of 5, 8, and 19 tons, the weights of the 
5 and 8-ton vehicles, unloaded, being 3 and 4 tons respectively. . 

The maximum speed is 6 miles an hour, and any gradients 
usually encountered and surmounted by horse-drawn vehicles can 
be negotiated with ease. 

The cost of running is given as i\d. (2*5 cents) per mile on 
average roads. 

Thury Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles 

Self-propelled heavy-freight vehicles on this system (Thury 's 
patents) are also constructed by the Compagnie de 1' Industrie 
Electrique et Mecanique, of Geneva. 

A feature in the dynamos made by this firm, and used in these 
vehicles, is the arrangement for compensating to a certain extent 
for a fall in voltage when at full load, by providing the shunt with 
a fine-wire winding placed in derivation, and with a compound 
winding of thick wire. 



CHAPTER IX 

HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES (Continued] 

Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles General Observations Examples 
of Heavy-freight Electric Vehicles. 

HEAVY-FREIGHT ELECTRIC VEHICLES 
General Observations 

THE backwardness that has hitherto existed in this country in the 
use of electricity has naturally tended to retard the development 
of the electric-driven motor vehicle, and more especially has this 
been the case with respect to heavy-freight electric vehicles. 

Electrically propelled vehicles present undoubted advantages 
for use on the comparatively smooth streets and roads that ought to 
be met with in and about large towns and cities, and consequently 
they are pretty extensively employed abroad, and especially in 
the United States ; but here the general bad condition of the 
paved thoroughfares, and the deplorably bumpy macadam and 
soft, foundationless gravel roads which, in spite of the scandalously 
high rates, are the general rule, especially in and around London, 
has discouraged and kept back the use of electric motor vehicles, 
as it has, indeed, to a lesser extent, other self-propelled freight 
vehicles. 

The electric equipment of a vehicle renders it both clean, 
inoffensive, and easy to handle. The suitable commutation of 
battery cells forming a feature of the electric system of propulsion, 
and which can be brought about through interconnection of con- 
tacts on the "controller," in conjunction with the series and 
multiple arrangement of the motor, gives considerable flexibility 
in the power and speed conditions of the driving mechanism, 
and the electric-driven vehicle may be said to be practically 
flexible and noiseless, as well as clean, inoffensive, and easy to 

239 



240 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

handle, devoid of heat and vibration, or practically so, and is, 
besides, the only power which checks automatically and naturally 
the consumption of energy even with light loads, almost in pro- 
portion to the power delivered. The electric motor will run 
equally well in either direction, and will work with an overload 
of several hundred per cent, for short periods. 

For long distances, however, the use of storage batteries in 
heavy-freight vehicles is found in practice to be fraught with 
many disadvantages, so much so, indeed, as to become prohibi- 
tive, and on rough roads with heavy-freight vehicles and more 
especially with those fitted with iron or steel tyres the jarring 
and vibration imparts such severe punishment to the batteries as 
to render their use all but impracticable. This latter feature 
must obviously, therefore, greatly limit the use of electrically driven 
heavy-freight vehicles in this country until such time as the 
ratepayers insist upon a proper return for their money from the 
authorities in the direction of paving and road-making. 

As regards cost, the best traction cell has a capacity of about 
7 watts to each pound of its weight, and if this be taken as 
a basis to go upon, it will be easy to calculate what the dead 
weight will be that would be required for the propulsion of a 
heavy load for a long distance with one charge. In addition to 
the actual cost of charging, however, the maintenance of batteries 
forms a considerable item. 



EXAMPLES OF HEAVY-FREIGHT ELECTRIC 
VEHICLES 

Hudson Heavy-freight Electric Waggon 

This waggon, which is shown in Fig. 119, with the body 
tipped for unloading, was built to the designs of the Hudson 
Coal Company, Jersey City, New York, and is especially intended 
for the delivery of coal ; the carrying capacity of the waggon is 
5 tons. 

The main feature of this waggon is the arrangement for 
tipping, and the long sheet-iron chute which is adapted beneath 
the vehicle. The mechanism employed comprises a small but 
powerful electric windlass, driven by an independent electric 
motor, geared with large reduction through toothed gearing on 



HEAVY-FREIGHT VEHICLES 241 

the right-hand side of the vehicle to a transverse shaft 2 ins. 
in diameter, and mounted centrally in the frame. Upon this 
shaft wind two chains, which slowly draw the forward end of an 
extended set of toggle levers towards the centre of the frame, 
and thus cause the middle portion of the levers to rise and force 




Fig. 119. The Hudson heavy-freight electric waggon. 

the body of the vehicle upwards, the front end rising to a height 
of 5 ft. and the rear end to a height of 2 ft. above the frame. 

This vehicle is said to afford every satisfaction, being entirely 
successful from a commercial point of view. It makes from four 
to six trips daily, according to distance, from Jersey City to 
New York, with 5-ton loads, one man only being required in 
charge. 

The Vehicle Equipment Company Heavy-freight 
Electric Vehicles 

Several types of heavy-freight vehicles propelled by electric 
power are built by the Vehicle Equipment Company, who are 
represented in this country by the Anglo-American Motor Car 
Company, Limited, London. 

Fig. 120 shows a 4-ton trolley built by this company, and 

R 



242 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



used for the transport of flour, which it is claimed to perform 
with complete success. They have also constructed a number of 
lorries, waggons, furniture vans, and other heavy-freight electric 




Fig 1 . 120. The Vehicle Equipment Company heavy-freight electric 

trolley. 

vehicles, the frames and running gears of all of which are designed 
upon the same principle as those of their electric omnibuses, 
which have been already described and illustrated on pp. 145 
to 147, and which consequently need not be again gone into. 



CHAPTER X 

SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES FOR 
MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 

Dust and Refuse Collection Waggons Street Watering and Washing 
Machines Street Sweeping Machines Removal of Snow, etc. 

AN important field for the use of self-propelled or motor vehicles 
has been found in the various works now commonly undertaken 
with more or less success by municipal authorities in this country, 
such as the collection and cartage of refuse, water sprinkling and 
street washing, street sweeping, sprinkling of sand and gravel, 
removal of snow, and, amongst many other obvious services, 
that of the cartage of road metal, paving stones, and such other 
materials as may be required from time to time in connection 
with municipal work. 

Hitherto the municipal waggon has been almost exclusively 
steam-driven, but in all probability the advent of motor waggons, 
having some efficient types of heavy oil or petroleum engines as 
prime movers, will result in the latter entering the field as com- 
petitors with steam for municipal purposes. The present advan- 
tage of the latter power rests in the fact that the fuel used coal, 
coke, or refuse oil is cheaper than the petrol spirit employed in 
petrol waggons, not to mention the element of danger always 
present where the latter fuel is employed. The cost for fuel in 
case of a steam-driven waggon may be put at less than id. per 
mile for a gross load of 6 tons, a performance which is scarcely 
possible in the case of a petrol waggon when used on such duties 
as are demanded in municipal work, wherein frequent stoppages, 
reversing, etc., are of necessity required. A well-designed com- 
pound steam engine, with enclosed cranks and connecting rods, 
moreover, requires no other attention for months on end beyond 
the necessary supply of lubricating oil to the crank chamber. By 
means of the reversing lever the power can be varied through a 

243 



244 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

considerable range, which is capable of being increased when 
necessary by the admission of live steam into the low-pressure 
cylinder. There is also a greater uniformity of driving effort in 
the case of a double-acting steam engine in which each cylinder 
gives two driving impulses to each revolution, instead of one 
impulse to two revolutions, as in the case of the internal combus- 
tion engine. Finally, the transmission gear is simpler in the case 
of a steam engine, and reversing can be effected in a comparatively 
simple manner. 

The advantage possessed by the internal combustion engine 
in the absence of a boiler, and the consequent reduction of the 




Fig. I2i. Coulthard 5 to 6-ton municipal steam tip waggon. 

tare weight of the vehicle, besides that stoppages to take up water 
are not required, do not count for so much in the case of muni- 
cipal work, confined, as it is, to a comparatively restricted area. 
These and other advantages, however, now more prominent 
where the work is over long distances, will, when joined to cheap 
and safe petroleum fuel, place the internal combustion engine on 
practically equal terms with steam for municipal service. 

As regards the removal of household refuse, the body of a 
vehicle intended for this work must obviously be constructed to 
tip, and preferably should consist of a separate part easily attach- 
able or detachable from the under frame. It is also very desirable 
that the cart should be fitted with proper lifting or sliding metal 
covers. The tipping can be effected either by a screw or some 
other equivalent mechanical contrivance. 



VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 245 




OT 

I 



hb 

PU 



246 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Motor dust-carts are made with capacities of from 6 to 10 
cubic yards, against the 2^ to 4 cubic yards of the horse carts. 

Motor dust-carts or waggons are built by most of the makers 
of steam lorries or waggons, and several vehicles suitable for the 
purpose have been already illustrated, the general construction of 
the vehicles being, moreover, in all cases similar to that of the 
lorries or waggons with non-tipping or rigid bodies constructed by 
the same makers. 

Fig. 121 is an illustration, giving a side view, of a 5 to 6-ton 




Fig. 123. Thorny croft standard municipal steam tip waggon, showing 

body tipped. 

steam motor tip waggon built by Messrs. T. Coulthard & 
Company, Limited, Preston. Fig. 122 shows a covered steam 
motor tip waggon or dust-cart built by Messrs. Mann's Patent 
Steam Cart and Waggon Company, Limited, Leeds. Fig. 123 
illustrates a steam motor tip waggon having a capacity of 7 cub. 
yds., built by the Thorny croft Steam Waggon Company, 
Limited, Chiswick, and Fig. 124 shows a steam motor waggon 
with a capacity of 9 cub. yds., constructed by the Lancashire 
Steam Motor Company, Limited, Leyland, all of which firms 



VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 247 

have supplied quite a number of the above vehicles to municipal 
bodies. As already observed, the general arrangement of these 
waggons is similar to that of the steam lorries built by the same 
makers, which will be found described and illustrated in a previous 
chapter. 

Messrs. James Robertson & Sons, of Fleetwood, whose 
standard 5-ton waggon has been described and illustrated on 
pp. 206 to 210, also make, amongst other patterns, a waggon fitted 




Fig. 124. --The Lancashire standard municipal steam dust- waggon, 
with removable tipping body. 

with an hydraulic tipping device, consisting of a ram into which 
water can be forced from the usual i5o-gallon storage water-tank. 
The question of cost of running and maintenance will be 
found dealt with generally in a subsequent chapter, but as regards 
the advisability or otherwise of employing steam waggons for 
dust collection, the following remarks made by Mr. A. Ventris, 
engineer to the Strand Board of Works, in a statement to the 
Liverpool Self-propelled Traffic Association, and by other authori- 
ties upon the subject, will be of interest. " I have every confi- 
dence," says Mr. Vestris, " in urging, not merely recommending, 



248 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the adoption of motors for use in operations similar to those so 
admirably carried out in the Strand district. The warnings I 
would give are : (a) concentrate sufficient dustmen upon the 
motor to permit of its large capacity being taken advantage of; 
(b) arrange for all repairs to be made promptly, and for periodic 
tightening of the wheels in an hydraulic tyre-setting machine ; (c) 
work the motor two shifts per day." 

According to Mr. Winter, of Hampstead, after having two 
steam dust-carts at work for nine months, it was found that a 
good deal of time and value was lost when the motor was about 
the street for collection purposes, and the result was that, com- 
pared to horse haulage, it did not work out economically, even 
with the use of a trailer worked in connection with the motor. It 
may be observed that the destructor plant for Hampstead is 
located some three miles outside the boundary of the district, 
which circumstance should be in favour of the use of motor dust- 
carts or waggons. 

Three or four months' experience of the use of the above 
motors for street watering and haulage, on the other hand, resulted 
in a very distinct advantage, each motor being found to perform 
the work of four horses and carts. The horses and carts cost 
qs. %d. each, or i 18.$-. M. for the four, whilst the motor (in- 
cluding driver's wages, allowance for depreciation and repairs) 
cost -i 8s., thus showing a saving of IQS. per day, or about ^"155 
a year. The Hampstead motor carts cost ^700 each, including 
two bodies, one for the collection of dust and the other for street 
watering. 

The saving effected by the use of motors for dust collection 
and street watering is estimated by Mr. Ventris at ^173 125-. per 
motor ; or if the water van be fitted with foot levers, so as to 
enable the services of an attendant at 255-. per week to work the 
levers on day shift to be dispensed with, the saving would be 
^238 per motor. 

The collection of dust or house refuse is undoubtedly the most 
variable item to be found in municipal work, and the advantages 
to be gained by the use of motor dust-carts or waggons must of 
necessity differ considerably in accordance with existing local 
conditions. 

Mr. T. W. E. Higgens, A.M.I.C.E., Chelsea, is of the opinion 
that for general cartage and street watering, and sweeping, motor 



VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 249 

vehicles are preferable, but that for the collection of street dust 
and house-to-house refuse too much time is wasted in stoppages. 

Mr. \V. Weaver, M.I.C.E., Kensington, also recommends 
motors for street sweeping and watering. 

