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M. TULLII CICEBONIS 

DE NATUBA DEOEUM 



LIBBI TBES 



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loiOlon: G. J. CLAT, M.A. & SON, 
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOÜSE, 

17, PAtSBMOSTBB RoW: 




CAMBRIDOE: DEIGHTON, BBLL, AND CO. 
LBIFZIG: F. A. BROCXIIAUS. 



M. TULLII CIGERONIS 

DE NATUEA DEOEUM 

LIBRI TRES 



WITÜ INTRODUGTION ÄND COMMENTARY 



BT 



JOSEPH B. MAYOR, M.A., 



TOOETHEB WITH 

A NEW COLLATION OF SEVERAL OF THE ENGLISH MSS. 

By J. H. SWAINSON, M.A. 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF TBINITY COLLEaE, CAMBRIDGE. 



« 



• 



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VOL. II. 






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AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1883 ^> 

[Tke righu of translation and reproduction are reserved.] 




tfamiriUftf i 



PBINTBD BT C. J. OLAT, M.A. & BON, 
AT THE UMiySBSITT PBE8S. 



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PKEFATORY NOTE. 



In the Preface to my former volume I expressed a 
hope that the remaining volume might be completed 
for publication before the end of the year 1881. This 
hope has been disappointed partly owing to the labour 
of expanding into a separate work the Sketch of 
Ancient Philosophy, which formed part of the Intro- 
duction to the First Book, and partly from the un- 
foreseen diflSculties which I have encountered in the 
endeavour to explain fully the scientific views of the 
Ancients, as they are reported by Cicero in his Second 
Book. The consequent increase in the size of the Com- 
mentary has made it necessary to devote a whole 
volume to this Book, and the publication of the third 
and last Book must still be deferred to another year. 

In the present volume I have been enabled to im- 
prove on the Apparatiis Critums of my forraer volume, 
owing to the kindness of the authorities of Morton 
College, Oxford, in lending me their val nable Codex 
(Oxf. o, here denoted simply as Oxf ) written in the 
12th Century. It is older than any other English ms 



^1 PREFATORY NOTE. 

of the De Natura Deorum with the exception of the 
fragmentary Harleian no. 2622 (k), and is closely allied 
with the oldest of all the Mss, the Vienna Codex of 
the lOth Century (v). . I have inserted a füll collation 
of the Merton Codex amongst Mr Swainson's Collations 
of English mss, showing such a remarkable resemblance 
between it and v, that the one might easily be sup- 
posed to have been copied from the other. 

As regards the Commentary I have again to thank 
Mr H. J. Roby and my brother, the Cambridge Pro- 
fessor of Latin, both for their carefiil criticisms of my 
own work and for the notes to which their initials 
are attached. I have also to thank Prof W. G. Adams 
of King's College, and my kind neighbours Dr Woolley 
and Dr Henry Kane, for allowing me to consult them 
in regard to physical, astronomical or physiological 
diflSculties. We are greatly in want of good books 
in English on the history of Ancient Science, especially 
of Astronomy, which occupies so large a space in this 
portion of Cicero's treatise. The best known English 
work on the subject, that by Sir G. C. Lewis, is 
utterly unmethodical, a mere coUection of unconnected 
essays ; while the famous French history of Delambre 
consists mainly of analyses of particular treatises, and 
is too technical for ordinary readers, not to mention its 
occasional carelessness in points of detail, of which an 
example may be seen in the account of Posidonius 
cited in my note on § 92 multis partihus. Schau- 
bach*s Geschichte der griechischen Astronomie is more 



PREFATORY NOTE. VU 

helpful to a scholar, but unfortunately it only comes 
down to Eratosthenes ; and Rudolf Wolf in his ex- 
cellent Geschichte der Astronomie is only able to allow 
a limited space to the Astronomy of the Ancients. 

While I have been engaged in the study of the 
scientific writings of the Old World, it has often 
occurred to me to deplore the neglect into which they 
have fallen amongst ourselves. The early guesses of 
Greek science exhibit in a most interesting way the 
development of the human mind, and they are so 
closely connected with the philosophy of their time, 
that it is scarcely possible to form a right estimate of 
the one without knowing something of the other. Why 
might not Cambridge, which has now admitted into 
her final classical school the Art, Philosophy, History 
and Law of the Ancients, add to these also the Science 
of the Ancients as a new alternative subject 1 It would 
be easy to have examinations in Mathematical and 
Biological Science in aJtemate years; and, if in one 
year students were asked to bring up for examination 
specified treatises of such authors as Euclid, Archi- 
medes, Geminus and Ptolemy, and in another year 
portions of Aristotle, Theophrastus, Pliny and Galen, 
particularly the De Usu Partium of the laßt, I think 
it would not only call attention to some very excel- 
lent and much neglected writings, but also provide 
a useful link between our literary and our scientific 
education. 



0^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Introduction : 

(1) Analysis of Book II. 

(2) Sources of Book II. 
Text of Book II. with Critical Notes 
Commentary on Book II. 

Mr Swoinson's Collations of Book II. 



PAOE 

xi — xvi 

xvi — xxiii 

1—64 

65—292 

293—319 



M. C. II. 



\ 



INTRODUCTIüN. 



ANALYSrS OF BOOK Tl. 

Introduction, eh. i § 1 — 3. 

A. Proo/qfthe ßivine Existence^ eh. ii § 4 — cL xvi § 44. 
7?. Thß Dlvine Naturen eh. xvii § 45 — eh. xxviii § 72. 

C. ProvidenUiaL Government of the Unirerse, eh. xxix § 73 — 
eh. LXi. § 153. 

B. Providenticd Care/or Man, eh. lxii § 154 — lxvi § 167. 

A^ The Divine Existence proved (a) from the obBervation of the 
heavens, (6) from generaJ eonsent, (c) from various reeorded epipha- 
nies, (d) from the faet tf divination. §§ 4 — 12. , 

Ab, Further explained. Cleanthes derives the consensus of 
belief from four canses^ (1) presentiments of the fiiture {i.e. divina- 
tion just treated of), (2) the blessings of lifo, (3) terrible and unusual 
phenomena of nature, (4) the order of the heavenly bodies (treated 
of nndera). §§ 13—1^. 

A». Argument of Ohrysippus : (1) the uuiverse shows the Opera- 
tion of superhumaD, i.e. of divine power; (2) the universe is too 
beautiful to be the habitation of man alone, it implies a superhuman 
inhabitant. §§ 16, 17. 

A/. Man ihhabits the lowest region of the universe ; the pure 
ether of the higher regions is fitted for nobler inhabitants. § 17. 

Ag. Still even man is gifted with reason, and this, like the 
grosser elements of which his body is coraposed, must»be derived 
from the univerae, as its source. § 18. 

Ah, The univerae being pei*fect must contain that which i.s 
essential to pei-fection, viz. mind. § 18. 

b2 



xii INTRODÜCTION. 

Äi, The sympathy which unites all the parte of the universe 
showB that they are pervaded by one Divine Spirit. §§19, 20. 

Ak. Zeno's argument for the divinity of the universe (and 
therefore indirectly for the Divine Existence, since the universe 
exists). (1) What has reason is better than what haa not reason, 
therefore the universe, as the best of things, must possess reason : 
similarly it may be proved tobe wise, blessed, etemal, and therefore 
God. (2) The universe must be Bentient because it has sentient 
parts. (3) It must be rational because it gives birth to what is 
rational §§ 20— 22v 

AI. Physical argument for divine existence: (1) heat is the 
cause of motion and of life ; the whole universe is pervaded by heat ; 
in heat we find liie governing principle (yyefwvucov) o£ the universe : 
therefore it must have in the highest degree that reason which is 
found even in the inferior parts of the universe. §§ 23 — 30. (2) 
The mundane heat is far purer ijian our earthly heat, therefore it 
must possess the properties of heat in a far higher degree ; and it 
acta freely without any coercion from without. §§ 30, 31. (3) 
What is self-moved is soul : the mundane heat is self-moved, and 
therefotre of the tiature of soul. (4) If the universe were not pos- 
sessed of reason, the whole would be inferior to the part which is 
possessed of reason, which is absurd. § 32. 

Am* Argument from the Scale of Existence. (1) We observe 
the grailual ascent from vegetable to animal life, from animal to 
human, the last showing the potentiality of virtue and wisdom : 
henoe we infer a yet higher stage, the divine, which is essentially 
and always virtuous and wise. §§ 33, 34. (2) All things are striv- 
ing after peijection, but in the case of the lower limited natures, 
this tendency caaanot fullil itself : in universal nature it can. § 35. 
(ä) Since it is confessed that the universe is the best of all things, 
it cauDot be limited to vegetable or animal or merely human 
existence. It must be actually and essentially wise and good (and 
therefol« divine) : for a potentiality which has never risen into 
actüality throughout etemity would be inferior to that of man. § 36. 
(4) Man is born to contemplate and imitate the universe to which 
he belongs. The universe alone is perfect and its own end. It must 
therefore be possessed of what is best, viz. reason. § 37. (5) Ideal 
excellence can only be found in that which is complete in all its 



ANALYSIS OF BOOK IL XUl 

parts; the universe alone is absolutelj complete; therefore the 
absolute Ideal can only be found in the universe. § 38. 

An. The heavenly bodies also are divine : (1) because thej are 
compoaed of the purest ether corresponding to our vital heat. §§ 
39---41. (2) Since each of the Ipwer elements, earth, water, air, has 
its living occupant, it is probable that it is so too with the highest 
element, ether : aud since the nature of the animal depends upon 
the element in which it lives, it is probable that those which live in 
the purest and most active element will possess the keenest and 
purest intelligence. §§ 42, 43» (3) The intelligence of the stars is 
shown bj their orderly moveme^ts, whiqh proceed not from nature 
or Chance, but from their own fr^e-will, §§ 43, 44, 

B. Tlie Divine JHfature. §§45—72. 

JBa, The divine form, as it is seen in the beingQ alre^y recog- 
nised as divine, viz. the universe and the heavenly bodi^. S§ 45 
—49. 

(1) The popalace and the Epicureans wrongjy hold thqit God 
is in the form of man. §§ 45, 46. (2) The sphere is the ipost 
perfect of solids, and circular revqlution is the most perfect of iQOve- 
ments, and this is the form and thiä the movement of the universe 
and the stars. §§ 47 — 49. 

JBb. The divine activity, as shown in the movements and the 
Operations of the heavenly bodies, of the sun (1), of the moon (2), 
of the plauets (3), of the fixed stars and the heaveu itsalf (4). 
§§ 49—57. 

Bc. The divinity of nature shown in its creative and artistic, 
as well as in its providential activity. §§ 57, 58. 

Bd. The Gods of the populär religion are either names for 
benefits received from the Gods (1), or personified virtues and 
passions (2), or the spirits of departed benefactqrs (3), or persomüed 
forces of nature (4). §J 60—70. 

Be. One divine Being is to be worshipped under these various 
forms in holiness and purity, avoiding all superstition. §§ 71, 72. 

C. Providential govemment oftke universe. §§ 73 — 153, 

Ca. Introductory. The sneers of Epicurus are grounded in 
ignorance (1). Division of subject (2). §§ 73—75. 



XIV INTRODÜCTION. 

Cb, Providential govemment inferred from a consideration of 
the Divine nature : (1) It is a pari of our idea of God that he should 
be active^ and active in the noblest waj, and consequently in regard 
to the noblest object, i. e. the universe : (2) if he is not so, then he 
must be inferior to some other power which rules the iinivcrse ; but 
such inferioritj contradicts the verj definition of Deity ; therefore 
he cannot be subject to anj other power ; therefore he must rule the 
universe himself : (3) the Gods form a Community, and it is natural 
to suppose that they possess those same social virtues, which we 
belle ve that we have derived from them ; but that they jiossess them 
in higher perfection and manifest them on a vaster scale in the great 
city of the universe: (4) when we confess the benevolent wisdom 
dlsplayed in the universe and the heavenly bodies and agree that 
these are divine, we confess that all things are ordered by divine 
Pi-ovidence. §§ 76—80. 

Cc, Providential govemment inferred from the consideration 
of the universe itself as embodying an intelligent principle first im- 
parted to it by a creative energy. (1) Meaning of the term ' nature.' 
(2) The universe is a vast organism permeated and controlled by an 
intelligent nature, all the parts of which co-operate for the good of 
the whole. (3) The fact that all the parts, of which the universe ia 
composed, are combined as is best for beauty and utility, can only be 
explained as the resnlt of intelligence. Nature exhibits a skill 
infinitely beyond the reach of art, but even art testifies to the exist- 
ence and intelligence of the artist. If the orrery attests the wisdom 
of Archimedes, much more paust the movements of the heavenly 
bodies attest the wisdom of the Creator. (4) The absurdity of 
attempting to explain the universe as the result of the fortuitona 
concourse of atoms. (5) Custom blinds men, or they oould not fail 
to acknowledge that the wonders of nature are the works of God. 
§§ 81-98. 

Cd. A detailed review of the wonders of nature. (1) The earth 
and other elements. §§ 98 — 101. (2) The sun, moon, and planets. 
§§ 102, 103. (3) The constelktions. §§ 104—115. (4) The several 
parts of the universe are held together by a streng centripetal force, 
which is the cause of warmth and light to all things, and out of 
which all are developed anew in the cyclical regeneration. §§ 115 — 
118. (5) Thus there is a harmony and sympathy between the re- 
motest parts of the universe, and our earth is bcncfited by a stellar 



ANALTSIS OF BOOK II. XY 

influence. § 119. (6) Wonders of vegetable life. § 120. (7) 
Wondera of animal life. §§ 121—129. 

a. General adaptation of animal natare for the preservation 
of the individuaL §§ 121—123. 

ß. Special adaptations in particukr cases for the aame porpose. 
S§ 123—127. 

y. Adaptations of animal nature to ensure the preservation of 
the species. $§ 128, 129. 

8. Adaptations of extemal nature to meet the wants of plants 
and animals. §§ 130 — 132. 

(8) The hand of Frovidence is most plainlj visible in man. 
§§ 133—153. 

o. In the Provision made for supporting his life bj food and 
air. §§ 134—138. 

ß. In the framework of his bodj and his erect position. §§ 
139, 140. 

y. In the organs of sense. §§ 140 — 146. 

8. In the gift of reason. §§ 147, 148. 

c In the gifl of speech through the wondrotis mechaniam of 
the vocal organs. §§ 148, 149. 

C In the capacity for action through the mechanism of the 
hand. §§ 150—152. 

71. In the capacitj for meditation and worship. § 153. 

B. Providentialcare/or man. §§154 — 167. 

Da. Whatever tends to man's good was designed for him. § 154. 

2)6. The universe exists for the sake of its rational inhabitante, 
viz. Gods and men. § 155. 

De. We may see this in the heavenly bodies, which, besides 
their general use for the preservation of the universe, afford also a 
beautiful and instructive spectacle to man, and man alone of animals. 
§ 155. 

Dd. The vegetable kingdom exists for his sake, as plainly as 
the harp for the sake of the harpist ; many of its products can only 
be utilized by his labour and skill, and only appi*eciated by his 
finer sense. §§ 156 — 158. 

De, Even the animals are created for him, to clothe him, guard 



XVI INTRODÜCTION. 

him, feed him, carry him, draw for him, exerciae his strengUi and 
courage. §§ 158 — 161. 

Bf, So the inorganic world needs the labour of man to provide 
what is uaeful to him and him alone. §§ 161, 162. 

Dg, Divination ia tlie exclusive pcssession of man. §§ 162, 163. 

BK Cumulative foroe of these proofa. §163. 

Bi, The care of the Gods extends to individual men. From 
them each man receives wisdom and virtne. §§ 164 — 167. 

Bh. Extemal misfortune is no sign of the Divine wrath or 
neglect : to the philosopher all tbings tum out for good. § 167. 

Condusion. § 168. 

< 

ON THE SOURCES OF THE SECOND BOOK OF THE 

DE NATURA DEORÜM. 

Ik discussing the souroes of the First Book we have seen what 
was Cioero's method in the compoqition of his philosophical treatises. 
They are adaptations firom Greek Originals \ and, as the comparison of 
the ircpi hfatßeCai of Philodemus has shown ua, Cicero borrows not 
only the topics and argumenta, but even the quotations of the author 
whom he follow& We need not therefore auppoae with Teuffei 
{Eist, of Born, IM, § 173. 10, ed. 1) that, because Cicero quotes from 
Aristotle, Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysippns, in the oourse of his 
Second Book, he hful hiipa^ studied the writinga of these philo- 
aophera with a view to ita composition. It is much more probable 
that he ia following in the steps of some later writer or writera, 
and uaing the quotations which he found there ready to band. If 
we ask who is the writer whom Cicero is most likely to have fol- 
lowed, the ans wer iß updoubtedly-r— Posidoiiius, who is referred to 
in I 123 as famüiaria omnium noslrum, and whose treatise 'on the 
Kature of the Gods,' there cited, has been shown to be the probable 
authority for the criticism of the Epicurean System, contained in the 
latter half of Bk. i (cf. Introchiction^ voL i, p. lii folL). This sup- 
position is confirmed by the ^t that the treatises which immediately 
preceded and foUowed the present, viz. the Tuwudan BispiUcUians 
and the Be Bivvnations (not to mention other writings of Cicero) are 
in great part taken from Posidonius ; see, for the former, Heine Be 
fönt Tusc, Bisp. Weimar 1863, P. Corssen Be Posidonio Ehodio, 



SOUBCES OF THE SECfOND BOOK. xvil 

Bonn 1878, and, for the latter, Schiebe De fönt, lib, de Divinattone^ 
Jena 1875, Hartfelder Die QtteUen v. Giceroa ^de Diviiiaiione^ 
Freibarg 1878. Bat the strengest argument for the Posidonian 
authorship of the original which Cicero here foUows, is to be found 
in an examination of the book itself, in the agreement between the 
opinions there expressed, and opinions elsewhere attribnted to Posi- 
donius, sometimes in Opposition to, or in contra-distinction £rom, 
other writers of his school. 

The nudn points of distinction between Posidonius and the Stoics 
in general appear to have been (1) his easy and flowing style and 
genenJ literary tastes, (2) his wide scientific interest, (3) his admira- 
tion for Plato and Arifltotle, and his modification of the older Stoic 
doctrines so as to bring them more into accordanoe with the Academic 
and Peripatetic doctrines. As to (1) we are told by Strabo iii 2, 
§ 9 üoo-ciScüvto? oüK air€)(€rat r^i <rvvrf0ovi prjfrop^lasy aAXa awey- 
Ooixna rah vir€pßo\a2s, "ViThich agrees with what we read in § 20 of 
our book, Aoee cum ttberius disputantur et fusiui^ vA mihi est in 
animo Jacere, /aciliua effugiunt Academicorum calumniam; so Galen 
teils HS (Hipp, et Fiat, p. 399 K.) that Posidonius was in the habit 
of relieving his philosophical discussions with illustrations from the 
poets and historians, which again is quite in accordance with the 
Speech of Baibus; compare, for historical illustration, §§ 6 — 11 on 
diyination, § 61 on apotheosLs, § 69 on the office of Lucina, § 165 on 
particular providences ; for poetical quotations compare § 4 and § 65 
from Ennius on the divinity of the heavens ; from Euripides on the 
same subject § 65 ; from Attius, illustrating the theistic argument 
from the Impression produced by the sight of the first ship § 89 ; 
from Aratus describing the constellations §§ 104 — 114; from 
Aratus again on the Qolden Age § 159. We need not suppose 
that all these ezactly correspond to quotation« in the original. 
Cicero has no doubt given at times examples from Boman history 
instead of Greek history ; and Posidonius had not Cicero's temptation 
to tax the attention of his readers with long quotations from Ai*atus. 
It may be said however that^ whatever his authority, Cicero's 
natural taste would have led him to rhetorical treatment of his 
subject : and this is certainly true. On the other band, it must be 
remembered that Community of taste would naturally lead him to 
select Posidonius in preference to other Stoica I do not however 
lay so much stress on this point as on those which I have next 
to deal with. 



XVlll INTRODÜCTION- 

It is evid^it that the subject of Natural Theology is one "which 
requires for its treatment a wide acquaintance with science ; and in 
point of fact we find this book of Cicero's dealing more or less 
with almost all the sciences known to the ancients, from the most 
general phjsical speculations down to particular theories of geo- 
metrj and astronomj and the various sciences of Observation, 
such aa geographj, botany, zoologj, anatomy, anthropology, and 
sociologj. Now we know that Posidonius was generally regarded as 
the most leamed and most scientific of all the Stoic philosophers ; 
thus Galen, who quotes him largelj on questions relating to human 
physiology and psjchologj, calls him 6 hrvcmnJuoviKi^raro^ rtov %rifiKiov 
8ta TO yeyvfivdcrOau Kard y€iofi€TpCav {Uipp, et PUU, p. 652 X.); Cleo- 
medes conf esses that he compiled his treatise on Astronomy prinoipallj 
from his writings (Oleom, ii. 7 ra iroXkoi r<ov eiprjfjievoiv hc raiv tov Hoa-a- 
Satyiov ciXi/irrai) , and Strabo, who often cites him in his Geography, 
speaks of him as dvi^p t<ov Koff rjiiSs 4>tXoa'6<^v iroXvfjLajSiaTaro^ (Str. 
xvi 2 § 10). I shall proceed to show in detail that, as far as we are 
able to test the matter, there is a remarkable agreement between tho 
scientific yiews of Posidonius and those put forward in this book. 
First as to Astronomy, which occupies the most prominent place in 
the argument, Cicero refers expreusly to the orrery of Posidonius 
(§ 88), as illustrating and justifying the process by which we infer 
the existence of a superintending mind from the Observation of the 
movements of the heavenly bodies. What Cicero says of the Con- 
stitution of the Bun and planets, and of their being nounshed by 
terrestrial vapours, is in aax)rdance with what we are told of the 
viewB of Posidonius (see §§ 39, 40, 118 with the notes). When 
Cicero teils us that the sun is many times larger than the earth 
(§ 92), that the moon is rather more than half the size of the earth 
(§ 103), that Venus and Meroury are between the earth and the 
sun (§ 52), all this agrees with what we read in Cleomedes, some- 
times with the express addition that he is quoting from Posidonius, 
while it is inconsistent with the views of the older Stoics. The same 
agreement is to be found in regard to the properties of the sphere 
and its peculiar mobility (§ 48), the stability of the universe and the 
question as to the Cyclic Conflagration, on which Posidonius appears 
to have expressed himself as doubtfully as Cicero (§§ 85, 115, 118). 
Lunar influence again (§§ 19, 50, 119) was a favourite study of 
Posidonius. He was the first to establish the true theory of the 
tides (see nn. on §§ 19, 132), the inquiry into which was stigmatized 



SOURCES OF THE SECOND BOOK. XIX 

bj the eider StoicB aa frivoloiis and unworthy the attentioD of a 
philosopher. Like Cicero, he contrasted the deiuser atmosphere im- 
mediatelj surrounding the earth -with the fine ether, which filled the 
Upper regions of the universe (§ 17), he described the inhabited world 
as ao island surrounded by the ocean (§ 165), and, as we learn from 
Seneca, he paid particnlar attention to the phenomena of volcanos 
(§ 96). Both Strabo and Galen refer to him as the chief writer on 
the inflaenoe of the climate of a coiintrj upon the mental and nioral 
Constitution of its inhabitants (§§ 17, 42); and Galen teils us he 
laid great stress on the ose of diet for Controlling the irrational 
elements of the mind (§ 42). For here too Fosidonius differed from 
the older 8toic8: he recognized an irrational element in man's 
natnre, soflening down the broad demarcation drawn by Chrysippus 
between the different kingdoms of natiire, and adopted Aristotle's 
Tiew, that each higher function of the soal involves the lower, so 
that all the functions are found combined with rationality in man 
($§ 33, 34, 85); while oertain plants make an approach towards 
animal life (§ 120), and animaltf towards human life (§ 29). The 
rational sonl is not only an emanation from Deity (§ 17), but it is 
itself etemal, not, as the older Stoics belle ved, doomed to perish in 
the Cyclieal Conflagration (§ 62). On the origin of civilization 
Cicero's view (§§ 148, 150) is in complete accordance with what 
Seneca teils us of Fosidonius {Ep. 92). Both rationalize the old 
belief in a Golden Age (§ 159), and attribute the early inventions 
of mankind to philosophic lawgivers and kings. Even Cicero's 
patriotic eulogy of Boman piety is not without a peirallel in Fosi- 
donius ($ 8). 

I go on now to the 3rd point mentioned above, the admiration 
shown for the writings of Flato and Ariütotle. In my note on § 32 
I have pointed out that Oicero's deus phüosophorum, applied to 
the former, may be matched from the fragments of Fosidonius, 
while it is quite opposed to the language o£ the older Stoics. So 
AristoÜe }s praised in § 95 and § 125 ; and the notes on §§ 13, 17, 26 
(spontaneous generation), 33 (scale of existence), 34 (union of higher 
and lower functions in man), 36 (movement of all things towards 
perfection), 42 (each element has inhabitants corresponding to it), 43 
(nature, chance and freewill), 44 (voluntary movement of stars), 
51 (the Great Year), 56 (Opposition of sublunary and superlunary 
regions), the fine passage about the cave-dwellers quoted from 
Aristotle's de phüosopfUa { 95, the whole section on zoology §§ 121 — 




XX INTRODUCTION. 

129, much of tbe sectioQ on anatomy §§ 134 — 146, show how largely 
the author whom Cicero follows was influenced hy Aristotle. No 
doubt this u tnie generally of the Stoic Bchool, but tbe views put 
forward in some of tbe above-cited passages are opposed to those of 
tbe older Stoics, and may with mucb probability be attributed to 
Posidonius, of whom Strabo says (il 3 § 8) ttoXv ydp iari ro airtoXoyucov 
irap* avr(p ical to dpurror^kCl^ov. 

Tbe next point for oonsideration is wbetber we baye any grounds 
for siipposing tbat tbe treatise of Fosidonius, quoted in i 123, would 
deal witb tbe same toptcs as Cicero's similarly named work. Scbwencke 
{JaJirb. /. cla88. PhiloL 1877 pp. 129—140) points out tbat iu 
general tbe Stoics treated tbe question of tbe Existenoe and Nature 
of tbe Gods separately from tbat of tbe Providentia! Government 
of tbe World. Tbus tbe n-cpi irpovow of Cbrysippus is a distinct 
work from bis n-cpl ^cwv, and Diogenes Laertius mentions tbem in 
different parts of bis 7th book, tbe former in a 138, tbe latter in c. 
148. But of Posidonius, and of bim alone, we are told tbat be 
treated of botb subjects under tbe title of ircpt dc<Sv (Diog. Lc). His 
treatise consiste^jof five books, in tbe Ist of wbiob be maintained 
the divinity of the heaven and the universe, in the 3rd (so Cobet, 
not 13th as in Häbner's ed.) argued in favour of tbe providential 
govemment of the world, while in the 5th he oonfuted the Epicurean 
doctrine {N. D, i 123). It seems not improbable therefore tbat, as 
Scbwencke suggests, the first four books of Posidonius may have 
corresponded with the quadruple division with which Cicero com- 
mences his second book. 

One other sligbt indication of the author may be found in § 165, 
where Rhodes is put on a level with Rome, Athens and Sparta, see 
Mr Roby's note on tbe passage. As Panaetius was bom at Rhodes, 
while Posidonius resided there for the greater part of his life, this 
might at first sight appear to be equally in favour of either author- 
ship, but there can be little doubt tbat such an allusion is more 
natural in the mouth of one who, like Posidonius, presided over the 
TJniversity of Rhodes and took a leading part in its politics, than of 
one who spent the active years of his life in Athens and in Rome 
and never retumed to bis native land after he had once left it (Cic. 
TU8C. Y 107). 

I think tbat the various considerations adduced above leave little 
doubt as to the Posidonian authorsbip of Cicero*s treatise, but there 
are soroe facts which appear to militate against this and which have 



SOÜRCES OF THE SECOND BOOK. XXI 

induced Hxrzel ( üniersuchungen zu Cicero'' 8 philosophischen Schriften 
I 191 — 244) to assign a number of different authorities for the 
different parts of Cicero's book. In the first place Cicero writes to 
Atticus {Au. XIII 8) in Jane 45 b.c., the year before the N,D. 
appeared, asking for an epitome of the writings of Caelius by Brutus, 
and for Panaetius xept irpovoiwi. Must we not suppoae that he aaked 
for them with the intention of using them for the book which he was 
then preparing, especially as we find that he quotes from Caelius in 
§ 8, and as he chose Panaetius as his authority in the iirst-two books 
of the De Officiis ? Much that has been said in favour of the Claims 
of Posidonius is also applicable to Panaetius. He wrote a good style, 
was an admirer of Plato and Aristotle, and departed on many points 
from the rigid dogmatism of the older Stoics. We are not told how- 
ever that he paid much attention to science, and there are certainly 
parts of this second book which could not possibly have been derived 
from him. For instance Divination is defended in §§ 7 — 12 and 
again in 162, 163, but we know from Cicero himself Div, i 12, ii 88, 
97, as well as from other writers (see Zeller iv p. 567), that Panae- 
tius was a disbeliever in divination ; Schiebe and Hartfelder even 
suppose his treatise irepl Trpovoias to have been the authority used by. 
Cicero for the second book of his de divinatione, in which the nega- 
tive side is supported. Again the immortality, or rather the etemity 
of the soul is maintained in § 62, but, as we see from the Tvsculans 
(i 42, 78), this was entirely rejected by Panaetius. Also the manner 
in which his opinion in regard to the Cyclic Conflagration is referred 
to is inconsistent with the idea that Cicero could have been there 
copying from him. Still there is the fact that Cicero was studying 
his rcpl irpovoCai at the time when he was engaged on his own book 
on the subject. But so also he was studying Phaedrus irepl Oetav, 
when writing about the Epicurean theology, and yet we have seen 
reason to beliave thatliis authority for that portion of his treatise was 
not Phaedrus, but Zeno, see vol. i p. xliv foll. If Cicero used Pa- 
naetius for his treatise on Divination, which is merely a sequel to the 
N» i>., this would be quite sufficient explanation for his request to 
Atticus, but he may also have thought of getting further material 
either for his exposition or for his criticism of the Stoic doctrine on 
Providenoe. Hirzel however is of opinion that the second book 
shows signs of having been compiled from dififerent sources, and that 
while one part is taken from Posidonius, another part is from Apollo- 



XXU INTRODÜCTIOX. 

donis and a 3rd from Panaetius. In order to see what groiinds 
there are for this opinion we must examine more minutely the 
structure of the book. It is divided, as shown in the aiialysis, into 
four parts (1) the proof of the Divine Existence, (2) the nature of 
the Gods, (3) Providentia! government of the world, (4) Providentia! 
care for man. But t]ie süghtest examination iä snfficient to show 
that these divisions overlap, that much for instance of the Ist section, 
e.g. Zeno's argument for the divinitj of the univerHe (§§ 20 — 22) and 
the argument for the divinity of the stars (§§ 39 — 44), would more 
naturally come under the 2nd, and much of the 3rd, e.g. §§ 133 — 
153 might just as weü come under the 4th. Moreover there are 
actua! repetitions, as on the divinitj of the stars (§§ 54, 55 compared 
withi§§ 39 — 44); and we seem to have a double l>eginning for the 
4th section (in § 133 facüvus intdlegetur a dis immortalUms esse 
provisum &c. and 153 resiat ut docearn omnia homintim catisa facta 
esse), which Iias misled, as I think, both Hirzel and Schwencke to 
commence the 4th section at § 133. It appears to me however that 
these difficu!ties arise mainiv from want of care, on the part of Cicero, 
in marking the transitions from one part of ]iis argument to another, 
and particular!j, as Schwencke remarks, where he lias to supply short 
connecting links in place of omissions. It is possible also that Posi- 
donius may liave given short summaries of the preceding argument 
at the commencement of each book, wliich Cicero may have mixed 
up with the substanoe of the book itself. The general fiumework, 
as Seen in the analysis, seems to me to hold well together, if (1) 
we allow the use of the indirect argument for the Divine Existence 
in the latter half of the Ist section, (we have many instances of this 
indirect argument in the 9th book of Sextus Empiricns, which is 
evidently closely related to our own, cf. n. on Ak § 20); (2) if 
we remember that the question propoaed for examination in the 2nd 
section is not *who are Gods', but *of what nature the Gods are', 
(qttaJes sirU corpore animo vUa, as we read i 65) ; and (3) if we admit 
that in the nature and Constitution of man we may see a proof of a 
Creative intelligence (which would naturally fall under the 3rd 
section) apart from the question whether the welfare of man is 
the chief end designed in the creation and government of the world 
(which is the subject of the 4th section). The particular points in 
which Hirzel endeavours to show a disagreement between Cicero and 
Posidonius are, I think, all cleared up by Schwencke, wlio has also no 



SOURCES OF THE SECOND BOOK. XXlll 

difficulty in refuting the rather wild Suggestion that the 2nd section 
is derived from Apollodorus, as being the Chief writer on the inter- 
pretation of myths. 

My notes show a distinct connexion between this book of the 
N". D, and the 9th book of Sextus Empiricus on the one band* and 
the treatises de Providentia of Philo and Theodoret on the other. 
I am not aware whether theve has been any careful investigation of 
the sources of these books, but I should conclude that they were, 
in part at least, taken either from Posidonius directly or from writers 
who had copied from him. 

1 Compare particolarly the quotation from Xenophon in § 18 with Sext. iz 
92, that from Aristotle § 95 with Seztns ix 20, the comparison of the movements 
of the heavenly bodies to the movements of an army or a ship in §§ 85, 87, 89, 
with Sezt. IZ 26, 78 ; and the reference to the orrery in § 88 with Seztns iz 114. 



M. TULLII CICERONIS 

DE NATÜEA DEOEUM. 



LIBER SECÜNDUS. 

I. QUAE cum Cotta dixisset, tum Velleius, Ne ego, inquit, 1 
incautus, qui cum Academico et eodem rhetore congredi conatus 
sim! Nam neque indisertum Academicum pertimuissem nee 
sine ista pliilosophia rhetorem quam vis eloquentem; neque 
S enim flumine conturbor iüanium verborum nee subtilitate sen- 
tentiarum, si orationis est siccitas. Tu autem, Cotta, utraque 
re valuisti ; corona tibi et judiceä defuerunt. Sed ad ista alias; 
nunc Lucilium, si ipsi.commodum est, audiamus. Tum Baibus: 2 
Eundem equidem mallem audire Cottam, dum, qua eloquentia 

loüalsos deos sustulit, eadem veros inducat.* Est enim et philo- 
sophi et pontificis et Cottae de dis immortaJibus habere non er- 
rantem et vagam, ut Academici, sed, ut nostri, stabilem cer- 
tamque sententiam. Nam contra Epicurum satis superque 
dictum est ; sed aveo audire, tu ipse, Gotta, quid sentias. An, 

15 inquit, oblitus es, quid initio dixerim, facilius me, talibus prae- 
sertim de rebus, quid non sentir^m, quam quid sentirem, posse 
dicere ? Quodsi haberem aJiquid, quod liquerßt, tamen te vi- 3 
cissim audire vollem, cum ipse tam multa dixissem. 

3 $im {X] BH Ojf. GTT, sum Aso. LHN + . 9 maUem mss generally, maXem . 

A Bed. UO, mdlim Heind. Foich. Ma. of. Soh. Opuic, in p. 824. 14 aveo 

edd., abeo kB\ ab eo 0, haheo B'CE Mns. Ozf . Ajbp. + . 15 quid initio dixerim 

[ABE] G Bed. BO, quod in initio dixerim C, quod initio dixerim OH Abo. -^ , quod 
initio dixeram Gesner. 

M, C. IL 1 



2 DE NATURA DEORUM. t 

Tum Baibus : Geram tibi morem et a«am quam brevis- 
sime potero ; etenim convictis Epicuri erroribus longa de mea 
disputatione detracta oratio est. Omnino dividunt nostri totam ; 

istam de dis immortalibus quaestionem in partes quattuor. j 

Primum dooent esse deos, deinde quales sint, tum mundum ab 5 
iis administrari, postremo consulere eos rebus humanis. Nos 
autem hoc sermone, quae priora duo sunt, sumamus ; tertium 
et quartum, quia majora sunt, puto esse in aliud tempus 
diflferenda. Minime vero, inquit Cotta ; nam et otiosi sumus et 
iis de rebus agimus, quae sunt etiara negotiis anteponendae. 10 

4 II. Tum Lucilius, Ne egere quidem videtur, inquit, oratione 
prima pars. Quid enim potest esse tam apertum tamque per- 
spicuum, cum caelum suspeximus caelestiaque contemplati 
sumus, quam esse aliquod numen praestantissimae mentis, quo 
haec regantur ? Quod ni ita esset, qui potuisset assensu omnium 15 
dicere Ennius : 

Aspice hoc sublime candens, quem invocant omnes Jovem, 

illum vero et Jovem et dominatorem rerum et omnia nutu re- 
gentem et, ut idem Ennius, 

patrem divumque hominumque 20 

et praesentem ac praepotentem deum ? Quod qui dubitet, haud 
sane intellego, cur non idem, sol sit an nuUus sit, dubitare 

5 {k)ssit. Qui enim est hoc illo evidentius ? Quod nisi oognitum 
comprehensumque animis haberemus, non tam stabilis opinio 
permaneret nee confirmaretur diutumitate tempöris nee una 25 I 
cum saeclis aetatibusque hominum invetera^cer^ potuisset. 
Etenim videmus ceteras opiniones fictas atque vansus diutumi- 
tate extabuisse. Quis enim Hippocentaurum fuisse aut Chi- 
maeram putat? quaeve anus tam excors inveniri potest, quae illa, 
quae quondam credebantur apud inferos portenta, extimescat ? 30 

5 ab iit L, ab hit MBB generaUy. 9 et iis HL Abc, et his hss generally. 

10 sunt, * malim sint * Mu. cf. i 48. anteponendae [BE], anteponenda AG 

Oxf. Mas. 14 quo, * malim a quo * Mu. but cf. Comm. and lu 10 Yrheie the 

words are repeated. 17 sublime mbb, subUmen Or. Ba. Soh. see Comm. 

invocant, vocant ap. Fest, et Prob. 18 nutu GV Asc., motu ubb generaUy. 

23 qui edd. after Lamb and Dav., quid kbb, cf. Madv. Optisc. Ac. 11 p. 265 n.. 
Seh. Op. m S26. 26 inveteroMcere Forchhammer, inveterare Mss generally 

Allen Klotz, inveterari G Moser'a La. Heind. Or. Ba. Soh. Mu. see Comm. 



LIB, II CAP. I— III §§ 3—7 3 

Opinionis enim commenta delet die3, naturae judioia confinnat. 
Itaque et in nostro populo et in ceteris deorum cultus re- 
ligiomimque sanctitates exsiatunt in dies majores atque meliores. 
Idque evenit non temere nee casu, sed quod et praesentes saepe 6 
5 di vim suam declarant, ut et apud Regillum bello Latinorum, 
cum A. Postumius dictator cum Octavio Mamilio Tusculano 
proelio dimicaret, in nostra acie Castor et PoUux ex equis pu- 
gnare visi sunt, et recentiore memoria idem Tyndaridae Persem 
victum nuntiaverunt. P. enim Vatinius, avus hujus adulescen- 

lo tis, cum e praefectura Eeatina Bomam venienti noctu duo juver 
nea cum equis albis dixissent regem Persem illo die captum, cum 
senatui nuntiavisset, primo, quasi temere de re publica locutus, 
in carcerem conjectus est, post a Paulo litteris allatis cum idem 
dies constitisset^ et agro a senatu et vacatione donatus est. 

15 Atque etiam cum ad fluvium Sagram Crotoniatas Locri maximo 
proelio devicissent, eo ipso die auditam esse eam pugnam ludis 
Olympiae memoriae proditum est. Saepe Faunorum voces ex- 
auditae, saepe visae formae deorum quemvis non aut hebetem 
aut impium deos praesentes esse confiteri coegerunt. III. Prae- 7 

20 dictiones vero et praesensiones rerum futurarum quid aliud 
declarant nisi hominibus ea ostendi, monstrari, portendi, prae- 
dici? ex quo illa ostenta, monstra, portenta^ prodigia 
dicuntur. Quodsi ea ficta credimus licentia fabularum, Mopsum, . 
Tiresiam, Amphiaraum, Calchantem, Helenum, — quos tamen 

25 angures ne ipsae quidem fabulae ascivissent, si res omnino repu- 
diarent, — ne domesticis quidem exemplis docti numen deorum 

1 opinionis GE, opiniones B, opinione A (doubtful) B^H, opinionum B' Oxf. T 
Abc. + Seh. 4 etX + , etiam U + , om. Oxf. MKCB Asc. Allen. prae- 

sentes AGH, praesentiam B (in ras.) CE Oxf. Mas. generally Allen. 5 di vivi 

suam A (in ras.) fonr of Moser, divi vim suam G, dii vim H, divi suam BCEB 
Oxf., divi sui MRY A0O. 9 Vatinius edd., vatienus msb generally, bat in m 13 

valinio. 11 cum senatui nuntiavisset Yahlen (see Comm.), seiiatui nuntiavi 

set A, sen, «uneiavissent (by corr. -visset) 6, sen. nuntiasset CBLO, sen, nuneia- 
visset EH, sefiatuique nuntiavisset G Heind. Ba., senatui nuntiavit et Oxf. TM 
Aflc. Or. Soh. Ma. 18 non aut edd. after Dav., aut non X Oxf. + , non GHLN. 

19 eoegerunt, coegerint Allen. 21 hominibus, divinitus conj. Soh., divinitus 

hominibus Brieger. ea M of Moser edd. after Seh., ea quae sint XBKO 

Oxf., ea qtuie sunt GHN, ea quae suntfutura C Heg. of Dav. Heind. praedici^ 
prodici conj. Swainson. 25 repudiarent ABEBHMO Oxf. Allen, repudiaret 

[C] H Bed. edd., repudiaretur GU. 

1—2 



4 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

comprobabimus ? Nihil nos P. Claudii bello Punico primo 
temeritas movebit ? qui etiam per jocum deos irridens, cum 
cavea liberati *pulli non pascerentur, mergi eos in aquam jussit, 
ut biberent, quoniam esse nollent. Qui risus classe devicta 
multas ipsi lacrimas, magnam populo Bomano cladem attulit. 5 
Quid ? coUega ejus Junius eodem bello nonne tempestate classem 
araisit, cum auspiciis non paniisset ? Itaque Claudius a populo 

8 condemnatus est, Junius necem sibi ipse conscivit. C. Flami« 
nium Caelius religione neglecta cecidisse apud Trasimenum 
Bcribit cum magno rei publicae vulnere. Quorum exitio intellegi lo 
potest eorum imperiis rem publioam amplificatam, qui religioni- 
bus paruissent. Et si conferre volumus nostra cum extemis, 
ceteris rebus aut pares aut etiam inferiores reperiemur, religione, 

9 id est cultu deorum, multo superiores. An Atti Navii lituus 
ille, quo ad investigandum suem regiones vineae t^rminavit, 15 
contemnendus est ? Crederem, nisi ejus augurio rex Hostilids 
maxima bella gessisset. Sed, neglegentia nobilitatis augurii 
disciplina omissa, veritas auspiciorum spreta est, species tantum 
retenta. Itaque maximae rei publicae partes, in bis bella^ quibus 
rei publicae salus continetur, nullis auspiciis administrantur: 20 
nulla peremnia servantur, nulla ex acuminibus^ nulla, cum viri 
Yocantur, ex quo in procinctu testamenta perierunt. Tum enim 

10 bella gerere nostri duces incipiunt, cum auspicia posuerunt. At 
vero apud majores tanta religionis vis fuit, ut quidam impera- 
tores eüam se ipsos dis immortalibus capite velato verbis certis 25 
pro re publica devoverent. Multa ex Sibyllinis vaticinationibus, 
multa ex haruspicum responsis commemorare possum, quibus ea 
confirmentur« quae dubia nemini debent esse. IV. Atqui et 

1 comprobdbimtu B^CB, comprobavimus AB^EU Ozf. Mus. Claudii B^, 

Claudi B\ Clodi AEB Ozf., Dodi G. 4 nollent^ nolent A (of. malern § 1). 

5 populo Bomano edd., p. r. ABCBHO Ozf., rei publicae E El. N, r. p, V Abo. 
9 CaeliuM [E], coelius ABC Mu. Trasimenum V Aso., transumen ABCB, 

Tnmanenum Or. Ba. Soh. Mu. 15 investigandum mss generaUy, investigan-^ 

dam Bed. C Heind. Swainson. regiones vineae U Aso., reliones vin, A^, 

religione» vin. A? BG Ozf. BC, religionis vin. E, in regiones vineam LNOT Bed. 
19 maximae [E], maxime ABG. . 21 peremnia [B], perennia ACE. nulla 

cum edd. after Soh., niilla V, nulli mss generally. 25 immortalibus mbs 

generaUy, inortalibus A. 26 devoverent mss generaUy, devoverint U, deno- 

verint I of Moser. 



LIB. II CAP. III, IV §§ 7 — 12. 5 

Dostrorum augurum et Etrascorum baruspicum. disciplinam in 
P. Scipione C. Figulo consulibus res ipsa probavit; quos cum 
Ti. Gracchus consul iterum crearet, primus rogator, ut eos xettu- 
lit, ibidem est repente mortuus. Gracchus cum comitia nihilo 
5 minus peregisset remque illam in .religionem populo venisse 
sentiret, ad senatum rettulit. Senatus, quos ad soleret, referen- 
dum censuit. Haruspices introducti responderunt non fuisse 
justum comitiorum rogatorem. Tum Gracchus, ut e patre au- 11 
diebam, incensus ira: *Itane vero? ego non justus, qiii et 

lo consul rogavi et augur et auspicato? an vos Tusci ac 
barbari auspiciorum populi Bomani jus tenetis et 
interpretes esse comitiorum potestis?' Itaquetum illos 
exire jussit. Post autem e provincia litteras ad coUegium misit 
se, cum legeret libros, recordatum esse vitio sibi tabernaculum 

15 captum fuisse hortos Scipionis, quod, cum pomerium pestea in- 
trasset habendi senatus causa, in redeundo, cum idem pomerium 
transiret, auspicari esset oblitus; itaque vitio creatos consules 
esse. Augures rem ad senatum ; senatus, ut abdicarent con- 
sules; abdicaverunt. Quae quaerimus exempla majora? Vir 

20 sapientissimus atque haud sciam an omnium praestantissimus 
peccatum suum, quod celari posset, confiteri maluit quam haerefe 
in re publica religionem ; consules summum imperium statim 
deponere quam id tenere punctum temporis contra religionem. 
[Magna augurum auctoritas; quid? haruspicumarsnonnedivina?] 12 

25 Haec et innumerabilia ex eodem genere qui videat, nonne cogatur 
confiteri deos esse ? Quorum enim interpretes sunt, eos ipsos 
esse certe necesse est ; deorum autem interpretes sunt ; deos 
igitur esse fateamur. At fortasse non omnia eveniunt, quae 
praedicta sunt. Ne aegri quidem quia non omnes convalescunt, 

1 Etnucorum 'A^B\ etruscorum et A*B^CEB + . in Ed. after Bouh. see 

Comm. 8 coruul edd. after Mannt., cos MB*, quos AB'CBH, eos Oxf. V Aso., 

om. EUfCO. crearet B^ M of Moser, recrearet ABK)E Mns. Oxf. 6 quos 

ad soleret M88 generaUy, qtios adsoleret Oxf. V, ad quos soleret Aso. 15 hortos 
Scipionis X+^in hortos Scip, Asc. V, in horto Scip, 0, aruspectionis G Mannt. 
AUen, in hortis Scip, Lamb., ad hortos Scip. Soh., in brackets Or. Ba. 
17 transiret hss generaUy, transisset CB. consules [B] Asc., quos ACBH, om, 

EO. 19 abdicaverunt Quae [X], abdicaveruntque Oxf. B + . 20 sciam X, 

seio M Aso. 24 magna — divina see Comm. 25 et Ot edd. after Heind., 

om. X Mns. 29 quia non^ om. Bake inserting num before idcirco. 



. 6 DE NATUftA BfeöRUM. 

idcirco ers nuUa medicinae est* Signa osienduntur a dis rerum 
futurarum. In his ßi qui erraverunt, non deonim natura, sed 
hominum conjectura peccavit. Itaque inter omnes omniuni gen- 
tium summa constat ; omnibus enim innatum est et in animo 

13 quasi insculptum esse deos. V. Quales sint, varium est ; esse 5 
nemo negat. 

Oieanthes quidem noster quattuor de causis dixit in änimis 

* hominum informatas deorum esse notiones. Primam posuit 

eam, de qua modo dixi, qua/e orta esset ex praesensione rerum 

futurarum; alteram, quam ceperimus ex magnitudine commo- 10 

dorum, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione> fecunditate ter- 

14rarum aliarumque commoditatum complurium copia; tertiam> 
quae terreret animos fulminibus, tempestatibus, nimbis, nivibus; 
grandinibus> vastitate, pestilentia, terrae motibus et saepe fremi- 
tibus lapideisque imbribus et guttis imbrium quasi cruentis, tum 15 
labibus aut repentinis terrarum hiatibus, tum praeter naturam 
hominum pecudumque portentis, tum facibus visis caelestibus, 
tum stellis iis, quas Graeci cometas, nostri cincinnatas vocant, 
quae nuper hello Octaviano magnarutn fuerunt calamitatum 
praenuntiae, tum sole geminato, quod, ut e patre audivi, Tudi- 20' 
tano et Aquilio consulibus evenerat, quo quidem anno P. Afri- 
canus sol alter exstinctus est, quibus exterriti homines vim 

15 quandam esse caelestem et divinam suspieati sunt ; quartam 
causam esse, eamque vel maximam, aequabilitatem motus, 
conversionem caeli, solis, lunae siderumque omnium distinc- 25 
tionem, utilitatem, pulchritudinem, ordinem, quarum rerum 
itspectüs ipse satis indicaret non esse ea fortuita. Ut, si quis 
in domtim aliquam aut in gymnasium aut in forum venerit, cum 
videat omnium rerum rationem, modum, disciplinam, non possit 
ea sine causa fieri judicare, sed esse aliquem intellegat, qui 30 

1 medicivae Gfi Madv., medicina ttss Mn. 2 natura uss, numeii conj. 

Seh. Op. ni 27. 4 summa mss, sententia Manut., scientia Pal. 8 ap. Gnit. 

' 10 ceperimus msb, eaperemia Bake and Forchfaammer. 16 labibus edd. Itfter 

Gnlielmius, lapidibus mss (ftrom preceding lapideisy cf. venenatis % 126). 18 m 
edd., his AGB, is B. cometas ^ KofiTp-a^ Swainson after Clavel. ciTKinnatas 
A^BCE Oxf. + , cincinnitas A^, cui crinitas H, crinitas MRV Asc. • 21 con- 

sulibus, cos AC. 24 malus conversionem mss Allen, obel. Or., motus con- 

versionumque Seh. Mu. after Emesti, motus in conversione Ba. after Dav. 
26 utilitatem mss, varietatem El. Mand N of Moser edd. after Mannt. 



LiB. II CAP. rv— VI §§ 12—17. 7 

praesit et cni pareatur ; multo magis in tantis motioDibujs tan- 
tisque vicissitudinibus, tarn multarum lerum atque tantarum 
ordinibus^ in quibus nihil nmquam immensa et iniinita vetustas 
mentita sit, statuat neoesse est ab aliqua mente tantos naturae 
5 motus gubemari. YL Chrysippus qoidem, quamquam est aoer- 16 
rimo ingenio, tarnen ea didt, ut ab ipsa natura didicisse, non ut 
ipse repperisse videatur. 'Si enim/ inquit, 'est aliquid in 
rerum natura, quod hominis mens, quod ratio, quod 
vis, quod potestas humana efficere non possit, est certe 

lo id, quod illud efficit, homine melius; atqui res caeles- 
tes omnesque eae, quarum est ordo sempiternus, ab 
homine confici non possunt; est igitur id, quo illa 
conficiuntur, homine melius. Id autem quid potius 
dixeris quam deum? Etenim si di non sunt, quid esse 

15 potest in rerum natura homine melius? in eo enim solo 
est ratio, qua nihil potest esse praestantius. Esse au- 
tem hominem, qui nihil in omni mundo melius esse 
quam se putet, desipientis arrogantiae est; ergo est 
aliquid melius; est igitur profecto deus/ An vero, eil? 

20 domum magnam pulchramque videris, non possis adduci, ut, 

•etiamsi dominum non videas, muribus iUam et mustelis aedifi- 

catam putes; tantum [ergo] omatum mundi, tantam varietatem 

pulchritudinemque rerum caelestium, tantam vim et magnitu- 

dinem maris atque terrarum si tuum ac non deorum immortalium 

25 domiciiium putes, nonne plane desipere videare? An ne hoc 
quidem intellegimus, omnia supera esse meliora, terram autem 
esse infimam, quam crassissimus circumfundat aer; ut ob eam 

2 tarn mliltarum — gubemari erased h&e in B, then foUow § 86 ex sese — § 156 
qwte cum maxima^ then § 15 — § 86 tarn multarvm-^ferant aliquid, 12 quo 

Mss, a quo 9 edd. after Lamb and Heind. see Gomm. 14 after deum there 

ifi ft diBarrangement in mss. ACEU Mus. Oxf. give first a few words from § 156 
ifargitate — videtur), then go on (as B) with § 86 — § 156 ex sese — qua^ cum 
maxima, then go back to § 16 — § 86 etenim si di — efferant aliquid, closing with 
% 156 to end, largitate fundi — simulate, E in going back to § 16 repeats from 
tam multarum— deum like B.. The disarrangement, which is still fonnd in the 
Aseensian ed. of a.d. 1511, is corrected in the Hervagian of 1534 and in all 
sabeeqnent edd. From this point we have the readings of P (foUowing § 111 
obscura spede — § 156 quae cum maxima) and V (foUowing § 92 terris rebusque — 
I 156 quae cum majnma). 22 ergo XBN Oxf. edd., om. HBV Ase. 

Heind. Mady. Foroh., vero G HLOUT, see Gomm. 



8 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

ipsam causam, quod etiam quibusdam regionibus atque urbibus 
contingere videmus, hebetiora ut sint hominum ingenia propter 
caeli pleniorem naturam, hoc idem generi humano eveDerit, quod 

18 in terra, hoc est in crassissima regione mundi, coUocati sint? Et 
tarnen ez ipsa hominum sollertia esse aliquam mundi mentem, 5 
et eam quidem acriorem et divinam, existimare debemus. 
*Unde enim hanc homo arripuit?' ut ait apud Xeno- 
phontem Socrates. Quin et umorem et calorem, qui est fusus 

in corpore, et terrenam ipsam viscerum soliditatem, animam 
denique iilam spirabilem, si quis . quaerat, unde habeamus, 10 
apparet, quod aliud a terra sumpsimus, aliud ab umore, aliud 
ab igni, aliud ab aere eo, quem spiritu dudrmis, YII. Illud 
autem, quod vincit haec omnia, rationem dico et, si placet 
pluribus verbis, mentem, consilium, cogitationem, prudentiam, " 
ubi invenimus? unde sustulimus? An cetera mundus habebit 15 
omnia, hoc unum, quod plurimi est^ non habebit ? Atqui certe 
nihil omnium rerum melius est mundo, nihil praestabilius, 
nihil pulchrius, nee solum nihil est, sed ne cogitari quidem 
quicquam melius potest. Et si ratione et sapientia nihil est 
melius, necesse est haec inesse in eo, quod Optimum esse con- 20 

19 cedimus. Quid vero? tanta rerum consentiens, conspirans, con- 
tinuata cognatio quem non coget ea, quae dicüntur a me, 

• comprobare? Possetne uno tempore liorere, dein vicissim 
horrere terra? aut tot rebus ipsis se immutantibus solis accessus 
discessusque solstitiis brumisque cognosci ? aut aestus mari- 25 
tirai fretorumque angustiae ortu aut obitu lunae commoveri ? 
aut una totius caeli conversione cursus astrorum dispares con- 
servari ? Haec ita fieri omnibus inter se concinentibus mundi 
partibus profecto non possent, nisi ea uno divino et continuato 

8 pleniorem, pinguiorem Cobet V, L. p. 462. 4 sint A'B2[CEPV]B1I, 

tunt A^B^LOT. 5 aliquam mundi Ed. see Comm.i aliquam msb and edd., 

aliam quam conj. Seh. 9 animam — iUam Brieger, animum — iUum mbs and 

edd. 10 haheamu» E, hahemus mbs generaUy. 11 apparet B'V^ Asc. 

UUTO, appareat AGEPB + . 12 spiritu edd., spiritum mss. ducimiu 

GM, dicimus mbs generaUy (cf. below § 75). 16 plurimi GH, plurimum mbs 

geneially. 18 ne cogitari MO^ Oxf. Aso., nee cog. A^^EB and (in raa.) V, 

necotari B^, negotiari A^PH, of. m 23 and Madv. Fin, exe. 8. 22 coget Msa 

generaUy, cogat A?B^. 23 uno, vemo conj. Bouh. cf. Ttuc, v 37. dein 

[ABCPV]BO, deinde E Asc. + . 



LiB. II CAP. VI— IX §§ 17—23. 9 

spiritu continerentur. Atque haec cum uberius disputantur et 20 
fusius, ut mihi est in animo facere, facilius efiEugiunt Acade- 
micorum calumniam ; cum autem, ut Zeno solebat, brevius 
angustiusque concluduntur, tum apertiora sunt ad repre- 

5 hendendum. Nam ut profluens amnis aut vix aut nuUo 
modo, coDclusa autem aqua facile conumpitur, sie orationis 
flumine reprehensoris convida diluuntur, angustia autem con- 
dusae orationis non facile se ipsa tutatur. Haec enim, quae 
dilatantur a nobis, Zeno sie premebat : YIII. *Quod ratione 21 

lo utitur, id melius est quam id, quod ratione non utitur; 
nihil autem mundo melius; ratione igitur mundua 
utitur.' Similiter efiici potest sapientem esse mundum, simi- 
liter beatum, similiter aeternum; omnia enim haec meliora 
sunt quam ea, quae sunt bis carentia, nee mundo quicquam 

15 melius ; ex quo efficietur esse mundum deum. Idemque 22 
hoc modo: 'Nullius sensu carentis pars aliqua potest 
esse sentiens; mundi autem partes sentientes sunt; 
non igitur caret sensu mundüs.' Pergit idem et urget 
angustius: 'Nihil/ inquit, *quod animi quodque rationis 

20 est expers, id generare ex se potest animantem com« 
potemque rationis; mundus autem generat animantes 
compotesque rationis; animans est igitur mundus com- 
posque rationis.' Idemque similitudine, ut saepe solet, ratio* 
nem conclusit hoc modo: 'Si ex oliva modulate canentes 

25 tibiae näscerentur, num dubitares, quin inessetin oliva 
tibicinii quaedam scientia? Quid, si platani fidiculas 
ferrent numerose sonantes ? idem scilicet censeres, in 
platanis inesse musicam. Cur igitur mundus non 
animans sapiensque judicetur, cum ex se procreet 

30 animantes atque sapientes?' 

IX. Sed quoniam coepi secus agere, atque initio dixeram 23 
(uegaram enim hanc primam partem egere oratione, quod esset 
Omnibus perspicuum deos esse), tamen id ipsum rationibus 
physicis confirmari volo. Sic enim res se habet, ut omnia, quae 

7 convieia edd. after Dav., vitia msb. (Moser's O has vitia condiluuntur.) 

. 14 hi8 MBS, iU Mn. 15 efficietur ABV Oxf. Asc. MO 4-, eßcitur [CEP] BH 

Or. Ba. Seh. 26 tibicinii CR Aso.; tibicini mss generally. H platani — 

numerasa sonantes Priscian m 5. 30. 27 idem^ item conj. Ba. 34 pkysicis 



10 D£ NATUBA DEOBUM. 

alantur aique crescant, contineant in se vim caloris, sine qua 
neque ali possent nee crescere. Nam omne, quod est caliduni 
et igneixm, cietur et agitur motu suo ; quod autem alitur et 
crescit, motu quodam utitur certo et aequabili ; qui quam diu 
remanet in nobis, tarn diu sensus et vita remanet; refirigerato 5 

24 autem et exstincto calore oecidimus ipsi et exstinguimur. Quod 
quidem Cleanthes bis etiam argumentis docet» quanta vis insit 
caloris in omni corpore: negat enim esse uUum cibum tarn 
gmvern, quin is nocte et die conooquatur; cujus -etiam in re- 
liquiis iusit calor iis, quas natura respuerit. Jam vero venae et lo 
arteriae mioare non desinunt quasi quodam igneo motu, animad- 
versumque sa^pe est, cum cor animantis alicujus evulsum ita 
mobiliter palpitaret, ut imitaretur igneam celeritatem. Omne 
igitur, quod vivit, sive animal sive terra editum, id vivit propter 
inclusum in eo calorem. Ex quo intellegi debet eam caloris 15 
naturam vim habere in se vitalem per omnem mundum perti- 

25 nentem. Atque id facilius cernemus toto genere hoc igneo, quod 
tranat omnia, subtilius explicato. Omnes igitur partes mundi 
{tangam autem maximas) calore fultae sustinentur. Quod pri- 
inum in terrena natura perspici potest. Nam et lapidum con- 20 
flictu atque tritu elici ignem videmus et recenti fossione terram 
fumare calentem, atque etiam ex puteis jugibus aquam 
calidam trahi, et id maxime fieri temporibus hibemis, quod 
magna vis terrae cavemis contineatur caloris caque hieme sit 
densior ob eamque causam calorem insitum in terris contineat 25 

26 artius. X. Longa est oratio multaeque rationes, quibus doceri 
possit omnia, quae terra concipiat semina, quaeque ipsa ex se 
generata stirpibus infixa contineat, ea temperatione caloris et 
oriri et augescere. Atque aquae etiam admixtum esse calorem 
primum ipse liquor aquae declarat [eflfusio], quae neque congla- 30 

edd. after Lamb., phy stets {orfysicis) id est naturälibus mss Allen. confirmari 
uss generaUy Allen, confirmare Beg. CO Moser's M edd. 

1 <üantur — crescant mbs generaUy, aluntur — crescunt G Or. Ba. Seh. atque 
Allen Or. Ba. Seh., et quae uss generaUy Mn., et £GU Ozf. LO. 10 ineit 

Heind., inest mss edd. 21 tritu A*[BCEP]LO, ritu A^V^, ictu V Oxf. Aso. + . 

22 ßimare calerUem Abc LO, fumare recalentem uss generaUy. 24 continea^ 

tur^^-sit — contineat hsb generaUy, continetur—fit — continet Or. Ba. Seh. after 
Heind. (continetur HR, fit CV Mars., continent B). caloris after vis Foroh. 

80 C cal. terr: eont, cav. 25 in terris ^ interius AUen after Bonh. and Heind. 



LIB. II CAP. IX— XI §§ 23—29. 11 

ciaret frigoribus neque nivd pruinaque conctesceret, nidi Ladern 
se admixto calore liquefacta et dilapsa diifunderet. Itaque et 
aquilonibus reliquisque frigoribus adj actis durescit umor, et 
idem vicissim mollitur tepefactus et tabescit caloie. Atque 
5 etiam maria agitata ventis ita tepescunt, ut intellegi facile possit 
- in tantis illis uinoribus esse inclusiim calorem. Nee enim ille 
externus et adventicius habendus est tepor, sed ex intimis maris 
partibus agitatione excitatus, quod nostris quoque corporibus 
contingit, cum motu atque exercitatione recalescunt Ipse vero 

lo aer, qui natura est maxime frigidus, minime est expers caloris ; 
ille vero et multo quidem calore admixius est ; ipse enim oritur 27 
ex respiratione aquarum ; earum enim quasi vapor quidam aer 
habendus est; is autem exsistit motu ejus caloris, qui aqui^ 
continetur. Quam simiiitudinem cemere possumus in iis aquis, 

15 quae effervescunt subditis ignibus» Jam vero reliqua quarta 
pars mundi, ea et ipsa tota natura fervida est et ceteris naturis 
omnibus salutarem impertit et vitalem calorem. Ex quo con- 28 
cluditur, cum omnes. mundi partes sustineantur calore, mundum 
etiam ipsum simili parique natura in tanta diutumitate servari, 

20 eoque magis, quod intellegi debet calidum illud atque igneum 
ita in omni fusum esse natura, ut in eo insit procreandi vis et 
causa gignendi, a quo et animantia omnia et ea, quorum stirpes 
terra continentur, et nasci sit necesse et augescere. XI. *f Na- 29 
tura est igitur,"f- quae contineat mundum omnem eumque 

25 tueatur, et ea quidem non sine sensu atque ratione ; omnem 
enim naturam necesse est, quae non solitaria sit neque sim-^ 
plex, sed cum alio juncta atque conexa, habere aliquem in se 
principatum^ ut in homine mentem, in belua quiddam simile 
mentis, unde oriantur rerum appetitus. In arborum autem et 

30 earum rerum, quae gignuntur e terra, radicibus inesse prin- 

30 deelarat effusio APV Mus., declarat effusae B, declarat eßmoque EH, declarcut 
et effusio G, dederat effusio (?, declarat C^ Or. Ba., declarat et fusio Allen Seh. 
Mu. Mady. Adv. n 242. 

3 adjectis hss generally, adlectis C, om. 0, adstrictis Mn. aftor Heind. 
14 iis edd., his mss. 16 effervescunt BCV*BM Asc, eis fervescunt AEV*, 

fervescunt PLO + , eis effervescmit Oxf., ahenis fervescunt H, aeneia ferv, G Red. 
M, aeneis effervescunt Med. of Bay. + 1 see Comm. subditis [V^] Oxf. Abc. 

M + , sulritis XB + , subjectis HNO. 18 calore fCEP] A^V» + , calorem A^B V», 

23 natura est igitur^ see Comm. 



12 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

cipatus putatur. Principatum autem id dico, quod Graeci 
ri'^efjLoviK6v vocant, quo nihil in quoque genere nee potest nee 
debet esse praestantius. Ita neeesse est illud etiam, in quo sit 
totius naturae principatus, esse omnium optimum omniumque 

30 rerum potestate dominatuque dignissimum. Yidemus autem in 5 
partibus mundi (nihil est enim in omni mundo, quod non pars 
universi sit) inesse sensum atque rationem. In ea parte igitur, 

in qua mundi inest principatus, haec inesse neeesse est, et 
acriora quidem atque majora. Quocirca sapientem esse mundum 
' neeesse est, naturamque eam, quae res omnes eomplexa teneat, lo 
perfeetione rationis excellere, eoque deum esse mundum, omnem- 
que vim mundi natura divina .contineri. Atque etiam mundi 
ille fervor purior, perlucidior mobiliorque est multo, ob easque 
eausas aptior ad sensus eommovendos quam hie noster ealor, quo 

31 haee, quae nota nobis sunt, retinentur et vigent. Absurdum 15 
igitur est dieere, cum homines bestiaeque hoc calore teneantur 

et propterea moveantur ac sentiant, mundum esse sine sensu, 
qui integre et libero et puro eodemque acerrimo et mobilissimo 
ardore teneatur, praesertim cum is ardor, qui est mundi, non 
agitatus ab alio neque externe pulsu, sed per se ipse ac sua 20 
sponte moveatur. Nam quid potest esse mundo Valentins, quod 
pellat atque moveat calorem eum, quo ille teneatur? XII. 
82 Audiamus enim Flatonem quasi quendam deum philosophorum; 
eui duo placet esse motus, unum suum, alterum extemum, esse 
autem divinius, quod ipsum ex se sua sponte moveatur, quam 25 
quod pulsu agitetur alieno. Hüne autem motum in solis animis 
esse ponit, ab hisque prineipium motus esse duetum putat. 
Quapropter, quoniam ex mundi ardore motus omnis oritur, is 
autem ardor non alieno impulsu, sed sua sponte movetur, 
animus sit neeesse est ; ex quo efficitur animantem esse raun- 30 
dum. Atque ex hoc quoque intellegi poterit in eo inesse intel- 
legentiam, quod certe est mundus melior quam üUa natura. Ut 

2 iJyeAtortKOK edd., in Lat. uss generallj. quoque A>B Asc. + , quoquo CB, 

qwo A^PV Oxf., q'uoquam E. 13 est before multo Lamb. Or. Ba. Mn., before 

etiam Bouh., after aptior Seh., om. hss. 16 cum A2B2[V] Oxf. Asc. HLMO, 

quin CEPB. 18 m4)bili88imo uss generaUy, mollissimo C, nohilisHmo 101+. 

19 is [CEPV] Asc, Ms ABV^. 22 qua Ba. by misprint. 27 hisque 

B^CEV Oxf. + , isque A, iisque B^ + . 



LIB. II CAP. XI— XIII §§ 29—36. 13 

enim nuUa pars est corporis nostri, qua.e non minon« sit, quam 
nosmet ipsi sumus, sie mundum Universum pluris esse necesse 
est quam partem aliquam universi. Quod si ita est, sapiens sit 
mundus necesse est. Nam ni ita esset, hominem, qui est mundi 
5 pars, quoniam rationis esset particeps, pluris esse quam mundum 
omnem oporteret. Atque etiam, si a primis incohatisque naturis 33 
ad ultimas perfectasque volumus procedere, ad deorum naturam 
perveniamus necesse est. Prima euim animadvertimus a 
natura sustineri ea^ quae gignantur e terra, quibus natura nihil 

lo tribuit amplius, quam ut ea alendo atque augendo tueretur. 
Bestiis autem sensum et motum dedit et cum quodam appetitu 34 
accessum ad res salutares, a pestiferis recessum ; hoc homini 
amplius, quod addidit rationem, qua regerentur animi appetitus, 
qui tum remitterentur, tum continerentur. XIII. Quartus 

15 autem gradus est et altissimus eorum, qui natura boni sapien- 
tesque gignuntur, quibus a principio innascitur ratio recta con- 
stansque, quae supra hominem putanda est deoque tribuenda, 
id est mundo, in quo necesse est perfectam illam atque absolu- 
tam inesse rationem. Neque enim dici potest in ulla rerum 35 

20 institutione non esse aliquid extremum atque perfectum. Ut 
enim in vite, ut in pecude, nisi quae vis obstitit, videmus 
naturam suo quodam itinere ad ultimum pervenire, atque ut 
pictura et fabrica ceteraeque artes habent quendam absoluti 
operis efiectum, sie in omni natura, ac multo etiam magis, 

25 necesse est absolvi aliquid ac perfici. Etenim ceteris naturis 
multa externa, quo minus perficiantur, possunt obsistere, uni- 
versam autem naturam nuUa res potest impedire, propterea quod 
omnes naturas ipsa cohibet et continet. Quocirca necesse est 
esse quartum illum et altissimum gradum, quo nuUa vis possit 

30 accedere. Is autem est gradus, in quo rerum omnium natura 36 
ponitur ; quae qüoniam talis est, ut et praesit omnibus et eam 
nuUa res possit impedire, necesse est intellegentem esse mundum 

1 tMnoris M of Moser edd. after Ursin., minor mss. 4 qui est "W Asc., 

gut esset X+. 5 rationis esset A'CEPV^BH, rat. est A^BVSMO Aso. see 

Cknnm. 8 prima ABEV^MV Oxf. Asc., primo [CP] HLO Or. Ba. Sch.,pn- 

mum B Ma. (who oompares Ac, n 30) see Comm. 9 gignantur mss, gignuntur 

IX) Qr. Ba. Soh. after Mannt, see Comm. 11 sensum, et sensum Heind. and 

"Klotz with G. 19 in ulla Y* Oxf. LM, in nulla uss generaUy, in illa Y Asc. 



14 DE NATURA DEORÜM. 

et quidem etiam sapientem. Quid autem est inscitius quam 
eam naturam, quae omnes res sit complexa, non optimam diei, 
aut, cum sit optima, non primum animantem esse, deinde rationis 
et consilii compotem, postremo sapientem ? Qui enim potest 
aliter esse optima ? Neque enim, si stirpium similis sit aut 5 
etiam bestiarum, optima putanda sit potius quam deterrima» 
nee vero, si rationis particeps sit nee sit tamen a principio 
sapiens, non sit deterior mundi potius quam humana condicio ; 
homo enim sapiens fieri potest, mundus autem si in aeterno 
praeteriti temporis spatio fuit insipiens, numquam profecto lo' 
sapientiam consequetur ; ita erit homine deterior. Quod quo-> 
niam absurdum est, et sapiens a principio mundus et deus 

37 habendus est. XIY. Seite enim Chrysippus, ut clipei causa 
involucruiD> vaginam autem gladii, sie praeter mundum cetera 
omnia aliorum causa esse generata, ut eas fruges atque fructus, 15 
quos terra gignit, animantium causa, animantes autem homi^ 
num, ut equiim vebendi causa, arandi bovem, venandi et custo- 
diendi canem. Ipse autem homo ortus est ad mundum contem- 
plandum et imitandum, nuUo modo perfectus, sed [est] quaedam 
particula perfecti. Neque enim est quioquam aliud praeter 20 
mundum, cui nihil absit, quodque undique aptum atque per- 

38 fectum expletumque sit omnibus suis numeris et partibus. Sed 
mundus quoniam omnia complexus est, neque est quicquam, 
quod non insit in eo, perfectus undique est. Qui igitur potest ei 
deesse id, quod est Optimum ? nihil autem est mente et ratione «5 
melius ; ergo haec mundo deesse non possunt. Bene igitur idem 
Chrysippus, qui similitudines adjungens omnia in perfectis et 
maturis docet esse meliora, ut in equo quam in eculeo, in cane 
quam in catulo, in viro quam in puero, item, quod in omni 

13 habendus ett, after this foUowB in all mss and edd. neque enim—partibug^ 
whioh I have put after perfecti at the end of § 37, see Comzn. 16 gignit 

H8S generally, gignat Bed. Heind. Allen. 18 ortus est mss, qui ortus Bed. 

Heind., ortus B Vaucher, who transfers est in next line to end of sentence. 
19 sedK Moser*8 E Fa. and M Allen, sed est mss generally (perhaps dittographia of 
set, cf. § 73). 21 cui B, quo mss generally (doubtless for original quoi). 

quodque— Sit om. BG. 23 neque est mss, neque enim est GH Heind. 24 qui 
G edd. after Gron., quid mss (cf. above § 6). 25 id quod [ACE] BHG, qmd 

B'PVM Oxf. + . autem est mss, est autem Soh. 28 eculeo X+^equulo 

C*BHNV, equuleo HR. 



LiB. II CAP. XIII — XV §§ 36 — 42. 15 

mundo optimum sit, id in perfecto aliquo atque absoluto esse 
debere ; est autem nihil mundo perfectius, nihil virtute melius ; 39 
igitur mundi est propria virtus. Nee vero hominis natura per- 
fecta est, et efficitur tarnen in homine virtus ; quanto igitur in 
5 mundo facilius I est ergo in eo virtus ; sapiens est igitur et 
propterea deus. 

XY. Atque hac mundi divinitate perspecta tribuenda est 
sideribus eadem divinitas, quae ex mobilissima purissimaque 
aetheris parte gignuntur, neque uUa praeterea sunt admixta 

lo natura totaque sunt calida atque perlucida, ut ea quoque rectis- 
sime et animantia esse et sentire atque intellegere dicantur. 
Atque ea quidem tota esse igoea duorum sensuum testimonio 40 
confinnari Cleanthes putat, tactus et oculorum.. Nam solis et 
candor illustrier est quam ullius ignis^ quippe qui immenso 

15 mundo tarn longo lateque colluceat, et is ejus tactus est, non ut 
tepefaciat solum, sed etiam saepe comburat, quorum neutrum 
faceret, nisi esset igneus. 'Ergo/ inquit, 'cum sol igneus sit 
Oceanique alatur umoribus, quia nullus ignis sine pastu aliquo 
possit permanere, necesse est aut ei similis sit igni, quem adhi- 

20 bemus ad usum atque victum, aut ei, qui corporibus animantium 
continetur. Atqui hie noster ignis, quem usus vitae requirit, 41 
Gonfector est et consumptor omnium, idemque, quocumque in- 
vasit, cuncta disturbat ac dissipat ; contra ille corporeus vitalia 
et salutaris omnia conservat, alit, äuget, sustinet sensuque 

25 affiät/ Negat ergo esse dubium, herum ignium sol utri similis 
sit, cum is quoque efficiat, ut omnia floreant et in suo quaeque 
genere pubescant. Quare cum solis ignis similis eorum ignium 
sit, qui sunt in corporibus animantium, solem quoque animantem 
esse oportet, et quidem reliqua astra, quae oriantur in ardore 

30 caelesti, qui aether vel caelum nominatur. Cum igitur aliorum 42 

1 id [GP]BM Aso., corr. fr. is AV, i» BE. 8 mohilisnma X except no* 

hilissima PV, moÜissima & 9 sunt mss, est Or. Ba. see Cozmu. 13 et 

candor edd. after Klotz, calor et candor XB Ozf., ardor et candor H, candor et 
calor UrCO, candor MBVU Heind. 14 ullius [ABP V] Oxf . 0, ullus CEBHH + . 

immenso mbs Klotz Seh., in immenso Beg. of Dav. Or.Ba. Mn. 15 tactus by 

eoxr. fr. tactu AV. 19 posset Mu. on Äcad, n 72, see Comm. 20 atque 

XBH Oxf. + , atque ad HBV Seh. 21 atqui MN Bed. edd. after Dav., atque 

1CB8 generally, ef. § 16. 22 omnium mss generally, om. Oxf. V^B Asc. 29 et 
quidem mss, atque item Or. Ba. after Heind. see Comm. 



16 DE NATURA DEORÜM. 

animantium ortus in terra sit, aliorum in aqua, in aere aliorum, 
absurdum esse Aristoteli videtur in ea parte, quae sit ad gi- 
gnenda animantia aptissima, animal gigni nuUum putare. Si- 
dera autem aetherium locum obtinent; qui quoniam tenuissi- 
mus est et semper agitatur et viget, necesse est, quod animal in 5 
eo gignatur, id et sensu acerrimo et mobilitate celerrima esse. 
Quare cum in aethere astra gignantur, consentaneum est in his 
sensüm inesse et intellegentiam, ex quo efficitur in deomm 
numero astra esse ducenda. XYI. Etenim licet videre acutiora 
ingenia et ad intellegendum aptiora eorum, qui terras incolant lo 
eas, in quibus aer sit purus ac tenuis, quam illorum, qui utantur 

43 crasso caelo atque concreto. Quin etiam cibo quo utare, in- J 
teresse aliquid ad mentis aciem putant. Frobabile est igitur 
praestantem intellegentiam in sideribus esse, quae et aetheriam 
partem mundi incolant et marinis terrenisque umoribus longo 15 
intervallo extenuatis alantur. Sensum autem astrorum atque 
intellegentiam maxime declarat ordo eorum atque coDstantia 
— ^nihil est enim, quod ratione et numero moveri possit sine con- 
silio — in quo nihil est temerarium, nihil varium, nihil fortuitum. 
Ordo autem siderum et in omni aeteraitate constantia neqüe 20 
naturam significat: — est enim plena ratiouis — neque fortunam, 
quae amica varietati constantiam respuit. Sequitur ergo, ut 

44 ipsa sua sponte, suo sensu ac divinitate moveantur. Nee vero 
Aiistoteles non laudandus in eo, quod omnia, quae moventur, 
aut natura moveri censuib aut vi aut voluntate ; moveri autem 25 
solem et lunam et sidera omnia ; quae autem natura moveren- 
tur, haec aut pondere deorsum aut levitate in sublime fern, 
quorum neutrum astris contingeret, propterea quod eorum mo- 
tus in orbem circumferretur. Nee vero dici potest vi quadam 

. majore fieri, ut contra naturam astra moveantur ; quae enim 30 
potest major esse ? Restat igitur, ut motus astrorum sit volun- 
tarius. Quae qui videat, non' indocte solum, verum etiam impie 
faciat, si deos esse neget. Nee sane multum interest, utrum id 

6 id et BC, id est A^PV^H, idem EBLO, idemque HBCV Oxf. +. • 7 Ms 
MBS Dav. Heind. Allen, iis edd. after Moser. 24 laudandus mbs generally, 

laudandiu est A Or. Ba. Mu. 27 in sublime mss, subUme Or. Ba., [in] sublime 

Seh. Ma. 29 circumferretur Soh., circumque ferretur kbs generali j, eircum- 

quaque ferr, HO Heind. 



^^ 



LiR II CAP. XV — XVIII §§ 42 — 47. 17 

neget an eos omni procuratione atque actione privet ; mihi enim, 
qui nihil agit, esse onmino non videtur. Esse igitur deos ita 
perspicuum est, ut, id qui neget, vix eum sanae mentis exis- 
timem. 
5 XYII. Restat, ut, qualis eorum natura sit, consideremus ; 45 
in quo nihil est difficilius quam a consuetudine oculorum aciem 
mentis abducere. Ea difficultas induxit et vulgo imperitos et 
similes philosophos imperitorum, ut nisi figuris hominum con- 
stitutis nihil possent de dis immortalibus cogitare ; cujus opin- 

lo ionis levitas confutata a Cotta non desiderat orationem meam. 
Sed cum talem esse deum certa notione animi praesentiamus, 
primum ut Sit animans, deinde ut in omni natura nihü eo sit 
praestantius, ad hanc praesensionem notionemque nostram nihil 
Video quod potius accommodem, quam ut primum" hunc ipsum 

15 mundum, quo nihil excellentius fieri potest, animantem esse et 
deum judicem. Hie quam volet Epicurus jocetur, homo non 46 
aptissimus ad jocandum minimeque resipiens patriam, et dicat 
86 non posse intellegere, qualis sit volubiUs et rotundus deus, 

T tamen ex hoc, quod etiam ipse probat, numquam me movebit. 

20 Placet enim Uli esse deos, quia necesse sit praestantem esse 
aliquam naturam, qua nihil sit melius. Mundo autem certe 
nihil est melius. Nee dubium, quin, quod animans sit habeat- 
que Sensum et rationem et mentem, id sit melius quam id, quod 
his careat. Ita efficitur animantem, sensus, mentis, rationis47 

25 mundum esse compotem ; qua ratione deum esse mundum con- 
cluditur. Sed haec paulo post fadlius cognoscentur ex iis rebus 
ipsis, quas mundus efficit. 

XVin. Interea, VeUei, noli,'quaeso, prae te ferro vos plane 
expertes esse doctrinae. Conum tibi ais et cylindrum et py- 

30 ramidem pulchriorem quam sphaeram videri. Novum etiam 
oculorum Judicium habetis. Sed sint ista pulchriora dumtaxat 
aspectu, quod mihi tamen ipsum non videtur ; quid enim pul- 
chrius ea figura, quae sola omnes alias figuras complexa continet, 

5 reaUU ksb generaUj, sane restat V Ozf. Aso. MOV (from sanae above). 
17 reHpiem edd. after ürsin., respicieru mss. 18 rutundua AV Or, Ba. 

24 hü B^[E] Abo., iü ABHJY Ozt B, ü Pü. animantemr-compotem mss 

(exa an. esse sens, merU. rat, comp, G), P has mentemf H (like G) omits mundum 
esse, Heind. conj. an, mund, esse et s, m,r. c, 28 quaero Or. Ba. (by mistake f ). 



18 DE NATUBA DEORUM. 

quaeque nihil asperitatis habere, nihil offensionis potest, nihil in- 
cisum angulis, nihil an&actibus, nihil eminens, nihil lacunosum? 
cumque* duae formae pra6stantis^'ma6 eint, ex solidis globus 
(sie enim a^alpav interpretari placet), ex planis autem circulua 
ant orbis, qui ^/cXo9 Qraece dicitur, his duabus formis contingit 5 
Bolis, ut omnes earum partes sint inter se simillimae a medioque 
tdxiiundem undique absit extremum, quo nihil fieri potest ap- 

48 tius. Sed si haec non videtis, quia numquam eruditum illum 
pulverem attigistis, ne hoc quidem physici intellegere potuistis, 
hanc aequabilitatem motus constantiamque ordinum in alia 10 
figura non potuisse servari? Itaque nihil potest indoctius, quam 
quod a vobis affirmari Bolet Nee enim hunc ipsum mundum 
pro certo rotundum esse dicitis; nam posse fieri, ut sit alia 

40 figura, innumerabilesque mundos aJios aliarum esse formarum. 
Quae, si, bis bina quot essent, didicisset Epicurus, certe non 15 
diceret; sed dum palato, quid sit optimum, judicat, 'caeli 
palatum/ ut ait Ennius, non suspexit. XIX. Nam cum duo sint 
genera siderum, quorum alterum spatiis immutabilibus ab ortu 
ad occasum commeans nuUum umquam cursus sui vestigium 
inflectat, alterum autem continuas conversiones duas isdem 20 
spatiis cursibusque conficiat, ex utraque re et mundi volubi- 
litas, quae nisi in globosa forma esse non posset, et stellarum 
rotundi ambitus cognoscuntur. Primusque sol, qui astrorum 
tenet p^ncipatum, ita movetur, ut, cum terras larga luce com- 
pleverit, easdem modo his, modo illis ex partibus opacet;25 
ipsa enim umbra terrae soli officiens noctem efficit; noctur- 
norum autem spatiorum eadem est aequabilitas, quae diur- 

8 praestantisHtnae Nonins p. 482 Klotz Forch., praestantii AYH, praettante$ 
H88 generally. 4 c^cupop edd., spheram or speram mss. circtUus mbs, 

eireus Nonins Dav. 6 k^kXos edd., dolus or cycbu mss. 6 medioque 

tarOundem undique dbait Ed., medioque tantundem summum äbsit et Allen, medio- 
que ubique tantundem absit Klotz Sch.^, medioque tantundem absit Or. Ba. Mn. 
after Mady. PhiloL Schneid, n p. 140, medioque tantum absit uas (ezc. tandum B) 
Seh.^. 7 extremum XBHILG, extremum qitantum idem a summo UV* Red. 

Abc. + Soh., ext. q. medium a summo Day. Heind. 10 aequabilitatem Ked. 

M edd., aequalitatem hss generally. 11 potest AGEFV^BH, potest esse [B] Y* 

Ozf. Abc. + edd. 15 quot CEPYSGE Ozf. Bed., quod ABW^UBO, quid B*M. 

21 conßeiat HB by corr., confeciat A by corr., confectat CEPBLUT, eonfecta Y 
Oxf . + . 22 posset, potest O. 26 offieientU Oeener Heind. 27 diur- 

norym, by ooxr. fr. diomomm AY. 



LiB. n CAP. xvni — ^xx §§ 47 — 52. 19 

nonim; ejusdemque solis tum accessus modici, tum recessus 
et fiigoris et caJoris modum temperant ; drcumitus enim solis 
orbium quinque et sexaginta et trecentorum quarta fere 
diei parte addita conversionem conficiunt annuam ; inflectens 
5 autem sol cursum tum ad septentriones, tum ad meridiem, 
aestates et hiemes efficit et ea duo tempora, quorum alterum 
hiemi senescenti adjunctum est, alterum aestati. «Itaex quat- 
tuor temporum mutationibus omnium, quae terra marique gi- 
gnuntur, initia causaeque ducuntur. Jam solis amiuos cursus 50 

10 spatiis menstruis luna consequitur, cujus tenuissimum lumen 
facit proximus accessus ad solem, digressus autem longissimus 
quisque plenissimum. Neque solum ejus species ac forma 
mutatur tum crescendo, tum defectibus in initia recurrendo, 
sed etiam regio, quae tum est aquilonia, tum australis. In 

15 lunae quoque cursu est et brumae quaedam et solstitii similitudo, 
multaque ab ea manant et fluunt, quibus et animantes alantur 
augescantque, et pubescant maturitatemque assequantur quae 
oriuntur e terra. XX. Maxime vero sunt admirabiles motus 51 
eanim quinque stellarum, quae falso vocantur errantes. Nihil 

30 enim errat, quod in omni aetemitate conservat progressus et 
regressus reliquosque motus constantes et ratos. Quod eo est 
admirabilius in bis stellis, quas dicimus, quia tum occultantur, 
tum rursus aperiuntur, tum o^eunt, tum recedunt, tum ante- 
cedunt, tum autem subsequuntur, tum celerius moventur, tum 

25 tardiuSy tum omnino ne moventur quidem, sed ad quoddam 
tempus insistunt. Quarum ex disparibus motionibus magnum 
annum mathematici nominaverunt, qui tum efficitur, cum solis 
et lunae et quinque errantium ad eandem inter se comparationem 
confectis omnium spatiis est facta conversio. Quae quam longa 52 

8 quinque et eexaginta et trecentorum ABY, V et LX et trecentorum Oxf., V et 
LX et CCC K edd., quinque et sexaginta et trecenti Heind. Allen after GtijaoiiiB, 
quinque defectibus et sexaginta et trecentorum OB and (with onÜBsion of former et) 
E, (with insertion of est before former et) PL, (reading diebus for defectibus) El. 
Bog. Mannt, {defectibus was probably omitted below 1. 18, then added in margin 
and wrongly transferred to this plaoe). 13 tum defectibus in initia recur- 

rendo in marg. of B. 14 aquilonia GHB, aquilenta XB Oxf. + , aquüonaris 

Abo., aquiUmalis ü + Mars. tum {2^) VHHB + , aut ABCEPB Oxf. in Mss, 
inde in Or. Ba. Mo., ita in Soh., nam in Heind. 28 adeunt Moier's edd. 

after Ursin., abeunt ms, obeunt Aso. 24 autem [X] 0x1 Abo., om. G 

Bed. Heind. Seh. 

2—2 



20 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

sit, magna quaestio est, esse vero certam et definitam neoesse 
est. Nam ea, quae Satumi Stella dicitur ^alvG)vq}ie a Oraecis 
nominatur, quae a terra abest plurimum, xxx fere annis cursum 
suum conficit, in quo cursu multa mirabiliter efficiens tum ante- 
cedendo, tum retardando, tum vespertinis temporibus delitiscendo, 5 
tum matutinis rursum se aperiendo, nihil immutat sempitemis 
saeclorum aetatibus, quin eadem isdem temporibus efficiat. Infira 
autem hanc propius a terra Jovis Stella fertur, quae ^aAdmv 
dicitur, eaque eundem xil signorum orbem annis xu conficit 

53 easdemque, quas Satumi Stella, e£Scit in cursu varietates. Huic 10 
autem proximum inferiorem orbem tenet Ti.vp6€L^, quae Stella 
Martis appellatur, eaque im et xx mensibus vi, ut opinor, diebus 
minus eundem lustrat orbem, quem duae superiores. Infra hanc 
autem Stella Mercurii est ; ea XrCkßoiv appellatur a Graecis; 
quae anno fere vertente signiferum lustrat orbem neque a sola 15 
longius umquam unius signi intervallo discedit tum antevertens, 
tum subsequens. Infima est quinque errantium terraeque 
proxima Stella Yeneris, quae <^(oaif>6po^ Graece, Lucifer Latine 
dicitur, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem, "'E^rTre- 
po^ ; ea cursum anno conficit et latitudinem lustrans signiferi 20 
orbis et longitudinem, quod idem faciunt stellae superiores, 
neque umquam ab sole duorum signorum intervallo longius dis- 

54 cedit tum antecedens, tum subsequens. XXI. Hanc igitur in 
stellis constantiam, hanc tantam tam variis cursibus in omni 
aetemitate convenientiam temporum non possum intellegere 25 
sine mente, ratione, consilio. Quae cum in sideribus inesse 
videamus, non possumus ea ipsa non in deorum numero reponere. 
Nee vero eae stellae, quae inerrantes vocantur, non significant 
eandem mentem atque prudentiam ; quarum est cotidiana con- 
veniens constansque conversio, nee habent aetherios cursus 30 
neque caelo inhaerentes, ut plerique dicunt physicae rationis 
ignari. • Non est enim aetheris ea natura, ut vi sua Stellas com- 
plexa contorqueat ; nam tenuis ac perlucens et aequabili calore 

2 ScOunii by oorr. BV also Ozf. HM Abo. + , Satumu A, Satumia GEB. 
^alp<apquef this and the following Greek names are given in Latin letters in mbb. 
19 'l^repos, Hesperua Heind. Allen, Vesper Latine^ Graece 'IBiawepos oonj. Heind. 
p. im. 27 ponere ap. Lact, n 5. 81 inhaerentes sunt oon>v Swainson 

(the omiflBion being dne to t followed by ut). 



LiB. II CAP. XX — ^xxn §§ 52 — 58. 21 

suffiisus aether non satis aptus ad Stellas continendas videtur. 
fiabent igitur suam sphaeram stellae inerrantes ab aetheria 55 
conjunctione secretam et liberam. Eanim autem perennes cur- 
sus atque perpetui cum admirabili incredibilique constantia 
5 declarant in bis vim et mentem esse divinam, ut, baec ipsa qui 
non sentiat deorum vim babere, is nibü omnino sensurus esse 
videatur. Nulla igitur in caelo nee fortima nee temeritas nee 56 
erratio nee vanitas inest contraque omnis ordo; veritas, ratio, 
constantia;, quaeque bis vacant, ementita et falsa plenaque 

lo erroris, ea circum terras iofra lunam, quae omnium ultima est, 
in terrisque versantur. Caelestium ergo admirabüem ordinem 
incredibilemque constantiam, ex qua conservatio et salus 
omnium omnis oritur, qui vacare mente putat, is ipse mentis 
expers babendus est. Haud ergo, ut opinor, erravero, si a57 

15 principe investigandae veritatis bujus disputationis principium 
duxero. 

XXII. Zeno igitur naturam ita definit, ut eam dicat ignem 
esse artificiosum, ad gignendum progredientem via. Censet 
enim artis maxime proprium esse creare et gignere ; quodque 

20 in operibus nostrarum artium manus efficiat, id multo artifi- 
ciosius naturam efficere, id est, ut dixi, ignem artificiosum, 
magistrum artium reliquarum. Atque bac quidem ratione 
omnis natura artificiosa est, quod babet quasi viam quandam 
et sectam, quam sequatur. Ipsius vero mundi, qui omnia com- 58 

25 plexu suo coercet et continet, natura non artificiosa solum, sed 
plane artifex ab eodem Zenone dicitur, consultrix et provida 
utilitatum opportunitatumque omnium. Atque ut ceterae natu- 
rae suis seminibus quaeque gignuntur, augescunt, continentur, 
sie natura mundi omnes motus babet voluntarios, conatusque 

30 et appetitiones, quas opfMd^ Qraeci vocant, et bis consentaneas 
actiones sie adbibet, ut nosmet ipsi, qui animis movemur et sen- 
sibus. Talis igitur mens mundi cum sit, ob eamque causam vel 
prudentia vel Providentia appellari recte possit (Graece enim • 

5 iü Mn. praef. vm. 8 vanitas mss generally, varieUu L Moser's DXM. 

9 ementita [BC£P]BH by corr. V, ea mentita MOB Oxf., mentita by oorr. A. 
11 venantur GBH, versatur ABEPY Ozf. + . caelestitan G Mo8er*B La edd. 

after Dav., eaelestem mb& generally (cf. bdow § 64). 28 quaeque A£ Mob., 

quaequae BCPV (Ree Madv. Fln. p. 656^). 30 öpfxas, Latin in mss. 



22 DE NATURA DEOBUM. 

irpovout dicitur), haec potissimum providet et in his maxime est 
occupata, primum ut mundus quam aptissimus sit ad permanen- 
dum, deinde ut nuUa re egeat, maxime autem ut in eo eximia 
pulchritudo sit atque omnis omatus. 

59 XXIII. Dictum est de universo mundo, dictum etiam [est] 5 
de sideribus, ut jam prope modum appareat multitudo nee ces- 
santium deorum nee ea, quae agant, molientium cum labore 
operoso ac molesto. Non enim venis et nervis et ossibus con- 
tinentur nee iis escis aut potionibus vescuntur, ut aut nimis 
acres aut nimis concretos umores coUigant, nee iis corporibus 10 
sunt^ ut casus aut ictus extimescant aut morbos metuant ex 
defetigatione membrorum ; quae verens Epicurus monogrammos 

60 deos et nihil agentes commentus est. Uli autem pulcherrima 
forma praediti purissimaque in regione caeli coUocati ita ferun- 
tur moderanturque cursus, ut ad omnia conservanda et tuenda 15 
consensisse videantur. 

Multae autem aliae naturae deorum ex magnis beneficiis 

eorum non sine causa et a Qraeciae sapientissimis et a majoribus 

nostris constitutae nominataeque sunt. Quicquid enim magnam 

utilitatem generi afferret humane, id non sine divina bonitate 20 

erga homines fieri arbitrabantur. Itaque tum ülud, quod erat a 

deo natum, nomine ipsius dei nuncupabant, ut cum £ruges 

Oererem appeUamus, vinum autem Liberum, ex quo iUud 

Terentii 

sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus; 25 

61 tum autem res ipsa, in qua vis inest major aliqua, sie appellatur, 
ut ea ipsA nominetur deus, ut Fides, ut Mens, quas in Capitolio 
dedicatas videmus proxime a M. Aemilio Scauro ; ante autem ab 
Ä. Atilio Calatino erat Fides consecrata. Vides Virtutis tem- 
plum, vides Honoris a M. Marcello renovatum, quod non multis 30 

1 rp6poia, Latin in ii ss. 5 dictum est—pluribus verhis expHeatut est (§ 63) 
om. P. etiam est ABYBV edd., etiam CBG, est etiam E Oxf. + i est G Bed. ü. 
6 madum [AE V + ] Oxf . Aso., mundum BK:IB (of. 1 88). 8 venis et Oif . HOB'V, 
venisset B^B, venis sed ACE, venis nee Y^. 9 iis edd., His B, his ACYB-f-, 

hys E. 10 iis M edd., is A, hiis B, his OYB, hys E. 22 natum xbs, ezo. 

dmahm G* Heind. 27 ipsa B El. + , ipsa vis ACE Y> Mas. , ipsa vi V^, ipsa res 
Dav. 29 Ä. Atilio Soh. Mu. after Fleckeisen Krit. Mise. p. 56, Atilio mss 

Or. Ba. Fides, Spes Lamb. Heind. vides — vides V Ozf. MO, vides — vide 
ABV^H, mde^^vide CEE. 30 multis kbb edd. , haud muUis Bonh., nonnuüis Dav. 



LiB. n CAP. xxn — XXIV §§ 58—63. 23 

ante annis erat hello Ligustico a Q. Maximo dedicatum. Quid 
Opis? quid Salutis ? quid CJoncordiae, Libertatis, Victorias? 
quarum omnium rerum quia vis erat tanta, ut sine deo regi 
non posset; ipsa res deorum nomen obtinuit Quo ex genere 
5 Cupidinis et Voluptatis et Lubentinae Veneris vocabula con- 
secrata sunt, vitiosanim rerum neque naturalium ; quamquam 
Yelleius aliter existimat; sed tarnen ea ipsa vitia naturam 
vehementius saepe pulsant. Utilitatum igitur magnitudine 62 
constituti sunt ei di, qui utilitates quasque gignebant. Atque 

lo bis quidem nominibus, quae paulo ante dicta sunt, quae vis sit 
in quoque declaratur deo. 

XXTV. Suscepit autem vita hominum consaetadoque com- 
munis, ut beneficiis excellentes vires in caelum fama ac volun- 
täte toUerent. Hinc Hercules, binc Oastor et FoUux, binc 

15 Aesculapius, binc Liber etiam ; — bunc dico Liberum Semela 
natum, non eum, quem nostri majores auguste sancteque 
[Liberum] cum Cerere et Libera consecraverunt, quod quäle sit, 
ex mysteriis intellegi potest : sed quod ex nobis natos ' liberos ' 
appellamus, idcirco Cerere nati nominati sunt Liber et Libera, 

30 quod in Libera servant, in Libero non item ; — binc etiam Eo- 
mulu^, quem quidem eundem esse Quirinum putant ; quorum 
cum remanerent animi atque aeternitate fruerentur, rite di sunt 
babiti, cum et optimi essent et aetemi. 

Alia quoque ex ratione, et quidem physica, magna fluxit 63 

35 multitudo deorum, qui induti specie bumana fabulas poetis sup- 
peditaverunt, bominum autem vitam superstitione omni refer- 
serunt Atque bic locus a Zenone tractatus post a Cleanthe et 
Chrysippo pluribus verbis explicatus est. Nam cu/m vetus haec 

15 Semela V Oxf. (of. Tme. i 28 Liher Semela natus in all Orelli*8 ksb), 
Semele BGEA3 + » $emel h}, 17 [Lihervm\ Mu., om. HINB Seh. alter Walker 

Heind., Liberum vss Or. Ba. 18 mysteriis [ABGE]BO, ministeriis V Oxf. 

L1IB+. 20 Libera — Libero mss generallj, libero — libera NG Bed. Mannt. 

Heind. BamiUus edd., RomtUum mbb (assimilated to Liberum). 21 quidem 
EVE, quidam ABGB+. 25 induti H^ILN Aso., inducH XBH^HOV Oxf. 

28 nam cum vetus — opplevisset Ba. after Moser and Bake (of. § 6 mmtiavisset), 
nam vetus — opplevisset ABCB» n. v, — applevisset E, n, v. — opplevit V (by coir. fr. 
opplevisse) LMOU Or. Soh. Mn. (with period after Jove)y n. v.— opplevit sciUcet 
BV EI. Med. Abo. Elotz (Seh. proposee to pnt seilicet before physica), n. v, — 
opplevit sed Beg. Bed. Oxf., n. v,-~-opplevit esse Heind. 



24 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

opinio Graeciam opplevisset, exsectum Caelum a filio Satumo, 

64 yinctum autem Satumum ipsum a filio Jove, physica ratio non 
inelegaus inclusa est in impias fabulas ; caelestium enim altis- 
simam aetheriamque naturam, id est igneam^ quae per sese 
omnia gigneret, vacare voluerunt ea parte corporis, quae conjunc- 5 
tione alterius egeret ad procreandum. XXV. Satumum autem 
eum esse voluerunt, qui cursum et conversionem spatiorum ac 
temporum contineret, qui deus Graece id ipsum nomen habet; 
Kp6vo^ enim dicitur, qui est idem 'xpovo^, id est spatium tem- 
poria Satumus autem est appellatus, quod saturaretur annis; 10 
eit se enim natos comesse fingitur solitus, quia consumit aetas 
temporum spatia annisque praeteritis insaturabiliter ezpletur, 
vinctus autem a Jove, ne immoderatos cursus haberet, atque ut 
eum siderum vinclis alligaret. Sed ipse Juppiter, id est ' juvans 
pater/ quem conversis casibus appellamus a juvando Jovem, a 15 
poetis 'pater divumque bominumque ' didtur, a majoribus autem 
nostris ' optimus maximus/ et quidem ante * optimus/ id est 
beneficentissimus, quam 'maximus/ quia majus est certeque 

65 gratius prodesse omnibus quam opes magnas habere, — ^hunc 
igitur Ennius, ut supra dixi, nuncupat ita dicens, 20 

Aspice hoc sublime candens, quem invocant omnes Joyem; 

planius quam alio loco idem, 

Qui, quod in me est^ exsecrabor hoc^ quod lucet, quicquid est; 

hunc etiam augures nostri, cum dicunt ' Jove fulgente, tonante;' 
[dicunt enim * caelo fulgente, tonante.'] Euripides autem, ut 25 
multa praeclare, sie hoc [breviter] : 

8 caelestium BM Ozf., caelestum AECB, eaeleetem [BCVjHOL Laot 1 12 edcL 
9 Kpöpot — xP^yot, Latin in mbs. qui est idem [X]B+ « quod est idem quod 

Lact. 1. 0. xp^¥09 id est [X]BH + , om. ILNOVB. 15 pater quem CEP + , 

partem que A, pater quae BY. 19 habere^ Ma. after Bake, habere, icss 

Or. Ba. Soh. 21 sublime xss generally, supUme B, supplime P, sublimen Or. 

Ba. Seh. cf. § 4. 22 planius quam BO, planius quem AVE Oxf., planiusque 

EBB+ 1 pleniusque C. 28 gut Gulielmins, cui mbs generally edd., cur Reg. 

DaT. see Gomm. 24 Jone fulgente tonante [AGEV] Oxf. BM, j. fidg, et ton. B, 

jovem fulgentem tonantem PHLÜ Abc. + . 26 dicunt enim — tonante [X Mos.] 

edd., om. G and 2 oodd. of Golielm. Heind. caelo B, celo A', melo A^CEPVB 

Oxf. + , in caelo LOV+ . fulgente tonante EH, fulg, et ton. BCPV Oxf. B + , 

fiügentaetonantaeA, fulgentem et tonantem ELOVT. 26 breviter usaBtk.'M.n,, 

om. Heind., in brackets Or. Seh., graviter Bouh. and (omitting hoc) Yaucher, 



LIB. II CAP. XXIV— XXVII 8S 63 — 67. 26 



Yides sublime fusum, immoderatum aethera, 

qui terram tenero circumjectu amplectitur : 

hunc summum habeto divuiu, hunc perhibeto Jovem. 

XXVI. Aer autem, ut Stoici disputant, interjectus inter mare 66 
5 et caelum Junonis nomine consecratur, quae est soror et conjunx 
Jovis, quod et similitudo est aeri aetheris et cum eo summa 
conjunctio. Effeminarunt autem eum Junonique tribuerunt, 
quod nihil est eo mollius. Sed Junonem a juvando credo 
nominatam. Aqua restabat et terra, ut essent ex fabulis tria 

lo regna divisa. Datum est igitur Neptuno, alteri Jovis, ut volunt, 
fratri, maritimum omne regnum, nomenque productum, ut 
Fortunus a portu, sie Neptunus a nando paulum primis litteris 
immutatis. Terrena autem vis omnis atque natura Diti patri 
dedicata est, qui Dives, ut apud Graecos UXoijTtop, quia et 

IS recidunt omnia in terras et oriuntur e terris. Cui Proseipi- 
nam nvptam, quod Graecorum nomen est ; ea enim est, quae 
H€pa€(l}6vn] Graece nominatur, quam frugum semen esse volunt 
absconditamque quaeri a matre fingunt. Mater autem est a 67 
gerendis firugibus Ceres tamquam ' Geres/ casuque prima littera 

2o itidem immutata, ut a Graecis ; nam ab Ulis quoque Arjfju^r'^p 
quasi Trf/jb'qrrjp nominata est. Jam qui magna verteret, Mavors, 
Minerva autem, quae vel minueret vel minaretur. XXVII. 
Cumque in omnibus rebus vim haberent maximam prima et 
extrema, principem in sacrificando Janimi esse voluerunt, quod 

25 ab eundo nomen est ductum, ex quo transitiones perviae ' jani,' 
foresque in liminibus profanarum aedium ' januae ' nominantur. 
Nam Vestae nomen a Graecis ; ea est enim, quae ab illis ^Earla 

verti enim (omitting hoc) Allen. 6 quod et mbs, quod ei Prob, (in Bue, p. 12 

Keil) edcL, quod ei et Heind. airi aetheris Ed., aetheri» mss edd., aXirie 

Prob, see Oomm. 10 alteri AH)'Ü Lamb., alterum (assimilated to regnum) 

A^BGEV^B, aUero PV* Oxf. OiHH+ Heind. Soh. 12 portu PBK3%, porta 

AEVB^C^B Ozf.+. 14 UXo&rw edd., PUUon mbb. 16 recidunt AO 

Prob. , reeidant kbs generally. oriuntur hss generally, oriantium E, oriantur 

Abo. + Heind. Allen. cui Proserpinam nuptam Ed., cui Proterpinam 

ABEVBMO+, cui Proterpina (whioh omits quod Oraeeorum and ea enim ett) 
PHN, u rapuit JProserpinam Mannt, (e cod. Ma£fei) Heind., cui nuptam dicunt 
Proserpinam edd. (the wordB nuptam dicunt are foond in Reg. and after nomi- 
natur and so printed by Allen). See Gomm« 17, 20, 21 He/we^^, Aiy/uiy- 

T7IP and Tiifajirrip are written in Latin in mbs. 27 nam mbs, jam Ba. after 

Wölflün. a Graecis mbs generally, a Graecis est Reg. HO Lamb. Soh. Ba. , 



26 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

dicitur. Vis autem ejus ad aras et focos pertinet. Itaque in ea 
dea, quod est renim custos intimanimy omnis et precatio et sacri- 

68 ficatio extrema est. Nee longe absunt ab hac vi di Penates 
sive a penu ducto nomine (est enim omne, quo vescuntur 
homines, penus) sive ab eo, quod penitus insident; ex quo 5 
etiam 'penetrales' a poetis vocantur. Jam Apollinis nomen 
est Qraecum, quem Solem esse volunt ; Dianam autem et 
Lunam eandem esse putant ; cum Sol dictus sit, vel quia solas 
ex Omnibus sideribus est tantus vel quia, cum est exortus, ob- 
scuratis omnibus solus apparet ; Luna a lucendo nominata sit, 10 
eadem est enim Lucina. Itaque, ut apud Qraecos Dianam, 
eamque Luciferam, sie apud nostros Junonem Lucinam in 
pariendo invocäut; quae eadem Diana 'omnivaga' dicitur, non 

a venando, sed quod in Septem numeratur tamquam vagantibus, 

69 Diana dicta, quia noctu quasi diem efficeret. Adhibetur autem 15 
ad partus, quod ii maturescunt aut Septem non numquam aut, 
ut plerumque, novem lunae cursibus, qui quia mensa spatia 
conficiunt, 'menses' nominantur. Concinneque, ut multa, 
Timaeus, qui cum in historia dixisset, qua nocte natus Alex* 
ander esset, eadem Dianae Ephesiae templum deflagravisse, 20 
adjunxit minime id esse mirandum, quod Diana, cum in partu 
Olympiadis adesse voluisset, afuisset domo. Quae autem dea 
ad res omnes yeniret, Yenerem nostri nominaverunt, atque ex ea 
potius ' venustas ' quam * Venus ' ex venustate. 

70 XXVIII. Videtisne igitur, ut a physicis rebus bene atque 25 
utiliter inventis tracta ratio sit ad.commenticios et fictos deos? 
quae res genuit falsas opiniones erroresque turbulentes et super- 
stitiones paene aniles. Et formae enim nobis deorum et aetates 
et vestitus omatusque noti sunt, genera -praeterea, conjugia^ 
cognationes omniaque traducta ad similitudinem imbecillitatis 30 
humanae; nam et perturbatis animis inducuntur — accepimus 
enim deorum cupiditates, aegritudines, iracundias — ^nec vero, ut 

est a Qraecü U. Gl § 44 Icaidandus. . 'EorZa, Latin in xss. 2 quod 

MSB generally, qtuu TV, que E. 7 after Dianam autem there is a gap in P 

to § 162 deorum prudentia. 16 quod ii [A]B^ quod hi Oxf. HOC>, quod 

B^G^ Probns, quodi Y\ quo dy E. 20 deflagravisse [GEPJV^BH, deagravisse 

A, demigravisse B by oorr.» deam migravisse V^ Oxf. 22 afuisset edd., afaisse 

A^BG^V^, abfuisse G^, affuisse E, affuisset BL, adfidsset 0x1, abfuisset A3y* + . 
81 accepimus HUO Aug. C D. tv 80, aceipimus mss generally of. m 42, 47. 



LiB. n CAP. xxvn— XXIX §§ 67—73. 27 

fabulae ferunt, bellis proeliisque caruerunt, nee solum, ut apud 
Homerum, cum duo ezercitus contrarios alii di ex alia parte 
defenderent, sed etiam, ut cum Titanis, ut cum Gigantibus, sua 
propria bella gesserunt. Haec et dicuntur et creduntur stultia- 
5 sime et plena sunt futtilitatis summaeque levitatis. Sed tamen 71 
bis fabulis spretis ac repudiatis deus pertinens per naturam 
cujusque rei, per terras Ceres, per maria Neptunus, alii per alia, 
poterunt intellegi qui qualesque sint, quoque eos nomine con- 
süetudo nuncupaverit; quos deos et venerari et colere debemus. 

lo Cultus autem deorum est optimus idemque castissimus atque 
sanctissimus plenissimusque pietatis, ut eos semper pura, integra, 
incorrupta et mente et voce veneremur. Non enim pbilosopbi 
solum, verum etiam majores nostri superstitionem a religione 
separaverunt. Nam qui totos dies precabantur et immolabant, 72 

15 ut sibi sui liberi superstites essent, superstitiosi sunt appellati, 
quod nomen patuit postea latius; qui autem omnia, quae ad 
cultum deorum pertinerent, diligenter retractarent et tamquam 
relegerent, sunt dicti religiosi ex relegendo, ut elegantes ex 
eligendo, ex diligendo diligentes, ex intellegendo intellegentes. 

20 His enim in verbis omnibus inest vis legendi eadem, quae in 
religiöse. Ita factum est in superstitioso et religiöse alterum 
vitii nomen, alterum laudis. Ac mibi videor satis et esse deos, 
et quales essent, ostendisse. 

XXIX. Proximum est, ut doceam deorum Providentia 73 

25 mtmdum administrari. Magnus sane locus et a vestris, Cotta, 

1 beüii [X]BHM Ozf . + , di hellis LOU Aso. Aag. 1. o. 3 etiam ut [ABE V] 

KM Ozf., etiam CHLOÜ. ut cum Qigantilnu [ABE]y^M Ozf., et cum gig. GB, 

aut cum gig, Aug. ; id est gig, VHNÜ, cum gig. LO. 8 poterunt mss generally, 

poterant AB*. 9 quos deos ABGEV^BOC, hos deos ÜV> Aso. Ozf.+, hoc eos 

edd. after Keil Qu. TuU, p. zzii, see Soh. Opusc. m p. 831 and Comm. 18 re- 

ligiosi — intellegentes, tezt Ma. and (with Insertion of itemque from G after 
eUgendo) Soh., reL ex reL [elegantes ex eUgendo] tamquam ex dil. dU, ex int. 
int, Ot. Ba., reL ex rel. tamquam ex eUgendo elegantes, ex dil, dil, ex int. 
int. Forohhammer and Walker (foUowing Isid. Orig. z 234, Lact, iv 28). reU- 

giosi — eUgendo, religiosi ex legende elegantes ex eUgendo A, relegiosi ex relegendo 
elegantes ex elegendo BV, rel. ex relegando elegantes ex legende 0, reUgiosi ex 
relegendo E Ozf. ex diligendo — intellegentes, tamquam legende deUgendis ex 

intellegendo intellegentes ABCBBOV (seemingly a monkish sentiment, *by reading 
out of the legends men are famed for nnderstanding throngh nnderstanding 
them*), diUgentes et ex inteUegendo Ozf., delegendis ex int. int, E, tamquam a 
deUgendo deligentes ex int. int. V. 25 locus Y Bed. +Lamb. Heind. Allen Seh., 



28 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

vexatus^ ac nimirum vobiscum omne certamen est. Nam vobis, 
Yellei, minus notum est, quem ad modum quidque dicatur; 
vestra enim solum legitis, vestra amatis, ceteros causa incognita 
condemnatis. Yelut a te ipso hestemo die dictum est anum 
fatidicam irpovoiav a Stoicis induci, id est providentiam. Quod 5 
eo errore dixisti, quia existimas ab iis providentiam fingi quasi 
quandam deam singularem, quae mundum omnem gubemet et 

74 regat ; sed id praecise dicitur. Ut, si quis dicat Atheniensium 
rem publicam consilio regi, desit illud 'Areopagi/ sie, cum 
dicimus Providentia mundum administrari, deesse arbitrato 10 
' deorum ; ' plene autem et perfecte sie dici existimato : Provi- 
dentia deorum mundum administrari. Ita salem istum, quo 
caret vestra natio, in irridendis nobis nolitote consumere, et 
mehercle, si me audiatis, ne experiamini quidem ; non decet, 
non datum est, non potestis. Nee vero hoc in te unt^m convenit, 15 
moribus domesticis ac nostrorum hominum urbanitate limatum, 
sed cum in reliquos vestros, tum in eum maxime, qui ista 
peperit, hominem sine arte, sine litteris, insultantem in omnes^ 

75 sine acumine uUo, sine auctoritate, sine lepore. XXX. Dico 
igitur Providentia deorum mundum et omnes mundi partes et 30 
initio constitutas esse et omni tempore administrari ; eamque 
disputationem tres in partes nostri fere dividunt, quarum prima 
pars est, quae ducitur ab ea ratione, quae docet esse deos ; quo 
concesso confitendum est eorum consilio mundum administrari. 
Secunda est autem, quae docet omnes res subjectas esse naturae 25 
sentienti, ab eaque omnia pulcherrime geri; quo constituto 
sequitur ab animantibus principüs eam esse generatam. Tertius 



2ociM est [ABCE Mos.] Abo. Or. Ba. Mn., loeutm est 0x1 5 rpovoia», Lat. in mss. 
id est providentiam xss, om. Ursin. Dsv. Heind., in brackets Or. Ba. 6 exis- 
' tumas AVB%, existinus B\ existimdbas C£. 10 arbitrato [X]BO Ozf., arbi- 

trator B HeincL Allen Ba. 13 in Abo. Oxf. ü [Mas.], om. IN Or. Ba. (with- 

out note). nolitote mbb generally, noUte HUT Hdnd. 15 hoe xss 

generally, om. GEB Oxf. in te wio convenit — Umato xss (bat Oxf. omits 

uno)f in te unum convenit — linuUum Lamb. and (with inaertion after convenit of 
velpotius in te tmum non convenit) Madv. (with mark of onuBsion after convenit) 
Or. Ba., in te convenit unum — limatum Seh. Ma. after Eindervater. 23 pars 

bracketed by Or. Ba. after EmestL 27 eam este generatam xss generally 

Kühner, ea esse generata Q edd. after Bonh., esse omnia generata N Bed. 
Heind. See Comm. 



ÜB. II CAP. XXIX — XXXI §§ 73 — 79. 29 

est locus, qui ducitur ex admiratione rerum caelestium atque 
terrestrium. 

Primum igitur aut negandum est esse deos, quod et Demo- 76 
critus simulacra et Epicurus imagines inducens quodam pacto 
5 negat, aut, qui deos esse concedant, iis fatendum est eos aliquid 
agere, idque praeclarum; nihil est autem praeclarius mundi 
admiiMstratione ; deorum igitur consilio administratur. Quod 
si aliter est, aliquid profecto sit necesse est melius et majore 
vi praeditum quam deu^, quäle id cumque est, sive inanima 

IG natura sive neoessitas vi magna incitata haec pulcfaerrima opera 
efficiens, quae videmus. Non est igitur natura deorum prae- 77 
potens neque excellens, siquidem ea subjecta est ei vel neces- 
sitati vel naturae, qua caelum, maria, terrae regantur ; nihil est 
autem praestantius deo; ab eo igitur mundum necesse est regi. 

15 Nulli igitur est naturae oboediens aut subjectus deus, omnem 
eigo regit ipse naturam. Etenim si concedimus inteUegentes 
esse deos, concedimus etiam providentes, et rerum quidem 
maximarum. Ergo utrum ignorant, quae res maximae sint, 
quoque eae modo tractandae et tuendae, an vim non habent, 

20 qua tantas res sustineant et gerant ? At et ignoratio rerum 
aliena, naturae deorum est, et sustinendi muneris propter 
imbecillitatem difficultas minime cadit in majestatem deorum. 

• 

Ex quo efficitur id, quod volumus, deorum Providentia mundum 
administrari. XXXI. Ätqui necesse est, cum sint di, si modo 78 

25 sunt, ut profecto sunt, animantes esse, nee solum animantes, 
sed etiam rationis compotes inter seque quasi civili conciliatione 
et societate conjunctos, unum mundum ut communem rem pub- 
licam atque urbem aliquam regentes. Sequitur, ut eadem sit 79 
in iis, quae humano in genere, ratio, eadem veritas utrobique 

30 sit eademque lex, quae est recti praeceptio pravique depulsio. 
Ex quo intellegitur prudentiam quoque et mentem a dis ad 

1 ducitur BEX, dicitur AGVHO, dr BO Ozf. of. above § 18. 8 tit necesse 

est melius ABGBHLO Oxf., sit necesse est melius esse EO, sit necesse est esse melius 
{esse sapersor.) VIMNV Asc., necesse est esu melius HeincL 9 deus B' edd., 

deos AB^CEV Mas. Oxf. ü Heind. Allen. 18 Lact, i 6 nihil est praestantius 

deo : ab eo igitur mundum regi necesse est NuUi — ipse naturam, 24 atqui 

MBB generally, atque U, of. § 89. modo sunt ONO Beg. edd. after Walker, 

modo sint ms generally. 



80 DE NATÜBA DEOBUM. 

homines pervenisse, ob eamque causam majorum institutis 
mens, fides, virtus, concordia consecratae et publice dedicatae 
sunt. Qüae qui convenit penes deos esse negare, cum eorum 
augusta et sancta simulacra veneremur ? Quodsi inest in homi- 
num genere mens, fides, virtus, concordia, unde haec in terram 5 
nisi ab superis defluere potuerunt? Cumque sint in nobis 
consilium, ratio, prudentia, necesse est deos haec ipsa ]^abere 
majora^ nee habere solum, sed etiam his uti in maximis et opti- 

80 mis rebus. Nihil autem nee majus nee melius mundo ; necesse 
est ergo eum deorum consilio et Providentia administrari. 10 
Postremo cum satis docuerimus hos esse deos, quorum insignem 
vim et illustrem faciem videremus, solem dico et lunam et 
vagas Stellas et inerrantes et caelutn et mundum ipsum et 
earum rerum vim, quae inessent in omni mundo cum magno 
usu et commoditate generis humani, efficitur omnia regi divina 15 
mente atque prudentia. Ac de prima .quidem parte satis 
dictum est. 

81 XXXII. Sequitur, ut doceam omnia subjecta esse naturae, 
eaque ab ea pulcherrime geri. Sed quid sit ipsa natura, expli- 
candum est ante breviter, quo facilius id, quod docere volumus, 20 
intellegi possit. Namque alii naturam esse censent vim quan- 
dam sine ratione cientem motus in corporibus necessarios, alii 
autem vim participem rationis atque ordinis tamquam via pro- 
gredientem declarantemque, quid cujusque rei causa efficiat, 
quid sequatur, cujus soUertiam nuUa ars, nuUa manus, nemo 25 
opifez consequi possit imitando ; seminis enim vim esse tantam, 
ut id, quamquam sit perexiguum, tamen, si inciderit in conci- 
pientem comprehendentemque naturam nactumque sit materiam, 
qua ali augerique possit, ita fingat et efficiat in suo quicque 
genere, partim ut tantum modo per stirpes alantur suas, partim 30 
ut moveri etiam et sentire et appetere possint et ex sese 

82 similia sui gignere. Sunt autem, qui omnia naturae nomine 
appellent, ut Epicurus, qui ita dividit: omnium, quae sint, 
naturam esse corpora et inane, quaeque his accidant. Sed nos 

8 hu, m oonj. Ma. 9 autem ABCE V^BO, autem est V*+,aut6meMe CR Ozf. 
Abo. 19 etique ab ea mss generallj, eaqtie B., a5 eaque Allen (oomparing § 75). 
geri mbb generally, regi E Abo. 20 volumus kbs, volimus ap. Prisoiaii zx 1 8 

{^voUm* pro *velim' proferebant antiqui Ao.) Allen. 84 hii BEOBV Mo. 



LiB. n CAP. XXXI — XXXIII §§ 79 — 86. 81 

cum dicimus natura constare administrariquö mundum^ non ita 
(Ucimus, ut glaebam aut fragmentum lapidis aut aliquid ejus 
modi nuUa cohaerendi natura, sed ut arborem, ut animal, in 
quibus nulla temeritas, sed ordo apparet et artis quaedam 
5 similitudo. 

XXXIIL Quodsi ea, quae a terra stirpibus continentur, 83 
arte naturae vivunt et vigent, profecto ipsa terra eadem vi 
continetur [arte naturae], quippe quae gravidata seminibus 
omnia pariat et fundat ex sese, stirpes amplexa alat et augeat, 

lo ipsaque alatur vicissim a superis extemisque naturis. Ejus- 
demque exspirationibus et aer alitur et aether et omnia supera. 
Ita, si terra natura tenetur et viget, eadem ratio in reliquo 
mundo est; stirpes enim terrae inhaerent; animantes autem 
aspiratione aeris susünentur, ipseque aer nobiscum videt, nobis- 

15 cum audit, nobiscum sonat; nihil enim eorum sine eo fieri 
potest ; quin etiam movetur nobiscum ; quacumque enim imus^ 
quacumque movemur, videtur quasi locum dare et cedere. 
Quaeque in medium locum mundi, qui est infimus, et quae a 84 
medio in superum quaeque conversione rotunda circum me- 

20 dium feruntur, ea continentem mimdi efficiunt unamque natu- 
ram. Et cum quattuor genera sint corporum, vicissitudine 
eorum mundi continuata natura est. Nam ex terra aqua, ex 
aqua oritur aer, ex aere aether, deinde retrorsum vicissim ex 
aethere aer, inde aqua, ex aqua terra infima. Sic naturis his, 

25 ex quibus omnia constant, sursus deorsus, ultro citro commean- 
tibus mundi partium conjunctio continetur. Quae aut sempi- 85 
tema sit necesse est hoc eodem ornatu, quem videmus, aut cei*te 
perdiuturna, permanens ad longinquum et immensum pa^ne 
tempus. Quorum utrumvis ut $it, sequitur natura mundum 

30 administrari. Quae enim classium navigatio aut quae instructio 
exercitus aut, rursus ut ea, quae natura efficit, conferamus, 
quae procreatio vitis aut arboris, quae porro animantis figura 
conformatioque membrorum tantam naturae sollertiam signi- 

80h., iU [ACY] B Or. Ba. 3 nuüa cohaerendi mss, sola eoh, Walker, nuUa 

niri coh. HdncL 8 arte naturae hss (by repetition from above), om. Dav. 

Or. Ba., in faraokets Ma., et arte naturae UL Seh., naturae GH Heind. 17 qua- 
cumque movemiur BYK Ozf., qua mavemur ACEBHLO. 24 hit Soh. Mo., 
iü Or. Ba., hiü B, U AV, hye E. Sl ea quae BE, eaque ACY. 



32 DE NATURA DEORUIL 

ficat, quantam ipse mundus ? Aut igitur nihil est, quod sen- 
tiente natura regatur, aut mundum regi confitendum est 

86 Etenim, qui reliquas naturas omnes earumque semina contineat, 
qui potest ipse non natura administrari ? ut, si qui dentes et 
pubertatem natura dicat exsistere, ipsum autem hominem, cui 5 
ea exsistant, non constare natura, non iutellegat ea,quae efferant 
aliquid ex sese, perfectiores habere naturas quam ea, quae ex his 
efferantur. XXXIV. Omnium autem rerum, quae natura ad- 
ministrantur, seminator et sator et parens, ut ita dicam, atque 
educator et altor est mundus, omniaque sicut membra et partes lo 
suas nutricatur et coutinet. Quodsi mundi partes natura ad- 
ministrantur, necesse est mundum ipsum natum administrari, 
cujus quidem administratio nihil habet in se, quod reprehendi 
possit; ex iis enim naturis, quae erant, quod effici Optimum 

87 potuit, efiectum est. Doceat ergo aliquis potuisse melius. Sed 15 
nemo umquam docebit, et si quis corrigere aliquid volet, aut 
deterius faciet aut id, quod fieri non potuerit, desiderabit. 
Quodsi omnes mundi partes ita constitutae sunt, üt neque ad 
usum meliores potuerint esse neque ad speciem pulchriores, 
videamus, utrum ea fortuitane sint an eo statu, quo cohaerere 20 
nuUo modo potuerint nisi sensu moderante divinaque Pro- 
videntia. Si igitur meliora sunt ea, quae natura, quam illa, 
quae arte perfecta sunt, nee ars effioit quicquam sine ratione, 
ne natura quidem rationis expers est habenda. Qui igitur 
convenit, signum aut tabulam pictam cum aspexeris, scire ad- 25 
hibitam esse artem, cumque procul cursum. navigii videris, non 
dubitare, quin id ratione atque arte moveatur, aut, cum solarium 
vel discriptum vel ex aqua contemplere, intellegere declarari 

6 efferant Seh., ecf erant Or. Ba. Mn., et ferarU AGB, haec ferat ILOTT and 
(by corr. h.f erant) B, hecf erant E, eof erant V, nee f erant K Ozf. 7 After 

aliquid in ABCEVUT Ozf. Mos. foUow § 166 to end of book (largitate fimdit-^ 
rimulate)t see on § 16. ex eese perfectiores — noiii modo nihil nocent, §§ 86 — ^92, 
wanting in V. Ms XBNB [fortasse reete Ma.), iis edd. 8 efferantur hbs, 
ecferantur Or. Ba. Mn. 11 nutrieatur hss, nutricat G Hdnd. see Conun. 

14 iis edd., /li« XB + . 17 faciet BMG Aso., facit ACEBHL Oxf . non B 

saperaor. Oxf. M Abo., om. ACEBH + . potuerit [Xpm, potuit MCOBVTT Ozf. 

Asc. 27 aut cum ABO Asc., ut cum E, et cum Walker Soh. 28 vel 

discriptum vel Or. Ba. Mu. of. Nipperd. Op. p. 278, vel descriptvm aut hbs 
generally, aut descriptum aut KG, a. discriptum a. Soh. (of. i 26 n.). 



LIB. II CAP. XXXIII — XXXV §§ 85—89. 33 

horas arte, non casu, mundum autem, qui et has ipsas artes et 
earum artifices et cuncta complectatur, consilii et rationis esse 
expertem putare ? Quodsi in Scjrthiam aut in Britanniam 88 
sphaeram aliquis tulerit hanc, quam nuper familiaris noster 
5 eflFecit Posidonius, cujus singulae conversiones idem efficiunt 
in sole et in luna et in quinque stellis errantibus, quod efficitur 
in caelo singulis diebus et nootibus, quis in illa barbaria 
dubitet, quin ea sphaera sit perfecta ratione? XXXV. Hi 
autem dubitant de mundo, ex quo et oriuntur et fiunt omnia, 

lo casune ipse sit effectus aut necessitate aliqua an ratione ac 
mente divina, et Archimedem arbitrantur plus valuisse in imi- 
tandis sphaerae conversionibus quam naturam in ef&ciendis, 
praesertim cum multis partibus sint illa perfecta quam haec 
simulata soUertius. Atqui ille apud Accium pastor, qui navem 89 

15 numquam ante vidisset, ut procul divinum et novum vehi- 

culum Argonautarum e monte conspexit, primo admirans et 

perterritus hoc modo loquitur : 

— ^tanta moles labitur 
fremibunda ex alto ingenti sonitu et spiritu. 

20 prae se undas volvit, vertices vi suscitat, 

mit prolapsa, pelagus reapergit, reflat. 
ita dum interruptum credas nimbum volvier, 
dum quod sublime ventis expulsum rapi 
sazum aut procellis, vel globosos turbines 

25 exsistere iotos undis concursantibus, 

nisi quas terrestres pontus atrages conciet, 
aut forte Triton fuscina evertens specus 
subter radices penitus undanti in freto 
molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum eruit. 

30 Dubitat primo, quae sit ea natura, quam cemit ignotam; idem- 
que, juvenibus visis auditoque nautico cantu, sie, ait 

14 atqui [G£], atque ABBOMBV Oxf. Accium Or. Ba. Mu. (see Teaffel 

Born, Lit. § 119), Attium Dav. Seh., Actium mss. 19 the eix ]meB fremibuTida 

— reflat and aut forte — eruit are found in Prisoian Metr. Ter. u 15. spiritu 

Priae. edd., strepitu mss. 20 undas volvit Priso. [B], undas evolvit ACE Mus., 

evolvit undas Oxf . 21 reflat Prise, profluit mss. 22 dum mss, num O 

Heind., tum Booh. 26 ictos mss, actos Bonh. 28 undanti in freto Prise., 

undantes veniant freto XBHLO (by dittogr. of undant,)^ undaiUe venire freto MCRV 
Oxf., undantes in freto M of Moser. 29 eruit mss generally, erui Oxf. T 

MHCOIV, erigit Lachm. onLnor. y 1388 Bibbeck Ba., vcmit Prise., evomit Tonp. ad 
Longin. SubL 3, evehit Klotz. 31 «ic, ait, inciti atque Ed., sicut iiiciti atque 

M. C. 11. 3 



34 DE NATURA DEOBUM. 

inoiti atque alacres rostris perfremunt 
delphini. 

