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448 & 445 BROADWAY. 


1 401 swv^sf^ tnft Jim infr 

I: rae naibii of 


joQ to dviiatc 

to poa fir 

I fuur 


on tha L4dL of tboK omntfa. In, iiiiniilMiUMiiii of joo- 
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rllMBMinidatf tiM«NMaflianl«CaiiB^ I 

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to tito HDimft VdfiiM FtuidL Ott lb* oiifl 

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to TfiQT ulNnral^<». winotoE y^iin op mm Idoo to 

of tfaa «liiiM» ten » (iiiiiliiMili witk 

tttoatloa ^ to widdl voa dltA ]»lir lam brilUnA 


The following correspondence stifBciently explains 
the origin of the " Mount Vernon Papers," and will 
serve as an appropriate introduction to the present 

Let^qeh Orrrcs, New Yomt, JS^tember 2, lS5a 
Deah Sib : — I hnve a proposition of a somewhat peculiar Bature 
to moke to you i For the purcLflse of the Motiot Vernon property 
you have done more than any other man, or^ I might say, than all 
other men. To your eloquent aiq>eal in its Lehalf is pre-eniint^ntly 
due the credit of the progress already made m that noble work, 
and the favor with which the suhject is universally received by 
our people from one extremity of the land to the other. The heart 
of the pablio has natiiraUy warmed towards you^ on account of 
your well-timed and well-directed efibrts to rescue the tomb of the 
Father of our coimtry from neglect and dilapidation* 

Knowing that you have been no less distiDguished in literature 
than in official life, it has occurred to rae that it might be as agree- 
able to you to aid the patriotic and benevolent enterprise which 
you have undertaken, by contributions to the columns of a weekly 
paper of unprecedented circnlntion, m by a public address. I have 
accordingly to propose that, if yon will furnish to the Kew Yobk 
Ledoeb one origiaal article a week, for one ycai-, I will, imiucdiately 




Reason for Assuming Iho name of " Mount Vernon Papers"— Intended character of 
the snhjects treated— Objects of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association— Present 
state of Mount Vernon described In the Introduction to Mr. Everett's address as 
delivered at New York— This description not made by way of reproach to the 
present proprietor— Necessity created by the crowd of visitors and the vandalism 
of some of them of selling the property — ^The purchase could only be made by 
private speculators— By Congress or the Legislature of Virginia— Or a patriotic 
association duly authorized to hold and manage the property, and the last mode 
in some respects the best — A feat of Ledgcrdemaln proposed in aid of the pur- 
chase. .......... 1 



Christmas day simultaneously celebrated in the Catholic and Protestant church- 
Not recognized by the Puritans, and why— Had degenerated into a disorderly 
Festival— Lord of Misrule— Extravagant revels in the sixteenth century- Mince 
pie and plum porridge— Baron of beef— Superstitions In the West of England rel- 
aUve to cattle — Anecdotes of the reformation of the calendar— Lord Chesterfield 
and Lord Macclesfield— Milton's beautlftil ode to the natlvlty-Slr Walter Scott- 
Mr. Irvlng's charming description of the manner In which Christmas Is celebrated 
in England at the present day. ... ... 11 



DemoUtJoo of the honse of Franklin in Boston— Why necessary— Crooked and nar- 
row Streets of Boston and their origin— Great inconvenience from this cause and 
necessity of widening the Streets— Union Street widened and the house at the 
comer of Union and Hanover Streets, In which Franklin lived, nccessarilj- 
removed— Description of the bouse and of Its changes— Beasons against removing 
it to another idaee— AB the original portions of it preserved. 21 




RiiulfiH Mtl4.ltuir« mlurAtiuii IWcitiiiM « |»artncr In business with his nuatci^-]tfar- 
ltt:« hU itMMgtiiiir Kiifot»t»«U tu (hu lnh(-rlt»uc«t ami busiueM of his Father-in-law— 
Im^ijiU Itiu iiitifli* lif ItU bu»iiU'M In rval ««^tati'— Oratluallj purchases a larze 
uuitttiur uf AtiiitA, many of which ar« un]>r<HlucUv«->Th« number of his forma 
kit*i««ii only !<• htiitMitf— i*ttrioat(y of Mfntia and the cooimonitj on that subject 
" It tii<iMiiiu«a a tujilo of i»ublto r«)uiark— Measures adopted to solve the mjrsterj — 
And (Utt rcMult. ......... SS 



VUli iii lh« <>bM>rvat«)ry »t Caotbri«lfe on the Hh of OetobeiwDMcriptkm of the 
•veuliitf -Vualtloii of ths Cou»ol and Its appearance through the Comet-seeker— 
|ipawiiig« by Mr. Oeorir* V. Bund and Mr. Fette^Appearance of the Comet 
titroutf h the great relh^tur^ Professor Lovoriug's experiments with the Polari- 
lMm|iO' 'The Cluster tn the Constellation Hercules— Kemarks of Professor Nichol 
— Ths Penny Cyolopwtlla— History of Donati's Comet— Its period— Its rapid devel- 
opment- ProgreM of Astronomy In the United States— Bemark of Gibbon- 
Comets no longer Hubjects of alann—BeautifUl reflections of Addison— Apostrophe 
to the Comot 43 



Extra dothlnst prepared for the journey and the result—Sandwiches as compared with 
a hasty dinner at an inn— Sixty cents saved and proposed investment for it— Six 
bonrs comfortably spent at Albany— Sleeping cars and the excellence of their 
arrangements— Unexpected obstacle to the enjoyment of their full benefit— Arri- 
Tal at Canandaigoa— The great land purchase of Oorham and Phelps. . 68 



Unpromising weather at Canandaigna— History of the wltlemrnt— Oliver Phelp*— 
Anecdote of Judge Oorham — Visit to Rochester— Revrvcd scots— Astonishing 
progress of the eettlcroent— Return to Auburn — Chance In the weather— From 
Auburn to Syracuse and detention there— Slcepfnc: rars from Syracuse to Albany 
— Wakeftil fellow-passengers— Collision at Albany— Kind-hearted Conductors— 
Return home. ......... W 




First pnblLshcd by Lord Eamcs in 1774 as having been conimonicated to bim by Dr. 
Fronkiin— Soon discovered in Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophesying — Next 
foand in the dedication to the Senate of Hamburg of the Latin translation by 
George Genz of a Rabbinical work— Afterwards tracod to the " Flower-Oardcn'* 
of the celebrated Persian poet Saadi— Some account of Saadi— Possibly still to bo 
found in some Jewish writer— Defence of Dr. Franklin against the charge of pla- 
giarism — Quoted by Sydney Smith before the Mayor and Corporation of Bristol 
in 1829— The parable given entire from Dr. Franklin's works. . . 72 




A portion of General TTashinjrton's Diary the property of Mr. J. Carson Brevoort— 
Becently printed for private circulation — Iliuess of Washington in the summer 
of 17s9— Tour in the East partly to recruit his health— A considerable portion of 
the Diary relates to this tour— Washington consults his friends as to the expedien- 
cy of the tour— Their opinion— Anecdote of ILtnry IV. of Fraooe, and his ministers 
Viileroi, SuHy. and Jeannin— Eobertson's miniature of Gen. Washington fonns the 
vignette to this edition uf the Diary— Account tii Eobertaon— And his likenesses of 
General and Mra^ Washington— Colonel TrnmbuH's opinion — Photographic copies 
—Pine's portrait of Washington in Mr. Brcvoort's p<«sesslon — Gen. Washington's 
letter about it — An original letter of the Duke of Wellington in reply to a request 
to sit for his portr^t to >Ir. Inman. ...... 81 


Washington's diabt. 
rAzrr u. 
CcetCBeneeaietit o! li* tcrcr to tLe Eastern .^utM in 1T?9 — Tint day's Journey to Bye— 
DcMzipcion vf iLt roi.d— TLe tlre« difl^rtrbt ^ it':Vi of WafeLington to this part of 
the c omtr y — Swxigkd day'e jvumey u» Fairfieid and 4^:*pripti</n of th* road— Third 
dsy't ^cnrofT to 5rw Harea xiifjo^ gtratfcrd uxA MilAffd- I>*:*cript4<»n of New 
Earea — ^saiar jtatbtft tx New Havtrn — Foanh day"i yjum^j u» Hartford 
tJiT-'sri WiQiarfird a&d yuiil^^Unra and i^idenu by tl»« way— Fifth day's jvur- 
sfT t'.. rprattfifjc and if*rr.y^<n of thatpl»ee — Sixth day's }<ni.T«ry U* fep^wser— 
JJx^rrm reoeiTue *: Br-^titli froro Oct* nor Hatrtotk— »«rv«ih day's jvcmey 
t> Wcroeeier taii aitaa praacstg f'.T eBl>enag BotjUm— Eighth day's jvzTWrf Ut 
'Werais— ArclThi a: Boeuc <•:. ILe zlzil trar^rlLiig d&y trva Sew VmIl 9t 


ixrru ^woLzov. — tbbee fHASZs in b3» Lxrt. 

TiK Iipwnfiil if Sxspi'jwt lilt FinK— Eii ewaint frva E** ;t i?lS— Hjt iwoud ShS 
sjit - ■ rtgrm ert of ua lamDr «t iL'jnit — ^Linui Kajitii^os a boy aft Lis belief's isUe 

umtmi . 

n of W*lmuaj, 184^. ab4 

' utimrtoD— rascrupolocks 

1 'V(<riitiitDt crrMtumrdi bj 

4>»«tU^ nbM «*|»iiwi4 vulfi tM cii|itti»iit bin uit«laUn»i~Tb« l^r«» of tta United 

»ii*i«^ 1 « < iS 

1^ i*««aMwft( 

MipL^w tmitYvrt 

i^*iuuiij^t;ii|^ «Mi; -ia^- i'»{)«f 4fc oiiMM^ 

QflP^IIMKi^i 1f9^ 





The familr of Sir Walter Scott in 1?1>— His mo«!c of life and stadj— r]a>ful ; 

given his dao^htcrs — A vbitor rec'»jn!2<-i by t!*e print of hbi b'»r%t*ii •h'Mr Ucfr/r* 
he was seen — Grati:a«le more alTircttnz than inzratitude — d' rman n.-.di*-* — -If^tia;; 
aneetlote5at tiblc — A walk of a mile on joar own land— Natural f*atijr<^ of Ab^ 
botsibni — Dcpartcre — Personal apfKsarance of ?;r WalUf^r— rooT»rn«tioB — ff\AuUnA 
as to the a::th"r»L!p of the "WaTrrrfT cot^^s — P*-c-;!iia»7 *-rr.tArrawrr-i*r.*<— **a4 
changes in the f»3::>— VLsit to Al-bo*^f->rd {"^i IrM — B^rd-^r *^i^r**TT— '^nt^rbim, 
Jedbocoofhr— Etzairs of Drybcr^h Atb*T— To3»% of sir W*;t/rt' -vy/tt— M^rlrw* 
Abbej— Ckutpa at Ah^MC^ikiinl— T^ Poeiu aad Noreli M Sir Waiutr fwivu. US 



-fiM^ij-airt — Till ..I'ui': t'Ar:. »i*. i^r»«ri» C'ar>»^ I. — T;..-: Iy.A.» i* l5*rrf 
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vaumiir' "ii T:M^ji;rwia — rit^.*a 'f a^.i .f'- — 7'u» lor. *f lii«r:uu — i^ir-i'v •:•- 

if "Jw JB» — 3jTlIi*nr u inr a -a» *— v-TT-,«a Zii*Trai •am* — 1^ .-* »'r-i trrwinc rf 
lirf •BsmziK' E "T-^.-a. ^' rami* "»» w :T>fUiat*Ti a luc -"mk — Z^tnn«£: S'lm. liUi: 
^anrnc.r-r fisr '^ 1:31 it r«uiKim '^■Mua^uk— £41 reboot "U '▼'mun^atn vi 4m 

rra TX.i --; 

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lostr-u ^ swiivsm aK 


hsre prodaeed it, in the abeence of all the usual causes of public distress ?~ 
Its probable caose to be CmumI in Dut— An estimate of the personal debt of tho 
people of the United States->It8 annual interest cinetj millions of dollars— The 
bosiness debt is vastly greater— The Corporate debt— The Bank debt and the 
elements <^ which it is composed— Banks create no additional capital— Bj sudden 
con t f a ctJon of credit in times of pressure produce or increase the panic. Itt 



The rietr taken in the preceding paper best cxpbins the periodical recurrence of a 
financial crisis— Origin of the term Panic— Its connection with seasons (^pressure 
and distress — The onlj remedy is to keep out of debt — ^Tho abuses of credit the 
chief cause of frrvat commercial revulsions — Lon? credits deprecated by distin- 
guished financial authorities— The agency of banks in the dangerous extension of 
credit— Doubtftil utility of a paper currency — Individual prudence must flimish 
the main protection- The soundness of these \ievt^ <*onfirmed by the manner in 
trhieh the country is returning to a state of prosperity. ... 173 



First visit to Now York by pM:ket from Newport in ISIO— Exodos from Dotthester 
to Connecticut Biver in 1685, in fourteen day»*Madam Knigfatls Jovnej to New 
York in 1704— Extracts— Franklin's royage to New York in 179— Abandons 
vegetable diet by the way— Franklin's reasons in 17M for reeommeading Phila- 
delphia as the seat of a provincial Unioo-^Bcedoto ct Oeaetal Adair and 
General Hoot- Rapid journey of Cardinal Wolaey from Richmond to Bruges and 
back— Washincton's first Journey to the Eastern States In 179«— Travelling by 
stage coach fifty years fo—** Waking up the wrong pas se ngt r**- Indifferent 
accommodations both fbr passengers and bafgage— Anecdote of a German travel- 
ler—This mode of travelling aometimcs reiy pleaaant. . . . 1S8 



No Railroads or Steamers in Europe in l^S— Fnttoali first panaga to Albcsy— 
Stac«<^oaehea. pasting, ami vetturino in Europe— TravriBag oa foot and ca 
konebaek— The anci«;at Roman roads aInMst wholly lost— Tlst to the Conti- 
nent fa 1>1>— books— Boa. T. H. Perkins and tribute to him by J^ha 
Qttiacy Adsnts— Scene Beasc— Wlhon Hoose-Old Sarcm— ftalisbary Cathe»iral— 
Passage fS>m Soatharapton to Hatk — Freedom fhnn care at sea— Tracsicioa 
fVota Enf!aad to France and peiats of cootrast- French cutctn-boose— Ac^«d;>te 
of adyipeptteWMtsrtw ItS 

00NTENT8. XUl 



The importaace of Havre owing to it5 position at the month of the Seine and the 
American trade — St Pierre — Conflict of races in Normandj— Lillcbonnc— 
The coancil-hall of William the Conqueror swopt away by a cottun spinner- 
Detention at Boucn— Ugo Foscolo— Thomas Moore— Beranger— Society at Paris 
In 1S17-1818— Importance of Rouen— The Cathedral— Heart of Bichard Cceur 
de Lion— Church of Saint Onen— William the Conqueror could not write his 
name— Deserted at his death — Place do la PuccUe, where Joan of Arc was 
bnmed — Beflections on her &tc— Her statue by the Princess Marie, daughter of 
Louis Philippe^Yoltaire, Schiller— CorneiUo—Begrets that he had not ehoaen the 
Maid of Orleans for a heroine— Overturn of the diligence. 906 



The vast imi)ortance of this question — Comparatire strength of the parties in a 
military point of view— The leaders described, the Austrian Emperor Francis 
Joseph, the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel IL, the -Emperor of the French — 
The German Confederation in its relations to the contest — Hungary and tho 
possibility of a new reyolution — The general spirit of disaffection In Italy and the 
strength which it lends to Sardinia as the champion of Italian nationality — Quali- 
fied in practice by the hostile feelings of the Italian States toward each other. 218 



Another portion of Washington's Diary in tho possession of J. E. Marshall, E^q.— 
Description of the manuscript and its contents— Circumspection of Washington 
in recelying foreigners — General appropriation bill for 1790 — Tour on Long 
Island— Presents to foreign ministers on taking leave — Chasms in the Diary— Tho 
President starts on a Southern tour— In great danger in crossing from the Eastern 
shore of Maryland to Annapolis— Beception there — Continues his Journey to 
Georgetown— Conference with the proprietors of the lands on which the city of 
Washington was to be erected— They agree to a e^sion of lands for public pur- 
posed—District of Columbia ; Alexandria retroceded to Virginia— Description of 
the dty of Washington. 221 



Washington's Sonthem tour In 17D1 less known than his Eastern tour in 1789— De- 
parture from Mount Vernon 7th of April— Accident in crossing the ferry at Col- 
cheater— Predericksburgh— Richmond— Locks In the James River Canal— SUto 


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Tlie ralno of their fisoniple to ^otin^ HKHi— Tf»lt» of Mr, Prefcott'§ chftrncter^ whleh 
Jiru within tlio reocb of imltAtlou by utliej? — Wiltlaiu Cnuaci) Bond th# Axtnuio- 
rocr— Kcowrkable vafioty and uokm of qniOltlcs, scionitflo and imctieal— HiA 
«,miaV»1e t«mpor (vnd dliposltiott— IIli enUmaijisni for AstrfiiioiD.v— Liborfti appred- 
atlon of oth«r*~Tbil of Jenny Lind to the Cftmbrldf^e Ob»orv&toiy— Sacoeeded 
In tbo Ob«erviior]r at Cambridge by bid son Oc^rgc F, Bond— Sclc&tLflje rvpalAttoa 
, of Mr. Bo&dJnr. ...».«.. 868 



Bimtaltaaiioaa d««t3i of llallam JMxd Pr«teott— HAllAzn tlio llrft standard writer of 
Milary in Kngtnud after Buoii?, Gibbon, and Hobertioa— Comi»ared with thosa 
WTlteTA— Brief account of the IJiatorynf Earopn tn tho mlddlo o^oa— Of tho 
ConAtllational blatory of England^Of thc< ititroducUoti to Hut Literature of jSoroptt 
Ibf th« Mo«nt]L, GlxU'enth, And wvpnteontb centariiM^Personal Bijtory— Lo» 
of hla two sons— Benry cotinteli bit lihtlmr not to ooecpt tho tttlo of Baronet — 
BcccliTM ibo honorary degree of Doctor of Lavi fbom llarrard Collegio— Letter 
uf acknowledgment ...,..., 27$ 



\ year 1700 ikmons fiir the birth of |;r«at men— The nii^mory of Bomboldt asso- 

^tiatad with America — Ilia tiniGucci^aflful plans before coming to this coo tinent— Ilia 

frt>atrppntAtianfound«»d on hta Amerioan workft^Hla placo at tho head of thfinoa 

of acicnce of tho day— Great ago to which hla literary labora were protracted— 

" Ajoeoitoni^d to »lefp but four bonra tn the twenty-four— His social dispoaltlon — 

fj^eqaaintanee of the writer with Mr. von Dutnboldt In 181S— Ilia liberal apprenl- 

flUtoB of othen— Slta to Mr* Wight of Boston fwr his portrait— Bcmarka oo tba 

) that ho was an Atheist ,.*,.. 884 



lof filito and rnbllc opinion mingled in the present stragglo— Growth of 
I tn Italy — How far the feeling of tho masjiea will aifect the result ot 
—Tho i!Jtfercnt Yicwa of tho different parties — ^Elementa of natlonnlEty 
by tho Italians— A eocnpact geographical position— A fusion of tba 
OflgiJial meoK-Ooe tun^uage — A common faith— In alt thes« reapcetai th^Er claim 
to aft lndtp«odent nationality eqmi to that of any of tba great powers of Eiir»>po 
—To what \a the want of It owing?— By tjo moans to tho degeneracy of tho 
poJaUoa. 2<J3 




It bM fidled to exist for want of a comprohenfiiTO patriotic BcnUment^Dlfficnltles in 
the waj of tlio formation of such a sentiment arising from the multiplication of 
local gOTcmmcnts— Benefits and evils of this multiplication — Probable consequent 
ces of the present struggle — Will not result in a republican confederacy — Nor 
probably in the immediate establishment of an Italian monarchy— But may pre- 
pare the way for such an event in ftiture — Lessons to be drawn from Italian 
history— All other circumstances favorable to on Independent nationality nna- 
vailing without a comprehensive patriotism. .... 803 



The greatest dangers of the sea are in ncaring the land— To obyiato some of theso 
light-houses have been erected— The Colossus of Rhodes— The Pharos of Alexan- 
dria—Great improvements in modem times— Fresncl— Feelings in contemplating 
a light-house— The Fitzmaurice light— Number of light-houses in England, 
France, and the United States— Dangers sometimes of their multiplication— Anec- 
dote of a narrow escape — Minot's Ledge described — Destruction of the iron 
screw-pile licht-houso in April, 1851— The violence of the gale described— A new 
light-house of solid masonry in progress of erection under Capt Alexander- 
Progress of the work— An eclipsing light a beautiful obJect^Yia Crucis, via 
Luola. 810 



Should he be dossed with the Illustrious dead of 1859 ?— His success civil not mili- 
tary—Not cruel nor bloodthirsty — Uis government mild for on absolute despo- 
tism—Is Lombardyan exception ?— Anecdote of Silvio Pcllico and the other 
conductors of the ConcUiatorc — Metternich's first service at tho Congress of 
Rastadt — The four coalitions— His conduct as the Austrian minister in France — 
Anecdote from Capefiguo of doubtful authenticity — Was he the projector of tho 
marriage of Nai)oleon I. with Marie Louise ?— Rules Austria in peace for thirty- 
throe years— Sinks at lost in 1849— His exile, return, and tho close of his career 
as a private man. ........ 813 



Instances of an overruling Providence in the lives of distinguished men, and signally 
in the life of Washington— His brother Lawrence an offloer in the expedition un- 
der Admiral Vernon against Carthagei^a— Plan fbr pladog Oeorge in the British 



NftTj^ Aod a naidsitipiZLia'i vanant proctired — His mother oppcwei lh« pUa, ind 
U is tb&]idoDe<l'~%A<!O0iiip«Die* hiA brother ia Bftrbodooa at the ago of liLa«t«ca Mkd 
Ukes tbo sinall-iwx— TftiTtflc tiAture of ttut dlwuo bcfuro tho dbcuveiy of Vae- 
elUAtloa^Appvan in tho AmcHcaa Army in 1175 And iJterwftrd*— Oreiit dangers 
to which 'Waehin^toii was cxpracd on hla tnUsiou to V«'iifUi,go^lTftxard« of an vx- 
ctmi^^n «t tLAt time in the dUtricU occupied bjr tbo ludliin^— Their croclttci 
Narrow cmashj of W«6hlc^ton on tbo rctam— ^'oncladljig rcflectioiL . SV7 


BttTsx cnrncAi* occa&ioks jutd cncidsktb in tss Lire or wAMBnuQtoTn^ 

Btftddofik^n expedition in ITSI^-^MbiDgtoii a Tolnnfceor aid— Falbi lU on tbo wigr 
and 8«nt bock to the ttecrve — Jut as the amiy I bo day before tb« CDgn^eoiont — 
B^ftutiftil c>ci-ii«> of war oo the mornifig of tbo battle — Sarpriao and total defeat of 
Gcoer&l Briiddock^a ormir — Galloal conduct of Colonel Wa«hlA|;rtoa throughout 
the cjn^ngernent— Great danger to which bo woa exposed— Interview wtth on lo- 
dian Chicflatn on (be Kanawha In 1770— Prediction in 1755 of his fbturo caruer~~ 
Kettcctlon by Mr. ^parkA^— Wa»hington'B risit to New Tork in 17M, whcrei ho U 
the guest of Bererkiy Bobin$on— Makes the oequafntanee of Mary Phllipoo— Sho 
xnarrios CaptiJja On&o and adheres with her fiunily to the royal eame, 885 



WftshlAfton deslrcA la early Ufe a comniiasfan in the Hoyal Army— Exelnifon of Col- 
onlats fhoin protnotlaii tn tbo Boyal establtahmentji — Uls taste for military life — 
ttia dUtingutohed aervieea in the soren yoara' war attract no nutico " at homo *"— 
At Itji closet having no bop« of advaiteenaent, be tetirea from military llfei — After 
an iatenral of leventeen years, re-appeara eommandcr-ln-cbief of the armies of 
Cnited America — At the battle of Prineoton^ Waahtngtoti^ In bts own opinion, ran 
the greatest ri^k of bis life, belnjf between the fire of both partiet—Colonel Tram- 
tir» picture— ^Beputation Mqnirod by ^asbington abroad by the snrprtM of th* 
ians and Iho battle at Frtncetoa^ToatliDony of the historian Botto. MS 



Leftre Parts en rtonte for Italy — Pasaports— ConriOTs—Fontaineblean and its blttorl- 
eal reooUeetlon*— Appeaj^nw of a wine-growing region — Tbo Cute d^or— Aatun, 
Its antiquity and arcbitectural remafna— Epigram about the two Uisbopo of An* 
toB — Chofoeter of Talleyrand— Ills emigration to America, and intention to be- 
ta a citix«n of the United 5 tate»— Anecdote of Benedict Arnold— TaileyraQd^B 
tn thU oonntry— His fHcndKhlp for Ocneral Hamilton— Curious anecdote 
Aaron Burr, rebted by Talleyrand^ Miniature of General Hamllton-'Talley- 
rand's cbaracter as a Btatoeman— The Dako of MageatA born at A»tun— Another 
anecdote of Boaediet Arnold. ,,♦..>**&> 

^^ eal rec 

^H Its 

^^^^^f Aar< 

VVIJJ <]097TEK!ZSx. 


Buiti d<s IXurojK at Lyoui! — Tiut iiil o* l*m^i^mcx — ^I*aBenp:iar tf iu P)f 

h**t:h tnmi it* t(ij>— liMiuuit viev u! Huu: iiiaiH — ¥hfrma^isk ti utt ucixit of onr 
Litdy «if Four^iureb — hMam of in'^jain auc iuiiM9r'*uic m -Um wr: a! Um ?L*- 
l^nik— AiMHXlote of ii protecwH: f^cuctusi iies:pKr— Tu* trnmat ULbttf&^fnmamxBr'tte- 
BltMfch of tiitf I^nqterur Ciaudiut- — MBrtrrfloiL' oTIattur Inawik- auiL 1St«Drlm> ^tir 
PiirvMsntiotiK uf tbv car)y {"hr^iau^ m: rvcontec u creteSMStioL tnaar^ raxo- 
fiwd with tltf erufiltiee praetlaed ct Lvinv ir tiM- Frenei srvotaatMB. — ^ITkok- 
Mle nuuuacre iu the l)n)tt<«ux — ^Eeca)** aiici ca"n;e* of Jaeqi»r^ ihf iirr«ntar of 
tbf* ci^lebnited Iftoxu th&t b«fin> hit uamt — burmr of 2<iafioiear 1 mbmr htxc — 93s 
tjAtMjth, ..... .... 861 



Allk fkhrlcs nf LyoniH-rintt pUmpar of moaotaln MfmoTy— Kmtiift— 1l«n«fwriV' — ^Id- 
irontou* NinucsUnp— I'tirt dn Uhune— CaMsr*! description of the defile— Ancient 
bwltuiriand cHimiHU-od tu Miohipui and WlMonalB— Fint appeaimiiee of th» H«}- 
Tftii or onclfut hwlm In biiitury — ^£iiil|n«ticni of the entire people Into Fnmee— 
CM'frtaken and defttatod with frreat Ion by Cmsr, and the darvlvorh compelled 
to return to Hmitxerland— A muatflir-ron )n Oreck oharartoTs discovered in their 
eamp which irivei their ntuuheri — C«Mr*t great career hogins with the conquest 
«if the Uolvetli— Ueauttful proqiecta cm tho way fhun Fort rEclnae to Geneva. 870 


Kzcntsioiv rsov okkvta to cravottm, vokt blavc. 

Tte wiuoM attrartiffM la 0««eTa— The Inflnenee of Cahin^The road to Chamouni 
■^ <te raUfy of tka Arwt UtiMPliaWe aeene beyond Bonnerllle—Nant d'Ar- 
yi—ai Tim ^ritm cT Mom B laat ■ O a ltw. whether eomtidereil a beaaty by the 
f«HMliy— XriM 4a C %p 4i > e»v< W The t'pper A rve— Entrance into the valley of 
CtaBMi*— >TI* ||Mlii»— IWwrtpCtAii of a (rlacler - Their motion— Investigation 
«f %Bmmm l(f FntoMW A fa aw ti Tlie vaJley of Chamooni first made known to 
fto in««lll«t wmM kf roi^trkr and Wtndtiam in 1741— > Alpine soenery leas fre- 
^HM^r *M«iWi ky Um paete ihaa niiirht have been expected. 879 

iHi MiTaxTisT, TV! flftA «r tern, am) thi obesk cakdck. 

^ai^fto ArtBi Tatt^iHwttt ta tke lfa«Caavert— rrospeet tnm it— SoUta- 

thc Iter de eiMa, crrrasn^- 

Aft— BmA tka Jarfte-Sablimtty of 

; toiki towv «i tf tkt Her da 


GUoe and the source of the Arreiron— Geological signiflcanee of the recent in* 
qairies into the formation and movement of the GhMiers^Importance of these 
bodiesin the economy (^nature. ...... 889 



Bonsseaa's h insc— His manomripts— Partial insanity the best apology for his con- 
duct—Voltaire's Chateau at Ferney— Description of his room and list of portraits 
in it— Other memorials — Contrast of Forney as it was daring Voltaire's life-time 
and its present appearance— ills lifu and works an entire failure — Coppet and 
Madame de 8ta£l— GonTerneur Morris— Lausanne— Gibbon's house — its appear- 
ance in 1818 — Summer-house in the garden, where he was accustomed to study- 
Last lines of the Decline and Fall written there — Hume's striking remark in 
1767, on the stability and duration of the English language, in consequence of its 
prevalence in America. ....... 897 



General Laharpe, the instructor of the Emperor Alexander— Origin of the Holy Al- 
liance—Schools at Lausanne and the neighborhood— Scenery— Road to Vevay— 
Vineyards — Church of 8t Martin at Vevay— General Ludlow's monument — Fate 
of the regicides —Scenery at Vevay — Clarens— ChlUon— Its dungeons— Burke's 
Judgment of Rousseau's writings— Moudon—Payerne — Bertha's saddle— Freyburg 
—Local description— The ancient Linden — Strange bas-relief at the cathedral — 
Point of Junction of the French and German languages— Suspension bridge. 407 



From Freyburg to Berne— Change of costume— Appearance of the city— Lofty 
parapet wall and extraordinary leap from it — Alpine scenery- The Bear the 
heraldic emblem of Berne, and living bears kept at the public expense— The 
University— Manufactures of Berne, the Messrs. Schenck— Visit to the establish- 
ments of M. Von Fellenberg at Hofwyl— Anecdote of the director Beubel— High 
School— Industry School— The celebrated assistant teacher "Wchrli— Agricultural 
School— M. Von Fellenberg's establishments, formerly an object of great attention 
in Europe. 416 



3iaterlals for the Romance of our history scattered through the country— Events of 
this 19th April, 17T5— Alarm given f^m Boston to the neighboring towns— Es- 
cape of Adams and Hancock from Lexington to Wobom— A salmon left behind 


aad sent for— Second retreat to the woods— Capture of a prisoner by Sylvanns 
Wood on the 19th of April— After thirty years Wood applies for and obtains a 
pension— Visits Washington and is introduced to General Jackson->Propo6od 
National monomcnt at Lexington commemorative of the 19th of April. 425 



The Aar and its valley— Thun, its environs and lake — XJnterseen— The Lanterbran- 
ncn and Btaubbadi — A glimpse of the Bwiss peasantry — Cnrious misprint in 
Goldsmith's Traveller— The Lake of Brienz— The Glesbach— The musical school- 
master and his fiunily— The pass of the BrOnig— Entrance into Unterwalden— 
Longem and its lake— Partially drained- Sachseln— St Nicholas von der FlGe— 
Legends concerning him. ....... 485 



Samen, proposed drainage of the lake— The Landenberg— Schiller's Wilhelm Tell 
and birthday— Commotion in Unterwalden in 1818— Type of Swiss houses — ^Ar- 
nold von Winkelried— Resistance to the French in 179S— Atrocities described by 
Alison — The attack on Stanzstadc commanded by General Foy — Uis character—* 
Lake of the Four Cantons— Lucerne— General Pfyffer's model of Switzerland— 
Thorwaldsen'8 lion— KQssnacht one of Gcssler's strongholds — Is the history of 
Tell authentic? — The story of the Apple said to be found in the Danish sagas- 
Does this prove Tell a myth ?— The hollow way. .... 444 



The lake of Zng— The destruction of Goldau— Mr. Buckminster's description of it- 
Account of it by Dr. Zay of Arth, an eye-witness— Schwytz— Its early history- 
Events of 179S— Character and conduct of Aloys Beding-Brunncn— Passage to 
Altorf- Grutli— The three founders of Swiss Independence— The Tellensprung— 
Enthusiasm of Sir James Mackintosh— The Legends of the Apple-shooting. 453 



The Canton of Uri— The traditions of Tell— Valley of the Ecuss— Wildncss of tho 
scene- The Devil's bridge -The army of Suwarrow in 1799— Anidormatt— Uead 
waters of tho Ticino— Short Alpine summer— Passage of tho Furca— Glacier of 
the Rhone— Tho Valals— the Brlej^-The Simplon road— Farewell to Switzer- 
land. .......... 402 




The " Wc8t " CTpgestlve of important subjects of tbonght— Progress of settlement in 
SoQth and North America— Conditions of life on the gradually receding frontier 
— Sergeant Tlympton's fate in 1677— Daniel Boon the great Pioneer— His life by 
Mr. W. II. Bogart—Account of bis family, parentage, and birtb— Bemoval to 
North Carolina and settlement on the Yadkin— Marries Bebecca Bryan — Mission 
of the Anglo-Saxon race in America— Boon with five companions starts in quest 
of Kentucky In 176^-Flr8t sight of— Captured by the Indians— Escape— Meets 
his brother Squire— Bqulro Boon's return to the settlement for supplies— They 
both go back to North Carolina, and Daniel determines on a permanent remoral 
to Kentucky. 471 



Description of the Ledger establishment— Common printing— The power press— The 
Electrotype process — Press work — Distribution of the paper — Eighty thousand 
by mail — Ross & Tousey's news agency—" Ledger day " described — Iniiucnso 
amount of Printing annually done in the "Ledger" office— Convention for inter- 
national copyright— Mode in which the establishment has been built up and 
general character and objects — The " Unknown Public " — Conclusion of the 
Mount Vernon Papers, ....... 4S0 




Beason for assnming iho namd of " Mount Yeraon Papers^— Intended character of 
the sabjects treated — Objecta of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association — Present 
state of Meant Yemon described in the introduction to Mr. Everett's address as 
delivered at New Yorlc—Thls description not made by way of reproach to the 
present proprietor— Necessity created by the crowd of visitors and the vandalism 
of some of them of selling the property — The purchase could only be made by 
private speculators— By Congress or the Legislature of Virginia— Or a patriotic 
association duly authorized to hold and manage the property, and the last mode 
in some respects the best — A feat of Ledgerdemain proposed in aid of the pur* 

I HAVE already stated in my letter of the 6th of November 
to the Editor and Proprietor of the " Ledger," that I have 
ventured to call these articles the " Mount Vernon Papers," 
as a name appropriately indicating the object for which they 
are prepared, and in that way suggesting an excuse for their 
imperfections. As they will generally be written under the 
pressure of other engagements and duties, the considerate 
reader will not expect to find in them that elaboration and 
finish, which he has a right to demand in compositions prepared 
at the li*isure of their authors. I can only endeavor to do 
the best in my power, under the well known circumstances of 
the case, and candid persons will judge them accordingly. 

But though called the " Mount Vernon Papers," it is not 


iuttoitdtHi that thnso articles should be exclusively or even 
chlorty taktMn up in diiscussing tho subject of the purchase of 
Minint Venu^iu i^r tho topics connected or associated with it. 
Tl>ey will iiuUhxI furnish tm appropriate channel, f*>r whatever 
iutorniativm \'f au interesting cluunftcter I may be able to oder 
the puUio im that subject* It was one of the chief induce- 
tnenhi &ur undertaking their prvparatiocL that they would alSbnl 
n\i^ an opp^vt unity fv>r the attempt to interest a very large 
oitx'^Je \>t* rwiderss in an enterprise which I have so moch at 
htvirt* 1 shall avwrvlin^ly subniil to thenu firv^m time to time, 
an avWHUxt of thi> prv>irres:s an^l prvisfieets of the work, is £«• 
as they £dl ut^W my obi»TTalBO«L Besinks 1^5.. tike eocnrry 
aKmiHis with re^WleelKvwt aanl traklitie©* of Washinsti:* ci?n- 
wvtesl with his tftvil an^l m;a:ary ^nurver : with localltks r^:ii- 
K^xt inlewrstUi^ by his baUk^ k» vKits^ oc his s»^>ur:i ; isii 
xvith iinUxixl^ab s«ul Hxkiy: wcx^ :aw kLuu azid of waccll a it^ 
>jivw j>er*>iwu5y k«^(^w«v iw» kiaeu "Dwre arv iCiiEy K-rsr^Bol 
ffCitiJtmt^Si \wt Ki^x ia ^xw*rtDcvv ot* wix*flL a few r^nr.?'-- ^> l<* 

^^ft'^^ JWN^ *^S^v^* vc^s5 jr« x*»:cj5C3C.^y rvr-cari* ••:• zi.t 
Vs'JJio^. ;r. xiikUTsc »v;S:c^e: Tons :£ ihi >^:iCLrry.3' r liif T*Li7«.'»»t 
x*<r :v^*i>::.^ TAX j»*i-r?ns^ vtt :fs»f ^ttittmnwr •££ Wjearsttrku^ xaia. 
tf I ^.^> *ns» r.'ij*U:/. w \!« T^jj^riba TrMv««cimr aiucwrtiis- lira tTi^ 

V W ^'N^ijiMcv^ wva>),^ :jvv<rr! V K*^ a w/wc «viTr,TnffWv!rr»:irc it 


*' It 18 with Qoallected diiBdence that I prtnent mjwelf for ft third 
time before a Xew York aodicDce, to repeat the addretf which yonesptct 
from me this ereniiig. I do it at the urgent request of thoae wbote wiith 
is a command, and who are deroting tbemselres with iiiich admira^/lo 
xeal and energr to one of the moat praisewortbj ent^rpriaea that eari 
appeal to the patriotic heart. The woaen of the conntrr, and n//«Ur«t 
more eamestly than ia the Cicj and Scate of 5ew Torfc, hare nnd^rruk^ik 
the noble work, ae^iected hj CoogreM, not performed hj Virginia, f4 
racning the dwcllzg-piace and the laat reatiag-place of WaiihtDgtOft 
froB thoee diAsuxa a:ul lioaBCsdea, and ia thia eaae I mnee add Umm* 
desecnckoa. ia wuh, aa pnrsee pro^fertf , they ar« fMeeawnlj ttrt^^A, 
mad of ptaesnr ami. TOiier the pnKe^cloa aa«i giarifia»dkfp Hff a per^ 
— cet iir'r ir "wn ci»»*xBeiHrve w5di the RepoMw^ 

"- Far HKS. I an laovf Uk «t. aa4 ar>€ U*}*i9 ^.'imTr^tunuii'v*, ia fhe 
chasaeser flf 'a* Lu&af Sonns V^rana XiHMriacimi ^f the Ciu/m, ft 
was aJmi jxm •BfauaiK 17 toe perM'v<*r3Kr aa«t leti^^^utrJlitiAf^ #:Swr7« 
•f a ie^ixiert iaaisir»xr i€ hvatii 'lar-ulna. I: iott jui vvt auv« it^M^ 
i » tm^v i a tnarisr if 3ii*nryirulfm. inm tiu* ia«»->ac C/MWiuwi*vAitA, 
w^ne& ivflHOi "i» urssmnnmrante innrtf i< iii-«-lnT :5:"'*n nii^i '.^ 'lut 
Fadber rf na "jonarj. x ii irraoistfi a VTfu»h*»it •sr.wwiiihj^jt '►«• -a 'i* 
^saaumuai jl -r^*r^ sftnuuB- uf -iu* C»miferti»Eic7 mit e diw ^^xuMt^ti -h* 
coer^Rie n-Hqeraunn if iame if lut siuc «s»y!iIjKic uut 'Virr.Af Ut w 
sua. if ym Iw^ sui ^'■^■r^ iriu^ haat Ji -li* Tauin- Mtv^ laa ur^-Kktif 
Vt^ iuv. mr mom -v-nxauu ii i«» «^»uaisiuiu*^ x innun i^p»«ns#ni: 
Sir ill! in 1 1 ill! ft liwDsr "^-rruiji t:i» «nr»»?v-t nr*i aor flj^'rtJjr -r fit r.< 
gw f iMi-MUi. TT -fae jL »'» s juym : «f -Iv x«HM»rljin. wiit v wiuu*jKnk\i^ 
WOOL if xoBBP- — ^!sri-«»i -bmooBUt fnil aiJ * mm yutt Xti^rx 'n tu tf-* -Vut 

muaw^ai lys: Mi .rrr- isut « ^f 'snnrv «nuiiii^ 'a •.niuvuBiaaiit !•«» 

or aa up isiH-T :a»^*t-r aui ip-acr ar :ir m vuwhi^: 'H li^r v^rn* 

ssr-. ^ii!r. a i. j g uresM caM .tt p m " ar^ -ts^ ih^Kff» -n ;^ 
.an: la- jiw p .j we w -tar ^si^mrw. 

^»sCXj»r— trsci^ ir.'a-g .sat :* ■r^a:n:.£45 4;r)fr,«#«i»< 
rcqmsB BC rvrrrfi^t-- laneabKs: -* tj- ivr,*-.' '^ 



tlu» proumW ri»U|wlng Into the roughiicaa of nature; and above all, the 
raw liKMUWi4ctoiK»!«i^ iho Irrvvercnl cxposuro, and the premature and un- 
tltlv do(*aY (httt roi^n about tho tomb, but must bid God-speed to the 
i»lUut«* oniuv-*^* iioblot^omeu and thoir worthr sisters, in CTery part of 
tin* Und, who liavt* dotormiued that this public soandjd, this burning 
pIuuuo, nhrtU eott'^v Xo man of iica*ibiUt\\ who has contemplated the 
dUituil ii)H«ct«ioU» of Mount Vernon in it* present condition, but must 
«irth lUi'ee*-* and nuwt feel it his duty to give his own co-operation to 
tlh' ertUkt thrtt i4 now maWin|;> to rx^dvvm and enclose the hallowed and 
beMUti(\d <»pot, \t\M' a K^xeUer emiuonco d\H^ not, in all the land. look 
»h»\\u \\\^\m a ux^ldov nxet .^ tv* bring it Kick, a* fur as may be, to itd 
»Mi!k«lu.O ovdei »uul co»«ehn\***; to clotl*e it* neglected slopes with the 
f.UMtU.u b\u «c\%»r wvavyuig clwrm of gra** and trees; to re-opcn the 
oxoitivoww 1^1 h^ %moe |Hfx»*>\^l by feet which cxHw^crwied the soU on 
>Uuvhthv\ tivd, to ^vnew the de|Vfcrted beauty of the garden and the 
vtiu-ivi \ Atow whu'h aid! eo«t;dw>i |4aut« that r\»eeivtNl the foster- 
\\\A vA\e ol \V A-hiUiium , to r^^xixo ujhxw the \Wnuded hiU-<ivJe* th« 
p\o«fi<\u^ h»M\o\«ot \ho tX^v-t. Aud to WAich v>>er ti.e prv^sor^A;;oa of 
*'\\\\\\' \\\\\\\\\* oV tho »H*\l ^d^uted bx the ♦ti\v\ji iur.x: w^.ui: gr^fped 
rtud n\u«h'vi \\w \\\\\\\ \\\ N»A»%* o\ thv t^ewv^i Niov.v-s 01 jV< N* 0^ wAr; to 
4«'I^\\M' \\w \\\M\\\\\\ \\\ \\\A% \OudUiou ot x^\*..v>^ ivi s-irrrlc i**ctT^ 
l»\>\h»«h \\ ^»\ rtdii\uAbl\ \vtU\\v,\ tho \^vi' ^w^.\Ax*;;s' Ari ^-arrsxrio^r 

\^\ '^i \\ \«hi- rtud v.l»■.u^^»^A;* %\i >....^ v :.,^ ^ ^^.; N.' :\v, "^v ^i-i froa 
iM • \\ y\\\ \\\ yW \s\\tt\\\\ rt„sl -*^^^^, *.V N^;>>».ii .K* sOJi l.^ir C- S5*- 
\ '«■ '»'» \\»»hm »hi *vv>.M,i oi iJvvv-.j^ vk Jilt six *:.>; .islv: ^-, si -C":?? af 

tM-nnni. »'t d W »»i ^^^,.^l.^.. . ,-.. -k*, s ,i ^^; ,> ^v ^^.^ >'• -^ ^.^ ^ ,^ ^ ^ 

' I. Mtll \>. ll»V\ 

TIIK U6v9(¥^HiiS6^ PAPERS. S 

he foregomg allusions to the? present condition of Mount 
Vernon arc not made in the spirit of roproach to the present 
proprietor. It can rarely he proper to make the conduct of 
private citizens, and the manner in %vhicU they manage their 
aifairs, tlic subject of public comment. So l(jng as tliey keep 
within the bounds of morality and the law, Mong to tlie same 
aoct and party with ourselves, vote for the same candidates, 
use the same dictionary, read the same newspaper, and take 
off tlieir hats to the gi'ound when wc pass, (for if they fail in 
any of these things, there is nothing too bad to say or print 
of them,) they otight not to be interfered with. I am not 
aware of any thinfj whiefi ought to deprive tfie proprietor of 
Mount Venion of the benefit of this principle, certainly not as 
far as I am concerned, indebted as I am to him and his amia- 
ble family for a most friendly and hospitabb* rcccptiun. 

It could never, I think ^ have been a productive property, 
nor one capable of being kept in high condition, without a 
considerable annnal outlay. It descended to the present pro- 
prict^ir, if I am not mis Info rmed^ — fur I do not derive the 
impression from him, — in a neglected state Supposing it 
trno that he has shown himself not duly sensible to the inter- 
esting character of the spot, it does not, I think, lie with his 
fellow-citizens to reproach him. It will be time enough to do 
so, when, either by the acts of their public representatives, or 
any more informal demonstration, they shall themselves have 
manifested a sincere and effective interest in the care and pre* 
servation of Mount Vernon. %Vhilc it remains a fact that 
nothing has be4?n done by the leaders of public opinion in or 
out of Congress, or l»y any genera! popular movement^ for its 
protraction, it is unfair to reproach Mr. Washington for a sup- 
posed neglect of it. Considered merely as a patrimonial farm, 
he surely has a right to take care of it or neglect it at his 
pleasure. Considered in its great national and patriotic asso- 
ciations, it will be time enough for tlic Public to rebuke him 
when the Public has done its own duty* 


%t lesying^ reproiiches asiiie. wMdt aeldom do madx jso^xi 
to maaees of men <>r tx> imiiviiiualsy and ar« in general rLberaily 
dtalt nut hv those who ha^e little else tao deal in. all persons 
most jcimit, that the state of thinus-at present existing an Mount 
Viraun (inght to cease. N«)minally private propertr^ ami be- 
lonipni^ ^} a private individiiaL. the Pofallc in efi^et lavs ciaim 
to Itf take» p qtLaai on of it^ oeeupies It. <)r at least overruns 
rt. Visitrrrf <)€ evcsy kind ami in vast numbers* tourists ami 
pilgrim^ of our own and fbreiun ^«"«K led by every motive 
firom idle curiosaty tf) patriotic feelings resort to M^junt Vernon 
in the pleasant aeasun of die year, ami more or less at all 
seasons^ They wander over the gromufe and through the 
housev the qnaxxr part ^if tfaenu no doubt, eoodocting tfaem> 
seiviss with the deeomm whu.4i belongs to the place^ and the 
'*xvillty which belongs to all places But in addition to tiie 
cavil and well-bred, there are enough of an •>pp«)site lieaerip- 
tion to Imfict acsious injury on the :irounds and the house. 
and to cause the greatest annoyance to its inmates^ Their 
PRtin^ment is invade*! in the most unseemly and 'Hstressing 
manner ; artieies easily rr?moTe«i must be «Josely watchtd. to 
prevf^nt their being '^arrie*! oflT: whatever can be broken ur cut 
b ilaikie to lie mutilated and defiu!ed within 'ioors^ and the 
siirTi»»b#-ry In rhe vaiks .md :imunds is appniprimced without 
acrupie. Thn^i -^r tour -jI tiie pales have betai wn^cfae«i firom 
the haiustnule of the trriut stain^aso. ;ind «ja2TitHi Away. An 
attempt was made last vpar to brpak the ^iass <5ise which 
contains the key 'j{ the Basriie. driven by L-idiyf*tte to Washing- 
ton, and u> p»irir»in riiis n-raarkabie PHiio. Most **£ the small 
pmjerting p«>rrions of the wnjught martile mantel-piece pre- 
sented to Gentrai Wjisiiimrt* ^n by Samuei V.iu^han. Es<4.. -jf 
London, and forraicir rfa*3 imiiment ■>!' "he rin*-piace in rho 
<fining-rr<inu Ijavo heen mtlii* s«ty bn»k4 n *»it: diid in •.»iie <'ajje, 
aifc lease y«»ung macnoiias olaute^i in ^he :irt»uiids iiave I)eeii 
CBt <k>wn by toarists. who wen*, as may he supp«-'se«L partic- 
nfar as to the qnsiity of their waiking-scicksi. Were the tQi> 


tune of the proprietor such as would enable him to restore a 
place like Mount Vernon from the effects of half a century of 
neglect, and to bring it into a state of ornamental culture, it 
is plain that it could not be kept in that condition without the 
additional expense (if there were no other difliculty) of a 
number of watchmen and guards. 

It is quite natural that the People should wish to visit 
Mount Vernon, but if they insist on doing it in numbers tliat 
put to flight all ideas of private property, to say nothing of 
the seclusion which makes the charm of rural life, they ought 
to be willing to acquire a right to do so. They ought to pos- 
sess themselves legally of the property, and not insist upon 
using it illegally. They not only ought not to reproach Mr. 
Washington with letting it go to decay, while they are them- 
selves tearing it to pieces, but they ought not to permit him 
to be burdened with a nominal possession, unaccompanied by 
any genuine enjoyment of his property, while they are exer- 
cising upon it themselves some of the most absolute acts of 

I know of but three ways in which the end can be attained. 
An individual or company might purchase Mount Vernon, in 
order to throw it open as a place of public resort and recrea- 
tion, and thus make it the subject of pecuniary speculation. 
Offers to this effect, tempting in their amount, have been made 
to the present proprietor, and are regarded by his friends as a 
justification for demanding a price for the estate, so much 
beyond its value for any ordinary private purpose. They urge 
that a gentleman of moderate means, actually coerced by the 
Public in the way described, into selling his property, has 
made sacrifice enough to patriotic feeling, in refusing the lucra- 
tive offers of private individuals, who might put the estate to 
an unworthy use ; and that a farther pecuniary sacrifice ought 
not, in justice to his family, to be expected of him, in the price 
for which he is willing to cede it to a patriotic association. 
However this may be, all must approve the motives and feel- 

* -•• 'I*. 

\:. \' 

\. ..:■.. 


his proportionate mite ; but to arrange the machinery, by 
which so large an amount can be collected throughout a coun- 
try so vast as ours, is a matter of difficulty and labor. 

It is really, however, as it seems to me, the best way to 
accomplish the object. It produces a more direct participa- 
tion of the People in the result, than if it were accomplished 
by a legislative appropriation ; and the zeal and energy with 
which the ladies of the association, alike those forming part 
of its central government, and those who, as local managers, 
have united with them, authorize a confident expectation of com- 
plete success, and that at no distant day. It is indeed very im- 
portant that what is done should bo done promptly, for Mr. 
Washington has engaged, in case the purchase money is paid 
in February next, to remit the interest due upon it for the 
current year. 

I venture, in conclusion, to make a proposal, suggested by 
the munificence of the proprietor of the Ledger, in paying the 
generous sum of Ten thousand dollars to the Mount Vcmon 
Fund, for tha preparation of these papers ; — would that it 
were in my power to make them more worthy of his liberality ! 
More than Three Hundred Thousand copies of this journal 
are circulated among the masses of the People, throughout 
the length and the breadth of the land. A large proportion 
of the copies are ordered by clubs, and are read in families, 
and I am told that it is not an extravagant calculation, that 
they are read by One Million of the People of the United 
States, each one of whom venerates the character of Washing- 
ton, and would gladly co-operate in rescuing his dwelling and 
his tomb from neglect and decay. If this is a sound calcula- 
tion, the contribution of half a dollar each by the readers of 
the Ledger would at once accomplish the object ! 

I have hitherto taken no part in collecting funds for the 
purchase of Mount Vernon, in any other way, than by the 
repetition of my address on the character of Washington. But 
I shall be happy to aid the readers of the Ledger to give 


btttoUiB^ ami af tite 1 

lilt iMiijr ffiit km^ nC Clc^aon 

■■^^11 [III 1^1 II I *■—- - 1^ A^ *^ ^-fcfc-- fcnli% 

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^ TW*^. IW|HHlii 


Saturnalia so closely, before the Reformation, and to some ex- 
tent after it, that it has been usually supposed to have been 
celebrated in imitation of that season. For these twelve da>s 
society was turned topsy-turvy j servant and master changed 
places, and all gave themseives up to antic games^ coarse 
revelling, and licensed dissipation. An old Puritan writer on 
this subject (Pryime) says : — 

'^Our BacchanniJil Cbriatmosacs and New Tears Tides with those 
S&lurn&Ufl ftDd fcflsts of Janus^ we fiball find eticb near affinity between 
them, both ia regard of time (tbey being both in the end of December 
Df] on Ibe first of January,) and to tbeir manner of eotemDizhig, (botb 

them being spent in revcllltigi epicnriam, wantouneed^ idlcaess, 
daociog, drinking, stage plays^ masques and carnal pomp and jollity,) 
that we must needs conclude the one to be the very ape or issue of the 
other. Uence Polydore Tirgil affirms, in express terms, that our 
Christmas Lorda of Misrule (wh!eh custom, solth be, ts cbiefly observed 
fa England,) together with dancing, mai^ques, mummeries, stage-plays, 
and tiieb other Christmas dbordcr iiovr m use with ChnsLtaiis, were 
derived from these Roman SaturnuLia and other Bacebanalian festivals, 
which (concludes he) should c.iuse all pious Clxristians eternally to 
abominate them/* 

It cannot be denied that many of the sports not only of 
Chridtmas but of other church festivals were of a character at 
once so coarse and absurd, as to justify in no smaii degree the 
hostility of the Puritans, Among the pageants of Christmas 
was the *' Lord of Misrule/' a mock dignitary invested, while 
the holidays lasted, with a sort of dictatorial power. Tlie na- 
ture of his office may be inferred from his name. His authori- 
ty was recognized in all the great houses, beginning with the 
royal residence. *' In the fcjist of Christmas^ (says the chroni- 
cler Stowe,) there was in the king*s house, or wherever he 
lodged* a Lord of Misrule or Master of Merry Disports, and 
the liko had yc in the hnusi> of every nobleman of honor or 
good worsliip, were he spiritual or ti'mp*>raL" 

It ia related of the gre^t Sir llionms More that '' he was 
by his fatherV procurement, received into the house of the 




soiso that no mm can hent his own rolce. Then the foolish people 
ihej look, thej Btare, they luugb^they fear» and mount upoQ forms and 
pewg, to 8C0 these goodly pugciiDtf , solemnized in this sort. Then after this 
»bout the cbarch they go* igain and a^nm, and so forth Into the church 
yard^ &c. 

The hobby horse was cut out of stiflf pasteboard, represent- 
ing a pjnj with his housings, and attached to the rcTcller in 
such a way as to conceal as much as possible his biped charac- 
ter, and to form of the whole a very tolerable representation 
of horse and rider* Tliis whimsical imitation may still be 
oeon among the sports of Carnival at Komo and Naples. 

After all allowance is made for exaggeration in the pre* 
ceding description, it furnishes a pretty goi>d apology for the 
dislike which the Puritans entertained for Christmas. Wheth- 
er wc shall feel equal sympathy with them in reference to one 
of the few incidents of a Christmas festival which have de- 
scended to the present day, is not so certain. Mince-pie and 
plum-porridge were an established piirt of the traditionary 
cheer, and probably did their share in rendering the celebra- 
tion of the day popular. This was enough to disatTcct the 
earnest reformers towards these tempting delicacies. But- 
r, in describing the objects of his ridicule, in Iludibras, says 

** Quarrel with mjuced piea, and disparage 
Their best and dearest friend, plum^porridge." 

, was in allusion prubably lo this passage in Iludibras, 
that Dr. Johnsf«n in his life of Butler remarks, " that we have 
never been witnesses of the animosities excited by the use of 
mince-pies and plum-porridge; nor seen with what abhorrence 
those, who would cat them at all other times of the year, 
would shrink from tliem In December. An old Puritan, wbo 
was alive in my childhood, being, at one of the feasts uf the 
chureli, invited by a neighbor to partake his cheer, told liim, 
that if he would treat him at an ale-house w ith beer brewed 



for all times and seasons, he sbould accept his kindness, but 
would have none of his superstitious meats and drinks.^ 

It is not easy, at this time of day, to write gravely alK)ut ' 
mince-pics ; but n*garding them as the Puritans did as a por- 
tion of the da'mtles devoted (as they viewed matters) to th© 
cause of idolatry, they could not indulge in them without 
violating the spirit of the earliest law of the primitive church, 
which commanded abstinence from ** meats offered to idok/' 
At any rate, the ridicule is not all on one side. There was no 
more absurdity in rejecting than in adhering to this gastro- 
nomic article of faith. An ingenious writer in the ^ World/* 
judicially commenting with mock gravity on the degeneracy 
of the age, observes, 

**How gpeatlj ongbt we to regret the neglect of minced ptoa, vhich, 
k>C0ides the ideas of iTierTj*miikiug inscpar&ble from thcm^ were alwaji 
conaidered as the lest of ficbismatics! How jealously were tbey 
swallowed by the Orthodox, to the utter confusion of all fan&tic^ 
rectisante! If any couDtry geotleman should be so unfortunate In tliii 
ag9 (1755) a» to lie under a suspicioD of heresy, where will he find 
to easy a method of acquitting himself, as by the ordeal of rium< 
porridge f ' 

Various other choice viands were appropriated to this sea- 
son, some traces of which still remain in the old countries^ 
A " haron of beef" is still served up at Christmas and other 
great festivities; this being the name of the two jtr-loins 
roasted and brought to table undivided, a baron being of 
twice the dignity of a knight. A boar's head gaily dressed 
was a standing luxury at Christmas. As far back as 1170, 
according to the ancient dironicles, King Henry the Second, 
on occttsitm of the coronation of his son, during his own life- 
time, served him at the table as a waiter, bringing up the 
boar's head, with trumpets before it, accxjrding to tlie maimer. 
" Never was a monarch so served before," exclainiLHl the King 
to his Bon, The latter instead of a dutiful r*^sponse to his 
father's compliment, said in a low voloe to tho Arehbisliop of 

THE »>CXT YXKXV^ IT Kl? *.«(*. 17 

York, who stood near him. :K*; - it wa* V\^ jjr\'j,5 v\» 
sion in the Son of an oarl to wjiit on i*io Svu^ v>i 4 Kni^." 
Dugdale in his account of the miiUllo toin|»K\ iu Jit'^*vvlnu4 Oio 
ceremonies of Christmas day savs: *'S«'r\uv iu tho ^Imivh 
ended, the gentlemen presently n»|vair into tho Imll to l»it\»k 
fast with brawn, mustard, and malnusoy." At diiiuri' *' at 
the first course, is served in a fair and Iar<{o himr's luud upon 
a silver platter, with minstrelsy." Ani<ui«( tlio ourliohl ImukM 
published in England, was a eolle<'ti<>ii of caroU i»ro|iui'iul (0 
be sung as an accompaniment to tlit^ ^riuui rntr^^i nf ilio hoar'fei 
head : and Wart on in his history of Kii^litfh jMH*iry tuiyn thai, 
one of these carols, though with many iiiiiovutioiiH, huh in hU 
tiujv retained at Queen's Coll<-;r<', OxforrJ. 

In some of ihe ancient Christmas toU|i«Thtiti<jn« ilutv ^u» a 
patiieu* meaniD? which we '.-aii jiardon if w<- ruiin^i n\ni\m- 
thiz- witL :t. A iiotioi. yrevaii^j^J d</wji to ih*- d'/bt- of iht? 
ia?: ffCXMrr ji iii*rw>-st'er.'. parts of JA-vouhinn , iluit a* lrt4:lv<r 
''*oi'K:i: t* iii:3i: O!. ''-'nrisinui*? ♦.•\'..tii« ox* !i iij tiiini fclaJi.'- an 
ajwiiV' i lUii. «•: tip.-;* i-.ji»r*r": a* r.. us altitua*. *ji <i*:\ol.oi: j 
au- iwujc: J* Ht;! rii'-r-. ^ui^^uju'*) wii*;*; tii*. aU<jpt«oii «/f ti*<; 
l»e^' ST'i-. up- ^••L. •■■•i.-riiiu*- ; o' Uii-: oi.j\ Ofi lt»i; *rv« *A^j{/i 

n- *-• *»i*-i»i|.' 

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under the influence of the celebrated Lord Chesterfield, and 
the Earl of Macclesfield, the son of the unfortunate Lord 
Chancellor of that name. Lord Macclesfield was eminent 
as a man of Science, President of the Royal Society, and 
thoroughly acquainted with the groimds, on which the refor- 
mation of the calendar had become necessary. He was how- 
ever an indifferent speaker. Lord Chesterfield, on the other 
hand, had but an amateur acquaintance with the scientific bear- 
ings of the subject, but was an eloquent and persuasive orator. 
He was accordingly able to present the subject to the house 
of Lords in a very favorable light Lord Macclesfield, on the 
contrary, (as wo learn from Lord Chesterfield himself,) " who 
had the greatest share in forming the bill, and was one of the 
greatest mathematicians and astronomers in Europe, spoke 
afterwards with infinite knowledge and all the clearness that 
so intricate a matter could admit of; but as his words, his 
periods, and his utterance were not near so good as mine 
[Lord Chesterfield's] the preference was most unanimously, 
though most unjustly, given to me." 

The reformation of the calendar was for the time an ex- 
tremely unpopular measure. Its scientific grounds were not 
understood by the masses, and the fact that it emanated firom 
the Pope was no recommendation to the Protestant world. 
The son of Lord Macclesfield standing as a candidate for par- 
liament, in a contested election for Oxfordshire, some time 
afterward, the mob insultingly called out to him, " Give us 
back, you rascal, those cloven days which your father stole 
from us." 

This pleasing specimen of electioneering candor and fair- 
ness to political opponents shows that we do not possess a 
monopoly of those articles, as the tone of our newspapers in 
the course of a warm canvass, might otherwise lead us to sup- 

But to return to Christmas. 

Milton's devout imagination does not confine to animated 



imture ail instinctive sense of the ble^ed influence of the 
Nativity : — 

** Fcuccful was the niglit, 

Whefein the Prince of light 

Ilia rci^ of peace upon the earth begmn ; 

Tbe wlndis with wonder whbt 
Smooth I)' tilt? waters kist, 

AVbkpering new joys to the wild ocean ] 
Who now hath quite forgot to ravc^ 

While birtb of culm sit brooding on the charmed waTe.** 

Although the ancient superstitions (of which I have alluded 
to a very small part,) corinectvd with Christmas and tho fan- 
tastic revels with which it wiis celebrated, are now almost for- 
gotten, it is still obser\'tHi in the ** old country," as we Icam 
front Sir Walter Scott atid our own Geofllrey Crayon, with no 
little cordiality and fervor. The church is decorated with 
evergreens and the hall adornrd with nijslctoe. It is a holy- 
day for the children and a season of good-fellowship for young 
and old. The scattered members of the family are re-assem- 
bled ; the dependents of the house are gathered with patri- 
archal hospitality under the roof of its head, and while genial 
festivity pre%'aila within doors, bountiful BUpplies of clothing 
and food arc sent to the neighboring poor. Tlie beautiful 
description of Christmas in tlie introduction to the 8ixth 
Canto of Mam^ion, will immediately recur to the reader, 
though it contains the customary lament of t!ie pre^^ent day 
over the good old times which are pjvssed and gone : — 

*' England wag merry England, when 
Old Christmas brought his sports again. 
Twaa Ghmtin;is broached the mighticat ale; Christmas told the merriest t^le j 
A Christmas gambol oft could cheer 
Tho poor man's heart through half the year." 

Ill the later editions of Marmion, an extract is given from 


one of Ben Jonson's masques, which contains a kind of cum- 
mary view of the Christmas sports as practised in his day. 

But nothing has been better said or sung on the subjin^t of 
Christmas than tlie delightful sketch of ^Ir. Irving. The vari- 
ous associations that give interest to the festival arc alluded 
to with delicacy and truth. The religious significance of the 
event, the family-gatherings, the winter season with its indoor 
fireside enjoyments,- its now obsolete sports remembered with 
a sigh at their exclusion from modern life, together with a 
warm picture of the kindliness and cheery festivity which are 
still kept up at Christmas, are touched in language as melodi- 
ous as a carol of olden times. Having dt^scribed the simple 
music of the ** Waits,*' still to be heard in some parts of Eng- 
land, he draws to a close with one of those matchless strains 
of Shakespeare which pour life and poetry into the humblest 
recesses of nature. 

** How delightfully the iroogination, when wrought upon by these moml 
influences, turns every thing to melody and beauty ! Tho very crowing 
of the cock, heard sometimes in the profound repose of tho country, 
* telling the night-watches to his feathery dames,* was thought by tho 
common people to announce tho approach of this sacred festival : — 
*' Some say that ever, Against that season comes 
Wherein our Savlour*s birth Is celebrated, 
This bird of dawning singeth all night long. 
And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad ; 
The nights are wholesomo— thon no planets strike, 
>To fairy takes, no witch hath power to charm, 
So hallowed and so gracious Is that time.** 

May this " hallowed and gracious time " diffuse its inno- 
cent cheer through every family circle, and scatter its bounties 
largely among the children of want ! 



Demolition of the house of Franlclin in Boston — Why neeeaury — Croolced and nar- 
row Streets of Boston and their origin — Oreat inoonyenienee Arom this eaoso and 
necessity of widening the Streets — Union Street widened and the house at the 
comer of Union and Hanover Streets, in which Franklin lived, necessarily 
removed— Description of the house and of its changes—Beasons against remoring 
it to another phu:e— All the original portions of it preserved. 

On the morning of the 10th of November, 1858, His 
Honor Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr., the present active and 
intelligent Mayor of Boston, called upon me in his gig, and 
proposed to me to go down and see the house of Franklin, at 
the corner of Union and Hanover streets. He was led to do 
this, from the fact that the house and its impending fate had 
been the subject of repeated conferences between both the 
present and the last Mayor and myself. On our way His 
Honor suggested to me, that he had called upon me at a very 
e^rly hour, in order that we might arrive perhaps " in season, 
to witness the first stroke of the sledge-hammer in demolish- 
ing the house." 

Demolishing the house of Franklin ! in the City of 
Boston, the house of her most illustrious native Son ; in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, the house of the Philoso- 
pher, Statesman, and Patriot, who shone among the brightest 
lights of the eighteenth ! What ! shall the municipal govern- 
ment of the *• American Athens " demolish the house of their 
own Franklin, while an enraged foreign conqueror could spare 

nf ^!&E &l9U€&llt F^&fiKl V^iflK €v^Ery <3^Er 1 

sv '^e '▼:x^. 3XIZ5C JOT? szafis^aLl^ 3ixiiair?«i liht lauis •^ ^ir 

ffiiMtUHL !isLiw^v:in2E3L 'JinB pnoKCaniL 'vrisat KiJcuK ^ttft aye 

l|i» jrnK ivdl 3« fOF^ ::} L?^ ir-nzL "fbi unliuim 

Ikai&i Iff Tj jrnmaan. hux wbaL *ivr mfrgrifhTr *tt» i 

^HBT./ ^aoc iiej iii§«i iicT^ ieniiiib^istt son- kiiBe» « FsaniciK 

3m; jf X umnixiDsij ^isxesBaej t&oc ?ae Bitiib^ «i£ Fs 
jB liait aniai fr if nTniiiiL szii Soiiiwr jcnets^ bl 1 
ae tHmMiiimefi ^ 

mmurmhac wt- w^wi Xc lt!inizm» Ptrmun «vaiiniiiBi«» &t» Xtfv 

cvBBRL ^ ^litft mttmrrt^ of FumKiiB^ Slaf&uikMr^ rHiiifc*ftfe> 

W3> inc irunzmHj laid. «iic uto F^fi^Hii^miiik dn 
> nor like WMJiininiii as a 5»5 l > HB i <»£ iw«tan^tii^ qz«. 
nkima^Y ^J II I I I n il ■ Xiiw %^*^ t:a^ scc^^ilssi ti^^pr 41^ 
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W^mtm «f ti» «Mt i if i u rta m ; fi«SKMtt» oc" ^^ Citv 


be told, it is said that the streets in the ancient Gty of Boston 
were originally laid out by the cows, going to pasture in what 
is now Beacon street and Park street, and returning at night 
from those distant r^ons. While the greater part of the 
peninsula lay in a state of nature, and the population consist- 
ed of a few thousands, not to say a few hundreds, no incon- 
venience attended this primitive engineering ; which was cer- 
tainly more in conformity to the ago of- Adam, with which 
our ancient Chronologcr begins his work, than to that of 
the " Colossus of Roads,'' who has prefixed a Mae to the 
iamUy name. 

This system of engineering could hardly fail to produce 
crooked and narrow streets, of which the effects are seen and 
felt to the present day, especially by that most dissatisfied 
and querulous class of mankind, the tax-payers. Nor are 
they the only class who suffer. In consequence of the crook- 
edness of the streets, none but a native Bostonian, who has 
passed regularly through the primary and grammar schools, 
can find his way about the town without a guide. A stranger 
who comes for a few days, especially a Philadelphian, if he 
attempts to make his calls alone, generally brings up at the 
end of an hour or two on the steps of the Trcmont from which 
he started, without having found one of the places for which he 
set out. A few years since, the choice of Mayor was decided 
by this circumstance. One of the candidates, having only 
lived dye or six years in the City, could not, it was averred, 
find his way about the town, without the directory. His 
opponent was a native who could thread his way round the 
greater part of the City without a guide, and so carried the 
day. Ho has never once lost his way, and has just been 

The narrowness of the streets is a more serious evil. It 
was of little consequence, while tho population was small, 
commerce inconsiderable, vehicles of all kinds few, and trucks 
short; but with a crowded population and an active com- 

±4 ifis. JKMnnr tkb3%ms tmfwbc^ 

strttt of tv^arjr feci wide wc«lid W ioiav^Ebiev. if ifi w«nfr BR9t 
CKWiitjntl J ftttn in Bosiiobl h » kovieT^r ith tv> W a smoos 
nerjnrcnksiee, JK&d it kavang been IJoond tkifi tW fis^Kks.. Wv> 
erer dant^eronB to tlie <itiieflssw ciimot be cwrtsiML witb saj 
m£fAj U> likcr maiuczpal powers that att«Hiip( it^ tbe xh^MttitiTs 
poikj of widttimg the streets b&s as ^u- as |M$i»ibie beea 

And hexe it may be prop^, as we arv writii^ iUr tbe 
inlbraiatioo of roanj of those benighteJ persoosy who live 
at a dirtanee from what b called bj the ** Autocrat^** (who 
ruka itf from the breddast table with sudi mild and absohile 
awajr,) ^ the hub of the Solar system,^ viz. : ^ B^^on State 
ll€0ttmi/* to gire a more particular descripti«m of Tas Tarca^ 
vhichy in its full development, is a Bastcm institution. 
Tbings bearing the name exist in other places, but thej 
resemble a Boston truck, as a tadpole resembles a full-grown 
Batrachian ; as a pig-nut resembles a shell^bari^ ; as the sloe 
resembles the green-gage; as the crab4ipple resembles the 
Newtown pippin ; as the button pear, which takes hold of 
your gums and teeth, like a dentist's foroi^ps, resembles a phm 
mareeau ; as the dog rose resembles the Queen of May ; as the 
bitter almond resembles the Heath peach ; in shorty as a gre^t 
many things resemble — that is, do not resemble — a great 
many other things, to which they bear a generic affinity, but 
no likeness. 

The Boston truck is eonstructod of two long j^rallol 
shafts, hewn from the best of oak, wintor felled, well sea- 
soned, and free from &ults. These shafts are twcnty4i\v ilvot 
knig, ten inches wide, and five inches thick; stro^iglh^n^ 
tmdemeath with somewhat shorter pieces of the siMn^^ wkUh« 

"y^rzuti T 3c .*»4. J » -cai^sr;. ,jii»r.-: 

=1jI& jggn-^ Tii-Js^ "jmsx-ste » .••ite*.u*<t»*>*«^ ja*-* -v *K *xvU»»- 
1x1:0; -jc lu-ttiio^ j»A ^cv-4k»fitfc i*L ij*? V^**^' >i:»WiKA nv. a»\v • 


for the latter purpose, ranges along the street till the axle is 
on a line with the door of the warehouse ; the leaders are 
unhitched from the end of one of the shafts, so as to leave 
half the street open, and a word of command is uttered bj 
the truckman, which the wheel horse understands as well as a 
common Giristian understands his mother tongue, and which 
in English means, '^ Quick time, backward wheel, march ! ^ 
instantly tbe truck, with its load, rcTolves as upon a pivot, 
through the arc of a quadrant ; the tail of the trudL is thus 
brought round, and runs ikr back into the warehouse; the 
chocking block is removed, and th^i the load — hogsheads of 
tobacco, sugar, oil, or molasses — tierces of rice — pipes of wine 
and bales of cotton, go down the inclined plane of the trudc 
with a run, like a bore at the Sand Heads, or a sprii^ tide in 
the Bay of Fundy. At this precise stage of the operation, it 
is prudent for all persons not immediately «igaged in it, 
leisurely customers, genteel loafers, and out^ders generally, 
who may happen to be in the warehouse, to stand a little on 
one side ; some difficult cases in surgery may be prevented 
by their doing so. When, however, by any chance, a pack- 
age containing bona fide fragile and valuable articles (not a 
box of old brass andirons labelled '^ Glass, this side up, with 
care," but a Louis Quatorze clock or an alabaster copy of 
Canova's Hebe) is confided to a &ithful truckman, he carries it 
as gently as he would a sick child. In a few moments the 
load is discharged; the leaders again hitdied on; another 
impressive word of command uttered, which means, ^ Quick 
time, right or left wheel, (as the case may be,) forward, 
march ;" sometimes a cheery, but good-natured crack of the 
whip is heard, which never touches the noble animals, (for a 
true-hearted truckman would about as soon beat his wife as 
his horse ;) and the empty truck bounds over the ringing 
pavement in search of another load, like a ricochet shot. 

The immediate object of the institution of trucks is of 
course to convey merchandise ; the final cause (teleologically 



speaking) is to compel the widening of the streets. Tliis 
subject accordingly occupies much of the time and attention 
of the municipal government of Boston. In all representa- 
tive governments, whether of the City, the State, or tiie 
Union, in order to avoid uncomfortable jealousies that one 
part or region is preferred to another, it is requisite^ when 
you undertake a public work in one place, to do the same 
thing in twenty others at the same time* On this principle, 
it is necessary to carry on the work of widening and improv- 
ing the thoroughfares (which, while it is in progress^ of 
course shuts them up altogether) in half a dozen different 
places at once ; reducing the city for the time very much to 
the state of Paris in a season of barricade**. Iniprovemer»ts 
of this kind are generally as much for tlie benefit of the 
abuttora bs of the public at large, and accordingly in New 
York and some other cities, tlie owners of the property bene- 
fited are charged with a p»art of the expense. In Boston the 
public treasury (to the disgust of the above-mentioned tax- 
payers) remimerates the owner liandsomely for having his 
property made more valuable. 

In the progress of improvements of this description, one 
of the important streets leading directly from the centre of 
the city of Boston to a region containing the terminations of 
four railroads, and two bridges, took its turn to be widened* 
Tliis has already been done in a consideral^le portion of the 
street, and the operation will soon extend to its entire length. 
It so happened that at the comer of this street and Hanover 
street, there stood an ancient building, of a very ordinary 
appeuranee, upon the spot to which the father of Benjamin 
Fraiiklin removed from Milk street, shortly aJlcr Benjamin 
was bom, and there carried on the trade of a soap-boiler, 
reluctantly assisted for some time by the ambitiows boy, 
already aspiring to liigher things. "At ten years old/' says 
Benjamin Fratddin, " 1 was taken [from school] to help my 
father in his business, which was that of a tallow chandler 


oad soap boiler i a bustiiMS to which he was not bred, but 
Imd Aisumod on his mrival Ln New Etigknd^ because he f^jund 
tiuil bU dyeing tmdo^ beiug in ItUle requtafit^ woulJ nut main- 
tain ht^ famtl)% Aocordingly I was eoHplajcd in cutting 
wick^ for the candles, filling the moulds for cast candl*^ 
att4*nding the shop, going of errands^ ^c, I disliked the 
Inulc, and had a strong incUnatioii to go to sea.^ 

The houao in which, as is commonly iinderstiood, thia hum- 
bio trade was oarried on by Joslali Froiddin, and ia whidi 
Benjamin discontentedly assi^ed him lor two ycars^ dciw stood 
in tho way of wideaing Unioo atiwi. h preented a fixict on 
IlanoTar alreH of abooi iAean ^Kt, and Unioii i«reeft ma lo 
be wIdeiKd to just that extent ; is other words, it 
oeaaarj tlial the house in wkidi Bei^|Bniin Franklin b i 
to biT^ paaaed his childhood sbookl eomt awmf . 

ValoUng tkm pro^tcm of tliaa 'muftmmmem, (far 
iiiMiiMrtaonablf il was) 6roa day to daj^ aa I ( 
from the oonnlry, in the anamier of 1857, 1 waa not a fitiia 
QDBoerncd at what «e*enMd to be tito iaftpendi^g Ikim ot tha 
heftmf' of Franklin. That it most giTa way wm certain, boi 
tV 1 oocnrrcd to m<s thai ia ml^tt lue raBovnd to the 

iH^i^ii^nii ir4g a^inai^ and iImi« ba reBtogcd by appmarimnrtnn 
al hiast to ila ori^nal condiiiM md a fyeannoi L On ikm 

w\>rthy Mayor «r Bailon, Ika Hon. A. & VSm, laaaly ihmm 
a ivpr^aontatit^ in Congra ak Tbe year, lioiwwatg,fnwpii away, 

and *"rtiT Fmnlrtin ttnmir nriniiu tmnwl I Inin^l llai 
•A|l^ lo lln iK^tm «f onr Mw llayw &a fnnairt ^ y^ 
ami to thai of th<^ int<41i^(>«it and attttf«lae dninnan «f tke 
«f ipnblio InnldiniRL Ifr AMnanm THnrmmmi 
i In orniBidkff liia iiimaliililj va nanaw^ 
hng ana ao aavit^ ibe Fmnklni Dowv m ol^aoft In vbaah 
tbcy Ail\y ^-mpaOMaod witii ma. 
It waa Rmn^ MMPi^fHvr^ oi 

if MMM^tf 


had, at that time, been added to a part of the building, the 
ancient partitions removed, the original windows taken out, 
mueh of the walls cut away to ailmit other windows of larger 
sixo and in modem taste, and aill the wood-work, excepting 
timbers and joists as aforesaid, made new. What more than 
any thing else identified the buildii^ in its association with 
Franklin and his fiUher, — the ancient soap kettle and the fire 
place in which it was incased* — were on this occasion renM>ved 
from the cellar, which was prol^ably in Franklin's time mueh 
loss of an uuder^nround place than it has since become, by the 
gradujd elevatiim of the level of the streets. Nothing of the 
original structure seemed left, but the brides in the lower 
pi^rtions of the walls, the timWrs and joists of the lower and 
perhaps the secouvl tkx^r, a dix>r leadini: dv^wn into the cellar, 
half a window, and the hearth-stone of the ^replace, in what 
is now a ci^mpletoly subterranean cellar, but which was no 
doubt originally a basement rvvm. 

llail it Uvn worth while to attempt the lemoval of a 
buiUlng of sv^ ^uestiv^rjibie a character, it could not have been 
ctRvtuxl wtchvxut further serious changes. The long side, 
parallel t\> that which Kkvs Vntvm stwet, was not of brick like 
the thrw other sidet<s but ot' sl'ight fracie^work. To put the 
building into a cv>ndition to be removed, thi;s ls.>urth side must 
ha\e Kn«i built up of brick, with an entire renewal of the 
iuteriv^r fruuc. llus wvHiId Ikive gone £ur to destroy wkit 
Uttle remaiucvl ef tbi^ identity of the house. The removal, 
K>r the sAke of prvser\ u*g i:, of a structure of doubtful origrcL 
alrvijklx A> grvtttly cbaJc^gv^L atxl ^^hich rei^ulcvd. ai? a prvparA- 
tU»ti tv» W rvJtu\>Y\\i, chaEy^*s still luoce essenttil, secn;<d in. 
ir.usHvrv o(vrTAti\>tt, atoi the pr\>jvct wus ab*Ll^I^^c^'d, 

hi tht* >fc;n\ the deiuciitioii vf FrJuiikLuti's hocse wns fe v> 
uMv\ l^ltat "it II' It*; ^Uaj»|WAr tK^i-i the s^vt which it occu^ned 
WAS vUur. 'W*^ s^rvvt iute*.t b^' vkxkti^^L If the Ll^iiw: Frank* 
i.ii, i^iv\\tt U'j^ tv» the hclcht v^f hi* wv>rlsi^wide tvarv>wt»,. had 
*:vv\i ui\»ii the *|>.»t. hk* mu*t haw stepped wide ee bceci ni:i 


down by the Charlestown Omnibus; and poor KioliHriK — 
as thrifty as poor, — ^was not the man who wouhl havo alIo\vi\) 
a sentimental feeling about a ruinous old house to pn^wnt the 
widening of a great thoroughfare. As little would ho have 
countenanced the deceptive operation of transferring the build- 
ing we have described to another spot^ and that artor another 
renovation under the pretence of removing, for the 8;iko of 
preserving, a precious relic of antiquity. 

Every thing removable and coeval with Benjamin will bo 
preserved. The gilt globe which hung for a century and a 
half at the comer of the house, and was supposed to symboliziA 
a round cake of soap, bearing the name of Josiah Franklin and 
the date of 1698, has been preserved by Gon'l E. L. Stt)ne, 
the late proprietor of the house, and will doubtlens fmd itti 
way to some appropriate public institution. The handle and 
piston of the old pump, the door, the window, and the hearth- 
stone above referred to, arc safe, with all that is valuable of 
the ancient frame. Little has been demolished that could bo 
saved, and nothing that was worth saving. 

But though it was not possible nor de«irable to preserve 
the house of Franklin, as it is generally regarded, — the houiio 
oertiunly w^hich stood on the spot where he pasHC^l hiH lx>y- 
hood, — Boston has not been indifferent to the inemoriuls con- 
tained within her precincts of the jllu«trious meclianic, i>hiloiio- 
pher, statesman, patriot, and philanthroplfct But of th«w 
we must speak on some future occasion. 



RkTMCI Mnrifftu. lidct^pc*d to aa old Qonkcr immtj m tlie 

fal llio itnllMl |i«««iliftrltlm €f llw Met. Wm dttss w» m iH 
raf^dt hi iW imxSe«l QvnJtvr strK nd Urn i^p«eek i 
tli«' oiic» univorail mhmtaltf ttlim mmtd P^^^om. His i 
iy»4l4iikl Kin|xt> irttt ii wtkmm wmt Afe foiale ■uttrHlf ■■ of 
Ihi^ •C'd ; f»id lli» kit tlM>^g^ <€ Rculim 3fstc^^s iKarl 


imi Ut^kmmt \mA mmmmH m fiemMmMt pr o p g t n . first t 
tbui lOf III* 1^4 mkmiy l^rtjr lH>«m wkA W nrliinMf» «f 


to libese bard^ps, if bardsliips ther are, witJi 
c h i imful tieaa. Iti lact, thejr were former) jr considertftl as a 
matter of conree, and no more to be eomplaiiied of than the 
order of die aeasons. 

Witii liieae fbeUfigB and habits Eeobeo Mitdiell paned 
throi^ Ilia liMiietB ncmliate, atid was aoon admitted a jixd- 
ior paitner in ikit haaae hr Ms Ute loaster, od tbe fooiJmg^ aa 
be cimld bri&g &o mooej capital into Ibe €soQotnif of Mog 
nearljT all the wmk aad roeesTing scarce any of tbe pfofito of 
tbe establisiimeiit, Tliis arrangement, bowei-er, was not 
nUBSttal, ttor deemed oppressire. Tbe guns wbjdi it vielded 
Bfiubea ivero amaUf but thej satisfied his modest wants, and 
smaD as tbej wera, be ssTed aomeCiin^ 

In doa tana Braben^s bMneis oomiortaoii wHii Ins kle 
naator led to one of a gentler cbaracter. TTannah Folgtf 
wan brr &tbCT^s only child; tliree or ^mr years yom^ger 
than Reuben ; gay and flpdgiid J lifter the type of Fnonda ; 
dark bair ; a smOmg eye ; a dimplied cheek ; on ^r mA^ man^ 
ncT, wbldif among the worldTs peofJay might hai^e been 
ibongbt to p oBoco s a dash of coquetry^ but in Hannaii strring 
only U» etetiXit a plesigng ooaotrast with ike qnlet gsrb and 
antiqiBilod speedi of the aeeL 

It was almost a matter of course that a tender Ibdjsg 
sboaU Sfprliig vp botw«en ScnbeD aikd Hansiah. We i 
no di*fni^»tjui ent by naoig the phrase, ^ matta* of 
We bavr nn dnobt ^ba^ is as nmdi of the romance of Lot« 
anxmg Trycsadm^ as amon^ tbe v^orM^s people ; but it was a21 
but iBtpossnik, that, irith the eonftimal opportnnitias wbidb 
pi i ft ^ « if t j fHl tiharaae}v«a ibr ftlcndly it Hg rom am^ mna/^Amg ten- 
derer tbaa liieDdsli^ ahoald BiA spring iq> between tiMnm 
Tbi*y had gntirc vsj* tiuigfidier ; Beuben had boarded while an 
in ber fnlitar^s ^imily ; be was now her fatberV 
id poaaeMsd bia tntin ooafidenos; and It Is aho- 
^lAm frobiide ^mt, in bis quiel way« and »» &r an Fritaads 
mar be supjm a ea iiyablii nf lainiing, into sndi mlcmlatifina, 


he had ft»r a lon^f tlino intondcd that Kcubcn and Hannah 
should one tiny tnter into a closiT partnersliip. 

la duo tiuio this evoiit ttmk place, and, as wc have said, 
pivtty inucli ad a nmttor of course ; and without involving for 
any *»f the partita a j^reat change in the even tenor of their 
lives. They had always lived beneath the same roof, and 
moved in the same eirele c»f friends. Tlieir simple mode of 
life admitted of hut little variety ; their quiet tempers desired 
nono. lliT thoughts were given to the duties and cares of an 
ineroajiing h«>usohi»ld ; his to the demands of a growing busi- 
ness. Tluy syinjmthiied and c^woperated with each other, as 
far as the n-latlve sphere of the sexes admitted, lived in har- 
mony and priispority, and wen* riMuarktHi in the circle of 
their aei|«ulntttnee, as an exemplary, rv^spocted, and happy 

At length the father dieil, and Reulun and Hannah suc- 
eoedeil to the inheritantv, — a sul^tmitial, i>ne might say large, 
pii^lHvrtv, — and the chief e\nUr\d of an extensive business. 
Tills event, however, ehangt\l little or nothing in their mode 
of life ; nothing in their household arrangements and habits. 
It eiilargiHl their n^eans i»f active usefulness and charity. 
RuWn was enable^l to eiMUribute more Hborally to the public 
objivis iawinxl by the yearlv meeting ; and Hannah^s private 
charitii^s, never stinteiU became more freijuent and ample; 
but the change was mvKU\!itly and iUK>stentatiou$lT made. In 
a Yt^a^, als\\ a slet^k jviir of hordes and a Rmr-w heeled car- 
riole sujvrsevU\l the more quiet one>horse ehaise« vhch had 
hilherto si»rv\\il their pur|KKse^ 

'fho mvvit v\vnsivlerable change** that tv.K>k pl*?e in Keuben*s 
hiibits, was iHH^ whk^h, as be cv>nducted it^ attracted but little 
publie at lent km at the outset^ tWugh it eventually became a 
iu:itt<T K^i uv^t variety aini reouirk. TlKHXgh brvuight up to a 
life v>f active <\»nuuei\\\ auvl ^ucevvding a( Mr. Fv>l^^*» d^ath 
tv» the entire cv^ttivl v»l* an extensive aitd prv^dtable establis^h- 
nunt, Kv'uWu was ^hs>llv free tiviu the ambit kni of enlanj- 


ing his opcradonfi, or rendering hip commorciul houRo niorr 
important and infiucntial. He did not eoutnun., hut lu- did 
not extend tlic (sjiLere of \iu> ojterutionb. lie Imilt ik> now 
siiips. and ciirroged in no lar|ri' R])uculuti<)nh. On tin* vini- 
traTA*, lie invested liifi profits and tiie increasiiur Burjiluh of iiif« 
capital in real estate, and tliat not always of a verv })rodui'- 
tive character. In a w(jrd, he wah verv niucli in tlii* liabit, 
"when he had two or three thousand dollarb to invest, of liuy- 
ing one of the numerous fiirms which are couirt.aiiti\ on lude 
in this part of tiie country. 

Heuben had retained thi; jioasewion of a little estute uf 
some sixty or seventy acres, wliere hi* was liom and paiMed 
the vears of his boyhood. The old iiouse, tiie old trew, tiw* 
old well, the still older rocks, had a clianu for him. Jli#i 
very first accumulations were laid out in jiurciiasin;! u small 
adjoiuing properry. As his means uicreaKed he succewsivcly 
madf the acquisition of two or three oti*er small liimiH. 
Laud ax that time, and in that ueigiiitorliood. was inexpeuMive. 
Haliruads were imimown. and ten miles from a iaqre town 
there were fow farms tiiat could not be bougin fiit twenty- 
fivt dollars an acre, somt fur much lew. In this way, at tis; 
cos: oi a few thoiuaud dollars. I*eui>eii had, in a very i^sw 
yeoTb. tiecome the owner oi sIa (jt eigni farms. 

it was i» periou of imiisTia! vicissitude ii: Oh- commercial 
voTUi. Tii*. tmierh m CoimcL oujL tin J ren':L decr«?es swept 
thi oeeai. o: Americai. c^juimerct. ouo oroupn manv i* f;roud 
iortuu V Uie ^rtjunu. l^euoei. was pruu^ni one wa> iorti^ 
not'^ ; it* escaiHx wituoot serious lusb. out was coniiniied iii 
iiis preiereue* of soIil invesnuents. and his a\*!nuvi' to 
*»^T***"^*n^ JUb orjmiiierua. r/}>eratiuiib. Hi)- ouMiies^ <:oi»* 
tmueL u Tieiiu mn oznpit^ returzife. im* ul stil. uiv««u^; xu^ 
surpiBh II raii «sLafit. A> Ui^ grast wa^ spruiuuj^' up 
yevK^ta tu* jutrmi: Kfjuat of ti*» inuiun; cxtHft. i: wa^ inr^ U' 
m. w€U&ttT<au a:, lius*. Jt. buoui'. prei«r ^khm* isurui^. u- Ui'. isuuh^ 



try, to stores and warehouses in the large towns, and so Heu- 
Ikmi annually ln^uj^ht more farms. 

In these purchaser he bafl an eye of course prineipally to 
his own interest ; but he also acted not seldom from other 
Tnotlvca. Ilo occasionally bought a farm to oblige a neigh- 
bor or fricnJ. \Vhen the squire of bis native village diedt 
Heaving five children and considerable debts, Keubcn did 
what no one else was willing, and few were able to do, and 
bought the farm for a fair price, though he was the only pur- 
chaser in the neighborhood. When Obadiah the miller died, 
and left a lonely widow whose only daughter and diild was 
married in the West, Reuben bought the little homestead to 
aooommodate her. There were few things he wanted less 
than a gnwt mill, but he took it to oblige the widow. In 
•hort, it got to be remarked, tlrnt, for one reason or another, 
Reuben MitchvU was constantly buying farms; and by tlie 
' was forty years old, ho o^Tiod more fanns than any 
in tljo Ywirly Meeting, 

Now these forms were seldom productive* A mral ten^ 
anlry is hardly km^wn among us ; the land is not sofBcieutly 
fertile lor great staple ort^ps, which admit the payment of a 
liigh f«ni. Some of Keuben's Jkrms were wholly unoccupied^ 
a good many w«re let at the halve«, but the landlord's half 
was generally very small ; on some of tlie Imnay espedaUy 
Iboaa puyflhKwwl lh>m eharttable and friendly motiT«S| tlie Ibr- 
VMT propritlor was allowed lo tive^ no! sddom en m naminal 
VHll* This ^^as the case with the clergyman^s widow* Her 
IwMhaiid hdl kA bar in straiMied eiraitinst^^ IwitBciilMii^ 
Aoi|^ sol bronghl up gready to respect n proftasioMt 
clei|[y, all widows BXkd orphans aa beloofu^ la 
Iko otta ekareh universal of QirattaA broilisilftood. So lio 
boumkl tJie widowV iimi lbr n handaoma prrn^ but i 
on her MX oosi) [ it n modwrate rent^ whkk wa 

aitked fW and nev . . ^ 

'Hius K^boQ Mltdwll be<mma llw pfppfislor of a great 


many farms, a circumstance which, as most of them must 
have been unprofitable, began to excite a good deal of atten- 
tion among friends and neighbors, and finally led to no little 
wonderment and remark. '' Dost thee know why friend 
Reuben purchased Jonah Littlefield's farm ? " " What can 
be friend Reuben^s reason for investing so much property in 
real estate, which brings him no return ? " These were ques- 
tions which were a good deal mooted ; they were often raised 
by Friends on 'change ; they were started in private circles, 
at the Yearly Meeting. But Reuben was habitually silent aa 
to his own afEdrs. He never invited conversation on these 
topics^ and as he avoided the subject himself no one under- 
took to interrogate him. In fiict, it is one of the traditions 
of Friends, to devote yourself principally to your own busi- 
nessw Sofoe pretty fortunes have been made in New Bedford 
and NantiK-k^ in this way. The credit of Friends mIio mind 
their own biKaz^ess » generally A No. 1 ; whereas Benaiah 
Bu&:b*>iy. wi>o was always attending to the business of otliers, 
never f»>-^i pen Ll» long psper done at the Rock-bottom 
Baek^ wi^tbcnrt he&vy coUateral. When, in the panic, Benaiah 
ha$i 1^- a<k axi erusis3r43. It was found, on examination of his 
wSbtk ^xtet las fiatoliiScs amounted to fifty thousand dollars, 
mi 'Aaa bk assiPts crcisi«(Ud of the furniture of his counting- 
tv2^:l wiii^ h'»w-?T*r. was j^a jiaid for. Benaiah laid the 
p-TMrpsil loaan* v.- lie Eodt-bc^tom Bank, which he declared 
WB* zr IB* hana§ c*r a T«roel of ohi f'.«gi€!5. who confined them- 
<etT^^* V ufuiir tiieir w^.ia^ for the purpo&e of discounting 
ir:<«f tiu«'m«^» Tns^'^sr. w^trfT^aj^ the real province of a bank, in 
R3Cifl3ati\ wnurtu wk&. \o empJ^.-y the deposits and circulation 
rf*i . *ic«niL iiemr i««»sssary) in Ivons Xo the direc'tvr>. t<» 
-waiut ':;ifl!ai i« sj^ertjase it ra':Irj*i br-nds;. ttiicy ^:•x•ks. (sc» 
<i.'T*!ft i»!f9UK- ifc- znaL -:^ ftea»e iancies tiiem. i and zii<x*nshinc 

mit P^igrjffiur f^. ti»- Nf w Y...n: Leu^rr korps tu> ^iccvuitt a: 
die tumk^^asum. htauL. 

lieaiv fsmminii.rji or T^iif»«i Li -!rjr*:iie«i 3in»iic. N':r:rJuascmii- 

HuoL -^nfirt in airTf>n£arriis «5Cer. >IIaQ7ii:Hii:r ;& bixmiiur cnr:t;s- 
icy niuiftr ic air ot qn^et ^yniparhlzing pu^a^aacTv. wituIiI aiafi 
1^ FLuxnaii viOL i «inue. tiiiac ^in *h»i snX belLeve «v«a liu 
trjfdil nrril the nnznbt^r cc Beab«ii*'* ium:^ ^^^""Aht if siu 

Mi^^^ the munrHer -vexin on sce&iilT Lncreasioe. Reo- 
b<m kr?pr. up hh* biBHneas «>stahLl:<hiiieiir. Tiii«:Q. b%;isim** zi«jr« 
awi mors iiirradTe : but he arnily nesistcd all iniiiieenitfns 
to «xr/Hui ic on borr<jwed c:^>l!2lL aa«i as niSi-iticeiT sec hhi 
hcf: aczainsic 3p«i«!niaciocs ot every 'Z-ther kimi He voiilfti 
kk7<^ a'/f.hjTiff r.'j 'L^ irith the Babbteviiie Fartorr «>r die 
Granfi Trmk Bailrood. which was intemied to nin r«jimii the 
•kirt* of Blue HilL anti cijnnect the Old CoioiiT. Pr»3TiJeiiee, 
tad Wornester lines. In a word, he did nothlns: but buy 

ThL4 cr>fzrse of condact at last became the subject oi seri- 
«M» ooniKmrnent, and Friends began to ^peok rather plauily 
aKoiit it. MoKt df>abted the wisdi^m of these acquisitions ; 
aome thoii(cfat it downright toUy to purchase unprodtable 
fitfms. Some of thn woriii'ii people suspected sinister designs. 
Why fthonlii a man Like fieohen liitrhell wish to monopolize 
ftU the land in the eriuntry ? It was certainly an unusual 
thing tor a Qriaker. It was b ireign to the genius of our polit> 
kal institutions, and or^ntrary to the first principles of 
npohliean government. It was a first and a dangerous step 
towarris a landed aristocracy. The Columbiatk Semi-meekfy 
Ma$quiio At IfemUphert came out with a stinging Leader, in 
whioiir under a feigned name. Reuben was evidently aimed at. 

At lengtli, as Beaben all the while went on baying more 


y |M§ sabfect ht^ut to be pRttjr loaA J ' 
Qowlffffy MBetii^ and TcaHj Jie 
warn smofBtr toatle ai m priraSe eircfe ift viiek tW 
faoRDeES m aimiiied, *" to dnl with B«Bbea m tb* j 
XUs VM ovemled bf tbe oldKr 
boveTcr, Out tfaej 1^1 now MMK& am tfe lolficL Ube oT 
t at l<ngtK» wbo bad lor jea» bstt * tuawmwia fiicBd aod 
ar Ddshbor of Reaban, amrwrnt as a wm C0sai^ ifai 
I jadkkMis frtdid abonld go U> EeabeB, maA m m dteveit 
aDdl pradcBl mjumcs, ecaivcraa witb baniy. aad aa fiaf laiRffv^ 
g^te Lim od ibe subject. Tbis coimsd ibond graft fiiwr vlth 
ibe brelbnen, and the Frieod who piDp o aed lt|-*Nakyaa bj 
naaac,^ — wbb unaiiimoiisljr reqaesled to aaaoiiie Ibe otSee. 

FHend Nabnm aooonlingljr eootrtTed as soott aa poaaibla, 
io £in in witb Beaben. He H^ homtiwet^ erctt ia < 
Balntationsv that be bad midettalccii a 
He dwelt rather loager oa tbe topje of ibe we 
GoattMEuiry atnod^ Friends^ and prolon^^ bia naoarfcs oa tba 
proipects of tbe wbaliog aeaaon and tbe prke of oil to a te- 
dious extent. At length, eleariog hb throat, be appiaacbtd tba 
iUlficult topic : *^ Friends were convcrsingy — ^Frienia had aften 
wondered, — seTeral Friends from a diatanoe bad tnqinscd of 
him, — how it was that friend Heuben spent ao miKb moBi^ 
in l>u}ing farms; and the question vaa often raised horn 
many farms friend Reuben really owned ; — and * Tbee ia 
awiirc^ friend Reuben,' continued Nahum, in the softer tODa» 
' that I have no knowledge on the suhject^ and 1 have tJMaght 
I would just inquire of thee, what I shsdl say to Frieods, wbo 
ask me how matty farms friend Reuben Mitchell msally 
own».' " 

Reuben listened tu these remarks with calmness. Though 
it was the first time he had been directly questioned on tlie 
subject, he was aware that the number of his fanna had been 
a matter of some cariosity, and had even been mooted at the 
formal gatherings of Friends. Considering it a business of 


his own, which concerned nobody else, he did not feel much 
disposed to gratify this curiosity. It was one of his maxims, 
that the best way to have your secret kept is not to tell it. 
Accordingly when Friend Nahum ceased, Reuben remained 
silent for a short time, reflecting on the proper reply. He 
was not at all embarrassed, but hesitated a little what to say. 
As men a little at a loss are apt to do, he looked up to the 
ceiling for a moment ; looked out of the window for a moment ; 
twirled his fingers; moved his lips silently without any 
definite object ; and counted the fingers of his left hand with 
the forefinger of his right. These movements were almost 
unconsciously made; but Friend Nahum's imagination was 
excited ; and ho attached a great significance to Reuben's 
manner and motions. lie thought that, by way of prepar- 
ing an accurate answer, Reuben was counting up the number 
of his farms on his fingers. 

In this he was altogether mistaken. Reuben in a moment 
or two roused himself from his reverie and said, "The number 
of the farms is indeed considerable ; not so great perhaps as 
some Friends suppose ; but larger than may be thought by 
others. Friends thee says, are desirous of knowing the num- 
ber, and thee has done wisely, Friend Nahum, not to attempt 
to give it at a venture. It is important Friends should not 
be misinformed. If thee states the number too high, thee 
gives an exaggerated idea of my means, and perhaps causes 
the tax-gatherer to raise my assessment. If thee states too 
few. Friends will not beliove thee ; and in either case thee 
errest from the truth." 

These guarded remarks raised Nahum's curiosity to the 
highest pitch. Ho rejoiced at the same time at what ho con- 
sidered the certain success of his efforts to solve the great 
mystery. He eagerly assented to Reuben's reflections. He 
warmly and earnestly responded to his remark, that it was 
very important to avoid any mistake. He was fully confirm- 
ed in his idea that Reuben's momentary hesitation in replying 



arose from a wish to reckon up the exact number ; and to 
prevent any lapse of memory, he took out his memorandum- 
book and pencil, and wrote the words " Fourth month, third 
day, number of Friend Reuben's farms," — and then paused 
witli a look of intense expectation, to write down the figures 
from Reuben's lips. 

Reuben still hesitated a moment ; — Nahum, with a most 
insinuating smile, renewed the question, " What shall I tell 
Friends who inquire how many farms thee has 1 " And Reu- 
ben replied, " In order to make the number neither too large 
nor too small, it will be safest for thee, when Friends next in- 
quire, to tell them thee does not know." 



Visit to the Observatory at Cambridgo on tho 6tli of October— DMeriptlon of tlw 
evening— roeitlon of the Comet and its appearance through the Comet-aeeker— 
Drawings by Mr. George T. Bond and Mr. Fctte— Appearance of the Comet 
through the groat refhu:tor— Professor Lovering's experiments with the Polari- 
scopc—Tbc Clu5ter in the Constellation Hercules— Remarks of Professor Nichol 
—The Penny Cyclopedixk— History of Donati*s Comet— Its period— Ita rapid devel- 
opment-Progress of Astronomy in the United States— Bemark of Gibbon- 
Comets no longer subjects of alarm — Beautiful reflections of Addison — Apostropho 
to the Comet 

Oy the 6th of October last I visited the Observatory at 
Cambridge, accompanied by the accomplished and efficient 
Vice Regent of the Ladies' Mount Vernon Association for the 
State of New York, Mary Morris Hamilton (granddaughter 
of Alexander Hamilton), then on a visit in this neighborhood. 
I had asked permission the day before of the venerable Direc- 
tor of the Observatory, AA'illiam C. Bond, to make this %isit. 
Even with this precaution, it was not without hesitation that I 
allowed myself, for a half hour, to divert to the gratification of 
a curiosity, however natural and laudable, any of the precious 
moments which, when employed by the skilful observer in 
the use of a powerful telescope, arc so important to science. 
No one ought to visit a first-class Observatory, without re- 
membering that, while he is gratifying his taste by contem- 
plating the heavens througli an instrument like tho great 
Equatorial at Cambridge, he is wasting the time of men of the 


highest eminence, and misapplying (to all scientific intents) 
one of the most powerful refractors in the world. But the 
temptation to behold this most extraordinary celestial phe- 
nomenon, the like of which has been seen but once before in 
my day, and in all human probability will not be seen again 
in this generation, was so strong as to overcome all scruples 
of delicacy. 

It was a serene October evening, admirably adapted for 
observation. The sun set without a cloud, and the heavens* 
if less magnificent than when hung with the gorgeous drapery 
which sometimes decks the evening sky, were of course far 
better prepared for the inspection of the wonderful visitant. 
Venus was the evening star. The air was still, and free from 
that tremulousness which so often disturbs observations near 
the horizon. The light of the moon, new that day, was too 
feint to interfere with that of the portentous stranger, which? 
in his headlong course toward the sun, had left Arcturus five 
degrees behind, and was rushing to his perihelion, at the rate 
of a hundred and thirty millions of miles an hour. 

The appearance of the heavens as the sun went down, and 
a feinter twilight diffused itself over the sky, was most im- 
pressive ; — the gradual fading into obscurity of the terrestrial 
landscape, — at last the vanishing of all the details of village, 
field, and lake, under the broad and shadowy wings of night, 
leaving nothing visible but the larger dark masses, — spread- 
ing tree, church, and distant lino of hills. Then came the 
apparition, one by one, of the heavenly luminaries ; the thin 
sharp edge of the new moon, — Hesperus dropping diamonds 
and pearls from his imperial brow, — the magnificent stars of 
the higher magnitudes in this region, whose uncouth Arabic 
names Mizar, Alioth, Mirach, give so strange an aspect to the 
chart of the heavens, emerging from the gloom — and then, as 
the night advanced, in glittering succession those of inferior 
size, down to the smallest that can be discerned by the naked 
eye, till at length the whole concave was lighted up with its 


Did W XM iica&Ae Sk- i^B rotiSj fixBe. 
1^ pjsriow eaMTF «f Sens «3i£ bbit ? 

Td 'aeaih a csrtuc of s^jxshtKs: drv. 
By**T^ IB site TkTf of i^ pvsi i«4ax£ fioneL 
Hespemf irj:^ ihut boas cf H«sTfx oow. 
And )o ! cmoota ▼sSn^d i£ ubV tipv ! 
Ulto oooU bavF ihoBs^ foci i^tiJTCT 1it c«Benlc4 
Whiha tbr beuBS O Sss ! or viio rcraU fud. 
Wlnte f T, and Inf mad iowci cOM^d rcvBaleid, 
ThAX to caf^b eovaxles orbs iboa sad'si ik bfixtd. 
W^T do -re xlten ilicn death vidt unjou strife ; 
Jfl%gkl esa tAw daorine, «Av mm\ Mtf 7i/f / 

The great telescope, wben vc veot icto tbe ObseiTvtcxy, 
was in the occapatkxi of Mr. George P. Baod, the son and 
assistant of the Director, who has already acquired a hriUiant 
reputation as an observer, and unites to it that of a skilful 
geometer. lie was, at this time, with the aid of Mr. H. G. 
Fette^ preparing the materials for those magnificent drawings, 
whidi have been engraved on steel with extreme beauty, to 
illustrate Mr. Sondes article on the comet, in the seoosMi and 
third numbers of the ** Mathematical Monthly.'' We willingly 
employed the time till we oould look through the large instru- 
ment, in gazing at the comet with the naked eye, or through 
a glass of ordinary power. Seen in either way it was an ob- 
ject never to be forgotten. The nucleus was nearly equal to 
Its neighbor A returns in brightness, and the curving tail shot 
vpward thrau£h alxnit fifty degrees, a length of forty4ive 
millions of xn\\k-m, €jt half the distance of the earth from the 
wiiL In addition t«> tlie principal tail c^ the comet, on the 
ereoiog of ikit <kh, a fainter pendl of rays streamed up- 
ward from ihft hmA, nearly on a line from the sun, to a height 
of fifty d^groea, paaabsg directly between the exterior stars of 


the " Northern Crown." This strange appendage was hardly 
visible to the naked eye, except of the practised observer. 

The appearance of the comet through the comet-seeker 
was extremely beautiful, especially in consequence of the 
brightness of the stars seen through the tail, and that too very 
near the nucleus. In fact, to persons not accustomed to look 
through powerful glasses, and consequently not making due 
allowance for their efftct, in diminishing the field of view, the 
comet-seeker exhibits the object, as far as general effect goes, 
more impressively than the great refractor. 

At length the drawings for that evening were completed, 
and we were invited in our turns to the observing-chair, it- 
self an admirable piece of mechanism, the contrivance of Mr. 
Bond, Senior. It would be impossible within the limits of a 
paper like this, were I others- ise qualified for the task, to do 
any justice to the appearances which presented themselves 
through the great magnifier, in the surface of the comet and 
in the region surrounding it. They are not only minutely and 
graphically described in the Memoir of Mr. George P. Bond 
above referred to ; but they are illustrated by two admirable 
engravings on steel, from drawings executed from sketches 
taken by the aid of the great refractor, one by Mr. George 
P. Bond, and the other by Mr. Fette. Both are beautiful ; 
but the former appears to me the most admirably executed 
work of the kind I have ever seen ; not only far beyond any 
European drawing or engraving of this comet, which has yet 
reached us, but superior to any foreign drawings and engrav- 
ings of any celestial phenomena ; those, for instance, in Sir 
John Herschel's splendid work, " The Result of Astronomical 
Observations at the Cape of Good Hope." The drawings and 
engravings in that fme volume, though executed at the expense 
of a munificent patron (the Duke of Northumberland), and 
by the most skilful English artists, are inferior to the draw- 
ings of Messrs. Bond and Fette, engraved by J. W. Watts at 
Boston for the Mathematical Monthly. 


titM iionrr tksmoss papi 

But tboiigh it would be ini|iosiible>^ in tliis fheo, to 
g}re on adequate deftertpCicMi of the a|>p»cDt cooditkiii of 
the turriioe of tho oomat^ as i«eii through the great tele- 
acopo, Bonie lim of it majr be Ibnned from the obserra- 
Uun, that it was in a state of intense aetkm and Tfoleot tnovcy 
nicnt. An acti **c «%-ol ution of the partkli^ of matter^ of which 
the oomet b cotnposefJ, was c%'idently in progress ; not o&e 
of sti^ady raditiliori hut of rveiprnoit'ing efferreeoaiGe ;— ^ 
fruperficial condition, which distinguish^ the comet from all 
thw iitlier celestial ]uminaric«. 

FLt'liiig t<K3 sensibly the value of tlie priTilege we were 
enjoying, to monopolise it for any length of time^ we soon 
gave up our seats at tlie glass to one or two other visitois ; 
ftTiionjBf ihom tf* Professor Lovcring, who made some curious 
t^liHorvalinns with Savart's r*olariscope, which enabled him to 
prono\inc<\ v ith conri<]e»iee, that the comet is a body shining 
principally at It"-* *>^^'i reflected light. 

