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Full text of "Mrs. Beeton's household management : a guide to cookery in all branches : daily duties, menu making, mistress & servant, home doctor, hostess & guest, sick nursing, marketing, the nursery, trussing & carving, home lawyer"

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MRS. BEETON'S 

BOOK OF 

HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



FISH* 




,.-Red Mullet. ^.-Grayling. 3.-John 

6.-Whiting. 7. Salmon. 8. Herring. 9- 
12. Crayfish. 



MRS. BEETON'S 

BOOK OF 

HOUSEHOLD 
MANAGEMENT 

A GUIDE TO 

COOKERY IN ALL BRANCHES 

DAILY DUTIES MAK1V, 

MISTRESS A SERVANT HOME DOCTOR 

HOSTESS & GUEST SICK NURSING 

MARKETING THE NURSERY 

TRUSSING & CARVING HOME LAWYER 



NEW EDITION 

REVISED. ENLARGED. BROUGHT UP TO DATE. 
AND FULLY ILLUSTRATED 



LONDON 

WARD, LOCK 6- CO., LIMITED, 
WARWICK HOUSE, SALISBURY SQUARE, E.G. 

1907 



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PRKFACE TO MAY KPITION 



f a century Mrs. Beeton has beer, 
and friend of cou: 

::t " has 
: a bride .1 
thousands of ^ 
useful gift of all. Many comj>etitors com- 

the utmost Imi . as of old, 

! I'iv^ and put 

or romance of do 

recorded its constant rescue of young housekeep* : 
and \v.o. Sir Art: 
entitl 

usekeeper in : 

: most com fort - 

;o concludes, that " this book has me : 

to thi -ich thai " a wonderful t 

when one thus pr.: 

than 80,000 s .n. 

The bcKik of Household Mana^ ifl not, h( 

thai Mrs. Bccton IK 

ion of o -cl by 

Cham 
unalt 

much ha- oarance of 

1 necessa: 
6 brought 
and i: 






vi PREFACE TO NEW EDITION 

to public notice has twice the number of pages and is four times the 
size of its i. jdest ancestor. 



It may seem strange that a book, originally considered most com- 
prehensive and complete, should have needed such transformation. 
The world, however, has travelled of late at electric speed, and the 
far-reaching changes of time have touched household affairs from 
standpoints apparently far remote. 

In cookery, for example, where the growth of our pages is most notice- 
able, many causes have contributed to change. We have relinquished 
almost entirely the old British prejudices against things foreign, and 
adopted, in great measure, those French methods which established a 
bond of union among good cooks all the world over, long before I' entente 
cordiale became a recognized newspaper phrase. Increased habits of 
travel have taught us the^ favourite dishes of other countries, while 
improved means of transport have brought to our doors fresh food 
supplies from all quarters of the earth. Cookery schools and classes 
have also educated many mistresses to the possibilities of the art, and 
encouraged them to insist on more variety and delicacy in their daily 
fare than the plain cook of old was wont to furnish. In short, every 
tendency of modern life, with greater wealth possibly greater luxury 
certainly is towards a tremendous enlargement of everyday cookery. 
In the present issue is given all information necessary to meet present- 
day demands in this respect. 

Amongst the principal features of our mnv issue are 

APPEARANCE. The book has been re-composed throughout from 
a special fount of new type, of size and clearness to suit modern re- 
quirements, and. printed on the best English paper, and strongly and 
artistically bound in half leather. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. The book has been copiously illustrated in the 
most useful manner. Hundreds of photographic reproductions of 
^actual dishes, processes, and materials have been included. No ex- 
pense, however great, has been spared in obtaining the best possible 
results. The numerous coloured plates have been faithfully reproduced 
from nature, and printed in fourteen colours in the highest style of 
lithographic art. 

COOKERY. All the old cookery recipes have been carefully re-test' -d 
and prices and details altered wherever necessary. More than two 
thousand new recipes are given, contributed by Mr. C. Hen. 



PREFACE TO NEW EDITION vii 

assisted by some of the most famous cheis and teachers of the art that 
the world contains. 

PRICES. The cost of the recipes and the prices of articles mem. 
in this book have been most carefully, minutely, and diligently a\ vraged 
from lists compiled from the most reliable authorities all over the k 
dom. The task of estimating these prices has been among the most 
difficult and perplexing problems encountered in revising tl. 
Some provisions fluctuate greatly in price from day to i 
very great difference indeed exists between the cost of purchases n. 
in town or country, for cash or for credit, by mistress or by maid, seK 
personally or as allotted to you to suit the convenience of a tradesman. 

er a most minute consideration of the factors involved, we tx i 
the costs given in our recipes should hardly ever be exceeded 
the housewife who gives the trouble needed to buy in the most advan- 
tageous manner, will often be able to effect a very considerabl 
on the prices quoted. 

.. This, a frequent difficulty in small households, has 
carefully explained and illustrated by numerous photographs, shov 
methods of the best professionals. 

CARVING. Our .mentors held a practical knowledge of this art 
indispensable to the education of every gentleman* We moderns also 
realize how much a really good carver can do towards 
waste, distributing choice portions equally, and n ig the sightly 

appearance of a joint. The art has been thoroughly dealt with and 
y fully illustrated by a unique series of photographs of the methods 
of the best profession.il 

SERVIETTES. The most recent and popular designs are illustrated, 
and diagrams given showing clearly ;iade in producing 

se patter: 

Coi.' . This section has been 

mously increased. Australian, American, Canadian, South African, 
German and all foreign cookeries, have been comprehend 

.It with, so that Britons living under other skies may learn how to 
combine the dishes of their adopted country with those of the M<v 
land. We at home may also ^ v in our own menus, and learn 

i complimentary and characteristic repast when welcoming 
sts from abroad. 



viii PREFACE TO NEW EDITION 

VEGETARIAN COOKERY, which is so strongly believed in and practised 
by many thousands, has been carefully dealt with. 

CHAFING DISH AND CASSEROLE COOKERY, now so popular with cooks, 
and indispensable in Flat life and for all amateur cookery and impromptu 
meals, is dealt with in a new chapter. 

THE MEDICAL AND NURSING CHAPTERS have been contributed by 
two of our most eminent physicians. 

THE LEGAL MEMORANDA has been contributed by a well-known 
barrister, author of several standard law books. 

We take this opportunity of expressing our gratitude to many 
eminent authorities and great firms for the courtesy, thoroughness, 
and disinterested zeal with which they have given time, information, 
facilities, and assistance to us, whilst engaged in our long, laborious, 
but engrossing task of compressing all information of practical value to 
our readers into the new " Mrs. Beeton." 

It would be out of place in a preface to allude to all the many features 
of our new issue. Many are there, and all the old Mrs. Beeton as well. 
For details, and also because it is easy in a book of this size to look for 
information in the wrong place, we would ask our readers to make use 
of the very comprehensive index and tables of contents furnished here- 
with. 

All these new features have had one disastrous effect from the pub- 
lishers' point of view. The book as- it now stands is half as large again 
as the previous edition, and is offered at the same price. We believe 
this to be by far the greatest value for money ever given in book pro- 
duction. We can only trust that this new and enlarged edition o 
MRS. BEETON' S HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT will meet with the 
same 'hearty welcome its old and well-tried predecessors have alway 
enjoyed. 

WARWICK HOUSE, 

SALISBURY SQUARE, E.G. 
1906. 



ABRIDGED PREFACE TO THE FIRST 
EDIT1' 

; i frankly own that, if I had known beforehand the labour which 

this book has entailed, I should never have been courageous enough to 

no- it. What moved me, in the first instance, to attempt a 

work 1 A as the discomfort and suffering which I had seen brought 

about by household mis-management. I have always thought that 

there is no more fruitful source of family discontent than badly-cooked 

: s and untidy ways. Men are now so well served out of doors 

l>s, hotels and restaurants that, to compete with the attra 

se places, a mistress must be thoroughly acquainted with the 

theory and practice of cookery, as well as all the other arts of making 

and keeping a comfortable home. 

I n tins book I have attempted to give, in the chapters devoted to cook- 
ery, an intelligible arrangement to every recipe, a list of the tngrtdienti, 
i the met icparing each dish, and a careful 

number of pfoptf for whom sufficient t and the 

time when seasonable. Friends in England, Scotland. Ireland, France 
and Germany have very materially aided me. . < nt comparison 
\\ith the works :-est modern writers on cookery has also been 

necessary to the faithful i isk. But in the depai 

belonging to the Cook I have make my work something more 

than a Cookery-Book, and have, therefore, given a short account of the 
. animals and vegetables which we use as food. I 
have followed the animals from their birth to their appearance on the 
table ; have described their manage n lie various 

methods of carving Meat. .md Game. :^ 

have designed the numerous drawings which illustrate ma: 
port ant and interesting items. The coloured plates are a novel t 
due. 



2 PREFACE 

Towards the end of the work will be found valuable chapters on 
the " Management of Children," " The Doctor," " Legal Memoranda," 
which have been contributed by a great physician and an eminent 
solicitor. I wish here to acknowledge the kind letters and congratula- 
tions I have received during the progress of this work, and have only 
further to add, that I trust the result of the four years' incessant labour 
which I have expended will not be altogether unacceptable to some of 
my countrymen and countrywomen. 

248, Strand, 1861. ISABELLA BEETON. 



GENERAL CONTENTS 



CHAP. 

I 

II 
III 

IV 

V 

\ I 

Yll 

VIII 

I \ 



Mil 
\l\ 

\\t 

\\ 11 

\\ III 



\\VIII 
XXIX 

cxn 

Mil 
\!V 

. \\ I 
CVI1 



CEMEATS 



Tin COOK 

. 
MARK 

>DUCTION TO COOKERY 
SOUPS .... 

RECIPES FOR S 

SAUCES AND FORCEMEA' 
KS FOR GRAVI 

. 

RECIPES FOR COOKINH; FIMI 
GENERAL REMARKS ON COOKI 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ox .> i>s 

:-ES FOR COOKP 

r.s FOR COOKING BEEF 

. 

RECIPES FOR COOKING LAMII 
i*ES FOR COOKING MUTI 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ox THE CO&IM 
RECIPES FOR COOKING PORK 

i RY. .... 

r.s FOR CV 

GAM 

>K COOKING GAME 

r.s FOR COOKING HARE AND RABBIT 
NED AND PRESERVED FOODS 

XED AND PRESERVED FOODS 

i OR COOKING VEC.I 

i<\ MAK;- 
Prin 



PAGE 

9 

32 
37 
43 
82 
103 









ALAD DRI 



559 



661 
669 



799 
812 

79 



GENERAL CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE 

XXXIX THE ART OF CARVING AT TABLE . . . .1258 

XL FARINACEOUS PREPARATIONS ..... 1275 

XLI MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE AND EGGS . . , .1285 

XLII RECIPES FOR MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE AND EGGS . . 1295 

XLIII VEGETARIAN COOKERY . 1317 

XLIV INVALID COOKERY ....... 1344 

XLV RECIPES FOR INVALID COOKERY . . . . .1350 

XLVI BREAD, BISCUITS AND CAKES . . . .. .1388 

XLVII RECIPES FOR MAKING BREAD, BISCUITS AND CAKES . 1408 

XLVIII GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEVERAGES . . . 1465 

XLIX RECIPES FOR BEVERAGES 1473 

L CHAFING DISH AND CASSEROLE COOKERY . . .1515 

LI FRENCH COOKERY ,. . . . . . . 1525 

LII GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN COOKERY . . . .1534 

LIII ITALIAN COOKERY 1550 

LIV SPANISH COOKERY . '. . . . . . . 1568 

LV JEWISH COOKERY . . . . . . .1571 

LVI AUSTRALIAN COOKERY . . . . , .1579 

LVII SOUTH AFRICAN COOKERY ...... 1588 

LVIII INDIAN COOKERY ....... 1599 

LIX AMERICAN AND CANADIAN COOKERY . . . .1614 

LX TRUSSING POULTRY AND GAME ..... 1632 

LXI HERBS, CONDIMENTS, AND AUXILIARIES . . . 1638 

LXII GLOSSARY OF CULINARY TERMS . . . . . 1652 

LXIII ENGLISH AND FRENCH NAMES OF ARTICLES OF FOOD . 1673 

LXIV MEALS : THEIR IMPORTANCE AND ARRANGEMENT . . 1676 

LXV TABLE DECORATION 1695 

LXVI SERVIETTES 1698 

LXVII MENU MAKING AND SPECIMEN MENUS . . , .1714 

LXVIII DOMESTIC SERVANTS AND THEIR DUTIES . .1761 

LXIX HOUSEHOLD RECIPES 1790 

LXX THE DOCTOR . ' . . 1820 

LXXI THE NURSE . . -1879 

LXXII THE NURSERY . .1896 

LXXIII HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE . . 1925 

LXXIV LEGAL MEMORANDA . , 1933 

ANALYTICAL INDEX ... . 2007 



LIST OF COLOURED PL Ail S 

FA 

i. Red Mullet, Grayling. John Dory, Mackerel. Cod. Whiting, Sain 

Crayfish - Fn* 

FRUIT, and Black Cl. hite. Black and 

Currants, Melon, Strawberries, Raspberries, Plums. Greengages . 
HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS. Bread Cutter. Coffee Roaster, Carpet Sweeper. 

.^er and Mangle, Knife Cleaner, Spice Box . . 80 

SOUPS. Mutton Broth. Pot-au-Feu, Tomato Soup, Kidney Soup. Consonund 
a la Celestine, Consomm6 a la Royale, Bonne Ft 

Consomme la Julienne. Consomme a la Brunoise . . 120 

>, 2. Cral>. . Mussel, Lemon Sole, Halibut, Prawn. Sturgeon. 

Tr. Brill. Escallop. Lamprey. Whitebait. Lobster. Dover Sole aOQ 

, 3. Oyster Patties. Whiting, Turbot, Whitebait, Mackerel, Mayonnaise 

mon. Lobster, Crab 

Scallops au Gratin. Red Mullet. Turbot, Cod Steak. Fried Sole, Mayon- 
naise of Salmon, Salmon au Nature!, Brown Trout. Smelt 
A PRIZE SHORTHORN 

-Toulouse Pasty. Fillets of Beef. Beef Galantine, Zephires 
Mu Aspic, Saute of Veal, Chartreuse of Pheasant, . 

ried Veal. Chicken Medallions. Veal Stew 

t Beef. Boiled Beef. Leg of Mutton. Roast Ribs of Beef 

OWN WETHER 545 

COLLATION DISHES. Pigeon Pie. Raided Game Pir, Cutlrts .v 
Prawns en Bouquet, Cret rs' Eggs. Lain)* 

Boued Capon . 560 

Pork, Roast Haunch of Mutton. Roast Aitchboi 
it ton. Call's Head. Ham. Sirloin of 1< 

.. Saddle of Mutton .... 608 

BAC. Streaky. Prime Back. 

Flank. Long urnon. Corner. York Ham, Mil 640 

GAME AN: Snipe, Larks, Roast Pheasant, Roast 1 

Fowl. 
GAME, i. Cock Wulgeon. 

Rabt i 
GAME, 2. -d Pigeon. Woodcock. Cock Wild Duck. Black 

:pe. Pheasants, Hare. Teal 
VEGETABLES, i Potatoes, Spinach. Asparagus. Cauliflown 

Potato*- :,, Peas, French Beans, Stuffed Tom.* 800 

VEGETABLES. 2. Braized Celery. Leeks. Seakale, Brussels S; 1 

and Boiled Potatoes, Parsnips. Artichokes, Cabbage, Braized v 

A SUPPER Bur Room or . 897 

SWEETS. Pancakes. Rice and Apple Cak . -ul- 

din. l-ruits. Sugar Tr: 

Gateau St. Honore. Simmel Cake 1024 

at Grapes, Tangerines, Bananas, Oranges. Peaches. 

. 
SM v and Potato, Macedoine. m. 

T, Salad Dumas . II-M 

1 heddar. C. 

f Chicken. 
let. Mutton Cutlets and (. 

TABLE 

i R TABLES WITH BUFFET 
NER TABLE A LA RUSSF. .... . . 

{'ABLE OLD-FASHIONED STYLF ....... 

MENU AND \RDS 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



v FACING 

-.."*.. PAGE 

THE KITCHEN . . " . . ,' , { . ',_... ;' . .32 

A ROYAL KITCHEN . . ,. .. o; , 33 

STOVES AND COOKING RANGE . . . ^ , ' ;;. .... 44 

COOKING RANGES . . . " . . . . 45 

GAS COOKING RANGES . . _. ......,! . . . . 52 

COOKING, ETC., BY ELECTRIC HEAT ... . . . 53 

KITCHEN UTENSILS, i. ROASTING JACK, ETC. . : -> ". ""< ... 64 

KITCHEN UTENSILS, 2. STOCK POT, ETC. . .... 65 

KITCHEN UTENSILS, 3. ICE FREEZER, ETC. ." .,]., .... 72 

KITCHEN UTENSILS, 4. CHAFING DISH, ETC ....... 73 

KITCHEN UTENSILS, 5. PASTE BOARD AND PIN, F.T\ . . . . 78 

HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES , r '.. , ; v x .. ..* ' . 79 

MARKETING GUIDE, i. BULLOCK ; . . 3^ .-. ^ . . 82 

MARKETING GUIDE, 2. BEEF . . ^v>/ -V ' . . . 83 

SHEEP Y : '. '-''' ' ' V' v ' . '. ''.*''".' l '.'.'. '/".' . ; 88 

MARKETING GUIDE, 3. SHEEP . . . . . . . 89 

MARKETING GUIDE, 4. MUTTON . .^- , .:*'.. ... 96 

MARKETING GUIDE, 5. PORK AND VEAL . - . . , . . . 97 

FISH, i. STEAMED SOLE, ETC ......... 296 

FISH, 2. FILLETS OF SOLE, ETC. . . ( . .- ; - . > . ;: .; &-.-.. . . 297 

FISH, 3. BOILED COD, ETC. . . .; j,, '. . . . . 312 

FISH, 4. COD STEAK, ETC ..... . . . . .3*3 

FISH, 5. EELS IN JELLY, ETC ......... 328 

FISH, 6. FISH CAKES, ETC. ......... 329 

FISH, 7. RED MULLET, ETC. . . . . . . . . 344 

FISH, 8. SOUSED MACKEREL, ETC. . . - . . . . 345 

FISH, 9. SALMON CUTLETS, ETC. . . ' . . . . . . 360 

FISH, 10. LOBSTER CUTLETS, ETC. . .. "i',?: ..... 361 

FISH, u. BOILED TURBOT, ETC. . . . , . . . . 376 

FISH ENTREES. SALMON, T(>RBOT, ETC. . ;* . ; ; . . . . . 377 

CATTLE . . - . ..:...' . 432 

PIGS . . . . - .' ' ; i; . ...... 433 

ENTREES. MEAT, GRENADINS OF VEAL . . . . . . . 488 

ENTREES. COLD CHICKEN AND VEAL TIMBALES ..... 489 

ENTREES. FILLETS OF BEEF (PARISENNF) ... . . . . 504 

ENTREES. BEEF ROLL, ETC. . . . ..... 505 

ENTREES. LAMB CUTLETS, ETC. . , , ... . . . . 576 

ENTREES. SUPPER DISHFS , ... ,, : ...... 577 

POULTRY . . . . . ....-.-. . . 672 

ENTREES. CHICKEN, QUAIL, ETC. . . . . ... . 673 

ENTREES. CHICKEN SOUFFL . ..... ..... 704 

COLD COLLATION ENTREES . . .... . . . . 705 

ENTRIES. CHICKEN CUTLETS , , . , , .. . . .744 

6 



LIST OF II. I I'Si RATIONS 



FA 

PAGE 

IES 745 

76o 

1 RIED RABBH, LTC. ........ 761 

\ i ........... 776 

\TS . . - . . . 777 

FOODS : TINNED AND BOTTLKD ....... 792 

>ss, SHALLOTS, ETC. 

KBLES, 2. Ct CUMBER, CELERY, ETC. ...... 808 

. ; v WATER POTATOES, ETC. ....... 809 

CARROTS, ETC. ........ 824 

BOILED POTATOES, i .... . 825 

VEGETABLES, 6. FES, ETC 873 

VEGET.V HARICOT BEANS, ETC. ....... 873 

.......... 888 

889 

PLUM PUDDING, ETC. .......... 968 

. CANAK\ ........ 969 

984 

IIKS .... ..... 985 

\PPLE AMBER. ETC. . . . . . . . . 1OOQ 

SOUFFLES ........... 1001 

1016 

COLD S ...... 1017 

. ... 1032 

r*v ...... ... 1033 

r . . . . . . . . 1048 

. . . 1049 

DESSEK: .... 1066 

1067 
1078 

A SUPPER TAHI.I . . 1079 

.:..... . i i j.. 

- 

. 

iftlLLED KlPPERS. ETC. .... 1IQ2 
. 

S\v. ; ...... iao8 

1209 

VB ......... 1256 

>T! K 1257 

.. 3- Sot 1238 

CAKVI-. :, SALMON ..... 1259 

. K 1262 

:IEAD BEIK 1263 

CARVING, 7 I2 66 

CARVIN AND LAMB . 

v AND DUCK 

. 

IX, HARE ... .... 1272 



8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING 
PAGE 

ENTRIES. MUTTON CUTLETS, ETC. . . . ... . . 1273 

Cows . .... . . . . . .1-288 

FAIR v BUTTER AND OMELET ......... 1289 

CHEESE AND EGG SAVORIES, i . ....... 1304 

CHEESE AND EGG SAVORIES, 2 . ....... 1305 

BISCUITS, i . . ... . . . . . . . . 1416 

BISCUITS, 2 ............ 1417 

BREAD ............. 1432 

CAKES. COCOANUT, ETC. ......... 1433 

FANCY CAKES .......... . 1448 

ROLLS AND CAKES ......... . 1449 

PIPING, OR FANCY CAKE ICING ........ 1464 

BEVERAGES, JELLIES, KTC. ......... 1465 

BEVERAGES ............ 1514 

EARTHENWARE COOKING UTENSILS ........ 1515 

TRUSSING, i. SECTIONS OF FOWL CUT IN HALF ..... 1632 

TRUSSING, 2. To DRAW A FOWL . . . . . . . .1633 

TRUSSING, 3. FOWL FOR ROASTING ........ 1636 

TRUSSING, 4. FOWL FOR BOILING ........ 1637 

TRUSSING, 5. POULTRY, GOOSE AND HARE ...... 1640 

A DINNER TABLE FOR Six PERSONS ........ 1641 

SERVIETTES, i. THE BISHOP . . "" ...... PAGE 1699 

SERVIETTES, 2. THE FAN . . . . . . . ... 1700 

SERVIETTES, 3. THE BOATS . ,, 1701 

SERVIETTES. 4. THE PALM, THE LILY, AND THE CACTUS . . , 1702 

SERVIETTES, 5. THE SLIPPER .......,, 1703 

SERVIETTES, 6. THE PYRAMID ......... 1704 

SERVIETTES, 7. VARIOUS ......... 1704 

SERVIETTES, 8. VARIOUS ......... 1705 

SERVIETTES, 9. THE ROSE AND THE STAR ..... PAGE 1705 

SERVIETTES, 10. THE FLAT SACHET . . . . . . 1706 

SERVIETTES, u. THE MITRE . . . 1707 

SERVIETTES, 12. THE COCKSCOMB . 1708 

SERVIETTES, 13. FLEUR DE Lis VARIETIES ...... 1709 

SERVIETTES, 14. THE BOAR'S HEAD . 1710 

SERVIETTES, 15. THE SACHET . . . . . ... 1711 

SERVIETTES, 16. THE COLLEGIAN ......... 171 _> 

SERVIETTES, 17. THE VASE 1713 

COURT MENUS, i . . . . . . . . . . 1720 

COURT MENUS, 2 . . . . . . . . . .1721 

TABLE GLASS 1760 

THE BUTLER'S PANTRY 1761 

CHINA AND EARTHENWARE, i ......... 1792 

CHINA AND EARTHENWARE, 2 ......... i7<).' 

A BREAKFAST TABLE ......... 1808 

INVALID FURNITURE .......... 1809 

NURSING, i ". *. '. . . . . . . . . . 1864 

NURSING, 2 " . . . . 1865 

NURSING, 3 . ' . . "'.... . . . . . . . 1880 

To CHANGE SHEETS . . . .1881 



LEMCO 




Within 
this jar 



there is more of the 
real substance of Beef 
and a higher quality 
of Beef than in any 
other Meat Extract 
jar of equal size. 



Lemco 

The only 
GENUINE 

LIEBIG COMPANY'S 
EXTRACT OF BEEF. 

LEMCO. 4. Lloyd's Avenue. London EC. 



The 
Truth 
about 
Cocoa 

is that there is 
little to choose 
between 
Cadbury's 
absolutely pure 
Cocoa Essence 
and milk so 

closely are they allied in composition. 
For this reason 



is full of nourishment in an easily-digested form. 

Cadbury's is liquid food of the purest and 
highest quality, made under ideal conditions 
of cleanliness and pure surroundings in 
the Garden Factory at Bournville. 



To face mailer Front. 




THE MISTRESS 

CHAPTER I 

The Housewife, Home Virtues, Hospitality, Good 
Temper, Dress and Fashion, Engaging Domestics, 
Wages of Servants, Visiting, Visiting Cards, Parties, 
Etc., Etc. 

" 5, / honour are her clothing ; and she sliall refoii 

e. She ope nc th her mouth with wisdom ; and in her tongue is the 
law of kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household, and 
wf. the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her blessed ; 

nsband also, and he praiseth her. 1 ' Proverbs xxxi. 25-28. 
The Functions of the Mistress of a House resemble those of the general 
of an army or the manager of a great business concern. Her spirit 
will be seen in the whole establishment, and if sh: 
duties well and intelligently, her domestics will usually follow in her 
path. Among the gifts that nature has bestowed * on 

ink higher than the capacity for domestic management, for 
the exercise of this faculty constantly affects the happiness, comfort 
and prosperity of the whole family. In this opinion we are borne 
out by the author of The Vicar of Wake field, who says : 
modest virgin, the prudent wife, and the careful matron are much 

Me in life than petticoated philosophers, blusi 
heroines, or virago queans. She who makes her husband an<: 
children happy is a much greater character than ladies describ 

-;e whole occupation is to murder mankind with shafts 
the quiver of their e\ 

The Housewife. Although this word may be used to dcs 
oss of a household, it seems more fittingly applied to 

nallv ronduct t!: stic affairs than to ot 

govern with the assistance of a large staff of well-trained 

1 since 1766, \\ h wrote extolling 

virtues ; and ifl the change more marked than in 

o ; but ;i woman should not be less careful i; 
man, her life because the spirit of th- 

her activities housewives should be 

encoura'.ed to find time in the midst of domestic cares for the r< 

social intercourse which are necessary to the well-being of 






io HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

all. A woman's home should be first and foremost in her life, but if she 
allow household cares entirely to occupy her thoughts, she is apt to 
become narrow in her interests and sympathies, a condition not con- 
ducive to domestic happiness. To some overworked women but little 
rest or recreation may seem possible, but, generally speaking, the 
leisure to be enjoyed depends upon proper methods of work, punctuality, 
and early rising. The object of the present work is to give assistance 
to those who desire practical advice in the government of their home. 

Early Rising contributes largely to good Household Management ; 
she who practises this virtue reaps an ample reward both in health 
and prosperity. When a mistress is an early riser, it is almost 
certain that her house will be orderly and well managed. On the 
contrary, if she remain in bed till a late hour, then the servants, who, 
as we have observed, invariably acquire some of their mistress's charac- 
teristics, are likely to become sluggards. To self-indulgence all are 
more or less disposed,\ajiti it is not to be expected that servants are 
freer from this fault than the heads of houses. The great Lord Chatham 
gave this advice : " I would have inscribed on the curtains of your 
bed, and the walls of your chamber, ' If you do not rise early, you can 
make progress in nothing.' " Cleanliness is quite indispensable to 
Health, and must be studied both in regard to the person and the 
house, and all that it contains. Cold or tepid baths should be employed 
every morning. The bathing of children will be treated of under the 
heads of " The Nurse " and " The Doctor." Many diseases would be 
less common than they are if the pores of the skin were kept open. 

Frugality and Economy are Virtues without which no household can 
prosper. The necessity of economy should be evident to every one, 
whether in possession of an income barely sufficient for a family's re- 
quirements, or of a large fortune which seems to put financial adversity 
out of the question. We must always remember that to manage well 
on a small income is highly creditable. " He is a good waggoner," says 
Bishop Hall, " that can turn in a little room. To live well in abundance 
is the praise of the estate, not of the person. I will study more how to 
give a good account of my little than how to make it more." In this 
there is true wisdom, and it may be added that those who can manage 
small things well are probably fitted for the management of greater. 
Economy and frugality must never, however, be allowed to degenerate 
into meanness. 

A Judicious Choice of Friends is most essential to the happiness of a 
household. An acquaintance who indulges in scandal about her 
neighbours should be avoided as a pestilence. While ever attending 
to the paramount claims of home, a lady should not altogether neglect 
social duties. The daily round of work is much more pleasant if 
cheered by intercourse with friends, who are often able to give, or 
pleased to receive, help in the little difficulties that may occur in everyday 
life. Another point of view is that most women look forward to some 



FRUIT. 




12 



i. Apricots. 2. White Cherries. 3. Black Cherries. 4. White Currants. 

5. Blac'k Currants. 6. Red Currants. 7, Melon. 3. Strawberries. 9. Raspberries. 
io. Plums (Black Diamonds). n. Greengages. 12. Victoria Plums. 



THE MISTRESS II 

heir daughters in society, and in this cherished hope 
have e for not abstaining too much from social intercourse. 

One is apt to become narrow-minded by living too much in the home 
circle ; it is not well to get out of tlv t meeting fresh people, 

important also that children should have the advantage of mixing 
with other young people, though of course parents should exercise 
every precaution against the evils of bad company. 

Friendships should not be hastily formed, or the heart given to every new- 
comer. There are women who smile on every chance acquaintance, 
and who have not the courage to reprove vice or defend virtue. Addison, 

- that " A friendship which makt 

least noise is very often the most useful ; for which reason, I should 
prefer a prudent friend to a zealous one." 

The advice Shakespeare makes Polonius give to his son Lacr: 
thoroughly sound : 

iou hast, and their adoption t: 
:>lc them to thy soul with hoops of steel; 

do not dull thv ;>.rni \\ r 
Of e 

Hospitality should be j : but care must be taken that the love 

of COK >cs not become a prevailing passion ; 

such a habit is no 1 

and ^iii, <-rity in this, as in all duties of life, should be studied ; i 
mgton 1: <>n from the 

i cannot be described, but is i mined 

once at his ease." A lady. e first 
i'llny of a household, should not attempt to 

tances of her youth. Her true and tried 
to I*- liglr: and the ii 

she will in. ;kc l>y likely by 

moving to a new local her \\itli ample society. 

In Conversation on n the petty annoy- 

. ^appointments of the ny people get into 

the bad habit of talking imes-antly of the worries of tl m servants 
anl children, n>t r hearers thes 

uninteresting it n< -me subjects. From one's own point of 

well not to start upon a topic without having sut: 
ledge to discuss it with Important events, whether 

v or sorrow, should be told to i: apathy or 

itulation may be welcome. A wife should never allow a word 
about husband t) pass her lips ; and in conversation, 

she shouM 1 of Cowper continually in her memory, 

i should tlov. n tu rally and not 

As if raised by more mechanic powers." 



12 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

The secret of our conversation being entertaining or the reverse 
consists mainly on our powers of suiting it to the minds of those with 
whom we are speaking. With some it is necessary to make but little 
effort for they much prefer to talk themselves, and it is then the 
duty of the hostess to listen with as much interest as she can 
command. Other people are shy, and then a good deal of tact 
is required to find out subjects congenial to them, for there are 
sure to be some in which they are interested, and it is well for the mis- 
tress of a household to know a little of the current topics of the day. 

Cheerfulness. We cannot too strongly insist on the vital importance 
of always preserving an equable good temper amidst all the little cares 
and worries of domestic life. Many women may be heard to declare 
that men cannot realize the petty anxieties of a household. But a 
woman must cultivate that tact and forbearance without which no man 
can hope to succeed in his career. The true woman combines with 
mere tact that subtle sympathy which makes her the loved companion 
and friend alike of husband, children and all around her. Stevenson's 
prayer is worth remembering : " The day returns, and brings us the 
petty round of irritating concerns and duties. Help us to play the man, 
help us to perform them with laughter and kind faces, let cheerfulness 
abound with industry. Give us to go blithely on our business all this 
day, bring us to our resting beds weary and content and undishonoured, 
and grant us in the end the gift of sleep." 

On the Important Subject of Dress and Fashion we cannot do better than 
quote : " Let people write, talk, lecture, satirize, as they may, it 
cannot be denied that, whatever is the prevailing mode in attire, let it 
intrinsically be ever so absurd, it will never look as ridiculous as 
another, which, however convenient, comfortable, or even becoming 
is totally opposite in style to that generally worn." A lady's dress 
should be always suited to her circumstances, and varied for different 
occasions. The morning dress should be neat and simple, and suitable 
for the domestic duties that usually occupy the early part of the day. 
This dress should be changed before calling hours ; but it is not in 
good taste to wear much jewellery except with evening dress. A lady 
should always aim at being well and attractively dressed whilst never 
allowing questions of costume to establish inordinate claims on either 
time or purse. In purchasing her oWn garments, after taking account 
of the important detail of the length of her purse, she should aim at 
adapting the style of the day in such a manner as best suits the require- 
ments of her face, figure and complexion, and never allow slavish 
adherence to temporary fads of fashion to overrule her own sense of 
what is becoming and befitting. She should also bear in mind that 
her different costumes have to furnish her with apparel for home wear, 
outdoor exercise and social functions, and try to allot due relative 
importance to the claims of each. 

The advice of Polonius to his son Laertes, in Hamlet, is excellent ; 



THi: MISTRESS 13 

and although given to one of the male sex, will equally apply to 
the question of a woman's dress : 

ily thy habit as thy purse ran l>uy. 
But not express' d in fancy; rich, not gaudy ; 
For the apparel oft proci Man. " 

Charity is a Duty and privilege that we owe to ourselves as well as to 
our needy neighbours. There is, we hope, hardly any one so poor, but 
thai with a little thought he can give assistance, in woik- it not in 
goods, to others. As a poet has sung 

" Is thy cruse of comfort 

- and share it with 
And through all t! ine 

It shall serve thee and thy brother, 

the heart grows rich by ^ 
All its wealth is living ^i 
Seeds that moulder in the K.I: 

the plain- 
Scanty food for one 

Make a royal feast for t 

w< >rk, care and time are however necessary if our gifts are 
to have the best effect. Fortunately, the duty of visiting the poor, 
whether in crowded city slums or rustic villages, was never more widrlv 
recognized than at nt time. It should not be necess. 

urge all who undertake this duty to lay aside any patronizing attitude, 
which may do untold harm. A heartfelt sense ot 
honest, self-supporting jxnerty is one of the first essentials in such work. 
Marketing. Much mtormation for guidance and assi 11 be 

found in our average price lists in the chap 
the observations before the cookery sections for Ii , Poultry. 

it. etc. That the best articles \\ill 

ii the long run, and that the purchase of low pri rd and 

untrustworthy sub hie articles should be avoided, 

;>e laid down as fundamental rules for marketing I 1 ' s most 

l>le that whenever possible ress should herself purchase 

all stores needed for the home. Should the young v. know 

-e subjects, a little personal practice 
soon teach her the best articles to buy and the most reliable places to 

Accounts of Household Expenditure should always ! 

punctually and precisely. The best pl.m for ' -ehold 

accounts is to lown in a daily diai \ .mount, be it 

ever so small, spent each day ; then. nd of a week or month, 

let these payments IK- ranged under their various heads of Hi: 
. etc. Thus tin- amount* paid to rat h : -will b< 

and any week's or month's expe; \\ith those of 

another. The housekeeping accounts sh,,ukl be balanced not 
-once a \ liould be 

the money in h md . h the account^. ".My ad 



I 4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

said Mr. Micawbcr to David Copperfield, " you know. Annual in- 
come twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen, nineteen six, 
result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual expen- 
diture twenty pounds, ought and six, result misery. The blossom 
is blighted, the leaf is withered, the God of day goes down upon the 
dreary scene, and in short you are for ever floored." Once a 
month it is advisable that the mistress overlook her store of glass 
and china, marking any breakages on the inventory of these articles. 

When a housekeeper is entrusted with these duties, the mistress 
should examine her accounts regularly. Then, any increase of expen- 
diture can easily be examined, the mistress will have a regular check 
upon her expenditure, and the housekeeper who strives to manage her 
department well and economically will know that her efforts are 
appreciated. 

Engaging Servants is one of the most important duties the mistress is 
called upon to perform. One of the commonest ways of procuring 
servants is to answer advertisements or to insert a notice, setting 
forth what kind of servant is required. In these advertisements it is 
well to state whether the house is in town or country, and indicate 
the wages given. There are many respectable registry-offices, where 
good servants may be hired. A good plan is for the mistress to tell her 
friends and acquaintances of the vacant place. A lady whose general 
relations with her domestics are friendly, and fairly permanent, will 
seldom need to employ any of these methods. Suitable applicants 
will soon present themselves to fill the vacant places, generally friends 
of the domestic who is obliged to leave. 

We would here point out an error and a grave one into which 
some mistresses fall. They do not, when engaging a servant, tell her 
all the duties which she will be expected to perform. All the work 
which the maid will have to do should be plainly set forth by the 
mistress, and understood by the servant. If this plan is not carefully 
adhered to, misunderstanding is almost certain to occur, and may not 
be easily settled. 

Servants' Character. It is hardly safe to be guided by a written one 
from an unknown quarter ; it is better to have an interview, if possible, 
with the former mistress. In this way you will be helped in your 
decision as to the fitness of the servant by the appearance of her former 
place. No mistress desires a needless change of servants. The proper 
way to obtain a personal interview with a servant's former employer is 
to tell the applicant for the situation to ask her former mistress to 
appoint a convenient time when you may call on her ; this courtesy 
being necessary to prevent any unseasonable intrusion on the part of 
a stranger. Your first questions should be relative to the honesty and 
general morality of the servant ; and if the replies are satisfactory, 
her other qualifications are then to be ascertained. Inquiries should 
be very minute, so that you may avcid disappointment and trouble, 



THE MISTRESS 15 

by knowing the v.-eak points of your domestic. Your questions also 
should be brief, as well as to the point. 

In giving a Character, it is scarcely necessary to say that one should 
;ided by a sense of strict justice. It is not right to recommend a 
servant one would not keep oneself. The benefit to the servant herself 
is of small advantage, for the failings which she possesses will increase 
if indulged with impunity. At the same time, a mistress should never 
fail to do strict and impartial justice to any merits of her late servant, 
and should always remember the vital value of good references to one 
who depends on her labour for a living. 

The Treatment of Servants is of the greatest importance to both mistress 
and domestics. If the latter perceive that their mistress's conduct is 
regulated by high and correct principles, they will not fail to respect 
her ; and if a real desire is shown to promote their comfort, while at 
the same time a steady performance of their duty is exacted, then 
well-principled servants will be anxious to earn approval, and their 
respect will not be unmingled with affection. 

A lady should never allow herself to forget the important duty of 
watching over the moral and physical welfare of those beneath her roof. 
Without seeming unduly inquisitive, she can ah n sometlr 

their acquaintances and holiday occupation, and should, when ; 
sary, warn them against the dangers and evils of bad company. An 
hour should be fixed, usually 10 or 9 p.m., after which no servant should 
be allowed to stay out. To permit breaches of this rule, without having 
good and explicit reasons furnish r from being a kindness 

to the servant concerned. The moral responsibility for evil that may 
result rests largely on the employer who permits late hours. Especial 
care is needed with young girls. They should be given opportunities 
Icoming respectable triends at their employer's house, and not be 
forced by absence of such provision for their comfort to spend their 
time out of doors, often in driving rain, j^ossibly in bad company. 

Wages of Servants. The following Table of the average yearly v. 
paid to doi ite the expenditure of an estab- 

lishment. The amounts givm will, of course, vary according to ex- 
perience and localit . supply and demand. No Table 
could possibly be given which would not be subject to alteration under 
special circumstances, but taken as a Average these payments 
v.Hl he appropriate and form as reliable a guide as could possibly be 
given. In most establishments such men-servants as coachman, foot- 
man, and page, are provided with livery by their employers. This 
does not affect the question of wages. 

Whilst writing on this subje- t. we would warn the youiu; uite not to 
let mistaken notions of economv make her lose, for the sake of saving a 
t title in wage>. the services of a trusted and efficient domestic. The 
diitei \pcnse b< >od and bad servants in a house can 

only be learned by expei ienre. A really good servant can save her 



i6 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



employers far more than her wages and keep amount to, a bad one 
would be a poor bargain if she gave her services for nothing. 



MEN SERVANTS. 

House Steward . '' From 60 to 100 

Groom of the Chambers , 45 ,, 55 

Valet : , 35 50 

Cook ,, 100 

Head Gardener (not in the house) ... 70 to 120 

Under Gardener 40 45 

Butler 55 90 

Under Butler 35 45 

Footman , 18 40 

Under Footman 18 34 

Second Footman . , 18 34 

Coachman 40 70 

Coachman (not in the liou'-e) 70 90 

Groom . .'.''. . .. 25 ,, 35 

Under Groom 18 ,, 25 

Page . . ... .. , . 12 18 

Stable Boy , 6 12 

Servants' Hall Boy ,. 6 12 

Steward's Boy 8 15 

Head Gamekeeper , . . ,, 100 1.^0 

Under Gamekeeper 50 7 

WOMFN SFRVANTS Everything found, or an allowance 

tor the same. 

Housekeeper From 30 to 60 

Lady's Maid 25 40 

Cook 20 60 

Kitchen Maid 16 28 

Scullery Maid 14 18 

Still-room Maid 18 28 

Head Nurse , 25 35 

Under Nurse . , 12 18 

Head Laundry Maid j , 22 30 

Under Laundry Maid , 12 20 

Parlour Maid , 20 35 

Head Housemaid , 20 28 

Under Housemaid , 14 18 

General Servant , 12 28 



These are the wages that prevail in or near the Metropolis. The wages 
of under servants vary considerably according to locality ; and they 
axe often much lower in large establishments where young servants 
receive a good training than in middle-class households. 

Number of Servants suited to different incomes. The following 
is a rough scale of servants suited to various incomes. It is, how- 
ever, impossible to give any general rule in these matters. Whether 
in a household of moderate means such as our scales deal with, 
a man-servant is required, will depend upon whether the house 
is situated in town or country, and if the possession of horses or a 



THE MISTRESS 17 

garden renders his services imperative. One should not forget that 
when heavy expenses such as those of education have to be incurred 
for a family, this outlay must be carefully allowed for, before 
committing oneself in other directions. Similarly, where two servants 
are kept, and a nurse is required for young children, it will probably 
be deemed wise to dispense with the services of the housemaid, and 
arrange for the nurse to give some help to the cook. 

When one is considering if an extra servant is necessary or not, it 
is well to remember that assistance may sometimes be profitably 
arranged by engaging a lad for two or three hours a day to do such 
rough work as cleaning boots and shoes, working in the garden, etc. ; 
and, when uncertain whether to engage a gardener, one should not 
forget that a man not coming more than four days a week does not 
render an employer liable to the duty on man servants. 

About ;i,ooo a year. Cook, housemaid, and perhaps a man-servant. 

From ^750 to 500 a year. Cook, housemaid. 

About 300 a year. General servant. 

About 200 a year. Young girl for rough work. 

Daily Duties. Having thus indicated the pen- of a mistress 

in the m<> nmcnt of her household, we will now pive a few 

instructions on practical details. To do this m< 
begin with the earliest duties, and set forth the occupations of the 
day. 

Before Breakfast. Having risen early and attended to the (oilet, sec 
that the child' proj>er < are. and an and com- 

fortable. Tlie first meal oj the day, l>n<akiast. will then be served, at 
which all the family should be j. mutually present, unless illness, or 
other eireumstances. prevcn breakfast is over, the mistress 

should make a round of the kitchen and other offio that all is 

in order, and that the early nvrnin has been properly per- 

formed by the various domestics. The orders for the day should 

ions which the domestics may ask should be 
and any articles they require given out. Where a house- 
is engaged, she will of course perform the above-named <: 
upt notice should be taken of the first appearance of slack- 
t. or any faults in domestic work, so that the servant may 
know that her mistress is quick to detect the least disorder, and will 
^factory work. Small faults allowed to pass unreproved 
. ly increase. A failing easily cured if promptly dealt with, is 
almost hopeless when it has been allowed to develop into a habit. 

After this General Superintendence of her . the mistress will 

probably have a certain number of letters to write, possibly some market- 
shopping to do, besides numberless small duties which are better 
in the day, such as arranging the flowers for drawing-room 
and dinner-table, etc. If she be the mother of a young family 
there may be some instruction to give them, or some of their wardrobes 



i8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

to inspect, and needlework to be done. Time should also be allotted 
for reading and harmless recreation. 

If a lady does much plain needlework a sewing-machine is indis- 
pensable. With its help she can make and mend many articles used 
by her children and herself, and this without undue fatigue. The 
assistance of such an appliance is invaluable in every home, especially 
to a mother of daughters. Hand-sewing is slow and laborious, and 
unless provided with a sewing-machine, there is little inducement 
for any one to practise home-dressmaking. Apart from the valu- 
able experience gained in cutting-out, fitting, altering and re-making, 
a great saving may be effected. 

Luncheon. In establishments where an early dinner is served, 
that meal will, of course, take the place of the luncheon. In many 
houses, where a nursery dinner is provided for the children about one 
o'clock, the elder members of the family usually make their luncheon 
at the same time. If circumstances are not strongly against the 
arrangement, the children of the house should take their dinner with 
their mother. It is far better for children to have their principal meal in 
the company of their mother and other members of the family, as soon 
as they are able to feed themselves properly. Many little vulgar habits 
and faults of speech and manner are avoided by this companionship. 
The mother can thus better watch over her children's health, and 
see that their food is properly cooked, served, and suited to 
them. Children who are accustomed to the society of their seniors at 
their meals will not be awkward or shy with visitors, or when they 
are staying from home. The nurse, likewise, by this plan is released, 
for a short period, from the care of her little charges, and, while she 
enjoys her dinner with her fellow-servants, "waiting on the nurse," 
a great objection with many housemaids, is avoided. 

Visiting. After luncheon, morning calls and visits may be made 
and received. These may be divided under three heads ; those of 
ceremony, friendship, and congratulation or condolence. Visits of 
ceremony or courtesy, which occasionally merge into those of friendship, 
are to be paid under various circumstances. Thus, they are uniformly 
required after dining at a friend's house, or after a ball, picnic, or any 
other party. These visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to 
twenty minutes being quite sufficient. 

When other visitors are announced, it is well to leave as soon as 
possible, taking care not to give the impression that your departure 
has been hastened by the arrival of the new guest. When they are 
quietly seated, and the bustle of their entrance is over, rise from your 
chair, taking a kind leave of the hostess, and bowing politely to the 
guests. Should you call at an inconvenient time, not having ascer- 
tained the luncheon hour, or from any other inadvertence, retire as 
soon as possible without, however, showing that you feel yourself an 
intruder. It is not difficult to make suitable excuses on such an 



THE MISTRF.SS 10 

occasion, and a promise .vn be made to call again, if the lath 

1 on appear really sorry that circumstances have caused you 
Tt^n your visit. 

Visits of Friendship need not be so formal as those of ceremony. 
It is, however, advisable to call at suitable times, and to avoid staying 
too long if your friend is engaged. Courtesy and consideration for 
others are safe rules in these every-day matters. During visits manners 
should be easy and unstrained, and conversation natural and unforced. 
It is not advisable to take pet dogs into another lady's house, for 
there are people who have an absolute dislike to animals ; besides this, 
there is always a chance of the animal breaking something, to the annoy- 
ance of the hostess. 1 \ . t in the case of close friends or special in- 
vitation, little children should not accompany a lady in making morning 
calls. Where a lady, however, pays her \ isits in a carriage, the children 
can be taken, remaining in the carriage when the caller inters her 
friend 

It has now become gcr >s of a house to set aside one 

tort night or month, as the cast . on \\hich 

at home to : . Wherever t I to be the 

case, casual \i to call on that day. It is 

hardly necessary to add that a lady should always be prepared for 

her to be 
from home on such a day, she nv -illy inform all her aojuam- 

good tii be spared a fruitless journey. 

:i a lady has n\ol i.< i "At Home -id cards have been 

I as, for example, M At Home on W trom 4 

to 7," should be provided by the hostess, 

supplies of it. with thin bread -and -! 

forthcoming as fresh guest > 

Morning Calls demand good but neat attire, a costume much 
elaborate than that w : will IK* out of ;, 

As a general rule, it may be said, both in reference to this and all other 

ssed. 
A strict account should be kept of cercmom and notice be 

h>w soon your via rned. An opinion ma, 

be formed as to whether yoi: re, or are not, desirable. 

are. naturally, instances 1:1 \\hieh fcl instances of old age 

or ill-health will preclude any return of a call ; but when this is the 

case, it must not interrupt the discharge of the duty by those who 

no such excuses t 

In all \ i air acquaintance or friend be not at home, a card 

should IK- left. If you are in a carriage, the servant will answer your 
in<jui; 4 t \\aiting for you to alight , if 

>n foot, g; card to the servant who . ; 

the door. The form 01 may be understood 

ises ; but the only courtcou <em as 



20 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

being perfectly true. You may imagine that the lady of the house is 
really at home, and that she would make an exception in your favour, 
or you may think that your call is not desired ; but, in either case, not 
the slightest word is to escape you which would suggest, on your part, 
such an impression. 

Visits of Condolence should be paid within a week after the event which 
occasions them. If the acquaintance, however, is but slight, they 
should not be made until immediately after the family has appeared 
in public. A lady should send in her card, and, if her friends be able 
to receive her, the visitor's manner and conversation should be 
subdued, and in harmony with the character of her visit. Visitors 
paying visits of condolence should be dressed in black, or at any rate 
very quietly. Sympathy with the affliction of the family is thus 
expressed. 

Receiving Morning Calls. The foregoing description of the etiquette 
to be observed in paying them will apply to the receiving of calls. It 
is to be added, however, that, generally speaking, all occupations 
should be suspended on the entrance of morning visitors. If a lady, 
however, be engaged with light needlework, she may continue it quietly 
during conversation, particularly if the visit be protracted. 

Formerly the custom was to accompany all departing visitors to the 
door of the house, and there take leave of them ; but modern 
society, which dispenses with a great deal of this kind of ceremony, now 
merely requires that the lady of the house should rise from her seat, 
shake hands, or bow, and ring the bell to summon the servant to attend 
them and open the door. In making a first call, either upon a newly- 
married couple or on persons newly arrived in the neighbourhood, a 
lady should leave her husband's card, together with her own, at the 
same time stating that the profession or business in which he is 
engaged has prevented him from having the pleasure of paying the 
visit with her. It is a custom with many ladies, when on the eve of 
an absence from their neighbourhood to leave or send their own and 
husband's cards, with the letters P. P. C. in the right-hand corner. 
These letters are the initials of the French words Pour prendre conge, 
meaning " To take leave." 

Visiting Cards and Invitations. The fashion of visiting cards used 
to vary much, some being made extremely thin, but those of medium 
thickness are now usually preferred. When calling at a house, it 
used to be customary to turn up the lower right-hand corner of the 
card, to denote that a personal call had been made, but this is not 
general any longer. Tennis and croquet invitations are issued with 
the word at the bottom right-hand corner. For Soirees, " At Homes," 
Conversaziones, Dinners and Balls, invitation cards are used ; but 
for Weddings the invitations are issued upon notepaper. Gilt edges 
and gilt decorations are not often used nowadays, nor is the mono- 
gram, or crest, or both frequently embossed at the head of the paper. 



THE MISTRESS 21 

It is customary at many houses during summer to give tennis or 
croquet teas. The meal is very informal, and often served out of 
doors. Iced tea, coffee, claret-cup, etc., are served, with sandwiches, 
pastry, cakes and other light viands. The tables are set under 
shady trees, and a couple of servants or members of the family are in 
attendance at them, the visitors themselves going to the table for \\hat 
they may want. The following is a form for wedding invitations : 



Mr. and Mrs. A request the 

pleasure of Mr. and Mrs. B 's 

company on the occasion of the marriage 
of their daughter Alice with Fn\: 
<$ 

Ceremony on Wednesday, 14 June, at 

Church, at o'clock, and a/tetwards 

at . 

R.S.V.P. 



The morning calls having been paid or received, and their etiquette 
properly attended to, the next great event of the day in most estab- 
lishments is " The Dinner " ; and we will only make a few & 
remarks on tlu's important subject here, as in future pages the wl.de 
" Art of Dining " will be thoroughly considered, with reference io its 
economy, comfort and enjoyment. 

Invitations for Dinner. In giving these it is usual to give from a 

8 to three weeks' nut ice, and luimal ones a. 
cards, such as the following 



request the pleasure of 



company at dinner 

on the at o'clock. 

HOWARD HOUSE. 

KENSINGTON, \V. R.S.V.P. 



22 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

In accepting an invitation the form of words used is- 



have much pleasure in accepting 



kind invitation for 



while in declining one it is usual to say 



regret they are unavoidably prevented 
{or that a previous engagement prevents 
them] from accepting 

kind invitation for 



Before the Dinner. A dinner-party, in an establishment where such 
an event is of rare occurrence, is apt to cause great anxiety to the in- 
experienced hostess, particularly when she cannot place full reliance 
in the training and capabilities of her servants. But, whatever her 
fears of disaster may be, she must meet her guests with a bright and 
cheery welcome. 

In giving any entertainment of this kind, the hostess should endeavour 
to make the guests enjoy the time spent under her roof, and the guests 
themselves should remember that they have come with the object of 
mutual entertainment. An opportunity is thus given to all for innocent 
pl3asure and intellectual intercourse, in the course of which pleasant 
and valuable friendships may be formed and information acquired 
that may prove useful through life. Many celebrated men and women 
have been great talkers ; and one may recall the genial Sir Walter 
Scott, who would speak freely to any one, and was wont to say that 
he never did so without learning something. 

With respect to the number of guests, it has often been said, that a 
private dinner-party should consist of not less than the number of the 
Graces, or more than that of the Muses. A party of ten or twelve is, 



THE MISTRESS 23 

perhaps, as a general rule, sufficient for enjoyment. Gloves are worn 
by ladies at dinner-parties, but should be taken off before the actual 
meal begins. 

Going to Dinner. Dinner having been announced, the host offers his 
arm to, and places on his right hand at the dinner-table, the lady to 
whom he desires to pay most respect, either on account of her age, 
position, or because she is the greatest stranger in the party. If this 
lady be married and her husband present, the latter takes the hostess 
who always enters the dining-room last to her place at table, and 
seats himself at her right hand. The rest of the company follow the 
host in couples, as specified by the master or mistress of the house, the 
whole party being arranged according to their rank and other circum- 
stances which may be known to the host and hostess. 

Guest Cards. It will be found of great assistance to the placing of a 
party at the dinner-table, to have the names of the guests neatly 
written on small cards called " Guest cards " and placed at that part of 
the table where it is desired the several guests should sit. It is a 
matter of taste what cards should be used for this purpose ; small plain 
ones are perfectly admissible, but those with gold, silver or coloured 
borders are more effective and show more distinctly, laid as tin 
upon cither white table cloths or serviettes. Some with floral orna 
.tion are frequently used. Sometimes the menu card is a 
double one, which folds like a ball programme, and upon the ou 
of this the guest's name is written. 

The Dinner d la Russe, introduced into England about the middle 
of the nineteenth century, has now lace of the old 

custom of having all the dishes served from the table. The t>. 
of dinner is fully dealt with in subsequent pages. 

Dessert. When dinner is finished, the dessert is placed on the ' 
accompanied by finger-glasses, in which the tips of the fingei 
dipped after the fruit or sweetmeats of this c been ta! 

Leaving the Dinner Table. When fruit has been taken, and a glass or 
two of wine passed round, the time will ha i \vhen the hostess, 

after catching the eye of the lady first in precedence, rises, and gives her 
guests the signal to retire to the drawing-room. The gentlemen will 
rise at the same time, and the one nearest the door open it for the ladies, 
all courteously standing until the last lady has withdrawn. 

In former times, when the bottle circulated freely amongst the guests, 
the ladies retired earlier than they do at present. Thanks, however, 
to the changes time has wrought, strict moderation is now invariable 
amongst gentlemen, and they now take but a brief interval for tobacco. 
talk, and coffee, before they rejoin the ladies. 

After-dinner Invitations, by which we mean invitations for the evening, 
may be -ivm. The time of arrival ol :tors will vary nco'vdin;,' 

to their engagements, or son: -thence to the 

caprices of fashion. Guests invited for the evening arc, li encr- 



24 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

ally considered at liberty to arrive whenever it will best suit themselves 
usually between nine and twelve, unless earlier hours are specifically 
named. By this arrangement, those who have numerous engagements 
to fulfil, can contrive to make their appearance at two or three parties 
in the course of one evening. 

Ball or Evening Party Etiquette. The etiquette of the dinner-party 
table being disposed of, let us now enter into that of an evening 
party or ball. The invitations for these are usually on "At Home " 
cards, filled in with the name and address of the sender and the date 
of the invitation, with the word " Dancing " or " Music," as the case 
may be, in one corner. They should be sent out about three weeks 
before the day fixed for the event, and should be replied to within a 
week of their receipt. By attention to these courtesies, the guests 
will have time to consider their engagements, and prepare their dresses, 
and the hostess will learn in good time the number of guests likely to 
be present. 

Short or verbal invitations, except to relatives or close friends, are 
not, formally speaking, correct, but, of course, very much depends on 
the circumstances under which the invitation is given. Social forms, 
while never allowed to become a fetish, should not be altogether neg- 
lected even among close friends and relatives, for unintentional 
neglect of a customary formality may be misunderstood and strain 
a valued friendship. 

Arrival of Guests. Visitors on arrival should be shown to a room 
exclusively provided for their reception ; and in that set apart for the 
ladies, attendants should be in waiting to assist those ladies who may 
require help. It will be found convenient, where the number of guests 
is large, to provide numbered tickets, so that they can be attached to 
the cloaks and wraps of each visitor ; a duplicate of the ticket should 
be handed to the guest. Tea and coffee is provided in an ante-room, 
for those who would like to partake of it. 

Introductions. The lady of the house usually stands at the door of 
the drawing-room to receive her guests. She may introduce some of 
them to others, where she may imagine mutual acquaintance will be 
suitable and agreeable. It is very often the practice of the master of 
the house to introduce one gentleman to another, but occasionally the 
lady performs this office. 

The custom of non-introduction is very much in vogue in many houses, 
and guests are thus left to discover for themselves the position and 
qualities of the people around them. The servant, indeed, calls out 
the names of all the visitors as they arrive, but, in many instances, mis- 
pronounces them ; so that it will not be well to follow this information, 
as if it were an unerring guide. But the gentleman is, of course, 
introduced by either host or hostess to the lady whom he is to take in 
to dinner. 

Refreshments. A separate room or buffet should be set apart for 



Til TRESS 

refreshments. A supper is also often provided at private parties ; and 
equires, on the part of the hostess, a great deal of attention and 
supervision. It usually takes place between the first and second 
parts of the dances arranged. Programmes of these dances are 
printed in various forms, and have pencils attached. The monogram 
of the hostess, or the name of the house, with the date of the party, 
frequently heads these programmes. 

At Private Parties, a lady should not refuse the invitation of a gentle- 
man to dance, unless she be previously engaged. The hostess must be 
supposed to have asked to her house only those persons whom she knows 
to be of good character, as well as fairly equal position ; hence to d. -i line 
the offer of any gentleman present would be a tacit reflection on tl.o 
master and mistress of the house. It may be mentioned here that an 
introduction at balls or evening parties does not necessanh 
subsequent acquaintanceship, no introduction, at these times. -i\ing a 
gentleman a right afterwards to address a lady. She is consequently 

A xt morning to pass her partner at a ball of the previous e\ 
without the slightest recognition, if she prefers to do so. 

Dancing. The ball is generally opened by the lady of the house, 
load off the dance with the lady highest in 

rank of those present or the greatest stranger, it will be well for the 
hostess, even if she is an ardent and accomplished dancer, not to indulge 
in the art to an unlimited extent, as the duties of entertaining make 

lerable demands on her attention and time. A i 
suffice to show that she shares in the pleasures of the evening. 

The hostess and host, during the progress of a ball, will chat with 
their friends, and take care the ladies are furnished with seats, and that 
those who wish to dance arc provided with partners, A gentl- 
from the hostess that a lady lacks a partner during several dances, is 
;i not to be neglected by a ,. In this way the com- 

fort and enjoyment of the guests can be promoted, and n- 
;oncc the sensation of being a wallfl. ughout t! 

other cares, the mistress has frequently the added duties of 

a chaperon either of her own or some friend's daughters. Without 

ilations, or preventing the enjoyment of her 

charges, she must be able to ensure their doing nothing that is cither 
oulrt or in bad form. At a ball she will take special care that her 
charges always know where to find her, though no reasonable chaperon 
will expect a girl to be always with her. 

Departure. \\ of the carriages ate announced, or the time for 

of the guests arrives, they should bid farewell to the 
hostes it attracting the attention of the other guests to tin ir 

departure It this cannot be done without creating too much bu>tl<-. 
it will K> better for the visitors to retire quietly without taking 
\Vit!i!-i i the entertainment, the hostess should i 

from every guest a call, where possible, or cards expressing thegratinca- 



26 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

tion experienced from her entertainment. To neglect such an obvious 
duty is an offence against all social rules 

Having shortly treated different forms of social gatherings, we now 
return to the ordinary routine of the household, though all the details 
we have given of dinner parties, balls, etc., belong to the department 
of the mistress. Without a knowledge of the etiquette to be observed 
on these occasions, a mistress would be unable to enjoy and appreciate 
those friendly meetings which, giving a pleasant change, make the 
quiet, happy life of an English gentlewoman the more enjoyable. In 
their proper places, all that is necessary to be known respecting the 
dishes and appearance of the breakfast, dinner, tea, and supper tables 
will be set forth in this work. 

Home Gatherings are more frequent and more important than social 
entertainments. Both, however, have to be studied with a view to 
efficiency, enjoyment and economy. These points will be dealt with 
in the pages on " Cookery." Here we will only say, that for both mis- 
tress and servants, it will be found wise to cook and serve the dinner, 
and to lay the tablecloth and the sideboard, with the same cleanliness, 
neatness and scrupulous exactitude, whether it be for the family, or for 
" company." If this be strictly adhered to, the details of work will 
become as second nature to all energies, and the trifling extra trouble 
entailed is amply repaid by the increased efficiency of servants, the 
feeling that one is always prepared for any chance callers, and the moral 
stimulus that is given by having all things done decently and in order. 

Evenings at Home should form a pleasant, improving and restful 
portion of the daily round. Few hours of the day present more oppor- 
tunities for forming and strengthening good habits and tendencies 
among the young. In many homes this is the only time when the busy 
father has the opportunity, and the mother the leisure, to share in the 
pursuits and pastimes of their children. If children do not find pleasure 
at home they will seek it elsewhere, often in undesirable directions. 
Hence it should form part of the settled domestic policy of every parent 
to make children feel that home is one of the happiest places in the 
world, thus cultivating in them an attachment to home interests that 
may prove an invaluable safeguard in the crucial years of their youth. 
With this object in view all innocent games and pastimes should be 
encouraged ; the young collector, naturalist, carpenter or engineer 
should be helped in his interesting and instructive hobbies. Games 
of skill, like chess and draughts, which have an educational value, 
should be introduced and opportunity given for cricket, cycling, walk- 
ing, hockey and healthy sport, whilst children who show any talent for 
music, drawing, modelling, composition, etc., should know that a 
keen interest is taken in their pursuits. 

Fancy needlework often forms a portion of the evening's recreation 
for the ladies of the household, and this may be made more pleasant 
by reading aloud some standard work, whether of instruction, humour, 



THE MISTRESS 27 

6r romance, and there is no greater safeguard against those low-class 
and pernicious publications, which, alas ! abound, than an early 
acquaintance with the real masterpieces of literature. 

Retiring for the Night. It is well to remember that early rising is almost 
impossible if retiring to rest at a late hour is the practice of the 
household. The younger members of a family should go early and at 
regular hours to their beds, and the domestics as soon as possible after 
a reasonably appointed hour. Either the master or the mistress of a 
house should, after all have gone to their separate rooms, see that all is 
right with respect to lights and fires below ; and no servants should on 
any account be allowed to remain up after the heads of the house have 
retired. 

Having thus dealt with daily routine from rising at morning to 
retiring at night, there remain only now to be considered a few 
matters, respecting which the mistress of the house may be glad to 
receive information. 

When taking a House in a new locality, it will be etiquette for the 
mistress to wait until the older inhabitants of the neighbourhood call 
upon her, thus evincing a desire, on their part, to become acquainted 
with the new-comer. It may be, that the mistress will desire an inti- 
mate acquaintance with but few of her neighbours ; but it is to be 
specially borne in mind that all visits, whether of ceremony, friendship, 
or condolence, should be punctiliously returned, though some time 
may be allowed to elapse in the case of undesirable acquaintance. 

Letters of Introduction. You may perhaps have been favoured with 
letters of introduction from some of your friends, to persons living 
in the neighbourhood to which you have just come. In this case, 
enclose the letter of introduction in an cnvelojx?, with your card, 
if the person to whom it is addressed call in the course of a 
the visit should be returned by you within the week, if ]x>ssiblc. 1' ifl 
now more usual to write by the post and introduce a friend, instead of 
leaving everything to be said by the letter that is gr 

In the event of your being invited to dinner under the above cir- 
cumstances, nothing but necessity should ; you from accepting 

the invitation. If, however, there is some distinct reason why you 
cannot accent, let it be stated frankly and plainly. An opportunity- 
should, also, be call in the c a day or two, in order to 
express your regret that untoward circu; - have made it im- 
possil -u to le | nvsent. 

In Giving a Letter of Introduction, it should always !> handed to your 
friend uir-altd. Courtesy tii< . i.. uhoin you are 

introducing would, perhaps, wish to know in what inaniu-s 

i.oken of. Should you receive a letter from a friend, introducing 
rson known to and r-.io imd 1>\ tin- \\iu.i. the letter 

:r willingness e\j 
to do all in your power to carry out his or her wishes. 



28 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



Order and Punctuality are so important to the comfort and happiness 
of the household that every mistress should fix stated hours for meals, 
etc., which ought to be strictly observed by every member of the 
family. 



ORDER OF THE HOUSEHOLD 

fHorning Drapers, 8.45 A.M. 

" Forsake not the assembling of yourselves 
together." 

MEALS. 
Breakfast (Kitchen & Nursery) . 8a.m. 

,, (Dining-Room) . . 8.30,, 
Kitchen Dinner . . . 12.30 p.m. 

Luncheon 1.30 ,, 

Kitchen and Nursery Tea . .5 M 

Dinner 6.30,, 

Kitchen Supper . . . . 9 

o 

POST ARRIVES. 8 A.M. 

" Kind words in which we feel the pressure of a 
hand." 

POST DEPARTS. 8.30A.M. & 6 P.M. 
" A timely written letter is a rivet in the chain of 
affection." 

Pleasures and Duties in due order linked. 

o 

praocrs, 10 P.M. 



The specimen card of order of the household will guide the mistress 
in drawing up a set of rules adapted to the special requirements of her 
own home. 

Furnishing a House is an anxious and onerous undertaking, involving 
far more ramifications, details and difficulties than can be dealt with 
here. A few useful elementary rules to be observed are as follows : 
before purchasing a single article, the future abode should be carefully 
inspected, and a careful plan made with exact measurements of the 
height, length and breadth of every room and of all recesses contained 
in them, for a few inches difference more or less will render quite impos- 
sible or useless for your room a suite or article of furniture fancied by 
you, or recommended by the plausible salesman, who has never seen 
the house to be furnished. Then, still, before any purchases are made, 
a list of the articles desired and necessary for the new house should be 
made, re-made, altered and considered, priced and re-priced, estimated 
and re-estimated. No trouble or care can be considered excessive in 
this task, for to most people, furnishing from cellar to attic, as the phrase 



THE MISTRESS 29 

goes, is a task that comes to us but once in our existence, and some of 
the articles selected may have to last for a lifetime. Should money be 
limited, the sum that can be devoted to this purpose should be carefully 
fixed, and if the amount is not found sufficient for all requirements, the 
expenditure on all strictly necessary articles should be estimated and 
allowed for, before letting the fancy stray after superfluities and luxuries. 
This may seem a very obvious rule, but it is one often neglected. The 
scarcity of vile dross that prevents us from ordering all we think we 
need for our new establishment, may be a blessing in disguise, for many 
of those quaint and interesting articles that lend so much individuality 
and artistic charm to a dwelling can never be purchased in bulk, but 
must be acquired by a combination of good luck, good taste and loving 
search. The time required for an exciting hunt after articles of beauty, 
quaint ugliness, or romantic interest, will not be grudged by many 
young couples, for each treasure thus acquired tends to give fresh 
interest in the beautifying of a home. These rules consid 
catalogues compared, and the advantages and drawbacks of old and 
new furniture weighed, the prospective householder will be prepared 
to face the allurements of Tottenham Court Road and elsewhere. 
Every possible information about kitchen furniture and utensils, with 
carefully compiled price lists, will be found in a later chapter. It is 
now usual for the landlord to allow the incoming tenant to choose 

ill papers, and :ld advise our readers not to mind t 

considerable trouble in this respect. 1 1 is well to think whether the rooms 
require light or dark papers ; the furniture and nh which thoy 

are to be associated should also be considered. In few 1 1 
care and taste better repaid than in such careful cli ..mid 

recommend our readers not to rest content with the sample books 
furnished by their landlord, but to inspect the designs of the best 
known and most artistic firms. 

Choosing a House. Many mistresses have experienced the horrors of 
house-hunting, and it is well known that " three removes are as good 
(or bad, rather) as a fire." 

The choice of a house must depend on various circumstances with 

nt people, and to give any specific directions on this head 

would be impossible and useless, yet it will be desirable to point out 

some of the general features as to locality, soil, aspect, etc., which all 

house-hunters should carefully consider. 

irding the locality, we may say. speaking more particular 
a town house, that it is important to the health and comfort of a family 
that the neighbourhood of all factories producing unwholesome or 
offensive emanations or odours should be strictly avoided. Neither is 
it well to take a house in the immediate vicinity of a noisy trad. 
ould prove a constant annoyance. 

a house on lease, get a competent surveyor to inspect 
ite of tl:< roof, gutters, etc. Do not 



30 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

rely upon the statements of an agent, or any one interested in letting 
the house. When circumstances permit, it is well to stay for some 
time in the neighbourhood to ascertain if it suits your health and taste 
before removing there. 

Referring to soils : it is held as a rule, that a gravel soil is best, as the 
rain drains through it very quickly, and it is consequently less damp 
than clay, upon which water rests a far longer time. Sand, chalk, and 
clay soils all possess their respective merits, but the latter should be 
avoided by those subject to rheumatic affections. 

The aspect of the house should be well considered, remembering that 
the more sunlight comes into the house the healthier is the habitation. 
A house with a south or south-west aspect is lighter, warmer, drier, 
and consequently more healthy, than one facing the north or north-east. 

Great advances have been made of late in sanitary knowledge, and 
the first point to inspect in a house is its drainage, as it has been proved 
in thousands of cases that bad or defective drainage is as certain to 
destroy health as the taking of poison. This arises from its injurious 
effect upon the atmosphere, which renders the air we breathe unwhole- 
some and dangerous. Let us remember, then, that unless the drainage 
of a house is perfect, the health of its inhabitants is sure to suffer ; and 
they will be susceptible to diphtheria, typhoid and all kinds of fevers 
and disease. A damp house also fosters rheumatism, ague, etc. 

The importance of a good water supply can scarcely be over esti- 
mated. No house, however suitable in other respects, should be taken 
if this important source of health and comfort is in the slightest degree 
scarce or impure. We cannot take too much care in seeing that it is 
pure and good, as well as plentiful, knowing as we do its constant 
influence on the health of a household. 

Ventilation is another feature which must not be overlooked. To 
ensure efficient ventilation both inlet and outlet openings must be 
provided ; the former, as near the floor as possible, without producing 
a draught ; the latter, close to the ceiling. The lower part of the 
window may be used as an inlet for air when the room is not in use. 
Iron gratings and perforated bricks fitted into the outer wall, and valves 
opening into the chimney, can all serve as outlets for foul air. 
Failing these, the upper sash of the window may be lowered ; but this 
method of ventilation is apt to cause an unpleasant draught, whereas 
the above-named devices admit and carry off air without any perceptible 
change of temperature. 

Before committing themselves to any agreement for a house, inex- 
perienced readers are advised to consult our " Legal Memoranda," given 
later on. 

Rent. Some authorities say one-tenth, others one-eighth, of the 
total income should be spent in rent, but so many circumstances such 
as the size of the family, its position, and the locality in which it is 
necessary to reside affect this estimate, we are disposed to think it is 



THE MISTRESS 31 

a question best left for careful consideration in each individual case. 
When facing the problem of taking a new and larger house, one should 
bear in mind that the mere increase in rent does not represent the whole 
of the extra, expense that will have to be borne, for besides rates, which 
of course increase proportionately, a larger house seems invariably to 
increase expenses all round. Yet it is not easy to give explicit re 
for this undoubted tendency. 

The Responsibilities or Duties of the mistress of a house are. though 
onerous and important, by no means difficult if given careful an : 
tematic attention. She ought always to remember that she rules the 

hold ; and by her conduct its whole internal policy is regulated. 
She is, therefore, a person of far- reaching importance. Her daughters 
model themselves on her pattern, and are directed by her counsels : 
" Her children rise up and call her blessed ; her husband also, and he 

th her." Therefore let each wife, remembering her responsibilities. 

iat her conduct is such as to earn the love and reverence of her 
children and her husband. 

I.* t her remember the sincere homage paid to the good wife and 
mother by the great philosophers an-1 writers <>f .ill ages. J 
Taylor Kiys : "A good wife i ; st best gift to man; 

ngel and minister of graces innumerable; his gem of many 
virtues; his casket of j : ler voice is sweet mii-ie ; her snnlr. 

her kiss the guardian of his innocence ; her 
the pule of his safety ; the balm of his h< balsam of h: 

her industry. ! th ; her ccoiv afcst steward ; her 

lips, his l';utht:il counsellors : her bosom, the sott.-t j.ill,.\v of his 

Ivocatcsof 1! igs on 

his h\ul." 



THE HOUSEKEEPER 



CHAPTER II 

Duties and Responsibilities. 

As Second in Command in the House, except in large establishments, 
where there is a house-steward, the housekeeper must consider herself 
as the immediate representative of her mistress, and bring to her work 
all the qualities of honesty, industry, and vigilance which would be 
expected of he- if she were at the head of her own family. Constantly 
striving to promote the prosperity of the household, she should oversee 
all that goes on in the house, that every department is thoroughly 
attended to, and that the servants are comfortable, at the same time 
that their various duties are properly performed. 

Cleanliness, punctuality, and method are essentials in the charac- 
ter of a good housekeeper. Without these qualities, no household can 
be well managed. Order again, is indispensable ; by it we provide 
that " there should be a place for everything, and everything in its 
place." 

Accounts. A necessary qualification for a housekeeper is that she 
should thoroughly understand accounts. She will have to write in her 
books an accurate account of all sums paid for any and every purpose, 
the current expenses of the house, tradesmen's bills, wages, and many 
miscellaneous items. As we have mentioned in the previous chapter, 
a housekeeper's accounts should be periodically examined and checked 
by the head of the house. Nothing tends more to the satisfaction 
of both employer and employed than this arrangement. " Short 
reckonings make long friends " stands good in this case, as in others. 

The housekeeper should make a careful record of every domestic 
purchase whether bought for cash or not. This record will be found a 
useful check upon the bills sent in by the various tradesmen, so that 
any discrepancy can be inquired into and set right. An intelligent 
housekeeper will by this means be able to judge of the average con- 
sumption of each article in the household ; and to prevent waste and 
carelessness. 

The following table of expenses, income, or wages, shows what any 
sum, from i to 100 per annum, is, when reckoned per quarter, 
calendar month, week, or day : 

32 



HIE HOUSEKEEPER 



33 



MVr 
\ c.ir. 






Jll H t.T. 


Per 


Per 

\\\vl 




Pec 

D.iv. 


Per 
Year, 


Per 

Chi.irti-r 






Per 

Month. 




1 


Per 




'. 


( 


S. J. 


s. d. 


s. d 




d. 


s . rf. 


s. d 






: s. d. 


s. d. 




d 


I O 








i 8 


4 




of 


II O 




J 




18 4 


043 




71 


I IO 

2 !> 






10 
12 6 


3 4 
4 2 


9 




i! 


13 o o 
14 o o 


3 3 
3 10 






i i 
3 


5 o 
5 4i 






3 o 






15 


5 o 


i 




2 


15 o o 


3 15 








5 9 




10 








17 6 


5 10 








16 o o 








6 


6 2 




10 


4 o 









6 8 








17 o o 


4 5 






8 


6 6} 




ii 


4 10 






2 6 


7 6 


8 




3 


18 o o 


4 10 






10 


6 ii 




ii 








5 


8 4 


ii 









4 15 






ii 


~ ; ' 




o 








7 6 


9 2 


il 




3i 











M 


7 8 




I 








10 


10 


3 




4 


30 o o 


7 10 






IO 


ii 5 




7 


1) 10 






12 6 


IO 10 


6 




4 J 


40 o o 


IO O 






6 


15 4l 




2 


7 o 

7 i" 






15 o 
17 6 


ii 8 

12 6 


.a 




5 


50 o o 

60 


12 IO 
15 




i 


I 3 
o 


19 3 
3 oj 




) 
3l 


S 10 









13 4 


3 i 






70 o o 
80 o o 


17 10 
20 o 




( 


16 


IO O 




T 4l 


'J O 






5 o 


15 


J 5l 




6* 


90 o o 


22 IO 






!IO 


1U *) 

n 71 


- 


^1 

H 


IO O 






10 O 




3 10 




61 


100 


25 o 






6 


18 51 


! 


51 



Coakhg. Although tin- hoii-okocjM-r dors not ;;rnn.illy intnl'm- inm-h 
in thr .i':tu.il work of thr cook, yet it is necessary that she should 

Imowledge of cookery ; for she has to direct the \\Mik 

ot others. In some establishments cakes, bre.id. jams, pickl. 
mad.- in the still-room under the housekeeper's superintendence. 

Instruction in Cookery. Happily it is now usual for all voting people to 
learn something of this art, and it is a valuable accomplishment, no 
matter to what class they belong, for at some time of their lite it is 
sure to be ot use. A gfefcl many, too. who do not actually 

k themselves are ,^lad to have the power of checking the work of 
their cooks, who without such a check would become domestic tyrants. 
With servants ot this sort a mistress who knows nothing of cooking is 
]H>\vcrlr>s. IV lore the existence of cookery schools instruction 
could only be obtained at home, tnnn the mother, housr!. 
cook, but now many who desire instruction prefer to avail them- 
- of the many opportunities offered by the cookery schooU 
and classes. This course has advantages to recommend it ; for that 
a practical teacher, while allowing the pupil considerable freedom 
of choice, takes care that the lessons comprise dishes which teach 
the principles of cookery, as well as mere manipulation of the 
;als. A good teacher also endeavours to inculcate habits ot 
eronomv. cleanliness, and lidn ;.> the mere details of the 

science ; but it the cook were to teach on the same lines her motive 
might be misunderstood, and her advice resented. If the pupils would 
always practise in their own homes the- tidiness and cleanliness th- 
taught in the schools, they would be less ircipiently regarded 
nuisance by the cook. Novices should make a rule not to use inn. 
sary utensils, to wait on oneself as much as possible, and to clear . 
all materials and utensils when they have finished. 

C 



34 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

The Daily Duties of a Housekeeper are regulated, in a great measure, by 
the size of the establishment she superintends. She should rise early, 
and see her assistants are duly performing their work, and that the pre- 
parations for breakfast are progressing satisfactorily. After breakfast, 
which, in large establishments, she will take in the " housekeeper's 
room," with the lady's-maid, butler, and valet, served by one of the 
under-maids, she will, on days set apart for such purposes, carefully 
examine the household linen, with a view to its being repaired, or 
further necessary supplies being procured ; she will also see that the 
furniture throughout the house is well rubbed and polished ; and attend 
to all the necessary details of marketing and ordering goods from the 
tradesmen. 

The Housekeeper's Room is generally made use of by the lady's-maid, 
butler and valet, who take there their breakfast, tea and supper. The 
lady's-maid will also use this apartment as a sitting-room, when not 
engaged with duties which would call her elsewhere. In different estab- 
lishments, according to their size, means and expenditure of the family, 
different rules, of course, prevail. For instance, in mansions where great 
state is maintained, and there is a house-steward, two distinct tables 
are kept, one in the steward's room for the principal members of the 
staff, the second in the servants' hall for the other domestics. At the 
steward's dinner-table, the steward and housekeeper preside ; and here, 
also, may be included the lady's-maid, butler, valet. 

After Dinner, the housekeeper, having seen that her assistants have 
returned to their various duties, and that the household is in proper 
working order, will have many important matters claiming her atten- 
tion. She will, possibly, have to give the finishing touch to some 
article of confectionery, or be occupied with some of the more elaborate 
processes of the still-room. There may also be the dessert to arrange, 
ice-creams to make ; and many employments that call for no ordinary 
degree of care, taste and attention. 

The Still-room was formerly much more common than at present, for 
in days of " auld lang syne " the still was in constant requisition for 
the supply of home-made wines, spirits, cordials and syrups, home-made 
medicines, scents, and other aromatic substances for the toilet, and sweet- 
flavoured waters for the purposes of cookery. There are some estab- 
lishments, however, in which distillation is still carried on, and in these 
the still-room maid has her old duties to perform. In a general way, 
however, this domestic is immediately concerned with the housekeeper. 
For the latter she lights the fire, dusts her room, prepares the breakfast 
table, and waits at the different meals taken in the housekeeper's room. 
A still-room maid may learn a very great deal of useful knowledge 
from her intimate connexion with the housekeeper, and if she be 
active and intelligent, may soon fit herself for a better position in 
the household. 

Evening Occupation. In the evening, the housekeeper will often busy 



THE HOUSEKEEPER 35 

herself \vith the necessary preparations for the next day's duties. 
Numberless small, but still important, arrangements will have to be 
. so that everything may move smoothly. At times, perhaps, 
at t CTI lion will have to be paid to the preparation of lump-sugar, spices, 
candied peel, the stoning of raisins, the washing, cleansing, and drying 
of currants, etc. The evening, too, is the best time for attending to 
household and cash accounts, and making memoranda of any articles 
she may require for her store-room or other departments. 

IVriodically, at some convenient time for instance, quarterly or 

half-yearly it is a good plan for the housekeeper to make an inventory 

; \ -thing she has under her care, and compare this with the lists 

of a former period ; she will then be able to furnish a statement, it 

try, of the articles which, from wear, breakage, loss, or other 

s, it has been necessary to replace or replenish. 

Responsibilities. In concluding these remarks on the duties of the 

hous .-k< -i -JM T. we will briefly refer to the very great responsibility which 

ies to her position. Like " Caesar's wife," she should be " above 

suspicion," and her honesty ancfrsobriety unquestionable ; for there are 

many temptations to which she is exposed. From a physical point of 

view, a housekeeper should be healthy and strong, and be particularly 

rhau in her person, and her hands, though they may show a slight 

of roughness, from the nature of some of her employments, still 

should have a nice appearance. In he; - with the various 

nun, and her behaviour to the domestics under her, the 

Hour and conduct of the housekeeper should never diminish her 

authority or influence. 

Seasons for different kinds of work. It will be useful for the nv, 
and housekeeper to know the be>t Masons for various (> 
i ounce ted with Household Management ; and we, accordiii ;h , subjoin 
a few hints which we think will pr <.ble. 

In the winter months, some of the servant^ have much more to do, in 

luence of the neaw-ity there i> I 1 to the necessary 

In the summer, and when the absence of fir the dom 

more leisure, a lit ' 

Spring is the usual period set apart for house-clear. . ivm,,\ in- 

all the dust and dirt which, notwithstanding all precautions, \\ill 
accumulate during the \\ inter months, from dust, sin s. etc. 

This Mason is also well adapted for washing and bleaching linen, etc.. 
it her not being then too hot for the exertions necessary in 
washing counterpanes, blankets, and ork is 

and more easily done than in the g: ' 's (.1 July. Winter 

curtains should be taken down, and replaced by the summer white 
and furs and winter clothes also carefully laid by. The former should 
11 shaken and brushed, and then pinned t;; or linen, with 

camphor ; them 1 oin moths. Spring cleaning must inc'ude 

the turning out ol ,,11 the n.oks and corners of drawers, cupboards, 



36 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

lumber-rooms, etc., with a view to getting rid of unnecessary articles, 
which left there create dirt and harbour mice and other vermin, 
though only useless encumbrances left where they are, they may be of 
great value to one's poorer neighbours. Sweeping chimneys, taking up 
and cleaning carpets, painting and whitewashing the kitchen and 
offices, papering rooms, when needed, and, generally speaking, giving 
the house, a bright and new appearance, for the approaching summer, 
are among the cares of this season. Oranges should now be preserved, 
and wine made. 

Summer will be found the best period for examining and repairing 
household linen, and for " putting to rights " all those articles which 
have received a large share of wear and tear during the winter. The 
old proverb, " A stitch in time saves nine," applies very strongly to the 
care of such linen articles as table cloths, serviettes, sheets, pillow-slips, 
etc., a little early and careful attention to which will often prolong their 
period of usefulness. In June and July, currants, raspberries, straw- 
berries, gooseberries, and other summer fruits should be preserved, and 
jams and jellies made. Eggs are cheap and plentiful at this season of 
the year, and the housekeeper should preserve, by one of the several 
satisfactory methods, a good supply for the winter months, when eggs, 
though more in demand than ever, are scarce and dear. Many house- 
holds also find it economical to purchase in June a supply of salt butter 
in kegs for winter use. In July, too, the making of walnut ketchup 
should be attended to, as the green walnuts will be approaching per- 
fection for this purpose. Many other pickles may also be made at this 
season, full directions for which are given in our pages. 

Autumn fruit of various kinds, as plums, damsons, blackberries, 
cranberries and many others, should be bottled and preserved, and 
jams and jellies made. Pickled mushrooms, mushroom and tomato 
ketchup, pickled cabbage and beetroot, and many such stores should be 
prepared at this season. The apples and pears for winter use should 
now be gathered in and stored. These should be frequently looked 
over, and any fruit showing symptoms of decay removed. Filberts, 
cob nuts, and walnuts should also be preserved in sand and salt to pre- 
vent them from drying up and decaying. 

In September and October it will be necessary to prepare for the cold 
weather, and get ready the winter clothing for the various members of 
the family. The white summer curtains will now be carefully put away, 
the fire-places, grates, and chimneys looked to, and the house put in a 
thorough state of repair. 

In December, the principal household duty lies in preparing for the 
creature comforts of those near and dear to us, so as to meet Old Christ- 
mas with a happy face, a contented mind, and a full larder. And in 
stoning plums, washing currants, cutting peel, beating eggs, and 
mixing a pudding, a housewife is not unworthily greeting the season of 
good will. 



THE COOK 

CHAPTER III 

General Advice to the Cook, with Observations on her 
Duties, and those of the Kitchen and the Scullery Maids 

Man mi <>ut love pining? 

man who can live without dining? 

We mav ut friend*, we may 1 ks. 

But . 

u,Uf." by 0tn 



\ ook and those who serve umler her arc so intimately ass. 

an h.inlly be treated of scpara ic cook, howi 

be clean. dcrly and p. 

.10 arc un icsc good <ju. 

Ujx.ll t tilt* 

:lhnn assistance. 
''lishmcir 
ook was indeed a great pcrsoi an one . 

the art receiving a minor or title Inc. iu^< 

of his sovereign with some dainty dish. In those days Un- 

cock gave ich commanded a view of all that 

was going on. Each held a long wooden spoon, with which tic tasted. 

aving his scat, the dainties th.it wore cooking on t 
and the spoon was i v used as a rod of \ . the backs 

ot those who did not suthcienth s of diligence and 

ace. 

Early Rising. If, as we have said, early rising is of the utmost im- 
portance to t! IK? to the s rv.int ! 1 

uth that wit!. .-ami punctuality 

good work is almost impossible. A cook ought to realize this imi - 

she lose an hour in the morning, she is likely to be k 
all clay to overtake necessary tasks that would otherwise have been 
easy to her. Six o'clock is a good hour to rise in the summer, and 

11 in tl.c 
The Cook's First Duty should lx> to prepare the \r. 

kg, and service of which will be found in a 



3 8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

chapter, and then to busy herself with those numerous little tasks 
associated with arranging and providing for the day. This will bring 
her to the breakfast hour of eight, after which preparations must be 
made for the other meals of the household. 

Daily Duties. In those households where cook and housemaid only 
are kept, the general custom is that the cook shall look after the dining- 
room. Other household work, varying in different households, is also 
committed to her care. In establishments of this kind, the cook will, 
after having lighted her kitchen fire, brushed the range, and cleaned the 
hearth, proceed to prepare for breakfast. She will thoroughly rinse 
the kettle, and set it to boil. She may then perhaps have to go to the 
breakfast-room, and there make things ready for the breakfast. Atten- 
tion must also be given to sweeping the hall, shaking the hall mats, 
which she must afterwards put back in their places. 

The cleaning of the kitchen, passages, and kitchen stairs must always 
be over before breakfast, so that it may not interfere with the other 
business of the day. Everything should be ready, and the whole 
house should wear a comfortable aspect. Nothing is more pleasing to 
the mistress of an establishment than to notice that, although she has 
not been present to see the work done, proper attention has been paid 
to such matters. 

By the time that the cook has performed the duties mentioned above, 
and well swept, brushed, and dusted her kitchen, the breakfast bell will 
perhaps summon her to the parlour, to " bring in " breakfast. It is 
often the cook's department, in small establishments, to take in the 
breakfast, as the housemaid, by this time, has gone upstairs into the 
bedrooms, and has there applied herself to her various duties. But 
many ladies prefer the breakfast brought in by the housemaid, though 
it remain to be cleared and washed up by the cook. Whichever way 
this part of the work is managed, each servant should have her duties 
clearly laid down for her. The cook usually answers the bells and 
single knocks at the door in the early part of the morning, as the 
tradesmen, with whom it is her more special business to speak, call at 
these hours. 

The Preparation of Dinner is the most important part of the cook's work, 
wherein she begins to feel the responsibility of her situation, as she has 
to see to the dressing and serving of those dishes, which her skill and 
ingenuity have prepared. Whilst these, however, are cooking, she 
must be busy with her pastry, soups, gravies, entrees, etc. Stock, 
or what the French call bouillon, being the basis of most made dishes, 
must be always at hand, in conjunction with sweet herbs and spices 
for seasoning. " A place for everything, and everything in its place," 
must be the rule, in order that time may not be wasted in looking 
for things when they are wanted, and that the whole business of 
cooking may move with the regularity and precision of a well-ad- 
justed machine. All must go on simultaneously. The vegetables and 



THE COOK 39 

sauces must be ready with the dishes they are to accompany, and 
the smallest oversight must be avoided in their preparation. It is a 
good plan when a dinner of many courses has to be prepared, 
to write out, and hang in a conspicuous place, two lists of the 
day's dishes, one of the order in which they must be served, with every 
accessory complete, that nothing may be forgotten, and one of the order 
in which each should be cooked, that nothing may be over or underdone. 
When the dinner hour has arrived it is the duty of the cook to dish up 
such dishes as may, without injury, stand for some time covered on the 
hot plate or in the hot closet ; but such as are of a more important 
or delicate kind must be delayed until the order " to serve " is given. 
Then comes haste ; but there must be no hurry all must work with 
method. The cook takes charge of the fish, soups and poultry ; and the 
kitchen-maid of the vegetables, sauces and gravies. These she puts into 
proper dishes, while the scullery-maid waits on and assists the cook. 
Every dish must be timed so as to prevent its getting cold, whilst 
care should be taken that no more time is lost between the courses than 
is absolutely necessary, for good serving, hot plates, gravy and sauces tin t 
<> get cold and greasy, arc vital factors in pro- 
viding a good dinner. When the dinner has been served, the most 
important item in the daily work of the cook is at an end. She must, 
however, every night and morning, look to the contents of her larder, 
taking care to keep everything sweet and clean, so that no disagreeable 
smells may arise from the neglect of this precaution. These arc the 
principal duties of a cook in a big establishment. In many smaller 
households the cook engages to perform the whole work of the kitchen, 
and, in some places, a portion of the housework also. 

Duties of the Kitchen- Maid. Whilst the cook is engaged with her morn- 
ing duties, the kitchen- or scullery-maid is also occupied with hers. 
Her first duty, after the fire is lighted, is to sweep and clean the kitchen 
and the various offices belonging to it. This she does every morning, 
s cleaning the stone steps at the entrance of the house, the halls, 
the passages, and the stairs, if any , which lead to the kitchen. Her g< 
duties, besides these, are to wash and scour all these places twi 
with the table, shelves, and cupboards. She has also to attend to the 
nursery and servants' hall dinners while cooking, to prepare all iish, 
P >ultry, and vegetables, trim meat joints and cutlets, and do all such 
duties as may be assigned to her by the cook. 

The duties of the kitchen- or scullery-maid, in short, are to assist the 
cook in everything in which she may require aid ; to keep the scullery 
and all kitchen utensils clean. The duties of a kitchen-maid and scul- 
lery-maid arc almost identical, and the only reason that exists : 
tiiinin : the two names is that in large establishments, where two kilchcn- 
!<'j-t. it is useful to distinguish them as kitchen- and scullery- 
maid. the former doing the more iinjxDrtant, and the latter the coarser. 
work ..t the kitchen. 



40 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

ADVICE TO COOKS AND KITCHEN-MAIDS 

Importance of Cooking. A good cook has every reason to magnify the 
office she holds, for her work influences not only the comfort but also 
the health of the whole household, and mindful of this responsibility 
she will take care to study both the needs and tastes of those whose 
food she prepares. With invalids and people in delicate health this 
care is of the utmost importance. 

Try and realize for yourself the importance of your post. Whether 
your employers are working hard in professions or business, or leading 
a comparatively leisured existence, whether they have poor appetites 
or large ones, good cooking of their food is absolutely necessary to their 
health. 

Make a rule to send everything up to table really well cooked. Do 
not regard this as an impossibility, for it can be done. 

If you are told to prepare anything you are not certain about, have 
the courage to say so and ask your mistress's advice. How many 
dishes and dinners have been spoilt because cooks have been too proud 
to confess ignorance ! 

Accidents, of course, will happen (though but rarely with proper 
precautions ) ; fires will not always burn, nor ovens bake as they should ; 
but if the joint, or whatever it may be, cannot be done to time, do not 
send it up raw, but ask for a little grace. If anything is really 
spoilt (as even with care it sometimes is) confess the fact, and do not 
send up a dish calculated to take away people's appetites. 

Cleanliness. A dirty kitchen is a disgrace to all concerned. Good 
cookery cannot exist without absolute cleanliness. It takes no longer 
to keep a kitchen clean and orderly than untidy and dirty, for the time 
that is spent in keeping it in good order is saved when culinary operations 
are going on and everything is clean and in its place. Personal cleanli- 
ness is most necessary, particularly with regard to the hands. 

Dress. When at your work, dress suitably ; wear short dresses, 
well-fitting boots, and large aprons with bibs, of which every cook and 
kitchen-maid should have a good supply, and you will be comfortable 
as you never can be with long dresses, small aprons, and slipshod shoes, 
the latter being most trying in a warm kitchen, which may very likely 
have a stone floor. A maid-servant's working dress, with its neat and 
becoming cap, is far from ugly, and nothing is more suitable for them 
whilst at their work. 

Neatness should be studied by all engaged in domestic work. It will 
repay those who practise it a thousand fold by constantly saving them 
needless work. 

Clear as you go ; do not allow a host of basins, spoons, plates, etc., 
to accumulate on the dresser or tables while you are preparing the 
dinner. By a little management and forethought much confusion 
may be saved in this way. It is as easy to put a thing in its place when 
it is done with as to continually remove it to find room for fresh 



THE COOK 41 

requisites. For instance, after making a pudding, the flour tub, paste- 
board, and rolling pin should be put away, and any basins, spoons, etc., 
taken to the scullery, neatly packed up near the sink, to be washed when 
the proper time arrives. 

Economy. !%^ver waste or throw away anything that can be turned 
to account. In warm weather any gravies or soups that have been left 
from the preceding day should boiled up and poured into clean 
pans. Full directions with regard to stock pots, digesters and other 
economies of the kitchen will be found in a later chapter. 

Go early every morning to your larder (which, like the kitchen, ought 
to be kept perfectly clean and neat), and while changing plates, looking 
to your bread pan (which should always be emptied and wiped out 
every morning), take notice if there is anything not likely to keep, and 
acquaint your mistress with the fact. It is better if there is a spare 
cupboard in the kitchen to keep any baked pastry there, and thus 
preserve its crispness. 

Kitchen Supplies. Do not let your stock of pepper, salt, spices, season- 
ings, herbs, etc., dwindle so low that there is danger of finding yourselt 
minus some very important ingredient, the lack of which may cause 
much confusion and annoyance. Think of all you require when your 
mistress sees you in the morning, that she may give out any necessary 
stores. If you live in the country have your vegetables gathered from 
the garden at an early hour, so that there is ample time to get rid of 
caterpillars, etc., which is an easy task if tl are allowed to soak 

in salt and water an hour or two. 

Punctuality. This is an indispensable quality in a cook. When there 
is a large dinner to prepare get all you can done the day before or early 
on the morning of the day. This will save a great deal of time and 
enable you, with good management, to send up your dinner in good 
time and style. 

Cleansing of Cooking Utensils. This is one of the cook's most important 
duties, and one that should never be neglected or put off from one day 
to another. When you have washed your saucepans, fish kettle, etc., 
stand them before the fire for a few minutes to get thoroughly dry inside 
before putting away. They should then be put in a dry place in order 
to escape rust. Put some water into them directly they are done with, 
if they have to stand some time before they are washed. Soups or 
gravies should never be allowed to stand all night in saucepans. Frying 
pans should be cleaned (if black inside) with a crust of bread, and 
washed with hot water and soda. It is a good plan to have a knife 
kept especially for peeling onions, but where this is not done the one 
used should be thoroughly cleaned. If the tin has worn off copper 
utensils, have it immediately replaced. Clean your coppers with tur- 
pentine and fine brick dust, or waste lemon skins and sand, rubbed 
on with flannel, and polish thorn with a leather and a little dry brick 
dust. Clean tins with soap and whiting, rubbing on with a soft rag or 



42 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

flannel, wiping them with a dry cloth, and lastly with a soft dry cloth 
or leather. 

Washing of Dishes, Etc. Do not be afraid of hot water in washing up 
dishes and dirty cooking utensils ; as these are essentially greasy, luke- 
warm water cannot possibly have the effect of cleansing them thoroughly, 
and soda in the water is a great saving of time as is also a fresh supply 
of hot water. 

After washing the plates and dishes wash out your dish tubs with a 
little soap, soda and water, and scrub them often ; wash the dish cloth 
also and wring it out, and after wiping out the tubs stand them to dry. 

Pudding cloths and jelly bags should have immediate attention after 
being used ; the former should be well washed, scalded, and hung up to 
dry. Let them be perfectly aired before being put away. No soda 
should be used in washing pudding cloths. 

The Sink. Do not throw anything but water down the sink, as the 
pipe is liable to get choked, a state of things which causes both ex- 
pense and annoyance. At least three times a week pour a pailful of 
boiling soda water down every trap, for this prevents accumulation of 
fat, which more often than anything else stops up sink pipes. 

Try to realize how important this duty is ; bad smells (often caused 
by a stoppage in the sink pipes) are most disagreeable and dangerous. 

Whilst a cook should be versed in all the details of her position, a 
mistress should never forget her own duty of seeing that the laws of 
economy, cleanliness and order are not neglected by her servants. The 
servants who reflect that some day they will probably need neatness, 
cleanliness and economy in their own homes, and for their own benefit, 
will feel grateful to the employer who insists on the practise of these 
virtues. 



THE KITCHEN 



CHAPTER IV 

The Arrangement, Economy and Furniture of the 
Kitchen, Kitchen and Cooking Appliances, Utensils 
and their Prices, Etc. 

Writers on Domestic Economy, etc. There are few of those who 
have turned their attention to domestic economy and architec- 
ture, who have written on these important subjects with better effect 
ll:, in Sir Benjamin Thompson, an American chemist and physicist, 

known as " Count Kumford," a title of nobility bestowed upon 
him by the Kin<^ o: Bavaria. He did not, however, go very deeply or 
fully into the dcsi in and construction of that part of the dwelhng- 

which is chiefly devoted to cookery purposes, when he declared 
that " the construction of a kitchen must ;il\vays depend so much on 
local circumstances that general rules can hardly be given resp< 
it," and again that "the principles on which this construction ought in 
all cases to be made are simple and easy to be understood." i 
principles resolved themselves, in his estimation, into adequate room 
and convenience for the cook. 

Definition of the term Kitchen. The Anglo-Saxon cictn, the Danish 

//, the German Kiiche, and tin . Cuisine are all r 

to the Latin word coquere to cook. The word kitchen probably 

from the end of the twelfth century, when the English language 
began to take concrete form. Chaucer, who died in 1400, makes use 
of the word in the " Canterbury Tales," the best example of the 
English language of that day. Shakespeare (1564-1616) speaks of 
the kitchen as a cook-room, clearly indicating its use in the sixteenth 
century ; while Spenser (1552-1599) says the hostess 

. . . "led her guests anone 
Unto the kitchen room, ne spared for niceness none." 

Here is undoubtedly meant a room in which the meal was to be 

il. 
Requisites of a Good Kitchen. That Count Kumford is perfectly right 

43 



44 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

in his general, though somewhat broad premises, no one will be disposed 
to deny ; nevertheless, the requisites of a good kitchen demand some- 
thing more special than is here pointed out. It must be remembered 
that it is the great laboratory of every household, and that much of the 
family " weal or woe," as far as regards bodily health, depends upon 
the nature of the food prepared within its walls. In the con- 
struction and disposition of a kitchen, therefore, the following con- 
ditions should be secured. 

(1) Convenience of distribution in its parts, with largeness of dimen- 
sion. 

(2) Excellence of light, height and ventilation. 

(3) Easy of access, without passing through the house. 

(4) Walls and location so arranged that the odours of cookery 
cannot spread about the house. 

(5) Plenty of fuel and water, which, with the scullery, pantry and 
storeroom, should be so near the kitchen as to offer the smallest possible 
trouble in reaching them. 

In addition to these important points, the equipment of the kitchen 
demands careful consideration. Under this term is comprised its 
fittings, fixtures, furniture, and the utensils that should be found in 
the kitchen itself and the adjacent back kitchen, or scullery, for 
household and culinary uses. It will be convenient to consider the 
first three items as forming one division of our subject, and the last 
as another ; the portability of the various articles comprehended in 
the second division forming the chief point of distinction between 
them and those which find a place in the first. 

THE FITTINGS, FIXTURES AND FURNITURE OF THE KITCHEN 

The Fittings. Under this title, let us glance briefly at the finish of 
the several surfaces within which the cubic space of the apartment 
itself is included : namely, the ceiling, the walls and the floor. There 
is more wear and tear and more injury from causes that tend to soil 
and disfigure in the kitchen than in any other part of the house, and 
care should therefore be taken to guard against the former as much as 
possible, and to render the effacement of the latter as easy and as 
speedy as possible. 

(1) The Ceiling. The most suitable ceiling is a plain, smoothly- 
plastered one, whether the kitchen is used solely for the purpose of 
cooking or, as is the case with the working-classes, as a combined 
kitchen and living room. It should be frequently whitewashed, for 
apart from the cleanliness, which is always desirable, the whiter 
the ceiling the greater will be its capacity to reflect light, and there- 
fore to render the kitchen lighter. 

(2) The Walls. The walls of a kitchen used only for culinary pur- 
poses should be lined with white glazed tiles, or else have a high-tiled 



STOVES AND COOKING RANGE, 







i. Warming Stove. 2. Continuous burning Anthracite Coal Warming Stove. 
3. Kitchen Range. 



C* 



COOKING RANGES, 




i. Portable Range with Oven, fixed in front of grate. 2. Portable Range 
with Oven and Boiler, fixed in recess. 



THE KITC1I1 \ 45 

dado. Tiled walls are more easily kept clean than disk-in pi-red walls, 
which show every mark. When disteirq>er must be used, some light 
shade should be selected, but not necessarily bull, although that colour 
:ierally preferred because walls and woodwork should agree in 
colour, and buff is liked better than grey or green in a kitchen. 
Certainly buff has many good qualities to recommend it ; it is clcan- 
1" >king, and in consequence of its colour nearly approaching that 
of the wood it show signs of wear less quickly than other colours. 
I hose who work in kitchens of this description have the housekeeper's 
rot nn and the servants' hall in which to sit when their work is done. 
An apartment of different appearance is necessary in smaller middle- 
households, where the maids have to spend their leisure time 
in the kitchen, and also in the homes of the working-classes where 
the kitchen is the living-room of the family. For these, the most 
appropriate and durable wall-coverings are varnished papers. Recent 
have introduced many new fashions in this direction, but nothing 
thai can be recommended in preference to the old-faslu'oncd oak 
papers with dull surfaces, specially prepared to receive the varnish 
being hung. The initial outlay is considerable, but a good, 
\vell-varirshed paper will last a very long time. Moreover, it 
always looks bright, is easily kept dean, and its smooth surface pre- 
vents any accumulation of dust, which is a great recommend. a ion 
from a health point of view. The woodwork should be painted, grained 
and varnished to match the paper. The sanitary, so-called washable 
papers are less expensive than varnished papers, but their t 
surfaces will not stand repeated applications of soap and water ; they 
may, however, be wiped over with a damp sponge or damp cloth. 

(3) The Floor. Floor-coverings are very rarely found in kitchens 
devoted entirely to cookery. Oil-cloth and linoleum are the only 
materials which can possibly be used, and they are generally um 

:ll1 V. 

north < are cen 

. 

In ti, hell lloor usually v 

\vhu !. ace ; while or, coast 

tlif il. frequently laid with nd < >r yellow brit ks. \\V>odcn 

floors and concrete ll<><>rs may be seen in any part of the count iv. 
particularly in large eMablishmeir 
receive considerable attention. In middle-class households. 

ble to combine utility and comfort, good linoleum will be 
found the mo,; ntablc floor-t or the kitchen. 

The patterned varieties aie pivl.-rable to those with plain sin : 
which quickly become dis!iy,iin-d by marks math- by the lurmtur< . 

Kitchen Fixtures. The fixtures are the immovable articles attached 
to the walls of the kitchen. I ,<blv, but in ; 

lolds when- the kilt hen is used Mnii.lv for its l,- : ;!inr.. 



46 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

of cookery, they usually comprise cupboards fitted with shelves in 
which the cook keeps her stores and utensils ; strips of wood provided 
with hooks for meat-covers, etc.; electric light or gas-fittings ; electric 
bell indicator or ordinary bell-fittings ; dresser, ventilators and a sink. 
The dresser is nearly always a movable article, but the upper part 
of it has to be firmly secured to the wall by strong " holdfasts," and 
it consequently becomes a fixture by agreement between tenant and 
tenant or tenant and landlord. The dresser is usually some six or 
seven feet long, and the upper part consists of four or five narrow 
grooved shelves, upon which are disposed plates and dishes. The broad 
shelf of the dresser, usually termed THE TOP, affords ample space for 
the accommodation of the soup- tureen, sauce- tureens and vegetable- 
dishes ; while the drawers which run beneath form a convenient 
receptacle. The lower part forms an open recess from end to end, 
and has a shelf raised a few inches above the floor. This shelf is gener- 
ally painted black, and forms a convenient place for large culinary 
utensils not in use. 

A well-constructed sink is indispensable in a kitchen. Wooden 
sinks, lined with zinc, sinks made of stoneware, and sinks lined with 
well-cemented tiles are very serviceable, and easily kept clean. They 
should never be fixed in out-of-way corners, but should be easy of 
access for both cleaning and repairing. Whether the sink is in constant 
use or not, the pipe should be flushed at least once a day with hot 
soda and water. However some people prefer it excluded from the 
kitchen. 

Every kitchen should be provided with some outlet for the hot foul 
air which rises to the top of the kitchen. The doors and windows 
may be used as a means of admitting fresh air, but an outlet at a higher 
level than the window is always necessary. 

The kitchen range is always a fixture, but of so much importance 
that the subject will be treated separately. 

What has been already said regarding kitchen fixtures applies 
equally to the kitchens in middle-class households, but not to the 
homes of the working-classes. Electric light and electric bell fittings 
are not often found there ; properly-constructed sinks, efficient venti- 
lation and convenient cupboards they have, or ought to have ; and in 
many households a dresser is considered indispensable, but it is often 
a movable article of furniture, and will be described under that heading. 

Kitchen Furniture. In making selection for the kitchen with dis- 
tempered walls and bare floor, strength and durability are the chief 
points to be considered. The centre table is the most important article 
of furniture ; it should be as large as the kitchen will conveniently 
allow ; and the usual form is oblong, with a drawer at each end. In 
one drawer the cook keeps knives and spoons, and in the other small 
utensils and implements in constant use, such as dariol -moulds, patty- 
pans, and cases containing cutters, larding-needles, etc. Modern tables 



THF KIT- ! 47 

:th a shell underneath, which runs from end to end at a 
nicnt height from the floor ; and this arrangement 

to and 
fro between ti. in small kite: 

tblc spac a good substitute. The 

table should be made of good, well-seasoned deal or other white hard 
wood ; the top must be smooth, without a :.! Mibst. 

to legs perfectly plain and strong. No pai uld be painted. 

bccau ;ng is a : 1 half- worn paint soon 

ibby api>carance. On the other 1 ; ubbed 

wood always looks clean and a; v bare 

. uncovered floor and pots md one 01 t\\. 

.ntial chairs comprise the whole furniture. The nv 
chopping- blocl;. tc.. all occupy space, 

are not there to furnish the kitch- 

The: hoicc in d to th< 

loublc office of Shakespeare's " cook room " and Spenser's 
iien roomc, ne spared for niccnes 

square or obl-> r.-. \\ith turned legs in \ 

s to meet the retj II. 

The term DRESSER was originally applied to a narrow side 

^s dressed or \ use. In motleni phraseology 

rcsser is described as " a kind of kitchen sideboard with rows of 

ee drawers m the 

upboard ersod, 

ich cupboard be replaced by three drawers, with one cupboard 
in the o 

In com he equipment of the kitchen, the number and 

kind of a: will IK- 1 the 

.ccs of those who occupy the house. Every one should 

n to have 

is not good . how pla 

uch better to buy 
necessary, and add articles of an ornamental character by 

The Kitchen Clock. As the observance of time and adherence to 

;s done in the 
i can be regarded as being completely fur 

;ht-day dial. 

p only once a wc< Knglish eight-day clock 

be bought for 355., but a good kitchen 

Thr l> :.>ck is 

has to be 

mid DC able to do this without 
lace. 



48 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

COOKING APPLIANCES. 

The last, but by far the most important of the kitchen requisites 
that we are called upon to consider is the apparatus which is used 
for cooking, heating water, etc., usually known as the kitchen range 
or kitchener, names which originally had a distinctive import, but 
which have lost much of their primary significence, and are now 
applied without much discrimination to cooking appliances of 
every kind, whether the fuel used be coal or gas. We will, how- 
ever, for the sake of clearness, use the terms kitchen range, kitchener, 
and gas range or stove, to indicate three widely marked varieties of 
cooking apparatus : (i) the kitchen range, being taken to imply a 
range, either open or close, that is fixed in its place with brickwork, 
etc., and is therefore immovable ; (2) the kitchener, a range that 
is entirely independent of all its surroundings, one which stands, 
usually raised on four low legs, on the hearth in the recess otherwise 
occupied by the kitchen range, movable in itself when necessary, 
but virtually a fixture through its weight and size ; and (3) the gas 
range or stove, like the kitchener really movable, though virtually 
a fixture for the same reasons, but differing from the kitchener, not 
only in form and in the kind of fuel used, but also in the fact that 
it need not, like the kitchener, of necessity be placed on the hearth, 
that the chimney may be utilized as a means of escape for smoke and 
the various products of combustion, but may be placed in any part 
of the kitchen convenient for the purpose. 

The Kitchen Range. Kitchen ranges may be distinguished as close 
and open, the chief point of difference between them being in the 
construction of the fire-grate or box in which the fuel used for heating 
purposes is burnt. In the open range the fire-grate is uncovered at 
the top, and forms a cavity, enclosed by the boiler and oven at the sides 
and back, by a grating of close bars at the bottom, and by parallel 
horizontal bars, about one inch square in section, placed from one and 
a half to two inches apart in front. The fire in the open range, gener- 
ally speaking, can be made larger or smaller at pleasure by means of 
a movable check attached to a notched bar which is fixed at right 
angles to its surface on one side of it, and moved backwards and for- 
. wards by means of a small cog-wheel, to a greater or less distance 
from the fixed side of the grate, as may be found necessary. In the 
close range the fire-chamber is inexpansive, closed in front cither 
wholly or partially by an iron door, and covered in at the top by an 
iron plate, movable, and generally in two parts, namely, a circular 
plate, dropping into and filling an opening in a square plate, the size 
of the top of the fire box. At the back there is a fire-brick moulded 
into shape. Close ranges are now chiefly used, but open ranges are 
to be met with in the country and in some towns in the North and 
in houses that have been built for some years, and in which the open 
range that was originally fixed in the kitchen, still remains, 



THE KITCHKN 49 

Open Ranges. The closed stove with its movable grate and many con- 
trivances lor the disposal ami regulation of heat is an invention of r 

but the open fire with some primitive arrangement for cooking 
. or by the side of it, dates back to a remote age. In the p< M.I 
districts on the cast and west coasts of Hngland, cooking is still carried 
on under what appear to us almost impossible conditions, i.e. by means 
of a peat fire, burning on a stone hearth, with a wide chimney above 
it. In nearly all the houses the back kitchen or scullery is provided 
with a brick oven, in which bread and joints of meat may be baked ; 
but by reason of the cost of extra fuel, time and trouble em 
the heating of this oven is a weekly, or at most, a bi-weekly occur- 
rence, and on other days culinary operations are confined to the open 
kitchen fire. Vegetables and puddings are cooked in saucepai 
pots, as they are described in the local dialect, suspended over the tire ; 
the means of suspension being a rigid bar of iron, fixed in the 1 
wall of the chimney, and supplied with strong hooks of varying length, 
to allow the vessels to be raised or lowered to any height above the 
lire. All the culinary utensils are provided with half-circular handles 
i over the top like the handle of a k il running from side 

i of from back to front. 1 e also a large oval 

iron vessel, which they term a " hang-OVe: and use for baking 

and cakes. It has a depressed lid, like a braizin 
which is Idled with hot peat ; and in tins 
is applied from above and below. A similar ve^el. called a 

pot." 

ided from a tripod of three bars of iron or hard wood. One 
only could be U .t the point where the rods we !. and 

oded a large cauldron used for the various purposes of 
tg and stewing. Cakes were baked and fish cooked in an 
pan, which was probably the of the North-count ry 

Idle " or " gi: 

:e-histon .-arly Hrr ttg mainly 

on milk, fruit, herbs and other products of the Kind, the 
built >od on hearths formed of ro B* ; and K 

supposed that the agreeable odour of the : 
ammils tirst sugge- xxl ; but until th< 

the Romans abolished Druidisin by force, the inh. 
M would not i commit wh.it would have Ix^e- 

d a terrible sacnl 

the fact, but it is highlv pr.-bablr 
that roasting in front of the fire was one of t! 

i the fourteenth century. They 
turned bv han ! ; but 

I 



50 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

cage in which he was enclosed. The smoke- jacks, which are still found 
in the kitchens of some old country-houses, were next introduced ; 
these were turned by means of the smoke from the fire. The brass 
bottle- jack, still in use, is a mechanical contrivance, which, when 
wound up, revolves, carrying with it the joint of meat or whatever 
may be attached. The open range is said to have only one strong 
point in its favour, namely, that it will roast in front of the fire ; but 
this one point is sufficient to recommend it for all time to those who 
use it. Nothing will ever induce the North-country people to dis- 
card their open ranges ; although many supplement them with a gas 
stove, to make easier the cook's work as regards frying and sauce- 
making. As for the open ranges in the cottages, it is questionable 
whether they burn more coal than a close stove of the same capacity, 
for the careful housewife has various contrivances for reducing the 
consumption of fuel when the fire is not needed for roasting or baking 
purposes. Moreover, an oven heated from below is better adapted 
to the requirements of people who always have home-made bread and 
cakes ; and who prefer baked hot-pots and meat stewed in an earthen- 
ware pot in the oven, to the more liquid and less savoury stews made 
in a saucepan. Apart from the question of economy, the well- con- 
structed close ranges found in good kitchens have many strong points 
to recommend them ; but their various adjustments to facilitate 
the disposal and regulation of heat, and the movable fire-box by which 
the consumption of fuel is controlled, are characteristic of this par- 
ticular class of stoves, and are not found in the small close stoves sup- 
plied to artisan dwellings. And when the production of heat and the 
consumption of fuel cannot be controlled, a close stove may prove 
quite as wasteful as an open grate, and less satisfactory in other re- 
spects. 

Close Fire Ranges. There is little doubt that " close fire " ranges 
were at first mostly used in Devonshire for the convenience of the 
hotplate over the top for scalding milk to obtain clotted cream, 
open ranges being then used in London and other parts of the United 
Kingdom. Gradually the use of the open range was abandoned for 
the Leamington range, which at one time may be said to have had it 
all its own way ; but now there are a variety of ranges, each claiming 
some special merit, and rendering it a matter of considerable difficulty 
to pick and choose between them. It may be said, however, that 
economy of fuel and cleanliness are the chief features of close ranges 
of all kinds, combined with efficiency of action, provided that the 
flues themselves, through which the smoke and soot pass off into the 
chimney, leaving considerable deposits in the passage, are kept per- 
fectly clean. 

Advantages claimed for Close Fire Ranges. (i) Many saucepans and 
vessels may be kept boiling at one time, and at the proper point oi 
temperature. 



Till- K!'H Ml N 51 



(2) Saucepans and other vessels last double the turn \\hen u^cd on 

of a closed st< 

(3) Saucepans and other vessels may be kept as cl< ;de as 

is consequently an immense saving of labour. 

(4) The fact of the entire range being covered by a hot-plate and the 
>t being exposed lessens the probability of having food smoked. 

(5) The hot-plate is well adapted for an ironing stove when not 

>r cookery purposes. 

(6) Close ranges are usually provid- -me simple contir 

m to be converted into slow 
he fire may be kept burning all 

mable advantage when it r> necessary to 
:i the boiler hot. 

(7) The best types may be easily con ito an open range 

(8) The heat is easily regulated, and when provided with an adjust- 
able fire-box may be directed by a simple movement to the up. 

part of the oven as requr 

How to clean a Close Range. The oven door should be closed to 
out tl n door and window closed to prevent the 

! the ashes and en 
All th nobs on a range not attached be the 

tlues, and eat I doors must be o; 

AT A TIME, and the soot swept down with a brush const ; the 

purpo a long flexible handle and a head like a bottle-brush. 