Item alia multa: 

Silvani melo 
consimilem ad aures cantum et auditum refert. 5 

90 Ergo ut hie primo aspectu inanimum quiddam sensuque 
vacuiim 86 putat cernere, post autera signis certioribus, quäle 
sit id, de quo dubitaverat, incipit suspicari, sie philosophi 
debuerunt, si forte eos primus aspeetus mundi conturbaverat, 
po^a^ cum vidissent motus ejus finitos et aequabiles omniaque 10 
ratis ordinibus moderata immutabilique constantia, intellegere 
inesse aliquem non solum habitatorem in hac caelesti ac divina 
domo, sed etiam rectorem et moderatorem et tamquam archi- 
teetum tanti operis tantique muneris. XXXVI. Nunc autem 
mihi videntur ne suspicari quidem, quanta sit admirabilitas 15 
caelestium rerum atque terrestrium. 

91 Principio enim terra sita in media parte mundi circumfusa 
undique est hac animali spirabilique natura, cui nomen est aer^ 
Graecum illud quidem, sed perceptum jam tarnen usu a nostris; 
tritum est enim pro Latino. Hüne rursus amplectitur im- 20 
mensus aether, qui constat ex altissimis ignibus. Mutuemur 
hoc quoque verbum, dicaturque tarn 'aether' Latine, quam 
dicitur aer, etsi interpretatur Pacuvius : 

Hoc, quod memoro, nostri caelum, Graii perhibent aethera. 
Quasi vero non Graius hoc dicat. At Latine loquitur. Si qui- 25 
dem nos non quasi Graece loquentem audiamus. Docet idem 
alio loco : 

Qrajugena de istoc aperit ipsa oratio. 

92 Sed ad majora redeamus. £x aethere igitur innumerabiles 
flammae siderum exsistunt, quorum est princeps sol omnia 30 

M8S generally, sie atU ineiti atque Bibbeok fr. ed. i Or. Ba., ticut la$civi atque 
Bibb. ed. u, sie incitati atque G, sie ineitati et Heind. Seh., sie : ut ineiti atque 
Dav. AUen, simis ineiti atque Lachm. ad Lucr. n 266, fsieut— delphini f Ma. 

1 perfremunt, perfricant Lachm. 1. 0. 8 item alia multa mbs, item alto 

mulcta Bibb. L c., item illa moles conj. Mn. praef. 5 comimiUm HKOV, 

consimile XBMB Oxf. 17 principio — est a^r Probns ad Ecl. vi p. 18 Keil. 

18 animali Prob. Ozf., animahili mss gcnerallj. 24 id quod nos'.ri caelum 

m£morant Yarro L. L. t 17. 28 Grajugena de istoc edd. after Bothe, Qrai. 

tf. isto MBS generally, Qr, d. ista E, Grqjugenam ted esse Grotias. 



Lia II CAP. XXXV— xxxvn §§ 89—95. 33 

clarissima luce coUustrans, multis partibus major atqiie amplior 
quam terra universa^ deinde reliqua sidera magnitudinibus 
immensis. Atque hi tanti ignes tamque multi non modo nihil 
nocent terris rebusque terrestribus, sed ita prosunt, ut, si mota 
5 loco sint, conflagrare terras necesse sit a tantis ardoribua 
moderatione et temperatione sublata. 

XXXVII. Hie ego non mirer esse qiiemquam, qiii sibi 93 
persuadeat corpora quaedam solida atque individua vi et gravi- 
tate ferri, mundumque effici omatissimum et pulcberrimum ex 

lo eorum corporum concursione fortuita? Hoc qui existiraet fieri 
potuisse, non intellego^ cur non idem putet, si innumerabiles 
unius et viginti formae litterarum vel aureae vel qualeslibet 
aliquo conjiciantur, posse ex his in terram excussis annales 
Ennii, ut deinceps legi possint, effici; quod nescio an ne in 

15 uno quidem versu possit tan tum valere fortuna. Isti autem 91 
quem ad modum asseverant, ex corpusculis non colore, non 
qualitate aliqua, quam iroioTrjra Qraeei vocant, non sensu 
praeditis, sed concurrentibus temere atque casu mundum esse 
perfectum, vel innumerabiles potius in omni puncto temporis 

20 alios nasci, alios interire. Quodsi mundum efficere potest con- 
cursus atomorum, cur porticum, cur templum, cur domum, cur 
urbem non potest ? quae sunt minus operosa et multo quidem 
[faciliora]. Certe ita temere de mundo effutiunt, ut mihi qui- 
dem numquam hunc admirabilem caeli omatum, qui locus est 

25 proximus, suspexisse videantur. Praeclare ergo Aristoteles : 'Si 95 
essent', inquit, 'qui sub terra semper habitavissent bo- 
nis et illustribus domiciliis, quae essent ornata signis 
atque picturis instructaque rebus iis omnibus, quibus, 
abundant ii, qui beati putantur, nee tamen exissent 

30 umquam supra terram, accepissent autem fama et audi- 
tione esse quoddam numen et vim deorum, deinde 

4 UrrU rebusque here Y recommenoes. moia, moti N Heind. 10 exU' 

timet GHV^+ Heind. AUen Ba., existimat mss generally Or, Seh. Ma. see Comm, 
11 ifmumerahiles [AJB^O Oxf., inenumerdbiUs CEVB3BMR. 18 Mm [ACETjU 

0x1 Abo. Heind. Seh., iU B Or. Ba. Mu. 17 «-oidr^ra, Lat in mbs. 20 in^ 

Urire f edd. see Gomm. 23 faciliora mss Ma., om. Madv., hracketed Or. 

Soh. Ba. 28 m, hu XBU Oxf. Asc.-f-. 29 n [B] edd., hi AGEyB+, 

hii Oxf. 

3—2 



36 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

aliquo tempore patefactis terrae faucibus ex illis ab- 
ditis sedibus exire potuissent atque evadere in haec 
loca, quae nos incolimus: cum repente terram et maria 
caelumque vidissent, nubium magnitudinem ventorum- 
que vim cogaovissent aspexissentque solem ejusque 5 
cum magnitudinem pulchritudinemque, tum etiam 
efficientiam cognovissent, quod is diem efficeret toto 
caelo luce diffusa; cum autem terras nox opacasset, 
tum caelum totum ceruerent astris distinctum et orna- 
tum lunaeque luminum varietatem tum crescentis, 10 
tum senescentis eorumque omnium ortus et occasus 
atque in omni aeternitate ratos immutabilesque cur- 
sus; quae cum viderent, profecto et esse deos et haec 

96 tanta opera deorum esse arbitrarentur.' XXXVIIL At- 
que haec quidem ille. Nos autem tenebras cogitemus tantas, 15 
quantae quondam eniptioue Aetnaeorum ignium finitimas re- 
giones obscuravisse dicuntur, ut per biduum nemo hominem homo 
agnosceret, cum autem tertio die sol illuxisset, tum ut revixisse 
sibi viderentur. Quodsi hoc idem ex aeternis tenebris contin- 
geret, ut subito lucem aspiceremus, quaenam species caeli 20 
videretur ? Sed assiduitate cotidiana et consuetudine oculorum 
assuescunt animi neque admirantur neque requirunt rationes 
earum rerum, quas semper vident, proinde quasi novitas nos 
magis quam magnitudo rerum debeat ad exquirendas causas 

97 excitare. Quis enim hunc hominem dixerit, qui cum tam certos 25 
caeli motus, tam ratos astrorum ordines tamque inter se omnia 
conexa et apta viderit, neget in his uUam inesse rationem 
eaque casu fieri dicat, quae quanto consilio gerantur, nullo 
consilio assequi possumus ? Ad, cum machinatione quadam 
moveri aliquid vidcmus, ut sphaeram, ut horas, ut alia per- 30 
multa, non dubitamus, quin illa opera sint rationis ; cum autem 
impetum caeli cum admirabili celeritate moveri vertique 

2 sedibus exire potuissent atque evadere Ed., sedibus exire atque evadere 
(leaving potuissent after /itco2/mu«) Allen, sedibus evadere then (after incolimus) 
atque exire potuissent mss. 6 cum magn, ABÜY, tum magn, E Oxf. UR+, 

om. TO. 9 tum caelum CEYG + i cum caelum ABUV. 10 btminum^ 

placed after omnium below by Allen. 13 quae cum mss Heind. Allen Or. 

Mu., cum Madv., [quae"] cum Ba., cum haec ergo C, haec cum Lamb. Seh. 



LTB. II CAP. XXXVIt— XXXIX §§ 95—100. 37 

videamus constantissime conficientera vicissitudines anniver- 
sarias cum summa salute et conservatione rerum omnium, du- 
bitamus, quin ea non solum ratione fianfc, sed etiam excellenti 
divinaque ratione ? Licet enim jam remota subtilitate dispu- 98 
5 tandi oculis quodam modo contemplari pulchritudinem rerum 
earum, quas divina Providentia dicimus constitutas. 

XXXIX. Ac priucipio terra universa cernatur, locata in 
media sede mundi, solida et globosa et undique ipsa in sese 
nutibus suis conglobata, vestita floribus, herbis, arboribus, frugi- 

lo bua, quorura omnium incredibilis multitudo insatiabili varietate 
distinguitur. Adde huc fontium gelidas perennitates, liquores 
perlucidos amnium, riparum vestitus viridissimos, speluncarum 
concavas ampßtudines, saxorum asperitates, impendentium mon- 
tium altitudines immensitatesque camporum ; adde etiam recon- 

15 ditas auri argentique venas infinitamque vim marmoris. Quae 99 
vero et quam varia genera bestiarum vel cicurum vel ferarum ! 
qui volucrium lapsus atque cantus! qul pecudum pastus! quae 
vita silvestrium ! Quid jam de hominum genere dicam ? qui 
quasi cultores terrae constituti non patiuntur eam nee immani- 

20 täte beluarum efferari nee stirpium a^peritate vastari, quorumque 
operibus agri, insulae litoraque coUucent distincta tectis et 
urbibus. Quae si, ut animis, sie oculis videre possemus, nemo 
cunctam intuens terram de divina ratione dubitaret. At vero 100 
quanta maris est pulchritudo ! quae species universi 1 quae mul- 

25 titudo et varietas insularum ! quae amoenitates orarum ac 
litorum ! quot genera quamque disparia paitim submersarum, 
partim fluitantium et innantium beluarum, partim ad saxa 
nativis testis inbaerentium ! Ipsum autem mare sie terram 
appetens litoribus alludit, ut una ex duabus naturis conflata 

1 videamus us8 generali j, videvius Madv. i^ith EI of Moser Or. Ba. sec Comm. 
. 13 amplitvdines Heind« Ba., altitudines mss, latitudines Lamb. see Comm. 
17 volucrium BV (*ut Fin. n 110 Cbarisii auctoritate ecribitur* Mu.) Ba., vo- 
lucrum [ACE] Or. Scb. 22 possemus [EV] Oxf. HH, possimus ABCBLO. 

27 saxa nativis [CEV] Oxf. M, saxa sanativis AB^H (xa probably dritten above as 
a correction of sasa)^ saxo sanativis B^ (cf. Quint. v 10. 21 piscium genera alia 
planis gandent alia saxosie), saxa sonativis L. 29 alludit G^G Beg.^ Moser's 

D and E Dav. Heind. Seh. Mu., eludit mss generally, elludit N Bed. M of 
Moser, illudit Med.», elidit ü El., alluit G^, eludit RO Klotz Allen Or. Ba. after 
Victorias, see Comm. 



88 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

101 videatur. Exin man finitimus aer die et nocte distinguitur, 
isque tum fusu8 et extenuatus sublime fertur, tum autem con- 
cretus in nubes cogitur umoremque colligens terram äuget im- 
bribus, tum effluens huc et illuc ventos efficit. Idem amiuas 
frigorum et calorum facit varietates, idemque et volatus alitum 5 
sustinet et spiritu ductus alit et sustentat animantes. XL. 
Bestat ultimus et a domiciliis nostris altissimus omnia ciDgens 

et coercens caeli complexus, qui idem aether vocatur, extrema 
ora et determinatio mundi, in quo cum admirabilitate maxima 

102 igneae formae cursus ordinatos definiunt. E quibus sol, cujus 10 
magnitudine multis partibus terra superatur, circum eam ipsam 
volvitur, isque oriens et occidens diem noctemque conficit et 
modo accedens, tum autem recedens, binas in singulis annis 
reversiones ab extremo contrarias facit, quarum in intervallo 
tum quasi tristitia quadam contrahit terram, tum vicissim 15 

103 laetificat, ut cum caelo hilarata videatur. Luna autem, quae 
est, ut ostendunt mathematici, major quam dimidia pars terrae, 
isdem spatiis vagatur, quibus sol, sed tum congrediens cum sole, 
tum digrediens et eam lucem, quam a sole accepit, mittit in 
terras et varias ipsa lucis mutationes habet, atque etiam tum 20 
subjecta atque opposita soli radios ejus et lumen obscurat, tum 
ipsa incidens in umbram terrae, cum est e regione solis, inter- 
positu interjectuque terrae repente deficit. Isdemque spatiis 
eae stellae, quas vagas dicimus, circum terram feruntur eodem- 
que modo oriuntur et occidunt, quarum motus tum incitantur, 25 

104 tum retardantur, saepe etiam insistunt. Quo spectaculo nihil 
potest admirabilius esse, nihil pulchrius. Sequitur stellarum 
inerrantium maxima multitudo, quarum ita descripta distinctio 
est, ut ex notarum figurarum similitudine nomina invenerint, 
atque ita dimetata signa sunt, ut in tantis discriptionibus 30 
divina soUertia appareat. XLI. Atque hoc loco me intuens : 

6 «pirtft* [BVi] Oxf. M, apiritus ACEV«BH + , cf. § 18. 14 in itUen^allo ' 

[ABCYjB, intervallo £ Oxf. + . 15 contrahit terram mss generaUj, contra- 

hitur terra CB. 19 digrediens B^UTHMBV, degrediens AB»CV Oxf. Or. 

Seh. Ba. 28 descripta [mss] Or. Ba. Soh., discripta Mu. see Ck>miii. 

29 fiotarum XBH + , noto Oxf. MCRV, notata Soh. (cf. Div, n 146, Orat. i 109). 

30 atque ita — appareat foUows after corpore Virgo (§ 110) in all mbs and edd. 
see Comm. dimetata Gronov. Ueind. Mn., dem^tata hbs (but dimetati § 156). 
discriptionibus ACVL, descriptionibus BE, cf. i 26. 



LiB. n CAP. XXXIX — ^XLii §§ 100 — 107. 39 

Utar^ inquit, carminibus Arati eis, quae a te admodum adu- 
lescentulo conversa ita me delectant, quia Latina sunt, ut multa 
ex iis memoria teneam. Ergo, ut oculis assidue videmus, sine 
uUa mutatione aut varietate 

5 cetera labuntur celeri caelestia motu 

cum caeloqiie simul noctesque diesque feruntur, 

quorum contemplatione nullius expleri potest animus naturae 105 
constantiam videre cupientis. 

Extremusque adeo duplici de cardine Vertex 
lo dicitur esse polus. 

Hunc circum Arctoe duae fenmtur numquam occidentes. 

£x his altera apud Qraios Cjnosura vocatur, 
altera dicitur esse Heiice, 

cujus quidem clarissimas Stellas totis noctibus cernimus, 
15 quas nostri Septem soliti vocitare Triones. 

Paribnsque stellis similiter distinctis eundem caeli verticem 100 
lustrat parva Cynosura : 

hac fidunt duce nocturna Phoenices in alte. 
Sed prior illa magis stellis distincta refulget 
20 et late prima confestim a nocte videtur, 

haec vero parva est, sed nautis usus in hac est; 
nam cursu interiore brevi convertitur orbe. 

XLII. Et quo sit earum stellarum admirabilior aspectus, 

has inter, veluti rapido cum gurgite flumen, 
25 torvus Draco serpit subter superaque revolvens 

sese conficiensque sinus e corpore flexos. 

Ejus cum totius sit praeclara species, in primis aspicienda est 107 
figura capitis atque ardor oculorum : 

huic non una modo caput ornans Stella relucet^ 
^o verum tempora sunt duplici fulgore notata, 

1 Ärati eis X (by corr. in AB) Oxf. BLMO Heicd. Allen, ArateU Moser^s I 
and M edd. after Walker, see Comm. 11 arctoe duae E Oxf. G Aso. , arctoae 

duae ABCYM, areto edue B, &pktm Dav. Allen Seh. 12 ex hü [BE], ex iie 

ACYB. 16 distincta Walker as in 1. 19. 25 superaque 0x1 HB Priseian. 
xiy p. 980 Putsch, supraque mss generally. 26 ßexo Grotins. 27 totius 

Sit Or. Ba. after Seh. Op. iii p. 889, totius est mss Allen Mn. in primis 

M8B Or. Ba. Seh., tum in primis Manutius Ma.| et in primis Allen (who ohanges 
cum into et before totiw). 



40 DE NATURA DEORÜ^. 

e trucibnsque oculis duo fervida lumina flagrant, 
atque uno mentum radianti sidere lucet; 
obstipum Caput a tereti cervice reflexum; 
obtutum in cauda Majoris figere dicas. 

108 Et reliquum quidem corpus Draconis totis noctibus cemimus : 5 

hoc Caput hie paulum sese subito aequore condit, 
ortus ubi atque obitus partim admiscentur in unam. 

Id autem caput 

attingens defessa velut maerentis imago 

vertitur, 10 

quam quidem Graeci 

Engonasin vocitant, genibus quia niza feratur. 
Hie illa eximio posita est fulgore Corona. 

Atque haec quidem a tergo, propter caput autem Anguitenens, 

109 quem claro perhibent Ophiuchum ^i^mine Graii. 15 
Hie pressu duplici palmarum continet Anguem, 

atque ejus ipse manet religatus corpore torto; 

namque virum medium serpens sub pectora oingit. 

nie tarnen nitens graviter vestigia ponit 

atque oculos urget pedibus pectusque Nepal. 20 

SeptentrioDes autem sequitur 

Arctophylax, vulgo qui dicitur esse Bootes, 

quod quasi temoni adjunctam prae se quatit Arctum. 

110 Huic Booti 

subter praecordia fixa videtur 25 

Stella micans radiis, Arcturus nomine claro, 

3 a tereti iiss generally, e tereti B, tereti Aso. El. 1 and 2 (reading obstipum- 
que above) Dav. Heind., at tereti Mady. Or. Ba. Mn., ac tereti Seh. Klotz, et 
tereti Lamb. Allen. 6 hoc^ qvjod Hyg. P. A. u 3. subito aequore eondit 

Or. Ba. Ma. after Grotius, aübitoque recondit hss generally Seh., summo aequore 
condtt Dav. conj. 7 partim — in unam Klotz, partim — in una hsb generally, 

partem — in unam edd. after Lamb., parte — in una Hyg. N Heind. Allen. ad- 

miscentur [A]NB Hyg., admücetur BCEV Oxf. UBH + Mn. 12 engonasin 

edd., engonasiam hbs generally. 15 lumine Ed., nomine hsb and edd. see 

Gomm. 17 atque ^u$ hsb generally, ejus et by corr. in BT Allen. 23 fe- 

nwni Madv. and edd., tenume mbb. 24 after Ärctum follow in moBt mbb and 

edd. dein quae sequuntur, whieh I have placed below after Virgo^ Bed. and 
Moser's O have denique sequitur, from whieh Heind. gets dein quae sequitur. 
huic Heind., huic enim mbb generally edd., huic etenim El. Med. Abo. MCBY, 
huic autem Dav., et huic Bed. 



LIB. II CAP. XLII, XLIII §§ 107 — 111. 41 

cui subjecta fertur 

spicum illustre tenens splendenti corpore Yirgo. 

XLIII. Dein, quae sequuntur. 

Et natos Geminos invises sub caput Arcti. 
5 Subjectus mediae est Cancer, pedibusque tenetur 

magnus Leo tremulam quatiens e corpore flammam. 

Auriga 

sub laeva Geminorum obductus parte feretur. 
Adversum caput huic Helicae truculenta tuetur. 
lo At Capra laevum umerum clara obtinet. 

[Tum, quae sequuntur :] 

verum haec est magno atque illustri praedita signo, 
contra Haedi exiguum jaciunt mortalibus ignem. 

Cujus sub pedibus 

ij corniger est valido conixus corpore Taurus. 

Ejus Caput stellis conspersum est frequentibus : Hl 

has Graeci Stellas Hyadas vociiare suerunt, 

[a pluendo ; Seiv enim est pluere] nostri imperite Suculas, quasi 
a subus essent, non ab imbribus nominatae. Minorem autem 
2o Septentrionem Cepheus passis palmis a tergo subsequitur : 
namque ipsc ad tergum Cynosurae vertitur ArctL 

Hunc antecedit 

obscura specie stellarum Cassiepia. 

Hanc autem illustri versatur corpore propter 



1 cui B hy corr. CR Lamb. Heind. Or. Ba., <nyu8 pedibus Dav. Klotz. Seh. 
Mn., cujus MBS generally, ct^jus sub pedibus Allen, but see Madv. Fin. ii 48. 
2 spicum illustre ferens insigni corpore virgo Serv. ad Geo, i 111. 3 dein 

quae sequuntur transposed from beginning of § in place of atque ita — appareat 
transposed to § 104. Ed. 5 mediae est edd. after Grotius, media est 

{—vudiaest) hbb, cf. § 159. 9 Helicae edd. after Grotius, Heiice or Elicae 

MBB generally, Helices Allen. 10 clara [ABE]G, claro CYBH Oxf. + . 

11 tum quae sequuntur in brackets Ed., tum quae [E]B, tumque ABCV Oxf. + . 
15 conixus (conn) C Lamb. GrotiuB Heind. edd., conexus ABCB Oxf. U, cormexus 
EVHMO + ^ convexus Dav. Allen. 18 a pluendo — pluere msb Soh., in 

brackets Or. Ba. Ma. after Grnter and Walker. 20 a tergo Dav. edd., 

terga mbb generally, tergo GB. 21 ipse Dav. (to agree with the original) 

Heind. Or. Ba., ipsum mbb generally Scb. Mu., ipsa El. lOt. cynosurae edd., 
cynosura mbb generally, cynosyre B. 22 antecedit here P recommences (no 

donbt tbe same as Gruter's Pal. which recommences also). 



42 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

Andrömeda aufugiens aspectum maesta parentis. 

Huic EquuB ille jubam quatiens fulgore micanti 

Bummum contingit caput alvo, stellaque jungens 

una tenet duplices communi lumine formas 

aeternum ex astris cupiens conectere nodum. 5 

Ezin contortis Aries cum cornibus haeret; 

quem propter 

Pisces, quorum alter paulum praelabitur ante 
et magis horriferis aquilonis tangitur auris. 

112 XLIV. Ad pedes Andromedae Perseus describitur, 10 

« 
quem summa ab regione aquilonis flamina pulsant. 

Cujus propter laevum genu 

Vergilias tenui cum luce videbis. 
Inde Fides posita et leviter convexa videtur. 
Inde est ales Avis lato sub tegmine caeli. 15 

Capiti autem Equi proxima est Aquarii dextra totusque deinceps 
Aquarius. 

Tum gelidum valido de pectore frigus anhelans 

corpore semifero magno Capricornus in orbe; 

quem cum perpetuo vestivit lumine Titan, 20 

brumali flectens contorquet tempore currum. 

113 Hinc autem aspicitur^ 

1 Andrömeda aufugiens VC Oxf. by coir. in A and B, Andrömeda haud fur 
giens GPB, Andrömeda haut fugten» E, Andromada fugiens Asc.+, Andromede 
fugiens G. Red. Heind., Andrömeda heufugiens Klotz. 9 horriferi» — aurig, 

horrisonis — aUs Phaenom. 11 ah BE (all msb of Phaen.) Seh. Mu., a Or. ' 

Ba.y om. MBB generally Heind. Klotz. 12 cujus propter laevum genu vergiUas 

CV Oxf. 0U + , cujus propter laeum genum v, A, at (in ras., superscripto et 
rursoB deleto cujus) propter laevum genus omni ex parte locatas parvcu verg. B 
and (only reading ct^jus and geny) E (both evidenily snpplemented from Phaen. 
27) Seh. Mn. 14 poeita et leviter Hervag. Heind. Allen Seh.' Ma. Baehrens 

in Phaen., posita leviter et AiB^CEPV Oxf. LMOB+, posita leviter A2BH+» 
leviter posita et B' iiss of Phaen. Or. Ba., leviter positu Orelli in Phaen., positu 
leviter Seh.*. convexa ABCPV Oxf. BV, connexa EHILMOCB^ conversa Bonh« 
16 proxima est edd. after Klotz, proximal (for proximast) msb generally, proxima 
GH Heind. Allen. 22 hinc [A] O, hie msb generally AUen. aspicitwr ut 

edd. after Victorias, aspicüur mbs generally, aspicitur qui G, om. B> Day. AUen, 
(cf. Phaen. 77 licebit visere nocte ut sese ostendens ostendat Scorpius alte mbs, 
{. V, n, ut sese ostendens emergit Scorpios aUo Baehrens, {. v. n. ut sese emergens 
ostendat Scorpios alto Pr.). 



ÜB. II CAP. XLIII, XLIV §§ 111 — 114. 43 

ut sese oatendens emergit Scorpios alte 
posteriore trahens flexum vi corporis Arcum; 
quem propter nitens pinnis convolvitur Ales. 
At propter se Aquila ardenti cum corpore portat. 

5 Deiade Delphinus, 

exinde Orion obliquo corpore nitens. 

Quem subsequens 114 

fervidus ille Canis stellarum luce refulget. 

Post Lepus subsequitur 

lo curriculum numquam defesso corpore sedans. 

At Canis ad caudam serpens prolabitur Argo. 
Hanc Aries tegit et squamoso corpore Pisces 
Fluminis illustri tangentem pectore ripaa 

Quem longe serpentem et manantem aspicies 

IS proceraque Vincla videbis 

quae retinent Pisces caudarum a parte locata. 
Inde Nepae cernes propter fulgentis acumen 
Aram, quam flatu permulcet Spiritus austri. 

Propterque Centaurus 

20 cedit equi partis properans subjungere Chelis. 

Hie dextram porgens,. quadrupes qua yasta- tenetur, 
tendit et-illustrem truculentus caedit ad Aram. 
Hie sese infernis e partibus erigit Hydra, 

cujus loDge corpus est fusum, 

25 in medioque sinu fulgens Cratera relucet; 

extremam nitens plumato corpore Corvus 

1 ottenden» emergit mbb generally, emergens ostendit Asc. (Heind. proposes to 
read Me item aapicitur emergens), 2 flexum [CEPY] A^B' mss of Phaen. 

Scb. BaehrenS) pUxum A}B^ Mus. Ozf. +0r. Ba. Mu. 3 quam — pinna 

Phaen. 9 subsequitur X Ozf. B+, sequitur HNBVG Bed. Heind. Seh. 

10 defesso mss generally, defecto El. Heind. Allen. sedans, servans G Heind. 
13 iüustri uss generally, illustris LUVT Dav. Allen Orelli in Phaen. 144. tan- 
gentem, tangentes B' Seh. pectore Heind. Allen Baehrens, corpore edd. mbs 
(Crom previons line, where G Bed. + have pectore ; there is a sinülar confosion 
in Phaen. 373 where Harl. 647 has corpore not, as wrongly stated in Ottley and 
Orelli, pectore), 20 subjungere mbs generally, submergere PMB+f conjungere 
MSS ol Phaen. Chelis B Phaen., cetis mbs generally. 21 porgens [XjBM, 
porrigens Oxf. UHLO + . qua vasta AB, qui austa OB, qua usta EPHLOT, 
qua jusfa y (bo I correct Or.'s 2nd P, as the reading agrees with Oxf.) Oxf. 
UMCV. 22 caedit BGV' Allen Klotz (Orelli in Phaen. 213), cedit AEP 
(mbs of Phaen.) edd. Baehrens. 23 infernis e BCPBHO, infemi se Y^HNOB, 
infernis he A, infemi de Y^ Oxf., infernis de EG Asc. Heind. Allen Seh. 



44 DE NATURA. DEOßUM. 

rostro tundit; et hie Geminis est ille sub ipsis 
Antecanis, UpoKvmv Qraio qui nomine fertur. 

115 Haec omnis discriptio siderum atque hie tautus caeli ornatus ex 
corporibus huc et illuc casu et temere cursantibus potuisse effici 
cuiquam saDO videri potest ? aut vero aliqua natura mcntis 5 
et rationis expers haec eflScere potuit ? quae non modo ut fierent 
ratione eguerunt, sed intellegi qualia sint sine summa ratione 
non possunt. 

XLV. Nee vero haec solum admirabilia, sed nihil majus, 
quam quod ita stabilis est mundus atque ita cohaeret ad per- 10 
manendum, ut nihil ne exeogitari quidem possit aptius. Omnes 
enim partes ejus undique medium locum capessentes nituntur 
aequaliter. Maxime autem corpora inter se juncta permanent, 
cum quasi quodam vinculo circumdato coUigantur; quod facit 
ea natura, quae per omnem mundum omnia mente et ratione 15 
confieiens funditur et ad medium rapit et convertit extrema, 

116 Quocirca, si mundus globosus est ob eamque causam omnes ejus 
partes undique aequabiles ipsae per se atque inter se continentur, 
contingere idem terrae neeesse est, ut omnibus ejus partibus in 
medium vergentibus (id autem medium infimum in sphaera est) 20 
nihil interrumpat, quo labefaetari possit tanta contentio gravita- 
tis et ponderum. Eademque ratione mare, cum supra terram 
sit, medium tarnen terrae locum expetens conglobatur undique 

117 aequabiliter neque redundat umquam neque efTunditur. Huic 
autem continens aer fertur ille quidem levitate sublimis, sed 25 
tamen in omnes partes se ipse fundit ; itaque et mari con- 
tinuatus et junctus est et natura fertur ad caelum, cujus tenui- 
tate et calore temperatus vitalem et salutarem spiritum praebet 
animantibus. Quem complexa summa pars caeli, quae aetheria 
dicitur, et suum retinet ardorem tenuem et nuUa admixtione 30 

1 tundit B'G {tundit or tondit mss of Phaen. 221), tendit mss genenüly. 
2 Antecanis B by corr. Lamb. Orelli in Phaen. (cf. Schol. in German. Äratea pp. 
109, 170, 181, 225 Breysig), anticanem PH, antecanem Baehreus, ante canem mss 
generally edd. see Comm. UpoK^ury, Lat. in mbs. 3 discriptio A edd. 

5 aliqua A«B by corr. Walker Klotz, alia quae [OPV] Oxf. BHO edd. (the oorrap- 
tion may have arisen from the word being divided so as to end the line with 
dli)^ aliae qua£ A.\ alia qua E, quae alia UMCBV, alia quaedam G Heiod. 
9 nuifusy magis Walker Heind. 25 sublimis B Dav. Heind. Allen Seh., sub- 

Umi (s lost before sed) mss generally, sublime Or. Ba. Mn. see Comm. 



LIB. II CAP. XLIV — XLVII §§ 114 — 120. 45 

concretum et cum aeris extremitate conjuugltur. XLYI. In 
aethere autem astra volvuntur, quae se et nisu -sug conglobata 
continent et forma ipsa figuraque sua momenta sustentant; 
sunt enim rotunda, quibus formis, ut ante dixisse videor, minime 

5 noceri potest. Sunt autem stellae natura flammeae ; quocirca 118 
terrae, maris, aquarumgi^^ reliquarum vaporibus aluntur iis, 
qui a sole ex agris tepefactis et ex aquis excitantur, quibus 
altae reuovataeque stellae atque omnis aether refundunt eadem 
et rursum trahunt indidem, nihil ut fere intereat aut admodum 

lo paulum/quod astrorum ignis et aetheris flamma consumat. Ex 
quo evcnturum nostri putant id, de quo Panaetium addubitare 
dicebant, ut ad extremum omnis mundus ignesceret, cum 
umore consumpto neque terra ali posset nee romearet aer, 
cujus ortus aqua omni exhausta esse non posset ; ita relinqui 

15 nihil praeter ignem, a quo rursum animante ac deo renovatio 
mundi fieret atque idem ornatus oreretur. Nolo in stellarum 119 
ratione multus vobis videri, maximeque earum, quae errare di- 
cuntur ; quarum tantus est concentus ex dissimillimis motibus, 
ut, cum summa Saturni refrigeret, media Martis incendat, his 

20 interjecta Jovis illustret et temperet, infraque Martem duae 
Soli oboediant, ipse Sol mundum omnem sua luce compleat 
ab eoque Luna illuminata graviditates et partus afferat 
maturitatesque gignendi. Quae copulatio rerum et quasi 
codsentiens ad mundi incolumitatem coagmentatio naturae 

25 qwem non movet, hunc herum nihil umquam reputavisse 
certo scio. 

XLYIL Age, ut a caelestibus rebus ad terrestres veniamus, 120 
quid est in his, in quo non naturae ratio intellegentis appareat ? 
Frincipio eorum, quae gignuntur e terra, stirpes et stabilitatem 

2 conglobata G Probus ad Ecl, p. 17 edd. (of. above §§ 98, 116), globata mbs 
generally (not fonnd elaewhere before Pliny). 6 aquarumque reliquarum 

vaporibuM Prob. L c. Forch. p. 61, aqtuirum vap. msb and edd. 8 altae, per- 

aUas Prob. refundunt Hervag. edd., effundunt Prob, (r lost after aether)^ 

re/undat mss generally, refundit G, effundat Asc. eadem, eodem Lamb. 

9 traJiunt mss generally, trahat H, trahant Asc. G. indidem A}{BCEFY\ + , 

iädem A' Prob. 10 paulum MBV Prob., pauZulum mss generally Mu. con- 

tumat MSS generally, eonsumant E Prob. , consumit Lamb. edd., coneumunt Allen, 
see Comm. 19 hie E Oxf. UEV, iis BPV» Or. Ba., i$ ACV>B. 24 coagmen- 
tatio [AGP] Oxf. B, coaugm. BEHHO + , coacm, V. 



. 46 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

dant iis, quae sustinent, et e terra sucum trahunt, quo alantur ea, 
quao radicibus continentur, obducunturque libro aut ctirtice 
trunci, quo sint a frigoribus et caloribus tutiores. Jam vero 
vites sie claviculis adminicula, tamquam manibus, apprehendunt 
atque ita se erigunt, ut animantes. Quin etiam a caulibus, si 5 
propter sati sint, ut a pestiferis et nocentibus refugere dicuntur 

121 nee eos uUa ex parte contingere. Animantium vero quanta 
varietas est, quanta. ad eam rem vis, ut in suo quaeque genere 
permaneat! Quarum aliae coriis teotae sunt, aliae villis vestitae, 
aliae spinis hirsutae; pluma alias, alias squama videmus ob- 10 
ductas, alias esse comibus armatas, alias habere effugia pin- 
narum. Pastum autem anicnantibus large et copiose natura 
eum, qui cuique aptus erat, comparavit. Enumerare possum, 

ad eum pastum capessendum conficiendumque quae sit in 
figuris animantium et quam sollers subtilisque discriptio partium 15 
quamque admirabilis fabrica membrorum. Omnia enim, quae 
quidem intus inclusa sunt, ita nata atque ita locata sunt, ut 
nihil eorum supervacaneum sit, nihil ad vitam retinendam non 

122 necessarium. Dedit autem eadem natura beluis et sensum et 
appetitum, ut altero conatum haberent ad naturales pastus 20 
capessendos, altero secemerent pestifera a salutaribus. Jam 
vero alia animalia gradiendo, alia serpendo ad pastum accedunt, 
alia volando, alia nando, cibumque partim oris hiatu et dentibus 
ipsis capessunt, partim unguium tenacitate arripiunt, partim 
aduncitate rostrorum, alia sugunt, alia carpunt, alia vorant, alia 25 
mandunt ; atque etiam aliorum ea est humiiitas, ut eibum ter- 

123 restrem rostris facile contingant ; quae autem altiora sunt, ut 
anseres, ut cygni, ut grues, ut cameli, adjuvantur proceritate 
coUorum ; manus etiam data elephanto est, quia propter magni- 

1 Ut quae Abo. Hervag. edd., hU quae ABEPV, hisque C. sustinent 

ABHV Abc, twtinentur CEPV Oxf. BHO + Klotz. 5 caulibus Oxf. edd. after 

Dav., caulibus brassicis XLO+, cauL brassidsque MRVUT, caul, et brass. G. 
si propter [ABE]HM, sipporter (by corr. si propter) V, sipportet CPB, si oportet 
JJOQf propter Oxf. 9 permaneat X Oxf. BHLO Madv. Fin, v 42, permaneant 

MGBY, cl below § 127. 15 discriptio edd., disscriptio B, deacriptio uss 

generally. 18 retineTtdam ILT Heind. Allen Seh. Mu. (on Fin, i 33), deti- 

nendam mss generaUy Or. Ba. 25 alia vorant om. Or. by error. 26 ea 

est BCEB, eos et APV Oxf. MEV. lumilitas BCEV^ Oxf., humilatas AP, humi- 
liatas VfLOBV. 29 data elephanto est B Or. Ba. Mn., data elephantos (for 



LIB. II CAP. XL VII — XLIX §§ 120 — 124. 47 

tudinem corporis difficiles aditus habebat ad pastum. XLYIII. 
At quibus bestiis erat is cibus, ut alii generis bestiis vesceren- 
tur, aut vires natura dedit aut celeritatem. Data est quibusdam 
etiam machinatio quaedam atque soUertia, ut in araneolis aliae 

5 quasi rete texunt, ut, si quid inhaeserit, conficiant, aliae autem 
observant et ex inopinato, si quid incidit, arripiunt idque con- 
sumunt. Pina vero (sie enim Oraece dicitur) duabus grandibus 
patula conchis cum parva squilla quasi societatem coit com- 
parandi cibi, itaque, cum pisciculi parvi in concbam hiantem 

lo innataverunt, tum admonita squillae morsu comprimit conchas. 
Sic dissimillimis bestiolis communiter cibus quaeritur. In quo 124 
admirandum est, congressuue aliquo inter se an jam inde ab 
ortu natura ipsa congregatae sint. Est etiam admiratio non 
nuUa in bestiis aquatilibus iis, quae gignuntur in terra; veluti 

15 crocodili fluviatilesque testudines quaedamque serpentes ortae 
extra aquam, simul ac primum niti possunt, aquam persequun- 
tur. Quin etiam anitum ova gallinis saepe supponimus ; e 
quibus pulli orti primo aluntur ab iis ut a matribus, a quibus 
exclusi fotique sunt, deindaeas relinquunt et efFugiunt sequentes, 

20 cum primum aquam quasi naturalem domum videre potuerunt. 
Tantam ingenuit animantibus conservandi sui natura custodiam. 
XLIX. Legi etiam scriptum, esse avem quandam, quae platalea 
nominaretur ; eam sibi cibum quaerere advolantem ad eas aves, 
quae se in mari mergerent ; quae cum emersissent piscemque 

eUphantost) AB^V^, data elephantU PVHHB+Sch., elephanto data est C, data 
eUphanto B>, d, elephanti Oxf. 1 habehat X Oxf. + , hahehant H Seh. 2 alii 
generi» bestiis P, aliis generis eseis ABC^ (alii C) BV^ (only reading estis), alius 
generis bestiis HOL Or. Ba. Seh., cUius generis escis V^ Oxf., alicujus gen. eseis E, 
aliis bestiis Ma. 6 observant et ex inopinato^ si quid incidit Allen, ut ex 

inop. obs. et si &c. ACEB Klotz and (reading opinato for inop,) B, (omitting ut) 
PV Oxf. UIOV edd. see Comm. 8 eoiit conj. Ma. 10 adnumita 

squillae morsu Seh., adm. squilla pina morsu BV (squillcie having been eoxrnpted 
to squilla, pina was added as a eorrection), adm, squilla pinae morsu Oxf. V+, 
adm, squilla pina morsus AGEPB, adm. squillae morsu pina Heind. n. Ma., 
adm. a squilla pina morsu Abc. Or. (bracketing pina) Ba. (omitting pina). 
13 natura ipsa edd. affcer Walker, natura ipsae A, natura^ ipsae (or -e -e) BCEPV 
+ AUen. 15 crocodili C (BC in § 129), crocodilli B, corcodili AEV (bat AV 

cancordilos § 129), cocodrilli Pü Oxf. (EPV» in § 129). 17 anitum AV^, 

aneium BPV Oxf. BI, anatum CEUTHMO, cf. Lach. Lucr. p. 16. 18 primo 

BCEPVG Oxf. HLC, primum [A]BM0 Seh. 19 exclusi mss, excusi Ba. cf. § 129. 



48 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

cepissent, usque eo premere earum capita mordicus, dum illae 
captum amitterent, in quod ipsa invaderet. Eademque haec 
avis scribitur conchis se solere complere, easque cum stomachi 
calore concoxerit, evomere atque ita eligere ex iis, quae sunt 

125 esculenta. Ranae autem marinae dicuntur obruere sese harena 5 
solere et moveri prope aquam, ad quas quasi ad escam pisces 
cum accesserint, confici a ranis atque consumi. Miluo est 
quoddam bellum quasi naturale cum corvo ; ergo alter alterius 
ubicumque nanctus est ova frangit. lUud vero ab Aristotele 
animadversum, a quo pleraque, quis potest non mirari ? grues 10 
cum loca calidiora peteutes maria trausmittant, trianguli eiBcere 
formam ; ejus autem summo angulo aer ab iis adversus peliitur, 
deinde sensim-|- ab utroque latere, tamquam remis, ita pinnis 
cursus avium levatur. Basis autem trianguli, quem efEciunt 
grues, ea tamquam a puppi ventis adjuvatur, eaeque in tergo 15 
praevolantium coUa et capita reponunt; quod quia ipse dux 
facere non potest, quia non habet, ubi nitatur, revolat, ut ipse 
quoque quiescat ; in ejus locum succedit ex iis, quae acquierunt^ 

126 eaque vicissitudo in omni cursu conservatur. Multa ejus modi 
proferre possum, sed genus ipsum videtis. Jam vero illa etiam 20 
notiora, quanto se opere custodiant bestiae, ut in pastu circum- 
spectent, ut in cubilibus delitiscant. L. Atque illa mirabilia, 
quod — ea quae nuper [id est paucis ante saeclis] medicorum in- 
geniis reperta sunt — vomitione canes, purgantes autem alvos ibes 

se Aegyptiae curant. Auditum est pantheras, quae in barbaria 25 
venenata carne caperentur, remedium quoddam habere, quo cum 

2 in quod edd. after Walker, id qtiod mss Allen Klotz, idque Madv. 
8 e<uque E Oxf. OOV, eas msb generally. 10 pleraque quis AE, plera quivis 

CB, pleraque vis BPV Oxf. H0+. . 12 [06 tu] Ba. after Eayser, avibus conj. 
Allen. 13 sensim, see Comm. 14 quem G edd. after Heind., qtutm vss 

generaUy. 16 ipsa dux — ipsa quoque Eayser. 17 ubi nitatur X Oxf. 

B-H> cui innitatur GH Heind. Seh. 18 succedit ex hss, succ, proxima ex 

Lamb., una succedit ex Seh. 22 aique mss Mu., at quam Moser^s La and Fa 

Or. Ba. Seh. 23 id— saeclis om. Gebet V. L. p. 462. 24 purgantes ILO Mars. 
Allen Madv. Or. Ba. Mu., purgante ABGV^GBHB, purgaiione P + Dav. Seh., 
j?Mr^ar€ V* Oxf. MHV, purgantur E, purgatu al. alvos ibes [P]V Aso.-f, 

alvos ibis CEMB, alvo sibis A, alvo sibi BB, alvo sibes Oxf., alvos Mbis Y^. 
25 se Aeg, curant Heind. Allen, Aeg, curant xbs Seh. (cf. Farn, iy 5 § 6 medici 
ipsi se curare nonpossunt), Aeg. curantur Or. Ba. Mu. after Madv. 26 cape- 

rentur [BCP]A2BL, carperentur A^EV Oxf. UHMO + . 



LIB. II CAP. XLIX — ^LI §§ 124 — 128. 49 

essent usae, non morerentur ; capras autem in Greta feras, cum 
essent confixae venantis sagittis, herbara quaerere, quae dic- 
tamnus vocaretur, quam cum gustavissent, sagittas excidere 
[dicunt] e corpore. Cervaeque paulo ante partum perpurgant se 127 
5 quadam herbula, quae seselis dicitur. Jam illa cemimus, ut 
contra vim et metum suis se armis quaeque defendant, cornibus 
tauri, apri dentibus, morsu leones ; aliae fuga se, aliae occulta- 
tione tutantur, atramenti efifusione sepiae, torpore torpedines, 
multae etiam insectantes odoris intolerabili foeditate depellunt. 

lo LI. Ut vero perpetuus mundi esset omatus, magna adhibita 
cura est a Providentia deorum, ut semper essent et bestiarum 
genera et arborum omniumque rerum, quae a terra stirpibus 
continerentur. Quae quidem omnia eam vim seminis habent 
in se, ut ex uno plura generentur ; idque semen inclusum est in 

IS intima parte earum bacarum, quae ex quaque stirpe funduntur, 
isdemque seminibus et homines afiFatim vescuntur et terrae 
eJTisdem generis stirpium renovatione complentur. Quid loquar, 128 
quanta ratio in bestiis^ ad perpetuam conservationem earum 
generis appareat? Nam primum aliae mares, aliae feminae 

2o sunt, quod perpetuitatis causa macliinata natura est, deinde 
partes corporis et ad procreandum et ad concipiendum aptissimae, 
et in mare et in femina commiscendorum corporum mirae 
libidines. Cum autem in locis semen insedit, rapit omnem fere 
cibum ad sese eoque saeptum fingit animal ; quod cum ex utero 

25 elapsum excidit, in iis animantibus, quae lacte aluntur, omnis 
fere cibus matrum lactescere incipit, eaque, quae paulo ante 
nata sunt, sine magistro duce natura mammas appetunt earum- 
qne ubertate saturantur. Atque ut intellegamus nihil horum 
esse fortuitum et haec omnia esse opera providae sollertisque 

2 venantis Allen, venenatis hbs and edd. see Comm. 4 dieunt, in braekets 
Or. Ba., om. Bake Cobet. 6 defendant PYUHOO Heind. Mu., defendat 

[ABGE] Ott. BM Or. Ba. Seh. 7 marsu [V]W Ase., eursu ABOEVIB+, 

inewnu morsu Oxf. 9 depellunt, repellunt conj. Mn. (cf. retinendam § 121, 

and hifl n. on Fin. i 84 depellendus), 11 et Providentia Bake. 22 mare 

BEP, mari AGV Or. Ba. ('mare scripttun est ap. Yarr. L. L. a. 57, Val. Max. 
lY 6 § 1, Plin. saepioB ' Ma.). 24 eoque saeptum fingit mss (exoept that Y^ 

Ozf. baye septum, Moaer*B eeptum) edd., eoque eoeptum fingit Gmter Dav., 
eo^ue eoneeptum fingittar Heind., perhape ex eoque eoneeptum fingit, see Gomm. 
25 iü [ACPY], hü B£ Oxf. U. 

M,C. IL 4 



50 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

naturae, quae multiplices fetus procreant, ut sues, ut canes, iis 
mammarum data est multitudo ; quas easdem paucas habent 

129 eae bestiae, quae pauca gignunt. Quid dicam^ quantus amor 
bestiarum sit in educandis custodiendisque iis, quae procreave- 
runt, usque ad eum finem, dum possint se ipsa defendere 1 etsi 5 
pisces, ut aiunt, ova cum genuerunt, relinquunt ; facile enim 
illa aqua et sustinentur et fetum fundunt. LH. Testudines 
äutem et crocodilos dicunt, cum in terra partum ediderint, 
obruere ova, deinde discedere; ita et nascuntur et educantur 
ipsa per sese. Jam gallinae avesque reliquae et quietum re- lo 
quirunt ad pariendum locum et cubilia sibi nidosque construunt 

. eosque quam possunt mollissime substemunt, ut quam facillime 
ova sei*ventur ; e quibus pullos cum excuderunt, ita tuentur, 
ut et pinnis foveant, ne frigore laedantur, et, si est calor a sole, 
se opponant. Cum autem pulli pinnulis uti possunt, tum vola- 15 

130 tus eorum matres prosequuntur, reliqua cura liberantur. Acce- 
dit etiam ad non nuUorum animantium et earum rerum, quas 
terra gignit, conservationem et salutem hominum etiam sollertia 
et diligentia. Nam multae et pecudes et stirpes sunt, quae 
sine procuratione hominum salvae esse non possunt. Magnae 20 
etiam opportunitates ad cultum hominum atque abundantiam 
aJiae aliis in locis reperiuntur. Aegyptum Nilus irrigat et, cum 
tota aestate obrutam oppletamque tenuit, tum recedit moUitos- 
que et oblimatos agros ad serendum relinquit. Mesopotamiam 
fertilem efficit Euphrates, in quam quot anms quasi novos agros 25 
invehit. Indus vero, qui est omnium fluminum maximus, non 
aqua solum agros laetificat et mitigat, sed eos etiam consent ; 
magnam enim vim seminum secum frumenti similium dicitur 

131 deportare. Multaque alia in aliis locis commemorabilia proferre 
possum, multos fertiles agros alios aliorum fructuum. LIII. 30 
Sed illa quanta benignitas naturae, quod tam multa ad vescen- 

1 iis AOPV Oxf., his EU Seh. 8 gignunt [BEP] + , gignmtur ACV». 

4 iis [B], Ms ACEPV Oxf. + . procreaverint MEV Herv. Allen. 6 aiunt 

Oxf. Mos. V, alunt X. 8 crocodilos see on § 124. 13 ezeuderunl 

ABCPV^O, excuderint EY^TL, excluderunt B, excluserunt UM + Allen Klotz, ex- 
eluserint V marg. Oxf. 14 pinnis— pinmdis AGVB, pennis—pennulis BEP 

Oxf. 16 accedit etiam hbs Allen Klotz, accedit edd. after Emeeti. 18 etiam 
om. Klotz. 20 possent Allen. 25 annis Lamb. Heind. Allen, annos uss 

and edd. see Gomm. 



LIB. II CAP. LI— LIV §§ 128 — 133. 61 

dum, tarn varia et tarn jucunda gignit, neque ea uno tempore 
anni, ut semper et novitate delectemur et copia ! Quam tem- 
pestivos autem dedit, quam salutares non modo hominum, sed 
etiam pecudum generi, iis denique omnibus, quae oriuntur e 
5 terra, ventos Etesias ! quorum flatu nimii temperantur calores ; 
ab isdem etiam maritimi cursus celeres et certi deriguntur. 
Multa praetereunda sunt [et tamen multa dicuntur] ; enumerari 132 
enim non possunt fluminum opportunitates, aestus maritimi 
[multum] accedentes et recedentes, montes vestiti atque sil- 

lo vestres, salinae ab ora maritima remotissimae, medicamento- 
rum salutarium plenissimae terrae, artes denique innumerabilea 
ad yictum et ad vitam necessariae. Jam diei noctisque vicis- 
situdo oonservat animantes tribuens aliud agendi tempus, aliud 
quiescendi. Sic undique omni ratione concluditur mente con- 

15 silioque divino omnia in hoc mundo ad salutem omnium conser- 
vationemque admirabiliter administrari. 

Sed quaeret quispiam, cujusnam causa tantarum rerum 133 
molitio facta sit ; arborumne et herbarum ? quae quamquam 
sine sensu sunt, tamen a natura sustinentur. At id quidem 

20 absurdum est. An bestiarum ? Nihilo probabilius deos mu- 
torum et nihil intellegentium causa tantum laborasse. Quorum 
igitur causa quis dixerit effectum esse mundum? Eorum scilicet 
animantium, quae ratione utuntur. Hi sunt di et homines, 
quibus profecto nihil est melius ; ratio est enim, quae praestet 

25 omnibua Ita fit credibile deorum et hominum causa factum 
esse mundum quaeque in eo [mundo] sint omnia. LIV. 
Faciliusque intellegetur a dis immortalibus hominibus esse 

1 varia et tarn V Oxf. El. Aso. +, varine tarn AY^, varie tarn B, varia tarn 
GEPGHeixid. Klotz, varia tamque Seh. 6 deriguntur Mn. (Adn, Cr, p. v on de^ 
recto, cf. below § 152, Div. 11 127, R. P. 11 55), diriguntur msb Or. Ba. Seh. 7 et 
— dicuntur in brackets Ba. Mu. (Fleok. Jahrb. for 1864 p. 135). 9 muUum 

MBS, in brackets Or. Ba. Mu., mutuo La of Moser Heind. Klotz Seh., tum (acc, 
tum ree,) Lamb., motu Iwuu Kayser Yaacher (cf. JHv, n 34), cwn luna nmul 
AUen (of. Div. u 88). 11 artee hbs Allen Klotz, [artes] Or., res Moser Ba., 

dotf Seh., utüitates Mu. (of. § 145), see Gomm. 17 sed quaeret G, sin 

quaeret Mss generally Klotz Allen, hie quaeret G Mu., Me quaerat Beg. Walker 
Or. Ba. Soh. 20 tnutorum G £1. +Dav. Heind. Allen Seh., mutarum mss 

generally Or. Ba. Mo. see Gomm. 25 ita fit — omnia om. Vanoher. 26 eo 
£10 Mars. Bed. Heind. edd., eo mundo uss generally Allen. 27 inUüegetur 

OB edd., intellegitur mss generally. 

4—2 



52 DE NATURA DEOBUM. 

provisum, si erit tota hominis fabricatio perspecta omnisque 
134humaiiae naturae figura atque perfectio. Nam cum tribus 
rebus animantium vita teneatur, cibo, potione, spiritu, ad haec 
omnia percipienda os est aptissimum, quod adjunctis naribus 
spiritu augetur; dentibus autem in ore constrictis manditur 5 
atque ab iis extenuatur et molitur cibus. Eorum adversi [acuti] 
morsu dividunt escas, intimi autem conficiunt, qui genuini 
vocantur, quae confectio etiam a lingua adjuvari videtur. 

135 Linguam autem ad radices ejus haerens excipit stomachus, quo 
primum illabuntur ea, quae accepta sunt ore. Is utraque ex 10 
parte tonsillas attingens palato extreme atque intimo terminatur, 
atque agitatione et motibus linguae cum deiapsum et quasi 
detinisum cibum accepit, depellit. Ipsius autem partes eae, 
quae sunt infra quam id, quod devoratur, dilatantur, quae autem 

136 supra, contrahuntur. Sed cum aspera arteria (sie enim a 15 
medicis appellatur) ostium habeat adjunctum linguae radicibus 
paulo supra, quam ad linguam stomachus adnectitur, eaque ad 
pulmones usque pertineat excipiatque animam, eam quae ducta 
est spiritu, eandemque a pulmonibus respiret et reddat, tegitur 
quodam quasi operculo, quod ob eam causam datum est, ne, si 20 
quid in eam cibi forte incidisset, spiritus impediretur. Sed cum 
alvi natura subjecta stomacho cibi et potionis sit receptaculum, 
pulmones autem et cor extrinsecus spiritum dddant, in alvo 
multa sunt mirabiliter efifecta ; quae constat fere e nervis, est 
autem multiplex et tortuosa arcetque et continet, sive illud 25 

4 quod — tpiritu augetur ^ quo — spiritus hauritur conj. Vaadher. 5 con- 

strictis Y Ozf. MCB Yanoher, eonstructis [ABCEP]BLO edd., constitutis HG El. 
See Gomm. mandatur conj. AUen (cf. Lucr. 11 687, Attius ap. Tusc. iv 77). 

6 atque ab iis extenuatur mss generaUy {his for iis BE + )» atqtie ext. ab iis Oxf., 
atque ext. Ba., ab his atque ext. Soh. molitur BLO, mollitur ACEPYB Ozf. + . 

acuti in brackets Ed., acuto UTO, see Comm. 10 sunt ore. Is edd. after 

Mannt., sunt. Orts hss Allen, sunt, et oris Hervag. 11 terminatur atque 

Foroh. Eayser, terminatur. Atque is (or his) hss edd. 12 delapsum Ed., 

depressum conj. Heind., depulsum uss and edd. see Comm. 18 itidem depellit 
conj. Allen, depellit inferius Heind., perhaps denuo ipse dep. 17 eaque ad 

[BEP] Ozf. BD, ea quae ad ACY. 19 est edd. after Klotz, sit mss. 20 ne 
si quid in eam [AEPJBHO and (reading quad for quid) BG, nisi quod si in eam 
YMV and (reading quid for quod) Ozf. 23 addant Ed., ducant ABCB Or. Ba. 

Mn., adducant PYG Ozf. HLMCV+ Heind. Seh., ahducant E. 24 comtat 

[CP]B, constant ABE Y Ozf. + . 



HB. II CAP. Liv, LV §§ 138—138. 53 

aridum est sive umidum, quod recepit, ut id miitari et concoqui 
possit ; eaque tum astringitur, tum relaxatur atque omne^ quod 
accepit, cogit et confundit, ut facile et calore, quem multum 
habet, et terendo cibo et praeterea spiritu omnia cocta atque ' 
5 eonfecta in reliquum corpus dividantur. LV. In pulmonibus 
autem inest raritas quaedam et assimilis spongiis mollitudo ad 
hauriendum spiritum aptissima, qui tum se contrahunt aspiran- 
tes, tum in respiratu dilatant, ut frequenter ducatur cibus 
animalis, quo maxime aluntur animantes. Ex intestinis autem 137 

lo secretus a reliquo cibo sucus is^ quo alimur, permanat ad jecur 
per quasdam a medio intestino usque ad poi*tas jecoris (sie enim 
appellantur) ductas et derectas vias, quae pertinent ad jecur 
eique adhaerent. Atque inde aliae alio pertinentes sunt, per 
quas cadit cibus a jecore dilapsus. Ab eo cibo cum est secreta 

15 bilis iique umores, qui e renibus profunduntur, reliqua se in 
sanguinem vertunt ad easdemque portas jecoris conSuunt, ad 
quas omnes ejus viae pertinent ; per quas lapsus cibus in hoc 
ipso loco in eam venam, quae cava appellatur, confunditur per- 
que eam ad cor confectus jam coctusque perlabitur, a corde 

20 autem in totum corpus distribuitur per venas admodum multas 
in omnes partes corporis pertinentes. Quem ad modum autem 138 
reliquiae cibi depellantur tum astringentibus se intestinis, tum 
relaxantibus, haud sane difficile dictu est, sed tamen praetereun- 
dum est, ne quid habeat injucunditatis oratio. lila potius 

25 explicetur iucredibilis fabrica naturae : nam quae spiritu in 
pulmones anima ducitur, ea calescit primum ipso ab spiritu, 



1 recepit [ABJL, recipit CEPV Oxf. +. 3 accepit [AB^ETJBH Oxf.+, 

accipit B*CP+. calore [BC] Oxf. M, calorem AEPV. 4 et terendo cibo 

Mss generally, et terendo Or. Ba. aftor Madv., exterendo cibo LOV + , ex terendo c, 
Heind., atterendo c. Moser's M, in terendo c, Gruter's Pal. 3. 8 in respiratu 

Klotz Soh. Mu. after Lamb., in re spiritu ABCPY^B, in respiram E, se spiritu 
V*UHMCB+, spiritu se Oxf., se in spiritu TIL, intrante spiritu Or. Ba. after 
Madv. 9 autem G edd. affcer Dav., autem alvo mss generally (perhaps from 

ahintur above), alvo autem Oxf., autem et aXvo HIN. 12 appellantur mss 

generally^ appeüant U Aso. Klotz. derectas Mu., directas mss and edd. 

ad jecur eique BCV Oxf. BM, ad jecorique A, jecorique EPLO + . 13 aliae 

aüo pert, Soh. Ba. Mn. after Heind., aliae pert, mss Allen, aliae ad renes pert, 
Lamb. Yaucher, aliae... pert. Klotz Or. 19 coctusque Y Walker edd., coactus- 
que MSS generally, eoneoetutque Madv. Fin. p. 264^ 



64 DE NATURA DEORXJM. 

deinde contagione pulmonum, ex eaque pars redditur respirando, 
pars concipitur cordis parte quadam, quem ventriculum cordis 
appellant, cui similis alter adjunctus est, in quem sanguis a 
jecore per venam illam cavam infiuit; eoque modo ex his 
partibus et sanguis per venas in omne corpus diffunditur et 5 
Spiritus per arterias. ütraeque autem crebrae multaeque tote 
corpore intextae vim quandam incredibilem artificiosi operis 
189 divinique testantur. Quid dicam de ossibus ? quae subjecta 
corpori mirabiles commissuras habent et ad stabilitatem aptas 
et ad artus finiendos accommodatas et ad motum et ad omnem 10 
corporis actionem. Huc adde nervös, a quibus artus continentur, 
eorumque implicationem corpore toto pertinentem, qui sicut 
yenae et arteriae a corde tractae et profectae in corpus omne 

140 ducuntur. LVI. Ad hanc providentiam naturae tarn diligen- 
tem tamque sollertem adjungi multa possunt, e quibus intel- 15 
legatur, quantae res hominibus a dis quamque eximiae tributae 
sint. Qui primum eos humo excitatos celsos et erectos constitu- 
erunt, ut deorum cognitionem caelum intuentes capere possent. 
Sunt enim ex terra homines, non ut incolae atque habitatores, 
sed quasi spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium, quarum 20 
spectaculum ad nullum aliud genus animantium pertinet. 
Sensus autem interpretes ac nuntii rerum in capite tamquam 

in arce mirifice ad usus necessarios et facti et coUocati sunt. 
Nam oculi tamquam speculatores altissimum locum obtinent, ex 

141 quo plurima conspicientes fungantur suo munere; et aures, cum 25 
sonum percipere debeant, qui natura in sublime fertur, rect« 
in altis corporum partibus collocatae sunt; itemque nares et, 
quod omnis odor ad supera fertur, recte sursum sunt et, quod 
cibi et potionis Judicium magnum earum est, non sine causa 
vicinitatem oris secutae sunt. Jam gustatus, qui sentire eorum^ 30 

1 contagione [ABCEP]BLO, eoagitatione Y Ozf. UHM+. 2 quem Aao. Y 

edd. after Klotz, quam mbb. ventriculum [BCE] Ozf., vejUerculum APV. 

4 kU [BE] edd., iU ACPY Ozf. 10 finiendos uss, fingendoi Heind. 

13 tractae et profectae mss Allen, tracti et profecti Asc. Herv. edd. 16 a die 

MBS, in bracketa Seh. (who oonjectures ab ea) Ba. Mu., a deo Lamb. Dav. AUen. 
17 quae Hervag. Yict. edd., qui mbb Heind. Allen. constituerunt C*GO Heind., 
constituit mbb generaUy. 19 e terra Soh. 26 in sublime mbb Klotz 

Allen, [in] sublime Seh. Mn., sublime Or. Ba. (cf. §§ 44, 101). 27 et quod 

ABGPY Ozf. B+ , eo quod ElLOV Allen Klotz Seh. 



LIB. II CAP. LV — LVII §§ 138 — 144. 55 

quibus vescimur, genera deberet, habitat in ea parte oris, qua 
esculentis et potulentis iter natura patefecit. Tactus autem 
toto corpore aequabiliter fusus est, ut omnes ictus omnesque 
minimos et frigoris et caloris appulsus sentire possimus. Atque 
5 ut in aedificiis architecti avertunt ab oculis naribusque domino- 
rum ea, quae profluentia necessario taetri essent aliquid habitura, 
sie natura reä similes procul amandavit a sensibus. LVII. Quis 142 
vero opifex praeter naturam, qua nihil potest esse callidius, 
tantam sollertiam persequi potuisset in sensibus? Quae primum 

xo oculos membranis tenuissiinis vestivit et saepsit ; quas primum 
perlucidas fedt, ut per eas cemi posset, firmas autem, ut con- 
tinerentur ; sed lubricos oculos fecit et mobiles, ut et declinarent, 
si quid noceret, et aspectum, quo vellent, fSstcile converterent. 
Aciesque ipsa, qua cemimus, quae pupula vocatur, ita parva est. 

15 ut ea, quae nocere possint, facile vitet; palpebraeqüe, quae sunt 
tegmenta oculorum, mollissimae tactu, ne laederent aciem, aptis- 
sime factae sunt et ad claudendas pupulas, ne quid incideret, et 
ad aperiendas; idque providit ut identidem fieri posset cum 
maxima celeritate. Munitaeque sunt palpebrae tamquam vallo 143 

20 pilorum, quibus et apertis oculis, si quid incideret, repelleretur, et 
somno coniventibus, cum oculis ad cernendum non egeremus, "fut 
qui tamquam involuti quiescerent. Latent praeterea utiliter et 
excelsis undique partibus saepiuntur. Primum enim superiora 
superciliis obducta südorem a capite et fronte defluentem repel- 

25 lunt ; genae deinde ab inferiore parte tutantur subjectae leniter- 
que eminentes ; nasusque ita locatus est, ut quasi murus oculis 
interjectus esse videatur. Auditus autem semper patet ; ejus 144 



1 deheret icss generally AUen, debet G Bed. HNO Aso. edd. 4 minimos 

Thanner Moser edd., minios E, minios V, nimios msb generally. possimus icss 
and edd., possemus Bed. Heind. (cf. § 150). 10 primum om. Lamb. Walker 

Heind., in braokets Ba. 11 continerentur mss generally, corUinererU U Lamb. 
Dav. 16 aptissime facttie sunt G, om. sunt hbs and edd. (aptissimae in AC), 

et apt, fact, sunt Heind., aptissimaeque f. s. ? 21 co7iiventibus [PV] Oxf. M, 

conluentihus ABGEBE, cor^fluentibus LNO. ut qui mss generally Or., om. 

Isidor. Orig. xi 1. 39 Emesti Heine (Qu. Tüll. p. 12), in braokets Ba., obel. Ma., 
utque CG, [ut que] Seh. who suggests coniventes (so. oculi) above, utqui {=ut) 
Swainson, ut Herv., qui B, qui ut U, ut ii Dav., utique Bonh. Allen, culcita 
Titüer (N, Jahrb. 1869 p. 498) see Gomm. 25 leniUrque edd. after Walker, 

Isviterqus msb Allen. 26 nasusque ita GGBO, nasus itaqus mss generally. 



56 DE NATURA DEOBTJM. . 

enim sensu etiam dormientes egemus ; a quo cum sonus est 
acceptus, etiam e somno excitamur. Flexuosum iter habet, ne 
quid intrare possit, si simplex et derectum pateret ; provisum 
etiam, ut, si qua minima bestiola conaretur irr^pere, in sordi- 
bus aurium tamquam in visco inhaeresceret. Extra autem 5 
eminent quae appellantur aures et tegendi causa factae tutan- 
dique sensus, et ne adjectae voces laberentur atque errarent, 
prius quam sensus ab iis pulsus esset Sed duros et quasi cor- 
neolos habent introitus multisque cum flexibus, quod bis naturis 
relatus amplificatur sonus ; quocirca et in fidibus testudine re- 10 
sonatur aut comu, et ex tortuosis locis et inclusis soni referuntur 

145 ampliores. Similiter nares, quae semper propter necessariajs 
utilitates patent, contractiores babent introitus, ne quid in eas, 
quod noceat, possit pervadere, umoremque semper babent ad 
pulverem multaque alia depellenda non inutilem. Qustatus 15 
praeclare saeptus est ; ore enim continetur et ad usum apte et 
ad incolumitatis custodiam. Omnisque sensus hominum multo 
antecellit sensibus bestiarum. LVIII. Primum enim oculi in 
iis artibus, quarum Judicium est oculorum, in pictis, fictis caela- 
tisque formis, in corporum etiam motione -atque gestu multa 20 
cemunt subtilius; colorum enim et figurarum [tum] venusta- 
tem atque ordinem et, ut ita dicam, decentiam oculi judicant, 
atque etiam alia majora. Nam et virtutes et vitia cognoscunt ; 
iratum propitium, laetantem dolentem, fortem ignavum, audacem 

146 timidumque [cognoscunt]. Auriumque item est admirabile quod- 25 
dam artificiosumque Judicium, quo judicatur et in vocis et in 
tibiarum nervorumque cantibus varietas sonorum, intervalla, 
distinctio et vocis genera permulta, canorum fiiscum, leve 
asperum, grave acutum, flexibile durum, quae bominum solum * 
auribus judicantur. Nariumque .item et gustandi [et parte 30 

8 derectum Ma. (cf. §§ 137, 131), directum mss and edd. 4 irrepere Heind. 
after Pateanas, irrumpere mss and edd. 8 ab iU Or. Ba. Mo., ab his hsb 

Seh. 11 soni Lamb., om. hss generally Allen. 17 omnisque [ACPV] 

Oxf. HM, omnesque BEYk). 18 anteeeüit mss genezally, anteeeUunt B. 

21 enim Ed. after Heind., etiam mss and edd. ^ee Comm. figurarum tum 

MBB, figurarum [tum] Or. Ba. Seh. after Lamb., figurarum... tum Ma., fig. uni 
Allen (NonioB p. 203 gives colorum— judicant as the mbb, showing the antiqoify 
of the oorraption). 25 cognoscunt braoketed by Ba. 28 canorum, ean- 

didum Dav. Heind. 30 et parte tangendi ABEPUIHL, obel. Or. Ma., om. 



MB. II CAP. LVII — LIX §§ 144 — 149. 67 

tangendi] magna judicia sunt Ad quos sensus capiendos et per- 
fruendos plures etiam, quam vellem, artes repertae sunt. Per- 
spicuum est enim, quo compositiones unguentorum, quo ciborum 
conditiones, quo corporum lenocinia prooesserint. 
5 LIX. lam vero animum ipsum mentemque hominis, ra- 147 
tionem, consilium, prudentiam qui non divina cura perfecta esse 
perspicit, is bis ipsis rebus mihi videtur carere. De quo dum 
disputarem, tuam mihi dari vel^^m, Cotta^ eloquentiam. Quo 
enim tu illa modo diceres ! quanta primum intellegentia, deinde 

lo consequentium rerum cum primis conjunctio et comprehensio 
esset in nobis; ex quo videlicet, quid ex quibusque rebus 
efficiatur, idque ratione concludimus, singulasque res definimus 
circumscripteque complectimur ; ex quo scientia intellegitur 
quam vim habeat qualis^j^t^ sit^ qua ne in deo quidem est res 

15 ulla praestantior. Quanta vero illa sunt, quae vos Academici in- 
firmatis et tollitis, quod et sensibus et animo ea, quae extra sunt, 
percipimus atque comprebendimus ! ex quibus collatis inter 148 
se et comparatis artes quoque efficimus, partim ad usum vitae, 
partim ad oblectationem necessarias. Jam vero domina rerum, 

30 ut vos soletis dicere, eloquendi vis, quam est praeclara quamque 
divina ! quae primum efficit, ut et ea, quae ignoramus, discere 
et ea, quae scimus, alios docere possimus ; deinde hac cohorta- 
mur, hac persuademus, hac consolamur afflictos, hac deducimus 
perterritos a timore, hac gestientes comprimimus, hac cupiditates 

25 iracundiasque restinguimus, haec nos juris, legum, urbium 
societate devinxit, haec a vita immani et fera segregavit. 
Ad usum autem orationis incredibile est, si diligenter atten- 149 



GB, et arte tangendi V in oorr. Yiot. Grater Ba. (who oompares arte complecti 
Div. 1 108), arte et t. Oxf. VL + ,pariter et t, Day. Em. Soh., et pariter t, G Maff. 
Lamb. Heind., et aperte t, V Manat., et perite t, Gnl., et certe t. Yanoher, 
partiwn et t, oonj. Mu. see Comm. 

7 U his [EPY] A^ Ozf., hi$ A^CBCVTG Bed. 8 dUputarem mss gene- 

rally, dieputem Emeati Klotz. veüem N Bed. Lamb. edd., velim msb generally 

Allen Klotz. 11 esset, est Forchh. quo, gua conj. Kayser. videlicet [ACPV] 
Oif. BD, videmus BE + , videhis H, see Comm. 12 idque ratione [BCEP], 

bracketed by Or. Ba. Soh., idque rationem AV Ozf. H, et qua ratione conj. Soh. 
14 quaUsque sit Mu. after Moser, qualis sit mss, et qualis sit Seh., om. Schütz, 
in bnuskets Or. Ba. (of. eaeque § 124). 27 ti edd. after Kindervater and 

Madv., nisi mss generally Allen, ubi G Bed. MB Heind. Klotz. 



68 DE NATURA DEORÜM. 

deris, quanta opera macbinata natura sit. Primum enim a pul- 
monibus arteria usque ad os intimum pertinet, per quam vox 
principium a mente ducens percipitur et funditur ; deinde in 
ore sita lingua est finita dentibus ; ea vocem immoderate pro- 
fusam fingit et terminat, atque sonos vocis difitinctos et pressos 5 
efficit, cum et ad dentes et ad alias partes pellit oris. Itaque 
plectri simüem linguam nostri solent dicere, chordarum dentes, 
nares comibus iis, qui ad nervös resonant in cantibus. 

150 LX. Quam vero aptas quamque multarum artium ministras 
man US natura homini dedit ! Digitorum enim contractio facilis 10 
facilisque porrectio propter moUes commissuras et artus nullo 

in motu laborat! Itaque ad pingendum, fingendum, scalpen- 
dum, ad nervorum eliciendos sonos, ad tibiarum apta manus est 
admotione digitorum. Atque haec oblectationis ; illa necessita- 
tis, cultus dico agrorum exstructionesque tectorum, tegumenta 15 
corporum, vel texta vel suta^ omnemque fabricam aeris et ferri ; 
ex quo intellegitur, ad inventa animo, percepta sensibus adhibitis 
opificum manibuSy omnia nos consecutos, ut tecti, ut vestiti, ut 
salvi esse possemus, urbes, muros, domicilia, delubra haberemus. 

151 Jam vero operibus hominum, id est manibus, cibi etiam varietas 20 
invenitur etcopia. Nam et agri multa efferunt manu quaesita, 
quae vel statim consumantur vel mandentur condita vetustati, 

et praeterea vescimur bestiis et terrenis et aquatilibus et volan- 
tibus partim capiendo, partim alendo. £fficimus etiam domitu 
nostro quadripedum vectiones, quorum celeritas atque vis nobis 25 
ipsis affert vim et celeritatem. Nos onera quibusdam bestiis, 
noR juga imponimus, nos elephantorum acutissimis sensibus, 



3 pereipitwr uss, prqjieitur Dsy., reeipitur or excipitur Heind., pereietur Bch. 
4 finita icss NoniuB p. 809, munita Soh. see Comm. 5 terminai atque edd. 

after Dav., terminat quae ABOPy+ Heind. AUen, terminatque EO. 8 ii$ 

qui edd., hi$ qui Mss generaUj, iis quae G Heind., his qiuu Hervag., hie quia Ozf. 
10 facilie [ABPV] Oxf. 0, om. CEBH+. 12 fingendum ABCVG Mus. Oxf. 

UT Heind., ad fingendum P edd., om. E. tcalpendum OB Heind., sctUpeii- 

dum G, oct eealp, vss generally edd. 13 ad tibiarum ABCEV^ + Allen, ac 

tibiarum PV Cif. MO edd. 14 admotione B«CPV« Oxf., od motionem AEV», 

admonitione B^V. 18 opifleibue, opificum Walker Heind. 19 pogsemut 

CGB edd. after Lamb., possimus A^EPV Oxf. U + Allen, poesumus A} Red. 
20 operibus icss (by corr. fr. opibue B), operie Lamb. Ba. see Comm. 28 vo- 

lantibui [ABCPV]BO, volatilibtts E + Seh. 



LiB. n CAP. Lix— LXi §§ 149 — 153. 59 

nos sagacitate canum ad utilitatem nostram abutimur, nos e 
terrae cavemis ferrum elicimus, rem ad colendos agros neces- 
sariam, nos aeris, argenti, auri venas penitus abditas 
inyenimus et ad usum aptas et ad omatum decoras, arborum 
5 autem consectione omnique materia et culta et silvestri partim 
ad calficiendum corpus igni adhibito et ad mitigandum cibum 
utimur, partim ad aedificandum, ut tectis saepti frigora 
caloresque pellamus. MagDOS vero usus affert ad navigia fa- 152 
cienda, quorum cursibus suppeditantur omnes undique ad 

lo vitam copiae ; quasque res violentissimas natura genuit, earum 
moderationem nos soli habemus, maris atque ventorum^ propter 
nauticarum rerum scientiam, plurimisque maritimis rebus 
fruimur atque utimur. Terrenorum item commodorum omnis 
est in homine dominatus. Nos campis, nos montibus fruimur, 

15 nostri sunt amnes, nostri lacus, nos firuges serimus, nos arbores, 
nos aquarum inductionibus terris fecunditatem damus, nos 
flumina arcemus, derigimus, avertimus, nostris deuique manibus 
in rerum natura quasi alteram naturam efficere conamur. 

LXI. Quid vero ? hominum ratio non in caelum usque 153 

20 penetravit ? Soli enim ex animantibus nos astrorum ortus, 
obitus cursusque cognovimus; ab hominum genere finitus est 
dies, mensis, annus, defectiones solis et lunae cognitae praedic- 
taeque in omne posterum tempus, quae, quantae, quando futurae 
sini Quae contuens animus accedü ad cognitionem deorum, e 

25 qua oritur pietas, cui conjuncta justitia est reliquaeque virtutes, 
e quibus vita beata exsistit par et similis deorum, nuUa alia re 
nisi immortalitate, quae nihil ad bene vivendum pertinet, cedens 
caelestibus. Quibus rebus expositis satis docuisse videor, homi- 
nis natura quanto omnes anteiret animantes. Ex quo debet 



2 eUeirnui uss, eligimus Mn. see Comm. 5 eonseetione V Ozf. H Herr. 

Lamb., eaj\feetiane BLOV + , confectionem ACEPY^B + , comectionem H. 6 eal- 
ßciendum AGPY, eal factendvm B, ealfaciendum Oxf. Herv., caUfaciendum 
EHLVUT+Soh., cälefieiendum BC. 7 ad aedifieandum [B]0, et ad aedif, 

ACEPYB Oxf. U + . 17 derigirmu B^ Mn., dirigimus hss generally Or. Ba. 

Seh. (of. § ISl). 22 praedieta^que Asc. ILOV, praedieataeque X Oxf. BH+. 

24 aeeedit ad cognitionem Or. Ba. Mu. after Dav., accidit ad eogn, Pühoeus, 
aecipit ad eogn. A^BCBPV^UH, accipit cogn, A^ aceepit eogn, LO, aceipit ah iii 
eogn. V, aecipit ab his eogn. Oxf. MRV Abo. Soh., aeeepit ah his eogn, Bed. CN. 



^ 



60 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

intellegi nee figuram situmque membrorum nee ingenii mentis- 
que vim talem eflSci potuisse fortuna. 

154 Bestat, ut doeeam, atque aliquando perorem, omnia, quae 
smt in hoe mundo, quibus utantur homines, hominum eausa 
faeta esse et parata. LXII. Principio ipse mundus deorum 5 
hominumque eausa factus est, quaeque in eo sunt, ea parate ad 
fructum hominum et inventa sunt. Est enim mundus quasi 
communis deorum atque hominum domus aut urbs utrorumque. 
Soli enim ratione utentes jure ac lege vivunt. Ut igitur 
Athenas et Lacedaemonem Atheniensium Lacedaemoniorumque lo 
eausa putandum est eonditas esse, omniaque, quae sint in his 
urbibus, eorum populorum recte esse dicuntur, sie. quaecumque 
sunt in omni mundo, deorum atque hominum putanda sunt. 

155 Jam vero eireumitus solis et lunae reliquorumque siderum, 
quamquam etiam ad mundi eoliaerentiam pertinent, tamen et 15 
spectaculum hominibus praebent; nuUa est enim insatiabilior 
speeies, nuUa pulchrior et ad rationem sollertiamque prae- 
stantior; eorum enim eursus dimetati maturitates temporum 

et varietates mutationesque eognovimus; quae si hominibus 
solis nota sunt, hominum faeta esse causa judicandum est. 20 

156 Terra vero feta frugibus et vario leguminum genere, quae 
cusa maxima largitate fundit, ea ferarumne an hominum 
causa gignere videtur? Quid de vitibus olivetisque dicam? 
quarum uberrimi laetissimique fructus nihil omnino ad bestias 
pertinent. Neque enim serendi neque colendi nee tempestive 25 
demetendi percipiendique fructus neque eondendi ac reponendi 
ulla peeudum seien tia est, earumque omnium rerum hominum 

157 est et usus et cura. LXIII. Ut fides igitur et tibias eorum 
causa factas dicendum est, qui illis uti possent, sie ea, quae 
dixi, üs solis eonfitendum est. esse parata, qui utuntur, nee, 30 



6 quM^ut — inventa sunt in braokets Heind. Or. Ba. Seh. see Comm. 
20 hominum facta esse eausa [X]BG Ozf., h, c. /. e. UTN Red. Heind. Seh., h, e. 
f. c, BV, h, c. e. /. G. 22 after cum maxima foUow in ACV Oxf. §§ 16 — 86 

etenim si di — quae efferant aliquid, in BE §§ 15 — 86 tarn multarum — aliquid, in 
P §§ 16 — 68 etenim — Dianam autem, see on § 16. There ie a gap in P from this 
point to § 162. 29 possent [ABGEPV^JBH, possunt Y^ Oxf. UV Heind. AUen, 

possint G, potuerunt LOT. 30 dixi iü 07^08+ , dixi ü BA^Y^, dixi his 

A'EH, diximus Oxf. U Heind. AUen. 



ÜB. II CAP. LXI — ^LXIV §§ 1Ö3 — 159. 61 

si quae bestiae furantur aliquid ex iis aut rapiunt, illarum 
quoque causa ea nata esse dicemus. Neque enim homines 
murum aut formicarum causa frumentum condunt, sed cou- 
jugum et liberorum et familiarum suarum. Itaque bestiae 
5 furtim, ut dixi, fruuntur, domini palam et libere. Hominum 158 
igitur causa eas rerum copias comparatas fateudum est, uisi 
forte tauta ubertas et varietas pomornm eorumque jucuudus 
nön gustatus solum, sed odoratus etiam et aspectus dubita- 
tionem affert, quin hominibus solis ea natura donaverit. Tan- 

lo tumque abest, ut haec bestiarum etiam causa parata sint, ut 
ipsas bestias bominum gratia generatas esse videamus. Quid 
enim oves aliud afferunt, nisi ut earum villis confectis atque 
contextis homines vestiantur ? quae quidem neque ali neque 
sustentari neque ullum fructum edere ex se sine cultu hominum 

15 et curatione potuissent. Canum vero tam fida custodia tamque 
amans dominorum adulatio tantumque odium in extemos et 
tam incredibilis ad investigandum sagacitas narium, tanta 
alacritas in venando, quid significat aliud nisi se ad hominum 
commoditates esse generatos ? Quid de bubus loquar ? quorum 150 

20 ipsa terga declarant non esse se ad onus accipiendum figurata ; 
cervices autem natae ad jugum, tum vires umerorum et latitu- 
dines ad aratra extrahenda. Quibus cum terrae subigerentur 
fissione glebarum, ab illo aureo genere, ut poetae loquuntur, vis 
nulla umquam afferebatur. 

25 Ferrea tum vero proles ezorta repente est 

ausaque funestum prima est fabricarier ensem 
et guBtare manu vinctum domitumque juyencum. 

Tanta putabatur utilitas percipi e bubus, ut eorum visceribus 

vesci scelus haberetur. LXIV. Longum est mulorum persequi 

30 utilitates et asinorum, quae certe ad hominum usum paratae 

3 murum N Bed. Charisias p. 137 K, murium hsb Heind. Allen. 6 nisi 

BH3, ni AB^EV Or. Ba. 7 ubertas et varietas CBIL, ubertas varietas AB7ÄV 

Klotz, ubertas varietasque E Oxf. Bed. GHR + . 22 extrahenda hss, trahejuia 

Seh. Ma. alter Emesti. quibus^ a quibus oonj. Heind. 25 est^ om. A'B 

(in ras.). 26 prima est mss generally, primast Y^ Or. Ba., prima sunt {sunt 

for st) CB, cf. § 110 mediaest, fabricarier ensem et A by corr. EV* Oxf. H, 
fdbrieariferensem et (aapersor. re after fer) B, fabricari ferens emet GB, fabricari 
ßsrro ensem et V^fflf. 27 vinctum [BE]A (by corr. fr. victum), junctum OV. 

28 e MBB generaUy, ex Boh. 



62 DE NATUBA DEORÜM. 

160 sunt. Sus vero quid habet praeter escam ? cui quidem, ne 
putesceret, animam ipsam pro sale datam dicit esse Chrysippus; 
qua pecude, quod erat ad vescendum hominibus apta, nihil 
genuit natura fecundius. Quid multitudinem suavitatemque 
piscium dicam? quid avium ? ex quibus tanta percipitur voluptas, 5 
ut interdum irpovoia nostra Epicurea fuisse videatur — ^atque eae 
ne caperentur quidem nisi hominum ratione atque soUertia^ — 
quaraquam aves quasdam, et alites et oscines, ut nostri augures 
appellant, rerum augurandarum causa esse natas putamus. 

161 Jam vero immanes et feras beluas nanciscimur venando, ut et 10 
vescamur iis et exerceamur in venando ad similitudinem bei- 
licae disciplinae et utamur domitis et condocefactis, ut elephan- 
tis, multaque ex earum corporibus remedia morbis et vulneribus 
ehoamus, sicut ex quibusdam stirpibus et herbis, quarum uti- 
litates longinqui temporis usu et periclitatione percepimus. 15 
Totam licet animis tamquam oculis lustrare terram mariaque 
omnia; cernes jam spatia frugifera atque immensa camporum 
vestitusque densissimos montium, pecudum pastus, tum incredi- 

162bili cursus maritimes celeritate. Nee vero supra terram, sed 
etiam in intimis ejus tenebris plurimarum rerum latet utilitas, 20 
quae ad usum hominum orta ab hominibus solis invenitur. 

LXY. lUud vero, quod uterque vestrum arripiet fortasse ad 
reprehendendum, Cotta, quia Carneades libenter in Stoicos in- 
. vehebatur, Yelleius, quia nihil tam irridet Epicurus quam prae- 
dictionem rerum futurarum, mihi videtur vel maxime confirmare 25 
deorum Providentia consuli rebus humanis. Est enim profecto 
divinatio, quae multis locis, rebus, temporibus apparet, cum [in] 

163 privatis tum maxime publicis. Multa cemunt haruspioes, multa 
augures provident, multa oraclis declarantur, multa vaticina- 
tionibus, multa somniis, multa portentis, quibus cognitis multae 30 
saepe res ex hominum sententia atque utilitate partae, multa 

6 rp6poia Or. Ba., jpronoea mbs Seh. Mo. 14 elieiamiu N Bed. Or. Ba. 

Soh. after Heind., eligamu$ mss generally Allen Klotz Mn. 15 pereepimu» 

CBM Nonius p. 219, percipimus ABEV Oxf. H+. 24 praedietumem C bj 

corr. L, praedieationem ABEV Oxf. BH+, cf. § 153. 26 Providentia Y (by 

oorr. £r. pniderUia) M Oxf., prudentia ABCEPBHOL. (Here P reeommenoes after 
§ 68 Dianam autem.) 27 in mbs and edd., [in] Mu. 28 publici» mss 

generally, in puhHcit HLON Soh. Or. Ba. 31 ex GB Lamb. edd., om» mbb 

generally. uHUtaU hbs, utilitatee Mars. Lamb. Soh. 



LIB. II CAP. LXIV — LXVI §§ 159 — 166. 63 

etiam pericula depulsa sunt. Haec igitur, sive vis sive ars sive 
natura, ad scientiam rerum futurarum homini profecto est nee 
alii cuiquam a dis immortalibus data. Quae si singula vos forte 
non movent, universa eerte tarnen inter se coaexa atque con- 
5 juncta movere debebant. 

Nee vero universo generi hominum solum, sed etiam singulis 164 
a dis immortalibus consuli et provideri solet. licet enim con- 
trahere universitatem generis humani eamque gradatim ad pau- 
ciores, postremo deducere ad singulos. LX VI. Nam si omnibus 

lo hominibus, qui ubique sunt quacumque in ora ac parte terrarum 
ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantium, 
deos consulere censemus ob eas causas, quas ante diximus, bis 
quoque hominibus consulunt, qui has nobiscum terras ab Oriente 
ad occidentem colunt. Sin autem hü consulunt, qui quasi mag- 165 

15 nam quandam insulam incolunt, quam nos orbem terrae vocamus, 
etiam illis consulunt, qui partes ejus insulae tenent, Europam, 
Asiam, Afiricam. Ergo et earum partes diligunt, ut Bomam, 
Athenas, Spartam, Rhodum, et earum urbium separatim ab 
universis singulos diligunt, ut Pyrrhi bello Curium, Fabricium, 

20 Coruncanium, primo Fanico Calatinum, Duellium, Metellum, 
Lutatium, secundo Maximum, Marcellum, Africanum, post hos 
Paulum, Gracchum, Catonem, patrumve memoria Scipionem, 
Laelium ; multosque praeterea et nostra civitas et Qraecia tulit 
singulares vires, quorum neminem nisi juvante deo talem fuisse 

25 credendum est. Quae ratio poetas maximeque Homerum im- 166 
pulit, ut principibus heroum, XJlixi, Diomedi, Agamemnoni, 
Achilli, certos deos discriminum et periculorum comites adjun- 
geret. Praeterea ipsorum deorum saepe praesentiae, quales 
supra commemoravi, declarant ab iis et civitatibus et singulis 

30 hominibus consuli ; quod quidem intellegitur etiam significa- 
tionibus rerum futurarum, quae tum dormientibus, tum vigilan- 

8 alii euiquam HHKG Bed., alicuiqttam XB+i ab aUo cuiquam V, ah alio 
alieui quam Oxf. KV, ah aliquo quam HOT. 5 dehehant AB^EV^GHT, de^ 

beant PLO, dehebunt B^V+AUen Seh. Ma. see Comm. 12 oh eas edd., ob 

ha» MBB gen^raUy. 14 »in auUm, si autem Bonh. Seh. in App. bat see Mu. 

Adn, Grit. p. 12. kis consulunt Seh. Ba. Mu., iis consulunt Or. Klotz, con- 

sulunt X, eons. iU VO Bed. Abg., cons. iüü UB+, iUü cons. GH. 19 [diU- 

gunt]B9k, 



64 DE NATXJBA DEOEUM. 

tibus portenduntur. Multa praeterea ostentis, multa extis 
admonemur multisque rebus aliis, quas diutumus usus ita 

167 uotavit, ut artem divinationis eflSceret. Nemo igitur vir mag- 
nus sine aliquo afflatu divino umquam fuit. Magnis autem 
viris prosperae semper omnes res, siquidem satis a nostris et a 5 
principe philosophiae Socrate dictum est de ubertatibus virtutis 
et copiis. Nee vero id ita refellendum est, ut, si segetibus aut 
vinetis cujuspiam tempestas nocuerit, aut si quid e vitae com- 
modis casus abstulerit, eum, cui quid herum acciderit, aut 
invisum deo aut neglectum a deo judicemus. Magna di curant, 10 
parva neglegunt. 

168 LXVII. Haec mihi fere in mentem veniebant, quae dicenda 
putarem de natura deorum. Tu autem, Ootta, si me audias, 
eandein causam agas teque et principem civem et pontificem 
esse cogites et, quoniam in utramque partem vobis licet dis- 15 
putare, hanc potius sumas eamque facultatem disserendi, quam 
tibi a rhetoricis exercitationibus acceptam amplificavit Aca- 
demia, potius huc couferas. Mala enim et impia consuetudo 
est contra deos disputandi, sive ex animo id fit sive simulate. 

1 eactU te Bed. Lamb. edd., in exHs X Ozf. UTHMO+. 4 magnu — 

copiis comes at the end of the § (after parva fuglegunt) in all mss and edd. eee 
Comm. 6 prosperae semper ACPBHO, prospere semper BEV^G, prospere 

eveniunt semper V* Oxf. XJCBV, prospere semper eveniunt N Red. Soh. 7 ita 

refellendum hbs Allen Klotz, id ita refeil. edd. after Heind., id ita premendum 
conj. Or. Bee Comm. 14 agas, ages Seh. (by mistake ?). 15 vobis [XJBLO, 
quovis V^ Oxf. ü + , nohis H. 17 acceptam, om. Or. Ba. (by mistake). 18 et 
impia CEV*. et ampia V^, etiampia ABP. 



NOTES. 



BOOK IL 



Stoic Argument. 

Division qf ihe siibject : the Divvne esmstence (A) / the Divine 
nature (B) / FromderUial governmerU of the world (C) / FrovidentUd 
eare for man (D). §§ 1—3. 

Gh. I § 1. ne ego incautos : cf. i 51 n., and for Omission of sub*. 
stantivB verb § 20, § 68, § 84, and final Index under 'ellipais'. 

et eodem rhetore : tdeni is added io give prominence to the union of 
different atiributes (often apparently incongruous, as in i dO,) in the same 
person. Rhetor means properly a teacher of rhetoric as in Plin. Ep, iv 11 
(cited bj Seh.) eo deddü ut rhetor ex oratore fieret ; then, as here and 
MnUH9 § 265, one trained in all the rules of speaking. Cicero often speaks 
of the importance of the study of philosophy, especially the Academic philo- 
sophy, to the orator, see below § 168, OrcUor 12, Fat, 3, and of. Quintilian 
xn 2 § 23 i/l Tfdlitis non tarUum ae debere scholis rhetorum quantum Aca- 
dtnUae spatiU frequenter ipse testatur. Oratory without philosophy is as 
defectiye on the one side, as philosophy without oratory on the other ; 
<locto orcUori palma danda est, Orot» ui 142, Tttac, i 7. We are told eise- 
where that Cotta devoted himself to the Academy with a view to oratory, 
see Orot, in 145 and voL i pref. p. zL 

rhetorem: Martial (n 64 1 and 5) uses the Qreek forms rhetora 
rhetoris^ see Boby § 480 and Varro Z. Z. x 70. 

ii6q.iie enimflninlne — siccitas : ' I am not disconcerted either by (i.e. at 
having to answer) a stream of empty verbiage or by exactness of thought 
äocompanied by jejuneness of style '. We have here the faulty extremes of 
two styles which are distinguished in Brutus 89, cum dttae sumr/uze sint in 
oratore Idudes, una eubtüiter disputandi ad doc&ndum, altera gravüer offendi 
ad animos audientium permovendos, Elsewhere C. distinguishes three 
Stylus, having for their respective aims to instruct, to influenae, to delight. 
Cf. Mayor's Quintil. x 1 § 44 n. pp. 99, 100, 102, 103, § 46 p. 106. ^t^- 

M. C. IT. 5 



C6 BOOK n CH. I § 1. 

tüüasj clear definite statement, belongs to the Ist : it is described at 
length in Orator 76 foU., cf. also ibid. 69, Brut, 185, OpL gen, die, i 3, and 
Ernesti Lex, Techn, hat, s. v. S'uhtüui. The word akcm is sometimes used 
by way of praise, as in Brut. 202, where it is said of our Cotta, nihH erat in 
ejus oratione nisi dncerum^ nihil nid siccum et sanum; so Opt, gen, die 8 
sioci et sani, and exsiccatum Brut. 291. In such passages the literal force 
corresponds to our word * wiry \ as opposed to flabby and fleshy, see CcUo 
34 with Reid's n. But it is also used in a bad sense and opposed to «mc?«, 
as in Brut, 283 folL where we read of a Speaker who, in aiming at too great 
subtilty, verum sanguinem deperdebat: such a style is characterized by 
siccäas, jejunüas and inopia. Similarly in the treatise ad Herenn, iv 9 we 
find arescarU siccitate. In Opposition to this, C. says {Orator 76) that the 
subtüü oratory etsi non plurimi sanguinis est, habeat tarnen sucum aliquem 
oportet, fluinen : cf. Orator 53 flumen aliis verborum volubüüasque cordi 
est; distincta alias et interpuncta intervalla...delectant. Quid potest esse 
tarn diversum? tarnen est in utroque aliquid excdlens; also Orot, n 62, 188, 
Acad, II 19, and N. D, ii 20. 

Corona: *an audience', cf. Ov. Met, xni 1 consedere duces, et vulgi 
stante Corona mrgit Ajax, Pro Mil, 1 non enim corona consessus vester 
cinctus est, vi solebat, Brut. 192 in iis etiam caims, in quibus omnis res 
nobis cum judicibus est, iion cum populo, tarnen si a corona rdictus sim, 
non queam dicere, Seneca De Ira i 12 relvcto judice ad coronam venis * the 
galleries \ On the adversative asyndeton see Index. 

ad ista alias : for the Omission of the verb {dicam) oLiVl koe alias 
{tractemus), § 19 ad omnia {dicere), § 28 eadem {dicit), il 2 tum Ballms {dicü) 
and Index under * ellipsis *. [Madv. on Fin, i 9. Swainson.] 

§ 2. Balbos : it is rather curious that, while C. Aurelius Cotta is only 
called by his cognomen, Q. Luciüus Baibus is called indifferently either by 
nxmen or cognomen, e.g. B. in i 16, 22, 50, in 2, L. in i 20, 25, 47, iii 3. 

mallem audire — dum — ^inducat: 'for my part I should have preferred 
te hear that same Cotta using the eloquence, with which he removed 
the false Gods, to bring in the trne'. This, which is Mr Roby's trans- 
lation, seems to me to give a better force to eundem than I had done 
in my own previous Version * I too should have agreed with you in pre- 
ferriug to hear Cotta, rather than speak myself^ provided he is as eloquent 
in introducing the true worship, as he was in overthrowing the felse' 
(where the use of dum would resemble that in Rose, Am, 119 ipse sese in 
cruciatum dari cuperet, dum de patris morte quaereretur), I now take the 
sentence to be equivalent to mallem avdire eundem inducentem qui eustu- 
lerat, cf. below § 24 animadversum est cum cor palpitaret, Suet. Dom, 4 
audilus est dum ab eo quaerit, and n. on i 58 videor audisse cum te togatis 
anteferrel, Draeger (§ 597 b) cites it as an example of dum, * whilst \ 
followed by the Subj., and compares pro Plancio § 95 dixisti, dum Plancii 
in me meriium extollerem, me areumfaoere e doaca; pro Mur, 4Spopulum 
Ronmnum in eum metum adduxisti, ut pertimesceret ne oonsul Catüina 



BOOK II CH. I § 2. 67 

fieret^ dum tu accusatioiiem comparares; cf. also Orat. i 187 fioc videoy dtim 
breviter volnerim dicere^ dictum esse paulo obscurius, For the discrepancy 
of tenses Draeger (§ 152. 2) cites Farn, xni 6 a. 4 qvae quantum valeantj 
veUem expertus essCy sed tarnen suspicor, N, Z>. iii 10 primum ßiit, cum 
caelum suspexissemuSy statim nos hvtdlegere esse aliquod numeii quo kaec 
regantur; cf. also Fin. i. 25 si coTicederetur^ etiam st ad corpus nihil re/era- 
tur^ ista per se esse jucuivda (where see Madv.), Tusc. i 60 ülud^ si vlla 
alia de re obscura aßrmwre possem, sive anima sive ignis sit animus^ eum 
jurarem esse divinum. Tha difference of tense in the case before us is 
facilitated by the peculiar attraction which dum has for the Present/ 
see Robj § 1458 and below § 49 dum judicat non suspexit, There is a 
similar discrepancy in ii 147 according to the MSS, dum disptUarem — velim, 
but see n. there. As a ruie the- tense of the subordinate verb is attracted 
to that of the governing verb, as in i 45 d^orum ruUura coleretur, cum 
aetema esset (for sit\ ii 3 te audire veUem cum ipse dixissem (for dixerim), 
§ 32 quamam esset particeps (for sit\ § 49 si didicissety bis bina quot essent 
(for sint), § 67 cum vim haberent (for kabeant) maximam prima et extrema, 
principeni Janum esse voluerunt^ § 118 ex quo eventurum putant id, de quo 
Panaetium addubitare dicebant, ut omnis mundus igjiesceret (for ignescat), 
III 9 cur contuerere altero oculo causa non essety cum idem obtuius esset (for 
sit) amhorum, § 7.0 sie soletis occurrere, non iddrco non optima nohis a 
dis promsum, quod mvlti eorum beneßcio perverse uterentur (for utantur). 

et philosophi— et Oottae : cf. § 168 and in 5. On the pontißces see 
Harusp. Resp. 12 foU. 

errantem et vagam: ^hesitating and imsettled', see Äcad, ii 66 ego 
sum magnus opinator,..eo fit ut errem et vager latius, and note on iT. B, 
I 2. 

oblitus es quid dixerim : the interrogative pronoun is commonly used 
after obliviscar, as in Brut, 218 obliviscebatur quid posuisset; it is here 
explained by the following Infinitive, as in Fin. n 10 (cited by Allen) quid 
pavlo antCf tnquity dixerim, nonne meministi^ cum omnis dolor deiractus esset, 
variariy n/m augeri voluptatem f The ref. is to i 57, 60. 

§ 3. ]iaberem...qnod liaueret : cf. nn. on 1 29, 117. 

geram tibi morem : this means literally ' to show a certaiu behaviour 
for the sake of another ', and hence to humour or oblige another. The 
Compounds morigenis and m^origeror are common in the comic poets, the 
latter is also found in Orator 159. The contrary to this is ponere or im- 
ponere morem * to impose a behaviour ', to lay down the law for another. 

[detracta oratio est: that this is the usual order is shown by Madv. 
FifL V 86. Swainson.] 

omnino : ' to take a general view \ So in Lad. 78 omnino omnium 
horum vitiorum atque incommodorum una cautio est, vi ne nimis cito diligere 
tndpiant, Of. l 66 omnino fortis animus et magntis dudbus rebus maxime 
cerniiur. 

istam : the matter you have been discussing. 

5-2 



68 BOOK II CH. I §3. 

primnm docent — ^himiaiiis : on tbis division see the IntroductioQ 
on the sources of Üiis book, and Schwencke, who shows (p. 130) that the 
questions w«p\ 6€&v and trcpi vpopoias were usually treated separatelj, but 
that they were combined by Poeidonius in bis treatise ir. Bi^p. 

Bnmaiaas : not, as in i 89, ' assume ', but ' take into consideration '. 
Seh. quotes Orat, ii 366 quü Antonio permisü, tU et partes faceret : ei^ 
utram vellety prior ipse sumeret, 

mininie vero : ' no ! no ! ' For tbis emphatic force see i 86. 

et otiosi — anteponendae : Moser cites Plato Phaedr. 227 b ircuo-cc c? 

(rot (T^oX^ dicot/c(F. Ti de ; ovk av o7ei /ic, Korh. niydapov (Isthm, 1 1) koX 
dcrxoXuzr vniprepov npayfia vroiifo'oa'^ac, ro inj» rc Ka\ Avcriou huirptßti» 
dKov<rai\ cf. also Leg, X 887 B, and Cic. Divin, i \0 de quibus quid ipee 
sentiam, siplacety exponcm. ; ita tarnen, ei vacas animo neque hohes aliquid^ 
quod huic sermom praevertendum putas, Ego vero, inquanif philosophiae 
sempervaco, 

A. Proop op the Divine Existence. g 4 — 44. 

a. From tke Observation of the heavena § 4, b. from the general 
consent of manfüdnd § 5, c. from va/rions recorded appewranees of the 
Gods § 6, di,from thefact of divination §§ 7 — 12. 

a. That ' the heavens declare the glory of God ' is more fully shown in 
§§ 15—17, 39—44, 90—97, 102—119, 153— lö5. For the same argument 
cf. Plato Leg, x pp. 896—899, and the well-known words of Kant : * Two 
things there are which, the oftener and the more steadfastly we consider 
them, fill the mind with an ever new, an ever rising admiration and 
reverence ; — the Starry Heayen above, the Moral Law within....The one 
departfi from the place I oocupy in the outer world of sense ; expands, 
beyönd the bounds of imagination, the connexion of my body with worlds 
rising beyond worlds, and Systems blending into Systems ; and protends it 
also into the illimitable times of their periodic movement — ^to its oom- 
mencement and perpetuity '. {Krit. d. Prakt. Vem. Beschliiss, translated 
by Hamilton Metaphysics i p. 39.) 

Ch. II § 4. quid enim-— regantur : paraphrased by Minudus Oct, 17. 

ctiin caeluni SUspezimuB : c£ Harusp, resp, 9 Quis tarn vecors, qui 
atU, cum suspexerit in cadum, deos esse non senliat, et eo, quae tanta mente 
fiunt^ ut viv quisquam arte uUa ordinem rerum ac necessitudinem persequi 
possitf casu ßeri putet ; aut, cum deos esse intdlexerit, non inteUegat eorum 
numine hoc tantum imperium esse natum et auctum et retentum t Lactant. 
I 2 nemo est tam rudis, tarn feris moribia, quin oculos suos in cadum toUenSy 
tametsi nescicU cujus dei Providentia regatur hoc omne quod cemitur, non 
aliquam tarnen esse inteUegat; Minuc. 18 audio vulgus: cum ad cadum 
manus tendunt, nihil aliud quam ' Deum * dicunt, et * Deus magnus est ' ; 
* Deus verus est V Tertull. Apol. 17. 



BOOK II CH. II § 4. 69 

(ino regantnr : AbL of Cause, where we might have ezpected the Abi. 
of Agent with ab^ but numen is rather abstract than personal ' an influence 
of an all-perfect Beason', as in the parallel passage N, D. iii 10, and 
generallj in Cic, cf. Uarusp, Resp. 9 cited above, ib. 19 deorum nuimne 
omnia regiy N. D.u^lQ id guo iUa conficiuTUur, § 83 terra natura tenetur, 
§ 85 natura administrari^ n. regatur, 
qui potnisset : see i 57 n. 

assensn omnitim : see Roby § 1239, and § 1242, and Kühnast Liv» 
8ynt. p. 175 folL In Liv. iii 72 we find cum assensu audiri 

aapice — Jovem : cited again in § 65 and ni 10 and 40. We leam 
firom Festus p. 306 if {nMimem est in aUitvdinem svhlatum ut Ennitu in 
ThyetUy where Yahlen, Ribbeok, &c. would read sublimen) that the line is 
from the ThtfesteSy apparently the latest play of Ennius (Brttt. 78), from 
which C. quotes also in Tusc, 1 107, ni 26. There was a play of Attins on 
the same subject (the Ätreus) from which a quotätion is given below iil 68. 
hoc sublime candens : ' this dazzling vault of heaven '. For the use of 
the pronoun hoc, pointing to the sky, c£ the fragment below § 65, hoc quod 
lucet, quioquid est ; Ennius Tdam/yn L 367 V. hoc lumen candidum daret 
mihi; Pacuvius (Ribb. 86) hoc vide circum supraque quod complexu contiiiU 
terram (preceding the quotätion in iT. 2>. ii 91) ; Plaut. Mil, Ol. 217 lucet 
hoc; Ämphitr, 543; Curctd. 182; Terent. ffaut. 410; so ca>elum hoc often in 
Cic. e.g. Tusc i 43, 1 Cat. 15 potestne haec lux. aut hujus codi Spiritus esse 
jucundusf candens and candidtts are favourite words with Ennius, see 
Vahlen's Ind. On the form suhliman read here by most of the later edd. 
see L. and S. s. y. It was introduced by Yahlen and Ribbeck, in their col- 
lections of the fragments, from the Benedictine HS of Apuleius De Mundo 
33, where the line odcurs. Ritschi reads it with an adverbial force in 
many paBsages of Plautus, see his paper in Rhein. Mus. 1850 p. 556 {Opusc. 
II p. 262 folL). Whatever Ennius may have written, it seems to me pro- 
bable that C. here used.the ordinary form sublime, as in the translation 
from Euripides, probably made by himself, in § 65 vides suMvmefusum. 
Qnem: for the attraction of the Fron, to the gender of the predicative 
uoun, see Roby § 1068. invocant : the lexicons give this the force of 
vocant, and cite supposed parallels from Curtius. I do not see why it 
may not be translated ' call upon ' in all cases, the Acc. being treated as 
oblique complement after factitive vepb, hke te-saluto imperatorem or 
ascisco augures^n § 7. 

illom vero et Jovem : ' Aye ! and not only invoke him as Jupiter, but 
also as sovereign of the world'. [C£ Liv. 1 12 hie ego tibi templum Statori 
Jovi voveo, * I vow a temple to thee by the name of Jove the Stayer '. R.] 
Only one other instance of dominator is cited (Lact, ii 14 2) but domi- 
natrix occurs De Inveni. i 2. [Add for the former Sen. ff. F. 1181,- Thy. 
1078, Med. 4, Phaedr. 1039, 1159, Sil. xiv 79, Wihnanns leiser. Lot. 590 15, 
Serv. Aen. m 73 fin., Aug. Serm. 290 2, Tert. adv. ffermog. 9, Hier, in ecd. 
4 ooL 425, in Malach. 3. 1. J. E. B. M.] I do not agree with Seh. in con- 



70 BOOK II CH. II § 4. 

sidermg that there is an allusion to the derivation of Jovent from juvo^ as 
though Jovem here meant a helper. 

nntu regentem : so R090. Am. 131 Jupiter 0, M, cujus niUu et arhürio 
caelum terra mariague reguntur, et Homer E. 1 528. 

patrem diviiniq.ae homintunque : Enn. Ann, vi fr. 2 V., quoted 
again below § 64 =wan)p av^pmv re Öcöv t« Hom. H, TV 360, Hes. Theoff, 47, 
Diod. Sic. 1 12. VirgiPs divom pater atque hominum res is also borrowed 
from Ennius. The name Jur-piter^ Ztvs iranjpy corresponding to the Odiu 
All-father of the north, is of course inconsistent with the genealogical details 
of later mythology, see Preller Ä. M, p. 164« folL, Welcker Gr. Gott. 1 179 foll. 
In Homer we find Zeus styled n-orr'p by Thetis {II. i 503), Poseidon (vn 
446), Hera (xix 121) ; and in Od. zx 202 he is appealed to os the father of 
tnen, iirfjv dfj ydveai avroy. It was from the hymn of Cleanthes, expressing 
this belief in the fatherhood of Zeus, that the Apostle Paul took the tezt of 
his address to the Athenians, rov yap kqX ytvot ta-fiev, On the other band 
the common origin of gods and men from earth is asserted in Hesiod Op. 
108 ttf oytoB^v yc-yaocc 6to\ ßyrjroi r avBptnroi^ and Pindar Neni. VI 1 tv dv- 
dp£vy e» Stcov ycvco'tr, tK fuas de irv4ofi€v fiarpos dp,(f>6T€poi. Lactantius 
iv 3 arguing in favour of a primaeval mouotheism from the imiversal use of 
the term pater in the ceremonies of the different gods, quotes Lucilius tU 
nemo sit nostrum quin pater optimus divurn, ut Neptunxts pater, Liber, Sa- 
tumus pater, Mars, Janus, Quirinus pater, nomcn dicatur ad unum. The 
Stoics justly claimed the authority of ancient tradition, not only for their 
doctrine of the Divine fatherhood, but also for their identification of the 
Deity with heaven. The name Zeus itself means originally the sky (Max 
Müller vol. ii Lect. x) and so we find in Homer E. xm 837 aldipa neu Aior 
avyds, II 412 Zivs alBtpi vaioav, and in Aeschylus fr. 295 Dind. we have the 
same idea widening out into a true Stoic pantheism, Zcvr cWcv alOrip, 
Z€V9 bk yfj, Z€vs Ä* ovpavos' Zcvs rot ra irdvra x<*>^* töJkÄ* wriprrepov. So 
Democritus ap. Clem. AI. Protr. § 68, and Strom, v § 103, ' there are men 
who havo leamt, as they raise their hands to heaven, to say that all ia 
Zeus, and that he knows and gives and takes away all things, and is the 
king of all \ Compare also the old Orphic line so much quoted by the 
Stoics, Z€Vf dpxn^ 2,€vs fjJ<r<r<i, Aios 8* tK ndvra Tirvtcrai (Lobeck Agl. p. 530) 
and that of Valerius Soranus (ap. Aug. C. D. vii 9) Jupiter omnipotens, 
regvm rerumque deumque progenitor genetrixque deum deus unus et omnis. 
Further iUustrations may be found in Seneca Qu. N. ii 45, Epict. Diss. i 3, 
Comutus c. 9 with Osann's n. 

<luod <liu dübitet — ^possit : on the hypothetical use of the Subj. c£ i 
43 qui consideret n. Madv. Fin. ii 86, Tusc. v 118. The Ind. is read by 
most edd. in § 93 qui existimat, non inteUego cur non putet. 

8ol Sit an nullus sit : the more oommon form of alternative \s sol sä 
necue, as in i 61 sintne di necne, in 17 di utrum sint necne sint; here we have 
a stronger Opposition, see on i 61 mdli esse. 



BOOK II CH. II § 5. 71 

§ 5. cognitum comprehensximqne : the Stoic icaraXi/nTov, c£ 1 1 n. on 
pereeptum et cognüum, 

inyeterascere : I have followed Forchhammer {Nord. Tüikk. 1880 p. 40) 
in adopting this form, as it seems to be the form regolarly used by Cic. and 
his contemporaries in the sense of becoming fized, c£ 3 Cat. 26 {res nostrae) 
liUerarum monumerUis inveteraacent, Nepos Att, 2 inveterascere aes ali/envm 
paHebatur, Lucr. lY 1068 inveteraecü alendo, Caesar B. G. v 40 inveterascere 
consnetudinem. ib. n 1 exercitum inveterascere in Gallia; and there is no 
certain ezample of inveterare in the same sense (though Forcellini refers to 
it all the exx. of the Per£ stem inveteravt), nor of inveterari before the time 
of Pliny. 

ceteras : i.e. aU but the naturae judicia mentioned below. The anti» 
ihesis is conoealed by the parenthetical quis — extimescat. 

flctas l^ßctas olja-as. 

extabnisse: 'to have dwindled away'; only found here in tropical 
sense. 

Hippocentanmm : c£ 1 105. The writer of the notice of voL i in the 
Saturday Bev, adds a ref. to Digest 45. 1. 97. 

ChlmaeTam : 1 108. anus : see 1 55 n. 

excors : ' senseless ', the old Eomans regarded the heart as the seat of 
the imderstanding ; hence the derivatives CorctUum (the somame of Nasica), 
and cardatus. 

apud inferos portenta : for constr. cf. praeter naturam portentis § 14 ; 
for the thought Juv. ii 149, Seneca Oonsol. ad Marc. 19 cogita-^üla quae 
nobis inferos faciunt terribiles, fahvlam esse; nuUas imminere mortuis tene- 
hras nee carcerem necflumina ßagrantia igne nee oblivionis amnem, Ep. 24, 
Comutus c. 35 (Osann p. 383), Serv. ad Äen. xi 755, Cic. Tusc. 1 10 and 48. 
AccordiDg to Plutarch Stoic. Rep. p. 1040, Chrysippus attacked Plato for 
his doctrine of future punishment m ovHfp dia<f>4povTa tjjs *Axkovs kcli rfjs 
'AX0iro€r, bt ^v ra naiJbäpia tov KaKoa'xoKc'iv al yvvdiKes dveipyova-iv. Sext. 
£mp. IX 66 explains why that general consent, which is considered to prove 
the ezistence of the Gods, is disregarded in the case of Tartarus. 

opinioniB commenta : c£ Sext. Emp. Math, ix 62 al ylrtvbeU bo^tu Kai 

vpwTKatpoi <f>v(r€is ovk iirX nXeiov iraptKTcivovo-iu äXXä <rvvT€\«vr»<raf tKiiPots 
w x4p^ €<^vXaTTovro (e.g. dlvine honours paid to kings ibid. 35). 

deornm cültas — ^meliores. On the state of religious belief at this time 
see my Sketch of ÄncierU PhHosophf p. 212 foll. We find a less favourable 
view, as regards divination, in § 9, and as regards the reverence for sacred 
things in I 81 ; the latter view agrees with what we read in Livy in 20 
rumdum haecy qtiae ntmc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat, et x 21, 
Varro ap. Aug. C. 2>. vi 2 ( F. dicit) se timere ne {d%) pereanty non incursu 
hostili, sed dvium neglegentia^ de qua Hlos vdvt ruina liberari a se dicit. 

§ 6. et praesehtes : et prepares the way for praediction^s in § 7, but 
this is delayed by a series of exx. cf. Madv. Fin. exe. i. For the matter c£ 

163, 166, and n. on occurrit i 46. Cic. himself Harusp. Reep. fin. denies 



72 BOOK U CH. II § 6. 

that such epiphanies really occurred, nolüe idpuiare aodderepaue^quad in 
fahuUs aaepe 'üidetü fieri, ut deus aliquis ddapsus e oado coetus hotninum 
ctdeat, wnetur in terrisy cum homvnibus ooUoq^iatur, ^ the divinity reveals 
himself through omens and portents, not in personal form '. See Xen. 
Mem, IV 3. 

Castor et PoUnz : cf. m 53, Lucian Dial. JDeor. 26 with Hemsterhuis' 
*nn., Preller {Or. Myth, n 99*, R, M, 660*), who gives a long list of their 
appearances. Theocritus zxn 6 caUs them äyBpwrav irwiipas hü ^poO 
ffdrf iovTiov iinroDV ff alfutr^vra Tapa<r(rofUw»v Kaff ofuKov vamv ff, We read 
(Divin. I 75) of their fighting for the Spartans at Aegos Potami, in memory 
of which two golden stars were dedicated at Delphi, {Orot, n 352) of their 
saying Simonides in the fall of the palaoe of Soopas. Florus (in 3 20) says 
thej carried the news of the defeat of the Cimbri to Rome. Their worship 
was brought from Sparta to Tarentum and Locri and thenoe to Rome, 
where equestrian processions were yearly held in their honour. The siur- 
name Ahenobarbus was connected with the miraculous story of the batÜe 
of Begillus ; Domitius refusing to give credit to the tidings brought by the 
Dioscuri, Polluz by a touch changed his beard from black to red (Suet. 
Nero 1). The same belief in heavenly warriors mixing in the fray in bodily 
form is found böth among Jews (2 Maccabees z 29, zi 8), and the Christians 
of the Middle Ages ; see Mrs Jameson Sacred and Legendary Art p. 234, 
(abbreviated) Hhe Spanish historians number 38 visible apparitions, in 
which St James of Compostella descended from beaven in person and took 
command of their armies against the Moors. The Erst and most famoua 
was at the battle of Clavijo (939 a.D.) when the glorious saint showedhimself 
in the heat of battle, as he had promised King Ramirez on the previous 
night, moimted on a milk-white charger and waving alofb a white Standard : 
he led on the Christians, who gained a decided victory, leaving 60,000 Moors 
dead on the field '. 

ex eqnis pugimre : the same phrase occurs Liv. 1 12 9 ; cf. e.v equis 
coUoqui Caesar B, G, i 43, ex mnctUis causam dicere ib, i 4, and Liv. 
XXIX 19, Xa/iirof cWai d<^* twirtüv t% 6t ^ Plato Rep, i 328 ▲ ; ab equo (Jaoere 
tela) is found Ov. A, A, i 210, see Mayor's Juvenal v 155. The Tyndaridae 
are called Xcvicoira>Xot (Pind. FytL i 66). In in 11 Cic. refers to the story 
of the print of a horse^s hoof being still visible in the rock near Begillus. 

Persem Tictum : the last king of Macedonia, defeated by L. Aemilius 
Paulus at Pydna 168 B.c. Another marvel is related of this war in Div. i 
105, which perhaps may be considered to betoken the anziety which it 
caused. 

hiljus adülescentis : c£ 1 79 n., and Off, 1 121 huno Pavlo natum. The 
re£ is to Vatinius the Legatus of Caesar, accused by Cic. in a scurrilous 
Speech still eztant, but afterwards reconoiled to him through Caesar's 
influence, As he was quaestor in 63 B.c., he would be under 20 years of 
age in 76 B.c., the supposed date of the Dialogue. 

piaefectura Beatina : Cic often mentions this town, with which he 



BOOK II CH. II § 6. 73 

was officiaUy connected, baving acted as its patron in the cause against 
the town of Interamna. The waters of the river Yelinus, which flows 
through R., are so strongl/ impregnated with carbonate of lune, that they 
are öontinually forming deposits of traveiüne, and thus tending to block up 
iheir own Channel ; so that unless their course was artificially regulated, 
the Valley of the Velinus was liable to be inundated ; while, if theee wateiB 
were carried off too rapidly into the Nar, which runs at a much lower level, 
the Valley of that river and the territory of Interamna suffered the same 
£Eite. (R H. Bunbury in Dict. of Qeog.) In the speech Pro Scauro 27 Cic. 
mentions that he visited the locality in order to be thoroughly informed of 
the ÜEUsts : compare also J^. rv 15 and 3 CcU, 5, where he speaks of his body- 
guard of Beatines. The Italian towns are classified by C. {Sext. 32, 2 Pkü, 
58) as mvmcipioy oohniaey praefecturae. Festus defines the last as towns in 
which et Jus dicebatwr et nundinae agehantur et erat quaedam earum respub- 
licoy neque tarnen magütratus siios hahebant. He mentions Beate among 
^«^ praefecturae to which one praefectvbe was sent annually by \hß praetor 
urbanue; in other cases there were several praefecti elected by the 
immediate vote of the Populus Bomamis, After the 2nd Pimic war 
Capua was punished by being degraded into a praefectura, The name j[>rae- 
fBctus recalls the old conquests of Borne, when a Boman govemor was sent 
with a colony to overawe the inhabitants of some Latin or Samnite town, 
et Marquardt i p. 9, 29, 41 foU. 

cum eqnis: so Q. Fr. n 13 (Domüium pMicant) cum equis proeecuti 
surUy 2 Verr, v 7 edu^um ne quü servus cum tele esset^ Dtv, i 119 Caesar 
cum purpurea veste processit, cf. Hand Tursell. il p. 144. Cum in such 
cases is used idiomatically, instead of a more definite preposition, to give 
prominence to some accessory circumstance. So in Gr. we find (Xen. 
Cyrop. vm 1 8) iiJHilrnv iv\ ras Bvpas Kvpov ol twifun avv roig ttnroig 
luä räif alxiuus, like the tmrop tfx<ov of Plato Symp. 221, and avv oirkois ^ in 
armour', av» yi^t 'on board 8hip\ 

cnm senattii nnntiaviiiset : so Vahlen (Zeäschr. / Ost. Oymn. 1873 
p. 241) proposes to read, as cwm might have been easily lost after the 
preceding captum (see crit. nn.). He cites IHv. i 51 P. Decms,,.cum esset 
trünmus müitum...a Samnüibusque premeretur noster exercitus^ cum pericvla 
proeliomm imret audadus &c.; Parad. l 8 cujus cumpatriam cepisset hostis, 
eeterique ita fu^erenU^ uJt muUa de suis rebus asportarent, cum esset admonitus 
a quodam &c. For the loss of cum in the mss cf. below § 63 nam cum. 

q,iuud locatiis««^ d^ fion^y €lpffKtify * on the ground that he had spoken', 
et YaL Max..i 8 § 1 (Vattnitui) tamquam majestatis senatus...vano sermone 
contemptor in carcerem conjectus. Draeger § 536 confines this use of qtiasi 
to Tacitus. [It is common in the lawyers, e.g. GaL n 198 plerique putant 
legatarium petentem per exceptionem doli mali repellij quasi contra volurUa- 
tem defomcti petat, iv 163, Dig. n 14 L 7 § 15. B.] 

constitisset : * tallied' ; idem is pleonastic, cf. ad Herenn, i 9 § 16 veri 
similis narroHo erit, si spatia temporum, personarum dignitateSy consüiorum 



74 BOOK II CH. II § 6. 

rcUtones, looorum opportunüates constabunt, and the common phrase raiio 
constcU. 

▼acatione : ezemption from military service was granted io thoee who 
held a piiesthood or a magistracy, or on the ground of eminent merit, 
e.g. to Aebutius for giving Information about the Bacchanalia (Liv. xxxix 
19 4), to the soldiers who had joined Octavius and Hirtius against 
Antonius {Philipp, v ö3). Exemption for five years was granted to the 
Praenestines in the 2nd Punic war for their brave defence of Caailinum. 
In times of emergencj the Senate might paas a decree 'ne vaccUiones 
valerent * (Philipp, v 12, Marquardt iii 2 p. 289). 

Locri: these were the L. Epizephyrii, a colony sent out by the 
Locrians of Opus probably in the 7th cent. B. c. who first occupied the 
Bruttian promontory of Zephyrium, and afterwards moved to a site 15 m. 
further to the north. They paid divine honours to their national hero 
Ajax son of Oileus, regularly leaving a place for him in their line of batÜe 
(Paus, in 19 § 11 with n. by Siebeiis), and sending yearly to Ilium two 
maidens chosen by lot to serve as ministers in the temple of Athene, by 
way of atonement for the rape of Cassandra (Preller Or. M. li 454, Plut. 
Ä N. Vind. c. 12 with Wyttenbach's n.). The river Sagra separated 
Locri from Caulonia. Lenormant (La Orande-Qrhoe n pp. 27 — 35) identi- 
fies it with the Tiurbolo, a precipitous torrent running between rocky 
banks; near the mouth of this there is a narrow pass, like that of 
Thermopylae, which, he thinks, afibrds a natural explanation of the victory 
of the Locrians. He gives b. c. 560 as the date for the batÜe. In N. i>. 
in 13 Cic. alludes to the proverb akriB^vrfpa r&v eVi Sayp^, which Suidas 
s.v. dXi^^ff explains as foUows : the Locrians being threatened by Crotona 
asked help of Sparta, from which many of their Citizens had come, but the 
Spartans declined to give them any thing but the Dioscuri, i.e. probably 
the images or symbols (doicava) which were carried with the kings on their 
warlike expeditions. (So the Greeks asked for the Aeacids before the 
battle of Salamis.) The Locrians accepted this as a good omen, went to 
the shrine, and offered sacrifices to the Twin Qods. When the news of 
the victory came the Spartans refused to believe it; hence the proverb 
is used cVi rciv akrjBS» fiep, ov irerrcoTcv/icWv de. In the battle it is said 
that 120,000 Crotoniates were ranged against 15,000 on the side of Locri ; 
pugTuiTUihvs Locris aquila ah ade numquam recessit, eosque tarn diu eircum" 
volavit, quoad vincerent. In comibtis qtioqtte duo juvenes diverto a ceteris 
armorum kahitUy eximia magnitudine et albisequis et coocineis paludamerUiSy 
puffnare visi sunt, nee ultra apparuerunt quam pugnatum est. ffane 
admirationem auxit incredibüis famae velocitas. Nam eadem die, qua in 
Italia pugnatum est, et Corintho et Athenis et Lacedaemon/e nunticUa est 
vietoria (Justin xx 3). The people of Crotona were roused from the 
apathy which followed their defeat by the Coming of Pythagoras shortly 
afterwards. Among other marvels related in connexion with this war we 
are told that the two Crotoniate generals, Leonymus and Phormion, having 



BOOK II CH. II § 6. 75 

been wounded, one by Ajax, one by Polluz, were healed when they inade 
their supplicationB to the heroes they had defied (see Meineke Frag, Com, 
n 1230. App. on Phormio), and that the temple of Persephone at Locri 
was saved by miracle from the assault of the invaders, Liy. xxix 18. 
Strabo (vi 1 § 10) speaks of the altars to the Dioscuri on the banks of 
the Sagra. 

ludis : AbL of Time. Olympiae : Locative. 

Fannonun: usually connected with faveoy Favonitba, Hhe kindly god' 
=€iNiydpof, but H. Nettleship in an interesting paper on the Earliest 
Italian Literature {J, of Phü, xi p. 180 foU.) prefers the older view, which 
connects it with faH and (^«»in;. He considers that the Fauni were the 
seers of the early rustic communities and that, as their fimctions were 
Buperseded, they became unreal beings, speaking with unearthly voices in the 
receeses of mountain and forest, and were thus gradually identified with the 
TLa»€i and ^arvpoi of Hellas. C£ Div. i 101 saepe etiam et inprodiü Fauni 
audüiy et in rebus turhidis veridiöae voce» ex occtUio miesae esse dicu7ttur, 
Lucr. IV 580 haec loca (i.e. where echoes are heard) capripedes eatyros 
nymphasque tenere finitimi fingunt et Faun/oe esse locuntur, quorum nocti- 
vago strepiiu ludoque jocanti adßrmant volgo tadtuma süentia rumpij 
Varro L. Z, vn 36 Faunos versibus^ quos vocant Satumios, in süvestribits 
locis traditum est solitos fori futura ; so Virgil teils of Latinus Consulting 
Faunus at Albunea {^Aen. vii 81), Ovid of Numa Consulting him on the 
Aventine (Fasti iv 640), and Dionysius (v 16), speaking of the voice which 
encouraged Valerius, after the battle of Aricia, with the news that the 
Etruscans had lost more than the' Bomans, adds that the Eomans ascribe 
to Faunus any sudden alarm whether from an apparition or a yoice. 

saepe— coegenmt : cf. for the argument Biv, i 35 foU. Allen reads 
coegerint which is perhaps more natural with quemvis than the Ind. of the 

HSS. 

Ch. in § 7. ea ostendi — ^praedici : Seh. was the first to omit quae 
sint after ea, as having been added by the scribes from a misunderstanding of 
the construction. In his Opusc, in 326 he cites, among other examples of a 
neuter plural where a different gender might have been expected, IHv. n 
117 afflatus ex terra mentem ita movens, ut eam providam remm fiUurarum 
efficiai ; ut ea non modo cemat ante, sed etiam numero versuque pronuntiet^ 
and from this book § 15 ea fortuüa after rerum, § 18 haec referring to 
ratione et sapientia, ^ 8*7 ea referring to partes, § 88 Uta referring to oon- 
versionibus, cf. Orot, n 20 with Wilkins' n. It may be questioned, how- 
ever, whether qtLoe sint is a very natural addition, whether it is not more 
probable, as Walker suggests, that the original was qu>ae futura siTit, as we 
have it combined with res foU. in Div. i 127 qui enim teneat causas rerum 
fuiurarwm^ idem neoesse est omnia teneat, qwae futura sint; and, by itself, 
the phrase is of constant occiurence, e.g. Div. i 82 (bis), N. D. 153. Cic. 
repeats himself in Div, i 93 {portentorum) vim, ut tu soles dicere, verba ipsa 
prudenter a majoribus posita dedarant. ^uia enim ostendunt, portendwnt, 



76 BOOK n CH. III § 7. 

moristra9itypraedicunt(B&, after Lamb.^ro<fü?un^, which Swainson would read 
bere), osierUOf porterUa, mongtray prodigta, dicuntur, Schultz thus discrimi- 
nates their meaning; ogtentam and motutrum point to the nature of the 
phenomenon, ost. as something marvellous, fnonsi, as something unnatural 
and odious, e.g. the Minotaur ; the other words have leferenoe to the Import 
of the phenomenon, prodigium (which Vani^ek derives from atb, com- 
paring nsgo^ adagium, indigüo) implying something fateftd and usuallj, 
but not always, evil, while portentum forebodes actual min. Hence port. 
and monst, are often used metaphorically to express detestation and loath- 
ing. Augustine, in a parallel paasage (C. D. xxi 8), derives ^oc^^um fix>m 
porro dicere. 

ea ficta : this is explained by the following accusatives in appoeition ; 
* but if we believe these things to be mere baseless fictions of romance, I 
mean the stories about Mopsus and the others, though even these must 
have had some foimdation ' &c. 

Mopemn : said to be a Semitic word meaning 'seer '. It was believed 
that there were three of the name, the most famous being the prophet who 
acoompanied the Argonauts ; another was son of Apollo and Manto, who 
had Oracles at Mallus and Mopsuestia in Cilicia. He is referred to Div. 
I 88, AmphUockiu et Mopsus Ärgivorum reges fuerurU^ sed üdem augureSj 
üque urbee in ora maritima Cüiciae Qraecas oondiderunt. At Mallus he 
was worshipped in conjunction with the riväl seer Amphilochus. Pausa- 
nias I 34 speaks of this as the most trustworthy oracle in bis day. Plutarch 
Def, Or, c. 45 teils a story of an Epicurean being converted by a response 
given f^m bis oracle. See Cic. Leg. n 33 and Preller Or. M. n p. 483, 
Bouchd-Leclerq vol. ui p. 341. 