After all tli present Imd had an opportunity of 

looking at the tuihi L through the groat refractor, desirous 
that my eonipanion^ who had never had an opportunity of 
looking throiigli a telescope of the greatest power (as, indeed, 
jkw persons hnve), shotiUl enjoy such an opportunity at this 
tlnu\ I rw^uestcd Mr. Bo»id to pt»iiit the glass to the elust^'r 
In Hercules, wiheh 1 have ever regaiided, as, upon the whole, 
the most interesting of tlie stellar phenomena. With the 
naked eye you see nothing ; with a glass of moderate force 
jou see a nebulous speck ; under a very high power, you be- 
hold a group literally of thousands of stars. When you re- 
llectv that each of liiQie stars is a sun like our own* and as far 
as we eaa rvamm analogically^ the centre of a solar sjk^stem like 
tbai to whkh ve b^ong, the most vigorous imagination tonka 
milef llie ateptftdo^ia number and magnitude of the Uoh'ersos 
odnprthfulfil in tbo diHier of Hvtulei^ It b in refenooe 
tolliiilMikJiefwhieli ka giirei a strOdiig OBBnired Uloitra^ 


tion, that Dr. Nichol, in his " Architecture of the Heavens," 
makes the following impressive remarks : 

" CoDfirming by emphatic analogies his conceptions of the character 
of our Stellar System, Herschel discovered that beyond it, among the 
spaces to which its own stars do not reach, other gorgeous clusters aro 
resting, separated from each other and from ours by gulfs, with which 
the distances between the diiferent suns around us are no more com- 
parable, then oar small units on earth are with them. One of these stu- 
pendous systems [the cluster in Hercules] is fully represented in plate 
number L as it might appear to the most powerful of our instruments. 
Even to a good telescope it is only like a speck ; but what mind shall 
imagine the glories, the varieties of being that speck must contain! 
Such, our earliest glance of this new perspective : system on system of 
majesty unspeakable floating through that fathomless ocean : ours, with 
qilendors that seemed illimitable, only an unit amid unnumbered throngs, 
we can think of it in comparison with creation, but as we were wont to 
think of one of its own stars.^ 

The " Penny Cyclopaedia," of which the scientific articles 
appear, for the most part, to be executed by very able hands, 
dismisses the Constellation Hercules with this remark : " This 
Constellation is situated between Draco, Bootes, Lyra, and 
Orphiuchus ; but as there is no star in it larger than of the 
third magnitude, there is nothing very remarkable about it,^ 
NoTniNO VERY REMARKABLE ABOUT FT ! ouly a mighty group, 
not of suns alone, but of the solar systems which depend up- 
on them. Nothing but ten thousand Universes, invisible to 
the naked eye, but revealed, in the depths of the heavens, by 
a powerful glass, within the limits of this Constellation ! 
Nothing very remarkable ! 

But to return to the comet. On the 2d of June, 1858, 
it was seen as a faint nebulosity by Professor Donati at Flor- 
ence, in Italy, near the star Lambda, in the Constellation of the 
Lion. Its distance from the sun was then about two" hundred 
millions of miles ; — ^that from the earth still greater. "Donati 
at first doubted whether this comet was not the same as that 
discovered in this country in May, by Mr. H. P. Tuttle of 



to iv'pedt my Addreai 
' ^r three plMeii^ in t 


rwif4 In tbe a 

« >ar, to Iw naiie n i 

iTci liovn^ leogtii w 

<jo kia r»dwd the Wp 

i iip(Nitk6«ilg«ei,1ieadT 

n iiit«iid witk me^aii extrm i 

Ihsd oocasioD, as I entUBly ^ 

u\ be Sim to gel i liertli is ci 

ruiied to Mkfw }m Adrioe co boil 

thd fint» I WW alretdjr well j 

of the l o e a gtoped srticlM oTl 

of the wimel rotterialf tail 


tho Cambridge Observatory. Such, of course, was not the 
case, but as soon as the disappearance of the moon admitted 
good observations, it was detected nearly at tho same time by 
three Astronomers in the United States, each observer being 
ignorant of Donati's discovery. It was seen by Mr. H. P. 
Tuttlo at Cambridge on the evening of tho 2dth of June, and 
an accurate determination of its place made the same night at 
the Observatory in that place. On the 29th it was discovered 
by H. M. Parkhurst, Esq., at Perth Amboy, in New Jersey, 
and on the Ist of July by Miss Mitchell of Nantucket, — ^the 
lady who had the good fortune to gain the Comet Medal of 
the King of Denmark, for the first discovery of a telescopic 
comet in 1847, and the only lady to whom that medal was 
over given. 

Some difficulty was at first experienced in fixing upon the 
probable path of the comet, but by the middle of August its 
future course and the great increase of brightness which would 
take place as it approached tho sun had beeii ascertained with 
certainty. It was still, however, invisible to the naked eye, 
and distinguishable from other telescopic comets only by the 
slo^\^lcss of its motion and the vivid light of its nucleus. 
Traces of a tail wero seen on the 20th of August, and on the 
29th it appeared to the naked eye as a hazy star. For a few 
weeks it was seen both in the morning and evening sky, which 
led some to the opinion that there were two comets. It was 
at this time also supposed by some persons to be identical 
with tho comet of 1264 and of 1556. It has since been as- 
certained that it is moving in an orbit (according to the mean 
of six calculations) of 2,156 years, consequently that if ever 
seen before by man, it was in the year 298 before our era, — 
two years before the capture of Athens by Demetrius Polior- 
cetes, and just a quarter of a century aflcr the death of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

On the 6th of September the cur\'ature of the train was 
noticed for the first time, which afterward acquired such ex- 


pension, and constituted one of the most remarkable features 
of the comet. The streamers detached from the principal 
train first appeared on the 25th September, and increased in 
number and length ; and a succession of most extraordinary, 
and some of them never before observed phenomena in the 
nucleus, in its immediate surroundings, and in the train, fur- 
nished matter of observation the most intensely interesting 
and curious, till the comet had passed its perihelion. It was 
brightest on the 5th of October, the day before I saw it. — Mr. 
George Bond, in drawing to a close the admirable Memoir to 
which I have already alluded, and from which such portions 
of this paper as were not matters of personal observation have 
been taken, says : 

** The Comet of Donati, although surpassed b j many others in size, 
has not often been equalled in the intensity of the light of the nucleus. — 
It would be difficult to instance any one of its predecessors, which has 
combined so many attractive features/* 

There is no branch of science in which the United States 
have made more rapid and substantial progress thau in 
Astronomy. Our observatories, observers, and geometers, 
now take rank with those of Europe. Gibbon, after his mag- 
nificent enumeration of the seven appearances of the comet of 
1680, given in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 
adds, " at the eighth period, in the year two thousand two 
hundred and fifty-five, the calculations of Bemouilli, Newton, 
and Halley, may perhaps be verified by the astronomers of 
some future capital in the Siberian or American wilderness." 
It is a somewhat singular circumstance, that, at a date nearly 
four hundred years in advance of that assumed by Gibbon, 
the two largest refracting telescopes in the world are found, 
the one in Russia, and the other in America ; and in either 
country a degree of astronomical skill equal to the highest 
operations of the science. 

iKk'iXrsr: vBoniar fafsss. 

I aa«i X ST^A i^su 2it:r», "vtiesi I ^vimiaeaesui diis 
wWji f v^ahfisti *•» \xj -.n "airt iiihji*«!C oc the •J'yKrTarory it 
dr.". -.r..:fr''. !:'♦•: 'iift iiir-rn ami •:LHRr;v<»i"jgs --.f i-a -iinicTSDr ami 
h::* «**iitr.^.r-<. I <«xul4 ar.c Iir*Tr*v^j, -i:- jiadee V/ the ^iipii- ia. 
!Ju^ <c>fu^f^ iptunh r^maiiM v. z:«^ bo. ±i:» VnXirr, bgr. and I mixac re- 

W<% ha^^ ri»Mr>ii to be zn^-^rd ztaz^ in rie p M Jii J ga> oi 
«si^Ai«f thft mnp^Twtitwvui aJArma. 0G<!f* exoiteti bj the acp«»]ir- 
i*u* »-/ /yiwu^ta, ha.v*» wV/Jj 'iiywed to be felt by ▼^gH-mPjnn- 
Hi perv»nji. On -^jtie ooaAir.c wiu^n a comet wtis irpr^iichic^ 
iU fp^rihieilon. It Tras aoJi diAS chii direction oC' The Bank «jf 
Eofldafwi r^qqented the mcckip^ antfaoritT to scacioQ. fire- 
etufmfii in Hin^hu^efile street. It » now soppoeed by is- 
trrMTfrnfm thxc tiw: €arth misLt pass through the ta3 of a 
eornf*, and that, fiw^ not be perceiTed by its inhabitants. Tbe 
fffffifrf, lA thf-. \ifAj -wLI.'ii would siiffer by the collision. TLat 
of Ijf'Xt-W ^f, rall*:d W3W wholly defle»rted from its orbit iu 17^, 
by iffTiiing^ within th^ attraction of Jupiter, which does not ap- 
pear Uf hare l^een in the lea^t afiected by the approach of the 
Cf/ttifii, Bat even if acr^lli^iirin were likely to proTe disastrous 
to oar planet, we have no more reason to apprehend that pre- 
dne derangement in tfi/: order of the universe, as established 
by Creative wi^dorn and ^^^ylneM, than we have to apprehend 
BXij fdh^ imaginable f:atiMtrophe* 

Th« folIowin(( tb^mfifhfa by Addison, in the Guardian, on 
the crmiet of ICfhfff ftre so jnst and so beantilully expressed,* 
that I Am pCTSuad€9d they will be acceptable to the reader : 

** I fskfoia MS any ihiag timi nuscs wooder hi me, which does noi 
||ts mj thomghU a torn that makes mj heart the better for it. As 
1 was Ijhig ffi my bs4, and mmmatlng on what I had seen, I could not 
f fSflsefiag on tbs faisignifiesiicy of homan art, when set in com- 
» «tei At dsrfgos of Provkkaee. In the pnrtmt of this thought 
\ a ittMlt or lalhs hagufs of the Tnlgsr, a bhoing star, 
XIhI 4Mbarftd bj a bsad that is sfaai^tj. Many of my 
W ttal la ths yssr leSO, sad if tiisy srs not mathematicians, 


win be amazed to hear that it traTelled in a much greater degree of 
swiftness than a cannon ball, and drew after it a tail of fire that was four 
score millions of miles in length. What an amazing thought is it to 
consider this stupendous body traversing the immensity of the creation 
with such a rapidity, and at the same time wheeling about in that line 
which the Almighty has prescribed for it ? That it should move in such 
an inconceivable fury and combustion, and at the same time with 
such an exact regularity? How spacious must the universe be that 
pves such bodies as these their full play, without suffering the least dis- 
order or confusion by it? What a glorious show are those Beings 
entertidned with, that can look into this great theatre of nature, and 
see myriads of such tremendous objects wandering through those im- 
measurable depths of Ether, and running their appointed courses ? Our 
eyes may hereafter be strong enough to command this magnificent pros- 
pect, and our understandings able to find out the several uses of these 
great parts of the universe. In the mean time they are very proper 
objects for our imaginations to contemplate, that we may form more 
exalted notions of infinite wisdom and power, and learn to think humbly 
of ourselves, and of all the little works of human invention.** 

Return, then, mysterious traveller, to the depths of the 
heavens, never again to be seen by the eyes of men now 
living ! Thou hast run thy race with glory ; millions of eyes 
have gazed upon thee with wonder ; but they shall never look 
upon thee again. Since thy last appearance in these lower 
skies, empires, languages, and races of men have passed away ; 
— the Macedonian, the Alexandrian, the Augustan, the Par- 
thian, the Byzantine, the Saracenic, the Ottoman dynasties 
sunk or sinking into the gulf of ages. Since thy last appear- 
ance, old continents have relapsed into ignorance, and new 
worlds have come out from behind the veil of waters. The 
Magian fires are quenched on the hill-tops of Asia ; the Chal- 
dean seer is blind ; the Egyptian hierogrammatist has lost his 
cunning ; the oracles are dumb. Wisdom now dwells in 
furthest Thule, or in newly-discovered worlds beyond the sea. 
Haply when, wheeling up again from the celestial abysses, 
thou art once more seen by the dwellers on earth, the Ian- 



guages we speak shall also be forgotten, and science shall 
have fled to the uttermost comers of the earth. But even 
there His Hand, that now marks out thy wondrous circuit, 
shall still guide thy course ; and then as now Hesper will 
smile at thy approach, and Arcturus with his sons rejoice at 
thy coming. 



Extra dothing prepared for the Jonmej and the resolt— Sand wfcheaaa'eom pared with 
a haatj dinner at an Inn—Sixtj oenta aaved and proposed inTcatment for it— 8iz 
hoars eomfortAbly apent at Albany — Sleeping ears and the excellence of their 
arrangements — Unexpected obstacle to the eqjojment of their fall benefit— Arri- 
val at Canandaiga»— The great Und parchase of Oorham and Phelpa. 

Being under engagement to repeat my Address on the 
Character of Washington, at two or three places, in the west- 
em part of the State of New York, circumstances had pre- 
vented my keeping the appointment till the middle of Decem- 
ber. I must confess that I looked forward to the expedition 
with some anxiety. A journey of a thousand miles into the 
lake region, at this season of the year, to be made in six days, 
on three of which a discourse of two hours' length was to be 
pronounced, is, to a person who has reached the age of , — 
but no matter about that, — a pretty serious affair. On taking 
counsel with a judicious friend upon the subject, he advised me, 
above all things, to take on me and with me, an extra supply of 
warm clothing, and, if I had occasion, as I certainly should, to 
travel in the night, to be sure to get a berth in one of the 
i^eeping-cars. I promised to follow his advice on both points. 

With respect to the first, I was already well provided with 
an ample supply of the accustomed articles of clothing, exter- 
nal and internal, of the warmest materials and closest tissues. 


But following my friend's advice, and looking forward to the 
exposure of the journey, I laid in an extra supply, better 
adapted to a voyage of Arctic exploration, than to a trip into 
the State of New York. It consisted of a supplementary pair 
of overalls, made of pilot cloth, and well lined with thick cot- 
ton, a dreadnought cloak also lined and wadded, a sea^tter 
tippet, the gift of a kind friend, which Dr. Hayes might have 
envied, a pair of very warm gauntlets, lined with vicuRa, and 
a voluminous Bay State shawl. These preparations for the 
wintry journey had not been made without fitting domestic 

At length the appointed day arrived, and clad in all these 
habiliments, which had the effect of duplicating my ** apparent 
diameter " to the naked eye, I took my seat in the car for 
Albany. A few moments only elapsed, before I perceived 
that the atmosphere was far frt»m being of that boreal severi- 
ty, which I had taken for granted, when, in the chill of the 
early morning, 1 had hurried on my ample stock of garments, 
ordinary and extraordinary. On the contrary it was. fur the 
middle of December, a moderate day out-doors ; the weather, 
mingled snow and rain, settling down into the latter. Within 
the car, to take off the chill, we had a stove, kept for the 
greater part of the time near a red heat I soon felt more as 
if 1 was already in the tropics, than upon a journey in the 
direction of Canada. Before long I was obliged to commence 
the operation of laying aside one article afWr another ; first 
the India-rubber overshoes which were parboiling my feet, 
then the warm vicuna gloves, then the splendid sea-otter tip- 
pet, then the ample folds of the Bay State shawl, then the 
lined and wadded cloak, very much as the graved igger in 
Hamlet divests himself of the traditionary score of jackets, 
I w<»uld gladly have got rid of the pilot-cloth overalls, but as 
I had only half a seat in a crowdini car ft.r a dressing-room, I 
did not attempt that critical operation. When I bad thrown 
off the last article of extra clothiu<^, which could oonvcnioatly 


Ve laid aude, I was a little disooncerted at the indifferent suc- 
cess of my experiment in dressing for the season. 

In other respects, I made the journey to Albany most 
comfortably, especially after the youth, who sells what ho 
calls '^ me^y zincs," had passed through the car with the 
** New York Ledger," without which the traveller might as 
well stay at home ; and with which, ho that stays at home has 
about as fair a chance to improve his mind, as those that 
travel. This comfortable condition was further owing, in no 
small degree, to a liberal supply of sandwiches, prepared by 
neat and bountiful hands before I left home, and carefully be- 
stowed in my travelling-bag. I am surprised to see how few 
travellers avail themselves of this resource, on a journey, for, 
if there is nominxdly a place for dining, you arc nearly sure 
to arrive at an unusual and inconvenient time, whereas you 
take your sandwiches at your accustomed hour, or just as you 
want them. For instance, if, in passing East or West, you 
leave your seat in the car to dine at Springfield, in Massachu- 
setts, you find indeed a very go(xl diimer prepared at the 
Massasoit, for which you are allowed twenty minutes. Tlie 
operations of placing your shawl and bag carefully in your 
seat by way of retainer, of finding your way into the house, of 
washing and brushing, occupy the first five minutes of your 
time. The fear of being left behind makes you hurry from 
the table five minutes before tlie time is up. In the remain- 
ing ten minutes you bolt your dinner, pay your seventy-five 
cents, and returning to the car, find that your shawl and 
travelling-bag have been piled into another seat by a lady and 
gentleman (?) who have in your absence helped themselves to 
yours. The sandwiches on the contrary, as I have said, can 
be taken when you please, and eaten leisurely, which your 
doctor will tell you is the best sauce to your dinner. Besides 
this, they will not cost you, at tlie outside, over fifteen cents, so 
that you have made a comfortable meal and saved sixty cents. 

Having helped you to save this handsome sum, I ought to 



tell you how to invest it to advantage. Ten cents of it you 
will want to pay the boy who takes your valise to the hotel 
in Albany. With the remaining half dollar, 1 should advise 
you to pay the first three months of your subscription to 
some valuable weekly paper. There are several such publish- 
ed in different cities of the Union, and delicacy forbids a more 
particular indication of that, to which I think your preference 
will no doubt be given. If you tell me, as you probably will, 
that you are already a subscriber to the " New York Ledger," 
the next most desirable investment for your half a dollar, 
which occurs to me, is, to contribute it to the fund for the 
purchase of Mount Vernon. Or better than either, give it to 
that half-clad, wretched-looking creature in the corner of the 
oar, holding, wrapped up in her threadbare shawl, a famished, 
blue-lipped child, that does not look as if it had had a 
comfortable meal for a week ; and it would not be amiss 
if you handed them, at the same time, the remainder of 
the sandwiches. They have already been devouring them 
with their hollow, vacant, hungry eyes. — ^There, my friend, 
does not that unearthly smile repay you ; have you not laid 
out your fifty-cent piece a hundredfold better than if you had 
paid it for a half-masticated meal, and a dyspeptic afternoon ? 
But we shall never get to our journey's end if we loiter so 
by the way. Let us then strain up the Becket Hills as fast 
as we can, dash down to Pittsfield, and so on to States Line 
and the Hudson, till we get to Albany, somewhat weary and 
a little bit dreary, just before dark. This travelling alone 
in the winter, of a rainy day, is not the most genial thing in 
the world. At the Delavan, however, we shall get a nice 
comfortable tea, a room, a fire, a chance to write a letter 
home, to let them know we are safe thus far, possibly a nap, 
and all for a dollar and three quarters ; at half past eleven 
oVltX'k fit night, not a Httte refreshed, in piirLsuah* r mT ...r 
friend's advice above mentioned, wo take the sleeping-car far 

ironcT vEKsoy patt?!». f»T 

Th» phqnnfhraT is a preat utop forvmrci n. rbr innrrh of 
cnriEttODaiL Ix (mMo^ you to rrnvoi nnr] !:<'• t^ Kvl rA thr 
saDK tiiDf^ Yv'ii lie tJo'^Ti CT?k»tlv tf* Tv»n<-»<»r ir. vonr 'hortK 
as^d aQ tbe TiiTTfC yr«t flash j*toTiir lit ibr mtf- of t^vrtv-fvc 
miks «n bcqar. iWihnxr frr»Tn Alhftr.y rr- SyrftiMifjr 1 pnv'l f.vr 
tbift Dovel Jurary one- ^^oilar, in ai^^^it-or. r.^ ihr- fiiro : rr-tr.m- 
ing fixMii SyT»fTO«e t\> AlVianx f ^nr *^Ay< lf.t<T 1 pjiTi^ fit\v ivnrf:. 
I suppo9« the firM limo. ih^t 1 f,^TC^•4 to TO'll t'ho i^-»n«^7ctor 
that 1 V3tf gvnnir ^"^^y half t ho ^at to RwATalo, ftrtil ih,ii ho fi^r- 
got to ask mo how far 1 xias c^'^ina. Aiiv hoxx\ \ y\^\i\ ri^y 
dollar and no questions a^koiL Tho nc\t tin^i\ howo^vn ! 
shall tell him how far 1 am piing. 

The berths, at Iwist tho lower In^rths. ono «^f whioh T t^^t^k» 
are mode up with no little skill, llw stiirtt^^l sonis on vhioh 
you stretch yourself at fulMength, are not Xoo hfinK nnJ yon 
have two good nibl>er pillows, ami tw<i very stibst.nntial 
shawls by way of bed-clothinii : altogetlior n*« ct»mfortnMo a 
nights arrangement as caii Ik* exporto<l by a who is 
shooting all the while through the Valley of tho M<»hawk, nf 
the rate of twenty or thirty miles an hour. 1 really fancied I 
bad reached the perfection of midnight travelling ; if perfeo- 
tion can be predicated of that, which at best is but a mitigated 
discomfort : 

" not 90 5»onnd, nor half ?o deeply ?woot. 

As he whow brow, with homely biggin bound, 
Snores out the watch of night," 

But the philosophical I.otin poet tolls iis that something bitter 
bubbles up from the very fountain of pleasure. I had senreely 
composed myself— not to sleep — but to the delightful dronniy 
doze which precedes it, in which, escaped from thoiight, yon 
have just consciousness enough left to know that yon are con- 
scious of nothing — was just sinking into a state in which T nm 
I could not have said the first line of the mnltif)licution 
'OOP retomed thanks for a complimentary toast at a pub- 


lio dinner, — when the door of the car opened, and two gentle- 
men bounded cheerily in, took their seats at the stove (my 
berth was next to the stove), and engaged in loud, animated, 
earnest conversation ! The first hearty burst of question and 
reply went off like a pistol, and summoned me back from the 
misty precincts of dream-land ; thought resumed her importu- 
nate sway ; and a perplexed impression succeeded, that either 
on their part or on mine, the right man was not in the right 
place. For a moment I was lost in doubt whether somebody 
or other was not unseasonably loquacious, or I myself un- 
seasonably drowsy. In fact I was not quite sure of my per- 
sonal identity. I felt somewhat as ITodge did, when he awoke 
and found himself in his wagon, from which some rogue had 
stolen his cattle while he slept " If I am not Hodge," quoth 
he, " I have found a capital wagon ; if I am Hodge, I have 
lost a first-rate yoke of oxen." 

Pretty soon, however, I found out that I was Hodge ; that 
the sleep on which I had calculated so confidently was in a 
fair way to bo stolen ; moreover, that I had a long journey 
before me ; that I was to speak at Canandaigua in the even- 
ing, and was likely to be a good deal the worse for wear. 
Accordingly, after waiting awhile for the river to run dry, I 
raised myself, with the most wo-begt>ne look I could assume 
(and it required no effort to assume it), looked over the end 
of my berth, and told my conversible neighbors that I was 
very weary, and wanttni sadly to go to sleep, but that 1 could 
not possibly do so if they continued to talk with each other. 
The gt^ntleman nearest mo answered with the utmost polito- 
nojtn, that they were not aware there was a person in the next 
berth who wished to sleep, and that they would cease to dis- 
turb me. For what other object than going to sleep the wor- 
thy gentleman supposed I should be packed away at midnight, 
in the lower bertli of a sleeping-car, between Albany and Syra- 
ciiHo, in the middle of the nineteenth century, ho did not inti- 
nuito, nor have 1 boon able to conceive. Satisfied, bowever, 


vxth his oonrteons and exux>ungiiig aMuraoce, I saak back ; 
ihe gezLtlemBZi drew up tbe screen that separated ub six iii<he» 
higier, and, apjiarentlr under the irripre&fcion iliat s^^^und Jike 
vater \rould no: rise above its sou roe, rcbumed with Lifc cvju- 
panion tbeir cc»nversati'.»ri as bef- »ri' I 

This vas a stale c»f thiii^^b to ]»ut onc'b phil<.rtK«plj v, evtii if 
he had been wide awuke. \v the ]»rouf. Ihe «--<jiiduct'-»r j'jc-b- 
endv passed along, and J madt ri:v aj»iieal to hhu. J «'Aj/'fb- 
tidated, 1 arjiued, J S4ni;:iit lu niov*.. I n^aliy think on ihib 
occasion I wa* eloquent. I pleaded ft*r tiit iinpri.b<;riptil**e 
right of everv hvinjan b»:^ing 'n- a ni^iilV bjt.ef'. oiiee in the 
twenty-four hours. I put it oi: tn-. j;i"UiiU r-i' o-nua't : J l:ad 
paid my dulhir foi a b-.-rtii ii. a i>'*.'*'\»iu*:-*ai . Jlao I khown 
that J had paid duubk prk-^- I cuuiu imvi ]>u: that joju: ijj'»U' 
fon.-ibly. I threw niVKlf ol hi>> bein^.- «.ircuty as a ^onou'-tor ; 
on his foejiii^s as a man. I hao tra\<-ljeo bince t o'ckxik. 
A. M.. and exjHTCt^u t« iravfc. till ii^ih-piiet ivii ih»-- ii»r:si day. 
before I rtra'-he'i my dfbtinatioi.. J was ilivci : h. l woiri, 1 
was sleepy : and I siiiod. or rathe: . at Ui*. iiioUi»-nt J lay. li^un 
my right t*.- i^r- t*.- slcej'. I iia«.i hal!" a in'iu*! '*.*.• uA\ h'm. tijat, 
as he iiad caused the words " bleejMnp-cur "" to h*: piinie<i on 
the outside, and iiad lakti. niy mojiey fur a ijertli. 1 <.oujd 
brmg asMumpsii against him. if ne did not adopt ali rea^ouubie 
measures t* • let mo g« > v.- sieej . 

The cc»nductor wa*^ e'viuenti} not only convinced but 
moved. II-i' admitted iL*. boundjicbs oi" luy argument : it was 
plain that n*.* fe:: tae ivjre-: o: iii; appeal : but, when 1 uegged 
hini t" int*f rpoa-. . aiiii o'-jhil- tL- taiKati^'. gentlemen to cease 
their eonversatioi.. Uih- e'.»unteuaiic*.- i-.-... an^; i^^aiiing lowardb 
me he said, iu a jou \:>n'' . j*;. way ^ : vx-^uiM.- i'.»! iiot inierioring. 
that *• he knew tuvy oagn; not i'.- taaK, out '.'Le wab a high otiicer 
of the New YoriC Cciitrj. li^ir-ja-- ^and no nameo the ofiice. 
but 1 shall not), an- in*, otafr va- i. groat presiuent o! a rail- 
road out AVesr." lie ut;-:;!*:'- tii-. \wjr<j^ >\iii* b^jn^mniiy, add- 
ing, for my cun»Oiutii.«: , tnat " in-, ofiicc: ci tue New Yurk 


Central would got out at Sdioiectad^r." Tins was all the 
aatlafhotion I got by my first appeal ; of a second and a third 
ho took no notice as ho passed by. He probably supposed I 
was U^ido mysolf, to think of stopping the conversation of a 
high i\inctionAry of tho Central with the ^ great president" 
of Nonio iUhor road. But the longest hour has an end ; we 
mmohtHl Si^honoi^tady ; tho officer of the New York G»itral got 
o\it ; and tho *• gr\>at president*" like other great presidents, 
loaving bin sH^at* n^treatoii to obscurity in the rear of the car. 
A» ho |vMak3t«Hl ino towanl his berth, I murmured to myself, 
rt^mtscMf «N fHwt^ moaning only (I am of a very forgiving 
uiako) *' u^ay ho got a gix>d nap.** With this benediction I 
dUani«KHl tho groat pr\'sident (who^ like the great Macbeth, 
hail " mur\loro\l *ltH^p *') to that re«t of which he had deprived 
m^s For tho roat ot* tho way silence resumed her solitary 
n*lgu» and I alopt till wo roai'hod Syracuso. 

Uoiv an aN\k\\ar\l s|\^v i4' two hours* and a very coria- 
OiHM^Ji lHvfNsi^>Hk ^|Viirtakoii with tho brakemen who were to 
jf%\ \>wt at jK^Yvn^ iutorvomxl bell^ro we started for Canan- 
daijt^ia. On tho \\ jiy to Aubiurn* the oar in which I was brv4e 
down ; but without \\iuskug any disaster, or mcv^ than a few 
lUouu^^tV \K'I^\\ 1 arrived in sal^y at my desdnarioQ in 
tVuMuUi^i^U^ atui I\^uikI n^vsolf at hcoxie under the heritable 
r\^v|\\t'u\\ tVhMKl Mr* i« ranger* 

NY Uh thU r\>j5lva^* o*pov^ially with Ouiandaigux I have some 
dou\«x»no a«Msv\ativvii«, bv moai\» t>f a cvHuieclioQ with the hm- 
ll> ot U\\)v N^ith^ucl l%>vrhaiu of Oharl««iowB, MassadntseOs, 
>^ho NX Am A*»^viat\Hl >hith Olivt'r Tholps ia the vast land pur- 
\>ha««s \vhi\^h U>ar« th^^ir ,ixNiui naiiiMk Juibee Gorltam was a 
H^au x^' ^\U«ioM%^ ; Ko (vrvakW^l i>uo T*ar in the Commss of 
Iho Al \\s4^lUI%xrath>ix ; mkI in iho o^>nvwitii>n Rv I^Mrninsr the 
tSmMUMlu^^ ^^^^ tho luit^l i^^Mo*, ho \i^ <^M u> the Clttir 
b\ tUvu \\ A^^i^jjtvxi^ owry vh^v tl^vr thr^v nwntlw. la comiecs 
\U^\\ \\\\\\ \\\. VM\\^^ idixxHh AtW Iho ro\\^utk«iarT war. be 
)^M>4u*.st .v| <h.^ Sut%t vvr Ma»M^-|iu^ii^ (which cidmed, in 


virtue of a compromise with New York, a preemptive right 
in the property of the soil) a tract of six millions of acres in 
the Genesee Country, as it was called, for a few cents the 
acre; a magnificent speculation on paper; but, like many 
other magnificent paper speculations, ending in vexation and 
disappointment; and yielding, 1 believe, nothing but very 
moderate results to the bold and sagacious adventurers. But 
the country at that time was unsettled — the Indian title not 
extinguished — the property in the soil in one State, the juris- 
diction over the territory in another — the Federal Constitution 
not framed, and no efficient common tribunal existing to settle 
controversies. Under these circumstances Messrs. Gorham 
and Phelps were obliged, eventually, to abandon the greater 
part of their princely purchase. 

But, though I have hardly got to the beginning of my ^ In- 
cursion," I have reached the end of my paper, and I must tell 
the rest of the atory another time. 




rnpromining weatlier nt Cftnandaljnu^— History of the B«lU«*meBt— OtlT*r Phelps— 
Ancedote of Jiiflt':^ Qorham— V'idt to RocbMier— UoAurvcd R'aU — Astxtni&hing 
frrosTTMB of the ftittUumni — lii'tarn to Aubam — Change Jn tho woalher — From 
Aiihiim to Syrncttse nnd i1<»tc«tlfni the r«— Bleep! ni? cars from Syracuse to AfbAtif 
— Wak^'ful foUow-passpngurs— CoUlalpa at AJbaiijr— Kltid>bfarte4 Conductora— 
Bctorn tiomo. 

It was snowing and rainmg when l arrived at Canandaigua; 
and when one has travelled, bj day and by night, fuur hun- 
dred and twenty -one miles, to epe^ik in the evening, a heavy- 
rain, e^peciiilly in the eountry, where dry side-walks and 
vehicles do not mueh abonnd, is rather disconraging. And 
so we watched the signs of the times with some anxiety, and 
lamented over the weather; ree<:>nciling ourselves, however, 
to it at last, on two grounds principally, which I mention be- 
cause they contain a practical philosophy, which may be 
turned to account in graver cases ; — one was, that our lamen- 
tations aod anxieties would do no good ; — tho other that, 
though the ntin was not particularly desirable for ns, it was 
greatly wanted by the ** rest of mankind/* as the springs were 
I w. And so we aulnnitti'd to the rain. It did not appear 
greatly to tell upon the audience, and the next morning ^Ir, 
Granfjer handed me, as tlie proceeds *>f the evening, a gtiiort>na 
contribution to the Mount Vemnn fund. 1 suspect ibe sum 
was somewhat increased by individual llboralUy» 


There is no more beautiful Tillage, as &r as my observa- 
tion has extended, than Canandaigua ; few places of greator in- 
terest in the historv of the settlement of the c(nintrv. It was 
here, that the settlement of the western part of New York 
commenced, (after the punhase of ^lessrs. Gorham nnd 
Phelps,) in the year 1788. In the summer of that year, Mr. 
Oliver Phelps, a person of truly heroic character, who is enti- 
tled to a place among Lord Bacon's Conditorcs Impcriontm^ 
(founders of empires.) left Massiiclmsetts, for the purpose of 
exploring and surveying the vast region "which he and Judge 
Gorham had purchased, — now embracing, I believe, twelve 
coimties, — in the western part of New Yorlv. They pene- 
trated, what was then a savage "wilderness, as far west as Ca- 
nandaigua, one hundred and thirty miles west of the German 
Flats, then considered the utmost limits of civilization. Rov. 
Mr. Kirkland, (father of President Kirkland, of Harvard Col- 
lege,) who had long lived among the Indians as a Missionary, 
accompanied Mr. Phelps and his party, as a Conmiissioner 
on the part of Massachusetts. An Indian Council was held 
on a beautiful eminence overlooking Canandaigua I^ke ; Red 
Jacket denounced the proposed treaty ; but Farmer's Brother 
pacified the excited chiefs, and an agreement was finally made 
for the extinction of the Indian title to more than two millions 
of acres of land. After the treaty, the land was surveyed 
under the direction of Mr. Phelps, on the system of towTiships 
and nmges, which has since been extended to the public do- 
main of the United States, and forms one of the most impor- 
tant and admirable arrangements in the practical administra- 
ticm of the Government of the United States. 

"In lt89 (I quote the Rochester Directory of 1827, as cited in 
Bart»er*s valuable Historical Collections of New York) Oliver Phelpa 
opened a land office in Canandaigua. This was the first land office in 
larriea for the wile of her forest-lands to settlors ; and the system which 
I for the survey of his lands by townships and ranges became 
I ibr the manner of surveying all the new land* in the United 


States. Oliver Phelps may be considered the Cecrops of the Genesee 
Country. Its inhabitants owe a mausoleum to his memory, in gratitude 
for his having pioneered for them the wilderness of this Canaan of the 

Some idea of the hardships attending the first settlement 
of new countries in general, and this in particular, may be 
formed from the description given of this now beautiful and 
highly cultivated village, abounding with all the improvements 
of a prosperous rural district, in Mr. Spafford's Gazetteer, 
also cited in Barber's Collections. 

**The settlement of this town (Canandaigua) commenced in 1790, 
and in 1797 I found it but feeble, contending with numerous embarrass- 
ments and difficulties. The Spring of that year was uncommonly wet 
and cold. Besides a good deal of sickness, — mud knee deep, mosqiiitos 
and gnats so thick that you could hardly breathe without swallowing 
them ; rattlesnakes, and the ten thousand discouragements CTerywhere 
incident to new settlements — surrounded by these, — In June of that 
year, I saw with wonder that these people, all Yankees from Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut and Vermont, were perfectly undismayed, 'looking 
forward in hope, sure and steadfast.^ They talked to me of what the 
country would be, by and by, as if it were history, and I received it as 
aU fable.'' 

Oliver Phelps died on the 21st February, 1809, in the six- 
tieth year of his age ; and future generations will do justice 
to his memory. So rapid has been the growth of this, in 
common with many other parts of the country, that the 
present generation loses, in its familiarity with it, an adequate 
appreciation of the stupendous process, by which barbarous 
territories, almost boundless, have within sixty years been 
brought into the domain of civilization. To illustrate the ra- 
pidity of this progress, I often repeat an anecdote, which has 
descended by tradition in the Gorham family. 

On one occasion, when Judge Gorham was mnaiiigy in a 
state pf iiR^ivtal Ut'pregtb^ion, on the almost total failure of tl)is 
magnilk'aui fspt'cttlnlidit, he was visited by a friend and town^ 






man, who had returned from a journey to Canandaigua, then 
just laid out This friend tried to cheer the Judge with a 
bright vision of the future growth of Western New York. 
Kindling with his theme, he pointed to a son of Judge Gor- 
hain, who was in the room, and added, ** Ytm and I shall not 
live to see the day, but that lad, if he reaches thixjescore years 
and ten, will see a daily stage-coach running as far west as 
Ginandaigua." That lad was the late Mr, Benjamin Gorhani, 
who died a few years ago, — who represented Boston for sev- 
eral years in Congrefls with great ability, and who lived to 
witness, not merely a daily stage-coach, entering Canandaigua, 
but two great lines of rail-road, and a gigantic canal, travers- 
ing tlie State from east to west, with subsidiary communicar 
tlons in every direction, and without end, 

The next day, (15th December,) at half-past ten, I left 
Canandaigua, regretting only the necessary shoilness of my 
visit, as I have to do eonst-antly. At Rochester we had the 
tame menace of bad weather, w hieh, however, gave way be- 
fore evening. I met at the station Pi*esidcnt Anderson, Gen- 
eral Smith, and Mr. Moore, and was conducted by them to 
the hospitable dwelling of Silas O. Smith, Esq., and to the 
enjoyment of all the comfurts of a cordial reception and a 
iViendly home. 

At Rochester we had inadvertently incurred the risk of a 
pretty serious miscarriage. In orflcr to increase the receipts 
of the evening, and also to accommodate some elderly persons, 
invalids^ and ladies, who might desire a comfortable seat in 
the hall, without going at an hour beforehand, or who were 
unable to struggle for it at a crowded door, the idou of reserv- 
ing a portion of the scats at a higher price, occurred to those 
Imving charge of the arrangements. It was not an entirely 
novel plan ; but, though a well-meant, it proved to be an 
unfortunate suggestion. Seals are daily rciserved in many, 
nay, in most places of public resort, in this country and in 
Europe, without giving alarm to the most sensitive votary of 


republican equality. But it gave offence to some of our Rof- 
fensian friends^ — and it became necessary, in deference to the 
ejtcited public feeling, to abandon the discrimination, and to 
place all the tickets at the lower price. This restored har- 
mony, at the expense, I suppose, of a hundred or two of dol* 
I&ra to the Mount Vernon fund ; and a noble audience filled 
the hall, which is one of the best in the country. For myself, 
I am no aristocrat. I do not own a quadruped larger than a 
cat^ and she an indifTerent mouse r ; nor any kind of a vehicle, 
with the exception, possibly, of a wheelbarrow* But I am 
willing my neighbor should dash by me on his spirited horse., 
while I am trudging arft^ot; or roll in his luxurious carriage, 
while I take a seat in the omnibus. On the same principle, 
if my neighbor prefers to pay a dollar for a reserved seat at 
a place of public resort, (especially for the benefit of the 
Mount Vernon fund*) it docs not disquiet me in the purchase 
of a fiffcy-eent ticket. If my neighbor is an aged person, an 
invalid, or a lady, and is disposed to pay a double price for a 
little comfort of this kind, I have personally no objection, — 
although I had nothing to do with the proposed arrangement 
at Ivochestor^ as I never have with any business arrangements 
connected with the repetition of my address. 

The next dav — though the air was somewhat shrewd — I 
greatly enjoyed a drive to the beautiful Cemetery and the fiiJIs 
of the Genesee. The river was in graiid order, the falls mag- 
nificent, spanned with a rainbow, which, in cosequence of a 
high windf that blew the water into spray, was of more than 
ordinary brilliancy. I had seen Rochester but once before, 
and that in 1821 ; and when, I belie^^e^ Carthage contended 
with her for the mastery* Garthage ia now pretty much In 
tlie condition of its African namesake, and Rochester is a city 
probfibly uf some tiAy thousand inhabitants. It is one of the 
nKi&t astonishing examples uf tb« growth of the new settle- 
mentsint). y. The part % ' 1812, was surveyed 

for the pu ^ottleniADt by v a Roobeator, Charles 


H. Carroll, and Williani Fitzhughy emigrants from Maryland, 
I belieye, and called '^ Rochester " after the senior proprietor, 
had, under the name of the " Mill lot," been bestowed by 
Gorham and Phelps on a scmi-savogc, called Indian Allen, as 
an inducement for building mills, to grind com and saw 
boards for the few settlers at tliat time in this region.* 
Messrs. Rochester, Carroll, and Fitzhugh paid $1,750 for this 
hundred acre lot, on which a considerable part of the city 
of Rochester is built. Some of the land on the other side 
of the river was sold by Gorham and Phelps in 1790 for 
eighteen pence the acre. It is statements like these, which 
beguile men into land speculations, in which I shall give ypu 
the benefit of my o\vti experience, on a small scale, another 

living passed a most agreeable day in the amiable family 
circle of my hospitable hosts, and with the advantage of mak- 
ing the acquaintance of many of the citizens, I left Rochester 
at 6 P.M., in company with my friend, the Rev. Dr. Crcssy 
of Auburn, who had taken charge of the arrangements for the 
repetiti(m of my address at that delightful village, which wo 
reached at about half-past ten p.m. 

I never would willingly travel in the dark, which deprives 
you of all the gratification and benefit of seeing a country 
with your own eyes, and thus getting an idea of it which no 
guide books can furnish. But in this intense condensation 
of existence to which we submit, crowding into one week 
the work of three — the leisurely survey of the country 
through which you pass in travelling, is one of the first 
things to be sacrificed. One would have thought that the 
vastly increased facilities of travelling, which enable one, on 
all the great routes, to do in eight or nine hours the work of 
three days in old times, would have led us to take things a 
little more leisurely and comfortably. Instead of this we 

* Barber*8 Historical Collections, p. 266. 


clamor for more unseasonablo trains, and ix^ish to pass these 
eight or nine hours under the dark, damp wings of night 

A great change in the weather took place during the night 
of the 16th; and in the morning Dr. Cressy's churchyard 
which lay beneath my windows, and the fine street which 
runs through Auburn, were covered with snow. The weather 
was not tempting abroad, though I was very desirous of seeing 
the penitentiary, which occupies so prominent a place in the 
history of prison discipline, — the " Auburn system " being 
originally the technical designation of the plan of social labor 
in the workshop, and solitary confinement at meals and at 
night. Prevented from going abroad, I passed the hours at 
home, till it was time to receive the visits of friends — in what 
occupation think you, gentle reader ? Can there be two con- 
jectures as to what a well-meaning man, under engagement 
to furnish a weekly article to the " New York Ledger," would 
do with a couple of leisure hours, which he was compelled, 
by stress of weather, to pass within doors ? 

The appointed hour arrives, and a full and favoring audi- 
ence welcomes us to Auburn ; a village, I doubt not, though 
seen by me only under its wintry shroud, far more " sweet " 
than that from which it derives its lovely name. Compelled 
to return to Boston by Saturday night, in order to keep my 
appointments for the following week, I was obliged to deny 
myself the gratification of a visit to its important public Insti- 
tutions. And so afler one more genial and refreshing hour 
with my hospitable host, I went, with him, and my obliging 
friends Mr. Morgan and Mr. Ludlow, (the latter so well 
known to many of the readers of the Ledger as the " Hasheesh 
Eater,") to the Railway station, and the train soon arriving 
from RochestcT took us to Syracuse. The night was cold, 
and one feels a little catch-coldish after speaking two hours ; 
and so the extra clothing of which wo spoke rather dispar- 
agingly last week, grew mightily into favor again. 

We reached Syracuse about twenty minutes after eleven. 


and were to leave it for Albany by the Western train for 
Buffalo, due at five minutes before four ; an arrangement of 
hours, too long to sit up and too short to go to bed, and 
admirably adapted to cultivate the equanimity of itinerant 
orators, tired of speaking and anxious to get home. Time 
does not " gallop withal " under such circumstances ; in fact, 
1 am strongly inclined to think that fretting is the very best 
instrument for clipping his wings. At length the Western 
train arrived with the most gratifying punctuality, and I 
again took refuge in the sleeping car. No " great president " 
or high official of the New York Central disturbed my slum- 
bers, which lasted till the break of day. I could have wished, 
in fact I may say that I fondly expected, that they might last 
a little longer. I know few places or times when one is less 
tempted to wake up, than a cold December morning in a 
sleeping car, afler two hours oratory at Auburn and four 
hours impatient waiting at Syracuse. It so happened, however, 
that the berths next to me, and on opposite sides of the car, 
were occupied by travellers from Chicago, who had probably 
had two nights comfortable sleep since they left home, at 
any rate had slept all the way from Buffalo. They were 
consequently prepared to wake with the dawn. They not 
only woke themselves, but fell into an argument, that pro- 
duced precisely the same effect upon everybody else in the 
ear. They happened to take opposite views of several im- 
portant political questions. One appeared to be a naturalized 
foreigner, and the other was very strongly Native American. 
They had both gone through the late electioneering campaign 
in Chicago, which, as far as I could infer from their state- 
ments, was " animated " to say the least. Their accounts of 
it certainly were. They argued, vociferated, and shouted. 
It was an interchange of sentiment that might be called bois- 
terous ; taunt and retort ; fling and sarcasm. Virgil tells us 
that the muses like alternations. I think that if the muses 
had been broken of their rest as much as I had, they would 



etumge their minds a little in a case of this kind. But though 
the alterwation was deciJcdly an altercation, it was upon the 
whole good-natured. Had they got to hlows, one might 
almost have thuugltt that we had, during our slumbers, bt^n 
transported to Washington and woke up on the floor of Con- 
gress. Happily it was in a sleeping car ; the dispute was 
interspersed with peals of laughter while it lasted, and ended 
in great good humor and a general waking up» 

Nothing adverse happened till we entered the station yard 
at Albany. Here within a few rods of our goal, our car, which 
was in the rear, came into collision with an Engine left stand- 
ing in the wrong place. The iron coupling which attached us 
to the preceding car snapped like pack-thread, and we were 
thrown from the track. But wc had reached our destination ; 
the damage to the car was trifling, to passengers null. An 
engineer, as we passed out, judiciously remarked, that "we 
should not have got ofT so well had the collision taken place, 
while we were moving at the rate of thirty miles an hour.'* 
Probably not ) but whether the carelessness which caused it 
might not have existed, deserves consideration. 

We were conif*>rLably housed at the Delavan at a quarter 
past ten. The trains from the West are so arranged, that 
they reach Albany about an hour after the train for Buston 
has started. If you happen to have business in Albany which 
occupies four or five hours^ this is a convenient arrangement. 
If you are very anxious to get back to Boston by daylight, 
it would be a convenient thing to have the two trains connect 
with each other. But it is impossible that every train should 
connect with every other ; although impatient travellers arc 
apt to think it might. 

The afternoon and evening were inte^iscly cold. Tlie pilot 
clothes and dreadnoughts came admirably in phiy. The kind- 
hearted conductor said it was the coldest night of the season. 
1 call him " kind*hcart©d,'' because he allowed a poor young 
mother with a ahivering infant in her arms^ and not a farthing 



in her pocket, to keep her scat. ^' How could I put her out 
in a night like this ? " You couldn't, good conductor, because 
you have a kind heart ; — but I have fallen in with conductors, 
"who I fear would have been less merciful. — Though not in a 
sleeping car, I enjoyed a glorious sleep almost all the way 
home. In fact so overwhelmed was I with drowsiness, that 
I think I could have slept through the argument of my Chi- 
cago friends, or the dialogue of the high officer and the great 
President. The new conductor, — also kind-hearted, — ^hap- 
pened to recognize me though asleep, and did not wake me up 
for my check from West Brookfield to Boston, — for which 
good office he will long live in the grateful remembrance of 
a sleepy traveller. 



First pnbtliihed by Lord Kunet Id 17T4 u hArlng bc«ri eommmilefttod to bim hj ]>r. 
Franklin — 9cioii discovered In Jertrnj Tkjlor'i Lfbertjr of Prophcsyltip— Kexl 
ftitmd In ibe dodlcatlou to tb« Semite <if Uatnburs ^f tbe Lftiln traiulAtloi) bjr 
George Gens of a Rabbinical work — Afterwtrdjt traced tn the ^ Flowfr-OArden" 
of tbe celebrftt^ Persian pODt Saixll— Some aeconnt tiT BjUfdl — Po^o^ibly itill to bo 
found In lome Jewfsli writer— Defence of Dr. Fr&nkHn n^lnst tbe cbarig^e of pU- 
giarlBin — Qnoted bj Sydney Smith before the Mayor and Cc}r]>omU4}n of Bristol 
In 1E29— Tbe pamble given entire ft-om Dr. Frjinklln's works. 

No composition of the kind is so famous, perhaps, as the 
" Parable on Persecution.'* This is owing, partly, to its in- 
trinsic beauty both of substance tmd form. The moral lesson 
which it inculcates is of the purest and loftiest kind ; and the 
form in which this moral is clothed la singularly attractive. 
Its celebrity, however^ is mainly to he ascribed to the circum 
stances attending its puhlieMion, — or rather re-publication in 
a revised form, — -under the name of Dr. Franklin. 

In 1774 Lord Kames, in the second volume of Jiis 
"Sketches of the History of Man/* introduced the substance 
of this parablCj with these words : ** Tlie following parable 
against persecution was communicated to me by Dr. Franklin 
of Philadt^Iphia, a man who makes a great figure in the learned 
world, and who would Hill make a preaier figure /or Itenep- 
olence and candor ^ were virtue as much regarded in this declin- 
ing age as knowledge.^^ Such is Lord Karnes' remark, in the 
first edition of his book, as 1 find it quoted by Mr. Sparks in 
the second volume of the works of Franklin. In the third 


edition of Lord Karnes' "Sketches," which lies before me, 
and pui-ports to be " considerably improved," the words in 
italics are omitted, probably for political reasons. 

The parable was given as follows in his Lordship's Sketches, 
though not, as will presently appear, with entire accuracy, as 
communicated to lum by Dr. Franklin : 

" And it cuno to pass after these things, that Abraham sat in the 
door of his tent, about the going down of the son. And behold a man 
bent with age coming from the way of the wilderness leaning on a staff. 
And Abraham arose, and met him, and said unto him, * Turn in, I pray 
thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night; and thou shalt arise early 
in the momiug, and go on thy way.* And the man said, * Nay ; for I 
will abide under this tree.* But Abraham pressed him greatly; so he 
turned, and they went into the tent: and Abraham baked unleavened 
bread, and they did eat. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed 
not God, he said unto him, * Wherefore dost thou not worship the most 
high God, creator of heaven and earth ? * And the man answered and 
said, ' I do not worship thy God, neither do I call upon his name ; for I 
have made myself a God, which abideth always in my house, and provi- 
deth me with all things.* And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, 
and lie arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth with blows into 
the wilderness. And God called unto Abraham, saying, * Abraham, 
where is the stranger?* And Abraham answered and said, * Lord, he 
would not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name ; there- 
fore have I driven him out from before my face into the wilderness.' And 
God said, * Have I borne with him these hundred ninety and eight years, 
and nourished him, and clothed him, notwithstanding his rebellion against 
me ; and couldst not thou, who art thyself a sinner, bear with him one 

From Lord Karnes' work this parable was taken by the 
late Hon. Benjamin Vaughan of Hallowell, but then of Lon- 
don, in his edition of Dr. Franklin's writings. Mr. Vaughan, 
as is well known, was the intimate friend of Dr. Franklin, 
and published in London, in 1770, the first English edition of 
Franklin's miscellaneous essays. From the time of its ap- 
pearance in this volume, the Parable began to attract notice, 
was often repeated, and greatly admired as a most happy 
illustration of an all-Important moral truth. 



Though not communicated to Lord Kamcs by Dr. Frank- 
lin as hia own composition, it was naturally enough inferred 
from the manner in whieli it was brought forward, that sut*h 
was the ease, A good deal of surprise was aeeortlmgly mani- 
fested, when it was discovered, not long after, that a parable 
of substantially the same import was found in Jeremy Tay- 
lor's " Liberty of Prophesying ; *^ (publiBhed in 1657,) in tho 
following words : 

**I end with a story wbich I find in the Jews' Books. When Abm- 
ham SAt At hia trni-door, according to his custom, waiting to etitcrtaiti 
straogcrs, he espied an old man stooping and lenning on his ptaRe^ wearj 
with age and travelle, coming toward hinij who was an hundred years of 
age; ho reeeived him kindly, wasihed his feet, providt-d supper, caused 
him to ait down ; but observing that the old man eat and prayed not, 
nor bogged for a blessing on his meat, asked him why ho did not wop- 
ship tht! Gad of hcftvcn? The old man told him that he irorahippod the 
fire only, and acknowledged no other God ; at which answer Abrabam 
grew so zealously angry, that ho thrust the old man nut of hii^ tent, and 
exposed him to all the evils of the night and an unguarded condition. 
When the old man was gone, God called to him^ and asked him whore 
the stranger was ; he replied, ' I thru^it him away beeattfio he did not 
worship thee ;' God answered him, * I have suffered him the^e hundred 
years, although he dishonored me^ and couldst not thou endure him on© 
night, when he gave thee no trouble?^ Upon this, saith the .story, Abra« 
bom fctcht him back agaln^ and gave him hospitable entertainment and 
^ise instruction- Go thou and do likewise, and thy charity will be re- 
warded by the God of Abraham/* 

Bishop Taylor, having quoted " the Jews' Books " as the 
source of the Parable, searcli began to be made for it in every 
direction among Jewish writers, but without success. At 
length it was discovered.— In the Latin dedication to the 
Senate of Hamburg, of a Rabbinical work, entitled tlic " Rod 
nf Jnrlah ;'* the tranelator, George Genz, gives the story sub- 
stantially as found in Jeremy Taylor's '' Liberty of Prophe- 
sying.'* The work of Gtinz was published at Amsterdam, in 
1651. The Latin passage is quoted at length by Mr. Sparks 
and by Bishop Heber, in a note to his life of Jeremy Taylor, 




but it approaches so near the version contained in " the Liber- 
ty of Prophesying," that it is hardly worth while to extract 
it in this place. There are, however, some differences. For 
instance, in the Latin preface of Genz the answer is, " * I am a 
fire-worshipper, and ignorant of manners of this kind ; for our 
ancestors have taught me no such pious observance ; ' perceiv- 
ing with horror from his speech, that he had to do with a 
profane fire-worshipper, and a person alien to the worship of 
his Grod, Abraham drove him from his table and his abode, as 
one whose intercourse was contagious, and as a foe to his 

But though there were considerable differences of this 
kind in the versions, it was thought highly probable, not to 
say certain, from the substantial similarity of the parable in 
the preface of Genz to " the Rod of Judah," that Jeremy Tay- 
lor derived it from that source ; and as it was the preface by 
a Jew to a Rabbinical work, it was not inaccurately, though 
rather vaguely, credited by him to " (he Jews* Books" The 
inquiry of course immediately arose as to the authority on 
which it was given by Genz. He himself cites simply " nobi- 
lissimus autor Sadus," " a most noble author Sadus." Who 
was Sadus 1 

Conjecture was not long at feult on this point. It was 
soon discovered in India, that this remarkable composition, 
which seemed like a shadow to fly as it was approached, was 
substantially contained, not in any " Jews' Books," (as Jeremy 
Taylor supposed, for the reasons just stated,) but in the Bos- 
ton or " Flower Garden " of the celebrated Persian poet 
Saadi, unquestionably the individual referred to by Genz 
under the Latinized name of Sadus. An English translation 
of the Parable from this ancient Persian poem was published 
in the Asiatic Miscellany at Calcutta in 1789, and is quoted 
from that work in the note of Bishop Heber to the life of 
Jeremy Taylor, above alluded to. It is somewhat more dif- 




l%fr immli^Um idOmm, MH hoc mmtMSiy < 

fhi^ ||i0M9llwff«|^o#tMiiiad#l»ffti^ Parsbli!, origiiMQj 

(tjirtl It MififKit^ In Nftf « Ixiiiii bom al Bhinue A(>oui the jresr 
mf ofir (^tr<l tllM, In thi> nd|ipi nC Kielmrd Cceiir de L'ioil 
If i Al llii|(ilail, iiriflitr tin Minit<Hl teadiers of 

ti> bill mn»tt c^inltriMM^) ft i iifi*, und made, it is 

ifll4| |lHiri<t<ti» |ill^rlif»a^« to M««m, mul nlwoyji on f<jot He 
U pii|Kirt«M| (it lm>'<3 ^inifUH) thi:) atte nf a htmclred and two 
ypHpa. Kiiiiifi iwvHHUita Huy a hiiinlri'd ami twciity ; and that, 
allicf f«a<^ilii|f ili<i Alto t*( Iwflv4% he dilViitiHj thirty yoors to 
tM « ^' iriy in irnvol, atiil thirty t«i n^in^moiit aJid niligious 
i iinii«. UU lll<«riiry taAti« luid mligtous occupations 

i4M UMi, ill iiit.l.llo 11(V^ pf%9«tg| kliti ftom diidiftrgtiig tkc duty 
i«r all gmid XluuulmMM, lo (lute i||iiittt th^ lofidds. He 
^Lfvt^ htith III ImllA atid iu A«i» Mtttor; and in tha Litter 
tHmuiry wa» inadt^ h\ tlw Otsiftdonu Ho was om- 

|»hiy«KJ| by ilii^u >^ T [i fk o ft g f Itt tkroniiig up the 

|itiiii«ilMii \*^ms lVi|«i4i km l^TbL lUm be w«s runoaiied for 
%m fhrnm fif fuld b^ A fkh liibabitiiit of Akffo; wbo ^«o 
fi?« Um bla «lii|(bli(ir is mrrfaifib vliidl» 1niw<«i^, is no* 

lU vki^ iM!«}iiirdl n p^Mil mil ait » |ki«I^ lrmTfil«r, md < 
Itiii^bd bwiUi m hmmUk llie mijgjbhgAaei^f J 

lrt»i^ wia u » i i>fy t»» Wb i f ; on> li» | 
fo««w I W w«ii taiinl la ikt f»^A «!* bt 
Kwi^ la aim HiMI M ^b«i inf oM oT lh» 

Ufa ^ rh>mr ^^mOmk^ 4w «p€ tb» 


allusion to an incident in his life, which may by possibility 
throw a ray of light on the remoter history of the Parable. 
Saadi states in the Gulisian, that while he was a prisoner to 
the Crusaders, he was set to work, " with some Jews," on the 
trenches before Tripoli. This was a period of high culture 
among the Jews of Western Asia ; and there is no reason to 
doubt, that, among the prisoners of that race that fell into the 
hands of the Christians, some of them may have been, like 
Saadi himself, men of refinement and learning. Saadi gives 
the Parable as something that " he had heard once ; " and 
nothing seems to me more probable than that a learned Jew, 
being a fellow-prisoner with a learned Persian, should have 
related to him this striking parable, of which the personages 
were the great Jewbh patriarch, and a devotee of the old Per- 
sian fire-worship. 

On this supposition, it would still remain probable, that 
the Parable yet lies concealed in some of the ancient " Jews' 
Books," and may have even been found there by Jeremy 
Taylor. There is no apparent reason why, if he took it from 
Genz, he did not name him. A learned Jewish scholar, men- 
tioned by Bishop Heber, was strongly persuaded, that he had 
somewhere seen it, in a commentary on Genesis xviii. 1, — 
which has, however, never been found. Whatever be its 
source, there are few uninspired teachings, Jewish or Christian, 
equally impressive. It is an undoubted chapter of that great 
primitive gospel, which the Creator has written on the hearts 
and minds of men, but which, like the page of revelation, is 
too apt to be forgotten under the influence of partisan and 
sectarian passion. 

But to return to Franklin's connection with the Parable. 
As soon as it was discovered that it was found substantially 
in Jeremy Taylor, Dr. Franklin, then living in England, was 
accused of plagiarism in the Repository^ a journal in which 
the discovery was announced. From this charge a friendly 
writer, probably Mr. Vaughan, evidently well acquainted with 

i>? -niK Hoi:s't VKis:.*ox papees. 

Ih. Ii;»f»klffi'»» i;i«N.'< .-ifi.J h:iKit\ t\i-fi:nt\t:d him, on the ground Uf Ui\'\ fi'v* r f lain.*'! if. ;i'» his owr» ; that it w;is published 
lAiMi*. ii l.i?» kriTAl'ii;."- h_v F-,ord Karii'-s ; that Dr. Franklin 
ha't li'iii >ffiiik aiiil [ihaH«'l with it. as ho h*^ard it or found 
jr. iii.'l, li.iMfi^' I kfiartd'd aipl iiji|fr<«v<d it, had it printed for 

Jill' .ifi- lll>t|lfrllttf)ll. 

•"Iliia fitful It. ail," i-ajH tlii^ urit/^r, ** who At the «amc time that he 
«a« iliciffiiia III <Ii>-<Mitii(iftiiii^' all ftiiiiiilili; fe/*ntiincn!, was an extreme 
if,«i'i of |.t<-.i:>.iitir>, uliiti i'iiili-u\oriril to put off the Parable in question 
ii],i».. \.,.- Hi ^^uilluiaurt•, b.i n |rfiriiiiii of SrHiituro, an*! probably thought 
ihi.o f.iii- 1,1 I ill- iiii.rL Mirri p>;Iii1 iiioilrM fif circulatinf; itA mnrjl. This ob- 
ji.i Mi.iil.l iiiijuilv liaii- bfi-ii (Icfi-atr'd, had he prefixed to the 
fifhiii il .fi|.ii-a i.f ihr P,ii;ih!i-, whii:h ho wnji fond of diflper«in^. an inti- 
iiiftiioii ol Ha niiilKit. Ill* ihi-rr'fon' pa\t' no iinine whatcTer to it. much 
Il » lii« ■••III Ami nl'ii-ii an 1 h:\\f licaid of hi** amusing himself on this 
iiiiAf.fu,, 1 iiiMii iiiiiUl learn that hf UM-ri)»c-d to himself the merit of 

llii- iiii I iiliuit 

1)1 il li u« r tn Mr. Vmiil'Iijiii, Dr. Franklin t<'lls him that 
hr Ji.i<l a i->>p> of it IimuhiI ii]i ill u ]*ii>le, und oAen road it 

I) ilii- \-«luiiir to hi;^ \ j sill irs. Mill M'timrs to the pi^rpl exit v 

i>l III \«li>i Jiiaid it, ami hail im n-inrnihraneo of having 

in.|iiM-,l ii III I 111 11 iiviii rradiii:^ «»f the Sfriptures. Tliis tn-at- 
1114 111 ft till- sinii-ii \nluim' riiiiniit 1k* entirolv appr«»vc'd, 
ilnniL'ii iioiliMij; irriM-ri-iii \^ a> iiiti-iulisl in iu l»y Dr. Franklin. 
'i'lii- l.iM ii'iir, u> Iwr a> %\i* are awan*. limt liie Paral'ii- Las 
iiliijii-iiHl piiMii- ni'lu'i' 111 Ijiiiland, wa** \\liru il ■\v:i> rjU-iU"! 
!■> >»\iliu'\ Niiiiiii. Ill a srniHui pn-aohi'il iMh-ri.' \\iv yiiiyoT 
jin.l K I'l p.ii-.'il..-ii »»r 1>M>1.»1, I'll t!ie ^ili iif Ni'VoinlK-r. 1>"2^. 
' 1 i"|.i ilii- i ■.•![». -rat. •»«!:/' s;i \ s he. in a ietter to a frien-l, "at 
i»i.- II!. I t*\' \:'.\ sfii'i.i'. !!i;i: iH'aJit.t'iil lJai>l»:nic:il st«'ry q:M:;.-d 
liv Jt'i-i:n\ Tax i^»j\ 'as* A!»!":ilmiii was sittin:: ai ;!ie t! -.r --f 
lii^ Uri,' vVk'., w liii-K, l»\-tho-h\, w.'uM rnakv a ».h .rr./.iuj rinl 
i:***-.:;! !":arard a;::aiiist llio liicrnttsl." 

I ,:i::'S'i U'trer v-i^v!*.' this our'k'us history than Vy suliji-in- 
■' - i(w Tai-Hble ontinx as <\>mniank«tcd by Dr. Franklin if. 
^i: . \ .^'uhaii ; and tkK> r»JcT will no doabt octncur with Mr. 


Sparks in the remark, that " whoever will compare it as here 
given, with the sources whence it was derived, will sec tliat 
its chief point and beauty consists in the dress and additions 
which it received from Dr. Franklin's hand." 

Parable against Persecution. 

1. And it came to pass aflcr these things, that Abraham 
sat in the door of his tent, about the going down of the sun. 

2. And behold, a man bowed with age, came from the 
way of the wilderness, leaning on a staff. 

3. And Abraham arose and met him, and said unto him, 
" Turn in, I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night, 
and thou shalt arise early on the morrow, and go on thy 

4. But the man said, " Nay, for T will abide under this 

5. And Abraham pressed him greatly ; so ho turned and 
they went into the tent, and Abraham baked unleavened 
bread, and they did eat. 

6. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed not 
God, he said unto him, " Wherefore dost thou not worship 
the most high God, Creator of heaven and earth 1 " 

7. And the man answered and said, " I do not worship 
the God thou spcakest of, neither do I call upon his name ; 
for I have made to myself a God, which abideth always in 
mine house, and provideth me with all things." 

8. And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, and 
he arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth with blows 
into the wilderness. 

9. And at midnight God called unto Abraham, saying, 
" Abraham, where is the stranger ? " 

10. And Abraham answered and said, " Lord, he would 
not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name; 
therefore have I driven him out from before my face into the 


11. And God said, "Have I borne with him these hun- 
dred ninety and eight years, and nourished him, and clothed 
him, notwithstanding his rebellion against me ; and couldst 
not thou, that art thyself a sinner, bear with him one night ]" 

12. And Abraham said, ^ Let not the anger of the Lord 
vrax hot against his servant ; lo, I have sinned ; lo, I have 
sinned ; forgive me, I pray thee." 

13. And Abraham arose, and went forth into the wilder- 
ness, and sought diligently for the man, and found him and 
returned with him to the tent ; and when he had entreated 
him kindly, he sent him away on the morrow with gifts. 

14. And God spake again unto Abraham, saying, *' For 
this, thy sin, shall thy seed be afflicted four hundred years in 
a strange land ; 

15. "But for thy repentance will I deliver them; and 
they shall come forth with power, and with gladness of heart, 
and with mudh substance." 



A portion of Goncral "Washington's Diary the property of Mr. J. Carson Brcvoorl— 
Recently printed for private circulation — Illness of Washington in the summer 
of 1789— Tour in the East partly to recruit his health— A considerable portion of 
the Diary relates to this tour— Washington consults his friends as to the expedien- 
cy of the tour— Their opinion— Anecdote of Henry IV. of France, and his ministers 
YiUeroi, Sully, and Jcannin — Robertson's miniature of Gen. Washington forms the 
vignette to this edition of the Diary— Account of Robertson — And his likenesses of 
General and Mra. Washington— Ck>lonel Trumbull's opinion — Photographic copies 
—Pine's portrait of Washington in Mr. Brevoort's possession— Gen. Washington's 
letter about it— An original letter of the Duke of Wellington in reply to a request 
to sit for his portrait to Mr. Inman. 

It was known to the friends of the late Henry Brevoort, 
Esq., of New York, during his lifetime, that, among many 
other treasures of history, literature, and art, he was in pos- 
session of a portion of the original Diary of Washington. It 
was shown by him to persons not likely to make an improper 
use of it, but obvious considerations dictated the delay of its 
publication while many of those named in it were still living. 
The reasons for withholding it from the public eye have of 
course been steadily losing their force with the lapse of time. 
Mr. J. Carson Brevoort, the present possessor of the precious 
relic, has been able to allow its perusal with less reserve, and 
has occasionally permitted it to be transcribed for persons 
engaged in historical researches. Four years ago, while the 
guest of Mr. Bancroft at Newport, I enjoyed the privilqje of 



reading a copy of it, which he had had tho opportunity of 
adding to his invaluiiblo collection of original documents per- 
taining to Amcriciin history, and ho was kind enough to allow 
it to ho copied for me, with a minute accuracy, ext^^nding to 
the nicest details of orthography and punctuation* Within a 
few months, !Mr. Carson Brcvoort has permitted an edition 
of one hundred copies of it to be printed for private circuia* 
tion. As soon as this fact waa announccfl, I felt at liberty to 
furnish to the editor of the ** Portsmouth (N, IL) Joumi^ " 
at his request, the portion oC the Diary narrating General 
Washington's visit to Portsmouth, whieh I hrnl read by way 
of introduction to my Address on its repetition at tliat place. 
This I presume was the first occa,sion on which any consid- 
erable portion of this Diary was eoramitted to the Press, 
No reason for limiting the number of copies of this most in- 
teresting document seems now to exist, and I venture to 
recommend to the accomplished owner of the manuscript, to 
allow an edition of it to be published for general circulation. 
Tlie present publication, as may be inferred by the initials 
appended to the introductory remarks, B. J. L., lias bcon 
made untler the supt^rvision c^f a gentlemaUj to whose labcrt's 
and resenrehes, in illustrating the localities and personalities 
of the Revokition, the student of our history is deeply in- 
debted. He has in this edition of the Diary given a few 
valuable explanatory and illustrative remarks. 

This part of Washington's Diary is one of a considerable 
series, of which some portions are in the Department of State 
at tho scat of government, and other portions are believed to 
be in private hands, " It is in a small oblong volume,'* not 
bound in stiiT covers, but sewed in old-fas! lioned marljle paper, 
*' about four inches in width and six in length, containing 
sixty-six leaves," ivritten throughout in the well know n fn*m 
and legible hand of W^ashington, with very few erasures, and 
an occasional blank left to be filled up on subsequent inquiry. 
It was evidently of a size intended to be carried in tho coat 



at the time, and 

rder to 

pocket, both for convenience 

avoid exposing larger portions of the Diary to ri^k of loss at 


The new government, as ia well known, went into opera- 
tion nominally on the 4th of March^ 1789, jnst sevL-nty yejirs 
ago the present year,— hut not in reality for some weeks later. 
Such distrust pervaded the country of the reality of the new 
order of things, tliat the members of the first Congress assem- 
bled too slowly to form a quorum of the two houses before 
the sixth of April. The oaths of office were administered to 
President Washington by Chaneellor LivingatOB, in tlie open 
balcony of what was called Federal Hall, in Wall street 
New York, on the SOth of that month. In the course of the 
summer^ the President was taken down by the most severe 
illness ho had ever known^ and his life for some days was 
thought to be in danger. He was confined to his bed for six 
weeks, attended by Dr. Bard, a physician of the highest repu- 
tati^m both professional and personal, who was thought, 
under Providence, by Ms judicious and devoted attentions, to 
have saved the precious life confided to his care. General 
Washington never entirely recovered from the effects of this 

To recruit his health afler this severe illness, as well as 
for general purposes of observation, the President determined 
on a tour of observation in the Autumn of the year, and a 
considerable part of this portion of the Diary is devoted to 
the events of this journey, which commenced on Thursday tho 
15th of October, and terminated on Saturday the 13th of No- 
vember. Before finally making up his mind to the proposed 
tour, General Washington, according to his custom, took the 
advice of some of those in whoso judgment he confided on the 
expefliency of the step. The folloxving interasting extracts 
from the Diary will show the pains which he took in obtain- 
ing and recording the views of those whom ho consulted : 

" Monday Gth, [of October 1789.] Knd convorBation with CoL narai 



ilion on the propriely of milking & tonr through the Eastern States during 
llio re&ess of Cotigresa, la at'qulrc ft knowledge of the fiico of the Country ; 
the growtli und tgrieuliurc thereof — and the temper and disposition of 
the inhtthitarits to%vards the new govenimorit, who thought it a very dc- 
fiirablf plan and advised it accordingly/* 

** Tuesday 6th- Couversed with Gen. Knox, Secretary at ivar, on the 
above tour^ who also recommcudcd it accordingly," 

*' Wednesday Tth. Upon consulting Mr. Jay on the propriety of my 
intended tonr iu tlie Eastern States, be highly approved of it, but ob* 
aerved a similar visit w'd ho expected by those of the Southern." 

'* Thursday 8th, Mr. Madison took his leave to-day. He saw no im- 
propriety in my trip to ibe Eastward.^ 

The di(Terent replies of the distitig:uislied persons consulted 
by Washington, on tbis occasion, are somewhat char act eristic, 
ftnd remind one of the manner in which Henry IV. of 
France illnstrated, in the presence of a foreign Minister, the 
different dispositions of his three ministers Sully, Villeroi, and 
Jeannio. Col. Hamilton, ever prompt and decided, ** thought 
it a very desiralde plan and advised it accordingly/' With 
Gqii, Knux *' he converses on the above tour,'" and the veteran 
artillerist, satisfied that his chief inclines to the measure, 
simply '* recommends it accordingly.** Jay, the most cautious 
and prudent of men, *' highly approved of the intended tour ;'' 
but saw that in justice and policy, a similar visit svould be ex- 
pected in the other portion of the Union. Mr. Madison, 
slightly non-committal, neither advised nor dissuaded ; hut, 
** he saw no impropriety in the trip to the Eastward.'' Henry 
IV, pointed to the ceiling of the reception- room and cried 
with afTected alarm, " Boe that timber, it is about to fall." 
Villeroi, with instant compliance, replied, ** Sire, it must be 
replaced immediately/' Sully, secure in his royal master^s 
well-earned confidence, exclaims with the bluntness author- 
ized by it, *' Who could liavc given you this groundless alarm, 
Sire ; it will last longer than you or I ? *^ President Jcaimin, 
with judicial caution, says, ** I do not perceive, Sire, that 
there is anything the matter with it but if out^Iit to bo ex- 
amined by a builder.'' 



The very first page of the Diary shows the heavy drafts 
made upon the time of General Washington for the purpose 
of sitting for his portrait, 

** Saturday, the 3rd [of October^ 1789,] BAt for Mr. Eammago ncur 
two houiBlo^daj, who was drawing a miobture picture of me for Mrs. 

*^ Walked in the afternoon and sat about two o^clook for Madame de 
Brehan, to complete a Tnimnture profile of me wliitrh she bad begun 
from memorj, and which she had made exceedinglj Like the orJginaL'^ 

This lady was the sister of the Count de Moustier, the 

French ^flnister to the United States, and Avlt.h her son, ac- 
companied her brother to this country. They all visited 
Motint Vernon in 1788. After their return to France, her 
miniature profile was engraved^ and proof impressions of it 
sent by the Count to General Washington. The original of 
it appears also to ha%'e been intended by Madame de Brehan 
(or Brienne) for Mrs. Washington. 

An original likeness of Washington, from a miniature by 
Archibald Robertson painted in 1792, f^rms the mgnette to 
the present edition of the Diary. Kobertson came to this 
country in the Spring of 17[>1, at the instance of the Earl of 
Buchan, bringing with him, as a present to Washinf^ton from 
the Eiirl, a box made of the %vood of the oak tree which 
sheltered Wallace afler the battle of Falkirk. No impres- 
sion of this miniature by Hobert^son had ever been made, be^ 
fore it was engraved in wood for the present work. 

In a manuscript leil by Mr. Robertson (from which an 
extract has been kindly funiishcd to mo by ^fr, T. W. C. 
Moore) he says — 

**The first sittings for the original miniature of Getieral and Mrs. 
Washington were in Philndt?Ipliia townrd the end of December 1791 
and finbhed tn January 1702. In the Buccceding month of April, the 
portrait (in oil) of Washington for Lord Buchan waa dispotched by Col. 
Lear, then on a niiaion to Europe. Hb Lordship afterwarda expressed 
his high eatiifaction in a letter of Lhanka to the artist. The original 
mlmaturea bo (tbe artist) retains in \\\s own possesaiou, and intenda them 




to remain in bla fkniilj an heir-loom and memorial of his reneratlon for 
the great and successful champion of American Libert^*" 

It is evident on an inspection of this likeness of Washinfr- 
ton, that it was painted before he had begun to wear artificial 
teeth. The eye, also, I am told^ is of a lighter blue than the 
eye in Stuart's portrait. Mr. William Dunlap in an article 
in the Atlantic Magazine of 1 8*24, says — 

"If we wish to heboid Wafihington^ when he began to wane in his 
latter years, when ho had lost his teeth, but with (n\l vivacity and vigor 
of eye, looking at the spectator, we must behold Robcrtaon^s portrait of 

TbeBo interesting miniatures of General and if rs. Washing- 
ton are now in the possession of the granddaughter of the 
artist, Miss A, Robertson of New York, wJio two or three 
years ago kindly permitted a few photographic copies of them 
to be t4iken, for a pair of wliich 1 am indebted to the courtesy 
of Mr. Moore* Being motmted as a brooch, the miniature 
of the General are somewhat laded by exposure to solar 
light, and it is not impoesible that the lighter blue of the eye 
may be accounted for in that way. It is scarcely possible 
tlmt a colorist like Stuart, at the meridian of his power should 
have failtnl in that respect. 

In the manuscript above referred to, Mr, Robertson gives 
mi intoroAtinf? aceoinit of the nervous agitation he experienced, 
on ftppr*>aehing (Jcin'ral Washington, It is one among the 
numborlcMs facts ^h^^wiiig the awe which was felt in his pres- 
oziOQ. After upeaklng of his agitation and tlie kind attempts of 
Washington to nverconie it^ ho proceeds: 

*' The General, not finding hia eflfbrlji nltogeth^r »iicce»sriil, introduced 
me to Mm. Wwliington, who»« ottny, pcU»ihcd, and fnmiliar gaiety and 
CAftieloia ehrerfnhir** Rhnoit aoootitpliihod a cure. Another eflfort of 
th« PmaidiMii to I'ompowo hlM guo#i wiia at a family dlnner-paKj, at whieh 
the Clenem), eonrrnry lo hiii u^unl hnbitt, jngioiiid moat of tilt cottrcr- 
•alloti, and ao d«HgUtud the oompany with hiUBOiOVft iaite<loti% that he 
coittpluteljr Ml t!tm tabid In a roar." 



It was ray intention, in tha cotrimcncempnt; of this article, 
to extract some of the more int<?resting portions of the Dian% 
birt there remains too little spac« for that purpose, and its ful- 
filment must be deferred. It may not be inappropriate to this 
description of Kobertson^s miniature, which serves as a viijncUe 
to the remarks introductory to tlie Diary^ to observe that Mr. 
Carson Brevoort is also the possessor of the original portrait of 
Wasliingtoii by Pine. This painting which, if I am not mista* 
ken, has never been copied nor engraved, is one of extreme 
value. I hope at some future tinje, with the permission of the 
liberal proprietor to have it in my powtr to fjfTer the readers 
of the Ledger an accurate description of it. It is the portrait 
with reference to which Washing^ton gives the famous good Ma- 
tured but somewhat plaintive account of the heavy drafU upon 
his timcj required to satisfy the demands fur hta likeness. 
It is in the following words :■ — 

President Washington io Francis Hophinson^ Esq. 

Motrirr YuNoir, Itf Jfay, 17BS, 
DitAR StR — In /<»• a pennif in fot a pounds i& an old adage. I am no 
Imckaeyed to the touchea of the painter's pencil, that I noi altogether at 
their bcek ; and 8it» **• like Patience on a Monument," whllat they are 
delineating the linea of my face* It h a proof among many others^ of 
what habit and custom can MCCoropliBh. At first I was as Impalient at 
the request, and as restive under the operation, as a colt is under the 
aaddle. The next time I submitted very reluctantly, but with lens flounc- 
ing. Now, DO dray-horse moves more readily lo his thilj^ than I to the 
paiDter's chair. It may easily be conceived, therefore, that I yielded 
a ready ohedienco to your request and to the views of Mr. Pine. 

Letters from England recommendatory of this gentleman came to my 
hands previous to his arrival ; not only as an artist of geniuj and taste, 
but as one who had shown a very friendly diepoeitlon towards this coun* 
try, for which it seems he had been marked. 

It g&ve me pteasure to hear from you. I shall always feel an interest 
in your happiness, and with Mrs. Washington's compliments and best 
wifihcji joined to my own for Mrs. Uopkinson and jotirself^ I mm, ke. 

I venture to subjoin* by way of comparison, an original 
letter of the Duke of Wellington on a similar subject, in 


mplj to an application whidi I made to him in behalf of our 
eonntrymany Mr. Inman. I am glad to be able to add, that 
a ahort time after the following letter was written, the Duke 
extended a courteous invitation to Mr. Innuin to visit him at 
Brathfieldsaye, of which, however, ho was unable to avail 

Ths Duk$ fjf WAlington io Mr. Everett. 

Lo]n>ox,9S A5^1845. 

Mr DiAa Sia— I hsre to apologixe for haTing omitted to retum an 
aniwer Imnedlataly to yoor note of the 18th, received two days ago. 

I am mneh flattered by the desire of Mr. Inman, that I abonld ait to 
bim for a pletare* Bat I am mnch concerned to add that, during the 
Boailon of ParUament and while the Goort is in town, it is impossible for 
«M to find time which I can devote to him. 

I am bankmpt in respect to portraits and busts. I am certain that 
there are not less than a doien artists in London, with comndssions to 
paint portraits, or model busts of mo. But I cannot find time to give to 
any one a sitting. I have not been able to giro a sitting for many years. 
I receive the artists at my houses in the country ; either Btrathfleldsaye 
or Walnier Castle; and give them sittings at their Msure. WOkie, 
Chaiitrry, Campbell, Mr. Lucas, Mr. Lister and others, the principal 
arilstii, have come down and passed their three or four days at my house, 
and I really can find no other time to give them. 

In the last autumn, H. M. the Queen desired me to sit for my portrait 
for the King of the French, and I sat at Windsor Castle, instead of going 
out Ininthtg one day and shooting another with his Royal Highness Prince 

I do everything In my power to have time at my disposition ! I nev- 
er dine In company on the days on which the house of Parliament, of 
wlik^h I am a member, alts for the decision of business ! Nor go out in 
the evening. I rise early and go to bed late. 

Ilut still my whole time is occupied, and it is absolutely impossible 
for me in name an hour at which I could receive Mr. Inman, and sit to 
him for a |ileiure. 

Kver, my l>ear Kir, yours most foithfoUy, 

Ki»w4lii» KvaRXTT, Ks<4., Ko, At Qrosvcnor Plaoe. 



i'AHl II. 

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fiavei* — Duniui: piut^'i w *»*;» Ii»\t^Li — 1 uunl liuy t jui.:ii>-ji ; Jl-nf.!-.. 
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^J TSK SBXrST Viimo y PJ^CBSw 

^m Y 1 iT^- Hjrrlanii iz Sj-*. "vii:* kiipc * i lery ni»ar jmi 
Sua "Fuf tIw 'T':m3u»nc5?nii?i:': ^t ^sus jcm^iej. yrn^ianriaiV 

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vuciciiHrH* Ji TIM iitiiL W4 siei: jvnr ±n^v if B«ef Caaia 5ir che 
STtsw T-iric £ir*i<»c. 'iciixs ^\ Is. x >ip«v4 > fame if vhicxL vcr* v^rj iat — 
aiiM « in<tk if liuwp 3ir ±1! lune ^iace. W4 jcaresij jflflcti a iuBL annas 
Cbas 'tiii 3I1C 4h«L 31 G^vm.'' 

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bnc ndwr Imur >::^(L ST'i i-r^IUzur M*iBft a iem irttfamic x stone 4r x 
Bnsk •huanify and Eani^ mj vishans x ^iniaisd rmrf jmnjirfj cbs 
ailttf am >if fhuu;^ urn. * 

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thmaqH • ii^'tr ^ita^intr ^iw BriiiffR; Ease Cbeacov S^v Inrfipniff ami 
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I sm aoc r»c-ilar:7 Duii ins; tSter aea- KaRKfTfia b« ffiHtaurmAed ^n 
t inctfBMifiacit iunw^ 'whieh, ant vaj ^ioas caendKr— 4211I fepari&Mi. u 
t fnffliwim fimm. amsduv lai^ by iewaa <if fcane. ^riixch. m ixxfinttii iattilj 
, an the (smuuarj ia '.mtmnumij icannj. Cpna lat:riir7 t>> xni *»ieir 
anpH -if WTuMS ami Rje ia.7* '-jtinn iiiuaiiajic — wroniri it fee iiej 
had mwTL rariwr roor^^rr 'Q iccr, if "iiH ii*«rruit-i:a -vi:*::! ziui of -^'-^ 
jttTi h«a homIii if -iiac jnia ^7 T'ias ia uuLei -Jus ff^j^wan l^-"* 

Thi* rrr.»r-&4rfin g j.-,«i.-!u*7 th::.-* corrrr.r^nixd was dtjC djis Lrsc 
vfaiek Wat»iil23;zDja aa«i ii:j*i«c in ^iiiA dir<H:c^}G. The Lie oif 
■HA aad eke kiatcrj 'of saci>;rGd c-ntsKin fcw contrj^cs »:• strLk- 
■m; m. the ffjrtime of in'LTifimIs '.r •>€' '^f ■cini'iziiiL'^ u ch<u 
wiK& Burkfl the 9irv!fi««iTe ^irH.^!* oc Wjissiiii!:2:n«>a &> tbe Ea^^ 
CffB Scjtes. Oa the 20rji of FefcriAnr. 173^. he started firom 
New Torky with one or two brother offii!i£rk traveEUiig ♦jG 
, aid on dKsr wa j to Boatoc fie ww as tku tinK 



a provincial Colonel and had been despatched by his superior 
officer from his station on the frontiers of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, to go to Boston to tnke the decision of Governor Shirley 
M ho had just been appointed Commander in ehiefj on a ques- 
tion of precedence between the Crown troops and those called 
out by the province. The fame of his gallant conduct on the 
disastrous field of Braddock^a defeat went before him, and the 
public mind seemed already, by strange presentiment, to bo 
drawn toward the future hero of tlie Revolution. He proba- 
bly kept liis twenty fifth birthday that year at New TTuven, 
At the end of June 1775, Washington passed through New 
York in the same di recti on, not now a provincial Colonel in 
the British Service, and at tbe commencement of a war be- 
tweeu France and England and their respective colonies, l>nt 
as the Commander in chief of the armies of the Anglo-American 
Colonies, rushing to the field in the war of InJependeuee^ 
And now having, under a gracious Providence, and through 
trials of undeseriljcd severity, brought that war to an ans* 
picions close, be was commencing the same journey fur the 
third time, and after an interval of thirty three years since the 
first visit, as the unanimously elected Chief Magistrate of tho 
United States of America, 

The party started the second day from the widow Havi- 
land'a at Rye at seven oVdock in the morning, and breakfiisted 
at Stamford (whieli is six miles distant over a road ** hilly and 
immensely stoney and trying to Wheels and Carriages) at one 
Weblj's a tolerable good house, but not equal in appearance 
or reality to Mrs. IIaviland*s." They stopped at Norwalk, 
which is ten miles further to feed their horses, from whence 
to Fairfield where they dined imd lodged was twelve miles. 

** Tho supcrh Landscape " says the diar)\ ** which ia to be eeon from 
the meeting house of tho latter [FairficUl], h a neb regalia. We found 
aU tho farmers Imeilj employed iu gutberitig, griDdiug, nnd cxpreaaiug 
the juice of their apples ; the crop of which tbey say is rftther iboTe medi- 
ocrity. The arerage crop of wheat they add, la about 15 buahck to tho 


acnt, from their fallow kod — often 20 and from that to 25. Th€ Bestmc- 
liTc evidences of Britbh crucUy arc yet vMble both m Norwalk and 
Foirficld ; as there ore the chimneyi of man j burnt houses standing m 
them yet. The principal export from Norwalk and Fairfield is Horsea 
and Cattle — salted Beef and Pork — Lumber and Indian Corn, and in a 
flroall degree Wheat and Flour." 

On tho third day, October 17th, the party started a little 
after Bunrise irom Fairfield, and breakfasted at Stratford, ' 
** whieh is a pretty ^-illage on or near Stratford River,'* after a 
drive of too miles. At Stratford the President was received 
with whiit he good-naturedly calls "an effort of Military 
parade j and was attended to the Ferry, which is near a mile 
from tho centre of tho Town, by sevl. Gentlemen on liorse- 
baclc/' From the ferry they proceeded about three miles to 
Milford, where ** a handsome Cascade over the Tumbling 
dam" attracts the attention of the illnstrious traveller, " but 
(he adds) one of the prettiest thing of this kind is at Stam- 
f^jrd, occasioned also by damming the water for their mills ; it 
is near 100 yards in 'vvidth, and the water now being of a 
proper height, and the rays of the stin striking upon it as we 
passed, had a pretty effect upon the foaming water as it fi'll." 
The reader will not fail to observe, that is the third occasion 
on which Washington has already shown a taste for the beau- 
ties of natural scenery, in which it has been sometimes said 
ho was defieient. 

From Milford the party took the lower road through 
West Haven and arrived at New ITaven before two o'clock, 
thus having time to walk through several parts of the city 
before Dinner. By taking tho lower road they misst*d a 
Committee of the Assembly, who had been appointed to wait 
upon the President^ and escort him into town, to prepare an 
Address, and to conduct him when he should leave the city. 

»' Tlic address,'" ears the diary, *^ was presented at 7 oV-lock — and at 
nine I received another address from the Congregational Clergy of tlio 
place. Between the rcot. of tho two oddreaaea I rcceircd the compU* 



aiMi ef a tUU from tbo Gorr, Mr. Uo&tingtoti — the liettt. Oott. Mr. 

Wolcott — and the Mayor, Mr. Roger Sherman." 

"The Citj of New Haven occupiea a good deal of ground, but Id 
thinly, though regularly hiid out and buiU. The number of Eoub in it 
are SAid to be about 4000, There I* on Episcopal Church and 3 Con- 
g:regatioDal rnecling-Houscs and a CoUege, in vrhich there are at this 
time about 120 f tuderita under auspieea of Ductr. ^tyieft. The Harbour 
of this place ii not good for Iarg« Teseels — abt. 13 belong to it. The 
Linnen manufacture docs not appear to be of so much importance as 1 
had been led to believe. In a vord^ I could hear but Uttle of it* The 
Exports from Ibia city arc much the game as from Fairfield, 4c,, and 
flax-seed (chiefly to Kcw York,) The road from Kingsbndge to this 
place runs as near the Sound as the Baya and Inlets will allow, but from 
hence to Hartford it leases the Sound and runs near to the Korihward/* 

Sujiciay the 18th of October M*as passed by tfie Prcsiilent 
at New Haven, aiid according to his general praetico ho at- 
tended Church both parts of the day. In the morning '* at 
thf5 Episcopal Church," where he was '* attended by the Speak- 
er of the Assembly, Mr. Edwards, and a Mr. Infjersoll,'* 
and in the atlernoon at one of tho Congregational Meeting- 
Houses, (so the President discriminates the places of Wor- 
ship,) where he was attended " by the Governor, t!ic Lieut. 
Governor, the Mayor and the Speaker.*' 

** These Gentlemen (tontinues the diary) all dined with me, (by invi- 
tation,) as did GenL Huntington, at the house of Mr, Erowo, ^herc I 
lodged, and who kcepa a good Tavern. Drank Tea at the Mayor's (Mr. 

Sherman). Upon further inquiry, I fijid that tlierc has been abt. 

yards of coarse Linnon manufactured at this place since it waa eslab- 
Iklied — ^and that a Glass work is on foot iiere, for the manufacture of 
Boillcfi. At 7 oVlock in the evening many Officers of this Slate, belong- 
ing to the late Continental army, called to pay thoir respecl^s to me. By 
fome of tbcm it was said that the people of thb State could, with mom 
oue pay an additional 100jOOO£ tax thi,s Year tbau ii hat wan laid lai^t 

The travellers left New Haven a1x>ut six o'clock in the 
morning of the 19th, (pretty early rising, for the third week 
of October,) and reached Wallingford to breakfast, a distance 




of about tliirtccn miles, at half past eight. It was the anniver- 
sary of the surrender of Comwallis, eight years before, but 
the Diary is silent on that as on most other historical renii- 
nboenoM. At thb place the AVhite Mulberry, ** raided from 
the seed to feed the silk wonn,'^ attracts tho President's no- 

"We afso,** eontinuei the dUry^ "«aw Komplefl of lastrlng (exceeding 
gooci) wbicli had bi*ea nuLQufuctured from the Cocoon raiBed in this town, 
and Hilk thread rcry fii)c« Tbi«, except the weaving, is the work of 
privAtc familjc^ without interference with other busitiess, and is likely to 
turn out a beneficial iLmusemeDt. In the TowQAhip of Han!«field, they 
are further advanced in thi* buBine«s. Walliogford has a Church and 
two meeting-houdCfl In it, whicti Btond upon high and pleasant grd. 
About 10 o'clock we left this plac<^, and at the distance of 8 miles passed 
ibrough Durham, At one we arrircd at Middlctown on ConnecticQt 
lUrctf being met two or three miles from it by the rcapcctable citixens 
of tho pkcc and escorted in by them. While dinner was getting ready 
I took a walk round the Town, from the heights of which the prospect la 
boautiful. Belonging to tliid pkce, I was Informed (by a Genl Sage) that 
there were about 20 sea Teasels, and to Wealbersfield higher up, 22— 
and to Ilortford the like number — other places on the Rirer have their 
proportion — the whole amounting to about 10,000 tons,** 

" The Country hcreaboutii is beatitifid and the Lands good. • * * 
Having dined we set out with the same escort (who conducted us into 
town) about 3 oVlock for Hartford, and passing through a Tarish of 
Uiddlctown and Weathcrsfield, we arrived at Hartford, about Rundown^ 
At Wciithersficld we were met by a party of the Hartford light horge, 
and a number of Gentlemen from the same place with Col. Wadswortb at 
their be;idj and escorted to BuO's Tavern, where we lodged." 

On Tuesday tlie. 20th after breakfast, accompanied by CoL 
Wads worth, Mr, El Is worth aud CoL Jesse Root, the Presi- 
dent visited t!io woollen fiietory at Hartford, ** which seemt-d 
to bo going on with spirit.'' *'Thpir nrtiadcloths/' he re- 
marks, *^ are not of tho first quality as yet, but they are good ; 
as are their Coatiuge, Cassimeres, Serges, and Everlastings ; 
uf the first, that is, broadcloth, I ordered a suit tt» be seut to 
me at New York — and of the latter a whole picee lo make 
breeches for my servants. All the parts of this business 


are performed at the Manufactory except the spinning — this 
is done by the G)untry People, who are paid by the cut." 

The diary gives the usual account of the general appear- 
ance, population, and business of Hartford, and the number 
of the churches there and at Middlotown, bestowing that name, 
on this occasion, upon the places of congregational worship. 
He dined and drank tea at Col. Wadsworth's, and about 7 
o'clock "received from, and answered the address of, the 
Town of Hartford." 

On Wednesday the 21st the President started for Spring- 
field. He was to have breakfasted with " Mr. Ellsworth" 
(afterwards Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth) at Winsdor, but 
a heavy rain prevented his departure till half-past ten. He 
" called however on Mr. Ellsworth and stay'd there near an 
hour." He reached Springfield by four o'clock ; " and while 
dinner was getting examined the continental stores," which 
he " found in very good order at the buildings (on the hill 
above the town) which belonged to the United States." " The 
Elaboratory," continues the dairy, "which seems to be a 
good building, is in tolerable good repair, and the Powder 
Magazine, which is of brick, seems to be in excellent order 
and the powder in it very dry. A Col.° "Worthington, Col.° 
Williams, Adjutant General of the State of Massachusetts, 
Gen. Shepherd, Mr. Lyman, and many other Gentlemen sat 
an hour or two with me in the evening at Parson's Tavern 
where I lodged, and which is a good House." 

After an interesting sketch of the road from Hartford and 
Springfield, (the distance is stated to bo twenty-eight miles) 
the navigation of the river, and the character and produce of 
the land, the record of the 21st of October closes with the 
following summary description of Connecticut : 

" There is a great equality in the people of this State. Few or no 
opulent men — and no poor— great nmilitudo in their buildings — ^the 
general fashion of which is a cbimnej (always of Stone or Brick) and 
door in the middle, with a stair case fronting the latter, running up bj 


the tide of tho former — two flush stories with a very good show of sash 
and glass windows — the size generally is from 80 to 50 feet in length and 
from 20 to 80 in width, exclusive of a back shed, which seems to be 
added as the family increases. The farms, by the contiguity of the 
Houses, are small, not averaging more than 100 acres. These arc 
worked chiefly by Oxen (which have no other feed than hay), with a 
horse and sometimes two before them, both in Plow and Cart. In their 
light lands and in their sleighs they work Horses, but find them much 
more expensive than Oxen." 

On Thursday, the 22d, the President left Springfield at 
seven o'clock, and travelled fifteen miles till he "came to 
Palmer, at the House of one Scott," where he breakfasted. 
From Palmer to Brookficid " to one Hitchcock's'* was fifteen 
miles. " A beautiful fresh water pond and large " is " in the 
Plain of Brookfield;" "the fashion of the Houses" was 
" more diversified than in Connecticut, though many are built 
in their style." 

"At Brookfield*' (says the diary) "wo fed the Horses and dis- 
patched an Express which was sent to me by Govr. Hancock — giving 
notice of the measures he was about to pursue for my reception on the 
Koad and in Boston — with a request to lodge at his House. 

*^ Continued on to Spencer, 10 miles further, through pretty good 
roads, and lodged at the house of one Jcnks, who keeps a pretty good 

On Friday the 23d says the President, we " commenced 
our course with the sun and passing through Leicester met 
some Gentlemen of the Town of Worcester, on the line be- 
tween it and tho former to escort us. Arrived about 10 
o'clock at the House of where we breakfasted— dis- 
tance from Spencer 12 miles. Here we were received by a 
handsome company of Militia Artillery in Uniform, who 
saluted with 13 Guns on our Entry and departure." At 
Worcester, a Committee of the citizens of Boston and an Aid 
i»f Majur Genl. Brooks (afterwards Governor) of the Mid- 
dlesex Militia waited on tho President to make "arrange- 


ments of military and other parade " on his way U) and in 
the town of Boston. " Finding thin Orrernony waH not 1o h<? 
avoided though "he "had rna^Je ev<rry cflTort to do it," th*j 
President name^l the hour of ten to review th*? Midd]«-H<x 
Militia at Cambridge and twelve for enterin^^ lUmUiU, He 
sent word at the same time to General linMfkH, that t'/,iicj'\v 
ing there was an imprr^priety in his reviewing the Militia or 
seeing them pfrrfonn manoeuvers, otherwise; than a«i a privat/? 
man, be co'ild do no more t^ian [;aHs along the line, i^hi^^h 
might be under arms to rcc^:ive him. 

After breakfiist the Prr;sident lefl Wor^^^^ter under ^-v 
cort asvl at the line Vietween the Countir^s waA met by a irtrf,y 
of Mid.ilesex Light Ilors-'j who ese/irte/J him to ^farU/'/roujrh 
where he dined and to West/^n uhere he IrxIfrerJ. Here h<t 
was met by Jonathan Jaek.v^n, Eiqr, the I'nite^] Hfat/:% 
Marshall £>r Massachusetts, who proposed U> attend the Vrtj<^ 
ident whll^ be ^>old be in the State. On Saturday the 24th 
Oetowrr. the President htanXtfl from We»t/>n at 8 oV;!o<;k arid 
feftcbed Cambridge at the appointed boor of ten. ^ M^^ of 
Ae MOhift Livlr.g a dL^tance to come were n'>t in line till 
after eUv^f^n : tbry m^e however an exeellent appearanr^e 
with Gee!, Br^iok.-* at their hea*!"" 

n»ir* rji-^ L'ru*erant Governor. Samnel Adarr.s, wirh fhe 
EDW^iv* '•f the State, met the Presider.* ar.d, wvs the di^rv, 
"prweded ny ^intranee town — whieh wa« in every d<^ 
gPK fiBt2rrlr«r acd honorable." 

Bat we mTist leare the Kary for the presient, propo^njf in 
aiodi^ ?*?^^ ^^ ^'^^ *^ aceoant of thia celebrated entraneij 
rf W»ttin2irjn B^-.srca, whicb at the time waa a matter 
o^ no l:trI-» nnhLi* ir.tenrst and comnenu, and on whieh rhe 
IKarr tiirowf aev iisht. 



TIm DownCill of Nspoleon tbe Flrtt— His escape from Elbft In 1S15— His seeoDd Ikll 
•Dd Kttxement of his fuoSlj Ml Borne— Louis NapoleoB » boy at bis Iktber^ table 
'After A lapse of tventj-ooe years on trial for bis life at Paris— His appearance 
aad demeanor— His imprisonment at Ham— The revelation of Febmary 1S4S and 
dfowafrll of Lonls Philippe— Be-appeannee of iMiis Napoleon as depnty, PxisM, 
Preddent, and Emperor — General character of his administration — Unscmpolons 
Tfe4enoe of tbe party press under Lonis Philippe — His f^oremment OTertomed by 
leaden who aspired only to sapplant bis mlidtteia— tbe Pren of tbe United 

I REMARKED in thc last number, that " the life of man and 
the history of nations present few contrasts so striking, in the 
fortune of individuals or of communities, as that >%'hich marks 
the successive visits of Washington to the Eastern States." 
As far as the fortune of individuals is concerned, the name, 
which stands at the head of this article, exhibits a contrast of 
conditions, at different periods of life, quite equal to that 
which is presented in the career of Washington. The year 
1S14 was a most momentous year in the history of modem 
Europe. Tlie great drama of the French Revolution seemed 
to have found its catastrophe. Dethroned kings recovered 
their sceptres ; needy emigrants returned to the possession of 
their titles and the hope of one day regaining their estates ; 
and what seemed to stamp with permanence the great political 
and social restoration, the mighty hero of this world-drama, 
crushed by the armies of combined Europe, had been banished 
to a petty islet on the coast of Tuscany. Peace was concluded 





letween the iruited States and Great Britain at the close of 
the year, and the temple of Janus was shut. 

Such was the state of things when, on the 12th of April 
1815, I sailed for Europe in a ship of three hundred and fifty 
tons, which at that time was tljouglit a hir^ie vessel. It was 
tlie second which sailed fruni Boston tor England after the 
peace, a fact sufficiently indicative of the profound torpor into 
isrhich the foreign commerce of the country had sunk during 
the war. Intelligence did not rc4K-h lis from Europe every 
three days, as it does now. It was six or seven weeks, if I 
recollect light, after the signature of the treaty of Ghent on 
Christmas Eve, 1814, before the welcome news reached this 
country. Between tliat event and our arrival in Europe a 
new and most astonishing revolution had taken place. It 
^ns announced to ns hy the pilot, who climbed over the bul- 
warks of our little vessel off Holyhead, in the rather homely 
statement that *^ Boney had broke loose again/* The suspi- 
cion, with which we were inelined to receive this news, was 
Boon removed by the sight of the Liverpool papers, which 
contained the certain intelligence that the continent of Europe 
^*as again a-blaze with war. 

No one of course could foretell the result for Napoleon or 
for Europe, Lord Byrou» in a conversation which I had with 
him a few days before the battle of Waterloo, alluding to the 
conflict which was evidently impending, expressed the opinion 
that Napoleon would drive the Duke of Wellington. This he 
8aid he should be sorry for, as he did not wish his countrymen 
to be Ijcaten, adding, however, with bitter ompliasis, that ho 
vould tell me what he did wish to see, — " Lord Castlereagh's 
head carried on a pike beneath his windows/' But in a few 
days the great Message of Waterloo (first Ijrotiglit by a clerk 
of Rothschild, in advance of the Duke of Wellington's courier) 
arrived from Belgium, and in a few weeks the curtain again 
feu on the mighty drama, (and this time never more to rise 
lor th^ principal actor.) at St Helena. 




New rdtoraHoDt of Aigitlve kings, new return of emigrflnt 
uobJes, new arJjiiatmentJi of the political relations of £uropo» 
and in the final result, the kindred of the fallen hero, consi^ied 
to private life at Rome, — Here it was my good fortune, in the 
winter of 1817-1818, to become aequainted with the venerable 
mother of an emperor, three kings^ and one queen ; and with 
those of her children who were living at Rome, viz. : the Ex- 
King Louis, (the father of the pre^sent Emperor of the French ;) 
Lucian, who at an early period of his career lost the favor of 
his imperial brother ; and the princess Borghese, still on© of 
the most beautiful women of her day, and as amiable as she 
was beautiful. 

in the course of the winter I saw for the jirst time, at 
dinner at his father^s table^ the present emperor of the 
French, than a boy of eleven years of age. The party was 
small, and being very near the ex-King, when we were iuvited 
to seat ourselves unceremoniously, 1 was about to place my- 
self in the chair next him, and as it happened on his right 
hand. With a good-humored smile^ as if not wholly in ear- 
nest, he requested me to let his son sit there and to acxept a 
seat myself on his left hand. — It probably did not enter even 
into his fond imagination^ that the lad, for whom he claimed 
this littjc remnant of roysd deference, would one day sit upon 
the throne of his Uncle. 1 have no distinct reooUections of 
kim in this first phase of his life^ but as a handsome, well- 
behaved youth, with an expression somewhat beyond his 
years;, of mature manners, and as taking little part in the eon- 
▼ersation of the dinner table. 

Twtsnty one years pass, and bemg on a second visit to 
Europe In the Summer of 1840, I was present in the gulleiy 
t>f the himm of Peers in Paris, when the handsome, well-bc^ 
haved, ()ulet bi>y, with whom 1 had dined at his father's t^ble 
in 1819, now grown up to a resolote, aspiring, fearless young 
man, thirty two yeixn of a|^ was on trial for his life, afWr 
the mieoarriagD of the alGiir at Boulogne. Four years (t 

TII£ MOr.NT VKitN(/M i'Ari.iC.s. 


think) before, a similur utU-mpt ul (>ii>ii^iin>* iiail m-jii liuw 
into exile in the L iiiU'd SUiti'8 au<I liwyjuiui, s^lnn- lii Iim.I 
vithout attracting public* iioiUm', tlif^up^lj ili;«vJjili.*».s rli.ii.liinj 
the visicms. vhich were <»m.» dav to IjuiM ifii*) Muiihny jnl 
iticR for himself and J:iurti|M'. N«AliiMj,r l»;id im4uii,.| m tii. 
twenty one years to calJ my aHi'iiiinii i«i litm , .liui .\li4ii I 
saw him nu trial fnr his iili- lu'liiir the ^m-in nf J fii/i< i . 1 
could not. ill tlu.' extreine jx'iil in wliifli In- hIih><I, Ijui i-.i>I 
lect witii emntioii und<T what di(]i'rt'iii. fiiruiithiaiiii:^ \ .'a.M 
first Keei< nili:. ills di.>iii(;aiior iii'loic inn |tid;i4-^ Man tiim. 
Compost'G. aii'i r«.'spe'.-trul. 'J'hi; J'V«.'n«:|j «Tmiiiiiil jiin.-ijiiu. 
dene*' suriiv'.-;- in. j»ri.v.uicr in a .s<*\ir»- iijli-iio^atoi \ , f'*j a 
purp«»>= v;i'.'!:v ifinmU'-ii hy our law. Ilml. <»[ makih;.' liiu . i\ 

guilt ^. '•: 
mai: aii*<' 
and tit- :: 

afft*.. — 

will- i-r 

U> : If— 


Hv :• ,.■ 

. lliriiMrll. A^ lu? ix> 1 * *}itt*\ \if'.*ii 1.i|i \'jiii.;.' 

:l; iraniviiOftv tii» *\w.>U*}ir |»io|;'/iiiirl« m t'* inn 
•y. !..*i<j* ir- hjfi: 'ii! inr |ii«J;_'f.-. * .-i "ajji, ■. tii«- 

a' Tij- *, :!iiJ fc>«-»rlJi»'*.; lasn aifuor '' lin ji'#.ii" 
■• '.';•. •r:>:li;: \* jr.j. liji i"-.-lvji,v <;* J]-.:ia'.'- .. 1' . 

rj-. Tiirj. jivin;: It, III* ii'^u.->' o: .\j!i j. .• 

••■*-•■ Hi- "f':'..-il "•■ J. I- li.a" .■' ..« . ,'/"' 

~ . ■ : .- r-. ^1- J- '. ;.' ; ... ■■ . 




tern of his Unele, anil isstcftped from the fortress, a more daii^ 
gerous enemy to t|jo vreigning dynasty than hci went in. In 
cijjht ycnrs fron{*his sentence in 1840, the g^ovornniont of 
Louis Philippo'nvas overtnnirii, as g^od a ane, prnUnbly, asf>| 
Franco c«;ild t)ear, thoucrh fur too bureaucratic for a lihcral 
governmentl; too mtld for a despotism* It prnmotod the 
matorj!il«|n*o8perity ^'f Franco, hut it was neither feared nor 
lovtt^l.-/ After the sad death of the Dnke of Orleans, it liad bo 
l^JL upon the army — the sole eflicient prop of a French 
llJiVone. The old nobility affected to despise it though they 
nccepted its favors, — the legitiniists hated it,— the reptibliean 
fiietions swore its downfall ; — and the mass rif the people, 
who were never more prosperous than under Louis Philippe, 
with the fatal apathy of conservative parties^ allowed it to sink. 
— it is not ccrt4iiri that anything could have upheld it much 
longer, for as was wittily said by one of Lonis Philippe's 
eabinet, who escaped with him to London, ** there are two 
kinds of government which the French cannot be4ir — one 
is Ucpubliamism, — the other Monarchy/' The oatjistrophe, 
hou'cvcr, was dimly foreseen, for it was said by the same ex- 
minister, ** Wc knew we were living on the crust of a "volcano, 
but we did not think it was so thin.*' 

But the volciino burst forth in February, 1848; Louii^ 
Philippe is driven into exilo aa Charles X, had been before 
him, the streets of Paris are piled with barricades and drench- 
ed with blood, the Tutleries are sacked, N evilly is ravaged, 
and '"the impossible republic" is inaugurated. Louis Na- 
poleon, enrolled as a special constable with two hundred 
tlkuisand other citisjens of Lrtindon, at the time of the great 
chartist demonstration in April, is elected a member of the 
ephemenil ciiamber ; his choice as Prince President soon fol- 
lows; on tlie 2d of December, 1852, the quiet lad of 1810, 
by a coup d* etaiy whose unexampled boldness is excelled only 
by its success, takes p^Jssessioll of the throne of France ; and 
it devolved upon me, in an otTicial capacity, to send to ^Ir. 



tiras^ the Amenwin Minister in Paris, a letter of credences lo 
^the government of his Imperial Majesty Napoleon the Third, 
la that capacity he has given to France the strongest gov- 
Lcmment, — equivalent, I fear, in that country to the best gov- 
ernment, — which she has had since the downfall of his uncle.— 
He has completed public works, beneath which the magnifi- 
cent profusion of Louis the fourteenth staggered- He has 
[decorated and improved Paris beyond aO his predecessors on 
■ the throne, and projected and accomplished the most gigantic 
lidertakings throughout tho interior and along the coasts of 
^'nmoe. Abroad he has consolidated the conquest of Algeria, 
I— maintained an undoubted superiority for Franco over the 
larmies of England associated with hers in the Crimea ; — 
brmed a firm alliance with Great Britain, against whom his 
nclo waged an internecine war for twenty years ; and has 
estored his country to her former rank in the polities of 
Eumpe.* In accomplishing these objects, the press has been 
Ottered and the tribune silenced , and those liberties, which the 
lAnglo-Saxon mind regards as the final cause of the political 
ietics of men, have been grievously abridged. But France 
i yet Ui show that sho is capnhle of enjoying theoi in peace. 
Happening to be in Paris during the Summer of 1840, 
land in the habit of reading the principiU journals^ as well 
hose adverse as friendly to the government, I was amiizcd 
lat the virulence and ferocity with which the political war was 
■carried on. Had the king been a militjiry usurper instead of 
^11 prince succeeding by a species of popular choice to the 
throne^ in the place of one wOio hatl forfeited it by violating 
the Constitution, he could not have been more fiercely as- 
Jmiled, and that by some of the most vigorous pens in France. 
iHad the ministry, instead of holding power on the tenure of 
' parliamentary support, been solely dependent on the will of 

• This was written beforfi the war of 1859, wbkh has hhoirn thut the 
Emperor of tlie French^ to all bis other cjttriiordiQarj cadowmeat unites 
a mllltarj capacity of the highest ordar. 


TEt£ noxnsTT yrssasox tap^mb. 

• despot, they could not hsve encountered a deadlier oppcv 
aition. The government was emineni!y paciiie, and as such, 
it gave France a breathing space after the ct^nflicts and ex- 
haustiona of her mighty wara ; hut it waa daily denounced as 

pusillanimous. The king and his family lavished their viiafc , 
private poasesalons on works of public utility and private 
charity, and were continually libelled as selfiah and sordid < 
wretches. When the law was appealed to, for tliat protec- , 
tion of their personal characters from those outrages, to which 
the humbleBt are entitled, triumphant verdicts of acquittal 
wore obfained by the calnrnniators. ITic unreflecting mass of 
the community, in the enjoyment of peace abroad and pros- 
perity at home, were made to believe that they were the 
moat gppreised and insulted of nations. Well awaro from 
tho hiiitury of thu last eighteen centuries of the fiery suscepti- 
bility of (lalljc bluoii, instead of marvelling at tho Revolution 
of February J liH8, when it bursst out, 1 had for eight years 
been anticipating it, and predicting it to my friends. 