Mr. A. Sharp, B.Sc., A.M.I. C.E., in a paper on "Municipal 
Motor Waggons," read before the Sanitary Institute Congress, at 
Manchester, says : " To secure the maximum economy in working 
motor tip waggons, the collection of refuse and the filling of the 
vehicle should be done as expeditiously as possible. The capacity 
of the motor tip waggon (7 cub. yds.) being two to three times 
that of a horse-drawn collecting cart, the number of labourers 
employed in filling should be greater. The speed of travelling 
being twice that of the horse-drawn cart, the time spent in travel- 
ling to and from the destructor, or tipping place, is halved. The 
same staff of fillers may keep a number of tip waggons going, one 
being filled while the others are on their way to or from the 
destructor. The average distance between the destructor and 
the points of collection will determine the number of motor 
waggons for a complete refuse disposal plant. In any case, as 
large a staff of labourers as is found convenient should be con- 
centrated on filling one motor waggon, so that the lime the motor 
remains practically idle is a minimum. One motor dust-cart has 
thus twice the speed and two and a half times the capacity of a 
horse cart." 

" For street watering and sweeping purposes the motor waggon 
is undoubtedly specially qualified. The work in this case is of a 
regular and definite character, and the road surfaces to be run on 
should be at least moderately good. The substitution for the 
tipping body of a water tank of considerably more than double 
the capacity of a horse-drawn watering cart is only a matter 
occupying a few minutes' time. In the watering carts employed 
by Mr. Weaver, M.I.C.E., at Kensington, two water distributors 
are provided in conjunction with the water tank, viz. an ordinary 
sprinkler and a discharge valve for flooding or washing the roads 
before sweeping them. Obviously, motor watering carts can also 
be employed for the flushing of gutters and street drains with 
disinfectants." 

For street sweeping either a horse-power rotary sweeper of 
the usual type may be hauled behind the motor, or a street 
cleansing machine propelled by steam power may be employed. 



250 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The first of these arrangements has been successfully used in 
Chelsea, the latter machine being in use in Kensington. An 
arrangement of the Thornycroft standard pattern of steam waggon, 
fitted with a water tank and a rotating brush, which latter can be 
replaced when desired by a spiral rubber squeegee, is illustrated 
in Fig. 125, and forms a very efficient machine. The requisite 
rotary motion is imparted to the brush from the driving axle of 
the motor through a set of toothed and chain gearing. This 
machine is said to have a capacity of 14,000 sq. yds. per hour, 
and to be capable of doing the work of eight ordinary horse- 
drawn rotating road-sweeping machines. 

A motor road cleaner designed by Mr. F. Sadler for municipal 




Fig. 125. Thornycroft steam street watering and sweeping waggon. 

purposes, which combines four distinct instruments, is shown in 
Fig. 126. 

The main frame of this machine is constructed of channel 
steel of large cross section, and has also an underframe serving to 
stiffen the two axles, and carrying the main clutch of the motor 
and the change-speed gear, the arrangement of which does not 
differ essentially from that generally found on chain-driven cars. 

The rear wheels are driven through chain gearing from 
sprocket wheels on the extremities of a transverse differential 
countershaft. The steering gear is of the usual type. 

At the front of the main frame is mounted a large revolving 
brush, having its axis placed at a convenient angle to the direction 



VEHICLES FOR MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 251 

of travel, so as to enable the sweepings to be delivered to the side, 
as in the case of ordinary horse-drawn road-sweeping machines. 
A crane arm fixed to the frame takes the weight of the brush, and 
the latter can be raised or lowered by the driver through a hand 
wheel on a horizontal shaft operating a vertical screw through a 
nut and bevel gearing, as shown in the illustration. The brush is 
driven by chain gearing from a horizontal shaft on the main 
frame, which shaft is in turn driven by bevel gearing and chains 
from the rear wheels, the power being thus transmitted by one set 
of chains to the driving wheels, that required for revolving the 
brush being again transmitted back to another countershaft by 
another set of chains. Immediately in front of the brush are 




Fig. 126. The Sadler municipal road-cleaning machine. 



provided narrow rakes to break up the hard mud and enable it to 
be dealt with by the revolving brush. 

Four overlapping squeegees placed at an angle to the frame 
are provided at the rear, and are so arranged that any or all of 
them can be brought into contact with the road surface by gear 
worked from the driver's seat. A similar number of scrapers are 
mounted behind the squeegees. 

The numerous other uses for which motor vehicles can be 
advantageously employed in municipal work are obvious, and 
cannot be enlarged upon in the brief notice which the space at 
disposal permits of, but a few words must be said respecting the 
peculiar adaptability of the motor vehicle for the removal of snow. 

A motor vehicle having non-slipping devices attached to the 
driving wheels, or fitted with a suitable sanding arrangement in 



252 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

connection with the latter, and a snow-plough fixed in front, would 
be capable of dealing easily with a fall of snow several inches in 
depth. For lighter falls a trailing scraper would probably be the 
most convenient. Where motor vehicles are in extensive use, 
therefore, the provision of the above comparatively inexpensive 
snow removal attachments would provide a satisfactory solution 
of the problem of clearing snow from the roadway, and enable 
municipal authorities to deal with comparative facility with 
falls of snow, the difficulty of providing for the removal of which 
has hitherto been found practically unsurmountable. 

In concluding this short chapter on municipal motor vehicles, 
the writer would point out that the satisfactory results which have 
been obtained when employing both horse-drawn and motor 
vehicles would be much enhanced were the former completely 
superseded by the latter. In this case the size of the plant would 
warrant the employment of a thoroughly competent foreman 
mechanic and sufficient skilled assistants to carry out all small 
repairs, periodical examinations, and replacing of worn parts, etc., 
and thus to admit of the vehicles being maintained in the highest 
practicable condition of efficiency, and consequently worked to 
the best possible advantage. 



CHAPTER XI 

MISCELLANEOUS TYPES OF MOTOR 
VEHICLES 

Commercial Travellers' Motor Vehicles Furniture Removal 
Motor Vans Hospital Motor Ambulances Motor Fire Engines 
Self-propelled or Motor Railway Carriages Overhead Con- 
ductor Electric Omnibuses Motor Vehicles for Various Purposes 
The Pedrail. 

COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS' MOTOR 
VEHICLES 

A USEFUL type of self-propelled vehicle for business purposes is 
a motor brougham for the use of commercial travellers. The 
best power for a vehicle of this description seems to be the 
internal combustion engine, and as an excellent example of one 
of these machines may be taken that built by the Putney Motor 
Company, Putney, London. This vehicle is designed to stand 
hard work and to carry a load of 10 cwts. of samples. The driver 
is completely protected from the weather, and there is normally 
accommodation for two passengers, whilst by removing the upper 
part of the car four more can be seated. The interior is fitted 
up with a writing desk and electric light. Power is generated by 
a 1 6-horse-power petrol motor of the Craig-Dorwald type, which 
is capable of developing 24-horse-power on the brake. 

Another pattern of commercial vehicle is that built by Messrs. 
Benz and Company, of Mannheim, Germany (sole agents for whom 
in this country are Messrs. Hewetson, Limited, London), which car 
is fitted up for the use of commercial travellers, and is driven by 
a 3-horse-power petrol engine. 

The dimensions of this car are 7 ft. 6 ins. in length, 4 ft. 6 ins. 
in width, and 7 ft. in height. It is, as above mentioned, specially 

253 



254 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



arranged to suit the convenience of commercial travellers, and is 
provided with a hood, giving effectual shelter in the worst of 
weather. The compartment or case at the rear is fitted up with 
shelves to receive samples, from 4 to 5 cwts. of which can be 
carried, and it has secure lock-up doors. The weight of the 
vehicle, unloaded, is about 7*5 cwts. The sample case can, 
when desired, be easily removed, thus leaving the vehicle fit for 
pleasure purposes. 

A brief description of the Benz system will be found in a 
previous chapter. 

FURNITURE REMOVAL MOTOR VANS 

For long distances self-propelled furniture vans should possess 
undoubted advantages, but for short journeys horse traction must, 
for the present at least, hold its own. A useful type of motor 




Fig. 127. Thorny croft steam furniture van. 

furniture van is that with a removable van body fitted with slings. 
This arrangement not only admits of the van body being re- 
moved for transport by rail or on shipboard, but it leaves the 
lorry platform free, and the vehicle disposable for other purposes. 
Fig. 127 shows a combination steam lorry and furniture van 



MISCELLANEOVS MOTOR VEHICLES 255 

of the above-mentioned description, which is fitted with extra 
strong frame and springs, and is capable of carrying a load of 
4 tons. This vehicle is built by the Thornycroft Steam Waggon 
Company, Limited, and the construction of the running mechanism 
is practically the same as that of the standard steam waggon made 
by the company. 

A steam furniture van similar to that shown in the illustration 
has been in constant use by Messrs. W. Whiteley, Limited, and 
obtained a first prize at the May Day Motor Van and Waggon 
Parade, in 1903. 

An example of an electrically driven furniture van is shown 
in Fig. 128. This vehicle is built by the Vehicle Equipment 




Fig. 128. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric furniture van. 

Company of New York (the sole agents for whom in this country 
are the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited), the running 
gear being similar to that described in a previous chapter with 
reference to the delivery vans by the same makers. 

HOSPITAL MOTOR AMBULANCES 

For motor ambulances electricity would appear to be an ideal 
power. Absence of danger, smell, a minimum of vibration, 
and ease of control are essential features for this service. An 
electrically propelled vehicle is besides, so long as care is taken 
to keep the storage battery charged, available at any time for 
instant use, and the absence of any delay in starting is obviously 



256 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

a most important consideration in the case of an ambulance. 
Steam is, however, also used, and in some ways possesses special 
advantages. The vibration of internal combustion engines 
renders them unsuitable for the purpose. 

The above facts have been long recognized in the United 
States, and electric ambulances are in extensive use by all the 
best hospitals in that country. Fig. 129 is an example of an 
electric ambulance built by the Vehicle Equipment Company. As 
will be seen from the illustration, the vehicle is of the rear 
opening type. The bed is self-supporting when pulled out, and 




Fig. 129. The Vehicle Equipment Company electric ambulance. 

its dimensions are 7 ft. 6 ins. in length by 3 ft. 4 ins. in width. 
The overall length of the vehicle is u ft., and the width of 
the body 3 ft. 9 ins. The interior is lined with white enamel 
veneering, and trimmed in either rubber cloth or leather, and a 
surgeon's seat, medicine cabinet, and all the other necessary 
appurtenances are provided, as well as a head light, side lights, 
and inside lights. 

The ambulance has a maximum speed of 16 miles an hour, 
and a radius on one charge of 30 miles. 

Another pattern of electric ambulance, having a side opening, 
and a lighting and ventilating lantern in the roof, is also built by 
the same makers. 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 257 

Fig. 130 is a photographic reproduction of a Thornycroft 
steam ambulance which has been supplied to the Metropolitan 
Asylums Board, and run by them for some time with complete 




Fig. 130. Thornycroft steam ambulance. 

success. The running gear is practically of the same pattern as 
that already described with reference to the heavy-freight vehicles 
and omnibuses made by the same firm. 



MOTOR FIRE ENGINES 

The application of the motive power of a steam fire engine to 
the propulsion of the machine along the roads to and from the 
scene of operation is an obvious one. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that a motor fire engine should have been one of the first motor 
vehicles to appear on the passing of the Motor Car Act. 

In 1899 a self-propelled steam fire engine was built for abroad, 
by Messrs. Merry weather and Sons, Limited, Greenwich, the well- 
known fire engineers, who would doubtless long before have 
brought out a practical machine had an encouragement been 
forthcoming from the authorities in this country. 

s 



258 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

This machine differs but little from the firm's ordinary type 
of steam fire engine. The propelling mechanism is especially 
designed so as to be as simple as possible and to occupy the 
minimum of space, consistent with proper regard to strength, and 
free access to the various parts. The engine, when fully manned 
and carrying the necessary supplies of fuel and water, weighs 
under 3 tons. The boiler, in which steam can be raised in about 
six minutes from the time of lighting the fire, is of the pattern 
used in the engines supplied to the London Fire Brigade, the 
pumps being capable of delivering 300 gallons of water per 
minute, and throwing a jet to a height of about 150 ft. The 
steering wheel, throttle valve lever, reversing gear lever, and 
foot-brake lever are all located within convenient reach of the 
driver on the off side of the front seat, and an auxiliary screw 
brake can be operated from the footplate at the rear. 

Tests of this machine before being despatched abroad proved 
that it was able to surmount with ease gradients of i in 10 at a 
speed of 10 miles an hour, whilst on ordinary roads from 15 to 20 
miles an hour could be easily maintained. 

Messrs. Merryweather have constructed several patterns of 
steam fire engines adapted to be either propelled by their own 
power or drawn by horses, as may be desired, the machines being 
practically replicas of their ordinary horse-drawn patterns adapted 
to travel by steam power. 

The propelling machinery of this type of machine consists 
essentially of a countershaft supported in gun-metal swivel bearings 
secured to the frame. This countershaft is driven by toothed- 
wheel gearing from the crank shaft of the engine, and on its outer 
extremities are fixed bronze chain wheels, which latter are geared 
to the driving sprocket wheels secured to the spokes of the driving 
wheels, through chains of the roller pattern, with suitable provision 
for taking up wear. Balance gear provided on the countershaft 
enables the engine to negotiate sharp corners with safety. The 
main frame of these machines consists of two parallel bars of 
channel steel firmly fixed together by means of angle-steel box 
stretchers. 

In Fig. 131 is illustrated a more recent type of self-propelled 
steam fire engine built by the above-mentioned firm, one of which 
machines, supplied to the fire brigade of Leyland, Lancashire, is 
the first motor fire engine to be placed in service in this country, 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 259 

many other motor fire engines having, however, been previously 
shipped abroad. 