: ;hest flue-door is located in the breast of th- v. and the 

mmence there. Usually a c<> !e amount 

1 lodged a t be swept 

>ved from the lowest soot door. A ring away 

ust be swept out and thoroughly washed 
soda, to he grease ; and when necessary, the 

front 

!y dry before applying the 
;nore brilliant polish if i 1 with 

ad of water. The steel mouldings should be cleaned 
with ; nd emery powder, or when badly stained, with vii 

Construction of a Good Stove. Both cooking-ranges and ccx 

are constructed of steel, malleable iron, wrought-iron and cast- 
Of these, the cast-iron stoves are the least expensive ; but 
i be recommended, because they are liable to crack ; they usually 

i- to imjx^rfect construction, frequently sm-k 

\YelI-tMnxtructed stoves made of malleable 

are usuallv mr-ti-ht. uivc more evenly- 

. and arc altogether better in many respects. Good 

do not allow the gases and fumes of the coal, or the soot 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



to invade the oven ; and the fire-box and oven are protected from 
undue draughts which would affect the consumption of fuel or the 
temperature of the oven. No oven can satisfactorily roast and bake 
unless provided with a reversing damper by which the heat may be 
directed to the top or bottom of the oven as required. One or two 
of the best types have an adjustable fire-box, which may be lowered 
when an open fire is needed for roasting, or a good bottom heat for 
baking ; or raised when a top heat is desired in the oven, or the hot- 
plate only required for boiling and frying purposes. They have also 
well-ventilated ovens, whereby the proper flavour of the materials 
cooked is retained ; and fire-boxes fitted with vertical bars placed 
rather close together, but sufficiently narrow in section to allow any- 
thing to be properly cooked in front of the fire. There are many 
reliable firms who construct ranges on these principles ; and the 
annexed list of prices is an average of those of three of the best makers. 
Ranges of corresponding size and quality of the respective firms are 
fairly uniform in price ; but there is a wide difference in the cost of 
ranges of corresponding size made by individual firms, due chiefly 
to the expensive tiling and elaborate finish of the various details of 
some of the ranges, which improve their appearance but add nothing 
to their value in other respects. A good plain range, easily convertible 
into a close or open fire, fitted with an adjustable fire-box, plate rack, 
ventilating doors, reversing damper, patent cinder sifter, bright steel 
mouldings and bright steel bracket-shelves under the oven may be 
had at the following prices : 



WIDE. 


HIGH. 


WITH ONE OVEN. 


WITH TWO OVENS. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


4 ft. 9 in. 


lO 10 


12 o o 


4 ft. 


4 ft. 9 in. 


1200 


13 o o 


4 ft. 6 in. 


4 ft. 9 in. 


13 10 o 


I ^ O O 


5 ft. 


4 ft. 9 in. 


15 o o 


16 10 o 


5 ft. 6 in. 


5 ft- 


17 10 o 


19 o o 



The Kitchener. The term " range " has been used to distinguish 
the stove fixed in its place by brickwork from the stove or kitchener 
which may stand in any part of the room altogether independent of 
its surroundings except the connecting tube that carries away the 
products of combustion. This tube has a diameter of some eight or 
ten inches ; and where there is no chimney it must be carried to the 
outer wall and up the side of the house to a suitable level, otherwise 
there is a strong down-draught. When used in England, the stme is 
usually placed in or near the recess provided for a range, and the iron 
tube passes into the chimney. This arrangement is to be recommended, 
for the tube frequently becomes red -hot, and has often been a source 




L 






COOKING, ETC. BY ELECTRIC HEAT, 



L 




Double Hot Plate, Frying Pan, Small Range, Radiator (Stove), Stewpan, 
Radiator (Stove), Grill. 



THE KITCHEN 53 

of great danger in the Canadian settlements where such stoves are 
largely used. The small portable stoves are made in different sizes ; 
the smallest is 21 inches long, two-thirds of its length being appropriated 
by an oven, and the remaining space by the fire-grate. The cost of 
such a stove is about 305. or 355. 

The Canadian Kitchener represents a more useful type of portable 
stove. The medium size costs from 4 los. to $ los. The fire-box 
may be closed or opened as desired ; and its great depth, combined 
with the narrow bars, greatly facilitates the process of roasting. These 
stoves are frequently used in rooms where temporary cooking accom- 
modation is required ; and when properly constructed and provided with 
a good draught they may be pronounced satisfactory in many respects. 

The central ranges used in large kitchens are based on an altogether 
different principle. The flames from the burning coke or coal travel 
over the roof and down the sides of the oven into an underground flue, 
which runs to an outer wall, thence up the side of the building. 



COOKING BY GAS, OIL, AND ELECTRICITY 

Gas Stoves. From the consideration of ranges in which cooki 
performed by the combustion of solid fuel, it is necessary to turn to 
those in which gas is the fuel employed. Cooking by gas has been 
much on the increase in late years, the gas companies in various 
localities lending all the aid in their power to further it by supplying 
their customers with gas stoves, or ranges, at a low annual rental. 

Cooking by Gas has much to recommend it. Gas kitcheners are 
compact, as no space has to be provided for furnace or ash-pit, 
are cleanly, causing no dust or smoke, and consequently can be kept in 
perfect order with little trouble. And they are easily managed even 
bv inexperi. -mod girls. The mere turning on of one or more taps 

ted match to the burner or hi;. 

tchener in workin without loss of time. Thus there is 

my, as hid is only consumed when heat is actually reoi 
More- rrature can be speedily produced 

.1 rol. an . 
vfilne to cook :nul hou e\vitr. As gas burners are provided for l> 

. hot-plat.- ami x"IK ont r-.lleil. it is possible 

to prepare a large dinner on a gas kitchener with comfort, security 
and economy. ( >i late \ \ strides have been made in the d 

and construction of gas kitcheners, which now. with their enamelled 
OVenS, and tops, wrought Sted -nilim; bars, atmosplu-ric burners and 
oth.-r improvements. ha\e reached a Iii-h . m. \Vith 

dne< are, it is impossible to spoil a dinner on a: . Actual experi- 

ment has proved that meat and other food hi, and retains 

more >f its flavour when rooki-d l>v -as, than if cooked by >al. It 
shown that me.it COoked in a -al he.ited oven loses about 



54 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

35 per cent, of its weight, in a gas oven only 25 per cent. This immense" 
saving is no doubt due to the more evenly distributed and less fierce 
temperature. 

It is essential that gas kitcheners should be kept scrupulously clean. 
The enamelled parts inside and out should be rubbed down when cold 
with a sponge or cloth dipped in warm water, and then wiped dry. 
The gas burners should be kept free from dust. Any grease on the 
kitchener should be carefully removed. If these precautions are taken 
and the burners properly lighted, aJl disagreeable odours will be avoided, 
and certainty of results ensured. 

Advantages of Cooking by Gas. There are many features to recommend 
cooking by gas, chief among which are 

(1) Cleanliness, and the readiness by which the fire can be lighted 
and extinguished, facilities which are conducive to economy, because 
the fire need only be maintained when it is required for cooking. 

(2) It is economical in another respect, because meat cooked by gas 
has been found to lose less weight than when cooked in an oven heated 
by coal. 

(3) The heat can be readily and instantly regulated, being concen- 
trated precisely where required by means of the different burners, 
each of which is independent of the other. 

(4) Gas stoves are especially useful in summer and in small house- 
holds, where, during the greater part of the day, no fire is needed. 

(5) Saucepans and other vessels may be kept as clean outside as 
inside. 

(6) Cooking by gas is less heating, and consequently less tiring tc 
the person employed, than cooking by a coal-range. 

Construction of Gas Stoves. The oven of a well- constructed gas stove 
is made either entirely of cellular cast iron and jacketed all over with 
slag wool, or it is made with a double casing with an intermediate hot- 
air jacket. This is necessary to prevent heat being conducted from 
the oven to the surrounding air. The gas-burners are not always 
inside the oven ; when they are, the oven should have no bottom, 
or if it has, there must be some provision made for admitting 
atmospheric air to mingle with the gas. The mixture of air and gas 
produc2S a bluish light ; when the light is yellow (while using the 
atmospheric burners) the stove is wrongly-constructed in this respect. 
or it has not been lit in a proper manner. The inside of the oven 
and the top of the stove should be lined with porcelain enamel, in 
order that it may be easily kept clean. The oven should be 
provided with some efficient means of ventilation, whereby the 
vitiated air may be carried away, and the mixed flavour which some- 
times pervades different materials cooked in the same oven may 
be obviated. The best stoves arc provided with a patent 
reversible grill which, when deflected downwards, may be used 
for grilling meat or toasting bn-a/JL The rings on the top of the 



THE KITCHEN 55 

stove should be provided with ATMOSPHERIC burners, which produce 
a blue flame, a mixture of gas and air, of higher heating power 
consumption of less gas) than the white flame produced by the LUMIN- 
OUS burners. 

Gas Fires. The great advantages of gas over coal fires consists in the 
complete absence of ashes and dirt ; in the fact that a bright hot fire 
can be obtained at any moment, night or day ; that the heat can be 

i ted at will, or the fire extinguished when not required ; in 
dispensing with the necessity of carrying coal into, and ashes and refuse 
out of, the room ; in the freedom of the atmosphere from dust, and the 
consequent saving in the matter of furniture dusting, curtain washing, 
etc. Against this must be reckoned the greater cost of gas fires as 
compared with coal for constant use ; but, notwithstanding this, there 
are few persons who have once used a good gas fire that could be per- 
suaded to return to the old method of heating. For bedrooms, and 
occasional using, a gas fire is always economical, as compared with 
coal ; in fact, the expense and great trouble of coal fires for bedrooms 
render their use sometimes prohibitory, whereas a good hot gas fire 
can be obtained for half an hour, night and morning, at a cost of 6d. 
per week or less. In the sick-room a gas fire is simply invaluable ; 
its steadiness, night and day, and the perfect control over the warmth 
of the room arc far above the possibilities of any coal fire. In sudden 

vncies the instant command of a good fire in the ni^ht is some- 
times a matter of life or death. In the bronchial affections common 
in this country warmed air is frequently of the utmost importance, 
and this can be obtained in moderate sized rooms by a gas stove pro- 
perly constructed, with a regularity and economy which cannot be 
approached by coal or coke. Where the family consists of only two 
or three persons, small but powerful open gas fires, with an oven over 
the fire to utilize the waste heat, will be found of the greatest value 
and economy, as they do away entirely with the dirt and labour of coal 
fires, and yet fill all the purposes of a small kitchen range. These 
irv now to be procured from any gas Company, hired from them, or 
obtained by the hire purchase system. 

Objections to Gas. The objections to the use of gas as a fuel exist only 
where the wrong appliances are selected, or when no trouble is taken to 
learn their proper use. One of the most common causes of failure with 
gas fires is that they are purchased for use cither where there is no flue 
or whore the chimney has a down draught ; in such cases as these the 
faults which cause the failure of a coal lire will be equally unfavourable 
to a gas fire. Burners used for gas cookers must be kept clear and 
in good condition ; if choked with dirt and grease, they will be as un- 
satisfactory as burners used for lighting under the same conditions. 

and kettles must be kept clean outside, or they make an un- 

:iit smell, and ovens must \w kept clean inside for the same 
'--o for the sake of sweet flavours in the food. 



56 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Oil Stoves. A well-constructed, cleanly kept and well-managed oil 
stove will cook food as well as any other stove of corresponding capa- 
city ; and with proper care there should be neither smoke nor odour 
from the flame. These stoves are sometimes a great convenience in 
places not within reach of gas. No flue is required for their use ; and 
being small they can be easily conveyed from place to place. Cooking 
on an oil stove may be done 20 per cent, cheaper than by any other 
means ; but unless the wicks are kept well-trimmed and the stoves 
properly managed, they emit a disagreeable smell and smoke. In a 
properly constructed stove there is not much danger from explosion, 
unless a light is, through carelessness, brought in contact with the oil. 

Cooking by Electricity is now quite practicable, though for the present 
decidedly expensive. The heat is obtained from the ordinary electric 
lighting mains, the current being made to pass through wires coiled 
on iron or steel plates, and embedded in enamel, having the same ratio 
of expansion and retraction as the metal. In this way the plates of 
ovens, sides of boilers, hot-plates and corrugated grills can be heated. 
Stewpaus and kettles are heated separately, these having double 
bottoms with the wires coiled between, *ind the current conveyed by 
flexible silk covered wires connected with a special fitting at the end 
of the handles. There is practically no loss of heat, as the electrical 
connexion is only made when cooking is in actual progress. The 
system also of course ensures freedom from dust and dirt, or undue 
radiatior in the kitchen. It may be mentioned that the King's yacht 
(constructed for her late Majesty, Queen Victoria) is fitted up with a 
complete electric* kitchen outfit, including soup and coffee boilers, hot- 
plates, ovens, grills and hot closets. As some municipalities are now 
supplying the electric current in the daytime at as low a rate as 2d. 
per Board of Trade unit, it is probable that cooking by electricity is 
destined to undergo a rapid development. 



CULINARY UTENSILS. 

Stewpans and Saucepans. Stewpans and saucepans are usually, though 
not necessarily, circular in form, provided with a long handle, a lid 
or cover, and sometimes, in the smaller kinds, with a lip for the better 
and easier transference of its contents to another vessel. The term 
saucepan is applied indiscriminately to all kinds of saucepans and 
Stewpans ; but the name stewpan is generally used to denote the 
shallower pans with straight sides and flat long-handled covers ; 
it should never be applied to an iron saucepan. Stewpans arc made in 
copper ; wrought steel ; tin, enamelled inside and out ; and iron. 
Saucepans arc made in copper ; brass ; iron, tinned inside ; iron, 
enamelled inside ; block tin ; tin, enamelled inside and outside. 
Stewpans generally have straight sides ; but saucepans vary in 






THE KITCHEN 



57 



shape, as shown in the illustrations, 
as follows : 



Their capacity and prices range 



DESCRIPTION. 


SIZE, 

In. in 

diutr. 


CAPA- 

ITY. 

Pints. 


PRICE. 


Copper Stewpans 


and Covers, 


Best quality . 
Second 


4 
4 


I 
I 


6s. 






Best . . 


5 


2 






i 


Second 


5 


2 




" 




Best 


6 


3 


8s. yl. 







Second ,, 


6 


3 


75. gd. 






Best ,, . . 


8 


7 


155. 3d. 


t> 


tf 


Second ,, . . 


8 


7 


1 JS. 1 K/. 




ii 


. 


10 


14 


235. 9</. 




ft 


Secmid ,, 


10 


14 




M 




. - 


i a 


22 


355. 






id 


12 






Wrought Steel Stewpans with Tin I ' qlly. 


4 


I 


35. 3<*. 


ti 


M 


,, 


5 


2 




ii 


ii 


i> 




3 






ii 


ii 


7 






tt 


ii 


i . 


8 


7 








, , 


10 


4 






M 


ti 


i _ 


22 




M 


>( 


.. 


14 


H 




Cast-Iron with r.l< 


>ck-Tin Covers, r.est quality 


A 


I 




f> 


f f 


t> 




2 


15. jf/. 


M 


, , 


i. 






25. 




, t 




7* 








,, 








35. 


>( 


ii 











M 


,, 











,, 


,, 











M 


" 


,. 


12 







The prices and capacity of saucepans ard other articles are taken lioin 
the illustrated catalogues and price lists of tli 'inns and 

stores in London. Enamelled saucepans are not often used in kitchens 
where much cooking is done. They are inexpensive but not 
durable ; they answer very well for boiling milk, but anything thick- 
ened with flour, if allowed to stand, quit kly burns at the bottom. 
The wroiiL;ht-s' pans arc more expensive but decidedly i I 

in the end. They ill the advantages of cupper \\ithuut .'n\ 

of its drawbacks ; they .in- easily kept clean, anything tncked m them 

!. and thickened sauces may be simmered 

in them for hours without injury, if occasionally stirred. The insidcs 

of the saucepans require re-tinning occasionally ; but when the tin 

oft they are as harmless as before, bcinjj made of steel. Cupper 

MIIS al^. air very durable ; in last a lifetime, and are 



58 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

an ornament to the kitchen when kept beautifully clean, as they should 
be ; but this entails considerable labour, a point to be considered 
where few servants are kept. Copper utensils should be frequently 
examined and re-tinned as soon as the linings begin to show signs 
of wear. One of the objections to the use of copper for culinary pur- 
poses is its liability to become coated with verdigris, or copper-rust, 
under careless or unskilful hands verdigris being a poison imparting 
its deadly properties to any food cooked in a vessel that is tainted 
with it. 

Boiler or Boiling Pot. In large families this utensil comes into almost 
daily requisition. It is used for boiling large joints, hams, puddings, 
etc., and is usually made of iron. Boilers may be had in cast iron, 
tinned inside, to hold from 3 gallons to 7 gallons, at from 4.$. 9d. to 
i os., according to size ; in wrought iron, with bright cover, to hold 
from 4 gallons to 12 gallons, from 128. to 26s. 

The Digester. This utensil is a kind of stock-pot, made of iron, having 
a lid which fits closely into a groove at the top of it. No steam 
escapes, therefore, by the lid ; and it is only through the valve 
at the top of the cover that the superfluous steam passes off. 
It is a very valuable utensil, inasmuch as by using it a larger quantity 
of wholesome and nourishing food may be obtained at much cheaper 
rates than is possible without it, and when bones are boiled in it its 
action will extract every nutritive particle from them, leaving nothing 
but the inorganic part of the bones. This utensil, when in use, should 
not be placed over a fierce fire, as that would injure the quality of the 
preparation ; for whatever is cooked must be done by a slow and 
gradual process, the liquid being just kept at the simmering point. 
These digesters are made in all sizes, and may be obtained to hold from 
4 quarts to 16 quarts. The prices of digesters vary according to 
capacity, namely, to hold 4 quarts, 35. 9d.; 6 quarts, 55.; 8 quarts, 6s.; 
10 quarts, 73.; 12 quarts, 8s.; and 16 quarts, IDS. 6d. 

The Stock-pot. This article is used in the preparation of stock, which 
forms the foundation of soups, gravies, etc. Stock-pots are made in cop- 
per, wrought steel or iron. Copper stock-pots to hold 8 quarts, fitted with 
tap and strainer, are supplied in a good quality for about 425. 6d. The 
price of a stock-pot, of corresponding capacity, in wrought steel would be 
2os. 9d. with tap and strainer, and 1 2S. 3d. without these conveniences. 
They may also be obtained in wrought iron and earthenware, the 
latter being specially suited to small households, because a smaller 
amount of heat is required to keep the contents at simmering point 
and the stock- pot need not be emptied every day. The tap and 
strainer add about 30 per cent, to the cost of a stock-pot, but the 
advantage of being able to draw off the stock from the bottom, leaving 
the fat and the bones, vegetables and other solids behind, is well worth 
the additional outlay. 

The Braising Pan. This vessel is employed in a culinary process, 



THE KITCHEX 59 

termed braising or braizing. In shape it may be cither round or oval, 
with a depressed lid in which hot charcoal is placed, whereby the meat 
is cooked between two slow fires. This method is said to develop 
more fully the flavours of materials cooked ; also to decrease the loss 
of strength and flavour by evaporation ; it is largely practised in 
France. In England the braising-pan is frequently placed in the oven in- 
stead of under charcoal, the latter article as a fuel being but seldom used. 

The Double or Milk Saucepan. This is, on a small scale, what the BAIN- 
MARIE is on a larger scale. The smaller saucepan fitting into the larger 
one is either lined with enamel or made of earthenware. The double 
saucepan is especially useful for making porridge and gruel, and boiling 
custards and milk. It may also be usefully employed in cooking tapioca, 
sago, semolina and other farinaceous substances, when the oven is 
being used for other purposes, and is too hot for the long, gentle process 
of cooking they require. When an egg is added to any of these pre- 
parations, it should be mixed in just before the pudding is put into 
the oven to brown. The double saucepan is supplied in four sizes, 
known as Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, and sold respectively at 33. 3d., 33. Qd., 43. 9d. 
and 6s. 6d. The lower saucepan is made of block tin, and when in use 
should be half filled with water, which must be replaced as it boils 
away, otherwise the upper saucepan is liable to crack. 

Steamers. These articles consist of a cylinder of tin, tinned iron 
or copper, made to fit into the top of a saucepan and to carry the 
saucepan cover as its lid. The lower or saucepan portion varies in 
capacity from 6 to 14 pints, and the entire appliance is sold from 
2S. 6d. to 43. 3d., according to size. Larger kinds, containing from 
6 to 12 quarts, may also be obtained. Steamers are chiefly used in 
cooking potatoes and puddings, especially those containing meat or 
fruit. When the potatoes are sufficiently cooked, the water in the 
saucepan should be poured off and the steamer replaced. The heat 
from the saucepan below quickly causes the moisture remaining in 
the potatoes and the steamer itself to evaporate, thus converting the 
latter into a DRY HOT CLOSET, in which the cooking of the potatoes is 
completed. Even when boiled, potatoes are more floury when the 
water is drained off, and the cooking completed this way. It is 
possible to place one steamer above another, and, indeed, some 
steam-cookery vessels are constructed to carry four or six steamers, 
a contrivance being provided to prevent steam from one department 
invading another. 

The Turbot Kettle and Salmon Kettle. This variety of fish-kettle is 
arranged to suit the shape of the fish from which it takes its name. 
It is shallow, very broad, and is fitted inside with a drainer similar to 
that in other fish-kettles. Turbot-kettles are usually supplied in three 
sizes known as small, middle and large. These sizes, in block-tin, strong, 
arc supplied at us.. MS. and iSs. od. The salmon kettle is a long, 
narrow utensil, like the fish-kcttlc, but the cover has a handle at 



60 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

each end instead of one only in the middle. They are made in 
copper, with draining plates, in sizes from 20 inches to 30 inches in 
length 

The Fish Pan, or Kettle. This utensil is fitted with a drainer inside, 
which is lifted when the fish is sufficiently cooked. The drainer 
is then laid across the kettle, and the fish lifted on to the dish with the 
fish-slice a perforated plate attached to a long handle, sold at is., 
is. 3d. and is. 6d., according to size. Fish kettles are longer than they 
are wide, and are made either with handles at the side, or 
with a swing handle, like that of a pail. The former is the 
more convenient shape, on account of the facility which the two 
handles at the ends afford for putting the kettle on the range or taking 
it off. Prices range from 35. 6d. to 95. for kettles in strong 
block- tin plate, and from 153. to 425. for iron kettles. Copper fish 
kettles, from 16 inches to 22 inches, are supplied at prices ranging from 
453. to 853. The mackerel-kettle, or saucepan, which will serve as a 
fish-kettle for all long fish, such as whiting, haddock, etc., and for soles 
and small plaice, is an elongated saucepan, with cover, and having a 
long handle on one side and an iron looped handle opposite to it on 
the other side. It is made in three sizes, sold respectively at 33., 45. 
and 53. 

Fish Fryer and Drainer. This is an admirable contrivance for frying fish, 
by using which an experienced cook is much more likely to insure 
success and send a dish of fried fish properly to table. It is in shape 
not unlike a preserving-pan fitted with a closely-made wire drainer ; 
and in this the fish is placed and lowered into the heated fat. As in 
frying fish it is necessary to have a large amount of fat, the depth of this 
kettle gives it a considerable superiority over the ordinary frying-pan. 
There is, besides, very little danger of the fish breaking, for being lifted 
up on the drainer when done, it is easily dished. Cooked in this manner 
the fish does not require turning, as the fat quite covers it, and of 
course browns it on both sides at once. The greasy moisture, too, is 
more effectually got rid of. Fat-pans with drainers may be obtained 
from a good ironmonger at the following prices : 

Extra Strong Copper, with Drainer : 

i4-in. i5-in. i6-in. ij-in. 18 in. 

l\ 16 o 200 2 5 o ^280 2 14 o 

Strong Wrought Steel: 

i2-in. ij-in. 14-in. i5-in. i6-in. i7-in. i8-in. 

us. us. 6d. 135. 153. i6s. 6d. i8s. 6d. i o o 

Wire Vegetable Strainer. This useful article consists of a wire frame, 
round which thinner wire is coiled and fastened. It is made to fit 
inside a stewpan or saucepan, and thus forms a convenient utensil in 
which to boil vegetables and to lift them at once out of the water ; or 



Till- KITCHEN 61 

for frying whitebait, or parsley or sliced vegetables for soups, etc. 
in sizes from 6 inches to 10 inches in diameter, and sold 
at prices from 28. ^d. to ;-., according to size. 

The Frying-pan. This article is so well known that it is only necessary 
to mentio: sizes and prices. They may be had either round 

.1 in form, with shelving sides ; the round pans being made in 
ng from -j\ inches to 9 inches at from 

(;(!. to is. 2d. The oval pans, which arc more commonly use 
made in sizes from \\\ inches to 15 inches in length, and are supplied 
from is. to 2S. 

The Omelet Pan. This pan is a variety of the frying-pan, and gener- 
ally made circular in form, but si. than the frying-pan, f. 
nee in turning pancakes, omelets, etc. These pans are m 
bright polished wrought iron, :n one piece, from to i> 
in diameter, and sold from 55. to 8s. 3d. Bowl omcl< 

made 8 i: 1 10 inches m di.i- 

Id at 75., 8s. and <;s. each. Co; with bui: 

iron handles, range from 6J inches to 16 inches in din M are 

sold t: ! of the - bh rounded 

or bowl bottoms for souffles, arc made 8 inches, 8} inches and 9 i 
in d; 6d., los. 6d. and i is. 6d. each. 

The Fricandeau or Cutlet Pan. I 

: A ith upi i . fr.'in 7 i.} in. 

nhng t<> 

in the 
' . 
; -lite pan I . 

n the om< .tndle nv : 

ranging from 7 inches to 14 

. and sold at \ \\\ 6s. 6d. to 203. A 

/es, 8 inches, 9 inches and 10 inches in d: extra 

n-l fur: fricandeau-pan, are sold at 

'5s. and ;>">. 

Bain-Marie Pan and Stewpans, etc. The bain-marie is not used so 
murh :o be found n 

In sei Urge dinner : .ist useful ami 

A ith lx.il r and 

range or kitchener. The sau 

containing rs, etc., stand in the water, and 

intents at a proper heat without any risk 

of burning or loss of flavour. If the hour of dinner is uncertain in any 
no means of preserving the warmth and flavour of the 
! is so sure and harmless as the cm] 

09 re- 

soup- 

pot, and from 4 to to 5j 



62 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

inches. A complete set of 7 strong, well-made tin stewpans, i glaze- 
pot and i soup-pot, in a bain-marie pan of wrought steel, may be 
obtained for 2. Or, the same number of utensils in wrought steel, 
fitted in a bain-marie pan, 16 x 12^ inches, would coet ^3 133.; and in 
the best quality of copper 6. Larger sizes may be bought at a corre- 
sponding increase in price. 

Warren's Cooking Pot is a vessel in three divisions, in which meat and 
vegetables may be cooked at the same time, but in separate compart- 
ments. The peculiarity of the process consists in cooking without 
the viands coming in contact with water or steam ; the meat, kept 
from water entirely, is cooked in an inner cylinder, the outer one 
containing the water, being kept at boiling point. The food thus 
prepared is cooked in its own vapour, and none of its nutritious pro- 
perties are wasted. These utensils are also convenient where cooking 
space is limited, and economical when cooking by gas, because one 
ring of burners would serve instead of two or three. The price of the 
round saucepan is from 75. 9d. to 203., and the smaller size in the 
oval cooking pot costs 2 is. 

The Bottle-jack. The action of this familiar piece of kitchen furni- 
ture, so called from its resemblance to an ordinary glass bottle, is 
so well known that very little explanation is needed. When the 
joint is hooked on, the jack requires winding up, an operation which 
must be repeated once or twice during the time the meat is cooking. 
A bottle- jack complete, capable of carrying a joint of 20 Ibs., may be 
had for 6s. gd. This bottle- jack is large enough for ordinary family 
use ; but larger sizes, to carry from 25 to 70 Ibs. may be had from 
8s. 6d. to 2os. In cases of necessity it may be dispensed with, and a 
suspender formed of a skein of worsted, knotted here and there 
throughout its length, used instead. 

Meat Screen. When the meat is roasting a meat-screen should be 
placed in front of the fire, to concentrate and reflect the radiated heat 
as much as possible. It is made of tin, 3 feet in width, and costs 128. 9d. 
to 1 55. 3d. Round screens known as bottle- jack screens, having bands 
at the top, from which the bottle-jack is suspended, and a dripping- 
pan in the bottom, are sold in three sizes, varying in price, according to 
stoutness of make, as follows : No. i, from 123. 6d. to 26s. ; No. 2, 
from 155. 9d. to 253.; and No. 3, from 193. 6d. to 303. 

The Dripping-pan. This is a receptacle for the droppings of fat and 
gravy from the roast meat. In some cases it forms an integral part 
of the meat screen, but when it is separate from it, it is supported 
on an iron stand. The pan is arranged with a well in the centre, 
covered with a lid, and round this well is a series of small holes, which 
allow the dripping to pass into the well free from cinders or ashes. 
When the meat is basted, the lid of the well is lifted up. The basting- 
ladle used to apply the dripping to the meat is half covered over at 
the top with a piece of metal perforated with small holes, so that 



THE KITCHEN 63 

should a small piece of cinder get into the ladle it will lodge there 
and not fall on the meat. Dripping-pans of block tin, with wells, are 
made in four sizes, ranging in price from 25. to 35. 6d. Wrought 
iron stands for these dripping-pans cost from 35. to 45., and bast- 
ing ladles from is. to 2s. Extra strong wrought iron dripping- 
pans with wells, and mounted on wrought iron legs, range in size from 
2 feet 6 inches to 4 feet in length, and cost from 335. to 905., according 
to size. Strong wrought iron basting ladles to accompany these ap- 
pliances are made in three sizes, namely, 4, 4^ and 5 inches in diameter, 
costing 73. 6d. 8s. 6d. and los. 6d. respectively. 

Double Baking-pan and Stand. Closely akin to the dripping-pan used 
in open-fire roasting is the double baking-pan and stand used in ranges 
and kitcheners for baking meat, poultry, etc. These are usually 
supplied with ranges and kitcheners when first purchased ; but some- 
times it is necessary to renew them. The lower pan contains water which 
ma v be added through the opening in the lower right-hand corner, nuule 
by a depression in the inner pan ; the JK -i -fWated shield or hood, cover- 
ing th'.' opposite- corner being used for pouring off the dripping. These 
-ire supplied in oblong form, from 13 inches to 18 inches in length, 
at prices ranging from 35. Qd. to 73. 6d.; or square, from u inches 
6 inches, from 45. to 75. It may be added that single pans arc 
supplied in the above sizes, oblong, from is. 2d. to 2S.; and square, 
from is. 4d. to 2s. 

The Gridiron. This utensil, which in its ordinary form consists of a 
frame supported on four short legs, one at each corner, and with round 
bars from front to back, and a handle at the back of the frame, is used 
for broiling purposes of all kinds. The round bar gridiron is made 
with from 8 to 12 bars, according to size, and is sold at from lod. to 
is. 3d. 

Hanging Gridiron. The hanging gridiron consists of a double frame, 
similar in form to the bed or platform of the ordinary gridiron. Below 
the frames is a small trough or pan, in which the dripping or gravy 
running from the meat is taught, and above, the centre bars in each 
frame project upwards, forming the means of keeping the frames 
together when the meat is placed between them, by a wire ring, square 
in form, that is slipped over them. The hanging gridiron is suspended 
before the fire, on bars fastened to hooks, which slip over the top bar 
of the range. Hooks are attached to the inner frame to take slices 
of bacon, chops, steaks, etc., when placed between the frames, and to 
keej) them in a proper position. These gridirons are made of wrought 
iron with from 8 to 12 bars, and are sold at 35. 6d. and 55. each, accord- 
lo size. 

American Grip Broiler and Toaster. This grilling utensil is most useful 
and desirable for broiling steaks, chops, fish, etc. It is made of polished 
with perforation in both plates, having their edges turned in- 
wards. Thus it may be turned over on the lire without the escape and 



64 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

consequent loss of any of the fat or gravy coming from the meat, 
etc., the basting process being self-acting, and the flavour of the meat, 
etc., being fully retained. The perforations being turned inwards, grip 
the meat or fish firmly, and prevent any motion from one part of 
the pan to another. By frequent turning the gravy, etc., is distributed 
over the upper surface of the meat or fish, while the under side is being 
acted on by the heat, and thus uniform tenderness and juiciness of the 
food that is being cooked is insured. It is suitable for use in the 
openings on the top of a cooking range or kitchener, or on the hot- 
plate of a close fire range or over the open fire, and it may be used as 
a bread toaster on the hot-plate or in front of the fire. It is made in 
two sizes, namely, 9 inches in diameter, sold at 2s., and 10 inches, at 
2S. 6d. 

Dutch Oven. The Dutch oven, or bacon broiler or toaster, is made 
in different shapes, but the principle and purpose of each is precisely 
the same, and consists of a flat bottom with triangular sides rising 
from it at each end. The bottom is fitted with a shallow dripping- 
pan, over which, with the ends inserted near the top of each triangular 
sidepiece, is a bar with hooks arranged at regular intervals. On the 
external surface of each side is a handle, by which the utensil may be 
placed on or removed from the plate hanger, which consists of a sliding 
plate on two bars, -terminating in hooks in front, to hang on the bars 
of the range. Attached to the sides of the Dutch oven at the very 
apex of each, is a cover, or flap, which, in consequence of being fixed 
on a swivel, may be used on either side. The advantage of this rever- 
sible cover is that by turning the utensil round on the plate hanger 
and reversing the flap, each side of the meat or bacon that is being 
cooked can be presented to the fire quickly, without turning it on the 
hooks. Prices vary according to size ; one 10 inches long, and fitted 
with four or five hooks, would cost 2s. 6d. ; 12 inches, 2s. 9d.; 14 inches, 
33. 6d. 

Toast Grid. The toast grid for toasting bread is a utensil used for 
toasting bread on the hot-plate of a range ; but if the front of an open- 
fire range be large enough, and the heat sufficient, it may be used there 
with equal convenience and facility. It consists of two frames covered 
with wire, between which the bread is placed ; the frames are 
supplied with wire handles, which can be held together with a sliding 
ring. These grids are sold at is. 3d. and is. Qd. 

UTENSILS AUXILIARY TO COOKING. 

Auxiliary Utensils. To describe everything that it is possible to intro- 
duce into the kitchen for use therein is neither practicable nor desirable. 
From the thousand and one articles, however, that might be enu- 
merated, some few may be selected that hold a prominent place either 
from the frequency with which they are brought into use, or from the 
obvious necessity that exists for having them at hand when required. 



KITCHEN UTENSILS. 




i. Bottle K.Mstiim I. irk. j. Mincing Knife, or Suet Chopper. 3. Mrat Chopper. 
4. Frvin- Pan-*. Meat Cover. <. Pestle and Mortar. 7- Mincing or Sausage 

M ichiiu-. with Fable Clamp. S. I)ubh' Uakia- I'.ui. with M-.it Stand. 9. Drip Pan. 
with Iia>tin.; L ulle. 10. Bottle Jack Roast i 



KITCHEN UTENSILS. 




i. Household Weighing Machine. 2. Oval Boiling Pot. 3. Turbot Kettle. 
4. Copper Preserving Pan. 5. Fish Kettle. 6. Bain Marie Pans. 7. Iron Stockpot 
with Tap. 8. Saucepan and Steamer. 9. Steak Tongs. 10. Fish Slice. 

8 



THE KITCHEN 65 

Weights and Scales. Our list of utensils may well start with this most 
important article or series of articles, as a good set of weights and 
scales is absolutely necessary to every cook. The cook should bear in 
mind always to put the weights away in their respective places after 
they have been used, and to keep the scales in thorough order. In 
weighing butter, lard, or anything that is of a greasy nature, a piece 
of paper should be placed in the scale before putting in the substance 
to be weighed. By doing this much labour will be saved. There are 
many reliable kinds of weighing machines, but the ordinary shop scales 
and weights still remain the most popular, and the price of a set of 
weights and scales, with weights sufficient to weigh from oz. to 14 Ibs., 
is i8s. 6d., and to weigh 28 Ibs., 225. 6d. Spring balances to weigh up to 
200 Ibs. cost about us. and will often be found a great convenience. 

Mincing Machine. This time- and labour-saving invention is almost in- 
dispensable in elaborate culinary preparations. The intending purchas. i 
has a wide choice as regards price, size and variety in form. Although 
the principle is practically the same in all machines, they ditler in many 
rosjvets some doing their work more thoroughly than othe 
being more easily adjusted and kept clean. The " American Two- 
Roller Mincer" is to be highly recommended in this respect, because 
the rollers arc lined with enamel, and the knives so arranged that they 
may be easily cleaned. These machines are made in several sizes in 
two qualities, and may be procured at any ironmonger's, and cost from 
os. nil. to I2s 6d. Ordinary mincing machines may be obtained at 
from |s. 3d. Mincing machines answer admirably for quenelle meal, 
i, etc., when- the meat is mixed with other ingredients ; but meat 
to be served as ci.llops or mince is better cut by hand, as the parti- 
meat must i ite for th . not crushed into a line mass. Suet 

may be more quickly and --rily chopped on a board or in a bowl 

than by a mincing machine, for, no matter how much flour is mixed with 
it, the suet sticks to the blades of the knives and forms itself into a 
compact mass. There are. 1.. . < hopping machines in which the 

knife acts on the material on the same principle as chopping by hand. 
They are not gem-rally used in small households, but in hens 

where mu< h chopping of this description has to be done, they are most 
;il. 

Brawn Tin. --This utensil is invaluable in preparing brawn or collard 
he, id. It is a tin cylinder placed on a foot or stand, into which the 
superfluous grai B when the meat is placed in tin- cylinder and 

put under pressure. For this purpose the bottom of the cylinder 
consists of a movable perforated plate. The cylinder is not soldered 
along the junction of the ends of the metal of which it is composed, 
but the ends overlap, and are movable, one over the other, to a certain 
extent. By this means the cylinder is rendered expansive and will 
expand from (>\ inches in diameter to S inches. It is sold at .js. nd. 

Tongue or Brawn Presser. Tins article may be used for making either 



66 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

brawn or collard head, like the brawn tin last described ; or it may be 
used for compressing boiled tongue into a round, in which shape it is 
most conveniently sent to table, and moreover ensures an equal dis- 
tribution of the fat and lean, which is not the case if the tongue be sent 
up unpressed, when the greater part of the fat in the root of the 
tongue is sent away uneaten. There is a perforated plate at the 
bottom through which the gravy escapes, and a flat plate acted on by a 
powerful screw at the top, by which the contents of the presser are 
squeezed to flatness. A good presser may be bought for 43. 6d. 

Rotary Bread Grater. This machine grates or crumbles the bread 
without leaving a particle of waste, and will do a small quantity. The 
crumbs made by this process are much finer than when made on an 
ordinary bread grater. This grater is only made in one size and 
quality ; the price complete is 53. 6d. 

The ordinary bread grater has smaller perforated plates attached to 
the side for grating nutmeg, ginger, etc., and is supplied at prices 
ranging from 6d., according to size. 

Steak Tongs. When meat is being broiled or grilled, to prevent the 
juices of the steak from being lost by pricking the meat with a fork, in 
turning it about on the gridiron, steak tongs are brought into requisition 
for handling the steaks during the process. By making use of these the 
gravy is kept in the meat. These are supplied at prices ranging from 
2S. upwards. A cutlet bat is sometimes used for beating cutlets, 
chops, etc. ; steaks, if beaten, are beaten with the rolling-pin. 

The Meat Chopper is used for chopping and disjointing bones. 
Their price varies from is. 6d. to 2s., according to size. Meat 
choppers have wood handles. Steel cleavers have handles of steel, 
that is to say, blade and handle are made all in one piece. They are 
sold at from 33. 6d. to 43. 6d., according to size. 

Meat Saw. A meat saw is used for sawing bones in places where 
a chopper is not available. For instance, this utensil would come into 
requisition where a knuckle of ham is required to be severed from 
the thick end. The meat would first be cut all round down to the 
bone with a sharp knife, and the bone would then be sawn through. 
Good meat saws are sold at from 2s. 6d. 

Cook's Knife. The knives generally used by cooks are made very 
pointed at the end ; and for cookery purposes the slightly convex 
blades are preferable to those of ordinary shape. They are made 
6 inches, 7 inches, 8 inches, 9 inches, 10 inches, 1 1 inches and 12 inches 
in length, and cost in the best quality from 2s. to 43. each, according 
to length of blade ; and from rod. to is. icd. in the second quality. 
Both varieties have plain ebony handles. Cook's forks are made 
to match the knives ; they are larger and stronger than ordinary 
forks, and, therefore, better suited for lifting masses of meat, etc., 
out of a saucepan. Prices vary from is. to 2S. each, according to length 
of prong ; the average &nd most convenient size cost about 2S. or 2s. 6d, 



THE KITCHEN 67 

French Chopping Knife. The chopping knife is similar in shape to 
the cook's knife but of much stronger make. It may be had in two 
sizes, each made in two qualities, and costing respectively 35. or 35. gd., 
with blades measuring 9 inches and 6s. or 6s. 6d., with blades 2 inches 
longer. 

Mincing Knife. A knife for chopping suet or mincemeat on a wooden 
board. As it is made with a firm wooden handle, the hand does not 
become so tired as when usintj an ordinary knife on a board ; and 
the chopping is accomplished in a much shorter time. These imple- 
ments should be kept sharp, and should be ground occasionally. There 
is also a knife half-circular in form used for chopping materials in a 
wooden bowl. A good mincing knife in either form is suppl; 

<>d. 

Chopping Bowl and Board. For chopping suet, meat, etc., with the half- 
circular knife a wooden bowl should be provided. They are made from 10 
inches to 1 6 inches in diameter, the smallest size being is. 6d.; but 
that is too small to be generally useful, a more convenient size is the 
bowl measuring 13 inches, supplied at 45. A chopping board costs 
abou t 

Colander. This useful article comes into daily requisition. The 
most convenient and strongest form is that of a round tin basin with 
handles, perforated at the bottom and round the sides with small 
holes. It is used for straining vegetables, these being poured into 
-lander when they arc cooked, and allowed to remain for a 
minute or two until all the v. drained from them, when 

they are dished. Colanders, or cullenders, as the word is some- 
spelt, are made in four sizes, supplied in tin at from is. 3d. 
to 2s. 6d. each, according to size. They are also to be had in strong 
tin enamelled inside and outside from is., according to size. They 
possess all the advantages of cleanliness, freedom from rust, etc., of 
perforated earthenware basins, without their liability to be cracked 
or broken. 

Pestle and Mortar. Pestles and mortars are made of iron, brass, 

marble and Wedgwood ware. Those of marble or Wedgwood \\an- 

lly to be preferred, as they can be easily kept clean. This 

is used for pounding sugar, spices and other ingredients 

required in manv ; ns of the culinary art. Potted meat is 

>oked. minced anil then pounded in a mortar; and many 

must be pounded before they can be rubbed through a 

s and mo; >n, are made in M ig from 7 

to 10 inches, taking the diameter of the top of the mortar, 

and are sold at i; : 1. to 33. 3d., according to size. These 

include Me mortars range in size from 10 inches 

'>d. to 95. 3d. Pestles of hard- 
io be u-^-il with these mortars, cost from 2S. upwards, 



68 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Preserving Pans. Jams, jellies, marmalades and preserves are made 
in these utensils, which should be kept scrupulously clean, and well 
examined before being used. Copper preserving pans range in 
size from n inches to 18 inches in diameter, in capacity from 5 
quarts to 21 quarts, and in price from 145. to 295. Preserving pans 
in enamelled cast iron are sold at from 33. 6d. upwards, according 
to size. 

Vegetable Cutters. Vegetables are cut into fanciful shapes, by means 
of these little cutters. Stewed steaks and such dishes, in which vege- 
tables form an important addition, are much improved in appear- 
ance by having these shaped. The price of a box of assorted vegetable 
cutters ranges from 2s. 3d. to 45. 6d. Fancy cutters are sold at 2d. 
to 6d. each. These cutters can be made useful in ornamenting pastry, 
or cutters especially made for pastry can be had at 3d. each, or 
in boxes from is. 6d. to 2S., according to make. 

Vegetable Scoop. This implement is used for cutting vegetables into 
small, pea-shaped forms. It is supplied at a cost of 6d. 

Cucumber Slice. For shredding cucumbers into the thinnest possible 
slices, a little machine is often used. It is made of wood, with a 
steel knife running across the centre, and sold at 2s. After the 
cucumber is pared it should be held upright, and worked backwards 
and forwards on the knife, being borne sufficiently hard to make an 
impression on the cucumber. 

Paste-Board and Rolling Pin. Paste-boards of average size, made 
of well-seasoned deal, with clamped ends, are supplied at 2S. 6d. or 
35. 6d. When not in use they should be kept in a clean dry place, other- 
wise they may become mildewed, and the stains thus caused are in- 
delible. Rolling-pins are made in two shapes, convex, that is, taper- 
ing towards each end, and perfectly straight. The shaped ones may 
be very dexterously employed by a skilful cook in shaping pastry and 
dough ; but novices in this branch of the culinary art should select a 
straight rolling-pin. Both shapes are supplied at from 4d. to is., 
according to size, and the quality of the wood. The best qualities are 
made from well-seasoned Indian boxwood ; a rolling pin of this de- 
scription, measuring 18 inches in length, costs 2S. 3d. 

Sieves. Sieves, both hair and wire, are made in various sizes, but they 
are inconvenient unless large enough to fit easily over large basins, into 
which soup is usually sieved or strained. The hair sieves are used prin- 
cipally for vegetable purees and other substances of a sufficiently fine 
soft nature to allow them to be readily passed through. Some of the 
fibre of meat, after being well pounded, may be rubbed through a li.iir 
sieve,but with a considerable expenditure of time and strength, therefore 
a fine wire sieve is usually selected for this purpose. A fine wire sieve 
is also used in making breadcrumbs. Sieves of suitable size and mesh 
for ordinary purposes may be had for 6d. to is. 2d. 

Paste Jaggers. These are used for trimming and cutting pastry. 



THE KITOIKN 69 

The little wheel at the end of the jagger is mad I e. and is used 

for marking pastry which has to be divided after it is baked. The 

of a jagger is from 6d. to is. 6d. 

Coffee and Pepper Mills. Intent improved mills for grinding coffee, 
pepp<. etc., may be had to fix permanently to the wall, or 

temporarily to the kitchen table or dressers. They are provided with 
a regulating screw, to grind fine or coarse, as may be desired. They 

.ade in four sizes, and cost from 35. to os. each. 
Wire Dish Corer. This is an article belonging strictly to the larder, 
and is intended for covering over meat, pastry, etc., to protect it from 
flies and dust. It is a most necessary addition to the larder, especially 
in summer time. These covers are made in sizes ranging from 10 
jo inches in length, and sold at prices rising from is, jd. to 
!., according to sue. Round plate covers in the same material 
are supplied at from is. 3d. Wire meat safes, japanned, 16 in.. : 
in. and ^4 in. square, are supplied at from 2OS, \\ 
h panels of perforated zinc, 24 in., 27 in. and 
square, are s>Kl at from 95. 6d. 

Knife Tray, Plato Basket and Plate Carrier. A knife tray should be 

^ dose at hand all knives in 

:i tin, sold at 2s. od. to 3$. od., according to sire, is 
very easily washed, and will always appear clean and in nice order, 
if properly looked after. Japanned trays, equal I and scr- 

:nay be had, single, with round corners, at from 2S. to 
.vith square corners, from 2S, 6d. to 8s. V 
:<>r spoons, forks, etc., lined with baize, are suppl 

four sizes from 2S. 6d. to $s. each ; and wicker plate carriers for 
unlined. at . :ied with tin. 6s, The tin, it 

japanned, costs ios. 6d. A asket for the reception oi 

been used and removed from table, with loose v 
and lined with tin, is supplied in three sizes at 45. to 6s. 6d. 
Baking Dish. Many housewives prefer for family pies and puddings 
a baking dish made of tin, which may be covered with a wire grating. 
so that it may be used for baking meat and potatoes, the latter being 
i in the dish and the meat on the wire grating. Seamless baking- 
pans, in all forms, oblong, square, round and oval, may be had in 
sizes ranging from 4 to ^o inches, at prices from $d. to 

ding to size. 

Tartlet Pans. The trimmings of pastry rolled out, laid in a tartlet pan. 
and baked, form the foundation of open tarts. The pans are nv 

cs, from 6 inches to 12 inches in length, with plain or fluted 
edges, at prices ranging from 2d. to is. 6d., according to size and 

Patty-pans, These are made of tin, and used for cheese-cakes, 
little tarts, mince-pies, etc. Some are fluted and some plain, and 
are manufactured in all sizes and of different shapes, bot 



7 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

and round. The price of a dozen patty-pans, in tin, ranges from 2d. 
upwards, according to size and shape. 

Raised Pie Mould. The moulds in which raised pies are made open 
at the side, with loose bottom plates. They are usually, though 
not necessarily, oval in shape ; they are made from 6 inches to 1 1 
inches in length ; and the smallest size is supplied in strong tin at 25. 
to 33. 

Border Mould. This mould measures 7 inches in length, 2^ inches 
in height ; its capacity is i^ pints, and its price in copper, lined with 
pure tin, 8s. Very effective designs may now be obtained in strong 
tin from lod. upwards. 

Coffee and Tea Canisters, etc. Japanned tin is the metal of which 
canisters for tea and coffee are composed. The flavour of the tea and 
the aroma of the coffee may be preserved by keeping them in tin 
canisters. The prices of these canisters, to hold from 2 oz. to 6 lb., 
range from 6d. to 33., according to size. Among other boxes, 
made in tin and japanned, for the reception of articles of daily use and 
consumption may be named SEASONING BOXES, at 35., 35. 6d. and 
43. 6d., according to size ; SPICE BOXES at 2S., 2S. 6d. and 33., accord- 
ing to size ; SUGAR BOXES, square in shape, with division, in five sizes 
without drawer to receive pounded sugar dropping from divisions 
through perforated bottom, from 2S. 9d. to 93. 6d. ; or in three sizes with 
drawers, from 6s. 6d. to IDS. Round SUGAR CANISTERS, holding from 
i lb. to 6 lb., are sold at from 8d. to 43. 6d., according to size ; and 
FLOUR BINS, bright tin inside and japanned blue with black hoops 
outside, ranging in capacity from i gallon to 3 bushels, are supplied 
at from 33. 6d. to 28s., according to size. 

Hot-water Dish. In cold weather such joints as venison, a haunch, 
saddle or leg of mutton should always be served on a hot-water dish, 
as they are so liable to chill. This dish is arranged with a double 
bottom which is filled with very hot water just before the joint is sent 
to table, and so keeps that and the gravy hot. Although an article 
of this description can scarcely be ranked as a kitchen utensil, still the 
utility of it is obvious. Hot-water dishes may be had, made entirely 
of metal, of various sizes from 2 is. upwards, or in nickel, electro-plated, 
at higher prices. Hot- water plates range in price from is. 6d. upwards. 

Gravy Strainer. One of these is absolutely indispensable. One variety 
is like an inverted cone with the pointed end cut off, having a handle 
attached to it, and a plate perforated with very fine holes, or piece of 
wire netting, at the bottom, below which is a rim on which it stands. 
It is made in three sizes, with fine or coarse bottom, sold at is. 6d.,. 
is. 9d. and 2S. each, according to size. Another kind is made in the 
form of a cone ; but this, of course, will not stand by itself, terminating; 
as it does in a point. It is made in three sizes, with fine or coarse 
netting, sold at lod. to 2s. 6d., according to size. 

Egg Poacher. When eggs are much used in a family, an egg poacher 



THE KITCHEN 71 

forms a desirable addition to the utensils of the kitchen. These are 
made in different forms, the ordinary poacher being in the form of a 
circular tin plate, with three or four depressions, to contain the eggs, 
and with an upright handle rising from the centre. The plate is sup- 
ported by feet, on which it stands when lowered into the saucepan. 
Poachers for three eggs are sold for is. 4d. ; for four eggs at is. i id. 

Cask Stand. For beer it is desirable to have a stand by which the cask 
may be raised or lowered without shaking its contents. The lever 
cask stand will be found most useful for this purpose. This stand is, 
perhaps, the best that has yet been produced, its action being very 
simple and easy to understand. The price of stand for a 9-gallon cask 
is 6s. ; for an iS-gallon cask, 8s. 

Beer Tap. The best kind of tap for home use is the brass syphon beer 
tap, which requires no vent-peg, and is fitted with a protector 
in front, to receive the blows of the mallet in tapping a cask. The 
protector may be unscrewed to clean the syphon tube when it is in the 
cask. Another improvement consists in the self-acting tube being 
brought down close to the mouth of the jug, glass or vessel into which 
the beer is drawn. Directions for keeping the tap in order are given 
to the purchaser. This tap is sold at 35. 6d. 

The Corrugated Kettle. The chief feature of t 'e is the fluted 

form of the bottom, which not only adds considerably to its str< 
but increases the heating surface about 20 per cent., thereby causing 
the water to boil in a very much shorter time than in an ordinary 
flat-bottomed kettle. The peculiar form of this kettle, both as regards 
the fluted bottom and dome top, renders it especially suitable for use 
on gas or petroleum stoves or spirit lamps. ia made in 

polished steel in nine sizes, holding from I to 12 pints, and sold at 
prices ranging from is. 6d. to 45. 3d., according to size. It is also 
made in polished copper or brass in the four smaller sizes, from i to 
3 pints, sold at from 55. to 75. 6d. with ordinary handle In the five 
larger sizes, holding from 4 to i j pints, it is made in polished copper with 
turned handle and spout, and sold at prices ranging from 8s. to i8s. 

Coffee-pot. When well made, coffee, perhaps, is the most delicious 

and n -freshing of all the infusions that are made for household use, but 

the goodness of coffee very often depends on the construction of the 

m which it is made, and it is most desirable to use one in which, 

omatic oil of the berry developed in the process of roasting is not 

driven off by boiling, on the one hand, which invariably spoils coffee, 

and not made sufficiently perceptible by the endeavour to make it at 

too low a temperature, which is too often the case. In one of the 

t Coffee Cans either contingency is happily avoided by the 

peculiar construction of this coffee-pot, in which the coffee, when 

making, is surrounded by a jacket of boiling water, and thus kept at 

such a temperature that the valuable principle in which the aroma 

- n. off, but gradually and continuously brought out,. 



7 2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

thus increasing to a wonderful extent the flavour and fragrance of 
the drink. By means of this utensil coffee can be made to perfection 
in so short a time as two minutes, which shows how easy and rapid 
the process is when performed by means of this utensil. They are 
kept in various sizes, and made of various materials, and vary in price 
from 55. 6d. upwards. 

Freezing Machines. Ice is now so much used at English tables 
that it has become a necessary of household economy, and 
dessert ices follow summer dinners as a matter of course. Dessert 
ices are, by modern invention and ingenuity, placed within the reach 
of most housekeepers, and it is easy to make ices by one of the 
patent freezing machines, which afford a quick, economical and 
most simple method of freezing. Two ices, or an ice and an ice 
pudding can be made at the same time by these machines. The 
mixture to be iced is placed in the tubes or cylinders ; outside these 
tubes rough ice and salt are placed, the ice being pounded, and the 
salt and a little water added ; the piston is then worked up and 
down. This movement produces a constant change and agitation 
of the ice and salt, which is compelled to pass- round and round the 
agitator. Two stirrers are attached to the piston, and work at the 
same time with it ; these " stirrers " go up and down inside the cylin- 
ders, and stir up and mix the cream or water mixture undergoing the 
freezing process. This agitation of the cream, etc., is necessary to 
prevent the future ice from being lumpy and snowy. When the 
freezing is complete the stirrers are taken out of the cylinders, and the 
ice pressed down firmly by a presser ; this moulds it to the form of 
the cylinder. It is set by keeping it still in the machine for a short 
time longer, still working the piston up and down ; it is then turned 
out, beautifully iced and moulded. The same ice and salt which 
freezes the dessert ices will afterwards freeze a block of pure water 
ice, or may be used to cool wine. 

These freezing machines are made in oak, and are supplied in 
three sizes, Nos. i, 2 and 3, to freeze and mould i, 2 and 3 pints re- 
spectively, at 2 i os., ^3 53., and ^3 155. These are to be used 
with ice and salt only. 

Refrigerators are very necessary in a household, as they ensure both 
comfort and economy, and, indeed, promote good health in the summer. 
They consist essentially of cupboards or chests, lined with zinc, and kept 
cool by ice. The ice receptacle, however, should have no connexion 
with the storage part, as the food should be kept in a cold, dry atmo- 
sphere. A properly-made refrigerator consists of a wood cupboard or 
chest, lined inside with zinc, and having a tight fitting door ; between 
the zinc lining and wood casing there should be a layer of insulating 
material, such as thick felt (the cheapest), or better, asbestos, or its 
artificial substitute, slag-wool. This insulating layer prevents loss by 
too rapid dissipation of the cold by contact with the hotter outside 



KITCHEN UTENSILS, 




Mayonnaise Mixer, Mincer, Asparagus Dibh. Masher and Strainer, Egg 
Boiler, Table Hot Plate, Hot Water Dish, Gas Grilling Stove, Cream Freezer. 



KITCHEN UTENSILS. 




10 



i. Chafing Dish Pan. 2. Chafin? Dish Stand and Lamp. 3. Doubls Boiler of Chafog 
Dish. 4. Jelly Mould. 5. Meat Slice. 6. Whisk. 7. Channj Dish complete. 8. Colander. 
9. Dutch Oven. 10. Spice Box. 

10 



THE KITCHEN 73 

air. The ice chamber should also be lined with zinc, and be placed 
at the top or back of the chest, a waste pipe being provided for draining 
away the water, which may be stored in another zinc receptacle under 
the chest, and used as an ice bath for bottles of liquors, etc. Ice 
quickly melts if surrounded by water or air, therefore keep the ice chest 
closed and well drained. If you have a piece of ice but no proper 
receptacle for it, you may keep it for a long time even in summer if 
you wrap it in a blanket and place it in a dark, dry place. Unless 
you are quite sure of the purity of ice, never mix it with food or bever- 
ages ; cool down to the required temperature by surrounding the 
vessels in which the food or beverage is contained with a mixture of 
pounded ice and salt. An ice closet, or refrigerator, should not bi 
in a kitchen ; place it in the larder, at all events well away from the 
direct sunlight ; choose the darkest corner. The interior should be 
kept scrupulously clean. 

Filters. Absolutely pure water is not to be found in nature, for 
even rain (natural distillation, resulting from condensation following on 
evaporation of sea, lake, river and soil surface water by the sun- rays) 
absorbs gases and dust as it descends through the various atmospheric 
strata. Lake, river and spring waters contain gases, earthy salts and 
organic matter. The salts are not to be feared unless present in large 
quantities, but the presence of organic matter, if not always dangerous, 
should give rise to suspicion. Organic matter in water is usually the 
result of decomposition, and whether of vegetable or animal origin is 
nearly always unwholesome; but too often such organic matter may 
comprise chemical poisons or the so-called poison secreting specific, 
or pathogenic, microbes. To get rid of superfluous earthy salts (more 
especially lime and magnesia) and organic matter, various methods of 
purification are adopted. Water supplied to towns by compani*. > or 
municipalities is usually filtered through extensive and deep beds of 
sand gravel and other materials. Sometimes the water is first run into 
tanks, chemicals added, and the superabundant lime allowed to cl 
before the water is run on the filters. Domestic filters are constructed 
on much the same principle, the water being made to pass through 
layers of sand, charcoal, spongy iron, porous earthenware or ]>aUi:t 
compositions. Charcoal and iron are believed to have a chemical as 
well as a mechanical influence, as they absorb oxygen and part with 
it, and also absorb deleterious gases. The varieties and styles of filters 
differ so widely that it is almost impossible to give prices. A domestic 
filter may be made by thoroughly charring the inside of an oaken cask 
(this is best done by burning spirits of wine in it), then placing curved 
porous tiles at the bottom, covering this with a layer of carefully 
cleansed gravel, upon the top of which should be a finer gravel, 
and finally sand or coarsely ground charcoal. The danger of all 
filters is that they soon get foul if constantly used, and then 
water passed through them is only contaminated. There arc 



74 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENf 

tubes composed of siliceous infusorial earths, which are very 
compact, but allow water introduced into them slowly to percolate. 
The only way to obtain absolutely pure water is to use a still, in which 
water is evaporated by heat, and the steam being caught and con- 
densed by cold is obtained in the form of liquid water. But this water 
is of a " dead " character, having no oxygen, and if exposed to the air 
quickly absorbs atmospheric gases and dust. For practical purposes, 
if water has to be purified, the best plan is to boil it. This not only 
destroys living germs and their spores, but splits up organic matter 
and causes the earthy salts to be deposited in the form of slime or 
" fur." The kettle has the advantage of being available both for home 
and outdoor use for instance on country excursions, when very often 
water of doubtful character is alone to be procured. 

Washing and Wringing Machines. In large establishments where there 
is a laundry these do not enter into " The Arrangement and Economy 
of the Kitchen," but in smaller ones they often of necessity form part 
of the furniture. The price of a small one is from 203 to 903. 

Washing machines are daily becoming more general in private families, 
and needless to say washing at home, if practicable, is a great economy. 

Fireproof Earthenware Cooking Appliances and Casserole Pots are benefits 
which we owe to Continental chefs. For many purposes they are not to be 
surpassed. They are light, cleanly, impart no flavour to the most delicate 
of viands, quick in use, and may, for the most part, be sent up to table 
with their contents direct from the kitchener. Among other purposes 
fireproof earthenware vessels are excellent for cooking " ceufs sur le 
plat," or fried eggs, scrambled eggs, stewed and baked tomatoes, 
joints of meat " au daube," that is, stewed with rich gravy and vege- 
tables. These are all dishes which would be spoilt in colour and 
flavour if iron saucepans were used. Moreover, as this ware is 
decidedly ornamental, they only require to be taken from the oven 
or hot plate, placed on a dish and sent to the dining-room. 

Enamelled Ware is now much used, both for cooking and other kitchen 
utensils. As a rule these consist of rather thin sheets of steel, or iron, 
stamped out into different shapes, and then coated inside and out with 
fireproof enamel ; the coat used for the outside generally being blue, 
and that for the inside white. The advantages of enamelled ware are 
that it is clean, acid-proof and does not injure the colour or flavour of any 
article cooked and placed within it. Vessels of this ware are especially 
useful for making sauces, boiling milk, farinaceous puddings and stew- 
ing fruit. These utensils are also easily cleaned. But it is necessary to 
buy good quality articles, as in the cheaper classes the enamel is often 
thin, inferior and contaminated with arsenic. Inferior enamel is apt to 
chip, and this is dangerous, as the particles are as sharp as glass and 
capable of causing serious digestive troubles. Moreover, if the enamel 
is chipped or badly cracked, all the advantages of enamelling are 
neutralized, as the foods come into direct contact with the metal, and 



THE KITCHEN 75 

further act on the under part of the enamel. This ware should always 
be properly seasoned before use. Fill to the brim with boiling 
water, add a good allowance of soda and allow to get cool, then wash 
thoroughly in very hot soap suds. Enamelled metal ware should never 
be placed in the oven or on a stove, unless it contains a liquid or some 
fat, otherwise the enamel will crack. 

Aluminium is a metal existing largely in clay. It is only within 
recent years that it has been able to be extracted economically and in 
sufficient quantities for commercial purposes. Its chief character- 
istics are its extreme lightness, its resistance to the action of most 
acids and atmospheric influences, and the ease with which it forms 
most useful alloys. In its natural condition it is of a dullish silver hue. 
Aluminium cooking and kitchen utensils are now either stamped out 
of sheet metal or moulded. Their extreme lightness makes stewpans, 
frying-pans and bain-maries of this metal most handy in the kitchen, 
and the fact that the juices of vegetables and fruits, etc., do not act 
upon it, gives aluminium a considerable advantage over copper. The 
metal heats quickly and retains its heat for a long time. It requires 
some care in cleaning. As yet aluminium kitchen ware is somcuh.it 
expensive, but when its merits are more widely recognized, and it comes 
into more general use, prices are likely to fall. 

The Chafing Dish is a very ancient utensil, much used by our ancestors 
and then gradually neglected. But it has come into fashion again, 
largely through a revival of its use in America. The chafing dish is 
a deep metal pan, with sloping sides, and provided with a domed 
cover, which fits in the circular rim of a metal tripod. On the stand 
of the tripod beneath the dish a spirit lamp is placed. In some in- 
stances the dish is heated by electricity. As a rule these articles are 
highly ornamental, and are meant to be used on the table or sideboard ; 
they are usually brought into requisition at breakfast, luncheon and 
supper, and are undoubtedly most serviceable in households where 
only a few servants are kept, as by their aid dainty little dishes such as 
fried or scrambled eggs, omelettes, stewed kidneys, broiled tomatoes, 
"welch rarebit or cheese fondu, and similar preparations can be sj 

red at the early morning meal, or at a late supper "after the 
theatre." For dwellers in flats the chafing dish is almost indispensable. 

Complete List of Domestic Utensils. Here we must bring our notices 
of utensils that find a place in most kitchens to a close, omitting 
many articles of less importance not likely to be called so frequently 
into use. Everything necessary for a family, whether large or small, 
is included in the following complete specifications of domestic utensils, 
which will show at a glance the articles required for the kitchens of 
families, ranging from those for whom a small cottage affords sufficient 
accommodation to those who have an income large enough to warrant 
the occupation of a mansion. For a mansion, whose many guests are 
oming and going, and where a large number of domestics are kept, 



7 6 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



a great number of articles will be required, and these are set forth in 
specification No. I. In specification No. II everything is included that 
is necessary for culinary operations in a family whose head is possessed 
of ample means. Specification No. Ill includes those articles which 
should be found in comparatively small houses ; whilst in specification 
No. IV such things only are enumerated as are indispensable to a family 
possessed of a small income, and moving in a comparatively humble 
sphere of life. 

Specifications and Estimates for Outfit of Kitchens. The following specifi- 
cations and estimates, it may be said, have been carefully prepared. 
They are exclusive of tinnery and brushes. Each specification is 
complete in itself, and any of the articles mentioned may be had singly 
at the same prices. 



SPECIFICATION No. I. 

This Specification is complete and suitable for any Mansion. 



s. d. 
8 Copper Stewpans, assorted 

sizes . . . . . 5 12 6 

i Copper Stock Pot, 10 galls., 

with tap and Drainer . 5 18 6 

1 Copper Bain marie, 1 1 vessels 7 7 o 

2 Copper Saute or Cutlet 

Pans 176 

i Copper Braizing Pan with 

Fire Cover, 18 in. . . 440 
i Copper Egg Bowl . . .0186 
i Copper Sugar Boiler . . 015 o 

1 Copper Preserving Pan . i 16 o 

2 Copper Jelly Moulds i i 6 
2 Copper Charlotte Moulds, 

2 pt., 35. 6d., 2j, 43. 6d. o 8 o 
12 Copper Dariol Moulds, 2 in. o 9 6 
12 Copper Fancy Entroe Cups, 

assorted o 12 o 

2 Copper Conical Gravy 

Strainers . . . . . o 17 6 

1 Copper Soup Ladle ..046 

2 Copper D Slices . . . o 10 o 
2 Copper Dish-up Spoons .0100 

1 Copper Dish - up, perfor- 

ated ......046 

2 Copper Omelette Pans . o 15 9 
2 Copper Baking Plates ..126 
i Oval Wrought iron Fat Pan 

and Drainer . . . . o 19 6 
i Oblong Wrought -steel Drip- 
ping Pan with Well, on 
iron legs . . . .286 
Basting Ladle for ditto . o 10 6 
Large Wood Meat Screens 

with Hot Closet . . 912 6 
Steel Cutlet Bat . . .046 
Cast -steel Meat Saw ..046 
Cast-steel Cutlet Saw ..036 



s. d. 

48 18 3 



3 6 



Carried forward ; ,. . .... 48 18 3 



Brought forward . 
i Cast -steel Cleaver . . o 

i Set Skewers, gd., is., is. 6d o 
i Case Larding Needles . o 

i Daubing Needle . . o 

3 Cooks' Knives ... o 

1 Cooks' Bone Knife . . o 

2 Root Knives, is. . o 
2 Steel Dish-up Forks with 

Guard .... o 

Salamander and Stand o 

Pair Steak Tongs . . o 

Toasting Fork . . o 

Fluted Bar Gridiron . o 

Hanging Gridiron . 036 

Oval Iron Fry Pan . 026 

6 Tinned Iron Saucepans o 13 6 
2 Ditto, with steamer, 6 qt. 

55. ; 8 qt., 6s. 6d. . o n 6 

i Best Wrought-iron Tea 

Kettle o 10 6 

i Copper-Bottom Tin-Body 

Range Kettle . . .026 

1 6 gal. Oval Wrought-steel 

Boiling Pot . . . i 10 o 

2 Strong Wire Fry Baskets, 

2S. 6d., 35. 6d. . . .060 
i Strong Tin Fish Kettle, 

Copper Bottom . o 10 6 

i Strong Tin Turbot Kettle, 

Copper Bottom ..150 
Marble Slab for Pastry . o 10 6 
Box Pastry Cutters, each 

Round and Fluted . .050 
Box Assorted Fancy Cutters 020 
Paste J agger . . . .010 
Box Vegetable Cutters . .036 
Salad Basket (Wire) ..036 

Carried forward r -5^ 10 



THE KITCHEN 
SPECIFICATION No. I. (continued). 



77 



Brought forward 
i Patent Bread Grater . 
lied Iron Spoons 
i Block Tin Souj. Ladle 
i Hour and Sugar Dredge . 
_' IVpprr Boxes, 4d. each 
i 1'otato Masher 

l>le Scoops, 
wood handles 

l-'unnels .... 
i Raised Pie Mould . . . 
i !>../< -ii Tartlet te Tins . . 
3 Dozen Round Pattypans, 

fluted 

i Bread Rasp 

1 1 'alette Knife .... 

2 \Vire Egg Whisks, strong, 

}d., is. gd. . 

i Refrigerator .... 
i Pewter Ice Pot, with Cover 

i Pail f..r ditto, O.ik . . . 

1 Spatula 

2 Pewter lor Pudding Moulds 

. 

IJ Pewter I' '! 'lllds 

i Marl.le M-.i-t.tr. 14 in. . . 
i Lignum Vita- 

d 

'u.ility " Knife 
hint- on high stand, 
dr. m 4 kniv. 
\. i 



5 io 6 Brought forward . 

026 i Spice Box, Block Tin . 
056 i Seasoning Box 

019 i Mincing Machine, Vitrified 

026 Enamel 

008 i Set Registered Scales and 
023 Weights, to weigh 28 Ib. 

12 Tinned Meat Hooks . . 
036 2 Corkscrews .... 
O o io 2 Tin Openers 
056 3 C,alvani/ed Pails, is. (,d. . 

i 6 i Coal Hod, Zinc lined . 

i Kitchen Fender 
oio I Set Kitchen Fire Iron- 

020 i Tin Coffee Pot, 35. 6d.. i 
026 Tin Tea Pot, 35. 6d. . 

I Coffee Mill. Steel . . . 
030 3 Japanned Travs. Strong . 
550 i Lemon Squee/er 

1 i o i Jelly Bag and Stand . 

1 Set Tea, Coffee, an-! 

Canisters .... 
4 Han -t . . . 

2 Brass Wire M< \es . 

Hour Kit 

Rolling Pin. hard w.*-d 

.ve Brushes . . 
- ... 

Hair Broom and handle . 
r Yard Broom and 

.lie 

Ling Brushes . . 



076 
046 

o 15 o 
046 



3 17 6 



s. d. 

74 4 6 

o 10 6 

o 4 o 



I I 



Cam 



74 4 6 






8 9 



SPECIFICATION No. II. 



> Good Class Houses. 



-sorted 



5. d. 

5 io o 

with tap and dr, ( \ 5 o 

;>er Saute Pan . o IO 6 

per Sugar Boiler . o io 6 

per Egg Bowl . o 15 o 

mg Pan 140 

er Jelly Moulds . o 17 6 

r 1 >ariol 

Moulds 096 

Cups 060 

i Onlv Copper Char 

. 2 pt. . . .036 

I Onlv < 

r 080 



s. d. 

Brought forward . . . 14 o 3 
'76 

i Copper D Slice . . .050 
i Oval Wrought-iron Fat 

. o 15 o 
i Wrought-iron Dripping 

with Well and 

Iron legs . ..226 

Ladle for ditto . o 8 6 
i Wooden Meat Screen, cir- 
cular corners and Hot 

Closet 476 

Bottle Jack and 
Crane Coiuplet- 
I Cutlet Bat .... 
>a\v .... 



.rd . . .14 6 3 



i Cutlet Saw . 
Carried forward 



o 14 
4 
o 4 
o 3 



'3 3 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 










s. 


d. 









s. 


d. 




Brought forward . 


23 


13 


3 




Brought forward . 


30 


7 





. I 


Set Skewers, each gd. is. 


o 


X 


9 


24 


Patty Pans fluted . . . 








8 


X 


Case Larding Needles ' . , 





2 


6 


i 


Bread Rasp .... 


o 


2 


o 


. X 


Daubing Needle 


o 


I 


6 


i 


Strong Wire Egg Whisk 


o 


I 


6 


a 


Cooks' Knives . 


b 


5 


6 


i 


Refrigerator .... 


4 


4 


o 


x 


Cooks' Bone Knife . 


o 


5 


6 


i 


Pewter Freezing Pot 





17 


6 


a 


Root Knives, is. ... 


o 


a 





i 


Oak Pail for ditto . . . 


o 


6 


6 




Dish-up Forks with Guard 


o 


4 


6 


i 


Spatula 


o 






. X 


Salamander and Stand 


o 


7 


6 


i 


Pewter Ice Pudding Mould 


o 


10 


6 


X 


Pair Steak Tongs . . . 


o 


2 


6 


6 


Pewter Ice Dessert Moulds 


o 


9 


o 


X 


Toast Fork .... 


o 


:'! 


o 


i 


Marble Mortar 


o 


IO 


6 


X 


Fluted Bar Gridiron 


o 


.3 


6 


i 


Lignum Vitae Pestle . 





3 


6 


X 


Strong Wire Hanging Grid- 








i 


Set Best Scales and Weights 










iron 


o 




6 




14 Ib 


o 


18 


6 


X 


Oval Iron Fry Pan . . 


o 


2 


3 


i 


Knife Machine on High 








4 


Iron Saucepans; assorted . 


o 


9 





Stand, 3 knives and carver 2 


15 


6 


I 


2 gall, ditto, with steamer 


o 


6 





i 


Mincing Machine 





15 





X 


Cast-iron Oval Boiling Pot 





7 


6 


3 


Hair Sieves .... 


o 


7 


6 


I 


Oval Wrought-iron Tea 








i 


Brass Wire Sieve . . . 


o 


3 


6 




Kettle 





8 


6 


12 


Meat Hooks .... 





i 





X 


Copper-bottom, Tin-body 








I 


Jelly Bag and Stand . . 


o 


8 


6 




Well Kettle .... 





5 


6 


2 


Corkscrews 


o 


i 


o 


X 


Strong Tin Colander . 


o 


3 s 


9 


I 


Coffee Mill, Steel . . . 





12 


6 


X 


Strong Tin Fish Kettle, 








I 


Kitchen Fender 





9 


6 




Copper Bottom . 


o 


!* 


6 


I 


Set Kitchen Irons 





4 


6 


X 


Strong Fish Kettle, Tin 








I 


Zinc-lined Coal Hod . . 


o 


4 


6 




Bottom 


'o 


4 


ii 


I 


Tin Coffee Pot . . . 





3 


6 


X 


Box Paste Cutters, Round 


o 


2 





I 


Tin Tea Pot .... 





3 


6 


X. 


Box Paste Cutters, Fluted 





2 





2 


J apanned Trays, Strong . 





5 


o 


X 


Box Fancy Cutters . , tj 


o 


2 





I 


Lemon Squeezer 


o 


i 


3 


I 

X 


Paste J agger . . . ^, 
Japanned Spice Box . 


b, 

p 


I 
4 




6 


2 
2 


Tin Openers .... 
Galvanized Pails 




o 


i 
3 


o 
o 


X 


Seasoning Box 





3 


ii 


I 


Set Tea, Coffee, and Sugar 








X 


Bread Grater .... 


o 


2 


6 




Canisters .... 





17 


6 


12 


Assorted Iron Spoons . 


o 




6 


_ 


Flour Kit 


s- 


4" 


6 


X 


Box Vegetable Cutters 


o 


2 


9 


I 


Rolling Pin, hardwood 


o 


i 


6 


X 


Strong Tin Soup Ladle 


a 


I 


6 


I 


Paste Board, hardwood 





4 


6 


I 


Fish Slice 


o 


I 


6 


I 


Set Stove Brushes 





2 


ii 


I 


Egg Slice 


_ 


_ 


Q 


J 


Set Shoe Brushes . . . 


Q 


e 


6 


3 


Vegetable Scoops . 


o 


2 


9 


I 


Hair Broom and Handle . 





j 

3 


ii 


X 


each Flour and Sugar 








I 


Bass or Yard Broom and 










Dredge, is. 3d. . 





2 


6 




Handle 


o 


2 


6 


a 


Tin Funnels .... 


o 


O 


8 


3 


Scrubbing Brushes 





3 


9 


12 


Tartlette Pans .... 


o 


I 


6 


i 


Meat Chopper .... 





4 


6 



Carried forward 



30 7 



Total 



43 6 3 



SPECIFICATION No. III. 

Suitable for Middle-Class Houses j 



Saucepans, 



s. d. 



0160 



4 Sanitary Steel 

assorted ..... 

1 Sanitary Steel Stock Pot, 

3 galls o 18 

2 Tinned Iron Saucepans . o 4 
i 10 pt. ditto, with steamer o 4 



Carried forward 



2 2 9 



Brought forward ..22 
i Oval Boiling Pot, 3 galls, o 4 
i Preserving Pan, Copper . o 16 
i Sanitary Steel Saute Pan . o 3 
i Sanitary Steel Omelette 

Pan o 2 



Carried forward 
1 



. .396 



KITCHEN UTENSILS. 




rtPans. 2. Patty Pans. 3. Raised Pie Mould. 4. Paste J agger. 5. Fancy 

lo Cutters and Case. 6. Vegetable Scoops. 7. Paste Bo.ml and Pin. 8. Plain 

Charlotte Pudding Mould. 9. Gridiron. 10. Mangle or Wringer, n. Tin-lined 
; Knife Basket. 12. Coffee Canister. 13. Bread Grater. 

D* 



HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES. 




Composition for Cleaning and Polishing, Ammonia Soap, Kleenall, Extract of Soap, Metal 
Polish, Berlin Black, Walnut Varnish Stain, Metal Polish, Oik Varnish Stain, Brunswick Black, 
Best White Paint, Safety Matches, Soluble Soft Soap, Non-Mercurial Plate Powder, Black 
Meltonian Cream, Gishurstine, Floor Polish, Ronuk, Blacking, Black Lead, Wax Polish, Blue, 
Superior Blacking, Grate Polish, Nugget Black Polish, Knife Polish, Nuggat Brown Polish, 
Spiritine. 
12 



THE KITCHEN 79 

SPECIFICATION No. III. (continued). 







i 


s. 


d. 






Brought forward . . . 


3 


9 


6 




I 


Brass Bottle Jack and 








i 




Crane .... 





s 


6 


i 


I 


Jack Screen 





12 


6 


i 


I 


Block Tin Fish Kettle 





5 


ii 


i 


I 


Mincing Machine . 





9 


6 


i 


I 


Knife Machine, to clean 












knives and c arvers . 


I 


5 


6 


I 


2 


Cooks' Knives . 





4 


6 


I 


I 


Dish-up Fork with Guard 





i 


9 




I 


Game Oven 


o 


3 


6 


i 


I 

I 


Fluted Hanging Gridiron 
Strong Wire Hanging Grid 





2 


6 


6 
6 




iron 


o 


2 


o 


i 


I 


Set Best Scales and Weights 








i 




14 Ib 


, 1 




5 


* 


I 


Meat Saw 





2 


ii 


! 


I 


Meat Chopper .... 





2 


6 


I 


I 


Iron Frying Pan 


o 


2 





2 


I 


Iron Kettle .... 


o 


4 


6 




j 


Tin Kettle, Copper Bottom 


o 


3 


3 


I 


I 


Double Oven Pan 





4 


6 


I 


2 


Cake Tins 





I 





I 


2 


Tin Moulds .... 


a 


2 


9 


I 


IJ 


Tin Dariol Moulds 


o 


I 


6 


I 


I 


Box Plain and Fluted 








2 




Pastry Cutters . . . 


o 


j 


o 




I 


Colander 





2 


6 


3 


M 


Patty Pans, plain 








6 


3 




Fish Slice . 


. 1 




Q 


i 




Egg Slice 


, , 




Q 






Set Skewers. 6d.. <>J. . . 


(. 




3 






Wire Toast F- >rk . . . 


1 > 




6 






Vegetable Scoop . . . 


' > 











Vegetable Cutter . . . 














Root Knife .... 





D 


9 






Sugar Dredge .... 





I 


3 






Flour Dredge .... 








9 






Tin Funnel .... 








6 


3 


t 


Gravy Strainers, flat and 












conical 





a 


4 





I *. d. 
9 17 5 
o i o 
006 
009 

010 

033 

O 2 O 

o 3 ii 
026 



2 O 
2 6 

I II 

I 2 

4 9 



Brought forward 
Wire Egg Whisk 
Tin Opener 
Corkscrew 
Lemon Squeezer 
Composition Mortar and 

Pestle 

Wire Fry Basket . . . 
Fish Frying Pan with Wire 

Drainer 

Spice Box 

Iron Spoons, assorted . . o 
Wood Spoons . o 

Hair Sieve o 

Tinned Wire Sieve . . o 
Baking Plate, oblong . o 
Dust Pan . . . . o 

Flour Bin, Japanned . o 
Each Tea, Coffee and S> 

Canisters . . . .090 
Potato Masher . . .010 
Gallon Pail . . . . o I 6 
Gallon Oval Wash-up Pan 030 
Paste Board . . . .026 
Rolling Pin . . . .009 
Wire Dish Covers, is. 6d., 

2 036 

Enamelled Pie Dishes .026 
I.naiuelled Pudding Basins 020 
lied Wat. 

8 pint 026 

Kitchen Fender . . .066 
Set Kitchen Fire Irons -033 

Coal Hod 029 

e Brushes ..029 
Set Shoe Brushes . . .046 
Hair Broom and Handle .030 
Bass or Yard Broom .020 
3 Scrubbing Brushes ..030 



Carried forward 



9 17 5 



Total 



SPECIFICATION No. IV. 

Suitable for very small Houses. 



s. d. 

3 Tinned Iron Saucepans .060 
Tinned ditto, with steamer 036 
Tinned Oval Boiling Pot, 

3 Rails 049 

Enamelled Steel Saucepans 020 
Iron Kettle . . . .036 
Tin Kettle . . . .019 
Frying Pan, iron . . .019 
Baking Pan ....013 



Carried forward 



146 



i 

2 

i Mould 

12 Patty Pans. . 
3 Cutters 

i Fish Kettle . 

i Tin Colander . 

3 Iron Spoons . 

Carried forward 



Broueht forward . . i 
lire Pudding Tin . o 
Cake Tins o 



s. d. 
4 6 
o 8 
o 



15 



So 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



SPECIFICATION No. IV. (continued). 



Brought forward 
Root Knife .... 
Flour Dredge 
Pepper Box .... 
Cooks' Knives 



i" 
o 
o 
o 

1 O 


s. 

15 
o 

't 
o' 


d. 

I 
6 



4 
6 


I 
i 
i 


Brought forward 
Enamelled Jug, 3 pint . 
Enamelled Preserving Pan 
Patent Steamer Cooker, 4 
vessels 



3 
o 



o 


s. 
4 
o 
5 

lo 


d. 

9k 
ii 
6 


Hanging Wire Gridiron . 
Fish Slice .... 


O 1 

o 



j) 
o 

6' 


6 
9 

Q 


i 
i 


Pestle and Mortar 
Lemon Squeezer 


o 
o 


2 

o 


ii 
9 


Set Skewers .... 
Vegetable Scoop 
Baking Sheet . . . 
Cooks' Fork .... 
Fry Basket .... 




a 
o 

o 


o 

I 
I 

T 


6 

10 

6 



6 


i 
i 
i 
i 


Coffee Pot .... 
Tea Pot 

Gallon Pail .... 
Galvanized Oval Washing- 
up Pan 







I 
I 
I 


6 
6 




Gravy Strainer 
Hair Sieve . .' ; . '> ' 
Wire Sieve .... 


o 
o 



o 


I 
I 
I 


o 



3 


i 
I 


Spring Balance Family 
Scales, 20 Ib. ... 
Knife Machine, " Servants 





4 


ii 


Corkscrew .... 
Spice Box . ' .'" s . : 
Tin Opener . . . . ' 
Tea, Coffee, and Sugar 
Canister .... 
Flour Bin, Japanned . 
Potato Masher 
2 Enamelled Pie Dishes 
3 Enamelled Pudding Basin 5 


o 
o 




O : 




I 
p 

4 

3 



I 
I 


6 
6 

4 

6 

2 

6~ 

i 


i 
2 


Mincing Machine . 
Coffee Mill .... 
Set Stove Brushes 
Set Boot Brushes 
Hair Broom and Handle 
Bass or Yard Broom and 
Handle .... 
Scrubbing Brushes 





o 



o 



o 


4 
3 

i 

3 

2 

I 
2 


8 
6 

6 
6 

6 





Carried forward . 



Total 



. .699 



Turnery and Brushes, etc. To render the information given here as 
complete as possible, lists are appended : (i) of the various articles 
usually comprehended under the general term " Turnery," with 
brushes ; and (2) of numerous sundries of which it is always desirable 
to know the price. As it is impossible to give prices where many sizts 
of the same article are on sale, the minimum only has been stated, 
preceded by the word " from." 



TURNERY (Best London Make) and BRUSHES. 



s. d. 

o 6 

o 9 

3 I 

2 6 

4 6 



Butter Prints . . from 

Butter Prints, in Case 

Knife Trays, Mahogany 

Knife Trays, Oak . 

Knife Trays, Wicker 

Knife Trays, Japan- 
ned, Single . ,, 020 

Knife Trays, Japan- 
ned, Double. . ,, 056 

Plate Baskets, Wicker 026 

Meat Safes, Wooden, 

Zinc Panels . . o 17 6 

Meat Safes, J apanned 

Wire ... 100 

Jelly Bags ... 030 

Jelly Bags, Wood 

Stand for . . each 046 

Carried forward . . . 3 7 o 



Brought forward . 
Plate Racks . . from 
Housemaid's Box, Deal 
Decanter Drainers . . 

Linen Press , 

Washing Trays . . . 
Clothes-horse ,, 

Wicker Plate Carriers . ,, 
Cask Stand, Patent . . 

Beer Taps 

Stands for Trays 

Unpolished .... 

Polished .... 

Best Boxwood Churns from 
Butter Knives . . . 

Butter Hands 

Salt Box , 



s. d. 

7 o 

8 o 



o 8 



o 9 

13 

1 5 
o 3 
o i 



Carried forward . . .980 



HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS. 




i. Bread Cutter. a. Coffee Roaster. 3. Carpet Sweeper. 
5. Knife Cleaner. 6. Spice Box. 



Wringer and Mangle. 



THE KITCHEN 
TURNERY and BRUSHES (cwiinucd). 



8l 








1 


d. 









s. 


t!. 


Brought forward 


9 


8 


o 


Bp>ut:ht forward . 




II 


I 


a 


Butlers' Aprons . from 





5 


6 


Hand Brooms . 


from 





3 





Chamois Leather , 





I 





Carpet Whisks . . . 


,, 





2 





Flour Tubs . 


o 


4 





Hand Brushes . . 


,, 





I 


9 


Flour Tubs, Barrel Shape , 
Oak Tubs, Round 


o 




2 

2 


6 
6 


Heuth Brushes 
Banister Brushes, Single 


N 


o 




2 

I 


9 
o 


Oak Tubs, Oval . 





4 





Do. Double . . 


,, 





3 


9 


Elm Bowls . . , 


o 


I 


6 


Banister Stair Carpet . 


,, 





I 


9 


House Pails, Wood 


o 


4 





Shoe Brushes, per set of 3 


,, 


o 


4 


6 


Chopping Board . 







6 


Boxes for Stove Brushes 


each 


o 


I 


9 


Door Scrapers, with 








Stove Brushes 


from 





I 


'. 


Brushes . . 





i : 


ii 


Plate Brushes . . 


.. 


o 


I 





Curtain or Bed Brooms ,, 





2 


o 


Oil Brushes . . . 


e.u'h 


o 





6 


Telescope ditto . . 





5 


3 


Dish Brushes 


from 


o 


2 


6 


Carried forward . 


" 


M 


8 


:1 





Ci3 


2 


5 


SUNDRIES. 







f. 


d. 









1. 


,/. 


Bone Spoons . . from 


o 





2 


Brought forward . 




5 


4 


- 


Bottle Ba>kets . . 





1 





HU>. 


from 


o 




6 


Blaek Lead. Bi-st . per \b. 








8 


Knife Boards 


ff 





I 


; 


Bellows, Kitchen . from 





I 


9 


Knit.- Polish . . . 


M 


o 







Bell( i\vs, fancv pattern 





4 





'.ats . 







I 





Bread Platters . . 





1 





Leather, Cham< 




o 


I 




Bread Knives 


o 


2 


6 


Lemon Squeezer 




o 


I 


i 


Butter Dishes, Carved 





I 


o 


Lemon Carats 




o 





i 


Beetle Traps 


o 


I 





Lawn Sieves . 




o 


I 


9 


Butlers' Aprons, Green 








Library Brushes . . 







I 


" 


Baize ... 


o 


5 





Marrow Scoops, I \ <T v 







2 





Butlers' Apron, Red 








Mallets .... 




o 


q 


,, 


Leather . . 


o 




o 


Mops 




o 


I 


t 1 


Buff Leather Ki 








Mops for Jugs . . 










3 


bi>anU ... ,, 





4 


3 


Mouse-Traps 


M 










. 


o 


I 


6 


Nai! Brushes 










6 


P.ottlr Bni-hex . . 








5 


Napkin Kings, Bone 










Crumb Bni-hes . . , 


o 


2 


o 


ry 


M 





I 





Cindei 5 ... 





I 


9 


Paste Brushes 


H 





I 




Cucumber Slicers 





3 





Paste Boards . . 




o 


2 




Closet Brushes . 





2 


6 


Polishing Paste . . per b...\ 





o 


'. 


Dinner Mat<. set 





8 


9 


Putty Powder . . per 


pkt. 


o 





- 


Drinking Horns . . 


o 


I 


9 


Rolling Pins . . . 


from 










Drum Sieves . . 


I 


I 


o 


Sieves (Hair, Wire, etc.) 




o 





7 


Door Mats ... 

Dusting Brushes. . 


o 




9 

I 


6 
o 


Sponges .... 
Soap Boxes . 


- 


o 




Q 



, 


1 liners 


o 





6 


Sink Brushes 


__ 


o 





6 


Finery Powder . . per pkt. 








6 


Scrubbing d >. 










6 


Fine Brushes . . Iran 





I 


6 






o 


! ' 




Furniture do. . . 





I 


i 


Salad > 







O 


6 


Feather Dusters . . 





I 


9 


Sweeps' Brushes . 




o 


I 


7 


I )... with jointed pole 





2 


8 


Towel Rollers . . 







I 


o 


Glaze Brushes . . 





I 


6 


Turks' Heads with 










Housemaids' Gloves. 


o 


" 


8 


jointed Poles . 







3 


-, 


Flannels . . per vd. 





b 


8 


Urn Powder . . . 





i 


< 


ushes . . from 


o 


I 


3 


Vegetable Pressers . 


from 








i 


Hair Sieves ... 


o 





10 


Velvet Brushes . . 




o 


I 


(, 


Hair Sieves, double 








Wooden Spoons . 


tf 


o 





1 


bottoms . . 


o 


2 













. 










Total . . 


( 


7 


J 


Q 


Carried forward . 


5 


\ 


7 













MARKETING 



CHAPTER V 

A Guide for Choosing and Buying Provisions and Home 
Requisites. With full Information about the Prices 
and Seasons of Fish, Meat, Poultry, Game, Dairy 
Produce, Vegetables, Fruit, Tinned Meats, 
Groceries, Wines, Spirits, etc. 

That these lists may be of real service, neither time nor care has been 
spared to render them as complete and reliable as possible. They show 
not only the prices and seasons of all provisions, but when they can be 
bought at their cheapest and best, points to be studied by all house- 
hold managers, particularly those who have to provide for large 
families. 

With regard to fish, meat, poultry, game, dairy produce, vegetables 
and fruit, the prices have been obtained from the principal provincial 
towns as well as from different parts of London, so as to arrive at the 
average cost. 

In the case of tinned provisions, groceries, etc., they are quoted from 
various sources, and at the present reduced scale of charges generally 
adopted by tradesmen and stores throughout the kingdom. 

MEAT 

Except in the case of early lamb, whicn is always expensive (unless 
the excellent New Zealand lamb is used), the price of meat varies but 
little with the season. Lamb and veal are in full season during spring 
and summer, and are generally preferred in the hot weather to beef 
and mutton, which are not then considered so good. 

82 




! > 



MARKETING GUIDE: BEER 




i. Round. 2. Aitchbone. 3. Brisket. 4- Tongue. 5- I-eg. 6. Ribs. 7- Sirloin. 
8. Buttock: E. Topside or Buttock; F. Silverside or Round. 9. Hind-quarter: 
A. Leg, B. Buttock, c. Thick Flank, D. Aitchbone. 



MARKETING 



BEEF. 



PART. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 
ENGLISH. AMERICAN. 


Aitchbone . 


All the year 


During Winter 


i 
6^.perlb. ftd. per Ib. 


Baron 


M 


,, 


gd. ,, 


Brisket . 


M 


,, 


$^d. ,, 


4i. 


Buttock . 


, 


,, 


iod. M iod. 


Clod .... 




,, 


4d. ,, 


Flank . . . 




,, 


$\d. 


4d. 


Hock . . . 




it 


$d. .. 


Silver side 




M 


gd. ,, 8d. 


Neck . . . 




,, 


$d. ,. 3^- M 


Ribs . . . 




,, 


8\d. ,, 7^d. to $\d. ,, 


Rump (in steaks) 




, 


is. id. >, 


lid. ,, 


Shin .... 




, 


3%d. 


-~- 


Round 




, 


R\d. ,, 


jd. to 8^.,, 


Sirloin 




( 


gd. 


Bd. 


Cheek . . . 




( 


is. 3d. ea. 





Heart 




> 


is. 6d. 





Kidney . 




, 


iod. per Ib. 


gd. per Ib. 


Tail .' . . . 




t 


is. gd. ea. 





Tongue . 




' 


25. 6d. 


25. 6d. ea. 



Australian and Foreign Meat Although it is difficult to equal, and 
impossible to surpass, the best British grown beef and mutton, we have 
as a nation immensely benefited by the enormous and ever-increasing 
imports of meat from America, Australia and New Zealand. The 
large supplies of beef which reach us from the river La Plata and else- 
where have undoubtedly kept down prices, so that meat is no longer a 
luxury except among the poor. Much of the beef from South and 
North America reaches us alive, but it is not of this phase of the trade 
that we need speak. The great development arose when it was found 
that cattle and sheep could be slaughtered and dressed on the other side 
of the ocean, then packed close together in freezing chambers on board 
ship, and so imported here. Actual freezing, many contend, injures 
the quality of meat, and certainly if the meat is heated carelessly on 
arrival it quickly deteriorates. As a matter of fact, however, most 
meat is now " chilled," that is packed in chambers in which the air is 
made cold, but is not suffered to reach freezing point. Moreover, it is 
packed in loose-woven cloth wrappers, and on arrival in England is 
removed to cold storage chambers, and gradually exposed to higher 
temperature before it is put on the market. When carefully treated, 
mutton and lamb are none the worse for the long chilly voyage. Beef, 
however, is apt to lose somewhat of its natural firmness and elasticity ; 
it therefore requires to be carefully stored, and, when cooked, should 
be subjected for some minutes to very high temperature, which should 
be subsequently lowered, otherwise the albuminous constitutents will 
soon drain out in the gravy, leaving the mass of meat stringy, ta^t 



8 4 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



and not very nourishing. Imported killed meat cannot safely be kept 
long except in winter, unless hung in a refrigerator. The housewife 
who takes special pride in her roast beef, had better buy English joints, 
using the imported meat for stews and " made dishes." 



VEAL. 



PART. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST. 


AVERAGE 


PRICE. 


Breast . . 
Cutlet . . 




Feb. to Nov. 


In Summer. 


Sd. per 

IS. 2d. 


Ib. 


Fillet . . 












IS. 




Knuckle 












6d. 




Loin . 












S%d. 




Shoulder 












S$d. 




Head . . 












55. each. 


Heart . . 




t 








Qd. each. 


Sweetbread . 













from is. 


each. 



MUTTON. 



PART. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 
ENGLISH. NEW ZEAL'D. 


Breast . \ n '* f . 1 


All the year 


Sept. to April. 


4d. per Ib. 


2\d. per Ib. 


Haunch . 


>t 


lt 


lod. 





Leg .... 


tt 


tt 


9U. 


6d. 


Loin .... 


, 


tt 


gU. 


S U. 


Neck (best end) . 


i 





9 d. 


s&. 


Neck (Scrag end) 


, 


,, 


6d. 


4d. 


Saddle . . . 


( 


tt 


lod. 


6d. 


Shoulder .-.,> - ; *li 


t 


ij 


Sd. 


6d. 


Head f .- {VJ1 f. 


t 


>t 


6d. each. 





Heart " % . ' 


, 


,, 


3^. to ^d.ea,. 





Kidney . . 


, 


,, 


$\d. each. 


id. each. 


Chops '.' i'-"V >: 


ri^9'fl 


" 


is. per Ib. 


Sd. per Ib. 



LAMB. 



PART. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST. 


AVERAG 

ENGLISH. 


E PRICE. 
NEW ZEAL'D. 


Breast 


Mar. to Sept. 


May to July. 


yd. per Ib. 


4d. per Ib. 


Fore-quarter 


,, 


,, 


9 d. 


7 d. 


Hind-quarter 


,, 


,, 


nd. 


8|rf. 


Leg . . 


tl 


tt 


is. 


9\d. 


Loin .... 


t> 


tt 


lid. 


7 \d. 


Neck (best end). 


>t 


,, 


lod. 


6d. 


Neck (Scrag end) 


tl 


,, 


Sd. 


S^ 


Shoulder . . 




It 


ipd. 


Z\d. 


Fry (about) . . 


" 


" 


Sd. to is ,, 






MARKETING 
PORK. 



PART. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Hellv . . . 


Sept. to April 


Nov. to March 


Sd. per Ib. 


Hand . . . 






l 




7 \d. , 




Fore-loin 










Sd. 




Hind-loin 










9*. , 




.... 






, 




SW. , 




Spare ribs 











Sd. 





FISH. 

In purchasing Fish it should be remembered that it is generally 
best when in full season, and the following list will be found useful 
in ascertaining when it is best and cheapest. To give a satisfac- 
tory table of the prices of fish is a difficult and almost impossible task. 
Many circumstances conspire to make the variations in price greater 
than in the case of any other food commodity. The fact that lish is 
a most perishable article of food and is usually caught while travelling 
in shoals, results in alternate scarcity and over-supply of a particular 
kind of fish, whilst the question whether the purchaser resides near or 
far away from a seaside or big distributing town, affects the situation. 
All we have been able to do is to record fluctuations in prices 
period of years, from which the housewife must form her own judgment. 
In conclusion, we would say that in no branch of marketing is personal 
attention better repaid, both in quality and economy, than in the 
buying of fish. The lady who markets herself will select the lish that 
>n the day <f lu r \ isit is plentiful, consequently cheapest and often ! 



NAMI 


IN SEASON. 


BEST & CHEAPEST. 


Avi KA..I PRICE. 


Bloaters . . . 


Sept. to April . 


Sept. to Feb. 


to is. (><l. doz. 


Brill 


Ml the year 


\u ( ' to *\i)i*il 


(x/ to is VHT It* 


Cod .... 


Nov. to March . 


Feb. to March . 


-./. per Ib. 


Crabs .... 


April to October 


Summer . 


3<f. to 35. each. 


Kels .... 


June to March . 


to Nov. . 


6d. to is. per IK 


Haddocks 


August to Feb. . 


Winter . 


3</. to 15. 3</. each. 


Halibut . 


All the year . 


Nov. to June 


4d. to lod. per Ib. 


Herri iH-.s . 


Mav to January 


June to Sept. 


6d. to 15. 6d. doz. 


Lobsters . 


A ll't he year . '. 


Summer 


(xl. to 35. each. 


M.u kerel 

Mullet (red 


N earl vail the year 
All the year ." . 


April to July 
April to October 


3rf. to Sd. c 

to is. 2iL j>er Ib. 


Ovs1rl> 


Sept. to April . 


Winter . 


to IS. per doz. 


Plai- . . . 


All the year. 


Mav to Nov. 


4d. toSd. per Ib. 


Prawns 


Mav to Dec. 


Mav to Nov. 


15. to 25. per pint. 


Salmon 


Feb. to Sept. 


Spring .N: Summer 


lod. to 35. per Ib. 


Shrimps . 


All the year . 


April to Nov. 


3<f. to t<tl. per pint. 


Smelts . . . 


< Htober tO 


\\ inter . 


15. to 25. 6d. per box 



86 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 
FISH (continued). 



NAME OF FISH. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST& CHEAPEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Soles . 


All the year . 


April to July 


15 to 25 per Ib 


Sprats 
Trout 
Turbot . 
Whitebait 
Whiting . 


Nov. to March . 
Feb. to Sept. . . 
All the year . 
Jan. to Sept. . . 
All the year . 


Nov. and Dec. . 
April to July 
Spring & Summer 
Feb. to May 
Spring & Summer 


id. to $d. per Ib. 
Sd. to 25. per Ib. 
6d. to 15. 2d. per Ib. 
15. to 25. per qt 
2d to 6d. each. 



POULTRY. 

The cost of poultry varies considerably, being affected both by the 
season of the year and the district in which it is purchased. It is well 
to remember that poultry almost invariably rises in price at Christmas, 
and also tends to be expensive when no game is on the market. These 
considerations borne in mind, the table below will give a reliable 
average of prices. 



POULTRY. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST & CHEAPEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Chickens . 


Feb. to October 


July to October 


25. to 35. 6d. each. 


Ducklings 


Feb. to August . 


May to July . 


25. 6d. to 35. 6d. ea. 


Ducks . . . 


August to Feb. . 


Sept. and Oct. . 


35. to 45. each. 


Fowls 


All the year 


June to October 


25. 6d. to 35. 6d. each. 


Geese . .' v 


Sept. to Feb. 


Oct. and Nov 


65. to 105. each. 


Green Geese . 


May to August . 


June . . 


65. to 105. each. 


Guinea Fowl . 


Feb. to August . 


Summer ,' .-. 


35. to 45. each. 


Pigeons . 


August to April 


Winter . *. . 


gd to 15. each. 


,, (Bordeaux) 


All the year 


Winter . . . 


15. tO 15. 4d. 


Rabbits . . . 


All the year 


October to Feb. 


6d. to Sd. per Ib. 


(Ostend) 


All the year 


October to Feb. 


jd. and 8d. per Ib. 


Turkeys . 


Oct. to March 


Nov. to January 


105 to i each. 


Wheat'ears . . . 


Sept. to March . 


Sept. and Oct. . 


15. each. 



GAME. 

Game varies very much in price, being generally very expensive on 
the first day or two of the season, whilst on the other hand, any one 
watching the market may sometimes buy it more cheaply than ordinary 
poultry at any subsequent period of the season. 

In this variable climate no hard and fast rule can be laid down for 
the keeping of Game before it is cooked. In all cases it requires hang- 
ing ; but while in winter it is safe to buy birds that have been shot 
some time, in damp or warm weather no such risk should be run, 



MARKETING 87 

GAME (continued). _ 


GAME. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST & CHEAPEST. 1 AVERAGE PRICE. 


Blackcock . . 
Ducks (wild) 
Grouse 
Hares 
Partridges 
Pheasants 
Plovers 
Ptarmigan 
Quail 


Aug. to Nov. 
Oct. to Sept. 
August to Nov. 
Sept. to March . 
Sept. to Feb. 
Oct. to Feb. 
Oct. to Feb. 
Sept. to April 
Sept to Feb. 


Sept. and Oct. . 
Nov. and Dec. . 
September . 
October . . . 
Oct. and Nov. . 
Winter . . . 
Winter . . . 
September . 
Sept. and Oct. . 
Oct. and Nov. . 
W r inter . . . 
S ept. and Oct. . 
Oct. and Nov. . 
Oct and Nov. 


25. 6d. to 35. 6d. b'e. 
2s. to 35. brace. 
35. 6d. to 55. brace. 
35. 6d. to 55. each. 
35. to 55. brace. 
65. to 105. brace. 
15. to 15. 6d. each. 
15. to 15. 6d. each. 
15. to 15. 6d. each 
25. 6d. to 35. brace. 
15. to 15. 6d. each. 
15. to 25. per Ib. 
15. to 15. 6d. each. 
35. 6d. to 55. brace. 


Snipes 
Teal .... 
Venison . 
Widgeon . 
Woodcock 


Oct to Feb. . 
Oct. to Feb. 
Sept. to Jan. 
Oct. to Feb. . . 
Oct. to Feb. . . 



VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

Vegetables and fruits vary greatly in price according to the abundance 
or scarcity of the supplies. Our table gives the average prices which 
would have to be paid at the various seasons of an average year. 

VEGETABLES. 



NAME. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST & CHEAPEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Artichokes 


Jan. to April 


February 


$d. to 6d. each. 


Jerusalem. 


Oct. to March . 


December . 


id. to 2d. per Ib. 


Asparagus 


Feb. to July 


April and May . 


25. 6d. to 55. per 100 


Beans (French) . 


May to November. 


Summer . 


3d. to 15. per Ib. 


(Broad) . 


July and Aug. . 


August . 


6d. to od. per peck. 


(Runners). 


July to Oct.. . 


Aug. and Sept.. 


2d. to 4d. per Ib. 


Beetroot . 


All the year . 


Autumn 


id. to 3d. each. 


Broccoli . 


f 


Autumn 


2d. to 6d. each. 


Sprouts. 


Nov. to May. 


April . . . 


id. to 4d. per Ib. 


Brussels 


Sept. to March. 


Oct. and Nov. . 


2d. to 4d. per Ib. 


Cabbages 


All the year . 


Spring and Smr. 


id. to 2d. each. 


Carrots 


All the year . . 


Early Smr& Atm 


4d. to 6d. bunch. 


Cauliflowers . 


All the year . . 


Summer . 


2d. to 6d. each. 


Celery . . . 


Sept. to March. 


December 


id. to 4d. per hd. 


Horseradish . 


All the year . 


Winter . . . 


id. to 2d. per stick 


Leeks . . . 




Oct. and Nov. . 


3d. to 6d. bundle. 


Lettuce 


M 


Summer . 


id. to 4d. each. 


Onions 




Summer and Atm. 


id. to 2d. per Ib. 


Parsnips . 


Oct. to April . 


Feb. and March . 


id. to 2d. per Ib. 


Peas .... 


June to Sept. . 


July and Aug. . 


4d. to 25. per pck. 


Potatoes . 


All the year 


Autumn 


Id. to id. per Ib. 


New 


March to Aug. . 


June and July . 


id. to Sd. per Ib. 


Radishes . 


April to Nov. . 


June to Aug. 


id. to 2d. per bch. 


Seakale 


Nov. to May 


Feb. and March . 


id. to 25. 6d. bskt. 


Savoys 


Nov. to March . 


Dec. and Jan. . 


id. to 4d. each. 


Spinach 


All the year 


Summer 


2d. to 4d. per Ib. 


Tomatoes 




Sept. and Oct.. 


2d. to 8d. per Ib. 


Vegetable Marru - 


July to Oct. 


September . 


id. to 6d. each. 


"Vatercress 


Ml the year . 


Spring and Smr. 


id. per bunch. 



88 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



FRUIT. 



NAME. 


IN SEASON. 


BEST & CHEAPEST. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Apples 


All the year . 


Oct. to Dec. . 


2d. to 6d. per Ib. 


Apricots . 


June to Sept. . 


August . 


is.6d. to 3s.6d.do. 


Bullaces . 


Autumn 


October 


2d. to 3^. per Ib. 


Cherries . 


June to Aug. 


July . . . 


4d. to Sd. per Ib. 


Currants . 


July to Sept. . 


August . 


$d. to Sd. per Ib. 


Damsons . 


Sept. and Oct. . 


October . . . 


id. to ^d. per Ib. 


Fififs 






2s. to 35. per doz. 


Gooseberries . 


July to Sept. 


August . 


4d. to Sd. per qt. 


(Green) 


May to July. 


June 


2d. to 6d. per qt. 


Grapes (Foreign). 


All the year . . 


Autumn . 


4d. to is. per Ib. 


(Hothouse) 


Sept. to Nov. . 


October . . . 


is. and upwards. 


Greengages 


Aug. and Sept. . 


August . 


3d. to Sd. per Ib. 


Medlars 


Oct. to Jan. . . 


Oct. and Nov. . 


4d. to Sd. per Ib. 


Melons 


June to Nov. . 


October 


gd. to 55. each. 


Nectarines 


Sept. and Oct.. 


October . . 


2s. to 6s. per doz. 


Oranges . 


All the year . 


Winter . . . 


From ^d. per doz. 


Peaches . 


Sept. and Oct. . 


October . . 


45. to 8s. per doz. 


Pears ''V 


Oct. to March . 


Oct. and Nov. . 


id. to 6d. each. 


Plums . " "-."" 


Aug. to Oct. . 


Sept. and Oct. . 


2d. to 6d. per Ib. 


Quinces . vs*^ 


Sept. and Oct. . 


October . 


2s. to 35. per doz. 


Rhubarb . 


Jan. to May . 


March and April 


4d. to Sd. bundle. 


Strawberries 


June to Sept. . 


July . . . 


4d. to is. per Ib. 



Dried Vegetables and Fruits. We have long known such dried fruits 
as raisins and currants, prunes, dates and figs, and pippins. These 
useful pudding and dessert fruits are now more abundant than 
ever, and as a rule prices are moderate. Within recent years other 
fruits have been added to the list, and we now have dried apple 
rings, apricots, etc. These apple rings and apricots reach us chiefly 
from America and Australia, where they are dried in large quantities 
in specially constructed ovens. They are used for pies and tarts, or may 
be served stewed. Before cooking, place the required quantity of dried 
fruit in a colander, and allow tepid water to run over them in order to re- 
move dust. Then place in a bowl and cover with water and allow to soak. 
When soft, place in an enamelled pan and stew gently, adding more water 
if desired. If intended for a pie, stew for a quarter of an hour, then 
place in piedish, add sugar, place crust on, and bake. If to be used 
as a compote, only add the sugar a few minutes before removing from 
the fire. If sugar is added too soon, it is apt to turn to caramel and 
harden the fruit. 

Recently vegetables in great variety have been treated by the 
desiccating process, that is, cut in pieces, and exposed to a more or 
less quick heat, to remove the water. The vegetables are afterwards 
packed loosely or compressed. They retain their colour and flavour, 
and only require soaking before being cooked. These dried vegetables 
are chiefly to be recommended for use on board ship, for travellers , or 
for the store cupboards of housewives. Unquestionably fresh vege- 
tables are to be preferred, whenever obtainable. 



SHEEP. 
















i. Welsh Mountain Ram. 2. Hampshire Ram. 



MARKETING 



89 



DAIRY PRODUCE, HAM, BACON, ETC. 

Dairy produce varies somewhat in price in accordance with locality, 
but the differences are not so great of late years, the increased railway 
facilities having brought about a greater uniformity of price. 

DAIRY PRODUCE. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Butter 




Cheese (contd.) 




Fresh .... 


is. to is. 4</. per Ib. 


Gruyere 


. 


from icw/: per Ib. 


English, Normandy 


Stilton 


. 




is. to is. 6d. per Ib. 


or Brittany 


is. per Ib. 


Eggs- 








Salt . . 






lod. to is. 2d. Ib. 


Hens' 


\ 




8d. to as. per do/. 


Margarine . 






dd. to 8d. per Ib. 


Ducks' 


, ,' 




is. to 2$. 


Cheese 








Geese 






35. to 45. 


American 






6d. to M. per Ib. 


Guinea Fowls' 




IS. to 2S. j/ 


Cheddar 






jod. per Ib. 


Plovers' 






3S. tO 5S- ,Wr 


Cheshire 






g{d. to is. per Ib. 


Turkeys' 


, 




3s. to 45. 


Cream 




i 3</. to is. each. 


Milk . 






4d. per qt. 


Dutch 




7d. to ad. per Ib. 


Separated 




2<*. 


Gorgonzola 


from gd. per Ib. 


Cream . 





is. to 35. per pint. 



BACON, HAM, ETC. 

The cheaper parts of bacon vary from $d. to f)d. per Ib.. but by 
reason of the quantity of bone contained in them they are not in reality 
more economical than the best. 



ARTH i i . 


AVERAGE 1 


ARTH i i . 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Baron (best part). 
Ham 
English 

AiiHTic.m 


!></. to is. per Ib. 

Si/, t.) IS. 

7ld. ti).,i</. .. 


I 'am (contd.) 
Canadian . 

. . . 
Pickled Pork 
-:t>s . 


7d to orf. per Ib. 

7c/. to io</. 
Ki/. 
S,/. to is. ^ , 



PROVISIONS AND HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES. 

For groceries, tinned provisions, jams, biscuits and other household 

sites, the prices quoted will be found a fair average of those 

charged by the principal provision dealers and grocers in London and 

hief provincial towns. 

Tinned meats, soups, fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables now occupy 
an important place in our food supply, being available at any time, 
and handy substitutes when fresh provisions are difficult to pro- 
cure. In the respective chapters will be found recipes giving full 
tions for their use. 



9 o 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



GROCERY. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 






Fruit (continued) 




Almonds J ordan 


is. to 2s. 6d. per Ib. 


Greengages . 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


Valencia 


is. to 2s. 6d. per Ib. 


Chinois 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


Baking powder 


4\d. per tin. 


Crystallized 




Beef Essence 




Cherries . 


is. 3d. per Ib. 


(Brand's) . . 


is. 3d. per tin. 


Pears . . . 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


(Mason's) . . 


g\d. per bot. 


Angelica . 


is. id. per Ib. 


(Liebig's) . . 


2S. 3d. per J Ib. 


Figs .... 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


Beef Tea in skins . 


5s. to 6s. per Ib. 


Flour Best Whites 


from i id. 7 Ib. bag. 


Blancmange Pwdr. 


6d. per box. 


Self-raising . 


is. lod. 12 Ib. bag. 


Capers .... 


5d. per Ib. bottle. 


Whole Meal 


i id. 7 Ib. bag. 


Candied peel 




Gelatine . . .. 


3|d. per pkt. 


Lemon 


4\d. per Ib. 


Ginger . ; . ; 


8d. per Ib. 


Orange . . 


5d. per Ib. 


Ground . 


8d. per Ib. 


Citron 


7d. per Ib. 


Crystallized . 


is. id. per Ib. 


Mixed . . 


6d. per Ib. 


Preserved 


5d. per Ib. in jar. 


Chicory 


4d. per Ib. 


Golden syrup. 


is. per 4 Ib. tin. 


Chocolate . . 


lod. per Ib. 


Herbs .... 


5d. per bot. 


Best do . . 


nd. per tin. 


Isinglass . y ' 


5d. per pkt. 


Milk paste . 


i id. per tin. 


Mustard . <; * 


is. 4d. i Ib. tin. 


Cocoa .... 


2S. 6d. per Ib. 


Prunes 


4d. per Ib. 


Essence . 


from is. 6d. per Ib. 


Pudding powder . 


6d. per pkt. 


Nibs . . . 


is. 3d. per Ib. 


Raisins 




Coco3.tin.cL * 


is. 7 id. per \ Ib. tin. 


Valencia . . 


5d. per Ib. 


Coffee- 




Sultanas . . 


6d. per Ib! 


Whole, or ground 


from is. to 2s. per Ib. 


Muscatels 


8d. to is. 4d. per Ib. 


East-India . . 


is. 6d. per Ib. 


Spices, various . 


4 id. per tin. 


Mocha 


is. gd. per Ib. 


Sugar Demerara 


2|d. per Ib. 


Coffee and Milk . 


io|d. per tin. 


Loaf .... 


2|d. per Ib. 


Currants 


2 id. to 5d. per Ib. 


Tea- 




Custard powder . 


4 Id. per tin. 


Congou . 


is. 2d. per Ib. 


Curry powder . 


is. 6d. per Ib. bot. 


Ceylon . , ,,.,_ 


is. 6d. to 35. per Ib. 


Paste . . . 


is. 2d. per pt. jar. 


Orange Pekoe . 


2S. 8d. per Ib. 


Egg powder 


6d. per pkt. 


Gunpowder . 


35. per Ib. 


Fruit Dried 


is. 2d. per Ib. 


Assam Pekoe . 


2S. 6d. per Ib. 


Apricots . ' . 


is. 3d. per Ib. 


Oolong . . 


2S. 6d. per Ib. 


Lunettes 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


Young Hyson . 


2s. 6d. per Ib. 


Melon . . . 


is. 6d. per Ib. 


Consolidated 


2S. 8d. per Ib. 


Mixed . . , ?-| 


is. 4d. per Ib. 


Yeast-Powder 


4d. per t : .n. 



Preserved and Tinned Provisions. The preservation of meat and other 
foods by pickling, salting and smoking has been in use since early times 
in many lands. The primitive methods of exposing slabs of meat, 
or split-open fish and fowls, to the fierce rays of the sun, or to the 
action of smoke, have been improved upon. A large choice of 
smoked hams and bacon (the pork having undergone some process of 
" curing " before the actual smoke exposure) is now afforded, and other 
dried foods usually found in the market are smoked tongues, smoked 
and salted herrings, mackerel, salmon, eels, turtle, etc., smoked breasts 
of geese and sausages. 

Of much more recent origin are the methods of preserving foods in 
bottles and tins. This system is due to a Parisian, named Appert. He 
placed meats, vegetables and fruits in bottles, brought them to the boil, 
and hermetically sealed the openings. It is true that before his day, 
it had been the custom to put foods in vases with or without water and. 



MARKETING 



vinegar, and pour on an air impervious seal of oil. But Appert's 
system was a great step in advance, and gave rise to the enormous trade 
in tinned and bottled foods. For years the system was chiefly applied 
to the preserving of expensive delicacies, but it was ultimately adopted 
in Australia and America for the packing of cheap foods, such as beef 
and mutton, and afterwards rabbits, soups, salmon and lobster. 
In the early stages, Australian meat was partly roasted, then 
packed in tins which were boiled in a water bath, or by steam, 
and then sealed down. Though the meat was cheap, it was somewhat 
overcooked, and therefore neither tasty nor nourishing. Improve- 
ments have been steadily produced, and now the meat, fowl, and fish 
imported from abroad in tins is usually excellent. Some precaution 
should be taken. The food remains wholesome so long as the tins 
remain air-tight, but if air gets in, decomposition soon follows. It 
is therefore necessary to see that the tins are perfect and air- tight. 
Tins should not be bulged ; the tops and bottoms should be concave, 
and have the appearance of depressions. They should be free from 
rust. Bulged and rusty tins should be rejected, and so ought those 
which emit a rush of air on being opened. As soon as a tin is opened 
the whole contents should be turned out. Fish should be eaten 
(or at all events cooked) the same day it is opened. This does 
not apply to sardines and other kinds preserved in oil, afthough 
even these had better be placed in glass or earthenware dishes. Tinned 
vegetables and fruits soon deteriorate when opened if left in the tins. 
As a rule, foods preserved in earthenware and glass are better and 
safer, though rather more expensive than those sold in tin cans. 
Tinned and bottled fruits should be stored in a cool, dry cupboard. 
Tinned sardines, bottled anchovies and anchovy paste ought always 
to be kept in store, as they are useful in preparing many dishes. 

TINNED PROVISIONS, JAMS, etc. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Cherries in Brandy 


15. yd. per half bot. 


Haddocks, Blanch- 




Cake, Various . 


in _(/. each. 


flower . 


io</. per tin. 


Fruit in Tins 




Herrings 


8d. per tin. 


Poaches . . 


lod. per tin. 


Honey .... 


nd. per jar. 


Pineapple 


5d. to nA</. per tin. 


Jams- 




Pears . . . 


gd. to is.'bd 


Apricot . 


5<f. per Ib. jar. 


Apricots . 
Bottled Plums 
Cranberries . 


Sd. to 15. 4<*. 
6J<*. per bottle. 
8U. per bottle. 


Raspberry . 
Strawberry . 
Raspberry and 


(>(/. per Ib. jar. 
$d. per Ib. jar. 


Gooseberries 


6Jrf. per bottle. 


Currant 


5|rf. per Ib jar. 


Black Currants 
Red Currants 


lid. per bottle. 
8d. per bottle. 