That revolution which extinguished tlie parliamentary 
libt^riics of France,— whieh turned into dreamy nonsense the 
doctrinarian wisdom of thirty years, — and joked together in 
one common humiliation, the loaders of the rival factions, was 
the work of parly. — I do not mean that there was nothing to 
blame on the part of the king's government, but on the 23d 
of Fi*ljruary, 1848, tho popular leaders thought only of dis- 
placing their opponents in the ministry ; on the 24th they 
had overturned the monarchy. On the 24th of February, 
18 tS, they drove ont a constitutional king ; on the 2d of De- 
Ciamber, 1852, they were marched to prison under tho bay- 
oneta of an tniperml guard » The stativsninn who falls at the 
post t*f duty coumuiuds reispeet ; the politieian who imperils 
tlic great iuU^n^sts of his ctHiulry to subvert a rival is a public 
oneuiy, and nieriu no sympathy i( cruslRHi himself by an im- 
partial dcsspotism. 

All assumption of unconstitutionftl power is usurpation, 
but tho government of Louia Napoleon has received the 


sanction of an overwhelming majority of his subjects. M. 
Berry er, iu his late defence of the Count de Montalembcrt, 
says that he has seen seventeen governments m France. 
Of these seventeen governments, those of Louis the sixteenth 
and Charles the tenth, — the two out of the seventeen least 
respected by the people and both violently superseded, — 
are the only ones which ruled by a regular constitutional 
title. It is a fact not generally known, but of which I am well 
informed, that in overturning the government in 1852, Louis 
Napoleon, did but anticipate a movement of the Chambers 
against himself. The resolution was formed to arrest and 
impeach him and no alternative remained to him but to suc- 
cumb to the venal demagogues who, under the abused name 
of constitutional freedom, had brought Franco to the brink 
of ruin, or to extinguish them and with them, for the time at 
least, the parliamentary liberties of the country. 

It is piunful to reflect how many eloquent pens and persua- 
sive voices of France are silenced by the censor ; but if they 
did not join in the clamor, (some of them did,) they held 
their peace, when the madness of party rage, by unremitting 
assaulu on a mild and constitutional government, crushed it 
beneath a load of undeserved opprobrium. They have their 
reward. Would that our beloved country might profit by 
the example ! The Press of the United States is vigorous and 
enterprising, and reaches the heart of the community, &r be- 
yond that of any other country. It is for good or for evil, 
the most powerful influence that acts on the public mind, — 
the most poverfbl in itself^ and as the channel throogh 
which most other influences act. If it ooold learn that an 
opponent is not neceanrily an unprindpled and selfish ad- 
venturer, a traitor, a coward, and a knave : and that oar neigli- 
bors on an avenge are as honest and right minded as (nr- 
selves, it voold increase its own power and tiie great inter- 
ests oC the o9Dctry (whkh languish under the pcnson of <mr 
pactj battcneas) voold be mnkvlMr profnotel 




^o^blnfrton's cntnnoe Into Boston Inrolyod^ to somo extend ft qncfttlon of SUto H^liit 
— M^or Rnsaeirft account lnexMU^isn«r&l WoAblnirtonV own neconafe— Oor* 
Ilanciick ftbamioru bfa grvanil and culls Arst on tho President — Tormiti&tJoti of Uio 
affair— <->nitorIo — Dinner at Funacll Hull— Th« Pra«td«iit rrqiiMtcd lo alt for htt 
portnlt— PottpoDcment of the music at tli(} Ormtcirfo — Dork Mjuiu factory 4e»* 
cribcd-'-Oud MAi]ufikc(i>r>-— Vi»U to tlio FroiKh vcuds «f War— Drpntillftt 
£r»ca BostoD attd coDilauaUon of llio Joam<^>'— Letter U> Mr, ToA «t Uxbridfe. 

The entrance of the President into Boston h the most im- 
portant event mentioned in the Diary, inasmacb m it as- 
sumc<3, to some exl^^nt, the form of nn issvio between State 
Riglits and Federal preeedency. We have already seen thrrt 
Governor Haneock invited the President to be his guest, dur- 
ing his visit to Boston* The President, in reply to this invi- 
tation, said ** from a wish to avoid giving trouble to privnte 
families, I determined on leaving New York, to deeline the 
honor of any invitations to quarters, whieh 1 might reeeivo 
while on my joiirney ; and, with a view to observe this rule, 
I had requested a gentleman to engage lodgings for me dur- 
ing my stay in Boston.'* On the reeeipt of this letter, Gov- 
ernor Hancock despatched a second express to the President, 
inviting him and his suite t-o an informal dinner on his ar- 
rival in Boston* Tliis invitation met the President at Western 
and was accepted ♦ 

Thus far all seems to have proceeded harmoniously, at 
least to outward appearance. Major Russell, however, the 
veteran Editor of the Columbian Centinel, and one of the 



Cfsmmittcc of arrangements for the reception of tho President 
states in an interesting letter to Mr. Sparks (Washington's 
writings vol. x, p. 401) that a collision of opinion tmd design 
existed from the first between Governor Ilaneock and the 
Committee of the Citizens, These t^\'o parties, according to 
the Major, made arrangements independently of each other, 
and without mutnal consultation ; the Govenior as we have 
seen, inviting the President to be his guest ;— the Citizen^a in- 
forming him that they had made provision for his aeeonimoda- 
tion. !Ma]or Russell represents that the sent by tho 
Citizens reached the President first, and that their invitation 
was accepted. This is inexaet. The Governor's invitadon was 
received at Brookfield and declined ; that of the Citizens 
reached the President the day after at Worcester, Ijut !ie had 
previf>usly informed the Gf»vernor that he should go to Lodg- 
ings* Tlie dissatisfaction of Governor Ilaneock did not there- 
fore, as Major Itusaell supposed, arise from his having be4?n 
anticipated by tJie Citizens, sueh not having been the fact. 

Major Russell states another fact at variance with the 
uniform tradition. Ho says that the Governor " claimed the 
right of receiving and welcoming in person the expeeted 
guest, on his arrival at the boundary of the Capitiil. The 
Committee on their part, contended, that, as the President 
was then about to enter the to"W7i, it was the delegated right 
of the Municipal authorities to receive and bid him welcome ; 
that it was m their opinion, the right and duty of the Gov- 
ernor to have met the guests at the boundary of the State 
over which he presided, and there to have received and bid 
him welcome to the hospitalities of the Commonwealth," 

Tliis was, in Major RusselFs recollection the matter in 
controyersy ; and he further represents that, as the President 
was approaching the town, *' both authorities remained in 
their caiTiages, while the aids and Marsluils were rapidly 
posting between them. Both contended that the point of eti- 
quette was on their side. The day was unusually coltl and 



Diurky. TliG President with the Secretary had been mounted 
for a considerable time on the Kecl% waiting to enter the 
town. He made enquiry of the cause of the delay, and on 
receiving information of the important difficulty, is said to 
have expressed impatience. Turning to Major Jackson^ hi». 
Secretary, he asked, ' Is there no other avenue to the town I' 
And he was in the act of turning his charger^ when he was 
informed that the controversy was over^ and that he would 
be received by the MuBicipal authorities/* 

There must, however, be much inaccuracy in this account| 
written after an inter^*al of forty four yearsi. That a tedious^ 
delay took place is no doubt true ; it Ls rarely wanting on oo- 
Cttsion of extensive civic and military processions. But that 
Governor Hancock claime^l the right of receiving tlie Presi- j 
dent in person at the entrance of the town, and was cvea^ 
s&uggling with the city authorities for an hour or two to < 
tliat abject, while the President was kept waiting, is in tbe 
lii^iert degree imprubable in itself, as it is contrajy to the 
uni^rm tradition, and whf«lly inconsistent with the fact that, 
in two or three hours afterward, the Governor sent a message 
to the President, that he was too ill to call upon him at his 
lod^ngs. General Sullivan in bis Familiar Letters^ states 
^M doriiig lh« detenitoa, whieb, from whatever cuisey mi- 
dcmteedlj look pbee at the entmiea of Bosloii, tiia Pf«sideiit 
wm ^iQ9cd to a raw northeast wind, by whidi exposusne he 
was visited by a severe cold. Many other persons were ex- 
posed and afieeted in like manner, and the afiection became 
so geooial* as to be called the *^ Wasfaingtoii Infiuenza.*" Gen- 
eral Washingloa rode on a white charger, with his hat o^ 
not bowing to the spectators ba he passed, bot attiiig hisborse 
with a calm digaifittd air. The foUowing is the Presadien^s 
own aeoouni of his emtrk m whiich the reader will perceive 
that there is no mention of any such collision of autbonties 
as Major IvusseU rrcordsi^ — a circumstance loo rtmmikM/t, 
one would ihkk, to hav« bom omitted had it taken place. 

THE Momrr yebnon papebs. 109 

** To ptss over the Minuiife of the orrangem^U for this purpoao, it 
may suffice to say that at the entrance I was welcomed by the Sclcctmca 
in a body. Then following the Lieut. Govr. and Council in the order wo 
came from Cambridge, (preceded by the Town Corps, very handsomely 
dressed,) we passed through the Citizens classed in their different pro- 
fessions, and under their own banners, till we came to the State Uouso, 
[the old State House at the head of State Street] ; from which across the 
Street an Arch was thrown ; in the front of which was this Inscription . 
* To the Man who unites all hearts^ — and on the other — ' To Columbians 
favorite Son^ — and on one side thereof next thf State House, In a panncl 
decorated with a trophy, composed of the Arms of the United States — 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts — and our French Allies, crowned 
with k wreath of Laurel, was this Inscription — * Boston relieved March 
17th, 1776.* This Arch was handsomely ornamented, and over the cen- 
tre of it a Canopy was erected 20 feet high, with the American Eaglo 
perched on the top. After passing through the Arch, and entering the 
State House, at the So. End and ascending to the upper floor and return- 
ing to a Balcony at the No. End ; three cheers were given by a vast 
concounce of people who by this time had assembled at the Arch — then 
followed an ode composed in honor of the President ; and well sung by 
a band of select singers — after this three Cheers — followed by the dif- 
ferent Professions and Mechanics in the order they were drawn up with 
their colors through a lane of People, which had thronged about the Arch 
under which they bad passed. The Streets, the Doors, windows and 
tops of the Houses were crowded with well dre«ed Ladies and Gentle- 
men. The procession being over, I was conducted to my lodgings at a 
Widow IngersolTs, (which is a very decent and good house) by the 
Lieut. Govr. k Council — accompanied by the Vice-President, where they 
took leave of me. Having engaged yesterday to take an informal din- 
ner with the Govr. to-day, but under a full persuasion that he would 
have waited upon me so soon as I should have arrived — ^I excused my 
aelt, upon his not doing it, and informing me thro* his Secretary that he 
was too m*:ch indifposed to do it, heiny renolrtd to recHve the vUU, 
Dined at waj Lodgingi, where the Tice-Preiident lavored ne with bis 

It is plfin from tbe clause italicized, that it was the under- 
standing of the President that the Governor deemed himself 
entitled to receive the first visit, as Chief Magwrrat^; of Maa- 
sadntaeccsy whkh the President, on the contrarj thought doe 
to YdtMo^m Ae Qnef Magistntte of the wbc^ United States, 



Massachusetts included. Thera is no doubt, that Governor 
Hancock entertained tliis opinion ctjnscientiously. Had he 
firmly adhered to it, testifying in every otlier respect, all pos- 
sible consideration for the President of tlie United States, hisj 
opinion^ ** though most persons at the present day, as then,! 
would propably deem it erroneous," would have been entitled i 
to respect, certainly as held by so distinguished a revolution- 
ary patriot. His friends however, Mr. Sparks informs us, 
held a consultation with the Governor in the evening, and in 
compliance with their ad\ice, he wrote the following not veryi 
well expressed note to General Washington the next day. 

♦• Sunday, 2(5 October, balf-iMLst Twelve o'clock. 
" The Goremor's beft rospeeis to ihe Fresidcat. If tt home and aij| 
lelfUTP, the Goremor wHl do himself the hoDor to paj his respects in htdii 
bh hour. This would hare been done much sooner, had his health ia 
anv degree permitted. He now hazards cTervthin^ as respeeta hit 
health, for the desirable purpose." 

T<5 tills note the President returned the following reply : 

**The Frwident of the Umted Sutes pPMCnts hk best re«pe€t« to ihe 
Gorenior, and baa the honor to inform him^ that be tludl be at home till 

** The Vt9ddtnt need not expreai the pleasure which tt wiH gfre hifli 
to «ee the Goremor ; but at the same time he moat eametlJj begs that 
the GoTemor will not hazard his health on the * 

Hie Diary of Simday acquaints us with the result of tbeae 

'^SisDilaj, SStlL Attended DiTine Serriee at the Epiaeopal Chnrch 
whereof Doctor Parker is the Incumbeat^** [Trinit j Chureh, in Snmmer 
Street] '* in the forenoon, and the Congregational Chinch of Mr* 
Thaeher" [in Brattk Street] *' in the AlUmoon. Dined at mj lodgings 
with the Vic« President. Mr. Bowdoiu accompanied mo to both 
Cborehei* B«tir«t(i tbe two 1 reeeired a risit from the Gorr,, who 
aatttred ne ibat MilikOslllon alone pretented his doinf It ytsterdaj, 
l^at bftiriM Mill ladMpOi»d i tut a» il had beta sogsested that be eipect- 


ed to receive tho Tisit of the President, which he knew wm improper, ho 
was resolved mt all haz'ds to pay his compliments toniay. The Lieut. 
GovV and two of the Council, to wit. Heath and Russell, were sent here 
last night to express the Gov'rs concern that he had not been in a con- 
dition to call upon me so soon as I came to town. I informed them in 
explicit terms that I should not see the Gov'r unless it was at my own 

These lodgings were in the house still standing, at the 
comer of Court street and Tremont street, now occupiefl as a 
grocery on the ground floor, with lawyers' offices alx/ve. As 
a dwelling house it was one of highly respectable appc.arnnc% 
and character for that day. 

The Diary for the following day records th(j sad fons'v 
quence of the detention and exp^xsure of the President on 
ottering the town. It will be observed that he calls the war 
of the revolution "the dispute with Great Britain.^ Tliis 
was fne^^ucntly d^^-ne by the worthies of that day, reserving 
the name of - War" for the struggle between England and 
France of 17at>. 

** Mo&daj ti. The day htiag rainy and scormy, myself nHKh diior- 
dcfcd by a ecwi and inflimmatiion in the left eye, I was prerenied trma 
▼ishznz Lexia^oa ( where the finit blood in the di^pote with O. Bntaia 
was dnwz . Bee'd the eomptimenss of many tisitors to-day. Vr. Dal- 
too an»l G^sZ Cf/jo 'ilr.^td with sue. and in the erenln^ [I] draak Tea 
with Gov'r Hx=«:«>:k li^i colliid -poa 3C?. Bowdoia on ray retom to my 

Tli72s •.i*rr.-Jr.aEr«i an affair withont senooa *y>iM^ti*nr<*9 
and withnut vazjiikl, ishlch Xi thi> momi>Rt aas'im^l an aXarTri- 
ing ch*ni^t.:r. xcti silcht widi leas judicioua covnael have r**- 
•sited izL ^.TSksacjOLt mLsdiied 

Thft ^v»nr:i '\{ TiMflday xcd Wefiiktsday. tiM n^nuininsr 
daj^ of Wiiiiii2q*%-jii'§ Tif*it to Boscon, are jnv>n in die worda 
of xhA Dtarj : 

9i ^m Otav ^ ^m vmwvL Jx IX wi«bc ?» aa < 


thai and 8 o'clock rec'd the Addresses of the GorerDor and Coundl— of 
the town of Boston-'Of tlie FresUJeut kc. of Harvard Ciillege, Kbd Ibe 
CiocmDAti of the Bute ; fti'ter wch iit 3 a dock at a krgo luid elegmit 
DuiQcr at Fnnucil Hal], gi^on by the Gov'r and Council and speat Ih^ 
eveiiiog at my Lodging*. When the Commiltet^ from the Town present' 
ed their Address it was accompanied with a inquest (in behalf they imM 
of the Ladies) that I would ait to have my Picture taken for the Hall, 
that oibera might bo copied from it for the use of their respective fami- 
lies. A^ all the next day wa^s assigned to variotid purposes^ and I wjls 
engaged to leave town on Thursday early^ I infornjcd them of the im- 
practicability of my doing thia, but that I would liavo it drawn when I 
returned to New York, if tliere was a good pointer there — or bjr Mr, 
TruDibutl when be fibould amre, and would send it to tbcm/^ 

A slight mishap occurred at the Oratorio. On account of 
the indisposition of several of the first performers, (as stated 
in the Centinel of the fullowing day,) the music was post- 
poned for a week. " Se%^eral piec^js, however, were given 
which merited and received applause'* ! Of this rather serious 
drawback to tlie success of an Oratorio, viz. : the postpone- 
ment of the music in consequence of the indisposition of 
several of the principal performers^ all mentioii is kindly 
omitted in the Diary. 

*' Wednesdny 28th. Went, after an early breakfast, to vialt the duck 
manufactory, which appeared to be carrying on with gpint, and in a 
prosperous way. They have manufactured 32 piceea of Duck of 30 or 40 
yds, each in a week, and expect iii a ehort time to incrense it to 
They have 28 looms at work, and 14 Girl*? spinning with Both hands, (the 
flai being fastened to their Waist.) Chihlren (girla) turn the wheels 
• for them, and with thia asaietaoce each spinner can turn out 14 Ibp. of 
I Thread pr. day when they stick to it, but ns they are paid by the piece, 
or work they do, there is no other restraint ufion ihem hiit to come at 8 
oVlock in ilm morning, and return at 6 in the eTcning. They arc daugh- 
ters of decayed families, and are girls of character— none others are ad- 
mitted The number of hands now emploj^ed in the different parti of 
the work ia but the Managers expect to Increase them to , This 
is a work of pubhc uiility and private advaniage. From hence I went 
to the Card Manufactory, where I wag informed about 900 hands of one 
kind and for one purpose or another— all kinds of Carda are made ; and 




there arc Machines for cxecutiag every part of the work in a new and 
expeditious manV^ efpecidty in cutting and bending the tcetfa, web. ia 
doiiis at one frtrokc. They bave made 63,000 pr. of Cards in a year^ and 
can QodetficU tiie imporEed Card« — nny Cardg of this Mauut'arCtory have 
been smuggled into Eoglund. At H ocloirk I embarked on board ibo 
barge IlJuBtrioua, Captn. Pent here Gion» and visited his ship and the Su- 
pcrbj another 74 Gun Ship in the Harbour of Bofiton, about 4 mile* below 
the Town. Going and coming I was ealotfjd by the two frigates which 
lye near the wharves, and by the 749 after I bad been on bonrd of them. 
I was aJso saluted going and coming by the fort on Custle laid. After 
my return I dined in a targe Company at Mr, Bowdoin^d, and went to the 
Assembly in the evening, where (it is aaid) there wore upwards of 100 
Ladies. Their oppearanco was elegant, and many of them very hand- 
some ; the room is small but neat and well ornamented/* 

Tbe President left Boston tl»e following morning. His 
departure wits fixed at eight o\'lock. As that hour was 
striking, he was seen in the door-wmy of his lodgings, and at 
the last stroke of the elock he started with his suite. Tho 
troop of Cavairy appointed to escort him did not overtako 
him till nearly arrived at Oiarlestown Bridge. On his way 
to Salem he visited Harvard College, where he expressed the 
opinion from the inspection of the drawing, that the inscrip- 
tion on Dighton rock, is the work of our aborigines. From 
Cambridge he passed through Maiden, Lynn imd Marbleheud 
to Salem, where he remained over night. On tho 30th ho 
proceeded to Newburyport and lodged there. From New- 
bury port the following day he wont to Portsmouth and re- 
mained there till Wednesday the 4th of November^ when he 
started on the return through Exeter^ Haverhill, Bradford, An- 
dover, Wilmington, Walertown, Ncedham, Sherborne, Hol- 
liston and Uxbndge. Here he lodged at "one TaftV' 
where, ** though the people were obliging the entertainment 
was not very inviting." The following letter written to Mr. 
Tafl from Hartford, the seeond iliiy after lodging at his house, 
places the gentler qualities of Washington's character in a 
\'ery pleasing light. The person referred to by the name of 
Polly is still living. 

; |«a hkwm glvia nf now to ofie of ] 
I'ff Cuuil J, lad 1 
#f«r v«r7 mhIi fUcMtd «itlt ifa^ i 

I Pattf Md Fpltf » I 4o for Umm wiaiM Mod cueh of i 
gfilt* pto««or «hbiic; aad lo PsUf, vbo besis Oie iiAme of Ifm Wa 
fflfteOyiftd wIm waited Qtore opoo m |1ia& Pollf did, I send fif^g 
irlcli vhk^ ib9 mtj buy ticrvelf ooy Httla OfnaBwntj die inmy ▼mot, 4 
ib# majr dlfpoM of tbcm io uijr other mumer more agr«eabte to I 
A« 1 do not give tbene thkogt with ft Tiew to hkre it ixiked of, or eTcnl 
Us bttitig kaowij, the lew there U fidd Aboat it Ibo better tou will ] 
IM ; but, ilmt I ebaj be imro the ehfiits And monef bare got s&fe 
hftfid, let Pittiy^ who I dare aay U equal to it, write me a tiae iofonning 
me tb«reoft directed to *' The Prctideat of the United Sutes at Sew 
York/* I wbh y<f^ and joar family well| and am your humble servant* 


I ahiMilU Jmvo been pletMcd to be able to extend ibis re- 
vitfW And ttbatnicl of Pruisitlent Washington's Diary, but I 
huvi) ulfi'iuly up|jrapriated to it m much space as can be giv- 
en uj> lu one Mtiljji?ct* The extracts submitted to the reatler 
will, ir I iniMtakti nut, throw some new light on hia character, 
»b«*wiri(^ tfiiit he wuf* an exact imd methodical, as considerate 
nnd geiiil(% ill the private relations and mhior duties of life^ 
as he \va#* ^raiid and heroic in its great emergencies. An 
tnlilion vi' the liinry ior gi'nenil circulation, accompanied with 
c(i|iioUpi notoH, and illustnited with accounts of his progress, 
the jiddresMt-a made It* him and his replies, and the other in- 
i-itlriilH of liis r*ri"[>tioii, would ho a highJy valuable con- 
tribution to History, 




fBTitstioa to AtrbottfoH—Arrirsl At MelroM— BuIm of M«lroM hutWy vUted— 
Walk to Abbalirford'AB4 rtonpUon tlxere— Cliur4;b nt l^lkirk-Widk UtUm 
Mufthroom Park— I>(if« Ui«ooi|nuix, wbo ftcci4«oUiJ/ tturi n luun—'ilMi JiouAcaii^ 
irroimd»-OnMiDeDts of tb« ru<nn»— IU«dlBf <ir Om Wivt *jf Mi4 l»tljiiui- -Yi»lt 
to Melrubo— lUaaer of pMiiiif Um tioM ct AbtwUfotd— CJbMiMi (dcoa^-OfiMrtun 
Sen- Selkirk, but th» Loudvo JULhII Cott(;b Uriu^ full, rctuni tv Abl>vt«lvi4l-<^ 
Witltei^e fondnew for aoimftla, do^ «ad cat»— Pij>er at diuucr. 

Hatikg had the happiness, m the m<;iitJi <j( July, lHlH,U} 
make tlie aoquaiutazioe of Bir Widter 8<yAt iui4 hia aiiiickbie 
ikimiT at Ediiiburi^ C was honored wiUi un ijjvitatioti to 
Ti«t them at Ablxitrford, after J should liave reiunwi«j froiii 
a Khort tour in Ferth«lure. I feeJ that there in a t>aiK.-tily in 
private life, which ought to be respected, even afUa- all OjOr 
oemed have paused away. But entertaiuing no ieelnig« but 
thoee of veneration and gratitude toward the illutJtriou4» naine, 
which stands at the head of this paper, and havin>f u</thing to 
record of him arid his, hicon«i«tent with tho»e fediiig*. I truat 
that I shall not offend the atrietest delicacy, in dt«<5ribing tlie 
oocurrencefi of a few days passed within his fiiiuiJy cinde in 
the country. — and very- much in the language, in wln<ili 1 noted 
them down at the time. 

On the fu-8t of August, 1818. J look passage at £diuburgh 
in the Bliicher Btage Coach for Melrose. Passing a booksel- 
ler's 06 we drove through the City, I saw the " Ueart of Mid- 



I^»thian" aflvf!rti>M»<I, and the grKnX naturcd driver, by vrhoso 
nidr I HAty WAN kind enough to stop while I ran in and b<.>ught 
it. TliiH pnivfd to hv. \\w first copy rif that novel which reach- 
«mI AhliotHrnrd, except in»^ the copy which had come in the shape 
of proof Hht'cts to the (im yet unavowed) author. 

It IN another of tht^ tli(MiHand illustrations of the marvellous 
])ow4'r €»f Keott's genius, that the most remarkable ruins of 
tlie most n'iniirkalde mediaeval ciiurch in Scotland, were first 
rnisnl into genenil notoriety and chussic renown, fifty years 
iitjo, liy *• tlie I*ay of the Last Minstrel." I shall not at- 
tempt todewrilio what has Ihhmi so often describeil before. — 
the ruinn «»f the Alil»ey, the Tweeil, and the Eildon hills which 
rise in l"n»nt of you, oief\ k^^ oKl by the never-to-be repeated 
words of the mi;;lity wi7^inl. Althouirli I expected to pass two 
or thnv davs in the neii»hborhood, I could not resist the temp- 
tation t«» take in advance a hasty view of tho Abbey. Those 
who h.ive never seen the ruins of a i^rand old buildini;, — what 
wo call a iTotliie ruin espeeiaily,^*an form no conception *>f its 
elKH't on tlie tceiinirs o\' a \ ounu traveller. It is one of the ni»v-;t 
striking examples k^( the miuijUHi interests of loveliness and 
di'solation ; an aitd tlie triumph of time and vitdenee ov.t art : 
b«Mut\ :uul ashes, that can Iv sern \m earth. 1 did rot. in ii-^-i, 
I'U thiH tsvasuMi. \ i>it " tair Melrose" by n^joniji^lir, :i< S/i :* 
s,»\'4 i\\\ must *U\"wl;o wvM:ld \ iew i: a-.-ji;:." ;!v- :::-.i ':. -; 
d.m :!it»*r S**plu;» loid n:e i'.e ivxer s.^ \ ,si\v. i: i; :.'.<« ".:". I ::..-.x. 
l-,o\\o\»r, th.M I r.u:st li.i\o !':s::!;vlirs;.^^.i ixr. ■ r :V..i: >!:: i.y:^" 
h.ixe vuMj't \\\M lie w:is*\.': th.r :: :i;e \\\\\: ^• :"■:■.:.: ::. T:.*: 

' \n\ vn: : 

:::.' l..iv 





laid up against tht* walls in order to preserve them from fur- 
ther injury ; the tomb of Michael Scott and of Alexander one 
of the kings of Scotland. — how much b tliere not hcve^ — es- 
pecially when passed through the prism of some of tho mo^ 
admirable strains of modern poetry, — to fire a youtb^ful imagi- 
nation I But 1 shortened my visit, hoping before I left the 
neighborhood to visit ^lelrose in company with a greater 
magician than he that sleeps within its crumbling vaidtis. 

White I was making n^y solitary pilgrimage to the ruins^ 
my stage-coach companions were ordering dinner at the inn ; 
a lcs3 ethereal gratification, but in its place not to be dis* 
dained, particularly at the end of a day's journey, and in the 
shape of trout from the Tweed and green peas from the gar- 
dens on its banks* ^yier dinner I started on foot for Abbots- 
ford, distant about three miles. In former times, and when 
one travelled by stage coaches and post chaises, I always, in 
journeying walked as much as possible ; and surely there 
couid be no occasion when one would more wish to do it, than 
in the approach of Ahbotsford and along the banks of the 
Tweed, the road rumiing for the most part by the river's side, 
A short hour brought mo to my destination though I did not see 
Uie house till I was close upon it, so thick a shrubbery already 
clothed a spot, which only six years before was entirely bare. 

The family were at table when I arrived, the dinner hour 
being earlier than I Ihought ; but my coming in caused no stir. 
I was received as an old aoqiiaintance, — 1 might always say 
firiend. Jfr, Scott (for such he then was) alluding to some 
remarks that had passed l>etwen us in Edinburgh about the 
prodigious effect of his proems in turning such a vast amount 
of travel into the lake region of Scotland, scarcely visited be- 
fore except by an occasional antiquarian tourist, — goo<l hu- 
mored ly asked, ** whether 1 did not forgive him the time at)d 
money he had cost me among the lochs and hills ?" Starting 
with this genial salotation, the afternoon and evening passed 
with inconceivable rapidity. Sir Waiter was in the best pes- 



siblo g|*int«, and Sophia, as yet ** fancy free/' sang us i 
ballads with the must touch ing expression and pathos. 

The nc^t day ^as Sunday. Sir Wiilter gave me my* 
choice of f^oi ng with his wife and daughters to church, or 
walking with him over the firhls. I detided for tfie former, , 
and drove with tiiem to church at St.*lkirk. The int^*UectUiil ' 
portion of the service was not of a high order, but the devo- 
tional parts were performed with Ijceomirig solemnity. Hie 
aingiiig was about uuch ^is you would hear from a well trained 
choir in one of our rural dmrehes ; — and it was a matter of 
no little gratification to mc*, to hear some of the fine old 
familial* UnwH sung in the heart of the strange land amidst 
so njany impressive associations, and by the voicea of mj iur i 
toresting eompauions. 

After our return home, we walked out, in the hope of 
meeting Sir Walter^ to what was called in the family thd 
" Mushrocun park ; " Mrs. Scott, thu young latliesand Charles, — 
Walter, the oldest son bcijjg in the highlands. We look with 
us a pretty formidable attemhincH3 of liogs, viz., the fiivorite 
duer-hound, Alaiila, then quite advanced in years, a grey-hound, 
(who was however black aud called Hamlet,) n spariicl named 
Finette, and Uriak, a sprite uf a terrier from the isle of Skye, 
all well known favoritcH and privileged companions at home 
and aliroa«h We soon fell in with Sir Waller, who, though he 
liad been on his feet all the morning, sjiid Ite math- it a rule nev- 
er to turn his limsk on good company and joined us. We had a 
sci*amblc in Uie park, -w ho should pick up the best mushrooms 
and the most of them. The visilur was allowed, as a privileged 
person unac<iuainted with the lociditica, to enter into a part- 
nerifthip >vith Miss Seott, and of course their joint stock was 
the largest. 

While we were busy searching for nmshr<x>ms» the dogs, 
following their instinct, wcro busy si'arching for a hare* It 
was really curious to seo the approach to reason on the part 
of th^e poor animals, Tho grey -hound ia swift of foot but 



has 130 scent ; tiio spaniol has no fleetness but has an acute 

smell. The spaiiiera no«e was down among the bushes and 
H her whole little body in a flutter of search, whisking from 
f cover to cover like a little four-legged spirit. The lean and 
long-legged grey-hound, bis ribs jstaring tiu*uugh his skin, 
without attempting to join in Ihe search, kept eluse to Finctto, 
At laiit the hare was started ; the grey -hound bounded ofi*like 
Jighiniiig in pin^suit, and poor little Finette, having done her 
duty, came fawning round her master* All the time, the 
stately old deer-hound was stalking about with sovereign 
unconcern ; and Urisk, the little eur from the isle of Skye, 
a frisking, bristling, weird looking lump of live hiiir, was 
playing witli Charles. The poor hare took the road and was 
soon run do^ii ; and then the old deer-hunnd stalked majesti- 
cally toward the game ; growled sharply at Hamlet to drive 
him off, and seizing the hare in his teeth, brought it with great 
solemnity, and laid it at Mr. Scotfs feet. The affair was 
every way out of season. It was Sunday, and the Bporting 
finaou had not begun ; but it had taken plaee accidentally, 
fxA I was not sorry to witness the sight for the first time in 
jny life ; though not without compunction for poor puss* 
Tlie scene interested me the more, as tallying so precisely 
'with Xcnophon's description of the instincts of the different 
species of dogs, in the first book of the Cyropsedia. 

The rest of the day was passed in eonversatioii, in part of 
A graver east. We had sacred mnsie aftt r diimer, and in the 
evening Sophia sung national ballads and some of her fatlier's 
aongs. She made no pretension to execution, or the bravura 
6tyie;^-or at least she had no occasion to exhibit it in these 
line old Scottish melodies ; — but, to my miediicated ear, noth- 
ing could lie more pleasing. 

On Monday, Sir Walter told Suphia to show me the 
house and grounds, adding playfully that she knew a great 
deal more about both than he did, It was jdain to see, fmm 
the noanner in which he always spoke to her, that she was the 


ft tht Ahbiej, and, wiaM I mm there^ tks 

tiag op siMic» tafecii feiB tbe ** Corbelk 

l—itf ianiiH » * the Lay." Asmnikcd 

lb* 90vd«. I omii cbc detub «# winft was taid hj hat m^ 

tniv flBC^icGt^ Iwvw^ MfciiMiifid. tncm to wy frwnd Jur.. AB^ 
hmt^iof isssnte m lus mead toUoim^ wUe& bos aofi jct 
l yp ew fg J , I wM mdj mj ha% tkai, IbiMigh afe iral/ b<y 
fipvcct, M I cUd, tiut luer iStflier iras tl» mthor of Urn aovel% 
afatt 4M not &t tteL tiim know 'ML Wa j^MKd ift kMr ar two 
ibiiifbj m rmftigtfeie "^Hentof Mid Letitei "^ alooi^ ^ 
Walter Xakkag him turn with tjw reai^ ind rcmarkisif wtili 
en tba pwapuB that aCrodt htni. He ma mudi 
» IBJ aftUiiipl to ioiitasa the Scoltiah f^<imf**^ and 
iiaid '^ if I would hide awhile in Twecdale^ they wuuld give 
ma a very prettj aoe^t." 

I aahed Sophia lo^ Kiaiyige to bav^e diaav a lilda tadiaiv 
that wo nttght go to Melroaer wad to get her fiidHBr to go with 
aa^ 8bo aaid ha had ao oikan heen there with iluftica, wbcrii 
ha fint came Co AhboHrfbrd^ that he had got tirad of It, and 
had MidoKi haan of lata; Im aha Aooghi he would go with 
11% which ha waa kiod enoagh to do. I am not aahimiti to 
aaaftai that a viait to Melroae Abbey, with Sir Walter Scott 
and hia ^hmilj^ kindled mj imagiiiatioD, at the age of twenty- 
four, aa it haa perhapa neTar been excit^ on any other occa.^ 
■inn. t have aitempted to deasrafaa the feeiaaga awakened by 
the ftceae, in a ape^h at the anoivereary of the Soafta' Charitar 
hUi Society in BoAion, on the 30th of NoYember^ 1839* Nor 
waa it. I owtt, withont cmotiim *^ too deep Ibr tmm^ that^ ui 
the eolitude of my room at ti^t» after ooirtif iplhlilig dieae 
mterestifrg mina in the company of him who haa made the 
apot which they ooTcr holy ground* I refiwrtcd that, in all 




human probability, after one or two more days, I should never 
see him or them again. This is a reflection Mrhich not seldom 
mingles a shade of sadness with the pleasure one derives from 
meeting agreeable and congenial acquaintances and friends, in 
our travels through foreign countries and distant parts of our 
own. I must own that in two or three days I had become 
strongly attached to every member of the amiable family at 
Abbotsford. Our whole time was passed together in conver- 
sation, reading, or singing on the part of the ladies ; at dusk 
a dance on the lawn ; in walks and drives, ^ir Walter 
poured out all the treasures of his memory, in traditions 
of the border times, anecdotes of celebrated characters, in- 
terspersed with constant sallies of quiet pleasantry ; — and 
Giarles contracted so great a fondness for the American guest, 
that he asked his Cither's permission to accompany me on my 
approaching journey to Greece and Constantinople, which, in 
consideradon of his being under thirteen years of age, was 
withheld. Later in life this interesting young man was at- 
tached to the British embassy in Persia. In 1839 he wrote 
to me from the Foreign Ofllke in London, reminding me of 
my vmt twentr one years before to his father's ; but many 
years sznce, be. with all the rest of the family, one after an- 
other, passed away. 

It was with ix> common regret that I took my leave of 
the iuLUj. I was to go to Selkirk and there be taken up by 
die Man eroea ijr Locdon. If the coadi was full I was to 
retnm to Aborjts^jrd, Mrs. Scott and her dao^ter took me 
to SelklHL az>l lefi zne there. Although mnch pressed for 
time, in r^&restt lo tLe commencement of my tcnr on the 
Coctgyyit. I «a!*i rrji &jd it in my heart to grieve^ when the 
Ma3 <oaa irsv* ;;p lad was reported ^ faUT It shows the 
limited aw.mLZ -Y trxrel a: that time, that oc^ Mail cochdi 
da£lT Tna lil tzu: zaas^i c« that rr^ite. between Seoclaxsd aaA 
FjigfaniL fe Tni§ ii:nr er^xang, I cude myself as cenmiixt- 
able as f waid ibm to^ at Scfldrk. mA tsAj tlK next monir 

1±^ THE snocxi vEKscos rjkPns. 

ine vxLkiiiJ 9T«r :.> Ab^Mtstf^^cil «> specil v» ^j, I v^s 

QrxJjwti ot* ^m wlteB tflwj ▼»!:»? ^nnirtn:^ and tibty sa5J 
• T-iass*:'." I z/ifi "Jutzd I 'Xiil'i !io<: lecctiiiraa?? tnaxicj mil 

^ixxmiiiK ih-'t::!. Pir; par»ec"-5 ec'tinid huariiij iiiTo the a«inL«:r 
vt •Jil'* K*»?r:e. irA htz^x^rt^i me to be strict with, mj neir 
'Sfrnt.iar^. fr^n :t -Qiittti in ;i heartj Liacrti. in*! aiiin -iav- w^ 
m4Mi« biis llutile ont^^ss in T:ii38i:. 

An •iiimer uii* ▼eteran. Jeer-iioizziil miuie hi* appear!mi!e. 
ami bud his- OT^os n*}«e Tip^n his master's arm. H*^ hiki jI- 
reaiij been teii .iLse where, but he received a ^nju bimeha 
frr,m Sir Wjictir * oontL AAer dinner a fikvorite cac pLiL-eii 
herielf 'ip«.n die tai)ie near him. A5 I ^az nexc he beszgeti me 
nijt t.'i be (iisitxirhe«i. He 'jaresse*! rJie animiiL who was *tvi^ 
•lend 7 i pet. ;iati ^ii that - If ^axs w»;re as weil ti^an:!'! is 
•loiT* ^iie/ woiii«i be as is^.nC^. and diimlUi." Pjis E riiimi 
^jmnwhiic 'ioubtl'ii. -Rnt^e. it the experience '.t mankiini had 
not shiiwn the •^jnnriry to be thu oase. rher'* is a»' rf*as*m tu}-" 
they ^hfjiiid not have -jeonred t'> rJn^raseives tiiut ii:n<i ^r^tir- 
m«nt Ttiiirh :> l)e*4tow^-il -.n -itir^. 'Fiti habits in*! .!!-t:;ir'--f i' 
animals 'v<tT*t 1 tiiv-jprit '•ni*: .t'-Mi^'^rsirir n •\ 'ii ^fli* Vv'i^-^.-r. 
H*: tIrlC^:d 'he pm«:t:(.^ .-r i<.2v. n "ummir ':i«'rris*::".'.rs .ntj»i -r 
^-.vioe r^/Unti. b^ribfi "ine'' lie i»,-^vn, :o "ni:ir bai.i!; r' -ii^^M.ninir 
oiiti. is it -s'ftT^'.. -i :}ed ;ii 'at: i.-.av^s, Tiule In 1 state or'namn?. 

W.j ver" re!iai*:»i ;in iinntr '^rj the jmientT. in :iie -^iianu!- 
ter of piper, 'irvssed :n his t.artans. and piap-nu nutii-nai airs 
«>n rhe bmrpipe '}\\ the iittie lawn beton? tne*.*. F'^r ^his 
•:»jnrr!buriijn *«/ Mr •.•nrorrainni».'nr. he 'v-xs ''iiili'i iu by Sir 
W. liter, anil rewanled with a ula^s -jf whiskey. The bagpipe 
at the banquet, piayed by the <rbietbain*9 piper. Is a part of 
:he ancient Celtic state, still kept up in the great Scottish 



houses. Sir Walter clung ^vith patriotic ibndness to these 
national traditions. 

But I must reserve for another paper the rest of theso 
recollections, as well as a brief account, — alas, under a mourn- 
ful change of circumstances,— of " Abbotsford revisited " after 
a lapse of twenty six years. 



ComcnencemeTit of th** present United Statu Oortrrament in N«w T«rk, s^Tenlf 
ycmns a^o tblft day — SkC'tch of the History of the promulgation and ratiflcntlan of 
th« Coa*tltiiti(>ti— Belay In oriranlxlng thd now Congress— Arriv'al of WaAhlngtoo 
»t New York and bU inauguratioa— 4Jue»tloii ta to tbo titles to he given to tho 
PnssidAnt aod Vtco Pmtilde'tit— AtuuRio^ ftiiQcdote — CanscA of ib« [ir«v«iUag tpa- 
Hlj—TlM feii«nil LangtioT of tti«i country a dnminAtHnc« fkrorablu to a pcacofiil 
t«volutton— Ko sacb revDliitlon poasibU la highly praspcrotis tim<r»— Mocb owing 
to tbtt dUtntc rested fuilrlotlfim of th« revolatli^Dary and conailtutfonal leaders and 
«ap»cUt]y WaabiogtoQ— Closing TG^flootl on. 

On this day seventy years ago an event took place, mtof 
rior in importance to no other, in the liistory of the country, I 
if to any otlier in the political history of the worhJ. On tliis 
day seventy years ngo^ the present Constitution of the United 
States hecanie '' the supreme law of the land/* and New York J 
became for a time the se^nt of the new government. If, ; 
General Hamilton asserts in the last number of 'Hhe Fede-^ 
ralist,'* the ** establishment of a Constitution, in time of pro- 
found peace, hy the voluntary consent of a whole people, is a 
Frodupj,'' that prodigy heciinne an historical fact on the fourth 
of March, 1789, Let us dwell upon it for a moment in reve- 
rent contemplation. It is not one of the Prodigies of ancient 
fitble, which told how 

A lioness hfttb whelped in the streets, 

And grares have javrned^ aad yielded up their dead ; 

Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, 

In raDkft and eqiiadronfl^ and right form of war, 

With drizzled blood upon live Capitol: 

The noiae of battle hurtled in the air» 

Horsea do neigh, and dying men did gt^mOt 

Aod ghosts did shriek and squeal iiboiit the Btrcets, 



These were the prodigies which foretold the assassin at ion 
of Cs&sar, and the inauguration of a despotism, doomed for 
fourteen centuries to njaster and oppress the world. Ours 
was the anspieiows Prodigy of a well-compacted republi<?, 
formed by the counsels of unselfish patriots, pure from the 
stain of blood, destined, kt us trust, to be the safe*guurd and 
the blessing of far^distanfc ages. 

The Constitution of the United States wus finally pro- 
claimed by the Federal Convention on the 17th of September, 
1787, and was on that day, iu pursuance of an unanimous 
vote of its framers, transmitted to the Congress of the Con- 
federation, then sitting at New York, with a letter signed by 
George "W^ ashing ton, President of the Convention. The C^^n- 
stitution itself fixed no day when it should begin to be of 
force, as the supreme law of the land. It provided only that 
when ratified by the Conventions of nine States it should go 
into operation '^ l>etweeii the States ratifying the same.** 

With this provision it went forth to the States and to the 
people, to be ratified by their Conventions. It was a season 
of expectation, of anxiety, and, on the part of many tr\ie pa- 
triots, of alarm. The people ivere divided into parties ; and 
a document so extensive and comprehending so many details 
of course presented many points open to criticism. By many 
persons, and among them there were tried patriots and gr^i^d 
citizens, the proposed new government seemed to be fraught 
with menace to the hardly-earned, dear-bought rights of the 
States, and liberties of the people; by others, it was looked 
upon as the only hope for the salvation of the country, 
Washington was one of those who regarded it in this light, 
"There is a tradition," says Mr. Curtis in his valuable His- 
tory of the Constitution, (vol. IL, p. 4>!7,) *^ that when Wash- 
ington was about to sign the instrument, ho rose from his 
seat, and, holding the pen in his hantl, after a short pause, 
pronounced these words ; — * Should the States reject this ex- 
cellent Constitution, the probability is tliat an opportunity 

■AtV %!■.•* -V • '^U-^.A ■■ fc-'Mift* 

I ■ • ..■■.» ..' 

I ! -> '.i.i • . lit! 

• . • T. • l.lTji- 

■?- 1. LltTI 

: r ■ I '.. : ■■ . -^t'.. 
..: 1 . • . i-.i'.iiii".? 
.. ''.■-.. !• ..:•..• 

-■.;■.• ir Tj 

,. »'.v.t^ 


gmia followed on the 26th of June, and that of New York on 
the 26th of July. North Carolina delayed her ratifjf'ation 
till the 21st of November, 1789 ; and Rhode Inland hera tiJl 
the 29th of May, 1790. 

As soon as the ratification of nine States was certificjd Vt 
the old Congress, (and that of New Ilanipshire, all-irnp^^rtant 
as it was in calling the new government into bein;;:, d*/t:H xuA, 
appear to have been officially reported till the 2d of July,) 
the nine ratifications were referred to a Committee to axuuutitt 
the same, and report an act of Congress for putting the O/o* 
fldtotion into operation, " in pursuance of the n:*>lution <A tlje 
Federal Convention.'^ A struggle immediately UTfrnn a« to 
the place where the new government should be e^tabllt^M^^J. 
Most of the members from New England and the yi'Min 
States wi«hed either that the seat of the goveromer.'t ^^iould 
eantimie ax New Tcq-k or be removed to PLila'lelphia ; ti**? 
S>3iitiieni members desired a sitoatian wsarffT th^ g«;'.fgraptil';sJ 
centre c*f ti»e FLJ^n. Tiae«r C3C»nfik'tlng opiciofA* mer«; at 
length rei-ancijfrl. by the adoptiot. on the liiiL of fyrpt*^3/T.»er, 
IT*, of a yesojntiosi whic-h provjied that. ;l '/rr*^ Vj 'n^nj 
tiie new GTn«inuiJ:»L into operation. Pr^wid^titial ^\*if^/fr% 
should be arfioimcMi in the ^v^^tilI Stav^ ol tbe firv: ^^ ed- 
nesQcy of Janua-y. 17r^ : tiii*t the said eie^.tort uiou^ J i;i**!t 
in tiieir aever*! hrjt*,^ and v .>t^ f/<r PreBid**Lt ax»d xifsh^Vrin^ 
deic *iL ixtt nrs: 'R'-rtiiiiMiiy '.if rei»niar%' : ~ aijd tna: *j*«; fir¥t 
UTeoitefidbj: il Idar^i. iit^s ~ !ii*e f'^turti of Mardu, 17«jJ«.y wr 
1^ tonti. aiic lilt jTaent kv: '#f C->n g r *f ' N»rw Y'^rr ; ti* 
f.jT ^^rTTTf^gn -fT;*- TToofrsdrgb imder tx»e sud Ccpoa;^ 


President and vice-President, cast on the first Wednesday of 
February, was sixty nine^ Tliey wore given unanimously for 
Wasiiington, who was predestine<l in the public mind for the 
office of President. A much smaller number of votes was 
given for !Mr. John Adams, who, however, united a large plu- 
rality r)ver any other person, as a candidate for the second 
olBcc. The State of New York took no part in the first 
Presidential *-it^-tiou ! ►She is now much more attentive to 
her political duties. 

At length tiie founh of March, 1780, — the appointed day, 
which was to give an oi^anized Constitutional existence to a 
new Confalerate Republic, about to enter on an equal footing 
into the family of nati« »ns, — arrived ; but on that «lay there 
assembled at the seat of the new government at New York^ 
of the Senate, only the two Senators from New Hampshire, 
Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, and one each from Massachu- 
setts and (ier>rgia. Tliese <-ight punctual men met and ad- 
joume^l from day to <lay for a week, without any addition to 
their number. On the 11th of March they ** agreed that a 
circular should he written to the absent members requesting 
their immediate attendance.'' Another week passed with the 
same result, and on the 18th of March it was again agreed, 
that "another circular should be written to eicht of the 
nearest absent members, particularly desiring their attend- 
ance, in «>rder to form a quorum.*' T^q the lOth .»f ]^lareh 
a Senator from New Jersey tlropped in ; on the '21 st a Sena, 
tor from Delaware ma<ie his appearance, and then for another 
mortal week no increase of the number of Senators in attend- 
ance took place. The other Senator from New Jersey came 
in on the 28th. No one else came till the Gth of ApriL» 
when •* Richard Henry Lee of Vinjinia appearing, took Iiis 
seat, and formeil a quorum of the whole Senators of the 
United States,*' viz. : twelve in number, the States which had 
as yet ratified the Constitution being but eleven. Such was 


the tardy organization of the Senate, which at first sat with 
closed doors, as well for legislative as executive business. 

Of the Representatives, of whom the whole number from 
the eleven ratifying States was but fifty-nine, thirteen only 
assembled at New York on the 4th of March, viz. : four from 
Massachusetts, three from Connecticut, four from Pennsyl- 
vania, one from Virginia, and one from South Carolina. On 
the following day one more arrived from New Ilauipshire, 
one from Massachiisetts, two from Connecticut, and one from 
Pennsylvania. No one else came in till the 14th of March, 
the house adjourning from day to day for want of a quorum. 
On that day James Madison, Jnr. and two other members 
from Virginia came in, but there was still no quorum. On 
the 17th and 18th of March two more members from Wr- 
ginia appeared, and no further arrivals took place till the 23d. 
On that day two members came in from New Jersey, and on 
the 25th another from Virginia. No additional members 
arrived till the 30th of March, when anotlier member from 
Maryland and Virginia appeared. On the first of April, an- 
other member each from New Jersey and Pennsylvania came 
in, and a quorm was formed. It was five days more before a 
qnorum of the Senate was present, and the first Congress of 
the United States was organized. On the 21st of April, the 
Vice-President, John Adams, appeared, and took his seat as 
President of the Senate. In his address on taking the Cliair, 
he piud an emphatic and eloquent tribute to the newly-elected 
Chief Magistrate. 

Expectation now dwelt on the arrival of Washington. 
He received tiie official notice of his election on the 14th of 
April, at Mount Vernon, and immediately started for the seat 
of Government. Attended from city to city by the joyous 
and grateful salutations of the people, he reached New York 
on the 23d of April. The necessary arrangements for his in- 
auguration occupied a week, and, at length, on the 30th of 
April, in the galierv in front of the Federal llall, just erected 

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take a part in the organization of the new government, though 
established in her own metropolis. It was an experiment, 
and the people were tired of experiments. It promised little 
to gratify ambition, and its promises carried little hope of ful- 
filment. It offered nothing to feed the appetite for gold ; 
unable to pay its debts, it was too poor to think of bribes. 
The vast extent of the Union compared with its scanty popu- 
lation, — the wide spaces which separated its great political 
centres, — the tardiness of communication between its remote 
districts, — the comparative feebleness of the press, — the pov- 
erty of the country, whose resources were nowliere developed, 
— the want of armies, navies, and public works, and the fru- 
gality of all the public establishments, were circumstances 
which fiivored a pacific revolution. It was not only experi- 
tnentuniy but experimentum (comparatively speaking) in cor- 
pore vili, — ^an experiment on a cheap substance ; it was well if 
it Buooeeded, and no great matter if it failed. There were the 
State governments to fall back upon, and many good patriots 
were opposed to any encroachment on their equal sovereignty. 

To bring about a change in the organic law, at the present 
day, as radical as that which was efiected by the new Consti- 
tution, would be simply impossible. The magnitude of the 
existing interests is too great ; the strength of the powers in 
possession too vast ; and the spirit of contending opinions and 
ambiticms too resolute, to admit of any great peaceable rev- 
olution. As it is only in a reduced state of the natural body, 
caused by regimen or disease, that certain heroic operations 
in surgery can be ventured on, so it is only in a body politic, 
exhausted like that of the United States from 1788 to 1789, 
that a radical change of organization could be made without 
a convulsion. 

But let us not ascribe too much to circumstances, and too 
little to the pure and disinterested patriotism of the great 
and good men of the constitutional period. It is piunful to 
reflect, that, in the great system of compensation which r^- 


ulates the fortunes of governments as well as those of in- 
dividuals, the days of palmy prosperity are not those most 
favorable to the display of public virtue or the influence of 
wise and good men. In hard, doubtful, unprospcrous, and 
dangerous times, the disinterested and patriotic find their way, 
by a species of public instinct, unopposed, joyfully welcomed, 
to the control of affairs. The sufferings of the revolutionary 
war and the discouragements of the succeeding period had 
thrown what government there was, — and there was scaroe 
any thing that deserved the name, — into the hands of unam^- 
bitious men, who served the country from a sense of duty. 
The Presidency of the United States under the new govern- 
ment, that prize in pursuit of which the best interests of the 
country are daily jeoparded, while all its political energies are 
driven into the channels of party, with an expansive force 
which seems perpetually to threaten an explosion, — that daz. 
zling prize was, in the year 1788 and from the moment the 
Constitution was prorriulgatcd, spontaneously allotted, in the 
public mind, to an Individual, who not only did not covet or 
seek it, but who recoiled from it, with unaffected reluctance to 
submit to its burden**- and cares, — and who could only be in- 
duced, by the urjr<*r.cJ and concurring importunities of all in 
whom he confided, to accept a unanimous election. Who can 
doubt that if, instead of such a state of things in 1788, half 
a dozen of the ablest men in the country and their friends, in 
and out of Congress, had exerted all their influence over or- 
ganized parties, and called into action all the resources of po- 
litical agitation, in different parts of the Union, in order to 
connect the question of the adoption of the Constitution with 
their own aspirations, the new government would have failed 
of adoption ] It deserves the thoughtful consideration of all 
^ood citizens, whether a state of things which would assured- 
ly have prevented the Constitution from coming into exist- 
ence, will not, if persevered in, and that with ever-increasing 
intensity, prove fatal to its duration, in its original integrity. 




Ttt ikmUf of Sir ITnUer Boott In l^S^tlb mode of life mnd ittidy— PU7M tiun«ft 
0ven hi* daughlerfr— A vlsiUir reoi>fnli[wl by the prlat of ht» horae's ahoe before 
ho wia tteea — GrAtUQdu mt^resfTccUti^ thnn ioi^rnlltudo^— Oornuin wttidieA-^estfi}; 
aiil»cdot«siit Ubli' — A wrnlk of a. mUu on your awn Und— NAtumJ fcatui-ci of Ab- 
botfilbrd — Dfpjifture^Pcrsontil appuumnc^^ of Sir VV alter— Con TersaUon — Opinlcns 
■i to tba Authorship of the "Wnverley novcla — I'cctinlary i)mbarrAasmc*ntA— Sjid 
ehaageftin the fiunlly— VUU tn AbboUf^nl In ISM— Bordir Sconery— Otterburo, 
Jbdbftron^h^ He mains of Drj'burgh Abboy — Tora'i of Sir WulUjr ScoU — Mv'lroae 
AblWy — Chang*'* at Abbotsford— Ttio Pouins and Novoh of Sir Walter Scott 

The family of Sir Walter Scott, at the time of my visit 
Abbotsford in 1818, consisted of himself and Mrs. Scott, 
land Lis four childnin, — all ha evor had, — Sophia, Walter, 
[Anne, mid Charles ; Sophia the oldest, at this time, not being 
juite nineteen years of age* Walter entered the army, after* 
lizards marrit'd, but dii?d ciiildleiss. Chjirle-s, as was inentiuiied 
Hn the fur me r paper, attached himself to thediplnmatiecareor, 
and died young and unmarried ; as did also Anno the young- 
est daughter, who at tho lime of my visit was in her fifteenth 
iyear. Sophia, as is well known, married Mr. Loekhart, who 
was introduced into the family in the summer of 1818- Tluir 
only child, a young lady of the most engaging appearance and 
stimable character, was jitst entering society at tlie period 
I>f my second rc^tidencc in England, — the image of the hively 
fmaidisn whom I had known at Edinburgh and Abbotsford, the 

ill ai!*\'- 

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gvments torn by jamping over the hedges. This gained her 
the title of ^ Lady Bonnierag.'' 

On one of our walks in the fields, we noticed the print of a 
horse's hoof in the Oeaten path. Sir Walter told me that on 
one occasion, in walking, I think he said, with Mr. Southey, 
over the same path, having seen a similar print, he told Mr. 
Soothey— (if he was the person) — that when they got back 
to the house, they should find a certain individual whom he 
named. Mr. Southey asked ^ if he was expected ? " ^ No." 
** Have you any business with him which might require him 
to come and see you ? " " No." " Have you had a second fight 
of him ? " " Neither of these, and yet we shall find him ; " and 
so the event proved, on their •return home. After amusing 
himself with his guest^s wonder, how Sir Walter, under these 
circamstances, at such a distance from his house, which was 
entirely out of sight, could know who had come there, the 
mystery was cleared up. Sir Walter was acquainted with 
the size and shape of the hoof of his visitor's horse. It made 
a print different from that made by any other horse in the 

Some poor person, as we passed along, expressed himself 
in terms of warm gratitude to Sir Walter, for his kind inqui- 
ries after a member of his family who was ill. When we had 
passed on, I made some remark on the strong and apparently 
sincere language of gratitude, which fell from the poor man, 
prompted as I supposed by some former and more important 
acts of kindness on his part. Without particularly replying to 
that suggestion, he said, " for my part, I am more touched with 
the gratitude than the ingratitude of the dependent poor. 
We occasionally hear complaints how thankless men are for 
favors bestowed upon them ; but when I consider that we are 
all of the same flesh and blood, it grieves me more to see 
slight acts of kindness acknowledged with such humility and 
deep sense of obligation." 

Being fresh from a long residence in Germany, I had much 

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«a» -c-u 41 'iJkX \int'. lul" .i;.*: -• \.i: ■ ..:- '■"• 



raUier a narrow strip on the Tweed. It was, I believe, eonsid- 
erablj increased by additional purchases. In its natural teat- 
ureSy when Sir Walter first became possessed of it, there was 
not much that was attractive, except the river. It was nearly 
if not entirely destitute of trees, and the space between the 
road and the Tweed was rather too narrow and the bank too 
stoep, either for entire convenience or beauty. The house 
waa very near the road, and wanted that seclusion which 
forms so much of the charm of rural life. As far as I could 
judge from the appearance of Ashestiel, where Sir Walter 
lived before removing to Abbotsford, the former had the ad- 
vantage in natural beauty. Abbotsford was, however, greatly 
improved by Sir Walter's plantations, and the historical and 
traditionary interest of the spot was to him irresistible. 

But all things on earth must have an end ; and those which 
are most agreeable seem to come to their end the soonest. 
The hours of my last day at Abbotsford passed but too rapid- 
ly, and I took my leave of the family late in the afternoon, 
with a presentiment, too fully verified, that I should never see 
them more. I rode one of Sir Walter's ponies to Selkirk, 
where I had left my baggage in the morning, and there took the 
mail coach to London. 

Sir Walter Scott was at this time forty-seven years of age. 
He looked older, for his hair, though not thin, was gray ap- 
proaching to white. He was tall, full six feet in height, I 
think rather more. He was not very stout for a person of 
his stature, though the framework was that of a large, fully- 
developed man. There was a certain air of heaviness in 
the brow, which in moments of entire mental quiescence 
seemed hardly in character for one of the most brilliant gen- 
iuses, learned antiquaries, and genial temperaments of the 
age. This expression, however, was wholly superficial and 
transient. It was a drop-curtain between the scenes. The 
moment the action of the mind commenced, either in conver- 
sation — ^whether charming the cirdo with the outpourings of 


mm owtk exm a mltm memory or gorgeom nner. or 
to ociieny which hft did with » eourtevr hh 
OMrked a mind ever oo the watch fi>r Mfne aceeakm of ideaa^ 
or in radinir a fiiTorite author to a lymnafhiTing anrfieMe — 
the Tefl was lifted, the espremoa of heaviDev Taniahed. and 
cBei^etie thrwight rajed out from ererr feature. Hia frame 
waa eaac by nature in an afhirtiir moold ; hot in eooaeqnenee 
of «arlj dieeaae the right leg was a little ihorter thaa the kft. 
h aerved him. howerer, with the aid of a cane to walk i^oo, 
and he conld hardly be said to limp. 

Thoo^ a Seotiman bom and bred, to mr that the anthor 
of the -^ Lady of the Lake^ and "^ hranboe'' wis a peHkc 
maater of the Engfah language^ in ita utmost refinement aad 
delicaey, woold be a work of ridieoloos sapererogation. Bat 
t[0r etmrenQlwn, like many^ perhaps most, of his eomitrymen, 
be hwl two dlale^tn. In his family, and tdll more with those 
in a mbordinate station, and persons at work about the hoose 
and the grovmds, he spoke with a Scottish accent, and made 
■se of words pemliar to the lowland Se o ttwh dialect. In 
general conversation, theae c har act e r is tkas were scarcely per- 
ceptible, fine Hcottiah word, however, he freqoaitly used, in 
all the varieties of company in which I saw Um, either at Blin- 
bwgh or in the eoantrj ; namely, " I mind^ lor ^ I rcmerr;b*:r.'^ 

In 1818, the secret of the aothorship o( the novels, if 
secrv.^ it crj^ld be railed, had not been disclosed. Mi>st per- 
sons believed him t^> be the aothor ; I had never doubted it, 
frf»m the appearance of the Antiquary. Some persons, hi>w- 
ever, ilouhu^ it ; s^^rne ascribed them, on the most shadowy 
of foumlati'/DS, U> a bn/tber of Sir Walter, Mr. Thomas Scott, 
a paymaster in the Britifth army, stationed in Quebec ; and 
others spoke of a certain mythical Dr. Greenfield, if I recol- 
lect the name, — whrjse pretensions to the authorship of these 
magnifioent pro^lu/^tions were maintained in some of the third 
rate literary journals of tlie day. llie late Mr. Bandolph, of 
Virgintey thoogb a critical En^ish ecbolar, wa% at ooe time, 



inclined to adopt this wild notion. Long bofore the secret 
was formally disclosed^ few pers*vns nf disc<?rnment or taste, 
in England or Anjcriea, cntertiiined a doubt on the sulijrct. 

With the announcement of ihe secret, and 1 believe sum© 
time before, commenced the pecuiiiury embarrassments of Sir 
Walter, and the convulsive struggles to emerge from tht-m, 
which embittered the last years of tbis noble life, and finally 
brought down bia gray hairs in sorrow to a premature grave. 
The life of Napoleon— a work to make the reputation of an 
ordinary pen — was the first symptom of the stern necessity 
of writing fur money. There is no period of his life at which 
ho inspires & more affectionate, a. more reverent interest, than 
during the last sad laborious years, when he wTote wider the 
incubus of pecuniary distress. It is an interest that quenches 
enticism, and extinguishes pity and sorrow, in admiration 
and gratitude. 

Such as I have described them were Sir ^Walter Soott and 
his family in ISIB. At the time of my second residence in 
England, (1841-45,) parents and children, — the light of the 
age^ the joy and beauty of the domestic circle, — all had passed 
away. Sophia alone survived in her child, the only grand- 
child of Sir Walter Scott, then just entering upon society, 
which she was destined to adorn but for a brief season. Un- 
usually shrinking and timid for a well-bred English maiden, 
she was an object of peculiar interest with all who knew her, 
00 the sole descendant and representative of Sir Walter Scott. 

Toward the close of August, 1844, 1 took advantage of 
the general pause in political and social life, which takes place 
in London fit that season, to make a short tour to the North. 
Leaving New-Castle on the morning of the 29th of August^ 
we soon entered the region of the moors ; a lilgh, nndnJating 
country, destitute of trees, but covered with bracken and 
heather stUl in bloom, and tinting the sloping surfaces, undej" 
a favorable light, with that exquisite purple, whicb almost 
makes up for tho want of woodlands in a Scottish landscape. 



About Otter lnirn, \vhiek tells you in its name that you have 
entered the junsdiction of Scott's rausc, plantations and farms 
begin. We passed througli Jedborough in tho afternoon. 
On the left, as you enter the town, are the rums of the Ab- 
bey, in the aisle of which Thomson went to school. Passing 
Ancrum moor, a bridge crosses the Tcviot, where ** English 
blood swtdled Ancruiii fird/* The remains of Dryburgh 
Abbey form a fitting preparation for a visit to Abhotsford, 
The bridge built by the Earl of Buehan, over the Tweed, was 
carried away a few years beforCj and we erosscd the river, as 
clear as glass, in a boat. The evening was calm, and the sun 
was just sinking behind the middle peak of the Eildon hills, 
whose sharp outline formed an iodesenbably graceful back- 
ground. An air of desolate seclusion hangs over the remains 
of the Abbey, Of great beauty in themselves, they were 
sadly disfigured by soma attempts at restoration. Scott's 
place of rest (St. ^fary^s aisle) had at tliat time a forlorn 
look. There was nothing in the way of a nionument to des- 
ignate or adorn it ; not even a slab to protect it, 

Wc had fortunately engagetl rooms in adA'ance at the only 
decent inn at Melrose, and after supping, went out at nine 
o'clock to seu the Abbey. The moon was at the full — a har- 
vest moon ; it was impossible to see the venerable ruins to 
greater advantage. IIow many years, wliat varied scenes 
had filled the interval since my former visit 1 A venerable 
female cicerone perlormed her duty with no little propriety, 
reciting the appropriate passages from " The Lay of tlie Last 
Minstrel," with a good English cadence. The churchyard 
was cold and damp, and wo soon took rtfuge in the interior. 
The broken fragments which 1 had noticed at my former visit 
seemed to have been somewhat cleared away. Time had evi- 
dently been gently carrying on the wtu k begun by violence in 
the border wars, and accelerated, I believe, by the stern icon- 
oclasm of the Reformation. The ancient Abbey has, how. 






ever, at some subsequent period, l>ocn partially covered in, 
and used for Protestaot worship. 

Tlie next diiy we visited Abbotsfln'd ; where eliaiiges of 
every kind had taken phice in twenty-six years, since my 
former \*jsit. The phuitations had been greatly extended even 
tluring Sir Walter's lifetime ; the hall, the armory, and 
library were iin finished, and but partly furnished, when 1 saw 
them before. But the saddest ehange was the absence of 
those— the venerated, the joyous, the lovely — ^who fdled tlie 
dwelling with ligrht and happiness. The desolate wpartments 
were kept iu perfect order ; the innumerable objects of tmie^ 
and of antiquarian and historical interest contained in thetn, 
admirably preserved and arranged, but I could contemplato 
them only with feelings of overwhelming sadness. 

The rising generation of readers do not know what w^e 
enjoyed, what they can never enjoy with the zest of a fresh 
appearance and contemporary perusal, in the poems and 
novels of Sir Walter Scott. The '* Lay of the Last Minstrel " 
was the first of his ATorks which attracted genera! notice on 
this side of the Atlantic, abfiut the year 1806. It rose at 
once to an unexampled popularity. It was probably the first 
English poetry which was as extensively read and relished, 
at the time of its appearance, on this side of the Atlantic as 
at home* "Marmion" and the *' Lady of the Lake'' f«>lb>wed 
with sustained, perhaps augmented, reputation. *' Rokeby " 
and the *' Lord of the Isles " with some abatement of popu- 
larity, — all within about six years. The reader who takes up 
the series of Seo!t*s poems, now-a-days, and goes through 
them as one of the volumes of the British classics, can form 
but a faint conception of the eagerness with which they were 
welcomed as they came successively fresh from the press. 
Overshadowed by the immense fa%'or with wliich Childo 
Harold and the other works of Byron were received, Scott 
retired almost wholly from the field of poetry, and soon com* 
mcQced the still more wonderfully successful series of his 



novels. A strict incognito was at first observed, and a degree 
of mystery was for several years kept up ; but the authorship 
of the novels gradually, and with many readers speedily, 
ceased to bo a matter of serious question. There were many 
strong grounds for ascribing them to Sir Walter, — the choice 
of localities and topics, when the scene was laid in Scotland ; 
— the peculiar tone of the nationality ; many striking coinci- 
dences with his avowed works, — and, on any other supposi- 
tion, the strange and persistent inactivity of his pen, in the 
face of daily increasing external evidence of profitable author- 
ship. There was just doubt enough to add the element of 
curiosity to the eager interest with which each delightful work 
in the series was successively received. That charm is broken, 
and new and not undeserving favorites in the department of 
fiction solicit the public attention. The taste of the reading 
world is cloyed with the excess of this fascinating diet , and 
the delight with which a new " Waverley Novel " was wel- 
comed, is buried in the grave of their illustrious author. 



Imprcutouft of the French revutiitlon detived frntn Btirko — Fre&tsiitatloD at court tn 
Francft in ISIS — Court dress and diplotnAtio unJfbrtu^Mr. GoUaHd and l-Ltc atnbu- 
itttdoni* roce[>tlon— AppoArancc of LoiiU XVHL— DuctesJS d'Angrjulilme — Duko 
d^AngODldtno— Tko Count d'Artols cdlcrwikrda Cbar1«« X. — Tho Duke de B«rrt 
And tbo Dochfiss— 'Fortitudn «f ih& DuckeM when hor bosbaud iru Maaaiiiiat«d, 
and hcT heroic ccDduct in 1632 — Concealed at NAutus behind the bock nf q, Qto- 
pbeo for fifteen hours— The Kinjr ond Count d'ArtolfidAdoacTlbedbf Burke-— - 
Tli« fbrtUDeJi of th43 DachdiA d^i Beirl, 

It was mentioned in a former num])er, that I arrived in 
Eiuropo in the spring of 1815, just at the time of the escape 
of Napoleon from El ha, aotl wiis a near witness of the fuml 
catastrophe of tliat world-drama^ of which he was the hero. 
Being in Paris three years aftt^rwards, 1 was curious to ob* 
servOj a little more elosdy than it mm be done through the 
columns of the newspapers, the state of things width had 
succeeded the imperial regime, Tha downfall of Napoleon, 
and the restoration of the ancient family to the thrfine of 
France wore, to a youthful judgment at least, the appear aneo 
of a great act of retributive justice in the government of the 
worM. Tlie opinions of the French revolution, which pre- 
vailed among the young men of my age as well in Americii 
as England, were mainly derived from the study of the ^Tit- 
ings of Burke. We transferred to the entire Revoltitioii, and 
to its effects on the condition of France, the frightful picture 
drawn l»y his master pen of the reign of terror; and we ex- 
pected to find, at the Court of the Restoration, a re\i%'nl of 


the gorgeous illusions which he has thrown round that beau- 
tiful and unfortunate Queen, whoso memory he has crowned 
with a brighter diadem than ever sparkled on the brow of 
living monarch. One glance behind the scenes was sufficient 
to dispel the error. About the middle of March, 1818, Mr. 
Gallatin, at that time the Minister of the United States at the 
Court of France, kindly proposed to present my travelling 
companion (the late General Lyman) and myself to the 
King and the other members of the Royal Family, at one of 
the regular receptions of the diplomatic body. This ceremo- 
nial required a court dress ; and for this, not choosing to be 
at the expense of one myself, I was indebted to the liberality 
of several friends, whose joint contributions furnished a very 
tolerable, though not entirely homogeneous, costume for the 
occasion. We are inclined, on this side of the Atlantic, to 
look with some disdain on diplomatic uniforms, and court 
dresses. They have, at times, been put under the ban of 
authority, and the supposed simplicity of Franklin's dress, as 
the American Minister at the Court of Versailles, has been 
held up for imitation. But though Franklin's dress was 
undoubtedly simple in comparison with the uniforms, which 
stood alone with gold lace, worn by his European colleagues, 
it was far enough from the austere plainness which is com- 
monly thought. It consisted of purple velvet garments, 
white silk hose, and a dress sword. Official costumes, like 
the other incidents and appendages of place, are of>vn no 
doubt greatly caricatured in Europe ; but uniformity in dre^s 
has its use in checking the absurd extravagances of individual 
taste and want of taste, nowhere more signally an<l ridicu- 
lously displayed than in the adornments of the outer man. 
The uniform of the American Minister on this occasion, (as 
I believe on all occasions and at all courts,) was remarkable 
for nothing but its modest simplicity ; just serving the 
designed purpose of avoiding the singularity of citizens' com- 
mon clothing when every one else is in official dress. 



At twelve o'clock Mr. Gallatin took us in his carriage to 
the Tuilerios, having three days before announced our names 
f^>r prcsentiitlon. We were ushered on arriving into iho 
Ambassadors* Iml!, where the repreaentutives of the various 
governments of Europe were assembling, Mr; Gallatin was 
treated by them all in a manni^r which indicated full appreci- 
ation of his great ability and sterliug worth. His mastery of 
the French language, of eoursc, placed bim on a IVioting of 
familiarity with his colleagues ; and his great sagacity and 
experience and the known moderation of Ids views, gave un- 
usual importance and currency to his opinions in the diplo- 
matic circles. There was a small side table in the comer of 
the apartment, from %vhicli coffee was served to those %vho 
wished it. Shortly aRer our aiTival we were introduced to 
the Chamberlain in attendance, 

A rct»eption of this kind was held by the King and the 
other members of the Royal Family every otlicr Thursday, 
mainly for the dipkmiatic corps, and it was considered a 
matter of course, that the f^ircign ministers and ambassadors 
should give their attendance. This tliey never failed to do, 
unless specially prevented, Tiie occasion served them as an 
agreeable rendezpouSj at which they not only exchanged the 
current news of their different countries, but were able to give 
an impulse to matters of business, which might be pending 
between the ditTercnt legations. Of tins there is always a 
great amount between the European Ministers^— and c<:>m- 
mercial relations, and the convenience and wants of travelling 
countrymen, furnish the American ^Minister with many occa- 
sions to serve his countrymen with his colleagues. The half 
hour of attendance in the hall of the ambassadors before pro- 
ceeding to the throne-room was profitaldy employed in this 
way. At length an usher, with his rod of office, announced 
that the King was ready, and led the way to the presence 
chamber. As he passed the guards at the doorways he said, 
" Messieurs les Ambassadeurs ; '* and, under his gindance, we 



fikO':?^ tiid>:i*rt £rrjar»!i t2iecs«^€» in » •eniJcr'Ji?:. 

i^ru^^l^ii {yT yr^^^jf^L^-*:^ -r^ii'^ f.m «*:• j^^^nikkect x pan </ 
tL% -ijf >,«r-aJ:it ii*!y-rT r^ S'-^ni^fT tirDei. sad c^xsi l«d to 

CMS iiJxiiis:^^' i0Uy>l liy-zw* be- irjsi to jTesen. Mr. GftZisiix'ft 

tksfkih hsA fAA ^ii^ n9^/r*A Kir-? ^A Yraxft isiist be: m 
•XjiTy*^^y: pri-'j*;. il-m-i V* ",?: L ,T%e wjt- Lcck the EaciitaesdL 
m ffr.afif'^^ifiu>: 'A j^vv>^ \z£:r:i^i\j^ erxijd -B-iifc difin^tj be 
^^>A \zi %, fULTTjiZjr. H': Trjt% ra:ber imdcT six feet in he%sb^ 
Jtryj o'/fp'jj*^^*, i'.^ -sTilicfrd '■■rth diffienltr; his roc&d u>i 
•<>r/.^rv*^t '2f.r;,i^^:r.;? £^'>; izidieatixkir aa amiable dis|K«:Dcc 
♦/?#♦ xyt h^s^i^T'ti of '^iiiira^t^. Had be aaomded tbe tbrcAe ic 
'jt;>i tl/r><^. aryi In tb^ Rjsaaral order of luewinn, be po6- 
^^im^ a UTr,j>?r af,d ^itaractcr to imore a pr osptroos reign. 
B«t tb#; rr.'At '^.\niff-\'!fi and impfjmg pera oca l ooalitKes wotlH 
hard!;/ fiAv*? j^aln/rd popularitr f>r a king. rest<T€»i at the 
jxyjr.t of fvr<y;^ baroneCa, recking from battles fatal to the 
pr3d^ arid power of France. Bat in all sadi qualities Louis 
ti^: K'yjitU^fmthf broken bv mwfortuKe and disease, was whoUv 

ll'r 'AiiA dr^?«w/-d in a bla** rroat and sniall-clothes ; a white 
Mar»4^fi!l':u v*^*, whi^-h w*^^Jd have fitted a vrny rnn^^-h larsrer 
UAu. htA H*oui hri«war b^x/^.-. Uc wore tbe English order of 
'Jift j^art/r ; and %n\'\r'trtttt\ birnself with a cane, lieinff stitf in 
'^H ktttvt',^ tuA a (Treat wifThrtir by gout. He be^ran with the 
Mardjnian AmbaMadr/r, at tbe right, and passed round the 
^rde^ mjhif a few worda t^> each of tbe miniatersy and bow- 


ing to those presented by him. IIa^^ng gone the rounds, he 
bowed to the circle and retired. 

We were then conducted through a long suite of apart- 
ments to the reception room of the Duchess d'Angouleme, 
the daughter of Louis the Sixteenth and Mai-ie Antoinette, and 
wife of the Duke d'Angouleme, the king's nephew. In Eng- 
land she would have been Queen instead of Louis the Eigh- 
teenth ; but the Salic law excluded her from the throne of 
France. At this time she was forty years old. Her face 
was neither beautiful nor pleasant ; the lines were hard ; the 
eye indescribably sad ; the expression austere. Like several 
of her family, she was said to be very devout. She entered 
France, conducted herself with heroism beyond the men of her 
kindred, and rallied the friends of the family, when the tide 
turned against Napoleon. She had not, unfortunately, any 
more than its other members, succeeded in gaining any degree 
of popular favor. I could not, however, but look upon her 
with respect. She had shared that terrible imprisonment in 
the Temple, suffering for the want of the decent comforts of 
life, and had seen her father and mother led out to the guil- 
lotine. She had seen the poor little dauphin, her brother, 
daily subjected to the vilest indignities, and most cruel hard- 
ships ; and had lived herself in hourly expectation of sharing 
the atrocious fate of her parents. These surely were titles to 
sympathy if not to favor. She conversed a little more at 
length with the ministers, and addressed a few words to those 
introduced by them. " Are you an American 1 Are you 
just arrived in Paris?" were the questions which she address- 
ed in French to me. After having gone the rounds of the 
circle, she returned to her position at the head of the room, 
from which the company retired backward. Her husband 
was the Duke d'Angouleme, the oldest son of the Count 
d'Artois, the king's brother. 

We were next conducted to the presence of the Duke 
d' Angouldme ; a short thin man of extremely ordinary ap- 


pearance ; dressed in the uniform of a colonel of cavalry, 
with hussar boots and spurs. He appeared to affect a sort of 
military freedom and pleasantry in his remarks to the min- 
isters, occasionally breaking into something of a laugh, in 
striking contrast with the severity that marked the mamicrs 
of his wife, whom we had just quitted. Ho conversed with 
Mr. Gallatin, as the duchess had also done, on a violent gale 
which had lately visited the northern departments of France. 
His questions to me were, " Have you been long at Paris 1 " 
and " Are you attached to the Legation of the United 

The apartments of the Duke and Duchess d'Angouldme 
were in the pavilion of Flora, as it is called, the wing of the 
palace nearest the Seine. We were next conducted across 
the entire extent of the CAstlc, to the pavilion of Marsan, 
occupied by the king's brother the Count D'Artois, after- 
wards the successor of Louis XVIII. as Charles the Tenth. 
He was by fur the best loc»king of the Koyal Family ; in 
person slight but well made ; active and graceful in move- 
ment ; and (Burke's desideratum for a restored Bourbon) a 
good horseman. Aware no doubt of the importance of mak- 
ing the most of this hold upon the imaginations of the French 
populace, he almost livc^d in the saddle. He would have been 
thought a man of fair appearance in any society ; though his 
countenance was ordinary and meaningless. He was said to 
be moderately popular ; — more liberal in his political opin- 
ions, and more conciliatory in his temper, than his children. 

We were next conducted to the apartments of the Duke 
de Berri, the second son of the Count d'Artois ; — short and 
stout in person ; hearty in manner, and a good deal l>etter 
looking than his older brother, the Duke d'Angouleme. Ho 
was the only one of the family who spoke to me in English, 
which he did with ease and a good accent. Tlie late storiu 
still furnished the staple of the conversation ; and he repeated 
the account which his Either had given of a violent gale at 


Versailles, a year or two before, which had blown down a 
part of the palace. He was assassinated two years after- 
wards, in the streets of Paris, at the door of the opera-house, 
and in the presence of his wife, by a madman named Louvel. 
Being considered as the hope of the reigning family, his death 
was a very serious blow to its stability, and was consequently 
ascribed to the procurement of its political enemies, but it 
seems to have been the w^ork of a feeble intellect, thrown 
from its balance by the violence of party passion. 

After ha\-ing passed round the circle, the Duke de Bern 
retired for a moment, and re-entered with his wife, the daugh- 
ter of the Prince Royal of Naples, and sister of the present 
king of that country. She had been married about two 
years^ and was then twenty years old. She looked embar- 
rassed and terrified ; and rather crept than walked round the 
cirde, not addressing more than half the Ministers, nor look- 
ing them in the face. She wore a dark purple dress, with 
heavy steel ornaments, which gave her a bluish ghostly look. 
She was attended by three maids of honor, one of whom, by 
her dazzling beauty and exquisite grace, formed a strange 
contrast with her mistress. 

The Duchess de Berri, notwithstanding her unpromising 
appearance at this time, is not to be mentioned without 
respect. When her husband was struck by the assassin, 
instead of yielding to the terror which, especially in her 
situation at that time, might well have been pardoned, she 
sprang from her carriage, and, tearing the sash from her 
waist, strove to bind up the Prince's wounds, from which 
streams of blood flowed upon her as she held him in her 
arms. Six months after his death, she gave birth to the 
Duke de Bordeaux, the present representative of the elder 
branch of the house of Bourbon, under the name of Henry 
the Fifth. When that branch fell by the Revolution, which 
placed the head of the younger branch, the late Louis Phil- 
ippe, on the throne, she alone displayed the manly qualities 



The narrative, afler so many years, may seem somewhat arid 
and uninteresting, but at that time the restoration of the 
Bourbons, and indeed the stupendous tragedies of the reign of 
terror, were events so recent, as to impart some degreo of 
painful interest^ even to a merely ceremonial occasion of this 
kind. One could not help scrutinizing; the features of the 
Duchess d'AngouIemc, to see if they reflected, iu any tlefl^ree^ 
the radiance of that '^ delightful vision," which kindled the 
imagination of Burke. Is tliis strif ken woman, Avhose bard 
features and tearful eyes awaken mingled aversion and pity, 
the child of that youtliful niotiier, whom tlio greatest of 
modem orators saw and wondered at '*just above the hor- 
izon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she had just 
begun to move in, — glittering like the morning star, full of 
life, splendor, and joy " 1 Is the person, who, twenty-fiva 
years ago, was pronounced by Burke to bo, nowithBtarulinc: 
some human frailties, a '' character full of probity, honor, gen- 
erosity, and rea! goodness," excelling Louis XVI. '* in general 
knowledge, and in a sharp and keen observation, with some- 
thing of a better address, and a happier mode of speaking and 
writmg ; his conversation open, agreeable, and well informed ; 
his manner gracious and princely," is he the shattered form 
that stands before us, advanced in years, laden with infirm- 
ities, with little personal dignity, and no influence in his 
government, once driven from the throne to which foreign 
armies had conducted him, and still holding it by a most 
precarious tenure] Is all that remains of that Cttunt d' Artois, 
"eloquent, lively, engaging in tho highest degree, of a decided 
character, full of energy and aeti\'ity ; tJie brave, honorable, 
and accomplished cavalier," to be found in that unimposing 
and insignificant presence, destined in a few years to mount 
the throne, only to be dri%*en from it by his own kinsman, 
into im unpitied exile 1 la this timid little foreigner, that 
scarce sustains herself as she makes the circuit of her draw- 
ing-room, destined to be the mainstay and hope of the oldest 



of the Royal houses of Europe ; and we may now, after the 
event, well exclaim with astonishment, is she, daughter of one 
crown priiico, wile of another, to strive in vain, in two years, 
to stanch her husband's life-blood, as it flows beneath the 
assassin's dagger ; and is she literally doomed in twelve 
years more to pass tlwough a fiery furnace in order to escape 
the pursuers who are dogging her by order of her Royal 
relative, who has seated himself on the throne to which her 
son is the " legitimate " heir 1 What a shocking sight for 
men and angels, a widowed mother of the presumptive heir 
to the throne of Franco half baked alive, not under Marat, 
Danton, or Robespierre, but under the reign of a wise and 
dement prince, her kinsman ! 



Lord Enlu&e sud ^j Lord Campl-ri: to Ltre ^«Tt<d iL* lIb«rtJ«« <^ ii» O'vcsUy-^IIls 
testlm«BT to WwtixtrUm— Sk«^li «f hl§ lifo— TL« £vi of BIM:hlU)-'^'arTW dr* 
cnHHiaocs «r tbe fuBil j — ^E&ten tike iutt— OiI^aiiI anbodvl* «f Ut i»ttnr«jrlaf 
tLe ooaA <d Fkirid* — pMMf fivm like zttrj t^ ti*« anux— ConoBMriaOM tut t/UiAf 
ti dke Irv— Biilliurt dt-bcl is the Green vic^ Honpita] cin Hit <rvjD Miovwxt </ 
tbe ansater is TrLicii be eaae to be retaiaed ia titat rtnn Ertmct frou tib* 
jmmp'Lkti Km ij Liai to G^smtiJ iriibLlii{1>i>s — liu trilnxt* tu Waidtui^jtsi «si 1JU» 

C^sTE of the noblest tesstimonies to tL* cLariicU'r of Wa*b- 
ixigy.m is tbat <:«f I>jrd Krhkmt. It is written ou a blank ienf 
in k yT^ise3i^LX.yji^ cvjpy of ai jiamj^et by Liurj, puhllbhitA in 
11 iC. aotd «Dtitled ** a view of iLa causes «iid oouiKXjueiAoes <ji 
iLe jtresent war witb FraiK*/' Tb^ Jitii* voJujik; purport* 
tC' be erf" tbe tw€iffiTT-«>ix>!ttd editioD- and it is eald to Lave 
rwiubttd tbe tbirrT-seryErtii edition- Tbe c^'v jm rju**tiojL was 
wen: bj Lord liLrKkiwf to GetiemJ Wayliiii^.m, and i^ «uU 
j^renarred at MiJum V^ruin:- IJef'.>re ou<'.»tiii;? tiiit reiuarka^jik; 
t.*;stimaiiy. itrt ut^ fxju'\^ii:yiu.Vfr. for a f^-w iu'.»Du*art*- itt iilub- 
triauf autbc»r. wb.»u: tbe j»re*«m Lord Obief Justioe <rf* JBki^' 
land jjronciuD'jW' the "^ brifrbtem t»nuaiieiit <.if wbi*jb tbe Ftfiglwih 
liar esD buast :"** — ^wbc- •• aav^jd tbe libtrtiw of bis oouirtni'.*^ 

He was b^»ni (bbvs Lord Campwslj) ol tbe Kftb day </ 
January, IT^L He states bima^lf iii a ineuiorauduai <tiit> 
taittd tc» Mr. Baniue: iiopers. of wbidi a cs^.rjn- iiw beslore iw:, 
and to wbidi J abaU prewaitly returu. xv bare b«Jt bom oti 
tbe Slat irf Janua'7-- 3T4V. He was tbe y ouiijEwat of tbe aoiHs 
of tbe tentb ear] of Bucban, iiis oldest brgtbur beii^ t^ £ad 



of Buchaii, who sought to gain notoriety as the correspondent 
of Washington ; and whoso egTCgious vanity led him to aver 
that tht^ most eminent men wore usually childless, as evinced 
by the three greatest men of the age, Frederic the Second, 
General Washington, and himself. 

TFrc family of Thomas, afterwards Lord Erskine, was of 
ncible, nay royal, descent, but, at the time of his birth, 
had €iink into vefj straitened circumstances. Although he 
early showed himself a bright IsmJ, it was not ia the power of 
his parents to educate him for a profession, their frugal means 
having been exhausted in bestowing that advantage on his 
older brother, Henry, who rose to eniinenco as a lawyer, 
Thomas was forced to choose between the nrmy and the navy. 
lie strongly preferred the former, as likely to afford, in the 
leisure of country quarters, greater opportunity for the im- 
provement of his mind. Circumstances, however, made it 
necessary for liim to adopt the other branch of the service, 
and at tlie age of j^mrteen he entered the navy as a midship- 
man on board *' The Tartar " man-of-war, commanded by Sir 
David Lindsay. Lord Campbell, in his biography of Lord 
Erskine, say^, " it is wonderful to think, that the period of his 
life, during which almost all those w hose progress to great- 
ness I have described, were stimulated to lay in stor^ of 
knowledge at public schools and universities, was pfiased by 
Erskine in the hold of a man-of-war or the barracks of a 
marchitig regiment. But his original passion for iniclleetuiil 
distinction was only rendered more ardent by the difliculties 
that threatened to extinguish it." 

He remained four years on board the '' Tartar,'* cruising 
In the West India seas and on the coast of America. Having 
liad the good fortune to make Lord Erskine*s acquaintance in 
London in the spring of 1818, I heard him say, on one occa- 
sion, that he had a very accurate knowledge of some portions 
of America* having, while he was in the navy, been employed 
in a survey of the coast of Florida ; and that, while erigagud 


in that dutj, ** ke had turned oyer every muscle that lay gap- 
ing on the shore ! " During his cruise he became an acting 
lientenont ; but on his return to England his ship was paid 
oS^ and, owing to the great niunber that stood above him on 
the list, he failed to obtain a lieutenant^s commission. Deter- 
mined not to sink back to the rank of midshipman, he aban- 
doned the navy, and obtained the commission of Ensign in 
the *• Royals " or first Regiment of foot. His father was 
just dead, and the purchase of this commission absorbed the 
whole of Thomas' patrimony. 

For two years his regiment was quartered in various 
country towns of England, in one of which, at the age of 
twenty, and with no establishment but Ensign's pay, he fell 
in love with a young lady of respectable connections and 
estimable character, and married her. 

This imprudent marriage turned out auspiciously. The 
young couple lived in uninterrupted harmony. His regiment 
being ordered to Minorca, Mrs. Erskine accompanied her 
husband to that island. In this secluded spot he passed two 
years, insulated from the world ; but they were no doubt, as 
is remarked by Lord Campbell, " the most improving years 
he ever spent." Laboriously and systematically ho went 
through a course of English literature. Shakespeare and 
Milton, Dryden and Pope, were his favorite authors. He 
occasionally showed the versatility of his powers by acting as 
chaplain to his regiment At first he confined himself to 
reading the Liturgy of the church of England, but as his men 
were mostly Presbyterians and discontented with the use of a 
printed form of worship, ho "favored them," says Lord 
Campbell, "with an extempore prayer, and composed ser- 
mons, which he delivered to them with great unction from 
the drum-head." 

The regiment returned to England in 1772, and Ensign 
Erskine obtained a leave of absence for six months. He 
availed himself of this opportunity to mingle in general 



society, and produced quite a sensation in London ^* hy his 
agreeable manners and graceful Yolubillt}-/* Bos well men- 
tions seeing him at dinner in company with Dr* Johzison^ 
with w hom the bold young officer Tentured to engage in argu- 
ment, first on the comparative merits of Fielding and Kich- 
ardson, and then on the miraculous destruction of the army 
of Sennacherib, in the Old Testament, lie combated willi 
success Johnson*s absurd paradox, that Fielding iras *'a 
blockhead ^* and '' a barren rascal ;^^ but wandered out of 
his depth on the subject of the Assyrian catastroplia. 

In 1772 he wrote a pamphlet, which attracted attantiop, 
on abuses in the army, and in 1774 he rose to ih# rank of 
Lieutenant. In August of that year, having attended a trial 
under Lord Mansfield (with whom he was acquainted) as 
presiding judge, and feeling tliat he could have argued the 
dtiae himself, — stronger as he was to the forum, — better than 
the counsel on either side, he conceived the thought of another 
change of profession, and determined to study the law. Lord 
Mansfield, the saiao clay. Invited him to diimer, and, being 
greatly struck with his conversation, and pleased with his 
manners, detained him till late in the evening. The ambi- 
tious lieutenant ventured to confide his newly formed purpose 
to the veteran magistrate, with his rtiosons in favor of its 
adoption* He was not discouraged by Lord Mans6eld, who 
only counselled him to take the advice of his mother and 
other near relations. The project was warmly approved by 
his mother. 

lie wa^ unable to eJtecute his purp<:»se till the following 
spring, when he was admitted as a student at Lincoln's Inn. 
The following January he was matriculated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, thus, in name at least, at the age of twenty- 
five, beginning academical and professional education at the 
same time. The former, however, though ho kept his rooms 
at Cambridge, was but a nominal aifair j ho was^ as being of 
noble family, entitled to his degr^ without examination ; and 


m dtts wmj was able to cut off two of the fixe years of law 
st^y, wfaicii would otherwise have been i\>qiiired of turn be- 
fore he <»aid be called to the bar. 

By this narrow chance was Lord Erskine enabled to eutnr 
d>e pro&ssion in which he earned so brilliant a reputatii«i« 
and which carried him to the wool-sack. lie was admitted a 
student of Lincoln's Inn just one week atW the ci>mmoiHV. . 
ment of hostilities at Le^ngton. Had he retained his com- 
misfflon in the army but a few days longer, the news that the 
war had brok^i out would have reached Great Britain, and it 
would have been impossible for him to resign it with crediU 
He must have taken the chance of active service in America, 
and all thoughts of the future Chancellorship would ha\*e >*nn- 
ished like a sick man^s dreams. For throe years that he was 
studying the law he lived in great poverty, on borrowed 
money, in small lodgings, near Uampstead, practising painful 
economies in food and clothing, and compressing the greatest 
gratitude to the manager of the Covent Garden for occasional 
firee admissions to the theatre. 

He was called to the bar in July, 1778, and sprang at one 
bound to practice, fortune, and fame. His first retmner, pro- 
cured by a fortunate accident, before he was actually admitted 
to the bar, was as junior Counsel, with four Counsel learned 
in the law, to precede him. It was the &mous cause of the 
Greenwich Hospital. Captain Baillie^ deputy governor of 
that institution, had written a pamphlet exposing the gn^ss 
abuses which had crept into its administration, and reflecting 
with great, but just, severity upon Lord Sandwich, the first 
Lord of the Admiralty, and several subordinate officials. 
For this publication, Captain Baillio was suspended, and 
some of the underlings (at the instigation of Lord Sandwich) 
obtained a rule, to show cause, at next Michaelmas term, why 
a criminal information should not be filed against Captain 
Baillie for a libel. 

Lord Campbell relates in some detail the manner of 




Erskine^B being retained in this memorable cause, but I am 
able to state it in some points more circumstantially from a 
momoranilura dictatod by Lord Ersktne liiinself to Mi\ 
Samuel Rogers, in 1810, and copied liy me with Mr. Roger?** 
permission. As this memorandum has never, to my knowl- 
eilge, been published, it will, I think, interest the reader. 

•* On a Sunday lo June, 1778, I was engaged to ditio Twith Agar, in 
New Norfolk street, who Imd become acquuiDted with me iit Tunbridge 
Welb^ but I woi pereuadod by a young num^ Williara Lyon, an Attor- 
ney, to walk as fur aa Enfichl Cbaae, and dino with Mr. Barnes^ a wine 
merchant in St* Mary Axe, reniarkabk* for tlie excellence of hia cla- 
rets When half way, he [Lyon] challenged me to leap over a ditch by 
the road Hide. I leapt over it, hut in returning, the bank gave way, and 
I fell and Bprmiiicd my ancle. The ex|x^dition was over, 1 could pro- 
ceed no farther, and returned in a stage coach, ■ • • My wife was 
confined at thia time, and at her euggestioa I rcsolred to keep roy en- 
gagement at Agar*ei. She said I was justly punished, and I felt that 1 

** When I arrived, the dinner was begun, A t&Il man drew Ills chair 
(islde and I went into the gap. He talked much about the pictures, and 
so did I, though I knew little of the subject, turning that little to as 
good an accotint as I could. When diuner was over, he drew Agar 
iiside, and asked who I was. Agar »aid I was a lawyer, and said much 
in my favor. ' Could he be prevailed upon to take a brief from my bro- 
ther 1^ * ^ Perhaps he could ^'' said Agar in bis pompous manner* 

" I knew nothing of this coavcreation ; but the ncit day, mj servant 
John Nichols, who had served under me in * the Royals/ and who, when 
he 6ct my books in order, used always to place the Bible a*top^ as that, 
he said, was the best book, told me^ when ho opened the door, that I 
must be in another scrape ^ for a cross, ill-looking man, in a largo, gold 
hiced, cocked hat, had been twice inquiring for rac. * He insists^ sir, 
upon seeing you, and is at this moment waiting for you in Bloomsburj 
Square Coffce*hou»c/ I went there, and thc^re 1 found an old seamaii, 
with a furrowed face. He was pitting gloomily in one of the boxes, with 
a small red trunk on the table before him, and hid sword Ijing OD the 
trunk. I raentioned my name. He eaid, * There nre mj papers ; wUl 
yon read them over?* It ended in my taking them home. I was to bo 
called to the bar in a few days, (CSth of tf uly,) and at a consultation held 
on the first of November, IJcarcroft, Pcckham, and Murphy wcro for 



cooientiiig to a compromise, our client to pay all costs. ' My advice, 
gentlemen,' I said, * may savor more of my late profession than of my 
present, but I am against consenting.* * Til be d — if I do,* said Baillic, 
and he hugged me in his arms, saying, * You are the man for me.' * Then 
the consultation is over,' said Bcarcrofl. *■ It is,' I replied, ' let us walk 
in the gardens.' 

" When the cause came on, the Senior Counsel exhausted the day and 
the patience of the Court. It grew dusk and my time arrived, when 
Lord Mansfield adjourned. I began next morning fresh and before a 
fresh audience. All crowded around me, and when it was over, Sir 
Archibald McDonald had known me at school, Lee had known my 
father at Harrowgate, and that night I went home and saluted my wife, 
with sixty-five retaining fees in my pocket. Had I not taken a noble- 
man's degree of M. A., I could not have been called to the bar for two 
years later. I was then in my 30th year, having been born on the 21st 
of January, 1749." • • * 

At the foot of this memorandum, Air. Rogers had written 
" Dictated by him " (Lord Erskine) " to me, as I sat with 
my pen in my hand, after dinner in St. James place, in 
1816." S. R. 

This account, it will be perceived, differs in some details 
from that of Lrord Campbell, who relates with greater fulness 
the manner in which the cause was argued by the Senior 
Counsel. It seems altogether to have been an extraordinary 
affair, and not the least remarkable part of it, according to 
our practice, is, that a young man, just admitted to the bar, 
should have made the closing speech. 

Of this speech, so well known in the records of legal 
oratory, Lord Campbell remarks that " the impression made 
upon the audience is said to have been unprecedented ; and I 
must own that, all the circumstances considered, it is the 
most wonderful forensic eff<^rt, of which we have any account 
in our annals." It was a fitting commencement of that noble 
career, which boasts for its crowning glories the vindication 
of the trial by Jury in all its efficiency, the establishment of 
the Liberty of Speech and the Press in all its perfection, and 
the annihilation of the abuse of constructive treasons. This 



wonderful speech gained for Erskiue, at one bl<nv, tht; repiita- 
tiou of a consimiiniite advocate. 

In the pamplilct named at the commencement of iLe ar- 
ticle, its author makes tho following allusion to Wasbiiigton : 

**The pretence of a war waged against opinions, to cheeky as is alleg- 
ed^ tho contagion of their prop&gationf Is equally scn^elQSa nnd ex.- 
travagant. The same reason might cquallj have united all nations in 
all titnea, against the pro^reAsivc changes which have conducted u»i- 
tiotis from barharism toli^bt^ aad from despotism to freedom. It ought 
indiflsolubl/ to have combined tlie Catholic kingdonis to wtige «temnl 
war, till the principles of the reformation, loading to n new civil estab- 
ILshinent, had been ahandoued. It should have kept the sword uu- 
Bhcalhcd^ till the United Provinces returned to the subjection of Spain ; 
until King William's litlo and the establishment of the British Revolu- 
tion had given way to the per^sons and prerogatives of the Stuarts; and 
until Waflhington» instead of yielding up tho cause of a Bepubltcaa 
empire to a virtuous and a free People, in the face of an admiring and 
astonished world, should have been dniggod as a traitor to the bar of 
the Old Bttilcy and bid body quartered on Tower IM.'^ 

A copy of this pamphlet, handsomely bound in green 
morocco, ^as sent l>y Lord Ei'skino to Gen«}ral Washington, 
by the hand of Mr. Bond, of Philadelphia, with tlio following 
letter written on the blank page. General Washington's let- 
ter of acknowlcdi^mcnt will be found in his works, Vol. XL, p. 

Ta General Wa&hington, 

Sir — I have taken the liberty to introduce your august and immortal 
name, in a short eenteoce, which is to be found in the book I send to 
you. I have a large acquaintance among the mo2«t valuable and exalted 
chifses of men ; but you are the only human being for whom I ever felt 
an awful reverence, I sincerely pray God to grant a long and serene 
evening to a hfe so gloriously devoted to the universal happiacss of tho 
world, Tp £bsiu5E* 

London^ 15 Marchy 179T. 





An inqniry Into the caiucs of tho distresa of tho year 1S57 proposed— DifQcalty of 
tho InreBtlgation— Tho facts of tho case stated— And tho extent of tho didtross 
briefly described — The general paralysis of business and credit — What could 
hare produced it, in tho absence of all tho usual causes of public distress ?— 
Its probable cause to bo found in Diet — An estimate of the personal debt of tho 
people of the United States— Its annual interest ninety millions of dollars — Tho 
business debt is vastly greater— The Corporate debt— The Bank debt and the 
elements of which it is com)>o5cd — Banks creato no additional capital— By sudden 
contraction of credit in times of pressure produce or increase the panic 

Shortly after my engagement to write these papers was 
announced, I began to receive letters, from different parts of 
tho country, calling my attention to various subjects of 
inquiry and discussion. Among other letters I received one 
from a friendly correspondent in the West, personally a 
stranger to me, requesting me to state, if possible, the precise 
cause of the financial distress of the year 1857 ; to explain 
how it happened that, in a condition of great and general 
prosperity, the country should have been struck as M'ith a 
palsy in all its business concerns, from which it has hardly 
yet, after a hipso of eighteen months, fully recovered ; and, as 
this is not the first instance of events of this kind, to point 
out how their periodical recurrence, in something like a regu- 
lar cycle, can bo prevented. 

My well-meaning correspondent has given mo a problem, 
which requires for its satisfactory solution, a much wiser man 


than I mm ; — * problem which, in its entire comprehenaxHi, 
will not soon receive a full practical answer. Some of the 
topics involved in the inqairj into the causes of the distress 
of the year before the last, are of an abstruse and subtle 
character, particularlv those which relate to the sul^ect of 
credit, and how far it ought to be resorted to in carrriDg on 
the business operations of the community, — and the efiect of 
a currency, composed of com and paper, on the money Tslue 
of commodities at home and abroad. These are topics, with 
respect to which different opinions are entertained by judi- 
cious and well-inf(jrmed men. The other part of the inquir}% 
how the periodical recurrence of these seasons of general 
financial and commercial embarraannent can be prevented, 
embraces moral considerationa, the jostioe of which will not 
be questiofied in theory, but which it is extremely difficult to 
reduce to practice, to an extent sufficient to affect the condi- 
turn of a community. 

The fiict itself was pronounced by my unknown but intel- 
ligent correspondent one that would be utterly incredible, had 
it not been matter of daily observation throughout the Union ; 
it was nothing less than the almost instantaneous suspension 
of active business operations of every kind and in every 
branch, without any manif*rst assignable cause. A more than 
usually abundant liarvest had filled the granaries of the great 
West to repletion, but at the season of the year when the 
prwluce of the interior is finding its way to its markets, 
domc-stic and foreign, the steamers on the great rivers and 
lakes stoo^l still ; the canal boats ceased to ply ; and the rail- 
roarl trains moved backward and forward with less than half 
the usual amount of travel and transportation. I had occasion 
just as the crisis was coming on, to travel from Boston to 
Biifl'ilo, to deliver an address before the New York State 
Agricultural SiKrifty. Notwithstanding the great resort to 
the State Fair, the travel, for more than half the way, was 
reduced far below the average of ordinary seasons. I took 


passage at Buf&lo, on the 9th of October, 1857, in one of the 
magnificent steamers which plied between that city and Detroit, 
and which was capable of lodging two thousand persons. It 
was one of three of equal or greater capacity. The number of 
persons actually on board at that time did not exceed fifty ! 
The boats on the line had been for some time running to 
great loss, and this trip of the 9th of October was the last of 
the season. After that day they were laid up ; — two or three 
weeks earlier than usual. 

A similar state of things prevailed in the manufacturing 
regions. The factories either wholly stopped or worked on 
short time ; and then rather as a choice of evils, to prevent 
the dispersion of skilled labor, and injury to the machinery 
by disuse. The navigating interest shared the distress. Our 
vessels brought home cargoes that passed into the public 
stores, or were re-exported at great loss. The freighting bus- 
iness was nearly annihilated. The all-infecting malady of the 
country showed itself, in its most malignant form, in the 
banks, and a general suspension of specie payments completed 
at once and indicated the universal distress. On the 6th of 
October, as 1 was leaving Boston, I was told by the President 
of one of the strongest and best conducted of our institutions, 
that, let what would happen, the banks would stand firm ; 
and in less than a fortnight a universal suspension of specie 
payments had begun in New York, and extended itself 
throughout the country. So complete and universal was 
the stagnation, that it was impossible to procure a draft on 
New York, by which the modest proceeds of my oration on 
the character of Washington could be remitted, from a pros- 
perous town in the interior of Michigan. 

A short time only elapsed before the necessary conse- 
quences of such a general suspension of business were seen, in 
a prostration as general of credit, and in rapidly multiplying 
bankruptcies of individuals and corporations. Powerful man- 
ufacturing companies, or what were deemed such, failed; 


iiil»Unlid private hotuies, or bouses accoonted sabsUntal, 
fonk ; ao4 thn great indastrl^ eU««es of the oommunitir, who 
live hy the eaming^ of th^ir daily labor, were thrown out of 
eiripJorrfieot, ar*/! drlren to straits for the support of thetn- 
scrlv<:s ami tiwar famili^:r9. The General Government at length 
•hare:/] in the embarrawment of the people ; — the revenue fell 
<Alj and temporary expc^Jients became necessary to carry chi 
the ordinary operations of the Treasury. 

What produced this most extraordinary oondition of 
things ? The country was in profound peace. No hostile 
armies traversed and wasted it, — a frequent occurrence in 
Europe and the East. Our neutral commerce was not, as at 
some former periods of our history, 8wq>t from the ocean by 
the edicts of unscrupulous rival belligerents, intent upon 
Injuring each other, and to effect that object, trampling the 
Law of Nations under f<x>t. No embargo, or non-intercourse 
sealed our ports. No untimely frosts, — no mysterious blight 
menaer:d famine or even scarcity. No pestilence walked in 
darkness, nor destruction wasted at noonday. A week before 
the panic commenced there was the appearance of universal 
pn>«pf;rity, and after it commenced and while it lasted, the 
country possessed, and that in abundance, all the solid ele- 
ments of substantial well-Vxjing. Under these cireum stances, 
how was it jK>«siblc, — under similar circumstances how is it 
ever pr^ssible, — that an intelligent, energetic, industrious, and 
in the aggregate virtuous people, living under a free govern- 
ment, and, as far as political relations are concerned, enjoying 
privih'grs elsfwhire and before unknown in the world, should, 
oven for a short time, fall into a state of general embarrass- 
ifKMit and profound distress such as 1 have described] 

1 iiarrlly know whether it would be possible, even in a 
volumiriouM treatise on the subject, to return a full and satis- 
(aeUtry answ(rr to this inquiry ; whether, with business rela- 
tions extending throughout a country so vast and with a pop- 
ulation so enterprising and active as ours, living and acting, in 


a highly artificial state of society, and especially under a 
financial system singularly complicated and confined, — it is 
possible to trace and analyze the remote and occult causes 
of such a phenomenon. They may, like the ultimate secrets 
of the nmterial universe, defy the grasp of our minds. 

But I am inclined to think, that there is one great efficient 
cause, which will fully account for a large part, perhaps the 
whole, of tliis mighty and terrible effect ; a cause so simple, 
80 homely, so near at hand, that men overlook it, while they 
are exploring the metaphysics of currency, credit, and the 
balance of trade. 

If I mistake not, the distress of the year 1857 was pro- 
duced by an enemy more formidable than hostile armies ; by 
a pestilence more deadly than fever or plague ; by a visita- 
tion more destructive than the frosts of Spring or the blights 
of Summer. I believe that it was caused by a mountain load 
of Debt. The whole country, individuals and communities, 
trading-houses, corporations, towns, cities. States, were labor- 
ing under a weight of debt, beneath which the ordinary busi- 
ness relations of the country were, at length, arrested, and 
the great instrument usually employed for carrying them on, 
Cbbdit, broken down. Let us, by looking into a few partic- 
ulars, see whether this is a true statement. I apprehend that 
the inquiry will disclose some startling facts. 

I will first speak of what may be called the personal debt 
of the country, which runs up, in the aggregate, to an almost 
fikbulous amount. The free population of the United States 
amounts, at the present time, to about 26,000,000 of indi- 
viduals, which will give, in the ordinary calculation, 5,200,- 
000 heads of families. I assume that each one of these per- 
sons is three hundred dollars in debt. This is, of course, a 
purely conjectural sum. Many persons may think it too 
large ; others may think it too small ; such is my own im- 
pression. I believe it will be perfectly safe to assume that, 
in consequence of the natural proclivity to anticipate income, 


to hny on credit, to live a little beyond otir means, the com- 
munity carries with it through life a debt of at least three 
hundred dollars for each family, I am aware that there are 
many persona who ** owe no man any thing but to love one 
another ; " — some, I fear, there are, who obey the apostolic 
injunction, without the benign qualification^ But, on the con- 
trary, how many there are of the 5,200,000 hea*]s of &milies, 
who owe a g^rcat deal more than throe hundred dollars ; how 
many individuals, not included in the 5,200,000, who have 
larger or smaller debts ! How large a proportion of the re^il 
property of the country, — the houses, the farms, the planta- 
tions, — is under mortgage ; and of those who have no real 
property to give in security, how many pledge their credit and 
honor to an extent at least equal to that assured ! When all 
these things arc considered, I think it will be felt, that three 
hundred dollars is a mcnlerato sum to assume, as an average 
amount of debt for every he^ of a family. This l^a^sis of cal- 
culation gives us fifteen hundred and sixty millions, say fifteen 
hundred millions of dollars as the private personal debt of the 
American people, or abc>ut one-half of that national debt of 
England, which sits like an incubus on the taxable resources 
of that country. The interest of this sum is ninety millions 
of dollars, which the people of this country have to pay an- 
nually on their personal debts. Stated in this naked form it 
b a frightful sum ; and no small part of the straits, discom- 
forts, and troubles of domestic life arise from this perpetual 
strain upon the family resources. Still, in a time of pros- 
perity, the burden is divided among so many, that it is car- 
riod with greater or less ease, acconling to the amount which 
weighs on each individual ; for tlmugh we assume for eak-ular 
lion an equal average amount, in pf»int of fact the burden la 
very unequally divided. Some are prudent enough to be 
almost or quite free ; others, as the popular expression is, are 
*' over hc^d and ears."* 

The business debt, whether in trade, manufactures, or 




agriculture, is vastly ^oater ; probably greater in this country, 
in proportion to its population, than in any other in the world. 
Aliuo-it ttll persons in business extend their transactions very 
iar lu'^ </nl ihuir capital. A inerehant or niaiiufiicturvr with a 
cupiUl ijfune huuilreii thousand dollars will often trade upon a 
luilliviu This [ haVe been told, by two or three persons them- 
selves extensively engaged in trade, is not an extravagant state- 
ment of the ratio betwetii the capital and the business of our 
American traders and tnannfacturers. If this ratio is tlioughfc 
too great, let us reduce it one-liaU*, and suppose that our men 
of business, on an average, extend their transactions to five 
times the amount of their capital ; that isj a person with a 
solid capital of a hundred thousand dollai*s, will buy and 
sell to the amount of half a mil I ion, IIo w ill, in that case, 
have to carry a debt which exceeds his capital five-fold. On 
tliis basis, to get at what may be called the busiuess debt of 
the country, we must multiply the business capital by five* 
I presume not to go into the enormous amount, — the hun- 
dreds and thousands of millions, wliich would result from this 
multi plication, and which represent the Ijuslness debt of the 

This debt, it is true, unlike the personal debt, is supposed 
to be Lalaoeed by a still larger aniount of credits. The 
trader who lias bought four hundred tliousand dollars worth 
of goods on credit, has sold them or expects to sell them for 
five hundred thousand ; but he is paid in the first instance in 
credit, that is in debt. While things are prosperous this 
untold mass of debt can be carried. If all the speculative 
purchases and sales succeed, the debts on one side will be 
bidancfd by the credits on the other, but if any great de- 
rangement takes place, distress, perhaps ruin, eusnes; — to a 
few individuals, if the disturbing cause is confined to a locality 
or a single article of commerce ; to large bodies, — to the 
whole eooimunity, if it is of a eomprehensive nature. As 
soon as the business debt becomes oppressive, the personal 



debt above alluded to begins to pinch j and it may be ob- 
served, (what I omittf'd to state, in reference to tlie ratio of 
enpit^l and business,) that tin? capital of the country is at allj 
times chtirged with the maintenance of those to whom it bo^J 
longs, — a circumstance which materially impairs its efficiency 
as the means of doing business. Most men possessed of a 
clear property of one hundred thousand dollars, probably live 
at an expense of at least sbt thousand a year, wliich reduces 
to that extent the efficiency of the capital as a basis to trade 

Then there is the corporate debt of the country, and tbi^ ' 
of two kinds, public and private. By the former, I mean the 
debt of the General Government, of the States, citieSj townsg 
and other politienl and public bodies; by the iatter, the debl-^ 
of the various private corporations, the churches, the associa- 
tions of all kinds, Railroad companies, and all the other in- 
corptirated bodies which have business transactions* Tlic 
amount of this kind of debt is of Cf>urso enormous, many hun- 
dreds of millions, and much of it has been improvidently con- 
tracted ; so that in many cases no permanent value lias been 
created in return. 