The motor fire engine under consideration has a quick-steaming 
boiler, of the water-tube type, petroleum or liquid fuel being 
employed, reservoirs for which are placed beneath the hose box. 
The engine is a double-cylinder one, and is coupled to the driving 
wheels through sprocket and chain gearing and a countershaft 
with a clutch, which admits of the power of the engine being 
disconnected therefrom when required. By means of a coupling 




Fig. 131. The Merryweather steam motor fire engine. 

device of very simple construction, the water pumps, which are of 
gun-metal with a capacity of 300 gallons per minute, can be 
connected up with the engine when the machine has arrived at the 
scene of operation. 

The steering is on the Ackermann principle, starting, stopping, 
and reversing levers, and the pedal lever of foot brake being 
within convenient reach of the driver on the front seat, and the 
hand wheel of a powerful screw brake admits of the latter being 
worked by the man on the footplate at the rear. The feed-water 
tanks for the boiler are placed at each side of the latter, and 



260 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

sufficient water and fuel is carried for a run of several hours' 
duration. 

At a test of this self-propelled steam fire engine, steam was 
raised in the boiler to working pressure in two minutes, and the 
motor started on the trial run. 

Electrically propelled chemical fire engines or waggons fitted 
with hook ladders are used by the Vienna Fire Brigade, who have 
three of these chemical engines at headquarters and one at each 
sub-station. 

The above brigade have also a number of steam-propelled fire 
engines, three at headquarters, one in each of the district fire 
stations and four steam-engine stations. These steam fire engines 
are of the three-cylinder type built by Messrs. William Knaust and 
Company, engineers, Vienna. 

SELF-PROPELLED OR MOTOR RAILWAY 
CARRIAGES 

The great increase in competition during recent years, and the 
demand of the public for more frequent train services, at reduced 
fares, has led railway companies, both in this country and abroad, 
to consider whether the loss necessarily entailed by the running of 
long and heavy trains, frequently only scantily occupied by 
passengers, might not be avoided by the use of self-propelled or 
motor railway coaches or carriages, and a much-desired economy 
be effected in this manner. 

The steam motor railway carriage shown in Fig. 132 shows the 
most recent and standard type built at their Nine Elms Works, and 
now in use on the London and South Western Railway. The 
illustration is a direct reproduction from a photograph, for which 
the author is indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Dugald Drummond, 
M.I.C.E., the locomotive superintendent of the line. 

The body of the carriage is supported, as shown in the illus- 
tration, upon a frame formed of channel section, and is mounted 
on two four-wheel bogies. 

The engine and boiler are enclosed, as shown, and the cab is 
located at the extreme forward end. The design throughout is 
such as to secure the greatest possible amount of compactness 
consistent with efficiency. The cylinders are set on an incline, 
the connecting rods driving direct on to crank pins provided on 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 261 






I 



bi) 



262 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

the front wheels. The boiler is of the vertical type. The con- 
struction of the running mechanism is such as to admit of speed 
being very rapidly attained ; the degree of acceleration is at the 
rate of about a mile per second, and will consequently give the 
carriage a speed of about 30 miles an hour in half a minute from 
starting. 

Adjoining the engine is a compartment for 8 first-class 
passengers, access to which can be had from a platform protected 
by folding or collapsible gates of the Bostwick type. The third- 
class passenger compartment, which is adapted to accommodate 32 
passengers, is approached from the same platform. At the rear 
of the carriage is a compartment capable of containing about a 
ton of luggage. Levers are provided in this rear compartment 
which enable the steam valves and brakes to be operated through 
suitable connecting rods, and the carriage to be started or stopped 
from either end, thus avoiding the necessity for turning at terminal 
stations. Electric communication is also fitted up between the 
cab and the body of the carriage. 

A former type of motor railway carriage placed in use on the 
same line two or three years back had an overall length of 56 ft., 
and a passenger compartment divided into two sections by means 
of a sliding door, comprising a first-class compartment adapted to 
accommodate 12 passengers with the seats arranged longitudinally, 
and a third-class compartment capable of seating 30 persons with 
the seats placed in pairs transversely on each side of a central 
gangway. 

The boiler in this type of carriage is arranged at the extreme 
forward end, a cab of the usual pattern being provided, next to 
which is a compartment capable of containing about a ton 
of luggage, separated by a platform protected by collapsible 
or folding gates of the Bostwick type from the passenger 
compartments. 

Another platform similarly protected, and resembling that for 
brakemen on electric cars, is provided at the rear, and arrange- 
ment is made for enabling the carriage to be worked from this 
platform. 

The weight of the complete motor carriage is stated to be 
somewhat less than that of one of the ordinary bogie carriages in 
use on the London and South Western Railway. 

These motor railway carriages are capable of being worked by 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 263 




bp 
tt. 



264 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

two men, a driver and a conductor, and the cost of working is said 
to be about 2'$d. per mile, including wages, etc. 

Fig. 133 shows a steam motor railway carriage built by Messrs. 
Kitson and Company, Leeds, and the Metropolitan Amalga- 
mated Railway Carriage and Waggon Company, Limited, Oldbury, 
for the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, to the designs of 
Mr. Harry S. Wainwright, M.I.C.E., chief mechanical engineer to 
the line, to whose kindness the author is indebted for the photo- 
graph from which the illustration is reproduced, and for the 
following particulars respecting the vehicle. 

The engine is carried on a four-wheel bogie, the bogie centre 
pivot being fixed to a cross beam at the end of the carriage under- 
frame, and the wheel base of the engine bogie being 8 ft., with 
coupled wheels 3 ft. 7 ins. diameter. The cylinders are placed 
outside the frames, and are 10 ins. diameter by 15 ins. stroke. The 
valve gear is of the Walschaerts type. 

The boiler is of the locomotive type, and is fitted with a Belpaire 
firebox. It has the following heating surface : firebox, 44*5 sq. ft. ; 
tubes, 337 sq. ft. ; total, 381-5 sq. ft. The grate area is 8 '8 sq. ft. 
The working pressure is 160 Ibs. per square inch. Water tanks are 
placed at the sides and between the bogie frames, having a total 
capacity of 400 gallons. The coal bunkers are at the ends of the 
side tanks, and are capable of carrying about 15 cwt. 

The engine can, if desired, be readily detached from the 
carriage, and can be run separate, when in steam. 

The total length of the steam motor carriage over buffers is 
64 ft. n ins., and the centres of bogies 42 ft. 

The total weight of the steam motor carriage, when unloaded, 
is about 38 tons, which is distributed as follows : 24^ tons on 
engine bogie, and 13 J tons on carriage bogie. 

This steam motor carriage is capable of taking, when required, 
an additional trailer carriage, weighing 1 6 tons, at a speed of over 
35 miles per hour on a level, and at an average speed, including 
gradients, of 30 miles per hour. 

The car runs very smoothly, indiarubber being largely em- 
ployed to prevent vibration. The engine coal consumption is 
extremely small, and, as economy in maintenance has been 
especially studied in the design, a considerable saving in several 
directions will no doubt result. 

The carriage body is 48 ft. 4 ins. long outside, and is divided 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 265 

into three compartments, viz. a third-class non-smoking, next to 
engine, 19 ft. lof ins. long; a third-class smoking, 14 ft. lof ins. 
long ; and a luggage and guard's compartment at the end, 6 ft. 
8 ins. long. 

There is a vestibule at the end, next to the engine, and also 
at that next the luggage compartment. Ordinary hinged doors, 
opening inwards, are placed on the side of the body, and sliding 
doors are arranged in the passenger and guard's compartments. 

The passenger compartments are finished in teak, and the 
seats are arranged back to back, with a gangway down the centre. 
Ventilation is provided over each window and in the roof. 
Entrance to the car is effected by the end vestibule, leading to 
the non-smoking and the smoking compartments respectively. 
The seating accommodation is as follows : thirty-two non-smoking 
and twenty-four smoking. Electric lighting on Stone's system is 
fitted. 

The underframe of the car is constructed of steel, and is 
carried at one end by a four-wheel carriage bogie, 8-ft. wheel 
base, with 3 ft. 6 in. wheels. The other end of the car, which is 
supported on the engine bogie, is cushioned with indiarubber pads. 

A vacuum automatic brake is provided, and, in addition, a 
hand brake on the carriage and engine. The steam regulator, 
reversing gear, whistle, vacuum, and hand brakes can be worked 
by the driver from either end, and the guard can communicate 
with the driver by means of electric bells. 

This steam motor carriage is now running on the Sheppey 
Light Railway. 

A steam railway carriage, designed for the Barry Railway 
Company by Mr. J. H. Hosgood, M.I.C.E., the locomotive super- 
intendent to the line, has been built by the North British Loco- 
motive Company, Limited, and accommodates 51 passengers, 
viz. 10 in the first-class compartment and 41 in the third-class 
compartment. 

The underframe carrying the body is constructed of steel 
channels 9 ins. by 3^ ins., with angle-iron stretchers 8 ins. by 
3-j ins., with headstocks of the same size. The sole bars are 
stiffened with truss rods and formed in one length. The boiler 
seating consists of two stretchers of channel section 9 ins. by 
3-j ins., shaped to suit the boiler, and strengthened by 8 ins. by 
3-j ins. by \ in. angles riveted to the frame stretchers. 



2 66 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Over the headstocks the frame is 60 ft. 10 ins., and over the 
buffers 64 ft. 10 ins., the extreme width being 8 ft. 6 ins. A 
water tank capable of holding 500 gallons and a coal bunker 
with a capacity of 15 cwts. are provided. 

The first-class compartment has the seats arranged longitu- 
dinally of the car, and is 8 ft. 3 ins. long; and the third-class 
compartment has the seats placed in pairs transversely of the car 
at each side of a central gangway, and is 25 ft. io-|- ins. in length. 
The latter compartment is further divided into two sections, a 
smoking and a non-smoking. There is a gangway between the 
first and third-class sections protected by folding or collapsible 
gates. The luggage compartment, which is situated between the 
engine and the third-class compartment, is 5 ft. in length by 7 ft. 
8^- ins. in height at centre. 

The engines are horizontal, with cylinders 1 2 ins. diameter by 
a stroke of 16 ins., fitted with Smith's patent piston valves and 
Walschaert's valve gear. They are arranged to drive direct on to 
the driving wheel, which is 3 ft. 7^- ins. in diameter on the tread. 
From the centre of the cylinders to the centre of the driving axle 
is ii ft., and from the centre of one cylinder to that of the other 
is 6 ft. 7 ins. 

The boiler is 9 ft. 2 ins. high by an outside diameter of 6 ft. 
o| ins., and 4 ft. 6 ins. diameter at the seating resting on the 
frame. It has 462 tubes of i\ in. diameter, with 133 copper 
stays i in. diameter. The heating surface is as follows : firebox, 
45-41 sq. ft.; tubes, 550-00 sq. ft. ; making a total of 595*41 sq. ft. 
The normal working pressure is 160 Ibs. per square inch. 

All the compartments, as also the tail and head lamps, are 
lighted by electricity on Stone's system, and an electric com- 
munication is provided between the guard and the driver. 

An arrangement is also provided which admits of the valves, 
etc., being worked from either end of the carriage. 

Another example of what has been done in this direction is 
a steam motor railway carriage which has been recently built 
from the designs of Mr. Manson, locomotive and carriage super- 
intendent, at the Kilmarnock works of the Glasgow and South 
Western Railway. 

The car is 60 ft. 8 ins. over the buffers, and is divided into 
three sections for passengers, having the guard's compartment at 
the rear, and the locomotive in front, with a cab of the usual type. 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 267 

Each of the passenger compartments has a separate entrance 
door, and they are separated from one another by sliding doors. 
The seating accommodation is for 50 persons, and a central gang- 
way admits of free passage from end to end of the carriage. The 
lighting is by Pintsch's oil gas. 

The underframe of the carriage is of steel, and is carried on 
two suspension link bogies, that at the rear being of the ordinary 
standard type, whilst the front bogie is practically a small outside 
cylinder locomotive which is complete in itself, and so connected 
to the carriage that it can be easily detached. The cylinders are 
9 ins. diameter by 15 ins. stroke. They are fixed horizontally 
on the bogie frame, and drive on to the trailing wheels, which 
latter are coupled to the leading wheels. The slide valves are 
placed on the top of the cylinders, and are operated by rocking 
shafts, link motion, and eccentrics of the standard pattern used 
on other locomotives on the line. 

The boiler is of the locomotive type, with a copper firebox 
and 138 brass tubes if in. external diameter. It has a firegrate 
area of 8 sq. ft. ; the heating surface of the firebox is 40 sq. ft., 
and that of the tubes 400 sq. ft. 

Hand and vacuum brakes that can be operated from each end 
of the vehicle are provided, as also electrical communication 
between the guard and driver, and an arrangement whereby the 
former can sound the steam whistle from his van. 

The dimensions of the carriage are as follows : length over 
buffers, 60 ft. 8 ins. ; length over headstocks, 57 ft. 2 ins.; length 
of body, 41 ft. ; from centre to centre of bogies, 39 ft. 4 ins. ; 
bogie wheel base, 8 ft. ; wheel diameter, 3 ft. 6 ins. 

There is a water tank located beneath the car, having a 
capacity for 500 gallons, and coal bunkers are provided capable 
of containing 1 5 cwts. of fuel. 

Hinged steps at the guard's compartment, worked by a lever, 
allow passengers to enter from the road level. 

Efforts have also been made to adapt the internal combustion 
engine to the propulsion of motor railway carriages, in the 
United States, on the Continent, and also to a very limited 
extent in this country. 