Tiredaiii : 'observer of rtipta (stars or marvels)'. In the Odyssey he 
appears as the sole man who retains bis faculties intact in the under world, 
solum sapere, ceteros umbrarum vagari modo Div. i 88. He plays an im- 
portant part in the Seven against TAebes, the Oediptu Rex^ the Äntigoviej 
Baochae and Phoeniseae, 

Amphiaranm : the blameless prophet described by Aeschylus in the 
words, which all applied to Aristides, ov yap doKtlv äpurros aXX* c2mu ^cc 
Sept. c. Tkeb. 588. He was induced by bis wife Eriphyle to join the ex- 
pedition against Thebes, and saved from the pursuit of bis enemy by Zeus, 
who caused the earth to open and swallow him up. His oracle at Oropus 
was said to cover the spot, others favoured the Claims of Thebes (Herod. 
I 46,:49, 52, viu 134, Pausan. i 34); it was not destroyed tili the time of 
Constantine (Euseb. V. C. n 56), see Dict. of ArU. under oracvlum. 

Calchantem : .the prophet who accompanied the Qreeks to Troy, 
oliopoiroktov Sx apurrof, 09 §^ ra r ioirra ra t* ccrcro/icva irpo r coira. Strabo 
VI 284 mentions an oracle of bis near Mt Qarganus in Apulia. It was 
foretold that he would perish on meeting a superior soothsayer, viz. 
Mopsus. 

Helonum : Upiofudrfs ^EXtpos ol»vow6k«^p ox apun-of II, vi 76. Having 



BOOK II CH. III § 7. 77 

acoompanied Neopiolemus io Epirus after the fall of Troj, on the death 
of the latter he inherited a part of his Idngdom, and foretold the fortunes 
of Aeneas {Äen, in 245). The moat famous of all the seers, Trophonius, ia 
omitted here, hut appears below in 49. 

quos — asciviBBeiit : ' whom even the legends would not have ac- 
knowledged as di\dners, if the faots (in eaoh case) had been decidedly 
against it '. I see no reason to ohange the plural repudiarent of the mbs ; 
the Imp. seems to suit better a series of facta than an abetract idea such 
as 'reality', c£ i 75. On the aentence generallj, c£, Leg, n 33 neque enim 
Jfopn.,.tarUumnomenfuisset neque tot nationes id ad hoc tempue retinvr 
is9ent,.,msi vetustas ea certa esse docuisset; Seh. citea Verr. n 138 ut^ 
etiamsi homines tacerentf res tarnen ipsa üliMn oensum repudiaret, 

domesticiB ezemplis : the aame exz. are cited Div, i 29, n 20, Min. 
Fei. c. 7, cf. alao Valerius Maximua i {De neglecta rdigione). 

P. daudins Pnlcher: consul 249 b.c., was defeated by Adherbal in the 
sea-fight off Drepanum. He was tried for high treason, but there is some 
doubt as to the resiüt of the trial ; we read however (GelL x 6) that three 
years later his sister, a Vestal virgin, being rudelj pushed by the crowd, 
expressed a wish that her brother were alive again to lessen their numbera 
in another engagement. 

etiam per jocnin : Cic. haa altered the form of the aentence, which 
ahould naturally have continued cum mergijutsissetpoeTias dedü, 

puIli : on the curious augiiry by meana of the sacred chickena aee 
Plin. N. H. X 24 harum gallorum sunt tripudia solistima : hi magistratus 
noetros quotidie regunt. . .hi fasces Romanos impellunt aut retinent, jubent 
acies aut prohibenty victoriarum omnium toto orhe partarum atispices; hi 
maxime terrarum imperio tmperaiit, extis etiam fibrisque haud aliter quam 
opimae victimas die gratis The atory of Claudiua may be illustrated by 
that of Papirina, 293 B.c. told by Livy x 40 : the keeper of the chickena 
{puüarius) had falsely reported that they had eaten ao greedily that some 
of the com dropped to the ground, making the omen called tripudium soHs» 
timum. Juat aa the battle was about to begin, the conaul leamt the truth 
from hia nephew, bom, as L. says, ante doctrinam deos spementem : he re- 
plied that he muat act on the official report, but that the puüarius ahould 
be placed in front of the battle, ao that the vengeance of the Qoda might 
fiiU on him, if he were guilty. Thia being done, the puUarius waa at once 
killed by a chanoe javelin and the Bomana wou the victory. 

L. JimiuB PoUns: ahipwrecked at Pachynua in the aame year, neg- 
lectis autpicüs dassem tenipestate amisit damnatiamsque ignominiam vclun- 
taria marte praevenit ( VaL M. i 5 4). 

§ 8. 0. Flaminins Nepos : carried an agrarian law aa tribime B.c. 232 
and in conaequence became hateful to the ariatocracy, who endeavoured to 
deprive him of hia conaulahip in 223 B.c. on the'pretence of faulty auapices ; 
FL marched againat the Inaubriana in apite of their Opposition, and won a 
great victory on the Addua ; in 221 ac. he waa required to reaign the 



78 BOOK II CH. III § 8. 

Offices of Mag, Eq, on account of the sqiieaking of a mouse (Val. M. i 1 5). 
Wben elected consul for the 2Qd time in ac. 217, he lefb Rome without 
waiting for the usual ceremonies, fearing lest the Senate should try to 
detainhim auspiciis emerUiendis LatlnarumqvAferiarwm nwra (Liv. xxi 63). 
The disastrous omens which followed are related hy Cic. Div, i 77 cum 
contra Hannibalem legioives duceret et %p$e et equu8 ejus ante Signum Jovis 
Staiarü sine causa repente concid{t...Idem cum tripudio auspicaretur^ puUa- 
rius diem prodii eommütendi differehat. Tum FL ex eo quaesivü, si ne 
postea quidem pulli pascerervtury quid faciendum censeret. Cum üle ^quies- 
cendum* respondtssety Fl. ^ praedara vero auspicia, ei esurientibus puUis res 
geri poteräj saturis nihil geretur\ Itaque signa convelU et se sequi Jussitf 
foll. See also Liv. 1. c. and xxn 1. On the other hand Cic. Div, ii 52 
gives exz. of successful disregard of augury,e.g. Jul. Caesar crossing over to 
Africa, and of misfortune following strict regard to theauspices, e.g. Paulus 
at Cannae (ibid, 71). 

L. Caelius Antipater : a contemporary of C. Gracchus ; wrote a history 
of the Piuiic Wars. Cic. speaks of him as superior to the earUer historiana 
(Orot. II 54) but of rough unpolished style, Antipater paulo it\ßavit vehe- 
mentius habuitque vires agrestes üle quidem aique horridas sine nitore ac 
palaesira (Leg, i 6). He is frequently cited in Divin, e.g. i 48 (dream of 
Hannibal), i 56 (dream of C. Gracchus), i 78 (the prodigies which preceded 
Thrasymene). In June 45 B.c., the year before the publication of the 
iV^Z>., we find C. asking Atticus (xiii 8) for a copy of Brutus' epitome 
of the works of Caelius, at the same time that he asks for Panaetius ircpi 
vpoyoias. 

cmn magno vulnere : ' entailing serious disaster ', cf. § 80 inesse cum 
Tnagno usu, 

eorum imperiis— paraissent : that the prosperity of Eome was owing 
to its piety is oonstantly asserted, as by Horace Od, in 6. 5 dis te minorem 
quodgeris imperas; by Cic. J^.D. in 5 mihi ita persuasi Romulum auspiciis^ 
Numa/m sacris constituetidis fundamenta jecisse nostrae civitatis, quae num- 
quam profecto sine summa placatione deorum tanta esse potüisset ; in the 
speech of App. Claudius (Liv. vi 41) auspiciis hanc urbem conditam esse, 
quspiciis hello ac pace, domi militicieque omnia geriy quis est qui ignoret f 
and a little below, in referenoe to the proposal to admit plebeians to the 
consulship, eludant nunc licet rdigiones. Quid enim est, si puUi non pas- 
centur, si ex cavea tardiu-s exierint, si occinerit avis ? parva sunt haec, sed 
parva ista non corUemnendo majores vestri maximam hatte remfecerunt: 
nunc nos tamquamjam nihil paoe deorum opus sit, omnes caerimonias pol- 
luimtts, Cf. Val. Max. i 1 8 non mirum igitur, si pro eo tmperio augendo 
custodiendoque pcriinax eorum indulgentia deorum semper excubuit, {in) 
quo tam scrujmlosa cura parvtda quoque momenta religionis examinari 
videntur. Augustine wrote the De Civitate Dei to refiite the chai^e brought 
by the heathen against their Christian fellow-coimtrymen, that the dis* 
asters of the age were owing to the neglect of the old deities who had 



BOOK II CH. III § 8. 79 

watched over the fortunes of Borne. The same charge is asserted by the 
heathen interlocutor in the Octavius of Min. F. (c. 6) and controverted by 
the Christian (c. 25). [cf. Polyb. vi 56 § 6 füll. Dionys. ii 18, 19, 66—73, 
Plin. Paneg. 74 fin., TertuU. ÄpoL 25, Oros. vi 1 § 10, Prudent. c. Symm, ii 
4S8 aed mulH duxere dei per prospera Romain^ quos colit ob meritum magnü 
donata triumphU foU. J. E. B. M.] 

religione — superiorea : see my Sketch of Ancient Phüosopky p. 207 
foll., Qieseler Ch, HUt, i § 11, Preller, R, M, p. 113, Harusp, Resp. 19 
quam voLumiu licet ipsi no8 amemtis, tarnen nee numero Htspanoa, nee 
robore Gallos, nee calliditate Poenoa, nee artibua Graecoa, nee denique hoc 
ipao huftu gentis ac terrae domeatico nativoque aenau Italoa ipaoa ac Latinoa^ 
tedpietate ac religione atqtie hoc una aapientiu, quod deorum immortalium 
numine omnia regi gubemarique perapeximuay omnea geftUea nationeaque 
auperavimua. Posidonius (as we read in Atbenaeus vi 107) had remarked 
in one of his works on the evcrtßfia ßavfuumi of the Romans. 

§ 9. Atti Navii : the story of Attus is more correctly given Div, i 31, 
cf. ib. II 80, R. P. II 36. Here C. has written Hostilius instead of Tarquinius 
Priscns, and auem for uvam. According to the usual tradition Attus had 
promised to the Lares the largest bunch in his vineyard, if he could find a 
pig which had strayed, itaqite aue inventa ad meridvem apectana in vinea 
media eonatäit, cumque in quattuor partea vineam diviaiaaet, treaque partea 
avea abdixiaaent, quarta parte in regionea diatributa mirabüi magnitudine 
uvam invenit, For similar carelessneas in C. cf. the confusion between 
Agamemnon and Ulysses {JHv, ii 63), Ulysses and Ajax (Div, ii 82), Hector 
and Ajax (Gell, xv 6). 

lituUB: Cic. describes the famons lituua of Romulus (dariaaimum 
inaigne auguratua, which was found unhurt amid the ashes of the curia 
of the Salii on the Palatine) as incwrfrum et leviter a aummo inflexum 
bacHlum (Div. i 30). * In works of art the end is always twisted into a 
Spiral shape, like a bishop's crosier, of which it is supposed to have formed 
the model ' (Rieh Companion s.v.). 

crederem — gessisset : ^ the lituua might be contemptible if its only 
use were to discover a pig ; not so when it enabled Host, to carry on his 
wars \ Livy (i 36) teils the story of Attus cutting through a whetstone 
with a razor, and says it was this which convinced the king of the truth of 
augury ; hence auguriia tantria konoa acceaait ut nihil belli domique poatea 
niai auapicato gereretur. ejus augurio, *at the augury, i.e. imder the 
direction, of Attus', Abi. of Attendant Circumstances, cf. Roby § 1240 foll. 

neglegentia — omissa : diadplina omiaaa Abi. Abs., negleg. Abi. of Cause. 
Plebeians descended from an ancestor who had held a cmrule office were 
termed nobilea, and included with the old patricians in the nobüitaa. As 
the magistracies rärely went out of this class to a novtta homo, neg, noh. is 
äquivalent to the negligence of the magistrates, esp. the augurs themselves, 
see Div. i 25 quoted below. A few religious ceremonies (such as the 
confarreaiio) were still confined to patricians : Tacitus Ann. iv 16 speaks 



80 BOOK II CH. III § 9. 

of their growing disose penes incuriam virorum femifutrumque, On the 
geDeral subject cf. Leg, u 33 dubium non est qtdn haec düciplina et ars 
augnrum evanuerüjam et vetU4taie et neglegentia; Div. 1 25 auepicia,,,iMmc 
a Romanis augurOms tfffiorantur . . . a Cüidbus, Pamphyliüy Fieidisj 
Lyciie tenentur; ib. 27 nostri quidem magittratue auspidU utuntur ooactie. 
Necesse est enim, ofa obfecta, cadere frustum ex pullt ore, cum pasdtur.., 
Itaque mtUta auguria, multa auspicia, quod Cato iUe sapiens queritur, neg- 
legentia coUegii amissa plane et desertastmt; Liv. Xhni 13 non sum nescius 
ab eadem neglegentia, qua nihil deos portendere vtdgo nunc credant, neque 
nuntiari admodum ulla prodigia in pMicum neque in annales referri, 
Hartimg {Bei. Rom, i 250) remarks on the fact that Caesar makes no 
mention of auspioes in bis Commentaries. Even more conclusive as to 
the State of belief are such facta as the discussion between two augors of 
C/s time, C. Claudius Maroellus and Appius Claudius Pulcher, in which the 
former maintained that augury was merely a useful pieoe of state-crait ; 
the contempt with which Caesar treated the repeated obnuntiatio of Bibulus, 
and the law of Clodius forbidding a magistrate to observe the heavens on 
oomitial days. Cic. elsewhere contrasts the older form of augury firom the 
Observation of birds, as by Romulus and Remus, with the later from the 
entrails of victims, (Div, i 28) ut nunc extis, quamqvxim id ipsum aliquanto 
mintu quam oUm, sie twnc avibus magnae res impetriri solebant. So we read 
of omens from birds in Homer, but never of extispicium: it is only noticed 
whether the emoke ascends to heaven, how the victim behaves &c. Divi- 
nation by the entrails was said to have been introduced by Prometheus : 
Herodotus derives it from Egypt, Lenormant from the Chaldeans (c£ 
Ezekiel zzi 21) ; itmade its appearance in Athens about the time of Solon« 
(Bouch^-Leclercq 1 166 foll.) 

▼eritaa spreta — species retenta: Hhe reality )( the show^ see 
Willdns on Orot. 1 149. We find the same Opposition Div. ul\ut sint aus- 
picia, quae nvüa sunt ; haec certe quibus utimur, simulacra sunt auspiciarum, 
auspicia nuUo modo, where many exx. are given ; instead of the interpres 
et sateUes Jovis, we have now the caged fowls with their prepared offa; 
Marcellus used to joumey in a closed litter, when on important business, 
that he might not be interrupted by unfavourable omens. So Div, i 28 
nihil fere quondam mct/oris rei nisi auspicato, ne privatim quidem, gerebatur; 
quod etiam nunc nuptiarum atupices dedarant, qui re amissa nomen tantum 
tenent; Dion. Hai. ii 6 dUixtivt y^xP*- ^^^^^ <f>v\aTT6iitPov vwh *P»iAaimw r6 
wtpl Tovs ol»via-fiovs woiufutp . . . ireVat/roi d* iv rois Kaff ij/btar )^oiroi(, irX^y 
olov €lKdp TIS Xciircroi : he illustrates this by the way in which the auspioes 
were taken at the appointment of a magistrate ; an augur Stands by him 
and announces lightning from the left, though nothing of the kind has 
occurred, and the bare fact of the announcement is equivalent to an omen; 
cf. Tac. Ann. xi 15 on the auspices in the time of the emperor Claudiu& 

nnlla peresmia servantiir : Festus p. 250 m. Petronia amnis est m 
Tiberim perfluens, quem magistratus attspicato transeunt cum in Campo quid 



BOOK II CH. III § 9. 81 

agere volu}it ; quod genus auspici peremtie vocatur (* apparently this stream 
formed the southem boundary of the Campus Martius ' E. H. Bimbury 
in DicL of Oeog. ii p. 382) : but, though the tenn was most often used in 
reference to a stream which had to be continually passed, it applied gene- 
rally to all streams, Fest p. 245 peremne dioüur auspicari qui amnem atU 
aqftaMj quae ex sacro (i. e. the fountain sacred to the deity of the stream) 
oritUTj auspicato transit, and again under manalisfcms. Servius (on Aen. ix 
23 summoqtie hausü de.gurgite lymphas multa deo8 orans) teils us that, 
when augurs, after receiving an augnry, approached a stream^ it was their 
custom to take up water in their hands and pray that the augury might 
not be broken by crossing. Compare the religious importance attached to 
the repairing of the Föns Svhlicvas^ whence the name pontifex (Preller 
ILM, p. 517, Bouchd-Leclercq iv 230 folL). 

ntilla ex acmmnibns : sc. atc9picia, Bouchö-Leclercq iv 185 describes 
these as ' signes foumis par la phosphorescence ölectrique des pointes des 
lances*, and gives as the reason for their disuse, Vil ätait inutile de mainte- 
nir, ä oot^ de procödös exp^iti& et sürs, des m^thodes alöatoires ou d'une 
pratique difficile '. So Pliny (iV. IL ii 37 translated by Lydus Ost, i 5) con- 
nects them with the electric lights known to sailors as Castorum stdlae.iihß 
firos of St Elmo) ; exsütuivt gtdlae et in mari terrisqtte. Viäi nocturrda müi- 
tum vigülis inha&rere püis pro vallo fulgorem effigie ea ; et antennü navi- 
gantium aliüque navium partibus insütunt . . . Horninum quoque capita ves- 
•pertinis horis nuigno praesagio circurr^vlgeivt, and Seneca iV^. §; i 1 § 13 in 
magna iempeUate apparent quasi stellae vdo ingidentes: adjuvari se tunc 
periditantes exittimant PoUucis et Castoris numine.., § 14 Gylippo SyraciLsas 
peteTUi visa est Stella super ipsam lanceam cofistiiisse. In Romanorum castris 
Visa sunt ordere pila, ignibus scilicet in illa delapsis, qui saepe fulminum 
more animalia fsrire solent . . . sed si minore vi mittuntur, defluunt tantum et 
insident. In Livy this sign is often counted as a prodigy needing atone- 
ment, e.g. xxii 1, xxxiii 26, XLin 13, also in Tac. Ann. xv 7 pila militum 
arsere insigni prodigio, Flut. Still, c. 7, and apparently in [Caesar] Ä Afr. 
47 eadem nocte quintae legixmis püorum cacumina sua sponte arserunt; 
but in Dion. Hai. v 46 it is a good omen, ' flames were lit up about the 
points of the javelins, which shed a light as from torches throughout the 
greater part of the night; this was accepted by all as a sign of victory '. 
Probably it was the same feeling w^hich made Homer dilate on the Anhing 
of the spear of Diomede in the tent by night {E, x 153) t^Xc de x^'^^^ 
Xa/x0^ «oTc aT€po7rfl irarpos Aidr, so of Idomeneus (XTII 245), of Achilles, the 
point of whose spear shone like Hespenis (xxii 319). For various errone- 
ous explanations see Giese on Bio. ii 76. Schneider Ecl. Phys, refers to 
Ostertag de Ausp, ex Acum. Regensb. 1779. Prof. W. G. Adams of King's 
(vOllege teils me that " the electric lights described by Pliny and Seneca 
Sixe well known phenomena, resembling the glow at the end of a pointed 
conductor. which is placed on an electrical machine. It is formed by the 
gradual passage of electricity from the machine through the air to sur- 

M. C. II. G 



82 BOOK II CH. III § 9. 

rounding conductors ; or on the other hand the poiuted conductor m&j be 
held in the hand and be directed towards the machine and so receive the 
gradual, or ' glow ', discharge from it. If a cloud is the body charged with 
electricity, points directed towards it will carry oflf the discharge from it in 
the same way. So at sea this * glow * discharge is freqiiently seen : the 
ship is charged with electricity from the earth or sea, but the density at 
points is very much greater than over other portions of the surface and 
so the discharges take place at the points.'' Compare Darwin's account of 
a scene he witnessed in the estuary of the Plata {Naturalist s Voyage^ p. 
39), ' the mast-head and yard-arm-ends shone with St Elmo's light ; and 
the form of the vane could almost be traced, as if it had been rubbed with 
phosphorus. The sea was so highly luminous, that the tracks of the 
penguins were marked by a fiery wake, and the darkness of the sky was 
mo^tarily iUuminated by the most vWid lightning '. 

nuUa, cum viri Yocantor : this is the oertain emendation of Seh. who 
refutes {OptLsc in 274 foll.) the explanations offered of the ms reading nulli 
viri by Tumebns, Beier and othera The phrase vir, voc, is technically used 
either of the summoning of the Citizens by a magistrate, as by the oenaor 
(Varro L. L, vi 86 foll.), or of the calling together of the soldiers for a battle 
or review, as in the law cited by Varro ap. Macr. i 16 § 19 viroi vocare 
feriis non oportet; si vocarit, piacvlum esto: Servins {Aen. x 241) speaks 
of it as an ancient military term, see also Gell, xv 27 quoted below. The 
soldiers made their wills while the auspices were being taken, see Sabidiiis 
ap. SchoL Veron. ad Aen. x 241 (is apud qttem) in exercüu auspicium 
imperiumqrie eraiy in tabemaculo in seUa sedens auspicabatur coram exercitu 
piUlis e cavea liberatis,... Interim ea mora utebantur qui testamenta in pro^ 
cinctu facere volebant. 

ez quo in procinctn testamenta perierunt : the phrase in procindu 
is used of an army in readiness for battle, Milton's * war in procinct ' (P. L. 
VI 19), cf. Festus pp. 43 and 225, prodncta dassis dicebatur, cum exercitus 
cinctus erai Oabino cinctu confestim pugnaturus, Vetustius enim ßiit multi- 
tvdinem hominum, quam navium, classem appellari, also p. 249 procincta 
toga Romani olim adpugnam ire soliti, The cinctiis öahinus was a par- 
ticular way of wearing the toga^ so as to iise part of it as a girdle, tying it 
in a knot in front. Servius {Aeii, vii 612) says the ancient Latins, beforc 
they were acquainted with the use of defensive armour, praecinctis togis 
bellabant, unde etiam milites in prodnctu esse dicuntur, (the toga^ as Gelliiis 
teils HS vii 11, was the only garment used in early times). Besides its 
proper use, of which we have exx. Tac. Ilist, in 2, Ov. Pont, i 8 10, Gell. 1 11, 
Plin. N. H. VI 22, the phrase is used metaphorically of readiness in general, 
as in Quint. x 1 § 2 in procinctn habere doquervtiam. The testam&ntum in 
procinctikVft^ an informal will which might be made by soldiers on the field 
of battle. [* Compare our Nuncupative Will which may be made by seamen 
or soldiers in actual Service, Stephen Comm. n p. 615, E. C. Clark Early 
Boman Law \). 123 \ Swainson.] It is thiis described by Gelliiis xv 27 



BOOK II CH. III § 9. 83 

tria genera fuu^e testamentorum accepimuSy unum quod calcUis comitiis in 
poptdi coniwne ßeret ; ciUenim inprocinctu cum viri ad prodium faciejvdiim 
in aciem vocabarUur ; tertium per famüiae emancipcUionem, cui aes et libra 
adkiberetur; c£ Qaius n 101. All that was required waa to name the heir 
in presence of three or four witnesses (Plut. CorioL c. 9). It was in use as 
late as b.c. 143, for VelL Fat. ii ömentions it as an incident of a forlom attack 
by some soldiers under command of Metellus 'NumidicuSyfacieTUibiis omnibus 
inprodnctu testamenta, velut ad certam mortem eundumforet, It is stränge 
that though C. here distinctly states that the custom was obsolete in his 
time, a statement not at all at variance with the allusion to it in Orot, i 228 
(tamqnam in procinctu testamentum faceret sine libra et tabtUis), yet both 
G. Long, in IHct. ofÄnt,, and T. 0. Sandars, on Justinian Inst, ii 10, quote 
C. as witnessing that this form was still practised in his day. The case 
znentioned by Caesar B, G, t 39 is quite distinct: through terrorof 
Ariovistus and his Germans vidffo totis castris testam^nta ohsignabantur ; 
DO obsignatio waa required in the form inprocinctiu In later times we read 
of further relaxations in regard to the military testament (Gaius ii 109). 
ex 41110 : ' in consequence of which '; aa the auspices were no longer taken, 
there was no longer an opportunity for the soldiers to make their wills. For 
this use of ejcquoBee Div. i 65 ex quo et iÜvd est Callani^ Grat ii 154 referta 
quondam Italia Pythagoreomm faity ex quo quidam Numam fuisse Pytha- 
goreum ptUantfWhere Wilkins cites Tusc, v 17 ex quo nee timor attingat. 

cum auspicia posuerunt : compare for this and what precedes, Div. ii 
76 bdlieam rem administrari majores nostri, nisi auspicatOj noltterunt. 
Quam muUi anni sunt, cum heUa a proconstdUms et a propraetoribus ad^ 
ministranturj qui auspicia non habent ? Itaque nee amnes transeunt auspi- 
cato nee tripudio auspioantur, Nam ex axniminibus quidem^ quod totum 
attspieium militare est^ jam M, MarceUvs ille quinquies consul totum omisity 
idem imperator, idem augur optimus, The growth of the empire had lod, 
as early as b.c. 327, to the practice of sending out proconsuls and pro- 
praetors to the provinces, instead of consuls and praetor», who alone had 
the auspicia ; this practice was made law by SuUa's Lex Cornelia de pro- 
vincüs B.c. 81, and carried further by the Lex Pompeia b.c. 52, which 
required an interval of five years to elapse before an ex-magistrate could 
succeed to the charge of a province. On his entrance into office the consul 
was said accipere auspicia, while in office habere ausp.; on his resignation 
ponere ausp,, see Bouch^Leclercq iv 238 foU. 

. § 10. at vero : • * but assiuredly it was the contrary among our an- 
ceetors ; they did not neglect religion*. So in iii 87, Orot, i 38, Att. v 11, 
but in Div. i 51 it merely confirms what precedes by a stronger case. 

imperatores : lli 15 tu aiUem etiam Deciorum devotionihus placatos 
deos esse oenses. It is doubtful whether two or three of this family devoted 
themselves. The self-sacrifice of the father, F. Decius Mils, in the Latin 
war B.c. 340 is attested by Livy (viii 9 whei-e the ndes and ceremonfes of 
Jevotio are fuUy laid dowai) and Cic. Div. i 51, but qucstioDcd by Ä[omms€n 

C— 2 



84 BOOK II CH. III § 10. 

Hut, I. 366 tr. His sou of the same name feil at Sentinum b.c. 295, in the 
war against the Etruscans and their allies (Liv. x 28). According to Cic. 
{TtLsc. I 89, Pill. II 61) the grandson followed the family tradition and 
perished at Aäcnlum B. c. 279 in the war against Pyrrhus ; but this is 
positively denied by Zonaras viii 3, and Cic. speaks only of father and 
son in Sext, 48, Cato 43, Parad. i 13. 

difl immortalibus : i.e. dis Manibus Tdlurique Liv. viii 9. 

capite yelato : porUifex eum togam praetextam sutnere jussä, et vdaio 
rapite manu tubter togam ad mentum ex8eHa...sic dicere ibid. 

verbis certis: *in a set form of vrorii^^^^conceptU solZemmbta verhU^ 
Seneca Ep. 67. The form (carmen) is given in Liv. I.e., cf. Marquardt 
Staatsv, in p. 268. Lescaloperius quotes an interesting passage from 
Augustine C.D.y 18, in which he compares the Decii with the Christian 
martyrs. 

Sibyllinis YaticinatioidbnB : the oldest collection of Sibyllinc pro- 
phecies is thought to have been made about the time of Solon and pre- 
served at Erythrae, from whence it was brought to Magna Graecia and to 
Roma The three books said to have been purchased by Tarquin were 
kept in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus under the Charge of the xv viri^ 
and bumt with it 83 b. g. After the rebuilding, the Senate sent to Erythrae 
to get a new copy of the prophecies, and we are told that the envoys were 
able to collect from private sources about 1000 verses (Lact, i 6 § 14).' 
These were again revised under Augustus and Tiberius, and placed in the 
temple of A[>ollo Palatinus, where they were destroyed by fire about 400 a. d. 
The Sibylline books were consulted by order of the Senate in all emergen- 
cies of State, see Liv. v 13, vii 27, &c. We leam from Div. n 110 that 
they were written in acrostics (like the 119th ps.), which C. regarda as a 
proof that they did not proceed from an inspired frenzy. See further on 
iii & Sihyllae iiUerpretes^ and Marquardt 1. c. p. 336 folL 

possum : the opposite assertion is made by C. when arguing in his own 
person against divination, Div, ii 52 poMum innumerabilia {haruspicum 
responsa oommemorare) quae aut nidlo» hahuerint exitus aut contrario», For 
the Ind. soe n. on longum est i 19, 'and ii 121, 126, 131. 

Ch. IV. atQUi : cf 1 19," ii 18. ' I might quote many exx. of respect paid 
to auguries, but their reality is shown coiiclusively by the foUowing fact*. 

anguram — ^hamspicuin : the anccdote which follows brings out clearly 
the contrast between the augurs, who were connected with the earliest 
histoiy of Rome, and the Etrusatn soothsayers. The formor were con- 
cemed with the auspicia ex avibiiSy ex quadnipedihuB, ex cado, ex tripudio^ 
ex dirisy and also with consecrations ; the latter with extispicium^ ftdguray 
ostenta, cf. JDiv. i 35, (I will not believe) aut in extis totam Etruriam dt- 
lirare^ aut in futgunhus errare, aut fallacUer portenta interpretari, ib. i 3, 
92, 93. An account is given of their founder Tages, ibid. n 50 ; their 
books {Etruscorum /iaruspicini etßdgurales libri) are mentioned i 72. One 
of C.'ö laws {Leg. ii 21) touchcs on their duties, prodigia, portenta ad 



BOOK 11 CH. IV § 10. 85 

Etruscos haruspiceSy si seiuitus jussU, d^erurUo; Etrvßnaq\iA prineipes doc- 
trinam doceto. We often read of haruspices summoned from Etruria in 
Order to avert calamitieg threatened by prodigies, e.g. 3 Cat 19, Liv. 
XXVII 37 : see Major on Juven. xiii 62 prodigioia ßdea et Ttiscis digna 

in P. Scipione: 'in the case of Scipio'. Bouhier added in, which 
might easily be lost after the preceding m, and whicb appears to me to 
give a better sense than the simple date. P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica, 
sumamed Corculum fironr his wisdom and especially from bis knowledge 
of law, was elected consul with C. Marcius Figulus in 162 b.c. He was 
alao censor and pontifex maximus. He married his second cousin, the 
daughter of Scip. Afric. Maj., and was thus connected with Gracchus. 

Ti. Sempronius Gracchus: consul in b.c. 177 and 163 {äerum\ censor 
in B.c. 169, married a daughter of Scip. Afric. Maj. and was father of the 
two £uuous tribunes, with whom he is favoui'ably contrasted by C. {Off. ii 
43), and of a daughter who married Scip. Afr. Mi. He gained a triumph 
over the Celtib«rians and Sardinians. Perhaps the experience here related 
may have given him more respect for the karaspices, as C. teils a story of 
his Consulting them about two snakes, which had found their way into his 
house {Div, i 36). 

crearet : used sometimes of the assembly, as Leg. iii 9, 10 plebs creat 
tribunoSj Liv. xxiv 8 §§ 9 and 15, or even of the vote of one tribe, as 
Liv. V 18, XXIV 9 praerogcUlva creant; sometimes of the presiding ma- 
gistrate who announces the result of the voting. Leg. iii 9 patres ex se 
produiUo qui comitiatu creare constdes rite possint, J tt. ix 9 where C. finds 
fault with Caesar's proposal that the praetor should preside at the election 
of consuls, no8 aiUem in lihris hahemus non modo consiUes a praetore, sed ne 
praeiores quidem creari jiis esse, idque factum esse numquam : consules eo 
Tfum esse jus, quod majus imperium a minore rogari non sit jus, praetores 
aiUem, quod ita rogantur, ut collegae consulihics sint, quoumm est m^jus 
Imperium^ The presiding magistrate had considerable power ; thus lAvy 
XXII 35 § 3 TererUius consvl unus creatur, ut in manu ejus essent comitia 
rogando collegae. He might even stop the election and recommend a 
dififerent choice, Liv. x 22, xxiv 8, where Fabius ends his speech with the 
words praeco, revoca (tribum) ; or he might allow another to speak against 
the apparent choice before the formal renuntiatio Liv. v 18, xxvi 22. 

rogator : as the word rogo is the technical term for taking the votes of 
the assemb^ (e.g. in Liv. xxii 35 and Ätt. ix 9 quoted above), so rogator 
was uaed in old Latin for the presiding officer (cf. Lucil. Sat. 27 consüium 
patriae legumque oriundus rogator), especially in the fuller phrase comi- 
tiorum rogator used below. Its more common sense however, when used 
alone or (as in IHv. u 75) with centuriae, is that of polling-clerk, as here 
and p. red. in sen. 28, where C. asks, in refereiice to the euthusiasm shown 
about his recall from exile, * when did anv one see men of such distiuction 
acting as rogatores diribitores nistodes?^ 



8G BOOK II CH. IV § 10. 

ut eos rettnlit — mortuos: the story is told again Div. i 33, ii 74 
(propter mortem repentinam ejus qui in praerogcUiva referenda subito co?*- 
cidisset)y QuirU. Fr. ii 2. eo^^eorum nomina Seh. Referre^ *to report', 
is here used (1) of the clerk who gives in the list to the consul, (2) of the 
coDBuI's reference to the Senate, (3) of the senate's referenoe to the 
haruspioesy (4) of the augors' to the Senate. 

in religionem yeniase : it would seem from this- that, though the 
morbus comüialis would vitiate the proceedings, a death had not this 
effect, but merely caused an imcomfortable feeling that something must 
have gone wrong : it was a,prodigium, but not a Vitium, 

quoB ad soleret : for the subaudition of the Inf. see Draeg. § 119, 
p. 197^ folL ; for Omission of ad eos, Phil, i 4 parum erat, a quibus cMruerat, 
adjiUus, cited by Madv. § 321. Monosyllabic prepositions rarely follow 
th^ir case in prose composition, except in legal or archaic phraaes, or 
when they stand between the noun and its adjective, as m/ogna ex parte, 
certis de caiLsis. Probably quos ad soleret is a legal phrase like quo de 
agitur (see Orai, i 209 with Wilkins' n.) of which many exx. may be found 
in Bnins* Fontes cap. v pt. 4 §§ 7, 11, pp. 162, 163^ ; so GelL xvi 4 § 2 a<i 
C Lo/dium, Ludumve Conielium sive quem ad uter eorum jusserit, proferes, 
Bruns lii 3 a Lex Com. pp. 80, 81 qvxim in quisque decuriam ita viator 
{praeco &c.) lectus erit, is in ea d^curia viator esto. We find exceptioiially 
ripam ad Araxis (Tac. Ann. xii 51), hunc post (Tu>sc. ii 15), agrum quenh 
per {Leg. Agr. ii 81 reading doubtful), cf. Lucr. i 841, in 140 with Munro's 
nn., Roby § 1805, Madv. § 469, Zumpt § 324. [Further exx.* may be found in 
. Ussing ad Plaut. Amph. 234, Kühner's Ausf. Gramm, ii p. 425. It ahould 
be noted that the transposition is most frequent after a relative, as in the 
common phrases qua de causa, qua ex causa, quam ob causam^ qua de re, 
quam ob rem, quem ad modum ; so quo pro agro in Bruns p. 75' {Lex agrar. 
74, 76, 80), but pro eo agro ib. 68, 73, dies quam ad Ter. Phorm^ 524, see 
Gr. § 1038. R.] 

haxoBpices introdncti : see Leg. ii 21 quoted above, Liv. xxxi 1 ob 
hoc unum prodigium haruspices in senatum voccUi. 

justnin : 'regulär', 'according to law', so justa uxor Tusc. i 85, justus 
hostis III \QIQ, justa pugna Liv. xxn 28. [Very common in the lawyers, e.g. 
justi liberi Gai. ni 72, ji. matrimonium i 87, j. dominium iv 16, see Dirkscn's 
Man. s. v. R.] 

§ 11. e patre audiebam : so below § 14 ; we may probably interpret of 
C. himself what he here puts into the mouth of Balbus. The eider C. was 
a man of education and a friend of the jurists Scaevola and Aculeo. 

itane vero 7 a phrase of indignation. Heind. cites exx. from 2 Verr. 
l 40, V 77, Phil. V 10, Leg. Agr. ii 30, JDivin. i 13. 

et consul : it would have been enough if he had been simply consul 
with an augur at band, how much more when he held both offices ! 

Tlisci ac barbaii : Dii\ il 75 qvid enim scire Etrusci haruspices aut 
de tahcniacH^o rede capto aut de jiomcrii jvre potnervnt? Dion l 30 snvs 



BOOK II CH. IV § 11. 87 

they were wholly diatinct from every other people in language maoners and 
religious rites, cf. Liv. i 27, ix 36 habeo auctores vulgo tum Romanos pu^os^ 
siciU nunc Graecis, üa Etruscu lüteris erudiri solüos, GelL ix 7. They 
received the franchise ac. 89. Mommsen Bk i c. 9 speaks of them as a 
nation quite distinct from the Graeco-Italic stock, and it still remains an 
unsolved problem to what family the Etniscan language belongs, see 
Deecke's Art. on Etruria in the new Etw. Brit. barbaxi, so Demosthenes 
speaks of Philip and the Macedonians as barbarians. The word was 
borrowed and applied at first even to Romans, e. g. Plautus Trin. prol. 
19 Pküemon scripnt, Plautus vortü harhare, so even Cic. OraJtor 160 ; but 
more commonly it is used of all who were not Qreeks or Romans, e.g. 
Fin, n 49 nah solum Italia et Graecia^ sed etiam omnis barbaria. 

tenetis : ' understand '. interpretes coznitionun : i. e. of the laws re- 
lating to the comüia. 

provihcia: cf. Quint. Fr. ii 2 habet quiddam Sardinia apposüum ad 
reoordationem praeteritae memoriae. Nam ut üle QracckvA augwr^ postea- 
quam in istam provinciam venu, recordatus est quid sibi in Gampo Martio 
comitia considum habenti, contra auspicia accidisset, sie tu &c. 'Sardinia 
was made a promnda 235 B.c. but in 181 a fresh insurrection broke out, 
which was suppressed with great slaughter by Gracchus. He went there 
as proconsul 162 b.c. 

libros : on the lih. augurales see Marquardt R. St. in 384. They are 
mentioned by G. Div, u 42, lZ,pro Domo 39, 40, Ätt. ix 11. collegium : 
the College of augurs consisted of 15 members according to SuUa's Consti- 
tution. Cic. was elected b.c. 53 (iV. D. 1 14). 

vitio captum fuisse : Plup. Inf. as in Leg. Man. 20 dico Lucidli ad- 
veniu masimas Miihridatis copias omnibus rebus instructas fuisse urbemque 
Gj/zicenorum obsessam esse (in direct narration copiae instructae erant urbsque 
obsidebatur), Madv. § 408. For the story compare Liv. XLV 12 jamprimum 
cum legionibtts ad conveniendum diem dixit {consuC), non auspicato templum 
inJtravit. Vitio diem dictam esse augures, cum ad eos relatum est, decre- 
verunt; iv 7 tertio mense augurum decreto, perinde ac vitio creatiy konore 
abiere, quod G. GurtiuSj qui comitiis eörum praeßierat, parum recte taber- 
naadum cepisset ; viii 15 religio inde injecta de dictatore, et cum augures 
vitio creatum videri dixissent, dictator magisterque equitum se magistratu 
abdicarunt ; ibid. c. 23, Bouchö-Leclercq iv 250 n. 

tabemacnlum captum fuisse hortos Scipionis: when the augur 
was about to take the auspices he stood with his lituus in his hand, 
facing the south, as it would seem, according to the oldeat usage, though 
this varied very much in later times (see Bouchö-Leclercq iv p. 20 foll.), 
and marked out the sky, called templum Tnajus, with a line from N to S 
called cardo and another bisecting it at right angles, called decumanus. 
He then drew the lines of a corresponding templum minus on the ground 
immediately surroimdi ug the s^wt where he stood, and on the ceutre of 
this he pitched his tcnt {tabernaculiim cepit). The tent had an opening 



88 BOOK II CH. IV § 11. 

towards the south and there the augur sat waiting for the auspicea. Some 
of the edd. omit kortos ScipumW as a gloss, but it is not such a gloss as 
we should have expected from an ordinary scribe, and its correctness has 
been recently confirmed by the discovery of the ms of Granius Licinianus, 
edited 1858 by a ^heptas' of Bonn philologers. (The writer is varioußly 
assigned to the age of Augustus or to that of the Antonines or even later.) 
In p. II of this there occurs a fragment thus restored »e^ cum auffit- ^ 

rales libros lederet, consules vüio creatos esse doctumy quod denvo extra 1 

pomertum aiLspicari debuisset^ cum ad habenda in campo comüia c^n- 
tenderetf qyumiam pomerium finis esset urhanorum auspiciorum ; se vero in •, 

Villa Scipionü (villam • • • Nis in ms) tabemaculum posuisse et qvom i 

ingrederetur pomerium ... The gardens of Scipio are mentioned R, P, i 
§ 14 cum P, Africanus feriis Latinis constituisset m hortis esse, and Lael. 
25 tum magis id dicer^, Fanni, si nuper in hortis Scipionis, cum est ds 4 

republica disputatum, afuisses ; in Lael, 7 we read of the augurs meeting | 

in the gardens of D. Brutus for the purpose of practising their art, where 
Reid says * as the augurs required for their practice an open space whenc^ 
they coiild get an iminterrupted view of the sky, they usually met in some 
gentleman's park outside the city'. If the reading is to be altered, I 
should prefer Lamb.'s in hortis, which seems to have been the oommou 
phrase, to ScL's ad hortos, which would merely state vaguely that the 
auspices wcre taken near the gardens. We cannot, I think, take the 
phrase to be orat, obl. of tabemacvlum captum est horti Scipionis, like tm- 
tium fuit ludi CapüoUni, for that would imply that the Vitium lay in 
selecting this spot, and not in forgetting to renew the auspices on 
crossing the pomerium ; but Mr Eoby suggests that hortos Scipionis may bc 
added in apposition, ' he remembered that his augural tent — ^the gardens 
of Scipio — had been faultily taken '. By vitium was meant any irregularity 
which might render tEe proceedings invalid, see Bouchö-Leclercq iv 241) 
foU. .and on the mode of taldng the auspices generally p. 187 foU., also 
Marquardt I.e. in 386, MommsenÄ AU, 1^ 101. 

pomerium : ( pone murum), this was an ideal line, running within the 
actual wall, the course of which was marked by stone pillars plaoed at 
oertain intervals. [^ Mommsen who has carefuUy examined the meaning of 
pomerium (Forschungen ii p. 23) considers that it properly denoted the 
Space occupied by the city inside the wall, excluding both the wall itself 
and the iinoccupied strip of land on the inner side of the walL Yarro 
(L, L. V 143) and others describe it a» the bounding line of the inclosecl 
town. The two conceptions are easily confused, 2i&fi7ies often equals agtr 
finitus, Livy (i ^) is wrong in making p<ym.erium include the waU with a 
free spacb both on the inside and outside '. R. Mommsen's view would suit 
one of the phrases here used, pom, intrasset, but not the other, pom. trans- 
iref] It was the boundary of the city from the augur^s point of view, fadt 
flnem urbani auspicii (Gell, xiii 14) ; all the non-iu*ban auspices, e. g. 
all relating to the army aiid therefore tr» the rmnitia centurifUa (in 



BOOK II CU. IV § 11. 89 

which the people were considered to form an army), had to be taken 
outside the pomeriwnu The irregularity committed by Gracchus is ex- 
plained as follows by Bouch^-Leclercq iv 230, *we must imagine tho 
magistrate who leaves the city, as carrying with him in a manner the 
aiispices and the temple. II fallait qu'avant de partir, il allät chercher cet 
attirail abstrait sur le Capitole, oü il consvdtait tout d'abord Jupiter : il 
luarchait alors, vers la porte, s'arrötait un instant sur le pomerium pour 
interroger mentalement le ciel et poursuivait sa route, environnä de son 
temple iddal ' ; p. 235 ' a magistrate retuming to the city lost the military 
auspices and had to go through aU the ceremonies again to acquire them. 
Gracchus forgot this on his way back from the city to the Campus Martius 
aiid passed the pomeriimi without going through the necessary formalities'. 
On the other hand, Mommsen {Staatsrecht 1^ p. 93, 100), considers that 
the negligence was shoWn in passing the stream Petronia ; this however is 
not in accordance with C/s words cum pomerium transirei * in crossing '. 
Plütarch gives a different account fix)m either {MarcelL 5) : when a 
magistrate seated in the tahernoAiulum to observe the auspices is com^ielled 
for any reason to retm'n to the city before completing his observations, 
he is boimd to begin the auspices again in a new tabernaculum ; Gracchus 
had broken this rule and therefore the elections held mider his presidency 
were declared void. Plutarch's explanation seems to me the most natiu"al : 
Leclercq's agrees best witL 0. but, as far as I know, there is no deünite 
Statement in any ancient author in regard to ceremonies to be observed in . 
paasing the pomerium. 

habendi senatns: the phrase was used of the presiding magistrate, 
like habere censum^ comitia, delectum, ludos. All religious scruples were 
laid before the Senate, Gell, xiv 7, Liv. xxii I. 

rem ad senatum : sc. rettvlerunt as above. 

senatns nt abdicarent : sc. decrevit. On the Omission of the verbs 
in rapid narration see Madv. Fin, i 9, Draeg. § 116. Äbdicareiit here 
uaed absolutely : in general we find ahdioare se consulatu, or abdicare 
ctmsulatum, 

band sciam an : ' I might perhaps say ', more dif&dent than the Ind., 
c£ Orot. 1 255 kaud sciam an tu primtts ostenderis, whcre Wilkins cites 
Orat. II 18, 72, 209, and Lael. 51. Seyfiert, in his n. on the last,' speaks of 
the use of the Subj. as ' fast übertreibende Form der Bescheidenheit u. 
Zurückhaltung '. 

QUod celari posset : ' though it might have been concealed'. 

haerere reügionem : * that guilt (lit. sense of guilt) should adhere to 
the republlc!. Haereo is often thus used vnih peccatum, crimen &c. either 
with in or the dative. 

deponere : subaud TMÜttermU from maluit, Draeg. § 119 ii 2. 

iranctnm temporis : 1 52, 67, ii 94. 

§ 12. magna angorum — divina : the natural place for this sentence- 
would be aftor an argument to prove the authority of the augiUTs, and 



90 BOOK II CH. IV § 12. 

before au argument io prove the authority of the /iarutpioe&, It is 
impossible that C. could have meant it to stand where it does. Perhaps 
the passage may have been rewritten and this sentence be a relic of the 
earlier form. On C.'s idea of the importance of the augur, see Leff. ii 31 
cited on N. D. i 14, 

Qui yideat : see n. on qui consideret i 43. 

quoram interpretes sunt : this argiunent, called the arx Stoicorum in 
Div, 1 10, is given there in a slightly difiereut form, sie reciprocarUur ut ety si 
divinatio sä, di sint, et sidi sint, sit divinattOy to which C. retorts Div. ii 41 
muho est probabüiusy ^non est autem divinatio, non sunt ergo di\ Not 
uulike is the argument ridiculed in Lucian Jup. Trag, 51 €i yap cto-i ß»fioij 
tla\ Kai 6(01' dXXa firjv ilal ß<afioi, claiu &pa Kai Btoiy to which the Opponent 
replies fiv np6Ttpovytkaa'€d cir Kopov, diroKpivovfitu croi, id. Hermol. 70 * most 
argumenta are based upon things which are disputed, and others on things 
which have nothing to do with the matter, «cnrcp ci r»r otoiro dnobti(€iP 
ttyoA £(ovs dioTi ß<afio\ avrau ovTfs <f)aivovTat\ So Sext. Emp. IX 132 d /uj 
eto-i 6€ol, ov8« fiavTiKrj virapx€i, dnian^firf ov(ra 6f<apiiriKtj Kai cfi/yifriic^ r«5r 
VTTo Bt^v dvBp^irois Mofievdiv aTjfx€imv, ovdi fi^v BtoXrjirTUC^ koi darpafioPTiK^^ 
ov \oyiKTj, ovx 4 dt' oueipay npoppfjais' aronov 5c yc roaovTO trkrjBos irpayfiaTWf 
dpaiptlv n€jriarT€Vfi€Via» rjhrj irapä irairiv dvBpfanois' tlax» apa BtoL There 
is a certain analogy between this and two Christian argumenta, the one 
from the nature of God iuferring the antecedent probability of revela* 
tion : *if there be a wise and good God, it is probable that he would 
reveal something of his will to men'; the other from the fact of prophecy 
iuferring a divine Inspirer, 'the prediction of iiarticular fiiture eveuta 
is beyond the power of man, but the lifo and death of Christ, and 
the dispersion of the Jews, are particular events predicted by Jewiah 
prophets centuries before they came to pass, therefore these prophets were 
gifted with a superhuman power'. Cicero*s real belief in regard to divina^ 
tion is stated Leg. ii 32, si deos esse concedimus eorumque mente mundum 
regt et eosdem hominum consuUre getieri et posse nobis sigtia rerum fn- 
turarum ostetidere, non video cwr esse divtjiatümem negem. Jam vero per- 

multorum exemplorum et nostra est plena res publica et amnia regna ex 

augurum praedictis mvlta incredihiliter vera cecidisse. But though he accepta 
these stories as proofs of the former reality of divination, he rtgards it now 
ää a lost art. The best statement of the Stoic argument is to be found 
Div. I 82 ; while maiutaining that it was inconsisteut with the divine 
goodueas to hido the fiiture from man, they denied that this involved auy 
departure from the established order of the uuiverse : signs and portents 
were the results of a pre-established harmony, Div.iW^ nonplacet Stoicis 
singvlis jecorüm fissis aut avium caMibus intercsse deum; neque en£m 
decorum est nee dis dignum nee fieri vUo pacto polest ; sed ita a principio 
ijicofiatum esse mundum, ut ccrtis rebus certa signa praecurrerent, alia in 
ejcti», alia in avibus, alia in fulgoribiis, alia in äste fit is, alia in stellis, alia 
in somniaiitium visis, alia in/urentium i'ocibus. 



BOOK II CH. IV § 12. 91 

at fortasse : cf. Dii\ i 24 cU non numquam ea quae praedicta swnt 
minus eveniunt. Qucte tandem id ars non haJyet f earum dico artium quae 
confectura continentur et sunt opinabiles. An medicina ars non putanda 
est ? qttam tarnen nndtafallunt ? and so navigation, tactics &c. Divination 
rests on conjecture ; ea fallit fortasse non nuTnquanif sed tarnen ad veri- 
tatem saepissime derigit, being founded on long experience and Observa- 
tion. This answer is criticized below (ui 15). 

ne aegri (lUldeni : Arist. Rhet, I 1 20 ovbk yap larpucijs rh vytrj TToifja-aij 
dXXoy iiixpiS ov €vd€x*Tai, ß^XP^ tovtov irpoayayelv' «ort yäp koi rovs ddvvd- 
rovs fUToKaßeiv vyuias ofuas QfpairtvfTai Kcik&s. The same comparison is 
iiaed by Cyril c. Jul, x p. 354 D, in answer to the objection that there 
were rogues among Christians, 'The Gospel may fail, as medicine fails, 
from the patient refusing to carry out the prescription*. 

xnedicinae : I have adopted Madvig's emendatiod of the medicina of 
MSS, as it is certainly the more natural construction, and involves no 
alteration of the letters medicinaest. Madv. himself objected to the old 
reading on the ground that Latine didtur ^medicina ars non est\ non ^ars 
nulla^ (keine Wissenschaft), but Mu. gives exx. of the adjectival use of 
medimuij as Varro X. L.\ 93 ab arte medicina... medicus dictus, Quint. xii 
11 § 24 rei müitaris et rusticae et m^dicinae; cf. too Hyginus Fab. 274 
Chiron artem medicinam cfiirurgicam instituit cited by L. and S. 

deonun natura : 'not the divinity, but human guess-work bhmdered'; 
for natura c£ i 23 n. 

omnes onmium gentium : i 46, for the consensus gentium see nn. on 
I 43, where it is asserted by the Epicurean. Sext. Emp. ix 60 gives a^ the 
Ist of four proo& alleged by theologians r^v irapa iraa-w avBpwrots avfKJxoviav^ 
see ib. 61 — 74 with notes of Fabricius. summa constat : ' the main 
point', Seh. cites Acad, ii 29 cum summa consisfereCt Fin. v 12 nee in 
summa tarnen ipsa varietas est, 

innatum est : the doctrine of Innate Ideas was not held in the strict 
sense by the early Stoics any more than by the Epicureans, but we find 
it asserted by C. in more than one passage, e.g. Fin, v 59 (natura homini) 
dedit talem mentem, quae omnem virtutem aocipere posset, ingenuitque sine 
doctrina notitias pcervas verum maarlmarum^ et quasi ijistituit docere et 
iiiduxit in ea quae i?ierant tamquam elementa virtutis, Sed virtutem ipsam 
incohaüit, nihil amplius. Itaque...artis est ad ea principia quae accepimtcs 
consequentia exquirere, quoad sit id qttod volumvs effectum ; Tusc l 30. la 
all probability C. here follows Posidonius, *see below n. on § 62 oM&mi^ and 
Gorssen de Posid. RJiod. p. 30 foll., also Zeller rv p. 659^. insculptum : 
I 45, Acad, ii 1 in avdmo res insculptas habebat. 

animo...animis : the Sing, is used generically of man in the abstract, 
the PL of dififorent individuals variously afiected by difierent grounds of 
belief, cf. Draeger § 7. 3. 

Ch. V § 13. varium est : Hhere is a variety of oi)inions', 'is variously 
viswed'. 



92 BOOK II CH. V § 13. 

A b. fartlier explained. CleanÜies derivea iJie consensua of helief 
fromfour cau^es, (1) ^•ese7i<ime7ite qf the /lUure (ue. divination, just 
treated of)y (2) tfie hlessings o/life, (3) terrihle and unusvud phenoniefia 
of nature, (4) tlie order qf tlie }t,eave7dy hodiea (treated of iu § 4). 
§§ 13-15. 

Bywater (Journal of Philology vii p. 76 foll.) shows that the sub- 
stanoe of this section is probably derived from Aristotle through CleantheB 
and Posidonius. *The psychical and cosniical causes, the Ist and 4th 
in Cleanthes' series', are stated by Sext. Emp. ix 20 to have been also 
alleged by Aristotle (in the dialogue cfe philosophia, as is generally sup- 
posed), as the grounds of religious belief. *In such abnormal psychical 
phenomena as dreams, ecstasy, enthusiasm, the secönd-sight with which 
we credit the dying '(the phenomena, in short, on which, according to the 
ancient distiuction, natural as opposed to artificial divination was based) 
Aristotle found an explanation of the way in which the mind comes to 
divine, or have a presentiment of, the existence of other miuds greater and 
mightier than anything human*. Sextus (ibid. 21 and 26) goes on to 
describe the efFect of the contemplation of the ordered movements of the 
smi and stars on the mind of the observer. He gives this very succinctly, 
but Bywater from a comparison of other writers, makes it probable that 
in the original dialogue the two causes were connected in some such 
way as foUows : *the presentiment, originating in the core of our inner 
psychical experience, acquires a new force and import, as soon as we reflect 
on the facts of the univcrse outside us ; we seem introduced into a temple, 
like that at Eleusis, only more august and solemn, because the figures (the 
heavenly bodies), which we see circling around us, are not lifeless or made 
with hands, and the celcbrants are not men, but the immortal gods'. 
Compare several passages in this book, in which the uiiiverse is com^mred 
to a palace or mansion, §§ 15, 17, above all § 95. We must take care to 
distinguish the historical question, how man arrived at the idea of God, of 
which Cleanthes here treats, from the philosophical question, what is the 
validity of that idea. Sextus in like manner treats separately of the two, 
discussing the former, irm oi nporrpop yorjaiv öf^v ecr^oy, in §§ 14 — 47, the 
latter, €i ^lai dtol, in the sections which foUow. Lucretius^deals with the 
former v 1161 — 1240. In § 15 Cic. seems to. be rather trenching'on the 
philosophical ground. 

informatas noUoues = vi/onnatio 1 100. On the argument soc in 16. 

eam QUae orta esset : in this and the foUowing clause {quam ceperi- 
7nus) Cic. carelessly prödicates of causa what should have been predicated of 
notio. It is only in regard to the 4th that he extricates himself from the 
confiision {quartam esse aequahüitatem). Observe the change of tense, quae 
orta esset — quam ceperimus — quae terreret The Ist is regarded as a Single 
act antecedent to the action of the principal verb, the 3rd is continuous, 
going on at the same timo with the principal vcrb, in the 2nd 0. treats 



BOOK II CH. V § 13. 93 

the Bubordiixate clause from bis own, the preeent, standpoint, cf. Farn. 
XIV 7 quid caruaefuerit postrtdie mtellexiy 10 Phil. 9 quo cojun'lio redierim 
iniiio audistis, post estis expei'ti, and others cited bj Draeg. § 131 b. 

caeli teiiii>eratione : below § 49 solis tum accesstcs modici tum recessus 
etjrifforis et caloris modum temperant. 

commoditas : the cause and occasion of the commoda mentioned 
before. St Paid at Lystra appeals to the same evidence, Acts xiv 17. 

§ 14. quae terreret : it is not correct to saj that Hhe cause terrifies 
men', the tcrror itself is the cause. This cause is admitted both in iii 16 
and in Div, ii 42 nonne perspicuum est ex priTtta admiratione Jwminum^ 
quod tonitrua jactusque fulmhium extimuissent, credidisse ea eßcere rerum 
qmntum praepotenteni Jovem ? So Petron. fr. 27 Buch. primiLS in orhe deos 
fecü timor, ardua cadofvlmina cum caderent ; Democritus ap. Sext. Emp. ix 
24 6p»vTes ra cV rois fi(T€fipois TraBjjfJLora ol rrciXaiol ra>v dvBpciimvy KaBawtp 
ßpovras Koi aarpairas Ktpavvovs rf koI aarpoiv avvodovs ijXiov rc koi treXijinji 
«cXfi^fcr, cdcifiorovvro 6fovv oiop,€voi tovtohv airiovf €i»aiy See n. on I 54 
quis non timeat. Cf. Ps. zxix and Job xxxviii. 

ftOmmibus : the portents which follow are often mentioned in Livy, 
e.g. lightning xxiv 10, xxv 7, xxxvi 37 (cf. Div. i 16) ; storms XL 2, 45 ; 
pestilence xl 19; earthquake iii 10, iv 21, xxx 38; noises xxix 14, xxxi 
12, cf. Div, I 35 terrae saepe fremitus, saepe mu^tus, saepe mx)tu8 midta 
nostrae rei pubUcaSj mitlta ceteris civitatibus gravia et vera praedixerunty 
Mar, Retp. 20 quod in agro Latiniensi auditus est strepiius cumfremitUy 
ib. 62 cogitate genus sonitus efus^ quem Latinienses nuntiarunt : recordamini 
ülud quod.,.nuiUiatur terrae motus terribilis...etenim kaec deorum immor- 
talium voxy haecpaene oratio judicanda est, cum ipse mundus, cum aer atque 
terrae motu quodam contremiscunt et inutitato aliquid sono incredibüique 
praedicunt; showers of stones i 31, vii 78, xxi 62, xxx 38, {creta pluit) 
XXIV 10, of blood {came pluit) iii 10, xxrv' 10, xxxix 46, 56 ; Cic. here speaks 
DQore cautiously {quasi cruentis\ see his. explanation Div. ii 58 decoloratio 
quaedam ex dliqua coyitagione terrena maxime potest sanguini similis esse, 
such prodigies in metu et periculo cum creduntur ßzcilius, tum finguntur 
impunius. See Eng. Cyd, under 'Aerolites* for the actual facts. 

nimbis : so Lucretius places the storm-cloud among the phenomena of 
nature, which he conceived to be the cause of superstition (vi 489), hxxvd 
igitur minima si parvo tempore saepe tarn magnis nimhis tempestas atque 
tenebrae coperiunt maria ac terras inpensa supeme; and in the quotation 
from Aristotle (below § 95) we find nvbium m^gnitudinem noticed as onc 
of those phenomena which should naturally incline men to the belief in a 
Divinity ; cf. Buskiu Modem PairUers v 137 folL, on the Greek idea" of the 
clouds. 

▼astitate seems here to mean the desolation produced by some 
natural cause, as drought or flood or frost or hurricane ; or we might 
take it to refer to the religious influences of lonely places, of which 
Lucretius speaks iv 580 — 594, or lastly to a devastating plague, such a.s 



94 BOOK II CH. V § 14. 

we find ascril)ed to the wrath of the gods in PU, 85. [In the fonnula 
luttrationis in Cato R, R, 14 prajer is made lUi tu morhas vUos inm^osqtie 
viduertatem (?) vastüudinemque, calamäates (blight) intempericuqtte pro- 
hibessü, R] 

labibtLS : (* landslip ') corrected from lapidibm after Divin, i 78 muUis 
locis lahes factae suntf and 97 quoted below. It occiu*s in the Digest, xix 
tit 2 1. lö, and 62. [Add Festus M. p. 210 avertas morbum, mortem, labeniy 
ivebulam^ impetiginem, and an old prophecy from an Etruscan seer con- 
tained in the Qromatici (p. 351 Lachm.) tum etiam terra a tempestcUibns vd 
turbinibus plerumque labe movebiiur, R.] 

praeter naturam portenüs : for exx. of an adjective supplied by ad- 
verbs or adverbial phrases, see Nägelsb. § 75, and below § 87 solarium aut 
discriptum avi ex aqua, § 144 irUroitus cum ßexibtu, § 166 deorum saepe 
praesentiae, homimun : e.g. a boj with an elephant's head Liv. xxvii 
11, cock and hen changed into man and woman, xxii 1. pecndum: e.g. 
partus mvlae Div. i 35, lamb with swine's head Liv. xxxi 12, pig with 
man^s head xxvii 4, ass with three heads xlii 20, cow speaking iii 10, 
cf. Juven. XIII 65 foU. with the nn. 

fadbns caelestibTis : Lucretius v 1188 enumerates meteors and shoot- 
ing-stars among the grounds of religious belief: (men plaoed in heaven 
the abodes of the gods, because there were seen there) luna, dies, et nox, 
et noctis Signa severa, noctivagaeque faces caeliflamm,aeque volantes, nvbila^ 
sol, imhres, nix, venti, fulmina^ grando, et rapidi fremüus et murmura 
magna minarum; see on their nature Arist. Meteor, i 4 ol ^Xoyrr ai 
Knoyxvai Koi ol buiBiovr€i dartpft koi oi Kaikovfi€Voi dakol Kot aiy^f with 
Ideler's nn. and Sen. Ä\ Q. i 1, who speaks of their being seen at the 
deaths of Augustus and Germanicus and the fall of Sejanus. 

cometas : one of the portents in C's x>oem on his consulship, Div. 1 18 
tremulos ardore cometas; called dun, cometae Geo, i 488. T\inj{N.H. Ii22) 
after a minute description continues terrißcum magna ex parte sidus ar 
non leviier picUum, ut cioüi motu Octavio consule, tterumqtie Pompeii et 
Caesaris hello; Seneca, who (following Arist. Meteor, i 6) treats of comets 
N, Q. VIT, makes the unlucky remark (c. 17) that Nero's comet come- 
tis detraxit infamiam; hc also prophesies (c. 24), with that sanguine 
belief in human progress which makes one of the chief attractions of his 
writings, that the movements of comets will one day be understood, veniet 
tempus quo posteri nostri tarn aperta nos nescisse mirentur, The comet 
which appeared after the death of Jul. Caesar was made an object of 
worship by Augustus (Plin. A\ H.'li 25). See Mayor on Beda Hist, Eod. 
IV 12. cmcinnatas : the usual translation of KOfiijrvfs is crinita^ aa 

Plin. N, H, II 22 cometas Oraeci vocant, nostri crinitas; eine, is found else- 
where in this sense only in the Schol. to Juv. vi 207. 

nnper : about ten years before the data of the supposed dialogue. 

belle Octaviano : Cn. Qctavins, consid in 87 b.c., a ^mrtisan of Sulla 
(who was then engaged in the war against Mithridatcs), opposed the 



BOOK II CH. V § 14. 95 

attemptfi of his colleague Cinna in favoiir of Marius and affcer bloody con- 
flicts was put to death by Censorimis. Cic. teils us {Div. i 4) that the 
prophecies of a certain Culleolus were rife at the time. 

calamitatnm : the proscriptions of Marius and Sulla. 

sole geminato : cf. R, F. i 15 visne igitur videamus quidnam sü de 
isto aüero sole quod nunticUum est in senatu? ib. 17, 19, 31, Divin. i 
97 Tiam et cum duo soles visi essent et cum tres lunae et cum faces et cum 
901 nocte rnsus esset et cum e caelo fremitus auditus (responsis karuspicum 
paruit senaius). Ddata etiam ad senatum Ictbes ogH PrivemcUis cum ad 
infinitam aUitvdinem terra desedisset, Apuliaque maximis terrae moti- 
bus conquassata esset; Seneca N, Q. i \\ explains the phenomenon on 
natural principles, historici soles vocant; et binos teimosque apparuisse 
memariae tradunt; Oraeci parelia appellani...sunt autem imagines solis 
in nube spissa et victna, in modum speculi; Pliny i\^. //. ii 31 mentions 
several occasions on which they were seen. It is curious that Cic. in his 
list of prodigies omits eclipses, which were the most generally feared of all, 
and which he himself mentions among the portents which accompanied the 
Catilinarian conspiracy, Div, i 18. ' 

Tnditano : C. Sempronius Tud. consul with M\ Aquilius 129 RC. : on 
the death of Africanus see iii 80. 

evenerat : Plup. because attracted to the time of the parenthetic ut 
audivif see below § 23 on dixeram. 

sol alter : Hör. Sat. i 7 24 soUm Äsiae Brutum appdlat, 

§ 15. aeqnabilitatem motus, conversionem caeli : Seh., adoptlng 
Emesti's correction conversionumque^ compares Leg, i 24 perpetuis cursibu^ 
conversionibusque cadestilyus and Tusc. v 69 iotiu^ mundi cursus oonversio- 
nesque aa exx. of C.'s way of adding a limiting clause. Dav.'s reading 
in conversione may be illustrated by § 54 hanc in stellis constantiam, I 
thiuk however that the text of the mss is more rhythmical than either of 
the emendations, and that there is no reason why C. may not have 
separated the idea of uniformity of motion from that of its concrete em- 
bodimeut, the revolution of the heavenly bodies. Thus Aristotle treats 
of the kinds and qualities of motion in the abstract, apart from our own 
ezperience, c£ Met, A 7, p. 1072 tan n ofi Kivovfxevov Kiinjaiv anavarov, 
avrtj d* 17 kvkX^' «cac rovro ov Xoy^ fiovov oXX* fpyo» drjXov and on the imifor- 
mity of the heavenly movements Cad, 11 c. 6. Cicero is probably trans- 
lating some such phrase as ofiakorrjra Ktvi^a-tons, ff>opa¥ ovpapov. We find 
aequab. motus again below § 48. Sext. Emp. ix 26 mentions that some 
(L e. Aristotle) refer the origin of religious belief to rrjv mrapaßarop k<u 
f vroitrov riov ovpaviav Kivrj<riv. 

distinctioneiil : fr. distingvx> ' to prick in different places', hence im- 
msnsi corporis pulchrUudo düUnguüur astris * spangled with ' (Sen. JV. Q, 
VII 1), and below 95 caehcm astris distinctitm, The word implies an inten- 
tional variety, one shade or colour setting off another {irtnoiKCkyLha) as in 
mosaic, cf. § 99 iiisulae litoraque collucent distincta (^studdcd*) tectis et 



9G BOOK II CIL V § 15. 

urbibus. Ilere the idea intendeil is not siiuply * difiercnco ' (as L. and P.)» 
but as below § 104, the dotting about of stars, the varied grouping of con- 
stellations. 

utilitatem : edd. adopt the conjecture of Manutius, varidateni, which 
is more in agreement with the context, but I think the text maj be 
defended. Beauty and utility are often joined as the two characteristics of 
the universe, see below, § 87, 155, Orot, iii 178 ut in plerüque rebus 
incredibüüer hoc natura est ipsa fahricata^ sie in oratione, ut ea, guae 
maadmam tUüitatem in se coniinerenty plurimum eadem haberent vel digrU- 
tatis vel saepe etiam venustatis: it is then shown that it is so with the 
heavenlj bodies. Oleom, i 1 gives, as one proof of a governing Reason, that 
all things /icyaX ci>0f Xcorarar irap€x*<rBai ras ;(pctar, cf. Philo Z^. All. p. 
107 (man leamt the knowledge of God) ßtaa-ofitvos ovpavov eV rvieX^ vtfu- 
iroKovvra, . « . irXav^ras dt koi dir\av€is darepas Kora ravra Kai wravrnds Kipovfu- 
»ovsy €fjLfu\£s T€ Kai ivapiiovlan Ka\ r^ iravri eo^cXifuof) Plato Epin, 982 roOro 
d* ciMii TTiv T^v uoTpiov <t)V(rLV, idfli' fifp KoXXionjv, iroptiav de Koi xopfui» irdyr»w 
Xop<av KaWiarrriv Koi fuyakoTrpfVtoTOTTiP x^p^ovra natri rois {<^oit ro dciov 
dTToreXfiv. Nor is it necessary to suppose that C. would have been prc- 
cluded from speaking of the utüäas of the sun and stars here, because he 
has spoken of the commoda received from the temperaiio caeli in § 13. 
He is far from punctilious about his divisions, and he might treat of the 
benefit of light apart from that of heat to which he confines himself in the 
earlier §. 

ptüchrittldillOin : Plac. Phü. I 6 kclKos de 6 KOirfios* dfjXoy de cit rov 
{Tx^fJuiTov Koi rov ;^pa>;iaroff koi tov fieytBovs Koi rrjs itcp\ rov Kuaftov rior 
daT€p»v'iroiKi\las, See below § 98 foU. 

ea f ortoita : on the Neut. instead of the Fem. see § 1 ea ostendi and 
Z^. II 28. 

ut : followed by multo magis instead of sie, The comparison of the 
World to a houso is here used to prove that it must be govemed and 
directed by reason ; in § 17 it is used to prove that it cannot be made 
simply for man ; in § 95 to prove that there aro gods and that it inust be 
their handiwork. 

rationem, modtun, disciplinam : ^arrangement, proportion, order', 
cf. disciplina domus Suet. Od. 65. 

immensa et inflnita : i 26 n. 

mentita Bit : * disappoiuted expectation'. There has been no infringe- 
ment of law, no exception to the rule, cf, Pseudo-Arist. de Mundo 5 § 9 tU 
de ycVoir' av d^et^deia roiadt rju riva <l>v\drrova'iv al KoXai Kai yovipoi r«»v 
oX«v flJpai Bipi} re Koi x^<M^*^^ eVayovo-a* rtrayfitvas ijfitpas re koi vvKra^ etr 
firjvos dirore'Xea7ia Koi tpiavrov ; 

A e. Argument of Chrysij)p^i8 : (1) tJi^ universe shows ihe opera- 
ti(yn of a superhufnan t. e, of a divine power § 16 ; (2) the universe 



BOOK II CH. VI § IC. 97 

19 Coo beautifoU io he the hahücUion qf mcm alone, it implies a super- 
human tnhabüant § 17. 

Ch. Ti § 16. qnarnqnam — ^tarnen: 'clever as he is, he has here so 
far Burpassed himsel^ that his words so\md like a vox naiurae, he speaka 
like one inspired '. On the argument of Chrysippus see iii 25 and Lact. 
Ira c. 10. 

atqni introduces the 2nd premiss, as below § 41, and often, see Index. 

id quo iUa conflcinntlir : Seh. {Opuac. ni 328 and 370) would insert 
a before quo^ to suit the ab homine^ but the indefinite id obscures the idea 
of agencj, see § 4 numen quo regaiUur^ § 30 ruxtura oontineri^ 124 natura 
congregaru 

[quid potins dizeris : ' what could one say it was rather than a god?' 
For the Perf. Subj. with words like potius see Gr, § 1540, and for the 
indefinite second person § 1544. R] 

etenixu: from the criticism in ui 26 idemqtie si dt non nrU &c., it 
wotdd appear that C. is here giving a new argument, viz. ' if there are no 
gods, man must be the highest of existing things, but that is absuid, there- 
fore there must be gods'. If we take it thus, etenim must have the force 
of ' again' 'fiirther', see Madv. Fin, i 3 particula ^etenim* utimur non tarn 
cum proxima oonfirmamusy quam cum in universa arffumentatione proqredi- 
mur, ui saepe idem nt ac ^porro \ He cites Tttsc, in 20, Div, ii 89, 142, 
iT. D. n 77, tö which Forchhammer {Nord. Tidskr. 1880 p. 41) adds ii 42, 
m 30, 31. On the other band this second argument is capable of being 
employod tp back up the condusion of the former (viz. that the universe 
indicates the existenoe of a superhuman power) ; for this in iiself is not 
conclusive as to a divine exL^nce, until it is.fiirther shown that whatever 
18 Buperhuman must be divine. It is possible therefore that C. takes 
etenim in its usual sense. For the arg. Lescal. quotes from Augustine, 
mens humana de visibilibus judicans potest agnoscere omnibus visibüibiis se 
ipsam esse.mdiorem ; quae tarnen^ cum etiam se propter defectum,,.fatetur 
esse mutabHem, invenit supra se incommutabilem veritatem, 

esse hominem — arrogantiae est : the regulär constr. would have 
been esse hominehm mirandum est, as m ^ 93 hic ego non mirer esse quem- 
quam qui, but this is confused with another constr. Aomni^mj^i^are est arro- 
gantiae. .For the thought compare JLeg. n 16 quid est verius quam neminem 
esse apartere tarn stvlte arrogantem, ut in se rationem et mentempütet inesse, 
in cado mundoque nonputetf..,Cumqueomniay quae rationem habenty prae- 
Stent vis quae sint rationis expertia^ nefasque sit dioere uUam rem praestare 
naiurae amnium rerumy rationem inesse in ea canßtendum est. We must 
remember this aide of Stoic teaching when we come to the extravagances 
of § 15a 

§ 17. an.. .non iK>ssis addnd nt (domnm)...miisteli8 aedificatam 
pntes: tantum omatam...si taam...putes nonne desipere videare? 
I omit ergo alter tantum with Heind. Forchhammer (p. 43) and Madv. 

M. C. II. ' 7 



j^S BOOK II CH. VI § 17. 

The laat (in bis Emend, in Cic. lib. phil, i pp. 19 — 53) gives many 
exz. of this co-ordination of oontrasted clausea The regulär form would 
have been domum tum mttstelts aedtßcatam putas : tantum amatum luum 
piUahis? as below § 18 an cetera mundus habehit: hoc unum n<m ha- 
hebitf § 97 an, cum moveri sphaeram videmus, non d^ibitamus quin üla 
opera sint rationis : cum autem caelum moveri . videamus, dubitamus quin 
ea ratio7ie ßani? Leg. i 46 an ea non aliter : honesta et turpia non ad 
naturam referri necesse erit? Fin, i 5 an ^utitiam ne in nemore* legimus: 
quae aiUem a Flatone disputata sunt, haec explicari non placehit Latifie? 
Fin, I 13 an ^partus ancülae sitne in jfructu habendus* disseretur: haec 
quas vitam omnem conti^tent neglegerUurf Fin. li 33 ergo in besttis 
erunt simulacra virtutum: in ipsis hominihu» virtus nuUa eritf Fin. 
n 88 an dolor longissimus quisque miserrimus: voluptatem non optabi- 
liorem diutumitas facitf Fin, v 91 an hoc usquequaque: aläer in 
vitaf Cat, i 3 a« vero Qracchum privatus interfecit: CaiUinam nos am- 
sules perferemus / Sulla 32 an vero clariisimum virum nemo reprehendä 
quiflium vita privavä : tu rem pMioam reprehendis quae domesiicos hoste» 
necavüf Orot, i 250 an vero, si de re ipsa controversia est, ayiUortas res 
perdiscimus : si leges . . . cognoscenda ^irit, veremur ne ea queamus cognoscere / 
Plane, 41 an vero darissimi cives nomen editicii jvdicis non ttderunt: nos 
ah accusatore constätUos judices feremtts f where see Holden ; a]ao Tusc v 90, 
Philipp. XIV 12, Liv. v 52 an ex hostium urbihus Romam transferri sacra 
religiosum fuit : hine sine piaculo in hostium urbem Veins transferemusf 
The reguliff form is sometimes broken bj anacoluthon, as in Phü, iVl an 
si cui quid üle promisit, id erit fixum, which should naturally have been 
followed by leges ejus ratae non erunt f but this is made into an inde- 
pendent sentence : in Tusc. v 73 an Epicuro dicere licebit, which should 
have been followed by Stoicis non dicendum est f but this appears as a new 
sentence § 75.. The foregoing exx. show that the former of the contrasted 
clauaes dhould contain an undoubted fact, apparently inconsistent with the 
supposition cbntained in the latter clause. Here the undoubted fÜEu^t is, 
'you could not be induced to believe that a fine house was built for 
weasels * ; the opposed supposition is * will you believe that this beautiful 
World was made only for men ' ? Of course, if the reading of the Mss is 
kept, and the former clause treated as an independent sentence, non before 
possis would be out of place. We find the same comparison of the universe 
to. a household in an interesting passage of Arist. Metaph. xi 10 p. 1075 a. 

miUltelis: see n. onfaelis 1 101. The weasel was employed like our 
cat, cf. Phaedr. i 22 of the weasel supplicating for lifo qvaeso pareas mihi 
quae tibi molestis muribus purgo domum; iv 1 (the fable of the mice and 
old weasel) ; Plaut. Stich, iii 2 auspicio hodie optimo exii forcu : mustela 
murem abstulä praeter pedes; Ov. Met. ix 233 Galanthis is changed into 
a weasel, nostrasque domos ut et ante frequentat ; Plin. N. H, zxix 16 there 
are two kinds of mustela, one larger and wild, the other quae in chmibus 
nostris oberrat et catxdos suos, ut auctor est Cicero, quotidie transfert, mu- 



BOOK II CH. VI § 17. 99 

tatque 9edem, 9erpeiUe$ persequüur; Anton. Max. Serm, xxvii in a house 
where there is much provision there are many mice and weaaela (jivs koi 
yaKas) ; Perizon. on Aelian F. H. xiv 4. Rolleston {Joum, of Anatomy 
and Pkym/ology Vol. n p. 47 foU.) shows that this weasel was probably the 
Mostela Foina^ our ' white-breasted märten', and cites PalladiiiB iv 9 4, as 
proving that both it and the cat were domeBticated in Italy in the 4th 
Century a.D. See Houghton Not. Hut, of the Ancients pp. 40 — 49. We 
find the same comparison below § 157, but here we have an odditional 
point in the invisibility of the master. 

omatnm mundi : the phrase is probably suggested by the Gr. Koafios, 
see below § 94, 115, 118, 127, Acad, ii 119. 

A f. Man inhdbüa the lotvest region of the wniverse ; the pu/re 
ether ofHie higher regions in fitted for nobler irüidbitarUs, [The argu- 
inent is incompletely stated by C] § 17. 

an ne hoc qnidem intellegimns gives the reaaon why it is 'folly to 
think that the earth-bom creature man can be the highest, 'or are we 
such fools as not to know that the things above are better 1' See Arist. 
Co/d. n 5 BfioTfpog 6 Hvna rofrof tov Kort»^ de MiMfydo Yi 81 avvtiriftapTvpti 6 
^os taras Tfjv cEy« ;(tfpavairodovr 6€^' Kai yap fraprts ol avBp^woi dvartipofiep ras 
;^ccpaf tls TOV ovpavhv €vxäs iroiovfi^voi» Ka0 av Xoyop ov Kaic<uff kolküvo dya- 
ir€ff>mnfTai — Zfvr d* tka}^ ovpavov rvpvv iv alBtpi «cat v^fpiX^ja-iv — dto Kai 
rmv ala-&rfr»v ra TifumraTa tov avrov mx^i roiroy, aarpa re Koi rjXios Kai 
mXifvri, R,P.Yil7 tnfra aittem (lunam) nihil est rvUi mortale et caducum 
praeter ammos munere deorum hominum generi datos; eupra lunam eunt 
aetemaomnia; nam ea quae est media et ruma^ TelluSy neque movetvr- et 
infima est ; Tusc i 43 (when the soul on its departure from the body has 
moimted above this lower air) naturamque sui similem corUigit,,.ßnem altitis 
se effereivdi fadt; Plin. N, H. ii 21 Posvdonius non minus quadraginta 
stadiorum a terra cUtitudinem esse in qua nuhUa et venti nubesque prove- 
niant; imde purum liquidumque et imperturbatae Ituns aerem. 

ut ob eaxn — coUocati sint: the main purpose of tkis awkward 
sentence is to introduce the conclusion tU hebetius sit genus hwmanum: 
eam ipsam cansam refers to crassissimus and is repeated again in quod in 
terra — sint; the parenthetical statement of fact in the relative clause qtiod 
,,.mdemtis is explained by hebetiora iU sinty and afterwards taken up by 
hoc (dem, coütingere*: not simply 'befalls*, but Ms a quahty of like 
avfißaiv^t. ploxiiorem: Menser' 'more stuffy'. No other instanoe 

of this meaning is cited. On the effectof climate see below § 42, de Foto 
7 inter locorum naturas quantum intersit videmus : alios esse salubres, alios 
pestHenteSy in alOs esse pituitosos, et quasi redundantes^ in aliis exsiocatos 
atqne aridos . . » , Athenis tenue caelumy ex quo acutiores putantur Attidy 
crassum Thehis, itaque pingues Thebani et valentes, Div. i 79, Hör. J^. n 1 
244; Juvenal X 50 cites Democritus as an instanoe on the contrary side. 

7-2 



• 100 . BOOK U CH. VI § 17. 

The originator of the theory is probably Heraclitus (fi*. 76 Byw. ov y^ (rip^y 
^X7 tro4^Tani Ka\ aplimi), who was foUowed hj Hippocrates xzvni 31 
folL It is interesting, as confirmatorj of the Posidonian authorship of the. 
treatise from. which C. is borrowing, to find Strabo attacldng Posidonius 
for maintaining the influence of climate on character (ii 3 p. 102 folL). 
He seems to have spoken of the distribution of the different parts of the 
earth and the efiect on the character. of the people inhabiting them, as 
proofs of divine Proyidence, in Opposition to which Strabo says, 'such 
arrangements ovk ck wpovoias yivom-at, KaBäwtp ovdc a\ Kara ra tBvij fUa(t>opai 
,..dXka Kora iirltmoa-tv koX Qvvrvxiav . , . ov yap (pvcrti ^Aßrjvaioi fitv <^XoXoy<K, 
AaKtdatfuovioi de ov tcal ol cyyvrcpo» Qijßatoi, dWa fiaWop tOti' ovrttf ovdc 
BtißvXtivioi <l>iK6(ro(l>oi <f>v(rti leai Aiyvirrtot, dXX' da'icijeT€i Kai tßti ... ö de 
(Pos.) <rvyx« irdvra \ Similarly Galen {Hipp. Fiat, p. 464 k) * Posidonius 
maintains ov a-fiixp^ rivi ditvrjvoxfvcu rols ilßtai rovr dv$pmrnvs ctr dctXtay 
Koi ToXfiavj fjroi <f)iKi^^v6v t€ kqI (f>i\oirovoVf cor rSv IraBrjTiKSv Ktviia'€^9 rrjs 
^Irvx^s €irofi€Vtt>p du r^ biaßtaci rov atofiarot, ^v cjc r^t Kara ro ircpic^or 

Kpda-ttas ov kot oktyov äWoiovaßai*. ctufwIsfllTna roifione : 0. omits .to 
* draw the conclusion, as to the existence pf beings superior to man in the 
higher element, which we find below § 42 and in Sext. £mp. ix 86, ccrc 
eV yg Kai 6akatr<nj iroWfjs oS(rfjs Tro^vpicpf uir (cf. pleniorem ncUuram) iroiirtXa 
{rvviararai f^a V^'^'X'*^^ '"' *°* ala-dijriKrjs fitrix^^vTa dvvdfif»:^ iroXX^ wi&atW' 
rtpov ianv iv r^ dipi, froXv ro KaQapov kou (IXiKpivts cyoyrt napa rijv yijy 
Kcä ro'vdo^p, (fiyjrvxo^ Tiva Ka\ po€pa avviarcurdai (^€u Omitting this, he 
hastens on at once to another argumeut, which foUows it in Sextus ; see 
n. on et tarnen below. coUocati sint: Zumpt § 366 sajs that, while 

we never find C. using a plural verb after a singular noun of multitude, 
yet he sometimes employs a plural of the same subject in a following .clause, 
as here and p. Ärch, 12, MarcdL 11, Q^int. 23, Fin, in 70, c£ Madv. 
§215a. 

A g. SiiU even rttan sliares in the gift of reason : thts, Uke tlte 
grosser elements o/ which his hody is composed, must be derive^ from 
the universef as its source. § 18. 

§ 18. Idt tarnen : 'and yet, mean as he is, man has a trace of something 
higher '. The same argument is referred to in the same connexion by Sext. 
1. a, (If the air has living beings belonging to it, so, we may infer, must 
the ether have beings, of a yet higher grade) o^ev icat avBpwroi vo€pat ficrc- 
Xovai dvra/ACtff KOKtiBtp aviijv airdiravrws, but it is not fully stated tili § 94, 
where the same quotation from Xenophon occurs. 

esse aliqnam mentem : Brieger (p. 17) rightly objects to this reading, 

that the foUowing et eam quidem shows that the subject, of which it intro- 

duces the attribute, must be already clearly before the mind, but aliquam 

, leaves it indefinite. There is plainly allusion to a mind which is distinct 

from that of man and is stated to be keener than it Hence Seh. and 



BOOK 11 CH. VI § 18. 101 

Brieger propose to read aliam quam; the latter comparing § 115 where 
aliqua is read for alia quae in some Mss, and suggesting as altemativeB 
muTuii mentem (as in § 58), which I prefer, or in mundo muntern (ajs in in 27 
quaerä apud Xenophontem JSocrates, unde animum arripuerimuSy st nxdlvs 
fuerü in mundo). 

et eam quideill : et is, et is quid^m, and et quidem are used to empha- 
size some qualitj or jEact in reference to what precedes, cf. § 29 natura est 
qwae tueatur, et ea quidemnon sine sensu, § 30 e^ acriora quidem, see Index, 
and (for a different use) 1 79 n. 

Qnde airipnit : quoted by Lact, de Ira 10. The words of Xenophoil 
{Mem. I 4 § 8), quoted in the same connexion by Sext. Emp. ix 92 foll., 
are «rv de cravroy doxcir ri <f>p6viftov tx^^v . . . SWoßt di ov^afiov ovÖiv oict 
4>pwifiov €Ufai ; Kai rovra tldas ort yij£ rt puKpop pJpos iv r^ (roo/iari TroXX^r 
ovtnjt cx^*^> '^^^ vypov ßpaxv noWov optos, ical raif &XXa>v di/irov /A€yaXo>y 
orrnv €Kaarov fUKpov fi€pos Xaßoim ro amfia crvvijpftoirrai aoi' vovv de fxopov 
Xpa ohlkifiov ovra tr€ tvrvx^s ntos (Sextus has ir66€p) doKtts (rwapircurai (and 
that all the host of heaven are not guided by reason in their movements) ; 
cf. Cyrop, VIII 7 § 20 diaXvojjJpov dpBp<ofrov drjXa tariv eKaara amopra npos 
ro 6fi6ff>v\ov irkrjp rrjt V^x9^* o^^^ ^c /xon; ovre irapavo'a ovt€ dirtovaa oparai, 
Plato also attributes the same thought to Socrates (Phüeb, § 54), ro n-ap* 
ij/iur o-tt/uui ip' ov if^v;(^y (P^ja-Ofifv f;(Cty . . . iroBev, <J <^(Xr, Xcißov, ttiffp 
fA^ TO y€ rov vavros crafia tp^^xov ov trvyxav*, Tavrd yt. t^ov tovt^ kcli «ti 
frdvTu KokXiova ; folL; so below § 79 unde (mensßdes virtus) in terram nisi a 
superis deßuere potuerunt ? Tttsc. 1 60 terrane tibi, hoc nebtUoso et caliginoso 
cado, aut sota aut concreta videtur tanta vis memoriae .^ § 62 6x hacne tibi 
terrena mortalique natura et caduca concreta ea {excogitatio) videtur? 
For the eriticism see in 27. 

quin : the previous argument is fürther supported by analogy ; we 
might assume a priori that the soul xtmst have come to us firom some 
other quarter, but we have additional reason for believing this, when we 
remember that the remaining elements of our nature may all be traced to 
an extemal souroe. fasus in : * difiused throughout ', cf. § 28 calidum 
illud ita in omni fusum esse natura, 141 tacttis toto corpore aequabiliter 
fusus est, I 39 animi fasion^em universam. 

terrenain ipsam viscerum ^liditatem: 'even the earthy firmness 
of the flesh ' ; visc. like airXayxva includes all that is covered by the skin 
except the bonos; hence the public distribution of meat was called 
visceratio, eo visceribus vesci ^ 159, cf. Tusc. ii 20 and 34; ipsam as the 
least probable case, least resembling the element from which it was derived, 
so of the air §- 26 ipse vero aer. 

Mn\vntLm illam : so Brieger for the animum of mss, animus being never 
used of breath or air ; while aniTna is ofben used for the element by Lucre- 
tius and Cic, cf. Aoad. ii 124, Tusc. 1 19 and especially Tim. c. 14 dted ou 
§ 32 mundi ardor. 

Spirabüeni : ' inbreatiied ', ' the air we breathe' ; so § 138 spiritu in pul- 



102 BOOK U CH. VI § 18. 

mones anima ducüur ; cf. § 91 terra drcumftua est kac animali spircUnlique 
natura cui nomen est aer, Tuk. i 40, 70, Hippocr. ap. Qalen (Hipp, et Plat. 
p. 677) To dfpcSdcff aro^x^iov «p rois r»v {t^atp ctaftatruf opanu^ cV roTs dMtarvoaig 
KM Kara ras a<l>vyfjiovs (puLsations). On the ' microooBm' compare Epictei. 
Dies, ni 13 (on death thou miist depart) ctr oviip detpop, oXX' oBtp iyipovj 
tU Ta/f)iKa KoL avyyevrjy tls ra aroix^ui' ocrov ^p tp troX nvpos ctr wvp tarturiPf 
oaop rjp yrjbiov cir 717^101^, S<rop irptv/iariov €ls frycvfuxrioy, o<rop vdariov tlt 
vdartopy M. Ant. IV 4 «cnrcp yap ro yt£^€s ftoi dno rtvot y$( diroiUfUpurraif 
Kai ro vypop dfft Mpov aToi\€iov, Koi ro Scpfiop koi mtpAdts Ik rivot Ibias Vffyfj^ 
...ovro» d^xal ro pofpop ijf«ec( iro^cV, Philo Mund* Op. § 51 was cofSpvmof Kora 
fX€P r^p dtavoiov (OKtiarai Btiff ^oy^» ^^ fjMKopias ^vccoff ...dirooircurfia 
ytyoptoSf Kara de r^v rov acifiarog Karao'Kev^p mravri r^ icdfr/i^' ovyKtKpvrai 
yap €K r»p avrWf yrjs Kai vdaros koi dtpos Koi irvpor, cicdarov r«r trroixfMW 
(la'fP€yK6pros ro (TrißaXXop fi4pos. The Stoics borrowed this theory from 
Plato 7Hm, 42, where the Demiurgus distributes the immortal souls to the 
created gods to combiiie with particles derived from the fonr elements : 
Galen (Hipp, et Fiat. p. 665) says that Plato himaelf followed Hippocratea, 
who built on this foundation his doctrine of humours, so oelebrated in the 
after history of medicine ; thus yellow bile tx)rresponds to fire, blapk bile to 
eartH, phlegm to water, blood to air, giving rise to the four temperaments 
bilious, melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine (Galen I.e. 672), cf. VitTUV. l 
4 § 5 6^ principiü quae Graeci aroixtui appellant, ut omnia corpora aurU 
composita, id est ex oalore et umore et terreho et aere, ita his mixtionUms 
naturali temperatura ßgurantur omnium animalium in mwndo geTieratim 
qualitates, 

si quis guaerat—apparet : for this form of the hypothetical aentence, 
cf. § 76 gui concedarU, iisfatendum est,i 122 quod ni ita sit, quid veiieramur 
deoB (imless we should there read est for sit), and Boby § 1574. 

Ch. VII. nnde snstulimiiB: the answer given below is that we reoeived 
it from the aether also called mundifervor (§ 30) or ardor cadestis or caelum 
(41), which is a species of fire corresponding to the vital heat (41) but £Eir 
purer than that which is to be foimd in any earthly creature (30), and in 
which resides the r^y^popixop of the universe, non sine sensu et ratione (29, 31), 
which holds all things together and is indeed God (30), and of which the 
Stars are made and are therefore divine (39 — 42). The Stoics distinguished 
ether, wvp r^x^iKop or irptvfui, as they called it, frx>m ordinary fire, wvp 
ar^xvopy not only as purer, but as'moving in a circle in ita own sphere, while 
the other, beiug out of its sphere, moved vertically up to regain it ; but 
they did not go so far as to make it a distinct fifth dement (quintessence) 
like Aristotle {Äcad. i 39). We find the same answer R F. vi 15 animus 
datur ex Ulis sempitemis ignibus quae sidera et stdlas vocatiSy but elsewhere 
C. speaks more doubtfiilly as in Tusc. i 40, 43, 65 si deus aut anima aiU 
ignis est, idem est animus hominis; nam, ut illa natura cadestis et terra 
vacai et umore, sie utriusque harum rerum humantts animus est expers. Sin 
autem est quirUa quaedam natura, haec et dearum est et animorum: at timea 



BOOK II CH. VII § 18. 103 

he foUows Socrates and Flato and makes the soul a pure immaterial 
Bubstance, thus after speaking of the origin of the body (Ttt»c. i 56) »an- 
guinem bilem pituitam 089a nervös venas, omnemdeniqus membrorum et totvus 
corporis figwram videor posse dicere unde coiureta et quo modo facta sirit : 
as to the soul animorum nvlla in terris origo inveniri potest, it has nothing 
of earth or water, nothing even of air or fire ; his enim in naturis nihü 
inest quod vim fnemoriae mentis cogäationis haheat . . . qttae sola divina 
sunt. Nee invenietur umquam unde ad hominem venire possint^ nisi a deo. 
...Nee vero deiu ipse alio modo iTUeUigi potest nisi mens soluta quaedam et 
libera. \Ve may say indeed that C/s ans wer to unde is alwajs a deo, but 
at times he takes the Stoic materialist view of the divine nature, at other 
times the Piatonic spiritualist yiew. 

aa cetera mnndiis habebit, hoc unimt non habebit : on the coordT- 
nation of eontrasted clauses see aboye § 17. 

A h. TJ^ univerae heing perfect must contain tluit wkidi is essen* 
tial to perfection, viz. mind, [Conclusion omitted ' and this mind is 
God'.] § 18. 

ne cogitari qnidem gnictitiain melius potest : on Stoic optimism c£ 
§ 87 n. 

A i 27ie sympathy which unites aU the parUs ofthe univerae ahowa 
that they are pervaded hy one divine spirit ^19, 20. 

§ 19. consentiens conspirans continnata cognatio: cf. N.Ik m 

28y Div. II 142 quae est continitatio confunctioque naturae, quam^ ut dixi^ 
vocant avfifraßtuufy ejus modi, ut thesaurus ex ovo intdfegi debeat t ib. il 33 
cum rerum natura quam cognationem kdbeni {porterUa)? quae ut uno eon- 
sensu juncta sä et eontinens . . . quid habere mundus potest cum thesauri inven- 
tione cor^unctumP ib. 34 qiui ex confunctione naturae et quasi concentu cUque 
eonsensUf quam avfivaB€iav Oraeci axfpellanty convenire potest meus quaeati- 
eulus cum cado terra rerumque natura f it is also called naturas or rerum 
contagio (de Foto §§ 5, 7, Div. ii 33). We find the Qreek equivalents in Diog. 
L. YII 140 cV T^ KoeriMM ftrfiiy tivai Ktvo^^ dXX' riv»e-6ai avrw' tovto yap 
dvayKaieiv rrfv tAv ovpovtW irpos rä iniyua avfiitvoiap Kai owToviatf, Alex. 
Aphr. de Mixt. 142 (Zeller p. 119) i/mcr^ai fUv vnoriOtrai Xpwriirwos rrj» 
avfinraaav ovaiav frvrvfuiroff rivos bia n-doi/f avrrjs dtiJKOvror, v<f>^ ov trvpayeral 
Tt Kai aviifJMwu «cal avfinaBts iariv avr^ to nav^ Philo Mund. Op. 40 ck rwv 
ovpayiwv ra eVtyfia ffpnjTat Kora rtva <l>vcrucTJif (rvftira^euiy, Plut. de Fato 
p. 574 E (the ground of necessitarianism is) to <f)v<r€i bioiKturSai top Knafiov, 
<rvfunfovw kou avfifraB/j ovtop out^ ovroy Cleomedes I 1 § 4 c2 yap firj di oXov 
wiufm^t vinfpx*^ 1 ^^^ ^X»!/ ovcrm, ovr av vtro '^vtrctfr oiop r tjp awix*^^^^ 
icdl ttoiKfiadoi rov Kocfiopf ovrwy fu) v^' tvos ronov crvvfxofitpov avrov Kai rav 
nvevparos firj di okov ovros (rv/i<^voOr, olov r h» f v ^liiv opav tj aKovtuf folL 
By such language the Stoics meant to express not merely the universality 



104 BOOK n CH. VII § 19. 

and invariableness of law throughout the whole realm of nature, as of 
gravitation alike on earth and in the heavens, but the organic unity of the 
World, as an animate body, and the correlation and mutual interdependence 
of all its parts, see Diog. vn 143, Sext. Emp. ix 78. The word avfiwoBfta 
is used by Epicurus to denote the common feeling of the membera of the 
human body. On the alliteration with c cf below § 34. 

cpntiniiata= oin^cx^ff. See Heinze p. 94, Osann on Comutus pp. 231, 413. 
On the recurrence of words compounded with the same prepomtion Heind. 
(on § 81) cites i 65 effimgia atque efficü^ n 130 obrTUam oppleCamque — Mi- 
matos, 158 confectis atque oorUextü and many othera. 

possetne uno tempore : the protaeis is given in the following sentenoe, 
where the apodosis is repeated in a categorical form. nno temp. nsually 
means 'at one and the same time'> here Heind. takes it to mean 'at one 
time' as opposed to vidsnmy whioh he makes equal to alio tempore^ c£ 
Elraner on Caesar ^. (7. in 19. I am inclined to think that the ordinaiy 
sense gives a better instatrce of the continttcUa coffnatioy and that we need 
not trouble ourselves as to^ how faf the statement accolds wiih the facta aa 
to our antipodes. 

florere — horrere: so Epict. Düs. i 14 'Do you not think that all 
things are knit together inio one whole and that thefe is a sympathy 
between things on earth and things in heaven ? If it were not so, how 
oould all the plants put ibrth leaves and flowers and fruit; and again shed 
their fruit and their leaves, and r^re into themselves and rest at the 
bidding of Qod]* Pliny j^. H, ii S9 quU enim aettcUes et hümeSf quaeque 
in temparibtu annua vice intdleg«ntnr, eidentm motußeri duhitetf besides 
this, each star has its pecuüajr virtue, &,%t dogs run mad under ther dog- 
star — quin partibus qwoque eignorum quorumdaffi stta vi» inett, as our own 
experience teils us in r^ard to the winter solstice and the autumnal 
equinox. The olive and sonae other trees tum their leaves at the summer 
solstice, dried mint fibwers at the winter solstice. See also a list of phe- 
nomena eaelestibtu fiessa eaueis ib. c. 80r On the other hand Lucr. (n 515) 
adduces the regularity of the seasons as a proof x>f the limited Tanety of 
atoms. 

ipsis se iiniiiiitantibii£h^*cogno8ci: the varying distance c^ the sim 
is peroeived by what appear to be spontaneous changes in the objects 
about US, e.g. the growth of plante and such changes as are described by 
Pliny 1. c. 

solstitiis bnunisque: Abi. of Pennt of Time. In prae-Augustan 
writers solsL is used only of the summer solstice. sölia accessns difl» 
cessusque : cf § 4a 

aestos maritimi : see below § 132, iii 24, Div. ii 33 ut enim jam dt 
aliqua in naiuta rerwm contagio^ quam esse concedo, mvlta enim Stoici col- 
ligunt, (then after exx. like those cited above from Plin. N* H. ii 39) ^[uid 
de fretis aut de murinis aestibus plura dicamf qvxjrum accessus et reoessus 
lunae motu gubemantur. Sescenta licet ejus modi prcferri^ ut dtstantium 



BOOK n CH. VII § 19, 105 

rerum cognatio naturalü appareat; Seneca Prov, i (^ndae) ad horam ac 
dient subeunt, ampliores minoresque protU ülcut lunare Mus diouü, ad cujus 
arbitrium Oceanus exundat^ cf. N. Q, iii 28, Plin. JV. H, n 97 ; Caesar 
notices the hßi (B. G. iv 29) eadem node accidü lU esset luna pUna^qui 
dies maritimes aestus maximos in Oceano eßcere cmisiieuit, nostrisque id 
erat i^nooffnitum ; pseudo-Aristotle de Mundo 4 § 35 iroKKai rt ofiirmreis 
Xryoyrof koi frv/iaro»v apatis <rvfifrfpiod€V€iv ati rj aikrjvu Kord rivas «ipitT' 
fiivous Koipous» «r de rh nav ctireiv, r»v aToi^eioiy cyxcicpa/Aeywy dXXifXotr cV dtpi 
rc jcal yj ical ffakatnrjj Kord to wIkos al r&v vaB&v ofiotoTtires avvifrrayrai^ 
Tols fiiy tn\ /upovs <l>Bopds Kai yty€a€ts (fttpovaat^ to de (rv/iirav opdXfßpov 
re Ka\ dyanfrov ^vXdrrovcrac. We have a short sketch of the views enter- 
tained on the subject of tides in the Flac. Phü, m 17 {n&s diLntoriJbts 
yitfovrai Kai irXij/i/xvpai) : Aristotle and Heraclitus say the tides are pro- 
daced by the sun, which is the exciting cause of winds ; these when they 
rise push the sea before them and cause it to swell, when they sink the 
aea fkUa back into its place. Pytheas (the famous traveller of Massilia 
B.c. 30(), see Bunbury Anc, Oeog, L p. 600) says the tide rises when the 
moon is waxing and sinks as it wanes ; Plato, that there is a kind of 
natural ciroulation of the waters of the sea (the reference is to the de- 
flcription of the rivers of Tartarus, Phaedo p. 111) ; Timaeus, that the 
tides of the Ocean are caused by the violent torrents of Qaul ; Seleucus 
(cf. Plut. Plac. Quaest. p. 1006) that they proceed from thecontrary cur- 
rents of air generated by the rotation of the earth and the moon. Bunbury 
writes as foUows (n 97) 'Posidonius (C's chief authority in this book) 
appears to havo been the first Greek writer that arrived at clear ideas 
about the tides. For this he was indebted to his joumey to Spain, where 
he spent some time at Qades, and from his own Observation, coupled with 
the information he received from the natives, acquired a distinct know- 
ledge not only of the diumal recurrence of the tides, but of their monthly 
cycles of Variation, which he correctly ascribed to the influenae of the 
moon, and its different positions with regard to the sun ; so that the 
hig^est tides, as he obeerved, always coincided with the füll moon and 
the lowest with the half-moon or intermediate quarter', cf. Strabo iii 3 
p. 229, 5 p. 261 — 264, where he teils us that Aristotle had referred the 
tides to the peculiar natiure of the Spanish coast, but that Pos. rightly 
maintaitied r^v rov *QKta»ov mvrjtriv inext^v dorepoeid^ irtpiodov, rrjv fi€v 
i^f^pifcrioy dirodidovirav, ttjp de firjvuuavj r^y d' tviava-iatav, avp/iraOms rj ccXi^it;. 
Strabo (i 1 p. 9) thinks Homer referred to this in his d-^oppoot *ClK€ay6g and 
the description of Charybdis. Though the true theory of tides had thus 
been established early in the first Century b.c. yet we find later writers still 
doubting as to their cause, e.g. Lucan 1 412, as to whether they are due to 
the wind or to the moon, Pomp. Mela (time of Caligula) iii 1 as to whether 
they may not be due to the respiration of the mundane animal. The 
early Stoics, in this agreeing with the Epicureans, thought the subject 
undeserving of the curiosity of a wise man. See Diog. L. vii 123 rby 



106 .BOOK n CH. vn § 19. 

Kai ofAirdridas, 

fretonmuiue angastiae : Varro L, L, vii 22 dictum firetum a $imi' 
lüudine ferventis aquae, quod in fretuni saepe concurrcU aeitvu atqite tfer- 
vesccU, cL below in 24 on the currents of the Euripus and other siraits. 

orta aut Obitu: 'shortly sSter the appearance of the moon above 
the horizpn the tide-wave begins to show itaelf and increases tili she 
reaches her greatest elevation (jUxpi fi€(rovpayii(rtms) ; after which the ebb 
commences and continues tili the moon sets, when the flow again begins 
and increases tili the moon reaches her greatest elevation on the opposite 
sideof the heaven^ {€<os rov vtto y^v fAfirovpaviifurros), Posidonius ap. Str. in 
5 § 8. Cic. here only notices this diumal Variation. 

CUniUS dispares: Lact, ii 5 stdlarum inerrantium vd vagarum dispares 
cursuSy c£, below § 49 cum duo sint genera tUüarum^ one of which moves 
invariablj from east to west, while the other makes two distinct revolutions, 
we may see in both the same law of circular movement : all make the.daily 
revolution, some, the planets, have a further movement of their own ; § 51 
quarum ex disparibiu motionibus magnum anntim nominaverunt» 

concinentibnB partibua-: § 119 (steUarum) tanttu est eoneentue «<... 
with allusion to the harmonj of the spheres, on which see J^ P. vi 18, also 
Oeconom^ 6. 

continiiato Bpiiitn: Celsus (ap. Orig. ti.71) charged the Christians 
with borrowing from the Stoics their doctrine of an all-pervading Spirife 
t£p 2rcHK£v {ftaaKovmv ort 6 Öeos irv€VfJM cWc 8ia narr»» bUktfkv&os nol 
frdrr* cV iavr^ ir€pi4xov. But the Stoic irvcv/ia, as Origen points out, ia 
material : it is the warm air or ether which penetrates and gives life to 
all things and oonnects them together in one organic whole ; just as man's 
body is unified b^ the living soul, which is also material, irptvfui trvftKtnxrop 
fjfwf aw(x^^ fravrl r^ frcifiari BajKov (Chrys. ap. Galen Hippoc^ et Plat, p. 
257). Posidonius defined Qod as irvcvfui vo€pov kclL irvp«d(9, ovk c^op 
ficv fjMf^^Vy ii€TaßaX\ov de 9h 6 ßovkerai Kai ovpcfofMMov/iryov naat» (Stob. 
£d, I 2 p. 58). The term irvtvfui is Aristotelian, it is the material basia of 
soul (Zeller iii p. 483^ folL and note on JT. 2>. i 33 caeli ardorem). See 
the passage cited from Alex. Aphr. under consentiens above. 

continerentlir : quasi quodam vinculoj as we read in § 115. 

§ 20. Academicorum cahimniam : cf. 1 13 n. and Acad, 11 14 

uberins et fusias: 'a more ezuberant and flowing style'; this was 
not usual with the Stoics, of whom C. says {OrcU, 11 159) brevius angus" 
tittsque genus senrumis afferi, non liquidum^ tum fusum ojC profluenSy sed 
exile aridum concisum ac mintUum^ and Leg, i 36 quae fuse clim disputa- 
bantur ac libersy ea nunc articvlotim distincta dicuntur. The Speeches of 
Antony and Brutus in Shakspeare may be taken as iUustratiug the two 
styles. We are told i^t Posidonius, whom C. here follows, was dis- 
tinguished from others of bis school by a natural eloquence (Strabo ui 2 

§ »). 



BOOK II CH. VII § 20. 107 

nt 2SeilO solebat : his love of brevitj is shown by the story told Diog. 
L. VII 20 (liFOPTos d4 Ttpos ort fuxpa avr^ doiret ra Xcyäpia rwF <f>iko(ri4miß^ 
Xryf CS*, CiirCy rä^ri&Tiy dct fUrrot Kai ras (rvXkaßas ßpax*uis tlvaij et hwarw. 

conclndttntar : see n. on i 89 argumentis serUentiam condunsH, 

proflnens: agtia profl. is the regulär term for running water^ see 
Off. I. 52. [Ambros. Off. 1 16. J. E. B. M.] 

condnsa : Jordan {Hermes 1880 p. 535} quoies from an inscription Esqui- 
lüs ab aqua condusa, showing that the phrase was in regulär use for a 
pond. So we ofben have locus condusus, and Caesar B. G. ni opposes 
mare condusum to apertissimus Oceanus, 

OTationis flmnine convicia dilnuntnr: the imitation by Minucius 
c. 16 c(mviciorum amarissiTnam labern verborvm veracium flumine düuere is 
sufficient tp prov& the correctness of the emendation convicia against 
Zumpt on the Orai, pro Murena § 13 ; compare also Farn, xn 25^ Plin. 
£p. VI 12 dted by Heind. ; and for the general sense Fin, n 3 cum fertur 
quasi torrens oratio, quamvis mvlta cujusque modi rapicU, nikil tarnen 
teneas, . ,nusquam coerceas. 

angnstia : the Sing, is also found in SalL fr. iv 20, Flin. N.H. xiv 61, 
Tac. Ann, iv 72, XHal, 8, Apul. Met. x 26. [Hieron. £p. 133 § 11 angfustia 
epistvlaris. J. E. B. M.] 

premebat: 'compressed', so pressus 'concise' in Orot, n 96, see n. on 
§ 149 below. 

A k. Zeno^s argunient/or the divinity of the universe [and there- 

Jbre {indirecäy) for the divine existence, since the universe eosi»U\, 

(1) WhoA has reason is better thmi what hos not reasqn^ therefore the 

universe^ the best of things, hos reason : simhila/rly it may be .proved 

to be wisBy blessed, etemcU, and therefore God. ^20, 21. 

This indirect argument is constantly used in Sext. Emp. see ix 85 
aXX' €t apioTfi iarl ^vcris 17 top Kotrftov BioiKovaei^ vo€pa re tartu Koi (nrovdaia 
KM oBayaros' rousvrri de rvyxovovira 6f6s i<m»' tiaiv apa 690L iK § 118 
circl 1; rov Koarfunt <f>vais dartp alria ttJ9 tov o\ov K6<rfxov dioxocr/iif (rc«f, 
tui tof alria Kai rwv ft€p£'v' et de tovto, KparitrTrf iariv' cl de Kparifmi tvriy 
Xoyiici; re eVrt Koi votpa' npoo-tri Be dtdios dv etrj' f;.de roiavrrf ^vcrcc 17 avr^ 
€<m Bf^' eoTi Toivw Bfos. So §§ 120, 122. 

Ch. Yin § 21. qnod ratione utitnr : the same argument is given Leg. 
n 16 cum omnia quae rationem habent praestent üs quae sint rationis experHoj 
nsfasqwe sit dioöre uUam rem praestare natura^ omnium rerum, rationem 
inesse in ea conßtendum est ; and Sext. Emp. ix 104 n-aXty 6 Zi^vwp 0i7<riV, 
ei TO XoyiKoy tov fi^ Xoyucov Kpelrrov itmv, ovdev bi ye Koc/iov jcpetrroy coTi, 
Xaycicor apa 6 Koafios' Kai ao'avT^s tiri tov votpov leat-e'/iif^v^iaf /M^cxorroff. 
It was also employed, as Diog. L. teüs us (vii 123), by Chrysippus, Apol- 
lodorus and Poeidonius. For the answer to it see N.D. in 21. 

haec meliotä Bunt quam ea qnae sunt bis carentia: the de- 



108 BOOK II CH. VIII § 21. 

monstrative hie is careless'y used, Ist fbr the concreto existenoe, and 2nd 
for the abstract quality. The thought is more correctly expressed in § 46 
quod habeat sensum et rationem et merUem, id dt mdius quam id quod hü 
careat. For the subaudition of the abs£ract from the concreto see i 80 n. , 

efficietiir : there seems no reason why edd. should have departed from i 

the best Mss by reading the Pres, here : the Fut. implies * will be proved, if 
we take the trouble to lay out the argumenta as wo have done in the 
previoua case'. Cf. Rohj § 146Ö. 

A k (2) TJie univerae must be sentient, hecauae ü hcLS sentient 
parts, (3) the univerae must have an animated and rational ncUure, 
becatiae it givea birth to what ia animated and rational. § 22. 

§ 22. ntdlintf*: used here as Gen. of nihü, instead of the more conamon 
nvUiua rei Madv. § 494 Obs. 3. ' Where a part can feel, the whole cannot 
be withüut feeling'« 

mundi paxtes sentientes : so Sext Emp. ix 85 97 rat \oytKas fr^pc- 

€xov<Ta <l)Vir€is iraproi^ (ori XoyiKi^y o&yap olov re to Skop rov fitpovi x^ipov €ivatf 
Philo Provid, i 25, 32, 51, 68.' Lactant 11 5 first controverts the argument 
(non est mundi pars homo, sicüt corporis membrum. Fotett enim mwndua 
esse sine homine, sicut wbs et domus, Ätqui ut domus unius hominis habi- 
taculum est, sie et mundus domicüium totius generis humani; et aUittd est 
q7cod incolitury aliud quod colit), and then tums it against the Stoics, st 
mundi pars est homo, quia mortalis est homo, mortalis sä et mundus fuscesse 
est, nee tantum mortalis, sed etiam omnibua morbis subjectus, On the same 
principle, if the world is divine, its parts must be divine ; therefore not 
man alone, but all sentient creatures divine. Lact, also points out the 
inconsistency of making the world the home of the gods (as in § 17) and 
then deifying the world itself. 

urget : i 70, iii 76. 

angOStinB : used of dose logical argument, as opposed to rhetorical 
amplification, cf. Orator 117 erii haec facultas in eo quem vclumus esse do- 
quentem, ut deßnire rem possit, neque idfaciai tarn presse et anguste quam in 
Ulis eruditissintis disputationibus fieri solet, sed, cum explanatius, tum i 

etiam vberius ; Part. Orot. 139 vd anguste disserere, ut dicUectici qui appel- ' 

lantur, vel, ut oratorem decet, late expromere ; above § 1 subtüiiate. 

nihil quod animi— composque rationis : Sext. Emp. ix 77 rb ytwrj- 

rucov XoyiKov koi KJipovifxov TTOvrox Kai avro XoytKov iari kcu. ^povtfjjov, and more 
technically § 101 ZrjVfüv de airo Sevoffi&vTOi rrfv d<f>opfjL^v Xaßtltv ovna&i avv€' 
pcoT^ TO irpouyxvov airipiia Xoyucou jcal avrb XoyiKov iarw' 6 de Ko^fiot 
trpoterat <nripixa XoyiKoo, XoytKov apa 6 Koo-fiog. Lact. II 5 points out the 
fallacy, neque mundus generat hominem...nam hominem a principio idem 
deusfecit, qui et mundum. Disentongled fromStoic materialiam it is the ' 

argument of the Psalmist (xciy 6) ' He that planted the ear shall he not | 

hear?» Cf. below § 79. 



BOOK 11 CH. VIII § 22. 109 

nihil — ^Id : for the pleonastic pronoun Allen cites in 24 ged non omnia 
quae cwnus certos habenif ea deo trihuenda inmt; see also below § 27 re- 
liqua quarta pars mundiy ea &c., ni 34 nihü esse ...quin id intereaty 
Dra^. § 37. 

aimüitiidine : so Chrysippus below § 38. 

zationem conclusit : see i 8d n. 

canentes tibiae : can, is constantly used both of the instrument {tibia 
comu &c.) and the performer, cf. § 146. 

inesaet in oliva scientia: the expression may be compared with 
Aristotle's Illustration of a final cause in nature (Phys, ii 8 p. 199) aroirev 
To fifi oUa-ßcLi €V€Ka rov yiveaßaiy taif firj tdoo'i ro kipovv ßovkevQ'ayxvov' Kairoi 
Kai Tj T€)(vrt ov ßovk€V€Tai' Koi yap el tvfjy iv t& (v\ijp 17 pavTirjyiKijf o/iotcos' av 
^wrei hroUc £<rT cV tJ '"*X*77 ^veari ro tvekd rov koi €V if}v<rciy and with 
C.'s supposition {Firu iv 38) of an art of viticulture inherent in tl^e 
vine. 

[fidicnlas : see Madv. on Fin. iv 75. Swainson.] 

nnmerose sonantes : so numerose cadere not unfrequently in Cic, and 
<iciUe sonare R, F. vi 18. 

idem : if we take this as Neut. explained by inesse mtisicam, we piay 
perhaps retain the ms reading. Otherwise, taking it as Masc., Baiter's con- 
jectin*e (item) seems required, because the stress is on identity of procedure, 
not of person, cf. below § 38 item,'..debere. Ba. also reads item for idem in 
Murena § 21. 

Ai FhysicaX argumerU for divine existence, (1) Ifeat is tlie 
cause qfmotion and of life : the whole universe is pervaded hy heat : 
in it we find the governing principle (rjy^^viKov) of tJis universe, 
Therefore it must Iiave in the highest degree that reason tohich isfound 
even in the inferior parts ofthe universe. §§ 23 — 30. 

The Stoic idea of the divinity of fire may be illustrated by the words of 
Flut. {Conv. VII p. 703) ovde» yap aXXo fiaWov c/a^v^^ 7rpo(r4oiK€v fj rrvp 
Komviitvo» rt km rp€<f>6fjL€voif Öl avrov, kcu rjj \afjLirp6njri BtjXovv, cocrirep 1) 
ifrvx^, Kcä a-d4>rjvi(ov ajrcarra, and by those of a modern divine " God is the 
fire t>f this world, its vital principle, a warm pervading presence every- 
where. What thing of outward nature can so picture to us the mysterious, 
the subtle, ihe quick, live, produotive thought, which has always lifted 
men's hearts and solemnized their faces, when they have Said the word 
^God', as this stränge thing, so heavenly, so unearthly, so terrible and 
yet so gracious; so füll of creativeness, and yet so quick and fierce to 
sweep whatever opposes it-out of its path ?...Here is the universe füll of 
the difiused fire of divinity ". Philip Brooks Serm, on the Candle of the 
Lord. 

Ch. IX § 23. dixeram — ^negaram : in English we should naturally use 
the preterite, where there was no danger of misconoeption, ' since I have 



110 BOOK II CH. IX § 23. 

begun to treat the Bubject otherwise than I at first proposed, for I said the 
first pari needed no discussion', but the Latin is more precise, marking by 
the difference of tense that the action dixeram is prior to the action co^ 
agere; Verr. iv 48 tarnen, quod antea dixeramiu — argentum reddidti, 
Orator 101 redeo ad iUam PlaioniSj de qua dixeramy reiformam, Marodl. 1 
diutumi süeniüf quo eram hü tempanbus usus, ßnem hodiemvs dies atttdit. 
Brix cites a number of exz. from Plautus and Terence in his n. on Captivi 
prol. 17 fugilivvz üLe, vJt dixeram ante, and refers to Lübbert Syntax van 
quam p. 168 ; see above § 14 on evenerat. [Caesar nses dixeram with this 
force JS. (?. II 1 § 1, 24 § 1, 28 § 1, and demonstraveram ib. iv 27 § 2. IL] 

rationibOB physicis : * by scientific reasoning ', ' on grounds of natural 
philosophy ', as distinguished from the general reasoning which precedes. 
Cf. below § 54, § 63, § 70, Div. 1 110 physica digputandi suhtüitate. It may 
be questioned whether edd. are right in omitting the ezplanatory clause 
added in the Mss, see i 20 physioloffiam n. 

confirmari : the Active is read by edd. after Dav. on the ground that 
Baibus at once carries out his wish himseU^ but the Passive is similarly 
used Quint. Fr, in 1 § 2 ea te cura libercUum volo, AU. viii 3 rempuJblicam 
defensam volunt, Div, n 34. Perhaps the Passive may have been preferred 
as the more modest, giving less prominence to personal ageucy. 

qnae alantnr atqne crescant: the lowest stage of organic life, c£ 
§ 33 n. I have followed Ba. in reading aique for the et quae of mbs, because 
I can see nothing here to justify such precision of statement. Müller 
(praef. p. viii) cites § 22 quod animi quodque rationis est sxpers, and Leg, 
lil 12 kaec est enim quam Scipio laudat in Ulis libris et quam maxime 
probat temperatioTiem, but the latter is intentionally definite and the 
repetition of the Relative is also needed for cleamess, while quodque in the 
former is by no means equivalent to et quod, With some hesitation I 
have retained the Subjunctive both here and in § 33, the relative clause 
being in the one case subordinate to the $ubj., in the other to the In£, 
and allowing therefore the dependent verb to be in the Indefinite Subj. 
(' all such things as have the property of growth ', a av rp4<fniTai as opposed 
to ra Tp^6fi€va), though iü a direct unconditional sentence we must have 
had the Ind. e.g. qu>ae aluntur continent; cf. Draeger § 151. 5a, Tusc. i 91 
natura si se sie habet, tU, quo modo initium nobis rerum amnium artus noster 
afferai (for affert) sie exitium mors; Reid on Cato § 42 invituA feci ut for- 
tissimi mri frairem eficerem Septem annis past quam oonsvl fuisset (for 
fuerat) ; Wükins on Orot, ii 2 quo etiam feci lihentiv^s ut eum sermonem, 
quem iUi qrwndam inter se de his rebus habuissent, mandarem litteris (for 
habuerafU); below § 46 nee dubium quin, quod animans sit...id sit mdius 
quam quod his careat, where, apart from the subjunctival Subordination, 
we should have had quod animans est, est melius; § 5d dictum est de 
sideribtu utjam appareat multitudo nee cessantium deontm nee ea quae agarU 
mclierUium, I do not think however that we need employ this principle 
to ezplain the Subj. in Arch, 18 quoties hune vidi, cum litteram scripsisset 



BOOK II CH. IX § 23. 111 

ntdlamy ma/gnvm. numerum aptimorum venuum de eis ipsü rehus, qttae tum 
agerentuTy dicere ex tempore (see n. in Keid's ed.); the Subj. is that of 
indefinite repetition after the Inf. ; agebarvtwr would necessaf ily refer to a 
Single occasion. [Mr Roby writes ^' I think that, where a short relative 
clause constituting a definition of an existing person or thing is used as 
the subject of the sentence, Cicero would employ the Indicative, notwith- 
standing its dependence on a Subjunctive, as below § 50 quibus pvhescant 
quae oriuntur a terra, and in Of. i 51 ut quae dücripta sunt,..ten€a7Uvr, 
ib. 89 ix/ ii qui praesurU rei pMicae. . .similes nnty 98 efficitur tU et ülttd 
quod ad amnem honestaiem pertinet...appareai. I should therefore prefer 
either to read alutUur and creecunt here, or to translate * which are to be 
fed and grow' ". It Beems to me that a writer would use either Mood 
acoording to his feeling at the momeut. He might have the class before 
him as a fized and definite conception, irrespective of the changing indi- 
viduals of which it is composed, and of the particular character of the 
proposition in which it is included. In that case he uses the Indicative, 
but ptherwise the Subjunctive. C. combines them below § 44 (Aristotelee) 
omnia quae moveTUvr atU natura moveri cemuü avt...quae autem natura 
moverentur, haec aut deorsum aut in sMime ferri, cf. § 72 qui precabantur 
n. 

guod est calidum cietiir motn sno: ^vpafus aCroKiyrjros Sext. ix 
76. In making fire the essential dement the Stoics foUowed Heraclitus 
(cf. below lu 35) and Arist. (though the latter usually prefers the word 
$€pfioTTf£ to wDp, see below) Respir, c. 8 to fjir km iJ rfjs ^vx^jf «f if i^tra Bep- 
fianjrot ti»6s dariw' irvpi yap ipya^^rnu iromna ... ras fuv odv aKKas dvvofLtis 
TTJs ^vxfjs ddvvarov v7rapx€Uf 什v rrfs BptimKTfSy raunfv d* av€v rov <f>v<riKov 
wpoSf Gen, An, ni 11 ylvtrai d* iv yj koi cV vyp^ rä C^a koi ra <f>vTa ^^a 
rh iv yj fuy vdwp virapx**"» *" ^ v^ri frvcv/io, ^v de rovra irairri Stpfiorrfra 
^^X^'^t ^^^ rpairov riya vavra V^x*!^ cZkoi frXi/pi^, de Anim, n 2 §§ 8 and 
16, Trendel. p. 153\ Zeller iii p. 483* foll. The argument, loosely stated 
by C«, is as foUows : ' life depends upon movement ; this movement is 
connected with the internal heat ; when heat goes, life departs ' ; cf. Seneca 
Ben. iv 6 unde sanqutnem, cujus cursu vitalis continetur calor t 

§ 24. QQod Oleanthes docet, quanta vis : quod is strictly speaking 
the relative explained by the foUowing clause, as in i 2, 38, ii 93 quod 
nesdo an ne in uno quidem versu tanium possü valere fortima, Div. ii 87 quod 
Cameadem Clitomachus scrihit dicere soliiumy nusquam se fortunatiorem 
&C., cl Tac. Ann. iv 4, Liv. xxvii 7, Fin. n 12, Caesar Ä C, in 68, Draeg. 
§ 484. In use quod becomes little more than a conjunction. 

quin is : see Madv. $ 440 a Obs. 3, and ^. Z>. m 34 cited on nihü^id 
§ 22, Roby § 1688. 

nocte et die : Roby § 1182 cites Liv. xxv 39 nocte ac die bina oaatra 
expugnata* Nocte is naturally placed first in reference to the cena, 

relillllüs : cf. reliquiae cibi § 138. 

inslt calor US quas natura respueiit : I have foUowed Heind. in read- 



112 BOOK II CH. IX § 24. 

ing inni for inest, making it a part of ihe argument of. Chrysippus, not a 
direct statement bj Cic, as it would otherwise be difficult to explain the 
Subj. respuerü. The Inf. inesse would have been more regulär after the 
simple Relative (which I take cujibs here to be) ; for its interchange with 
the Subj. in such cases, see n. on extistU I 12 and below § 44. 

jam : transitional, cf. i 30 n. 

▼enae et arteriae : on the ancient view of these cf. § 138. Seh. refers 
to Qellius xviii 10, where it is said to be a common blunder, not only with 
the unscientific (e. g. Ov. Mei, x 289 saliurU tentatae poUice venae, Pendus 
III 107 tange müer venas), but even with physicians to speak of the pulsa- 
tion of the vein, quod venae quidem »iiapte m immobiles smU,», arteriae autem 
motu atque pulsu suo kabitum et modum febriv^n demonstrent, and he adds 
the Greek definition (r<f)vyfi6s tari biaoTc^rj Kai avarok^ avpoaiptros dprtfpiat 
Kai Kopdias. There are occasions however in which a venous pulse beoomes 
visible (Huxlej, Elem, Phys. p. 111). micare : to twitch or throb. 

animadversom est cum cor palpitaret : so Huxley ib. p. 47 ' If the 
heart of a living animal be removed from the body, it will go on pulsating 
for a longer or a shorter time, much as it did in the body'. For constr. 
cf. I 58 cum te anteferret n. ; usually animadv, is followed by Acc., or Aoc. 
with In£, or Interrogative Clause. mobiliter : Div. ii 129 m. animiLS 
Offitatur, 

ut imitaretur igneani celeritatejn: 'so as to resemble the fiickering 
of flame '. 

texra edituin : c£ i 4 and Index under Periphrasis, 

caloris naturam : ' the dement of fire ' like terrena natura below ; 
so alvi natura § 136, et n. on animi natura i 23. 