I reserve for the last place the bank-debt, which is of a 
somewhat peculiar nature, and which exercises by its fluctua- 
tions a controlling, sometimes disastrous, influence on all the 
other debt — that is, all the other bnsiness^ — of the country* 
The remark already made with reference to the ratio of the 
capital and business of individuals, applies with nearly equal 
fiirco to the cxipit^l and busxiiesg of the banks. They arc, at 
all times, largely in debt. Their circulation is all debt ; it is 
avowedly a pronjisc to pay on demand. The dt posits arc so 
iijueh debt, which the banks are equally obliged to pay i>n 
deuiaiid ; and thes« two kinds of debt are ihe basis of ti 
large part of their business operations* Besides this, baidt 
capital, however solid, docs not even profess to be any posi- 
tive addition to the wealth of the community* The sums of 




whkli it is mad© up, of course, existed elsewhere before, and, 
except when hoarded, ^verc, in some way or other, employed. 
The banks can do nothing hut colk't-t them into masses, avail- 
able for business. This is an important pul)lic bcnelit, but it 
is not a creation of capital. The circulating paper 'which tlie 
banks issue, can add nothing to the capital of the country, for 
it is nothing but the evidence of debt. The hank borrows it 
from the public without interest, and lends it back to the pub- 
lic at six or seven per cent* Tliat such an operation should be 
thought to add to the wealth of a community is not one of 
the least remarkable delusions of the day. 

The banks then arc among the largest debtors of the coun- 
try. It is true they arc also among the largest creditors ; 
but their credits are on time ; their debts arc due on demand ; 
and their immediately available means arc notoriously inade- 
quate to meet that demand. By rapid contractions of their 
credits when their debts are pressed upon them for payment, 
they create or increase a panic, and when it is created, they 
suspend payment, and drag the whole community with them 
into bankruptcy. 

If sueh as we have described it is the real state of things, 
— if the country is burdened with this enormous amount of 
debt, public and private, individual and corporate, it is quite 
evident, that on the occurTcnce of any cause, real or imagin- 
ary, which power fully affects the public mind, which produces 
alarm, and so checks the renewal or the extension of credit, 
and compels the whole business community to demand pay- 
ment in order that it may make payment, a general stoppage 
must ensue. There is no solid l>asis on which to stand and 
resist the rushing title. Almost everybody is undtr oltlsga- 
tlons beyond his immediately available means ; and the fi. w 
that have property are afraid to trust it in any investment. 
Above a million of dollars, belonging to a person who never 
willingly left a dollar unemployed, lay idle in the banks of 
Boston, during the panic of the year 1857. 


gt^M 10 &Mt, kgr wtUk 




TIm Tiew taken in tb« preceding paper best explains the periodical reenrrence of a 
finanefal crisis— Origin of the term Panic— Its connection with seasons of presrare 
and distressr-The only remedy is to keep out of debt— The abases of credit the 
chief cause of irreat commercial rerubions— Lon:^ credits deprecated by distin- 
guished financial aathorities— The a^ncy of banks in the danzeroa^ extension of 
credit— Donbtlhl ntlUty of a paper currency— Individnal prudence must famish 
the main protection— The soandness of these Tiev« ronflrmed by the manner in 
which the country is returning to a state of prosperity. 

The view taken in the preceding number of the real cause 
of the financial distress of the year 1857, viz., the mountain 
mass of debt under which the community was laboring, will 
best explain the periodical recurrence of a similar state of 
things. The process of running in debt is, in its very nature, 
a growing one. It rarely stops while it can by possibility be 
carried on. With respect to what I have called the personal 
debt of the country, if the means of the individual do not 
enable him, in the first instance, to get through the year with- 
out anticipating the next year's income, he will, the second 
year, besides his current expenses, have a debt, — and soon an 
interest-bearing debt, — to take care of. Accustomed grad- 
ually in this way to live in part on credit, he soon begins to 
resort to it from convenience, as he did at first from neces- 
sity. Family expenses usually go on increasing, — the happy 
accident which is greatly to augment one's means never turns 
up ; and the debt, which I have supposed averages at least 

174 TpK MorsT xasos pafebs. 

three hondred doIUrs tor eTer^' heikd of & £uiiilv, svells till h 
is arresteii by a t*jnx^ ll*|aMati«:*n, which comes sooner or 
Liter in the caso < f each LndividuaL according to the extent of 
his ability to carry a debt. 

The busineu doLt of th<e country gries on increasing till it 
can increase n>> longer, by a still more certain law. If the 
business is what is called pro6per*jus. the trader is tempted 
on *^ to enlarge the sphere of his operations.'' which means, to 
strain his nis^jurces still further; to buy and sell more 
largely, and r.f ruurse on cre«ilt ; his pers'jnal expenditure 
incn-asing all the while, and he himself ot\en tempted into 
new fields of enterprise, with which he is unacquainted. The 
panic of 1>37 and that of 1S57 were bjth pr^-ceded by sea- 
sons of unpri'cedented activity in the business world. In the 
former year, besides a strange expansion in every other direc- 
tion, the public lands were purchased in such £ibulous quan< 
titiff*, that it >K:camc nf-c^-ssary to nrlieve the plethora of the 
treasury by a distribution of the surplus revenue ! The cri>is 
carne, liowev».T, Urfore the last instalment was paid. 

In the \ear 1857, bu.^iness of all kinds had been quickene*! 
by the influx of Culifoniia gold, which gave a fallacious strength 
to the banks, and tempte«l them not merely to aid, but to 
stimulate, speculation. On this occasion, the West became 
again the great fieM, where golden visions c»f sudden wealth 
were Vf U; reali»yl. The stock of railroads through tracts 
of Ctfiuntry to which the Indian title was but recently extin- 
guished, and town lots in pathless wildernesses, were sought 
with avidity throughout the older States. A few highest 
jtnzcn in this lottery, drawn by ''fortunate individuals," 
turned the h^ads of thousands, who dreamed of the same 
f^(j4fi\ Juek, and awoke ruine^L 

But the buniness debt like the personal debt has its limits; 
—it ran not j^o «in forever. The time comes at length when 
)n»rnpv>\nff must cfsasc and paying must begin. An uneasy 
f*u'\\ufi^ Ix-gins to pervade the community. The honks and 




the men of solid wealtli, who watcli the signs of the times 
with care, understand the portents, A crisis is perceived to 
be coming on, — and with tho unerring, hnt not always wise, 
instinct of self-interest, the individuals and the institutions of 
the creditor class, seek, not to avert the stonn, but to secura 
themselves fi*om its fury. Further accommodations are now 
refused, credits contracted, loans called in. The ship is put 
under snug canvas, and men wait in feverish anxiety for the 
white squall to hurst. It may come from a quarter and in a 
sliape absurdly disproportioned in appearmice to the cfTect 
produced ;— as in ilic failure of the Ohio Trust Ctrtnpsiny the 
year heforo the last. The M'hole debt of that institution was 
a small percentage on the aggregate of the money transac- 
tions of thti New York banks for one day" ; and yet, as far as 
any individual cause can be pointed out, its failure gave the 
alarm, which ended in the teitiporary prostration of the credit, 
and suspension of the business of tlie w hole country. 

But even the dictitmaries teach us that it is idle to inquire 
into the cause of a Panic ; that is the immediate cause ;— the 
woi'd is used to signify a great and general xdarm, witliout 
any apparent adequate cause. In the oldest heathen mythol- 
ogy, Pan blew his conch shell, when tiie Titans were lighting 
with the gods. The audacious rebels had stood undaunted 
against the thunders of Jupiter, but they fled at the blast of 
this harsh clarion. Having succeeded so w*ell on this occa- 
sion. Pan accompanied Biicehus on his expedition to India, 
where on a certain occasion he gave a wild scream, which 
Riled the echoes of the mountains and put the enemy to flight* 
These old fiii)les — (what foundatirm of fact they may have 
had in the experience of intluit humanity, ^vho can tell 1) — 
struck to the heart of tlie race» and have given a name lo 
saddest realities in every period of history. Old dynasties 
have snnk,^ — tnighty battles have been losts> — revolutions have 
been coramenceii by Pan-ic fears. One of the most authentic 
signs of the last dread consummation is " men's hearts failing 


thetn for four ; '* and when tliis takes placo, no fonn of disor- 
gatiizalion and ruin is just matter of surprise, Tlio cracking 
of a »eat^ or a mischievous cry of fire, "will, in an iu;:;taut, set 
asstmbled thousands of int4^1Iigcnt persons frantic \vi?U terror, 
and cause them to trample each other to death, in tbi ir insane 
haste to escape from the building. A great, strong ship 
strike^} an icebergs and discipline is sometimes inst^atly sub*^ 
verted, all hope of escape in the life-boats blasted, by the 
fieroe haste with which they are lowered into the sea and 
overcrowded in the dismay of the moment^ and hur:ireds of 
lives lost when all mi^^dit have been rescued. Almob-t all the 
great battles of ancient and modern times, from Ph*:rsalia to 
Waterloo, have probably been decided at last by Pania 
Miracles <»f valor are performed by brave men, bl«j d ilowaj 
like water ;— at lenfjth a wild cry is heard, on one side or th« 
other, that all is lost, — and with that cry all is lost. 

It is 60 in a financial Crisis ; a cry of alarm is raised per- 
hap by a feeble voice, perhaps from an iiisi||Tniricant riuarterj 
but its i^jundation, in the general state of things, is felt by to 
many persons to bo just. All, alike the creditor and the 
debtor eUiss, know that the country is staggering under a load 
of debt. Most persona in active business unite the two char- 
acters of credit^jr and debtor ; and, either coerced by the ne- 
cessity of meeting his own engagements or trom the desire of 
securing what is due to Mm, every man demands payraent at 
tlie same time, and general bankruptcy ensues. From a con- 
dition of careless and joyous prosperity, the coramimity 
passes in a week into one of embarrassment, terror, and for 
Ufo many persons, hopeless niin. Individuals indebted to 
the extent of from five to ten times their capital ; kinks that 
liavo one specie dollar in their vaults, for from five to six of 
their deposits and circulation, are struck with the pai ie, All 
grasp at oaoe at the means of paying their debts, and find the 
debts many times larger than the available meftns of pay- 




What, then, is the remedy ! Unhappily it is so simple, so 
destitute of all financial refinement, so much at war with the 
Bpeciilating character of the age» that the %^ery inentif)n of it 
will, with many persons, excitti no feelings but those of pity 
and derision. It is just to keep out of debt. As iiir as per- 
sonal expenses are concerned, live within your meajis. Leav- 
ing out of view a small class of exceptional eases, in which 
large future accessions of fortune can be depended on, your 
means will never be much ampler than they now are. If 
your trade, your business, your profession d^K^s not support 
you now, it never will; because you will general I v find that 
your expenses will steadily increase %nth your earnings or 
your income. Your family will grow, your wants will mul- 
tiply, the standard of oomfortaVjIe living will l>e constantly 
rising; or, on tlie other hand, you will have sickness in your 
family, or some unexpected burden will come upon you ; — in 
short, if you get into the habit of borrowing and living on 
credit, nine times out of ten yon will never get out of it. 
You will live under the harrc»w all your life, and sooner or 
later be compelled to seek relief by oainfld and mortifying 

So too of the business debt. I am well aware that the 
astonishing growth of this country in material wealth is 
ascribed by many persons to the great facilities which have 
existed for doing business on credit. Without intendiiig at 
all to question the utility of credit ri^xhtfidly understood and 
kept witliin proper limits, I would rath<T say, thnt the coun* 
try has prospered, not in coiisequeneo of the fijclliiy with 
Tvhich credit has lieen oljtiincd, but in spite of its abuses, 
Tlie %*ast body of land within the territorial limits of the 
eoimtry ; — its almost boundless means of internal and ex- 
ternal communication by ocean, river, and lake,^ — the average 
fertility of much of its soil, and the abundance and variety of 
its staple products ; its free political institutions ; the energy 
and enterprise of the Anglo-Saxon race, and the yearly acoes- 


mm hrML fktcr^ f>i va imin^nue smosnt of idols Idbor. — 
tfatsft jcr« tint ir.^ja. ra4iMs of uie r^id grovuk of cod eoanciy. 
Fif!iUr.i«)i fA er^i'iX ha;w^ m 9ocs« cates md mftikr soae cuh- 
^tititrdt» mifAj noppLiftd tJM^ pU«e of foiid cspcal sad antia- 
ptOitd liA ^»sQXA<m,, Bnt this adTintage is to be o&ct bj tW 
r«flir>wi pnhiiir ^mterpruies. and tbe xaxXfAA smoviLt of pri¥«be 
iMAknipcr^^ whidk iu.T4 heen tbe diflartroiw result oc' eacf 
VwiTfVin^ act h//ca#: ^mi abroad. 

I h#ard a g^^tUman ^^ acute ofaaervadoa and large expe- 
nefk% «j^7y rronj j<^arsi a^o, that he iMd made oat two Lats^ 
/j«e of a cfinwfeTahpie nmnber of (armen, and the other of 
ttMr^JMnt)!, utartin^ with ialr pro^peetA in X\£c ; — the ooe ^Lmoi^ 
to lire up^jfk the prfMdiicii o( their iamiSy tilled fior the most 
fmt hj their cmn haoda, and thu under the compctntiTelj 
Imptfrffvfit nyftUtn of a^^ridiltnre whirii prevaikd in the last 
ipaieraii^>n ; the oth^rr %*» Uke fheir efaancea in the lottery of 
ffmufi^f^fi. At thf: end of the terrn for which the Gompariaoa 
waa rna/Je, the fandfTn wfrr^ the more prosperous body. 
Sfm^. fjf th#^ri ha/J \t<:f/,frnt very rich ; — a few only had wholly 
£mWI in Ilf4»', and tii/i^: ff-w from causes not essentially eoo- 
nfi^M with a^rrirnjltural ptinfuits. The greater part had liTed 
and (^oti((ht up their fiimilies in comfort Of the merchants, 
\fy fkr th/? f^rf^ur part had wholly fiuled ; and one or two 
fm\y ha^J trrfAiiy prr^pered. 

I know of no circumstance so likely to produce this effect, 
as doinx business mainly on borrowed means ; keeping your 
all at the tn&rcy of events, over which you have no control ; 
the prr#bity or the sr>lvf:nry of others ; political influences at 
hotui'. ; th^ fhsuu'XiH of peace and war abroad : your own 
^'^mtiniif^l health ; in a word, the innumerable contingencies 

Nor l/!t it f>e thought that this idea of greatly limiting the 
use (>f I'Ttulii is the mere therjretical &ncy of a person, who 
kn/iWN nothing practif-ally of the subject The President of 
Um Bank of Commerco in New York writing to Mr. Nathan 


Appleton ill Boston, a few days before the suspension uf 
specie payments in 1857, says ** when will your Ijanka confine 
themselves to short dates, and cease to encourage the per* 
nicious system of long credits — credits ramified to the last 
degree, from, which spring mo»i of your difficiiliks?''' Mr, 
Appleton in reply says, '' I have always been opposed to tho 
system of long credits, but I recollect very well ihjit it was in 
consequence of eight months being the e^^tablished credit given 
by tlie New York importers, that we were obliged to submit 
to the same in our manuiactures." These two gentlemen 
difTered only as to what may be called long credit^?, and w!icre 
the responsibility of favoring them rests. 

The banks, of course, are mainly responsible for the undue 
expansion of credit, which has proved so pernicious. These 
institutions are ereat+id in many crises for the benefit of a few 
individuals, principally active in getting them up. Their 
capital is ofben to a considerable degree fictitious, paid in one 
day and borrowed out the next, not in the discount of busi- 
ness paper, but to be employed in speculations, wholly un- 
justifiable on any sound banking principlca. Where a solid 
capital is actually paid in, a desire to incrcjise the profits of 
the l>ank often ^ leads it to push its accommodations beyond 
the Umits of prudence and safety. In the month of January 
1857, the banks of New York owed one hundred and four 
millions of dollars to their depositors and bill holders, and 
they had eleven millions of specie in their vaults. In other 
words, they were carrying a fearful debt themselves, to enable 
their customers to carry one equally fearful. In a little more 
than nine months, under the influence of no assignable cause 
but panic, banks and customers in New York and throughout 
the greater part of the Union, were involved in one common 

Banks of deposit and discount, confining their operationa 
BtrieUy to businees paper of short date, would no doubt be 
of great oonvenienoe in carrying on an active commerce. 


hmkk» vafjrxA \jj t^ Sttb» lo cmfte a paper 
vieuL ixnsqL u> ntl nine, as acffifCe^i br the f wb&Se as if h 
v«r«r soij4 JC/jMrr. art 2y;< 2a tiw kw f«u •■ B9VT ladKr 
tfcaa a 1>cei«& v> tZK oKsmasitT. IWj &sv« 4&*«cdj jod 
jwimetir &«i ti« csKf agcBCT n c jMi n g tkise ficmdkal 
Maier>tJ» 'YprvaRzre aed ^streH. wkkJk hare so often oeeamd 
m ^is» VMOiXrr^ msd vith sadi diaastnas eaonqnaxses to in- 
dhidMk and dK pvbfie. 

ft auMK Ic arfiBittfd, k/viirTer. dioc tben is teij Iittje 
hop« «f a rancdjr* Aitaoogii tb« pobiic mind b probaUj 
abarjat mamiiioqa in tlK 'yAvytioii. tlHt a Xatioeal Boik, 
anae d^i^iik^ br nonr p^rv^cf absointelT iiwiifi 1 for the 
«rJI#wi>« 'if tiv: nmtr: uft ar^ t£>: KgnlatiiMi of die dunnrr, is 
by fi// u»0saaM jvrt^^worr <:ir.:«^r ^>r the gmemm ent or die peo- 
pii!; ^— <b#(ri: ui r»^i< th#!; l^au^t prohabiiitT dnft die States viii 
tff^o fM p^iir<;r 'yf <^ic£ar>iijiliiiig local banlBi^ and rfaufcing 
thfita with th': r:i£h': r/# 4!T»ate a ftLiiliw eawwoKj. Such 
bnixg thh lastf:, tiK country ia too likeij, in dme to come as 
in thfi^ psiit, t/p mifffiT every twenty or twentr-fire yean the 
miffrmo'.m hyIIm rvwiiting firom tlie inflatioa of credit, snd the 
arfiitrary #:xpsosU>n and eoatractjon of a circolatiiig mediiini, 
rftatfiur ^m miapiaeed oonfidenoe and not on a baas of solid 

Th/Tf; rcrfnains then no remwly, bat that not entirely effi- 
et#»it, y«t still ir«:ry important one, which each indhidnai is 
Mm Up apply Up his own affiun. The man who livs widiin 
his KMans, will in prosperous times paas throu^ Hie with as 
great a frcr^iJom fr^im pecuniary distress, as our imperfect 
nature a/imita. Eren he may snfier from ill health on his 
own port or diat of others, paralyzing his aeUri^ or burden- 
bg Ua niaans^and a general stagnation rf bir«i-^c-^ may, by 


no fiuilt or imprudence of his own, fiitally cripple his re- 
sources. These are misfortunes, for which there is no help. 
They belong to the imperfections of our social nature ; but 
even these will bo resisted and sustained far more successfully 
by the unembarrassed man, than by one already staggering 
under a load of debt. 

So with reference to business, no individual, however pru- 
dent, can place himself wholly beyond the reach of those 
frightful storms, that from time to time burst upon the trad- 
ing community, with the fury of a typhoon, sweeping aJl be- 
fore them to destruction. But even in times like these, the 
man who has content^ himself with moderate gains, has kept 
his liabilities within *his means, conducted his business on a 
substantial basis, and eschewed gigantic speculations, will be 
most likely to go through the crisis unscathed ; and in all 
ordinary cases bo successful and prosperous, in life ; while 
those who pursue the opposite course, strain their credit to 
the utmost, and trade on a capital far beyond their solid 
property, besides leading a life of splendid anxiety and osten- 
tatious care, are the most likely to be prostrated by the first 
blast which sweeps over the country. 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, that the justice of the 
foregoing views, both as to the cause of the distress of 1857 
and the only security against the recurrence of a similar 
calamity, is confirmed by the manner in which a partial re- 
covery has been brought about. No new branches of busi- 
ness have been established, no new markets have been opened. 
There has been no fortunate change in affairs domestic or for- 
eign, for the pressure was not caused by any thing adverse in 
our political condition at home or abroad. It is not years of 
plenty succeeding years of famine ; nor health returning afler 
the visitations of pestilence. The change has been brought 
about simply by arresting the augmentation of debt, relieving 
the money market of gigantic borrowers, looking desperate 
concerns in the face and treating them accordingly ; — in short. 


bjr Mttimg up KAd motoaau. Great f lifirw kave ; 
the proom ; Uit tliej would Imre ben greater bad tber ] 
Vmgtr ^l^rnA, U the toaatarj would laam wiadoiii br ex- 
pcriavKy aU would be wdL But in matter* of tfabldiid, men 
aeUwi leant bj aoj expenenee but tfaeir own ; and that u 
§fi to oome too late. Tbe j gain wiadom and notbing dae^ 



First visit i& Now Yofk by pftckot froni NuwpciTt In :t810— Exodns tram 1 

to ConnecUcut Elver in 1(1S5, in funrteen daya — Motlam Knlght'i jouriwy toKiiw 
York \n lUH — E^tra<ttA — Frank tin's Toyage to Kow York Lu 1723— Abimdoiui 
Te^tablo di(!!it by tbo tray — Ftmnkltu'^fli reojiKOiis io 17&I fur rcc^muiCDdlni^ PhlJib* 
dclpbU a» tb«" scat *t( a j>raviaclal Union— Anecdote of Oen^ral Ad&lt iind 
General R<-»ot— Eupid joornoy of CArdlooI Wolpcy froui Eicbmond to Etruf^ea and 
bock— Woslitnfflon'a Rrst joqmcy to tha Eastern 8tftt«» tn 1756— Travel Hog by 
atag« cottch fifty rears ftgii>—" Waking op the wroufl: posaeiifCT"— Indifferent 
Meointuodatloiuii both Tor pa&M^ngdrs and baggage— Anecdote of a German travel- 
ler— Tbla moUc of tfavtUing »(^oietUnes rory pleoattnt. 

The generation now coming forward m life can have but. n 
faint idea of the change, which has takefi place within thirty 
years, in the facilities of travelling, as wo in r^ur tnrn proba- 
bly form an inadequate conception of the state of thing^^ which 
existed bcRire the establishment of stage-coaches. My first 
visit from Boston to New York w*as made in August, 1810, 
in a coasting packet from Newport, and if I mistake not we 
were out two nights and a part of three days, A second 
visit was made in Deeembcr, 1814, in a atage-coach, and occu- 
pied three days of very diligent and severe travel, and this 
state of things lasted several years longer. 

Changes arc made witli such rapidity in this country, that 
a couple c»f centuries have witnessed results, which in Europe 
have filled up the whole period from the dawn of civilization. 
When the first settlers of the Connecticut River emigrated 
from Dorchester, lit Massachusetts, about one hundred men. 



A %i'»^, ir^iir^, Tiirt ▼» 'Jui fir« 2if>vnin»*ac 3L aoc 2R9S 

v^ i^ra^^rtar.*. ^ «pu^ hi tiu^ ayr^alf aswi ol nae • *MaSAB.% * erf" 
Arri*r>A, Tz^ sls^tatj f.i "inf: fsj^z^rr -Kctaasf few poses *if 
jpfasjcc^ >.vr*3^t, *iuir. 'iu^-v^ ▼i.>ii r%»:ri tkfs 5r«c Err^i%* t«> 
t^ ktcjcTXxc, '/T'xzJj^^ IxuL Tike &Q>odfc£Zig namsiTe 5s jd- 

tfc V/ii^ ai;4 )!iAr*M^0^ bj wfci^ a:L§ b^aiitifhl ai>l prosper- 
'/Fw Affi^y^k, x^rw flilft^ ▼ttfa it.^ n^I-ilr niultipijin^ mil!k«*, 
jkff^r49idj^ and trav^rvrd in irTerj dlr^cdon by st:^ci boot 
Md ftjuaatt cski, ^^n f^-^^sai kzA ImA, ^ai river azki Lake, was sealed 
hat UttUi UiT/TH tWi two f^^anrvA acd a qaaito' since. 

Mada/n Harftfa Kni^^t wax a h#»ro:ne cf a different cbarac- 
t/Tj ar^ rr*adr5 h^^ joom^v from B^j^'jc to New York on 
Isk'/rv '"/i/sk ;fj 0^^/>^/*;r. ITO-I. Sh/i was a pers«:n of tLrlft and 
v^^t t// i^,f,i/; tmp^/rtarit affairs : and as her husinessw going 
ari/J r//ff»iftjf, fff^ninrfi \kf^ U» stop in several places, bcr diary 
/|/i#:di r»/A *cnsi\,\f. n% u, ^UnjlaU; the time which was then abso- 
Ine^fjT tyf^'jfrtmtiry for a /jumey from New York to Boston, the 
i\'t^*j^tti'^, \tt^\u^ then e%tUfisUfril at two hundred and seventy 
tMlfm. A^pfmt a f /rtrilght U mip^jtted to be the time usually 
kth^tl'/yt'/i <'/fi th/^ yrumf-.y. Madam Knight's jonmaL a most 
r^mf.'in f'-xoH, wa* fimt published in New York in 1825, and 
¥fM r^rprifit/'/J in Litt/ilTji Living Age for 26 Jane, 1S58. The 
fttWo'^mn t'.xirsu^ will show the style of travelling between 
tUmUfft Mni New York in 1704 : 

" Jo nitrmi AA hoi»V, or Aomethiog more, after we left the Swsmp, we 
ntrmst Ut lUlWaynt-M, rnhfti* I wm to Ix>d;r. My Guide disraoonted and 
f*f y il*tm\AnrAnt\y h*'lf/l m^ down and iihewd the door, stgniog to me 
wth bU hari/1 to Oo trt ; wch I Gbdlj did — Bat had not gone nuuiT stcpi^ 
MH^ Urn liiK/fii, ^f« I WM lotcrrogated by a ycniiig Lady I iiiidcr*!o'' '■ 



^erw&rdfl waa tho Eldest daughter of the faroily, with these, or words to 
this piirpoi^c (viz) Law for mce — wivat in the world brings Yoii here at 
Uiit time m night ?— I never sec a \vomaa on the Rode m Dreftdfull bto 
In all ibc daya of my veroill life. Who are You? Where are You pjomg? 
Tme scared out of my wiita — with iiiiich more of the 6i\mc Kind* 1 wtood 
aghii.-<t, Prcparcing to reply, wlicn in comes my Guide — to him iludam 
turnedf Koreing out: Lawful! heart, Juho^ m it Yout — how dc do I 
Where in the world are you going with thU woman ? Who is «hc ? John 
made no Ansr, but sat down jti the corner, fumbled out biji black Junk, 
and saluted that instead of Bebb ; she then turned agen to inee aiul fell 
anew into her silly quostioii?, without luking me to Bitt dowu.^ — I told her 
Bhee treated me very Rudely^ and I did not think it my duty lo answer 
her unmanoerly Qurstionfi. But to get ndd of tbcni» I told her I 
come there to have the post's company with me to-morrow on my 
Journey, &c. 

I pjiid honest John wth money and dram according lo contract, and 
Bifimkt him, and pray'd Miss to ijhew me where I muat Lodg. Shoe con- 
ducted me to a parlour in a litile l>ack Lento, weh was almost tiUM wth 
the bed--*tead, weh was so high that I was forced to climb on a chair to 
gitt up to the wretched bed that lay on it ; on web having Stretcbt my 
tired Limbs, and lay'd Tny bead on a Sad-eoloured pillow, I, began to think 
on tho trausiictions of ye past day*" 

The following was Madam Kaight's experience at Rye ; 

**— Early next morning set forward to Norrowalk, from its halfc Indian 
name Sorth-ufolkf where about 12 at noon we arrived, and Ilad a Dinner 
of Fryed Tension, very savoury. Landlady wanting i-ome pepper in the 
eeasoning, bid the Girl hand her the spice in the little Gai/ cupp on ye 
rttelfe. From Hence we Hasted towards Ryit^ walking and leading our 
Horses ncer a mile together, up a prodigios high Hill ; and so Riding till 
mbout nine at night, and there arrived and took up our Lodgingg at an 
ordinary, weh a French family kept. Hero being very hungry, I desired 
a frlcji^ce, weh the Frenchman undertakeing, mannaged po contrary to 
mV notion of Cookery, that I hastened to Ded JsuperlcM ; And being 
shcwd the way up a pair of Ftairs weh had muh a narrow pasmge that I 
had almoj^t etopt by the Bulk of my Body ; But arriTiug at my apartment 
found it to be a little Lento Chamber furni'^ht timotigst other Rubbish with 
a High Bcdd and a Low one, a Long Table, a Bench and a Bottomless 
Chair, — Little Miss went to scratch up my Kennell weh Russelled aa 
if ehee'd bin in the Barn amongst the Husks, and suppose such was 
the contents of tho tickin^ — neTertbelcas being exceeding weary, down 

mti^fT^ sue i^sn^ MM -» «B 

*» rilL I* out vwr Z iLMf* vie nm 

1 WVir. -kv IftfL '*\ -Mtt lOK I Ills, -wrn/BL ^ 

^RfXUc^ n} i^ Ik i'rrt iH I*f^r sut xsm^ i 

««» M fMBT «» £ w.-t jait laii 3v lii^txr %i i' ^' i -zmk pit .^r^ ^ 

Kvue«^ BUS. iTiAnr mt.^x. a Isi^ haci ^amm. sk T*^v liwniF4 & iKxiaii«:i« 

^ "^i*; tf'j'.A '.^ JMiriiiing Slit i^i^ JLamiBtrY uui ;a:&~Kaj2 jc "ae 
F^r.^'-r -■* *-n-*ini^. J \ir:r,*ui : inr ▼■* jar* i,; tvjbl fr J ir * J er 

l'."^* .^ ViT^r ^1 I^jS. -'£■: jia*: & iiT ,niut "ruiai 2ii.?iC :c 
ra*^ ' ./j- u^i Virf •'ir■^^•. L^^* :fi •i** "n^r- Ai Tii-'iirnc 
'^f.„^fi '.'v v^^ 1 1 ^ *1ja A'^i-ruV:*! aim. — & t-,iici :r ier^ei- 

v.tvw: '.:rj^ 'j^f.^-^. %»>,^Vf:- '.i ^si* r»*if/nni«qEi2at:i:4i ':r m intarr 

• .^.^-;: . % * z'^rar. .v.5i.,*rr,' Till auai ae • bad iruAdc V/ ^hit 
f«!dv*'.ur^,a 'A "^^tisi .vv^uzuE ^zuc iiAii iud llsu* F<:ili:<w;n£ liie 
^*r^.riwt 'Y Tj7'*o. aft 'vwiftfiitmi "oie taking oc eviay &iii 
a k.f^! '/ irp-^/^r^fcArf mtxHiir-" wire miK of dieiii had been -^ 
r/^i-/; '•>: T'^^J^J '.f «7 JJJ'CT. ** ^Iwc mfcfit jiatirr the eas- 
«vrr»;. ' If*! .Wi, h/>w<i'7*r- Tnr'vrranatelj 5vr the Tiyrcic 
*hfs,ft :u.t\ f^-.t^Aiii'* pnctir-e umitrT ir, betdi ^irmeriT a great 
>.•/'•.? 'pf fiKft. Ir. Ji riu; -jTra^c *K»ie ot people, espedally -it 
t^iu^f-j 4f j>r*Afj#:wi. ,r. * fn^rtain port of the councrr that ihall 
r^ iarrii'.i*-**. '* Wjvfl it canift fi^nn the firying-paiL" «»]rs 
y VA/itf fW.jafi-.*:-. •" .n «nwrtt rf^markablj wefl." Wfcrt was the 


dead letter of Tryon's treatise, compared with a treat like 
that? " I balanced for some time between principle and incli- 
nation, till, recollecting that when the fish were opened I saw 
smaller fish taken out of their stomachs, then thought I, ' if 
you eat one another, I don't see why wo may not eat you,' so 
I dined upon Cod very heartily." 

In 1754 a convention was held at Albany to concert a plan 
of Union between the Colonies. In the articles adopted by 
this convention, it was recommended that Philadelphia should 
be the place where the first meeting for the proposed Assem- 
bly should be held. The reasons for the various provisions 
embraced in his plan were stated in a memoir drawn up by 
Dr. Franklin. The statement of the grounds for selecting 
Philadelphia throws considerable light on the facilities for 
travel at that time. It is as follows : 

" Fhiladclphia was named as being nearer the centre of the colonies, 
where the commissioners would be well k cheaply accommodated The 
high roads through the whole extent are for the most part very good, on 
which forty or fifty miles a day may very well be, and frequently are, 
traveUed. Great part of the way may liicewisc be gone by water. In 
summer time the passages arc frequently performed in a week from 
Charleston to FhiUdcIphia and New York ; and from Rhode Island to 
Sew York through the Sound, in two or three days ; and from New York 
to FhiUdelphia, by water and land, in two days, by stage-boats and 
wheel carriages, that set out every other day. The journey from Charles- 
ton to Philadelphia may likewise bo facilitated by boats running up 
Chesapeake Bay, three hundred miles. But if the whole journey be per- 
formed on horseback, the most distant members, vizt. the two from Now 
Hampshire and from South Carolina, may probably render themselves at 
Philadelphia in fifteen or twenty days ; — the majority may be there in 
much less time." 

This primitive mode of travelling by horseback has, within 
my n-collection, ha^l its advocates, and that on the score of 
rapidity. Much amusement was caused at Washington by a 
friendly ailment between Gen. Adair of Kentucky and Gen. 
lioot of New York, on the comparative advantages of travel- 



ling on horseback and in stage-coaches, on the score of >safcty 
and speed, Gen, Adtiir declaring for the saddle. They started 
each for his htinie and by tlie conveyance which he preferred. 
Gcu. Adair made the journey in safety on liorsebaek and re- 
turned to Washington tlie siune way the next December; 
wliilc Gen. Root, travelling in a stage-coach, was overturned 
and sufTercd a severe injury which detained hira on the road 
for the greater part, if not the M'hole, of the interval between 
the long and short sessions. 

Notwithstanding the great superiority of the means of con- 
veyance at the present day, a jotirney was j-onictimes made in 
old times with prodigious speed, Ctirdinal Wolsey owed his 
first advancement, in no small degree, to the rapidity with 
whieh he made the journey from London to Brnges in Flan- 
ders and back ngnin, on an important mission to tlie Emperor 
of Germany, confided to him by Henry the Seventh. Having 
received his despatches from the King at Richmond, he arrived 
in London at four o'clock on Sunday afternoon, in season for 
the Gravesend barge, by which he reached that place in about 
three hours. The distance is about thirty miles by land oa 
the river winds ; he must have been strongly favored by wind 
and tide. There he took post-horses, and, travelling all night, 
reached Dover, about forty-five miles, on Monday morning^ 
just as the packet M'as ready to sail. In less than three houra 
he was at Calais, and immediately starting with post-horses for 
Bruges, distant sixty or seventy miles, the residence at tliat 
time of the Emperor Maximilian, he arrived there the same 
night, Wolsey was immediately admitted to audience by tho 
Emperor, and having de^spatched his business succjcssfully waa 
sent back to Calais by the Emperor t!ie next day, imder an 
escort of horse. He arrived at Calais as the gates of the city 
were opening Wednesday morniog ; stepped on board the 
packet just ready to sail and reached Dover at ten, Post- 
liorses were in readiness^ which conveyed him to Richmond, a 
distance of seventy miles, that night, after an absence of a little 



more than three days. Having taken some repose, lie appear- 
ed before the king, as he was going from his bed-room to 
mass on Thursday morning. Tlie king at first, supposing that 
ho had not yot started on his mission, chidod him for his delay. 
Ho was astonished at finding that he had been to Bruges and 
returned. The king next inquired if he had fallen in with a 
courier despatched the day before with additional instructions, 
relative to a matter which had been overlooked. Wolsey 
had met him on his own return, but having himself perceived 
iho omission in his instructions, had " been so bold " (said he) 
** in mine own discretion, perceiving that matter to be very 
necessary, to despatch the same ! " Hume erroneously gives 
Bnixelles instead of Bruges as the residence of the Emperor, 
General Washington on his first visit to the Eastern States 
in 1756, travelled on horseback, starting from New York on 
February the 20th. It is not precisely known, I believe, how 
long he was on the way, probably a week. It appears from 
Hempstead's journal cited in Miss Caulkin's excellent history 
of New London, that he passed through that place, both going 
and coming. 

'* March 8th. Colonel Washington is returned from Boston and gone 
to Long Island in Powers* Sloop ; he had also two boats to carry six horses 
and his retinue, all bound to Virginia.^ 

The journey to New York from Boston by stage-coach, 
and this too after that mode of conveyance was brought to a 
very considerable state of perfection, was in my youth, in the 
winter season at least, an affair of three days. It was two 
days from New York to Philadelphia, and two from Phila- 
delphia to Baltimore, by the way of Columbia. From Balti- 
more to Washington in 1814 was a i)retty hard day's travel^ 
and the weariness and discomfort of the journey were quite 
as formidable as the length of time required for its perform- 

If my recollection serves me, a single daily stage-coach 


dttBged two or three times in the coizne of the da v. it 
necesKAij, whec€vcr this was d ne. to exercise a little super- 
Tisi^^ ovf-r th*-r process, nnii to see that light artides, such as 
TalL^tf^ an«i umbrelijs anti IjamiKoxes, (these List re^ardcti with 
onqiLiliueil horror hy the ir^e travellers.) corriod in the 
int«>rlor of the coai^rh, were reni^^ved at each ejtcLaii:ze of vehi- 
cles. It was generally unJerstocni that the tlrst applicant had 
the choiei.* of seats, qualified however, in all cases, by the 
claim of the gentler sex to the best accommodations. There 
was room also for the display of courtesy and the want of it, 
in occasionally relieving, by an exchange of positions, your on- 
fortmiate feUow passenger, who was swaying all day long on 
the middle seat, without support to his bock. 

When the coach was crowded with unsociable an«l taciturn 
passengers, its floor encumbered with bogs and other small 
articles greatly encroaehing upon the space f jr extending the 
leg%, the weather a drizzling mixture of rain and snow, the 
roarls rr>ugh, the drivers surly and the beasts jaded, one arrived 
at the journey's eml late at night, in a condition which a view 
tim of the rack would scarcely have envied. But with a 
moderately (illefl vehicle, — a good natured, and, still more, a 
congenial circle of fellow passengers, a light elastic air, a 
December sun gleaming over sparklii^; fields, a road like 
marble, a succession of spanking teams with drivers as fear- 
less as skilful, who generally went down hill at full gallop, — 
the breakfiwt and dinner table plainly but bountifully and 
wholesomely served by active and tidy hands, at those nice 
old country taverns, which have almost wholly ceased to exist ; 
— under these circumstances, a journey in the stage-coach was 
a [»o*»itive enjoy m«nt. After a lapse of forty years I recall a 
journey like this, in company with Daniel Webster and Judge 
Stor}', as liaving afforded some of the happiest, the most 
instructive, and most joyous hours of my life. 



Ko Eallfofldj or Steamers in Etirdpe in lSlS--Fiiltt>D*i first poHage to AlbAn^— 
gtage^eoacbi'A, pasting, and vetturtuo Ld Europe— TravcH lug on tu&t ODd oa 
boncbftcli — The andtiut Uoman nixiik almost wholly lu^it — Vbit to Iho Contl'- 
nent Id ISJS— Guy« book*— Hon. T. U. Perktna md trlbyte to him by Joba 
Quluc? Adam»— Btono H^^nge— Wilton Houm— Old Saram— SiUlAbaryCMbfidn]— 
PoAMfe from 8oathAmptoD to It ftvre^— Freedom froni curt} iit ««« — ^Tri-n«ltioa 
ttom EngkTid to France and points of contraat— Fronch cu.'ttom-IiDUM— Aa«cdoto 
of A dyspeptic BoatoDiaiL 

In tlie lust number I alludetl to the great fooilities for 
travelling at tlie pn^iient lIhj in Ainericii, eompartil wiili the 
state of things in former times. The difference is as great iii 
Europe as in the United States, although, in reference to the 
practical arts, an old country might be expected to be far in 
advance of one bo recently settled as the United States. In 
1818 tliero was not a liailroad in Europe, with the exception 
of the tram roads used in connection with the coal mines, nor 
was there, if my memory serves me^ on any of its waters, salt 
or fresh, such a thing as a steam vessel of any dimensions, 
with the exception of a small steamer on the river Clyde, 
Eight years before that time, the passage from New York to 
Amboy was regularly made in a steamer, and more than ten 
years before, Fulton had made his memorable voyage from 
New York to Albany in the same way ; — ^a slow and tedious 
passage, but an era in human affairs ; — the most impttrtant 
ever made since the voyage of Columbus. 

In England forty years ago, peraoos, who did not use their 




own carriages and horses, travelled in the stage-coaeh, (a 
remarkably compiict and expeditious vehicle, usually making 
ten miles an hour, carrying tVoio four to six inside, and from 
eight to tweh*e on the top ;) or posted^ that is, made use of 
their own carriages and took post-horses, one of which is rid- 
den by a postilion, at convenient stations, where also post- 
carriages might be found, for those who did not make use of 
their own ; a much more expensive, but otherwise far prefeiv i 
able mode bf travelling, as it took yon over roads not trav^^ 
ersed by stage-coaches, and enabled you to ehoose your own 
hours. When three travelled in company and divided the 
expense, it did not exceed that of the stageMCoaeh. In Frances 
you had the stage-coach under the name of the Biiif/ence, (a 
name rather ominous of the rate of speed,) and a system of 
posting analogous, as far as the supply of horses was con- 
cerned , to the English. Both these modes of travelling were , 
also found substantially in most other oountries of Continental j 

A third mode of travelling a good deal resorted to by pei*-l 
■ons not pressed for tijno and studying economy, was by what ^ 
is called vetturino. It is not yet wholly obsolete, though like 
stageKsoaches and post-horses nearly susperseded by railroads. 
The vtHurino conveyed you by contract Avith the same car- 
riage, horses, and driver, for the whole of the proposed jouiw i 
ney and for a stipulated price. For persons who travel, not 
to kil! time but to employ it usefully ; to see a country, not 
merely to be able to say they have seen it ; to visit a city and 
examine its objects of interest, not '' to do '* a city, this modfi 
of travelling has its advantages. 

Two other mtHles of travelling were resorted to in Europe 
forty years ago, not yet nor likely to be cvt r wholly disused, 
with the results of which, on one or two occasions, I shall en- 
de^ivor to make the reader vrho knows locomotion only as it 
exists in the railroad train, better acquainted. There are 
parts of the old world of the highest interest to the intelligent 


tourist, which he can explore only on foot. If he would enjoy 
any thing but the mere music of the verses in the poetry of 
Scott, (and that I must admit is an exquisite enjoyment^) he 
must visit the scenery of the Lay of the Last Minstrel and the 
Lady of the Lake on foot. Sophia Scott told me that she 
once did this with her fitther in a drenching rain, which be 
persisted in calling '' a Scotch mist.'' Much of Wales and 
the Lake region of Westmoreland and Cumberland can be 
seen to advantage,— or rather seen at all, — ^in no other way. 
When Wordsworth protested against allowing the district of 
country, which he so much venerated, from being invaded by 
railroads, he did not reflect that no railroad would ever pen- 
etrate their lovely and sacred retreats. The only effect of 
their construction would be to take the place of the stage- 
coach and the post-carriage, along one or two principal lines 
of travel, and thus multiply a hundred fold the numbers who 
would come to worship with him at the shrine of that Nature^ 
which he feared to desecrate. So, too, the weird recesses of the 
Harz Mountains, the secluded valleys, the bewitched heights, 
the solemn caves, the dreary dripping mines, the ruined cai^ 
ties, moss-grown with the legends of eight centuries, can be 
approached only on foot Last of all the imperial Alps admit 
of none but the pedestrian to their crystal halls. As you 
approach their glittering battlements, — the inmost citadel of 
nature's glory and power, — ^lazy affluence must fain alight 
from her chariot, the arm of the engineer is palsied, and the 
grim necromancer of steam admits the presence of a Foroe 
mightier than his own. 

As soon as you leave Europe for the East, (in fact, in many 
parts of Europe,) vehicles of every kind are unknown, and 
you travel on horseback, on camels, and in the further East 
on elephants. In my time, there were no vehicles for trav- 
ellers in the lower part of the kingdom of Naples. We had 
to travel for four days on horseback in districts which, in 
the time of the Bomans, were traversed by the A|^ian way, 



the Reffina vtarvvh (the qncen of High ways,) and which 
now in this respect are as completely in a state of nature, as 
ho central plateau of our continent. In the year 1810 the 
pilities for reaching Tarento were no greater than they were 
in the time of Pythagoras. The same was the case through- 
out Epirus, Thcssaly, Macedonia, Thrace, and the whole 
of Greece proper, where the great paved roads of antiq^- 
uity had entirely disappeared, vehicles of every kind were 
unknown, luid there was no communication but by bridle 
paths in any part of the countries named. Few things testify 
more loudly and sadly to the desolation of those once pros- 
perous regions^ and the barbarism of the Turkish rule. Tiie 
Romans pushed their military roads to the very limits of their 
empire. The Appian way, paved with bltx^s of granite, 
gneiss, or lava fourteen inches thick, was carried through 
Epirus and Thessaly ; but its very route, except by conjecture, 
is lost. No trace of it, if I remember aright, east of the 
Adriatic, is to be seen on the surface of the ground. Ages 
of civilization may exist without producing roads like the 
Appian way, but once produced one hardly knows how they 
can he made, or allowed, wholly to disiippcar. In Italy itself 
this great road, in eoninion with all tho other great military 
roads of the riomans, has almost wholly vanished. It forms 
if 1 mistake not, the foundation of the modern road, only 
across the Pontine marshes. 

In August 1818^ after five deliglitful montiis in England 
and Scotland, divided principally between London, Cambridge, 
Oxford, Wales, the Lake region, Edinburgh, and the high- 
lands of Perthshire, I lefl London f >r the continent, with scarce 
any object in view but U^ reach Italy and more especially 
Rome, as expeditiously as possible, Goethe 1 think quotes 
a remark of Lesslng, that when you are going to Rome, you 
should be tied up in a sack on crossing the frontier of Italy, 
and not be taken out of it till you reach tlie eternal city. I 
began to practice on the spirit of this rule from the time I left 


London, hurrying rapidly through regions of which almost 
every league has its memorable historical event, its ancient 
tradition or monument, its venerable .ruin, its beautiful land- 
scape, its remarkable collection of works of art, its important 
industrial, benevolent, or literary establishment. These arc 
objects of curiosity and interest, which, under all circum- 
stances, one must take more or less from the guide books ; 
and if in a few important localities we linger on the spot, — 
observe more carefully and describe more fully and accurately 
in our letters or journals, — we generally find in the works of 
professed tourists, who travel for the avowed purpose of 
making a book, a minute and elaborate description which 
puts our hasty memoranda to shame ; although the germ of 
these elaborate descriptions is not seldom itself to be found 
in the friendly Reichard, or, in these modem days, the not less 
friendly Murray. 

I took the stage-coach to Southampton, avoiding the beaten 
road by Dover and Calais, in order to see a part both of Eng- 
land and France, which I had not before seen. At Southamp- 
ton, I found my honored friend Col. Thomas II. Perkins, of 
Boston, — ^the friend of more than forty years, to whom I 
delight to pay this passing tribute. President John Quincy 
Adams said of him, in my hearing, in the House of Represent- 
atives of the United States, that " ho had the fortune of a 
prince, and a heart as much above his fortune, as that was 
above a beggar's." On meeting me at Southampton, ho said, 
" Come let us pass a little time together. I visited a part of 
this very neighborhood with your brother, (the late Alexander 
H. Everett,) seven or eight years ago, and nearly thirty 
years ago I travelled with your father from Boston to Phila- 
delphia, — a great journey in those days." 

Accordingly we went together to the objects of interest in 
the neighborhood, and scarce anywhere are they more nu- 
merous or important. Within a moderate distance from each 
otbery you may contemplate the monumental records of 


almost cverj stage of ancient and modern civilization ; — Stone 
IJcnj^e, Old Sarum, Salisbury Cathedral^ Wilton House, — 
menuirials of almost every period and funu of human culture. 
Stone Ilenge is the most imposing relic of that ancient Dru- 
idical period of which we know next to nothing historically, 
bcyon^I a few scnteiices in Strabo^ Caesar, and Tacitus. Caesar 
thinks the Dm ids were acquainted wit!i letters, but it is prob- 
able that tlie knowledge of writing among them was confined 
to Greeka, who had fled from home and taken refuge in thes© 
remote and (as the Creeks deemed them) barbarous races» 
But if the Druids, the dominant c^istc of the primitive Celtic 
rnces, were unacquainted witii the great instrumient of civiliau*- 
tion, it is the more extraordinary that they possc^ssed the 
knowledge of mechanics, required for such a structure as 
Stone IFengo. Inigo Jones says that, " by the grace of God/' 
ho could raise stones as great or greater to their places, which 
is no doubt true. With the resources of modern art much 
greater ft^ats of engineering are daily performed. But the 
Druidieal architects not only wanted our modern mechanical 
powers, but could have hardly had the aid of that other potent 
assistance, (alluded to by Inigo Jones,) in rearing the temple 
for their sanguinary rites. The galleries of Wilt€jn» — kindly 
opened to our inspection,^-contain valuable specimens of 
Grecian art, and some paintings of the great modern masters. 
Old Sarum is now a wheat field j belure I^ord Grey's reform 
bill, it sent two members to parliament, who were nominated 
by the proprietor of the said wheat field, whoever he might 
be ; Mancliester in the mean time, with a hundred and fitly 
thousand inhabitant**, sending no member. Tliis certainly 
was a stupendous departure from the principle of geogrflphical 
representation, on which our legislatures are constituted. But 
it would be a mistake to say that in a system like the English, 
construeted not on theory but on tradition, the members from 
Old Sarum represented nothing but the wheat field. They 
represented the bull-dog tenacity with which the Anglo-Saxon 




clings to his legal traditions, ftfler they have becomo legal fic- 
tions, and thus converts them back into realities, making tem- 
per do the work of logic. Thej represented the ^vhole of 
that old parliament which once !>at (I furget when) at Old 
Sarum. They represented by -gone centuries, gradually strug- 
gling toward our modem constitutional ideas. They repre- 
sented York and Lancaster, Plantagenct and Tudor, — in a 
word, the great, solemn, monumental past. Then there is, in 
this region, Salisbury Cathedral, one of tho moat beautiful *t( 
those magnificent mcdiajval piles, in which so much of the 
devotion, the art, and the social vitality of four centuries of 
modern history are embodied, We e^ill the ages, wliieh pro- 
duced the enrHer forms of this mysterious- architecture, ** tho 
dark ages ; ** and dark in some things they were. But with 
respect to art, this arrogance would be more excusable, if^ 
instead of the portentous abortions of modern public archi- 
tecture, we produced any thing which can for a moment com- 
pare with the cathedrals of ** the dark ages " for purity of con- 
ception, sublimity of thought, unity of design, richnaw and 
t-astefulne^ of decoration, or even mechanical execution. 

We had a fine sail from SouthampUju to Jlavre, The dii»- 
tance is one hundred and ten miles, but we made it in l&m 
time than it took in the Spring, to cross from Cataid to Dover, 
A lovely August night, fresh smells from either coast hcalth- 
fttUy borne on the salt sea-breeze, the heftvens bUixing with 
their eternal watch-iires to their ultenoott def>tli« ; a smooili 
summer sea, slightly nifiled by a fiivorabUs wind ^— ill eodr* 
cling universe of glory, lovelinemi, aad mute pniso! A •hmi 
seorvoyage, when you are free frtjm nickneiM, anil at a pUaaaal 
season of the year, is beyond all quentiou the cxv^aMinfi, on 
which the pulses of animal life beat witli the gnealavt fimuMii 
and ebiatlcity. The exquhtite purity of the air oarriai ImM^ 
ful excitement to tlie itmioat fibre of tbe Innga ; tbe ardiQarjr 
carea of lerra /rma (Horace to tJb eoniruy ooiwIltiitaodlQg) 
H follow you on slupbciard. Thttt U no door htii aft 



sea ; there ia no nuiil at sea* The pathways of the sea are 
not pave^! with deafening blocks of granite. There are no news 
at sea ; no public meetings, nor committee meetings, nor 
orations ; the Coluntlnan Semi-weekly Musquito dr Hemisphere 
is not puhlishcfi at sea ; there b nothing but the sky above> the 
ocean around and beneath, now and then a dancing vessel in 
sight, and tbc winds of heaven, — the pure bracing winds, — 
speeding you on your way. The Halcyons brood on the sea. 

Favorable winds sped us on our little voyage* We sailed 
after sunset and arrive*! at Havre at sunrise. One night had 
carried us from England to France ; from the Teuton to the 
Celt ; from a language of Saxon origin to one of Latin origin; 
from the common law^ to the civil law ; from Protestanism to 
the Gallo-Roman church ; from acts of parliament to royal 
ordinAQoes ; from the ne&t and tasteful stage-coach, with its 
nicely caparisoned horses, and driven ft>ur in hand by the 
bluif coachman, to the lumbering diligence^ half baggage 
wagon and half stage eoach^ drawn by five fiery Norman 
steeds, loosely tied together by rope harness, and straggling 
over the road, guided by postilions sunk to the thighs in 
gigantic trunk boots; and, though last not leasts from the 
spit to the casserole^ and the honest joint that tells its own 
story, to the sometimes questionable dainliea of the French 

The English or American traveller landing on the conti- 
meiit in those days, (and 1 believe the case is not very diBcr- 
ent now,) first f<^\& that he has reached a foreign country 
when he passes through the French custom-house. The poor 
maniac who shot the Secretary of Sir Robert Peel, mistaking 
him for Sir Robert himself, labore<l under the delusion that 
he was pursued by fiends. With this impression on Kis mind 
he fled from place to place, seeking rest and finding none. At 
length he crossed from Dover to Calais, and saw, to his 
amazement, the footatep of Louis XVIIIl. deeply cut into the 
granite pavement of the quay ! His diseased iSuicj converted 



thb piece of loyal adulation into a work of diabolical agency. 
He was soon beset by tlie clamorous porters at the landings 
and tha tide-waiters of the dtmane^ and felt that in them his 
worst \'isiona were confirmed. For myself I had never had 
occasion to eclio the complaints of travellers on this suliject. 
Taking e^re always to have my passport duly count^^rsigned 
and to carry nothing contraband in my portmanteau, 1 have 
never encountered a custom-house officer on any frontier or 
at any port, who was proof against patience, good humor, and 
a five-franc piece. 

One of our countrymen, however, who made the passage 
with us from Southampton to Havre on this occasion^ a re- 
spectable retired merchant from Boston, seeking relief in travel 
from chronic dyspepsia, had an amusing scene with the custom 
officers at ITavrc. The unfortunate gentleman was troubled 
witli an eager appetite, which c*f course it was not proper he 
should hidulge. To prevent his doing so was the arduous 
duty of his sisters, who were travelling with him. To elude 
their vigilance, he usually carried in his great coat pocket a 
private store of gingerbread or sponge cake, careful ly ^Tapped 
up. As he was considerably reduced by ill health, but trav- 
elhng in garments made while he was well, the eoncealed 
parcel of cake as he landed on the quay, caused the pocket of 
the coat, (which hung with a fulness ever suspicious to cus- 
tom-house officers,) to project still more suspiciously* The 
attention of the tide-waiter was awakened, and he suspected 
no doubt that a case of fuie English cutlery^ or a package of 
cigars, was about to be smuggled into France. He accord- 
ingly walked round and round our dyspeptic traveller, who 
saw that all was not right, but who, speaking no French, 
coidd neither give nor understand an explanation. At last 
the officer indicated by signs that the contents of the protrud- 
ing pocket must be disclosed. The watchful sisters by this 
time had taken the alarm, and the idlers on the quay began 
to congregate about the party. Our invalid lelt guilty, not 



of breaking the laws of France, but those of the domestic 
empiFCi and his oonsdous blush gave new impulse to the 
suspicions of the officer. The questionable padcet was at 
length, with some difficulty, produced, carefully tied up. 
The string, in the trepidation of hastily untying it, (a common 
case,) ran into a hnd knot. More delay, more suspicion, 
deeper blushes. At length the irritated gentleman tore open 
the parcel, and with a look between the comical and the dis- 
consolate, pulled out a great cake of gingerbread and thrust 
it into the officer's face. A general laugh ensued, and the 
troublesome article was allowed to pass duty free. 



The lmportime« of Havre owin^ to [t5 poaliloa at ibo montli of tl)9 Snine and ihn 
American trade — St. Piorfe — Conlllct of races In Normandy— LUlcbontio— 
Tlie counclhhftll ©f ^Wfllkm the Conqueror swept away by » ootton splani-r — 
BotentioTi at Konon— Ugo Foscolo — Thouias Moor« — B*tranger--Soclctj at Parts 
lo ISiT-ldlS — Impurtaat:^] of Bouea— Tim Oathedral— Heart of Blchard Cffiur 
dft Uon— Churcli of Saint Oiien— WJUIaEo the Conqueror ootild not wriUi hla 
name — tk^serted at hid deatb-^PUce dA b PciimII^, wli«re Joan of Arc woa 
burned— Hi'dtictlona on ber fate — Her statue by tJie Prioocsa Marie, daughter of 
Loub Plillippe— Voltaire, &cblller— Com clJJe—Ecgrets that hte had notchoacn tbo 
Hald of Orleaas for a heroino — OFcrtum of the dlUgese«. 

Parting at Havro with Col. Perkins, who was travelling 
in a different direction, I continued tlio joiiniey to Paris with 
my friijnd, Mr, Delavan, so well known tor his exertions in the 
temperance cause, whose acquaintance I had had the pleasure 
of making at Southampton, Of antiquarian interest there is 
hut little at Ila^Te, of which j however, the foundation dates 
from the early part of the sixteenth century. It owes its im- 
portance principally to its position at the mouth of the Seine, 
which makes it in reality the seaport of Paris, and gives it 
no small share of th^^ forei^ commerce of France. It was 
originally founded by Francis L, but tlie guide book tells us 
that its growth in raodern times is owing to a cause little 
foreseen in his day, and connected with a discovery which had 
been lately made in foreign parts l>y a Genoese mariner. 
'* The declaration of the Independence of the United States 
formed the groundwork of the present good fortune of 
Havre/' If the benefits accruing to the oommeroe, manufao 



tijri», populuUott^ aiid gcttera) prosperity of tlie leading States 
lit* Europe were duly estimated by thexn, they would feel 
wilh how little reason they view with jealous and even hostile 
uyci th*4 growtli of this country. To say nothing of their par- 
tldpation la all the general advantages of a friendly commer* 
eial ititercoursc with tlie American continent, I took the liberty 
in an oflk-ial C4>m muni rat ion to the representatives of the two 
leading powers of Europe a few years since, to express the 
opinion, that but for the refuge afforded in the United States 
to the utarving millions of the old world in 1847, and the em- 
ployment given to their industry by the raw materials of our 
agriculture and tlie demands of our conaumption, an explosion 
would have taken place, which would have shaken society to 
Its foundjitinn, i have within n few weeks read a pamphlet 
of a French adventurer in Central America, who speaks of 
the United States, in the coolness of his hatred, as a nuisance 
to the other powers of the earth, which ought to be abated^ 
not rememboring to how many cities of France, besides 
Havre, suoh an event would carry desolation ! 

St Pierre is, I believe, the only native of Havre who has 
distinguished himself as a writer. His birth at Havre per- 
haps led him in after life to engage 'm the enterprise for the 
eolonieation of Madagascar. The world may be said to be 
indebted for ** Paul and Virginia '* to tiie fiict, that Havre 
is a ^viport carrying on a familiar commercial interooursc with 
the colonies of France, 

la pur«»uaiioc of Uie plan already alluded to, of loitering as 
little h» {x^^ible by the way, 1 took the diligence in the ereii* 
ing for lii>u«>n. 1 passed oonaequenlly by nighl through the 
region wlMi^ nmkj of tlie moat important aoenes were acted, 
of tiMl loi^ struggle U^ween the Norman and Saxoo^ and 
afterwiu^U between the Anglo-Norman and the Gallo-Nomiaa 
nioe«» whii^h fill* tho m*^t memorablo ages of esrijr 
kialory. That long conAiet has exerctstd as grsit •■ i 
over the fortuni*« of llio modem world, as lite old i 


of Persia and Greece, and of Carthage and Rome, did upon the 
fortunes of the ancient world. It will be felt in our language, 
literature, manners, political institutions, and religious belief, 
for ages to come, and till new convulsions shall create a new 
chaos and a new re-organization among the families of men. 

The road from Havre to Rouen passes through Lillebonne, 
a city which stands on the site and retains substantially the 
name of Julia bona, (Julia the good,) in which very remarkable 
remains of a spacious Roman theatre have been excavated. 
It is overlooked from a commanding position, by the ruins of 
a castle, which was one of the residences of William the Con- 
queror, and in which he is said to have consulted his barons 
on the project of invading England. The guide book says 
that " the great Norman hall, in which, according to the tradi- 
tion, William met his barons in council, has been entirely 
sw'ept away by the present proprietor, a cotton-spinner." 
Not the least notable of the sweepings of King Cotton's 
besom ! The *' present proprietor " would, I think, have 
done better to imitate the policy which William the Con- 
queror pursued in England, and to preserve, and, if need be, 
render commodious for modem use, rather than to " sweep 
away " the Council Hall, in which the most momentous event 
of modern history was decided upon ! 

I had expected, on leaving Havre for a night's drive, to be 
able to continue our journey from Rouen, where we arrived 
in the morning. We found, however, that all the places in 
the diligence for Paris, except one, had been pre-engaged at 
Rouen, an accident, we found on inquiry, to be of frequent 
occurrence, and therefore supposed by impatient travellers to 
happen on purpose, for the sake of detaining them for a day 
in that city. All these little annoyances have of course van- 
ished with the construction of railroads. But although we 
were unable to get a couple of seats for ourselves, I succeeded 
in obtaining one for my faithful Luigi, a respectable young 
man from the shores of the Lago Maggiore, who had been 



recommeiuied to me in EDgknd in the spring, by Ugo Fcm»1 
colo, aa a person who could at once perf :>rni the duty of a 
travelling servant and an Italian master. He had lived and 
travelled with me in these capacities for several months, grad- 
ually adding to them that of hiimble friend. 

Having named Ugo Foscolo, one of the most original 
characters and eminent writers of modem Italy, the reader 
will pardon me, I am sure, for dwelling a few moments on 
my recollections of him, as preserved from a familiar acquaint- 
ance during the spring and summer of 1818. A native of 
one of the Ionian Islands, but of a Venitian family, he had 
received a very superior classical education. He was a criti- 
cal Greek scholar, and wrote and spoke the Latin language 
with fluency. He had been an officer of cavalry in the army 
of the Cisalpine republic^ and w^as one of the deputies from 
that republic to the Congress held at Lyons after the return 
of Napoleon from Egypt Here he pronounced, on behalf of 
his constituents, a remarkable discourse, in which he censured 
the preceding French governments with unsparing severity, 
earnestly appealing to Napole<jn, of whom he was at that 
time the eulogist and admirer, to correct their abuses. He 
filled, fnr a short lime, the chair of polite literature at Pavia, 
and after the etippression of that and the other professorships 
of classical literature and Wlles-lettres, lived in discontented 
retirement, brooding over the oppression of his countrymen, to 
whom the only alternative affered was that of the French or 
Austrian yoke. When I knew him he was living in strait- 
ened circumstances in England. He had delivered lectures 
on Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch, in London, which were 
alterwards published, in different works, and form perhaps 
the acutest commentary on '* the all-Etruscan three.*' With 
the exception of Alfieri, if ho is an exception, Foscolo was, at 
that time, the mc^t vigorous of the modern Italian writers. 
His Jaeopo Ortis is an Italian Werther^ but, though an imita- 
ti(m, had a great influence at the time of its publication on the 


rending classes. I preatly value a copy of it crivcn me Itv 
himsolt', as also a copy of a curious satire on his literary con- 
temporaries, written in the language and style of the Vulgate. 
We occupied the greater part of an afternoon passed at his 
retired rural lodgings, in reading this piquant composition, of 
which he explained to me the personal allusions ; but they 
hare long since lost all interest except for the literary anti- 
quary. He used to complain of the late English hours, which, 
he said, destroyed health and eyesight. He quoted with 
great applause Dr. Franklin's new mode of lighting large 
towns, viz., by sunshine. I dined with him on one occasion 
at the hospitable table of the elder Murray, with a party con- 
sisting of some of the most distinguished literary celebrities 
of the day, among others Mr. Thomas Moore, who sang sev- 
eral of his own songs. It will readily bo believed that the 
hours were winged with geniality ; they were, however, pro- 
longed till two o'clock in the morning. Foscolo and myself 
walked home to our lodgings together at that unseasonable 
hour, (he was then living in London,) and at every pause in 
the conversation he muttered " troppo lungo," (too long.) If 
the reader will look into Lord Brough ton's (Mr. Hobhouse's) 
" Illustrations of the fourth canto of Childe Harolde," he will 
perceive that Ugo Foscolo is well entitled to the place which 
I have given him in these desultory recollections. He is 
mentioned by Lord Byron, in his preface to the same poem, 
with ten or twelve others of his countrymen, as persons who 
" will secure to the present generation in Italy an honorable 
place in most of the departments of science and belles- 

Having stated that, on the occasion above alluded to, I 
heard Mr. Thomas Moore sing some of his own songs, I may 
add that I had a similar gratification, the preceding winter at 
Paris, in hearing several of B^ranger's songs, and especially 
the Dieu des bans ffens, sung by himself. It was my good 
fortune occasionally to meet this remarkable man at the tables 


1jtAT0tse, B 1 11 j— nil CoBaaHK. ad imt cr tv» 

IkMc, fUr^ Gx^j^ Mr. Gai3«aL M. 

twtffd'mm, wtm </ imk |«rtic% neav tie < 

•and/ ttwiwMrT Vy wj, tra* sy:^ briDjjBl m 

hkno^ wm '/turn, «t Jbr4Kr0i iDd fnrcnie 

•om^vittc Adwrr^ a Ih rin— mii, Aoadit aH tibe ^rfirartrs 

^IjlhMe fioUtitti j»i a^ 

«| bjr JBM« '// wiMTfr mflidii^ tn 

4f tib« nvrAmtkm^ tJM cfx^p<rer flwi the lotoKatiaa. Xo cca 

db o a t W ^^a/ber mknmu^ on dwK nrriMifri tim Mr. GallA- 

ob«,yytfiV>n ani importict Imi, acd vLrjse ai^r^trCicSB sur- 
P«mm4 tint </ EQ^xC BWfl vbcm I hare kzr^ vn. Tikeae dinners 
nniy ^mmA off vidwot oik </]m ovn soogi firom Bcruiger. 
/^bm tiufc bat «oinfM«d bj him. Like Thamm Moore, he 
had «car« aaj tJuog c^s Toio;. h«a in die case «:f both, ezqui^ 
ite p^i«trj, Uk d«?p paUK-^ of an Jcgrl^T^d catiocalitv. at-l 
erjoMViVM infliKGix ovfrr pi;hi> v=:iitir::.^f. niore than supplied 
cIm want ^/ Oa^re muAi^al «^z^:iitIon. 

But I hare wander^ far (r^/t I tnut to the discontent of 
tJK r^Af^.tf who will DT/t be o^^ded with these somewhat 
diaeoonectf^l r<xolli>ctions of great men who hare passed 
avaf) from the little I»mk«djan trarelling serrant reoom- 
ncndibd U* me b/ Ugo Fosolo. Having no occasion for his 
scnriiMa on the way to Pariit, I took the onlj vacant place for 
him, in tlie diIi;;eDrA that starti.d in the morning, and re^ 
main»d myiielf to pa»«i th*; day at Rouen, one of the most 
imp^irtant cities of France. As a manufertiiring town it is 


one of the most considerable, and it has a depth of water in 
the Seine which admits vessels of two or three hundred tons. 
It possesses architectural monuments of extreme magnificence 
and beauty ; and its historical associations, as the capital of 
lower Normandy, are of the most rich and varied character. 
It will readily be supposed that a day's observation of such a 
place could add nothing to the stock of information contained 
in the guide books ; in fdct, could but embrace a portion of 
the objects worthy the traveller's attention. But here, as in 
80 many other places, even a day's observation gives a dis- 
tinctness of impression, especially as to localities, not to be 
got from books alone, and leads you to read with greatly in- 
creased relish and profit. 

The Cathedral of Rouen is one of the grandest of the 
structures of this class. It is severely criticized by Mr. Gal- 
ley Knight, and other learned amateurs, for incoherent mix- 
ture of style and excess of ornament, portions of it being built 
in a declining age of art ; but the entire effect upon an un- 
critical eye is extremely imposing. Its interior is not far 
from four hundred and fifty feet in length, and the nave is 
about ninety feet in height. There are three magnificent rose 
windows in the nave and transept ; and in the last chapel, on 
the southern side of the nave, is the monument of Rollo, the 
first duke of Normandy. Several of the chapels contain 
painted glass windows, of great age and beauty. Within the 
choir a piece of colored marble, sunk into the pavement, in- 
dicates the spot where the heart of Richard Coeur de Leon 
was buried. His rude statue, which disappeared in the time 
of the Huguenots in the sixteenth century, was discovered 
under the high altar about twenty years afler my visit. His 
" lion heart " shrunk, but in perfect preservation, was found 
at the same time, wrapped in thick silk and enclosed in a 
leaden case. It was removed to the Museum. Richard had 
bequeathed it to the city of Rouen, from the especial affection 
which he bore to the Normans. 



T}ie church of St. Ouen, nearly as long as the Cathedral, 
and of somewhat greater height, is justlj deemed one of the 
noblest specimens in tJie M'orld of this stylo of arehiteeture. 
It has saffcrcd from time, from fanaticism, and from p^-*litical 
Vandalism. Tlie Huguenots made bonfires in it, to burn the 
images of the saints, the wood work of the altars, and the 
vestments of the prinsts; and tluj terrorists of 1793 set up 
a blaeksrnith*s forge in one of the chapels for the repair of 
arms ; godless unbelief and the sternest orthodoxy meeting 
on the same platform of desecration. It is, however, in the 
main, well preserved, has been judiciously restored, and the 
essential parts of it having been huilt within one generation 
and in the best age of the art, it far exceeds tlie Cathedral in 
purity of taste, and unity and harmony of design. Some of 
the finest painted glass in Europe is to be seen in this noble 
church. It is said that tlie master architect murdered one of 
his Journeymen, from jealousy of the superior taste and skill 
which the youth had exhibited in one of the exquisitely beau- 
tifid rose windows. 

The Museum of Konen contains objects of great curiosity. 
I have already mentioned one of them, the poor shrunken 
remains of the Lion Hearty for whose living pulses Europe 
and Asia were too small What a moral antiLlici^is ; the 
heart of Richard Coeur de Lion wrapped, not in plaited mail, 
but in grave clothes, encAscd, not in burnished steel, but in 
mortuary lead, and ejcposed to view in a museum ! The 
same museum contains another relic, which illustrates in a 
different way the vanity of human greatness, — a charter of 
William tlte Conqueror, authcntit^ted^ not by his signature^ 
but his >i mark. The stern and piilitic chieftain, m! i* 

plished what Julius Ca?sar imperfectly attempted, ■ 
Icon wholly failed to achieve ; who ingrafted tli 
and haughty spirit of the Norman on the p' 
and judicial method of the Saxon; who gu 
to muscle and wind^ and thus laid the fi)y 



which, aftor eight hundrLMJ years, girdles the glolx^, could nnt 
WTito his mime ! Thu great Cbiiqueror of the British Islands 
died in the suburbs of Rouon, and his poor remains, deserted 
hy his courtiers, neglect cd by his children, stripped by tiis 
servants, were K'ft to be conveyed by charitable strangers to 
their last restinfT-phiee at Caen. Such are the terrible homi- 
lies, in which Providence, taking Death for a tcjtt, preaches 
humility to the great ones of tho earth ! 

But there is a spot in Rouen, the Place de la PnceUe 
(Maiden place) which tenches the lesson in sadder terms than 
the deserted death-beds of remorseless monarchs. In this 
Phcfi, about twenty years only Ijcforc the invention of the art 
of printing was consuni mated ^ and a complete eilition of the 
Bible was issued from the press ; in this Placc^ in the C4:'ntury 
that witnessed the discovery of America, an innocent girl, 
who united every thing in her person and history, which could 
command admiration and merit gentle and honorable treat- 
ment, was burned alive I Iler crimes was, that she had kin- 
dled such enthusiasm in the hearts of her craven countrymen, 
as enabled them to wrest a portion of their soil from the 
foreign conqueror, Iler betrayers and accusers were the 
unworthy Frenchmen whom she had rescued from vassalage ; 
her executioners were the English prelates and nobles, who 
meanly revenged upon the jiofU' fettered girl the shameful de- 
feats they had suifered in the field from tho maiden champion* 
A monument unworthy of her memory stands npon the spot 
where she perished at the stake ; a nobler mumiment, the 
work of a king's daiighter, is dedicated to her memory at 
Versailles, King Ltjuls Philippe, in 1840, si>oke to me, 
with moist eyes, of this admirable work of his danj^hter, and 
added, with gratified paternal feeling, that the inhabitants «jf 
Domremy, the native place of Joan uf Are, had petitioned him 
for a copy of it, which he, I think, has since erected in ihat 
village, r know of no bitterer satire on the France of the 
eighteenth century, — no more striking proof that she stood in 

m tSE mum TSBaros pafsb&. 

weM ^ «>mi» fierw imi lurninff nn«sM -if r^^awienrlnii, — 
ttum "hat hi»r 2rfar»»st ami nn-<r i« nuLar -rrrtrr .n tiiar «fi- 

inr. "hft ihjiy*? f' his;nui->ti- r.iiaitirf. inii leil Ir "• i 
fcr»»?aniT. — ^^^•nilltT. — '.-. ^^ :»Tirirt» o^-r •jr^ jo«nier.»'i5- Ji 

A.v;ut •■*•-, v^nriri^s iiVt^r -hi* i«r'.ne '.r "iiia vrrlble -ra:r- 
^y in *jw P^ae^ Y«? 'it P'wM*^. iie onblesE tneic Tr.Crr :f 

jiilr,rm "hi* HriiJffft Trhirii ^paiui rhe Seine. C»ne ■^anni:!: bar 
lamf'nt. rhat. inMteakl o^ rvssSijwiiiff chit immcrriAiirv .^.c 'oih 
^ppniim '•■n rjw Itf^^miiii of iw mjrluAfll s^pnnuid ehampico. Iu» 
haii nr^t iu»Ui up thft Innpirod Haiti of Ori^aaa. linspii^L 
h^'-.nil rh^ mMtvrr^i of oriinarr hnmamty. with &idLr potr.- 
^»fi«m. aivl <v*nrairK*.) tfp the r^'vweiuwot'hia cfioncrviiifin. H^ 
might hav* r'»«riwd h«*r h7 ar.t>icadr.n frnm du» :nair.:li--« t' 
Voirair^, aivl won <^>r Frawvr. -rliat now hi^ionspi Vi i r' ^-^vir. 
mwv>, the rr«!fl',t of first r»*n«ier»ti iiwi hcrj r "- ^-r 
gwitle heroiwift vrA <pr,fii>m name. 

My p^z-ff l^ftaraiieiWxn. who prswyiei me rx^Ir.* h'.iT^ 
frwft f:/»*ien, rJ^^iHied Pahs H^is a v-^ry ilrrie time ?>h:- r» rr.-. 
The AWi^fPct^Pi in whwih hft was* travel -insr hr'^rfcft 'io-ir., ir.-i 'hi^ 
p tm i ^ x vg^% w^rft *'>»!; gr*^ t/, Ti-h.i« aT;iT -h^^ir r;rr.«--. Ir. •[-.-: ;..2n 
road fill if. r/^M ►le r*|>'»;r'"-f!. L'ji^i i^-^^rf-rl r.-.r T-ir, vr.. r* 
they <'r^/f; f/* liyhr. froT. the f^ur*or .n 'Y.-'-. rr rrr-^ or* the 
v^iii^l'^, tr»e fffiJUr^f \^\\\u(\, thr> f**/*ipt. in fror.*. ar.i tfie ^o<>? 
ahi'**/^, rht^y aroo'int/**'!. ^ii tz-iM, v,*e. h**fliii»i^ ''hr 
f>»n<'|i;/-tor. Vi in^l^^inlfe arr.O'iTi* of Ifigrracre and mer*^faan'il«e 
J^f-ingf ^/*•Hf/,w^/| in the frriperial. Such was the D'OigturA in 
Vthnrj^ forty year* ago ! 



Th« TMt ImporUnoe of thif qnestton— Comparative strength of the parties in a 
military point of Tiew— The leaders described, the Aostrian Emperor Franoia 
Joseph, the King of Sanlinia Yictor Emmanuel II., the Emperor of the French'- 
The German Confederation in its relations to the contest — Hungary and the 
possibility of a new revolution — ^The general spirit of disaffection in Italy and the 
strength which it lends to Sardinia as the champion of Italian nationality— Qnali- 
fled in practice by the hostile feelings of the Italian States toward each other. 

" Will there bo a war in Europe 1 " This is a question 
which, more than any other relating to human affairs, now 
occupies the thoughts of reflecting men throughout the civil- 
ized world. Before this paper sees the light, the question 
may have been decided, and a page of fearful significance for 
good or for evil, — importing prosperity or devastation to fer- 
tile regions, permanence or downfall to established govern- 
ments, life or death to tens of thousands of our fellow- 
creatures, — may have been turned in the volume of contempo- 
rary history. If the question is decided for peace on any basis 
that promises a durable settlement of the existing contro- 
versies, a i)criod of amost unprecedented prosperity will open 
on the world, affording the various states of Europe ample 
opportunity to recover from the exhaustion of their recent 
struggles, with the energy of a mighty re-action. Tlie abun- 
dance of recently discovered gold, and the unexampled perfec- 
tion to which the mechanical ai'ts, and the facilities for 
transport and travel have been brought, with the astonishing 
development of mental energy and inyentive sagacity which 

■A% -am. svuTTT wxk»*<!» T^jLPsaa^ 

wm 4ffi97vtiM?t 3umiihdn^ 'aAniw-i'*-*aL vwia 'j\ jiotil ".nc "3* 
fcmpnc 'Imft hi -uut \f "^k nir.*fr uLHQirjr.iui iir dir'a^ jiir 

ii Tift 2r.r.*Hi wruuii»-nr min^. Ji ;»-v:ai3iintf "^n uxzi^rr. — 
char X -M «. v.nrfMi: .r varti^, ruup. lOii .r i*a»;i;ir.nir 

iift v.uJ.i*J». -v/ii"-^ ".rjinv -.i E-ir'-c^ .» %« 3.r>>MuiiXi;vr -ai» 

ij"^. .lir.-.r-**!. A.ii«i-j*. '-n "Aft -.w* fuli*. anii -^a "ae -.uitr Sa.:- 
tinut. uul .^»^ u^K i rmt*^^ Toa araij 'iiT AoflDruk. '-jl J3 
^A'linAry >>!ai';-. ^^^ar.uMiuiuwr* ia iiina«l7 rMMOed JC ivit 

^Avr, *hrt .•'*-r'». -»*r7 ;ii»art7 v. «x hunilr^l Qii-j«uaiiiL Tru* 
4rm; ^ !.-. 1 *rjtf^.%( *ji[t^fsu^^ <irgafiiTarir.ft joii >£ne«ir ir.lL 
Th»>. ."^tf k AT army '•Y Fmutft i^r coe T*ar l»:;T ▼» ■•sr.^iLiLVri: 
at ir/r/i^i^», v;rh «ixr.j-cvo i3if^niiAn«i «»azn^. ji -liiit ^v..:*^/\u 
ntir^j. Txfi ''iKidiii pflp«^ ir:iiur» -.aar. -hit .vr.-i»* :• '•.- -*« 

fW^'Xj ikUff^Mim .n •..■.".••. *,t p*^Af-, .i-T-i-:': ;; ". -...- • ■ ..-.:•. 
Am tr»r Aw r.niiU t ni .*«: r.f.<ju. .i:.i\*\ .a •>*?.. -r »■:. .. * . . ■ }•■■.. r* 
ittk^viiU A..v-iA;u.a :i,r •.;..•« , Ji- 

UuX'^r Mil*: *m- -,t;i:.: .i* * . : *r 

*',•.'.". ..'.*; '..i.'..i»i,vi;. ^ ..i-,\ ,.« r.i, V 
ny .. ..."*■:•?•« :V .•". * •:•-. -•: 

WJ. ..X.- \-..-. ..•:..<• .; I-: : g. , 

«ita r-i«\' jf.r..-». .ir.i: ;,r ." r.-. 
pAinr^-r ! * .1 1 r ^, T : .rr v A.-r? p r o : ^ . :. -i i A- .*.;.* r*!-: ] .is*r, . .V. r. r * •" r r-ut^r. tj 
in of'Jnar.rj: afti! ?.r.r-. ;r. ir..r.;.,r..-« ct vi.*. Uiii \*ilr4r»: r#) f*rt^ 
ticin in th^tir ;-«••. T:.*-: i:uty ^-w.rii.;* '.r' :,-.r: Li^t '^ntiirT have 
J^fttflf *\r4fj'. :A-f-ri 'i.-^jiri^.ti. 0:if^r:*v of n^oviimrcc. In over- 
wh^loking iriaiMM, AniiUzry tly\n^ over tike fiekL oo tbe win^ 






- I •.: 


.Vi. . 


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I. "TV- 7 




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7 ^'^^' 











J ^' 

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L^ - 

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..-..^i ^ 



of the wind, rifled musketry of fearful range, throwing to on 
incredible distance balls of a murderous weight and configu- 
ration, are now introduced into the armies of Europe. In a 
word, the arts of destruction are not a whit behind the arts of 
peaceful culture, in the perfection to which they have been 
carried. If the Austrian and Franco^rdinian forces take the 
field against each other, it will bo a shock of arms scarcely 
witnessed before in the world. 

The sovereigns by whom these great powers will be put 
in motion, — probably commanded in person, — ^are all sup- 
posed to be animated by courage and military ambition. The 
Emperor of Austria, Francis Joseph, now twenty-nine years 
of age, was, at the age of eighteen, called to the throne of the 
Ilapsbiirgs, at^a period of perilous convulsion, by the abdica- 
tion of his imbecile uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand, and the 
voluntary renuneiation of tlie right of succession by his father. 
He was thought, even at that immature nge, to evince a capa- 
city for sovereign power in arduous times. Under the influ- 
ence of his mother, the Archduchess Sophia, and the advice of 
wise counsellors, coming in aid of no ordinary tact, firmness, 
and resolution, he carried the empire through the immense 
perils of the crisis, — brought the revolutionary struggle to a 
close, — appeased Hungary, in appearance if not in reality, — 
harmonized the various races subject to his rule, — preserved 
the neutrality of his empire in the Crimean war, though sorely 
pressed and greatly tempted by France and England to take 
an active part, — and maintained, when strained almost to 
rupture, relations of friendship with tlie great rival German 
power, the King of Prussia. Witli eleven years prosperous 
experience of power, the youthful Sovereign is said to retain 
an impatient recollection of the humiliations of his family and 
Empire in the war of the French Revolution, and to bum to 
wipe out the names of Austerlitz and Wagram from the his- 
tory of Europe. 

The King of Sardinia is by ten years the senior of the 

ran Jiuirr Tiacs^r J-s^j-sat. 

T.*" J z^U^J-ii^ if::: ii-*:-! 

'.•' ij-. ..I*:'..: "•ii.*:>. .>-,»•- :>T» -.■ •ii'j*.""^.:^ 

'-J . <jm» -J -u..'. : ..' 1.- ',•- ■. • J''..' .*- , ; *. -• 

■.-7,' •«•: -. i.— tt :rk 

f..^-.'. .' ^. .-;- ^-j;-": . .:-*.^ .. . 

■ - • - .r... '■ T -_ j: ^^ 

: .: .. .': ..*• ---... , a- }^',. 

: :--'::..--. j, — r tT.- _ 

•,"' : ,'■ . - r.. -i.- r .*-: '. ^.-L y 

.»t *;•::_»-'" iC*i :-_rrir? 

A ,.' :, '.:..- .-. .^'. ,-^' .' 1 .:? ■-*. . 

.. ; i-^j- -jfc-T . :.-- ..- 

:*/•*«. „ .•^- -1- >•.: :. ',t: '.'-.■• '"- ^ 

,■ '•''■•." '.. "U--: '. * 

rf«/, * . ,/ ->: i r.:/ .r" "^*.-' ■:.."..-* * 

- • - ..-.r-' :. ^^'.- ■ : 

'Jj-:..'* /'. •.r-.;..f--'.: .. .<-. . .r ' . .t. .. 

" — ". ■ ....-'-.-.. 

4 :. .•:-■;. 

li .— 1 


US, in the commodious harbor of Spezia, an admirable rendez- 
vous for our vessels of war in the Mediterranean. 

The third and the most important party to the impending 
war is the Emperor of the French. His power also may be 
said, like that of the Emperor of Austria and the King of 
Sardinia, to date from the memorable years of 1848-'49 ; for 
though his accession to the empire took place in December 
1852, the way was prepared for it by his election as President 
of the French republic ; in fact, by the subversion of the 
throne of Louis Philippe. It is generally thought, and said in 
Europe, that the question of peace or war rests exchisivelt/, — 
and at present inscrutably, — within his bosom. This, how- 
ever, is probably an error. It may be true that the precise 
time, nt which the causes shall take efleot that arc now work- 
ing together toward an outbreak in the South of Europe, may 
depend very much upon the will of the Emperor of the 
French. But that it is in his power wholly to neutralize their 
action, and substitute a good understanding between Austria 
and Sardinia for the present hostile disposition of those powers 
to each other, — and diffuse content and acquiescence in the pres- 
ent state of things, throughout the Italian peninsula, is, as it 
seems to mc, an extravagant and wholly unfounded suppo- 
sition. Without at all undervaluing the importance of the 
participation of Napoleon III. in the approaching contest, it 
would, as I think, be a great mistake of its causes and char- 
acter to suppose that it is, so to say, (;ot vp by him, though 
this appears to be the opinion of very many persons at home 
and abroad. 

Such are the Leaders on both sides of the great impending 
struggle, and the forces at their eominand. IJut there arc 
many subsidiary circumstances, which will modify the com- 
plexion of the contest and seriously affect its character. As- 
suming for the present, that the other three great European 
powers, Russia, Prussia, and England, will preserve their 
neutrality in the struggle, (which will, however, in eacli case 



mO0t ftMuredly be what £ngUiid Ihrough her Premi€r has 
announced for herself^ tiz., ^* an m^ntd netitralitv,**) there are 
still very formldahle aiixiliarj forces, whkh must inerilahlj 
W drawn Into the stFOgglow On the side of Austria, these la 
the GGrman ConiederatioQ, of which she is the bead. Maajr 
of its members will from incUiiatioii march under her ban^ 
aen ; all owe her a qualified allegianoe. The B^ar f^nnlingeat 
of the Federal body baa already be^ called out by the daot 
at Frankfort* In a cause to whkk GermBDs as a pecfde wet« 
hostile or tndifleremt, thia would be a matter of little aecouBt, 
but the {Htblic mind in Germany ia Tehemendy esdtod €ft 
the side of Austria. The course pursued by Loifia NapoleoB 
haa bMD Miailtd, with great bittenieaB by the laaffing GcimaB 
Joornala. Hw memory of the m<»tifiealioiia to iriiick Ger- 
many via snhjecled daring the reign of Napoleon L haa Woa 
jtniioaaiy rekindled. And whatever may be the jnatioe with 
whkli tbe bgB c fi t a aocnung firosn haa aabrenion of the c 
of iIm old German empire, are mgcd, (and 

i in the iUtei jyi^patonigwwfi,) gnat poUti- 
cal I, Im^f « toicad by a fofeign polartain on a prond pe^ffa^ nt 
the point of the bayonet, can newer be the fonndaiion of an 
eiBcMnft pofnlarity. In a war of opinion between Anstna 
and f mtee^ not tnofinng the politknl rij^tta or mntenal in- 
fc of Germany, alie wonld march aa Otte man, onds' the 
' of her oU imperial lender. 
Ike coiditloQ of Hnngary is hcywerer, not to be fbfsollen. 
A few jnara only have ilapari nnee Anstria waa ob%ed to 
rdj wftm RnsRan bayooeta to qneU the djidfcttinft of i^t 
i of her ampin ; the abode of terteen miOiona of in- 
bj a lai^gnaga of their own^ hf 
ef njfHMiwhinn MKnied tor agea^ and the late 
0mrvMr% an^ g gle §bt iaie pe ndeneeL How kr the necmt 
1^ Ibm mm^ htm baa stAoaed by Oie l^ae of 

bnt iti 

thl: mount veenon tapeks. 


tlmt any material change in the public mind should have 
taken place. None such is indicated in the expressions of 
opinion occasionally put forth by Kossuth. If Hungary 
should fmd the opportunity for a new revolt, in the witli- 
drawal of the main body of the Aiustrian army, to a war in 
Italy, it would strike a fatal blow at the Imperial power ; 
especially in the present friendly relations of Russia and 
France, which would prevent the former, as in 18*18, from coin- 
ing to the rescue. 

On the Italiau side of the great controrersy, facts of 
nearly equal significance will materially affect the strength 
of the hostile parties. Sardinia herself is but a second-rate 
power, but she represeuts both a physical and a moral force 
of the most formidable character* Bhc represents the tradi- 
tionary hatred toward the *' barbarian ; '' the passionate long- 
ings of Italy for political independence ; the fervid dream of 
a patriotic nationality, which has glowed unsatisfied in the 
Italian imagination for three or four hundred ye^irs. Clothed 
in no constitutional forms, — hopeless of any such forms, in 
the judgment of the cool observer, — this feeling operates with 
6o much the greater intensity. The moment an attempt is 
made to turn it into a reality, the gravest practical obstxicles 
prefient themselves ; but while it is conftnt-d to the aspirations 
of the ardent and generous children of the one Italian soil, 
and comprehends within the range of its heart-sick and long- 
deferred possibilities, all who — on whichever side of the 
Apennines, and whether they breathe the refreshing gak>8 of 
the Adriatic or the Tuscan scii — cherish the gorgeous vision 
of a regenerated and united Italy, it mingles in the contest 
with the force of twelve legions. 

Unhappily however for Italy, the bright vision vanishes 
like a perturbed spirit, at the breaking of the chilly dawn of 
real life. The Sardinian hat«s the barbarian from beyond the 
Alps, but he hates his Lombard o-Yc net! an brother on the 
other side of the Po, not less intensely. The Genoese has not 



yei forgotten that he was robbed of his sea-bom independence, 
and made subject to the crown of Turin, by that Congress of 
Vienna which sat to redress the wrongs of revolutionary 
France. Tuscans, and Neapolitans, and Sicilians, and subjects 
of the Ecclesiastical state, have for ages regarded each other 
with aversion and scorn ; and it b probable, at this moment, 
if the practical sense of the People of the various Italian 
States could be &irly polled, not one of them would exchange 
its present allegiuico to become subject to Sardinia.* 

But I must not forget that before this paper sees the light, 
a blow may have been struck whicfa may render all anticipa- 
tions baseless and nugatory. 

• IlMTtthitMBtoDMMii«itwilttaitM]|MiBltei«iL To wkst «stot Um 
mMimifl UMllBf of Om Ptopto of tbe Oraad DneUat fimMt MiMiatfoB to Pttdmoat 
doti not j«t elMrif twtr ; bot emti hvw thowa that tke tnMliUoiiMy Isads 
•Ottdod to in tlM tost an iMi opentlT«, at tk« praatBt dif , tiwa tbej appeand to 
ba tweoty yean aga The aatabHahiMBt of liberal iaatitatloiis In Bardinia and the 
Anttro-Sardinlan war In 1849, were eTenta well ealcnlatod to win for Bardinia the 
^fBpatblea of patriotic dtixeiM In orerj part of Italf . 



AnotbeT iportlon of Woslilllgtoii^s Btury to tbo po«s«uiun of J. K Manhill, £j>^,^ 
D^'t^rtption of the inanaAcript and Its couteata— Clrcum&pcctioE of W&sliingtofi 
In rpceiilng furt'lgrnt-rs— -Oen<*nil mpi>roprifttI(iii bill for 1790— Ti!>ur on Long 
Isljind^Presenta lo foreign mlnLstcra on taking leave — CbAsma in tbe Dliiry— Tho 
Preafdi'Bt BUrUt on a S^Qtbcm tour— In preat danger tn eroissing from tbe Eastern 
elioro of Msryland to AnnaiwILs— Pbeception lliew?— ConUnuea bk joiirtiiey to 
©■eopyetowD— Confen^nce vrith tbe proprietor* of the landB on wbich tbo cltj'or 
Wft^lnfion was to be erected— Th«>y agrv^ t» a ces&ioD «)f landa for pabllc par- 
[K»s«9— Dlatrlct of Columbia ; Alexandria rotroceded ta VlTpala—IteKTipiioa of 
the eft J of Wasblngton. 

It may be recollceted tlmt, in the first number of these 
papers, I mentjoncfj, as one of their objects, to give publicity 
to such rcTTiaining memorials of Wiisliin^ton as might be 
brought to my knowledge in visiting di(Terent pfirts of the 
country, for the purpose of repeating my discourse on his 
character With tltia object in view, three papers of the 
series have been devoted to an account of his journey in the 
Eastern States in 1789, as related in his own Diary, lately 
printed for private circulation. On oeejision of a late visit to 
Eiehmondj Virginia, I learne<l from my friend Mr. J no* R. 
Thompson, the Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, 
that another portion of the Diary was in the possession of 
Mr, J, K. Marshall, of Fauquier County in V^irginia, a son of 
the late Chief Justice, At my request Mn Thompson made 
applic-ation to Mr. Marshall for the loan of this interesting 
relic, and for permission to make use of it. This permission 
was kindly and promptly granted, and ^e precious manuscript 



safely forwarded to mo hy Adams' Express, to which I am 
ftlmost daily under obligations for the most important ser- 
vices. As this portion of the Diary has nevvr been printed, 
and aa it contains matter of the highest intere^iit, I am per- 
suaded that my readers Trill thank me for olTeritig them an 
account of this important memorial of Washington from liis 
own pen. 

This portion of the Diary, like that descriljed in the ninth 
number of the^so papers, ia cijntained in a small manuscript 
volume, origiiiaily hound in marble paper covers. It is 
seven inches long, by four and a half wide, and contains, like 
its predecessor, sixty six leaves. It commences where that 
terminates?, viz., with the r2th of March, 1790, while the seat 
of the government of the Unitetl States was still in New 
York. AlJ^JUt half of the manuscript is «>ccupied by the daily 
occurrences of the Spring and Summer of 1790, — brief mem- 
oranda of the despatebcs received and forwarded, of confer- 
ences of the members of the Cabinet and the Vice-President, 
who appears to have been consulted by the President in com- 
mon witii the Secretaries, the titles of Acts of Congress sub- 
mitted for his signature, the names of persons entertained by 
him at dinner, and the jnanner in winch he took his daily ex- 
ercise. There is scarce a lino which does not throw light on 
his marvellous prudence and practical wisdom, and much 
curious informatii>n is contained on matters of detail in the 
administration of the government and the State of public 
affairs, for which, however, we have no room on the present 

The following extract will show the circumspection of 
President Washington in receiving strangers : — 

** Itifonnatjon lidtig gircn bv Mr. Van Bcrkel [the Dutch Minister] 
that Mr, Cazeoove jmt arrived from llollatid smil of a prlncipftl nicrcan- 
tile House thi^ro hud leUcra fur me wbieh he wished to didivcr with \m 
owu Imndi* and rcquestinfr to know when ho might be ppei*entcd for that 
parposL\ it was thought before tU'iA should be doae, it uiight be proper 



to know whether they were of a public natare, and whether he was acting 
in a public character. If so. then to let them come to me through the 
Secretary of State — if not then for him to send them, that the purport 
might be known before he was introduced, which might be at the next 
Levee where ho might be recciyed and treated agreeably to the conse- 
ijuence he might appear to derive from the testimonial of the letters. It 
being conceived that etiquette of this sort is essential with all foreigners 
to give respect to the chief magistrate and the dignity of the government, 
which would be lessened if every person who could procure a letter of 
introduction should be presented otherwise than at Levee hours in a 
formal manner.** 

In mentioning the signature of the bill for the support of 
the government for 1790, the President gives the items of 
appropriation contained in it. Let them be quoted for the 
amazement of this generation ! 

" By this last [bill] was Grant* 
dollr cents 

for the civil list 

War department 

Invalid Pensions 

President — for contingent services of government. 

for demands enumerated by the Secretary of y« 

Treasy in wch the light H« on Cape Henry is 

To Jehoiakim McToksin 
*' James Mathers 
" Giffard Dally. 


165.537— 72 





661.491—71 Total amount** 

Such was an appropriation bill for the support of govern- 
ment two generations ago ! By way of comparison, 1 subjoin 
the ofiicial statement of the aggregate of the appropriations 
made at the last session of Congress, reminding the reader at 
the same time, that the bill appropriating several millions for 
the Postal service failed to pass. 



office, and eoinpelled him >?ho]ly to omit these daily memo- 
randa. The new Congress met at Philadelphia, and the next 
entry in the Diary is under date of 21st March, 171)1, and to 
the following clTect i— 

** Left PhikdeJpbia about 11 o'clock to mnke a tour through tho 
Southern States, * ■ * 

In tills tour 1 was accompanied hj Mllj^ Jackeon — My equipago k 
atteodiuice ciiugi^ti^d of a chariot k four }ior^ed droYo in hand — a light 
bag^gage-wagou and two horses — four saddle horses besides a led one 
for myself and five serrants to wit my valet do chambrc, two footmen, 
Coachman k PostilionJ' 

Proceeding through Delaware and down the Eastern shore ' 
of ^Maryland, the President crossed the bay from Roek-IIall 
to Aimapulis, and on this passage appears to have been in 
great danger. His own narrative cannot fail to command tho 
reader's attention, 

Thuraday 24th. [of March] l>ft ChesteHown about (J o'clock — be- 
fore nine I arrived at Rock ITaU where we breakfasted and immediately 
after whieh wo began to embark— the doing of which employed us (foP 
want of eontrivflnce) until near ^ oelock — and then one of my fiervants . 
(Paris) k two horses were left^ notwithstanding two boats In aid of th|^ i 
two ferry Boats were procured. Unluckily embarking on board a bor- 
rowed boat because she was tho largest, I was in imminent danger froM 
the unskilfulness of the hands and the dullness of her suiliog, added tOM 
Ihe darkness and etormiueas of tho night — for two hours after we hoisted 
sail, the wind was light and ahead — the neit hour was a stark calm--* 
ttfler which tbe wind sprung up at S^* ES and inercoied until it blew a 
gale — about which time and after 8 o^cloek P. M, we made the month 
of the Severn Rtver (leading up to Annapolis), but the ignorance of tho 
people on board with respect to the navigation run us agrotind first on 
Greeiibury (?) point from whence with much exertion & difficulty wo 
got off; k then baring no knowledge of the channel, and the night hciug 
immensely dark with heavy and variable equals of wind — constan| i 
lightning nnd tremendous Ihunder^-we soon grounded again on wha| J 
m oalled Homes (?) point where finding all eflbrts in vain, k not knowing ] 
ythem vo were, wo remaincdj not knowing what might happen, till] 



FridAy 25. HaTJog lam aJl night in mj Great Coat k Booti^ in » 
berth not long enough for jne by the bcad^ k much cramped ; wo found 
ourselves in the morning wittiln about one mile of Annapolia k still fast 
aground — Whilst wc were pri^paring our etiiall Boat in order to laod in 
it, a flailing Boat came ofT to our aiSi^istiincc in weh with the Bjiggage I 
had on Board I landed, and request ted Mr* Man at whose Inn J intended 
lodging to «cnd off a Boat to take off two of my borgca & chariot which 
1 had left on board and with it m? Coacbnian to see that it waa properly 
done — but by fiome mistake tho latter not having notice of this order 
and attempting to get on board afterwards in a smalkr sailing Boat was 
overset and narrowly escaped drowning. 

Was informed upon my arrival (when 15 guns were fired) that all my 
other hor$ca arrived safe that embarked at tbc samo timo 1 did, about d 
o*ciock last night. 

Was waited «pon by the Governor (who came off in a boat aa aooa 
ftfl he beard I was on my pa^^age from Rock-Dall to meet US| but turned 
back when it grew dark k squally) as @ooii aa I arrived at }AaiCn tavern^ 
and waa engaged by him to dine with the Ciliseiis of Annapolis this day 
at Man's tavern^ and at bi^ houno tomorrow — the irst 1 accordingly did* 

Before dinner I walked with bim, and freverat other gentlemcri to the 
State house (which seemed to he much out of repair) — the College of St. 
John at which there are about 80 studenta t>f every deacrlption — and 
then by the way of the Governor's (to sec Mrt. Howell) home. 

It thus appears that the President of the United States, 
travelling with every (ticility which the state of the com- 
munications at that time afibrded^ was five days in accom- 
piishing the journey from Philadelphia to Annapolis, now 
easily made in six hours. 

The city of Washington was not yet laid out, and the 
President pitrsued his journey from Annapolis to Georgetown , 
in order to bring the proprietors of land at this last-named 
city and Carrollsburg (which I suppose to he the region ex- 
tending cast and west from Capitol Hill) to terms of agree- 
ment as to the cession of land for the puMic buildings. Con- 
trary to his usual practice, he went from Annapolis to Bladcns- 
burg on Sunday, and dined and lodged there. The following 
day he was met hy a large party of citi^^ens from Georgetown, 
headed by Mr. Thomas Corcoran, (Father of Mr. William W* 

^ WiAm^mil ^^^j hf irkom lie was addroMed^ ^ 
■ad VM by IfaflBi < w aarte d to Ovorgelawn, ii*liere he ■rmisd' 
Hi OR tmtU lumr. 

Ujb firvt %atr^ on arnrail iras to wmtnme the Burvers iif llr. 
ttliiftnlita vfho tmd Leoi i^|»casit»d '^ to sunrej tbe dktziGt of 
%m WB^hm •qtisre lor ibe l^dend ieal, A&d al«» liie ivndcs qf 
Ib/r^ L*£iifiml, w1m> luid beon ei^gi^ed to exjunine jmd zmikie 
• dnHdgtet uf tlie ^rutitidft in lilt vidiiil^ of Ge oi'g e towji aad 
€(tf?oU«ljtirg oil the Ecwstem BmelL^ llie Presidenl niaSe 
IPittmfgPfCto to exumltie tiietu iiun^lf the folloi^'ing diir, mid 
MtAindnd 11 public dinner giv<!ii bv tUe Corporation ji;: Suter^s 
ittverii, wht*rK* he ludgvad* At Btn-cn o'clock in the moroii^ 
iff tbti 2^ht *^ ill n thick lUMt mid under a stToug i^jieusnoe 
<it a i»«fClled nuy (wlneh however did aot hsppen)' he SA 
out to imtlfctlte this cjuiminaticni, but from the un^onihlek- 
lix^ta of thii day he ^' derived no great astif&ctian from the 

Fiiidjug the laud holders of G(M>rgctowii and CarroUsburg 
* ' at variaiuit* with endi other, and that their ftsars and jealousies 
w<frf counteriurting tiie public purpoaee and might prove in- 
jurious to iiii b*ist iriterebls/' the President invited a eonfer- 
eneu of tliuac eoncivmod, and suoceeded in bringing them to 
unite in ik natiafiictory arrangeraent. The proprietors alluded 
to agreed *' to Burrender fur public purposes one-half of the 
land they severally powac«»ed witliin boundti which were t]t> 
iiigntKl UH neeeuaary for the City.** 

Thtifi were the District of Columbia, ten miles square, and 
the City of Wasfiington, laid ouL The District originally 
c^onUiiurd the Cities of Washington and George to^^l on the 

MtTf ' * -ide of tlie Potomac, and the City of Alexandria ou 

til' i iiidtu Sudi an amuigement was not indicated by 

till ^n, though wearing in theory and on 

pu^ v ..^..... - ,j ^ aranee. The citizens of AleJtandria, 
ttdtT fAy yiioni* experience of Congressional government, 
Ittrntttd to he runtorisd to the genial tutelage of their parent 


State : and all that part of the District lying on the right 
bonk of the Potomac was a few years since retroctnioii to 

The situation of Washington is of unsurpassed beauty 
for an inland town. The sweep of the river, as you look 
from the balcony of the library on the Western fn)nt of 
the Capitol, the lino of the Virginia hills beyond, especially 
when seen in the early part of the day, the eneircling htighta 
which stretch from Georgeto^Ti round to the North, destined 
at no distant period to be crowned with all the beauties of 
villa architecture, forest, and garden, (this anticipation has 
begun to be realized,) the noble streets and avenues before 
and beneath the eye, lined already in many places with stately 
private dwellings and magnificent public edifices, form alto- 
gether a panorama of extreme richness. Some errors no 
doubt may be pointed out by a fastidious taste in the plan of 
the city. Desolate spaces, neglected amorphous spots, abor- 
tive attempts at premature display, — the necessary incidenta 
of a town called into being, in the first instance, liy the exi- 
gencies of the public service, and 8U8taine<l by a government 
patronage alternately profuse and parsimonious, — oflTend tha 
eye on a close survey of the national Capital. But for 
natural advantages, beauty of position, the rapid progress 
already made in the comforts and refinements of eo^.-ial lift?, 
and in its capacity for almost indefmite improvement, under 
the fostering care of a paternal government, Washington fully 
justifies the interest taken by its illustrious Founder in its 
selection as the scat of republican empire. 



Waalilii^tOD'a Bouthem tour tn ITOl lesa known than bli Eutem tomr Id 1 739— Da* 
parture fhsm MtJumt Yltmuo 7th of ApfU— Acchlent in ctoeslng the ferry «t Col- 
c1ic£tor^Froiler1ckfibiirgii^Klchmoii4— Loclu In tho Jamos Hirer Caq&I — SUUi 
of pnbUo opinion la Yirgtolji on thu ttsaumptlua of tbe Stata dobU add tlio ExqIao 
taw — Pet«rftburgh and the VrvmldvaVs Accdunt of It— innoccot Brtlflco to eftctpe 
&ti e9fiort--IIallJ!kx, K. Carolina— No stabling at Alkn^a— Arrival at Newbem and 
ileflcrtptlon of tbat placo— Its present c<miIitloD And appearance— Arrival at Wll- 
min^n and accotmt of that plae? — ^Tbe mode of t&kfng tbo dlrst ccdsua d4:«cHbed 
by Waabln^n— Preaent condition of WllmSoirtoii—Eccciit visit of tbo writer to 
North Carolina— Its gfineral prwtperity— Raklgh — Chapel HUL 

Of WnsMngton's Southern Tour little in detail lias been 
published. Of his tour in the Eastern States, two years be- 
fore, some of the incidents, and particularly hia relations with 
John Hancock at Boston, attracted general notice at the time, 
and have been narrjit^d at some length in diiferent publica- 
tions. They furiiisb tho matter of several page^ in General 
Sullivan^s " Familiar Letters '* in Mr. Sparks' edition of" tho 
Writings of Washington," and in the volume of Mr, Irving's 
Life of Washington just issued from the press. In addition 
to this, that portion of the Diary of Washington which con- 
tains the account of his Western tour, had within the past 
twelvemonth, as tbe readers of these papers have seen, been 
printed for private circulation. 

Of tbe Southern tour^ equally interesting in it^elfi much 
less has been said. It has been dismissed with a single para- 
graph in tbe Standard lives, and tlie portion of the Diary 
which contains tbe record of it, and ^vhich, as stated in my 



last nuinbcr, is now in the possession of Mr, James K. Mar- 
shall of Fauquier County, Virginia, (a son of the vcnerablo 
Chief Justice,) haa never been conimittcd to the press. I 
have for these rt!asons felt confident, that 1 should gratify the 
reiider by copious extracts from this portion of the Diary, 
containing as they do the impressions of its illustrious author 
recorded at tlio time, as to the principal cities in the Southern 
States of the Union, and the various occurrences of his tour. 

Having coii)plete<i the business \vhi« k engaged his atten- 
tion at Georgetown J as related in my last number^ tlie Presi- 
dent, on the 30th of ifareh, 1791, lefl that city, dined at Alex- 
andria, and reached Mount Vernon in the evening. Here he 
remained one week, ** visiting his Plantations every day/* and 
on the 7th of April recommenced his ''journey, with horses 
apparently well i-efreshed, and in good spirits/* On crossing 
the ferry at Colchester, with the foirr horses hitched to the 
chariot, by the neglect of the person who stood before them, 
one of the leaders got overboard, when the boat was in swim- 
ming water and fifty yards firom the shore. With much diffi- 
culty ho escaped from drowning beforo he could be disen- 
gaged. His struggles frightened the other horses in such a 
manner, that one after another in quick succession they all got 
overboard, harnessed and fastened as they were. With the 
utmost diiTicuky they were saved, and tho carriage escaped 
being dragged after them. ** The whole of it/' says the 
Diarv, " happened in s\vimming water and at a distance from 
the shore. Providentially, — indeed miraeulousl}', by tho ex- 
ertions of People who went i^fT in boats and jumped in the 
river as soon as the Batteau was forced into wading waters- 
no damage was snstaincd by the horses, carriage, or harness.^' 
The President this day dined at Dumfries ^ — "after which," 
says the Diary, ** I visited &; drank tea with my niece Mrs. 
Tho*9 Lee," 

Starting at C> oVl^ck the following day, the President 
breakfasted at Staflord Court House, *' and dined and lodged," 



says the entry, " at my sister Lewis's in Fredericksburg." 
Saturday the 9th was appropriated U> "a puhlic entertain- 
ment given hy the Citizens uf the to\vn»" Uii the folhnving 
day, Sunday the 10th, he breakfasted with General Spots- 
wood, dined at the Bowling Green, and lodged at Kenner's 
tavern ; in all a journey of thirty-five miles, lie reached 
Riehmond to dinner on the 11th at 3 o'clock, having " break- 
fasted at one Rawlings'a ^' by the way. On his arrival In> 
** was saluted by the Cannon of the place — waited on by the 
governor & other gentlemen — d: saw the city illuminated by 

The President remained in Richmond from Sunday, tho 
day of his arrival, till Thursday* His first care was to in- 
spect the locks on tho James River Canal > a work in which 
he ever took the deepest interest. He records with evident 
satisfaction the impressions made upon his mind, chiefly by 
CoL Carrington, the marshal of the district, with reference to 
the popularity of the general government. lie " could not 
discover that any discontents prevail among the people at the 
proceedings of Congress. The conduct of the assembly re- 
spectiiig the assumption" [of the state debts] " ho (Col, Car- 
rington) thinks, is condemned by the people as intemperate 
& unwise, and he seems to Iiave no doubt but the Excise law 
— as it is called — may be executed without dilTiculty, nay 
more that it will become popular in a little time." CoL Car- 
riagttjn evidently painted things conlcur rogc. On Wednes- 
day tho President attended a public entertainment givea by 
the Corporation of Riehmond. ** The bnilcliugs in this place," 
he remarks, ^* have encreascd a good deal since 1 was here 
last but they are not of the best kind. Tlio number of Souls 
in the City are ." A blank is here lefl as in other simi- 
lar cases f^ir more accurate information. The industry of 
Richmond in all its brandies was then in its infancy, and 
those topics which usually occupy so much of the President's 
attention arc not mentioned. 