In the United States experiments have been made with more 
or less success in the direction of the propulsion of motor railway 
carriages by means of electricity generated on the car. For this 



268 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

purpose a dynamo is coupled direct to an internal combustion 
engine, the electricity thus generated being conveyed to electric 
motors coupled direct to the driving wheels. This plan is, it will 
be seen, an adaption of the petro-electric system which has been 
described with reference to omnibuses and lorries. 



OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR ELECTRIC 
OMNIBUSES 

A system that has met with considerable favour abroad, and 
has secured some attention in this country, is one in which 
omnibuses, arranged to be driven by means of electric motors, 
derive the necessary supply of electric current from overhead 
conductors. The plan offers several important advantages, and 
affords an excellent means for working a service of omnibuses 
on a fixed route where, owing to the narrowness of the road- 
ways, congestion of the traffic, or both these causes, the use of 
tramways is undesirable. 

The chief advantages possessed by a system of electric 
omnibuses worked on the trolley system are, absence of rails on 
the road, which are a constant source of danger and annoyance ; 
ability of the omnibuses to steer over any part of the roadway, 
instead of practically monopolizing it, as is the case with tramways ; 
facility of installation and of removal from one route to another 
at a comparatively trifling expense; and lastly, an important 
feature in many cases, cheapness of first cost of the installation. 

Experiments in this system of locomotion were first made in 
1882 by Messrs. Siemens and Halske, of Berlin. The first 
practically successful installation, however, was that constructed 
by Mr. Max Schiemann, of Dresden, in conjunction with Messrs. 
Siemens and Halske, running from Koenigstein, Saxon Switzerland, 
along the Biel valley. The system was also exemplified both at 
the Turin Exhibition and the French Exhibition at Vincennes in 
1900. 

The omnibuses are made both semi and completely closed, 
both types being arranged for the accommodation of 26 passengers. 
The body of each vehicle is mounted on two single-wheel bogie 
trucks, the axles being supported in roller bearings, and the trucks 
being connected by cross pieces, so that the axles will move 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 269 

equally. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, and all of the 
same diameter, no differential gearing being employed. 

The body is connected to each truck by means of four vertical 
pivots, and the steering is effected by a like number of horizontal 
ones, an arrangement that leaves the central portion of the truck 
free for the brake lever, and allows of the brake being applied 
when running round curves without interfering with the movement 
of the bogie trucks. 

An 8'5-horse-power electric motor, suspended at the centre of 
gravity, is connected to each of the rear wheels. The speed of 
the motors averages 900 revolutions per minute, and there is 
independent transmission to each wheel through single reduction 
(one-tenth) Grisson gear. 

The driver's seat is placed in front on the frame of the omni- 
bus, and is protected from the weather by a forward extension 
of the roof. The shaft or spindle of the steering gear passes 
through the hollow or tubular shaft of the speed regulator, and 
hand wheels upon these shafts are placed one above the other 
within convenient reach of the driver's seat. The weight on the 
front steering wheels is about one-third of the total weight, and 
the frame is supported upon six springs. 

The shoes or skates forming connection with the overhead 
wires are forked, and have soft metal linings, and grooves to 
contain lubricating material are provided. The shoes are free to 
move both on horizontal and vertical axes, and springs ensure 
proper contact, the arrangement being such, moreover, that the 
shoes and the vehicle are always parallel to one another. 

Two overhead wires, about 20 ins. apart, are provided, one of 
which is for the return current, and the shoes are carried upon 
rods of light cane or steel tubing, and the omnibus is permitted a 
play of 10 feet on each side of the wires, which latter are 
suspended from cross wires or hangers in the ordinary manner. 
A speed of 14 kiloms., or 8 '698 miles, an hour can be attained. 

An installation on the above principle, working in the environs 
of Paris, has a pair of trolley wires supported on short brackets on 
one side of the road, on which wires runs a two-wheeled trolley 
fitted with a small electric motor for its own propulsion, and con- 
nected with the omnibus by means of a flexible cable connected 
to a pole on the roof. Suitable devices are also provided for 
keeping this cable taut, and for preventing derailment of the trolley. 



270 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

Through the trolley wheels and flexible cable a current at 500 
volts is supplied to the motor of the omnibus, and the cable also 
contains three small conductors, which serve to convey back to 
the trolley motor the three-phase current by which it is driven. 
This current is derived from the main motor on the omnibus, 
which has three collecting rings on the armature at the end furthest 
from the commutator, and is connected to suitable points in the 
winding. This arrangement ensures synchronism between the 
speeds of the vehicle and trolley motor. In addition to this, an 
electro-magnetic brake is provided on the trolley motor, which 
can be energized through a sixth wire in the flexible cable. 

The omnibuses each weigh about 3 tons empty and 5 tons 
fully loaded. The wheels are shod with solid indiarubber tyres. 
The power required for propulsion at ordinary speeds and on 
level roads is found to be from 130 to 160 watt-hours per ton-mile. 

MOTOR VEHICLES ADAPTED FOR VARIOUS 
SPECIAL PURPOSES 

As has been already mentioned, the heavy motor vehicles 
described in the foregoing pages can be fitted with bodies of 
various types adapted to suit different services without the general 
principles of construction being departed from in any material 
manner. A few of these heavy-freight vehicles for particular 
duties have been already briefly described and illustrated. The 
following are some of the numerous other uses to which such 
motor vehicles can be advantageously adapted. 

For engineers' use for the transport of machinery, girders, etc. ; 
for boiler makers, safe makers, and other manufacturers or trans- 
porters of heavy goods and plant. These vehicles can with advan- 
tage be provided with hoists for facilitating the handling of the loads. 
Vehicles with specially designed bodies are also made for the use 
of brewers, millers, pianoforte makers, farmers, market gardeners, 
builders and contractors, general carriers, dairies, bottlers, florists, 
advertising contractors, chocolate, cocoa, and sweet manufacturers, 
the transport of theatrical scenery and properties, the transport of 
canes on sugar estates, tank waggons for the conveyance of oil, 
and for many other special purposes too numerous to mention. 

In agriculture, besides the obvious use of the motor in the 
form of various types of waggons for the transport of farm produce 



MISCELLANEOUS MOTOR VEHICLES 271 

it can be advantageously employed in the form of a tractor for 
the haulage of any description of three-furrow ploughs, scufflers, 
mowing machines, reapers and binders, and, in fact, any description 
of agricultural implement. 

A motor specially adapted for this description of work is that 
made by the Ivel Agricultural Motors, Limited, of London and 
Biggleswade. This machine is capable not only of acting as a 
tractor, but also of driving all kinds of agricultural machinery. 
The motor is driven by a i4-horse-power petrol engine, and is 
supported upon three wide wheels, two at the rear, used for driving, 
and a single front one, which is used for steering. 

The weight of this motor being only 28 cwts., it can be run on 
most roads, and makes scarcely any impression on the land. 

In trials carried out with this tractor, hauling a three-furrowed 
plough, 6 acres i rood 9 poles of very hard-surfaced land was 
ploughed to an average depth of 7 ins. in 8 hours and 54 minutes, 
the cost working out at the rate of 5^. per acre, including every- 
thing. Drawing a reaping and mowing machine, 19 acres of 
wheat were cut in ten hours, at a cost of is. yd. per acre, and 
9 acres ofgrass were cut in 5 hours 13 minutes at a similar cost. 
Driving a chaff-cutter, 12^ cwts. of chaff were cut to a f-in. gauge 
in 47 minutes at a cost of 2s. 6d. 



THE PEDRAIL 

This ingenious invention of Mr. B. J. Diplock, termed the 
Pedrail, has attracted considerable attention. It has been favour- 
ably reported upon by Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw and others, 
and has come successfully through severe trials. 

The tractor belongs to the family of walking machines, and 
the invention consists essentially in substituting for the wheels of 
an ordinary traction engine revolving frames comprising sliding 
arms or spokes, each of which has at its extremity a circular foot, 
and at a short distance above the latter a roller. At the side 
of the machine in connection with each series of revolving arms 
or spokes is mounted a frame, of a shape somewhat resembling 
that of an inverted heart. On the revolution of the axle the 
spokes are carried round, placing the circular feet at their ends 
upon the ground in turn one after the other. Simultaneously, 
the rollers running round in contact with the heart-shaped 



272 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

frame, on arriving beneath or on the broader portion thereof, 
act alternately to support the frame and to allow of its gliding 
over them. The machine is thus supported in turn through 
the rollers by the spokes which happen at the time to be resting 
with their feet upon the ground. The heart-shaped frame is so 
jointed and governed by springs that, on any of the feet meeting 
with an obstruction or inequality in the road surface, it will give 
to a sufficient extent to admit of its being surmounted. 

In fact, the pedrail may be said to consist practically of two 
main parts; the one, a railway fixed to the axle box and non- 
revolving, the other, a species of circular box fitted with sliding 
spokes, rollers, and feet, so arranged that the feet are placed in 
succession on the ground and the rail runs over the rollers. 

The feet are most ingeniously constructed, and possess not 
only great flexibility, but also have the arms or spokes so attached 
by sliding boxes, combined with ball and socket joints, as to be 
free to slide in every direction, a feature necessary to admit of 
the vehicle being turned. The pedrail is said to be capable of 
walking over 9-in. obstructions with ease. 



CHAPTER XII 

COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 

General Observations Petrol Cabs Petrol Omnibuses Light Petrol 
Vans and Lorries Heavy-freight Petrol Lorries Heavy-freight 
Steam Lorries Comparison of Cost of Running for Various 
Systems Effect of Materials on Cost of Maintenance. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

THE actual working cost of a motor vehicle cannot be ascertained 
with the same accuracy as can be done in that of a stationary 
engine working with a practically constant load. In the latter 
case it is possible to get out the fuel consumption to several 
places of decimals, to work out theta phi diagrams, to estimate 
the actual brake horse-power per pound of fuel consumed, etc. 
In the case of motor vehicles this is rendered impossible, at least 
with any degree of mathematical accuracy, on account of the 
numerous factors entering into the question of their economical 
employment. It will be readily seen, indeed, that a few minutes 
delay in starting, varying conditions of the traffic, slip due to 
greasy roads, and many other contingencies, have important 
bearings upon the fuel consumption. In fact, in the case of 
a motor vehicle it is totally impossible to eliminate all personal 
elements as it is in that of a stationary engine. 

As regards maintenance, this item must, in the case of motor 
vehicles, be unusually high, owing to the severe strains due to 
passing over uneven road surfaces, surmounting steep gradients, 
etc. Competent engineering supervision should be kept over the 
driver's work, and this is an item which must consequently be 
allowed for in estimates of cost. Heavy-freight vehicles should 
only be worked on five days a week, the sixth being devoted to 
a thorough overhauling, and some four or five weeks in each year 
will, in addition, have to be devoted to more extensive repairs. 

273 T 



274 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The driver's and assistants' wages for the day devoted to the 
weekly overhauling (the washing out of the boiler in steam 
lorries, cleaning, overhauling, repairing, etc.) must be reckoned 
and added to the paying days. On the other hand, however, 
during the weeks devoted to extensive repairs neither the fuel 
nor the wages bill will run on. From this it will be seen that the 
annual working cost can only be estimated as spread over 
about 240 working days. Finally, it must be borne in mind that, 
in the case of heavy-freight vehicles, full loads must be carried in 
order to make them pay. Journeys with light loads or short 
journeys can only be profitably performed under very special 
circumstances, and where there is very little or no competition. 



THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 
OF PETROL CABS 

At the present time it is not possible to give any actual 
positive data respecting the running and maintenance of petrol cabs 
founded on practical commercial working over a lengthy period, 
and estimates of cost made from purely theoretical deductions 
will doubtless be somewhat discounted in actual practice. Never- 
theless, by making some allowances, such estimates may be taken 
as being sufficiently near the mark to enable useful comparison 
to be made as to cost relatively to horse-drawn vehicles. 

The following figures are abstracted from a paper on the 
" Possible Development of Automobilism and Automobiles," read 
before the Scottish Automobile Club by Mr. William Weir, of 
Glasgow. 

A 7^-horse-power petrol motor cab, adapted to carry three 
persons, the driver, and luggage, could, according to Mr. Weir, 
be sold in lots of 50 for ^350 each, which price would, he says, 
allow of a good honest job all through, pneumatic tyres, and a speed 
of 1 8 miles an hour. For depreciation ^50 per annum is allowed, 
or 075^. per mile run, the vehicle having thus a life of seven 
years, and the distance run is estimated at 16,000 miles per 
annum, or nearly double that of an ordinary cab. For repairs, 
renewals, lubricating oil, and lamp oil, ^45 per annum is allowed, 
or, including the cost of tyres, which latter item is based on French 
prices, nearly o'6S$d. per mile. This estimate has been founded 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 275 

by Mr. Weir on a careful analysis of touring car results, and is 
given by him as being a very ample allowance. 

For horse-drawn cabs, the above authority allows two horses 
for each cab, the total daily average being 28 miles, which at 
300 working days per annum gives 8400 miles. The capital 
account he estimates as 



Two horses at ^"30 each .. .. 60 

One cab .......... 105 

Harness .......... 10 



The life of the horses is put at seven years, that of the cab at 
fifteen years, and that of the harness at four years, the annual 
depreciation being ;i8 is. 5*/., or 0*5 16</. per mile. 