Greengage . . 
Black Currant . 


5</. per Ib. jar. 
6d. per Ib. jar. 


Cherries . 


lod. per bottle. 


Red Currant 


5</. per Ib. jar. 


-a^es . 
Raspberries and 


gd. per bottle. 


Gooseberry . 
Plum .... 


; 'T Ib. jar. 
4<V. per Ib. jar. 


Currants . 


15. per bottle. 







9 2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

TINNED PROVISIONS, JAMS, ETC. (continued} 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Jellies- 




Meats, etc. (contd.) 




Red Currant 


\d. per Ib. pot. 


Lunch Ham 


is. id. per i fib. tin. 


Black Currant . 


4d per J Ib. pot. 


Minced Collops . 


9 Id. per 2 Ib. tin. 


Calf's Foot . . 


is. 6d. per qt. bot. 


Minced Steak . 


g\d. per 2 Ib. tin. 


Orange . 'V *i 


is. 6d. per qt. bot. 


Mutton Cutlets 




Lemon . .,, , t - . i. 


is. 6d. per qt. bot. 


with Tomato 




Madeira . 


2s. per qt. bot. 


Sauce . 


is. gd. per tin. 


Aspic . 


is. 6d. per qt. bot. 


Mutton, Roast . 


lod. per tin. 


Lobster . . ^;--! 


8d. per tin. 


Mutton, Boiled . 


is. 2d. per tin. 


Marmalade . * '.. 


4d. per Ib. jar. 


Ox Tongues . 


2s. gd. per tin. 


Meats, Game and 




Ox Tails (solid) . 


g\d. per 2 Ib. tin. 


Poultry- 




Pheasant, Roast, 




Ham and Chicken 


is. 4d. small tin. 


whole, in Jelly 


4S. 6d. per tin. 


Turkey and 




Ptarmigan . 


is. gd. per tin. 


Tongue 


is. 4d. small tin. 


Pic-nic Pie . 


is. 4d. per tin. 


Ham, Chicken, 




Rabbit, excellent 




and Tongue 


is. 4d. small tin. 


quality 


gd. per tin. 


Beef, Ham and 




Rabbit, finest 




Tongue 


2S. large tin. 


quality 


iod. per tin. 


Veal, Ham and 




Rabbit, Curried . 


io|d. per 2 Ib. tin 


Tongue 


2S. large tin. 


Stewed Kidney 




Chicken and 




and Mushroom 


is. gd. per tin. 


Tongue 


2S. i|d. large tin. 


Turkey and 




Chicken and 




Tongue 


n|d. per tin. 


Ham . 


2S. i|d. large tin. 


Turkey, Roast . 


is. 3d. per tin. 


Chicken, Ham 




Turkey, Bone- 




and Tongue . 


2S. i d. large tin. 


less . . . 


1 1 d. per \ Ib. tin. 


Turkey and 




Tete de Veau (en 




Tongue ^r;> 4 - 
Veal and Ham . 


2S. \\d. large tin. 
2S. \\d. large tin. 


Tortue) . . 
Veal and Ham 


is. sd. per tin. 


Pork and Rabbit 


is. 8d. per tin. 


(half - circle 




Beef, Boiled or 




tin) . . . 


is. iod. per tin. 


Roast. . . . 


is. 2d. per tiu. 


Veal Cutlets with 




Chicken, Roast, 




Tomato Sauce 


is. gd. per tin. 


whole, in ielly. 


3s. 3d. per tin. 


Veal Loaf . . 


9 id. per tin. 


Chicken (Poulet 




Milk 




de Bresse) 


2S. 6d. per tin. 


Anglo-Swiss . 


5 id. per tin. 


Half Roast Fowl 




English . . . 


5d. per tin. 


and Sausage . 


2S. per tin. 


Olives 




Chicken and 




French 


6d. per bottle. 


Tongue (half 




Spanish . 


8d. per bottle. 


circle tin) . 


is. lojd. per tin. 


Oysters .... 


6id. per tin. 


Chicken, Spring 




Plum Pudding 


is. lod. per Ib. tin. 


(one bird in tin) 


is. 6d. per tin. 


Potted Meats 




Chicken, Roast . 


is. 3d. per ilb. tin. 


Anchovy . 


5d. per tin. 


Chicken, Boneless 


1 1 \d. per | Ib. tin. 


Bloater' . . . 


5d. per tin. 


Duck, Boneless . 


nfd. per 1 Ib. tin. 


Ham Tongue . 


5d. per tin. 


Calf's Head and 




Strasbourg Meats 




Tomato 


i s 2 \d. per tin. 


Beef .... 


5d. per tin. 


Camp Pie 


is. 4d. per tin. 


Pate de foie gras 


2S. 6d. per jar. 


Game Pie 


is. 4d. per tin. 


Game 


5d. per tin. 


T u Tccl H<irc 


is. ^d. per tin. 


Rabbit 


is Sd per tin. 


Lambs' Sweet- 




salmon .... 


8d. per tin. 


breads with 




Sardines (Peneau) . 


is. 2d. per tin. 


Tomato Sauce 


is. \\d. per tin. 


(Philipee and 




Larks, Roast, 6 




Canaud) . . 


is. 4d. per tin. 


birds . 


2s. gd. per tin. 


Sausages 


6d. to 2S. per tin. 



MARKETING 
TINNED PROVISIONS, JAMS, ETC. (continued) 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Soups- 
Turtle (Brand's) 
Ox Tail, Mock 
Turtle, Hare, 


is. $d. per qt. tin. 


S tups (contd.) 
Gravy, Vegetable 
Green Pea . 
Mutton Broth . 
Truffles 


is. per qt. tin. 
yd. per qt. tin. 
is. per qt. tin. 
is. Sd. J bottle. 


gatawny. Gravy, 
and Giblet 
Soups (Crosse & 
Blackwell, and 
Lazenby) 
Game Hare 
Mock Turtle, Ox 
Tail . . . 
Giblet. Mulliga- 
tawny . 
Julienne . 


From is. per qt. tin. 

is. 6d. per qt. tin. 
is. 4d. per qt. tin. 

is. 4</. per qt. tin. 
is. per qt. tin. 


Vegetables 
Artichokes . 
Asparagus 
Celery 
French Beans . 
Green Peas . 
Haricots, Verts . 
Macedoine 
Mushrooms . 
Tomatoes . . 


is. 4\d. per l>ot. 
is. per tin. 
gd. per tin. 
is. per tin. 
io(/. per qt. tin. 
is. per qt. tin. 
io\d. per qt. tin. 
is. per qt. tin. 
4</. to (>(/. per tin. 



BISCUITS. 


ARTICLE. 


\(,E PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE rim i . 


Aberucthy . . . 


6d. per Ib. 


Ginger Nuts . . 


6rf. per Ib. 


Almond Rings 


(></. per 11). 


Ice Creams . . 


is. Sd. per Ib. 


>ot . 


7</. per Ib. 


Jam Fingers . 


s,/. per Ib. 


Arrowroot (thin) . 
Hath .... 


Sd. per Ib. 
7d. per Ib. 


Kindergarten . 
Lunch .... 


5d. per Ib. 
From 3d. per Ib. 


Breakfast . 


Sd. per Ib. 


Macaroons . 


n</. per Ib. 


Butter . . 


5 /. per Ib. 


Marie .... 


r Ib. 


Buttt-r Cream . 


r Ib. 


Maitrc d'Hotel . 


From is. per Ib. 


Butter Finders 
Butter Nuts 


(>\ji. per Ib. 
v/. per Ib. 


Milk .... 
.... 


$d. per Ib. 

From (.</. per Ib. 


Cinderella . 


(>,/. per Ib. 


.... 


From (</. per Ib. 


Captain 


S./. per Ib. 


ikes. . . 


. 


. 


s</. per Ib. 


Olive .... 


I0$</. per 11). 


Coffee .... 


]o</. per Ib. 


Osborne . 


7d. per Ib. 


CoKmial 


K/. per 11). 


..- 


x/. per Ib. 


Crackm I ... 


r Ib. 


Ratafias . . . 


I. per Ib. 


Cream Cracker. 


(></. per Ib. 


Shortbread 


From gd. per tin. 


.... 


lod. to is. 3</. per Ib. 


Tea 


r Ib. 


-live . 


o/. per Ib. . . 


Toast .... 


7d. per Ib. 


Dinner qd. per Ib. 


.... 


$d. per Ib. 


Garibaldi 


6d per Ib. 


- (various) . 


is. 2d. to is. Sd. 


. 


From h,/. per Ib. 


Wholemeal . . 


Sd. per Ib. 


GRAIN AND PREPARED FOODS. 


< LE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE I 


Arrowroot . . . From s</. to lod. 


Rice (continued) 




per Ib. 


Patna . 


2\d. per Ib. 


Barlev . . 2il. PIT Ib. 


Java. . 


2\J. per Ib. 


Corn 'Flour 5</- PT 11). packet. 


Carolina . 


}j. per 11). 


. . 4</. per Ib. packet. 


Ground . 


zJ. per Ib. 


Hotninv . _'(/. per Ib. 


Sago, Small 


2<f. per Ib. 


Lentil Flour 3</. per Ib. 
Oatmeal . From 2\,i. per Ib. 


e . 

Semolina . 


2\<l. per Ib. 

2\ti. j-tr Ib. 


ur . (x/. per tiiu 


a 


2J. per Ib. 




t. . 


\il. per 11). 


-;oon . . id. per Ib. 


Vermicelli . 


3 |d. per Ib. 



94 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



SAUCES AND PICKLES. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


fauces 




Sauces (continued) 




Anchovy 


lod. per bottle. 


Horseradish . 


4%d. per pot. 


Browning for See 


5^d. per bottle. 


Mason's O.K. 


7d. per bottle. 


Brand's Ai . 


8d. per bottle. 


Foundation Sauces 




Tomato . . . 


iod. per bottle. 


Italienne, dark . 


is. gd. 4 oz. bottle. 


Clarence . .-- 1, 


6d. per bottle. 


Espagnole, brown 


is. gd. 4 oz. bottle. 


Harvey's 


yd. per bottle. 


Allemande, pale . 


is. gd. 4 oz. bottle. 


Ketchup 


8d. per bottle. 


Pickles- 




Reading (Cock's) 


lod. per bottle. 


Cabbage . 


8|d. per pint bot. 


Soy . . . 


6|d. per bottle. 


Cauliflower . 


8 id. per pint bot. 


Regent . . . 


is. per bottle. 


Onions, Mixed . 


8 id. per pint bot. 


Worcester 


4%d. per bottle. 


Walnuts . . . ! 8|d. per pint bot. 


Yorkshire Relish 


4\d. and gd. per bot. 


Piccalilli. . . 8 Id. per pint bot. 


Edward's 


3d. per bottle. 


Gherkins . . j 8|d. per pint bot. 


Mushroom Ket- 




Mangoes . 


8d. per pint bot. 


chup . . % '.. ; 


5d. per bottle. 


Chutnee . 


is. per bottle. 


Bengal Chutney. 


15. per bottle. 


Mango 


is. per bottle. 


Curry 


6|d. per tin. 


Indian Relish . 


is. 6d. per jar. 



HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 


Bath Brick ;.J^1 


id. each. 


Nugget . 4 .-. 


4\d. and gd. per bot. 


Beeswax . . 


is. gd. per Ib. 


Pepper Whole . 


is. 2d. per Ib. 


Blacking . . .4 


3d. doz. skins. 


Ground . 


is. 2d. per Ib. 


Ebonite . . . 


gd. per bottle. 


Cayenne . . 


4d. per bottle. 


Blacklead . . . 


6d. per packet. 


Nepaul . 


4d. to is. per bottle. 


Blue . j lod. per Ib. 


Plate Powder . . 


6d. per box. 


Brunswick Black . 


yd. per bottle. 


Polishing Paste . 


6d. per pot. 


Candles, Composite 


35. 6d. 6 Ib. 


Salt .... 


7d. per 14 Ib. 


Stearine . . I 3. gd. 6 Ib. 


Cerebos 


6d. per tin. 


Rock Wax . . 


3s. gd. 6 Ib. 


Soap, Yellow (Kt.) 


3d. per Ib. 


Dyes .... 


3^d. per bottle. 


Soft (Knight) . 


iod. 3$-lb. tin. 


Gold Paint . . 


lold. per bottle. 


Cold Water . . 


3d. per Ib. 


Essences (flavouring); from 3d. per bottle. 


Carbolic . 


3d. per Ib. 


Furniture Polish . 


6d. per pot. 


Hudson's Extract 


4d. per packet. 


Cream 


6d. per bottle. 


Toilet. . . . 


id. to 6d. per tablet. 


Knife Powder . 


4\d. per packet. 


Soda .... 


7d. per 14 Ib. 


Polish . . . 


\\d. per packet. 


Starch Glenfield 


5 id. per Ib. 


Metal Polishing Pdr. 


3d. per box. 


Col man's 


3|d. per Ib. 


Night Lights . . 


45. doz. boxes. 


Vinegar 


1\d. per quart. 



MARKETING 



95 



WINES, SPIRITS AND LIQUEURS. 

In the following lists the prices are averaged from those of several 
good firms of Wine Merchants, both in London and the chief pro- 
vincial towns. Prices vary very considerably according to the age of 
the wine and vintage years. 



WINES. 



Australian Wines (Red) 

Burgundy . from igs. per doz. bots. 

Cabernet . 245. per doz. bots 

Chablis . ,, igs. per doz. bots. 

Australian Wines (White) 

Riesling . . from 225. per doz. bots. 

Muscat . . ,, 3os. per doz. bots. 

Bordeaux (White) 

Sauterne. . from 255. per doz. bots. 

imdy (Red) 

Burgundy . from i8s. per doz. bots. 
Beaune . . 24$. per do/ 
Chambertin. 6os. per doz. bots. 
California Wines 

Burgundy . from 195. per doz. bots. 
Claret . . 175. per do/. 
Sauterne. . 255. per do/ 
Hock Riesing 195. per doz. bots. 
Champagne 

Bollinger & Co. from 825. per doz. bots. 
& G 

7os. per doz. bots. 
8os. per doz. bots. 
90s. per doz. bots. 

78s. per doz. bots. 
66s. per doz. bots. 
875. per doz. bots. 
845. per doz. bots. 
1565. per doz. bots. 

[as. per doz. bots. 
1 8s. per doz. bots. 

js. per doz. bots. 



I! Claret (continued) 

Chateau Laftte from 4005. per doz. bots. 
Chateau Cos 

SQS. per doz. bots. 



dennann . 

Duminv & Co. 
H.-idsieck&Co. 
Laurent- Per- 
rier . 

t & Chan- 
don . 

(I. H. Mumm 
&Co. . . 
Piper- Heid- 
sieck 

..ruery & 
C.n-no . 
t 
Ordinary . 

. . 

Chateau Mar- 
gaux . . 



Chateau Cos 
d'Estournel 

Hock 
Niersteiner 
Johannisberg . 
Marcobrunner 
Rudesheimer . 

Italian Wine 
Egidio Vital! 



Chianti, 
nary 



Ordi- 



from 245. per doz. bots. 
1 26s. per doz. hots. 
,, 565. per do/ 
,, 30$. per doz. bots. 

from 66s. per doz. bots. 



,, 2is. 6d. per doz bots. 
Tarragona Port. izs. per doz. bots. 
Madeira 

Dinner Wine . from 325. to 68s. per doz. 
Marsala [ bots - 

i . . fromigs. 6J. per doz. bots. 
Moselle 
Berncastler Doc- 
tor A uslese from 6os. per doz. bots. 
Port . . ,,i8s.toi44s.perdoz.bots. 
Vintage Wine; 

Tuke's, 1802 . from 66s. per d.>/. bots. 
I, 1885 . 705. per doz. bots. 
man's. iSt>s ,, 1445. per do. 
Sherry 

Pale. . . . from 1 8s. per doz. bots 
Golden . . . 20$. per doz. bots. 
Superior Golden 485. per doz. IK >ts. 
Montilla . . ,. 66s. per doz. bot i. 
British Wines- 
Orange . . . from 145. per do/ 

:...,, 145. per d</. 1). its. 
. . . . I4S. per do/ 
;p. . . I4S. per do/ 

. . . 75. per do/. l..i.,. 



SPIRITS. 



Iv . from 4os. to 20os. per doz. bots. !| Rum 
. ,, 28s. to 385. per doz. bots. I Whiskey 



. from 35$. to 43$. per doz. bots. 

375. to 66s. per do/ 
3Oi. to 555. 6d. per <; i mtli. 305. per doz. bots. 

I 



9 6 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 
LIQUEURS. 



Liqueurs 
Absinthe . 


from 6s. per bot. 


Liqueurs (continued) 
Kirschwasser . from 55. 6d. per bot. 


Anisette . 


' 55. per bot. 


Kiimmel . 45. %d. per bot. 


Benedictine . 


75. per bot. 


Maraschino. . 45. gd. per bot. 


Creme de Menthe 5$. 6d. per bot. 


Vermouth . . 2s. 6d. per bot. 


Chartreuse (yel- 




English Liqueurs 


low) . . . 


95. per bot! 


Cherry Brand v. from 35. 6d. per bot. 


C hartreuse 
(green) . . 


us. Sd. per bot. 


Ginger Brandy 3$. 6d. per bot. 
Orange Brandy 35. 6d. per bot. 


Curacoa (sweet 




Milk Punch . 35. 6d. per bot. 


or dry) . 


55. gd. per bot. 




ALES AND STOUT. 


Dinner Ale 


2s. 6d. per doz. bots. 


Bitter Ale ... us. 6d. per 9 gals. 


Stout .... 


2S. 6d. per doz. bots. 


Stout in Cask . .145. per 9 gals. 


Pale Ale . .- ; 


8s. 6d. per 9 gals. 


Porter in Cask . . 95. per 9 gals. 



MINERAL WATERS AND BEVERAGES. 



ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE 1 


5 RICE. 


ARTICLE. 


AVERAGE ] 


'RICE. 


Soda Water .._, 


is. ^d. per 


doz. 


Bitters 






Lemonade '.'' \ u 


is. 6d. 




Angostura . 


45. 6d. per 


bot. 


Ginger Beer .- * ; 


is. 6d. 




Hop .... 


2s. 6d. 




Ginger Ale V 1 ** 


is. 6d. 




Khoosh . . . 


25. 6d. 




Potass .... 


is. 6d. 




Orange . 


2S. 6d. 




Lithia .... 


35. gd. 




Fruit J uice &Syrups 






Soda Water (Sch.) 


as. gd. 




Lemon Juice 


4*4. 




Seltzer , . 


as. gd. 




Orange Juice . 


4 W. 




Ginger Ale 


2s. gd. 




Lime Fruit Juice 


IS. 




Lemonade 


35. 3d. 




Lime Juice Cordl. 


IS. lid. 




Potass 


2s. gd. 




Syrups, Lemon, 






Lithia 


45. 




etc. . . . 


IS. , 


i 








Vinegar, Rasp- 












berry . 


Sid. 






NATURAL MINERAL WATERS. 



NAME. 


PROPERTIES. 


PRICE. 




Aperient ..... 


us per doz bottles 


Apollinaris 
Buffalo Lithia ... ;' 
Carlsbad ..... 


Table Water . . . 
Alkaline Lithiated . . 
Alkaline Lithiated . 


6s. per doz. bottles. 
95. per doz. bottles. 
i2s. per doz. bottles 


Hunyadi Janos 


Saline Aperient 
Table Water, Gaseous 


I2S. per doz. bottles. 
6s. per doz bottles 




Alkaline Chalybeate 


us per doz bottles 


Rosbach 
Salutaris (Manufactured) 
Taunus . ' ' '"' ' . . 


Table Water . . . 
Table Water . . . 
Table Water, Gaseous 


6s. per doz. bottles. 
4s. 6d. per doz. bottles. 
*5s. per doz. bottles. 


Vichy (State Springs) 


Alkaline Acidulated 


95. per doz. bottles. 



MARKETING GUIDE: MUTTON. 








V ^ 





i. Hind Ouartcr. 2. Un-a.;t. v Neck. 4. Leg. 5. Saddle. 6. Shoulder. 

7- Haunch. 3. Side: A. Leg, B. Loin, c. Best End of Neck, D. L>reust, E. Shoulder, 
rag. 

17 E 



MARKETING GUIDE: PORK AND VEAL. 




i. Side of Pork : A. Leg, B. Belly, c. Loin, D. Hand, E. Spare Rib. 3. Loin. 
4. Hand and Spring, and Belly. 5. Loin (side view) : F. Fore-end, c. Middle Loin, 
n. Hind Loin. 6. Leg. 2. Neck of Veal. 7. Side of Veal : A. Knuckle, u. HJlet, 
c. Loin, D. Breast, E. Best End of Neck, F. Shoulder, c. Scrag. 
18 



MARKETING 



97 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FOOD, WITH ITS PERCENTAGE OF CARBON 

AND NITROGEN. 
SHOWING WHAT A SHILLING WILL BUY. 



A SHILLING WILL BUY 


BONE. 


MEAT. 


TOTAL 
\\"I:IGHT. 


CENT- 
GARI 


l'i K CENT. 

Nil KOGEN. 


Rumpsteak 


none. 


13 oz. 


13 oz. 


11-00 


3-00 


Heels teak 


none. 


16 oz. 


16 oz. 


,, 





Ribs of beef 


2\ OZ. 


i Si oz. 


1 8 oz. 


,, 





: mutton piece . 


none. 


19 oz. 


19 oz. 








Shin 


none 


30 oz. 


30 oz 




1 1 


Leg of mutton . 


2.\ OZ. 


i;\ OCL 


1 8 oz. 


,, 




Loin of mutton . 


3" "z. 


15 oz. 


IS o/. 


1, 





Neck (best end). . 


4 oz. 


16 oz. 


20 oz. 


,, 


.. 


Shoulder (best end). 


3 oz. 


17 oz. 


20 oz. 


,, 





Veal cutlet . . . 


2 02. 


10 OZ. 


12 n/. 


,, 


.. 


' of veal . 


' "/.. 




22 OZ. 


.. 


.. 


Salmon .... 


I OZ. 


7 oz. 


S oz. 






One- third of a fowl . 


II OZ. 


<; >/. 


20 OZ. 


14-, H ) 




Two-thirds of a rabbit 


4 o/. 


1 6 oz. 


20 OZ. 








Bacon .... 


j o/. 


19 oz. 


21 OZ. 


62-58 




Bread .... 








100 OZ. 


30-00 




riinse .... 








24 oz. 


41 


4-126 


Potatoes .... 








192 oz. 


81-00 


0'33 


Oatmeal' 








I I 2 OZ. 


44-00 




Hiri'iit bi-.ui.si . 








"Z. 






Hommv 1 








oz. 


40 





To arrive al the relative value of various foods, it is absolutely 1: 
sary to carefully estimate their ditk-rent nutritive qual 

By this table it will be seen that some expensive foods are really 
even more costly than they appear at first sight, because of the small 
proportion of flesh-forming, or nutritive quality they contain. As an 
instance of this one shilling will buy only 7 ozs. of salmon, containing 
2 per cent nitrogen., while the same sum will buy 30 ozs. of shin of beef, 
containing 3 per cent, nitrogen, or 24 ozs. of cheese, containing 4 per 
cent. 

The heat-giving qualities can be estimated by comparing the large 
ntage of carbon which such foods as oatmeal and potatoes contain 
with the small amount which is found in various meats. Thus one 
shilling will buy 136 oxs. of hominy, containing 40-28 per cent, of car- 
bon, or i<)2 ozs. of potatoes, containing Si per cc-nt., whilst it will only 
buy 13 ozs. of steak, which contains n per cent, of carbon. 



; Once, weeklv. remember thy charges to cast, 

M'.onthly. see how thy expenses may last." TPSSFR, 1557- 



Artificially dried. Reckon half as much again for the water to be added. 

E 



98 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

CALENDAR OF FOOD IN SEASON 

The following lists will be found useful in arranging menus, as it can 
be seen at a glance what Fish, Meat, Vegetables, etc., are in season, but 
it will be necessary to turn to our price lists to know when all such fresh 
provisions are cheapest and best. It need hardly be added that 
tinned and preserved provisions are always to be obtained. 

JANUARY. 

Fish. Brill, carp, cod, crayfish, eels, flounders, haddocks, halibut, 
ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, prawns, scallops, shrimps, 
skate, smelts, soles, sprats, tench, turbot, whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys. 

Game. Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl, woodcock. 

Vegetables. Jerusalem Artichokes, beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, 
carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers, endive, lettuces, parsnips, 
potatoes, spinach, turnips. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, grapes, medlars, nuts, oranges, pears, pines, 
Spanish nuts. 

FEBRUARY 

Fish. Bream, brill, carp, cod, crab, crayfish, eels, flounders, had- 
docks, halibut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, pike, 
prawns, salmon, scallops, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, turbot, 
whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal. 

Poultry. Capon, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys. 

Game. Hares, partridges, pheasants (until the I5th), snipes, wood- 
cock, wild fowl. 

Vegetables. Jerusalem Artichokes, beetroot, broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers, endive, 
lettuce, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, spinach, turnips. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, chestnuts, grapes, medlars, rhubarb, nuts, 
oranges, pears, pines, peaches, Spanish nuts. 

MARCH. 

Fish. Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, eels, flounders, had- 
docks, halibut, herring, ling, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, pike, 
prawns, salmon, scallops, shrimps, skate, smelt, soles, sprats, tench, 
turbot, whiting, whitebait. 

Meat. Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys, 
wild-fowl. 

Game. Hares, Guinea fowls. Foreign : black game, ortolans, 
ptarmigan, quails. 



MARKETING 99 

Vegetables. Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, beetroot, broccoli, 
Brussels sprouts, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, chervil, cucumbers, 
endive, horseradish, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, radishes, spinach, 
tomatoes, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, figs, grapes, medlars, nectarines, oranges, 
pears, peaches, pines, dried fruits, rhubarb. 

APRIL. 

Fish. Bream, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, flounders, gurnet, haddock, 
halibut, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, prawns, salmon, scallops, 
shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, turbot, trout, whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, 
pullets, rabbits. 

Game. Guinea fowl. Foreign : ortolans, ptarmigan, quails. 

Vegetables. Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, beetroot, broccoli, 
cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, radishes, 
seakale, spinach, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, figs, grapes, oranges, pines, dried fruits, 
rhubarb. 

MAT. 

Fish. Bass, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, hake, halibut, herrings, 
lobsters, mackerel, mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, scallops, smelts, soles, 
trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, 
pullets, rabbits. 

Game. Guinea fowl. Foreign : ortolans, ptarmigan, quails. 

Vegetables. Artichokes, asparagus, beans, beetroot, cabbages, 
carrots, cauliflowers, cresses, cucumbers, endive, leeks, lettuce, mush- 
rooms, peas, potatoes, radishes, seakale, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, 
watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, figs, gooseberries (green), grapes, oranges, 
, pines, dried fruits, rhubarb. 

JUNE. 

Fish. Bass, bream, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, gurnets, halibut, 
hake, haddock, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, plaice, perch (after isth), 
prawns, salmon, shad, soles, shrimps, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, buck venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, 
pullets, turkey poults. 

Game. Guinea fowls. Foreign : Hazel hens, quails. 



ioo HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Vegetables. Asparagus, artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, car- 
rots, chervil, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, peas, 
potatoes, radishes, seakale, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, cherries, currants, gooseberries, grapes, 
melons, nectarines, peaches, pears, pines, strawberries, rhubarb. 

JULY. 

Fish. Bass, bream, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, gurnets, 
haddock, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, perch, 
plaice, prawns, salmon, shad, shrimps, soles, tench, trout, turbot, 
whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, 
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults. 

Game. Quails (foreign). 

Vegetables. Artichokes, asparagus, beans, beetroot, cabbage, carrots, 
cauliflowers, chervil, cresses, cucumber, endive, leeks, lettuce, mush- 
rooms, peas, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, watercress. 

Fruit. Apricots, bananas, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, 
grapes, melons, nectarines, oranges, pears, pineapples, plums, rasp- 
berries, strawberries. 

AUGUST. 

Fish. Bass, bream, brill, carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, 
flounders, gurnets, haddock, hake, halibut, lobsters, mullet, plaice, 
perch, pike, prawns, salmon, shad, shrimps, soles, tench, trout, turbot, 
whitebait, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducklings, ducks, fowls, geese, goslings, 
pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults. 

Game. Black game, capercailzie (2oth), grouse (i2th), hares, 
plovers, woodcock, quails (foreign). 

Vegetables. Artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, cauli- 
flowers, cresses, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, peas, potatoes, spinach, 
tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows, watercress. 

Fruit. Apricots, bananas, cherries, currants, figs, filberts, grapes, 
greengages, melons, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, pines, plums, 
raspberries, strawberries. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Fish. Bass, bream, brill, carp, cod, crayfish, dory, eels, flounders, 
gurnets, haddocks, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, 
oysters, perch, pike, plaice, shrimps, soles, trout, turbot, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison. 



MARKETING 101 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, 
rabbits, turkey poults, turkeys. 

Game. Black game, capercailzie, grouse, hares, partridges. 

Vegetables. Artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, cauli- 
flowers, celery, cresses, cucumbers, endive, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, 
parsnips, peas, spinach, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows, 
watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, apricots, bananas, cherries (morella), cob-nuts, 
damsons, figs, filberts, grapes, melons, medlars, nectarines, oranges, 
peaches, pears, pines, plums, quinces, walnuts. 

OCTOBER. 

Fish. Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, flounders, 
gurnet, haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, musx Is, 
oysters, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skute, 
smelts, tench, turbot, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doc venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, 
rabbits, turkeys, turkey poults. 

Game. Black game, capercailzie, hares, grouse, pheasants, par- 
tridges, ptarmigan. 

Vegetables. Artichokes, beetroots, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, 
celery, cucumber, lettuce, mushrooms, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, 
able marrows, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, apricots, bananas, ci . damsons, figs, filberts, 

5, medlars, melons, nectarines, peaches, pears, pines, qui 
walnuts. 

NOVEMBER. 

Fish. Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dory, flounders, eels, 
gurnet, haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, m: 

is, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skate, 
smelts, sprats, soles, tench, turbot, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, doe venison. 

Poultry. -Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, 
ts, turk'-v-poults, tnrl; 

Game. -Black ^une, capercailzie, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, 
ptarmigan. 

Vegetables. Artichokes, beetroot, Brussels sprouts, carrots, celery. 
s, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, parsnip-, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, 
turnip tp,, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, chestnuts, cranberries, figs, filbert 
melons, oranges, pears, pines, pomegranates, plums (Calif ornian), 
wain:. 



102 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

DECEMBER. 

Fish. Brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, eels, flounders, gurnets, 
haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, mussels, 
oysters, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skate, 
smelt, sprats, soles, tench, whiting. 

Meat. Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, doe venison. 

Poultry. Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, 
rabbits, turkeys. 

Game. Black game, capercailzie (till 2Oth), grouse (till i8th), hares, 
partridges, pheasants, ptarmigan. 

Vegetables. Artichokes, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, 
celery, leeks, parsnips, salsify, savoys, Scotch kale, seakale, spinach, 
tomatoes, turnip tops, watercress. 

Fruit. Apples, bananas, chestnuts, figs, filberts, grapes, medlars, 
melons, oranges, pears, pines, plums (Calif ornian), pomegranates, 
walnuts. 



INTRODUCTION TO 
COOKERY 

CHAPTER VI 

English and French Cookery, The Science and Progress 
of Cookery, Reasons for Cooking, Methods of 
Cooking, with instructions for Broiling, Roasting, 
Baking, Boiling, Stewing, Frying, Hints for 
Amateur Cooks, The Preservation, Adulteration and 
Prices of Food, Digestive Time Table, Quantities 
and Measures, and Table of Equivalents. 



In the Fine Arts the progress of mankind is marked by a gradual succes- 
sion of triumphs over the rude materialities of nature. Plain or rudely- 
carved stones, tumuli, or mounds of earth, are the monuments by which 
barbarous tribes denote the events of their history, to be succeeded, in 
the long course of a series of ages, by beautifully proportioned columns, 
gracefully sculptured statues, triumphal arches, coins, medals and the 
higher efforts of the pencil and the pen, as man advances by culture 
and observation to the perfection of his faculties. So is it with the art 
of cookery. Man, in his primitive state, lived upon roots and the fruits of 
the earth, until by degrees he was driven to seek for new means by which 
his wants might be supplied and enlarged. He then became a hunter 
and a fisher. As his species increased, greater necessities came upon 
him, and he gradually abandoned the roving life of the savage for the 
more stationary pursuits of the herdsmen. These begat still more 
settled habits, as the result of which he began the practice of agriculture, 
formed ideas of the rights of property, and had his own both defined 
and secured. The forest, the stream and the sea were then no longer his 
only resources for food. He sowed and he reaped, pastured and bred 
cattle, lived on the cultivated produce of his fields, and revelled in 
thr luxuries of the dairy ; raised flocks for clothing, and assumed, to 
all intents and purposes, the habits of permanent life and the comfortable 
condition of a farmer. This was the fourth stage of social progress, up to 



104 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

which the useful or mechanical arts had been incidentally developing 
themselves, when trade and commerce began. Through these various 
phases, ONLY TO LIVE had been the great object of mankind ; but by 
and by comforts were multiplied, and accumulating riches created new 
wants. The object, then, was not only TO LIVE, but to live economically, 
agreeably, tastefully and well. Accordingly, the art of cookery com- 
mences ; and although the fruits of the earth, the fowls of the air, 
the beasts of the field, and the fish of the sea, are still the only food of 
mankind, yet these are so prepared, improved and dressed by skill and 
ingenuity, that they are the means of immeasurably extending the 
boundaries of human enjoyment. Everything that is edible and passes 
under the hands of the cook is more or less changed, and assumes new 
forms. Hence the immense influence of that functionary upon the 
happiness of a household. 

In the luxurious ages of Grecian antiquity Sicilian cooks were the 
most esteemed, and received high rewards for their services. Among 
them, one called Trimalcio was such an adept in his art, that he could 
impart to common fish both the form and flavour of the most esteemed 
of the piscatory tribes. A chief cook in the palmy days of Roman 
extravagance had about 800 a year, and Antony rewarded the one 
who cooked the supper which pleased Cleopatra with the present of 
a city. With the fall of the Empire, the culinary art sank into less 
consideration. In the middle ages cooks laboured to acquire a reputa- 
tion for their sauces, which they composed of strange combinations, 
for the sake of novelty. 

Excellence in the Art of Cookery as in all other things is only acquired 
by experience and practice. In proportion, therefore, to the oppor- 
tunities which a cook has had of these, so will be his excellence in 
the art. 



FRENCH COOKERY. 

English V. French Cookery. It is not easy to treat separately English 
and French cookery, because, in the first place, by dint of borrowing 
across the Channel, the two have become inextricably mixed up, as 
is evidenced by our habitual use of French terms, and by the common, 
though less constant, use of English terms in French cookery-books ; 
and because, in the second place a good deal of what is distinctive in 
French cookery is founded on the nature of things, and cannot be 
transplanted. 

Perhaps the difference is greatest in the cooking of meat. We are 
accused of eating meat raw, and we retort that roast meat out of 
England is uneatable. The damp climate and the broad pastures, 
the turnip crops that flourish under our rainy skies, the graziers who 
for many years have worked to make British cattle and British sheep 
renowned through the world ; these all have made our cookery what 






INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 105 

it is. That good, even excellent meat is to be found out of the British 
isles none will deny ; but the average is infinitely bettor in these isles 
than anywhere on the Continent of Europe. The consequence is that 
we have acquired the habit of cooking meat so as to bring out the flavour 
and not to disguise it, while in other countries experience has taught 
the cook to disguise it in many a cunning way, The English practice 
is not invariably wise, for if there is much good meat in the market 
there is also much bad which would be greatly improved by disguise, 
and there are also inferior joints on the best animal that lend them- 
selves ill to the national cookery. 

Meat Consumed in Paris. The question has often been asked, 
" Do we eat more meat than our neighbours ? " Most people would 
answer the question in the affirmative ; but comparisons made 
between Paris and London by Dr. Letherby seem to show that, 
the consumption of meat is greater in Paris than in London. 
His calculations showed in Paris 49 ozs. per head weekly, or 
7 ozs. a day per head of the population ; the London market returns 
give 3 1 1 ozs. weekly, or 4^ ozs. a day. Probably the results would 
be different if the comparison were extended to the country and 
provincial towns. At any rate, London has a much larger supply of 
animal food in the shape of fish. 

Fish in England and France. Here, again, art is the handmaiden of 
nature. The sea supplies us so plentifully that we neglect or disdain 
fresh-water fish, upon which our neighbours expend much skill and pains 
in eookery. Very few English people have eaten a carp, though our 
lakes and ponds contain many ; yet in every French cookery-book 
an to be found recipes showing that carp is intended to be served 
at dinners of some pretension. Again, the facility with which 
fish is sent to any part of our country makes us less dependent 
upon sharp and highly-flavoured sauces. Carp and other fresh- 
water fish affecting muddy spots, should be caught alive and kept 
for some days in clear, running water, and fed on a little oatmeal 
or crumbs of bread, in order to get rid of the earthy flavour. 

Vegetables in England and France. As for vegetable cookery, in which 
we must confess ourselves entirely beaten, we easily find a rea-on 
in the custom of all Catholic countries to fast from meat once a 
week, which has necessitated the practice of serving vegetables in 
some way less wasteful and less objectionable than the English 
methods. 

Fuel. The relative cost of fuel in the two countries has also had 
much to do in stereotyping the national cookery. Coals have- been 
cheap and plentiful, and have accordingly luvn used with profusion. 
It is only in recent years that we have begun to use close stoves ; and 
only a few years ago all our cooking was done over or before the fire. 
Any one reading a French cookery-book will be struck by the sparing 
way in which the use of an oven is prescribed. In an English book it is 
assumed that nothing is so easy as to shut anything in the oven and 



106 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

take it out when it is done and probably the assumption is correct. 
If we had to do all our cooking with wood we also should become econo- 
mical ; but wood, even in England, does not cost as much as wood 
costs in many countries, where coals for domestic use are practically 
unknown. 

Count Rumford's action in the matter of stoves was received with 
some scorn, though he died only in 1814. It used to be said of him 
that he would cook his dinner by the smoke from his neighbour's 
chimney. The wasted fuel that escapes as smoke would cook not 
one but many dinners. 

It is a truism to say that France, pressed by circumstances, has 
accomplished much in the realm of cookery. France has achieved 
the highest results in luxurious cookery ; and to the thrift of her 
peasantry we must look for the beginnings of the French economy 
in cookery that has become almost proverbial. Luxury with economy 
is the highest praise in cookery. 

French Names. In the present edition of this book French names 
either the accepted or the literal translation have been added to 
many of the dishes. Those of distinct English origin remain as they 
are. Our readers can now write a menu in either language. 

THE SCIENCE AND PROGRESS OF COOKERY 

Cookery and the Artificial Preparation of Food has one chief object, i.e., 
to assist in the wonderful series of changes known as digestion and 
assimilation. A secondary aim is to render certain foods, noxious 
in their natural state, fit for human consumption. The potato and 
manioc are poisonous when gathered, but rendered harmless by the 
cook. The object of a journey may be reached by many different, 
and sometimes by apparently divergent, roads. So it is here. Some 
even argue that the roads once diverging never become parallel. 
They declare that the art of cookery, as now understood, only results 
in the persistent overtaxing, instead of lightening the labours of, 
the digestive organs. But let us realize what it would mean to go back 
to pre-cooking days, when our ancestors not only devoured their rela- 
tives, but devoured them raw ; or to place ourselves in some savage 
tribe where cookery is in its infancy ; or even return to the coarse 
abundance of our nearer forefathers ; and all will agree that the properly 
trained cook is more friend than foe. 

The Art of Cookery. Within the last few years cookery has made great 
strides in a totally new direction. The cook has turned philosopher, 
and loves '-if not the process of reasoning at least to be told other 
people's " reasons why " for the operations of the kitchen. Chemistry 
is a recent science, and is now in an active state of growth. Every day 
something is being added to our store of physiological knowledge. 
The science of food cannot advance a step but by the help of one of 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 107 

these. Formerly the art of cookery had little enough to do with either, 
and flourished long before chemistry and physiology in their modern 
acceptation were known. 

But we cannot accept the common assertion that because cookery 
long flourished alone it should be left alone now, for the same assertion 
might be made respecting the application of modern science to any 
department of human activity. 

People lived and died before the law of gravitation, or elementary 
mathematical truths, or the application of steam to machinery were 
discovered, yet these discoveries have been applied to practical indus- 
tries with immense benefit to mankind. Science applied to agriculture 
has enabled us to support a larger population in greater comfort ; 
science applied to food and cookery will enable us to do this and more. 
We can confidently look forward to a time when in the chemist's labora- 
tory the transformation of nature's laboratory shall be imitated for 
the feeding of our starving millions. That goal is a very long way off, 
and we trace out only the first steps of the road towards it. But as 
we said at the outset, good cookery must always mean the successful 
doing or easing in the kitchen of Nature's work. 

Everyday Science. It is interesting to the student of human pr< 
to watch for scientific discoveries, as they gradually creep from tho 
laboratory to the treatise, from the treatise to the lecture-room, thence 
to the kitchen. Each operation was once carried out according to the 
fancy of the individual operating. Experience, not only the best, but 
the only teacher, taught. There were a number of isolated experi- 
ments, some repeated or handed down until they became traditions. 
But there was little or no generalization of the facts, and thcr* 
arbitrary declaration instead of reasonable conviction. 

In cookery books of a few years ago the reader is bidden to do a 
thing at one time, and leave it undone on a precisely similar occasion. 
ite gradations of heat, frimometers, even thermometers, were 
unknown. Water boiled or simmered, was lukewarm or cold, as if 
the four words comprehended all the variations of temperature, or at 
any rate were fixed points having magical effect upon every substance 
used as food. Only a few a very few scientific facts have been as 
yet applied to everyday cookery. The genealogy of each might pro- 
bably be traced from the treatise to the lecture, thence to one book, 
now to all. It is curious also to see that there are some processes in 
cookery for which every one now assigns a reason, while others, equally 
common, every one is content to follow unreasoning. It is safe to 
assert that supporting or condemning all such processes there is scientific 
fact, and if every intelligent cook would try to find out the reason for 
what is done, our knowledge would soon emerge from its present 
chaotic condition. 



io8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

REASONS FOR COOKING 

Food is prepared and cooked for six reasons : (i) To render 
mastication easy ; (2) to facilitate and hasten digestion ; (3) 
to convert certain naturally hurtful substances into nutritious foods ; 
(4) to eliminate harmful foreign elements evolved in food (e.g. 
the tinea of tapeworm in beef and mutton ; trichinae in pork ; 
the ptomaines resulting from tissue waste) ; (5) to combine the right 
foods in proper proportions for the needs of the body ; (6) to make 
it agreeable to the palate and pleasing to the eye. 

It may be said that the last " reason " is in flat contradiction to 
number two ; that is only apparently so. Apart from the purely 
aesthetic value of an agreeable meal, and a well-spread table (and 
certainly no one will wish that any pleasure or beauty' should be 
gratuitously foregone), there remain many solid arguments for 
reason number six. " The eye does half the eating." The street 
boy who flattens his nose against the pastrycook's window-pane while 
his mouth waters at the sight of the good things within ; the animal 
who, before he is killed, is shown food, in order that he may produce 
pepsine ; the starving man whose pangs are even sharper when he 
smells some one else's good dinner ; all are so many witnesses that the 
sight and smell of food cause the digestive juices to flow more abun- 
dantly. 

Pleasant flavours are a necessity of diet. No man could be nour- 
ished on tasteless food, though arranged on the most approved scientific 
basis. No man can live healthily on a monotonous diet, though there may 
be nothing wanting from the point of view of chemical analysis. The 
health of the inmates of public institutions has over and over again 
shown noticeable improvement by reason of some change in the dietary, 
not implying greater expenditure, nor greater nourishment, nor even 
alteration of constituents. As in all human affairs there are facts to 
be reckoned with that science cannot foretell or explain. 

Mastication acts mechanically in subdividing food and so exposing 
a greater surface to the action of the digestive juices with which it 
afterwards comes in contact. It acts chemically by reason of the 
digestive power of saliva on starch. Among animals there are some 
gramnivora that spend a large part of their time in chewing their food, 
the flow of saliva being very profuse ; there are others, chiefly carni- 
vora, that bolt food whole, and afterwards digest at leisure. Pre- 
pared food is more or less divided, so that to some extent mastication 
is superseded. For the rest, in the kitchen starch is hydrated, fibre 
softened or made brittle, dough vesiculated, albumen coagulated, 
and indigestible matter removed. 

Any one may perceive how impossible it would be to masticate a 
mouthful of flour, and how raw meat would clog the teeth. Hurrying 
over our meals, as we do, we should fare badly if all the grinding and 
subdividing of human food had to be accomplished by human teeth. 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 109 

Action of Heat. The most important results of cookery are < 
ascribed to the action of heat upon the various constituents ot tun- 
Many foods that we now cat would become use-less t<> m.mkmd 
if we had to eat them raw. Cooking may not always alter th. chcmie.il 
constitution of a food, but even then it may entirely change it 
tie \il value to mankind. As a matter of fact, however, heat does alter 
the chemical nature of a great many foods to a consi<! Uent. 

Still, even if the change may be nothing that chemical analysis can 
detect, yet it is perceptible to every one who eats a dinner. 

There is no greater mistake than to suppose that the chemical 
analysis of a food tells us its value. Flesh and bones, and fat and heat 
can be, by some warm-blooded animals, obtained from a diet of grass 
or woody fibre, but we should starve in the midst of such plenty. 

Many of the changes wrought by heat arc easily explained. \Vln-t h-r 
albumen is barely coagulated or is hard and horny, whether iibre is 
shrivelled or swelled, whether gelatine is dry and brittle or dissolved 
it does not take a scientific head to discover. But science tells us wl-y 
these things are, and so enables us to bring our food readily into what- 
ever state we will. 

Given certain food, one cook so manipulates it that the consumer is 
well nourished and pleased ; another cook leaves him hungry and 
discontented. 

Combination of Foods. In preparing food we must rcmcmbei 
:nbinc all necessary foods in a right proportion. Some fo<n: 
deficient in one n -me superabundant in another : a little 

addition here and there helps digestion and supplies the- body with wh.it 
it m-<-ds. All cooks do this in obedience to the natural promptm- 9 
of the appetite. To rice, rich in starch, they add butter ai 
with peas, they serve fat bacon ; salt-fish has less nourishment than 
nice ; beef steak is balanced by boiled potatoes. Hut the 
customs of the kitchen often err, and we have much to learn that 
our artificially stimulated appetites fail to teach. 

Not only is the deficient supplied, but the indk 

Bran from flour, paring from potatoes, cellulose from vegetables go 
to feed animals whose digestions are stronger than ours, and who 
utilise our discarded food to produce other in a form more fitted to 
our powers. 

Another service that cookery does is to economize our food by 

:ig it. Part of what we eat is used as fuel or heat-giving food 

is burnt or oxidized, to keep the heat of the body at a certain point. 

Wherever we live and whatever we do, as long as we are in health our 

body temperature is always 98 Fahr. neither more nor less. \\hen 

ke cold food some of the heat of the body has to be used to lu at 

the same reason that when we put fresh coals on the fire- the. 

raturc of the room is lowered for a time. So we take our 

warm and use coals to do what our food must otherwise do. There 



no HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

are burners that give a very brilliant light with little gas, because the 
spare heat of the flame is used to heat the gas that is presently to be 
burnt. We warm our food on precisely the same principle. Very hot 
food is always unwholesome, but warm food always goes further and 
is more nourishing than cold. 

Amount of Food. A day's ration for a healthy man of average size, 
doing moderate work, has been reckoned as follows : 

Oz. AVOIRDUPOIS. 

1. Water . . > .' v . . . 4i 

2. Albuminoids ..... 3 

3. Fats, starch, sugar, etc. . 14 

4. Salts ....... i 



For a woman, also working, the rations may be somewhat smaller, 
the proportions being the same, but the total about 3 oz. less. 

This seems a small allowance, but when we remember that it is 
reckoned as dry food, and that food as we get it is always moist, gener- 
ally containing half or rather more than half its weight of water, it 
appears that the food altogether should weigh about 40 ozs. 

The quantity required varies, however, very much within the limits 
of health. Every man requires more food if he works hard, and less 
if he has no work to do. Even doing the same work no two men will 
eat exactly the same, and it is only possible to calculate by taking an 
average of a large number of eaters. Generally speaking, more food 
is required in cold weather and cold climates than in hot. But it is 
necessary that all these four classes of elements should be represented 
in our daily food, and in something like the above proportion. If we 
have too little of any one class we are sure to be ill, and if one class 
were to be quite left out we should die, even though we have plenty 
of other foods. 

As to the water, there is not much to be said in addition to the 
remarks in the chapter on Beverages. By whatever name we call our 
beverages, the chief constituent of them is water, and were we given but 
one food we could exist longer on water alone than upon any other, 
except milk. In every food, even when artificially dried, there is a 
percentage of water, and taking foods one with another there is about 
half water. But the amount varies ; in lettuce, 96 per cent, is water ; 
in onions, 91 ; in lean meat, 75 ; in wheat, 14. Artificially dried 
substances are ready to take up water from the atmosphere, a fact of 
practical interest to the housewife, who will remember that oatmeal, 
maize-meal, biscuits, and the like, soon become flabby and moist 
if they are left in the open air. It is generally agreed that animals 
thrive better on moist food than on dry food with water. 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY in 

Carbonates and Salts include chloride of sodium, or common salt, 
as well as potash, phosphates of lime, and iron. Common salt is a neces- 
sary food, but the fact is that many persons now-a-days get too much 
of it in the form of salt fish and flesh. It is the only mineral habitually 
added to food as such. Potash salts we find in all fresh fruits and 
vegetables. Probably no defect in diet is more common than a want 
of these, especially in our large towns. Lime is necessary for the 
building up of bones and teeth. We look for it in milk for the young, 
and in whole grains, and we know that it has been missing when \ve 
see weak and distorted limbs and broken teeth. Iron is generally 
thought of as a physic and not as a food. It is, however, a necessary 
constituent of the blood, and is chiefly derived in an organized form 
from fresh vegetables. It is also largely present in many natural 
tonic waters. 

Starch or floury Foods are the cheapest and most abundant of all, 
so that if people have enough of any food they are likely to have enough 
of these. Over-fed persons are an exception to this rule, for too small 
a proportion of their diet is starchy. Bread, potatoes, rice, barley 
and all the floury foods contain more starch than anything else, and 
cornflour, arrowroot, sago and tapioca are nearly pure starches. There 
is much starch too in beans, peas and lentils, though they are generally 
spoken of as albuminoids, or flesh-forming foods, because of the vi-ry 
large amount of legumin that they contain. There is no starch in milk, 
but there is sugar, which replaces it. An infant can make no use of 
starchy food, having no power to digest it. Heated to 200 or 400 
starch becomes dextrine, known too as " British Gum." The crust of 
a loaf, biscuits and baked flour all show dextrine. 

Sugar and treacle are good foods and substitutes for starch. They are, 
however, apt to produce acidity in grown-up persons if used too freely, 
though children can and do eat large quantities without inconvenience. 

The fats, starches and sugars are called heat-producers, because 
they are oxidized or burnt in the body to keep up the temperature 
to its proper degree. From the starches and sugars fat is deposited, 
if more is consumed than is required to maintain the heat of the body ; 
therefore, the way to get thin is to eat li'ttle or none of these, or, better 
still, to take plenty of exercise and let them become completely oxidized. 

Fat. Fat, whether it is in the form of butter, cream, dripping, meat, 
bacon, oil, or by any other name, is necessary for food, and many are 
the persons that suffer in health from want of it, especially among the 
poor, who cannot afford the dearer fats, or do not know the cheaper, 
and among the sickly, who cannot or fancy they cannot digest fat in 
any form. If it can be digested one fat is as good a food as another. 
Cod- liver oil and cream are the easiest to digest. Fats that are 
greatly heated decompose, and are always difficult of digestion, which 
is thr reason why fried food often disagrees. Many persons, who 
cannot eat a lump of fat with meat hot or cold, can eat buttered toast, 



112 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

suet pudding, or lightly fried bacon, or fat in one of the many forms 
in which it is served. 

Fat and starch can replace one another to some extent, but there 
must be some fat, and it is better in this climate to have some starchy 
or floury foods. In the coldest countries plants will not grow, and so 
starch is unknown. 

Albuminoids is a term that covers albumen and the food substances 
which serve the same purpose as albumen. Sometimes they are 
spoken of as flesh formers, or as nitrogenous foods, because they all 
contain nitrogen, and neither fats, starches, nor sugars do. Nothing 
that lives and grows is without nitrogen, and so we find it in large or 
small amounts in all plants as well as all animals. Our supplies of 
albuminoids, or flesh-formers, are obtained from lean meat, fish, 
poultry, game, as milk curd or cheese, eggs, gluten in flour, fibrine in 
oats, and in beans, peas and lentils. Albumen is found in many other 
foods besides eggs. The blood of many animals contains it, and we have 
presently to speak of albumen in meat. In most vegetable juices and 
in many seeds and nuts we find it also. 

Fibrine is also both animal and vegetable. From meat, wheat 
and other corn grains we obtain our daily supply. Casein is 
an albumenoid that we find in the curd of milk, and in the pulses, 
beans, peas and lentils. Vegetable casein is sometimes called legumin, 
but it was given that name before it was known to be practically the 
same as animal casein of milk. In China cheese is made of curdled 
vegetable casein. Gelatine and some substances nearly like it are 
known as gelatinoids, and they can replace albumen in part, though 
not altogether. 

METHODS OF COOKERY 

Six Methods of Cookery are commonly spoken of, viz. i. Broiling; 
2. Roasting; 3. Baking; 4. Boiling; 5. Stewing; 6. Frying. 

BROILING 

Rules for Broiling Meat. The rules for broiling remain the same 
always. A hot fire at first, with a hot gridiron well greased. Fre- 
quent turning. No holes made in the surface, nor cuts to see if the 
meat is cooked. 

The meat must be turned frequently so that it may be heated and 
the albumen may coagulate all over and not merely on one side. Tonj 
are sold to turn it over with, because they cannot be used to stick intc 
the meat and make holes for the juice to run out, but a knife or spool 
or a fork run into the fat answers just as well in the hands of a cool 
who knows the reason why a blunt instrument is recommended. Soi 
few broiled things should not be turned : a mushroom, for instance, 
is broiled stalk upwards. The inside of a split fish should first go to 
the fire, and afterwards the skin. Paper is wrapped round salmon 
and other fresh- water fish. 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 11;, 

It is not an economical way of cooking, for though quickly done it takes 
a great deal of fuel to make a good broiling fire. The meat loses weight 
more than in most ways of cooking. And it is only suited for tender, 
juicy meat from the best joints. 

ROASTING 

This is the favourite national method of cookery. The immense 
stone hearths on which huge logs flared up an open chimney were just 
adapted for this style of cookery, and the open coal fires in almost 
general use until the middle of the iQth century were almost as 
prodigal of fuel. To roast before the fire could have become a 
national custom only where fuel was cheap. We now roast in the 
oven more often than before the fire, but even so it is not an economical 
way of cooking, because of the much greater amount of fuel necc 
to heat the oven than to boil a saucepan. The waste in roasting 
is also great, from a third to a quarter of the total weight of a 
joint is lost in the process; only a small part of the loss being 
recoverable in gravy or dripping. Furthermore, it is a method <>nlv 
suited to the tender parts of meat, and does not answer at all for 
sinewy and gelatinous meat which is the least expensive. A; 
this has to be set the fact that roast meat is agreeable to 
most persons' taste, and is generally considered digestible. As 
in broiling, the object is to harden the surface albumen 
and so to imprison the juices of the meat. This can only be done 
by making it very hot for a short time : the heat must afterwards 
!>< lessened by drawing the joint from the fire, or by cooling the mm. 
Tin- larger the joint the smaller the fire, lest it should In- burnt ouNide 
betme it is cooked enough, but it should always be hot FIRST, and 
cool afterwards. In a perfectly roasted joint, the outside albumen 
should be thoroughly hardened, but inside it should only reach the 
moderate heat that just coagulates the albumen and swells and softens 
the fibrine ; cooked more than this, the fibre becomes hard, and separ- 
ates into bundles that offer an active resistance to teeth and dig< 
organs. It can scarcely happen to a large joint, but often does to a 
small one, and this is the reason why a small joint is often dry and 
hard. It is a sign of good meat and of good roasting to lose little in 
weight. Generally speaking, the loss is more before the fire than in the 
oven. 

Count Rumford invented a double dripping-pan that cannot be 

too strongly recommended. The water in the under pan boils and 

prevents the fat in the upper pan from becoming hotter than boil- 

ler, so that the dripping is neither wasted nor burnt, and there 

is no horrible odour of fat burning on the floor of the oven. I 

;ig pans arc- among the few cooking uU nsils that economize their 
own cost in a very short time. 



ii4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

BAKING 

Baking naturally comes next to roasting ; the two often do duty 
for one another. As in all other methods of cookery the surrounding 
air may be many degrees hotter than boiling water, but the food is 
not appreciably hotter until it has lost water by evaporation, after 
which it may readily burn. The hot air of the oven is greedy of water, 
and evaporation is great, so that ordinary baking (i.e., just to shut 
the food into a hot-air chamber) is not suited for anything that needs 
moist heat. But baking often means to put some dry substance in a 
dish with water and to shut it in the air chamber, and under such cir- 
cumstances it amounts to much the same as boiling with surface heat 
added. 

To test the heat of an oven special thermometers are made. For 
meat the temperature should be about 300 Fahr.; for bread 360, 
afterwards lowered ; for pastry about the same, the richest pastry 
requiring the hottest oven. The heat may be tested with a sheet of 
writing paper, which curls up brown in a pastry oven, or with flour, 
which takes every shade from coffee colour to black, when sprinkled 
on the floor of the oven. Experienced cooks test very accurately 
with the hand. 

The hot air of the oven sometimes imparts disagreeable flavours 
to the things cooked ; but this can be avoided by keeping the oven 
scrupulously clean and having it well ventilated. 



BOILING 

Boiling is generally thought to be the easiest method of cooking. 
Certainly nothing could be less troublesome than the simple process 
boiling or stewing meat, and yet beef tough and flavourless, or a 1( 
of mutton boiled to rags is the rule rather than the exception, 
success of this culinary method depends entirely upon the liquid 
which the material is immersed or partially immersed being kept at 
suitable temperature. 

The temperature of boiling water at sea-level is 212 Fahr. and 
Cent. In a mine, where the level is considerably lower than th; 
of the sea, the water reaches a higher temperature before boilii 
because the air being more dense offers greater resistance to it ; coi 
sequently the water must acquire more heat and force to overcoi 
this resistance before it can boil. Conversely, as we ascend a mounts 
we leave behind the more dense part of the atmosphere, and the colui 
of air, reaching from the earth into space, becomes less in height, 
so exerts less pressure on the surface of the water, which consequenl 
boils at a lower temperature. But, whether the water boils gentl] 
or is in a state of violent ebullition the temperature remains the same 
and anything immersed in the water will cook at an equal ra1 
although there will be a wide difference between the tender juicy joii 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 115 

cooked at simmering point and the tough stringy meat that has been 
quickly boiled. Count Rumford, writing on this subject, said : 

" Causing anything to boil violently in any culinary process is very 
ill-judged ; for not only does it not expedite in the smallest degree the 
process of cooking, but it occasions a most enormous waste of fuel, 
and by driving away with the steam many of the more volatile and 
more savoury particles of the ingredients renders the victuals less good 
and less palatable. Five times as much heat is required to send off 
in steam any given quantity of water already boiling hot as would be 
necessary to heat the same quantity of the cold water to the boiling 
point." 

In order to find out the right heat, we must first know which of several 
substances we have to deal with, and how each one of them is acted 
upon by heat. 

The simplest thing to boil is an egg. The white is little more than 
albumen and water ; the yolk contains albumen and water with some 
oil and some sulphur, but the albumen is of a rather different character. 

We have seen that albumen begins to coagulate at 145, sets into a 
jelly at 1 60, and at a higher temperature quickly becomes tough and 
hard. Eggs should therefore be gently boiled. Some recommend 
the plan of putting the egg into a saucepan of boiling water, taking 
the pan off the fire and letting it cook so. Others prefer to put the 
egg in cold water and to take it off directly it boils. 

In boiling lean meat we must deal with albumen again. Just as 
the white of an egg hardens by boiling, so does the albumen in a leg of 
mutton. Plunge it into boiling water, and on the surface an imper- 
vious crust is formed that prevents the juices of the meat from escaping. 
Once that is done, the boiling should cease, for the toughening of the 
albumen throughout the joint is as undesirable as the escape of the 
juices. Boiled meat intended for table should never be put into cold 
water : firstly, because the surface albumen is dissolved, and afterwards, 
v, h a the water boils, hardens and rises as scum ; also, secondly, because 
the salts and extractives are dissolved, leaving the meat dry and flavour- 
less. Cold water first and fast boiling afterwards (the common way of 
cooking) is the worst possible way, for the meat is not only dry, but 
hard. If the meat is to be boiled for soup the object is to extract all 
the j uice, the soluble albumen, and as much gelatine as may be, so that 
it should be cut up to multiply surfaces, put into cold water, and heated 
slowly to boiling point. To attain contrary ends, contrary means must 
be used. 

The exceptions to this rule, if any, for boiling meat are in the case of 
sinewy and tcndonous meat where gelatine is abundant. To make it 
soft and eatable long continued boiling is necessary. Calf's head and 
veal tendons, cow heel, and tripe are often put into cold water. 

Flour Foods, such as macaroni, rice, sago, cornflour and flour puddings 
kept all the time in boiling water, in order to burst the starch 



n6 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

granules. The mechanical action of fast bubbling water is often 
useful, partly in preventing grains of rice, etc., from settling to the 
bottom of the saucepan. 

Bailed Fish. In the case of fish, the water should be kept below 
bubbling point, otherwise it may crack the skin and so spoil the 
appearance of the fish ; and, on the other hand, if the fish is put into 
cold water, it, like meat, has much of its goodness and flavour ex- 
tracted. So a compromise has to be made here, and the best plan is 
to put it into water as hot as the skin will bear (which varies with 
each fish), and to put salt with the water, or lemon-juice, or vinegar, 
because albumen sooner coagulates if acid }s added to it. Vinegar 
with a poached egg answers the same purpo'se. Vegetables, with few 
exceptions, should be pot into boiling water. 

STEWING 

Stewing almost invariably requires a heat much below that of boiling 
water : 165 is about stewing point. Whatever is stewed, parts with 
much of its goodness to the surrounding liquor, which should not, 
therefore, be wasted. Less liquid is used than in boiling. It is a 
method particularly suitable for all gelatinous meat, such as knuckles, 
heads and feet, and for all tough, fibrous meat, because long-continued, 
moderate heat, with moisture, is the best way of bringing gelatine and 
tough fibre into an eatable condition. It is the cheapest method of 
cooking for several reasons. Little heat is required, therefore little 
fuel used. Nothing is wasted ; whatever goes into the pot comes out. 
The cheapest and coarsest meat can be used ; and very little attention 
is needed while cooking. In order that all the juices may not be ex- 
tracted from the meat it is sometimes fried before stewing ; this gives 
it a good colour, and also hardens the surface albumen and prevents 
the soluble matters from escaping. A stew should not bubble and 
boil ; it should stand by the side of the stove, and should never do 
more than bubble occasionally and leisurely at one side of a large pan. 
A jar well tied down and set in a cool oven makes a capital stewing 
utensil, or a jar set in a saucepan and surrounded by boiling water. 

One difficulty is that carrots and turnips when they are old and tough 
ought to be boiled, and so do not agree with a small piece of stewed 
meat. Cooked together, one must be spoiled. It is the best plan to 
boil the vegetables first, and then to use them and their liquor for the 
stew. 

A common mistake is to put in too much liquid. The raw meat 
supplies some liquid by its own juices and many do not sufficiently 
realize that at the moderate heat of stewing there is very little waste 
by evaporation. 

FRYING 

Frying has been described as boiling in fat. It is not a correct phrase, 
because the fat is not boiled, and the thing fried is not always immersed 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 117 

in fat. It is the quickest mode of cooking, because melted fat or oil 
can be brought to a high temperature, and, by contact with it, the 
food fried is very quickly and very much heated. All fried food is 
heated beyond boiling water point on its surface ; if the frying is 
prolonged the meat is over heated throughout, so that this method 
is not fitted for food that should be slowly cooked at a low temper- 
ature, such as tough meat. 

The point to which fats or oils may be heated varies, some burning 
much more readily than others. About 350 to 400 is a suitable 
temperature ; it can be higher, it should sometimes be lower for things 
that need slow cooking, but it is usually better to begin at a high 
temperature and lower it afterwards. The temperature is always 
lowered, by putting in the cold things to be cooked, to a degree that is 
determined by the relative quantity of fat and food, and by the sort 
of food. 

The temperature can be taken accurately with a thermometer con- 
structed specially for the purpose ; it can be taken approximately by 
several homely devices. 

1. Drop in a few drops of water. If the fat bubbles thereupon, it 
must be hotter than 212 ; if it bubbles smartly it may be taken at 
over 300. 

2. Drop in a piece of bread and take it out at the end of half a minute. 
If the bread is crisp the fat is about 350 or more. 

3. Parsley that becomes crisp immediately it is dropped in mean 
at 350 or more. 

4. The more violent the bubbling when anything is put in the hotter 
the fat. 

5. A thin, filmy, blue smoke rises when the fat is fit for frying. .m<l 
then becomes thicker until the fat is burning, when there is a 4ett0t 
cloud. 

6. Fat, unless it has left off bubbling and is quite still, is never hot 
enough to fry. 

These rules are true of all fat, and more or less of all frying. But 
there are two ways of frying, known to cooks as DRY FRYING, and frying 
in deep fat ; the later method being also known as ' French frying." 
The former is more common ; the latter is more economical, and 
produces better results. 

Deep frying or frying in a saucepan, means that there must be fat 
enough to cover what is fried, and a pan deep enough to contain it. 
It is economical, for the fat can be used over and over again, and, if 
sufficiently hot, does not soak into the food fried, which consequently 
comes out quite dry and without any of the greasy moisture of frying- 
pan cookery. In the long run less fat is used than for ordinary dry 
frying; though, of course, there is a greater outlay to begin with. 

An iron or steel saucepan must be used, as the heat of the fat melts 
the solder of a tin pan ; it is a good plan to keep one for the purpose. 



n8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Frying baskets should be used for all delicate frying (see p. 302) 
so as to do away with the need for much handling, and to lift all the 
things out at the same moment. Failing a basket, an iron spoon or 
slice may be used, but not of tin or Britannia metal, as they would 
melt. Baskets should not be used for fritters, which stick to the wires. 
As the basket always expands with heat, it should not be a very tight 
fit for the pan. 

Dry Frying is so called because of the small amount of fat used, not 
because of the dryness of what is fried, for things fried this way are 
very apt to be greasy. Sometimes the frying is so " dry " that only 
just fat enough is used to prevent the meat from sticking to the pan, 
just as the bars of a gridiron are greased. The iron pan is heated, 
and the meat is cooked by heat directly communicated from the hot 
iron. Such frying, in fact, is an imitation of broiling, and usually an 
unsuccessful imitation. There should always be at least enough fat 
to cover the surface of the pan, and it always should be made as hot 
as possible without burning, before beginning to fry. To put cold fat 
and cold pan and cold chop on the stove and let them all heat together 
is always a mistake sure to result in a greasy, juiceless chop with burnt 
fat. WHATEVER AND HOWEVER YOU FRY, FIRST HEAT THE FAT. 

Fat for Frying. Melted suet or fat can be used for French frying, 
and mutton is less likely to burn than beef, but either or both together 
will do. Lard should never be used, for it always leaves an unpleasant 
flavour and costs more than beef or mutton fat. Oil is to be preferred 
to, and can, without burning, be made hotter than any fat. Olive 
oil is often recommended, but it is costly, and much of the oil sold as 
olive is largely adulterated with cotton-seed oil, which is far cheaper 
than any fat used as food. Unfortunately, though a great deal is sold, 
not much is sold under its right name or at a fair price, except to 
cookshops or to the vendors of fried fish. Many specially prepared 
fats are now on the market ; they vary greatly. Some are merely 
beef fat, freed from skin and blood, and melted into cakes ; these can 
be used like suet. Others are solidified cotton seed oil, purified nut oil, 
etc. These are sold plain or as blends. Some of them are excellent 
for frying purposes, and are economical where much frying is required. 
Animal fats, with the exception of refined lard, burn quicker than 
vegetable fats. Butter is the soonest spoilt by high temperatures. 

To clarify fat or suet for frying, it should be cut up into small pieces, 
put into a saucepan with just enough water to prevent burning, 
heated over a slow fire until the liquid fat is quite clear and then 
strained. The pieces strained out are an economical substitute for 
suet for short cakes, puddings, etc. After using several times, the 
fat can be purified by pouring it whilst hot into a pan of water and 
well stirring ; the pieces and impurities settle at the bottom of the 
cake of fat or sink into the water. The fat should be also occasion- 
ally strained when cool ; if it be strained directly after frying it will 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 119 

melt any soldered strainer. To fry well the food should be dried. 
Fish can be lightly coated with flour ; vegetables well-dried in a cloth. 
Before dropping into hot fat anything that contains much water lift 
the pan off the stove, as the fat is likely to bubble over and catch fire. 
Many things that are fried are previously covered with egg and 
breadcrumbs, or flour and milk or batter, in order that a crust may 
be formed round them to keep the juice in and the fat out. The 
essential thing is to cover them completely and leave no crack. 

HINTS FOR AMATEUR COOKS. 

The two most common faults with amateur cooks are not giving 
sufficient time and attention to the details of preparation, and 
ignorance of the varying action of heat. It is admitted that the 
making of soups and sauces is a test of a good cook. Now, both soups 
and sauces (with a few exceptions, which prove the rule) require very 
careful preliminary preparation and close attention during cooking. 
The time devoted to planning, cleaning, chopping, paring or trussing, 
as the case may be, is not lost. The actual process of cooking is im- 
mensely facilitated, and success half assured, if everything has been 
properly prepared beforehand. 

Then, as regards the utilization of heat ; it is essential in boiling 
and roasting that the temperature should be very high at first, to 
prevent loss of nutriment, and then be lowered to prevent the meat 
being scorched and dried. In stewing, however (and this applies to 
soup making) the heat should be moderate and the cooking slow. 
Frying in most cases should be done in hot fat, so a deep vessel 
full of oil or fat at a very high temperature should be used. Omelets, 
pancakes, and a few other preparations only require to be placed in a 
pan with a little butter ; in such cases the fire should be fairly brisk. 
When using an oven, if the dish requires long cooking, get up a high 
temperature at first and then lower it slightly ; but pastry requires 
quick cooking in a fairly brisk oven. 

All dishes should be duly flavoured with the necessary condiments 
during the process of cooking, except in the case of roast meats, \\ hen 
salt should only be applied just before serving. Water is a solvent, so 
all meat and vegetables should be plunged into fast boiling water, 
the object is to extract flavour for making soups. Dried peas 
and beans, however, should be put on in cold water, as it is necessary 
to soften them. 

Amateur cooks may prepare dainty breakfasts and suppers if they 
give their attention to the peculiarities of electric heated stewpans, 
or the still more convenient chafing-dish. The dishes prepared 
in these vessels are generally of the stew or daube order. For I 
a fairlv large amount of sauce is allowed, and the cooking should be 
somewh it moderate ; for daubes very little moisture is allowed and 
the pan must be closely covered, apply high temperature, then lower 



120 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

and finish with reduced heat. Gas as well^as electric heat and the spirit 
lamp can be easily regulated as desired. 

For outdoor cooking (picnics and camping) the chafing-dish is 
useful, but should be supplemented with a tinplate oil cooking stove, 
which generally provides an oven, hot plate, and ring for kettle or 
stewpan. 

For emergencies a good substitute for cream can be made w T ith 
fresh milk, a little butter and flour. 

If milk cannot be procured for tea and coffee, use an egg beaten 
up to a froth. 

If fresh- water fish is caught and has to be cooked, wash thoroughly in 
clean water ; if small, fry ; if large, stew with a sauce, in which wine 
or vinegar and aromatic herbs are used, 

PRESERVATION OF FOOD. 

An important consideration is, how food may be best preserved 
with a view to its being suitably dressed. More waste is often occa- 
sioned by the want of judgment, or necessary care in this particular 
than by any other cause. In the absence of proper places for keeping 
provisions, a hanging safe, suspended in any airy situation, is the best 
substitute. A well-ventilated larder, dry and shady, is better for 
meat and poultry, which require to be kept for some time ; and the 
utmost skill in the culinary art will not compensate for the want of 
proper attention to this particular. Though it is advisable that animal 
.food should be hung up in the open air till its fibres have lost some degree 
of their toughness, yet, if it is kept till it loses its natural sweetness, 
its flavour has become deteriorated, and, as a wholesome comestible, 
it has lost many qualities conducive to health. As soon, therefore, 
as the slightest trace of putrescence is detected, it has reached its 
highest degree of tenderness, and should be dressed immediately. 
During the sultry summer months, it is difficult to procure meat that 
is not either tough or tainted. It should, therefore, be well examined 
when it comes in, and if flies have touched it, the part must be cut off, 
and the remainder well wiped with a clean cloth dipped in warm water 
and vinegar. In loins of meat, the long pipe which runs in the cavity 
of the bone should be taken out, as it is apt to taint, as also the kernels 
of beef. Rumps and aitch-bones of beef, should not be purchased 
when bruised. 

All these things ought to enter into the consideration of every 
household manager ; and great care should be taken that nothing is 
thrown away, or suffered to be wasted in the kitchen, which might. 
by proper management, be turned to a good account. 

The shank bones of mutton, so little esteemed in general, give rich- 
ness to soups or gravies, if well soaked and bruised before they are 
added to the boiling liquor. 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 

Roast beef bones, or shank-bones of ham, make excellent stock 
for soup. 

When the whites of eggs are used for jelly, confee tioiiei y, or other 
purposes, a pudding or a custard should be made, that the yolks may 
be used. 

All things likely to be wanted should be in readiness : sugars of 
different sorts ; currants washed, picked, and perfectly dry ; spices 
pounded, and kept in very small bottles closely corked, or in can- 
isters, as we have already directed. Not more of these should be 
purchased at a time than are likely to be used in the course of a 
month. 

Much waste is always prevented by keeping every article in the 
place best suited to it. 

In very cold weather, vegetables touched by the frost should be 

brought into the kitchen early in the morning and soaked in i old \\ater. 

ibles keep best on a stone floor, if the air be excluded ; nn.it 

in a cold, dry place ; as also salt, sugar, sweetmeats, candles dried 

meats and hams. 

Rice, and all sorts of cereals for pudding, should be i . en-d 

to preserve them from insects ; but even this will not prevent them 
from being affected by these destroyers, if they arc long and car* 
kept in a damp place. 

J'ears and grapes should be strung, and hung up in :\ c<3ld, dry 
plaee. Apples should be laid on straw, after being carefully \ 
and should not touch each other. They keep better on wood than 
on china. 

ADULTERATION. 

The Act passed in 1872 for the prevention of Adulteration of 
Food, Drink and Drugs declares that persons who adulter. 
of food, or who sell those that they know to have been adultr 
whether with material injurious to the health or not, are punishable 
with line or imprisonment. The vendor is bound to declare sm h 
admixture to the purchaser at the time of the sale. The insp- 
under the local authorities arc directed to procure samples from time 
to time, and to submit them to the public analyst. 

Any purchaser may have any article of food, or drink, or drugs 
analy/.ed by the public analyst of his district on payment of a sum 
not less than half-a-crown and not more than half-a-guinea. 

In olden times the prices of the chief necessaries of life were regu- 
lated by authority. Such interference has long been a thing of the 
Vendors may ask any price they please for the things they 
sell, and the legislature only insists that no fraud shall be practised 
on the public, and that goods shall be sold under their rightful 
names. 



122 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

PRICES OF FOOD 

Every one nowadays will agree that the seller should fix the price 
at which he will sell his wares. For the prices vary according as 
the supply of the commodity in question is plentiful and the demand 
great. An abundant wheat harvest is followed by cheap bread ; 
but we do not all so readily understand, that not bread alone but 
all perishable articles must be dear one year and cheap another. 
It may sometimes happen that the fall in price never reaches the 
consumer, but stops short with the wholesale or retail trader, although 
this tendency is to some extent counteracted by the competition in 
retail trade. 

Overcharging is most likely to occur where the customers cannot 
readily transfer their custom to a neighbouring shop, as, for instance, 
in isolated country places, or when the customers are in debt, or under 
obligation to the shopkeeper, having perhaps been supported by him 
during times of scarce work. It is often for these reasons that in the 
poorest and most wretched neighbourhoods the highest prices rule. 
Customers are often induced by considerations of fashion or conveni- 
ence to pay high prices ; but they can scarcely be said to be over- 
charged, since they choose to pay for such costly luxuries as spacious 
premises, handsome shop-fronts, numerous shop assistants and long 
credit. Economical people are compelled to go without these and 
many other things that it is pleasant to have. 

DIET 

But it is not only the weight and the cost that have to be studied 
for economy's sake. We have already seen that it is possible to 
starve in the midst of plenty ; to starve, that is, for want of one 
necessary constituent of food, though all the others may be supplied 
in superabundance. A good housekeeper will, therefore, take care 
that upon her table is set a variety of well-chosen food, and very often 
indeed, by the exercise of a little care in dieting, she may prevent the 
outlay of much care in nursing and of much money in doctors' bills. 
People suffer from diseases of mal-nutrition much more often through 
bad management than because of a short purse. It will often be found, 
especially with children, that they are ill for want of certain kinds of 
food and yet will not take them in their ordinary form ; it is then 
the part of the housekeeper to reproduce the food so that it is not 
recognized, or to find the same substance in some other form. 

COST AND ECONOMY 

Again, two foods may cost the same and weigh the same, and yet 
one may be far more economical than the other. For one may be 
very nourishing, containing a kind of food that is not cheaply to 
be bought, and it may besides be such that it takes up water and 



INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 123 

increases in weight in the cooking. The other is a moist food, and 
will lose weight before it comes to table, or it may be starchy food, 
which can always be bought at a low price, or it may contain bone and 
waste, which is not properly to be called food at all. One very good 
contrast is afforded by a pound of rumpsteak at fourteenpence, and a 
pound of beans or lentils at twopence. Both are bought for the sake 
of flesh-forming, or nitrogenous, food. From neither is there actual 
waste to be cut away. But the broiled meat will not weigh more than 
12 ozs. when it comes to table, and the pulse will have taken up more 
than its own weight of water, which costs nothing. We have two 
pounds of food for twopence against three-quarters of a pound for 
one and twopence. 

This must always be remembered in dealing with all dry foods. 
One pound of Indian meal weighs when cooked three pounds ; half 
a pound of macaroni increases to two pounds, we are told by Rumford. 
Comparing rice to flour, if both are the same price, flour is cheaper 
because it is less starchy, and people who reckon such small economies 
as these are generally ill-fed, needing flesh-formers, which are chiefly 
to be found in the costlier foods. 

As a third example we may take beefsteak as compared to mutton 
chops : they are usually about the same price per pound, but there 
can be no question which is the cheaper of the two, for the beef has no 
bone and little fat. 



DIGESTION 

Digestion is a complicated process, and, as a rule, a slow one It 
may be interfered with cither by physical short-comings such as ab- 
sence of, or bad, teeth, muscular flaccidity, or nervous exhaustion, or 
by functional derangements causing a deficiency in the quality 
or quantity of saliva, gastric, or other secretions, which are poured into 
the stomach or intestines during the process of digestion. As a rule 
cooking facilitates digestion, partly by softening the food, and partly 
by inducing chemical changes which would otherwise have to be in- 
duced by functional activity in the stomach or intestines. In some 
instances, however, cooking hardens the tissues, and so retards diges- 
tion. Over roasting or quick boiling, of meats usually toughens the 
fibres. Fat retards digestion, as it has to undergo a long process of 
emulsifying before being absorbed. Salt and spices, on the other 
hand, hasten digestion by stimulating the secretion of the necessary 
juices. But an over indulgence in spices of all kinds will, in the long 
run, irritate the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal, induce a 
congestive tendency of the secretory organs, and so produce functional 
disorganization, resulting in slow and painful digestion. Over- 
seasoning brings about an unhealthy condition of the liver. Too much 
liquid in the stomach immediately before or while eating dilutes the 



124 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



saliva and digestive juices, weakening their activity. Too long 
fasting turns the natural alkalinity of the saliva to acidity, 
resulting in heartburn. Coffee and tea retard digestion. They 
should not be partaken of at a meal when meat is eaten to any extent. 
In the aged, however, good tea is undoubtedly beneficial by reducing 
tissue waste. Wines and light beers in moderation gently stimulate 
digestion, but strong beers and alcohol greatly prolong the process. 

Under normal conditions, it is well that the digestive process should 
not be prolonged beyond four to four-and-a-half hours. For invalids 
and persons with " weak stomachs," the time allowed should be much 
less. It is, therefore, necessary to study the table of digestibility, 
which has been compiled from the result of repeated experiments by 
a number of doctors. It must, of course, be remembered that with 
invalids, the weak, children, and aged persons, digestion is prolonged 
beyond the normal indicated below, 



DIGESTIVE TIME TABLE 



Food 




T 


me 






Hours 


Minutes. 


Apples, sweet vrftfT 


Raw .... 


I 


?o 


,, green . . . . 


Stewed . 


j 


3 r 




Boiled .... 




to 


Barley Soup 






30 




Boiled . . . . 


2 





Beans 


Boiled .... 


2 


30 




Puree 


j 


30 


Beef, lean 


Roasted . 




0^ 

o 


,, tender 


Stewed . 


2 


45 




Grilled . . . 


3 





Beef, fresh salted 


Boiled .... 




2 


45 






6 





Beets 


Boiled .... 




45 


Brains 


Boiled .... 


j 


t 


Bread, fresh 


Baked .... 


7 


30 


Butler 


Melted .... 


J 
? 


30 ' 


Bread and Butter (with coffee) . 
Cabbage . . . . t 


Roasted . 


3 


45 

JQ 




Pickled . 




30 


Celery . ' . 1 10173 iJs -MU ^n 


Boiled 




30 


Chicken . ,i^v/. >;;;Tht. iL % u>.. .014: 


Boiled 




3 o 




Fricasseed 


2 


4? 


Cheese, okl 






30 


Custard 


Boiled 




A r 


Duck 


Roasted .... 




o 


Eel ... .... 


Roasted 


6 


o 











INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY 
DIGESTIVE TIME TABLE (continued). 



125 



Food. 


Preparation. 


Time. 


Hours. 


Minutes. 


Eggs fresh 


Raw 


2 
3 

4 

i 

3 

2 

3 

-i 
4 
4 

2 
2 

2 

3 

2 
2 

2 
2 

3 
3 

5 

2 

3 
3 

2 

5 

3 

2 

I 

3 

3 

<; 

5 

i 

3 

i 
i 

4 
6 

2 

I 
I 
2 
2 
3 

4 

T 






30 



30 



o 



15 
30 

3 

30 

o 

30 
30 

15 



o 

15 

o 

55 

30 

30 
30 
15 
15 
30 



15 
30 

C) 

30 

35 



3 
30 






o 

30 
30 

IS 

30 
30 
40 




Soft boiled . . . 
Hard boiled 
Whipped (raw) 
Scrambled 
Boiled .... 
Fried .... 
Boiled .... 
Roasted .... 
Roasted .... 
Roasted .... 
Warmed . . . 
Fried or sauteed . 

Grilled 
Boiled .... 
Raw 








Fish (other than fat varieties). 
Fowls ." . . " 

Game (most kinds) .... 
Goose 


Hashed meat 


Liver (calves') 


(ox) 


Lamb 


Lentils 


Milk 


Boiled .... 
Boiled and broiled . 
Roasted .... 

Raw 


Mutton 


lean 


Nuts 


( Jysters 




Stewed .... 
Stt'Wed .... 
Ko.K-d .... 

Roasted .... 
K'oasted .... 

:l'*d .... 
Fried or Kiked 
iU-d .... 
Raw 


Onions 





in king 


Pork, t'.it 


,, salt 


Potatoes . 


Rice 
Salad 
Sausage 


:lli-d .... 
Smoked . . 

.1 . . 

Boiled .... 
Fried .... 
Stewed . . . 
Boiled .... 

Raw . 




Suet .... 





Soles 

SoiiKu h .... 


Salmon, fivsh 


smoked 
Stone Fruit 


Tapioi:; 


Boiled . 

1'olled . . . 
'led .... 
K-.ash-il .... 

il.-d .... 

railed .... 

Koasted or grilled . 

Mrd . '. . . 


Tripe 


'1 rout 
Turkey 

Turnips .... 

; 

Venison 



126 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



QUANTITIES AND MEASURES 



AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 



1 6 Drachms 

1 6 Ounces = 

14 Pounds 

28 Pounds = 

4 Quarters = 

20 Hundredweight == 



i Drachm, 
i Ounce. 

Pound (lb.). 

Stone. 

Quarter (qr.). 
Hundredwt. 

Ton. 



APOTHECARIES' 

20 Grains = i Scruple 20 grs. 

3 Scruples = i Drachm = 60 

8 Drachms = i Ounce 480 

12 Ounces = i Pound =-=5760 

Apothecaries compound their medi- 
cines by this weight, but buy and sell 
their drugs by avoirdupois. 



APOTHECARIES' FLUID 
MEASURE 

60 Minims =i Fluid Drachm. 

8 Drachms = i Ounce. 
20 Ounces =i Pint. 

8 Pints =i Gallon. 



DRY MEASURE 



2 Gallons 
4 Pecks 
3 Bushels 
12 Sacks 
8 Bushels 
5 Quarters 


- i Peck (pk.). 
= i Bushel (bush.). 
= i Sack. 
=- i Chaldron. 
= i Quarter (qr.). 
- i Load (Id.). 



LIQUID MEASURE 

4 Gills = i Pint (pt.). 

2 Pints i Quart (qt.). 

4 Quarts = i Gallon (gall.), 



QUANTITIES AND TIME 

Scales and weights for weighing are desirable in all culinary opera- 
tions, but they are not indispensable ; for weights and measures have 
their equivalents, as the appended tables will show. They may not 
be strictly exact, but they are sufficiently so for ordinary purposes. 
The " rule of thumb " system sometimes produces very good results, 
but it is uncertain, and it is better to have a rough guide than none ; 
and failing weights and scales, all ingredients should be measured in 
cups, spoons, or whatever utensil or vessel may be best suited to the 
quantity. But whether the ingredients are intended for a cake, 
pudding, soup or sauce, something more than exact weight and measure 
and careful mixing is required. The recipes give precise directions as 
to application of strong or gentle heat, and whether the vessels are to 
remain uncovered or otherwise. If these directions be disregarded, 
and soups or stews are allowed to reduce themselves by evaporation 
and rapid boiling, it naturally follows that the amount of liquid allowed 
for the stew is too little, and the quantity of thickening intended for 
the soup will be found too much. If eggs were of uniform size, and if 
flour always absorbed the same amount of liquid, it would be possible 
to state precisely how many eggs or how much milk would sufficiently 
moisten a given quantity of flour. As matters stand, indecisive terms 
and directions are sometimes unavoidable ; occasionally something 
must be left to the discretion and common-sense of the worker. 



THE SCIENCE OF COOKERY 
TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS 



127 



i Breakfastcupful of Water or Milk 

i.Teacupful ,, ,, 

4 Tablespoonfuls ,, 

i Wineglassful ,, ,, 



MEASURE. 
. | pint. 

'. i ',', 



WEIGHT. 

Breakfastcupful of moist sugar (heaped) . . Ib. 
castor ,, . 7 ozs. 

rice . 7 ,, 

butter, lard or dripping (hpd.) 7 ,, 
suet (finely chopped) ,, . 4 ,, 
breadcrumbs, pressed in ,, . 4 ,, 
sago, tapioca, semolina ,, . 4 ,, 
flour, cornflour ,, . 4 ,, 



Tablespoonful of suet finely chopped (heaped) 
flour ,, 

moist sugar 
golden syrup 

Dessertspoonful of flour (heaped) . 

moist sugar 
golden syrup (level) 
marmalade ,, 

Saltspoonful is equal to 

Teaspoonful ,, 

Dessertspoonful ,, 



WEIGHT. 
i oz. 
i 



ton spoonful. 
dessertspoonful, 
tablespoon ful. 



6 Ordinary-sized lumps of sugar weigh i oz. 

A piece of butter or fat, about the size of a small 
egg, weighs about i .. 






NOTE 



IT will be seen, on referring to the Recipes which follow, that by the 
original method of explanation adopted, the rules for the preparation 
of each dish are clearly and intelligibly indicated. We would recom- 
mend the young housekeeper, cook, or whoever may be engaged in 
the important task of " getting ready " the dinner or other meal, to 
follow precisely the order in which the Recipes are given. Thus, let 
them first place on their table all the Ingredients necessary ; then the 
Method of preparation will be quickly and easily managed. By carefully 
reading the Recipes there should not be the slightest difficulty in arranj 
ing a repast for any number of persons, and an accurate notion will 
gained of the Time required for the cooking of each dish, the perk 
when it is Seasonable, and its Average Cost. 

The prices are based on a careful study of the London Market lisl 
of the season, when the various articles are at their best. Where tl 
fluctuations are very considerable, the item is omitted from the c< 
culation. As stated, the prices are Average only, and must be modifie 
according to season, district and the supply of and demand for 
articles that may prevail. 

Notes are also given on the natural history of the different anirm 
and various edible articles in common use, indicating their habital 
characteristic features, and dietetic value, which from a practi< 
economical and educational point of view will be found both inte 
esting and serviceable. 



128 



SOUPS. 




SOUPS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

General directions for making Soups and Stock, with 
observations on the materials required for Soups. 
Thickenings and Flavourings. 

THE valuable dietetic properties of soup have been, and indeed still are, 
much overlooked in this country. Soup forms the first course of the 
ncal of those who dine in the true sense of the term, but its import. nice 
is a part of the every day diet is not sufficiently appreciated by the 
nultitnde in those islands. Yet no form of food is more digestible and 
.vlmlt some, nor does any other method of preparing food afford so many 
opportunities for utilizing material that would otherwise be u..Mr<l. 

ly a hundred years ago Count Rumford, the famous scientist 
md founder of the Royal Institution, wrote : 

" The richness or quality of a soup depends more upon a proper 
hoice of ingredients, and a proper management of the fire in the com- 
nnation of those ingredients, than upon the quantity of solid nutritious 
natter employed ; much more upon the art and skill of the cook than 
ipon the sum laid out in the market." 

This remark is as true to-day as it was a century ago. The average 

Mies that the goodness of a soup depends upon the weight <>t 

:ie puts into it, and upon the size of the fire over which it is boil< -d. 

t will therefore be advisable to preface this chapter with a simple 

it-ntiti.- account of a few of the most interesting and important f_u ts 

Inch relate to the food we have to prepare, and the theory and chem- 

ious culinary operations. This is, therefore, the proper 

lace to treat of the quality of the flesh of animals, and to describe some 

I the conditions which affect its qualities. We will commence 

ith the consideration of age, and examine how far this affects the 

uality of the meat. 

129 



i3o HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

The Flesh of Animals. During the period between the birth and 
maturity of animals their flesh undergoes very considerable changes. 
For instance, when the animal is young, the fluids in the tissues of the 
muscles contain a large proportion of albumin and gelatin. This 
albumin, which is also the chief component of the white of eggs, and is 
the essential constituent of protoplasm, the physical basis of life, 
possesses the peculiarity of coagulating or hardening at a certain 
temperature (160 F., the cooking point of meat) like the white of a 
boiled egg, and becomes no longer soluble or capable of being dissolved 
in water. As animals grow older gelatin gradually decreases in pro- 
portion to the fibrin (an organic compound substance which constitutes 
the solid matter that is deposited when blood coagulates) and to the 
other constituents of the flesh. The reason, therefore, why veal, lamb 
and young pork are white when cooked is that the large quantity of 
albumin contained in the fibres hardens, or becomes coagulated. The 
chief characteristic of young meat is the great proportion of gelatin 
contained in those parts that afterwards become hard or bony. 

The quality of the flesh of animals is influenced considerably by the 
nature of the food on which they have been fed, for the food supplies 
the material which produces the flesh. If the food is not suitable and 
good, the meat will necessarily be inferior. The flesh of animals fed 
on farinaceous produce, as corn, pulse, etc., is firm, well-flavoured and 
also economical in the cooking ; the flesh of those fed on juicy and pulpy 
substances, as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree ; 
but the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is greasy, 
high-coloured and gross in the fat, and if such food has been used in 
large quantities, will have a rank flavour. 

Health of Animals. It is indispensable to the good quality of meat 
that the animal should be perfectly healthy when slaughtered. How- 
ever slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality 
of its flesh as food is certain to follow. In many cases, indeed, 
the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putre- 
faction, and becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous 
to those who eat it. 

The Treatment of the Animal before it is Slaughtered is another circum- 
stance which greatly affects the quality of meat, and has an important 
influence on its value and wholesomeness. This will be readily under- 
stood if we consider the laws in accordance with which the life of an 
animal is supported and maintained. These are the digestion of its 
food and the assimilation of that food into its substance. Nature in 
effecting this process, first reduces the food in the stomach to a state 
of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes into the intestines 
and is there divided into two principles, each distinct from the other. 
One, a milk-white fluid the nutritive portion is absorbed by th( 
innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous membrane, or inne 



SOUPS 131 

coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents, discharge the 
fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is conveyed to the 
blood, thus supplying it with materials whereby the various tissues 
are nourished. The blood having circulated through all parts, 
and having had its waste repaired by the digested food, is now 
received into the heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged 
through the lungs, there to receive its purification from the air 
which the animal inhales. Again returning to the heart, it is forced 
through the arteries, and thence distributed by the innumerable ramifi- 
cations of the minute blood-vessels, called capillaries, to every part of 
the animal, imparting life and nutriment. The other principle the 
innutritive portion passes from the intestines out of the system. It 
will now be clearly seen how flesh is injuriously affected if an animal is 
slaughtered when the circulation of its blood has been increased by 
over-driving, ill-usage or any other cause of excitement, to such a degree 
that the capillaries cannot perform their functions properly, thus 
ing the blood to be congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has 
been the case, the meat will be dark-coloured and become rapidly 
putrid, so that self-interest and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle 
treatment of all animals destined to serve as food for man. 



THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP 
MAKING. 

The Basis of all Meat Soups. Stock forms the basis of all ir 
ind of the principal sauces ; but except the rich clear stock us> 
:onsomme (or clear soup), it is not necessarily made from fresh 
In making brown stock from the shin of beef, white stock from 
he knuckle of veal, or ordinary stock from the bones and the trimmings 
f meat, poultry, etc., the methods employed for completely extracting 
rom the materials all their nutriment and flavour are the same : the 
esult depends upon the quality and kind of material employed, and 
hie length of time the simmering is continued. Five or six hours will 
xtract from the materials all that is necessary and desirable for stock 
ntendcd for clear soup ; but many more hours of gentle simmering will 
>e necessary to draw from the bones all the goodness they contain. 

In Franco, and indeed throughout the Continent generally, a stock-pot 
v-ill be found in every peasant's kitchen. By its means, the ba 

i delicious meal can be provided from materials that would be 
as ted in the average middle class household in Britain. 
The component parts of meat are : albumin, myosin (contained in 
11 muscle fibres \ fibrin, gelatin, fat, alkaline salts and certain <-x- 
actives known as osmasome, which give to flesh its characteristic 
:Me flavour. 



1 32 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Albumin. Albuir^n is the most valuable nutritive substance con- 
tained in meat ; it and its allied substance myosin are soluble in cold 
water, but coagulate or harden almost immediately they come in 
contact with boiling water, or with water a few degrees below boiling 
point ; and it is the knowledge of these important facts which enables 
us to retain the juices in the meat in roasting and boiling, and extract 
all the goodness from it in making soup. The chemistry of this will 
be easily understood by minutely examining the thread-like fragments 
of meat that have been subjected to a long process of boiling. In the 
raw condition each separate fibre was intermixed with and surrounded 
by albumin, myosin, etc. In making stock, the meat is cut up into 
rather small pieces in order to expose a larger surface to the action of 
the water. If put into cold water and allowed to stand for some time 
the soluble substances, albumin, myosin, osmasome and salts are ex- 
tracted. The salts and extractives (certain nitrogenous crystalline 
bodies) being readily soluble are dissolved at once, the albumin and 
myosin dissolve slowly and the gelatin becomes softened. When heat 
is applied its first gentle effect is to hasten the dissolving and softening 
processes, but as it approaches boiling point the albumin and myosin 
coagulate and appear as brown particles on the surface of the stock. 
The connective tissue which surrounds and binds the thread-like fibres 
together dissolves under the influence of heat, and yields gelatin to the 
stock. Should the mistake of putting the meat into boiling water be 
made the albumin on the surface of each piece of meat would immedi- 
ately harden and imprison the juices of the meat, and thus protect them 
and the fibres from the softening and dissolving influence of the water. 
Consequently the stock would be thin and poor. 

Gelatin. The best stock and the best beef tea are not necessarily 
those which, when cold, form a jelly. The properties to which beef 
tea owes its valuable stimulating power are not derived from gelatin, 
but from the juices of the meat ; of which juices more can be extracted 
from a beef-steak cut from a recently-killed animal, than from one that 
has been hung for some time, and yet obtained in a much larger pro- 
portion from ANY KIND of beef-steak than from the highly gelatinous 
shin of beef. Juicy beef produces well-flavoured, stimulating beet tea, 
but such a liquid, strained of its floating particles of coagulated albumin, 
has no value as a food, and notwithstanding its rich flavour of meat 
would be regarded as too thin and watery to form the basis of a good 
consomme, which must combine both flavour and substance. Th< i 
fore, in making stock, the extraction of the juices of meat by the 
process already indicated, should be followed by a long, slow simmering to 
soften and dissolve the connective tissue, tendons, etc., which yield a 
more transparent gelatin than that extracted from bones. Gelatin 
not only gives substance to the stock, but also makes it more nourishing, 
if that point need be considered in a liquid forming the basis of a con- 



SOUPS 133 

somme generally used as a prelude to a dinner in which meat and 
poultry play an important part. Gelatin in this form is more useful to 
those who cannot eat much meat or other albuminoid food, as the 
nitrogen of the gelatin replaces the nitrogen of albumin, in the form- 
ation of many digestive and other secretions of the body, if not in its 
constructive processes. 

Extractives. It is to the changes the extractives undergo during the 
process of cooking that meat owes much of its flavour, particularly the 
outside of roast meat. The flesh of old animals contains more of these 
substances than that of young ones ; brown meats contain more than 
white, and consequently give a richer, if a less delicate, flavour to the 
stock. 

CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS. 

Although there are between five and six hundred different kinds of 
soup, they can be broadly divided into a few distinct classes, namely, 
broths, clear soups, thick soups and pur6es ; each group may be divided 
and sub-divided, but it will be more convenient to consider them under 
this simple classification. 

Broths. The unclarified liquor in which chicken, veal, beef, mutton, 
rabbit or sheep's head is cooked are included in this class. Tlu-y 
arc frequently garnished with pearl-barley or rice, but they are not 
thickened. 

Clear Soups. The basis of good clear soups is double stock, that is, 
a good beef stock which has been strengthened with veal to give it 
gelatinous substance, and with fowl to improve the flavour. The clear 
soups include all those which are transparent in appearance, varying 
in colour from amber to nut-brown. Additions may be made to them 
as a garniture or decoration, from which they take their distinctive 
name. Some of the garnitures and flavouring in common use are : 
vegetables; "shaped," i.e. cut into various shapes or devices; dice, 
or small cubes of cooked game, chicken, meat and fish ; quenelles of 
meat, fish and chicken ; finely shredded vegetables ; various farinaceous 
preparations as Italian paste, semolina, rice, sago and batters. 

Thick Soups. The basis of soups of this class may be stock of any 
kind, white, brown, fish or vegetable, according to the soup required, 
or a mixture of white stock and milk for such soups as Potage a la 
Royal and Potage a la Bonne Femme ; or all milk, or milk and water 
for such plain thick soups as cabbage and vegetable soups. Soups of 
this class are frequently garnished as well as being thickened ; the well- 
known ox-tail and mock turtle soups may be given as examples. Thick 
soups owe their thickening to the addition of arrowroot, cornflour, 
rice-flour, flour, or some other farinaceous substance ; rich soups, such 
as " Bonne Femme," are thickened by a liaison or combination of 



i 34 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

yolks of eggs and cream, while a good brown soup like " Ox Tail " 
would be thickened with butter and flour, previously either cooked or 
well kneaded together. In making hare soup the blood of the animal 
is frequently used : it should be strained into the soup a few minutes 
before serving. Thick soups should have the same consistency as good 
single cream, i.e. cream obtained from milk that has stood 12 hours. 

Purges. This class of soups differs from other thick soups in being 
thickened by the ingredients of which they are made, such as Bisque 
of Lobster, purees of peas, beans and lentils ; in all cases the sub- 
stances comprising the soup are rubbed through a sieve and served in 
the soup. Croutons of bread are usually used with purees. 

PURE, Fr. A smooth pulp, thick soup, mashed vegetables. Meat or fish that has been cooked, 
pounded in a mortar, and passed through a sieve is also called a puree. 

Vegetarian Soups. A soup made of milk and cabbage, lettuce or 
mixed vegetables, may not please the English palate so well as the more 
expensive consomme, but it contains as much nourishment, and if in 
itself it had no food value whatever it would still be a useful addition 
to a meal of cold meat. A few words will explain this. Food serves 
the twofold purpose of maintaining the heat of the body and of sup- 
plying force or strength. A want of food produces not only a sense of 
hunger, but also a sensation of cold. If a meal of cold meat be 
taken, a part of the latent heat contained in it will be spent in raising 
the temperature of the food to that of the body, consequently less food 
will be available for the production of heat and energy. Some hot 
soup taken at the commencement of the meal would not only have 
strengthened the stomach and made it better able to receive the sub- 
stantial food to follow, but it would by its own heat have quickly raised 
the temperature of the food it became mixed with. Soups made from 
peas, beans and lentils, being very rich in carbo-hydrates, contain so 
much nourishment that they ought to be eaten in the place of meat 
instead of with it : every economical housewife should know the value 
of these soups. Mattieu Williams, speaking of vegetable soups, says : 
" I must add a few words in advocacy of the further adoption in this 
country of the French practice of using as POTAGE the water in which 
vegetables generally (excepting potatoes) have been boiled. When we 
boil cabbages, turnips, carrots, etc., we dissolve out of them a very 
large proportion of their saline constituents ; salts which are absolutely 
necessary for the maintenance of health ; salts without which we be- 
come victims of gout, rheumatism, lumbago and gravel." 

Flavourings for Soups. The following list of flavourings simply enu- 
merates those most commonly used and conveniently obtained : tur- 
nips, carrots, onions, celery, parsley, thyme, bay-leaf (parsley, thyme 
and bay-leaf are usually tied together and spoken of as a " bouquet- 
garni"), tarragon, chervil, tomatoes, celery seeds, cloves, wine, 
vinegars of various kinds, and lemon juice. 



SOUPS 135 

Seasoning for Soups. In addition to salt and pepper, which form the 
ordinary seasonings for soups, and which must be added with caution, 
nutmeg, allspice, mace, sugar and cinnamon are used, but in all 
cases judgment and discretion must be exercised, as an overdose of 
any one of the above ingredients may spoil the best soup. 

The exact quantity of liquid needed in making soup cannot, speaking 
generally, be given, so much depends on the rate of cooking, and 
whether the lid of the saucepan is kept on to prevent waste by evapora- 
tion. If the liquid becomes greatly reduced by rapid boiling but has 
been closely covered, the contents of the saucepan have merely become 
concentrated in strength and flavour, and water may be added to make 
up the original quantity. Should the liquid, by being allowed to 
boil in an uncovered saucepan, have wasted its strength and flavour, 
sufficient stock, milk, or whatever formed the basis of the soup, 
must be added to make up the original STRENGTH and quantity. The 
inexperienced cook should take this lesson to heart Cooking cannot be 
Hastened. If the preparations for dinner have been somewhat delayed 
nothing is gained by placing the saucepan containing the soup, stew, 
or meat on the top of a fierce fire. When once the SLOW-BOILING or 
simmering point has been reached all excess of heat is wasted, and the 
BENEFIT of slow progressive cooking is lost. 

STOCK. 

The following information and directions will be found useful in 
the making of stock. 

1. Beef makes the best brown stock, but it lacks gelatinous substance ; 
therefore stock for good consomme, or clear soup, should be made of 
beef and veal, and a fowl, or part of a fowl added to give it an additional 
flavour. 

2. White stock is usually made from veal, bones and remains of 
poultry and calves' feet. The liquor in which calves' head or fowls 
has been boiled makes excellent white stock. 

3. Stock meat should be as lean and as fresh as possible. Never wash 
meat unless obliged, as it deprives its surface of all the juices. It should 
be cut into small pieces, in order to multiply the surfaces to be exposed 
to the softening and dissolving influences of the water. 

4. The usual allowance of water is i quart to each Ib. of meat. This 
may, however, be too large a quantity if the stock is very gently sim- 
mered and kept covered the whole time ; on the other hand, if cooked 
too quickly, or if by careless exposure the evaporation is excessive, the 
amount specified may not be sufficient. 

5. The meat should be allowed to stand in the water for a little time 
in order to dissolve the soluble constituents ; heat should be applied 
gradually until the stock reaches the boiling point ; when the scum 



136 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

thrown up by boiling has been removed, the stock should be reduced 
to, and kept at, simmering point. 

6. The vegetables must be whole or in large pieces, and be added after 
the stock has boiled and the scum has been removed. They should be 
used very sparingly so as not to overpower the flavour of the meat. To 
4 quarts of water, i carrot, i onion, a turnip and i short strip of celery 
should be allowed, also a teaspoonful of salt and 12 peppercorns ; 
ground pepper should never be used, as it makes stock and clear soup 
cloudy, 

7. The stock should simmer very gently for 5 or 6 hours, with the stock- 
pot covered to prevent waste by evaporation. When ready, it should 
be strained through a hair sieve into a large basin, and the meat and 
sediment at the bottom of the stewpan be put back into the stock pot. 

8. When cold, the fat should be removed from the surface. 

MANAGEMENT OP A HOUSEHOLD STOCK-POT. 

For most cooking operations stock is in constant demand to form the 
basis of a soup, a sauce or gravy. Recipes for making excellent stocks 
(including white stock or blond de Veau, and a good brown stock) are 
given on the following pages. The stock-pot should supply stock for 
sauces, stews and gravies, and we will now indicate how a careful cook 
can always have stock on hand with little or no extra expense. 

The first consideration is the stock-pot. A well-tinned stock-pot 
with a tap is to be recommended ; the tap permits the stock to be drawn 
off without any admixture of grease, all the fat rising to the top of the 
stock-pot. For small households the earthenware stock-pot will be 
found useful, as a very small amount of heat is required to keep its 
contents at simmering point. 

The materials that may be put into the stock-pot are bones and the 
trimmings of meat, cooked or uncooked ; poultry, giblets, poultry bones, 
game bones, the rinds and bones of bacon, the remains of gravies, but 
not sauces thickened with flour the latter make the stock cloudy. 
Scraps of raw vegetables, if fresh and suitable, may be added in cold 
weather ; cooked vegetables must not be used for they are liable to 
turn sour, especially in warm weather. 

Fat should never be put into the stock-pot, but marrow from bones 
is often introduced in small quantity. Flour and anything thickened 
with flour or potatoes must also be carefully excluded. 

When using a metal stock-pot the stock should be emptied and 
strained every night into an earthenware vessel. In starting it the 
following morning the pieces of meat and bones from which all the good- 
ness has been extracted should be discarded, and the rest returned to 
the stock-pot with the stock or fresh water. 

Fresh meat used for stock need not be washed, but should be wiped 
with a damp cloth before being cut up. 



SOUPS 137 

Any unused stock should be boiled up every day in hot weather, 
and in cooler weather every second or third day. 

MEAT GLAZE. 

Any kind of rich meat stock, especially such as contains a good pro- 
portion of gelatinous substance, can be reduced to half glaze, or ^la/- 
gravy that sets to the thickness of jelly. This is effected by rapid 
boiling, and frequent skimming to ensure its being clear, until the 
desired consistency has been reached. 

Glaze is used for improving the appearance of meats, galantines, 
pies, etc., and is very handy for enriching soups and sauces, which 
frequently require additional strength and flavour. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR RECIPES FOR SOUPS. 

The vegetables named in the recipes are supposed to be of moderate 
size, but two smaller ones, or half a larger one may be used instead. 
To avoid repetition, they are spoken of as " prepared," meaning thai 
the onions have been peeled, the carrots scraped and the turnips pared. 
As the fibre on the outside of the turnip is very tough and thick 
it is advisable, and not extravagant, to take off a THICK PARING. 
On the other hand, potatoes should be pared as thinly as possible, 
because the outer part contains the most valuable and nutritious part 
of the potato. 

A bouquet-garni is a small bunch of mixed herbs, such as parsley, 
thyme, bay-leaf, basil and majoram. Sparingly used, these herbs 
improve the flavour of many soups, but they are not essential, and one 
>r more of them may be omitted if they cannot be easily procured. 

The following table of equivalents will enable the cook to dispense 
with scales in making many of the soups given in the following pages. 

TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS 

MEASURE. ;HT. 

Flour I tablespoonful (heaped) i oz. 

Rice I (level) I ,, 

Semolina I ,, ,, I ,, 

Tapioca and Sago I ,, ,, I ,, 

\ piece of butter or fat, the size of a small bgg i ., 

Tumbler, \ pint. Breakfast Cup, pint. Tea Cup, .} pint. 



RECIPES FOR SOUPS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 






Stock, broths, clear soups, thick soups, purees, fish 
soups, and miscellaneous soups. 

Stocks for all Kinds of Soup. 

i. BONE STOCK. 

Any kind of bones, cooked or uncooked, may be used to make bore 
stock. Put them in a small stew-pan or small stock-pot, add enougl 
water to well cover, and bring to the boil. Skim, add a peeled onion, a 
carrot and a bay-leaf, and simmer for 2 or 3 hours. Season to taste with 
salt. This stock may be used in place of water for making gravy 
soups, and sauces. 

2. BROWN STOCK. (Very good). 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of shin or neck of beef, i Ib. of knuckle of veal 

3 or 4 Ib. of bones (beef and veal), the necks, cleaned feet, the gizzards 
and livers of a chicken or a fowl, 2 carrots, 2 onions, i turnip, a strif 
of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns 

4 cloves, i tablespoonful of salt, 8 quarts of water. 

Method. Cut up the meat, and break the bones into small pieces 
cover with cold water, put in the salt and let it stand for an hour, ther 
bring gently to boiling point. Remove the scum as it rises, and wher 
quite clear put in the herbs and vegetables, which should previously 
have been prepared, and cut into large pieces, or if small, left whole 
if they are cut small and break up, they are apt to make the stocl 
cloudy. Let the stock boil up after putting in the vegetables and skin 
well, then put on the lid, draw to the side of the stove and sin; me 
VERY GENTLY for 5 or 6 hours. Any fat which rises to the surfac' 
during the process of simmering should be carefully skimmed off wit! 
a spoon. When sufficiently cooked, strain the stock through a hai 
sieve into a basin, and when cold take off the fat, which can be clarifie< 
and used for frying. The meat and bones should be covered wit' 
water and boiled down for " second " or " ordinary " stock. 

Stock made according to this recipe could, after being cleared, be use 



STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUP 139 

for any clear soup, which would take its name from the garnish served 
with it. 

Time. 6 hours. Average Cost, is. per quart. 

This should produce about 6 quarts of stock. 

3. BROWN STOCK. (Economical). 

Ingredients. 4 Ib. of raw or cooked bones, the neck, cleaned feet, 
gizzards and liver of a chicken, the bones and rind of ham or bacon, 
2 onions sliced, 2 carrots sliced, i turnip sliced, a strip of celery cut 
into small pieces, 2 ozs. of butter or sweet dripping, 12 peppercorns, 
2 cloves, i tablespoonful of salt, and I quart of water to each Ib. of 
meat and bone. 

Method. Clean and peel the vegetables. Make the fat hot in a large 
stewpan, chop or break the bones into small pieces, drain the vegetables 
thoroughly. Place the bones, herbs and vegetables in the hot fat, 
put on the cover of the stewpan, and fry gently until the whole is quite 
brown, stirring and turning the ingredients occasionally to prevent 
anything becoming overcooked. Put in the cold water, salt, pepper- 
corns and cloves, let it come gently to the boil, and remove the scum 
as it rises. When clear, put on the cover and simmer gently for 5 or 6 
hours. Some of the fat used in frying will rise to the surface during 
the process of simmering and should be taken off with a spoon. When 
done, strain through a sieve into a large basin, and when cold, remove 
the fat. 

Soup made from this stock may not have the transparent brilliancy 
of that made from the previous recipe, but if gently simmered and care- 
fully cleared it is quite good enough for ordinary purposes. Frying the 
bones and vegetables before adding the water greatly improves the 
flavour and colour. 

Time. 6 hours. Average Cost, 6d. per quart. 

i Ib. of solid material employed for stock should produce about 
i pints of stock. 

4. BROWNING FOR STOCK. 

The best way to get brown stock is to fry the meat and bones 
in a little fat, as directed in the foregoing recipe. Another way to 
colour stock or any kind of soup or sauce is to add a few drops of 
caramel. This is obtained by boiling a Ib. of loaf sugar with $ a 
gill of water until it is a dark brown, almost blade colour. Then add 
a gill of cold water, and boil again till it acquires the consistency of 
thick syrup. Put it in a bottle and use as required; it will keep for any 
length of time. 

5. FISH STOCK. 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of any inexpensive white fish, such as plaice or 



I 4 o HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

flounders (the bones and trimmings of fish will serve), i onion sliced, a 
blade of mace, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 12 white 
peppercorns, I teaspoonful of salt, 2 quarts of water. 

Method. Put all the ingredients together into a clean stewpan, and 
simmer gently for i hour from the time the stock begins to cook, when 
all that is desirable will have been extracted. Further cooking some- 
times imparts a disagreeably bitter taste to the stock. The stock 
should be well skimmed, strained, and put into a basin For thick 
soups and sauces it is ready for immediate use, but for clear fish stock 
(which is very rarely used), it would be necessary to clarify it with the 
whites and shells of eggs, allowing 4 to each quart of stock. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, 6d. per quart. Quantity, about 3 pints 
of stock. 



6. GRAVY STOCK. 



add 



Chop up, rather small, some bones from roast meat, fry them 
brown in a pan with a little dripping; pour off all the fat, and 
enough stock or water to cover the bones. Season with salt and 
pepper, and boil for half an hour. Strain and use as required. 






7. SECOND STOCK. 

The bones and meat used for making stock, and the meat used 
clearing consomme (clear soup) should be covered with cold water 
and cooked for several hours to make what is known as " second," 
or " ordinary " stock. Neither seasoning nor flavouring is added, as 
this second stock forms the basis of soups, stews, and sauces which 
have a distinct flavour of their own. 

8. VEGETABLE STOCK. 

Ingredients. 3 carrots, 2 onions, i turnip, 2 tomatoes, i stick of celery, 
i head of lettuce, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a blade 
of mace, 12 peppercorus, 2 cloves, 3 ozs. of butter, 2 quarts of water, 
i teaspoonful of salt. 

Method. Cut the onions, turnips and carrots into thin slices, and the 
celery into small pieces. Make the butter hot in a stewpan, put in the 
vegetables and fry gently for an hour, keeping the stewpan covered. 
In the meantime shred the lettuce, and when the vegetables are suffi- 
ciently cooked, add it, together with the tomatoes (sliced), herbs, flavour- 
ings, seasonings and water, and bring gently to the boil. Skim off 
the scum as it rises, then cover and simmer gently for i^ hours, strain, 
and it is ready for use. 

Time. 2 hours. Average Cost, $d. per quart. Quantity, about 2 
quarts. 



STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUP 141 

9.WHITE, or VEAL STOCK. (Fr. Blond de Veau.) 

Ingredients. 4 Ib. of knuckle of veal, the neck and cleaned feet of 
a chicken, the bones of a chicken (or one shilling's worth of veal bones 
and an old fowl), 2 carrots, 2 onions, i turnip, i strip of celery, bouquet- 
garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns, 2 cloves, I table- 
spoonful of salt, i quart to each Ib. of meat and bone. 

Method. Cut up the meat and break the bones into small pieces, 
put them into a large stewpan with the salt and water, and let them 
stand for about i hour. Bring gently to boiling point, remove the 
scum as it rises, and when the stock is quite clear put in the herbs and 
vegetables, which should previously have been prepared and cut into 
large pieces, or if small left whole. Let the stock boil up after putting 
in the vegetables and skim well until clear, then put on the cover, draw 
the pan to the side of the stove and simmer VERY GENTLY for 5 or 6 hours, 
taking care to skim off the fat as it rises. When sufficiently cooked, 
strain off, and when cold remove the fat. 

Time. 6 hours. Average Cost, is. per quart. Quantity, 4 quarts. 

Note. The liquor in which chicken, veal, rabbit, calf's head or mutton has 
been boiled makes excellent stock for white soups ; and the cold remains of any 
of these ingredients may be made into second stock, which, if not very rich, 
is obviously better than water in making the inexpensive white soups. 

io. TO CLARIFY STOCK FOR CLEAR SOUP, or 
CONSOMME 

The following is a simple way by which any cloudy stock can 
be clarified or rendered transparent. Peel, wash and cut up small the 
following prepared vegetables: an onion or a leek, i small 
carrot, a piece of celery or some celery leaves ; put these into a 
clean and dry stewpan, with a sprig of thyme and marjoram, a 
sprig or two of tarragon, chervil, 6 peppercorns, the white and 
shell of an egg (the egg shell must be clean), a little lemon-juice 
and a teaspoonful of vinegar. Stir this with a whisk, and add to 
of a Ib. of finely-chopped lean beef, moistened with a little cold water, 
thru put in the stock (2 to 3 quarts), which should be cold and free 
from fat. Bring it to the boil whilst whisking, remove from the fire, 
and let it simmer gently for about 20 to 30 minutes. Season to taste 
with salt, etc., and strain through a cloth. 

Average Cost, is. 6d. per quart. 

THE LAUREL, or BAY (Fr. laurier). There are two varieties of the laurel chiefly cultivated in 
gardens, the sweet bay the noble or victor's laurel, whose berry-bearing sprays \\vn- u-t-d in classic 
decorate competitors in the national games and the common or cherry-laurel, which is not 
a true laurel, whose leaves are employed for their kernel-like flavour, for blanc-ni.umi-;. custards 
puddings, etc. By the action of water upon the leaves of the cherry-laurel pru- . eloped ; 

care should therefore be taken to use the leaves with great moderation. 



142 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Broths. 

ii. BEEF BROTH. (Fr. Croute-au-pot.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of good first stock (see Recipe No. 3, p. 139), 
i carrot, i turnip, |- a cabbage, 2 ozs. of butter, i dinner roll, parsley 
or chives, pepper, salt, and nutmeg to season. 

Method. The stock should be made from beef and veal bones, well 
skimmed, but not necessarily clarified. The vegetables, after being 
washed and pared, may be cooked whole in the stock-pot. 

Cut the carrot and turnip into round slices, drain the cabbage and 
cut it into small pieces. Put all the vegetables in a stewpan with the 
butter, cover, and cook slowly for about 10 minutes. Season with 
pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg. Strain the stock on to the 
vegetables, let them simmer for about 30 minutes, and skim occasion- 
ally. Cut the roll into thin round slices, place them on a baking sheet, 
bake them on both sides a golden brown in a moderate oven, put them 
in a soup tureen, moisten with a little stock, pour the soup over, sprinkle 
over with a little chopped parsley or chives, and serve. 

Average Cost. 2s. 6d. Seasonable at all times. Sufficient for 6 or 8 
persons. 