The next day, Thursday the 14th, ho went to Pott^rahiirg. 
Passing through Manchester ho " received a sahito from 
Cannon & an escort of horso, under tho command of <^ipt. 
David Meade Randolph, as far as Osborne's, whcro " ho *• was 
met by tho Pctersburgh Ilorso & escorted to that \)\iicAi dc 
partook of a public dinner given by tho Mayor and Corpora- 
tion <& went to an assembly in tho evening * * at which 
there were between sixty & seventy ladies." Tlio President'** 
account of Petersburg is in the following tenns : 

** Petersburgh which is said to contain near SOCK) aoula is well litiiated 
for trade at present, but when the James River navigation is ('ompL'aled 
k the cut from Elizabeth river to Pas^juotanck is eftected, it must difcliue 
k that very considerably. At present it receives at the Inf:{>ectiuufl 
nearly a third of the Tobacco exported from the whole Htate besides a 
considerable quantity of Wheat k >1our — ffiuch of the former being 
manufactured at the mills near The town — ^.'hief of the buildings in thin 
town are under the hill k unpleasantly situated but the heights around it 
are agreeable. 

^'The Road from Richmond to this place pacses through a poor 
Country principaUy covered with Pine, except the interval lands on thft 
River which we left on our Left." 

The President's antici pat ions of the falling off of P<rt4fn>- 
burg fr<>m a populati*:>n of 3,000 Lave n<A }Mi*fU fulfil lei. Jiy 
the census of 180(^ it was 14,010. a trifle wjialler than tliat of 
Norfolk. It cannot at this time be much if any l>elow twenty 

On Friday the 10th tlie President started from Peterb- 
l)urg. practicing a little artifioe as to the time of hib departure, 
of which 1 recollect no other instance in his whole career, and 
whidi. involvinp no d^-parture from th«.' strictetrt truth, uivi 
resorted u« for the best of reasons, will not Ih- blanicl. It i;^ 
described iu tlie following woi-d> : — 

"FridoT 10th. HATittg poffereu very much uy tii». liuji: }Lr'.ciduy — 
aod finding tiiat parties of Horbe and a numUer oi uUit-r geutivUien were 
fat ^iHii^ to atieud i&e pan of the way to-day, 1 cauM;d tUeir enquiricE 



fetpcedog the U&e of m j settiog out^ to be answered thAl I should en- 
dearor to do it before & o'clock, but did ii a little after fire, bj wbldi 
moult I aroided the iDCODTenieDce aboTe meDtioned." 

This day the President breakfasted after trarelling twelve 
miles at ** one Jesse Lee's, a tavern newly set up on a small 
scale," and proceeding fiftani miles further dixied and Icxlged 
" at the House of one Oliver, which is a good one for horses 
6s where there are tolerable clean beds. For want of proper 
stages " he ** could go no further/* 

The President started the next day at about 5 o^clock, 
and travelling most of the time under a heavy rain, was com- 
pelled, for want of stopping places, to proceed as ^ as Hali- 
iiix III North Carol icia^ a distance of forty-eight miles, arriving 
at six O'clock In the evening. He passed the following day, 
Sunday the 17th, at Halifax, which he describes as " a place 
said to contain a thousand souls & apparently in a decline." 
At the invitation of Colonel Ashe, (the representative of the 
district ill which iralifax was situated,) and several other gen- 
tlemen, General Washington attended a public dinner at that 

On Monday the 19th the President started at six o'clock, 
'* dined at a small house kept by one Slaughter twenty two 
miles from Halifax, Ac lodged at Tarborough fourtcf n miles 
further. We were received at this place" the Pr<^ident 
bcfiignantly remarks, *' by as good a salute as could l>e given 
with one piece of artillery/' On the fijUowing day (19th April) 
they " dined at a trifling place called Greenville 25 miles dis- 
tant 6i lodged at one Alluns 14 miles further, a very indiffer- 
ent house, without stablihg [for the horses], which for the 
first time since I commenced my Journey were obliged to 
stdtid without a cover," 

The President Icfl Allan's on the 20th before brcak&st, 
and ** under a misapprehension went to a Col? AJlan's, sup- 
posing it to l>e a public house, where we were very kindly Ac 
well entertained without knowing it was at his expense until 



1^ irai tcM^ late to rectify die mialAke.'* Thcf croased tlie 

Ncnse at a ferry ten miles from Xewbem, wh« they arriTisd 
to dinner and were exceedingly well lodged. 

'^TbU town,** eijs die Preddent, *'» sitntfcd U l^eoaOaeaeeof llbe 

Nttse and Trentf and though low m pleaMBL Tcaek dnvfag botb Uum 
nine feet of water cannot get up loaded. It ifends on » ^ood deil «f 
ground, but the buOdiags are ifMfM 4 allofether of woodf mne «f 
which are large Jc look welL Hie number of cools are abool MOd. Its 
exports coiudst of Com, Tobacco & Pork, — but pnocipallj of naTsl tfores 
& lumber. 

Thursday SlsL Dined with the citixens at a ptiblie dinoer giren by 
them k went to a dancing afficmbtj in the E renin g^^-both of which was 
St what ther call the pallace — fonnerlj the gorernment boose & n good 
brick building but now hafiteolng to rainft. The company ai botii ««s 
numcroQd — at the latter there were about 70 kdies.'' 

Newbern still, as in General Washington's time, ** though 
low is pleasant." Its population by the Census of 1850 was 
4,6$1, and is now considerably increased. It has a railroad 
connection with Beaufort and Goldsboro*, tm^ with the main 
lines which traverse the State. Its once splendid Fakoe, 
erected by the ostentatious Tryon, and ruinous in President 
Washington's daya, has yanished from the &oe of ihe earth ; 
— an open street passes over the site ; but the substantial 
brick stables remaiiu The grass^^rown streets, shaded by 
elms and lined with gardens, gire to Newbem an air of re- 
pose, which reminds you of some of the small German re«i- 
dences. The situation at the confluence of the Trent and the 
Neuse is magnificent* The traditional culture of a provincial 
metropolb is visible at Kewbem ; and the honored memory 
of Judge Gaston is freshly cherished^ But I have experienced 
its hospitable welcome too recently to speak of it with im- 
partiality. I had the pleasure on the 12th of April of repeat- 
ing my discourse on the character of the great man whose 
visit I am now reoordiog, to a crowded audience, and with a 
net receipt, for the benefit of the Mount Vemon Fund, of 

i^t^ 'rUK MOl'^Y VlOOiON' PAPEB;?. 

Tho President k-ll NowIxtu on the :iid April, " under an 
Mivrt i«rhi»rs^f \ iiiaiiv of tho ppu'.cipal ir*.»ntlomeiu" dineti at 
a |»):uv oiilU'd 'IWntv*!!, at tho head vl the boat navigati».^n ot 
the Tiviit, ci\».v*«.^l that river on a bri..l^\ and " lod;red at ouo 
Shriue >* 10 tniU-!* furl her — both irKlirTiTeKt h«^use:*." On the 
•^J3d, * bivak tasted at one Kver^'t'* 3:2 iiiiles, bared ar a ilr. 
J?\»\'s Ti mi let luriher s>k, I-.^di^ed a: ''lie Sabres '20 miles bo- 
sviJtJ iu- al' 'iiJiileivat housi's.*' 

1*11 Suiida\ i:ie 'i4ih i:ie Preside lit " brcakiaiJted ac an :n- 
dillVreiii :K'4i&<: about 1-3 iiuies thjiu Safe's vSi ^iir^ii* miies 
lurther iici a |;aity of LifJCfic Hi;p»e fpMii ^V:lmi^!xr"n. •S 
alter iheiii, a v.vinniitiee and *'ther :ri.'Ut:eiiiua *-f 'he * »^v^. 
ut \*hieii he ar»*!Ved. under a rederui salute, ar ■"r;- ^'".d 
liAlj;inj;s abimr *.\\tt i^'elotk. Hen* suy** he. '• I iiimi -vita 
tlio v-vmiiiitiev \%hox* .■•jm[niii;.' I lisked. " Tiii' -innrr;" )»■- 
t\*uu Nit^'Ki'ti uiu W"iiniii!ir*.in s ies4T'.m'd ")v -if P-^-;- 
deiii .to ')eini:, A'lii iie •\e*.'»it:Mn if ^ :e\v niacs. 'he iinst 
barrvii K" x!!- Hiu 'li, sHviail" n 'he -lars -n-ap-sr ^V'i 
iinii&;M>Li, v;k'«"»' I > * lu ii:u»**nan t u-i if \ -iin.' sui-.i. ' 
In M.IHU •iiif^ I'iW.v.r. "• f deis 'i" ittv-rv -tuiii ■).- -4n- 
amUti -p.iM *!ie :-.ini, 'lu- ipi»trtnim-'> 'i' t m* up-i-^-ai •:•.•. *» - 
sciiiiniii^ b ix^Mi •\iil ■«^vi'»-»-ii ■\:tii •vit:x'^-^!I> .Jii i. Z'-'i 
\er»iurt.' Vi^iw. "'nnii i •rtr.iii 'f MrirM.- 4r;i>*. \... ...■::•_■ 

^•I'lM'^ ij» ^itv 'ii'. iunf."u 'i' t:-. \..-..^ ..... . ■ V-. .:: . 

iiiUid<<.'!xi\ '.".•<, .■^i»';« -i!^ -5> li.:-i- V • "i »l: ' *• •..:■' ' ■■> ri 
Oic ■»\i!^ !>■%-• 11 ••■■••..> ■■ *;iu-. \::i.:: '''iir::-.:;! ■. : '■ . ::il; 

'H 'h'. "..'iv.:.* ■'. *L-. >«.»-•.•..* 

-milM ^wotA tMtrH.-^ ircll • ••.•li|.-iii.l " '.i-'. — »Vu -lijli.' -lli.t'r ;.! ^ Utt:.l 

i^ j'Oi tMcti iiiiVi.- I vAUi, 'I''- ■.;:! '-r ■ ! .jh.- : i.i'i'.j;- ••i.- 

!IMrdl:«}ll '«> i.uitt ". '"', '•■ -i . ;."-i i !il.'..- ■ :u i: ■ Hr-i? - i 

ibiil "^t-f "ha irli ■ vr» iJiuiiirT. .•! •■ : >i:ii.|i-i In'* lr»i:ii ' :t- '*tli- 
sbkii'! ir?|Mll;•;^; * iJO J>«edU ■ J :»'i.l'^ ■ ? . *«Ni|iu*? ..•mr-.— . uu :i«n* • a 


certain places, by which means those who did not attend (and it seems 
man J purposely avoided doing it, some from an apprehension of its being 
introductory to a tax k others from religious scruples) have gone with 
their families unnumbered. In other instances it is said that these deputies 
have taken their information from the Captains of Militia companies ; 
not only as to the men on their muster rolls, but of the souls in their re- 
spective families, which at best must, in a variety of cases be mere con- 
jecture, whilst all those who arc not on their lists, widows & their 
families &c pass unnoticed. 

Wilmington unfortunately for it has a mud bank miles below 

over which not more than ten feet of Water can be brought at common 
tides ; yet it is said vessels of 250 tons have come up. The qty of ship- 
ping which load here annually amounts to about 12,000 tons. The ex- 
ports consist chiefly of Naval stores and lumber. Some Tobacco, corn, 
Kice 8c Flax Seed with Porkc. It is the head of the tide navigation, but 
inland navigation may be extended 115 miles farther to and above 
Fayette's villc which is from Wilmington 90 miles by land and 115 by 
water as above." » * * 

Monday 25th, Dined with the citizens of the place, at a public dinner 
given by them — went to a Ball in the evening at which there were 62 
ladies, — illuminations, bonfires &c. — 

The population of Wilmington by the census of 1850 was 
7,264. In the period which has sinc<5 elapsed, and under the 
stimulus of the railroads which connect it with the con- 
terminous States North and South, it has greatly increased, 
and amounts no doubt at tlie present time to ten or twelve 
thousand. Its natural features have of course not changed 
since President Washington's time ; the " mud bank " still 
obstructs the navigation, and has as yet been attacked with 
but partial success, under liberal appropriations of the federal 
government. Wilmington is however the seat of an active 
trade in the staples of the country. Its population, as far as 
I was able to judge from a short visit, intelligent, cntorpriz- 
ing, and rather more than usually harmonious among them- 
selves. The river prospects from elevated positions are re- 
markably fine. An immense audience, assembled in Thalian 
Hall on the 11th April last, honored the repetition of my 

I M tfe Awwtfr 4f WfiKja^jM, Mi tike » 
«r fh» <fr«kiiii^ tlWl Arii'lM. ve^ m pK^crrxs lo lie 
p9palje»r*, iu" \0!ffMA ihrjtt of ncj ocber pSMcr ni the Cms. 
I iim Mrr» i'jT aav-jtlKT paper tke aieeim&i c/ die Preaic^« 

Vofixaft jiE«4 NfufiJb CurcnJ&A. ftfifcr<'j& alt tiuzcg bus Lixi£n'> 
!«« pnUiiiM^L I vjat 1a perouUiML bj vnj of filling 7q> 
tins Nw/il>»T, to «kT tloi Do-aiKTe kkTe mj jEtieipirtMDs cf 

« iifr»i»A>/k U/or Y.i^«o more complele] j folfflled tian in t^ 
Ijtft njirj^ Stkl^'. Izi tiie CMzrMr of a vcd I Tisted WilzoiDg- 
Utty N«vL«T«L RjJ^i^ a&d CSupd-Hill, fy^faiing la eftch of 
ffcclif' plaoH. CcouuiaiiieatioDi betv«cii the piiDdfttl plAcet 
ki Nortli fJarolinft is rcDdered ez]Mdxtk«» bj aboot eigfat 
bandred mik* of nilroad, tnrerwig tbe Ewteni md een- 
tnJ ff/t^ymM '/ tbe Sute. It wmb wA in mr power to xiat 
the Vih^ifraJ dl^tnd iiV>at (jtatrlfAU^ or tbe moontjuzi region 
of tbe W^vt, vbkb f'.;nu « rerr iuiporUoit axMl sttncUTe jtcn^ 
twm '/f iIk; 1^^1x1^17. I LaiT^ ijnsiiijj Mud ft few -wcfrds- of 
X«rw>jfm UTid WiltrjiogUiTL UiJeigfa, tbe political zxMtropolis 
'/ tbe Hut/-, arid ^Jbapel-IIilL tbe wai of the UniTersitT of 
K<«ili ^^n/lhiiL hfMimA my address witb erowded and fJBTor- 
iog ModUttf*^, Tbe imA reodpts at tbe fiirmer were t515 : at 
tbe latter •415 M-IOO. I f>imd at botb places a highly in. 
tenig^^jt mji;ud cirde. Raleigh was adorned at Terx great 
expenNf t/# tl*e Statf, with a irajHrb statue of WasLingt<»n 1»t 
Ganova, at a thue wb«i^ if I mistake n<:it, with the exception 
of H'/ud^m'*. llKTe was no r*ther statue of Washington in tbe 
Unit^ Statf*. It was nnfortunatelr destroyed by fire when 
tbe Capitol was bumry) a few years since. A cc»py of HuhanTs 
cast from Houd^jn's Washington has lately beni placed in tbe 
Capitol grr*imds. Raleigh itself constitutes, in its name^ the 
noblest monument to tbe illustrious but unfortunate pioneer 
of North American colonization. It will preserve bis gallant 
deeds and generous traits of <^rart4y in booorod x«mesn« 
bnnoe,age8 after tlie crownad pedant w]k> ami luatotbe 


*•*<-•*•!'= ^. w. . 

f^lUMr:..^ .. ^^„.. 




Deptrton from WUmington— The Bwuh eroMcd— Arriral at Oaoigstowa, B* CL— 
Oq>t Alston*! pkntatlon— Deterlptton of Oeorgvtown— Arrival at Charleaton and 
rMepUon and foatiTitlea there— Deteription of CharlMton— No mantion of eotton 
among the exporta-^onmej retomed on the 9th of Maj— Mrs. Qen. Oreen— Arrl- 

▼al at Savannah— Militaiy operations In 1779— Savannah described— Boad through 
Waynesborongh to Aninista— Reception at Aagosta— Description of that place — 
Betnm to the North bj the waj of Colombia, Camden, Charlotto, Salisbury, and 

Having sent his horses across the river the day before 
the President started for Charleston on the 26th of April, 
1791, breakfasted at Mr. Ben Smith's, and lodged at one 
Russ's, " an indifferent house," having made but twenty-five 
miles. On the following day the party breakfasted at Wil- 
liam Gause's, dined at a private house, (* one Cochran's) and 
lodged at Mr. Vareen's, * two miles short of the long bay.' 
" To this house," says the Diary, " we were directed as a 
tavern, but the proprietor of it either did not keep one, or 
would not acknowledge it. We therefore were entertained 
(& very kindly) without being able to make compensation." 

The following day they were piloted by Col. Vareen 
across the Swash, (which at high water is impassable and at 
times, by the shifting of the sands, is dangerous,) to the long 
beach of the ocean. The tide being favorable, the party fol- 
lowed the beach to the place for leaving it, an estimated 
distance of sixteen miles. They dined at Mr. Pauley's, a 
private house, and " being met on the road & kindly invited 



liy a Dr. Flagg," they lodged there, after a dny^s journey of 
thirty-thrco miles. 

The record of the 29th is as follows : — 

*' We left Dr* Flftgg^A at about 6 oVlock and arrived at CaptaiQ Wm, 
Ahum's on the Waggamaw to breakfast. Captain AUtoa is a geotlemao 
of large fortune and esteemed one of the neatest Rice planters in the 
State of S*. Carolina and the proprietor of pora© of the most Taluable 
groupda for the culture of this article. — Hts house which ia large^ new^ 
and ekguntly furnUbed fitand^ on a Baod'bill, high for the Coontrj^ with 
his rice fields below ; the contrast of which with the lands back of it and 
tbo Sand k pinej barrens through which we bad passed ia scareclj to 
he conceived." 

The President was met at Capt, Alston's by General 
Moultrie, Col. Washington, and Mr. Rutledgej (son of the 
chief justice of S. Carolina,) who had come out to escort him 
to Georgetown. The next day ihey crossed the river, after a 
descent of three miles " under a salute of cannon & by a com- 
pany of infantry handsomely uniformed.'* The President 
dined with the citizens in public^ and ** in the afternoon was 
iutrijduced to upwards of (it\y ladies, who liad assembled (at a 
tea party) for the occasion." 

♦* Georgetown/' saya the Diary, " scorns to be m the shade of Charles- 
ton — It suffered through the war by the BritUh^ hav'g had many of 
its housea burnt. It is situated on a peninsula between tbc river Wacca- 
maw and Sumpter Cruk about 15 miles from the sea — dt. bar is to be 
passed, over whkh not more than 13 feet of water can be bro't except 
ut Spring tides; which (tho* the inhabitants arc willing to eniertnin dif- 
ferent ideas) must ever be a considerable let to its importance ; especial- 
ly if tbc cat between tbc Santce k Cowpcr Rivers should ever be acoom- 

'*The inhabitants of this plate (either unwilling or unablf^) tould jj:ive 
no account of tht* number of soub in it^ but I diould not <jginputc them 
at more than & or 600. Its chief export Elcc." 


The population of Georgetown by the Census of 1850 was 




Oa Sunday, 1st of Muyi the party left Georgetown, and 
crossing the Santeo River at » distance of twelve miles, break- 
fasted and dined at Mrs, Horry's, about fiftc'cii miles from 
Georgetown, ** & lodged at the plantation of Mr. Mauigold 
about tweh'o miles further." 

On the 2d of May, the party breakfasted at the country 
seat of Gov. Pinckney, about eighteen miles from the place 
where they had lodged, and then came to the ferry at lladdrcFs 
point, six miles further, where they were met by the Recor- 
der of the city. Gem Pinckney, and Edward Rutledge, Esq. 
in a twelve oared bar^e, rowed by twelve American captains 
of ships, most elegautly drei>sed. There were a great number 
of other boats with gentlemen and ladies in them, and two 
boat^ with music : 

*' All of M'hich,'' saya the Diary of the President^ " attended me 
across ; k on the passage were met by a Dumber of otbers. As wc ap- 
proflched the town a tinlute of arlillery commenced^ ami at tbc whiirf 1 
was met ny the GoTcrnor, the D, Governor, the Intend*, ol ihi* city^ tho 
two Seuatora of the Statc^ Wardens of the eUy, Crocinimli, kc. kc. and 
conducted to the Exchange wliere they passed by in procea?ion — from 
whence I was conducted in like manner to my lodgings, — ^after which 
I dined at the Gorernor'ti (in what be called a private way) with IS or 
IS gentlemen " * • ■ 

**The lodgings proridcd for me in this place were very good — ^Ijcing 
the furnished house of a Gentleman at present m tbe Country ; but oc- 
cupied by a person pluced there on purpose to accommodato me, and 
who was paid in the same manner as am other letter of Lodgings would 
have been paid." 

** Tuesduy the 3d breakfasted with Hra. Hutledgc (the Lady of the 
chief justice of the State who was on the Circuit.^) and dined with the 
citizens at a public din^ given by them at the Exchange. 

** Wm Ttsited at about 2 oVlock, by a great number of the most res- 
pectable Ladles of Charleston— the first honor of the kind I ever had 
experienced & it was 0,^ flaltcring as it was pingular.'^ 

"Wednesday the 4 lb. Dined with the members of the Cincinnati^ 
and in the evening went lo a very elegant dancing Assembly at the Ex- 
cbangis, — at which were 260 elegantly dressed & handsome hidies.'* 

*'In the forenoon (Indeed before breakfast to day) I visited and ex- 



•mtQed the lines of niUxck k defence of the cilr & was 6iLtkGed Uiat the 
defence viHB nobte & houornblc ahho tbo meiLsure was nndertakca upon 
wnjng prmeiplf:.^ and impolilie/' 

**Th«rsdaj tbe Glli. Visited the woiks of Fort Johnson on Jamea' 
Island k Fort Moultreo on Snllivan*s IjsliLnd; both of which arc — in 
Ruins ; and scaTCcJy a trace of the bitter left— the former quite fallen, 

**DinL»d with a very large company at the Governor's and in the Even- 
ing went to A Concert at ibe Exchange at wch there were at h^ast 400 
ladies — the number and appearance of wch exceeded aii>1.hing of Iho 
kind I had ever teen." 

On Friday the 6lb, the President rode through the princi- 
pal streets of Charleston, dined at Major ButkT's, and wont 
to a hall in the evening, at the Govenior's^ ** where there was 
a select company of ladies," On Saturday, the Tth^ he 
visited the Orplian House l>of^>re hreiikfast, " where there 
'were 107 boys 6z girli^.'^ lie also viewed the city from the 
balcony of ehurcb, *' from whence the whole is seen in 

ono view to great advantage, the gardens & green trees which 
are interspersed adding much to the beauty of the scene.*"^ 
On Sun<Jay tit© President *' went to crowded ehurchea in the 
morning & altemoon," but the names of the churcbcs are 
lefl blank, Genend Washington staid an entire week in 
Chark'ston, being a considerably longer time than was given 
by him to any city North or South* Ilia summary descrip- 
tion of it is in the following terms : 

^' Diarleston sUnds on a Peninsula between the Ashley k Cowper 
Rivers and contains about 1500 dwelling houses and nearly 16,000 souls 
[population in I85042,t)8r>]j of which about 8,000 are wbitL — - It lies low 
with unpaved Streets (except the footways) of gand. There arc a num* 
ber of very good bouses of brick k Wood hut most of the latter — 
The Inhabitants are wealthy — gay — hospitable; fipjjcar happy and Batl^ 
ficd with the general governra*. A cut 13 much tiilked of between the 
Ashley k Santee [Cowper] Rivers, but It would scein I think as if tho 
accom|jlIshmejit of the measure was not very near — It would he & 
great thing fur Charleston if It could be eflectcd — The principal Ex- 
ports froDi thi^ place b Rice, Indigo and Tobacco ; of the last from 5 to 
SWO Hhd have been exported and of the first from 80 to 120,000 Bur- 

..II. : 

itih.. I ..... 

Jl ., »;. 

•« ..!•• ■ . II ,1 . . ., .. 

ii' I t ' II •. . I / •■ 1 I i t 

III II. • 41 »1 III r ..^ , 

, '4 «« il-'i ■ llll 


• t ... I I \\ • I -I. I r . 

V»i*|i rn-i-ni ! iimli ;' i-\\'rv (li-rni.nvjf pr^tj*.; 



that could bt; given of joy and respect." The President dined 
in public at a late hour in the evening. On the following day 
he dined with the Cinciiuiati, " and in the evening went to a 
danL-ing assembly^ where there were about 100 well dressod 
&; handsome iaclies/' On the 14th, in company with the prin- 
cipal gentlemen of the plaee, ho took a survey of the city. 
lie cjcpresses himself in the following circumspect manner of 
the siege of 1779 : 

*^I visited the city k the ftttaek k defence of it m the yoar 1779 an- 
<3er tin* combined forces of France and the United States commnnded by 
the Couut d« Estaing k General Linealn.— To fomi an apioion of the at- 
tAck ftt this distjuicc of time and the change which bas taken plac« in the 
appearance of the gronnd by the cutting away of the woods kc l& hard- 
ly to be done with jii,^Ucc to the aubject^ especiaily as there i^ remaining 
scarcely any of the defences." 

There was a public dinner this day, *• under an elegant 
Lower*' on the l>ank of tJie river, and in the evening "a 
tolerable ^ood display of fi re-works." 

On Sunday the 15th, aller morning servicej " iSc receiving 
a numhcr of visits from the most respeetable ladies of the 
place, (as waij the case yesterday,) " the President started for 
Augusta, under a genernl escort of the citizens, dined witli 
Mrs, Green at Mulberry Grove, and lodged at one Spencer's. 

** Saranna/' says the Diary, ** stands upon what may be called high 
ground for this country — It is extremely sandy which makes the walking 
very disagreeable; and the houses uncomfortable in warm k windy 
weather, as they are fiUed with dost whenever these happen* The town 
on three sides is surrounded with cultivated rice fielJa which have a rich 
and luxuriant appearance. On the sonth orbaok side it is a pine land,^ 
The harbour ija Raid to be very good and oneu filled with equnre rigged 
TesSfils but there Is a bar below over which not more than VI [feet] water 
coo be bro^ except at spring tidcF. — The tide docs not How above 12 or 
, 14 miles obove the city though the Kiver is swelled by it more than 
double that distance. — ^Kiee k Tobacco (the last of which is greatly en- 
creasing) are the principal exports — ^lumber k lodigo arG also exportedi 

.•If. :rr «..; 

T •. T i : U ^ I ;. 


From Augusta tho President proceeded to Columbia, 
where he was detained a day longer than he intended, one of 
his horses being badly foundered by the length of the jouniey 
from Augusta, the want of water, and the heat of tho weather. 
Ho was entertained at dinner at Columbia by the gentl(.'men 
and ladies of that place and the vicinity, " to the amount of 
more than 150 of which 50 or 60 were of the latter." 

The following is the President's description of Columbia, 
then in its infancy : 

** Columbia is laid out upon a large scale ; but in my opinion it bad 
better been placed on the RiTcr below the falls. It is now an unreclaimed 
wood, with very few houses in it k those all wooden ones. The Btate 
house (which is also of wood) is a largo and commodious building, but 
unfinished. The town is on dry, but cannot be called high ground, and 
though surrounded by Pincy & sandy Land is itself good. The State 
house is near two miles from the River, at the confluence of the Broad 
Riirer ft Saluda. — From Granby the Rirer is nayigable for craft, which 
will, when the river is a little swelled carry 3000 bushels of Grain — when 
at its height less and always some. The River from hence to tlic Wate- 
ree below which it takes the name of Sontce is very crooked it being 
according to the computed distance near 400 miles — Columbia from 
Charleston is 130 miles.^ 

Want of space compels the omission of the President's 
description of his journey to Camden, and onward to C-har- 
lotte, and his account of those places. His remarks on the 
encounter of Green and Lord Rawdon and of Gate« and Lord 
Comwallia are extremely interesting ; but no room rt^mains 
for further extracts. He passed through the towns of Salis- 
bury and Salem, where he examined the Moravian Settle- 
ments, and here this volume of the Diary concludes. 

No apology seems necessary for occupying so much space 
with these memoranda. They relate to a portion of Gi^noral 
Washington's personal history never before described in de- 
tail ; they present in his own language the impressions jiia<Ie 
upon him, by tho principal places which he visited : and they 
aff>rd most interesting materiahs for comparing the btuii- uf 
the country in 1791 with its condition at the present da} . 



Scene at £mbar<^tlon nt New York for ClinrIeeU»n— Qt2&otUy of pikekAirei ptit cm 
board by Adams' Espri'S»— Tlie £]Cfire«sa|^ not to be cunfoundtHl with cmnm^rcial 
trar^^I»^^tati^JIlli— Mlicetliiae^oUfi ti&tureor articled tronsixirt^jd by Expresi*— Connoc- 
tiiHi of tbe Expresa wltHi tbe periodical pr«ia6 — W*uit of all &icllit(e»fur tbe eonviry- 
' of small parc4>ls la fom»cr tlmi»a— Bktitcb nf the Origin ftnd progTi^^fi^ l^ 
spr«aa 8yrt4>m— Wm. F. Uiu-iideD— Alvln Atkmft — 111a JUiooteitoi — And frnoc«9- 
sora—PrcscQt state of Adaim' £xnrt'&<« and extent of Itit openaloti^—tinportaiieo 
of the EiEprcas ftyBfccin compared witb commerclAl cicbaogi» — QtimparistfUi of ibe 
EjcpresB Willi tho P<Mt-«fllcfl— OflflD and ftiactloDS of tb« Poal-ofllce— Growing 
tmportaDCQ of Ibc £j[prfea>. 

Having oocasion, a little more than a year ago, to visit 
South Ctaroliiia and CTCorgia, for the purpose of ropeating my 
address on thti diaracter of Washmgtoii, 1 eiubarked at New 
York on board the fiue tJteamer ** Columbia/* for which I was 
favored with a free passage by tho liberal proprietors of the 
line, Messrs. Spofford, Tile^ton &; Co. Going on board 
about half an hour before the sailing of the vessel, my atten- 
tion was drawn to tlni animated scene on the quay, scarcely 
less variod and striking thun that which is witnessed on tho 
departure of a first-class passenger ship for Europe, Car- 
rmgts fdled with passengers of either sex and of every age 
and thf^ir friends ; porters stfiggering under the weight of 
heavy trunks ; a diseourtiged oi:iid with a lap-dof^ under her 
arm looking as if she wished the troublesome pet would Jump 
into tho water ; the usual throng of newsboys, venders of 
oraoges, Stewart's mixed candy, and popped com, with look- 


crs-on of every description and in every body's way, nil 
crowding and jostling each other in the narrow spaco ; the 
fierce roar of the steam as if impatient for departure ; the 
busy windlass hoisting in merchandise in packages of every 
shape, which clear their way before them, as they bound over 
the sides of the vessel, and then plunge into tlie hold ; the 
spasmodic energy of the crew crowding a good morning's 
work into half an hour ; the sharp voice of tlie first mate 
directing the movement ; the occasional yelp of an unwary 
cur caught at disadvantage among the warring elements ; the 
confused plunging of an obstinate dray-horse, who, to the dis- 
may of his driver and the gathering multitude, persists in 
backing into the dock ; the majestic port of the solemn police- 
man as he penetrates the crowd ; the cordial hand-sliuking of 
friends parting soon to meet again ; the tearful farewells of 
anxious relatives bidding good-bye to their pale invalids, 
}K>und to the tropics, foreboding too truly that they shall sec 
them no more on earth ; — all this made up a seem?, and occa- 
sionally as 1 have witnessed it, ever makes up a scene, — which 
furnishes much food for thought as a tolerable epitome of the 
tragi-oomedy of life. 

I was particularly struck, on this occasion, with the suc- 
cessive arrivals and unloading of the wagons of Adams' Ex- 
press. I think there were at least four of thenj, which came 
down to the quay, drawn by sleek, powerful, and docile 
horses, and delivered their contents on board the ship, in the 
course of the talf hour ; in packages of every size and shape, 
from large tierces, barrels, and bales, to boxes of modcraUi 
dimensions, and of every imaginable sliape and cliaratrler. Jii 
addiUon to packages, large enough to go sepaiaWly and 
safely, there were two or three coffers of great sizt? uud 
strength, braced with iron, and double locked, containiiiji — as 
I was told — ^parcels whose contents wer<' highlv \aiuulik •; 
specie, packages of bank notes and bondb, jewel i v. aii<l ar- 
ticles of eveiy kind, too small or too valuabhr to !>* :,t.puratvly 

Jt: .^j- i. > Vii;>..- IJS12. 

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llUHilil lu Hi,. I.^il,,,, I I-;,„:Mii;i. jiH! i-.-J-.turtlTiJ witli thnsi. 

iftuit |il> I., hill. l'n„„.„H..,.. |...r|..r.... tli-^- T-..!;. r, lik-- iii.imirr. 
ill.U»IIHu^. ,.M ll,,-. xx..,i,i..,lul ^>sl,-,n 

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different agencies. — ^Tlieso latUM* inilood prolmM} foriii a iiiuio 
active homo trade than exists in any othiT coiuitr), lor (lirii^ 
is no other country uniting, in the sanu* dt'«;nu', «'Mt'nl «»!* icv- 
ritory, variety and iiupoilance of natural j)ro«lu«'is, bolihuhs 
of speculation on the part of the pe<>])l4', energy iji th** tjaiiHu*- 
tion of business, recklessness in the use of 4'rcdit, ingi nuiiy lunl 
vigor in creating, and profusion in consuming. J^it tJu' ti uuh 
portation of the heavy masses of nuireliundi/x* is not, in onii 
nary cases, the ''mission" of the Kxpnaiscs. 'Jlu*ir husinoss is 
to carry parcels of considerable value in proj>orlion iAj llieir 
size ; precious articles, one thing of ihv kin*.! ; niistfliiuuious 
packages, transmitted to meet the infiniu^ly viiritMi v^anth of 
social and donn.^tic life ; pare* 'Is in i»ff».-i'<:n<;<: Uj wliicli Nji«xxl 
is of inijMnrtanee : tlling^. in lint-, \<jij hmall in amount . Umj 
multiikriuus in charaeWr. i«k.' wJdeJv b»;atl<:n.<i in di.slributi<in 
to enter inu» tho gieai rt^iiia»- mo\t*mi.-nU of ^<>nini«?n;» i>ii< 
which fill up thv littlo Jniers?lue^ of iili wjtii 'omj.^iv jux- 
uries. and oLjtrcis of lasu ano i-'jn\ *;Ui*fins* . '['• »;nuj!i* iav« 
them all would be impussitu* : uu: u^SiU'.-r paOivu;i*r o- <;w i v 
kind of valuable merehauditK- uebpau:u«^- ji ur^jiiMi'. o< ( 
tional easeb, the £acpre8s conveys a \oiuiur naii«ii<M'v(.^ V'^ i. 
friend at l disiauoe: n waici; wJUic-ii na*- u^r' o«-i!' u;- ;.'• ;'^»^i -• 
be repaired: a uairuerrecttyp* c»- ai. tiuomv. li.iu'i^^ **■ »■ 
graving in agii: imn^: bpe^jv iauhu^x-^ jnujiciiauii':;'- ■ .f.ii.«-' 
in critical tiineti : a tnishL cubi. of nam.-- o' r^ou'iu*.! ■ ^'i.*;- 
and flavor: a pieoe of piaie a?? a onuu pi»j»^n' ;■ ; •-^- **i' 
friend : a paif of shf>A> of irieTr'.»poi!Uii lau»v o^i/ -j* 
natural hi«t 'iry. fjislL pk-ki*r^. !-ec«-ijr : i;^* iu''*i->; *.«• ' ' 
boxes judiciously marked *'i'-- be iiwidi*^: i*»t.i «-**' '-• ■ "■ 
fruit« from Buburban forcing-b'/uw* o^y^-^.^-r 
nor : a fr^idb aalmozi from the Peii«>Wy.' »-•<**-— 
maskinicasfe frt>ra Sault St. M^ri'.- : i. -wrtdii-j • . ^ . 
plains; a box of Cineiimuti or bv I>^-.f '-«— * ,-. ^■ 

xuedidnes in great ijuaiititief- : »' *a- y..v-. 
piles of newspftpen*. the " JL^iij-'- r , 



pickled oysters for tho craving West, denied that luxury by 
nature ; a box of Congressional documenLs ; in a word, every 
conceivable article of convenience or necc^ty, tiie growth or 
manufacture of every part of the country, despatched by in- 
terest, duty, friendship, or afTectiou to the other. 

There is one highly imporUint service rendered by tha 
Express system to tho cause of public improvement, which 
ought to be more particularly signalized^— I mean that to 
which I have just made a passhig allusion, its connection with, ' 
the periodical press. During the uacertaia and stormy 
weather of the autumn and winter, and when the ordinai-y 
freight traius are not to be fully tiepended on, gi*eat quantities 
of the magazines, weekly newspapers, and other journals are 
conveyed by the various Express compauies to the cities of 
the South and West, as fur as St. Louis and New Orleans, 

Aeeustomed as we are to this i mini use accommodation, we 
tian hardly comprehend how people live^J without it, aud yet 
the Express system is of quite recent growth, \Mien 1 came 
forward in life nothing of the kind was known. There were, 
as I have stated in a former Number^ two great modes of con- 
veyance from plawi to place^ in stage coachea by land, and 
sailing packets along tlie coast. By neither convey aoce was 
there any arrangement for transmitting parcels, small or large, 
beyond what the traveller took with him, as a part of bis per- 
sonal baggage ; the amount of wliich was greatly restricted, 
Tlie stage coaches had no boxes for the convenient deposit of 
packages and gave no receipt for them. The carriiiges and 
drivers were changed two or three times a day ; there was na 
syatem of " booking " a parcel, and of course no security for 
its transfer from driver to driver. A small bundle might 
occasionally, with an equal ehunee of miscarriage, be for- 
warded for a stage or two, if you were personally acquainted 
with the driver, and ho was willing to take it, " seeing it was 
you.'* 11 JO coasting vessels were a safe conveyance, subject 
of course to be blown off to the West Indies ; but they had 



no arrangements for receiving or distributing small parcels. 
The chit'f reliance, accordingly, was on tlio kiodncss of travel- 
ling friends, by whom a small parcel could occasionally bo 
sent. This was an uncertain and otherwise inconvenient res- 
sort ; though for very valuable parcels necessarily depended 
upon. Few persons of cliaractcr, who had occasion forty or 
fi tYy ytvars ago to travel between the large cities, but would 
be requested l)y the cashiers of banks and the brokers to take 
charge of pack ages,^-of ten extremely valuable packages,— of 
bank notes. 

This very imperfect state of things gradually passed away, 
with the extcnsiou of railroads through the euuiitry. The 
change at first was slow^ for though railroatls had made con- 
siderable progress by 1830, the first regular Express in the 
United States was started l>etween New York and Boston in 
1839, It was projected by Wm, F, Ilarnden, \vlio gave up a 
place as conductor upon the Boston aud Providence railroad, 
and commenced business as a travelling me^enger between 
the cities just named. His enterprise^ like most important 
enterprises, began upon a small scale, Mi\ liarndcn was able 
at first to transport the articles confided to him in a valise, 
and distributed them on foot in the two citic^s that formed the 
field of his labors* He cxjutinued for seven or eight years in 
this employment, which gradually and steadily grew in his 
hands. At length he engaged in other undertakings^ which 
were less successful, at home, and extended his Express 
operations to Eurripe, but w^ithout aatisfactory results. His 
name, however, is inseparably connected with the ori^jjin and 
development of the Express system of the United States, 

In May, 1B40, a new era in the system commenced, and 
the ExprcHsage of the country may be said to date, it' not its 
origin, at least its establishment on a firm and systematic 
basis from that yejir, when Mr. Alvin Adams, in connect if »n 
with P. C, Burke as a partner, engaged in the business. 



Burke soon retired from it^ aiid tho establishment was con- 
ducted by Adams alone* 

Alvin Adams came to Boston from Vermont, a poor or* 
phan boy, to seek his fortune, at fii'st in an humble capacity, 
afterwards with some success in trade. He was not long in 
perceiving, in the Express business^ the elements of a hicro- 
tive occupation, capable of almost indefmite expansion. Con* 
necting himself with Ephraim Earns worth as a partner in 
New York, he engaged actively in tho conveyance of parcels 
between the two cities by tho Worcester and Norwich route, 
while ITarndcn'a Express adhered to that of Providence and 
Stonington. Earns worth was soon sncceeded by Wm. B. 
Dbismorc, Esq., the present energetic and intelligent Presi- 
dent of the Adams' Express Cfjmpany. On entering the 
partnership, Mr. Dinsmore removed the office from William 
street, New York, where it was at first established, to No. 
17 Wall street. His only assistant at the outset was a 
bright youth of the name of Iloey, who, with the aid of a 
wheelbarrow, distributed the contents of the Express between 
Boston and New York. ITiis person was in 1857^ — and 
probably is now — ^at the head of tho city transporUition 
businesa of Adams' Express in New York, with a force, at 
that time, of fifty men, forty horses, and twenty wagons at 
his command. 

In 1843 Adams' Express associated with ifessrs, Sanford 
of Philadelphia, and Shoemaker of Baltimore^ extended itstdf 
as far Suuth as Alexandria, in Virginia. It has since been 
pushed to tho farthest South. Tlie above facts are derived 
from a %'ery interesting article in the New York Daily Tri- 
bune of the 10th of October, 1857, in which will also he 
found other curious details relative to Adams' Express, and 
to the establishment of the other American Expresses, viz. 
those of Tliompson 6i Co. from Boston to Albany and 
Springfield ; of Gay &, Ivin^sley to New York by the M'ay of 
Fall River and Newport; and of Wells, Fargo & Co. 'a great 



Western, or, as it is more properly callod, American lilx- 
press. — This last named enterprising house forwarded the first 
Express west of Buffalo in 1845, which has been prosperously 
conducted ever since, and has grown up into an establishment 
of first-rate extent and importance. No small portion of the 
specie remittances from California to New York are conveyed, 
by Messrs. Wells, Fargo & Co. The general Expressage to 
California is shared by them with Freeman dc Co., late junior 
partners of Adams 6i Co. The houses of Adams 6c Co. and 
Wells, Fargo & Co. are the two leading establishments in the 
Expressage of the United States. 

Adams' Express, though subsequent in time to ITarnden's 
is, as I have hinted, entitled to the credit of liaving first esta1>- 
lished the business on a permanent foundation. It is now 
supposed to have associated with itself, in private partner- 
ship, several of the minor establishments, whicli still retain 
their original separate names. Its lines of communication, as 
I have been informed from a reliable source, now run not only 
South as far as New Orleans but West as far as Bt Ixiuis. 
By friendly or tacit understanding with other Expresses, its 
territorial limits extend from Boston to New York via Spring- 
field and New Haven : from New York to Pittsburgh via 
Philadelphia ; from Pittsburgh to Cleveland, Ohio, and tiienee 
to Cincinnati ; fn»ni Cincinnati to Indianapolis, and theuoi- to 
St. Louis. The p»oints upon these several lines are conmion 
to Adams' and the othex Expresses. All South and >^'est of 
them is, by mutual understanding, within the territorial limits 
of Adams' Exprwis : all North of these lin«« ht> served by 
other Expresses. Such connections, however, exist betvi tscn 
the various es^blisfaments that packages, if 1 mistake u^jK un- 
received by all of them to be forwarded t<.» evory j^aii of the 

At the present time, as I lenrxj irtjfi: tii* ^muh naiLiUiUi- 
source. Adams* Express empl'.'yt jr7<5«$ iii»^^ '■ »i i***" ^ -^ ^^^' 
ciea, and its menengers inr^i daii.^ ^t.l^z uuic-. on im- rail- 



roads and in the steamers ;— a distance equal to once round 
the globo and two-tliirds round it a second time, I have made 
no attempt to esfiinatc iho pecuniary value of ilm ai'ticles, 
daily conveyed by Express tliroughout the country, further 
than to satisfy myself that it runs fur into the. millions. It is 
not easy to rato too high the importance of such establibh- 
mcnts, in promoting the general improvement and comfort 
of the people. Commerce is, by all admission, one of the 
great civilizcrs of nations and of men. But the Express sys- 
tem, though in many respects auxiliary to Commerce, goes 
beyond the great wholesale exchanges of trade, and penetrates 
further and more direetJy into individual life. It reaches the 
fireside, without pa-ssing through the hands of the jobber and 
retailer. It conveys just the article that supplier your want 
and suits your taste, at the time. It transports it in quan- 
tities 80 small as to bo beneath the gigantic gTasp of C'Oni- 
merce, and it extends to articles of which trade takes no cog- 
nizance. A single copy of a book ordered to a remote village 
in the West, which it could never reach in the course of trade, 
— sent for to answ*er some paiticular purpose, — may render 
a service to the olTieer, the cngineerj the missionary, which ho 
would willingly pay with its weight in silver. The Plioto- 
graph of a relative or friend, transmitted from the other aide 
of the Union, may impart a liappiness to a fond and sorrow*- 
ful spirit, which silver and gold cannot buy. 

In this respect the Express resembles the Post-ofRoe, 
whieli is greatly undervalued, when it is regarded only as an 
instrument for carrying on the commercial correspondence 
of the country. Of inestimable importance indeed in its con- 
nection with commerce, the Post^oftice did not derive its 
origin from the wants of trade» nor, taking the aggregate of 
the social interests into consideration, does its great utility 
consist in supplying those wants. The Posts, of antiquity, 
were, no doubt, like those of the Mahometan governments at 
.the present day, established for the purpose of carrying on 







the military and other official communications of the State, 
If they afiordcd any facilities for private coTTespondence, it 
must have bocii irregular and incidental. The Postal ar* 
rangements, in the early period^i of modern European history, 
wero no doubt of the same kind ; and had no direct connec- 
tion with trade. The first approach to the modem system is 
said to have been made by tlie University of Paris, at the be- 
ginning of the thirteenth century, for tho convenience of tlio 
vast multitudes of stiidenta, who resorted to it from every 
part of the world. If this supposition be well founded, it was 
Education not Trade, which gave the germ of tlie Post-office 
system to the civilized world ; and to reward this service the 
compensation of the professors of the University of Paris was, 
till quite modem times, charged upon the revenue of the Post- 

However this may be, it scarce admits a question, that 
the province of the PostK>flice in reference to the moral, the 
political, the social, and domestic interests and ndations of 
the country, is decidedly more important than its immediate 
connection w^itli commerce, important as that is* In fact, 
when I cont4:^inp!atB the extent to which the moral sentiments, 
the intelligence, the afTcetions of so many millions of people, 
—sealed up by a sacred charm within the cover of a letter,— 
daily circulate throu^rrh a country, I am compelled to regard 
the Post-ofRee, next to Christianity, as the rigUt arm of our 
modern civilization. 

But the Express system is rapidly rising into scarcely in- 
ferior consequence. It steps in where correspondence stops. 
It transports tho material objects, which correspondence c^in 
only announce. It conveys across the continent the cherished 
symbols of love, friendship, and duty. It extends to the 
frimtler the luxuries and comforts of the seaboard, and brings 
back every article of value or interest peculiar to the frontier. 
In conclusion, let me not forget tliat the Mount Vernon cause 
is under the greatest obligations to the liberality of the va- 
rious Express companies throughout the Union, 


AT PARIS, IN 1818. 

The Rte of St LouU^Hls nama ta Uie United Sutca— The ftisdrltlea of tlie i 
contraited with iboae usiuJ in UHlitoaotTj— A Mai do Coca^« d«icrtb«d— Prep 
fmtioiuifiir depRrturw^Gen. Lyman — delations with Coraf, the celetir&ied moderit^ 
drwk iduilttr sod fNitiiat^Brief neconat of hb life mod wrrtoeA^Tnyiiottla to 
Uila eonntfjr the Addrmt to the People of the Ttilted States of the Meaaetilaii 
Seoftte »t Celunnta — lu efTecU here— Con trlbatloiis liir the relief of the Gl^dt* 
dtstrfbuted by Dr. H<jwc — Dcuth and aDtobiography of Cor»y, 

In the twenty-seeoad Number of these papers, I conducted , 
mj reader oo the journey toward Italy, T>y the way of South-* i 
nmpton, TIavre, and Rouen, ns far as Paris. Tlie day after 
our arrival at Paris, was the fete of St. Louis, the patron and 
military Saint of France, the only one of her sovereignsi 
sa>s Si.smondi, who hag reeeived the honors of Canonization* 
Bourduloue, one of the first preach trs according to Voltaire, 
(an impartial judge, perhaps, on such a pointy) "who made 
reason eloquent " remarks, m his splendid panegyric of St, 
Louis, that ** the other saints honored in the Christian world 
were given by the church to Fnince, but a§ for St. Li^uia, , 
France gave him to the church/' We Americans ought to 
care something about St Louis. One of the great central 
cities of the West bears his name, which in its origin was 
identicid (Ludovieus, Cldodovicus,) with that of Clovis, the 
founder of the French Monarchy. Indeed a» the great pre- 
dominanoe of the name of Louih, under the old r^ime ia 
France, may bo ascribed to its having attained the honor of 
Saintship, in the person of Louis IX. he may be considered, 


in efTect, as having given bis name to one of tbe Unit43d States, 
He thus enjoys, — he a bfllf-mythical French monarch of tiic 
thirteenth century,— an honor not conferred upon any of tlio 
wise and the good of our own history. 

St. Louis owes his title, it may be presumed^ to his hav- 
ing led two crusades from France against the Mussulmans in 
Egypt and Africa ; expeditions which, ns he conducted them, 
would, at the present day, at least, secure for a Sovereign a 
place in the insane asylum rather than in the Calendar. Apart 
from his fanaticism, however, he was, in the main, a wise and 
virtuous prince* When, however, we find Bourdaloue com- 
paring him not merely to Moses but to Gftd himself, because 
** ho conducted his victorious arms into Egypt^" and call to 
mind the egregious imbecility which really characterized every 
step of his insane expedition into that country, and result^ 
in the shameful defeat and total annihilation of bis army, and 
his own captivity, we cannot but feel that, of all human van- 
iiics^ panegyric of this kind is among the vainest. 

I [lassed the day in witnessing the festivities with which 
France, in the nineteenth century, celebrated the birthday of 
her patron saint of the thirteenth. In some parts of the 
United States thut shall be nameless, the day would have been 
" ushered in ; '*' that is, *' sleep would have been murdered" the 
night before^ by tin trumpets, India crackers, and sporadic 
fire-arms, and the tired population would have been eHectuaJIy 
roused at sunrise by a tumultuous ringing of bells and dis- 
charge of artillery. At noon we should have had on oration, 
containing a tolerably comprehensive history of the crusades 
in general and of those of St, Louis in particular, with his 
biography in considerable detail. To this would have suc- 
ceeded a procession through the streets of the civic felhers 
and their invited guests, headed by a band of music ; a public 
dinner, with a succession of patriotic toasts and still more 
patriotic speeches, from thoso who habitually do the oratory 
on theso occasions, with a star or two perhaps from a dis- 



taace ; a display of fireworks in the evening, and at half past 
nine — the best part of the display — forty thousand spectators 
of all ages and uf either sox, wendiiig tlieir way hinne, weary, 
pleased, and s^oIrt. 

The eelch ration at Paris was dilFerently managed. Muss 
was performed in Ndtre Dame, St. Germain rAnxerrois, and 
some of the other cJ)urchcs ; but there was no oration^ no pro- 
cession, no public dinner ; no firing of crackers in the streets 
over night, no ringing of bells, no salvos of artillery at dawn. 
Little or no notice, that I could see, was taken of the day in 
the streets. The shops were open as usual, — in fact, they are 
open on Sundays, except some of those kept by Protestants ; 
— the ca/is and rutaurantM perhaps a trifle more resorted to, 
but ihey are almost always full ;— no perceptible augmentation 
of the gay and busy throng on the Boulevards. In the Champi 
E!ys&€s alone some provision was made, partly by individ- 
uals on their own account, but rather more by the govern- 
ment, at least so 1 judged, for the public amusement. There 
were all kinds of raree shows, menageries, marionettes, tem- 
porary circuses, mountebanks, and jugglers, bootlis for the sale 
of toys, flash jewelry, and flmcy articles, gamblitig tables, 
popular sports of all kinds, curious gymnastic apparatus, and 
theatres erected of slight materials for the occasion, in which 
every act seemed a catastrophe and every scene the winding 
up of the plot ; the t%vo principal actors being a heatl of brig- 
ands and the commander of a force sent to arrest ibem, who 
rarely failed to kill each other, and the other pei'stxiages of 
the drama consisting of platoons of (ftns (rarmerie, detached 
for the ostcnsiiiio purpose of carrying on the action of the 
piece, by an eternal uproar of musketry, but really to be on 
himd in case of need to suppress disorders among the specta- 

What most attracted nie was the Mats de Coaj^nej which 
1 had never seen before, and with which I was greatly amused. 
A Mdt de Cocaine is a good-sized mast, such as might suit a 


Itpidl schooner, erected in the ground, its surface smeared 
ill the way up with soap mul greiise, and on its top a box con- 
taininpr silver fur Its, watches and cheap jewelry, dL'Stined as a 
prize to reward the successful climber. No one person can 
hold out strong enough to attain the objex!t, which can only 
be accomplished by several clubbing together. Those who 
imdertuke it begin by wiping off the lubricating substances 
with wisps of straw, as high up as they can reach, and this 
done they are then allowed to throw sand on the mast to 
render it less slippery. This preparation enables one person 
to climb to a certain elevation, w iping and sanding the mast, 
as far up as he can sustain himself, by clinging with his legs 
round the already sanded. When he is tired out, he 
Blips down to the ground, plants himself firmly on his feet, 
clinging tight round the nuist, while a confederate mounts on 
his shoulders, and from the elevation thus gained, wipes and 
sands, and so fits for clinibing another portion of the mast. 
He in turn slips down, at length, i^itigucd ; but plants Jiimself 
on the shoulders of the first, who is still clinging to the mast 
if his strength holds out. A third one then mounts nptm the 
twit, thus standing one above the other, and so on till the 
whole mast, delubricated and sanded, Is brought into a con- 
dition in w^hieh a fresh and iitrong associate can climb to the 
top and take ]>f>8scssion of the prize for liimself and col- 
leagues. No ladders or hooks of any kind are allowed^ and the 
climbers arc searched to prevent their having any steel points 
or other contHvances concealed under their garments. The 
only artificial aid pennitted is the wisp of straw and the sand, 
of which they are allowed to carry up as much as broad deep 
pockets made for the purpose will hold. The effort of coui'se 
is to attain the object by a party consisting of as few confed- 
erates as possible. It usually takes, as I was told, the greater 
part of the day to climb to the summit and get posses^sion of 
the valuables there deposited. The toilsome eflbrts to ascend, 
— ^the persona at the battom often giving w^ay under the 




weight of those standing upon thorn, two or three deep, and 
all fomiiig down with a rrni, — the appoiirnnec of a remarkably 
meagre or uiiusuidly rotund elimber, — with other incidents 
of such an undertaking, furnish the day's amusement to the 
gamins of Paris and bystiindera generally, and lead to the ex- 
change of a deal of coarse plea-santry, interspersed with an 
occasional scuffle between the friends of the climbers and those 
who criticize their operations too pointedly, lliese last de- 
monstratirjus are however kept within bounds by the aforesaid 
^ens cturmerie. Upon the whole, if one wishes to study the 
humors of the has pettple of Paris, there are few places where 
he can pass a couple of hours to greater advantiige than near 
a Mdi de Cotagnt, 

We have nothing exactly like it in this country, but it 
does not badly symbolize the life of those, who toil and strain 
to climh a slippery mast of another kind, mounting on the 
shoulders of coni*ederates, flinging dust in the eyes of the pub* 
lie, and occasionally a little mud in the faeess of rivals, and 
find when they reach the top, that the prizes in the basket are 
of little value in themselves, and not half numerous^ enough to 
satisfy their associates, who are apt to quarrel over the divi- 
sion of the spoils. 

At Paris 1 rejoined my friend the late General Lyman of 
Boston, with whom as a travelling companion I was to visit 
Italy and the East^ — a person of great worth, and admirably 
fitted as a traveller l>y an ever active spirit of observation, 
gentlemanly manners, and even temper. We remained no 
longer at Paris than was necessary to make the last prepara- 
tions for the journey before us, and particularly to get our 
pafisports duly countcrBigned. 

I availed rnyself of the ctpportunity thus alTorded to visit 
a few friends, whoso society I had enjoyed the winter before, 
and particularly the celebrated Coray, the most learned and 
sagacious, as it seems to me, of the scholars of Modern Greece, 
and second to none of her sons, in the services rendered by 


him in preparing the way for her liberation. I laying in view 
a visit to Greece, I had eagerly sought his acquaintance on arriv- 
ing at Paris in the Autumn of 1817, and had diligently culti- 
vated it during the Avhole of the following winter. lie was 
then seventy years of age, and of rather infirm health, but in 
the full possession of his fiiculties. My conversation with 
him, in our frequent interviews, naturally dwelt most on the 
subjects uppermost in the minds of both of us, — the ancient 
literature of his country, the condition and prospects of 
Modem Greece, and the hopes of her regeneration ; — but he 
had seen much of the world ; he possessed the principal lan- 
guages of Modem Europe ; had been a general reader, and 
had, from observation and books amassed a fund of various 
and useful knowledge, which I have rarely seen equalled. lie 
was good enough to encourage the repetition of my visits, — 
a benignant smile ever welcomed me, even when he was suf- 
fering severe pain, — and I never left him without having 
heard something that was worth rcmeinlx;ring, or hiurriing 
something which I did not know before. 

This remarkable man was b<jm in Smyrna, in 174H, and 
was the son of parents in straitened circumstiuict^, J I is o[>- 
portunities of education were of course hh^nder ; but h<; early 
displayed uncommon aptitude for haruing, with an insatiable 
thirst for knowledge. Native teachers were faw and Iti^Hii^ 
petent ; — the instruction which they gave, as lie tc-Us us, was 
meagre, the flog^ng abundanU I laj^pi ly lift foninA tlie a/> 
quaintance of the Chapkln of the Dutch Consul, wIm> d^i^iied 
to leam of him the pronunciation of the li^iJ/iaic, au^l wl*i> in 
return inbtructed young Coray in the J-atin, lUt itaiy Ini- 
bilx-d. from the perusal of Deni<>rt>thf;iw^, a pahsl^^jati^ lovir of 
liberty and a galling sens'.' of the tyranny under Mhl^-h hi» 
countrymen were groauinj:. Brought *jp in tra^jLi', iui y^tm 
sect at the age of twenty-four to JloJiaiid i// ^''^y^'^ iii bu^- 
neaa. Here he lived aix years, d^^^ely ooufiij^ U/ his duiiA^; 
but pMnng two evenings in a week at the house of a ^irM^MiJy 



tiergyman, to whom the ehapUin above named had given him 
letters of introduction, Tliese six years were not only agree- 
ably but profitaljly passed. In 1779 he returned by the way 
of Vienna, Trieste, and Venice to Smyrna. His views in life 
had by this time undergone a ehangc ; the astonishing career 
of the unfortunate Khigss had alrejidy eommeneed and kindled 
his enthusiasm ; he determined to abandon tlie career of a 
merchant, which if successful marked him out as an olyect of 
oppression and plunder on the part of the Turkish govern- 
ment, to be avoided only by remaining in voluntary exile. 
He took up instead the profession of medicine, which, if he 
remained in Turkey, was the safest ealliiig, while it, fumiished 
superior opportunities for cultivating those literary pursuits, 
to which he looked as fitting him to act extensively on his 
countrymen. Resisting the temptation of an eligible mar- 
riage which his parents wished him to contract, he repaired 
to Mont pel ier, in France, and there for several years devoted 
himself with diligence to the study of his profession, sup- 
|)orted at first by small remittances from iiis iather^and when 
this resource failed, by a little frugal aid from his old friend 
the chaplain, and by translating medical books from German 
and English into French. In 1780, and nfter having taken 
his degree of Dc>etory he came to Paris. The Hevolntion was 
just breaking out, and the ten years which followed his arrival 
in Paris were passed by Coray in wise obscurity, and as far 
as concerned the bloody game of which he was a spectator, in 
entire inaction. lie was all the time, however, by his own 
solitary studies and a diligent but carefully guarded corre- 
spondence with his countrymen, not only in Turkey but in 
the various States of Europe, educating himself and them for 
great events. He saw, a half century before the Emperor 
Nicholas announced it, that Turkey was " a sick man j ^' and 
conceived the hope that, in the general despoiling of the estate 
to which he looked forward. Central Greece at least would go 



The course ho pursued to accomplish the great object which 
he had at heart was eharactoriztxl by the long-suffering of 
Pfovidence. He did not seek, in tho first instuuce, to stir up 
revolt^ the fatal error, in some countries, of political regenera- 
tors, — but he aimed to improve the minds of his countrymen ; 
to facilitate to them the study '♦f the noblo authors of their 
ancient lan^agc ; to purify the modern dialoet from the bar- 
barisms that hiid crept into it, and thus if possible to est^lv 
li^ih an identity between ancient and modem Greece, hi ad- 
dition to this, his prefaces anti notes to a series of the ancient 
writers furnished him the opportnnity of inculcating numy 
seasonable lessons of patriotism among his readers. His 
editions were pnblished at the expense of his prosperous 
countrymen at Vienna, Trieste, and elsewhere, and widely 
circulated j hut he did not coniine himself to these indirect 
methods. When, after the death of Rhlgas in 1708, meanly 
given up witii his asst>eiatc8 by Austria to the Turkish govern- 
ment^ tho Patriarch of Jerusalem was compelled t<> issue a 
general address to his countrymen, exhorting them to submit 
unresistingly to the Ottoman power, Coray published a fervent 
mvl high-toned reply. In 1801 he addressed another patriotic 
appeal to his countrymen, exhorting them to rrly on the aid 
and protection of France. The great movement in Greece in 
1821 took him at first somewhat by surprise ; he had not 
anticipated so early an exph>sion ; and In fact it had been pro 
maturely brought ahont by tho rnpturo of All Paeha of Al- 
bania with the Porte the year before. But tliough fearful at 
first that the time had not come for a successfu! revolt through- 
out the whole of the region, whose population was snhstan- 
fiully of tho Greek church, — as tho evt^nt suiheieutly proved 
to bo the case, — ^he cordially entered into the movement, and 
though too old — ^73 — ^to repair to Greece with a view of 
rendering active ^erviee, he contributed materially by his 
wise counsels, by his oorrespondenoe, and by hb publicjitions, 




to animate the zeal of his countrymen and to give it a right 

When I was leaving Paris for Italy and Greece, Coray 
furnished me with luttcrs to his countrymen in tJie principal 
cities which I waa likely to visit in European or Asiatic 
Turkey, a circumstaDoe to which I was indtbtod for the 
freest access to the persons whoso acqiiaiutance a youthful 
traveller could most wish to form, — ^thc patriotic inerchanta 
the learned professors, the |)roniising young mcu, in short the 
iiiU of modem Greece. The relations thus formed naturally 
gave me the deepest interest in the impending future of tho 
native land of literature, philosophy, and art. 

When the revolution broke out in Greece in 1821, a dep- 
utation from the first provisional Congress was despatched 
to Paris to confer with Coray, and take measures witli him 
ibr enlisting the sympathies of Western Europe and America* 
They brought with them the Address of the Messenian Senate 
of Calamata to the People of the United States. This mani- 
festo was forwarded by Coraj to me, and at the earliest mo- 
ment at which it seemed likely to attract attention waa trans- 
lated and published with tiie accompanying letter of the Dep- 
uties, in the papers of the day. The interest with which 
these appeals were read was the inmiediately exciting cause 
of the enthusiasm for Greece w^hich pervaded the United 
States J and which found expression in publie meetings 
throughout the country, in the magnificent speech of Mr. 
Webster in Congress, and a year or two later in the liberal 
and substantial contributions to the relief of the suOerers by 
the war, which were ftjrwarded to Greece, under the care of 
Dr, Howe, and there distributed by him in a manner which 
has earned for liim and liis coantrymen the abiding gratitude 
of thousands. 

Coray lived to the ago of eighty-five, and died at Paris in 
1S33, active almost to the last in liis literary pursuits, and 
happy in the liberation to whicli ho had so much contributed, 



of a portion of his country, — though not satisfied at seeing 
what was called the Independent government the sport of the 
rival interests of the great powers of Europe. He brought 
down his Autobiography, published by his friends since his 
death, to the year 1829. — I have several letters from him, 
beautifully written in a character very nearly resembling that 
of the Didot editions of the Greek classics ; and I seize with 
pleasure the opportunity of paying this grateful tribute to his 
honored memory. 



Tiio TKlue of tbrtr ^xiiin[ik to foang men — Traits of Mr. PresfoUV chimeter, vliU^ 
are wLlhIn tb« rtach of Imitation bj otlatm— WlUiaBn Cmuch Bond the A«troii(>- 
mer— Kemarkable variety and union ©f quftlltk*. sclenllflo and tiraetleat^-HIa 
atntable tempei' and dUpofltlun— HlficnthufllAsm for AjstToonaiy— Liberal appuvct* 
atlon of otben— YUlt of Jenny Llad to the Canibii<l|ro ObAcrratory— Succeeded 
la tbe ObserTfttory at Cambrldgii by hU ton Oeorgw P« Bond— Scleatlflo npotatloa 
of Ur. Bond, Jnr. 

SiNCR I commenced these Papers at the beginning of the 
year, four persons of grcjit eminence in the scientific and liter- 
ary world have passed away, two in this eoimtry and two in 
Europe. With ali of them it was my happiness to stand in 
friendly relations, — with lliree of them I was intimately ac- 
quainted. They were all four men who in their re^speetive 
departments have ht\ no superior. The lives and characters 
of all of them are full of instruction and encouragement, espe- 
cially to young men. 

There is no brighter example than Prescott*s of what may 
be accomplished by a resolute spirit and a firm purpose. I 
Imve already had an opportunity of paying my humble tribute 
to liis memory, before the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
but I would gladly dwell upon it for a few moments in the 
columns of The Ledgku. Umloubtedly he possessed by na- 
ture an admirable talcnt,^ — intellectual powers of a very high 
order. But he owed his brilliant suceesa in a very eonsider- 
able degree to his moral qualities, his fortitude under severe 


trials ; his resolute war against formidablo obstacles ; \\\h un. 
wearied pcrseveraiico ; and oven in sonio nioasuro to tlio 
humbler agencies of system and method in his stiidii^s, in Ium 
exercise, and in his affairs. It is for this n^awm, that I rail 
his example instructive to young men, because in tlicm^ lie 
may be imitated by persons who do not possess his a<lnii- 
rable natural gifts. All men can bo systematic in the arran<r(>- 
ment of their regular occupations ; punctual in their hours 
and especially in their appointments where others as well an 
themselves are concerned ; and resolute in adhering U> [ilunn 
either of employment or relaxation ; and those? who an* mt 
even with natural talents far inferior to PreHrott's, iri«y in a 
long life bring much to pass. All men wh^isc health re«|iiire«i 
and whose means a^lmit it. mi^ht lik^; him leave their \h:'U 
before sunrise, in our a>ld New England climate', f'tr a ri'J'-. '/f 
several miles iK-forc breakfast, — and yd the nurnUT of j*«rv;fni 
who have the moral ener^ry to purmje mj^h a c^mrv. of h';JO»- 
ful exercise, through a northf-m wirjt^r, i** j»*rhaj»* u'^t ^rtitU-r 
than of those gifted by nature with his brilliar^t jo't;!*! j^/»'r«. 
In another respwt Mr. Prftv^^/t^'i PTis^rrtj^f, i» 'A iii*-**irii«- 
ble value in j^jinting out to o^r jo^irtii *4 l*<i*'jr^ «/>/J i*fT' 
tune the True p4?h to TiV^j.ryi«« il'A U^v . 'JV hum^f^ 'm 
rapidly inCT*aair.j thr''^ff^-o'3* tb^ frjXi'rj '.f trx^«j *f»// ^**Mf 
life with larze \iJ:-^T^«ri^ z:.*^TjK%tA **!J. Ur^r*^ «^j^/*a* /^,^. 
These yonTig rii^Ti, »lrr.'^* » \ rrjiff^^r 'A ^tr:?^. **»/'? *^^- 
best advantae**s f.r lr-«^r>'*>r. xr vr^x,- %tA ** ^//,>7-' '» ^^^» 
it is T.*-x :v> mnrh \ rr..irvr ''Z -r^.r*^. v*^, *f^ rr»^k^ >« gr'*'*^ 
use of the^ a<iTar.rAnr*t. *« •>w.«a ■»>•/. ># «ff*»t-AT>/| w^-^irrn 
stanrpfl, ar«* •v-r.-ic^iiprt v, r.-.**.* •^«**r -•*•>< *iCr,r*^ %rA t^^*y* •*^- 
r! titles ti'i «'>.ra.n *r. ■*ii-.u»a? .'V . V/* a**/'* .Ko'jta^** ^ ^^-^r 
youn^r men of iS-.-r.i-rt «••' ,.-->ii*A rj-i*', rt/^As* /-> •^♦■!r^ 
theniserT.»s v, pr-.f»-»«i''^ai pn-^ni :* ',- v-/»v;n^ *>,<» .^-.^i^.-iaM/* /,f 
their w^rh Sv ^noatrn^f n v>*r'r^*»a«- ** ^v,.^ hH'Ai«*4^.«w 4*/*pr 
in sneh '^anwt. — i»nipt«-»7 "^w'ii- •'♦m* .n f'*sti^\rs^^ ;n ^tlf'tvAtin^ 
a fiante hr mmt^ ^ iPftAi^, ^ .n ^nftingf ;^ ^ibrjif7 ^f a ^'a*- 



lection of works of art or specimens of DAtoral history. There 
are others who resort to the eountry, and occupy themselves 
in agricultural pursuits. The poesesaion of fortune at the out^ 
set of their career, enables persona of this class, not only to 
set an example of a useful aud Ttrtuous employment of time, 
but to enrich the community by valuable literary, scientific^ 
artistic^ and utilitarian treasures^ books, pictures, statuaiy, 
cc^Ilections illustrative of science ; — in agricultural pursuits^ 
implements of husbandry, animals of improved breeds, and 
costly experiments and improvements. Of those who hav© 
devote leisure and fortune to the pursuits, by which, while the 
mind of the possessor is improved, the community b benefited 
and honor reflected on the country, Prcscott is the brightest 
example in the United States ; — while the almost insuperable 
difficulties under which he lalxjrcd, will ever encourage those^ 
who enter life under unfavorable circumstances of any kind, not 
to yield to despondence. What would not the country have 
lost, if, abandoning, on acooimt of his infirmity, all effort at 
literary distinction, he had, like so many yotmg men of 
wealthy plunged into dissipation, or merely wasted his time 
in the club room, the drawing room, or on the race course ( 

William Cranch Bond, another of the noble four to whom 
I have alluded, was an example not Ic^ bright though of a 
differeiit kind. There is no man now living who watches the 
stars with a keener, more patient, more skilfully trained or 
more wary eye than he did. lliough he may be excelled by 
individuals, in some single branches of his department, there 
is probably no living astronomer, who, as much as he did, 
unites respectable scientific knowledge, aeuteness and precision 
of observation, conscientlousne^ and patient accuracy in re- 
cording its results, ingenuity as a horologtcal machinist, and 
mechanical dexterity of a more ordinary kind. Witness for 
his scientific knowledge, and the accuracy with which his 
observations and researches are recorded^ the published vol* 
umes of the annals of the Observatory at Cambridge, and 



hifl memoirs communicated to the American Academy of Arts 
and Scienees. Witness for the acuteness of his observations, 
his discovery jointly with his son of the new ring of Saturn, 
his discovery of the eighth satellite of tliat planet, — perha|>3 
even of a second satellite of Neptune. For his wonderful skill 
as a scientific machinist, it is sufficient to allude to his appa- 
ratus for registering astronomical observations adopted in the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, which, with electric speed 
and automatic precision, does the work of two observers, far 
more minutely, as well as accurately, than it could be done 
by human eyes and lingera. 

Nor was he less remarkable for mechanical skill of a lower 
kind. Witness the extraordinary feat of setting up the great 
Equatorial at Cambridge, taking it from the fourteen boxes, 
which contained its hundreds of pieces, the mass together 
weighing five tons, the extremely complicated apparatus such 
as he had never seen before, the directions in the German lan- 
guage, of which he had but an imperfect knowledge, and put- 
ting them all up in their places on the pier, in two days ! 

While his scientific talents and attainments commanded 
admiration, his amiable qualities of temper and heart gained 
him the love of all who knew him. Be had struggled hard 
from poverty and obscurity into the light of day. No early 
opportunities of academical education cheered him onward. 
Every step of his early progress was taken under dis- 
heartening difficulties, and he had hardly reached the goal of 
his career — the noble observatory at Cambridge — before the 
declining sun of life cast long shadows ovf^r the plain, and 
the glow of triumph was chilled. But although frugal of 
speech, tranquil as the sky in demeanor, and all but impas- 
sive in outward appearance, the fire btimcd within hioi. A 
more generous spirit^ or a warmer heart, never glowed in tlie 
human breast. 

But notwithstanding the strength and kindliness of his tem- 
per, exercised in all the social relations of life, his home waa 

90^i<i»xr •*, 'r^ *^:r,ry** •' -j lam/ir. [ Hn -^r^oaiV-l "ESS 

^^ *f*^ 23»! Y *>^»#-rr.:i*-r ■ *<T. .' .-s-^^-'rt 1 .#-fT^r r^m aii^ 

f^^f'-* /tyM^ ^#f Airri^. m •Juw: ./ ipfr^r an/l '•at -r-i -r..:;..: ■• Tr.»- 

Af Jk***"^* a ^^M • 'V' '^•.•K/ft fr.r i.. *"i«;. .•/■•-: -o p*m»rrrar<» 
fht'if 'U",*'rt^ %rA ii»r -frv "i.^ r j^-^k^. I im p*:r>ixaiiftfi 'aac a 
w/^'I i* •'•7rt'-/l .•'';*■' i *f ••/I ''# .:.^ir'? another man 4 rpntj^ 

frotn ri.« * fr-f '.r n.^ r^r.. JV, ^kiuai-.i*! w^i* his ' ^t 

♦in* «ir/tf«l'/'ify 'Y »iM ri.;»fir.'rr4, *haf v* ^fnr.ff-r* T^SiT.inff the 
ifi00'f'rA**iT-i , MK .'« f..#'r/- ',-.;/-/'t, ^Y ''nn'/^i^/. hr somen mea 
m^%%vA tifi/lni/ fii^-rv*-/! a/M *^*m r^pnbive; but with a 


ble his attainments, or with a friend, he was the most patient, 
communicative^ and sympathetic of men. 

Not less than " the music of the spheres " ho loved the 
harmonies of the human voice. He was an especial admirer 
of Jenny Lind, and having myself the good fortune to be 
acquainted with her, ho requested me to arrange with her a 
visit to the Observatory. Saturn happened at that time to be 
in a most favorable position for observation. While she 
was gazing upon it through the great telescope, a meteor of 
unusual brilliancy shot across the field leaving behind it for 
somo seconds a brilliant pathway. lie regretted that it was 
not a permanent body to which, in commemoration of her visit, 
he might attach her name. As he was adjusting tho tele- 
scope, he entered into some general explanation of the great 
&cts of Astronomy, and the mechanism of the heavens, rising 
from the sun to the surrounding luminaries, from the solar 
family to the sidereal system of which it is a part, and from 
that to the mighty whole of which our universe with all its 
hosts, is but a member,— orb above orb, system above sys- 
tem, universe above universe. — The last time I saw him, 
which was on the occasion described in tho fiflh number of 
these Papers, I recalled this visit to him, and spoke of the 
pleasure with which I had listened to what he said. He 
answered, '* But what Jenny Lind said to me in reply was 
better ; — * And God above all ! ' " I rejoice that the re- 
spectful allusion to him in that Paper, describing a visit to the 
Observatory for the purpose of observing the Comet, must 
have fallen beneath his eyes before they were closed on this 
world to open on the nearer vision of those glories which he 
had watched on earth with such reverent gaze. 

The friends of American science are well pleased that his 
mantle and his place, at the head of the Cambridge Observ- 
atory, have descended with his name. To equal patience, 
acuteness, and skill as an observer, Mr. George Phillips Bond 
unites the advantages, to which his venerable father, though a 



respectable geometer, did not lay clainij viz., those of rare 
matljemutical talents, and thorough mathematical trainhig and 
education. He was for years the trusted associate of his 
father's labors and studies. In Professor Loomis^s valuable 
work on the " Recent Progress of Astronomical Science " a 
brief but interesting sketch is given of the researches of the 
Messrs, Bond, father and s<3n, do\ra to the year 1856, — It is 
there stated that !Mr* George P, Brjnd *' has been the inde- 
pendent discoverer ot eleven ComriSj but unfortunately it sub- 
sequently appeared, that each of these, save one, had been pre- 
viously discovered in Europe. The Comet of August 29th, 
1850, he discovered seven days in advance of the European'-i 
Astronomers. Two other Comets he discovered on the same 
night tliat they were seen in Europe, vias., those of June 5th, 
1845, and April llth, 184J>. Having found this species of 
observation too severe a trial for his eyes, he has f jr the past 
three or four years given up comet seeking." Mr» Geo. P. 
Bond's Mennoir in the Mathematical, Moethly on Donati's 
oomet, (which attracted the wondering admiration of the world 
last Autumn,) is a most suceessfyl attempt to popularize 
science. The engravings accompanying it are of surpassing 
beauty. The non-scientific %vorld is under great obligations to 
Mr. Bond, for bringing the observations made at Cambridge 
and his views upon the subject of Donati's comet, down tO' 
the level of readers not versed in the mysteries of the cal*' \ 

No men of science ia this country are more honorably 
referred to in the " Cosmos " than the Messrs. Bond. The 
observations of Mr. Bond, j«n. on the nebula of Andromeda, 
and his delineation of tliat most extraordinary object, have 
attracted the notice of European Astronomers. " For the 
hrst time, I believe," says Dn Nichols in his Architecture of 
the Ilejivens, *' first at least in so marked a manner, — the 
existence of dark lineji wfrniN nebnhe, [these Italics and Cap- 
itals are Dr. Nichols',] or as part of their structure, was 



noticed by Mr. Bond." This important paper and another 
purely demonstrative, on ^' Some methods of computing the 
ratio of the distances of a Comet from the Earth," in the third 
volume of the new series of the Memoirs of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and still more his remarkable 
paper on the Rings of Saturn in the fourth volume of the same 
series, have, with his other publications, given Mr. Bond, jun. 
a high place, not merely among the observers but among the 
geometers of the Age. His conclusion from his observation 
of the phenomena of Saturn's rings, that they cannot be solid 
bodies, confirmed as it has been, by the subsequent demon- 
strations of Professors Pierce and Maxwell of the mechanical 
conditions of the Satumian system, are certainly among the 
most brilliant results of Modem Astronomical Science. 

I propose in another paper, to pay an humble tribute to 
the other illustrious dead of the year. 



I dMtt «r HUlMB nd PMeotft— Hdloi lh« intHndvd writer «r 
ktoCMj ta Xa|[lnd afUr Hum, Olbbom and Bobfti— O e ipfd with tkon 
writoi B — Bf laf Moout «r tk« HMotjoT Bonpe ta Om oUddto tfw-Of tlM 
CwwttftiPMJMttqtj •€¥■§!■■< Ofth<totwdBrtlwitot>eLltei»tow<fEuwpt 
Jbr tha illMBth, ifartMDth, aod MvntMBth c eatai tot P otwmI Hlilory— Loh 
«C Mf two •oot'HtfBTj eooMelt his Ikther not to ooeopt tho litlo of Boranei— 
BoeelTM tho hononiy dofree «C Doctor of Lftwt from llanrard College— Letter 
of o^Bowlodgmeiit. 

Bt the arrival of the next steamer from Europe, after the 
death of Presoott, the public mind received another shock in 
this country hj the news that a brother Historian bad passed 
away in Enghmd. Hallam had gone beyond the age of four 
score, and had for several years ceased from his literary 
labors. His death left nothing to regret as to the completion 
of his works, or the maturity of his fame. lie enjoyed his 
well-earned reputation, in a serene old age ; the lapse of time 
had alleviated the weight of the heavy bereavement which he 
had suffered in the loss of his two noble sons ; and he found 
pleasure in the reflection that, though bereft of them, his 
lineage would not wholly perish. In the last letter whidi I 
received from him, not written, except the signature, with his 
own hand, he says : 

" I retam you many thanks for your kind recollection of me, though 
the pleunre of receiving your letter was much diminished, bj the recol- 
lection that we can never meet again in this woild. I contiiiiie oq the 



whdc m prcttT good health, but I am become very kme and in&rm and 
UDat>te to walk. Still I ebciuld be thankful that I am free frotii organic 
complaints, which so often aifect people nt ray very advancod ago. I 
hare the happiness of living in the game house with my daughter boih 
here and in the country, for wc have a house in Kent, about twelve miles 
from town, where we pass half tbc year. I have two grandchildi^n, 
one of them only a few weeks old, fio that I have a hope of surviving la 
my posterity*" 

It was certainly a noticeable coincidence, that two such 
lights in the intellectual firmament as Ilallam and Prescott, 
shining with such brightness in the same department of poll to 
letters, should have been extinguished within a few days of 
eutih other. Having during my residence in England, from 
1841 to 1845, been honored with the intimate acquaintance, I 
may venture to say, tlio friendship of Mr, Ilallam, and with 
his correspondence since my return, the reader will, 1 am sure 
pardon me, even after the lapse of a few months since his 
decease, for placing on record, in these columns, my impres* 
sions of his literary and personal character. 

After the last of the three great English historians of tho 
Eighteenth Century had passed away^ no writer appeared in 
the same department sufficiently distingnished, to be consid- 
ered as keeping up the line of the succession in that country^ 
In this country historical studies had hardly commenced* 
Many valuable works had certainly appeared, on both sides 
of the Atlantic, within the domain of history, or closely bor* 
dering upon it, hut nothing which could be fairly placed on a 
level with Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson. At length, after 
mature preparatory studies and being then f(jrty years of age, 
Mr. Ilallam in 1818 publislied his first, and in the opinion of 
some persons his ablest work, ''A View of the Stat« of 
Europe in the Middle Ages." This work did not claim to be 
a History, narrating a series of events woven into unity polit- 
ical or territorial, but it was rather a series of historical dis- 
eertations, presenting a comprehensive view of the chief mat- 


4iir4U> w* M«' JOt ¥. ten 
te iuirtg i ^M Hto waifciit* 

i¥0^^ i»^> ^JM» 4*f»» tf ♦Mu;** ttM*- irvn. 

itfVM V^ wutf ^/ M4*f^*tfue$0^ . «vttHai. yOMMMk ^Aoynm mm^A- 

.Mllip 4tf«iA/ -Via; IMi«A«t IJMtK 'O^ 4^ iMffUv. ki«tbwr,<r v^^*, ^ 
iU /^<Hi<h<j»0 yit^mu^if VMWrfiUftHltJ 1t4Hiti«tfU lU^ll Vlliflb 

>># Oik t^!:^^v/< iMX 4'/c'iMi'. iM/C w*9oe30sj si immm t k : JL • 
>u^/i»'A^^,« iy/* '^i-; -y Ua ^Miuiu^il: vm i/ <» Wii Jiw:. ani 


most have tpmng, either from an unwillingness to 
eatouaUr the toil of a lal>oriou8 collation of authorities, or a 
laftjr preference of his own theory of what ought to be true, 
orer the homely reality of actual fiict. In all the qualities of 
a firsUrate historian, Ilallam is far superior to Robertson, 
with the eiception, perhaps, of a certain attractive ease and 
wimiing flow of style, (mere style in distinction from the 
manner of treating a subject,) by which you are borne along 
in the pages of the illustrious Scotsman, whose great advan- 
tage lies in the interest of his subjects. Mr. Hallam modestly 
replies, that he had more in view the instruction of the young 
than the improvement of mature readers. ^ I dare not," says 
he, ^ appeal with confidence to the tribunal of those superior 
judgies who, having bestowed a more undivided attention on 
the particular objects that have. interested them, may justly 
deem such general sketches imperfect and superficial ; but my 
labors will not have proved fruitless, if they shall conduce to 
stimulate the reflection, to guide the researches, to correct 
the prejudices, and to animate the liberal and virtuous senti- 
ments of iirQuismvx Youth." Mr. Hallam's History of the 
Middle Ages immediately assumed and has ever maintained 
the character of a daasical work. 

After an interval of nine years, ''The Constitutional 
History of England from the b^inning of the reign of Henry 
the Seventh to the close of the reign of George the Second," 
was published. This too is a work of standard excellence. 
Discussing questions which, at that time more than now, 
divided opinion in England, Mr. Hallam's opinions did not in 
all points command universal assent. By the Tory journals 
and the Tory politicians it was characterized as the work of a 
^ decided partisan." But this was itself mere partisan dis- 
paragement. Mr. Hallam himself says, with a noble con- 
sciousness of impartiality, that no one will suspect him of 
being a ^ blind ^alot." The adverse judgment just quoted 
has not been confirmed by the verdict of the generation which 

3&."rr Tss::- : 

o \-' y. 

i.V_ir-: - - . . 


Antbor whom he has not read, he teUs you so ; and when he 
prop oon ces a judgment as his own, you know that it is his 
own^ — ^the fruit of his own inquiry and reflection. It is not 
like so many similar works, a compilation without acknowl- 
edgment from former writers. On the contrary, it is a work 
of original research, and that too not seldom in unfamiliar 
quarters. Thus he first pointed out the similarity of thought 
between the celebrated passage on the Universality of Law, 
at the close of the first book of Hooker's Ecclesiastical polity, 
with a passage in the now nearly forgotten work of the 
Jesuit Suarez, {de Legibus et Deo Legislaiore) ' of Laws and 
God the Lawgiver." Impartiality, good sense, pure taste, 
freedom from extravagance, and a clear and expressive though 
rather elaborate style, characterize this, as they do all his 

Of personal history there is but little to record in the life 
oi Mr. Hallam. He was educated to the law, but never 
engaged in its practice. He, however, attached great impor- 
tance to his legal studies, as one of his qualifications for writ- 
ing the Constitutional History of England. He speaks with 
emphasis of Hume's deficiency in this respect, though he 
treats his great predecessor with commendable impartiality, 
cf>nsidering the antagonism of their political views. In his 
family relations, ho was at once the happiest and the unhap- 
piost of men ; — the happiest in being the father of two sons 
of rare endowments and brightest promise ; the unhappiest 
in being called to part with them in the morning of their 
days. Arthur died at the ago of twenty-two ; his memory 
has been embalmed in the crystal tears of Tennyson. Henry, 
on whom Mr. Ilallam's affection had centred with twofold ten- 
derness afler the loss of his brother, died at the age of twenty-six, 
leaving his father broken-hearted, but for the hope of a re- 
union in a better world. I had the pleasure occasionally to 
see the last named of the brothers at their father's table ; and 
in 1843 it was my good fortune to meet him at the rooms of 


TBB mytnrr teskok papers. 

my young friend, Mr. lliarles Bristcd, in Trinity College, 
Cambridge. An interesting memoir of this roost amiable 
and hopeful young man, from the pen of Mr. Bristed, has 
been reprinted in England.— One trait of generous feeling 
and honest filial pride has been related to nie of him by a 
common friend. When Sir Robert Peel tendered to Mr^ 
Hallam the hereditary title of Baronet, — ^the highest title of 
honor ever bestowed in England on a man of letters, till Lord 
Macanlay was raised to the peerage, — Mr. Hallam said he 
would be governed by his son^s wishes. Henry on being con- 
sulted, answered that as far as his feelings were concerned, bo 
was eontent to be known as the son of Henry Hallam^ a name 
to which no title should give added dignity. 

Mr. Hallam, like all the distinguished authors in England, 
was, in proportion to our population, more extensively read in 
this country than at home. This arises from the greater 
cheapness of the American Editions, and the more extensiTe 
diffusion of education throughout all classes of the oommu- 
nity. 1 reflect with pleasure, that, on my proposal, he re- 
ceived in 1848 the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Harvard College, and not till the same year, from his own 
Oxibrd. The following letter, acknowledging his degree, 
though it has been published before^ will I think bo generally 
interesting to my readers ; hut few of whom I suppose hare 
seen it. 

** CLtrroK, £fl Oct, iSlfi. 

" Mt dear Mr. Everett .^-Tt hua gircn me the greatest Fatisfaction to 
receiTe the Diploma of tlie Senate of Harvard College conferring on me 
the high honor of Doctor of Lawa, an honor even enhanced hy the eulogy 
which, through the medium of a very classical Latinity, that dlatinguished 
body has been pleased to bestow upon my several pubhcations. 

I have already in the present year received a fiimihir honor from my 
own UDiveraity, that of Oxford, It will be my pride for tb© remainder 
of my dayg, to reflect that not only at home, where I might better ex- 
pect it, but in a land which it has not been permitted me to Tiflit, my 
labors hi the jieid of litorature, de^cieut as I feci them to bci and j 

[> Tifiit, my ^ 




unequal to whmt I hmd once hoped to hare been their extent, hmre ob- 
tained a reward of public approbation, so ample and so honorable, as 
has been allotted to them. The admiration of literary merit, (and I 
must not now be understood as referring to myself,) has become of late 
years very characteristic of America. It displays itself with a noble, and 
we may say juvenile enthusiasm, which we are far from equalling in Europe. 
Nothing is more likely to maintain that natural affection between those 
who spring from common ancestors and speak a common language, 
which every wise and good man on each side of the ocean desires to see. 
I request you to return my most sincere thanks to the Fellows of 
Harvard College. To yourself I need not say that I am peculiarly in- 
debted, not only for the share you have had in conferring this honor 
upon me, but for many testimonials of your friendship, during the too 
short period of your residence in Great Britain. 

Believe me, my dear Mr. Everett, very faithfUUy yours, 

. :1- 

....'. i 

.i;.i "All-* kii'i". % v. Ii i' I i!i.« - t...- :• :!io/."'..i iii'ij.tli> 

W;L«!;ii»-?«'n Ir^in.' m ■[ I.« nl M ■ln-l aft<r thi.s w.vs written. 


of, in ahoT times, as the year in which Humboldt died. It is 
good to pause upon such an event, and to hold up a name like 
his to reverent con tern plat ion, Tlie ancient Egyptians sat in 
judgment on their dead Pharaohs, The historian does not 
tell us how the tribunal was comfiosed, or the impartiality 
of its sentences secured. The enlightened Public opiinon of 
the world is the great Trihimal to which the mighty of the 
earth are amenable ; and who would not prize the bloodless 
wreath decreed at that bar to Cuvicr, and Humboldt, before 
the gnlden crown or the blood-stained laurels of monarehs or 
conquerors ? The career of men so illustrious as Humboldt 
cannot be eitpected, in many points^ to furnish examples for 
the maf^g of mankind ; — ^and yet with all the superiority of 
native talent, which makes him an exception to the ordinary 
conditions of humanity, there is much in his life and character 
with which all men sympathize^ — which all may emulate as 
all admire, 

%Vo at least in America should neglect no act of appro- 
priate homage to his great name. The foundations of bis 
fiime were laid on this continent. Here the most laborious 
years of his life were passed ; for his expedition to Siberia in 
after life, less laborious even while it lasted, was accomplished 
in less than a twelvemonth* It seemed indeed as if a Provi- 
dential interposition guided him to the new world ; for it was 
only at\cr three other projects had been baflledj tliat the path 
was unexpectedly opened to America. Having educated him- 
self as a scientific traveller, he first coneeived the plan of 
travelling in Egypt, but the French expedition made it neces- 
sary to abandon that design. He next thought of attaching 
himsdf to the voyage of circumnavigation, whiih the French 
government was preparing under Admiral Bandin, The war 
with Austria brtjke out, and diverted tlie funds assigned by 
the Directory to this expedition, ** Cruelly deceived,** says 
he, ** in my hopes, and beholding the plans which I had been 
forming for several years of my life destroyed in a day, I 

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rr* .^ l> •*» Sir; "-irr .•:. ->*■£> . £ "ia r7»e TrrTi:*:^. 

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*■:**- lui <■ ."oi-r an".?.: . ^» *T. •* • .♦ ?-':"'. "■ -.TT : 

•oj;^ - .■"■-■ .-■..» .ijt .n-.- .•...^^..■■ - --.:.-. -_.- r;A= ■ ar. 

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hours' sleep in the tyfentj four. I think I can state this on 
his own authority, for I heard it asserted in his presence, and 
listened to hj him with an assenting smile. If then we con- 
sider four hours of daily study, as a pretty good day's work, 
at least for one whose time must have been so much broken 
in upon, and who worked to so much purpose, we may com- 
pute that, in contenting himself with four hours' sleep, in lieu 
of the seven or eight required by most men, he really added 
forty or fifty working years to his four score years and ten. 
Whether this was the result of the excellence of his constitu- 
tion, abstinence from the great causes of weariness and ex- 
haustion, cheerful temper, or in some degree of all combined, 
I cannot say ; probably the latter. 

At any rate, his disposition was eminently genial. My 
acquaintance with him began in the winter of 1817-1818 at 
Paris, where I frequently met him in society. His company 
of course was eagerly sought, and no individual of eminence 
was more frequently seen, as far as my means of observation 
extended, at the dinner table and in the salons of Paris. He 
was then apparently engaged in those geographical researches, 
of which the results are given in the work above named, on 
the history of the Geography of this continent. I passed 
many happy and instructive hours with him at the Institute 
in looking over the early maps of this country. He was good 
enough to give me, on leaving Paris, letters to his brother 
William, at that time the Prussian Minister in London, with 
whom it was my happiness in that way to become intimately 
acquainted. In the year 1842 Baron Alexander von Hum- 
boldt came to London, (in the suite of the King of Prussia, 
who visited England to attend the Christening of the Prince 
of Wales,) and I had the pleasure of renewing my acquaint- 
ance with him during his brief stay. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that, at a time when London was more than usually 
thronged with the celebrities of Europe, he was the centre 
of the greatest attraction. 


Steppes of Siberia," — the joint character in which he wished 
to be known in after times. 

The strange assertion has lately been made, that " Cos- 
mos " is a system of philosophical Atheism, slightly veiled, 
from motives of prudence, and that even the name of God 
does not occur in it. This last statement is notoriously in- 
accurate, and for the first assertion there is not, as far as I 
know, the slightest foundation. Humboldt, in this as in his 
other works, proposes to treat only the phenomena revealed 
to the senses ; but he recognizes the reality of spiritual and 
moral relations, though justly considering them above the 
province of demonstrative science. Between him and his 
brother, William, undeniably a man of the deepest religious 
convictions, there prevailed an entire sympathy, and he cites 
with approval from the works of the latter, passages which 
recognize the truth of the Christian religion. On the appear- 
ance of the Chevalier Bunsen's " Signs of the Times " in 1855, 
Humboldt rose from its perusal, and on the same day ad- 
dressed a letter of two sheets to the Author, expressive of his 
sympathy and approval. In his " Cosmos " ho refers to the 
Hebrew Scriptures with respect, and even bestows on the 
Hundred and fourth Psalm that much honored name of " Cos- 
mos," which he had appropriated to the crowning work of his 
literary life. He distinctly recognizes the purifying influence 
of the new faith, in contrast with the decaying paganism of 
the Ancient world. So far is it from being true, that he 
" knows nothing of a God in Creation," that he asserts in 
terms, that it was the tendency of the Christian mind to 
prove, from the order of the Universe and the beauty of na- 
ture, the greatness and goodness of the Creator ; " and he 
traces the growing taste for natural description observable 
in the writers of the new faith, to the tendency " to glorify the 
Deity in his works." 

In denying the imputed Atheism of Humboldt, (on which 
I may speak more at length on a future occasion,) I build 



nothing on the ooourrenoe of the name of the Snpreme Being 
in his publications. No writers more freelj use the great 
and sacred name than those of the Panthdstio or, what is the 
same thing, Atheistic School, meaning, howeyer, not the All- 
wise All-powerful Bxnro, who created and who roles with 
sovereign intelligenoe the Heavens and the earth, but the 
aggregate of existing things ; making men and beasts, and 
trees and stones, and dust and ashes, part and paioel of what 
thej call God. 



ct Btate and Pnblic opinion mingled in tho present strnggle— Growth of 
liberal Tiews in Italy— Uow lar the feelings of the masscii will affect the result of 
the eonteat— The different yiews of the different parti(>e — Elements of nationality 
possessed by the Italians— A compact geographical position— A Aision of the 
original races— One langnago— A common laith— In all those respects their claim 
to an independent nationality equal to that of any of the great powers of Europe 
—To what is the want of It owing ?— By no means to the degeneracy of the 

Thb eyes of the civilized world arc now turned to Italy. 
To whatever quarter of the globe tho descendants of a 
European stock are scattered, or European languages spoken 
in the old world or the new, the arrival of every mail is 
watched for news from Italy. The steamers are too slow ; 
the electric telegraph itself is too slow, to satisfy the intense 
and universal desire for Italian news. To speculate on the 
probable course of events, in a struggle like this, is as idle as 
it would be to speculate on the cast of the dice ; particularly 
when your anticipations are to bo recorded in papers, which, 
like these, arc not to bo read till a month after they are 
written. Let us resijjrn the eventful future to the sole arbiter 
of its mysteries — Time — and dwell for a moment upon the nv 
nowned and beautiful field of the mighty contest. Ilaply we, 
too, separjited by tho world-dividing ocean from the c<jnflict, 
— may derive a salutary lesson from the contemplation. 

Two elements totally different mingle in this Titanic 
struggle, the policy of the Monarchs who conduct it and 



public opinion. Thcro is so much of personal motive 
and feeling, so much secret and partially disclosed diplomncj, 
so much local history which never ran he known at a dii;tmice, 
ct»mprehciidcd in all questions of State policy, tliat they can 
rarely be judged of wilh entire accuracy by conteniporaries. 
On questions of tliis kind appeamnces at times mislead, de- 
ciiivo, betray ; the Truth is told l>y Events^ and by them only 
in a continuous series, brought up to a decisive result. 

The other element, and more eilicient \vith every year of 
modem progress, is the spirit and feeling of the masses of the 
community, — of the People. This has always of course, in 
the long rnn, had a vast influence in determining the march 
of public afiairs^ especially in all cases where religious convic- 
tions are appealed too. But in casting the eye over the pages 
of Italian History for the last three centufies, it will not be 
easy to find one great political and territorial arrangemeilt, 
which has been decided by any thing Imt State Policy ; the 
rival interests and power of the Emperor of Germany, and 
the Kings of France, Spain, Sardinia, and Naples. 

This state of things has certainly been changing within the 
last htmdred years. Nowhere was there a quicker or a 
keener sympathy felt within the American Rovulution than in 
Italy. One of the very best histories of the revolutionary 
war is the work of an Italiae. Tlie Grand Duke Leopold 
of Tuscany was a liberal and enlightened^ though eccentric 
prince, and encouraged the dilTusion of liberal ideas. The 
Italian publicists of the last century, Becearia, Galiani, Fib 
angicri, were men of enlarged and generous views. AM the 
substantial conquests gained fjr rational Liberty, through the 
influence of the French Revolution, were gained as much for 
Italy as for France. Her modern popular literature ; — the 
writers who have won the hearts of the Italian race, however 
politically or territorially divided, Alfieri, Foscolo, Niccolini, 
Manzoni and Silvio PeHico, in their best days, and their asso- 
ciates, are all eminently popular. In this way and through 



these agencies, rendered more powerful and soraetimes mis- 
directed hy the various secret revolutionary societies, a very 
|K)werfid public opinion has been forraed in favor of political 
reform, free institutions of government, independence of the 
stranger, and Italian Nationality. The real strength of this 
opinion remains to be seen, and with reference to the senti- 
ment of Italian Nationality particularly, time only can show 
how far it will overcome the previously existing repulsions 
that have existed between the minor nationalities^ so to call 
them, into which Italy in the lapse of time has been broken 
up. Thus far, this recently created element of popular 
strength has diselosed a power and vitality for whicb, as we 
apprehend, few persons were prepared. Without liring a 
gun or shedding a drop of bood, it has won for the allies the 
greatest territorial acquisition which up to this time (*22d 
of June) they huve gained ; it has given them the beautiful 
Grand Duchy of Tuscany and Lucca, the most important and 
significant occurrence which has yet taken place. 

How far this Italian feeling may operate in Lombardy 
is, at this moment, a (|ue.stion not less important than the 
strength of Verona and the dcptli of the Adige. Kivers and 
fortresses will prove frail bulwarks to the Austrian armies 
in Lombardy if tho masses of her population, rallied by Gari- 
baldij sustained as they will be by tiie advancing armies of Sar- 
dinia and France, shall rise against them, — And if Tuscany, 
Parma, Modena, and Lo'mlxirdy revolt — swept away from 
Austrian control by popular feeling^ — how long will the reign- 
ing dynasty in Naples be able to resist tlic torrent 1 The 
Papal power alone, from its mixed secidar and eoc^lesiastical 
character, tho latter of which must bo respected, perhaps pro- 
tected by the Emperor of tho French, stands upon a somewhat 
dilFerent footing. With respeet to all the other Italian States, 
the embarrassing question already is, not how the Allies shall 
gain them, but what they shall do with them ; not how they 

W ttmmmi from ^ Aoamtm <x^ tkm i 
hiA m^er whom damiBkn wid loiacMt tli^ dbOl ^U. 

SktD tS»ere lie a grcal IuIm Bcpobik, i 
Ife PcfiluHik! Buck ifi tht pogmiUDQ of 
IbiMc 'tt-boim ht n^KTCMStft. These eztn 
«r Ics^Ule *'*'******^ ; en ibe ct-itimnr, k » b j bim « 
tfe jKraftent gcinurtioiv UMit aiaok oi tbe luljpa 
km been kiaiUed. Am vmuMj lw|y«ii tA muk 
hmrt laUirad, mtd more politk aiui kv oaieifiili 
kive catered ktV/ tlicir l&bonL Jbi ^alkft BcpabEie 
Uiolj iK)C tbe prcigniuMi of tlie d^ of 
CoQUt Ckrottr, al^MiS^ an Ilalitt Eju^ 
Ab Pcnismiiav nuj be. BiH tbk ^^ nrei j is not tbe pn>- 
pwQiDe of BanfiaWc oIl-fiovcfM AUj. H« 
ariDiflt into Italv, se%*€&lbkl as Ivrg^e as diose vitb vbidi 1 
Mule oooqaered it^ la order thai ibe rojraltjes and ibe 
rojralsie^ vbkh tlw great dttdtais woo Idt ymadf and 
hmilj, majT be tOBMd in a beap iato ibe lap of Vklor ] 
mmmd* Wbattbeprofrannie of ibe great'' 
of Eorope xnajr be, in rderciioe to Italjr^ n oaao it i 
be woo from cbe Auatrian donuiiioo aod mi 
lioo WTMffid ia scOl grewler rajsierx- 'Hie popobu* Toke i 
Mo^mA aodoablMDj is ** Italy lor tbe Jtaliaos," and tbe gDi 
immetrt of England, into whatever LAnds it m^y fkll, ; 
wapiit this imaiiimoaa Toice. Tbe policy' of England 
bova a great influcnoe oTcr tbat of Pniasia ; and if] 
and Prussia da tiol interiefe^ certainly Bnasia wUl noi. 
jn all these oonsiderationiv we see iiow fearfuUr the two t 
m&ntM of Btate policy and popular will axe combined in l 
solution of the great problenu 

*" luly for tbe lulians.^ What is ItJaXy and wba are I 
Itollatis^ thai tlmre ithould be any doubt or di^culty oo 
aubject ; why an* they not, — why have they not always i 
— a great Integral s^tlf'SUJtUanetl munber of the national i 
of Europe 1 No part of tbe European Continent seems la ^ 



»o favnral>ly Bituatcd, — at least none more f:ivorul>l y situated, 
if wo except Englane:l,*-for an in»:lep indent power. Surroimdcd 
by the oceati for more than half the circuit of its coasts^ sepa- 
rated by the Alps on the North and on the Wcst^ from its 
powerful neighbors, Nature woulil seeni to have given to Italy 
in an eminent degree, the first requisite of an Independent Na- 
tionality, a compact and defensible geographical position, safo 
from foreign violence, and possessing within itself every faeility 
for intercommunication between itsdiflorent parts. In all other 
material circumstances which nouri^ih the pride of Nationality, 
a delightful though various climate; — a ai>il productive of every 
thing for the food of man from w!ieat and rice and Indian com 
to the olive, the grape, the fig, and the sweet orange ; — 'jwrts 
once crowded with the comraeroo of the world, Genoa, Leghornj 
Naples, Palermo, Venice \ — mines of iron and copper,— cjnar- 
ries of marble, — broad, navigable lakes, — one noble river and 
many of the second class,— magnificent forests, — fertile plains^ 
— w^hat is there to be further desired, as far as natural advan- 
tages go, toward a liberal patriotism 1 

The next basis of national unity is a conmoon origin 
and kindred blond ; and here the Italians present as strong 
a claim to an independent national existence as any of 
their neighbors. It is true one may, following hack their 
annals, come to the times when invading barbarians broke in 
upon the unity of the Latin race ; nay, one may go back to 
the Italia avanti i Romania the *' Italy before the Romans," 
when a dozen different races, indigenous and foreign, oceupied 
the Ausonian territory. But as these primitive races, whieh 
flourished before the period of authentic history, — (of which 
no memorial now exists, but ruined specimens of gigantic 
masonry^ a few nnintelligiblo inscriptions, and tombs filled 
with pictured vases, weapons, and golden ornaments, mute 
witnesses of a buried world of refinement and power), — were 
fused into tlie Italians of the Roman age j so the intruders of 
later periods, Gauls aad Ostrogoths and Lombards, have, 



from the origiJi of the p<:>lkkal organization of Modern 
Europe, been fused into the Italian People, This Italian 
People as we know itj has iin<kr various local names, in 
difTerent portions of the Peninsula, and with various political 
ft^nunes, occupied the country for twelve centuries ; as their 
predecessors did for twelve centuries before them* On the 
sou re of common origin, the inhaliitant^H of Italy at the present 
day, have a much stronrrer claim to be coiisidered a nation 
than the subjects of the Austrian Empire, in which at legist 
four great races are comprehended, — the Italian, the German 
the Sclavouian and the Mr^yiir, to say nothing of numerous 
8ul>raccs, of radirally different stock and speaking languages 
utterly unintelligrible to each other. 

This brings us to the next great bond of nationality, a 
common language. From that intellectual chaos, — that second 
Babel,— into which the civilized w<jrld fell, after the downfall 
of the Roman Empire, the extinction of its languago as a, 
spoken tongue, and the establishment of the barbarous races 
in its conquered provinces and in Italy itself, she was the first 
of all the newly organized peoples to emerge with a new 
national language and literature, TFie English language, as 
written in the time of Dante, is almost as unintelligible at the 
present day to all but the EngU>*h anti(|uary as a foreign tongue. 
This Italian language thus early formed, — softened and mel- 
lowed in the lapse of five hundred years, but not become obso- 
lete, spoken by the masses with great dialectical differences in 
the difTerent parts of the Peninsula, but perhaps not greater than 
those of the English language as spoken in Somersetshire and 
the lowlands of Scotland, is still the language of Italy. — Dante 
; and Petrarch and Bocnaceio and Ariosto and Tasso, and all the 
^ noble lino of their successors are read with equal delight by 
all who read any thing, from Milan to Syracuse and from 
Genoa to Venice. 

Last there is the great bond of a common form of faith, 
and that from peculiar local causes, operating with a fbree not 


»x:xT vxx>(\^>^ y\i*5.K>. x.'^* 

kac'wt iz izT j*:cn:ry. I'V K^^v.iv.^ v\n5^.,si,' uv',i*iU'ki v> 
es^lk'clisiiRii iz <very jvati of lu'\ a^ i\u^ vv*,;^i,«u *'i kUo ^».**, 
&&i wl-ii :he cx^vp:ion of Tho ^^rx'toManis oi lUo luoituiatu o» 
SiTov. r-ow tOior;iu\i thrvnijjhou! S.n\hnu, ait^t »«i (ho itixii^.-^ 
tant chapels at taohoil to loroiisii lo^uiiiMia in iho h.iUau i%i>i 
dences, no other lorni ot* (.'lirUimii \\ttt'i>)ii)) U kin'^ut. 1 h.- 
acknowledged head of tlio Koiuaii ('Hihnlio liiidt lUii>u^li.ita 
the world is estiibliMhiHl in (*oiitrul tial>, iiiul \\m ilitviuii 
Italian Catholic rej^ardM liis c^oiiiiiry na I'lmrgiul, in a )ii itili.n 
sense, with the custcxly of IiIh rliurrlt. Tluii: in iihIIuh^ \\U\: 
this in most of the Stiitrn of Kiirnju'. r!ii(jltiiiil lia» b\.\ m 
seven millions of Catholic buhji-vid in liilaiiil. Iii&iiliia iln; 
division of her ProUiHtiint tfuhjcci:* Iniwt.iu ili*: » niu\,iioUninii 
and the various dissent it j|4 fAnntmihunm. A humiat iiiiih ui 
thmgs exists in IViibwla; und <'ailjoJi<- i'tim^' mni An^m^t 
have a oonsidcraljlc l^nAttiiiUit j><>j><jluij</ii. i h'h.i ii.jj. iiiu 
tional govenjrjient« llk«; tliat tjf J'Jij^JaiiJ, iKu <Jj vw. d^ i.l • i.,t. 
mimion, taken in c^>ujji<;(.'tion wiiij tut i^iui/iicJ.^iJ <Ji>ii<jj j. ii.< 
source of manifold euiljttrj-abbijxi^t. Jt. m iJu ^it,j i....i .i 
bitterness in Ireland, uiA hu» 4-4tutoi>j vuot. loui^i m i'lii. .-j.> 
When thfi comteiidiiij^ 'iiUK^u-^, iiiMn-ud v^ Uuiiy l^iuiJA-'J^^.. i/i 
tbe ooniUi'jii J'uiiL 'a* ^Aii\bWAj'i^jui. nijujj} iy|/]vi/., is •..■■ii 
other like CiiTitjiiUiii^y un-j i(44Aii'-fM.*rV*u;..>n . tii i.j-« J *.. ..^j. J... 
pire. they Uiuk^ b ^f^uuiut, aij*. jtj'/.»j,..i',.,. j..*'..",i..i;,- , . , 
BJbk-. Th^y aduiil i*v a .-..•.» .-■ J.u ... u •.• . *. i- 

iU*.!i:'-J.all* iX'.i*. •iit),f.M'Ji ll.i i..ti.i*l.. ULgiii. i.x.t / ' * . 
U' U! j'j'ji.-^i-lj'^-::.' •"' a,' .1 I..' y.. ••• *- " / it • ' 
"•■ » . I . 

1-: J 


:*^ ;. ..I 

'|lll^l1.^• J.I, J . ■ *. -i 

-A. ii«uii .1 .i>. ' -.1 N: 

^ .: :i... ■« I. 

THE xor^rr yessos papers. 301 

most parts of Europe, I attended the meetings of the As- 
sociation for the Promotion of Science in Italy, which was held 
at Florence in 1841. About a thousand persons were present 
and it appeared to me that the discussions and the memoirs 
compared fairly with those of similar bodies, at which I have 
been present in England and this country. At the close of its 
meetings the entire Association was invited to dine by the 
Grand Duke, and conveyed in carriages at his expense to the 
halls where the entertainment was served. Each member 
also received a present of a bronze medal of Galileo, with a 
copy in quarto of a new volume of his experiments. 

Every branch of Letters, except those which can exist only 
mider free constitutions, flourishes and has always flourished 
in Italy. Some of the most eminent ^Titers scientific and 
literary of the present day, astronomers, physiologists, antiquar 
ries, publicists, historians, poets, and authors of popular fic- 
tion, are Italians. Their museums and libraries are unsur- 
passed in Europe. Italy is still the land of Art. In the 
highest walks of painting and sculpture she is excelled by for- 
eigners, but here is an atmosphere of artistic culture, 
which still draws the foreign artist to her soil. Most of the 
distinguished German, English, French, and American Artists 
have studied their art in Italy. In music she still reigns su- 
preme, or divides the empire with Germany alone. Surely it 
is the extreme of arrogance or igorance to speak of such a 
people as degenerate. 