PQltilieiltem : cf. i 36 ; it is the diuinus spiritus (see above § 19) per 
omnia maxima et minima aequ^i intentione diffusus ; Sen. ad Hdv, vin 3 
^nferiora aeiris tepeM) eo spirüu qui omnibus aninudtbus arbustisque ac satis 
calidus est. Nihü enim viveret sine calore, 

§ 25. conflictu : the same word occurs Div, n 44 nubium conflictu ; 
cf. Aeh, VI 6 quäerilpars seminja flämmoje dbstrusa in venis silicis, 
' terram famare calentem : I have printed this as a verse quotation, 
because it does not seem'to me at all likely that C. could inadvertently 
have fällen into the hexameter metre, as Seh. thinks. It is true there 
is nothing very noticeable in the line, but neither is there in § 151 vejias 
penitus abdiias, or iii 37 cur sc sol referat nee longius progrediatur solstiali 
orbi, where see n. ; or Tusc. ii 34 lU multus e visceribus sangvis exeat, For 
the use of ßimo see Lucr. v 469 (at dawn) teUus ßimare videtur; Plin. 
A\ II, II 42 humidum a terra^ alias vero propter vapores fumidum^ exhalari 
caliginem certum est; Aen, xii 338 equifumantes sudore, The evaporation 
which takes place from newly ploughed land is of course no proof of in- 
ternal heat, any more than the steaming of a damp towel before the fire, 
but is simply caused by the exposure of a damp surface to dry warm air. 
The vapour becomes visible if the exposed surface is either colder or 



BOOK n CH. IX § 25. 113 

warmer than the overlTing air : iii the former case the air is cooled by 
contact with the ground and its moisture discharged : in the latter case, 
the warm earth yields more vapour thaa the air can retain at the given 
temperature. See Hiixley, Pkysiographyy p. 44. It is not likely that a 
Philosophie obeerver, Hke Posidonius, would have used so weak an arga- 
ment ; and this appears to me an additional reason for supposiag that Gio. 
is here illustrating the Stoic doctrine by a quotation from some Latin poetw 

ez pnteis jngibus : cf. Lucr. vi S40 fiigtidior porro in piaeü aestate fit 
umor, rarescä quia terra calore, et iemma siqtKie forte vaporis habet propere 
demittü in aurae,.,Frigore cumpremitur porro omnis terra eoitqtie et quaei 
conerescit, fit scüicet tU ooeundo exprimat in puteos eiqtiem gerit ipsa oalorem; 
Hippocr. de Not, PueH XXVI folL rh Koro» rrjs yfjs rov fiiv x^^H^^f Btpft6v 
ioTi rov de $€p€09 ^XP^^f because the earth is wet in winter and presaed 
together from the weight of water, and so admits of no Ventilation, but 
wet substances pressed together generate heat; Aiist, Meteor, i 12 § 11 
with Ideler's n. ; Strato, the'successor of Theophrastus (ap. Seneca i^. Q, 
VI 13), hibemo tempore, cum etipra terra/m firigus est, calent puiei, nee minus 
tpecus atque omnes st^ terra recesms ;. quia eo se ccslor corUuLit evperiora 
possidenti hiemi cedens, quicumin inferiorapervenit et eo se, qtumttmipoterat, 
ingessit, quo deneior, hoc validior est; Seneca himself gives a more sensible 
accomit of the matter {N, Q. iv 2) Oenopidee Chiue ait hieme oalorem mb 
terris oantineri; ideo et spectis calidos esse et tepidiorem puteis aquam.,. 
Aqua et specus et putei tepent, quia aera riqentem extrinsecvs non recipiunt ; 
ita non oalorem habent, sed frigus exdudunt; Macrob. Sat, vii 8 § 10 usu 
tibi compertum est aquas quae de altis puteis fiauriuntur fumare kiemsy 
aestate frigescere foll., Plin. N. H, n 106, xxxi 2, Theoph, i^. 3 § 16 
Wimmer, Diod. i 41. From a comparison of the passages quoted from 
Lucr. and Hippocr. it seems that ea before hieme must refer to terrae, 
not to vis; there is great awkwardness in the unnecessary in terris which 
foUows — ^perhaps the PL generalizes, meaning terrestrial heat generally, 
while the S. terra refers to the particular spot where the well is situated — 
but in any case oalorem wöuld be more awkward, if we under^tand eaof vis 
ealoris. Seh. .compares the repetition of ciquae § 26, natura in 28 (and 
34), bdua Ä. PT n 67. Most edd. "alter the Subjunctives contineaturj sit, 
eontineant, but they are intentionally used to show that C. is here merely 
a rßporter, and does not vouch for the validity of the reasons assigned. 

vis caloris : cf. i 54 n. and potestas plumhi Lucr. v 1241. 

terrae cavemis: so in § 151. The order vis terr. oav. cal. is very 
unusuaL 

Ch. X § 26. longa est oratio : cf. 1 19 longwm est. 

terra condpiat semina : * receives in its bosom ', so Divin. n 68 oenses 
ainte coronam herbae exstitisse quam oonceptum esse semen f 

i]wa ex se geiierata : i. e. by spontaneous generation, avrofiaros yipto-is 
Arist. An. n 4 § 2 (generatio aequivooa), Compare Arist. Eist. An, v 1 
KooKOf luv oZv irvfjL߀ßtjKe Ktä hr\ rSv (eiav, cScnrep «cal inX r&v (jJvrSv' ra fjiiv 

K. C. II. 8 



114 BOOK II CH. X § 26. 

yap dirh <nr€pfiaTos Mptov ifivTmVf rä f . ovrofurra y/yrrac, avaTaoTjf twos 
rotavTrjs apxrjs, kcu rovrmv ra fiev €k t^s yfjs XcLfißdvti rrjv Tpo<f>i]v, ra It iv 
Mpois eyyivevcu (fwroi9, <S<nr€p (iprjrcu eV r^ ßto^piq, t§ irepi <lnrr£Vf also C. 
19 and vi 15, Oen, An. 1 § 11 ra fuv yap (r&v (f>vTSv) €k ovipfMiTos yivcrox, ra 
d* <o(7irrp avTOfiari(ova7js rrjs <l>v(r€as' yiverai yap tj lijs y^s aijfiropAvrii rf liopuav 
TUf^v iv rois (fivTois. tvia yap ovra fUP ov avvitTTarai Kaff avra x^P^^f ^^ 
Mpois d* iyyuferai bMpea-iv, oiov 6 l^s (mistletoe) ; for other exx. see Bonitz^ 
Index under avrofiarof, Theoph. H. P. II I al yevia-tis rav dfvdpav kcu oK»s 
T»v <fnrr£v $ avrofuirai fj dvo oiripfiarog ic.r.X., ib. III 1 § 4, and, on aequi- 
vocal genetation of animalfl, Meteor, iv 1 § 18 Ideler, u p. 449, Sext. £mp. 
F, Ä 1 14 § 40, Lucr. ii 871, v 797. The words stirpibus tnfixa are, I 
think, equivalent to eripois iyylverai <I>vtois in the X)a8sage8 quoted from 
Arist., and refer to parajsitic plants, such as the mistletoe, quod non tua 
temincU arbos {Aen, vi 206), and perhaps to fungous growths. Spontaneous 
generation is probably mentioned as giving the strongest proof of the 
generative virtue of heat {calido solü conoreta vapore). For ipsa see Roby 
§ 2264 b. 

temperatioiie caloriB : 'by the due proportion of heat', cf. below § 28, 
§ 49 {90IÜ aocessiis et reoessus) caloris modwni temperanty § 131 (vetitorum 
flatu nimü temperantur ccdores, Aristotle (Anima u 4 § 8) makes heat 
the condition, not the cause of growth, doicci de no-iv 1; rov frvpor <l>vatf 
dirkms alria cfvai Tfjs rpo<f>fjs Kai rfjs av^a-teas' Kai yap avro KJiaiverat 
liopop T«iv a&pjarciP ^ r&v (rroix€i<ov Tp€<f>6p.€Vov kcu. av^av6yuti>ov,,.To de o*vp- 
cUrtov fUv iroor (irriv, ov p^v cnr\&s yc amoi^, oKKa fioKKov 1; ^rvx^, 6ft l 

on the pleonastic Demonstrative see above § 24 nihtl...id. 

ipse liqaor aqiiae: Hhe very fact of the fluiditj of water, inde- 
pendently of any other proof. So in Lucr. i 454 li^uor is said to be the 
property of water, as heat of fire. The mss generally read efusio after 
dedarat. Probably this is a gloss to explain liquor. In a few mss the 
text is altered to make it grammatical. It is an objection to Madv«'s 
emendation {etßino) that it creates confusion by interposing a noim of 
the same gender between the relative and its antecedent. primum : 
this is opposed to cUque etiam marta below. 

nive pniiiUKLae concresceret : we should rather have expected in 
fdvem pruinämq^ as we find umorem in lapidem concrescere Plin. N. H. 
xxxvi 45. In Lucr. iii 20 (nix concreta pruina) we have a similar ex- 
pression, where pruina is Abi. of Cause, being used loosely of firost, and we 
might at first sight be inclined to explain it similarly here, since frigoribus 
must oertainly denote a cause ; but the addition of nive seems to show 
that we must take these ablatives to denote the manner of congelation, as 
probably in Virg. 0, 11 2>lQfrigora,.,cana concreta pruina, [Swainson cites 
Ov. M, V 673 rigido concrescere rostro ora videt,] 

fdgcribus: 'frost', may be added to Draeger's list'(§§ 7, 8) of plural 
abstracts used for concretes, cf. below § 98. 

Mgorilras adjectis: 'through the application of different kinds of 



BOOK n CH. X § 26. 115 

cold'. There is something tempting in Heind.'s emendatdon cuütrictiUt 
which is constantly used of the effect of cold, as by Lucr. v 436 Scythiocu 
aditringeTis Botporus undas; but adjectU corresponds to admixto in the 
previous sentence ; we find it often used for the making up of potions in 
Celsus, as ad^icere svlphwr aqucte, 

tabeflcit: c£ Lucr. vi 964 (soT) mves radiia tabesoere cogit and Liy. 
XXI 36 iahe» liquentis nivis ^slush'. 

maria tepeacimt : Min. 18' Britannia sole deßcitur, sed ctrcu7r\fitientü 
maris tepore recrecOwr (the Gulf Stream, as we say). Seh. quotes Plut. 
iVl Q. c. 8 T^v T^i Bakdararit avfKl>vToy oZca» OtpfLorriTa ficpiirifovcri /loXXoy 
oi Ibftfioi KOi Tpciftovinp. 

aer qjai natura est maadme frigidns: Aristotle ezplained the origin of 
the four elements out of theoriginal vXt; (the potentiality of material existence) 
by the combination with it of the four contraries, hot, cold, wet, dry ; fire 
is matter which is warm and dry, air matter which is warm and meist, 
water is cold and meist, earth cold and dry ; but the distinctive and 
prominent quality of fire is heat, of air moisture, of water cold, of earth 
dryness. The Stoics not unnaturally interchanged the characteristics of 
air and water. See Zeller ui 439 folL, Arist. Gen, Corr, n l ifiAtU de 
ißofihf €Ußai riva vktfv r&v o-tt/idrcov reSv aicr^roy, ä^a ravrriv ov xfapiuriiv 
oXX' aci lUT ivojrrimr^ci^Sf i^ ^r yivrrai rä KtiKovfifva aTotxfta.,.»ar€ irp&rov 
fUv TO dvvdfitt fr&iia al<rOtfrov apx^> brortpov de al evavruo<rtiSf Xtycn d* olov 
ßepfi&nis Kai ^Infxporrjs, rpirov d* ifdij vvp Koi vdtup Kai ra rotovrä, ibid. 3, 
Jfeteorol, i 2, rv 1 with Ideler's nn. and, on the Stoics, Diog. L. vn 137 rä 
d^ rirrapa in•o^x*'^o. ctvoi opov rriv mrowv ov(riav^ rrfv vktfVy tjpoi de r^ p^v 
wvp TO B€ppj6vy TO de vdcop TO vypov, rhv de a€pa to ^Itvxpov, Ktä t^v yrjv t6 
$ripo¥j ^neca Ep. 31 nihü nne aere frigidtim. Plutarch-(cife Primo Frigide 
c. 9, p. 948), after arguing that cold is not a mere absence of heat, says 
that Empedocles and Strato assigned the quality of cold to water, the 
Stoics to air (p. 952 Xpv<ranros aipa irp<or<Bff ^XP^'')» ^^^ that it might 
with equal justice be ascribed to earth. 

§ 27. Üle vero et mnlto anidem calore admiztim est: 'No in- 
deed : it has an admixture of heat, and a y«ry considerable admixture too'. 
For exx. of the emphatic vero see i 86 and Index, also Div, n 114 nornis ea 
praediant quae fcicta sunt? EU. vero, et ea quidem qttae,.,ih, §132, Of, i 89. 
Ruhnken wished to omit the sentence as a mere repetition of what pre- 
oedes, but Stamm (p. 32) rightly defends it as natural to the warmth of 
debate, coinparing § 94 6/ mtUto quidem, m 40 mihi quidem sane multi 
videntur, On the heat oontained in air, see Seneca N, Q, n 10 summa 
pars ^us (aeris) siocissima calidisnmaque et ob hoc ^iam tenuissima est 
propter viciniam aetemorUm ignium (see below § \V!),,,inferiora quoque 
tepeiU, primum terramm halitu, qui muUum secum cölidi adfert, deinde 
quia radix sdis replicantur,.. deinde etiam iUo spiritu, qui omnibus animaii^ 
hus arbuttisque ac satis oalidus est; nihü enim viveret sine calore.,, hae tot 
partes ^fus, fertües rerum, habent cUiquid teporis, quaniam quidem 



116 BOOK II CH. X § 27. 

stenle frigu9 est, calor gigrdt. Media ergo pars aeris ah Ms sfubmota in 
frigore sito manet. Natura erdm aeris gdida est, Plutarch dtes {Prim. 
FHg, p. 951) PosidoniuB as witnessing involuntarily that the water which 
sends up the vapour is the cause of the coldness in the air. 

oritur ex respiratione aqnarom : cf. Arist. Oen. Corr, ii 3 o ^ ar^p 
$€piJLov Koi vypoPf olov drpis yap 6 arfp. Stob. Ed, 1 446 (Chrysippus holds) 
dfro Tov vBoTos rov cupa €^<l>d<u Ka&airfp i^etrpMröan-a <r0<upiic<Sff luä frcpi- 
K€xv<r3ai, Philo Inoorr. Mundi § 21 (yfj) nj/eoficin; eh üdap prrakapßaMi 
r^y furaßoKijvy tq ^ vdop €(aTfuC6fi€vov eh depo, Plac, Pkü. I 3 § 26 p. 877 
(Heraclitus and Hippasus held) tifdop dvaßvpMOfiepov dipa yußtaßau See on 
the interchange of the elements generally § 84 and 117 with the nn. 
respiratio : apparently not used elsewhere in the sense of cvoBvfiUunf, 

is autem: i.e. vapor. 

quain similitudinem : Hhe likeness of which', Boby § 1279. Seh. 
quotes two instances from Fin. y 42 ea sequimur ad qiuxe nati sumns. 
Quam sirmlitudinem videmus in hestnSf and suam cuique rei naturam esse 
ad vivendwm, duoem : quae simüitudo in genere etiam kvmano apparet, where 
Madv. dtes Of. i 14 'man has a natural perception of symmetry in outward 
things, qttam simütttidinem natura ab oculis ad mentem transferens aeeks 
the fitting mean in action', Orot, n 53 hanc simüitudinem scribendi multi 
secuti sunty i.e. a style of writing like that befDre described. Mady. notes 
(1) the peculiarity in the use of the abstract sirnüitudo for the ooncrete, 
for which he cites Tusc, ly 23 dum unorbis corporum comparatur motboruffi 
ammi simüitudo =m>orbi similes comparantur; and (2) the caae of the pro> 
noun made loosely to agree with the goyeming substantiye, for which he dtes 
Mn, n 66 stuprataper vim Lucretia se ipsa interfedt. Hie dclorpopidi Ro- 
mani causa libertatis fuit, where hic^kinc ortus, in 11 ho/ec defmsio=ht^us 
rei def,f cf. Nepos Lys. 3 quo dolore incensus for ci^'us dolore^ Dat. 9 in quo 
itinere 4n the joumey to which place \ Cia Lael, 3 in eam ipsam mentionem 
=^'us rei ment. (where see Seyffert), ib. 2 in eum sermonem incidere qui tum 
mvltis erat in ore, 38 ex hoc numero=ex horum numero, pro Mü, 74 qua 
invidia^cajus inv,; similarly, 1 Pet. üi 21 o xal vpat dvrmmw vw rafct. 

in ÜB aquis quae effervescnnt : the readings yary, and I think it poa- 
sible that Allen may be right in supposing the original to haye been in 
aenms quae ,eff, The syllable aen would easily be lost aller tn, and it 
would be natural to supply aquis, Heind. inserts in <xeneis after quae^ 
citing Plin. N, ff. xx 19 lento igni in aeneo subfervefactis {sordibus). 

subditis ignibus : c£ Liy. yin 50 domum ambitiosam subdito igne eon- 
cremavit, and other exx. in Bay. 

<liiarta pars mnndi : the 4th element was divided by the Stoica into 
(1) the wvp t€xvik6p or ether, Aristotle's irepirrtj ova-ia, the seat of life and 
reason, which, while it permeated this lower world, being mixed up with 
'the three other elements, as aboye stated, and showing itself especially in 
all animated beings (hie noster calor § 30, ignis oorporeus § 41), ezisted in 
its purest form in the higher regions of space where it is ooUected into the 



BOOK II CH. X § 27. 117 

heaveoly bodies {ardor oadesHs qui aeiher vd cadum nonunatur § 41) ; and 
(2) the trvp Srtxi^v {hie noster ignü quem usus vitae requirit^ confector oon- 
sumptorque omniumy ib.). 

ea et ipsa : on the pleonastic demonstrative see above § 22, 24, 26, 
I^^ V 23 Uta anind traTiquülüas, ea est ipsa beata vita, where Madv. says 
gravius intigniimr ea natio quae in substantivo inest, ib. 22 oor^'tmctio.,.id 
ipsum honestum quod effici fmU, id eßcit turpe, cf. Draeg. § 37. 

natura fervida : finom a comparison of § 26 o^r qui natura estfrigidus^ 
it would seem that we must translate this ' fieiy by uature ' rather than 
' of a fiery nature *. 

§ 28. sünili pariQlie : often joined, as in § 153 ; so par et aeqtuÜiSf 
paar et idem; but sometimes contrasted, as in Quini x 1 § 102 (of Liyy and 
Sallnst) pares magis qua/m simües. The phrase is here used to allow for 
the distinction which might be made between fire and ether, or between 
the irvp Senxvov and mtp rexvucov^.cf, below § 41. 

in tanta dintnrnitate : ' that its <x)ntinued preservation for so long a 
time is due to a like element', Bobj § 1975 ; cf. §§ 51, 95 in onrni aetemi- 
tatej 36 tn aeterno temporis spatio. 

in omni natura fasnm : cfl fusv^ in corpore § 18. 

a <ino : somewhat rare with nascoTy but the connexion is obscured by 
the length of the sentence^ c£ below § 60 a'deo natum, 

procreandi vis — ^gignendi : the male and female principles of genera- 
tion, c£ Arist. Qen, An, n 3 wavrtov yAv yap iv r<p airipium einmdpx^ij 
&rr€p iroc€c yovtpa €hf(U rä (nripparay ro Kclkovpcvov Btppov' rovro d* ov irvp 
ovdc rocovri; ^vvctfus etrruff aK\ä ro ip^vtpiKapßavojitvov iv r^ (nrippari KCii 
iv rf d<l>piiob€i irv€v/üui Koi rj iv rtp OTripfurri (f>v<n?y dvdKoyov oZcra r^ rSv 
aurpmv aroix^l^f ib. .1 1, II 1, also Eespir. c. 8 cited on § 23, anim, n 4 § 8 
dted on § 26. The Stoics insisted mach on the analogy between creation and 
generation, and marked this by the term \oyos (nrtppjariKos used of the 
divine element of fire, see nn. on § 57^ 81, 86. The fact that heat is 
necessaiy for birth and growth is here taken to prove that it possesses a 
generative power. 

worum stirpes terra continentur : for similar periphrasis see § 83 
ea quae a terra stirpibus continentur and Index. Note that the mood is 
here unaffected by the subjunctival Subordination. 

Ch. XI § 29. natura est igitnr Qtuae contineat mundnm. None of the 
edd. question the ms reading here, but it seems to me very imsuitable to the 
context. From § 23 the argument has been as f ollbws : ' animal and vegetable 
life is sustained by internal heat, which is the cause of aU motion. This 
heat is also the source of life in the universe. Traces of it may be seen in 
the sparks of flints, hot Springs, the very fluidity of water. Nay even air, 
the coldest element^ contains heat'. Then in § 29 it proceeds ^this living 
prindple must be the ruiing principle of the world, it must possess all the 
properties of its parte, it must be rational and sensitive, it must in fine be 
a soul'. But the prominent position of nattira would imply rather that it 



118 BOOK n CH. XI § 29. 

followed an argument, such as we have below § 82 and in Sext. Emp. ix 
81, to prove that the unifying principle of the world is a (jiva-is and not a 
mere cf ir. Unless some such argument has böen lost here, I think the 
true reading must be Est igüur igivBa quaedam natura or something of the , 

kind. Again the prominence given to natura makes more awkward the # ' 

recurrence of the word in another sense just below. I cannot agree with | 

Seh. in taking it as a predicate of the foregoing subject calidum ülucL 

contineat : C. uses this word to translate avi^x^f ^7 which the Stoics 
expressed the organic unity of the world. In spite of the oentnfugal 
tendency of some of its parts it is held together by the all-pervading ether, . 
and in a less degi«e by the second active element, air, see below § 83, 115, 
117 and Plut. Comm. Not. 49 yfjv fuv yap ttraa-i kcu. vdc»p ovre avra «nWxcty 
oJ;r€ €T€pa, irv€ViiaTiKrjs de fi^ToxS xal wp^ovs HwdfAfms ttjv ivonp-a dio^v- 
Xarreiv' cupa be xal irvp avr&v re ehmi dt tvroviav iKToriKa (expansive 
owing to their own elasticity), kai rois bva\v riccivocf iyKtKpaiUva rwow 
wapixfiy Koi ro ftoMfxoy koL ov<n£d€Sf cf. Stoic. Bep. 43. Similarly we haye 
caiare teneantur 31, stutinearUur 28, retinentur 30, c£ Hirzel p. 94, Arist 
Fhys, v2p. 226 b. 

omnem naturam: 'every thing that exists *by nature, i.e. every ele-^ 
ment or organism', referring apparently to mundtu, not to natura above. 

<inae non solitaria sit : 'provided it does not stand alone and is not a 
simple substance'. The argument is given with more precision by Sextus 
IX 119 KoL fujv €v iravri iroKuiuptia-ta^uvri Kai koto, (fnKruf bunKovfjJvij^ t<m 
Ti TO Kvpifvop' Koff o /CQi c<^' r^)iL&v ft€V fj iv napbiq rovro rvy;(avfiir a^iovrai ^ 
iv ryiC€<^aX^ rj iv SKKt^ tiv\ fiipei tov <rafiaro9' cirt de rw (fivrtiy od icara 
Tov avToP rpoTToVj aXX* e<^* Jv fiev Kora ras pi^^^y ^ ^^ ^ Korä rrjv Kopj/Py 
c^* «Sy de Kcerh to iyKapbiov (the pith). eStore rirei k<u 6 Koa-pos viro ^Mreioff 
diotjceirai irokvp^prjs KaOeartoSf tlrj äv rt eV avrf to Kvpifvov koI to vpoKarap- 
Xoptvov T»p Kiyi;(re<oy* ovdev de bvvarov efvai TOiovTov ^ t^p t&p Sptmp ^vonir, 
ffTis Btos tfrrip, See ib. § 102. The Stoics held top SKop KSa-pop, {^p owra 
jcal Hpylrvxop nai XoyiKOP, ^x^*'^ ^tpopucop ptp top clöipa or, in the equivalent 
phrase of Chrysippus and Posidonius, top ovpavop (Cleanthes prefened top 
^ioi'),*Diog. L. vn 139, Zeller ni p. 137. 

cum alio Jnncta: Madv. FS,n p. lxvi n. totam di^nttatumem Cieero 
obscuravü et inanem reddidü^ cv/m fr&pa troXv/ieper sie interpretatus est, nony 
ut ddfutty ^qtiae esset ex plunbus partibus ipsa oomposäa\ 

principatns : also used in Tusc. i 20 (Plato tripUcem finmt afdmwny 
ct^us principatumf id est rationemf in capüe sicut in arce posuii) for the 
Stoic rh fiytfioptKoPy better translated principale by Seneca Bp, 92 1, &cl 
Diog. L. gives the deünition (vn 159) ^^popiKop eZrai t6 mptw-arop r^c 
V^X^ff, €P f al iJKafTaa-Liu Kai al oppai yipoPTtu kclL o$€p 6 \oryot dptjarepitrtrm* 
ontp etvoi eV Kapbi<^ cf. Sext. Emp. IX 102 «rcioi/ff yap tfiwrtnt Ktä ^XV^ 9 
icarapx^ rfjs Kipija'€ms ylpto-Bat hoKU dvo i^tpopiKov koi irSurai al M, rä 
pApri TOV okov €^airo<rr€XXop«pai dvpofutt «s dsro tipos' mjyfj^ tov ^ytpopucov 
efofrooTcXXoyra«, «ore watrap dvpapip ttjp ntpX to pipot oZira» isai wtpX ro 



BOOK II CH. XI § 29. 119 

okop tunu dia ro airo tov cv avr^ ify€fu>viKov biabibocrBau The word is COD- 
stantly recurring in Epiotetus and Aiirelius. 

nt in homine mentem : the regulär construction would have been tu 
€9t mcTu in hominef but the verb is omitted, and the subject subordinated 
to the general construction neoesse est habere; for exx. of similar attraction 
See I 82 Sospitam, 86 qiuim te, and Madv. Fin. n 88. 

aviddam sixnile mentis : so Arist. Hut. An. vm 1 p. 588 cvcort yäp 

^p Toiff irXcioroei Kai rcav oKKmv [^mv txyrf t£v irepl tifp ^fn^x^v rpoTTCup,,» 
»s yäp €v dvOpwrta rtxyi f^o^ (TfXpia xai avpfo'ir, ovrms ivloi^ rav (i^cnv ifrrl 
rtff mpa roiavrrj ^vo-i/e^ dvvafus, cf. Mn. Y 38 simt heatiae quaedam in quibua 
tftstt aliquid simile virttUis, ut in leonibus, vt in canibw, ut in equis, in 
qutbus non corporum solum, vi in 9v/ihuSy sed etiam animorum aliqua ex 
parte motus quosdam videmus ; Seneca de Ira i 3 muta animalia humanis 
affectibue carent: habent autem similes Ulis quosdam impulsus; Chalcidius 
in Tim. c. 217 (cited by Hirzel p. 214) haherU quippe etiam muta vim 
animae principalem, qua discemunt ciboSy imaginantur, dedinant insidias^ 
praerupta et praedpiiia supersüiunt^ necessiiudinem recognoscunt, non tarnten 
ratümabHemj quin potius naturalem. Solua vero hcmw ex mortalibus prvn- 
dpali mentis bono, hoc est ratione, utitur, ut ait idem Chrysippus. 

remm appetitus : more fully described below § 34 cum qax^dam, ap- 
petitu aocessum ad res salutares, apestiferis recessum. 

radicibns inesse principatiis : so Aristotle says (F. A. iv. 7) that plants 
have their head and their mouth in their roots. 

[onminmremm potestate domiiiatuq.ue dignissimnni: ^mostworthy 
of authority and lordship over all things'. So the pater famüias has 
potestas over his children, dominium over his slavea B.] 

§30. in partibns mnndi: we have'had the argument from the 
rationality of the part to that of the whole before in §§ 18 and 22. - 

et aaiora qnidem : so above § 18 e^ eam quidem acriorem, and just 
below acerrimo ardore. 

res omnes cömplexa teneat : so of the drcle^^^ro« o. c continet § 47. 

natura divina contineri : for the absence of the preposition c£ § 16 
quo conficiwntwTj 83 terra natura tenetury 85 ruxt. reffotur, Madv. JF^n. iv 17 
natura tributumy and Aoad. i 28 cited below : for its use, below § 33. 

A 1 (2) The mundane heat is /a/r purer ihan owr ewrthly hea4>y 
iherefore ü muat possess the propertiea of heaty motion and. life, in a 
higher degree ; and it aets/reeli/y not under any coercionßrom wiihout. 
S 30, 31. 

perladdiör : more brilliant, free from smoke 6r haze. 

retinentar : 'are preserved' (kept back from dissolution), «r^tne^r in 
vüa Fin. m 61. 

§ 31. non agitatOB ab alio: Chrysippus held eliKu ro tv frv€v fM 
Ktifovp covro npos iavroy Ij frv€v fxa iovro tupovv irpocrti K<ii oniiray Stob. Fd, I 
374. 



120 BOOK n GH. XI § 31. 

qnod peDat — teneatiir : 'so as to sei in motion a heat that is to hold 
the World together'. 

quid potest esse miindo Talentins: for this and for the whole 
passage compare the view of Antiochus as given in Äcad. i 28 parte» este 
mwndi omnia quae uuint in eo, quae natura sentiente teneantur^ in qua 
ratio perfecta insU^ quae sit eadem sempüema {nihil enim valentitu eue^ a 
quo intereat); quam vim animum eue dicunt mundi, eahdemque esse 
mentem sapientiamque perfectamj quem deum appdlant; and Chrysippus 
ap. Plut. Sto, Rep. p. 1050 nothing can reedst the will of nature dm ro isffr 
t^öfp cfyoi TO fpanfaofuvop rj oiKOPOfiiq^ fvjre t£v /ic/Nojr fujbiv c;^cti' otrmt 
konißjfa'eTai fj a^trii SXKas ij Kara r^v KoitnlP ifwauf, See below, § 35 nuUa 
respotest impedire. 

A 1 (3) What ü self-moved is soiU : the mtmdane heat is sdf- 
moved and therefare of the nature of soul. (4) // the universe were 
not possessed of reason, the whole wotild he inferior to the part which 
ispossessed qfreason, which is absurd. § 32. 

Ch. xn § 32. audiamns enim : gives a reason for the penultimate 
sentenoe. 

Flatonem...deilin: Cioero's own opinion of Plato is given in a well- 
known sentence, Ttuc. i 39 errare me hercule mala cum Piatone,., quam 
cum istis (deniers of immörtality) vera sentire, and Ätt, iv 16 deus' HU 
noster PlatOy ci. Leg, m 1 ; but in this he merely follows the eclectic Stoics ; 
thus we read of Panaetius {Tusc, i 79) Platonem omnibus locis divinum, 
sapientissimum, sanctissimumy ffomerum phHosophorum appeUat, c£ Pin. iv 
79; and of Posidonius, whom C. is here copying, Galen teils us {Hipp. 
Plat. p. 421) that he was a great admirer of Plato Kai Btimß anonoKti On 
the other hand the older Stoics e.g. Chrysippus argued strongly against 
Plato, c£ Galen ib. p. 468 k koli ntpi rovr<op 6 Xp. cin/pca^ci rov IIXarwiwL 
For the use of the term deu^ cf. Orot. 1 106 equidem te {Crassum) in dicendo 
semper piUavi deum, ii 179 dispositio argumentorum in qua tu {Antonius) 
mihisemper deus videri soles, ib. ni 53 ; Augustine {C. 2). n 14) says of Labeo, 
the mime, Platonem L, inter semideos commemorandum putavit, sicut 
Serculem, sicut Bomulum; semideos autem heroibus anteponit, sed utrosque 
inter nvmina coUocat. 

duo placet esse motus : Plato Tim. 89 t£p d' aZ mvifcrettv 17 eV eovr^ 
1^^ cavrov dpiarrj Klpfftru' fUtKiara yap rj diayoi/ruc^ Koi rj rov Trayrot KipTfati 
(vyy€pjis...ii di vir J^Xov x^^P^^' He uses this contrast to prove the 
divine existence IjCff, x 892 — 898, and Phaedr. 245, a passage translated by 
C. in Ttisc. I 53, and R, P. vi 28, see following nn. and below § 44. 

unum snuin : for exz. of se, suus, referring to other than the subj. of 
the sentence see §§ 124 «ut conservayidi, 158 se esse generatos. 

htinc autem motnm in solis änimis: thus given Tusc, i 54 cum 
pateat igäur aeternum vd esse quod a se ipso moveatur, quis est qui hanc 



BOOK II CH. XII § 32. 121 

naturam animis esse trSnUam neget ? inanimum est enim omtie quod pulsu 
(igüatur extemo ; quod atUem est aninvalf id motu cietur irUenore et stio: 
nam haec est propria natura animi atque vis ; and just before, üa fity ut 
motus priTtcipium ex eo sit guod ipsum a se movetur, The argument from 
the £act of motion to a First Mover was also employed by Aiistotle, 
Met. XII 6 p. 1071b cot* t\ a«l Kivovfitvov Kivr\a'i» &iravüTov,,.e<m roLwv rt 
jcai o jcivci : and by the Stoics, cf. Sextus ix 75 rrfv roy oK^v vXrjv 0€»povpT€s 
KUfovfUvrjv...€v\6y»s av a-KemolfuOa to kivovv avn^u' rovro bi ovk SkXo n 
ni3av6v cWtv dtfcu fj dvvafjLiv ra/a bi avTfjs ir€(l>oirrjicviav, Koßcartp lifiip V^v^^ 
ir€<f>oiTijK€v' avTTf odv i; bvvafus ^roi avTOKivrjros tariv ij vir* SkXtfg kiputcu 
duMificcor (ad in/initumj which is absurd), lern ris äpa Kaff iavrrjv avro- 
Kunjros ivvcLfiiSf ^rts av cti; Btia km duiios. 

6886 ponit: Wyttenbach's assertion that the Latin Idiom is either 
in animis ponitj or in animis esse statuit, is disproved by Madv. Fin, v 73 
positwn est a nobis in iis esse rebuSy Acad. 1 19 corporis autem alia ponebant 
esse in totq, alia in partibus, 

mimdi aidor — animiui : Plato held that the world was a living crea- 
iure and divine (C^ov Zfi-^x^^ twovv re Tim, § 11) but still.it was created, 
the work of the Demiurgus. He did not believe in any thinking matter, 
as the Stoics did, and would never have identified ardor with ammiLs ; cf. 
Cic. Tim. c. 6 sie deus üle aetemus hunc perfecte beatum deum procreavit 
(out of the four elements), animumque ut dominum atque imj>erantem 
oboedienti pra^ecit corpori; c. 14 animus sensum omnem efuffit oculorum, 
aiignis, anima, aqua, terra, corpora sunt, eaque cemuntwr. 

mimdiim imiv6rsaiii plnris esse quam partem : Sezt. ix 85 ov yap 

oZoPT« TO oKov Tov fupovs x^^P^^ tivcu. 

homineiii, quoniam rationis esset particeps, plnris esse auam 
mnndnm oporteret : the readings here are notioeable ; in three hnes we 
have (according to edd.) est — sit — est— esset — est — est — esse; but the autho- 
rity for the 3rd est is only a correction in one of Orelli's mss (V ), and for the 
4th an original reading in one (B), and a correction in two others (AY). 
Esset is the original reading of all his six Mss in the former case, and of 
five out of the six in the latter. I believe that the latter esset at any rate is 
right; and had indeed written this as a conjectural emendation in the 
margin, before I discovered that it was the original reading. It is subor- 
dinated to the Inf. in order to show that it gives the reason for the fol- 
lowing pluris esse, not for the preceding pars est, and the tense is attracted 
to that of the principal verb, as in passages quoted on mallem audire § 2. 
It is pOBsible that qui esset also may be right» meaning ^ though he is a 
port', but I think that Cic. would have shrunk from repeating esset so 
often with a different force, and that this esset has arisen merely from 
careless assimilation. The corrections in AV were probably intended for 
this qui esset, For the thought compare Pascal Pens4es i 6 4'homme 
n'est qu'un roBeau...maiB c^est un roseau pensant. H ne laut pas que 
ronivers entier s'arme pour T^raser ... Mais quand runivers l'^craserait, 



122 BOOK II CH. XII § 32. 

lliomme serait enoore plus noble que ce qui le tue, parce qu*il sait qu'il 
meurt...runiyeT8 n'en sait rien\ 

A m. ArgumeffU from the Scale of Existence. (I) We observe the 
graduaJ, ascewtfrom vegetaMe to cminud life, /rom animal io kumany 
the last showing the potentialüy of virttui and unedom: hence toe 
in/er a yet higher stage, the divine, which is esserUialli/ amd ahoayz 
vvrtwme cmd wiee, §§ 33, 34. 

§ 33. incohAtis natnris: ^rudimentarj orders of being', cf. i 56 
incohatam n., Leg, i 27 prima et incohata intellegentia, Tim. c. 4 qitae suni 
nobis nota animantia su7U..,omnüi in quaedam genera partita atU incohata^ 
nvüa ex parte perfecta^ 'the only perfect ammal is that ideal which the 
Demiurgus oopied in making the world \ The argument from the Scale 
of Ezistence appears first in Arist. fr. 15 koBoKov yäp iv oXi earl n /ScXrtor, 
cV TOVTois cWi ri Koi äpifTTOP' eirci aSv iv rois ovaiv ccrrcv äXAo SXXov ßtkrioPf 
l^oTw apa Ti Koi Spurrop, 8ir€p tlq ap ro 0€lop. It was borrowod from him hj 
Cleanthes (ap. Sext. ix 88) ci (fwa-is (ftvat^is cWi «pcirrosp, cti; ip tu dpumi 
<l>vai9' et V^x4 ^xfi^ ^^'^^ icpciTTooy, eci; &p rir dpUmi ^XV' '^ ^^ C^^ 
Toiwp Kptirrop cori {i^ov, €^7 ap rt Kparurrop (t^op' ov yap th äwripop 
tKnlirrtof frc^vice ra rocaOra. * Of all creatuies on earth man is best, but 
he cannot be the absolutely best owing to his moral and physical weakness. 
No ! man is «ircXer Koi irakv Ktx^purp^pop rot) rcXccov. That which is 
perfect must be fülfilled with all virtues and unapproachable bj evil 
{ireurtus rais äpercus avftncirXrfptifUpop Koi vcofTos kokov oyeiridcjcroy) ; and 
this perfection we ascribe to God alone \ The physical argument is given 
in greater detail, ibid. § 81 ' the life of the universe shows itself in four 
degrees of power (1) cifir the unifying pnnciple in inorganic matter, 
(2) <^viriff the principle of growth in plants, (3) ilfvx^ the pnnciple of move- 
ment in animals, (4) \oyuaj ^xi ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ » ^7 which of these is 
the universe itself held together ? Not by simple ef ir, as in stones, for that 
admits of no change, but by some form of -^vo-if, and that the highest 
form viz. the rational soul'. Gic. here omits the lowest grade and dis- 
tinguishes two grades of the rational soul, the imperfect belonging to man, 
the perfect existing only in Qod (as in Sext. § 88 and Anton, vi 14 whero 
see Qataker). Compare Philo Mund, Op. § 24 r»p 6yr»p ra p.€P ot;re aperes 
uSt€ KOKiag fimxfh «^<nrfp ^t/ra kou (fq, SKoya,„Ta de aZ p^pifg KtKoumptfKfp 
dpenjs, dpJroxa vcunfs ^pra KOKiaSy »airep o! daT€p€s' ovroi yap £i^a re c&o« 
Xryoyroi Koi (^ po€pd' pJSXKop de povs avrap 6 €KaaTO£, oKoe dC ok»p <nrov- 
daibff Koi irayros aveiridexrof kokov' ra de rfjs lUKrfjs iari <^v(re0f, wnr€p 
HpßpwKoSf OS ividfX^M ra tpovria^ <f>p6prfa'tp Koi d<f>poavprfP,,,dp€T^p icoi 
KOKioPf ib. § 50 on the XoyiKtu $€iai 0v<reir, who may be justly called fuyar 
Xon-oXtroi, Citizens of the universe. Other passages bearing on the Physical 
Scale are cited by Zeller iv 192^ It is really a development of Aristotle'a 
doctrine of the soul {Änim, n 3) ' the vital principle of oi^nized bodies 



BOOK U CH. XII § 33. 123 

manifests itself in an asoending scale of functionsy nutritive {BptnriKov), 
sentient (äla-OrjriKop), locomotive (KunrynKov), appetitive (opcjcrucoy), rational 
{duuwfTiKovy. Cf. Fin. V 33—40 and below §§ 82, 86. 

prima advertiinas : the edd. read^^nmi^m orprimo, but I think we 
may understand the reading of the mss as referring back to primü inr 
cohoHsqtie naturis ; Hhe Arst and lowest class in which we observe 
the sustaining power of nature, is that which constitutes the vegetable 
kingdom'. 

a natnia snstineri: nature personified as in § 83 a terra sHrpibtu 
contineri, § 133 a natura siutinerUury Invent. i 35 a6 natura datus (but in 
§ 36 natura cUOam), OraL i 215 interdictum a rerum natura aut a lege 
aUqua. For exx. of the Omission of the preposition see § 30 natura conti- 
neriy Tusc, i 56 natura siutentarL 

Quae gignantnr : for Subj. cf. the exactly similar sentence in i 97 an 
quioquam tarn puerile dici potest, quam si ea ffenera hdva/nmi quae in rvbro 
mari gignaniur, nulla esse dicamus f and above § 23 ala-ntur n. Perhaps 
the Subj. is used here in order to make a distinction between the definition 
of a class, and the further statement of a fiact respecting that class, by the 
Ind. tribüit» for Imp. Subj. foUowing proper Perl see n. on i Zfwermi 
gut centerent. 

alendo alKLue angendo: cf. above § 23 alantttr atque creaeant; 
so Arist. Eth. l 13 describes ro (ftwiKOP (or Bpenxuibp) fiopiov rtjg ifo/^^ff 
as the cause rov Tpt<l>€ar6ai leai avfeo-^m. In § 120 however Cic. allows 
that some kinds of plants make an approach to the habits of animaLs. 
Posidonius seems to have sofbened down the broad demarcation drawn 
by Chrysippus between the different kingdoms of nature; thus he 
notioed that the zoophytes shared in the appetites {imßvfda)^ but not 
in the emotions {t6 dvyM€ib€s) of animals (Galen Hipp. Plat, p. 476), 
and lie not only agreed with Plato and Aristotle in dividing the human 
soul into rational and irrational Clements (ibid.) but he assigned to man 
all the lower forms of life, including even that principle of attrao- 
tion (t^u) which bound together the atoms of lifeless things, cf. Diog. L. 
vn 139 (where, after referring to Posidonius' 3rd book wepl Otwv, he con- 
tinues) rov di Koa-fiov olK€i<rBai tcarä vovv Koi frpopoiap', €U arra» aurov fjJpog 
dt^KOPTOf rov yov, Kaödirep €<f> ijfM»p rfjt ^xv^y ''^ ?^7 ^^* ^^ f^ fiaXXoy, 
dt £p de TTToy* bC mp pip yitp m e(ig Kfx^PH^^^i ^^ ^^ '''^^ 6ar£p kcu r£p 
p€vpwf^ dl t^p bi «OS povs, «og dia rov liytpopikov' ovra d^ Kcä. top SKop Koo'pop^ 
C^p ipra Ktä tp,'^\op KOL Xoyucov, ^X^tv ijytpopiKhp top alBipa^ ib. 86 ^<^' rjpM'p 
Ttpa <l>vTO€Mg yiVcroi. We leam from Nemesius c. xv p. 96 that Panaetius, 
the master of Posidonius, had ah*eady commenced this reformation of the 
Stoic psychology, excluding Zeno's 'phonetic* and 'spermatic' faculties from 
the rational soul, and ranking ro owtppartKop not under ilyxv* ^^^ under 
iffvirig. 

§ 34. cum anodam appetita— reeessnm : cf. below § 58 and m 33 
nuUum potett esee aninud in qtio non et appetitio {opp;^ sit et declinaiio 



124 BOOK n CH. XII § 34. 

(d^p/ii;) naturalis. Appetuntu/r atUem qwM iecwndum naturam mnt^ 
dedinantur contraria; Fin. iii 16 (the Stoics hold) wmvl cUque naium nt 
animal ipsum sün concUiari et cammendari ad se conservandwm et ad »uum 
etatum eaque qvae oonset^varUia sv/rU ^us Status düigenda, alienari autem ab 
interitu iisque rebus quae interitum videantur qferre; Diog. vn 86 cjc 
wtpiTTov lijs opfjofs rolf (fj^ts cirtycyo/ici^ff, j avyxpo^f^^va wop€V€Tai irpor ra 
olKtuiy TovTois fitp To KOTa <f>v(np T^ Korä TTj» opfjJjp dioiKtia$ai' rov de Xoyov 
Toig Xoyucoir Kara rdk^wripcof npoarcuriav didofUyovy to jcord \6yov {rjv opBin 
yivta-Stu rourois Kora <t>v<nv' rexvlTrji yäp ovrog iwiyivrrai rijs opitijsf J^^ IV 
37, 38, Hirzel p. 212 folL, Schwencke p. 136. 

addidit rationem : as mentioned above, PosidoniuB, whom C. foUows, 
departed from Chiysippus and adopted Aristotle's vie^v that each higher 
function of the soul involves the lower, so that all the functioDS are found 
combined with rationality in man, while the nutritive fiinction, for in- 
stance, eziste sepaiatelj in vegetables. So in the parallel passage Fin, iy 
37, describing quod iter sit naturae, quaeqm progressiOf C. continues semper 
asswmt aliquidj ut ea quas prima dederity ne deserat; itaque s&nsibtis ra- 
tionem acffunant et, ratione efecta, sensus non reliquit. 

remitterentur— continerentnr : 'let go' )( <hold in', a metaphor 
from driving horses, cf. Arist JEth. vi 1 cWi ri9 a-Kotros vpog ov äiroßK4ir»9 
6 Tov \6yov cxttv €mT€lv€i Koi dvifia-i¥, Of. I 101 folL una pars (animae) m 
appetitu posita est, quae est opfi^ Oraecey quae konünem huc et iüuc rapü; 
altera in ratione, quae dooet et expLanai quid fadendum fagiendumqus 
sit. Ita fit ut ratio praestt, appetitxts obtemperet. Eficiendum autem 
est ut appetüus rationi oboediant, eamque neque ,pra/ecurrant, nee propter 
pigritiam aut iffnaviam deserant...jyam qui uppetitus longius evagantur 
et tamquam exuUantes sive cupiendo sive fitgiendo non satis a ratione reti- 
nentur, ii sine dubio finem et modum transeunt ; Tusc. IT 22 intemperantia 
is defined as a recta ratione defedtio ...vi rnUlo modo c^ectumes ammi nee 
regi nee oontineri queant. The Mood is the Final Subjunctive like the 
preceding regerentur. 

Ch. xin. natura boni : Seh. cites Sen. ep. 95 § 36 (aa Seneca twioe cites 
Posidonius in the same letter, we may infer that he oopies from him), 
di immortales nuUam didioere virtutem, cum omni editi, et pars naturae 
eorum est esse bonos; Epict. iy 11 J 3 ' as the Qods are ^crci Koßapoi «il 
ojcifparoc, so men, in proportion as they have approached to them mra 
rov Xoyov, by the way of reason, are themselves participant of purity', 
but this is only asrh rwy Bt&v auro vpwrop Xofißavom'ts, as he says in the 
preoeding sentence ; Cic. Top. 76 deorum vvrtus natura exoeUit, hominum 
autem industria. Such expressions must be set against others in whioh 
the Stoics appear to claim equality with God, as below § 163. 

a prindpio ixmascitur ratio : so § 36 (twice) a prwcipio sapiens. 
Man has the senUna ratioms which must be developed by education. As 
Seneca says ep. 90 § 44 (the whole epistle is probably taken fix>m Posido- 
niuB) non dat natura virtutem, ars est bonum fieri. Virtus non oontingit 



BOOK n GH. xin § 34. 126 

aawTM} mn tnstihUo et edocto et ad swmmwnh assidua exercitatione perducto. 
See my Sketch of Änc, Phü, pp. 227, 228. Nemesius c. i p. 21 makes the 
same distinction between man and all higher Orders of being {yevri dat/ioMoy) 
ovhiv yap €ic€iv»v fiavOav€i, dK\a <fiv(r€i oS^ev a oidwp, rat. FOCta COn- 

StaiUKLUe: Diog. vn 88 6 vofiot 6 KotvSs, Bair€p earlv 6 opSos \6yos dtä 
vwmtv €px6fifvos 6 avrbs &v rf Ail, Cic. ap. Lact. TL Q est quidem nera lex 
recta ratio, naturae conffruens, diffusa in omneSj constans, gempüema, quae 
vooet ad oßcium jvbendoy veta/ndo a fraude deterreat. Seh. cites Plut. de 
Virt. Mor, c. 3 r^v äperijv \oyov odtrav ofuiKoyovp^vov koL ßeßßiop Koi dfitra- 
wrtaro» vfrorlBevrai, 

snpra hominem pntanda: Tusc. n 51 in quo vero erit perfecta sapientia 
— quem adhuc nos quidem vudimus nemiTiem, sed pküosophorum sententiis 
qtudis Mc futwras sit, si modo aliquis fuerit, exponitur — is igitur, sive ea 
ratio quae erit in tUo perfecta atque absoluta, sie ütiparti imperabit inferiori 
(the appetiies &c.) ut justus parens probis fUiis, see also Sketch of Änc, 
Fhü. pp. 169, 170. 

A m (2). AU things arre atrivvng after perfectton, bttt in the case 
of the lower limited natwres, this tendency ca/nnot fulßl itaelf: in 
universal nature it can. § 35. 

§ 35. remm iiistitntione : ' plan ' ' sjstem ' < Organization ', see Fin. 
TV 32 (which should be compared throughout) qtioe autem naiwra suae 
primae instüutioms oblüa est f iv 41 ipsa insiitutio hominis, si loqueretur, 
haec dioerety primos suos quasi coeptus appetendi fwisse, ut se conservaret in 
ea natura in qua ortus esset, which Madv. ezplains to be the original frame- 
work or Constitution {habitiMn etconstitutionem a natura dcUam) ; ibid. v 24 
hone initio institutionem (i. e. appetitum a natura datum ad vitam tuendam) 
oonfusam habet. 

aliquid extremiim at<ine perf ectnm : cf. Fin. in 26 cum enim hoc 
sä extremum (satis emm credo me jam diu, quod reXos Oraeci dicunt, id 
dicere tum extremvm, tum ultimum, tum summum ; licebvt etiam ßnem pro 
extremo onU ultimo dicere), cum ü/iiur extrenmm hoc sit congru/enter naturae 
vivere, &a esse like habent below is true of the idea, not of the fact : 

throughout we must understand the proviso nisi quae vis obstitit, et Arist. 
Pol, I 8 i; <f>v(ns ovd€¥ drtkh iroi€i ovdi parrfv, 

nt in vite, nt in pecude : in the similar passage Fin, rv 32 foU. we 
haye (1) the assertion of a resemblance in the ends of all things, nemo 
enim est qui aliter dixerit; quin onrnium naturarwm simile esset id ad quod 
omma referrentur, quod est ultimum rerum appetendarum ; (2) this in- 
stanced in the case of animals, m omni enim animante est summum aliquid 
atque Optimum, ut in equis, in canibus,„sic igitur in homine perfectio ista 
in eopotissimum quod est optimum, id est, in virtute, laudatur, Itaque mihi 
fum satis videmini considerare qttod iter sit naturae quaeque progressio; 
(3) in the case of a plant; if a yine were gifted with understanding and 



126 BOOK II CH. XIII § 35. 

thus made capable of aiming at higher ends, it would not therefore lose its 
former ends 1. c. § 38. (The same comparison occnrs in v 39) : (4) in the 
case of the artist, 1. c. § 34 t^ Fhidtas poiest a pvitno instituere Signum idque 
perfidere^ potest ab alio inoohcUum acdpere et absolvere, kuic nmüü est 
säpientia : non enim ipsa genuit hommem, sed acoepit a natura incohatum. 
ha/nc igitwr intuens d^)et tnstittUum ülud, quasi signum, absclvere. Com- 
pare alflo Tum, v 37 (juUura) quicqutd genutt, non modo animal, sed etiam 
guod üa ortum esset e terra, ut stirpibus suis niieretur, in suo guidgus genere 
perfectum esse voluit,,.neque est uUum quod nori ita- vigeat interiore quodam 
motu et suis in quoque seminvbus indusis ut aut flores aut fruges fundat... 
omniaque in omnibus, quantum in ipsis sii, nuUa vi impediente perfecta 
sint. Still more is this the case in beasts, atque earum quaeque 9uum 
tenens munus, cum in disparis animantis vitam. transire non possit, manet 
in lege naturae.,. hnt most of all in man; hie igitur si est excuUus,.,fit 
perfecta mens^ id est absoluta ratio, quod est idem virtus. 

natniam ad ültimiim penrenire : Arist. PaH. An, 1 1 § 10 ^mAXo» d* 

cotI to oS €V€Ka jcal ro koKov €v toIs rfjs <f>v<r€0>s tfpyots fj (p roit rfjt rix- 
viff, q£ also Zeuo's definition of Nature below § 57, 81, where via progre- 
dientem = suo quodam itinere here. 

pictnra : cf. Orator 9 ut in formis et ßguris est aliquid perfectum et 
exoellens, cuju>s ad cogüaiam spedem imitando r^eruntur ea quae sub oeulos 
non cadunt &c. Cicero seems to combine in his extremum et perfectum 
the ideal and the final cause, of which latter Arist. says iroo-a T€xy>i ayaBov 
TUfot i<f)i€a'6ai dojcci, and of the former jj fuv dp€Trj TtXtUurU rig' oroy yc^ 
Xaßu Tfj¥ cavrov dptnjv, t6t€ Xeyrrac rcXciov iKourrov, rorc yäp ^uiXiOTa «ort 
TO Kora 0v(riv, Phfs, vn 3 p. 246 a. The Stoics seem to have dwelt more 
on rcXeiov, the ideal, than rcXor, the end, cf. Diog. vn 89 rj t^va-w diftoppas 
didoMTiV adiooTpo^ovf * dßdil de roi i; /Up tis koip&s irairrl rcXci«»a-i(, «Hnr«p 
dpdptdvTO£, Kcu i; dBfnopTjtofj «Sfcnrrp' vyltta, koI ij Bfmptfparucijj »s 4h^ 
Pflins. 

fitbrica: so Seneca Ep, xo § 7 'I cannot agree with Posidonius in 
assigning to philosophj the glory of architecture (Jabricae); illa, inquä, 
docuit...tecta moliri^ ; Auct. ad Herenn, iii 32 süum loci ad suumarbitrium 
fabricari et architectari. Elsewhere C. uses the more predse architectura 
(Of. I 161), and distinguishes a/rcMtectus from. faber (Farn, ix 2 non modo ut 
architectosy verum etiam ut fabros, ad aedifioandam rem publicam), 

qnendam absolut! operis effectnm: (there is in art) 'something 
which may be called the execution of a finished workmanship ' : cf. Fin, 
ni 24 wisdom may be xx>mpared to the art of dancing, in so far as tn ipsa 
insu, non foris petatur extremum, id est artis efectio, ib. 45 recta efectio, 
KaropBma-ip enim sie appello, quoniam rectum factum Ketr6p6»pa, The 
argument founded on the idea of perfection is borrowed from Aristotl& 
He finds in all things an upward striving which meets in the one supreme 
and perfect Being. It is briefly and obscurely worded by C. and dumsily 
stated by Sextus ix 81 (dted on § 33 incohatis naturis), and in 116 ^since 



BOOK II CH. xin § 36. 127 

the horse is more admirable than the vine^the motive power (lavi/ruc^ alrla) 
in the horse is more admirable than that in the vine, and the motive power 
in the world more admirable than all other motive power. It is therefore 
best, and if best, must be rational and immortal, i. e. it must be Divine '. 

in omni natura: 'in universal nature', cf. i 27, 36=rertm omnium 
natura below. 

absolvi aliqnid : ' there is a progress towards completion ', lit. ' some- 
thing is in course of completion '. 

nniversam natnram nnlla res potest impedire: see above § 31 

quid mundo valerUvusF and Philolaus ap. Stob. Ed. 1 418 (o Koa-fjLos) a<f>6apTos 
Kai cucarcmovaros diafuvei rov &ir€ipop cuSva' ovt€ yap hßVotrBtv SKKa rif 
oiTta ^va/uKatTtpa avras cvpf^crcrac ovt €KTO(r0€v 0^«ipai avroy bvvajiiva^ 
Philo Inc. Mund. 503 ovbtyAav <f)0opo7roiov alriav €vpfip coth», ovt eprbs ovt 
tKTosj rj Tov KOiTfiov opcXti. The argument is ' Every thing by natm^ aims at 
perfection, but in most cases this aim may be frustrated by external 
foroes (Ar. Phys. n 8 § 14 cV d« toXs <f)v(nKo'is at\ ovrws [yivtrcu rb ov cVfKa] 
a» fuj T* iiiiFo^i(rrj) \ were there no such external force, the tendency towards 
perfection would be realized ; but the universe has no force external to it ; 
therefore the tendency to perfection in the universe will not be firustrated '. 
(/ic. confuses the argument by repeating as a part of the conclusion what 
is really one of the premisses, viz. the fact that there is no power external 
to the universe : see below quo nvUa vis possü accedere. 

A m (3). Since it is con/essed that tlie irniver^e is the best of all 
things, it cannot he limited to vegetaMe or animal or merdy human 
existeTice. It must be actuaUy and essentially vnse a/nd good {and 
therefore Divine) : for a potentiality which has never risen into 
aduality throughout etemity vxndd be inferior to that of mam. 
§ 36. 

§ 36. et praesit omnibas et eam nnlla res possit impedire: change 

of subject as in § 38 mundus omnia complexus est, neque est quicquam quod 
non tnstt in eo, § 58 quarum est cotidiana conversio nee habent cursus, § 64 
n« cursus haberet atque tU ülum aUigaret. 

Qnid antem est inscitins : gives another reason (besides the universal 
striving after perfection) in proof of the preceding statement, that the 
World is sapiens, in the streng Stoic sense. 

Stirpinm: here improperly used for ^vr^v instead of the ordinary 
periphrasis, see Madv. Fin. iv 13. 

deterior potins : ' the condition of the world rather than that of man 
would be the inferior one '. 

homo sapiens fieri potest : i. e. man is wise dwa/tei, but Qod (here the 
universe) is wise cVfpyc/g. See above § 34. 

in spatio : cL in ditUumitate § 29. 



128 BOOK II CH. XIV § 37. 

A m (4). Man ia hom to contemplate cmd imitate the tmiverse 
to which he bdongs. The universe ahne is per/ect and ita oum 
end. It rrmst therefore he possessed of what is best, viz. • reason, 
§37. 

Ch. XIV § 37. scite enim Ohrysippos : Bywater, J. of PhüoL vn p. 85, 
gives reasoDs for supposing this passage to be ultimately derived from 
Aristotle's dialogue De PhüoBophia (cf. the parallel passage in Fin, n 40 
cited below). For the ellipsis of the verb see Index. 

ut clipei causa involucrum : for the Stoic love of similes cf § 22 
and below § 38. A book of 'Ofioiafiara by Ariston of Chios, a disciple of 
Zeno, is offcen cited by Stobaens. 

cetera aliomm causa esse generata : so Arist. Pol, i 8 ra rc <^vra 

T»p (tiav ev€K€v elvai kcu raWa (Sa t&v av6pwro>v x^^^i ^^ Xen. Äfetn. IV 3 
§ 10, Nemesius y^at. Hom, l 21 — 28 tSp ycvofievav rä /i€y dt' iavra yryow, 
ra de d** oXXa* di tavrä fi€P ra XoyiKCi vavra, di ertpa de ra rr oXoya kcX 
3nln}xa : he then argues at length that other animals are made for man, man 
for God ; see also below §§ 133, 151—153, 156—161. 

ad mundum contemplandum et imitandum : cf. § 140 quasi spec- 
tatores superarum rerum ; Tusc, i 69 hominem ipsum quasi oontemplatorem 
codi ac deorum cuUorem; Fin, ii 40 hi (Bpicurei) non mderuntj ut ad 
cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem, sie hominem ad 
duas resy ut ait Aristoteles j ad intellegendum et ad agendum esse natum^ 
quasi martalem deum; Cato 77 credo deos immartales spa/rsisse animos in 
Corpora humana ut essent qui terrae tuerentury qui caelestium ordinem oon- 
templantes imitarentur cum vitae modo atque constarUia; Fin, iv 11 wm>- 
destiam quandam cognitio rerum caelestium affert iis qui videant quanta sit 
etiam apud deos moderatio^ quantus ordo, et Tnagnitudinem animi deorum 
opera et facta oementibus, juMitiam etiam cum cognitum habeas quod sit 
summi rectoris ae domini numen, quod consüium, quae voluntas ; cujus ad 
naZwram apta ratio vera illa et summa, lex a philosophis dicitur, i.e. the 
four Cardinal virtues spring from the contemplation and Imitation of 
nature ; also ibid. v 11, in 83. This is one aspect of the Stoic ofutkoyov 
fjJvtcs Tjj fftvtrti (fjvy of the Pjthagoi'ean eirov Be^, of the Piatonic ofioitung 
Bf^j carned out much in the same way by Plato himself in the Timaeus 
47 B, 'God gave us sight, that imitating ras rov ötov irtpiobmts iravror 
aiikavut ovcas, ras €v i^fjup wtnkam^fiivas Kara<mjo'alfifSa\ also p. 90. See 
Beier Exe. on Of, 1 13, Plut. S, Num, Vind, p. 550 c with Wytt.'8 n. 

particula perföcti : 7Hm, c. 4 (mundi) omne animal quasi particula 
quaedam est, Leg, l 24, Epict. Diss, 1 14 § 6 al i^x°^ oi/va^cTf rf öt^ art 
avTov fiopia ovatu Kai dTrotnratruara, Zeller IV p. 200^. 

neQUe enim...partibus : in the mss this sentence stands at the b^jn- 
ning of § 37 ; I have transferred it to the end, as it is not really a proof of 
what precedes, but a part of another argument. On the other band, the 
sentence' scite enim Chrysippus is the commencement of a long pieoe of 



BOOK II CH. XIV § 37. 129 

reasoning ending in propterea deus, and might therefore properly follow 
§ 36, as confirmatory of the conclusion there arrived at. 

nndiliue apttun : * knit together on every aide ', cf. i 9 n. and below 
§ 47 aptms, 97 tamqite irUer se conexa et aptct^ Orat&r 235 facüius est apta 
dis8olvere quam dissipata coneciere^ Acad. n 119 (Aristotie says) ita esse 
eum (mundtim) undique aptwm ut nvUa vis tantos quecU motus mutaiumem- 
qite moliriy .nvUa senectiis dvutumitate temporis exsistere, ut kic omattbs 
(^Koa-fios) umqtiam düapsus occidoU, 

cni nihil absit : deesse is used below in the same sense, cf. Orot, i 48 
quid huic abesse potent de scientia with WiUdns' n. 

onmibtiB suis nnineris : Schömann quotes Diog. vn 100 koKov \ryovin 

ro riktiov ayaBov irapa rb iravras cnr4)(€iv rovf €7ri(rfrovfievov£ dpiBfiovs inro rfjg 
<Pv<r€«i9, 9 ro reXfiios ovfifierpov, cf. Of. in 14 lUud, qtwd rectum Stoici ap- ' 
pdlanty perfectum cUque absolutum est, et vi idem dicunt, omnes immeros 
habet, Div. i 23, Fin, m 24, Stob. JScl p. 184 (M. n p. 50) KarSpBonfjia ^ (7mii 
X^yova-i KaBrJKov vapfas firixov rovs dptdfiovs ; Sen. Ep, 71 § 16, 95 § 5, 

Anton, in 1, VI 26. 

A m (5). Ideal excellence can only hefownd in thai tohich is com" 
plete in aU ita paarte ; the univerae ahne is absohUely complete ; there- 
fore the absohtte Ideal ccm only he found vn the universe» § 38. 

§ 38. onmia in perfectis meliora : Arist. Eth. Eud. n 1 p. 1219 a 36 

cfTcl bi ^v 17 cvdot/ioyia rfktio» ri, kol efrrl {i^rj Koi T€\€ia Koi drtkifs, Kai 
dpeni ti<ravTms (1) fiey yap oXijf 1; de fioptov), i; de r<5v drcXcSv evcpyeia orcXi/r, 
€Uf av 17 (vdaifjLovia (t^fj^ reXiias cWpycia aar aptrriv rcXctai^, Pd, I 13 €frci 
d* o ncuf drcXi;;, BfjXov ort rovrov fA€» «cal 17 dptTTj ovk avrov irpos avrop 
(tmv, dXXa vpos rov rik€io¥ Koi rov rjyovficvop, Plato Tim, 30 C drfXfi yap 
cofxoff ovd«y fror' hw ytvoiro koKov' ov de cori rcEXXa (^a Koff %v kcu irdyra 
yimj fiopia, rovrto trairmv Ofioiorarov avrop (the Cosmos) cuwti riBApew (the 
Demiurgus makes the Cosmos after the pattem of a complete and perfect 
being). 

ecnleo : Cio. Härtens, ap. Non. p. 105 fame debüttatur eculeorum mmis 
effrefMsta vis, Liv. xxxi 12. The more common form is eculus as in Yarro 
i2. /{. II 7 12, 13 &a The word puUus being used generally for the young 
of any animal, ec, is employed where definiteness is desired. 

§ 39. est autem nihil mnndo perfectins : I think this is probably 
part of the argiunent of Chrysippns, though Cio. has taken it out of the 
indirect construction ; cf for similar anacoluthon below § 125 ülud ab 
Änstotele animadversum quis potest non mirari? grv£S,„tria/ngvli ejfficere 
formam; efus autem tnimmo angvlo aer adversus peUitur; Suüa § 10 hoc 
totvm ^us modi est, ut, si ego sfwm inconstcms,,,nec testimonio ßdem trSmi 
convenent,,.sin est in me ratio rei pMicae,,. nihil mmus aocusator debet 
dioere quam <tc. 

H.C. 11. 9 



130 BOOK n CH. XIV § 39. 

efficitur tarnen in homine virttis : tarnen as in § 18. ^EfficUw=ad 
effectum perducitur, Virtue is defined as the perfect development of the 
nature of each thiog {Leg. i 22 rdkü aliud quam in se perfecta et ad 
eummum perducta natura). In the wise man thia perfection is attained 
but rarely, owing to the res impedientes which Surround him. In the 
universe there are no such hindrances, and perfection is always attained'. 
Seh. 

sapiens et propterea deus : this i^ in accordance with the Pytha- 
gorean and Piatonic sentiment that a'o<l>6s is too high a title for any but a 
Qod {Phaedr, 276), but the Stoics allowed the abstract possibility of a 
man being wise. Strictly speaking there should have been an additional 
clause, answering to npoo-in dt dtSios av elrj in Sezt. ix 118, but eternity is 
here assumed. 

An. The heavenly hodiea also wre divine: (1) becaiLse they a/re 
eomposed of the pu/rest ether corresponding to owr vital heat, §§ 39 — 41. 

Indirect argument, as before (§21), cf. Sezt. Emp. ix 86 where it is 
shown that there must be inhabitants of ether, and that these must possess 
such and such qualities ; and if so do^i^o-crat «cal Btovs vnapx^i» rovr»y firj 
dta<l>€poifTa£, 

Ch. ZV. tribuenda est sideribus divinitas : on the divinity of the 
Stars cf. I 25, 27, 36, 39 and n 42, 43, 54, Äcad. n 119 (the Stoics hold) hunc 
mwndum esse sapiententj habere mentem, qtuie et se et ipsum fabricata sit et 
omnia moderetur, moveaty regat:...solemy lunam^ tteUas omnes, terramy mare 
deos esse^ quod quaedam animalis inteUegentia per omnia ea permanet et 
transeat; R,P. vi 15 homines sunt hoc lege gefnerati gui tuerentur ülum 
globum quem in hoc tempHo medium vides, qttae terra didtur ; iisque animus 
datus est ex Ulis sempitemis igntbus quae sidera et Stellas vocatis, quae 
globosae et rotundae divinis animatae msntibus circulos suos orbesque ctm- 
ficiunt celeritate mirdbili, Zeller iv p. 190, Yilloison on Comutus p. 526 foll. 
The belief in the divine nature of the stars, which had long prevailed in 
Egypt and Babylon and to which we find allusions in Deuteron, iv 15, 
Job zzzi 26, was brought into vogue in Qreece by Plato and bis foUowers 
and held as a doctrine by all the later orthodox schools, see Plato Leg. tu 
821, Tim. 40 quoted on i 30, Zeller n p. 686 foll., Aristotle quoted on i 33, 
Zeller ni p. 466 foll.. Philo quoted on n 33. Anazagoras, Democritus and 
the Epicureans held that the heavenly bodies were mere dead matter. 
Opinions were divided among the early Fathers, some holding with Origen 
{Cds. y p. 238) that ol iv ovpav^ dorcpcf (^a i<m Xoyiica ml cnrovdala, others, 
as Lactantius ii 5, denying it. Origen's view was anathematized in the 5th 
Council, held a.D. 553. 

mobilissima purissimaqne aetheris parte : Chrysippus held that the 

rjytfiovtKOp of the universe resided in tov aldipa rbv KaBapwrarov Kai eDiucpi' 
viararovy ort ircan-ay wKunfTOToerov Svra Kai rrjv oktfp nfpiayovra tov Koa-futv 



BOOK n CH. XV § 39, 131 

f^aw (Ar. Did. ap. Euseb. Fr, Ev. zv 15 § 8) ; Posidonius defined Surrpov 
(induding under the term the sun. and moon) as a^fia Bwp €$ alOtpos 
awtcmjKot \afiwpov «ral irvpmbws (Stob. Ed. I 24 p. 540), c£ below § 92. 

neqne uUa sunt admixta natura: ^compounded of any other ele- 
ment', cf. for constniction aer muUo ccdore admixtua est § 26. Chrysippus 
named the sun as an instance of a being consisting only of one element, 
fire ; the moon as an instance of a being into which two elements entered, 
viz. fire and air ; while all four elements were oombined in the nature of 
animals, Stob. Ed, 1 10 p. 315. This opinion of the mized nature of the 
moon was common to most of the Stoics, who spoke of it as consisting of 
irvp BoXtpov (Plut. Fac. in Orh. L. p. 935), as afpofuyifs and ycttdecr- 
Hpa (Posidonius ap. Diog. L. vn 146). Pliny (iV. ff. ii 9) says that the 
moon draws up earthly pai*ticles along with the ezhalations on which 
it feeds, c£ Stob. Ed, i 26 p. 550, Zeller iv p. 189», Macr. Ä Scip, i 19 
§12. 

perlncida: are we to take this in the sense of 'very bright' as in 
Dw. I 130 ühutrü et perludda etdla, and probably N. D. n 30, or in the 
more usual sense of transparent', as in i 75, ii 142, cf. perlucen» n 54? 
Doederlein wished to keep the form pMvcidue for this latter sense. We 
know that some of the Pythagoreans conceived the sun and moon to be 
voXocid^ (Zeller i 839) ; and Plut. {Fac, in Orh, 929 c) refers to those who 
compared the substance of the moon to glass or crystal ; Seneca {N, Q, 
vn 1) leaves it doubtfiil whether the stars were composed of fire or of 
earth penetrated by a fiery atmosphere. Posidonius believed that the 
moon reoeived its light from the sun, and that owing to its rarity it was 
transfused by this light to a considerable depth (Oleom, n 4 p. 106). 
Anaxagoras and Democritus held the sun (some say the moon also) to be 
a red-hot mass of metal or stone. On the other band we are told that 
Xenophanes thought that the moon was inhabited (Äcad, n 123) . 

§ 40. sensaam testimonio conflrmari : so Posidonius ap. Diog. vn 144 

nvp fiiw oZv flpai (rov rfKtov) ori. ra nvpos rrayra froicl, Seneca N. Q, vn 1 
that the stars are of flame viaus noeter confirmcU et ipeum ab Ulis fltiens 
lumen et oalar inde descendens, Aristotle denied this (de Cado n 7), 
ovrc nvpiyd cWiv ovr iv nvp\ <f)tp€rai (ra currpa), see below for bis own 
view. 

immeiuk) mundo: Seh. takes this as Dat., Ba. and Mu. insert in; I 
am inclined to agreer with Klotz that it is the Abi. of Attendant Oircum- 
atances, non est ^in mundo immenso*, sed ^cum mundo» immensus sä'; cL 
I 22 hoc spatio. 

is ejuß tactns est: 'its influence', much the same as appulsus in 
I SS4, n 141 ; c£ Div, n 97 plus terrarum situs quam lunae tactus ad neu- 
cendum valercy and the figurative use in Orot, n 60 of the influence of the 
study of Qreek authors, sentio iUorum tactu orcUümem meam quasi colorari^ 
where the metaphor is justified by the immediately preoeding oomparison 
of the influence of the sun, 

9—2 



132 BOOK II CH. XV § 40. 

non ut — combnrat : 'such as, I do not say, to warm only, but evBn to 
bum to ashes'. 

Oceaniqne alatur nmoriboB: cf. below § 118 and m 37, Porphyr. 

ÄrUr. Nymph, p. 257 ro« de airo r$f 1,toqs rfKiop fiep Tp4<f>€<rB<u « r^f ciard rrjs 
BaKairäTjs ava$vfiuurt<as cdd«c€t, atkiivrjv d* ck tc^v injycumv kcu. irorafiinav vd^oov, 
Tovs y daripas *f äpaßvfiuurfcis rfjs arrb rrjs yfjs, Seneca JT. §. VI 16 § 2 totum 
hoc cadum.,.omne» hae gtellae quarum fimiri non potest numertu, alimentum 
ex terreno trahimt,.,nec vUo alio scUicet gtiam halüu terrarum stuttnentury 
ibid. II 5 § 1, Stob. Ed. i p. 540, Oleom. 1 11 p. 61, Posidonius Bake p. 66, 
Zeller iv p. 189. The doctrine became a oommonplace of the poets e.g. 
Anacreon XIZ 3 mtf€i BaKaa-<ra d* avpasy 6 d* ifkios BaKcura'a»^ Lucr. 1 231 unde 
OLether sidera pascüF v 524, Äen. l 608, Lucan x 258 nee non Oceano paaci 
Phoebwmque poluTnque credimzu: it is put into the mouth of the angel 
by Milton P, Z. v 415 *for know, whatever was created needs to be sus- 
tained and fed : of elements the grosser feeds the purer; earth the sea, earth 
and the sea feed air ; the air those fires ethereal, and, as lowest, first the 
moon ; whence, in her visage round, those Spots, \mpurged yapours, not yet 
into her substance tumed. Nor doth the moon no nourishment exhale 
from her moist continent to higher orbs. The sun, that light imparts to 
all, reoeives from all bis alimental recompense in himiid ezhalations, and 
at even sups with the ocean', cf. THmon of Athens iv 3 439 — 443. It was 
held by Xenophanes (Zeller i p. 500, Karsten p. 161), Anaximander (Zeller 
p. 206 folL), Heraclitus (Zeller p. 622 and fr. 32 Bywater, v€os c<^* ^/ups 
ifXtot with nn.), Philolaus, who speaks of the lunar vapour as part of the 
nourishment of the world (Zeller p. 410, Boeckh p. 111), Democritus, who 
identified these ezhalations with the ambrosia of the poets (Zeller i p. 802). 
The Stoics seem to have connected it with the old belief in the sweet 
savour of sacrifices ascending to heaven, cf. Musonius ap. Stob. Mor, xvm 
43, p. 286 M. (roiff Beoit apKtiv ctf rpo<l>riv) rovs diro yfjs xai vdoror dpa<f>€p<h' 
fi€vovs oTfjLovty and Sext. Emp. ix 73 with note of Fabricius. AristoÜe had 
long before pointed out the absurdity of supposing that the sim was really 
fed by evaporation, Meteorol. ii 2 § 5 ' the ezhalations which rise from the 
sea are Condensed by the cold of the upper air and retum again in rain, 
dto «tat yfXouM iroPTts oaoi twv vporepop vtr^aßop top fjXiop rpi^ftttrSai rcp 
vyp$ : they argued that fire required nutriment ; but if this were the case, 
the sun would be merely the combustion of ever-changing fuel. It is really 
like the boiling of water; the fire beneath the kettle is not fed by the 
steam, of which it is the cause'; ibid. 12 'all that is taken up comes 
down in rain sooner or later' ; Ploß, Phü. ii 17 (Aristotle says) /«^ bfitröeu 
rh oCpoPta Tpoit>rjty ov yhp xfißapra aXX* dtbia ehfai. 

poBSit permaiiere : Mu. reads pouety as in § 49 in globosa forma es»e 
non pouety referring to his note {Praef. p. x) on Acad, n 72 ; this would 
mean 'could have continued', but there is no reason why we may not take 
it 'could continue under the supposed circumstances, viz. without food', cf. 
Roby § 1534. 



« 



BOOK II CH. XV § 40. 138 

pastu : Seneca ÜT. Q. n 5 tot sidera, tarn exercitcUa, tarn avida per diem 
noetemque, ut in opere ita et in pastu. 

On the two kinds of fire see iL on § 18 vmde susttUimus, and Stob. Ed. 
I 25 p. 538 Zijvmy top rfXioP <^f)(n Kiai r^y (rcXi/yiyi/ Koi r&v aXXo>v aarptov 
ttcaoTov thfcu vo€p6p Kai (lipovtfwv irvpiyov de nvp6s t^xpikov' dvo yap yanj 
irvpof, To lUv mxyov kclI fAeraßdKkoy th cavro t^i' rpo^i; v, t6 W T€;(WicÄi' ovfi/Ti- 
KovTt Kai TTjprjriKov, otov iv roig <^vro» eWl xal doiSf o b^ (l>wns eWi Koi ^Xl* 
Aristotle seems to allow the name 'fire ' for the latter in a passage from 
Bespir. c. 8, quoted on § 23 quod est calidum, and Änim. Oen. in 11 cited 
below on animantium ortus; but elsewhere he argues strongly on the 
other aide, as in Meteor, i 3 * if the intervals between the heavenly bodies 
were fall of fire, and if they were themselyes composed of fire, aU the 
other elements would have been bumt up. Fire has not the power of 
generating life, as the sun has, inip luv ovBev ytvy^ (^p...i^ de rov jjklov 
BepftoTTfs Koi )J T»p (<f»p...tfxft' fanic^i' äpxrip. The life-giving principle iß 
vpwvpa Koi 1/ €P rf irP€vfutri (f>va-i£ dpakoyop ovaa r^ tSp äarp^p oroixc^^ 
(c£ Zeller in p. 483 foli.). Ether extends from the uttermost circumferenoe 
to the moon, becoming lees pure as it approaches the air below the moon« 
The Upper portion of the air becomes ignited by the rapid motion of the 
oelestial spheres and thus generates the heat we feel' ; ibid. i 4 § 2 Hhere 
are two kinds of evaporation (dpoßvplaa-is), one damp from moisture, the 
other dry and smoke-like from earth ; the latter rises higher and forms 
the belt of fire improperly so called, because what we know by the name 
of fire is the combustion of this warm vapour' ; see Stob. JSd. i 25 p. 534 
and Theophrastus fr. m 6, where he distinguishes between to B^pphv 
(which is a true dpx^ ai^d the cause of natural growth) and fire, of which 
he says to de irvp yevprjriKOP yAP avrov, i^BapriKoP de W9 eVcVav t&p oXXooy, 
oB€P Kxii brjkop oSf mpa Tis i; (fixxns itvpos Kai 6(pfiov. The difierence may 
be illustrated by the Persian and Egyptian ideas of fire (Herod. n 16) 
' the former believe it to be a god, the latter believe it to be a wild animal, 
which eats whatever it can seize, and then, glutted with the food, dies with 
the matter which it feeds upon'. Some of A.'s arguments had been 
previously employed by Socrates against Anaxagoras, Xen. Mem. iv 7 § 7 
cVccyof yap Xryoy ftev to ovto tlpai irvp re ical ^lop ijypoei, tos to fihf irvp 
ol Spöptairoi pqdias KaOopma-iP, eis de top f[ku)P ov dvpcarnu diroßKmtP* Ktä 
viro fUp Tov iJXiov icaroXa/üurJ/ievoi ra XP^P'^'^^^ p^XAprepa ?;(Ova'iv, virb de 
tov nvpos ov' i/yyoei de oti Kai tSp €k tjjs yfjs <^voficVA>v &ev /iey tjkiov avyijs 
ovdev dvyarat naK£s aü^taSai, wrb de tov wpos BtpiunpopLtpa irdpTa dirSKkvrai' 
iftdxFKmp de rov ^Xtoy \i6op tidurvpop ftpai Kai tovto i^yyoei, 8ti \iBos fup iv 
wpl mp ovTt Xd/i9rei ovre noXxfp xpopop dpTex^iy 6 de ifkios top ftdvra xpoMW 
wdmwp XafJLirporoTos »p diofieyei. 

§ 41. confector: cf. § 137 cibtts confectus ooctusque, and § 134 ; ScL 
cites eonfedria rerum vetustas quoted fit>m Cic. by Lact, vn 11 § 5. 

corporeil8»^t cofporibus animantium continetur above, 'situated in 
the body ', so Fin. ni 45 rerum corporearum aestimatio splendore vvrtutis 



184 BOOK n CH. XV § 41. 

(^}9GUjretur neoesse est, The more common sense is 'corporeal' Le. ^con- 
sisting of body ' as in Tim, 4. 

utri similis — BÜnilifl igninm : we have the same variety of construc- 
tion below § 149 plectrusim, comibu$ nm,, Lucr. iv 1211 tum simile$ 
mairum matemo semtneßunt, vi patrihtu patrioy with Munro's n. 

et quidem religua astra, quae : ' aye and the other stars, since they 
have their origin in ether\ It is implied that the life of the stars is not 
quite so easy of belief as that of the sun. There is no reason for Orelli's 
oorrection at^^ item. Müller (on Tuec v bOprarf, p. xliy) cites ^c n 11, 
60, Fin, u 13, lii 8, v 94, Ttuc. i 83, m 13, 14, 50, Div. i 112, ii 77, OraL 
152, see above § 36 and i 79 n. 

aether Tel caelnm : c£ 1 33 n. and Diog. vn 139 quoted on § 29 quae 
nan solitaria sit. 

A n (2). Since each of the lower elementSy earth, waUr, air, 
hoB ita living occupant^ it is probable that it is so also with the 
highest element, ether : and since the nature of the animal depends 
upon the dement in which it lives, it is probable that those which live 
in the purest and moet active element will poesess the keenest and 
pwrest inteUigence, ^ 42, 43. 

§ 42. azüznaiitiiiiii ortus : for the argument compare Sext Emp. 
IX 86, cited on § 17 above, ' If earth and sea^ in spite of their gross nature, 
produce various sentient creatures, how much more will the far finer and 
purer element of air produce rational creatures! And indeed we have 
Hesiod's authority for this in the lines, in which he speaks of the myriad 
watchers of Zeus who haunt the earth. Further if the air is inhabited by 
living beings, surely the same must be true of the ether, from which we 
men derive our rational faculty. Such etherial beings must far transoend 
the creatures of earth, being uncreated and immortal'. This is further 
explained by a passage of Yarro ap. Aug. C. D. yu 6, * the imiverse is 
divided into heaven (including ether and air), and earth (including land 
and water) : each region has its own inhabitants, inmiortals in heaven, 
mortals on earth; ab summa autem circuitu caeli ad circtUum lunae 
aetheriat esse animae, aetra ao tteUae ; eoe oaeUstes deoe non modo inUÜegi 
esse, sed etiam videri; inter lunae vero gyrum et nimJborum ac ventorum 
cacumina aerias esse anirruis, sed eas animo non octdis . videri, et vocari 
heroas et lares et genios, Galen Eist. Phil, 124 traces this doctrine to 
Plato and Aristotle, nX. koI *Ap. riaa-apa €l»at (t^p ycyi; \€yov<n x'P^^^ 
hntdpa irrrfva ovpdvia' icai yap rä Siorpa {^a fl^at Koi avrot 6 Koa-fios C^ow 
Xoyuroy dßavarov, c£ Plac. Phä. v 20. We find it in Tim, 40 < the Demi- 
urgufl attached to each element its appropriate animals, tla\ dt rcrropcr, 
ftla luv ovpmuov BtAv yivot (stars), oXXi; d< imyvov nai atpotropov (biids and 
men), rpin; de twbpov ci2br (fishes), frc^oy de kxu xfp<''<'^'io¥ riraprow (beasts), 
rov lUv oZv Otiov rrjp frXciirn^y idcav <«c nvpos dwrfp^aro, oirms ori Xa^irporamv 



BOOK n CH. XV § 42. 135 

ld€ip T€ KoKKurrov cTi;^ r^ di irarrl vpoo-eiKaCav eSicvKkov cVo/ci. In the 
Epinomis § 8 we find five elementa, fire, ether, air, water, earth ; the stars 
inhabit fire, animals and plante the earth, and the intermediate elementa 
aie inhabited by dififerent Orders of rational beings, water by njmphs &c. 
Zeller n p. 892'. The reference to Aristotle in the tezt is doubtless to 
the lost dialogue De Phüosophia (see Bemays DM. Ar, p. 102), but it 
agrees with occasionaJ hints in his extant writings, e. g. Anim. Oen. m 11 
rä fUp yap <f>x/Ta B^irf ris äp yrjs, vdaros de ra ScpvBpa, rä de vt^a d§pos».» 
TO de rirapTOp ytpot ovk cVl tovt<»p tSp roirciP M (i/reti/* jcotroi ßovXercU 
yi n Kora rrfp rov irvpog €i»ai ra^iv, rovro yap riraprop apiBpjtirai. twp 
a-^futrap (though it is usually found in combination with one of the 
other elements), oXXadci ro toiovtop yepos (rfTtip eVl rifs ircXifn;!* avnj yäp 
ffHUPtrai Kowmpovo'a rfjs reraprris oTToardtricasj Respir. 0. 13, Eth. VI 7 § 4 koL 
yap avBpmrov oKka (C^a) nokv Btiortpa Ttjp (f>va'ip, olop ^MP€p<ifrara ye cf «ip 
6 Koa-fios <rvpi(miKfP, These inhabitants of the fourth element (called in 
his later writings ro av<o or erepov <TToix€iov) are not of course to be 
confounded with Ühi^pyratuta referred to in 1 103, though Philo {OigarU. 2} 
Btrives to bring them into connezion ; opayKq yap oKop bC oK<op top Koiryuop 
h^vxwrBaij tSp irptarap kolL crroixf^^b&v fi€p^P tKoarov rä otffcta Ka\ irpoa^opa 
C^ TTtpitxoPTOs' yrjs ftev ra xi^ptrcuaj BakoTTTft de Koi noTOfitip ra Ipvbpa^ Ttvpos 
de Tairvpiyopa,,.ovpapov de tovs ätrripaSf 'a fortiori the air, which supplies 
life to the other elements, must itself be inhabited by rational beings, 
perceptible not to sense, but to reason', cf. Casaub. on Athen, p. 618, 
ApuL D, Socr, c. 8 folL 

aceixlmo : cf. above, 30, 31. 

Ch. ZYL etenim : refers to last sentence but one, see nn. on etenim 
above § 16 and i 91, also on ttaque i 85. 

acntiora ixigenia : on the influenco of climate see above § 17 n. 

§ 43. dbo (lUO ntare : I am indebted to Mr Boby for the following 
note. " I should translate, * then again, what it is one uses as f ood, they 
think makes some difference', taking dbo as Predicative Dative {Gr. n 
pre£ pp. xxxin and xxziz). Compare Lucr. vi 771 (in the earth there are 
many things) eibo quae sunt, Varro R. KulS ^3 cibcUui quod sit, objiciwni 
triticum siccum in centenos vioenos turturesfere »emodmmy ib. m 5 § 4 ciba- 
tut offas posüas. In the two former ezz. the Dative preoedes the pronoim, 
and in the 3rd it Stands first in the clause. We have another example of 
cibo predicative in Phaedr. iv 8 4 haec cum iemptaret, d qua res esset cibOf 
limam momardü (mbs have cihi: cibo is BenÜey^s conj.). We find utor 
with a similar Dative in Varro L. Z. x 27 eam dicimus muliebrem {twndcam) 
quae de eo ffenere est quo indutui mvlveres ut uterentwr est instttutum, For 
the Order compare fiirther Varro L. L. v 131 prvus dein indutui^ tum 
amidui quae sunt tangam^ Liv. xui 11 beneßciis etiam suis^ ingentia quae 
in cum congesta erant, Lucr. i 336 namque oßcium quod corporis exstat^ 
oßcere atque obstare, id in omni tempore obesseL^ Three reasons may be 

igned for the order here ; it puts the new subject matter prominently 



136 BOOK n CH. XVI § 43. 

forward, it avoids the hezameter rhythm quinetiam qtio ntare dbo^ it sog- 
gests that quo and ciho are in different casea. 

interesse ad mentiB aciem : the vegetananism of the Pythagoreana 
is well known, cf. Mayor on Juv. xv 173, 174, lambL 7. P, c. 24, Cic. Div. 
I 62 (beans were forbidden) quod habet ir^ßationem magnam ü cibus tranr- 
quülücUi mentis quaerenti vera contrariam, Plato recommended spare 
eating to produce good dreams, Eep, ix 571 translated by C. Div. i 60; 
see for the general subject Musoninfi de Victti, Stob. Mor, xix p. 159, and 
on the uae of hellebore for restoring sanitj, Juvenal xin 97 with Mayor's 
n. We leam from Galen {Hipp. Fiat. p. 466 IL) that Poeddonius, in the 
Ist book of his frfpl ira6£v, gave a sort of summary of Plato's rules with 
regard to the tndning of children, laying stress on their diet and on that 
of the mothers during pregnancj, in order to prevent the preponderanoe 
of the irrational part of the souL 

A n 3. The intdligence of the etara is ahoum by thevr orderfy 
movemeTUs, whieh proceed not from wxJbwre or chamce, hui from their 
oum free^mll. §§ 43, 44. 

seiunim aBtromm dedaiat ordo atque constantia: see above on 
§§4 and 15 and below § 55. The argument is fiilly given by Plato Leg, 
X 897, as foUowB : ' it having been shown that soul is the origin of move- 
ment, and that the movements of the heavenly bodies are therefore evi- 
dences of psychical energy, the question arises as to the character of 
the soul by which they are actuated. This may be inferred firom the 
character of the movement: the uniform rotatory movement of the 
spheres is a rational movement; therefore the soul which causes this 
movement is rational, and each soul presiding over any portion of the 
movement rational also'. Compare too the EpinomU 982 roiv Mpwnois 
rxp^y TtKfifpiOP thuu Tov povp tx^^ &arpa rc xal avfimurcaf ravTff» lifv dioxro- 
ptua^f ^rt ra aüra acl irparrti dia to ßcßovXcv/icva naXat irparmy. . .dXX* ov 
fitraßovKtvofuvop äva Hai KdT»...n\apa<r6ai t€ koI fitroKvkkufrdaij and Arist. 
Cael, I 3 ' the celestial substanoe is etemal, neither increased nor dimin- 
ished, and this is shown not only by reason but also by experience, cV 
äiravri yap rf frap€\f}\v66Ti XP^^^ '^'^^ ^^ irapad€l^fUvTiP äkk^Xoig /uf^fjoiP 
ov$€p <l>cuprr(u /iiraß«ß\r}Khs ovt€ Kaff Skop top Zaxarop ovpap^p ovr€ xara 
liopiop avrov t»p oUtwp ovB4p\ On the immutability of this upper region 
cf. § 55 n. 

ratione et nnmero moveri :«=Xoy7 kcX pvBii^ or kot* dpiß/iop (Plato 
Tim, 37). The movements of the stars were often compared to a dance 
as in Epinomie 982 s. 

neque natnram neqne fortnnaiiL: we have here nature (^v^rw), 
Chance (Tvxn)} ^^^ free-will (irpoaipco-is or yovr) opposed, as in Arist. Bth, 
m 3 § 7 atTUL yap doKOvatP tlpoi <l>v<ris Koi dpayiaj Kai Tvxilt cri d^ roGr Koi 
nap TO di* dpBptiwtiP, ibid. I 9 § 5, Phy», il 6 § 8 virrtpop apa Th auToparop Kai 
j Tvx>J xal pov Koi if^atmg' »ar tl m ftaXiora tov ovpopov oLtiop to aim>- 



BOOK II GH. XVI § 43. 137 

» 

fMOToVf dpayiaj ffplrrtpov vovv «cal <f)vu'iv airiap ^Ivai xal SKKtov noKk&v koL 
Tovdt Tov nam-osy ibid. II 5 foll., and 4 § 5 tM de rivts ot koI tov ovpopov 
rovde Kai rcSv KoafUKoiy irdvrtfy curuSvrat t6 ovroiuvrov' iaro ravro/Aorov yap 
yuf^tröai r^y bivriv Kai rriv Kivria-iv rfjv dicucpiva<ra» «eal KQTaarrj(raa'av eis ravnyv 
n)v Ta(uf ro iräy* kcH fjtaka tovto Oaviuifrai a(iov, \«yovT€s yap rh fiiw (^ 
Koi rä <f>vTa mrb rvxjjs fir/rt ttvcu fiifre yivtaßaiy aXX* ^rot ^wriv ^ vovvy 
H Tt rotovTOP trepov tivat ro aiTiop ... top d* ovpopop kcli rä Bwiorcera r&p 
ft>€i¥€pi»p airo rov avronaTov y9P€<r6ai^ ToiavTrjp ^ airiap furfdtfxiav ciku oiop 
tAp Ct^p Kat rap <f>vT£py K.rA., fiirther on (n 8 foll.) Arist. discuases the 
relation of ro dpayKalop to causation, cf. also Part. An, i 1 § 35 foll. where 
the action of <f>viris is compared with that of rc^io;, rvxr) and dpdyKrj. 
Much the same is Plato's division (Z€^. x 888 e) Xryovo-/ irov tip€£ »g 
nopra cWt rä irpayfiara yeypo/jktpa koI ytp6ft€Pa km y€Pria-6fJk€Pa rä lup 
fpva-tty rä de rix^ (=Arist.'s povs), rä de dia rvxjip^ that all great changes 
are due to the former, and only slight modifications to the latter. Thus 
the elements ezist by nature, and the world, as we see it, is produoed by 
ohance, Le. by the fortuitous concourse of elementary particles;. art 
enters in subsequently and gives us our Systems of religion, politics, &a 
They have forgotten the real first principle, Soul, the powers and pro- 
perties of which are prior to the powers and properties of bodies ; of these 
powers intelligence is the first, of which art is one development ; and that 
which we call nature is the effect of reason and art, so that rä fieyaka 
Koi npAra tfpya Kai irpo^cir rcxi^ff äp yiypoiro...rä de <fivtT€t K<ä ffivcrii,..{i(rr€pa 
Kai dpxofitpa äp €k rfx^^ '»7 i^ ^v, Stobaeüs {JEd, i 6 § 17) says that 
Arisiotle makes four causes Koff äs airapra avpiarttraif povp, (ßwrip, äpayKrfPj 
rvxt^ "EO^ Tovrmp diirkfjp cfcoon/i', rffp fiep ev rois dpßptnripois irpayfjuuriy rrjp 
d* cV aXXois...r^p d* elfiapfUpriP ovk alria» yApy rpoirop 84 ripa alriasy and 
attributes the same Classification of causes to Theophrastus, with the Sub- 
stitution of vpoaipetns for povs^ and to Anaxagoras and the Stoics, except 
that, omitting ^vo-ir (which, according to the Stoic view, would include 
aU), he adds tlftapfuprf and ro ovrofiarop. See below § 88 where castis, 
necesntcu and mens are opposed. 

neque naturam signiflcat : it is evident that natu/ra is not used in 
the füll Stoic sense, but as -defined below § 81 vim quandam sine ratUme 
cientem motus necessarios, cf. i 35, m 27. 

ftmica Tarietati : cf. Div, n 109 varieUu quae est propriafoffunae. 

constantiam respnit : cf. m 61, IHv. n 18, Arist. Fhys. n 5 o \6yos 

f rcov acl orro»v ^ r»v «is firl ro froXv, i; di rvxjl 4p rois yiypofjjpois wapä 

rODTiaL 

§ 44. nec vero AriBtoteles non laadandns : for the Omission of est 
cf. § 59 dictum etiam de sidenbtis, § 67 Vestae nomen a Cfraecis, § 73 moffnus 
sane locus et a vestris vexatus, § 80 nihü autem majus mundo, § 167 magnds 
viris prosperae semper omnes res, and Index. 

qnae moventnr— qnae moverentur : for the combination of moods 
aee above § 23 quae cUantur n. and below § 72 qui preoabantur n., and 



188 BOOK n CH. XVI § 44. 

compare Dem. Ändrot, p. 600 cdrla €<rriyj orav rtt yftiK^ xP^^'^^f^'^^^ \cy^ fuj 
vapaaxVf^ vltTruf^ ^v Xryc t, tktyxos de, oray, «y h.v tinqf rir, Kai rdkifBit ofiov 
b€lijly cited by Madv. Or. Gr, § 126. 

natura, vi, voluntate: here we have vU taking the place offortuna 
above : compare Arist. Met. v 5 p. 1015, where, after giving an account of 
<l)wris, he goes on to speak of dvayKoiov and says in one use it is equivalent 
to TO ßiaiov, rovTo d* eWl t6 vapa. r^v opfi^y (s^vcrty) Koi n)y irpocupifruf. 
So Utk. II 1 virtue is neither t^va-ti nor irapa <f)v<nv {=ßiq) but (as ahown 
at length in bk. m) npoaip€atiy cf. CaeU iii 2 KUfttaBai opayKoiop /3tf , cc fu) 
otKM'uuf exet Kttnja-iVy to de /3tf xol irapa (ftva-iv tgvtov, 

auae natura moverentur...circtimferretnr: Aristotle dlstinguishes 
two kinds of simple motion, the circular and the rectilinear: the latter 
belongs to the sublunary Clements, thus it is the nature of fire and air to 
rise from the centre towards the circumference, of water and earth to sink 
towards the centre ; the former (the circular) naturallj belongs to the 
Buperlunar region, the heaven and the spheres on which the heavenlj bodies 
revolve (dyayxatoy tußai ti trafia dnXovv o irttffVKt (Pepta-Öai n^y kvkX^ KiPffiriP 
Kora T^v iavrov <l>va'iv, Phys, vm 9, Cad, 1 2). We do not however find 
him ever denying that the circular movement is natural, or contrasting it, 
as volimtary, with the natural movements of the terrestrial elements. On 
the contrary he blames Plato for defining soul as the self-moving principle 
{An, 1 3), and for assigning circular movements to the soul, both in the 
macrocosm and in the microcosm, os oppoeed to the rectilinear movements 
of bodies («of ovaat tos tov ovpavov ijiopas tos r^s V^x4^ ictn/creiff, ibid. § 12, 
cf. Plato Leg. x 897 folL, yet elsewhere Arist. seems to have oompared the 
activity of vovi to circular movement, see Trend, in loc.) ; see also Cod. ii 
1 ' it is impossible that the circular movement of the heaven should be 
caused by the compulsion of a soul residing in it, for that would be to at- 
tribute the fate of Ixion to such a souL It moves by the attractive foroe 
of the First Mover, that divine supematural principle which «civci ov 
KUfovfi€vov\ Still we are not to think of the heavenly bodies as consisting 
of brüte matter, Cad. ii 12 dXX* 17/ictr »s ir€pi a-vfiarwv avT»v /lorav, jcal 
fiovadmv To^ip fuv exoyro»y, dtf/vx^^P de ird/ifray, dcoyoov/ie^* dei d* ds /ic- 
T€x^vT»p npd^tws Kai C^rjs.,,dih dei voyl(ifw Koi rijp Tciv aarpav trpa^uf tum 
ToiavTTjy otoTrep i; tSv ^<^<k>y Koi <^vr»v* Ktä yap ivravBa al tov dvOptawav 
irXeiarai «rpd^etff. . .rf d' €os dpiara Ixoyri ovBip de? nrpd^eoDS* tfari yap avr^ 
Th oS ?vexa; in Met. xn 8 p. 1073 a, it is distincüy said that there must be 
besides the First Mover a separate etemal mover for each of the separate 
planetary movements ; cf. Cael. 11 3 ^eov d* cVepyem dBapa(ria...wrT «yoyn| 
r^ ^ei^ KiPTfO-tp dtdtop virdpxfiif» eVel d* o ovpopot toiovtos {<rApa yap rt 
Btiop) hui TovTo tx^f' T'd iyKVKkiop a-öipa, o «^vcrec KiPtirai kvk\^ aet, and 
Plac. Phil, n 3, Stob. Ed. i 486. Proclus on Tim. 82 a infers the same 
from Metaph. xn 7 p. 1072 b 3 (Ktyel car ip^fupop) ' if the universe is in love 
with Reason and moves towards it, it must have feelings and impulses of 
its own\ So Theophrastus (fr. 12 §§ 7 — 9 Wimmer) speaks of the clpc^ 



BOOK II CH. XVI § 44. 189 

and f^co-fff which iinpels the stars, and Eudemus sajs that the movement 
of the heaven must be a vital movement ({'»rixif frc^s) like ours on earth, 
for it is aelf-impelled (Brandis JSchol, p. 433 a 45). Arist. seems to 
suggest something of the kind in the de Anima m 11 § 3 'at times 
appetite (ip€$is) moves the will, at times the \?ill the appetite, like the 
sphere ', which Trendelenburg explains of the highest sphere which cames 
round with it all the inferior planetary spheres ; the readings however 
Vary. On the other hand there is a curious pa^sage {Met, xi 10 p. 
1076 a) in which neoessity seems to be attributed to the movements of the 
heavenly bodies in contrast to the spontaneous movements of the inferior 
members of the imiverse, see Qrant's comment upon it in his essay on 
ÄrtstaU^s Conception of Nature, Bemays Dial, Ärüt. p. 103 foll. thinks 
that Aristotle may have spoken of the stars having a motion of their own 
(^^' iavT»v) distinct from the motion which we regard as natural, and 
that C.'s volurUate may have arisen from a confiision between this and e0' 
4avToiSj ^ a motion depending on themselves ' ; but the passages cited by 
Bywater in the Journal of Phüolo^ make it probable that Arist. in his 
populär dialogue may have attributed voluntary action to the stars, and 
certainly in the preceding paragraphs of the N, D. the orderly movements 
of the stars are ascribed to their own intelligence, not to any superior 
power. 

pondere ant levitate : Arist believed that there were such qualities 
as absolute weight and absolute lightuess, Cad, iv 4 €im ri Ank&t kov(I>op 
Koi att>MS ßapv* Xeyio b* carXms kov(I)ov o dil &<», Kai ßapv o cul Korm irc<^VKr 
f^p^aSai iirj K«o\v6ftevov' roiavra yhp iarl rivoy Koi ovx «^cnrcp oiovrcd rtvcr 
«royr' fx'iv ßdpos. See the criticism in Lucr. 1 1083, n 184 folL 

in sublime ferri : this is the reading of Orelli's mss here and below 
§ 141, but the edd. have omitted in in both places. Again in § 117, where 
the edd. read tublime^ the reading of the mss is avblimi or sMimis. We 
have however no Variation of reading in § 101 siihltme fertur, § 89 tuMime 
rapi, § 65 sublime fusum, Tusc. i ^ sublime ferri, ib. 102 svMime ptUrescatf 
Div. II 67 8ublimsfix€L In the last two instanoes it is üsed without any idea 
of motion. These instances show that the copyists found no difSiculty in 
the Omission of the preposition ; so that, unless it is contrary to the Latin 
idiom, there is no occasion to suppose that they have interpolated it here ; 
and there is no a priori reason against in stiblims more than against in 
altum; moreover the lezz. citemany ezx. of sublime used with in and other 
prepositions. 

qnomm neutnim contingeret : the Inf would have been more regu- 
lär here after the simple relative, but the Subj. is sometimes substituted 
for it^ see above § 24 ct^'us in reliquOs insit, i 12 ea qito exstüü with n., 
Acad. I 41 quod erat sensu comprehensum, id ipsum sensum appeüabat, et si 
ita erat..Mnentiam; sin aliter, inscientiam nominabat; ex qua exsisteret 
etiam opinio, quae esset imbedUa ; Madv. Fin, i 30, and Reid on Lad, 45 
qua firui fum possit. 



140 BOOK n CH. XVI § 44. 

.• eorom motos in orbem circnmferretiir: I have followed Seh. in 
omitting the que after drcum, Heind. reads circumquaque, but that seems 
to be post-claasicaL The expression motiLS ferretur is pleonastic, like 
curnu movetur R. F. vi 18, see on caeli impetum below § 97. 

vi quadam nugore : the same argument is used below § 76 to prove 
that God govems the world. Anstotle argues {fJa/d. i 2) that the circular 
movement cannot be against nature, becanse, if it were so, it mu£(t speedilj 
die away (as a stone thrown upward). 

motus astrorum voluntarins : whether rightly orwrongly ascribed to 
Aristotle, this was certainly the Stoic doctrine, cf. § 31 <ua yoonte and below, 
§ 54. Cleomedes 1 3 makes the general movement of the heaven neoessary, 
and the particular planetary movements voluntary, KUftirai fUp nal rijp trvv 
rf Koafi^ Kitnj<ri>v dpayKoicif, Kivwircu de Koi eripav npooiptrua^v. In faßt the 
Word irpoacpcTcio} becomes with him technical in this application, as in n 1 
pp. 81 and 84. Lucretius alludes to the Stoic doctrines v 78 pra£terea ioUs 
cwravs lunaeque meatus expediam qua vi flectat natura ffubemans; ne 
forte haec inier oadum terramque reamwr libera sponte sua cursus luttrare 
perennes, mori^era adfrugee augevidae atque animantes. 

QUi videat : hypothetical subjimctive, cf. i 43 n, n 12, 76. 

impie fa>ciat: cf. Philo Incorr. Mund, p. 489 M. < Aristotle charged 
with impietj (dcu^v äjSivnjra KortylvwiKt) those who thought that the visible 
divinit j, who embraces in himself the sun and moon and all the heavenly 
host, was to be compared with the works of men's hands'. Lactantios n 5 
accepts the challenge here given, ei deos eese idcirco opinantur quia certoe 
et ratümabiles aureus haberUj errant. Ex hoc enim apparet deoe tum eeeey 
guod exorbitare Ulis a praeetittUis üinerOme non licet, Ceterum ei di eeeenty 
huc atque illucpaeeim eine uUa neceeeitate ferrentur, eicut animantee in terra 
,„Nimirum Deue umverei artifex eic iUa dieposuit utper epatia caeli divina 
ratione decurrerent, . . * if the Stoic had seeu the figures of the planets moving 
in the orrerj of Archimedes, would he have said that they moved of therr 
own JGree-wiU 1 \.,ineet eidertbvA ratio, sed Dei est Uta ratio. 

nee miütum IntereBt : is this an unseasonable piece of anti-Epicurean 
polemic inserted by Cicero, or is it a caution added by the original writer 
i^ainst a special point in the Aristotelian theology? 

qui nihil a^t — esse non videtnr: cf. i 110 actuoea n. and below 
§76. 

vix sanae mentis existimem : that atheism is insanity is a common- 
place with Baibus, cf. 4, 16, 31, 36, 44, 55, 56, 115, 147. 



B. The Divinb Nature. g 45—72. 

a. The Divine form, as it is seen in the hemgs aJI/ready recog- 
nized as Divine, viz, the wniverse and the heavenly bodies §§ 45 — 49 ; 
b. the Divine activity as shown in the same §§ 49 — 57 ; c. the pravi- 



BOOK n CH. XVII § 45. 141 

derUud actvoity of nature ^ 57, 58 ; d. the goda of the poptdar 
rdigion §§ 60 — 70 ; e. how they are to he worahipped ^71, 72. 

B a (1). 7%« popiUace omd the Epicureana wrongly hold that 
Ood 18 in the form of man. ^ 45, 46, cf. § 59. 

Compare with this i 45 foll. where Velleius, after stating the grounds 
on which the Epicureans believed in the existence of the pods, goes on to 
desCTibe et formam et vüae actianem mentisque agüoUionem in deo ; so § 51, 
quaerere aoleds quae vita deorum sitf quaeqne ah iis degaJtwr aetaa, 

Ch. xvn § 45. a consnetudiiie ocnloniin : cf. Tu»c. i 38 (of the 
dif&cultj of conceiving the exiBtence of the disembodied spirit) magni est 
xngenii sevocare mentem a sendbus et cogitationem ah consttetttdiTie ahducere; 
also § 96 and iii 20. The reference is to the Images of gods in human 
form which met the eye at every tum, cf. i 77. 

vulgo imperitos : [' uneducated people generally '. Vulgo, like partim^ 
was used ahnost like an indeclinable Substantive ; see the passages from 
Cic. and Liv. quoted in (7r. § 1428. K.] We find imperiti contrasted with 
pkUosopki also in ni 39. 

levitas : ' shallowness'. confatata a Ootta : i 46 and 76. 

nihil Bit praestantius : so even the Epicureans, as we see in the next 
§ and I 47. 

ad praesensioneiii accommodem : cf. i 37 in animi notUme tamquam 
in veatigio reponere, and Orot. 23 ttnum (Demoethenem) accommodare ad 
eam quam seniiam eLoqueiäiam. 

Qnam nt.. Jndicem: pleonastic for quam mwndum, 

primnin hnnc mimduin : we should have ezpected this to be followed 
by deinde ndera, but the connezion is broken by a parenthesis lasting to 
§ 49. 

§ 46. qnain yolet : 'let him jest as he will'; cf. Ter. ffec, iv 4 12 
tufhent quam vdint ; pro Caelio 63 quam vdü eü potens ; ib. 67 qruam volent 
faceti nrU; Leg. Agr. ii 34 eTiiere agros quam volent Tnagru) poterunt ; Div, i 
56 quam veUet cunctaretur tarnen esse pereundum; Verr. v 5 facinua quam 
vultia improbum. In the last ex. the meaning is scarcely to be distinguished 
firom quamvia, 

non aptisaimiiB ad jocandnm : cf. below § 74 and 1 123 n. 

resipieiUI patriam: Mart. ni 20 lepore tinctoa Attico aalea narrcU. 
Epicurus, though bom in Samos, was the son of an Athenian Citizen and 
belonged to the deme Gargettus ; hence caJled Oargettiu», Fam, xv 16. 

▼olnbiüB et rotnndas : c£ 1 18, 24. 

necesse sit : is not this a Stoic way of putting it ? The Epicureans 
admitted the existence of an ideal, but this was on the ground of ex- 
perienoe, cf. i 49. 

nihil est meUns : repeated from §§ 18, 31, 36, 38. 

§ 47. panlo poet cognoscentnr : below § 57. 



142 BOOK n CH. xvra § 47. 

B a (2). Ths sphere ia the most per/ect of solids, cmd drctdcar 
revohition ia the most per/ect of movements, and this is the form and 
this tlie movement of the universe and the stars. §§ 47 — 49. 

Ch. XVIII. noli...doctrina6 : 'praj don't display jour utier ignoranoe 
of science*. The reference is to i 24. What follows may be thus para- 
phrased : 'You teil us a cone is more beautiful than a sphere. That is a 
solecism in taste as well as in science. But supposing your ignorance in 
geometry excuses this, surely as a natural philosopher you ought to have 
understood the advantages of the sphere'. 

doctrinae : cf. 1 72 nn. Äcad. n 106 Polyaenus, qui magrnus mathematicu* 
faisM dicitur...Epicuro asserUiens totam geometriam falsam esse credidii; 
Fin, I 72 where the Epicurean Speaker justifies his contempt for muaic, 
geometry, arithmetic, astronomy ; and my Sketch of Ancient Pküosophy 
p. 183 foll. 

sphaera : the word seems to have been naturalized by Ennius, Orot, m 
162 quamvis sphaeram in scaenam, ut dicitur, cUtvlerü Ennius: Cic. uses it 
below § 88 in the sense of *orrery*. 

oculonim }\i^civim=jiuiicium subtile videndis artihus Hör. ^. n 1 
242 ; cf. Orator 150 offendunt aures quarum est Judicium sufperbissimum'y and 
below § 146. 

dumtazat aspectu: 'as far as the eye is concemed\ Seh. refers to 
Madv. ^n. n 21. 

qnod mihi tarnen ipsum non videtur : 'though I don't even allow 
that\ 

flgura qnae sola omnes alias continet : cf. Tim. 6 a quo enim aid- 

mavti omnes reliquos corUineri vdlet animanteSy hunc ea forma ßffuravit, qua 
wna omnes formal reliquae conduduntury et qlobosttm est fabricatuSf quod 
axjxupoiidig Oraeci vocantj cujus omnis extremitas parüms a media radiis 
attingitur: idque üa tomavit... nihil asperitatis ut hdberet, nihil offensionis^ 
nihü incisum angulis, nihil anfractibus, nihil lacunosum, omnesque partea 
simülimas omnium, This is a filling out of the original (Plato Tim. 33) r^ 
de rä rravT cV avr^ (wa irepieAeiy /icXXovrA (ii^a> vpiirov a» tirj trx^iui to 
frcptciXi^^of €v avT^ rravra onoaa (rx^fiara' dio Kai cn^acpocidcr, €k fitirou 
irpüs ras reXtvras tcov äirixov KVKkoTtph avro €Topv€wraTo irdvr^p rcX€«»naror 
ofioi^rarov rt avro iavr^ (rx^p-^rcdv. The sphere is the limit of the do- 
decahedron which Pythagoras and Plato made the cosmic figure, and 
contains in itself all the other regulär solids, in such a manner that all 
their angles will touch the circumference. 

nihil offensionis: 'nothing to impinge against/ lit. 'nothing of im- 
pingement'. 

incisum angiilis. . .anfractibns : 'no indentation or concavity'. It ia 
curious that though Cic. here afi&rms that there is no anfrcustus in the 
curve, he uses this term of the sun's orbit in R. P. vi 12 cum aetas tua 
s^ptenos octiens solis amfradus redUusgue convertent, and Leg. n 19 in 



BOOK n CH. xvni § 47. 143 

annuu anfractibus; so Lucretius (v 683) of Hhe unequal daily cur^es 
it makea above and below the horizon' Munro; Plin. ii 71 (of the earth's 
Bphericity) e ßreto eTnergfentibuSj qtuxe in anfractu ptlae IcUuere^ sideribits. 
Anfractus=amhi-fractu8 (like anceps), properly of a twig broken so as to 
form a cuire. Key however suggests anotber form of tbe prefix, and would 
divido it as amfr-nctiu^ see Roby § 1843. 

emineilB, lacnnosiun : 'no protuberance or depression' ; cf. the use of 
la/cuna for a dimple, and our phrase 'pitted with smallpox'. On en^inefn» 
see I 75 n. and 105. 

praestantissixiiae : I agree with ELlotz in reading the Superlative, after 
Nonius. It is certainlj more natural with ex iolidü than the positive, and 
the reading of AV praestantis tint is easily explaiaed by the repetition of 
ti in simae and sint. Aristotle in bis Mechanica dilates on the wonderful 
powers of the circle ; in the de Cado ii 4 he calls the circle the first and 
most perfect of plane figures, as the sphere is of solids : so Pythagoras 
held rwv o-xJlfiaTOiv ro KakXiarov tr<l>alpav tlvai tc»v arfpt&v, r»v de fVtircdttv 
kvkKov, cf. Cleomedes 1 148, Quintil. i 10 § 41, Ocellus Lucanus § 15 p. 514 
Gale, ^ the absence of beginning or end in the (spherical) form and (circular) 
movement of the world betokens its etemity'. Hence the comparison of 
God to the sphere by the Eleatic philosophers, and the Stoic argmnent for 
the sphericity of the world, for this form ir6»T»v ax^jt^onov 7rpwT€V€t' 
lio¥ov yap TovTo rots tavrov /icpcciv oftoiovraty the World is therefore round 
like the sun and moon (Plac, Fhü. i 6). Pliny ^. ff. ii 2 argues that the 
World is round non solum quia taHsfigura omnibua in partibtu vergit in sue 
<Ui tibi ipta toleranda est, $eque includit et continety nuUarwn egens com- 
paffinvm, nee finem aut initium uUis sui partibtu serUiens, nee quia ad 
fnotum.,Jalis aptissima est &c., see below § 117, Arist. Cael. ii 14. Lactantius 
ni 24 derides the notion of a round earth propter antipodas, so Chrysostom 
and Augustine. 

circulns : so mbs, but Nonius p. 432 reads drcue, a form which we find 
elsewhere in C. e.g. Aratea 248 vidisti magnwm candentem serpere circum, 
and in JL P.vi 16 edd. read with one mb circiu eltteens, ib. 15 Macrobius 
has circoSj see Osann's n. 

a medioqne tantundem nndique absit extremum: hsb with un- 
important ezceptions have a medioque tantum absit extremvm, which is 
nonsense ; one or two add quantum idem a summo, but that does not improve 
xnatters, idem should naturally refer to extremum, but would have to be 
taken of medium ; then extremum is not the same as imum, and even if we 
pass over these difficulties, the definition is still defective ; in any figure 
you can find a point equidistant from the two extremes of a line passing 
through it. Most edd. have been satisfied with the emendation {fanr 
tundem for tantum) suggested by Allen and Madvig (Sehn. Philol. il p. 140), 
but this is not enough ; we must state that the circumference is in every 
pari equidistant from the centre, as in Tvm. 6 glcbosum, cujus omnis 
extrmUtOM paribus in medio radüs attingitur. The word extremitas is also 



144 BOOK II CH. xvni § 47. 

nsed by Pliny N. H. ii 17 for circumference, dcut in Ulis propinqudtas 
centri cuxelerat, üa in his exiremUas circtdi; extrefmum bj Yarro R, R. i 51 
(ym/M bremsnmum in rotundo e medio ad extremum (cited by MIL praef. on 
Mn. I 17). Klotz foUowed by Seh. proposed to complete the definition by 
inserting vhique affcer medioque, but this use of tiinque was denied to be 
Cioeronian, see Lachmann on Lucr. p. 250, Kühner's translation (where he 
refers to his ed. maj. of the Tusculans p. 525^), and Seh. App,, and the 
emendation was abandoned by Seh. in his last ed. I propose to read 
undiqv£ after tantundem, of. undique ad in/eros tantundem via^ est, Tute i 
43. It may be objected ihat undique should properly denote the starting- 
point, to whieh it is here opposed ; but I think it may be understood 
generally to mean 'on every side', like ab omni parte, without reference 
to motion. [This might be iUustrated from Boethius Art. Oeom, p. 394 
ed. Friedlein, plana vero summitas quae aequaliter rectis lineis undtqrue 
versum ßnitur, * a plane surface is one which is bounded by right lines in 
every direetion'. For the use of ah see Or. § 1813. K.] Failing this, 
I should adopt Brieger's abt^ omne extrmvwm., see his BeiJbr, z, KrU. d, Cic, 
Posen 1873, pp. 18, 24. Fleckeisen {Jahrb. f. Cl. PL x p. 142) seems to 
me to have utterly fedled in his endeavour to defend the old reading. 

aptins : ' more compact ', cf. § 37 undique aptum. 

§ 48. eraditum pulverem : cf. Tusc. v 64 a pulvere et radio exdtabo... 
Arckimedem, Fin. v 50 quem ardorem ttudii censetie fuisee in Archimede, 
qui dum in pulvere quaedatn describü attentius, ne patriam quidem captam 
esse senserit f Aristoph. Nub. 177 koto, rfji Tp€nr€(ris icaraiiraaas Xcirr^yr^pay, 
Kafiyftas oßtXia-Kov cira dcoßi^n;» \aß»v K.r.X., Persius I 131 nee qui abaco 
numeros et secto in ptdvere m£tas seit risisse vafer with Conington's n., 
Seneca I^. 74 § 27 utnim ntaforem an minorem circulum scnbaSy ad spa- 
tium efus pertinet, non ad formam. Licet alter diu nuinserü, alterum statim 
chduxeris et in efum, in quo scriptus est, pulverem solveris, in eadem uterque 
forma fuit, ibid. 88 § 39 geom^triae pulvis, and compare the story of the 
shipwrecked Aristippus cheering his companions by pointing to the traces 
of geometrical figures on the seashore, Vitr. vi pra£f. [add Plut. Dion. 13, 
Sil. xrv 677, Apul. Ap. p. 426 Oud., Tert. Idol. 9, Ambr. Hex. v 86, 
Ammian. xxn 16 § 17. J. E. B. M.] 

physici : the Epicureans are so called on account of the importance 
they attached to the study of natural philosophy as driving away supersti- 
tious fears, cf. i 77 n. 

aeoLuabilitatem motns— ordinnm : Hhis uniformity of motion and 
these unchanging ranks (of stars)'; cf. §§ 15, 90, 96, 116, Diog. vii 140 cmi 
Tov Koa-fAOv €lvai...arxrjfia txovra (r<f>aipo€ib(s, irpor yap rffp Kivrjo-iv ap/bU>dM>rarov 
TO Toiovrov, Kada ffni^ri TLofrtibfivios. Aristotle {Cod. II 8) speaks more 
guardedly irpor ri)v cV avr^ Kiinjcriv (i.e. rotation) i) a<l>aipa r£v <rxff/uBr^p 
Xprio-ifjuaraTov, but the opposite for onward movement. 

-nihil potest indoctins : so I read with the majority of the better mbs. 
For the Omission of esse cf. Fin, TV 48 quo nihil potest hre&ius, where Madv. 



BOOK n CH. xvm § 48. 146 

cites Ätt. vm 38 hoc quicquam poie impurttui f adding nc saepius in hoc 
negaHvo conparandi genere post ^potett^ omittüwr ^fierV vd ^esse\ See also 
Madv. on Fin. v 84, Holden on Of. m 39. 

posse fieri ut Bit alia flgura : Epic. ap. Diog. x 45 Kwrfioi Sareipoi «l<nv 
ttff ofiotoi TovTij^ M airo/ioioi, for the atoms are infinite in number and not 
all used up in making a Single world; cf. below § 88, Lucr. u 1048 folL, and 
mj Sketch of Äneieni Phüosophy p. 184 foll. on the easy indifiference with 
which the Epicureans acquiesced in a nnmber of incompatible hypotheses. 

§ 49. bis bina qnot essent : I know of no other instance of this phrase 
in Latin, but it occurs in Galen Hipp, Fiat, ym p. 654 oi fiaBovTtg ovra 
vurrtvovai t^ ovfAirepaarfiaTi (the argument hj which Euclid proves the 
central position of the earth) »s Kcä, r^ Sis 8vo rhrapa thai. [Cf. Diog. L. 
VI 26 aVf <f>rifriv, top tpornj^s dvo Kai dvo iroaa itrrLv k,tX, J. E. B. M.] 
On the use of the distributive numeral in midtiplication see Boby Qr, i 
p. 443. For tense see Madv. § 383 and my n. on mallem above § 2. 

dididsset — diceret : 'he would not have been saying such things, if he 
had (previously) leamt \ 

IMÜato — ^palatnm : ' while he makes the palate bis test of happiness 
(c£ Fin, n 29) he forgot to look up to what Ennius calls the palate of the 
sky *, c£ Varro ap. Aug. C. D. vn 8 palatum Qraece ovpovov appeUant, et 
rumnuUi poetae Latini caelum vocaverunt paUttum, The same pun is found 
in ClenL AI. Paedag, n 1 ^yXv de rotr Orjpomivois r^v ßp£(riv rrfv ivovpaviav 
apxfi» av6yia) rrjs vno t6v ovpcufop yaarpofj and Athen, vin 34 where a witti- 
cism of Theocritus of Chios (fl. at the end of the 3rd Century B.c.) is 
reported. A certain Diocles, who had squandered bis estate by luxurious 
living, having bumt bis palate with. bot fish, Tb. said it only renudned for 
him to drink up the sea, and then Iftrrj rpia ra fUyurra i^<l>a»iKWy yrjv Koi 
Bakaavav jcai ovpavoy. Columna, in bis note on the line in Ennius p. 327 
says hoc tempestate Neapoli mtdierctUae jxdaii ooncavitatem vulgo palati 
Collum dicunt, and Seh. cites Qrimm in Haupt's Zeitech, f. Deutsch Alt, vi 
p. 541 as giving paiallels from other languages. So Lucr. rv 624 linguai templa 
of the palate. Ovpayos is the ordinary term used by Arist. Fart, An, n 17, 
Dion. HaL Comp, Verb, xiv 95 ; Galen (Us, Fart. vii 5) uses ovpavio-KOf, 

caeli : Gen. of Definition (Boby § 1302) like cadi dipeo Enn. Iphig, fr. 
IVahl. 

Ch. XIX cum dno dnt genera Bideniin: 'whereas there are two kinds 
of heavenly bodies, one of which moving from east to west in unchangeable 
courses never makes the slightest deviation from its path, while the other 
oompletes two unbroken revolutions in the same courses and paths' &a 
The first reference is to the general celestial movement by which the fixed 
Stars are carried round the polar axis ; the second to the double movement 
of the planets, parÜy carried round with the fixed stars by the general 
celestial movement, and partly revolving roimd the earth (as was supposed) 
with a movement of their own. C£ below § 102, 118 on the stars gene- 
rally. The contrast between the general movement of the heaven and the 

H. C. U. 10 



146 BOOK n CH. XIX § 49. 

parücular movements of the planets, is broughtoutclearly in Plato THm, 34 
folL thus summed up by A. Butler : * PL first presents us with two vast 
spheres which embody the principles of Same and Different {ravrov kcu 
öSrtpov), The outer sphere includes the innumerable multitude of the 
fized 'Stars : the inner sphere is subsequently divided by the divine Artist 
into seven spheres, which revolve with various velocities, and in various 
directions '. Eudoxus resolved the complex apparent movements of the 
planets into the simple circular movements of several supporting spheres, 
Sv Ti)v /MV vp^TTjy rrjv rSv dirKav£v iioTpcav ftvai, n7V de lifvTtpajß icara to» dta 
fu(r»v T&v (i^i^v (Arist Met, A 8 p. 1073 b). Cleomedes i 3 illustrates 
the double movement by the comparison of people on board ship waUdng 
in a direction opposite to that in which the vessel was going, or to an ant 
going round the potter^s wheel m a direction opposite to that of its 
movement. The apparent daily movement of the outer sphere &om east 
to west in the plane of the equator, is of course due to the daily rotation of 
the earth, the ' different ' movement of the planets is due to their periodic 
levolution round the sun in the plane of the ecliptic. 

niillam — ^vestigiTim inflecta^: does not bend aside (lit. inwards) a 
Single step of its course, as the sun does to north and south, but describes 
a perfect drcle. 

continuas conversiones : this is a tnie description according to our 
modern astronomy, but scarcely agrees with what is said below § 51, as to 
their varying rates of motion and occasional pauses. 

ifldem spatiis : AbL of Place ; the sun, moon and planets are in the 
same Stadium or race-course (cf. Virg. O. i 513, Aen, v 316), viz. the 
sodiac. If we distinguish hetween'gpcUiü and cursibtu, the former would 
be the broad band in which all the movements take place, the latter the 
parücular line followed by each without change in sucoessive periods. Cf. 
iidem spatiis in § 103, and eadem spatia Orot, in 178, also Ttuc, i 68 tum 
videfMU in eodem orbe in duodecim partes distribxUo guinque Stellas ferriy 
eosdem curstu oonsta/ntissime servantes disparihvs inter se motibus. 

ex ntraaue re : C. fails here, as he has done before (cf. i 87), to bring 
out the argumenta which should be ' we gather from the Observation both of 
planets and fixed stars that circular movement is the law of the heavenly 
bodies, and this movement requires a spherical shape, therefore they are 
all spheres \ 

▼olubilitas: 'rotatoiy movement*, cf. 1 18. rotnndi ambitos : 

* circular revolutions '. 

Bb. The dimiie activity as ahoum (1) in the salutary movements 
of the sun. § 49. 

«stromm tenet prindpatain : JZ. P. vi 17 (sol) dux et prineeps et 
mtxleraiar luminwn reUquorwn, 



BOOK n CH. XIX § 49. 147 

laxga Ince compleyerit : perhaps a reminiscence of Lucr. n 806 larga 
cum luce repleta est, and v 281 largvs item liquidifons lumtnis. 

opacet: 4eayes in shade', cf. Soph. Aj. 674 deivav r' Sfjfia irvevfiaro^v 
€Koi/ua-€ iTTfvovra novrop, Hör. Od. i 3. 15, V. Ed, U 26, G. IV 484, Äen. m 
69 ; Seh. cites § 102 below sol trittüta corUrahü terram, Hör. 0, S. 9 alme 
sol curru diem quipromis et ceUu, 

mnbra terrae soll officiens : Heind. emends, after Gesner, oßcierttis, 
It is the earth, not its shadow, which intercepts the light of the sun, and 
so makes the conical shadow called night (unibra terrae meta noctis Div, 
TL 17). Beier (Jahn*s Jahrb, 1827. 3 p. 25) cites on the other side Hyg. 
Poet. Astr. iv 9 noctem dicemus tmhram terrae esse eamque obstare Ivmini 
solis. 

ipsa enim : 'for it is just the earth's shadow, which makes night', i.e. it 
is no more than this, a mere negative result of the sun's action. I think 
offidenHs soits better this minimization of activitj. 

eadem est aeqnabüitas : 'there is the same evenneas (regularity) 
in the nightly as in the daily oonrses; and the same sun tempers the 
degrees of heat and cold by neither departing too far nor approaching 
too near '. C. is of conrse inaccurate in saying that summer is caused by 
the greater proximity {accessus) of the earth to the sun : if so, all the earth 
woiüd have summer at the same time, but when the south pole is tumed 
towards the sun, the northem hemisphere is in winter, when the northem 
is tumed towards him we have summer, as in fact we read below ir^ßectens 
ewrswm ad septentriones &c. Cf. Vitr. ix 1 § 13, 

circnniitiis orbium : the words spatia, cursus, orbiSy circumitus may all 
be used in the same sense, but here circ. means the actual traversing of 
the path (orbis) of the sim, cf. Tim, 9 nox et dies...unum circumiium 
orbis efficU. As regards the case of the numerals, almost all the Mss have 
trecerdorvmy but the edd. apparently agree in taking them as Nominatives. 
I think, if it were so, we should probably have had the Sing, or&ts, ' 365 
joumeys over the sun's path'; and that the ms reading gives the true 
sense ' the traversings of 365} diumal rounds complete the roimd of the 
year', i.e. if we foUow the sun's track throughout these diumal revolutions, 
we shall find that while each da/s course is different, yet at the end of the 
year he has completed the circuit of the heaven and retumed to the point 
from which he originally started. 

qoarta fere diei parte addita : Julius Caesar reformed the calendar 
in B.c. 46, two years before the publication of the N. D. See Di/st, of Ant, 
under Calendarium, 

hiemi senescenti : see below § 95 lunae senescentis, Plin. Bp. vi 16 § 6 
Spiritus senescefis (of a volcano). Allen quotes Yarro Z. X. v 2 mensis senes- 
ceatis esßtremus dies, 

10—2 



148 BOOK n CH. XIX § 50. 

Bb (2). The divine aciivUy as shatün m the aaltUary mavementa 
qf the moon, § 50. 

§ 50. Bolis annaoB cnnns spaptüs menstmis Inna conseaiiitiir : 

' the moon in her monthly heats overtakes the yearly courses of the sun ', 
ie. traverses the zodiac in a month instead of a year, cf. Plin. N.ff.u9 in 
duodedm mensium »paita oportere dividi annum^ qttando ipsa {luna) totiet 
$olein redeufUem nd priivcipia eonsequatwr ; Lucr. v 618 lunaque mensHmt 
id tpoHwn videattir obire, annua mI in quo consumit tempora cursu, 

Iiroximas accessoB : at the new moon. 

defecÜbllB: 'by gradual diminution '. Georges compares Solinixs 
zxyn 3 sali drfectus vd incremenla ; so we have, of the waxing and waning 
moon, creaoentey d^unente luna GfelL zx 8 ; nam et defectui lunae campatiun" 
tur elementa, etprocessu efus quaefuerant exinanita cumulantur Ambr. ff ex. 
IV 7. 

regio (mntatür) : Plin. I^,ff.n9 {luna) nunc in ÄqutUmem data 
nunc in Äuetros defecta; Macrob. S. jSc. i 6 § 53 Septem diebus ab exire- 
mitate s^i)tenirianalis arae Mique per latum meando ad medietatem latitu- 
dinis pervenitf qui locus appdUUur edipticus; Septem sequentibus a medio 
ad imum australe delabitttr; Septem aliis rursiu ad medium Miquata con- 
scendit : tdtimis Septem septentrionali redditur summitati. 

aiinilonia : all the better icss have ÄqüHenta, which is only found 
elsewhere in Yarro ScU, Men. ap. Non. 351 (Buecheler § 400) of the moon, 
contremnla aquHenta apud cUta litora oreris ac nobilis omnibus rduoes, It 
is explained in the Lezz. as.' watery^ fr. aqua, like turbulenta from turba, 
The form aquHentanus 'northem' occurs in Chalcid. Tim. 67 and 69. 
Aquilonius is used by Varro Sat. Men. 77 ap. Non. p. 139, Livy (so Madv. 
for ÄpoUoniam) xl 58 § 8, and frequently in Pliny. Aquilonaris ia found 
in a doubtful fragment of Cic. Orelli p. 1057 § 14, ÄquHonalis in Yitr. ix 4 
§ 3 and Gromat vet 332. 30, 334. 1 (chiefly ät>m Georges' Lex.). 

in lunae qnoqne cnxsn : there seems no reason to alter the reading of 
the HSB by the insertion of inde. There are three different &ct8 con- 
nected with the moon's ' solstioe \ the approach of the moon's orbit to 
the north, the pause (properly called solstitium in the case of the sun), 
the length of time during which the moon is above the horizon (also 
oonnoted more looeely by the term solstitium). These facts though really 
connected, may be viewed independenüy, and so it is in this passagc. 
Gic. mentions, as a new idea, that we have in the moon's orbit an analogue 
to the longest and shortest day. The solstitii similitudo is the < luni- 
stioe', thus defined in the Imperial Dictionary, ' the fürthest point of the 
moon's southing and northing in its monthly revolutions \ It is recog- 
nized by Arist. Oen. An. iv 2 o luv yap r[\tos iv oX^ rf hunjr^ itomI 
XCI/mSmi Kai 04poty i; de trcXifn; cV rf luffvi rovro d* ov dta riis rpoiräsy dXXa ro 
lii» av$iufopL§vov aviißahfti rov 0«r6ff, ro de 4^3iPoyros. In June 1881 the 
moon*B solstitium was on the 24th, the lunar day consisting of 16h. 40m., 



BOOK n CH. XIX § 50. 149 

but the fire days from tbe 2drd to the 27th were all more than 16 houn, 
whereas the ordinary rate of cbange is 1 hour per daj. Again the bruma 
was on the llth, the moon rising that day at 7. 42 p.iu. and setting at 2. 41 
a.in., being thus above the horizon for only 6 h. 59 m., but the four days 
from the lOth to the 13th varied lese than 30 m. from this. 

mnltaane ab ea manant et flunnt : on the influence of the moon 
c£ above § 19 and § 119 below, and the chapter on Limar Influences in 
Lardner*s Mtuettm i pp. 113 — 128. I give the substance of one paragraph 
from the latter : ' According to populär opinions and traditions, which 
have prevailed among mankind in almost all countriee and throughout all 
agesy our satellite is responsible for a vast variety of influences on the 
organized world. The circulation of the sap in yegetables, the qualities of 
grain, the goodness of the vintage are severally laid to its accoimt. It pre- 
sides over himian maladies, nay the very marrow of our bonos and the 
weight of our bodies suffer increase or diminution \mder its influence. Nor 
is this limited to merephysical and organic effects ; it extends its sway into 
the region of intellectual phenomena.' Cic. while denying or minimizing 
the influence of the moon on the birth of children Div. ii 95, 97, grants 
this influence in regard to plante and animals, Div, n 33 ostreis et oonchy- 
10» Omnibus contingere, ut cum luna crescant pariter, pariierque decresccmt ; 
arboresqite ut hiemali tempore, cum luna simul senescentes, quia tum exsic- 
catas sinty tempestive caedi putentur ; Aristotle asserts it more generally, 
Oen, An, IV 10 i; trtkijyrf avfißdKKtrai €ls ira<rag ras ytv4<r€ig km rcXcittcrccr, 
and he applies this to the birth of animals (ib. iv 2); and Pliny ^. ff, ii 101 
after giving instances of the power of the moon, such as the tides, and the 
fact that omnia plenUunio maria purgantur.,,nvüum anintal nisi aeetu re- 
cederUe exspirare, proceeds qiu> vera conjectcUio essistit haudfinistra Spiritus 
sidus lunam existimari. Hoc esse quod terrae saturet, accedensque corpora 
impleat, abscedens inaniat: ideo cum incremento ejtts augeri conchylia et 
maxime spiritum sentire quibus sanguis non eit. Sed et satiguinem hominwm 
etiam cum lumine. ejus augeri uc minui; frondes quoque ac pabvlay ut 
suo loco dicetur (cf. xvi 39, xvni 75, 79), sentire, in omnia eadem penetrante 
vi; cf. Seneca Benef. iv 23 num dubium est quin hoc humani generis domi- 
cüium circuitus solis ac lunae vicibus suis temperet? quin alterius ccdore 
alarUur corpora, terrae relaxentur, immodici vmores comprimantur,aUigantis 
omnia hiemis trittüia frangatur ; alterius tepore efficaci et penetrabüi rigetwr 
maturitas frv^mf quin ad kujus cursum fecunditas humana respondeatf 
Qellius has a chapter (xx 8) headed De iis quae habere ovfindBtiav videntur 
cum luna augescente ac senescente, Cic. is no doubt following here the same 
authority as Sext. Emp. ix 79, kotq yap ras rfjf o-fX^io;; ai/^o-ccr Ktu 4>6i- 
{Tut iroXXa rny rc ciriyc(<i>y {^«iv Koi 6aXaa'(ri»v <f>6iv€i r€ Kcä ai;f croi, where 
Fabr. refers to Allatius on the ffexaemeron of Eustathius, cf. Flut Fac, in 
Orb. L, p. 939 F., Qu, Conv, p. 658 P., Is. et Os, p. 367, Macrob. Sat, vn 
16 §§ 16—32, Ambr. ffex, iv 7, Philo Prov. n 76, Germanicus Schol, p. 197 
Breysig. These ideas as to the moon's influence may be traced to the sup- 



160 BOOK n CH. XIX § 60. 

posed connexion between the dew and the moon, — ^Alcman called the Dew 
daughter of Zeus and Selene, — and to the reckoning of the time of pregnancy 
by moons, cum hoc ergo propter hoc, 

manant et fluirnt: so Plutarch Mor. p. 658 contrasts the dry efflux 
(ptvfuxra) of the sun with the moist efflux of the moon. 

alaatnr : Consecutive Subjunctive. Note that here, as in § 28, the 
Mood of the Relative Clai2se defining the subject is unafiected by its Sub- 
junctival Subordination. 