THE CARROT (Fr. carotte) is a biennial plant of the natural order Umbelliferae. In its natural state 
the root is small, tapering, of a white colour, and strongly flavoured. It is indigenous to Britain and 
most parts of Europe, was cultivated in England as early as the sixteenth century, and has also 
been grown in North America and China. The cultivated variety of the carrot varies in colour from 
pale-yellow to orange-red, the latter being the more esteemed. The carrot is not very nutritive, 
containing but few flesh-forming constituents ; it has, however, a large proportion of saccharine 
matter. It is slightly laxative. The leaves of the carrot have an elegant feathery appearance, and 
a pretty winter ornament may be made by placing the cut top of a carrot in a shallow vessel of water, 
when the young leaves will spring forth, and grow with a pleasant freshness. 

12. BOUILLON (BEEF BROTH). 

This is the same as Pot-au-feu (see Recipe No. 17, p. 144), using the 
broth, which should be seasoned and served in cups, with a few 
thin sippets of bread, and a little finely-chopped parsley. 

13. CHICKEN BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon de Volatile.) 

Ingredients. i chicken, 2 quarts of cold water, i small onion, i tea- 
spoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i blade of mace, i tablespoonful 
of rice (this may be omitted), salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the chicken into small pieces, break the bones, scald 
and skin the feet and gizzard, and wash the neck and liver. Put these 
into a stewpan, add the water and % a teaspoonful of salt, bring to the 
boil, and skim. Add the onion and mace, and cook slowly for 3 hours, 
Strain, return to the stewpan, bring to the boil, sprinkle in the rice, 
and simmer for 20 minutes. Add the parsley, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 3|- to 4 hours. Average Cost, 33. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 



RECIPES FOR BROTH 143 

14. CHICKEN BROTH, CHIFFONADE STYLE. 

(Fr. Consomme de Volaille a la Chiffonade.) 

Ingredients. A small fowl, 3 quarts of white stock (see Recipe No. 
9, p. 141), 3 ozs. of butter, 2 leeks, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf), i long lettuce, a handful of sorrel, a handful of cl. 
pepper and salt. 

Method. Cut the fowl into small joints, put 2 ozs. of butter in a 
stewpan, when hot put in the pieces of chicken, season with salt and 
pepper and fry slightly brown, add the stock, boil up and skim, 
add a small bunch of parsley, the bouquet-garni, and the leeks (previ- 
ously dressed). Simmer gently for 2 hours. Wash the sorrel, chervil 
and lettuce (use the tender leaves only of the latter), cut all these 
vegetables into very fine strips, put them together with i oz. of butter 
in a stewpan, stir gently over a fire for 10 minutes, moisten with some 
of the broth, skim and cook for 15 minutes. Strain the remain 
the broth into this and season to taste. Cut some neat pieces of c! 
and put into a tureen, pour in the soup, and serve. 

Time. 3 hours. Average Cost. 6s. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

CHERVIL (Fr. cerfeuil). The leaves of this plant are used for salads and as an ingredient in soups. 
It is native to some of the countries of Europe, and has become naturalized in England. I 
different varieties of the chervil, the parsnip-chervil, sweet chervil, aui-e chervil, 
vated chervil may be distinguished from the common wild chervil, which is poisonous, by the pleasant 
aromatic fragrance of its leaves, those of the wild variety having a disagreeable smell. 

15. COCKIE LEEKIE. (Fr. Soupe aux Poireaux.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of good white stock, i small fowl, a bunch of 
leeks, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and p- 
2 tablespoonfuls of cooked, well-dried rice, 2 ozs. of butter. 

Method. Cut the fowl into small joints. Melt the butter in .1 
pan, and fry the pieces of fowl until nicely browned. Pour off the 
butter, add the stock, boil up slowly, and remove the scum 
Wash the leeks, cut off the green parts, parboil them in salt and water, 
and drain well. Strain the soup aft< i cooked for an hour, 

return it to the saucepan, add the leeks, herbs, and t 
cut into dice or cubes. Simmer gently for i hour, then take out the 
herbs. Skim off the fat, add the cooked rice, salt and pepper to taste, 
and si 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, 35. to 35. 6d. without the 
stock. Seasonable in the Autumn. Sufficient for 10 persons. 

Without the fowl the above, which would then be merely called 
leek soup, is very good, and also economical. 

THE LFFK (Fr. : Forreau). This is a perennial culinary vegetable of the genus AlUum or onion 

uildcr flavour. The stem of the leek is somewhat tall, and its large compact balls of flower* 

are supported on purple peduncles. The leek has been cultivated in Britain from the earliest times, 

f food of the ancient Egyptians. It is specially cultivated in Scotland 

and Wales. The leek is the badge of th- ;ion ascribing to St. David, the patron saint of 

to that part of Britain The leek is a most wholesome vegetable, and is largely 
used for soups and stews. 



144 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

16. FRENCH FAMILY SOUP. (Ft. Croute au Pot.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of good beef stock, i carrot, ^ a turnip, a 
small cabbage, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 2 ozs. of butter, 
salt and pepper, nutmeg, i dinner roll. 

Method. Parboil the cabbage, carrot and turnip, and drain we2l. 
Cut the cabbage into small pieces, and the other vegetables into small 
rounds or squares. Melt the butter in a large stewpan, put ID the 
vegetables, season with salt, pepper, and a little nutmeg, cover and 
cook slowly for about 10 minutes. Add the stock and simmer gently 
for \ an hour. Cut the roll into thin round slices, brown them in 
the oven, then put them into the tureen, and add the chopped parsley. 
Season the soup if necessary, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 8 persons. 

PARSLEY (Fr. pcrsil). This well-known culinary vegetable, with its fresh crisp aromatic leaves, 
has been long cultivated for seasoning and garnishing dishes. Its native country is uncertain, but 
it was known to the Greeks, who awarded a crown of parsley to victors in the Nemaean and Isthmian 
games ; and the poet Anacreon uses this herb as the symbol of joy and festivity. It was probably 
introduced into Britain during the sixteenth century. There are several varieties of parsley, the 
curled-leaved, celery-leaved, and Hamburg-parsley ; the more curled varieties are used for 
garnishing. Celery-leaved parsley is sometimes grown for its leaf stalks, which are blanched and used 
in the same manner as celery. Hamburg-parsley is cultivated only for its roots, which are eaten with 
meat as parsnips or carrots. 

17. FRENCH HOTCH POTCH. (Fr.-Pot-au-Feu.) 

Ingredients. 5 quarts of cold water, 4 Ib. of brisket, rump, or leg oi 
beef (not the shin, which is too tough for this purpose), 3 onions, 
leeks, 2 carrots, i turnip, i parsnip, i small head of celery, i srm 
cabbage, 20 peppercorns, 4 cloves, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf), i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper, 
i or 2 French rolls. 

Method. Tie the meat to keep it in shape, and put it and the water 
into a large stewpan (an earthenware one with a close-fitting lid answers 
admirably). When it boils, add a dessertspoonful of salt and let it 
simmer gently for 2 hours. Meanwhile prepare the vegetables, bu( 
leave the carrots, turnip, and parsnip whole, unless very large, whei 
they should be cut into 2 or 3 pieces. Quarter the celery, and remove 
the outer stalks, cut the cabbage in two, trim, and wash it well, the 
tie the two halves together. When the meat has been boiling for 2 
hours, put in the bouquet-garni, cloves (stuck in one of the onions) 
peppercorns, and all the vegetables, but only a few at a time so that 
the temperature of the stock is not too much reduced. Cut the crust 
of the French rolls into small rounds, and either fry them or crisp them 
in the oven. Continue the cooking for 2 hours, after adding the vege- 
tables, then strain some of the soup into a tureen, cut a little carrot, 
turnip, and leek into dice or cubes, and add them, with the chopj 



&ECIPES FOR BROTHS 45 

parsley and fried bread, to the soup in the tureen, and serve. Place 
the meat on a hot dish, and garnish with the rest of the vegetables. 
Serve the cabbage separately in a vegetable dish. 

Time. 4 to 4^ hours. Average Cost, 35. to 35. 6d. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 8 or 10 persons. 

THE POT-AU-FEU figures as a standing dish in France, Germany, and Switzerland. It is really the 
stock-pot, and is in use from early morning until dinner-time, therefore the basis of a pot-an-fiu i> tin- 
stock already in the pot, which is daily being added to and taken from. The meat and soup are not 
necessarily served at one meal or served up in the manner described, for the meat is sometimes cut 
into rather thick slices and served covered with a good brown or piquant sauce. 



18. HOTCH POTCH. (Fr. Hotch Potch a 1'An- 
glaise.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of water, 2 Ib. of neck of mutton, i onion, 
i carrot, a turnip, a pint of shelled peas, i small cauliflower, i good 
lettuce, i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat into neat pieces, put it into a stewpan with 
a teaspoonful of salt and the cold water, bring slowly to the boil, and 
skim well. Meanwhile, shred the lettuce finely (taking care to shorten 
the filaments by cutting them across), cut off the stalk of the cauli- 
flower, and break the flower into small sprigs, cut the turnip, carrot, 
and onion into dice or cubes. Let the meat simmer gently for i hour, 
then put in the onion, carrot, and lettuce ; % an hour afterwards add 
the turnip, peas, and cauliflower, and cook slowly for i hour, or until 
all the vegetables are tender, then add the chopped parsley, season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. About 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 2d. Seasonable in 
Summer. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



19. LEEK SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Poireaux.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of sheep's head broth (see recipe No. 26, p. 148), 
6 leeks finely shredded, i good tablespoonful of medium or coarse 
oatmeal, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the broth as directed, then strain and replace it in 
the saucepan. Bring to the boil, sprinkle in the oatmeal, add the 
prepared leeks, and boil gently until quite tender. Season to taste, 
and serve. 

Time. From to i hour. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the stock. 
Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable in winter. 



146 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

20. MUTTON BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon de Mouton.) 

Ingredients. i quart of cold water, i^ Ib. of neck of mutton, i small 
carrot, \ a turnip, i onion, i strip of celery, i teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, i tablespoonful of rice or pearl-barley, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Remove all the fat and cut the meat into small pieces. 
Put the water into a stewpan, add the meat, bones and a little salt, 
bring slowly to the boil, and skim well. If pearl-barley is used, blanch 
it by putting it into cold water and bringing to the boil. Cut the 
vegetables into rather small dice or cubes, and add them to the broth 
when it has cooked for i hour : add also the pearl-barley. When the 
broth has simmered gently for 3 hours, strain and return to the sauce- 
pan. Carefully remove any fragments of bone from the meat, vege- 
tables and pearl-barley, and return. When boiling, sprinkle in the 
parsley. Season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 3 to 3^ hours. Average Cost, is. id. to is. 3d. Seasonable at 
any time. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. 

21. - MUTTON BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon de Mouton.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of cold water, 3 Ib. of the scrag end of the neck 
of mutton, i onion, i carrot, a turnip, 2 strips of celery, 2 or 3 sprigs 
of parsley, 2 ozs. of pearl-barley, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces, put them into a stewpan 
with the vegetables (cut up small), parsley, water, and a teaspoonful 
of salt, and simmer for 3 hours. Blanch and parboil the pearl-barley ; 
cut one or two nice turnips into small dice (about |- a pint). Strain the 
broth, return it to the stewpan, add the pearl-barley and turnip dice, 
and cook very gently for 40 to 60 minutes. Cut some of the best 
pieces of mutton into neat squares, and add them to the broth to re- 
heat. Season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. 

22. OKRA SOUP. 

Ingredients. i Ib. buttoek steak, 2 oz. of butter, i onion, i pint of 
okras, 2 quarts of stock. 

Fry i Ib. of buttock steak, cut into small pieces, in butter or 
dripping. To this add a few slices of onion, fry both a nice brown. 
Next add i pint of okras (sliced), and moisten with 2 quarts of stock or 
water. Simmer for 2 hours, season, strain and serve. 

Time. 2^ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 persons. 






RECIPES FOR BROTHS 147 

23. PAN KAIL. (Fr. Soupe Maigre aux Choux.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of boiling water, 3 ozs. of butter or fat, i small 
cabbage shredded, i heaped tablespoonful of medium or coarse oatmeal, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter or fat in a saucepan, stir in the prepared 
cabbage, cook for 5 minutes, then add the boiling water. Bring to 
boiling-point, add a seasoning of salt and pepper, sprinkle in the oat- 
meal, and boil gently for 15 or 20 minutes, or until the cabbage is 
sufficiently cooked. Add more seasoning if required, then serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 4d. to sd. Sufficient for 6 
or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

THE SAVOY (Fr. chou <U Savoit) is one of the numerous cultivated forms of the cabbage, and is 
characterized by its wrinkled leaves. It is close-hearted, sweet and tender, especially the middle 
leaves. The savoy is in season from late autumn to spring, and is improved in flavour by frost. 

24. RABBIT BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon de Lapin.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of water, i rabbit, i-J- Ib. of bacon or pickled 
pork, 2 onions, i carrot, a turnip, i strip of celery, i tablespoonful 
of rice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the rabbit, and if it is to be served separately, keep 
it whole and truss for boiling (see Chapter on trussing) ; if not, cut it 
into small joints, and remove the liver, etc., If bacon be used, let it be 
well scraped, and soaked in warm water for i or 2 hours. Cut the vege- 
tables into small dice or cubes. Put the water into a large stewpan, 
add the bacon and rabbit, bring slowly to the boil, remove the 
scum as it rises, and when the rabbit has cooked for i hour put in the 
vegetables, rice, and a little salt, and continue the cooking for another 
hour. Take out the rabbit, and if it is to be served separately, have 
ready some onion sauce, or white sauce, to serve with it. (See Sauces.) 
If the rabbit has been cut into joints, take them out of the stewpan, 
remove the meat from the bone, cut it into small dice, and return to the 
broth to be re-heated. Cut a little of the bacon also into dice : the 
rest can be used cold. Season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 2 to 2^ hours. Average Cost, 23. 3d. to 2s. 6d. Seasonable in 
Winter. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 

25. SCOTCH BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon Ecossais.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of cold water, 3 Ib. scrag end of mutton, 
i onion, i leek, i carrot, i turnip, a strip of celery, i dessertspoonful 
of finely-chopped parsley, 2 tablespoonfuls of Scotch barley, salt and 
pepper. 



148 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces, put them into a stewpan 
with the water and a teaspoonful of salt, and cook gently for 2 hours. 
Wash the barley, cut the vegetables into dice, add them to the broth 
and cook for another hour, making 3 hours in all. Strain and return 
the broth to the stewpan. Cut the meat into small pieces, carefully 
remove any fragments of bone from the vegetables and barley, and 
add them to the broth. When quite hot, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost, about 2s. Seasonable in Winter. 
Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. 



THE SHEEP (Fr. brebis) has from the earliest times been one of the most useful of animals to man, 
its wool, skin and flesh supplying him respectively with material for clothing, leather and food ; its 
milk in some countries is used for making butter and cheese. There are numerous varieties of the 
domestic sheep, a ruminant quadruped of the genus Otis : wild sheep are found chiefly in mountainous 
districts. The principal breeds of English sheep are the Southdown, Leicester, Cotswold, Cheviot 
and the Welsh. Of the numerous foreign breeds, the fat-tailed sheep of Asia and Egypt, the Astra- 
kan, the Cretan, the Iceland and the Merino, are the most noticeable, the last named originally 
belonging to Spain, but now extensively bred in other countries of Europe and in Australia and New 
Zealand, furnishing the valuable merino wool. The flesh of the sheep, or mutton, is tender and 
easy of digestion, and possesses highly nutritive properties. Large quantities of foreign mutton are 
now imported into England principally from Australia and New Zealand by means of cold storage 
in transit. The New Zealand mutton is of excellent quality, and has an extensive sale. The small 
Welsh mutton is much esteemed. The quality of the flesh of the sheep is largely dependent on the 
pastorage and food stuffs on which it is fed. 

26. SHEEP'S HEAD BROTH. (Fr. Potage de Tete 
de Mouton.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of water, i sheep's head, 2 carrots, 2 onions, 
i turnip, 2 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 
salt, i tablespoonful of rice. 

Method. Remove the brains and tongue, and soak the head in salt 
and water for 12 hours, changing the water repeatedly. Put it into 
a large saucepan with a good handful of salt, cover with water, bring 
to the boil, strain, and wash well. Return it to the saucepan, add 
the water, and bring to the boil, skim thoroughly, add a teaspoonful 
of salt, then simmer for 3 hours. Meanwhile cut the vegetables into 
dice, and now add them and the rice to the broth. Continue the 
cooking for another hour, then take up the head, cut the meat into 
dice and return it to the broth and simmer for a few minutes. Take 
out the herbs, add seasoning to taste, and serve. 

The brains can be used for brain cakes, and the tongue cooked and 
served separately. Only a small portion of the head need be served 
in the 1 broth ; the rest could be served separately, garnished with the 
tongue, and covered with brain sauce. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost, is. to is. 2d. Seasonable at any 
time, particularly in Winter, Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 



RECIPES FOR BROTHS 140 

27.SCOTCH KAIL. (Fr. Potage au choux ecos- 
sais.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of cold water, 3 Ib. of mutton, 3 onions (cut 
into dice or cubes), 2 leeks when procurable, the hearts of 2 white 
cabbages, salt and pepper, i oz. of pearl-barley. 

Method. Keep the meat whole, and put it into a stewpan or earthen- 
ware stew pot with the water, onions, leeks, and a teaspoonful of salt, 
and cook gently for about 3 hours. Blanch the pearl-barley and add 
it when the meat has cooked for i hour. Wash the cabbages, shred 
them finely, and put them into the stewpot i hour before the meat is 
to be served. Take up the meat, cut some of it into small pi. 
and place these in a soup tureen. Season the broth, and s< 

Time. About 3} hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 2S. oxi. Seasonable 
at any time. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. 

-- Scotch Kail is the Pot-au-feit of Scotland, and hkr its r.mtinmt.il 
pn.tMtype may have tin- nir.it -rrvr.l >,. -paratelv . Mr in ' I'-nt t 

in l'i>t-au-fiu in having only the rum \i--ft. il-Ic.s ln>m \\hKh it 
tie name ot " kail." 

28. VEAL BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon de Veau.) 

Ingredients. i quart of cold water, i| Ib. or knucl 

i small carrot, a turnip, i onion, i strip of celery, i teaspoonful of 
fun -ly -cluippt -il parsley, i tablespoonful of rice or pearl-barley, 

.UK! prpper. 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces, put them with the 
water iiiin a str\\pan, and bring slowly to the boil. Skim, add a li 

ly for i hour, then add tli- 

latter must be blanched), and tin- \ - -t.d.h > c ut ; \Vhen 

!>n>ili has cooked p 3 hours, strain and return to t 

. Add the in- broth. Carefully remove any fragments of 

bone from the vegetables and :ley, then return them to the 

Q boiling, sprinkle in the parsley, season to taste, and 

Time. 3 to 3^ hours. Average Cost, is. 2d. to is. 3d. Seasonable at 

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. 



Clear Soups. 



29. BRUNOISE SOUP WITH TAPIOCA. 

(/'>. Consomm6 Brunoise au Tapioca.) 

Ingredients. i carrot, i small turnip, i lettuce, i leek, | an onion, 
' , 3 pint :ne (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), 

a juice, i 1 tapi.ica, seasoning. 



150 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Prepare the vegetables and cut them into very small dice 
or cubes. Fry lightly in the butter, add a good pinch of castor sugar, 
and salt and pepper to taste. Moisten with some of the consomme. 
Cook gently for about % an hour, skim, add the remainder of the con- 
somme, and boil gently until the vegetables are tender. Soak the 
tapioca in tepid water, strain and put it in a stewpan with a little 
consomme, cook till tender, and mix it with the remainder of the soup 
a few minutes before sending to table, when a few drops of lemon juice 
should be added. 

Time. 1 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. per quart. Sufficient for 6 
persons. 

TAPIOCA (Fr. tapioca) is a preparation of cassava meal, made from a South American shrub of some 
8 feet in height, with broad, shining leaves, and handsome white and rose-coloured flowers. The 
nutritious starch is obtained from the thick, fleshy, parsnip-like roots by the process of washing, 
maceration and pressure to express the juice, which, in its natural state, is poisonous. The cassava 
meal, while in the moist state, is made into flat cakes and heated and dried on hot plates. 

30. CLEAR BRUNOISE SOUP. (Fr. Consomme 
Brunoise.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe 42 page 156), i carrot, i 
onion, i turnip, an oz. of butter, pepper and salt. 

Method. Prepare the vegetables and cut them into very small dice 
or cubes, melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the dice of vegetables 
with a little salt and pepper, and fry very gently for a few minutes, 
shaking and tossing them frequently to prevent them taking colour. 
Drain well to free them from butter, add them to the hot soup and sim- 
mer gently for 1 5 minutes. Skim well. 

Time. To prepare and cook the vegetables, -| an hour. Average Cost, 
33. 6d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

31. CLEAR COLD CHICKEN SOUP. (Fr. Con- 
somme de Volaille Frappe.) 

Ingredients. i old hen, i| Ib. of knuckle of veal, i| Ib. of shin of beef, 
salt, soup vegetables, 2 cloves, a few peppercorns, i oz. of butter, 

1 glass of sherry. 

Method. Pluck and truss the fowl as for boiling, put the butter 
in a stewpan, and add the fowl whole as soon as the butter is hot; 
let it get a nice brown, then add the meat. Pour on about a gallon 
of water and set it to boil it must come slowly to the boil, and remove 
the scum. Have the vegetables ready and well washed (they should 
include i onion stuck with 2 cloves, a head of celery, 2 carrots, i leek, 

2 small turnips, i bay-leaf, and a parsley root, and put them in the 
stock. Add a little salt and the peppercorns, simmer gently for 
about 4 hours, or longer; skim occasionally. The fowl may be taken 






RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 151 

out after 2 hours cooking, and can be made use of for fhe cutlets. 
When the stock is finished carefully remove the fat from the top, and 
strain it through a fine hair sieve. If carefully cooked it will be quite 
clear, otherwise it will have to be clarified. Season to taste at the last 
and allow it to get cold, then stand it on the ice until required. The 
sherry should be added just before sending it to the table. This soup 
is, as its name implies, quite cold (iced). A handful of Royal Custard 
may be served in the consomme if liked. 

Average Cost. 55. 6d. Sufficient for 8 or 10 persons. Seasonable'at any 
time. 

BASIL (Fr. basilic). This aromatic plant is a native of the East Indies, its perfume resembling 
that of cloves. It is cultivated as an aromatic pot-herb, and its leaves are used for flavouring soup 
and as a salad, especially by French cooks. 

32. -CLEAR DUBOURG SOUP. (Fr. Consomme 
a la Dubourg.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup, a small savoury custard (see recipe 
for Consomme a la Royale, p. 155), i tablespoonful of cooked rice, i 
tablespoonful of cooked green peas. 

Method. Prepare the custard as directed, and add it with the peas 
and rice to the soup a few minutes before serving. 

Time. To prepare and cook the garnish, an hour. Average Cost 
2s. pd. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

33. CLEAR GAME SOUP, PALERMO STYLE. 
(Fr. Consomme de Gibier a la Palermo.) 

Ingredients. For consomme : i grouse, | a rabbit, 2 Ib. of shin of 
beef, i Ib. of lean veal, Ib. of raw ham, 2 ozs. of dripping or butter, 
the bones and trimmings of the above meat, poultry, or game, soup 
vegetables, 2 blades of mace, 2 cloves, peppercorns, a small bunch 
of herbs (bouquet-garni), salt, 2 quarts of water, cayenne pepper. 

For Garniture. a head of celery, 2 ozs. of macaroni, game quenelles, 
cooked ham, i French roll, grated Parmesan cheese. 

^ Method. Remove the breasts from the grouse, and use for quenelles. 
Cut up the bird and rabbit into joints, and the beef and veal into pieces. 
Melt the dripping in a large stewpan, put in the bird, the rabbit and 
the meat, and fry till brown over a quick fire ; pour off the fat, add the 
water and the ham, let it come to the boil, and skim. Put in the soup 
vegetables, consisting of a small onion stuck with cloves, a carrot, a 
turnip, and a few leaves of celery or leek, together with any trimmings 
bones of meat, etc. Now add the bouquet of herbs, mace, pepper- 
corns, and a tablespoonful of salt, simmer gently for about 3 hours or 



152 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

longer ; take out the ham when done, as some of it will be required 
for garnish. Special attention must be paid to the simmering and 
occasional skimming of the soup in order to keep it clear, otherwise it 
will require clarifying. Strain the soup through a cloth into a clean 
stewpan, and keep hot. 

Prepare the garniture as follows : Cut the white portion of the celery 
into small dice or strips, cook in slightly salted water containing a small 
piece of butter. Cook the macaroni in salted water, cool and strain, 
then cut it into short pieces. Prepare some small quenelles with 
the breast of grouse and panada (a culinary paste of flour and water), 
and poach in a lit tie stock. Cut the cooked ham into strips or dice the 
same as the celery, and put these into the consomme to get thoroughly 
hot. Stamp out some small rounds of bread crust cut from the roll, 
put these in the soup tureen, pour over the consomme. Hand round 
the grated cheese on a plate. 

Time. About 3 hours. Average Cost, 35. 8d., without the game. 
Sufficient for 8 persons. 

34. CLEAR JARDINIERE SOUP. (Fr. Con- 
somme a la Jardiniere.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), 2 
carrots, I turnip, \ a cucumber, salt. 

Method. Scrape the carrots, pare the turnip, but leave the skin on 
the cucumber, as the green has a pleasing effect when mixed with the 
other vegetables. Cut the vegetables (with a round cutter sold for the 
purpose) the size and shape of peas, and boil them separately in slightly 
salted water until tender, taking care not to cook them too much. 
Drain well, add the vegetables to the boiling soup, simmer for a few 
minutes, then serve. 

Time. To prepare and cook the vegetables, an hour. Average Cost, 
2s. 4d. Seasonable in Spring. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

35. CLEAR JULIENNE SOUP. (Tr. Consomme a 
la Julienne.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156),! 
carrot, i onion, a turnip, a strip of celery, pepper and salt, an oz. of 
butter. 

Method. Prepare the vegetables and cut them into fine strips like 
small matches, melt the butter in a small saucepan, put in the strips 
of vegetable with a little salt and pepper, and fry gently for a few 
minutes, shaking frequently to prevent browning. Drain well to free 
them from butter, add them to the hot soup, and simmer gently for 
15 or 20 minutes, keeping the soup well skimmed. 



RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 153 

Time. To prepare and cook the vegetables, 40 minutes. Average 
Cost, 25. 4d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

A tablespoonful of cooked green peas, and the same quantity of 
cooked French beans cut in narrow strips, may be added to the other 

s. Instead of frying them in butter they (the turnip, carrot, onion. 

may be parboiled in salt and water, and afterwards simmered until 
tender in the stock. 

36. CLEAR LEAFY SOUP. 

(Fr. Consomme aux Mille Feuilles.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts consomme (see Recipe No. .\2, \\ is<>\ 107. 
soft breadcrumbs, i oz. grated Parmesan cheese, 2 eggs, grated nut- 
meg, pepper and salt. 

Method. Mix the breadcrumbs and cheese in a basin, beat up the 
eggs and stir them into the above ; beat up well for a few minutes, and 
add the seasoning. Drop the mixture by means of a funnel into the 
boiling consomme, and allow it to simmer for about 5 minutes. By 
this time the broth will become clear again. It is then ready for serving. 

Time. About hour. Average Cost, 33. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

37. CLEAR MOCK TURTLE SOUP. (Fr. Potage 
de Tortue Fausse Clair.) 

Ingredients. \ a calf's head, 5 quarts of clear second st< \ecipe 

No. 7,p. 140), ior water), 2 onions, 2 carrots, i turnip, i strip of cd 
bnu|iiet garni .parsley, b.isil, marjoram, thyme, luv l-al , i 
corns, 4 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 2 glasses of sherry, i taH. spoonful 
of lemon juice, a Ib. of lean n veal, the whites ami 

shells of 2 eggs, salt. 

Method. Soak the head 24 hours in salt and water, changing it 

frequently. Then bone the head (the brains and tongue may be used 

for some other purpose), tie the meat in a thin cloth and break the bones 

into small pieces ; put them into a stewpan, cover with cold water, 

add a tablespoonful of salt, let it boil up, strain, and wash the head in 

1 water. Keturn the meat and bones to the stewpan, put in the 

!v and a oonful of salt, boil up, and skim well. Now add 

the pit-pared vegetables, herbs, peppercorns, cloves and mace, and when 

boiling, remove the scum, put on the cover and cook slowly for about 

3 hours, according to the size of the head. Strain, put th i.le, 

and when the stock is cold remove the f.tt , and clarify with the coai 

chopped beef and veal, and whites of eggs, see recipe No. 10. Return 

to the saucepan, with the sherry, the lemon-juice and a little of the 

the head, cut into small pieces. Add necessary seasoning, 

boil up and S 



I 5 4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

This recipe may be thickened with a tablespoonful of arrowroot 
when a thicker soup is required. 

The remainder of the calf's head can be used for an entree. 

Time. To prepare the stock, 3^ to 4 hours. To clarify and re-heat, 
40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost. 53. 9d. with stock. Seasonable at 
any time. Sufficient for 12 or 14 persons. 

MARJORAM (Fr. marjolaine). The common marjoram is indigenous to Britain, and grows on chalky 
soils. Its flowers are reddish in colour, growing in clustered spikes. It possesses balsamic, aromatic 
and bitter properties, and from the plant is obtained " oil of thyme." Sweet and pot marjoram, 
natives of southern Europe, are cultivated in gardens for culinary use ; the young tops and leaves, 
both green and dried, are used for seasoning. 

38. CLEAR MULLIGATAWNY. (Fr. Consomme 
a Tlndienne.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock (see Recipe No. 7, p. 140), 2 
onions, sliced, i apple, sliced, i tablespoonful of mild curry powder, 
% a tablespoonful of salt, the whites and shells of 2 eggs, the juice of 
i lemon. 

Method. Put the stock, onions, apples, curry powder (previously 
mixed smoothly with a little cold water), and salt into a w r ell-tinned 
stewpan, put on the cover and simmer gently for i hours, then strain. 
When cold, add the egg-shells crushed and the whites stiffly whipped, 
let the soup boil up again and simmer for a few minutes, then strain, 
re-heat, add the lemon-juice and any necessary seasoning, and serve, 
with boiled rice, handed round separately or put in the soup. 

When convenient, a little cooked chicken should also be served, cut 
into dice or cubes, and warmed in the soup a few minutes before serving. 

Time. To make the soup, i to i hours. To clear and re-heat the 
soup, 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 6 persons, 



39. CLEAR MULLIGATAWNY. (Fr. Consomme 
a Tlndienne.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, 2 small onions, sliced, i sour 
apple, sliced, 2 oz. of lean raw ham or bacon, the bones of any roast game 
or poultry, i dessertspoonful of mild curry powder, i dessertspoonful of 
curry paste, i teaspoonful of chutney, i tablespoonful of lemon juice, 
i teaspoonful of salt, the whites and shells of 2 eggs, i oz. of butter. 

Method. Fry the onions, apple, curry powder, ham (cut into small 
pieces), bones and any trimmings of poultry there may be, in the butter 
until nicely browned, then add the stock, salt, curry paste, chutney, 
and simmer gently for about i hour ; strain, and when cold remove 



RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 155 

the fat. Clarify with the shells and whites of eggs as in the preceding 
recipe, re-heat, add the lemon-juice, and serve with boiled rice. 

Time. To make the soup, i|- to i hours. To clarify and re-heat, 
30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient 
for 6 persons. 

40. CLEAR OXTAIL SOUP. (Fr. Potage de 

Queue de Bceuf, clair.) 

Ingredients. i oxtail, i carrot, \ a turnip, i onion, i strip of celery, 
a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay -leaf), 6 peppercorns, 2 cloves, 
i blade of mace, 3 quarts of CLEAR second stock, salt, the whites and 
shells of 2 eggs. 

Method. Cut the tail into short lengths, cover with cold water, add 
a little salt, bring to the boil and strain. Return to the saucepan 
with the vegetables, flavourings, and seasonings, simmer gently for 
four hours, keeping the stewpan covered, strain, put the meat aside, 
and when the stock is cold remove the fat. Clarify with the whites 
and shells of the eggs, strain, re-heat, and serve garnished with pieces 
of the tail, and a little carrot and turnip cooked and cut into some fancy 
shape. A glass of sherry is sometimes added when re-heating, also a 
tablespoonful of arrowroot, previously mixed smoothly with a little 
stock, when a slightly- thickened " clear " soup is desired. 

Time. To make the soup, from 4 to 4^ hours. To clarify and heat, 
30 to 40 minutes. Cost. 2S. pd. to 35. 3d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons. 

Note. The larger pieces of tail should be re-heated in brown sauce, or 
a good curry sauce, and served as a dish for luncheon. 

41. CLEAR ROYAL SOUP. (Fr. Consomme a la 
Royale.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), i egg, i 
tablespoonful of milk or white stock, salt and pepper. 

Method. Beat the egg, add the milk, salt and pepper to taste, and 
pour the custard into a well-buttered plain mould. Have ready a 
small stewpan half full of boiling water, put in the custard, cover the 
top of the mould with greased paper, put on a close-fitting lid to keep in 
the steam, and cook VERY SLOWLY for 15 minutes, or until the custard is 
firm. When cold, cut into strips, rounds, diamonds or any fancy 
shape, rinse in warm water, then put them into the tureen and pour 
in the hot consomme. Or to make a change, use one yolk and the 
whites of 2 eggs. To the yolk and each white add a dessertspoonful of 
good white stock or milk, season to taste, and colour one white of egg 



156 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

with carmine or cochineal. Cook in 3 separate small timbals or dariol 
moulds, and use as directed above. 

Time. To prepare and cook the custard, \ an hour. Average Cost, 
33. 4d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

42. CLEAR SOUP. (Fr. Consomme.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of brown stock, i Ib. of neck of beef (lean) 
finely chopped, or passed two or three times through the mincing 
machine, the whites and shells of 4 eggs, i carrot, cut in two or three 
pieces, i onion (left whole), a strip of celery, 12 peppercorns, 6 allspice, 
2 cloves, salt. 

Method. The stock should be cold and quite free from fat. Put 
it into a clean well-tinned stewpan, add the vegetables, flavourings, 
seasonings, the shells of the eggs crushed and the whites stiffly whipped, 
and whisk all together over a gentle fire until just on boiling point, 
then let it simmer about an hour. Strain through a clean dry cloth, 
re-heat and season to taste before serving. A glass of sherry, a dessert- 
spoonful of French vinegar or lemon-juice and a pinch of castor sugar, 
are frequently added when re-heating the consomme. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 33. to 35. 6d. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. 

43. -CLEAR SOUP, PORTUGUESE STYLE. 
(Fr. Consomme a la Portugaise.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts consomme, i large ripe tomato, \ an oz. of 
butter, 12 French plums, i small leek, a pinch of cayenne. 

Method. Wash the plums, put them in cold water with a little salt, 
bring to the boil, strain, and rinse in cold water ; return to the stewpan 
in which they were blanched, add sufficient clear stock to well cover, 
and cook slowly till tender. Wash and clean the leek, cut it into fine 
shreds or Julienne shaped strips about i inch long, wash well in cold 
water, drain, and cook for a few minutes with the butter, pour in some 
clarified stock or consomme, and cook slowly till tender. Carefully 
remove all the fat, pour in the consomme, and let it simmer for a 
few minutes. Put the plums in the soup tureen. Blanch and skin the 
tomato, cut it up into very small pieces or dice, free from pips, and put 
these also into the soup tureen. Add a pinch of cayenne pepper to 
taste, pour on the consomme, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 45. 2d. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

44. CLEAR SOUP WITH FRIED QUENELLES. 
(Fr. Consomme aux Quenelles Frites.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe No. 42), % of a 
Ib. of leg -of veal, or raw chicken, an oz. of flour, of an oz. of but- 



RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 157 

ter, a tablespoonful of good white stock, a teaspoonful of cream, an 
egg, salt and pepper to taste. 

Method. Mince the veal finely, or pass it through the mincing ma- 
chine 2 or 3 times. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, stir in 
the flour, add the stock, and cook until it leaves the sides of the saucepan 
clear and forms a compact mass round the bowl of the spoon : this is 
called a panada. Let it cool slightly, pound it and the veal well 
together, add the half egg and seasoning, pound until well mixed 
together, then rub through a wire sieve. Mix in the cream, shape into 
small marbles, fry in a little hot butter or fat, drain well, and add them 
to the soup just before serving. 

Time. To make and cook the quenelle mixture, 30 to 40 minutes. 
Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 35. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 
persons. 

Note. This mixture may also be shaped in small teaspoons or eggspoons, 
and poached in a little boiling water before being added to the soup. 

45. CLEAR SOUP WITH ITALIAN PASTE. 
(Fr. Consomme aux Pates d' Italic.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), i t 
spoonful of Italian paste (bought in packets). 

Method. Sprinkle the paste into the boiling soup, and cook it 
for a few minutes before serving. Crushed tapioca, sago or Florador 
may be used instead of the paste, also macaroni, vermicelli or spaghetti, 
but these must be cooked and cut into short lengths before being 
added to the soup. 

Time. To cook the Italian paste, 10 minutes. Average Cost, 35. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

46. -CLEAR SOUP WITH RIBBON MACARONI. 
(Fr. Consomme aux Nouilles.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of clear soup, 4 ozs. of fine flour, i dessertspoonful 
of grated Parmesan cheese, i egg, i saltspoonful of salt. 

Method. Mix the flour, cheese and salt well together, add hall 11 
and, if necessary, a little water. Knead it vigorously with the palm 
of the hand until a fairly stiff but smooth paste is formed ; it must 
not be too moist, and should have a tenacious elastic consistency. 
Wrap in a floured cloth and let it stand for i hour or more, then roll out 
VERY thinly on a floured board, cut into narrow strips, and cook a few 
at a time, in salted boiling water. Strain and drain and add a hand- 
ful to the consomme a few minutes before serving. 



158 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. \ an hour to cook the paste. Average Cost, 35. 3d. Seasonable 
at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

Note. The remainder of Nouilles or Ribbon Macaroni can be heated up with 
White Sauce, and done au gratin, to be served for a luncheon or supper dish. 

47. CLEAR TURTLE SOUP. (Fr. Potage Tortue 
Clair.) 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of the best sun-dried turtle, i small tin of turtle 
fat (this may be omitted), -| a Ib. of lean neck of beef, \ a Ib. of lean 
veal, the whites and shells of 2 eggs, 5 quarts of good stock, 2 onions, 
2 carrots, i turnip, i strip of celery, bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf, basil, marjoram), 12 peppercorns, 2 cloves, i blade of mace 
(tied in muslin), 2 glasses of sherry, i tablespoonful of lemon-juice, salt. 

Method. Soak the turtle for 3 days, changing the water frequently. 
Put the stock, turtle, and a dessertspoonful of salt into a large stewpan 
and bring to the boil, then add the prepared vegetables, herbs, bag of 
peppercorns, etc., and when the stock boils remove the scum as it 
rises. Put on the cover and cook gently for 8 or 9 hours, adding more 
stock if that in the pan reduces very much. Strain, put the pieces of 
turtle aside, and remove the fat from the soup when cold. Pass th< 
beef and veal 2 or 3 times through the mincing machine, and add them 
together with the shells and stiffly-whipped whites of the eggs to the 
soup, and whisk until it boils. Simmer gently for an hour, then strain 
and return to the stewpan with the turtle and turtle fat cut into small 
squares, adding sherry, lemon-juice, and the necessary seasoning, am 
cook gently for a few minutes. Lemons cut in quarters are sometim< 
handed separately with this soup for those who prefer a stronger flavoui 
of lemon. 

Time. To make the stock, 9 to 10 hours. To clarify and re-heat, 
i to i hours. Average Cost, 8s. 6d. without stock. Seasonable at an] 
time. Sufficient for 10 persons. 

4 8._ COCK-A-LEEKIE SOUP. 

Ingredients. A small fowl for boiling, i carrot, i turnip, i onion, 
2 cloves, i small bunch of young leeks, 2 ozs. of rice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Truss the fowl for boiling, put it in a large stewpan 
stock-pot, with enough water to well cover it, add a little salt, and let 
it come to the boil. Remove the scum, then add the carrot, turnip 
(previously cleaned), and the onion, peeled and stuck with the cloves. 
When the fowl is tender take it out. Wash the leeks, trim off the roots 
and outside leaves, and cut into i-inch lengths. Strain the broth 
(which should measure about 3 pints) into another stewpan, add the 
leeks and the rice, previously washed and blanched. Boil for about 
an hour, season to taste, cut the fowl in half, divide one half into very 



RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 159 

small pieces and put these with the soup. Use the remainder for 
some other purpose. Before serving, add a teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley to the soup. If preferred, the fowl need not be served in the 
soup, but it is essential that this soup should be made from chicken 
stock. 

Time, about i hours. Average Cost, 2s. lod. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

49. CUSTARD FOR SOUP. (Fr. Garniture Royale.) 

Ingredients. 2 whole eggs, 2 yolks of eggs, i gill of white stock, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Beat up the eggs in a basin, add the stock, and season 
with salt and pepper and a little grated nutmeg. Strain this into a 
well-buttered plain tin mould; stand it in a stewpan containing a little 
boiling water, cover the mould with a buttered paper, and let it poach 
in a moderately heated oven for 20 minutes. When done, take out 
the mould and put in a cool place. Turn out when cold, and cut the 
custard into dice, cubes, or other fanciful shapes (known as Royal). 
Use for garnish in clear or thick soups. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 
quarts of soup. Seasonable at any time. 

50. PRINCE'S SOUP. (.Fr. Consomme aux Navets.^ 

Ingredients. 3 pints of boiling clear soup, (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156.) 
of a pint of turnip garnish, 2 tablespoonfuls of cooked green peas, i 
dessertspoonful of finely-shredded truffle, salt and pepper. 

Method. Scoop the turnip into rounds the same size as the peas, 
and cook them until tender but not broken. Season the stock to taste, 
add the prepared turnip, peas and truffle, make thoroughly hot, and 
serve. 

Time. an hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

51. RICE SOUP. (Fr. Consomme au Riz.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of consomme, (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), 2 ozs. of 
Patna rice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Throw the rice into boiling water, let it cook rapidly for 
5 minutes, then wash and drain it well. Bring the stock to boiling- 
point, add salt and pepper to taste, and put in the rice. Simmer gently 
until the rice is quite tender, then serve. 

Time. From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 6 
persons. Seasonable at any time. 



i6o HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

52. SAGO SOUP. (Fr. Consomme au Sagou.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of consomme (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), i oz. 
of fine sago, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the sago in 2 or 3 waters. Boil up the stock, sprinkle 
in the sago, boil gently until it becomes transparent, then season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2S. 3d. Sufficient for 6 per- 
sons. Seasonable at any time. 

53. SEMOLINA SOUP. (Fr. Consomme auSemoule.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of consomme (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), i oz. 
of semolina, salt and pepper. 

Method. Boil up the stock, and sprinkle in the semolina. Cook 
gently for 20 minutes, stirring almost continuously, then season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 
persons. Seasonable at any time. 

SEMOLINA (Fr. semoule). A wheat meal, prepared from the large grains of the hard wheats of 
southern Europe by a special process of milling, which produces a very white coarse Hour, rich in 
gluten, rendering semolina a valuable flesh-forming food. It is used for thickening soups, puddings, 
etc. 

54. SOLFERINO SOUP. (Fr. Consomme Solferino.) 

Ingredients. i quart of clear soup, (see Recipe No. 42, p. 156), 2 ozs. 
of choux paste. 

Method. Make the stock and choux paste as directed, and season 
the latter well with salt and pepper. Have ready a deep pan of hot 
fat, dip into it the bowl of a small teaspoon, fill it with choux paste, 
and smooth the surface with a knife previously dipped into the hot fat. 
As the shapes are formed drop them into the fat, and fry them slowly 
until crisp and lightly browned. Drain well, and add them to the soup 
when on the point of serving. 

Time. About 15 minutes, to fry the shapes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. 
Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

55.SPRING SOUP. (Fr. Potage PrintaniSre.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of unclarified stock, gill each of green peas, 
french beans, asparagus tops, and chopped lettuce, i young carrot, i 
small onion, a bouquet garni, lb. of gravy beef, the white of i egg; 
seasoning. 

Method. Prepare the vegetables, and scoop out some small pea shapes 
of carrot. Cook all the vegetables separately in salted water. Put the 



RECIPES FOR CLEAR SOUPS 161 

stock into a pan with the onion, herbs, finely minced meat, seasoning 
and white of egg. Whisk till it boils, then simmer for 10 minutes. 
Strain and reheat. Add the prepared vegetables and serve. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, 2s.9d. Sufficient for 6 persons. Sea- 
sonable in April and May. 

56. TRANSPARENT SOUP. 

Ingredients. 4 Ib. of knuckle of veal, 2 ozs. of blanched almonds 
finely-chopped, i oz. of vermicelli crushed, i blade of mace, salt and 
pepper, 3 quarts of water. 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces, break up the bones, put 
both into a large stewing-jar, and add the water, prepared almonds, 
mace, and a little salt and pepper. Cook slowly on the stove or in the 
oven until reduced to 4- the original quantity, then strain. \Vlicii 
cold, remove every particle of fat, boil up the stock, sprinkle in the 
vermicelli, simmer gently for 10 or 15 minutes, then season to taste, and 
serve. 

Time. To prepare the stock, 8 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. Sufficient 
for 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

57.VERMICELLI SOUP. (Fr Consomme Vermi- 
celle.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of consomme, (sec Recipe No. 42, p. 156), 2 

rmicelli, salt and pepper. 

Method. Crush the vermicelli between the fingers into short K ; 
Bring the stock to boiling point, sprinkle in the vermicelli, boil ;. 
(or i 5 minutes, then season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. ^d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 
ns. Seasonable at any time. 

trooi in a fine, thread-like form, with the addi- 

K-tfse. 

Thick Soups. 

58. BARLEY SOUP. (Fr. Potage Creme d'Orge.) 

Ingredients. i pint of white second stock, i pint of milk, i dessert 
:ul of flour, i oz. of butter, salt and pepper, croutons of fried 
bread, 2 tablespoonfuls of fine crushed barley, sold in pai kets 
under the name of " Creme d'Orge." 

Method, - r.oil th<- sin. k and milk together in a saucepan, melt the 
butler, stir in the Hour, add the stork and milk and stir until it boils. 



162 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Sprinkle in the barley, stir and cook until the mixture becomes trans- 
parent (about 10 minutes). Season to taste, and serve. The croutons 
(small slices of bread cut into shapes) should be either fried in hot fat 
or cut from thin slices of toast. They should be handed separately, 
unless directions are given to put them into the soup before serving. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Cost, 4d. to $d. without the stock. Season- 
able at all times. Sufficient for 4 persons. 

Note. Rice and tapioca, finely crushed and ground, may also be bought in 
packets, and will be found useful preparations for soups of this class. When 
not easily obtainable, ground rice, Florador, or Semolina will be found 
good substitutes. The well-known " Potage Creme de Riz " can be made 
from this recipe, using creme de riz instead of creme d'orge ; and either soup 
can be made richer by omitting the flour, and butter, and in their place using 
the yolks of 2 eggs, and 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, which should be added 
to the soup a few minutes before serving. 

59. BARLEY SOUP (Another Method). 
(Fr. Potage Crime d'Orge.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of white second stock, i pint of milk, i -Jounces 
of pearl-barley, i oz. of butter, i oz. of corn-flour, salt, pepper, nut- 
meg, croutons of fried or toasted bread. 

Method. Wash the pearl-barley until the water is clear, drain, put 
it and the stock into a stewpan, boil up, and simmer gently for 3 hours, 
stirring occasionally. Rub through a hair or fine wire sieve, return 
to the stewpan, add the milk and seasoning, and bring to the boil. 
Knead the corn-flour and butter together, put the mixture into the 
soup and stir until it becomes smoothly united with it. Add the nut- 
meg if liked, place the croutons of fried bread in the tureen, pour in 
the soup, and serve. 

Time. 3^ to 4 hours. Average Cost. 4d. to 5d. without the stock. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. 

BARLEY (Fr. : Orge). This well known plant, which is a genus (hordeum) of the order Gramince, or 
Grasses, is probably the first cereal cultivated by man. It was grown in Egypt and Palestine in the 
earliest recorded times, and Homer makes reference to it. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and 
Germans made beer from barley. The grain is principally used for making malt, from which beer, 
porter, and whiskey are manufactured. Scotch barley is prepared by removing the husks of the grain 
and pearl-barley by the further process of polishing and rounding the grain. Barley-water, a con- 
coction of pearl-barley, owing to its emollient and diluent properties, forms a valuable medicine, for 
patients of weak digestion. The constituents of barley in 100 parts are: Starch, 79; glutin, 6; 
sugar, 7 ; husk, 8. 

60. CABBAGE SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Choux.) 

Ingredients. 2 small young cabbages (finely shredded), i tablespoon- 
ful of finely chopped onion, i teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley, 
2 pints of boiling water, i pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of crushed 
tapioca (sold in packets), or fine sago, i teaspoonful of salt, of a tea- 
spoonful of pepper, i oz. of butter. 

Method. Cover the shredded cabbage with boiling water, bring to 
the boil and strain. Return the cabbage to the saucepan, add to it 
2 pints of boiling water, the milk, onion, parsley, butter, salt and pepper, 






RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 163 

and boil gently for 15 minutes. Sprinkle in the tapioca and cook for 
about 10 minutes longer, or until the tapioca becomes transparent, 
then serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to /d. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

CABBAGE (Fr. : Chou). This valued vegetable, so largely used for culinary purposes, is 
cultivated in almost every temperate region of the globe, and in its wild state grows on the rocky 
shores of our own island, and still more extensively on the shores of Southern Europe. There are 
numerous varieties or " sports " of the common cabbage, as the Savoy cabbage, kohl Rabi, the Portu- 
gal cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and seakale, which are grown for the table, and cooked in various 
Red or purple cabbage is used for pickling. The cabbage is one of the least nutritious of 
les, as it contains about 90 per cent, of water. Sauer-kraut, a popular dish in Germany, is 
prepared by packing white cabbages, cut into small pieces, into a cask with layers of salt, mixed with 
caraway and juniper berries. When fermented, it is eaten with meat. 

61. CALVES' TAIL SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Queue 
de Veau.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, 2 calves' tails, 2 ozs. of butter, 
1 1 ozs. of flour, i onion sliced, i small carrot sliced, a bouquet -garni 
(parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a small blade of mace, 2 cloves, i glass of 
sherry, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash, blanch and dry the tails, and divide them into 
sections. Boil the stock, add the prepared tails and vegetables, 
season to taste, put in the mace and cloves, and cover closely. Simmer 
very gently from i to i hours, or until the tails are sufficiently cooked. 
Meanwhile melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and stir and cook 
slowly until it acquires a nut-brown colour. Strain the stock and 
add it to the flour, and stir over the fire until the whole is well blended. 
Add the pieces of tail, a few shreds of onion and carrot, the si 
and more seasoning if required. Make thoroughly hot, then scr 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2s., exclusive of the 
stock. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

CALF (Fr. vtau). The name given to the younc "f .ittle. When under two months of ace 
the flesh is called veal, and yields a large quantity of soluble extract, and is, therefore much used 
for broths and soups. 

62. COTTAGE SOUP. (Fr. Potage a la Paysanne.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of lean neck of beef, of a Ib. of streaky bacon, 
i onion, i carrot, a turnip, 2 Ib. of potatoes, 2 ozs. of dripping, 
i tablespoonful of rice, salt, pepper, and 2 quarts of water. 

Method. Cut the meat into thin slices, the bacon into dice or cubes, 

\nd the soup vegetables into thin slices. Melt the fat in a stewpan, fry 
<con, meat and onion until nicely brouned, then add the sliced 
Mrs, the water, salt and pepper, cover closely and simmer for i 

lour. Meanwhile the potatoes should have been pr 

arge, cut in two. Add them to the soup, and when tl been 

:ooking an hour sprinkle in the rice. Cook gently for another ^ 



164 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

hour (2 hours altogether), and if the potatoes and rice are tender, 
season the soup to taste and serve. 

Time. 2^ hours. Average Cost, is. 9d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. 

63. ENDIVE SOUP. (Fr. Potage au Chicoree.) 

Ingredients. 1| Ib. of knuckle of veal, free from bone, poultry giblets 
(pd. or is. worth), i onion, 2 cloves, i turnip, i carrot, i small 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 2 endives (large heads), 2 
ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, yolks of 2 eggs, i| gills of cream, seasoning, 
nutmeg, salt and pepper, ground mace, paprika pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat into pieces, wash and clean the giblets ; 
put all in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover, about 2 quarts, add a 
teaspoonful of salt, and bring to the boil. Skim well. Peel the onion, 
insert the cloves, peel or scrape the turnip and carrot; add these to 
the above, also the bouquet-garni. Boil for about i hours or 
longer, and strain. Trim, wash and drain the endives, cut them 
into fine shreds, blanch and drain. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan, 
add the endives, and stir over the fire for 5 minutes. Moisten with 
sufficient stock, and cook until tender, then put it into the prepared 
stock. Allow this to boil up. Melt the remainder of the butter, stir in 
the flour, cook a little, and moisten with a little cold milk. Pour this 
into the soup, and continue to cook the whole a little longer, then pass 
through a fine sieve. Return to the stewpan, season to taste with salt, 
pepper and nutmeg, also a tiny pinch of ground mace and paprika. 
Put the cream and egg-yolks into the soup tureen, beat up well, and 
pour the boiling soup gradually into the tureen. The soup is then 
ready for table. 

Average Cost. 33. 6d. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable from Octo- 
ber to April. 

ENDIVE (Fr. chicoree). The curled leaves of this plant known also as " garden succory "when 
blanched are used for soups, stews and in salads. The endive, which belongs to the Chic< 
Lettuce division of the Compositae, is a native of China, but grows well in Britain, where it wu.-- intro- 
duced in the sixteenth century. From one species the chicory used in the adulteration of u/flee 
is obtained. 

64. FLEMISH SOUP. (Fr. Potage a la Flamande.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of boiling stock or water, - a pint of milk, 
2 Ib. of potatoes sliced, \ a head of celery cut into short pieces, 2 onions 
sliced, 3 ozs. of butter or fat, salt and pepper. 

Method. Heat the butter in a large saucepan, add the prepared 
vegetables, cover closely, and cook gently for an hour, stirring or 
shaking the ingredients occasionally. Add the boiling stock or \vaitr 






RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 165 

and a seasoning of salt and pepper, boil gently until the potatoes are 
soft, then rub the whole through a wire sieve. Re-heat, add the milk, 
season to taste, make thoroughly hot, and serve. 

Time. From i-J- to if hours. Average Cost, 8d., exclusive of the 
stock. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 



65. GIBLET SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Abatis.) 

Ingredients. The giblets of a goose, turkey, ducks, or chickens, to 
one set allow i Ib. of lean beef, and 3 pints of stock or 2 pints of water, 
% a carrot, i small onion, I strip of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, 
thyme, bay-leaf), i oz. of butter, i dessertspoonful of flour, a glass 
of sherry, salt, pepper, i tablespoonful of macaroni, cooked and cut 
across into tiny rings. 

Method. Skin the gizzard, scald and skin the feet, wash the neck and 
liver, dry and cut into small pieces. Melt the butter and fry the 
giblets, meat and sliced vegetables until brown, then add the stock, 
herbs, salt and pepper, and when boilin-j, skim well. Cook gently 
fur 2 hours, then strain and return to the stewpan. \Yhcn builiiu', 
mix the sherry and the Hour smoothly together and add to the sou]), 
also the macaroni and any necessary seasoning, simmer a few 
minutes longer, and serve. 

Time. 2| to 3 hours. Cost, exclusive of the giblets and stock, 13. 
to is. 2d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 



56. GOOD WOMAN'S SOUP. (Fr Potage a la 
Bonne Femme.) 

Ingredients, i quart of white stock, i white-heart lettuce, i thick 
slice of cucumber (the length of which must equal the breadth of the 
:ucumbcr, so that a square block may be cut), a little tarragon and 
:hervil (these may be omitted when not easily procurable), i oz. of 
jutter, the yolks of 2 eggs, of a pint of cream or milk, salt and 
Copper. 

Method. AVash and shred the lettuce finely, cut the block of cucumbi-r 
efigthwise into thin slices, and the slices into match-like strips. Melt 
itter, and iry the vegetables for 5 or 6 minutes, then add the 
:id pepper, and boil slowly until the lettuce is tender (10 to 15 
"inui- t the yolks of the eggs, add to them the cream or milk. 

x*t the soup cool slightly, then pour in the yolks and cream, and stir 
mtil the soup thickens, but it MUST NOT BOIL or the eggs will curdle. 

Time. To prepare and cook, about 40 minutes. Cost, 2S. to 2s. 3d. 
Seasonable almost at any time. Sufficient for 4 persons. 



166 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

67. GRAVY SOUP. (Fr. Potage au Jus.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of second stock or gravy stock, i Ib. of neck 
or shin of beef (lean), i carrot, i onion, a turnip, i strip of celery, 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 8 peppercorns, 2 cloves, 
i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces. Make the butter hot in 
the stewpan, put in the meat and sliced vegetables, and fry until 
brown. Add the stock, herbs, peppercorns, cloves, and seasoning, 
and cook very gently for 2^ to 3 hours, strain, return to the saucepan, 
boil up, mix the flour smoothly with a little cold stock, pour it into the 
soup, simmer 5 minutes longer, add seasoning to taste, and serve. 

Time. 3^ to 4 hours. Average Cost, lod. to is. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 4 persons. 

68. GUMBO SOUP. (Fr. Potage Gombo.) 

Ingredients. i quart okras, 3 pints beef stock (see Recipe No. 3, 
p. 139), 6 tomatoes, pint Lima beans, salt, pepper, i tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley. 

Method. Mince the okras, and cook them in the stock with the 
sliced tomatoes and the beans. When tender, rub all through a fine 
sieve, re-heat, season with salt and pepper, and add i tablespoonful 
of chopped parsley. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, 23. 6d. to 35. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. 

69. HARE SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Lievre.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of second stock, i hare or the bones and in- 
ferior parts of a hare, 2 ozs. of butter, i tablespoonful of cornflour, i 
small onion, i small carrot, \ a small turnip, i strip of celery, a bouquet- 
garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 1 2 peppercorns, i glass of port wine, 
salt. 

Method. Wipe the hare with a clean damp cloth and cut it into small 
joints. Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the hare, the vegetables 
sliced, and the herbs, and fry until brown. Add the stock, salt and 
peppercorns, and simmer gently for 3 hours. Strain, remove the meat 
from the bones, and pound it well in a mortar. Rub it through a fine 
sieve, then return it and the stock to the stewpan, and when boiling 
add the wine and the cornflour, previously mixed smoothly together. 
Stir and cook for a few minutes, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 4 hours. Average Cost, 43. to 53., when made from a whole 
hare, not including the stock. Seasonable from August to March. 
Sufficient for 10 persons. 






RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 167 

70. HARE SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Lievre.) 

Ingredients. A hare fresh killed, i Ib. of gravy beef, \ lb. of raw lean 
ham, i oz. of butter, i tablespoonful of well-browned flour, i medium- 
sized onion stuck with 3 cloves, i small carrot sliced, \ of a pint of port 
wine or \ pint of good stout, salt and pepper, 3 quarts of water. 

Method. Skin and paunch the hare, saving as much blood as pos- 
sible. Divide it into small pieces, put them into a stew-jar, add the 
beef and ham cut into small pieces, the blood and liver of the hare, 
the water, onion, carrot, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper. 
Cover closely, and cook gently, either on the stove or in the oven, for 
5 or 6 hours. Meanwhile brown the flour either in a clean ir\ -in-. 



or on a plate in the oven, let it cool, then blend it smoothly with the 
butter. Form into small balls, and add them with the wine or stout 
to the contents of the stew-jar about i hour before serving. Strain, 
add the best parts of the hare, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. From 5 4- to 6\ hours. Average Cost, 6s. to 8s. Sufficient for 
8 or 10 persons. Seasonable in winter. 

THE COMMON HARE (Fr. litu'e) is found in all parts of Europe, and in some parts of Asia. Its 
fur is tawny-red in the back and white underneath ; in winter the colour of the mountain hare of 
Northern Europe changes to white. The average length of the hare is about two feet, and it 
varies from 8 lb. to 14 lb. The flesh is dark and dry, and devoid of fat, but its flavour 
esteemed. When old the ears of the hare are dry and tough, the haunches thick, and the claw 
and blunt. The ears of young hares tear easily, and its claws are both smooth and sharp. The 
hare is noted for its timidity, but, as a protection from its enemies, it possesses great acuteness of 
hearing, and remarkable swiftness of foot. The hare and rabbit are typical examples of the rodent 
quadrupeds of the genus Ltf>us. 

71. HUNTER'S SOUP. (Fr. Potage a la Chasseur.) 

Ingredients. 5 pints of second stock or water, the remains of phea- 
sants, partridges or other game, 4 ozs. of raw lean ham, 3 ozs. of butter, 
i \ oz. of flour, i onion sliced, i small carrot sliced, i or 2 strips of celery 
shredded, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper. 

Method. Heat half the butter in a stewpan, add the game divided 
into small pieces, the ham, the prepared vegetables, and the bouquet - 
garni, and cook slowly for \ an hour, turnim; or shaking the ingredients 
frequently. Add the stock or water and seasoning of salt and pepper, 
cover closely, and simmer gently for j hours. Meanwhile heat the 
remainder of the butter, add the flour, and cook gently until it acquires 
a nut-brown colour. Strain the stock on to it, stir and boil gently until 
quite smooth, then garnish with a few strips of game and vegetables, 
season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 3 hours. Average Cost, 8d., in addition to the game 
and stock. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable in winter. 

72. KIDNEY SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Rognons.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of second stock or water, lb. ox kidney 



168 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Ib. of lean beef, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i tablespoonful of 
coarsely chopped onion, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat and kidney into very small pieces. Melt 
the butter in a stewpan, and fry the meat, kidney, parsley, and onion 
until brown. Put in the stock or water, salt and pepper, bring to the 
boil, skim well, then cover, and simmer gently for 3 hours. Strain, 
pound the meat if convenient, if not, rub as much as possible of it 
through a wire sieve. Return the soup to the saucepan, and when 
boiling add the puree of meat, and the flour (previously mixed smoothly 
with a little water), simmer for a few minutes, and serve. If preferred, 
the soup may be garnished with a little carrot and turnip, cooked and 
cut into some small fancy shape. 

Time. From 4 to 4^ hours. Average Cost, lod. to is. Seasonable 
at any time. Sufficient for 4 persons. 

73. LIEBIG SOUP. 

Ingredients. i pint of stock, i teaspoonful " Lemco " salt and pep- 
per, any garnish that is seasonable or liked. 

Method. This can be made thick or clear. It is quickly prepared, and 
is very tasty as well as nourishing. To every pint of thick or clear 
soup add i teaspoonful of Liebig's Extract of Meat, called " Lemco," stir 
until it boils, and serve hot. This soup may be varied to any extent 
by adding such vegetables as carrots, turnips, celery, green peas, 
asparagus, vermicelli or macaroni as a garnish. Bone stock or 
gravy stock does well for this soup. 

Time. 5 minutes to make the soup. Average cost, without garnish, 
about 6d. 



74. MACARONI SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Macaroni.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of stock made from the bones and trimmings 
of meat (see Bone Soup), i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, 2 ozs. of macaroni, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Put the macaroni into boiling salted water and boil quickly 
until tender (20 to 30 minutes), then cut it into short lengths. Boil the 
stock, knead the flour and the butter together, add the compound to 
the stock, and stir until it becomes smoothly mixed with it. Season 
to taste, put in the macaroni, cook for 5 minutes, and serve. 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, about 2d. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

MACARONI (Fr. macaroni). In Italy, and especially with Neapolitans, macaroni is a popular 
article of food It is prepared from hard varieties of wheat, which is ground to a fine meal and m.i<if 
into a stiff paste with a small quantity of water. The mass, placed in a hollow, cylindrical v< I. 
is squeezed through apertures of various sizes by means of a powerful screw. That pressed through 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 169 

fine holes is called vermicelli. While issuing from the holes, the macaroni is partially baked 
by a tire placed below the cylinder, and at the same time it is drawn away and hung over r--d> to dry 
either by artificial heat or in the sun ; the sun-dried macaroni is esteemed the best. Macaroni is 
a nutritious and wholesome food, and is u?ed for thickening soups, for puddings, and other forms 
rv. Macaroni paste rolled out into flat cakes is cut into various shapes and devices, and 
sold under the designation of " pastes." 

75. MILK SOUP. (Fr. Potage au Lait.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of boiling milk, 2 ozs. of butter, i oz. of Hour, 
| a small white cabbage finely shredded, salt and pepper. 

Method. Heat the butter in an enamelled or well-lined saucepan, 
add the cabbage, and let it cook gently for 15 or 20 minutes. Now 
add the boiling milk, simmer gently for about 10 minutes, then stir 
in the flour, which must previously have been smoothly blended with 
a little cold water. Stir and boil gently for 6 or 7 minutes, then 
season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

76. MULLIGATAWNY SOUP. (Fr. Potage a 

rindienne.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of water, 2 Ib. of mutton (a tin of Australian 
mutton may be used), 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 apples, i small turnip, a 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 
i tablespoonful of curry powder, the juice of ^ a lemon, salt. 

Method. Remove the fat from the mutton and melt it in the sauce- 
pan. Have the apples and vegetables ready sliced, and when tl 
suiticient liquid fat to fry them, take out the pieces of fat, put in 
the vegetables, and cook them for 15 minutes. Sprinkle in the Hour 
and curry powder, fry for a few minutes, then add the meat in small 

, a teaspoonful of salt, the herbs and water. When the nun- 
pound 1 oils ( remove the scum as it rises, then cover and cook gently 
for 3 hours. Strain, rub the meat through a wire sieve, and return to 

uccpan. When boiling, add the lemon-juice, season to taste, and 
serve. Well-cooked rice should be handed round with this soup. 

Time. 4 to 4$- hours. Average Cost, is. 6d. to IB. 8d. Seasonable at 
any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

The I nines and remains of any kind of meat or poultry may be 

1 of Mutton. The soup would take its name from tho m .r 
empl 

( >.\tail Soup, Indian Style. (Fr. Queue de Bu-uf a I'lndienne.) 
Rabbit Purde, Indian Style. (Fr. Pure-c de Lapin a ITndienne.) 

77- OX CHEEK SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Moufle de 
Bceuf.) 

Ingredients. 5 quarts of water, i ox cheek, 2 onions, 2 carrots, I 



170 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

turnip, i strip of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, basil, mar- 
joram, bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns, 4 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 2 ozs. of 
butter, 2 ozs. of flour. 

Method. Soak the cheek in salt and warm water for 5 or 6 hours, 
changing it 2 or 3 times. Prepare the vegetables and cut them into 
thick slices, melt the butter in a large stewpan, add the vegetables to 
it, and fry until brown. Well wash the ox cheek, break the bones 
into small pieces, and put them into the stewpan ; also put in the herbs, 
seasonings, meat and water. Bring slowly to the boil, skim well, 
put on the cover and simmer gently for 3 hours, or according to the 
size of the cheek, strain, return the soup to the saucepan, and bring 
to the boil. Mix the flour smoothly with a little cold water or stock, 
pour it into the soup, stir and simmer for 5 or 6 minutes. Cut the 
smaller pieces of meat into dice and add them to the soup, also cut a 
few dice of cooked celery and carrot. Season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Seasonable in winter. 
Sufficient for 12 persons. 

THYME (Fr. thym). There are numerous species of this aromatic plant, which are native to the 
temperate regions. The wild variety in Britain is characterized by its well-known fragrant smell. 
The cultivated garden-thyme is indigenous to the south of Europe ; its young leaves and tops are 
used for flavouring soups and sauces, and as an ingredient in stuffings. From the essential oil con- 
tained in thyme a flavouring essence is prepared. 

78. OXTAIL SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Queue de 
Bceuf.) 

Ingredients. i oxtail, 2 quarts of second stock or water, 2 onions, 
2 carrots, i turnip, 2 strips of celery, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of lean ham 
or bacon (cut into dice or cubes), a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns, 2 cloves, salt, i glass of sherry, i table- 
spoonful of cornflour. 

Method. Cut the tail into small joints, put it into a stewpan, cover 
with cold water, boil up and strain. Dry the pieces of oxtail, 
roll them in flour, put them with the ham and sliced vegetables and but- 
ter into the stewpan, and fry until brown. Then add the stock, herbs 
peppercorns, cloves, and salt, boil and skim well. Put on the lid 
and cook very gently for about 4 hours. Strain, remove the fat, re- 
turn to the stewpan, and when the soup boils add the sherry and corn- 
flour smoothly mixed together, stir and cook for a few minutes. 
Serve the smaller pieces of the tail in the soup, the remainder may be 
re-heated in a good brown sauce and served as an entree. 

Time. 5^ to 6 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

THE Ox (Fr. : Boeuf). The name of various breeds of ungulated or " hoofed " ruminants of the 
sub-family Bovidae. Like the sheep, the ox (including under this designation also the cow) in its 
domesticated state is one of the most valuable of animals for its flesh and the various products of its 
skin, horns, hair, bones and milk. So highly was the ox prized by the ancient Egyptians that it 
was regarded as a special object of worship, and at the present day the cow is still venerated by the 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 171 

Hindus. It forms one of the signs (Taurus) of the Zodiac. Oxen and sheep have from the earliest 
ages been used for religious sacrifices. They also constituted the wealth of the earlier races. The 
original stock of existing breeds is unknown. The Chillingharn cattle are a type of the older wild ox 
and are supposed to be the descendants of the Urus, or " mountain bull," inhabiting the forest districts 
of Britain at the time of the Roman invasion. The Aurochs, or Lithuanian bison, is also an example 
of the wild variety. The chief breeds in Britain are the Ayrshire, Alderney, Kyre, and Durham short- 
horn, with crosses between these varieties, bred for food or the dairy. A large quantity of beef is 
now imported from America and Canada. Beef constitutes the principal article of animal food, and 
is highly nutritious, but less digestible than mutton. It's constituents are : In 100 parts : Water, 
72.0; proteids, 21.0 ; fats, 6.0 ; salts, i.o. 

79. PARTRIDGE SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Perdrix.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, i cold roast partridge, or the 
remains of two or three, of a Ib. of calf's or chicken's liver, 2 ozs. of 
lean bacon or ham, 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, i bouquet-garni 
(parsley, basil, marjoram, thyme, bay-leaf), i glass of port or sherry, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut a teaspoonful of small dice from the breasts of the birds 
and put them aside. Cut the remainder of the birds into small pieces, 
the liver into thin slices, and the bacon into dice. Fry all these to- 
gether in i oz. of butter until brown, then add the stock, bouquet-garni, 
seasoning, and simmer gently for i to 2 hours, keeping the compound 
well skimmed ; strain, pound the meat in a mortar and rub it through 
a sieve, or, when pounding is inconvenient, rub as much as possible 
through a wire sieve. Melt the remaining oz. of butter, stir in the flour, 
and cook until brown. Pour in the stock, stir until it boils, add the 
puree of meat, wine, seasoning if necessary, the dice of partridge, 
simmer for a few minutes, and serve. 

Time. 2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, 9d. without stock and partridge. 
Seasonable from September i to February. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

THE PARTRIDGE (Fr. perdrix).The common partridge is in Britain the most abundant of the game 
birds, and belongs to the same family as the grouse. Its general colour i % .iried by brown 

and black. The male partridge is about 12 inches in length ; the female is soraewh 
feeds principally on grain and insects. The eggs are olive-brown, and : rood is known 

A characteristic of the partridges is their habit of associating together and fr. 
their native locality. The French partridge, or red-legged vari< : 

is larger than the English variety, and is mun<r.Mis 1:1 the eastern counties of England. It i- 
on the wing tli.m tlie English bird, and does not fly in coveys. The eye is pi-milled in front and 
behind by a white line, and its eggs are yellowish white marked with brown. In the Unit, 
several species of quail are .ailed p.irtridges. 

80. QUEEN SOUP. (Fr. Potage a la Reine.) 

Ingredients. i chicken, 3 quarts of white stock, 4 ozs. of bacon, i 
carrot, i onion, i bunch of parsley, thyme, bay-leaf, 3 ozs. of butter, 
i oz. of almonds, 4 ozs. of breadcrumbs, chicken quenelles, seasoning, 
| a pint of milk. 

Method. Slice the bacon and put in a stewpan together with the 
vegetables, herbs, etc. Place the chicken, previously trussed as for 
boiling, on top, season with pepper and salt, pour in i quart of stock, 
cover with a lid, and let it reduce slowly; add the remainder of the 
stock, boil slowly, skim, and continue to boil until tender. Remove the 



173 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

chicken, free it from skin and bones; pound the meat in a mortar with 
breadcrumbs, season with salt and nutmeg, moisten with all the stock, 
and rub through a fine sieve. Return to the stewpan. Peel and 
pound the almonds, boil in milk and pass through a tammy. Add this 
to the soup together with the butter just before serving. Serve the 
soup with a garnish of small chicken quenelles, also a handful of freshly 
cooked peas or asparagus points. 

Average Cost. 6s. icd. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable at any 
time. 

8 1. RABBIT SOUP WITH SORREL. (Fr. Potage 
de Lapin a 1'Oseille.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of water, i rabbit, a Ib. of shin of beef, 2 ozs. 
of lean bacon, i onion, i small carrot, a few leaves of sorrel, 10 pepper- 
corns, 2 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 2 ozs. of butter, i^ ozs. of flour, i 
dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful of lemon- juice, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the bacon into dice or cubes, the beef into small pieces, 
and the rabbit into small joints : from the back cut one or two nice 
fillets. Melt the butter in a large stewpan, and fry the beef, bacon, 
and rabbit until brown ; put the small fillets aside, to be used later as 
a garnish. Add the water, sliced carrot, the onion, into which the 
cloves should be stuck, peppercorns, mace and salt, bring slowly to the 
boil, and skim well. Cook slowly for 3 hours, then strain. Put the 
beef into the stock-pot. The meat of the rabbit and the bacon pound 
well, and rub through a fine sieve. Re-heat the soup, mix the flour 
smoothly with a little cold stock, add it to the soup, stir and cook for a 
few minutes. Put in the puree of meat. Wash the sorrel, cut it into 
fine shreds, blanch, strain, and put into the soup. Cut the fillets of 
fried rabbit into dice, and add them, together with the lemon-juice, 
parsley, and any necessary seasoning, to the soup, and serve. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost. 2s. 4d. to 2S. 6d. Seasonable 
from September to March. Sufficient for 10 persons. 

82. RABBIT SOUP (WHITE). (Fr. Potage de 
Lapin.) 

Ingredients. i rabbit, 3 pints of second stock, i pint of water, 4 ozs. 
of gammon of bacon, i onion, a piece of celery, i small bunch of savoury 
herbs, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, a pint of milk, seasoning. 

Method. Skin the rabbit, wipe it with a damp cloth, and cut it up 
into small pieces. Put it in a stewpan with 3 pints of stock and i pint 
of water, bring it to the boil, skim, and add the bacon, the onion (stuck 
with a clove), celery and herbs. Cook gently for i hours, or until 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 17.* 

the meat is quite tender. Remove the best pieces of rabbit (these can 
be used for croquettes, etc.), and the bunch of herbs. Melt the butter, 
add the flour, mix well, stir in the milk, and boil. Stir into the 
pan containing the soup, simmer for 20 minutes, season with salt, 
pepper and nutmeg, and rub through a sieve. Re-heat, and add, if 
liked, a cupful of cream. Serve with fried bread croutons. 

Time. ij to 2 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 8 persons. 
Seasonable from October to January. 

83. RABBIT SOUP (BROWN.) 

This is made in a similar manner as explained in the foregoing recipe, 
the only difference being that the rabbit is fried after it is cut up, and 
brown stock should be used. The bacon and rabbit should bo friod in 
dripping until they acquire a brown colour, after which the Hour used 
for thickening must be fried also. The stock and water is then 
added, with the vegetables, etc. Cook gently for i hours, and strain, 
season to taste, then serve. This soup should be of a dark fawn colour. 
It is best to omit the cream mentioned in the foregoing recipe. 

84.- RICE SOUP. (Fr. Potage au Riz.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock, i pint of milk, tho yolks 
of 2 eggs, salt and pepper, 3 tablospoonfuls of rice. 

Method. Boil the stock, add the rice, previously woll-waslu -d, 
and simmer gently for about hour, or until the rice is thoroughly 
cooked. Kub through a hair siove, return to the stcwpan, add tho milk, 
and boil. Bout tho yolks of tho eggs with a littlo milk or cold 
lot the soup cool slightly, then pour in the eggs and stir until tho 
thickens. Season to taste, and servo. 

Time. to i hour. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. without the stock. 
Seasonable all tho your. Sufficient lor 6 persons. 

i r. : Kiz). -This important fo,,l-plant, whi< h Ix-longs to the natural order of th- < 
known in ti: .in rd into h.. ! t,,rms the prim ip il 

article of dirt of the Hindu- .-rounds of die 

tro|,ir.,l aiul suh-tropieal di^tn. ts ,,\ S..uth-1-ast Asia, Egypt 
and grows luxuriantly in tin- rii-h alluvial de; ,1k of the ri- e pl.i 

; >imd. and jointed ; it> leaves an lar. l,ap.,| ; 

; an- whit.- and oblong, varving in form a. eording to th- differ.- 

:. and other kinds. Rice in the husk is called " paddy." It is a light and wl 
fool, but i> vrv p. *.r and deficient in ] 

proporii ,f niti. -,-nous or Sesh- forming matter. 5 in 100 parts, and should \m used in i..mbini- 

tion with meat, pe is, or beans to supply the proteiils, fat, and tommon salt. 

85. SAGO SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Sagou a la Creme. ) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of second stock, i pint of milk, .{ a pint of cream, 

JO, tho yolks..' buy-loaf, su^'ur. salt and prppor. 

Method. Put tin- stork .md buy l<-af into a stowpun, wlion boiling 



174 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

sprinkle in the sago and cook gently for 20 minutes, or until the sago 
is transparent. Add the milk, a good pinch of sugar, salt and pepper 
to taste, and continue to simmer a few minutes longer. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs and the cream together, add these to the soup, and 
stir until it thickens, but it must not be allowed to boil or the eggs will 
curdle. Remove the bay-leaf, and serve. 

Time. 40 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

Note. This Soup, the principal ingredients of which are sago and eggs, 
has always been considered very beneficial to the chest and throat. In 
various quantities and indiiferent preparations, sago and eggs have been par- 
taken of by many famous singers, including the celebrated" Swedish Night- 
ingale," Jenny Lind, with considerable benefit to the voice in singing. 

SAGO (Fr. : Sagou). A farinaceous food obtained from the cellular starchy pith of several species 
of a genus of palms, especially Sagus Laevis and Sagus Rumphii, the latter yielding the finest kind of 
sago. Both of these species are natives of the Malay Archipelago. The Malay word saga means 
" bread," from the circumstance that sago forms the chief farinaceous diet of the Malays. To procure 
sago the trees, which grow to a height of about thirty feet, with a diameter of about one and a half feet, 
are felled, with their flowering spike forms. From the stems, which are cut into convenient sections, 
the pith is extracted, and beaten in receptacles of cold water to separate the starch granules from the 
woody filaments with which they are associated. After washing and straining, the meal is dried. 
For exportation the moist sago is dried and rubbed to smaller granular pellets, and according to the 
size of these is designated " pearl," " medium," or " bullet " sago. An imitation is made from potato 
starch, but is easily detected by the microscope. A common variety of sago is made in India and 
Ceylon from various palm-trees. Sago, from its ready solubility, is easy of digestion, and is a valuable 
light, nutritious, farinaceous food. It is largely used in the preparation of soluble cocoas. 

86. SHIN OF BEEF SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Bceuf.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 2 ozs. of butter 
or dripping, i oz. of flour, i onion sliced, i carrot sliced, of a turnip 
sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 peppercorns, salt. 

Method. Heat the butter in a saucepan, put in the prepared onion, 
carrot and turnip, and fry them brown. Add the water, the meat cut 
into small pieces, the bouquet-garni, peppercorns, and a little salt, 
and simmer gently for 3 or 4 hours. Strain, skim well, re-heat, and 
stir in the flour previously mixed with a little cold water. Boil 
gently for 5 or 6 minutes, then serve garnished with a little cooked 
vegetable, macaroni, or other farinaceous substance. 

Time. From 3^ to 4^ hours. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. sd. Sufficient 
for 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

87. SOUP WITHOUT MEAT. (Fr. Soupe Maigre.) 

Ingredients. 2^ quarts of boiling water, 4 ozs. of butter, 2 onions cut 
into dice, i head of celery cut into dice, 2 lettuces shredded, 2 handfuls 
of spinach, 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar, the 
yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper. 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 175 

Method. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the prepared vegetables, 
cover closely, and cook very slowly for about \ an hour. Now add the 
boiling water and a seasoning of salt and pepper, and simmer gently 
until all the vegetables are tender. Beat the yolks of eggs slightly, 
add gradually a few tablespoonfuls of the boiling soup, and when 
thoroughly blended add the preparation to the contents of the sauce- 
pan. Stir and cook gently for a few minutes to cook the eggs, then 
add salt, pepper, and vinegar to taste, and serve. 

Time. From i| to \\ hours. Average Cost, is. 3d. Sufficient for 
7 or 8 perons. Seasonable at any time. 

LETTUCE (Fr. : Laitue). A herbaceous annual plant of the genus iMctuca of the order Composite 
which includes the chicory tribe, with small pale yellow flowers. It grows in the temperate regions, 
and the garden lettuce is cultivated as a salad herb. The lettuce was known to the Greeks and Romans, 
and has been in use in England since the time of Elizabeth. There are various gardeners' varieties of 
the lettuce modifications of the cabbage variety, and that with long oblong leaves. The lettuce 
should be eaten while young ; when in flower it possesses narcotic and poisonous properties. From 
the characteristc milky juice of the lettuce, Lactucorium, or " lettuce opium," used medicinally as an 
anodyne, is prepared. 



88. SPRING SOUP WITHOUT MEAT. 
(Fr. Potage Printaniere Maigre.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of water, i head of lettuce, J of a white-heart 
cabbage, i carrot, i turnip, i onion, 2 leeks, a head of celery, i small 
cauliflower, 4 ozs. of butter, croutons (or small slices) of toasted bread, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the flower of the cauliflower into small pieces and put 
them aside, cut the tender part of the stalk into small pieces. Prepare 
the rest of the vegetables and shred them finely, melt the butter in a 
large stewpan, put in the shredded vegetables and the stalk of the cauli- 
flower, and cook without browning for 20 minutes. Add to them the 
water, salt and pepper, and cook gently until tender (about i hour) ; 
20 minutes before serving, put in the sprays of cauliflower. Cut 2 or 
3 slices of very thin well-browned toast into small dice, and put them 
into the tureen. Add any necessary seasoning to the soup, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Cost, lod. to is. Seasonable in spring. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. 



89. TAPIOCA CREAM SOUP. (Fr. Potage au 
Tapioca.) 

Ingredients. i quart of white stock, or half stock and half milk, 
i of a pint of cream, the yolks of 3 eggs, i tablespoonful of fine sago or 
crushed tapioca, salt and pepper. 



176 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. The stock should be well flavoured, otherwise it must be 
simmered with a little onion, carrot, celery and herbs, and then strained 
for use. Bring the stock to boiling point, sprinkle in the sago, or what- 
ever is used in its place, and stir and cook until it becomes transparent, 
then let the soup cool slightly. Mix the yolks of the eggs and the cream 
together (a of a pint of milk may be substituted when it is not con- 
venient to use cream), add to the soup and stir till it thickens : it 
should have the consistency of single cream. When a thicker soup 
is desired, mix a teaspoonful of flour or cornflour with a little milk, 
and add it to the soup at the same time as the sago. Season to taste, 
and serve. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Cost, about pd., not including the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

90. TOMATO SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Tomates.) 

Ingredients. i quart of second stock or water, 2 Ib. of tomatoes, 
either fresh or tinned, 2 ozs. of lean ham (this may be omitted when 
using stock), i oz. of butter, i tablespoonful of fine sago, i onion, 1 
carrot, or bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt, pepper, 
castor-sugar. 

Method. Slice the tomatoes, onion and carrot ; cut the ham into small 
dice cubes. Melt the butter, add to it the ham, carrot and onion, fry 
for 5 minutes, put in the tomatoes and herbs, and cook for 15 minutes 
longer. Pour in the stock or water, and cook gently until the vege- 
tables are tender, then rub the ingredients through a wire sieve. Re- 
turn the soup to the stewpan, and when boiling sprinkle in the sago 
and cook until it becomes transparent. Season to taste, add a good 
pinch of sugar, and serve. Croutons, or small slices of fried or toasted 
bread, should be served separately. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 9d. to lod. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time, but more especially in summer. Sufficient for 6 
persons. 

91. TOMATO SOUP (without meat). (Fr. Potage 
de Tomate Maigre.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of fresh tomatoes, i Spanish onion, a small bunch 
of mixed herbs, 3 pints of water, salt and pepper, i oz. of crushed 
tapioca or semolina, 2 ozs. of butter. 

Method, Peel and slice the onion, cut the tomatoes into small slices. 
Fry the onion a nice light brown in the butter, add the tomatoes, and 
fry them a little, then put in the water and the bunch of herbs. Allow 



fcECIPfcS FOR THICK SOUPS 177 

all to cook till tender, rub through a hair sieve, return to the slcwp.in, 
season to taste with salt and pepper. When boiling, gradually add 
the tapioca or semolina, and cook for 10 minutes longer. Serve with 
small croutons of fried bread. 

Time. One hour. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 7 d - Seasonable at 
any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

92. TOMATO AND LENTIL SOUP. (Fr. Potage 
de Tomates et Lentilles.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of stock or water, i pint of milk, a pint of 
lentils, 2 ozs. of lean bacon or ham, i ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, i Ib. 
of tomatoes (fresh or preserved), i onion, i carrot, a turnip, i small 
leek, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns, 2 
cloves, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and soak the lentils for 12 hours, and drain well 
before using. Slice all the vegetables, and cut the bacon int<> 
Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the ham and all the- vegetables, 
the tomatoes, and cook slowly for a few minutes, then add the 
tomatoes and lentils, cover closely, and steam the contents of the 
stewpan for 15 or 20 minutes. Add the stock or water, bowquet-garni, 
peppercorns, and cloves, and simmer for 3 hours, or until the lentils 
arc tender. Strain, return to the saucepan, and when boiling add the 
milk. Mix the flour smoothly with a little stock or milk, and add it 
to the boiling soup. Stir and simmer for a few minutes to cook the 
flour, then season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 4 to 4^ hours. Average Cost, lid. or is. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 

93. TURKEY SOUP. (Fr. Botage de Dinde.') 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of white second stock, the remains of a cold 
turkey, 2 ozs. of cooked macaroni, i ozs. of crenu- de riz (rice- 
flour), i small onion, i bay-leaf, i small blade of mace, salt and p- 
Method. Divide the remains of the turkey and the bones into small 
, put them into a stewpan with the onion, bay-leaf, mace, ami 
a little salt and pepper or peppercorns, add the stock, and simmer 
gently for 3 hours. Strain, return to the saucepan, add the < 

, previously blended smoothly with a little cold stuck or milk, 
stir and boil gently for 7 or 8 minutes. Have the a i i ready 
boiled and cut into very short lengths, put it into the soup, season to 

make thoroughly hot, and serve. 

Time. About 3! hours. Average Cost, 4d., in addition to the stock 
and turkey. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in winter. 

THE TURKEY (Fr. : Dtndon}. This well-known bird is a native of North Amrr; .hound-* 

I* a wild state. It was introduced ntury. Die phunage oi the wild 

male bit The turkey 

for the excellence of its ilesh and eggs. Iu its domesticated state it is a very delicate bird aud 
ditiicuit tu rear. 



178 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

94. TURTLE SOUP. (Fr. Potage Tortue.) 
(Founded on M. Ude's Recipe.) 

Ingredients. A very small turtle, 6 slices of ham, 2 knuckles of veal, 
i large bunch of sweet herbs, 3 bay-leaves, parsley, green onions, i 
onion, 6 cloves, 3 blades of mace, Ib. of fresh butter, i bottle of 
Madeira, i lump of sugar. 

For the Quenelles a la tortue i Ib. of veal, i Ib. of breadcrumbs, 
milk, 7 eggs, cayenne, salt, spices, chopped parsley, the juice of 2 
lemons. 

Method. To make this soup more* easily, cut off the head of the turtle 
the preceding day. In the morning open the turtle by leaning heavily 
with a knife on the shell of the animal's back, while you cut this off 
all round. Turn the turtle upright on its end to drain out all the water, 
etc., then cut the flesh off along the spine with the knife sloping towards 
the bones, so as to avoid touching the gall, which sometimes may 
escape the eye. When all the flesh about the members is obtained, 
wash these clean, and let them drain. Have ready, on the fire, a large 
vessel full of boiling water, into which put the shells ; when you per- 
ceive that they come off easily, take them out of the water, and prick 
them all, with those of the back, belly, fins, head, etc. Boil the back 
and the belly until the bones can be taken out, without, however, 
allowing the softer parts to be sufficiently done, as they will be boiled 
again in the soup. When these latter come off easily, lay them on 
earthen dishes singly for fear they should stick together, and put them 
to cool. Keep the liquor in which you have blanched the softer parts, 
and let the bones stew thoroughly in it, this liquor being valuable for 
moistening sauces. 

All the flesh of the interior parts, the four legs and head, must be 
drawn down in the following manner : Lay the slices of ham on the 
bottom of a very large stewpan, over them the knuckles of veal, accord- 
ing to the size of the turtle ; then the inside flesh of the turtle, and, over 
the whole, the members. Now moisten with the water in which you 
are boiling the shell, and draw it down thoroughly. You may now 
ascertain if it be perfectly done by thrusting a knife into the fleshy 
part of the meat. If no blood appears, it is time to moisten it again with 
the liquor in which the bones, etc., have been boiling. Put in a large 
bunch of all such sweet herbs as are adapted for the cooking of a turtle 
sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3 
bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and 
a large onion stuck with 6 cloves. Let the members be thoroughly 
cooked, probe them to see if they are done, and if so, drain 
and send them to the larder, as they are to make their appearance 
only when the soup is absolutely completed. When the flesh is 
also completely cooked, strain it through a silk sieve, and make a 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 179 

very thin white roux (i.e., a preparation of butter and flour), for turtle 
soup must not be thickened very much. When the flour is sufficiently 
done on a slow fire, and has a good colour, moisten it with the liquor, 
keeping it over the fire until it boils. Ascertain that the sauce is neither 
too thick nor too thin ; then draw the stewpan to the side of the stove 
and skim off the white scum, and all the fat and oil that rises to the 
surface of the sauce. By this time all the softer parts will be sufficient- 
ly cold ; they must be cut about i or 2 inches square, and thrown 
into the soup, which must now be left to simmer gently. When 
done, skim off all the fat and froth. Take all the leaves of the 
herbs from the stock sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, 
winter savory, 2 or 3 bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley 
and green onions, and a large onion cut in 4 pieces, with a few blades of 
mace. Put these in a stewpan, with about of a Ib. of fresh butter, 
and let it simmer on a slow fire till quite melted, then pour in i bottle 
of good Madeira, adding a small piece of sugar, and let it boil gently 
for i hour. When done, rub it through a tammy-cloth, and add it 
to the soup. Let this boil till no white scum rises ; then with a skimmer 
remove all the bits of turtle out of the sauce, and put them in a clean 
stewpan ; when you have taken all out, pour the soup over the pieces 
of turtle, through a tammy-cloth, and proceed as follows : 

Quenelles a la Tortue. Make some quenelles a la tortue, which do not 
require to be very delicate, being substitutes for eggs. Take from the 
fleshy part of a leg of veal about i Ib., scrape off all the meat, without 
any sinews or fat. Soak about the same quantity of crumbs of 
bread in milk. When the bread is well soaked, squeeze it, and 
put it into a mortar with the veal, a small quantity of calf's udder, a 
little butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, boiled hard, a little cayenne pepper, 
salt and spices, and pound the whole very fine ; then thicken the 
mixture with 2 whole eggs and the yolk of another. Next try this farce 
or stuffing, in boiling hot water, to ascertain its consistency ; if it is too 
thin, add the yolk of an egg. When the farce is perfected, take half of 
it, and put into it some chopped parsley. Let the whole cool, then form 
it into the shape and size of the yolk of an egg ; poach them in salt and 
boiling water, and when very hard drain on a sieve, and put it into the 
soup. Before serving, squeeze the juice of 2 or 3 lemons upon a little 
cayenne pepper and pour into the soup. The fins may be served 
as an entree with a little turtle sauce ; if not, on the following day 
you may warm the turtle in the bain marie, and serve the members 
entire, with a matelote sauce, garnished with mushrooms, cocks' 
combs, quenelles, etc. When either lemon-juice or cayenne pepper 
has been introduced no boiling must take place. 

It is necessary to observe that the turtle prepared a day before it 
is used is generally preferable, the flavour being more uniform. Be particular, 
when you dress a very large turtle, to preserve the green fat in a separate stew- 
pan (be cautious not to turn it a brown colour the natural green of the 



i8o HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

fish is preferred by every epicure and true connoisseur), and also when the 
turtle is entirely done, to have as many tureens as you mean to serve each 
time. You cannot put the whole in a large vessel, for various reasons : first, 
it will be long in cooling ; secondly, when you take some out, it will break 
all the rest into rags. If you warm it in a bain-marie (a vessel immersed in 
another outer vessel of water), the turtle will always retain the same taste ; 
but if you boil it often it becomes strong, and loses its delicacy of flavour. 

The Cost of Turtle Soup. This is the most expensive soup brought to 
table. It is sold by the quart one guinea being the standard price 
for that quantity. The price of live turtle ranges from 8d. to 2s. per 
lb., according to supply and demand. When live turtle is dear, many 
cooks use the tinned turtle, which is killed when caught, and pro- 
served by being put into hermetically-sealed canisters, and so sent 
over to England. The cost of a tin, containing 2 quarts, or 4 lb., 
is about i, and for a small one, containing the green fat, 33. 6d. From 
these about 6 quarts of good soup may be made. Sun-dried turtle is 
also sold, and answers very well. It requires to be soaked as well as 
stewed for a long time, and put into good stock. 

THE GREEN TURTLE (Fr. : Tortue) is the best known of the various species of turtles, from the fact 
that its flesh furnishes the materials for the rich soup so highly prized as a table delicacy. The fat of 
its upper and lower shields is considered the richest and most delicate part. The green turtle is an 
inhabitant of the warm seas of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and is common at the Antilles and 
round the coast of Ascension Island. It attains the dimensions of five to seven feet, and often weighs 
about 700 pounds. The eggs of the green turtle are esteemed a delicacy. Turtles are 'amphibious 
and feed upon marine plants. The turtle as an article of luxury is popularly associated with the Lord 
Mayors' banquets. 

95. VEGETABLE SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Le- 
gumes.) 

Ingredients. 2 carrots, i turnip, i onion, i leek, 2 strips of celery, 
i dessertspoonful of finely chopped parsley, 2 ozs. of butter, i^ ozs. of 
flour, i pint of boiling water, i pint of milk, salt and pepper. 

Method. Prepare the vegetables and cut them into strips about the 
size of a short and rather thick match. Melt the butter in a stewpan, 
and fry the vegetables very slowly until the butter is absorbed, then 
add the water, of the milk, salt and pepper, and simmer gently until 
the vegetables are tender (5 to 10 minutes). Mix the flour and the 
rest of the milk. smoothly together, pour the mixture into the saucepan, 
stir and cook for a few minutes, then serve. 

Time. To prepare the vegetables, 20 to 30 minutes. To make Ihc 
soup, 25 to 30 minutes. Cost, about 5d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 4 persons. 

96. VEGETABLE SOUP (THICK). (Fr. Potage 
aux Legumes, Lie.) 

Ingredients. i quart of water, i pint of milk, i onion, i carrot, ] a 
turnip, 4 tablespoonfuls of lentils, 2 tablespoonfuls of pearl-barley 



RECIPES FOR THICK SOUPS 181 

(rice, sago or tapioca may be used instead), I tablespoonful of flour, 
a teaspoonful of salt, of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Method. Wash the lentils in two or three waters, then put them 
and the water into a saucepan and cook gently. Cut the vegetables into 
dice or cubes. Blanch the barley by putting it into cold water and bring- 
ing it to the boil, strain, wash well, and add it to the lentils. When 
the lentils and barley are cooked, put in all the vegetables, salt and 
pepper, simmer gently for 20 minutes, then add the milk. Mix the 
flour smoothly with a little water, pour it into the soup, and stir 
until it boils. Simmer a few minutes longer, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. i to 2 hours. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. Seasonable at any 
time, but more particularly so in winter. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

97. WHITE OR MILK SOUP. (Fr. Potage au Lait.) 

Ingredients. 2\ pints ot milk, 3 tablcspoonfuls of cooked rice, \\ ozs. 
of flour, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, i saltspoonful of finely- 
chopped lemon-rind, \ of a saltspoonful of ground mace, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Mix the flour smoothly with a little cold milk or water, 
add it to the milk when quite boiling, and stir until it thickens slightly. 
Put in the onion, lemon-rind, and a seasoning of salt and pepper, 
simmer gently for 15 minutes, then add the prepared ri< 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, fid. Sufficient for 5 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

98. WINTER SOUP. (Fr. Potage d'Hiver.) 

Ingredients. i small white cabbage, i small onion, i leek, i oz. of 
butter or dripping, i pint of milk, i oz. of sago or rice, salt and pepper, 
i slice of toasted bread, i quart of water. 

Method. Wash and trim the cabbage, cut the leaves into very fine 
shreds, put them into sailed boiling water and cook for 10 mil 
take ii]) and drain. Melt the butter in a saucvp.m. add the onion 
and livk .previously peeled, eleuned and cut into thin slices), cook 
a little, then add the cabbage, and stir the whole over the fire 
for a few minutes Ion with a quart of water, boil, 

skim, and simmer gently until all the vegetables are tender ; season 
with pepper and salt, add the milk (boiling . put in the sago or 
and eook for another 20 minutes. Serve with small siy; 

Time. About T hour. Average Cost, fid. to 8d. Sufficient forfi per 
Seasonable in winter. 



182 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Purees. 

99. ALMOND SOUP. (Fr. Potage d'Amandes a 
la Crime.) 

Ingredients. i quart of milk, or half milk and half white stock, of a 
Ib. of ground almonds, 2 hard-boiled eggs, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour 
or cornflour, i onion, 2 strips of celery, salt and pepper. 

Method. Mince the onion and celery finely, put them into a stewpan 
with the ground almonds, cover with cold water and simmer gently 
for \ an hour, then rub through a fine sieve : rub the yolks of the eggs 
through at the same time. In the meantime make the milk hot in the 
saucepan, add to it the puree of almonds, onion, celery, and egg, and 
boil up. Knead the butter and flour together, put these into the soup 
and stir until smoothly mixed with it, cut the whites of the eggs into 
dice, add them with the necessary seasoning to the soup, and serve. 

Time. i to i hours. Average Cost, lod. to is. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

ALMOND (Fr. : Amande). This tree is indigenous to the northern parts of Asia and Africa, but it 
is also cultivated in Europe, especially in the south of France, Spain, and Italy. It grows to about 
twenty feet in height, and is allied to the peach, natural order Rosaceae. Its flowers, of a beautiful pink, 
appear before the leaves are produced ; these are oval shaped, with serrated edges. The fruit is ovoid 
in form, and covered with down, encasing the almond in a wrinkled shell. There are two varieties of 
the almond- tree, one sweet and the other bitter. The chief kinds of sweet almonds are the Jordan 
or Syrian, which comes from Malaga, the Valencian, and the Italian. Bitter almonds are imported 
from Mogador, and in addition to a fixed oil, consisting chiefly of olein, which is common to both 
varieties, bitter almonds contain a substance called emulsin and a bitter crystallizable body named 
amygdalin ; the latter by its action on the former produces by distillation the essential oil of almonds, 
the principal constituents of which are prussic acid, benzoic acid, and hydride of benzoyl. The essential 
oil is used for perfuming soap, for flavouring confectionery, and in cookery ; but great care is necessary 
in its use owing to the presence, as mentioned above, of the highly poisonous substance prussic acid. 

loo. APPLE SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Pommes.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, 2 Ib. of cooking apples, 3 
cloves, J of an inch of root ginger, salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel, quarter, and core the apples, cut them into thick 
slices, and add them with the cloves and ginger to the boiling stock. 
Simmer gently until tender, then pass the whole through a fine sieve. 
Re-heat, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d., exclusive of the stock. 
Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

APPLE (Fr. : Pomme). The apple is the most widely distributed of all the fruit-trees, and belongs 
to the temperate regions, where it flourishes best ; it also grows in India, Persia, Arabia, Australia 
and New Zealand. The original of all the varieties of the cultivated appVe is the wild crab-tree (Pyrus 
mains), the fruit of which is small and very sour. The apple-tree is of moderate height, with oval 
leaves and pinkish white flowers. There are numerous varieties of the cultivated apple, and new 
ones are continually being added by cultivators. The various kinds are maintained and propagated 
by grafts, cuttings and budding. The wood of the apple-tree is hard and close-grained, and is used 
for cabinet work and turnery. The apple is of great antiquity, and was brought from the East by 
the Romans, who esteemed it highly, and by them was probably introduced into Britain. Large 
quantities of apples are imported into Great Britain from the Continent, the United States, Canada 
and Australia. From the fermented juice of the apple cider is produced. Apples dried in ovens are 
termed " biffins." The apple contains a large percentage of water, and also malic acid, which i$ 
used for medicinal purposes. 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 183 

ioi. ARTICHOKE SOUP. (Fr. Puree a la Pales- 
tine.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock or water, i pint of milk, 
2 Ib. of Jerusalem artichokes, 2 onions, i strip of celery, i oz. of butter, 
pepper and salt. 

Method. Wash the artichokes, put a tablespoonful of vinegar into 
a basin of water and keep the artichokes in it as much as possible while 
paring them, to preserve their whiteness. Cut the onions, celery, and 
artichokes into slices, make the butter hot in a stewpan, fry the 
vegetables for 10 or 15 minutes without browning; then pour in the 
stock and boil until tender. Rub through a fine sieve, return to the 
saucepan, add the milk and seasoning, bring to the boil, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Cost, 8d. to lod. without the stock. Season- 
able from October to February. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

. When a thicker soup is desired a dessertspoonful of cornflour or flour 
should be blended with a little milk or stock, and added to the soup a few 
minutes before serving. 

BREAD (Fr. : Pain). The use of bread is of the greatest antiquity, and is common to the most primi- 
tive races. The earliest kind consisted of raw grain softened with water, pressed together, and tlu-'i 
baked. Cakes and similar forms of this unfermented bread made with bruised grain are si 
in the rural districts of northern Europe, and in other parts of the world. All the cereal tr 
millet, rice, maize, rye, barley and oats are utilized more or less by the inhabitant of tin- coontrie* 
where these are cultivated, but wheat is the most suited for the purpose of making th- 
of bread. \\Ticaten flour contains in slightly varying proportions, according to the kind of wheat 
from which it is manufactured, starch, gluten a crey. visrid, elastic, nitrogenous s< 
sisting chiefly of vegetable fibrine sugar, gum, mineral matter and water. Thr v 
bread are of two classes, unfermented or unleavened, as biscuits. Scotch bannocks, t v 
of the United States, Australian " dampers " ; and fermented or leavened bread of the ordinar , 
hold, and f.iucy varieties. Fermentation is usually produced by means of leaven or yeast, * I v 
baking powders. Aerated bread is made with aerated water, which is strongly imrreen.i- 

acid under pressure. By law, all bread except fancy bread and rolls, must be sold by 
weight. 



102. BREAD SOUP. (Fr. Soupe au Pain.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of stock, broth, or pot-liquor, i Ib. of bread- 
crusts, salt and pepper. 

Method. Break the bread into small pieces, and place them in a 
basin. Boil up the stock, pour sufficient over the bread to cover it, 
let it remain closely covered until the bread is quite soft, then beat 
out the lumps with a fork. Add the bread thus prepared to the re- 
mainder of the stock, boil up, simmer gently for 10 or 15 minutes, 
then season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, is. 2d. when made of second 
stock. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 



184 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

103. BROAD BEAN SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Feves.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of second stock or water, i pint of beans shelled, 
2 ozs. of lean bacon or ham (this may be omitted when using stock), 
i dessertspoonful of chopped onion, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, a dessertspoonful of flour, i oz. of butter, salt, pepper, sugar. 

Method. Boil the beans in salted water for 10 or 15 minutes, then 
drain and remove the skins. Melt the butter in the stewpan, add the 
bacon in small pieces, the onion, and parsley, and fry for about 5 minutes, 
then put in the stock, and when boiling add the beans. Simmer gently 
until the beans are tender (20 to 30 minutes unless very old), then rub 
through a fine sieve. Return to the stewpan, and when boiling, add the 
flour, previously blended with a little stock or water, and stir until it is 
mixed smoothly with the stock. Season to taste, add a good pinch of 
sugar, and serve. Croutons, or small slices of fried or toasted bread, 
should be handed separately. 

Time. From 40 to 60 minutes. Cost, about 6d. Seasonable from 
June to August. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

104. -BRUSSELS SPROUTS SOUP. (Fr. Puree de 
Choux de Bruxelles.) 

Ingredients. 1 Ib. of Brussels sprouts, 3 pints of good stock, i gill 
of cream, a small piece of soda, salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. 

Method. Wash and trim the sprouts, cook them in salted water 
containing a very small piece of soda (to preserve the colour) till 
tender. Drain well and rub through a sieve. Put the puree in a stew- 
pan with the stock, boil, and let it simmer for a few minutes, skimming 
meanwhile. Season to taste, add the cream, keep hot until wanted 
for table, but on no account let the soup boil after the cream is added. 

Time. hour. Average Cost, 2s. od. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable from September to February. 

105. CARROT AND LENTIL SOUP. (Fr. Crecy 
aux Lentilles.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of stock or water, i pint of lentils, 4 carrots 
sliced, 2 onions sliced, i good lettuce shredded, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cooked rice, 2 ozs. of butter or fat, salt and pepper. 

Method. Let the lentils soak all night, then wash and drain them 
well. Heat the butter or fat in a saucepan, put in the vegetables, 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 185 

and let them fry slowly for 15 minutes. Now add the lentils and stock 
or water, season with salt and pepper, cover closely, and simmer gently 
from 4- hour to i hour, or until the lentils are tender. Pass the whole 
through a sieve, return to the saucepan, make thoroughly hot, then add 
the cooked rice, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. From iMo 2 hours. Average Cost, Sd., when made of water. 
Sufficient for i o persons. Seasonable in winter. 



1 06. CARROT SOUP. (Fr. Puree a la Crecy.) 
(Economical.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of second stock or water, i pint of milk, 3 
carrots, -J- a turnip, i onion, 2 strips of celery, i oz. of butter or dripping, 
i tablcspoonful of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Prepare the vegetables, cut them into small pieces, and 
fry without browning for about 15 minutes in the hot fat. Add the 
stock and simmer until the vegetables are tender (not less than 40 
minutes, and longer if the vegetables are old), then rub through a fine 
sieve. Return to the saucepan, add the milk, salt and pepper, and 
bring to the boil. Mix the flour with a little milk or water, pour it 
into the soup, stir and cook for 10 minutes, and se: utons 

or small pieces of fried or toasted bread should '1 separably. 

Time. i to U hours. Average Cost, about o<l. \\ithout stock. Season- 
able at any lime. Sufficient tor n persons. 



107. CARROT SOUP WITH RICE. (Fr. Puree 
Crecy au Riz.) 

Ingredients. -> pints of win ; pint of milk, 5 large 

canots, i onion, i strip of celery, i h''k -, th' while pari mil-. 
of butter, i tabl. -spoonful of corntlour. pomifuls of . ; 

2 tablespoonfuls of omki-d rice, s.tlt, prpprr, Mi'.;ar, nut 

Method. Use only the outer n-d part of the earn. is. Cut ;tll the 
Mrs into small pines, and cook them for 10 or 15 ininutrs in 
hot butter without browning. Add the stock and simmer until the 
vegetables are tender (about 40 minutes), then rub them through a 
fine sieve. Return to the stcwpan, add the milk, salt, pepper, and a 
little nutmeg, and bring to the boil. Mix the cornflour with a small 
quantity of stock or milk, pour it into the soup and stir for a few 
minutes, then add a good pinch of sug.ir, the cream, and the rice v \vhich 
!>< UK ely * ook< 1, and dry , an 



i86 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, about 9d. or lod. without the 
stock. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



1 08. CAULIFLOWER SOUP. (Fr Creme de Chou- 
fleur.) 

Ingredients. 2 small cauliflowers, i oz. of ground rice (creme de riz), 
i gill of cream, i pints of white stock, 2 ozs. of crushed tapioca, ^ an 
oz. of castor sugar, nutmeg, i pint of milk, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and trim the cauliflowers, cook them in salted water 
till tender, drain (keep the water), and rub the flower through a fine 
sieve. Bring the water in which the cauliflower has been cooked to the 
boil, stir in the crushed tapioca, and simmer for 20 minutes. Mix the 
creme de riz, or ground rice, with a little cold milk, boil up the re- 
mainder of the milk with the stock, stir in the ground rice, and cook, 
for a few minutes, stirring all the while ; add the cauliflower water, 
season with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste, bring it to the 
boil, put in the cream and stir a little longer, but do not let it boil 
again. The puree is now ready for serving. 

Time. One hour. Average Cost, 2s. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. 

109. CELERY CREAM WITH CROUTONS. 

(Fr. Creme de C61eri aux Croutons.) 

Ingredients. 3 heads of celery, 4 ozs. of butter, 3 ozs. of flour, 2 
quarts of first stock, i pint of milk, a pint of cream, salt, pepper and 
nutmeg, % a teaspoonful of castor sugar, croutons of fried bread. 

Method. Trim the celery, pare off the green parts and wash thor- 
oughly, cut it into small pieces, and blanch in slightly salted water. 
Drain well, and return to the stewpan with 3 ozs. of butter. Cook for 
a few minutes over a brisk fire without allowing the ingredients to 
brown ; moisten with a little stock, add salt, pepper, and nutmeg to 
taste, cover, and simmer slowly for 30 minutes. Mix the flour with 
the remainder of the butter in another stewpan, and cook a little with- 
out browning. Dilute with the milk, add the stock and partly 
cooked celery. Let it simmer until the celery is tender, then pass the 
whole through a fine sieve. Boil again, skim, add the sugar and 
more seasoning if needed, and lastly the cream. Re-heat the com- 
pound, without allowing it to boil and pour into a soup tureen. Serve 
the bread croutons separately. 

Time. About i|- hours. Average Cost, 45. Seasonable from Septem- 
ber to February. Sufficient for 8 to 10 persons. 






RECIPES FOR PUREES 187 

no. CELERY SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Celeri.) 
(Good.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white stock, i pint of milk, I large or 2 small 
heads of celery (the white part only), 2 small onions, a bouquet-garni 
(parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), i oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of rice, 
2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the rice well, slice the celery and onions. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, and fry the vegetables in it for 10 minutes without 
their changing colour. Put in the stock, bouquet-garni, rice, salt and 
pepper, and simmer gently until tender, then strain. Rub the rice 
and vegetables through a hair sieve, return the soup and puree to the 
stewpan, add the milk and bring to the boil. Season to taste, stir in 
the cream, and serve. 

Time. i to i hours. Average Cost. is. 9d. Seasonable from Sep- 
tember to February. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

CELERY (Fr. : C fieri) is native to Britain, and in its wild state grows by the side of ditches and 
brooks, and along the seashore and in saline situations in England and Ireland. In this tt 
called smallage, and is to some extent a dangerous narcotic. Celery has long been cultivated .1 
and culinary vegetable. Its thick leaf stalks, which have been brought to the fine flavour which 
renders this plant so agreeable an adjunct to the table, are blanched by piling soil over the stalks 
during their growth and thus excluding the light. Celery acts as a diuretic. 



in. CELERY SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Celeri.) (Eco- 
nomical.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of water, i pint of milk, 2 ozs. of lean bacon or 
ham, i oz. of butter, i tablespoonfuls of flour, i large head of c- 
2 onions, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the ham into dice or cubes, slice the onion and cclnv. 
Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the vegetables without browning, 
put in the bacon, salt, pepper and water, and simmer for 30 to 40 
minutes, or until the celery is tender. Strain, rub through a fine sieve, 
return to the saucepan, add the milk and bring to the boil. Mix the 
flour with a little milk, stir and cook for 5 or 6 minutes, then season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. Seasonable from Sep- 
tember to February. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



112. CHANTILLY SOUP. (Fr. Potage Chantilly.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, i quart of shelled peas, a 
handful of spinach, 2 or - of parsley, a sprig of mint, i small 

onion sliced, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper. 



i88 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Place a, few peas aside to be used as garnish, put the re- 
mainder into the boiling stock, add the spinach, parsley, mint and 
onion, and boil gently until the peas are tender. Rub the whole 
through a wire sieve, re-heat, season to taste, add the cream and the 
whole peas, which must have been previousy cooked, make thoroughly 
hot, and serve. 

Time. From to i hour. Average Cost, from is. to is. 3d., exclusive 
of the stock. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable in summer. 

113, CHESTNUT SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Marrons.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white stock, i pint of milk, i| pints of chest- 
nuts, i oz. of butter, i dessertspoonful of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls oi 
cream, sugar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut off the tops of the chestnuts and roast or bake them for 
20 minutes, then take off the outer and inner skins. Put the stock, 
chestnuts, salt and pepper into a stewpan and simmer until tender 
(about 45 minutes), then rub through a fine sieve. Return to the stew- 
pan, add the milk, and boil up. Knead the butter and flour together, 
add the mixture to the soup, and stir until it becomes smoothly mingled 
with it. Season to taste, add the cream and a good pinch of sugar, and 
serve. 

Time. r| to if hours. Average Cost, is. lod. Seasonable from 
November to January. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

THE CHESTNUT (Fr. : Matron), which belongs to the order Cuptiliferae, is allied to the beech. The 
common sweet, or Spanish chestnut, is supposed to have been introduced into Sardinia from Sardis 
in Asia Minor, of which it is probably a native, and has long been naturalized in Europe ; the Romans 
are said to have brought it into Britain, where it is now widely distributed. The chestnut attains a 
great size and age, and its large serrated dark leaves form a pretty object in parks and the open country 
As an article of food the chestnut is the least oily and most farinaceous of all the nuts, and ior this 
reason is the most digestible. It was much eaten by the Romans, and is still commonly used as a 
comestible, both raw and roasted, in France and Italy. The wood of the chestnut-tree, although 
inferior to the oak, which it much resembles in appearance, when old is used for various purposes. 
The horse-chestnut, the fruit of which is similar to the edible chestnut, is quite a different tree, and 
has no connexion with the genus Castanea, to which the Spanish chestnut belongs. 

1 14. COCOANUT SOUP.(Fr. Potage au Noix de Coco.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of second stock, 4 ozs. of grated cocoanut, 
preferably fresh, 2 ozs. of rice flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, mace, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. When desiccated cocoanut is used it should be previously 
soaked for 2 or 3 hours in a little of the stock. Boil the stock, add 
a small blade of mace and the cocoanut, and simmer gently for i hour. 
Mix the rice flour smoothly with a little stock, boil the remainder, 
add the blended rice flour, and stir and boil gently for about 10 minutes. 
Season to taste, stir in the cream, and serve. 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 189 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, 9*!., exclusive of the stock. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

THE COCOA-NUT at COCO-NUT (Fr. : Noix de coco). This is the fruit of a secies of palm, a native 
of the Indian coasts and the South Sea Islands, from whence it has been introduced ami 
naturalized in most parts of the tropical regions. It flourishes best in the vicinity of the s-a-shTe. 
The tree i;n>ws frequently to the height of 50 to 100 feet. The trunk is straight and naked, and is 
about two feet in diameter, the feather-shaped leaves forming the top or crown, from which the 
nuts hang in clusters. The fruit itself, covered by a hard shell, is inclosed in a librous husk ; within 
the nut -s a clear sweet liquid. Few plants possess so many and useful properties as the cocoa-nut. 
From its wood the natives obtain the building material for their houses and canoes. The leave* are 
used for thatching roofs, making baskets and articles of clothing. Coir for making ropes, brushes, and 
obtained from the fibre of the husks. The hard shells are polished and made into drinking 
nps, and various domestic and other useful articles ; the hard wood of the tree, K 
" porcupine wood," is employed for a variety of ornamental purposes. The kernels, dr. 
various ways, are used as food, and the expressed oil of the nut is exported for use in the manufacture 
of candles, soap, and pomades ; the oil when fresh is used in cookery. In southern India and other 
countries the cocoa-nut forms one of the staples of life. From the white sweetish sap toddy is made, 
and from it by distillation 2 variety of the spirit arack is obtained. Vinegar aqd&UgW are also ; 
of this juice. The terminal buds of the cocoa-nut tree when boiled resemble cabbage. The milk 
of the cocoa-nut supplies a refreshing beverage. 

115. CORN SOUP. 

Put the coin removed from 3 cobs of corn (or Indian mai/e) into 
i pinto! fast-boiling water, and cook for about i" minutes. DIM in them 
and eoik till tender in 2 pints of stock and : \ of a pint of mill.. 

te with salt and pepper, and add a small piece of butter just before 
Lng, 

Time. About I hour. Average Cost, is. M. to is. yd. per quart. 
Sufficient for 5 persons. Seasonable at all times. 

1 16. CUCUMBER CREAM. (Fr. Creme de Con- 
combre.) 

Ingredients. i lar Mall cucumbers, j lettuces, 3 ozs. of fresh 

butter, i quart of white stock, the yolks of 3 eggs, i gill of cream, 
i tablespoonful of patent cornflour, salt and pepper, a handful of fried 
bread croutons. 

Method. Peel the cucumbers and cut them into slices. Trim, v 
drain, and coarsely shred the lettuces ; blanch the cucumber and 
lettuces in salted water containing a very small piece of soda. Strain 
off the water, and put the vegetables in a stewjun with the butter ; 
stir for a few minutes, then add the stock. Mix a tablespoonful of 
cornflour with a little cold milk, and stir into the soup. Cook for about 
3<> minutes, rub it through a fine sieve, then return to the stewp.m 
and reheat. Stir the yolks of the eg.ns and the cream together, pour this 
into tin- soup, and stir over the lire for a few seconds longer. Season 
to taste with popper and salt. Put the fried bread croutons in a soup 
tureen, pour the soup over them, and send to table. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 2S. gd. per quart. Seasonable, 
May to September. Sufficient for 5 persons. 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

117. CUCUMBER CREAM, INDIAN STYLE. 

(Fr. Crime de Concombre a Tlndienne.) 

Ingredients. i cucumber, 2 onions (medium size), i calf's brain, 
2 quarts of stock, i teaspoonful of mulligatawny paste, a gill of cream, 
i oz. of fresh butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, salt, pepper and nutmeg. 

Method. Peel the cucumber, cut it up into short pieces, and cook in 
salted water till tender; peel the onions, slice them, and cook them 
in the same manner as the cucumber. Blanch the calf's brain and cook 
likewise. Drain the onions and the brain, and pound them together 
in a mortar, add the mulligatawny paste and the butter. Put this 
in a stewpan with the stock, add the cucumber, and boil for 20 minutes. 
Rub the whole through a sieve, return to the stewpan, re-heat, add the 
yolks of eggs and the cream, season to taste with salt, pepper, a tiny 
pinch of sugar, and a pinch of nutmeg. Stir long enough to bind the 
eggs, and serve. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33. Sufficient for 8 persons. 
Seasonable from May to September. 



1 1 8. CUCUMBER SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Concom- 
bres.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white stock, i pint of milk, 2 large cucumbers, 
2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of cream, salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel the cucumbers, cut into thick slices, quarter them and 
remove the seeds. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, put in the 
cucumber and a little salt, boil for 10 minutes, then drain. Melt i oz. 
of butter in a stewpan, put in the cucumber, cover and let it steam in 
the butter for about an hour, then rub through a hair sieve. Melt 
the remaining oz. of butter in the stewpan, add the flour, pour in the 
stock and milk (hot), and stir until boiling. Add the puree of cu- 
cumber, simmer for a few minutes, then let the soup cool slightly. Beat 
the yolks of the eggs a'nd cream together, pour the mixture into the soup 
and stir until it thickens, taking care that it does not boil, or the eggs 
will curdle. Season to taste, and serve with croutons of fried bread. 