«» ^ k» y* m m t nnf i *'-r' •iv' *a(er s » «ff«tCj«K iwiiiai ■ — 5^ 

»*3r*. V, vur**-^ v.-jt '. >*-*r.r. _•_ '.ii- ».••■> •' Vi'iiHi_:«j5p.c;"f 

4/^ *//>-/ fc'^'^. */!*.••,'.•. /.^ 'ij* v^ i'juJtfJk a.'* ij^.c :o* ;•**:- 
^te. \^^jt,„,M^ u^'j »/*: /•A '>f-* p-tr.^^, &•.* till?: acjrr»r 

*4 '!•/: //»^^, if/i|x/r«i«#*f. l^-M^yfr* f hAt tfrr<!rr ^li from the lips c^ 


Patriot or Sage. IfAly^ since the Roman Empire broke up, 
has wanted " Unity of Government," which alone cfmld enable 
her to stand in the family of Nations as " one People ; " one 
in power, one in counsel, one in patriotism ; and she has 
wanted this Unity of Government, l>ecause, to use the sirnphi 
phrase whose venerable homeliness carries with it a sort of 
Scriptural solemnity, — because such a unity was not " d<*ar to 
her." Her populations, in no period of their uuHUtni history, 
had deduced from the various elements of nationality, to whi^'h 
I have alluded, an Italian Patriotism and a National Love. 

I admit the enormous difTiculties that lay in the way of 
the formation of such a sentimcmt. The disintegration of tiio 
Roman power in Italy, which held the population together V>y 
a Unity of Government, which if not " di*ar " was strong, 
took place gradually. Had it passed away in one struggle, 
like the British power in the Anglo-American Cf^lonies, or the 
Spanish power in the Seven United Provinc<;s, s^jme other 
Unity of Government might, by tlio wisdom of man and the 
exigencies of events, have been substituted in .its place. But 
it was broken up piece by piece. The removal of the seat of 
Govei-nmcnt to Constantinople struck tho whole peninsula 
with a hcart-sickncss, and changed it, from the seat of Empire 
into an exposed province. Barbarians and semi-barbarians of 
every race and from tho four quarters of the globe, fell upon 
her ; the Ostrogoths, tho Lombards, the Franks, tho Saracens, 
the Normans, each fastening upon the tempting or the assail- 
able side, and then the great secular struggle of the Emperors 
and the Popes rending her vitals. In tho mean time, and in 
the darkness of the Middle Ages, various local governments, 
some extensive like Venice, some confmed to a few cities or 
a single city like Florence, and Pisa, and Genoa, sprang up, 
and became in some cases powerful principalities ; Venice and 
Genoa by their commerce and maritime resources assuming 
the port and wielding the power of great sovereignties ; carry- 
ing on war, making foreign conquests, and founding colonies. 



Three flagstaffs stood and still stand, or did a few years ago, 
ill the place of St. Mark at Venice, which once bore the ban- 
ners of her three foreign tributary kingdoms. The peninsula 
w»i covered with these independent governments, some pow- 
erful, many weak, all jealous of each other, and the most of 
them cngjiged in hereditary feuds and eternal wars. 

Two consequences resulted from this state of things — one a 
prodigious quiekeiiing of the faculties of men, under the influ- 
ence of popular institutions in the free cities and little indo 
pendent republics. A species of municipal lil>erty w,is en- 
joyed, under which the civilization of the mcMiern world grew 
up in Italy long before it dawned on the West of Europe. 
The me reliant s of Florence were the bankers of Europe ; the 
traders of Venice pushed their commercial relations to the 
furthest East ; the mariners of Genoa discovered liidden Con- 
tinents, before the intelligence of the countries, that now bear 
sway over fallen Italy, was thoroughly awakened. Nor w^ero 
learning, and the arts, and the reviving study of antiquity 
hehind her material development. This was the bright side of 
that multiplication of governments, which kindled a generous 
emulation and kept aloof the paralyzing effects of a despotic 

But liberal emulation degenerated into bitter fouds and 
local wars. Duchy was arrayed against duchy ; city against 
city ; Milan and Piedmont ; Florence and Pisa ; Venice and 
the Ecclesiastical State ; in short, at one time or another al- 
most every little principality was at war with some other; 
or, rather, at no time was there general peace. This state of 
things cut off all free communication between the ditferent 
parts of the country. There were probably generations of 
men in Florence, of whom not an individual ever saw Pistola, 
except in arms ; generations of Neapolitans, of whom not an 
iudividual could go in safety to Rome or V^enico. In addition 
to the controversies, that w*ero strictly local and personal in 
heir origin and causes, the great wai' of Ouclf and Ghibelline, 



the Emperor and the Poppj fiJlecl all minds with bitterness 
and prcvcnteil the very thought of ** Unity of Government " 
from being practically conceived for ages* There were seve- 
ral strong principalities, of liniite<l extent indeed, but possess- 
ing a vigorous organization, such as the Republic of Venice, 
the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan, the llepublic of 
Florence, and above all the Ecclesiastical State ; Imt they 
were without s^Tnpathy with each other, and npon the whole 
afforded no basis for a Unity of Government. There was no 
political arrangement, wliich could have been conceived and 
proposed, that wciuld have ijcen •■* dear ^' to the populations of 
these various States, and wliieh would have been embraced by 
them with patriotic alfection. 

And so they remained rivals and enemies of each other, 
and by necessary consequence were obliged to throw them- 
selves into the bloody game of foreign politics ; invaded by 
overwhelming armies with every vibration of the balance of 
power between Germany, France, and Spain; to say nothing 
of remoter complications. The sticoessivo wars, expeditions, 
concpxests, treaties, and transfers are known to the reader of 
modern history from the time of Charles VIII. to the Con- 
gress of Vienna ; a dark and tedious tale. 

Another chapter is now commenced in this eventful his- 
tory. Armies such as never entered Italy before are now in 
Lombardy ; transported by railroads, with a rapidity not 
dreamed of in former wars ; provided with means of destruc- 
tion, which in range and cflicicncy trani^tccnd those of the old 
ordnance, almost as much ns fire arms exceed bows and ar- 
rows ; put in motion by orders which fly with electric speed ; 
and certainly sustained by a popular sentiment f»n tfie part of 
the Italians themselves, such as has never accompanied invad- 
ing armies before. Will this mighty contest, urged with 
theee overwhelming forces, result in any *' Unity of Govern- 
ment '* tor Italy ? 

That it is not likely to result in a republican government, 

in.' ik: .■' .- ■. U'^ 

; VI .. . 


.. i- a* a; 
■.■;::■• i- :. 

.. i 


lyi J. .*i.i..- •■ •■ .1.1' ;: l.,.Mi: * •" j ' li ■ i . . -Ai . '^IJIt* "i v'l-'.i'. 

I- ■ '»' ' I. ■■.. ■• ■ i' .i!i'ii«" j.j:. 1. Ill ■;. it* .:.-■.:. 

♦^'. ■■!..■,• ■ '. I'. *•::!, .* -.1. ■..'■ tl! ./,. (I. :(:'•. .- ■ I. 


, a- 

■I n- .III '.li»-' , II' I..'.- 

t .'i* .'.■...■-'• :i;'. It ?• ':i i'.i* ; . L.:i. iir 

'I'. ;"i.- ••* '.'■'.> I'll:.. ii;:;:'-»".i.:/.'- 

..•/. t 

,,...y. •/., .;;..;....,.... J..,,, 'y.i".'. :,* ,i ■^>\ .' J.A ^"■:.:■.. 

V,. I i. ..i-i.. .•• «: '•. ^'wi'. '. :- :- -.«•;. *,'■;."..«■;■.■-•■.:. ;. .:;•• '.;.\i.\ .:. 

« I ViJii(]i/iM/' •!. rtJl l'ill';w i|j« Tl'" '.I M.'. ].'ii;ir..a."l'..-Vi ji».t;i-:: 
|j.HH'/f >, "X '•" »'« lli'Ji J.jli iijlifri JiM ' «//;< cnn 'J. K^-sfli- 
|4mII> Aiii.fMiKi )ii 111! ji |itf si/fj(iJ iiii'l j/<>iitj(;al r(;lalioriS. thov 


can never come back unless some new turn of the wheel of 
fortune shall cause such a general reaction, as, having once 
happened within the present generation, may by possibility 
happen again. With this qualification, wo may set down the 
three principalities just named as lost to Austrian control, and 
to their hereditary princes. Will they too be annexed to 
Sardinia 1 This may well be doubte<l. A Sardinian Com- 
missioner appeared at Florence and took possession of the 
abdicated government of Tuscany ; but the cousin of the 
Emperor has followed upon his heels with a French army, 
and is installed in the Crocetta. — ^This may be nothing but a 
measure of precaution to hold Tuscany for the Allies, or it 
may be a measure of preparation for the establishment of the 
cousin of Louis Napoleon, with his Sardinian bride, in a new 
kingdom of Etruria. 

With these stirring events in Northern and Central Italy, 
tending however not to any " Unity of Government," but to 
the aggrandizement of Sardinia and the establishment of a 
prince of the Napoleonic dynasty in the heart of the Penin- 
sula, will Naples and the Ecclesiastical State remain unshaken? 
In Naples the elements of disaffection are widely diffused. 
An odious Sovereign has gone to his account ; that his moun- 
tain-load of unpopularity is buried in his grave is not so clear. 
If the new king as is reported, should wisely turn from his 
brother's evil ways, — throw open the prisons, lighten the bur- 
den of taxation, and reform the traditionary abuses of the 
State, he may maintain himself on his precarious throne- 
But if it should enter into the Imperial plan to realize the 
Ide€8 Napoleoniennes^ in Southern Italy ; and if the new King 
sliall pursue the line of his government which earned for his 
fatlier the hatred and contempt of his people and of Europe, 
the chosen instrument of redress is at hand in the person of 
Prince Murat. 

These are the territorial changes most likely to be made, 
and to which, arguing from the present premonitions, the 


TiT. t: 

r^rr ^^- 

Vif »-#!^ •■?•*• 'rrv- -•&;''♦. : 

«/» r^.-:^>^ -#^^:.. V. '>- JV.rr 

*... '/^ *..,-«'?^ •. :*. -^^ y^:.2t: 

m u**- ih.*>r--*? . r> y>^. '-^ . .' ~ . 

y^ /^.% '/ >oft>*»5r:i «/J ^>^.Taa JtAlr, Sari" .a 
Hfc'.f. i'. ♦f**f 'iuar**^ »'.. r-av*- ^^r*-. :-.^!r "p I.' v. * 

yft^f^. 4 ur w r. ^ i, • v: r , • j -i*^ ♦ M v.* r'.-r, T ' f *?^ ^ ■ r. •»■ i^ ---*.'- 

ji ts'x,* it f At A a ha.f from a ff-*-oI*r '•I'-^'torat^ inv^ f-r-* cf "ir 

;«il/ '>#;•* ♦'/ j*-^/if t^»*t '>tti*;r IraJiafi Sut*« and form a* !i-- 
Ml*! f/'/wrfii luJj «ri Oov*rm/fj'?rj?. T^jw will h;ir:.y *:.-- 
W'/fk '/f Of*/- j^^'wraiK/fj. 

Iij IJm- f/i#-wi tiffi*-, ^h'. *i*Ji*f'. '{ \*>».\ hjA *\:<' r:r»rrhof 
^•vi'Miii «»•'• ffJ'f'' wjtfi ifj*.T:j'-t'.ori f^r u-, Tf.*i }j!:-t orr of 
fhi^ b';i*«ttul '//nriiry ^/r ay-i an'J iv pr^-v r;l r-ori<3ition t*<V:Ii 
»»«, tfi.j* »N" '<"iriy< : J inr|ii/<-rfiin**» to *■ I f)l»y of Go^'.-n-rrii-LT."^ 

j/'/i/i ir#".:'.i! [»'»-j^i'/ri. ti'-H //f /-or/jmoii oriirin, laRipiajr*^. an 1 
ri|»/»''fj, ' ij'Ji' i'y ti# t\t, t'urU */th'T niiU>ijrj'J«*<J j^'v^J or <-vi!. — 
Nfrih^/Miif llii y l»oli| to^«-Oi' r,- -w.<akri*-^H and s«jbj«-<:ti'.n l<> 
f'/r' ij/ii powif.. if fill- \nAy j^»liij^- is broken into fraL'rji'*nt> ; 

fiM 111! of no /I'.jijl, vkith'/ijt. ^^^ii)** /Ji-/-[»<T princij'lo of Union. 
It v,tni\'\ )n uWi' lit lljjff tiriH' ; - for th** l;i*-t ihoiiJiand years it 
%troiili| iiuvj- hM'fi mIIm ; -' (o nAy to tlic luliiiris, broken up into 


ten or twelve governments, " it is folly and madness for you 
to continue thus disunited.'' Men as individuals and as com- 
munities will often do foolish and mad things, and the example 
of Italy shows that they will persist in doing them through 
long ages of subjection and suffering. 

Again, if before the disintegration of the Roman power in 
Italy commenced, men had said to themselves *' this fine 
country will never be so unwise as to allow itself to be 
broken up ; — this intelligent people will surely hold together 
forever; Nature has thrown the circling seas around their 
coasts, has piled up this great Alpine wall on the frontier, has 
poured out a noble river through her Northern valley to bind 
together the States which lino its banks ; and, in the diver- 
sity of natural products, has made each section essential to 
the prosperity of every other, while internal dissension will 
be the ruin of all ; — they never can, they never will break 
up," — if he had said this, ho would have uttered words of 
wisdom, but alas, as the event has proved, not words of 

The example then of Italy teaches us, in characters written 
in tears and in blood, that it is not natural advantages, nor 
capacities for mutual good and harm ; — not the material ben- 
efits of Union, not the certain woes of separation, — which 
create and preserve a Unity of Government, though they add 
strength to the tie when it exists ; but it is a generous senti- 
ment pervading the population, a comprehensive patriotism, 
a reciprocal respect for local interests and feelings, fusing 
natural elements, however dissimilar and remote, into a well- 
conipaoted whole. It is by these alone that a people can be 
formed, and an independent Nationality asserted. 



iM» « Apr... MO-TW vMtoSMI- gr -tefc J 

cJm: ^r-^Mi^. <^/^*'jt% '/ t£^ Mft «re i**r ti* laad. it r.*-- 
^>««*ri. \u % yif^A ifijttm0% iKtip. Hgb wklJf-J, meJvjt feu* cxicipar- 

»*-!{ i«A*f* ♦•.>: ?JA* .;fiJ/,f ;r.iv v; './ ;.,- pr-i^-.-^ »l:";4rl.--E« He 

UutiiiAit 7 k . . ' >.f . / . ♦ .'i -i;w,.i . '. ;y r. f r ■;^.tf u 1 r'> it-s '> r *r-».:^ 
tfwt^k4 tMMAn.^ *•-.; jKi.o'A.fjjr tA^^r- iiitxA that hfr Is ^^p-y^dinz to 
iteflMfi '!<to*fu'ft.;/wj. B-.t it. fij^i^prMi rot Jt-iior.. '.r. Ci^arinz 

Ul«4 llf*/'f It J'.f.{( ''0^J<''» f-ni^t.iti.-j if; th: Li^ht, Af.d Still 

r#i//f<9 ill ^tjni^itir %0t th>'k JM tf> pr<;v<riit tiikintr trji; sud« that 
tkm mfeuik0A stm*-}, jgii//raat of her potitir^ goes wnhont 
v/irning t// b«r «l^x/fA. 


To obviate this danger, as far as it can be done by human 
art, it has been the practice of the civilized nations to mark 
the approach to their sea-ports, and the position of dangerous 
points on the shore, and of sunken ledges and shoals, with 
light>houses. This practice began in antiquity. Some per- 
sons have supposed that the Colossus of Rhodes was a light- 
house ; but the Pharos of Alexandria, which, in the French 
language, has given its name to structures of this kind, and 
which was built by one of the Ptolemies in the fourth century 
before our Saviour, is the oldest of which we have any au- 
thentic accounts. 

It would be out of place, in a paper of this kind, to at- 
tempt a minute description of the great improvements which 
have been made in light-houses in modem times. As far as 
their illumination goes, the most important of these improve- 
ments may be traced to the elder Fresnel in France, whose 
system has been adopted in our own, and most, if not all, 
other countries. It has earned for him the distinction of 
being *^ classed with the greatest of those inventive minds, 
which extend the boundaries of human knowledge, and he will 
thus at the same time receive a place among those benefac- 
tors of the species, who have consecrated their genius to the 
common good of mankind, and wherever maritime intercourse 
prevails, the solid advantages which his labors have procured 
will be felt and acknowledged." 

I confess I never behold one of these noble buildings with- 
out emotion, I had almost said without reverence, especially 
when guided by it in safety along an iron-bound coast or 
between sunken ledges, to the desired haven. Piloted by its 
trusty beams, streaming over the midnight waters, the skilful 
navigator shoots boldly along within a hundred rods of some 
grey promontory, on which the storms of fifty centuries have 
roared and burst. He has not perhaps for a week had an 
observation of the sun, but that friendly light in making land 
more than supplies its place. Unlike most other works of 

>»• I. :..»«l(i •.! ^f« '•*< nil -' u'*: : ii-z •* ':it V^L Oil D. 

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sarnc docutncnt to he $lflM} or flliout ♦04**J,000 pttr ftniuJin; 
a mim Jitrgcr than the cmtiro Approprmt.if*n f^ir thi^ wiipport fif 
*lovemmcnt, in the first year of PrejiiJout \V»iJiliin^lr#ii*"i 
ndministralion. Whaefcr will carefully ri»ft<I that li«i of 
H;atbt-ho«w», with tho rriAr^irml nolen^ ^Ul f^K tin hlm^ iiot 
easily to bo drrivL'tl frcmi any oth«?r notirr-i', td' i\w vnni ot»aitt- 
wbe reach of thin country, and iho extont of it« maritime 
resourocis. I think he will alwi get iw^uno ni?w vii^wn of thn 
bcricfiocnt operations of that linili'd Government, which em* 
lirnco it all in one jurisfliction, and which n»ovc« almiR thn 
coasts of cither oeoan, of the Mexican Gulf, and the great in- 
land seas, stufltiing their head lands, and marking their whoala 
and reefs, with tliese benefiet^nt stnietiires. 

As there is ftcarco any such thing an unmixed good, even 
the multipliciition of light-hoiisea has lis dangers. They may 
sometimes l>e eonfonnded 'with each other, and so brtray a 
vessel into the very danger they were intended to point out. 
I onoe hc-ard a pilot say there were too many light-honsea on 
Long Island Sounds Ho probably would have found it diOl. 
rult to name any one which he would wish to take away j 
certainly not if he. had occasion to make the port or incur the 
risk, on acfxmnt of wdiich it was built. The resources of 
modern art have been very successfully applied in contriving 
arrangements by which li^djt-houses may readily be distrimi- 
njited, and, if the expectations which liave been formed of the 
Fitzmauricc light should not be disappointed, an artificial day 
may yet be produced along the whole eaftent of the coast of 
Long Island Sound, 

1 was, on one occasion, the near witness and almost tho 
victim of the dangers attunding the confounding of light-houses 
as you near the land. On ray first visit to Europe, in the 
spring of 1815, in a sailing vessel of three hundred and fifty 
tons, which was thought a sizeable ship in those days, we were 
in greater danger from the time we approached the Irish and 
Welsh coast, than in any other part of the voyage. Tho 


weather was so thick that we could not see tlio ship's length 
before us, and the wmd blew us strongly on a lee shore, which 
we did not at first know to l>e such, having had no observa- 
tion for a day or two. The first land we made was an islaiid, 
with a light-houae upon it. When the Dght-honse was first 
descried through tlie haze, we took it tor a vessel, and steered 
directly for it. It was apparently not above two miles off. 
Presently the man at the must-head cried out, with a frightful 
voiee, " A Light-house. Breakers I " Our captain was led 
by his reckoning to think it Avas Waterford liglit, and sup- 
prjsod that we were driving on the Irish coast. The ship was 
immediately forced to starboard, to weather the supposed 
point on the coast of Ireland. In a moment the Captain cried 
with a yell and an oath, which I have never forgotten, " It^a 
Small's,'^— a light-house on the Wulsh coast. We were driv* 
ing head-on toward the breakers. The ship, which in another 
moment would have struck, was put about; we passed the 
light-house on the right in safety^ut at a very short distance, 

, and within full sight and hearing of the awful breakers we 
bad so narrowly escaped ! 

Minot's Ledge or Minot*s Rocks, form one of the most 
dangerous points on our north-eastern coast. They lie off 

^Cohasset, ii^ the State of ifassachusclts, seventeen miles south- 
c^ist from Boston, W^ithin thirty years and principally within 
fit\een years prior to 1848^ ten ships, fourteen brigs, sixteen 
schooners, and three sloops struck on these dangerous rocks, 
and of these forty-three vessels, twenty-seven were total 
losses. The outer rock is f^Drty-eight feet long and thirty-six 
feet broad, at mean low*water leveL It being deemed impos- 
ible to construct at a moderate cost a light-house of solid 
masonry on such a rock, exposed to the full sweep of the At^ 
lantiCv, it was determined to erect a screw-pile iron light-house, 
on a plan which liad been successfully adopted on other points 
of our coast, and in Euroj>e. This was done at small expense 
and under a skilful engineer between 1847 and 1840. Either, 


however, from sonio suspicion of want of solidity in the rock, 
into which tho iron piles were bolted, or the impossibility of 
resisting a column of water, driven with such tremendous 
It^verage under tlie floor of the lantern, it soon began to he 
doubted whether the structure wonld stand. A letter 'viTitten 
At the light-house by the keeper, after the gale of Dec4?ml>er 
1850, gives a fearful description of its eflfect upc^ii the building. 

"At intervals," eay a he, "an appalling &tillnc8S prevaile, creating au 
ioconcciirabic dread, each gazing witb brcatldcss cniotlou oo tbo other ; 
but the next inomeiit the deep roar of another roller ia heard, seewiing 
afl if it would tear up the very rocks bcoeath, as it burst upon us. The 
light-house quivering aod trembling to its fery centre, recovers itself 
just in time to breaat the fnrj of another aod another ivave^ as thej roll 
in upon ma with reaifltteofl force.'* 

The same letter says, " tho Northern part of tho founda- 
tion is split, and the light-house rocks at legist two feet each 
way." )M^ ^ 

On the 16th April; 1851^ a terrible storm swept the 
coast of New England, In the afternoon the light-house on 
Minot's Ledge was last seen from tlie shore ; at eleven 
o'clock at night the fog-bell was heard between the fearfu! 
pauses of the tempest; no light was seen in it that night; 
and in the morning its broken fragments, scattered on tho 
shore, proclaimed the fate of the ill-starred structure, and of 
the two unfortumito keepers, Joseph Wilson and Joseph 
Antonio, who were lost in iL The iron piles had remained 
firm in their beds, but had been bent and snapped about six 
feet from the rock ; and the lantern, after having fallen to an 
inclination of about twenty degrees, thus presenting its floor- 
ing to the rushing waves, seemed to have been driven forward 
with a force that tore the piles asunder. 

After the disastrous result of the experiment of tho screw- 
pile light-house, nothing remained but to build a tower of 
solid masonry, at whatever cost. The work was projected 



by General Tot ten, tin? aoeompFishcd head of the Department 
of Engineers, and its execution cr»nfuled to Captain B. S. 
AlaxiUider, who ha<l already given satisfaotory proofs of his 
ability as a constructing engineer. The tower is now in 
progress of successful erection, a cone thirty feet in iliametOirJ 
at the base, to be seventeen feet and a half at t<»p ; ninety foot* 
liigh, the lower forty feet to be solid. The greatest difbculty 
has been in forming the iiumdation pit in the rock, which was 
to be cut down two or three levels, and the whole circle of 
thirty feet finely hammered. To give greater solidity to the 
work the levels are ftistcncd to each other by galvanized iron 
boltSj and the solid masses of hewn granite dovetailed and 
cemented together. " On Tuesday morning, the first day of 
July, 1855/^ said Capt. Alexander last October, ^^just as the 
sun tipped the wings of the seagull, as it took its flight over 
the wave, we struck onr first blow on the Minot. The fij-st 
year wc worked upon it 130 hours; in 185(>, 157 hours; In 
1857, 130 hours and 21 minutes; in 1B58, to September 30th 
208 houi*s, — in all 625 hours 21 minutes," As the work ad- 
vances in height al>ovc the level of the tide, it will of course 
admit of a full day's work ; and Captain Alexander expressed 
the opinion last October, tliat if no unforeseen cause of delny 
occurred, it might bo finislicd in two ycjxrs. It will w^hen 
completed take rank with the Eddystone and Skerryvore as a 
piece of fearless engineering. 

Among the ingenious devices for distinguishing light- 
houses from each other, where there is any dangor of confu- 
sion, are the arrangements, to which I have already alluded, 
for revolving, eclipsing, flashing, and intermittent light 
w^hieb, with tlie addition of white and red color, are capable 
of almost indelinito variety* A more pleasing spectacle is 
not to be seen on ea-rth than a revolving or intermittent light, 
which disappears for a few seconds ; then sparkles w liite or 
red ; beams out gradually to its full illnmination ; wanes and 
disappears but to return ; seen of a moonless night upon 


8omo lonely promontory which rears its grim buttresses from 
the moaning waters, and enabling the homeward bound vessel 
to thread its way to its destined port through narrow channels 
and roaring breakers, regardless of the tempest ready to burst 
from the overhanging cloud. Such an eclipsing light, seen 
during the contemplative watches of a sleepless night on the 
8th of July, 1855, suggested the following lines : 


Via Crucis, Via Lucis. 

It goes in and comes out, now it fades, now is bright, 

And it gnidcs by its darkness, as well as its light. 

So a word fitly spoken is potent to teach, 

But silence sometimes talketh better than speech. 

Force winneth the battle, force drivcth the throng, 

But patient endurance, through weakness, is strong. 

A gay sparkling glance is right joyous to see. 

But a deep thoughtful eye hath more witchery for me. 

The king rules his realm by a word, by a whim. 

But the babe that canH speak,* from his cradle, rules him. 

So the pride of this life treads the path of renown. 

But the way of the Cross is the way of the Crown. 

* Written shortly after the birth of the Prince Imperial of Franceii 



^' .. iT.r' a<i ..t •.«%* t ^ t:: 

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■f . ;: ■■*!.■•■ iftiiii-.ft] IJ- ui'i'if'. I .i ..' :: 

III if"''i".pi ■-.• ■ n -dii:, i"*v.».". iitir — ri-i-f-.f ; ,= ^ . •,.-.. 

*»' ■••;»' . ■>,.;.■.--. M;;i:.. i IH?.- * !! :.."- :.." -.1;. : v\i- 

•••111'* .\'.'»' ••— |ii"| *.MT'.T".i'.i .' :;;.l ilWI".!^.!'.' »1. • t' if I'Jl'i'- L 

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l;if.ii" ii: "11* ■;■'•'■ ;?:ii "•i'i-V'Jjm'i: : v iiivi. ii :ii« ntl v i-ii. 

iii-.».-t ; »■».» Ml- ■■■•■-, II '],' .■',. .v" -I I •.ii''-Uti:i i-r 

iwiii '.Mhi'Mi ii • !• i III jii* •■it-*'.r ii« i::Ji— I- t !i ii;. • ^w.i i 
(iiiti;!ir:'*' •»' :ii* ;rn:i»!*.*" iii«'. •""• i" »ii »'."1 « Ki"] ii 

IfMnt.i'MK y •"U'.l. •■•'irj* 'Ti:' '.».".!"' IIH? ii «v ••• "..". li* I ;ini', 

llli(i»" I l"»Mii» uii'. "Mlii^illli w» •;r:Tl. Mi* "'■ii -Ui"* l' "H* 

\ti6i?ti: uiic '.ill* 'V III* iii-.'^r jr'V'Hii UiHumii'M :»' !Lir:n»*- 
Tim }rjn:u\n m iLli*?t ivr f.i»^; ; vurt ii uu Hi m: difiiriul: 


times, — ^in a period of general political disorganization, and in 
direct collision with the great military genius of the age, of 
whom more and longer than any other individual he was the 
direct antagonist. All this, in the ordinary estimate of human 
endowment and performance, must be admitted to make a 
man illustrious ; and yet I should be ashamed to class him 
with the great intellectual princes who have enlarged the 
bounds of human knowledge ; who have traced the pathways 
of Providence in the fortunes of nations ; who have discov- 
ered new worlds in the depths of the heavens ; or like Hum- 
boldt have ruled with serene mastery over the whole empire 
of science. 

Some things, however, may be said to the honor of Met- 
tcmich's genius and career, although his character is one with 
which I have no sympathy. In an age when every thing 
bowed to the supremacy of the sword, and single battles 
decided the fate of Empires ; — when men rose from the ranks 
and shook the world; — Mettemich attained the elevation 
which I have described, without the prestige of military repu- 
tation. I am not aware that he ever held any rank in the 
army ; he certainly never served. He rose with fair but not 
commanding advantages of birth, under the most intensely 
aristocratic government in Europe, by the force of talent, 
education, manners, untiring industry, and a resolute purpose. 
I do not deny that first and last he had many adventitious 
aids, as he had some drawbacks ; but, in an age in which, in 
almost every country, England not excepted, the greatest 
soldier was the greatest man, Mettemich's undisputed ascen- 
dancy was earned not in the field but in the cabinet. 

It may also be said to the credit of Mettemich, that, 
though his principles of government were those of unmiti- 
gated despotism, — the exercise of sheer power, — there does 
not seem to have been any thing tyrannical and still less any 
thing blood-thirsty in his nature. He started with the princi- 
ple of the Right Divine. lie interpreted Dei Gratia lite- 



rally ;■ — he was a strict constructionist of the Btraitest sect m 
that school. But luaviiif^ laid down this the*j>ry of government^ 
and practically plncid ids adoimistration on this plutfurra, 
he studied tlic good of the subjc^ct. lie would not, it Is true, 
allow hirn to study his own good, by any intermeddling with 
public afTairs, He enforced a severe censorship over the 
press ; he annihilated politic^'il journalism j he shut out all 
foreign literatnre, wiiich he deemed dangerous to Church or 
State, with greater jealousy than he did the plague^ — for you 
could enter Austria fr*>!ii Smyrna or Alexandria after a rea* 
Bontible cptarantine, bnt there was no quarantine for a pesti- 
lential volume. But the highways, as I know fiiom experience, 
were safe in the loneliest passes of the Carpathians, — private 
justice, when no reasons of State interfered, and although a 
little apt to get buried under a cartload of written pleadings,, 
(bnt that is the fault not of the government but of the code,) 
was faithfullyj if not promptly, administered ; common schools 
wore encouraged^ scientific institutions and scientific researches 
patronized, and, in a word, the material well being of the pco* 
pie was eared for. 

In his person, Prince Metternieh was a man of courbeoua - 
manners, and temperate and mdustrious habits, — a hard 
worker, a patron of art, a collector of books, paintings, and 
statuary, a lover of music, a hospitable and genial host. 
With every thing to turn his head and harden his heart, bo 
was, individually, what may be called an unaffected, honor- 
able, and amiable man, "Wielding for forty years absolute 
power under weak princes, — reminding you of the ^layors of 
the palace in the early French Monarchy, under the reign gf 
, the inMenmti (silly) Kings, there are probably few rulers to 
whose door less wanton cruelty can be laid,^ — at any rate less 
shedding of blood. 

His government of Lorabardy and Venice may be thought 
to furnish an exception to this remark ; it was no doubt an 
iron rule, but this only in one respect, viz. : that all political 



action and word were forbitMen under the severest penalties, 
enforced bj a military poliee and an unrelenting criniiual 
code-, Hoarding the Austrian power not aa established and 
acecptc^l, but simply as eneannpc^l in Lombardy, every thing 
that looked like the manifestation of disafFection, or even open 
opposition to the government was regarded, not merely as dan- 
gerous, but as treasonable, and as siieh repressed. But there 
was some show of moderation even here. Men were not 
taken o«t of their beds and shot, nor lilown away from the 
mouth of eannons ; but they were sent to the Piombi of 
Venice and to the Spielberg in Moravia. 

I made the acquaintance of Silvio Pellieo at Milan in 
1819, and of some of his liberal friends. They were just •com- 
mencing the publication of a political journal, which they 
called the " Conciliatore,^* which means in kalian pretty much 
what it means in English. To an American it seemed a 
remarkably milk-and-water concern. It had the fault, hap- 
pily almost unknown in this country, of discussing political 
questions with good temper, and confuting your adversary 
without calling him hard namef*. lu short, it might be called 
tame. In the few numbers which had come out at that time, 
I did not see the Italian equivalents of the expressive epithets 
of " hypocrite," " coward," *^ swindler," or *' liar " applied to 
a single official from the throne to the police station, Tlie 
Emperor was not even called a ** fool," nor the vice-regal 
Archduke a " tyrant." It is plain that poor Silvio and his 
associates had very little idea of thr beauty of a free press ; 
and they suffered accordingly. Like all *^ conciliators " be- 
tween the extremes of opinion, they pleased the ultraists of 
neither party, Tliose who sought the emancipation of Italy at 
the point of the dagger, disdained their moderation ; while the 
Public Prosecutor looked upon it as a mere pretext to insin- 
uate the treason which they dared not openly teach. I 
deemed it an act of kitidness to intituate these views to the 
conductors of the Conciliaiere^ and half in jest told Silvio, 

^mj t uf ^ .>irf.;MVf m r* v« ' nmvm t'* if Mm, r :!3m i0iiiB-f«mBiiHL 

-V *}" - - <-->?; t^ .-'*./• '!' Vrf^l^zaoiu-A sd Xrerrr 
•»*• ?^." ^,-'- ' ■:• c*... n >-. ir — -w :ul !■• J 

>(i#tir.2 -jT-r.-r-- -rrorop -ai vrnr "lifr Tjr.zrM« ini -cjstrr -fat 

•T*t-*-p oY/i -h^ .'MvL 'n»?r "»Taiirr sad -snTsx^rh ■»???»»• bDe- "n 
Um *n#fn!;.' vwi -art. tad 'o 3r*ri«ii laimaua, !?•» mt, I thd- 
pWK, /h' «ir Mry. ttII 30W >i4au* m Axucrian MiixiscEz- ir 
Vi niiip tiwf .7i«rrii if Xapoiem -lie Firet :«i LTaiTViMl 
^VanrSnff aia litprrnr -iniorrB -3* i^ m iKuSteav jb 

w #ip#y>r^ rhat *ti^ trnjuriMi. -vtinw* •xtinf-rirf.n -rw iie \-«n- 
«l«Mi or h'm mPOKmr, -ihoiilii Mwuraem -Trttunit .1 ^cmme ji 
'Inoffn. Had Mtttemicfr bem aa Ufanal in ma 



principles of administration, and as regardliil of the " nation- 
olititjs " as Kossutli himself, it could not be expected of an 
AustriaB Minister to lie down in the dust before the chariot 
wheels of a foreign conqueror. That he should, as the Aus- 
trian represent-ative to the rrench Inipt'rial Court, endeavor 
to mislead Napoleon as to his own ft- elings and tho policy of 
his government, is certainly not to ha justified by the rules of 
a severe morality, whieJi makes the truth on all oecaaions the 
first duty of governments and of men. But it could hardly 
be expected of tho envoy of the weaker and tlie menaced 
government, pitted against the most consummate diplomatic 
finesse, backed by the most overwhelmmg military power in 
modern history, to practice upon the rules of Roman or 
ChrLstian virtue. There is a proverb which need not be re- 
peated, relative to the length of the spoon, which it is con* 
v en lent to use, Avhen you sup with a personage who shall be 
nameless. A similar precaution will not be severely blamed 
by the charitable, on the part of the foreign minister, com- 
pelled to cope with M, de Talleyrand, 

An anecdote is reiu-ted by Alison, on tlie authority of 
Capefigue, of which the authenticity may bo doubted. It is 
to this effect, that when M, de Mettemich was at fii*st ao 
credited to tho French Court, Napoleon remarked to him, 
*^ you are very young to represent so powerful a monarchy." 
His reply is said to have been, " Your Majesty was not older 
at Aiisterlitz.- ' As Napoleon himself was at the moment but 
lMrty*sevcn, and had been for several years at the head of tlie 
French government, it does not seem probable that he should 
have thought thirty-three very young for an Austrian Minis- 
ter, The reply ascribed to Mettcrnich is still less likely to 
have been made. Such an allusion to a battle, in which tho 
armies of his country were defeated, and the Sovereign he 
represented was humiliated, never passed the lips of a patriot 
or a gentleman, and Mcttermeh was both. It is one of the 

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CluUi^ iiijO arlv'-tivfir II > tliA; WCtX^: Ot li W(/n<.li;^ aillUtlKHi. ]; 

lliiiiiHi^ Uj tfti|*4tt^ till; 4ivi«tftl\ 1/1. tiM it.'iufnairt nivuiti«« o} 

j^4«f|/i iu Mtittcd K •' J/iirViftlUt * |iUniM51. lO UW. ilMb UWll CX- 

' jtelt^ itHHt^fift ^iai,*^ut} t^tfm*9tf ^ *wri1U«l lu MiiUii» Conrmttt, Euib gf 
JMU«4 ||ii*««|i 4lti 111, ft>liA Auatfltt. ttub*-. 

'' ^{fjy y »it«. Ili«»ii. Aii«««lii. wirtl tin- llinmi:. 
MmHP<ih tiaii ^mmmh ^ ir«m» tlilaw an won.** 


preation, selected for her amiable personal qualities, to his 
imperial throne. 

From the downfall of Napoloon, Metternidi ruled Austria 
under her nominal Sovereigns, fur thirty-three years. He it 
was who, availing himself of the religious mysticism which 
had taken possession of the Emperor Alexander of Russia, 
projected, with that monarch, the Holy Alliance. At the 
great European Congresses which were held under its aus- 
pices at Aix la Chapelle, Laybach, and Verona, he was the 
great representative of the political syst^mi of the three abso- 
lute governments of the North and Enst of Europe. Ho 
took to himself the credit of having, muinly by his skill and 
firmness, stiiid the advances of what he called rtnolutlonary 
ideas, but what the enlightened masses of tho civilized world 
regard as progress and reform. Ho had somo reason to look 
upon the fruit of his labors with complacency, for tt) all ap- 
pearance they IukI been suc<'essful. Every revolutionary 
movement in Italy, from Lago Maggiore to Calabria, had 
been crushed; and though France and Hpain had mlopted 
liberal institutions, those powers were neitlier of them in a 
condition to set on foot a dangerous propiigandism in foreign 
States. In Russia, Prussia, and his own Austria his system 
reigned. The territorial arrangements of the (ireat Captain, 
with whom he had waged so fearful a struggle had, for the 
most part, proved transitory, and while every Sovereign who 
had ruled when the Congress of Vleima wos in sesnion, and 
almost all his colleagues and ossoeiati'S had disappcMired from 
the stage, he was still in the possc^ssion of his faculties, hia 
power, and his honors. — lie is said, however, to have felt 
that the ground beneath his feet was hollow. Ho had chained 
the tempest but he heard it roaring in its caverns. It is con- 
stantly told of him, that ho was accustomed to say *' things 
will last as long as I do, — but after me the delug«\'' The 
delugo burst before he expected it. Tlie rains deseendtMl, and 
the floods came, and the winds blew. They prostrated his 



gj ^ vernment^ his sj^stem, and his far times* Ho reluctantly 
yielded up the seals of oilieo to Ms Imperial master, who cow- 
eored before the risiag storm ; and viMle the rabble of Vienna 
was ■«>^^^»g his princely resideince, and madly scat te ring 
gilded furniture and priceless works of art in fragments ovt^r 
his trampled lawnfly he fled fur kid iile to Eugkad. "Bm 
Muge sub8ided,and he retained to Ids eetates and his heii0r% 
but never more to the pon a bflBi oti of poirar. He eigayoi, 
li0weyeir> some yearn of tranquil retirement^ eonaalt^ Igr J 
iBoeessora and happy in hia dtfUbreii, and died be&ure hia 1 
eyea were again pdned by the sight, vith which dbey had 
aa^iften been sadly teoiUary the inai^liiratloii ^of i 
mendoua era of Austrian CUaMty, 



IdsUugca or an OYCimlmg l^rMenoe in Uw Um of tllaUngtiisbed mrn, toid «iga&1ly 
in Uie Utt* of Washington— HIb brother Lftwrfinc4; an oJllccr In the cxpecliiion un- 
der Adrnlml Vernon AgilnAt CarlhnfteQ&^FliiQ for ptnclng Oeorge In tbo Brltiah 
Kavy, and a mldaJblpman's wnnant |trocurod— IU» mother oppoRos tb« pUD^ and 
it is nbuidoned — AecoinpAQlcfl hb brother to Burb^doca at tbo Age of nineteen and 
tiJcM Uw »mall-jx)s— Terrific uaturo of that disease bofure the* dUcovury of V*c- 
efasttoab—ApitcarB fa th« American Aruix in 1~'& and arierwardir— Great dABg«n 
t« which Wa&hiogtoa WAS expoMd on liLs miislon to Y^iuuigo — Ifoxards of an ex- 
cnralon at that time in thu dlstrlcLs occnpied by Ibe Indians— Their cmeltiis*— 
Narrow escape of Waahliigloa on the natara — Condudlng reiilcction. 

In the biographies of distinguished persons^ we sometimes 
read the accouiit of very narrow esciii>cs from great dangers, 
or of incidents not seemingly very important at the time, but 
on whi<}h it appears in the sequel that the wh*:)le course of 
after life depended* Such escapes and such incidents irresist- 
ibly lead the mind to acknowledge a controlling Power, which 
watches over great and precious live^, and shapes the course 
of otherwise unimportant events to the accomplishment of 
momentous results. Modern Philosophy, I am aware, dis- 
dains these inferences, and prefers to see iii these, as in all 
else that happens in the world, nothing but a blind fate or a 
mechanical necessity ; as if that system did not present equal 
difficulties as a philosophical theory, while it extinguishes the 
light of an overruling Providence in the world ; without 
which our life is a weary and cheerless pilgrimage* 

1 know no person in whose life these narrow escapes and 


. - >^j.. ■■. —J.' J f*.-,"i^' .....-^1 iX*.>"r^ 

• . . - --i*.-. .'--*«. r. . . . tafc . 1:= 

•■.-.». . .— r.t- *T.-**t:j.? .-^ . i-ir affir. 

.. f ' ' -<■ '- ."- .^. kt >ul . ■. : •■..■I. • ' 

• ^. « •• '.*: •'?•?.: •-: . • l.i^r 

.^« . » 1*1.*. ■ Ml* »>E«. ■ itm€kti'..:^.m< I.' :*: •^L Im*:!. - 

..•.I ■ »■ < »f I .. • ' . ■■•-■■ !■-* C'-- •* 1 \iiw 

.'• t . .-,._.^.. I., f:;^.-- 

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•^■....-. i ■• .. ,'..»*. «... .^.\ 'Li. ". rf*..'. 1 ".i! 

.-^:..'.^ *^",.. -r ■.(»** ...■.^•- .. 1 ""'T' O.-.m 
. ^. -. ■ , '1 ' ■ .1 .. • . . ".-•■. 

' . f . * ..,-.. X^^^'fi ■-"*'■ - /tit'-" ' 

, -^. .- ....... .-x i' *KiiiatfI'X «.•« '. r-^ .. 

-■.-... .'.s •,. \^' l.fl. ■.• \in :. ■ ". I» . ;■.! 

♦.*'#.* l.*i '..1. .I./'..- I.;. *!.• i;i '»."■•■ w" 

! .: .. *.... '.I '/. .. .r. r. ii..i . iij.f 1...- 
. .: .t...- f' \,t •■ ., .Ill ii.. -.-Tiiljij': k-\i'.* 1 ii 

I'. »...• '««i f»:^^.'; M* Hi.- niij*»r'|ifr>. 

.« .....4^ }#>:«./>(i«i •#i,o|u<^iikl^«tijS'« *r'l*.l '.II* 'all!liirkl.. 

.'.^ .s„,^t.i tj ..I '.iia t'*\ti 'iL.-ur» •■•nr 'V.Ji^Uf "-!".» I 

„ ■ f. ......J ■.#./. «.i* "lin *•».<■-■ i.'. iit*»;l l»^^ *.!«. 

■ i'- If'. !. : '^, .^,^ ... yt,^ .,♦ ',».^i^:^,i jjuv*>iii»> 

9t 1 • ■ f. ^ / *< -.i'w. ••• -ji** *:./»< v' .u* «t«4(.ii« jKlto* t W lUr 


name of Morvr Vebvoit, In honor of the popular naval hero 
undcfr whom he had narved. 

It vran natural that th^ffte circumstances should make the 
naval fterviee of Grf^at Britain a familiar subject of conversa- 
tion in the family circle ; and tliat George, then a boy under 
fourteen, being a frequent rcftidcnt at Mount Vernon, should 
liave his juvenile imagination kindled with the tales of naval 
prowess and glory, which were so often repeated in his pres- 
emx^ it is not known whether the idea of entering upon that 
carwr originatfid with hims^^lf or was suggested by his brother 
and other fricndn. At all events a Midshipman's warrant 
was ohtairKMl for hirii, and it is even said, that his clothes 
were pa^rked to go on Inward ship. His mother alone never 
cordially ajiprovexl the plan, and her misgivings increased as 
the time for putting it in execution drew near. Mr. Sparks 
quotes a letter from Mr. Jm-kson, a friend of the family, ap- 
parently written from Fredericksburg to Captain Lawrence 
Washington at Mount Venion, in which ho says : 

'* I am afraid Mra. Waahiogton wiU not keep up to her first resolution. 
Hhe fjC'cniH to dihUkc* (vcorgc^H going to sea, and says several persons have 
told her it waH a bad scheme. She offers several trifling objections, such 
as fond, unthinking mothers habitually suggest ; and I find that one word 
against his going has more weight than ten for it." 

She persevered in her opposition, and the project was 
abandoned. Had Washington at the age of fourteen entered 
the navy of Great Britain, then engaged in the war of 1744 
with France, as soon afterwards in that of 1756, one of two 
things would unquestionably have happened. He would 
either have fallen a victim to the hardships and exposures of 
the service, or he would have lived and grown up an officer 
— no doubt a gallant and distinguished one — in the British 
Navy. 1 cannot therefore but regard the abandonment of this 
plan, when it was on the point of being consummated, and in 
consequence of the mother's opposition, as an occurrence in 

*I#H- .i4Uf*fv u v . . wfiMm %nii0ttUiiigL..i 

t^;i»VMmif«it^ .liim- Tiffn Mttii^t :lur SifltnMttvft m iiK jumtb 
'«f.^4}n^tmiV0f.,in^X flUfi mxiwec inert n. isvt «PiaiBb,<£aHnpr 

ifiniMilf -tii^ lAin tw wi >«n» ti9 ii^. St: jw flOBivabr iiaoi b 
iiftiiii^u. 11 tM idjaiic n««n. i«. ww tftwo»fii -vrxtL nuoL vol 
Mi "-tiii umum «vi»; * Tim ittui'ji -wi^ •ecven;. bic «uliiL 
iitM(}i«;iii ittwtiiitifMA uiil- -tiM. umuuutiivt uf jut tmituer ant 
4iej»tuut v^iA-k tftiWArtltu. Jit tvAtv^mst hi huwh imat^wwiiKEk. 
W- u* liuuvk^K- iilii:it? tiitt'*i»t \t' tm UiN^jBM iiR TBK urii» iik. 

"int^f -tiiu^ iii«jjti«.ir i» tnii \ff LoniijttsuttvsMr litib imiMiijiiiiuiH 
^>inf4riitft*.ii «t lit tiH MliTiiijr v^'^nrtt^ uT 9i» auQdanr «ii£ j*uli&- 
^>*sm*for. ti toittlM tmnitfw juutmb. But it suin' ut uouined 

iHMsubitUMii iiiv& ttiy^M»«I]^ jnOiiMiCL i^iff b ifinrt- uf ttfiTac 

MIm; ittmaw^ iw 4h; iaivM -viuuL Ja -tswiwd uid tbt diBmi^ 
fritidb it JmfinA Wioweofior it SffifarBd. JiiQ 'Ant nm^aAj^ 
f$fihAm tad m ^mttiAsntmAvm. hr tibt joimg and lin' fiiir 
lktMP4MMii«l iHmi^ liyiti <k«aL : to vnrrjvf: ii -rii^ fettoiw, 

MT^ ft Mfffai «# 4«iD <g«v«fef4rL <jf tiKMK viMsn it ^ 




tions. If it entered an army, it was a foe more to be dreaded 
than embattled hosts ; if it broke out Ui a populous city, 
those who ootihl not fly were decimated. So frightfully con- 
tagious was it, that no attendance could be procured for the 
ftufTerer, except from those who had passed the orde<aJ, 

But fearful as this malady was, in the extent of its ravages, 
it belongs to that class of diseases of whichj by a mysterious 
law of our nature, our frames are, generally speaking, suscep- 
tible but once. Of those who survived it, it has been calcu- 
lated that the proportion to whom a second attack proved 
fatal, was, under the most favorable circumstances, but one 
in seventy^fivc. This rcrluced it far below the level of many 
other diseases as an object of alarm ; and in diminisliing its 
terrors, diminished In the same proportion one of its most 
disastrous eifeets. 

Thus it came to pass that, in the morning of his days, by 
a visitation which was at the time of the most alarming char- 
acter, Washington became (humaidy speaking) safe from all 
future danger from this most formidable disease. The war 
of the Kc volution had hardly begun before the importance of 
this circumstance was apparent. The small pox broke out 
among the British soldiery in Bostonj in the autumn of 1775 ; 
and reports were brought to General Washington, (which ho 
charitably discredited,) that it was intended by the enemy to 
communicate it, by means of those who left the city, to the 
American Army. It did make its appearance outside the linea 
of ciretimvsllation, and as a measure of precaution, the soldiers 
of the besieging army were inoculated* At this time, how- 
ever, that practice was still viewed by many Avith dislike ; 
and the fear of the disease, either by natural or artificial con- 
tagion, was one great cause which discouraged enlistments. 
ft prevailed in the army in Canada, (where Major-Gencral 
Thomas, of Massachusetts, died of it the next spring ;) at Ti- 
eonderoga j and in 1777, at Morristown. On tliis hist ooca* 
8ion of its appearance, Washington remarked in a letter to 

**b»rj«_-i : vjr ' 


■. . ^ ' -. :•.'.._, :ij:j jL u^ik £-1.- — -- 

<*♦/!/ ut*rtt itt'Am. In lT#Vi a. i-/:'/r <r^:r;i*a;t Tis s^i-i-t*! I*> the 
l/«f.'>:rMcMi #/^ >y/f'l«rf minUr*:, uj xk^ t&jtVk of like Provjocial 



governments both of France and England to secure the co- 
operation of the natives in the approaching struggle. It is 
scarcely necessary to say to those who are familiar with the 
dark accounts and traditions of Indian warfare, what this co- 
operation implied. The native races, not yet broken by the 
power nor enervated by the contact of the dominant races, 
still practised those revolting cruelties on their prisoners, 
which cannot be read without sickening hoiTor. After Brad- 
dock's defeat — two years later than General Washington's 
journey to Venango, the English soldiers who surrendered 
themselves as prisoners, were, within sight and hearing of 
Fort Duquesne, made to undergo at the stake for hours, the 
most exquisite tortures which the human frame could sup- 
port, or savage ingenuity inflict. Such were the perils to 
which Washington was exposed, in voluntarily undertaking 
this dangerous expedition. Traders from the Anglo-American 
settlements had already been made prisoners, in some cases 
sent to France, in some, it was said, put to death in the wil- 
derness, where a life more or less, even in time of peace, was 
of little account. 

Having fulfilled his mission, and fearing that sinister in- 
fluences might be exerted over the Indians on his return, he 
was compelled to accelerate his departure. As he traversed 
the woods with his pack on his back, attended by a single 
companion, their treacherous savage guide at night-fall turned, 
and at a distance of fifteen paces, fired but without result, at 
Washington and his companion. Escaped from this immi- 
nent peril, but well knowing that the Indians were on their 
trail, they pursued their journey foot-sore for the whole of a 
December night, till thoy reached tlie Alleghany river then 
filled with drift ice. It could be crossed only on a raft which 
thoy labored all day with " one poor hatchet " to construct. 
In attempting to cross the river on this raft, Washington 
while using the setting pole, was thrown with violence into 
the water where it was ten feet deep, and saved his life only 


by dinging to & log. Uimbla to force the raft to eitber shore 
tliqr passed the night, in garmeats which froze to their bodies, 
upon an island in the middle of the streanu TIml tlio miirn- 
i^ found tSiem there, nnaUe to reach the kft hask, the tan*- 
hawk and the scalpkig knife would, in all human prol)abililgr» 
have been their &te. But the cold whidi was so intense 
that Washington's ccnnpa&ioii— har^ woodttun as he wa% 
fioase his feet — ^frose the river between the bland, wheie tfiej 
had passed liie n^, and tlie kft bank of the AScg^^, iii 
at dawn they crossed In safisftjr. 

I have no metaphysics to bandy with those who can rofl^ 
on the career which was in xesenre for WasUngtoii, and wiio 
can see nothing in his escape ttom the rifle ot Us gnlde^ ftim 
capture from the pursuii^ savages, fr<nn imminent dai^;er of 
drowning, and from his unsheltered exposure in frozen gar- 
ments for a livelong December night, but the ordinary ad- 
ventures of a bold young man on the wilderness firontier. I 
see rather in these perils and in these escapes, the hand of 
Providence ; — and hear in them a voice, which in the language 
of the devout poet, announced the high purpose : — 

"To exercise him in the Wilderness : 
There shall he first lay down the mdimentg 
Of his great varfare, ere I send him forth 
To conquer.** 



Bnddock*s expedition in 1755— Waahiogton & volimteer aid— Falls ill on the waj 
and sent back to the reserve— Joins the uraj the day beft»re the engagement— 
Beantiftal scene of war on the morning of tho battle— Sorprise and total de&at of 
Oencral Braddock's armj— GaUimt condnct of Colonel Washington thronghont 
the engagement— Great danger to which he was exposed— Interview with an In- 
dian Chieftain on the Kanawha in 1770— Prediction in 17B6 of his fatare career— 
Beflection by Mr. Sparks— Washington's visit to New York in 1756, where he is 
the gnest of Beverley Bobinson— Makes the acquaintance of Mary PhiUpse— She 
manlet Captain Onne and adheres with her liunily to the royal cause. 

Thb next instance of a Providential interposition in the 
life of Washington, to which I shall allude, took place two 
years later. The mission to Venango, which I mentioned in 
my last Number, was undertaken by direction of the Gover- 
nor of Virginia^ for the purpose of ascertaining the strength 
of the French on the north-western frontier, and their proba- 
ble designs in that quarter. The following year, (1754,) 
though the war was not declared in Europe till 1766, a small 
military force was sent in that direction, under Colonel 
Washington, whidi after some partial success, was forced by 
the greatly superior strength of the enemy to a disastrous 
retreat. It is mentioned by the historians as a striking coin- 
cidence, that he was compelled, under capitulation, to evacuate 
" Fort Necesnty," (so called to indicate the straits to which 
he had been reduced,) on the 4th of July 1754 ;— the day to 
l>e afterwards rendered, and in no small degree by his inesti- 
mable services, forever memorable in the annals of America. 




Such were tho courage, skill, and energy displayed by the 
youthful c^ommaiider iu these trying scenes, that ho came out 
of the campaign not only without reproach bnt with enhanced 

The folk) wing year a great effort w;is made by the mother 
country to repair the disasters of 1754, and to secure an as- 
cendency on the banks of the Ohio j for this was Uie limit of 
Anglo-Amerienn nmbiLion before the seven years* war, Tlie 
wildest imagination had not yet grasped the mighty domain 
wliich stretchea westward to the peaceful ocean and tho set- 
ting sun. Early in the spring of 1755, two regiments of reg- 
ular British troops, commanded by General Braddock, a brave 
and experienced officer, but arrogant, passionate, and self* 
willed, arrived in Virginia, and were moved westward toward 
the passes ilirough the Alleghanies. Colonel Washington had 
retired from tlic army, disgusted by the regulations, which 
gave precedence to officers holding under the royal commis* 
sion over their seniors of the same ranlc in the provincial 
service, thus placing him under those whom ho had com- 
manded in the former campaign. Infliieuced, however, by 
strong attraction toward military life, and animated by fer- 
vent patriotic zeal, he accepted the invitation of General 
Braddock, (to whom he had been matlc known by rcputatioti, 
as the officer of the greatest experience and ability in the pro- 
vincial service,) to join his military tamily as a volunteer aid. 
On the passage through the mountains Colonel Washington 
was attacked by a fever, with such violence that the surgeon 
was alarmed for his life, and the General required him to fall 
back lipon the reserve, which was proceeding slowly with the 
baggage and heavy artillery. To this Washington consented, 
only on condition that he should be all«>wetl to join the main 
body before an engagement. Placed under the care of tlie 
surgeon in a wagon, reduced by disease, and suffering from 
the uneasy motion of tho vehicle, he remained with the re- 
serve two weeks, and was only able to return to Head Quar- 



ters on the 8th of July, tl^e eve of tho battle of the Mononga- 
Jielii, a day disastrous beyond all others in the anuals of 

Weak and exhausted, but strong in the spirit, Washington 
mounted liis horse tho following day. He was often heard to 
say in after life — 

**Tliat tbe moat beatitiful spectacle he hml CTcr beheld was tlie dis- 
play of the Britbh troops on this eventful morning. Every moo was 
neatty dressed in full uniforisi, tUe goldier* were arranged in colimins, 
aud maTchcd iu exact order, — tlio sun gleaincd frum tbcir burnisbed amis, 
llie river flowed tranquilly on their right, and the deep forest OTerabad- 
owed Chera with Eolemn grandeur on the left," • 

The army was within less than fifteen miles of Fort Du* 
quesne, (afterwards Pittsburgh) and confidently expected to 
effect its i'edu€tion in the course of the day. 

Washington, though but one night in camp, had in vain 
besought General Braddock to accept the proffered aid of the 
friendly Indians, and employ them in reeonnoitering tho 
broken and wooded region through which the army was to 
pass, on the way to its destuiation. The advice was disdain- 
fully rejected by tho General, who placed full reliance on the 
discipline and steadiness of King's troops. Unhappily ho 
knew the game of war only as it was practised in those days 
by rules of art, with the regularity of a chess board. Tho 
terrific tactics of the wilderness ; the craek of the rifle from 
the invisible foe; the fearful war-whoop ; the stealthy savage 
creeping on his belly through the thicket up to the saddle 
girths of his startled enemy j the gleaming scalp ing-knife ; 
and the effect of these unexperienced terrors on the imagina- 
tions of European troops were unknown to him. — ^ITis army, 

* This beautlfkl de«cd|}tioii !« tatc6n ffom Mr. Bimrkft* Mfo of WaahLnjrtAn, In tlio 
flfiL Tolume of hla edition of Wmslilngton's writing*. Slnt'O iho appearance of tLb 
InmlDablo work, do one has h&d oenudan to writu or toipeak of Wublniiton^ with- 
out feeling: h[iu««lf iiudcr tbo highest obligtillons to Mr. Sparks A very Intcrostltig 
XDoaogmph oo Braddocks eipedltlon by Winthrop Sirgeot, Esq. appears iinaag ih9 
pabltcAUoDs of tho FeaviitylvaQlii Hiitorlcal Soclotj. 


moor? Txxxoic 

in muBlMiliniint mmsy and in order of baHltty had m tin connn 
of tli» tnonung crosscsd the winding' stream twioe witlnol ne- 
fidelity imd Uie advatiee WMkr Cbkoel Gag^ ( nlU i fnik tke 
la«k Ooloiiial GoTeraor of ManacfcaMda.) was ■ i ^w i 'iiMig tb^ 
foil ek^vmHoii aboTe die mcmkrWy wb^n a sliarp roHer froia 
«i uBsei^ enemr m tlie woods was btianL Fl^s^itlj a I matj 
d tod ttrgo foUowed in firt^nt aad on tike flanks ; thm adfaaced 
MTtj in &Bia/ icU back oa ibe matn bodj biisteniag m^ 
lo tbeir reGief ^ — a iiUrci^ g£ two byndrad FroiGii aaii mx bn^ 
^«d *'*'^^^* (niBnbeca hg- inluior to f\mrm\ of Ika Bntjab 
crBAj) naalttd Avna Iba thidkxi ; Ibe dHBBftjad ngidars fired 
aik fflodom oa friend and fiio ; and after a wild and m gr deroi ia 
oonflkt of ibnee bonra, fled nania siridun fisoon tfce iaid of 

bL tte tbiaikiaBt of tUa i 
aemdk^ to 1^ antimony of n 
wsllfc *^«te grefitaBt cornea wd resoJndonJ 
aids^ Caplsiins Orme and Hotfiap wore iftnaMmf hf ibe^ 
iMwsda^ and bn only r<emtuned to conTej tba ofdera of bia 
mfi^rtenafta «bl6£ ^M expected every momflnt^'* i^d Dt, 
Oaik, bis &tend and physician^ "* to aea him hHU* Of ^gbty- 
ain oAoeis in lb« engaganusia tmmipmM warn kafled^ and 
dtir^r-aavott woondad; and^if Iba yiiwlav abottt twetfa bm- 
4lhed in Qtnnbar^ liie bHlod and woumlud anmmmd to mewmt 
bundTMl and fiynrtoan^ W tbeae muDbers, sogmenled m pro- 
portton to tha sisa of the armiis, are applied to ^ loaaaa 
in tb0 naam a^^lgantents in Lomburiy, it will ba 
i Aai^ In lbi» number of tbo killed and 
wounded, the battlea of Magenta and Solft*rino do not com- 
pare wiib tba avar manomiibi baittia of tbe Mpnoagabela. 



frwttd, Dr. Cnik, 

THfi MOimT VKRNOK PAP^. 339 

of obscrvatioti as far as tho great Kanhawa, and there thi3 
incidont occurred, avouched by Dr. Craik, which I givo in the 
language of Mr. Irviiig : — 

^' Here Waibiiigton was Tkitod by an old SaohGin, who approached 
him with great revurcnco^ at the head of several of bis tribe^ and addressed 
him througb Kicbohion^ tbe luterprotfr. He bnd heard^ he said^ of Ida 
beiDg in that part of tbe country, and had cornt^ from a great dbtrfnco 
to sec bim. On further discourse^ Iho Sachem made known^ that ho was 
one of tbe warriors In the service of the French, who lay in ambush on 
the banks of the Monongabela, and wrought such havoc in Braddock'g 
«rmj. He declared that he aod hi9 jotug mcQ had singled out Wash- 
ington, as he made himself conspicuoud, riding about the field of battle 
with the generars orders, and fired at him repeatedly, bnt n iihout suc- 
cess ; whence they concluded that he was under the protection of the 
Great gpirit| that he had a charmed life, and could not be slain in bat- 

Washington himself, at tho time^ was not imawaro of the 
danger to which he was exposed, nor of the Power by which 
it was averted. In a letter to his brother, he says, " By the 
all-powerful dispensationa of Providence, I have been pro- 
tected beyond all human probability and expectation ; for I 
had four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot tinder 
me, yet I escaped linhurt, although death was levelling my 
companions on every side," His remarkable preservation, 
through the dangers of this dreadful day, attracted general 
notice, and Dr. Daveis, of Virginia, afterwards President of 
Princeton College, in a discourse a few weeks afterwards, be- 
fore a volunteer company of Hanover county, alluded to " that 
heroic youth Col. Washington, whom 1 cannot but hnpe Provi- 
dence has hitherto preserved in so signal a manner for some 
important service to his country." It is doubtful if a mere 
human prediction, inspired by early promise, waa ever bo 
remarkably ftilfdled in after life. It is one of those striking 
cjises where the foresight of a wise man becomes prophecy, 
Tho expedition under Braddock was the most lormidable 



MOCKT %'£l£NOH i'AFJl 

whidi hsd ever been* at- that time, imdertaken in Brttiah 
Ain«ricay and its result spread dbmay tliroughuut the eontl- 
oeaalL It furruBhes a most signal illustration of the paralyzing 
power of Panic, to which I Imve alluded in a former number 
of these papers ; and it brought down upon the ill-fated Com- 
mnnder's grave the bitterest reproaches of his Government 
an J the country. Washington alone, of all in conspiicuous 
stations, came out of the havoe of the day> not only with im- 
tanmheJf but with enhance4 honor ; and a reverent anticipo- 
ticm, as we have seen, of some momentous connection between 
his career, and the fortnnes of the country, took possession of 
the public mind. It is impossible to withhold assent from the 
reflections of Mr, Sparks ; 

*' Controrj to hla will," sajs tliSs Judicioufl writer, '< and In spite of bia 
efTortfi^ he had gathered laurels from the defeat and ruin of others. Had 
tho expedition tieen Fuccessful, thege lnurels would have adorned the 
brow of htn Hiiperjorn. It might have been !?fild of him, that he btd done 
bis duty^ and ftcqulttcd himself honorablj'^ but he conld not have been 
the prominent and single object of public regard ; nor could he bj? » long 
neriea of eomnion eTents, have risen to ro bigb An eminence, or acquired 
in Ao wide a sphere, the admiration and coaiidoDco of the people. For 
himielf, for hi» country and niankind, therefore, thia catastrophe, in up- 
pesranco eo calamitous and so deeply deplored at the time, should uu- 
qucattonabl/ be considered at a wise a»d SKNiricsKT nisrEKSATtoN or 


In a career like Washington's, there is scarce any thing, 
that can he called private life ; hi a domestic relations even 
connect themselves vvitli the public interests, Tiic year after 
BraJdock's defoat. Colonel Washington went to Boston with 
two brother oflicera, from his post on the Virginia and Mary* 
land frontier, to take the decision of Govenior Shirley, the 
recently apfK^inted Cummander-in-Chief of al! the royal forces 
an the Continent, on tlio questions of precedence between the 
Crown and Provmeial olEeers, which continually cmbiurassed 
the service. Going and returning, he was the guest at New 



York of an early friend and sehool-oiatc, Beverley Robinson, 
son of Coloael Julin Robinson, the ♦Speaker of the House of 
Burgesses of Virginia, whose happy compliment to Washing- 
tc»n*3 modesty is so well known. Mr, Beverley Robinson had 
lately married one of the nieces and heiresses of Mr. Adolphus 
Philipse, a great landholder, whose manor-house is still to Ije 
Been on the banks of the Hudson* In the family circle of 
Mr. and Mrs. Robinson, Washington formed tlie acquaintance 
of her sister, Mary Philipse^ a young lady ** whoso personal 
attractions,'* according to Mr. Irving, " arc said to have equalled 
her reputed wealth. ♦ * ♦ Tliat ho was an open admirer of 
this lady, is an historical fact ; that he sought her hand and 
was refused, is traditional and not very probable." His 
public duties hastened his return southward, and Captain 
Morris, his brother aid-de-canip in the battle of the Munon- 
gahela, became his successful rival. These facts are usiially 
mentioned only as a personal anecdote of no great impor- 
tance in the life of Washington ; hut it would not bo extrava- 
gant to ascribe to them an important-, not to say decisive con- 
nection, with his subsequent career. At that time no thought 
of the future ^\Tongs of America and of her conflicts with 
the Mother Country hiid entered the minds of men. Wash- 
ington had been the associate and was the friend of many 
officers in the royal service ; he dcjiiircd and sought employ- 
ment in it himself. In no part of the British dominions was 
the sentiment of loyalty more warndy cherished than in these 
transatlanlic colonies. If then at the ago of tw^enty-five, with 
these predispositions, if he had formed a matrimonial connec- 
tion, such as that in question, with a lady of great personal attrac- 
tions and wealth, already connected by marriage with a friend 
of his youth, is it a reproach to his memory to say, that ho 
too like his successful rival, miii:ht have adhered to the royal 
cause and have beea lost to America 1 Tliat like him when 
the appeal was made to arms he might have gone " horn© " to 



* England t lliere the ladj, I belieye, died as late as 1825, 
having lived to see the young officer, her admirer in youth, 
become the great leader of the American Revolution, the first 
President of the United States, and to survive him twenty-five 



IViUfMngtoii flc«lTCS In eatly Hfo a commlflslon In the Bofal Army — ExclnAton of C^il- 
ontAts fVom promotion In the R07&I ettahllahtnenta — Hlfl t«at0 fbr fnilttury Itft; — 
Hli dMingulshed iervk<;a In Ihe teireii jears^ war attract no uoticia "^ At hotne*"^ 
At ita dck&e, having no hope of advancement, he retinas froni inlUtux Jife— Aflcr 
an tntcrT&l of iieTCiitcen j<>i]irH, rc-nppeara (^omInA^(!e^'lll-chkf of tb<» arrnics at 
UaltcU AmoTlcfi — At the hoUle of Pdncotont WAnhin^oo, In LLn ovrn oplnicm^ ma 
the gredt«flt rt»k ©f hta llto, being botw<?en the ftw of lK9th p«rtloa — CoJon<*l Tmm- 
huWa pIctUTo— Reputation aeqnlrcicl by TToAbiDgtoTi sbroad by the surfjrlse of th© 
lleulana and the battle at Princeton— T«stimoDy of th« hiitntut Botta. 

TffB circumstances which decide the course of events in 
after lifii generally date from early years, and not obtatning 
notoriety at the time, nro afterwards, even in the case of very 
eminent men, lialilo to bo forgotten. It has already been 
seen hy how narrow a chance Washingtoti was in his boy- 
hood prevented from becoming a British naval officer, and 
thus entering a career which would have withdrawn him 
infallibly from the scene of his subsequent service and glory. 
Probably without reference to an j thing but the removal of a 
lad of fourteen years from honae, and to the necessary discom- 
ibrts and dangers of the service, his mother opposed this ar- 
rangement, and in so doing gave to the country the great leailer 
of the Ilevolution, and the iirst President of the United States, 
In like manner, a strong desire and a fixed purpose of hia 
own, formed at a period of life when men become (as far as 



that Is ercr the case) the masters of their ovm destiny, led 

Washington to seek a commission in the Royal army. This 
object^ so long as he remained in active service under the 
provincial govern tnentf during the old Fr^icli war, lie sought 
to effect in everj* way in wliich a young man of merit and 
honor can seek his own advanoement. If ho had sua*eeded, he 
would have followed the fortunes, as he must have shared the 
dangers, of military service ; have fallen in action on some 
hard fijught field in America, Europe, or the East, or have 
risen to distinction in the Britsh army ; and thus, when the 
war of American Independence broke out, have been found, 
not at the head of its newly mustered armies, but in the 
ranks of its veteran enemies. 

Less attention, perhaps, than they merit has been given 
to these early views of Washington, and the steps taken by 
blm to carry them into effect. Accustomed as we are to an 
Independent government^ and to all the consequences which 
flow from itj we do not form a lively eoneeptlon of the state 
of things which existed when the seat of power and the fjun- 
tain of hontir were on the other side of the Atlantic; and when 
the only ordinary channel through which advancement could tie 
sought or obtdncd in the Colonics, was tliat of the Royal 
favorites who were sent out to govern them. This, in fiict, is 
one of the great vices of Colonial rule, wliich unfits it fi>r a 
mature stage of national growth. It was unquestionably an 
active though not an avowed, perhaps not a consciously 
admitted, cause of the disaffection to the mother country, 
which prevailed on this side of the Atlantic, and which termi- 
nated in the separation. The cause of the colonies was, from 
the supposed necessity of the case, argued on narrow grounds. 
Tlie right of the Imperial Parliament to tax America was 
denied, while an unlimited right of commercial regulation was 
admitted, under w hich the trade and navigation of the Colo- 
nies were subjected to the most oppressive restrictions, and 
manufacturing industry placed under the ban. The same 



great and liberal minister, (Lord Cbathann,) wha rejoiced that 
Americii resisted llie acta of Parliament^ wliieh laid a trifling 
duty on tea, woidd not allow the Gjlonics to manufacliire ** a 
hobnail,** and was willing that a water-wheel should be 
abated as a nuisance. The loyal metaphysics of the " Sons 
of Liberty " found a constitutional argument against the tax 
on Colonial imports, but admitted the right, and hardly mur- 
mured against the policy of prohibiting Colonial manufac- 
tures, and restricting the navigation of the Colonies to the 
mother country* But it no doubt was a grievance equally 
felt, if not openly resented, that the paths of promotion, gcni- 
orally speaking, were shut upon the children of the ctjuiitry. 
It was only in exceptional, almost occidental cases, that a 
native could rise in the Royal army or nary, or in the Civil 
administration of the Colonies. Advancement in the Im- 
perial goverament was out of the question, on any other con- 
dition than that of expatriation. All lucrative and honorable 
places in these Colonies, as in all Colonies^ thru as now, 
except so far as wisdom has been learned from experience, 
constituted the appanage of younger sons and the prey of 
needy courtiers. Posts of trust and emolument wore appro- 
priated, not for the purpose of rewarding merit or employing 
talent in the field of service, but to gratify the caprice or to 
consummate the bargains of the minister and his friends* It 
is unhappily but too easy for bad men to get into ofrn?e, even 
when they arc chosen by those who suffer, If they choose 
amiss ; but this penalty furnishes some protection against an 
injudicious or corrupt clioice. To impose by a sheer act of 
power an incompetent or a worthless magiKtrate, on a remote 
community, is at once a wrong and an insult. But this is, 
and almost by necessary operation, the genius of metropoli- 
tan rule over distant colonies. Tlic insolence to the natives, 
of the young men sent out to govern IlinJostan, is said to 
have been an active cause of the revolt, which has but juat 
been suppressed at such hideous sacridce of treasure and lifeu 



Washington's Ustc, as I have said, was for the army ; he 

inherited and early manifested a fondness for military life. 
He had, in an eminent degree, the spirit of Rubordination aad 
command, the physical and roorai courage^ the energy ^ the 
Bystem, the resource, the fortitude tliat never fainted, the 
wariness never surprised^ and, above all, the ascendency over 
his associates, which make the consummate chief* That be 
gained ft;w brilliant victories proves nothing to the contrary 
till it can be shown that, with the materials at his command^ 
and with the odds to which he was opposed, it was possible 
to gain them. The common sense of mankind ia a far 
sounder judge in this respect than the astute strategist. The 
cbieftainy whose reputation rises in the midst of disasters, like 
Washington's in his youth, after the calamitous campaigns of 
1754 and 1755, and who retains the confidence of a bleeding 
country, through years of exhaustion and despondency, may 
well alFord to dispense with the glory which accrues from 
fortunate encounters. The entire series of Napoleon's vic- 
tories docs not reflect greater credit upon his skill as a 
commander, than the retreat from Moscow, which completed 
the loss of the largest and finest army wliich had ever been 
mustered in Europe. 

With this hereditary aptitude for military ser\'ice, Wash- 
ington embraced with eagerness every opening for its pursuit, 
which Colonial life afforded j but this could only raise him to 
the humbler posts. He aooepted, and that before he wa« of 
age^ every opportunity of service witliin the gift of the Colo- 
nial government of Virginia ; and at the age of twenty -one 
undertook a most dangerous mission in the winter, which, as 
he truly says himself, no otlier person could be found to 
acc43pt, and which at the most imminent peril of his life, 
could, if it succeeded, gain him little but the credit of a 
faithiul messenger. It so hapi>ened, that in pedurming the 
humble errand, he had the opportunity of displaying high 
military qualities. His modest diary showed a young man 


of the brightest promise- It was published in London j the 
growing interest attached to the movements of the French on 
the banks of the Ohio gave an unexpected importance to the 
mission and to its narrative ; and it would nndouljledly have 
made the professional fortune of any youthful officer in the 
royal army. It did not earn a compliment for the Virginia 
Major. Hi3 prudence and fortitude, early ripe, won for him 
the following year, notwithstanding its disasters, tlie un* 
bounded confidence of the Colonial govern ment, but they 
attracted no notice " at home/* Braddook came, the most 
self-sufficient of men^ and gave his undivided confidence to 
Washington ; a confidence well repaid on the terrible ninth 
of July. It is evident that the unfortunate general had per- 
ceived the claims of such a man to promotion, on the score of 
policy, if not of justice. Governor Dinwiddie, in a letter to 
the minister, spoke of him as "a man of great merit and 
resolution,- ' and added, *' I am confident that if General Brad- 
dock had survived, he would have recommended him to the 
royal favor, which I beg your interest in re<:om mending/' 
But the only notice earned by his bravery and conduct on 
that fatal day, waa a good-natured rebuke from George U. 
aud an ill-natured sneer from Horace Walpole. — For three 
succeeding years of fruitless appdication to Lord Loudon and 
hia succeagor, he endeavored to obtain a royal commission. 
They asked his advice, followed his counsels, or lived or died 
to lament their rejection of it ; — applied to him, — a provincial 
oolooel,^ — for plans of march and of battle ; yielded to Iiim 
the post of danger when responsibility was to be assumed or 
peril braved ; and left him, where they found him, in the 
Colonial service. Perceiving that all hopes of promotion in 
the British army were vain, and satisfied with the attainment 
of the grejit object of the war in the middle colonies, by the 
capture of Fort Duquesnc and the expulsion of the French 
from the Ohio, he retired from the field, after five years of 
arduous and faithful 3cr\'ice ; the youthful idol of his country- 



THE uoxnsr vERjfON papjb:bs. 

men, but without so much aa a civil word from the fomit4iin 
ot' honor. And so, when, after seventeen years of private 
life, he next appeared in armSj it was as the ** Commander in 
chief of the army of the United Colonies, and of all tlie forces 
now raised, or to be raised, by them." Such was tlie policy 
by wlileh the Horse Guards occasionally saved a major^s 
commission for a fourth son of a Duke ; hy which the Crown 
lost a Continent ; and the people of the United States gained 
a place in the family of nations ! The voice of liistory cries 
aloud to powerful governments, in the administration of their 
colonies, " Discite justitiam moniti."* 

I have thus mentioned six occasions in the early life of 
Washington, of great personal danger, or on wliich his entire 
future career seemed to be suspended on a very narrow 
chance of events, which would have given it a totally ditferent 
complexion. A few years elapse, and he is brought to the 
all-important position for wlijtii, through all these perils and 
by all these preparations, he had been trained by Providencse, 
It would be a highly instructive and not a diflicult task to 
point out ' the parallelism of the two wars, and to show in 
specific instances, how the one served as a school of prepara- 
tion for the other. This would be aside from my present 
purpose, and I close the list of the imminent dangers to 
which the life of Washington was at diflerent times exposed, 
by one uhich, in his owu estimate, was greater than any 

Tlie year 1775 was taken up by the organization of the 
army in Massachusetts j a work, like much winch Washing- 
ton had to perform, of boimdless importance and ditliculty, 
but of no 6cht, The year 1776 opened with the grand ope- 
ration of expelling the royal forces from Boston, without a 
conflietj which W^ashington however intended, if necessary, to 
hazard. This great success was followed by the unfortunate 
battle of Long Island, the loss of New York, the retreat 



through New Jersey. At the^e great reverses, the confident 
began to doubt, the disaffected to exult, and the timid to 
despair. It was then that Washington planned the surprize 
of the three regiments of Hessians at Trenton ; a veteran 
force, commanded by a skilful ofhccr, and trained in the best 
miiitary school of Europe. — Tliis was not certainly an expe- 
dition which any punctilio of military honor required the 
Commander-in-Chief to lead in person ; it was an affair of de- 
tadimints^ which might with propriety have been left to 
subordinates. But the crisis was too momentous for any 
other guidance than his own. On the night of the 25th of 
December, ho threw his little army of twenty -four iiundrcd 
men and twenty small field-pieees across the Delaware, then 
running w ith drift ice, (tlirice as wide as the Mincio in any 
part of its course, where it flows between banks> from the 
Lago di Garda to the Po,) under a storm all the way of snow, 
rain, and hail, ai\d with the weather so cold that two of his 
men froze to death on the marcli, and taking the enemy com- 
pletely by surprise, captured a thousand men. The inability 
of the two otlier detachments to cross the Delaware prevented 
a similar surprise of those portions of the enemy's forco 
which escaped from Trenton, or were stationed lower down. 

Having reorossed the river with his prisoners, he speed- 
ily returned to New Jersey to follow yp his success, and dex- 
terously eluding the greatly superior army of Lord Comwal- 
lis, who had been sent from New York to check his progress, 
and who boasted on the evening of the 2d *^ that he would 
bag t!ic fox in the morning," Washington made a night march 
on Princeton, and there on the 3d of January, engiiged and 
destroyed one regiment, and captured and put to fiight two 
others. It was in this engagement, which torms the subject 
of Trumbuirs noble picture, that for a while he was exposed, 
as he himself told Colonel Trumbull while painting it, to 
greater danger of his life than even at Braddoek's defeat. In 
the heat of the action, the hostile forces were for a short time 




in dose conflict, and he between them, vrithm the rear range 
of the fire of both, 

"Hb Aid de-Camp, Cotoncl Fitzgerald/' sajs Mr* Irving, '* a yonngl 
&nd ardent Irishman, losing tight of him in the heat of the fighl, wLca 
eUTeloped in dust and emokt?, dropped the bridle ou the neck of his 
horse and drew his hat orer hia eje^^ giving him up for IobU When he 
B&w him, however^ emergiDg fpom the cloud, waring his hat» and beheld 
the enemy giving way^ he spurred up to his side* * Thank God,^ cried he, 
^ Toar Ejtcelkncj is safe.' * Away, my dear Colonel, and bring up the j 
troops,^ waa Washington'B reply, * the day is our own! * " 

The actioti was unusually blood)' ; of the enemy a hun- 
dred were killed, three hundred wounded j and large numbers 
taken prisoners. The gallant Mercer and other brave oflioera | 
fell on the American side, but Washington escjiped unhurt t 

Colonel Trumbull represents him as standing by hisi 
favorite white charger on that momentous day. As tho 
march from the bank of the Assanpink, the action, and tho 
pursuit, lasted tliirty-six hours, during which he scarcely left ] 
the saddle, there is no doul>t that Washington must have j 
ridden two or three horses in the course of the day. I have J 
been informed, however, at second hand^ from one who waa \ 
in his body guard, that when the seventeenth British regiment 
broke, General Wasliington, then mounted on a favorite roan 
himter, leaped the stone wall that crossed the eminence, and j 
perceiving the enemy in full retreat, gave the view halloa^ 
and, in unconscious response to the boast of Lord CornwaUia 
the night before, exclaimed to tho officers about him, " It is 
a regular fox chase ! '* 

Well might he exult in the event of the day, for it was 
the last of a series of bold and skilful manceuvTes and 8U(y, 
cess Ad actions, by which, in three weeks, he had rescued 
Philadelphia, driven the enemy from the banks of the Dela- 
ware, recovered the State of New Jersey, and, at the close of 
a disastrous campaign, restored hope and confidence t^^ the ^ 
ooimtry ** achievements so astonishmg," says the Italian his- 



torian Botta,* " gained for the American Commander a very 
great reputation, and were regarded with wonder by all 
nations, as well as by the Americans. Every one applauded 
the prudence, the firmness, and the daring of General Wash- 
ington. All declared him the Saviour of his country ; all 
proclaimed him equal to the most renowned commanders of 
antiquity, and especially distinguished him by the name of the 
American Fabiub." 

' Cited b7 Mr. Sparkfl, YoL L, p. 284. 



LcttTfl Parti on routs for Italy— PaaepfiTU— Con riore—FonUincbltmu md Ita hhlaii 
ad T*ooll«tions — Appauranee of n win p-gr owing region — The C«)l« d*or — Autnn, ' 
Ua anUqnitf And arcbitcctartl rem&itis^EplgTmin ibout the two BIsliopfl of Ad- 
tuo — Cbumctcr of Tallejrantl— lib emigrEtlen to AmtHca, and InteDUon to bo- 
como acltlz4>it cif thii i'mlied Stales — Anecdoio of Bt-nttlkt Am ohi— Talleyrand^* 
courM in tbifl coutilry— Eiis f^f^nd^blp for GoDeml Hjimllton — CurliyoB anecdote 
of Aaron BurTf rplat«d by Tallt»j'riuidl— MlaJMare of General IlainlUon^Tallcj' 
rand's cbamctcr fu a atat^aman— Tbo Dtifee arMag)enU born at AutiiB--AjiotJior 
■needote of Benedict Arnold. 

Ok the 3d of Sept<?rnbcr, 1818, after the ihen usual 
araount of delay and cxtortioo, in procuring the requisite 
countersign to our passports, at the foreign office and four or 
five legations, and the usual annoyanc^e of finding, at the last, 
that several things had h<?en neglected that ought to have 
been attended to, I started with my companion for Italy, 
intending, however, to make a hasty circuit in Switzerland by 
the way. There are few things, not less serious in them- 
selves which more annoy American travellers in Europe, 
than the regulations about passports, which arc in truth at 
times a source of unreasonable delay and vexation. The 
passport system, however, serves one valuable purpose, of 
which Americans^ when occasion requires, derive the full 
benefit; but of the importance of which wc are not duly 
sensible; and that is the aid which it affords to the pursuit 
and arrest of criniitmls Oeeing from justice. It happened to 
me several times^ in the course of official duty abroad, to 



have OM?4ision to render aid to the parties interested who Imd 
come from the United States, in pursuit of embezzlers and 
other offenders fleeing from America, In all these cases, the 
necessity of havhig the passport countersigned in every new 
jurisdiction furnished important assistance in tracing and de- 
taining the fugitive. In a region like the European Conti- 
nent, divided among numerous Governments, wholly indepen- 
dent of each other, it will be readily seen, that the means of 
escape to a foreign territory must be much greater than in 
the United States, where so vast a territory is comprehended 
in one federal jurisdiction. Of course, however, the passport 
system is subject to great abuses for pohtieiil purposes. 
Some of those have been brought upon bond Jide American 
travellers, by the officials of th© United Stutes, who ha%*e in 
some cases undertaken to give American passports, (which 
are in terms certificates of citizenship,) to persons not entitled 
to them^ cither by birth or naturalization. This abuse has 
diminished the unhesitating respect which in former times 
was paid to the starry vifjneite. 

Our travelling party consist^Dd only of our two selves and 
a courier, one of those extraordinary persons, whose services 
e'very American travelling in Europe has found so important; 
— an attendant who knrAvs a little,^ — sometimes a good deal, 
— of four or five languages; is conversant with the manners 
and cnstoms of all countries ; familiar with all routes in all 
directions \- — acquainted, probably to some extent in league, 
— with landlords in all the towns where you are to stop. 
Our courier was a Neapolitan, who had conducted many 
Americans through Europe, and who was attaclierl tu an 
oflicer of the French army, in the terrible retreat from Mos- 
cow, On that dreadful fliglit, he resolutely maintained, 
though a man of veracity for his calling, that he rarely drew 
off his maister's boots at night without bringing away one of 
the extremities of the feet which they covered. 1 retain a 
most kindly rccolleetion of Francisco, whoso fidelity was 



beyond suspk-ion, and who was one of the most indulgent 
persons to his employer that I ever knew. He would fre- 
quently let us have our own way. He anruissed a handsome 
fortune in his vocation, and I renewed my aetjuaintance with 
him, after an interval of twenty-three years, at Naples, where 
he was living in 1841 as a reapectablo property bolder. 

There is something at almost every step of the way from 
Pai'is to Switzerland (as indeed there is in every part of 
Europe) to engage and reward the attention of the traveller ; 
— the memory of some gre^t battle, fi^m the time of Julius 
Caesar to that of Napoleon ; some noble mediaeval pile, or 
still more impressive architectural rum ; some venera]>le 
monastic establishment ; the birth-place of some great man ; 
some delightful landscape ; some important institution ; but 
all these ol>jects have liecome too familiar from tiie ^uitle* 
books and the professed tourists, to 1>ear a description from 
the wayfarer who travels post through the c*>untry. We 
lingered awhile at Fontainebleau^ which had not then recov- 
ered somewhat of its original magnificence under the restor- 
ing hand of Louis Philippe* Its immense extent, dispropor- 
tioned to its height, its weather-stained brick corridors and 
faded splendors:, at the time we saw it, produced rather a 
disappointing cflTcct; hut a little effort of the imagination 
sufficed to people it with the most stirring recollections. 
Louis the Seventh, in the twelfth centnry, laid its foundations, 
after his return trom the second crusade, while Thomas k 
Becket was bidding defiance to Henry in England, and the 
Northmen were creeping down from Greenland to the coasts 
of Labrador and Newfoundland in America ; and from ** the 
Court of the "White Horse,** to whicJi Catherine do Medici 
gave its name, Napoleon took his affecting leave of the rem- 
nants of the Old Guard on his departure for Elba. What a 
range for the imagination between those extremes I The Fac 
Simile of Napoleon's abdication, the little round table upon 
which it was written, and what purported to be the pen with 



which the sad words were traced, were exhibited in the room 
where the paper was signed ; lint have sinee, 1 beiieve, disap- 
peared. Every intervening century and sovereign, from the 
founder of the old castle in the twelfth century to the present 
day, has left some recollection at Fontaineblcau ; — ^and its 
green moss-grown courts and silent halls remind you of 
marriages, murders, and abdications ; — recall the names, be- 
sides native sovereigns, of the Emperor Charles V,, Qtieen 
Christinii, Pope Pius VK. ; of Diana of Poitiers, Madatiio do 
Maintenon, and Henrietta Maria, the wifo of Charles I. ; and 
present you with specimens of the architecture and the arts, 
from their infancy in the fourteenth century to their second 
bloom in our own day. — ^The noble forest of Fontainebleau, 
equal m extent to two townhips of public land in the United 
States, exhibits no douht a portion of the original growth of 
the country, preserved from the time when, within its dark 
recesses, the Druids burned their sacrificial victims in wicker 
cages. Our guide, as he approached " La Croix du ffrand 
i^enewr,"* where a spectral huntsman in black appeared to 
Henri IV. not long before his murder, repeated the legend 
with a solemn air of belief. I had seen but a few days before, 
in the museum at Paris, the dagger which the maniac Eavaib 
lae, climbing up the carriage wheels of the gracious monarch, 
as lie drove slowly tln-ough the streets of Paris, plunged to 
his heart* 

The first entrance into a wine-growing region, at least in 
France and Germany, disappoints the traveller, who has 
formed his ideas of a vineyard from the descriptions of the 
poets. There is nothing luxuriaot in its appearance, as it is 
seen at a moderate distance from the road-side. The %nnea 
are pruned down to the height of a few feet, and planted in 
straight rows, which do not compare in richness and beauty 
to a field of Indian Com in the tassel, undoubtedly the most 

• " The Cross of the great HuDtflHiiJi," an obcHsk at tlie IntorBectloQ ol two lUiia 



graceful and poinpous robe in which bouutitul nature nrrajs 
herself this side of the tropics. Seen, however, sufficiently near 
to disclose its opening clusters, purple or yellow, bursting or 
ready to burst with their nwtarous juice, the astpect of a vine- 
yard realizes the warmest images uf Anaoreon or Hafiz. We 
were about five Aveeks before the vintage was to commenoe, but 
the golden slopes of the C6t€ (Tor, as we passed them, were 
clothed with its promise. — ^The Saune wound through the 
meadows on the left, and on the right vineyard above vine- 
yard, and terrace above terrace, covered with plants bending 
beneath tlieir melting clusters, rose to the very summit of thoj 
hills* It is on these hillsides alone, that the richest grapes 
can be matured, for it is necessary to combine protection 
from the winds of the north {that dreadful bin at which tlxe 
readers of Madame de Sevigne have shivered for two cen- 
turies, whether they have felt it or not, which, though fully 
developed only in the south of France, begins in Burgundy 
to assume its character, and, under a cloudless sky and bril- 
liant sun, sweeps over the earth day after day, with a dry, 
steady, withering cliill,) with a degree of hcM which can only 
be had in an exposure to the sun, under an angle of from 
thirty to sixty degrees. The promise of the vintage this year 
(1818) exceeded that of any season sinc^ the famous Comet 
year of 1811, and wherever we entered into conversation 
on the road we heard tlie language of joy and confidence* 

On our way to Lyons, we pa^ed through Autiin, but saw 
it to some disadvantage, at least as far as comfort and ac- 
commodation are concerned, in consequence of the crowd and 
conliision incident to the great September fair. Few places 
exceed it in historical interest. It was an important city of 
the ancient Gauls, before the invasion of Julius Ciesar, at 
least if, as antiquaries suppose, it was the Bihraete of the 
jE4lui. The name of Autun is abbreviated from that (Angus- 
todiinym) by which the Romans indicated its importance* 
For nearly two centuries after it was honored with this appel- 


lation, it was a seat of refinement and art, to which the \ tmw^ 
men of Gaul were sent for their education. Confciidiiuhh' 
masses of the Roman walls still exist, showing the extent of 
the ancient city ; and architectural remains of a higiily inter- 
esting character, though not of the purest age of art, — e«pe- 
cially two Roman gates, — attract the notice of tiie truveller. 
Some portions of the Cathedral, particukrly tiie spire, are 
also greatly admired by the student of medinevul areliitecture. 
The Cathedral of Autun reminds one by natural assoeift- 
tion of its prelates. Two of them have obtabied, in very 
different ways, what may be called a classical celebrity, 
recorded in the following epigram : 

RoQunrx, dans son tems, 

Talleyrand, dans le notre, 
Furent evdques d* Autun ;•— 

Tartuffe fut le surnom d*un, 
Ah I si Moliero ciit connu Tautrc ! 

which may be poorly translated as follows : — 

Two bishops haro adorned Autun, 

Roquette and this his modern brother ; — 

Tartuffe preserves the name of one, 
Oh ! had Moliero but known the other ! 

It may seem the height of romance i'or an Amorienn e\ 
to say a civil word in favor of the last nann-H nt ttn^st- c. 
bratcd bishops of Autun, but th«; Ireneli i^^»vuiijij..r. nroi: 
a good many men iuUj jx^wer mueii \v<»rM> iiiin. .\i .- jii. 
rand. lie belon^<;d t«/ tjii<- hkj^i nueii-rn tti»im>.> : i u. 
but having, in c;n«M'i^u«*i**-« ulin.-. iiiiii«-ii*;-- . !»• lii ui.;- • 
Church, he early, JiK» j^ttlnyMt.-. MitaMiiu, :.:. : • 
of the Freri/;h iM'i«t<#«*fiJ*-> I'M, a.. !*«»«;. ."...;:- . . . 
before th<frn« tiuit ii*» <.»! : i hi^ji 'miw- • 
longer; lfi*t rt vin iot»«-:; ::i ji -:• *"■ 

the rfcV<J«itiV«'. *f^ Iha* muiuuau-j; ;iij.: rTr:!-- ^ •- in-i 
bloody d'Mnmn^ ^^ jmiw. u, luub^-cc::.... :. ^mau -^ou.. i.. 



preliininary steps to become a citizen of the Unitod States. 
I saw in Peale'a museiim, many years ago, the oflicial notice 
of this intention, signed by himself, and it afterwards passed 
into the possession of the late l^ir. Edward D. Ingraham, of 

M. de Talleyrand, having been ordered by the British 
government^ (nnder the influeneo of the panic with reference 
to everything Frenrh which had seized them J to leave Eog- 
land, took passage for the United States at Plymouth, where 
he happened to find himself in the same inn with Benedict 
Arnold. Not being partienlarly acquainted with the reJations 
in which this \\Tetehed man might still stJind with America, 
Talleyrand oflered to take letters for him to the United 
States. This civility Aniold declined, saying, "I am the 
only man in the world that doe^ not dare write to his native 
country" The little volume uf *' Recollections '* of Mr, 
Rogers, lately publishedj contains a most remarkable counter- 
part to this anecdote, given on the authority of the Duke of 
Wellington. '' When Lord Londonderry attacked Talley- 
rand in Parliament and I defended him, saying, in everytliing 
as far as I hud observed, he had always l>ecn fair and honesty 
Talleyrand burst into tears, saying; * He is the only man that 
ever said anything good of me J ' ** 

Arrived in thy United States, M* de Talleyrand was far 
from imitating the unwise conduct of his countryroen in 
America, who threw themselves into the political controver- 
sies of this country, and allowed themselves to bo made use 
of, to embarrass tho administration of GcncTal Washington. 
He of course entered into no persona! relations with the Pres- 
ident, but he fiirmed an intimate acquaintance and contracted 
a warm friendship witli General Hamilton, whom he consid- 
ered, and in after life often spoke of, as the most sagncious 
and best informed of American Statesmen, especially in ref- 
ereneo to European politics. He carried with him, on his 
return to France, a mimatm-c of General Hamilton, painted 



Ht Utf^ Hftqii^st, When Aaron Burr wtis in Paris, and re- 
qiiesledan interview with M. de Talleyrand, then Minister of 
Foreign Affaira, the latter added this dauso to the cold official 
note appointing a time for the reception : ** The Jlinistcr for 
Foreign Affairs thinks proper to iidbrm Mr, Burr, that a 
portrait of General Hamilton ia hanging in his office ; " an 
intimation which of c^jurse prevented the visit. This minia- 
ture, or a copy of it, with a little receptacle on the back con- 
taining ohitnary notices of General Hamilton, cut from the 
American newspapers, was after his decease sent by M, de 
Talleyrand to the family in the United States, The curious 
anecdote just given was related by ^L de Talleyrand Inmself 
to the son and grandson of General Hamilton, on a visit made 
by invitation to Vallen^ay, a few years before his death, on 
which occasion his distinguished attentions showed the honor 
in which he held the memory of their illustrious and lamented 

In reference to the political course of ^f. de Talleyrand as 
a French Statesman, it cannot be denied that he was a politi- 
cian of the same school with the celebrated Auslrinn Minister, 
whose character formed tl)e subject of the thirty-Jifth paper of 
this series* But still more than Met tern ich, he is entitled to 
the credit of having studied, sonietinies no doiil>t from a false 
point of view, the interests of the countrj^ of which he was a 
citizen, and of the government which he served. To this he 
sacrificed the favor of his all-powerful master, whose Spajiitih 
policy, — the great and fatal error of his reign, — was adopted 
and pursued in direct opposition to the counsels of M, de Tal- 

Before leaving Autun, it may be remarked that it is tlie 
birth-place of General jrMahon, who was created a marshal 
of France by Louis Napoltion, on the battle*field of Magenta, 
for having " suved the army." As the name indicates, his 
family is of Irish extraction, and is one of those which, with 





self-sacrificing chivalry, followed tho fortunes of James II 
Tiie ncw-mado duke of Magenta was born at Aotuii, in 1807. 
Having mentioned Benedict Arnold in tho foregoing 
paper, I cannot refrain from repeating another anecdote of 
him J related by Iklr. Sabine, -w hieli throws a disinal light on 
the repute in whicli he was held in a community where it 
might have been expected, if anywhere, that he would have 
been kindly viewed. After the revohitionary war, he estab- 
lished himself in some sort of business at St. John's, New 
Brunswick, which was principally settled by American loy- 
alists. His warehouse and the merchandize in it, being fully 
insured, were destroyed by fire, and Arnold was charged in a 
newspaper with having himself set fire to tho building, in 
order to get the insurance, which was largely beyond the 
value of the property. n« prosecuted the publisher of the 
paper fur a libel, laid the damages at thousands, and recov- 
ered, by the verdict of tho jury, two and six pence ! Such 
was the estimate formed by a St, John's jury of his probity. 



Hotel do TEoropo at Lyons— Tho hill of Fonrrldrea— Description of the Panorama 
seen fh)m its top— Distant tIow of Mont Blanc— Pilgrimages to the shrino of our 
liady of Fourvldres— Resort of beggars and almsgiving on the part of the Pil- 
grims—Anecdote of a professed Scottish beggar— The bronze tablets containing the 
speech of the Emperor Cladius— Martyrdom of Saint Ireneeos and Blandlna^The 
Persecutions of the early Christians as recorded In ecclesiastical history com- 
pared with the cmeltlcs practised at Lyons In the i^'rench revolution.— Whole- 
sale massacre in the Brotteauz— Escape and career of Jacquard, the inventor of 
the celebrated loom that bears his name— saying of Napoleon L about him— Ills 

We passed a few days at Lyons, a city which I have, in 
the course of my wanderings, visited three times, and ever 
with undiminished satisfaction. To begin with our lodgings, 
there is a gloomy grandeur about the Hotel de VEuropey 
which I do not dislike in an old European city. It resembles 
a princely palace, and in fact probably was one. Its rooms 
are of vast height ; the ceilings painted, and that not contempt- 
ibly, in fresco; the walls hung with old family portraits of 
Louis Quatorzo and the Regency ; the floors tiled or inlaid 
with woods once bright and particolored ; the chimneys of 
colossal length, depth, and height ; everything, in a word, on 
a grand scale, not excepting, I must own, the dirt, — which 
one must take in these old continental hotels, together with 
the grandeurs. In the fare there was nothing to complain of; 
nor in 1818 in the bill. All this may have changed since I 
was last there in 1841. 

Ill is first visit to Lyons was made before the halcyon 



days of Murray. That trusty guide, after giving with some 
minuteness, a local descTiption of the city, says witli italicized 
enipliasis, " these dry topographical details will be Ixsst un- 
derstood when the tra%e!kT kis scaled the height of Ihurvi- 
^reSf which he shoafd do the ^firfit iftluff after his arrival^ on 
account of the view it commands." Whether at the instiga* 
tion of some older Murray or some discreet vaki de place, or 
led by our own sagacity, I do not recollect,— but our first 
care was to ascend the hill of Fourvi&res^ which wc could per- 
ceive from below must command a glorious panorama of 
Lyons and its environs. The approach would seem artisti- 
cally contrived to ht^ighten, by contrast, the magnificence of 
the prospect. It is in the rear of an extensive but confused 
pile of building, now occupied as an asylum for the insane, 
and a hospital for incurables of the most wTetchcd descrip 
tion, who are attended, however, with exemplary self-sacrifice, 
by the brothers and sisters of charity, Tliis sad retreat of 
BuiTering humanity, (such are the vicissitudes of human for- 
tune in men and things,) occupies the site of a palace, in 
Avhieh, some seventeen centuries ago, two Roman Emperors, 
Claudius and Caracalla were bom ! After emerging from this 
locality you begin to ascend the hUl through steep and narrow 
lanes, sometimes by steps apparently cut in the native rock, 
-winding through ^'ineyards, and olive gardens, and groves of 
fig trees, — (such at least was the case forty years ago,) and 
you reach at last the summit called Four vie res, which is sup- 
posed by the antiquaries at Lyons, to bo the modern French 
Ibrm of the Latin Forum vcluSf " ancient Forum,'* The 
scene is certainly one of transcendent natural beauty as well 
as uncommon historical interest. It cannot have escaped the 
professed tourists j but I do not remember to have seen it 
particularly dcscrihed. 

Through the defdes of Mount Cindre on the north, you 
catch a glimpse,— it is but a glimpse,- — of the golden slopes 
of Burgundy, The lofty and serrated ridges of Auvergnc, 



IV i thill whose secret laboratories, heated by concealed vol- 
canoes, nature distils some of her most salabrious mineral 
waters^ bound the prospect on the west. The misty hills 
and genial valleys of Dauphiny and Langtiedoc stretch far 
away to the south in dreamy bixuriant-e. On the east comes 
in the headlong turbid Rhone^ swclk-J by the tribul^ary floods 
of the Lake of Geneva, of the Arvo, and of the Arveiron; and 
through them, sharing with the Rhine^ the Danube, and the 
Po, the waters that trickle from hundreds of Alpine Glaciers. 
You follow the line of the Jura with some distinctness on the 
north-cast, and further in the east, ej<pocially with the aid of a 
glass, the eye, glancing from the Schreckhom, tho Pinster 
Aar Horn, and the Jungfrau, imclimbed by the foot of man 
till it was ascended hy our own Agassi z, rc^ts at length, at 
the distance of a htmdred miles, on imperial Jfont Blanc it- 
self, visible in a clear day even to the naked eye. There yon 
behold it swelling grandly to the sky, laden with th<i piled 
storms of untold centuries ; bright as the ocean of stmshine 
that bathes its cold, unmelting sides ; pure as the deep blue 
Heavens, whieh canopy its vestal snows; mysterious as the 
conscious stars whkh look down at midnight into its fathom- 
less chasms j a vast eternal mountain of glittering crystal, — 
indcseribablo moniuncnt of Creative Power ! 

When you turn at length from this all-glorious panurama 
and look down upon the confluence of the Saone and Iilione 
at your feet, the recollections of nearly three thousand years 
crowd upon the mind. Hero in the remotest antiquity sixty 
Gallic nations assembled to celebrate the annual sacrifices of 
the primitive Celtic race. What interests, wliat policies, 
what controversies, agitated at these gatherings, lie buried in 
the grave of ages I This was the focal point, from which the 
power and the policy of Rome, overleaping the Alps, radiated 
to the west and north, and, turning the flank of the eternal 
Alps, rushed norlh-castwardly npon Germany. Here the 
great Dictator paused to meditate, as from some lofly watch- 




tower, %viih dilating thought, on the mighty career of conquest 
wliich was opening before him in Gallia, in Brittania, in Ger- 
mania, and which is still felt in the langua^'Cs, the laws, Uie tia- 
lloriul divisions of oiodcrn Eurtjpc. This was the central 
station from which Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa laid out the 
four great roads, pathways of empire, which traversed and 
tamed impatient Gaul. ITero the sulijiignted races erected a 
temple to Agrippa's patron and father-in-law, the Emperor 
Augystns, Four columns of Egyptian granite, stolen per- 
haps originally from Memphis or Egyptian Thebes to support 
the canopy of the altar dedicated to Augustus, now sustain 
the cross of the Abl)ey Clnireh of Ainay, beneath whose pavo- 
meut rest the ashes of some of tlie earliest martyrs of the 
Christian faith* In the same quarter Caligula established his 
Athenaum^ and instituted his prize declamations ; crowning 
the successful competitor with honors and rewards; ehasti/- 
ing the unsuccessful, and compelling them to wipe their ora- 
tions from their tablets with their tongues. Happily for 
modern orators, this operation is now left to the impartial 
hand of time. Here, in fhie, tho liberal Trajan erected a 
splendid edifice for the markets, the fairs, and the courts, 

Tliese monuments of ancient power and altars of ancient 
worship have passed away ; mutilated statues, fragmentary 
inscriptions transferred to the museum, and doubtful sub- 
structions buried deep beneath the modern level of the soil, 
arc all that attest their former existence. The Church of our 
Lady of FourvUres, surmounted by a colossal figure of tho 
Virgin in gilded bronze, looks down from the summit of the 
hill upon the scene and the ruins of all this ancient magniti- 
cence. Tlie pt>piilar faith ascribes miraculons powers to the 
consecrated imago of tho A^irgia enshrined within the temple ; 
the walls of which are hung thick with ex voto memorials of 
the dangers escaped atid the cures performed by her interces- 
sion. The little shops, which line the lower part of the nar- 
row lane by which you ascend tho hill, contain articles of thia 



kincl, ready prepared to Ijc purchased by tlie pilgrims who 
come to pay their dcvoticms and make their acknowledgments 
at the shrine. 

"We happened to visit Fourvj6res on the day of the great 
annual resort for tliis purpose, when pilgrims in largo 
numbers and from considerahle distances flock to the cliurch. 
These pilgrimages are the great harvest of the heggars of 
Lyons and the whole neighhoring region, who, in numhcrs 
quite equal to tliat of the devotee^*, assemhlc at the same time 
and plac^. The two classes, contemplated together , present a 
curious spectacle- Tfic pilgrims moving in single file, except 
when some feeble lirother or siJ^ter requires the support of a 
friendly arm, occupy the middle of the pathway up the hill. 
The beggars line the sides, from the hottom to the top ; 
singly for the most part, sometimes in families ; standing, 
sitting, lying ; the maimed, the halt, and the blind j the 
sturdy, business-like, and impudent; the humble, looking tip 
with pitiful deference ; some clamorous, some trusting to the 
mute eloquence of decrepitude and mutilation *, of evary age 
and either sex ; and su tiering nndcr every foi*m of real or 
pretended distress. Long established usage sanctions the 
resort, on these particular occasions, and settles the amount 
af the expected bounty ; a Itard^ which is, 1 believe, abtnit 
half a farthing, from every pilgrim, sometimes the poorer 
personage of the two, to every one of the beggars j some of 
whom are said to amass comparatively large sums of money 
in the course of years. So much a matter of business is it — 
so little of delieaey or feeling is there on either side in this 
conventional wholesale almsgiving, that we continually saw 
the parties making chantije with each other. A sou^t^ which, if 
I mistake not, is worth three Hards in the old French coinage, 
was handed by the pilgrim to the beggar. The beggar knew 
that he was t<:i retain only a part of this magnificent sum, and 
returned two Hards to tiie pilgrim, who wna tlms furnished 
with small change for those who stood next. 




Sir Walter Scott, in his description of the professed beg- 
gars of his country, relates an anecdote of one Andren- 
Gammels, who belonged to that privileged class, whieb 
discloses a charitable thritl not uidikc that practised at 
Four vie res. Having asked alms of a gentleman, who re- 
gretted that he had no silver, as in that case ho would have 
given Andrew a sixpence, the well-to-do beggar replied, ** I 
can gie ye chango fL>r a note, Laird/* 

What a c<»ntriist upon the hill of /bi/rvi^res on occasion of 
these pilgrimages, between tiie eliarities of man and the cliar- 
ities of Heaven ! Man making change with his brother man 
fur half firtliJTigs ; and the dear God causing his rich big 
clouds to rain down plenty on the just and the unjust; and 
his noble rivers to flow from their secret urns in the eternal 
mountains ; and his health-giving waters to sparkle from ihfl 
secret dispensaries of the earth ; and the broezj^ wings of hlsl 
mighty winds to fan tJie languid pulses of creation into cheery 
vigor ; and his wine and his oil to stream from every hill- 
side ; and the finest of his wheat to wave in yellow luxuriancej 
over a thousand llelds; and all his imperial lieavens, fron»J 
their opening windows, to pour down every day !ipon th€ 
evil and the g<x)d one golden^ genial deluge of morning light ! 

There are a great many very curious relics of antiquity in 
the Museum at Lyons, One of tliem, nearly if not quite 
uniq^io in its way, consists of the bronze tablets, containing i 
speech made by the Emperor Claudius, in the Roman Senat 
while he fdled the office of Censor, in the 48 of our era, and 
recommending that the inhabitants of Transalpine Gawl should 
bo admitted to the privileges of Uoman Citizenship. TliesoJ 
tablets probably preserve the very words of Claudius, and 
the engraving is still perfectly distinct and legible. La^ly 
Mary Wortlcy Montague w^as so much struck with them, that 
she took the trouble to transcribe them in a letter to Pope^ 
written from Lyons ; probably, liovvever, copying tlicm from 
some printed description, though she does not say so. 


Lyona is celebrated in Ecclesiastical History as the see of 
Saint Irentsus, the second Bishop of the diocese, one of tlie 
most important of the early ^Titers of the Church, who h said 
to have siiflTered martyrdom, with eight thousand fellow-Chns- 
tians, in the reign of Beverus, This Emperor is supposed to 
have treated the Chriatians of Lyons with especiiil rigor, in 
consequence of some affront which he had received while liv- 
ing there ; a tradition which strangely corresponds with the 
anecdote told of Oillot d'Herbois,^ — that his inhuman cruelties 
toward tlie inhabitants «>f tliis devoted city in the French 
Revolution, w^ere in revenge for having heen hissed by them, 
when he appeared in their theatre as a fourth-rate actor. A 
former persecution under Marcus Aurelius is famous as that 
in which the gentle Bland ina, (a name which has acquired a 
happier and let us hope a not less permanent celebrity in our 
own country and day, for a noble act of enlightened liberal* 
ity,)* trod the thorny pftth of martyrdom. 

The skepticism of the last century, under the guidance of 
Gibbon, was disposed to view with distrust the accounts 
transmitted to us by the Historians of the Church, of those 
wdiolesale buteheriea, the famous ten Persecutions. It is not 
necessary to contend too anxiously for this precise numerical 
arrangement of the suflTerings inflicted upon the confessors of 
the new faith, under the reign of the predecessors of Con- 
stantine* But historical monuments of undoubted authcn* 
ticity prove that tlie early Christians wore subjected to the 
most cruel treatment, and ot^en paid with their lives for their 
rejection of the religion of the State* Whatever doiibts may 
have existed as to the wholesale butcheries in question, as 
transcending in the number of their victims all crcdihlo 
measures of brutal tyranny, have been but too sadly re- 
moved, by the atrocities practised, at tliis very city of Lyons, 
after ita seige and capture by the army of the Convention in 

* Tta endowment of tbc Obeerratory at Albanf* bjr Mtb, BbindLiiA I>adk7. 