B b (3). The divine actwUy shoton in the orderly mavemerUe of 
ihe plomsta §§ 61—64. 

Ch. XX § 61. folflo vocantor errantes : so Div, i 17 (planetae) quas 
verbo et falrii Oraiorum vocibus erranty re vera certo lapiu gpoHoqueferufUur; 
Tiuc, I 62 cutra tum re eed vocabulo errantia; Plato Leg, vu 821 jeara^rcv- 
bofiiöa 'EWrjvts ircvrcf fjLtyoKciv Ot&Vy 'HXiov rc o/ta Kai ScXi;yi7£...€fl'oiio- 
fia(oPTts irXavrJTas cZvai...ff'äy de rovvavriov t^ti rovriiiP' t^w avTifv yap avT»v 
odoy tKonTTOv KCii ov noKkos oKKa filop atX KVKkt^ die^^px^Toi, ^tyrnu de «roXXar 
<l>€p6fi€vo¥, Plin. JV. ff, II 6. 

(imn<lud : so Milton ^ and ye five other wandering stars that move in 
mystio dance\ Sometimes the sun and moon are included so as to make 
up the number seven, as in § 68 8eptem vagantihue and Cleomedes i 3 ra d^ 
9rXciyoficva StbrjKov fitv tl Kai frXct«» iarivf eirra de vtro rrjv rjfitripa» ypnatw 
ikijXvBtp. Seneca prophesies (N, Q. vn 13) that many more planets will be 
discovered. 

in omni aetemitate : so in § 43, cf. § 28 in tatUa diutwmüate n. and 
Dumesnil on Leg, i 8. 

progressoB et regressus : ' direct and retrograde motions ', cfl HerBchel 
Aitron, oh. ix § 457 foU. ' the apparent movements of the planets are muoh 
more irregulär than those of the sun or moon.... Sometimes they advanoe 
rapidly, then relax in their apparent speed, come to a momentary stop, 
and then actually reverse their former motions, and run back upon their 
former course with a rapidity at first increasing, then diminishing, tili the 
retrograde movement ceases altogether. Another Station^ or moment of 
apparent rest, now takes place ; afber which the movement is again reversed 
and resmnes its original direction. On the whole however the amount of 
direct motion more than compensates the retrograde ; and by the excess 
of the former over the latter, the gradual advance of the planet from weat 
to east is maintained '. It is then shown by diagrams that this irr^;u- 
larity arises partly from these evolutions being seen by a spectator from 
the earth in sectiou, and therefore foreshortened, and partly from the £Eu;t 
that the earth is being carried round the sun on her own orbit at a different 
rate from that of the planet under Observation. See below § 103, Tuec, 1 62, 
Seneca N, Q, vii 25 harum quinque 8teUarum.„quae alio cUque cUio occttT' 
rerUes loco cttrioeoe noe eaee oogurUy qui mcUtUini veepertiniqtie ortue sinty quae 



BOOK II GH. XX § 51. 151 

stoHones, qtiando in rectum ferantur, qriare agwntwr retro^ modo coepimus 
Bcire, Utrum emjergeret Jupiter, an ocdderet, an retrogradus euet, ante 
pauco» annos didicimus, 

occnltantur : at the time of their conjunction witb the s\in. 

recedunt : at the time of their eastward or westward elongation. 

antecedunt — sabseiiiiimtnr: 'when Venus and Mercury have re- 
ceded from the sun eastward to their respective distances, they remain 
for a time, as it were, immovable with respect to it, and are carried along 
with it in the ecliptic with a motion equal to its own ; but presently they 
begin to approach it, or, which comes to the same, their motion in longi- 
tude diminishes, and the sau gains upon them....Then for a time they are 
not Seen at all...(on their re-appearance) their motion is rapidly retrograde, 
until they reaoh their greatest westem elongation, when the motion again 
beoomes direct, and they acquire sufficient speed to commence overtaking 
the sun again ', Herschel § 467. 

Hittgniim annnm : IL P. yi 22 cum autem ad idem, unde semdprofecta 
9untf cuncta astra redierint eandemque totius codi diacriptionem longii inter- 
vallis rettulerintf tum üle vere vertens annui appdlari potest, in quo via dicere 
audeo quam multa hominum saeda teneantur; Hort, fr. 26 ia est magnua 
et venu annue quo eadem posiiio codi dderwmque, quae cum maanme est, 
rursum exsietaty isque annue horum quoe nos vocamtis annorum duodedm 
müia nongerUoe quinquaginta quattuor complectitur ; Mn, n 102 ; Tim, 
c. 9 ; Sery. ad Aen» in 284 (giyen as frag. 5 at the end of iT. I). m) 
TuUiuB in libri» de Natura Deorum tria müia annorum diait magnum 
annum tenere; Censorinus \% est praeterea annus quem Aristoteles mam-^ 
mum potius quam magnum appdlat, quem solis et lunae vagarumque 
quifkque stellarum orbes conßciunt, cum ad idem Signum, uhi quondam 
simul fuerunty una referuntur; cujus anni hiemps summa est catadysmos, 
quam nostri düuvionem vocant, aestas autem ecpyrons, quod est mundi 
incendium. The pa&sage referred to by Gens, is not to be found in 
the existing works of Arist., probably it may have been in the dialogue 
de Fküosophia from which so much of C.'s argument is borrowed (cf. 
By water in J, of Philology L c.) : we do find however {Meteor, 1 14 § 20) a 
referenoe to a periodical deluge, yivrrai bta xpoy»v ^IfiapiUv^p, olop iv rdlg 
KOT iviovTO» «pair ;(€ifunr, ovro irfpi6d<nt rivbg /icyoXi^ff fUyas x^^l*^^ "^^ 
vwtpßoX^ ofxßp^v, Probably the conception of a Cosmic Year was first 
introduoed among the Greeks by the Pythagoreans (2ieller i pp. 397, 410) ; 
it is also attributed to Heraclitus (Zeller i 640), but the earliest notice of it 
occurs in Plat. Tim, 39 o yt rtktot dpiOiios xpoifov rov rfktop ivtavrov «rXi^pot 
Torty ortuß airao"»» r»v Hkt» ntpi6d»v rä irpot SKkrjKa (vftirtpaB^yra raxfi 
^)ä 'Cff^aXijy tK rov tovtov koi ofiotfl»r lovros dvaittTpffBivra icvieX^, a penod of 
10,000 years (Zeller n p. 264). Other calculations of the length of the 
Great Year are given in Censor. I.e., Flac. Phü, ii 32 (Diels p. 363), 
Macrob. S, Sc. ii 11, Seztus Emp. v 105, where Fabricius refers to Thoma- 
sius De Anno Magno oontained in bis treatise De Stoica Mundi JExustione, 



152 BOOK 11 CH. XX § 51. 

c£ Schaubach Geich, d, Ästron. pp. 196 folL 504 folL The scientific con- 
ception of an astronomical peiiod, analogous to the Metonic cycle amongst 
the Greeks, to the Sothiac or Canicular period among the Egyptians, and 
to the Julian period among ourselves, was mixed up, especially hy Pytha^ 
goreans and Stoics, with mjstical ideas of a cyclical regeneration {rrjv irrpio- 
ducfjv T&v 5Xa>v iraKiyytvtfriav Anton. XI 1, where see Gataker), such as that 
of which Virgil speaks Magrvus ah tntegro saedorum ncucitur ordo ; et Neme- 
sius c 38 ol di SroDMoc <l>curtv äiroKaÖKrrofUvovt rovs likaanfras fls ro avro 
(rrjfxeiov Kctrd rc ftrJKOs Koi irkaros tvOa r^v ^PX^^ eKoaros ^y, Srt rh wpAro» 6 
Koo'fios awtimjf iw prjrciis xpovtov vepiobois iKirvpiii»<ruf Kai <f>6opav t»v ovT»y mrwp- 
yd(€<r6ai Koi iraKiv c^ vvapx^s cir to avro rov KoafMV diroKaOiarairBtUy and that 
then the whole series of past history is reproduced; also Seneca y, Q, m 29, 
Orig. Cds, V 21, Zeller iv p. 154 folL, Lewis Astr, p. 282 folL, and my Siketch 
of Anc Phü. pp. 173, 174. It is worthy of note that the writers of the 
N. T. have borrowed from the Stoics the terms froXcyyfvco-ta and airojca- 
rdaraa-ig, The idea of a Great Year is also found among the Etruscana 
(see Preller K M. p. 472 foU.) and the Iranians (Döllinger Oentüe arid Jew^ 
I p. 394). 

nominaverunt : ' an abbreviation for constitfierunt qiiem nominaveruTU ; 
et Leg, I 24 e^ qw> vere vd offnatw nobis cum ca^destibvs vel genus vd 
ttirps appellari potest, for ex quo exstüü guae appdlari potest ; InveiU. iv 
27 eof quo in aliü anxvetas^ in alüs iracundia dicitury for ex quo exdMtä 
quae diGitur\ Seh. who also refers to Madv. Em, Liv. p. 367. Other exx. of 
this pregnant force are Leg, ii 8 ät quo iUa lex...recte est laudaia for deri- 
vcUa et laudata; Fin. in 63 iUa quae in concha patttla pinna dicüur for 
habüoa et pinna dicitur; [Virg. Aen. vi 106 hie infemi janua regis dicüur, 
Schäfer on Greg. Cor. p. 986. J. E. B. M.]. See above i 83 laudamus 
Vvlcanum n. and below § 109, where I read quem daro perMbent Ophiu- 
chum lumine Oraii, 

ad eandem inter se comparationem :=o avrht r<5v d(rr€pav avax'jtui'' 

TUTfios Sext. V 105, c£ Tim, c. 4 quae Graece ovoXoy/a, Latine, „comparatio 
proportiove dici potest, and c. 5 ita contigU ut inter ignem aique terram 
a^fuam deus animamque poneret eaque inter se compararet et proportione 
coT^ungeret. Translate * when, after completing their seyeral oourses, they 
retum to the same relative positions '. 

§ 52. Satunii Stella : the first Greek writing in which we find the 
names of the five planets is the Epinomis (p. 987) written by a disciple of 
Plato ; he says * they have no proper names of their own, but have received 
their appellations from the Gods {iir^wplav €ikifj^fri $€av)\ which seems to 
show that the descriptive Greek names given by Cic. were of later origin. 
Plato himself {Tim, 36, Eep, x 616) only mentions 'Eoxr^pov jcal rov l€p6v 
'Epfiov ; Aristotle Met, xii 8 gives the foUowing names 'A^podin/r, 'EpfioO, 
Aior, Kpovovy to which he adds "Aptos (Cad, ii 12), cf. also Meteorol, i 6. 
Hare in his Art. on The names cf the Days {Phü, Mus, i 71) says * that 
these names were not of conmion use in the time of Euripides may 



BOOK II CH. XX § 52. 153 

£urly be inferred firom their never occurring in any of bis tragedies ; though, 
as the autbor of tbe argument prefixed to tbe Rhesus obflerves, be was 
iro\virpdyfia>v irtpX rä fieraptria ; and tbougb, if be bad been acquainted witb 
tbem, be wonld assuredlj bave introduced tbem into tbe description of tbe 
nivkos in tbe Ion 1148 — 1158. Tbere bowever we only find *E<nr«pot, 
nXcMif, 'OpiW, ^Apjcruff, *tab€s, and *E<off<^<o<r^opor'. In tbe pseudo- Aristo- 
telian treatise De Mundo ' we find (c. 2) an arrangement of tbe wbole 
System, along witb a great variety of names : tftalpviVy <l>a€^v^ nvp6€is 
and oTiX/Sfioy occur bere, I believe, for tbe first time : perbaps tbey were 
given by Eudozns, wbo, Seneca says (i^. Q. vn 3), primus ab Aegypto 
quinque siderum mottis in Qraeciam tranttvlü. We are likewise told tbat 
tbe star of Mars was also termed tbe star of Hercules, tbat of Mercury by 
some tbe star of Apollo, tbat of Venus by some tbe star of Juno ', ibid. 
Tbe descriptive names are fairly appropriate (cf. Plin. JET. iT. n 16 § 79) ; 
Saturn is tbe sbining, Jupiter tbe blazdng {<f>a€6nv only used of tbe sun 
in its original sense), Mars tbe red and fiery (cf. tbe Stoic etymology for 
"Aptf^^atpiov irvpy on wbicb see Lydus de Mens. 18 and otber passages 
quoted by Flack Glossen z, ffesiod. Theol, p. 80 foll.), Mercury tbe 
twinkling (SimpUcius, ap. Brandis Schol. p. 495 b, notices tbe twinkling of 
Mercury in connexion witb its name ; cf. Arist. Cad, n 8 on tbe reasons 
for tbe twinkling of tbe stars as opposed to tbe planets). 

a terra abest plurimiim : according to Macrobius 8, Scip. i 20, tbe 

Order of tbe planets, after tbe lurtbest tbree, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, as to 

wbicb tbere was general agreement, was differently determined by tbe 

Egyptians and Cbaldeans. Tbe former, followed by Pytbagoras (Zeller i 

395), Plato {Tim, 38, Rep. x 616), Aristotle {Met. xi 8, cf. Kriscbe 

Forschungen p. 290), Cbrysippus (Stob. Ed, p. 448), made Venus and 

Mercury 4tb and 5tb, tbe Sun 6tb, tben tbe Moon, tben tbe Eartb. Tbe 

latter, followed by Arcbimedes, Qeminus, Cleomedes, Vitruvius, Ptole- 

maeus, Hyginus {Qrom. p. 184 L.), Pliny {H. N, ii 32 — 40), and Cic. 

bere, placed tbe Sun above Venus and Mercury. Tbere were great doubts 

as to tbe relative position of tbese two. Cic. bimself, wbo in tbis passage 

places Mercury furtbest from tbe eartb, foUows anotber autbority in IHv^ 

n 91, wbere we read docet ratio mathematicorum quanta humüitate luna 

feratur terram paene contingenSy quantum absit a proxima Mercurii Stella^ 

muUo autem Umgitbs a Veneris, deinde alio intervallo disiet a sole. In 

N. D. II 119 we bave a tbird view, tbat tbese two planets revolve, not 

immediately round tbe eartb, but around tbe sun, dwu soli oboediant, 

as in R. F. vi 17 kunc {solem) ut comites consequuntur Veneris alter, alter 

Mercurii cursus: and Vitruv. ix 1 Mercurii et Veneris stellae circum solis 

radioSy uti centrum, üineribus eum coronantes regressvs retrorsus et retarda- 

tiones faciuiU ; Marcianus Capella viii 25 Venus et Mercurius non ambiunt 

terram. Heraclides Ponticus was one of tbe first to propound tbe doctrine 

tbat tbey were satellites of tbe sun, Zeller ii 885. Macrobius S. Sc. 1 19 

§ 5 notices tbe discrepancy of opinions as to tbe relative positions of 



154 BOOK II GH. XX § 52. 

Mercury and Venus horwm vero trium sün proxinionim, VeneriSj Mercwrü 
et J^lü, ordinem vicinia confudüy cf. Lewis Astron, p. 246. 

xzx fere annis : these periodical times seem to have been brought 
from Egypt by Eudoxus (Simplic. Schol, Arüt. p. 499 Br., Seneca ^. Q. 
VII 3) whom C. calls in astrologia facUe princeps {Div. ii 87). They agree 
with those given by Pliny {N, H. ii c. 6), Cleomedes (i 3), Achilles Tatius, 
Qeminus, and the aiithor of the Plac. PkU. (ii 32), except that Geminus 
assigns 2^ 6"., and Cleomedes 2^ 5". to Mars, and that Pliny assigna 
348 days to Venus, and 339 to Mercury. They are compared below with 
the times given by Vitruvius ix 1 and by Herschel. 



Eudoxus. 


Vitr. 


Herschel. 


Mercury 1 year. 


360 days. 


87*. 23*. 


Venus 1 „ 


485 „ 


224*. 16\ 


Mars 2 „ 


1'. 318*. 


1'. 321*. 23*. 


Jupiter 12 „ 


11'. 323*. 


11'. 316*. 14*. 


Saturn 30 „ 


29^. 160*. 


29'. 174*. 1*. 



se apeiiendo : just above we have the Passive with Middle foroe, also 
in Off, 1 129 corporis partes aperiuntur, 

sempitemis saeciorum aetatibus: 'in the never ending periods of 
etemity \ 1 have not met with this phrase elsewhere. 

§ 53. prozimum inferiorem : Heind. cites after Wopkens Farn, i 9 
qvem prosdmis superiorUms diebtts acerrime oppugnasset; Orcüor 216 non 
loquor de uno pede eMremo, ad^ungo proximum superiorem.„saepe etiam 
tertium ; N, D. in 54 proximae (al. prosime) superiores ; Tac Ann. i 77 
projnmo superiore anno, 

Quae Stella Martis appellatur : C. has carelessly inverted the clauses. 
We should have expected steUa Martis quae Trvpotis appeUatur, 

sex diebns minus : ' less (than two years) by six days '. I have not 
been able to find any authority for this statement of C.'s. For the con- 
struction of minus see Roby § 1273. 

anno vertente : 4n the course of the year' lit. Hhe revolving year', cf. 
Quint, 40 sea; quidem mensibus profecto ; anno vertente sine controversia ; 
Vitr. IX 1 § 6 sotperfidt spatium vertentts anni; ibid. mense vertente; Heind. 
on Hör. Sat, i 1. 36. 

signiferum orbem : cf. Cic. Arai, 317 zodiacum hune Graed vodtani, 
nostrique Latini orbem signiferwm perhvbebunt nomine veroy nam gerit kic 
volvens bis sex ardentia signa ; so IHv. ii 89, Lucr. v 691. In IHv. i 17 it 
is called signorum sedes, in V. Oeo, i 239 signorum ordo, in Lucr. v 712 
signorum orbis ; C^dioiv kvkKos in Aristotle and Aratus. [Signier is used 
as a Substantive, Sen, N, Q. vn 18 and 24, Plin. N. H, ii §§ 30, 38, 81, 
Avien. Arat, 1053, Claud. Epigr, 18. 9. J. E. B. M.] 

unius sign! intervallo : the path of the sun is divided into twelve 
Signs, one for each month, and each Sign is again divided into thirty parts, 
through one of which the sun travels in the course of each day (Qeminus 



BOOK n GH. XX § 53. 165 

in Uranologum p. 2). Ptolemj uses the word iiolpa for a degree, Manilius 
gradus or pars. Cleomedes gives the eleyation of the Btar Canopua as 
TtrapTow (^lov, o €<m rtaa-tpaicotTrov oyhoov rov ^^iokov* Pliny N. H. 
n 8 States on the authority of Timaeus and Sosigenes that Mercury is 
never more than 23^^ from the Sun ; Herschel gives 28^48 as his extreme 
elongation. 

infima est : the mean distances are given by Herschel as foUows, firom 
the sun to Mercury about 36 millions of miles, to Venus about 68 millions, 
to the earth 95 millions ; (later calculations give for the earth about 93 
millions). 

^«o-^^pot — "Eo'vfpo«: it was a question whether Pythagoras or Par- 
menides was the first to disoover their identity, cf Diog. L. yni 14, ix 23, 
Plin. N. H. vm 3*7, Epinomis 987. In Homer they are still distinct, see 
n, xziii 226, Od. xin 93 of the moming-star iwrffiopos ; K xxn 318 of the 
evening-star, eoircpor, 09 «caXXcoro^ iv ovpav^ urrarai aan/jp, The Latin 
equivalent to ''Etnrepos is Vesper or Vesperugo^ Catullus uses noctifer, but 
Yarro iL jß. m 5 § 17 speaks of Ludfer and HeBperuSy which perhaps may 
Buggest that Oic. here treats it as a word common to both languages, and 
that it should therefore be printed in Latin letters. 

latitndinem et longitndinem : it traverses the zodiac with a zigzag 
movement. 

dnomm signomm intenrallo : cf. Plin. K H, 11 8 ah sole nunquam 

abtüten» partibus sex et quadraginta longius, ut Timaeo plaoety and Herschel 

Astr, § 467 "Venus extends her excursions on either side the sun to about 
470« 

Ch. XXI § 54. Plane in stellis constantiam : 'such a persistency in 
the stars, such a perfect adjustment of times throughout all etemity 
notwithstanding such a variety of courses {Gr,^ 1240) I cannot understand 
without supposing mind, calculation, purpose \ E.] 

sine mente : sc. ova-cw, not adverbial with intellegere but adjectival 
with conetafitiam, cf. Orot, i 105 non loquacitcUem sine usu reguirent, 
where Wilkins cites Part, Orat. 48 üla quae sine arte {=aT€xva) appellan- 
tUTf and Ov. Met. i 20 pugnabant moUia cum duris, sine pondere habentia 
ponduSy also N. D. i 45 metus a vi n. and above § 14 praeter natwram 
portentis. For the use of intellegere cf. i 73, iii 38. 

in deonun nnmero reponere: cf. in deorum numero refert i 29 n., 
2 Verr. m 210 tanta atictaritate sunt ut in illo antiquarum et darissimorum 
hominvm nvmero repimantur ; but we find the Acc. in Opt, Oen. Orat. 17 
Isocratem hv/na in numerum non repoTiOf Invent. i 26 § 39 in falnUarum 
nwnerum rep., ib. 51 § 97 partium in numerum rep., (in the last two 
passages the readings vary ; I have given Weidner's). There is the same 
Variation in Livy : we find the Acc. in xxxi 13 § 1, and xxxix 19 § 7 
pecuniam in thensauros reponi; but c. 18 § 15 reposita pecunia in then- 
»aurisfuenti c. 21 § ^pecumam in thensawris reposuerunt. So in ^. 2>. ni 



156 BOOK II GH. XXI § 54. 

23 and 51 all Mss have the Abi. but in § 47 the Acc. The passage from 
hanc igüur — repoTiere is quoted by Lactant. n 6. 

B b (4). The divine activity shoum in the rationcU and volurUary 
movemerUs qfthejixed atars and o/the heavtn üaelf ^ 54 — 56. 

inerrantes : Gr. afrXovi;;, see n. on invocatae 1 108, and incognüa bdow 
§73. 

[quamm est cotidiana convenieiui constansane converaio: the 

alliteration might be preserved by translating * regulär revolution dailj 
and dulj reourring*. R. Cf. above § 19.] 

nee habent aetherios cursns neque caelo inhaerentes : two expla- 
nations of the apparent movement of the fized stars were given by the 
older philoBophers (1) that the fized stars were fastened like nails in a 
solid heaven or sphere and of course revolved with it, ifk^av büajp xorarnny- 
ycMu r^ KpvaTaKKo€idei, as is Said of Anaximenes Flac, FhiL n 14, and 
Empedocles, ib. 13 ; Anaximander, Pythagoras and Parmenides preferred 
to speak of the stars being attached to spheres : (2) that they were light 
bodies bome along by aLBiptcs blvoi (Arist. Ntib, 379) ; so Xenophanes, 
Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, Democritus. Aristotle took the former view 
XciYTcroi rovff ficv kvkKovs KivtlaBai, rä de äarpa i^p€fieiv Kai «vb^^fUpa rotr 
kvkKois Kiv€icr6ai Cad, II 8 ; in Met, zu 7 foll. he enumerates 55 spheres, in 
addition to that of the fixed stars, which were required to explain the 
movements of the s\m, moon and planets ; both the stars and the spheres 
are composed of ether ; see Lewis Antr, p. 161 foll. ; Zeller in p. 453. It 
would seem that Baibus here condemns both explanations, and would 
attribute the movement of the fixed stars, as well as of the planets, to 
their own free will : so Manutius ap. Lescalop. (not in Yar. ed.) negant 
Stoici Stellas aetkeri (rather ab aethere actas) sive cado affixas esse, quod 
animantes eas esse opinantur et motu voluntario ferrL aethexins cnmui 
will not then mean ^ the path of the stars through the ether ', for this the 
Stoics admitted, see below § 117 tn aethere astra volvuntur; but 'a move- 
ment caused by ether', going by ether, as we talk of going by steam ; c£ 
below non est aetheris ea naittra tU contorqueat, and, for the expression, 
such phrases as mola asinaruif aquaria worked by an ass or by water. 
The argument however is not very clear : two theories having been put 
forward and declared inadmissible, why should not this be shown in the 
case of the second {caelo inhaererUes) as well as the first {aetherios cvrsus) ? 
and if, as appears below, the fixed stars have their sphere, how does the 
Stoic view dififer after all from that of Aristotle 7 All that is there asserted 
is that the motion of the sphere is independent of the surroimding ether, 
but that is admitted by Arist at all events in the case of the plaaetary 
spheres. One expects the assertion that.eäch fixed star moves inde- 
pendently and yet in such harmony as to give* the appearance of a great 
all-embracing sphere. Apparently Chrysippus denied their independent 
motion (Stob. EcL 1 446 eV rf olBipi rh ätrrpa KoBibpvraiy and shortly after- 



BOOK n CH. XXI § 64. 167 

wards rtraxBai ra dfrKainj cirt fjuas 9fri(l>a»tiaSf Stnrtp kcX oparat) ; and 80 
da jß. P. VI 17 novem tibi orbibus vd potius globis conexa sunt omnia, 
quoTum unus caelestis est extimuSj qui rdiquos omnes complectitWy stmimtcs 
ipse deiLS areens et continens ceteros, in quo sunt infixi Uli qui volvuntur stel- 
larum eursus sempitemiy Tusc. v 69 sideraque viderit innumerabilia caelo 
inJuxerentia cum ejus ipsitu motu congrtbere certis infixa sedühus. We may 
oompare an obecure paesage in Chalcidius Tim. c. 83, Aristoteles contra 
opinionem omniumy neque quiescente corpore aetkerio ferri Stellas, vduti 
soluto ac libero motu (the Stoic view) nee secundum universae rei motum, 
Pofisibly we should read circos here for curstts, answering to the kvkKoi of 
Aristotle. Manilius i 2S2 has sidereus orbis aetherios rotat cvrsus, where 
aeth, has its common sense. 

aeqnabili: 'uniform'. 

§ 55. cum admirabili constaatia : for cum see Index and § 101 cvmi 
admirahüüate maanma, This insistence on the harmonious movement of 
the Stars seems to show that each star was free to move differently ; other- 
wise, if they were aU fastened on a sphere, there would have been nothing 
wonderfiil in it, cf. below § 60 ito feruntur ut ad omnia conservanda con- 
sensisse videantur, 

§56. fortnna — constantia: 'in the heavens there is nothing by 
Chance, nothing at random, no wandering nor illusion, but the perfection 
of Order, reality, calculation, consistency'. The oontrasted pairs are for- 
tuna )( constantia; temeritas )( ratio; vaniias )( veritas, (cf. Tusc. in 2 ita 
variis imbuimur erroribus ut vanitati veritas cedat, Acad. ii 34 cum sii 
incertum vere inaniieme moveatur) ; erratio )( ordo ; cf. above § 43. 

contnuine : for the adversative force of que see i 75 sitqtie perludda n. 

omnis ordo : for the qualitative force of omnis see below § 58 omnis 
omatuSj and i 37 divinitatem om/nem; and cf. Wetstein on Jas. i 2 natrav 
Xapov tjyrjiraa-Bt. 

infra Innam : the moon was regarded as the limit between the celestial 
region in which there was no change^ and the sublunary sphere, where 
Chance and evil mied. Thus Ocellus Lucanus c. 2 laßfibs yap itmy a6a»a- 
<rtar xol yn^crcttf o irtpX r^v atki^vrfv dpofios' to fuv Syci>$€V vnkp ravTrjs frov. . . 
B€»p KaT€x*t y4vos, ro d* viroKorc» ceXi/vi/f, vtiKovs Kfzi 0v(r66>r, and Chalci- 
dius Tim, c. 75 at vero svb luna usque ad nos omne genus m^otuum, omne 
etiam mtUationum, prorsus ut est in vetere versu ^aevü, ' exuviae, rabies, 
furiarum examina mille '. Namque gevieratio et item mors in isto loco ; in-- 
crementa quoque et immimUiones. The belief was as old as Philolaus, see 
Boeckh p. 167, Zeller i 409 and Stob. Ed, i 488 there quoted, rb fih ovv 
avwrarto fUpos rov vtpuxovrosy iv ^ rr/tf tlKiKplvtiav tivai t£v oroixttoVf 
"OXvfATToy KoXct, ra di vrro r^v *0\vpjrov <f>opav, ip ^ rovs trivre likavqras p^ff 
ijjKiov Kxii a'€\ijprfs TtraxBai, Koapov, rb d* wro tovtois VTroir(kr}vcv rc koX irtpi- 
Y€top fi^poSf €P ^ ra rfjf KfnXoperaßoKov yeP€a'€^s, ovpapop, Kai ircpi pip ra 
Ttraypfipa t&p prretiptop yiypfiröai t^p (rofl>iay, rrtpX de ra y€p6ptpa rrjs ara^ias 
rijp aptripfj rtXiiop pep iKtbnjp, arcXrj de ravrrfp (compare above § 34 of the 



158 BOOK n CH. XXI § 66. 

quarttu grädtu), Hippolytua (Bef, Haer. i 4) sajs the same of Heraclitus 
and Empedocles ircivra rhp Kaff T^fiat roirov kok&v fitarw c?mu jcai fi^xpi f^v 
trtX^vris ra koko, <l>Bav€iv tK rov irrpl yfjv roirov raSivra^ irfpairtpm de /vj x»puißy 
aT€ Ka&afMaripov rov vrrtp rriv o'€\ifvtjp iratrros Svros roirov. Plato BCOms the 
idea that the stars, being visible and possessed of bodily form, can them- 
aelves be etemal and unchangeable {H^. vn 590), but he seems to allude io 
thifl theory in Theaet, 176 A vir€¥avriov ydp rt r^ dyaß^ dti ciku <bayin|* 
ovr' cv ߀ois avra Vbpvadai^ rriv d< Ovrfrrjv ff>\ffriv kcu. ropUt rov roirov ircpiiroXcc 
t( avayicris ; it appears in more definite form in Aristotle Met. iv 5 p. 
1010 a, o yap irepl i^fias rov aUrßrjrov rowog 4v <f>Bop^ Kai ymirti dcorcXcc 
ltavo£ «Lv aXX* ovrog ovBivj »s tUrelv, fiopiov rov iravros iart»^ CoA, I 2 p. 269 
ttTTK ri rrapa ra <ra»/iara ra btvpo Kcä rrtpX ^phi mpov K€x«»piO-p.€poVj roaovrm 
rifu»r4pav tfxov rffv (ftvaiv, 6a'tfn€p d<l>€<rnjK€ r&v tvravBa wktiov, ib. 3 cTircp ro 
jtvicX^ (TMfia (the ether) prfr^ aS^<nv ^x€iv tphix^rai fiifrc (fyBia-tVf tv\oyov mal 
dvaWoi»rov €lvai...avpßalv€i de rovro Ka\ dta rrjs aloBiia'€ns UavwSf «ig yt irpot 
dvBpoiirlvriv (Iif€lv iriariv' iv &ira»ri, yap rf iraptXrjXvBori xpoi^ ovBiv <l>aivtrtu 
fiera/Sf/SXf^KOf ovrt Kaff SXov rov ttrxarov ovpavov ovrt «cora popiov avrov rmw 
oUtimv ovB€v, Meteor, i 1 ' after general philosophy and the description of the 
Upper region (astronomy) we proceed to what is called meteorology \ raXrra 
d* cWiv So'a avpßaLv€i koto. <l>va'iv /xei^, droKToripav fUvroi rijs rov wp«irov 
<rroixtiov (ether) n-epl rov ytvrvwvra pakiara roirov rfj <t>opq. r&v äarpmv, e.g. 
the milky way, comets, meteors, winds, earthquakes, storms, lightning, 
(called bj Ach. Tatius p^rdpata as oppoaed to ptrwpa, the heavenly bodies) 
Part. An. il p. 641. Hence he ia accuaed by early Christian writers of set- 
ting a limit to Divine Providence, p^xpi «rcXi^i^r i; irpovoia Clem. AI. Strom. 
V 14 § 91, Epiphau. adv. Haer. ni 31, Theodoret Frov. i p. 485 Seh. (aome 
believe that Gkxl govems the universe, but only within certain limits) 
rj aiKfivu vtpiopi(€iv rffv irpovoiav, ro de Xoitrov rov Kocpov pipot c»? frvxt 
4i€p€<rBai. The same doctrine is asserted by Cic. R. P. vi 17 in infimo orbe 
luna radiia aolis accensa convertitur. Infra atUem jam nihü est nin 
mortale et caducum praeter animos munere deorwm hominum generi datos; 
supra lunam eunt aetema omnia ; cf. Varro ap. Aug. C. 2). vii 6 ab eummo 
circuüu caeli ad circulum lunae aetherias anwias eeu astra ac etellcu, eoe 
cadettes deos non modo intdleffi esse sed etiam videri; inter lunae vero 
gyrum et nianborum ac ventorum cacumina aereas esse animaSy sed eas 
animo non ocvlo videri, et vocari heroas et lares et genios; Lucan ix 6 ; Plut. 
Is. et Osir. c. 26 (of Xenocrates) ; Wetstein on Bph. n 2 ^ the prince of the 
power of the air' ; Plin. N. H. ii 38 infra lunam haec sedes if^rutum ex 
superiore natura aeris, infinüum et terreni halittis miscens utraque sorte 
confunditur. Hinc ntdnla, tonitrua et alia ßdmina. . .hinc plurima mor- 
talium mala et rerum naturae pugna secum : terrena in cadum tendentia 
deprimü siderum vis, eademqtte qtuie sponte non subeunt ad se trahit ; ibid. 21 
Posidonius tum minus guadraginta stadiorum a terra altüudinem esse in gua 
nubüa ac venti nubesque proveniant ; i^vde purum liquidumque et impertvr- 
baias lucis aerem; sed a turbido ad lunam vicies cenium miüia stadiorum ; 



BOOK II CH. XXI § 66. 159 

Macrob. S^ Sc. i II ^ 6 et immtUabüem quidem mtmdi partem a ipha^era 
qxicte an-Xainf« vocatur usqtte ad globi lunarü exordium, mutahüem vero a 
luna ad terra» usque dixerunt ; et vivere animas dum in immutabüi parte 
consisturU, mori autem cum ad partem ceciderirU permutationis capacem^ 
atque ideo tnter lunam terrasque locum mortis et inferorum vooari ; ipeam- 
que lunam vitae esse mortisque confinium et animas inde in terram fiuentes 
mori, inde ad supera mearUes in pitam reverii...a luna enim deorsum natura 
ineipit caducorum ; Philo Prov, ii 68. Seneca disputed some of these con- 
clusions, N, Q. vii 22 ego nostris non adsentior, non enim existimo cometen 
subitaneum ignem sed inter aetema opera naturae ; Provid, 1 ne iUa quidem 
quae videntw confusa et incerta, pluvias dico nubesque et disorum fulminwn 
jactus et incevhdia ruptis montium verticilyus efusa..,et alia quae tumultuosa 
pars rerum circa terrae movet, sine ratione, quamvis subita sint, acddunt, 
Pliny {N, H. ii 26) mentions an exception to the unchangeable order of the 
celestial region, ' Hipparchus discovered a new star, and was tbence led to 
oommit tbe impiety of numbering tbe stars, in order that future naturalistB 
might have the means of knowing whether such a marvel were repeated '. 
Bacon Cogü. de Not. Rer. (in 32 Spedding) has some interesting remarks 
on this Opposition of the celestial and sublunary regions. He »ays ' neque 
oado ea competit aetemitas quam ßnqunt, nee rursus terrae ea mutahüitas, 
The apparent regularity of the former is owing to the distance from which 
we behold it. A spectator in the moon would suppose the earth equally 
Aree from change. Moreover new comets and new stars have appeared in 
the heavens '. 

ex qua conservatdo onminm : see the fine passage in Seneca Benef. 
vn 20 foU. on the benefits we receive from the regulär movements of the 
heavenlj bodies. 

B c. Divinity of nature skottm (1) in ite creative and a/rtistic, 
(2) in its providential activity ^ 57, 58. 

§ 57. principe investigandae veritatis : for constr. cf. 7 Phüipp, 9 
Firmani principes pecuniae poUicendae fuerunt, Zeno is called tntwi^or et 
princeps Stoicorum, Äcad. ii 131. 

Ch. XXII ita deflnit ut dicat: cf. Off. i 96 eam sie deßniunt ut id 
decorum vdint esse quod &c. 

ignem artificiosum : Diog. vll 156 gives the original rffv <t>va'tif elpoi 
injp r€xytMv odf ßabiCov tls y4v€(riv, see PUui. Phil, i 7, N. D. in 27 artifi- 
dose ambtdantis, and n. on quarta pars mundi aboye § 27 ; also Hirzel ii p. 
220, and Heracl. fr. 69 Byw. oho^ &vw «coro» /ua. Seh. compares the trvp 
wavTfxy^v of Aesch. Proni. 7 ; we may also compare the ignis sapiens of 
Minucius 35, and Clem. AI. Strom, vii 6 § 34 ^a/icy d< rfiuU ayidCtiv ro irvp 
rar aftaprraiKovs V^X^^9 ^P ^^ ^^ 9ra/u<^ayov «cal ßcofav^rov, oKka ro i^povifiov 
XcyonTCff. 

Tia : see below § 81, and Cleanthee' definition of Art^ ars est potestas 



160 BOOK II c^. xxn § 57. 

via, id est ordine, eßciens QuintiL n 17 § 41. We often find it coupled wiÜi 
ratione as in Orator 11, 116, Fin, 1 29. It is nsed colloquially Ter. Andr, 443 
rem reputavit via; see Koby § 1236. [See on od^ Cobet CoUectan. 514, 
Muaonius in Stob. Flor. Lxvn 8 (iv p. 87 m). J. E. B. M.] 

artifl proprium creare : Arist. Fth, vi 4 § 4 rcxvi; nä<ra nepl y€- 

vtaip. 

multo artificiosiiis natnram efficere : Arist. Part, An, il^, 639 b apxn 

6 \6yos ofioitos tv t€ tois Kara rtxyi^ '^'^ *'*' ^''(^ fjnurfi avv€<rniK6a'iv.,.fuiiXkoif 
d* €<rr\ t6 ov evtica Koi ro Xfikoif iv rois Ttjs <^v(r€0»f tfpyots rj ev rois rfjs rcxyi^r, 
P%«. II 2 p. 194 17 Ttxyrj fufielrai rrpf (l>v<nv, Meteorol, IT 3 § 24, below § 83 
arte naturae vigent, 

oinnis natura : ' nature in every department ' oontrasted with univer- 
sal nature, which is not onlj artißciosa but artifex: of. below § 141 qyii 
vero opifex praeter naturam, qua nihüpotett esse caUidius tarUam soUertiam 
persequi potuissetfy § 138, Acad, 11 30, YaL Max. i 8 extr. 18 omnis honae 
malaeque TtuUeria^ fecunda artifex rerum natura, Seneca Ep. xc § 27 artifex 
väae phHosophia, Ov. Met, xv 218 artißces natura manus admovit, Plin. 
N, H. X 91 jiatwrae architectae vis; Swainson cites ib. vi 35 (30), (it is no 
wonder that monsters were found in Ethiopia) artifici ad formanda cor- 
pora effigiesque caelandas mobüitate ignea, 

▼iam et sectam : * a prescribed line ', cf. Cad. 17 Aano sectam rationem- 
que vitae re magis quam verbis secuti sumus, L. and S. derive it from seco 
* to out ', but it is so constantly joined with sequor by Cic. (e.g. Macc, 104, 
Rabir, 22, Farn, xni 4, Brut, 120) that there can be no doubt it is rightly 
connected with this word, or rather with its archaic form seco ^ to foUow \ 
hj Nettleship {J, of Phil, xi p. 107) who cites from Naevius eorum sectam 
secuntur multi mortales, and from Servius on Aen. x 107 {qiuim quisque 
secat spem), secat, sequüur,,.unde et sectas dudmus habitus animorum et instir 
tuta pkHosophiae. 

§ 58. artifex : so Diog. L. vn 86 rtxviTrfs 6 Xoyor r^r opfiSjs. 

consnltriz et proTida : so consulo and provideo are joined 1 4 a dis 
hominum vitae consuli et provideri, Q. Fr. i 1 § 31 1^ coTisjdas omnibus, tU 
provideas saluti. constlltrix appears to be äir. Xcy. 

nt ceterae naturae— sie natura mundi : Seh. treats this as an 
example of the comparison of opposites, like Fin. 11 67 ut nos ex annalium 
monumentis testes excitamus...sic in vestris disputationibus historia muta est^ 
and other passages cited by Madv. on Fin. i 3. It would then oppose 
the necessary growth and movement of plants, mentioned in § 33, to 
the yoluntary movement of the uniyerse mentioned in §§ 43 and 44 &c. 
But it is certainly awkward that it is immediately foUowed by a com- 
parison of resemblanoe, actiones sie adhibet ut nosmet ipsi; besides the 
supposed Opposition is far from clearly marked, aind elsewhere we find an 
analogy suggested between the seeds of plants and the natural impiüaes 
which determine the oourse of life of sentient and rational creatures; 
thus Cleanthes ap. Stob. Fd, l 372 chvfp yap Ms nvot r^ fUpij wmra 



BOOK II CH. xxn § 58. 161 

<l>vrrai ex tnrepfxaTCiV iv rois küBtjkovo'i \povoiSy ovro» kcX rot) SKov ra lUpTj^ 
<Sv Kcu ra [^ Kai ra <lyuTa ovra rvyxovet, ev rois KaßiJKOvo'i xpovois <^v«rcu, 
Seneca iT. Q. iii 29 sive anima est mundus aive corpus fuUv/ra gvhemahüe^ 
tU arbores, ut sota, ab inüio ^us tisqtce ad exüvm, quicquid facere, quicquid 
pati debeat, indrisum est, Ut in semine omnis fiUuri ratio hominis compre- 
kensa esty et legem barbae et cancyrum nondtm, natus infans habet ;.,. sie origo 
mundi..,solem et lunam et vices siderum continuit; Cic. Mn, in 23 appetiius 
animif quae opfuj vocaiury non ad quodvis genus vitae sed ad qtumdam 
formam vivendi videtw dattis, iiemque et ratio et perfecta ratio ; Divin. 1 128 
ut in seminibus vis inest earum rerum quae ex iis progignuntur: sie in causis 
conditae sunt res futvrae ; Seneca Ep, xc 29 ; Zeno ap. Varr. L, L, v 69 
animaliwm semen ignis, qui anima ac mens : qui caldor et cado, quod hie 
innumerabües ac immortales ignes. The metaphor was often used in refer- 
ence to the Cjdical Conflagration, when the universe was shut up into its 
seed, as it were, Philo Inc. Mu/nd. 505 (Chrysippus holds) to dva(rroix€ioi(rau 
n)v hiOLKoa-yajtnv tls avro irvp rov fjJWovros dororcXf Ta^at Koapov cnrippja €Uf<u, 
Plut. Sto, Rep, § 41, Diog. vii 136; cf. below §§ 81, 86, Heinze p. 107 
folL and Villoison in Osann's Com. p. 465 folL on the \oyos (TVfppariKos. 
PoBsibly we ought to put a stop after mundi, and read omnesque. [The 
ax*gument seems to be as follows : art is shown by arrangement and pur- 
pose : all parts of nature show this and are therefore artißciosa. The art 
is as it were stored in the seed : the universe has no seed ; but, just as 
each particular part has sua semina, and so far is self-contained, so the 
universe has its movements and feelings belonging to itself and not caused 
from without. R] Heind. proposed to read suis quaeque seminibus instead 
of suis sem. ^., but we find the same order in § 127 suis se armis quaeque 
defendant, 

appetitioneB : cf. above § 34 and Fitk iu 23, Äcad. ii 24, Of. 1 101. 

irp^ia : see 1 18 n. 

aptissunus sit ad pennaneiidiim : self-preservation is the object of 
the first appetite, Fin. ni 16 quoted on § 34; the 2nd is ut natura expleatur 
(ibid. V 25, 26, 27, 40) ; this involves the perfection of beauty both of body 
and mind (ib. 47, 48). 

onmifl : qualitative, as in § 56. 

Ch. xxnr § 59. nee cessantitun : cf. i 24, 45, 51, 101, Fin. ii 41. 

molientiiiin cimi labore : cf. 1 22, 24^ 51, 52 and m 92. On constr. 
cf. cum maaima cderitcUe below 97, 142, and see Index imder cum. 

acres ant concretos mnores coUigant : ' so as to contract a sharp or 
sluggish condition of the Juices'. Cf. Plato Tim. 86 mKpol Kai x^^«^«^« 
Xvi*oi, Cels. II 19 aliae res boni suci sunt, aliae maliy,..aliae facHe in stomar- 
cho acescunt. For coli. cf. coUigere frigus, süim, &c. We have urrwrem 
coUigens in a different sense below § 101 and in Plin. iV^. ff. xix 26 ra- 
phanos medici suadent ad colligenda acria viscerum. concr. properly 
*curdled' *clogged', see n. on concresceret above § 26, and Celsus quoted 
in Gleorges' Lex. n quid umoris intus concreverit, 

M. C. II. 11 



162 BOOK II GH. XXIII § 59. 

monogrammos : 'unsubstantial', lit. 'sketched in outline', cf. i 75 
adutnhrcUorum n., 123 UneameTUis dumtaxat extremis, and 49. It ia thus 
explained by Nonius p. 37 monogr, dicti sunt homines macie pertenues ac 
decolores ; tractum a pictura, qtuie prius quam coloribus cofporatur, umbra 
ßngitttr (this is the pictwra linearis of Plin. iT. H. xxxv 5). He quotes 
from Lucil. via; vivo homini ac monogrammo. 

m 

B d. Ths Tiame of Ood is given by the popuUvr religion (1) to the 
beneßts received/rom the Ooda, (2) to personified virtues and passions 
5§ 60, 61. 

§ 60. mnltae alias naturae deomm: not, l think, <many other 
. kinds of Qodfl', but ' many other divinities^ cf. for the periphrastic use i 23, 
u 24, 136. 

tum illud : answering to tum autem res ipsa belöw. 

a deo natum : Dav. conjectured datum or donatum, Wopkens p. 87 
compares § 62 below täiliiates ffiffnebant, Leg. iil 30 wm vides a teid ipsum 
ruttum, Fin, v 69 oriuntur a suo cujusque genere and Off. n 16 nuUa...pe8tts 
est quae non homini ah homine riascatur. For general subject see i 38 
and 118, where the same belief is attributed to Persaeiis and Prodicufi, and 
Zeller iv 316 foU. It is criticized below iii 41, and in Sext £mp. ix 39 
there cited. 

nt cum ftuges : elliptical for ut 7u>sfacimus cfwm. Seh. refers to Flut. 
Is, et Os. c. 70 »(nrtp rjfA€7s rov tivovfuvoif ßißXia JlXartapos mptifrBai ff^tfitw 
IlXar«»Mi, Kai M€va»lipov wroKpivtaBai rov ra MtvopSpov frov^para vkotM- 
p^vop, ovra»r ciecivoi roit r&y 6e»v opopaai ra t£v Bt^v bcipa rai wovifutra 
KoKei» ovK. §<l>(idovTo. Plutarch wams his readers against confounding the 
Qods with their Operations (ibid. c. 66 p. 377), oir<os (^oßi^o-ovrai fuj XaBwrtw 
fir irvtvpara Koi ptvpara Koi OTropovs «eai äporcvt jcal vaöri yrjs koa furaßokas 
t&pSv diaypd<t>oPTts ra Btia koX btdKvovrti* «Scnrcp ol A(Ow<rov rov oIpoVj 
''Jl(f>aiaTov de TTfv <f>k6ya, 1l€p(rt<t>6yrjv de (^170*1 nov JSXedvBfjs ro dui r»v KOpirw 
<f}€p6fi€Vov Koi <t>oP€Vop,€vov irv€Vfui' wonjTTjs d4 TIS eiri Tuv BfpiCovTuy, rrjfios or* 
alCrfol Afjp.ijrepa Kdokorop^vo'iv. Oudcv yap ovroi dui^cpov<ri tAp iaria icm 
Kokios Koi äyicvpap Tyovftevuy Kv߀ppijTTjp,,.dk\ä dtiPas Kai oBiovs tpirtMOva-i 
bo^asj apaurBffTou icac dy^vxois koi (fiBeipopcpois oyayicatwr vir opBpwr^w 
btoiup»p Koi xp«>p€Poi>p <f>v<r€a'i koi irpaypaaip opopara Btw €Vi<f>€poprtt. Cf. 
Lucr. II 655 hie siquis mare Neptunumy Cereremque vocare constituit fruges^ 
et Bacchi nomine abuti mavolt qtiam laticis proprium proferre vocamen 
&c. [Swainson cites Naevius ap. Fest. p. 58 * co(ms edit Neptunum, Venerem, 
Cererem*; signißcatper Cererem panem, per Neptunum pisces,per Venerem 
olera."] On Ceres see below § 67. 

vinum : the deification of wine is perhaps derived from the old Homa- 
sacrifice of the early Aryans, see Döllinger i p. 400 folL *The Homa- 
drink was the medium through which the deity manifested itself \ *Homa 
was the vivifying spirit of nature \ * In the Homa the Parsees had a 



BOOK n CH. xxm § 60. 163 

sacrifice which had the plenary significaüoii of a saorament and a com- 
munion, imparting a fellowship with the deitj '. 

sine Cerere — Venus : from Ter. Eun, iv 5, 6, of. Aen, i 701 Cfere- 
remqus canistris expediuniy Ov. Met, v 341. 

§ 61. res in qua Tis inest major : the presence of Divinity is feit in 
the unaocoiintable or overpowering movements of the heart, as well as in 
the wonders of the extemal universe. The forpaer correspond to the 
4th class of deities in the hat given Flac. Phil, i 6 (ira$£p fiev ''Kpayra, 
*hff>pobirriVy H6Bov), though C.'s eix. ( Virtta^ Salus &c.) correspond more 
to the 5th class (vpayfiarav de 'EXirida, Aiicrji/f Evvo/iiay), being signs 
rather of bonitcu diviruiy than of vis major, which is more appropriately 
predicated of the succeeding class Cupido, &c. Similarly Theodoret Therap, 
III p. 45 o yap vaBrjriKoy rc kcH aXoyov rrjs "^XV^ ovofid^ovo'i fjkopioy, rovro 
6€o\oyova'Uf..,Kcti rrfv fiev ^TriBvfiiap *A(f>pobiTrjv K(ik.ov<n Koi ^Epwra* "hpta de 
rov Bvfibv 6vofjLaCov<nVf rrjv de fjJßrjv Aiowirovy kcH rffv piv kKovtiv 'Epfi^v, 
Tov de \oyia-fi6p 'ABrjvav, res here is perfectly indefinite, 'ein gewisses 
Etwas ' as Seh. says. 

nt Fides: cf. below § 79 and m 61, Lactant i 20, Amob. iv 1, Val. 
Max. VI 6 {De Fide Publica), Hör. Od. i 35. 21 te Spes et albo rara Fides 
colit vdata panno ; Leg, n 28 hene vero quod Mens, Pietas, Virtus, Fides 
consecratur humana : quarum omnium Eomae dedicata publice templa sunt, 
ut üla qui kabeant..,deas ipsos in animis suis coUocatos putent. Na/m Hlud 
vitiosum> Äthenis, quod Ot/lonio seetere escpialo, Epimenide örete stiadente, 
fecerunt ContuTtidiae fanum et Impudentiae ; virtutes enim non viiia conse- 
crare decet (on this see Grote ffist. in p. 114 and Journal of Phü. vi 21) ; 
ibid. 19 (coIutUo) ollapropter qtuze datur homini ascensiu in cadum, Mentem, 
Virtutem, Pietatem, Fidem; earumque laudum ddvhra sunto, neve uUa 
vitiorum ; Of, iii 104 praedare Ennius * Fides alma apta pennis et 
jusfwandum Jovis\ Qui Jus igiiur jurandum violat, is Fidem violat, 
' qttam in Capitolio vidnam Jovis optvmi maanmi\ ui in Catonis oratioTie est, 
majores nostri esse voluerunt, This temple on the Capitol was first built 
by Numa, restored as we are told by Atilius Calatinus, dictator B. c. 249, 
and about 150 years later by AemiUus Scaurus. Meetings of the Senate 
were held there, and it was from thence that the Senators mshed out and 
murdered Tib. Gracchus near the statues of the seven kings, which stood 
at the door of the temple, see Yal. Max. in 2 § 17, Bum's Roms 192, 
Preller R. M. p. 224^. Jablonski wrote a treatise I>e cuUu Virtutum apud 
Oentes, cf. Mayor on Juv. 1 115. 

Mens : her temple, vowed at the time of panic which followed the 
battle of Thrasymene, was built on the Capitol B.c. 217 by order of the 
Sibylline books (Liv. xxn 9, Ov. Fast, vi 241). Preller R M, p. 628 cites 
an inscription to Mens Bona, Scaurus restored the temple at the time of 
the Cimbric panic, when, as Plutarch says {Fort, Rom, p. 318), the influ- 
ence of the sophists made people think more of abstract ideas. 

Aemilins Scaurus ; b.c. 163 — 90, a streng supporter of the Optimales, 

11—2 



164 BOOK n CH. xxm § 61. 

^IwajB spoken of in the higfaest terms by Gic., who is foUowed by Horaoe 
{Od, I 37) and Juvenal (xi 91), but charged with ambition and corruption 
by Sallust. The authoritj which he exercised is shown by a striking 
anecdote. Being accused by the tribune, Yorius, of ezciting the allies to 
revolt, he deigned no other reply than Q, Varms Hüpanus M, Scaurum 
principem senatus socios in arma aü convocctsse : M. Scauruspr, sen, negat: 
testis nemo ett : vtri vos Quiräes convenü credere f and was forthwith ac- 
quitted. (Asconius on the jwo Scauro cited in Orelli's Onomcuticon p. 19.) 

AtUins Calatlnns triumphed over the Carthaginians in the first 
Punic War. Gic. refers to him as an example of ancient virtue below 
§ 165, Tusc, I 13, 110, Cato 61 (where bis epitaph is given, hune unum 
plttrimae cansentiunt gentes poptdi primarium fuisse virum), Fin. n 116, 
Plane 60. We read {Leg. ii 28) that he dedicated a temple to Spes^ and 
hence Lambinus foUowed by Heind. reads Spes instead of the 2nd FideSy 
because Spes, which is mentioned in in 61 (but not below § 79) oiight not 
to be omitted here, and because Numa was the first builderof the temple of 
Fides. Dav. defends the text, on the ground that proadme and ante must 
refer to the same. 

consecrata : this verb means first 'to hallow', then *to deify', as in 
ni 39 omne gemu bestiarum Aegyptii consecraverunt. Like dedico Qit * to 
devote') it is used both of persons and of things, cf. below 79 Viritts^ 
Concordia, consecratae et dedicaiae^ m 13 aedem Castori dedicatam, ib. 43 
templa dedicata, 61 consecrata simnlacra, Leg. il 28 Fides consecratur, templa 
sunt dedicata. 

Virtntis : there were two temples at Rome to Ilonos and Virtus com- 
bined ; one near the porta Capena^ dedicated originally to Honos by 
Fabius Cunctator b.c. 233, in consequence of a victory over the Ligurians : 
this was afterwards enlaiged by Marcellus Hhe sword of Rome', and 'dedi- 
cated to the two divinities to whom bis life was consecrated ' (Mommsen). 
He had vowed it first in the battle at Clastidium B.c. 222, where he won 
the spclia opifna by slaying the Qallic king, and a second time during the 
siege of Syracuse. The temple was finally dedicated by his son 205 B.c. 
and adomed with treasures of art from Syracuse {Verr. rv 121, 123, Liv. 
XXVII 25, XXIX 11) : among other things we read of the sphere of Ar- 
chimedes being placed there {K F. 1 14). The second temple was erected 
by Marius on the Capitol in commemoration of his victories over the Cimbri 
and Teutons {Sext. 116 with Halm's n., Burn p. 193, Preller p. 613). Later 
a separate temple was built to Virtiis by Scipio the Younger, and one to 
Honosj mentioned Leg. ii 58. 

multis: as only eleven years intervened between the dedication by 
Fabius and the vow at Clastidium, and only twenty-eight years between 
the earlier and later dedication, and as Fabius and Marcellus were too well 
known for C. to have forgotten that they were contemporaries, we ought 
perhaps to alter the reading of the msb by the Insertion of the negative. 

Opis: wife of Satumus and goddess of the earth, identified in later 



Booi n CH. xxra § 61. 165 

times with Bheathe mother of the gods. She had a temple on the Capitol 
Liv. XXXIX 22, aee Preller p. 417. Here she is regarded as synonyinous 
with wealth. Qnid : ' why should I mention her temple' ? 

Salutifl : originallj a Sabine goddess whoee shrine was on the QuirinaL 
A temple was dedicated to her, as presiding over the safety of Bome, in 
the Samnite War 302 B.O., and decorated by Fabius Pictor (Preller 
p. 601). 

Ooncordiae : her chief temple was buüt by Camillus on the alope of 
the Capitol b.c. 367, after the passing of the Licinian laws to establish 
harmony between the patricians and plebeians. This was enlarged by 
Opimius 121 b.c. after the overthrow of C. Gracchus (Aug. C. D. in 26) and 
again restored by the emperor Tiberius. It was here that the Senate often 
met. A brazen shrine of Concord was erected by Flavius near the Senate- 
house in 303 B.c. to commemorate his attempt to assert the rights of the 
plebs. There was another chapel of Concord on the Ars, dedicated by 
L. Manlius to commemorate the suppression of a mutiny at the beginning 
of the 2nd Punic War ; see Bum 84, 90 folL, 194, Preller 623. 

LibertatiB : there was a temple of L. on the Aventine buüt by Grac- 
chus, father of the victor of Beneventum, in which the latter placed a 
picture of himself proclaiming the freedom of the volunteer slaves who had 
fought imder him (Liv. xxiv 16). We also read of an cUrium LibertcUis, see 
Preller p. 616, "Merkel praef. to Ov. FcuH p. cxxx. Clodius dedicated the 
house of the exiled Cicero to L^berta«» {Dom. 110). 

Victoriae: cf. PreUer 609, Ze^. ii 28 'if we are to invent names of 
gods, let US avoid such as Febrü and rather choose those Vicae Potae 
cUque Statae cognominaque Statoris et Invicti Jovis, renimque ejppetendartim 
nomitia, Saltttis, Honoris, Opis, Victoriae\ L. Postumius dedicated a 
temple to Yictory in the Samnite war 294 b. c. (Liv. x 33). Hiero sent to 
Rome a golden statue of victory after the battle of Cannae, which was 
gratefiilly accepted by the Senate and placed in the temple of Jupiter on 
the Capitol (rictoriam ommque accipere, sedemque ei 9e divae dare dicare 
Capiiolium, templum Jovis 0. M.; in ea arce urbis Bomanae sacratam 
volerUempropitiainque,ßrmam ac stabilem forepopulo Romano Liv. xxn 37). 
Augustus placed in the Senate-house an altar and statue of Yictory, which 
were afterwards regarded as the palladium of the state. The removal of 
the altar by Gratian gave rise to a fsimous dispute between Symmachus 
and St Ambrose. 

regi non posset: this is scarcely the description we should have 
expected of such abstractions as Salus and Concordia. As was said above, 
0. probably applies to them what belongs to the personified paasiona which 
foUow. Even then sine deo regi is hardly a suitable expression. The 
supematural character of these passions is suggested by the fact that 
man feels himself overmastered by them, that they seem something dis- 
tinct from his own personal being ; not because they demand the control 
of a god. 



166 BOOK II cü. XXIII § 61. 

' Oupidixüs : c£ ni 58, 60. [Lactant. i 20 cites a lost passage from the 
De LegUms (?), magnvm awdaxque consäium Ghraecia stuoepü quod Cupidinum 
et Amorum simvlacra in gymnasiis consecravü. No temple of Cupid is 
known to have eziated at Borne. The niins called the Temple of Venus 
and Cupid have been so named without authority (Bum p. 219). Swainson]. 

Voluptatis : more properlj Volupiaf see Varro X. L. v 164 in Nova 
Via ad Volupiae saoellwn ; Macrob. Sai, i 10 § 8 mentiona her Bocdkun 
and ara^ 

Lubentiiiae : better known under the form Lüntina, as the goddeas of 
funerals, because every death had to be registered in her temple, and aU 
that was needed for funerals was ezposed for sale there. Hence we have 
the name libitinarii for undertakers, and the phrase Lüntina ad funera viss 
euffid^Hit to express a scarcity of coffins in time of pla^e (Ldv. XL 19). 
Plutarch offers various explanations for this association of birth and 
death under a common divinity Qta, Bam. 23, Preller p. 387. 

vitiosaram rerom: see ni 44, 63 penuciom rebui,,,Febri8, Orbona; 
Leg, n 28 cited above ; Seneca ap. Aug. C, D, TL 10 Hotiüi'us Pavorem 
atque Pallorem teterrimos hamirvum affectu» (dedicavit) ; Plin. N. H. u b 
irmv/meros credere {deoe) atque etiam ex virtutiJbuB vüiisqus haminunif vt 
Fudicitia/nif Conoordiam, If entern, Spem, Honaremy Clementiam, FSdem, aut^ 
vi DemocrüOj placuüf dttos omnino Foenam et ßenqficium, majorem ad 
aocordiam accedU, 'Fear led men to deify Disease and Misfortime'; 9ed 
iuper omnem impudentiam aduUeria irUer ipiot fingi, mox jvrgia et odia ; 
atgrue etiam furtorum esse et scderum numina, The Christian apologists, 
such as Minucius and Tertullian, naturally take advantage of such admis- 
sions. 

neqne naturalium : Sext. £mp. xi 73 KKedvBrfs yjfr^ Kora <f>v<n9 furr' 

d^iap ^x*^ ^"^ i)doyif y, Cato 39. 

pulsaat : c£ I/Mp^ neirkriyfUvos Ägam, 1204. 

B d (3). The name of Ood ia given by the populär rdigion to the 
spvrits qf depa/rted beviefactora, § 62. 

§ 62. atilitatnin igitur : referring back to § 60 quicquid magnam 
utilüatem, 

Ch. XXIV goscepit vita hominnxn ut toUerent : cited by Lact. 1 15. In 

Flac, Fhü, I 6 Hhe 7th description of divinity is' rh diä rat tls rov koipop 
ßlov €Vfpy«rias iKTtTifujfjJpop, avBpwrtPOP de y€Vprj6€Pj ms 'HpcucXca, ms Aiocrieo- 
povs, ms Aioia;(rov. The more natiural construbtion here would be suscq>it in 
oaelvm *has admitted to divine honours^ but this is defined by ut toUerent^ 
cf. Tim, c. 11 1^0« stiscipite ut gignatis, 

fama ac voluntate : 3 Catil, 2 {Romvlum) ad deos immortales benevo- 
lentia famaque tustuLimtis; Off. iii 25 Hercvlem illum quem hominum 
fama beneficiorum memar in consilio cadestium coUocavit foU. vo- 

luntas is the .gratitude shown in the populär belief. Prodicus seems to 



BOOK 11 CH. XXIV § 62. 167 

have been the first to throw the heroic legenda into the form of a moral 
apologue. 

hinc Hercules: Hör. Od, iii 3. 9 hoc arte PoUva et vaguB HercvleB 
enitus arces attigü tgfneas...hac te mereTitem, Bacehe patery tuae vesere 
tigres...hac Quirintu Martis equis Acheronta fugit; Sext. 143 imUemvar 
nostros Bruto$, Camillos..,innumerabües alw8.,,quoi equidem in deorum 
numero repono.^.neque haue opinionem n in iüo sancHstimo Hercuie oon- 
secrcUam mdemtUj cujus corpore amlmsto viiam efue et virtutem immortalüas 
eacepisse dicitur, minus existimemus eos qui hanc tantam rem pvblicam sids 
consüiis atct laboribus auxerini,,,esse immortalem ghriam consecutos; Plin. 
jy. H, II 5 deus est mortali juvare mortalenif et haec ad aetemam gloriam 
via: hac proceres iere Eomani, hoc nunc caelesti passu cum liberis suis 
ffodit maximus omrUs aevi rector Vespasianus Auqustus...Hic est vetus- 
tissimus refercTidi bcTie merentibus gratiam moSy ut tales numinibus ad- 
scribant; see i 9, 38 with nn., Leg, ii 19, Ttisc, i 28, Farad, i 11, R, P, 
in 40; and on Apotheosis generallj PreUer p. 769 folL, DöUiuger i p. 343 
folL II p. 31, 165 foll. A remarkable instance is that of Brasidas, to whom 
yearlj sacrificea were offered after bis death bj tbe people of Ampbipolia, 
Thuc. V 11. We are told (Macr. Sat. i 23 § 7) tbat PosidoniuB was the 
author of a special treatbe on tbe Heroes, see Bake Pos, p. 45. Her- 

cales is properly tbe god of busbandry, identified witb tbe old SeTno 
SancuSy tbe god of fidelity (Seeley's Livy p. 30, Preller p. 640). Tbe 
Greek Heracles is properly a solar deitj, but foreign and oriental elementa 
haye been mixed up witb bis story, cf. below m 42. He became as it 
were the * patron saint ' of tbe Stoics, see mj Sketch of Änc, Phil, p. 250, 
and Major on Juv. x 361. 

Oastor et Pollux : see above § 6 and in 53. 

Aesculapius : see below iii 39, 45, 57. The worship of tbe Epidaurian 
*A<rieXi7irioff was introduced into Rome at the command of tbe Sibylline 
books, on occaedon of a pestilence b.c. 291. Ovid teils tbe story of the 
voluntary departure of the sacred snake from tbe original sbrine, of bis 
leaving the vessel, in whicb he was being conveyed to Borne, when they 
reached tbe Island in the Tiber where bis temple afterwards stood {Met, zv 
622 foE, Preller p. 607). Possibly tbe name may be an epithet of Apollo : 
at Smyma he was worsbipped as Zeus Asclepioe (Grote Hist, i 248). 
Galen (Protr, 9 p. 22 K.) discusses wbether he is to be regarded as $€09 cf 
dpx^f or a deified man ; Pausanias (u 26) believed the former. 

Liber: properly means 'unconstrained' * jovial', über and Libera 
were the male and female deities of harvest and vintage, aud of pro- 
ductiveness both in plant and animal. In the festival of the Liberalioy 
deecribed by Ovid Fasti ni 713, they were worsbipped along with Ceres, 
the goddess of growth and production (creo), and identified at an early 
period with Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone. A Joint temple was 
dedicated to them b. c. 494 in accordance with the Sibylline books. It was 
built in the Greek fashion, and priestesses were brougbt £rom Neapolis to 



168 BOOK II CH. XXIV § 62. 

instmct the Romans in the cnstomory rites (Preller p. 132, 440). The 
Cerealia are described bj Ovid, ib. iv 393 folL Cioero's derivation is 
naturally sxiggesied by the Gr. xopi;, but the common phrase lAher paler 
is opposed to it. The Roman deity was never supposed to be of human 
origin. On the lacchus of the mysteries see i 119 n. 

angoste sancteque : the two words are also joined below § 79, aa in 
1 119 and m 53. 

quod quäle sit...pot68t : Hhe import of which Joint consecration may 
be leamt from the mysteries'. 

ex nobis natos : so Lad, 27 ex se natos. Oerere nati : see 1 103 n. 

in Libero non item : we might understand this as foUows ' we alwaya 
remember that Libera means the daughter of Ceres ; but when we use 
the name Liber, we think of Bacchus, the god of wine, without reference 
to his parentage'. But it seems better to take it as a translation of some 
such Qreek as oircp ۤf Kopjj nipwyLtv aXX' ovk iv Kqp^ because the name 
Daughter was in regulär use for the goddess Persephone, but not Son for 
the god lacchus? It will then mean *a use which they (perhape the 
third person rather implies that C. is not speaking of Romans) observe 
in the case of the Daughter but not of the Son '. I do not see any pro- 
bability in Preller's idea {Or.M.i p. 614^ that it may refer to the doubtfül 
parentage of the mystic Bacchus. Heind. inverts Libero and Libero^ taking 
it to mean that liber^ in the sense of ^child^was used for a boy, but not 
for a girl, cf. Hyg. 9 procreavü liberoe eeptem^ totidemque ßZiat ; the Sing, 
is found occasionally in post- Augustan writers. non item : used when 
a negative statement follows the positive, to save the repetition of the 
predicative word, cf. Tuec, iv 31 animorum non itemy Ätt. ii 21 § 4 oeterü 
non üeniy Acad, ii 22 cUterum percepta teuere videmtu, aUerum non item. 
Leg. I 45 ingeniajuvenvm non item. 

Romnlus : "the first generation of Romans which tumed its attention 
to the national antiquities, the generation of Fabius, Cincius and Cato, was 
quite prepared to take that view of many of the national deities which 
Euhemerus had taken of deities in general {N.D. l 119). A strüdng 
ezample is contained in Virg. Aen. vn 177, where, in the palace of Latinua, 
there are said to stand statues of his ancestors, and among them are 
enumerated some of the leading names in the old Italian pantheon 
(Satumus, Janus, Picus, Faunus)", Seeley's Livy p. 18. Romulus is properly 
one of the two guardian deities {lares)o{ Palatine Rome (Seeley p. 31, 
Preller p. 694). Qnirintis is the Sabine god of war (Seeley p. 38, 

Preller p. 626). 

qnonun cum remanerent — di sunt habiti: on this form of the 
Relative construction, instcad of qui, cum eorum &c., see n. on i 12 er quo 
ejpsistü, and Madv. § 445 there cited. For rite Wopkens cites i 52 rite 
beatum, Leg. i c. 7 nominatur rite sapientia. 

aetemi : according to the old Stoical view the good survive only to 
the next oonflagration (Diog. L. vii 157), but we find this Innovation on 



BOOK II CH. XXIV § 62. 169 

the old doctiine elsewhere in Cic. cf. above i 1 n. on offnitionem antmi; 
Div, I 115 {anirmu) quia mant ab omni aetemücUe versattuque est cwm in- 
numerabüibus anirrds, amnia, quae in rerum natura sunt, videt; si modo 
tempercUis escis modidsque potionUms ita est affecttu^ ut sopito corpore ipse 
vigHet; ib. 131 quid est igitur cur, cum., ammi hominum semper ftierint 
fiUurique sint, cur ii, quid ex quoque eveniat et quid quamque rem sign^lcety 
perspicere non possirU? Tusc. i 55 sentit iffitvr animus se moveri; quod cum 
sentit, ülud una sentit, se vi sua, non aliena moveri, nee accidere passe, ut 
ipse umquam a se deseratur; ex quo efflcituo' aetemitas: also in Seneca 
w^. 102 § 2 juvabat de aetemitate animarum qttaerere, immo mehercules 
credere; ib. § 26 dies iste, qttem tamquam extremum reformidas, aetemi 
natalis est. As there is reason to believe that Posidonius is the author 
copied bj C. in both the works cited (see Schiebe on the Fontes of the De 
Divinatione and Corssen on Tusc), and as Seneca continually quotes from 
Posidonius, there can be little doubt that we may trace bis finger here, 
c£. Corssen 1. c. pp. 10 — 30. There is an apparent inconsistency, which is 
hardly to be escaped in speaking of such matters, between this passage 
and § 153 below, where the wise man is spoken of as nulla alia re nisi im- 
mortalüate cedens caelestibus ; we find many parallels in Seneca. 

B d (4). The name of God is given hy the popula/r religion to the 
personified forces ofnaiure. ^ 63 — 71. 

§ 63. physica ratio =Xoyor <f>va'iK6s, a physical explanation : cf. Fir- 
micus 2 d^ensores volunt addere physicam rationem, fntgum semvna Osvrim, 
Isim terram, Typhonem calorem &c., and the nn. on ^. Z>. i 36, 38, 40, 41, 
n 23. The Stoics agreed with a modern school of mythologists in tracing 
back the abominations of the legends to the misinterpretation of the 
mythical representation of nature, see M. Müller Lectures on Lang. ser. ii, 
Lect. 9, p. 384 foU. So Bacon ( Wisdom of the Ändents) argues that there 
must have been a mystical sense in the fables from the absurdity of their 
outward form, habemtu sensit occulti signvm n^m parvum, quod nonnuUae 
ex fabuMs tam instdsae inveniantur vZ pcvrdbolam vduti dament, Another 
proof is the significance of the names Metis, Typhon, Pan, &c. The same 
grounds are alleged by Max Müller, but the lessons drawn &om the myths 
by Bacon are for the most part moral or political, like those which Horace 
finds in the Odyssey ; though bis Interpretation of the story of Caelus and 
Satumus (12) and of Proserpina (29) is not unlike the Stoic. On the aUego- 
rization of the myths see i 36 (n. on BtvyovLav), iii 62, Zeller iv p. 323 folL 
Grote Hist, Pt. i eh. 16. Metrodorus of Lampsacus, a friend of Anaxagoras, 
is Said by Diog. L. (ii 11) to have been the first to allegorize Homer, but 
the same thing had been already done by Theagenes of Rhegium 520 b. c. 
(Grote I p. 557). Democritus seems to have followed the fashion (Zeller i 
835). The Scholia to Hesiod contain many specimens of Stoic allegories, 
see Flack Glossen u. Scholien p. 29 foll. ; but the chief storehouse for them 



170 BOOK II GH. XXIY § 63. 

is to be found in the Natura Deorum of Comutus with YiUoison's notes 
and in the HoTneric AUegories of Heraclitua 

et quidem : ' and that, genuinely philosophical, not supentitions', et 
Div, u 14d (printed as the motto of voL i) rdigio propaganda ut^ quae ett 
jimcta cum cognüume noUurae. On et quidem see Index. 

indnti specie humana : ' who have had a human form put upon them, 
and have thus fümished a supply of fahles to the poets'. 

nam cum vetna— -opplevisaet : the insertion of cumj which might 
easilj be lost after namy explains the oppUviuet of the best mbs, and gets 
rid of the harsh asyndeton, involved in the reading adopted by Mu. and 
Seh. The latter objects (Opusc. ni 371) that the Stoics considered their 
phfdca ratio to be the original sense of the myths, and that it is incorrect 
to represent this meaning as foisted into them by philosophers in recent 
times. But we may understand the Latin as follows ' whereas the general 
belief throughout Greece was that Uranus was mutilated and Cronos 
boimd, the theory which was put into that coarse form was far from 
wanting in refinement '. [Perhaps rather ' wanting in point '. Eleganter 
is a common word in Law Latin and generally used in this way, ag. deg, 
MTÜnt * puts a nice point ', ' reasons closely and neatly '. R.] 

Oaelnm : for the story see Hes. Theog. 159—182, and for other inter- 
pretations Comutus c 7, Flack pp. 44 foll., 62 foE, Lactantius i 12. 
Preller's explanation {Or, M, i 45) is not unlike that given by Comutus : 
Cronos, the god of harvest (connected by him, as by Comutus, with Kpaum, 
'to bring to perfection\ hence Zeus Cronion Hhe son of Perfection') puts 
an end to the exoessive fecundity of Uranus, and thus allows the varicus 
powere of earth and heaven to grow to maturity. He compares it with 
other myths in which heaven and earth are said to have been so closely 
joined at first that there was scarcely room for the other gods to exist be- 
tween them. 

§ 64. non inelegans : Brutus 202 orationü non inelegans eopict^ * a 
choice vocabulary ', ib. 101 kietoria non ineleganter scripta^ Fin, n 26 divUit 
ineleganter, duo enim genera quae erant, fecit tria, § 27 contemnit diuerendi 
degantianif confuse loquitur, See Emesti Lex Techn. s. v. 

ünpiaB ÜEtblllaB : HeracL AUeg. p. 438 Qale Tovnis roiWr rfft dtrtßtiat 
€v €<rrtp äyriffiapftaKov tav cVidet^co/Acv ^Xkrfyoprjii4vov rov iivBoy, Seneca Vita 
B, c. 26 veitras haUucinationes fero qtiemadmodum Jupiter inepiias poeta- 
rum : quorum alins Uli alas imposuä, alius cornua, alius adtdterum tUum 
indtunt. On the encouragement to immorality by these representations 
see Plato Rep. u 378 foll.. Leg. 636, Euüiyph, 6, Arist Pol, vii 18» and 
the passages cited in Tholuck's Nature and Moral Influevice of ffeathenitm 
(in Clark's Stvdent's Cabinet Library, voL vm), [esp. Ter. Eun, 583 folL 
with Augustiners comments {Conf, l 12, C D. ii 7, 12, Epist, 202), also 
Gieseler (£ng. tr. i 25 n. 3), Friedländer i» 391 foll. J. E. & M.] 

caelestinm : though the edd. have followed Dav. in changing oadeUem 
in § 56» they retain it here with fiur less ms authority. Heind. matn^AiniT 



BOOK II CH. XXIV § 64. 171 

that the ref. ia to the heaven itself and not to the heavenly bodies, but 
both are alike ethereal, oulj that the latter are a concentrated form of ether. 
For the substantival use of cadestia cf. Cato 77 caaleatium ordinem contem- 
plarUeSj Tusc, v 8 caelestium divina cognitio: 

▼oluenmt : those who clothed the truth in the form of fable meant 
that that highest all-creative element of ether or fire, of which the 
heavenly bodies are compoeed, was complete in itself and needed no other 
aid. 

Ch. XXY xP^v^ • ^^^ ^^^ Suggestion of this untenable etjmology is 
foiind in Eurip. Herad. 900 At«»v Kpovov iraii, It appears in Comutus c. 2, 
Heracl. AU, p. 465, Macrob. Sat. i 8, Varro ap. Aug. C. D, vii 19. 

Satuintui Qnod satnraretur annis : it is curious that a similar deriva- 
tion was given for Kpoyor, see Plat. Cratyl. 396 Kopov yoO, Lydus Men». p. 26 
'Kpcußop tuiKopvf vow olovd nX^pTf Kai /icoroy irtiv, avrl rov funcpaiava. Varro 
(X. X. V 64 and Ant. xvi) gives the more correct etymology, ab satu est 
dictus, The older form is aaetwmus. For the Mood cf. § 68 Diana dicta 
quia eßceret and Roby Or. § 1744. 

natos comesse fingitnr : Flack p. 63 cites Greek authorities for the 
interpretation given, which he traces back to Zeno. Preller's explanation 
is that the summer heat, while it ripens the fruit, also bums up the plant. 
For the form cf. esse in § 7. 

insatiirabiliter : the adv. appears to be an-. \ey., the adj. is found 
Sest. 110. 

vinctns a Jove : Hes. Theog, 718, Plato Euthyphr, 5 b. 

ne haberet atque nt eoin alligaret=ne haberet sed sidereis cursibus 
ooerceretur, Time is limited bj the sidereal movements. For the change 
of Subject cf. § 36 n. and Wopkens Lect. TuU. p. 264 cited by Seh. 

javanB iMkter : Ennius gave this derivation in his Epicharmus fr. 7, 
istic est Juppüeff qtiem dico, quem Oraeci vocant aperem; qui verUus est et 
nubeSf imber postea^ atgue ex imbre frigus ; ventus post ßt, aer denuo, Haeoce 
propter Juppiter sunt isla quae dico tibi (they are called by the name 
Juppiter) quoniam mortales atque urbes hduasque omnes juvat, Varro in 
citing this gives a better etymology olim Diovis et Diespiter diotusj id est 
diespateTy L. L. v 66. Gfellius v 12 foUows Ennius. 

conversis casibns : ' by a change of inflexions ', not, I think, ' in the 
oblique cases, as being the cases which undergo change of form ' (L. and S. 
after Seh.), nor as Lescal. * in the heteroclite cases '. Cic. uses castu in 
Orot, n 358 where he describes a mnemonic System in which the word to 
be remembered is suggested by one sHghtly differing, svmilium verborwm 
conversa et immutata casihus notatio ; Herenn, iv 31 varie hie unvm nomen 
in commtUatiane casuum vdutatum est (the name Alexander has just been 
used in the Nom. Gen. Dat. &c.) ; Orator i 60 castis recttts, Varro opposes 
Miqui {nrwris nkayia of the Greeks) to rectus L. L. vni 46, 49 &c. 
Aristotle uses irrwonr in a wider sense of any sort of inflexion including 
the Adverb^ but exduding the Nom. from which it declines or falls away 



172 BOOK II CH. XXV § 64. 

{Caieg. i, Kket, m 9) ; cfl Ammonius (quoted by Lorsch Sprackphüoiophie) 
tlKOTCis Xtyofitv iTTtiiTtis dia ro freirrioic^viu airo r$r tvBfiag (ll p. 181 — 194, 
229 — 233). The Stoics, who paid great attention to grammar, included the 
Nom. among the fTrc^crcir, calling it opßi^, This terminology was objected 
to by the Peripatetics. Perhaps the pl. casus implies not only Jovem^ 
but JoviSy Jovi &C. 

pater divurnque hominninane : see above § 4 n. 

optimilB: see Preller p. 183 folL, who thinks the original meaning 
referred not to moral ezcellence, but to rank, * the highest and greatest' 
[lit. 'the uppermost' from ob, cf. extimus^ intimus, B.], meaning little 
more than that the Capitolian Jove was the universal sovereign ; cf. R. P. 
in 23 surU..,tyranni, sed se Jovis OpHmi nomine malunt reges vooari, 
Gic. however often ascribes to it an ethical purport, cf. pro Domo 144 
quem propter henefida Populus Rom^anus Optimum,, propter vim Maximum 
nominamt, Mn, ui 66 Jovem cum Optimum et Maximum dicimus, cumque 
eum Salutarem^ Hospitälern, Statorem, hoc iTUdligi volumus, salutem homC- 
num esse in efus ttUela, so Pliny Paneg. 88, on the title Optimus granted to 
Trajan by the Senate, minus est Imperatorem et Caesarem et Augustum 
quam omnibus Imperatoribiu et Caesarihus et Äugustis esse mdiorem, Ideoque 
illeparens deorum Optimismus, deifide Maximi nomine colitur. 

beneficentlBsiiims : adjectives compounded with the verbs fado, dico, 
volo, as well as egenus and providus form their comparatives and superla- 
tives as if from participles in -ens, Pientissimus is found in inscrip- 
tions. 

certe<iae : we should rather say ' or at least', correcting the previous 
Statement. 

§ 65. hone igitnr Enniiui : in the mbb these words begin a new 
sentence ; I have followed Mu., who imderstands them to resume the 
oonstruction of ipse Juppiter, and considers a poetis — didtur to be dui 
ixiirov interposita, ^ neque enim id agit Cicero, ut, quae Tiomina dis dederint 
poetae, demxmstret, sed ut pkysvcam deorum rationem explicet^ {Ädn. Grit. 
p. ix), cf. Bake Mnemosyne ii p. 415 folL and, for similar instances of 
Anacoluthon, Madv. § 480 and Index s, v, ; for resumptive force of igitur 
i44n. 

ut supra : § 4. 

qui auod in me est— quicauid est : I have followed Qulielmius ap. 
Qruter in reading qui for cui, of which, I think, no satisfactory interpre- 
tation has been given. Wyttenbach is certainly wrong in interpreting cui 
ego omne quod in ms est et lucet, i, e, vüam meam, consecrabo, It is piain 
that hoc quod lucet must mean ' the sky ', see § 4 on hoc, For quicquid est 
cf. Eiurip. fr. 483 Zevs, wrris 6 Ztvs, ov yap olda vX^v Xoy^ kkv»v, Troad. 
884 ooTir fror tl av, ivaroirairros tldivcu, Z€vg, cTr' dvayicri ^iMre«»r, tirt povs 
/3poro>y. [Add Blomfield on Agam, 160, Schönümn on Prom. 7. 98, Servius 
on Aen, iv 577, Heind. on Hör. 8at, ii 6, Philostr. Apcllon, i 28. J.E.B. M.] 
Heind. translates * on whom with all my might I will invoke the curse of 



BOOK n CH. XXV § 65. 173 

heaven ', coxnparing the constraction of icarapaofuu in the epigram ijv nv 
^Xü^ ^X^P^^j AiotTvcrif} firj Korapaoji r^v^ltriv rovr^. It does not seem that 
we have any ex. of exsecror used in this sense or with Dat. ; it is found 
absolutely Tttsc, 1 107 ex^ecratur ajpvd JEnnium Thyestes ut perecU Atreus, 
and with in and Acc. or with Aoc. alone, e. g. exsecror te, or exsecratw 
in 86 Liv. X 28, xxx 20. Kühner translates * that to which I will derote 
all my powers is this shining vault, whatever its name ' ; Seh. agrees in 
thinkingthat exsecror xaskj have this force, 'to consecrate one thing out of 
all other things ', but adds no translation. Yahlen and Bibbeck read cur 
for cui referring to Härtung £ur. Rest, ii 53 ; this seems to me improbable 
with the streng phrase qitod in me est, Reading qui (Abi.) I translate 
* Wherefore with all my might I will curse this shining heaven \ Mr Boby 
remarks that such words would be natural in the mouth of Thyestes, and 
that the preceding fragment is taken from the play of that name. 

Jove falgente : cf. Div, ii 42 nonne perspicuum est, ex prima cuhnira- 
tione haminttm, quod tonitrua Jacttisqtie ftdmimim exHmuissenty eredidisse ea 
efficere rerum omnitmi pra^>otentem JovemF Itaque in nostris commentariis 
scriptum habemtis: Jove tonante,fulgurante, comitia popvli habere nefas; 
Vatin, 20 augwres omnes usque a Romvlo decreverunt Jove fvlgente cum 
populo offi nefas esfe, 

dicimt — ^tonante : if this is not a gloss, we have dicunt used in the 
sense of ' mean ', as in rationem dico § 18, solem dico § 80, not as imme- 
diately before. 

nt mülta praedare : cf. below § 79 concinne, ut muUa, 

breviter : is plainly inappropriate here. Some have suggested^rem^^. 
Ba. refers to Div. n 107 festive et breviter, but there terseness is the con- 
spicuous quality of the preceding argument : here the lines of Euripides 
are wordy in comparison with thät of Ennius. The same may be said of 
the ezx. cited by Mu. {Fleckeisen's Jahrb. 1864 p. 134) Leg. n 23, Äc. i 43, 
Brut. 14, Fronto p. 254 Nieb. omnem sentenHam breviter et scite con^ 
dudet. I think Heind. is right in considering it to be a marginal note 
calling attention to the abbreviation of the formula Jove ßdgente cum 
populo agi nefas. 

vides sublime ftistun : translated from an unknown play of which this 
fragment is fortunately preserved, op^r rov vyfrov ropd* &trtipov alSepa koi 
yrjv frcptf €Xov6t vypdis (v ayKoKais' tovtov vofuCf Zrjva, rov^ ifyov 6€6v 
(fr. 836). Paley (Eurip. l p. xxviii) gives other passages in which Eur. 
deifies ether. The translation is probably by C. Herod. (i 131) says the 
Persians t6v kvkKov vavra rov ovpavov ^ia kolKovo-iv. 

ünmoderattun : Lucr. i 1013 simplice natura pateat tarnen immode- 
ratum. 

tenero : so Lucr. i 207 teneras auras, n 106 aera tenerum ; Munro re- 
marks that Hhe air has the same epithet in Ennius, Virgil and Ovid : it 
implies what is soft, yielding, elastic ' ; he also cites Cic. Orot, m 176 
where aroHo is described as tenera. 



174 BOOK II CH. XXV § 66. 

circimijectu : used of the rampart of the arx R. P,n6. 

Ch. zxYi § 66. aer — Junonis nomine consecratur: the Greek mytho- 
Ipgers considered "Kpa to be another form of di^p, e.g. Plato Cratyl. 404 urtfr 
d« fi€T(«i>po\oySv 6 voiJLoBfTjjs Tov dcpa "Hptuf top6fiaa-€v iiriKpvirrofifvos, 6€ts r^w 
apx^v €n\ Tfkfvrrfv ypoirjf d* av, ei TroXXaiccf X/yoty ro rijt "Hpas ovofia (like 
the avTOfiokaiMtv of the Equites) cf. Grote Plato ii 516 foU. The elements had 
been previously deified by Epicharmus cited by M. Müller p. 393 o luv 'Bvi- 
XapfJLOs rovs Omovs tlvai Xcyct avip,ovs ^Ikap yrjv rfkiov irvp aGTcpas, and by Empe- 
docles Plac. Phil* I 3 riatrapa r&v vavT€dv pi{^täfutra irp^rov aKovt* Zeißt apyrjs 
"Hprj r€ <l>«p€irßios ijd* Aliiovtvs N^ortp ff, fj baKpvois reyyci, Kpovvtdpa ßporttovj 
thu8 explained by the epitomator, Am fi€P yap Xcyci rrfv (€<riv Kai top alBipay 
"Hprfv d< TOV dipcL, rrfv de yfjv ro» Albc»vta^ N^oriv de Kai Kpovv»fta ßparwim^f 
oiovet TO <m€pfjLa Kai to vdwp : others however identified "Hpa with earth 
and Albavevs with air, see Sturz Emped, p. 209 foll. The Stoics foUowed 
in the same line, see Comutus c. 3, Diog. L. vii 147 with nn., HeracL 
AUeg, p. 429 Gale, hvo yap ovto^v Karä tovs <f>va-iKov£ rov wevftarumv 
aroixfiav, aWepos t€ Ka\ dipo^y tov yuev Aia r^y irvp«di; f^fiiv ova-Uiv' i; df 'Hpa 
fUT avTov iartv drip, paKaKaTepav arotxfiovy dm tovto kqI B^\v, Yarro ap. 
Aug. C 2>. VII 6 (while professing monotheism, V.) adjungü mundum 
dividi in dtiaa partes , cadwm, et terram ; et cadwn hifariam in aethera et aera ; 
terram vero in aqnam et humum. . .quas omnes partes animarum esse plenas, 

interjectns inter mare et caeltun : on the order of the four elements 
see §§ 26, 42, 101, 117. 

et similitndo est aeri aetheiis et cnm eo coiunnctio : the edd. change 
the first et into et after Probus. I think both are needed : Juno is sister 
and therefore like, wife and therefore united. Also it seems to me there 
would be awkwardness in ei and eo referring to different subjects. I have 
ventured to insert aeri- before aetheris, as Mu. has done i 103. It is to a 
oertain eztent in favour of this emendation, that Probus has aeris instead 
of aetheris. The Dat. is of course dependent on est, as in Leg. i 2b est 
igitur homini cum deo simütttido. 

sed Junonem — ^nominatam : this clause is questioned by Baiter, 
Stamm {Interpol, p. 33) and Vaucher; but it is preserved by Probus, and I 
see no particular objection to it. It' would be stränge if the etymology 
were wanting in the case of Juno alone. I take sed to introduce an 
incidental remark like aiUem or d/, 'by the way'; not (as Degenhart p. 
65) to denote the Opposition between the physical derivation of ''H^ and 
the non-physical derivation of ' Juno \ Perhaps Allen is right in inaerting 
item after Junonem, Credo implies that Cic. is not quite oertain as to the 
etymology, which he haa borrowed from Varro L. X. v 67. 

[The stem Junon is in Roman vowels jöv-en-on, in primitive yair-an-ati. 
The first syllable is seen in Jov-is Ai-6s ( = Acf -or) : the second as well as 
the first in Ai-mv-ri, IH-än-a, Zäv ( = A(-ai'), J-än-us (the old or Doric a 
corresponding, as often, to as), and also jüv-en-is, ju-n-tor, jÜ9-enroa re- 
minding one of ßo«mu *Hpa and of the uae of heifers in the rites of Juno. 



BOOK n CH. XXVI § 66. 175 

The third syllable is more difficult, because the termination -on (not -ton) 
in Latin is, when applied to personal names and generally, mascuüne (see 
Or, §§ 851, 852). But the early poets here oome to our help. Tbey 
treated Greek feminine substantives in -« as having this termination, and 
spoke of Didonem, Calypsonem &c. {Or. § 481), probably suggested by the 
aocusatives in v (-«Dir, -ovv) occasionally found (Kühner Or. Qr. § 129). R.] 

ez fabulis : Hom. E, xv 187. 

PortiiniUl : poUer Portunus in Aen. v 241, the god of entrances and 
harbours, cf. Preller p. 158. 

Neptimiis : Preller p. 502 compares the Etruscan ^ Nethuns', which he 
oonnects with yo», y<», considering that the digammated forms vtvcrofjuuy 
vaui show the possibility of a derivative such as Nept. = Nereus, Gurtius 
and Vaniyek agree with Varro L, L. v 72 in connecting it with nubes 
(v4<f>ot;) quod mare terra$ obnvbü^ ut nttbes cadtim. 

Diti, qui dives : for the Omission of the verb in Rel. Clause see i 68 n.; 
for the etymology Plato CratyL 403 rh de nXovr«yor, rovro [uv xara r^v rov 
ttXovtov bwrtVf on rV r^r yfji KoraBtv cufitrai 6 irXovrogy €fr»vofjLaa0jjf Tib. m 
3. 38 dives Orcus, Another Stoic view was that Pluto was the lower r^ion 
of the air (Comutus 5, Varro L. L, v 66), in which Seneca believed that 
the soul underwent purgatorial discipline before ascending to the ether, 
ConM, ad Marc. 25 vfUeger üle (ßlius) nihüque in terrü relinqtiens tuifugü et 
tcHu excessitj paulumque supra nos commorattiSy dum expurgaiur et vnhae- 
rentia väta dtumque omnem mortalü aevi excniüy deinde ad exceUa tvhlcUus 
interfdices currü ammas, 

cni Proserpinam nuptain : 1 think C. wrote thus, intending to make 
it depeudent on ßnffunt; but the construction was broken throughthe par- 
enthesis. The similarity of termination would account for the disappear- 
ance of nuptam. Edd. read nuptam dicunt before Proserpinam without MB 
authority. 

Qraecomm nomen est : Preller (p. 443) and Vani^ek agree with Cic. 
in considering it a corruption of the Greek, the oldest form being 
Prosepina, which was naturally altered so as to derive it from prosetpo, 
cf. Varro Z. Z. .v 68 hinc Epicharmue Enni Proserpinam quoque {IwnarrC) 
appdlaiy quod soUt esse sub terris. Dicta Proserpina^ qucd kaec ut serpens 
modo in dexteramy modo in sinistram partem lote m^ovetur. A more plau- 
sible explanation is that of Amobius iil 33 quod sota in lucem proserpant 
cognominatam esse Proserpinam; for other explanations see Osann on 
Comutus pp. 341 — 344. ' Persephone signiües the seed-corn, which, when 
cast into the ground, lies there concealed, i.e. she is carried off by the god 
of the under-world ; it reappears, i.e. Persephone is restored to her mother 
and abides with her two-thirds of the year ', Keightley Mythology p. 176. 

§ 67. a gerendis fmgibus Geres : the same derivation appears in 
Varro Z. Z. v 64, apparently affcer Ennius. The Romans were naturally 
led to such an etymology by the fact that the same character (C) was 
used indiscriminately for the sharp and flat guttural tili the beginning 



176 BOOK II CH. XXVI § 67. 

of the sixth Century ü. c. when the modified symbol (G) was introduoed to 
distinguish the flat sound ; and that C. still stood for Gaius &c. thus Yarro 
adds 1. c. arUiqwU enim C qvjod nunc G. A better etymology is giyen by 
Serv. on Oeo. i 7 alma Ceres a creando dicta, Preller p. 70 and 403. 

<iuasi ri||Jii{n)p : cf. Sext. Emp. IX 189 if yap Arifirpijp, <t>aa'ivy ovk SKko ri 
ioTiv rj yrj fi^p, Comutus c. 28, and the Orphic line in Diod. 1 12 r$ M"fP 
naimiiv Arjfu^rrfp irXovrodorctpo, who adds ßpa^v fM€TaT«0*i(njs dia tw xpovov 
TTj^ Xcf €<off : this etymology is accepted by Preller, but rejected by Curtius 
after Ahrens Didl. Dor, p. 80, who says we never find her called TtiiL/i- 
T7JP, and that the supposition that dfj or ba Stands for earth has no support 
beyond the conjecture of granunarians. He considers A$ to be a cognate 
form of Zetir, Aior, the divine Mother, as eontrasted with the Daughter («dpi;). 

jam : particle of transition as below § 68. See Index. 

qtii verteret : Causal Relative. 

Mavors: Swainson quotes from Lord Brooke's TrecUise of Warres L 
67 * was not this Mars then Mavors rightly named, that in one instant all 
thus overthrowB '. Varro connects J/ar«, with mos, qttod maribug in beUo 
praeest L. L, v 73, in which Preller agrees, citing the coUateral forms, 
Mawrs, Mamen^ Mcurmar. Max Müller Lect, n 323 derives it from a root 
MAR to grind, whence mor«, and Mars the killing god, so also Mommsen i 
175 ; Corssen connects it with mar to shine. 

Minerva : really connected with mevis^ as is shown more clearly in the 
older form Jfenerva. Cicero's derivations miss the orthodox Stoic inter- 
pretation, according to which Athene is the highest manifestation of Zeus 
in the ether, as irpovota ; see n. on Diogenes of Babylon i 41, Comutus c. 20 
with Osann's nn. and Paulus (Fcstus) p. 125 Müller, Minerva dicta quod 
bene moneat,\..Cam^cms vero, quod fingatur pingatwrque mimtans armis. 
On all these etymologies see the contemptuous remarks of Cotta m 62 folL 

miniieret : referring to her martial attributes, ' to humble \ 

Gh. XX vn cum haberent — yolnenrnt: though subordinated in tense 
to the apodosis, the protasis is not limited in meaning to past time, see 
below § 80 videremvs and inesserU depending on docuerimus^ and passages 
cited on § 2 mallem audire, also Dra^er § 151. 4. For the thought 
compare such proverbiaJ expressions as principits obsCa ; dimidium facti 
qui bene coepit habet, 

prindpem in sacrificando : cf. Qy. FasH i 170 cur, quamvis aliorum 
numtna placem, Jane, tibi primum iura merumque fero f ut posses aditum 
per me, qui limina servo, ad quoscunque voles, inquit, habere deos; Hör. Sat, 
II 6. 20 matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, unde homines operum 
primos vitaeque Uxhores instituunty sie dis placitum, tu carminis esto princi- 
pium ; Macrob. Sat, i 9 with nn. ; so we find Janus standing first in the 
devotio of Decius (Liv. vin 9) Jane, Juppiter, Mars, pater ; and in the 
Acta Arvalium (Wilmanns n p. 297) Janus, Juppiier, Mars, Juno. On the 
distinction between Janus and Juppiter Augustine cites Varro ((7. D, vn 8) 
penM Janum sunt prima, penes Jovem summa. 



BOOK n CH. XXVI i § 67. 177 

ab eundo nomen : i.e. lanits or eantUj as we read in Macrob. Sat. 1 9. 11 
Janumjue ab eundo dictum, quod mundus gemper ecU, dum in orbem volvüur 
et ex se tnilium facien» in se refertur : unde et Cornificius Etymorum lihro 
tertio, * Cicero \ inquü ' non Janum sed Eanum iiomincU ah eundo\ Thia is 
the etymology given by L. and S. ; I prefer the more common one aup- 
ported by Preller and Buttmann, which regards it as another form of 
Dianus, connected with Ztvs and dies (see l^low on Diana) ; but they soem 
to be mistaken in attributing this derivation to Nigidius Figulus (ap. 
Macrob. L c.) pronuntiavä N, Apollinem esse Janum Diayiamgtte Janam, 
apposvta d littera quae saepe i lUterae catisa decoris apponitur, \U * redäur* 
...et similia. Janum quidam sole^m demonstrari volunt, et ideo geminum, 
quasi utriusque januae eaelestis potentem, qui exoriens aperiat diem, occi- 
dens clatuiat. Nigidiu.s here distinctly says the d is otiose and added 
merely for the sake of euphony, so that he may very well have concurred 
with C.'s derivation. The chief objection to this latter is that it would 
make the original attribute of the deity simply to preside over doors, whereas 
he is the old Latin god of the sky, styled deorum deits in the ancient 
hymns of the Salii, and the learned augur Messala, who was consul 53 B. c, 
writes of Janas as the god qui cunctafingit eadenique regit, aquae terraeque 
vim ac naturam gravem atque pronam in profiindum dilabentem, ignis cUque 
animae levem in immensum in svhlime fugientem, copulavit circumdato cado 
(Macrob. L c). 

transitio : this appears to be the only instance of the concreto use. 

jani: 'archways' cf. Suet. Dom, 13 Janas arcusque cum quadrigis exstruxit, 
Octav. 31 Pompeii staiiuzm marmoreojano superposuit ; especially used of the 
Boman Exchange, the arcade with four arches in the forum, where merchants 
used to meet. Janus is distinguished from arcus by its length, from/omu? 
as being essentially pervious. Preller thinks it was named from the god, 
as symbolic of the vault of heaven ; but it' seems better to regard it, with 
Buttmann, as a perfectly distinct word, derived (as C. says) from ire, and 
merely associated with the god at first from similarity of soimd ; after- 
wards etymologists discovered such connecting links as we read in the 
passages cited above from Macrobius. 

in liminibns profanartun aedium : the janua was properly the front 
door {anticum) of private houses, see Vitniv. vi 7, Serv. Aen. i 449 ; not of 
temples, for which valvae is the regulär term, see 2 Verr. i 61, iv 94, 124, 
p. Domo 121, Div. i 74, Caesar B. C. 105 ; Virgil however speaks of atri 
jantM Ditis; and Pliny {Bp. ii 17. 5 &c.) and Horace {Sat, ii 6. 112) use 
valvae of folding doors in private houses. 

naxn Vestae nomen a Qraecis : I think it is unnecessary to change 
nam into jam (as Ba.). Harn implies that what foUows is expected : and 
here Cic. had already mentioned the beginning and the end as of prime 
importance : he has finished with Janus, and introduces Vesta as pre- 
siding over the end. ' So much for Janus ; as for Vesta she is a Greek 
goddess'. On the elliptical use of nam in lists of names cf. n. on i 27, 

M. C. II. 12 



178 BOOK II CH. XXVII § 67. 

Holden on Off. Ii 47, and Dumesnil on Leg. Ii 26. C. repeats here what 
he had said Leg. ii 29, that Yesta ia a boirowed word, but it is merely an 
ofiF-shoot of the same root vas, to which both uro and av» belong. Curtius 
in bis later editions distinguishes thia root from vas *to dwell* from which 
flOTv is derived. Another etymology is given by Ovid Fati. vi 399 ataX vi 
terra tua^ vi stando Vesta voccUur, which reminds one of that of 'Etrria from 
iaravai in Comutus. 

in ea dea omnis sacriflcatio eztrema eBt=extrema pars sacrißca- 

tionis est in ejtLS deae veneratione, Seh. The rare word »acr. is also found 
Macrob. Sat. i 7 § 35, Tertull. Idol. 9. The evidence in favour of religious 
Services being closed with the name of Vesta, as they commenced with 
that of Janus, is not very streng, see Preller p. 546. On the other band 
the proverb d<f> 'Earias apxttrOai {Evtkyph. p. 3, Veep. 842 with 9ch6l.y 
Cratyl. 401 /3ouX« ovv a<i> *E<rTiaf apxt^f'^ßa Kora rov voyuovj and a little 
below TO yap irpo ndvT&v 6(&v rfj 'EoTi^i vpw-tj vpoBvtiv clicor eVciuovr oi 
Tiuts T^v nayrwv ouaiav 'Eotiov tir<av6^(rav) shows the usage in the classical 
time of Greece. In the Homeric hymn xix 6 she is worshipped last as 
well as first, ov yap ärtp aov tikanivai 6vr/Toi(nvy Iv ov irptirjj mtpArff t€ 
'JaTiTj dpxofifvot aTt€pdfi /icXti/d/a oipov ; and 80 Cornutus 28 fivßmrtu 
nptorri kol ia-xdrrj ycvca^at r^ ctr ravrtfv (as the earth) d»akv€a-Bat ra oir* 
civr^£ yivo^uva Kai i^ ai/r^r (vpitrraaßcu' Ka$6 ko» rais öxtfriais ol EXXi^vfi 
dvo TTpcinjs T€ avTTJs jjpxovTo Koi cif €a'xdTrfv avT^v Koriiravop. Ovid {Fcut. 
VI 303) follows Plato, inde precaiido praefamur Vestam, quae loca prima 
tenet, which shows at any rate that the idea of the end being sacred to 
Vesta was dying out. 

§ 68. Penates : Curtius connects the gods of the störe (pentts) with 
pascor pabulum, and refers penitua penetro to the same root. Servius (on 
Äen. XI 211) calls the focue the ara Fenatium^ and Virgil (Aeru i 704) uses 
the phrase adolere Fenaies in the sense of keeping up the fire : see Preller 
p. 532 foU. and Gell, iv 1. 

penetrales VOCantor : cf. Catull. 69 ad quem tum properan» ferveiUior 
wndique pubes Graeca penetrales deseruere deos, Tac. Ann. ii 10 penetraUt 
Oermamae deos, Seneca Oed. 265, Fhoen. 340. 

Apollo : on the introduction of his worship from Cumae into Rome, 
see Preller (pp. 130 and 266), who connects it with the admission of the 
Sibylline books under Tarquin. The oracle at Delphi was consulted by 
the Romans in the early years of the republic. Apollo was known to them 
from the begiuning as the god of healing : liis first temple was built 429 b. c. 

Solem esse volunt : so Emip. Fhaeth. fr. 775 Z KaX\i<l>eYy€s "HX** »r 
fi airtoXtaas Kai rovd* ' 'AiroWm S* «V ßpoToii ar opB^s icoXci, ootk ra viy^vr 
ovoiiar olbt baifiovoiv, and Plato Crat. 405, who derives the name 'AiroXXa>v 
from dfia iroX<Sv sigmfying rrjp ofiov v6\i]<np Koi n€p\ top ovpap6p.,.KQi ir«pi 
rffp €P T§ ^dß dpiißpiav...oTi ravra napra, ^s (fiaaiP ol KOfi^i irtpl fiovaiK^w 
Koi darpopofjiia» (i.e. the Pythagoreans) dppopla rtvl ttoXci dfui irovra. The 
philosophers were probably right in identifying Apollo with the god of 



BOOK 11 CH. XXVII § 68. 179 

light, biit bis vorious seoondary attributes had obsoured bis original 
cbaracter in the common mind, and the actual Sun-god Helios was quite 
disünct from him. Macrobius Sat, 1 17 citea the opinions of the principal 
Stoics on the subject. and proves at length that Apollo was originally 
identical with the Sun, both from his epithets and characteristics. See 
also Comutus c. 32, HeracL All. Gale p. 416 folL 

Diana : originally a feminine form of Janus (Dianus) connected with 
dies, divus, Ztvs, see Varro R, R, i 37 §3 nunquamne rare audüti octavo 
(die ante) Janam et cresceniem et contra senegcentem, and hence the goddess 
of the moon. She became identified with the Greek Artemis and asso- 
ciated with the worship of Apollo about the beginning of the 4th Century 
B. C. cf. CatuUus XXXIV 13 ^ Lucina dolentibus Juno dicia puerperis : tu 
potens Trivia et notho es dicta lumine Luna, and Hör. C, S, where Apollo is 
addressed as dme Sei curru nitido diem qui promis et condis, and Diana os 
siderum regiiux bicornis, On the identity of Artemis and the moon see 
Aesch. fr. 158 a<rr€p&7r6v o^ia ArjT<^9 icoprjf, and Callim. fr. 48, where the 
poet blames those who separate Apollo from the Sim and Persephone 
from Artemis. 

cnm Sei dictus sit — Lima nominata cdt : Hhe Sun being so called 
because he is unique in magnitude, the Moon from her shining'. I am 
rather tempted to make this an independent sentence, reading cumqtie for 
cum and nominata est for nom. sit, 

Sol quia solos : cf. lu 54. It is curious that this etymology, like that 
given for Satumus, seems to have been borrowed from the Greek. Thus 
Macrobius Sat, 1 17 § 7 Ckrysippus ÄpoUinem as ovx\ rSv TroXXeSy koi (l)av\<DP 
ovtriav rov irvpos ovra, primam enim nominis lüteram retinere significationem 
negandi / fj ort fiovos iarl koi ovxl iroXXot, nam et Laiinitas euniy quia tantam 
daritudinem soliis chtinuit, solem vocavit. So Plut. Delph, p. 388, Clem. 
Strom, I p. 151 &o. Varro gives the same derivation. Wyttenbach, with 
whom Curtius agrees, connects it with crcXar. Seh. compares Goth. sauil 
*sun'. 

Ltma a lucendo=^2M;na, Wk&penna, uma; Lucina is a secondary ad- 
jectival formation. 

Lncinam in pariendo invocant : by that constant confusion of the 
eivm hoc or j)ost hoc with the propter hoc, which characterizes so much of 
the old superstitions, especially in connexion with the moon, it was be- 
lieved that the goddess who presided over the moon's changes was the 
goddess of birth ; cf. Plut. Symp, 658 E XcyeTai bk koi npos (vroKiav a-vvipyr'iv 
(i) atX^vrf) OTop 37 bixofirpfos, dv(<r€i r^v vypmv fjLaX6aKcaT€pas irapexovaa ras 
loSivas * oO€V olfiat Kai r^v "hprepLiv Aox€iap Kai EikdOvtav ovk ova-av irepav 
fj rrjp (r€\iivT}v, novoficurdai, Eur. Hipp. 166 rov €v\oxop ovpaviap ro^a^v fx€' 
dtava-ap dvrevp 'Aprcfiip, Hor. CS. 13 rite maturos aperire partus lenis, 
Ritht/ia, tuere matres, sive tu Lucina prohas vocari, seu Genitalis, Properly 
speaking however ^IkdBvia was distinct from Artemis, and is sometimes 
represented as the daughter of Hera, the goddess of wedlock, or even 

12—2 



180 BOOK II CH. XXVII § 68. 

identiüed with her, see Preller Qr, M. p. 401 and p. 134 foll The Latin 
poets mostly followed the Greeks in regarding Lucina as a name of Diana, 
see Ennius ap. Varro vii 16 wi tibi Titanis Trivia dederit ttirpem liberum^ 
V. Ed, IV 10 Costa fave Ludna, tuus jam regnat Apollo: but the Roman 
goddess of light, especially of the new moon, was Juno Lucina, worshipped 
by matrons at the Matronalia and invoked in child-birth, as in Plaut. Ätd. 
IV 7, Ter. Andr. iii 1. 15 Juno Lacina fer opem, Addpk, ni 4. 41. On 
the other band Menander represented Artemis as invoked by Greek 
women in similar circumstances (Schal, on Theoer. ii 66). 

Laciferam=^a>(r<^opof, one of the names of Artemis, see Arist. Lygist. 
443, Thesm. 865, Iph. T, 21. 

omniirs^ga : this is not found elsewhere as an epithet for Diana, nor is 
it easy to suggest any corresponding Qreek word, of which it might be a 
translation. The moon is vaga luna (Hör. Sat. i 8. 21), her chariot is noc- 
tivagus Aen, x 215, the sun vagiis sol (Tib. iv 1. 76), the heaven itself is 
solivagum (Cic. Tim, c. 6) ; Pliny N. H, ii 7 speaks of Lwnat midtivagog 
flexiis; [* Venus is vclgivaga Lucr. iv 1071 ' Swainson]. For the ezplanation 
we may compare that given in Cornutus 32 of Loxias, ' Apollo is so called 
because he traverses the zodiac obliquely ', and that of Trivia in Varro L, Z. 
vii 16, quod Luna in cado tribus viis movetur in altüudinem et latüudinem 
et longititdinem, 

tamquam vagantibus : tamjuam^ because /o^o vocaviur errantes above 
§5L 

§ 69. Diana dicta: 'being called Diana'. The edd. have a füll stop 
before Dianoy which makes a very abrupt construction ; perhaps »ed has 
been lost before Diana, cf. § 66 »ed Junonem. 

Septem aut novem: more correctly Virgil, Ed, iv 60 nuUri longa 
decem tvlerunt fastidia menses, i.e. lunar months making 280 days; the 
philosophers however had various speculations on the subject ; which may 
be found in Plac. Phü. v 18, Oell. in 16, where see nn. Qellius states it as 
the received opinion gigni kominem »eptimo rarenter, numquam octavo, saepe 
mmOy saepius numero decimo mense; cf. also Diog. L. viii 29 (on Fytha- 
goras), Arist. ffist. An, vii 4, Plin. j^. H, vii 5, Digest xxxvui 16. 3 § 11. 

nt pleranKiiie : sc./^, cf. Draeg. § 116. 

mensa spatia: this et^mology is approved by Curtius on /iifir, /mjif^, 
and Max Müller Lect, i 6. 

concinneque : cited by Madv. Fin, in 73 as an ex. of the transitional 
use oique; cf. below § 127 cervaeqtie, 

Tlmaeufi : banished from Tauromenium in Sicily by Agathocles about 
310 B.c., passed 50 years of exile at Athens, where he wrote bis history of 
Sicily, extending from the earliest period to bis own date : much blamed 
by Polybius for the unscientific and unpractical nature of bis histoiy, for 
bis superstition, want of judgment, unfairness, and affectation of style. 
Longinus agrees in condemning the style (Sublim. 4 vno tpwos rov (cmit 
vo^tTtit du Kivuv froKXoKis (Kwlirrap tls to fratdapittdcWoror) and quotes 



BOOK II CH. XXVII § 69. 181 

from it exx. of frigidity {ro ^jn/xpop), not unlike that in the text, e.g. 'it 
was natural that the iustrument of divine vengeance on the mutilators of 
the Hermae should be Hermoerates'. Oic. praises his leamingand copiou»- 
ness {Grat, ii 58), but is not an admirer of the Asiatic style which he 
practised, cf. Brut, 325 geiiera Asiaticae dictionia duo sutit, unum sententio- 
sum et argruturrif sententiis noii tarn ffravibiia et severis quam conctnnis et 
venustüf qualis in historia Timaeus, Of Hegesias, a professor of the same 
Asiatic school, to whom the saying in the text is attributed bj Plutarch 
{Alex. 3) Cic. speaks even more severely {Brut. 206) quid est tarn fra/stum^ 
tarn minutumy tarn in ipsa, quam tarnen consequüwr, concinnitcUe puerile f 
These passages prove that condmie need not be taken to imply very high 
praise, any more thau our ^neat saying' or *pretty conceit'. Plutarch, in 
telling the story, himself outdoes the frigidity of Hegesias, 'H'y. ffVin-€^<»in;- 
K€v cVi0o»vi7/ia Koracrßiircu, rijy wvpKatav tKiUrjv into ^^xpia^ ^vvafuvov' 
cixoro»; yhp tff>if KaTa<l}\fxßtjvai rov vf»p r^s 'Apr//i.idor dirxokovfUvris inpl 
T^v *A\€(avdpov fiaicaa-iV. 

parta Olympiadis : the Dat. Oli/mpiadi might have seeined more 
natural with adeBse^ but partus is often used with a Genitive of the mother 
in this sense, e.g. me Romae tenuit partus TuUiaey Farn, vi 18. 

Venus: Amobius (iii 33) follows C. in his absurd derivation: it is 
probably connected with venia * grace*, * favour', veneror^ Sans, vankh *wish\ 
Varro L. L. v 62 derives it from vincio vieo. 

ex ea vennstas : sc. nominatur, see Index under Ellipeis. 

Ch. XXVIII § 70. videtisne — ^levitatis: the account here given of 
the pegan mythology was eagerly caught up by Christian writers, and the 
passage itself is quoted by Aug. C, D. iv 30, Lact, i 17. 

nt a physicis rebus — tracta ratio sit ad Actos deos: ^how this 
imaginary pantheon was developed out of a good and useful philosophy of 
nature ', lit. * how men (the course of thought) proceeded from one to the 
other *. 

turbulentos : ' confused ', ' crazy \ 

aniles : see i 55 n. on aniculis. 

formae deonun : the Stoics are laughed at (i 24) forbelieving in round 
gods, but really they assign no form to their highest divinity, the all per- 
vading ether. Thus we are expressly told that Posidonius held God fb be 
irvtvfia votpov kcu, rrvpabti, ovk «x^'' M^^ P-^P^h^^ piraßdWov ^ th o ßovXercu 
Kai <rvv€^fioiovfi€vov waaiv (Stob. Ed. I 2) ; so that Lactantius is right {de 
Ira 18) in saying Stoici negant habere idlam fonnam Deum; see Philod. p. 
84 Gk>mp. ' the Stoics do not worship the same gods as others ', apÖpamofi" 
^7£ yap ov vopl^ovcriv^ oAX* dtpas xat irvtvfAara Kai al&tpas. On what follows 
see the Epicurean Speaker i 42, here agreeing with the Stoic. 

noti snnt : cf. Juvenal i 7 nota magis nulli domus est sua quam mihi 
lucus Martis &c. 

omniaque tradncta— imbecillitatis hnmanae : it seems best to take 
iwti sunt as supplying the predicate for the whole sentence, and tcr: under- 



182 BOOK II CH. XXVIII § 70. 

stand traduda as a simple participle in agreemeut with omnicu For the 
thought cf. I 45 neque ira neque grcUia teneri^ quod quae ialia essetä 
inibeciUa essent omnia, 

et pertnrbatis animis inducantur : et is taken up hj nee heUis carue- 
ruivt. pert. an. Abi. of Qualitj, cf. n. on solidücUe i 49. We have the 
same nae of induco * to bring on the stage ' below § 73. 

cnpiditates, aegritudines, iracundias : the Stoics distinguished four 
kinds of vicious affection, Fin, ni 35, Ttisc, ivllest igitur Zenonis haec defi- 
nüiOy vi perturbatio sä, quod naBos üle dicit, aversa a recta ratione contra 
naturam animi commotio.., partes aiUem perturbationum volunt ex duobns 
opinatis bonis nasci et ex duobus opinatis malis; ita esse quattuor, ex honis 
libidinem et laetUiam, ut sU laetüia pra-esentium bonorum, libvdo ßUurorttm, 
ex malis metum et aegrüudinem nasci censent, metum futuris, aeffritudinem 
praesentibus. Under each head are included various subordinate paasions, 
e.g. Ubidini {sul^ecta sunt) ira, odium, discordia &c. Lc 16. Thus the goda 
are represented as subject to every kind of passion except fear. 

ut apud HomenuiL : sc. inducuntur, et tu plerumque § 69. 

nt — ^bella gessenmt : an abbreviated expression for ut inducuntur cum 
Titanis bella gereutes, For a similar abbreviation cf. "§ 60 i^ cum fruges. 
Qruter proposed to omit cum before dua, and to read defenderunt for 
defenderent, 

Titanis: the Latinized forms are frequent in the early writers e.g. 
Ennius Ann. i fr. 25 VahL cum saevo obsidio magnus Titanus premebat, 
Euhem, fr. 4 qui Titani vocantur, fr. 6 Titanum vicisse, Naev. ap. Prisa vi 
p. 679 Titani N. PI., also in Plaut. Pers. i 1. 26; Titafio AbL S. VarroZ. Z. 
VII 16. The preceding cum is of course the preposition. The wara of the 
gods at Troy (7^. xx 67 folL) as well as those against the Titans were 
allegorized by Cleanthes in his Oco/iox/a and vepi riyam-av (ZelL iv p. 328) ; 
cf. Flack Glossen p. 93 foU., Heracl. All, p. 477 Gale, who gives both a 
physical and ethical interpretation. Lucretius alludes to such allegories 
v 117. 

creduntur stvlt^ime^stultissimum est credere, cf. below § 143 latent 
utüiter, and Madv. on Fin iv 63 acute ptäant^ and Advers. u 507. 

3 e. One Divine Being ia to be toorshipped under these various 
forma, inholiness and purity, avoiding all superstition. §§ 71, 72. 

§ 71. dens pertinens per naturam : see i 36 n., u 24, iii 64^ Heinze 
pp. 85, 93 foll. 

poterunt intellegi : we should have expected the Sing, but the number 
is changed to suit the clause in apposition. 

quos deos : I am disposed to retain this, the reading of the best mss. 
The general sense will then be ' the previous discuasion haa shown what 
is the nature of thesc subordinate and partial deities ; that they are not 
distinct and opposed personahties, but the varied activity of the one God 
disguised under many namos. It has shown also how they have oomc 



BOOK II CH. XXVIII § 71. 183 

to be named as they are : and it is these deities, i.e. deities thus under- 
stood, that we ought to worship*. This seems to me to agree better with 
the context than KeiFs emendation hoc eos ; for there is no occasion here to 
insist on the employment of the populär names, but rather to giiard against 
the abuse to which this might lead. For the change from the personal 
construction poterunt intellegi to the impersonal (potent) intellegi, cf. Cato 
63 coTisurrexisse dicuntur. . .diadsse quendam. 

ctiltllB optimus : cf. Off, ii II deos placatos pietas eficü et sanctitas ; 
Leg. n 22 impius ne audeto placare dmiü iram deorum ; Sen. Ep, 95 § 47 
deum colit qui novit,,. primus est deorum cuLtm deos credere ; deinde reddere 
Ulis maJestcUem suam, reddere bonitatem...Vis deos propitiare? honus esto. 
Satis iüos coluüquüquis imüatus est ? Hör. Od. Iii 23 ; Pers. ii 71, Plin. Paneg. 
3, Xen. Mem, i 3 § 3 ; also the Christian Minucius 32 lüahUis kostia honus 
animus et jmra mens et sincera conscientia. Jgitur qui innoceniiam colit 
Deo supplicaty qui justitiam, Deo libatf qui fraudihus abstinet, propitiat 
Deum ; and Lact, vi de Vero Cultu. 

Buperstitionem a religione separaverunt : ' In the later age of hea- 
thendom the complaint of the spread of superstition is frequentlj repeated. 
Nothing however is more vague, indistinct or capricious than the dcKribai- 
pMvla of the Greeks ani the superstitio of the Romans. No one drew or was 
capable of drawing the line between this erroneous excess of the religious 
sentiment, and real religlousness. The Romans of the early period had 
certainly a simple criterion. They deemed ia religious man to be one who 
adhered to the legal traditions in bis relation to the Gods, a superstitious 
man to be one who gave himself up to stränge rites or the worship of 
Strange Gods. But this distinction was no longer available in the earlier 
times of the Caesars, when there were few who were prepared either on the 
one side to take up the cause of the entire hereditary cultus with its end- 
less confusion of Gk)ds, or on the other side, to reject every outlandish 
worship on account of its foreign origin....So the attempt was made to fix 
the relation between religion and superstition upon other grounds. Thus 
Varro held that the superstitious were those who feared the Gods as 
enemies, the religious those who loved them as parents (Aug. 0. D. vi 9). 
Theophrastus {Char. 16} had previously defined superstition as dciXca irpos t6 
dat/Aovioy, and Plutarch's whole treatment (in his tract on Superstition and 
Atheism) hinges on the sentiment of anxiety and terror of the wrath of the 
Gods and the punishments of the World below, as evidenced by those whom- 
it haunted. Maximus of Tyre (Biss. xx 6) takes much the same view o- fi€^ 
cvo-cß^ff <f>ikos 6(^j 6 d^ b^nrifialfimv KoKa^ Beov, i6al füiitaptos fv<rfßfjs (l>ikos B^'od 
dvoTvxns b€ 6 acMTtda/jLUkw* (altcred fTom DöUinger ii 170 folL). The older* 
Roman view is given by Festus p. 289 religiosi dicuntur qui fadeTidarum 
praetermütendarumque rerum divinarum secundum morem civitatis directum 
habent nee se superstitionihus implicant ; Cic. Leg. n 19 (the law against 
superstition) separatim nemo hahe^sü deos, neve novos neve advenas nisi pub- 
lice adsdtos : privatim colunto quos rite a patnbus cvltos acceperint ; Virg. 



184 BOOK II CH. XXVIII § 71. 

AerL VIII 187 vana supersHtio veterumque iffnara deantm; Plut. Marc, 5 
Koi rrfv iv ovna lAUcpoU dKpl߀ia» <l}v\aTTovTfS oudc/i/g jrpwr^fLiywacaf ^ivthatr 
fiopufy r^ iirfitv dXXorrciv /uydc vapoißaiu^i» rmv irarpUov. Henoe Christiamty 
is a prava superstitio with Pliny {£p. x 97), an eantiabilis supentiiio with 
Tacitus {Ann. xv 44). For other exx. cf. Liv. xxxix 15 (the Baochanalia), 
Val Max. i 3, Hör. ScU, ii 3 281—295, Pers. ii 31. Cicero combines tbe 
old and new view of superstition. A religion becomes superstitious 
either by the introduction of new and stränge rites (N. Z>. iii 5) or from its 
arousing irrational fears (iVl D. 1 117 non modo iuperstitionem toUutU, in 
qua inest timor inanis deorum, sed etiam religionemy quae deorum cultu pio 
continetur) or from its connexion with immorality {Clvent, 194 neq%^ bUel- 
ligü pietate et religioTie et justis jfrecibvs deorum menteSy non coTUaminata 
superstitione neque ad sceltis per/kiendum caesis JioHüb posse plaoari) or its 
contradicting the teaching of scienoe {Div, ii 148 i£^ rdigio propaganda est^ 
qtiae est Juncta cum cognitione naturae, sie superstitionis stirpes omnes gid- 
endacy and the whole passage). Seneca takes the new view, Clem. n 5 
religio deos colit, supersiitio violat; Ep, 123 § 16 superstitio error insanus est: 
amandos timety quos colit violat. Quid enim interest utrum deos neges an 
imfames ? Lactantius makes the difierence depend on the object of wor- 
ghip religio veri cultus est, superstitio faXsi : et omnino quid colas interest, non 
quem ad modum colas aut quid precere (iv 28 where he criticizes Cioero's 
view). See on the general subject August. Doctr. Christ, n 20 folL, 
Aquiuas See. See. qu. 92, Tholuck Moral Inßuence of Heathenism pp. 41, 
71 foll., J. Taylor Senn. 9 (on Godly Fear), Friedländer Sitt. Roms c. xL 

§ 72. qiil precabantur— qni antem retractarent : a remarkable 
combination of the two Moods, to express the same concepüon, the only 
difference being that the Ind. speaks definitely of Hhoae who used to 
pray ', and the Subj. indefinitely of ^ such aa anxiously repeated their le- 
ligious observances ' ; see above § 44 (Aristoteles) omnia quae moventur avt 
natura moveri censuit aut . . . quae autem natura moverentur kcMc avt deorsum 
aut in sublime ferri, n. i 101 nuZlam bduam nisi ob aliquam tUüitatem^ 
quam ex ea caperent, consecraverunt, and n. on n 33 quae alantur, 118 qnod 
consumat. This use of the Subj. is closely allied to the hypothetical use, 
of which we have had examples above §§ 12, 44 qui mdeat, and below § 76 
qui concedant (which last is followed, like the present, by an Ind. in the 
apodosis, iisfatendum est). 

totoB dies precabantor : on the superstitious feeling with which the 
ancients regarded the death of children before their parents, see Tusc. i 
93, Plaut. Asin. i 2, and Mayor on Juv. x 241. [Menage on Diog. L. v 12 
quotes from the Digest to show that the Roman lawyers, when contempla- 
ting the possibility of a child dying before the parents, avert the omen 
with a quod ahominor. J. E. B. M.] 

superstitiosus : various attempts have been made to explain the mean- 
ing of this word from its etymology. Thus Serv. on Aen. viii 187 supersti- 
tio est tinior stiperßuus et delirus: aut ab aniculis dicta superstitio qtäa 



BOOK II CH. XXVIII § 72. 185 

tnuUae tupei'stites propter aetatem delirant : avt secundum Lucretium i 66 
{horribäi super aspectu mortcdibus imtans) superstitio est superstantium rerum^ 
id est cctelestium et divinarum quae super nos stanty inanis et superfiuus timor, 
L. and S. consider it to denote originally ^ a standing still over or bj a 
thing ; henoe amazement, wonder, dread ' : Grimm D. M, p. 1059 com- 
pares it to aberfflauhe {Über-glaiLbe) impljring a persistent holding to extra- 
vagant beliefs which were abandoned bj men of sense : Nettlesbip J. of 
JPhü. VI p. 98 thinks that it meant originallj ' being present at (oompare 
superstes in the scnse of ' witness '} and hence knowledge of a thing or pon- 
dering over a thing '. He quotes passages in which superstUiosus seems to 
imply prophetic knowledge, as Plaut. Amph. i 1. 170 iUic homo superstitiosus 
est vates; Cure, iii 1. 27 superstitiosics hie quidem est : vera praedicat; Rudens 
IV 4. 94 quid si ista aut superstitiosa aut ariola est cUqtie omnia quicquid 
insit, Vera dicit ; Ennius Trag. 79 Vahl. missa sunt superstitiosis arvolaticni- 
bus; Poet. ap. Cic. Div. ii 115 sancte Apollo^ qui umhilicum certum terrarum 
obtines, unde superstitiosa primum saeva evasit voxfaras. He also refers to 
the use of superstitio in Div. ii 129, Har. Resp, 12, p. Domo 105, Aen, xii 
817, as showing that it connoted two ideas ' power of foresight and aDxions 
reflexion ' ; and cites the Gr. eViara/xai as illusbrating the etymology sug- 
gested. I must confess I prefer to any of these the 3rd explanation given 
by Lact, iv 28. After condemning C.'s as inepta, he continues superstitiosi 
autem vocantur, non quißlios suos superstites Optant (omnes enim optamus), 
sed aut ii qui superstitem memoriam defunctomm coluntf aut qui parentihns 
suis superstites col^ant imagines eorum domi tamquam deos Fenates, The 
same origin of superstition is asserted in Wisdom xiv 15 ' a father afiSicted 
with untimely mouming, when he hath made an image of his child 
soon taken away, now honoureth him as a god, which was then a dead 
man, and delivered to those that were under him ceremonies and sacrifices'. 
This doctrine of * animism ', as it is called by Tylor, Herbert Spencer and 
others, evidently had a firm hold of the early Eomans, as shown in their 
worship of the Zares and divi Maries^ in the Novendiale, Feralia and ?a- 
rentalia, cf. Cic. Leg. ii 55, 57, LaeL 13 (nostri majores) qui m/yrtuis tarn 
rdigiosa Jura triimeruntf and the saying of Cato in Plut. vol. m p. 411 
Didot ' the proper sacrifices to parents are not lambs or kids, but the tears 
of enemies '. With regard to the actual formation of the word Nigidius 
Figulns ap. Gell, iv 9 maintains that the termination -osus always implies 
a vicious excess, as in the words vinosusy mtUierosuSj nummosus. Gellius 
adds verbosusy morosus, famosus, gratiosus, but also mentions exceptions, 
such as victoriosuSfformostts; and a glance at the list in Roby Or. § 813 
is enough to show that there is really no special ethical character attach- 
ing to adjectives of this formation. Still there is the fact that one who 
spoke the language had such a feeling about this class of words, and there 
can be no doubt as to the particular word superstitiosus, that it was used 
of one infected to an excessive degree with superstitio, which itself denotes 
Ist the act, and 2nd the quality, of the superstes, i.e. of the man whose 



186 BOOK II CH. XXVIII § 72. 

function it is, as superstea, * the survivor ' (lit. the friend who bends over 
the dying man : or had supersto originally the force of supenum f cf. pr(Bgto\ 
to do proper honours to the dead and carry out his wishes &;c. One who 
was to an excessive degree occupied with the thought of the dead and was 
held to be in close intercourse with the unseen world was superstäiosugj 
either a necromancer and wizard, or a foolish believer in ghosts, accord- 
ing to the degree of enlightenment in surrounding society. 

religiös! ex relegendo. : C.'s derivation is supported bj the old verse 
preserved by Gellius l. c. rdigerUem esse oportet, religiosum nefaSy and is 
favoiu^d by Curtius s. y. Xe^a», who compares Btfüv otri» ovk aX4yovT€s 
{II. XVI 388) ; but here too Lactantius (iv 28) seems to me right, nomen 
rdigiorvU a vincvZo pietatis esse dediwtumy quod homiTiem sibi Deus religaverU 
et pietate constrinxerü... melius ergo {quam Cicero) id nomen Lturetius itUer- 
pretatus est, quia ait religionum se nodos exsdvere (i 932). See Munro on 
Lucr. I 109, who cites de Domo 105 nisi etiam midiebribus religionibus te 
implicuisses, as proving that C. himself could not help connecting the word 
with the idea of Obligation : so we find religume obstringere (2 Phü, 83) ; solvi 
rdigione {Caecina 98) ; rdigionibtts susceptis impedüur {in Pis, 58) ; domum 
rdigüme ohligare {p. Domo 106, 124); exsolvere rdigione Liv. ni 20; Numa 
rdigionibtts popvlum devinxit Tac. Amu in 26. Max Müller {Uihhert Lee- 
tures p. 11) is inclined to prefer C.'s etymology on the ground that there is 
no trace of the religious sense in the \Lse of the verb rdigare (except in 
Lact. 1. c.) ; but it may be replied that neither is there in relegere, except in 
passages which are intended to prove the connexion. With these excep- 
tions we do not get nearer than Trojani belli scriptorem relegi Hör. Epp, 
I 2. 2, joinvxL dißicüis filo est inventa relecto Ov. Met, viii 173, egressi re- 
legunt campos Val. FL tiii 121. 

elegantes ez eligendo : Stamm rightly says (p. 35) that this clause, 
which is omitted by some mss and edd. is needed to justify the following 
omnibvA, which could hardly be used of less than three clause». Eiegans 
seems to show that the root leg had two conjugational forms, as the root 
lig must have had if we derive religio from it : M. MülL L c. compares 
lictor and the double forms implied in opinio and rd}dlio by the side 
of opinari, rebdlari. For the sense cf, electe InveiU, l 49, eledissima verba 
Pin, iii 26, ad Ilerenn. iv 36, and so often lectissima ' dainty '. 

diligentes : diligo is * to prefer ', hence ^ to care for ' ; and düigens 
*careful', *attentive*. 