Food for two horses would cost ^65 per annum, or i'8$d. per 
mile, whilst petrol for the motor should not exceed o'37$d. per 
mile. The wages of both horse and motor cab drivers are put 
down at 305". a week, the first working out at 2*22^. per mile, and 
the latter at 1*17^. per mile. The rent of stables, rates, taxes, 
and stablemen's wages (not taking into account the management 
and office staff) is placed at ^28 I2S. per annum, or o'8i*/. per 
mile for the horse cab, a figure which could be reduced two- thirds 
in the case of motor cabs, owing to the smaller space required. 
The cleaning, supervision, rent, rates and taxes, foreman, and all 
the other direct charges outside of management and orifice ex- 
penses, is estimated by Mr. Weir at ^23 per annum, or about 
0*345^. per mile for a motor cab, provided there be at least fifty 
cabs on the establishment. The non-requirement of the removal 
of horse manure is likewise a very considerable advantage on the 
side of the motor cab. 

The above figures give as the total cost per mile run, without 
making any allowance for interest on capital in either case, for 
the horse cab 5*686^. and for the motor cab 3*325^., and adding 
in both cases 5 per cent, interest on capital, we have respectively 
5-936^. and 3*585^., thus showing the estimate for the running 
expenses of the motor cab to be very considerably less per mile 
than that of the horse cab. 

It must not be overlooked, however, that the advantage 
shown in the above estimate on the side of the motor cab is 
largely due to the greater distance that the latter vehicle is put 



276 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

down as being capable of running in the year, and that in actual 
work the number of miles run is dependent on the ability to 
obtain fares, and not upon a capacity of running a given distance. 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE OF 
PETROL OMNIBUSES 

Petrol omnibuses have been, and are being now, run in many 
localities with profitable results, whilst in others, owing to severe 
competition, shortness of routes, and other local causes, they have 
not proved to be commercially successful. 

In a lecture delivered by the Hon. C. S. Rolls at the London 
Institution early in 1904, mention was made of a number of 
services working successfully, and the following figures were given, 
showing the results obtained with one of the vehicles over a period 
of eleven days: Mileage covered, 820; passengers carried, 5312 ; 
receipts, ^55 12^.7^.; petrol consumed, 109 gallons; cost per 
mile for fuel and oil, 2*85^. ; gross receipts per mile, i6*i5</. This 
is claimed to leave for wages, depreciation, upkeep, and profit, 
I 3'3^' P er mile, whilst net takings of nd. per mile are said to 
assure the financial success of such an undertaking. 

The following figures were given in the report of the first year's 
working of the Eastbourne motor omnibus service : The number 
of passengers carried was 294,922, the total receipts from fares 
being ^2069. The expenditure included the following items : 
Wages, ^367 ; general repairs, ^84 ; tyre repairs, ;8 ; machinery 
repairs, ^205 ; petrol, oil, waste, and cleaning materials, ^365 ; 
worn-out tyres and depreciation on tyres still in use, 626. The 
total distance run was 36,800 miles, and the cost 13*6^. per car- 
mile ; the cost of tyres was 4*09^. per car-mile ; the cost per week 
of each car was 17 9^. This service has been a loss. 

Mr. John Stirling states that the revenue on omnibuses, with 
a maximum capacity of fourteen passengers, run by the London 
Power Omnibus Company, is, according to their manager, 8^/. 
per car-mile, whilst the working costs and expenses come out at 
4^. per car-mile. 

As a comparison with the above, the cost of running an up-to- 
date electrical tramway is put down roughly at 6d. per car-mile, 
whilst the revenue of the West London lines of the London 
United Tramways is about nd. per car-mile. 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 277 

THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 
OF PETROL VANS 

The cost of running and maintenance of light petrol vans is a 
matter regarding which practical information is still very scarce, 
and respecting which, in any case, it would be difficult to give any 
precise universally applicable data, inasmuch as it depends largely 
upon a variety of considerations relating to the manner in which 
they are used. It may, however, be safely calculated that under 
ordinary conditions of working the expense would be appreciably 
less than that of horse delivery vans. 

The following particulars will give some idea of the probable 
cost of running light motor delivery vans. 

At the Richmond trials in 1899 a Daimler motor (Post Office) 
van, and a light lorry of 1*5 ton capacity each, gave gross oil 
consumptions for the run of 50 miles of 24 pints and 22 pints, 
costing 35-. and 2s. yd. respectively, the oil spirit being 6'68 sp.gr., 
and the price being taken at is. per gallon. 

This makes the cost of oil spirit per mile for the van work out 
at i '&d., and per mile per ton at o'^d. for the light lorry the 
figures being r6d. and 0*75^. 

The total weight of the van loaded is 3-95 tons. The engine 
has four cylinders, 3*56 ins. diameter each, by 4*75 ins. stroke, 
and makes 800 revolutions per minute. There are four changes 
of speed, the mean speed per hour being five miles. The total 
weight of the light lorry loaded is 2*14 tons. The engine has 
two cylinders 3*81 ins. diameter each, by 5*37 ins. stroke, and 
makes 660 revolutions per minute. There are four changes of 
speed, the mean speed per hour being 5-8 miles. The power of 
the latter engine is 6-horse-power nominal. Both the above motors 
have electric ignition. 

The following estimate is given as applicable to a van on the 
Hagen system : 

'- d. 

Cost of purchase (30 to 40 cwts.) 375 o o 

4 per cent, interest on ,375 15 o o 

16 per cent, depreciation on ,375 37 10 o 

Cost of fuel on average of 30 miles per day, is. 

per 30 miles 15 o o 

Grease 2 10 o 

Repairs per year 12 10 o 

^82 10 o 
The daily work of 30 miles can be increased as much as desired. 



278 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

The average speed of the petrol van being from 8 to 12 miles 
an hour, there would be an obvious saving of time for driver. 

As compared with the above the cost of a two-horse van, four 
horses, two sets of harness, and necessary stable requisites is put 
down as 292 io.f., and 4 per cent, interest on this sum, 20 per 
cent, for depreciation, plus cost of food, litter, shoeing, rent of 
stable, repairs, and veterinary expenses is estimated at ^"265. 



THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 
OF PETROL LORRIES 

To ensure the commercial success of a petrol lorry service, as, 
indeed, also that of a steam lorry, it is absolutely essential that a 
sufficient mileage be covered, and in the case of a petrol lorry 
the minimum should be about 30 miles a day, or, say, 180 miles 
a week, with an average load of 3 tons. The minimum average 
rate should be 4\d. per ton-mile, including expense of collection 
and delivery. 

Mr. Rolls places at about 245-. per week the working cost of 
a 4-ton lorry for a daily run of 40 miles for 5 days per week, with 
a short run on Saturdays, inclusive of interest, depreciation, fuel, 
repairs, wages, etc. 

According to tabulated statistics compiled by a Birmingham 
firm of brewers, showing 6 months' and 28 months' working by 
horses and motors respectively, the cost of running the latter, 
including upkeep, wages, depreciation, insurance, etc., for 28 
months (2 years and 4 months) was found to be ^1086. The 
load carried during this period totalled to 2837 tons, and the 
distance covered was 5384 miles. The load carried by the lorry 
in 6 months was 819 tons, and the distance covered was 2734 
miles. This firm consider the advantage of the motor lorry over 
a pair-horse dray to be about 200 per annum. 

In an article on " Cartage Rates by Various Methods," pub- 
lished last August in the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review r , 
the writer says : 

" The initial outlay on a petrol lorry and trailer is more than 
for steamers, but the actual working cost per ton-mile is slightly 
better owing to a greater average mileage being more easily main- 
ta;ned with the same loads. There are no delays for getting up 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 279 

steam or watering, and they generally travel faster under loads, as 
their tare weight is less, a great advantage on indifferent highways. 
Returning empty, a petrol waggon can run at the speed of a motor 
car. Assuming the cost of a petrol internal combustion lorry of 
the Cadogan type to carry 5 tons at ,750, the annual expenditure 
will approximate as follows : 

s. d. 
Driver, 35^. weekly ... ... ... ... 91 o o 

Man, 26s. ... ... ... ... 67 12 o 

Repairs ... ... ... ... ... 45 o o 

Oil (lubricating and fuel) ... .. ... ... 50 o o 

Insurance ... ... ... ... ... 15 o o 

Interest ... ... ... ... ... 37 10 o 

Depreciation ... ... ... ... ... 112 10 o 



Total ... 418 12 o 

" Working 300 days per annum, the minimum amount to be 
earned daily will be 1 'js. lod. As 50 miles with 1500 bricks 
can be run every day, the average cost per 1000 bricks per mile 
loaded both ways will be 4*45^. As in the case of the steamer on 
good roads, more weight can be carried over an increased mileage. 
For very long runs the petrol waggon is the most economical, as it 
can easily carry fuel for 200 miles. The advantages of a petrol 
waggon for up-country colonial work are comparable only with the 
oil fuel steamer, which, however, has its disadvantages when water 
for the boiler is scarce." 



THE COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 
OF STEAM LORRIES 

Varying local conditions render it very difficult to give any 
definite cost for running expenses per ton-mile. 

As a rule it may be assumed that with loads of 6 tons and 
over, and all from one place and to one place, steam lorries are 
cheaper than horses. For journeys of 20 miles and over, and 
with loads of 4 tons and over, the steam lorry is cheaper than the 
horse. For shorter journeys, however, of, say, 10 miles, the load 
must be between 5 and 6 tons. 

Stopping to collect or to deliver portions of the load is fatal 
to economical working. It entails a deadened fire, cooled 



2 8o MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 

cylinders, and unproductive consumption of fuel, with no counter- 
balancing advantage as a set-off. 

The approximate annual expenditure on a 5-ton steam motor 
lorry or a 5-ton light locomotive with trailer costing .500 is given 
in the Automobile Commercial Vehicle Review as follows : 

Wages s . d. s. d. 

Driver at 35^. ... ... 91 o o 

One man at 26s. ... ... 67 12 o 

158 12 o 

, Repairs ... ... ... ... ... 44 7 6 

Oil ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 12 6 

Coal, 41^ tons ... ... ... ... ... 49 o o 

Insurance ... ... ... ... ... n 18 o 

Interest on cost ... ... ... ... ... 25 o o 

Depreciation ... ... ... ... ... 70 o o 

Incidentals ... ... ... ... ... 4 10 o 



Total ... ... 380 o o 

Given 300 working days, the minimum amount to be earned 
daily will be 25^. \d. As 40 miles with 1500 bricks can easily be 
performed, the average cost per 1000 bricks per mile works out at 
$'6d. when loading both ways. The steam motor thus carries 
three horse loads, and is capable of travelling daily twice the 
distance, thus performing the work of six horses at a difference 
of A^,d. per i ooo bricks per mile cheaper. Where roads are ex- 
ceptionally good, and there is plenty of help at each end of the 
journey, a greater weight can be carried, and more daily mileage 
covered. The motor will put in 144 hours weekly if required. 

The following estimate for the annual expense of a steam 
waggon or lorry costing ^650 is given by Mr. R. G. L. Markham, 
an engineer connected with the Thornycroft Steam Waggon Com- 
pany, Limited, of Chiswick, in an article recently contributed to a 

monthly magazine : 

s. d. 

Interest on capital, 4 per cent. ... ... ... 26 o o 

Depreciation, 15 per cent. ... ... ... 97 10 o 

Maintenance and repairs ... ... ... ... 60 o o 

Rent and rates ... ... ... ... ... 19 o o 

Oil and stores ... ... ... ... ... 10 o o 

Driver at 35.r. per week ... ... ... ... 91 o o 

Lad at 2OJ. per week ... ... ... ... 52 o o 

355 10 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 281 

No allowance is made in this estimate for fuel or for insur- 
ance, whilst an item of ^19 for rent and rates, not allowed for 
in the previous estimate, is included. If these matters be adjusted, 
and allowance be made for the greater cost of the second vehicle, 
the two estimates will be found to approximate very closely. 

An analysis of the performance of a Thornycroft steam dray 
during 15 months' work is given by Messrs. Fuller and Company, 
brewers, Chiswick, as follows : 

Average total mileage per working day ... ... 33 

Working days per annum ... ... ... ... 260 

Net ton-miles per annum ... ... ... ... 25000 

The total cost per net ton-mile, inclusive of interest, de- 
preciation, wages, fuel, adjustments, repairs, and stores, is 3 'd. 
Taking the usual allowance of 5 barrels (each 36 gallons) per ton, 
it appears, therefore, that the cost of transport per barrel-mile is 
o - 68^. Messrs. Fuller and Company state that the vehicle easily 
does the work of three of their two-horse drays. 

Messrs. Savage Brothers, Limited, give the following estimate of 
working cost of one of their 5-ton steam lorries costing ^550 : 

* d. 

Driver at 30^. per week ... ... ... ... 78 o o 

Fuel ... ... ... ... 40 o o 

Oil and waste at 5-r. per week ... ... ... 13 o o 

Maintenance ... ... ... ... 50 o o 

Interest on cost (,550) at 5 per cent. ... 27 10 o 

Depreciation at 15 per cent. ... ... ... 82 10 o 



291 o o 

In this estimate it will be seen that no allowance has been 
made by Messrs. Savage for a man to assist the driver, insurance, 
and incidentals. Adding, say, ^85 for these items, the total 
would be raised to .376, or nearly that of the previous estimates. 

A practical test of one of the Savage steam lorries transporting 
loads of from 4 to 5 tons for brewers and millers, and doing about 
40 miles per day at an average rate of 5 miles an hour, is stated 
to have shown the cost of transport to be 2*25^. per ton-mile. 