Time. i to i hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Seasonable from May to 
September. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

THE CUCUMBER (Fr. : Concombre). This plant or fruit belongs to the order of the Cucurbiiact\n or 
gourds. It is of great antiquity, and is a native of Egypt and Asia. As in ancient times, in E?ypt 
and the East the cucumber, with other fruits of its class, constitute a large portion of the food of the 
people. It was cultivated in England in the fourteenth century, but it is only since the rei.un of 
Henry VIII. that the cucumber came generally into use as a table vegetable. It is much uscl aa ;i 
salad, and young cucumbers, known as " gherkins," are made into pickles. The cucumber in its raw- 
state is not very digestible. 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 191 

119. EGG SOUP. (Fr Potage aux CEufs.) 

Ingredients. i quart of good white stock, of a pint of cream, the 
yolks of 4 eggs, salt and pepper. 

Method. Beat the yolks of eggs slightly and add the cream. Bring 
the stock nearly to boiling-point, add the liaison, or binding mixture, 
of eggs and cream, and stir by the side of the fire until the soup thickens, 
but do not allow it to boil, or the eggs may curdle. Season to taste, 
and serve with croutons of fried or toasted bread. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. 9d. Sufficient for 5 
persons. Seasonable at any time 



1 20. GREEN PEA SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Pois Verts. ) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white stock, a pint of water, i quart of peas 
(shelled), a handful of spinach (to improve the colour), a little mint, 
2 ozs. of butter, i dessertspoonful of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan, put in the peas, spinach, 
and mint, put on the cover and let them steam in the butter for 15 
or 20 minutes. Add the stock and water, and some of the pea-shells 
if young and soft (they should of course be first washed in cold water), 
boil quickly until tender, strain and rub the vegetables through a 
fine sieve. Melt the remainder of the butter in the stewpan, sprinkle 
in the flour, add the stock and puree, and stir until boiling. Season to 
taste, and serve with croutons of fried bread. If preferred, a few cooked 
green peas, and a little cream may be added to the soup before serving. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, is. Qd. to 2s. od. Seasonable 
from June to September. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



I2i. HARICOT BEAN SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Hari- 
cots.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of stock or water, i pint of milk, a pint of small 
haricot beans, i oz. of butter, i onion, i strip of celery or a teaspoonful 
seeds (tied in muslin), salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the beans, and soak them in water for 12 hours. 
Melt the butj^r in a stewpan, put in the onion and celery sliced, fry 
for a few minutes without browning, then put in the beans, cover 
closely, and let them steam for 15 or 20 minutes. Add the stock or 
teaspoonful of salt, and simmer until tender (2^ to 3 hours). 
Strain, and rub the vegetables through a wire sieve. Return to the 
stewpan, add the milk, and boil up. Season to taste, and serve. 



IQ2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. 3^- to 4 hours. Average Cost, 6d. without the stock. Seasonable 
at any time. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. 

Note. Haricot-bean, lentil and pea soup arc often substituted for meat 
by those catering for the poor, and the usual allowance is i pint per head. 



122. LENTIL SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Lentilles.) 
(Good.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of second stock or water, i pint of milk, a pint 
of brown lentils, i onion, i carrot, 2 strips of celery, a bouquct-garni 
(parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), i oz. of butter, i tablespoonful of Hour, 
salt and pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream. 

Method. Wash the lentils, soak them for 24 hours, and when ready 
to use, drain well. Melt the butter in a stew-pan, put in the vegetables, 
sliced herbs, and lentils, cover closely and let them steam in the butter 
for 15 or 20 minutes. Add the stock, salt and pepper, and cook gently 
for 2 hours, or until tender, then rub through a fine sieve. Return to the 
saucepan, add the milk and bring to the boil. Mix the flour with a 
little milk or stock, add it to the soup, stir and simmer for 5 minutes. 
Season to taste, add the cream, and serve. Croutons of fried or toasted 
bread should be handed separately. 

Time. 2f to 3 hours. Average Cost, 8d. to Qd. without the stock. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

THE LENTIL (Fr. : Lentillc) belongs to the natural order Leguminosae or pulses, and is of t!io s.imc 
genus as the tares. The lentil is an annual plant, growing in height to about eighteen inches, \\ilti 
pale blue or whitish flowers. Its short, smooth pods contain two seeds each, and these form ii 
and Syria, Bengal and other Eastern countries, an important article of food. There are two cultivated 
varieties of the lentil, the large garden lentil and the field lentil. Its nutritive properties are of a hi^h 
order, and lentils cooked whole or in the form of meal are readily digested. Lentils form the basis of 
many of the prepared foods for invalids owing to the fact above mentioned. The constituent'; < f 
lentils in 100 parts are : Water, 12.5 ; proteids, 24.8 ; fats, 1.8 ; carbo-hydrates, 58.4 ; salts, 2.5. 



123. LENTIL SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Lentilles.) 
(Economical.) 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of water, i pint of lentils, i carrot, i strip of 
celery, i oz. of dripping or bacon fat, salt and pepper, i tablcspomifn! 
of flour. 

Method. Wash the lentils the day before the soup is wanted, strain, 
and spread on a dish. Cover with another dish and let them remain 
until ready for use. Slice the vegetables and fry them in the hot fat 
for a few minutes, as this improves the flavour of the soup. Add the 
water, and, when boiling, put in the lo'ntils and boil gently for -2^ to 
3 hours, or until the lentils are tender. If convenient rub them through 
a wire sieve, if not, crush them by pressing them at the side of the 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 193 

pan with a wooden spoon. Mix the flour with a little cold milk or 
water, add it to the soup, stir and simmer for about 10 minutes, season 
to taste, and serve. 

Ham or bacon bones greatly improve the flavour of lentil soup ; 
it may also be improved by using less water, and adding a correspond- 
ing quantity of milk a few minutes before serving. 

Time. 3* to 4 hours. Average Cost, 3d. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 6 persons when followed by other substantial dishes. 



I24 . ONION SOUP. (Fr. Puree aux Oignons.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of white stock, i pint of milk, 3 Spanish onions, 
3 potatoes, i strip of celery, I oz. of butter, i ozs. of flour, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Peel and slice the vegetables. Make the butter hot in a 
slewpan, and cook the vegetables in it for 15 minutes, but VERY SLCAVI.Y, 
and stirring frequently to prevent them taking any colour. Add the 
stock and simmer gently until tender (about i hour), then rub through 
a fine sieve. Return to the stewpan, put in the milk and bring to the 
boil. Mix the flour smoothly with a little milk, pour it into the soup, 
stir and simmer for a few minutes, then season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 1| to 2 hours. Average Cost, /d. without the stock. Season- 
able in Winter. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

N (l-"r. : Oignon). The well-known root of a liliaceous plant of the genus Alliunt, which fn un 
the earliest tmn's IMS been known and cultivated. By the ancient Egyptians it w i- so hmhlv valued 
that it was elevated into an object of worship, its concentric rings being re^ardtxi as the symbol "f 
eternity. The onion is eaten raw, roasted, boiled, pickled, and as a Savouring f>r soups and st. w-. 
Its stroim odour and punp-nt taste arc due to the presence of a superfluous volatile oil. There an- 
rieties of the onion, the Spanish, Portugal and Strasburg being the most esteemed. The 
union possesses highly nutritive properties. 



125. ONION SOUP. (Fr. Puree aux Oignons.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of water, i pints of milk, 3 Spanish onions. 
| a turnip, 2 strips of celery, i oz. oi butter, i oz. of flour, the yolks of 
>, salt, pepper and bay-leaf, a blade of mace. 

Method. Cut the turnip and celery into small pieces, peel the onions, 
put them into cold water, bring to the boil, cook for 10 minutes, then 
drain and chop coarsely. Put 2 pints of boiling water into the stcwp.m, 
add the onions, celery, turnip, bay-leaf, mace, salt and pepper, and 
simmer until tender (about i hour). Rub through a fine sieve, return 
to the saucepan, add the milk, and when boiling stir in the flour and 
r, previously kneaded together. Simmer a few minutes to cook 
the flour, then let the soup cool slightly. Beat the yolks of the eggs 

H 






i 9 4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

with a little milk, pour them into the soup, and stir until they thicken. 
Season, and serve with fried or toasted croutons of bread. 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, 8d. or Qd. Seasonable in Winter 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 



126. PARSNIP SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Panais.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of second stock, i pint of milk, 3 or 4 parsnips, 
i onion, 2 strips of celery, i oz. of butter, the juice of a lemon, or i 
tablespoonful of vinegar, i dessertspoonful of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Slice the vegetables, and fry them in the butter, without 
browning, for about 15 minutes. Add the stock, and simmer until the 
parsnips are tender (about 40 minutes), then rub through a wire sieve. 
Return to the stewpan, add the milk, salt and pepper, and bring to the 
boil. Mix the flour with a little milk or water, pour it into the soup, 
stir, and cook for 5 or 6 minutes. Add the lemon-juice and serve with 
croutons of fried or toasted bread. The lemon-juice is added to correct 
the sweetness of the parsnips, and is simply a matter of taste. 

Time. 1 to if hours. Average Cost, about yd. without the stock. 
Seasonable from October to April. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

PARSNIP (Fr. : Panais). This is a biennial plant with bright yellow flowers and a root resembling 
the carrot, which in saccharine and nutritive matter it nearly equals. Like the carrot, it grows wilj 
in Britain, but only the cultivated parsnip is edible. It is generally distributed over most parts of 
Europe, and in Roman Catholic countries forms with salt fish a Lenten dish. A beverage is made from 
parsnips in conjunction with hops, and also a wine of agreeable flavour. The parsnip contains in 100 
parts : Water, 82.5 ; proteids, 1.3 ; fats, 0.7 ; carbo-hydrates, 14.5 ; salts, i.o. 

127. PEA SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Pois.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of stock or water (if water is used, ham or beef 
bones, either cooked or uncooked will improve the soup), i pint of 
dried split peas, 2 onions, 2 carrots, i small turnip, 2 strips of celery, 
i dessertspoonful of dried mint, salt and pepper, i oz. of flour. 

Method. Wash the peas and soak them for 12 hours in water. Put 
them into a stewpan with the bones (if any) and the stock, and bring 
to the boil. Slice the vegetables and add them to the stock when it 
boils, and simmer for at least 3 hours. Then rub through a wire sieve, 
return to the saucepan, add the flour mixed smoothly with a little 
water, and boil. When the puree is thoroughly incorporated with 
the soup, season to taste, and serve. The dried mint should be 
placed in the tureen and the soup poured on to it. 

Time. 3^ to 4 hours. Average Cost, 4d. when made with water. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

Note. When making pea soup in large quantities, the process of rubbing 
the vegetables through the sieve is omitted, and the turnips, carrots, etc., are 
cut into small pieces and added to the soup about i hour before serving. 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 195 

THE PEA (Fr. : Pos). The native country of the pea is unknown, but it is supposed to be indigenous 
to South-Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It was well known to the Romans, and has been culti- 
vated from remote antiquity. The pea, a leguminous plant of the genus Pisum, has many varieties, 
including the garden pea and the field pea. When soft and juicy in the pods, peas are used 
for the table under the designation of " green peas." When hardened, peas become farinaceous, and 
a whitish and a blue variety which splits readily when subjected to the action of mill-stones specially 
constructed for that purpose is used largely for soups. There are some varieties of peas which have 
no inner filmy lining in their pods, known as " sugar-peas." The pods of these when young are fre- 
quently eaten cooked in a similar manner to kidney-beans. Bv the Hindus peas parched and ground 
and mixed with flour form an important article of diet. The pea is rich in nitrogenous matter, contain- 
ing le^umin or vegetable casein, and is therefore useful as a flesh-forming food. The following urc the 
constituents of peas in too parts : Water, 15.6 ; proteids, 22.0 ; fats, 2.0 ; carbo-hydrates, 58.0, 
salts, 2.4. 



128.- -POTATO SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Pommes de 
Terre.) 

Ingredients. i quart of white second stock, or water, a pint of milk, 
i Ib. of potatoes, i onion, i strip of celery, i oz. of butter, i tablespoonful 
of fine sago, or crushed tapioca, salt and pepper. 

Method. Slice the potatoes, onion, and celery. Make the butter 
hot in a stewpan, add the vegetables, fry and cook until the butter is 
absorbed, stirring freqently to prevent them browning. Add the 
stock, and simmer until the vegetables are tender (about i hour). 
Rub through a fine sieve ; return to the saucepan, add the milk and 
bring to the boil. Sprinkle in the sago, cook until transparent, add 
seasoning to taste, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, Qd. to is. Seasonable at any 
time. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. 

THE POTATO (Fr. : Pomme dt terre). Next to the cereals, the potato constitutes one of the most 
important articles of vegetable food. It belongs to the natural order Solanacetr. which includes the 
nightshade, henbane, and tobacco, and is a native of the region of the Andes of South Amcru a. wln-n- 
it grows wild ; but in the uncultivated state its tubers are watery and tasteless. It was first intro- 
duced into Europe in the early part of the sixteenth century by the Spaniards, and in England by the 
Elizabethan adventurers, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Walter RaK-i^h. It u.i^ 
grown on the estate of the last-named at Youghal, near Cork, and eaten as a food prior to its use in 
England. The potato is rich in starch, of which it contains about 15 per cent., and combined with 
flour makes excellent farinaceous foods. A strong coarse spirit, " ItritNh brandy," is ob- 
tained from the potato by distillation. The skin of the potato contains " Solanine." a poisonous 
substance, which is dissipated by boiling or steaming. Not being rich in flesh-forming con^t 



the potato is best used as an adjunct to meat or nitrogenous foods. The potato contains in too ; 
Water, 74.0 : proteids, 2.0 ; fa 



fats, 0.20 ; carbo-hydrates. 21.8 ; salts, i.o. 



129. PUREE OF ASPARAGUS. (Fr. Puree d'As- 
perges.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock or water, i pint of milk, 
50 heads of asparagus, i Spanish onion, i strip of celery, a bouquet- 
garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), i ozs. of butter, i dessertspoonful 
of cornflour or flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 tablcspoonfuls of cream, 
pepper and salt. 



196 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Cut off the heads of the asparagus and put them aside, 
trim the stalks, cut them and the onion and celery into small pieces. 
Melt the butter in a stewpan and fry asparagus, celery and onion for 
15 minutes, but slowly, so as not to brown them at all. Sprinkle in the 
cornflour or flour, let it cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then add the stock, 
milk, bouquet-garni, salt and pepper, and cook slowly for about 40 
minutes. Pass through a fine sieve, return the soup to the 
stewpan, and stir until it boils. Have ready a small saucepan 
of boiling water, put in a little salt and the asparagus points, 
and cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Let the soup cool slightly, beat 
the yolks of the eggs and the cream together, pour them into the 
soup and stir until it thickens, taking care that the mixture does not 
boil, or the eggs will curdle. Put the asparagus points in the tureen, 
and pour in the soup. 

Time. 1 to i^ hours. Average Cost, 2s. gd. to 33. 6d., exclusive of 
stock. Seasonable from March to July, but in full season in May, 
June and July. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

ASPARAGUS (Fr. : Asperge). A favourite culinary vegetable belonging to a genus of plants of the 
order Liliaceae. It is indigenous to Britain, and grows extensively in the southern steppes of Russia, 
in Poland, and in Greece, and was used as a vegetable by the Romans. The asparagus is raised from 
seed, and the young shoots of the plant only are used for the table. It possesses valuable diuretic 
properties. 



130. PUREE OF ASPARAGUS. (Fr. Puree d'As- 
perges.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock or water, i pint of milk, 
50 heads of asparagus, i Ib. of spinach, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour 
2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut off the points of the asparagus and put them aside, 
trim the stalks and cut them into small pieces ; wash and pick the 
spinach. Put the stock or water into a stewpan, and when it boils add 
the asparagus and spinach^ and cook until tender (about 40 minutes), 
then rub through a fine sieve. Have ready a small saucepan of boiling 
water, put in a little salt and the asparagus points, and cook for 10 or 
15 minutes. Melt the butter in the stewpan, sprinkle in the flour, 
add the milk and stir until it boils, then put in the stock and puree of 
asparagus and spinach, salt and pepper to taste, and simmer gently 
for 10 minutes. Place the asparagus points into the tureen, add the 
cream and necessary seasoning to the soup, and serve. 

Time. T to i$ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33., exclusive of stock. 

Seasonable from March to July. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



RKCIPES FOR Pl'RKKS 
131. SORREL SOUP. (Fr. Creme d'Oseille.^ 

Ingredients. of a Ib. of sorrel, picked and washed, i small 0*1 
lettuce, 3 or 4 sprigs of tarragon, a few sprigs of chervil, i oz. ot biitu-r. 
:its of white stock, i gill of cream, | a pint of Bechamel sauce 
(see Sauces), yolks of 3 eggs. 

Method. Wash the sorrel and the lettuce, cut both up small, and 
put in a stewpan with the butter. Cook whilst stirring for about 5 
minutes, then add the stock. Let the whole simmer gently for about 
I an hour, and rub through a fine sieve. Return the puree to a 
stewpan with the Bechamel sauce, season to taste with salt, prppn 
and a grate of nutmeg, re-heat, add the tarragon and chervil t 1 
and cut into shreds, and cook for a few minutes longer. Add the 
n-iMin and the egg-yolks, previously beaten with a whisk, stir over the 
tin- lOr a few moments to cook the eggs, then s< 

Average Cost. 2s. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable in spring and 
summer. 



132. SPINACH SOUP. (Fr. Puree d'Epinards.) 

Ingredients. i pint of white second stock, i pint of milk, a 
spinach, i oz. of butter, i ozs. of flour, pepper and salt. 

Method. Wash the spinach, remove the stalks, and put it into a 
;>an with just sufficient water to rover the ; 
vent it burning. When tender, drain and rub thro , 
M< It the butter in a st.upan, sprinkle in the flour. 

then add the puree of spiiurh and tl;- . little 

time. Boil, add the milk, sunnier a few mini; -n to 

ve. 

Time. About r hour. Average Cost, od. to is. without the stock. 
Seasonable from Sufficient for .; 

133- SPRING SOUP. (Fr. Puree Printaniere 
Maigre.) 

lients. i pint of i.oilin- ,, s> 2 

i turnip, -ood l.-tture. i bunch 

.It and pepper. The volks of 2 
nid 2 tablespoonfi .in improve the soup.) 

Method. Cut a t.ibl. -spoonful cv ; rot and turnip into small 

i"d the !so cut up th 

he lettr tf some of tho stalks of 

' the bul put in all lhr\- 

' and turnip, . 1 let them Itean in t ho 



198 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

butter for 15 or 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the boiling 
water, and cook gently for i hour, then rub through a fine sieve. Have 
the milk boiling in the stewpan, put in the puree, with any liquor re- 
maining with it, and boil. Meanwhile cook the dice of turnip and car- 
rot separately in a little salt and water (allowing 25 minutes for the 
carrot, and 1 5 minutes for the turnip), and strain. Mix the flour smoothly 
with a little milk, add it to the soup, stir and cook for at least 5 minutes. 
Add the dice of carrot and turnip, cream and eggs if used, then season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. if to 2 hours. Average Cost, about is. without cream and 
eggs. Seasonable in Spring. Sufficient for 6 persons. 



134. TRUFFLE SOUP. (Fr Crime aux Truffes.) 

Ingredients. i quart of rich, white stock, i pint consomme, i glass 
sherry or Marsala, Ib. fresh truffles, 3 button onions, i carrot, bou- 
quet garni, i oz. butter, i oz. flour, salt, pepper, nutmeg, 2 yolks, 
gill cream. 

Method. Wash and brush the truffles, and cut them into slices ; 
put them in a basin, pour over a glass of sherry or Marsala wine, 
and cover. Peel and chop the button onions, fry them a golden 
brown in the butter, stir in the flour, then add the truffles, and 
moisten with a quart of rich veal stock. Bring it to the boil, whilst 
stirring, add a small bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay -leaf), and i 
sliced carrot, and cook slowly for 30 minutes. Strain the soup, pound 
the truffles in a mortar, and rub through a fine sieve. Put the truffle 
puree in a stewpan with a pint of consomme, boil for 10 minutes ; 
add the strained soup, and when boiling incorporate the egg-yolks 
mixed with the cream. Season to taste with salt, pepper and a grate 
of nutmeg. The soup is then ready for serving. 

Time. 40 minutes to i hour. Average Cost, 93. Sufficient for 6 per- 
sons. Seasonable in winter. 



135. TURNIP SOUP. (Fr. Puree de Navets.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock or water, i pint of milk, 
4 large turnips, 2 ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, nutmeg, salt, pepper and 
sugar. 

Method. Peel the turnips and cut them into thin slices. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, add the turnips and let them cook very gently for 
15 or 20 minutes, then put in the stock and simmer for 40 minutes or 
until the turnips are tender. Rub through a hair sieve, return to the 
saucepan, add the milk and boil up. Mix the flour smoothly with a 



RECIPES FOR PUREES 199 

little stock or milk, pour into the soup, stir and cook for 5 or 6 minutes, 
then add a good pinch of sugar, nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, and 
serve. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost. 8d. to 9d. without stock. 
Seasonable in Winter. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 

THE TURNIP (Fr. : Navel';. The Greeks and Romans cultivated the turnip for table use and for 
feeding cattle. Nothing is known of its introduction into England, but two varieties, one annual 
the other biennial, of the wild turnip are found in Britain. In the reign of Elizabeth boiled turnips 
was a favourite dish. The turnip is much esteemed as a culinary vegetable ; its nutritive properties 
however, are small, as water constitutes about 91 parts in too. The leaves and flower shoots of the 
turnip are often used as greens, and are called turnip tops. 

I3 6._VEGETABLE SOUP, GREEN. (Fr. Puree de 

Legumes Verts.) 
Ingredients. 2| pints of stock or water, % a pint of cream or milk, 

1 Ib. of spinach, of a pint of shelled peas, i onion (sliced), a little green 
mint, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), the yolks of 2 eggs, 

2 ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of rice-flour or ground-rice, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Wash and pick the spinach, put it into a saucepan with a 
little salt, adding a small piece of soda, if hard water is used ; cover with 
cold waier, bring to the boil, strain, and press as dry as possible. Melt 
the butter, put in the spinach, % & P mt of the peas, the onion, mint, 
herbs, and a little salt and pepper, put on the cover, and let the vege- 
table steam in the butter for at least 15 minutes, stirring frequently. 
Sprinkle in the rice-flour, mix it well with the vegetables, and then add 
the stock or water. Simmer for 35 or 40 minutes, rub through a fine 
hair sieve, and return to the saucepan. Bring to the boil, simmer for a 
few minutes, then let the soup cool slightly. Have the rest of the peas 
ready cooked, and add them to the soup. Beat the yolks of eggs with 
the cream (or milk), add it to the soup, and stir until it thickens, 
without boiling. Season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, is. lod. to 2S. with cream, not 
including the stock. Seasonable July to September, with tinned peas 
at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

137. VEGETABLE MARROW SOUP. (Fr. Puree 
de Courge.) 

Ingredients. 2 pints of white second stock or water, i pint of milk, 
i large vegetable marrow, i onion, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Mince the onion finely, cut the vegetable marrow into small 
pieces and remove the seeds. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan, put 
in the vegetables, put on the lid, and let the ingredients steam in the 
butter for 15 or 20 minutes. Add the milk and water, and cook gently 
for about 40 minutes, or until tender, then rub through a hair sieve. 



200 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Melt the remaining oz. of butter, stir in the flour smoothly, add the soup, 
and stir until it boils. Simmer for 5 minutes, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, 8d. to lod. without the stock. 
Seasonable from August to October. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

VEGETABLE MARROW (Fr. : Ctwrge). This is a species of gourd, belonging to the natural order 
Cucurbitaceae, which includes the gourds, melons, cucumbers, marrows, etc. It is cultivated as a 
culinary vegetable. The vegetable marrow contains a large percentage of water, it is not therefore 
very nutritious, but forms a useful adjunct to flesh foods. 

Fish Soups. 

138. BOUILLABAISSE. (A kind of Fish Stew.) 

Ingredients. i red mullet, i sole, i whiting, I small eel, i small lobster, 
6 mussels, i quart of fish stock, \ of a pint of salad oil, a gill (| of a 
pint) of claret, 3 small tomatoes, 2 small onions, i oz. of butter, a 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a clove of garlic, 2 cloves, 
a pinch of spinach, saffron, cayenne, salt and pepper, a croute of bread, 
parsley. 

Method. Slice the onions and fry them brown in the oil. Mix the 
saffron with a little water ; mince the garlic finely ; steam the mussels 
and remove them from the shells ; skin and fillet the sole, wash and 
cut the other fish into pieces convenient for serving. Pour away a 
little of the oil, add the Stock, claret, herbs, garlic, cloves, bouquet- 
garni, saffron, cayenne, salt and pepper, and bring nearly to boiling 
point ; then put in all the fish and cook slowly for 20 minutes. Mean- 
while trim the croute of bread to the size of the dish, fry golden- 
brown in hot oil or fat, then fix it firmly in the centre of a deep dish 
by means of white of egg. Cut the tomatoes ACROSS in halves, squeeze 
out a little of the juice, and fry them slightly in hot butter. Arrange 
the pieces of fish on and around the croute, garnish with the tomatoes 
and parsley, and serve very hot with some of the liquor, well skimmed 
and strained, poured round it. 

Time. Altogether, i hour. Average Cost, 45. to 53. Seasonable 
at any time. Sufficient for 10 or 12 persons. 

Note. Bouillabaisse can be made of fresh-water fish, but is not so deliHmi-. 
as when made with sea-fish. It is of southern origin, and ought to be a highly 
seasoned dish. This soup is well-known to all readers of Thackeray by n-;i <n 
of his ballad in which, when visiting Paris as an " old fogey " he recalls his 
remembrances of younger and more jovial days. 

This Bouillabaisse a noble dish is, 

A sort of soup, a broth, a brew, 
A hotch-potch of all sorts of fishes, 

That Greenwich never could outdo. 
Green herbs, red peppers, mussels, saffron, 

Soles, onions, garlic, roach and dace; 
All these you eat at Torre's tavern, 

In that one dish of Bouillabaisse. 

Thackeray's Ballad of Bouillabaisse. 



RECIPES FOR FISH SOUPS 201 

I 39 ._BOUILLABAISSE. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of fish stock, i Spanish onion, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of salad oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 ozs. of 
creme de riz (or rice-flour), i glass of white wine (if liked), salt and 
pepper, fillets of fried fish. 

Method. Slice the onion finely and fry until golden brown in the 
salad oil. Stir in the creme de riz, add the stock, and stir until it boils ; 
remove the scum as it rises, then cover, simmer gently for an hour, 
and rub through a tammy-cloth or fine hair sieve. Return to the sauce- 
pan, and bring nearly to boiling point. Beat the yolks of eggs, add 
to them the cream, strain into the soup, and stir by the side of the fire 
until the soup thickens slightly, but without boiling, or it may curdle. 
Add the wine, and season to taste. Have ready some SMALL fillets 
of sole, turbot, cod, or other white fish, fried in a little salad oil ; place 
them in the tureen and pour the soup over them. Serve with fried 
croutons, and cut lemon. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, From is. od. to 2S. per quart. 
Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. 



140. CRAYFISH SOUP. (Fr. Bisque d'Ecrevisses.) 

Ingredients. 20 to 30 crayfish, 2 Ixined anchovies, 4 ozs. of butter 
of rice, i French dinner roll, i small onion, 2 cloves, 2 quarts of 
fish stock, j of a pint of milk, about j of a pint of cream, i teaspoonful 
of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Remove the gut from the centre fin of the tail of each cray- 
fish. Shell the fish, and pound the shells, half the tails, and the an- 
chovies, in the mortar, with the butter. Place the pounded materials 

;e\\pan, stir until hot, then add the rice, previously \\ . 
and drained, the onion and cloves. Fry for about 15 minutes, then 
pour in the stock, bring to the boil, and simmer until the rice is tender. 
Meanwhile soak the crumb of the French roll in the milk until soft 
and add it to the soup. When the rice is sufficiently cooked rub the 
soup through a tammy-cloth or fine sieve, and return it to tho stew- 
pan. Ke-heat, season to taste; add the lemon-juice, cream, and the 
remainder of the crayfish tails. Serve with croutons of fried or toasted 
bread. 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, 35. Seasonable all the year. 
Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. 

THE CRAYFISH or CRAWFISH (Fr. : Ecrevisse), or river lobster, is a long-tailed, ten-footed crustacean 
ling thr lobster, and similar to it in its habits. It was considered a delicacy by the Greeks and 
. and was eaten by them seasoned with pepper and other condiments. Crayfish are t><->t pre- 
! i v,-bv keeping them in baskets with fr.-h ur.i-.-r pl.uit- su< \\ a- the nettle, or in a v. - 
tainins only a sii-ht depth of water. A- th< . r i\ti-h requires a quantity of air, the water should be 
I 



202 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

141. EEL BROTH. (Fr. Bouillon d'Anguille.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized onion, i oz. dripping or butter, i 
skinned eel, 3 pints stock or water, i tablespoonful of crushed tapioca 
or sago, salt, pepper, chopped parsley. 

Method. Peel and slice the onion, and fry it in hot fat till 
pale-brown, but not burnt. Cut up a skinned eel, put it into the pan 
containing the fried onion, add 3 pints of stock or water, boil, skim, 
and simmer gently for about i hour. 20 minutes before serving, 
strain, replace in the stewpan, sprinkle in the tapioca or sago, and 
season with salt and pepper. Serve with a little chopped parsley 
put in at the last moment. 

Time. i to ij hours. Average Cost, if made with stock, 2s. per 
quart. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable from September to May. 

142. EEL SOUP. (Fr. Soupe aux Anguilles.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of eels, i onion, 2 ozs. of butter, 3 blades of mace, 
i bunch of sweet herbs, an oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of flour, of a pint of cream, 2 quarts of water. 

Method. Wash the eels, cut them into small pieces, and put them in 
the stewpan with the butter ; let them simmer for a few minutes, then 
add the water, the onion cut in thin slices, the herbs, mace, and 
seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but unbroken. Dish 
carefully and keep hot. Mix the flour to a batter with a little water, 
stir it into the soup, and boil. Add the cream, pour over the eels and 
serve. 

Time. i hour, or rather more. Average Cost, 2S. Seasonable from 
June to March. Sufficient for 8 persons. 

143. HADDOCK SOUP. (Fr. Potagede Merluche.) 

Ingredients. i fresh haddock, 2 ozs. of butter or dripping, i oz. of 
flour, i pint of stock or water, i pint of milk, i onion, seasoning. 

Method. Wipe the fish, remove the fins and eyes, and cut it into 
pieces. Boil it in stock or water, and add the milk and onion (peeled 
and stuck with a clove). Melt the butter or dripping, stir in the flour, 
and cook for a few minutes without. browning. To this add by degrees 
the fish stock and fish, and let the preparation simmer for 30 minutes. 
Pass the soup through a sieve, return to the stewpan, season to taste 
with salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. Serve with fried bread croutons. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, is. Sufficient for 5 persons. 
Seasonable at all times. 

144. LOBSTER SOUP. (Fr. Bisque de Homard.) 

Ingredients. i large lobster, i quart of stock (preferably fish), | a 



RECIPES FOR FISH SOUPS 203 

pint of milk, 2 ozs. oi butter, i ozs. of flour, i carrot, |a turnip, i or 
2 strips of celery, 3 or 4 shallots, or i small onion, a bouquet-garni 
(parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, salt and 
pepper, small quenelles of whiting or other white fish. 

Method. Slice the vegetables and fry them in the butter until pale 
brown, then stir in the flour, add the stock, and stir until it boils. 
Remove the shell of the lobster, cut the meat from the claws into dice 
or cubes, and set it aside until wanted. Add the bouquet-garni, the 
rest of the lobster, and the pounded shell to the stock, simmer for an 
hour ; then take out the shell and rub the rest through a fine sieve. 
Return to the saucepan, add the milk, and when near boiling point 
put in the quenelles, anchovy-essence, and necessary seasoning. Place 
the dice of lobster in the tureen, and pour in the soup. 

Time. i hours. Average Cost, 2s. Qd. to 35. Seasonable from April 
to October. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

1 45. OYSTER SOUP. (Fr. Potage aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. knuckle of veal, i Ib. of plaice, 2 ozs. of butter, 
i ozs. of flour, | a pint of milk, a pint of cream, 1 8 oysters, i onion, 
i bay-leaf, i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, salt and pepper. 

Method. To i quart of cold water add the veal cut into small pieces, 
the onion and bay-leaf. Simmer gently for 3 hours, then strain, and 
when cold remove the fat. Fillet the plaice, remove the black skin, 
and simmer the fish in i quart of cold water for about i hour, or until 
it is reduced to shreds, then rub through a fine sieve. Simmer 
the beards of the oysters in a pint of the fish stock, add the liquor 
from the oysters, strain, and put aside. Mix together the veal and 
fish stock, and bring to boiling point. Melt the butter in a stewpan, 
stir in the flour, cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then pour in the hot stock 
and stir until it boils. Now add the milk, oyster liquor, anchovy-es- 
sence, and season to taste. If the oysters are large, cut them in 
halves, and put them into the boiling soup just before serving, but 
they must not be allowed to cook. Stir in the cream at the last 
moment. 

Time. 2 hours, after veal stock is made. Average Cost, 35. 6d. 
Seasonable from September to April. Sufficient for 10 persons. 

146. SKATE SOUP. (Fr. Potage de Raie.) 

Ingredients. i skate, weighing from H to 2 Ib., i onion sliced, i strip 
of celery in small pieces, i bay-leaf, 2 ozs. of vermicelli, 2 yolks of eggs, 
of a pint of cream, salt and pepper, 3 pints of water. 

Method. Clean the skate thoroughly, and let it hang at least a day, 
and in cold weather even longer. When ready to use, remove the skin, 



204 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

divide the flesh into fillets, which put aside. Put the bones and trim 1 - 
mings into a saucepan, add the water, onion, celery, bay-leaf, white 
pepper or peppercorns, and a little salt, and simmer gently for i hour. 
Strain, return the stock to the saucepan, bring to the boil, and add the 
fillets of fish. Continue to cook slowly for 10 minutes, then sprinkle 
in the vermicelli, and after 5 minutes further cooking, add the yolks of 
eggs and cream previously well beaten together. Stir and cook gently 
until the soup thickens slightly, then season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About i| hours. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 23, Sufficient for 6 
persons. Seasonable in winter. 

Miscellaneous. 

147. BAKED SOUP. (Fr. Potage cuit au four.) 

Ingredients. 2 quarts of cold water, i Ib. of lean beef or mutton, 
a pint of split peas, i tablespoonful of rice, i onion sliced, i carrot, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the rice and peas, put them into a stew-jar with the 
vegetables and the meat, cut into small pieces, season with salt and 
pepper, and add the water. Cover closely, cook in a rather slow oven 
for 3 or 4 hours, skim, and turn the whole into a soup tureen, and serve. 

Time. From 3 to 4 hours. Average Cost, about is. Sufficient for 
8 persons. Seasonable in winter. 

148. BAKED SOUP OR COTTAGE SOUP. 
(Fr. Potage Paysanne.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of lean beef, i onion sliced, i carrot sliced, of a 
turnip sliced, 2 tomatoes sliced, 2 or 3 strips of celery shredded, 2 ozs. 
of rice blanched, salt and pepper, 4 pints of cold water. 

Method. Cut the meat into small pieces, put it into a stewjar with 
the prepared vegetables, water, and a good seasoning of salt and 
pepper, cover closely, cook in a slow oven for 4 hours, adding the rice 
about i hour before serving. Turn the whole into a soup tureen, or 
serve in the pot in which it was cooked. 

Time. 4 hours. Average Cost, is. Sufficient for 4 persons* Seasonable 
at any time, especially in winter. 

149. BAKED SOUP OR COTTAGE SOUP. 

(Fr. Potage Paysanne.) Another Method. 

Ingredients. i Ib. of lean beef, i onion, i carrot, i turnip, a head of 
celery, 2 tomatoes, 2 ozs. of boiled rice, seasoning. 

Method. Cut the meat into dice-shaped pieces, peel the onion, carrot 
and turnip, clean the celery, and cut up each into slices or small pieces. 



fcECIPES FOR MISCELLANEOUS SOUPS 205 

Slice the tomatoes. Put all the ingredients, including the rice, in 
layers, into an earthenware soup-pot with 4 to 5 pints >i water. Season 
to taste, and cover the pan; when it boils, skim and place the pan with 
the lid on in the oven. Allow it to cook in the oven lor about 2 
hours, or longer. Serve the soup in the soup-pot in which it i^ cooked. 
Time. 3 hours. Average Cost, is. 2d. Sufficient lor 5-6 persons. 
Seasonable at all times. 

150. BENEVOLENT SOUP. 

Cheap soup, suitable for a soup kitchen. 

Ingredients. -J- an ox-cheek, 4 celery tops, 2 large carrots, 4 lar^e 
onions, 2 large turnips, i cabbage, salt and pepper, a bunch of herbs, 
10 quarts of cold water, i pints dried peas or lentils. 

Method. Bone the ox-cheek, cut up the meat into small ]: 
put all into a large boiler, add the cold water; when it comes to the 
boil skim, then throw in the vegetables, which have been cleaned and 
cut in quarters, the bunch of herbs, pepper and salt. Let these m^redi- 
c-iUs simmer gently for 4 hours. Add the cabbage an hour belore 
serving. If peas or lentils are used soak them over night, then cook 
them with the above ingredients. Season the soup again just before 
serving. 

Time. 6 or 7 hours. Average Cost, 2d. per pint. Seasonable at any 
time. 

151. BONE SOUP. 

Ingredients. 3 Ib. of bones, cooked or uncooked, 2 carrots, 2 onions, 
i turnip, i strip of celery, a bouquet r^ley, thyme, IMV Ir.it . 

u peppercorns, 2 cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of tine sa.n<, crushed t : 
semolina-, or Florador, 2 oz. of fat, salt, 5 pints of water. 

Method. Break tho bones into small pieces, and fry them in the hot 
fat until well browned. Put in the water and a dessertspoonful of salt , 
bring to the boil and skim well. Add the prepared \e;e tables (cut 
into thick slices), herbs, peppercorns, and cloves, and cook gently for 
about 5 hours, skimming occasionally. Strain, return to the saucepan, 
i to taste, and when the soup boils sprinkle in the sago, or what- 
ever farinaceous substance is used, simmer for i-> minutes longer to 
cook the sago, then serve. 

Time. About 6 hours. Cost, yd. to is. Seasonable at any time. 
Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. 

The stock lor this soup could be made the day before the soup is 

wanted, and the sago sprinkled in when re-heated. 

152. BRILLA SOUP. 

Ingredients. 3 quarts of cold water, 2^ Ib. of shin of beef, i onion, 



206 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

i carrot, of a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 
i tablespoonful of fine sago, salt and pepper. 

Method. Place the meat and water in an earthenware stewing- jar, 
add a little salt, cook gently on the stove, or in a moderate oven, for 
4 hours, then strain off the liquor. When cold, remove the fat from the 
surface, and boil up the stock. Meanwhile cut the vegetables into small 
dice, add them to the stock when boiling, put in the bouquet-garni, 
and simmer gently until the vegetables are tender. 10 minutes before 
serving sprinkle in the sago, and stir occasionally to prevent it sinking 
to the bottom of the pan. When ready, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. About \ an hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 
is. 6d. to is. 8d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

I 53 ._COW-HEEL SOUP. 

Ingredients. i cow-heel, 3 pints of water, i onion, i carrot, i strip of 
celery, i tablespoonful of sago or crushed tapioca, chopped parsley, 
lemon juice, salt, pepper, grated nutmeg. 

Method. Clean and scald one cow-heel, divide into 4 parts, and 
put them in a stewpan with the cold water. Add a good pinch of 
salt, boil up, skim, and add soup, vegetables (onion, carrot and celery). 
Let these simmer gently for 3 hours or longer, then strain and sea- 
son. Remove some of the meat from the bones and cut it into very 
small pieces ; put these with the broth, let it boil, and stir in a table- 
spoonful of sago or crushed tapioca. Boil for another 25 minutes, then 
serve, adding a little chopped parsley and lemon-juice just before 
sending it to table. This soup, when well made, is considered very 
delicious as well as nourishing. 

Time. 3 to 4 hours. Average Cost, is. 9d. Sufficient for 4 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

154. SOUR CHERRY SOUP. (Fr. Soupe aux 
Cerises.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of sour cooking cherries (stoned), 3 or 4 Invicbachs 
(rusks), 3 pints of water, 2 inches of cinnamon, lemon-rind, of a Ib. 
of loaf sugar, % of a pint of white or red wine, i oz. of butter, % an oz. of 
flour, a pinch of salt. 

Method. Put the stoned cherries in a stewpan. Break the cherry 
stones and remove the kernels, add them to the cherries, put in the 
water and the broken pieces of rusks, cinnamon and lemon rind. Cook 
slowly for 20 minutes, then rub all through a sieve. Melt the butter 
in another stewpan, add flour, and fry a chestnut-brown colour. 
Moisten with the wine and a little water. Add the cherry pulp, etc., 
sugar, and a small pinch of salt. Boil again, and serve hot or cold. 

Time. 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable in June and July. 



GRAVIES, SAUCES AND 
FORCEMEATS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

General observations on Gravies and Sauces, with 
directions in regard to the foundation or 
standard Sauces, See. 

Sauces and Gravies. Until the end of the eighteenth century cookery 
was a neglected art in England, and sauces were practically unknown. 
A celebrated Frenchman who lived in that age humorously described 
us as " a nation with one sauce." History has not recorded the name 
of that particular sauce ; but it could not have been the ancient sauce 
of the Romans, which tradition has handed down to us under the naim* 
of " Garum." This sauce is made from anchovy brine, and is largely 
used by the Turks in the preparation of their national dish, " Pilau," 
but the presence of the strong flavour of anchovy, however desirable 
in itself, would prevent its use in many dishes. Possibly " nu-lud 
butter " filled the double office of " sweet " and " savoury " ; and it 
would be difficult in the present day to find any individual who passes 
muster as a plain cook, whose knowledge of sauces is as restricted as 
that of the nation a hundred years ago. The unit must now be multi- 
plied by something like 650 to arrive at an approximate estimate 
of the sauces and gravies in use at the present day. 

Importance of Sauces. Brillat-Savarin, speaking of this branch of 
cookery, says : " One can learn to cook, and one can be taught to roast, 
but a good sauce-maker is a genius born, not made." Alexis Soyer, 
referring to this subject, writes : " Sauces are to cookery what 
grammar is to language " a most apt comparison, for grammars have 
been adapted in a hundred different ways to suit the genius of the lan- 
guages they dominate. And so with sauces ; they form an essential 
part of cookery, yet the innumerable variations of each class have 
to be skilfully adapted to the dishes with which they are amalgamated 
or served, in order to give some necessary flavouring or produce some 
desired effect. Every cook should endeavour to attain proficiency 
in this branch of cookery, a task by no means so difficult as the number 
of sauces would lead us to suppose, for, if the few which have for their 
ither oil. wine or fruit, are excluded, the remainder are simply 
tions of the two foundation sauces, white and brown. 

so? 



208 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Use of Sauces and Gravies. Each sauce must possess a distinct flavour 
and character of its own, and add either richness, piquancy, or flavour 
without losing its own identity ; but unless purposely employed to 
disgijise the absence of flavour in some insipid substance, they should 
never be allowed to overpower the natural flavour of dishes of game, 
poultry, meat, etc,, with which they are served. The excellence of many 
entrees depends almost entirely on the sauces which enter largely into their 
composition. Boiled fish would be insipid without an appropriately 
flavoured sauce. Some dishes of boiled meat, and many simple pud- 
dings are almost unpalatable without their customary sauces ; while a 
good gravy is indispensable with meat, poultry, and game. 

Difference between Sauces and Gravies. Gravy is simply the juices of 
meat, diluted and seasoned but not thickened, except the slightly- 
thickened brown gravy, which ought really to rank as a thin sauce. 

Sauce. Sauce has been defined as a LIQUID SEASONING, thickened by 
means of one of the following liaisons (or mixtures of yolk of eggs, 
cream, etc., used for thickening or binding white soups and sauces) : 

1. Roux white. 

2. fawn. 

3. ,, brown. 

4. Eggs and cream. 

5. Butter and cream. 

6. Blended butter and flour. 

7. Blood. 

8. Arrowroot, cornflour, Fecule. 

Roux. The literal translation of this word is " russet," but in a 
culinary sense it is a mixture of equal quantities of butter and flour 
cooked over a slow fire, or in a cool oven, until the desired colour is 
acquired. There are three varieties of roux : white, fawn, and brown ; 
and this form of thickening is generally employed in making good sauces. 
It may be made in small quantities as required, or in larger quantities, 
which, if closely covered, will keep good for months. When roux is 
made for immediate use it should be allowed to cool slightly before 
adding the liquid to it. When using perfectly cold roux, the liquid 
should bo added to it more gradually : in both cases the sauce must be 
constantly stirred until it boils, and then allowed to simmer until it At- 
tains the required consistency. A heapcd-up tablespoonful of roux 
will thicken I pint of liquid. Directions for the preparation of the re- 
spective liaisons (sauce thickenings) will be found in the following p; 

THE BASES OR FOUNDATIONS OF SAUCES. 

The following liquids form the bases of most of the sauces : 

i. White Stock. Nearly all the good white savoury sauces have 
for their foundation white stock and milk, used in varying proper tim 



GRAVIES, SAUCES AND FORCEMEATS 209 

2. Brown Stock. All good brown savoury sauces are made from stock, 
more or less rich according to the purpose for which they are intended. 

3. Fish Stock. Fish sauces usually have for their foundation about 
equal quantities of fish stock and milk. 

4. Milk. Milk forms the basis of nearly all the plain white sauces, 
both sweet and savoury, also of bread sauce. 

5. Water. Strictly speaking, all melted butter sauces should be 
made only with water ; a little of the broth in which fish or meat has been 
boiled is admissible, and is also an improvement to caper sauce ; but 
when milk is added to the broth, as is frequently the case, to improve 
the colour, the foundation becomes white sauce, not melted butter 

6. Oil, Mayonnaise sauce, and others of a similar character known 
as salad sauce, are composed almost entirely of oil as their basis 

7. Fruit. Apple, cranberry, gooseberry, etc. 

VARIETIES OF SAUCES. 

Sauces may be broadly divided into two classes, white and brown ; 
each class being further subdivided into sauces made by a long, slow 
process, and quickly-made sauces. 

FOUNDATION OF STANDARD SAUCES. 

(a) White. Bechamel forms the foundation of all t he good white samvs , 
it is made by the slow process, which extracts the full flavour ot the 
substances employed. 

(b) Plain White Sauce. Nearly all the white sauces employed in 
middle-class cookery have for their foundation a plain white sauce 
made by the quick process. Their flavour depends mainly on the sub- 
stances added to them, such as parsley, celery, chocolate, vanilla, 
orange-essence, etc. 

(a) Brown. Espagnole. This sauce and the B6chamel have been aptly 
described as " Adam " and " Eve." France adds to them the Yeloutee 
and Allcmande, and calls the group the " sauces meres," or " mother 
sauces." The Espagnole forms the basis of all good brown sauces, 
and these, like the white sauces, derive their distinctive names from 
the substances added to the foundation sauce. The rich exquisite 
characteristic flavour of Espagnole sauce is due partly to the lean bacon 
or ham which forms an indispensable part of it, and partly to the long, 
slow frying process to which the flour and other ingredients are sub- 
jected. 

(b) Plain Brown Sauces. These sauces are always less quickly made 
than the plain white sauces, for no matter how simple they may be. 



210 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

the flour must be fried brown before adding the liquid. A little caramel 
may be introduced to IMPROVE the colour, but it imparts nothing to 
the flavour, whereas frying develops the full flavour of both the flour 
and vegetables used in making brown sauces. 



STOCK FOR GRAVY. 

Gravy, pure and simple, is usually described as " the juices of the 
meat " ; and it has been said that good gravy is an evidence of bad 
roasting or baking. But experience teaches us that the best gravy 
accompanies a joint which has been roasted before an open fire and well 
basted during the process, as is the custom in the north of England. Not- 
withstanding the argument that if the juices of the meat are in the gravy 
the joint must suffer, the north-country meat, when cut, is found to be full 
of gravy. Long before science had discovered the coagulating pro- 
perties of albumin, it was the custom to put plenty of dripping into 
the tin before the fire, and as soon as it was hot the joint was hung on 
the " jack " and well basted. Without knowing the " why and where- 
fore," the most ignorant housewife would have explained that this 
method KEPT THE GRAVY IN. As the meat cooked before the clear 
bright fire it became crisp and brown ; and each time it was basted 
some of the brown particles on the surface of the joint were carried 
down into the dripping and settled on the bottom of the tin, to be 
afterwards converted into gravy. From the above facts, we draw the 
conclusion that a browned surface and frequent basting produce good 
gravy. Meat baked in the oven has not quite the same flavour and 
nourishment as when roasted, but a juicy joint and good gravy are 
possibilities under the following conditions : the joint must be well 
basted with melted dripping or other fat before being put into the oven ; 
the oven must be kept fairly hot until the meat is well browned all over ; 
in the later stages of cooking the oven door should not be entirely 
closed, for meat cannot become crisp and brown in an oven full of 
steam ; the joint must be frequently basted. Gravy in its most simple 
form is made by adding boiling water to the sediment which remains 
in the meat tin when the fat has been carefully poured off. It should 
be seasoned to taste, boiled up, stirring meanwhile to loosen the brown 
particles which adhere to the sides of the tin, well skimmed, and 
strained over or round the meat. Any bones that have been removed 
from the meat may be boiled to form the basis of the gravy, but 
nothing else must be introduced. Beef gravy must contain only salt 
and pepper ; and mutton gravy the same ingredients, and a few 
drops of caramel when the gravy is very light in colour. Veal gravy, 
also, should be made from the bones, and after being mixed with that 
in the meat tin, should be slightly thickened with flour and butter 
kneaded together, or flour mixed smoothly with a little water. 
Gravies served with game, roast rabbit?, etc., may be made frorn. beef, 



I 



GRAVIES, SAUCES AND FORCEMEATS 211 

beef or game bones, or from stock. Clear stock must be used for clear 
gravies, but with this exception, any good second stock will serve. 
An economical cook will always contrive to provide the basis of 
gravies, sauces, and soups out of the bones and trimmings of poultry 
and meat, except, of course, the clear soups and gravies, which must 
have a good clear stock for their foundation. 

STOCK FOR SAUCES. 

Bechamel, Veloutee, Allemande, and sauces of a similar character, 
must have for their foundation white stock made from chicken or veal, 
or the bones and trimmings of the same. The stock for Espagnole 
sauce, and those sauces of which it forms the basis, may be made from 
any kind of meat, trimmings, bones, livers, and gizzards of game and 
poultry ; it must be rich, of good colour, but not necessarily very clear. 
The second stock (No. 7,) well reduced, would be suitable for this 
purpose. 

\!c. If the stock is poor it can be enriched by the addition of a small quantity of 
"Lemco" Meat Extract. 

CONSISTENCY OF SAUCES. 

The consistency of a sauce varies according to its use. For a coating 
sauce, that is, a sauce thick enough to mask a chicken, cutlets, etc., over 
which it is poured, the proportions are i ozs. of flour to i pint of liquid, 
when made by the slow process, during which the sauce becomes con- 
siderably reduced, but when made by the quick process nearly 2 ozs. 
of flour must be allowed to i pint of liquid. Sauces to be served 
separately in a sauceboat or poured round the base of a dish, should be 
made a little thinner, but it is always better to err on the side of over- 
thickening, it being much easier to reduce the consistency by adding a 
little more stock or milk, than to increase the consistency by reducing the 
quantity. The latter can only be done by boiling the liquid rapidly in 
an uncovered pan, which is not always convenient at the time of 
serving dinner. Reducing by rapid boiling is a method which may be 
usefully employed in dealing with stock too poor to make a suitable 
foundation for a good soup or sauce. As the stock is reduced by 
evaporation, its flavour and richness become concentrated, and if 
frequently skimmed it gains considerably in brightness and colour. 

TIME REQUIRED FOR COOKING. 

Sauces made by the slow process are allowed to simmer for 2 
or 3 hours, or until all the unabsorbed fat conies to the surface. 
Frequent stirring is necessary, also occasional skimming to remove 
the fat as it rises. The ordinary, or quickly-made sauces, should not 
have the liquid added until the flour and butter have been cooked 
together for 3 or 4 minutes, or, when flour kneaded with butter 
is used, or flour moistened with milk or stock is used, the liquid 
to which they are added should be allowed to simmer for at least 



2i2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

5 minutes after coming to the boil, otherwise the sauce has an un- 
pleasant taste of raw flour. 

Sometimes sauces made by the long process are over-cooked and 
become oily. In this case a little cold stock, milk or water, can be 
added, and the sauce stirred until it boils, when it will again become 
smooth, but it must then immediately be removed from the fire. 

PREPARATIONS OF INGREDIENTS. 

To avoid repetition, the vegetables used in the following recipes 
are spoken of as " prepared," meaning that the carrots have been 
scraped, the turnips peeled, and the onions peeled. 

A bouquet-garni consists of a sprig or two of parsley, a bay-leaf, a 
sprig of thyme, a sprig of marjoram, a sprig of basil, and a blade of 
mace, all tied together in a little bouquet. Any of these herbs may 
be omitted and others substituted, according to taste. 

As regards the quantities given in the recipes, they have been kept 
as uniform as possible ; and in most cases provide sufficient sauce to 
fill a sauce-tureen, or for pouring round an entree or pudding. 

THICKENINGS FOR SAUCES. 

White Roux. In making white roux, equal quantities of butter and 
flour are stirred in a stewpan over a slow fire for 10 or 15 minutes, 
but without allowing the roux to take any colour. If for immediate 
use, the roux must cool slightly before adding the liquid. 

Fawn Roux. For fawn or blonde roux, take equal quantities of 
butter and flour, and cook slowly over the fire or in a cool oven until 
the mixture acquires a pale fawn colour. 

Brown Roux. This third variety is usually called " stock roux," 
because where roux is being constantly used a large quantity of it is 
made and kept in stock. The proportion of butter and flour are the 
same as for white and fawn roux. The nut-brown colour is obtained 
by a long, slow process of frying or roasting, during which much of the 
flavour characteristic of well-made brown sauce is developed. 

Egg Liaison. This thickening is composed of yolks of eggs beaten up 
with a small quantity of cream, milk, or white stock. The sauce to 
which this liaison (or thickening) is added must require no further 
cooking. One to two tablespoonfuls of hot sauce should be mixed 
with the eggs and cream, and the whole then strained into the sauce, 
which should be just below boiling point. To remove the raw taste 
of the eggs, it is necessary to cook and stir the sauce by the side of the 
fire for a few minutes, but it must not be allowed to boil, or the eggs 
may curdle. 

Butter and Cream Liaison. When butter and cream are employed for 



GRAVIES, SAUCES AM) FORCEMEATS 213 

thickening, they are added in equal proportions to the sauce ji/sr 
i.LiokE SKKVING : re-heating would spoil the flavour of the sauce. 

Kneaded Butter Liaison. This form of liaison is exceedingly useful 
when no roux is at hand, and a little additional thickein aired. 

Butter will absorb about its own weight in flour, and the two are 
knead?d together on a plate until all the flour is absorbed, or, in other 
words, thoroughly moistened by the butter. This liaison should be 
added to the sauce in small portions and stirred until it is smoothly 
mixed with it. 

Blood Liaison. This liaison is used principally to thicken sauces for 
game and poultry entrees. The blood of poultry or game should be 
mixed with a little vinegar, to prevent coagulation. It should be 
strained and added gradually to the sauce a few minutes before 
serving. 

Arrowroot, Cornflour, Fecule Liaison. Before adding any of these 
substances to the sauce, they must be smoothly mixed with a little cold 
stock, milk, or water. The liaison is stirred into the boiling sauce, 
and simmered for not less than 2 minutes to cook the starch. 






RECIPES FOR 

GRAVIES, SAUCES AND 

FORCEMEATS. 

CHAPTER X. 

Auxiliaries for Sauces, Compound Butters, Gravies, etc., 
White Sauces (hot and cold) and Salad Dress- 
ings, Brown, Fish, Fruit, Sweet and Miscellaneous 
Sauces, Forcemeats, etc. 

Auxiliaries for Sauces. 

I55.CARAMEL FOR COLOURING SAUCES. 

Ingredients. i Ib. of castor or moist sugar, 3 gills of water. 

Method. Put the sugar and a good tablespoonf ul of water into an 
untinned stewpan, and stir over the fire until it becom.es dark-brown. 
Boil it, add the rest of the water to the sugar, stir until it boils, simmer 
until the caramel acquires the consistency of syrup, and, when cold, 
bottle for use. It may be used for sweet or savoury sauces. 

Time. About 40 minutes. 

156. CARAMEL FOR COLOURING SAUCES. 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of sugar, 2 tablespoonf uls of salt, of a pint of 
boiling water. 

Method. Put the salt and sugar into an iron saucepan or frying pan, 
and stir and cook until dark-brown, add the water, boil well, and, when 
cold, bottle for use. 

Time. About 30 minutes. 

157 CHILI VINEGAR. 

Ingredients. 50 fresh red English chilies, i pint of vinegar. 

Method. Pound the chilies or cut them in half, and infuse them in 
the vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be 
found an agreeable relish to fish, as many people prefer to eat it with 
the addition of an acid and cayenne pepper. 

214 






RECIPES FOR COMPOUND BUTTERS 215 

Compound Butters. 

Chiefly used for the enrichment of sauces. 

I5 8._ CRAYFISH OR SHRIMP BUTTER. (Fr.- 
Beurre d'Ecrevisses.) 

Method. Pound a pint of picked shrimps or prawns in a mortar 
till smooth, add 3 ozs. of fresh butter, an oz. of anchovy paste ; mix 
thoroughly, and rub through a fine sieve. Keep on the ice till wanted. 
A. little liquid carmine or cochineal may be added to improve colour, 
if found necessary. 

159. DEVILLED BUTTER. (Fr Beurre a la Diable.) 

Method. Mix i oz. of butter with white pepper, cayenne, and curry- 
paste, about a saltspoonful of each, and blend thoroughly with a few 
irops of lemon- juice. 

1 60. LOBSTER BUTTER. (Fr. Beurre de Homard.) 

Method. Procure the eggs (spawn) and coral of a lobster, pound 
ill smooth in a mortar with double its weight of fresh butter, rub 
hrough a fine sieve, and keep in a cool place till required. 

c 6 1 . MONTPELLIER BUTTER. (Fr . Beurre Mont- 
pellier.) 

Ingredients. 2 ozs. each of parsley, chervil, tarragon, chives and cress ; 
: anchovies, 9 yolks of hard-boiled eggs, 3 ozs. of butter, i teaspoonful 
>f capers, i gherkin. 

Method. Wash and pick the parsley, cress and herbs, blanch for 
; minutes, strain and cool. Dry well in a cloth, and pound in a 
nortar. Wipe and bone the anchovies, pound them in a mortar with 
he egg-yolks, capers, and gherkins until smooth, then add the butter 
,nd lastly the green puree. Pass through a wire sieve, and use as 
equired. A little spinach may be added if the herbs should not colour 
he butter sufficiently. 

:62. RAVIGOTE OR GREEN BUTTER. (Fr. 
Beurre Ravigote.) 

Ingredients. 1 ozs. of chervil, 2 ozs. of spinach, i ozs. of green 
hives, i oz. of tarragon, an oz. of parsley, 3 shallots, 6 ozs. of butter, 
alt and pepper. 

Method. Put the chervil, spinach, chives, tarragon and parsley into 
. saucepan with waier, blanch and drain well, then pound these ingredi- 
nts in a mortar. Peel and chop the shallots finely, cook them in a 
it tie butter until golden-brown, and mix them with the herbs. When 



2i6 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

cold, work in the remainder of the butter, pass through a fine sieve, 
and add a little pepper and salt and spinach-greening, if necessary. 
Time. 30 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

SPINACH (Fr. Epinards) is cultivated for its young leaves, which ^re prepared for the table by 
boiling or frying. Two principal varieties of spinach are cultivated, prickly spinach with triangular 
and arrow-shaped leaves ; and smooth spinach, the leaves of which are round and blunt. Flanders 
spinach is also grown for the market. It is a wholesome vegetable, and one of its constituents 
being iron, spinach is beneficial to persons who suffer from anaemia. 

Gravies. 

163. BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, Etc. 

Ingredients. i pint of cold water, a lb. of lean beef, i small onion, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the beef into small pieces, put it with the onion and 
the water into a stewpan, or earthenware stewjar, and cook slowly for 
3 or 4 hours. Strain, season, and use as required. 

Time. 3 to 4 hours. Average Cost, 6d. Quantity, about f pint. 

164. BROWN GRAVY. (Fr. Jus brun.) 

Ingredients. i quart of water, i lb. of neck or shin of beef, i oz. of 
butter, i oz. of sweet dripping, 4- oz. of flour, i medium-sized onion, 
i small slice of lean bacon, or a few trimmings of lean ham or bacon, 
salt and pepper, i clove, if liked. 

Method. Cut the meat and bacon into small pieces, slice the onion. 
Melt the dripping in a stewpan, put in the meat, bacon, and onion, and 
fry till brown. Add the water, salt and pepper, and clove, cook slowly 
for 3 or 4 hours, and strain. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the 
flour, and cook for 5 minutes. Add the gravy, stir until it boils, 
skim, simmer for 10 minutes, and use as required. 

Time. 3^ to 4^ hours. Average Cost, about lod. Quantity, i pint. 

CLOVES (Fr. Clou de girofle). An ^.eeable pungent aromatic spice, obtained from the dried flower 
buds of the Caryophyllus aromaticus, a handsome branching tree with, purplish flowers, allied to the 
myrtle. The name is derived from the Latin, clavus, and French, clou, " a nail," to which the clove 
is supposed to bear a resemblance. The clove is a native of the Molucca Islands, but is successfully 
cultivated in Jamaica, Sumatra, Mauritius, Cayenne, Malacca, Trinidad, and other places. The 
Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to be the best, and is obtained from the island of that name, colonized 
by the Dutch. The clove contains about 20 per cent, of volatile oil, which abounds in every part of 
the plant, occasioning its peculiar pungent flavour ; the rest is composed of woody fibre, water, 
gum, and resin. Cloves are used medicinally, but are chiefly employed for culinary purposes. 

165. BROWN GRAVY FOR ROAST RABBIT. 

(Economical.) 

Ingredients. i pint of water, i oz. of beef dripping, i oz. of butter, 
\ an oz. of flour, the liver of the rabbit, i medium-sized onion, a 
carrot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper. 









RECIPES FOR GRAVIES 217 

Method. Slice the vegetables, cut the liver into small pieces. M- It 
the dripping in a stcwpan, fry the vegetables and liver to a nice brown, 
then add the water, bouquet-garni, salt and pepper, and cook slowly 
for i hour. Strain and return to the saucepan, knead the flour and 
buttwr well together on a plate, add it, in small portions, to the gravy, 
si ir and cook for ten minutes. Season to taste, add a few drops of 
caramel to improve the colour, and serve. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, 2M. Ouantity, about ] pint. 

166. GRAVY (Quickly made). (Fr. Jus de Viande.) 

Ingredients. J of a pint of water, V a Ib. of shin of beef, an oz. of 
butter, | an onion, of a carrot, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat and vegetables into small pieces and fry 
them brown in the butter. Add the water, salt and pepper, and simmer 
for ! an hour. Strain, season, and serve. The meat and vegetables 
should afterwards be put into the stock-pot, or with more water 
added to them may be cooked until all their goodness is extracted. 

Time. From 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, about 5d. (Juantity, 
about | a pint. 

167. GRAVY FOR GAME. (Fr. Jus de Gibier.) 

Ingredients. -Hones and trimmings of game, sufficient cold water to 
cover them, a bay-leaf, I clove, 6 peppercorns, a sprig of thyme, a 
small piece of onion, i oz of butter (or less if making a small quant it y\ 

Method. Cut up the trimmings and break the bones into small 
. Melt the butter, add the bones and meat, and the rest of the 
ingredients, cover with water, simmer for 3 hours, then strain, & 
and use as required. 

Time. 3|- hours. Average Cost, Hd. without the bones and trim- 
mings. 

168. GRAVY FOR HASHES, Etc. 

Ingredients. Bones and trimmings of the joint to be hashed, sufficient 
water to cover the bones, I small onion, i strip ot celery, 
cairot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and p. 

ire the gravy when made, and to each i pint allow oz. of butter, 
and a dessertspoonful of flour. 

Method. Break the bones into small pieces and slice t 
Put them into a saucepan, add the trimmings of th- water, 

bouquet-garni, salt and pepper, simmer for 2 hours, then strain. 
Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and fry brown. Put in the 
gravy, stir until it boils, season to taste, and use as required. A little 
ketchup, Harvey, or other sauce may be added if liked. 

Time. About 2\ hours. Average Cost, i^d. per pint, exclusive of 
bones and trimmings. 



2i8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

169. GRAVY FOR ROAST FOWL. (Economical.) 

Ingredients. The necks, feet, livers and gizzards of the fowls, sufficient 
water to cover them, a slice of bacon, or the trimmings of ham or bacon, 
i very small onion, a bouquet garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Wash the gizzards, livers and necks, scald and skin the 
feet, cut the whole into small pieces. Place them all together in a stew- 
pan, add the bacon, cut small, bouquet-garni, onion and seasoning, 
cover with water, and cook gently for 2 hours. Strain, and season to 
taste. When the fowls are roasted, strain off the fat, pour the gravy 
into the tin, mix well with the gravy from the fowls, boil, and serve. 

Time. From 2| to 3 hours. Average Cost, id. 

170. GRAVY FOR ROAST HARE, Etc. 

Ingredients. i quart of water, \ a Ib. of skirt of beef, \ a Ib. of milt 
(ox spleen), i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i onion, 2 cloves, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Cut the meat and milt into small pieces, put them into a 
stewpan, or earthenware stewjar, add the water, onion, cloves, salt 
and pepper, and cook gently for 3 or 4 hours, then strain. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour and brown it, add the gravy, 
stir until it boils, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 4 to 5 hours. Average Cost, about 6d. Quantity, about i pint. 

171. GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT. 

Ingredients. \ an onion, i small carrot, oz of dripping, a pint 
of water, i teaspoonful of Marmite, Odin, or any other kind of vege- 
table extract. 

Method. Cut up the onion and carrot into slices; fry both in the 
dripping. When nicely browned add the water, and Marmite or Odin 
extract. Boil up, season with salt and pepper, and cook for 10 minutes. 
Skim well and strain. 

Time. 25 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. Quantity, a pint. 

I7 2._ JUGGED GRAVY. (Excellent.) 

Ingredients. 3 pints of water, 2 Ib. of shin of beef, Ib. of lean 
ham, i small carrot, i strip of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf), a blade of mace, 6 peppercorns, i clove, salt. 

Method. Cut the ham and beef into small pieces, and slice the vege- 
tables. Put them into a stewing jar in alternate layers, sprinkle each layer 
with salt, add the peppercorns, mace, bouquet-garni, and water, cover 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 219 

closely, and tie 3 or 4 folds of well-greased paper on the top to keep 
in the steam. Place the jar in a rather cool oven, and cook gently for 
6 hours, then strain, and when cold remove the fat. Re-heat, and serve 
with any dish that requires good gravy. 

Time. About 6 hours. Average Cost, is. 6d. to is. 8d. Quantity, 
about i quart. 

173. VENISON GRAVY. 

Ingredients. i small jar of red-currant jelly, i glass of port. 
Method. Heat the above ingredients in a stewpan to near boiling 
point, and serve separately in a tureen. 

Time. 5 minutes. Average Cost, lod. Quantity, less than a pint. 



White Sauces (hot and cold) 
and Salad Dressings. 

174. ALLEMANDE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Allemande.) 
(For Meat and Fish.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of white stock, i ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, 
the yolks of 2 eggs, i tablespoonful of cream, i teaspoonful of lemon- 
juice, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt i oz. of butter in a saucepan, add the flour, stir and 
cook for a few minutes without browning, then put in the stock and 
bring to the boil, stirring meanwhile. Let it simmer gently for ^ an 
hour, take it off the stove, add the yolks of the eggs and cream pre- 
viously mixed together, a pinch of nutmeg, and season to taste. 
Continue lo stir and cook slowly without boiling for a few minutes 
longer, then add the lemon-juice, and the remainder of the butter 
bit by bit, s irring the ingredients well between each addition. Pass 
through a fine strainer or tammy cloth, re-heat, and use. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, is. 3d. Quantity, i pint. 

175. ASPARAGUS SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Asperges.) 

Ingredients. 25 green asparagus, a pint of white sauce (see page 
221), of an oz. of butter, | a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, spinach or a 
little spinach -greening, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut off the green ends of the asparagus, boil them in salt 
and water for 10 minutes, and drain well. Melt the butter in a sauce- 



220 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

pan, fry the asparagus for 8 minutes, add the sauce, and a sea- 
soning of salt and pepper and a little spinach greening if a deep tint 
is desired. Simmer gently for 15 minutes, then pass through a fine 
strainer or tammy cloth; re-heat, add the lemon-juice, and use as required. 
Time. From 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. Quan- 
tity, $ a pint. 

176. BEARNAISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Bearnaise.) 

Ingredients. 2 shallots, peeled and chopped finely, a few fresh tarragon 
leaves, I gill of French wine vinegar, 3 yolks of eggs, \ a teaspoonful of 
Mignonette pepper, a little salt, \ a gill of Bechamel sauce, 3 ozs. of 
butter, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and tarragon leaves. 

Method. Put the vinegar, shallots, and whole tarragon leaves in a 
stewpan, cover it, and let the liquor reduce to about one-eighth of the 
original quantity. Remove from the fire, cool a little, add the sauce 
and re-heat, then stir in the yolks of the eggs, and season with salt and 
Mignonette pepper. Whisk the whole over the fire, and incorporate 
the butter by degrees. This sauce must on no account be allowed to 
boil when once the eggs are added. Pass it through a tammy-cloth. 
Return to another stewpan, and whisk again over hot water or in a 
bain-marie. Add the chopped parsley and a few chopped tarragon 
leaves, and serve as directed. 

Time. 35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, lod. Quantity, \ a pint. 

177. BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE. 
(Fr. Sauce Bechamel.) 

Ingredients. 14- ozs. of flour, 2 ozs. of butter (or of corresponding 
quantity of white roux), i pints of milk (or white stock), I small onion 
or shallot, i small bouquet-garni (parsley,thyme, bay-leaf), 10 pepper- 
corns, a bay-leaf, i small blade of mace, seasoning. 

Method. Put the milk on to boil with the onion or shallot, the 
bouquet-garni, peppercorns, mace, and bay-leaf. Melt the butter, 
stir in the flour, and cook a little without browning, stir in the hot milk, 
etc., whisk over the fire until it boils, and let it simmer from 15 to 20 
minutes. Strain and pass through a sieve or tammy-cloth, return to 
the stewpan, season lightly with a pinch of nutmeg, % a pinch of 
cayenne, and a teaspoonful of salt. The sauce is then ready for use. 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, /d. with milk. Sufficient for 
i boiled fowl. 

MACE (Fr. fleur de muscadc). The dried aril or fleshy net-like membrane which surrounds the shell 
of the nutmeg, which when ripe is of a bright scarlet colour. Its general properties are the same as 
those of the nutmeg, and it possesses an extremely aromatic and fragrant odour, and a hot and acrid 
taste. Mace is prepared by separating it from the nut when gathered, and curing it by pressure and 
exposure to the sun. It is largely used as a condiment. 






WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 221 

178. BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE. 
(Fr. Sauce Bechamel.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 1 ozs. of flour, 2 ozs. of butter, i pints of equal parts 
of milk and white stock, i small onion or shallot, i boiiquet-garn 
(parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, % a bay-leaf, i small 
blade of mace, seasoning. 

Method. Put the milk and stock in the saucepan with the vegetables 
and seasoning, and let it come to the boil. Melt the butter in another 
saucepan, add the flour and cook it, without browning, pour in the hot 
milk, whisk until it boils, and simmer for about 20 minutes. Strain the 
sauce through a tammy-cloth, or fine strainer, warm up, and use as 
required. 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, Sd. per pint. Sufficient for 2 
boiled fowls. 

179. BECHAMEL SAUCE WITHOUT STOCK. (Fr.- 
Sauce Bechamel maigre.) 

Ingredients. i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i pint of milk, i small 
onion stuck with a clove, a few parsley leaves tied in a bunch, a bay- 
leaf, i small blade of mace, seasoning. 

Mode. Boil the milk with the vegetable and seasoning for -J- an 
hour. Molt the butter in another saucepan, stir in the flour, and cook 
for a fe-w minutes without allowing it to brown, add the milk gra- 
dually, stir until it boils, simmer for about jo niinutrs. Sir.iin the 
- required, adding seasoning to ta- 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. per pint. Sufficient for 
one boiled fowl, about one pint. 

180. BREAD SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Pain.) 

Ingredients. a pint of milk, i table-spoonful of cream, 2 ozs. of 
freshly made breadcrumbs. | of an oz. of butter, i very small j 
ou ion, i clove, salt and pepper. 

Method. Put the milk and onion, with the clove sturk in it, into a 
small saneepan and bring to the l>oil. Add the l>read< niml.s, and 
simmer gently for 20 minutes, then remove the onion, add salt and 
pepper to taste, stir in the butter and cream, and serve. 

Time. 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, about ^d. Quantity, a pint. 

.The cream may be omitted, and, if preferred, a little more butter- 
riddel. Flavouring is simply a matter of taste (when cloves are not liked, 
mace or nutine" n av be substituted). 



222 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

1 8 1. BLONDE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Blonde.) 

Ingredients. |- of a pint of white stock (either meat or fish), | a pint 
of milk, i tablespoonful of cream, 2 yolks of eggs, i teaspoonful of 
lemon- juice, i oz. of butter, f- of an oz. of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter, add the flour and cook for a few minutes 
without browning. Add the stock and milk, stir until boiling, then simmer 
gently for 15 minutes, stirring frequently. Whisk the yolks of the 
eggs and cream well together, and add them to the sauce when not quite 
boiling. Season to taste, add the lemon- juice, and whisk the mixture 
by the side of the fire until the sauce thickens slightly, but do not allow 
it to boil. Strain and use with fish or meat, according to the stock 
forming the base. 

Time. From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 6d., in addition to the 
stock. 

182. CAPER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Capres.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of melted butter (see page 228) i tablespoonful of 
capers, either cut in two or coarsely chopped, i dessertspoonful of 
vinegar from the capers, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the melted butter as directed, add to it the capers, 
vinegar and seasoning, and use. 

Time. Altogether, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. 
Quantity % pint. 

Note. If for serving with boiled mutton, make the melted butter sauce 
with the liquor in which the meat was boiled, instead of plain water. 



CAPERS (Fr.: Cdpres). The name given to the unopened flower-buds of a low trailing shrub which 
grows wild among the crevices of the rocks of Greece and in Northern Africa, and is cultivated in the 
South of Europe. It was introduced into Britain as early as 1586. After being pickled in vinegar 
and salt, they are imported from Sicily, Italy, and the south of France, and are used as a table-sauce 
chiefly with boiled mutton. The flower-buds of the nasturtium are frequently pickled and used as a 
substitute for the genuine article. 



183. CAPER SAUCE, SUBSTITUTE FOR. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of melted butter (see Sauces) 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cut parsley, i tablespoonful of vinegar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Choose dark-coloured parsley, or boil it slowly in order to 
destroy some of its colour, and then cut it into small pieces, but do not 
chop it. Have the melted butter ready made, according to directions 
given, add to it the parsley, vinegar, salt and pepper to taste. 
Serve as a substitute for caper sauce. 

Average Cost. 2d. or 3d. 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 223 

184. CELERY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Celeri.) 
(For Boiled Turkey and Fowls.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of whit ; stock, \ a pint of milk, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of cream, \\ ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, 2 sticks of celery 
(white part only), a blade of mace, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the celery, cut it into short pieces, cover with cold 
water, bring to the boil, and strain. Put the stock and mace into a 
stewpan, add the celery, simmer until tender (45 to 60 minutes), 
then rub through a fine hair sieve. Melt the butter in the stewpan, 
stir in the flour, cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then add the milk, and celery 
puree, and stir until it boils. Add seasoning to taste, stir in the 
cream and use as required. 

Average Cost. is. per pint. Sufficient for a boiled turkey or two 
fowls. 



185. CELERY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Celeri.) 
(A more simple Recipe.) 

Ingredients. f- of a pint of melted butter (see page 228) i head of 
celery (the white part only), salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the celery and chop it coarsely. Put it into a stew- 
pan with barely sufficient water to cover it, and simmer for an hour. 
Stir occasionally as the water evaporates and the celery becomes rather 
dry. Add the melted butter, stir until it boils, season to taste, and 
serve. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, 5d. Sufficient for a boiled turkey. 



186. CHAUD-FROID SAUCE (WHITE). 

(Fr. Sauce Chaud-Froid Blanche.) (Cold 
Sauce for masking Chicken, Cutlets, etc.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Bechamel sauce, of a pint of aspic jelly, 
of a pint of cream, 5 or 6 sheets of French gelatine, i teaspoonful 
of chilli vinegar or lemon-juice. 

Method. Dissolve the gelatine in the aspic jelly, and mix with the 
hot sauce. Stir over the fire until it boils, then add the vinegar or 
lemon-juice, simmer for 3 or 4 minutes, and strain or pass through a 
tammy-cloth. When cool add the cream, and use as required, when 
just on the point of setting. 

Time. 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, is. to is. 2d. for this quantity. 



224 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Note. Brown Chaud-Froid sauce may also be made by substituting equal 
quantities of good brown sauce and tomato sauce for the Bechamel. Green 
Chaud-Froid is composed of Bechamel and a few drops of spinach greening, 
and pink Chaud-Froid is made by adding a few drops of carmine to the 
Bechamel sauce. The aspic jelly and gelatine are added to give brightness 
and stiffness to the sauces. 

187. CHESTNUT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux de Mat- 
rons.) (For Chicken or Turkey.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of white stock, of a pint of cream or milk, 
a Ib. of chestnuts, a thinly cut strip of lemon-rind, cayenne, salt. 

Method. Cut the tops off the chestnuts and roast or bake them for 
about 20 minutes. Remove the outer and inner skins, put them into 
a saucepan with the stock and lemon-rind, and let them simmer until 
tender (about % hour). Rub through a fine sieve, return to the sauce- 
pan, add seasoning to taste, and re-heat. Stir in the cream, and use as 
required.^ If milk is used, mix with it a teaspoonful of cornflour or 
ordinary flour, stir it into the puree when boiling, and simmer for 5 
minutes to cook the flour. Season with salt and a tiny pinch of 
cayenne. 

Time. \\ to 2 hours. Average Cost, lod. per pint with cream. 
Sufficient for a boiled turkey. 

Note. Brown chestnut sauce may be made by substituting a pint of 
brown sauce and a of a pint of brown stock for the white stock and cream. 

188. CREAM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a la Creme.) 
(For Sweetbreads, Chickens, Soles.) 

Ingredients. 3 tablcspoonfuls of Bechamel sauce, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of cream, i oz. of butter, 2 yolks of eggs, a few drops of lemon-juice, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Put all the ingredients except the lemon juice into a small 
saucepan, which must be placed either in a bain-marie or in a larger 
shallow pan, half full of boiling water. Stir the mixture until it 
acquires the consistency of thick cream, then pass through a tammy- 
cloth, reheat, add the lemon juice, and use. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to /d. 

189. CUCUMBER SAUCE (Hot). (Fr. Sauce aux 
Concombres [Chaude].) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Bechamel sauce (see page 220) i cucumber, i 
oz. of butter, a little spinach greening, salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel the cucumber, cut into thick slices, and remove the 
seeds. Melf. the butter in a stewpan, put in the cucumber, cover 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 225 

closely, and let it steam in the butter until tender (about 30 minutes \ 
stirring occasionally. When sufficiently cooked, add the sauce, 
lemon-juice, seasoning, and spinach greening. Cook two or three 
minutes, pass through a sieve and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 8d. to lod. for this quantity. 

190. DUTCH SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Hollandaise.) 

Ingredients. 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, i shallot, peeled and chopped, 
i bay-leaf, 4 white peppercorns crushed, i gill of white sauce, the yolks 
of 2 eggs, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 2 ozs. of butter, salt. 

Method. Put the vinegar (French wine vinegar in preference to 
malt vinegar) with the shallot, bay-leaf and peppercorns in a stcwpan, 
and reduce to \ its original quantity ; add the white sauce, let it boil, 
remove the bay-leaf, and stir in the yolks of eggs. When it begins to 
thicken remove the preparation from the fire and strain into another 
stcwpan. Re-heat (taking great care that the sauce does not curdle \ 
and whisk in the butter by degrees. Add the lemon-juice and enough 
salt to taste, and serve with boiled fish, artichokes, asparagus, etc. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to ;d. 

I9 i._ DUTCH SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Hollandaise.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. The yolks of 3 eggs, 2 ozs. butter, I gill Bechamel sauce, 
| of a gill of stock, the juice of -\ a lemon, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the sauce hot, remove the saucepan to the side of the 
stove, and whisk in the yolks of the eggs, stock and lemon-juice. Cook 
over a slow fire, then add the butter in small pieces oft" the fire. 
Season, strain, and it is ready to serve. The sauce must be care- 
fully cooked, and on no account placed on the fire after the butter 
is added, or it will oil. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. 

THE LEMON (Fr.: Citron). This well-known fruit of the lemon tree. Citrus 7,mon?/m, is a native of 
tin; tropi' al parts of A>ia, and was probably introduced into south-western Fnrpe by tin 
It is allied to the citron and the orange, but is more hardy than the latter. The lemon is 
! into this country chieflv from Spain, Portugal, Si- ily, and the A/ores. From the 
lemon lime-juice is obtained, whirh is used in the manufacture of lemon i 
i- al->< laro'lv employed in calico printing to discharge colours. The anti-v-orbutir prp 
limc-jiiii r are of high value, and lime-juice is extensively used in the Navy and the Merchant 5 
Its constituents are sugar, virrtablr. albuminous and mineral matter, including p.ta->li 
acid and the oil of /cm-m are obtained by pressure and distillation from the fr->h pod ; th.- latt.-r i- a 
v<.i.itilc ml f a yrllow or greenish colour, much used in perfumery, medi- in.il prcp.ir.ition>, and f-r 
various domestic purposes. Lemon-peel is prepared by drying the rind, and preserving it wit:, 

192. FRENCH ONION SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Sou- 
bise.) 

Ingredients. 2 Spanish onions, i gill of white stock, a pint of Be- 
chamel sauce, white pepper, salt, a pinch of white sugar 

I 



226 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Peel the onions, parboil them in salted water, strain and 
chop very finely. Return to the saucepan, stir over the fire until 
all moisture is absorbed, then add the stock and cook until tender. 
Now add the sauce, reduce until the desired consistency is acquired, 
add the seasoning, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 7d. 

PEPPER (Fr. Poivre). This well-known aromatic spice is a native of the East Indies, and from thence 
has been introduced into the West Indian Islands, and other tropical parts. The most esteemed 
varieties are those of Sumatra, J ava, and Malacca. The pepper plant belongs to the natural order 
Piperaceae, its most important species being Piper nigrum, the black pepper of commerce. It is 
a climbing shrub, with alternate, heart-shape leathery leaves, and little globular berries, about the 
size of a currant, at first green, but when ripe of a bright-red colour. The peppercorns are gathered 
when red and exposed to the sun, when they change to a black hue. White Pepper is obtained 
from the finest of the berries, which are plucked when fully ripe, steeped in lime-water, and sub- 
jected to a process of rubbing, which removes the outer coat. It is less acrid than the ordinary black 
pepper, to which it is considered to be superior, for only the finest berries will bear such special pre- 
paration. 

193. GERMAN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Allemande.) 

Ingredients. i pint of good white stock, i tablespoonful of cream, 
i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, a teaspoonful of lemon- 
juice, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir the mixture 
for a few minutes without allowing it to brown, then put in the stock 
and stir until it boils. Let it simmer gently for \ an hour, skim off 
any butter that may be floating on the top, and season to taste. Beat 
the yolks of the eggs and cream together, add them to the sauce, and 
cook gently for a few minutes until the sauce thickens, but it must not 
boil, or the eggs may curdle. Add the lemon, strain, or pass through 
a tammy-cloth, and use as required. 

Time. 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

THE NUTMEG (Fr. : Muscade) is a native of the tropics, and is largely cultivated in the Molucca 
Islands, especially in the Banda group. The Dutch, when supreme in the East, sought to obtain a 
monopoly of this spice, by confining the growth of the nutmeg to the Island of Great Banda. It 
is now cultivated in Java. Sumatra, Penang, Singapore, Southern India, Madagascar, Brazil, and the 
West Indies. The nutmeg tree, which somewhat resembles the pear-tree in the beauty of its 
form, foliage, and blossom, grows to the height of about 25 feet, and begins to bear fruit in its 
ninth year, yielding about 8 Ib. The nut is oval in shape, very hard, and of a dark-brown 
colour. Previous to exportation, the fruit is smoke-dried until the nut rattles in the shell, when it is 
extracted. There are various species of nutmegs, the chief being Myristica fragrans, which yields the 
chief supply, and is the most aromatic and delicate in its flavour ; and Myristica faiua, with a longer 
kernel of a pale colour, but less aromatic. The nutmeg is largely used as a condiment, and in medicine 
as a stimulant and carminative. In large quantities it acts as a narcotic. From the nutmeg a fixed 
and a volatile oil are obtained. 

194. GREEN MOUSSELINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce 
Mousseline Verte.) 

Ingredients. \ pint of stiff Mayonnaise sauce, \ a teaspoonful made 
English mustard, gill Bechamel sauce, \ gill of cream, a few leaves 
of tarragon and chervil i teaspoonful of spinach greening, a 
pinch of cayenne or paprika pepper, a pinch of salt, a lemon. 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 

Method. Mix the Mayonnaise sauce, mustard, and cream in a basin ; 
chop the tarragon and chervil leaves and put them with the greening 
into the Bechamel sauce, boil for a few minutes, and pass through 
a fine tammy-cloth. Let the preparation cool, and incorporate it with 
the cold sauce. Season to taste with a little salt and pepper, and 
finish by working in the juice of a lemon. Serve cold. 

Time, i hour. Average Cost, lod. to is. for this quantity. 

CAYENNE (Fr. : Poivre de Cayenne). The name given to the powder prepared from several varieties 
of the capsicum, natives of the East and West Indies, and other hot climates. The pods of the capsi- 
cum, which are of a handsome scarlet, yellow, or greenish colour, are extremely pungent to the t. i-.tr, 
and in the green state are used as a pickle. When ripe, the pods are ground into Cuv.'iiue pepper, 

-t acrid and stimulating of the spices. The fruit of various species of the capsicin: 
under the name of Chilies, the Mexican name for the capsicum ; the capsicums preserved i: \ 
add which is called " Chili Vinegar." Capsicum is used in medicine chiefly in the form of a tincture. 

nulantor digestive, and as a remedy for relaxed throats. Cayenne judiciously used is a valu- 
able condiment for improving the flavour of dishes. 

195. HORSERADISH SAUCE OR CREAM. (Hot.) 
(Fr. Creme de Raifort [Chaude].) 

Ingredients. i oz. of flour, 2 ozs. of butter, i pint of cream, 3 table- 
spoonfuls of finely-grated horseradish, i teaspoonful of vinegar, i pinch 
of salt, 4 a teaspoonful of sugar. 

Method. Blend the flour with the butter, boil the cream, and 
add it to the butter and flour ; stir over the fire, and boil for 5 mi 
taking great care not to let it curdle. Pass through a tammy-cloth or 
napkin. Add the horseradish, salt and vimr.ar, and mix va 11. 
hot with boiled fish, or roast meat, etc. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. 

THF HORSERADISH (Fr. : /. ruciform plant, common to most of the template countries 

e. It grows abundantly in Britain, to win h. h<>we\ . 

.!. It i- a well-known condiment, with a pungent taste and odour 

d as a stomachic and diuretic medicine, and externally as a blister. The root of aconite 
e to that of the horseradish ; care should, therefore, be taken to prevent acci- 
dents arising from mistaking the two roots. In the case of aconite, the root externally is of a dark- 
brown colour, tapering in - ,t o f the horseradish has 

! taste are at first pungent and acrid, and its external . 

a dirty white. . is so great that even when 

for the tone, it r.ipidly spoils by exposure to the air. For the same reason the root should 
: ved by drying, but be kept root-: ind. 

196. HORSERADISH SAUCE (Hot). (Fr. Sauce 
Raifort [Chaude].) (A more Economical 
Method.) 

Ingredients. 2 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish, a pint of 
rnel sauce, a teaspoonful of castor sugar, % a teaspoonful of 
\ir, cayenne, and salt. 

Method. Boil up the sauce, moisten the horseradish with the vinegar, 
add it to the sauce with the other in Make the sauce thor- 

\ hot, but do not boil, after the \ added, or it will curdle. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. 



228 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

197. HORSERADISH SAUCE (Cold). (Fr. Sauce 
Raifort [Froide].) 

Ingredients. \ gill of wine vinegar, 2 hard-boiled eggs, i oz. of grated 
horseradish, \ a teaspoonful of salt, i teaspoonful of castor sugar, 
i tablespoonful of cream. 

Method. Remove the yolks from the whites of the hard-boiled eggs, 
put them in a basin, work with a wooden spoon until quite smooth, 
then add the vinegar gradually, and stir the mixture until it becomes 
creamy. Add the grated horseradish, sugar, salt, and lastly the cream, 
stir a little longer, and serve in a sauceboat, or as directed. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 7d. 

198. HORSERADISH SAUCE (Cold). (Fr. Sauce 
Raifort [Froide].) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i^ ozs. of grated horseradish, i gill of thick cream, i 
tablespoonful of white wine vinegar, i teaspoonful of castor sugar, 
a little powdered mustard, pepper and salt. 

Method. Put the horseradish in a basin, add the sugar, mustard, 
salt and pepper : moisten with vinegar, stir in the cream gradually. 
Serve cold, 

Time. 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. 
I99.--LOBSTER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Homard.) 

Ingredients. pint of Bechamel sauce, a small hen lobster, i oz. of 
butter, seasoning. 

Method. Remove the coral from the lobster, wash it and pound it 
with the butter, and rub all through a hair sieve. Remove the meat 
from the tail and claws of the lobster, and cut it into small neat pieces. 
Warm the Bechamel sauce, add the coral-butter, mix well, then add 
the pieces of lobster, warm thoroughly, season, and serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 4d. without the lobster. 

200. MAITRE D' HOTEL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Maitre 
d' Hotel.) 

Ingredients. | a pint of Bechamel sauce, 3 ozs. of butter, the juice of 
\ a lemon, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, seasoning. 

Method. Put the Bechamel in a saucepan with a little water, stir 
until it boils, reduce well, then add the butter a little at a time, and 






WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 229 

stir well. Strain the sauce into another saucepan, add the parsley, 
lemon- juice, and seasoning, reheat and serve. 

Time. 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. for this quantity. 

THE MAITRE D'HOTEL (Fr.). The house-steward is synonymous with the maitre d'hotel of Franco, 
and was called among the ancient Romans procurator, or major domo. In large households in KOIIH-, 
the slaves, when they had procured the various articles required for the repasts of the day, returned 
to the spacious kitchen, with their loads of meat, game, fish, vegetables and fruit. Each one pl.uvd 
his basket at the feet of the major domo, who examined its contents, and registered them on his t.iMrts. 
Provisions which needed no special preparation were then stored in a pantry near to the dining- 
room, the other comestibles being assigned to the more immediate care of the cook. 

2oi. MAYONNAISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Mayon- 
naise.) 

Ingredients. 2 yolks of eggs, i tcaspoonful of French mustard, a 
teaspoonful of salt, a pinch of pepper, i tablespoonful of tarragon 
vinegar, about i pint of best salad oil, i tablespoonful of cream. 

Method. Put the yolks into a basin, add the mustard, salt and 
pepper, stir quickly with a wooden spoon. Add the oil, first drop by drop 
and afterwards more quickly, and at intervals a few drops of the 
vinegar By stirring well, the mixture should become the consistency 
of very thick cream. Lastly, add the cream, stirring all the while. 
A little cold water may be added if the sauce is found to be too thick. 

In hot weather, the basin in which the Mayonnaise is made should be 
placed in a vessel of crushed ice. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. 

202. MELTED BUTTER. (Fr. Sauce au Beurre.) 

Ingredients. a pint of water, i oz. of butter, J of an oz. of Hour, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the Hour and cook 
tor j or 3 minutes. The water now to be added must not be quite 
boiling, but it may be hot, and as the sauce has to be constantly stirred 
until it boils to incorporate the substances contained in it, considerable 
time is saved by adding warm or hot water, instead of cold. Bring to 
the boil, and simmer for a few minute a, and use as required. 

Time. 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

203. MELTED BUTTER. (Fr. Sauce au Beurre.) 
(An Old-fashioned Method.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of hot water, oz. of fresh butter, i drssert- 
spoonful of flour, salt and pep; 

Method. Mix the flour smoothly with a little cold water in a basin, 
add the hot water gradually, stirring all the time. Put it into a I 
pan, bring to the boil, simmer for ID minutes, then add the salt and 
pepper, stir in the butter, and serve. 

Time. About i; minuter. Average Cost, ild. 



23 o HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

204. NORMANDY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Normande.) 

Ingredients. f pint white stock, J pint fish stock (No. 5), 2 oz. 
butter, I oz. flour, 2 yolks of eggs, lemon juice. 

Method. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan, add i oz. of flour, stir 
sufficiently long to cook the flour, moisten with the stock, and allow it 
to boil for 10 minutes. Skim well, and finish with a liaison or bind- 
ing of 2 yolks of eggs. Stir in bit by bit i oz. of butter^ and a few 
drops of lemon-juice. Pass through a fine strainer or tammy-cloth, and 
use as directed. 

Time. 10 minutes. Probable Cost, is. Sufficient for I large dish. 

205. ONION SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Oigrfons.) 

Ingredients. | a pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, i oz. of 
butter, oz. of flour, 2 onions (about % a lb.), salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel the onions, put them into cold water, bring to the 
boil, and strain. Return to the saucepan with \ a teaspoonful of salt 
and sufficient boiling water to cover them, and boil until tender (about 
i hour). When the onions are sufficiently cooked they must be well 
drained and chopped coarsely. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir 
in the flour and cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then add the milk and stir until 
it boils. Add the onion to it, season to taste, simmer for a few minutes, 
then stir in the cream, and serve. 

Time. 1- to i hours. Average Cost, 4d. to $d. 



206. PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce de Persil.) 
(For Boiled Fowl, Veal, Calf's Head, etc.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of the liquor in which the meat has been cooked, 
% of a pint of milk, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, cook for 
2 or 3 minutes, then add the liquor and milk, and stir until it boils. 
Simmer for a few minutes, season to taste, add the parsley, and use as 
required. If the parsley is allowed to boil in the sauce it will lose 
some of its green colour. 

Time. 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. 

PARSLEY (Fr. : Persil). The common parsley is a well-known garden vegetable, and has long been 
cultivated for seasoning and garnishing dishes, and for flavouring soups. The leaf-stalks of one variety 
of parsley, the celery-leaved, are blanched and eaten like celery. Parsley was known to the 
ancient Greeks, reference being made to it in the Iliad, and among the Romans it was used as a symbol 
of mourning, and placed on the tables at funeral feasts. The Carthagenians found it in Sardinia, 
and introduced the herb to the inhabitants of Marseilles. There are various quaint superstition! 
connected with parsley, some of which survive to the present day in England and Scotland. 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS _>.u 
207. POULETTE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Poulette.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Bechamel sauce, i raw yolk of egg, i table- 
spoonful of cream, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful 
of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Mix the yolk of the egg and the cream together. Have the 
sauce nearly boiling in a saucepan, pour in the egg and cream, and stir 
for a few minutes, but the preparation must not boil, or the egg 
may curdle. Add the parsley and lemon-juice, season to taste, and 
serve. 

Time. About 10 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. 

208. SALAD DRESSING (French). (Fr. Sauce Re- 
moulade.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of salad oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, 
i teaspoonful of made mustard, i yolk of egg, a few leaves of tarragon 
parsley and chives, a pinch of castor sugar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Blanch the herbs, drain, and chop finely. Put the yolk of 
egg into a basin, add the seasoning, work in the oil and vinegar, stirring 
the ingredients vigorously with a wooden spoon. Then add the herbs, 
mustard, and sugar. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. to pd. for this quantity. 

TARRAGON (Fr. :E$tragon). The leaves of this aromatic plant, known to botanists as Artemisia 
dracunculus, are much used in France as a flavouring ingredient for salads. Frotn it is made 

which the French employ to mix thfir mu^t.ird. It is also used as a pickle, and as a flavour 
for tj^h-sauces. From one species of the genus Artemisia, which grows in Swit/.-rl.uul. th- 1 itt.-r 
aromatic cordial, absinthe, is prepared. The common wormwood. Artemisia absinikum, was known 
to the Greeks, who valued it as a medicinal plant. 

209. SALAD DRESSING (made without oil.) 

Ingredients. 2 hard-boiled eggs, 4 i.il.lrspoonfuls of cream, i table- 
spoonful of vinegar, i teaspoonful of mixed mustard, of a teaspoonful 
each of pepper, salt, and castor sugar. 

Method. Pound the yolks of the eggs in a mortar, then put them 
basin, and add the mustard, salt, pepper and sugar, add the 
cream gradually, and stir vigorously until it beconv thick. 

Add the vinegar drop by drop just at the last. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. to 

210. -SORREL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1'Oseille.) 

Ingredients. a pint of White Sauce (see page 233) a good hand- 
ful of sorrel, salt and pepper. 



23 2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Wash and pick the sorrel, put it into a saucepan without any 
water, and cook until tender. Chop finely, and rub through a hair 
sieve. Have the sauce boiling in a saucepan, add to it the puree, stir 
and cook for 3 or 4 minutes, season to taste, and serve. 

Time. 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost. 4d. 

2ii. SOUBISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Soubise.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Bechamel Sauce, or other good white sauce, 
2 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 Spanish onions, sugar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel and parboil the onions in salted water, then drain well 
and chop them finely. Put the prepared onions and stock into a stew- 
pan, cover closely, cook slowly until reduced to a pulp, and add the 
sauce. Simmer gently until reduced to the right consistency, then 
add a pinch of sugar, season to taste, and use as required. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to /d. 

212. SUPREME SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Supreme.) 

Ingredients. i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i% pints of chicken stock, 
i small onion, i clove, a bay-leaf, i ozs. of fresh butter, i tablespoon- 
ful cream, i yolk of egg, the juice of \ a lemon. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook well 
over fire, but do not let it brown, then add stock, onion, clove, and 
bay-leaf. Stir until boiling, simmer for 15 minutes, and skim well. 
Now work in the fresh butter, cream, and yolk of egg, cook for 3 
minutes, but do not let the sauce boil. Add the lemon-juice, pass the 
sauce through a tammy-cloth, warm, and serve. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 6d. exclusive of the stock. 

213. TARTARS SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tartare.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of Mayonnaise sauce, i tablespoonful of 
chopped gherkin or capers, \ a teaspoonful of very finely-chopped shal- 
lot (this may be omitted). 

Method. Stir the gherkin and onion lightly into the mayonnaise, and 
use as required. 

Time. 25 minutes altogether. Average Cost, $d. to ;d. 

214. TOURNEE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tournee.) 

Ingredients. i pint of white stock, 2 ozs. of butter, i| ozs. of flour, 
6 spring onions, 6 small mushrooms coarsely-chopped, a bouquet- 
garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, stir and cook 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 

for a few minutes without browning, and put in the stock. Add the 
white part of the onions, the bouquet-garni, mushrooms, and a little 
salt and pepper, simmer gently for 20 minutes, then strain and use as 
required. 

Tim3. About 4- an hour. Average Cost, lod. to is. 



215. VALOIS SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Valois.) 

Ingredients. i pint of strong chicken stock, 4 yolks of eggs, 2 ozs. of 
butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of white vinegar, i teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley, 2 shallots finely-chopped, salt and pepper. 

Method. Boil the stock gently until reduced to a quarter of the 
original quantity. Put the vinegar and shallots into another saucepan, 
simmer gently until considerably reduced, and add the prepared 
stock. Beat the yolks of the eggs well, stir them into the contents of 
the saucepan when just below boiling point, whisk until the preparation 
thickens, and season to taste. Add the butter bit by bit, whisking 
between each addition, and just before serving stir in the par 

Time. Altogether, about i hours. Averaje Cost, /d., exclusive of 
the stock. 

216. VELOUTE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Veloute.) 

Ingredients. 1\ ozs. butter, i oz. of sifted flour, i pint of good white 
sto.k, i a bay leaf, 8 peppercorns. 

Method. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, cook 
a little without browning, moisten with the stock, add the Ki 
and peppercorns, stir and simmer slowly for \ an hour, take olf the 
scum, press through a tammy-cloth or napkin, return to the stew- 
pan, and finish with the remainder of the butter, or a little thick cream. 
Use as required. 

Time. 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

-The stck from which \Yl.mU uld be made is prepared 

from \val bone-, chicken bones, and trimming, a flavouring of carrot, onion, 
bonquet-i^irni. the needful amount ol sea>omn^. and an appropriate 
-.plant it y ot water, i.e. I quart ot water to li Ibs. ot meat and vegetables. 

217. VELOUTE OR VELVET SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce 
VeloutS.) (Another method.) 

Ingredients. i oz. of flour, i ozs. of butter, i pint of veal stock, 
ill of mushroom liquor, \ a gill of cream, i bouquet-garni (parsley, 
thyni- peppercorns, silt, nulnu-g, ami lemon-juice, 



234 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, cook over the fire for a 
few minutes, but do not let the flour brown. Add stock, mushroom 
liquor, bouquet-garni, and crushed peppercorns. Boil slowly for 
20 minutes, skim well. Pass through a tammy-cloth, warm up, and 
just before serving add cream, seasoning, and lemon-juice. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

2 1 8. VINAIGRETTE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Vinai- 
grette.) (For Asparagus, Calf's Heac 
Brains, etc.) 

Ingredients. 4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of tarn 
vinegar, % a teaspoonful each of finely-chopped gherkin, shallot ai 
parsley, salt and pepper. 

Method. Mix all well together, and use as required. 

Time. About 5 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. or 5d. 

219. WHITE ITALIAN SAUCE. 

Ingredients. J of a pint of good white stock, f- of a pint of Bechai 
sauce, i tablespoonful of cream, i oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
finely-chopped fresh button mushrooms, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, i shallot finely chopped, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the mushrooms and 
shallot, and fry without browning for about 10 minutes. Add the stock, 
cover closely, and simmer until reduced to about \ the original quantity. 
Put in the Bechamel sauce and boil up, then add seasoning to taste, 
the chopped parsley and cream, and use as required. 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

220. WHITE MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux 
Champignons [Blanche].) 

Ingredients. 1 gills of Bechamel sauce, i-| gills of veal stock, 8 or 10 
preserved mushrooms, a gill of the liquor, \ a gill of Chablis, i dessert- 
spoonful of lemon- juice, i tablespoonful of cream. 

Method. Boil the stock and Bechamel together until reduced to 
half the original quantity. Add the mushrooms sliced, the liquor, 
lemon- juice, and wine. Boil again, skim, season, and add the cream. 

Time. 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, is. 2d. to is. 4d. 

221. WHITE SAUCE FOR VEGETABLES, VEAL, 
RABBIT, AND POULTRY. (Fr. Sauce 
Blanche.) 

Ingredients. i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, a pint of milk, \ a gill 
of white stock, \ a bay-leaf, salt and white pepper. 



WHITE SAUCES AND SALAD DRESSINGS 235 

Method. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, stir in the flour, and 
cook for a few minutes without allowing the flour to brown. Dilute 
with the milk, stir till it boils, then add the stock and bay-leaf, and 
let simmer for at least 10 minutes. Remove the bay-leaf, season to 
taste, and strain. 

Time. 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. 



222. WHITE SAUCE WITHOUT STOCK. 

(Fr. Sauce Blanche.) (For Vegetables 
Meat, Poultry, etc.) 

Ingredients. i pint of milk, i tablespoonful of cream (this may be 
omitted), 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, i small carrot, i small onion, 
i strip of celery, i bay-leaf, salt, 10 peppercorns. 

Method. Cut the carrot and celery into rather large pieces, put 
them with the milk, onion, and bay-leaf into a saucepan, and 
simmer gently for about an hour. If the milk reduces in simmering, 
add more to make up the original quantity. Melt the butter in another 
saucepan, stir in the flour, and cook for 7 or 8 minutes without browning. 
Let this roux cool slightly, then add to it the milk and vegetables, and 
whisk briskly until it boils. Simmer for 10 minutes, strain through a 
tammy-cloth, or rub through a fine hair sieve, re-heat, season to 
add the cream, and use. 

Time. About 50 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. 

For white sauces made with stock, see Bechamel. 
Veloute. page 232, and Allemande, page 219. 



223. WHITE SAUCE FOR VEGETABLES, MEAT, 
POULTRY, OR FISH. (Economical.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of milk, a pint of either water, fish - 
or liquor in which moat or poultry has been boiled, i ozs. butter, 
. of flour, mace or nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour and cook 

minutes, add the milk and stock, stir until it boils, then simmer 

gnu ly for 10 minutes. Season to taste, add a pinch of nutmeg, and 

.is required. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. 

-Onion cooked and chopped n ml parsley chopped should be added 

':<lc*. a few minutes 
; -ut the sauce n, 



236 RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 

224. ASPIC CREAM. 

Ingredients. 1 gills of aspic jelly, i gill of double cream, a lea- 
spoonful of lemon-juice, a pinch of white pepper, and a pinch of castor 
sugar. 

Method. Put the cream into a basin, stir it with a whisk, and grad- 
ually add the aspic, which must be liquid, and add the lemon-juice and 
seasoning, pass through a tammy or fine strainer, and use to mark 
chickens, etc. 

Brown Sauces. 

225. BACON SAUCE. (Fr Sauce au Lard Fume.) 

Ingredients. |- a Ib. of ham or bacon cut into dice, i small onion 
finely-chopped, i dessertspoonful of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. 
\ a pint of water, salt and pepper. 

Method. Fry the bacon slightly, add the onion, sprinkle in the flour, 
and fry slowly until lightly browned. Season to taste, add the vinegar 
and water, stir until boiling, then pour over the previously cooked 
potatoes, and serve as an accompaniment with roast chicken or veal. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. 

226. BIGARADE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Bigarade.) 
(For Roast Duck or Goose.) 

Ingredients. \ a Seville orange, | a pint of brown sauce, \ a pint 
of good stock, i glass of port wine, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Strain the juice of the orange. Cut the rind into very fine 
strips, cover with cold water and bring to the boil. Simmer gently 
from 10 to 15 minutes, then strain and drain well. Mix the brown 
sauce, stock and orange- juice together, and boil until reduced to half 
the original quantity. Strain, return to the saucepan, add the pre- 
pared orange-rind, lemon-juice and port wine, season to taste, boil 
and use as required. 

Time. From 35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

227. BORDELAISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Borde- 
laise.) 

Ingredients. - of a pint of Espagnole sauce, i glass of claret, 2 finely- 
chopped shallots, -J- an oz. of glaze, i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
tarragon and chervil, a pinch of sugar, seasoning. 

Method. Put the wine and shallots into a saucepan, and reduce 
to half the quantity. Add the sauce and cook slowly for 20 minutes. 
Skim, and add the rest of the ingredients, boil up, and serve. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 237 

228. BRAIN SAUCE FOR SHEEPS' HEAD. 

Ingredients. 2 shecps' brains, J of a pint of liquor in which the heads 
were cooked, i| ozs. of butter, i|- ozs. of flour, i small onion chopped, 
i teaspoonful of vinegar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and soak the brains in salt and water. Tie them in 
muslin, and cook them until firm in the pot containing the 
sheeps' heads. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook it 
slowly until lightly browned, then put in the onion, and continue to 
cook slowly until the whole acquires a nut-brown colour. Add the 
pot-liquor, vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, simmer gently for 10 
minutes, then stir in the brains previously coarsely-chopped, and 
serve poured over the prepared heads, or separately. 

Time. Altogether, i hour. Average Cost, 2d., in addition to the 
brains. 

229. BRETONNE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Bretonne.) 

Ingredients. I of a pint of brown sauce, i tablcspoonful of haricot 
puree, i onion sliced, an oz. of butter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter, fry the onion until well-browned, add the 
haricot puree and brown sauce, and bring to the boil. Season to 
taste, simmer for 5 minutes, then pass through a fine strainer or tammy 
cloth, re-heat, and use as required. 

Time. From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

230. BROWN CAPER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux 
Capres Brunes.) (For Steak, Kidneys, Fish.; 

Ingredients. ^ a pint of Espagnota same, or i>n> \\-n saner, i 
poonful of vinegar, i tea&poonful nuhovy, i taHrspom 

ful of capers cut in two, i small onion very finely-chopped, < ayennr, the 
juice of half a lemon. 

Method. Put the sauce, vinegar, essence of anchovy and onion into 
asauccpan, boil, simmej: for 10 minutes, and strain. Krturn to the 
saucepan, and when quite hot add the cayenne, lemon-juice and c 
and serve. 

Time. About 2o"minutes. Average Cost, i id. 

231. BROWN MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce 
aux Champignons [Brune].) 

Ingredients. -S pri-scrvcd mushrooms, \ a gill of the liquor, a gill of 
sherry, a gill of thin Kspa-nolr sauce. 



238 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Chop the mushrooms finely, put them in a stewpan with 
the liquor and the sherry, cover the pan, and boil well. Add the 
Espagnole, boil up again, then season and serve. 

Time. From 20 to 30 minutes Average Cost, 8d. 

THE MUSHROOM (Fr. champignon). This highly-esteemed fungus is found in all parts of the world, 
and is remarkable for the rapidity of its growth. The species, and its several varieties, most usually 
cultivated for table use is Agaricus campestris. For culinary purposes the mushroom is of much 
importance, and from it ketchup is prepared, which forms the basis of numerous sauces. There are 
some 500 species of British mushrooms, and of these many are more or less poisonous, as the Fly mush- 
room (Agaricus muscarius), which has a warted orange or scarlet cap, and possesses highly narcotic 
properties, causing delirium and death if eaten. Great care should be taken in gathering mushrooms 
to ensure that they are of the edible kind. 

232. BROWN ONION SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Bre- 
tonne.) 

Ingredients. 2 Spanish onions, a pint of Espagnole sauce, a gill 
of haricot beans, seasoning, 2 ozs. of butter. 

Method. Soak the haricot beans for 12 hours, then put them on to 
boil in salt and water, and when tender rub them through a hair sieve. 
Skin and chop the onions, fry them in the butter, then add the sauce, 
and boil slowly until the onions are tender. Pass the mixture through 
a hair sieve, add the haricot puree, warm thoroughly, season, and 
serve. 

Time. From 2 to 2.\ hours. Average Cost, lod. 

233. BROWN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Brune.) 

Ingredients. i pint of brown stock, 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, 
i small carrot, i small onion, 6 fresh button mushrooms (when in 
season), i tomato, salt and pepper. 

Method. Slice the mushrooms, carrot, and onion, and fry them until 
brown in the butter. Sprinkle in the flour, stir and cook for a few 
minutes, then add the sliced tomato and stock, and stir until it boils. 
Simmer for 10 minutes, season to taste, strain or pass through a 
tammy-cloth, re-heat, and serve. Preserved mushrooms may be used, 
but they do not impart the same flavour to the sauce. A tablespoonful 
of GOOD mushroom ketchup is an improvement. 

Time. 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, about 6d., exclusive of the 
stock. 

234. BROWN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Brune.) (In- 
expensive.) 

Ingredients. a pint of stock or water, i oz. of butter or sweet 
dripping, i oz. of flour, i small carrot, i small onion, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the carrot and onion into small pieces. Melt the butter 
in a saucepan, put in the flour and vegetables, and fry until brown, 
An occasional stir is necessary to prevent the ingredients burning, 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 239 

but if they are constantly stirred they brown less quickly. Add the 
water or stock, stir until it boils, simmer for 10 minutes, then season 
to taste, and use. A few drops of browning (see page 214) may be 
added when the sauce is too light in colour. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. without the stock. 

235. CALF'S HEAD, SAUCE FOR. 

Ingredients. i pint of the liquor in which the head was boiled, 
2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, the juice and finely-grated rind of % a lemon, i onion 
sliced, salt and pepper. 

Method. Fry the onion in the butter until well-browned, sprinkle 
in the flour and brown it also, then add the stock. Simmer gently 
for an hour to reduce, then strain. Return to the saucepan, and add 
the parsley, lemon-rind, lemon-juice, and seasoning to taste, make 
thoroughly hot, and serve. 

Time. From 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 3^d. 

236. CARROT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Carotte.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of stock, No. 7, i large carrot grated, 
i oz. of butter, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful 
of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the carrot, and let it 
cook gently for 10 minutes. Add the stock, season to taste, and simmer 
gently for an hour. Return to the saucepan, strain, add the parsley 
and lemon-juice, bring to the boil, and use as required. 

Time. 45 to 55 minutes. Average Cost, jd. 

237. CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE. (For 
Meat or Game.) 

Ingredients. i glass of port, 2 tablespoonfuls of good brown sauce, 
i dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, i dessertspoonful of pounded 
white sugar, i tablespoonful of lemon-juice, \ a teaspoonful of 
nne pepper, a teaspoonful of salt. 

Method. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together and heat the 
sauce gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan 
of boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready. 
This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep for a fortnight, and will 
be found excellent. 

Time. 15 minutes. Average Cost, iod, 



240 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



238. CHUTNEY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Mangul. 

Make a sauce the same as for venison (see page 251) omitting the 
red currant jelly, and adding instead i heaped-up tablespoonful of 
mango chutney, chopped rather finely. 

239. CIDER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Cidre.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of cider, f- of a pint of brown sauce, 2 cloves, 
i bay-leaf, salt and pepper. 

Method. Simmer the whole until reduced to the desired con:istency, 
then pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth, re-heat, and serve 
as a substitute for champagne sauce for braised ham or duck. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 9d. 

f% 

240. CURRANT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Corinthe.) 

Ingredients. 2 ozs. of currants cleaned, 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of 
flour, | of a pint of water, i glass of red wine, i dessertspoonful of lemon- 
juice, \ a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, % of a teaspoonful 
of ground ginger, sugar to taste. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, and cook 
gently until it acquires a light brown colour. Put in the wine and 
water, bring to the boil, add the lemon-rind and lemon-juice, ginger, 
currants, and sugar to taste. Simmer gently for 10 minutes, then serve 
without straining. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. 

241. CURRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Kari.) 

Ingredients. f- of a pint of good stock, i ozs. of butter, i tablespoon- 
ful of curry powder, i dessertspoonful of flour, i tomato sliced, i small 
onion sliced, salt. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, fry the onion until lightly 
browned, then add the flour and curry powder. Stir and cook gently 
for a few minutes, then add the stock, and bring to the boil. Put 
in the tomato, and seasoning to taste. Simmer gently for 20 min- 
utes, then strain and serve. 

Time. From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. to lod. 



242. DEMI-GLACE SAUCE (Half Glaze). (Fr.- 
Sauce Demi-Glace.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Espagnole sauce, ^ of a pint of good gravy. 









RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 241 

Method. Strain the gravy and remove all the fat. Put the sauce 
and gravy into a saucepan, boil until well reduced, skim well, and 
serve. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. without the gravy. 

243. DEVILLED SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a la Diable.) 
(For Devilled Bones, etc.) 

Ingredients. 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey sauce, 2 tablespoonfuls oi 
vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter (melted), i teaspoonful of mustard, 
salt, and cayenne. 

Method. Mix all the ingredients together in a deep dish. Score the 
legs of a cooked chicken, etc., lengthwise, and soak well in the sauce. 
Grill, or fry in a little hot fat or butter, serve very hot. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. for this quantity of 
sauce. 

244. ESPAGNOLE OR SPANISH SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce 
Espagnole.) 

Ingredients. i quart of stock, i oz. of .raw lean ham or bacon, 2 ozs. 
of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, i carrot, i onion, i clove, 4 pt'Pl ' 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a gill of tomato pulj 
gill of sherry, 2 mushrooms. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the ham, cut into small 
pieces, fry for a few minutes, and then put in the vegetables slued. 
the herbs, and spices. Stir these ingredients over a slow tire for 
about 5 minutes, then add the flour and brown it carefully. Add 
the stock, tomato-pulp, and sherry, stir the sauce until boiling, draw 
the saucepan to the side of the fire, let it boil slowly for about i hour, 
then skim of! the fat, pass the sauce through a tammy-cloth, season, 
warm up, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, is. 4d. Quantity, i pint. 

245. FINANCIERS SAUCE. (Fr.-Sauce Financiere.) 

Ingredients. i pint of brown sauce, i glass of sherry, an oz. of meat 
glaze, Financiere garnish of cocks'-combs, truffles and small mush- 
rooms, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the brown sauce as directed, add the sherry and meat 
glaze, and simmer gently until considerably reduced. Pass through 
a fine strainer or tammy cloth, re-heat, add the Financiere garnish, 
season to taste, and use as required. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 2S, 6d., exclusive of the 
Financiere. 



242 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

246. FINANCIERE SAUCE. (Another way.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of brown sauce, i glass of sherry or Madeira, 

1 tablespoonful of tomato puree, i tablespoonful of chicken-essence, 

2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor, 2 tablespoonfuls of truffle liquor, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the brown sauce as directed, add the rest of the 
ingredients, simmer gently until well reduced, and pass through a fine 
strainer or tammy cloth. Re-heat, season to taste, and use as re- 
quired. ^ 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 9d. 

247. FINANCIERE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Financiere.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Espagnole sauce, \ an oz. of glaze, i glass of 
sherry, i tablespoonful of mushroom liquor, financiere garnish. 

Method. Put all ingredients in a saucepan, let them come to the 
boil, and cook slowly until well reduced. A garnish of truffles, small 
mushrooms, and cocks'-combs is added to the sauce before serving. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 23. 3d. to 33. 6d. 

248. GAME SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Gibier.) 

Ingredients. i pint of Espagnole sauce, i glass of sherry, i small 
onion, - a small carrot, of a small turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, 
thyme, bay-leaf), a blade of mace, i clove, salt, pepper, the trim- 
mings and carcasses of game ; those of grouse or woodcock are 
preferable. 

Method. Chop the bones and trimmings of game into small pieces, 
cut the vegetables into thin slices. Put all these ingredients into a sauce- 
pan, add the sherry, herbs, flavourings and seasoning, and simmer 
for 5 minutes. Add the Espagnole sauce, bring to the boil, skin, and 
cook slowly for 15 minutes, pass through a tammy-cloth, re-heat, add 
salt and pepper if necessary, and serve. 

Time. From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, about is. to is. 3d., with- 
out the game. 

249. GHERKIN OR CORNICHON SAUCE. (Fr.- 
Sauce aux Cornichons.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of brown sauce, i tablespoonful of finely- 
chopped gherkins, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the sauce as directed, a<J4 the prepared gherkins, 
season to taste, and use as required. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 243 

250. HAM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Jambon.) (For 
Veal, Duck, Game, etc.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Espagnole sauce, or brown sauce, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of finely-shredded or coarsely-chopped ham, i dessertspoon- 
ful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and 
pepper. 

Mode. Make the sauce hot in a saucepan, add the ham, and simmer 
for 5 minutes. Remove from the fire, put in the parsley, lemon-juice, 
season, and serve. 

Time. 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

251. INDIAN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1' Indienne.) 

Ingredients. f of a pint of stock, i ozs. of butter, i tablespoonful of 
curry powder, i dessertspoonful of flour, i teaspoonful of chutney, 
i sour apple sliced, i onion sliced, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion brown, sprinkle 
in the flour and curry powder, and cook gently for 10 or 15 minutes. 
Add the stock, bring to the boil, put in the apple, chutney, and a good 
pinch of salt, and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Strain, re-heat, add 
the lemon-juice, and use as required. 

Time. 45 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. to Qd. 

252. ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Italiennc.) 

Ingredients. J- a pint of Espagnole sauce, 4 small shallots chopped, 
4 fresh mushrooms coarsely chopped, i sprig of thyme, i bay-l 
tablespoonful of sweet oil, i glass of chabtis, a gill of stock. 