C. Providential Government of the Universe §§ 73 — 153. 

a, Introductory, The sneers of Epiciirus are /ounded an ig- 
norance (1); division of svhject (2) §§ 73 — 75. 

Ch. XXIX § 73. prozimam est ut : Madv. § 373. 
Providentia : Plato according to Favorinus (Laert iii 19) was the first 
to speak of B^ov npovotav (as in Tim, 30 and 44), but we havo Eurip. OresL 



\D 



BOOK n CH. XXIX § 73. 187 

1179 Bfov Xcyecf irpovotav, PhoenUs. 640 livoita narrjp KBtro troi Sda irpopola 
V€tKe<ov cirtfw/Liov, Xen. Jfem. I 4. 6 ov doKct <roi Kai rode irpovoias tfyyov ro 
ßXf^apoiff TTfv oyfrtv 3vpa(rau It formed the Bubject of distinct treatises by 
Chrysippus (Diog. L. vii 138, GfeU. vi 1 folL), Panaetius, referred to by 
Cic. Ätt. xin 8, vdim mihi mütas navairiov jrtplwpovoiatf Philo, still extant 
in an Armenian translatiou, and Seneca. Cicero probably took this 
part of his treatise from Posidonius ntpX dtap bk. 3 (Diog. vii 138). 
Among Christian writera who have written on the subject may be men- 
tioned Theodoret, and Salvianus de Gvhematione Bei, 

magnns sane locus : most iiss add est, for the Omission of which 
Allen compares Div. u 3 his libris adnumerandi sutU sex de repuhlica.-., 
McLgnibs locus pküosophiaeque propriuSj a Piatone tractatus itberrime, where 
Giese cites Orot, ii 79, OrcUor 52, Lad. 79, Cato 14, Of, ii 73. 

vezatüS : ' a question much debated by your school \ 

vestra solum legitis : on the narrow training of the Epicureans see 
I 72 n. and Pisa 70 liieras fere neglegere, [And especially Senecä Ep. 79 
§ 15. J. E. B. M.] 

solum: their own writings were only read amongst themjselves, Tiisc, 
II 8 Epicurum et Metrodorum Twnfere praeter suos quisguam in manus sumit, 

incognita : see n. on inerrans § 54. 

hestemo die : here and in iii 18 omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta 
sunt, C. writes as if he had broken up the treatise into three distinct con- 
versations held on three successive days, as the five books of Tusculan 
Disputations are supposed to occupy five days. It is one of the many 
»igns that the book was published without having undergone the author's 
final revision. « 

anum fatidicamr: see 1 18. 

60 enore — quia: the more regulär construction would have been 
either in quo errabas quia, or eo errore dixisti ut eosistimares, 

praecise : ' it is an elliptical expression \ Wytt. cites Ilerenn, iv 31 
praedsio est cum, dictis quibusdam, reliquum relinquitur incohatum in 
auditoris Judicio ; cf. Cato 67 brevi praecidam. Praecisus itself is not 
found in this sense before QuintiL v 2 § 17 qui praecisis conclusiombus 
obscuriy SdUustium atque Thucydidem superant, 

§ 74. illud 'Areopagi': 'to complete the meaning we should want 
that further term, viz. the Council of the Areopagus'. Seh. refers to 
Ahrens de Athen. Statu 1829 Götting., and Philippi Der Areopag. u, d. 
Epheten as proving that this Council had more authority in C.'s time than 
it hadr had since the time of Pericles. We leam from Gellius xii 7 that 
Dolabella when proconsul of Asia referred a difficult case to the Areopagus 
vi ad jvdices graviores exercitatioresque, cf. Att, i 14 § 5 seTuxtus "Ap^ios 
Hayof, nihü constantius, nihil severius. 

arbitrato : this appears to be the only ex. of the Act. form after the 
time of Plautus, but arbitror is found with Pass. signification Att, i U § 2* 
Caesar Ä (7. m 6 § 3. [See Madv. Opusc. n 241. J. E. B. M.] 



188 BOOK II CH. XXIX § 74. 

salem <1U0 caret vestra natio : cf. above § 46 minime resipien$ pcUrianif 
and I 123 non tarn faceto, Natio is used contemptuously, *your tribe', 
* your set *, aee n. on gens i 89. For scUem see Fin, i 9 cum muUa venu- 
stcUe et omni sale LucUiuSy Plin. N, H. xxxi 41 ergo hercule vita kumanior 
sine saXe non quit degere : adeoqtie necessarium elementum ett tU trangierit 
intdlectus ad voluptatem animi quoque, Nam ita sales appellantur, omnisque 
vitae lepos et summa hilarüas laborumque requies non alio magis vocabulo 
constat; Plin. Bp, iii 21 § 1 with Mayor's u. Cic. claasifies the different 
sales in Orator 87 ; in Orot, ii 216 he says nuUam esse artem salis. 

hoc in te nnum convenit : unless we adopt Madv.'s emendation, for 
which see Critical Notes, I am disposed to take this as Wytt., * does it 
apply to you iudividually '. In any case it seems to me more natural to 
oppose unum to reliquos^ than to take it, as most edd., with limatum^ 

moribUB domestiGis : * by onr national habits '. Cf. K P. n 29 faeüe 
potior non esse nos transmarinis nee importatis artibus entditos, sed genuinis 
domesticisque mrtutibus, 

llmatum : (lima ' a file '), cf. Orai. i 180 mr oratione limatus, 

sine arte, sine litteris : cf. 1 58, 72, 85, 89, Tusc. ii 45, ni 50. 

insnltantem : see i 18 fidemter n., 73 vexai contumeliis, 92 omnesne 
ddirare, and foll. 

Ch. XXX § 75. constitutas: not 'created', but 'set in order'. For 
the three arguments see Zeller iv p. 141. 

ab animantibos principüs eam esse generatam: Seh. who reads 
ea generata in common with most edd., objects to the reading of the mss 
on the ground that the seiUiens natura must be identlcal with the animantia 
principia, the Xoyot oTrrpfiaTiKoif which perfade the universe. Bat though 
this is the usual way of speaking among the Stoics, yet we find other 
passages in which a distinction is made between the sentient nature 
of the universe and that to which its sentience is owing, viz. the divine 
spirit, the ttvc D/xa iavro Kiyovv, cf. just below deus omnem regit ncUuram ; 
Acad. u 119 (the Stoics hold) hunc mundum esse sapientem, habere mentem, 
qua^ se et ipsum fabricata sity et omnia moderetur^ moveaty regai ; and above 
§ 22 mundus generat aniTnantes compotesque rationis: animans est igitur 
mundus composque rationis; where the argument resembles that of 
the present paasage ; for the sentience of nature is here too taken as a 
proof that it proceeds from a living principle. So in § 29, a distinc- 
tion is drawn between natura and ro ^yefiovucov ; see n. on incohatis 
naiuris above § 33, for the narrower technical sense of ^vo-ir, as the v^e* 
tative principle. Again we are told expressly that Posidonius (Zeller iv 
p. 143) distinguished between the action of the Deity and of nature, Plctc 
Phil. I 28 § 5 vp^TOu fA€v €ivai rutf Aia^ hfvrtpov de r^v (f>va'tVy TpiTtjv de rijp 
fifjLapfifinjVf with which we may compare the language of Chrysippus 
(Plut. Comm, N. 36) orav tKirvpiaa'is ytvTjrat^ fiovo» a(f>ßaprov ot^a rov Aia 
r£v $€o^¥ aya^oiptuß ivi r^v TLpovoiav^ cira ofioC y€vofi€Vov£ €ir\ fiia£ t^s tov 
alBtpos oCaias dtarcXecv dfKJxtTtpovs. I think then that C. here uses natura 



BOOK II CH. XXX § 75. 189 

io express the ordinory course of nature, and that, in speaking of its being 
generated from living principles, he refers to the periodic regenemtion of 
the World. In the cyclic conflagration the ordinary course of nature is 
suspended, the universe retires into its fiery seed, of which Diog. teils ua 
(vii 136) deoi iariv a<t)BapTo^ Kai dydvrjTos, brjfiiovfyybs wv rfjs diaicoo-^ifo-ecar, 
Korä xpov^y TToias nepiobovs dvaki(rK€i>v ds iavrov rqv anatrav ovtriav Kai 
froKiv i( iavTov y€inf£v. So we read {Plac. Phil, i 7) the Stoics define God 
as irvp T€xvtKov 6b^ ßabi(pv itii ycvc<rc( KO(r/iov, €/An'€pi((Xi;0o( rc navras rovs 
awepfioTiKovs Xoyovr, while natiu*e itaelf is defined as working in accordance 
with these, cort Si <l>va-is t^ts €$ avrfjs KiPovfJLtmfi Kara oirfpfioTiKovg \6yovs 
(Diog. vu 148). Seh. speaks of this clause as being out of place here, since 
Providence is shown in the govemment, but not in the formation of the 
World. There seems no ground for such a limitation ; and as a matter of 
fact C. has already divided his subject into these two parts, initio congti- 
tzUas, omni tempore administrari. Epicurus had taught that the world 
was produced by the fortuitous movements of dead atoms^: Baibus main< 
tains in Opposition to this that it is due to animantia principia; cf. below 
§ 89 ki dvhitant de mundOf ccuune ipse sit effectua aut necessitate altqua an 
rcUione ac mente divina ; 90 non solum kdbitcUorem sed etiam. . .archUectum 
tanti operiSf also §§ 93, 95, 115. Wo need not at present define the latter 
more closely : that which is of the nature of souI is, as Plato is so fond of 
insisting, essentially prior to that which is without soul. 

C b. Providentia^ Government inferred from t/ie consideration of 
the Divine ncUure §§ 76 — 80. (1) It w a pa/rt of our idea of God 
that he ahould he active, and active in the nohlest way^ i. e, in retard 
io the nablest objecto which is the universe § 76 ; (2) i/* he is not so, 
then he must he inferior to some other power which rules the universe ; 
hxU such inferiority contradicts the very definition of Deity, therefore 
he carmot he subject to any other poioer^ therefore he must rtde the universe 
himself^ 76, 77. (Cic. seems to have put the two last steps of the 
argument in the wrong order. We can hardly impute this to the 
carelessness of a scribe, as the words are quoted in the same order by 
Lact. I 5 and Salviauus Gu>b, i 1 § 4.) 

§ 76. Democritns simulacra, Epictirus imagines : I have said (on i 
49) that it seemed to me probable that some of the later Epicureans had 
adopted the more spiritual theism of Democritus. In this passage how- 
ever I understand Cic. to be drawing a distinction between the crude 
intermundian gods of Epicurus and the Democritean spirits of the air. 
We may compare the distinction in Sext. Emp. ix 42, where the doctrine 
of the ctdoXa iB ascribed to Democritus, the <l>avTatria dboaXav, the nightly 
vision of images to Epicurus, ro de c(do>Xa c&oi eV r^ vfpUxovri vir€pif)vfj 
Koi dpBpairotibfU €xovTa iJLop(t>ds...iravT€kms iari bvtnrapab^Krov" rä de avrh. 



190 BOOK 11 CH. XXX § 76. 

/tcu vpos TOP *EiriKovpov futarri Xcycuf ol6fjL€Vov ori Kora ras iwirptdiovs <fK»- 
Taaias r&¥ dv$pioirofi6p^»v «IdciX»^ ipoiBfiirap SeoL Cio. himaelf is not con- 
sistent in bis use of terms for the fldwXcu In i 29, 73 he speaks of the 
imoffines of Democritus, in Farn, xy 16 he emplojs the term ttpectrck 
Lucretius uses simvlacra or imago indiscriminately. 

indncens : see above § 73. 

qui concedant : hypothetical or indefinite relative =oi ap ofioKcymm ; 
see above §§ 12, 44 and i 43 ; and on the Ind. in the apodosis, § 18 n quu 
quaercU, apparet; § 72 qui retractarerU — sunt dvcti; § 97 cum videamus — 
dvbitamus, Roby § 1574. 

majore vi — quam dens : so edd., but mss have deos. Is it possible 
that C. may have oonfused the two constructions, necesse est sit and necesse 
est esse, as we have a confiision between the abstract and the personal con- 
struction in Thuc. vn 42 rois Svpaxocrtotr Karankri^is €y€V€To...6p£vT€s1 
More probably the scribe maj have fallen into the Inf. constr. as the more 
familiär, — some,MSS add esse — and into the PL, because of the preceding 
deos and deorum, 

quäle id cnmqne est : of. Leg, n 46 qttod ad cumque legis gentts, Fin, 
IV 69 quod erü cumque visunu 

inanima natura : of. below § 81 and Strato (i 59 n.), who is mentioned 
by Lactant. (Ira c. 10) in a similar context, iiaturam habere in se rim 
gignendi et minuendiy sed eam nee sensum habere vUum nee ßguram, Plato 
Soph. 265 G speaks of it as the common view ttjp <^vfnp vavra ytvpap airo 
Tipos alrias avTOfidnfs Koi aP€v diapoias <l>vova7i9. 

vi magna incitata : ' speeding onwards with mighty foroe '. We find 
a similar nse of ine. in Tim, c. 6 cadum volubile et in arbem incitatum, 

§ 77. ea subjecta est necessitati: for pleonastic Fron. cf. § 27. 
On the Stoic view of the relation between God and necessity, see i 39 n. 
Acad. I 28, 29 ; Seneca iV^. Q, ii 45 vis illum (Jovem) /atum vocaref Non 
errabis, JTic est ex quo suspensa sunt onmia^ causa causarum; ib. proL § 3 
(the philosopher studies whether it is in the divine power) ex legefatorum 
aliquid derogare, an majestatis diminvtvo sit et confessio erroris mutanda 
fecisse. Necesse est enim ei eadem placere, cui nisi optima placere non 
possunt. Nee ob hoc minus liber et potens est: ipse enim est necessitas 
sua. 

qua regantur : ' a power of such a nature as to control the universe '. 

nihil praestantius : the characteri&tic of Deity, see l 45, 47, 121. 

natnrae oboediens: Sen. ib. § 15 sunX qviputent hoc Universum expers 
esse consüii et aut ferri temerüate quadam aut natura nesciente quid fadat, 
On the inferential series, non est igitur«-ab eo igitur— nulli igitur — 
omnem ergo, cf. above § 56 nvüa igitwr — caelestitim ergo — haud ergo — 
Zeno igitur, 

etenim : introduces a new proof of Divine Providence, not a fürther step 
in the last proof, see above § 16 n. 



BOOK II CH. XXX § 77. 191 

C b (3) The Godsform a Community, and ü ia natural to sup- 
pose that they possess thoae sams social vvrtues, which we heliew that we 
have derivedfrom them ; hut that tliey posaess them in higher perfection 
and manifest them on a vaster scale in the great city of the universe 
§§78, 79. (The argument is obscurely worded by C. Wliat is the 
ground of his necesse in § 78 ) Has he omitted a reference to the 
heaveiily host all movlng in willing obedience to law, cf. § 44 )) 

si intellegentes — etiani providentes : Aristotle would not have cus- 
sented to ihis argument : with him God is yoijo-tf yoi/o-eo);, but he doee not 
exercise any superintending providence. 

ergo : we should have expected mundum administravU ; but Oic. puts 
first two alternatives ' unless they are wanting in knowledge or power \ 
and he puts them in the form of a question, ' Whether are they wanting 
in knowledge or power, (that they should refrain from governing the 
universe) V [C. supposes his Opponent to hesitate in drawing the desired 
conclusion from et verum quidem max., and immediately oomes down on 
him with £rgo : * Take then your choice of these alternatives '. R.] 

ntnun Ignorant : this seems a singular point to argue. It has been 
assumed that, if the Gods are intelligent, they must show their intelligence 
by taking Charge of the greatest matters, and then it is suggested that 
possibly they would not know which were the greatest. Perhaps C.'s first 
clause qitae res &c., is a careless rendering of a clause which was Relative, 
not Interrogative, in the Greek. 

minime cadit in : cf. i 19 apte cadere n., 23 ßgttram cadere, 95 in 
solem cadere f I)iv. ii 125 nee enim ignorare deus potest qua mente quisque 
Sit, necfrustra ac si^ie causa quid facere dignum deo est,.Jta si pleraque 
sornnia aut ignorantur aut negliguntur, aut neseit hoc deus aut frustra sam-- 
niorum signißcatume utüur. Sed herum neutrum in deum cadit ; Ätt. xiii 
19, Sulla 27. 

Gh. XXXI § 78. at^tli : I hardly see what force we can give to atqui 
here. Possibly we should read atque, as in i 16, where the best Mss have 
atqui. We find the converse, atqv>e for atqui, in ii 41. We should then 
have an independent argument for providential government, based upon the 
analogy of hiunaD society and the qualities which it calls out in man. 

si modo snnt, ut profecto sunt: * assuming as we must their existence'. 
Dav. compares Lact, i 3 deus vero, siperfectus est {jiam perfectus est, ut esse 
dc^et), rwn potest esse nisi unus; Theodoret Prov. ix 642 u bk diKatos 
(flooircp ov» Koi biKoios) 6 tSv oXa>v €<f>opos, Kai 6p^ rä yivofuva koi lepivet 
ÄiKatwf. Cf. also R. F. III 3 sint nobis isti magni homines, ut sunt ; Off. 
in 117 quamvis dicat EpicuruSy sicuti dicit ; Farn, iii 64 si te favtore usus 
erü, sicut profecto et utetur et usus est ; Lact, i 1 § 8 quod si est verum, 
sicut est. 

BOCietate COlUtmctos: see below § 154, FHn. iil 64 mundum autem 
censent regi numine deorum, eumque esse quasi communem urbem et civitatem 



192 BOOK II CH. XXXI § 78. 

kominum et deorum ; Leg. i 23 est tgitur, quoniam nihil est rattone meiitUj 
eaqus est et in komine et M deo, prima homini cum deo raiionis soci^as. 
Inter quos autem ratio, inter eosdeni recta ratio est communis ; Off. i 149 
ocymTnunem totius generis hominum concüiationem et consociationem colere 
debemus ; Plato Gorg. 508 <f>aa\v ol a-fx/nn Kai ovpavov icai yrjt^ km $€ovs koi 
avBpwrovi r^v Koiv<aviav trvvix'^^^ ^^^^ (fuXiaif kcu Koa-fuoTijra koi tmifipoirvvriv 
HLQi diKoiOTTfra, Kai ro oXov tovto dia Tavra Koafiov Kakovatv. 

iiTiiiTn mim i1 lim : opposed to the countless worlds of Epicurua. 

§ 79. eadem in iis giiae himiaiio in genere : cf. nn. on ni 38, Leg. 

I 25 virtiLS eadem, Themist. Or. Il p. 27 (itfoi rrjv avrrjp ap€T7jv Kai aXj0€taw 

dvdpüs Ka\ 6fov, 

recti praeceptio pravi<iae depnlsio : cf. i 36 naturalem legem recta 
imperantem prohiberUemque contraria with nn. 

mentem a dis ad homines penrenisse : see on § 18, also Leg. i 22, 24 
animwm esse ingeneratum a deo. 

meng, fldes : see on § 61. 

Qui convenit : so below § 87. Dumesnil on Leg. i 35 cites a number 
of other ezx. 

angoBta et sancta : c£ 1 119. 

quodsi inest : in Opposition to the last sentence, though repeating the 
one before. 

ab saperis defluere : cf. § 18, n. Tusc. i 66 {memoria, mens, cogüatio) 
sola divina sunt, nee invenietur umquam unde ad kominem venire possini 
nisi a deo ; Off. iii 44 mentem qua nihil homini dedit deus ipse divinius ; 
Seneca E^. 41 honus vir sine deo nemo est; ib. 73 nuUa sine deo mens 
bona est; but elsewhere we find the Stoics distingnishing between the 
gifts of God or nature or fortune, and the moral qualities which a man 
must acquire for himself, as below in 86 folL and Hör. Ep. 1 18 kaee satis 
est orare Jovem quae donat et aufert; det vitam, det opesy aequum mi 
animum ipse parabo. 

deos habere nusJora : on this argument per viam eminentiae see Sextus 
IX 23 o vov£ 6(v9 ^» Koc evKivriTOf iv r^ /icroßoXXciv r§ avrov ^t'act ^kBw 
kclL c££ llfi<f>a<nv rov iravros Ka\ vir€Vürj<r€ riva v9rrp/3aXXoyr«>r dvvafup vtn/riKfPf 
Kai avdkoyova-ap fitp avr^, Bwiav de r^y if>vfruf, ibid. §§ 45, 46 ; also above 
§ 30 sensum et rationem in riye/utviK^ inesse acriora atque majora ; § 39 
quanto igitur in mwido facüius virtus. 

C b (4) When we confesa the benevolerU wisdom displayed in the 
universe and tJie heavenhj bodies, and cUlow that these are divine^ we 
confesa that all thinga are ordered by Divine Frotndence § 80. 

§ 80. cum docuerimos esse deos qnomm— videremos : cfl § 39 
folL vid. is Imp. Subj. (like inessent below,) because subordinated to doe. : 
no Statement is made as to its being the fact now, it is simply repeated as 
a part of a former argument. 



BOOK II CH. XXXI § 80. 193 

CMlxini=aether, as in § 91 and § 101 caeli complemis qvi aether vocatury 
Diog. L. vn 138 ovpavot de itmv 17 ioxarri ntpi<f)tp€ia cV ^ vaif Ibpvrai ro 

cmu magno USn : cf. cum admirahUitate § 101 and Index under cum. 

C c. Prx>vide7Uial government inferred Jrom Üie consideration of 
ilie universs itself as embodying an intelligent principle first imparted 
io it hy a Creative energy §§ 81 — 98. (1) Meaning of tlie term 
'NaJtuTe\ §§81,82. 

Ch. xxzii § 81. eaqne ab ea : if the reading is right, we have here an 
example of the Pleonastic Demonstrative, for which see n. on § 27 and 
Index. 

vim sine ratione : cf. 1 35, 11 43, iii 27. 

vim participem rationis : Seh. quotes ^a i 28 {natura sentiens) in qua 
ratio perfecta intit, quae sit eadem sempiteirna,...quam vim animum esse 
dicunt mundi; eandemque esse mentem sapie^vtiamque perfectam^ quem 
deum appellant, omniumque rerum^ quae sunt ei suhjectae, qtuxsi prudentiam 
quandam, 

via progredientem : see § 57 and the x>as8ages quoted on seminibus 
below. 

declarantemqae anid cnjusqne rei causa eficiat, quid sequatur: 
' nature shows plainlj what she does to produce each efifect and what is 
the end she aims at', i.e. we see the rationality of nature both in the 
adaptation of means to ends and in the choice of ends. Cf. i 12. 

cujus sollertiam : c£ §§ 35, 57, 85, 88, i 92, Arist. £th. 11 6 § 9 17 de 
dptTTf ncun)s rtxmjs aKpißtfrripa xal d/if tVttv €<rrivy (Sfnrtp Kai 17 (f^vfris^ Paley 
Nojt, Theol, c. 3 * the contrivances of nature surpass the contrivances of 
art in the complezity, subtiltj and curiositj of the mechanism ; and still 
more, if possible, do they go beyond them in number and variety' 
foIL 

seminis vim : the seed was a farourite illustration of the working of 
the creative principle in nature ; see above § 58, and Diog. L. vii 136 
(roi^ 0*ov) KOT dpxcit Kaff avrbv ovra rptirttv rrjp iraaa» ovalav dt atpog tls 
Zhiap' Koi <S<nrtp iv tJ yovfi to tTvippja irfpitx^raty ovto» «cot rovrovy a-vfpfia- 
riKotf \oyov Üvra rov Koo'fiovyMiroytwav ra rttra-apa aroi^eiaj Stob. JSd. I p. 66 
Ol Sr^Mol po€pop $€ou diro^xuvovTiu nvp t€xvikov 06^ ßabi^ov fVi y€V€(T€i 
Koa-fiov ifjLir«pi€iX.rf<l>os ndvras roits (nrcppariKovs \6yovs Kaff otv diravra Kad* 
(ifiapfiemjv ylvtrai, Seneca enlarges on the energy of seed from another 
point of view (^. Q, 11 6) consideremus quae ingentem vim per occultum 
agunt: parvtda admodum semina et qvjorum exUüas in commissura lapidum 
locum invenit, in tantum convalescunt, ut ingentia saxa distrcJiant; Cic. 
Cato 52 omitto vim ipsam omnium quae generanlur e terra, quae ex fici 
tarUulo grano aut es.^minutissimis seminibus tantos truncos procreet. 

condpientem naturam: on the adjectival use of the participle see 
Nägelsb. § 117. For the thought cf. § 128 below; Simplic. on Arist. 

M. C. II. 13 



194« BOOK II CH. XXXII § 81. 

Categ, Oy Br. p. 78 (cited by Heiuze p. 114) Karaßkrißip yap t6 antpfia 
dp<ar\rjpoi tow olKtiovs \6yovs Kai tirunrarai r^v wapaK€ifUvrf¥ vXtiP icai duz- 
fiop<l>oi, pseudo-Philo Inc. Mund, p. 506 ovdiv cjc fiovov mrtpfuiTos dlxa r^f 
olKflas Tpo(f>TJs dfTorcXfirai* <nt€ppa yap toiKev apxjj opxjf de Kaff avTTJv ov 
rt\eioyov€7y as the writer proceeds to show in the case of vegetable and 
animal production, and hence argues that the world can never be reduoed 
to the Single fire-seed of the Stoics ; and Cic. L c. 51 terra, cum ffretnio 
mollito ac avbacto sparsum 8emen excepit, primum id occaeccUum cokibet^ 
deinde tepefa/Aum vapare et compressu suo diffundü folL 

partim — ^partim : on the Scale of Existence see above § 33. 

§ 82. omninm quae sint naturam esse corpora et inane : in Epi- 

ciunis' own words i; reSy oXo>v (^»(rir adpard cWi Kai Ktvov (Sext. IX 333), 
thns rendered by Lucr. i 445 ergo praeter inane et corpora tertia per se 
nvlla potent rerum in numero rwJtura rdinqui, For the constr. iia dimdit — 
CMe cf. Truc. v 93 vides ut Epicurus cupiditatum genera divigerä,,.. partim 
esse natttrales. 

quaeQne his accidaat : Lucr. L a continues nam quaecumqne dnent 
aut his conjuncta duahus rdnts ea invenies aut horum eventa mdebiSy wbere 
Muuro says ' conj. and ev. appear to have been devised by L. himaelf tj 
distinguish the two kinds of aviißfßrjKora or accidentia*, and cites Sext. 
Emp. X 221, as distinguishing two classes of (rvpßeßriKOTa, the dx^purra 
such as Bolidity of atoms, the ovx dx^pitrra such as motion. He also 
quotes Plac, Pkü, I 3 (Epicurus holds) avpßtßriK^vai toi£ irtäpaa-i rpla 
rcSiTOj (rxfipLa, /leyfBof, ßdpos. Ck)mpare Waitz on Arist. ät^ Post, i 2 
avpßeßriKora appdlantiir tum omnia quae non sunt stihstantiae, etiamsi 
necessario de his praedicantur, tum mctxime ea quae substantiis ita ad- 
haereant, ut non necessario cum iis conjuncta sint, Top. i 5 p. 102 b, Grote 
Arist. I 412 n., Quintil. iii 6 § 36 Theodorus de eo ^ansit\ et *de acci- 
dentibus ei quod esse constat \ id est wtpl ova-iat kcü (rv/i߀ßrjKcTw existimat 
quaeri; ib. v 10 § 58 proprium est aut quod soll aocidit, ut homini sermo, 
risus ; aut quod utique accidit sed non soli, ut igni ccdefacere, Prantl Gesdi, 
d. Logik i p. 518. Quintilian also uses the word in its grammatical sense, 
whence our word ' accidence', as in i 5 § 41 plurima verbo accidunt, ideoque 
in eofiunt soloecismi per genera, tempora, psrsonas, modos, 

nnlla cohaerendi natura : ' with no natural connexion ' ; this seema 
inconsistent with what we read elsewhere, as in Orig. de Orot, c 6 
(Lomm. xvn p. 107) rcSv Kwov^iiv^v ra fiiv ripa ro Kunvv t^t^tv cj^cc, 
»airtp ra 2^;i^a Kai vvo cifewr poprft avvtxoiitva (such as hewn stones 
and dead wood) ; AchilL Tat. in Arat. c. 14 irtapara ijvofupa Xtytrai oaa 
vtro luas c^ctfff ijvca/uVa xparclrai, olop \i$os (vXop, tari de €^is irp€vpa on*- 
parof avptKTutop, Sext. IX 78 foll., who, after showing that the world is 
^papipop, a Unit of which all the parts are joined by common sympathy 
(see above nn. on § 19), proceeds roy jjv»p€Pap cmpamp ra ptp vko 
^«X^ff c^off avp^xtrat, rä de viro (fiCa-fas, ra de vnro ^X't^' "^^^ c(c«ff ptp «»r 
\i$oi Kai (C\a, (fivtreas de Kaöjwep ra fftvrd, ^vx^s de ra C^a^ Nemesius C S 



BOOK II CH. XXXII § 82. 195 

p. 114 Matth. (^¥ odv Xcyot'cri Kai ra irovrij ä^v;^a €KTucrjp {"^i^v, Kaff o ovv- 
iXtTai viro ttjs tov iravros yjnfxfjs cir to tum fiovop Kai firf dioXvco-^ac. From 
such paasages it would appear that even the lowest grade of inorganic 
matter was unified by a principle of cohesion. But Sextus in one pas- 
sage seems to exclude inorganic matter from the class of rjvnßiva (ix 78) 
rjva^lMkva fA€v oZv cori ra vnb fuas €(tios KpaTovfitvOj KaQatrtp ^vra Kai ^<5a, and 
Seh. thinks that cohaereo may here be used to express organic imity. In 
Support of this he cites §§ 87, 115, 155, Äcad. i 28 omni natura cohaerente 
et corUinucUa, Leg. i 24 alia quvbus cohderererU homines (which make up the 
human frame), Orat^ u 325 tU non adßctum aliqxuxi sed cohaerens cum omni 
corpore memhrum esse videatur, Sen. N. Q. ii 2 naturam corporis nuUa 
ope externa sed unitate sua cohaerentis ; compare also Leg, fr. 3 una eadem- 
que natura mundus omnibus partihus irUer se congrttentibus cokaeret ac 
nititur, It seems to me however that if nat. coh, had this force, there was 
no occasion for C. to particularize the fragmentary nature of the substances 
chosen for his example : why should he not have spoken generallj of wood 
or stone, as in the passages cited from the Greek ? Perhaps we may ex- 
plain tho difficulty thus : a fragment of earth or stone has lost the unity 
of the earth or rock from which it was taken, though as apart of the world, 
govemed by laws of gravitation &c., it is still imder a uniting principle. 
[Taking Cicero's words and argument here, I should think he would 
include in 'connected things' not only organic unities like plants and 
animals, but all fitted things, e.g. the comer of a box shewing the two 
sides dove-tailed into one another. He instances a turf or bit of pebble, 
because they can be separated without impairing the utility or changing 
the character of either themselves or the parent mass. The unity is önly 
one of adhesion, not of adaptation as well. The two combined he calls 
* cohesion '. R] 

ut glaebam: sa constare dicimus natura, nulla texueritas: * nothing 
at hap-hazard '^ as in the fragment of stone. 

Co (2). The universe is a vast organism permeated and controUed 
hy an intelligent nature, all the parta of which cooperatefor the good 
of Üie whole. g 83—86. 

Ck xxxiii § 83. a terra stirpibus continetiir : same phrase § 127. 
For the personification implied by the preposition see § 33 n., 134, and 
Draeg. § 230. Here however there is a special reason for its use, as C. 
wishes to contrast the agency of the earth with the instrumentality 
through which it aots, cf. below § 125 ejus summo angiUo aer ab iis 
adversus pdlitur, 

arte natnrae : see above § 81, Leg. i 26, Arist. Meteor, p. 587 e fic/ictrai 
i; T€xinf rf^p <f}va'tv, Posidonius ap. Seneca Ep. 90 ; Theodoret Prov, c. 3. 

gravidata : of course Nom. ' impregnated \ 

amplexa alat : Nägelsb. § 30 cites this as an ex. of a Latin Parti- 

13—2 



196 BOOK II CH. XXXIII § 83. 

ciple Btanding for a substantival clausei ' in its bosom ' : perha^is it is 
rather * by its embrace '. 

supetis natnris : water, air, ether, et § 24 foll. 

ezspiratioilibus : [this rare word is found also in Tert. An, 25, CaeL 
Aurel. Tard. i 1 § 141, Hieron. Bp, 108. 28. J. E. B. M.] Cf. §§ 27, 40, 
118 with nn. and Arist. Meteor, i 4 § 2 Bfpftaivofievrit yap Trjt y$r vwo rov 
fjklov rriif dyaßvfiiao'iv dvayKoiov yiyv€<rßai, fi^ ottX^, wr rtvcr oiovrai, aXXa 
diirXfjv, rri» fuv drfudwbtaripaVf rriv de nv€VfjLarab€aTtpa»j rrfv fuv rov €p tj 
y^ Kai ifi\ rj yj vypov arfubfoBi], r^v d* avrrjt ttjs y^s ovarjt (ffpos Kowim^rh 
ib. I 3 § 15, II 3 § 20, Sen. ^. §. i 1 § 6. 

aspiratione aeris : ' bj the blowing upon them of tbc air', cf. below 
§ 136 aspirantes and Lact, vii 3 veittorum diversa et utüis a^piratio. 

nobiSCUin Vidot : Plac, Phil. IV 13 Xpva-imros Korä rffv avvitrrainp rov 
fitrci^v dtpos Opa» iJ/aot, vvycvrof fjk€» vno rov opariKov nv€VfiaTos, S^fp diro rov 
i^tfjLoviKov fi^XP^ ^^ Koprjv diijiCfc, Kora de rfjv irpos rov irtpixfifitvov d*pa cVt- 
ßo\rjv eWctVovroff avrov Ka>yo<tdtt9, orav j ofioyttnjs 6 oijp, Diog. YII 157 
yivtaBoi fUvToi ro Kmvoeidh rov aJpos npot rj S^€i^ n)v de ßcuruf trpoc r^ 
opfOfjJifiü' <os dia ßaKTTipias ovv rov raöivros dipo£ ro ßKetroptvov oPoyytX- 
Xta-Sai, In Att. 113 Cic. contrasts tbe Stoic theory of vision (tKxvais radi- 
orum) with the Epicurean kot tlb^Koav tiinr^atts. . The air was equally 
important according to both theories, cf. Lucr. iv 240 — 323 ' an image 
pushes before it the air between it and the eye : this air sweeps through 
the pupil and lets us judge of the distance of the object ', ' thus the mirror 
and its distance from us is seen by means of its image which propels 
before it the air between the mirror and the eye, then when we have caught 
sight of the mirror, the image which goes from us to it, oomes back to us 
but drives onward an air which is perceived before the image ' is quoque 
eiiim duplici ffeminoque fit euere vistu L 274. Diogenes of Apollonia seems 
to have been the first to assign this importance to air as the means 
of producing Sensation : his view is more allied to the Stoic than to the 
Epicurean, cf. Theoph. de Sen^u 39 Aioyttnfg 04, ciantp ro (n^ Kai ro 4>po- 
P€iPf r^ dtpi Koi ras alo'ö^a'dg dvdnT€i...rrfv /icr otr^pitiaiv r^ irrpl rov ryicc- 
<t>aXop depi...r^p d* aKorjp orav 6 cV ro7s cSo-iv drfp KipriBfls vir6 rov t^ duAm 
trpos rov €yK€<f)a\ov, r^v d* S^iv 6pq,p *fi<t>aivofAfp»p €is r^p KOpffP, raCrr}p de 
fuyvvfitvrjv ra ivros aept iroulv ataOriariv. For further information see Cleom. 
i 1 p. 4 cited on § 116, GelL v 16, Macrob. vu 14, Schneider JSd, Pkyt. i 
pp. 329 — 408 and notes in ii 185 — 267, where references are given to Arist. 
de SensibuSy Galen de Csu Corporis x, Euclid Optica &c. 

nobiscnm audit: all philosophers (except Epicurus, on whom see 
Lucr. IV 522—614, Diog. x 53) agreed in this (see Plac. Phil, iv 16), but 
they diifered as to the way in which sound was produced by air, whether it 
was by external air or internal air or both together (as Diogenes held), cf. 
Sext. P, II. Ill 51 fjp r€6 irtnXriyfUvos aifp, ^v re ra fiopia rrjs (ftmvrjs ^^pufrai 
irtpi ra Zra kcH irXifrri; ro dKovarucbv wtvpa, tSart rrjv dvrikrf^ip r^s ^«v^f 
dirtpya{taSai. Diog. L. VII 158 gives the view of Chrysippus oKovttp de roC 



' BOOK II CH. XXXIII § 83. 197 

fitra^v rov Tf (f^avovvrös Koi rov aKovovrog dipot nXijTTOfifvov o^ipocidttr, 
€iTa KVfurrovfitvov ml\ ra7s aKoais irpoairiirrovTOfy 860 Cleomedes, quoted Oli 
§ 116, and Schneider i pp. 288—328. 

nobiscTUn sonat : Seneca iV. Q. ii 6 quid est vox nisi intentio aeris,,, 
linguaeformata percussu F Diog. vii 55 tan 8c ^»1^7 drip irtvXrjyfMvogy which 
TheoD, cited by Menage in loc., says is the generally accepted definition ; 
Epicurus however considered voice a material siibstance distinct from air. 
Compare a curious passage in the Christian apologist Theophilus 1 7 (of the 
^irit of Gk)d) tovtov XaXcTf avQptnct^ rovrov ro wtvfia dtfoarvelt. 

movetnr nobisctun : Seneoa attributes to air a more important part 
in motion (^. Q. 11 6) quid cursu>s et motus omnis nonne interUi Spiritus 
opera surU f kicfacit mm nervis et velocitatem currentibus. 

§ 84. medium — qni est inflmns : see § 1 16 n. and Tusc. v 69 omnia delata 
ffravitate medium mundi locum semper expetuntf qui est idem infimus in ro- 
tundo, The things which move upwards are according to Seh. exhalations, 
those which move downwards rain, lightning &c., those with circular move- 
ment the stars ; but if we compare § 44 and 7\mc. 1 40, it seems more natural 
to explain these movements of the four elements mentioned immediately 
below : water and eorth move downwards, air and the earthly fire upwards, 
while ether, ie. the heavenly fire, has a circular movement. Compare on 
the whole passage Greg. Nyss. Dial, de Anim, p. 187 n'r yap ß\fno>v rrfv 
rov vavTos apftoviavy t»v T€ ovpavioav Koi t£p Korh y^v Oavftaroav {flavfiaarav\ 
jcai »f, ivapTitoi tf^ovra irpos SXXi^Xa ra (rroc;(€ia Korä rrjv <fiv<rtp, npos top 
avrop ra ncurra ckoitop dca nvos äpprjrov Kotpouptas (rv/ifrXcicerai, r^v nap* iavrov 
dvpafitp (Kaarop wpos r^v rov vavros dtofjLOpijv <rvP€i(r<l>tpopTa. . .Koi ols dy«ixf>€pijs 
ioTW 1; <l>v(ris €irl rä kotü} <f>€ptTaiy rrjg i^Xicucrj^ 6€pp,6mjro9 dca top cucripap 
KarapptovoTjt, rh de €fißpi0^ r<ov a'»fiaT<»p oi^aKovi^t^crat dta t£p drfiap Xctttv- 
pofxtpa K.r.X. 

continens — contlnnata : merely the differenco of a neuter and passive 
expression, as below § 117 we have both iised of air. 

vidssitiidine eonun : cf. in 30 folL, Tusc, v 69, Lucr. i 782 foU. 
This was the doctrine of all the lonic schools, but esp. of Heraclitus, the 
apostle of ' Flux '. See the Introduction. 

sniBtifl deorBns: on the aiäyndeton in such antithetic phrases see 
Draeg. § 359 b ß. 

conjunctio continetnr : a pleonastic expression for canjunctio servatur 
or partes oontinetUury cL below § 97 impetus movetur, 

§ 85. ant Bempitenia...aut certe perdluturna: the ist is the doc- 
trine of Panaetius, the 2nd that of Stoics generally, see on § 118. 

utromvis ut sit : ' taking whichever view you please '. 

flaffffinm xiavigatio...in8tractio exerdtus: see below § 87 (which, 
one would think, should have followed here, the intervening argumenta 
being rather out of place), and Sext. ix 26 foll. ' if anyone sitting on Ida 
had beheld the army of the Greeks in battle array, he would have imder- 
stood that it was under the guidance of a rational being, and so, if anyone 



198 BOOK II CH. XXXIII § 85. 

saw a ship moving onwards with sails set ; the same inference is suggested 
by the orderly movemeuts of the stars '. Sextus (ib. 78) mentions a ship 
as an ex. of a body compouuded cV awanTOfUvonv, an army as an ex. of a 
body €K die<rTwT(ov, and contrasts these with the strictly ^vonfUva such as 
<t>vTa Kai (^cu 

procreatio vitis : the reference to the plant and animal as exhibiting 
lower stages of the divine Reason is found in Sext. ib. 116. See above § 35 
and passages there quoted from Mn. iv 32, v 39. 

natura regatnr: for constr. cf. § 4 qtto kaec regatitur n. 

§ 86. qiii...seiniiia contineat : cf. Sext ix 103 6 KOfrftos irtp^x^i cnrcp- 

fuiros \6yovs XoyucSv C4^^f \oyiKos &pa 6 Koa-fios, and a Uttle before ovx ^ 
av tiTToifitv T^v &fiTre\ov yiyaprav €tvai irtpieKTiKijvy rovrcori Karo, «reptypo^^v, 
aXX* oTiXoyoi (nrepfiariKol Xoytxap iii^ay iv avr^ irtpuxovrcu, See above § 81 
seminis vim. 

Ut : ' for instance \ cf. 1 88 u. 

dentes et pubertatem : these were cited as examples of the coexisi- 
ence of the lower and higher forms of life in man, cf. Posidonius ap. Dic^. vii 
138 Tov Kocrpov olKfitröai Karavovv koI irp6votav,,.€ts catav avrov fUpos di^Kovrog 
Tov voVf KaOamtp i<f> ijfioiv r^s ^vx^js' aXX* rjbrj bi <ov pcv paXXov, dt »v de ^rrofr 
dl »V fi€v yap <os e^is xc^o^p^icfv, ms diä rmv oarr&v Koi rcSv vevpoiv bi »v de «of vovSf 
<og dta TOV ^ffiopiKov. Cic. however seems rather to misapply the argument : 
his argument here seems to be that since life appears in its lower form of 
<l>v<rt5 or €(is in parts of the human frame, therefore man himself is actu- 
ated by — ^it ought to be — * this lower life' ; but he says instead * by nature' 
in its highest Stoic sense. It may be questioned however whether he dis- 
tiuctly realized that <f)v<ris had this lower meaning, though we catch un- 
conscious glimpses of it. For the use of the abstract pvbertas instead of 
the concreto pubes cf. Plin. N, H, xxi 97. 

cui ea existant : ^ in whose body they are produced ', for Dat. see Boby 
§ 1152. 

Co (3). The fact tluU all tlie parts of whidi tlie universe is com- 
posed are coTtibined as is best for heaviXy and utUitt/^ can ondy be 
explained as t/ie resüU of irUelligence. Ifature exhibits a skiU 
infiiiitely beyond ilie reach of art^ but yet even a/rt testifies to the 
existence and intelligence of the artisL If the orrery attests the 
vnsdom of ArchimedeSf much more must the movements of the heavenly 
bodies attest the toisdom of the Creator. §§ 86 — 92. 

Ch. xxxiY. seminator : see above semina contineat and § 58. The 
Word occurs also in ni 66. 

alter: only found here in Cic. though terra is called aJirix nostra 
Tim. c. x. 

sicut membra : cf. i 34 and 100. nutricatnr : the deponent form, 
about which Heindorf doubted, is attested in this passage by Priscian viii 
14 § 77 and Nonius p. 478, where other exx. are given. 



BOOK II CH. XXXIV § 86. 199 

anodsi mnndi partes natura admlnistranttir : we have had the 
same thing said at the beginning of § 83 and of § 86. 

qnod eBLoi optimaxn potuit : we find this admission of a necessitj 
limiting the action of Providence, both in Chrysippus (ttoXv t6 lijs dvayicrjs 
fiflJUxBai, on which Plutarch remarks that, if so, om Kparti navrav 6 ßtosy 
ovTt ircarra kotci rov cKtiuov \6yov bioiKflrai St, Rep. 37) and in Seneca, Prov. 
V 9 Tion potest artifex mtUare materiam. See also Philo Prov, ii 74 Provi- 
derUiaj tU didt Chrysippus et dearUhes, nihil praetermisü pertinentium ad 
certiorem tUüioreTnqtte dispensationem, Quod si aliter melius esset dispensari 
res mundi, eo modo sumpsiss^ compositionemy Galen Us, Part, xi 14 tluai yap 
Tiva \€yoiJjev äbvvara <f}vaeif Koi rovTois fitflf €irix*iptu^ oXoof rhv ßtov, aXX' ex rav 
dwarav ywviaOai ro ßcXriov aipfiaBai, Philodemus ir, 6«£v biay<äy^s col. 8 
Vol, Herc. vi 53 (Zeller rv 178) *the Stoics while they assign all power to 
God', &ra» vTTo tSu iKeyxo^v nu^aprat, rorc KaTcAf)€vyov(Tiv cttI ro bia tovto 
(ficunceiv ra (rwaurrofitva (what is fitting) /xi^ iroitlv, ort ov Trcurra Bvvarai, On 
the Stoic theodicj generally see Zeller p. 173 foll., and compare the doc- 
trine maintained by Leibnitz Theod. i § 8 *il demeure toujours vrai qu'il 
y a une infinitö de mondes possibles dont il faut que Dien ait choisi le 
meilleur, puisqu'il ne fait rien sans agir suivant la suprgme raison ' ; also 
J. S. Mill's Theism Pt 2, where he argues in favour of the hypothesis 
of a benevolent Creator * working under the limitation {quod potuit) of 
inexorable laws and indestructible properties of matter '. 

§ 87. ergo : elliptical, * you deny it ? Then let some one show a better '. 
Cf. § 77 ergo tUrum iffnorant, and the elliptical force of «Vct with Im- 
perative. 

potiiisse melius : compare the famous saying of Alphonso of Castile 
(a. d. 1252), * If the Creator had consulted me, the world woidd have been 
constructed on a simpler and better plan ' (than that of Ptolemy). Theory 
is put in place of fact, and the supporters of the theory require it to be 
aocepted as perfect and divine. St Paul takcs a diüerent view of the 
existing order of nature : with him * the whole creation is groaning and 
travailing together, waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God'. 
And a philosopher like Butler does not pretend to maintain the perfectiou 
of the Order of nature, as it is at present known to us : he only asserts 
that we do not know enough to pronounce positively that it is imperfect. 

[potuerit : completed future indicative. Qvodpotuerü is to desiderabit 
what qtiod potuit would be to desiderat. Both denote what could not 
have taken place before the time of the principal verb. Cicero says * any 
fancied improvement will be either a deterioration or an improvement 
precluded by the nature of things \ Poterit would be out of place here 
as it would denote a subsequent time. Quod fieri non poterit, facere cona- 
hüv/r woidd describe the impotency of a constructor : quod fieri non 
potuerit, desiderabit reproves the vanity of the critic. *He will be re- 
gretting the absencc of that, which could not possibly have been therc'. R.] 

ad nsnm — ad speciem : scc i 1 ad agmtionem jndchcrrlm'i. 



200 900K II CH. XXXIV § 87. 

eo statu : Abi. of Quality. We often find Status used of the order of 
the universe, as in the parallel paasage Orot, iii 178 incclumüatis ac salvtis 
omnium causa videnms hunc statum esse hvjus totitts mundi atgtie naturae^ 
rotundum ut cadum^ terraque ut media dt, eaqtte sua vi mituque teneatur, sol 
ut drcumferatur, ut accedat ad hrumale Signum et inde sendm ascendat in 
diversam partem, ut luna accessu et recessu suo sclis lumen accipiat^ ut eadem 
spatia quinque stellae dUpari motu cursuque confidant. Haec tantam habent 
vim, paulum ut immvtata cokaerere Tum possirUy tantam ptUchritudinem ut 
nuUa spedes ne cogitari quidem possit omatior, 

utrum ea fortnitane sint : cf. Tusc. iv 9 utrum mavis statimne fios 
velafacere an remigaref ib. 59 utrum üludne non videatur aegre ftrefndum,.. 
an toUenda aegritudo; Didn, ii 120 utrum igitur censemus dormientium 
animos per sene ipsos in somniando moveri an externa vidane pulsarif pro 
Quint. 92 ea res 7iunc in discrimine versatur utrum possitne contra lusuriam 
parsimonia def endete an &c. Inveni. 1 51 utrumne tuum virum malis an iUius; 
ib. II 115 utrum copiane dt agri...an penuria, condderatur, See Dra^. 
§ 158 A c, § 468 A b. This use has grown out of the original pronominal 
use, which we find in such paseages as Fin^ ii 60 utrum tandem censesf 
tuamne orationem lubefUius auditunim faisse an meam f Acad. ii 71, Madr. 
Or. § 452, Wagner on Ätdul. 427, L. and S. s. v. utrum, The ne is joined 
to the most important word foUowing utrum.. There seems no oocasion to 
make a broad distinction between the two uses, as Madv. has done ; there 
are cases whick might be assigned to either. For the neuter ea referring 
to preceding feminines, cf. §§ 7, 15 with nn. 

sensu moderante : here used in the later sense of ' intelligence ', ' self- 
consciousness ', cf. sentiens natura § 85. 

ne— qnidein : in the milder sense b& i 71, 110, 113, see Index. 

qni convenit : see above § 79. 

signnm aut tabnlam pictam: cf. Philo Prov. i 72 (Aucher's trans. 
fr. the Armenian) stcUuam videntes statuarium inteüegimus; et imaginem 
venuste pictam cerneTites pictorem ipsum admiramur ; atqus navem inge- 
niöse fabricatam videntes arcMtectum navis laudibus celei>ramus,..quomodo 
non magis universorum sapientem promdeifUiam propter oonstantes mundi 
partes sapienter ordinatas f 

cum procul cursom navigii Tideris : see above § 85, and Theophilus 

I 5 Of TpoTTOV Koi frXoiov B*aiirafi€v69 rit cV dakdaaTf KonjpTKrijJvov Ka\ rpixov 
KOI KaT€pxoiA(vov ctf Xiftcvo ' iufcrs a pilot, so we infer a pilot of the world ^ ; 
and immediately afterwards he speaks in thoroughly Stoic fashion of the 
Divine Spirit which contains the world, as the seeds of the pomegranate 
are contained by the rind : also Theodoret Prodd. ii p. 500 Schulze. 

Solarium discriptum : ' a sun-dial marked out with lines ', see engraving 
in Dict, of Ant, uuder horologium. Solanum is properly the harologium 
sciothericum of Pliny (N, ff. ii 78), but is used as a general name fbr all 
kinds of horclogiay as we read in Censorinus c. 23 Mud satis constat nuUvm 
(Solanum) in foro pritis fiiisse quam id quod M. Valeritts ex Sidlia advec- 



BOOK II CH. XXXIV § 87. 201 

tum ad rottra in columna posuü (273 R c. according to Yarro) : deinde 
aliquantopost P. Comdvus Nasica^ c6n«or (159 B. c), ex aquafecithorarium^ 
quod et ipaum ex consuetvdine no9cmdi a sah horas aolarium coeptum vocari, 
ThiB seems to be the onlj passage in which discriptum is used as a dis- 
tinctive name for the sun-dial, but Censorinus I.e. goes on to say, 
in regard to the Sicilian dial, that, qwoniam ad clima Sicüiae discrip- 
tum ad horaa Romae tum conveniretf X. Pküippus, censor, aliud jtucta consti- 
tuit; and Vitruvius ix 8 gives a füll account of the waj in which the lines 
of sun-dials {discriptiones korologiorum) are to be drawn. On the subject 
of ancient clocks generallj see Vitr. ib. c. 9, Lewis Ästron, pp. 177, folL, 
Beckmann Inventions i p. 135 tr. 

(soIarinm} ex aqua^KXc^vdpo, Lewis Astr, p. 182. For constr. 
cf. Tuac. I 51 animum sine corpore, 116 mortes cum gloria, ii 7 lectionem 
sine d^Lectatume, and above § 14 praeter naturam portentis with n. For 
the comparison see. Philo Prov, i 42 ^a piece of skilful workmanship at 
once reveals the worker, though he may be unseen ; as in the case of him 
who invented an instmment for determining the time of day by the divi- 
sion of a circle into twelve parts V&i^d the famous passage at the beginning 
of Paley's Nat, Thecl. [Mr Swainson refers to the Sai, Rev, for May 15, 
1875.] 

artes: 'works of art,' cf. Leg. ii 2 exquisitis antiquorum artibus; Hör. 
Od. iv 8 5 artium, quas aut Parrkasius protvlü aut Scopas: it is also used 
for a treatise, as in Fin, iv 5 praecepta in artibus rdiquerunt ; Invent, i 8 
neque eo dico, quod ejus ars, quam edidit, mihi mendosissime scripta videatur; 
see Mayor on Juv. vii 177. 

§ 88. sphaeram : the orrery of Posidonius is not mentioned elsewhere, 
but that of Archimedes is often referred to, as in Tusc i 63 cum Arch, 
lunae solis quinque errantium motus in sphaeram Uligavit, effedt idem quod 
tue qui in Timaeo mundum aedificavU Plaionis deus, vi tarditate et celeri- 
tote dissimiUim^os motus una regeret conversio. Quod si in hoc mundo fieri 
sine deo Tum potest, ne in sphaera quidem eosdem motus ArcL sine divino 
ingenio potuisset imitari. In i2. P. i 14 it is said that Marcellus brought 
to Borne two spheres of ArcL one of which he dedicated in the temple of 
Virtus, the other he kept in his own house ; the former was solid, a celes- 
tial globe, such as had been previously made by Thaies (Anaximander ?), 
Eudoxus and others ; the latter was hollow, showing the movements of the 
planets: cf. Ov. Fast, vi 276 arte St/racosia suspensius in aere clausa (i.e. 
inclosed in a glass case) stat globus immensi parva ßgura poli; Sext. Emp. 
IX 114 opavrai de roiavrai (voepai) (^vatis iv KotrfJUü ir€pi€x6fi€y€U' dvayKri apa 
Kol avToP ¥0€pa» f;(c<v <f>v<rWf v<f>^ rjs reTayfieiws «ctyftrat, rJTis tvSins iariv Btoi. 
rd y€ lirfv ovroftartos Kivoviieva rwv KaraaKfvaafiaTmv Oavfiaarorfpd iari rmp 
/jjf ToiovTw (see above mdiora sunt ea quae natura &c.), rrjv yoDv 'Apxt/iifdetov 
fr<f>€upa» axfiodpa 6fWpovvr€£ iKirkrjTTOfi^Oa, iv § ifkiog re kcu crcXijin} ictpclrcu 
Kai ra "Xoiird r£v Üarpav, ov fui Aia inl roip $v\oit ovd' inl t^ Kunja-ti 
TovT»y T€0ipr6TfSf dXX' «Vi r^ Ttxvirfj Koi raU Kivoiaait alriais. Lactiantius 



202 BOOK II CH. XXXIV § 88. 

(ii 5) tums the Illustration against the Stoic doctrine of the divinity of the 
stars, tUrumne igüur Stoieus ti astrommfiguras in illo aerepictas ejlctasque 
vidUsetf 8U0 üla connlio moveri diceret ac non potiu» artificU ingeniof 
Inest ergo Bidenbus ratio ad perageridos meattu suos apta, »ed Dei est illa 
ratio... non ipsorum siderum qttae moventur, See also Claudian Epigr, 18 
(translated by H. Vaughan ii 57 Grosart), Fabric. BibL Or, iv c. 14, p. 455, 
Schick Die Ilimmdsgloben d. Arch. Hanau 1846, Lewis Astr, p. 194. 

BritaiUiiain : just made known by Caesar's conquest, cf. CatulL xi 11 
horribüesqtbe vltimoBqyie Britannos; Hör. Od. i 35. 29 vUimos orbis Britan- 
nos ; V. Ed. i 67 penüus toto divisos orbe Britannos ; Panej, v 12 (Caesar) 
alium se orbem terrarum scripsit repperisse. 

barbaiia: see i 81 n. and below § 126. It seems'to be used here not 
as a coUective, but as a common noun. 

Ch. XXXV. Archimedem plus valuiase : mach as Comte affirms that 
we have come to see in the heavens the glory, not of Qod, but of Kepler, 
Newton, Laplace &c. 

praesertim cum:^although', see n. on cum praesertim i 26. It is 
stränge that this use is still imnoticed in the Lexx. 

multis partibns : *by many degrees *, not, as Kühner, 'in vielen Hin- 
sichten', cf. below 92, 102, and i 24 minima ex parte *in the slightest 
degree'; Fin. ii 108 omnibus partihuB majores *intinitely greater'; ib. v 
91 ; Acad, ii 82 dttodeviginti partibus Tnajor ' eighteen times as laige ', 
things being viewed as fractious of a whole, not as themselves units. 

§ 89. Accinm: b. 170 b.c. The lines, as probably those quoted in 
III 67, are from his Medea (Nonius p. 90, 8) not the ArgonatUi, as asserted 
by Priscian in the passage cited below. See Boissier Lepoke Attius, Par. 
1856. Cic. says he often conversed with him (Brut. 107), which shows 
that his death must be put later than 104 b.c. (Teuffei). Quotations 
from his Atretu are given in iii 68, from uncertain plays ib. § 41 and § 90. 

diTinnm ac novnm vehicnlnm : made by the advice and with the aid 
of Pallas {Paüadia compacta manu Sen. Med. ii 365), who plaoed in it a 
vocal plank from the sacred oak of Dodona and afterwards made it a cou- 
stellation, see below § 114 and Eratosth. Catast. 35. nov. cf. Sext. ix 32 
ri}v 'Apyflo npcyroirkovv ri VKaifiOi waptik^afitVj and Apoll. Bhod. (who was 
much admired by the Bomans and translated by Yarro Atacinus, a con- 
temporary of Cic.) Argon. IV 315 oi d* vyjfov vijaoio kqt aKporanj^ cMovro 
TTfXodfv' €lafjitvata'i de cV atTtTtra trcita Xccfroy iroifiewts äypavXot ytf^p <f>oßtf 
oia T* Bijpas otraofAfvoi irovrov fityaK^nos i^aviovrat, ov yap ira dkias y€ 
napos fro^i v^as idovro. 

tanta moles labitnr : six of the lines are given with some alterationa 
and in different order by Priscian de Metr. Terent, 15. Omitting tanta 
moles labitur he begins with the last three lines aut forte — cadum entUy 
and then gives fremibunda ex dUo — r^at. In three places his readings 
have been generally preferred to those of the MSS, viz. r^at for profluit^ 
apiritu for strepiiu, undanti in for undanten rcniänt, On a 4th rcadiu; 



tT 



BOOK II CH. XXXV § 89. 203 

vomü for eniü see n. below. ^s regards the poetic quotations found in 
Cicero's philosophical writings, Heine {de Font, Tusc, Disp, p. 4) considers 
that they ore all taken from bis authorities. We know that it was usual 
with'the Greek philosophers, especially the Stoics, to relieve their graver 
disquisitions with quotations, cf. Tu9c. ii 26ßcisti saepe, credo^ cum Athenis 
esteSf in sckolis pküosophorum..,animadvertebas %güur...vertu8 ah iü ad- 
miscertoratiom.,.Phüo et proprio numero et lecta poemata et loco adjuTiffebat. 
Itaque. . Mudiose equideni utor nostris poetis ; sed aicvbi Uli dtefecerurd^ verti 
etiam multa de Oraecis, ne quo omamento in hoc geixere dtsptUationis careret 
Latina oratio. Galen {Plac, Hipp. etPlat. p. 315) ifiirXi^aras 6 Xpvo-tTnros o\op 
rh ßtßXiou firav 'Ofuipucciv Kai 'HoriobticDV koi ^TTja-ixopeimv ^Efiirt^KKtl»v 
T€ Koi 'Op<^ucfiSv, crt di npos tovtois cV Ttjs rpayti^dias Koi napa Tvpraiov Kai 
rwv uXXo>i' iroii]T»v...ravTa Korä Xt^w €iri<f>€p€i 'ravtl /xcv <t>^arova'iv dBoXto'xlap 
wIpoi ypa»^7jy rv^^y de jcal ypafipArtßv diiaa-KoXov ßovXoptvov arixovs ort 
nktioTovs vno to avro diavorffta To^ai', foU. and SO we are expresslj told of 
Poeidonius (Galen Hipp. Fiat. p. 399) prfatts re iroajTiKog vapariOirai koi 
ioTopiat irciKai^v irpa(«»v fiaprupoviras ols Xeyci. [Add Sen. Fp. 8 § 8, 9 § 21, 
108 § 8. J. E. B. M.] 

fremibunda : the dashing of the oars and rustling of wind in the sails. 

sonitn et spiritu : so Ennius AchiU. fr. 2 oritwr imher sonüu saevo et 
spirüu 'with loud roaring and a mighty blast'. 

vertices vi snscitat : the favourite alliteration in v. 

mit prolapsa : 'throws itself headlong (ajs it rides the billows), scatters 
and blows back the sea\ 

dum— dum : *one while — another while'. Seh. refers to Catull. lxii 45 
dum intacta manet, dum cara suis est, which Quintil. ix 3 § 16 explains as 
qttoad — tisque eo, but which need not have any other than the ordinary 
force oidum. [Cf. Plaut. Truc. ii 1 21 dum habeat, dum amet; uhinü haheaty 
alium quaestum coepiat ; Fleckeisen in Jahrb. (1870) p. 648. J. E. B. M.] 
It is more to the point to compare the Compounds nondumy nvllusdum, vix^ 
dum, nihildum, quidum,primumdum,&c., and the oolloquial use with Impera- 
tives, like agedum. '*It is originally the Acc. of dius (an old form for dies, 
cf. noctu diuqite, interdius) and is therefore a compression of dium meaning 
*a while'." Wagner on Trin. 98. I believe however that there is no 
ezact parallel to the present The indefinite Adjective qui (quocT) is rarely 
found in claasical Latin except in oonnexion with si, ne, num : Tacitus has 
aliudve quod belli commercium (Ann. xiy 38), and some edd. read alia quae 
below § 115, and aliam quam above § 18. 

interruptum nimbnm: 'a broken cloud', i.e. not melting into the 
sky, but with what Ruskin calls ' the threatening and terrible outlines of 
the thunder-cloud ', 'steep as the slope of some dark hollowed hiU', 
* like globes of rock tossed by Titans*. {Afod. Fainters v 127, 141.) 

globosos tnrbines: *circling water-spouts to arise smitten by the 
warring billows '. So Pacuvius in bis fine description of a storm {Orot, iii 
157) uivdique omnes vcnti erumpunt, saevi exsistunt turbines, fervä acstu 



204 BOOK n CH. XXXV § 89. 

pda^un. Cf. also Lucr. vi 423 folL where the irpri<rnfp is described, esp. 
L 426 nam fit tU interdum tamquam demtssa cdumna in mare de cado 
descendat, quamfreta circum fervescunt gravüer spirantibu8 mcüa flabris ; 
tliis is called (L 438) versabundus turbo, see Munro in loc. 

xiisi Quas terrestres strages : * unless (»or it may be) the sea is pre- 
paring devastation for the land '. 

eyertens specus — eruit: 'upheaving the caverns from under their 
roots in the depths of the stormj sea, throws up the stony mass to the 
light of heaven \ The old edd. of Priscian give vomiiy which Dav. prefers, 
as Longinus {JStibl. 3) has notioed the phrase irpor ovpavov i^fiiitvy but, as 
Heind. has pointed out, it would be eztremely incongruous here, as spoken 
of Triton ; and, in point of fact, three of Keil's four Mss give eruü and the 
fourth meruit, 

quam cernit ignotam : by a sort of attraction the epithet of the Subject 
of the principal clause {ignota natura) is attached to the Object of the 
subordinate clause; and is thus made more prominent, 'which he sees 
without knowing it ' ; cf. Verr, iv 27 vasa qttae pvlcherrima apud cum 
viderat. See for the converse attraction (Subject of subordinate changed 
into Object of principal clause) i 23 n. 

Juvenibns visis : [The spectator catches sight of the rowers bending 
forwards and backwards, and the oars flashing and splashing in the bcsl 
At first it reminds him of a school of dolphins with their quick movemenis 
and dashes of spray : afterwards he recognizes that they arejuvenes. R.] 
From the foUowing explanation of the simile {primo aspectu inanimumf 
post indpü iuspicari) we should have expected Juvenibu» to be fol- 
lowed by a more distinct explanation of tbe real nature of the ship. 
The same Opposition is suggested by the dvhüat primo here ; it is taken 
up by idemque, where deinde would perhaps have been more natural, but 
possibly the Greek was 6 de avrost implying the inconsistency of the two 
views. In all probability the original gave a long quotation, describing 
how the spectator gradually awoke to a right appreciation of the fact 
before him, which C. has cut down with his item alva multa. 

nautico cantn : the jcAev/ia, cf. pseudo-Ascon. on Divin. Verr. 55 cani 
remigibus celeuma per symphoniacos (a band) soldnitf et per as9am vocem, id 
est oreprolatam, et, vt in Argo naviy per dtharam. So Serv. on^^n. m 128 
^natUicus exoritw clamor\ says celeumaticum est hoc kemistichiunu See 
Val. Flac. Argon, 1 186 non damor ankdis natUicus aut blandus testudtne 
defiiä Orpheus; Hyg. Fab. 14 celeuma dixit Orpheus; Blomf. on Aesch. 
Pers, 403, who quotes Longus Fast, 3 th ft*p avroU KtXtvarfjs vavriKas jlkv 
t^dds' ol de Xoiff-oi, KaBantp X^P^^t oijuo^vms Kora icatpbv rfjs tKtiPov ^«»v^ff 
tß6»v, and adds ecquis non in mentem revocat carmina quae ad remorum 
sonitum nautae Siculi et Veneti cantare solentF cf. the pvmranai of the- 
Athenian seamen (Arist. Vesp. 904, Ranae 1071). 

* sie ' alt ' inciti ' : so I propose to read for the sicut inciti of icss. Thus 
perfremunt will refer simply to the dolphins ; the behaviour of the Argo 



BOOK II CH. XXXV § 89» 205 

is oompared to that of dolphins at play ; but readiug ticiU we seem to 
want either ships or men, as Nom. to perfremunt. The former is impoB- 
aible, because there is ouly one Argo, aud the latter are not the subjoct of 
obfiervation. The construction also of idem is simplified hy reading aü. 
It is difficult to see the point of sie azU, proposed and abaodoned by 
Ribbeck and adopted by Ba. ; if it is intended to prepare the way for 
other similes (concoaled under item alia multa), that is a prosaic aud 
cold-blooded way of introducing the comparison. For other readings see 
critical uote. Jncüi has the penultimate long, like concüa in Lucr. ii 266. 

rostris peifremimt : 'so the gay dolphins, as they dart forward, cleave 
the sea with their snouts and make a whizzing sound' (lit. whiz through 
the sea). Aristotle (Hut, An, ix 48) speaks of the eztraordlnary swiftness 
and activity of the dolphin airdi^Tmv doicec ffvot C<jfap ra;^Mrrov...ical vntpaK* 
Xovrai de irXo/ttv /iryaXcov l<rrot;r, so Pliny N, H. IX 8 ocior volucre, ocior 
tdoy and a little below pro voce gemittu kumano simüü...ro8trum nmum. 
perfir. of the mshing sound (p66os) caused by the prow, as it cuts through 
the waves, cf. Ttuc, y 116 fremittts murmurantü mariSy and Philostr. Jun. 
Imag. xi (of the Argo) 17 huKtralovira tov vrortifiov vaits vno iroXX^ rf po6i<o 
r^ff eipfo-iar. 

Silvani melo : the Romans, identifyiug Silvanus with Pan, attributed 
to him the reed (xaXa/id<^doyya iraiC<ov Ar. Ranae, 229), see Tib. il 5 30 
foll. gamda süvettrifistvla sacra deo,ßstula cui semper decrescU hamndinis 
ordo. Probably it is Orpheus with bis lyre, not the nauticits cantuSy which 
is here compared to the only music known to the shepherds. Lachmann 
suggests in bis note on Lucr. iv 581 (where stringed Instruments as 
well as pipes are assigned to the Fauns), that the vocal plank from 
Dodona is here alluded to. We are told of its giving prophetic wamings 
(as in Orphica 1160 c« ^ apa KoiXrjv yrjos inißpofitovo'a Tofiapias c«eXay€ 
4>^oSf fjtf iroff vir* 'Apyt^iftri royMis ffpftotraaro UtikXas) but not, I think, 
of musio proceeding from it. Both are mentioned in Philost. Imag. 11 15 
rj *Apy<o fiitrov fjdri Ttftif€t ro p66uip tov HovtoVj Kai BeXyti r^v ßaXarTav 
*Op<f>€vii j[da>y, ij de OKOV fif Kai vno rj ^»d^ Ktirtu 6 Il6vTOt,,,rp6'jris de 
v^rjpiiourai t§ ptfi liivbpov apxiuo¥^ ^ Kctra AcndioprfP 6 Z€vt iavrov er ra 
fuwrtia exp^^o, and Philost. Jun. Im^ig, xi 6 €fifi*\es vpofrqJbt^v rols rrjs 
Kiddpag Kpovfiaai $vv opBg riapif, o re vnip rfjs itpas iK§ivTf9 (fiffyov dpaxior. 

cantum et auditum : ' a song and a hearing '. Georges in bis Lexicon 
compares the use of andäus in Vegetius Mil. 3. 7 p. 73 flatus emittere 
audüum, and Apul. de Mund. p. 15 auditus dum ad aures venu. 

refert : the uncertainty as to the Subject of the verb makes its meaning 
also uncertain. If it is Orpheus, as suggested by the quotation from 
Hyginus imder natUico cantu, it might mean 'responds', 'takes up the 
strain ' ; and then et audüum might be added to faciütate the connexion 
with ad aures. Perhaps however Argo is the Subject : if the words were 
A. refert melos, this might mean ^recalls the strain', but consimüem ca^Uum 
is hardly consistent with such a use of refert. Poasibly again the referenoe 



206 BOOK II CH. XXXV § 89. 

is to an echo, or to the wind bringing bock the sound os the ship 
passes on. 

§ 90. inanimum auiddam : but this scarcely agrees with the present 
Order of the lines, which begin with describing a li\ang creature tanta 
moles — rt^flat. Perhaps these lines ought to be placed after eruüy as by 
Priscian. The thought is better carried out in Dryden's Indian Emperor 
Act I, quoted in the Eng. trans. of 1741, where a fleet is compared first to 
strangely shaped clouds, then to trees with wings growing out of them, 
then to floating palaces &c. 

contiirbaverat : ' had puzzled them ' : cf. § I conturbor, 

moneris: cf. 1 19n. 

Ch. xxxvi. nunc antem : iised like nunc and nunc vero to introduce 
the actual fact in contrast with an imagined case ; see Dumesnil on Leg. 
1 55, and Ttuc. u 45, ni 2. 

§ 91. terra sita in media parte mondi : the prevailing view as 
opposed to that of the Pythagoreans, who supposed the earth to revolve 
with the other heavenly bodies round a central fire, and of Aristarchus 
of Samos (fl. 280 B.G.) who anticipated Copemicus and was chaiged with 
impiety by Cleanthes w klv&v tov Kcafiov t^p ioTiap (Plut. jF\ic. Lun, p. 
923 A). 

n.Ti1nift.H : gee above § 18 n. also § 136, ni 34, Tu9c, i 41. The reading 
animabili is compared by Mil on Tusc, in 12 (Adn. Cnt, p. xxxvm) to 
other corruptions naturabilis, morahüis, aequabüts for naturalis &c. 

perceptum nsu : Fin, iii 5 rhetorica^ dialectica^ grammatica, geometria^ 
mmica, quamquam Latine ea dici poterantf tarnen, quomam usu pcrcepta 
suntf nostra ducamua, and Quint v 12. Cic. speaks in the same hesitating 
tone as to the word aer in Acad. i 26. Pliny mentions spiritu» et caeluni 
as older Synonyms {N, H. ii 5 and 38). Seh. 

tritlixn : cf. Divin, ii 11 aoritea satis sermone Latmo trüus est. 

Pacnvins : b.g. 220 — 130, a native of Brundisium, nephew of Ennius. 
The lines quoted are assigned to the Ckryses by Ribbeck, by others to the 
Dularestes, an adaptation of the Ipkig. in Aul. of Euripides. The fonner 
play relates to the fortunes of Orestes and Pylades after they have taken 
refuge from the pursuit of Thoas with Chryses, the priest of Apollo. The 
lines are thus arranged by Ribb. hoc mde circum supraque quod comj)lexu 
continet terram. . .sclisque exortu capessit candorem, occasu nigret, id quod nostri 
cadum memorant, Oraii perhibent aethera: quicquid est hoc omnia aninuU, 
formatf alä, äuget, creat, sepdit recipitque in sese omnia, omniumque idem 
estpater, indidemque ea quae oriuntur d£ integro aeque eodem occidunt. The 
next fr. is evidently closely connected, mater est terra: ea parä corpus, 
animam aether adjugat. 

hoc <iuod memoro : probably by lapsus memoriae on the part of Cic. 
for the id quod memorant in Varro L. L. v 17. 

<liia8i vero non GraiuB: 'just as though the Speaker were not a 
Greek*. *But he talks Latin*. *Quite so, only we are suppoeed to be 



BOOK II CH. XXXVI § 91. 207 

Hearing him talk Greek' (lit. *if we wero not listening to him as speaking 
iu Greek'). 

idem: Pacuvius shows this (that the language is understood to be 
Greek). 

Grajugena: Kibbeck and Bothe suppose this to bo tho answer of 
Orestes to Thoas from the Diäorestes, and place a comma after Oraj. ; 
Seh. makes Oraj, an epithet of oratio (cf. Ziimpt § 257) ; Heind. makes 
it the AbL agreeing with istoc. For the constr. aperä de see Herenn, 

II 31. 

§ 92. ez aethere igitur : for resumptive use of igüur see i 44 n. 

mnltis pariibiui : see § 88 n. Epicurus and his disciples held that 
the sun was really no larger than it looks to us, see Diog. x 91, Lucr. 
V 565, Cleomedes ii I. His true diameter is 882,000 miles, i.e. more than 

III times that of the earth (Herschel § 358). . For the views of other ancient 
astronomers cf. Acad, ii 82 {aolem) mathematici ampliua duodeviffinti partibus 
confirmant majorem esse quam terram ; Macrob. S. Sc. i 20 Eratostkenes in 
libris Dimensionum sie ait, mensura terrae septies et vicies mvUiplicata 
mensuram solis effidt. Posidonius dicit mvUo muitoque saepitis mvltiplicatam 
solis spatium eßcere, Cleomedes professes to give the calculations of the 
latter. In i c. 10 p. 52 we have his calculation of the circumference of the 
earth from the length of the arc betwcen Rhodos and Alexandria, which he 
finds from Observation of the elevation of the star Canopus to be ^ of the 
circle. The length of this arc is taken as 5000 Stades ; hence the earth's 
circmnference will be 240,000 Stades and its diameter 80,000 Stades. 
Again in Bk ii 1 p. 79 we find the words viroB4fi€vos fivpKmkatrtova tlvai 
TOP ifkicucov kvkXov tov TTJt y^s kvkKoVj arrb roirrov opfjuofttpos diiKwanv ort 
fAvpiadav rpiaKofriav efvat dei r^v tov rjXlov diufitTpov, which Delambre 
paraphrases as foUows (i 225), 'Posidonius calcule que le diamötre du Soleil 
doit 6tre de 300 m}Tiades de Stades et que ce diamötre est au moins 10,000 
fois aussi grand que celui de la terre'. But we have seen that the earth's 
diameter was calculated bj Posidonius at 80,000 Stades, therefore the Sun's 
diameter should be, not 300 myriads (3,000,000), but 80,000 myriads 
(800,000,000) of Stades. Delambre would have been saved from falling 
into a gross blunder if he had noticed that immediately below (pp. 81, 83) 
the phrase iJXmKof kvkKos manifestly refers, not to the circumference, but 
to the orbit of the Sun. It is there stated that the Sun's diameter is 
j\^ of his orbit (Archimedes makes it y^^). According to this proportion 
the Sun's orbit should be 750x3,000,000 Stades =2,250,000,000, which is 
not so far from 10,000 times the supposed circumference of the earth. It 
would appear therefore that Posidonius made the Sun's diameter 37^ times 
larger than that of the earth. Cleomedes had heard (^ao-t) that Hipparchus 
made it 1050 times that of the earth. 

reliqua sidera : Cleomedes (ii 3 p. 96 foll), who mostly follows Posi- 
donius, argues that many of the fixed stars must be as lai^e or even 
larger than the sun. 



208 BOOK II CH. XXXVI § 92. 

ita proBimt ut — conflagrare teiras necesse sit : as Heind. remarics, 
the thought is very incompletely stated: the main use, to sustain life, 
is not referred to, and only one alternative consequent on their change of 
poaition, the danger of being bumt up, is mentioned (cf. the story of 
Phaethon Ov. Met, ii), nothing being said of the danger of being frozen, 
if they were moved fiurther away. 

mota : the gender is suited to the sidera in the preceding sentenoe ; 
' Tiempe a metonymia ad proprium vocabtUum redü orcUio, quippe cum de 
loco dicatur ' Allen. 

conflagrare a tantis ardoribus : cf. § 138 ccUescü a spiräu, Acad, n 
105 a sole coUucetf Draeg. § 230. 

C c (4). Tlie ahsurdiiy of atteinpting to explain the universe as 
the resiUt of tlie fortukoua concourse ofcUonu, §§ 93, 94. 

Ch. XXXVII § 93. hie ego non mirer : 'and here must I not wonder', 
cf. pro Balho 9 hie ego nunc cunctcr sie agere f 

vi et gravitate : hendiadys, as below commissuras et artus § 150. 

qui ezistimet : most mss have emsiimat, of which Mu. says ' InduxUivo 
Epicurus co7Uemtiu8 demmistratur ' prarf. p. 9, comparing Madv. Firi, iii 
73. I think however that the more general and indefinite Subjunctive 
suits better with the preceding esse quemquam qui, and with the following 
isti; and have therefore followed Ba. in readiug existimet, 

inniixnerabiles — formae litteranun : for the comparison of atoms to 

letters cf. Arist. Oen, et Corr, I 2 cV rcSv avr&v rpay^dia xat ««o/i^ia yryrrrai 
ypafiitArmv * 80 Democritus makes opposite qualities arise out of the same 
atoms ' ; Lucr. 1 196 ut potiiis multis communia corpora rebus multa putes 
esse, vt vcrbis elementa videmu*; ib. 912 'a slight change in the arrangement 
of atoms may produce a great difiference in the Compound ' quo pacto verba 
quoque ipsa tnter se pavlo mutcUis sunt elemeniiSf cum ligna atque ignes 
distincta voce notemus; ii 1013 foll. where see Munro. The illustration 
BUggested by the double use of the terms elcmentum and trroixfMv was due 
to Plato, of whom Diog. L. (iii 19) teils us, that he first employed the 
Word in a philosophical sense, aroixfiov ^ having meant nothing eise but the 
letters of the aiphabet, tili Plato applied it to signify the elements of natural 
bodies', cf. Bentley PAa/am ii p. 116, and Theaet, 201 £ thejre cited, ey^ yop 
iboKOVv OKOvtiv Tiiwv oTi TO fiiv fTp^va oiofircpci oToi;^f td, i( mv rjfuis rc avyKti- 
litOa Kai rcIXXa, \6yov ovk ^x^h ^^* ^^^ ^ ^^ h^^ aroix^la äyvioaray to ti rmp 
(TvWaß^v yivoi yvfi)<rrov,and the discussion which follows ; Arist. Iletap^i, iv 3 
p. 1014 a oToc;(€tov Xcycrac €^ ov avyK(iTai...olov (jxovfjf trroixtui c{ »v inry- 
K€tTai rj <l>av^ Koi th a diaipctrat t(rxoTa...6fUiifof ti koi to. t£v a^fiarmv 
OTOcx^ia ^iyovcrtv oi \*yopT€t, us a Siaipiirai ra adfUXTa Sfaxora, where aee 
Bonitz ; ib. vi 17 p. 1041 b i) de ovXXaßfl ovk tari ra o-roc^cZo, ovde ro ßa 
ravTO r^ ß «al a, oJd* 17 (rap^ irvp Kai y^- diaXv$€VTOiv yap ra /acv ovKirt iari»^ 
oiov 17 trap^ Kcu 17 o'vXXa/Si;, ra bt aroixfui fari, koi to nvp kcu 17 yfj, Sext. I 



BOOK n CH. XXXVII § 93. 209 

99 T^€t de \€Kr4ov rjfuv irpArov nepl r»v frroix^i^v i^ £p ra irS^ra kot avrovt 
(rovff ypafifioTiKoifs) <rw€(mjK€, * of these there are twenty-four ' ; Laert. 
yn 56. There is an argument resembling tbis, in IHv, i 23 aspersa temere 
pigmenta in tabvla oris lineamerUa eßngere joossurU : nvm. eticm, Veneris Coae 
piUchrü'udinem ejffmgi posse asperdone fortuita ptttas f Svs rostro d hvmi 
A litteram impresserü, numpropterea sttspicari poteris Äridromacham Bnnü 
ab ea posse describif On the order in which the different nouns and a^jec- 
tives of the sentence are brought together see Mayor on 2 Phü. 66. 

nnius et vlginti: we generally reckon 23 letters in the Latin aiphabet, 
bat Y and Z were considered foreign letters and only used in Greek words. 
QuintiL 1 4 § 9 speaks of X as the last letter of the aiphabet« [X is the 
last letter in one of the graßH of Pompeii, see Bhevii. Mus, N. F. xii 246. 
J. E. B. M.] 

aimales Ennii : a history of Home £rom its foundatiou in hexameter 
verse. In it ' he not only often succeeds in imitating Homeric simplicity, 
but still more frequently makes his lines strikingly echo the solemnity 
of the Roman character '. Mommsen. 

quod — ^valere fortuna : the relative is explained by the following 
clause, as in I 2 qtiod.,.trahwiur, and qitod continet, i 38 qtio quid ab- 
surditts, u 7 quod soletis, n 17 § 24 qtiod Cleanthes docet,,,quanta vis insU; 
in such cases it gets to be used like the Qreek o in Thuc. n 40= ' whereas', 
cf. Madv. Fin, i 67, m 59. 

§ 94. quem ad modum asseverant : most of the edd. put a mark of 
interrogation at the end of the sentence, understanding quem ad modum to 
mean ' how absurdly '. I do not know of any exact parallel for this use ; 
and, in any case, it is open to the objection of Heind., that after such 
sentences as ' kic ego non mirer ', ' hoc qui emstvmet \ quihus graviter satis 
Epicureae serUentiae absurditatem expressit, frigide hanc denuo inferri inier- 
rogcUioTiem. I think therefore that he is right in regarding this as an 
example of attraction, in which the proper principal verb ' est perfecttis * is 
drawn into the subordinate construction of the relative clause. He illus- 
trates it firom Off. i 22 quoniam...utplacet Stoicis, quaein terris gignantur 
ad tuum hominum omnia creari^...in hoc naturam debemtis sequi, where 
creari is similarly put for crearUur, Holden in his note cites this passage, 
and also J2. P. i 58 «t, ut Oraed dicunt, omnes avi Qraios esse aut barbarosy 
vereor &c. ; cf. too Verr. rv 40 tum primum, ut opinor, istum absentis nomen 
recepisse (for rec^pü)\ Orat. iii 3 hie, ut saepe vidi.,, esse judicatum (for est 
judicatus) ; Leg. i 55 quia d, ut Chius Aristo diant, solum bonum esse quod 
honestum esset,... valde a Xenocrate discreparet, where bonum esse is put by 
attraction for b, esset ; and in Greek Xen. Anab. vi 2 § 18 ds cy«, dn-o tov 
avTOfjLOTov x^^s tJkoptos ttXo/ov, iJKOv<rd rtyor, ort KXcovdpor fUWei ^£eiv, where 
either ort or »f is superfluous. See Heind. on Plato Soph, 263 rrayrcaraa-w, 
»s €oiK€V, fj ToiavTfi (rvv6e(ris, ?« r€ prjfMTüi>v yiyvo^vri Kai ovofiarcav, optws 
TW Koi äkrfßSs yiyptaßcu (for yiyverat) \6yos ^f^cvdrjr, also Krüger Unter- 
suchungen §§164 and 166. [Add Böckh Kl, Sehr, vn 67, Person and 

Jt C. IL 14 



210 BOOK n OH. xxxvn § 94. 

Schäfer on Eur. Or. 1035, K F. Hermann on Lucian Eist, dmKr. S3 
p. 149. J. E. B. M.] 

non colore, non qnalitate : aa Lucr. proves n 737 nuUu» emm c6U>r ett 
amnino materiai oorporibtu, neque par reims^ neque denique diapar iblL, 
where Munro quotes Epicuros ap. Biog. x 54 ras arofxovs lurfitfiuv wotonfra 
r£» <l>ai90fuv»v irpoa<i>€ptarBai ffkip^ irx^futros xal ßapovf Koi fuyißavs kcu i€ra 
€i ävvyKqt <n(itum «rvfK^v^ cWi. analitas invented bj Cic. (ÄccuL i 24), 
as noiorrff by Flato {Theaet, 182 a). 

non sensu praeditis : Lucr. n 865 nunc ea qyuu iemtire videmtu cum- 
qttey neoesse e$t ex iruentüibus tarnen omnia c<mßieare principUs constare» 

iimomorabiles mundos : cf. i 53 and 67. 

in omni puncto : ' within each moment '. The preposition has the 
effect of dwelling on the thought. Exx. are given by Dumesnil on Leff. 1 8. 

et multo Quidem : the mss add fcunliora, on which Madv. saya müram 
oratumis formam : was minder schteer ist und vwar weü leichter / *Facüiora* 
additum ab cdiquo gut non inteUexerat ' et multo quidem 'pertinere ad ' minus 
operosa ^ For similar Interpolation see i 86 üi esse mortale after n quid sit, 
For et quidem see above §§27 and 41. 

caeli omatum=K6(rfiov, c£ below §§ 115, 118, Äcad, n 119 (no power 
can cause) ut hie omattis umquam düapsus beeidet, 

qui locus est prozimus : acc. to the programme in § 75, but Baibus 
has been engaged upon it for some time. 

C c (5). Ctutom blinde men, or they eouldnot/oUl to ackfncwledge 
that the wondera of nal/u/re ora tJie work ofGod. ^ 95 — 98. 

§ 95. Aristoteles. On this passage see Bjwater J. of PkiL vn p. 82 
folL He Gonsiders that C.'s debt to Arist. begins sooner {quodsi mundum 
&c.) and comparcs Philo Leg, AI, in 32 p. 107 M. ^CrfTt^irav ol rrpw-oi wt 
ivonio'afi^v ro ßtlov, tlff ol doKovpTfs äpurra ^iXocrcx^civ t^aoM Sri airo rov 
KOfTfiov Koi r&v iiMfmv avrov kcu r£v iwirapxovo'&v bvvdfunv dm-ikrf^uf itroufo'tt' 
fi€6a rov alriov, narntp yap €i ris idot dtbtifuovpytjfuvijv ohciap cfri/AcX^r 
irpomikaloiv <rroais avbp&o'i yvvcur»viria-i, rols SkXois olKobo/ß^fuurWf tvyoio» 
Xi7^crai rov r€XViTov — ov yap av€v rdxyrjg Ktä lirffuovpyov vofuti rij» otKiav 
airor€kt<rBrjv<Uj r6v avrov de rpotrov km ort iroKe»t koi yrjt^s Kai frayrhs cXor* 
rovos fj iiti^ovos KaracKeudarfiaros — ovrm brj Kai cicreX^^y ns iSoircp €ls fic- 
yi<miP oIkiov fj iroXiv rovdc rov Koa-fjMv Kai Stcurdfitvot ovpapov iv kvk\^ irrpt- 
trokovvra Koi nävra ivros oi;v€tXi7<^^a, irXdvriras de xol dirXoycir daripas KiBo-a 
ravra xol ^a-avrtät KiPovfjLfvovs tfifickns rt Kai tvapfiovwt koi r^ vom 
<i»^eXcfi<0(, yfjv de rov p^frairarov x^P^^ Xa^ovcrav, vdaros rc Km dtpos j^vtrcir 
€v fuOopiijf rrrayfuva£.,.\oyieir<u di/irov ort ravra ovk av€v r€xvj9 «ravrcXoOs- 
belhrjfuovpyriTai, ä)^a Kai ^v koI Ifartv 6 rovdt rov navros drifuovpyof 6 Ofot, 
Bemays Dial, d, Arist. p. 104 folL compares it with the short abstract in 
Sext. Emp. ix 20, noticing that the grounds for belief there given are not 
fear or utility, but on the one side the soul's original presenüment of .a 



BOOK n CH. xxxvn § 95. 211 

Divine being and on the other the beauty of the extemal nniverae : and bo 
here, the cave-dwellers are supposed to have an original belief in Qod, 
which is afterwards confirmed by the wonders of nature. On the Dialogue 
ircpt ^iXoo-o0iar from which Cic. is quoting, see i 33, ii 42, 44. 

Bub terra: probably suggested bj the famous sdmile in Plato's B^, vi, 
perhaps also by traditions of Troglodytes. So Porphyry, inlmde Antro 
Nympharttm, treats Homer's grotto of the nymphs, Sarrpo» hrqpaTov Tf€po€td€t 
ipo¥ 'SvfKl>afov (Od. XIII 103 foU.)» as an allegory of the world : diä /mV o^h 
TTjv v\jjp ^tpo€idfls Kai a-KOTfOfos 6 KoiTfjtof, dta de rffv rov ttHovs avfifrXoKfjp 
Kai duiKoa'firfa'i^ KgiKos t€ cort «eal tinfpaTOf, adding that caves w^te there- 
fore regarded as sacred places, and that the descent into a cave was 
customary in the initiation to certain mysteries. 

illiurtribus : ' well-lighted *, c£ Columella i 6 bcUnearia oocidenU 
aesHvo admerta'nJtwr^ Mi nnt usque in vesperem iUuftria, Arist. describeB 
his cave-dwellers as civilized in their habits and therefore fitted to appre- 
ciate the beauties of nature ; not like the Troglodytes of Herodotns. 
For the Abi. domicilüs Dumesnil (Z^. m 22) cites Verr, n 136 ommlnu 
oppidia reffnasMy ib. iv 117, Äen. vi 673 lucü habitabcU opacis, Perhaps 
however it is better to take it as an Abi. of Attendant Circumstanoes. 

qni beati pntantnr : ' who are reckoned well off'. C£ pro TuUio 10 
deinde iste paterfamüias Asiaticus becUtu, where Beier cites 2 Cot. 20 (ledifi- 
cant, tamquam beati, Off. n 69 quiiQ locupktet, honorcUoSy beatas ptUatU; 
c£ Hör. Od. in 7 3, Sat. n 8 1 ; so fioKap and wiUufmv in Qreek. Observe 
the quadruple relative Subordination qui — qtuie — quibus — qui. 

fama et auditione : c£ Fam. vm 1 acdpere audüicrMm, and above 
§ 89 ca/ntwm et avdüvm. 

exire atqne evadere: I have foUowed Allen in transposing exire: 
see Critical Notes. 

e j&cientiaia : C. uses the same word Fat. 19 canucu ookSbenies in ae 
effidewtiam naturalem. 

qaod is efficeret: more usual would have been qui eßeeret or 
ejffldeTUis. 

cognoviSBent — cognovissent : see Index under ' Repetition ' and n. on 
§ 145 tntia cognoecunt. 

toto caelo : ' a thing over which motion takes place requires a preposi- 
tion, or is put in the ablative with totuey the whole over which being con- 
ceived as one place at which' the action is performed. C£ toto corpore 
138, 139, 141, and see Boby § 1083. 

in omni aetemitate : dL above §§ 36 and 51. 

iinae cma viderent : the construction of the sentence is n eseent qm 
habitavissent — nee tarnen earissent. . .aocepiseent autem. . .deinde earire potuiseent 
...ctun undisseni solem, ejusque cum moffnitudinem tum eficientiam oognorne- 
eent...cum autem terram nos opaoasset, tum oadum cemerent...quae cum 
videreni. . .arbttrarentur. It is piain that the apodosis would regnlarly have 
been introduced by a demonstrative clause haec cum vid, instead of quae^ 

14—2 



212 BOOK n CH. xxxvn § 95. 

and 80 Lamb. proposed to read ; bat Heind. replies that C. Las ended the 
sentence as though he had heganwiihßnffamus eue homtnemy and Bywater 
L c. thinks there may have been a similar anaooluthon in the original Qreek, 
such as we find in Plat. Rep. VII 519 B Jy et diraXXaycv ir€pi€<rrp4<l>€To. 

Ch. xxxYin § 96. eruptione : Georges cites from Seneca e oavemis 
maru ignium eruptio. [Add ^. Q. ii 56 § 2 e nvhtlnu subiiae lucis erup- 
tionem; ib. 54 § 2 (quio^id in aera nccifiimonque pervendt) H indusum eaty 
fugam quaerü et cum sono evadit ac modo universam erupUonemfacäy modo 
per partes, J. E. B. M.] Posidonius, as we leam from Seneca's J^at. QtuteMLy 
paid mu6h attention to volcanic phenomena. There was an eniption of £tDa 
about the time when Cic. wrote this book, oL Liv. ap. Serv. on Geo, i 471 
tantaflamma ante mortem Caeearis ex Aetna monte deßuxüy vi non tanium 
vicinae urbes, sed etiam Rkegina civücls aßaretur; and the famous description 
of an eniption of Vesuvius in Plin. £^, vi 20. For Aetna see Lucr. 1 722 — 
725, VI 680 foll, V. Äen, m 570, and the anonymous poem on the subject. 

nemo hominem homo : instead of the adjective ntUltu the substantire 
nemo is frequentlj (regularly by Cic. according to Reid SvÜa 25) joined to 
other substantives denoting male persons, cf. above § 81, where nemo opifex 
is joined with nvJlla are, Zumpt § 676, who cites neminem poetam Tuec 
Y 22, nemo pictor Off, iil 2, homo nemo Farn, xiii 55 : for other exx. of the 
last see Verr, 1 15, v 65, Font, 29, SiUla 25, p, Dom, 107, AU,iv l^ 6, Ter. 
Ad, 259, Hec, 281, Eun, 549, Phorm. 591, Holtze Synt, pr, ecr. Lot, i 343^ 
409, Sanct Minerv, iy 4 n. 37, N, D, i 78 (where the note should be 
modified in accordance with the present). [Acta Semin, Erlang, (1880) 
n 51. J. E. B. M.] 

tun nt reviziflse : for the repetition of ut Madv. § 480 oompares Verr, 
iv 23 Verres Archagatho negotium dedit tUy quicquid Saleutü es8et,.,tU omne 
Uaiim deportaretur, See iJso Fin, v 10, IHmn. Verr. 72, Verr, y 28, Acad, 
n 139, Ter. Phorm, 15a 

hoc : ezplained by tU evbüo cuptceremue, cf. i 44. 

Qnaenam spedes: ezclamatory, 'how beautiful would it appear', c£ 
below § 100 qiuie epeciee universil 

assidnitate cotidiana: cf. above § 45 and m 20, T%uc, i 38^ ad 
fferenn, m c. 22 eolis exortus, curetUy ocoaetu nemo admiratur, propterea 
quod cotidießtmt, at edipeee sclis mvranlwr quia raro accidvnt,,,docet ergo se 
natura vclgari et usitata re non exeuacUari ; novüate vero et ineigni guodam 
negotio commoveri; Seneca N,Q. vu l ita oompoeüi twnue ut noe coti- 
diana, etiam ei admiratume digna eunty traneeant; contra minimarum 
quoque rerumy ei insolita prodierint, tpectactdum dvlce fiat. Hie itaque 
coetus astrorum, quibus immensi corporis pulchritudo distinguitur, populum 
non convocat, At cum aliquid ex more mutatum est, omnium vultus in cado 
est. Sol spectatorem, niei cum defieiiy non habet. Nemo observat lunam nisi 
laborantem.,.Adeo naturale est magis nova quam magna mirari; Lucr. n 
1030—1039 (of a first sight of the heavens) ita haec spedes miranda /uisset, 
quam tibijam nemo fessus satiate videndi, sutpicere in codi dignatur lucida 



BOOK n CH. xxxvm § 96^ 218 

iempla ; Qr^or. Hom, 26 in Evang. qmtidiawi Bei miaucfula ex amduitate 
vüuerunt ; August. Serm. 242, Bnarr. in Psalm» cz 4, Trench Mirades Intr. 
c. 2. [Philo Vit. Moys, i 38 (ii 114 M) »ays that miracles are Btov rraiyvu^ 
while His great marvels are the orderly works of nature, sun moon and 
Stars, air earth and water, living creatures and plants ; but familiarity has 
bred contempt : aXXa ravra fiiv, npos ahjBtiay ovra Bavfjuia'ui, Kora- 
V9<t*p6vrfrat r^ truvijBtt, J. E. B. M.] For constr. (Abi. of Cause) cf. Äcad, 
II 57 tU mcUer geminos intemoscit contuetttdine ocularum, sie tu intemosces 
si assiteveris. 

§ 97. hominem : in prägnant sense, possessed of human feeling, 
human understanding, as Ätt, n 2 'Hp^di;; si homo essety eumpotitcs legeret; 
Leg, n 16 qyiem, astrorum ordines...ncm grcUvm esse cogtmt, hunc hondnem 
ommdno numerari qui decet f 

conexa et apta : see above 37, 47, and m 4 apta inter se et cohae- 
rentia. 

quanto consilio gerantnr, niillo consilio assegni possmnTiB: cL 
§ 115 non modo vi fiererU ratione eguenmt, &a ; Leg, n 16 neminem esse 
oportere tarn sttUte arrogantem, vt ea quae vix swmma ingenii ratione comr 
prehendaty rndla ratione moveri piUet, 

an cmn — vidernns — non dubitamus; cnm antem — TidearnnB— 
dubitamufl 7 on the form of the sentence see § 17 n. Madv. changed 
videamus to videmus, I think C. may have preferred the Subj. in order to 
avoid a hexameter ending, and that there is no objection to it^ if we under- 
stand it to mean 'although'. 

Ilona =horologium, see above § 87, and compare Orot, 200 videt oscitan- 
tem jttdicem,,,mittentem ad horas (i.e. sending a messenger to see the time), 
Petron. 71, Mayor on Juv. x 216 and Plin. ^. m 1 § 8. Nägelsb. § 12 2 
cites this as an instance of a concrete plural used to ezpress the science 
which treats of the things referred to, or the art which uses them, or the 
instrument of the science or art (cf above n. on ars § 87) ; e.g. Fin, i 72 
{an Hie) se, ut Plato, in mttsicis, geometria, numeris, astris contereretF quae 
et, a falsis rebus profecta, vera esse non possunt, et, si essent vera, nihil 
afferremt; N, D, iii 74 tum haec cotidiana, sicae, veTiena (this is the 
reading of all the Mss), peculatus, testamentorum quaestiones, where sicae 
and venena stand for their emplojment, ' assassination \ ' poisoning '. For 
the elaborate mechanism of some of the horologia see the account of one 
made by Ctesibius in Vitr. ix 8. 

impetom caeli moveri : Hhe whole sweep (compass) of the heaven 
revolving', cf Lucr. v 200 quantum caeli tegit impetus ingens, which 
Munro translates 'all the space that the vast reach of heaven Covers', 
and says in his nn. there and on iv 416 (despectum praebet sub terrae 
impete tanto, a terris quarUum cadi patei altus kiattu) that impetus 
denotes size, a meaning 'which seems to be derived from the primary 
meaning of force and vehemence'. He compares vi 186, v 913, Caesar 
B,0, m. 8 in mobgno impetu maris atqtte aperto side by aide with c. 9 m 



214 BOOK n CH. xxxvm § 97. 

wutMmo (Uqve apertiasimo Ooecmo. In Yitr. vin prae£ 3 solis impehu 
seems to mean no more than iclis vis : there is a difficult use in the BrtOus 
of Attius quoted Div. i 44, cum jam quieti corpus noetumo impetu dediy 
where some take it *at nightfall', others 'during the nightly revolution'. 
Moser (ms n.) cites Mcmü. 34 guü wnquam.,JtarUos cursus conficere potuU 
quomi cdenier Cn, Pompeio duce tanU belli impetus ruwigavitf, where C. 
oontrasts the rapid movement of a single vessel with the delays which 
woiüd naturaUy attend the sailing of a great fleet: Halm translates 
' Eriegssturm ', but I am not sure that the idea of vastness is not here too 
the prominent one. In the present passage, if we take impetwn in the 
ordinary sense of Hhe rush of heaven', there would be an unnecessary 
repetition in the use of TMyoeri afterwards, as in conjuncHo coTUinetur § 84 
and KP. VI IS codi stdlifer curstis aaUo movetur s<mo, 

cum celeritate : cf. § 59 molianiiwm, cwm, labore, 55 cwsus cum admi- 
rahüi oonstantia^ below § 142 and Madv. § 257. cnm summa Balttte : 

cum here expresses the result, see above § 80 inesse cwm magno usu^ and 
Index. 

excellenti : Baiter on Tusc m 3 states that the AbL in t is regularly 
found in Cic. in the case of adjectives, or participles used as a^jectivea. 

Cd. A review qf the wonders of wxJUwre. §§ 98 — 153. (1) 
The emrth amd the other elemmta. §§ 98—101. 

§ 98. remota subtilitate : cf. rematojoco Farn, yn 11. 
octilis quodam modo : c£ 99 n, ta ammis^ sie oculis videre possemrtSj 
161 licet animisy tamquam ocuUs, lustrare terram, 

Ch. XXXIX. ac principio : resumes § 91 principio terra süa &a 
locata in media sede : cf. Orot, m 176, Acad, n 122, Tusc i 68, 

ÄP. VL 

ipsa in sese nntibus buIb conglobata : ' gathered into a ball by the 
natural gravitation of all its parts'; cf. Orai. ni 178 terra ut media sit^ 
eaque stta vi nutuqus teneatttTy below § 117 cutra se et nisu stto conglobata 
coniinent ^ forma, ipsa stta mometUa stutentant; § 116 (of the sea) medium 
locum esppetens conglobatur; Plato Phaedo 109 a ireir€uriuu„,€l tfart^ cV fMiry 
r^ ovpap^ irept4>fpris ov<ra (17 y$) firf^if avr^ dcZv fufrt dtpos npog ro /i^ ircirriF 
fup-f aXXi/ff dvayKris firiStfuas rotavn;;, dXX* koj^y tlvai avrrjv ax^ly rrjp ofUHo- 
TTjfra rot) ovpavov iavr^ iramtfy koX rfjs yfj£ avTfjs rtju Wopptmia»' l<r6ppotroy yhp 
frpayfta Oftoiov rufot €v fUcr» rtßiv ovx <(«( fioXKov ovS' Ijrrop ovdafuxrc xkuß^ 
vaiy 6fu>ms d* €;(oy akktvis /icvct, Arist. Cael, II 14 § 9. 

▼estita floriboa: cf. just below riparum vestiius, and § 132 montes 
vestiti. 

insatiabÜi varietate : Act. force, <ever new', 'of which we oxe never 
tired ' ; apparently used in this sense by Cic. alone. It occurs below § 155, 
cmd Hort, fr. 45 codi signorum admirabileni ordinem insaiialnlemque pul- 
chriiudinem. For the Act. foroe of Adjectives in -büis see patiinlis m 29 



BOOK II CH. XXXIX § 98. 215 

penetrabüts, gmetabüü (Lucr. i II Munro), dmocioMlis^ terribüis, üUjcrmor 
hüls &c., and Nägelsb. § 117. 

fontiiim gelidaa perennitates : the Adj. in agreement with the con- 
crete noun is changed into the corresponding abstract governing the Gen. 
Here the epithet makes the figure very bold, < the cool \infailingness ' for 
'the unfaJling coohiess'; so below liqnores perlncidos for * liquid trans- 
parency', cf. above § 26 liqvßr aqtiae, and see Nägelsb. § 74. The plural 
of the abstract denote^ a pluralitj of instances : Draeg. § 7 gives a list of 
all that occur, the greater number being from Cic, see above § 92 Taagni- 
tudinüms, ui 46 immortalüatibus, also Index under 'Abstract '. 

concavas amplitudines : I have foUowed Ba. in adopting HeindL's 
oorrection of the hs aUüvdines. However hastily he maj have been 
^mting, it is hardly likely that Cic. should have repeated the latter word, 
where variety is so evidently required. Otherwise aU. is foimd in this 
connexion in Div. i 97 cvm ad injiaüam cMtudiriem terra desediuet; 
2 Yerr. iv 107 spdunca conversa ad Aquüonem inßnita cdtitudiTie. 

argenti venas : so Xen. Vect. i 5 speaks of <f>\€^ dpyvpiridos. 

vim XKUurmoriB : see i 54 and n 25. 

§ 99. qui lapsus : ' what flights of birds' ; cf. Consol, fr. 6 castos Uni 
quodam et facüi lapsu ad deos pervolare * with an easy gliding movement', 
Dtv. I 106 (of the eagle) praepeiibus pennts lapiuque volantem ; Phamuym. 
480 emerguiU alüe lapnt e terris vclucres; Dtv, i 17 (of the stars) eerto 
laptu spatwqttefenmttir; so lahor ofben as in Äen, v 216, vi 202. 

pecndnm — süvestrium : opposed as dcv/res and feras before. 

ixnmanitate eiferari : cf. i 62 n. 

sUrpium asperitate vastari: 'to be ovemm with weeds', esp. 
brambles, thistles &c. ; cf. Geor, i 152 subit avpera süva lappaegue tribvr 
liqtte, Siirpes used improperly for plants, as above § 36, see Madv. Fin. iv 
13. There seems no reason to give it the meaning of 'shrubs' here 
(L. and S. s. v.) : it is distinguished from arhores Fin. v 33, Phü, ii 55. 

§ 100. qnae species universi: 'how glorious when viewed as a 
whole ! ' (cf. § 96 qwwMxm gpedes) ; univ, opposed to partial views of its 
islands and coasts, just as we have terra universa § 98. 

oraxum : coasts viewed as bounding the land ; litonim : as boimding 
the sea. 

beluanun : not feit to be incongruous with the foUowing iTihaerentium 
(shell-fish) ; cf. 1 101 where it is used of the ibis and the cat. 

mare litoribus alludit : it is curious that in almost every, passage 
where the verb aUudere is read, the mss waver between dvdüy didity alli- 
düf sometimes alluit, dudü or davdü, e.g. Topusa 32 solebat Äquülius,.. 
quaerentibTU quid esset lituSy iia definvre ^qna fiwitus aJtlvderet^: hoc est, 
qtMsi qui adulescentiam ßorem aetatis; ...trandcUione utens discedebat a 
verbis propriis rerum ac suis. The comment here shows that the word 
must be either dUudo or dudo, as the others would not be used metapho- 
rically. The same derivation is given in QuinÜL v 14 § 35, where Spalding 



il6 BOOK II CH. XXXIX § 100. 

reads lüv^ quafltictus dudit, L. and S. support this reading here, in the 
sense of 'cease to play\ but the onlj authoritj for such a meaning is 
Donatus speaking of the end of gladiatorial games ; Georges gives a more 
possible sense ' playfully ninning out on the shore '. Qesner on Colum. iv 
20 prefers the reading aUidü in these passages, and quotes Isidorus Etynu 
dtctttm *lütu* quiafiuctus diditur, For other exz. see Plin. ff,N. xxvi 
22 Tripolium in mariHmia nascäur saau vbi aÜvdü unda; Oy. Met, iv 342 
in adludentüms undis suTnrna pedum taloque tenus vettigia tingtai ; Statins 
Theb, IX 336 extremis aUudimt aequora pLantis; Seneca Oedip. 266 pater 
NeptunSf qtd fluctu brevi tUrmque nogtro geminus aüudis solo ; CatulL lxit 
66 iptivA ante pedes flutitus salis aUvdebant; Avienus Descr, Orb. T, 121 
instda qua Cymue fluctu madet aUndente; and the difficult passage in 
Min. F. 3 {mare) etsi non canis tpumosisquefluctibus exibat ad terranty tarnen 
oriepis torosisque. Ibidem erroribtu ddectati perqva/m sumus, cum in ipso 
aequoris limine plantas tingeremus, quod vicissim nunc appulsum nostrit 
pedthus aUuderet, fluctus nunc, relahens ac vestigia retrahensy in sese reaor- 
beret, If we may assume that the same word is used in all these paasages, 
I think there is none so appropriate in all as alludo : the metre forbids ua 
to think of aUtto, dudo or daudo ; dido is too strong, and dudo does not 
Buit the quotations from Statins and Minucius. Seh. {Opusc, m 333) 
thinks the reading dudü may have had its origin in the old form of ludo 
(diido): Mu. 8upx)08es the reading dudit to have arisen from aludo^ a 
repeated consonant being frequently dropped, as in malern for maUem 
above § 2. 

texram appetens: cf. Plin. N, H, xi 103 § 250 appetere dexteram 
osciUis; for the thought^ Eurip. fr. 839> Dind. (Athen, p. 599 £) €pq. /Up 
Sfißpov yala...€p^ d* o atftvbs ovpaifo^ irkrjpovfi€pot iyfipov irc<rciv Wf yaia» 
*K<^pohirrii viro. ^'Oray de avfifiix^Tov €s ravrov Ovo, <^vov<r«y i}/itv warra 
icai Tp€<l>ovar* ayua ; Theod. Provid, p. 508 Seh. ßkhrt rijs Bäkcurtnfs njy npot 
Ti)v x*P^^^ ff>iKiav. In such expressions we have a reminiscenoe of the 
<l>ikia and vcucof of Empedocles. Keble has something like it in the Christian 
Year, 2nd Simday after Trinity, ' Still as the surging waves retire, they 
seem to gasp with streng desire ; such signs of love old Ocean gives, we 
cannot choose but think he lives '. 

nna ex duabns conflata : ' the two Clements seem füsed into one ', a 
metaphor from the smelting of metals, cf. Lig. 34 coTisensus conspirans 
etpaene co7iflattts; Inve^U, ii 8 e^ his dualms sicuti famüiis..,unum quod- 
dam est conflatum genus; Cod. 12 monstrxim ex contrariis cupiditatilms 
CQi\ßatum. The reference is to the continuity and interchangeability of 
the Clements, on which see § 84 and § 117 aer mari corUinuaius et con^ 
junctus est,..aether cum a^eris extremitate conjungüur. 

§ 101. man flnitimns aer : cf. 26, 27, 40, 66. 

distiiigiiitnr : ' shows the contrasted hues of day and night ', i. e. part 
of the atmosphere is in darkneas while the other part is iUuminated by 
the sun's rays ; henoe as a wfaole it is parti-coloured. Sek compares Ov. 



BOOK II CH. XXXIX § 101. 217 

Met. ZV 189 nee cclor est (dem cado cwm, lasea quiete cy/Mta jaceM media, 
Cfwmqae aJho Lacifer exü darus equo. 

isque : pleonastic Demonstrative as in § 102, et ^ 27 eaet ipea n. and 
Index. 

tmn fdsufl— tmn concretus— tnm effluens: there are thus three 
metamorphoses of air : it is raiified and becomes ether (cf. § 84), or it 
thickens and becomes cloud and water, or it is agitated and becomes 
wind, cf. Div. ii 44 placet Stoicia eos anhditue terrae qmfrigidi sunt, cum 
ßuere coeperint, ventos esse ; cum autem se in nvbem induerint (thej under 
certain circumstances produce lightning), Tuec, i 43, Sen. N. Q. in 12 
venttu est fluens aer. 

snblime fertnr : ef. n. on § 44 in »Mime ferri. 

facit yarietates : the Stoic goes too far in sajing tbat the air causes 
the changing degrees of cold and heat; it only tempers them. ftwniiiM« 
is here used in the same sense as anniversarias in § 97. 

Ch. XL. a domiciliis altissimus : the preposition is justified hj the 
preceding uUimus which merges with alt. in thought. 

coercens caeli complexus : cf above § 58 {mundue) omnia compUam, 
suo coercet. 

determinatio : apparently a term borrowed from the art of land- 
survejing, see (Trom. Vet. 244. 14, 202. 16. 

cum admirabilitate: cf cum ealute § 97 and Index. On a^iher see i 

37 n. 

d (2). The sun, moon andplamts. % 102, 103. 

§ 102. cuiiis mac^tudine mnltis partibus terra snperatur : see 
above § 92 nn. 

binas reversiones : cf § 49, Lucr. v 614. 

quarom in intervallo : 'during which', lit. in the interval (between 
the extreme points) occupied by these retums, 'he is at one time con- 
tracting, as it were, the face of the earth in gloom, at another restoring it 
to gladness'. For the metaphorical use of cantraho, suggested by the 
contracted brow and pinching cold (' makes it peak and pine '), see Leff. ii 

38 cantus tum remütU animoe, tum cantrahit; Lucr. v 1219 cui non animus 
farmidine divum contrahitur (' shrink into itself ' Munro). For the positive 
Statement of a negative idea in sol contrahitf see sol opacet § 49 n. 

§ 103. major quam ii\m\A\A pars terrae : the actual diameter of the 
moon is 2160 miles, rather more than ^ that of the earth, and her bulk about 
:^ of the earth (Herschel § 404). Anaximander and Xenophanes are said to 
have made the moon 19 times larger than the earth (Stob. Ed. i c. 26, Lact, 
ni 23) ; Epicurus of course held that nihHo fertur majore figv/ra quam 
nostris oculis qua cemimtu esse videtur (Lucr. v 677) : the Stoics generally 
made it larger than the earth, Stob. 1. c. and Plin. ff. N. ii 11 non passet 
totus sol adimi terris intercedente tuna si terra major esset quam luna, 
Posidonius is said to have shared this view (Stob. 1. c), but Zeller, Hirzel 



218 BOOK n CH. XL § 103. 

(p. 193 n.) and Diels {Doxogr, p. 68 n.) are agreed in thinkiDg this a mistake ; 
as Cleomedes, who confesses that he for the most pari foUowB Poddonius 
(ad fin. ra n-oXXa «V r«v rw Ilocreiicaviov tikrftrrai), agrees her© with Cia : 
' in the moon's eclipse it is seen that the breadth of the. earth's shadow 
(through which ehe passes) is twice the moon's diameter', from which 
we may infer that her diameter is half that of the earth. We m&y 
even find a parallel to major^ which looks as if it ought to have had a 
pavlo or aliquamio before it; but in Cleomedes the earth's diameter, 
which is the measure of that of the moon, is thus given, dct r^y dtofierpom 
auT^s vrXcov rj otcra fivpidbiop €t»ai, 'by the calculation of EratoBthenes who 
made its circumference 250,000 Stades \ Oleom, n 1 p. 80. 

isdem spatiis : the zodiac. For the AbL of Place cf. § 95 toto oaelo 
and Index. 

snUecta: 'inconjunction', eV (rvpod^y lit. 'placed imder', i.a inter- 
posed between the earth and the sun. 

opposita : ' hiding ', lit. ' put in front oif '. Gf. IHv, n 17 solts defectümeSy 
üem Iwnae praedicurUw in rmdtoB annos ab its qui sidemm motus numeris 
persequtmtv/r,..vident ex constantissimo motu lunae, quando iäa eregione 
solis facta incurrat in umbram terrae, qitae est meta noctis, vt eam obseurari 
necesse sit: qttandoque eadem luna, stibjecta atqtie opposita scli, nostris 
oculis efus lumen obscuret ; KP. 1 25 solem lunae opposiiu solere d^ioere 
Thaletem primvm vidisse feru/U, and just above, oerto tUud tempore ßeri 
cum tota se luna snb orbem solis svbfedsset ; Plin. J^.H. n II folL The 
Epicurean ezplanation is given bj Lucr. v 751 folL 

e regione : ' in Opposition ', lit ' in a line with \ ' aocording to the 
direction of ' ; c£ force of rego in derigo, surgo, &c. 

incitantnr— retardantur : repeats § 51. 

C d (3). The ConsteOatione as described hy Aratus. % 104—115. 

§ 104. maxlina multitndo : Plin. K N, ii 24 Hipparchus,.,ausus rem 
etiam deo improbam, adnumerare posteris Stellas ac sidera ad nomen e»- 
pungere. He is said to have counted 1080 : Pliny himself has no scruple in 
telling US that 1600 had been distinguished by astronomers, when he wrote. 

ita descripta distinctio est: 'the grouping of which is so dearly 
defined', cf. § 15 siderum omnium distinctionem ; and Phaenom, 160 nam 
quas sidenbus claris natura polivii et vario pinxit disHnguens lumine formas, 
has Hie astrorum ctistos (the astronomer) ratione notavit, signaque signavit 
caelestia nomine vero : these are opposed to the stars which oould not be 
grouped so as to distinguish them. 

ex notanun flgurarum similitiidine nomina inveneriiit : '&om 
their resemblance to familiär objects \ So Vitr. ix 5 § 4 gtiae figurata 
formataque sunt siderum in mundo simvlacra natura divinaqus menie 
designata, ut Democrüo placuit, exposui; Plin. N.H, n3 esse innumercts 
ei {mundo) effigies animalium rerumque cunctarwn impressas,,..rerum ar- 
gumentis indicatur ; guoniam inde deciduis rerum omnium semimbus 



BOOK II CH. XL § 104. 219 

VMiVffMToe im, mari praecipue oö pterumque confatit mxmstrificae gignantur 
effigies ; praeterea vistu probatumej alibi platutri, altbi ursif tawri alihiy 
alibi lüerae figwra &c. But ManiliuB i 457 wams agaiiust looking for 
too close resemblance, tu modo corporeis aimües ne qtuzere ßgiMra8...linea 
degignat 9pecie8.,,8€Uts est ai se non omnia cdarU ; and Sext. Emp. v 96, 
confüting astrology, asks ' Whj should one bom under Leo be brave or 
under Virgo beautifal ? These names were merely given for the sake of 
convenience in teaching. Tbere is no connexion between the things', 
Ti yap ofiotov t^owri» äpicr^ ol inra dirrcpts duarwrts cor* aXXfjXtfv, rj hpoKovroi 
KMiftak^ ol vivrt ; Ambros. Hex. IV 15. 

(§ 110). atqne ita dimetata— appareat. I have ventured to trans- 
poee this clause, which, as Heind. had observed, is quite inappropriate 
in the place where it Stands in the Hss. There is nothing correspond- 
ing to it in the passage of Aratus, which C. is there translating. We 
may compare it with another passage thus translated by C. {Phaenom, 
302 foU.) vi nemo cui sancta rruimu dodüaima Pallas soUertem ipsa dedü 
fabricae ratiombtu artem, tarn tomare cate cantortos possiet orbes, quam sunt 
in cado dimno nwniine flexi &c. dimetata : mss have demetata, a form 
which appears not to be found elsewhere. The correction was made by 
Qronov. on Liv. vni 38 tocum castris dimetari jussit. In § 155 Orelü's mss 
all have dimetati (dep.) except V^ which has demetaii, 

tantifl discriptionibiLB : ' these grand configurations '. 

Ch. xLi. me intuens : c£ 1 17. 

Arati eis : ' I will make use of the verses of Aratus, those, I mean, 
which you translated'. The reading of the mbb was changed into Arateis 
by Walker ; but, if Cic. had used that form, I think he would simply have 
Said utoo" Arateis tuis ; as he calls his own verses by this name, Div. ii 14 
nostra guaedam Aratea a te pronuntiaia stmty and Leg. n 7 siciU in Arateo 
carmine orsi sumus, Aratus, a native of Soli in Oilicia, fl. towards tHe end 
of the 3rd Century b.c., spent the greater part of his life at the court of 
Antigonus Gk)natas, king of Macedonia, who is said to have suggeeted to 
him to translate into verse the ^aivofuva and "Evoirrpov of the astronomer 
Eudoxus, a pupil of Plato ofben cited by Aristotle. We possess two 
poems, or two parts of one poem, by Aratus, the ^kuvopicva, which 
contains a description of the constellations, and the Aiocn/ficla, borrowed 
firom Hesiod and Theophrastus, which treats of prognostics of the 
weather. Both were translated by Cic, who is however by no means 
extravagant in praise of his author, cf. E, P. i 22 spkaerae omnem 
omatum et discriptionem sumptam ab Eudoxo mvUis amnis post, non 
astrologiae scientiaf sed poetica qziadam facultate versibus Aratus extulit, 
Yet this mediocre poet had the honour of being quoted by St Paul (Acts 
xvii 28), translated by Cicero, Gtermanicus (the adopted son of Tiberius, 
not, as Seh., Domitian, cf. Teuffei Ä. Z. § 270), and Festus Avienus in the 
4th Cent. a.D., and commented on by the grefit astronomer Hipparchus, who 
wrote a treatise in three books, contained in the üranologion of Petavius, 



220 BOOK n GH. XLI § 104. 

pointing out the errors of Eudoxus and Aratus ; thus he says p. 1*73, &€»- 
pSp Tois nktiarois Kcä xprio'iitxorca'OK bia<^»vovvra rov "hparov irpos ra ^kmuhp- 
fuva, ' I determined to correct bis mistakes', and by a host of othera. Orid 
{Am. 1 15 16) sajB of him cum sole et luna temper Aratus erüy and Mazimus 
Tyriua considers him equal to Homer. We possess about two-thirds of C's 
translation of the Pliaenom&n/a besides the fragments which are given here. 
Of the Proffnostica a few lines are quoted in other parts of Ca works. 
The great orator seems to have been somewhat vain of bis veraeB ; 
according to Plutarch (Cic. 63) he boasted of writing 600 lines in one 
eyening ; he quotes a long passage from the De Camulatu in Div. 1 17, fix>m 
the Marias in Leg. i 2, a translation from Homer in Div, n 63, besides 
shorter quotations elsewhere. Mention is often made of bis porans in 
bis letters to bis brother; thus in ii 16 he is unoomfortable under 
Caesar^s criticism; in iii 1 we see him vainly trying to work bimself 
up to the effort of a poem on Gaesar's conquests, abest ivSovauurftos, 
The greater part of bis poetry was written before he was twenty, but 
two of the most important poems, that on bis Consulship and that on bis 
own times, were written between the years 61 and 54 B.c. Though Juve- 
nal (x 120), Quintilian (xi 1 § 24), Tacitus {Dial. 21), and Seneca {Exe. Contr. 
in pr, 8) speak slightingly of bis poetical fiäculty, yet Plutarch (Lc. 2) teils 
US that he enjoyed a high poetical reputation, tili it was thrown into the 
shade by bis orations (like Scott^s poetry by bis novels), and he oertainly 
led the way to the didactic poetry of Lucretius and Virgil, c£ Patin Fo^tia 
Latine n 415 — 478. The former indeed studied him carefully, as is shown 
by Munro i p. 99 : C.'s translation ' shows much spirit and vivacity of 
language, though its poetical merits cannot be compared beside those of 
Lucretius. Yet the latter. . .moved, it may be, by bis general admiration 
for the man, had made this youthful production one of bis* modeis of style, 
as may be demonstrated, not by one or two, but by twenty manifest 
imitations of the few hundred lines still ejdsting\ Ezamples of this are 
shown, as to rhythm p. 104, alliteration p. 106, and in the notes on i 287, 
486, V 619, 692 &c. Those who are interested in the Stoical aigument 
will be apt to complain of C. for foisting in a quantity of bis own lines, 
which to US appear very insignificant ; but it must be remembered that 
the Romans were without any regulär catalogue of the stars, and that just 
at this time there was a growing belief in astrology, i.e. in the possible 
influence of the celestial groupings on the fortunes of men. The reader 
should have a celestial globe or map before him in order to understand 
what foUows. We cannot be sure that the outlines given in our maps 
correspond with those of Aratus, so as to help us, for instance, to deter- 
mine the meaning of the word obstipus in § 107, but any map wül show 
the relative positions. There is a very interesting illustrated ms of C.'s 
translation of the FhaenameTia in the Harleian CoUection (no. 647) of the 
British Museum, of which a füll account is given by OtÜey in the 
Arcluxeotogia^ vol. 26. He assigns it to the 2nd or 3rd Century, judging 



BOOK II CH. XLI § 104. 221 

mainlj from the illustrations, but Mr E. M. Thompson of the Museum 
teils me that the ms itself camiot be older than the 9th Century, though 
the illustrations are evidently copied from Originals of a very much earlier 
date. In dealing with this part of my subject, I have continually feit 
the want of a really leamed and philosophical history of the constellations, 
which should ezamine the various theories propounded as to their origin. 
It does not speak well for the present position of English scienoe or 
scholarship, that it should be possible for a book to appear in 1882, revised 
by a well-known astronomer and displaying a long list of distinguished 
names as subscribers, in which it is seriously asked ^ Could anything be 
more apparent than that this sign (Fafr^o)'was invented by the patriarch 
Seth to teach the miraculous birth of Christ, and that it was so regarded 
by all bis descendants through the world V (Moses and QeoLogy p. 423, ed. 3.) 

admodmn adulescentulo : probably in bis 17th year. assidne: 
cf. § 96. 

cetera labnntiir — ^fenmtur : translated fr. Aratus Phojen, 1. 19 folL 
oX \uv ofiSs irdkics rc Koi oKkvBis aXkoi covrcr (al. lovrtSf which stdts better 
C.'s laburUur and Germanicus' va^a) ovpav^ €kKopT(u vavi^ Ijfmra avvfx^s 
cu€i. These are the aar^p^s spoken of in L 17, to which is opposed in 1. 21 
the unmoving axis, avrap 6 y ov^ oXiyov fieravia-a-rrat' äKKä fjLok* avrms 
a^»v alip Sprfp€V, 

noctesQne dieEMine : Munro remarks on the trochaic rhythm of this 
line {CatuU, p. 153). 

§ 105. extremnsqne adeo — ^polns : * and just the tip from off (ie. of ) 
the double axle is called the pole ' (i.e. ' the two ends of the axis are called 
poles'); Arat. 24 koI fuv neipeuvovo'i dva> iroKoi dfi(t>or4pti»d€v. Cardo is 
strictly the pivot on which a thing Swings (xpadaiVft), c£ Gterman. Arat, 19 
cucis at immotus semper vesiigia servat libratasque tenet terras et cardine 
firmo orbem agit, Colum. i 1 § 4 {Hipparckvs prodidit) tempus fore cum 
Cardines mundi loco moverentur: here it is used for the axis itself, as in 
Yarro 22. i2. i 2 § 4 cardo codi ; unless we take it ' the extreme point, 
starting from the pivot on either side, is called the pole.' 

polus: a technical term borrowed from the Greek, c£ pseudo-Arist. 
Mund, 2 § 4 di' ov {iroKo^v) tl potja-aipev eVc^cvyficin/y €v6tiavj ijv rtvft &(ova 
icoAovo'i, buifi€Tpo£ coTcu Tov Koo-fMVy pJoTjv /icv e^oucTa TTjv ytjvj robs de dvo 
vokovs iripara, It is used by Varro (ap. Gtell. ni 10) for the Arctic and 
Antarctic circles ; drcvlos ait in eaelo circum Icngitvdinem aans s^tem esse, 
e quilms duos minimos, qui axefm extimwm tangunt, iroKovs appeUari dicit; 
and so by Vitruv. ix 1 § 2 cadum volvüwr circa terram per axis cardines 
eatremos. . .unum in summo mundo ac post ipsas Stellas s^tentrionem, dUerum 
svb terra in meridianis partibuSy ibique circum eos cardines orbunUos (whorls) 
perfecit, qui Graece iroKoi nominantur. 

dicitUT esse : used for simple dicitur, as below dicitur esse Heiice, and 
§ 109 dicitur esse Bootes, 

Arctoe : cf. Homer II, xvin 487 (who speaks only of one Bear) "Apicrok 



222 BOOK n CH. xli § 105. 

ff r\v Dcai "Afia^cof iirUkrjtnp KoKtovauff ij r^ avrov trrpi<f>rrai Kai r *{lpimpa 
boKtvcif ouf d* ^fifxopot iart XocrpcSy 'Oxcovoio ; Aratus 26 dv«> ^ fu» dfixjils 
tfxovfrM "ApKToi Sfta rpoxocMri' ro ^rj Ka\€ovTcu ^Afta^at^ Lewis Aitr. p. 58 folL 
The form arctoe is found in the Phaenom, 441, cf. Äddphoe in Ter., carte- 
phoroe, cosmoe in Cic. 