In an address delivered by Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith before the 
Liverpool Chamber of Commerce in 1901, the estimate given for 
the average annual working cost, for Lancashire, of motor waggons, 
according to roads and loads, is as follows : 



282 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Class of work. 
70 hours per week under steam. 



Weight Capacity. 
Self-contained Motor waggon 



50 weeks per annum. 
Prime cost 

Interest at 5 per cent, per annum ... 
Depreciation at 15 per cent, per annum 
Fuel coke at 1 $s. per ton 
Wages driver at 35^. per week 

assistant at 17.?. 6d. per week 
Repairs and adjustments ... 
Water, lubricants, and sundries 
Insurances 

Total per annum 

Vehicle-miles per annum (280 days) 

A. On bumpy and badly paved roads ; 

30 miles per day 

B. On average granite setts, etc. j 35 

miles per day ... 

C. On good macadam ; 45 miles per day 

Net ton-miles per annum 

/ with full load 
A.] with | load 
( with load 
with full load ... 

B. with f load 
with J load 

I with full load 

C. i with 



with 



load 
load 



or waggon, 


and trailer, 


4 tons. 


7 tons. 








600 


670 


30-0 


3375 


90*0 


101-25 


63-0 


94*5 


91*0 


91*0 





45'5 


7S'o 


90*0 


20-9 


25-0 


12-9 


15-0 



381-0 



A. 



496-0 



Cost per net ton-mile 
with full load 
with f load 
with load 
( with full load 

B. j with | load 
I with j load 

j with full load 

C. ] with % load 
I with J load 



The performance of a Robertson steam lorry (the first vehicle 
of the type built by these makers), owned by the Fylde Motor 



Miles. 


Miles. 


8,400 


8,400 


9,800 
12,600 


9,800 
12,600 


33.600 


58,600 


25,200 
16,800 

39,200 


44,100 
29,400 
68,600 


29,400 
19,600 


5^450 
34,300 


50,400 
37,800 


88,200 
66,150 


25,200 


44,100 


d. 


d. 


2*7 


2'0 


3'6 


2'7 


5*5 


4*0 


2-3 


1-7 


47 


3'5 


1-8 


I'3 


2-4 
3-6 


1-8 

2-7 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 283 

Carrying Company, gives a very good idea of what these vehicles 
are capable of doing in actual practical work under more than 
ordinarily trying conditions. 

The waggon in question has been used for transport purposes 
between Fleetwood and Blackpool, a distance of about 12 miles, 
and a district where the roads are excessively soft, but little metal 
having been used in their construction. During the first season 
(1903) the distance covered exceeded 6000 miles, with loads of 
from 4 tons to 5 tons 5 cwts., and two journeys each way were 
frequently made. Owing to the unusually wet season, the condition 
of the roads was abnormally bad, but, notwithstanding this fact, it 
is stated that no trouble was experienced. 

The lorry worked, moreover, under the disadvantage of having 
to pick up any available loads, and consequently the mileage 
varied daily, and, besides this, portions of the loads being con- 
signed to parties at considerable distances apart, and in opposite 
directions, the delivery occupied a considerable time, and caused 
a very large increase in the fuel consumption. It may be also 
mentioned that on the return journeys the loads were almost 
always bricks, which necessitated the negotiation of the bad roads 
which are universally found about brickyards. 

Upon the next page will be found a table giving the details of 
working of this lorry during 30 working days. The consumption 
of coke fuel varied from 4 J to 6 cwts. per day. 

The following is an estimate of the running charges of a 
Straker steam waggon; prime cost, ^700 : 

Running charges. 

Driver at 35^. per week ... ... ... ... ... 91 

Labour, loading and unloading ... ... ... ... 35 

Fuel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Water 5 

Lubricating oil ... ... ... ... ... II 

Repairs ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Standing charges. 

Depreciation at 15 per cent. ... ... ... ... 105 

Interest on capital at 5 per cent. ... ... ... ... 35 

Insurance at ; 1 5 per annum ... ... ... ... 15 

Rent of shed at ^20 per annum ... ... ... ... 20 

412 



284 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



On the basis of 200 ton-miles per day, or 52,000 per annum, 
the running charges amount to somewhat less than 1*25^. per ton- 
mile, and the standing charges to 075^. per ton-mile. The total 
charge is thus 2d. per ton-mile. 

ACTUAL WORKING OF ROBERTSON LORRY FOR 30 DAYS. 



Date. 


Runs between 


Class of 
goods. 


Jl 


II 


11 


IS 


1903 














July 23 

24 


Fleetwood and Blackpool 

55 55 


Corn 
Corn and bricks 


64 

148 


12 

5 






25 


Sat. 


55 


73* 


5 


285| 


22 


27 

28 


,, Blackpool and Lytham 
,, and Blackpool 


Bricks 


146* 
84 


8 
24 






29 


55 55 


55 


I0 5 


19 






30 


51 51 


55 


63 


12 






31 


55 55 


55 


126 


24 






Aug. i 


Sat. ,, Cleveleys and Blackpool 


55 


41 


17 


566 


144 


5 


1?:f "1 ,, and Blackpool 


Corn and bricks 


1345 


12 






6 


?^ 5> > 


5 


132* 


12 






7 


55 5> 


55 


132* 








8 


Sat. ,, 


55 


70* 




470 


24 


10 


55 55 


55 


132* 








ii 


55 55 


55 


132^ 








12 


5 55 


5> 


109^ 


12 






13 


5 >5 


55 


1094 


12 






14 


5 55 


55 


74* 


12 






15 


Sat. , 


55 


68^ 


12 


626 


4 8 


17 


5 


55 


~"7J~ 


24 






18 




55 


113 








19 


5 55 


55 


55 


12 






20 


5 55 


5) 


63 


12 






22 


Sat. , 


55 


141 




489i 


4 8 


2 4 


55 55 


55 


63 


12 






2 5 


55 55 


p> 


123 








26 


,, Singleton and Blackpool 


} , 


138 


14 






27 


,, and Blackpool 


55 


44i 


12 






28 


55 55 


tf 


139^ 


5 






29 


Sat. ,, 


n 


45 


12 


546 


55 



Total ton-miles 2983 -r- 30 working day?, 99*43 average per day. 

light ,, 301 -4- ,, I0'03 5, 55 



,, waggon 3284 



109-46 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 285 

The Lancashire Steam Motor Company, Limited, give the 
following estimated annual expenditure, based on 300 working 
days; prime cost of waggon, ^"550 : 

s. d. 

Depreciation at 15 per cent, on ;5 50 ... ... 82 10 o 

Interest on capital outlay at 5 per cent. ... ... 27 10 o 

Driver at 305-. per week ... ... ... ... 78 o o 

Loader at \ per week ... ... ... ... 52 o o 

Coke at 12 s. per ton ... ... ... ... 37 16 o 

Water, lubricants, and sundries ... ... ... 20 o o 

Repairs and adjustments ... ... ... ... 50 o o 



347 16 o 

Calculations based on the above estimate on the basis of 
2 2, 644 net ton-miles only per annum, give the total charges as 
3*6^. per ton-mile. 

The following is an estimate of cost from an actual week's work 
of a Londonderry steam waggon : 

s. d. 

Interest and depreciation at 20 per cent. ... ... i 12 6 

Driver, wages paid ... ... ... ... I 16 o 

Fireman, ,, ... ... ... ... 140 

Fuel, 31 cwts. of coke at %d. ... ... ... i o 8 

3 gals, oil at 2s. ... ... ... ... ... 060 

2 Ibs. motor grease at 4</. ... ... ... ... 008 

1 gal. paraffin at "jd. ... ... ... ... 007 

2 Ibs. waste at zd. ... ... ... ... 004 

Firewood ... ... ... ... ... oio 

Third man assisting delivery ... i o o 

Set aside for repairs ... ... ... ... o 15 o 



7 16 9 

Taking 50 weeks, or 300 working days, to the year, this would 
make the annual expenditure ^"391 TJS. And ^7 16^. qd. 
per week = i 6s. \\d. per day. 7 i6s. yd. -r 897 ton-miles 
during week = about 2d. per ton-mile. 

The steepest gradient negotiated during the test was i in 7, 
and the time of the year was January, with the roads in bad 
condition. 



286 



MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



Estimate by the makers of the approximate weekly working 
expenses of a Wantage steam lorry ; prime cost, 



oo : 



Depreciation at 5 per cent. 

Driver's wages 

Repairs... 

Coke fuel at 3;-. 6d. per day 

Oil grease and waste 



s. d. 
097 

I 10 O 
O 10 O 

o 17 6 
050 



3 12 



In this estimate no allowance is made for interest, or stoker's 
or loader's wages, and the allowance for depreciation and repairs 
is considerably less than that in previous estimates. An adjust- 
ment of these points will be seen to bring the estimate to approxi- 
mate pretty closely with those already given. 

The following table is taken from an interesting paper read by 
Mr. Douglas Mackenzie at a meeting of the Society of Engineers 
in October, 1903 : 



TABLE GIVING THE COST OF WORKING MOTOR LORRIES. 



Tons per journey 
Capital cost of motor > 
waggon ... j 
Ton-miles per day . . 


Two 

500 
3 


Three 
537 
4* 


Four 
575 

52 


Five 

612 
63 


Six 

650 

75 


Seven 
687 
86 


Eight 
7^5 
97 


Nine 
762 
108 


Ten 
800 
1 20 




*.* 


s.d. 


s.d. 


s.d. 


*.A 


* d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Wages 


076 


085 


094 


o 10 3 


o ii 3 


O 12 2 


o 13 i 


o 14 o 


o 15 o 


Fuel 


050 


050 


050 


050 


050 


056 


060 


069 


076 


Stores, oil, etc. 


o i 6 


o i 6 


o i 6 


o i 6 


o i 6 


o i 8 


I 10 


020 


023 


Repairs and renewals 


o 76 


076 


076 


076 


076 


079 


083 


090 


O IO O 


Supervision 
Interest on capital ... 


050 

021 


050 
023 


050 
025 


050 
027 


050 
029 


050 

2 10 


050 
030 


050 
032 


050 
034 


Depreciation 


o 10 5 


II 2 


II II 


o 12 9 


o 13 6 


o 14 4 


o 15 i 


o 15 10 


o 16 8 






















Total 


211 


2 2 II 


249 


268 


2 8 7 


2 II 4 


2 14 4 


2 17 10 


3 i TO 


Cost of same work > 
with horses ... 3 


100 


i 7 6 


i 15 o 


226 


2 10 


2 17 6 


350 


3 12 6 


400 



In the above table the cost has been worked out at per day on 
the assumption that the motor is in use for 240 days in the year, 
and the working day is taken at 10 hours. It is assumed that the 
return journey is made empty. It is also presumed that, the 



COST OF RUNNING AND MAINTENANCE 287 

weight of the usual load being known, a motor designed to carry 
that load will be used. If the load be under 5 tons it is best to 
carry it all on the motor. If, however, the load be 5 tons or over, 
it is best to distribute it between the motor and a trailer, and the 
cost of a trailer is therefore included with that of a waggon for 
loads of 5 tons and upwards. 

As regards depreciation, the above authority considers that in 
the case of a motor lorry by one of the best makers, a fair allow- 
ance to write off is 25 per cent, the first year, and on each 
succeeding year 25 per cent, of the value as reduced by the 
deduction of the depreciation. 



COMPARISON OF COST OF RUNNING FOR 
VARIOUS SYSTEMS 

The following table will be of interest, as it shows at a glance 
the cost of running in pence per ton-mile for both light goods 
delivery vehicles and of heavy-freight vehicles driven respectively 
by petrol, steam, and electric motors, of stated horse-powers, load 
capacities, and maximum speeds per hour. 



TABLE OF COMPARATIVE CHARGES OF VARIOUS FREIGHT MOTORS. 



Light goods delivery vehicles. 


Horse-power 
developed. 


Load in 
cwts. 


Maximum 
speed per hour, 
unloaded. 


Charges in 
pence per 
ton-mile. 


Petrol 


6-10 


10-20 


12-20 


i'5-!75 


Steam ... 


4-8 


8-I 3 


12-20 


175-375 


Electric 


3-6 


1 6-22 


12-15 


175-2 


Heavy-freight vehicles. 










Petrol ... 


12-34 


40-160 


15-20 


2*5-5 


Steam ... 


16-40 


40-200 


12-16 


2-4 


Electric 


12-20 


40-ICO 


11-16 


275-5 



The apparent superiority of the light goods delivery vehicles is 
due to the faster speeds at which they run under light loads. The 
maximum speed under load is about half that running light. 



288 MOTOR VEHICLES FOR BUSINESS 



EFFECT OF MATERIALS ON COST OF 
MAINTENANCE 

To ensure the utmost economy in expenses of maintenance, 
none but the best procurable materials should be employed in 
the building of the motor vehicle, whether adapted for light or 
heavy duties. Steel enters very largely into the construction of 
motor vehicles for crankshafts, axles, springs, hollow shafts, tubes 
for framework, etc., and it is obvious that the best will in the long 
run be the most economical. The use of nickel steel, or, better 
still, of the new chrome vanadium steel, should therefore be insisted 
upon. 

Chrome vanadium steel not only has a high tensile strength 
and high elastic limit, but also possesses resistance to torsion 
shock, and reversal of stresses, and is therefore most suitable for 
the work in question. 