Method. Put the shallots in a small piece of muslin, and squeeze 
them in cold water to extract some of the flavour, then place them 
in a stewpan with the oil, cook for a few minutes, but do not brown. 
Add the wine, mushrooms, herbs and stock, reduce well, and add the 
Espagnole. Boil for 10 minutes, take out the herbs, skim off the oil, 
and s> 

Time. From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. id. to is. 3d. 

253. ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Italienne.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. | a pint of Espagnole sauce, 4 small shallots, 8 preserved 
mushrooms, a sprig of thyme, i bay-leaf, i tablespoonful of sweet oil, 
i glass of Chablis or Sauterne, a gill of stock. 

Method. Peel the shallots, chop them finely, place them in the corner 



244 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

of a clean cloth, hold tightly wrapped up under cold water, and 
squeeze well. Put them in a small stewpan with the oil, stir over the 
fire for a few minutes, to blend but not to colour. Add the wine, 
the mushrooms (finely chopped), herbs, and the stock, let it reduce well, 
and add the Espagnole. Boil for 10 minutes, take out the herbs, free 
the sauce from the oil, and keep hot in the bain-marie until required. 
Time. i hour. Average Cost, for this quantity, is. id. to is. 3d. 
Sufficient for two small dishes. 

THE SHALLOT, OR ESCHALOT (Fr. eschalote) is a species of onion, A Ilium Ascalonicum, with compound 
bulbs, which separate into " cloves " like garlK It is the mildest flavoured of all the onions. The 
shallot is used to flavour soups and made-dishes, and in the raw state makes an excellent pickle. The 
name is said to be derived from Ascalon, in the vicinity of which it was found growing wild by the 
Crusaders, who brought it back with them to England. 

254. KIDNEY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Rognons.) 

Ingredients. of a Ib. of ox kidney, \ a pint of stock or water, \ an 
oz. of butter, i dessertspoonful of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Remove every particle of fat, and cut the kidney into small 
pieces. Melt the butter, fry the kidney for a few minutes, then sprinkle 
in the flour. Stir and cook until the flour is slightly browned, then add 
the stock and season to taste. Bring to the boil, simmer gently for 
20 minutes, then strain and serve. 

Time. 35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. without the stock. 

255. MADEIRA SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Madere.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Espagnole sauce, \ of a pint of good gravy, 
i oz. of meat glaze, i glass of Madeira or sherry, salt and pepper. 

Method. Simmer the sauce, gravy and wine until well reduced. 
Season to taste, put in the meat glaze, stir until it is dissolved, then 
strain the sauce, and use as required. 

Time. About \ hour. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. for this 
quantity. Sufficient for f of a pint of sauce. 

256. MINT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a la Menthe.) 
(To serve with Roast Lamb.) 

Ingredients. 4 dessertspoonfuls of chopped mint, 2 dessertspoonfuls 
of sugar, \ of a pint of vinegar. 

Method. The mint should be young and fresh-gathered. Wash it 
free from grit, pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very 
fine, put them into a tureen, add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till 
the former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 
hours before it is required for the table, as the vinegar then becomes 
impregnated with the flavour of the mint. Good white wine vinegar is 

' 






RECIPES FOR BROWN SAl < 

preferable to ordinary malt vinegar. Sugar should be jdd.-d with 
discretion until the required degree of sweetness is obtained. 
Average Cost. 3d. Sufficient to serve with a quarter of lamb. 

MINT (Fr. mcnthf), a genus of aromatic perennial herbs of the . -ributed 

throughout the temperate regions, some of them being common to Britain. 'I h- ^p-.-.ir mi- 

most cultivated in gardens, and used in various wav> for culinary purposes, an 
with vinegar and sugar. From the leaves of the Peppermint (A* ssential 

oil is distilled, which is largely used as an aromatic, a carminative, and a stimulant medicine. 

257. MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Cham- 
pignons.) 

Ingredients. f- of a pint of brov.-n sauce, \ a pint of button mush- 
rooms, i oz. of butter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Peel the mushrooms and remove the stalks. Heat the 
butter in a stcwpan, put in the mushrooms, and toss them over the 
fire for 10 minutes. Drain off any butter that remains unabsorbed, 
add the brown sauce, season to taste, make thoroughly hot, and 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, /d., in addition to the sauce. 

258. MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Cham- 
pignons.) (Another way.) 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of mushrooms, f of a pint of boiling stock, i ozs. 
of butter, i oz. of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. M-lt I oz. of butter in a stewpan. add the flour, and 
slowly until it acquires a nut-brown colour. Meanwhile. peel an- 1 
the mushrooms coarsely, and 1'ry tin-in iT i minutes in the remainder 
of the butter. When ready, add the stock to the blended butter and 
Hour, stir until it boils, and season to t, 

minutes, then add the prepared mushrooms, make thoroughly hot, 
and use as required. 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 7d., in addition to the 
mushrooms. 



259. OLIVE SAUCE FOR POULTRY AND MEAT. 
(Fr. Sauce aux Olives.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Espagnolc sauce, of a pint of good stock, 
i doz. small olives, i teaspoonful of lemon -juice. 

Method. Carefully stone the olr iring them round in ri! 

so that they may be replaced in their orii;in;i! 1'ut them into 

cold water, bring to the boil, and drain well. Have the 
stork ready boiling, put in the olives, simmer gently W \ an hour, 
then add the lemon-juice, season, and serve. 



246 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. 

THE OLIVE (Fr. olive). The picturesque olive-tree is indigenous to Syria and other warm Asiatic 
countries, and flourishes in Spain and Italy. It was well-known in Greece, Solon, in the sixth cen- 
tury, B.C., enacting laws for its cultivation. By Greek colonists it was introduced into the countries 
bordering upon the Mediterranean, and is now also cultivated in Peru and California. The olive 
was first planted in England in the seventeenth century, but its fruit does not ripen in the open air 
in northern climates. From early ages the olive-tree has been highly esteemed both for its fruit, and 
for the valuable oil extracted from it. Many associations sacred and classic are connected with the 
olive-tree, which by the Romans was held to be sacred to the goddess Minerva. Wreaths of wild 
olive constituted the prizes awarded to the victors in the classic races at Olympia, and an olive branch 
was, and is still, regarded as the symbol of peace. The Mount of Olives was the scene of four of the 
principal events in the life of the Founder of Christianity, and at its foot is the traditional site of the 
Garden of Gethsemane. In the Old Testament many allusions are made by the prophetical and other 
writers to the olive. The olive-tree attains to a great age : some specimens on the Mount of Olives 
are estimated to have been 2,000 years in existence. Olives, commonly pickled in brine, are chiefly 
used in England for dessert or between courses, to remove the flavour of the viands previously eaten. 

There are three principal kinds of olives which are imported, those from Provence, in France 
from Spain, and from Italy : those from Lucca are esteemed the best. One species of olive, 
Olea fragrans, is largely used by the Chinese to perfume tea. The wood of the olive-tree is a 
yellowish-brown, and is employed for inlaying and ornamental purposes. The wood of an American 
species, Olea Americana, from its excessive hardness, is called " devil-wood." From the fruit of the 
olive-tree the valuable olive-oil is obtained, the quality of the oil differing according to the soil on 
which the olive is grown, and the care taken in extracting and preparing it. It is much used 
as an article of food in the countries where it is produced, and enters into the composition of many 
dishes. In England it is chiefly used for dressing-salads, and other culinary purposes. Olive-oil, 
the lightest of all the fixed oils, is used in medicine, and also in the arts and manufactures. " Gallipoli 
oil " is largely employed in Turkey-red dyeing, and for making special kinds of soap. Sardines are 
preserved in olive-oil. 



260. ORANGE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Jus 
d' Orange.) 

Ingredients. I orange, J pint Espagnole sauce, \ pint stock, or 
roast meat gravy, lemon juice, red currant jelly, salt, pepper. 

Method. Peel an orange thinly, and cut the peel into strips (julienne 
fashion), put them in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover, boil 
for 5 minutes, and drain in a sieve. Put in a stewpan, the Espagnole 
sauce, stock, and the juice of the orange. Allow all to reduce to 
half its quantity. Add the orange peel, a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 
and a teaspoonful of red currant jelly, season with pepper and salt, 
boil up again, and serve with roast wild duck, wild boar, or other 
game. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, iod., without the stock. 

261. ORANGE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1'Orange.) 

(For Roast Wild Duck, Wild Fowl, Widgeon, 
Veal, etc.) 

Ingredients. \ a gill of brown sauce, i gill gravy, juice of an 
orange, salt and pepper, the end of an orange finely shredded. 

Mix the brown sauce with the meat gravy; to this add the juice of 
the orange, and boil. Skim, and season with salt and pepper. Stir in 
the rind of an orange, boil again, and serve. 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 247 

Time. 10 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. 

. If liked, a small shallot finely-chopped, and a glass of port wine 
or claret can be added, and cooked with the above sauce ; this is considered 
an improvement. 

262. ORANGE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Bigarade.) 

Ingredients. i Seville orange, a pint Espagnole sauce, a pint of 
good stock, i teaspoonful of lemon- juice, i glass of port wine, cayenne, 
salt. 

Method. Remove the rind from half the orange, and cut it in very 
thin shreds. Boil these in water for 5 minutes. Put the sauce and 
stock into a stewpan with the juice of \ the orange, and reduce to half 
quantity. Strain, add all the other ingredients, boil, skim, add the 
shreds of orange rind, and serve. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 4d. 

263. PARISIAN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Parisienne.) 

Ingredients. a pint of brown sauce, i oz. of butter, of an oz. of 
meat glaze, i teaspoonful of lemon- juice, a teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, 2 shallots, very finely chopped, salt and pepper. 

Method. Heat the sauce, add the meat glaze, lemon-juice, parsley 
and shallots, and simmer gently for i; minutes. Season to taste, 
whisk in the butter bit by bit, then serve as an accompaniment to 
steaks or fillets of beef. 

Time. About | an hour. Average Cost, 8d. 

264. PEPPER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Poivrade.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of Espagnole sauce, an oz. of butter, a 
small carrot, a small onion, 18 peppercorns, i bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, 
2 cloves, an oz. of raw ham. 

Me hod. Mix the onion and carrot, cut the ham into small pieces ; 
fry in the butter for 3 minutes, and add all the other ingredients. 
Skim, boil for 10 minutes, strain, and servo. 

Time. From 15 to 20 minutes. Averaje Cost, is. 2d. 

265. PIQU ANTE SAUCE. (Fr Sauce Piquante.) 

Ingredients. a pint of brown sauce, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 
i tablespoonful of capers cut in two, i tablespoonful of gherkin coarsely 
chopped, i small onion finely chopped, salt and pepper. 

Method. Put the onion and vinegar into a small saucepan, let 
them boil until considerably reduced, then add the brown sauce, 
capers, gherkin, salt and pepper if necessary, bring to the boil, simmer 
for 5 minutes, and serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 7d. 



248 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

266. PIQUANT SAUCE FOR BOILED VEAL. 
(Fr. Sauce Piquante.) (Economical.) 

Ingredients. J- a pint of the liquor in which the meat has been boiled, 
i tablespoonful of vinegar, i dessertspoonful of Harvey or other similar 
sauce, i dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, i small carrot, i small 
onion, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the onion and carrot into small pieces, melt the butter 
in a small saucepan, add the flour and vegetables, and fry them until 
brown. Now put in the vinegar, stir and boil until considerably 
reduced, then add the stock, Harvey sauce, ketchup, and seasoning 
if necessary, boil, strain, and use. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2-d. to 3d. 

267. PORT WINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Vin 
d'Oporto.) (For Venison, etc.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of gravy from roast venison or mutton, a 
glass of port wine, i teaspoonful of red-currant jelly, a few drops of 
lemon- juice. 

Method. Put all the above into a small saucepan, bring to the boil, 
and serve. 

Time. 7 or 8 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. without the gravy. 

268. PORT WINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Vin 
d'Gporto.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of Espagnole sauce, i glass of port wine, 
i tablespoonful of lemon-juice, i teaspoonful of red currant jelly. 

Method. Mix all the ingredients together in a saucepan, bring to the 
boil, and serve. 

Time. 7 or 8 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

269. REFORM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Reforme.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Pepper sauce, No. 264, i glass of port wine 
i tablespoonful of red currant jelly, cayenne pepper to taste. 

Method. Make the sauce as directed, then add to it the rest of the 
ingredients, simmer for 10 minutes, strain, and serve. 

Time. About i hour altogether. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

270. REGENCE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Regence.) 

Ingredients. 2 small shallots, an oz. of butter, i gill of fish stock 

(prepared with the fish bones and some vegetables to flavour), a gill 

of Marsala wine, i| gills of Espagnole sauce, parsley, i, bay-leaf, 

* sprig of thyme, i teaspoonful of horseradish mustard, i tablespoonful 

of meat glaze, i dessertspoonful of truffle trimmings, seasoning. 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 249 

Method. Peel the shallots and chop finely, fry them a golden-brown 
in the butter, add the fish stock and the wine, cover, and let these 
reduce to half the original quantity. Now add a few Sprigs oi parsley, 
the bay-leaf, thyme, and the Espagnole sauce, let it simmer gently 
tor jo minutes, then strain, and pass the sauce through a tammy-cloth. 
When required for table, stir in the horseradish mustard and the meat 
glaze the latter should be incorporated in little bits. Season to 
taste, stir in the truffles, finely chopped, re-heat slowly, and use as 
directed. 

Time. 30-40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

271. REMOULADE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Remou- 
lade.) 

See recipe for Salad Dressing, page 230. 

272. ROBERT SAUCE (Brown Onion). (Fr. Sauce 
Robert.) (For Goose, Pork, Steak, Cut- 
lets.) 

Ingredients. a pint of Espagnole sauce, a glass of white wine, 
$ an oz. of butter, 4- a small onion, a teaspoonful of castor sugar, 

1 saltspoonful of dry mustard. 

Method. Mince the onion and fry it brown in the butter, ;;dd the 
mustard and wine, reduce a little. Add the sauce, cook for n> inr. 

a, and strain. 
Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, about lod. 

273. ROBERT SAUCE (for Pork Cutlets.) (Fr. 
Sauce Robert.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. f of a pint of brown stock, i oz. of butter, I of an oz. of 
flour, i dessertspoonful of vinegar, i teaspoonful of made mu- 

2 medium-sized onions, salt and pepper. 

Method. Chop the onions coarsely and fry them brown in the butter. 
Sprinkle in the flour, stir and cook until brown, then add the stock, 
vinegar. p-pprr and salt, bring to the boil and simnu-r gently t>r \ 
an hour. Add the mustard a few minutes before serving. Strain, 
and use as required. 

Time. 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, about ;d. 

274. SAGE AND ONION SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux 
Sauge). (For Roast Pork.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of brown stock, 2 medium-sized onions, 



250 HOUSEHOLD MANACxEMENT 

2 ozs. of freshly-made breadcrumbs, i ozs. of butter or sweet dripping, 

1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped sage, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the onions into rather small dice. Melt the butter or 
fat, put in the onions, and fry slowly until brown. Add the stock and 
boil up, then put the sage, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper, simmer for 
10 minutes, and serve. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, /d. 

SAGE (Fr. sauge). This " sweet herb " is a native of the countries bordering upon the Mediter- 
ranean, but has long been cultivated in English gardens. There are several varieties of sage, the 
green, the red. the small-leaved, and the broad-leaved balsamic. Its leaves and tender tops ate 
used for stuffings and sauces, the red kind being the best for that purpose, and next to it the green 
variety. An infusion, prepared from the dried leaves and shoots of the sage, called sage tea, is used 
as an astringent and tonic medicine. 

275. SALMIS SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Salmis.) 

Ingredients. i teaspoonful red currant jelly, \ a pint of Espagnole 
sauce, i gill of game stock (made from the carcass of cooked game) 

2 shallots chopped finely, i bay-leaf, i sprig of thyme, a few mushroom 
trimmings, i glass of port, i tablespoonful of sweet oil. 

Method. Put the oil in a stewpan, and fry the shallots a golden 
colour, add the bay-leaf, thyme, mushroom trimmings and port wine, 
cover the stewpan and cook for 5 minutes. Add the stock and sauce, 
stir well, simmer for 10 minutes, and remove the scum. Pass the 
sauce through a tammy-cloth, season, add red currant jelly, warm up, 
and serve. 

Time. From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 2d. 

276. SHALLOT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Echaiote.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of good brown gravy, No. 6, \ an oz. of 
butter, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
6 shallots finely-chopped. 

Method. Melt the butter, fry the shallots until lightly browned, 
and add the HOT gravy and the rest of the ingredients. Simmer gently 
for 10 minutes, and serve. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2^d., in addition to the 
stock. 

277. SHARP SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Piquante.) 

Ingredients. 4 shallots chopped finely, 3 gherkins chopped, i table- 
spoonful of chopped capers, i gill of vinegar, i bay-leaf, i sprig of 
thyme, of a pint of Espagnole sauce. 

Method. Put the shallots in a stewpan with the vinegar, bay-leaf, 
and thyme, cover, and reduce to half quantity. Strain into another: 
stewpan, add the gherkins, capers, and sauce, boil for a few minutes. 

Time. From 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, is. 2d. 



RECIPES FOR BROWN SAUCES 

278. SORREL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce TOseille.) (For 
Boiled or Braised Fowls.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of good gravy, No. 6, a small handful of sorrel. 

Method. Wash and pick the sorrel, cover it with cold water, bring 
to the boil, cook for a few minutes, and drain well. Have the gravy 
ready in a saucepan. Chop the sorrel finely, add it to the gravy, and 
serve. 

Time. 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. 

SORREL (Fr. surelle). The Romans cultivated the sorrel, which is a native of Italy and France, 
and ate its acrid leaves, stewed with mustard, and seasoned with oil and vinegar. In French cookery, 
sorrel is largely used, both as a salad and for culinary purposes. Although the leaves are both win >!<- 
some and pleasant to the taste, sorrel finds little favour with English cooks. There are two species of tins 
plant, but in England they are scarcely grown as a vegetable. In most parts of Britain sorr 
wild in the grass meadows. Tartaric acid, tannic acid, and binoxalate of potash are constituents ot 
sorrel, and impart to it its characteristic acid taste. 

279.-SPANISH SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Espangole.) 

See Espagnole Sauce. 

280. TEXAS SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a la Texas.) 

Ingredients. | of a pint of curry sauce, No. 241, i teaspoonful of 
lemon-juice, a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a good 
of saffron, i oz. of butter. 

Method. Make the curry sauce as directed, and just before serving 
add the lemon-juice, parsley, saffron, and lastly the butter, which should 
be whisked in gradually in small pieces, to piv\vnt it oiling. 

Time. 45 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, id., in addition to the curry 
sauce. 

281. TOMATO SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tomate.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of tomatoes, 2 shallots, i bay-leaf, i sprig of thynn* 
10 peppercorns, i oz. of butter, 2 ozs. of lean ham, i tablespoonful of 
vinegar. 

Method. Mc-lt the butter in a stew-fan, add the ham cut small, and 

uillots chopped. Cook over the fire, but do not brown. 
add the seasoning, herbs, peppercorns, and tomai .1, stir al- 

ter, and boil for about 20 minutes, or until well reduced. Pass 
mce through a tammy-cloth, warm up, season, and s< 
Time. From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, ;d. to 8d. 

THE TOMATO, or LOVK APPLE (Fr. Tomate), is a native of South America, but was introduced into 
Europe in the sixteenth centurv. It is successfully cultivated in warm or temperate climates, and 

!iv in southern Europe ; it i< extensively grown in England. Tl. 

or cooked in various wavs, and is also used as an ingredient in salads, and as a sauce. In it 
made into pickle. Reference is made to the tomato as the " Love apple," by the late 
Dickens, in the celebrated trial of BardcU r. Pickwick, in his Pickwick Papers. 

282. TOMATO SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tomate.) 

(Another Method.) 
Ingredients. 2 Ib. of tomatoes, of a pint of good stock, i 






25 2 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

onion sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), I oz. 
butter, ^ an oz. of flour, sugar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Halve the tomatoes, squeeze out the juice, strain am 
put it aside. Put the prepared tomatoes into a stewpan, add tl 
stock, onion, bouquet-garni, and a little salt and pepper, simmer vei 
gently for i hour, then pass through a fine sieve. Melt the butt( 
stir in the flour, cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then add the tomato-pul] 
and as much of the strained tomato-juice as may be necessary to 
obtain the desired consistency. Add a pinch of sugar, season to taste 
make thoroughly hot, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, 8d. to iod., in addition to the 
stock. 

283. TRUFFLE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Truffes.) 

Ingredients. 3 large truffles, i gill of brown sauce, i gill of tomato 
sauce, i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, an oz. of fresh butter, about 
i glass of sherry, 

Method. Chop the truffles finely, put them in a small stewpan, cover 
with sherry, add i gill of brown sauce and i gill of tomato sauce, 
boil for a few minutes, finish with a teaspoonful of anchovy essence 
and the fresh butter. 

Time. From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. to is. 2d. 

284. TURTLE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tortue.) 

Ingredients. i^ pints of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, made from turtle 
stock, i glass of sherry, i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, i dessert- 
spoonful of lemon-juice, -J a teaspoonful of chopped lemon rind, 2 
shallots finely chopped. Cayenne pepper to taste. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, and simmer until 
considerably reduced, then strain, and serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d., without the turtle 
stock broth. 

285. VENISON SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Chevreuil.) 

Ingredients. i small onion, i oz. of lean ham, i oz. of butter, \ a gill 
of vinegar, 12 crushed peppercorns, i bay-leaf, \ a small minced carrot, 
a little thyme and chopped parsley, \ a pint of Espagnole sauce, 
i glass of port wine, i dessertspoonful of red currant jelly. 

Method. Mince the onion and the ham, fry them in butter, then 
add the vinegar, peppercorns, bay -leaf, carrot, and herbs. Cover tho 
saucepan and simmer for 10 minutes. Then add the sauce, wine, and 
jelly. Cook for 10 minutes, skim and strain. Re-heat, season, and 
serve. 

Time, -From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. 



RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES 253 

286. VENISON SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Chevreuil.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. | pint brown sauce No. 164, i dessertspoonful of red 
currant jelly, ^ a glass of port wine, the juice of a lemon, salt, 
pepper, i dessertspoonful of meat glaze or Lemco. 

Method. Put all the ingredients except the glaze into a pan and 
simmer till the jelly is dissolved. Add the glaze, boil again, skim, 
strain and serve. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, lod. 

287. WALNUT SAUCE. 

Ingredients. f of a pint of stock, i| ozs. of butter, ij ozs. of flour, 
2 small onions sliced, 4 firm pickled walnuts, i tablcspoonful of walnut 
vinegar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion until lightly 
browned, then sprinkle in the flour. Fry slowly until the flour acquires 
a nut-brown colour, then add the stock, and simmer gently t 
minutes. Strain and return to the stewpan, season to taste, add the 
vinegar and the walnuts, previously cut into dice. Serve with br 
mutton or any dish requiring a sharp sauce. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, ul. or ;d. 

Fish Sauces. 

288. ANCHOVY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce d'Anchois. N 

Ingredients. a pint of IVrluuml same, No. i;S, i t M^.UC >nful of 
anchovy essence. 

Method. Make the sauce hot in a small stewpan, add the amhvy 

nee, and |uired. 

Time. From 5 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, about ;<1. 

289. ANCHOVY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce d'Anchois.) 
(Inexpensive.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of melted buttiT, No. JDJ, i t.-ispoonful of 
anchovy essence. 

Method. Make the melted butter, add to it the anchovy essence, 
and use as required. 

Time. To make the melted butt.T. 15 minutes. Average Cost, i|d 
per \ pint. 



254 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

290. ANCHOVY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce d'Anchois.' 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of milk, of a pint of fish stock or wat< 

1 oz. of butter, of an oz. of flour, i teaspoonful of anchovy essence. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir inthe flour, and cook for 
5 or 6 minutes. Add the milk and stock, stir until it boils, simmer for 

2 or 3 minutes, then add the anchovy essence, and use as required. 
Time. 1$ to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

291. AURORA SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1'Aurore.) 
(For Soles, Trout, etc.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Bechamel sauce, No. 178, i tablespoonful of 
cream, i dessertspoonful of tarragon vinegar, or lemon-juice, i oz. of 
butter, the spawn of a lobster, salt, cayenne. 

Method. Pound the lobster spawn and butter well together, and rub 
through a fine hair sieve. Make the Bechamel hot in a saucepan, put 
in the spawn, cream, vinegar and seasoning, and stir at the side of the 
fire until quite hot, but without boiling. 

Time. 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost. 5d. to 6d., without the lobster 
spawn. 

292. CARDINAL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Cardinal.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of white sauce, No. 222, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cream, i dessertspoonful of lemon- juice, \ an oz. of lobster coral finely- 
chopped, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the white sauce as directed, add the lobster coral and 
nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste. Simmer gently for 15 minutes, then 
pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth. Re-heat, add the cream 
and lemon-juice, and use as required. 

Time. About | an hour. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. , exclusive of the coral. 

293. COCKLE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Mouhs.) 

Ingredients. % f a- pint of cooked cockles, i pint of melted butter, 
No. 228, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Prepare and cook the cockles in the usual way, and re- 
move them from the shells. Have the melted butter ready boiling, 
add the cockles and lemon-juice, season to taste, and serve as an accom- 
paniment to cod or other fish. 

Time. From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, $d. 

294. CODFISH, SAUCE. 

Ingredients. of a pint of brown sauce, No. 234, of a pint of tomato 
sauce, No. 281, i glass of Marsala, 2 tablespoonfuls of stock, i oz. of 
ham shredded, of an oz. of butter, i onion chopped, 4 button mush- 
rooms chopped, i clove, i bay-leaf, salt and pepper. 



RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES 255 

Method. Melt the butter, fry the onion until lightly browned, then 
add the Marsala, stock, ham, mushrooms, clove and bay-leaf. Cover 
closely, cook gently until reduced to one-half, then add the br.nvn 
and tomato sauces. Continue to cook slowly for 10 minutes longer, 
then pass the whole through a fine sieve or tammy cloth. Re-heat, 
season to taste, and use as required. 

Ti me> From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

295 ._CRAB SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce de Crabe.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of white sauce, No. 222, i medium-sized crab, 
i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, a few drops of lemon-juice, cayenne. 

Method. The fish stock required for the white sauce may be obtained 
by simmering the crab shell (previously made clean and broken into 
small pieces) in milk and water. Cut the crab in small pieces, add it 
with the anchovy essence, lemon-juice, and cayenne to the hot sauce, 
draw the saucepan aside for a few minutes, then serve. 

Time. Altogether about 40 minutes. Average Cost, od. to is. 

296. EEL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Anguille.) 

Ingredients. | of a pint of stock, i Ib. of eels, 2 ozs. of lean ham, 
i onion sliced, a few thin slices of carrot, i bay-leaf, 6 peppercorns, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the eel and cut it into short lengths. Cut the ham 
into small pieces. Place both eel and ham in a stewpan, add the stock, 
onion, carrot, bay-leaf, and peppercorns, and season to taste. Simmer 
gently for about \ an hour, then strain, and use as required. 

Time. From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. 

297. EGG SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Oeufs.) (For 
Boiled Fish and Boiled Fowl.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of melted butter, No. 202, i teaspoonful of 
lemon-juice, salt and pepper, 2 hard-boiled eggs. 

Method. Boil the eggs until quite hard (15 minutes), and put them 
into cold water for an hour. Remove the shells, cut the whites in 
small dice, and rub the yolks through a wire sieve. Have the melted 
butler boiling, stir in the whites of egg, add salt, pepper, and lemon- 
juice, and use as required. The sauce is usually poured over the fish, 
and the sieved yolks of egg sprinkled on the top as a garnish. When 
the sauce is servf d separately, the yolks should be added to it with the 
whites. 

Time. i houi Average Cost, 50! . Sufficient for 3 or 4 Ib. of fish. 

298. -EGG SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Oeufs.) (An- 
other Method.) 

Ingredients. -V a pint of milk, i oz. of butter, of an oz. of flour, 
i raw egg, i hard-boiled egg, salt and pepper. 



256 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook for 
3 or 4 minutes, then add the milk and stir until it boils. Cut the hard 
boiled egg into dice (or rub the yolk through a wire sieve if needed to 
decorate the fish), add it, together with any necessary seasoning, to the 
sauce. Beat the yolk of the raw egg slightly, add to it gradually 2 or 3 
tablespoonfuls of the sauce, and when thoroughly mixed stir into the 
remainder of the sauce and cook very gently for 2 or 3 minutes. It 
must not boil, or it will curdle. 

Tim3. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. 

299. FENNEL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Fenouil.) 

Ingredients. a pint of melted butter, No. 202, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
chopped fennel. 

Method. Make the melted butter as directed. Wash the fennel well, 
pick it from the stalks, put it into boiling water, and boil until tender. 
Drain well, chop finely, and add it to the boiling sauce. Use as re- 
quired. 

Time. Altogether 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. for this 
quantity. 

FIT.!*KKL (Fr. fenouil). This fragrant and elegant plant is found growing wild, chiefly on chalky 
soils. It is very generally cultivated in gardens. The teaves are finely divided and the flowers, 
which are small, are of a yellow colour. It grows to the height of about 3 feet ; a larger variety, 
Giant Fennel, sometimes attains the height of 15 feet. Fennel leaves are served with fish either whole 
or as a sauce. The seeds are used in medicine as a carminative, and oil of fennel is obtained from 
Italian fennel, which is cultivated in the south of Europe. 

300. GENEVA SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Genevoise.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of fish stock, i glass of sherry or Madeira 
wine, 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, i onion sliced, 2 mushrooms 
sliced, \ a teaspoonful of lemon- juice, 4- a teaspoonful of anchovy- 
essence, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion until slightly 
browned, add the mushrooms, stir in the flour, and cook the preparation 
until it acquires a nut-brown colour. Now add the stock, wine, lemon- 
juice, anchovy-essence, salt and pepper to taste. Simmer gently for 
abcMt 20 minutes, pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth, re-heat, 
and use as required. 

Time. From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 9d. 

301. GENOISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Genoisc.) 

(For Fish.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Espagnole sauce, i pint of fish stock, i gill 
of claret, \ a small onion, i clove of garlic, 2 cloves, 2 shallots, i bay- 
leaf, a few sprigs of parsley, i sprig of thyme, 2 ozs. of anchovy butter, 
pepper, salt, one pinch of castor sugar. 



RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES 257 

Method. Put some fish bones in a stewpan, together with the fish 
stock or water, the claret, sliced onion, herbs, etc., cover, and reduce 
well. Add the Espagnole sauce, boil up, and strain through a fine 
sieve or tammy-cloth. Return the sauce to a stewpan, season with 
a little pepper and a pinch of sugar, and whisk in the anchovy butter. 
Keep hot, but do not let the sauce boil again. Serve separately with 
boiled fish, or pour over braised fish. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 4d. 

302. GENOISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Genoise.> 

(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i sliced onion, i shallot, \ a clove of garlic, i oz. of butter, 
bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), i teaspoonful anchovy 
essence, i glass of red burgundy, i pint of Espagnole sauce, a pinch of 
mignonette pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion, shallot, garlic, 
and bouquet, add the wine and simmer until the onion is cooked. Then 
add the sauce, simmer for 10 minutes, and pass through a fine strainer. 
Re-heat, add the anchovy essence and the pepper. 

Time. From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to is. 9'd. 

303. -GRATIN SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Gratin.) 

Ingredients, -i a pint of Espagnole sauce, i glass of sherry, \ an oz. 
<>t glaze, i tuHopoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 5 or 6 button mush- 
rooms (fresh if possible \ j shallots or i very small onion finely-chopped, 
i teaspoonful of anchovy essence. 

Method. Cut the mushrooms into small pieces, put them into a s. 
pan with the sherry, glaze, parsley, and shallots, and simmer until 
considerably reduced. Add the sauce and anchovv , cook for 

5 minutes, and serve. 

Time. From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 4d. to is. 6d. 

30/1. HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Hollan- 
daise.) (For Fish and certain Vegetables.) 

Ingredients. i gill of white sauce. } of a t^ill of good white stock, 
rispooniul of lemon-juice, 2 yolks of eggs, i oz. of butter, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Make the white sauce hot, add the stock and yolks of eggs 
well mixed together, and whisk by the side of the fire until the sauce 
tin. kens, but it must not be allowed to boil. Add the lemon-juice, 
and the butter bit by bit, season to taste, and pass through a line 
strainer or tammy-cloth. Re-heat, and use as required. 

K 



25S HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. 15 minutes. Average Cost, /d. 

305. MATELOTE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Matelote.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, -|- of a pint of 
fish stock, No. 5, \ a glass of Burgundy, f of an oz. of butter, i 
tablespoonful of mushroom liquor, a few drops of lemon-juice, a small 
carrot, i small onion, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the carrot and onion into very small pieces. Melt the 
butter in a saucepan, put in the vegetables and fry until brown. Add 
the mushroom liquor, fish stock and wine, simmer until reduced one- 
half, then add the Espagnole. Stir until it boils, then strain or tammy. 
Re-heat, add the lemon-juice, salt and pepper, and use as required. 

Time. From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, About is. 3d. 

Note. A simple form of this sauce was originally made by the French sailor 
(matelot) as a relish to the fish he caught and ate. In some cases, cider and 
perry were substituted for the wine. The Norman matelots were very 
celebrated. 

306. MOUSSELINE SAUCE FOR FISH. (Fr.- 
Sauce Mousseline pour Poissons.) 

Ingredients. A good handful of spinach or watercress, i tablespoonful 
of cream, i dessertspoonful of tarragon vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Pick and wash the spinach, pound it well in a mortar, 
and rub through a fine sieve. Put this puree, cream, vinegar, salt, 
pepper and yolks of eggs into a saucepan, whisk briskly over the fire 
until it becomes a light froth, then serve. 

Time. From 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, about 5d. 

307. MOUSSELINE SAUCE (Cold). (Fr.-- Sauce 
Mousseline Froide.) (For Fish.) 

Ingredients. A good handful of spinach, of a pint of cream, | of a 
pint of mayonnaise sauce, No. 201. 

Method. Prepare the puree of spinach as in the preceding recipe. 
Whip the cream stiffly, and add to it LIGHTLY the mayonnaise sauce 
and the puree. Serve with salmon or other fish. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 5d. 

308. MUSTARD SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Moutarde.) 

Ingredients. a pint of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 ozs. of 



RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES 259 

butter, 1 1 ozs. of flour, i tablespoonful of lemon-juice, i teaspoonful 
of French mustard, i teaspoonful of English mustard. 

Method. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the flour, and 
cook for a few minutes, then add the water, and stir until it boils. 
The mustard must be very thick, otherwise more than 2 teaspoonfuls 
will be required. Strain the lemon-juice on to the mustard, mix well 
together, then pour it into the sauce, and stir until it boils. Add the 
cream, and use as required. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, about $d. 

309. MUSTARD SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Moutarde.) 
(For Fresh Herrings.) 

Ingredients. i teaspoonful of mustard, i dessertspoonful of flour, 
i oz. of butter, i gill of boiling water, i teaspoonful of vinegar. 

Method. Mix the flour and mustard, knead them well with the 
butter, stir in the boiling water, turn into a stewpan, and boil for 5 
minutes. Add the vinegar, and serve. 

Time, 10 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

310. OYSTER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. 12 sauce oysters, i oz. of butter, a teaspoonful of lemon- 
juice, the yolk of i egg, of a pint of Bechamel sauce. 

Method. Open the oysters, remove the beards, and put them with 
their liquor and the butter in a small saucepan. Cover with a lid, 
and cook for 4 minutes (they must not be allowed to boil), then drain 
well, and halve or quarter them. Reduce the liquor to half its 
original quantity, then strain, and return to the saucepan. Add the 
Bechamel sauce, when hot, bind with the yolk of egg, then put in the 
oysters and lemon-juice. Stir until the oysters are quite hot, season 
with a pinch of salt and pepper if necessary, and serve in a hot sauce boat. 

Time. From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 2d., in addition to 
the Bechamel sauce. 

311. PARSLEY SAUCE FOR FISH. (Fr. Sauce de 
Persil.) 

Ingredients. a pint of fish stock, No. 5, or water, i oz. of butter, 
| of a oz. of flour, i tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, cook for 2 
or 3 minutes, then add the stock and stir until it boils. Simmer for 
a few minutes, then season to taste, add the parsley, and serve. If 
the parsley is allowed to boil in the sauce it will lose some of its green 
colour. 

Time. 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost. id. per pint. 



260 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

312. ROE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Laitence.) 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of cod's roe (or any other kind preferred), i tea- 
spoonful of made mustard, i teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, i dessert- 
spoonful of vinegar, \ a pint of melted butter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cook the roe in a little water; when cool, remove any skin 
there may be, and bruise the roe with the back of a wooden spoon. 
Add the mustard, anchovy essence and vinegar, stir the whole into the 
prepared melted butter, and season to taste. Simmer gently for 15 
minutes, then strain and serve. 

Time. About % an hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. 

313. SARDINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Sardines.) 

Ingredients. i pint of good stock, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, 6 
large sardines, the thin rind of i lemon, i shallot, i bay-leaf, nutmeg, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Remove and preserve the bones, chop the sardines rather 
coarsely. Melt the butter, add the flour, stir and cook gently for a 
few minutes, then add the stock. Bring to the boil, add the fish bones, 
lemon-rind, shallot, bay-leaf, a good pinch of nutmeg, and a seasoning 
of salt and pepper. Simmer gently for 15 minutes, then strain over 
the chopped sardines, and serve as an accompaniment to fish. 

Time. About % an hour. Average Cost, is. 

314. SHRIMP SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Creveltes.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of white sauce, |- of a pint of picked shrimps, 
i teaspoonful of anchovy essence, a few drops of lemon- juice, cayenne. 

Method. The fish stock required for the white sauce may be obtained 
by simmering the shrimp shells in milk and water. Add the shrimps, 
anchovy essence, lemon-juice and cayenne to the hot sauce. Cover the 
saucepan, and let it stand for a few minutes where the contents cannot 
boil, then serve. 

Time. Altogether about 40 minutes. Average Cost 8d. 

3IS ._WHITE WINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Vin 
Blanc.) (For Fish, etc.) 

Ingredients. J pint fish stock, | pint of white stock, \ gill of white 
wine (chablis), of an oz. of flour, 2 ozs, of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 
\ a lemon, salt and white pepper. 

Method. If the sauce is required for dressed fish the fish should be 
cooked in a mirepoix, or foundation preparation, of sliced onion, 
parsley, and savoury herbs, as is usual, with the appropriate quantity 
of moisture the liquor is strained and used in the sauce. Melt i oz. 




FRUIT SAUCES AND S\VKKT SAUCES 

of butter, stir in the flour and cook a little, then dilute with 

fish liquor and wine, and cook for 15 minutes. Add, continuously 

stirring, the remainder of the butter bit by bit, also the ypB 

one at a time. Season with a little salt and a pinch of mignonette- or 

white pepper, and add a few drops of lemon-juice, strain through a 

tammy-cloth or napkin, and use as sauce for dressed fish, etc. 

-tly served with soles, salmon, trout, and whiting. 
Time. About an hour. Average Cost, is. 

Fruit Sauces and Sweet Sauces. 

316. APPLE SAUCE. (Fr Sauce aux Pommes.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of apples, i-J ozs. of sugar (or to taste , i oz. of 
butter, a little water if NECESSARY. 

Method. Peel, core and slice the apples, put them into a sam 
with the sugar, butter, and a very little water, and cook them until 
tender. Add more sugar if necessary, be (on- 

Time. 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 41!. to 5<I. 

317. - APRICOT SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1'Abricot.) 

Ingredients. --3 ozs. of apricot marmalade or jam, i pint <>t w 

ss it sherry, i oz. of sugar, i teaspoonful of as : 
Method. Put tin and jam into a saucepan, .m i 

up. Mix the sherry and arrowroot together, pour the mixtui- 

ucepan, stir until it thi< l-n>. .in<! 
Time. 15 to jo minutes. Average Cost, 4d. in ;d. for ti nv. 

318. ARROWROOT SAUCE. </<>,- Sauce Maranta.) 

Ingredients, i a pint of boiling water, i t 

:>ing dessertspoonful of arrowroot, i good tablespoonful of castor 
sugar, or to taste, nutmeg or cinnamon to flavour. 

Method. Blend the arrowroot smoothly with a little cold u 
pour over it the boiling water, stirring meanwhile. Turn into a sauce- 
pan, add lemon-juice, sugar, and a good pinch of nutmeg or cinnamon, 
and Minnvr lor ., or 4 mtnuu->. This sauce may be uth a 

v of puddings, and the flavour v.med by the addition Oi 

Time. About 8 minutes. Average Cost, 

"d from the rootstocks of several species ot plant* of th? 

izilian arrow 

swego arrowroot from Indian corn ; English .u 
Und arrowroot, or sago, from the coots of Ann* mafula: 
is esteemed t is prepared by *, 

Uerwardv by mean* of water, is separated fi 
.:sg passed through a sieve and again washed, the mass is allowed to settle, the 

1 'ocomes arrowroot. Potato starch is sometim- 

anadtil'-- : hat Renuinc arrowroot when formed Into a i 

ret.un :' ->c adulterated article will become thin and resemble milk in the 



262 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

319. ARROWROOT SAUCE, CLEAR. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of cider (equal quantities of wine and 
water, or any kind of fruit-juice may be substituted), i level dessert- 
spoonful of arrowroot, sugar to taste, cinnamon, lemon-rind, or other 
flavouring ingredient. 

Method. Simmer the flavouring ingredient in the cider for 10 minutes. 
Mix the arrowroot smoothly with a little cold water, strain the cider 
into it, stirring meanwhile, and replace in the saucepan. Add sugar 
to taste, simmer gently for 4 or 5 minutes, then serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d., when cider is used. 

320. BRANDY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Cognac.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of water, \ a wineglass of brandy, 4 ozs. of loaf 
sugar, \ an oz. of cornflour, nutmeg if liked. 

Method. Mix the cornflour smoothly with a little of the water, and 
put the rest into a copper saucepan with the sugar. Boil and reduce 
to a thin syrup, skimming occasionally, add the cornflour to the syrup, 
stir until it boils, then add the brandy, and serve. 

Time. About % an hour. Average Cost, from 3^d. to 4d. 

321. BRANDY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Cognac.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of milk, i teaspoonful of arrowroot or corn- 
flour, i teaspoonful of castor sugar, the yolk of i egg, a wineglassful of 
brandy. 

Method. Mix the arrowroot and milk smoothly together, pour into 
a small saucepan, and stir until it boils, add the sugar, and draw 
aside to cool slightly. Mix the brandy and egg together, pour the 
mixture into the sauce, stir until it thickens, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. for this quantity. 

322. CARAMEL SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Caramel.) 

Ingredients. a pint of syrup, i oz. of loaf sugar, i dessertspoon- 
ful of arrowToot, vanilla-essence, cream. 

Method. Brown the sugar in a copper saucepan, add the syrup, 
and boil gently for 10 minutes. Blend the arrowroot smoothly with 
a little cold cream, stir it into the sauce, simmer for 3 or 4 minutes 
longer, then add vanilla-essence to taste. Strain, and use as required. 

Time. 25 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. 

323. CHANTILLY APPLE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce 
Chantilly.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of cooking apples, i-J- ozs. of castor sugar, i oz. oi 
butter, of a pint of cream. 



FRUIT SAUCES AND SWEET SAUCES 263 

Method. Peel, core and slice the apples, and place them in a stewpan 
with 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of cold water. Add the butter and sugar, 
cook gently until quite tender, then pass the preparation through a 
fine sieve. Whip the cream stiffly, stir it into the apple puree, and use 
as required. 

Time. From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

324. CHAUDEAU SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Chaudeau.) 

Ingredients. 4 yolks of eggs, i wineglassful of sherry, i wineglassful 
of water, i tablespoonful of castor sugar. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, and whisk them 
by the side of the fire until thick and frothy. This sauce may be 
served with plum pudding. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, /d. 

325. CHERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Cerises.) 

Proceed the same as for venison sauce No. 286, adding 2 ozs. of glac6 
cherries cut in halves or quarters. 

326. CHOCOLATE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Choco- 
lat.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of water, i tablespoonful of brandy, i tea- 
spoonful of vanilla essence, i oz. of crcme de riz or rice flour, 2 ozs. of 
castor sugar, 4 ozs. of grated chocolate. 

Method. Put the sugar, chocolate, and water into a saucepan, and 
stir until it boils. Mix the creme de riz smoothly with a little cold 
water, pour it into the saucepan and simmer for 5 minutes. Pass 
through a tammy-cloth or fine strainer, add the brandy and vanilla, and 
serve. 

Time. From 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, from 8d. to 9d. for this 
quantity. 

327. CHOCOLATE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Choco- 
lat.) (Economical.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of milk, 3 ozs. of grated chocolate, i oz. of 
sugar (or to taste), i teaspoonful of cornflour, i teaspoonful vanilla 
essence. 

Method. Dissolve the chocolate and sugar in the hot milk, and 
simmer for a few minutes. Mix the cornflour smoothly with a little milk 
or water, pour it into the saucepan, stir and cook for 3 minutes, add 
the vanilla essence, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, sd. to gd. 



264 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

328. CITRON SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Citron.) 

Ingredients, \ a pint of boiling milk, 2 ozs. of castor sugar, \ an oz. 
of cornflour, 2 yolks of eggs, the finely-chopped rind of \ a lemon. 

Method. Blend the yolks of the eggs and the cornflour together, 
add the sugar and lemon-rind, and stir in the boiling milk. Whisk the 
preparation over the fire until it becomes creamy, then use as re- 
quired. 

Time. From 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. 

329. COFFEE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Cafe.) 

Ingredients. 2 ozs. of raw coffee berries, i dessertspoonful of arrow- 
root or cornflour, i glass of brandy, sugar to taste, ^ a pint of boiling 
water. 

Method. Roast the coffee berries in a pan over a quick fire until 
well-browned, then pound them in a mortar. Pour the boiling water 
over the prepared coffee, let it stand for a few minutes, then strain it 
into a saucepan. Blend the cornflour smoothly with the brandy, 
stir it into the coffee, sweeten to taste, simmer gently for 5 minutes, 
then serve. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. 

330. CORNFLOUR SAUCE. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of milk, i dessertspoonful (level) of castor sugar, 
i dessertspoonful (level) of cornflour, the rind of one lemon. 

Method. Remove the outer skin of the lemon in extremely thin 
shavings with a sharp knife, put them into the milk, and simmer for 
5 minutes. Mix the cornflour smoothly with a little cold milk or water ; 
strain the milk and add it to the cornflour, stirring all the time. Re- 
turn to the saucepan, add the sugar, boil for i minute, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2|d. 

331. CRANBERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux Ai- 
relles Rouge.) (For Roast Turkey, Fowl, 

etc.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of cold water, i pint of cranberries, 2 ozs. of 
castor sugar, i tablespoonful of red currant jelly, a glass of port 
wine. 

Method. Wash the cranberries in cold water. Put them into a sauce- 
pan with the water, and simmer gently for \ an hour, then add the 
sugar, wine, and red currant jelly. Boil again, and strain. Serve cither 
hot or cold in a sauccboat or glass dish. 

Time. 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, ;d. to gd. for this quantity. 



FRUIT SAUCES AND SWEET SAUCES 265 

332. CUSTARD SAUCE. (Fr. Creme cuiLe.) (For 
Puddings or Tarts.) 

Ingredients. i pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3 ozs. of castor sugar, i table- 
spoonful of brandy, bay-leaf if liked. 

Method. Boil the milk and bay-leaf, add the sugar, and cool slightly. 
Beat the eggs well, pour the milk on to them, and strain into a jug. 
Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, in which to place the jug, 
keep stirring until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil, 
or it will curdle. Stir in the brandy, and serve. 

Tim3. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to yd. 

333. FROTHY SAUCE. (Fr. Creme fouettee.) 

Ingredients. i wineglassful of sherry, i tablespoonful of castor sugar, 
i egg, of a pint of boiling milk. 

Method. Dissolve the sugar in the boiling milk, and let it cool 
slightly. Beat the egg and sherry well together, add the hot milk and 
mix well. Stand the basin in a stewpan of boiling water, whisk briskly 
until the preparation thickens and becomes very frothy, and serve at 
once. 

Time. From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, $d. to 6d. 

334. GERMAN CUSTARD SAUCE. (Fr. Creme cuite 
a 1'Allemande.) 

Ingredients. The yolks of 2 eggs, i glass of sherry, 2 or 3 lumps of 
sugar, the rind of a lemon. 

Method. Rub the sugar on the lemon rind, then crush, and di- 
in the wine. Put all the ingredients int-t a small saucepan, and whisk 
BRISKLY over a slow fire until it forms a thick froth, but take care thai 
it does not curdle. Serve at once. 

Time. From 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. 

335. GINGER SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Gingembre.) 

Ingredients. i teaspoonful of ground ginger. 4 t.iblespoonfuK d 
castor sugar, 2 or 3 strips of lemon-rind, i tablespoonful of lemon- 
juice, 2 tablespoontuls of brandy or wine, \ a pint of water. 

Method. Put the ginger, sugar, lemon-rind and water into a stew- 
pan, and simmer the ingredients gently for 15 minutes. Strain, return 
to the stewpan, add the brandy and lemon-juice, re-heat, and serve. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to Od. 



266 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

33 6. GOOSEBERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux 
Groseilles.) 

Ingredients. i pint of green gooseberries, % of a pint of milk, 2 ozs. of 
butter, i oz. of flour, 2 ozs. of sugar, nutmeg. 

Method. Barely cover the bottom of a saucepan with water, put 
in the gooseberries and cook slowly until tender, then rub through a 
fine sieve. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in. the flour and cook 
well, add the milk and stir until it boils. Add the gooseberry puree 
and the sugar, make hot, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 4^d. to 5d. for this quantity. 

The GOOSEBERRY (Fr. groseille), the common name for the well-known and wholesome fruit of 
ribes grossularia, a prickly shrub, indigenous to Britain, many parts of Europe and North America. 
The fruit varies in flavour, and is red. yellow, green, or whitish, and hairy or smooth on its surface. 
It is used largely for preserves, and for pies, puddings, etc. Malic and citric acid are found in the 
gooseberry, and from the berries a champagne is manufactured. 

337. GOOSEBERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce aux 
Groseilles.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. |- of a pint of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of green gooseberry 
jam, i tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a little apple-green or spinach- 
green colouring. 

Method. Put the water, jam and lemon juice into a saucepan, and 
bring to the boil. Strain or pass through a tammy-cloth, re-heat, add 
a little colouring if desirable, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, about 3d. for this quantity. 

338. JAM SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Confiture.) 

Ingredients. i good tablespoonful of apricot, raspberry or other 
jam, ^ of a pint of water, a teaspoonful of lemon- juice, sugar to taste, 
carmine or cochineal, if necessary. 

Method. Put the water and jam into a small saucepan, add sugar 
to taste, and make thoroughly hot. Put in the lemon-juice, and a few 
drops of colouring, if necessary strain, and serve with sweet puddings, 
etc. 

Time. 10 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. 

339. LEMON BRANDY. (Fr. Cognac au Citron.) 
(For Flavouring Custards.) 

Ingredients. a pint of cooking brandy, of a pint of water, i oz. 
of loaf sugar, i lemon. 



FRUIT SAUCES AND SWEET SAUCES 267 

Method. Remove from the lemon the thinnest possible rind, as the 
least particle of the white pith would spoil the flavour. Put the brandy 
into a bottle, add the lemon-rind, and let it infuse for 24 hours, then 
strain and return to the bottle. Boil the sugar and water together, 
skim well, and when perfectly cold, add it to the brandy. A dessert- 
spoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring for boiled custards. 

Time. Altogether 26 or 27 hours. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. 

340. LEMON SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Citron.) (For 
sweet Puddings.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of water, i glass of sherry, the juice and rind 
of i lemon, the yolks of 2 eggs, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, 3 or 4 
lumps of sugar. 

Method. Rub the sugar on to the lemon until all the outer rind is 
removed. Squeeze and strain the juice. Melt the butter, stir in 
the flour, and cook well without browning. Add the water, stir 
until it boils, then put in the sugar and lemon juice. Mix the yolks 
of eggs and sherry together, let the sauce cool slightly, then pour them 
in, stir until the sauce thickens, and serve. 

Time. From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. for this 
quantity. 

341. LEMON SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Citron.) (Econ- 
omical.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of boiling water, i lemon, i oz. of loaf sugar, 
I dessertspoonful of arrowroot. 

Method. Rub the sugar on the lemon until the outer rind is removed. 
Have the water boiling in a saucepan, add the sugar. Mix the arrowroot 
smoothly with a little cold water, pour it into the saucepan, and stir 
until it boils. Add the lemon-juice, and more sugar if necessary, and 
serve. 

Time. From 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. for this quantity. 

342. MARMALADE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Marme- 
lade.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of water, i glass of sherry, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of marmalade, i dessertspoonful of sugar (or to taste), i teaspoonful of 
lemon-juice. 

Method. Put the water and marmalade into a saucepan, and stir 
until it boils. Add the sugar, lemon-juice and sherry, stir until the 
sugar is dissolved, and serve. 

Time. Alpout 10 minutes, Average Cost, 5d. with the sherry. 



268 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

343 ._MARMALADE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Marme- 
lade.) (Economical.) 

Ingredients. % a pint of water, i tablespoonful of marmalade, i 
tablespoonful of sugar, i large teaspoonful of cornflour, i teaspoonful 
of lemon-juice. 

Method. Boil the water. Mix the cornflour smoothly with a little 
cold water, add it to the boiling water, stirring all the time. Put in 
the sugar and marmalade, simmer for 5 minutes, add the lemon-juice, 
and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

344. ORANGE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a 1'Orange.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of milk, i glass of curacoa, 2 yolks of eggs, 
2 ozs. of castor sugar, i small orange. 

Method. Boil the milk, add the sugar, the grated orange rind, 
and a tablespoonful of orange-juice, simmer for 5 minutes, then cool 
slightly. Beat the eggs with a little milk, pour them into the saucepan, 
stir until they begin to thicken, then add the cura9oa, and serve. 

Time. About | an hour. Average Cost, ;d. to 8d. for this quantity. 

345. ORANGE SYRUP. (Fr. Sirop d'Orange.) 

Ingredients. \ a pint of orange juice, the rind of 2 oranges, \ of a Ib. 
of castor sugar. 

Method. Remove the rind in VERY thin strips ; they should be almost 
transparent. Put the sugar, orange-juice, and rind into a saucepan, 
and simmer very gently for about |- an hour. Remove the scum as it 
rises. Strain, and when cold, bottle for use. A little of this will be 
found an excellent flavouring for sweet sauces and custard. 

Time. From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. 

346. PLUM PUDDING SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i glass of brandy, i glass of Madeira, 2 ozs. of butter, 
castor sugar. 

Method. Put the butter and i tablespoonful of castor sugar into a 
basin, and let it stand on or near the stove until the butter is melted. 
Stir in the brandy and Madeira, add more sugar if necessary, and when 
hot enough to use, either pour it over the pudding or serve separately 
in a tureen. 

Time* About an hour. Average Cost, iocl f 



FRUIT SAUCES AND SWEET SAUCES 269 

347. RASPBERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Framboise.) 

Ingredients. J of a pint of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of raspberry jam, 
i glass of sherry, sugar to taste, a few drops of carmine or cochineal. 

Method. Put the water, jam, and 3 or 4 lumps of sugar into a sauce- 
pan, and simmer for 10 minutes, then add the sherry, and strain. Add 
sugar to taste, and a few drops of colouring if required, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, from sd. to 6d. 

348. RASPBERRY SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Framboise.) 
(Economical.) 

Ingredients. 4 tablespoonfuls of water, i tablespoonful of jam, i 
tablespoonful of sugar, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice. 

Method. Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes, then add 
the jam and lemon-juice, and simmer a few minutes longer. A lew 
drops of cochineal will brighten the colour, but are not essential. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 2d. for this quantity. 

349. RED-CURRANT SAUCE. (For puddings or for 
Venison, Hare, etc.) 

Ingredients. A small jar of red-currant jelly, i glass of port wine. 

Method. Put the wine and jelly into a small saucepan, let them slowly 
come to the boil, and serve when the jelly is dissolved. 

Time. 5 minutes. Average Cost, rod. 

350. SAGO SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Sagou.) 

Ingredients. i tablespoonful of large - : a pint of boiling water, 

I glass of sherry, i dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, sugar to taste, a 
few thin strips of lemon-rind. 

Method. Add the sago and lemon-rind to the boiling w.iter, and 

simmer gc-ntly until the sajjo is quite clear. Re-move- the lemon-rind, 
add the sherry and lemon-juice, sweeten to taste, make quite hot, 

and serve. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. to $d. 

351. SAUCE FOR PLUM PUDDING. (Soyers.) 

Ingredients. .} of a pint of milk, 2 glasses of brandy, i tablospoonful 
tor sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, a very little grated lemon-rind. 



270 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

' 
Method. Mix all the ingredients in a saucepan, set the pan on the 

fire, and whisk until the contents thicken and become frothy. Serve 

at once. 

Time. 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

352. SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS. 

Ingredients. \ of a Ib. of butter, of a Ib. of pounded sugar, a wine- 
glassful of brandy or rum. 

Method. Beat the butter to a cream, add the pounded sugar and 
brandy or rum; stir until the whole is thoroughly mixed, and serve. 
This sauce may either be poured round the pudding or served in a 
tureen, according to taste. 

Time. 10 minutes. Average Cost. 8d. 

353. SAUCE FOR XMAS PUDDING. 

Ingredients. i wineglass of rum, 4 yolks of eggs, 3 whites of eggs, 
2 ozs. of castor sugar, \ gill of water. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a stewpan with half a gill of 
water, stand it in a larger pan of boiling water, and whisk briskly 
until the whole becomes thick and frothy. Serve at once. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 9d. or lod. for this quantity. 

3S4 ._SAUCE FOR XMAS PUDDING. (Another 
Method.) 

Ingredients. 4 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of sugar, 10 bitter almonds, i 
wineglassful of brandy. 

Method. Blanch and finely chop the almonds, then pound them 
well in a mortar. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add the 
almonds and brandy, continue to beat until the preparation has the 
appearance of clotted cream, then use as required. 

Time. From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

3SS ._SAUCE FOR XMAS PUDDING. (Another 
Method.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of brandy or sherry, of a pint of boiling 
water, i tablespoonful of castor sugar, i level teaspoonful of arrowroot. 

Method. Blend the arrowroot smoothly with 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cold water, and pour over it the boiling water, stirring meanwhile. 



FRUIT SAUCES AND SWEET SAUCES 271 

Put it into a stewpan with the brandy or wine and sugar, boil gently 
for 2 minutes, then serve. 

Time. Altogether, 10 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

356. SOYER'S SAUCE FOR PLUM PUDDING. 

Ingredients. \ of a pint of brandy, of a pint of milk, the yolks of 
3 eggs, i dessertspoonful of castor sugar, a good pinch of very finely- 
grated lemon-rind. 

Method. Beat the yolks of eggs and milk well together, add the 
sugar and lemon-rind, and turn the whole into a small saucepan. 
Whisk until the mixture thickens, then add the brandy, continue to 
whisk until thoroughly hot, and serve separately or poured over the 
pudding. 

Time. About 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 4d. 

357. SWEET MELTED BUTTER. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of milk or water, i oz. of butter, an oz. of 
flour, \ an oz. of sugar, a pinch of salt. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, and cook 
well without browning. Add the milk or water and stir until it boils. 
Simmer for 2 or 3 minutes, then add the sugar, a good pinch of salt, and 
serve. 

Time. 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2^d., if made with milk. 

358. VANILLA SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce a la Vanille.) 

Ingredients. i pint of milk, i egg, i oz. of sugar, an oz. of cornflour, 
a few drops of vanilla essence. 

Method. Mix the cornflour smoothly \s-ilh a little of the milk. ! 
ready a saucepan of boiling water, put the remainder of the milk into 
a jug, and stand the jug in the boiling water until the milk is quite 
hot. Add the sugar to the milk, also add the moistened cornflour and 
stir until it thickens. Beat the egg in a basin, and add 2 or 3 table- 
spoonfuls of the sauce to it gradually. Pour into the jug and stir 
for a few minutes to cook the egg, then add the Vanilla essence, and 
serve. 

Time. 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, about 3^d. 

359. WINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Vin.) 

Ingredients. of a pint of water, i glass of sherry, i tablcspoonful 
of any kind of jam, i tablespoonful of castor sugar, lemon-juice to 
taste. 



272 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Put the sugar and water into a saucepan, and simmer for 
10 minutes, then add the rest of the ingredients, bring to the boil, 
strain, and serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. to $d. 

360. WINE SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce au Vin.) (Econ- 
omical.) 

Ingredients. | a pint of water, i large glass of sherry, i tablespoonful 
(level) of sugar, i teaspoonful of arrowroot. 

Method. Mix the arrowroot with a little of the water and boil the 
remainder, pour it on to the arrowroot, stirring all the time. Return 
to the saucepan, add the wine and sugar, boil up, and serve. The colour 
may be improved by the addition of a few drops of carmine or cochineal. 

Time. About 10 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. for this quantity. 

361. WHITE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS. 

Ingredients. | of a pint of milk, i dessertspoonful of cornflour, sugar 
to taste, 2 or 3 thin strips of lemon-rind, salt. 

Method. Blend the cornflour smoothly with a little cold milk, and 
put the remainder into a saucepan. Add the lemon-rind and a pinch 
of salt, simmer gently for 10 or 15 minutes, then strain over the blended 
cornflour, stirring meanwhile. Return to the saucepan, sweeten to 
taste, simmer gently for 5 minutes, and use as required. Any other 
flavouring may be substituted for the lemon-rind. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 2|d. 

'362. ZWETSCHEN SAUCE. (Prune Sauce.) 

Ingredients. J a Ib. of French prunes, i glass of port or sherry, 
I tablespoonful of lemon- juice, the finely grated rind of \ a lemon, 
a teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, sugar to taste. 

Method. Simmer the prunes until tender, in just enough water to 
cover them. When cool, crack, and preserve the kernels. Replace the 
fruit and kernels in the stewpan, add sugar to taste, cinnamon, Jemon- 
rind and lemon-juice, cook gently for 10 minutes, and pass through 
a fine hair sieve. Re-heat, add the wine, and a little water if too 
thick, and use as required. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 8d. 

CINNAMON (Fr. cinnamome). The cinnamon tree, Laurus cinnanomum, is a valuable and beautiful 
member of the Lauraceae, or laurel family. Its trunk is short and straight, with wide spreading 
branches, and a smooth, ash-like bark. H attains a height of 20 to 30 feet. The leaves are 
oval-shaped, 3 to 5 inches long ; the flowers are in panicles, with six small petals of a pale-yellow 
colour. The fruit, which resembles an acorn, is soft and insipid, and of a deep-blue. It incloses a 
nut, the kernel of which germinates after falling. The leaves, fruit and root of the cinnamon all yield 
a volatile oil, oil of cinnamon. The bark of the tree the thinner bark is the most esteemed 
furnishes the well-known cinnamon used by cooks and confectioners. From the fragrant fatty 
substance of the fruit candles were formerly made exclusively for the King of Ceylon. Cinnamon is 
employed in medicine as a carminative and stomachic remedy. 






RECIPES FOR MISCELLANEOUS SAUl K> 



Miscellaneous Sauces. 

363. BENTON SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, i tablcspoonful of scraped 
horseradish, I teaspoonful of made mustard, I teaspoonful of castor 
sugar. 

Method. Mix all the ingredients well together, and serve as an 
accompaniment to either hot or cold roast beef. 

Time. From 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

364. BLACK BUTTER SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 1 ozs. of butter, i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
a teaspoonful of vinegar. 

Method. Cook the butter in a frying or saute-pan until it acquire- 
a nut-brown colour, then add the parsley and vinegar, cook for i minute 
longer, and serve. 

Time. 5 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. 

365. BOAR'S HEAD SAUCE. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of dissolved red-currant jelly, j of a pint of 
port wine, 4 oranges, 3 lumps of sugar, i finely-chopped .^h.illot, i 
mustardspoonful of mixed mustard, pepper. 

Method. Shred the rind of 2 oranges into very fine strips, and rub 
the lumps of sugar over the rinds of the remaining two. I'm th<- rm<l 
and sugar into the liquid jelly, add the wine, shallot, must. ml, and a 
liberal seasoning of pepper, and use as required, or the sauce may be 
put into well-corked bottles and stored for use. 

Time. 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. lod. 

366. CAMBRIDGE SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 2 tablespoonfuls of olive oil, i tablespoonful of tarragon 
vinegar, 4 hard-boiled yolks of eggs, 4 fillets of anchovies, i 
spoonful of capers, i dessertspoonful of French mustard, i teaspoonful 
of English mustard, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a sprig 
of tarragon, a sprig of chervil, a pinch of cayenne. 

Method. Pound all the ingredients except the parsley well together, 
then pa s through a hai: If too stiff, add a little oil and vinegar 

gradually until the consistency resembles that of mayonnaise sauce. 



274 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Stir in the parsley, and keep on ice until required. This is an excellent 
sauce to serve with cold meat. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 8d. to gd. 



367. CARRACK SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i quart of vinegar, 8 dessertspoonfuls of walnut pickle, 
5 dessertspoonfuls of Indian soy, 5 dessertspoonfuls of mushroom 
ketchup, 3 dessertspoonfuls of mango pickle sliced, 2 cloves of garlic 
finely-chopped. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, let it stand for 
a month, shaking it 2 or 3 times daily. At the end of this time the 
sauce will be ready for use, but it will keep good for a length of time 
in well-corked bottles. 

Time. i month. Average Cost, is. 6d. 



368. CAYENNE VINEGAR. 

Ingredients. i pint of vinegar, \ an oz. of cayenne pepper. 

Method. Mix the vinegar and cayenne together in a bottle, let it 
stand for i month, shaking the preparation daily. When ready, 
strain into well-corked bottles, and store for use. 

Time. i month. Average Cost, about 6d. 



369. CHEESE SAUCE. 

Ingredients. of a pint of milk, of an oz. of butter, of an oz. of 
flour, i tablespoonful of finely-grated cheese, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook 
the mixture for 5 minutes without browning, and add the milk. Season 
to taste, simmer gently for 10 minutes, then stir in the cheese, and use 
as required. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. or 6d. 



370. DEMI-GLACE SAUCE. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see page 240), of a pint of 
good gravy, salt and pepper. 

Method. Make the Espagnole sauce as directed, boil until well 
reduced, then add the gravy, simmer for about 10 minutes, season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. 15 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 






RECIPES FOR MISCELLANEOUS SAUCES 275 

371. EPICUREAN SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i gill of mayonnaise sauce, No. 201, a gill of aspic 
jelly, (see jellies), i- a gill of cream, i tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, 
i teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, i dessertspoonful of chopped 
gherkins, i dessertspoonful of chopped chutney, a cucumber, salt, 
pepper, sugar. 

Method. Peel the cucumber thinly, cut it into small pieces, and 
cook till tender in salted water. Drain of! the water, and rub the 
cucumber through a fine sieve. Carefully mix the mayonnaise with 
the cream, anchovy-essence, gherkins, and chutney. Mix the cu- 
cumber puree with the vinegar and the aspic, which should be 
dissolved but almost cold. Blend both mixtures together. Season 
with salt, pepper, and a little castor sugar, and serve with fish, cold 
meat, or vegetables such as asparagus, green artichokes, etc. 
This also makes a nice dressing for fish salads. 

Time. 40 minutes. Cost, about is. 

372. FISH SAUCE. (Fr Sauce Poisson.) 

Ingredients. i quart of malt vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut 
ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, i oz. of cayenne, i clove of garlic, 
2 shallots sliced. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake them 
daily for a fortnight. When ready, strain into small bottles, cork 
securely, and store for use. 

Time. 14 days. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

373. HARVEY SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i quart of malt vinegar, of a pint of In 
of a pint of mushroom or walnut vinegar, 6 anchovies finely-cho, 
i clove of garlic bruised, of an oz. of cayenne. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into an earthenware jar, cover 
closely, let the mixture remain for i month, stirring it j 
daily. When ready, strain into small bottles, cork securely, and store 
or use. 

Time. i month. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

374. HERB SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i stick of horseradish finely scraped, 2 shallots shredded, 
sprigs each of marjoram, thyme, basil, and tarragon, 4 cloves, 
poonful of caramel browning, No. 155, i tablespoonful of 
lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, i pint of water. 

Method. Simmer all these ingredients together for an hour, an. I 



276 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

when quite cold strain into small bottles. Cork and seal securely, 
and store for use. This sauce will be found useful for flavouring 
gravies and stews. 
Time. 40 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

MARJORAM (Fr. Marjolaine). There are several species of marjoram, which grows wild on 
chalky soils of Britain, and is one of the commonest of ornamental wild plants. The species used 
for culinary purposes is the Sweet Marjoram, a native of Southern Europe. It is cultivated in 
gardens, and when it blossoms it is cut and the leaves, which have an agreeable aromatic flavour, 
are dried. Marjoram is a favourite ingredient in stuffings, soups, sauces, etc. 

375. HESSIAN SAUCE. 

Ingredients. of a pint of sour cream (about), i tablespoonful of 
grated horseradish, i tablespoonful of fine breadcrumbs, milk, sugar, salt. 

Method. Soak the breadcrumbs in just as much milk as they will 
absorb, add the grated horseradish, and a pinch of salt and sugar. 
Add cream gradually until the desired consistency is obtained, and serve 
as an accompaniment to roast beef or beef steak. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. 

376. JELLY SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i small pot of red-currant jelly, i glass of port wine. 
Method. Dissolve the red-currant jelly, add the wine, make it 
thoroughly hot, and serve as an accompaniment to venison. 
Time. \ an hour. Average Cast, is. 

377. LEAMINGTON SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 3 pints of vinegar, i pint of walnut-juice. \ a pint of 
Indian soy, of a pint of port wine, i oz. of shallots, \ of an oz. of 
garlic, | an oz. of cayenne. 

Method. Procure young green walnuts, pound them to a pulp, 
sprinkle liberally with salt, and let them remain for 3 days, stirring 
at frequent intervals. Strain the juice obtained, measure and add 
the rest of the ingredients in the proportions stated above, the garlic 
and shallots being previously pounded or finely-chopped. Turn the 
whole into a large jar, cover closely for 3 weeks, then strain into 
small bottles, cork and seal securely, and store for use. 

Time. About i month. Average Cost, 2S. lod. to 33. 

378. LEGHORN SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 3 hard-boiled yolks of eggs, salad-oil, vinegar, tarragon 
vinegar, 2 anchovies pounded and sieved, a teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, nutmeg, pepper. 

Method. Crush the yolks with a wooden spoom in a basin, add salad- 
oil, drop by drop at first, until the preparation has the consistency 



RECIPES FOR MISCELLANEOUS SAUCES 277 

of very thick cream. Stir in a pinch of nutmeg, a little pepper, an- 
chovies, parsley, and vinegar to taste. Set on ice until wanted. 
Time. 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 4d. 

379. LEMON SAUCE. (For Fowls, etc.) 

Ingredients. i- a pint of chicken stock, of a pint of milk, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of cream, the thinly-peeled rind and juice of I lemon, i ozs. of 
butter, i oz. of flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Simmer the lemon-rind and the milk and stock together 
for 10 minutes. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, add the flour, 
and stir and cook for 5 or 6 minutes, without browning. Pour in the 
stock and milk, stir until boiling, simmer gently for 20 minutes, 
season to taste, add the cream and lemon-juice, and sen e. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 8d. to lod. 

380. LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE. 

Ingredients. | a pint of melted butter, No. 202, I lemon, the liver 
of a fowl, salt and pepper. 

Method. Boil the liver until firm, and chop it finely. Grate off 
the lemon -rind, and mix it with the liver. Remove every particle 
of white pith, and cut the lemon into dice, putting all the pips aside. 
Make the melted butter sauce as directed in No. 202, add the pivp.m d 
liver, lemon-rind and dice, season to taste, and use as required. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 2\d. 

381. LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE. 

Ingredients. V a pint of melted butter, No. 202, i tablespoonful of 
finely-chopped parsley, the liver of a fowl, salt and JK ]>; 

Method. Boil the liver until firm, and chop it finely, make the 
melted butter as directed, add the parsley and prepared liver, season to 
taste, and serve. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2^d. 

382. NUT BROWN BUTTER. (Fr. Beurre Noir.) 

Ingredients. 4 ozs. of butter, i tablespoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cook the butter in a frying p;m until it turns brown, 
then add the parsley, vinegar, and salt and pepper to taste. Let the 
whole simmer for i or 2 minutes, when it is ready to serve. 

Time. of an hour. Average Cost, 51!. 

383- QUIN'S SAUCE. 

Ingredients, i pint of mushroom ketchup. ] a pint of walmt pickle, 



278 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

a pint of port wine, % of a pint of soy, 1 2 anchovies chopped, 1 2 shallots 
chopped, a teaspoonful of cayenne. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, simmer gently for 
1 5 minutes, and strain. When quite cold, bottle, cork and seal securely, 
and store for use. 

Time. 25 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 8d. 

384. READING SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 2% pints of walnut pickle, i ozs. of shallots, coarsely- 
chopped, i quart of water, |- of a pint of Indian soy, i anchovy coarsely- 
chopped, i an oz. of ginger bruised, an oz. of white peppercorns, 
i oz. of mustard seed, \ an oz. of cayenne, of an oz. of dried bay- 
leaves. 

Method. Put the walnut pickle and shallots into a large jar, and cook 
in a gentle oven until reduced to 2 pints. In another jar place the 
cayenne, mustard seed, peppercorns, ginger and anchovy, add the soy 
and water, and cook in a gentle oven for i hour after simmering point 
is reached. Mix the contents of the 2 jars together, and when quite 
cold add the bay-leaves. Leave closely covered for i week, then strain 
into small bottles, cork and seal securely, and store for use. 

Time. 2 hours and i week. Average Cost, 2s. 8d. to 35. 

385. SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, ETC. 

Ingredients. i pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle, an oz. 
of pickled shallots, \ an oz. of grated horseradish, an oz. of allspice, 
i oz. of black pepper, i oz. of salt. 

Method. Pound the shallots and horseradish until smooth in a 
mortar, add the rest of the ingredients, and let the whole stand closely 
covered for 14 days. Strain into small bottles, cork and seal securely, 
and store for use. 

Time. 2 weeks. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

ALLSPICE (Fr. pintent). The popular name for pimento, or Jamaica pepper, the dried berries of 
Eugenia pimento., a lofty handsome tree, with dark shiny green leaves and fragrant white flowers. 
It belongs to the Myrtaceae, or myrtle family, and receives its name of " Allspice " from its possessing 
the combined flavours of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. The berries are gathered in the green state 
and dried in the sun, which causes them to turn black. Allspice is used in medicine as an aromatic, 
and in various ways is employed in cookery. 

386. STORE SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i pint of mushroom ketchup, 4- a pint of walnut ketchup, 
a pint of port wine, 12 anchovies, 6 shallots, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cayenne. 

Method. Pound the anchovies and shallots, or chop them finely ; 
add them to the rest of the ingredients, and boil gently for i hour. 



RECIPES FOR MISCELLANEOUS SAUCES 279 

When cold, put the preparation into well-corked bottles, and store for 
use. 

Time. 1 hour. Average Cost, 35. 

387. SUBSTITUTE FOR CAPER SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i good tablespoonful of coarsely-chopped gherkins 
of a pint of white stock, of a pint of milk, i ozs. of butter, i ozs 
of flour, vinegar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook 
the mixture for 6 or 7 minutes, then add the stock and milk. Simmer 
gently for 10 minutes, season with salt and pepper, add vinegar to 
taste, and the prepared gherkins. Serve with boiled mutton, or other 
dishes to which caper sauce forms an accompaniment. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the stock. 

388. SWEDISH SAUCE. 

Ingredients. 2 raw yolks of eggs, 2 hard-boiled yolks of eggs, i tea- 
spoonful of finely-chopped mixed herbs, salad oil, tarragon vinegar, 
prepared mustard, salt and pepper. 

Method. Pass the hard-boiled yolks of eggs through a fine sieve. 
Stir the raw yolks with a wooden spoon in a small basin until thick 
and creamy, mix in the yolks, and add the salad oil, drop by drop, 
until the desired consistency is obtained, stirring briskly meanwhile. 
Add a teaspoonful of made mustard, the herbs, vinegar, and salt and 
pepper to taste, and mix well. Stand on ice until required. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 6d. or 7d. 

Note. This sauce is sometimes used for coating or masking purposes; 
in which case, a gill or so of aspic should be incorporated. 

389. TAMARIND SAUCE. 

Ingredients. Ripe tamarinds, sugar to taste. 

Method. Place the fruit in layers in a stone jar, sprinkling each 
layer slightly or liberally with sugar, according to taste. Cook in a 
cool oven until quite tender, then pass through a fine hair sieve, and 
when quite cold turn into small bottles, cork and seal securely, and 
store for use. 

Time. About 4 hours. 

390. TOMATO SAUCE. (Fr. Sauce Tomate.) 

Ingredients. a pint of vinegar, 2 Ib. of tomatoes, i Spanish onion 
sliced, a Ib. of brown sugar, 3 ozs. of allspice, i oz. of black pepper- 
corns, 2 ozs. of salt, of an oz. of cloves, ^ of a teaspoonful of cayenne. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a stewjar or saucepan, cover 



280 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

closely, and cook very gently for 2 hours. Pass through a fine hair 
sieve, let the puree remain until quite cold, then turn into small bottles, 
cork and seal securely, and store for use. 

Time. About 2^ hours. Average Cost, is. 3d. 

391. TOMATO ASPIC. 

Ingredients. \ a pint of tomato pulp, \ an oz. of gelatine (previously 
soaked in water), ^ a gill of aspic, and i tablespoonful of meat 
glaze. 

Method. Put the above named ingredients in a saucepan over the 
fire, stir until it boils, season to taste with salt and a pinch of cayenne 
pepper, strain the aspic through a cloth or fine sieve, and use as 
directed. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, about is. 3d. 

392. WORCESTER SAUCE. 

Ingredients. i pint of Bordeaux vinegar, 3 tablespoonfuls of walnut 
ketchup, 3 tablespoonfuls of essence of anchovy, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
Indian Soy, i teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 cloves of garlic finely-chopped. 

Method. Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, cover closely, 
and shake well every day for a fortnight. At the end of this time it 
will be ready for use, but it may be stored for a length of time in well- 
corked bottles. 

Time. 2 weeks. Average Cost, TS. 4d. 





Forcemeats. 



Forcemeat, or Farcemeat, as it was originally called, derives its 
name from the French verb farcie, to stuff. In modern phraseology 
the term farce or forcemeat is applied equally to the simple and quickly 
made veal stuffing, the finely-pounded quenelle mixture (which is in 
no sense a stuffing), and the various farces used to cover sections of 
pigeons, cutlets, etc. 

The consistency of forcemeat varies according to the purpose for 
which they are required. Those intended for stuffing may be moistened 
with milk instead of egg, and made much more moist than quenelles, 
which must retain their shape and be firm enough to support their 
own weight during the process of cooking. 

The quantity of liquid necessary to thoroughly moisten, and the 
number of eggs required to stiffen the various substances, cannot bo 
stated exactly ; but it is better to have a rough guide than none, and 



RECIPES FOR FORCEMEATS 281 

when making quenelle mixtures, which must have a certain consistency, 
and yet retain the lightness which is one of their chief points of ex- 
cellence, it is advisable to test the mixture by poaching a small quantity 
of it in boiling water. When too soft, another yolk of egg should be 
added, if eggs have been already used, or a few crumbs may be added 
to mixtures of which they already form a part. 

The excellence of many simple forcemeats depends largely on flavour- 
ings and seasoning. In making them, it is a common error to use too 
little salt and pepper, and too few flavourings ; it is much better to use 
a small quantity of several kinds than to allow one flavour to predomin- 
ate. A comparatively large quantity of nutmeg may be used in \M! 
forcemeat without its presence being detected ; it is believed that its 
strength is in some manner used in developing the flavour of the sub- 
stances with which it is mixed. 

The liquid in which quenelles are poached must always be quite 
boiling, in order that the surface may immediately harden, and so help 
them to retain their shape. 

393. CHESTNUT FARCE FOR ROAST TURKEY. 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of chestnuts, a pint of stock or water, i oz. of 
butter, a good pinch of sugar, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut off the tops of the chestnuts, and bake or roast them 
minutes. Remove both the outer and inner skins, put the 
nuts into a stcwpan, add the stock (no more than will b.uvly 
cover them), and simmer until they become tender and dry. Rub 
through a fine sieve, add the butter, salt and pepper, and use as re- 
quired. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, from ;d. to 8d. without the 
stock. 

394--FARCE OF WHITING OR OTHER FISH. 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of uncooked fish (two whitings), | of a pint of 
milk or fish stock. No. 5, 2 ozs. of flour, i oz. of butter, j 
pep] XT and salt. 

Method. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the milk or stink, 
and cook until the panada ti.rms a o-mpuit mass round the bowl 
ot the spoon. Pound the fish and tin.- panada well together, add 
the eggs one by one, season well, and pass the ingredients through a 

A lighter mixture may be obtained when required by pounding 
3 yolks with the fish and mixing the 3 whites (stiiily whipped 
after passing the mixture through the s: 

Time. -About 35 minutes. Average Cost, about is. for this quantity. 



282 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

395. FORCEMEAT FOR BAKED FISH. (Fr. 
Farce de Huitres et d'Anchois.) 

Ingredients. 3 ozs. of breadcrumbs, i teaspoonful of minced savou 
herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be dispensed with), 2 ozs. 
suet, salt and pepper, pounded mace to taste, 6 tablespoonfuls of crcar 
or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs. 

Method. Beard and mince the oysters, prepare and mix the other 
ingredients, and blend the whole thoroughly together. Moisten with 
the cream and eggs, put all into a stewpan, and stir the mixture over 
the fire till it thickens. Stuff the inside of the fish with the prepara- 
tion, and sew up the opening. 

Time. 4 or 5 minutes to thicken. Average Cost, lod. Sufficient for 
a moderate-sized pike. 

396. FORCEMEAT FOR SAVOURY PIES. 

Ingredients. % a Ib. of veal finely-chopped, of a Ib. of bacon finely- 
chopped, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, of a tea- 
spoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, i egg, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Mix the veal, bacon, breadcrumbs, parsley, herbs and lemon- 
rind well together, and season to taste. Add the egg, which should 
thoroughly moisten the dry ingredients; if too small to do this, use a 
little milk or water in addition. Mix well, and use as required. 

Average Cost. lod. to is. Sufficient for i large pie. 

397. HAM FORCEMEAT FOR VEAL, TURKEY, 
FOWL, HARE. 

Ingredients. 2 ozs. of ham or lean bacon, 4 ozs. of suet, 4 ozs. of bread 
crumbs, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ^ a teaspoonful of 
mixed herbs, the grated rind of a lemon, a good pinch of nutmeg, 
a good pinch of mace, 2 eggs, or i egg and a little milk, salt and pepper. 

Method. Chop the ham and suet finely. Mix all the dry ingredients 
well together, add the eggs, season to taste, mix well, and use as re- 
quired. When the mixture is intended for balls, the consistency 
should be tested by poaching a small quantity in boiling water. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, about 6d. for this quantity. 

398, LIVER FARCE (Fr. Farce de Foie de Veau.) 
FOR QUAILS, AND OTHER BIRDS. 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of calf's liver, 2 ozs. of lean veal, 3 ozs. of bacon, 
\ a very small onion, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 
i oz. of butter, the yolk of i egg, salt and pepper. 




RECIPES FOR FORCEMEATS 

Method. Cut the liver, veal, and bacon into very small pieces, melt 
the butter in a saute-pan, put in the meat, onion, finely-chopped, 
bouquet-garni, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and fry 10 
or 15 minutes. Pound in a mortar, rub through a wire sieve, add the 
yolk of egg, mix well, season to taste, and use as required. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 

399. LOBSTER FARCE FOR QUENELLES. 

Ingredients. 6 ozs. of lobster, of a pint of fish stock or milk, 2 ozs. 
of flour, i oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt, cayenne. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, add the stock 
or milk, and cook until it leaves the sides of the saucepan clear and forms 
a compact mass round the bowl of the spoon, then put it aside to cool. 
Chop the lobster finely, and pound it and the panada (flour mixture) 
well together in the mortar ; add each egg separately, season to taste, 
pound thoroughly, and rub the mixture through a wire sieve. Stir 
in the cream, and the farce is ready for use. This mixture, being very 
light, is best steamed in small quenelle or dariol moulds. 

Average Cost, 2S. to 2S. 6d. for this quantity. 

400. OYSTER FORCEMEAT FOR ROAST OR 
BOILED TURKEY. 

Ingredients. 18 sauce oysters, a pint of breadcrumbs, 2 ozs. of 
finely-chopped suet, a teaspoonful of mixed herbs, a good pinch of 
nutmeg, salt and pepper, i egg, and a little milk if necessary (or oyster 
liqu< 

Method. Beard the oysters, put any liquor from them into a sauce- 
pan, add the beards, and simmer for about 10 minutes. Cut the oysters 
into small pieces, mix with them the breadcrumbs, suet, herbs, nutmeg, 
and seasoning. Add the egg and sufficient milk or oyster liquor to 
thoroughly moisten the whole, and mix well. Press the farce lightly 
into the breast of the turkey. 

Time. From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, about is. 9d. for 
quantity. Sufficient for one turkey. 

401. PORK STUFFING. 

Ingredients. i Ib. of onions, 4 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 2 
ozs butter, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped sage or a teaspoonful 
of powdered sage, salt and pepper. 

Method.- Cut the onions into slices, cover them with cold water, 
brin^ to the boil, cook for 5 minutes, then strain and drain well, 
the butter in a stewpan, and fry the onions for about 1 5 minutes without 



284 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

browning. Add the breadcrumbs, sage and seasoning, mix well, and 
use as required. 

Average Cost. 4(1. Sufficient for a leg or loin of pork. 

Note. For other methods see "Sage and Onion Stuffing." 

402. QUENELLES, TO SHAPE. 

To make quenelles a good shape it is necessary to use a knife and 
two dessertspoons, or smaller spoons when intended for soup. Dip 
one of the spoons in hot water to prevent the mixture sticking to it, fill 
it with the farce, press it from the sides, and raise it in the centre 
with the knife (previously dipped in hot water), making it a nice oval 
shape. Take the other spoon, dip it into hot water, pass the knife 
carefully round the edge of the quenelle, transfer it to the second 
spoon and shape as before. As the quenelles are shaped they should 
be placed in the saute pan, or stewpan, in which they are to be 
cooked. When ready, sufficient boiling stock or water to half cover 
them should be added, and the top of the quenelles must be covered 
with a sheet of greased paper to preserve the colour, and keep moist 
that part of the quenelles not under water. 

403. QUENELLES FOR SOUP. 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of fillet of veal, \ of a pint of stock, \ an oz. of 
butter, i oz. of flour, i egg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, add first the flour and 
then the stock, stir and cook until the mixture forms a compact mass 
round the bowl of the spoon, then put it aside to cool. Pass the veal 
2 or 3 times through the mincing machine, or chop it finely. Pound the 
panada (or flour mixture) and the meat well together until smooth. 
Add the eggs separately, season to taste, and give the whole a good 
pounding. Pass the mixture through a fine sieve, shape it into small 
quenelles by means of 2 egg spoons, and poach in a little hot stock 
until firm. Add them to the soup, and serve. 

Time. About 45 minutes. Average Co:t, 8d. to gd. 

404. SAGE AND ONION STUFFING. (For Roast 
Goose, Duck, Pork.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of onions, \ a pint of freshly-made bread crumbs, 
i tablespoonful of finely-chopped sage or a teaspoonful of powdered 
sage, 2 ozs. of butter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the onions into dice, put them into cold water, bring 
to the boil, cook for 5 minutes, then strain and drain well. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, and fry the onions for about 15 minutes without 
browning them. Add the breadcrumbs, sage, and seasoning, mix well, 
and use as required. 



l ; i>K roUCKMK.VIS 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, ;d. Sufficient lor i 

dinks. 

405. -SAGE AND ONION STUFFING. (For roast 
Goose, Duck, and Pork.) 

Ingredients. 4 large onions, 10 sa^e haves, of a Ib. of breadcrumbs, 

t butter, salt and pepper to taste, i egg. 

Method.- Peel the onions, put them into boiling water, let them 
simmer for 5 minutes or rather longer, and, just before they 
out, put in the sage leaves for a minute or two to take off their rav. 
Chop both these very fine, add the bread, seasoning, and butter, and 
work the whole together with the yolk of an egg. when the stut'tir. 

ly for use. It should be rather highly seasoned, and 

shoulc finely chopped. Man lo not parlxtil the onions 

in the manner just stated, but merely use them raw, but the stuffing 
then i^ not nearly so mild. and. to many tafl -'mm; flavour would 

lonable. When made for goose, a portion of the livn 
of the bird, simmered 5 and very fmelv mm* 

ntly added to tin '1 where economy 

er may be div. ith. 

Time. KatluT more than 5 mir \. Average 

Cost, fort: :d. Sufficient for i go,, 

406. -SAUSAGE FARCE. (For Stuffing Turkey.) 

Ingredients, j Ib. of lean poT .|,^p,,,,n' 

nibs. \ a .tul (f 

f the 
turkey finely choj)p.el. S; 

Method. -Cut the pork into small pieces, and pass r 

through the mincing UK* to it the uml>s, 

r, seasoning, and 'isten with 

little stock, and use. 

Time to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to is. ;d. 

one turkey. 

407. SAVOURY OYSTER STUFFING. 

I dessei t-|M,,,illul i li 
f butter. s, t lt , ul d p, j.j.n 

Method. Me.ird the oysters, - ut it with the 

I h.Ml. Allow to ill the 

from the beards, then strain. Mix tot-etl 
od lemon. 
: S chopp-. 



286 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

much of the oyster stock as will bring to the proper consistency. 
Use for stuffing fish or poultry. 

Time. 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for i goose. 

408. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR GOOSE STUFFING. 

Method. Take 4 apples, peeled and cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, 
4 leaves of lemon thyme not broken, and boil them in a stewpan with 
sufficient water to cover them ; when done, pulp them through a sieve, 
removing the sage and thyme ; then add sufficient pulp of mealy 
potatoes to cause it to be sufficiently dry, without sticking to the hand ; 
add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird. 

LEMON THYME (Fr. thym), Thymus citridorus. is a variety of the familiar aromatic herb. It is a 
trailing evergreen of smaller growth than the garden thyme, and is remarkable for its smell, which 
resembles that of the rind of a lemon : hence its distinctive name. Lemon thyme is cultivated -in 
gardens for its fragrant odour, and is used for seasoning, and for some particular dishes, in which 
it is desired the fragrance of the lemon should slightly predominate. 

409. SUET FORCEMEAT. 

Ingredients. 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, 4 tablespoonfuls 
of breadcrumbs, i good dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 
^ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, $ of a teaspoonful of grated 
lemon-rind, i egg and a little milk, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Mix all the dry ingredients well together, add the egg and 
sufficient milk to slightly moisten the whole, season to taste, and use. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. 

410. TRUFFLE FORCEMEAT. 

Ingredients. \ Ib. of truffles (preferably fresh ones), \ a Ib. of veal, 
a Ib. of pork or bacon (fat and lean in equal parts), i finely-chopped 
shallot, i glass of sherry, salt and pepper. 

Method. Pass the veal and pork or bacon 2 or 3 times through a 
mincing machine, or chop the meat very finely, pound in a mortar 
until quite smooth, then pass through a wire sieve. Chop the shallot 
and truffles finely, add them to the meat preparation, season to taste, 
and moisten with the sherry and a little stock, or liquor from the 
truffles when using bottled ones. Use as required. 

Average Cost. 6 to 8 shillings. Sufficient for i small turkey. 

411. VEAL FARCE FOR QUENELLES, ETC. 

Ingredients. i Ib. of fillet of veal, of a pint of stock, i oz. of butter, 
2 ozs. of flour, 2 eggs, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour and the stock, 
stir and cook until the mixture forms a compact mass round the bowl 



RECIPES FOR FORCEMEATS 287 

of the spoon, then put it aside to cool. Pass the veal two or three 
times through the mincing machine, or chop it finely. Pound the 
panada (the flour mixture) and the meat well together until smooth. 
Add the eggs separately, season to taste, and give the whole a good 
pounding. Pass the mixture through a fine sieve, and use as required. 
Time. About 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 5d. without the stock. 

412. VEAL FARCE. (For Quenelles, etc.) 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of lean veal, | a Ib. of veal suet (finely chopped", 
3 ozs. of soaked bread, 2 eggs, a little grated nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Pass the meat 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine or 
chop it finely, then pound the suet and veal together in a mortar. Add 
the eggs one at a time, and the bread in small portions. Also add 
about of a pint of cold water, but before using the whole, poach a 
little of the mixture in boiling water to test the consistency ; if too 
soft, add a little more bread ; if too stiff, a little more water, shape into 
quenelles, as directed on page 283. 

Time. About 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 

413. VEAL FORCEMEAT. (Fr. Farce de Veau.) 

Ingredients. \ a Ib. of lean veal, \ of a Ib. of finely-chopped beef suet, 
2 ozs. of fat bacon cut into fine strips, 2 tablespoonfuls of freshly-made 
breadcrumbs, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a teaspoon- 
ful of finely-chopped onion, 2 eggs, salt and pepper, a pinch of ground 
mace, a pinch of nutmeg. 

Method. Pass the veal twice through the mincing machine, then 
pound it and the suet and bacon well in the mortar. Pass through a 
wire sieve, add the rest of the ingredients, season to taste, and use. 

Time. About 45 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d for this quantity. 

414. VEAL FORCEMEAT. (Fr. Farce de Veau.) 
(Economical.) 

Ingredients. 4 tablespoonfuls of freshly-made breadcrumbs, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, i tablespoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, i teaspoonful of powdered thyme, of a teaspoonful of grated 
lemon-rind, i egg and a little milk, a good pinch of nutmeg, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Mix all the dry ingredients well together, add the egg and 
sufficient milk to thoroughly moisten the whole, season to taste, and 
use. 

Time. 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 3d. to 4d. for this 
quantity. 



288 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

4IS ._WHITING FORCEMEAT. (Fr. Farce de 
Merlan.) 

Ingredients. I whiting, 2 oz. panada or soaked bread, i oz. butter, 
Pcchamel sauce (No. 177), i egg, cream. 

Method. Remove the meat from the whiting, pound it in a mortar, 
with 2 ozs. of panada and i oz. of butter, and rub all through a fine 
sieve. Put this preparation into a basin, and work in gradually i 
tablcspoonful of well-reduced cold Bechamel sauce, i whole egg, and 
i tablespoonful of cream. Season with pepper, salt, and a little grated 
nutmeg. Test the farce or forcemeat before using, and if not suffi- 
ciently firm add another yolk of egg or a little panada. Use as directed. 



FISH 




16 



m 

i C-ab 2 Oyster. 3. Eel. 4. Mussel. 5. Lemon Sole. 6.- Halibut. 

7-Prawn. 8. -Sturgeon. o.-Trout. lo.-Sprat. i,. -Brill. laEscallop. 
13. Lamprey. 14. Whitebait. 15. Lobster. 16. Dover Sole. 



FISH 

CHAPTER XI. 

The Natural History As an Article of Diet To 
Choose The Average Prices General Direc- 
tions for Preparing General Instructions for 
Cooking. 

In Natural History Fish form the lowest of the five classes into which 
the Vertebrata, or animals having a backbone, are divided. They 
may be broadly described as vertebrate animals living in water, and 
breathing the air contained in it by means of gills, which supply the 
place of lungs. Fish are furnished with a heart, which, except in the 
mud-fish consists of a single auricle and ventricle, and fins, which 
take the place of the limbs of animals higher in the scale of being. 
The blood-corpuscles are mostly red, and the Mood is termed " cold," 
from the circumstance that its temperature is very little, if any, higher 
than that of the surrounding water. 

The adaptability of the li>h to the element in which it lives is seen 
in the body. In most cases the external shape offers the least possible 
friction in swimming, thus securing rapid locomotion. The body is, 
in general, slender, gradually diminishing towards each of its ex- 
tremities, while it is also rounded on the sides, roughly resembling the 
lower part of a ship's hull, and enabling the fish, like the vessel, to 
penetrate and divide the resisting fluid with comparative ease. Owing 
to the great flexibility of the body in the water, the fish can with 
ease migrate thousands of miles in a season. 

The Principal Organs employed by Fish to accelerate motion are their 
air-bladder, fins, and tail. The air-bladder, or " sound," is auto- 
matically in origin the same as a lung, but it does not perform the 
function of that organ. Its use is to enable the fish to rise or sink in the 
water. The air-bladder is a sac or bag filled with gas, chiefly oxygen 
in the case of sea-fish, and nitrogen in fresh-water species. When a 
fish wishes to sink, it compresses the muscles of the abdomen and ejects 
is from the air-bladder, thus increasing the weight of the body. 
When it desires to attend the abdominal muscles are rel.ixed. This 
causes the air-bladder to fill, and the fish then rises to the surt 



290 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

The Fins correspond to the limbs of other vertebrates. The " an- 
terior," or first pair, are called the " pectoral " fins, and are analogous 
to the arms of man and the fore-limbs of other animals. The hind- 
fins in fishes, known as " ventral " fins, are often wanting, and when 
present are less developed than the pectoral fins, and less fixed in their 
position. The "median" or "vertical" fins, situated on the back, 
are characteristic of fish, and extend more or less from the head to the 
tail. The fins of some fish are soft and flexible ; in others rigid spines, 
or a combination of the two. By a wonderful mechanical contrivance 
the rigid spines can be raised or lowered at pleasure. In swimming, 
the fins enable fish to maintain their upright position, the centre of 
gravity being in their backs. The expansion and contraction of the 
fins enable a fish to ascend or descend in the water. 

The Tail is placed vertically, and strikes the water from side to side. 
It possesses great muscular power, and is the chief organ of progression 
in a fish. Its action is similar to that of the rudder of a ship, turning 
the body to the right or to the left. When moved with a quick vibra- 
tory motion it acts like a screw-propeller, the fish darting forward 
with a speed proportionate to the force exerted. Two very distinct 
types of tail are found. In the one, common to most fish, the tail is 
composed of two nearly equal lobes, and is termed " homocercal." 
In the other type, represented by the sharks and by many extinct forms, 
the upper lobe is much longer than the lower, the tail in this case being 
called " heterocercal." 

The Bodies of Fish are mostly covered with horny scales ; but in some, 
as the eel and carp, scales are altogether wanting, or exist in so minute 
a form as to be almost invisible. The scales preserve the fish from 
injury by the pressure or friction of the water, or the sudden contact 
with pebbles, rocks or seaweed. Where the scales are very minute 
or absent, the bodies, as in sand-fish, are covered with a mucous secre- 
tion, which answers the same purpose as scales. When thin, horny, 
flexible, circular or elliptical in shape, like those of the salmon or herring, 
the scales are called " cycloid." When in detached plates, sometimes 
furnished with projecting spines, as in the case of the shark, they are 
called " placoid." Thin, horny, flexible scales and comb-like pro- 
jections on the hinder margin, like those of the perch, are termed 
" ctenoid." Bony scales overlaid with hard polished enamel, a type 
represented by the sturgeon, and by many fossil fish, are known as 
" ganoid." 

The Respiration of Fish is aquatic, and is effected by the comb-like 
organs, branchiae, or gills, situated on each side of the neck. The gills 
are composed of delicate filaments, in which the blood is exposed 
to the aerating influences of the external water. The water, after 
being taken into the mouth by a process resembling swallowing, passes 
over the gills, where it gives up its oxygen, and is ejected from the 



FISH 291 

gill-chambers by an aperture, the " gill-slit," placed at sides of the 
mouth behind the " gill-cover," an organ consisting of a chain of flat 
bones and a membrane. The oxygen, after passing through the gills, 
is driven through all parts of the body, and the venous and impure 
blood is forced by the action of the heart to the gills, where it is sub- 
jected to the action of the water. Oxygen is essential to the life of a 
fish, and suffocation results unless that gas is present in water. The 
teeth of fish are in the jaws, sometimes on the palate or tongue, and in 
some cases they are placed in the throat. They are usually sharp- 
pointed and fixed ; in the carp they are obtuse, and in the pike they are 
easily moved. When lost or injured, the teeth of fish are replaced ; 
they are not set in sockets, but are attached by a ligament to the bones 
of the mouth. In the herring the tongue is set with teeth, by means 
of which it more easily retains its food. 

These two great Divisions formed the basis of the classification of the 
eminent naturalist, Cuvier, and may serve roughly to differentiate 
the various classes of fish which are now more scientifically grouped 
according to then- particular characteristics into six divisions, or four 
orders, if the classification of Agassiz, based on the structure of their 
scales, be followed. The true internal skeleton differs very widely 
among fish ; in the case of one fish, the lancelet, a true skeleton scarcely 
exists, the backbone being replaced by a soft cellular rod. In some, 
for example, the lampreys, sturgeons and rays, it is cartilaginous ; in 
others it is partly cartilaginous and partly bony ; and in a great many, 
like the herring, perch, etc., it is entirely composed of bone. The 
backbone extends through the whole length of the body, and consists 
of vertebrae, strong and thick towards the head, but weaker towards 
the tail. Each species has a determinate number of vertebrae, which 
are increased in size in proportion to the body. The ribs are attached 
to the processes of the vertebrae, and enclose the breast and abdomen. 
Some fish, the rays, for instance, have no ribs; whilst others, like the 
sturgeon and eel, have them very short. Between the pointed pro- 
cesses of the vertebrae are situated the bones which support the dorsal 
(back) and the anal (below the tail) fins, which are connected with the 
processes by a ligament. At the breast are the sternum, or breast- 
bone, clavicles, or collar-bones, and the scapullae, or shouder-blades, 
on which the pectoral or breast fins are placed. The bones which 
support the ventral or belly fins are called the ossa pelvis. Besides 
these principal bones, there are often smaller ones, placed between 
the muscles, which assist their motion. 

The Organs of Sense. The organs of sight, hearing, smelling, taste 
and touch are possessed in a higher or lower degree by fish. Those of 
taste and touch are the least developed. The filaments at the mouths 
of the cod, sturgeon and whiting are supposed to be organs of touch, 
and it is also thought that the " lateral line," running along the sides 



292 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

of most fish, is connected with the termination of certain nerves, and 
enables a fish coming into contact with any substance to feel its pre- 
sence. The sense of taste is not very delicate, the tongue and palate 
being for the most part cartilaginous, and frequently set with teeth. 
Fish have no external organ of hearing, and the internal apparatus is 
partly free in the cavity of the skull, differing in this respect from 
that of birds and quadrupeds, while its structure is simpler than that 
of animals which live entirely in the air. In some genera, as in the 
rays, the external orifice or ear is very small, and is placed in the upper 
surface of the head, while in others there is no visible external orifice. 
The sight of fish is keen; the eye is large and flattened externally, and 
is furnished behind with a muscle which adjusts the focus to the re- 
quirements of the fish by lengthening or flattening the eye. It is in 
most cases covered with the same transparent skin which extends over 
the rest of the head, protecting the organ from the action of the water. 
The crystalline humour is almost globular. The organ of smelling is 
large, and consists of a double cavity lined by a mucous membrane 
folded into numerous plaits, into which water is admitted usually by 
two distinct apertures or nostrils. The nasal sacs are closed behind, 
and, except in the cases of the bog-fish and the mud-fish, do not, like 
the higher vertebrates, communicate with the throat. The sense of 
smell is the chief agent by which fish discover their food. 

The Food of Fish. This is almost universally found in the water. 
Fish are mostly carnivorous, though they seize upon almost anything 
that conies in their way; they even devour their own offspring, and 
manifest a particular predilection for living creatures. Innumerable 
shoals of one species pursue those of another, with a ferocity which 
draws them from the pole to the equator, through all the varying 
temperatures and depths of their boundless domain. Many species 
must have become extinct, were not the means of escape, the pro- 
duction, and the numbers greater than the dangers to which they are 
exposed. The smaller species are not only more numerous, but more 
productive than the larger, whilst their instinct leads them in search 
of food and safety near the shores, where, from the shallowness of the 
waters, many of their foes are unable to follow them. 

The Fecundity of Fish is remarkable, and is especially noticeable in 
the sturgeon, salmon, cod, mackerel, flounder and herring, whose 
powers of reproduction are almost incredible. In general fish are 
oviparous, or egg-producing, the young being afterwards hatched; some 
few, like the eel arid the blenny, are viviparous, and produce their young 
alive. The viviparous species are not so prolific. The eggs in the roe 
of the shark are comparatively few, and each ovum before exclusion 
is provided with a horny sheath furnished with cirri, or filaments, by 
which it moors itself to a fixed object. Reproduction is effected by 
the milt of the male and the foe of the female fish. The majority of 



FISH 293 

fish deposit their spawn in the sand or gravel; those inhabiting the 
depths oi the ocean attach their eggs to sea-weeds. 

The Longevity of Fish is said to exceed that of most animals, athough 
the age to which they attain is a matter of some dispute ; there are, 
however, well authenticated instances of the great longevity of the 
carp. Fish are either solitary or gregarious, and some of them migrate 
to great distances, and into certain rivers, to deposit their spawn. 
Of sea-fish, the cod, herring, mackerel, and many others, assemble 
in immense shoals, and migrate through different tracts of the ocean. 

The supply of Fish in the Ocean may be considered to be practically 
inexhaustible, notwithstanding the excessive dredging, which has 
diminished the supply around the coasts of England and some other 
European countries. In various parts of the world fish constitutes 
the chief or only animal food of the people ; but it is consumed more 
or less in most countries, and many prejudices have existed regarding 
its use. Fish was but little eaten by the Jews, and the Mosaic code 
interdicted the eating of fish destitute of scales and fins, although 
other kinds were not prohibited ; and from the New Testament \\e 
know that several of the Apostles followed the calling of fishermen. 
Among the ancient Egyptians fish was an article of diet, but was not 
eaten by the priests. 

Fish has been held in estimation as an article of diet in nearly every 
civilized country. Although Mcnclaus complains that the Homeric 
heroes had been compelled to live on fish, in later ages fish became one 
of the principal articles of food among the Greeks. Aristophanes and 
Athenaeus allude to it, and satirize their countrymen for their extreme 
fondness for turbot and mullet; and the latter author has left on record 
some valuable precepts on the ingenuity of the Greeks in seasoning 
fish with salt, oil and aromatics. The Roman epicures were especially 
fond of red mullet, which they esteemed the most delicate ; the eel-pout 
and the liver of the lotas were also favourite dishes. It is stated that 
Apicius offered a prize to any one who could invent a new brine (mari- 
nade) compounded of the liver of red mullets ; and that Lucullus, the 
famous epicure, constructed a canal in the neighbourhood of Naples 
for the ready transportation of fish to his garden. Hortensius, the 
actor, is said to have wept over a turbot which he had fed with his 
own hands ; and the daughter of Drusus ornamented one that she 
-<ed with rings of gold. The French King, Louis XII, was an 
ardent lover of fish, and engaged six fishmongers to supply his table. 
Francis 1 had twenty-two fishmongers, while the requirements of 
Henry the Great necessitated the employment of twenty-four. In 
the time of Louis XIV cooks had become so skilful in their art, that 
trout, pike or carp were converted by them into the shape and flavour 
of the most delicious game. Large reservoirs and canals were erected 
in many parts, for the breeding of carp and other fish. Marie An- 



294 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

toinette kept her carp like the turbot of the Roman dame mentioned 
above, and also adorned her finny pet with a golden ring. In England, 
in the reign of Edward II, fish became a dainty, especially the stur- 
geon, which was made a " royal " fish, and was not permitted to appear 
on any table but that of the King. In the fourteenth century a decree 
of King John informs us that the people ate both seals and porpoises. 
The monks and noble landowners established in the Middle Ages 
extensive systems of ponds and canals for breeding fresh-water fish, 
so much in demand on fast days. Vestiges of these preserves are still 
to be seen in many parts of the country. 

American terrapin soup is made from the flesh of various species of 
the fresh-water tortoises, many of which are natives of North America. 
They are distinguished by a horny beak or jaws with sharp cutting 
edges and limbs, having each of the five toes united by a web. They 
live on vegetables, reptiles, fish and other aquatic animals. The salt- 
water terrapin is abundant in the salt marshes of Charleston. The 
most esteemed species for culinary purposes is the chicken tortoise, so- 
called from the delicacy of its flesh. 

FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF DIET. 

Fish as Food. As an article of nourishment, fish is less satisfying 
and less stimulating than butcher's meat. Hence it is valuable in 
the sick room, when stronger kinds of animal food are unsuitable for 
invalids. It is, however, a matter of common experience that in 
fishing-towns, where little or no other animal food is taken, the health 
and vigour of the inhabitants are excellent. 

The amount of nourishment contained in fish varies with the species. 
Some of the red-fleshed fish are almost as nutritious as butcher's meat. 
Chief amongst these is salmon, once a principal article of food in this 
country. Every one has heard of the Scotch apprentices, in whose 
indentures it was customary to insert a clause to the effect that salmon 
should not be given them more than twice a week. In point of fact, 
the richness and peculiar flavour of this fish make it ill adapted for 
daily food. 

The white-fleshed fish, such as whiting, sole, haddock, hake, cod 
and skate are less nourishing, but more digestible, and it is said that 
they do not so soon pall upon the appetite of those who live on fish. 
The whiting is best suited for invalids ; and next, perhaps, come the 
sole, haddock and plaice. Cod, hake and skate are remarkably firm- 
fleshed and fibrous, and even when in good condition, are somewhat 
difficult of digestion. The flesh of all these fish contains little fat ; 
but in the liver, especially that of the cod-fish, oil accumulates in larger 
quantity. Fish oil is said to be more easy of digestion than any other 
kind of fat, and cod-liver oil is therefore commonly given to invalids. 

In other fish, with flesh more or less white, there is much fat in the 
tissues. Herrings, pilchards, sprats, eels, lampreys, mackerel are 



FISH 295 

Tich, and likely to disagree with delicate persons. However, they are 
^nourishing, and supplying, as they do, both fat and flavour at a small 
vcost, are very largely consumed by the poor. Herring is said to con- 
tain more nourishment and is cheaper than any other kind of fish 
food. 

Crimping is employed to increase the firmness of the flesh by con- 
traction of the muscles, in the case of cod, skate, salmon, and some 
other species. The popular notion that fish must be crimped while 
it is alive is erroneous, but it must be done immediately after death, 
before RIGOR MORTIS has set in. It is said that crimped fish keeps 
fresh, longer than fish in its natural state. 

TO CHOOSE FISH. 

The first necessity for fish is that it should be fresh. Stiffness and 
rigidity of the flesh are a sure guide, for RIGOR MORTIS passes off in 
the course of time, and the flesh then becomes flabby. 

Ihe smell is not a sure guide if the fish has been kept in ice, for it 
may smell fresh, and yet change directly it is taken from the ice. 

The redness of the gills is a good indication, and the brightness of 
the eyes, which should not be sunken in the head. 

A proof of freshness and goodness in most fish is their being covered 
with scales ; if the scales are deficient, the fish may be stale or they 
may have been damaged, and then they will not keep. 

In flat-fish the skin should be smooth and moist, and closely ad- 
herent to the flesh. It is a bad sign if the skin is blistered. 

Salmon, cod and the large fish generally should have a bronze tint 
when freshly cut. Turbot and brill should have yellowish flesh. 

Very large fish are not to be preferred, as they are probably old and 
tough. A flat fish should be thick in proportion to its size ; all fish 
should have large girth rather than great length. In buying a slice 
of fish, it is better to choose a thick slice from a small fish than a thin 
slice from a large one. 

The red-fleshed and oily fish cannot be eaten too soon after they are 
out of the water. If kept they should be cleaned and wiped very dry, 
and laid on ice, or on stones in a current of air, when ice cannot be 
obtained. The larger fish can be hung up by the gills. They can be 
parboiled, and so kept for a day or two. 

Turbot, brill, dory, and some other cartilaginous white-fleshed fish 
may be kept for a day or two with advantage. A turbot must always 
be hung up by the tail until it is ready to be cooked. White fish can 
be rubbed over with salt, and so kept for a day or two ; but fish loses 
nourishment and quality in the process, which should only be re- 
sorted to when absolutely necessary. Fish that is not quite fresh 
can be improved by thorough washing in vinegar and water, or per- 
manganate of potash and water. It is afterwards better fried than, 
boiled, but no dressing will entirely conceal its quality. 



296 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Fish in Season. Fish should be not only fresh, but of good 
quality and in season. Dr. Pavy says : " The quality of fish as an 
article of food is influenced by the act of spawning, and presents 
considerable variations at different periods. It is just previous to 
spawning that the animal is in its highest state of perfection. Its 
condition altogether is then at its best point. The animal is fatter 
than at any other period, and of a richer flavour for eating. During 
the process of spawning its store of fatty matter is drawn upon, 
and it becomes poor, thin, watery and flabby. It is now said to 
be ' out of season,' and requires time to arrive in condition again. In 
fish like the cod, where the fatty matter accumulates, specially in the 
liver, this organ presents a most striking difference in volume and 
condition before and after spawning ; whilst in such fish as the salmon, 
herring, etc., where the fat is dispersed amongst the flesh, it is the 
body which affords the chief evidence of change. As salmon enters 
the rivers from the sea for the purpose of depositing its spawn, it is 
plump and well provided with fat. On its return, the contrast in its 
condition is very great. It is now so exhausted and thin as to be 
looked upon as unfit for food." When fish is out of season the flesh is 
bluish in colour, and lacks firmness in texture. It does not become flaky 
and opaque in boiling, and there is none of the coagulated albumen, or 
curdy matter, between the flakes. The boiling has something to do 
with this appearance as well as the season. 

Fish out of season can often be bought at a low price, but it is never 
cheap. Some few fish are sold all the year round; but for many there 
is a close time, during which they may not be killed or sold under 
penalty. Any one who sells fresh salmon between September 3 and 
February i is bound to prove that it was caught out of the United 
Kingdom; and, failing that, is liable to a fine of 2. A good deal of 
Norwegian salmon is brought to London. Even salted and dried 
salmon must have been cured out of the country or before the close 
season began. Trout is out of season for four months from October. In 
Scotland there is no close time for trout, which is protected in England 
and Wales between October 2 and February i. Other fresh-water 
fish are protected from March 15 to June 15, by a law passed in 1878, 
but they form so small a part of the national food supply that few 
persons notice their absence from the stalls of the fishmonger. Eels 
arc by far the commonest of fresh-water fish. Large quantities are 
caught in the Lincolnshire water-courses and Norfolk Broads, and 
800 tons are said to be imported annually into the United Kingdom 
from Holland, but much of these last are used for bait. 
The quality of fish depends very much on the nature of their food. 
As a rule, fish caught in the open sea are preferable to those living off 
headlands or in an inland sea, with slow current and shallow water. 
Cod is not only better in the coldest weather, but it is never so good 
as when it is caught in the extreme northern latitudes. A cheap fish, 



FISH. 






i. Steamed Sole. 2. Boiled Mackerel. 3. Boiled Turbot. 
19 L* 






[. Fillets of Sole, Horley Style. 2. Fillets of Sole with Parsley Sauce. 
3. Lobster Cream. 



20 



FISH 297 

good of its kind, is always very much to be preferred to an expensive 
fish of inferior quality. 

FYesh-water fish vary according to the nature of the water in which 
they have lived. When taken from a muddy stream, or in any stagnant 
water, they are often scarcely eatable; while those of the same species 
from deep, clear streams with a gravelly bottom have an excellent 
flavour. This is especially true of eels. All such fish are greatly 
improved by being kept in fresh water, and carefully fed for a few 
days before they come to table. 

Preserved Fish. Various methods are resorted to for preserving fish. 
It is dried, smoked, salted, put up in oil; or a combination of these 
methods is used, the object being to remove moisture or to exclude 
air. Of tinned fish we have spoken in another chapter. The fish that 
are most easily preserved are those rich in oil and of firm fibre. All 
fish lose nourishing power by being salted, and salt cod is said to be 
the least nourishing of foods commonly eaten. 

Shell-fish are as a rule difficult of digestion, owing to the toughness 
and hardness of the flesh. The Crustacea commonly eaten are the lob- 
ster, crab, crayfish, shrimp, and prawn. Of these, shrimps are the least 
esteemed, and are sold at a low price. Prawns are sought after for 
garnishing, and, generally speaking, are the dearest of all fish. The 
crayfish is less common in this country than in France, where it is 
employed to make the celebrated Bisque soup, and also largely for 
garnish. 

Of the bivalve shell-fish, oysters have the best reputation, both for 
flavour and digestibility, and are for that reason given to invalids. 
Cooking, especially at a great heat, hardens them, and so renders them 
less digestible. The old saying is that oysters are in season when there 
is an " r " in the month, i.e., from September to April, but so many 
foreign oysters are now in the market that they are sold all Un- 
round. Mussels have been known to produce poisonous effects, but 
the cause is not clearly known ; possibly it is due to the nature of their 
food. Scallops are a comparatively cheap and not unpalatable food. 
XVhelks, periwinkles, cockles and limpets are eaten in enormous numbers 
by the poorer classes, but are seldom cooked except by boiling. 

Reptiles as food. The green turtle is the only reptile that we appreci- 
ate as a food, though many reptiles are eaten in different parts of 
the world. Turtles sometimes weigh six or seven hundred lb., and are 
imported into, and kept, in this country alive. Sun-dried turtle, 
sold in pieces, is much cheaper than, and is a good substitute for, 
fresh turtle. Tinned turtle is also sold, and extract of turtle is recom- 
mended for invalids. These preparations can be bought in small 
quantities, and are within the reach of many who could not procure 
fresh turtle soup. 

The edible frog (rana esculenta) is esteemed in many parts of Europe, 
but has never been appreciated by English people. Only the hind legs 
are eaten. 



298 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING FISH. 

In Preparing Fish of any kind, the first point to be attended to is to 
see that it is perfectly clean. It is a common error to wash it too much, 
as by doing so the flavour is diminished. The best way to clean fish 
is to wipe it thoroughly with a clean damp cloth. If the fish is to be 
boiled, a little salt and vinegar should be put into the water, to give 
it firmness, after it is cleaned. In consequence of the amount of oil 
certain fish contain, their liver and roes take longer to cook than the 
flesh, and should be put into the saucepan before the fish if not cooked 
separately. Fish, except salmon, should be put into warm water, and 
cooked very gently, or the outside will break before the inner part 
is done. Hot water should not be poured ON to the fish, as it is liable 
to break the skin; if it should be necessary to add a little water 
whilst the fish is cooking, it ought to be poured in gently at the side of 
the vessel. The fish-plate may be drawn up, to see if the fish be ready, 
which may be known by its easily separating from the bone. When 
done, it should be immediately taken out of the water, or it will become 
woolly. The fish-plate should be set crossways over the kettle, to keep 
hot for serving, and a cloth laid over the fish to prevent its losing its 
colour. The exact temperature of the water, at the time of placing 
the fish in the kettle, depends on the kind of fish to be cooked. If it 
is too hot the skin breaks, and if it is cold much of the flavour is 
lost Fish can scarcely cook too slowly; steaming is often better than 
boiling. 

Fish to be fried or broiled must be dried on a soft cloth, after it is 
well cleaned and washed. Prior to frying, dip it lightly in flour, 
brush it over with egg, and cover it with some fine crumbs of 
bread. The fish after it is fried must be thoroughly drained and 
freed from fat. A sheet of white paper must be placed to receive it, 
in order that the superfluous greece is absorbed. It must also be 
of a beautiful colour, and all the crumbs appear distinct. Butter in 
frying gives a bad colour to fish ; lard and clarified dripping are 
most frequently used, but oil is considered the best. The fish should 
be put into the fat or oil when as hot as enough to immediately 
harden the surface. There should be sufficient fat to well cover it. 

When fish is broiled, it must be seasoned, floured, and laid on a very 
clean gridiron, which, when hot, should be rubbed with a bit of suet, 
to prevent the fish from sticking. It must be broiled over or before 
a very clear fire, that it may not taste smoky ; and not too near, 
that it may not be scorched. Fish may also be baked, stewed, and 
made into soups. In choosing fish, it is well to remember that it 
is possible it may be fresh and yet not good. In this work rules 
are given for the choice of each particular fish, and the months 
when it is in season. Nothing can be of greater consequence to a cook 
than to have the fish good, as, if this important course in a dinner 
does not give satisfaction, it is rarely that the repast goes off well. 