Oynosura : ' the (log's tail ', probably suggested by the circnlar sweep 
of three of the stars and then applied to the whole constellation. This and 
the following line are quoted in the Acad. n 66, where C. compares probable 
reasoning to the vaguer guidance of Heiice, demonstrative reasoning to 
Cynosura. For a dififerent application compare Milton's lines 'where 
perhaps some beautj lies, the Cynosure of neighbouring eyes '. Thaies is 
Said to have been the first to introduce the knowledge of the Lesser Bear 
into Greece from Phoenicia. 

altera dicitnr esse : for the rhythm cf. § 107 verum tempora sunt, and 
three consecutive lines in Fhaeriom, 172 — 174 Propter AquariuSj Eriffuo 
quiy E mtUtis tarnen; also Mimro p. 103 * we find in Lucr. hundreds of in- 
stances in which the first two feet are marked ofif from the rest of the 
yer8e...with two dactyls, as Omnia denique sancta, Quippe potentia cwn^ 
Vertice PaUadis ad\ 

Helice : the name is ezplained either from its revolving round the pole 
or from the screw-like curvatnre of the line connecting its stars; see 
Ideler u. d. . Urtprang d. Stemnamen pp. 4 — 10. For the common myth 
see * Callisto ' in Dwt, of Biog. According to Aratus they were two nymphs 
who nursed the newbom Zeus in Ida and were rewarded by being traos- 
lated to heaven. 

totis noctibus : so just below § 108 and tota autate § 130 ; for the uae 
of the Abi. with totua to express diiration of time, see Plin. xvni § 230 
(pwz gallinis) svbjicüo aettate tota, Suet. Clavd, 44 eascrwciaJtwrn dcloribuM 
nocte tota, Roby § 1184, 1185, and cf. above § 95 n. on toto cado, 

Septem triones : thus ezplained by Varro L. L. vu 74 trUmes bove9 
appeUarUur a bubulcis etiam nunc maxime cum ararU terram,..a terra ter- 
riones, unde triones : GteUius ii 21 says Aelius gave the same derivation, 
but that the word was no longer in use : Naevius, quoted by Isid. Orig. xn 
1 § 30 (fir. 1. 66 Ribb.) has trionum hie moderator rusticiu. If we accept 
this ezplanation, the constellation was compared to seven oxen treading 
the com and going round and round the threshing-floor, an entirely dis- 
tinct conception from that of the wain with four stars representing the 
wheels and three the pole, caUed by Ennius te/mo, by Ovid plauUrvm. 
Varro's etymology is of course absurd. A more probable ezplanation is 
that given by Max Müller {Lect. n 364), who connects trio with the Sanscr. 
tara, our *star', and the Homerio rtip^a (7?. xviii 485) ; see Curtius Gr, Et. 
§ 205. Supposing the existence of two homonymous words, one meaning 
* Star ' and the other * ox \ the identification of the two would be exacUy 
parallel to the identification of the two meanings of the Sanso. riksluu, 
<bright' and <bear': the 'seven bright stars' were converted into 'seven 



BOOK U CH. XU § 105. 2SS 

bears', and by the time the word had acquired its Greek form äpteroi^ 
the older meaning *• bright ' was entirely forgotten, see M. Mü. L c. p. 359 
folL The secondary fonn septerUno may be compared with the sing. 
qitadriffa. 

§ 106. sixniliter distinctis: 'similarly grouped', lit. 'dotted about'. 
Jtist below moffü distincta seems to have another force 'more marked, 
clearly defined '. 

hac fldimt : the passage in Aratus is as follows (L 36 folL) : Kai rrfv fi€v 
Kvyoaovpav errlKXjjo'iw leaXcovcrci^, r^y d* mprfv *EXiKi;v. 'EXlkjj yc fiiv Bvbpts 
*Axaiol €iv aXi r€Kfiaipotrrai twa xpfj >^<ts dyiuuVf rj ^ äpa ^IviKti nlarwoi 
irepooKTt B^aatray. 'AXX* i; fitp KaBapri «eal €ni<l>pa(r(raa'Bai iroifjoj^ iroXX^ 
ffmiPOfitvfi 'EXiici; npwrqs cmo PVKTosy if d* Mprf okiyrf /mV, arap vavrfi<np 
dp€itip' futoripn yhp Träca neptaTp4<f>€Tai <rrpo^aXiyy&. 

Phoenices : their practice in navigation taught them that the Lesser 
Bear was nearer the true north, c£ Arrian £a;p. AL vi 26, Ov. Trist, iv 3 1, 
Fcttt. in 106. Hence Milton calls it 'Star of Arcady (ie. Callisto) or 
Tyrian Cynosure '. 

confestim : ^ immediately after night-fall', before the smaller stars are 
visible. 

Oh. XLn. has inter : Aratus 45 rät di bi dfjixl>oripag, oUj vcroftolo amoppn^y 
c/Xetroi fuya Oavpa ApoKav irtpi r apj^i r' eay^s pvpiosf which Viigil more 
dosely renders O, i 244 maxirmu kic flexu tinvoso elabüur Anguis cvrcvm 
per^us dtuu, m maremfluminis, Arctos; c£ Seneca Thyeste» 869, Med. 694. 

cum gurgite : for this use of cum in place of the simple ablative cf. 

§ 111 cum comibus, § 112 cum luce, § 113 cum corpore, Fhctenom, 215, ib. 146 

funestttm magnis cum viribus amnem^ imitated by Lucr. i 287 (where 

Munro says ' Cic. in his Aratea quite revels in this use of cum '), see too 

Lucr. IV 1126. 

snperaqne: noticed by Priscian (xrv 6 52) as an example of the 
archaic form, which is also found Pha>enom, 79, 309, 335, 339, &c. The 
Dragon was usually identified with the Dragon of the Hesperides : other 
accounts are given in Hyginus and the Schol. to Aratus. 

§ 107. cum totiuB Sit : so Seh. instead of the Indic. of Mss, on the 
ground that the Subj. is preferred in a sentence where prius membrum am- 
pliorem afferat sententiam, seqtienie moa speciali supra iUam qwasi eminente. 
I prefer this slight change to the insertion of tum with Ba. and Mu. 

huic non nna : Aratus 54 ov /Wv cVcii^ oloOep wff otog K§<f>aKfi hrikafi- 

irtrai dtmjpy dXXa dvo Kpord^ioiSy dvo d* ofipaat», wls d* vnwpBty «cr^ar/^y 
circxcc y€WO£ dctvoio ireXttpov* Xo^ov d* cori Ktiptf, vtvovri de ndp,irav toiKtP 
aKpijv tlg '^EXiKfjs ovp^v, 

modo : for the archaic quantity see Lachmann and Munro on Lucr. ii 
11 35 ^i«ra modo dispargü et ab se corpora mittit. 

obstipum =Xo(oy, commonly it means 'bent forward', as in Hör. ScU. 
n 5 92 stes capito chstipo multum similis metuenti, Fers, iii 80 aerumnosique 
Solones obstipo capite etßgentes IvmineterrcMn; but, in Suet Tib. 68, where 



224 BOOK II CH. XLII § 107. 

it is Said that Tiberius showed bis pride by walkmg cervieerigidaet oboipa^ 
Emesti argues tbat it must mean * bent back ', and tbat tbe word does not 
neceasarily implj more tban ' stiffly bent ' in whatever direction. Appa- 
rentlj it has the same force in Lucilius' line resupinae obstipo capitulo »ibi 
ventumfecere oanictUcte, if I rigbtly understand it of ladies leaning back and 
fanning tbemselves. Lucretius uses it (iv 517) of a building out of the 
Square, Columella (vn 10) of diseased pigs carrying their heads on one side 
febricttomttMn signa sunt cum obstipae sues tratuversa capUa ferunt; Wüste- 
mann on Hör. 1. c. says it is technically used for a stiff neck in medical 
writers. I should translate tberefore ' tbe head is slanted, thrown back from 
tbe shapelj neck ; you would say it fized its gaze on the tail of the Oreat 
Bear '. I see no reason for changing the a cervice of the if ss either into ae 
cervioe with Seh., or (still less) into cU cervice with Madv. ; the head is simply 
bent away from the line of the neck. The line is imitated by Lucr. i 35 
atqt^ üa suspiciens tereti cervice reposta (where see Munro on the word 
teres), and by Virg. Aen. viii 633 of the wolf licking her cubs, iüam tereti 
cervice r^ßexam mulcere altemos, Germanicus and Avienus seem to have 
mistaken the force of vcvoyri, the first translating dedive caput (1. 61^ the 
second in nutum curvata (L 156), but there is no reason to suppose these 
equivalent to C.'s obstipum, as ForcellinL We may compare Vitruvius' de- 
scription (ix 4) Serpene irUorta replicataque se attoUens r^flectttur a oapite 
Minoris ad Majorem circa rostrum, 

§ 108. totLs noetibufl : see above § 105. reUannm gnidem corinis : 
opp. to the following hoc caput. 

hoc capnt: C. is fond of this rather dumsy demonstrative, which is 
here however justified by the Greek (L 61) Mttnj irov icc<^aXi7 r^ vrfxmuj ßx'' 
V€p &xp<u luayovrai dwriit rt xal avrokai dXXi^Xj/o-cy. Hipparchus ezplains 
this to mean that the head, the most southem part of the constellation, 
being precisely 37^ from the pole, just touches the borizon in the latitude 
of Athens. It thus skims the surface öf the ocean (the poetic word for 
horizon) at the point where its settings and risings meet. If it were 
further from the pole, the risings and settings would be separated by an 
interval; if nearer, there would be no setting ; but it is cVc rw dci 4>a^pov 
KVKkov, which among the Greeks was called the Arctic drcle, of course 
varying with the latitude : the Antarctic circle was 6 dt\ d<l)aprfs kvkKos. 
Hipp, would not have approved of C.'s translation of Aratus, for, in Opposi- 
tion to a commentator named Attalus, he ezpressly says ov Hwti ßpaxy» 
Xpovov K(ü dyorcXXct : so the pseudo-Eratosthenes speaks of the Apcucovro» 
Kti^Mkfi as being on the horizon. 

subito aequore condit : Grotius' excellent emendation for the subitoque 
recondii of Mss. The phrase corresponds to yi^^crai in the original Subito 
is the Part, of subire (cfl Ov. Faet. i 313 (Cancer) occiduae mbibit aqtuu) : no 
other ex. of its use is recorded, but eubiturus^ subeundus are common 
enough, and we find Ov. Met. i 37 ambitae terrae^ die. Comd, fr. 36 etir- 
euatdtie rottris, Verr, i 125 auctoritatem senattts exetare haeredüatie aditae 



BOOK n CH. XLU § 108. 225 

seniioj Liv. zxvni 12 Hüpama prima iruta promnciarum ; so morte obUa^ 
prasterihUj cf. Seh. OpvM. ili 335. 

partim : for this old Acc. cf. Lucr. vi 88 unde vclans ignü pervenerü atU 
in utram se verterit hinc partim, ib. 384, where Munro quotes Liv. XXYI 46 
§ 8 partim copiarum ad tumvlum mittity partim ipse ad arcem dudt, L. and 
S. wronglj cite Orat. II 94, where partim is the adyerb. 

id aatem caput : AratuB continues (L 63) rrj^ d* ayxpy i^oytovri, jcvXiV 

d€TaL dvipi €oik6s "EXBcoXov, t6 fiev ovris iir'uTTarai dfi<f>adil» tlntuf, ovdc Ww 
Kptiiorai Ktlvos ir6v<^, dWd fjkiv aSrois ''Evyotfcuriv KaXcovcrc ro d* a^* iv yovvaai 
KOfumv oickäCovTi ffOiiccy...fi€(r<r^ d* €(f)vfr€pBt leapi^v^ ^€(ir€pov vodbs ätLpoif 
t^ti (TKokuno ApoKom-ot. This figure was known bj yaiious nftTpft«^ Enge- 
nasin, foiind here and in ManiL Y 646 ; Nixibs in gembtu orgenu, as in Ov. 
Met, vni 182 (of Ariadne'a crown) gemmae näntos vertuntttr in igne$ cansi»" 
turUque loco, speoie rema/nefUe coronae, gui medivs Nixique genu eit Anguem- 
qvs tenentit ; Nianis simplj, aa in Phae/nom, 46, 400, 456, 460 ; Ingenidt- 
latus in Vitr. ix 6. Usually it was explained of Hercules contending with 
the Dragon of the Hesperides, but many other stories are told by Hyginus 
jP. ^. n 6 ; one of whlch is attributed by him to Aeschylus in the Pro^ 
metheus Solutus, to the effect that Hercules being attacked by the Ligurians 
and having shot away all his arh)ws, se ingenictUasse muUis jam mUneribus 
acceptis, but Jupiter provided him with stones, by means of whioh he routed 
the enemy. 

maerentis : Grotius notices this as a mistranslation of /ioyc»ir. 

Qixia nixa feratnr: 'because (as they say) it is carried along in a 
kneeling attitude'. For Subj. cf. Roby § 1744. 

hie illa — Corona: Aratus continues (1. 71) avrov Koi K€iuos 2r4<f>apoSf 
TOP dyav6p t^M <rrni ifUvai Aiowo'os dtFoixofJLtinjs 'ApidÖytis, vtürt^ vwoarpi- 
<l>€T<u KfKfUfi^oTos Etd«»XoiO. v<ora> /MV Sre^ovof irtkdei' Kt<l>akj yt fiiv anpjj 
irK€nT€0 ndp «c^oX^v *0<f>tovxov' (k d* ap* €K€ivrjs avrhv iirul>pd<r<rais ^hmipoikvov 
'O^ioDxov. The Serpent-holder was generally identified with Aescula- 
piuS) whose symbol was a serpent. After being slain with the thunderbolt 
for raising the dead, he was placed among the stars at the request of 
Apollo, Ov. Fast, vi 735, Hyg. P. Ä. n 14. Eximio fulgare AbL quah- 
fying Corona, 

§ 109. claro luinine : I have ventured to read Iwnine for the nomine 
of KBS, as the original has 0a€ivo/A€yov, and there is nothing famous in the 
name Ophiuchus. Below, claro nomine is rightly used of Arcturus ; and so 
we read of the Pleiades (Pkaenom, 37) hae tenuesparvo lahentes Iwmins lucent: 
at magnum nomen signi darumqm vocaiur, propterea guod et aestatis prir 
mordia ciarat et post hibemi pra>epandens temporis orttu ouihnonet, ut ma/n- 
dent^ nwrtales semina terris. On the contrary, of other stars we read 
{PhasTL 182) obscurae sine nomine cedunt, and Qerman. 145 vatibus ignoti 
priscis sine honare feruntur, ib. 338 sine honore Corona i.e. unknown 
to aong. Probabiy the corruption arose from a misunderstanding of the 
abbreviated constr. claro Ivmine perhibei/U^ which inay be compared with 

M. C. U. 15 



226 BOOK II CH. XLII § 109. 

FiTi, in 63 qui in concha patula pirma dicUur^qui habitcU et dicUur^ see n. 
on n(ymifnav€ru7U above § 51. 

hic pressu: after three lines Aratus goes on (1. 82), ay^mrtptu. (i.e. 
Xclpcff) d* "Otfiios venourfarai (' are busied with *) os pd t€ lua-ao» dcvcvcft 
*0<l>tovxov 6 d* €fjLfi(V€s €v iirafnjpcis wo^ra)» viro dXi/3«t fUya Bfipiop apj(fiOfri- 
pouri, ^KOpTTiov, 6<fi6(iKii^ r€ Kai (v ötipfjKi ßeßriKioSf 6p66t- 

ejus : monosjUabic, as cwjv^ in Lucr. 1 149, see Wagner on synizesis (in 
Plaut. Avl, p. LVii). 

Nepal : Fest. p. 164 M. n^pa Afrorum linffua sidus, g^aod canoer ajopel- 
laiVTy vel, vi qmdam volunt, acorpios. In its literal acceptation we find it 
used of a scorpion bj Cic. Fin, v 42, of a crab bj Plautus Cos. n 8 7. 
Here and in § 114 it is used of the constellation Scorpion, for which 
we find Scorpios in § 113; in Ennius ap. Cic. K P, i SO it migbt have 
either meaning, astrologorvm signa in cado quaent, observat, Jovü mm 
capra avJt nepa aut exontwr lumen aliquod behtae. This ambiguity gave 
rise to the absurd belief mentioned by Plin. N. ff. ix 51 that, when the 
Sun passes through Cancer, dead orabs lying on the beach are trans- 
formed into soorpions. The story of the Scorpion and Orion is told by 
Cic. Phaen. 426 folL Diana to avenge herseif on Orion called up the 
scorpion from the beweis of the earth, hic valido cupide vtnarUem perculit 
ictu, mort^erum in venas figens per vtUnera virus; ille gravi moneM 
conttravü corpore terram, 

Septentriones seciuitur : C. here omits five lines, in which the con- 
stellation Chdae Hhe claws' is referred to. Aratus then goes on (L 91) 
€^6niBtv d* 'EXiKi;^ tftiptrai «kdovri ioucas *Apiero0vXa{, rov p Spdp€S ririJcXct- 
ovai BotoT^Vy ovv€X ofjka^airjg €7ra<fxofi€Pos cidfrai "Apicrov, Ktu paka frag 
dpi^Xog' inro (aivu de oi avros ef SXkav "Apxrovpog Ai(r<rcrai dfiifHMif 
aon^p. 

Arctophylax : see Hyg. n 4 and IHct, of Ant. s. v. Astronomia, The 
name is merely another form of Arcturus, which is iised for the whole con- 
steUation by Hesiod {Op. 566, 610) and others. Bootes occurs in Homer 
Od, V 272 UXfjiadas r ia-opSvra koi o^c bvovra Bowijv. It is used by 
Babrius in the sense of ' ploughman ', and we find the verb ßow4» in Hea. 
Op. 391. 

temoni : so Madv. for temonCy * as though yoked to the pole, Le. wain ' ; 
apparently C. takes ap^airjs as an adj. agreeing with'^Apierov. The Bear 
would thus consist of the three leading stars. 

quaüt Arctum : the lezz. quote qtuUit equum in the same sense from 
V. Geo. m 132, Sil. xii 254. 

§ 110 hole Booti : I have transposed the words dein quae sequuntury 
which precede these in the mbs, and placed them after Virgo, four lines 
below. Heind. was the first to observe that they were not justified by 
the Omission of one or two words of the original. This change makes it 
necessary either to read atUem instead of enim or to omit the particle alto- 
gether. 



BOOK II CH. XLTI § 110. 227 

nomine daxo : this is quite appropriate here. Arcturus is a ßtmous 
and ancient name; as he says of hiniself in the Rvden» (prol.) aignvm 
sum omnium aeerrimumy vehemens sum eoforiens ; cum occidOy ifehemeTitior, 

cni subjecta: cujus in mss probablj arose from dittographia of the 
foUowing sub. . Dav. and others retain it, inserting pedibus and so giving a 
<do8er rendering of the Qr. (1. 96) dfi<f>oT€poia'i de iro<r<riv viro o-Kc^auo Bocor«» 
TLapöivov, t\ p iv x^'P< <^cp«& (rraxvv alyXrjevra. Heind. objects to Dav.'s 
reading on the ground that it is unsuited to the immediate antecedent 
Arcturus. 

gpicom: this word is found in all three genders. The neuter is at- 
tested in this place by Servius on Oeo, i 111, cf. Varro ap. Non. p. 225 
neqtie in bona segete nvUum est spicum nequam, neque in mala non aliquod 
bonum, Voss conjectnres the meaning of the ear of com to be that the 
harvest commenced under that sign. 

Virgo : Aratus describes her at length in words borrowed from Hesiod's 
description of Justice (Op, 192, 257 17 de re irapdivos eWt Atio; Aio; eicyeyavla 
folL), cf. y. Oeo, 11 474 extrema per ülos Justitia excedens terris vestigia 
liquit, Ovid.^Äfet. i 150) and Seneca (Octav. 423 neglecta terras fugü et 
mores feros, hominum cruenta casde pollutas marnts, Astraea virgo siderum 
magnum decus) call her Astraea, others supposed her to be Erigone or 
Ceres. Virgil {Ed, iv 6) makes her retum in the new age of gold. 

GL XLiii. dein qnae aeqnuntur : transferred from above, see n. on ' 
huic Booii: the phrase seems to imply impatience, a disposition .to hurry 
on, and woidd be very suitable here, as 47 lines of the Greek are omitted, 
in which Aratus teils the story of Astraea. 

et natos Oeminos invises : Aratus 147 Kparl de 01 A/dv^i, /icVo^; d' 

viro KapKivos eari' froaal If vir dfi<f>oTfpoi(n Xiav vtto «eaXd ff^uivti, The 
Twins were usually identified with Castor and Pollux, sometimes with 
Amphion and Zethus, or, by Nigidius, with the Samothracian gods. 

Oancer : said to have been placed in heaven by Juno for aiding the 
Hydra in its conflict with Hercules (cf. the story of Orion). Some thought 
it was selected to mark the summer solstice because after that the Sun 
moves backwards (Macrob. 1 17 § 63). 

Leo : the Sun enters this sign in the middle of July, hence it is called 
by Hör. Od. iv 29 19 Stella vesani Leonis. It was identified with the 
Nemean lion, which was said to be of lunar origin and to have been sent 
down to earth by Juno. Probably it is a mere symbol of the violent heat 
of the Sun at that time. 

quatiens : referring to the twinkling of the star, as in Phaenom. 51 
mediocre Jacit guatiens e corpore lumen^ and below § 111 Equus qtiatiens 
Jvham. 

anriga : Aratus goes on after some ten lines (1. 160) aCrbv (*Hvioxov) 
IUP fuv airavra fUya» Aidvfuop eVl Xai$ KCxAi/ici/ov difcif* 'EXiktjs de oi Sxpa 
Kapffva dvria dtvcvft' o-Koia d* eVeXijXorai cofio) at( ifp^» The charioteer was 
identified with Erichthonius (cf. Yirg. O. iii 113 primus Erickthonius currus 

15—2 



228 BOOK 11 CH. XLin 1 110. 

€t quaUnor ausu» jüngere eqms\ or with MyrtiluB the chaiioteer of Oeno- 
maus. 

obdnctns: can we take this, with Seh., as equivalent to obvemu or 
objechie f The more natural senae would be * ooyered ', * veiled * (c£ below 
§ 120 tnmd obducunCur libro\ but this would be no translation of xcieXific- 
vov 'slanting', for which Qerman. and Vitr. (ix 4 § 2) have the more cor- 
rect transversfiu, 

feretor : the Fut. answers to the Gr. diff» *if you look, you will find him'. 

advemun tuetor: 'the head of Helioe with fierce aspect oonfronts 
him', cf. y. Aen, vi 467 torva tuerUem, 

Oapra : the star called Capra or CapeUa was supposed to be Amalthea, - 
the she-goat which nursed Jupiter on Ida. It is more frequently men- 
tioned than the oonstellation Auriga, of which it forma a part^ c£ Hör. Od, 
in 7 6 tnsana Caprae sidera, Ov. Fast, v 213 ncuciiur Oleniae Signum 
joltmale CapeUae, 

[tun quae seqniintiir] : I cannot help thinking these words are mis- 
placed, or accidentally repeated from above, as they break the connexion 
between haec and Capra; and in the original only two lines are omitted, 
Ti)v fUv T€ Xoyoff Au fJM(joif vTroax^iVf *OXmi;v de fuv Atya Aior Kaktova' uiro- 
^roi, after which Aratus continues (1. 164) aXX' 17 /icv n-oXXi; rc «cai ayXcnf, 
Ol de ol avrov Xcirra <l>aelvovrai *Epi<^oi icapirov Kora ^ctpor. There is a gap 
in § 114 before inde nepae, where they would be usefuL 

Haedi: described by the poets as rainy, like their mother, becauae 
they rise about the time of the autumnal equinoz, Hör. Od. m 1 27 nee 
saemu Arctwri cadenüs impetus avt orientis Haedi, V. Oeo. i 205, Aen, ix 
668 pluvialibus Haedis. 

cujus sab pedibus: Aratus continues (L 167) irap voa\ d* 'Hvioxov 
Mpaop iTfimjora Tavpov fiaUa-ßai ' search for the crouching Bull near the 
feet of Auriga', which the SchoL explains frcimjoroj dia t6 Korcurnifjuiy 
«{«nrcp yckp oKkatras eor/v, cf. 1. 517 (a sign of the equinoz is) Tavpov <nc€k4»v 
Saarj irrpi^a/vercu oicXaj {^Sickafns, not in lexx.), which C. translatee 
PhaeTiom, 290 atque genu flexo Tawiu cowUüwr ingens. When we com- 
pare this with the present Une, the question arises whether oonüor may 
not express a kneeling posture, as we saw that nixus did, both being con- 
nected with genu ; otherwise we must suppose that C. here wrongly took 
Tmpov as Subj. of the In£ 'the Bull struggles' {oonixus), and misunder^ 
stood vrenn^ora, which here and in 1. 354 (of Andromeda in presence of the 
sea-monster) we ought probably to connect with fmjcrcrflD : in L 323 (of 
Orion) v^tov frtfmjAroy and 317 (four stars) irapßoKalhiv dvo vrap dvo irfim;- 
wra, Bome other ezplanation is required, and I should connect it either 
with verdpwfu or irtrofuu, Grotius gives three senses, (1) 'ezpanded', 
(2) 'bowed down', and (3) 'threatening' (?). Qermauicus here has trux, 
Avienus kUe tenduntw pectora Tavri; in speaking of Andromeda C. trans- 
lates asrotrpoBi wtimivia» by in twtogue locatam {PhaenoTn, 139), German. 
has eapasitam ; of Orion C. has UUe düpersum {Phaen. 105). 



Booit II CH. nun § 111. 229 

§ 111. capnt staUifl : Aratus goes on (L 173) *Yad«ff rai fitp p' cirl 
irovrl fM€Twr^ Tavpov ßeßkiarcu, 

Hyadas: mentioned by Homer and Hesiod, and therefore oßUed by 
Axatna (L 172) koÜ Xci^y Ktlimv Zvoy! ctprrai ovdc roi avrfl»ff yi^Kovoroc. Ovid 
says of them (^Fasti v 165) ora micant Tauri Septem radiantia flommisj 
naväa qtias Hyadas Orascui ab imbre voccU, Pars Bacchttm ntUriue ptUati 
pars credidit esse Tethyos hos neptes Oceanique sents; foll. Horace calls 
them tristes (Od, i 3 14) because their moming aetting waa in November, 
and their riaing in April was also attended with rain Plin. JT. R. xym 66. 

Sncnlas: the same is said by Plin. Lc. and Tiro ap. G^ell. xin 9 adeo 
veteres Rofnani lüteras Oraecas nescivenmt, ut Stellas quae in capite Tauri 
4unt propterea sucuku appellarint, guod eas Qraeci vaUkts vooamt,,„sed vahts 
ovK <2fro r&v v<»y, iia tU nostri opici prUaverwU, sed ab eo quod est vtiv appeUr 
lantur» GeUius defends his countrymen on the ground that sttcula was 
the natural Latin for vds aa super for tm-cp. The preeent opinion is rather 
that both the Greek and Latin are from the root stu and mean litÜe pigs, 
as the other names of constellations refer to material objects, chiefly 
ftnimAlft (Vanifek Etym, and Nitsosch Odyss. v 272). Also the quantitj of 
the vowel is against the derivation of vas (v, like the oblique cases of ^) 
from Sa (v). The form stunda may be oompared with bucidoy camcula. 

Oepheus : Aratus continues (1. 182) avros fiev KarorrurSty €»p Kvvoo-ovpt- 
dos "ApKTov Ki^^evr äiuffiortpas x«lpas ravvovTi €oikw. Cf. Tuso, V 8 nee stel- 
Iciitu Cepheiis cum uxore (Cassiopeia) gerrere (Perseus) JUia (Andromeda) 
traderetur^ nisi cadestium divina oognitxo norMn eorvm ad errorem fabidas 
traxisset (i. e. if they had not been famed as astronomers). For the story 
see Ov. Met. iv 663 foll. and Milton Penseroso ' that starred Ethiop Queen, 
that strove to set her beaut/s prize above the sea-nymphs and their 
powers offended'. 

ipse : as contrasted with his wife and daughter. 

Cynosnrae: a name in apposition limiting the more general Ärcti^ 
unless we may regard it as an Adj. like the cynosifra ova of Plin. H, N, x 
167. 

hone antecedit : Aratus continues (1. 187) roO d* ILpa baifiovaf irpojcvX/y- 
dcroi ov fjkoka noKkrf wktI <f>aeivofjUvrj irafifirjptii Kcurctorcta. 

hanc antem illnstri : Aratus (L 197) avrov yap KdKtufo KvKMitTai atvov 
SyakfjM 'AvipoiUiris vno fjufrpl KtKcuriUvov^ i.e. 'arrayed beneath her mother'. 
One of the scholiasts however gives olovti K€x»pi^iUvov as an explanation 
of KWKogrfUpovj probably reading K^xao'iitvov from x^C^t^^h which perhaps 
may be the origin of C.'s aufuffiens aspectttm. For the constr. of auf. with 
Aco. c£ Prop. I 9 30 assiditas anfüge blanditias, Hyg. Fab. 258 quae sol 
aufugity where Mimcker gives other instanoes. Lachmann (in his Lucr. 
p. 272) argues against the reading here, on the ground that the final a of 
Qreek nouns is long and cannot be elided (ib. p. 405) ; but Mu. instances 
Andromeda hie {Phaenom. 257), Andromeda et (ib. 436), and the short a in 
hydra (ib. 292, 397). 



230 BOOK 11 CH. XLIII § 111. 

maesta : this hardly gives the aivoif HyaKfui of the originaL It may 
have been suggested by the words used just before of Cassiopeia dvuifccy 

huic EquOS ille : Aratus 205 aXX' apa ol kcu Kpari ircXttp eircXi^Xarcu 
"imros yaoTtpi u€uupif, (wog d* eirtXofwrcrat donyp, rov fuv iir 6fi(l>dki^, Trjf d' 
ia-xoTomtm Kapifp^. The horse is Pegasus who with his hoof made Hippo- 
crene. For dnpUces Seh. cites V. Äen. i 93 duplices ad sidera palnuUf and 
Cic. Frov, Cons, 13 hos duplices pestes sociorum (of the consuls Piso and 
Gabinius), but both instances refer to pairs. Is there any case in which it 
means simply *two*? Perhaps here we should translate Hwinned'. The 
line aetemvm «f astris — nodum is an embellishment added by C. We find 
nodus used of a common star in Phaenom, 17 (translating avvdtirposjf and 
aetemtts similarly used (1. 34 aeterno nomiTie) without anything ooirespond- 
ing to it in the original : the word was also a favourite with Lucretius^ 
c£ his aeterno demctus volnere amorüy and Munro on v 402, 476, 514 

contortis cum cornibus: 'with crinkled homs'. Aratus 225 avrov 
Koi Kpiolo dodraToi tlai KcXev^oc. This was supposed to be the nun which 
carried Phrixus and Helle. haeret^cWi/ptKrcu Arat. 229, regularly used 
of fixed Stars, as in Pkaenom, 169 procid iüü Ftscibtte kaerene, where the 
Qr. has simply olos diro irporipav, For cum see n. on cum gurgüe § 112. 

Piflces : after describing Deltoton (the Triangle), Arat. goes on (L 239) 
^i ^ €v TTpoßoXjo'i "SoTOio ^Ix^vts, äkk* atel ertpos irpo<l>tp4aTtpo£ aXXov, Koi 
fiaWop Boptao v€ov Kariovros djcovci. Probably the month in which the sun 
passed through this sign was originally connected with fishing. After- 
wards a mythological explanation was found in the Syrian deity Derceto or 
Ataigatis, alias Isis or Venus (Ov. Fast, ii 458), whom the two fishes are 
Said to have saved from Typhon. 

a^inilonis tangitur anris: this method of describing the quarters 
of the heaven is imitated by Lucr. v 689, where see Munro. 

Ch. xLiv § 112. ad pedes Andromedae: Aratus 248 dft<l>cr€poi di 

vrodcr yapßpov inKnjftaivoup Ücpcrfor, oi pa oi cdtv cVcD/xdXcoi ^piovrai, Avrap 
6 y €u Bop€<if ^cprrai ircpifti^iccror aXX<»v (' the feet of Andromeda may point 
you towards her spouae, for they piuwie their path above his Shoulder'), 
cujus propter laevum genu : Arat. 254 ayxi d« ol cncat^r iviyowibot 

ifXiSa irocrai Il\r}tabts <f>op€ovrai, 6 d* ov fuiXa TroXXor cnrdcrar x^P^^ ^X^h '^^^ ^ 
avral tTnaKt^^aaSai d<t>avpaL Hipparchus notices that Aratus is wrong in 
placing the Pleiads near the knee of Taurus ; they are really at his back, 
near the bright stars in the lefb foot of Perseus. For the readings see 
Grit. n. In the Fhaeriom. 1. 27 Baehrens reads at propter laevum genus 
omms parte locaia^ parva Vergüias tenui cum luce videbis, where Hss have 
pairvas. The four words following genus are omitted here in three of 
Orelli's MSS ; and £, which adds them, has at instead of cujus and geniu 
for genUf which oertainly suggests that they were inserted from the 
Fhaenom. Seh. however and Mu. give the complete lines, making ci^'us a 
monosyllable, like ^us in § 109 ; and the former (Opuac ni 336) illustratea 



BOOK U CH. XLIV § 112. 231 

the alteration of cU into cujus, hj the ohange of qtiam gdidwm into tum 
gelidum just below, quem propter for quampropter, to suit the altered con- 
struction ; and in § 112 paulo into paulum, horrisonis into horriferis appa- 
rently by slip of memory. The archaic genus for genu, which thej read 
here, is found in Phaenom, 45, 46, 399, 403. The inserted words ommd, ex 
parte locatas parvcu do not agree with the original and indeed are hardly 
intelligible. 

Vergilias : Max Müller (Lect. ii p. 7) derives the name * from virga a 
sprout or twig : the name was given by Italian husbandmen, because in 
Italy, when they became visible about May, they marked the retum of 
Summer'. Others connect it with ver or vergo. The word nXcuider is 
usually connected with irXcIi^, as they marked the safe time for sailing, but 
Nitzsch (Od. Y 272), with whom yani9ek agrees, thinks the form ireXciadcr 
(Find. Nem, ii 8) the older, and supposes that they were regarded as a flock 
of wild doves flying before the hunter Orion, as Hes. Op. 619 üXi^iodcs 
aBtvos oixßpiyLov *Qpi<ovos (fftvyova-ai. In later times they were believed to 
be the daughters of Atlas pursued by the love of Orion and saved by being 
tumed into doves. They are among the flve constellations mentioned by 
Homer and Hesiod. It is said in the Dict. of Änt, s. v. that in Arabio 
and Old English they were spoken of as the Hen and Chickens. 

tenui cum luce : see above § 106 cum gurgüe ; Mr Swainson compares 
Lucr. iv 1126 viridi cwm ltu!e vmaragdL 

inde Fides : Arat. 1. 268 küX X/Xvr rfi okiyrf, Cio. seems to have filled 
up his line with otiose epithets for an ordinary lyi'e, like his contortü comi- 
bu8 of Aries in § 111, if Mu. and Baehrens are right in reading posita et 
leviter convexa videtnr *nezt to this in position and sUghtly bowed 
outwards appears the Lyre'. Ba. has levüer podta: oould this mean 
^ shghtly sketched ' {dfivdpd in Theon's Schol,) like Hör. Od. iv 8 8 soUers 
hominem poneref The fact that there is one splendid star in Lyra is not 
inconsistent with such a description on the part of C. Seh. (Opusc. iii 
336} suggested posüu leviter conver»a=paululum indincUa et obltqucUa. It 
is true Manilius (vi 325) speaks of the Lyre as c(mversa ^ up side down ', as 
Cic. has puppU converm Fhaen. 127 ; but what ground had C. for such a 
Statement ? his authority gives no hint of a slanting position. If it be 
said that this would be apparent in any map or sphere which 0. might 
have before him, as it is in the Harleian ms ; yet there would be no force 
in the adverb leviter; the position is represented as precisely reversed. 
The Lyre was identified with that first made by Mercury. 

inde est ales Avis : for inde we have namque in Phaenom, 47 to 
explain cUtHs in the previous hne : in the original (L 276) iJToi yap kcü Zrfvl 
7raparp€xti al6\o9''OpviSy the Schol. take Zijvi as equivalent to rf oJpay^ 
(C.'s sub tegmine codi). I suppose ales is to be taken as an epithet here, 
though Ba. writes it with a capital. L. and S. seem to think that C. 
intended it to represent oioXor , but it occurs also Phaen. 258, without any 
Greek equivalent. This constellation was identified by later writers with 



232 BOOK II CH. XLIV § 112. 

the Swan of Leda and is therefore called Cycnus by Gennamcos, (Hör by 
Manilius. 

capiti antem Eqoi : Arat. 1. 283 ^imrov, väp d* apa ol Kf<l>dki x<<p 'Y^po- 

Xooio ^€(^r€pf| rdinircu, 6 d* oiriartpos AlyoKopfjot r«XXcrai. Nothing is Said 
in the original of the body oiÄqriaritu. Probably the name was given to the 
Sign, because it was thought that the Sun's passage through it was accom- 
panied by rain, so Hör. ScU, i 1 36 corUrütcU Aquaritu armum. Later my- 
thologers identified him with Ganymede, as the celestial cup-bearer, or 
with Deucalion as the witness of the Belüge. 

tum gelidmn : for tum we read qtiam in Phaen. 58 after serius. The 
four lines which foUow are an ezpansion of Arat. L 286 k^kKitoi Aty6K€f>at 
hm Tf rph-tT 'HeXiov ir, not (as Bav.) a translation of 292 rorc Mj lepvor cic 
Acoff cWt, which is given in Phaen, 67. 

ftemifero : nsed properly of one who is half man, half brüte, as of Pan 
(Lucr. iv 687). Voss in bis note on Aratus 1. a cites Eratosth. {CaUut. 
27) to show that Pan was originally intended by AiyoKtpms, and that he 
was anciently represented, like bis son Aegipan, as a mixture of man and 
goat. He was raised to heaven in gratitude for bis aid in the war between 
Typhon and the Gods ; but when bis form became humanized, the fable 
placed his son in heaven in bis stead. The story is given in füll from 
NigidiuB by the scholiast on Germanicus. In later times, e.g. on the coins 
of Augustus, Capricomus is depicted with a fish's tail. Macrobius (Sat. i 
17) says the climbing goat was chosen as the sign of the winter solstioe, 
because the Sun begins to climb the heaven from that time, as the Grab 
with its backward movement represents the retrogression which foUows 
the simimer solstice. 

magno in orbe : the zodiac, cf. PhcterumL 237 foU. 

Titan : the sun is so called as being either identified with Hyperion or 
the son of Hyperion ; the first example seems to be in Empedocles fr. 
L 185, but it is more common in Latin than in Greek poetry, c£ Preller 
€fr. M, p. 41 n. 4. 

§ 113. nt 8686 0St6nd6n8: Arat. 302 aijfia 64 roi Miwrfv iSpifs...%Kop' 
irlo£ avTtW<0¥ €tf) fTufJuarrft M wicros' fjroi yap fiiya t6(ov avcXxcrcu iyyvBi 
Ktvrpov Tofcvnfff, oklyov Öi vapoirtpos i(rrarai avrov ^Kopviot avrAXa>y* o d* 
oyepxrroi (wrUa fxoKkov, which are thus tiuned Phaen, 74 hoc tignum 
vemens poterunC praenoscere nautae : jam prope praedpUante licebü vieere 
nocte, ut sew ostenden$ emergü {ostendens oHendai kbs) &a where ut is 
probably to be translated 'when'; 'you have a sign of bad weather 
when the Scorpion rises '. Taking the quotation, as it Stands, we should 
naturally make ut foUow aspicitur in the sense of *how\ the direct 
construction being frequently used instead of the indirect in such circum- 
stances by the older poets, as in Enn. Ann. 1. 215 Y. audite ut mitto ; Trag, 
23 doquere, res Argivum ut se nutinet; Ter. Hec. in 5 21 si memorare'velim 
quamßdeli amnu),.,fuiy vere possum; Virg. EcL iv 52 aspice venturo lae- 
tantur ut omnia $aeclo. It ib possible also to take Scorpioe as subject to 



BOOK n CH. XLiv § 113. 233 

cupicitur 'the Soorpion is seen as he rises'. Bat it may be a question 
whether the quotation was not at first shorter, and whether the words 
fU sese ostendens emergü may not have been added, as in a former quotation, 
from the Phaenornerui ; see crit. n. The Omission of ut in hbs is probably 
aocidental owing to the -ur preceding, unless oBpicüur is a corruption for 
cupicüo la, the Imperative being, more naturally than the Ind.', followed 
by tU with Ind. 

ostendeilfl emergit : some edd. have emergens ogtendit, but it is not 
uncommon for the more important word to be thus subordinated to the 
less important, as in § 116 ncUtira omnia conßdens fundünr, where we 
might have ezpected fusa conficä. 

alte : Baehrens and Orelli read alto with Qrotius, ' rising out of the 
deep '. Alte is common in the older poets, as of the sun in Lucr. rv 404 
Jubar engere aUe^ v 610 rosea alte lampade lucens. 

XK)6t0riore trahens— Arcum : 'drawing after it a bent bow with its 
powerful tail '. Cic. here mistakes the force of L 305 duiXicerai iyyvBi Ktv 
rpov, *the Archer is drawing the bow near the Scorpion's sting' (^tendit), 
and confounds it with the eXiecrai of 1. 342 i) de Kwos fjLtyakoio lurr ovprjv Axr- 
TOI *Apy» ( «: trahitur), Arcus is used for the whole constellation by Qerman. 
1. 311, 668. The Archer, whom Cic. calls Sagitttpotens (Pkaen. 73) Sagit- 
taritts (L 279) Ardtenens (1. 405), was supposed to be a centaur. I read 
flexnm here with Seh., as it is found in aU the mss of the Fhaenom. and 
there seems no reason why C. should have changed it for the hyperbolical 
pleammy which means * tied in a knot '. 

quem propter — Ales : five Unes are here omitted containing the ante- 
oedent to quem. As it Stands, it can only be arcum, which gives a wrong 
Position for the Ales (on which see § 112). The corresponding line 85 
in the Fhaen. begins with qttam referring to the antecedent Sagüta in L 84^ 
c£ Aratus 311 tari de rot irpon-epaa ߀ß\rjfjL€VO£ SXXos 'Olcrror, avros artp ro^ov* 
6 d€ ol iraparriirrarai "Opvis aa'troTtpov Bop€(p' tr^tboBiv de ol SKkot är/rai ov 
Toirtros iirfi6ti...Kai fup Kokrova 'Arfrov. The solitary arrow was said to be 
either that with which Apollo slew the Cyolopes or that with which 
Hercules killed the eagle of Prometheus. convolvitiir : referring to 

the rotatory movement of the heaven. 

Aqnila se portat : cf. Phaeiu 24 victor pedes partat. The eagle is 
called Jovis Ales nwntius (Phaen, 294) ; it is alluded to by Eur. Rhesus 530. 
For cum corpore cf. above § 106 cum gv/rgüe, 

deinde Delphinns : Aratus continues (1. 316) AeX^U d* wi iiAka iroXAor 
hnrptx**- iilyoKtpfß. According to Gteminus it was raised to heaven by 
Neptune for revealing the hiding-place of Amphitrite ; others identified it 
with the dolphin of Arion. 

ezinde Orion : Aratus 322 Xo^os iitv Tavpoio rop,^ (' under the section 
of Taurus') vTrojcejcXtroi avros ^Qpitav. In Homer he appears as a mighty 
hunter, irBivos 'fiptwvor, eyed by the bear he is pursuing (iZ. xviii 486), and 
following the chase even in the lower world {Od, xi 572) ^Qpicnm wwktiptop 



234 BOOK II CH. XLIV § 113. 

c2<r€yoi7<ra ßffpas ofiov ctXcvvra, cfl too Oo^ XI 310, V 21. In oriental 
aatronomy he is the giant Nimrod, see Smith's Biet, of the Bible linder 
'Orion'. The siory of his death for insulting Diana is variously iold; 
according to one account it was through the stlng of a soorpion (see 
above § 109 on Nepa), aooording to another foUowed by Horace, nottu 
et integrae temptator Orion Dianas virginea domitus mgüta {Od. ni 4 
70). 

§ 114. qneni S1ll)86(IU6]18 : Aratus 326 rolos ol «eat <j>povpo£ Mipoiuv^ 
viro ir<or^ ffauvtrai dfiffxyrtpoun Kva»y cirl fro<ra\ ßtßriK»s* rdfolget is 

altered from reftUgens of Phaen. to suit the context. Sirius rose at the 
time of the entry of the sun into Leo, which marked the hottest season of 
the jear ; hence Horaoe speaks of rahiem Canis et momenta Leonis, cum 
»emel accepit solem furibwndtu aciUum ; Ep, i 10 16. Homer (U, xxn 29) 
likens Achilles to the balefiil star oyrc icvy* *Qpimpos cVifcX^crfv Kokiovinp» 
XafiTTparaTos fiiv od* tirrif kokov de re arjfia rcrvtcrac 

post Lepus subseauitor : Aratus 338 «roo-o-t d* ap 'Qpi»vos vir' o^«^ 

Tiponri Aay«»o£ tfifitvis fjfiara irdvra duiKtrai' avräp 6 y aitl Setpcos i^oiriS^w 
<f>€p€T€u fieTiovTi cWttf. The mythologists were hard put to it to find any 
story for this constellation, which, Üke the hound, the doves and othersy 
was simply seen in the sky by the primitive hunters. A moral is attached 
to it, as to the Hydra, by Hyginus ii 33. 

ciiiTicillam sedaas : this is said of Sirius in Phasn. 126, but it is more 
like the original to make it refer, as here, to the Hare. 

at Oanis— Argo : the original is cited above on posteriore trahens. 
On the Argo see § 89. serpens may express the gliding movement either 
of a ship or of the heavenly bodies, as in Phaen. 45 {Ales) voUu et serpens 
genUnis secat aera pinrus, and Lucr. v 690 annua »ol in quo oondudü 
tempora »erpens. 

haue Aries tegit : here, as above {quem propter\ the noun to which 
the pronoun refers has been omitted, either from a hiatus in the mbs or from 
carelessness on the part of C, see Arat. 356 Yjfros vv6 Kpi^ rr icai 'Ix^vov 
dfi<l}OT€potat ßeuop vtrip Horapov ßtßktnUvov WFrtpotvroi : thus tumed by C. 
Phaen, 140 Andromjedam explorans fera quaerere Pistrix pergit,,^nc Aries 
&c. Ah the verse Stands here, we are obliged to refer hanc to ArgOy which 
really lies 70^ to the west of Cettu or Pietrix, This was supposed to be 
the sea monster sent to devour Andromeda. For Aries and Pisces see 
above .§ 111. tegit» for which Seh. conjectures tagit^ simply means lies 
above it, Le. to the north of it. 

flnminis — ^ripas: the River is, according to Aratus, the mysterious 
EridamtSy identified by many with Padiu ; others supposed it to be the 
Nile. illustri : Orelli conjectured ülustris as nearer the original a<rrc- 
pocvrof , but the epithet suits one noim as well as the other, and the Abla- 
tive makes a better verse. Seh. reads tangentes without reason ; Cetus 
does touch the River with his breast, — I adopt Heinsius' emendation, 
peatore for corpore — while Pisces are some distance from it. 



BOOK II CH. XLIV § 114. 235 

qnem : the Masc. is I think used, not (as Seh.) because 0. hadflnmtu 
in bis mind (on whicb see Yarro IL K i 12), but because in the Phaen. he 
had used for it the name Eridanus, of which he sajs (L 149) hunc Orionü 
suh laeva cemereplaTUa serperUem poterü, proceraque Vinda vioUhis. 

Vincla : Arat. 362 Aecr/ioi d* ovpavioi roit 'ixßvfs axpoi exovrai, ä/iffno 
(rvn/ff>op€ovTai arr ovpaitop Kariovrtg (* hanging from their tails *). 

inde Nepae cemes : forty lines are omitted in which the Southern 
Fish and the Water Stream are treated of ; then Aratus goes on 1. 402 
avTop vn cdÖofievt^ K€vrp<o repaos ficyaXoco ^Kopiriov ^yx^ potoio Ovrijpiop 
oicopetrai. The Altar was an invention of Eudoxus, which the mythologists 
made out to be that on which the Gods swore alliance against the Titans. 

propterqiie Centanrus : Arat 437 rw (Kfvravpov) ydp roi ra /acV d»bp\ 

eouccra veiaBi xcirai ^Koptriov' Unrovpcua d' vno cr^icrt Xi^Xai ^xovviv* adrap 6 
d€(tT€pfjv alti TavvoifTi foiK€V dvTia tivtrrolo Qvrrjpiov tv hi ol carpi^ aKKo fiak* 
f<r4>iJKan'ai cXi^Xa/xcVoy dm ;^€ipof Btipiov, eQUl parti8= iinrovpaia. For 
snbjnngere the mss of Phaen. have conjungere. 

Ohelis : the constellation formerly known as the Claws of the Scorpion 
was afterwards changed to lÄbra, In Div, ii 98 it is called Jugwm^ injugo 
cum esset luna. Yirgil has both names, Ckelae in Geo. 1 33 and lAhra 1. 208 
Libra die somnique pares uhi fecerü horasy et m/ediwn, Ittci atque umbris 
Jam dividü orbem, refening to the autunmal equinox, when the sun is in 
Libra. Manilius calls it Juga Chelarum i 609. After the astronomical 
reform of JuL Caesar the name Libra is the one in ordinary use, e.g. Hör. 
Od. II 17 16 seu Libra, seu me Scorpios adspicä formidolosus ; ManiL iv 548 
feliaf aequcUo genüus sub pondere Librae ; judex examen eistet vUaeque necis- 
que. Besides denoting the equüibrium of day and night, it was supposed 
to be the scale of the Virgin Justice. 

hic : the centaur, supposed to be Chiron. porgens : the contracted 
form becomes regulär in surgo, 

CmadnipeB : now known as Lupus, but not specially named by the 
Qreeks, as C. says in the line which follows in Phaen, 212 (omitted here) 
quam nemo certo donavit iwmiTie Oraium^ Martianus Capella calls it 
panthera. Germanicus (419) leaves it doubtful seupraedam e süvisportcU 
seu dona propinquae, placcUura deos, cidtor Jovis, admüvet curae, Though 
quadr. commonly means a beast of burthen, we find it used of a tortoise 
Pacuv. Ant, fr. 4, of a crocodile Plin. If. H. viii 37. 

tracnlentUB caedit : the weight of ms authority is about equal for 
cedit or caedit, but I think the probability is in favour of the latter, 
beoause (1) we should otherwise have cedit — tendä— cedit all meaning the 
same thing (for tendit can hardly be taken in the sense of ^ stretch ' with 
porgens just before), (2) the idea of sacrifice is naturally suggested by the 
altar, (3) the word truculentus, which does not occur in the original, seems 
to have been added by Cic. to suit caedit rather than cedit, 

hic Sese mfernis — Hsrdra : Arat 442 aXX' m ydp re koi SXXontpaioöev 
tXxerai aarpop, ^Ydprfv fu» Knikiovai, ro de (eioirn 4otKOS ijvtKis clXcircu. If^ 



236 BOOK n CH. xuv § 114. 

femM : the regions near the South ; so Phaen. 217 tuinena ifrfema Iaovm 
and 272 aJIZw ab infemis Atatri canvertüur auria. 

longo corpns est ftisum^cXjccrcu, because the Hydra vayv in\ fuficMTror 
iKrirarai, SB Theon BajB in his Schol.y extending over three Signa. It was 
identified by the Qreeks with the Lernaean Hydra. The Egyptians said 
it denoted the Nile, which overfiowed its banks duiing the three cor- 
responding months, the Cup being the national symbol, and the Raven the 
slime left behind after the inundation. The more common story told by 
Ovid {F. n 243 foU.) is that a raven sent by Apollo waited at the fountain 
for some figs tö ripen, and then seizing a snake in its claws, laid upon it 
the blame of its own delay, hie mihicatua moraey vivarumobteuoraquarum^ 
hie tenuü farUes officivmque Tnewm, The all-seeing Deity punished the raven 
by condemning it to perpetual thirst during the time of the ripening of 
figs ; and the moral lesson was enforced by being written in the sky, see 
Hyg. n 40. 

in mediOQUe Stnu : Arat. 448 ft^troTj de mrtlpjj Kpv/nipf nvfiorif d* M" 
«etroi cidttXov Koptucos oTTfipffv Konrovri iomos, xal fu)y «cal Upoicv«»» Aidv/xotf 
vno Koka ^ociWt. Hyginus Lc. explains as foUows, videtur roitro caudam 
Hydrae verherare tU tamquam nnat te ad Crateram trannre. ex- 

tremam : sa h^dram, The form craiera occurs elsewhere in Cic. aa well 
as in Liyy and Horace ; Nonius reads creterra in this passage. 

Antecanis : a second hound of Orion which rises before Sirius. Pliny 
says of it N. H. xviii 68 (Prooyon) apvd Romanos tum habet nomen, niti 
Caniculam hanc velimtLS intdlegi^ id est minorem canem (the name by whu^ 
Yitruvius knows it). The edd. have anteoanem (as Baehrens) qr ante canem 
in two words (with most of the mss), which may be compared to the terms 
pro constde^ pro praetore ; but, as these gave rise to the forms pro-coneul^ 
propraetoTy so Äntecanü would be formed to represent the Qr. irpoKumv, 
and this is the form we find regularly used in the Scholia to Qermanicoa 
(see crit. nn.). Similarly we have antepei Cic. Fkaen. 452, antevindemiaior 
Germ. Schol, p. 208 Breys. The scribes would naturally divido the word 
and put the seoond half in the Aoo. 

Cicero mentions in all 48 stars or oonstellations, omitting the following 
from the hst of Aratus, Vindemiatriv (irporpvyi/r^p) after Virgo ; DeUoton 
{Phaen, L 4) after Aries; SagiUariu» {Phaen. 72), unless we identify this 
with Arcus, afber Scorpios; Cetus or Pistrix {Phasen. 140) after Argo; 
Piads Australis and Aqiui after Vincla (Phaen, 167). Of theee Pistrix alone 
is of importance : da the Omission misplaoes the constellation which foliows : 
perhaps we ought to supply twm Pistrix with LescaL and Bouh. before Aatic 
Arien, It is worthy of note that the scribes have not attempted to supply 
these omissions from the Phaeftumama ; which siiggests a doubt as to the 
supposed interpolation in § 112. 

§ 115. diacriptio : see i 26 and Index. omataa : see above § 94. 

temere cnraantibna : see above § 93 : and for the argument the elo- 
quent passage in Manilius i 483 foll. 



BOOK II CH. XLIV § 115. 237 

ant TOro : Heind. reads an vero with G ; the former introduces a new 
mibject, the latter an alternative question with regard to a former subject ; 
cf. Or, I 36 quis enim tibi hoc concesserü avt iniHo gen%L8 hominum in montt- 
biu. . .dissipcUum, non prudentium oonaüiis compulsnm. . .se oppidis moenibtis- 
que saeptissef aut vero rdiqttcu tUüitat€s...iu)n a sapientibus et fortibu9 virü 
. . ,esse comstitutasf 

alieiua natura : I think this reading gives a better sense than alia 
qztae natura. In the first place it would be odd to allude to the clashing of 
atoma as a sort of natura (and this, I think, must be the force of alia, 
fbr we can hardly take it, with Heind., as referring to the animated 
nature of the Stoics) and secondly we have already had an inanima natura 
speciüed as a oonceivable cause of the universe (§§ 76—^1) and oontrasted 
with fortwna (§ 43) and nscenntas (§ 81). I think too that aut vero impliee 
a more decided Opposition to the preceding clause, than would be expressed 
bj alia quae. For aliquoj see § 88 neceseitate aliqua^ § 4 aliquod numen^ 
§ 18 cUiquam mentem (see n.). 

qnae nt fierent ratione eguenmt = qrwrum effectio eguit ratione, For 
other examples of the Substitution of the concreto for the abstract, the 
personal for the impersonal construction, see Lael. 56 constüuendi sunt qui 
sintßnes with Reid's n. ; ib. 63 quidam perapiciuntur quam sint leves; Fin, v 
58 ut plane, qualia eint, inteUegfantur, for inteUegatur; where Madv. says 
faciüima est forma, qua sola Cicero utitur, efus attractionis, quam tractavit 
Krueqerus {Unters, m § 162). Compare the Greek constructions with <f>at- 
vofuu, drjXos ei/it, dUaios el/u. For the thought cf. § 97 n. Min. F. 17 § 6. 

C d (4). Ths several poHs o/the universe a/re held together hy a sträng 
centripetal force, which is the catise of life and wa/rmth in all other 
things, and from which all a/re developed anew in the cyclicaX regeTie- 
ration, §§ 1 1 5— 1 1 8 (cf. above, §§ 83—85). 

Ch. ZLY. nee vero haec solnm admirabilia : cf. § 126 atque iUa 
mirabilia. 

nihil majus : we find ma^'tu contrasted with mirabüe Div, n 141, cf. 
Fat, 17. 

ita stabilis est mundns : Zeller (iv p. 562) thinks this represents the 
view of Panaetius, who deniedthe cyclical conflagration, cf. below §§ 118, 
119 ; but we find the same in Cleomedes p. 5 (who gives the view of Posi- 
donius and the Stoics generali j), 'it is impossible for the world to be 
dissipated in space ', ycvcvicf yap irpos ro iavrov fücrov, icai rovro tx^i Kano, 
ofTov v€V€VKtp, c£ Phüo Prov. II 56, Chrysippus ap. Plut. St, Rep, p. 
1054 E 1. 

aptins : cf. § 58 aptissimus ad permanendum, 

capessentes : lit. ' clutching at '. nituntur aeqnaliter : 'maintain 
a imiform pressure '. 

ad medimn rapit et convertit extrema : ' turns back and hurries to 
the centre the outermost particles ', c£ § 84 deinde retrorsfum vicissim ex 



2S8 BOOK II CH. XLV § 115. 

aethere aer, mde aqua, ex aqua terra infima, Zeno (ap. Stob. Ed, 1 19 § 4) 
does not make it quite clear how the doctrine of the upward movement of 
air and fire is to be reconciled with the belief in imiversal gravitation : * it 
is correctlj said that all the parts of the world, especially those that have 
weight, seek the centre, and that this is the cause of the stability of the uni- 
verse and of the earth ; air and fixe are absolutely without weight, still they 
have a sort of tendency to the centre of the universal sphere, though they 
natiurally gather around its circumference ' {ylyvtoBcu raOra iro»; M. ro rr^s 
oki)g axpaipcig rot) Koa-fiov futrov, r^v de trvaraauf irpos t^p ir«pi<f>€p€ta» avrov 
wauiaOou), Compare also passages oited by Zeller iv pp. 184, 185. The 
ezplanation seems to be that the all-pervading ether, while it has a na- 
turally expansive 'and interpenetrative force, has also a strong cohesive 
force and thus holds all things together around the oentre. See below, 
on the air, which has in itself a tendency to rise, and yet clings to the 
element immediately under it^ so as to forbid any vacuum ; and c£ Flui. 
Comm, Not. § 45, p. 1085 C yrjv y^v yap taao't koi vSnp olh-f avra oiii^fj^ccv oil^c 
mpa, irPtvfMtriiefjs de y^^ro^ä ***' nvpadovt dvva/Aco»; rffv tvcmyra hta<fn)\amt», 
äipa de Ktii irvp avrmv t€ civcu di tvrovlav «KrariKa (expansive owing to their 
elasticity) Kai rols bva\v tKelvois lyKtKpapAva rovop vapt^tuß iral ro poviiiov 
Koi oi}<rwli€9 : also Bef. Or. p. 425 (Chrysippus held) ort raii €ts to avr^r 
pJarov i; ov<ria Kai rait diro rov avr^g fUa-ov dtoiKtirai Kai avp^xfrai jtunfo'fO'i, 
Nemes. 2 p. 29 (the Stoics say) roi^cic^i' fumi Kiinja-tv irepi rä atopara tU ro tarn 
apa Kai to ?(«o KwovpJvrfv ; Seneca N, Q, ii 6, and vi 16 non esse terram sine 
spiritupalam est; non tantum illvm dico, quo se tenet et partes suijungit^ qui 
inest etiam saxis mortuisque corporihus &c., Vit, Beat. 8 § 4 muTidiu quoque 
cuncta complectens rectorque universi deus in exteriora quidem tendity sed 
tarnen in totwm undique in se redit. This Stoic doctrine of attraction to a 
centre was vehemently controverted by the Epicureans, as may be seen in 
Lucr. I 1052 foll. Even Plut. {Fac. Orb, Z. c. 7) denies it. 

§ 116. si mnndiis globosns : we find the con verse argument in Oleom. 
I c. 8, p. 40, the earth being proved round, it follows that the imiverse 
must be so too. 

medinm infiinnin : cf. § 84, Arist. Cael. i p. 268 b, \4y<o d* &« piv r^ 

diro rov p,€trov KimjaiVy «coro» de rfjv cVl to pitrovy Plato, Phaed. 112 E, Oleom. 
I pp. 9, 12. 

nihil interrumpat : ' there is nothing to break the continuity ', Le. no 
vacuimi ; cf. Oleom. I p. 4 ro k€vov iv t^ Koa-pa ovBi Skc»s iariy et yäp prj di 
oXov <Tvp<fiwjs V7njpx€v 77 rmv oXa>v odaia, ovt a» vno (ftwrttos olov r' fy orW- 
X€a-6ai Koi dioiKtio-dat rov Koa-pov, ovrt r^v ptpmv avTov avpirdOeia ti£ &ir 171^ 
irpor 2XX};Xa, ovt€ prj v<f>* evos tottov <rvv€xop4vov avTov Kai tov nv€vparos p;^ 
dl' okov ovtos <rvp<f>vov5, olov T hv Tjv fjpiv Opa» ^ axovctv. ptra^v yap ovntv 
K€vmpaTo»v iv€iro^i^ovTp av vir avT&v ai alaBijatis. 

§ 117. hole continens aer : cf. § 66 and § 100. 
fertnr levitate snblimis : the reading sublime is imsupported by mbb 
and forms a weak ending to the clause. For the use of the predicative 



BOOK II CH. XLV § 117. 239 

Adjective instead of the Adverb see Madv. § 300, Draeg. § 159 ; for afMi- 
m%B see Liv. i 16 svhlvmem raptum procdlay ib. 34 sublimis abU ; it is fre- 
quent in the Comic poets. The EpiciireaDs entertained more correct views 
on the gravity of bodies, ezplaining their apparent lightness as relative, 
not absolute, c£ Lucr. i 1083 foll., ii 184 foll. 

et mari continnatus — et natura fertur ad caeltun : the two an- 
tagonistic qualities are combined, as in the caae of ether below et tuwn 
retinet,., et conjungüwr, answering to fertwr üle qutdem...sed tarnen. So 
/Vtu m 62 neque vero kaec inter se congmere poesent, ut natura et procreari 
veHet et düigi procreatos rwn cwaret, and the conjunctionum negantia in 
Fat, § 15 folL cadum^aether as often. 

tenuitate : cf. tennem below and tenuimmue § 42. vitalem spiritum : 
cf. vit, calorem § 27. • , 

cum aeris extremitate conjnngitnr : cf. § 100 of land and sea. 

Ch. XLVi. lÜBll : cf. §115 nttuntur aequalüer; the pressure at the centre 
is equal and opposite in all directions, therefore it remains at rest. 

ante dixisse videor : in § 47 nihil qfenewnis habere poteet, On videor 
see I 58 videor avdieae n. 

§ 118. vaporibus aluntur : the Stoics believed that the sun was fed 
from the sea, the moon from fresh streams, the stars from the moisture of 
the earth, cf. § 40 n., and § 83. 

refondont : on the moist infiuence of the moon see § 50 n. Rain was 
also supposed to come &om the stars which were conspicuous during the 
rainj seasons, see nn. on the Aratean section. Geminus {üranol. p. 56) 
sensibly remarks * the risings and settings of stars are no more the causes 
of atmospheric changes than beacons are of a hostile invasion ; they are 
merely signs. The earth being a mere pomt in comparison with the 
sphere of the fixed stars' ovdc/im diroppota duicvetrai dwo rmv carXavnv irrl ttjv 
yijv, 

eadem : instead of eosdem vapores, see n. on § 7 ea portendi^ Madv. 
214 b. 

qnod-— consnmat : I see no reason for changing the Subj. : quod is 
indefinite, like 6 av, ' whatever, if any, portion is consumed'. See nn. on 
§ 44 quae moverenturj § 72 qui precabantur, [I agree in retaining the Subj. 
but I should put it on somewhat different groxmd. Nihil est quod cc/nr 
sumat is the regulär constr. see Or. § 1686 : admodum pavlvm est quod 
consumat is also perfectlj admissible (see Madv. § 365 Anm. 1). The edd. 
write coneumit because intereat, not sit, has preceded, and therefore the 
agent causing the loss, not merely the fact of the loss, has to be added. 
The meaning will then be * so that nothing hardly perishes, or only very 
little, which is consumed &c.' The subj. on the other band means 'only 
the very little consumable by fire.* R.] 

eventnitun pntant...at ignesceret: the tense of the Subj. is at- 
tracted to that of the parenthetic clause (id — dicebant), see Draeg. § 151, 
5, 6, i^ P. III 4 ratio civüis perßcit in bonie ingeniis id, quod jam persa^epe 



240 BOOK n CH. XL VI § 118. 

perfecitj tU divina virtus exsisteret^ and above § 2 n. The Stoic doctrine of 
the cyclic conflagration was borrowed from Heraclitiis, see Simplic. in 
Arist Cad, p. 132 Karst (cited in Bywater's Heraclitus fr. 20) 'Hp. irorc 
/MV fJCTTVpovo'^ai Xcyft top KotTfiov^ iroT€ de fK rov irvpbs tTwiaratröcA vakuß 
tcaxa rivas xPov»v frtpiobovSy iv ols ^r)<Ti' Mirpa anrofAtvos Koi yUrpa aßtvw- 
ficvor. Seneca {N. Q, iii 27 foU.) has a fine passage on the predestined 
destruction of the world by water in the oosmic winter, and then again by 
fire in the cosmic siunmer. Afterwards omne ex integro animal generabUur 
dabiturque terrü hämo insdus 9celerum...8ed Ulis qttoque innocentia non 
durahit, nisi dum novi surU ; cf. Ov. Met l 255 esse quoque in faiis remir 
niscitur afore tempus^ quo mare quo tdlus correptaque regia codi ardeat et 
mundi moles operosa labaret ; and my SkeUh cf Änc. Phil, p. 173. ex 

quo : from the using up of water to support the fire of the heavenly bodies« 
BoethuSy a oontemporary and fellow-disciple of Panaetius, made use of a 
similar argument to prove the reverse, viz. that the existing cosmoe must 
be etemal ; ' if the world is changed into fire, there is nothing left for fire 
to feed on, and therefore fijre itself, the one principle of life, must perish '. 

Panaetiam addnbitare dicebant : * they used to say (when I at- 
tended lecture8)\ On addub. see i 14 n. and Holden on Q^. i 83. On 
Panaetius see Introd. p. xxx : bis Eclectic tendency showed itself in de- 
parting from the general doctrines of his school on the question of divina- 
tion and of the necessity of andSua, as well as on that of the Conflagration. 
We gather from Stob. Ed. i 414 that his view on the last point was only 
put forward as a probabiüty (addubitare) friQaiwripcaf tttfoi vofii{€i iral ftak- 
\ov dp€<rKov<ra» avr^ r^v didiortjra rov KOirfiov $ t^p tAv ok»¥ tls irvp fim- 
/3oXi;y. See the discussion on the souroes of this book. In like manner 
Cleomedes (i p. 3) leaves the question doubtful, and so the authority 
foUowed by C. (probably Posidonius) above § 85 {mundi oonfunctio) aut 
sempüema sit neoesse est hoc eodem omatu quem videmtu, aut oerte perdiu- 
tuma, permanens ad longinquum et immensum paetie tempus. 

ad extremnin : in the Magnus Annus § 51 n. 

a QUO — ^fleret : ' for the new world to spring from '. 

G d (5). Thu8 there ia a harmong and sympathg between the 
remotest parta of the univerae ; and owr earth ia beneßted bg a ateÜar 
inßuence, § 119 (cf. above § 50 foE). 

§ 119. mnltiui videri: from meaning simply 'oopious', muUu* 
aoquires the secondary force of 'tedious', cf. Of, ii 56 {Theophrastus) est 
mtUtus in laudanda magnißcentia'; Acad, ii 17 Antipatrum^ qui mtUtus 
in eo fuissetf reprehendebant ; Orot, n 358 ne in re nota multus sim; ib. § 17 
qui aut tempus quid postulet non videt aut pLura loquitur aut se ostentat,,, 
aut denique in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus esty is ineptus esse 
dicitury where Wilkins translates * ofiäcious, troublesome \ The same idea 
of diffuseness and tediouaness is found in vokvt e.g. Aeschii). p. 33 irokvt 



BOOK II CH. XLVI § 119. 241 

concentus : cf. above § 19 amnibits mter se coneinerUibus mundi par- 
tibtu, 

cum sninina Sattuni — ^temperet: 'while the furthest (of the five 
planets), that of Saturn, has a cooling influenoe, and the middle planet, 
that of Mars, has a heating influence, the planet of Jupiter, which is 
aituated between these two, has an illuminating and moderating influence '. 

his intezjecta JotIs temperet : Plin. ^,11. nS Satumi sidm geUdae 
acrigeniis em ncaurae,.,terHum Martü ignei, arderUü a solü mcinitate... 
ideoque hujus ardore nimio et rigore Saiumi, interjectvm duolms ex utroqus 
temperari Jovem salutaremque fieri ; Vitruv. ix 1 § 16. 

dnae Soli oboediant : cf. n. on- § 53, and Philo Prw. u 69 duae cum 
9ole currumi semper Mercurius ei Venm.„ceterorum impares sunt velodtates 
periodi. 

Lnna graviditatea afferat : see n. on § 50. 

C d (6). Wmders of vegetable life. § 120, 

Ch. zLTn § 120. age : c£ 1 83 n. 

radicibns contineiitnr : 'live by their roots' (lit. are kept together, 
preserved, that is, from being resolved into their component parts), cf. § 83 
and § 127 ea quae a terra stirpUms continerUur, and § 29 in radicibvs ineue 
prirudpatus ptUatwr. I think stirpe above must have the sense, not of the 
following tmncusy but of radix, as in § 83y where it is said terra stirpes 
amplexa oLü. 

QUO alantiir : ' that therebj thej may be nourished'. 

libro ant cortice^ usuallj these are distinguished as the inner and 
outer bark, here as a thinner or thicker bark, cf. Plin. N. H. xvi § 126 
eortex aliü tenuü, ut lauroy tüiae; aliü craseue^ vi robori; aliü levie^ vt 
malo^ fico; idem ecaber robori, palmae..,camotu$ tuberiy popvlo; membror 
naceus ut viti, harundini; libris simüi», ceraeo ; multiplex tunids, ut vitihus 
...quibusdam eimpleXy utßco, harundini; ib. vn 1 truncos etiam arhoresque 
cortice interdum gemino afrigoribus et calore itUata eet natura. I take liber 
here to be Plin/s cortex levis et simplex, The two words are interchange- 
ablj used Gato RR. 4b ^3, Colum. xi 2 § 37, 41, y 6 § 12. 

claylcnlia adminicnla: cf. Senect. 52 vitis...ut se erigat, davumlis suis 
quasi manUms, quicquid est nacta, camplectäur. clav. properly a litÜe 
hook, the simplest form of key being a hook ; see Voss on Aratus 1. 191. 

nt animantes : see this beautifull j shown in Darwin's book on Climb- 
ing Plants. 

a caulibiiB reftigere dieuntnr: canlis, which properly means stalk, 
18 used in a narrower sense for brassica {pa4>avo9) our 'cabbage', henoe 
called 'colewort' ; as in Hör. Sat. i 3 116, n 4 15, Juv. i 133, y 87. The 
antipathy of the vine to tiie cabbage is also stated by Pliny N. H. xyn 24 
odit (vitis) et caulem et holus omne; xx 34 (brassicam) vino adversari ut 
inimicam vitibus: antecedente in cibis caveri thrietatem^postea sumpta crapU" 
tarn discuti; Cato'Ä, Ä 156 ; Theophrast. H. F. ly 16, C. F. n 18, who attri- 
M. C. n. 16 



242 BOOK II CH. XLVII § 120. 

butes this dislike to the odour of the cabbage, 6aif>pa»riKov yap 7 ofurcXor ; 
Varro E, K 1 16 oompares it to the mutual antipathy of the oak and the 
olive, tugtie 00 est contrarium natura, ut arbor€S,„fugiafnt, uC viti» acUäa 
ad holv* facere solet ; Philo Andmal, 94 {arhores) taniquam osculo ialvttando 
amplectuniur M%nvicemtU,.,tilmumvitü; aliquas tarnen tum tolum avena- 
tur vüia verum etiam emtat,..intem evitant popuiue et laurL 

C d (7). Wonders ofanimal life. g 121—132. o. General pro- 
viaion of nature /or the preaervation of Uie individucU, ^ 121 — 123. 

§ 121. nt in sno quaeqne genere pemuuieat: *what provision is 
made in each case for the preservation of the species '. ftii4inft.iia used 
in all three genders, hke quadrupes: the fenmuDe usually has reference to 
brutes {bestia), (inaeqne foUowed by the Sing, as in § 127 quaeque 
d^endatj cL Madv. Fin, Y 42. 

coriiB tectae: ^pachyderms'. 

plnma — sqnaina : for the collecUve use c£ Sali frag. ffüt. iv 59 D 
linteaferreü laminis in modumplwmae annexueranC : Ov. Met. ZY 725 (the 
snake) litoream tractu squamae-crepitantü harenam mdcat, 

effdgia pbmBXVüai=pinna8 quibue effugiant; for the abstract plund 
see § 98. 

enmnerare.poBBiuft: cf. 1 101, n 10. *I might show in detail what a 
Provision haa been made in the form of each animal for getting and pre- 
paring this food, how skilful and exact is the arrangement of the varioiu» 
parts, how marvellous the feshioning of the limbs '. The general quei^on 
quae diacriptio is particnlarized in the foUowing et quam »ollere subtüiaque, 

§ 122. beluto: evidently not distinguished from animal or beeüa 
used belowy cf. i 77 n. 

seiisnm et appetitum : cf. above § 34 n., in 33 and Diog. L. vn 85. 
altero Becem6rent=Bc. »eneu. 

dentibns ipsis : the teeth themselves (as opposed to such instnimen- 
tality as the unguium tenacitas) not only cut and chew the food, but catch 
and hold it. 

sngunt : suck, as the bat or leech ; cajpnnt : bite or tear oS, aa the 
grazing ox ; vorant : swallow whole, as the boa constrictor ; mandlint : 
chew, most commonly used of the horse ; here perhaps to be undentood 
of carnivorous animals. 

cibnm terrestrem: cfl Plaut. Capt. i 2 86 terreatris cena est,.,muUia 
hoUrihue, 

§ 123. qnaa antem altiora sant : instead of the more regulär alia 
autem, et Madv. Fin, ezc. i § 6. 

maniiB data elephanto: cf. Arist. P.^. iv 12 p. 693 b ro» cXc0o<nir 

o liVKTTjp dpTt x^^P^^9 i^- I' 16 P- ^3 l>i Curt. VIII 14 § 27 terribüie iÜa fades 
erat cum manu arma virosque corriperent elephanti; Plin. JT, ff. vui 10 
epirant et hibunt odorantwrque haud improprie appellata manu (but in a 7 
he uaes the Aristotelian term proboscis) : the same writer uses manue of 



BOOK II CH. XLVn § 123. 243 

the fore-paw of the bear (ib. c. 36). Hence Lucr. v 1303 speaks of the 
elephant aa baves I/ucas turrüo corpore, taetras, anguimaniis, 

habebat ad pastum : the tense would suggest that the elephant was 
first created without bis trunk, and then that this was developed to meet a 
practical difficulty : so in the following sentence, the natural diet of each 
creature is supposed to be determined first (ercU ü cihu») and afterwards 
nature provides the means for obtaining this. See n. on deberet § 141. 

Ch. xLvin. quibns bestiis. . .(iis) dedit : for exx. of the Omission of the 
Demonstrative, where the Subject is attracted intQ the Relative clause, 
see Madv. § 321, Draeg. § .472, Krüger Unters. § 81. 

C d (7) ß. Special adaptations of animaZ nature for the preserva- 
tian ofthe individual. §§ 123—127. 

alii generis bestiis : Mu. objects to the form cdius read by most edd. 
and says that we either find dUerius generU, as in Yitruv. vin 4 § 1, or aXii 
ffeneruy as in Yarro L, L, ix 67 alii generis vinwny i2. jß. i 2 § 19 alii dei 
ara; and that alitu (Qen.) is not found in Cic. except in InverU. ii 6 § 21, 
but aliae pecudis in Biv. xi 30 and aliae rei Lucr. m 918 ; some Mss have 
altero Dat. in § 66. He omits generis on the ground that mtUiae bestiae 
»ui quoque gefneris bestiis vescuntur, but the general belief of antiquity was 
to the contrary efiect, see Juv. xv 169 with Mayor's n., QuintiL Ded. 12 
§ 27, Sen. Contr. 9 § 10. 

nt in axaneolis aliae teznnt : an abbreviated expression for ' ut in 
araneolis ftt: aliae texunt\ cfl Fin, iv 76 ta inßdibus pluribus, n nvlla 
earum ita contenta nervis sit, ut concentum seroare possii, omnes aeque iTicon- 
teniae sint, sie peccata.,, aeque discreparU ; where Madv. compares m 63 
ut enim in membris alia sunt tamquamsibi nata...aliqua etiam ceterorum 
membrorum usum adjuvant,.. .sie &c. araneola is an*. Xey. heriB, as the Masc. 
araneolus in Culeof 2. AristoÜe describes different kinds of spiders ß. A. 
IX 39 (rov XeyofUpav \vk<ov) to fjUKpov ovk vffxdvti dpaxytovy rb de fUi^ov 
^paxv Kai <l>av\ov wpos tJ yj Kai raU aifiaa-iais' inX rois arofiiois de dtl iroUi to 
dpaxviov Kcü Zvbov t^pv ras dpx^s n/pet, €e>s av efi,irf&6v rt KtyrfB^ {si quid in- 
cidit), Zneira irpoa-tpxerai, This is contrasted with the more cunning 
weaver, who spreads a large net to entangle her prey : of. Plin. N. H, xi 
28, Aelian j^. Ä. vi 57 ov fiovov de apa ^aap v<l>avTiKa\ al (f>aX,ayy€s,,,ir€<l)v- 
Kecra» de kcH ytmfierpiav deivai' ro yovv Kivrpov <f>v\aTTOv<ri Kai r^v rrcpi^epccov 
aKptßovo'Uf lo'x^p^f Kai £v«eXeidov htovrai, ovdfu. Cic. seems to draw a distinc- 
tion between those which make large nets, in the midst of which they lie in 
wait, and those that hide themselves in holes, such as the trapdoor spiders 
(aranea saccata of Linnaeus) ; but the latter are not very clearly described. 
We want more information as to the place in which the spider hides and 
into which the victim falls (incidit as opposed to inhaesent), and ex inopir- 
nato is plainly imsuited to the word observant with which it is joined in 
the HSB. In the text I have adopted Allen's emendation, but I think it 

16—2 



244 BOOK u CH. XLvm § 123. 

probable that there has been further loss in the mss, and that the original 
may have been something like tU ex fovea observatU et ex tiiopinato, n quid 
incidit, &c., or ex insidiis obtervani, ut ex inopinato^ li quid incident^ arri- 
piarU. It is possible however to take observant et arripLurU as a sort of 
hendiadys, so as to allow the force of ex inop. to extend to the 2nd word. 
See crit. nn. 

idque consumimt : on the pleonastic Demonstrative see § 27, and 
Index. 

pina : c£. Fin, ni 63 (some beasts are sc^tarj) <U iUa quae in cancka 
patnla pina dicittir, isque qui encU e concfux^ qui, quod eam cttstodit^ pino- 
teres voccUur, in eandemque cum se recepit inclnditw, ut videatur monuuue ui 
oaveret...aliorum causa quaedam faciunt. Aristotle sajs that the pea-crab 
(squilla^ nunfvrrjprji) finds a lodging in the shelj of the *■ naker' or muasel 
{nunni) and that the latter dies, if separated from the former {H. Ä, v 15). 
So Chiysippus (ap. Athen, m c. 38) iv r& irtforrij^ ir«p\ rov icaXoG «u r^s 
tjdov^Sy 1^ iritn^f ^V^^ ^°* ^ Tnwon^pjjf ovv€pyä oXXifXoir, kot tblav ou düpo- 
fi€Pa <rvfifi4v€tv...'j iriwi) ttaanio'aa'a ro oorpoKov ijavxo(*i rtjpovira ra cVct- 
(Tiovra IxBvtiOf 6 bi nivponjpijs TrapcorcDr, oray eia-iXB]] rt, ddkyei avrifP wnnp 
tnipjiuvaVy i; de brixB^X^ra avfifMV€t' Kai ovr<as ro diroXi/t^l^y tfpdop KccrtirBLavfn 
icotyj ; Oppian Eal. n 186 folL, also Plin. JV. H. ix 42, Philo de Anim, § 60. 
In the Englith Cyclopaedia there is a letter to Linnaeus from a ooire- 
spondent at Smyma dated 1749-, in whioh the latter sajs ' the Pinna muri" 
cata or Great Silk Mnssel is here found at the bottom of the sea in large 
quantities, being a foot long. The *0«cr<)i>7rodia or Cuttle-fish with eight 
arms watches the opportimity, when the mussei opens her shell, to creep 
in and devour her; but a little crab, which has scaroely any shell, lodges 
constantly in this shell-fish ; she pays a good rent by saving the Life of her 
landlady, for she keeps a constant look-out through the apertures of the 
shell, and on seeing the enemy approach she begins to stir, when the 
Irina (for so the Greeks call the shell) shuts up her honse, and the rapacious 
animal is excluded. I saw this shell-fish first at the ialand of Milo and 
found such a little crab in all I opened. I wondered not a little what was 
her business tiiere, but when I came here, I was first informed of it by the 
secretary of our consuj, a cutious and ingenious man, who has lived long 
in this place. This was afterwards confirmed by several Greeks, who daily 
catch and eat both these animals'. 

societatem coit : a teohnical phrase = coeundo societatem eßcity see 
Mayor on 2. Phil. 24. [Nep. Conon 2 § 2, Cic. Rose, Am. §§ 87, 96, Rabir. 
perd, reo § 21 fin. Also in the Digest. J. E. B. M.] 

§ 124. bestiolis cibus auaeritnr : on the Dat. used for the AbL of 
Agent after Passives see Madv. § 250. 

congregatae : used of two, as in pro Quint. 52 is quicum te volunicu eon- 
qreffosset, 1 cannot think the word congreBSn correct ; conventu or coh- 
sensu would better express a compact, as oppoeed to au instinctive habit : 
cf. Tusc. I 30 omnes esse vim divinam arhürantur. nee vero id coUocutio 



BOOK II CH. XLVIII § 124. 2*5 

homtnum aut coruensits efecit..,l€x ncUibrae putanda est, We know that 
cojuensus and coruesstu are easily confiised, as in 1 61, and the gre may have 
come from oongregatae below. Athenaeus 1. c. aaserts that the aasociation 
was instlnctive. 

natura : Abi. of Cause. At one time I was disposed to retain the 
reading of the Mss Tiaturae ipsae, understanding by it ' their very natures 
are associated ', i.e. ' they are associated by their natural Constitution \ but 
the harshness of the zeugma involved in conffressune aliquo leads me to 
prefer Walker's reading, which would be easily oorrupted by the assimila- 
tion of ipsa to the foUowing word. 

est admiratio in bestiis : ' there is a wondering (i. e. ground for 
wonder) in the case of beasts'=i7» quo admirandum est above, cf. Pliny 
i\r. ff. X 65 cited below on anitum ovo, [Qf. nmüütuio Madvig Finn. V 
§42. J. E. B. M.] 

▼elnti: ^for instanoe', cf. i 101 veltU ibes. cröcodili : three of 

the best mss read corcodüi here. It iS the form used by Phaedr. i 25 4 
a corcodüie ne rapiantur traditvm est, also 1. 6, and Marb. ni 93 7. Ritschi 
{Opusc. n 536) holds it to be the original Latin folrm, like Cortona for 
Kporo)!', Tarracina for Tpaxivf}, Aesciilapius for 'Ao-zcX^cor, and that it w£^ 
displaced by the regulär Greek form as that language became better known 
in Home. nitä : ' to move a limb '. 

anitum OTa : Plin. x 55 super omnia ^t aruUum <ms subdüxs aigue 
eaßdusis admiratio {gaüinae), primo non pkme agnosoentis fetwm,y mox iiv- 
certos iTicubitus soUicite convocaTitis, postremo lamenta circa piscinae stagna 
mergentibus sepnUis natura duee, 

ezclusi fotique : * hatched and reared (lii kept warm in the nest) ' ; 
c£ § 129, where excudo ia used with similar meaning.; Lucr. v 802 volticres 
ova relinquebant exdusae tempore vemo, Colunk Yi£t 14 (of >the hens) si pro- 
hibeantwr fetus su/os excludere; used of the eggs by Pliny Lc. 

conservandi smi^ see Madv. § 417, who cites Ca;tü, i 9 principes civi- 
tatis non tarn sui conservandi... causa Romam ßigerunt, for se conservandi, 
the Neut. Qen. sui being used if the gerundive is used, whether se be Sing. 
or PL, according to the rule given in § 297 b (* when a personal or reflexive 
pronoim ought to be joined to a word as an object in the genitive, the 
genitive neuter singular of the corresponding possessive pronoun is used', 
e.g. Studium nostri *devotion to us', lit. * to our interest '), cf. Caesar B. O, 
m 6 neqtie sui colligendi kostihus facultatem relinquunt; Div, ii 39 doleo 
Stoicos nostros Bpicureis irridendi sui facultatem dedisse, For exz. of the use 
of suus in reference to a word which is not the subject of the sentence see 
Boby § 2265. There is something of pleonasm in the phrase custodiam 
cons. sui : it would have been more regulär to have custodiam salzUis or 
curam conservandi, 

Ch. XLix. legi scriptum : ' I have read in a book ', cf. Deiot 19 ut 
scriptum legvmus, nominaretur : for Imp. Subj. after proper Perf. Ind. 
see I 3 n. and Index. 



246 BOOK II OH. XLIX § 124. 

jdatalda : Plin. JY. ff. x40 copies this, slightly altering the name, 
plcUea nominatur advolans ad eas quae se in mari merguntf et capiia illarum 
morsu corripiens donec capturam extarqueat, eadem cwn devonUis se 
impleffit conchis calore verUrU coctas evamity atque ita ex tu eactUenta leffit, 
testas excernens, No earUer or independent authority is cited for this 
characteristic, but it agrees with the accounts given of the Frigate or Man- 
of-War Bird {Pelicanits aquila Linn.) and also of the Shta stercararia 
{Engl, Cyd,\ Hhey piirsue the Sea-mews and Tems, which may be 
termed their purveyors, and sometimes even Boobies and Cormorants, their 
only aim being to deprive these birds of the prey they have caught They 
pursue, harass and beat them, until they have forced them to disgoi^ and 
drop their booty, which they catch before it falls into the sea '. See also 
Engl, Cyd, under Pdicanus and Boohy, The word pIcUea is the regulär 
name for the Spoonbill, which has no such propensity : Philo de Änimal. 
§ 31 calls the bird poelotes. 

Qnae se in inarl mergerent : ' divers \ which the pelican is not. 

cum emendsflent piBoemqne cepissent : ' had come to the smfeuse 
with a fish ', a sort of hysteron^proteron, 

captnin amitterant: Allen cites Curt. iv 6 praetervolan» corpus 
glebam, qiuim unguibtu ferdxU, subito amisit, cf. also 2 Verr. iv ^praeda 
de manibus amissa, 

in <inod ipsa invaderet: 'for the other to pounce upon for itaelf'. 
This is the nsual construction in Cic, cf. 2 Phil, 77 in ooUum invcuit, and 
Seh. Opusc, ni 337. 

conchifl complere : taken from Aiist. H, A, ix 10 ol ircXcicayer ol cV rar 
worafUHg yivofievoi Karamvovo'i rag fieyaKas Koyxctf Ktu \tias* orcof de iw rf wpo 
rrjs KoiKias rarrn^ Tri^l^c^trip, e^ftavtruf Ufa ^(atrKovtrSv ra Kpia t^mpovvr^g €<r6i' 
tto-cy. Aelian ff, A,y 35, and Flui Sol, An, p. 967, state the same thing 
about the heron {tpatdiog ardea), By irpo rrjg xoiXtar Arist probably meana 
the pouch {irporjyopttiv AeL L a), as he uses mach the same language of the 
'crop ' of fowls, ff, A, n 17 ol /mv yap Zxov<ri irpo rijs kocXuzr irpoKoßo» olow 
äkfKTpvdv. . .ol d€ irpo\6ßov fUp ovk t^ovaiv^ dXX* ovri rofvrov rov arofiaxov (the 
gullet) €vpvp Ktu irXarvy ^ di Skov (as the \apos Koi KarcippaKTtf f)f,.,€¥toi de 
rijs KoiXlas aurfis rt €xova'tp opoiop npoXoß^ (translated by Pliny zi 79). G£ 
Part. An, m 14 ' owing to the absence of teeth birds have top KaXovfM^tPw 
TTpoKoßop ovri rrjs rov aropjoros epy<urias..,fj irpo rtjsKOiKiasfUpofTi oyK«dcf ip 
f irpoBrfa'ajfpi{ova'i rrip aKortpycurrop rpo<t>^p\ Pliny teils a similar tale of 
the onocrotaluSf which is evidently the pelican, (x 66) olorwni simüitudinem 
onocrotali habenty nee distare existimarentur omnino nisi faucibus tpsis 
inesset aüerius uteri genus, ffuc omne inexplebiU animal congerit. Mox 
perfecta rapina sensim inde in os reddita in veram alimm ruminantis more 
refert. We need not suppose that C. meant the pouch by his stomackusy 
on which see below § 135, any more than Pliny did by his venler (a 40 
cited above), still less Aelian (m 20) by his cV pvxf r^f yaorpor. 

§ 125. ranae mailnae : the Angler or Fishing Frog, Lopkius pitoato- 



BOOK U GH. XLIX § 125. 247 

ritu^ is uaually about three feet loDg, Uvea at the bottom of the sea, bj 
means of its fins stirs up the mud in such a xnanner as ta conceal itself 
from other fishes, has three long filaments on the upper part of the head : 
the glittering appendages at the end of theee filaments are said to attract 
the amaller fishes, like a bait. See JSng, 0yd. Aristotle mentions it in 
speaking of the stratagems of animals, (J7. Ä, ix 37) d fii» yap ßarpaxos rols 
vp6 T»¥ 6<t>6akfio»v arroKptfjMfuvois (sc ßrfp€vfi^ ' ensnares the fish with the 
filaments which hang in front of his eyes % ^v to fuv ftrJKos etrri rpixotthis, 
itr* 3xpov d^ OTpoyyvKov mtmtp vpoaKtifXtvov ^Koripip dcXeoror X^P"'* ^^'^^^ ^^ 
€» Toig dfAfMobto-iv ff 6o\tp»dta'iv d»€crapd^s Jtpvtfrj; ^awov^ iiraipti ra rpi;(o»di;, 
KoirrovTnv di rSv Ix^M»p wyKarayti fitXP^ ^^P ^ ifpos ro aropa vpotrayayji. 
He calls it ßarpaxoy top akiia Kakovptvov, and SO Plin. ff, N, IX 42 pitcor 
trix, Schneider in his note on Arist. I.e. sa3rs of this passage of Oic. quae- 
dam eacidiue videntur, and certainly we shotdd have expected the antece- 
dent to ad quas to have some referenoe to the filaments described bj 
Arisl : if the reading is correct, C. seems to have supposed the rana to 
have concealed itself in the sand by the sea (prope aquam), not actnally 
in the sea. 

milno bellniii cum corro : this is described by Arisi E. N. ix 1 

V<fKUp€lT(U TCV KOpCLKOi 6 IxTivOi O Tl aV txjj, diO ro KptlTTOV (ZyOi T019 ow^i Kai 

TJ7 nnfaet, but it is of other birds, especially the Kopminj and yXavf , that he 
says ra tpa Korfo-Biova-iv liXXi^XttK Pliti. IX 25 says the aesalan and chlareiu 
destroy the eggs of the cormu. 

graes triaagnli efficere formftm : Aristotle {ff, A, ix 10) says a good 
deal about cranes, but does not give the particxilars mentioned by C. which 
are probably taken firom the dialogue De phüa9ophta (see above §§ 42, 
44, 95). Pliny (N, Ä x 23 § 63) teils the same with reference to wüd 
ge^se and swans Ithumicarum modo roitrato tmpetu fenmtur, facüiw üa 
ßndevUes aera quapi n recta fronte impeüerent : a tergo sensim dtlatante se 
cuneo porriffitvr agmen, largeque impdlenti praebetur atirae. Calla impo- 
nunt praecederUibue ; fes808 duces ad terga recipiunt; but in Aelian N, Ä. 
m 13 and Flutarch Solert, An. p. 967 it is related of cranes. Allusions are 
made to the order of their flight in Lucan v 710, Mart. ix 14 and xm 75, 
where it is compared to the letter A ; others compare it to V or Y. [Auson. 
Id, xn de lüteris monosyll, 25, Philostr. fferoic, a 11 § 4, Hyg. Fab. 277, 
Hieron. ßp, 125 15, Claud. Oüd. 47*1 y Cassiod. -Var. 8 «p. 12, Hemsterh. on 
Ludan i p. 305, G. J. Voss de Arte Orämmatica i 25, Bochart i7t0ro2r. 
Pt n I 11. J. E. B. M.] On t^e change from the Indirect to the Direct 
Gonstruction (efficere^-pellütur) see above § 39 e^ atUem mtmdo n. 

snmino aogulo : Hhe apez of the triangle'. 

aer adversna : not neoessarily an adverse wind, as Seh. and Plui Lc. 
{ora» y irvtvpa ir6Kv\ but the air which meets them as they cleave their 
way through it. 

senaim ; this is scaroely intelligible by itself : probably düatante ee 
cuneo (Plin. La) has been lost. 



248 ' BOOK II CH. XLIX § 125. 

ea : see Index under PUonastic Demongtrative. 

a pnppi ventiB : ' by stem winds', c£ § 14 praeter fuxturam porUMiSy 
§ 87 toLarium ex aqua : the pliiral meanB ' whenever thej occur '. 

non habet nbi nitatnr : ' bas notbing to rest on ', c£ 2 Verr, n 155 
quo confugieB f übt nüere f and Matt, viii 20 6 vior rov a»6piLfrov wk c;(cc 
iroO Ttjy KtcfiaKriv kKivjj. Tbe frequent cbange of leader is an obeerved fact : 
tbe resting of tbe bead is doubtfuL 

snccedit ez iis : cL R,P.iM n e vectoribus sorte ductus ad gvbemon 
cuLwm, succe88erit ; Sali. Juff. 93 § 7 Mariue cum Ligure prom%$$a ^ui cogni- 
tum ea; praeserUibus mint; Tac Arm. i 77 epld>e, 

§ 126. proferre possom : cf. § 121. genuB ipsam : tbe general 

idea is conti*asted witb particular exz., as in l 97 ipsa simäüudoy c£ i 45 
ipgarum deonmi. 

Cb. L. illa : in reference to tbe f urtber instanoes of intelligence wbich 
follow, We bave it repeated four times witbin a few lines, ülud § 125, 
jam vero üla, at^pie iUa^ IZß^jam Uta § 127. 

nuper: contrasting tbe reoent date of science witb tbe instinctive 
knowledge of brutes, cfl Div. i 86 nequs ante pküosopfdam patefactam^ quae 
nuper inventa est, hoc de re communie vita dubitavit, If tbe ezplanatory 
clause wbicb follows is genuine, we must understand it as a jocose addition 
on tbe part of Cic 

ea quae nuper...lbes se cnrant : Scb. is, I tbink, rigbt in regarding 
tbis as an abbreviated expression for a hestiUfieri videmus; nam ffomititme 
canee &c. It would become regulär if tbe parentbetic clause were put in 
appoeition at tbe end. For tbe subject matter see Arist. H.Ä.Ui^ai xvvtt 
oTop rt vovwTiv^ tffifTov trofoCvroi <t>ayov(rai riva irooy, Plut. Solert, Än^ p. 974 
rrjs tßtois t6p viroKXvo'fiov oKfjtjf KaSaipofihnjs Alyvimoi awidtiv Koi fUftif<raa-&tu 
\iyowruf (cf. Herod. ii 77) ; Plin. vin 27 § 97 mentions tbe use of tbe dyster 
as one of tbe lessons wbich bave been taugbt by animals (on wbicb see 
Dust, of AfU. under Medicina\ so Pbilo (Anim. 38) 'men bave to call in a 
pbysician, but animalR know by instinct wbat treatment is required, as the 
goat tbe dictamnus \ Bacon {De Augm, v 2) cites these and similar in- 
stances. as sbowing how tbe arts bad sprung up. Hippocrates seema to 
bave been tbe first to maintain tbis view, c£ tbe quotation from bim in 
Pattison's n. on Pope's Essay on Man in 169 ^see bim from nature riaing 
slow to art ', and nn. on inventa animo below § 150. 

pantheraB : Arist. H. A, Lc. cont. i) de xopdaXir ora» <^ayii to ^apfMwemß 
rh irapdaKtayx*f C^T€l rfj» rov dv6p<ovov Koirßot^ ßorfBu yap avrj, Plin. vm 
27 § 100 pantkeras petfricata eame aconito, . ,barbari venantur. barbaxia : 
used of a particular barbarous region, as in § 88. 

QUO cimi essent nsae non morerentnr: 'a remedy of such a kind 
that, after umng it, tbey did not die.' 

capras: Arist. I.e. cV Kp^rff <f>aa\ rag aiyas ras dypias, otom ro{cv^«iai, 
fijrcty rh diKrofipo»' doicct de tovto cje^Xi^tmov cZmu tAp ro^vftamv cV rf 
a^fAOTi, Theopbr. ff. P. ix 16, Plin. vm § 97, Diosc. Mai, Med, m 34. 



BOOK II CH. L § 126. 249 

The wound of Aeneas is healed with it Äen. xu 411. I have adopted 
AUen's emendation venantis for venenatis, which was no doubi repeated 
from the preceding venenata. Nowhere eise is there allusion to poisoned 
arrows in referenca to the dictamntis : its power was supposed to be that 
of stanching the blood and causing the arrow to fall out ; also it was used 
vpQs ras SvaroKias ro^p ywaiKaV $ yap tvroKtiv ffnun voifiv ^ iroveu' yc rovs 
vovovs (Theophr. L c.). Again we never read of poisoned arrows being 
used in Crete, but only among barbarous races, such as the Scythians (see 
Dict of Ant, under »agitta) : indeed there could be no use for them in 
Crete, as we are expressly told that the island was free from all wild beasts 
and noxious animals (see reff, in the art. on Creta in Dict, of Oeog,\ and 
we can hardly suppose that poisoned arrows would have been employed 
against animals which were hunted for food, and that bj a race of men 
who were famed for their skill in archery. 

§ 127. cervae : Arist. gives a somewhat different account (I.e. iz 5) 
T&v dypltop ff tkaxßos ov^ ^Kurra doiect tluai <f>p6vifu>v r^ rt TiKreiv irapa ras 
odov9.>.ieal Srav T€Ktj iaBlfi rb xoptov irpwroir Koi iiri rrjv crecrcXiv bk rpt^ovcn 
Kai <f>ayova'ai ovnts tfpxovrai cVl rä riicva icaKw, Pliny Combines this with 
Cicero's {N, H. vm 32 § \\%)femin(ie ante partum ptargaTUur herha quadam 
guae sesdis dicitur, facäiore ita utentes utero. A partu duca habent herbas 
quote aros et sesdis appeUantur. Pastae redeunt adfetwn. 

dentibnB : * tusks ' )( morstl, where the whole jaw is employed, often 
used of the lion, e.g. Seneca Agam, 740, Herc, F. 946, Troad» 797. 

86piao : Arist. 1. c. IX 37 § 19 r&v pakoKi^v nctPovpyoTarov ptv i; oTpria 
«xl /lovov XPl'''^ ^f SoK^ Kpvyftt^s X^^^ '^^ ^^ p^vov (f>oßovpJvrjy Plin. iT. JTl 
IX 29. Flutarch {Sol. An. 978 a) compares it to the Homeric Gods, who 
disappeared in a cloud, when hard-pressed. The liquor was used for ink 
(Pers. III 13). 

torpedineS : Arist. 1. c« § 3 f r« papiaj vaptta» troioOcra ^v av npanio-tt» 
fjJiJifl lxBvciy***\afAßdv«i ra ifriv€orra'...<l>a»€pd i<m ical rovs äv6p<äfirovs 
iFoiowra vapKav, cf. Plin. ^. E. xxxn 1, Plato MeTio 80 (the famous com- 
panson of Socrates to the torpedo), Plut. 1. c, Claudian Id. 3, Philo Anim. 
30. 

odorls foeditate : Arist. Fart. An. iii 2 p. 663 a o<roir d* &xprj<rros vi- 

^vjccv i) r&v MpoTföv iipxyi, rovrois irpcurrideiKep Mpa» ßoi^Beiap 17 ^vo-tr, olop 
Tois /icy eXa0o49 Tdxos..*roig de ßopacrois (the bison) r^v roO TrcptTToifiaror 
i(f>t<np' rovr^ ydp dpvvrrai ^ßriÖipra kcÜ raurrf de r^ irpoiirtt diaco^^crat 
mpoj Plin. N. H. VIII 16 § 40 tradunt in Faeonia feram esse guae bonasus 
vocatur eguina juba, cetera tauro simdlem^ oorrvSms üa in se flexis ut non 
sint tUüiaptign^:^ guapropter fuga sibi auxUiari, reddentem in ea ßmum, 
interdwm et irium jugerum longüudine; cujus contactus seguentes vi ignis 
cUiguis amburat (translated from Arist. H.A. ix 45); Aelian ^.A. vn 3 
gives it the name popcn^^. Since the disoovery of America, the skunk has 
suppUed a less doubtful example. 



250 BOOK n CH. LI § 127. 

C d (7) y. Adaptattons of cmimal naiure for the preaervtUion o/ 
the apecies. §§ 128, 129. 

Ch. LL a iHTOVidentia: cf. a natura siutinmUur § 133. 

a terra sürpibns continerentiir : the same phrase occurs in § 83. 

bacanun : includes all fruits which h&ve a stone inside, and is fre- 
quently used by C, for the produce of trees in Opposition to frugt9 of 
plants, cf. Biv, 1 116, and Senect, 5, fraget terrae hacatve arborum; Ttue. i 
31 arhores seret agricola guarum aspiciet bacam ipse nwnquam; Leg, u 19 
certasque friiges, certasqtte haoae sacerdotee publice libanto; Tueo, v 37 neqve 
est tiUum guod non ita vigeca,„ut autflores aut fruges fundat atU bacae; 
above § 37 we h^ye friiges atgue fitictiu. 

BÜrpe : used here in the wide sense of ' plant ', as in § 36 and § 99. 

§ 128. commiscendomm : cf. Homer^s <l>i\6Triri ftiyfjmtj Div, i 60 «< 
cum matre corpvs miscere videatur, Virg. O. ii 327 Äether conjugie in gre- 
mium descendit. . .magno commixtus corpore, 

locis: cfl Plin. XI 84 utenuy quod alio nomine loco9 appellcmt; like 
roiros Arist. ff. A. vi 18, vn 3 ; it is used also of the male by Lucr. iv 
1034. 

eoqne aaeptum fingit axüxnal.: these words, which Seh. translates 
* with the food gives shape to the embryo inclosed ', present several diffi- 
culties : (1) the Abi. with ßngo natiurally denotes the instniment ; the 
material out of which anything is formed is properly expressed by the 
prep. ea: (2) it seezqs stränge to speak of the eemen as something extemal 
to the animal: (3) are we to take eaeptum with semen or with animalf 
If we take sa^tum animal as a periphrasis for fettis, we should have ex- 
pected (as Heind. says) in utero aaeptum^ omitting the ex utero foUowing. 
For the general meaning compare Favorinus ap. QelL zii 1 nonne hac 
quoque in re eoUertia naturae evidena est, quod, poetquam aanguie iüe opifex 
in penetralibus suis omne corpus hominis finxit, adventante jam partua 
tempore, in sttpemas se partes perfirt f Arist. Qen, An, iv 4 p. 771 b to 
tnripfM TO &pp€vof, €tT€ ovfißdKktTM irpbs rfjv vkrjv fioptov ytvofievov rov wi/- 
puaros Kai r^ rov Orjktos (nripfutri fuyvvfMfvov, €trc...«<rfrrp ifxifup, cnmiy^F xat 
dijfuovpyovv T^v v\rjv rrj» 9V rf ^Xci, ib. I 21 ro pjh &pp€V dpxifp jcunfo-coic 
{üVfjLßdKKertu.), ro &e BrjXv rfjp vkijv, 22 i; pMp<f>^ fcal ro tlhos dir' «kcimw (the 
male) iyyivrrai biä rrjt Kivii<rtms iv rfj ZXjj (this clears up the seoond diffi- 
culty raised above, since the semen supplies only the formal and effident^ 
not the material cause) ; Arius ap. Euseb. F. E, zv 20 ro de aipipiua i/nfoiw 
6 Zi^pap €lv<u iTPtvfUL fuff vypov, ^vx^ff fJ^ipos Kai dnooTraa'utL, Its mode of 
Operation is described in a passage quoted from Simplicius on § 81, where 
it is regaided as a type of the creative energy of nature, cf. Diog. vn 136 
tSinrtp iv T^ yoi^ ro airipfia ircpicxcnu, ovr» Kai rovrop (top dcov) a^r^ppanr 
Kop \&yop ivra rov Koa^funt rocovde viroKtifTta-ßM ip rf vyp^ €V€pyhip avr^ 
noiovpTa r^v ijKrfv irpht r^v twp i(rjs yivttruf (viz. the four elements). Tbe 



BOOK n CH. LI § 128. 251 

last passage might suggest that C. has oonfounded cibtis (the food taken by 
the mother) with mcUeriOj in which oase aaeptwn might refer to aemen 
( = Gr. irtpUxrrai). Certainly, aocording to strict Stoio view, the fettes 
Bhould not have been called saept. ammcd, as they answered the question 
fl TO ffißpvov C^p in the negative, fUpos elpat ovro rrjs yaaTp6s, ov (i^^ Plac. 
Phü, V 15. If we keep the reading, I shonld understand it as follows, 'the 
seed draws all the nourishment, 1. e. the vXi;, to itself and being inclosed 
in it moulds the embryo'. [Cf. Coleridge Aids (conclusion p. 328 ed. 6), 
'herein consists the essential difirerence...of an organ from a machine, that 
not only the characteristio shape ia evolved from the invisible central 
power, but the material maas itself is acquired by assimilation. The 
germinal power of the' plant transmutes the fixed air and the elementary 
base of water into grass and leaves ; and on these the organific principle in 
the ox or elephant exercises an alchemy stiU more stupendous. . As the 
unseen agency weaves its magic eddies, the foliage becomes indifferently 
the bone and its marrow, the pulpy brain or the solid ivory. That what 
you see is blood, is flesh, is itself the work, or shall I say, the translucence 
of the invisible energy' &a R] But I am rather disposed to read ex 
eoque conceptum (or coeptum) fingü animaly ' out of the vKrj moulds the rudi- 
mentary animal '. 

ut Intellegamns : depends not on the principal verb data est^ but on 
an unexpressed idea, as in § 17. 

anas easdem : ' while', of. § 62. 

§ 129. ad eum finem : of time, as in Verr, i 16 0a manaü usque ad 
eumfinem dumjudices rejecti sunt, ib. v 75, Cael, 11. 

aqua et sustiiiexitar et fetnm ftindimt : ' a kind of zeugma for et in 
eaf.f.* Seh. 

CL Ln. nascuntur ipsa : by a natural confusion C. here predicates of 
the ova what is properly true of the yoimg. For the fact see Plut. Sol. An. 
p. 982, Aelian F. ff. i 6, Herod. n 68. In Arist. however (ff. A. y 33) and 
Plin. ff. N. IX 10, X 62 tortoises and crocodiles are said to iucubate. 

excndemnt: the common word for hatching in the Scriptores R.R., 
c.g. eatcusis ansercvZis CoL vin 14 § 7; properly it refers to the breaking of 
the Shell by the parent bird. Compare iickhriw Herod. n 68, €KKo\ajn-civ 
Arist ffist. Aninu vi 3 § 16. 

d (7) 8. Adaptations of extemal natura to meet the toatUs of 
plante and animals. §§ 130 — 132. 

§ 130. accedit etiaxn : 1 see no reason for omitting etiam. It is 
frequently joined with accedit in Cic. e.g. Senect. 16, ffarusp. Resp. 6, 
1 Verr. 29, BdLb. 65 ; and the reourrence of the word with hominum is a very 
natural carelessness. 

remm gnas terra gignit : a striking example of this awkward peri- 
phrasis, on which see 1 4. 



252 BOOK n CH. LH § 130. 

aine iirocuratione hominnin : c£ below § 158 (where we have also an 
ex. of the Subjective Gen. sine ctdtu haminum) and Lucr. y 860. . 

ad ciütum hominum atque abundantiam : hendiadys <for profitable 
cultivation '. 

tota aestate : it begins to rise in Jime and is at its height in Septem- 
ber, see Bawlinson on Herod. ii 19. For the Abi. of duration see toHs 
noctibus 105. oppletam : ' soaked '. 

Enphrates : so Herod. 1 193 ' Babjlonia is like Egypt iniersected wiih 
canals for the purpose of irrigation : the riyer does not overflow of its own 
accord, but is spread over the land by the band or by machinery. When 
thus watered; the soil is incredibly frnitfiil'; Plin. N.H. y 26 increKÜ 
aiUem et ipse Nüi modo statu diebus pavlum diffuausy ac Mesopotamiam 
inundat. When Herodotus says it does not overflow of itsel^ he must 
refer to the artificial lakes and canals in which the water was stored up, 
for the volume of water is swollen regularly by the melting of snows, like 
the Nile. 

quot annis : as there is no parallel to qttot anna (reading of the mss) 
before Apuleius Met. xi 22 sedvlum qttot dies cbibam sacrorum ministerium^ 
1 have followed Lamb. in reading the AbL Davies cites Ttisc. i 119 g[uot 
dies erimus in TusculanOf but that is the ordinary Acc. of Duration ; here 
the inundation is not regarded as lasting through the year, but merely aa 
recurring every year. No doubt the eye of the scribe ran on to the follow- 
ing accusatives. 

quasi novos agroB : Strabo (xv 1 § 16) says this generally of all rivers 

rovrmp »s au ytvp^fiara virapy^fty ra trtbia, jcal tv Xiyto'dai ort rovrnv €ut\ ra. 
ircdta : so the Delta of the Nile was called d«lpov rov troro/iov, Herod. ii 5. 

Indns : Arrian Anab. v 4 and 6 says it is the greatest river in Europe 
and Asia ezoept the Ganges, which surpasses all even the Nile. A& a 
matter of fact the Indus is a good deal longer than the Ganges, but not 
nearly the length of the Volga or of some of the Chinese and Siberian 
rivers, not to mention the Nile. 

laetificat : similarly used by Pliny xvn 8 apud ffomerum regius senex 
agrum ita (Jlmo) suis mantbus laetißoans reperitwr. Hence laetamen used 
•for manure by Plin. xviu 16 ; see above § 102. 

mitigat : softens hard soil, cf. Hör. Ep, ii 2 ferro mitiffcU agrumf and 
below § 151 mitiffot cihunu 

finunenti »Imflium : Strabo (xv 1 § 22) mentions a arnv aJro^v^ wp^ 
napawkrjo-unf as growing in India, and Theophrastus (J7. F. iv 5) says that 
India bears jcal ariripfiara tbia ra ptp rois ;(edpoiroif Sfiota ra di roir nvpoit jcat 
rais KptOaig, but neither of them oonnects this with the overflowing of the 
Indus. 

Ch. Lm § 131. Etesias : the Nom. S. Btesias is used by Plin. iV. ff. 
xvni 34 : they may be described as trade winds blowing periodically (h-ot) 
from N.W., cf. Seneca iV. Q.y 10 a solstitio Ulis iniHum est tdtraque ortum 
Caniculcte non vcUent. Sic tUe Etesiarvm flatus aestcOem frangit et a men- 



BOOK II GH. LIII § 131. 253 

9%um ferveTiHmrruyrum gravitate defendit; ib. c. 18 Etedas non paiiwitur 
apud nos nvbea consistere : iidem totam Indiam et Äethiopiam contmuü joer 
id tempus aguis irrigcmt ; Lucr. v 742 etemi flahra Äquüonvm ; Caesar 
{B. C. ni 107} speaks of being detained in Alezandria bj the Etesians 
qui navigcmtibtu AUxandria mmt adversissimi venti; cf. Herod. Ii 20, Cic 
Farn, n 15, Att. vi 7. The word is also used for periodical winds blowing 
from other quarters QelL n 22, Diod. i 89, Arist. Meteor, n 6, Ideler 
Meteorcl, p. 114 folL 

§ 132. [et tarnen mnlta dicuntnr] : I agree with Ba. and Mu. in 
regarding this as an interpolation due to a reader whose patience waa 
becoming ezhausted by C.'s list of wonders. It is weak in itself and it 
breaks the connezion between praeterewnda and enumerari enim, 

Opporttmitates : ' conveniences ', ezplained above in regard to agricul- 
ture § 130. 

aestiis maritimi : see § 19 n. The reading mtilium of the mss is pro- 
bably to be explained by a dittographia of the final syllables of marüumi, 
mitum getting comipted into mnltum. MtUuo, read by Seh. with one 
inferior ms, has no meaning here : it cannot be used for vicissim. The best 
of the other emendations is that of Lambinus, see crit. nn. 

vestiti: <clothed and wooded', cf. §§ 98, 161. 

medicamentomin : Plin. N.If. xxiv 1 ne nlvae quidem horridiorque 
natwrae fades medicinis carent, sacra üla parente verum omniwn nitsqüam 
non remedia düponente hominü 

artes deniqne : I think this reading may be defended on the ground 
that artes repertae sunt docente natura, Leg, 1 26 (compare the whole passage 
and Bake's n.), and that cum omni tUüitate, quam di hominibus dedenmt^ 
ars aUqua cor^'uncta est, per quam tUa utüüas perdpi possit, Div, 1 116 ; the 
Tnedi/ximeTUa just mentioned would remind him of the remedial arts men- 
tioned above § 126, which the animals had received from nature. If a 
change were needed I should prefer utüitates read by Mü. after H. A. Koch 
Progr, Fort, 1868 p. 39, to the res of Moser, or dotes of Seh. (Optuc, in 339, 
Fleck. Jahrb. 1875 p. 692). 

vlctliin — ^vitam : constantly found in conjunction, see Lexx. and KizoL 

tribuens : ' assigning '. imdigae : logioal, ' from all quarters '. 

C d (8). The hand of Promdence is moat plairdy vidble in man. 
^ 133 — 153 (C. appears to confound this section with the 4th general 
division of his subject, treated of in ^ 154 — 167). 

§ 133. sed qnaeret qnispiam : I have foUowed the reading of Cod. 
Glog. here, rather than that of C. (with Mü.) or of Cod. Heg. with Seh. and 
Ba., because the tin of Kss would more naturally spring from an original 
sed than from hie; and the Subj. (of Cod. Beg.) is a far less usuaJ oonstruc- 
tion than the Ind. of the mss, see Eoby Gr. voL ii p. ci. 

at id qüidem absurdum : Tusc. 1 61 absurdum id qiddem. 



254 BOOK n CH. Lni § 133. 

mutonim : so I read with Day. and Seh. for muiarum of hbs. The 
neuter ia the more general expression and therefore better snited for this 
place ; but it would naturally be altered by scribes to make it agree with 
bestiamm. Cf. Verr. v 171 onmia miUa cUque inanima (including not only 
hesticu but icuea), Juv. xv 143 with Mayor's n. For the argument c£ below 
§157. 

tantnin laborasse : this is merely a rhetorical expression and not the 
Stoical belief, cf. i 22 n., in 92 dicere soletü nihil esse guod deiu efficere non 
posait, et quidem sine lahore vUo. 

dixerit : Fut. Per£ Subj. like iüos merito quis dixerii miseros Sen. DiaL 
I 4 § 6, cited by Roby Gr. § 1640. 

dl et homines : not men alone, as is more loosely stated in §§ 37 and 
154, where see n. and cf. Sen. Ira ii 27 nxm enim .nas causa mundo sumus 
hiemem aestatemqite referendi: siuis ista leges hahent quibus divina exeroen^ 
iur, Firnis nos stupicimus, si digni nobis videmur propter quos ianta mo- 
veantur; Benef. vi 20 folL The Qoda alluded to are the heavenly bodies 
and all the various manifestations of the mondäne Deity,^ c£ above § 59 
foll., and Yarro ap. Aug. C, D. vii 6. 

ratio est quae praestet : 4t is reason that (not ' which ') suipaaaes 
all'; on the Subj. see Fin. l 43 sapientia est una qtute pelkU, where Madv. 
says ' conjunctivus potestatem rei, non ipsam rem directo significat\ 

' quaeqne in eo sint : I think the edd. right in omitting mundo after 
eo; BS also in omitting cognoscurU § 145 and perhaps düigunt § 165 : it 
is not wanted for cleamess, as in the passages cited by Allen. 

Cd (8). CL in the provision made for the eupport of life hy 
TMans ofair cmdfood. ^ 134 — 138. 

In entering on the anatomical section I must warn the reader against 
expecting any assistance from two books which he might be tempted to 
consult, Cicero Medicus by Birkholtz 1806, and Cic&on M^decin by Meni^re 
1862. 

Ch. Liv § 134. cibo potione spiritn : cf. Arist. de Respir. c. 11 m\ 

vpop fi€P t6 tufcu, Tpo<f>^s dffiroi t»v (^v tKCUTTovy npos d^ 1:7^ a-tmjpuof lijs 
jcara^-fcoir, rf avr^ Spyav^ "XfirfTai irphs i^xf)» ravra 17 ^vcrip. teneatlir: 
* depends upon ', cf. § 31 tenetur calore. - 

adjunctis naribiis spirita angetnr: ^the mouth reoeives abundant 
supplies of breath through the assistance of the nose '. C£ Lucr. v 722 
{IwMiepars) ignibus aucta, m 630 animas sensibiu auctas. 

dentibuB in ore constrictis: *by the oompression of the teeth'. 
Most Hss have constructis which I think always implies something of 
' piling up '. I have followed V, which suits well with the following verbs 
manditur &c The clause must be considered to continue the description 
of the mouth, not to treat of the teeth as a separate subject^ in which case 
constrictis would be brought in too abruptly, and I should be indined to 
read constituHs with some infsrior hss. 



BOOK H CH. LIV § 134. 255 

ab iifl : the latest edd. treat these words as an Interpolation. It seems 
to me more difficult to eXplain their insertion, if thej did not form part of 
the original text^ than to justify their use. If a general word, such as 
corutittUts referring to the first creation of man, had preceded, some such 
phrase as this would have been required with the Passive verbs following ; 
but even when a word of particular appUcation like co7i9irictts appears in 
the AbL Abs. its subject may be repeated with a different govemment 
affcerwards, see Seh. Optise. ui 373, who cites among other exz. Caes. B. O. 
m 14 tturibus excUaiis tarnen has aUüvdo puppium miperahat, instead of 
turres excitcOas. It is more remarkable to find the Abi. of the Agent, not 
of the Instrument, used in regard to the teeth, but this sort of .personifica- 
tion may be paralleled by a lingua in the next sentence, and by § 139 
nervo» a qwäms artus corUineTitury § 144 avdü%s a qtio cum sonua est excep- 
tus. Seh. would transpose ab iis before aiq^tey so as to connect them with 
muTidüur; but the reading corUtrictü sufficiently explains the action of 
manditur, and I think they come in more naturally introducing ej^ennattir 
&c. as a sort of second thought. 

extennatur : cf. Plin. xviu 43 inpidveretn extentiari, 

eonim adversi [acnti] : I think actiti should either be expelled as a 
gloss or be altered into acuto. The double epithet would imply that some 
front teeth were not sharp. They are called npotrBtoihj Arist. H, Ä, il 1 
§ 50, and Part. An. ui 1 6 If avBpoMros Zx€i rovs fitv wpoirBiovs o^ls tya 
Btcupwtriy Toifg de yofjixf}iovs irXartls um Xeoivdxriv, primore» by Plin. iT. IT. 
Yii 16 ; c£ Geis, viii 1 qtuitemi primi, quia secant, rofjLcU a Qraecü nomi- 
nantw. 

gennini : (gena, yiws, ' chin '), called ' also maanUares and 7nolares. Gf. 
Xen. Mem. 1 4 § 6 rovs yAv irpotrÖtv odovras ncuri (t^is oiovs W/biycty twaty rovs 
de yofi<l>iovs otovs irapa Tovr»v dt^afifpovs Xeatvetv. COIlf6Ctio '• ^ masti- * 

cation '. 

§ 135. stomaclms : here used like orofuxxofyWhich from Homer (7^. m 292 
&c.) downwards meana the gullet, cf Ar. H, A, 1 12 avxv^ to fAera^v frpoa-Mrau 
Kai BtopOKOt' jcal rovrov ro fUv irpoarBtov fUpos \dpvy$f to d* OTritrBtov arofiaxos, 
ib. 16 o de arSfiaxos ^fynjrai fX€V 3lv(aB€v airo rov aro/iorof ixoiuvosrfjs äprrfpias 
(the trachea), reXevr^ de dut rov dia^aparos (the diaphragm) eis Trjv icoiXiay, 
Le. it is the Oesophagus or alimentary canaL Hippocrates often uses it for 
the neck or upper portion of any organ : in later times, as by Meletius JVat, 
JSom. a 18, it is used for the stomach in our sense (17 coko xotXia) as distin- « 
guished from the Oesophagus on the one hand, and the intestines (17 jcar» 
Koikia) on the other. Cf. Theophilus Corp, Hum. 11 2 with Greenhill's 
note. 

tonsillas : apparently so called from impeding the passage of food, 
tonsüla being used for the stake to which a boat was fastened, see Festus 
. y. In Greek they were known as Trapia-BiAia .or, when swollen, as 
ayrtoder. 

atqne agitatione : I omit is after aiqtie with Eayser snid Forchhammer, 



256 BOOK II CH. LIV § 135. 

thinking that it was a marginal oorrection of orU for ore is above, and haa 
been wronglj inserted here. C£ for similar errors defectibus § 49. 

delapsum : so I venture to read for deptUmm, which it is impossible 
to believe that Cic. wrote with depeUit afterwards. The order of the 
words is curious, the Ablatives ctgüatione et motu being plaoed outside the 
clause to which they belong. 

«inasi detnumm : why qucui f the word is used in its literal aenae. 
Is it to denote that C. was not quite satisfied with it as a translation of 
some Qreek word 1 depellit : so § 138 rdiquiae depellantur ; Div. i 57 
(of fowls) dejmUo de pectore et in omne corptu divüo et müi/iccUo cibo. 

Ipsins antem : the action of the Oesophagus is contrasted with that of 
the tongue. 

§ 136. Bflpera arteria : rfMxtui dprrjpia ' the windpipe ' ; called ' rough ', 
not beoause it is ' rough in the interior ' (L. and S. & v. arteria), for Arist. 
{Part. An. iii 3) assigns, as a reason for its being composed ex x^vdpoidovff 
irafioTOSf that bti to ^o0i;(reiy fitXXov Xciov thfcu koi artp^infra ^X^*^ > \>Vit 
because ' it is strengthened by a series of from 16 to 20 horizontal cartila- 
ginous rings *, which can be feit in the throat, and is thus distinguished 
from the smooth tube which constitutes a common artery. Erasistratus 
(fl. 280 B.c.) is Said to have been the first to use the distinctive epithetw 
The word afm)pla (eonnected with dcipo, aofrnl) properly means ' suited for 
suspending', and is fitly used for that from which the lungs and other vital 
parts are suspended^ and by which they are held up when the animal is 
opened after death : hence Sophocles calls it irvevfwvot afmjpias TracL 1054 
' suspenders of the lungs ' (the plural is used for the two bronchial tubes). In 
like manner the tube or cord from which the heart is suspended is called 
dopnj, cf. Arist. ff. Ä. 1 16 e^ijpTtjTOL (ro fito'€mpiov) €k r^s fityaKris 4>^€ß6s xal 
rijg aopTrjsy &0. In- Aristotle's genuine writings we find dpnfpla used only of 
the windpipe, but by later writers it is also employed (sometimes with the 
distinctive epithet Xtia) for the artery in cur sense. This eztension of 
meaning was probably due to the idea thaithe artery was an air-tube like 
the windpipe, see below § 138 epirittu per arteriös {diffimdiittr) ; whence 
some derived the name from oi^p-and ri/pciv (Theophilus Corp. Huin. ed. 
Qreenhill pp. 296, 297 n.). For the subject matter we may compare Gell. 
xvn 11 § 2 giving the doctrine of Erasistratus duas esse quasi oanaliculou 
qucudam velßsHdas, easque ab oris faucibus profioisci deorsum^ per earumqve 
alieram deduci ddcibique in stomachurfi esculenta omnia et potvlenta ex eoque 
deferri in ventriculum, quae Oraece appellatur tj iear<o icocXta...§ 3 Per 
alteram autem ßstulam, quae Qraeoe nominatur rpax*la apTtipia, spiritum 
a summo ore in pulmonem atque inde rvrsum in os et in nares oommeare ; 
Lactant. Opif. c. 11 gurguiio constat ex ossibus flexuosis ao moüibus, quan 
ex annulis in cicutae modum invieem compactis, 

ostinm: 'orifice'. snpra qinam: Lact. L c. more correctly aäys 
superior ab ore ad ventrem, inferior a naribus ad pulmonem. For constr. o£ 
Varro R, R,i Alinea {vite}paulo infira quam insitum est inddunt. 



BOOK n CH. Liv § 136. 257 

pertineat ad : 'reaches to', so often in § 137. 

opercnlo : cf. Arist. Metpir, all toIs rcrpairoo-t Kai tPoifAois Hx^^ V ciprtfpia 
ohvvSfia rffv hriyktiyrriba^ and Plin. XI 66. 

alTl natura : for the periphrasis c£ natura animi i 23, caloris naturam 
n 24, so in Plato Tim, 45 rrjp t»v ßK«l>ap<»v <t>v<raf, 74 r^v rap ycvpcoi^ 4^v<riv, 
Phaedr. 44 jj rov irrtpov <^v<riff, Arist. Part. An. m 1 i} r»v o^vrttv tf^wrts. 
The Word alwis is used here for venter or alwu »aperior of Cato R. JL 156, 
from which it is distinguished by Pliny JT. H. xi 79 ; but it has the aame 
force in Lactant. Opif. o. 11 tibi maceratos ex se cihos cdmu emiserit, paid- 
latim per ülos intestmorum anfracttis extrudtmtvr, 

pnlmones antem et cor extrinsecns spiritum addant: I read 
addani instead of dueant (read by the editors with three of Orelli's mbs) 
because the latter hajs no direct reference to alvus, the principal subject of 
the sentenoe ; whereas the reason of the clause is to show how alvtbs gains 
the Spiritus spoken of below. Also it seems to me easier to explain addw- 
cant in Orelli's P V, if we suppoee dueant, the ordinary verb with spirittMn^ 
to have been written by mistake, and to have been oorrected by the super- 
scription of ad, For ezz. of errors arising from such corrections in the 
archetype, see above § 100 n. on saxa nativiSf and others mentioned by 
Mü. in Fleck. Jahrb. 1864 p. 127 folL The mention of cor is ezplained by 
the ancient belief that it was the function of the left ventricle of the heart 
to supply the arteries with air, see below § 138. 

constat e nervis : nenms, like the Gr. vtvpov (which properly means 
*a string', henoe vtvpoim-aarov *a puppet') is ordinarily used in earlier 
writers for sinew, tendon, ligature ; but it included also the white tissues of 
the body generally, e.g. the nerves proper, some of which were known to 
Aristotle under the name of n-opot (K A, 1 16), though he wrongly asserted 
that they centre in the heart and not in the brain (see Sprengel Oesch. d, 
Arzeneihmde i 457^). Herophilus of Alezandria (fl. ao. 300) gave a füll 
account of the nerves, but even he did not clearly distinguiah them from 
the tendons (see Sprengel 1. c. p. 534); Galen (b. 130 a.D.) was the first to 
discriminate the three meanings which had been oonfused under the word 
vtvpov, and to confine it to its present use, see Plac Hipp, et Plat. p. 204 
K. rpla ydp iartv Zpyava wap<m\ij<rui fuv dXXifKois r^v fiop^^v rov fr^iunos, ovk 
Skiyov de €V€pyeiais rc Kai ;(pc/atr dtaXXarrovra* irpotrayoptvirat Bi ro fiev v€v- 
poVy TO de crupdttrfiogf ro di t€vwv. to fiiv drj v€vpov c^ €yK«l>6Xov ncarraf fj 
vnoTuuov irt<ftvKeVy aHirBrfarip fj Kivtftnv fj to awafi(l>oT€pop ols ap €fi<f)VTfTai napar 
yop' 6 avpdto'fios de camiaBifrot fup iart», i; XP^^^ ^ ovroO Korä Tovpofuf 
\oiiros de o t4p<üp irtpas (orl pevpmdts pvo9 cV avpd4a'fiov Ktä P€vpov yenw* 
/ifpot, Us. Paart, i 16, 17, v 9, xv 1, 6. From this old meaning arose the 
metaphorical use of nerwLs, nervosus for ' vigor ' ' vigorous ', and our English 
'a nervous style'; *hardy as the Nemean lion's nerve'. For the fact see 
Mivart Eiern. Anat. p. 446 * the intestines like the stomach are formed of 
muscular fibres with a mucous lining '; hence the peristaltic action of the 
bowels described below ; Arist. Part, An, m 3 § 4 tari d* o nh oi<ro4>oyof 
M. C. II. 17 



268 BOOK n CH. Liv § 136. 

rpo<l>fjsj 80 Celsus iv 1 1. 14 (using the word stomackus in the sense of C.'s 
alviui) sayB stomachtts qui intestinorum principiwn est, nervosua a septima 
9pmas vert^)ra incipü. 

multiplex et toitaosa : describing the smaller intestmes. The same 
words are found combined in a metaphorical sense Lad, 65. 

arcetqne et continet : conjoined in R. P. vi 17 orbis cadesHs arcent et 
conimens oeierasy the former word brings into greater prominence the idea 
of a restraining and limiting force from the outsida 

calore <iaexii multnm habet : cf. above § 24. Theophilus Corp, Hum, 
n 4 says that 'since the stomach needed abundant heat, the Creator 
placed near it the liver ' «cnrcp Xtßrfra btmrvpov, On the attraction of the 
epithet into the relative clause, see Draeg. § 474. 

et terendo dbo: Madv. omitted dbo; but, clumsy as the phrase is, we 
Gould hardly dispense with the object here, and the gerund by itself would 
come in a little awkwardly between the substantivee calore and tpiritu, 
Heind. reads ex terendo, 'heat arising from the crushing of food'; but 
calor and triiura are two distinct causes of digestion, which were oppoeed 
to one another by rival medical schools, as we leam from Celsus l prooent^ 
duce alü Ercuütrato, teri cibum in ventre contendunt;...aln credunt Hippo- 
crati per oalorem dbos conooqui, 

Ch. Lv. raritas quaedam— moUitndo : ' of a loose and spongy ocmsist- 
ency '. Quasdam is added, because raritas was an unusual word, perhaps first 
employed by C. : even rarus is generaUy used of distinct objects rather than 
of one loosely constituted whole. The word epon^iostu is used by Celsus 
IV 1 pulmo epongionu ideoque Spiritus capax, instead of C's periphraais ; 
cf. Plato Tim. 70 the lung has inside ai^payyag (cavities) o2oy airoyyov Kam- 
rerpfffiivas, Arist. Part. An, lll Gcrofu^or o fr\€Vfi»v koI Bfioiot a^pf . 

aapirantes : properly used of blowing upon some extemal object, as 
above § 83 aspiratio aeris ' Ventilation ', here absolute, of an ezpirati<»i, 
which would be more properly expressed by a reference to the ierminiLS a 
guOy but the word exspwo is not found in Caesar or Cic: perhaps its later 
connotation unfitted it for use in the literal sense. 

tmn in respiratn : Lamb.^s emend. for twm, in re ^rittL The word 
respiro is used for the general prooess of breathing, like oMnrvf Ty, but also 
specially for the retum of breath in either direction ; as just above we 
had respiret et reddat opposed to animam quae dttcta est spintu, and again 
below § 138 redditur respirando; but here (as in Juv. xiv 28 tU non ter 
decies respiret) of drawing in breath, in response to the outgoing breath of 
a^spirantes. So avcarvori is opposed to cjcirvo«; in Plato Tvm. 79 E, Aristo 
Part. An. ni 3. The comiption of the mbs was hardly to be avoided, when 
once re had got separated from the rest of the word, not to mention that 
respiratus is very rare, apparently only foimd elsewhere in Apuleiua 
Madv. 's emend. intrarUe ^pirüu is unsatisfactory, because it represents the 
organ as passively influenced by the breath Coming in of itself. The 



BOOK II CH. LV § 136. 269 

reading of some mss tum se spvritu is a later oorrection, and though »pirüfis 
is often used for Inhalation, yet it is unsuitable here where a distinctive 
word is needed. 

dbuB animalia— animantes : 'that aerial nutriment which is the 
Chief Support of animal life \ cf. Hippoc. de Fiat. 4 ' the body is sustained 
by three kinds of nutriment trlra irorä irv€vfurra^ of which the last is by far 
the moet important '. Arist. denies this (Be^, 6) dXXa fßjjv ovdi rpo<l>rjg 
y€ x^^ vnokrfitriov ylv€<rBai rrjv ayoTTvo^y &s Tp€<l)ofi€vov r^ nvevfWTi, rov €Vt6s 
nvp6s...fiaKkov yap ck rtjs rpo(f>fjs (ordinary food) tovto yufofitpop opSß^v : its 
only use is to cool the heart. Galen (Us. Part, vn 9) on the other band 
considers that the chief fimction of respiration is to keep up the vital heat 
by constant supplies of fresh air, and 2ndly to feed the vital spirit (r6 
^|nfxu^ov nvtvfia), The Word dbus is used below m 37 of the exhalations on 
which the stars feed, and we find the metaphorioal cibua h/umanitaiia 
Fin, V 54. 