There is nothing m the ten Persecutions which, cither for the 

number of the sufferera or the diabolical rage and malignity 
with wluch they were consigned to their fate, exceeds tho 
records of the revolutionary tribunals at Lyons, under Cou- 
thon, FoueliC', and Collot dUIerboii?. We have but to read 
the account in the third volume of Alison, or what on this 
subject may seem a soler authority^ though they draw from 
the same sourci-s, Lamartine's history of the Girondins. I 
could scarcely bL4ieve, in traversing the Broticaax hi 1818, 
that twenty-five years only had elapsed, since it was the scene 
of the unimagined horrors practised under those mon!?ters. 
Finding the gnillMtine ttM» slow to satiate their thirst for 
blood, they filled the sf|iiare with the best citizens of Lyons, 
their hands tied behind them, to be swept down by ^rape shot, 
ranging along a cable to which they were secured, and then 
bayonettcd them at leisure, as they lay mutilated and gasping 
on the reeking ground. Nothing in the legends of the church 
need be disbelieved after reading that, in the laat decade of 
the eighteenth century, the nding power of France decreed 
that the second city under their govenimcnt should be razed 
from the face of tho earth ; its inhabitants exiled or put to 
death; its name blotted from the catalogue of cities; and that 
three and a half millions uf dollnrs should have been exprnded 
in tearing down the houses that lined its fmcst streets and 
sc|uares i 

Among the heroic defenders of Lyons, who happily es- 
caped these sanguinary horrors, and lived to reap in peace 
the reward of his marvellous iiigenuity, was the modest and 
patient Jacipiard. This wonderful man, the inventor of the 
loom which bears his name, and ^dlieh has given a new char- 
acter to the art of weaving in figured and raised pattenis, 
throughout the world, was the son of a common weaver of 
Lyons, He was reduced so low, iven in middle life, but be- 
fore he had succeeded in bringing his Inom into working con* 
dition, that he was compelled to support himself by aiding 





THE Moorr vKKxoy FAFiotti. bOy 

his w lie in the preparation <jf tiie straw, viii'.'h whe braided for 
the hats vorn bv the j»ea8aiitrv. Al-hrm^ii. iu '.•<iiis«--«ju<;ti<;< 
of his inv4.*iitior« the ijuiuim,t of v-cax^m- iutt: Ur<.T iij'fi<iu&<.'d u 
hundred, not to bay a tboussaud l»ic!. tlj«M w<.m«. bo iij<,**rfib<.'d 
against bim, vhen hie loomt^ were lirat cvijKif'u<,'t«::d, that ht- 
narrowlj escaped bdng thrv^n bv a mob iiito th< l<\t<jui ! 
Napoleon, by an imperial dofree at f^trVm in 1%00, gianu o' 
him fifty franoi (about ten doJiarfe) «^ evt^y looiu <xMiatru<^ d 
on his pattern. It was all he auked, and Napf^h^jii, atiUinishi.'d ut 
his moderation, exclaimed, as he put his tiamc' i/j thu dioci'i^' : 
^' Here's a man who is ormUitii with a iiul^ ! ^ ii* all the 
Berlin decrees had been as hannle«s iu th«^jr purp'M, ih^; wuj* 
of 1812, between the United 8taU,« aiid On^i BrilaitJi would 
not have been fought. If Sni^Atstm hinisi^if had Imm^j als<> 
" ormtent with a little," Jaiyjuard's epitaph Height Iwve l-MXiii 
written on hi» monuinerit, " A mmi '/f viilwi aiid g<4ijus, Iw; 
died at home."* 

* nomme de tien et de fp^&U, uiort k Ou'Uue, 4u/t0 *<i inauo/i, 1 A^Ot, \*^- 




Silk fibr^a; ctt Ljons— First glimpse of mcmntaln scenery— I^antaft— Bull cganltH^In- 
g«R{uti« fttiiuggi log— Pert fJa Bhone — CiEwir's dewrtptton of lie defija — Andent 
Switzerland] compftrud it> Mtcbigan aiitl iVbconain — First appcBtrsnicc of tbi» Hd- 
TcUl or nnflent ^wU« tn bbtorj— EuiigratJon of the eutins peojilo Into France— 
OvurtaJccn ami def^At6<l with greitt 1<h» by Ca>sar» and the tQirlTors compelleit 
to return to Bwiticrlftod— A roustcr-r«U In Greek ehRraotcri dlscovcrc^il In Ihvit 
camp which givca their nmnbei^— Cnisar'a grrent career Wpin* with the rottqueftt 
Of the MeWetU — beautlfbl prospects on thu tray from Fort TEdaso to Geacra. 


After a Bojourn of three days we left Lyons with regret^ 
for it contains olijects which might occupy the time of the ob- 
servant traveller not unprofitably for weeks and months. 
The silk fabrics, especially, are well worthy attention ; the 
contrast between the brilliant colors, tasetcftil figures, and 
rich materials of the brocades and the dingy and dreary as- 
pect of the rooms, machinery, and I may add, operatives fl 
employed in their manufacture, was very striking. They are 
carried through the loom and come out, without a spot or 
blemish, from apartments, through which it is not easy to fl 
pass without getting your clothes soiled. We were told that 
some of the richest tissues were destined Itir the markets of 
the East, It sh*>ws the hopeless inferiority of the Asiatic civ- 
ilization, that the luxury of those regions, where a species of 
refmement has existed for at least fotir thousand years, should 
be tributary to tlie Celtic forests, — or what were Celtic for- 
ests in the days of Xerxes ami Darjus,^^for their richest 
adornments. In fabrics wholly MTought by hand, the East, it 




is true, still maintains her superiority. France has striTcn 
in vain to rival the shawls ond muslins of India j wkitli is, 
however, but another proof at how low a price human labor 
and time can there be commandecl, — itself an indieation of 
social and political wretched n ess arid dc^adation. The re- 
markable copies of Stuart^s Washington^ recently produced in 
the looms of Lyons, and introduced into this country by Mr, 
Goodrich, resemblintx, at a very moderate distance, a fine 
engravings show to what perfection the textile arts Jiavc been 
carried in Lyons. 

There is nothing of much interest on the road from Lyons 
to Geneva till you reach the Jura mountains. Tlie Rhone 
flows through an extensive plain unmarked by any attractive 
features; but from the time you reach the region where it 
bursts through the mountains, till you have made the tour of 
Switzerland and have descended the Alps on the Italian side, 
all is picturesque beauty and wild sublimity. At Cerdon the 
road begins to rise, and here most travellers from the Atlan- 
tic States of America or from England will get their first im* 
pressioDB of genuine mountain scenery. Though they may 
have seen greater elevations, they will probably not have seen 
detached summits ascending so abruptly and boldly and sepa- 
rated by such yawning chasms, or roads winding at such 
alarming heights along their sides. The landscape as you 
begin to ascend after passing Cerdon, is beaut Ifiilly variegated 
by the winding of the stream, by a tumbling cascade, and 
several ruined existles. Of these last I did not learn their his- 
tory if they have any. They belong I suppose, to that period 
in the annals of mediieval Europe, when every commanding 
eminenoe or narrow defile was the site of a fortress, and 
every robber count and petty baron went to war on his 
own authority. Europe is full of the ruins of these strong- 
holds, and they form the most striking point of contrast with 
American scenery. 

We passed tlie night at Niwitiia, a quiet little place, em* 



bosomed in Jura* It is surrounded on tliroo sides by hare 
cliffs, rising hundreds of feet almost pcrpendicidarly from the 
plain, and on the Rmrth side it lies open to a pretty lake, 
along the shores of which you approach the town. Thin con- 
trast of the plaoid suHlice of the ^vater, as wo saw it in the 
dusk of the evening, with the dark woods and frowning crags 
that tower ahove, was remarkably pleasing. The Lake of 
Kantiia and the little streams that feefl it, arc faniuus Ibr their 
trout and Ircsh water shell-iish, and our well served table at 
night bore witness that the fame was not unmerited ; though 
it must be owned that youn^ travellers, who have been on 
the road since daybreak, w itiiout slopping to dine, are niiieh 
more likeJy to appreciate the qutuitity tfian the quality of wliat 
is placed before them at supper. 

We started early hi the morning under a deluge of rani 
and a truly Egyptian darkness, wiiidi gave a sort of ghostly 
solemnity to our passage through the mountains. Day 
dawned upon ua through jagged ehasms as deslitate of vege- 
tation as the rocks on which the ocean has beaten since the 
creation of the world ; while far below our feet the Khono 
wound its devious way, and little farms, with their cottages, 
patches of vineyards even, and pastures b'ned its banks. 
Wtulc the sun was still low in the horizon, and shooting hh 
beams aslant into Utese awfid hillside recesses, w hich foot of 
living being never penetrated, some sudden turn of the road 
would carry us round into what seemed a sort of vast moun- 
tain prison, cjpcn bat to the heavens, and lighted up only by 
the cold gray dawn. 

Bellegarde is the frontier between Franco and Geneva, 
l*he mil roads in Kurf>pe have, I am told, forced upon the 
Custom-house olbeers a laudable promptitude in examimng the 
baggage of travellers. Unless there is something very suspi- 
cious in the appearance of the traveller or his trmdis, the 
search is almost nominal ; and when appearances are suspU 
oious, tlio individual is detained and the trahi allowed to pro* 





ceed. We were told of an amusing trick sometimes p motived 
here, as dsowhero on the frontier, to eludo tlic vigiliuico of tho 
Custom-house. Powerful dogs ore trained to cross the fron- 
tier by lonely paths through tlie mountains^ little known 
except to the smugglers. Tlie poor aniniiils are kept ratlier 
short of food, till they an'ive at their destination^ where they 
are liberally fed ; and, what seems tho hardest part of the 
discipline, in order to make them particularly careful to givo 
the dotiane a good berth, they are soundly beaten, from time 
to time, by persons wearing the uniform of Custom-house ofli- 
coi*s. Small eases, containing the movements of watches and 
musical boxes^ and some fine Swiss fabrics, are strapped about 
the bodies of the dogs, and a considerable contraband trado 
thus carried on. At tliia frontier, the rigor of the Custom- 
house, if at all, would be felt on entering, not on leaving, 
France. At any rate, we were treated with great considera- 
tion, and neither there nor elsewhere had any thing to com- 
plain of, in the examination of our baggage. 

A short dista,nee from the Inn at Bellcgardo is the famous 
Peri dit Rhone^ (Loss of tho Khone,) tho place where the 
river, at a low stage of tho water, wholly disappears, and finds 
an nnderg round passage for more tljan a hundred yards 
through tlic limestone rock, not a very uncommon circum- 
stance in a calcareous formation* Tlio river, when we saw it, 
was ewollen by the heavy rain of tho preceding night, and tho 
volume of water was too great to pass entirely through tho 
subterranean conduit. There was consequently nothing res 
markable in the external appe^iranee of things, Tlie passage 
of the Rhone through the Jura is, however, under any cireum- 
stanees, a striking object. The gorgo is narrow^, formed liy 
precipitous heights, and the river is contracted to about tho 
tenth part of its width at the outlet of the Lake of Geneva* 
When swelled by heavy rains or tho melting of the Alpine 
Glaciers, it roars with magnificent violence throtigh the nar- 
row defile. Csesar describes the road that passes by its side 



with minute aocuracy, ftlthough modern engineering has con- 
trived to supersede the ** anffustum et dijjiidk inter montem 
Juram et Jiumen I^hodanum [ii^^f vix qua miguli carri du- 
cerentur^'* by a broad railroad track. 

Fort Erluse stands at the extremity of the defile nearest 
France* Tlie military position is naturally very strong ; acs- 
cording to Coesar ut facile perpauci prohibere possent, so that a 
very few persons could obstruct the passage. In addition to 
this, it was fortified, I believe, in the reign of Louis XIV., but 
the fortrciss in some subsequent war has been destroyed. 
When wo passed, there was said to be an intention to rebuild 

This passage has, in all time, been one of the main en- 
trances into France on the Italian side, a highway trodden by 
mighty armies from the dawn of history. It was throngli 
thi« ptissago that the ancient Swiss (tlie Ileivetii) emerged to 
the notice of the \vorkL They were unknown to the Greeks 
in the palmy days of their greatness ; and even in the decline 
of Greece, her writers, to the amazement of M, Simond, 
*' speak of the Rhone and the Lake of Genera, much as Cana* 
dian hunters do of Lake Michigaii and the Blue Fox River*'' 
*' It is curious," ho says, " to imagine such a country as Swit- 
zerland, in the state in w hieh tlie interior of America is in our 
day," M. Simond travelled in Switzerland in the same year 
(1818) in which I did. At that time Lake Mieiiigaa and the 
Blue Fox River might be said to be in the remote interior of 
America, and the regions -watero*! by them still comparatively 
in a state of nature, and occupied by tribes somewhat lower 
in the scale of civilization than the Ileivetii before the time of 
Cieaar. Forty years only have passed aw^ay, and Lake Mich- 
igan and the Blue Fox River at the present day (if that mean 
the Fox River of Wisconsin) water a region many times aa 
populous as Switzerland ; containing rapidly multiplying 
towns and villages ; with churches, schools, and ctdleges ; 
traversed by railroads and electric tel(^aphs^ and affording 








m their rich wheat fields a bornitifol home to the 8t€r\ ing 
thousands who emigrate from Europo,^ — in duo proportion 
from Switzerland I 

The mind is stirred to busy thought on a spot like this. 
The Swiss, whose neutrality is now consecrated by the law of 
nations, and who have for eonturies been protected by it from 
being absorbed by their powerful neighbors, are first known 
by one of the most extraordiuary enert>tie!micuts "which liis- 
tory records. Not loug after the Romans had reduced the 
south-ciislern comer of Gaul to the condition of a Province^ (of 
whieh a memorial never to be eflaced is stamped upon the very 
language of the country, in the name of Provence^ an army 
of barbarians, of which the Ilelvetii formed a part, about a 
little more than a hundred years lie (ore our era, defeated the 
Koman Consnl near MarsL^Ues ; but in consecjuence of a di- 
version effected by another Roman army in tlieir rear, were 
obliged to return and defend their own country. The two 
armies mot, it is supposed, not far from the spot where the 
Rhone, descending from the Valais, is about to enter the Lake 
of Geneva. Tlie trainc4 legions which had overrun Mace* 
donia and all the conquests of ** Macedonia's madman " in 
Greece, in Asia, and in Egypt, were broken by their borba- 
rous enemies. Another and a larger Roman army soon met 
the same fate ; and then the tide of fortune, as so oflen before 
in Roman history, w^as turned. The Ilelvetii and their con- 
federates were defeated in two great battles at Aix, in Pro- 
vence, by Mar i us, and soon after associated with the Cimbri 
and the Teutones, in their iinal attempt to force their way 
into Italy, they experienced a last overwhelining dcieat by 
the same fortunate ehieflain. One cannot but feel that there 
is " nothing new under the sun," when he reflects, that in the 
year 101, before our Saviom*, the Germans of that day fought 
their battle of Solferino, in that very guadnlatlre^ within 
which the f^jrtunea of their race, as far as Italy is concerned, 



are uow (23d July) trembUng in the balance of a doubtful 

These foreign expeditions, however disastrous at the tinn 
did not break the spirit of the Helvetii, That was an 
aehicvement reserved ibr a greater than Marius. They had 
tasted the figs of Provence and " quaflfi^d the pendent vintage " 
of Burgundy, and resolved to abandon the shores of the lake 
of the " four sylvan cfintons '' and the cold sides of the Alpa 
and the Jura, for a milder region. In a word, they deter- 
mined to transfer their entire population from Switzerland to 
Gaul ; from which we may infer that in those primitive days, ^ 
the mystic attachment of the Swiss to his native mountains™ 
did not exist. After two years of secret preparations^ iii 
which stores were collected for the sustenance of an invading 
nation, the great movement commenced, according to Ca?sar, 
on the 28th of March, of the year 58 before our Saviour, 
The aged and infirm, the women and the cliildren, were placed _ 
on wagona, drawn by oxen ; determined never to return, they H 
burned their twelve Caiitonal towns and fuur hundred vil- 
lages ; and moved forward an invading nation toward tho 
coveted plains of Burgundy. Caosar^ at tlmt time^ governedfl 
the Pravinec with pro-crjnsular power, iJut seems to havo 
been taken somewlxat by surprise. The single legion, whieh 
composed his whole force, could oppose but an ineifectiial ro*^ 
sistance to the advance of an entire people of hardy adventu 
rcrs ; and leaving Labienus to watch their progress, h^i 
hastened to Italy for new levies. The Helvctii, in the mean 
time, turned the wall, which C^rsar had constructed from 
Geneva to the mountains, and, guided by the river, broke 
through Jura, where the Rhone does. Tliere was no one 
oppose them on the '* lofty mountain," where " a very fewJ 
could have stopped their way," and they rushed into Gaul, 

But they rushed to their fate. Oesar, who construed thaJ 
law of nations with great strietneiJS against the " nist of man*] 
kind," and deemed it an outrage for anybody but the Romuua j 





to encroach upon his iK^iglibors, o%Trtook them with six 
legions Ijeforc they had wholly passed the Sao no ; cut ulY 
their rear (ono-fourth part consisting of tlie Zurichera,) uhile 
they were passing the river ; del eat od tITc main btidy in a 
general action ; hung upon the retreat of those tliat escaped ; 
and after having destroyed tliree-fourths of their entire num- 
ber, allowed the remainder, crushed and Innnbled, to return 
to their native vallies, and rebuild tfieir cabins at the foot of 
the glaciers, lie found among the spoils of their camp a 
register of their forces, kept in " Greek letters," and no doubt 
also in the Greek language ; though on that point the learned 
are not agreed. It was unquestionably drawn up by some 
" Graiculus esuriens '* (hungry little Greek) an adventurer 
from Marseilles ; for personages of that class, — adventurej-s if 
not renegades from civilized regions, — are invariably funnd in 
barbarous and semi-civilized States, in ollices of trust requir- 
ing literary attainments. Italians, Germans, and Polish Jews 
are found, at the present day, in employments of that kind, at 
the courts of the Turkish, Persian, and Tartar Emirs and 
"Viziers from Syria to India. By this Greek Register, it ap- 
peared that this invading fierce consisted of 2(^3,000 Swiss and 
105,000 of their allies from the Jura, the Lake of CoiLstanee, 
the Grisons, and the Tyrol; amounting together to 3<>8,OO0 
persons, of whom a fourth part, not a large proportion for 
tribes in that state of civilization, were fighting men. No 
great reliance is to be placed on the geographical syno- 
nyms, by which the Helvetian allies enumerated by Caesar 
are referred to modern localities j and numerical data are 
matters of great uncertainty in all ancient authors, owing to 
their liability to error in the process of transcription. Tlio 
foregoing numbers, however, do not appear exaggerated. A 
half a million is a moderate estimate for the entire population 
of a region whose arms defeated th<^e of Consular Home at 
the height of her power. 

AiVer being compelled to return to their former homes, 




the ancient Swiss remained in siibjeetioii to their cont^uerora,^ 
protected for a while from new swarms of invaders, mon^f 
barbaroua than themselves, by the terror of the Roman name. 
Ccesar, mean time, in concjuering them struck the first blow 
for the conquest of his country and the world. The liberties 
of Rome fell not so mueh when he crossed the Rubicon 
when he crossed the Arar,* to attack the Swiss. Tliat w 
the commencement of his unparalleled career. 

The road from J^ort VEduse to Geneva is beautiful ; 
richer prospect is rarely to be seen. The rain had wlishtd' 
the dust from lawn and grove and thicket, and the verdure of 
Autumn had sprung up and coverctl the stubble of harvest. 
Every thing looked fresh and bright. Jura mnning off 
to the north-east bounded the liew on tho left ; the dis- 
tant Alps in front and on the right ; Mont Blanc in tho 
extreme background, glittering in a nteridian sun. Before 
you, as you proceed, a beautiful plain descends gradually to 
the Lake, and cultivation is pushed up to the roots of Jura- 
Farm-houses, Yillas, patches of wood, the Rhone hurrying to 
its struggle through the mountains, and bearing along with it 
the sparkling tribute of a hundred silver brooks fi-om the; 
highlands, give life and charm to the landscape* At noon we 
reached Geneva \ it was a fiist day ; the gates of the city were 
shut upon all egress, and tho streets were still and sad. 




• T!ifi Hitekiit mmt of tli« So^niv 



Tbo roriom uttrftctlons In G<?ncvi— The inflnenc* of CaJdn— Tlie road to Chsmiooul 
up the rallef of the Arre — BcmafkAbk ftoene Iwyond BunncviUt — Nanl d^Ar- 
[K'ntiai— First vtew of Munt Blanc— (Tgjitrc&, whether con«[dercd & beauty by the 
peasantry—Lac de Chrde^Serroz— Tlici L'pper Arro— Entronce Into the villey of 
Chamomil— The pliuclpM— Beserlption of a i^lacl or— Their motion— tcFeatlgatlon 
of the cmoesHB by Professor AgBsak— The rallvy of Ch-acoounl Brat made knoAfn to 
the travclllns: world by Pococko nod TPf ndhnm In 1T41— Alpine ftceuery less ft«- 
quently desolbed by the poeta tbim mlf bt h4T« been expected. 

Few places unite in the same degree as Geneva and its 
vicinity, the attractions of natural beauty, historical associa- 
tion, and great names. Its lake, the deep blue waters and 
divided current of its river, the confluence of the Rhone and 
the Arvo in the immediate neighborhood, Jura and Mont 
Blanc, — ^^'hich may be said to belong to Geneva, or rather 
Geneva to them ; its ancient mennorics, going back to the 
time of Cdcsar ; its curious medimva! annals, and the fortunes 
of its independent municipality ; the great characters which, 
beginning with the greatest of all, Calvin, ha\'o adorned it ; 
the names which it has given to modem letters, Rousseau, 
Voltaire, Gibbonj de Stiiel, which, if not native to the region, 
have been intimately connected with it ; these are suflicicnt 
to establish its claims to an equal variety and pre-eminenco 
of interest. In the heraldry of the moral sentiments, tho 
ideas which, through the Pilgrim fathers^ tho English dissent* 
ers and Puritans, and the Scottish covenanters trace their 
descent from the government and ministry of Calvin, will be 




found to fill no seeond place in tbo spiritual and intellectual 
aristocracy of the world, 1 suppose there are more persons, 
belong:ing to the reading and thinking classes of societT in 
Europe and Ameriea, whoso opinicns on tho most important 
subjects have boen to some extent influenced^ if not wholly 
determined, by the Instructions given in the church of St, 
Peter in Geneva, llirec hundred years ago, than by those of 
any other human teacher, Calvin's grave, without any 
monument or memorial but the letters J. C, attracts every 
year the visits of hundreds — perhaps thousands — of pilgrims ; 
and his manuscripts in the piiijlie library (of which he was 
the founder) are examined with greater curiosity tlian any ^ 
fihing else contained in it. By a somewhat curious coinci-fl 
donee, the same library contains a manuscript on papyrus, of 
extreme antiquity and nnlquo biographical Nalue, of some of 
the discourses of St. Augustine, — the still greater Calvin of 
hii age, at legist as far as doctrine is concerned. 

Geneva was rapidly becoming a foreign, — almost an Eng- 
lish city, — forty years ago ; a process which has, as I under- 
stand, been steadily going on ever since, especially since tha ^ 
era of railroads. Its beautiful environs furnish, for tho year fl 
through, a more comfortable residence than tlioso of the 
Italian cities, for the Russians and English, who in great num- 
bers seek foreign homes. Many persons are attracted by tlus 
charming villa scenery of the Lake ; not a few of the younger 
portion, by the opportunity of acquiring a tolerably good 
French accent, at a ch,^r.pcr residence than Paris ; a consider- 
able number of families by the. schools, at which their chil- 
dren are educated in or near Geneva. Tlie hospitable and 
highly cultivated social circles of tho city often tempt tho 
tourist to prolong his sojourn far beyond its intended dura- 
tion. My visit was too short to enable me to do much more 
than to feel tho constantly experienced drawback on the grati- 
fications incident to travel, cither abroad or at home, — I mean 
the regret, — often tho sorrow, — of forming a brief acquaint- 




anco with persf>ns of liigbly cultivated mintla and the most 
estimable social qiui lilies, whoso society you enjoy for a few 
days» and from ^vhom you part to meet no more on earth. 

But Mont Blanc is the object uppermost in the mind of 
the traveller on arriving at Geneva, After a few days spent 
in the city, we made our visit to Chamouni. The road, con- 
stantly ascending, lies for the gnater part of the way along 
the hanka of the Arve or through its valley. I never before 
felt so strongly the truth uf Mr. Jefierson's remark, that it is 
the rivers winch have made the mountains passable and open- 
ed their gates to man. The proeei;s described in liis famous 
account of the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah, at 
Harper's Ferry, is repeated all over the world. Everywhere 
tlje waters have burst or worn their way through the moun- 
tains ; and thus opened a path not only for themselves but 
for man and his highways. 

Nothing very striking presents itself on the way to Cha- 
monni, til! you have passed Bonneville, a small town about 
half way on the first day's journey. After crossing the Arve, 
as you leave this place, you enter a stupendous scene. The 
valley is broad, but surroumJed by roeky walls steeper tlian 
the goat can elimbj— 'pcrpindicuhir in some places, nay, in 
some actually overhanging the road. Tliey seemed to realize 
the simple imagery of *Houching the sky." In some places m 
we passed, heavy clouds of mist hung half way upon their 
sides, gilded by a flood of sunbeams pouring over their tops. 
As the valley makes several sudden turns, we found ourselves 
more than once^ surrounded on every side by these eternal 
barriers, whose contorted strata add not a little to the wild- 
11 ess of the scene, A person who should bo conveyed while 
asleep into one of these mountain prisons would perceive no 
outlet nor inlet, and would think he must of necessity have 
fallen from the clouds. There is occasionally, however, a 
considerable space bet wen the river and the foot of tlie preci- 
pice, which is clothed in all the beauty of a rich culture. The 



rays of the sun are condcn^, as on a hot wall, and produce an al* 
most tropical climate in the near neighborhood of Mont Blanc 
Unmitigated adamantine han-t'iiiiess and a luxuriant vegetation 
arc thus Lrought into immediate eon tact with each other, A 
little hey Olid Mjiglan, you pass the Naui (TArpennaZySLW&ter' 
Mi of gnnit heiglit and surpa-ssing beauty, which, at some 
seasons of the year, after hrcaking into dust like the Staubbacb, 
is condensed a^ain into water, in tlie latter part of its course, 
and crossing the road under a bridge darts in foaming eddies 
to the Arve* The contorted stratification to which I have just 
alluded is very conspicuous in the limestone wall, over which 
the Nant d*Arpennaz plunges. 

We passed the night in a decent inn at St. Martin, Here 
we caught the first fair full view of Mont Blanc, with all its snows 
and glaciers gloriously illuminated by the setting sun. What 
I had seen at the distance of a hundred miles, from Fourvi^res 
at Lyons, resembling a heavy white cloud in the horizon, now 
towered to the heavens^ a mountain of purple light. The 
traveller should, by all means, if possible, arrive at St» Mar- 
tin in season to enjoy this sunset view of Mont Blanc- In the 
morning it is seen nnder a diflferent light, and loses something 
of its splendor. But whether seen in the morning or the 
evening, the ftrst distinct near view of Mont Blanc is an era 
in a man's life. It is twelve or thirteen miles distant from 
St Martin, but such is the pure transparence of the mountain 
air, that you fee! as if the next step would bring y*>u to its 
crystal sides. Great, however, is the deception. The niodo- 
rate distance which intervenes between you and the summit of 
the mountain is still sufheiont to soft^^^n the savage outline^ 
bounding what seems a smooth, glittering, inclined plane, — ^on 
which you might, to all appearance, walk gently up to heaven. 
It is not till you have contemplated the surrounding and nearer 
obj*>cts, — measured the valley of the Arve with your eye^ as it 
ranges up the course of the river, and surveyed the sides of 
the Col de Forclaz, dark with forests, its top not too high for 




Alpine pasturage, — (we fancied tliat we oould hear the tink- 
ling of the cowbells, but the distance was too great.) — and 
then some of the outer buttresses c^f Mont Blanc which lio 
beyondj that the mind corrects the illusion of the sight, and 
forming a clearer idea of its distance, you moi'e fully appre- 
ciate its majestic dimensions. 

At St. Martin we left our post-cliaise, and took a char-d- 
banc, the light vehicle of the mountains, for Chamouni. 
Seated by the side of the driver, I endeavored to learn from 
him if there was any fimndation in truth for the current 
notion, that the goitre^ which begins to prevail as you pene- 
trate the lofty Alpine Tallies, is deemed a beauty by their 
inhabitants. Anecdotes built on that supposition are found 
in books of travels and novelettes in the Periodicals. "What 
a beauty that Miladi would be, if she only had a goiire! " A 
wretched object in whom this deformity was very conspicuous 
passed us, as we were toiling up the road before reaching 
Chode. I repeated to the driver one of the anecdotes of the 
kind alluded to, and asked iiirii whether the young men and 
women of that region really thought the goitre a beauty. lie 
looked at mo sf>mewhat reproachfully, and answered, " Mai- 
heureux ceux qui en on£^^* woe to those who have it ! 

The road is very steep at Chede, Here we turned aside 
to see a pretty cascade, the Nant de Chede^ arche4 by a bril- 
liant rainbow. Farther on we came to the Lac de Ck^e^ m 
which Mont Blanc was reflected as in a mirror. Tlie guide 
book states that in 1837, it was filled up with stone and black 
mud, in one of those de^xkhs^ or mountain freshets, which are 
continually changing the aspect of tl^^* vallies in the upper 
Alps. The road now passes over i^ hat was the Miroir de 
Cht'di, T])o road constantly ascending crosses the bed of a 
torrent, — probably the same wliich in some former inunda. 
lion filled up the Mtroir^ and still oflcn changes its track by 
the chaotic accumulations brought down by every violent 
storm. The considerable effLct sometimes produced, in this 


'I HE MUUNT TKiiNON l^AI^Kiti^. 

way, in a few hours In Iho dattow Tallies intorposLj bttwucu 
Uiese I oil J mountains, leaclies a significant lesson as to the 
vast results of great elemental forces acting for a succession 
of ages, — of mighty geulogioal periods,- — on the earth*s surfeoc 

We breakfasted at the little village of Servoz, which lies 
about half way between St. Martin and Chamouni, and here 
we gut the last view of the summit of Mont BJane before 
turning into the valky. Farther on it is hidden by interven- 
ing ** Domes,'' as these vaulted mountain lieights are expres- 
sively called in French. Not far from Scrvoz, you cross a 
mountain torrent called tho Diosa, and soon reach the Pont 
Pelissier, where the Arve whose turbid stream first attracted 
your notice at its junction with iho pure blue Khone below 
tho Lake of Geneva, and which has been coquetting with you 
all the way from tho lake up to Chamouni, rushes out from a 
mountain gorge, and gives a character to tho valley. It still, 
as you toil onward, keeps you company on the left, bounding 
from terra<'e to terrace j raving through the rocks, which it 
has itself rent from the mountain sides, sometimes plunging 
into depths, where the eye would seek in vain to follow it, 
but occasionally spreading out for a few y«rds into a smooth 
mountain pool. Mont Blanc now Itjoms uj)on you in all its 
grandeur, although its summit is liidden by tho Dome du 
Goute. You are now in the valley of Chamouni ; you cross 
by anotlur bridge to the right hank of the Arve, which runs 
parallel with the foot of the Brevcn and at a short distance 
from it, while on the opposite banks a succession of glaciers 
stretch into the valley, at right angles to its course, 

A glacier of the largest dimensions is to the thoughtful 
student of nature one of the most extraordinary phenomena on 
the surface of the globe, while it is also one of those of which, 
without <x^iilar inspection, it is most diHieult to form an accu- 
rate idea. It is a vast mass of ice and melted snow, in some 
cases seven or eight hundred feet thick, and several miles 
wide and long, filling tho space between two Alpine ridges, or 




th<? gorgo wliieli tuts deep into the faco of a mountain. It is, 
therefore, a frozen sea, whoso shores are composed of wild 
gnmatic or calcareous cli^, open on its lower end to tho val- 
lej-. The glacier is not homogeneous, hut its lower strata ron- 
sists of solid ice, while the upper portion is a mass which has 
alternately melted and frozen, and is somewhat porous. The 
surface is rotjgh and undulating, and broken by crevices, some 
of which are narrow and easily leapt over by the aid of the 
Alpine staff, shod with iron, which is placed in the traviller'^s 
hand ; others are wide, deep, and impassable ; a yawning, 
frozen grave to tho hapless tourist, who shoiiid miss a step 
upon tho brink, A very striking case of a flital accident of 
this kind is narratwl, in the London Illustrated News for the 
27th of August, 1859. From the low^er extremity of the 
glacier a stream of water issues, produced by tho action of 
the sun on the exposed surfaces of tho mass, and percolating 
through the crevices, and the porous substance of the glacier, 
whose volume thus suffers a diminution in the summer, some- 
tioies equal to its increase in tho winter. 

But the most extraordinary fact in connection with the 
glaciers is their motion. It has long been known that the 
mighty mass, w^hich one would suppose must, independent of 
its weight, be frozen immovably to tho eternal rocks that 
hound and underlie it, is nevertheless steadily ploughing its 
way, "witli irresistible force, down the inclined surface on 
which it lies, grinding and throwing up vast fuiTOWs of granite, 
limestone and gravel , called moraines, from the sides of the gorge. 
This fact, I say, was noticed by the early observers, but much 
doubt rested on the cause of the motion. The researches of Pro- 
fessor Agassiz, carried on wnth unwearied diligence, wonderful 
acuteness of observation, and sagacity of infercjice, have estab- 
lished the theory, now generally accepted, that this forward mo- 
tion is caused by the action upon each other of the particles which 
compose tho soraew^hat porous mass of the glacier, and wliicli 
are alternately expanded and conti*acted hy change of tempLr- 


TSB MOL2rr rmasfos rAFKia. 

Atare* Tliis theory attracted great attention as fiist broi^l 
to general notice by ProfeBsor Farbes, (who speaks of the 
glaciers as " visoaus " bodies,) vho passed some weeka with 
Mr. Agaaaiz an the gigantic glacier of the Aar, where, for 
seTerai sooceaatTe aeaaona^ this last-named illustrious Philoso- 
pher had been pursuing his investigations* 

It is not the least remarkable circunistance in connection 
with Mont Blanc and Chamouni that they remained so long 
unknown to the travelling world. The common accounts rep- 
resent them as having been disoovered by Dr. Richard Po- 
oocke (afterwards Bishop of Ossory) and hi^ companion 
Windham, in 1741. Mr. Simond, one of the most intelligent 
of modem travellers, says, ** Incredible as it may seem, this 
valley of Chamouni, iill then unknown, was dUcovertd in 1741 
by two Englishmen, the celebrated traveller Pococke and a 
Mr, Windham." This, however, requires explanation. The 
Priory, which still gives its name to the central village of 
Chamouni, and to the house of aitertainment there, was 
founded toward the close of the tloventh century ; a visitation 
of the Bishop of Goneva, in whoso diocese it lay, is recorded 
in the fifleenth ; and St. Francis do Sales visited it in the 
seventeenth century. I take these facts from Murray's hand- 
book, where others to the same eiTect may be found ; but the 
statement also given there, that the Report of the excursion 
of Messrs, Pococke and Windham to Chamouni " is in the 
Royal Society's transactions in 1741 " is erroneous* There 
is nothing of that kind in tliat volume, nor as &r as the index 
of Reuss can be trusted, any other volume of the Royal So- 
ciety *s transactions, unless it appears under some other name. 
There is no reason to suppose tliat the valley of Qianiouni 'waa 
" unknown,'* in any strict sense of Uio word, from the earliest 
antiquity, in any odier way than all thinly inhabited and re- 
mote mountain regions were unknown, till a comparatively 
recent period, during which travelling for recreation and 
pleasure has become so much more frequent than it ever was 



in former times* There must always have been a road^ 
though not the most direct one, from Geneva, up the valley 
of the Arve, through Chamouni, by the way of the Col do 
Balme, to Martigny, whoro a l^raan legion was stationed by 
Julius Csesar. It is, however, most true, that the visit of 
Messrs. Pocockc and Windham is the earliest that is known 
to have been made by modern tourists, and seems to have 
first turned the attention of the world of travellers in that 

It is somewhat noticeable that natural phenomena, so pe- 
culiar and extraordinary as tlie awful peaks and icy seas of 
the upper Alps, should not more frequently have furnished 
the poets with appropriate imagery* Even if we assume that 
the Mer de Glace and Mont Blanc were *' discovered " in 
1741j other portions of the Alpine chain were known from 
time immemorial. A continual intercourse for the purposes 
of trade as well as war has been kept up between Italy and 
the regions west of it, at least from the time of the Roman 
conquests, and through the middle ages, down to the present 
day. One might have expected that natural olj]ects of a char- 
acter so grandly marked and peculiar would, through the re- 
ports of intelligent travellers, have been reflected into the 
literature, — ^prose and poetrj^ — both of the ancients and no}^'- 
eras. Cicero and Ciesar, Petrarcli and Tasso crossed the Alps, 
as did Milton and Addison, Thomson and Gray. It would 
be hazardous to say that, in the wide range of ancient and 
modem poetr}% there is no description of the scenery in 
question, till the last century, but 1 am inclined to think that, 
in poets of the first claaa, it does not go beyond general al- 
lusions. Milton speaks of " many a frozeu AJp," Thomson 
describes an Avalanche, Coleridge in a hymn, mainly bor- 
rowed, it is said, from the GL-rman,* chants the solemn glories 
of Chamouni before sunrise, and Byron, who wrote his Man* 

* Be Qnlitoe^A lAVtnrj BemtoUoexioeic YoL L^ p. 150. 



frod within sight of Mont Blanc, consecrates one majestic 
Quatrain to '^ the monarch of mountains.^' But I recollect no 
master passage (like the descriptions of the Eruption of iEtna 
by Eschylus and Pindar) of which you would say after read- 
ing it, that it was conceived by the side of an Alpine glacier 
or at the foot of an Alpine peak. Some splendid stanzas in 
Childe Harold may be deemed an exception to this remark. 



Excufslon to tli« jArdtn Tert— Ascent to thi MontiinTert— ]*rofiMict ftcm It— BaUtft* 
ry cubln— Beautiful midnight «een«— Crossing the Mt*r de Glaoe, cn^vasaes— 
Dangerous pa» aJong tlio fcwe of tbo mountAlii—Heach the JordJn^BabUmlly of 
Uie aceof'— Eottirn to tho MontaiiTert— Descent to tbo lower end of tbe Mer da 
Olaoe and thoRoiiTC»or tbo Arrclron— GcolD^lt^ol itg^nfncance Df th« r^ent fn- 
qalrlci into tbo formatloQ and tnovetDcot of tbtj Glack^re—Io] parlance of thrta 
bodlea in th«i CGODomy of imtarc^ 

Desirous of seeing a fair specimen of Alpine scenery, and 
not having time to multiply exeursions, we deternunecl on visit- 
ing tlie Jardia Vert^ (the Green Garden,) the highest point of vege- 
tation in Europe. This spot can only be reached by ascending 
the Montanvert,* and crossing the Mer de Glace^ (Sea of Ice,) 
which is one of the noblest glaciers in the Alpine range. Tlie ex* 
cursi*on reijuire^ a day and a half from the valley of Chamouni, 
is very fatiguing, and at that time, as wilt presently bo seen, 
was not unattended with danger. It w^as, therefore, not very 
frequently undertaken. Some improvement has, I believe, 
been made in the most difficult passes, by which the danger 
is diminished ; and excursions to the Jardin Vert are, in con* 
sequence more common than they w^ere forty years ago. 

Having laid in a small stock of provisions, wc started 
from the Inn in the valley of Chamouni, at three o'clock in 
the afternoon. The road for the first part of the way lies 

* Tbls tmnio Is rarioualj^ RptlL In tbo French motto to tbo bigUly Intcrestins 
chapter on ChamouoJ, in BcniUo and Bart let fs Swilierlanci, Yol L, It ij written 
Mont EnvcTM 



through the valley of the Anre, but begins to ascend rapidly 
after you strike into the pine woods that skirt the foot of tlie 
mountain. There was in 1818 no beaten pathway through 
this patch of forest, and we snfTercd a good deal of fatigue in 
following our guides, as they led us over fallen trees, project- 
ing roots, scattered boulders from the heights above^ and 
across the bed of torrents, which, after a heavy rain, came 
foaming down the mountain sides. But the fine views that 
continually open upon you as you ascend- — the opposite sum- 
mits of the Breven, the range of the valley, and presently the 
magnificent peak called the Aiguille de Dm — amply repay 
you for the labor. The distance to the Montanvert, as wc 
travelled it, was about three leagues, which took us about 
half a mile above the level of the valley. There wxis accord- 
ingly, in some of the steeper places, no little need of the 
long staves, shod with iron, with which our guides had pro- 
vided us. 

We reached the Montanvert about suuset, and there en- 
joyed a prospect of traoscen dent grandeur and beauty. The 
elevation above the level of the se^i is about equal to that of 
Mount Washington, in the White Mountains; it is nearly 
the highest easily accessible point in the Alps, Light even- 
ing clouds w ere floating on the opposite sides of the Flegcrc 
and Brevcn, touched and gilded by the twilight of a mild 
Beptember evening, Direetly before us and beneath the 
level of the ^lontanvert was the Sea of Ice, entering the valley 
of Chamouni abruptly, nearly on a range with the spot where 
wo stood, and stretehing for miles backward and upward to 
the right* This immense glacier is called the *^ Sea of Ice '* 
from its magnitude, and because its rough, broken surface 
looks as we may suppose the sea would look, if it could be 
suddenly frozen solid at the height of a storm. All was 
silent on the top of the mountain, except that a cow^-boy was 
singing his ranz dcs vacltcs, as he drove his four or five ani- 
mals to their shed, and the Ar^^eiron, in the stillness of the 



ereniKg, was heard with a hollow murmur, bursting out from 
henfiath the gkcier below, arid rushing to the Arve« 

A tolerably substantial cabin, consisting of one room, but 
wholly destitute! of furniture, except tAvo or three wooden 
benches, was the only habitation for man on the Mon tan vert 
in 1818, A small inn with two or three bed-rooms has since 
been erected for the accommodation of tra\'ellers. A cow- 
herd and his boy were the only occupants of the lonely spot 
at that time, and milk and curds the only food to be obtained 
there. As we were to pass the night on the mountain, we 
had provided ourselves more substantially, and made a hearty 
meal on dried goat-mutton. This done^ we kindled an im- 
mense fire, drew two benches together, and with our feet to 
the blazing logs^ and our knapsacks for pillows, lay down to 
sleep. At midnight I was \vakened by the moon, full or 
nearly so^ pouring upon my fac^*, through the window of the 
cabin. I did not hesitate to obey tlie summons, and went out 
to contemplate a scene at once the most lovely and &wful that 
mj eyes ever rested on. The light of the moon at this great 
elevation, and in consequence of the purity of the air, had a 
strange metallic intensity. The supremo stillness of Nature 
on these iol^y Alpine summits, unbroken by any thing but 
the moan of the Arveiron, would have been dreary, had not 
an occasional tinkle of the cow-bell from the shed near us 
given a token of life. A sharp crack from the glacier from 
time to time also told that there was motion there. The 
mildness and serenity of midnight in the^o frozen solitudes 
were as pleasing to me as they were unexpected. 1 had been 
anticipating benumbing cold and roaring w^inds^ loaded with 
hlindifig particles of driil snow* 

We were abroad at the earliest dawn. Below us was the 
frozen sea, six or seven miles in length, and then brandling 
out into two other glaciers, running further back into the in- 
most recesses of the Alps. Directly in front of us was the 
AiguiUe de 3ru, and further in the rear and on the right the 



Aiguille du MotnCf the mighty granitic steeples of Nature'^ 
temple, rearing llicir ragged pinnacles to the heavens. About 
midway between the Dm and the Moinc is the Alguilh Verte^ 
which overtops both, and reaches tfie height of nearly thirteeo 
thousand feet above the level of tiie sea ; twice the elevation 
of the Mouttmvert. The intervals between these peaks, wlucfa 
are miles apart, are filled with numerous other needles (Ai- 
guilles), as thoy are called, of various sizes and heights, which 
unit© to give an inexpressible savageness, if 1 may so call it, 
to the scene. If the reader will fancy to himelf an immense 
mountain gorge, six miles long, branching into two others oC 
about equal length, the whole forming something like a Yf 
the sides bounded by two or three parallel ridges of bare 
granite, from which at irregular intervals the above-mentioned, 
pLnnaoles rise to the clouds ; and will then conceive thii 
strange enclosure to be filled with a stormy sea, which, at the 
moment when it was tossing most wildly, had been irozeu to 
the bottom, so that it should spread out a Tast rigid mass, 
with all its icy billows and deep crystal chasms, and here and 
there a stray boulder on its surface ; he will have as correct 
an idea of the Mer de Qlact^ as seen from the Montimvert, as 
can be formed without ocular inspection. 

Our day's work was to cross this frozen sea diagonal Iji;- 
and return before night. The distance to bo traversed on the 
glacier might, in a straight line, be about tlu-eo miles, but it 
was considerably increased by fv^llowing a serpentine course. 
We had screwed sharp iron points into the soles of our boots, 
and our long poles were ariiied with iron. With this pre- 
paration we started, each following his guide. The moraines 
were first to l)c crnssi>d, by a toilsome, and frequently difli- 
cult, and even dangerous path. The surface of the glacier was 
in some places extremely rougli and uneven, and broken by 
crevices, some of which appeared, as we looked down, to bo 
forty or fifty feet deep. Woe to the w^retch who should full 
into one of them ! Some of the deepest of these crevices 



communicate with the currents that Uow beneath the masg^ 
and carry off the pcrcoiating waters. It is related that in 
1787, a shepherd, who was living sixty years Efterwards, fell 
into one of those deep crevices, — crevasses^ as they are more 
commonly called by the French name,— which, happily for 
him, communicated with the vaulted passage worn by the 
trickling waters, through whi<L.'h he escaped to the light of day 
with no worse injury than a broken arm, 

A little snow had fallen shortly before we crossed the 
glacier, and it was necessary to use great care, not to step on 
places where it had, by drifling, formed a frail and tremiher- 
0133 crust over one of these crevices. With all our care to 
place our feet exactly in the footsteps of our guide, we were 
Bomctimes misled by the apparent solidity of the adjacent 
surface, and slipped into holes three or four feet deep. Be* 
sides the smaller crevices wliieh break the surtaco of the gla- 
cicFj it is traversed by broader fissures, at right angles to the 
main direction of the mass, which often make it impossible to 
advance in a straight line. Occasionally one of the huge 
boulders just mentioned would afford the means of crossing 
these fissures ; sometimes tliey Avere bridged over by broad 
cakes of ice ; and sometimes it M-as necessary to climb down 
on one side and up on the other, by the aid of tho projecting 
inequalities in the icy wall. In this way we travelled by e^sti- 
mate about six miles in three hours, and found ourselves 
landed at the foot of the opposite mountain, called the Cou- 
vercie. Here we rested for half an hour. The almost per- 
pendicular face of this mountain was next to be climbed, and 
here the danger seemed to me far greater than at *' the Fonts," 
which Murray's Iland-book calls the most diflicult part of the 
excursion, which ** no one who has not a steady head should 
attempt to cross." It is probable that the constaJit downward 
march of the glacier, ploughing its way towards tho valley 
may, in tho course of forty years, have produced important 
changes in the moraines (the chaotic ridges) that bound it. 



In ascending the side of the Tnountain, it is necessary in one 
place to pass along its aln[iost perpendicular face at a height 
of five or sbt hundred feet from its liase, with no other support 
for the feet but the cavities, an incli or two deep, some natural, 
some apparently artificial, by means of which, supporting 
yourself in the mean time with your hands, you sidle along. 
One of the gn ides introduced us to tliis passage, called the 
Effmkis, by the tranquillizing exelamatitin ; " Here take care 
how you step, gentlemen, or you arc lost ! " 

After this formidable pass wo had still to climb the 
mountain, but by a safer ascent^ for an hour and a half, and 
tlien, having crossed the head of the glacier, we reached the 
Jardin Vert, a smalt green spot, in the very heart of the Alps, 
more than nine thousand feet above the level of the sea. Its 
size varies with the length of the preceding winter, or the heat 
of the season* It is sometimes seven or eight acres in ex- 
tent^ but it appeared to me less than two. It is the highest 
point of vegetation in Europe, and covered with a coarse 
Alpine grass. No description can do justice to the feelings 
which one experiences at this great elevation — the joint result 
of sensation, thought, and emotion. You still see around you 
the magnificent peaks already described, while other columns 
and glaciers open upon you from the new point of view. Far 
away as you are in these terrible mountain fastnesses, from 
every living heinsTt ^^lo mind shiks under the fearful solitude 
and overwhelming grandeur of the scene. There was nut a 
cloud in the sky ; ita tint was nearly black ; the rays of the 
sun were condensed as in a vast concave mirror ; and the heat 
80 intense that our faces were too much blistered to use a 
razor with any comfort, for a week afterwards. 

After a hearty lunch and a short nap, we started on the 
return, This we were able to acc^^mplish in rather less time 
than the afn^ent, partly because a considerable part of the way 
was down hill ; and in other places because we hod our morn- 
ing's pathway in the snow to guide us* The Egraleia^ how- 



«f8r^ appeared to me rather more formi^iable than they did 
in the nioriimg. The snow that k^dgcd m the excavaLioaa 
above-mentioned had pajlly melted and coated tliem with thin 
ice. I have, in the course of my life, been a few times in what 
fiCjemcd to mo dangerous situations, but never in one where 
the peril appeared so great. We got back to the Montanvert 
at about four o'clock in the afternoon, having occornpHshed 
the difficult expedition, much to our satisfaction, in about tea 
hours from the lime of starting, for nine of which we had been 
in motion. Onr guides told us that the Janiin was not ot\en 
visited ; and they knew of hut one lady who had made the 
excursion ; a daughter of the celebrated aeronaut Montgolfior. 

I took my leave of the M^vntanvert with a sorrowful feeling, 
that I should never probably revisit the scene of so much 
sublime beauty. We descended by a difierent and steeper 
path, in order to see the source of the Arveiron. A part of 
the way the inclination was too great to admit any use of the 
feet^ walking or running ; wc were obliged to resort to a 
simpler form of locomotion, which speedily brought us to the 
foot of the mountain, and to the front of the glacier as it pre- 
sents itself to the valley. This is what may be called the out- 
let of one of the three of the largest Alpine glaciers; for among 
six hundred which Escber estimates to be the entire number, 
that of Mont Blanc just described, of Monte Eosa, and of 
the Finster-Aar*Hum in the Bernese Alps^ are the largest and 
most important* The last-named has been explored with the 
greatest care, and is that on which the observations of Mr, 
Agassiz were made, which have furnished the basis of the ac- 
cepted theory of these extraordinary formations. 

The arched cavern in the middle of the face of the glacier, 
from which the Arveiron was pouring forth the entire drain- 
age of the Mer de Glace^ varies in dimensions in different 
seasons. It appeared to me, at tlie outlet, about ninety feet 
high, — the entrance to a magnificent crystal grotto. In win- 
ter it is said wholly to disappear* Tt begins to be formed in 



springs increases in height and width with the advance of 

summer ; and sometimes the upper arch, sometimes the lat- 
eral buttresses become so much softened and melted awar, 
that a considerable portion comes down witli a mighty crash. 
Contrary to what might be cxpe^jted, the water, which issues 
from these mountaius of ice and snow, is not remarkably 
clear. It is geJicrally turbid, sometimes charged with earthy 
deposits, the result no doubt of the grinding action of the 
glacier on its rocky bed and sides, 

Hiis is not the place for a disquisition on the importimt 
geological inferences, which have been drawn from the more 
accurate study of the Swiss glaciers of lato years. The sur- 
fece of the globe, wherever it has been explored, presents ap- 
pearances, which can be best referred to the action of these 
mighty masses of ice, driven along, in somo former condition 
of our planet, by oceanic currents, like those which at the 
present day bring down the terrilic icebergs of the North to 
our temperate lalitudes.— At ihe present day, it is justly ob- 
served by the able editor of Murray's Hand-book of Switzer- 
land, that '• it is highly interesting to consider, how important , 
a service the glaciers perform in the economy of nature 
These dead and chilly fields of ice, which prolong the reign of 
winter throughout the year, are, in reality the s*>urca of life 
and the springs of v^etation. Hicy are the locked up reser- 
voirs, the sealed fountains, fron^ which the vast rivers, travers- 
ing the great continents of our globe, are sustained. The 
summer heat wliich dries up other sources of water, 
opens out their bountiful supplies. When the rivers of the 
plain begin to shrink and dwindle within their parched beds^ 
the torrents of the Alps, fed by melting snow and glaciers, 
rush down from the mountiuns and supply the defieiency ; 
and at tliat season (July and August) the rivers and lakes of 
Switxerland are the fullest/' 



iU)USw«ti'» b:nis«— HU inaBHJwript«— Partial iofianity the best apology for liU eon- 
do et—Volialre'* Cbatcaii at Fernyj^— Description ethia room and Ii*t of portrait* 
In It^Otlier memorJoils— Coolroft of Fartiey as \t wma during VottairoV Uff^tLmo 
and its present ap|>eaiiiQc>o^l:ih lifo and wofka ad «ntlre fElliire — Coppet and 
ItlAdAm^ d« Stael— Goiiverncur Morris^Lausanne— Gibhofi's houau — tta «ppoar<- 
ADca In 1813— '&tinimi.^r-liuuAd In tbo garden, wLero bu was occuatomod to fltudjr— 
Last Iin<3fl of the Dedkno and Fall written thitre— Dunuj'* striking remark In 
liai, oa the fiUbillCy and duratlan of the Engllali longnaga, In coustquciuct^ o( lis 
preTaJttDco fa America. 

It A VINO little time to spare, we made the return to Geneva 
in one day, which was done with the greater easc» as the road 
is generally on the descent, and with the greater willingness, 
as the prospects looking westward are far less magnificent. 
Our lodgings were at the £ch de Gcnire, which coninianded 
in the rear a most pleasing view of the Kiver and the Lake. 
The former is perhaps a finer object than that portion of the 
Lake which is se^u from the terrace. The '' arrowy " swift- 
ness of the Rhone, the deep blue tint and purity of the water, 
as it hurries in its divided current through the city, arc re- 
nowiied in prose and in poetry. Every one has heard of the 
confluence of the Ehone and the Ar\'e, a short distance below 
the city, and the stately refusal of the former to mingle its 
limpid current with the turbid waters of the latter stream. 
At the iabie d^kdie of the hotel there were pei'sons (as we had 
the means of knowing) of eight diflerent countries, speaking 
that number of languages. There might have been still others 
of different nations and tongues- Among the English was 



Mr. Elmsky, whom I had the good fortune to know at Ox- 
ford, — one of the best Greek schtUars of his time, and then on 
his way to examine tlie classical manuscripts in the Ambro- 
sian library at Milan. 

The house in which Kousseau was born is on a street 
which bears his name. Though of three stories in height, 
it has a mean appearance. Over tho door arc inscribed in 
plain letters the words Jean Jacques Rousseau^ nc id xxviii 
Juijiy 1712, *'^ John James Rousseau was born here on the 2Sth 
of June, 1712." A number of the original manuscripts of ' 
Rousseau, including that of his ** Confessions," were preserved 
at Geneva, at the time of our visit, in tho possession of the 
son of the friend to whom ho bequeathed them. We were 
promised an opportunity of inspecting them, but were acci» 
dentally prevented from availing ourselves of it. Rousseau 
describes his own mode of writing as extremely laborious, and 
speaks of his manuscripts as being ** full of erasures and blots, 
and undecipherable." The manuscript of the Confessions 
was represented to us, as being in his own hand, uTitten with* 
great neatness, and entirely tra^e from erasures and blots, Itl 
was of course a fair copy, wTitten out by himself. The direo^ 
tions given by him, that his autobiography should be pub- 
lifihcd as written, without alteration or retrenehment, were, 
it seems, to some extent disobeyed, by the omission of pas- 
sages too gross to see tho light. It would have been well for 
his good name if these scruples had been carried further. 
One apology,— a wret-ched one, it is true^may be made fop 
some of the details of his book, m which the frailties of others 
are meanly divulged in connection with hb owu. His inten- 
tion was that the publication should not take place til! 1800, 
and when he probably thought that all those whose names 
were introduced by him wuukl have passed away. It ap- 
peared, however, the first part in 1781, three years after his 
death, and the se/?jond in 1788. The injurious effects of its 
disclosures, or what purport to bo such, on the characters of 



otliera wero in a great degree neiitraliEed by the generally 
prevailing impression that no statement made by hun is en- 
titled to belief, whieb rests merely on his own anthority. It 
has been shown in some cases that the whole trtith ^vas not 
told by him, e%'en in reference to breaches of morality con- 
fessed by himself, and where the frankness of the admission 
might seem to chalk nge belief. 

The best apology to be made for the life as for the writ- 
ings of Roosseau is, that he was partially insane. Such 
seems to have been the opinion of the most renowned of his 
admirers. In Byron's poetical apotheosis of Rousse^n, ho 
says : — 

^* But be was frended, — wherefore who mnj know ? 
Since cause might bo which skill could never find ; 
But he wtts frcniicd by disease or woe, 
To thttt worst pitt'h of oil, that woara a rcflBoning show.** 

No other theory so well explains bis character as a writer 
and as a man ; and this 1 am aware is only saying in other 
words that they adniit no rational explanation or defence. It 
is doubtful whether the last century, so fertile Ln France of 
publications adapted to deprave the public taste and poison 
th« minds of the young of both sexes, produced any thing 
worse than the writings of Rousseau. He had too much dis- 
cernment, — if enlitled to be called a ratioiia! being, to be 
unconscious lumself tliat this was the character and tendency 
of his writings ; and yet when Voltaire, not yet his enemy, at 
the time of the persecytions occasioned by the appearance of 
Emile offered its author an Asylum at Fcmey, Rousseau, 
with alTeeted candor, replied, '* I do not love you, you have 
corrupted my republic in giving it a theatre.'* Such was the 
edifying anxiety of the author of the Kew Ehke for the mor- 
als of the young men and women of Geneva 1 On one occii- 
sion a person introduced himself in the following manner : 
" You SCO before you a father wdio has educated his son 



agreciibly to the principles in your Emile." Rousseau's reply 
was '* So much the worse lur you and your eon I ** — It seer us 
to have been the design of Providence to ftimish in tlic con 
duct and in the autobiography of Rousseau, an all-suflicjent 
antidote for the poison of his writings, 

Vc4taire's residence at Femex, or Ferncy, as it is usually 
written, is about six miles from Geneva, aod just within the 
limits of France. After his quarrel with Frederic the Great, 
and a teinporary residence at Lausanne aud at Les Diliccs (a 
villa whioh still bears that name, and which you pass on the 
way from Geneva to Ferney) ho established himself at this 
last named place, where he lived en grand seir^neur for twenty 
years, till his triumphant return to Paris, There is but little 
natural beauty about it, though it enjoys a distant view of the 
lake. Whatever must be said unfortunately of VoUaire*s 
litical or religious influence, he was a bonefieent landlord, tmi 
built up Ferney, wlrich before liis time was a small poverty- 
stricken hamlet, into a largo and prosperous village. The 
mansion, Chaitau^ (castle,) as with somo latitude of applica- 
tion it is usually called, is a large, and may have been inj 
other times a somew^hat imposing, residence ; but it had iai 
1818 a forlorn and dilapidated appearance. There was a 
small chapel on the left as you cuter the ench^surc which is 
said to have borne the inscription Deo erextt Voifmre, and 
sometimes given in French d I}Uh Voilaire,^ This inscrip- 
tion, if it ever existed, has long since disappeared. It is said 
to have been obliterated during the Freneli Re\'oIution, 

We were shown Voltaire's bedroom, and told that wo saw 
it as ho left it. In size it may be eleven or twelve feet by 
fitieea or sixteen ; it is on the ground floor, and wiis scantily 
and meanly furnished. Ttie eh air coverings and eurtains were 
of silk, once blue, much faded, and greatly mutilated by trav- 
elling mriuasi, for whoso benefit no doubt they ai^c from time 

♦ Ercclcd by ValUIro iJi hmor of God,*^ 



to time renewed. The bed is a single one of very ordinary 
materials and appearance. Directly over the bcnl inside 
hangs the portrait of the celebrated actor, Le Kaiii, tho great 
reformer of the Frencli stage, to -whom \^>ltaire felt under 
special obligations fur having contributed to the success of his 
plays, by the spirit and naturalness of his acting. On one 
side of the bed is a likeness in crayon of Frederic the Great, 
and on the other of Voltaire himself. The indignities which 
he suffered from his royal patron did not make him wish to 
have their friendly relations f^jrgottcn. On the side of the 
room, as you enter, is a strange kind of monument erected to 
him, in a sort of coarse porcelain, by his adopted daughter, 
Madame de Villette. It contained tht; heart of Voltaire, with 
the inscription in French, '* His spirit is everywhere, his 
heart is here." In the French Revolution the heart was 
removed to the Pantheon at Piiris. N<jthing can bo in worse 
taste than this memorial. On the same side of the room is a 
portrait of the Empress Catharine If. of Russia, wrought in 
needle^ work by herself and presented to Voltaire j an engrav- 
ing of Pope Clement tlie XIV^, and of Voltaire's favorite 
Savoyard servant. On tlie opposite side of the room, is a 
portriat of Madame de Chdtelet ; and on the fourth, on one 
side of the window, arc engravings of the llimily of the unfor- 
tunate Calas, of Delille, under which is written, in Voltaire^s 
hand — 

*' Nalli flebillor qafim tibi, Virgili," • 

of Diderot, Newton, and Franklin, (these in one row,) and 
under them Raeine, Milton, Washington, and Corncille ; and 
on the other side of the window, in one row, Thomas, Leib- 
nitz, Dortons de Maire, and d'Alembert, and under these 
Helve till 9 and Marmontel, with an emblematic engraving of 
the monument of Voltaire, placed there after his death. 
These paintings and engravings are hero enumerated as we 

• *' Lamented by t»o one more than bj thety O VIi:giL" 



saw them in 1818. Other lista are given, a«d it is very like- 
ly that changes have T^een made in the course of the eighty- 
one years which have elapsed since his de^ith, during whlcli 
the Chateau has been the property of several owners. In the 
garden was a monument of wcK»d, erected in honor of Voltaire 
by one of his admirers, covered with votive inscriptions ; and 
in the gardener-s house an album was shown us containing tlie 
seals of Voltaire's correspondents separated from the letters, 
with the names of the writers placed under them in ^'oltai^e's 
hand. The aged gardener, who spoke with great respect of 
the memory of his illustrious employer, gave us some speci- 
mens of the seals and of Voltaire's writing, from this book* 
As the same favor wi^ extended by a descendant of the gar- 
dener a few years ago to one of my children, and has been no 
doubt to an entire intervening generation of travellers^ the 
album and its contents may i>e supposed to be endowed with 
some self-renewing property. 

It is, of course, impossible from its present d^olate 
appearance, after moth and rust, and time and tourists, and 
invading armies and revolutions have done their worst upon 
the Chateau and its belongings, to form an idea of what Fer- 
ney may have been in Voltaire^s time, when it was the seat 
of a profuse hospitality ; of entertainments at whidi two 
hundred sat at table at once ; when plaja were performed in 
bis private theatre, in which he himself took part ; and he, the 
most popular writer of the day, was the centre of attraction 
to a throngf in which the most distinguished persons of all 
countries were eager to mingle* When Mr* Fox saw him, 
whieh was a " long time ago," he " lived in great elegance." 
Voltaire was immensely rich, and though methodical in the 
management of his property, scattered his income with a free 
hand. Beyond the circle of his immediate dtpendants, he 
was not a favorite in the community* In Geneva, his infidel 
principles, and the profligacy of some of his pt>cticai writings, 
combined with the aristocratic state which he kept up^ to 



make him an object of utiiversal dislike. He had siicccccted 
as little as Rousseau, in corrupting the Bimplo manners and 
depraving tlio austere morals of the miniature republic. He 
repaid the aversion of his neighbors Vklth sarcasms upon the 
limited dimensions of their territory. " AVhen I shake my 
wig," he was accustomed to say, " I powder the whole repub- 
lic," The shabby magnificence and tawdry and flided splen- 
dors of Femey are not out of keeping with their master's 
career; in which you know not which most to wonder at; 
the astonishing versatility and vigor of tlio natural endow* 
meats, or the miserably mconscquential and ephemeral results. 
It was the great and avowed aim of Voltaire's life and writings 
to destroy the popular faith in the Christian Religion. His 
works, constructed with that main object in view, and with 
the utmost boldness of direct attack and skill of covert and 
adroit insinuation, attained a contemporary reputation, which 
no other writings of the same description perhaps ever pos- 
sessed. Besides this, his theories and speculations wero 
reduced to practice, and his godless ribaldry turned into 
ghastly realities, by the only great political movement la 
the world ever built on the negation of religious respon- 
sibility ; and yet by the mysterious working together of 
things, in the disposal of an all-wise Providence, there per- 
haps never was a time since tho primitive conversion of 
France to Christianity, when it was more generally treated 
throughout that country with outward respect, than at the 
present day, and when, as tar as wo have a right to judge, 
it was more cordially embraced by tho mass of the people, 
as a system, a rule, a comfort^ and a hope. 

A short distance from Geneva, on the western side of tho 
Lake, lies Coppet, famous as tho refJdonce of M. and ^fadamo 
Neckar, and their still more celebrated daughter, Madame do 
Staei. The room in which she is said to have written 
Corinne, her desk and Inkstand, arc shown to tho traveller. 
The present generation can hardly form an adequate idea of 



the celebrity of this lady as a writer and a politiciiint Her 
father's reputation as a financier, at the outbreak of the 
French revolution, the populaiity of the daughter's romances, 
especially Corinne, whoso laurfl wreath was supposed to have 
been, woven with autobiographic;!! itvmpathy, her proscription 
by Napoleon, her European fame lus a conversationist, her 
eourai^ti in undertaking, even with the intelligent guidance of 
August Sehlcgel, an exhaustive survey of the philosophy and 
literature of Germany, of w bieh very little was known at tlmt 
time either in France or England, and the masculine shrewd- 
ness and eloquence of her speculations on the French revolu- 
tion had earned for lier a moi^t brilliant name in England and 
in this country. 1 had letters to her from persons whom she 
field in great respect, whose names 1 record w ith melancholy 
Batisfactiou,^-JIr* Gouvcrneur Mori*is, Mr, Gallatin, and Mr. 
Clay ; but her illustrious career was closed the year before I 
w^ent to France. Tlio letters procured me a most amiable rc^ 
ception, from the sun^iving members of her family, the Baron 
August dc Staid, and from her son-in-law and daughter, the 
Duke and Duchess do Broglie, whose sahns were the centre 
of the most refined and intellectual circles of Paris. Air. 
Gouvcrneur Morns, as the American Minister at Paris in 
1702, was on terms of familiar intimacy at M* Nockar's 
house. Madame do Stael in her Germany calls him *' Uu 
Amerieaiti lurt spirituel,"' (a very ingenious American.) and 
([uutes with apjilause his remark that ** the French had gone 
beyond liberty." 

It took us the better part of the day to reach Lausanne, 
starting from Geneva in tbe moniing and passing by Cbppet, 
Niort, Rollc, and Morges. The lirst thing to be done at Lau- 
sanne is, of course, to visit Gibbon's house, where he passed 
much of his life and wrote liis great monumental history* It 
was with some difficulty that we got a direction to it from 
our hotel, and from the servant who conducted us through tJio 
premises w^e received the eatisfactory intelligence that Mr. 



Gibbon formerly lived there, but was now dcnd. Tho \i<^\is^^ 
stands high on a terrace, cominanding a fine view of the Lake, 
whidi appears to greater advantage here than at Geneva. 
The ornamental trees in fmnt of the house have beon cut 
down, and the grounds fdanted with fruit trees, were in 1818 
entirely unpictiiresque. The prineipal rooms on the lowiT 
floor of the honsc had been converted into the counting-rooms 
of its proprietor, who was a man of business. A long stair- 
case of stone, inside the house, conducts you to the terrace or 
garden, which is long and narrow. At its extremity^ in a 
grove of dwarf beech trees, is a sort of summer-house oceu- 
pied by Gibbon as a study. On various places on the walls 
of this apartment, as on tho surrounding trees, were nailed 
small pieces apparently of tin, painted white, (they may have 
been canvass,) on which were printed striking passages and 
mottoes principally from the Latin Poets. Their appearance 
Avas far from being tasteful. 

It was in this summer-house, as he informs us in his auto* 
biograpliy, that, on the 27th of June, 1787, between the hours 
of eleven and twelve, he wrote the last lines of the last page 
of his great work. " Atler laying down my pen," be adds, 
** I took several turns in a herccau or covered walk of acacias, 
which commands a prospect of the country, the lake, and the 
mountains. The air was temperate, tho sky was serene, the 
silver orb of the moon was rellected from the waves, and alt 
nature was silent." 

That was indeed one of the j^eat moments in the intellec- 
tual history of man, when the foretaste of an immortal name 
is enjoyed by a master spirit. It breathed a tenderness into 
the somewhat gross and cynical temperament of Gibbon. 
There is a curious association of Gibbon's literary career with 
tho diffusion of the English language in this eountry. He 
had early in life lived a good deal on the continent, and under 
the impression that French was to be tiie universal tongue, 
wrote his first Essay in that language. He sent a copy of it 


TBE HOinrr ykbnoh pafjuks. 

to David Hume, who wrote him in 1767, in admowledgmeni 
of it, as follows : ^^ Why do you compose in Frendiy and 
carry ' fiiggots into the wood,' as Horace says with regard to 
Romans, who wrote in Greek t I grant that yon have a like 
motive to those Romans, and adopt a language mudi more 
generally diffused than your native tongue. But have yon not 
remarked the &te of those two ancient languages in following 
ages ? The Latin, though then less celebrated, and confined 
to more narrow limits, has in some measure outlived the 
Greek, and is now more generally understood by men of let- 
ters. Let the French, therefore, triumph in the present diffii- 
Bion of thdr tongue. Our woUd and inenating tBiahUtkmnmU 
in Amsrica where we need less dread the inundation of bar- 
barians, promUe a superior stability and duration to the JEngh 
Ush language ! " 

What a contrast between these sensible remarks of Hume 
and the sneers of English tourists and critics on the state of 
the i&iglish language as written and spoken in America I 



Idliaipe, the Imtracior of the Emperor Alexandar — Ori^n of tbo Huly Al< 
UiHeer^diocilj at LaasAimo aod tbo noJgbborliood— Scenery— E^ftd to Yt'TA^— 
Tlneyards— Church of 8t MatIjii »t Vevny— General Ladlow'i monuineiit— Fate 
of tbo regicides —Scenery mt Vevay^-Clareiui — Chlllon— ItA dung^ouj— Btirko*« 
Judgment of EotLBseau'a writLtiga^Moadon — Payernti— Bertha*J$ awhile — Fnijban^ 
--Local deftcHptlon — Tbe andpiit: Linden— Strange bcu>rcllcf at tbo catb«>dnLl— ^ 
Fotnt of Jcmetleii of tbo French and Gemiaii LttigiUjsea— 3ti6]>otuloa bridge. 

TeK Cathedral at Lausanne is one of the most important 
buildingg of this class in Switzerland. Its interior presents 
points of architectural interest and Hingutaritj which have at- 
tracted much attention from the students of medieval art ; 
but it has suffered by the changes rec|uired for the convenience 
of the simpler forms of Protestant worship. The sepulchral 
monuments contained in it extend from the reign of Henry 
the Third of England to the last generation, and cover all the 
varieties of human fortune from the crovm and the tiara to 
the fireside of private life. 

We had the opportunity and satisfaction of becoming ac- 
quainted at Lausanne with General Frederic Ccesar Laharpe^ 
the instructor and friend of the Emperor Alexander of Russia, 
This distinguished gentleman, a native of the Canton do Vaud, 
found liimseif in St. Petersburg in early life ; and having be- 
come known to the Empress Catharine, gained her confidence 
so completely that she confided to him the education of her 
grandsons, Alexander and Constantine. After they had out- 

4»y* ms Kcc:rr vaasi^ar pafebs. 

jr^.'TVTi !iLJ Turt^iag*. jr rr^ninit-i * i aia rmnve .Hiunrrj ; bat 
xa *a«ir7 mil iberoi zr:iri;:.L-* rr- in riie Eniptji^.r w^ire «a:n- 
rinia**! :.. "iiti inii r Joa llii;. AiTr-r lis r'iuura :• ^^'xztrhMnd^ 

H»* riciinitfi "iiii i".i:i;ti=ii.r: i* "in? Ejiipur r Alti^iinder &> the 
losit. jmi "If? inp »:••!•:•: "■ .lu"- •Xi-r'Laitii :m lndii»:nre widi him 

H-^ ^pi.iii* -'J is T-.zh rr^'jz Tarmch of die dznuLble perscnal 
•^i^rie* f JL»?santi»-r- iii'i "huiiiiic iii* poiliical principles 

uiuc oe ^ar^ti ji* iia&i i':c jizii jou. '-'ici^mij ac "Jiii G>ngr«9B 
ot Sjv-fni:i:Z!ia is V!T-uir*-h;Lp*::I»^ : uiii: he was 5ure chat, atf lEir 

da i!:i:«:ii':':*i ':":i:n 2: z:. :• ^::.n:i '^' .!:.•: '»? actr-ni-Cir*! osulnat 
*iie z^i*;iiil -.-i-.-r.-. 1: r 1. .. .-:1 . :i-x- -i EuT- pe. Gi^n-jrAl 
L-iiiarr^r ;«:*i:';i; ill :> iin-ian 11 : "!.•: ru^i*;;?* •;T;rr»:iic a; th.i: 
tim*-. zmiz "iie r<:'Llrii!:il ':«:»irs«^ -c 'li*.- E:nr«:r r .VIexjiiiicr LiJ 

T-.c 5L'\ i^Lv-r. II.- ■f-i- : "lu.: ilie Ezij'.r-.r h^i cv^r evino>j.i 
iTtriu ^''i.i^:'.:.y^ ..."' z T^.'Z'---'-^ 1 . ".. ^ r*. »&:•_ US. dZ'i tfLit tLe 
TT. , [L : . : :•: il - v . r. -^ . i' 1 ^* .■ 3- 1 -? 1 o . i ;r Ji;^ ■ v iiL: h. c^jri-: *i ho h:id 
p;k«a.:ti, j^ :li.: F.r. r*^rt.r ':c' Hisal^ rr-.CL ilit I-jwest p^Lnc •. f 
Oiiv cPs i:T . :■ ■ r oiziac li ^zd ills Kr- ^- . r«.- , :» : lio :■ • >: r^- . > : i ■ . > i- 
tioc La LhrUccL.«i'jE-i. huti ^iv-ic .rr-.-a: '.viriii:!! az»i >:rcL:^**:i t>> 
his '?or. V ;.;- V Ls .m- i re*- l-i^r? ■: c :!:•- ^i^ " j •- •- 1 'it' ;iii •.■ v t rrulir.g 
Pr-:'. :-i.:ii«:i:-. 1: wj.? :liir<^ <:■. ::'.-;..■•:; .cs aii-i r'^tl'^i^is, in the 
c p '.::■. r. •:■ r' G r n-r ral L-ilu-r^ e . w' ill ■ . Ii 1- : -i :l;o E:.i r «i r«. r to un'i cr- 
Lik-?. 1.1 oiLJ-iiioti'.n "x;:!! :l:»i Ez-.p^r.r '.f A-iscriA and the 
Klnj cr'Pr-iSfiLi. :Ii»= r-. nn;iu-: n -.f :Lc- H.Iv Alliinoo in 1S15 ; 
but he W'luld ii'i-t all'.w tzni i: vd.-? in jjij 'k-LTO-v inapir^d l-y 
thi* rellzi'ju.s e.-ih':r:j.::<. ri? -.f >ra-.:jj ..• t.:i [Cru.j»f:.-.r. :».» \»li<.-:i. 
hf^wevor. he did n'-t d':-::y :Li: AIcx.«v>.r i- cd •.£* LUtLi:- 
I:*Z. TL'-- s^j^ •■ftiils vi'.C'.Ltrlc lady v.i> r". -r 5^:v.:rjl y^'ars iLo 
rr-ap^jtii^le LZiiiiiater of HiiSisiA at W A»Lii:ij;cn. I eajoyed au 
inrircAt^ af-i^uainUne^ wrii him, and I Kuy. ^uliout irripropri- 



Gty, adJ^ that hk statements ou this subject cohicidcd with 
thos6 of General Laharpc. 

Great iniproviinieiits, I understand, havo been made at 
Lausanne siiie^ my visit there in 18 IB. It 1ms at alJ limes 
been an attraelive residence for fureigners, especially the Rus- 
sians and English. Many American boys have of iate years 
been sent to the schocds of tins anrl of other places in Switzer- 
land, under the mistaken impressioc, that a better education 
is to he bad abroad than at home. This is not the ease, ex- 
cept as far as the acquisition of a fnreign language goes, 
French and German can of course be best harned in etmntrics 
where they are spoken ; and music is more generally taught 
in the schools of Continental Europe than in those of die 
United States ; but up to the age at which hoys are usually 
sent to college in this country, as good an education can be 
obtained in America as in Germany, France, or England. I 
make this remark with some confidence, from personal obser- 
vation in each of those countries. 

The views from the heights above Lausanne are surpass- 
ingly beautiful. There is, 1 think, no part of tiie shores of 
the Lake where it is seen to greater advantage ; no part of 
Switzerland, so far as I have seen it, where the prospect on all 
sides is fmer. The distant Alps, glimpses of the valley of the 
Rhone beyond the Lake, the beautiful expanse of the Lake it- 
self, the nearer views of the Bernese Alps, and Jura, the 
surrounding country filled with villages and covered with 
farms and vineyards eoml>ine to form a landscape of infinite 
variety and grace. 

From Lausanne to Vevay is about a couple of hours 
drive. The road is lined with vineyjirds, which cover the 
slopes of the hills to the very top ; and give an appearance 
to the country not unlike the banks of the Khino, witli no dif- 
ference but that between river and hdie. The culture of the 
vine has been cstabliahed in the neighborhood of Vevay from 
the time of the Romans. The climate and soil do not admit 



the growth of the most generous wmes ; bat those whidi are 
produced at all are cultivated, I wis told, with greater cer- 
tainty of a crop, than the more delicate vintages of Bm^undj 
and Bordeaux. It was principally from Vevaj that the cul- 
ture of the grape was introduced bv Swiss emigrants into this 
country, where it bids fair to become a very important branch 
of industry. The banks of the Ohio, in the neighborhood of 
Cincinnati, bear a striking general resemldance to thoae of the 
Rhine, and are probably as favorable to the growth of the 

We visited the Church of Sl Martin, which stands on the 
outskirts of Vevay, and is pleasantly sheltered by vines and 
trees. It is here that General Ludlow and some of his repub- 
lican associates arc buried ; others rest in the soil of Amer- 
ica ; others perished on the scaffold at home. The great 
regicide of all died in his bed ; but his skull, or what is 
believed to be such, after having been exposed at Temple bar, 
is exhibited in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. He him- 
self has been pronouncel by her most eloquent historian, to 
be the greatest prince that ever ruled England, and Hume 
admits in substance, that she is indebted for the preservation 
of her liberties to the party in Church and State which 
brought Charles the First to the block ! 

The situation of Vevay, upon the whole, seemed to me 
the finest on the Lake. There is nowhere so much variety 
and composition in the landscape. The country about Ge- 
nova subsides into the broad valley of the Rhone ; it is pleas- 
ing but not picturesque. At Vevay it comes up to the walls 
of the city, in the shajx? of luxuriant vineyards on the slopes 
of the hills, and of elegant villas, while the narro\^'ness of the 
Lake, without impairing the charm of the water \-iew, enriches 
the scene \*ith the wild romantic rocks of the opposite shore. 
Something is added to the liveliness of the landscape by the 
bustle of a miniature commerce, produced by a little fleet of 
boats at the quay, rigged with lateen sails and loaded with 



lime to go down tho lake. Vevay and Lnusanno are in the 
Canton de Vaud, first separately organized us sueh in 1814, 

Prom Vcvay is but about a league and a lialf to the Castle 
of Chillou, on which B>Ton has Lestowed a portion of his im- 
mortalitj ; on the way to it we passed through Clareiis, a 
small but not attractive village, lo wliich Eousseau has im- 
parted a portion of liis. His admirers endeavor to identify it 
with his descriptions, and the Handbook declares that " tho 
spot where the beautiful bosquel de Jitlh (Juliana bower) is 
sought f«u-, is now a potato field." — I must confess the ques* 
tion whether the topog^raphy of a licentious French novel, 
however celebrated, is accurately described from nature, did 
not seem to me oue that would reward a very laborious in- 
quiry. The position is magnificent ; — the view of the Lake, 
of tho valley of the Rhone, and the mountains beyond is fine, 
but the village itself altogether uninviting. Lord Byron has 
clothed it with the charm of some of his most exquisite stan- 
zas; and his poetry nnd Rousseau's prose will no doubt 
continue to make the fortune of Clarcns with all sentimental 

Chillon is an ancient castk% bnilt upon an insulated rock 
in tho Lake, but very near tho shore, to wliich it is joined by 
a wooden bridge. The water is said to Ije of great depth be^ 
ncatli the walls of the castle ; but M. Simond makes it pretty 
clcar^ that the dimgeon floor is not, as is generally supposed, 
beneath tho level of the lake. Chillon w as used as a State's 
prison by the Dukes nf Savoy. The priueipal apartment is 
large and lolYy, and not destitute of air and light. Tliere is a 
ring bolted into one of the pillars, by which Bonnevard h 
supposed to have been confined from 1530 to 1536, and the 
floor near it is worn, according to tradition, by his contimied 
pacing up and down. M. Simond thinks the traditions in- 
consistent with each other ; hut it does not appear that the 
chain may not liave been long enough to allow the prisoner 
to walk a moderate distance, backward and forward, Tlie 


XEEB Jiorsnr vesnon rAFEsa* 

is fiig^ik&i to ttttmipltfe, its oiilj catnnea 
hj a bapdoor. Tliis bemg opened, a ^inl aitMhmm oT ihrdQ 
Keps presented rtself ; l&rr« w«» m^/tmrtk tit^ mA tlie 
nble Tietuii, oomkimMd to peridft in tlus vftj, wm 
titled to a deptii of dgh^ ft«t nd sever hfwd of iBOtc. I 
give this to the xeidcr, as I liave It mrsel^ oft iJie faith of tl»e 
guide. Sadi dnogeoiia^ csllcd omMUnet^ are imH wiihcNit eac* 
ample in tiie iiie£vf;d pnsona. la tlie andend palace of tlie 
Popes at Avigiioa. I saw one wiiidi had heeii broken open 
md its horrid secrets broa^t to li^t, in the Frendi Rerr 

The TsDey of the Rhoiie begms to open npon joo at| 
Chtllon, bat at first with no sttractiTOiesiL Tfe ri^cr c 
the Lake through a bnjsd allavisl pl^bi^ formed hj its 
deposits. Its' watt^ri are turbid, its current slnggish ; it is io 
all respects the reverse of its^fif as it issues from the Lake. 
Historicalty, tiie spot is remarkable as the soene of the 
orable battle^ alluded to in the ibrtr-fir^ Number of 
papers, in which Difico, the first Helvetian chit?Aaiii w^hoso 
name appears in histor j, deieate^l a Roman Considar army, 
and compelled it to pass nnd^ the joke^ 

The road from lansanne westward, is somewhat less pic- 
turesque than that which lies along the Lake. Vineyards now 
disappear, but their place b taken bj cornfields^ pasturesii 
ordiardfl, and woodlands. There is a eontianal siieoeaaion of 
hill and Talley; the t&rm^ are dii^ded hj hedge-rows and 
dotted with cottages. There is a more dom^iie and homo- 
like look about such a country, than in one lined vrith vine- 
jards ; a species of culture which implies a less equal divlsioii 
of property. We breakf^istcd at Moiidoo, which stands on 
the site of a very ancient Roman Colony (^linidunum) of 
whose name it preserves an abbreviated Ibrm. In a nicbc oa 
the outside of the Hotel de Ville^ we saw sn ancient altar, 
which was discovered in 1732. Its inscription, with a dedi- 
cation to Marios Auielius, sets forth that it was erected in 





honor of Jiipjtcr and Juno, in commemoration of a largo sum 
of money bequeathed to the city to buiUi a gymnasium. 

We made no other stop, till, having passed through a 
comitry resemlding some of the Lest parts uf Now England, 
we reached Payeme. This is a place of considerable an- 
tiquity, having been founded in the sixth cscntury* It was 
distinguished by the benefactions of Bertlia the sovereign of 
Burgundy ; and her saddle, which was shown us, is the griat 
wonder and boast of the place. It certainly puts to sliamo 
the saddles of these degenerate days, being equally remark- 
able for what it is ncit, and what it is. It is evidently nr>t a 
*if/e-sa*idle, and it is ftirnished, in addition to the usual appli* 
anccs far equitation, with a dist^ifl' fixe-d to the pom mid, in 
order, it would seem, that her Highness might spin as she 
journeyed* Tliis curious relic of antiquity, if genuine, must 
date from the tenth century. 

We noticed, throughout this day's journey, more than usual 
civility on the part of persons whoni we Imppened to meet on 
the roatl. Not content with a friendly nod or a touch of the 
hat, it was generally raised from the head with a eourtoous 
w^ord of salutation. The costumo of the female peasantry of 
Switzerland, as we saw it, changed on passing the frontier i>f al- 
most every Canton. Such was the case on entering the Canton 
of Frey burg, where the broad-brirnmed straw hats, with almost 
no erownst, began for the first time to appear. These Can- 
tonal dilTerenees of costume are, I am told, yielding to the 
more powerful infliicnce^ of fashion* With their disaf^pcar- 
ance, Switzerland will lose not a little of its picturesquencss. 

We reached the city of F rev burg lief ire night, a place of 
7,000 or 8,000 inhabitants; the capital of the Canton of tho 
same name, of whieJi the population is almost exclusively 
lioman CathoHe. There are not less than nine Monasteries 
and Convents in the little city. It is not to be supposed, 
however, that their inmates are all furnished by the Ointon 
of Freyburg, of which the population docs not exceed 00,000. 




TlM»y are places of retreat for heart-stricken men and solitary 
women, from all parts of Switzerland, and the neighboring 
regions of France and German j^* 

The local position of Freylnirg is remarkable. It is built 
on the slope of a steep promontory formed by the windings 
of the river Saarinc. ^limy houses arc built up to the edge 
of the precipitous bank of the river. In some pla^^es, owing 
to the steepness of tho declivity, the street passes over the 
roofs of houses, excavated in the solid rock beh>w. The an- 
dent walls are for the most part entire, and, following the 
irregularities of the surfaces of tho hill, prestmt, with their 
watchtowers and embattled gateways, a remarkable appear- 
ance. They are built of the greenish sandstone of the region, 
not unlike that which is so much in use in Cincinnati. The 
streets are narrow, the houses upon them ill-built, and in 
many cases decaying; and the look of the town in this re- 
spect singularly uninviting. Such was the state of things in 


Its greatest curiosity was the venerable Linden tree 
planted on the 22d June, 1476, in commemoration of the 
^moiis battle of Morat^ in which the Burgundian army, under 
Charles the Bold, wa« defeated with tremendous slaughter by 
the Swiss. The trtwlition is that a yoimg man, escaping 
wounded from tho battle, ran tho w^hole way to Freyburg to 
bring the joyous news, and fell down dead, ailer uttering the 
word " Victory,'* His fellow-citizens planted tho Linden twig 
which he carried in his hand. It took root, and has become 
a tree of twenty feet in circumference. It is unquestionably 
of very great antiquity, and was in 1818 sustained with props, 
and otherwise tended with care. A Court for the adjudicfir 
tion of small controversies and called Lindej^GericJU (Linden- 
Court) was formerly held under its branches. The Cathedral 
is one of the fuiest of the ancient Swiss Churches, and from 
the summit of its tower you enjoy a prospect which well re- 
pays the iatiguc of the ascent. There is a most extraordinary 




bas-relief over the porttil of the tower, dating from the fif* 
tcenth century, and rep resenting the last judgment by images 
of the most grotesque description. We visited the College 
of Jesuits, who, after being reduced to one aged Canon, had 
just been restored by tlie majority of the Cantonal Council, 
against the vehement reelamations of the minority. 

Freyburg is remarkable as forming the point of junction 
between the German and the French languages, the former 
being epoken in the lower town and the latter in the upper ; 
neither, it may well be supposed, with purity. In tlie patois 
of the peasantry there is a considerable mixture of the Mo^ 
mansck dialect, which in the middle ages was spoken in the 
region of the western Alps. Sepl hen res ei demif (half past 
seven,) as spoken by the postilion who drove us into Frcy- 
burgj sounded Skat or el dmi. * 

Tliere are twi> suspension bridges at Freyburg erected 
since my time, one of wlvteh is pronounced by tlie Ilaiid-book 
to be the largest bridge of a single curve in the world. It ia 
supported by four cables of 1056 wires each. Its length is 
905 feet, and its height above the river 180. The bridge at 
Menai is 580 feet ia iengtli to a height of 130 ; the breadth 
being respectively 22 feet at Frey burg and 25 at Menai. Tim 
dimensions of the susfiension bridge below Niagara Falls are 
800 feet length, 230 feet height above the water, and 40 feet 
width, with a two-fold roadway, one lor the railroad above and 
one for ordinary vehicles below. It is supported by sixteen 
wire cables of 1100 feet in length and a in cireumtVrentre. 
The Frey burg bridge was erected in eight years, at the mod- 
erate expense of about 120,000 do liars — the suspension bridge 
below Niagara Falls at a cost of 190,000 dollars.* 

^ Appklum^a TniTdlon* Giild«, p. S14 Ei\iU of 1808. 




From Freybmf to Bene— Change of costmiM— Appeonmee of the dt]r->Loftj 
penpet wall and eztraonllnazy leap fkoin It— Alpine ■eenery— The Bear the 
heialdie emblem of Berne, and llring bean kept at the poblio expente—Tbo 
Unirerdtj— Manaflwtttrea of Berne, the Mconai Bchenck—VUt to the catabHth- 
menta of M. Yon Fellenbeiip at Hofiryl— Aneedote of the dtaeetor Bonbel High 
School— Industry 8chool— The celebrated aMistant teacher Wehrli— Agrieoltoral 
School— 3i. Ton Fellenbei^^s establishmenta, foraierij an object of great attention 
in Eorope. 

Our next stage was to Berne, a distance of about six 
leagues. The road was fine, running mostly along the river, 
and often presenting beautiful views of the distant mountains. 
For the first part of the way, however, we had a landscape of 
a different character, but one familiar in some portions of our 
own country ; a dense forest of pine. There is a strongly 
marked point of difference in the forest scenery of those parts 
of Europe in which I have travelled and of this country. 
With us, wherever civilization has penetrated, the primitivo 
forest has been assailed with axe and fire, as the first and 
greatest obstacle to agricultural improvement. In Europe 
the conservation of the forests is an object of government reg- 
ulation, and great care is taken that the trees should not be 
improvidently cut down. The management of forests forms 
the subject of regular courses of lectures at the German Uni- 

Ncueneck is the name of the village, in which you pass 
from the Canton de Vaud into that of Berne ; and here one 



of those abrupt changes of costume takes place, to which I al 
luJed in the hist Number. Instead of the broad straw hatii 
worn in the Canton de Vaud, the tVmalo peasantry in the 
Canton of Berne adt>rn thtir heads with a singuLir structure 
of black gauze made of horse-huir, standmg out all round, in 
such a manner as to resemble wings, and forming a droll con- 
trast with the red bodice laced in front. 

Berne, as you approach it, has the appearance of a large, 
fortified city. Like Freybiirg, it is mainly built of the hand- 
some greenish sandstone alretnly described* The streets are 
lined with rows of huuses constru€te<l wiik arcades on the 
lower story, which give them a stately though rather heavy 
appearance, and furnish an adoiiral>le protection against the 
weather; — a matter of no small interest in a climate like that 
of Switzerland. In fact, it is somewhat surprising that im 
arrangement, possessing such great and obvious advantages, 
both for summer and winter, has not been generally adopted 
in the domestic architecture of compactly built places. The 
position of the city of Berne, on a promontory enclosed on all 
sides but one by the Aar, is very commanding. The bank is in 
some places sloping and covered with turf, in others steep, cut 
into terraces, or supported by almost perpend icular walls. The 
wall in one place is a hundred and eight feet high, but an inscrip- 
tion upon it sets forth that, in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, a young student Diounted a horse which was grazing 
on the terrace, and that the animal, having been frightened, 
leaped to the bottom of the bank. The horse wtm killed, but 
the rider escaped with the fractures of some of his ribs, and 
lived to an advanced age as a village pastor. Two years be- 
fore our visit to Berne, a woman, employed according to the 
custom of that time, in laboring in the streets as a punish- 
ment, leaped from the terrace and was killed on the spot. 

Nothing can exceed the rielmess and varied magnificence 
of the views of the neighboring country and the Alpine peaks, 
as seen from Berne in clear weather. From some points of 



the terrftoed banks of the Aat, ten or twelve loflj smnmit 
so well known some of them by their ftwe-inspiring narae 
Wetterhorn, Schreckhoro, Finster Aarhorn *— may be dia 
tinctly seen j the Jungfrau in the centre. Vast glaciers fill 
the spaces between these peaks; th&t which surrounds 
Finstor Aarhom is supposed to be the largest in Europe.! 
Its superficial extent has been estimated at a hundred 
twenty-five s*pare miles. The general effect of the prospee 
varies so much under dtflerent lights, that we made it a bus 
ness to contemplate it early in the morning, at noon, and at 
evening. The last is by far the most favorable part of the 
day for this purpose. If the state of the atmosphere is pro- 
pitious, which it happened to be once during our short stay 
in Berne, the rays of the setting sun are reflected, with strango 
beauty, from the snow-crowned peaks and sparkling glaciers. 
In picturesque variety and a certain mysterious wildoen^ 
tliese views appeared to me to excel those of the Montanvert. 
The heraldic emblem of Berne, as its name would import, 
18 taken from the Bear, probably from some primitive legend 
ary association. Two animals of this kind, in coarse 8cul| 
ture, and of heroic size, guard the gateway as you enter i 
Freyburj*, and two living bears are kept in the Ibsso at one 
of the other gates. This is in pursuance of a practice which 
has been kept up for centuries. The animals are supported 
at the public expense, and are said to be superstitiously re- 
garded by the masses, as in some d^ree connected with the 
prosperity of the city. In the year 1798 the bears of that 
day were transported by the French to Paris, and placed ia^ 
the Jardin des PlanUs^ where they attracted as much notioofl 
from the gamins of the city as the bronze horses from St* 
Mark's, placed on the arch of triumph in the Carousel, did 
from the mrtuo^i, Berne is copiously supplied with running 
water and with fountains, some of which are ornamented wit 

* SUvrro Peak, Tvrrar Pnk, tb« Dark Feik of kmr. 



grotesque sculptures. The bear is the prevailing subject. 
The liitider/resser Brutinen (Fountiiin of the ehild-devourer) 
derives its name from a figure^ which the antiquaries suppose 
to be that of Saturn, represented as crowding a child into his 
mouth, while others arc peeping from the pockets in quiet ex- 
pectation of their turn. 

By the kindness of Professor Sehiiellj (to whom we had 
been furnished with letters from Mr. Stapfer, a gentleman of 
great worth, formerly representing the Helvetic Hepublic at 
Paris, and still residing there in 1817,) we had ample oppor- 
tunity of visiting the University of Berne. Mr. Schnell him- 
seif waa one of three law professors ; and there were fourteen 
other professors in the different faculties, including three of 
veterinary practice ! a department m which I presume there 
is not a single professor in all the Colleges and Universities 
of the United States. The number of students was aljout a 
hundred and fifty ; the fixed salaries of the professors five or 
six hundred dollars each, with a small fee paid by those who 
attend the lectures. The institution served as a place of aca- 
demical education for Bernese students, but was little fre- 
quented from abroad. It was organized on the plan of the 
German Universities, the instruction being almost wholly 
given in lectures. The celebrated Wyttenbach of Leyden, 
well known as the editor of the moral works of Plutarch^ was 
a native of Berne, and probably received his early education 
there. He was one of the most lenrned men of the last gen- 
eration. There is a large public library at Berne, of which 
Ilaller, one of the most distinguished names of the last cen- 
tury, was the librarian. The saying of Voltaire, who used to 
extol his genius and Iciirning, is well known, but will bear 
repetition. When told that Haller did not return the com- 
pliment, but spoke in disparaging terms of him, Voltaire re- 
plied, ** Very likely we are both wrong." 

Berne has been distinguished at times for the prosperity 
of her manidactures. They were languishing in 1818 in con- 




sequetiee of the prohibitory duties iinposed on their introduc- 
tion into France, and still more on a<5count of the inihut 

British fabrics. Two persons belonging to the peasantry and 
whose education was very defective, of the name of Sthcnck, 
were much spoken of as practical and scit^ntific machinists^ 
instrtimeiit-makers, and engiiiccrs. Mr. Schnell informed nsj 
that his countryman and friend ITasslcr, who commenced thM 
coast survey of the Uiiitod St^es, and provided himself for] 
that purpose witli the bc«t instruments that could be proi^uredl 
in London, after examining those of Messrs. Schenck at Berne^f 
gave the preference to the latter. It is possible that national' 
partiality may have had sometliing to do with this prefer- j 

During our stay at Berne, we devoted a day to visiting 1 
Ilofwyl and the educational establishments of M. Von FcUen-j 
berg. Theso establishments and M, Von Fellqjiljerg's plans 
for improving the c^hjeation both of the wt'althier classes and 
of the peasantry in BwitZ4.^rlaTjd, attracted gre4it notices at that' 
time, and are still spoken of with respect and iritere>st in works 
on education* They lormed the subject of an elaborate and ^ 
instructive article, contributed by Mr* Simond to the iixty^fl 
fourth number of the Edinburgh Review, which was much 
read at the time of its appearajico. 

M, Von Fellenberg belonged by birth to the nohksse^ but 
partook the liberal ideas wliich prevailed so extensively 
throughout Switzerland, during the Fr^^nch Revolution, and 
whiih led to a cii^rrespouding movement there. He was one 
of the Commissioners, who represented the Uelvetic Republic 
at Paris, Being in conference with the Director Reubel otii 
the cf»ndition of hia country, and the suffering state to whidK] 
the people were reduced, threatening an entire disorganization' 
of society, tho Direc^tor, in a pause of the conversation, threw 
up his window, and ordered a servant *' to bring Finette.** 
This was a favorite spaniel, which was accordingly brought in 
with a litter of puppies, in a basket. This levity and indifferwj 




enoe bo disgusted M. Von Fellei)l>erg, that, d<?spjiiiring of 
serving his country aa a politician, he demanded liis pass- 
ports, and left Paris the next day — resolved to set about the 
slower work of improving the condition of his fellow -citizens 
by moral influences, and by introducing a system of cduca* 
tion calculated to make better patriots and bettor men* 

His plan comprehended a high school for the aristocracy 
of Continental Europe ; an ijulustrial school for the e^ims of 
the peasantry, and a scIrmjI of apiculture. The iirsjt only, if 
I do not mistake, was seirsnpporting ; — the Industry Suhooi 
was entirely gratuitous, I'he high school, when I saw it, was 
attended hy about eighty pupils from all parts of the conti- 
nent— from Russia, Prdand, and every portion of Germany. 
The number of pupils from the South of Europe was small. 
M. Von Fellenberg had felt the want of such a school for his 
own children ; not thinking the influences which prevail at the 
pifmnasia and universities of the Continent favorable to the 
formation of character on hi^b moral or even patriotic prin- 
ciples. All the branches of a liberal education — not includ- 
ing strictly professional studies — were taught in this school, 
as far as possible by instructors who had themselves been 
formed at Hofwylj and who united the most exemplary per- 
sonal qualities to skill in their several departments. The 
young men were all boarded and lodged witliin the establish- 
ment, and M, Von Fellenbcrg and his amiable family, the 
professors, and the pupils of the school sat dowTi to their 
daily meals at one table. In this branch «>f the establishment, 
there seemed to bo nothing peculiar, as far as the general plan 
and system of the school were concerned, but its management 
as fiir as 1 could judge, was singularly efficient and successful ; 
and of schools it may be said much more than of governments 
- — that which is " best administered is best," 

Tlio Industry School was at that time almost a novelty. 
This was a school for the practical instruction of tlie children 
of the peasantry, not merely in the common brandies of a 



plain education, but in agriculture and the various trades to 
M'hich they are usually apprenticed. M, Von Fdleubei^ took 
pains, as far as possible, in the Hrst years of the iastitution, to 
obtain pupils from the democratic Cantons, as furnishing more 
iiopcful materials for his undertaking. Serious prejudices 
arose against his establishment ; the Swiss peasantry was not 
at that time (ia not probably now) predisposed to innovate 
upon old ways; and as M* Von Pellenberg required that 
the pupils of his school should come at seven years of ig& 
and stay ten years, a considerable sacrUice in the time of tho 
children was required of the parents* M. Von Pellenberg 
was obliged at times to keep up his numbers by addmg vi^ 
giWDts from the streets ; some of whom, however, did the best 
jiiflttlec to their opportunities. Eight or ten hours in the day 
were devoted t<^> labor on. the firm or in the shops, according 
to tile season, and the rest of the time was given to indoor 
leBBOnsy meals, and recreation, the children being entirely sup- 
ported and t^ight at M. Von F/s expense ; and at an average 
cost, over and above the product of their labor, of sixteen or 
seventeen dollars per he^d annually. 

Much of the sucoess of this branch of ^I. Von Fellenberg^s 
establishment was ascribed to the personal qualities of Wehrli 
his assistant. This remarkable young man was the son of a 
schoolmaster in the Csnton of Thurgau, who visited Hofwyl 
in 1809, to l^m the modes of teaching pursued there. Ho 
was so much pleased with what he saw, that ho o0ered his mm 
as m asnstant teacher. He was Accepted in that capadty, 
and proved himself iu the sequel admirably adapted to tho 
place* His reputation spread with that of the Industry 
School at H«>fwyl, throughout Europe. He soon, of his own 
accord^ led M. Von Fellenbci^*s table, to share the meals as 
well as the labors of the boys of tlie Industry School. This 
he did with unflinching assiduity, placing himself in all re- 
spects on a level with his pupils* He appears to have beea 
a person of s'mgular versatility and the utmost conscientious- 






ness. He was but eighteen years of age when he carae to 

The school of Industry was ruled entirely by persuasion, 
example, and love j mthout resort either to pmiislnnent or 
reward. It bad been in operation, I think, twenty years 
when I saw it, and in that time punishment ha<l been inflicted 
but twice. AL Von Fcllcnborg*^ entire system of education 
assumed the supei'ior efficacy of gentle influences over the 
coercion and vigor of the old regime^ and oertaiiily his success 
was such as to confirm his theory. 

An agricultural s^'hocd with sbopa for the manufacture of 
improved implements t»f husbandry f^irmod a part of M. Von 
Fellcnberg's establishments* He commenced lifo with expcT- 
iments for an improved system, of cultivation. He wholly 
changed the character of an extensive patrimonial estate by a 
system of drainage, by which from being an unprofitable bog, 
it was converted into arable fields. His attention was next 
turned to the subject of the implements of husbandry used in 
Switzerland at that time, which hti was convinced could be 
made not only lighter and more eflicicnt but cheaper, and 
with these ol>jects in view, he connected an agricultural school 
with the educational establishments just described. 

At the time of our visit Madame Von Fcllinbrrg, sharing 
the noble zeal of her husband, was, with her daughters, about 
to found a sch<x>l for girls, corresponding with the school of 
Industry f«>r boys, I have never heard Avhether this pn>ject 
was carried into effoct; nor am 1 acquainted with the present 
condition of M. Vtui Fellenberg's estaldishments, exce[>t that 
the hand-bcK)k states them to be under the care of Dr, Ed- 
ward Mnller. Education on philosopbical principles has, of 
lat<3 years, made such progress in Europe and in this country, 
that the preceding recollections of liofwyl may hardly seem 
to the reader entitled to the place I have given them. But, 
at the time of my visit, M. Von Fellenherg's establishments 
were deemed of the highest European interest Perhaps at 



any time a well eonceived plan for educational improvement^ 
especially one having in view the benefit of those least fa- 
vored of fortune — a plan formed and pursued by an intelli- 
gent^ persevering, earnest, and conscientious man — ^is as im- 
portant an object as can engage the attention of the patriot or 
the moralist When the Emperor Alexander was in Swit- 
zerland, he visited Hofwyl, and in token of his appreciation 
of M. Von Fellenbei^'s labors, decorated him with an order 
of knighthood. In this he honored himself rather than M. 
Von Fellenberg, who daily enjoyed the more substantial re- 
ward of seeing those whom he had rescued from want, igno- 
rance, and unenlightened toil, rused by his meaxis to useful 
and honorable positions in the oommunity. 



UiitcrltUs for Vhe BoTnonco of our hktory cmttcrod through the ccmntrr—Kvt^nt* of 
the l&tb April, 1775— Alflrm fdvcn from Boston to the ni'lghlKirlng lowns— i**- 
capD of Adums aad ]Inncf>c}c trotn Lexington to Wuburn — A Mlmon left iH^hind 
and tent for— Second Tetreat lo tbo woixJs — C'Aplufw of a prisoner by Sylvamw 
Wood oti the IPth of April— After thirty years Wood applies for and obtains a 
pension — Viilt* 1^*ftslilngton ajid Is introduced to G«'norul JacLiMn— Propoftod 
Katioiml monnrocnt at Lexington c*>nimemoratiyo of tho IDlb of ApriL 

Is times to como, "vvheii the oovclist and the poet shall 
seek out the romauct? of our history, it will he discovered, in 
rich ahundance, in every part of the land* Tracing the annals 
of the United States, from the first settlements at Jamestown 
and Plymouth, it will be found, that, in addition to the great 
events and the great characters, which fcjrm the auhatance of 
the pulilic narrative, there are incidents of a local and person* 
al kind, nrjt immediately affecting the political fortunes of the 
country, hut ofVen of a most stirring or touching character. 
There h nothing in ancient or modern history more beau- 
tiful than the story of Pocahontas. The captivity of ilrs. 
liowlandson is not to be read without tears, after a lapse of 
nearly two centuries. How wonderful the spectral appear- 
iinoe of one of the Regicide Judges of Charles L, to repel an 
assault of savages on a New England village in 1GT5 ! Tho 
life and adventures, tho wars and the wanderings of Daniel 
Boone, in more recent time^, will furnish one day the staple 
of an Iliad and Odyssey of border prowess and fortune; and 
then the glimpses of pure Inilian life, as we catch them on the 
prairie and in the wigwam, uncontaminated or unrelieved by 
the contacts of civilization ! 



The straits and sufierin^ of our forefathers, who first 
landed on the continent j the periloiis exposures of a wild fron- 
tier (and such a frontier, though ever flitting westward as you 
appn>adi it, there has always been — is now) ; — the militai-y 
operations of the colonies in tlic wars between Eu gland ajid 
Franco, from Louisburg to Carolina, from Detroit to the 
Spanish Maai j above all many incidents which occurred in 
the great struggle for Independence, have filled the country 
with ro man lie traditions, many of which liave already been 
turned to good account by ingenious writers of the present 
day, while otliers await the future poet and novelist. Even 
the ancient churchyards have a rich harvest in reserve for our 
Old Mortalities. Hearts as bravo as any that rest under 
monuments of brass and marble in Westminster Abbey 
moulder bene^ith old moss-grown slate stones, in every part 
of tlie United States. These reminisoeuce« of bye-gone times 
are not, however, all of a tragic or even a serious cast j some 
of them, on the contrary, contain the lighter clement, whicli 
is required to make up the tragi-comedy of human fortune, 
though sparingly admitted into tho sober pages of Iiistory. 
Some traditions of this latter kind, closely interwoven with 
cA'cnts of the greatest gravity^ are preserved in the neighbor- 
hood, (Burlington, Mass.,) wlierc this paper is written. 

Several circumsUmces led the patriots in Boston in tho 
early spring of 1775, to anticipate that some important move- 
ment into the country would be made by the Royal forces, 
partly for the seizure of military stores, which had been coL 
kcted in many of the towns in the interior, partly to arrest 
obnoxious individuals, to overawe tlie people, and generally 
U* subdue the spirit of disaiTeotion. As early as November, 
1774, a secret society had been formed in Boston, composed 
principally of the mechanics and artisans of that town, but in 
clnsc concert with the patriotic leaders, for the ejtpress pur- 
pose of obtaining information in advanoe of all projected 
movements of this kind. Among the circumstances which. 



in the spring of 1775, lerjl to the expectation that some expe- 
dition into the country was incditatetl, woa the detachment, 
by the royal governor of Massachusetts, Gage, of eleven hun- 
dred men, M*ho traversed the neighboring villages, about the 
end of Marclr, throwing down tlic stone walls by which the 
fields, in that part of the country, are divided ajid enclosed. 
One can scarcely imagine any tiling better calcuhited to cause 
alarm and indignation, that being the season of the year in 
which good fiirmera put their stone w*alls and fences in order. 
Officers in civil dress were also sent round the country, to 
survey thb roads and obtain information where military stores 
were deposited, A party came to Concord in Rfassachu setts, 
for this purpose, on the 20th of March, 1775, the very day 
on which Burke, in the House of Commons, spoke the last 
word of peace and hope in the inimitable oration '^on Con- 
ciliation with America.'' 

But the fated hour drew nigh. It had been preparing for 
centuries. It w^as too late f5:»r prudence to avert ; for force 
to resist; the mighty clock of ages and empires must strike, 
and the new era begin. On the 15th April the grenadiers and 
light infantry, the flower of the army, were relieved from 
daily routine duty, under pretence •►f learning a new exercise. 
At twelve o'clock the next eighty the boats of thi3 transport 
ships in the harbcjr, having been repaired, were launched and 
moored under the stems of the men-of-war. Not a step of 
tlieso movemenls — the displacement of the troops^ — the mid- 
night preparation of the boats tor service — but was scanned 
with eagle eyes by the members of the society above men- 
tioned. It had been concerted that, if the royal forces were 
embarked in boats to cross to Charlcstown or Cambridge 
two lanterns should be lighted in the steeple of the old church 
on Copp's hill, and one if they marched out by kmd through 

The 10th of April w*as the day appointed by Governor 
Gago for an expedition to Concord. All possible means were 


ibcloptt'Ci guarding the roods the GYening be for e, to pr^ 

vent the tidirigs from spreading through the eountry. Ah, 
Govcrtior, the worcl» '* Greiiiwiivra, fur ward, marcb ! '* tm 
hardly whis|>ered at d^ad of night, at tli^ head of lite eotimuii 
before two flamitig messengers frtini tht^ belfry of tlie old 
church, arc streaming over the irravea of tlie slecrpcra cm 
Cupp's hill. Like tho uhkh aaiit>tinccd in the 

palacei* of Argoa that It i^i, lliosts Husbin^ heralds 

ran through the vilJages lex, t*^ proclaim tliat ihr 

Becptre of a triightier than il tk*j*«rU'd. Ncit eontciit 

^'ith lighting the signal in t rhurth ettn^plc, Paul IV 

verc immediately crossed in n Uj Cfmriustown, borrowed 

deiaeon Larkiu'd horse, dashca the royal scatitiela itrlia 
were guarding the rcnad by the gil>b:ty at the etid of Charles* 
town neckj passied at the top of his speed through Medford 
and West Cambridge, giving the alarm and setting the bells 
to ringing on the way ; and in a few hours the tocsin was 
sounding from half the steeples in Middlesex county. 

At about midnight, Revere reached Lexington, and de- 
livered to John Hancock and Samuel Adams a message from 
Dr. Joseph Warren, (the hero of Bunker Hill,) acquainting 
them that the troops were in movement, as was supposed, 
for Concord, and that they must provide for their own safety, 
their seizure no doubt being one of the objects of the Royal 
governor. These proscribed patriots were passing the night 
at the house of the Rev. Mr. Clark, the minister of Lexington, 
between whom and Hancock there was a connection by mar- 
riage. It would not be possible within the limits of one of 
these papers, if indeed this were the place for such a narra- 
tive, to relate the events of that eventful morning, as they oc- 
curred on Lexington green, nor is it necessary. They have 
been told in some of the brightest pages of the history of the 
country. Our business is with what passed under the humble 
roof of Mr. Qark's dwelling, an old, black, weather-beaten 





house, tho front buried in shade, still standing, and well worth 
going to Lexington to see. 