FISH 299 

Keeping Fish. When fish is cheap and plentiful, and a larger quantity 
is purchased than is immediately wanted, the overplus of such as will 
bear it should be potted, or pickled or salted, and hung up; or it may 
be fried, that it may serve for stewing the next day. Fresh-water 
fish having frequently a muddy smell and taste, should be soaked in 
strong salt and water, after it has been well cleaned. If of a sufficient 
size, it may be scalded in salt and water, and then dried and dressed. 
Cod-fish, whiting and haddock are none the worse for being a little 
salted and kept a day; and unless the weather be very hot, they will 
be good for two days. 

Garnishing Fish requires great nicety. Plenty of parsley, horseradish, 
lobster coral and lemon should be used. It fried parsley be used it 
must be washed and picked, and thrown into fresh water. When the 
lard or dripping is hot enough, squeeze the parsley dry in a cloth, and 
throw it into the saucepan. It will bubble a good deal, and, therefore, 
it is better to lift the pan from the fire. In a few seconds the parsley 
will be green and crisp, and must be taken up with a slice, if there is 
no frying-basket. Well dressed, and with very good sauce, fish is, 
by the generality of people, more appreciated than almost any other 
dish. The liver and roe, in some instances, should be placed on the 
dish, in order that they may be distributed in the course of serving; but 
to each recipe is appended the proper mode of serving and garnishing. 

AVERAGE PRICES OF FISH. 

Many fail to realize the great loss by bone and uneatable matter 
there is in most fish, and how much they pay for actual food ob- 
tained. 

As a general rule it should be borne in mind that, allowing for 
bone, waste and loss of weight by different modes of cooking, only 
about the original weight of the fish is left. 

By consulting the following table it will be seen that such fish as 
soles and smelts are very expensive, but some of the highest priced 
fish or parts of fish are not always the dearest. Thus, for example, 
a pound of flounders can be bought forsd., but, by reason of the large 
amount of bone they contain, they cost more than a pound of eels at 
iod., while the so-called cheaper parts of salmon, yielding so much 
less actual eatable matter, are in reality not so economical as the best. 

Nothing is more difficult than to give the average prices of fish 
and no other article of food varies so in price, inasmuch as a few hours 
of bad weather at sea will, in the space of one day, cause such a differ- 
ence in its supply, that the same fish a turbot, for instance which 
may be bought to-day for six or seven shillings, will to-morrow be, 
in the London markets, worth, perhaps, almost as many pounds. 
The housewife when about to buy fish will be well advised not to set 
out with the fixed intention of buying a certain kind of fish, but to be 
guided in her selection by the state of the market. Often she will 



300 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



find that some particular fish is scarce, and that in consequence it is 
priced far beyond its worth, and quite out of comparison with the 
prices of other kinds of fish which are plentiful in the market. The 
average costs, therefore, which will be found appended to each recipe, 
must be understood as about the average price for the different kinds 
of fish under normal conditions, and when the various sorts are of an 
average size and quality. The seasons for fish also slightly vary 
with the year, it sometimes happening, for instance, that salmon is 
at its cheapest and best a little earlier or later than usual. Oysters, 
however, always come in and go out at the same time, for. from April 
and May to the end of July oysters are said to be sick, but by the end 
of August they become healthy, having recovered from the effects of 
spawning. When they are not in season the males have a black and 
the females a milky substance in the gill. The average prices of fresh 
water fish are not given. They are rarely quoted in the open market, 
and are entirely influenced by local conditions. 






NAME OF FISH. 


HOW USUALLY COOKED. 


AVERAGE PRICE. 




Cod ^iiivio* io.'>?-Hjqa ' 


Fried or Boiled /& 


4d. to 5d. per Ib. 


Cod (head and sh'ld'rs ) 


Boiled . . , ff t 


4d. per Ib. 


,, (steaks) . 
Conger Eel . . . | 
Crab . . f . . . 


Fried or Boiled . . 
Stewed iCVlfJ^ 30AH3 
Usually sold cooked . 


6d. to 8d. per Ib. 
4tl. per Ib. 
3d. to 33. each. 


Pels rr S 7 . rfj .' . 


Fried or stewed ; ^}- 


lod. to is. per Ib. 


Flounders i^f.'^.^ . . 


Fried . ihuttt v, . 


6d. per Ib. 


Gurnet 
Haddock [j,. ^^ bni 
Hake 


Boiled . . . . . 
Boiled or baked ,. .^4? 
Fried 


4d. per Ib. 
4d. per Ib. 
4d. per Ib. 


Halibut . ( . . . 


Boiled ..... 


8d. per Ib. 




Baked . 


8d. to is. per doz. 


John Dory . rftno&4 


Filleted . . ,.- //8 f 
Boiled . . f . . 


6d. per Ib. 
4d. per Ib. 




Usually sold cooked . 


6d. to 35. 6d. each. 


Mackerel Jl l l ' .' ".' . 
Mullet (red) '^-T \<f 
(<>rev) . 


Boiled or broiled . <or . r 
Fried . . . . f <vi 

Fried . , *> ^ ,->;.-J,H 


3d. to 6d. each, 
is. to is. 6d. per Ib. 
lod. per Ib. 


Mussels . ; ;f;r..f.)iv fin[] 
Oysters . ., . ,' . 
Plaice . /tfjwnoncR* 


Boiled or fried . l * 4* 


2d. per quart, 
fid. to 2S. 6d. per doz. 
6cl. per Ib. 






is 3d per pint and 


Salmon (head) , . . 
(middle) , . 
(tail) . .' V 1 
Shad " rv ? ''-' 


Boiled , j:(.'rnli'tii"'^l 
Fried . ."* . . ' f 
Boiled . . . . Jf V 
Boiled . >\ '!'">. "''? 'ttf 


from is. per doz. 
is. 4d. to 2S. per Ib. 
is. 3d. to 2S. per 11>. 
is. lod. to 2S. 6d. per Ib. 
8d per Ib. 


Skate . >nm.> . 


Boiled or fried . / . - e 


6d. per Ib. 


Smelts if fff 


Fried 


is. 6d. per box. 


Soles f fija F M *rf 
Trout . ' '' ' 


Boiled or fried . .. 
Boiled 


is. to 2S. 6d. per Ib. 
is. to 2S. per 11). 


Turhot . JJT( .' .*3 . 
Whiting . . . . 


1 '-oiled -'- T i '-.''. . 
Fried .... 


8d. to is. per Ib. 
4d. per Ib. 



FISH 301 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR COOKING FISH. 

FreshWater Fish. Of the various ways in which fresh-water fish may 
be cooked, boiling is the least suitable. Many varieties lack flavour, 
others have peculiarities which render them disagreeable to some 
persons, and should therefore be disguised by a liberal use of sea- 
sonings, flavourings and sharp sauces. 

Fish to Boil. In boiling fish it is advisable to use a fish-kettle, 
provided with a strainer, so that the fish can be gently lifted without 
breaking. Failing this, the fish should be tied in muslin, and 
placed on a plate at the bottom of a saucepan. Salmon and salmon 
trout should be put into boiling salted water, to preserve their 
colour; but other kinds of fish should be placed in warm water, 
for boiling water has a tendency to break the skin, and cold 
water extracts much of the flavour. Fish should always be 
gently simmered after boiling point is reached, otherwise it is liable 
to break. It should also be cooked in the smallest possible quantity 
of water, which, when practicable, should afterwards form the basis 
of a fish soup or fish sauce. Lemon- juice or vinegar should be added 
to the water in which white fish is cooked, as it tends to increase its 
whiteness. The time required for cooking depends more on the thick- 
ness than the weight of the fish, but as soon as the bone separates 
readily, the fish should be taken from the water and kept covered, 
on the strainer, placed across the fish-kettle, until required. Fish, 
when boiled, should always be served on a strainer covered with a 
folded napkin. It is usually garnished with slices of lemon and tufts 
of green parsley, a little additional colour being sometimes introduced 
by means of lobster coral, prawns or crayfish. 

Fish to Broil. This method of cooking is an extremely simple 
one when proper appliances are at hand, but when the only 
means available are those usually found in middle-class kitchens, 
some little difficulty may be experienced. A clean gridiron and 
a clear fire are indispensable factors, and the former may be 
easily secured by heating the gridiron, and afterwards rubbing 
it repeatedly with soft paper until perfectly clean. No matter 
how clear and bright the fire may appear, more or less smoke 
will arise from it, but this may be checked to some extent by throwing 
on a good handful of salt. Fish intended for grilling should be thor- 
oughly dried, then brushed over with oil or oiled butter, and seasoned 
with salt and pepper. Meat also needs to be slightly coated with oil 
or butter, otherwise the surface may become dry. The gridiron must 
be heated and rubbed over on both sides with suet or fat, to prevent 
whatever is being cooked sticking to it. For the same reason it is 
necessary to move the meat or fish occasionally, using meat-tongs 
or a knife for the purpose, thus avoiding making holes through which 
the juices could escape. Delicate fish is frequently enclosed in oiled 
paper, and should then be served in the paper in which it was cooked. 



303 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Fish, to Cure. Empty, wash and scale the fish, and, if large, cut it 
down the back. Rub it inside and out with common salt, and let it 
hang in a cool place for 24 hours. Mix together i oz. of bay-salt, % 
an oz. of saltpetre, an oz. of brown sugar, and rub the fish well 
with the preparation. Place it on a large dish, cover it lightly, but 
completely, with salt, and allow it to remain undisturbed for 48 
hours. Turn the fish over, cover it with fresh salt, and let it remain 
for 24 hours longer. Drain and well dry the fish, stretch it on 
sticks, and keep it in a dry, cool place. When kept for a great 
length of time, it will be necessary to well soak the fish before cooking. 

Fish, to Fillet. The skin must be removed from both sides of a sole 
before filleting, but the dark skin on the under side of a sole is nearly 
always removed by the fishmonger. Plaice is frequently filleted with- 
out removing the skin, although it is better to strip the dark skin off 
the back. Whiting and haddocks are usually skinned, while mack- 
erel are very seldom skinned before being filleted. When the fish 
has been washed, dried and skinned, it should be placed flat on a 
board or table, and with the point of a knife cut from head to tail 
down the backbone. Next, insert the knife in the slit made, and 
carefully separate the fish from the bone, keeping the knife pressed 
lightly against the bone meanwhile. Remove the fillets, trim them 
neatly, and cut them into pieces convenient for serving. 

Fish, to Fry. Fish to be fried should be well dried after wash- 
ing, and it is usually cut into pieces convenient for serving. 
Although very good results can be obtained by such simple means 
as a frying-pan and a very small quantity of fat providing 
the fat be hot and the fish dry and slightly floured a deep pan 
containing sufficient fat to completely cover the fish is desirable. 
Before frying, the fish should either be dipped into well-seasoned 
batter or coated with egg and breadcrumbs, and in the latter 
case it should first be rolled in a little flour seasoned with 
salt and pepper, the object being to make it as dry as possible, 
in order that the breadcrumbs may adhere more firmly. The fat 
should be very hot at all times, but its temperature must be slightly 
lower when frying fillets of fish than when frying such things as cro- 
quettes, rissoles, etc., which are generally composed of cooked materials. 
When the surface of a small piece of bread immediately hardens and 
slightly changes its colour on being immersed in the fat, the tempera- 
ture is right for raw materials or anything that is thickly coated with 
batter, but when frying anything of which the exterior alone has to be 
cooked, it is better to have the fat sufficiently hot to at once brown 
whatever is immersed in it. Small things are nearly always fried in 
a wire basket, but fillets of fish are dropped into the fat, and when 
cooked, taken out on a fish slice. Anything fried should afterwards be 
well drained, either on a cloth or kitchen paper. Fish is usually gar- 
nished with lemon and parsley, croquettes and other dishes of the same 



FISH 303 

class with parsley alone, while fruit fritters should be liberally sprinkled 
with sugar before serving. 

Oil may be strongly recommended for frying, but clarified fat, 
is more generally employed in ordinary households, and for 
all frying purposes is preferable to lard, which is apt to impart an un- 
pleasant fatty flavour. All fat after being used for frying should be 
allowed to cool slightly, and afterwards strained into an earthenware 
vessel. Or, after repeated use, it may be partially purified by straining 
it into a basin of boiling water, when fragments of fish, breadcrumbs, 
etc., will sink to the bottom, and may be scraped off as soon as the fat 
hardens. 

Fish, to Salt. The following method of salting fish is particularly 
suited to herrings, mackerel, and other small varieties. Choose fish 
that is perfectly fresh, empty, scale and clean, but do not wash 
them. Make a brine sufficiently strong to float an egg, put in the 
fish, which should be completely covered, and let them remain in 
the brine for 18 hours. When ready drain well, place them in layers 
in an earthenware vessel, covering each layer thickly with salt. 
Cover closely to completely exclude the air, and store in a cool, dry 
place. The fish must be well soaked before cooking. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING 
FISH. 

CHAPTER XII. 

416. ANCHOVIES, FRIED. (Fr. Anchois Frits.) 

Ingredients. 12 anchovies. For the batter : 3 ozs. of flour, of a 
pint of tepid water, i tablespoonful of salad-oil, or clarified butter, 
the white of i egg, frying-fat. 

Method. Wipe the anchovies with a dry cloth. Sieve the flour, and 
mix it into a smooth batter with the water and salad oil. Whip the 
white of egg stiffly, and stir it lightly into the batter. Have ready a 
deep pan of hot frying-fat; dip the anchovies carefully into the batter, 
drop them into the hot fat, and fry until they acquire a golden-brown 
colour. This dish is more suitable for a breakfast dish, HORS D'OEUVRE, 
or savoury, than a dish to be served in the fish course of a dinner. 

Time. ^ an hour. Average Cost, for this quantity, lod. Sufficient 
for 2 or 3 if treated as a fish course, but enough for 6 or 7 if served as 
HORS D'OEUVRE, or savoury. Seasonable all the year. 

THE ANCHOVY (Fr. anchois) is a small fish belonging to the Clupeidae or herring family. It fre- 
quents the Mediterranean, the waters of the French and Dutch coasts, and the English Channel. It 
was known to the Greeks and Romans, and esteemed by them as a delicacy. The anchovy fishery 
is carried on during the months of May, June and July, the spawning season. Various sauces and 
condiments are made from this fish. 

4 1 7. BARBEL. (Fr . Barbeau. ) 

Ingredients. i or 2 barbel, according to size, 2 anchovies, 2 onions 
(sliced), 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, i tablespoonful of salt, the juice 
of a lemon, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), mace and nut- 
meg to taste. 

Method. Soak the fish in slightly salted water for 2 or 3 houi 
Put into a fish-kettle with warm water and the salt, and boil gentl 
until done. Take i pint of the water, and add to it the otl 
ingredients enumerated above. Simmer gently for about 15 minut< 
then strain, and return to the saucepan. Put in the fish, and let 
heat gradually in the sauce, but it must not boil again. 

Time. Altogether, i hour. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable frc 
September to February. 



RECIPES FOR COOK IN(; FISH 30$ 

THE BARBEL (Tr.barbeau). This fish takes its name from the four filaments or barbules which fringe 

its mouth and serve as the organ of touch. In form and habits it much resembles the pike. The 

Mich is rounded and elongated on its upper part, is olive-coloured and bluish on the sides ; 

the tail is of a purple tint. By means of its upper jaw, which is much longer than the lower, the 

barbel is enabled to burrow in the mud for worms and other food. It is common to most nvers, 

and is abundant in the upper reaches of the Thames. The texture of its flesh is coarser than that 

of the carp. Barbel and other fish inhabiting muddy waters should always be soaked in water, 

slightly salted, for some time before cooking. If kept alive in clear water and fed with a little bran 

:ueal the flavour is greatly improved. 

418. BLOATERS, BROILED. 

Ingredients. Bloaters. 

Method. Break off the head, split the back, remove the roe, and 
take out the backbone. Place the fish, inside down, on a gridiron, 
cook until they are nicely browned, then turn them over, and cook 
the back. Or, if preferred, place 2 bloaters, the insides together, on a 
gridiron, and broil over a clear fire. The roes should be cooked and 
served with the bloaters. 

Time. 7 minutes. Average Cost, i|d. each. Seasonable from Sep- 
tember to February. 

419. BREAM, BROILED. (Fr. Breme Grille.) 

Ingredients. Bream, anchovy or other fish sauce. 

Method. Empty, wash and thoroughly dry the fish, but do not 
scale it. Broil over a clear fire until thoroughly cooked and nicely 
browned, then serve with anchovy, or other fish sauce. 

Time. To broil, about | an hour. Average Cost, 8d. to is. per Ib. 
Allow 6 to 8 oz. per head. Seasonable all the year. 

THE CHAR (Fr. umble). This is r fish of the same genus as the salmon, and is much 

esteemed. It is plentiful in the deeper lakes of England. Wales and Ireland. It also occurs in Euro- 
pean lak neva being especially celebrated for its char, called the omkrc cktvalier. 
The char, which somewhat resembles the trout, but 1 more slen<l- 

a lighter hue, and is coloured with crimson and w! colours 

varying with the season. When spa wi.; r winter, it ascends the rivers. 

420. BREAM, BAKED. (Fr. Breme cuit au four.) 

Ingredients. Bream, fish forcemeat, No. 415, fat for basting, an- 
chovy or other fish sauce. 

Method. Empty, wash and dry the fish, but do not scale it. Make 
the forcemeat as directed, stuff the inside of the fish, and sew up the 
opening neatly. Bake in a moderate oven from 40 to 50 minutes, 
basting occasionally with sweet dripping. Serve with anchovy or other 
fish sauce. If preferred, the forcemeat may be omitted, and the fish 
wrapped in buttered paper and baked slowly for about | an hour. 

Time. From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, from 8d. to is. per Ib. 
Allow 6 to 8 ozs. per head. Seasonable all the year. 

42 1 .BRILL A LA CONTE. (Fr Barbue a la Conte. ) 

Ingredients. A brill weighing about 2| Ib., i pints of stock, i 
of Burgundy, a tcaspoonful of finely chopped parsley, salt and pepper. 



306 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Clean and skin the fish, and cut some slits down the back. 
Add the wine, salt and pepper to the stock; when warm put in the fish, 
and simmer gently until done. Take up the fish and keep it hot; boil 
the stock rapidly until reduced to half its original quantity, then add 
the parsley, and pour over the fish. 

Time. 15 minutes. Average Cost. 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable from August to April. 

To CHOOSE BRILL. The flesh of this fish, like that of turbot, should be of a yellowish tint, and 
should be chosen on account of its thickness. If the flesh has a bluish tint, it is not good. 

422. BRILL. (Fr.--Barbue.) 

Ingredients. i brill, salt and vinegar to taste. 

Method. Clean the brill, cut off the fins, and rub it over with a little 
lemon-juice to preserve its whiteness. Barely cover the fish with 
warm water, add salt and vinegar, and simmer gently until done (about 
10 or 15 minutes for a small fish). Garnish with cut lemon and parsley, 
and serve with one of the following sauces : lobster sauce, shrimp sauce, 
Hollandaise sauce, or melted butter. 

Time. From 10 to 20 minutes, according to size. Average Cost, 
from 8d. to lod. per Ib. Seasonable at any time, but best from August 
to April. 

THE BRILL (Fr. barbue) is a species of " flat-fish," belonging to the same genus as the turbot, which 
it resembles, but distinguished from it by the perfect smoothness of its skin and its less breadth. It 
is sandy-coloured or reddish-brown on its upper side, with yellowish or reddish spots. The brill 
averages about 7 Ib. in weight, and is esteemed as a table-fish. 

423. -CARP, BAKED. (Fr. Carpe Farcie.) 

Ingredients. i carp. For the forcemeat: 8 sauce oysters, 3 an- 
chovies boned, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, i teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, i shallot finely-chopped, yolk of i egg, cayenne, salt. 
For coating the fish : i egg and breadcrumbs. For the sauce : of a 
pint of good stock, i oz. of butter, i tablespoonful of flour, half a table- 
spoonful of Worcester sauce, a tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a tea- 
spoonful of made mustard. Butter for basting. 

Method. Clean and scale the fish; remove the beards of the oysters, 
and simmer them for 15 minutes in a little fish stock or water. Cut the 
oysters into small pieces, but do not cook them; also cut the anchovies 
into very small pieces. Mix breadcrumbs, oysters, anchovies, parsley, 
shallot and seasoning, add the yolk of egg, the liquor of the oysters, 
and the stock in which the oyster-beards were simmered. Put the 
forcemeat inside the fish, and sew up the opening; brush over with egg, 
and cover with breadcrumbs. Place in a baking-dish and cook gently 
for about i hour, basting frequently with hot butter. Melt the butter, 
stir in the flour, add the stock, and stir until the sauce boils. Simmer 
for 2 to 3 minutes, then add the mustard, lemon-juice, Worcester 
sauce, and the gravy (strained) from the tin in which the fish 
cooked. Garnish the fish with cut lemon and parsley, and serve the 
sauce in a tureen. 






RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 307 

Time. From i| to i hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 4 
or 5 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

ic. The fish may also be stuffed with ordinary veal forcemeat. 

THE CARP (Fr. carpe). This species of fresh water fish, which forms the special type of the family 
Cyprinidae to which the barbels, tenches and breams belong, occurs throughout Europe, and fre- 
quents fresh and quiet waters and slow-running rivers. It feeds chiefly on worms and aquatic plants. 
During the winter it buries in the mud. The mouth of the carp is small, the jaws toothless, the body 
smooth and of an olive-green and yellowish colour, and arched and compressed, the scales large ; 
the gills are formed of three flat rays, and there is but one dorsal fin. The carp is one of the earliest 
known fish in England. It was much preserved in ponds by the monks, for table use. The carp is 
very prolific and attains to a great age to too years and even longer. The flavour of the carp is 
influenced by the character of its habitat. The well-known gold fish (Cyprinus auratus), supposed 
to be a native of China, is allied to the common carp. 

424. CARP, BAKED. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i carp, 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, or clarified butter, 
i tablespoonful of Worcester sauce, i tablespoonful of lemon- juice, 
i tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped onion, salt, cayenne. For the sauce : J of a pint of milk, 
1 1 ozs. of flour, 1 1 ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely-chopped 
gherkins, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash, scale, and clean the fish, and place it in an earthen- 
ware baking-dish. Mix together the salad-oil, Worcester sauce, 
lemon-juice, parsley, onion, season well with salt and cayenne, pour 
this mixture over the fish, and let it remain in it for at least 2 hours, 
basting at frequent intervals. Cover with a greased paper ; bake 
gently for about i hour, and baste well. When it is nearly done, 
melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the milk, bring 
to the boil, and simmer for 5 or 6 minutes. Place the fish on a hot 
dish, strain the gravy in the tin into the sauce, add the gherkins, season 
to taste, and pour over the fish. 

Time. To bake, i hour. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 
4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

425. CARP, FRIED. (Fr. Carpe Frite.) 

Ingredients. i carp of medium size, butter or fat for frying, vinegar 
salt and pepper, flour. 

Method. Soak the fish i hour in salt and water, then split it open, 
lay it flat, and REMOVE THE GALL-STONE FROM THE HEAD. Dry 
well, sprinkle with salt and cayenne, dredge with flour, and fry in hot 
butter or fat until nicely browned. Garnish with cut lemon and the roe 
fried, and serve with anchovy sauce, No. 288. 

Time. To cook, from 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. 
Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

426. CARP, FRIED. (Fr. Carpe Frite.) (Another 
Method.) 

Ingredients. i carp, 2 ozs. of butter, i tablespoonful of finely-chopped 




3 o8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

onion, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a teaspoonful 
of powdered mixed herbs, i good pinch of ground mace, salt and pepper, 
2 lemons, flour, fry ing-fat. 

Method. Wash and clean the fish, and cut it into fillets of convenient 
size for serving. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the onion, parsley, 
herbs, mace, the juice of lemon, and a good seasoning of salt and 
pepper. Have the fillets of fish as dry as possible, put them into the 
stewpan 2 or 3 at a time, and fry them very gently for 10 or 15 minutes. 
Drain well, and when cool dredge with flour mixed with a little salt and 
pepper, and fry in hot fat or butter until nicely browned. Garnish 
with slices of lemon, and serve with cut lemon. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 23. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 
or 4 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

427. CARP, Stewed. (Fr. Carpe en Ragout.) 

Ingredients. i large carp, i pint of stock, i glass of claret, i table- 
spoonful of flour, 12 small button mushrooms, 2 ozs. butter, 2 or 3 
small onions, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a good 
pinch of grated nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash the fish in vinegar and water, and cut it into thick 
slices. Slice the onions, fry them until brown in about 2 ozs. of 
hot butter, then put in the stock, wine, mushrooms, herbs, nutmeg and 
seasoning, and, when warm, add the fish, and simmer gently for 30 or 
40 minutes. Take out the fish and keep it hot. Have ready the flour 
and the remainder of the butter kneaded to a smooth paste, add it to 
the contents of the stewpan, and simmer and stir until the sauce is 
cooked smoothly. Place the fish on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and 
garnish with the mushrooms (heated in sauce), fried roe, and sippets of 
toast. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 
persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

Note. This fish can be boiled plain, and served with parsley and butter 
sauce. Chub, char, dace and roach may be cooked in the same manner as the 
above. 

THE CHUB (Fr. chabol) resembles the carp, but is somewhat longer. It is found in most English 
rivers ; the body is oblong and nearly round, bluish-black on the upper parts, and silvery white be- 
neath, the head and gill-covers are yellow. The flesh is somewhat coarse, and is not nindi rstc.Miu d 
as a table-fish ; the head and throat are the best parts. There are allied American species of the 
same name. The scales of the chub were formerly used in in-laying work. 

428. COD. (Fr. Cabillaud.) 

Cod may be boiled whole; but a large head and shoulders are quite 
sufficient for a dish, and contain all that is usually served, because, 
when the thick part is done, the tail is insipid and overdone. The 
latter, however, cut in slices, makes a very good dish for frying, or it 
may be salted and served with egg sauce and parsnips. Cod, when 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 309 

boiled quite fresh, is watery; salted a little, it is rendered firmer. The 
liver is considered a delicacy, and a piece should, if possible, be bought 
and cooked with the fish. 

429. COD, CURRIED. (Fr Cabillaud au Kari.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod, i pint of white stock (fish or meat), 2 ozs. 
of butter, i tablespoonful of flour, i dessertspoonful of curry-powder, 
i medium-sized onion, salt and pepper, cayenne, a tablespoonful of 

lemon-juice. 

Method. Wash and dry the cod, and cut it into pieces about iV 
inches square. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the cod slightly, 
then take out and set aside. Add the sliced onion, flour, and curry- 
powder to the butter in the stewpan. and fry 15 minuu-s, stirring con- 
stantly to prevent the onion becoming too brown, then pour in the 
stock, stir until it boils, and afterwards simmer gently for jo minutes. 
Strain and return to the saucepan, add lemon-juice and seasoning to 
taste, bring nearly to boiling point, then put in the 
anddi for about \ an hour, or until the tish becomes thoroughly 

impregnated with the flavour of the sauce. An occasional stir must 
. i-n to piv\rnt the li^h sticking to the bottom of the stewpan. 
Tin- remains of cold fish in. i\ :. in which ease the preliminary 

frying may be omitted. 

Time. 1} hours. Average Cost, from is. o<l. to n. Sufficient for 
5 or ' prrsons. Seasonable from November to March. 



' ta M^ ^fcj^ JM-.pluni<|BdLfpipil 

tail, tli. i 1 tli.- si L - i.-y fftro^ifbbM. Th glu- 

>ut the head los t .. been 24 hours out of the 

vvhich th cod should be fudged it thr firmness of in flesh ; if trus rise 

rt.-r prrssun ,.,xxl ; if n<>! Mgn of its goodness 

.j'pe.ir.ince of the ii or -side of i mynfLqLJpet. 

4i will bo tirtn when cooked. Stiffness in a cod, or in any nllii! H^lf 



430. COD, HASHED. (Fr. Rechauffe de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients, j Ib. of cooked cod, 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. flour, i pint 
milk, j pir.- .hrimps, j 1 salt , mashed potatoes, ch 

Method. Hit nd tin- buttrr and flour in a . and fry for a few 

minutes \\ithout allowing them to colour. Add the milk, .uul Mir until 

boiling. Put in the cod, tlakrd into small pieces, and the shrimps. 

<r until thoroughly hot, and season carefully. 

border of mashed potatoes on a hot dish. Pour 

the hash in the centre, and sprinkle a little chopped parsley over the 

top. 

Time. \ an hour. Average Cost is. iod. to 2S. Sufficient for 4 or 
. Seasonable from November to March. 



310 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

431. COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS. (Fr. Hure 
de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. Cod's head and shoulders, salt, lemon. 

Method. Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and rub a little salt over the 
thick part and inside the fish i or 2 hours before dressing it, as this 
very much improves the flavour. Lay it in the fish-kettle, with sufficient 
hot water to cover it. Be very particular not to pour the water on 
the fish as it is liable to break, and keep it only just simmering. If the 
water should boil away, add a little, pouring it in at the side of the 
kettle, and not on the fish. Skim very carefully, draw it to the side 
of the fire, and let it gently simmer till done. Garnish with cut lemon, 
and serve with either oyster or caper sauce. 

Time. 20 to 35 minutes, according to size. Average Cost, from 4d. 
to 9d. per Ib. Allow 3 Ib. for 6 persons. Seasonable from November to 
March. 

THE COD (Fr. cabillaud) is a member of the family Gadidae, to which the haddocks, whitings and 
ling belong, characterized by long gills, seven rayed ventral fins attached beneath the throat, large 
median fins, and a cirrhus, or small beard, at the tip of the lower jaw. The body is oblong, smooth, 
and covered with small soft scales. The fins are enclosed in skin, and their rays are unarmed ; the 
ventral fins are slender and terminate in a point ; the median fins are large. The cod has three dorsal 
and two anal fins. It is a gregarious fish, and abounds in the colder waters of the seas of Europe and 
Newfoundland. The cod is caught by hand lines and hooks, baited with cuttle fish and shell-fish 
of various kinds, chiefly on the great banks of Newfoundland. The sounds of the codfish (Fr. nau 
de morue), or the swim-bladders, by means of which the fish ascend or descend in the water, are taken 
out of the fish, washed, and salted for exportation. The tongues are also cured, while from the liver 
considerable quantities of oil are obtained. This, the well-known cod liver oil, under its designation 
of " white," " pale," and " brown," is largely used in cases of consumption, its easily assimilated 
and nutritive qualities rendering it valuable in wasting diseases. Its chief constituents are olein, 
palmitin, stearin, acetic, butyric, and other acids. 

432. COD'S LIVER MINCED AND BAKED. 

(Fr. Foie de Cabillaud au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. A cod's liver, 12 sauce oysters, of a pint of white 
sauce, butter, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper. 

Method. Parboil the liver and cut it into small pieces. Blanch 
the oysters in their own liquor, which afterwards strain and add to the 
white sauce. Halve or quarter the oysters, mix them with the pre- 
pared liver, and season to taste. Place the mixture in buttered scallop 
shells, add a little sauce, cover lightly with breadcrumbs, and on the 
top place 2 or 3 small pieces of butter. Bake in a moderately hot oven 
for 10 or 15 minutes, then serve. 

Time To bake, about 10 minutes. Average Cost is. 6d. to is. 9d. 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 scallops. Seasonable from November to March. 

433. COD'S LIVER, QUENELLES OF. 

(Fr. Quenelles de Foie de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. a Ib, of cod's liver, 2 tablespoonfuls of bread- 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 311 

crumbs, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, the yolks of 2 or 3 eggs 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and dry the liver, chop it finely, and mix with it 
the breadcrumbs and parsley. Add sufficient yolk of egg to bind 
the whole together, taking care not to make the mixture too moist. 
Season to taste, shape into quenelles (see " Quenelles of Veal "), poach 
until firm, and serve with a suitable sauce. 

Time. To poach, from 10 to 15 minutes. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. 
Seasonable from November till March. 

434. COD PIE. (Fr. Pate de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. 1 Ib. of cold cod, i doz. oysters (tinned may be used) 
\ a pint of melted butter sauce, a Ib. of short paste, or mashed 
potatoes, salt and pepper, nutmeg. 

Method. Take off the beards of the oysters, simmer them for a few 
minutes in a little water, then strain and mix with the oyster 
liquor (from fresh oysters). Cut the oysters into 2 or 4 pieces, accord- 
ing to size ; divide the fish into large flakes, put half of it into the dish, 
lay the oysters on the top, season with salt and pepper, grate on a little 
nutmeg, add the melted butter sauce, and cover with the rest of the 
fish. Make the short crust paste according to directions given for 
short crust paste. Or, when a potato covering is preferred, season the 
potato with salt and pepper, and warm and stir in a saucepan, with 
a small piece of butter, and 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of milk. Bake 
about an hour in a moderate oven. 

Time. From i to i^ hours. Average Cost, is. oxi. to 2s. Sufficient 
for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

435. COD, PROVENCALE STYLE. (Fr. Cabillaud 
a la Pr oversale.) 

Ingredients. About 2 Ib. of cod-fish (middle cut), a pint of Veloutd 
sauce, i gill white wine, 2 small shallots (chopped fine), i gill white 
stock, 2 ozs. butter, yolks of 2 eggs, i teaspoonful of anchovy-paste, 
2 teaspoonfuls of capers, i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a small 
bunch of parsley and herbs (bouquet-garni). 

Method. Wash and wipe the fish well, place it in a stewpan, season 
with pepper and salt, and add Veloute sauce, white wine, stock, chopped 
shallots, and bouquet-garni. Set it to simmer slowly until the fish 
is done, basting occasionally. Put the fish on a dish, and keep warm. 
Reduce the sauce until the desired consistency is obtained. Remove 
the herbs, add the yolks of eggs, work in the butter, and pass the 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

ingredients through a tammy cloth or strainer. Return to a smallef 
stewpan, add the anchovy-paste, chopped parsley and capers, stir a 
few minutes over the fire, and pour over the fish. 

Average Cost. 2s. 6d. to 35. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Season- 
able from November to March. 

436.-COD RECHAUFFE. (Fr. Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of cooked cod, a pint of white sauce, No. 222, 
i teaspoonful of mushroom sauce, \ a teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, 
a teaspoonful of mixed mustard, butter, breadcrumbs, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Free the fish from skin and bones, and separate it into large 
flakes. Make the sauce as directed, add the mushroom sauce, anchovy- 
essence, mustard, and salt and pepper to taste, put in the fish, mix 
well together, then turn the whole into a well-buttered fireproof baking- 
dish. Cover the surface lightly with breadcrumbs, add a few pieces 
of butter, bake in the oven until well browned, then serve in the 
dish. 

Time. To bake, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. to iod., exclu- 
sive of the fish. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from November 
to March. 

437. COD'S ROE. (Fr. Laitance de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. Cod's roe, melted butter (No. 202), or white sauce 
No. 222, cream, brown breadcrumbs, salt, vinegar. 

Method. Wash and wipe the cod's roe, and boil for 10 minutes in 
water with a little salt and vinegar. Cut into dice, and put into some 
melted butter made with cream or white sauce. Butter a scallop tin, 
put in the roe, cover with brown breadcrumbs, and brown in the oven, 
or serve it on hot buttered toast. It is often used as garnish to other 
fish. 

Time. \ an hour. Average Cost, is. Seasonable in the Wint( 
Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. 

438. COD'S ROE. (Fr. Laitance de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of cod's roe, i egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat. 

Method. Boil the roe for 15 minutes, then drain and cut it into 
slices. When cold, brush over with egg, roll in breadcrumbs, and fry, 
until nicely browned, in hot fat. 

Time. From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. to iod. Sufficient 
for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 





i. Boiled Cod with French Sauce. 2. Whitebait. 3. Savoury Haddock in 

Rice Border. 



21 



FISH. 




i. Cod Steak. 2. Fish Pic. 3. Crab Salad. 



22 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 313 

439.-COD SOUNDS. (Fr. Nau de Morue.) 

Method. These, salted, as Jhey are generally bought, should be 
soaked in milk and water for several hours, and then boiled in milk 
and water until tender, when they should be drained and served with 
egg sauce. When suitably dressed, they may be served as an entree 
or breakfast dish. 

Average Cost. 6d. Seasonable from November to March. 

440. COD SOUNDS WITH FRENCH SAUCE. 

(Fr. Nau de Morue, Sauce Fran^aise.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod sounds. For the batter : J of a pint of milk, 
3 tablespoonfuls of flour, i egg, a tcaspoonful of salt. For the 
marinade (or brine) : 2 tablespoonfuls each of salad-oil and vinegar, 
i teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, i teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, a good sprinkling of pepper, frying-fat. 

Method. Soak and boil the sounds as directed in the preceding 
recipe, and cut them into pieces about 2 inches square. Mix the oil, 
vinegar, parsley, onion and pepper, pour over the sounds, and let them 
remain in the marinade for i hour, turning the pieces of sound at the 
end of \ an hour in order that both sides may absorb the flavour of 
the marinade. Make a batter of the milk, flour, egg and salt, dip each 
piece of sound into it, take out on the point of a skewer, drop into hot 
lit, and fry until nicely browned. 

Time. 1| to 2 hours. Average Cost, about is. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 
persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

441. COD SOUNDS A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. 

(Fr. Nau de Morue a la Maitre d'Hotel.) 

Ingredients. 2 11 s. of cod sounds, 4 ozs. of butter, i tablespoonful of 
lemon-juice, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful 
of finely-chopped onion, pepper. 

Method. Soak and boil the sounds, and cut them into small pieces. 
Melt the butter, fry the onion for 2 or 3 minutes without browning, 
then put in the lemon-juice, parsley, a good sprinkling of pepper, 
and the tish. Make hot, and serve. 

Time. About i hour, after soaking. Average Cost, is. f>d. Sufficient 
for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

442. COD SOUNDS WITH PIQUANTE SAUCE. 

(Fr. Nau de Morue, Sauce Piquante.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod sounds, j of a pint of piquante sauce, No. 



3 i4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Soak and boil the sounds, and cut them into small pieces. 
Make the sauce as directed, put in the pieces of sound, make hot, and 
serve. 

Time. About i hour, after soaking. Average Cost, from is. 3d. to 
is. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from November to 
March. 

443. COD STEAKS. (Fr. Tranche de Cabillaud.) 

Ingredients. f-inch slices cut from a medium or small cod, flour, 
salt and pepper, frying-fat, parsley. 

Method. Make a rather thin batter of flour and water, and season 
it well with salt and pepper. Melt sufficient clarified fat or dripping 
in a frying-pan to form a layer about an inch in depth. Wash and 
dry the fish, dip each piece separately in the batter, place these at once 
in the hot fat, and fry them until of a light -brown, turning once during 
the process. Drain well, and serve garnished with crisply-fried parsley. 
If preferred, the fish may be coated with egg and breadcrumbs, and fried 
in deep fat. Anchovy, tomato, or any other fish sauce would form a 
suitable accompaniment. 

Time. To fry, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, from 4d. to 8d. 
per Ib. Seasonable from November to March. 

444. COD WITH CREAM. (Fr. Cabillaud a la 
Crime.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod, 3 ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, a pint of 
white stock (or milk), 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, i teaspoonful of 
lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash, and dry the fish thoroughly. Melt 2 ozs. of the 
butter in a stewpan, put in the cod, and fry quickly on both sides 
without browning. Add the stock, cover closely, and simmer gently 
for about 20 minutes, then place on a hot dish. Melt the remaining 
oz. of butter, stir in the flour, add the stock in which the fish was 
cooked, and enough milk to make up the original quantity ( a pint), 
boil up, and simmer for about 10 minutes to cook the flour. Add the 
cream and lemon-juice, season to taste, and strain over the fish. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient 
for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

445. COD WITH CREAM. (Fr. Cabillaud a la 
Creme.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod, i ozs. of butter, i| ozs. of flour, of a pint 
of white stock or milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, i teaspoonful of 
lemon- juice, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful of 
finely-chopped onion, salt and pepper. 



KECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 315 

Method. Wash the cod and boil it in a very small quantity of water, 
which afterwards may be used for the sauce. Melt the butter, fry the 
onion a few minutes without browning, add the flour, cook for ten 
minutes, then pour in the stock and stir until it boils. Simmer for a few 
minutes, then add the lemon-juice, parsley, seasoning, cream, and 
when well mixed put in the fish. Draw the saucepan to the side of 
the stove for about 10 minutes, then dish, and serve. 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 
5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

446. COD WITH PARSLEY BUTTER. 

(Fr. Cabillaud a la Maitre d'Hotel.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of cod (cold remains will serve), 4 ozs. of butter 
i teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, the juice of % a lemon, pepper. 

Method. Boil the cod, and afterwards separate into large flakes. Melt 
the butter in a stewpan, add the onion, and fry for 2 or 3 minutes 
without browning ; then put in the parsley, lemon-juice, a good pinch 
of pepper, and the fish. Shake gently over the fire until quite hot, 
then serve. 

Time. 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2S. 6d. Sufficient 
for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

447. COD WITH ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr. Cabillaud 
a 1'Italienne.) 

Ingredients. 2 slices of crimped cod, of a pint of Italian sauce 
(No. 252). 

Method. Boil the cod, take out the middle bone, remove the skin, 
and place on a hot dish. Make the sauce according to directions 
given, strain over the fish, and serve. 

Time. From i to i hours. Average Cost, 2S. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 
5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

448. CRAB SALAD. (Fr. Salade de Crabe.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized crab, i hard-boiled egg, 3 tablespoonfuls 

of salad-oil, i tablcspoonful of vinegar, i good lettuce, i bunch of 

watercress, a few slices of pickled beetroot, a tomato, pepper and salt. 

Method. Pick the meat from the shell and shred it finely. Wash and 

y the lettuce, and either break or cut it into small pieces ; wash and 

k the cress, and break it into small pieces ; cut the tomato into thin 

Mix the oil, vinegar, salt and pepper, put in the salad, stir 

lightly until thoroughly mixed, then add the crab, mix well, and 

arnish with the slices of beetroot and tomato, rings of white of egg, 

md the yolk, previously rubbed through a wire sieve. 



3i6 HOUSEHOLD i MANAGEMENT 

Average Cost. is. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable 
from April to October. 

449. CRAB, SCALLOPED. (Fr. Crabe enCoquille.) 

Ingredients. i or 2 crabs, cream, vinegar, breadcrumbs, salt and 
pepper, mustard. 

Method. Remove the meat from the claws and body, taking care 
to leave the unwholesome part near the head. Add about its bulk 
in fine breadcrumbs, season to taste with salt, pepper and mustard, 
and stir in a few drops of vinegar. Add cream until the right con- 
sistency is obtained, then turn into buttered scallop shells, and sprinkle 
the surface lightly with breadcrumbs. Place small pieces of butter 
on the top, and bake in a moderate oven until nicely browned. 

Time. To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. to 35. Sufficient, 
2 crabs for 8 or 9 scallops. Seasonable from April to October. 

THE CRAB (Fr. crabe). The popular name for many genera of the Crustacea, constituting the sub- 
order Brachyura, " short-tailed," which includes the true crabs, order Decapoda, " ten-limbed," 
and distinguished from the lobster by the shortness of the tail, which is folded under the broadened- 
out body, the latter being covered with a strong carapace or shell. The gills are placed in the sides 
of the body, and are popularly known as " dead men's fingers." The liver is composed of a soft rich 
yellow substance, called the " fat." The mouth has several pairs of powerful jaws, and the stomach 
is furnished with hard projections by means of which the crab grinds its food, consisting chiefly of 
vegetable matter and molluscae. The front pair of legs form nipping claws, which are renewed when 
injured or lost. The eyes are compound and movable. The majority of crabs live in the sea, but 
there are some fresh-water species, and others which live on land, but go to the sea to spawn. After 
hatching, the young of the crab passes through two stages. In the first, it is free-swimming and 
possesses a tail ; in the second stage, it is also tailed, but after moulting it loses its tail and becomes 
the perfect crab. A remarkable feature in the life-history of the crab is the changing of its shell, 
to permit its growth, and the reproduction, as noticed above, of injured claws. Annually, usually 
during the winter, the crab retires to a cavity in the rocks or beneath a great stone, and conceals 
itself until the new shell, which at first is very soft, becomes hardened. The HERMIT CRAB derives 
its name from its habit of taking possession of the deserted shell of some mollusc, the hermit crab 
having no shell of its own. The crab is much esteemed, and forms an important fishery on the Hnti.^h 
coasts. 

450. CRAB, TO DRESS. (Fr. Crabe or Ecrevisse 
de Mer.) 

Ingredients. i medium sized crab, i hard-boiled egg, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, salt and pepper, cayenne. 

Method. Empty the shells, mix the meat with the vinegar and oil, 
and season well. Clean the large shell, put in the mixture and garnisl 
with slices of lemon, parsley, and egg, the yolk rubbed through a wii 
sieve and the white coarsely-chopped. 

Average Cost. lod. to is. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Season- 
able from April to October. 

To CHOOSE CRABS. Crabs of medium size are the best, and. like lobsters, should be judged by 
their weight. 

451. CRAB, DRESSED. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized crab, 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 2 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 317 

tablespoonfuls of vinegar, breadcrumbs, pepper and salt. For garnish- 
ing : lobster coral, butter, hard-boiled egg, or parsley. 

Method. Pick the meat from the shell, flake it into small shreds, and 
add to it the same proportion of finely-grated breadcrumbs. Season 
to taste with pepper and salt, then mix well with the oil, and lastly 
the vinegar. Carefully wash and dry the shell and put in the mixture, 
garnishing with lobster coral, butter, or hard-boiled egg and parsley. 

Average Cost. is. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable 
from April to October. 

452. CRAB, DEVILLED. (Fr Crabe a la Diable.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized crab, of a pint of thick white sauce, 
I dessertspoonful of anchovy-essence, I dessertspoonful of chutney, 
i teaspoonful of vinegar (preferably chilli), i teaspoonful of made 
mustard, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, cayenne, salt 
and pepper, brown breadcrumbs. 

Method. Pick the meat from the shells, and put one claw aside. 
Mix together the white sauce, anchovy-essence, chutney, vinegar, 
and mustard, season well with suit, popper and cayenne, then add the 
crab, except the one claw. Clean the shell, put in the mixture, 
lightly with browned breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderately hot oven 
for about 15 minutes. In the meantime separate the meat of the 
remaining claw into fine flakes, and warm between two plates either 
in the oven or over a saucepan of boiling water. Remove the crab 
from the oven, and garnish with the flaked claw and the chopped 
parsley. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, from is. to 2s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 
persons. Seasonable from April to October. 

453. CRAB, HOT. (Fr. Crabe au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized crab, 2 ozs. of butter, j ozs. of bread- 
crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, i tablespoonful of vinegar, 
nutmeg, salt and pepper, browned breadcrumbs. 

Method. Pick the meat from the shell, season well with salt and 
pepper, add a little nutmeg, the butter slightly warmed, the white 
sauce, vinegar, and breadcrumbs, and mix these well together. Have 
ready the shell, washed and dry, put in the mixture, cover with a thin 
layer of browned breadcrumbs, add 3 or 4 small pieces of butter, ami 
bake for 10 or 15 minutes in a brisk oven. 

Time. i hour. Average Cost, is. to is. 9d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 
persons, Seasonable from April to October. 

454. CRAB OR LOBSTER, POTTED. 

Ingredients. 2 crabs or lobsters, of a pint of cream, 2 ozs. of butter, 
3 yolks of eggs, salt and pepper, cayenne, clarified butter. 



3 i8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Pick the meat from the shells, chop it finely, and then put 
it into a stewpan with the butter and seasoning, and cook slowly for 
20 minutes. Add the cream and yolks of eggs, stir, cook by the 
side of the fire until the mixture has the consistency of thick paste, 
then rub through a fine sieve, press into pots, and when cold cover with 
clarified butter. 

Time. From 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. to 33. Seasonable 
at any time. 

455. CRAB, POTTED. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 2 crabs, salt, cayenne, mace, clarified butter (from 
4 to 5 ozs.). 

Method. Pick the meat from the shells, pound it in a mortar with 
the seasoning, rub through a fine sieve, press it into small pots, cover 
with melted butter, and bake in a moderately hot oven for an hour. 
When cold, cover each pot with clarified butter. 

Time. From 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2s. Suffi- 
cient for 2 or 3 pots. Seasonable at any time. 

456. CRAYFISH, POTTED. (Fr. Ecrevisses en 
Terrine. ) 

Ingredients. 4 doz. live crayfish, a Ib. of butter, ground mace, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Put the crayfish into boiling water to which has been added 
a good seasoning of salt and a little vinegar, cook from 15 to 20 
minutes, then drain and dry. Pick the meat from the shells, and pound 
it in a mortar to a fine paste, adding gradually the butter, and mace, 
salt and pepper to taste. Press into small pots, cover with clarified 
butter, and when cold, use. 

Average Cost. is. to is. 3d. per dozen. Seasonable all the year. 

THE DACE (Fr. vandoise) called also the DART, is found usually in the dull, clear, slowly-running 
streams of England and Europe. It is allied to the chub, barbel and roach, and resembles the l.i*t, 
but is longer and thinner in the body, and its scales are smaller. In colour it is dullish blue on the 
upper, and white on the under, parts ; the gill-covers and sides of the head are silvery white. The 
dace is gregarious and swims in shoals. The flesh is rather coarse in quality. 

457. DORY, JOHN. (Fr. Doree or St. Pierre.) 

Method. This fish, which is e'steemed by most people a great delicacy, 
is dressed in the same way as a turbot, which it resembles in firm- 
ness, but not in richness. Cleanse it thoroughly, cut off the fins but 
not the head, which is considered a delicacy, lay it in a fish-k 
cover with warm water, and add salt to taste. Bring it gradually to 
near boiling point, and simmer gently for 15 minutes, or rather longer, 
should the fish be very large. Serve on a hot napkin, and garnish 
with cut lemon and parsley. Lobster, anchovy, or shrimp sauce, and 
plain melted butter, should be sent to table with it. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 319 

Time. After the water boils, to 4- an hour, according to size. 
Average Cost, is. to 33. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable all the 
year, but best from September to January. 

Note. Small John Dorys are excellent baked. 

458. DORY, JOHN. (Fr. Doree a la Genoise.) 

Ingredients. i dory, i gill of picked shrimps, 2 smelts, i teaspoonful 
of anchovy-essence, i egg, about 2 ozs. of panada, i oz. of butter, 
pepper and salt, i tablespoonful of Chablis or Sauterne, Genoise sauce 
(No. 301). 

Method. Wash the fish, wipe it and remove the fillets (the bones, 
etc., may be used for the Genoise sauce). Pare the fillets ndatly, and 
cut them into oblong pieces. Remove the bones and heads from the 
smelts, pound them together with the shrimps in a mortar until 
they are quite smooth, then add the panada and anchovy-essence, 
and moisten with the egg. Mix thoroughly, season to taste, and rub 
the whole through a sieve. Spread each piece of fillet with this farce, 
fold over, and place them on a well buttered saute-pan. Season, 
lightly moisten with the wine and a few drops of lemon-juice, cover 
with a buttered pape'r, and cook in the oven for about 15 minutes, 
or longer, according to the thickness of the fillets. Take up carefully, 
and dish up on a hot dish. Pour some previously prepared Genoise 
sauce into the pan in which the fish was cooked, boil up, and strain over 
the fillets. Serve hot. 

Time. To cook, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. to 35. Suffi- 
cient for 5 persons. Seasonable all the year, but best from Scptc*mbcr 
to January. 

THE DORY (Fr. doree), called also JOHN DORY, is a yellowish golden-coloured fish, belonging to 
the mackerel family, distinguished, as a genus, by its divided dorsal fin, the spinous part of which 
is less developed than the soft portion. The head is curiously shaped, and the body compressed. 
Its name is supposed to be a corruption of the French, jaunt doree (" golden-yellow."). The dory 
is highly esteemed as a table-fish, and its flesh when dressed is of a beautiful clear white. A popular 
superstition ascribes the peculiar black mark on each side of the fish to St. Peter's finger and thumb, 
the dory being, so runs the legend, the fish from which the apostle took the tribute money. The 
and in the Mediterranean and other seas of Europe. 

459. EELS BOILED. (Fr. Anguilles Bouillies.) 

Ingredients. 4 small eels, a small bunch of parsley, of a pint of 
parsley sauce (No. 311), a little salt. 

Method. Clean and skin the eels, put them into a stewpan with the 
parsley, a little salt, and warm water to barely cover them. Simmer 
gently for an hour, or until they are tender, then serve with the 
sauce poured over thdm. 

Time. About an hour. Average Cost, 8d. to is. per Ib. Sufficient 
:or 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from June to March. 

THE EEL (Fr. anguillf). This name is applied generally to fish with elongated bodies, but is scienti- 
tcally restricted to certain genera of the Apodta, fish without ventral fins, belonging to the sub-order 
or " soft-finned." The eel has a smooth head and a serpentine body, covered with 



320 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

minute detached scales which are frequently concealed by the skin, the absence of scales being conr- 
pensated for by a mucous secretion, which renders the eel proverbially slippery. The lower jaw 
projects beyond the upper, the teeth are sharp, and a swim-bladder is present. Some species of 
eel are marine, others fresh- water, while some, as the Anguilla, live in both elements. The coi^.-r- 
eel is exclusively marine, and is the largest of the eels. The eel lives in the mud. among weeds, roots 
or stumps of trees, or holes in the banks, or the bottoms of rivers, where they often grow to an enor- 
mous size, weighing as much as 15 Ib. or 16 Ib. It seldom emerges from its hiding-place except in 
the night ; and in winter, on account of its great susceptibility to cold, it buries itself in the mud. 
The eel is noted for its voracity and tenacity of life, and also for its remarkable fecundity, the young 
of the eels which spawn in the estuaries of rivers passing up the streams in vast numbers ; such a 
passage is called the " eel-fare." The eel frequently migrates from one habitat to another, crossing 
over the intervening marshy land. Various methods are employed for capturing the eel, river eels 
being usually caught in wicker baskets with funnel-shaped mouths, into which they enter, but r.usm.t 
get out. Eels are also taken by means of a kind of trident, called an eel-spear, and by hooks and lines. 
Large quantities of eels are caught in Holland, from whence they are brought alive to the London 
market by boats fitted with wells. As an article of food, they are largely eaten in England, but 
seldom in Scotland ; the flesh is somewhat fatty and insipid. The eel-like fish, Gymnotus elcctricus 
of South America, has the property of communicating an electric shock when touched. 

Holland is very famous for its eels, and sends large quantities to London ; but those caught in the 
Thames are more silvery in appearance, and are considered by epicures to be of a better flavour. 

460. EEL, CONGER. (Fr.^-Congre. Anguille de 
Mer.) 

This is much esteemed by many persons. It forms the basis of the 
well-known soup of the Channel Islands, and is made into pies in the 
West of England. Like a tough steak, it always needs long stewing or 
cooking, as the flesh is remarkably firm and hard. It can be cooked 
like a fresh-water eel. 

THE CONGER EEL (Fr. anguillf de mer), a genus of marine eels, having a long dorsal fin 1>< 
near the nape of the neck, a long eel-like body destitute of scales, and the upper jaw exten.! 
the lower, both furnished with sharp rows of teeth. The conger eel is a muscular and vor.ii ; 
The most familiar species is the Conger vulgaris, abundant on the English coasts, especially oft Corn- 
wall, which sometimes attains to a length of 10 feet, and over 100 Ib. in weight. Its colour, wBfch 
varies with its habitat, is a pale brown above and greyish-white underneath. The flesh of tin 
eel is coarse, but its gelatinous qualities are medicinally valuable. 

461. EEL, CONGER, BAKED. (Fr. Congre roti.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of conger eel, suet-force : see Sauces, No. 
butter or fat, flour. 

Method. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, stuff it with the prep 
forcemeat, and bind it with tape. Melt the butter or fat in a baking- 
dish or tin, put in the fish, and baste it well. Bake gently for i hour, 
meanwhile basting occasionally with fat, and dredging the surface with 
flour. Serve witli the gravy poured round, or, if preferred, with 
tomato, brown caper, or a suitable fish sauce. 

Time. To bake, i hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per Ib. Suftkimt 
for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable September and November. 

462. EEL, CONGER, BOILED. (Fr. - - Congre 
Bouilli.) 

Ingredients. Conger eel, vinegar, salt. 

Method. Put the fish into a fish-kettle containing just enough hot 
salted water to barely cover it, and add a little vinegar. I.n it lmil. 
then simmer gently for about an hour, or until tlu- fi^h ^< -j- 



FISH. 




i. Oyster Patties. 2. -Whiting. 3. Turbot. 4. Whitebait. 5. Mackerel. 

6. Mayonnaise Salmon. 7. Lobster. 8. Crab. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 321 

easily from the bone. Drain well, serve garnished with lemon and 
parsley, and send parsley and butter sauce, or any fish sauce pre- 
ferred, to table in a tureen. 
Time. To boil, about \ an hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per Ib. 

463. EEL, CONGER, FRIED. (Fr. Congre frit.) 

Ingredients. Conger eel, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, flour, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, and cut it into slices 
about of an inch in thickness. Roll lightly in flour seasoned with salt 
and pepper, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot 
fat until lightly browned. Drain well, and serve with tomato anchovy, 
or any suitable fish sauce. 

Time. To fry, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 4d. to 6d. per Ib. 

464. EEL, CONGER, PIE. (Fr. Pate de Congre.) 

Ingredients. i small conger eel, rough puff paste, or puff, i tablespoon- 
ful of vinegar, i tcaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful 
of powdered mixed herbs, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, salt 
and pepper. 

Method. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, remove all skin and 
bones, and cut it i.ito neat pieces. Place these in layers in a pie dish, 
sprinkling each layer with salt, pepper, onion, herbs and p;u 
add water to three-quarters fill the dish, and mix with it the vil 
Cover the fish with paste, bake in a moderate oven for about i hour, 
and serve cither hot or cold. 

Time. To bake, about i hour. Average Cost, Fish, from 4d. to 6d. 
per Ib. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. 

465. EEL, CONGER, STEWED. (Fr. Ragout de 
Congre.) 

Ingredients. 3 slices off a medium-sized conger, i onion sliced, a 
bouquet-garni parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 2 cloves, i blade 
i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, ) of a pint of milk, \ a pint of water, salt 
and popper. 

Method. Heat the water, put in the fish, onion, herbs, mace, cloves, 
d a little salt and pepju r, and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Mean- 
while melt the butter in a stcwpan, add the flour, and stir and cook 
wrly for 10 minutes without browning. Strain the liquor from the 
i on to the prepared butter and flour, stir until boiling, then add the 

'1 up, pour over the fish, and si : 

Time. About '. an h.,ur. Average Cost, fish irom 4 d. to 6d. per Ib. 
Sufficient for 3 



322 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

466. EEL, COLLARED. (Fr. Anguille en Galan- 
tine.) 

Ingredients. i large eel, 3 or 4 ozs. of veal forcemeat (No. 412), a 
good pinch each of ground cloves, mace, allspice, mixed herbs, sage, 
salt and pepper, fish stock, and vinegar. 

Method. Cut off the head and tail of the eel, and remove the skin 
and backbone. Mix all the ingredients enumerated above with 
the forcemeat, spread the eel flat on the table, and cover its inner side 
with the mixture. Roll up the eel, beginning with the broad end, and 
bind it in shape with a strong tape. Have ready some fish stock, made 
by simmering the backbone, head, and tail of the eel while the force- 
meat was being prepared. See that it is well seasoned with salt, add 
a tablespoonful of vinegar, put in the eel, and simmer gently for about 
40 minutes, then press the eel between two dishes or boards until cold. 
Meanwhile add allspice and a little more vinegar to the liquor in which 
the eel was cooked, simmer gently for \ an hour, then strain. When the 
eel is cold, put it into the liquor and let it remain until required for use. 
The eel should be glazed before serving. 

Time. About i hours, to prepare and cook. Average Cost, from 
9d. to is. per Ib. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable all the year 
round, but best from June to March. 

467. EELS FRIED. (Fr. Anguilles Frites.) 

Ingredients. I or 2 medium-sized eels, I tablespoonful of flour, % a 
teaspoonful of salt, of a teaspoonful of pepper, i egg, breadcrumbs, 
parsley, salt and pepper, frying-fat. 

Method. Wash, skin, and dry the eels thoroughly, and divide them 
into pieces from 2% to 3 inches long. Mix the flour, salt and pepper 
together, and roll the pieces of eel separately in the mixture. Coat 
carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, fry in hot fat until crisp and lightly- 
browned, then drain well, and serve garnished with crisply-fried 
parsley. 

Time. About 2, minutes. Average Cost, eels, 8d. to is. perlb. Allow 
2 Ib. for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from June to March. 

468. EEL PIE. (Fr. Pate aux Anguilles.) 

Ingredients. i-J- Ib. of eels, | a pint of meat stock, i tablespoonful 
of mushroom ketchup, i dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, pepper and 
salt, rough puff paste, or puff. 

Method. Clean and skin the eels, and cut them into pieces about 
2 inches long. Put the heads, tails, and fins into a stewpan with the 
stock, simmer for an hour, then strain, and skim well. Place 
the eels in a pie-dish, with a good seasoning of salt and pepper between 
*he layers. Add the lemon-juice and ketchup to the stock, pour about 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 323 

half of it into the pie-dish, cover with paste, and bake in a fairly-hot 
oven for i hour. Warm the remainder of the stock, and pour it into 
the pie through a funnel as soon as it is taken from the oven. 

Time, i hour to bake. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 persons. 
Seasonable all the year, but best from June to March. 

469. EEL PIE. (Fr. Pate aux Anguilles.) 

(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of eels, a little chopped parsley, i shallot, grated 
mitmei,', pepper and salt to taste, the juice of | a lemon, a small quan- 
tity of forcemeat, of a pint of Bechamel (see Sauces), puff paste. 
Method. Skin and \\\ish the eels, cut them into pieces, 2 inches 

hem ; line the bottom of the pie-dish with forcemeat. Put in the 

;>rinkle them with the parsley, shallot, nutmeg, seasoning and 

lemon-juice, cover them with puff-paste, ornament the top with 

fancifully cut strips of paste, brush over with c.^g yolk and bake in 

iy hot oven lor about i hour. Make the Bechamel sauce hot, 

ami pour it into the pie before serving. 

Time. From \\ to i$ hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2S. 6d. Sufficient for 
4 or 5 persons. Seasonable all the year, but best from June to March. 

470. EELS WITH MATELOTE SAUCE. 

(Fr. Anguilles a la Matelote.^ 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of eels, f of a pint of good stock, $ of a pint of * 

-erved mushrooms, 2$ ozs. of butter, i$ ozs. of flour, salt and 

Method. Wash and dry the eels, cut them into three-inch lengths, 
and roll them in flour seasoned with a little salt and pepper, 
i oz. of butter in a stewpan, fry the eels until lightly browned, then drain 
off any butter that remains. Put in the stock and wine, bring to the 
boil, and simmer gently for | an hour. Meanwhile melt the remaining 
butter in another stewpan, stir in the flour, cook it gently until it 
acquires a nut-brown colour, then put it aside. Drain the pieces of 
m the stock, and keep them hot, strain the stock, add to the 
.cd flour, and stir until boiling. ! . ly the mushrooms 

cooked, heat them up in a little stock, and add them to the sauce, 
season to taste, and boil gently for 3 or 4 minutes. Pour the sauce 

r the fish, and serve. 

Time. About 45 minutes. Average Cost, 33. 1033. 6d. Sufficient for 
4 or 5 persons. 

471. EELS WITH TARTAR SAUCE. (Fr. An- 
guilles a la Tartare.) 

Ififredtents. 2 Ib. of eels, i a pint of good stock, a glass of sherry, i 
egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, 1} ozs, of butter. Tartar sauce (No. 213). 



324 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Wash, skin, dry, and cut the eels into pieces 2^ inches long. 
Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the eels and fry until brown, then 
add the stock (which must be highly seasoned) and sherry, and simmer 
gently for about 15 minutes. Drain well, and when cool brush over 
with egg, roll in breadcrumbs, and fry until nicely browned in hot fat. 
Garnish with fried parsley, and serve with a tureen of tartar sauce. 

Time. From i to i hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d., exclusive 
of the sauce. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable all the year, but 
best from June to March. 

472. EEL, FRIED, REMOULADE SAUCE. 

(Fr. Fritote d'Anguille a la Remoulade.) 

Ingredients. i good-sized eel, yolks of 3 eggs, i tablespoonful oiled 
butter, breadcrumbs, a few sprigs of parsley, |- a teaspoonful of sweet 
herbs, pepper and salt, fat for frying, \ a lemon, Remoulade sauce (No. 
271) 

Method. Wash, skin and clean the eel, cut off the tail and head, 
split it open, and take out the bone. Cut into neat pieces about 
i inches long, dry well on a cloth, and dip these in a little flour 
previously mixed with sufficient salt and pepper to season. Beat the 
yolks of 3 eggs, add the oiled butter, sweet herbs, and finely-chopped 
parsley. Coat the pieces well in this, then roll in breadcrumbs. Fry 
them in hot fat to a golden colour, drain well, dish up on a hot dish 
covered with a folded napkin. Garnish with slices of lemon and 
fried parsley and serve with a boat of Remoulade sauce. 

Fried eels are more palatable if served with an acid sauce. Lemon- 
juice squeezed over the fish just before serving will greatly improve the 
flavour. 

Time. To fry, 7 or 8 minutes. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. 3d., ex- 
clusive of the sauce. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable all the 
year, but best from June to March. 

473. EELS STEWED. (Fr. Anguilles a 1'Anglaise.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of eels, 2 ozs. of butter, i medium-sized onion, 
i dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper. 

Method. Skin and clean the eels, cut them into pieces about 2 inches 
long, and place them in a jar. Add the butter, the onion cut into 
slices, parsley, salt and pepper, cover closely, and place the jar in a 
saucepin of cold water, which must be brought slowly to the boil. 
Cook until the eels are tender ; this will take about i hours from the 
time the water boils. When done, place on a hot dish, and strain the 
gravy over. 

Time. From 2 to 2-J- hours. Average Cost, is. pd. to 2S. 3d. Sufficient for 
5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from June to March, but obtainable all the year. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 325 

474. EELS STEWED. (Fr. Anguilles a la Creme.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. oi eels, i pint of good stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of 

cream, i tflass of port wine, I teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a strip of 

lemon-rind, 2 oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i onion, 2 cloves, salt, cayenne. 

Method. Wash and skin the eels, cut them into pieces about 3 inches 

put them into a stewpan, add the stock, wine, onion, cloves, 

rind, and seasoning. Simmer gently for | an hour, or until 

tender, then lift them carefully on to a hot dish. Have ready the butter 

and flour kneaded together, add it to the stock in small portion 

until smoothly mixed with the stock, and boil for 10 minutes, 

then put in the cream and lemon-juice. Season to taste, and 

fish. 

Time.] of an hour. Average Cost, from 2s. 6d. to 35. 6d. Sufficient tor 
"iis. Seasonable from June .. but obtainable all the 

475. EELS STEWED. (Fr. Anguilles au Vin- 
Rouge.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of eels, i pint of brown sauce, | of a pint of port 

i dessertspoonful of lemon- juice, i teaspoonful of am 
essence, i \ ozs. of butter, cayenne, salt. 

Method. Wa- ad dry the eels, and cut them into pieces about 

es long. Molt the butter in a stewpan, put in the eels, and fry 

until nicely bnmued. Then add the same, wine, anchovy-essence 

.uul Milliner very gently f r about 2O niinu:< -. I ill 

rcfully on to a h> the Union-juice to the sauce, 

Time. From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, Sufficient 

for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable, obtainable all the year, bin be- 
Jim- h. 

476. FISH CAKES. 

Ingredients. I us of any cold fish ; to each Ib. allow $ a Ib. 

>hed potatoes, i oz. of butter, j eggs, breadcrumbs, milk, salt and 

Method. II. -at the butter in a saucepan, add the* fish (coai 

f i egg milk 

voughly. Stir the iiu 
minutes, then turn on to a plal ipe into run n. 1 

in hot fat. 

to one lar istead of several smal ; 

- a flat tin, and shape the mixture as nnu : 

;htly browned 
;i:rs in ot oven. 



326 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

This dish may be varied by the addition of forcemeat, made of 2 
tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, 2 tablespoonfuls breadcrumbs, 
i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt, pepper, grated lemon- 
rind, or other flavouring, and moistened with egg or milk. Or the 
forcemeat may be made of i tablespoonful of picked and coarsely- 
chopped shrimps, breadcrumbs, a teaspoonful of anchovy- 
essence, i tablespoonful of melted butter, salt, pepper, cayenne, and 
a little milk. When using forcemeat, spread one half of the fish-cake 
mixture on the tin in the form of a sole, spread the forcemeat in the 
centre, leaving bare a narrow margin at the sides, cover with the 
remainder of the mixture, brush over with egg, sprinkle with browned 
breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderate oven for 35 or 40 minutes. 

Time. About hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. for 12 small cakes. 
Sufficient. lib. fish, etc., for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

477 ._FISH CAKES FROM TINNED SALMON. 

Ingredients. i tin of salmon, i Ib. of mashed potato, milk, i egg, 
breadcrumbs, salt and pepper, frying-fat, parsley. 

Method. When using cold potato stir it over the fire with a little milk 
until quite hot and smooth. Chop the fish coarsely, add it to the 
potato, season to taste, and stir over the fire until thoroughly mixed, 
adding a little milk if too dry. Let the mixture cool on a plate, then 
shape into small rpund cakes, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, 
and fry in hot fat until lightly browned. Drain well, and serve gar- 
nished with crisply-fried parsley. 

Time. Altogether, i hours. Average Cost, 9d. to is. 

478. FISH CHOWDER. 

Ingredients. i Ib. of cod, haddock or whiting, 3 or 4 potatoes 
peeled and sliced, ^ of a Ib. of pickled pork cut into dice, i small onion 
finely- chopped, 3 water biscuits, \ a pint of milk, i pint of water, 
a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, salt, pepper. 

Method. Wash and dry the fish, and cut it into small pieces. 
Place the fish, potatoes and pork in a stewpan in alternate layers, 
sprinkling each layer with onion, herbs, salt and pepper. Add the 
water, cover closely, and cook gently for 40 minutes. Meanwhile soak 
the biscuits in the milk, beat out all the lumps with a fork, and stir the 
preparation into the stew about 10 minutes before serving. Add 
seasoning to taste, and serve hot. 

Time. To cook the chowder, about 40 minutes. Average Cost, about 
is. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

479. FISH, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr. Croquettes de 
Poisson.) 

Ingredients. Cooked fish; to a Ib. of which allow of a Ib. of mashed 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 327 

potatoes, } an oz. of butter, i yolk of egg, i whole egg, breadcrumbs, 
milk, salt and pepper, frying-fat. 

Method. Remove all skin and bone from the fish, then chop it 
coarsely. Heat the butter in a stc\vpan, add the fish, potatoes, yolk 
of cpg, salt and pepper to taste, and sufficient milk to moisten it thor- 
oughly. Stir the preparation over the fire until well mixed, then turn 
it on to a plate. When cold, form it into cork-shaped pieces, brush 
over with egg, coat with breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat. Drain well, 
and serve garnished with crisply-fried pars'- 

Time. To fry, about 5 minutes. Average Cost, jd. to 4d., in addition 
to * Ib. of fish. 

480. FISH, FRICASSEE OF. (Fr.-Fricass6e de 
Poisson.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of white fish, | a pint of milk, of a pint of water, 
i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i bay-leaf, i blade of mace, i pinch of 
nutmeg, salt and pepper, lemon-juice to taste. 

Method. Divide the fish into pieces about i| inches square. Put 
the milk, water, salt and pepper, bay-leaf, mace and nutmeg into a 
stewpan, and when warm add the fish. Bring to the boil and simmer 
for 10 minutes, then take out the bay-leaf and the mace. Have ready 
the butter and flour kneaded together, add it in small portions to the 
contents of the stewpan, and stir gently. When the flour is mixed 
smoothly with the liquor, add lemon-juice and seasoning to taste, and 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, lod. Sufficient for 2 or 3 
>ns. Seasonable at any time. 

481. FISH AND MACARONI. (Fr. Poisson aux 
Macaroni.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of fish (cooked), | a Ib. of macaroni, 3 ozs, of 
grated cheese, i or. of butter, pepper and salt. 

Method. Remove all skin and bone from the fish, and separate it 
into large flakes. Break the macaroni into pieces about i inch in 
length, put it into boiling salted water, and boil rapidly until tender, 
veil-greased pie-dish, put in a layer of fish, season well 
with salt and pepper, cover with macaroni, and add a good sprinkling 
of cheese and seasoning. Repeat until the dish is full. Put the butter 
in small pieces on the top, and bake for about 20 minutes in a quick 

Time. About T hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 23. Sufficient for 5 
Seasonable at any 



328 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

482. FISH AND MACARONI. (Fr. Poisson aux 
Macaroni.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of cooked fish, of a Ib. of macaroni, i ozs. of 
grated cheese, an oz. of butter, pepper and salt, of a pint of white 
sauce (see sauces, No. 222). 

Method. Remove all skin and bones, and separate the fish into small 
flakes. Put the macaroni into salted boiling water, and boil rapidly 
for about 20 minutes, or until tender, then cut it into small pieces. 
Heat the white sauce, add i oz. of cheese, the fish and macaroni, season 
to taste, and mix well together. Turn the preparation into a buttered 
pie-dish, sprinkle the remaining cheese on the top, and add the butter 
in small pieces. Brown in a hot oven, and serve in the dish. 

Time. To bake, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. Sufficient 
for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

483. FISH AND OYSTER PIE. (Fr.Pate de 
Poisson aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of any cold fish, such as cod or haddock, i 
dozen oysters, pepper and salt to taste, breadcrumbs or puff-paste, 
sufficient for the quantity of fish, a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 
i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, melted butter or white sauce. 

Method. Clear the' fish from the bones, put a layer of it in a pie-dish, 
add a few oysters, with nutmeg and chopped parsley. Repeat this 
till the dish is quite full. A covering may be formed either of bread- 
crumbs, which should be browned, or puff-paste, which should be cut 
into long strips, and laid in cross-bars over the fish, with a line of 
paste first laid round the edge. Pour in some sauce No. 202, melted 
butter, or a little thin white sauce, and the oyster-liquor, then bake. 

Time. If madd of cooked fish, % of an hour ; if made of fresh fish and 
puff-paste, of an hour. Average Cost, 2s. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

484. FISH PIE. (Fr. Pate de Poisson.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. each of cold fish and mashed potatoes, 2 eggs. 
i tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, and 4 ozs. of finely-chopped suet, 
enough milk to reduce the mixture to the consistency of very thick 
batter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Chop the fish coarsely, mix it with the potatoes and suet, 
add a liberal seasoning of salt and pepper, the eggs and milk, and beat 
well. Turn into a greased pie-dish, and cook in a moderate oven for 
i to i hours. Serve in the dish in which it is baked. 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, is. to is. 6d., exclusive of the 
fish. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time. 



FISH. 






in ji ily. uiiy. 



>ut \\ith \Vhiti- Sauce. 
M* 



FISH. 




i. Fish Cakes. 2. Fish Quenelles. 3. Cold Fish Timbales. 



RFJ'NT.S FOR COOKING FISH 329 

485. FISH PIE. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i li>. of any cold fish, 2 ozs. of oiled butter, some mashed 

teaspoonfuls of anchovy-sauce, cayenne to taste. 
Method. ic fish, and season with the anchovy -sauce and 

I 'ut it in a well-buttered pie-dish, lay a little oiled butter 
>p, fill up with the potatoes, and bake for 15 minutes. 
Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. to is. 3d. Sufficient for 4 
Seasonable at any tune. 

486. -FISH PUDDING. (Fr. Pouding de Poisson.) 

Ingredients. i lt>. of any kind of white fish, 4 ozs. of finely-chopped 

_' ozs. of breadcrumbs, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped pa 
^ of a pint of milk, or stock mad' li bones, 2 egi .hops 

Method. ;i and bones, and pound it will with 

t when making it \\ithout the aid of a mortar, chop the fish 
.mil rub it through a fine sieve) ; add th 

cpper, anchovy-e- 1 mix \\-ll ; U-at the eggs slightly, 

add the milk or li>h M< tir into the mixture. Ha\ 

! plain mould or basin, put in the mixture. ,ith a 

in gently for nearly i hours. Serve 

uce. 

Time. Altogether 2 hours. Average Cost, is. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 
Seasonable at any time. 

487. -FISH SALAD. (Fr. Salade de Poisson.) 

Ingredients, i ll> of o . Mayonnaise sauce. 

Method. Id fish (almost any kind of 

white linon will do\ put this in a largr mixing l>oul, add to 

h its (ju.intity <f lettuce, was! , also one- 

fourth of whit-- cleaned celery (if in season). Cut the celery into - 
orstni 11 carefully, adding salt and pepper to taste. Arrange 

in a salad bowl, and pour over some Mayonnaise dn 
ly with hard-boiled egg, cut into slices. When a 
use shredded chicory, endive or slicv .cs. 

Time. JQ minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. Sufficient 
Seasonable at any time. 

488. FISH STEW. (/-Y-Ragout de Poisson.) 

Ingredients. ; or 4 small floui or other win 

umbs, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped pa 
oonful <: lemon-rind, 2 eggs, ^ an oz. of butter, 

.blcspoonful oi lemon-juice, mace, ginger, 

ilt. 



330 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 



Method. Clean, wash and dry the fish, and cut it into neat fillets. 
Remove the skin and bones from some of the smaller pieces, and 
coarsely chop the fish, which should fill 2 tablespoons. To this add 
the breadcrumbs, parsley, lemon-rind; season with salt and pepper, 
bind with a little beaten egg, and shape into small balls. Melt the 
butter, fry the onion slightly, add a pinch each of ginger, mace and 
cayenne, and a little salt and pepper. Put in the filleted fish, barely 
cover it with hot water, bring to the boil, then lay the forcemeat balls 
on the top of the fish. Cover with a greased paper, to keep in the steam, 
simmer gently for 1 5 to 20 minutes, then transfer to a hot dish. Strain 
the liquor over the remainder of the beat en eggs, replace in thestewpan, 
season to taste, and add the lemon-juice. Stir by the side of the fire 
until the sauce begins to thicken, taking care that it does not boil, 
or it may curdle, then pour over the fish, and serve. 

Time. Altogether, about i hour. Average Cost, is. 3d. to is. 6d. 
Sufficient for 3 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

489. FLOUNDERS. (Fr Carrelets en Souchet.) 

Ingredients. 3 or 4 flounders, % a carrot, a turnip, i slice of parsnip, 
6 peppercorns, i small onion, i small bunch of herbs, parsley, salt. 

Method. Cut the carrot, turnip and parsnip into very fine strips 
and cook them till tender in slightly-salted water or fish stock. Trim 
the fish, and place it in a deep saute-pan, with the onion cut up in 
slices, the bunch of herbs and peppercorns, add a little salt, and pour 
on sufficient water to well cover the" fish. Allow it to come to the 
boil, and cook gently for about 10 minutes. Take up the fish and 
place it on a deep entree dish, sprinkle over the shredded cooked 
vegetables and some finely-chopped parsley, add a little of the fish 
liquor, and serve. 

Time. To cook 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2S. 6d. Suffi- 
cient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable all the year, most plentiful from 
August to November. 

490. FLOUNDERS, BOILED. (Fr. Carrelets bouil- 
lis.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized flounder, salt, vinegar. 

Method. Wash the fish, put it into a fish-kettle with just sufficient 
water to cover it, add salt and vinegar to taste, bring gently to the 
boiling point, and simmer for 5 or 10 minutes, according to the 
thickness of the fish. Serve with a suitable sauce. 

Time. After the water boils, 5 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, from 
6d. to is. 6d. Sufficient, 6 ozs. to 8 ozs. per head, with bone. Seasonable 
all the year ; most plentiful from August to November. 

FLOUNDER (Fr. carrelet [m], limandt I/]). A flat-fish found in abundance on the British coasts, and 
near the mouths of large rivers. It also thrives in ponds. The flounder is brown on one side of its 
body and white on the other ; its eyes are situated on the riq;ht side. The dab is closely allied to the 
flounder. The flounder is one of the commonest of fishes, and large quantities are sent to the Lon- 
don market. The Cesh of the flounder is cosily digested. 



RECIPES FOR COOKINC, KiSIl 331 

491. FLOUNDERS, BROILED. (Fr. Carrelets 
Grilles.) 

Flounders, when sufficiently large, are very nice broiled on a gridiron 
over or in front of the fire, with a little bntter rubbed over. Small 
plaice cooked in the same manner arc excellent. 

492. FLOUNDERS, FRIED. (Fr. Carrelets Frits.) 

Ingredients. Flounders, egg and breadcrumbs, boiling fat, 

Method. Cleanse the fish, and, 2 hours before they are required, rub 
them inside and out with salt, to render them firm. Wash and wipe 
them very dry, dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with brcadcrur 
fry them in boiling fat, dish on a folded napkin or fish paper, 
garnish with fried parsley. 

Time. To fry, from 10 to 15 minutes, according to size. A?erage 
Cost, jd. to is. each, according to size and season. Allow fro; 
to 8 ozs. per head for breakfast ; rather less when served in the 
course of a dinner. Seasonable all the year ; most plentiful from 
August to November. 

493- FROGS, STEWED. (Fr Ragoflt dc Gren- 

ouilles.) 

Inffrtdlenta. 6 or 8 frogs, salad-oil, $ of a pint of white wine, i tabie- 
spoonfuls of truffle liquor, 8 fresh button mushrooms, ^ of a pint ot 
brown sauce, salt and pepper. 

Method. The hind -quarters of the frogs alone are used, and they 
should b carefully separated from the rest of the body. Cover the 
bottom of a saut- h .1 thin layer of salad-oil, and when thor- 

oughly hot place in it the frogs' legs. Fry quickly for * or 3 minn 
ing the legs once dun rocess, but most t 

,. Drain, place in a casserole, add th^ 

]uor, mushrooms previously well-washed to free them from 

>on to taste. Stew very gently for about 30 minute*, 

i transfer carefully to a hot dish, and strain the wine into a small 

stewpan. Boil quickly until well reduced, then add the brown sat-. 

<m tn taste, make thoroughly hot, pour over the cooked frog, and 

494. GARFISH, STEWED. (Fr. Brochct 4 1'An- 
glaise.) 

Ingredients.- j medium-sixed garfish, i onion sliced, a bouquct-garni 
af), 2 cloves, i blade of mace,, l} OM. of butter, 
i) Off. of flour, i pint of stock or water, salt and pepper. , 



332 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Remove the skin, which would otherwise impart a disagree- 
able oily taste to the dish, and cut the fish into pieces i inches long. 
Bring the stock or water to simmering point, put in the fish, onion, 
herbs, mace, cloves, and a little salt and pepper, and simmer gently 
for 20 minutes. Meanwhile melt the butter in a stewpan, add the 
flour, and stir and cook slowly for 10 minutes without browning. /Strain 
the liquor from the fish on to the prepared butter and flour, stir until 
boiling, then season to taste, strain over the fish, and serve. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 4 
persons. 

Note. Garfish may also be boiled, broiled or baked, according to the 
recipes given for cooking eels and conger eels. 

495. GRAYLING, BAKED. (Fr. Ombre roti.) 

Ingredients. 2 medium-sized grayling, of a pint of melted butter, 
No. 202, butter for basting. 

Method. Empty, wash and scale the fish. Dry it well, place it 
in a baking-dish in which a little butter has been previously melted, 
and baste well. Season with salt and pepper, cover with a greased 
paper, and bake gently from 25 to 35 minutes, basting occasionally. 
Make the melted butter as directed, taking care that it is very thick, 
and a few minutes before serving strain and add the liquor from the 
fish. Place the fish on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, then serve. 

Time. From 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient 
for 4 persons. Seasonable in July and August. 

496. GRAYLING, BROILED. (Fr. Ombre a la 
Diable.) 

Ingredients. 4 small grayling, lemon-juice, salad-oil, salt and pepper. 

Method. Empty, scale, wash and thoroughly dry the fish. Brush 
it over with salad-oil, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and broil over a 
clear fire until sufficiently cooked and nicely browned. Serve gar- 
nished with quarters of lemon. 

Time. About 10 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 
4 persons. Seasonable in July and August. 

497. GRAYLING, FRIED. (Fr. Ombre frit.) 

Ingredients. 4 small grayling, parsley sauce, No. 311, egg, bread- 
crumbs, frying-fat, flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Empty, scale, wash and dry the fish, remove the gills and 
fins, but leave the heads. Roll in flour seasoned with salt and pepper, 
coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat until nicely 
browned. Serve with parsley and butter sauce, or any other sauce 
preferred. 

Time. To fry, 8 or 9 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 
4 persons. Seasonable in July and August. 



REUl'1-.S F<>k moKlNr, FISH 333 



ll-known fi^h i> .1 member of the carp family, and is found through- 

It UMi.illv swims in shoals, ami inli tl 

^reen tinted with blue, with a silvery-white belly, and bright red fins. It is 
in seaton from March to September. 

498. GUDGEONS. (Fr Goujons Panes et Frits.) 

Ingredients. ( . e^ r . breadcrumbs. frvin 

Method. --t'le.m tl; ! remo\c the plls, but do not scrape off 

the scales. l>rv well, dip them in egg and breadcrumbs, and fry them 
in hot hi until nicely browned. 

Time. -Krom 4 to 6 minutes to fry. Average Cost, 6d. per Ib. 
Allow j or 3 per hr.id. Seasonable irom June t<> November. 



^oujcm). a member family, is fou- (lowing streams and 

ith black spots, the abdomen white. he gudgeon are 

i v-rr it a small barbule or hUment 

fish was esteemed ly both the Greeks and the Romans. It is abundant in 1 tuner a: : 

499. -GURNET, OR GURNARD. (Fr. Gournal.) 

Ingredients, i medium-sued gurnet, 

Method. 1 \\d>h ' cut off the fins and 

ly just enough warm water to cover it. 
put in the fish, brinv slowly to near Ixiil-.ng point, and cook gentlv t.r 

.ith anch . sauce. 

Time. To boil, from 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from is. to 

. Sufficient f>; Seasonable from Octobei 

but in a in Oci 

500. -GURNET, BAKED. (l<r. Gournal auFour.) 

Ingredients, i in 

Method. lins and pll>. 

re tlie 1 ; .is directed, put it inside the fish, and s< 

e tail in the mouth of the fish, place it in a 
ith hot fat or butter, cover \sith 

ices of bacon, and ! moderate oven from 35 to 45 minutes. 

It m.t <>r anchovy sauce. 

Time. Altogether, about i hour. Average Cost, from is. to 2S. 6d. 
Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable from October t > 



MARD (Fr. ftmmmt). This sea-water fish is remarkable for its curiously angular 

i covered with bony plates, and armed with spines. The colour of UM ftns 

which varies in different species, b blue or red. The jaws are furnished with numerous sm 

The my and the rd nvnet are the species molt common to our British coasts. The flying foratt 

"n of the Indian seas, and is also found in the Mediterranean. The gurnet is an excellent 

t.H : 

501. HADDOCK, BAKED. (Fr. Eglefin au Four.) 

Ingredient Idock, veal foru 

.Icnimbs, lit for basting. 



334 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Wash, clean, and scale the fish. Make the forcemeat as 
directed, put it inside the haddock, and sew up the opening. Truss 
in the shape of the letter S. by means of a string securely fastened to 
the head of the fish, the trussing needle being passed through the body 
of the fish while held in the required shape, and the string afterwards 
secured to the tail. Brush over with egg, cover lightly with brown 
breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderate oven from 30 to 40 minutes, 
basting occasionally with hot fat. Serve with anchovy or melted 
butter sauce. 

Time. To prepare and cook, from i to i|- hours. Average Cost, 
from is. 2d. to is. 6d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable from August 
to February. 

502. HADDOCK, BOILED. (Fr. Eglefin bouilli.) 

Ingredients. i large fresh haddock, salt. 

Method. Clean and wash the fish, cover it with warm ivater, add salt 
to taste, bring to the boil, and cook gently from 20 to 30 minutes. Serve 
with anchovy, parsley, or melted butter sauce. 

Time. From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, large haddocks, 8d. 
to is. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to Febru- 
ary. 

503. HADDOCK, DRIED, AND TOMATOES. 
(Fr. Merluche fume aux Tomates.) 

Ingredients. i small dried haddock, i oz. of butter, 2 or 3 small 
tomatoes, i teaspoonful of ftnely-chppped onion, -J- a tsaspoonful of 
finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper, boiled rice. 

Method. Lay the haddock in a tin x withalittlewater', and bake it for 
10 minutes, then take away the skinand bones, and separate the fish 
into large flakes. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the oaion slightly, 
add the tomatoes sliced, and cook until soft. * Now put in the fish and 
parsley, season to taste, and stir gently by the side of the fire until the 
fish is thoroughly hot. Arrange the boiled rice in a circle on a hot dish, 
and serve the fish in the centre of it. 

Time. 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. Sufficient for 3 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

504. HADDOCKS, DRIED. (Fr. Merluche fume.) 

Dried haddocks are best cooked either in the oven or on the top of 
the stove in a tin surrounded by a little water to create steam, which 
prevents the surface of the fish becoming hardened. Medium-sized 
'ones should be cooked whole, and before sending to table an incision 
should be made from head to tail, and the backbone removed. The 
fish should be plentifully spread with butter, sprinkled with pepper, 
SHd served as hot ad possible. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 335 

505. HADDOCK, FRIED. (Fr. Eglefin frit.) 

i aiul dry a fresh haddock, cut down the back, separate the flesh 
iron tin- bone, and cut into nice fillets. Brush over with egg, cover 
lighly with breadcrumbs, and fry until golden-brown in hot iat. 
Ganish \\ith fried parsley. 

THE IADDOCK (Fr. efUfi*). This well-known fish belongs to the same family (Gadidat) as the cod, 
which itmuch res<-,,Hes in its general conformation. The lower jaw is furnished with a barbule, 
and the ta rk lateral line of the back is very conspicuous. A similar superstitution ascribes the dark 
spot on tther side of the body, behind the pectoral fins, to the impression of the thumb and finger 
of St. Pet-, as in the case of the marks on the John Dory. The haddock abounds on the north-east 
coast of B*ain and some parts of the coasts of Ireland. It is a popular article of food, and is eaten 
fresh, or dr-d and cured. The Finnan kaddock is the common haddock cured and dried, and tuk, -, 
its name fro* the fishing village of Findhorn, near Aberdeen, which has obtained a hi^h re 
for its meth4 o f curing haddocks. 

506. HVKE, BAKED. 

Ingredients 4 slices off a medium-sized hake, i teaspoonful of 
fmely-choppd parsley, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, butter, 
salt and peper, flour. 

Method Vash and dry the fish, and place the slices side by side 
in a bating-dsh. Dredge well with flour, season liberally with salt 
and peppr, spread over on the parsley and butter, and add about i oz. of 
butter iiumail pieces. Bake gently for ^ an hour, basting occasionally, 
then pla* the fish on a hot dish, strain the liquor over it, and 

Time.-About * an hour. Average Cost, 4d. per Ib. Sufficient for 
3 or 4 peons. Seasonable, April to August. 

Notf. ny of the methods given for cooking cod and halibut may be 
applied toake, but baking will be found the most palatable ctory. 

507.-HLIBUT, BAKED. (Fr. Halibute rotie.) 

Ingrediei. 2 Ib. of halibut, cut in one thick slice, i oz. of butter 
or drippir, flour, salt and pepper.. 

Method. -Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, sprinkle it liberally 
with salt al pepper, and dredge well with flour. Place it in an eartlu n 
bakii-dish or pie-dish, add the butter in small pieces, and bake 
ly for xmt i hour. Serve on a hot dish with the liquid from tlu- 
iish ad poured round. 

Time. .tout i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to is. 6d. per 11.. Sufficient 
for 4 or 5 arsons. Seasonable at any time. 

THE H ALI Fr. fUtan), Hififvgiatsus vtOgfru, also called the koltbut, b the largest of the flat fish, 
<?iRhs over 400 Ib. It is more elongated in shape than the turbot, to which it is 
in qml . its flesh being dry and of less flavour, although it is much esteemed as a Uble- 
nsh. , t on both skies of the Atlantic on the coasts in northern latitudes, and i 

rids. The inhabitants of Greenland preserve it for use in the winter by cutting 

- and drying these in the air The 1: .libut U brownish in colour, with darker 

mai kings, ad ,hue on the under surface. An oil is obtained from this nsh, chiefly from the boon. 



336 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

508.- HALIBUT, BAKED. (Fr. Halibute au lard.; 

Ingredients. i slice of halibut, about 2 inches thick, ham or baon, 
butter, flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wipe the fish carefully, place it in a baking-dish in wlich 
a little butter has been melted, and season with salt and pepper. Dredge 
it liberally with flour, bake it in a moderate oven for 30 miiutes, 
basting frequently, and occasionally dredging with flour, then cover 
the entire surface with rashers of bacon or ham. Continue tc cook 
slowly for an hour longer, then serve on a hot dish with the^iquor 
strained over, and the ham or bacon arranged neatly round the^ase. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to is. 6d. per Ib. sufficient 
for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable all the year. 

509. HALIBUT, BOILED. (Fr. Halibute kmilli.) 

Ingredients. 3 or 4 Ib. of halibut, a pint of anchovy, fo. 288, or 
shrimp sauce, or No. 314, i lemon, parsley, salt. 

Method. Add salt to hot water in the proportion of i 02 to i quart, 
put in the fish, bring slowly to boiling point, and simme? very gently 
from 25 to 30 minutes, or until the fish will part easily fom Hie bone. 
Drain well, arrange on a hot serviette, garnished with sices <f lemon 
and parsley, and serve the sauce separately. 

Time. To boil, from 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. t< is. per 
Ib. Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

510. HALIBUT, COQUILLES OR SCALLOB OF. 

(Fr. Coquilles de Hsibute.) 

Ingredients. Cooked halibut, white sauce, No. 222, grated armesan 
cheese, salt and pepper, browned breadcrumbs, butter. 

Method. Flavour the sauce to taste with Parmesan chees< Divide 
the fish into large flakes, put these into buttered scallop shls, cover 
with sauce, and sprinkle thickly with browned breadcrumbs^ To each 
add i or 2 small pieces of butter, cook from 15 to 20 miiites in a 
moderate oven, and serve. 

Time. To prepare and cook, from 30 to 40 minutes. Ajrage Cost, 
is. 3d. for 6 coquilles. Allow i for each person. Seasonle at any 
time. 

511. HALIBUT, FRIED. (Fr. Halibute fre.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of halibut, anchovy or shrimp sauce, 3. 288 or 
314, i egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, i tablespoonful of flo^ a tea- 
spoonful of salt, | of a teaspoonful of pepper, parsley. 

Method. Divide the fish into small thin slices. Mix th^our, salt 
and pepper together, coat the pieces of fish lightly with tl mixture, 
and afterwards brush them over with egg, and toss thenifc bread- 

\\ 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 337 

crumbs. Fry them in a deep pan of fat until crisp and lightly browned, 
or, if more convenient, in a smaller amount of hot fat in a frying-pan. 
.narnishcd with crisply-fried parsley. Send the sauce to table 
tureen. 

Time. To fry, 6 or 7 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to is. 6d. per Ib. 
Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any tune. 

512. HALIBUT, GRILLED. (Fr. Halibute grill*.) 

Ingredients. Halibut, oiled butter, salt and pep] 
Method. Divide the fish into slices not more than | of an inch in 
thickness, brush them over with oiled butter, and sprinkle them with 
salt and pepper. Place the slices on a clean oiled gridiron, and cook 
for 10 or 12 minutes, turning them 2 or 3 times during 
>cess. Serve with lemon, or any fish sauce that may l>e prci 
Time. From 10 to 12 minute^. Average Cost, 6d. to per ll>. 

or 7 o/. per ln-ail. Seasonable at any time. 

513. HALIBUT PIE. (Fr. Pate de Halibute.) 

Ingredients. 3 Ib. of halibut, J of a pint of white sauce (see sauces), 
No. 222, or 223, i teaspoonful of anchovy-essei :-paste, or 

rough puff paste, salt and pepper. 

Method. M.ike the sauce as directed, and add the anchovy-esv 

tish, remove all the bones, and di\i: 
> os. Place these in -ha good sprinkli 

Ijetween each layer. Cover 
with paste, hake- in a lairly hot u\en t-r aNnit I hour, then serve 

Time. To bake, about i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to is. ad. pei lt>. 
Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

514. HALIBUT PIE. (Fr. Pate de Halibute.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 3 Ib. of halibut, 2 ozs. of butter, } a pint of melted 

teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, salt and p 
:i puff-pa 

Method, Kt move all the skin and bone, and divide the fish into 
small Place these in a piedi . < rs, sprin, 

1 jx-pper, ami mi -mall pieces of butter. 

I lie melted butter ;is directed, add the anchovy-cs^ 

our the sauce over the fi- it with ; 

; hour in a in 

Time. alxnit i hour. Average Cost, (kl. to is. 2(1 

Sufllcient for o to 8 persons. Seasonable all the y 



338 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

515. HALIBUT, STEWED. 

Ingredients.^-3 or 4 Ib. of halibut, beer, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour 
i small onion stuck with 2 cloves, i bay-leaf, i teaspoonful of lemon- 
juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. This cooking process is particularly adapted for the head 
and shoulders. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, put it into a stew- 
pan, and barely cover it with beer. Add the onion, bay-leaf, and a 
little salt and pepper, and bring gently to boiling point. Knead the 
butter and flour smoothly together, add the mixture in small pieces 
to the contents of the stewpan when boiling, and simmer gently until 
the fish separates readily from the bone. Transfer the fish carefully 
to a hot dish, add the lemon-juice to the liquor, season to taste, strain 
and pour a little round the fish, and serve the rest separately. 

Time. To stew, about an hour. Average Cost, 9d. to is. 2d. per 
Ib. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable all the year. 

Note. Halibut may also be cooked according to the numerous methods 
given for dressing cod. 

516. HERRINGS, BAKED, FRESH. (Fr. Harengs 
Frais.) 

Ingredients. 12 herrings, 2 bay-leaves, 12 allspice, 6 cloves, a good 
pinch of ground mace, salt and pepper, vinegar. 

Method. Wash the herrings in 3 or 4 waters, cut off the heads, and 
remove the gut. Place them in a pie-dish, heads and tails alternately, 
sprinkle each layer with salt and pepper, and and the flavouring in- 
gredients. Cover the fish with vinegar, or, when vinegar is not much 
liked, with equal quantities of vinegar and water, and bake for i 
hours in a very slow oven. Serve cold. 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, 6d. to is. per dozen. Suffic/ent 
for 9 persons. Seasonable, May to November. 

517. HERRINGS, BAKED, FRESH. 

Ingredients. 12 fresh herrings, salt and pepper, vinegar, i or 2 Spanish 
onions. 

Method. Wash the herrings in 3 or 4 waters, cut off the heads, split 
them open, and remove the gut and backbone. Season well with salt 
and pepper, and roll them up tightly, beginning with the neck of the 
fish. Pack the herrings closely in a pie-dish, cover them with thin 
slices of onion, half fill the dish with equal quantities of vinegar and 
water, and bake in a very slow oven for 2 hours. When done, remove 
the onion, but let the fish remain in the dish in which they were cooked 
until ready to serve. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 339 

518. HERRINGS, FRESH, STUFFED AND BAKED. 

Ingredients. 6 herrings, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, i table- 
spoonful of finely-chopped suet, i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
of a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, salt and pepper, milk. 

Method. Wash and split the herrings and remove the backbone. 
Mix the above ingredients to make a forcemeat ; season each herring 
with salt and pepper, spread on a thin layer of the forcemeat and roll 
up tightly, beginning with the neck. Pack closely in a greased pie- 
dish, cover with greased paper, and bake from i to i^ hours in a mod- 
erate oven. Serve hot. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, $d. to 6d. Sufficient for 5 per- 
sons. Seasonable, May to November. 

THE HERRING (Fr. kare*g) is widely distributed in the North Atlantic. During the greater part 
of the year this nsh inhabits deep water, but in the summer and autumn it frequents in vast shoals 
the wanner waters of the coasts of Scotland and the laststu coasts of PIUJJWI for the purpose of 
spawning. The herring is one of the most prottfk of 6th. and notwithstanding the devastation caused 

hj thr shells hv th- d...,-f-..h. h.ik* * i !' ttM VMtl :.: ' fe* 1 hrrri:,/ ' jgW L T},- 

MVBflttjr of this DSD is SQC& tnftt no MQSIDM docrAM oc its Dtu&DCr is Apparent* TIM Dtmn fislMfy, 



especially that of the Scotch coasts and the eastern coast* of England, constitutes a most important 

; : -.. - :--.. ..'..... .;,,..., ;.. ... - . . .. . 

th'Kc . -..u-ht in thr ...PU-!-.*.,,,::;...! ,: I - ! 1 -.-.. !:-.*.,t. .,-: 19 tl.K. !:. ^ ::.. t!:- !.;.:. -t 

>tkn for delicacy of flavour. 

519. HERRINGS, RED, OR YARMOUTH BLOATERS 

Method. The best way to cook these is to make incisions in the skin 
across the fish, because they do not then require to be so long on the 
fire, and will be far better than when cut open. Place them on a 
buttered gridiron, broil over or before a clear fire for 5 minutes turn- 
ing frequently. The hard roe makes a nice relish if pounded in a 
mortar, with a little anchovy, and spread on toast. If very dry, soak 
the bloaters in warm water i hour before dressing. 

Time. 5 mi Werage Cost, *t\A. each. Seasonable, May tp 

ember. 

520. HERRINGS, POTTED. 

Ingredients. i dozen large herrings r pint of white vinegar, pepper 

>alt, 2 bav-leaves, clarified butt 

Method. Remove the heads and tails from the herrings, wash, clean, 
and dry them, and sprinkle them inside and out with salt and pepper. 
Put the h an earthenware dish, lay the rocs beside them, and 

thrm \vith good white \inegar. Bake for 2 hours in a moderate 
out the bones, strain off the vinegar, pound the flesh in a 
^ through a finp sipve, press into small pots, and pour clari- 
fied butter on the top. 

Time. 2 hours. Average Cost, 6d. to o<l. per dozen. Sufficient 
for 4 pots. Seasonable from May to -r. 



340 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

521. KEDGEREE. 

Ingredients. Any cold fish (dried haddock is generally preferred) ; 
to i Ib. of fish allow of a Ib. of rice, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 ozs. of butter, 
salt and pepper, cayenne. 

Method. Boil and dry the rice, divide the fish into small flakes, 
cut the whites of the eggs into slices, and rub the yolks through a wire 
sieve. Melt the butter in a ste'wpan, add to it the fish, rice, whites of 
eggs, salt, pepper and cayenne, and stir the ingredients over the fire 
until hot. Turn the mixture on to a hot dish, press it into a pyra- 
midical form with a fork, decorate with the yolk of egg, and serve as 
hot as possible. 

Time. From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, lod. to is. 2d. 
Allow i Ib. fish for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

522. LAMPREY, BAKED. (Fr. Lamproie au Four.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized lamprey, suet farce, No. 407, i egg, 
breadcrumbs, fat for basting, anchovy sauce or any other fish sauce 
preferred, i lemon. 

Method. Rub the fish well with salt, wash it in warm water, and 
remove the cartilage and strings which run down the back. Fill the 
body with the prepared farce, sew it up securely, and fasten round 2 
or 3 thicknesses of buttered or greased paper. Cover the fish with hot 
water, boil gently for 20 minutes, then drain and dry well. Put it 
into a baking-dish, in which a little butter or fat has been previously 
melted, and baste well. Bake gently for about an hour, basting 
frequently, then strip off the skin, brush the fish over with beaten egg, 
and coat it lightly with breadcrumbs. Bake the fish for about 20 
minutes longer, or until nicely-browned, then serve it garnished with 
sliced lemon, and send the sauce to table in a tureen. 

Time. About i- hours. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 4 or 
5 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

THE LAMPREY (Fr. lamproie) is an eel-like, scaleless fish, with gills in the form of a series of pouches 
on the side of the neck. Its mouth is circular, resembling a sucker, lined with a number of horny 
processes or teeth ; it has no pectoral or ventral fins, but a median dorsal fin is continued backward 
to form a tail-fin. By its sucker-like mouth the lamprey attaches itself to its prey, from which it 
sucks the blood, respiration being carried on by the gills at the side of its neck. The lamprey was 
esteemed by the Romans, and during the Middle Ages it was regarded as a delicacy. Henry I. of 
England is said to have died from the effects of too free an indulgence in his favourite dish. 

523. LAMPREY, STEWED. (Fr. Ragout de 
Lamproie.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized lamprey, of a pint of stock or water, 
i glass of port or sherry, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, i lemon sliced, 
i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 2 small onions sliced, 2 or 3 mushrooms 
or 6 button mushrooms, i bay-leaf, salt and pepper. 



COOftlNfi FISH 

Method. \\'iish thoroughly in salted warm \\Mt-r. remove ill-- 
t.ul and fins, and cut the fish across into 2 -inch lengths. Bring 
lock <>r w.i'.-r to boiling point, put in tin- 
".<! neces-. ":iing. and simmer gently lor 4 ' hour, 

while melt the butter in another stcwp.m, Iry the <>m>n slightly, then 
add the flour, and iry slowly until well-browned. When the fish has 
1 i hour, pour the liquor from it over : ed butter and 

-tir until lx>iling, then put in the mushrooms, wine and lemon- 
red sauce, simmer gently for \ an hour 
ith the sauce strained over, and gar 
>n. 

Time. T hours. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient 

: or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

524. LING, BAKED. (/>. Lingue Rotie.) 

Ingredients. 2 lb. of ling, 3 ozs. of butu r, i oz. of flour, | of a pint of 
milk, salt and pepper, ground n 

Method. Wa- !i, and cut it into slices | 

1'ut thrsr into a bakiT utter, a pood 

easoning of salt and pcpp 

greas and cook gently for i hour, hasting occasionally. 

rather more than ha:! I, mt-ll t: 

until it ! h ami 

Tim--. i luxir. Average Cost. . Sullici- 

. Seasonable 

i^ captured in v.it quati titk off the Orkney, Shetland am! '. 



of fish. Lane ling are come ; bat they are BBiiij salted, dried, and exported to the toutbrrn puts 
of Europe, where the bye tab are not met with. In form the Un boot vnttke the cod, but 
aider, and grow* to the length of 6 or 7 fret Whan boiled it it insipid, but when fried or 



525. LING, FRIED. (/> Lingue Frite.) 

Ingredients. 2 lb. of ling, i egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, sal 

our. 

Method. ,d dry th ! cut it into ri nkle them 

h flour. 1 

th flour t 
addition of egg and brcadcruin! 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 5,1. to 8d. per lb. Sufficient 
or 5 persons. 



342 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

526. LOBSTER IN ASPIC. (Fr. Homard en Aspic.) 

Ingredients. i large or 2 small lobsters, I pint of aspic jelly, 3 hard- 
boiled eggs, a large lettuce, a few tarragon leaves, capers, olives stoned, 
and truffles ; oil and vinegar, pepper and salt, Mayonnaise sauce 
(see Sauces). 

Method. Put into a quart border mould enough melted aspic jelly 
to thinly cover it, and when it begins to set, arrange in it the flesh 
of the body and claws of the lobster (which should be cut into neat 
pieces) with a few tarragon leaves and capers, filling up the mould with 
the jelly. Well wash, dry, and shred the lettuce, and mix with it the 
remainder of the lobster, the oil and vinegar, with pepper and salt. 
When the mould is firmly set, turn it out and pile the salad in the centre, 
and around it as a border, masking it smoothly with a thick Mayon- 
naise sauce. Lastly, garnish the whole with the eggs cut up, the coral 
and the little claws of the lobster, the capers and truffles, etc. 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, 33. 6d., exclusive of sauce* 
Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

THE LOBSTER (Fr. homard) is found on most of the rocky coasts of Great Britain, many European 
shores, and on the coasts of North America. It is especially partial to clear water, and inhabits the 
crevices of the rocks at the bottom of the shore. The lobster belongs to the order Decapoda, to the 
section Macroura, or " long tailed," and is one of the " stalk-eyed " crustaceans. The body of the 
lobster is composed of twenty segments or joints, of which six belong to the head, eight to the thorax<>r 
chest, and six to the abdomen. Its tail is composed of several flat shell-like plates which, when spread 
out in the form of a fan, is used as an organ for swimming. The first pair of ambulatory limbs form 
the characteristic powerful claws, the pincers of which are famished wi.th knobs, and the lower part 
is serrated. By means of the former it is enabled to hold firmly the stalks of sub-marine plants, 
and with the latter it minces its food with great dexterity. The lobster is very prolific, and when in 
spawn the female is said to be " in berry, the developing eggs being attached to the tafl. Unlike 
the crab, the young lobster does not undergo any metamorphosis in passing from -the egg to the adult 
state. like others of its tribe, the lobster casts its shell each year. It is usually caught by pots 
specially constructed, made of osiers, shaped somewhat like a wire mouse-trap, and baited with 
garbage. When the lobster enters the trap it cannot get out again. The traps are fastened to a cord 
and sunk in the sea, the place being marked by a buoy. In colour the lobster is of a deep bluish- 
black, mottled with markings of a lighter hue ; on being boiled it changes to its familiar scarlet colour. 
Large quantities of lobsters are caught on the coasts of North America, and are exported in large 
quantities to this country. By the Fishery Act of 1877, no lobsters under 8 inches in length may be 
captured, and by some local bye-laws of the Sea Fisheries' Committee a close season is fixed. 

527. LOBSTER, BAKED. (Fr. Homard au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. i lobster, i ozs. of butter, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of 
white sauce, i egg, the juice of % a lemon, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, -J- a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallots, brown 
breadcrumbs, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 

Method. Cut the lobster in two lengthwise, remove the meat from 
the shells, and mince it coarsely. Melt the butter in a stewpan, 
fry the shallots for 2 or 3 minutes without browning, then add the 
lobster, wkue sauce, parsley, lemon-juice, a pinch of ^niUmeg, as well 
as salt ancf pepper to taste; then stir over the fireTjun'til thoroughly 
hot. Beat the egg slightly, add it to the mixture, arid cook until it 
begins to bind., Have ready the two halves of the large, shell, put in the 
mixture, cover lightly with brown breadcrumbs, put. 3 or 4 ver^ small 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 343 

pieces of butter on the top, and bake for 10 or 15 minutes in a moder- 
ate oven. Garnish with fried parsley. 

Time. V an hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

528. LOBSTERS, TO BOIL. (Fr. Homards.) 

Ingredients. ^ of a Ib. of salt to each gallon of water. 

Method. Buy the lobsters alive, and choose those that are heavy 
and full of motion, which is an indication of their* freshness. When 
the shell is encrusted, it is a sign they are old : medium-sized lobsters 
are the best. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, sal ted in the pro- 
portion mentioned above, put in the lobsters and keep them boiling 
quickly from 20 to 45 minutes, according to their size, and do not forget 
to skim well. If boiled too long, the meat becomes thready, and if 
not done enough, the spawn is not red. Rub the shells over with a 
little butter or sweet oil, which must be wiped off again. 

Time. Small lobster, 20 minutes to | an hour ; large ditto, i to J 
of an hour. Average Cost, medium size, is. to 33. 6d. Seasonable all the 
year, but best from June to September. 

To CMOOSI LomrrtM. Thi shdl-ftsh. U it has been cooked alive, as it ouht to have heeo, will 
have a stiffness in the tail, which. U gent!? rai.xl. wOl return with a spoof. Care, however, mutt 
. . provint it. for if the tail U putted str*iht out, it will not return. In order to be 
food, lobsters shooli be weithtv for th-ir bulk: if l>:ht. thrr will be watery those of the 
ibedium sUe are always the best. The* should be broad acrow the taiL The coral U red. The 
pawn it lo-uetimes sold uncooked at id. per ounce, and U then dark green, bat U becomes red on 
oookint. It hould be nibbed throufh a sieve with a little butter. It is used to colour sauces 
for cutlets, etc. SmalUised lobsters are cheap set, and answer very well for sauoa. 

529. -LOBSTER, COQUILLES OF. v Fr.-Coquilles de 
Homard.) 

Ingredients. I lobster, mushrooms, butter, white sauce (No. 222), 
salt, pepper, nutmeg, short crust paste. par- 
Method. Line some small shell-shaped moulds with light paste crust. 
After pricking the paste with a fork nil the lined moulds with uncooked 
rice or dried peas, and bake them in a moderate oven a golden-brown. 
When done, take out the rice or peas, and place the pastry shells on a 
sieve. Cut the meat of the lobster (preserved lobster of a reliable 
will do) into small dice, put it in a stewpan with some chopped 
mushrooms and butter, allowing 8 mushrooms and | an oz. of butter 
ry $ Ib. of lobster. Si; he fire until thoroughly hot, then 

i with white sauce. Season with pepper, salt, grated 

nutmeg, and a pinch of cayenne. Keep the mixture hot in a bain-marie 
so that it is ready for use when required. Warm the baked shells in 
ven, fill them with the mixture, strew over a little panurcUe 
(a preparation of grated rusks, used instead of lobster coral for decora- 
tried breadcrumbs ; the former, however, makes th< 
more h upon small plates, and garnish with a sprig or 

two ot A little anchovy-essence added to the mixture will 

iluvour o 



344 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient 
for 8 persons. Seasonable from April to October. 

530. LOBSTER CREAM (Hot). (Fr. Creme de 
Homard, Chaude.) 

Ingredients. i lobster, i oz. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, of a pint of 
milk, of a pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper, cayenne. 

Method. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, add the flour, pour 
in the milk, and stir over the fire until the panada (or culinary paste) 
leaves the sides of the stewpan clear, and forms a compact mass round 
the bowl of the spoon, then put aside to cool. Cut one claw of the* 
lobster into small dice, and set aside until wanted ; pound the rest of the 
lobster in a mortar with the panada, yolks of eggs, and seasoning. 
Rub the mixture through a wire sieve into a basin, add the dice of 
lobster, and the cream (stiffly -whipped), and mix all well, but lightly, 
together. Turn into a well-buttered mould, cover with a buttered 
paper, and steam very gently for i hour. The saucepan must have a 
close-fitting lid to keep in the steam. The water should reach about 
half-way up the mould. Serve with a suitable sauce. 

Time. About if hours, altogether. -Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

531. LOBSTER CREAM (Cold). (Fr. Mousse de 
Homard, a la Supreme.) 

Ingredients. i small lobster, 2 whitings, i gill of cream, 2 ozs. of 
butter, 2 ozs. of flour, i gill of fish stock made from bones of the whitings, 
4 eggs, salt, paprika pepper, cayenne. 

Method. Skin the whitings, remove the bones, and use the latter 
for the fish stock required. Split the lobster, take the meat from the 
shell, cut it into small pieces, pound it with the whitings together 
in a mortar, then pass through a wire sieve. Make a panada with i oz. 
of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, and the gill of fish stock, and work it thor- 
oughly. Return the whiting puree to the mortar with the panada, 
mix well, and work in the yolks of 4 and the- whites of 2 eggs. When 
well pounded pass all through a hair sieve, season with salt, paprika 
pepper, and a little cayenne. Whisk the 2 whites of eggs to a stiff 
froth, also whip the cream, and add to the mixture. Have ready a 
plain charlotte or souffle mould, well buttered, three parts fill it with the 
above preparation, cover with buttered paper, place it in a stewpan 
containing some boiling water, and steam very gently for about | of 
an hour. Serve very hot with Supreme sauce poured over the cream. 
A little more cream may be added to the mixture than the above given 
quantity if a richer dish is desired. 

Time. To steam about hour. Average Cost, 35. to 35. 6d. Suffi- 
cient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 



FISH. 



ft 







I Mullet. - il. 



FISH. 




i. Soused Mackerel. 
26 



2. Souchet of flounders. 3. Scalloped Cod's Roe. 



IPES POH < noKINV, FISH 
532. LOBSTER CURRY. (/>. Homard au Kari.) 

Ingredients, i lobster (or tinned lobster of a reliable j of a 

pint <>t ii*h stock and milk jnixed, or all mill !. i t.ible- 

spoonful of grated cocoanut, i dessertspoonful of curry- p< 
I teaspoon ful of flour, i tcaspoonful < ozs. of but tor, 

i large onion, i apple (green gooseberries or rhubarb may be 

i tuted , -n-juice. 

Method. M'lt the butter in a stcwpan, put in the onion (coarsely 
chopped), the flour and curry-powder, and fry these gently ' 
minutes. Add the stock, milk, curry-paste, cocoanut, sliced 
and s.' :! it l*>i: ;mmer 

for i hour, stirring occasional n the 

it into inch-square pieces. When the ready, 

rub it through a fine sir urn it to the sau< 

seasoning to taste, and rc-lv jn.int, 

put in the pieces of lobs t .tnd draw tin m the 

side of the sto\ <>r j> mi \ the lol 

natcd with the t! sauce, a- : juue 

boiled t; 

Ti rat. About Average Cost, ;*. to 2*. 6<L Sufficient for 4 

or 5 persons. Seasonable from April to October. 

-ill cases the bsh mu 



533. -LOBSTER CUTLETS. (Fr Cotclcttes dc 

Homard.) 

Ingredients, i hen l<>)>ster. 1} ozs. of batter, I oz. of flour, | of a pint 
of milk or water, i tablespoon ful of cream, i egg, breadcrumbs, v 

vmg fat. 

Method. Remove the flesh from tl small 

1 the spawn (if any) with J an oz. of butter, and pass 

.1 small 
.idd the milk, and Ixul well. i 

to mould, make it up 
l breadcrumb, a 1 ntil 

rowned in hot fat. Dish in a 

utlct to represent a b< rarmsh with ' 

I 

Timr Aftriff Cost, : 'o 2s. jd. 

Sunicient ' i 9 Of 1O s ts. SMftOBable from April to Oct< 



346 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

534. LOBSTER CROQUETTES. (Fr. Croquettes 
de Homard.) 

For formula see Chicken Croquettes, or use recipe given in tinned 
food section. 

535 ._LOBSTER DEVILLED. (Fr. Homard a la 
Diable.) 

Ingredients. i good lobster, 3 tablespoonfuls of white breadcrumbs, 
a few browned breadcrumbs, i ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of white 
sauce or cream, cayenne. 

Method. Cut the lobster in two lengthwise, remove the meat care- 
fully, as the large shell must be kept whole, and chop the meat finely. 
Melt the butter, pour it on to the lobster, add the breadcrumbs, and 
white sauce, season rather highly with cayenne, and mix well. Press 
the mixture lightly into the lobster shell, cover with browned bread- 
crumbs, put 3 or 4 pieces of butter on the top, and bake for about 
20 minutes in a moderate oven. Serve hot or cold. 

Time. From 35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, 23. to 35. Sufficient 
for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

536. LOBSTERS, TO DRESS. 

Wash the lobster well before boiling, tie the claws securely, and throw 
the lobster, head first, into a saucepan of salted boiling water : this 
method instantly destroys life. Then boil the lobster gently from 20 
to 40 minutes, according to its size, but avoid overcooking, which 
causes the flesh to become hard. When cool enough to handle, rub 
over with a little salad-oil to brighten the colour. When quite cold, 
break off the claws and tail, and divide the latter lengthwise by the line 
running from head to tail. Place the body upright in the centre of a 
dish, with one-half of the tail on either side, and at the ends arrange 
the claws, which should previously be cracked with a hammer without 
injuring the flesh. The dish should be garnished tastefully with 
parsley. 

Time. From 20 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 35. 6d. each, 
according to size. 

537. LOBSTER, BAKED, FRENCH STYLE. 
(Fr. Homard au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. i lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of cream, pounded mace and cayenne to taste, bread-crumbs, puff 
paste. 

Method. Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it up into small 
square pieces, put the stock, cream and seasoning into a stewpan, 
add the lobster, and let it simmer gently for 6 minutes. Serve it in 



KECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 347 

the shell, which must be nicely cleaned, and have a border of puff-paste. 
Cover it with breadcrumbs, place small pieces of butter over, and 
brown before the fire, or with a salamander. If tinned lobster is used, 
a shallow pie-dish replaces the shell. 

Time. of an hour. Average Cost, js. 6d. Sufficient for 4 persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

538.- LOBSTER MAYONNAISE. (Fr. Mayonnaise 
de Homard.) 