INDEX 



A DHESIVE power of motor 

/\ vehicles, 38, 39 

Advantages of business motor 
vehicles, 2, 3 

of complete plant of municipal 
motors, 252 

Advertising contractors' motor ve- ; 
hides, 270 

Agricultural motors, 271 

Agriculture, use of motor vehicles in, 
270, 271 

Air, resistance due to, 35, 36 

Allsop heavy-freight petroleum engine 
vehicles, 232-236 

Ambulances, motor, 255-257 

American Society Mechanical En- 
gineers on power for motor vehicles, 
46 

Anglo-American Motor Car Com- 
pany electric omnibuses, 145-147, 
I 5 6 

furniture vans, 255 

heavy-freight electric ve- 1 

hides, 241, 242 

Aster internal combustion engine, 6r, j 
62 

Atkinson and Phillipson steam 
vehicles, 218 

Automobile Commercial Vehicle Re- 
view on cost of running petrol 
lorries, 278, 279 

steam lorries, 
280 

Automobile^ New York, on force \ 
required on various grades, 34, 35 



Aveling and Porter, Ltd., light 

traction engines, 218 
Ay res. See Catley and Ayres 



BAKER, I. O., investigations of, 
33, 34 

Belt transmission, 56, 59, 151, 153 
Benz commercial vehicle, 253 

heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 230 

light petrol vans, 150-152 

motor, 151, 152 

petrol motor omnibuses, 136 
Bersey, W. C., electric cab, 65-69 
Blackburn steam vehicle, 75 
Bodman. See Simpson Bodman 
Boiler makers, use of motor vehicles 

by, 270 

most suitable for heavy-freight 
steam vehicles, 165, 166 

Boilers, steam. See Steam omnibuses, 

Light steam vans, Heavy-freight 

steam vehicles, etc. 
Bomford and Evershed, Limited, 

steam vehicles, 218 
Borame, formula for calculating power 

of motor vehicles, 37, 38, 43 
Bottlers, use of motor vehicles by, 270 
Bouquet, R. P., on resistance to 

traction, 13 
Brewers, use of motor vehicles by, 

270, 278, 281 



289 



290 



INDEX 



Brightmore heavy - freight steam 
vehicles, 190-192 

Brunei steam vehicle, 76 

Brush Electrical Engineering Com- 
pany petrol omnibuses, 136 

Builders, use of motor vehicles by, 
270 

Burners, liquid fuel, 83, 84, no, ill, 
130 

Business motor vehicles, advantages 
of, 2, 3 

classes of, 2 

future of, i, 2 

prime movers for, 3-5 



/""CABRIOLET, electric, 74, 75 
V_^ Cabs, electric, 62-75 
Cabs, petrol, 53-62 
Cabs, petrol, cost of running, 274-2/6 
Cadogan heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 
225-228 

petrol lorry, cost of running, 279 
Calculations, graphic, for motor-car 

design, 49-51 
Calculating power required for motor 

vehicles, 40-47 
Canes, transport of, by motor vehicles, 

270 

Carburettors, 54, 56, 152, 227 
Carrying capacities of steam waggons, 

48 

Catley and Ayres steam vehicle, 76 
Characteristics of the internal com- 
bustion engine, 220 

of the steam engine, 220 
Charie-Marsaines, experiments, 24 
Charts for graphic calculations, 49-51 
Chasseloup-Laubat, Count, speed of 

electric car, 65 
C/iatt/ettr, Le, on failure of electric 

cabs in Paris, 63 
Chemical electric driven fire engines, 

260 

Chenard light petrol vans, 153 
Chocolate manufacturers, use of motor 

vehicles by, 270 
Church steam vehicle, 76 
City and Suburban Electric Carriage 

Company electric cabs, 74, 75 

omnibuses, 144 

vans, 158 
Clark, D. K., table of force required 

on inclined roads, 26 



Clarke, formula for rolling resistance, 

3 

Clarkson heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
187 

light steam vans, 155 

steam omnibuses, 79-103 
Classes of business motor vehicles, 2 
Clermont-Ferrand, experiments, 30 
Cocoa manufacturers, use of motor 

vehicles by, 270 
Coefficients of traction, 31 
Colonial type of heavy-freight steam 

vehicles, 175-177 
Columbia electric vans, 160 
Commercial travellers' motor vehicles, 

253, 254 
Common roads, recent experiments 

on traction on, 29-35 

- resistance to traction on, 6-39 
Compagnie de Hndustrie Electrique 

et Mecanique petrol-electric omni- 
bus, 137 
Compagnie de 1'Industrie Electrique 

et Alechanique. SeeafsoThury 
Comparison of cost of running of 

various systems, 287 
Compound or petrol-electric heavy- 
freight vehicles, 237, 238 

omnibuses, 137-144 

Comte de Dion. See De Dion and 

Bouton 
Continent, use of internal combustion 

engine railway carnages, 267 
Contractors, use of motor vehicles by, 

270 
Cost of running and maintenance, 

275-288 

Coulomb, experiments of, II, 12 
Coulthard heavy - freight steam 

vehicles, 177-180 

municipal tip waggon, 246, 247 
Craig-Dorwald petrol motor, 253 
Crossley Ley land petrol omnibuses, 

136 



DAIRIES, use of motor vehicles 
by, 270 

Dance steam vehicle, 76 
Dead-weights and carrying capacities 

of steam waggons, 48 
Debauve, experiments of, 72, 73 



INDEX 



291 



De Dietrich petrol omnibuses, 135 
De Dion and Bouton petrol omni- 
buses, 136 
fuel and water consumption, 78, 

79 

steam omnibuses, 112-118 

tractor, 118-121 
Delahaye heavy-freight petrol vehicles, \ 

223 
light petrol vans, 153 

petrol omnibuses, 136 

Devon Engineering Company heavy 

oil engine, 237 
Differential gear. See Driving gear, 

Transmission gear, etc. 
Diplock, B. J. See Pedrail 
Distribution of load on wheels, 1 7 
Dorwald. See Craig-Dorwald 
Dougill's Engineering, Limited. See 

Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles 
Draulette, Captain, electric motor, 73 

electric cab, 72, 73 

Driving gear. See Transmission gear 

power for municipal waggons, 

243. 2 44 

steam vehicles, 163 
Drummond, Dugald, steam motor 

railway carriage, 260-264 
Dupuit, experiments of, 1 1 
Dust collection. See Household 

refuse 
Dutch heavy oil engine, 237 



EARLY experiments in resistance 
to traction, 21, 22 
Eastbourne omnibus service, cost of, 

276 

Edge, S. F., light petrol vans, 154 
Edgeworth, experiments of, 1 1 
Efficiency of electric cabs, 64, 65 
Electric cabs, 62-75 
examples of, 65-75 

furniture vans, 156-160 

omnibuses, 144-147 

overhead conductor, 268-270 

transmission. See Compound or 
petrol-electric omnibuses, etc. 

vans, light, 155-156 

Vehicle Company electric cabs, 
69-72 



Electrical fire engines, 260 

Power Storage Company storage 
battery, 74 

Ellis heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
202-204 

Empirical formula for rolling resist- 
ance, 30 

Engine and gear, testing, 47 

most suitable for heavy steam 
vehicles, 166 

Engines. See Motors 

Engineers, use of motor vehicles by, 

270 
English heavy-freight steam vehicles, 

215-217 

Essex electrical cabriolet, 74 
Evershed. See Bomford and Evershed 
Examples of electric omnibuses, 145- 

147 

of heavy-freight electric vehicles, 
240, 242 

petrol-electric vehicles, 237, 238 

petrol vehicles, 221-232 

petroleum vehicles, 232-237 

steam vehicles, 167-218 

of light electric vans, 156-160 
petrol vans, 149-154 

of petrol cabs, 53-62 

omnibuses, 133-144 

Experiments in resistance to traction, 

21-35 

Experiments on traction on common 
roads, recent, 29-35 

Explosion engines. See Internal com- 
bustion engines 



FARM AN and Company light 
petrol vans, 154 
Farmers, use of motor vehicles by, 

270, 271 
Farm produce, transport of, by motor 

vehicles, 270 
Feed- water regulating devices, 102, 

130-132 

Field type of boiler, 123 
Fire engines, motor, 257-260 
Fischer heavy-freight petrol-electric 

vehicles, 237, 238 

petrol-electric omnibuses, 137-143 
Flash boilers, 127, 129, 188, 189, 190 
Florists, use of motor vehicles by, 270 



2 9 2 



INDEX 



Foden, Edwin, Sons and Company 

steam vehicles, 218 
Formula for rolling resistance, 30 
P'ormulse for calculating power of 

motor vehicles, 40-47 
Fowler, Wm., and Company, Limited, 

light traction engines, 218 
Frick heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 

230-232 
Fuller and Company, cost of working 

steam lorries by, 281 
Furniture removal motor vans, 254, 

255 

Future of the business motor vehicle, 
I, 2 

Fylde Motor Carrying Company, per- 
formance of Robertson steam lorry, 
283, 284 



/"^ARDNER heavy oil engine, 
\J 237 

Gardner-Serpollet light petrol vans, 

153 

Gear, testing, 47 

General carriers, use of motor vehicles 
by, 270 

observations on cost of running, 
etc., 273, 274 

heavy-freight vehicles, 161, 162 

electric vehicles, 239, 240 

internal combustion engine 

vehicles, 219, 220 
heavy passenger vehicles, 76, 

77 
General observations on light goods 

vans, 148 
passenger vehicles, 52, 53 

results of early experiments in 
resistance to traction, 21, 22 

Gillet, Forest and Company light 
steam vans, 155 

heavy-freight steam vehicles, 212- 
214 

Motor Company light steam vans, 

!55 

Glover and Sons, Limited, steam 

vehicles, 218 

Goods vans, light, 148-160 
Gradients, rising, resistance due to, 

24-29 
traction on, 17 



Graphic calculations, 49-51 
Grenville steam vehicle, 76 
Griffiths steam vehicle, 76 
Guldrier, Hugo, formulae for calculat- 
ing power of motor vehicles, 40-43 
Gurney steam vehicle, 76 



HAGEN heavy-freight petrol 
vehicles, 223 

Hagen light petrol vans, 154 
Halcrow-Vincke petrol omnibuses, 

135, I3 6 

Halske. See Siemens and Halske 
Hancock steam vehicles, 76, 147 
Hansom cabs, electric, 74, 75 
Harffand Schwarz. See Maxwerke 
Harle. See Sautter, Harle et Cie. 
Heavy-freight vehicles, 161-242 

electric vehicles, 239-242 

internal combustion engine 
vehicles, 219-238 

steam vehicles, 162-218 
Heavy motor vehicle, future of, I 

oil engine vehicles, 232-237 
Hele-Shaw, Professor H. S., experi- 
ments of, 32 

on pedrail, 271 

Herschmann on power required for 
motor waggons, 46, 47 

steam vehicles, 215-217 
Hewetson, Limited. See Benz 
Higgins, T. W. E., on use of motors 

for street watering, etc., 248-249 
Hilditch. See Yarrow and Hilditch 
Hill steam vehicle, 76 
Hillier heavy oil engine, 237 
Hindley, E. S., and Sons steam 

vehicles, 218 
Holt steam vehicle, 76 
Horse, supersession of, by motor 

vehicles, I 
Horsefall and Bickham light petrol 

vans, 149, 150 
Horseless Age, graphic calculations, 

49-5 * 
Hosgood, J. H., steam railway 

carriage, 265, 266 

Hospital motor ambulances, 255-257 
Household refuse, removal of, 244-249 



INDEX 



293 



Howard, J. and F., steam vehicle, 

218 
Hozier Company light petrol vans, 

124 
Hudson heavy-freight electric vehicle, 

240, 241 



T XSTANTANEOUS generation 
J_ boiler. See Flash boilers 
Internal combustion engine railway 
carriages, 267, 268 

vehicles, 53-62, 132-144, 219- 

238 
International Motor Company light 

electric vans, 157 
Ivel agricultural motor tractor, 271 



JAMES steam vehicles, 76 
Jeantaud speed of electric cars, 

Jenatzy petrol-electric omnibuses, 137, 

H3 144 

speed of electric cars, 65 
Julien, formula for calculating power 
of motor vehicles, 43 



KING EDWARD VIL, help of, 
to remove restrictions on 
motors, 3, 76 
Knaust and Company steam fire 

engines, 260 

Knight steam vehicle, 76 
Kromhout heavy oil engine, 237 
Klihlstein-Vollmer petrol cab, 56-60 



T AXC AS HIRE, cost of working 

J , motor waggons in, 282 

Lancashire Steam Motor Company, 
cost of working lorry, 285 



Lancashire Steam Motor Company, 

heavy-freight vehicles, 180-185 
municipal tip waggon, 

246 

petrol omnibuses, 136 
Land carriage, cheapest system, 2 
Law, H., table of power required on 

inclined roads, 26 
Leahy, experiments of, 23, 24 
Lefebvre, Leon, petrol cab, 53-55 
Leo petrol cab, the, 53-55 
Ley land, steam fire engine supplied 

to, 258-260 

. See also Crossley Ley land 
Light electric vans, 154, 155 

goods vans, 148-160 

petrol vans, 148-154 

steam vans, 155-160 

Liquid fuel burner, Clarkson, 83, 

84 
Engineering Company steam 

omnibuses, 108-112 

- regulating device, 100-102, 

130-132 
Locomobile Company light electric 

vans, 157 
London Electric Cab Company 

electric cabs, 63 

Express Motor Service petrol cab, 
60-62 

Londonderry heavy-freight steam 
vehicles, 197-202 

steam waggon, cost of running, 
285 

Longuemare liquid fuel burner, 130 
Lorries, petrol, cost of running and 
maintenance, 278, 279 

steam, cost of running and main - 
tenance, 279-287 

Lundell electric motor, 67 



MACERONE steam vehicle, 
76 

Mackenzie Douglas, on cost of work- 
ing motor lorries, 2 

steam vehicle, 76 

Macneil, Sir John, experiments on 
resistance to traction, 22-28 

Manu heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
167-175 

municipal tip waggon, 246 

u 3 



294 



INDEX 



Manson, Mr., steam motor railway 
carriage, 266, 267 

Market gardeners, use of motor 
vehicles by, 270 

Markham, R. G. L., on cost of 
running steam lorries, 280, 281 

Marsaines. See Charie-Marsaines 

Martyn steam omnibus, fuel con- 
sumption, 78 

Maudslay heavy-freight petrol vehi- 
cles, 187-189 

petrol omnibuses, 136 
Maxwerke electric vans, 159, 160 
Mees, Gustav, on Guldner's formulae, 