Besides Hancock and Adams there were at Mr. Clark's 
house, Mrs- Ilaneock, the widuw of the governor's rieh imcle, 
and Misij Dorothy Quiiicy, to whom the governor was paying 
his court, and who afterwards became his wife. Not sorry, 
it may bo presumed, to display his chivalry before her, he 
passed the night (as she was accustomed to relate) ** in clean- 
ing his gun and sword, and putting his accoutrenients in or- 
der," determined to go out and johi tho militia on tho green. 
It was with great diificuity he was dissuaded by Mr. Clark 
and Samuel Adams, the latter of whom^ clapping him on the 
shoulder, said, *' That is not our business ; wo belong to the 
Cabinet." It was not till daybreak that ho yiehlrd, and 
cfjnsented with Samuel Adams to retreat to a place lX greater 
safety. They leil the village of Lexington as tlue bayonets of 
the grenadiers were seen gleaming in the distance, Samuel 
Adams exclaiming at tho sight, ** Oh, what a glorious day is 
this ! '» 

TTaTicock and Adams w^ero hastily conducted to the house 
of the Iveverend Mr. Jones, tho minister of the north-west 
precinct of \Vol»yrn» now forming the town of Btirlington. 
This house, a respectable rural parsonage, shaded by noble 
trees, is now occupied by the Rev. Samuel Sewell, one of the 
successors of Mr. Jones, and is next door to that from which 
this paper is written. Ilie ladies, whose safety was not sup- 
posed to bo threatened, had been left behind ; but the bullets 
wliizzed about their heads, as they stood at the windows 
watehing the strange scene. At length they were sent for^ to 
come to Mr, Jones- in Mr. Hancock's carriage, and (it tnust 
be mentioned as one t.f the recorded reageitm of tlie day) they 
were especially enjoined to bring with them a fme salmon, 
which had been provided for their dimicr ; rather earlier, it 
would seem, in the season than salmon are now brought to 
market. Had the British officers known that it was left be* 



hind, on the flight of the Patriots, they would probably have 
thought that it was a fair pri^e, even without a process in a 
Court of Admiralty. Ilappdv the Royal army passed on, 
without a suspicion of the damty treasure within their reach. 

The liwiies arrived with it in due time, at tlio Burlington 
parsonage, but scarcely had the party, who, in the confusion 
of that wild hour of peri! and flight, had not broken their fast, 
set down to an early country dinner, of which the rescued 
salmon formed the most important part, when one of the 
yeomanry from the neighborhood burst into the house, in 
wild affright, with the information, that the regulars were on 
the way, adding tliat " his wife was already in eiarnityJ^ It 
was no time to think of dining, even on an early salmon. The 
carriage was taken into the woods for concealment, and Han- 
cock and Adams were hurried off to a lonely dwellmg, lying 
at the eomer of Woburn and the two adjacent towns, not 
cfinnected by the high road with either of them, or with any- 
other settlement in the civilized world, — a dreary, solitary 
place, which you approach, you hardly know how, by a private 
road through the forest. Here the patriots were secreted, 
and all hope of salmon having vanished, tljey made a frugal but 
hearty meal, so says tradition, on cold salt pork and potatoes^ 
In this house they passed the night, not learning till the next 
morning, that the second alarm was unfounded. Tliat they 
had yielded to it, fiowever, was no matter of reproach. The 
danger from which they had just escaped at Lexington was 
imminent, and no one could tell where the next blow would 

One of the incidents of the day was the capture of a Brit- 
ish grenadier single-handed by a volunteer from Woburn, 
This individual, Sylvanus Wood by name, and a shoemaker 
by trade, of diminutive stature, but with a spirit beyond his 
inches^ when the alarm was given in Wobum early in the 
morning on the 19th, hastened to Lexington. He paraded 
with Captain Parker's company on Lexington Green, and 



THK Kmirj^'l: VKllNON FAPERB. 


after they were dispersed by the overwhelming force of the 
enemy^ he followed toward Concord in the rear of the royal 
army. At a turn of the road, he came, by surprise, upon a 
soldier who had loitered behind and was seated by the way- 
Bide. Wood sprang toward him, threatening to fira if he re- 
sisted* Having taken from him his gim, cutlass, and equip- 
ments, Sylvanus niarehed him bai'k to Lexington, and there 
surrendered him " to Mr. Welch and another person/' 

In the year 1826, being then a member of Congress, and 
representing Wood's district, I received a memorial from him, 
setting forth the facts above stated, and his service after\^ ards 
ill the army of the revolution. Tlie application was referred 
to the Committee on Pensions, and in the course of a few 
years, w hat with the prisoner and what with his service after- 
wards, he obtained a pension of ninety-six dollars a yeur, with 
several years back pay, from the time his petition was first pre- 
sented. It was probably more money than he had ever seen at 
once before, and he seemed to have but an indifferent opinion 
of the ordinary places of deposit and modes of investment. 
He told me that he kept it in hi a hat by day, and under his 
pillow by nij^ht. My own services in procuring the pension 
which were diligently rendered for several years, were liber- 
ally acknowledged by Sylvanus, by the present of a, basket of 
apples, (Baldwins,) the only reward which ever fell to my 
lot, for carrying a claim tlirough Congress. JSuch was the 
rude simplicity of those days ! 

The great improvement in his worldly eircumstauceSj ef- 
fected by his pension, awoke a desire in Sylvanus to see some- 
thing of the great world. He found his way to Washington, 
and it naturally devolved on me to do the honors of the me- 
tropolis for him* I introduced him to the eelebritiea ; showed 
iiim the library o( C^tngress, the Indian Bureau, the Patent- 
Office, the " East-Hoom," and in fact made the most of my 
sturdy little constituent, " who had taken the first prisoner 
in the Ecvolutionary war," Having thus made the rounds, 



Al^ood, wImm ^petitd for gnyidesrs grew witli wli*t It fed 
on, expreme4 a wifth to be Introduoed to the Prendkot of ^m 

Urut^d Stales, General Jackson. I hesitat4!d a Utile, ft^ling 
tome oompimctioiiy though one of ^ the oppomtion,^ to cootri- 
bvie evea in this small degree to increase the anDoyanoe of 
receiving ri»tors ; one of the heaviest burdens of high oflice 
in Washington. Bat the thonght of the " first prisoner/* 
perhaps a grenadier eight feet high in his cap^ marching down 
the road in fiJlcn majesty before the sturdy little militia-man, 
OT^Vttiiio my scruples. I addressed a note to General Jade- 
son, acquainting him with the wish of my constituent to be 
introduced, and promising if he would receive us to stay boi 
a momcnU The President reaJily appointed a time to see 
him ; Sylvanua promised me iaithfully that he would not X^fU 
him the story of the ** first prisoner," (for on that theme he 
studied fulness of deta'd more than conclsendSB of narrative ; 
and we entered the cabinet at the appointed time. It was 
half full of persons to whom the General was giving audience ; 
but, nothing daunted with the novelty of the scene. Wood 
walked boldly up toward the PrcAidotit, who took him kindly 
by the hand. This was ratlu r more than he ejcpected, and 
disconcerted him for a moment. H© immediately recovered 
himself, however, and evidently tacking together in his own 
mind, as with a fine waxed thrc^J, the capture of the first pris- 
oner in 1T75 and the fighting of the last battle in 1815, with 
a native oratory not studied in the schools, said, •' Mr. Presi- 
dent, I'm glad to see you * — since [the battle of] Orleans IVo 
loved your person," As I had promised, 1 made a movement 
to withdraw immediately, but the President kindly prolonged 
the int<*r%iew for a few momenta. 

Wood, I think^ had not a little reason to be prrvud of his 
exploit. As a matter of legal principle, the first thought, I 
imagine, with many a person at that day — at any day — find- 
ing himseir in such a position, a private man, not acting under 
orders from anybody, in the very near neighborhno<l of a 







soldier in tho service of a gavcrnment whose authority was 
iitill admitted, would be to pass quietJy by on the other side; 
Aj3 a matter of prudence, it would have occurred to most men, 
standing five feet high, that it was somewhat hazardous to 
undertake tho capture of a grenadier. Ilia gun might be out 
of his reach, but ho had " his cutlass and equipments." Wood 
took no counsel of loyalty or prudence ; his blood was up, 
and he captured his Anakhn ; little thinking that that day's 
work and his participation in it would, after thirty years, 
procure a provision for his old age from a powerful, independ- 
ent government, and a personal introduction to its chief. 

The capture of tho first prisoner was the point of central 
interest in WocmJ^s career ; he valued himself upon it. Alter 
he obtained his pension, not being needy before, he was in 
what might be called comfortable circumstances^ but not dis- 
posed to impair them by waste. Still, whenever a little con- 
tribution to a charity or a donation to a public object was 
desired, a trifle could generally be obtained from Sylvanus, 
by beginning with an inquiry about ** taking tho first pria*- 
oner." He died a few years ago, in his ninety -third year. 
There is no harm in thus prolonging for a few years his hum- 
ble memory. 

Before dosing this paper, ! may observe that n movement 
has been commenced at Lexington, to erert in that l>eautiful 
village near tho aoeno of thit battle, an appropriiile mcmBment, 
in commemoration of tho Rmi blood ihod In f 
ary war. A simple obdiak was tot up in the ; t^ 

Lexington green, In memory of tho 9vent^ and on the liHh 
of Aprils 1835, tho MhoicftfaoBowbo fell ^ 

day, sixty yean before, w«r« ramoirftd froji 
yard, and, with approprialc mod aflfsoting ceremonies^ j 
under the obelisk* It is now proposed to «9t3ct in ^^ 
bcjrhcK>d ft mofiumeat mon^i in kecpiujn with Uits i 
and graiwlotir <*f the event, Uy be surmoun' 
— not of my ouo individual, for l^ere is i-_ _. l^_ 




that distinction — ^but of a '^ Minute Man," the representative 
of the dass which flew to arms on that eventful morning, and 
took the first step in the march of the revolution. This is 
the dass to which the honors of the day are due, and the spot 
is one which will be named in all afler time, with Marathon 
and Thermopylae ; — not for the dimensions of the conflict in 
a military point of view, but for the importance of the era in 
the world's history whidi it inaugurated. The fitvoring sym- 
pathy of the country at large may be antidpated for the 



Thci Aor Had Hi Tulttj— Tbani iU ^nvinmM ftod kfco— Untereeati— Tho Lanterbran- 
nta aod fitaubbiich^ — A gMtnpM of thn Bwlga peoMDtry — C'tirloni mbpiinC ill 
Goldsmith** TnivclJoi^Thc JUJt© of Brieu*— The Olesbach— Tlio masicul ecJtwl- 
iiiji»t«r And lits fiwnllf — Tho pis* of the BrQnl|t— EDtr»nc« Into UuttfrwflJdtfa^ 
Langoni and lt5 kite— Paj-tlally draiood— SachMln-*8t. Nicholas vpa der Fl&c— 
LcgvDda conceraLiig him. 

A BHiYE of four or five hours took us from Berne to Thiiti ; 
BJncG the const rue ticjn of the railroad, it is the aflair of a short 
hour. Persons travellhig in the opposite direction^ from 
Thun to Beme, frequently take the Diarket boats which de- 
scend the Aar. This river is, next to the Rhone and the 
RhinOj of whirh it is the oiost considerable tributary, one of 
the naost important channels, by which the waters of the 
Swiss ice-mountains find their way to the sca. Its principal 
sources are in the glaciers of the Sehreckhorn and the Grim- 
sel, at no great distance from those of the Rhine* It foams 
through trrghtful ravines, and plunges over lotly w^aterfalls, in 
the first part of its course, but it is navigable for the greater 
part of the way from the lake of Thun, and winding by Berne, 
Soleure, and Aarau, unites its waters with the Rhine, about 
half-way between Basle and Schaffhausen, Between Berne 
and Than, the valley of the Aar is charming. You see but 
little of the river, but substantial farm-houses line the road, 
and rich pastures spread rural plenty far away before and 
around you. The sky was cloudless, and the sparkling sum- 



m its of the Alps, beyond the sources of the Aar, bounded the 
prospect. There is, perhaps, no country where the slate of 
the weather b so important to the tourist. It makes all the 
difference between the dreary uniformity of cold, leaden 
clouds, which are the same in all countries, and the un- 
matched glories of the Jungfrau and Mont Blanc. ^M 

Thun is a picttiresquo old town, of three or four thousand 
inhabitants, and though not among the more celebrated re- 
sorts, struck me as one of the most attractive spots for a quiet 
residence in Switzei^land. It is about a mile from the lake, 
and the Aar, as it dashes out of it, is not inferior in sparkling 
beauty to the Rhone, as it rushes from the lake of Geneva. 
An ancient church, a ruined castle, smiling meadows in the 
environs, modern Tillas^ the river, the lake, and beyond, the 
glaciers, the wooded heights, and in the background the 
Sovereign Maiden ; — no element of loveliness or grandeur 
is wanting at Thun. But these mountain regions have th«l9 
perils and disasters, unknown to the lower world. We colIP 
trib^jted our mite to the relief of the inhabitants of a valley, 
which had lately been burled by an avalanche ; and our hasty 
eJtcursion will soon bring us to the melancholy ruins o^ 
Goldau. <m 

A little steamer now plies from Thun to Interlachen ; we 
crossed the lake by a more picturesque conveyance, a broad, 
Bat-bottomed boat, rowed by women, \vith a very inconsider- 
able draft of water, which enabled us to creep nearer to some 
beautiful spots &long the shores of the lake, which with a 
greater draft of water would have been inac^^-essible* We 
were about three hours on this delightful, secluded littlo sheet 
of water. There were but few villas at that time on the 
shores of the lake— just enough to give assurance that y4^| 
were not "out of bumanity^s reach," without changing t«P 
rustic simplicity of the scene by the alloy of suburban mag. 
nifieence. The shores of the lake for some distance from 



Thun have dianged their charactcrj I believe, in this respect 
of late yeai-s, by the erection of numerous villas. 

Unterseen, as its name imports, (between the lakes), lies 
about halfway between the lake of Thun and the lake of 
Brienz. It is rather a forlorn place; the black, weather- 
BtAined houses, which are reported in the hand-book as ** being 
two hundred years old," have grown young since we were 
there ; our guide assured us they were two thousand years 
old ! We took a char-a-hanc directly at the landing-place f^:»r 
Zmderbrunncn and the Staubbaeh. Lauterhrunneii (clear 
spring) is a most romantic spot ; a narrow vale, almost a 
ravine, between lofty calcareous walls leading up toward the 
Jungfrau. The villagej of the same name as the valley, con- 
taining between a thousand and fifteen hundred houses, is a 
sombre spot ; its houses are far apart ; the prodigious rocky 
walls that overhang it must nearly shut out the sun in the 
short winter days ; vegetation wears a coarse, wiry, Alphio 
look. The most remarkable feature of the scene consists in 
the numerous waterfalls, some of them insignificant, and 
others of some magnitude, ivhieh break over the edges of the 
surrounding mountains. They vary in volume of course 
with the weather and the temperature ; some of them flowing 
down to the level of the valley ; some hreiiking over the sum- 
mit, in a considerable torrent; others merely fringing the 
rocks over which they fall. The Stauhbach alone (or dugfy 
torrent) has obtained celebrity. The volume of water in tlUs 
famous cascade was not very considerable a^ Ave saw it, but it 
is at all times a most striking object Amerksan toufiilft wjbo 
go to see the Staubbach, with their head* full of the tfluge <d 
Niagara, are disappointed. It ta one of th« ebaneierLstiu» uf 
Niagara that its oceanic volume defK^ii ih*t WNimnn M#>kif^ 
snows and deluging rains do not swell it i ib^ dxmi^Ui^ of 
naldsummer do not sensibly Affaet llw mjghg' %Bi9t 4f its 
waters. But the Staubbaeh eometiSMS fllettls dn»x tbc bam 
of the rock in a thin silvery tkraid^ aad M 



■o by 


ivhen swrtllon by heavy rains^ shoots fiercely out from tbd 
rock, boldly arching over the valley, and swept to and Fro by 
the wind. Byron in his journal * compares it tu *' the tail 
A white horse streaming in the wind, such as it might be 
ceived would be that of tlie pale hurse, on Tvhich Death 
muLinted in the Apocalypse, It is neither mist nor wat 
but a sonietiiiiig between botli ; its immense height (nine 
hundred feet) gives it a >vave or curve, a spreading here or 
condensation there, wonderful and indescribable." He ha^ 
transferrt^l this grand figure of the t^il of Death's pale hard^| 
to his Manfred, in w hich other images also are painted from 
Alpine scenery. 

On our way back from this pilgrimage to one of inaniinatG 
Nature's most awe-inspiring shrmeSp we stepped into several 
cottages, to get a nearer view of human nature, in the life of 
the Alpine peasantry, 1 cannot say that it gained on clos 
inspection. We were generally received with a sort of stoU 
apathy ; the dialect is the harshest I ever heard spoken ; the 
was an entire absence of that delightful feature of humble liie, 
which is so well expressed by tidiness ; an appearance of 
want, and of no ambition to smooth it over by ingenious little 
muke-shifts ; nnd at times, 1 must say, a sinister cast of coun- 
tenance. M, Von Fellenberg had prepared me for this state 
of things, the sorrowful contemplation of which gave the first 
impulse to his educational efforts. Far from regarding Edu* 
coition as a mere inteliectual process, designed to impart a 
certain amount of useful knowledge; he looked upon it as tJie 
only agency by which the condition of the masses, physical, 
social, political, and moral, could be improved. Aware how 
muL'h America has suffered ui the hasty generalizations of 
tourists, I should be very sorry to do injustice to any part of 
Switzerland 5 — ^but as I had no reason to suppose that what I 
saw between Untersecn and Ijauterbrunnen formed an excep- 

j of 



• Moor©*a WXa of Byron, VoL tL, p. 14. Am, Ed. 



tional specimen of life m the liigher Alps, I have ventured to 
record it. There is, to all appearance, a marked discrimina- 
tion, as might he beforehand expected, hetween the character 
of the peasantry in the ungenial regions of the Oberland, and 
the substantial yeomanry of the middle agricultural region, 
and the highly cultivated population of the large towns and 
their neighborhoods. It resembles the contrast between 
Lapland and Saxony, except that in one case it is produced 
by difTerence of latitude • in the other by difference of eleva- 

With respect to the Swiss, Goldsmith has pretty fairly 
presented, in the Traveller, the two phases of their chara<;- 
ter^ without clearly referring them to the diOerent regions to 
which they pertain. In the beautiful edition of the Traveller, 
published, with stiperior illustrations, by the London Art 
Union in 1851, a curious misprint occurs, in the commejioe- 
ment of the description of the Swiss, not only in the text of 
the Poem, hut in the quotations from it explaining the illus- 
trations. In the following couplet, 

Wbcre Ibc hleal- Swiaa their stormy niandon tread. 
And force a clitirliah soil for &eauty bread, 

instead of " bleak ^ this edition in both places reads ** black/* 

We passed the night at Untersecn. A company of sing- 
ers, five in number, undertook to regale us with national 
airs. Their appearance certainly w as not prepossessing ; their 
voices were harsh, and their manners destitute of refinement. 
We encouraged their performance at iirst, in the hopes of 
hearing some national ballads ; the legend of Tell, itf the w^iM 
traditions of Lauterbrunnen itself. Their Hpertoire^ however, 
contained nothing but commonplace sentimentalities, which, 
being destitute of skill or graco in the performance, suun 

Untcrseen was alive in the morning with a cattle fair. 
The scene resembled similar gatherings in our ow^n country. 


except ill the costume of the drovers. We pushed our way 
through the crowd, on the. road to Interlacben, and there em- 
barked for Bricnz, which lies at the further extremity of a 
lake of the same name, greatly rcsemWiog that of Thun, but 
somewhat smaller, ami surrouniled with ruder scenery. 
Aar flows through huth. Of the 6ve boatm^/i who forme 
our e(|ujpage, four were women. The men seek foreign mill 
tary service, (w*hieh is now forbidden by law,) or drive 
flocks and herds to the mountains, having the women to di 
the work at !iome. Tlie (lat-l5ottomed boats, which we founl 
on these little mountain lakes, have everywhere been banished 
by steamers. The Alpine echoes are now awakened by 
the panting engine and screaming whistle. Opposite to Bri- 
enz we landed to view the Giesbachj {gushing torrent,) an ex- 
tremely picturesque and beautiftd object. There is no one 
fall as lofty as the Staubbach, but the succession of cascades 
is higher ; the stream pours down a greater volume of water, 
and is surrounded with a far more pleasing landscape. lt_ 
bounds from rock to rock^ its pure silver water glitterin| 
til rough groves of fir, and luwer down oak and beech wooda 
and after a long winding path down the mountain side, doshc 
framing into the lake. 

Opposite the falls a schoolmaster of Brienz hadestablishe 
himself in a small cottage, with five motherless children, the 
oldest of whom was but ten or eleven years of age. He ao^| 
companied them and himself on the harpsichord, and as thi^' 
little ones had wonderful voices for their yeiu-s, the effect was 
very pleasing. They executed for us some very pretty Itam 
den Vaches, with tasteful variations on the native airs of the 
Oberland- After forty years he is still perched and chirping 
in his Alpine ncst^ for it must be the same individual who is 
described in the liand-book, " whose family and himself are 
celebrated as the best choristers of native airs in Switzerland* 
He is now a patriarch of eighty, and most of his children arc 
married, but he is training his grandchildren to the same pro- 





fcssion of Bongstere," Let us hope that they too will not 
leave the poor old Alpine niinstrcL 

Brienz is a bcyiutifully situated village at the upper end 
of the lake j its inhabitants had all gone to the fair at Untcr- 
seen- Here the traveller usually takes horses to cross the 
Brtinig mountain to Lungeni^ hut the horses were gone to 
ttit^ fair with the men. We could get but one for ourselves, 
bfiggage, and guides. My companion hud lamed himself, and 
was entitled to ride, and I was well pleased to climh the 
mountain on foot. The road was in some places very steep, 
and hardly afforded a foothold on the mountain side* The 
Br nig forms the harrier between Berne and Untcrwalden, 
and after you enter the latter Canton, every thing that destrves 
the name of a road disappears in this quarter. Nothing re* 
mains hut to scramble among the rocks^ following the foot- 
steps of your guide. But the youthful traveller docs not 
reject this rough contact of mountain life, and the scene as 
you descend the last hilJ, repays the fatigue a hundred fold. 
It was difficult to refrain from cries of delight as wo looked 
down upon the lake and village of Lungern, quietly enfolded 
by the surrounding hills clothed with woods to their sum* 
mita, the dark green tint of the mciidows at their feet, the 
pea4>eful seclusion of the rcgioUj traversed hj nothing that can 
be called a highway, and on one side of which there was no 
approach by wheel carriages j the sound of vespers chimed 
from the steeple as we drew near the village, the tinkling 
bells of the returning herds, and the plaintive chant of the 
cow-hoys, and as the evening closed in, the long shadows of 
the mountains stealing over the lake. Such were the sights, 
the sounds, as we descended the Brtlnig to Lungern. 

It was probably on his tour to SwitJ^erland, that Sir 
Walter Scott conceived the idea of making Baillie Jarvie in 
Rob Roy propose to drain Loch Lomond. The inhabitants 
of Lungcrn had labored for years by a tunnel through tho 
Kaiserstulil, (Emperor's chair,) which forma a natiind dam 




between the lakes of Lungcni luid Sarnen, to lower the form- 
er. The cost of the work, tlie want of engineering skill, and 
the political eonvolsions of the times, had defeated the execu- 
tion of thin dopk#rable improvement^ hihI I siiw the sweet lake 
of Lungern hi all its natural beauty, as lovely an object as 
there is in Europe. But keener land speculators, richer com- 
panies, more skilful engineers, hjive acamiplisht'd the work. 
In 1830 the final perfi>ratif)n of the Kaiserstuhl took place, 
and in sixteen days the water in the lake of Lungeni fell to 
the level of the turmel. By this operation a broad strip of 
poor hind has been gained round tlie margin of the lake^ In 
sonic places its steep banks, having lost the support derived 
from the pressure of the water, have crumbled and slid into 
tlie lake* The newly acquired soil is divided into small hold* 
ings, each with its chdlet^ and is said, on the hand-book, to loo] 
like the common " property of a free-hold land society.'* 

On entering Unterwalden, one of the four primitive O 
tons, you fmd yourself literally in the Switzerland of the 
Swiss. Almost all the great traditions and patriotic legends 
cluster about tliis region. We started in the morning from 
Lungerii with a second horse, for which one of our guides had 
gone round by Meyriui^cn yesterday, while we footed the 
Briinig. With this reinlbrccment of the cavalry wc entered 
Sachseln, an ancient Swiss village, held in reverence as the 
Bcene of the labors of Saint Nicholas von der Flile. The 
parish church dedicated to him is a somewhat stately build- 
ing; its black marble pillars obtained from quarries in the 
neighborhood. Saint Nidiolas was bom in the early part of 
the fifteenth century, and, after leading an active political and 
military life, left a large family, and retired heart-stricken with 
the sins and sorrows of life, to a hermit's cell in the moun- 
tains. The fame of his austere penances, of his piety, of his 
superhuman abstinence, went abroail throughout Unterwalden, 
lie did not live on earthly food. It was rumored that he par- 
took no nourishment but that of the sacred elements received 



but once a month, Tho Bisliop sent to investigate the fact, 
andj according to the tradition, it vrixa substantiated. He onco 
averted a civil war, by appearing with a message from 
Heaven^ in a Council of eight Cantons assembled at Sarnen, 
and thus preventing the brethren from breaking up in wrath. 
This exploit forms the subject of a coarse fresco, in the por- 
tico of the cburch. The skeleton of the saint himself, a fright- 
ful object enough, is set up in a shrine befttre the altar, and 
readily exhibited to travellers. It is partly clad in robes 
richly ornamented with jewels, the gift of devotees, with 
gilded rays shooting from the head, which give it a dismal 
resemblance to Death on the pale horse^ in Mr, West's pic- 
ture. A cross set with jewels occupies the place of the beaH 
within the ribs. On a lay figure in a side chapel the gar- 
ments actually worn by the saint are displayed ; and they are 
borne in procession, on the great festivals of the churc^h, 
throughout the year. The peasantry of the Canton consider 
themselves under his especial tutelage, and the feeling toward 
him seems to be more kintDy than one would have antioipated 
from his ghastly osteological presentment. They call him 
Brother Claus. When the harvest is abundant, and the flocks 
and the herds incre^isc and multiply, and the produce of the 
dairy iinda a ready sale, Brother Claus has the credit, and if 
the reverse of these blessings overtakes them, they are sure 
Brother Claus has struggled hard with the Evil One, though 
this time without success. 



Baniea, propoaed dniaage of the lake— The LandeabeT^— 8eblUer*a Wnhelm Tell 
and birthday— Commotioa la Uaterwaldea la 1818— Type of 8wi« houet— Ar- 
BoM TOA Wiakebeld— Beaiataaoe to the Freach la 1198— Atrooltiea deacrlbed bj 
AliaoB— The attaek oa Btaantade eommaaded by G^aenl Foy— His eharaeter^ 
Lake of the Four Cantoas— Laoenie— Oeneral Piyihi^ model of Bwltserland— 
Thorwaldaen'k lion— KQasnacht one of Oessler^ atrongholda— la the history of 
Tell antheatio ?— The story of the Apple said to be fooad la the Daalsh sagas — 
Does this prore Tell a myth ?— The hollow way. 

Sabnrk, on the pretty lake of that name, is the seat of 
government of Unterwaldcn. We passed but a few hours 
here, but long enough to find out that here also the atrocious 
project of draining the lake to a lower level was in agitation. 
Whether, as in the case of the lake of Lungem, this project 
has been carried into execution, I have never heard. It is 
natural that Americans, with whom the best land in the world 
sells at a dollar and a quarter the acre, should not be able to 
sympathize with the Swiss, whose arable territory is so lim- 
ited, in this eagerness to acquire a few more acres. But to 
obtain this object by draining their beautiful lakes, seems a 
most extraordinary blindness to what makes so much of the 
attraction of the country, and annially fills it with a throng 
of tourists, whose progress through the cantons may be traced 
by the golden wake they leave behind them. 

There are some objects of interest in and about Samcn. 
The Council-house contains the portraits of the Landamnicn, 
or local rulers of the canton, for several oenturiea. That of 



the Cantonal Saint Nicholas von der Flue is the best ; none 
of them have any merits as works of art ; and the earliest of 
them cannot bo coeval with the persons conimemorated. The 
LandtnbeTge rises behind the Council-house. Tliis was the 
residence of one of the Austrian DailiflTs, whose oppressive 
rule brought on the Swiss revolt in the fourteenth century* 
Every trace of the castle itself has disappeared, but the tradi- 
tions connected with it form ii prominent portion of the his- 
tory of the all-important event, which has given these little 
Swiss republics their name and their praise among the nations 
of the earth. I have on my table, as I write these sentences, 
the copy of Schilkr^s Wllhelm Tell in a pocket edition, which 
was my travelling companion in Switzerland, and from wliichj 
as I sat witliin sight of the Landenberg, I read the pathetio 
scenes describing the cruelty of the BaililT to Hienrieh von 
der Halden, A few days ago the centennial anniversary of 
this illustrious poet was celebrattrd in every part of the civil- 
ized world, where the noble language in wliich he wn*oto is 
spoken or read. Nowhere could it have been celebrated with 
more grateful enthusiasm than in these secluded vales and 
mountain fastnesses of Switzerland, to whose natural beauty 
and historical interest he has added the attractiTc charm of 
some of the finest modern poetry. 

This quiet little nook, in the spring of the year in which 
we visitod it, was almost the scene of a less glorious insurrec- 
tion. In the anticipation of a scarcity, a peasant had, at the 
instance of tlic Diet of Untcrwalden, imported a considerable 
quantity of grain from Italy. Before its arrival, the market 
price of wheat had fallen below that which was agreed upon 
with the peasant, and the Diet were disposed to recede from 
their bargain. The old Untcrwalden spirit of the Melchthals 
and Winkelreids was at once kindled, and the yeomanry 
made common cAuse with the importer of the grain. The in- 
dignation against the Diet became so strong, that troops were 
called in from the powerful neighboring canton of Berne, to 




prevent an outbreak. Peace and harmony were at length 
stored, tnuiiily, as we were assured on the spot, by the inte 
cession of Brother Claus, whose reputation as a pcacemake 
began in his lifetime, and has been sustained ever since. 

From the time you enter Unterwalden, you observe 
type, sc4tloni departed from, in the dumestie architecture of 
Switzerland. The little Swiss cottages in our toy shops 
afford a very good idea of it. Tlic houses arc of wood, of one 
upright story above the basementj galleries running wholly 
round the house, projecting roofs, low studded, the outsides dH 
the houses frequeutly covered with small shingles, and th^B 
windows composed of small octangular panes of glass, set in 
leaden frames, — ^a picturesque style of window, of w^hieh spe^H 
cimens were frequently seen in this country at the beginnin^H 
of this century, and which, as ^r as my observation goes, has 
now wholly disappeared in America. The Swiss cottages 
seem rarely to be painted j they have consequently a dark, 
weather-beaten, gloomy aspect, which mnt<?rially detracts 
from the sprlghtliness of the landscape. Tliis may havaK 
changed with the incre^ise of wealth and the progress oi^ 
luxury of late years. 

From Saroen wo proceeded to Stanz, by a wretched road» 
passing a part of the way along the bed of a torrent. This 13 
the capital of the lower division of the Canton of Unterwalden, 
as Sarnen is of the upper* It is a village of perhaps fifl^eii, 
hundred inhabitants, but had in 1618 a convent of sixty *fivitH 
nuns, a monastery of twenty -five monks, and a pariah church 
served by seven priests. In front of the hotel was an uncouth 
statue of Arnold von Winkelreid^ one of the heroes of the 
great Swiss revolt, who, at the memorable battle of Sempach, 
in order to bre^k the line of the Austrians, gathered as many 
of their spears as he conld clutch in his arms, and received 
their points in his body, thus making an opening in the hos- 
tile ranks, which enabled the patriots to break through, and 
gain a glorious victory. In the statue just alluded to, he is 




repre-sotited grasping the Austrian spears, A house is shown 
as that of WiHkelreid, and the surrounding fields bear his 
name. The traces of the military operations of 1798 were still 
visilile. A naonuraentul tablet erected at the church com- 
memorates the massacre of three hundred and eighty-six of 
the inhabitants, who vrere desirojed by the French in the 
campaign of that year. When all the rest of Switzerland had 
submitted to the French, the inhabitants of those ancient eentral 
Cantons, faithful to the jirinciples of their fathers, strove to 
prevent the imposition of the fareign yoke. The shepherds 
and farmers of UnterwaJden refused to take the oath c)f fidel- 
ity to the new CoH8litution, and their brethren from Behwytz 
and Urij as in daya of yore, flew to their assistance. On the 
2d of September, eight thousand French crossed the lake of 
Lucerne, and landing at Stanzstade, attacked the patriots, 
who, fighting under every disadvantage, and in greatly infi> 
rior numbers, sustained the contest for several days. Alison 
has given a beautiful description of this disastrous struggle. 

"Ercry hedge, every tliickel, evcrj cottage was obstiuatelj con- 
tested. The dyiog eruwied into the hottest of the fire, the women and 
children ih re w themselves upon the eDen]y''s bayonets; the gray-haired 
raised their feeble hands against the inTaders, but what could berolsTa 
Okod devotion achieve againgt such desperate odds ? Slowly but 
steadily the French columns forced their way through Ihc valley ; the 
flames of the bougea^ tljc massacre of the mhabitanla, iwarking their 
eteps. The be nut if ul village of Stanz, built entirely of wood, was soon 
consumed ; eeventy peasants, with their curate at their bead, perished 
in the Oames of the church. Two hundred auxiliaries from Schwytj!, 
aniving too late to prevent the massacre^ rnahed Into the thickCfit of the 
fight, and after slaying double their own nuoiber of the enemy, perished 
to the last man. Xight at length drew her veil over these scenea of 
horror^ but the fires from the burning villnges still threw a lurid light 
over the eliflfe of the Engc!l)crg; and long after Ihc rosy tiot of evening 
had ceased to tinge the glaciers of the Titlia, the glare of the cooQagra- 
tion LUumlned the ettmmit a^ the mountain/^ * 

« AHaoD, Vol. IV., p. 410. 


THE Momrr vbbnon papees. 

In the foregoiiig account, Alison, following the Annual 
Register, represents the Tillage of Stanz as having been 
burned* This is a mistake* There was no appearance in. 
1818 of its having been so recently destrojed and rebuil1^^| 
and Mr* Simond, a very accurate writer, expressly says thii^B 
it was saved by the humanity of some of the French officers.. 
He states that sixty-three persons who had taken refuge in 
the church were massacred with their priest, but not that 
they perished in the flames of tbe building. The error prob- 
ably arose by confounding Stanz with its little port on the 
lake, called Stanzstade, wMch was wholly destroyed. 

One cannot but read with painful emotion that the Prench 
troops in the attack on Stanzstade were commanded by Genexi^ 
Foy, who not only became, under the restoration in France, om^ 
of the most honored of her liberal statesmen, and especially 
one of the very few of her public men who possessed eminent 
parliamentary talent, but a citizen whose personal character 
was marked by every thing generous, benevolent, and amiable. 
Of all those with whom I became acquainted in Paris in tbe 
winter 1817-'18, no one in the same political circle appeared 
to me to be the object of as much personal good-will as Gen- 
eral Foy. He had not yet entered the chamber of deputies, 
but his rare conversational powers, united with the sterling 
probity of his character, gave him an almost unlimited social 
influence. He died in 1825, at the age of fifty ; a hundred 
thousand persons walked in his funeral procession, and a mil- 
lion of francs were raised by subscription throughout France, 
as a provision for his widow and children. But this was the 
same person who visited upon the citizens of Unterwalden the 
direst eictremities of war, for striving to throw off the detesta^^ 
ble yoke of the French Directory ! ^| 

The road from Stanz to Stanzstade, the little landing-place 
from the lake^ is beautifully shaded with trees, nearly 
whole way. Here we Kwk a boat to cross the lake to Lti 
oeme, the lake of the four Cantons, or to call it by its 

[y Uie 




expressive German namej the lake of the four sylvan Cantona 
( Vierwaldsiddiersee,) Mr. Fox used to say that it was the 
most beautiful lake in the world, and Sir James Mackintosh 
describes it with unwonted enthusiasm. Its shape is very ir- 
regular, and it consists rather of a group of four lakes joiued 
together by narrow straits, than of' one regular expansive 
sheet. Its shores present every variety of landscape^ from 
broad fertile meadows, dotted with scattered farms and com* 
pact villages, to dark, precipitous rocks, wliieh set^m to tower 
perpendicularly from the waters. We were rowed in a small 
boat from Stan^stade to Lucerne, by two girls and a man. 
The weather was as fine as a cloudless sky and a mild Sep- 
tember breeze, just curling the surface of the beautiful lake, 
could make it, 

I do not know that I can add any thing to the account ia 
the Hand-book of the objects of interest at Lucerne. I must 
confess that in Switzerland our attention was principally 
turned to the beauties and sublimities of nature. One tires 
at length, in Europe, of ancient churches, (except the great 
mediiEval piles, which you survey with ever renewed awe and 
wonder,) bridges, colkctions of armor, and galleries of doubt- 
ful original paintinp, wliit h would hardly be thought valua- 
ble, if they were certainly the works of the great masters whose 
names they bear ; but of lakes, and mountains, and glaciers, 
and cataracts, and precipices like those of Switzerland, no one 
who has any sense for the beauties and grandeurs of nature, 
can ever grow weary. 

One of the objects which travellers go to see at Lucerne, 
is General Pfy tier's model in relief of the central portion of 
Switzerland. General P fy ifer belonged to the ancient aris* 
ttjeracy of Lucerne, but when he was ten years of age went to 
France to receive a military education there. In due time he 
entered one of the regiments of Swiss guards, in which his 
father was a captain, and succeeded to the command of the 
company on his father's death. Having served with distino- 


mnmj^ ke nfmn^ i^mtt to ] 

hk wm kry ^fA to w m mi w ut . Irc«b MCatl ; 
IpmiOMCUksl MMUMj ^ M fofj^. r,€ tbt eoifinl pnt ci ; 
k»l, <« ft vai^ ^Y Uc/Uiw ttd * half mAm to the afane 
kak^j^. X<4 <ftJjr er^Err ixKivBtaiB, kkr, river, aad ri«Kr, 
but 4fYiaj tfAtM$at m wAaieuA, Tkt Biodd mmiiili a por- 
ti'A of «s or «er«n Cisimm^ mid ^uju^mm m tp&ot of i 
imtitAyAmo mA m faslf feet bj tvdre^ euncapoB^iif to i 
kmidnd mad eifidj •quare l^flfws of territorr. Uie good 
f/M g«fi«ml dkad in IMS, at tfce ige of M,enjoTiiig to the last 
bw p«j»l^U>aH fgtfputttMhm, Thm model is still shown in the 
^if^nht', yvUifm U'i Jived and di':'J. ThorwaIdsen*s magnificent 
in^fftumi'Ml Uf ihfi 8wu)S guard, who sacnficed their lives in 
iMntv:H iff Hpi fid ling rn^inardiy, on the dreadful tenth of Sep- 
UttnkpHTf 1792| is erH'ted in the gardens of General Pfyffer. 
He was htmmilf^ I Yxflievc, one of the few who escaped alire 
from i\ui buUihcry of that terrible day. 

I'Vonri Luci-me we t^>ok a small boat to KOssnacht These 
tra v'^rneH acrohn the lakes of Switzerland are now all made by 
HU^atftom, but far b^ss agreeably, I should think, than formerly 
in ihii row Uiats* Kussnadit is the site of one of the l^endary 
strongholds of Oessler. I call it ^ legendary," in consequence 
of ilin drjubts which, in the last century, were cast upon the 
iiiitlH«iiti(!lly of the history of Tell. The fact that a story 
wifiHiwhat Hiiiiilar to that of the Apple is found in two ver- 
sions in tlie legendary history of Denmark, has been gon- 
«Tiilly th«Might a sufTieicnt proof that the tale as told of Tell 
inuNt \m a myth. Numerous works on the subject appeared 
ill tim liiNt oitntury. lljo Curntt^ Froudcnberg of Berne pub- 
IInIhmI an i^miy in 17(K), entitled William Tell a Danish Fable. 
Tho govonimojit of tlio Canton of Uri caused it to be burned 
by tlic» publio oxooutioncr. Several answers were MTitten to 
this work, and in ddbnoe of the traditional accounts of Tell. 



The eminent lijstoriim Johan von Mil Her regards tho exploits 
of Tell as autbentic history, and, with the exception of the 
Apple, Mr. Simond is of the s^ime opinion. Gibbon, as 
might bo expected, regards them " as a fable, ^ hich has not 
even tho merit of originality, William Tell being but a 
clunisv' imitation (imitation assez grossit;re) of a Daxiiijh iiero> 
perhaps as fubulous as himsLlf." * I have not seen the ancient 
Danish Sagas and legendary histories, where the duplieato 
story of Teirs apple purports Ui be found ; but it does not 
appear to me, that such a repetition amounts to a proof of 
fabrication. In an age before the invention of gim powder, 
and when archery flourished, it may not have been an unheard- 
of display of skill to shoot an apple from the head of a living 
person. There is an account of a border marksman in our 
Western country who was allowed by his comrades, — such 
was their reliance on his skill, — to shoot with his rifle at small 
objects placed on their heads. Gessler may have commanded 
of Tell this proof of his skill, of which he had seen examples. 
Is it certain that the Banish legends are older than tho Swiss 1 
Tell's adventure, as the more renowned, may have be^n tho 
foundation from which the Danish traditions were derived, 
the old Scandinavian manuscripts being notoriously interpo- 
lated. Finally, if we give up tho Apple as legendary, it will 
not follow that the substantial portions of the history are un- 
authentic. They are supported by widely prevailing and 
unbroken tTaditit>n3, records nearly contemporary, public 
monuments, and national institutions. In fact, they compose 
a part of the historiciil treasure of the modern w'orhl, of which 
it will not easily allow itself to be despi>i!ed. There are cer- 
tain grand events and result>s^ in liistory, in letters, in politics, 
and morals, which defy the sceptic, and laugh to scorn a pro- 
ton tio us and half-leanied critieism. They find an echo some- 
times in the sound common sense, sometimes in the patriotic 

* Gibbon's Mljc«tUuieoiu works. ToL lU^ p. S64^ 


1HB wnjar vbukui r 


•entimflfita, sometimes in the nstanl sjrmpatliies; 
in the religious instincts of the msssgii snd die plausible i 
ftnements by which they are called in qnestaon, after a hri 
popularity, pass into oblivion. 

A small portion of Gessler's stron^iold at Kuasnac 
remains, and a little distance from it you pass throu^ t] 
** hollow way,*^ where the tyrant met his fiite. As we enten 
it, a youth, with a cross-bow, ^rang into the road before v 
and earned a few pence by showing us just how Tell ah 
Oessler. A diapel of connderable antiquity marks tlie sp* 
to whidi tradition points as the scene of this remarkab 



Tl]€ kke cf Zaf— Tbo deatraetlon <}f Gold&a-^Mr. BDckmtxMlar*! deaerlpUon of tt — 
AcflooDi of tt bf Dr. Za^ of Arth, bb ejre-wttnfritf— SchwyU^ItA tsarljr hLstof^^i-^ 
£T6Dtft of ITOS^-CbArftctor ud coiidact of Alojs Bediog— Bruonen — PASsagia to 
Altorf— OratU— Tlio Uirfte foonders of Swiw Independehce— The TellenftpniDg— 
Esthniluiii of 8ii Judm Mftcklotoflli — Tbo Legecda of the Aiix4u-4itiootlDg. 

Fbom Tell'fl chapel at the " hollow way/' wg walked on 
to Immense e, an iEvitiiig little spot on the Lake of Zug» 
Here we intended to take a boat down the lake to Arth, a 
thriving village at its lower extremity, but clouds began to 
gather on the opposite sides of the Tlighi and the Bossberg; 
the surface of the lake bccanio rough and black ; and wo 
found the boatmen and boatwomen no more disposed than 
ourselves to take the risk of the threatening squall, which, 
however, did not bilrat, upon us. Pursuing our way by a 
footpath along tlie shores of the lake to Arth, we soon had 
the counterpart of the scene which had driven ns from the 
water. I1ae wind came round to the pleasant quarter -, the 
stormful clouds retreated sullenly from the Hossberg; a 
bright sunshine lighted up Righi, and the little lake was soon 
as smooth and as bright as a mirror. 

Tourists who ascend Righi stop at Arth for guides ; but 
the uncertainty of clear weather led us to forego that laborious 
excursion. Taking a char-d-banc at Arth for Schwytz, we 
pursued our way over the site of Goldau. It was now just 
twelve years since the shocking event that buried that and 



the neighboring Tillages in ruins. Goldaa {the golden meadow) 
was the name of the fertile and picturesque Tale between the 
Rossberg and the Righi, through whidi lay the roed from 
Arth to Schwytz, passing through a succession of four or 
five prosperous villages. The account of Dr. Zay, a resident 
at Arth, and an eye-witness of the scene, is the source from 
which subsequent tourists have derived their descriptions. I 
must, however, except from this remark the Rev. Mr. Buck- 
minster, who being in Switzerland about the time the disaster 
happened, passed over the ruins a week afterwards, while 
those who escaped were still seeking to recover their friends 
that had been buried, some of whom were believed to be still 
alive. His account must have been written before Dr. Zay's 
was published. 

" Birda of prey," says he, " attracted by the smell of dead bodies, 
were hoTering all about the valley. The general impression made upon 
ns by the sight of such an extent of desolation, connected too with the 
idea, that hundreds of wretched creatures were at that moment alire, 
buried under a mass of earth, and inaccessible to the cries and labors 
of their friends, was too horrible to be described or understood.** * 

Mr. Buckminster's graphic account of this most disastrous 
event concludes with the following striking remark : 

'* I cannot but reflect upon my weakness iif complaining of our long 
delay at Strasburg. If we had not been detained there ten days, wait- 
ing for our passports, we should have been in Switzerhwd the 3d of 
September, probably in the vicinity of the lake of Lowertz — perhaps 
under the ruins of Goldau.** 

The destruction of Goldau and the neighboring villages 
was caused by a slide from the side of the overhanging moun- 
tain, the Rossberg. The summer of 1800 had been unusu- 

* Mr. Backminster's intereflting account of tho destniction of Goldaa Is oonUin«d 
In a lett«r to his ft-iend, Arthur M. Walt«r, Esq., written on the S6th Sept, 1306 
from Geneva, and printed in the notes to Mr. Thocher s memoir of him In the first 
voliuM of his sermons. 



ally wet, and on the 1st and 2d of September it rained 
incessantly. The deposits of clay, deep below tktj surfaces of 
tJic mountain, became sollened and swelled, and the superin- 
cumbent mass, lying at a eonsiderable angle to the horizon, 
be^an to move. Crevices were seen to open on the surface ; 
a eracking noise was heard from within ; stones started from 
the ground ; reeks rolled down the niotmtain. At two 
o*cloek in the aflernoun of the 2d Septemberj a large rock 
became loose, and in fall big raised a cloud of black dust. 
Toward the lower part of the mount^iin the ground seemed as 
pressed downward by the weight above. When a slick or 
spade was driven in, it moved of itself with the ground in 
wliich it w^as placed. A man who had been diggurg in his 
garden ran away with fright at these extraordinary appear- 
ances. Soon a fissure larger than all the others was ob- 
served ; insensibly it increased ; springs of water ceased all 
at once to flow; the pine trees of tbe forest absolutely reeled ; 
the birds flew away screaming. A few minutes before five 
oV4ock, the symptoms of some mighty catastrophe became 
still stronger j the whole surface of the mountain seemed to 
slide down, but so slowly, as to afford time to some of the 
inhabitants to escxipc. This, however, was but very partially 
the case. Over a hundred houses were buried in the ruins or 
crushed to atoms hy the furious avalanche of earth and rocks, 
and between four and five hundred human beings perished. 
In one ease an old man, who had oi\i}n predicted some such 
disaster, was ^juietlj smoking his pipe when told by a young 
person running by, that the mountain was in the act of falling, 
He rose and looked out, but came into his house again, saying 
he had time to fdl another pipe. The yomig man, contiTJuing 
to fly, was thrown dowTi several times by the rush of the 
driving fragments, but finally escaped. Looking back, he 
saw the house in which the old man had loitered to fill his 
pipe, dashed oif to destruction, 

A party of eleven travellers from Berne, belonging to the 


nif 3SC £adxicTzLiitaMi fcr'T:ii^ tboe. xrrired at Artk on ^e &til 
%i oc* Sisptjeciber. and sorsai «:il &OC £:r die Bighx, a &w 
nilmztn bet': re the caiasoropfie. SeTes ct uk portj preceded 
die rciiers and h&i j'isc ec.:^r^ die villaee oc Goldan. The 
odier t':cr were a lizile cehfnd. and wtae Ic<kinz chroo^ a 
tel<»t-^:re as die scminis of die Roobers — sbor mil^a od* in a 
strtLi^zii* line : wliere some strac^ ixcinir^ci«.>iL wemed to be 
r;i<-Tg plA». AH as cEtx a £2112 *. c stcnes like cann«:<a balls 
siiijC diroogh die air ab«jTe dieir heads ; a ckKzd of dost ob- 
Kured die Tallej ; a frightml nnjiae vaa heard ; diej fled ! 
As 4«>jc as die dnac and darkness bad cL^ared xsp so dfeat tiiej 
cocdd see, diej a jizghs dieir friends -who bad preceded (hem ; 
bcfi die Tillage of GoI»iaa h*i disappeared under a he^ of 
iCoces and rubbi:^ one hundred &et in hei^Ut and die whoSe 
Taller was a chaos ! Of dj? toor sczriron ore lo«t a bride 
to whom he was j-ist nuirrlei, one a s«:c. a diir^i two pupils 
nrder his care. All e&:rts and rtsearefccs to reoj^er their 
rerr.Airs pni'Vcd ;r^-tTaII±g. V. rH^.T wis len ot Goldaa tat 
the b*:Il whivih huns: in its steeple, azui which was £ jcnd at the 
distance •: f ai-iut a mile. 

These, and other striking and pathetic anex\i'":e5 ci the 
destrccQOB of G^jldaa are given by Dr. Ziy. frtm whim thej 
are copied hy Mr. Simon-l and the ~ Han'i-c->3k." As we 
trarersed the spjt twelve vesirs afterward, it was still a dis- 
mal ruin- Xo attempt had been made to rebuild the vil- 
lazes : instead of the - g-ilien valley ."" the rcsid frc»m Artii to 
Schwytz now passed over a continuous ridge of tdxren nxks 
and gravel, bare or covered with a rank gr»:wth of wcr^s and 
coarse grassesL A chapel and an inn were the only buil.ILigs 
which, in ISIS, marked the spo: where GoMau had been. 

Lalande, in the first v.Iume of his travels in Italy, p. 47, 
mentions &*:»r.-.e eximples of catastni-phes of this kind still 
more sh^xking. The most remarkable of these is that which 
befell the tillage of Pleurs, in the GrlsocSyin lOIS, when two 
thousand persons perished in the ruins. There are traces in 



the vale of Goldau of former slides of the Rossberg, as tho 
streets of Herculaneum are paved with lavas from older and 
otherwise forgott<?ii eruptions. 

After emerging from the desolation of the mined villages, 
we pursued our way through a delightful vale^ that of Schwytz, 
the counterpart, no doubt, of what Goldau was. Schw*y tz, or, 
as it might more properly be written, Schwciz, is the very 
central point of Switzorland, which i.s, in their own language, 
called Die Schweiz, Why one of the smallest of the Cantons, 
with a moderate-sized village for its capital^ should give ita 
name to the entire Ilelvetie Confederacy, it may not bo easy 
to say. Popular tradition assigns as a reason for this prefer- 
ence, that the patriots from this Canton took the lead, and 
distinguished themselves for their bravery at the great battle 
of Morgartcn, in 1315» 

The picturesque mountain, called the Myten, rises direct- 
ly behind Schwytz, and seems to threaten it one day \^ ith the 
fate of Goldau. In front you catch a fine view of the Luke of 
tho four Cantons, at a distance of about three miles, between 
tho lofty summits which recede from each otlier, fis if to open 
the priispect. 

The citizens of Schwytz arc justly proud of the plao© 
^Ich it holds in the history of their cotmtry. They ex- 
hibit iu the public armory tlie standards taken from the Aus- 
trians at Morgarten, in 1315, with the banners borne by their 
fathers at the other great battle-fields of the fourteenth and 
fifleenth centuries. 1 own I looked with respectful emntion 
at these tattered and dusty memorials of conflicts, which will 
be remembered in history with those of Marathon and Platsua, 
of Bunker Hill and King-s Mountain* 

But Schwytz is not obliged to gt> l>ack to the middle ages 
for her patriotic recollections. The great leader of the heroic 
resistance made to the French in 1T98, Aloys Reding^ the 
master spirit of the patriotic movement of that day, was a 
citizen of Schwytz, and died but a few months before our vjsit 



to the Canton, This distinguished patriot, in his yont 
served in tho armies of Spain, and if I misUike not was at one 
time with his regiment in the Island of Cuba. Retiring with 
honor from the Spanish service in 1788, he was elected diief 
magistrate of his native Canton. When the French Directo- 
ry sent their armies into Switzerland ten years afterwards, to 
force the new constitution upon that devoted country, Aloys 
Keding organised the resistance of the democratic Cantons, 
and led their armies, 

I gained great favor with otir guide, on the way to 
Schwytz, by questioning him about Ali>ys Reding. When I 
asked him if it was true, that some of the women fought with 
their infants on their left arms, he exchanged a smile with his 
young wife, who was walking by his side with a market 
basket, and said, ** If Rhe had been oM enough at the time to 
know what was passing, she ciiuld %Tiuch for the fact*" 

From Schwytz wo proceeded to "the charming village ** 
of Brunnen, a distance of about thre^? miles. This place is the 
port of Schwytz, and lies upon the lake of the Four Cantonay 
at the mouth of the little river Muotta. You would not 
think it possible tliat a village in this secluded spot, nestled 
at the foot of Alpine crags, and on the shore of the central 
lake of Switzerland, walled in on almost every side by some 
of the highest mountjiins of Europe, could be a place of active 
business. Such» however, is the fact ; the cattle from the 
Northern Swiss Cantons are driven down to Brunnen, there 
embarked in flat-bottomed boats to cross the lake to Altorf^ 
and being landed tliere, are driven up the valley of the Reuss, 
and by the pass of St. Gotliard into Italy* In the course of 
the year immense droves take this route, and at certain sea* 
sons fill Brunnen with the noise and movement of trade. 
Quite a flotilla of boats was collected to convey some droves 
across the lake, which were expected the next day, en route 
for a fair at Lugano. The Angelus was sounding from the 
steeple of the parisli church at Schwytz as we left it at six 



oVlock in the moriiiiig» aiid the nt-igh boring peasjiutry were 
flocking to early mass. Brunnen, like Schwytz, is honorably 
ftssociated with the annala of Switzerland, It was here tliat 
the confederation between the three pioneer Cantons (rnter* 
waldeij, Uri, and Sehwytz) ^vas formt^d after tlie battlo of 
Moi^arten in 1315 j and here that Aloya Reding established 
the short-lived league between the same Cantons in 1708, 
when they ruse against the armies of the Directory. 

We were compelled, when on the point of embarking for 
Altorf, to enter into n^ueh snch a disenssioii about the weather, 
as that w^hieh is contained in the first act of Schiller's WUhelm 
Telly where Ban m gar ten is urging the boatmen to carry him 
across the lake from the opposite shore. It is well known 
that while engaged upon this beautiful drama, Schiller ex- 
plored the local ities with great care; and for a short time the 
splendid passage, to w hieh I have alluded, might have been 
taken for a description of that which was passing before our 
eyes. But, after waiting about an hour, the wnnd shifted, and 
our boatmen %'entured out w^ith their not very stanch-looking 

The shores of this part of the lake are in strong contrast 
with those along which we coasted from Stanzstado to Lu- 
cerne ; there every thing was soft; and placid ; here dreary 
perpendicular walls, towering up from the lake, frowned over 
the dark surface of the waters. 

We stood over the lake to the shores of Uri, and landed 
at Grtitli or liutli. Tliis is the spot, where the ever memo- 
rable fumiders of Helvetic liberty met by night^ — ^ Werner 
Stauffacher of Scbw ytz, Arnold Melchthal of Unterw^alden, and 
Walther of Attinghausen of Uri — ^and took the solemn oath 
" to be faithful to each other, but to do no wrong to the Count 
of Ilapsburg*" Sir James Mackintosh thinks " tliese poor 
mountaineers in the fourteenth century furnish perhaps the 
only example of insurgents, who, at the moment of revolt, 
bind themselves as sacredly to be just and merciful to their 


dra^y ttMiilifes ia ipifsft tbo iwiiliiiimts of tke Paiituni < 
the €bap«0 €f 1T74 to tiio King, in whUk thA •tntemait of 
ll» gfig y i i ice% vludi Ittd bitmgkt iIm eokmcB to the Y«ge 
of rerolntian, k aecompAnied br tlie wsrmest prolen^oiis 
lojftltj to the person nnd goTennnent of litftrCoont of Hn 
bufg, Geoffgo III. Our gidde, who said that he and his 
oates hnd bonght tho spot of the Cantoii, Touched for 
■Bthcniiility of tho tiaditkiii of the thr^e ^tnng;^^ which 
mora than I cm Tcntnro to do. The aepantlott ftani 
focmtaln wean erery appeannee of hediog artificta]. 
gitide naked if we would like to hear some poetry. I was tn 
hopes he was going to treat us to an andeait national bnOnd, 
hot it turned out to be some well-meant, but indifliBrent linQa 
denomieiiig the French invasion tyi 17^8w 

From Gn'itli we crossed to the other side of the 
whkh is here quite narrow, end eame to 7W$ Ckt^td^ on i 
rock upon which, aooording to the tradition, he leaped from 
the boat in which Gessler was conveying him to Kusscmcfat, 
There is nothing in the localities which makes the &ct im- 
probable, or TCTT diflScult, Although it is frequently re- 
marked that the contemporary records are silent, not only 
with respect to the Apple, but the other traditioos of Tell, 
Mr. Simond states, as a matter of history^ that eighty-one 
years after the event took place (which is two years less than 
the interval which has elapsed since the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence), a chapel was constructed on tMs rock^ and that 
one hundred and fourteen indi\'iduals who had known Tell 
were then living* 

The present chapel is of later date, and covered on the 
interior with coarse frescoes, representing the principal erents 
in TelFs life. That of his leaping on tlie rock has been lately 
renewed, and in a style much superior to the rest. A sermon 

* Lll«<KrS{rJsm«s3ltorfclatcahbTkl»5i». T«iILp.aart 



is annually preached from tke Tellensprung {TelPs Leap,) 
commemorative of the event, and the hearers assembling from 
the neighboring Cantons, gather round the rock in their boats. 
Sir James Mackintosh says : 

** The combination of what is grandest in Nature with whatever is 
pure and sublime in human conduct, affected me in this passage, more 
powerfully than any scene I had ever seen. Perhaps neither Greece nor 
Rome would have had such power over me. • • • GriitU and Tell's 
Chapel are as much reverenced by the Alpine peasants as Mecca by a 
devout Musulman.'* 

I reserve a few remarks, in addition to those made in my 
last Number, on the alleged plurality of Apple-shooting le- 
gends, till we make our visit to Altorf next week, and stand 
on the spot consecrated by Switzerland as the scene of th^ 



Th« Cutoa of Uri— TIm tndiUou of Tell— VaDcf of th» BflOM— WOdaeM of the 
■etB»— TIm D^TlTt bridfe —The annj of Sawarrov la ITff— AadcroMtt — Head 
wrten of the Tldno— Short Alpine nminer— Pamfe of the Vmnm-GlmeUw ef 
the Bhone— The Viliii the Brier— The Staiploa roofd— Ferewell to Switaer^ 

A SHORT sail from Teifs Leap brings you to Fluelen, the 
little port of Altorf. The lake is here narrow, a sort of 
arm of the lake of the Four Sylvan Cantons, pushing its way 
np into the heart c»f Uri, the smallest and the feeblest mem- 
ber of the Swiss Omfedcraoy, not supposed in 1818 to con- 
tain more than eleven or twelve thousand inhabitants. 
Among them, however, are said to be the fmest specimens 
of Swiss muscle and blood, after the type of the men of the 
fourteenth century. The weather became fine as we pushed 
off from the Tellenxprung, and we made the rest of the way 
under the dark shadow of the perpendicular rocks, which in 
some places rise to the height of eight hundred feet on the 
eastern shore of the lake, while the opposite coast was kind- 
ling in sunshine. Nowhere are the contrasts of Nature so 
sharply defined as in the Swiss mountains. 

Fluelen is the counterpart of Brunnen, a little landing- 
place from the lake, and it is here that the Reuss finds its 
outlet. The whole character of the scene, which wore the 
aspect of almost oppressive seclusion, when I passed through 
it, is doubtless changed by the arrival and departure two or 



three times a day of tlie steamer from Lucerne, We com- 
mitted our bagp^age to tho stout shoulders of Helvetian por- 
ters, and walked up to Akorf, a distance of two miles. Tliis 
is a place of no great account, its population, thirteen or 
fourteen hundred, with Tisiblo traces of a fire which had, 
about twenty years before, laid it in ruins. But this is 
Altorf ; the point of central interest in the early history of 
Switzerland ; for here, according to tho tradition, is the seen© 
of that immortal mountain epic, which is interwoven with 
the fibres of her nationality. Criticism, as wo have already 
seen, is at fixult, as to the true historical foundation of the le- 
gend, but it bears and will bear to tho end of time the samo 
relation to Switzerland, that the " tale of Ti^ty divine '* bore 
to Hellas ; and there is, to say the lexist, as much reason to 
question the authenticity of the one as of the other. It has 
recently been stated that this feat of shooting^ the apple from 
the heati of a living person is not only found in the legendary 
Danish history of Saxo Gram mat ieus, but in five or six other 
Northern legends ; nay, that it is common among ** the Turks 
and Mongolian Tartars " and that it is found, cliapter and 
verse, among *' the wild Samoyeds," But this seems to me 
to be proving too much. That the " wild Samoyeds," " the 
Hottentots of the North, '^ as they are called hy Malte Brun, 
can prcMluce chapter and verse for tliis or any other legend of 
the middle ages, is a thing much mure easily said than pro veil ; 
jmd that tho mountaineers of Uri ha<l, either in the fourteenth 
or fifteenth cxiintury (when this legend certainly existed in 
Switzerland) pushed their antiquarian researches into the 
Scandinavian Saga^* and the chronicles of Saxo Orammaticus, 
which were not published till the sixteenth century, or the 
legends of tho Mongolian Tartars, is equally ^questionable. 
We must, however, pay that respect to honest Saxn^ which 
Tell would not pay Gessler's cap^ and respectfully bow to the 
monkish chronicler, from whom Sliakespeare b<>rrowed the 
outlines of Hamlet t Mythical or historical, Altorf is not the 



place to question the trodUions of Tell. One might ae well 
den}' the story of King John at nunnymede^ or maiiUaio tliat 
Miles Standbh i^ a myth at Plymouth. 

A fountain in tlie market-plucti of Altorf marks the spot 
where Tell stood when he shut the apple fmni his son^s htiiad^ 
and it isolated that the linden against which the hid was pluoed, 
exi£$tud^ in a decayed state, till the middle of the seventeentli 
century. Another fountain has heen placed npon the spot 
where it grew. And now if all tliis humble prose aliall m- 
dueo the readers of the Lei>o£R to turn to the third scene of 
th*^ third act of Schiller's Williara Tell, in the original if pos- 
sible, if not in Mr, Brooks* tran&latiun, they will not regret 
the time we have devoted to the topic. 

At Altorf wo took horses to pass up the valley of tlie 
Beuss. The rate of speid promised us may be judged from 
the fact that our guide accompanied us on f<x)t. SchlHer^a 
cjtquisite drama — a better guide — minutely describes the road« 
We turned a little out of our way to pass through Btirgleo, 
tlie village where Tell lived. A chapel occupies the apot 
on which his house is believed to have stood. A lineal dc- 
scendanty John Martin Tell, died as late as 1084^ and Uie fam- 
ily became extinct, by the death of a female descendaai in 
1720. These factjs give an air of authenticity to his personal 
history, which, af^er all, does not go back beyond the reach 
of the parish Registers of every part of Europe, Opposite 
to Burglen is Attinghausen, the domain of Tell's father-in-law, 
one ctf the immortal conspirators of Grittli« 

The valley of the Keuss is far more romantic and ptclii^ 
resque than tliat of the Arve, which is described in the Ibrty* 
second numbcT of these papers. The chasms through whtcb 
it pass«2S are narrower, and the precipices along which you 
wind, at considerable elevation^ are of an alarming decUrity. 
At times you enter a chill ravuie, with a roaring torrent at 
tlie bottom, that fills tlie air with a powdery spray ; while 
a cold wind drawing down the narrow road-way seems to re- 



pel the intruder. In some places tho path on tlio moimtxim 
side is shaded by nuhle fir trees. Where thia is the ease you 
see at intervals the turrow of the avalanche, which has 
ploughed up the growth of centuries. In several places you 
cross bridges of a single arch, suspended aloft, above tho tor- 
rent, Siieh is the scene as far as Ga?sehenen. Here it as- 
sumes a wilder character. You are approaching tho dividing 
point of the Alpine waters ; those behind you pass off to tho 
Rhine, and yon are not far from the Glacier of the Kbone; 
one system of waters bound to the Meditcrraneari, tho other 
to the German Ocean I You soon reach the limit of fertility, 
and rapidly ascending, as you proceed, find youi-sclf in a 
chasm bctvs-ccn two mountain walls of barCj iron-bound rock. 
The path lies upon the declivity on one side of tho chasm. 
The sun had already snnk behind the summits that surrounded 
us ; — it was bleak and gusty ; our guide had stopped to gos* 
sip with some Frefjschuizen^ at the last tillage, and left us 
to fnid our way alone, tiirough these silent and desolate de- 
fdes. Our faithful animals, to whom we gave the reins, found 
it for us. Tlic only sound heard was the raving torrent and 
the tramp of the horses on the rock, like that of the Com- 
mander's marble foot in Don Giovanni. At lengh we reached 
a gallery of considerable length, in the perpendicular rock, 
and terminating at the famous DeviPit Bridge. This was a 
bridge of a single arcVi, thrown across the Reuss from wall 
to wall, at the height of sixty feet from tlie water. At this 
ill-named spot, and in the middle of the bridge, we encoun- 
tered a floek of mountain sheep on their way down the valley. 
They were alarmed at our horses, which, in tlicir turn, were 
somewhat startled at the violent rush of the sheep, urged by 
reckless shepherds and fierce mountain dogs. A good deal 
of earnestness was nianifeijted, 1 must confess, on both sidea^ 
not to be detruded over the low parapet into the torrent* 
AVe passed the bridge in safety, and immediately entered 
another gallery cut in the solid rock. 



The teiiv^ller of tlie praeot dmjr knows laotlung but hj 
traditiaii of the peange of llie neienil Jhwifw Brid^ ctrer ^bm 

BeuML The modem slmclure is suUi), fenced to bj loflj^ 
Mnpets, and approodied by & convenient terrttced pathvmj 
on eaidi Bide. It is nearer the plunging eatanct of tii« 
Renaa than the old bridge, but Uiia last is (or waa, for I knorir 
not if it h still standing) so narrow^ its pa^iwaT ao eicposHi, 
and ita whole appearance go inaecnre, that it really sMined 
unaaie to croaa ; particularly if you bad to r>ree your war on 
horaeback^ through a floek of wild sheep, driven forward bj 
clamorous shepherds and their dogs. Our guide informed tn 
that when the army of Suwarrow was pursuing the Fr<eiieli 
in tWa gorge in 1709, finding the bridge blown up, the Ros- 
\ made a teniporarj' bridge, over which they crossed, hy 
iring small timbers together with tbe silken sashes of the 
offioeira. The Hand-book says it was not the ThviTt Brid^m 
that waa thus blown up, but a smaller arch over one of the 
lateral torrents, which is more probable. Alison, however, 
who rather affects the graphic^ represents the DeviPs Bridt^e 
as being blown up* and says that the Russians in their marcb, 
^* found an impassable gulf two hundred feet deep, surmounted 
by precipices above a thousand feet high/* and swept by a 
murderona fire from the enemy ^a artillery.* There is no 
more fVightful chapter in the history of modem warfare tlian 
the Campaigns of 1798 and 1790 in Switzerland. 

Passing through the gallery I have just mentirnei, called 
the Kok of Vri (Urner Loch,) you leave the terrors of the 
Reuaa vale behind. You now cjitcr a smooth, green plateau ; 
endrcled^ it is true, by rocky walls of great elevation, but 
plnood at a considerable distance, and enclosing, as it were, a 
secluded garden in these Alpine solitudes. Tbe elevation is 
about four thousand five hundred feet above the level of the 
aea ; the air was shrewd and piercing ; — the aspect wintry. 


• Altioa, VoL 7. pu ISa 



It is traversed by the Reuss and its little tributary the Matt, 
and lies at tlie foot of St. Gotliard, Thousands of travellers 
annually pass by this defile into and from Italy, although (in 
1818) the road was not carriageable, and mules or litters for 
the timid furnished the only conveyance. Pursuing this road, 
(which we did not,) you soon meet a dividing ridge, which 
sends its waters to the Ticino, and by that channel to the 
Adriatic. The Head Springs, accordingly, are not very re- 
mote, not merely from those of the Rhine and the R hone, but 
of the Inn and other tributaries of the Danube; fountains of 
the waters which that noble river, traversing Wnrtemberg, 
Bavaria, Austria, Hungary, Temesvar, and Walhichia, pours 
into the Black Sea ! 

At " Tlie Three Kings " of Andermatt, we found as good 
fare as is to be met in hotels of much hi^jher pretensions^ and 
much nearer the level of the ocean* The mountain trout, 
fresh from the crystal waters of tlie Matt, formed the staple 
of the evening repast ; and a genial fire, civil attendance, and 
clean Ixids^ seemed, in the opinion of the weary travellers, to 
entitle the quiet Alpine nook to the name which Schiller gives 
it, "the Vale of Joy ;' 

We started early in the morning for the Yalais, Jt was 
the day before Michaelmas, which closes the short Alpine 
Slimmer. June, July, August, and September^ the flocks and 
herds pass on the mountains ; at Michjielrnas they come down 
to the meadows and vales. The paths w^ere fdled with the 
animals descending to their long winter quarters ; but where 
they could fjud pasturage in the wild region above us is a 
mystery. The vale of Andermatt, otherwise called Urscren, 
is celebrated for the manufacture of the dieese which bears 
that name, and is of the quality otherwise called Zapscirrer^ 
that is, cheese made from the milk of sheep and goats* At 
Andorra a tt travellers who come from Altorf on horaes ©a- 
ehange them for mules, as being surer of foot for the soine- 
what dilTicult pass of the Furea. 



The Furca is a ridgo which forms the boundary betwc 
the soutliem extremity of Vn and the Vatais. The pAlh fM 
steep and diffieult in portions of the way along the very pte- 
cipltous side of the mountain, in which in some places holes 
are cut for the foot of the oiules. This s^N^rns tu me the most 
dangerous pass I liad ever crossed in the saddle, and indeed 
iiiany travellers dismount. I must confess there were many 
places where I preferred trusting the mule's feet to my owiu 
Our guide cautioned us not to strike our mules, when they 
halted^ before setting their feet in critical places, " They 
know what they are about,'' said he» '* and do nob like to be 

Shortly afler turning tho summit wo camo in full view of 
the glacier of the Rhone, and at length began to pass along 
its front. It is one of tho grandest masses of ice in the Alps. 
Having seen this noble stream at Lyons and at Geneva, it 
was witli no little interest that wo beheld its headwaters 
^ursting from tho glacier. We had already stotxl by the 
Durees of the Arve and Arveiron, and e<:>uld now claim some 
aerjuaintanec with Uic magnificent river which springs from 
them, Scari.*ely lias it become a currrcnt from tho glacier, 
when a hundred torrents begin to bound from the mountains, 
on either side, and it soon swells to a eijnsiderable stream, 
fofiming over rocks which obstruct its course^ eddying round 
projecting cliffs, roaring and flashing onward, as if rejoicing 
to run its race to the ocean, 

A distance of six Icigues separates tlie la^t "builidng in 
Uri from the first m the Valais ; the last we left was a chapel, 
the first we met was even the same ; the altar lias moved 
further upward than the chalet^ into the recesses of these Al- 
pine regions. 

We passed through the villages of Obcrwald, Obergcsteln» 
Mnnster, and Viesch, all lying on the Khoue. Before enter- 
ing the former, the river plunges into a de4^p, gloomy gorgo, 
not inferior to those on the banks of the l^uss. At Obor- 




gcsteln, towards the beginning of the last century, eighty 
persons were overwhelmed at once by an avalanche, and lie 
buried side by side. Tlie German language, as the names of 
the villages indicate, still prevails in the upper Valais. It is 
to this region, that some writers havo referred the ridiculous 
notion that the Goitre is deemed an ornament. We saw 
some shocking specimens of it in the coui'sc of the day» M. 
Lalande, who had travel lod in the Valais, and know that no 
sueli feeling existed there, transplunts it to the T}'rol, Wo 
passed the night comfortably at Laax. 

Resuming our journey in the morning, the ^'alais opening, 
and the Rhone increasiug in volume as we prtjccetled, we 
passed through several villages of winch I have retained noth- 
ing but the names, and in tw«>or three hours arrived at Brieg. 
This is the starting point for travellers bound for Italy, who 
descend as we did from the North, and tliose from the South, 
who have occasion to pass the night at the foot of the Sim* 
plotL, stop at Brieg, The great Simplon road, however, com- 
mences not at Brieg, but at a little place called Glys, a few 
miles below. At Brieg we found our carriage and courier, 
who had come directly from Geiieva, and awaited our arrival 
from our circuit round the central Alps. 

Brieg is a quiet place of less than a thousand inliabitants, 
l}Lng on a little tributary of the Rhone, which here makes a 
sudden bend. It is built of a sparkling gneiss, which gives it 
a bright metallic appearance. It is only, I believe, since the 
opening of the Simplon road, that it has acquired any noto- 
riety. This magniJieent avenue into Italy was constructed 
by Na[joleon the Firwl, in the early years of his accession to 
power. The expense waa divided between France and the 
Kingdom of Italy. The distance, by the road, from Glys to 
Domo d'Ossola on the Italian side, is given at fourteen 
French leagues, and the road wa«i constructed at an expense 
of twenty-five tliousand dollars per mile. This seems to me 
a very low estimate for a road through such localities. The 



average inclination of the road is an inch in three feet : 
width twenty-sLx feet, and the height above the sea, at the 
gTOAlest elevation about six thousand feet. It maintains its 
moderate and equable grade, ty pursuing a very circuitous 
path, winding round heights, which it could not possibly scale 
in any other way, and sometimes taking a seemingly retro- 
grade course. It is f-crnished with culverts, tunnels, bridges, 
and houses of refuge in great numbers ; the engineering is at 
once audacious and solid; and when I travelled it in 1818, 
though the mighty genius which had called it into being had 
passed away, and the two governments immediately connected 
by it (Switzerland and Sardinia) were not among the wealthy 
powers, it was in good repair. Thero are perhaps no monu^ 
ments of the elder Napoleon which will carry down his name 
to the grateful recollections of posterity, so effectually as the 
magnifioent roads of Mt. Cenis and the Simplon. 

The reader who has done me the favor to accompany me 
in these rapid and simple sketches, will think I linger in Swit- 
zerland. 1 confess tliat I quit it with reluctance } it has ever 
had a peculiar iiirtuence for me* The unequalled magnificence 
and beauty of the scenery in its range from the quietest to 
the most terrific aspects of nature ; the network of lakes ; 
the inaccessible peaks ; the travelling mountains of ice ; the 
historic traditions and patriotic memories; the simple man- 
nersj firee institutions, and peculiar political position of these 
little republics, furnish much food for contemplation and 
thought. Tlie glaciers are the central fountains wblch^ 
through four of her great rivers, refresh half Europe; the 
mountain fastnesses of Switzerland have, in all ages, been the 
Strong holds of Freedom, and the barrier against Universal 
monarchy ; — and if the Fear of God should ever flee before 
the corruption of city and plain, it will surely find a temple 
and an altar in the glorious 




The ** West ^ snpgestivo of Important subjects of thought— Progress of settlement in 
South and North Amcrica^Conditions of life on the gradaally receding frontier 
— Sergeant Plympton's fate in 1677— Daniel Boon the great Pioneer— His life by 
Mr. W. H. Bogart~Aeconnt of his fiimily, parentagOf and birth— Removal to 
North Carolina and settlement on the Yadkin— Marries Bebecca Bryan—Mission 
of the Anglo-Saxon race in America— Boon with five companions starts in quest 
of Kentucky in 1769— First sight o^Captured by the Indians— Escape— Meets 
his brother Squire— Squire Boon's return to the settlement for supplies— They 
both go back to North Carolina, and Daniel determines on a permanent removal 
to Kentucky. 

It has ever seemed to me that " the West " furnishes to 
the American citizen some of the highest subjects for thought 
which can engage his attention. They multiply and increase 
in importance as we reflect upon it. The earth which we in- 
habit was destined by the Creator to be the abode of rational 
beings ; and the manner in which the family of Man has be- 
come possessed of its heritage is one of the most curious and 
instructive topics of historical inquiry. As it respects what 
we call the Old World — the united continents of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa — the gradual steps of this process are lost 
in the remoteness of Antiquity. The concurrent testimony 
of Scripture, Tradition, and Language point to Asia as the 
cradle of the race, but they throw scarce a ray of light on the 
dispersion of mankind to the four quarters of the globe. 

On this continent the case is different. It is true that of 
the original peopling of America History teaches nothing ; 
but the disclosure of the Western Continent to the Eastern 



world, and the steps by which the civilized races of Eui 
have established themselves in the new-found hemisphere^ are 
f comparatively recent occurrence, and within the domain of 
tttbentie history. Sonic of the most important steps ia the 
great movement have heen taken within the lifetime of men 
now in eaistence^ 

After the discovery of America by Columbus, the occupa- 
tion of the portion claimed by Spain and Portugal commeticed 
almost immediately^ and was permanently completed by tho 
end of the sixteenth century. Besides the politieal infhftenoe 
upon the European system of these vast transatlantic ooloiiie% 
and the new direction given by them to the commerce of tlie 
world, the influx of gold and silver revolutionized the mon> 
etary relations of Europe. — Meantime, tlie American Conti- 
nent North of Mexico lay neglected. With tlie early years 
of the seventeenth century, the foundation of the Anglo- Amer^ 
ican colonies was laid ; but barren as they were of tlia 
tropical firuits and the precious metals, their progress was 
not hastened by those keener stimulants. It advanced in the 
slower march of Agriculture, and under the influence of the 
moral aentimcnts, which sent the Cavaliers to Virginia, the 
Puritans to Now England, and the Quakers to Pennsylvania* 
In addition to this, their progress was obstructed by tbe 
conflicting claims of France and England, combined wiLb the 
geographical features of the country — a ridge of mountmns 
rising in the rear of the Anglo-American settlements, and be- 
yond them a chain of noble rivers and lakes — the mighty 
entrenchments — Nature's gigantic fo^e and mound — wlijcb 
seemed to con^ne tlie English settlements to a strip along 
the coast. By these causes, and maiidy by the political re- 
lations of prance and England, the advance of civilization be- 
yond the Appalachian mountains was retarded for a century. 
With every rupture between the leading powers of Europe 
the flames uf savage warfare were kindled by the Frendi 




along the frontier — from Caimda to the farthest English Bettle- 
rnents in the South, 

This frontier receded si owl j to the westward, as the set- 
tlements were pushed onward ; but the Coimectieut Elver 
was infested by parties of French and Indiana as late as 1755 ; 
powerful tribes of savages existed in the State of New York 
in the Amerieaii Revolution ; the first white settler entered 
Kentucky ninety years ago ; the power of the Aborigines in 
Ohio was not finally broken till the year 1794 ; nor in the 
States farther West till the war of 1812. The western part 
of Georgia and the States of Alabama and ilississippi were 
opened to civibzatinn by the eampaigii of General Jaekson in 
1818 ; and the warlike races on the upper ilississippi occu- 
pied that region till Black Hawk's war in 1833. 
# In this way that conflict hvis taken place, in part within 
our own time and hen eat h onr own eyes, between a ei\ ili2cd 
and a barbarous race, which took place in the west of Europe 
in the days of Julius C^sar. Its recurrence whenever the two 
are brought into contact, is one of the saddest mysteries of 
our Nature, 

In the prog^ress of this conflict, commencing with the first 
settlement of the conntry, many most interesting and roman- 
tic oecurrences, as I have observed in a former Number of 
these papers, liave taken place, and many original and strongly- 
marked characters have been formed. The conditions of life 
on the frontier, and in the territory beyond the frontier, 
whether in peace (if peace ever existed on the frontier) or in 
the %varfare with the native tribes, are so utterly remote from 
those of civilized life, that in the older settlements we proba- 
bly form a very faint idea of the new influences, nnder which 
men live taid act who lead the aclvaneincf eohimn inti* the 
wilderness. We everywhere find, however, that there was 
a spirit of adventure, an endurance, an alertness, a fertility of 
resource, a courage, in a ivord a heroism, on the part of men 
and women, efjual to the circumstances in which they were 




placed. The jields were tilled as industriously, when iW 
fanner had to carry his musket along with the iroplements ot 
husbandry, as they are now in the safe neighborhood of our 
great cities. Men went to the log-church on the ftottSietf 
whose crannies admitted tlie drifting snow, though they were 
obliged to go armed, as regularly as they now roll in luxti- 
riouB chariots to carpeted temple in fiishionable squares. The 
wave of settlement swelled steadily up to the frontier^ though 
the pioneer was subject to the risk of Indian captivity, and 
death in its direst forms. From a narratives recently reprint* 
ed by the Bradford Society at New York» of the sarprise of m 
party working in the fields at Hatfield, in 1677, it appmin 
that otifi of the poor creatures captured was, for no visible 
cause but that of savage caprice^ burned alive in the neighbor- 
hood of Chanil>ly, Horrors like this were perpetrated I9 
Ohio, as late, if 1 mistake not^ as 1780. 

Of all the pioneers of civilization in this country, no one 
name stands out so prominently and distinctly as that of Daniel 
Uo*m. The contemporary records of his adventures are imper- 
fect, and his autu biographical recollections are strangely trmTes> 
tied in the inflated style of Filson, to whom he narrated them. 
Still the tale of his wanderings has upon the whole be^i well 
preserved ; and SiUisfactory accounts of his remarkable career 
have been given to the public. The most recent of these is 
Mr* W. H. Bogart'S interesting work, entitled, " Daniel Boon 
and the Hunters of Kentucky." He modestly calls it a com- 
pilation, and makes ample acknowledgment of the aid derived 
from his predece-ssors. But the materials drawn from them 
are skilfully combined by Mr, Bogart witli his own reflections, 
and the whole wrought into a volume, which when onoe com* 
menced, will not willingly be laid do^m by the reader, till it 
IS fmished* 

Daniel Boon's grandfathejp, George, emigrated from Dev- 
onshire in 1717, with nine sons and ten daughters, and settled 
in Berks County, Pennsylvania. He felt, no doubt, that the 




almost boundless colonial territory of Eirglaud was the tnie 
place to bring forward a family of nineteen children. Ho 
took up ^vild lands not only in the neighborhood of his settlo- 
ment in Pennsylvania, but in Maryland and Virginia. Ono 
of his sons bore the absurd but common name of Squire, a!id J 
his sou, Daniel, the pioneer, the fourth of a large family, was ■ 
born in Bristol, on the Delaware, about twenty miles from 
Philadelphia, on the 11th of February, 1735. llirec years 
afterwards his i^ither removed to Reading (Pa.,) then a fron- 
tier settlement, and there Daniel grew up amidst the scenes ■ 
of border life and tlie traditions of Indian warfare. Whether 
the family were of the Episcopal church or the Society of 
Friends, has been so skilfully contested, that Mr. Bogart pro- ■ 
nounees it " most difficult to decide " the question. Daniel^ ■ 
'at any rate, belonged to the austere communion of those who 
love to worship in the solemn aisles of cathedral woods and 
at the trickling fountains of mighty streams. In boyhood ho 
leflhis father's home, and built him a hunting cabin in the 

Ono would have thought that there was room enough in 
Pennsylvania, at that time, even for families whose sons and 
daughters were counted by tho score. But it w^as the "Mis- 
sion " of the age to push onward to tho We^t. Sydney Smith 
says that it is the colling of the Anglo-Saxon race to spin and 
weave cotton. It may bo so in the crowded lanes of Man- 
chester and Birmin^ham, On this side of the ocean, its voca- 
tion is to subdue tlie wilderness and found States ; to draw 
out the living threads of civilization across the boundless 
prairie, and in the mystic words of Go§the, to weave the for- 
tunes of Empires yet to be, in tho sounding loom of the Ages. 

Squire Boon, tlie father of Daniel, emigrated in 175S to 
the mountain region of North Carolina. This was the mem- 
orable year in which George "Washington, by three years the 
senior of Daniel Boon, made his commencement of active public 
life, in the arduous journey to the French fort of Venango. 






lite Boons settled on tlie Yadkin^ in the immediiUo nelirb. 
borhc»od of oae of the most powerful tribei of IndiMift, the 
kees, on the borders of the primeval forest* Ilcre 

Eiiel maiTjed Rebecca Bryan. The legend tells that, mistjdc* 
iiig her bright eyes for those of a deer, he had nearly shot her 
in the thicket* Historical aceuraey repudiates the ramanoe ; 
there were no t^hots exchanged between them but those whicfa 
darted from Rebecca^s eyesv^ and which healed their own 
wouDds. The first place of settlement on the Yadkin did not 
satisfy the instinct which w^as driving Daniel westward, and 
he moved with his bride further up the valley- 

Here, to all appearance^ Boon passed about sixteen yean 
in the roi^h, healthful, and somewhat perilous life of the 
frontier. Nine of them were years of war, for two y^^^m of 
conflict on the American frontier were added to the Seven 
years war of Europe. Of this part of his life little seems to 
he known, but passed as it was in the immediate neigbbof^ 
hood of the Cherokees, it must have been, especially during 
the war, a period of exposure as well as hardship. But both 
were wanted as a preparation for the great career of his life, 

John Findlay or Finley — ^first of civilized men— liad, as 
early aa 1704, with a small party, penetrated through the 
Northeastern portion of Tennessee to the banka of the Ken- 
tucky river, and brought back glowing accounts of the beauty 
of the country and the abundance of the game. This touched 
a sympatheijc chord in Boon^s bosom, and \vith five compu- 
ions, of whom Finley was one, on the 1st May, 1769, ** I re- 
signed,^ says Boon, in the language of Filson, *^' my domestic 
happiness for a time, and leil my family and peaceable habita- 
tion on the Yadkin river, in North Carolina, to wander through 
the wilderness of America, in quest of the country of Ken- 
tiidty*" Daniel Boon started in qucM of the cottntr^ of A>m- 
/tff^-V, in the year in which numl>oldt. Napoleon, and Wei* 
lington were born, Humboldt died hist year, and Kentucky^ 
with a population of 1;200,OCM), is now sending ten mexn- 



Iwrs to the Congress of United States, and boasts her states- 
men, orators,and juristsaniong die brightest names of America t 

There arc lio more dellglitfnl pages of modern histi^ry, 
tlian those in which Mi\ Bancroft has described this first ex- 
pedition of Daniel Boon and his companions,* On May-day 
morning, 1769, they started, these ^ix bold men, — and one of 
them a hero, — ^to find Kentucky. They had not far to seek ; 
it lay before them, but the Cumberland mountain rose be- 
tween ; and it was not till the 7th of June that they reached 
the summit of an eminence on the Red River, and looked 
down *^ with pleasure on the beautiful level of Kentucky.** 
John Fiiilev knew the spot ; he had traded there with the 
Indians, years before. Here they encamped and *' made a 
shelter to defend them from the elements*" From this they 
reconnoitred the country and followed the chase. "Every- 
where/" (says Boon, though 'unibrtmiately it is Jolm Filson 
who holds the pen,) *' wc tbund abundance of wild beasts of 
all sorts^ tlirough this vast forest. The buffaloes were more 
frequent than I have seen cattle in the settlements, browsing 
on the leaves of the cane or cropping the herbage on those 
extensive plains, fearless, because ignorant, of the violence of 
man. Sometimes wo saw hundreds in a drove, and the num- 
bers about the Salt Springs was amazing,*' 

And so they roved and hunted throu;:;h a long Ken- 
tucky summer and autumn, till the 2Sld of December, an 
eventful day, in all coming time, for the deseendants of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, and in that particular year for Daniel 
Boon and his companions* On the 22d of December, 1700, 
"John Stewart and I had a pleasing ramble, but fortune 
changed the scene, in the close of it.'' Here Juhn Filson 
sews on a patch of rather unseasonable rhetoric upon the 
homely frieze of Boon's narrative. He will Irnvc it that they 
** passed through a great furest, in which stood myriads of 

• B»iici*(t*« United States. Vol. Tl^ p, tt& 

Modn* nsKos r. 

in ft Tftti0lf 43^ lkim» and Irails bcanrifallj cobrad^deguilj 
•haped, and diftriiuii^y flaTond, [tJi ! Joiuit yoo kno v tkej 
Ibuibd nodmig richer thsi ft £no«t-bkteii pefwamoo;,] sod we 
were diTerted witli iuiitiiierftlile ntmftls presenting them. 
selTeft perpetoftU J to oar rmwJ* And now ibr thm estastro- 
pbe so ftrtiUkftU J preliHkd : ** la the decline of tlie 3mj^ nenr 
KentiMslEf Rlrer, ns we aieeaded the hrow of ft soiftll faiU, m 
mmiber of lodiftDs milled out of ft thick canehcftke ftpgn m 
fnd made iw priftoneriL The ^me of cntr eonow wns now 
ftniTedy and the scene follj qKsned. Hie Indjsm plundemd 
us of what we had, and kepi us in confinement sewmi Jajs, treai- 
tng ns with eommon saTage ussge.^ 

Boon and liis oompaniaDS witii infinite tact and diacretioo* 
resigned themselTes in appearanoe to their &le^ and made no 
attempt to escape. Their captors were thrown off their gmid 
bjT their seeming indifierence. At length, in the nighty and 
while the Indians slept, they slipped the cords whicb bound 
them ; regained their muskets, and crept undiaoorercd ftwmjr^ 
They returned to their old encampment ; it was broken tip, 
&nd their four companions gone ; — never to be heard of more 
on earth, Thtis lefl alone in the wilderness, hundreds of 
miles from kindred and iriends, their hearts were soon glad- 
dened by the arrival of Squire Boon, DanieFs brother, and a 
nameless companion, who had come to join company with 
the pioneers. They replaced for a while the missing four ; 
but ** John Stewart was soon killed by the savages/' and the 
man who came with Squire Boon went home to the pleiasant 
banks of the Yadkin. Daniel and his brother were left aloncy 
" not a white man in Kentucky but themselves/* Thus situ- 
ated," says Boon, " many hundred miles from our ^milies, 
in the howling wilderness, I believe few would have equally 
enjoyed the happiness wc experienced, I often observed to 







my brother, you see how little Nature requires to be sat- 
isfied ! '' 

The season wore on j " thoy hunted every day, and pro- 
pared a little cottage to defend them from the wintry storms,*' 
Tht»y remained undisturbed till tfie Spring ; and then, when 
the bud.-? of the hickory swelled to the size of a mouse^s ear ; 
when the blue grass carpeted the native lawns; when the 
cane shot up HIce mammoth asparagus ; and the brooks let 
loose from their icy cliains, and swelled by April showers, 
began to prattle through the meadows ; and the flowering 
dog-wood whitened the thickets ; and the chattering magpie, 
the robin, and the red-bird, filled them with life and innsic, 
Daniers brother returned to North Carolina for supplies, and 
the Pioneer remained alono in Kentucky, " without bread, 
salt^ or sugar, without company of my fellow-creatures, with- 
out even a horse or a dog : " — all alone, but in the l>est of 
company — a goo<l eonscience, a bold heart, and the Blessing 
of Heaven, 

In three months brother Squire returned with Rupplies ; 
they hunted together another Autumn and another Winter, 
and in the Spring of 1771 went back to their lamilics on the 
Yadkin, determined, as soon as possible, to leave the older 
iottlement**, and make a final remove to Kentucky ** whieh," 
eaya Boon, *^ I esteemed a second paradise," 

And here, though at the threshold of his adventures, his 
perils, his toils, and his achievements, we must part from the 
noble Pioneer, The tale of his subsequent migrations ; — of 
his establishment, rather say his encampment in Kentucky ; 
— his block-house warfare ; — his captivity among the savages ; 
— his escape ; — the fierce Indian wars ; — ^the growth of the 
settlements, and the crowding of the population ; — the trials 
and troubles of advancing age ; — his removal to Missouri '^-^ 
and the closing scene ; — these all related with accuracy and 
spirit from authentic resources, may be fuund in the volume 
of Mr, Bogart. 




I «f ttt Ltdfv mMiiUkmtaA Ciw— priattaf^Tte poww pM»-.iii 
£]«etrotjpe p ro cgw Pr ew work— Dtotrfbvtioa oT Um papci^Eiglitgr thoommi 
tff mall— Bom A Toomj^s news agencf—** Ledger daj** dMcribed — InmieaM 
Mnoaat of Prlntliig aniiaally dose ia tlM ** Ledger ** oOlee—OoBToiitioB ftir later* 
BBtioiwI eof^TTlghl— Mode In whieh the eetehHehntent has beea bollt ap ami 
general cbaraeter and ol)()ecta— The "Unknown PabUe** — Conclaatoa of tbe 
Monnt Temon Papen. 

Haviko occasion lately to pasa a few days in New Tork, I 
availed myself of tho polite invitation of the Proprietor and 
Editor of '^ the Ledger" to visit his establishment As I had 
kept close company with ^ the Ledger " for the last twelve 
months, daring which, with a party of about a million of 
readers, we have, besides shorter excursions in the neigbor- 
hood, performed together three hundred and sixty-five journeys 
of twenty-four thousand miles each, and, at the same time, one ' 
of five hundred millions of miles in circuit, I felt a natunl 
curiosity to examine a little more particularly the extent and 
organ iait ion of tho concern. 

Most of my readers, I suppose, have some knowledge of 
the art of printing as commonly practised. They understand 
that tho letters of the alphabet, at the end of small pieces of 
metal called types, are arranged for use in little square boxes, 
on a slanting desk, and that a workman called a " Composi- 



tor," having before him tlie writing which is to be printed* 
picks up theso typrt!* letter by letter, and places them in a 

r-stiek, till lie has 


frame, called a comp< 
second line is formed the same way, and so on till he has set 
up enough for a page of a book, or a column of a newspaper. 
When pages enough to form a sheet, or columns enough to 
form two sides of a newspaper, have been thus set up, aod 
secured . in their places by an iron frame, they are put on a 
broad stone, and are ready to pass through the press to bo 
printed on paper » moistened and applied to the face of the 
types for that purpose. Some attempts have been made to 
set up types by machinery, ctmtrived like the keys of a piano- 
forte, but nothing of this kind, as far as I am aware, has been 
introduced into newspaper ollices. As far as we have now 
gone, and in this part of the work, there is nothing particular 
in the ** Ledger " printing office. As one paper only a week is 
printed, the f^itrce employed in this depaitment is, of course, 
less than in ofhces where a paper is to be published every 
day. It may be remarked, however, that in addition to the 
persons employed in setting up the types, a ermsiderable num- 
ber find Cf»nstant occupation in designing and engraving the 
ilhistrations ; an entirely separate branch of the art, for which 
in tWft daily journals there is no occasion. 

Thus far, then, every thing is done by hand. At this stage 
of the work a piece of machinery contrive<:l about thirty years 
ago, and a chemical process of still more recent invention are 
introduced to accelerate the printing of papers of extensive 
circulation. The machinery to which 1 allude, is the power 
press; the ehemie:ii operation is the process of clectrotyping. 
Till about thirty years ago, printing presses were wrought 
exclusively by hand, and the operalion was one requiring great 
endurance and strength, on the part nf an abk^-bodied man. 
F'resaea of this kind have been superseded, except in sniiill cs- 
lahlishments, by presses moved by steam, heated air, or water 
power. These presses are of various construction and cfficien- 



c}' ; the most celebrated being those of our countryman Hoe 
at New York, of which also there are different kinda ; some 
ealied the " lightning presses,'* used in the oflioes of the greil 

■daily j«iiiraals^ where the utmost Bpeed is necessary, tad 
others of which the execution is less rapid, and which for that 
reason adnnit of greater precision and finish in tho work. The 
" Ledger '* is printed on presses of this description, of whidi 
ten are kept constantly at work twenty<three hours out of tlic 
twenty-four, in printing each number of tlie " Ledger." In 
other words, so large is the number of the "weekly issue^ tbat 
it becomes necessary to print at the same time five editions 
of the paper. 

And how are these five editions got ready for the press! 
Are the types sot up tlmt number of times? Such would 
have been the case some years ago, if papers of such vast eir- 

I culation had existed, but by the process of electrotyj*ing this 
labor is saved. This is a process, by which an exact copy of 
the page of types can be taken in ci>pper, that being tlie metal 
used by printers ; though silver and gold are electrotyped in 
the fine arts, for expensive works of taste and luxury. In 
©lectrotyping for the printing ofilce, an impression in wox is 
tak€»n of the page of types, M-Iiich is to K>e multiplied. This 
w%ixen plate is immersed for twelve hours in a solution of oop- 
' in a gal vanic trough. A t the end of this time, the ^ce of the 
^waxen page is covered with a thin coating of copper. The 
wax is then removed by hot water, and melted type metd 
poured upon the copper net w^ork. The back of the type 
metal is then smoothed off, and the clech"ot^*pe plate is ready 
for use. This operation is repeated as many times as is re- 

iquired to furnish plates for all the presses ; and as many 
persons are employed in eloctrotyping as in setting the types. 
From this statement the reader perceives, that every page of 
** tlie Ledger/' to which he looks for his weekly comfort and 
delight, has, betw^een the pen of the writer and the eye of the 
reader, passed through four states, and existed in four diifercnt 



forms and substances, viz. : the first setting in typo, the waxen 
impression, the electrotyped copper and the printed paper. 
How much science, art, and mechaniciil dexterity are devel- 
oped in these several operati<jns ! 

Now, gentle reader, if you will take your Ledger, before 
it is cut, and unfold it, you will find that it is printed on one 
largo sheet, and that pages 1, 4, 5, and 8 arc on one side of 
the sheet, and pages 2, 3, G, and 7 on the other. This you 
will think an odd arrangement ; but when the sheet is folded 
you see it comes right, and the pages follow in proper order. 
These eight pages are made up for the Press in two " forms," 
of four pages each, which are separately printed, so that each 
sheet has to pass through the press twice. Great care is re- 
quired in printing the second side of the paper, to lay the 
sheet in the right place, so that the two sides of the paper 
shall exactly match. In the " lightning presses," in conse- 
quence of the rapidity with which they are worked, this point, 
which is of great importance, if the papers are to be bound 
in a volume, is apt to bo neglected. But I never saw " bad 
register," as this defect is called, in a sheet of the " Ledger." 
When the electrotype plates are ready, those of pages 1, 4, 5, 
and 8 are placed together (** locked up ") in one form, and 
pages 2, 3, 6, and 7 in another, and they are now ready to be 
put to press. 

It would be in vain to attempt to describe a power press. 
In order to understand its construction and operation, you 
must go and see it. According to their construction, they 
throw off from 500 to 20,000 sheets in one hour. Mr. Bonner 
has eight power j)resses constantly at work, and about forty- 
five persons are employed in his press-room, whose aggregate 
wages are four hundred dollars per week. Besides this, ho 
pays about two hundred dollars per week for printing, whi<.'h 
he is unable to do on his own presses. A good deal of tliis 
outside work is in printing back numbers of the '• Ledger ; " 

4M 1HE Jiomrr txkbw 

ftr it is periMqps pecoliar to tiiis joomal tlMft tiwre is • Ingv; 
Slid slesdy demsod fcr bsek numbers. 

Wlm bolli sides of the fttper hsre psssed tfaroag^ tlie 
pns8» tbst Number of the "< Led^" is printed. To bring 
•boot tiiis remit, it hss required from eight to nine Inoidred 
resms of psper ererj weds, st a eost probsbij of mx sod a 
hslf doUsrs per ream, finr you observe ''the Ledger" is 
printed on very hsndsome piqper. If six end a hsif dollars a 
ream be sssnmed ss the average eost of the pi^>er, the amount 
fer ei^ handled end fifty reams perveek wiU not &11 nrach 
short of three himdred thoussnd dollars per snnnm. 

Ihe joumsl thns printed, to the number of about Four 
Hundred Thousand copies, is to be distributed about the 
Union. How is this effected? The main supply of the 
country is through the medium of news-agents, and large 
dealers, in all the principal cities, towns, and considerable 
villages of the United States. These receive the paper from 
New York in large packages, as will presently be stated, and 
furnish it in detail to their customers. But beyond the rescfa 
of the news-agents, there are a multitude of persons, readers 
of the " Ledger," scattered over the country ; who, not having 
any wholesale dealer in their neighbourhood, address them- 
selves by letter to the proprietor in New York, and receive 
their papers by mail. About twenty-five clerks and folders 
are employed in the office in Ann Street in folding and mail- 
ing papers for this class of subscribers, to the number of 
Eighty thousand ! 

But the principal distribution of the paper takes place at 
the news agency of Messrs. Ross ds Touscy in Nassau Street, 
who purchase weekly of the Proprietor above Three Hundred 
Thousand of the paper, which they furnish to all parts of the 
country in largo parcels, by Express and Mail, to the wholesale 
dealers in the city of New York, and in every part of the 
Union, and to the news-venders for the retail circulation of the 
city and neighborhood. Messrs. Ross ds Tousey deal ezten* 



sivdy in Periodicals and weekly journals. They distribute 
from their office eight liiindred thousand papers weekly, the 
'■ Ledger ^^ ibrming nearly onedialf of tht;ir business, which with- 
in four or live years has risen from one himdrcd and twenty- 
five thousand dollars to one mill ion dollars' worth aonually, 
principally of periodicals and literary Papers. 

Their ofHcc and the streets on which it stands, Nassau 
street in the front and Theatre alley in the rear, exhibit on 
** Ledger-day,"— Monday of each week, — a most extraordinary 
scene. Every, square fui^t of open spaee in tlic oiTioe has been 
filled up with piles of the " Ledger," — fLdj copies in a pile. 
Large bundles, some of them containing a coup»le of hun<ired, 
have been put up in wrapping paper, addressed to wholesale 
dealers, and to be despatclied by Mail and Express all over 
the country. These are placed for mc>mentary deposit^ in a 
basement room in the rear of Messrs, Ross &l Tousey's 
premises. The rest of the mighty edition, laid in piles, fills 
the counters and shelves in the central and front portions of 
the office, the counting-room, and the basement, wherever there 
is room for a pile of the paper. 

Twelve o'clock on Monday is the appointed hour. As it 
approaches, carta ftnd drays assemble in Nassau street and 
Theatre alley to receive the larger parcels ; the front of the 
office is filled with clamorous newsboys, crowding the space 
around the counter three deep, eager to get their supply for 
the streets, the Railway Stations, and the Steamers, while the 
draymen and porters, in quest of the larger parcels, gather 
in tlie rear. The entire force of ilessrs. Ross As Tousey in 
put in requisition to wait upon the newsboys. In the rear 
the clerks, porters, and draymen arc allowed to come in and 
help themselves. At the last .stroke of twelve upon the clock, 
the rush begins and the scene is, for a short tirno, one of great 
activity and bustle. These hmidreda of thousands of Ledg* 
ers are seen moving oif on the shoulders of porters, and in thi> 
hands of newsboys, in drays and carts, in every direction ; 


THE itorsrr vicbkoisi pafi 

but twenty minutas is enough fur the work, and by that time 
the throng is dispersed, and the ubiquitous jouxnal is oo its 
way to the remotest comers of the land. 

This strange scene is not conBned to the premises of 
Messrs. Ross tk Tousey. The persons mentioned as wmem- 
hltng in the rear of their wardiouse are the clerks and salesanen 
of other wholesale news-agents who come to get a supply for 
their customers; often a very large one. The Iltfuso of 
Dexter Ac Company take thirty-three thousand, and that of 
Uend rick son 4: Co., ninet^n Uiousand. The larger part of 
this supply is for country custom, the residue for the city. 
There are seven or eight of these large dealers in the city of 
New York, and in their offices on ^ Ledger-day,*' the same 
crowd of newsboys takes place^ a half an hour later^ as that 
which we have just witnessed in the front part of Mo«sr& 
Hobs 6s Tousey ^s establishment* 

Perhaps, reader, you were not before aware of the extend 
of the system to which you arc indebted for the punctual and 
nearly simultaneous supply of the *^ Ledger " throughout the 
country, and to which you owe so much of your weekly amuse» 
ment and instruction. You have not probably reflected^ that 
hundreds, perhaps it would not be an exaggerati^^n to say 
thousands^ of persons are directly or indirectly employed 
and supported, in order to bring you the welcome slieet, at 
be appointed hour, to your door. There are, on the lawMt 
'isalculation, above three thousand sliops, depdu^ sod news^ 
stands, in the United States for the sale of newspapers and 
periodicals. As each copy of ** the Ledger '* for one year 
forms a folio volume of four hundred and sixteen pages, the 
quantity of printing annually executed on Mr. Bonner s 
presses, (without taking the reprint of back numlwrs into the 
account.) is of course four hundred thousand folio volumes of 
that thickness ; being alx)ut four times, I suppose, the number 
of the volumes in that noble library, which forms such an im- 
perishable monument to the name of Astor. If, as b proh- 


ably the case, not more than a fourth part of the volumes in 
that magnificent collection are folios, and the other three- 
fourths volumes of a smaller size, — quartos, octavos, and 
duodecimos, — then the quantity of printing done in the 
" Ledger," office in the course of a single year, being equiva- 
lent to sixteen hundred thousand octavo volumes, will exceed 
ten or twelve times the amount of printing contained in the 
books of the Astor Library. As very many of the papers 
are taken by reading clubs, consisting of several persons, and 
the " Ledger," is eminently a paper for Family use, it docs 
not seem extravagant to assume, that each paper is on an 
average habitually read by four individuals ; and conse- 
quently, that the whole issue is read by twelve or fiflc(Mi 
hundred thousand persons ! 

When a convention for international copyright between 
this country and Great Britain M'as negotiated a few years 
ago, while I was in the Department of State, a great alarm 
was raised against it, as if it was going almost to put an end 
to the printing business in the United States. Petitions 
against its confirmation poured into the Senate, signed not 
merely by publishers engaged in reprinting English works, 
but by type-founders, paper makers, and every other class 
of persons however remotely connected with the art of print- 
ing. Now not to mention that the Convention did not apply 
to the great mass of Standard English literature, but only to 
a few modem copyrighted works, I satisfied myself that any 
one of the great New York Dailies, — ^and as wc^ liavci naeu 
the same is true of the New York " Ledger,'' — ogives a greater 
amount of employment to all the trades and liaiidicraftH <;<Mi- 
nected with printing, (with the exception of book-binding,) tiian 
is given by the entire reprint of Englisii copy-righte«J pubiiva 
tions ; for no one, I presume, would tiiink c>f' rutin;; it as iitir\i 
as sixteen hundred thousand octavo volumes annual]. \ . 

But to return to the New York '* Ledger/' thi»» vast con- 



cem has been built up^ within a very few jreftrs, by the umir* 
log in<lixstry, tact, energy, and good st'nse of one ael^made 
man, entering upon the bciMness with no advantages of edu- 
cation but those of a common school^ without capital, without 
powerful friends, and without resorting to the ordinary 
means of gaining public favor and securing lucrative patronage 
The " Ledger,"* lias not been the mouth-piece of any party, 
religious, politiad, or sectional ; it has not been a new^-papcr 
nor a commercial paper ; it has not inserted advertisenneiita, 
nor reported Buncombe «peeehes; it has retained no *'oo(r- 
respondent," in other cities to Irmismrt to New York libels, 
that would be rejected with scorn by all decent journals in 
the places where they are written ; and has admitted no police 
reports, personal scandal, or pungent criticisms^ as they are 
called, on the literature of the day. Jt has simply aimed to 
be an entertaining and instructive Family newspaper, designed, 
in the first instance, to meet the wants of what is called, in a 
very sensible and striking paper in Dickens' Household 
Words, for the 21st of August, 1858, the *' Unkno\vn Public." 
The New York '* Ledger/' is the first attempt in this country, 
on a large scxile, to address that public ; and the brilliant suc- 
cess, which has attended it thus far, is a strong conHrmation 
of the truth of the closing obser\-ation in the remarkable 
article alluded to, that the time is coming when " the readerSt 
who rank by miliions, will be the readers who give the widest 
reputatioiis, who return the richest rewards, and who will 
therefore command the services of the best writers of tha 
time^*'' The author of the article in question, probably Mr. 
Dickens himself, adds, **to the penny journals of the present 
times belongs the credit of having dlsco\ ered * a nftp PuhlicJ *' 
To that credit in this country, the Editor and Proprietor of 
the New York ** Ledger " is richly entitled. Not only so^ 
but he has taken a step — ;tiid that a very important one — ^be- 
Vrind the papers published for the *^ Unknown Public " in 




L/> '■/ 


England. Without at all neglecting the claims of the masses 
of the community, he is steadily adapting the " Ledger " to 
the tastes of a more critical and fastidious class of readers. 
It may be mentioned as the most extraordinary, the most 
creditable, and as an example to others, the most salutary 
feature of Mr. Bonner's course, that in the entire progress of 
this great enterprize and in its present management, he has 
never signed nor endorsed a note of hand, nor borrowed a 
dollar ; and that in every part of his immense establishment 
Sunday is a day of rest. I think it due to him, in closing 
this account of his operations, to say, that it has not been 
drawn up by mo at his request or suggestion ; and that his 
first knowledge that I had any thought of preparing it was 
derived from my letter of inquiry, asking information as to 
some facts known only to himself. 

In bringing the series of the " Mount Vernon Papers" to 
a close, as I do with the present Number, I beg leave to return 
my thanks to the readers of the " Ledger," for the favor with 
which they have been received. I cannot deny that I entered 
into the engagement to write them, with great misgivings. I 
recoiled from the task of furnishing a \veekly paper (to bo 
read by a million of my countrymen), amidst incessant inter- 
ruptions of every kind, under the pressure of other onerous 
duties, of a heavy correspondence, of public engagements 
requiring frequent journeys, a part of the time with indifferent 
health, and in other circumstances, which wholly unfit the 
mind for cheerful exertion. But I could not resist the tempta- 
tion to add the great sum of Ten Thousand Dollars, so libe- 
rally offered by Mr. Bonner, to the Mount Vernon Fund ; 
and the favor of the multitudinous readers of the " Ledger," 



of which I hftve received the most gntifying ■■iiiiinfjB from 
all parte of the oountry, has ]<»ig nnce rdieved my aiudetyy 
and tamed the task intoa relaxaUon and a pleasare. Thoagh 
not sorry to be released from the reqionsibility of a weddy 
oontrihatioDy I cannot say that I terminate the aeries of the 
^Moont Vernon Papers*' without regret, and I shall gladly 
aTul myadf of the opportmuty, whidi Mr. Bonner^s invita- 
tion aSbrds me, of occanonally renewii^ my eommniucationa 
with the readers of the "* Ledger.'* 

ExiTUB Acta Probat. 



In pursaanco of the saggestion at tbo close of the first Nnrabcr 
of the foregoing scries, many contributions to the fund for the 
purchase of Mount Vernon were remitted to the subscriber, to the 
amount in the whole of these thousaiid nine iiundbed and one 
DOLLARS. Of this amount, five hundred and twenty-five dollars 
were in sums of one dollar, and less ; the residue in larger amounts, 
among which was the generous donation of five hundred dollars, 
from Messrs. Pettengill & Co., of New York. The first subscription 
received was one of ten dollars, from Mr. N. D. Sawin, of Cam- 
bridge (Mass.), which was sent in a few moments after the New 
YoEK Ledgeb, containing the first Number of the Mount Vernon 
Papers, was published in Boston. Very liberal donations were 
received from several Military Companies, Masonic and Odd Fel- 
lows^ Lodges. Engine and Ilook and Ladder Companies, and Schools. 
To each person, whose name was transmitted as a contributor, a 
receipt, handsomely engraved, and signed by the President and 
Treasurer of the Auxiliary Mount Vernon Fund, was returned. 
A complete list of ull the donations of one dollar and upward, with 
the names of each contributor, is in preparation, to be furnished 
for publication in the Mount Vernon Record ; every person con- 
tributing to the fund not less than a dollar, being constitutionally 
a member of the "Ladies' Mount Vernon Association for the 

The subscriber will still be happy to receive contributions to the 
Mount Vernon Fund. Although the amount necessary to efiect 
the purchase of the estate has been raised, a large sum is still 
needed for repairs, and for the restoration of the house and grounds, 
as far as practicable, to their cx)ndition in 1800, as well as to form 
a fund for their future preservation and care. 

BO0TOX, Ifaf/f IMO. 




J tlOS DIO ^5& OHS 




(650) 723-9201 

5alcirc@sulmail. Stanford, edu 

^fip All books are subject to recall.