Ingredients. I large lobster, 4 lillcted Gorgona anchovies, i hard- 
egg, 6 stoned olives, 4 gherkins, a few slices of pickled beetroot, 
a t iblespoonful of capers, i 1 irgeo r 2 small let u , onnaise s. . 

Method. Cut the lobster in two lengthwise, break the claws carefully, 
remove the meat intact, if possible, and cut the remainder of the 
lobster into small pieces. Wash and dry the lettuce, tear it into small 
pieces, put it into a bowl with the small pieces of lobster, and add 
ally sufficient Mayonnaise to moisten the whole. Arrange this 
in the centre of a round dish in the form of a dome, mask it \\ith 
very stiff Mayonnaise sauce, and surround it with pieces of 
boiled egg. Garnish tastefully with strips of anchovy, strips or 
of gherkin, fancifully-cut pieces of beetroot, olives, and capers. Keep 
until required, and serve as cool as pos> 

Time. Half an hour. Average Cost, 33. 6d. to 4$. Sufficient for 
6 to 8 persons. Seasonable from April to October. 

539. LOBSTER PATTIES. (Fr. Petits Patts dc 
Homard.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of puff-paste, i small lobster, i$ ozs. of butter. 
i of an oz. of flour, the yolks of 3 eggs, $ of a pint of fish stock or milk 
(about), $ a gill of cream, | a teaspoonful of Icmon-jui drops 

of anchovy -essence, cayenne, salt, parsley. 

Method. When giving the paste its last turn, roll it out to a thick- 
ness of I an inch, and with a hot wet cutter of 2} inches di. 

out 8 or 9 rounds of paste. Brush them over with a beaten egg, 

to about | the depth of the paste with a : 

ter cutter, previously dipped in hot water. Bake them in a hot 
oven from 20 to 25 minutes, then remove and take care of the tops, 
scoop out the soft inside, and keep the patty-cases warm. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and cook a few minutes, then pour 
in the fish stock or milk, and stir until the sauce boils. Simmer ior 
10 minutes, add the cream, yolks of eggs, lemon-juice, anchovy-essence, 
and seasoning to taste, simmer gently until the yolks of the eggs thicken, 
then pass through a cloth or hne sieve. Return to the stewpan, put 
in the lobster (cut into dice) ; when thoroughly hot put into the 
put on the coven, garnish with parsley, and 



34 8 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. | hour after the paste is made. Average Cost, is. 8d., ex- 
clusive of the paste. Sufficient for 8 or 9 patties. Seasonable from 
April to October. 

540. LOBSTER, POTTED. (Fr. Terrine de Homard.) 

Ingredients. 2 lobsters, 6 ozs. of butter, ground mace, grated nutmeg, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Remove the meat carefully from the shell, keeping the pieces 
as large as possible. Put them into a baking-dish with |- of the butter, 
add a sprinkling of mace and nutmeg, season well with salt and pepper, 
cover with a dish or 2 or 3 folds of well-greased paper, and bake in a 
gentle oven for about i hour. Lift the pieces of lobster carefully into 
small pots, and pack them as close together as possible, otherwise a 
large amount of butter will be required. Strain the butter over them, 
and when cold cover with clarified butter. 

Time. 1 to i hours. Average Cost, for this quantity, 35. 6d. to 
45. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 small pots. 

541. LOBSTER, RAGOUT OF. (Fr. Ragout de 
Homard.) 

Ingredients.- i large lobster, i gill of white sauce, No. 222, \ a gill 
of fish stock or water, 2 yolks of eggs, i oz. of butter, mace, pepper and 
salt. 

Method. Remove the flesh from the shell, keeping it as whole as 
possible, and divide into pieces i inch square. Pound the spawn in a 
mortar with the butter, add a pinch of mace and salt and pepper to 
taste, and pass the mixture through a fine sieve. Put the sauce and 
stock into a stewpan, boil up, season to taste, and add the yolks of 
eggs, spawn, butter and lobster. Cook gently for a few minutes to 
remove the raw taste of the eggs, then serve. 

Time. About \ an hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 35. Sufficient for 
5 or 6 persons. Seasonable, from April to October. 

542. LOBSTER RISSOLES. (Fr. - - Rissoles de 
Homard.) 

Ingredients. i small lobster, puff-paste trimmings, i yolk of egg 

1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of white sauce or fish sauce, a teaspoonful of 
finely-chopped parsley, cayenne, egg and breadcrumbs, frying-fat. 

Method. Remove the flesh of the lobster from the shell, and chop 
it finely. Put it into a saucepan with the yolk of egg, white sauce, 
parsley, and a pinch of cayenne, and stir over the fire until thoroughly 
hot. Season to taste, turn it on to a plate, and put aside until cold. 
Roll the paste out as thinly as possible, stamp out into rounds about 

2 inches in diameter, and place a little of the lobster preparation in the 



RECIPES FOR COOKINC. FISH 349 

isten the edge of the paste with cold water, fold over 
in a halt -moon shape, and coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, 
or. if preferred, egg and crushed vermicelli. Have ready a deep pan 
of hot fat, fry the rissoles to a golden-brown colour, then drai: 
. 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, is. 3d to is. lod. Suflku 
about 10 rissoles. Seasonable at any t 

543. LOBSTER SALAD. (Fr. Salade de Homard.) 

Ingredients. i hen lobster, lettuces, cn! ill salad 

o . a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs, a 
of cucuiulx-r. For dres^ jx>onfuls of oil, j tahlespoonfuls 

isponnful of r .s Of 2 eggS, Ca 

aspoonful of anchovy sauce. These in- 

nts should U: mixed p. :m>oth, anl finn ;i crramy sauce. 

Method. - Wash the salad, and thoroughly ilry it 1-v slukrni; it in a 
cloth. Cut up thr lettuces and endive, pour the dressing on them, 
ami l, n the small salad. Blend all well to*:* 

at of the lobster. 1 meat from the claws, cut 

B pieces, put half in the salad, and reserve the other 

.,'. Separate the yolks from the whites of 2 

hard-boiled and rub the yolks through 

he salad lightly on a glass -1 garnish 

with cucumber, then with the pieces 

and uhiH-s ,f thr Qgp, v.ral and ! 

>.irate groups, so that the colours conn 

fd. 

Time. \ Btet. Average Cost, js. (+\. Sufnctont 

Seasonable from April to < > 

544. -MACKEREL, BAKED. />. -Maquercau Farci 
i la Maitre d'Hotel.) 

Ingredients, -j mackerel of medium size, veal forcemeat (*e* Force- 

/. of but ..t-t dripping, pepper and salt, t! 

Method. ("Iran t! :.K-S. put in thr forcemeat, 

it thorn \vith thr PK-i into a 1 
;'1<1 ti , ,1-M- with Hour. sprinkK- udl with s.i. 

4'mini: nig occasionally. 

parsley sauce, or melted I 

Tlmo Average Cost, 

Suillctent for 4 or 5 persons. Btmniita from April t< |ul\. 



350 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

545. MACKEREL, BOILED, WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. 

(Fr. Maquereau Bouilli.) 

Ingredients. 2 mackerel, water, salt, parsley sauce (No. 311). 

Method. Remove the roes, wash the fish, put them into the fish- 
kettle, with just sufficient hot water to cover them, and add salt to 
taste. Bring the water gently to near boiling point, then draw the 
kettle aside, and cook very gently for about 10 minutes. If cooked 
too quickly, or too long, the skin is liable to crack, and spoil the ap- 
pearance of the fish. It is a sure indication that the fish is sufficiently 
cooked when the skin becomes loose from the flesh. Drain well, place 
the mackerel on a hot dish, pour over them a little parsley sauce, 
and serve the remainder separately in a tureen. Fennel and anchovy 
sauces may also be served with boiled mackerel. 

Time. From 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 9d. each. Suffi- 
cient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from April to July. 

THE MACKEREL (Fr. maquereau) is not only one of the most elegantly shaped, but one of the most 
beautifully coloured of the fish that frequent our coasts. The characteristic metallic lustre of its 
body is familiar to all. The mackerel is a migratory fish, and visits in enormous shoals the coasts of 
England in May and June, and those of Scotland in July and August. It is captured by means of 
drift-nets, in which it is caught by entangling its head in the meshes. The mackerel spawns in May 
and June. The Romans were acquainted with this fish, and made from its fat the celebrated " sarum," 
or " relish." The mackerel rarely exceeds the weight of 2 Ib. ; its ordinary length is between 14 and 
20 inches. When taken out of the water it dies immediately, and for a short time emits a phos- 
phorescent light. 

546. MACKEREL, BROILED. (Fr. Maquereau 
Grille.) 

Ingredients. i large mackerel, a little salad-oil, or butter, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Do not wash the fish, but wipe it clean and dry. Split 
it down the back, sprinkle it well with seasoning, and brush lightly 
over with salad-oil or warm butter. The fish has a more delicate 
flavour if wrapped in a well-buttered paper, but it may be broiled 
without it. The fire must be clear, and the fish should be turned 
frequently. Allow 15 to 20 minutes for a mackerel of medium-size, 
and a few minutes longer when broiled in paper. Serve with Maitre- 
d'Hotel butter or Maitre d'Hotel sauce (No. 200). 

Time. 15 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. to lod. Sufficient 
for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable from April to July. 

547. MACKEREL, FILLETS OF. (Fr. Filets de 
Maquereau a la Bechamel.) 

Ingredients. 2 medium-sized mackerel, of a pint of Bechamel 
sauce, i ozs. of butter, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash, dry, and fillet the fish. Melt the butter in a saute- 
pan, and fry the fillets without browning them. Remove the fish and 
keep it hot, put in the Bechamel sauce, and bring nearly to boiling 
point ; then return the fish to the stewpan, cover closely, and simmer 



REcir; : COOKING FISH 

gently for 10 minutes. Remove the fish carefully to a hot dish, add 
the lemon-juice to the sauce, season ii necessary, and strain over the 

Time. About | an hour. Average Cost, 6d. to is. Sufficient for 
4 persons. Seasonable from April to July. 

548. MACKEREL, PICKLED. (Fr. Maquereau 
Marin6.) 

Ingredients. 2 or 3 mackerel, | a pint of vinegar, water, 12 pepper- 
corns, 2 bay-leaves, allspice, salt and pepper. 

Method. Clean and wash the fish and take out the roes. Place the 

mackerel in an earthenware baking-dish with the roes (mackerel are 

1 that part of the season when the roes are not full grown), sprinkle 

them well with salt and pepper, add the bay-leaves, allspice, peppercorns, 

; , and about ^ of a pint of water, cover with a greased paper, 

ike in a cool oven for nearly i hour. Let them remain in the 

r until required. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 6d. to is. each. Sufficient 
: or 5 persons. Seasonable from April to Julv. 

549. MACKEREL, SMOKED. (Fr. Maquereau fume.) 

Ingredients. Mackerel, common salt, to each 8 ozs. of which add I oz. 

.Itpetre. 

Method. Clean and open the fish, empty the inside and dry 

ighly. Cover thicklv with salt and saltpetre, let them remain 

-4 to 36 hours, according to size, then .:ig the 

mackerel in a row by means of a stick pushed through the sockets 

of the eye, and dry them in the sun or expose them to the heat of the 

fire for . If the ordinary mea king in the chimney 

ulablc they should be employed; if not, half fill an old cask, open 

at both ends, with sawdust, put a red-hot iron in the middle of r 

(1 the fish across the cask, which must bo covered to keep in the 
In about 30 hours the fish will be ready. 

550. MULLET, GREY. (Fr. Surmulet.) 

Ingredients. 4 grey mullet. 

Method. -Clran the fish, and, if very large, place them in warm 
ill, they may be r, and cooked 

minutes. Serve with anchovy or melted butter 

Time. From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, is, oxl. t< 

i small mullet to each person. Seasonable all the year, but 
rom July to October. 

(Pr.mnM*ObqitoadUhMt * Iron Iht rad araDtt, wMch b*mp to OM 
faiwlyol the */.*,. The gwy, or tnM nmlWt, of UM Umfly **}*, b fouod i 

co4,tv 4r.a .UUui* to the IrriRth rf * M M 



HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

551. MULLET RED, GRILLED, MAITRE D'HOTEL 
STYLE. (Fr Rougets grilles a la Maitre 
d' Hotel.) 

Ingredients. 3 or 4 fish, salad-oil, maitre d'hotel or parsley butter, 
salt and pepper. 

Method. Procure 3 or 4 fresh red mullet, wipe them with a damp 
cloth, and make 3 or 4 incisions across each fish with a sharp knife. 
Put the fish on a dish, pour over them 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of salad- 
oil, season with salt and pepper, and let them stand thus for about 
i hour. Meanwhile, prepare some Maitre d 1 Hotel butter, made with 
i oz. of butter, chopped parsley, and lemon juice. See that 
the gridiron is perfectly clean, and the fire suitable for grilling. 
Grease the gridiron, place the red mullet on it, and cook them slowly 
over, or in front of, a bright fire, turning frequently. When done put 
some Maitre d'Hotel butter on a dish, place the red mullets upon 
this, spread a little more Maitre d'Hotel butter on top of each fish, 
garnish with fresh parsley, and serve hot. 

Time. To grill, from i o to 12 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33. 
Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time, but best in the 
in summer. 

552. MULLET RED, GRILLED. (Fr. Rougets 
Grilles.) 

Ingredients. 3 moderate-sized fish, 2 ozs. of butter, i dessertspoon- 
ful finely-chopped parsley, pepper and salt, the juice of a lemon. 

Method. After cleaning the fish, replace the livers with some finely- 
chopped parsley and seasoning, mixed with butter. Wrap each fish 
in an oiled paper, sprinkling over them some of the seasoning, and grill 
them over a red fire, holding a salamander above so as to avoid turning 
them. When done, squeeze the juice of the lemon over them, and 
serve. 

Time. To grill, from 10 to 12 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. 
Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time, but most plentiful 
in summer. 

553. MULLET RED, IN CASES. (Fr. Rougets en 
Papillottes.) 

Ingredients. 4 small red mullet, an oz. of butter, \ an oz. of flour, 
a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, a glass of sherry, salt, cayenne, 
oiled paper. 

Method. Clean the fish, remove the fins and gills, but leave the in- 
side, as the liver is considered the choicest part of the fish. Fold each 
mullet in oiled or buttered paper, and bake gently from 20 to 25 minutes. 
Knead the butter and flour smoothly, add it, together with the anchovy 
essence and the sherry, to the liquor which has oozed from the fish, 



FISH. 




Hops an Gratio. 3. Red Mallet. ^.-Torboi. 4.- Cod Steak. y-Frted Sole. 
Mayonnaise of Salmon 7.-Salmon au Nature! . 8.- Brown Troat. 9. Smelu. 






RECIPES FOR COOKINV, nsil 353 

n to taste, and simmer for 10 minutes. Serve the fish without the 
, and the sauce in a sauce boat. 

Time. About 35 minutes, altogether. Average Cost, js. (A. to 35. 
Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time, but more plentiful in 
summer. 

554. MULLET, RED, WITH TARTAR SAUCE. 

(Fr. Rougets Sauce Tartare.) 

Method. Prepare and cook the fish as in tl. .ng recipe, but 

without the paper cases, or grill them, and serve with Tartar 
(see Sauces, No. 2 

555. MUSSELS. (Fr. Moules.) 

Ingredients, i quart of mussels, i oz. of butter, | an oz. of 

i tablcspoonful of \ -poonful 

pepper. 
Method. Brush the shells thoroughly, and wash the musv 

Put them into an iron saucepan wit: 

into a steamer). Sprinkle with a little salt, spread a cl-.m wot cloth 

and let them cook in tho steam until the shells 

open a little. Take them out of the shells, and strain tho liquor 

into a basin. Carefully remove the little weed which is found under 

the Mack tongi the butter, add the flour, and cook for 3 or 4 

;*mr in tho mussel \n\\. ^ils. Cool 

->r and , oason 

; by tho side <f if. :1 th i;s il !'nt in 

-els to re 111'- xai: 

Time. About \ an hour. Averafe Cost. Kd. Sufnciet 

persons. Seasonable all tl 

556. OYSTERS DEVILLED. (Fr. Huitres d la 

Diable.) 

Ingredients. i dozen oysters, i oz. of butter, cayenne, salt, lemon, 
brown bread, butter. 

Method. Open the oysters carefully so as to preserve as much of the 
as possible, and lea\ shells. Sprinkle tin in 

1 more liberally with i avenne. and to ea< h i. 
a small sters on a gi 

slow fire until thoroughly heated, then serve with sliced lemon and 
thin brown bread <T. 

Time. ^ mm ook. Averaff Cost, 2S. per Seasonable 

nl. 

557. OYSTERS, FRICASSEED. (Fr- Fricass6c 

aux Huitrcs.) 

Ingredients. 18 large oysters, 2| ozs. <i liuiier, 4 i.ur, 



354 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

i gill of white stock, of a gill of cream, the yolks of 3 eggs, i 
teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt, nutmeg, white pepper, 10 small heart- 
shaped slices of fried bread. 

Method. Open the oysters, preserve the liquor, remove the beards, 
put the oysters in a stewpan with i oz. of butter and a little oyster 
liquor. Season with a pinch of salt, a grating of nutmeg, and a pinch 
of pepper. Stir over the fire for 2 minutes and strain. Melt the re- 
maining i ozs. of the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, cook 
slightly without browning and dilute with the liquor from the oysters, 
the remainder of the oyster liquor, and the stock. Stir until it boils, 
simmer for about 10 minutes, then add the cream, the yolks of the 
eggs, and the lemon-juice, and stir the mixture over the fire a few 
seconds longer to bind the yolks. Pass the sauce through a fine strainer 
or tammy-cloth, put it in a saucepan with the oysters, heat thoroughly, 
but on no account allow it to boil. Serve on a hot dish, garnished 
with croutes of fried bread and a few sprigs of parsley. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 33. 6d. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable from September to April. 

558. OYSTERS, FRIED. (Fr. Huitres f rites.) 

Ingredients. i dozen oysters, fritter batter, % a teaspoonful of 
finely-chopped parsley, of a saltspoonful of grated lemon rind, fry ing- 
fat. 

Method. Blanch the oysters in their own liquor, strain just before 
boiling point is reached, drain and dry them well. Make the batter 
as directed, and add the parsley and lemon-rind. Dip each oyster 
separately in the batter, fry in hot fat until crisp and lightly browned, 
then drain well and serve. 

Time. To fry, about 4 minutes. Average Cost, 2S. per dozen. Season- 
able from September to April. 

559. OYSTER FRITTERS. (Fr. Beignets aux 
Huitres.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 12 large oysters, 3 ozs. of flour, of a pint of tepid 
water, i tablespoonful of salad-oil or oiled butter, the whites of 
Z eggs, salt, frying-fat. 

Method. Make a batter by stirring the water and salad-oil, gradually 
into the flour ; when perfectly smooth add the salt, and lastly the stiffly 
whipped whites of eggs. Beard the oysters, dip them in the batter, 
and fry them in hot fat until they acquire a golden-brown colour. 

Time. \ an hour. Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 6 
persons. Seasonable from September to April. 

THE OYSTER (Fr. huitre). This delicious mollusc is the type of the family Otsraeidae, the members 
of which are characterized by their inequivalve shells, i.e., one half or valve being larger than the 
other. The valves are connected with a bundle of strong nerves in the body of the oyster, and by their 
means the bivalve is able to hold its shells tightly together. The oyster is most prolific, its fertilized 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 355 

K are known as spat, and enormous quantities of ova are produced from May to September, llie 
pat on becoming free consists of a tiny body enclosed within a minute shell, and is furnished with 
laments by which it nrst swims freely about, and then fixes itself to some substance, lite oyster, 
iuch possesses a complete digestive system, consisting of a mouth, stomach, intestine and liver, 
btains its food from the minute organisms or particles of matter which flow into its mouth by the 
trrents of water which pass through its gills. From the time of the Romans, who highly appreciated 
M oysters of Britain, thb sheB-ST has been a favourite deUcacr, not only for its rich flavour 
spends upon its feeding ground, but also for the nutritive qualities it possess*!, making it especially 
leful for invalids. Oysters attain their foil growth in about three yean, and in their attached state 
*m " oyster-beds " ; the most celebrated of those in England are the Whitstabie and Colchester 
sds. Oysters are largely cultivated in France, rvrnrnar^fi^ttaod, Portugal, and A meric*, and Urr 
tantities are imported into Great Britain from the Continent and the United States. Owing to 



,<!rr'. ; , -.^r'-.l, .t !.:,.! Md taBM *N I---".- MlOMr] ; ; ,.rr.l N . W 

laws relating to the capture and preservation of oysters are in force, and the oyster fishery to under 
the control of Fishery Boards, subject to the Board of Trade. The dote time far deep-sea oysters 
is from June 13 to August 4, and for other kinds from May 14 to Angu 

560. OYSTER FRITTERS. (Fr. Beignets aux 
Huitres.) (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. 12 oysters, 12 small thin slices of bacon, J a lemon 

'^-f:vt, trying-batter. 

Method. Sprinkle the oysters with lemon-juice, and roll each one 

lice of bacon just large enough to enclose it. Make the batter 

as directed, No. t in the prepared oysters one or two at a time, 

take them out on the point of a skewer, drain slightly, and at once 

drop them into hot fat. Fry a pale golden-brown colour, drain well, 

icd parsli 
Time. To fry, about 4 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. per dozen. 

56 1. -OYSTERS, TO KEEP. 

Place them in a tub or nther suitable vessel, cover with salt and 
the oysters remain undisturbed for 12 hours, then drain off 
iter. Allow them to stand another 12 hours without water, 
n repeat the process until required for use. 

562. -OYSTERS, MARGUERITE STYLE. (Fr. 
Huitres a la Marguerite.) 

Ingredients. i dozen large oysters, i a stick of celery (white part 
ly), 1} ozs. of butter, i glass of sherry, i teaspoon ful of cornflour, 
large picked shrimps, a little stock, lemon-juice, seasoning, and 

.Beard the oysters, cut them in halves, and blanch them 
i'.ior. which should be preserved. Wash and trim the 

fcfl portions, chop r 
well on a : oz. of butter in the chafing-dish or 

idd the o m minutes. Then add the 

oysters, and their liquor, and season with salt and p 
c cornflo I stock, and incorporate this with the 

: s, etc. Stir until it boils, adding a little more stock to moisten. 
th a few drops of lemon- juice, and add the shrimps. Put 
ler of the butter, and cook very gc minutes, 

hopped parsley, and serve from the chafing-dish. 




356 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 35. Sufficient for 3 
or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to April. 

563. OYSTERS, MARINER'S FASHION. (Fr. 
Papillons d' Huitres, a, la Mariniere.) 

Ingredients. 18 sauce oysters, \ glass Chablis, i tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, i tablespoonful of chopped shallots, i oz. of fresh 
breadcrumbs, i oz. of butter, \ a lemon, salt and pepper. 

Method. Beard the oysters, and put them with their liquor in a pie- 
dish; pour the white wine over them, and let it stand for about an hour. 
Mix the parsley, chopped shallots, and breadcrumbs, and season to 
taste with salt and pepper. Range the oysters in a buttered fireproof 
baking-dish, pour over a little of the liquor and wine, and cover with 
the mixture of breadcrumbs, etc. Divide the remainder of the butter 
into small pieces, and place them on top. Bake in a fairly hot oven 
for about 15 minutes. Squeeze a little lemon-juice on top, and send 
to table in the baking-dish. 

Time. To bake, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 35. 6d. 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from September to April. 

564. OYSTER OMELET. (Fr. Omelette aux 
Huitres.) 

Ingredients. 6 eggs, 6 oysters, i tablespoonful of white sauce or fish 
sauce, i tablespoonful of milk, salt and pepper, i oz. of butter. 

Method. Blanch the oysters in their own liquor without allowing 
them to boil, then divide them in halves or quarters, and mix with 
them the sauce, and seasoning to taste. Beat the eggs well, add the 
milk, and salt and pepper to taste. Melt the butter in an omelet 
pan, when hot pour in the eggs, stir until the mixture begins to set, 
then place the oyster preparation in the centre, fold the sides in, finish 
cooking, and serve. 

Time. Altogether, 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2S. 6d. 

565. OYSTER PATTIES. (Fr. Petites Bouchees 
aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of puft-paste, 24 oysters, 2 ozs. of butter, i oz. of 
flour, the yolks of 3 eggs, of a pint of fish stock or milk (about), 
a gill of cream, a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, 
parsley. 

Method. When the paste has had the necessary number of turns, 
roll it out to a thickness of about an inch, and with a hot wet cutter 
of 2\ inches diameter stamp out 8 or 9 rounds of paste. Brush these 
over with beaten egg, then make an inner ring to about half the depth 
of the paste with a cutter i inch in diameter, previously dipped in hot 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 357 

water. Bake them in a hot oven for 20 or 25 minutes, then remove and 
take care of the tops, scoop out the soft inside, and keep the patties 
warm until required. Meanwhile put the oysters and their liquor into 
a saucepan, let them come to the boil, drain them, put the liquor 
aside, remove the beards, and cut each oyster in two. Melt the 
butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and cook for 3 or 4 minutes, add 
the oyster liquor with enough milk to make half a pint, and stir until 
the sauce boils. Simmer for 10 minutes, add the cream, the yolks of 
the eggs, lemon-juice, and seasoning to taste ; simmer again gently 
until the yolks of the eggs thicken, then pass through a tammy-cloth 
or tine sieve. Re-heat, add the oysters, and when thoroughly hot, 

in the puff-paste cases, put on the covers, garnish with p ' 
and serve. 

Time. an hour after the paste is made. Average Cost, about 
2s. 6d., exclusive of the paste. Sufficient for 8 or 9 patties. Season- 
able from September to April. 

566. OYSTER SAUSAGES. 

Ingredients. 12 sauce oysters, i Ib. of veal, | oi ,i 11>. of suet fmely- 
chopped, i thick slice of bread, i egg, butter or dripping for l: 
s.ih and pepper. 

Method. < >pen the oysters, preserve the liquor, remove the beards, 
and cut the oysters into very small pieces. Strain the liquor over the 
let it soak until soft, then drain off any unabsorbed liquor, 
and beat the bread with a fork until no lumps remain. Pass tl> 
2 or 3 times through a mincing-m.u hme, add the surt, bread, salt 
and pepper to taste, and lastly ti . 1 he preparation 

may be improved by being well pounded in a mortar, but it is not abso- 
Intelv \. When ready, press into skins, or shape in the form 

of small sausages, roll lightly in flour seasoned with salt and p 
and fry in hot butter or fat. 

Time. Alto-ether, i hours. Average Cost, 2S. 3d. 

567. OYSTERS, SCALLOPED. (Fr. - - Escalopes 
aux Huitres.) 

Ingredienh sters, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, J pint of white 

j tablespoonfuls of cream, pepper, salt, breadcrumbs, bir 

Method. Remove the beards of the oysters and simmer them about 

10 minutes in the oyster liquor. Have the o ady in a small 

, strain the liquor on to them, and cover the basin to keep in the 

. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook for 2 or 3 

minutes, then pour in the stock and the oyster liquor, and stir until 

the sauce boils. Simmer for 2 or 3 minutes, to ensure the flour bcini* 

thoroughly cooked, then add the cream and the oysters, and season to 

. Have ready some well-buttered scallop-shells, in which the 



358 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

oysters should be served, fill them with the oysters and the sauce, 
cover with breadcrumbs, pour on a little melted butter, and bake in a 
quick oven just long enough to brown the surface. 

Time. Altogether, 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, 35. 3d. to 33. 9d. 
Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable from September to April. 

568. OYSTER SOUFFLE (.FV. Souffle aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. 2 small whitings, 6 large sauce oysters, i ozs. of flour, 
2 ozs. of butter, about pint of milk, gill of cream, a teaspoonful 
of anchovy-essence, 3 eggs, seasoning. 

Method. Skin the whitings, remove all the meat from the bones, 
^nd pound it in a mortar. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, 
and cook a little without browning ; moisten with the milk and oyster 
liquor, stir briskly until quite smooth, then add the cream. Cook a 
little longer, but stir all the while. Remove the beards from the oysters, 
cut the latter into dice, and put them into the mixture ; season to 
taste with salt, pepper and nutmeg, work in the yolks of the eggs, the 
anchovy -essence, and the pounded fish. Whisk the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth, and mingle them carefully with the mixture. Three 
parts fill a well-buttered souffle tin or Charlotte mould, steam for 
about 45 minutes. Remove from the mould, and serve with a white 
sauce. 

Time. To steam, about 45 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. Sufficient for 
6 persons. Seasonable from September to April. 

569. OYSTER SOUFFLES, Small. (Fr. Petits 
Souffles aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. 6 large sauce oysters, 2 eggs, pint of milk (about) 
i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, salt, pepper. 

Method. Remove the beards of the oysters, simmer them in the oyster 
liquor for 10 minutes, and cut the oysters into small pieces. Melt 
the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the milk, boil well, then 
let it slightly cool. Separate the whites of the eggs from the yolks, 
and whisk them to a stiff froth ; add the yolks one at a time to the 
contents of the saucepan, and beat well. When thoroughly mixed 
put in the oysters, oyster liquor, add seasoning to taste, and lastly 
the whites of the eggs, which must be added as lightly as possible 
to the mixture. Have ready some well-buttered china cases, half 
fill them with the mixture, and bake for about 15 minutes in a moder- 
ately hot oven, or steam them over a saucepan of boiling water for 
20 minutes. The souffles may be baked in paper cases, but the latter 
must previously be well buttered or oiled. 

Time. Altogether, about 40 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. Allow 8 
souffles for 6 persons. Seasonable from September to April. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 359 

570. OYSTER VOL-AU-VENT. (Fr. Vol-au-Vent 
aux Huitres.) 

Ingredients. i Ib. of puff-paste, 24 oysters, 2 ozs. of butter, i oz. 
of flour, the yolks of 3 eggs, | of a pint of fish stock or milk (about), 
a gill of cream, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, salt and pepper, 
pars! 

Method. Roll out the paste as directed in the preceding recipe. 
Take a large, fluted oval cutter, dip it into hot water, and stamp out 
2 pieces of paste. Remove the centre of one piece of paste with a hot 
wet smaller cutter. Wet the edge of the piece of paste which is intact, 
place the ring of paste on the top of it, and brush the surface with 
yolk of egg. Bake in a hot oven ; when done, scoop out a little of the 
, fill with the oyster mixture (see oyster patties), and decorate 
with a little lobster coral and parsley. 

Time. To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 33. to 35. 6d., 
exclusive of the paste. Sufficient for one vol-au-vent. Seasonable from 
September to April. 

571. PERCH, BOILED. (Fr. Perche bouilli.) 

Ingredients. 4 perch, salt. 

Method. The peculiarity of the perch is the difficulty experienced 

in removing its scales. Sometimes it is boiled and the scales removed 

ards, but a better plan is to plunge the fish for 2 or 3 minutes 

into boiling water, and then scale it. Before boiling, the fish must 

be washed in \\.inn wau-r, cleaned, and the gills and fins removed. 

ready boiling water to cover the fish, add salt to taste, and boil 

them gently from 10 to 20 minutes, according to their size. Serve 

with Hollandaise or melted butter sauce. 

Time. 10 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to is. each. Sufficient 
for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from May to 1 

Note. Tench may be boiled the same way. and served with the same 

THE PERCH (Fr. perdu). This is one of the best and most common of fresh-water fish found in 
nearly all the rivers and lakes of Britain and Ireland, and the whole of Europe within the temperate 
zone. It is extremely voracious, and has, contrary to the usual nature of fresh-water fish of prey, 
the peculiarity of being gregarious. The teeth of the perch are numerous and large -. its scales are 
ctenoid, or comb-shaped ; the gill-cover and dorsal fin are furnished with spines ; the tail and pectoral 
fins are of a bright red colour. May to the middle of July to the best season for angling for perch. 

Larffo miri.UTi ..< thu n>h arc LreU a:.J ; n-vrvcui ID th<- p :-,d* ,-f lUn.p.t.ii .... ..irt M i Safe*] Kir* 

The perch possesses great vitality, and wUl live far a considerable time out of water if its gills be kept 
moist The bass fa frequently called the sea-perch. The CLIMMNO PEACH of India, by a remark- 
able arran*et nm t of the cells of the pharyngeal bones, which retain moisture in the gills for a consider- 
able period, is able to migrate overland in search of a fresh supply of water when the pools in which 
:) are dried up. It progresses by means of its stifl spiny fins. The name " climbing 
perch " has been given to the fish from the supposition that it climbs the rough stems of the palm- 



r--< -. 



572. PERCH, FRIED. (Fr. Perche frite.) 

Ingredients. 4 perch, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, salt, p 
flour. 



360 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Scale, clean, wash, and dry the fish thoroughly. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, dredge well with flour, brush over with beaten 
egg, and cover them with breadcrumbs. Have ready some hot fat, 
fry the fish until nicely browned, drain well, and serve with anchovy, 
shrimp, or melted butter sauce. 

Time. About 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. to is. each. 
Allow i medium-sized fish to each person. Seasonable from May to 
February. 

573.PERCH, STEWED. (Fr. Perche au Vin 
Blanc.) 

Ingredients. 4 perch, a pint of good stock, of a pint of white wine, 
2 ozs. of butter, i oz of flour, i dessertspooonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped onion, a teaspoonful 
of anchovy-essence, i bay-leaf, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, 
bay-leaf), i clove, salt and pepper, lemon-juice. 

Method. Scale, clean, and wash the fish, and remove the fins and 
gills. Melt half the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion without brown- 
ing, then add the stock, wine, anchovy-essence, bay-leaf, bouquet- 
garni, and clove, and simmer for 10 minutes. Put in the fish, and let 
them cook gently for about 10 minutes, then lift them out carefully 
on to a hot dish, and keep them warm. Melt the remaining oz. of 
butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook for 2 or 3 minutes, then 
add the liquor (strained), in which the fish was cooked, and stir until 
it boils. Add the parsley and lemon-juice, season to taste, and pour 
over the fish. 

Time. About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to is. each. Allow 
I medium-sized fish to each person. Seasonable from May to Febru- 
ary. 

574. PIKE, BAKED. (Fr. Brochet Farci.) 

Ingredients. i small pike (about 4 lb.), 4 ozs. of veal forcemeat 
(No. 412), i egg, brown breadcrumbs, butter, or fat for basting. 

Method. Wash, clean, and scale the fish, and remove the fins and 
gills. Fill the inside with forcemeat, sew up the opening, brush over 
with beaten egg, and cover with breadcrumbs. Sometimes the fish 
is trussed in a round shape, the tail being fastened in the mouth by 
means of a skewer. Before putting the fish in the oven it should be 
well basted with hot fat or butter, and as this fish is naturally dry it 
must be frequently basted, and kept covered with a greased paper while 
cooking. Bake gently from 40 to 45 minutes, and serve with a suitable 
sauce. 

Time. Altogether, about i hour. Average Cost, about 2s. 6d. 
Sufficient for 8 to 10 persons. Seasonable from September to 
February. 



FISH. 










FISH. 




i. Savoury Haddock Timbales. 2. Whiting Souffle. 3. Lobster Cutlets. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 361 

575. PIKE, BOILED. (Fr. Brochet Bouilli.) 

Ingredients. i pike, salt, vinegar. 

Method. Pour boiling water over the fish until the scales look dull, 
then plunge ii into cold water, and remove the scales at once with the 
back of a knife. Empty the fish, remove the gills and fins, and wash 
well. Have ready a nsh-keuK of warm water, add salt and vinegar 
to taste, put in the fish, and boil gently until the fish v easily 

from the Ixme (one weighing 4 Ib. would require about 25 or 30 minutes), 
i with Hollandaisc, anchovy, or melted butter sauce. 

Time. According to size, from $ to i hour. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. 
per Ib. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable from September to 

IKE (Fr. bfocktt). On account of its voracity, the pike is frequently called the " fresh-water 
The common pike occurs in the rivers and lakes of Europe, especially in th< 

In KUSM.I .1- s to large dimensions The body of th 

t-xl with grren above and silvery-white below ; the lower jaw pr- 



<!' j>[ i i' i : ' : : 



Is i,.|i.,l(l'Tt .1 (.. I"' 



numerous strong teeth. The p . the spring ; its young are 

it from May t 
<*s. Owing to its extreme voracity the pike commits great 

It b a very long-l 

o a great age. In Scotland, the pike is called the ** gedd." The flesh of the pike 
cry wholesome, but it is somewhat 



576. -PIKE, CRIMPED AND FRIED. (Fr. Brochet 

recrepi.) 

Ingredients. -Tiki-, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, salt, piquant, an- 

brown caper sauces. 

Method. I . 1 ; i i purpose should be fairly large and quite fresh. 
the lMi thoroughly, cut it into $-in< and cover 

i.uii until the flesh becomes 

ntlv firm, tlu ;i <lrv v, tlour seasoned 

ilt and pepper. Brush over with beaten egg, coat carcfulh 

afterwards fry in hoi browned, 

^rsley, and serve the sauce 

Time. ] hour. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. per Ib. Seasonable at 
trom September t 

577. - PIKE, FILLETS OF, ITALIAN STYLE. , / 

Filets de Brochet a 1'Italienne.) 

Ingredients, i nvdiun. ke, i\ ozs. of butter, J of a pint of 

\o. 233, 2 tablcspoonfuls of tomato \ jxx>n- 

and pepper. 

Method. kin and cut the fish into neat fill t the 

butter in put in the fish, baste it well, and sprinkle 

with a greased paper, cook gently 

minutes. n at o puree and sherry. Continue 

to cook si" about 20 minutes, then transfer the li-h \ ; y care- 



362 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

fully to a hot dish, and strain the sauce over. If liked, the baking- 
dish may be rubbed over with a cut clove of garlic before putting in the 
fish. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d, per Ib. 
Seasonable from September to March. 

578. PIKE, STEWED. (Fr Brochet en compote.) 

Ingredients. i small pike, slices of bacon, i oz. of butter, a pint 
of stock or water, i glass of sherry, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash, clean and dry the pike, place it in a stewpan, in which 
the butter has been previously melted, and cover with slices of bacon. 
Put on a close-fitting lid, let the fish cook in the steam for 15 minutes, 
then add the stock and wine, and season to taste. Simmer very gently 
for about - an hour, then serve on a hot dish with the gravy strained 
round. 

Time. To stew, about an hour. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. per Ib. 
Seasonable from September to March. 

579. PILCHARDS. 

Pilchards are rarely found on the British shores, except at St. Ives, 
Mount's Bay, Mevagissy, and one or two other places on the coast 
of Cornwall and Devon. The pilchard may be distinguished from the 
herring by the fin, which is exactly in the middle of the back, while 
in the herring it is nearer to the tail. The taste of the pilchard is 
similar to that of the herring, but it is more oily. Pilchards quickly 
lose their freshness, and therefore are not often sent uncured to any 
great distance from the places where they are caught. In a cured 
condition they are largely exported. Pilchards may be dressed accord- 
ing to the directions given for cooking herrings. 

580. PLAICE, BAKED. (Fr. Pile Farcie.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized plaice, 2 tablespoonfuls of white bread- 
crumbs, i tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, i dessertspoonful of 
finely-chopped parsley, of a teaspoonful of mixed herbs, a pinch 
of nutmeg, salt and pepper, i egg, pale browned breadcrumbs, a little 
fat or butter, milk. 

Method. Mix the white breadcrumbs, suet, parsley, herbs and nutmeg 
together, season well with salt and pepper, add the egg, and enough 
milk to thoroughly moisten the whole. Make an incision down the 
centre of the fish as for filleting, raise the flesh each side as far as pos- 
sible, and fill with the forcemeat. Instead of drawing the sides of the 
fish close together, fill up the gap with forcemeat, and, with a knife, 
flatten the surface to the level of the fish. Brush over with the remain- 
ing half of the egg, cover lightly with the pale browned breadcrumbs, 
place a few small pieces of butter on the top, and bake from 20 to 30 
minutes in a moderate oven. Serve with a suitable sauce. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 363 

Time. To prepare and cook, from 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 
:o is. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable all the year. 

Note. The forcemeat may be varied by using shrimps or oysters (see Fish 
Cakes). 

THE PLAICE (Ft. plie) is one of the commonest species of the PkurontctuUu, or flat-fishes, and k 
found in large quantities on the coasts of England, and the Baltic and Mediterranean seas. Its 
upper side is brown with red or orange spots. The plaice feeds near the bottom of the sea, and is 
caught by trawl nets. Although less delicate in flavour than the sole, the plaice is a favourite foh 
food. 

581. PLAICE, FILLETS OF, WITH WINE SAUCE. 
(Fr. Filets de Plie au Vin Blanc.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized plaice, a glass of Chablis or Sautcrno 
wine, 6 mushrooms, i blade of mace, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 shallots, J oz. 
of flour, i gill fish stock, the yolk of i egg, pepper and salt. 

Method. Take the black skin off the fish, remove the f 
trim these as neatly as possible, and cut each into 2 or 3 fillets of an 
even size. Place these in a buttered saute- pan, season with pepp< 
salt, moisten with the wine and about a tablcspoonful of mushroom 
liquor ; add also the blade of mace, and the shallots, peeled and cut 
in two. Cover the fillets with a piece of buttered paper, and cook in a 
moderately heated oven for about 15 minutes, or less, according to the 
icss of the fish. In the meantime, prepare a white roux or, 
thickening, with the remaining butter and the flour, moisten with a gill 
of fish stock, a little hot milk, and the liquor from the fillets, stir 
the roux until it boils, and let it simmer for 10 minutes. Cut the mush- 
rooms into slices. Season and strain the sauce, add the yolk of the egg, 
:p long enough to bind the ingredients together, then add the 
mushrooms. Dish up the fish, pour the sauce over the fillets, garnish 
and serve. 

Time. About J an hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. to is. 9d. Sufficient 
for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable all the year round. 

582. PLAICE, FRIED. (Fr. Plie Frite.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized plaice egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, 
flour, salt and pepper, parsley. 

Method. Wash, dry, and fillet the fish, and cut it into pieces con- 
venient for serving. Season a good tablcspoonful of flour rather highly 
with salt and pepper, and in it dip each piece of fish, then brush over 
with egg, cover with breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat until nicely 
browned. Garnish with fried parsley, and serve with anchovy, shrimp, 
or melted butter sauce. 

Time. To prepare and cook, about $ an hour. Average Cost, i 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable all th 
round. 



364 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

583. PLAICE, FRIED. (Another Method.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized plaice, flour, salt and pepper, frying- 
fat or oil. 

Method. Prepare the fish as in the preceding recipe, but instead 
of coating the fish with egg and breadcrumbs, slip each piece into a 
thick smooth batter made of flour and water. 

Time. To fry, atout 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. to is. 4d. 
Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable all the year round. 

584. PLAICE, OR SOLES, ROLLED. 

(Fr. Paupiettes de Plie.) 

Ingredients. i plaice or 2 soles, lemon-juice, pepper and salt, a 
shallot, i bay-leaf, parsley, 2 cloves, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, 
\ a pint of fish stock, (i gill of milk, i gill of water, i tablespoonful of 
cream). 

Method. Fillet the plaice, season the fillets with salt, pepper, and 
lemon- juice. Roll them, and put them on a greased baking-sheet 
with a greased paper over them. Put the bones into a stewpan with 
the milk and water, bay-leaf, parsley stalks, cloves, and shallot, and 
simmer for 20 minutes. Melt the butter, add the flour, and cook for a 
few minutes, then add the fish stock, and stir the ingredients until 
they boil. Bake the rolled fillets for about 10 minutes or until cooked 
sufficiently, and season to taste. Dish them neatly on a hot dish, strain 
the sauce over, sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the top, and serve 
very hot. 

Time. To bake, from 5 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 
is. 6d., when plaice is used. Sufficient for 5 to 6 persons. Seasonable 
all the year round. 

585. TO BOIL PRAWNS, OR SHRIMPS. 

(Fr. Crevettes.) 

Method. Prawns should be very red, and have no spawn when cooked; 
much depends on their freshness, and the way in which they are cooked. 
Throw them into boiling water, salted, and keep them boiling for about 
7 or 8 minutes. Shrimps should be done in the same way, but less 
time must be allowed. It may easily be known when they are done by 
their changing colour. Care should be taken that they are not over- 
boiled, as they then become tasteless and indigestible. 

Time. Prawns, about 8 minutes ; shrimps, about 5 minutes. Average 
Cost, prawns, 9d. to is. 6d. per dozen ; shrimps, 4d. to 6d. a pint. 
Seasonable all. the year. 

THE PRAWN (Fr. crevctic) is a crustacean allied to the lobsters and crabs, and resembles the shrimp 
in its appearance, but it is much larger and more delicate in flavour. Its colour is light orange-grey 
and the body is almost transparent ; it changes to red when boiled, and becomes opaque. The prawn 
3t>9Uijds in various parts of the English coast, especially in the south and south-west. 






RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 365 



5 86. PRAWNS, CURRY OF. (Fr. Crevettes a 

1'Indienne.) 

Ingredients. 2 dozen prawns, i ozs. of butter, i dessertspoonful of 
curry powder, i dessertspoonful of flour, i sour apple coarsely-chopped, 
i siiuill onion sliced, i tablespoonful of cocoanut grated, i tcaspoonful 
of lemon-juice, a pint of stock, salt. 

Method. Shell the prawns and put them aside. Melt the butter 

in a stewpan, fry the onion without browning, then add the curry- 

pu \vder and flour, and fry slowly for at least 20 minutes. Add the 

stock, apple, cocoanut, and a little salt, simmer gently for an hour, 

rain and return to the stewpan. Season to taste, add the lemon - 

put in the prawns, and when thoroughly hot serve with \vell- 

boiled n< . 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost. Cording to the 

i the prawns. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any 
time. 

587. PRAWNS, TO SERVE. 

In the centre of a dish place a dariol mould, or a small basin w 1 

U required, and cover it with a small . Arrange 

tin prawns around in the form of a pyramid, garnish with tufts of 
y, and s< 

588. PRAWNS, OR SHRIMPS, POTTED. 

(Fr. Terrine de Crevettes.) 

Ingredients. i quart of fresh prawas or shrimps, $ of a Ib. of 
butter, rayenne, pounded mace or nutmeg, a 1. 

Method.- The fish should be perfect! ;-ge as possible. 

Hoil, then shell them and divide tlu-m slightly, and pound to a paste 

r with the butter and seasoning. Rub through a fine I 
into small pots, cover with clarified butter, and when cold tic 
down < 1<> 

Tlme. S minutes, to lx.il the prawns. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 23. 
Seasonable at any time. 

589. SALMON BAKED, ITALIAN STYLE. 

(Fr. Saumon etufe a 1'Italienne.) 

Ingredients. About 2 Ib. of salmon (middle), 2 small shallots (p 

iopped\ i teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper, 
1 nutmeg, i small izlass of claret, Genoise or tomato sa 
Method. Cut the fish into 2 or 3 even-sized slices, place these on a 
Wdl-btlttered baking-tin or sautr pan. Season with salt, pepper, 
and A littl r the chopped shall* : 



366 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

parsley, and place the remainder of the butter on top of the fish. 
Moisten with the wine, and bake for about 15 minutes, basting the 
fish frequently. When done, dish up, and pour some Genoise or 
tomato sauce over the slices of salmon. The essence left in the pan 
in which the fish was baked must be utilized for flavouring the sauce. 

Time. To cook, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 33. 6d. Sufficient 
for 8 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

590. SALMON, BOILED. (Fr Saumon bouilli.) 

Ingredients. Salmon. For the court-bouillon (or highly-seasoned fish 
stock), allow to each quart of water i dessertspoonful of salt, I small 
turnip, i small onion, % a leek, i strip of celery, 6 pepper-corns, a bou- 
quet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf). 

Method. Put into the fish-kettle just enough water to cover the 
fish, and when boiling add the prepared vegetables, and cook gently 
for 30 minutes. In the meantime, wash, clean, and scale the fish, 
and tie it loosely in a piece of muslin. Remove any scum there may be 
on the court-bouillon, then put in the fish and boil gently until 
sufficiently cooked (the time required depends more on the thickness 
of the fish than the weight ; allow 10 minutes for each Ib. when cooking 
a thick piece, and 7 minutes for the tail end), then drain well, dish 
on a folded napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve with sliced cucumber, 
and Hollandaise, or other suitable sauce. 

Time. From 7 to 10 minutes per Ib. Average Cost, from is. 3d. to 
2s. 6d. Sufficient, allow from 4 to 6 ozs. per head. Seasonable from 
April to August. 

591. SALMON, BOILED. (Fr. Saumon bouilli.) 
(Another Method.) 

Ingredients. Salmon, salt, boiling water. 

Method. Scale and clean the fish, and put it into the fish-kettle 
with sufficient boiling water to just cover it, adding salt to taste. The 
boiling water is necessary to preserve the colour of the fish. Simmer 
gently until the fish can be easily separated from the bone, thus en- 
suring its being thoroughly cooked, otherwise it will be unwholesome, 
but on the other hand, if over-cooked it will be dry and insipid. 
Drain well, dish on a folded napkin, garnish with cut-lemon and 
parsley, and serve with lobster, shrimp, or other suitable sauce, and 
a dish of thinly-sliced cucumber. 

Time. According to size. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 2s. 6d. perlb. Suffi- 
cient Allow 4 oz. per head, when served in the fish course of a dinner. 
Seasonable from February to September, but most plentiful in July and 
August. 

To CHOOSE SALMON. To be good, the belly should be firm and thick, and this may readily be 
ascertained by feeling it with the thumb and finger The circumstance of this fish having red 
gills, though given as a standing rule in most cookery books, as a sign of its goodness, is not at all 
to be relied on, for this appearance can be proiucjd artificially. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 367 

592. SALMON BAKED WITH CAPER SAUCE. 

(Fr. Saumon, Sauce aux Capres.) 

Ingredients. 2 slices of salmon, of a Ib. of butter, a teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley, i shallot, salt and pepper, and grated nutmeg to 
taste. (Caper sauce No. i ; 

Method. Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place the pieces of butter 

over it, and add the other ingredients, nibbing a little of the seasoning 

into the fish. Baste frequently and when done place the salmon on 

a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve. Salmon dressed in this 

with tomato sauce is very delicious. 

Time. About J of an hour. Average Cost, 33. 6d. Seasonable from 
April to August. Sufficient for 6 persons. 

593. SALMON, COLLARED. (Fr. Saumon au Four.) 

Ingredients. i small salmon, vinegar, salt and pepper, mace, cayenne, 

rcorns, allspice, bay-leaves, cloves. 

Method. Cut off the head and tail, wash and scale the fish, and cut 
it in two lengthwise. Only i half is required for a roll, therefore 
cither 2 rolls must be made, or the other half dressed in another 

gether a teaspoonful of salt, $ of a teaspoonful of pepper, 
a good pinch each of mace and cayenne. Remove the bones an<: 
from the fish, spread it flat on the table, and rub the inside well with 
the seasoning. Roll up the fish, and bind it firmly with string. 
Have ready a stewpan, just large enough to hold the fish, containing 
boiling water and vinegar, in the proportion of ^ of a pint of vinegar to 
i pint of water, and add i .- peppercorns, \ a teaspoonful of allsp; 

!> nt in the li*h. and simmer 

fnr .ilxnit i hour. When done, place in a d 
and when the liquor is cold pour it over the salmon, and let it P 
until 

Time. To prepare and cook, about 1$ hours. Average Cost, i 
6d. per Ib. Sufflcient tor i dish. Seasonable from \: 

594. -SALMON, CRIMPED. (Fr. Saumon recrepi.) 

Salmon should l>< I as soon as possible after being caught. 

s about apart should be made on both si 

ri^h. which should at once be plunged into cold water and allowed to 
>urs, changing the water 3 times at least* 

595. SALMON, CURED OR SALTED. 

Ingredients. - ->. iltpetre. 

Method. Split the fish in ] move the bone, dry well with a 

soft d ^prinkle liberally with salt. I.et it remain thus for 24 

hours, thei ad dry thoroughly, and divide the fish into pieces 



368 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

to pack conveniently in a large jar. Add i oz. of saltpetre to 12 ozs. 
of salt, rub the mixture well into the fish, and pack closely in a jar 
with salt between the layers. If the salt, when dissolved, does not 
cover the fish, make a little strong brine, and add it, when quite cold, 
to the contents of the jar. 

596. SALMON, CURRY OF. (Fr. Saumon a 
rindienne.) 



Ingredients. ilb. of cooked salmon, i oz. of butter, i dessertspoonful 
of curry-powder, i dessertspoonful of flour, i sour apple (or a corres- 
ponding amount of rhubarb or green gooseberries) coarsely-chopped, 
i small onion sliced, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, \ a teaspoonful 
of anchovy-essence, a pint of fish stock or water, salt. 

Method. Melt the butter, fry the onion without browning, then 
add the curry-powder and flour, and fry slowly for about 20 minutes. 
Add the fish stock or water, apple, onion, and salt to taste, simmer 
gently for \ an hour, then strain, replace in the stewpan, and add the 
anchovy-essence, lemon- juice, and seasoning, if necessary. Have 
the fish ready freed from skin and bones, and separated into large 
flakes, put it into the prepared curry sauce, make thoroughly hot, and 
serve with well-boiled rice. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33. Sufficient for 5 
or 6 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

597. SALMON CUTLETS. (Fr. Cotelettes de Sau- 
mon en Papillotes.) 

Ingredients. Slices of salmon, butter," pepper and salt, anchovy or 
caper sauce. 

Method. Cut the slices i inch thick, and season them with pepper 
and salt. Butter some sheets of white paper, enclose each slice of fish 
separately, and secure the ends of the paper case by twisting tightly, 
broil gently over a clear fire, and serve with anchovy or caper 
sauce. 

Time. From loto 15 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 2s. 6d. per Ib. 
Seasonable from April to August. 

598. SALMON DARIOLES. (Fr. Darioles de Saumon 
a la Moscovienne.) 

Ingredients. About i Ib. of cooked salmon, 6 large oysters, i large 
truffle, i hard-boiled egg, \ an oz. of anchovy -paste, a teaspoonful of 
tarragon vinegar, of a gill of cream, about a pint of aspic jelly, 
4 filletted anchovies, a few slices of cucumber, red chilies, a pinch of 
cayenne, salt and pepper, grated nutmeg, ice. 

Method. Flake the salmon, line 6 to 8 small dariole, bouche, or 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 369 

tiniKile moulds witli a thin layer of aspic jelly, decorate with a few thin 

of trutiles, some niee Hakes of salmon, and a few strips of red 

Set the Burnish will with a little aspic, and put it aside to 

cool. Pound t mder of the fish in a mortar together with 

6 cooked oysters, the hard-boiled egg, and the anchovy-paste ; season 

\\ith a pinch of cayenne pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg. I\ul 

-icve, add the tarragon vinegar, in, and about I 

^ill of aspic jelly, mix the ingredient > well to-rther, and then fill the 

moulds. Put the anchovy fillets and a few slices of truffles be 

the farce, or stuffing, in filling. If the mixture does not quite fill the 

moulds, supply the deficiency with aspic jelly, and stand the moulds 

on the ice until required. For serving, immerse the moulds in tepid 

water, turn out the contents quickly, and place them on a round 

:i round ppcd aspic and a few fancifully-cut 

of CUCIII 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 3*. to 35. 6d. Sufficient for 6 
persons. Seasonable at any t 

599. SALMON, FILLETS OF, MORNY STYLE. 

(Fr. Filets de Saumon a la Mornay.) 

Ingredients, j Alices of salmon, from | to i inch in thickness, 2} ozs. 
of butter, i oz. of flour, J of a pint of fish stock, J of a pint of c 
I onion coarsely-chopped, a bouquet -garni (parsley, thyme, ba> 
i tablespoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, i dessertspoonful of lemon- 
salt and 

Method. Melt half the butter in a shallow stcwpan or saut- 
fry the : ,,ly on Uth sidex then add the 

Stock (boiling , the Ixniquet-garni. salt ai; 

, add the flour, and cook for 5 minutes, \V1, 
vc it out on to a hot dish and keep it warm. Strain t In- 
stock on to the flour and butter, and stir until it boils. Simm 
5 minutes, add the cream, cheese, lemon-juice, season to taste, pour 
the mixture over the fish, and i 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, from is. 3d. to is. oxl. 
. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

600. SALMON, FRIED. (Fr Saumon Frit.) (Jewish 
Recipe.) 

Ingredients. 1 Ib. of salmon, a small flask of ol 
Method. Pour the oil into a small but deep pan, set over a clear 
it ceases to bubble, put in the salmon, ; 

.;er,tlv until it is . 
1 through. It bhould i>e only a golden brown, and when the > 



370 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

has acquired this colour, the pan should be placed where the fish will 
cook slowly, so as to prevent it becoming darker. When thoroughly 
done, drain and leave it to get cold, and serve it upon a fish paper, 
garnished with parsley. 

Time. About hour to cook the fish. Average Cost, 23. 6d. Suffi- 
cient for 4 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

THE SALMON (Ft. saumon) is the type of the family Salmonida, which forms the first sub-order, 
the Malacopteri of the third order of fishes, the Teleostei, or fish possessing a bony skeleton, and having 
the skull composed of distinct bones. The ventral fins are abdominal, the second dorsal fin is soft 
and without rays, and the swim-bladder is developed. The head of the salmon is smooth ; its teeth 
are placed in the upper and lower jaws, palate, and roof of the mouth ; the edges of the tongue are 
notched. The colour of the salmon is steel-blue on the head and back, and silver-white on its lower 
parts. The salmon lives in both salt and fresh-water, and is found distributed over the north of 
Europe and Asia, and in the great rivers of North America. It spawns in the late autumn or the 
beginning of winter, and ascends the rivers, often to a great distance, for that purpose. The spawn 
is deposited in a shallow groove in the sand or gravel, and covered over by the action of the tail and 
fins of the fish. Salmon after spawning are known as kelts. The young are hatched about March, 
and pass through three stages before attaining full maturity. When first hatched the young are 
called parr, and remain under that designation some fifteen months to two years, living in the shallows 
of their native stream. The second stage is that of the smolt, or salmon-fry, when the fins become 
darker and the body more silvery, and the young fish in shoals migrate to the sea. On returning from 
the sea, where it has rapidly increased in growth, to the rivers, it is known as the grilse, or salmon- 
peel, and weighs on the average from 4 Ib. to 6 Ib. The grilse on its return to the rivers spawns for 
the first time. Again going back to the sea the grilse gradually increases in size, and becomes the 
salmon. The salmon is the finest of food fishes, characterized by its orange-coloured flesh, and is 
called by Isaac Walton the " King of fresh-water fish." It is esteemed of so much importance, that 
special Acts of Parliament have been passed to regulate the salmon fishery and preserve the fish. 
A close-time for salmon fishing in England and Wales, including also the Esk in Dumfries, is fixed for 
nets from September i to February i, and for rods from November 2 to February i. In Scotland it 
is for nets from August 27 to February 10, for rods, from November i to February 10, with certain 
local exceptions. In Ireland there are many variations of the close-time, but the netting close-time 
must not be less than 168 days. It is illegal to sell fresh salmon between September 3 and February i, 
except salmon imported from foreign countries. There are also special penalties for capturing or 
selling " unclean " salmon, i.e., salmon recently spawned or full of spawn. The salmon is caught 
by the rod or by specially constructed nets. The principal salmon fisheries in England and Scotland 
are those of the Tweed, North Esk, Dee, Tay, Severn, Avon and Spey. Salmon is very abundant 
in the rivers of North America, and large quantities of tinned salmon are exported thence to Great 
Britain. 

60 1. SALMON WITH GENEVESE SAUCE. 

(Fr. Saumon Sauce Genevoise.) 

Ingredients. 2 slices of salmon, a pint of good stock, of a pint of 
Madeira or other white wine, 2 ozs. of butter, i oz. of flour, i dessert- 
spoonful each of chopped-onion and parsley, i carrot sliced, a bouquet- 
garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a blade of mace, the juice of a lemon, 
a teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, cayenne, salt and pepper. 

Method. Melt i oz. of butter in a stewpan and fry the onion until 
slightly browned, add the stock, wine, parsley, carrot, bouquet-garni, 
mace, anchovy-essence and seasoning, and boil gently for 30 minutes, 
then strain, and return to the stewpan. Bring the sauce to boiling 
point, put in the slices of fish, and let them simmer gently about 
20 minutes, or until the fish separates easily from the bone. Mean- 
while melt the remaining oz. of butter in another stewpan, add to it 
the flour, stir and cook over the fire for 4 or 5 minutes. When the 
fish is done, remove it carefully to a hot dish, pour the liquor on to the 
butter and flour, stir until smooth, then simmer for 5 or 6 minutes. 
Add the lemon-juice to the sauce, season to taste, strain over the fish, 
and serve. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 371 

Time. From i to i hours. Average Cost, 35. to 35. 6d. Sufficient 
for 6 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

602. SALMON JELLY. (Fr. Gelee de Saumon.) 

Ingredients. i tin of salmon, i pint of clear stock, i oz. of French 
gelatine, 2 whites of eggs. 

Method. Dissolve the gelatine in the stock and season to taste. 

Cook the whites of eggs in a dariol mould or small cup until firm, and 

cold cut into thin slices and stamp out into fancy shapes. Drain 

the oil from the salmon, and remove all skin and bones. Cover the 

bottom of a mould with jelly, let it set, and then decorate with white 

of egg. Set the garnish with a little jelly, add a layer of salmon, cover 

with jelly, and put aside until set. Repeat until the mould is full. 

on ice or in a cool place until wanted, then turn out, and st . 

Time. About 2 hours. Average Cost, is. to is. 3d., in addition 

603. SALMON, MAYONNAISE OF. (Fr. Saumon 
en Mayonnaise.) 

Ingredients. Cold boiled salmon, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot, gher- 
kins, capers, boned anchovies, hard-boiled eggs, Mayonnaise sauce 

:oi). 

Method. A Mayonnaise of salmon may consist of a large centre-cut, 
a thick slice, or the remains of cold salmon cut into pieces conv 
for serving. In all cases the skin and bone must be removed, and the 
fish completely masked with thick Mayonnaise sauce, the stiffening 
properties of which are greatly increased by the addition of a little 
liquid, but nearly cold, aspic jell a procurable, a little endive 

should be mixed with the lettuce, for although the somewhat bitter 
flavour of this salad plant is disliked by many people, its delicate, 
ry leaves greatly improve the appearance of any dish of which it 
a part. Many other garnishings, in addition to those enumerated 
above, may be used ; the leaves of the tarragon and chervil plants, and 
fancifully-cut thin slices of truffle, being particularly effective when 
used to decorate the surface of Mayonnaise sauce (set Lobster Mayon- 

>. 201 ). 
Average Cost. Salmon, is. 3d. to 2s. 6d. per Ib. 

604. SALMON MOULDED IN JELLY. 

Ingredients 1$ Ib. of cooked salmon, i pint of clear stock, i oz. of 

i gelatine, i white of egg, i tablespoonful of sherry or I 
i tablespoonful of vinegar. 

Method. Soak the gelatine in the cold stock for | an hour, then stir 

thr mixture over the fire until dissolved, and draw it aside to cool 

-k the white of egg with the sherry or d the 

ir, and add it to the stock when considerably below boiling 



372 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

point. Whisk briskly until boiling, let the preparation stand undis- 
turbed for 10 minutes, then strain through a jelly bag, and when quite 
cold and on the point of setting, pour a little into a mould. Divide the 
salmon into large flakes, and as soon as the jelly in the mould hardens, 
cover lightly with pieces of salmon. Add a layer of jelly, let it set, 
and cover with salmon, repeating the process until the mould is full. 
Keep on ice until ready to serve. 

Time. About 4 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33., exclusive of the 
stock. 

605. SALMON, PAUPIETTES OF, REGENCE STYLE. 
(Fr. Paupiettes de Saumon a la Regence.) 

Ingredients. About 2^ Ib. of salmon (jowl), i large whiting, 3 ozs. 
of panada, 2 ozs. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, i tablespoonful of 
Bechamel sauce, seasoning, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 
preserved mushroom heads for garnish, Regence sauce (No. 270). 

Method. Remove the fillets of salmon from the bone, cut off the skin, 
divide each fillet in half lengthwise, and cut them into rather thin long 
slices of even size, trimming them neatly. Skin and bone the whiting, 
pound it in a mortar until smooth, add the panada, mix well, then 
add the egg yolks, about i oz. of butter, the Bechamel sauce, 
and the chopped parsley. Season to taste with salt, pepper, cayenne 
and nutmeg, and rub through a fine sieve. Spread each slice of salmon 
with a layer of this farce or forcemeat, roll up into paupiette shapes, 
and tie each with string or skewer them together in twos or threes. 
Place them in a saute-pan containing i oz. of melted butter, divide 
the remainder of the butter into little bits, placing these on the top 
of the paupiettes, cover with a buttered paper, and cook in a moderate 
oven from 20 to 25 minutes, basting frequently. When done, take up, 
remove the skewers or string, and dress the paupiettes on a hot dish. 
Have the Regence sauce nicely heated, add the mushroom heads, 
allowing i large head for each paupiette ; place the mushrooms on the 
paupiettes, sauce over carefully, and serve hot. 

Time. To cook, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 53. to 6s. 
Sufficient for 10 persons. Seasonable from April to August. 

606. SALMON, PICKLED. (Fr. Saumon Marine.) 

Ingredients. Salmon, - an oz. of whole pepper, an oz. of whole all- 
spice, i teaspoonful of salt, 2 bay-leaves, equal quantities of vinegar 
and the liquor in which the fish was boiled. 

Method. After the fish comes from table, and the bones have been 
removed lay it in a clean deep dish. Boil the liquor and vinegar 
with the other ingredients for 10 minutes, let them stand to get cold, 
then pour them over the salmon, and in 12 hours it will be ready for 
use 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 

Time. 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 3d. to 2S. 6d. per Ib. Season- 
able trom April to August. 

607. SALMON, POTTED. (Fr Terrine de Saumon.) 

Ingredients. Cold salmon, clarified butter, anchovy-essence, pow- 

d mace, salt and pepper, cayenne. 

Method. Free the fish from skin and bone, then pound it thoroughly 
in a mortar. Add by degrees the seasoning, and the anchovy-essence 
and clarified butter a few drops at a time, until the right consistency 
and flavour is obtained, then rub the ingredients through a fine sieve, 
press into small pots, and cover with a good layer of clarified butter. 

:ion may also be potted (see Potted Lobster, No. 540). 
Average Cost. Salmon, from is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. per Ib 

608. SALMON, SMOKED OR KIPPERED. 

Ingredients. Salmon, equal quantities of common salt and J.t: 
pepper mixed together, also a mixture composed oi i 11. . 3 ozs. 

of coarse sugar, i oz. of saltj 

Method. Scale the fish, split it down the back, remove the head 
and all the backbone except 3 inches at the tail. Clean and <1: 
thoroughly, then rub well with 

4 hours. Drain well, rub the fish 2 or 3 

the mixture of salt, sugar and saltpetre, let it stand for 2 day.- 
:ub it again with the mixture. -.-tch the fish on Si 

hang it by the tail, exposed to the rays of the sun or of the fire, 

for 3 or j ards suspend it in the <f a wood 

or turf fire until dry usually froi Sometimes salt and 

Jamaica pepper alone arc used, but the proo the same. 

cculiar flavour possessed 1 to juniper 

s being used as fuel instead of wood or turf. 

609. SALMON, SMOKED TO COOK. (Fr,-Saumon 
Fume) 

Ingredients. Smoked - 

Method. C 'ut the fish into small thin slices, brush them over with 
nd enclose them in oi < inll the *lurs . 

7 or 8 minutes, turning them 2 or 3 times during 
cess. Serve wi t h oiled butter, or any fish sauce that m.i 
Time. 7 or 8 minutes. Average Coal, 33. 6d. per Ib. for smoked 
on. 

6io.-SALMON SMOKED, DEVILLED. (Fr. Sau- 
mon fume a la Diable 

Ingredients. Smoked salmon, wheat triscuits, salad-oil, dr 
butt 



374 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Cut the triscuits across in halves, soak them for 3 or 4 
minutes in salad-oil, then drain well, and sprinkle liberally with salt, 
pepper and cayenne. Toast the triscuits on both sides, cover them 
with thin slices of smoked salmon, and add a layer of devilled butter. 
Place them in a hot oven for a few minutes, then serve. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, for smoked salmon, 33. 6d. 
perlb. 

61 1. SALMON STEAKS. (Fr. Tranche de Saumon.) 

These may be enclosed in an oiled or buttered paper, and eithcr 
grilled or fried in hot butter in a saute-pan. Or they may be coated 
with egg and breadbcrumbs and fried. Serve with sliced cucumber 
and a suitable sauce. 

6 1 2. SALMON, TIME ALES OF. (Fr. Petites tim- 
bales de Saumon.) 

Ingredients. of a Ib. of cooked salmon, a [pint of Mayon- 
naise sauce, stiffened with of a gill of well-reduced aspic, i gill of 
plain aspic jelly for lining, tarragon and chervil leaves, i large truffle, 
ice. 

Method. Line 6 to 8 small oblong or square moulds (timbale or 
zephire [oval] shape) with dissolved aspic jelly, decorate with the herb 
leaves and truffle, and, when set, coat with a layer of prepared Mayon- 
naise. Flake the fish, season with Mayonnaise, and add the remainder 
of the truffles, chopped coarsely. Fill up the moulds 3 parts full with 
dressed salmon, finish filling with some Mayonnaise and aspic. Put 
the moulds to set upon the ice, turn out, dish up, garnish with small 
green salad and chopped aspic, then serve. 

Time. hour. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 33. Sufficient for 6 persons. 
Seasonable at any time, 

613. SALT FISH WITH CREAM. (Fr. Morue a la 
Creme.) 

Ingredients. 3 or 4lb.of salt cod-fish of average size, i pint of water, 
i pint of milk, i ozs. of flour, i ozs. of butter, pepper. 

Method. Divide the fish into very small fillets, put them into a 
stewpan with the water and milk, and simmer for an hour. Knead 
the flour and butter to a smooth paste, put it into the saucepan in very 
small pieces, and simmer for about 10 minutes, or until the liaison (or 
thickening) of butter and flour becomes smoothly mixed with the liquid. 
Add pepper to taste, and serve. 

Time. 40 minutes. Average Cost, sauce, 3^d.; cod from 4d. to is 
per Ib, Sufficient for S or 10 persons, Seasonable during Lent, 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 375 

614. SALT FISH AND PARSNIPS. (Fr. Morue aux 
Panais.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of salt cod, 12 young parsnips, egg sauce. No. 
297. 

Method. Wash the fish, and soak it in cold water for 12 hours, or 
longer if very salt, changing the water every 3 or 4 hours. Cover the 

i with cold water, and bring slowly to simmering point, then draw 
to the side of the stove and cook very gently for 20 minutes, or until 
the fish leaves the bones. Meanwhile prepare the sauce according to 
the directions given. Boil the parsnips, if small cut them lengthwise 
into 2, or, if large into 4 pieces. Drain the fish well, then place it on 
a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and garnish with the parsnips. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, cod, 4d. to is. per Ib. 
Sufficient, for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable during Lent. 

615. SCALLOPS OF FISH. (Fr. Escalopes de 
Poisson au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. The remains of cold fish of any kind, to each | Ib. of 
which allow i ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, i a pint of milk, i tea- 
spoonful of anchovy-essence, i teaspoonful of walnut ketchup, | a 
spoonful of made mustard, salt and pepper, cayenne, bread 
cm: 

Method. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and cook for 
3 or 4 minutes, then pour in the milk, stir until it boils, and let it simmer 
slowly for 10 minutes. Meanwhile separate the fish into large flakes, 
and when the sauce is ready put them into the stewpan with the an- 
chovy-essence, ketchup, mustard, and a liberal seasoning of salt and 
pepper, and a small pinch of cayenne. Stir over the fire until the mix- 
ture is thoroughly hot, then fill the scallop-shells (previously well- 
buttered), cover lightly with breadcrumbs, place on the top of each 
ill pieces of butter, and bake in a hot oven until nicely browned, 
or brown the surface with a hot salamander. 

Time. an hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

616. SCALLOPS, FRIED. (Fr. Potencies Frits.) 

Ingredients. 18 scallops, i egg, oz. butter, 2 ozs. of flour, i gill of 
milk, salt, pepper and cayenne, frying-fat, parsley. 

Method. Drain the scallops on a cloth. Sift the flour into a 
add a pinch of salt. Melt the butter, beat up the egg, stir both into 

flour, add the milk, and work until quite smooth. If too tl 
a little more melted butter or milk may be added. Let the batter 
:\ hour, then stir in a dessertspoonful of chopped parsley. 
Season the scallops with a lir a good pinch of white pepper, 



376 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

and a small pinch of cayenne. Dip them into the batter, drop them 
one by one into hot fat, fry to a golden-brown, drain on a cloth, pile 
up on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with lobster 
or tomato sauce (No 281) 

Time. To fry, from 5 to 6 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. Sufficient 
for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable from January to June. 

THE SCALLOP (Fr. petoncle) is allied to the oyster, and is highly esteemed for the table. The shells 
of the scallop were worn in their hats by pilgrims in the Middle Ages, to show that they had made a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land. 

617. SCALLOPS AND MUSHROOMS. (Fr. Pet- 
oncles aux Champignons.) 

Ingredients. 6 scallops, 6 large flap mushrooms, i oz. of butter, 
i or 2 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, milk, salt and pepper. 

Method. Remove the scallops from their shells, and wash well in cold 
water. Put them into a stewpan with just sufficient milk to cover, 
add a little salt and pepper and simmer gently for about 50 minutes. 
Drain well, chop the yellow and white parts separately, moisten with 
a little white sauce, and season to taste. While the scallops are cook- 
ing remove the stalks of the mushrooms, peel them and fry them in hot 
butter. Place an equal portion of the white part of the scallops on 
each mushroom, pile the red part on the top, make thoroughly hot 
in the oven, and serve. 

Time. About i hours. Average Cost, is. to is. 6d. Sufficient for 
4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from January to June. 

618. SCALLOPS, SCALLOPED. (Fr. Petoncles en 
coquilles.) 

Ingredients. 12 scallops, i teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 
breadcrumbs, butter, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and drain the scallops, chop them finely, and mix with 
them an equal quantity of breadcrumbs. Season liberally with salt 
and pepper, and add the parsley. Wash and dry the deeper shells, 
butter them thickly, and sprinkle lightly with breadcrumbs. Fill the 
shells with the preparation, cover the surface lightly with bread- 
crumbs, and add two or three bits of butter. Bake in a moderate 
oven until well-browned, and serve in the shells. 

Time. 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. 2d. to 2s. Sufficient for 5 or 
6 shells. Seasonable from January to June. 

619, SCALLOPS IN SHELLS. (Fr. Petoncles en 

coquilles.) 
Ingredients. 1 dozen of scallops, a cupful of breadcrumbs, i oz. 



FISH. 




\ 



& 








FISH ENTREES. 




i. Cold Border of Salmon. 2. Mayonnaise Fioh. 3. Timbale of Turbot. 
30 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 377 

of butter, i t;ill white sauce, cayenne, and salt, a little chopped parsley, 
and a squeeze of lemon. 

Method. Trim the scallops by cut ting off the beards and black parts, 

ie 6 shells, butter them, and strew in a few bread crumbs. Put 3 

:>s in each, season them with the cayenne and chopped parsley, 

and a drop or two of lemon-juice. Put a little pepper and salt with 

the breadcrumbs, cover the scallops with white sauce, sprinkle 

with breadcrumbs, place little pieces of butter on the top. and bake 

for about 20 minutes. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2S. Sufficient for 6 
Seasonable from January to June. 

620. SCALLOPS, STEWED. (Fr. - - Ragout de 
petoncles.) 

Ingredients. 12 scallops, i oz. of butter, i oz. of flour, lemon-juice or 
vinegar, salt and 

Method. Open the shells hke an oyster, remove the scallops, and trim 
1 and Mack parts. \\\^ii well in j or 3 waters, then 
them with warm w.itcr, and boil gently from 50 to 60 minutes. 
Meanwhile knead the flour and butter well together, mix in .1 little 
salt and popper, separate into small pieces, and add them to the con- 
of the stcwjun 20 minutes before serving. \Vh< place 

the scallops on a hot di uicc to ta 

juice or vineg i 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. to js. Sufficient for 4 per- 
Seasonable from January to Jim--. 

621. SCALLOPS IN WHITE WINE SAUCE. 

(Fr. Petoncles au Vin Blanc.) 

Ingredients. 18 scallops, milk, butter, i small onion, i clove. | bay 

white s.u. 

Method. Wash the scallops, or escallops, as these shell-fish 
r.-ill.-d l.solutely necessary, as th- 

Put the scallops in a stewpan. with sut'i 
milk . 
with a dove, also | a bay-leaf and a pinch of salt, and boil for 15 nu: 

,iin, anl fmi*h conkini; in white sauce, an < <c of 

utter or ixxMiful of cream being added at the tr 

ich of cayenne and a grate of nutmeg is 
reconr 

Time.- I an hour. Average Cost Sufficient for 8 or 

Seasonable from January ; 



378 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

622. SEA-BREAM, BAKED. (Fr. Breme de Mer 
rotie, au four.) 

Ingredients. i bream, seasoning to taste of salt, pepper and cayenne, 
of a Ib. of butter. 

Method. Well wash the bream, but do not remove the scales, and 
wipe away all moisture with a dry cloth. Season it inside and out 
with salt, pepper, and cayenne, and lay it in a baking-dish. Place the 
butter, in small pieces, upon the fish, and bake for rather more than 
30 minutes. It will be found a great improvement to stuff the fish 
before baking. 

Time. Rather more than 30 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per Ib. 
Seasonable in summer, but may be procured all the year round. 

Note, This fish may be broiled over a nice clear fire, and served with a 
good brown gravy or white sauce, or it may be stewed in wine. 

THE SEA-BREAM (Fr. breme de mer). A popular name given to fish of the genus Brama the true 
bream, a fresh-water fish, belongs to the carp family. The sea-bream is abundant round the coast 
of Cornwall. It is not held in very high estimation. 

MR. YARRELL'S RECIPE. " When thoroughly cleansed the fish should be wiped dry, but none of 
the scales should be taken off. In this state it should be broiled, turning it often, and if the skin 
cracks, flour it a little to keep the outer case entire. When on table, the whole skin and scales turn 
off without difficulty, and the muscle beneath saturated in its own natural juices which the outside 
covering has retained, will be of good flavour." 

623. SHAD, BAKED. (Fr. Alose roti, au four.) 

Ingredients. i shad, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, 3 or 4 ozs. of veal forcemeat 
(see Forcemeats). 

Method. Wash, clean, scale, and dry the fish. Make the forcemeat 
as directed, put it inside the fish, and sew up the opening. Place the 
fish in a baking-dish or tin, lay the slices of bacon on the top of it, 
and bake gently from to i hour. Serve with a suitable fish sauce, 
or a tureen of good beef gravy. 

Time. About i hours, altogether. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient 
for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from April to June. 

624. SHAD, BOILED, WITH DUTCH SAUCE. 

(Fr. Alose a la Hollandaise.) 

Ingredients. Shad, salt and water, Hollandaise sauce (No. 304). 

Method. Clean the fish, but do not scale it, boil in salt and water, 
and serve garnished with fresh parsley and cut lemon. Send a boat 
of the sauce to table with the fish. 

Time. From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost. 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient 
for 8 persons. Seasonable from April to June. 

625. SHAD, BROILED. (Fr. Alose Grille.) 

Ingredients. i shad, oil, pepper and salt. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 379 

Method. Scale, empty and wash the fish carefully, and make 2 
or 3 incisions across the back. Season it with pepper and salt, and 
let it remain in oil for 30 minutes. Broil it on both sides over a clear 
fire, and serve with caper sauce. The fish is much esteemed by the 
French. 

Time. Nearly i hour. Average Cost, from 6d. per Ib. Seasonable 
from April to June. 

THE SHAD (Fr. ahse) The two best known species of the shad, which belongs to the herring 

family, are the common or Alike shad, and the Twaite shad. The shad is a salt-water fish, frequent- 

v.otiths of large riven, which it ascends in the spawning season. In shape it resembles the 

of a larger size and is called in Scotland the " herring king." Its colour is dark blue, 

ts of brown and green, and white beneath. The Allice shad abounds in the Severn. The 

Twaite shad is smaller than the Allice, and is common in the Thames. 

626. SHAD, BROILED. (Fr Alose grille.) 

Ingredients. i shad weighing about 2 Ib., 4 tablespoonfuls of salad- 
oil, i dessertspoonful of finely-chopped onion, i tcaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, salt and pepper, sorrel, caper or piquant sauce. 

Method. Wii^h, empty and thoroughly dry the fish, place it in a deep 

dish, and add the salad-oil, onion, parsley and a good seasoning of salt 

and pepper. Baste frequently, let the fish remain in the marinade 

hours, then drain and dry it well. Broil over a clear; fire for 

about | an hour, according to size, turn the fish frequently, and brush 

ccasionally with some of the oil in which the fish was soaked. 

the sauce separately in a tu: 

Time. To broil, about an hour. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 2S. Sum- 
dent for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from February to September. 

627. SHAD, FRIED. (Fr. Alose frit.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized shad, flour, salt and pepper, egg and 
rumbs, fry ing-fat, anchovy, tomato or piquant sauce. 

Method. \Vush and scale the fish, separate it from the backbone, 
and divide into neat fillets. Add a little salt and pepper to i tablespoon- 
ful of flour, dip the fillets in the mixture, and afterwards coat the 
fillets carefully with egg and breadcrumbs. Have ready a deep pan 
of hot fat, fry the fish until lightly browned, then drain well. ("... 
with l v, and the roe, \ . fried. Serve the 

lv in a tureen. 

Time. To fry, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. 6d. Suffi- 
cient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from February to September. 

628. SHRIMPS, POTTED. (Fr. Tcrrinc de Cre- 

vettes.) 

Ingredients. i pint of shelled shrimps, $ of a Ib. of fresh butter, i 
f pounded mace, cayenne to taste, and, if liked, a little nutmeg. 



380 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Method. Have ready i pint of picked shrimps, put them, with 
the other ingredients, into a stewpan, let them heat gradually in the 
butter, but do not let it boil. Pour into small pots, and, when cold, 
cover with melted butter, and carefully exclude the air. 

Time. of an hour, to soak in the butter. Average Cost, is. 6d. 

THE SHRIMP (Fr. crevette). This familiar crustacean, belonging to the order Decapoda, or ten- 
footed Crustacea, is allied to the lobsters and crawfishes. It inhabits the sandy shores of the coasts 
of Britain and Ireland, and is captured in nets, which are pushed before the shrimpers through the 
sand. In colour it resembles the sand in which it lives, and is semi-transparent, but after being boiled 
it becomes opaque, and changes to the well-known brown hue. The red variety lives in deeper water, 
and is caught chiefly on the east and south coasts of England. Its colour before boiling is reddish- 
grey. The bulk of the London supply of shrimps comes from Holland from January to the end of 
June ; but the Dutch are inferior in quality to the English shrimps, which are abundant from July 
to the end of the year. 

629. SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS, TO SHELL. 

There is a slight difference in the shape of shrimps and prawns, 
the tail of the former being rounded at the bend, like that of a lobster, 
but the tail of the prawn presents a. sort of knee or angle. To shell a 
shrimp, take the head between the right thumb and forefinger, and with 
the left forefinger and thumb-nail raise on each side the shell of the 
tail, pinch the tail, and the shell will at once separate. To shell prawns, 
take the -head between the right hand thumb and second finger, take 
the tip of the tail between the left thumb and forefinger; with the nail 
of the right forefinger raise the shell at the knee or angle, pinch the tail, 
and the shell will come apart, leaving the prawn attached to the head. 

630. SKATE, BOILED. (Fr. Raie au Naturel.) 

Ingredients. i skate, salt. 

Method. Clean and skin the skate, put it into a fish-kettle containing 
sufficient salted warm water to just cover it, and simmer gently for 
about 30 minutes, or until the fish separates readily from the bone. 
Drain well, dish on a folded napkin, and serve with shrimp, lobster 
or caper sauce. 

Time. From 30 to 50 minutes, according to size. Average Cost, from 
4d. to 6d. per Ib. Seasonable from August to April. 

To CHOOSE SKATE. This fish should be chosen for its firmness, breadth and thickness, and 
should have a creamy appearance. It should not be kept longer than a day or two. 

THE SKATE (Fr. rate), a member of the Ray family, is rhomboidal in shape, and has a cartilaginous 
skeleton. The body is much depressed ; the teeth are flat, and form a mosaic-like pattern in the 
mouth ; the tail is long and slender and heterocercal, having the upper lobe longer than the lower ; 
the mouth is pointed with a prominent ridge. The THORNBACK differs from the common skate by 
having spines on the upper surface of the tail. It is inferior in quality to the true skate, The flesh 
of the skate is white, palatable, and easily digested. It is improved by crimping, and is usually sold 
in that form. 

631. SKATE WITH BROWN BUTTER. 

(Fr. Raie au beurre-noir.) 

Proceed as directed in the foregoing recipe, and serve on a hot dish 



RECIPES FOR 'OKING FIHl 381 

without the napkin. Meanwhile heat an oz. of fresh butter until 
it t :mt -brown in colour, then add a tca>p >onfiil oi vinegar 

aii'l a little choppc-! , Pour this hot over the fish, garnish 

with sprigs oi p,n>lry an-1 .serve. 

632. SKATE WITH CAPER SAUCE. (Fr. Raie, 
Sauce aux Capres.) 

Ingredients. --2 or 3 slices of skate, | a pint of vinegar, 2 ozs. ot 
a teaspoonful of pepper, i sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, 
2 bay-leaves, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, sufficient warm water to e 
ice (No. i 

Method. Put all the ibovi LngrecUfl :ish-kettl- -.miner 

tin- skate in them until tender. W 

: pour ove <>f the liquor in which it ha -in well, 

put it on a hot ili^h. i it a little caper sauce, a; the 

in a tu; 

Time. ] an hour. Average Cost, js. Sufficient for 4 p. season- 

able from August to April. 

Iso be served with <mi<>n -.n. .- or parsley and b\ 

633. SKATE, SMALL, FRIED. (/>. Rait ons Frits.) 

Ingredients. Skat- r to cover tin 

'[( ed onion, a small bunch of : 
' 

Method. Cleanse the skate, lay tlu-m in a thslj, with vinegar to 

i 

flour them or cover them with etjL; umbs, and fry in hot 

ly browned. :i or without 

not good if dressed too fresh, unless it is crimped, 
and it should, therefore, be kept for a <! 

Time. IQ minutes. Average Cost, from 41!. per Ib. Seasonable 
ril. 

634. SMELTS, TO BAKE. (Fr. Eperlans au Gratin.) 

Ingredients. ; ulcrumbs, 2 ozs. of fr< 

Method. Wash and dry tl. m a *l"th. and arrange 

in a flat baking-dish. C'mvr them with t. lorumbs, 

em little pieces of butter. Season and bake for 15 

Just before serving, add a squ< , and garnish 

with f: 

Time. . Average Cost, from : . per dozen. Suffi- 

cient f<r 4 persons. Seasonable from October to May. 



382 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

635. SMELTS, TO FRY. (Fr. Eperlans Frits.) 

Ingredients. Smelts, egg and breadcrumbs, a little flour, boiling fat 
or oil. 

Method. Smelts should be very fresh, and not washed more than is 
necessary to cleanse them. Dry them in a cloth, flour lightly, dip them 
in egg, cover with very fine breadcrumbs, and put them into boiling 
fat or oil. Fry a nice pale brown, then drain the smelts before the fire 
on a piece of paper, and serve with plain melted butter. This fish 
is often used as a garnish. 

Time. 5 minutes. Average Cost, from is. to 2s. per dozen. Season- 
able from October to May. 

To CHOOSE SMELTS. When good, this fish is of a fine silvery appearance, and when alive the back 
is of a dark-brown shade, which, after death, fades to a light fawn. Smelts should have a refresh- 
ing fragrance, resembling that of a cucumber. 

636. SMELTS, POTTED. (Fr. Terrine d' Eperlans.) 

Ingredients. Fresh smelts, mace, pepper and salt, butter. 

Method. Wash the fish carefully, draw out the insides, and sprinkle 
the seasoning over them. Put them into a baking-tin with pieces of 
butter, and bake for 20 minutes. Allow the smelts to get nearly cold, 
then place them on a clean cloth to drain, and put into pots. Clarify 
the butter in which they were baked, adding more if necessary, and 
pour it over the fish. 

Time. 20 minutes. Average Cost, is. to 2s. per dozen. Seasonable 
from October to May. 

THE SMELT (Fr. tperlan) is a small but very delicate fish, and is highly esteemed. It is allied to 
the salmon, and inhabits the sea about the mouths of rivers. The body is long and compressed, 
silvery-white in colour, and semi-transparent ; the eyes are large. From August to May it frequents 
fresh water and spawns ; afterwards it returns to the sea. A violet-like odour is exhaled from the smelt. 
The ATHARINE, or " sand-smelt," is an inferior fish, sometimes sold for the true variety. It is allied 
to the mullets, and is of a pale pink, spotted with black. 

637. SNAILS, BAKED. (Fr. Escargots rotis.) 

Ingredients. 2 dozen snails, i oz. of butter, i teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, i shallot finely-chopped, breadcrumbs, salt and 
pepper. 

Method. Soak the snails in salt and water for 12 hours, then drain 
them well. Sprinkle lightly with salt, pepper, shallot and parsley, 
cover with breadcrumbs, and add a small piece of butter. Bake in a 
moderate oven for 20 minutes, and serve hot. 

Time. To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. to is. 
per dozen. 

638. SNAILS WITH PIQUANT SAUCE. 

(Fr. Escargots, sauce piquante.) 

Ingredients. 2 dozen snails, $ an oz. of butter, 2 shallots finely- 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 383 

chopped, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of piquant sauce, salt and pepper, maltre 
d 'hotel butter as directed in recipe No. 551. 

Method. Cover the snails with salt and water, let them remain in it 
for 12 hours, then wash and drain well. Put the snails into a sauce- 
pan containing sufficient boiling water to cover them, cook gently for 
about 20 minutes, then drain, and when cool, remove them from 
their shells. Meanwhile, melt the butter, fry the shallots without 
browning, add the piquant sauce and snails, and season to taste. 
Make thoroughly hot, replace the snails in their shells, cover 
maitre d'hou-1 butter, and serve. 

Time. Altogether, about 35 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to is. per 
dozen. 

6 39 ._SOLE, BAKED WITH SHRIMPS. (Fr. Sole 
aux Crevettes.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized sole, $ of a pint of picked shrimps, i 
dessertspoonful of white breadcrumbs, i teaspoonful of anch< 
essence, i egg, a littU- white sauce or milk, cayenne, salt, brown br< 
crumbs, a little butter. 

Method. Remove the skin, make an incision down the centre as for 
filleting, and raise as far as possible the flesh on each side. Chop t he- 
shrimps coarsely, add the breadcrumbs, cayenne, salt (if necessary), an- 
chovy-essence, \ the egg, and sufficient white sauce or milk to moisten 
iYess the mixture lightly inside the fish, and instead of 
ides together, fill the gap between them with the 
meat, and flatten the surface of it to the level of the fish. 
Brush over with the remainder of the egg, co v with pale 

crumbs, and bake for about 20 minutes in a mode; 
oven. 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, from is. od. to 2s. gd. 
Sufficient f->r j to 3 persons. Seasonable at an 

Tin SOLE (Fr. **). -Next to the turbot. the sole is the most excellent among flat fish. Its flesh 

is white and delicate and easily dieted, and is highly esteemed, not only as a tahte-nsh. hut abo 

captured on the Hntuh coasts, hut those caught on the western coast are usually 

^Bor in sue. The sole spawns during February and March and during that season its flesh is 

less palatable. AUkd to the sole is theLcMOM SOCE, which fe lew dettcateta flavour. The flavour 

ofthesoter 

taujhl ! v 

detail 

of .. i :. WO dfl 

the ground. It to dragged along the bottom of the sea by the 

640. SOLE, BOILED. (Fr. Sole bouillie.) 

Ingredients. i l.u-^e sole, salt. 

Method. \V.i lie fish, but do not md cut off the 

fins. Have ready a ith sufficient warm water to co. 

tdd salt put in the sole, and cook gently from 10 to 12 




384 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

minutes, according to its size. Drain well, dish on a folded napkin, 
garnish with parsley and cut lemon, and serve with shrimp, lobster, 
or plain melted butter sauce. 

Time. After the water boils, 10 to 12 minutes for a large sole. 
Average Cost, is. 9d. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 4 persons. 

To CHOOSE SOLES. The fish should be both thick and firm. If the skin is removed with diffi- 
culty and the flesh looks grey, it is good. 

641. SOLE, BAKED FILLETS OF, WITH FORCE- 
MEAT. (Fr Filets de Sole Farcis.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized sole, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 
i tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, i dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley, of a teaspoonful of mixed herbs, i egg, salt and 
pepper, butter, pale-brown breadcrumbs. 

Method. Wash, skin, and fillet the sole. Mix the above ingredients 
together with as much of the egg as is necessary to moisten the whole. 
Spread a thin layer of forcemeat on each fillet, and fold in two. Arrange 
the fillets in a fireproof baking-dish, and fill up the spaces between them 
with the rest of the forcemeat. Sprinkle lightly with pale-brown bread- 
crumbs, add a few small pieces of butter, and bake for about 30 minutes 
in a moderate oven. Serve in the dish in which they are cooked. 

Time. To bake, 30 minutes. Average Cost, from is. Qd. to 2S. 3d. 
Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

642. SOLE WITH CREAM SAUCE. (Fr. Sole a la 
Creme.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized sole, i pint of milk (or milk and fish 
stock), 2 ozs. of butter, i ozs. of flour, a blade of mace, a small piece 
of onion, salt and pepper, lemon-juice. 

Method. Wash, skin, and fillet the sole, and divide each fillet length- 
wise into two. Tie each strip loosely into a knot, or fold the ends over 
each other; place on a greased tin, season with salt and pepper, sprinkle 
with lemon-juice, cover with a greased paper, and bake from 10 to 
15 minutes in a moderate oven. To make the stock, simmer the bones 
of the fish, the onion, and mace in the milk for about 15 minutes, then 
strain and season to taste. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the 
flour, cook for 3 or 4 minutes, then pour in the milk, and stir until it 
boils. Let the sauce simmer 10 minutes at least ; then arrange the 
fish nicely on a hot dish, either in a circle or forming two rows, and 
strain the sauce over, taking care to coat the fish evenly. Decorate 
with a little chopped parsley or lobster coral. 

Time. To bake, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, is. gd. to 
2S. 9d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time. 



RECIPES FOR < OOKfNG FISH 385 

643. SOLE A L'EPICURIENNE. 

Ingredients, -i medium-sized sole, | of a pint of p>od brown sauce, 
onful of sherry, i tomato, u button mushrooms, 
readcmn 

Method. Wash and skin the sole, and cm 
Hru>h each piece over with egg, coat with breadcrumbs, and fry in hoi 

Iv the brown s.u: wpan. put in th< 

ti.sh. tomato and mushrooms, co\ gently for 

autes. K..-move the fish carefully, and arrange it on a ho: 
in the form of a whole sole. Add the sherry to the s.t >on to 

in over the 1, h with the mushr- 

Time. hour. Average Cost. to 2s. yd. Sufficient for 3 or 

4 persons. Seasonable at any tune. 

644. -SOLE, FILLETS OF, IN CASES. (/<>. Filets de 
Sole en Surprise.) 

Ingredients. - 2 medium 11 i.irrot .sliced), I ba\ 

ij ozs. of butter, \ a pint of milk, j ozs. of L 
^c, 2 ors. of flu . , 3 eggs, salt and pepper to taste, 

. 

Method. up the ' 

the milk with t i carrot ar. 

roll up. and pi m a bur M. Season with ] 

(K)ach 

about 8 mm reparc a SOU! :i the 

dd the le 

mainder of butter, and bun- to the boil, stir in the flour whilst lx.ilm, 

a wooden spoon or spatula until the 

- of the pan. t hcese, and 

season with ar lients cool a little, and Mir in the 

ic 3 eggs and t s of two. 

Butter some small china or paper souffle cases, put a dessertspoon- 
ful of th< mix 1 iiid upon \ a fillet of sole with a 

f the liquor of the ti>h. 1 ill up CM- 

inixtu- m a movleiate oven for about 15 minutes. Dish 

hot, 

may be baked in one souffle < 

Time. J of an hour. Avenge Cost, Sufficient for 8 persons, 

allou dl souffles for each. Seasonable at any time. 

645. SOLE, A LA COLBERT, FILLETS OF. 

Ingredients. I i soles, i oz, of butter, i tcaspoonful of 

o 



3 86 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

finely-chopped parsley, i teaspoonful of lemon-juice, cayenne, pepper 
and salt, browned breadcrumbs. 

Method. Mix the butter, parsley, lemon- juice and cayenne together 
on a plate, smooth the mixture into a pat, and set it aside to become 
firm. Wash, skin and fillet the sole, sprinkle each fillet with salt, 
pepper and lemon-juice, and roll up, making the outer side of the sole 
the inside of the roll ; the outside skin contracts under the influence 
of heat, and keeps the rolls in shape. Place on a buttered tin, cover 
with a greased paper, and bake for about 15 minutes. When done, 
roll quicky in the browned breadcrumbs, place a small round pat of the 
Maitre d'Hotel on the top of each, and pour round anchovy or some 
other sauce. 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. to 2s. 9d. Sufficient 
for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

646. SOLE A L'HORLY, FILLETS OF. 

Ingredients. i fairly-large sole. For the marinade, or brine : I 
tablespoonful of lemon-juice (or the same quantity of mixed tarragon 
and chili vinegar), i tablespoonful of salad-oil, a teaspoonful each of 
finely-chopped parsley and onion or shallots, salt and pepper. For 
the batter : 2 ozs. of flour, gill of tepid water, i tablespoonful of 
salad-oil or melted butter, the white of i egg, salt. 

Method. Wash, skin and fillet the sole, and divide each fillet length- 
wise and across into two. Place the fillets in a deep dish with the marin- 
ade, and let them soak for i hour, then drain well. Have ready 
the batter, made by mixing the flour and salt smoothly with the water 
and oil, and lastly adding the stiffly- whipped white of egg. Dip the 
fillets of fish in the batter, take them out on the point of a skewer, 
drop them carefully into a deep pan of hot fat, and fry until golden- 
brown. Dish on a folded serviette or fish paper, and garnish with 
fried parsley. 

Time. Altogether, i to if hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2S. 6d. 
Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

647. SOLES, FILLETS OF, NORMANDY STYLE. 
(Fr. Filets de Sole a la Normande.) 

Ingredients. 2 soles, white wine, i finely-chopped shallot, butter, cooked 
oysters, mussels, mushrooms, Normande sauce (No. 204). 

Method. Clean, skin, and trim the soles, remove the fillets, fold them 
in two, and place them in a buttered saute-pan, season with pepper 
and salt, moisten with i gill of white wine, sprinkle with a finely- 
chopped shallot, place a few pieces of butter here and there, and cook 
in the oven for about 10 minutes. Have ready a garniture of pre- 
pared oysters, mussels, button mushrooms, and croutes or fleurons 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 387 

(little half-moon shapes of puff -paste). Put the fillets on a dish, 
arrange the garnish neatly, and sauce over with the Normande sauce in 
which the garniture was cooked. Garnish the sides \vith croutes of 
bread made from rasped French dinner rolls (buttered slices browned 
in the oven) or with neurons. Serve the remaining sauce separately 
in a boat. 

--If smelts are in season this dish should be garnished with a few 
dried snu Its in addition to the other garniture. 

Time. To cook, 10 minutes. Average Cost, 45. 3d. to 45. pd. Suffi- 
cient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

648. -SOLES, FILLETS OF, POLISH STYLE. 

(Fr. Filets de Soles, a la Polonaise.) 

Ingredients. S"Ks, white wine, truffle, whiting forcemeat (No. 415), 
prawns or cravlish. Tomato Sauce (No. 281.) 

Method. Skin and fillet the soles, flatten them a little, fold and pare 

. and put them in a buttered saute-pan. Season with pepp< 
salt, add a wine-glassful of white \\inc, cover with buttered paper, and 
ro<k in the oven for about 10 minutes. Have ready a buttered border 
mould, decorate the sides with a few fancifully-cut slices of U 
fill up with " whiting forcemeat," poach in a bain-marie, turn out 
on a dish, dress the fillets on top of the border in a cin 
and place a prawn or crayfish tail on top of each fillet. Fill the 

with a salpicon of truffles, mushrooms, olives, and 
ills. Sauce over carefully with a well ; 

Time. To cook, about 10 minutes. Seasonable all 

649. SOLE, ROLLED FILLETS OF, CARDINAL 
STYLE. (Fr. Paupiettes de Sole a la 
Cardinale.) 

Ingredients. i large or 3 small soles, chopped truffles, light fish 

, i glass of Chablis, $ of a pint of fish stock, I pill of 

Cardinal sauce aspoonful of Krona seasoning, lobster 

,, salt and pepper. 

Method. Skin and fillet the soles, flatten each fillet, trim, and season 
them with salt and pepper. Spread the cut side with a ligh 
forcemeat, sprinkle over some chopped truffles, and roll up the fillets 
in the form of olives. Place them, folded side downwards, in a 
buttered earthenware casserole, moisten with a pi ass of Chablis wine, 
and the fish stock. Sprinkle with ^ a teaspoonful of Krona seas- 

ttered paper, and cook in a hot oven for about 15 
minutes. Pour off some of the liquor, and add to it the Cardinal sauce, 

< e a little. Strain this 
ce a slier hi let of sole, 

the cass. 



388 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 33. 6d. to 45. Sufficient for 
8 or 10 persons. Seasonable all the year. 

650. SOLE, FRIED. (Fr. Sole frite.) 

Ingredients. I medium-sized sole, oil or clarified fat, egg, bread- 
crumbs, flour, salt and pepper. 

Method. Wash and skin the sole, cut off the fins, and dry well. 
Add a liberal seasoning of salt and pepper to a teaspoonful of flour, 
rub it well into the sole, then brush it over with egg, and cover 
with fine breadcrumbs. Lift it carefully on to the wire drainer, lower 
it into the hot oil or fat, and fry until it acquires a pale golden-brown 
colour. Soles may also be fried, though less easily, and sometimes 
less satisfactorily, in a large frying-pan. The oval form is preferable 
for the purpose ; and in frying, care should be taken to first cook the 
side of the sole intended to be served uppermost, otherwise bread- 
crumbs that have become detached from the side first fried may adhere 
to the side next cooked, and spoil its appearance. Drain well on kitchen 
paper, and serve garnished with fried parsley. 

Time. About 10 minutes. Average Cost, is. pd. to 2s. Sufficient 
for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable all the year. 

651. SOLES, TO FILLET. 

Soles for filleting should be large, as the flesh can be more easily 
separated from the bones, and there is less waste. To skin any fish, 
it must be kept wet. It is easier to skin if it is stale. 

Method. With flat-fish begin at the tail, cut the skin across, but do 
not cut into the flesh, and loosen the skin along the fins on either side 
with a skewer or finger. Then tear off the skin with the left hand, 
keeping the thumb of the right hand well pressed over the backbone 
to prevent the removal of the flesh with the skin. Use a sharp knife 
for filleting ; keep it pressed to the bone, raise the flesh carefully, remove 
the fillets, and divide them, into pieces suitable for serving. Fillets 
of a small sole are not divided ; they are rolled, tied, or folded according 
to requirements. 

652. SOLES, FRICASSEE OF. (Fr. Fricass6e de 
Soles.) 

Ingredients. 2 medium-sized soles, i small sole, i yolk of egg, i table- 
spoonful of breadcrumbs, a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 
a little finely-grated lemon-rind, salt and pepper. Butter or fat for 
frying, egg and breadcrumbs, of a pint of brown sauce, No. 233, 
i tablespoonful of sherry, a teaspoonful of lemon-juice. 

Method. Remove the skin and bones from the small sole, and chop 
the flesh finely. Mix with it the breadcrumbs, parsley, lemon-rind, 
and a little salt and pepper, and bind with a little of the yolk of egg. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 389 

Shape into small balls, fry in hot butter or fat until crisp and lightly 
browned, and drain well. Skin and trim the soles, coat them carefully 
with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry them brown in hot fat. Drain 
well, place the soles in a same-pan, pour over them the hot sauce, 
add the forcemeat balls and lemon-juice, and season to taste. Simmer 
gently tor m minutes, then serve the fish with the sauce strained over, 
and garnished with the balls. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 33. 9d. to 45. 3d. Sufficient for 
5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

653. SOLE AU GRATIN. 

In France there is but one way of doing Sole an C.ratin, but in England 

. mi better method than the 

French ; and a sole cooked " au gratin " after the French manner 
liiu;lv taMy dish, and once introduced will be pref.-netl to all 

others. 

Ingredients. i large sole, \ a glass of white wine, preserved mush- 
rooms sliced, Italian sauce (N<>. j;j), mushroom liquor, chopped 
par>ley. brown breadcrumbs, butter, salt and pepper, lemon-jiu 

Method. lake the sole, skin both sides, cut off the head and fins, 

and make se\ ions with a knife across one side of the fish. 

cut side upwards, on a well-buttered silver-plated " gratin 

dish," season with pepper and salt, add half a small glass of white 

i few drops of lemon-juice, a little mushroom liquor, and some 

chopj i v. Place a row of sli> 1 mushroom- 

ntre of the fish, and cover with a rich I tali . Sprinkle 

with brown breadcrumbs, put a t< w nnv bits of butter here and there 

on top of the h>h, and bake in a r. > minutes, 

iing to tl:< s the oven 

ther 1 ble. 

Time. From _-o to 30 minutes. Average Cost, is. od. to 2S. 6d. Suffi- 
cient for 2 or 3 person-. Seasonable all the \ 

654. SOLE WITH FINE HERBS. (Fr. Sole aux 

Fines Herbes.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized sol at of good 

aelv-cho; i tablespoonful of 

fiuelv-rhnpprd ; \ ateaspoontul r.uh ot anchovy and H.i: 

. salt and pej 
Method. Melt the buf pan. adl the rest of the in 

v and II . and warm gradually, 

{nit it into tlu- pan as soon as the con ten 1 

r \ an hour. 

!(ld the ancliovv anl Harvev's sauce; then place the 
in the sauce o\ 



590 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

Time. About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 2 or 
3 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

655. SOLE WITH MAITRE D' HOTEL SAUCE. 

(Fr. Sole a la Maitre d' Hotel.) 

Sole & la Maitre d' Hotel is dressed and served in precisely the same 
way as Sole a la Creme, with the addition of a dessertspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley and a teaspoonful of lemon- juice, both of which must 
be stirred into the sauce just before serving. 

656. SOLES, PAUPIETTES OF, RICHELIEU STYLE. 
(Fr. Paupiettes de Soles a la Richelieu.) 

Ingredients. 2 large soles, i whiting, 3 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 3 ozs. 
of butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, 2 ozs. of lobster-meat, i oz. of lobster 
butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, i finely-chopped shallot, i gill of 
white wine, i dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, lemon- juice, pepper 
and salt, 8 small croutes of fine bread, 8 mushroom heads, i truffle, 
an oz. of flour, \ a pint of white stock. 

Method. Skin the soles, remove the fillets, flatten them a little. 
Put the bones in a stewpan with % a pint of water and the stock, reduce 
to half the quantity, and strain. Skin and bone the whiting, pound 
in a mortar till smooth. Moisten the breadcrumbs with the cream, 
add these to the pounded fish with the shallot and lobster-meat, pound 
and mix thoroughly. Now add i ozs. of butter and yolks of 3 eggs, 
season with pepper and salt, mix in a teaspoonful of chopped pars- 
ley and rub through a sieve. Spread one side of each fillet with 
the forcemeat, roll up, trim a little, and w r rap each fillet in a piece of 
buttered paper. Place them closely in a buttered saute-pan, sprinkle 
with a few drops of lemon-juice, cook for 5 minutes in the oven, 
then add the wine, baste well, and cook for another 10 minutes, 
or longer if required. Spread one side of each croute with the remain- 
ing forcemeat, and bake for a few minutes. Take up the fillets, 
remove the paper, place upright on the croutes, put a mushroom head 
on each, and keep hot. In the meantime, knead i oz. of butter 
with the flour, stir over the fire for a few minutes, add the liquor of 
the fillets and the reduced stock, stir until it boils, and simmer for 
15 minutes. Bind with the yolk of egg, strain, work in the lobster- 
butter, and season to taste. Dish up the paupiettes, sauce over, 
sprinkle with chopped parsley, place a star of truffle in the centre of 
each, and serve. 

Time. About i hour. Average Cost, 55, to 53. 6<L Sufficient for 8 
persons. Seasonable at any time. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 391 

657. SOLES WITH MUSHROOMS. (Fr. Soles 

aux Champignons.) 

Ingredients. 2 medium sized soles, a pint of mushroom sauce, 

milk, salt and popper. 
Method. Skin and trim the soles, place them in an earthc: 

tficiently large to allow the fish to lie flat, but one above 
the other if more convenient. Sprinkle them liberally with salt and 
pepper, barely cover with milk, and put over all a greased paper, to 
;n the steam. Cook in a moderate oven for 10 or 15 minutes, 
then drain well, and place the soles on a hot dish. Make the sauce as 
directed, but before adding the mushrooms, boil well to reduce, in order 
that some or all of the liquor from the dish may be mixed with it, 
otherwise the sauce would be too thin. Season to taste, pour over the 

and ser 

Time. To cook the soles, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 
'*!., exclusive of the sauce. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. StiiQB 
able at any time. 

658. SOLE, PORTUGUESE STYLE. (Fr. Sole a la 
Portugaisc.) 

Ingredients. i medium-sized sole, I oz. of butter, 2 or 3 tomatoes 
. i onion sliced, i finely-chopped shallot, i teaspoonful of i 

d parsley, } a teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, brown bread- 
crumbs, grated Parmesan cheese, salt and pepper. 

Method. Skin the sole and make an incision down the centre as for 
fillet ins, and raise the flesh from the bone on each side as far as po 
Mix the butter, onion, parsley, and anchovy-essence well together, 
and put the mixture inside the sole. Arrange the slices of onion and 
tomato alternately, and overlapping each other on the top of the fish ; 
or if less onion is preferred, surround each slice of tomato by a single 
rin of onion. Mix together a dessertspoonful of grated Parmesan 
cheese, and a dessertspoonful of brown breadcrumbs, and sprinkle 
the fish. Place small pieces of butter on the top, cover with 
a greased paper, and bake for about 20 minutes in a moderate oven. 

h tomato or brown sa 

Time. To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient 
for 3 persons. Seasonable at any time. 

659. SPRATS, DRIED. (Fr.-Melettes fum6s.) 

Dried spr.its should be put into a basin, and boiling water p< 

then be skinned and served, and this will be 
; a much better way than boiling them. They can also be 



392 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

660. SPRATS. (Fr. Melettes or Harenguets.) 

Sprats should be cooked very fresh. Their condition can be ascer- 
tained by their eyes, which should be bright. Wipe them dry ; fasten 
them in rows by a skewer run through the eyes ; dredge with flour, 
and broil them on a gridiron over a nice clear fire. The gridiron should 
be rubbed with suet. Serve very hot, with cut lemons and brown 
bread and butter. 

Time. 3 or 4 minutes. Average Cost, id. to 3d. per Ib. Allow 
i Ib. for 3 persons. Seasonable from November to March. 

THE SPRAT (Fr. melette). This well-known migratory tittle fis h is allied to the herring, and was 
formerly supposed to be the young of that fish. There are, however, specifically distinct character- 
istics which distinguish the sprat on close examination from the herring, the chief being the serrated 
or notched edge of the abdomen, the greater prominence of the ventral fins, and differences in the 
structure of the teeth. The sprat abounds in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Seas, and on 
many parts of the British coasts, where in the winter and spring they appear in immense shoals, and 
are captured in vast quantities. The flesh of the sprat is wholesome and well-flavoured. Large 
quantities of sprats are used by the farmers near the coasts for manure. Sprats are also dried and 
cured in a similar manner to red herrings. In Scotland the sprat is called the GARVIE. 

66 1. SPRATS, TO PRESERVE. 

Ingredients. \ a peck of sprats, i Ib. of salt, 2 ozs. of baysalt, 2 ozs. 
of saltpetre, i oz. of sal-prunella, a little cochineal. 

Method. Pound all the ingredients, except the sprats, in a mortar, 
then put the sprats in a pan in layers with the seasoning, press them 
tightly down, and cover close. They will be ready for use in 5 or 6 
months. 

To CHOOSE SPRATS. Choose those with a silvery appearance, brightness being a sign of fresh- 

662.-SPRAT PASTE. 

Method. To make sprat-paste, which is similar to anchovy-paste, bake 
the sprats with a little butter in an earthenware dish, remove 
the heads, tails, backbone and skin, pound the fish well in a mortar, 
and rub through a fine sieve. Season well with salt, cayenne and 
pepper, add a good pinch of ground mace, and anchovy-essence to 
taste. Press into small pots, and cover with clarified butter. 

Time. 5 or 6 minutes. Seasonable from November to March. 

663. STURGEON, BAKED. (Fr. Esturgeon roti 
au Vin Blanc.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of sturgeon, salt and pepper to taste, i small 
bunch of herbs, the juice of \ a lemon, of a Ib. of butter, a pint of 
white wine. 

Method. Cleanse the fish thoroughly, skin it, and remove the inside. 
Have ready a large baking-dish, lay the fish in it, sprinkle over the 
seasoning and herbs very finely minced, and moisten it with the lemon- 



FOR COOKING FISH 303 

.ml \vinc. Place the butter in small pieces over the whole <>f the 
it it in the oven, and baste frequently ; brown it nicely, am: 
with its own gnr 

Time. From i to i } hours. Average Cost, is. 6d. to 33. 6d. per Ib. 
Seasonable from April to September. 

s (Fr. fstttrseom) was highly esteemed by the Roman*, and in the time of the Emperor 
Sevenis it was regarded as one of the most important delicacies of the table. Its virtues are cele- 
brated by the poet Martial. The sturgeon is an inhabitant of the Ba 

Caspian, and the Black Seas, and of the Danube, the Volga, the Don, and other Urge nvera. It 
nds in the rivers of North America, and is occasionally taken in the Thames, in the Esk. and in 



formerly it belonged by hereditary right to the King. The avenge length of the common 
sturgeon b about 6 feet, but other species, as the great or white sturgeon frequently 
dimensions. The STKM.KT, a smaller species about j feet in length, found in the Caspian Sea and 
some Russian rivers, is the most delicate in flavour, and its roe b the most highly esteemed for nuking 
caviare. In general form the sturgeon b somewhat slender ; the body b covered with bony plates in 
longitndmtl r ws; to rtt town* t twtk ti rttvrt i a :. mm M* i i : to IM .1 tl HM 
of a proboscis. Its tail is ketencmal. or unequally lobed. The sturgeon, besides its ex- 

sh. b valuable for its roe, from which caviare b prepared, and abo for its air-bladder, which 
furnishes the finest rengMff ; both these products constituting important articles of commerce. 

664. -STURGEON, BAKED OR ROASTED. 

Ingredients. I ncl of a sturgeon, veal forcemeat 

ng. 

Method. Was .in the fish, split it down ti side, care- 

fully ; : fill the - -\ith the fore. 

i in its original form, and tie a buttered paper over the 

in a baking-dish or tin 

baste well, and bake from i to 1 1 hours in a mo '. 
basting frcqii' with good brown gravy or a sn 

Time. Altogether, \\ to i Average Cost, is. 6d. to 33. 6d. 

. Seasonable :il to Sep 

infon m.iy U- pl.imlv Uil-l. and served with Dutch sauce. The 
tx>ihng. 

665. -STURGEON CUTLETS. (Fr. Cotelettes 

d'Esturgeon.) 

Ingredients. ^ Ib. of sturgeon, | a tcaspoonful of >pped 

teaspoon fill of finely-grated Icnmn-rind. e^g r.nd 1 

tomato sauce (No. 

Ingredients. Cut the fish it utlet- 

I 

1 season with salt a: 
1 

in hot fat until lightly browned on 

Time. To trv. .iU,ut s. Average Cost, from 

Sufficient : i '. or 8 persons. Seasonable. April 



39 4 HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT 

666. STURGEON, MARINADED. (Fr. Esturgeon 
marine.) 

Ingredients. 2 or 3 Ib. of sturgeon, i ozs. of butter, i Spanish onion 
chopped, i small carrot sliced, of a turnip coarsely-chopped, i strip 
of celery chopped, 2 bay-leaves, i dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, 
a pint of vinegar, i pint of fish stock or water, i blade of mace, 6 
peppercorns, \ a teaspoonful of salt. 

Method. Cold remains may be used for this dish instead of raw fish, 
which, when used, must be gently stewed for i hour in a little stock 
or water. This stock is employed to form the basis of the marinade. 
Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the onion, carrot, turnip, celery, 
bay-leaves and parsley, cover closely, cook gently for about 20 minutes, 
then add the vinegar, fish stock or water, mace, peppercorns and salt. 
Simmer gently for 1 5 minutes, then turn the preparation into an earthen- 
ware vessel, and as soon as it is quite cold put in the fish. Let it 
remain for about 12 hours, then serve with a little of the liquor strained 
round. 

Time. About 2 hours, when using raw fish. Average Cost, sturgeon, 
from is. 6d. per Ib. Sufficient for 8 or 12 persons. Seasonable, April to 
September. 

667. STURGEON, PROVENCALE STYLE. 

(Fr. Esturgeon a la Provengale.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of sturgeon in one slice, stock, i-J- ozs. of butter, 
slices of ham or bacon, a clove of garlic, % of a teaspoonful of powdered 
mixed herbs, salt and pepper, flour. 

Method. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly, and coat it lightly with 
flour seasoned with salt and pepper. Melt the butter in a stewpan, 
fry the fish on both sides, and when nicely browned cover it with strips 
of ham or bacon. Pour a little stock round to about half the depth 
of the fish, add a little salt and pepper, and the garlic and herbs. Cover 
closely, and simmer gently from 40 to 60 minutes, according to size 
and the age of the fish from which the piece was taken. Serve the 
fish with the gravy strained round, or, if preferred, send it to table 
simply garnished with sliced lemon and parsley. Serve brown sauce 
or anchovy sauce separately. 

Time. From i to i hours. Average Cost, from is. 6d. per Ib. Suffi- 
cient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable, April to September. 

668. STURGEON, STEWED. (Fr. Ragout d'estur- 
geon.) 

Ingredients. 2 Ib. of sturgeon, white stock, i glass of sherry or Madeira, 
i tablespoonful of capers, i ozs. of butter or fat, vinegar, flour, salt 
and pepper, i lemon. 



RECIPES FOR COOKING FISH 395 

Method. Wash .and dry the fish thoroughly, and cut it into slices, 
from | to i inch in thickness. Cover these with vinegar, let them 
soak for 5 or 6 minutes, then drain and dry them, and coat them lightly 
with flour seasoned with salt and pepper. Melt the butter or fat, 
fry the fish on both sides until lightly browned, and drain them free 
from fat. Place the fish in a stewpan, add the wine, and as much stock 
as will barely cover them, and a seasoning of salt and pepper. Cover 
v, stew gently for about i hour, then remove to a hot dish, strain 
ravy, and return it to the stewpan. Season the gravy to taste, 
add the capers and a little lemon-juice or vinegar, make it thoroughly 
hot, and pour it over the fish. Garnish with sliced lemon, and 
servo. 

Time. About ij hours. Average Cost, from is. 6d. per Ib. Sufficient 
for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable, April to September. 

669. TENCH, BAKED. (Fr. Tanche roti.) 

Ingredients. i tench, 3 ozs. of butter or fat, 2 shallots finely-chopped, 
2 lemons, a pint of white sauce, i tables poonful of coarsely-chopped 
gherkin, salt and pepper. 

Method. Scale and clean the fish thoroughly, remove the gills, 

which arc always muddy, then sprinkle the fish liberally with lemon- 

and put it aside for i hour. Melt the butter in a baking-dish, 

put in the fish, and bash prinkle with salt and pepper, and add 

the shallots. Cover the fish with a greased paper, and bake gently 

from 25 to 35 minutes, according to size. Make the sauce as directed, 

he gherkin and a tablespoonful of lemon-juice, and season to 

taste. Serve the fish with the sauce poured over. 

Time. About $ an hour. Average Cost, uncertain, tench being 
seldom offered for sale. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable from 
inber to March. 

670. TENCH, BOILED. (Fr.- Tanche Bouilli.) 

Ingred