45>46 
Merry weather and Sons, Limited, 

motor fire engines, 257-260 
Metropolitan Railway Carriage and 

Waggon Company steam motor 

railway carriage, 264 
Michelin, Andre, experiments of, 30- 

32 

Middlesex Hospital Laundry steam 

van, 154 
Milandre, C., on resistance to traction, 

J 3 

Millers, use of motor vehicles by, 

270 
Mimes-Daimler heavy-freight petrol 

vehicles, 221-223 

light petrol vans, 152, 153 

petrol omnibuses, 136 

Morin, General, experiments of, II- 

22, 39 
Morris and Salom electric cab, 69- 

72 
Motor railway carriages, 260-268 

tractor, agricultural, 271 
Kiihlstein-Vollmer, 56 

tractors, 56, 118-122, 271 

vehicles, adapted for special pur- 
poses, 270, 271 

adhesive powers of, 38, 39 

power required for, 40-51 

Motors, electric. See Electric cabs, 

Light electric vans, Heavy-freight 

electric vehicles, etc. 

heavy oil, 232-237 

petrol. See Petrol cabs, Petrol 
omnibuses, Light petrol vans, 
Heavy-freight petrol vehicles, etc. 

steam. See Steam omnibuses, 
Heavy - freight steam vehicles, 
etc. 

Motorwagen "Draulette" electric 
cab, 72 

formula for calculating power, 40 



Mowing by motor traction, 271 
Municipal purposes, self-propelled 

vehicles for, 243-252 
Musker heavy-freight steam vehicles, 

187-189 



NA. G. heavy-freight petrol 
. vehicles, 232 
Nayler heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 

204-206 
North British Locomotive Company 

steam motor railway carriage, 265, 

266 
"Notions Fondamentales de Me- 

canique," results of experiments on 

friction, 39 



/RESERVATIONS, general, on 
V_y heavy passenger vehicles, 76,77 
Observations, general, on heavy- 
freight vehicles, 161, 162 

on light goods vans, 148 

on light passenger vehicles, 52, 

Ogle. See Summers and Ogle 

Oil and water controlling device, 

130-132 

Omnibuses, petrol, 132-144 
cost of running, 276 

petrol-electric, 137-144 

steam, 77-132 

Oppermann light electric vans, 158, 

J S9 

Orion heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 
224, 225 

Other heavy-freight steam vehicles, 
217, 218 

Overhead conductor electric omni- 
buses, 268-270 



PANHARD transmission gear, 
62, 149, 150 

Paraffin. See Heavy oil-engine ve- 
hicles 



INDEX 



295 



Paving-stones, cartage of, by motor 

vehicles, 243 
Pedrail, the, 271, 272 
Petrol cabs, 53-62 

cost of running, 274-276 

electric omnibuses, 137-144 

heavy-freight vehicles, 237 

engine vehicles, 53-62, 133-144, 
221-238 

lorries, cost of running, 278, 279 

omnibuses, 133-144 
cost of running, 276 

vans, light, 148-154 

cost of running, 277, 278 

Petroleum. See Heavy oil-engine ve- 
hicles 

Peugeot petrol omnibuses, 136 
Phillipson. See Atkinson and Phil- 

lipson 
Pianoforte makers, use of motor 

vehicles by, 270 
Pintsch oil gas, 267 
Ploughing by motor traction, 271 
Porter. See Aveling and Porter 
Power of motor vehicles, adhesive, 

38,3? 

required for motor vehicles, 40- 

51 

for steam vehicles, 167 
Prime movers for business motor 

vehicles, 3-5 
Propelling power. See Motors, Prime 

movers, etc. 
Putney Motor Company commercial 

travellers' motor brougham, 253 
Pygmee petrol motor, 53, 54 



RAILLESS electric lines, i, 268- 
270 

Railway motor carriages, 260-268 
Randolph steam vehicle, 76 
Reaping by motor traction, 271 
Recent experiments on traction on 

common roads, 29-35 
Resistance due to the air, 35, 36 

to rising gradients, 24-29 

to starting, 36-38 
to traction on common roads, 

6-39 
Results obtained with heavy-freight 

steam vehicles, 168 
of early experiments in resistance 

to traction, 21, 22 



Rhodes steam vehicle, 76 

Rising gradients, resistance due to, 
24-29 
traction on, 17 

Robertson heavy-freight steam ve- 
hicles, 206-210 

municipal tip waggon, 247 

steam lorry, performance of, 282, 
283 

Rolling resistance, 7-16 

Rolls, Hon. C. S., on cost of running, 

etc., of petrol lorries, 278 

petrol omnibuses, 

276 

Roots heavy oil engine, 237 
Rumford, experiments of, II 



SADLER, F., road - cleaning 
machine, 250, 251 
Safe makers, use of motor vehicles 

by, 270 

Salom. See Morris and Salom 
Sand, sprinkling of, by motor 

vehicles, 243 
Sautter, Harle et Cie., trials by, of 

De Dion boiler, 120 
Savage Brothers, Limited, cost of 

working steam lorry, 281 

heavy-freight steam vehicles, 192- 
197 

Saving by use of motors for street 

watering, 248 
Schiemann, Max. See Siemens and 

Halske 

Schwarz. See Maxwerke 
Schwilgue, experiments of, 24 
Scotte steam omnibus, 122, 123 
fuel and water consumption, 

78 
Self-propelled vehicles for municipal 

purposes, 243-252 

or motor railway carriages, 260-268 
Serpollet steam tram fuel and water 

consumption, 78 

system, 127-132 

. See also Gardner-Serpollet 

Sharp, A., on municipal motor wag- 
gons, 249 

Shippley Brothers light electric vans, 
160 

Siemens and Halske overhead con- 
ductor electric omnibuses, 268-270 

Simpson Bodman heavy-freight steam 
vehicles, 189, 190 



296 



INDEX 



Smith, E. Shrapnell, on cost of motor 
waggons, 281, 282 

piston valves, 266 

Snow, removal of, by motor-driven 

plough, 243, 251, 252 
Society of German engineers, Paper 

on power for motor vehicles, 40-43 
Southwell, F. C., and Company 

light traction engines, 218 
Speed and suspension, 19-21 
Springs. See Speed and suspension 
Squire. See Straker and Squire 
Starting, resistance due to, 36-38 
Steam ambulances, 257 

furniture removal vans, 254, 255 

lorries, cost of running and main- 
tenance, 279-287 

omnibuses, 77-132 
Steering steam vehicles, 164 
Stevens. See Stevens and Wallis 
Stirling heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 

228-230 

John, on cost of running, 276 

petrol omnibuses, 133-135 
Stone system of electric lighting rail- 
way carriages, 265, 266 

St. Pancras Ironworks Company, 
Limited, steam vehicles, 218 

Straker and Squire heavy-freight 
petrol vehicles, 232 

heavy-freight steam vehicles, 192- 
197 

steam lorries, charges of, 283, 284 
omnibuses, 121, 122 

Sugar estates, use of motor vehicles 

on, 270 

Summers and Ogle steam vehicle, 76 
Suspension. See Speed and suspension 
Sweeping machines, street, 243, 249, 

250-252 
Sweet manufacturers, use of motor 

vehicles by, 270 
Swiss heavy-freight petrol vehicles, 

224, 225 



r I ^ABLE giving value of a in 

J_ Coulomb's formula, 12 
Table giving relation of tractive force 
to total load moved, 16 

influence exerted by width of 

tyres, 18 



Table giving values obtained by 

Morin for constant 5, 20 

values of A, 20 

results of experiments by Mac- 

neil, 22 

uniform draught, 24 

results of experiments by 

Schwilgue, 24 
force required to draw vehicles 

on inclined surfaces, 27, 28 

- coefficients of traction, Miche- 

lin, 31 
results of experiments by Hele- 

Shaw, 32 
effect of size of wheels on 

traction, Baker, 34 

- tractive force necessary on 
various grades, 35 

- friction on various bodies, 
Morin, 39 

dead weight and carrying 
capacities of steam waggons, 48 

results obtained with steam 
passenger vehicles, 78 

tractive force required at 
various speeds, 31 

results obtained with heavy- 
freight steam vehicles, 168 

average annual cost of motor 

waggons in Lancashire, 282 

actual working cost of Robert- 
son lorry for thirty days, 284 

cost of working motor lorries, 

286 
comparative charges of various 

freight motors, 287 
Tasker, Win., and Sons, Limited, 

light traction engines, 218 
Testing the engine and gear, 47 

the vehicle, 47, 48 

Theatrical scenery, motor vehicles for 

transport of, 270 
Thermostatic device, 102, 103 
Thibault, experiments of, 36 
Thompson steam vehicle, 76 
Thornycroft, J. S., on steam vehicles, 

furniture removal vans, 254, 
255 

heavy-freight petroleum vehicles, 
236 

steam vehicles, 175-177 

light steam vans, 154, 155 

municipal tip waggon, 246 

petrol omnibuses, 136 

steam ambulance, 257 
dray, cost of running, 281 



INDEX 



297 



Thornycroft steam omnibuses, 103- 

108 
- street watering and sweeping 

machine, 250 
Thury heavy-freight petrol-electric 

vehicles, 238 
Todd steam vehicle, 76 
Tolch heavy oil engine, 237 
Traction, coefficients of, 31 
on common roads, experiments, 

29-35 
resistance to, on common roads, 

6-39 

Tractors, 56, 118-121, 122, 271 
Tramways, objections to, I, 268 
Transmission gear. Sec Light 
passenger vehicles, Heavy passenger 
vehicles, Light goods vans, Heavy- 
freight vehicles, etc. 
Triouleyre, L., petrol cab, 55, 56 
Torquay and District Motor Omnibus 

Company omnibus service, 82 
Turner, Atherton and Company 

steam vehicles, 190-192 
Tyres, width of, 17-19 



T TNITED STATES, use of 
\_) electric vehicles in, 162 
United States, use of petrol-electric 

railway carriages in, 267, 268 
Unwin, Professor W. C., report on 

motor vehicle trials, 32, 33 



VANS, light goods, 148-160 
Vans, petrol, cost of running, 
etc., 277, 278 
Vaporisers. See Burners, liquid fuel, 

Carburettors, etc. 

Various systems of motor vehicles, 
comoarison of cost of running, 287 
Vehicle Equipment Company electric 
ambulances, 256 

furniture van, 255 

omnibuses, 145-147 

heavy-freight electric ve- 
hicles, 241, 242 

light electric vans, 156 

motor, testing, 47, 48 



Vehicles, business motor, advantages 
of, 2, 3 

classes of, 2 

heavy-freight, 161-242 

heavy passenger, 76-147 

light passenger, 2, 52-75 

miscellaneous, 253-272 

municipal, 243-252 

prime movers for, 3-5. See also 
Motors 

running and maintenance, 273-287 

with springs, 19-21 

without springs, 19 

Vestris, A., on steam waggons for 

dust collection, 247, 248 
Vienna, motor fire engines in, 260 
Vincke. See Halcrow-Vincke 
Voitures Automobiles, extracts from, 

13, 28, 29, 36 

Vollmer. See Kiihlstein-Vollmer 
Vosper heavy oil engine, 237 



WAGGONS, steam, dead weight 
and carrying capacities of, 48 
Wainwright, Harry S., steam motor 

railway carriage, 264, 265 
Walking machine. See Pedrail 
Wallis and Stevens, light traction 

engines, 218 

Walschaert valve gear, 264, 266 
Wantage heavy-freight steam ve- 
hicles, 214, 215 

steam lorry, working expenses, 286 
Washing streets by motor vehicles, 

243 

Watering streets, use of motors, 248 
Water regulating devices, 102, 130- 

132 
Weaver, W., on use of motors for 

street sweeping and watering, 249 
Weidknecht steam omnibuses, 123- 

126 

omnibus fuel and water con- 
sumption, 78 
Weights and carrying capacities of 

steam waggons, 48 
Weir, William, on cost of running 

petrol cabs, 274-276 
Westinghouse electric motor, 70 
Wheels, distribution of load on, 17 

most suitable for steam vehicles, 
162, 163 



298 



INDEX 



Wheels. See also Heavy passenger ve- 
hicles, Light goods vans, Heavy- 
freight vehicles, etc. 

White light steam vans, 155 

Whiteley, Messrs., use of steam furni- 
ture vans by, 255 

Width of tyres, 1 7 

Winter, Mr., on steam dust carts, 
248 

on street watering, 248 



Wolseley heavy-freight petroleum 

vehicles, 136 
petrol vehicles, 232 



\ /ARROW and Hilditch, 76 
j[ Yorkshire heavy-freight steam 
vehicles, 210-212 



THE END 



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