§ 137. Cicero's account of the process of digestion is very incorrect. 
The foUowing is a summary of what is said in Huxle/s Phydology on the 
subject The food when it has passed into the stomach is changed by 
continual rolling about with constant additions of gastric juice, into a 
fluid called chyme^ of which a considerable porüon is absorbed through the 
walls of the vessels of the stomach into the ourrent of the blood, which is 
rushing through the gastric veins to the vena portae, The remainder of the 
chyme passes into the dttodemmhy where it is mixed with bile and pancreatic 
Juice and becomes ohyle. In its passage through the smaller intestines the 
greater portion of this is again carried off through the capiUaries into the 
blood vessels : the remainder is absorbed by the lacteal vessels, and conveyed 
through these to the mesenteric glands, and thenoe to the thoracic duct, 
where it is compounded with lymph. It is then carried to the subclavian 
vein, which sends the blood into the right side of the heart. From thence 
it is conveyed by the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it is converted 
into arterial blood. See diagrams in Huzley or elsewhere. 

a medio intestino : a mistranslation of the Qr. fitaevripiop^ which is 
not properly an intestine at all, but a membrane interposed between the 
intestines (vn-cp rcSv ivr^pavy Arist. says ff, A. 1 16), ' a fold of the Peri- 
toneum which suspends the small intestines to the back walls of the 
abdomen', Huzley 1. a p. 36. It is however classed among the intestines 
by Macrob. S. /Sc. i 6 § 77 intesHtia prmcipalia tria wnt, urnrni dissaepttm, 
vocatvr (the diaphragm), aUervm medium^ Oraed fi€tr€vrtpiop vooantf &c. 

portas jecoris : the ' portal fissure ' where the vena portae^ the hepatic 
artery and the great nerves enter the liver. Qalen {Us. Fort, rv 1) teils us 
that after the stomach has cleared away the grosser particles, it sends the 
chyle to the liver (koivov oKov tov f^ov TrA^c^f x^P^°^)i *^® entrance to 
which, being divided into many narrow passages, has received the name 
irvkaif originally given by dv^p tu ntiKaios dtivos, olfAoif ir€p\ rrjv <f>v<raf, 
and approved by Hippocrates and the sect of the Asclepiads. (It is used 

17—2 



260 BOOK n CH. LV § 137. 

by Eurip. EL 828, Plato Tim, 71 c, Arist. K A. i 71, vn 8.) In the liver 
the chyle is further purified hj depositing certain secretions ; that which 
is light and jellow is drawn off to tbe gall bladder, that which is heavy 
and thick is carried to the spieen by a vein connecting it with the portal, 
The blood thus purified is then passed into the veno, cava where it gets rid 
of its superfiuous watery particles through the kidneys adjoining. Thus 
the liver is rb vp^irov lijs aifjumo(r€<üs tpyavov (c. 12). The numerous yelns 
which convey the chyle to the liver all unite into a single trank at the 
portae and then again subdivide into a vast number of small veins in order 
to imbibe the substance of the Uver and so thoroughly clarify the blood 
(see Ideler Phifs, Mm, voL u p. 6). This was the generally accepted theory 
among the ancients, as we may see from Theodoret Prov, p. 517 Schulze, ' the 
liver having received the chyle &om the stomach proceeds to paas it 
through further strainers, the dregs being drawn off by the spieen, that 
which is overdone (ro wipa rw furpov ir€<f>&€v) being drawn off into the gall 
bladder, and that which is too thin into the receptacle for the watery 
secretions. When the chyle has in this way been tumed into pure blood 
it enters into the vena cava and is carried by it to the heart '. 

qnae pertinent ad jecnr : but these viae (^ Channels ', used in the 
same general way as iropoi by Arist.) do not really extend to the liver ; they 
unite, as before said, in the vena portae and then divide again. 

aliae pertinentes : the termimu ad quem is required with the word 
pertinenteSf and edd. are probably right in inserting alio with Heind. but, 
in the general doubtfiilness as to what C.'s ideas on the subject were, it is 
difficult to speak with confidence as to the particular reading required. 
We ahould have expected to hear something of the distribution of the 
chyle through the liver itself, but are only told of its arrival at the porC<te 
and then of its being carried off elsewhere. Comparing the account taken 
from Galen above, we might suppoee the viae to signify certain ducts by 
which the secretions are carried to the gall bladder and the spieen ; but C's 
words seem to imply that he is still foUowing the course of the main stream 
of the chyle, which he apparenÜy imagines to visit sucoessively the liver, 
the spieen and the kidneys, depositing in each the ingredient which belougs 
to it, yellow and black bile and eerumy the principle of urine (see quotationa 
from Ghtlen in next note), and thence retuming to the portae and dis- 
oharging itself into the vena cava, The true account seems to be as 
follows : the blood in the vena portae receives an accession from the spieen 
through the splenic vein, but does not part with any of its own ingredients 
either to the spieen or to the kidneys until it has passed through the 
heart and retumed as arterial blood, from which the secretions are made. 
In its passage through the liver it secretes bile and extracts ffluooee, The 
liver itself is not an excretory organ. 

bilis iigne mnores qni e renibos proftmdimtiir : cf. Qalen Us. 

Part, y 10 ro de ^ap viro r&v rerrapttv ogycofnnv €KKCi$aip€r(u, dvotp fiep vc^poiv, 
Tpirov de (nrXf/voff^ reraprov de lijs iviKtifihnjs avr^ Kwrrtms (the bile duct), ih. 



BOOK 11 CH, LV § 137. 261 

a 6 oKiyioTov fUv yap ro fitXayxoKucov v^pirmiia^ liKkov 9 a^rov ro \ok»h9S^ 
voKKtaiKatruiv d* äit^Xv ro vdarttdrf, ib. IV 13 ol xo^V^o^oi ir6poi rrjp X'^^V^t 
ol v€<f>poi To ovpov €iri{nr»yrai ib. Hipp, et PlcU. p. 536 K. Again speaking 
of the chjle, he sajB that, after its arrival in the liver, it throws off two 
secretions, yellow and black bile, and aacends, having now attained its 
ruddy hue, to the upper part of the liver, Us, Part, iv 4. 

ad easdemqne portas jecoxlB conflunnt : thia, taken by itself, would 
agree with Huzley^s account of the ' portal System ' p. 56, ' the blood is 
distributed throughout the liver from the verui portae, and thence it is 
conveyed by small veins which unite into a large trunk (the hepatic vein) 
opening into the inferior vena cava near the portal fissure *. 

ejus : mnguinü^ henoe Hippocrates called the Hver piCoais <l>\€ß^y 
(Galen ffipp. et Fiat. p. 200 E.). 

▼ena cava : ^Xe^^ xotXif, called i; fAeyakti by Arist, the great trunk vein, 
divided into avperior and inferior as it mns into the heart from above or 
from below. Hippocrates ap. GfaL Hipp, et Fiat. p. 532 EL compares it to 
the trunk of a tree which has its root in the liver and intestines. 

confectns Jam coctnsqne : Madv. JFin. n 64 propoeed oanooctusy but 
Seh. (ftpuec. ni 735) proved the correctness of the old reading by many 
ezz. as above § 136 oocta atqtie confeotay Gels, iv 5 qui nihil aliud ocmcoqwre 
posstmt, bubtUam coquunt, Plin. N. H xzix 1. He remarks that it is not 
imcommon with G. to omit the preposition in the second of a pair of Com- 
pounds into which the same preposition enters, c£ Madv. JFHn. m 36. 

a corde distribnitur : The heart was the origin of the veins and blood 
according to Plato Tim. 70 äfifui r&v 0Xr0<Sy jcal mjyfiv rot) ircpi^cpoftcyov 
Kora iramra ra fifkij <r<l>odpcis aifiaros, and Arist. Fort. An, U 9 ap)(rj r&v 
^Xc/Scov i; Kapdia, ib. n 1 § 22 H^ti iv avrj rijv dvvafjuv rfjv iirjfuovpyovo'ajf ro 
alfia irpwnjv. The followers of Hippocrates on the contrary aaserted that 
the blood originated in the liver and was only distributed from the heart. 
Galen argues in favour of this view Hipp, et Fiat. p. 531. 

§ 138. lila explicetnr fabrica— nam : so ydp is used to ezplain the 

Demonstrative, Thuc. I 3 di;Xoi de fwt Kai rode r&v rrdKai&v äa'6iveiav...jrpi 
yap tAv Tp»iKav ovdev (fmiverai Kotvj epyacafuvTf. [Cf. Ac. II 107| Div, I 80 
cited in Madv. Gr. § 439 obs. 2. B.] 

ab spiritu : ' the mere act of Inspiration' ; for oonstr. cL above § 92 oanr 
flagrare ab ardoräme. 

contagione : cf. Div. n 58 fluvium fluxüee eamguine (nuntiatum est)... 
sed decolaratio qtuiedam ex aliqua contagione terrena potest eanguini similis 
esse. 

ventricilliim cordis : xoiXuu rfjg Kapblas of Arist The functions of the 
ventricles are thus described by Huzley p. 55 : the oontraction of the right 
auricle drives the blood which it contains into the right ventride; the 
ventricle then contracts and forces it into the pulmonary artery ; from hence 
it passes into the capiUaries of the lungs. After being thus aerated it 
retums by the four pulmonary veins to the left auricle ; and the contraction 



262 BOOK II CH. LV § 138. 

of ihe left auricle drives it into the lefb ventricle, from whence it pajBaes 
into the aorta, and is camed through its branches into all pari» of the 
body. The ancients believed that the right ventricle, called by them. 
aifiaruaiy supplied the veins with the blood which it received from the 
v&na Cava; and that the left ventricle, called TrvtvfMTuai, supplied the 
arteries with the air received from the lungs (Galen Us, Part, vi 7). The 
course of the air is thus described by Theodoret Pr<m, p. 514 SdL o irrcv- 
fia>y hik T^r rpaxflas dfynjpias (cf. above § 136) to icaOapoy I^^Ötv li€x^Tai 
fTPWfioj dia de rfjs \tias (the pulmonary artery) tovto irapair€fjLir€i rj €vtö¥viuf 

Spiritus per arterias : see nn. on §§ 24 and 136. Accordingto Sprengel 
(i p. 491) Frazagoras (fl. 300 B.a) firät noticed the distinction between 
arteries and veins ; in the genuine works of Arist. both aie oonfounded 
under the name <l>\4߀t. The reason why it was thought that they con- 
tained air was that after death they were foimd empty while the veins 
were filled with the retuming blood Qalen, while explaining the strenger 
texture of the arteries as compared with the veins, from the supposed fact 
that the former were intended as Channels for varying amounts of air, 
while the latter had only to convey a uniform amount of blood^ still held 
that there was a certain proportion of highly rarefied blood in the arteries, 
and of Condensed air in the veins {Us. Fort, vi 10, and 16).' It was not 
tili 1630 A. D. that the true doctrine of the circulation of the blood was 
disoovered by Harvey. 

[ntraeqne: 'each set', i.e. venae and artericte, cf. qiuuqtie i 78n. and 
tUrarumque below § 164. B.] 

artiflciosi : cf. § 57 and § 145. 

C d (8). ß, m the frametßork and erect poaüian of the hody, 
§§ 139, 140. 

§ 139. snbjecta corpori-^actionem : Hhe bones, which aie the 
framework of the body, are wonderfuUy connected in a manner which is 
both fitted to secure stability, and suitable for ending the joints and for 
allowing of movement and all kinds of bodily action'. We find apt^u 
joined with a^xonmiodatui in Pin, iv 46 inüia apta et aooofnmodata ad 
natttram, Of. i 100, 142. I was disposed to foUow Heind. in reading 
ßngendos (^for shaping the joints'), but the passage cited below from 
Celsus seems to show that ßniendas is right. Mr Roby adds ^ properly it 
ought to be Said that the bones are shaped at the ends to make good joints ; 
Cicero says the joints are suited to end the bones \ 

commissoras : 'articulations' cf. below § 150 digitomm commissurcu 
[and Celsus vm 1 (p. 327 Teub.) ignoroH tum oportet plurima ossa in 
cartüaginem deeinere^ nvUum artundvm non sie ßniri, NeqM enva^ ayit 
moveri poseet, niei laevi inniteretv/r^ aut cum oame nervieque oonjungiy ni$i 
ea media quaedam materia commüteret, From this it would appear that 
commteet^'a must mean the oartilaginous covering of the Joint R.] 



BOOK II OH. LY § 139. 263 

nexTOfl eonunqne implicationein : Hhe rainifioation of the nerves' 
(including no doubt both tendons and nerves properly so called). For 
constr. c£ i 29 imagines earumqtte circumütu. 

a qnibus contlnentnr : c£ Draeg. 230 and above § 134 a5 m ex- 
tenucUur. [There is here a special reason for the pieposition : quibtu con- 
tineniw might mean ' of which they are composed ' ; a quibus is * by which 
thej are kept in place '. Celsus however L o. has the simple ablative with 
this meaning, nervis et oarHlagine contvnsniur, B.] 

nervi... slcnt venae a corde tractae : for the attraction of the Part, 
into the gender of the subordinate subject^ c£ Brut. 262 omni omcUu 
oraHonü iamqtiam vegte detracta, Nep. Them. 7 ülarum wrhem utprojmgnor 
cidum opposüvm esse barbaris, Liv. i 21 castra, Tion v/rbem positam in medio 
crediderani ; and the Gr. use with ovx »<mtp, as in Qorg, 522 voKKh v/jms km 
Kwcä odc €(pyaaTai...dii^y dvayKa(ovy ovx <^<nrep iy^..,vfuis €v^x^ovv, For 
the subject matter see Arist. H. A. ni 5 p. 615 i; /xey apx4 ^^'^ vcvpo»y forly 
€K rffs Kapbias' xal yap iv avrj rj Kaphla tx^t vtvpa iv rj fuyiarff jcotX/9, koi 17 
Kakovfievrf dopr^ v€vpv^s eorl ^Xe^, especially its extremities^ äfcoiXa yap 
'€tm Kxu Tcuriv (x*^ routiinjv otav irtp tcl vtvpa § rcXcvrjl irpos ras Kcifirräs r&v 
doTov, and again a little below vrayra rk ocrra trvvbitertu vtvpois» It is 
piain that Aristotle here means sinews by v^vpa, but in Oen, An. v 2 we 
read ol fropoi t&p aiaBYiTTjpuov iaraurmy (i. e» the proper nerves) rctvovcri npos 
rriv Kiipdiav, Juvent. c 3 cited by Trend. Anim, p. 397 n. Galen is therefore 
not 'guilty of error' (as Lewes says Ariat. p. 168) 'in attributing to Aristotle 
the absurdity of deriving all the nerves from the heart'. Sprengel i 534 
speaks of Herophilus (£L about 300 B.o.) as the first who derived the nerves 
from the brain and spinal marrow, and dlstinguished between nerves of 
motion and Sensation, see above § 128 n. Galen {Hipp, et Fiat. p. 187 K) 
attributes to Hippocrates right views as to the origin of the nerves and 
severely condemns Arist. and Prazagoras for deserting his opinions. It 
seems this questlon was connected with that of the seat of the ifytfjLoviKoVf 
thus in p. 649 Galen states as axiomatic principles (1) oirov rav v€vpav 17 
dpx^f ivravQa koI to rrj£ ^x^s ijy€fioviK6v, and (2) 17 dpx4 r<ov »€vp<ov iv rf 
ryic€0dX^. The Stoics maintained that the heart was the seat of the 
rjyfpjoviKov (ZeUer rv p. 197 folL). 

in corpus omne dncnntnr : this was denied by Arist. H.A.inb ovk 

t<m awtxTis 1; t£v v€vp&v fftva-is cmo fiias dpx^s eocnrcp al <t>X(߀S. A 
general view of the true nervous System is given in Mivart's Anatomy 
p. 400. 

Oh. LVi § 140. ad hanc providentiam^oo? haec qtiae de Providentia 
dixi Seh. 

a dis : these words are considered spurious by recent edd. but, I think, 
they are almost required with trtbwtae eint. Eeeping these, I retain the 
MS reading gut at the beginning of the following clause and adopt Heind.'s 
emendation oon8titv>ervffU (corresponding to coftcmfaa» in the passage cited 
from Xenophon below) for constittMt. The abbreviation of the Flur, would 



264 BOOK U CH. LYI § 140. 

be easily mistaken for the Sing, and the Sing, detu might natorallj soggest 
itself to the Christian scnbe. Perhaps also the awkward use of deorum^ 
instead of nti, maj have faciütated the comiption. 

primam : this prepares the way for musiu atUem below. 

erectoB : cf. Xen. Mem. 1 4 § 11 rircl ovk oUi <f)povTi{€iv (B€cvs tofSptiwmp) ; 
dl irp&TOP fi€V fiovop T»v («i^P avBpwirov opßov dvitmfO'aM' i) de cp^onfs koL 
irpoopap irXcioy Troic i bvwurOai «coi ra vvtpBfv p2i^ov BtaaBcuj Plat. Titn. 90 
7rpo£ T^P €P ovpa»^ (vyyip€iav coro yfjg tjfias atpeiv dt 6pras ffnrrop ovk ryyriov 
aXX' ovpdpioPf Arist. jP. Ä, TV 10 (o avOpmirog) opBos eWt yuopop rwy f<^r 
bia TO n^v (pvoip avrov lud rrjp ovaiap thai ߀iav' tpyop de rov B^utotov 
ro PO€7v Kou <l>poptip' rovTo ft ov p^^top noWov rov &Pwd€P iniKtijUpov cro»- 
parot foU., ib. II 10, Cic. Leg. i 26 nam cfwm cetercu animatUes abfecisiet ad 
pagtum, 9clum hominem erexü (natura) ad cadique qyuui cognatumis domi- 
cüiique prisHni oarufpectum excäavit, tvm ipeciem itaformavü oris ut in ea 
peniitu recondüos mores eßngeret, Ov. Met. i 85 ob homini sMime dedit 
oadtmique tuerijusdt et erectos ad sidera toUere vulttu, Seneca J^. 94 § 56 
(natura) tndtus nostroa erexit in cadum et quioquid magnificum mirumque 
feoerai videri a sutpicientibus voluit, Epict Diss. i 6 § 19 top äp6p«tvop 
OecaifP elaifyayep avTOv T€ ko* twp tpy^ap avrov, kcX ov popop ^or^v aXXa luu 
€$rjyrjrfip avr&p, Plut. S.N. V. p. 550 with Wyttenbach's n., Min. F. c. 17, 
Lact, vn 5, Major on Juv. xv 147, Sen. Bp, 65 § 20, N. §. v 15 § 3. Chden 
on the contrary says (Us. Part, in 3) 'those who believe man to have been 
made erect in order that he might look up to heaven and say ivrauyim 
irpog "ÖXvpvop arapßijToia'i irpoo'mroi.v can never have seen the fish called 
uranoeccpu», not to mention various birds, which are much better adapted 
for looking up than man. The true upward looMng, as Plato said, is to 
fix the mental eye on that which really exists'. 

nt deomm cognitionem capere possent : so Lact. Inst, n 3, m 9 
solus sapientia instructus est (homo) ut rdigionem solu» inteUegat : et haee 
est hominum atgue mutorum vel praedpua vel sola distantia : bat this is 
denied by Celsus, ap. Orig. iv 88 'birds are able to foretell the future^ 
which is a sign that they are dearer to the Gods, eX«^ayr«»y de ov^p tvopKo- 
T€pop oüdc frpos Ta 6€ta iriOTortpop civot doKct, irdpr»s di/irov diori ypwrtp 
avTov c;(ov(r(y, ib. 96 voXXa rcSy (f^o^p dpTiirouurßai 6€ias ippoiasy 97 ov 
papop o'offiwrfpa oKka kcX 6€o<^Ck€aT€paf 98 cvcrc/Secrrcpovr cZwu rovr vikapyois 
tSp apBpwTütp, 

sunt enim ex terra: I explain this by Tusc. i 42 oorpora nostra 
terreno principiorvm geviere oonfecta^ not, as Seh., by a refsrenoe to speotatores 
following. 

C d (8). y. Providence shawn in the arga/na qfsenae. % 140 — 146. 

nnntii renun: cf. Tusc. l 46 guae numquam guinque nuntiis animus 
oognosoeret, nisi is omnium Judex solus esset, and above i 70. 

tamqnain in arce : so Plato (Tirn. 70 ▲) speaks of the head as the 
acropolis of the body, in which the sovereign reason has its seat. On the 



BOOK n CH. LVi § 140. 265 

other band Qalen {Hipp, et PlcU. p. 230 K.), arguing against fancifiil a priori 
afisumptionSy 'we are not to assume that the niling principle must reedde 
in the hearb because it is in the centre of the ehest, nor ort KaBcmep cV 
aKfumoKti rj K€<l>akj biKtjp fuyakov ßatriKims 6 iyK4<f><iKos tdpi/roi, bia tovto 
ef ävayicrjs ij rrjs ^XO^ ^PXV t^ora avro» eort' foll. c£ Tuao. I 20. 

tamqiiam speculatores : Theodoret elaborates the comparison Pr&o. 
m p. 525 Seh. eircid^ ?d€i rf if>pcvpapj(([^ v^ KorcurKoirav rd re vo\4fua xal ra 
<l>CKia vpooptovretv k.t.X, 

§ 141. in sublime : cf. n. on § 44. 

snrsTim : used in the rare sense, of position distinguisbed from motion, 
cf. Varro 72. i2. i 6 § 3 qui cclurU twrsvm magis kieme laboratU. 

potionis judicinin magnum eamm est : *thej are greatly concemed 
in testing foods\ For the combination of the Objective and Subjective 
Genitives see § 145 quarum Judicium est oculorumy § 156 omnium rerum 
hominwn est usus : for the thought § 146 aurivm est Jttdioiym, Orator 60, 
lbO,aurium superhum judidvm^ 164, Orot, in 221 foll. in ore domincUus est 
ornnis ocidorum..,quare oculorum est magrna moderatio. 

vidnitatem oris secntae sunt: 'been placed near', *drawn to the 
neighbourhood of the mouth', cf. Leg, il 3 amoenitcUem hanc seguor 'I am 
attracted to\ 

gustatns : here used for the organ, below § 158 for the actual taste. 
The palate was commonly supposed to be the organ of taste, see above 
§ 48 ; Lactantius on the contrary says {Opif. 10) fallitur guisquis hwM 
sensum palaio ifnesse arbitraittr: lingua est enim qua sapores sentiuntur, 
nee tarnen tota, but only where it gets thinner towards the side& Xenophon 
also makes the tongue the organ Mem. i 4. Aristotle goes into further 
refinements ^. ^. 1 11 ro altrBriTiKov ;(v/iov yXcorra* 17 d* cuaBrfO-is iv n^ ^>^p<^y 
and he distinguishes between the more intellectual pleasnre of the con- 
noisseur and the grosser pleasnre which the glutton finds in the mere act 
of swallowing, 1; ntv yap ykwTra r&v xvyMv iroUi r^v cMrßrja-tv, t»v de 
cdcoTov cV r^ Ka66d<j^ ij fjdoyi;, KoTairtPOfievav ycip alo'Sdvovrtu t»v Xciropai^ 
Ka\ OepfjMif Kai rav SXXav rSv roiovrav, Oompare the wish of Philozenus 
{JSth, Eud. ni 2) r&v Trepl rh yevoTov ov Trepi ircurcof ij8ov^v ivrorjfrai ra 
Btjpia, ovd* oo-fiov rf äKpa rijs yXiomfs 17 aUrßrja-iSj aXX' ocmv r^ (f>ap%fyyi' 
Kcu toiKfv a<^ iiaKkov rj ytvfrti rh iraBos' dto ol o^^o^oyoi ovk cvp^oyrcu n^v 
yXcoTToi^ ^X'^*^ P^<^P^^ oXXä tov fpapxryya ycpavov, ^(nrep ^tXo^ei/or. Pliuy 
seems to have misunderstood this JV, H, xi 65. Kuxle/s accoimt of the 
matter is as follows Hhe organ of the sense of taste is the mucous mem- 
brane which oovers the tongue, especially its back part, and the hinder 
part of the palate '. 

qni sentiz^ deberet : I follow the mss with Allen, translating *since it 
was intended to distinguish flavours'. The tense refers to the first 
creation of man, like secutae in the previous sentence and hdbebat above 
§ 123. 

liabitat : cf. Plin. N, H, xi 54 in oculis animus habüat. 



266 BOOK II CH. LVI § 141. 

escnlentis : cf. Scaevola's definition of peniu ap. QelL iv 1 § 17 peMu 
est quod esculenttim aut potttlentum est. 

aequabiliter : uniformly, as opposed to special orgaos, bat not of 
course to the same degree ; so Arist. P. Ä. n S the tdfrBtfrriptov igf^i^ is 
the irapi itsel£ 

omnes minimoB : cf. n. on i 67 omaviJbuB minimis, Fin, v 88 nee ullo 
minimo momento, Q. Fr, in 1 § 3 omma minima maxima ad Caetco'em mitti 
wiebam. 

appulsus: c£ i 24 »olis appuUu, £Hv. i 64 deorum appuUu hominis 
sommars, I should haye expected possemus to follow rather than 
possimiLS, 

Quae proflnentia taetri esaent alignid habltora : ' the drains which 
(lit. that which as it drained away) must otherwise have beea somewhat 
offensive '. Cf. Xen. Mevri, l 4 § 6 cVel ra drrox^povpra fiwrx€pfjf oaroarpiy^tu 
rovs rovTfov ox^tovs koi atrtvtyKfiv j dt/varov vpoa'wrarüi coro rmv cXo'B^vfmw (ov 
dofcct (TOi Kxii Tobt iTpovoias cpyov ;) 

amandavit : ' banished them' cf. pro Scauro 42 Sardi non deducti in 
Sardiniam sed amandati. Allen cites Yarro From, (4. 430 Bücheier) 
retrimenta cibi qua exirent perposHcum vollem fecL 

Ch. Lvn § 142. soUeitiaiii perseqni : we find persequor often naed 
with an accusative expressive of qualitj in the sense *to indtate' or 
'aim at ', e. g. Onxtor 57, 67 poeta virtiUes oratoris persequitWf ib. 102 (^in 
the Speech pro Leg. Manu.*) oma/ndi oopiam persecuti swmUj Ae. n 74 
ironiam alterius penequi, Fin. v 64 ; here apparentlj it meaos * to carry 
through \ ' to ezhibit in detail \ 

qnae primiim...4uas primum : the first Opposition is that of the eye to 
the other senses (atuiitus autem in § 144), the second that of the transpar 
rency to the firmness of the comea (ßrmaa atUem). That the first Opposi- 
tion is, as I have stated, and not that of membranis to lubrioos (as Seh.), 
is probable both from the position of oculos and from the parallel in § 145. 
As we have ihere jmmtim enim oculi...auiriumque item...nariumque item^ so 
here primvm oculos...audittu autem... smüüer nareB...gustatus^ c£ Madv. 
on Fvn. i 17. On the eye see Qalen üs. Part. bk. x, Ambros. Hex. vi 58 
folL, Lact Op. 8. 

nt contlnerentnr : sc. ocvli imderstood from the agent of the Passive 
oemi. The humours and the crystalline lens are kept in their place by the 
oomea, c£ Gels, vii 7 {oculvs) 9U/mmae habet duae ttmicasy ex quiinu superior 
a Oraeeis iccparocidi;^ vocatur, Plin. iT. H. xi 54 tentUbus muUisque mem- 
branis eos natura composuit^ caUosis contra frigora caloresque in extimo 
ttmidSj guae mbinde purißoant lacrimaiionum salivis, lubriooe prcpter inewr- 
santia et mobiles ; m^dia eorum comiux fenestravü pupiüa ; Serv. ad Aen. vi 
894 oculi oomei sunt et duriores ceteris mambris ; nam frigus non sentiunt, 
sicut etiam Cicero dixit in libris de Natura Deorum. 

sed lubricoB : cf. for use of sed § 66 sed Junonem. 

declinarent : neut. as in i 69. 



BOOK II CH, LVII § 142. 267 

9 

adeeqne : the qite here has the force of porro, as in § 145 omnü^^ie 
sentus. Ades *the point of the eye' is naed för puptda by Luor. in 
408-^14. 

pnpnla: from pupa=K6prj. Of. Pkt. Älc, i p. 133 €W€v6rfKas oZv ort 

Tov €fißK€7rovTog tlg rhv o<l)6aX.fju)V ro irpoa-cmrov iyuijxuvfTULi iv rfj rov Kccrav- 
Tucpv 6y^€i, »(nrep (V KoroTrrp^, o ^ icai Koprjv KaXovfAfv^ el^Xov oy rov 
€ftßKifrovros ; 

moUissünae tactn — ^aptissüne ÜEu^tae sunt: Heind.'s addition mnt 
seems to me necessary. Even theo the sentenoe is awkward, as well as 
inharmomous from the )recurrence of sounds. 

provldit : sc natura, understood with some difficulty after the inter- 
vening clauses, [but assisted by factae in the line before. B.]. 

§ 143. palpebrae : c£ Xen. Mem, i 4 (Is not this also a sign of provi- 

dential care) to tnel da-Bev^s yAv iartv i) SylnSf ßk€<l>apois oMfv Ovpma-ai, Ä, 
orap fjk€v avT^ xp^trOfd ri biji, dvaureravwTcu, iv de r^ vitv<if avyickeicrai ; tis d* 
hif fuffdi av€fiot ßKcarrma-iv, ijOfiov jSXc^apidaf (eyelashes) €fi(j>v(rai' 6<f>pva'i rc 
caroydO'&a'cu (fr. yeiaov ' penthonse ') rä VTrcp rSv oiiparwv, »s firj^ 6 ck ttjs 
K€<f>aKrjs idpas KOKOvpyj, Arist. P. Ä. II 15 cd ^ o<f>pv€s «ral al ß\€if>apiSes dfA- 
^oTfptu ßofjOtias x^P*"^ «l<rlv, cd pAV 6<l>pv€S rav Karaßcuvovrtdv vyp£v, oirag 
atrooTryacrw olov OTroyeicrco/Lux r«v diro rrjs Kc^oX^r vyp&v, cd bi ßX€^>apides 
tSv irpos ra Sfifurra TrpotnrijrrovTiOP tv€Kfv, olov ra ■)(,apcLKfi>p.aTa (c£ vaHo 
pdorum) noiovai rivcr npo rSv ipypJeroav, 

Tallo: 'apalisade made by the Stocks of young trees with their lateral 
branches shortened and sharpened at the point so as to form a sort of 
chewxux de frisej usually planted by the Greeks and Bomans on the outer 
edge of the mound of earth {agger) thrown up as a rampart round their 
camps' Rieh Companion^. ; c£ Seneot, 51 (the corn) contra aviwm, moreue 
wnmüwr vallo aristarum, Similarly Theodoret (Prov. m p. 525 Schulze) 
compares the eyelashes to dopara kcu ßiXrf and shortly afterwards to stakes 
(a-KoKoTras), and illustrates their use by the bearded wheat which is pro- 
tected from the birds by its bristles. 

qnibiifl — quiescerent: the general sense is as foUows, Hhe eyelids 
are guarded with a chevaux de früe of hairs, both to repel anything 
which might impinge upon the eyes when open, and as it were to tuck 
them in when closed in sleep ', but this is expressed with extreme awk- 
wardnees. Even assuming with Brieger {Beiträge zwr Kritik d. Cficero, 
Posen 1873) that tU qui is a corruption arising out of the repetition of the 
last syllable of involtUi and the first of ^iescereniy we have still the 
ablatives coniveniibus and oculis, where we ought to have the subject of the 
verb quiescereTU, Seh. thinks an original comverUes has been assimilated to 
apertiß by the soribes, and that ociUis is repeated instead of iis, as we have 
in terris § 25 ; Brieger supposes that the original had nohis conivefUibus ; 
and, if we are required to make sense of the passage, as it Stands, (after 
omitting v4 qui) I think we must, at any rate in thought^ supply nobii. 



268 BOOK n CH. lvii § 143. 

tarnquam involnti : ' aa though muffled up ' (with blankets), c£l oapüe 
invohUo, 

latent ntiliter: the adverb is equivalent to qtuxi taue est, et ^ *I0 
creduntur ettUtistime. 

ab inferiore parte tntantnr snbjectae : * protect it on the under edde, 
lying below it '. 

leniterqne eminentes : this reading is confirmed bj Lact. Opif. 10 
infe/rius ^pioque geruirvm non indeoens tumor in nmüündmem coUium lewäer 
exewrge/M ab omni parte oculos efficU tutiores, but I see no objection to the 
leviter of Mss, for which we may compare Div. l 30 lepiier a summo irir- 
fAsswm bacillvm. The latter adverb would refer to the total height^ the 
former to the gradual slope. 

quasi mnrus : cf. Lact. Opif. 10 ea mpercüiorum conßnio nasiu exoriens 
et veltUi aequaZi porrectuejugo vtramque aciem et diacemit et mttnit, 

§ 144. ne quid intrare possit, si Simplex pateret : an abbreviated 
expression for poedt, quodfieri poseet, si: cf. below § 149 incredtbUe est si, 
Tuso. 1 116 neposset agnosdy si esset regio omatu ; R. P, n 32 q\u>d erat in 
RomtUo probatimiy Eomani vulgare noluerunty si hoc et alteri facUe tribwere- 
twr; Invent, n 123 auxÜia quaedam in oppidum reoepit ne ab hostibus 
opprimerentw, siforis essent ; and the singular confüsion in Thua 1 40 oaris 
y,^ rois 8€^afUvoiSf e( a'&(l)povov<ny iroK«iu)v avr tlpfiinfs iroufirti where the 
meaning, to be fullj stated requires the inisertion of ^n-cp oO irocijcroiMn 
before €l, see Amold's n. 

bestiola : so Pliny of a spider (N. H. xvm 44), but bis generic word 
for insects is insecta {ßvToiuL\ cf. xi 1 jure omnia insecta appeUata ab 
indstmsy quae ntmo cervicum loco^ nunc peetorum aiqm cdvi, sepcarant 
membra. 

sordibns anrium : the first use of the waz is to lubricate the inner 
passages of the ear. The jEng. Cyd, however gives the same reason for it as 
C. Gelsus says (vi 7 § 9) that nevertheless animals find their waj into 
the ear, and describes how thej may be extracted. Ambroee {Hex, vi 62) 
Bupposed that the wax made the ear more tenacious of sound. 

visco : Pliny {N, H. xvi 94 § 248) after describing how this is made 
from the berries of the misletoe, adds hoc est viscum pennis avium tactu 
ligandis ; oleo subcu^um cum libeat insidias moliri, 

ne adjectae voces laberentnr atqne errarent : 'lest the somids that 
strike the ear should slip ofif and be lost '. 

introitns cum fLeE^x\!A=^flexuosos, cf. § \A praeter naturam portentis n. 

his naturis: 'substances of this nature', viz. homy and sinuous; 
Tttsc, I 60 after umidum, flabilcj igneum we read hds erUm in naturis, see 
Madv. on omnium naturarum Fin, rv 32. 

in fidibus testudine resonatur: ßdes is a general term for any 
stringed mstrument ; that referred to here is the chdys or testudo, which is 
a lyre with a soimding board added (jiayadtov Luc. Dial. Deor. vn 4, where 
see Hemsterhuis). It was called testudo, because Mercury was fabled to 



BOOK II CH. LVII § 144. 269 

haye made the first instrument out of the shell of a tortoise, and the form 
of the sounding board was frequently imitated from this, but the material 
was commonly of hom, cf. notes and Schol. on Arist. Ran. 233 {bovoKos) ov 
vnoKvpiov Tp€<fiCif where Euatathius aays to irakfuov avri rov Ktparos vireri- 
öcvTo KoKofiov Tois \vpais : Schneider Ed.Phys. n p. 175 cites AxmU>t.Ätuiib, 
22 Ta ^aX.K€ui Kai ra Kepara awrjxovvTa noul rovs dirb rcav opyavav ^Boyyovs 
cra^crrcpovr, ib. 31,32,36 ttoXv df koI iJ ^frrnycrtff (boiling) t«v K€paT<ov ovfißaK- 
Xrrai vpos €v<fxüvLav : Vitr. v 3 Organa in aeneis laminü atU oomeis echeis 
ad chordarum »mitus darüatem perficvwrUur. In Tibull. iii 4 L 37 {lyra) 
fidgens testvdine et auro^ it is probable that tortoiseshell was used only for 
the purpose of omament. In Arist. de Anim, n 8 § 6 we find the ear 
compared to hom, cnjfjLftop rov aKovttv rj fi^, t6 jJ;^«»' alei ro o^s Sawep ro 
Kipas* See fiirther on § 149 na/res comibus dmües iis qui ad nervös resonant 
in cantibuB. 

6Z tortnosis locis et inclusis : Arist. An, ii 8 ^oi^ov vokI o<ra XcZa 

Ktä KOiKof 6 fi€P ;^(iXjeof, 5ri \elos' ra de xoIXa r^ dvaKkatrei noXkäs noui nXrjyav 
iura rriv npforrpf, diwarovvros ef cXöetv rov KunjBevrof. C.'s aocount agrees 
with Müller's (Phys. of the Senses p. 1276 tr.) as far as the outer ear is con- 
cemed, ' which parÜy reflects and partly condenses the sonorous vibrations 
and conducts them to the auditory passage ; this latter transmits them 
by the air in the tube immediately to the menibrana iympani, and prevents 
them from being dispersed ; and lastly the air inclosed in the tube, like all 
insulated masses of air, increases the intensity of sounds by resonance' 
(abbreyiated). But Cicero has nothing to say as to the inner mechanism 
of the ear. 

§ 145. Tunorem : a more sensible aocount than that of Lactantius 
(Opif, 10) and Ambrose (Hea;. vi 63), tUper ejus (nasi) cavemas purgamenta 
cerebri dqffuant, 

onmisqne sensns hominum antecellit: on que cf. § 142 adesque. 
Aristotle gives a truer view of the comparative excellence of the senses of 
different animals (Anim. n 9) e.g. of smell, rrjv ai<r6rj<nv ravrrjv ovk exofitp 
OKptßji dWä x^^P<i>> 9roXX»v C^oiv, (f>avk»s yap äuBptoTTos oa-pdraif and again i» 
fUv ra'is oKKais (aicr^ifo'fO'i) Xeiirrroi voXkmv rSv C^tfVj Kara de rrjv äicl>rjv 
(including taste) ttoXX^ rSv oXXoov dui<f>€p6vros aKpißoi' 8ib Kai <f>povifuorar6v 
fori r£v C^v, cf. Plin. iT. ^. z § 191 eo? sensifms ante cetera homini tacttts, 
dein guttatus : reliquis sv/peratwr a mvltis, Aquilae darius cemun^t, vtUtures 
sagaciiis odarantttr, liquidius avdiunt talpae obnUae terra; Sen. ^. 76 § 9. 

antecellit : used with the Dat. by Cic, with the Acc. by Plin. Tac. 
Seneca. For the Abi. of measure mtdto see Madv. § 270 obs, 2. 

Ch. Lvni. quanun jadicinm est : cf. above § 141. 

Actis caelatisilTie fomiis : Mn moulded and graven forms '. On ßngo 
see I 71 n. It was also used vaguely to include the art of statuary in 
general (as in Orat. m 26 una ßngendi est ars in qua praestantes fieertmt 
Myro Pclyditus Ly8ippus\ for which the more exact term was scalpo (see 
below § 150) or scidpo {Acad. ii 101). Caelatura is the Greek TopcvTMciJ, 



270 BOOK n CH, Lvin § 145. 

on which see MüUer's Änc, Art § 311. [According to Maiquaidt Prw. 
AU. p. 665', it included the emboesing and beating as well as tfae engraTing 
of metaLs, c£ QuintiL n 21 § 9 oadatwra auro argenio aere ferro opera 
effidt: nam sculptiira etiam lignuniy t^bvr, marmoTy vürum, gemmcu com- 
plectüur, R.] 

cemnnt subtilins : have a finer peroeption than animalfl. 

colomm enim et fignranun yenustatem : I read mim iostead of the 
etiam of Mss. Cicero has just been speaking of painting and statuary as 
arts which come within the ^rovince of the eye, and he now prooeeda to 
explain how this is, because form and colour are the natural objects of 
sight. With etiam we have merely an inane repetition. The comiption 
would easily arise from the preceding etiam. 1 also omit tum afber fiffu- 
rarum in common with most edd. ; Mu., who retains tttm^ supposes some 
words lost before it. Bj ordinem in reference to colour, we must probably 
understand the arrangement and gradation of colours, what Plinj calls 
*harmoge', N. ff. xxxv 11 § 29. 

decentiam : ' propriety ', a tranalation of cvirpcWcia (Seh.). It is used 
with a reference to gracefiil movements, Orot, m 200 qttem ad modwn qui 
tUuntur palaestra non 9ohim tibi mtandi aut feriendi roHonem ewe habenr- 
dam ptUant, 8ed etiam ut cum ventutate moveantur ; sie verbi» qtUdem ad 
aptam compontümem et decerUiam, »ententiis vero ad graväatem oratioms 
utatwr; c£ Oraior 228. 

iiatnm propitinm : on the grouping of a4jectiye8 see Draeger § 359, 
lb/3. 

timidtUlKine : I think que is intended to dose the sentence, and that 
Ba. is right in bracketing oognoscrnUy which was probably repeated from 
above. We have however not unfrequent exx. of awkward repetition in C. 
Cf. Madv. Fin. i 41 a^ocedit — aooedere, Divin. i 129 sentiuni guod quügue 
sentiaty Of. i8 sie deßniuTU tU deßniantj Acad. ii 102 ecripnt poetam ewm 
9crip9i8Bet...9crip8it... scriptum est; ao düigunt below § 165, lioebai Leg. n 
65, videmus Fin. n 110, dioeret ib. iv 47, dixenm Acad. 1 44. 

§ 146. artificiosum judicinm : compare on the trained judgment of the 
oonnoisseur Acad. n 20 adkibita vero exerciiatioTie et arte^ ut oculi pictura 
teneanttir, aures camtibus, quis est quin oemat quanta vis sä in sensibusf 
quam multa vident pictores in umbris et in eminentia {^ckiaroscuro^ quae nos 
non videmus I quam mtdta quae nos ßigiunt in cantUy exaudiunt in eo 
genere eseercitatif qui prima ii^fiatu tibidnis Anliopam esse aiunt aut An- 
dromachamy cum id nos ne suspicemur quidem ! nihil necesse est de gustatu 
et odoratu loquiy in quibus intdlegentiaf etsi vitiosa, est quaedam tarnen. In 
both passages C. omits to state that it is the action of reason which gives 
the human sensee their superiority. 

▼ocis— tibiamm nervornrnque caatibus: 'vocal and instrumental 
music ', cf. below § 149 and Tusc. i^ in nervorum vocumque canttbus. Leg. 
II 38 in cavea (ludi) oantu ßant ac fidibus ac tünisy R.P. u 69 tU in 
ßdibtu ata tibiis atque ut in oantu ipso ac voeibus ooncentus est quidaim 



BOOK n CH. Lvrn § 146. 271 

teMfnduA ex dittmctU 9ont8, quem immutatum aut dücrepcmtem aures eru- 
düaeferrt nonposmirU; above § 89, and § 22 where cano is used of instru- 
mental music. 

intervalla : differences of pitch (biaarrffia), as in Tiisc, i 41 Iiarmondam 
ex inUrvaUis 8onorvm nosse possumus. 

disÜnctio : Seh. translates 'tonfarbe', Himbre'. In Quintilian (see 
Bonnell's Index) it is used for a break or pause, and so Hottinger (Cio, 
Ed, p. 61) takes it here. Is it not rather 'contrast', the light and shade 
pToduoed by yarying loudness ? 

canonun — dumm : Olivet translates ' les claires, les sourdes, les douces, 
les aigres, les basses, les hautes, les flexibles, les rüdes ' ; Kühner * das 
Klangreiche und Dumpfe, das Weiche und Rauhe, das Tiefe und Hohe, 
das Geschmeidige und Harte ^ 

canomm: clear, ringing, bell-like. It is used for blame Off. i 134 
(in conversation the voice should be) nee languens nee oanora, which 
Holden translates * neither monotonous nor too much modulated ' (?) ; cf. 
CcUo 28 canomm ülvd in voce »plendescü etiam in senecttUej translated hj 
Eeid ' that resonance which the voice possesses actually gains brilliance in 
old age \ It is possible however that we ought to read candidttm here, 
that being the technical opposite tößucum, as is shown in the next note. 

fuscnm : ' a thick, muffled voice '. So Sextus Emp. vi 41 speaking of 
the metaphorical terms employed in music, mentions some borrowed from 
the eye, nair^p tfiiuay riva (dun-coloured) koI fiiXaipav «eal XevK^v (^«»yify, and 
Arist. Top. 1 16 p. 106 b, Audih. 27 p. 802 a napo koI do/tovo-iv ov x^^povs eunu 
rmp \€VK»v al KoXov/icvat ipaiai irpos yap ra naßri icai ras np€<rßvT€pas i^XiKias 
fiiaKkov apft6rrov<rt¥ al rpaxyrtpai kclL fwcpov vno<rvyK€Xvp.€vai Koi yai \iav 
t-)(inHr(u rh XcLyarpov tK^HUfisy Galen Hipp, ei Plai. p. 383 K. Kcuccixriv riva 
M€lianfT(u Trjg <f>^vrf£ rov avBpobvtJv' $ yap iriuxpo^tovovy ^ rpaxy<t^vov fj 
lUkap^xnivov K.r.\.y Quint. XI 3 § 15 the voice differs in quantity or quality ; 
in quantity itmay be either grandis or exigua or intermediate ; qualitas 
fMxgis varia ett, nam est et Candida et fasca^ et plena et exilis, et levis et 
cupera, et contracta et ßua, et dura et flexUnlis, et clara et obtusa. Other 
epithets are given ib. §§ 32, 40. Speaking of the tone suited for pathos, 
he says (§ 170) orbos viducuque videas in ipsis faneribtLB canoro quodam 
modo prodamantes (showing the natural expression of grief). Hio etiam 
fiuca Uta vox qualem Cicero fuisse in Antonio dicit, mire faciet (the passage 
referred to is BnUtts 141 vox permanens verum svbrauca natura) \ Suet. 
Nero 20 quamquam exigua/e vods et fuscacy expressed by Xiphil. cited in 
note Koi ßpaxv koi fUXav (l>»vrffjLa : Plin. N. H. xxvin 16 (6) ( Venere) vox 
revocatw cum e Candida declinat in fiiscum; cf. Dem. Phal. Eloc. 87, 
Suidas s.v. X^vkov, XeuKrj (fxovfi ?; evi^Koos, also under/Acyo, Pollux Onom. n 4. 
117, Camerarius Comm. ütr. Ling. pp. 16Ö — 170. 

najinmqae et gnstandi ma^^na Judicia Bont: I have omitted et 
parte tangendi afber gustandi with Orelli's Ck)d. C. Ears, eyes, nose, taste, 
are the organs of oonnoisseurs and therefore naturally mentioned ; see the 



272 BOOK U CH. LVIU § 146. 

parallel passage in Äoad. n 20 foU., where feeling is brought in after the 
other senses, as the connecting link between the body and the mind § 21 
animojam haec tenemus comprehensa, non sensüms, and no allusion is made 
to the educated touch, say, of the ßdicen. But a reader might think proper 
to add the 5th sense : if illiterate, he might write in the margin et parte 
tanffendi ' and with the organ of touch *, or as Seh. and Allen read after 
Dav. et parüer tangendi ^ and, no less, of touch '. Ba.'s reading arte tan- 
gendi in the sense of ^ pressing ' is certainlj wrong. The onlj difficulty in 
omitting the words is that carporum lenocinia below might at first sight 
appear to correspond to touch, as unguenta and condüiones to smell and 
taste, but . I think C. is not there confining himself to this clause, but 
giving general ezx. of the misuse of the senses through luxury, and that it 
is the Judicium ocularum which is eolicited bj these lenocinia, 

gnstandi : is a remarkabJe instance of the Gerund used in the Subjeo- 
tive Qen. {gustatue jvdicat) and joined with a Substantive. 

ad 86X18118 per&n6nd08 : t^or, frwoTy fwngor^ potior were transitives 
in the older Latin, and could therefore be used in the Gerundive, see Madv. 
§ 421 obs. 2, Robj § 1374, and Cato 57 ad quem frueiidum^ Oß i 25 ad 
perfruendas votuptates, ib. n 41 juetitiae fruendae oaueOy ib. § 87 c^ utenda 
pecunia, Tusc, uiYb ad euum munus fungendum. 

quo processerint : * to what lengths they have run ', c£ SalL Jvff. 5 eo 
vecordiae proceseit ut. 

conditiones : 'sauces\ lenocinia : ' meretricious adomments of the 
person ' ; sometimes used in a good sense by later writers, of that which 
sets off anything, e.g. Sen. Ben, i 11 13 lenocinium est muneris antecedens 
metus, The three instances of luxury here named would all come under 
the Piatonic jcoXaiccvriici;. 

C d (8). & Frovidence ahovm in the gift of reason (Aoyos ^fSui- 
tfcTos). §§ 147, 148. 

Ch. Lix § 147. dum di8pntarem—vellem : ' I could have wished 
that, during my argument, your eloquence were given me'. The cor- 
rection veUem is I think absolutely needed : the mood and tense of dis- 
putarem must be explained as attracted to it, cf. § 2 n. 

illa : as usual, of what follows. (^nanta intellegentia — compre- 
hensio : ' what keen perception, what a power of bringing together and 
seeing in one view premisses and consequences ! ' Ct Fin. v 26 «^ j'am 
liceat una oomprehensione omnia oomplecti, non dubitantemque dicere omnem 
naturam esse conservatricem sui; ib. iv 55 consequentibus vestris subkuisy 
prima toUuntur. Comprehendo means not only to grasp one thing finnly 
{=^K(Kra\afißdv»)j but to hold together a number of things at once (»irvX- 
Xa/i/Sovo»). 

remm : used here of abstract ideas, as above ipsis rebus, and below ^vi- 
busgue r^ms, singulas res. That tMs was its original force is probable from 
its connexion with rear, cf. the Eng. thing and thinl% 



BOOK II CH. LIX § 147. 273 

ex qno : this refers generally to what preoedes, the greatness of man's 
understandiDg. The second ex quo refers to reasoning by definitions and 
sjUogisms. 

videlicet : if the text is correct, I think we ^must take this in its 
original seBBe—videre licet, as in Plautus and Lucretius (so we find scüicet 
foUowed by Acc. c. Inf. in Sallust Jtig. 102 § 9, Hist, fr. 51 § 5), or it 
would be easy to make this slight correction. Otherwise I should prefer 
to insert some word like judicamiu before it, with Vahlen : I do not think 
condvdimus snits efidcUur^ and there is no justification here for idqiie in 
the sense of kclL ravrcL 

ez QnibnSQne : pL because a single conclusion may depend on many 
arguments. 

circiunscxillte : cfl Orot. 1 189 eif enim deßmtio rerum eourum qtiae sunt 

ejus rei propriae, qitam definire votumtLS, brems et drcvmscripta quaedam 

expUcatio, where Wilkins translates it ' strictly limited \ This sense is not 

* to be confused (as by L. and S.) with that in which it is applied to a 

rounded period, as in Orator 204, 221. 

ex «luo BCientia: Acad. l 32 (the Old Academy) scientiam nus- 
qttam esse censebai nisi in animi notionilms atque rationibtiSf qua de 
causa deßnitiones rerum probabant ; ib. § 41 a<^ haec quae visa sunt et quasi 
acoepta setisibiu assensionemjujigit animorum;..,quodavtem erat sensu com- 
prehensum,,. .si ita erat comprehensum, ut convelli ratume non passet, scientiam 
{appdlahat Zeno). 

Quam virn habeat: foUowed in hss by qualis sü. Allen inserts 
etf comparing Divin. i9 id, si placet, videamus, quam habeat vim et quäle 

Sit. 

iUa Biint : for the PL see i 20 illa pcUmaria n. 

ea qnae extra sant : * the external world ', here almost equivalent to 
* objective truth ', cf. Äc, ii 76 Cyrenavd neganX esse quicquam quod cemi 
possü exlrinsecus, ea se sola percipere quae tactu intimo sentiant. Not only 
ratiocination is trustworthy, but also the combination of Sensation and 
reason, by which we apprehend the outer world, cf Ac ii 19 foll., where 
each is proved separately : the Academic disputant attacks Sensation in 
II 79, dialectic in ii 91 foll. 

§ 148. ex Quibus collatis inter se artea efficirnns : cf. Ac. ii 22 ars 

vero quae potest esse nisi quae non ex una aut duabus, sed ex muUis animi 
perceptionibtts constat f Fin^ ni 18 {artes constant) ex cogniiianibus, where 
Madv. cites the Stoic definition T€xyfjv tiwu avarrjiia ex KaräKi^t»v avy- 
ytyviivatrfitvav (Sext. P. H, III 188). 

partim ad usiim... partim ad oblectationem: see below § 150, 
Bywater */. of Phü, vii p. 85, who refers to the Aristotelian distinction 
between arts irpor XP^^^^ ^^^ npos diaytoyrfVy cf. Metaph. I 1 p. 981 a yiperai 
rixyi ora» ck iroWi^p rrjg ifortipias iwoijiuiTtdv fua kclÖoKov yivrirat irtpl t£p 
6ßoi»vv7roKri^i9, and a little below irktiov»» tvpurKOfiivmv rtxy*^^ '^^'^ ^^^ H-^^ 
irpor ravttyKata t<av bi wpos butymyriv o-öfrtiv with Bonitz's n. 

M. C. IL 18 



274 BOOK II CH. LIX § 148. 

C d (8). c. Promdence shovm in the gift ofipeech {XSyi^ rrpo^^opt- 
fcos) and the toondrous mechanism qf the vocal orgcms. ^ 148, 149. 

domina remm : c£ Orot. 1 30—35, 202, ii 35. 

nt vos Boletis dicere : cf. §§ 1 aud 168, where Cotta is described as 
Academic and Orator in one. 

qaae ignoramus : on the Ind. after ReL in Infinitival Subordination, 
see Madv. § 369 dbi. 1. 

iracnndias: 'outbursts of paasion', see on PI. of Abstraets § 98 n. 

a vita immaTll segregavit : cf. Orot, i 33 quae vis <üia, (tban eloquence) 
potuit aut düpersos fiomines unum in locum congregare aut rnfera agrestique 
vüa ad hunc hwmanum cvUum deduoeref Leg. l 62. In Tusc v 5 the 
beginning of cirilization is attributed to philosophy instead of eloquence, 
tu (philotophia) diuipatoi homines in societatem vüae oonvoocuti : cf. Sext. 91 
where this is assumed to be the general belief : bat in De Invent. i 2 ifc ia 
argued that both eloquence and wisdom were needed to effeet the change ; 
either by itself would have been useless, if not mischievous. A comparison 
with Seneca Ep, 90 shows that tfais theorj of ciWüzation was maintained 
hj Posidonius. See below § 150. 

§ 149. faicredibtb est si attenderis : the oorrection d for nisi was 
proposed first by Kindervater and then by Madv. and has been generally 
adopted. With it the meaning is ' if you closely attend, it is wondeifol 
how great is the skill displayed by nature ^ The other reading assigns to 
incredünlis its literal force of vix credas, a sense in which it is never used 
by C, thus 'you would never believe, unless you paid cloee attention to the 
subject, the skill shown by nature *. As n is a litÜe obecure and elliptical, 
it was easily liable to comiption ; we have to supply «ome such phrase as 
tU tun videbättr before it (cf. the use of ei § 144 n., «nd § 167 m.). 

arterla : cf. § 136 n. 

prlndpinm a mente dncens : cf. Pl(zc. Pkü, w i9 tiXarap rfjp ipmwiip 

6pi(€Tcu irv€Vfia dia (rrofiaros airo diopoias ifyfuvov (see the Sophista 163 E) ; ib. 
21 ' the Stoics distinguish seven factilties of the soul or ^tiwvucop, viz. the 
five senses, ro airkpiia kolL ttjp (fmviiv, which last thßy define as nvcv/ia Uta- 
TtTpov dirh Tov ifytyMviKov fJ^XP^ 4>apvyyot Koi yXfiSm/c'. Galen (Hipp. Plat. 
p. 241, 251, 354 K.) finds fault with Zeno and Chrysippus for maintain- 
ing that the heart, not the brain, is the seat of reas^n, ob the ground that 
the voice is sent from ihe heart The word in the breast was called Xayw 
eVdia^fTOff, the Word in the mouth \6yos irpo^pucor, cf. Zeller iv p. 57, 
195 foll., Nemesius c. 14, and Philodemus cited above i 41. 

percipitnr et fanditnr : ' through which the voice is caught (from the 
heart) and uttered': for percipitur cf. § 141 aures eonum peroipere ; Ibr 
fwnditur Tute n 56 IcUera faucee linguamy e quibus elici vooem et fundi 
videmv^s. 

fiiiita dentilms: Seh. reads murUta comparing the Homeric cpcor 
6iopT»p, Valium dentium in Gell, i lä, ApuL Doctr. Plat. c. 14, also Lact. 



BOOK II CH. LIX § 149. 275 

Opif> c. 10 linguam dentium saepHs deus quasi muro circumvcUlavü, where 
Bünemann cites Apul. Fhr. ii 15 verba intra murum candentium dentium 
premere, Apcl. 7 sermo e dentium muro profidscitwr. I think however that 
finita m&j be defended in reference to the immoderate profiuam which fol- 
lows. The tongue is confined by the teeth and ao is able to confine the 
Sounds. 

immoderate profasam : 'spoken of ümrticulate sound, as Leg, i 27 
moderatumem vocis of articulate' Seh. ; cf. Orat. in 40 etiam lingua et »pirittis 
et vocis sonus est moderanduSn 

pressos : we have had the word premo in the sense ' to condense ' § 20 ; 
here it is used of sound which is sharply and clearlj articulated by the pres- 
sure of the lips and tongue ; so in Orot, ni 43 Cic. speaks of the pure Boman 
pronunciation as marked bj lenitate vocis atque ipso oris pressu, and in 
§ 45, after saying that women are the best witnesses to the old pronuncia- 
tion, he describes Laelia as speaking non aspere^ non vaste, non rustice^ non 
hiulce, sed presse et aequabüüer et leniter. It is the mean between the faulty 
extremes mentioned in Orat, in 41 nolo exprimi litteras putidius, nolo 
obscurari neglegcTUius, Quintil. uses expressus in the sense of CJspressus (i 1 1 
§ 4) imprimis vitia, si qua sunt orisy emendety ut expressa sirU verha^ ut suis 
quaeque litterae sonis enumtientur, cf. xi 3 § 33. The word was fiirther used 
in regard to written language, apart from pronunciation, in the sense 
* distinct ', * exact ', as in Orat. ii 56 ; cf. Emesti Lex. Techn. s. v., and 
Holden on Of. 1 133. 

plectri slmflem: cf. Nemes. c. 14 in the mouth dunrXaTrrroi kclL 

axrffiariCerM Kai olovtl fiop<f>ovT(U 17 biaKticros' rrj^ fuv yäp yXoamjs Kai rov yap' 
yap€»vos (uvida) irXi;«erpov \6yov «ircxovrtov, rijs de vittpu^s rix^^iov (sounding 
board), rov be obovriov kclL r^s iroias rov crro/iarof duivoi^etos tos ev Xvp^ rrjv rwv 
Xopb^v dvairXrjpovvrap ;^pciap, ovvT«\ov<rrjs ri Kai rrjs pivos irpos €v<f>mviaVf K.r.\, 
Hieron. de Spirüu Sancto 35 linguae organv/m commovemv^s et quasi quoddam 
plectrum chordis dentium coUidentes vocum sonitum emittimus, Ambr. Hex. vi 
67 lingua plectrum loquentis. Theodoret even maintains that musical instru- 
ments were invented in imitation of the mechanism of the mouth (Prov. 
in p. 515 Seh.), See also ib. p. 513, where it is compared to an organ, dpyapip 
yap toiK€v airo xoXicttv avyKtip^v^ K<iKdp.cßv Kai vir do-K»v iKfjyva-ovpevtj^ Kai kjl- 
vovfi€v<j^ virb Tcov rov T€xytTov daKTvkav, Prudent. (Rom^ Mart. Suppl.) quifecit 
ut vis vocis expressa irUimo pvlnume et oris torta suh testudine (sounding board) 
nunc ex palcUo det repercussos sonos, nunc temperetur dentium de pectine, 
sitque his agendis lingtia plectrum mMk. In the same poem we find plectrum 
used as a name for the tongue, plectrum palati etfaudum saevus tibi tortor 
revulsit, cf. Pollux Onom. n 104, 105. The metaphor of the plectrum was 
applied to the Sun by Cleanthes, because when he strikes the world with 
his rays tU rijv ivapp^viov iroptiav rb <fms oyet : cf. Varro Menip. 351 Blich. 
qTtam nobilem divum lyram sol harmoge qucbdam gubemans moiibus diis 
veget (Hirzel Unters. 11 p. 181). 

nares comibiiB : for the combination of diSerent cases after simüisy cf. 

18—2 



276 BOOK II CH. LIX § 149. 

above i 90 hominum 9imües,.,ülud huic; Lucr. iv 1211 tum simües mairum 
mcUemo iemine ßiiTU, ut pcUriims patrio, The Gten. is by far the commooer 
construction in Cic. in reference to persons, see Madv. Fin. v 13. In later 
writers the Dat is chiefly used, see Madv. Or. 219 obs, 2. We find a 
similar combination after eapers, Sali. Cot. 33 plerique patriae, amnes fama 
atque fortunü expertes tumus. On comibvs cf. above § 144 ; probably the 
plural here refers to the so-called homa of the lyre, which being hollow 
would tend to deepen the sound, cf. Greg. Nyss. c. Eunom, Or, 12 ij Ä* 
iun€p€fa bia tov v7r€pK€ifi4vov Kftwfxarot rov kotcl roiff fivKTijpat dii^KOvror, 
KoSairep ris fiayas äv«»B€v tiriifkarvpf^ rf rj)^fi top <f>B6yyop. The Masc oomus 
occurs in Yarro Sat, Men. Eum. 36 (p. 173 Buch.) Phrygius per osea eomtiM 
liqwida canU anima [taken from Nonius pp. 233 and 334, the readinga 
being very doubtfiil in both places. R]: we find the Acc. camum in 
Lucr. II 388, Ov. Mei. n 874 ; the Lexx. cite Scribonius for comorum, 
in cantibas : cf. § 146 n. 

Cd (8). £. Frovidence ahourn in man^a capcusUy for acdon^ and 
in the wonderßd mechanisin qf the hand, ^150 — 152. 

Gh. Lx § 150. manns : c£ Arist. P. ^. iy 10 § 19 *Apa^6pat fUr oZp 

ffn)cr\ dia ro ^eXpas t^^iv ^povifuoTarov flvai rmv (<f<ov avOptanov' €vXoyqw de 
dia ro <l>povifMTarov «tvai ;^€tpaff Xafißdvtip. al yutp yap X'tpcr (ipyccpop «lo-iy, ff 
de (/fviris ad buivifttty KaBairrp ävBpomros <f>p6pifju}S, (Ka<rrop rS livPOfJv^ 
;(p$(r^cu...'0 yap ^popip-toraroi irXcioTotr or opyopois exp^a'OTO JcaX<)»r, 17 de 
Xelp toiKtp cu/cu ovx ^ opyavop aX\a iroXXa' ?oTt yap loavtpel opyavop npo 
6pydpap..*H yhp ;(c}p kcu. opv^ Kai X'M '^^^ Ktpas yiprrcu Ka\ iopv Koi ^0o( 
Koi SXXo oiroiopovp onXop Ka\ opyavop, See the whole passage. Lucretius 
(iv 830) argues against the Stoic doctrine, 'beware of thinking that arms 
and hands were given utraque ex parte minittraiy tU facere ad vitam pos- 
semus qiiaeforet ums...quod natum est id procreat U8um\ The subject is 
fully treated by Galen Us, Part, if Theodoret Prov. iv. 

moUes commissnras et artus: hendiadys Hhe flexibility of the 
joints'. Perhaps we may distinguish commissura as denoting particularly 
the cartilaginous lining of the Joint [and artus as the joints of the fingera, 
i.e. the three small bones of which each finger is made up. R.]. 

admotione digitornm : no other ex. of this word is cited before 400 a. d., 
but in Brut. 200 we read animis judicum admovere orationem tamquam 
ßdibus manum, which might suggest that it was a technical word for 
musicol 'fingering*. 

haec oblectationis : the fine arts just mentioned, painting, modelling, 
carving, music. 

snta: made of some natural material which only wanted fastening 
together ; cf. Lucr. v 1350 nexüis arUefuü vestis quam textile tegmen. 

ad inventa animo, percepta senBibiis adhibltis oplficnm manibiis : 
'when the inventions and observations of the philosopher were applied to 
pnactice by means «f the skilled hand of the workman', lil *when the 



BOOK II CH. LX § 150. 277 

• 

band was employed upon the inventions &c.' On the history öf Civilization 
see Orot, 9 neque tefagü omnium laudcUarum artiwm procreatricem quandam 
et quasi parerUem eamj quam (l)ikoiTo4>lap Graed vooantj ab hominibus doctis- 
simis Judicarif and (C/s authority) Posidonius ap. Seneca Ep. xc where all 
arts are traced to philoeophers ; Tiarrat querA ad modum rerum naiuram 
imitatus paiiem coeperiJt facere &c. (§ 22). Compare also Lucr. v 1100 on the 
1186 of fire ; 1241 foU. of metals ; 'something which men saw and admired 
{percepta sensibus) suggested effort to produce a similar result by artificial 
means' 1255 foll. ; musical instrumenta 1379 foll. ; ' these suggestions were 
caught up by men of genius {inventa animoY, 1105 — 1107. See generally 
on the ideas of the ancients as to the origin of civilization Lewis Methods 
of Observation &c., c. xxii § 20 with the reff., and, on inventions, ib. c. x § 6. 
oplflcnm : Walker corrected opificihus after Amob. ii 17 quamvü sint 
nobis opißces manus, but there is an implied Opposition of the mind, 
embodied in the philosopher, and the hand, in the workman. 

§ 151. operibUB homixixini : so above § 99 hominum operibus agri 
inmUae litoraqite coUucent dütincta tectis. Ba. reads operis : if any change 
is needed I should prefer opera^ c£ Off. II 12 neque frugum perceptio sine 
hominum opera uUa esse potuisset, ib. § 14 sine hominum manu atque opera, 
(bis) ib. § 11 pecudes quarum opera eßdtur aliquid (so Ba and Heine with 
one MS, Holden opere with other Mss), ib. § 14 unde sine hominum opera 
habere possemtLsf (so Ba. Heine with Asc., Holden opere with Hss), ib. § 12 
pleraque sunt hominum operis effecta, It is possible that operibus may have 
been a correction by a reader who took opera for the plural. 

qnae mandentnr vetustati: 'for keeping', a singular phrase; it is 
common enough to say mandare aliquid msmoriae or monumentis ; but we 
do not think of vetustas as having any existence apart from the things of 
which it is a quality : we may compare mandare vitam solüudini *to give 
over one's lifo to solitude'. For exx. of vetustas used of duration in the 
future, cf. Att. xiv 9 quae mihi viderUur /labitura etiam vetustatem 'likely to 
last', Milo 98 niUla obmutescet vetustas ; it was especially used of eatables 
which would *keep', e.g. Colum. xii 46 poma in vetustatem reponere, ib. 
c. 11 meUa in vetustatem reponere, Cato IL R. 114 vinum servare in vetus- 
tatem, CoL III 2 vetustatem vinum patitur et ad bonitatem aliqttamper annos 
venu; hence the word vetustesco used of wine CoL i 6, and tlie meta- 
phorioal use in QuintiL X 1 § 40 auctores qui vetustatem pertiUerunt. 

condita : see below § 156 condendi ac reponendi, 157 frumeTitum oondunt. 

terrenis et acLuatUibus : see above § 42 and 1 103. 

V68CiinTir...capiendo, alendo : a careless expression for qitas capimus, 
alimus. Seh. 

vectiones : Str. Xry. a curious abstract expression for ut vehant. 

onera— juga : see below § 159. 

elephantoram : c£ i 97. Aristotle {H, Ä, ix 46) calls it €vai(r$rjTov koI 

avvio'd T^ oAXi; virtpßaXKov. 

abntimur: Hum from its natural use to oiu: own', cf. Quint, 99 ne 



278 BOOK II CH. LX § 151. 

omamentü ejus omnüms Nctevivspro Mpoliis ahuiatur ; InverU. n 24 quas cui 
defensianem reo dabimus, iü aocuscUor ad alios ex culpa eaimendas abvletur; 
Oraior 94 Aristoteles tralationi svbftmffit abtuümemy qtiam Koraxpiffnf^ vo- 
cant, vi cum abutimur verbis propinquis, si opus est. Like diroxpwtfuu and 
Koraxpaofiat it has also the sense of 'to use to the füll' as in Verr. l 9 
§ 25 nisi omni tempore, quod mihi lege concessum est, abusus ero, 

e terrae cavemis femiin elicimus : Mu. reads eligimus, oomparing 
§ 161, where the reading of all the better MSS is ex earum oorporibus 
remedia morbis digamus ; Div, n 149, where the iiss have ejidendae, but 
Mtl. and Ba. adopt Madv.'s conjecture (in his Emend. Liv. p. 155 (183^ n. 
and Advers, u 205) and read superstitionis stirpes omnes eligendae; Fifu n 
119 eUgerem ex te cogeremque tU responderes, where however Madv. and Mu. 
both read, by conjecture, eHoerem, and Ba. exigerem; Tusc. m 83 stirpes 
aegritudinis omnes digendae Sfwnt (on which see Mu.'s n. in Pmef. p. xxxix 
foll.) and ib. 84 fibrös stirpium persequendae et digendae sunt. There is no 
doubt that digere is the natural word to use of pulling up weeds, aa in 
Colum. IV 5, Varro Ä Ä i 47, Curtius iv 4 ; but we could hardly talk of 
picldng or pulling out iron, we want a word to ezpress the educing of iron 
concealed in the ore, and this is just the force of diclo, as above § 25 lapidum 
tiitu dici ignem, § 150 ad nervorum diciendos sonos, Cato 51 (terra) diciC 
kerbescentem ex semine tnriditatem by means of heat and pressure (just aa 
in the case of the iron). ca,YeTDia=fodinis. 

venas penitns abditas : cf. Dw. 1 116 avrum et argeiUum, aes^ferrum 
frustra natura divina genuisset nisi eadem docuissety quem ad modum ad 
eorum venas perveniretur, and the parallel passage Off. u 13 nee ferrum, 
aes, aurum, argentum effoderetur penitus abdüum, which Bibbeck gives as 
fr. 85 Inoertorum in his Trag. Ldt. suggesting (p. 301^) that it may be 
taken from the Prometheus of Attius, as the words nearly resemble Aesch. 
Prcm. 508 tvtpBt d< xOovoi koLpvfjLfjJv dvBpaoTrourw «»«^cXi^/iora ;|^ciXie«r, 
a-i^Tjpop, apyvpov, xpvo-ov r€ ris tftria'tUv av irapoidtv i^tvptuf €fU}v; For in- 
stance of similar half-conscious unavowed quotation see above § 25. 
venas : cf. § 98. 

consectione : cf. Divin. 1 116 materia quid juvaret nisi consectionis ejus 
fabrioam haberemus f 

materia: cf. a>edes male m^ateriatae 'built of bad timber' Off. m 54, 
faber materiarius * carpenter*. 

mitigandtun : rarely used in the literal sense, cf. Ov. Met. zv 78 
smU quae mitescere flamma mollirique queant, and above § 130 mitigat 
agros. 

§ 152. afTert : sc. materia. 

qnomm cnrsibus: in Engiish we should say more generally 'by 
means of which', while on the other band we should have certainly used 
more definite terms instead of res below ; which Stands (1) for the ud- 
controllable forces of natiure, (2) for navigation, (3) for marine producta 
Compare for (2) Caes. B. G. iii 8 scientia cUque usu nauticanim rerum. 



BOOK n CH. LX § 152. 279 

propter scientiam gives the reaaon why We are abl» beth to control the 
winds and to obtain (3). 

aauanun iädnotionibus : c£ the parallel passage Off, n 14 adde ductu» 
aqitarumy derivcUionesflwnintMny agrorum irriffotiones, Virg. 0, 1 106. 

[noB flnmina arc^kutiB, derlgiiaiTis, avertimus : ' we confiäe rivers, we 
straighten their oourse, we divert them altogether'. Arcere refers to 
strengthening and raising the banks to prevent oVerflow ; derigere to the 
improvement of the river for navigation by dressing the banks and substi- 
tuting Short cuts for the natural bends ; avertere to making a new Channel 
for the river where the old was inconvenient or dangerous or occupied too 
large a bed. The first and third Operations at least are notioed by Ulpian 
in Dtg, XLin 13 § 7 Qui quid in flumine puhlioo fecit (jxme mim grande 
damnum flumen ei dare sotitumy praedia ejus dep&pulari), si forte aggeres 
vel quam aliam munitianem adhibuitf ut agtwm »uum tuereiur, eaque res 
cursumfluminis ad aliquid immtUavit, cwr ei non oonsfuleturf plerosque scio 
prorsus flumina avertisse alveosque mutasse, dum praediis suis consulunt. 
The rapid and excessive rise of the streams in Italj oocasioned many legal 
difficultiesy which are discussed in the Digest and in the writings of the 
Agrimensores. R.] 

alteram natnram : so we speak in a somewhat different application 
of ' use being a second nature' ; cf, Fin. v 74 (volUptatäm) oonsuetudirve quasi 
alteram quandam naturam eßci: Seneca Frov. 4 § 15 nihil miserum est 
quod in naturam oonsuetudo perduant; Quintil. u 4 § 17 hujv>s rei naturam 
sibi faciat *let him make a nature of it' i.e. habitu&te himself to it; 
Macrob. Sat. vii 9 § 7 consuettidinem secundam naturam pranuntiavit usus. 
[Add Clementin, p. 7 23 Lagarde devrtpa <t>v<ns i; oi/Fif^eia, Chrys. Ii 509*, 
x61^490^ J. E. B. M.J 

C d (8). Tf. Frovidence shotort in inan*g capaciti/ for contemr 
plation and worship. § 153. 

Ch. LXi § 153. flnitus est dies : 'ihe day, month and year have been 
determined' (had their limits aasigned)« Forthis use o{ßnio cf. Leg. ii 20 
curstu annuos sacerdotes ßniunto, Fam* xv 9 (tempus) quod tu mihi et 
senatus oonsvUo et legeßnisti, Fat. SOßnitus est moriendi dies^ Gaes. B. O, 
VI 18 spatia omnis temporis numero noctiumßniuni. 

defectiones praedictae : cfl Divin. i 112 (Thaies) primnu defectionem 
solis, quae Astyage regnanie facta est, praediansse ferPur; R. F. i 16, 
Herod. I 74, Diog. L. i 23, Cleomedes il 6 p. 124 i^fdi; npoktycm-ai ircurai 
al csXct^fiff {rrjs (rtXiivrfs) viro r&v itavovtKav. 

qnae contuens — e qua — cui — e quibus— (|nae : afemarkable ez. of the 
Compound relative construction, see Index. 

accedit ad cognitionem deorum: supposing this to be the right 
reading, it is rather an unusual expression for ' attaining to'. 

cui coujuncta Justitia: cf. i 4, and 116 with nn., Fin. v 65 justüia 
cui sunt adjunctae pietaSf bonitaSy liberalitasy benignitaSf Seneca £p. xc 3 



280 BOOK II CH. LXI § 153. 

phüosophiae opus unum est de divinü humanisque rehus verum iavenire ; 
ab hoc nuniqitam recedü religio justUia pietas et omni» cUius comitattu virtu- 
tum consertarum et inter se cohaerentiwn» It was a Stoic maadm that he 
who had one virtue must have all virtues, in the words of Chrysippus 
(Plut. Sto. Eep. 27) ras dprras d»TaKoXov$€t¥ aXXijXoif, od fiopou rS ro» fiiaw 
€)(0VTa trao'as ^X^^ oKka kcX r^ rov Kora itlav ortiovv mpyovvra Kora iraaras 
cVepycty ; See Fin, Y 67 ; and on the connexion between physics and ethics, 
the Observation of nature and a virtuous life, see above § 37 n. and Beier's 
exe. IX on Of. i. 

sixnilis deonun : an abbreviation for «. vitae d,j so just below eedens 
cadestiimSy arUeiret animantes ; c£ Juv. iii 74 sermo promptus et Isaeo tor- 
rentior with Mayor's n. ; Orot, i 15 ingenia nostrorum hominum ceteria 
hominibus praestiterunt ; R, zvii 51 koiuu Xoplrfo-a-iv ofwuu. Seh. cites 
Flaoc, c 26 citjus ego civitatis disdplinam non sclum Graeciae sed haud scio 
an cimctis gentibas anteponam ; R. P, ii 1 praestare nostrae civitatis statum 
caeteris civitatibus, 

nulla re niai ünmortalitate— cddens caelestibns : so Folyxena says 

in happier days she was taii Btoiai fikrjp ro Karöavti» fiovov Earip. Hec^ 
356. This paradox seems to have been put forward in its moet offensive 
form by duysippus, cf. Plut. Comm, Not, 33 p. 1076 dp€rS ovx vntpix^uf 
rov Lla rov Ato>i/of...<iprr^ de fui d7ro\€iir6fi€vov SvBpcawov ovdct' mroditp tvdtU' 
fAovia^f dXX* iiri<rqv tlvai fuucdpwv r^ Aii r^ o'&rrjpi rov arv^ij, Sto, Rep, 13 
p. 1038 »oirtp r& Au irpo<n]K€i a'€fiyvv€o-6ai cyt* aurf ...ovr» roir dyaOois traat 
ravra npooijKei Kar ovdiv irpo€xofJLivois viro rov Aior, Stob. E<^. II 198, Seneca 
Ep. 73 § 13 Juppiter quo antecedit virum honumf diutius bontu est. Sapiens 
mhito se minoris aestimet quod virtutes ^us spatio breviore dauduntur. 
Seneca even goes so fax as to say (Ep, 53 § 11) 6«^ aliquid quo sapiens ante- 
cedat deum; üle naturae beneßcio, non suo sapiens est, Ecce res magnay 
habere imbeciUitatem hominis, securitatem dei; and again CoTist. Sap, 8 § 2, 
Prov, 6 § 6 hoc est quo deum antecedatis : iUe extra patientiam malorum est, 
vos supra patientiam. In §§ 17, 34, 36, 37, 39, 79 we have seen the other 
side of Stoic teaching : man is imperfect, situated in the lowest region 
of the universe, yet he has received the gift of reason and is capable of 
wisdom and virtue : therefore in those divine and perfect beings which 
inhabit the higher parts of the universe and breathe a purer air, these 
qualities must exist in greater measure and be used for higher ends. 
Further it is only the perfectly wise man in whom the perfection of virtue, 
and therefore of happiness, is to be found, but this perfectly wise man 
does not exist on earth. In the end the Stoic doctrine on this point 
merges into the Christian; the ideal man is God; see my Sketch of 
Ancient Philosophy p. 168 foD. 

anae nihil ad bene viTendum pertinet : the question of the relation 
of diu^tion to happiness had been mooted by the Cyrenaics and by Aris- 
totle with reference to the famous dictum of Solon {EÜi, i 10). Epicurus, 
seeking as usual to diminish the tcrrors of dcath, maintaincd that happi- 



BOOK II CH. LXI § 153. 281 

ness was independent of duration, Diog. x 145 6 äirtipos xp^^^ '^^ ^X^< ^^ 
i/dov^v xai o TTtnepacrfUvos, tav ris avrrjg rä fr^para KaTafjL^rpija'if rw Xoyurft^y 
FiJi, I 63, II 87 negat Epicurus nee diutumitatem quidem temporis ad becUe 
vivendum aliquid afferre^ nee minorem voluptatem percipi in brevitate tempo- 
ris, quam n iUa sü sempitema, The Opponent objects that this may be all 
very well in a Stoic ; qui bonum omne in virtuie ponit, is potest dicere perfid 
becUam viiam perfectione virtutis ; negat etiim summx) bona afferre incremen-' 
tum diem ; but it is altogether inconsistent in an Epicurean, who makes 
happiness consist in pleasure, to deny that happiuess would be increased 
by a longer continuance of pleasure. Cf. Plut Sto, Rep. 26 p. 1046 (Chry- 
sippus affirms) frapa rov irXeu>va XP^^^^ ovbiv pJaKkov tvbaipovova-iVj a>^X' 
Oftoims Kai in'urqs rois rov dfxtprj xpovov evdaifiovias fieraaxfnfO't», Seneca £Jp. 
85 § 22 nesciunt beatam vitam unam esse. In optima xUam statu ponit 
qualitas sua, non magnitudo : itaque in aeqtto est Umga et brevis, ib. epp. 
78 § 27, 101 §§ 9, 10, Benef, v 17 § 6, Frov, 1 § 5, Plut. Comm. Not, 8 p. 
1062, öataker on M. Ant. in 7. 

omnes anteiret : the transitive foroe is shown in the Fass. se abs te 
anteiri putant (ßidla 23), but we also find the Dat. constr. as in Off. ii 37 
vi qui anteire ceteris virtute ptUantur, On the Imp. Subj. cf. i 8 n. 

D. Providential Gare por Man. §§ 154 — 167. 

(a) Whatever is/ound to be tiseßd to man was originally designed 
jfbr hU benefit, (b) The universe exists for the aaJce of ita rational 
inhabitantSy viz, Gods and men, § 154. 

§ 154. atqne aliqnando perorem : a parenthesis, added as a second 
thought. 

Ch. Lxn. hominnm cansa : see nn. on § 37 and § 133, Leg. ii 15, 
Fin. III 67, Seneca Ben. vi 23 § 3, Plin. Ji. H. vn prooem. hominis causa 
videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, Lact. Ira 13, Hirzel p. 197 folL, 
Schwencke p. 158. 

<inae<iU6 in eo snnt — inventa snnt: Heind. is ceiiainly right in 
objecting to this as pleonastic and confiising the treatment of the subject^ 
but I am not satisfied that it is un-Ciceronian. Inventa is not confined to 
the discoveries of man (as Seh. says), for we read of inventa deorum in i 38, 
cf. n 60, and TiTn. 9 mente divina cwrriculvm invenium est solis et lunae, et 
Lewis Methode of Observation &c. i p. 411. 

mundus commimis urbs : cf. Posidonius ap. Diog. L. vii 138 kqI €<m 

Kotrfios, opr <l>7j(ri noo*. cV rj neTf»pokoyiKJ orotxfco^cret, avoTTjfui c( ovpavov 
Kai yrjs Koi rap iv twtois (j>v<r€(OPj ij avarrffia €K Ot&v «rai dvBpwrav kcu rcip 
€V(Ka Tovrcüv y€yov6raVy and Arius ap. Euseb. F. E. xv 15 (Diels p. 464) ov 
Tpoirov iroKis Xcycrac dix^s ro re olicrpn^piov km to tK t»p avpoiKovprcdP avp roif 
ircXirais ovon^fui, ovtüo koi 6 kocimos o/ovcl vokis i(rr\v €k 6emp koI dv6p<oTr<op 
avptiTTaa'af t^p fiip Btcop t^p rjytfiopiav c;(ovrä>v, tSp ^ avBpcawtüP vTrorcray/ic'- 
pmv' Koivfdviav d' vndpxfiv npos dWijXovs duL to \6yov pLtTtx^iP^ 6s cWc <f>VfTti 



282 BOOK II CH. LXII § 154. 

tf6nos, (Thä latter passage also is ultimately derived ftom Posidonius 
according to Ledcaloperius and Diels pp. 21 and 464 n. The same doctrine 
is attributed to Chrysippus in the passage quoted from Philodemus on 

I 39. G£- Cio. L6g, i 23, Off. i 153, Fm. iii 64, Zeller iv pp. 285, 301, Plut. 
ConnTii Noti 94 rbv Koa-fiov tivai noKiw Kai iroKiras rovs daripat, Seneca 
<id Marc 18 § 1 puta ncucerUi ms tibi venire in o<msilium. ItUraturue es 
wrhein dis haminibusqtte cammufiem, [The word 'coemopolite' Diog. L. 6 63, 
Philo Opifi Jfundi 49 (i 34 M.), ib. i 445 {-int ib. 657), Const. ÄpostoL 8 12 
§ 8, c£ Lightfoot on Philippians iii 20 iJ/m»i^ yap t6 rro\lT€Vfta iv ov/mmmf, 
and pp. 306 foll. J. E. B. M.] 

Athenas : <il. Antonin. iv 3 eKtivos fi€v <Prfai TLoki ^tKij Kccpoiror, «rv de 
•VK iptis *& iroXc ^tXi; Aios ; 

D c Thu fieavenly bodies, beMss their general use for the pr^ 
6erväti(m of tk6 world, affbrd also d beauti/ul and inatructive spectacle 
to man ci/nd räan alone ofaninials, % 155. 

§ 155. nmndi eohaerentiam ; c£ above § 82, and n. on § 19, cdao Äc 
1^28 omni natura eohiiererUe et continuata cum omnibus euiepartüms effeßtum 
esse mundum^ Leg. fr. eicül una ead^mque natura mundus omnibus partibuM 
inter se cohaeret ac nititur, sie omnes homines inter se natura confusi. As 
the heaven is the chief seat of the etherial spirit which permeates and 
incloses and binds together the world, it may well be said pertinere ad 
tokaerentiam, Even eclipses cöntribute ad kniversi ßrmitaiem Philo Prov, 

II 79. See the strüdng passage in Seneca Ben. vi 20 (sol et luna) cum in 
hoc moveantur ut universa conserventy et pro me moventur; universi enim 
pars sum^ He then describes what would be the effect of a sudden pause 
in the revolutions of the heaven, omnia ista ingentibus intervallis diditcta et 
in custodiam universi disposäa stationes suas deserant, subita confusione 
rerüm sidera sideribus incwrrarU d rupta renlm concordia in ruinam divina 
Idbaniur^ contextusque vdocäatis cüatissimae in iot sa^cula promissas vices in 
mediö ttin^e desiitiUzt, et qtuie nunc eunt aUemis redeuntque opportunis 
librameniis, mundum ex aequo temperantia, repentino concrementur inoendio 
,.,Prosunt tibi euntque ista tua causa eiiamsi major tUis aliä ac prior causa 
est. [tompäre Öooker i 3 § 2. Clem. Rom. £p. i 20. J. E. fi. &L] 

et spectacnltun praebent : Seh. explains et on the principle of Ana- 
coluthoh (cf. Madv. Fin. exe. i) and thinks C. meant to add some such 
jphrase as et magnäm hominum vitde utüüatem qfferunt before eorum entm, 
but that he changed his mind and introduced the latter clause as an 
evidence of the reason exhibited in the movement of the stars. If we take 
et to mean ^also', as in i 72 aüd 63, where See nn., the preceding etiam 
becomes pleonastic. 

insatiabilLor : see § 98 n. dpecles: cf. § 96 and § 100. ad 
rationein praestantior : cf. 1 1, u 87 { Seh. cites Leg. ii 33, Font. 15. 

maturitates temponun : * when the times will be ripe', e.g. when io 
ex|^ct au eelipse or transit of Venus. 



BOOK II CH. Lill § löft 283 

D d. Tlie producta qftke kirth existfor mavüa saJce^ da plairdy aa 
a musical instrumeTUfor the aake of the performer ; ofien tkey require 
hia ahill to maJce thein ofuae^ and tkeir qualUiea com cndy he appre- 
ciated hy hiafiner aenaea. §§ 156 — lö8. 

§ 156. feta finigilms: 'teeioing'', o£ Lucr. ii 994 feta parit nüidas 
fniges^ and Ov. F. i 662 aeminibiLsjactU est ubifetua ager. 

legnminnm : ' all that grows in pods \ Seh. cites Yarro R, R, i 32 § 2 
(Jegttmina) dicta a legende, quod ea non iecantwr sed veUendo UgurUwr^ and 
compareB xidpoira = xt^po^pima. 

cum xoaziina largitate fnndit : <£ § 59 moli^ntium cum Idbore ope- 
roao and Index under cum, 

feramnme : c£ n. on aeminane 1 91. 

laetissimiiiiie : c£ Ps. 65 v. 13 Hhe yalleys are' bo^eted over with corn, 
they shout for joy ', but in the writers Ber. Bfuat. the word had quite lost 
its poetical colouring, see n. on laetificat § 130. 

percipiendl : so in CcUo 24 we ha^ve aerendis perdpiendia cond^ndia 
fructibtut, ib. 70 reliqua tempore demetetidia fructibua et percipiendis accom- 
THodata aunt, cf. above § 13. [It is the regulär technical term used in 
legal writings for getting in finiit or produce of any kind, e.g. Big, vii 
1 60 quidquid in fundo naaciivr vd quidquid inde percipiivr, fructuarii 
eaC, R.] 

condendi nlla pecndum scientia est : for the combination of the 
Objective and Subjective Gen. see § 140. As to the fact c£ Oeo. iv 56 
(of bees) aestate laborem experiuntur et in medium gudeaita reponunt; so of 
ants Aen.TV 402. The Psalmist takes a much wider vie'sC' (Ps. 104) Hhese 
wait all upon thee and thou givest them their meat in due seaaon \ What 
Seneca says of the Stars is true also of beasts and plaäts ; they eilst for us 
in part only. 

Ch. Lxm § 157. bestiae Airantnr : Orig. c. Geis, iv 74 atmep iv rais 

noKta-iM OL irpovoovfitvoi t&v dvioav Kai lijs dyopas Bl oiJdcv oKXo frpovoovvrai 1j 
Bia Tovs avßpwrovSf irapoTroKavova'i de r^s da^cXc/ar Kai kvv€s kcu SKka r&v 
dXoya>v' ovnos ij irpovoux r<5v fUv Xoyucmv nporjyovfifvcis frpovo€% €irrfK6kov&rj(r€ 
di TO Kai ra Skoya dirokaveiv t&v dt* ävdp<imov9 yufopAwov, Celsus tums this 
the other way § 76 ij/iclr fuv Kdfjafovres Kai irpotrrdkaiimopovvTes fuikis Kai 
firiirovwg Tp€(l>6fJLtBa' roiis d* aairapra kclI dinjpora 'navra <f)vovT(u (to whlch 
Origen replies it was to exercise the mind and the mnscles) ; again (77) et 
de Kai TO Evpimttiov tpeiSy ort ^UXios fiiv vv( re dovXcvft ßporolsf rL fiaSXov 
rjfitp fj Tois fivpfirf^i Kai rals ftvlais ; Kai yap €Ktiifois rj fxev vv( yiverai irpos 
dvcaravatv i) de i^fiepa Trphs ro cWpyeiv, and (78) et ris TJfiag \4yoi Spxovras 
T&v C^^t <^'^ i}/i€ir rot aX\a (^a Bjjp&pÄv re Koi daivvfieBa' (p^o'oßev ort, rL 
d* ovxi pJaKKov ijfifig Bi eKetva yeyovojieVy cVcl tKtipa ßrjparaL ij/iof Kai ia-BUi ; 
especially as man needs nets and weapons, while nature hajs supplied the 
beasts with all they need for attack or defence. 

§ 158. nisi forte— dubitationem affert quin : ironical ' unless the 



284 BOOK II CH. LXIII § 158. 

flavour and scent and look lead you io doubt their being intended for man 
alone \ cf. i 99. The n'egative force justifies the use of qui7i. 

ipsas bestias hominnm gratia : c£ above §§ 37, 140, 151, Fin. n 40, 
TiMc, I 69 and reff, in Zeller iv p. 172 n. 

T> e. JEven animals were createdfor Hie sake o/man, to dot/ie JUm, 
guard him, feed himy carry him, draw for him, and fiiwUy to call 
forth kis strengih and courage, ^ 158 — 161. 

qnid oves aliud afEenmt : it is singular that C. makes no mention of 
the flesh of sheep ; but mutton has never been a favorite article of diet 
with Italians. Horace speaks of vilU agnina {Ep. i 15 35) ; Ovid {Met, 
XV 119) says vüa magis quam morte juvatü: Varro, Columella and Virgil, 
in treating of the farming of sheep, refer to their milk, but not to their 
flesh. In fact the word ouina is never used in the sense of 'mutton', 
though btdnUa ' beef ' is common enough. For the usual Boman dishes see 
Becker OoMtu tr. pp. 458 foU. 

villis : used of wool by Varro R. R,u2 ovem esse oportet corpore amplo^ 
quae lana mvlta sit et moUi^ viUis aUis et densis toto corpore ; GoL vi 3 § 7, 
Plin. VIII 73 Apulae breves vülo. 

sine cultu hominum : see above § 130, and the parallel passage in Off. 
II 12. curatione : c£ i 2. 

canum — dominonmi adnlatio : for the combination of the Objective 
and Subjective Gen. see § 145 and Index. 

se esse generatos : as the formal Subject is canum alacritasj 
not canes alacres, it would have been more regulär to have used eos 
instead of se : for laxity in the use of the Reflexive Fron, see Boby § £265 
foU. 

§ 159. ad aratra extrahenda: Seh. and Mü. read trahenda after 
Emesti. I think the Compound may have been preferred by Cic. partly to 
prevent the juxtaposition of tra tra, and partly to express the action of the 
oxen in pulling the ploughshare through deep clay ; but apparently no pa- 
rallel has been found for this use. There is something rather harsh in 
the Omission of sunt with natae, 

auibus cum terrae subigerentnr flflsione glebarom : I agree with 
Ba. in taldng quibus as AbL of Instrument, and fistione as Abi. of Manner 
after subigerentur. Other edd. put a comma after quibus, thus making it a 
Dat. govemed by afferehatur. But the important thing is to state that the 
oxen were the instruments employed to break up the land ; ' since the 
lands were ploughed by them, no violence was used towards them '. It is 
easy to supply the Dat. of the Demonstrative after äff. (see n. on 1 12) ; or 
possibly, as Wytt. suggests, the ambiguous form quünis may have been 
intended to do double duty. 

ab illo anreo genere : Dicaearchus and Posidonius rationalized the 
poetical belief in a Golden Age, et for the latter Seneca Ep. 90 § 3 foll. 
primi mortalium quique ex his geniii naturam incorrapti sequebantur 



BOOK n CH. LXiii § 159. 285 

eundem hahebant et dttcem et legem commisn melioris arhürvo,,,IUo ergo eae- 
eulo quod aureumperhibentjpenessapientesßässeregnum Fosidonitujtuiioat 
.,,Sedpo9tquam subrepeTUihus vüiü in tyrannidem regna conversa sunt, opu9 
esse coepit legilnu, qwis et ipsas inter inüia tvlere sapientes ; for the former 
Frag. Uistor, Graec. ii p. 233 foll. and Lewis Methods of Ohservaiion ii p. 
276 foll. 

ferrea tum vero : Cs translation from Aratus Phaen, 129 foll. aXX* 

orc di) KOKtlvoi eridvaa-op, ot d iyivovro xciKK^lt} ycycT; irpor4p<ov oXtHOTwpui 
avdpt^i €t frpmroi KOKOipybv txcLKKevaravro pA^atpav tlyodi^Vy irp^roi de ßoSv 
inatravT aponjpoi^v. Cf. Y. Oeo, II 536 ante impiaqtuzm cOfesisgens est epuiaia 
JuvenciSy aureus lianc vitam in terris Satumus agd>aJt; necdum etiam au- 
dierant ivfiari classica necdum impositos duris crepitare incvdibus enses, 
Ovid on Pythagorafl {Met, xv 120) ; and Pope's artificial Imitation {Essay 
on Man in 147 foll.) describing the state of nature when ' man walked 
with beast Joint tenant of the shade ; no murder clothed him and no 
murder fed ; Ah ! how unlike the man of times to come, of half that live 
the butcher and the tomb '. The original of these descriptions is Hesiod 
Op, 109 foll. and 1. 145 (of the brazen age) ovdc rt airop ij<rBiov, Empedocies 
followed (1. 420 Mtdl.) ravpcav d* aKpijroto'i <f>6vois ov bfvm ß^fios (in the 
golden age), aXka pvtros rovr farKtv tv avßptöiroiori fityiarov, Bvfxov anoppai- 
owTOff Mfifvm ^4a yvMX, and Plato Leg. vi 782 C aapK&v airtixovro <os ovx 
ocrcoy ov ecrdi€iv ovdi rovs r<Sy BeSv ßatfiovs alfiari pnaLvwtv^ dXX' *0'p<f>iKoi rtves 
Xeyofuvoi ßioi iylyvovro i^fuSy roii rvrf, On the other hand it was main- 
tained that this early vegetarianism was owing simply to ignorance of 
fire, and that the proverb akis bpvos originated in their expression of delight 
on escaping to a superior diet. On the Pythagorean practioe see Zeller i p. 
292 n., and cf. Sext Emp. IX 127 oi füv ovv irepX top Uvöayopav Koi top *£/i- 
frcdoicX^a. . .<^a(rt /i^ fiovop ^fiiv irpios aXXifXov; Koi npos'rovs Beovs clvaiTtpa 
KoiPtopiay, aXXä Koi irpos ra Skoya t^v {^^dv Iv yc^) vnapxfw irpevfta to bta 
noPTos Tov Koa-fiov dtffKOP yltvx^s Tp(mov...bUnr€p Koi KT€ivopT€S avTaKaiTait 
aap^tp avT»v Tptifiopxvoi abucjcrofjJv t€ aal do'fß^a'Ofiev, ds ervyycvcip opmpovpTfs 
folL Aelian {V.ff.Y 14) mentions an Athenian law which forbad the sacri- 
fice of the labouring ox (see Hermann Grr. Ali. ii 26 § 20). See also Juy. xv 
173, 174 nn., the accoimt of the ßov<f>6pta in Smith's Dict. of Ant, imder 
JHipoleia and Bemays' ed. of the fragments of Theophrastus Ueber Fromr 
migkeit, preserved by Porphyrins Abst. il 27 foll. 

ut eonun viBceribns yesci scelus haberetur : cf. Varro K R,n6 bos 
tocms hominum in rustico opere et Cereris minister. Ab hoc antiqui manus 
ita.abstineri voluerunt ut capite sanxerinJt si quis occidisset; Colum. vi praef. 
apud antiqtios tarn capitale erat bovem necasse quam civem ; Plin. N, H. yui 
48 damnatus a populo Romano^ qui...oociderat bovem^ aotusque in exüium^ 
tamquam colono suo interempto. For visoenbtu * flesh ' cf. above § 18 n. 

Ch. Lxiv. longuin est : cf. 1 19 and Index. 

asinomm : so Epict. ii 8 § 7 ' the ass was not created for its own sake 
{irporfyovntvms) biit because we had need of a back fitted to bear burdens '. 



286 BOOK II CH. LXIV § 160. 

§ 160. BUS vero ^nid habet praeter escam? so Juvenal 1 141 calla it 
animcU propter convivia ncUum where see Major; cf. Clem. AI Strom, vn 
6 § 34 p. 849 P. ov kokSs 6 KOfiucos llkar»p <f>Tja'iPj t£v yap rrrfHarc^v 
ovbkv anoKTfLvfOf Zbti rjfias ro \onr6v ir\^v wv, ra yap Kp4a rfburr t^ovatj lunf 
dev ä^ vo£ yiyv€rai n\^v virrpix^s koi irqXog rj/uv «cal ßof], o^cv idä 6 Auronroff 
ov KaK&s €<f>ri ToifS Zs KtKpayivtti fjJyurTov, awddivai yap cavroir eis ovdcv 3Xka 
XpifO'tp^^^j orav cXicffiirrcu, 17 irX^v c^r r^y Bvo'iav. dio ical Kkeavörft 4^0)» asfff 
oXcov avrovr ^x^of Tr\v ^xivy uki pjj (ranj ra Kp4cu This witticism, which C. 
is probably right in attributing to Chrysippus, is frequenÜy referred to, as 
by Yarro 22. 22. 11 4 § 10, Fin. v 38 omnium rerum qwie atU nne animo tuiU 
attt non mvlto seciu, earum summum bonum in corpore est ; tU non inacUe 
ühid dictum videatwr in eite, animvm Uli pecudi datum pro tcde, ne putres- 
cerety Plut. Qu. Conv, p. 685 C 17 t£v aX»y t^vtris ra vtKpa napaKofißapovan koI 
futwvfuvrj TO Trjs ^XV^ fpy^v dvukafißa»€rai t£v <l>€pofUp»p cirl r^v 4*^opa»^ 
diAirfp Tttv 2t»ik&v tviOi r^v vv o-apxa v€Kpav y€vov€vai XryotMrty, r^r ^XJI^ 
cooTTcp dXcDv naptoTrapfuinfg vrrep roO duifUv€iv, Porphyr. Äbstin, 1 13, m 20 
(cited below), Plin. j^. ff, vni 51. Philo Mund. Op. 21 makes the same re- 
mark of fishes. The saying was a favorite with the Elizabethan dramatistSy 
see B. Jonson Bartholomew Fair A. 4 Sc. 1 with GiflTord's n. 

npavoia fplpurea ; the whole passage seems borrowed (by PosidonioSy 
we may suppose) from Chrysippus, see Porphyr. Abst. in 20 dXX* cxcivo, ini 
Aia Tov Xpvo'imrov niSavov ^v, »s rjpas avT&v leai dAXi^Xonv ol Btol x4p^ cirocii* 
a-avrOf 17/MOV de ra (^a, avfinoKtfit'lv pAv rnirovs koL O'UPÖJjpmiv Kwas, avdp€Uis 
de yvpvatria rropdäKeis Kai SpicTovs km \4opTaS' 17 de vr, ivravöa yap coriy n»v 
Xapirtav ro rj^rroVy ov dt 4XXo ri irX^v $v€j(r$a^ eyryovrc, kuX rrj o'apKi r^v V^vx^'' 
o 6t6g ouiv akas cW/u^cv, euoyftiav rjplv pjjxavmp^yot, OTras be {^<ap4>v k€u trapa- 
d«i9rvca>y ä(l>6opiap txoi>p*Vi Sorpta re iravrobairä Kai irop<f>vpas Kai axaXi7<^a( 
Kol y^vri wttjpSv ^cpüctXa vap€OKeucur€V, ovk aKKaxoOe» dXX' »s avrov p^eya 
p4po£ €VTavßa rph^as eis y\vKv$vpias K.r.X. See also Philo Prov. n 97 where 
this is made an aetual objection to Providence partes naturae paene omnes 
plenae sunt r^ms volyptati servientibiu,..nec ea solum quae ad usum cibi €t 
pottbs sed etiam ad d^liicias ambitiosas referuntur folL 

atque eae ne caperentnr*— sollertia : 'they could not even be taken 
(let alone cooking), if it were not througb human skill '. I am rather 
inclined to think this an interpolation. It is <]^te unnecessary and seems 
to be imitated from § 158. Moreover it obscm^es the force of the foUowing 
qaamquam, which I think can only refer to percipitur voluptas * though we 
may allow another end in biids besideg our pleaaure, viz. to instruct us in 
the wiU of Heaven '. 

alites et oscines : Serv. ad Jen. in 361 aves atU oscines sunt aut prae- 
petes {= alites) ; oscines quae ore futwrq. praedicuntf ab *o«' et 'cano' ; 
praepetes quae volatu augurium sign^ficarU; c£ Divin. 1 120. 

§ 161. immanes et feras : coupled as in 1 62. 

ezerceamnr in venando : see Porphyr, quoted above, Philo Pr&c. n 
103, Xen. Cifrop, i 6 § 28, Venat. 12, Rep, Lac. 4. 



BOOK II CH. LXIV § 161. 287 

ex corporlbUB remedia : cf. Philo Prov, ii 104 speaking of venomous 
reptiles ' physicians have obtained powerful remedies from their bodies \ 
Nemesius I 25 (p. 62 Matth.) atCka km ra drjKrynjpwdr} irpor oUtiav cD^eXciai» 
6 \6yos KapirovTcu» KaTaxpTJTcu yap avrols npos Beparrfia» rfjs ef avr«»v iKclvtav 
ßXaßrjs Kai r^s r^p aXktov dppwfrnifiaTeav Idaeas. Totavrai rii^cf dfriv al Bripia- 
Koi Koikovfuvcu Karaa-Ktvaif at 6 \6yos iirfvorjtrtv Iva Koi rovrav icparj di avrmv 
Kai Scnrep vwo iroKtfiiay KparrfBivrtöv <0<f>f\oiTo, Dioscor. ir. loßoXmv § 23 avror 
T€ 6 wXi/far o'KopTTios XeiorpißriBtU Kai cVtreöf 15 t^ TrXiJX^*»^* ron-iü r^s Ibias 
ir\rjyfj£ yiverai ßorjBoe Kora riva aPTaraßftaVj (os Ibucc, ib. 25, 26, Lactant. 
Jra 13 m2)eram ferunt exiLStam in einer emque dilapmm mederi ejusdem 
bestiae mormd; L. however objects to this Stoic doctrine. Pliny has a 
whole book on the subject of azumal remedies {N. ZT. xxx). See Trench 
Sdect Glo$9ary under Treade (der. from BrjpuiK^). 

eliciamus : see above § 151 n. 

periditatio : air. \«y. 

anlmis tamquam oculis : cf. 1 19 n., n 99 (the converse) tU animis no 
oculis ni 20. 

spatia immenfia campornm, vestitiifl montinin: cf. § 98 riparum 
vestitusy immensitates camporuirif § 13^ montes vesHti. 

p^cudum pastiLS : in apposition to what precedes, cf. § 99 where the 
same phrase occurs in a somewhat different sense. 

tum incredibili cnrsus maritünos celerltate: ^ships carried along 
with extraordinary rapidity', cf. a less exaggerated stateogient in § 131 
maritimi curnts celeres et certi. tiun iutroduces the second glance, on 

the sea, as opposed iojam the first glance on the land. 

D f. So the treasurea of the minertd kingdom are open to mcm 
cUone. § 162. 

§ 162. nee vero — sed etiam : ellipsis of tantum as in Lad. 68 nee 
vero in hoc quod est animal, sed in iis etiam quae sunt inanimßy consu/eivdo 
valet, Day. quotes several exx. of a similar Greek construction, as Longin. 
35 ov yap p,tyf3ti r&v aptr&v oKKa kclI r^ n-Xi^^et iroXi) Xctn'o/ic^a. 

sttpra terram— latet ntüitas : for other exz. of zeugma see Fin. n 
88 uterqus fniitur vclwptate, cU enim hie etiam dolore with Madv.'s n. and 
Zumpt § 775, also cases of subaudition, such as we have in i 71, where 
nego suggests a foUowing dico, On Abstr. for Concr. (tUilitas rerum for res 
utiles) see Index. in intünis tenebris : cf. § 98 reconditas venas. 

Dg. Divination is a blessing grarUed to maji olone. §§ 162, 
163. 

Ch. Lxv. Oameades libenter in Stoicos invehebatur : cf. Tusc. v 
83 (Stoicos) quos studiosissime semper refeflehaJt et eorUra quomm disdpli^ 
nam ingenium ejvA exarserat ; ib. iv 55. The anti-Stoic argument in the 
following.book and perhaps that in the De Bimnatioue ai&o are taken from 
Cameadea, see vol. i IrUroduction p. zxix. 



288 BOOK II CH. LXV § 162. 

» • 

Irridet Epicnrns : cf. 1 55, Div. n 39 doUo tantam StoieoB nostros £jncu- 
reis irridendi sui facultcUem dedisse, and Diog. L. x 135 Epicurus hoptu^ 
nutrav avaipti. 

divinatlo : here too, a« in so much of tbis treatise, the authority whom 
C. follows treads in the steps of Xen. Mem. i4§15, iy3§12. 

§ 163. mnlta provident: simply ^foresee' aa in Div. ii 16 medicus 
morbum ingravescentem ratüme providet, tempettates gvbemaior, and § 25. 

ex sententia atqne atüitate: cf. Tusc, iv 14 ex usu esae; Inveni. i 
68 ex tUüitate interpretari ; Fin. n 34 « virttUe, id est kaneste^ vivere; v 26 
alitui equo est e natura, alivd hom, 

sive vis aive ars sive natura: two kinds of divination were dia- 
tinguished by tbe ancients ; see above i 55 n., and Div. i 11 duo sunt 
divinandi geneiu, qworvm alterum artis est, alterum naturae; tbe Ist is 
tbat practised by haruspices &c., tbe 2nd is subdivided into propbetic 
frenzy (vis, cf. Div. i 80 illa oondtatio dedarat vim in animi* esse diviivam, 
also §§ 34, 66 and 79) and vision (ib. 4) cum duobus modis animi sine 
rcOione et sd&iUia, motu ipsi swo soluto ac Libero, incitarentur, uno furente, 
altero somniante,...haec enim duo naturalia putarUur. Tbe division seems 
to be as old as Cbrysippus (Diog. L. vii 149) ; tbe Stoics tbemselves traoed 
it back to Homer (Ps. Plut. Vä. Hom. p. 1238). 

nee aUi cui<inam data : this was not conceded by all tbe opponents 
of tbe Stoics. Plutarcb (JSol. An. p. 976) mentions a crocodile wbich pre- 
signified tbe deatb of King Ptolemy, »ot€ fufdi rfjs «roXvrifxifrov fiwmK^v 
äfjLOipov fufai TO t£p (vvdpav yivoi. 

Dh. Cumulati'oe force of these proofa. §163. 

debebant : tbe Imp. is more forcible tban tbe Fut. read by some edd., 
' if tbe arguments taken separately do not impress you, still tbey ougbt to 
bave done so from tbeir coUective weigbt '. 

D i. The cate of tlve Goda extends not merdy to mankind in 
general, or to particular nations, hut to individiud men, No man 
vxts ever wise or vi/rtuoua withotU the Divine hdp, §§ 164 — 167. 

§ 164. singnlis providexi: see above § 75 dico Providentia deorum 
mundum et omnes mundi partes et initio constitutas esse et omni tempore 
administrari ; and Plato's argument (Leg, x 900 folL) to prove w iwt/uXM 
a-fiiKpSv €l(ri d«oi ovx ^rroy fj roiy fieyiBti dia0rpovT<ov : Epictetus (Diss, I 12} 
distinguisbes tbree classes of believers in Providence, (1) tbose wbo believe 
tbat tbe Gods take tbougbt for reop fir/dk^p xai ovpavmv, rw d* riri 77^ 
firjbtvof, (2) tbose wbo believe tbey take tbougbt botb for eartb and heaven 
ccff Koivov di fiovop, Kcu ovxi de ic€cr Ibia» iKuarov, (3) tbose wbo like Ulysses 
and Socrates can say ovdc «■€ \jjß» Ktvvfuvos {IL x 279, c£ Xen. Mem. 1 4 
§ 14) ; so Justin Martyr (Dial. c. Tryph. p. 218) * most pbilosopbers try to 
persuade us »r roO fxcv avfuravros ical avrSp r<ii>y ytp&p Kai'€lb£p anfitXtirai 
Ofoi, tfiov di Kai o-ov ojic ere Koi t»p Koff €KaaTa\ M. Aurelius^ wbile be 



BOOK II CH. LXV § 164. 289 

rocords in grateful terms the special providences of bis own life (i 17), 
will not allow that even the more general view of Providenoe is incom- 
patible with religious hope (vi 44) cc d^ ft^ tßovXtva-avTo kot tduzv irrpl cfim/, 
YTcpi ye r»v icotv<Sy wovras tßov\(wrayrOy oU itar €JFaKo\ovBri<rtP koL ravra 
avfxßaipovra d(nra(€a'0ai Kai trriftyfiv o^eiXco. 

contrahere universitatem generis hnmani: 'we may narrow the 
scope of OUT argument in regard to humanity at large ', lit. * we may bring 
within a narrower compass the whole (Le. what affects the whole) of man- 
kind'. 

Gh. LXYi. ab hvjnsce terrae continiiatione : Abstr. for Concr. ' from 
the continent which we inhabit'. 

§ 165. sin antem Ms consulnnt : sin avtemy like quod si, introduoes 
a further step in the sorites, as in Off. m 55, and below m 46 quo modo 
poteSf si LaUmam deam putas, HeccUam non puZaref sin Juuc dea est, cur 
non Eumenidesf ib. § 52 si est Ceres a gerendOf terra ipsa dea est: sin terra, 
mare etiam, For the inverse sorites see iii 93. 

in^igfm.Tn Qnandam infmlani : cf. K P. vi 21 omnis enim terra quae 
colitur a vobis angusta verticibus (i.e. in longitude), laterSbus IcUior (i.e. in 
latitude), parva quaedam insiUa est, circum/usa illo mari, quod Atlanticum, 
qtLod magnum, quem Oceanum appellatis, The idea was first started by 
Plato Phaedo p. 109 B, 'the earth ndfifuyd ri c&ai, xal j^/aop olKtuf, rovs 
lU'Xßi 'HpoKktiiov aTrjk£p coro ^fatridos, cV afiucp^ rivi yuopit^ xal ^Xovff SKkoßi 
iroXXovff tv froXXoiff towutois rvirois oImiw\ In the pseudo-Aristotelian d^ 
Mundo the theory is much more developed ; thus in 3 § 2 we read 17 (rv/i- 
«rooxi olKOVfiivrf fda vfjo'os tarip vno rfjs 'Arkavrucfjs KoKovfUyrjs OctKaa-fTTj? 
irtpipptofjJtnit ib. § 13 irXäros fUv €(m «cara ro ßcOvrarov rrjs ifircipov ßpaxy 
durMov rtrpoKurfivpic^v arabrnv ,,,pSJKos de irrpl eirroMi<rpvpiovs fidkurra. 
duup€tTai de eiff re 'Evpwjnjv Kai ^hxria» kcu Aißvrjv: ib. § 3 'it is probable 
that there are many other continents washed by other seas '. Cleomedos 
(i 2), no doubt following Posidonius, says ' there are four olKovp^pai in the 
earth, two in the northem temperate zone and two in the southem ; those 
who live in that which is opposite to ours, in the northem hemisphere, are 
called our irtpioucoi, those who are diametrically opposite to us are the 
ovriirodeff, those who üe directly to the south of us are the avroiKou Their 
existence is probable from reason, but not demonstrated by science \ See 
also Strabo 1 4 § 6, 11 3 § 5, Plin. ^, E. 11 66, Bunbury Änc, Oeog. l p. 625, 

[Bhodvin : the collocation of this by the side of Bome, Athens and 
Sparta is notioeable. Bhodes was famous and resembled Athens in three 
ways, (1) as having a firee Constitution, cf. KP.i47 in Libero autempopulo, 
ut Khodi, ut Äthenis, ib. iil 48, (2) as a great naval power, Manu, 54 non 
Atheniensium.„non Karthaginiensium.,,non Rhodiorum, quorum usque ad 
nostram memoriam disciplina navalis et gloria remansit, (3) as a university 
town especiallyfamed for the study of oratory, Brut, 316, Farn, n 17 § 1, 
Suet. Tib, 11 cum circa sdtolas et auditoria professorum assidmis esset. 
Panaetius was a native of Rhocles, and Posidonius long resided there as 
hcad of the Stoic schooL B.] 

M. C. II. 19 



290 BOOK ir CH. Lxvi § 1G5. 

eamm urbivm — singulos dilignnt: I take this to be an Inclusive 
(* partitive ') Gen. dex)ending on the idea of * Citizen * involved in the sen- 
tence, not on the word singulos hy itself. 

Onrilim : a similar Ikt of Roman worthies is given in the pro Plancio 
60, Ttuc. 1 110. 

JnyailtO dOO: c£ Plato Meno fin. 3ei<f, iiolfXf. ^xdvtrcu, wapayiyvofidwff ly 
dp€TTf oils irapay/yvcrat, and n. on § 167 nemo vir majniLS. For the oppoaite 
view see iii 86 xl 

§ 166. deOB pezicillonim COmites: Sext Emp. IX 63 wap^ari rij» 
froujTiKriv opcof yafikv yAya fufbi \afiirp6v tK<f>ipovtra», iv oS /i^ Btot iart» 6 rrfv 
i^pvo'Lav Kai to Kpdros rmv yivofiivoiv irpayfiartov evrififuvof (^ who has made 
dependent on himself' ), «Icnrcp xal r^ iroujrj 'O/iifp^ jcora rov d»aypaff>4rra 
rav 'EXKijv<ov Kai ßapßapap iroXc/iov. The adventures of Odjsseus and 
Diomede are fuU of the intervention of Athene, see on the special pro- 
vidences in Homer, Nägelab. H.T.i^ 26 p. 29 folL 

saepe praesentiae : see § 14 n. on praeter ncUuram porterUis, and c£ 
Ter. Andr. 175 eri iemper lenitaSf Plaut. Fers. 385 non tu nunc hominum 
mores vides, 2 CcU. 27 mea lenüag adhwo. QTialeB sapra : in § 5. 

USUS ita notavit at artem eficeret : see the accoimt of the origin 

of divination in C/s tieatise on the subject (i § 109) affert vetustas omnibut 
in relms longinqua observcUione incredibilem scientiam folL 

§ 167. nemo vir magnns sine afllata. All this latter part of the 
Stoic argument is cruelly cut down. The present sentence does not join 
on well with what precedes (in which we are told of one of the ways in 
which God assists men, but not of this particular way), nor with what 
follows (if we keep the ms order), which refers rather to the general 
subject of divine govemment. That genius is owing to divine inspira- 
tion waa the doctrine of all the Piatonic schoola, as well as of Demo- 
critus, see TtLsc, i 64 mVii vero ne kaec quidem notiora et tUustriora 
carere vi divina vvdeiUur^ ut ego aiU poetam grave plenumque Carmen 
sine caelesti aliquo meiUis instinctu putem fiindere, aiU eloquentiam sine 
majore quadam vi fluere ; Divin, i 80 negat sine furore Democrihu quem- 
quam poetam magnum esseposse; Orot, ii 194 saepe audivi poetam bonuTn 
neminem (id quod a Democriio et Piatone in scriptis relictum esse dicunt) 
sine if^flammatione animorum exsistere posse et sine quodam aßectu furoris ; 
cf. Plato Phaedr. 244 ▲ ra fjJyiara t£v dyaöwv rjfu» ylyverai d«a fMoyiat Btiif. 
fiJvToi doo-f i bidofiivfifj 245 A, Meno 99 c, Ion 533 E. Seneca utters a larger 
truth when he says (£p. 41) bonus vir sine deo nemo est: an potest aliquts 
supra fortunam nisi ab illo adjtUus exsurgeref Hie dat consilia magnifica et 
erecta ; in unoquoque virorum bonorum, quis deus inoertum est, kahüai deus ; 
see also Ep, 73 § 15, cited by Zeller iv p. 727. But magnus here and below 
is probably synonymous with bonus, both being used for the Stoic * sage '. 

D k. Exiernal mi^ortune is no sign of the Divine diepleasure 
OT indißerenGe : it is altogether insignißcant, and to t/ie sage all thivgd 
turn ovifoT good, § 167. 



BOOK II CH. LXVI § 167. 291 

maglLiB...Copii8 : I have transppsed this sentence from the end of the 
Paragraph, not only becauae it is itself better plaoed so, continuing the 
proofis of divine favoiir shown to the good ; but mainly because it is 
impossible to find a referönce for refdlendumy if we follow the ms order, by 
which the sentence b^nning Tiec vero comes immediately after wnqttam 
ßät. Madvig considers that something has been lost. For the argument 
cf. ITI 79 folL 

ma g ni ff vliis pTO^perao res : the Stoics held that all things must work 
together for good to those who were dear to God. The onlj real good was 
virtue, and whateyer might be a man's outward circumstances, they muat 
always afford scope for virtuous action to the good and wise. See Seneca's 
treatise on Providence, and I^nst. 66 § 15 mrttUem fncUeria non mtUat: 
necpejorem facU dura ac difficüisy nee meliarem hilaris ac laeta. 

Biquidem satis... dictum est: we have here a subjective condition 
joined to an objective statement. It would have been more correct to 
have introduoed the former clause with fateamur neoease est or some such 
phrase ; cf. § 149 incredibÜe est n attenderü, Eicamples of similar condi- 
tions will be found in Roby, Or, § 1573. 

a Socrate : as, for instance, in the Apol. 41 d ovk tari» avdpi ayaS^ 

KOKOP ovdiv oSre (mtrri ojjT€ rcXei/n^crayrt, ovdc d/icXf troi vrro 0€av rä rovrov 
wpayftarcL, and in the encomium on Justice in the Republic. 

principe philosophiae : cf. § 51 princeps invegtigandae veritatiSy Orot, 
in 63 eloquentiae prindpem^ QuirU. Fr. I § 10 princeps ingenii et doctrinae 
FkUo, 

magna dl cnrant, parva neglegnnt : so Eurlp. fr. 945' Dind. (cited 

by Plut. Mor. p. 811) r»p aya» yap aitrtrcu. 6€6s, ra fUKpa d* tls tv^v a»iis 
}i^, and the Ovidian non vacat esiguis rebus adesse Jovi {Trist, ii 216); so 
too Chrysippus (ap. Plut. Sto. Rep. 37 p. 1051) cV yow ry rpiVy ircpl Ov<rias 
fxvrjarßtis 5ti <rufißaiv€L rufa rols leaXoif Koi dyaßois roiavTa (i. e. evil), Trorepoy, 
Kljvjaiv, dfUkovfUPav tip&Vj KaBairtp €p oIkIcus fiei^otri irap<mvirT€i npä irirvpa Kai 
TToa-di nvpoi ripts, t&p oKoüp tZ olKopofiovfupü^p ; But how is this to be recon- 
ciled with the previous doctrine that God cares for the individual, that 
none are neglected by him, or, as it is more generally stated by Chrysippus 
(ib. c. 84), rijs koip^£ ^vorco)^ eis vdpra dutreipovaijs deiycrrt itop to orrcoo'ovp 
yiypofitpop €P rf 5X^ koi t£p iJLopiap or^oOy kot ixeipffp ycptcrBai jcat top 
miprjs \6yop jcara to cf^r OKoikvTtos, dm to fii^* t^<o߀P tfpcu to tPcmjtrofLepop 
TJ olKOPOfii^, M^f T"«»» fiepcdP fiTfbip c^etv oirwr Kunjßi^tTai ^ (rx'ja'et aXXtof ^ 
KoTä Tr/p KoiPTjp <f>v(nv 1 The two doctrines are correlated by Philo Prov. 99 
(cited by Euseb. P. E. viii 14 § 35), * God does not send storms in order to 
cause shipwreck, but for the general good, to purify the air ; so the praetor 
who adds to the luxury of the games by showering the arena with per- 
fumes, may make the ground slippery and dirty, but that is not bis object, 
it is an iiroKoXoMjfAa, an incidental result '. Compare Zeller iv p. 174 foll. 
and the remarks in Butler's An^xlogy on the govemment of the world by 
general laws and the individual hardships which may arise therefrom. 
There is no neglect therefore ; the best possible course is chosen, but that 

19—2 



292 BOOK II CH LXVI § 167. 

involves apparent Bvil, cf. Chrysippus (ap. Plut. St. Rep. 85) yiyerai yap 
avnj iroir (i) «toxia) Kora tov r$r <l>vatoiS Xoyov, Koi Iva ovt»s cifro» ovk. dxp^frrt^s 
yiperai irpot ra oXa, ovdc yap ay rdyaßa jjv, but even this evil itself IB 
changed to good, in the words of Cleanthes {Hymn, 18) aKka <rv tcal ra 
vtpuraa tmaraaai Spria ötlvau Cic. here confines himself to the easier 
Problem of physical evil, which the Stoics regarded aa in itself indifferent, 
but capable of becoming good according to its use ; see aboye on moffnis 
virü prospeme res, Socrates pronounced strongly against the idea of any 
cegligence on the part of Qod, Xen. Mem, i 4 § 18 yv^tTg to ßtlop ori 
Totrovrov koI toiovtop tariv ^(rff &fia trovra opav koi ircanra oKoveaf koi narraxov 
iraptivai Kai cifjui iravT»v mfUkeurdaif and so Plato Leff. X 902 E fuj roiwif tov 
y€ Bfo» d^uoirafikiv iroTe StnjTciv dajfuovpynv <f>av\6T€pov, oi Tä irpoarJKovra 
avToTs tfpyOj oa-t^tp hv ofifivovs Jcri, Toa^ cucpißtarepa Kai T€\€tar€pa fuf 
Tixvji afiiKpa koi firyaXa dir€pyd{^ovTaiy tov de öeov orra rc <ro<f>W'aTov ßovko- 
fi€v6p T €infi(\(la6ai Kai dvpdp,firoVj «ap fi€P p^op ijp €7nfu\i]9^pai, aftucpAp 
OPTtoPj fiffbafij circ/icXcTo'^c, KaBdntp dpyop fj bfiKop Tipa bia vopovt p^Bv 
fjtovpTOy T&p Äf firyoXvv. Compare the words of Christ ' the hairs of your 
head are all numbered *, * not a sparrow faUeth to the ground without your 
Father'; and Augustine Conf. iii 11 Bonus Omnipoteiis sie cwroi universos 
taifnquam singvloSf sie singvlos tamquam universos. On the other hand 
Jerome ad HabaJc, i approaches to the doctrine of the tezt absurdum esse 
ad hoc Bei deducere mafestatem ut sciat per momenta singvla guot nascatUur 
cidices,,,nec enim aquüa capit muscas, nee depharvtus mures vencUur^ nee 
de minimis curat praetor. 

Conclusion. § 168. 

Ch. Lxvu § 168. gl me audias — agas : a less sanguine form of ex- 
pression than the Fut. si me audies (in fivmiliar coUoquy sodes as in Att. vu 
3 § 11) vitahis inimidtias Farn, ii 18. 

et principem civem et pontificem : seeabove § 2 etpontifidset CoUae^ 
III 5, Brut. 80 L. Pardus personam principis civisfacile dicendo ttubatur. 

in ntranuitie partem dispntare : Divin. ii 150 cum proprium sit Aca^ 
demiae Judicium suum nuUum iTiterponere, ea probare quae simülima veri 
videantur, conferre causas, et quid in qtmmque serUentiam dici possit expro^ 
mere, cf. nn. on I 4, 5, 6, 11, 13. 

ampliflcavit Academia : c£ Orot, i 53, 60, 87, Tusc n 9, Oraiar 12, 
Parad. praef., Fat, 3 oraior suhtüitatem ab Academia mutuatur et ei vi- 
dssim reddit ubertcUem orationis. 

mala consnetndo est contra deos disputandi: cansuetudo has a 
double use, being understood as Subject with disputandi, as in Off. iii 6 
discendi Idbor est potius quam voluptas, Quintil. iv 5 § 3 cdioqui quae tarn 
Tnanifesta et lucida est ratio quam rectae partitionis f Sometimes the Inf. 
is used instead of the Gerund, as in Ac. ii 17 nee esse vUam rationem 
dispiUare cum his. 

[ex animo : c£ Munro on Lucr. m 914, Cic. Phü. xi 34, Farn, xii 27, 
Sen. ep. 78 § 19, 96 § 2, Qu. Cic. prov. com, § 18, Gell, xiv 1 § 36. J. E. B. M.j 



ME SWAINSON'S COLLATIONS OF 

ENGLISH MSS. 



Ab in my former volume, I have printed in füll Mr Swain8on*8 
collation of the Biimej ms (B), but have onlj given aelected readings 
from his other collations, witb occasional additions from my own 
inspection of the Museum mss. I have also given the more important 
readings for U and Y oollated by myself, and a füll collation of 
the Merton ms (called ' Oxf. o ' in the former volume, here simply 
* Oxf). I have fiirther compared any readings of Orelli's or 
Heindorfs mss which, without being of suflScient importanoe to 
print under the text, were yet of interest as throwing light on the 
relation between diflferent mss, e.g. between B and Orelli's C, 
between Cod. Glog. (G) and H» Cod. Red. and N, above all between 
Oxf. and Orelli's V. In all such cases I have printed the referenoe 
to the foreign ms in Square brackets. For the sake of eonvenience 
I subjoin an explanation of symbols. 

B. Buruey ms no. 148, of the 13th Century. 

H. Harleian ms 2465, late 15th cent. 

L Harl. ms 2511, 15th cent. 

L. Harl. ms 4662, kte 15th cent 

M. Harl ms 5114, latter part of 15th cent. 

N. Addibional mss 11932, middle of 15th cent 

0. Additional mss 19586, end of 14th cent 

0. Cambridge ms 790 Dd. xiii. 2, 15th cent. 

B. Roman edition of 1471. 

V. Venice edition of 1471. Vj. Corrections in the Grylls copy. 

U. Codex Uffenbachianus, 15th cent. bclonging to S. Allen, Esq. 

Y. Another 15th Century codex belonging to Mr Allen. 

Oxf. The Merton MS of the 12th cent 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 



BOOK II. 



I. Quof] Haec HN. sitn] Ozf. BH, sum ILMNCVTO. indUertum] 1 
indesertttm BN [Or.'s A^]. rhetorem] rehetorem B, etpectorem N. Corona — 
defoierunt'] coronam — deferunt N. audiamtu] adearmu LT. equidem] 2 
om. H, inquit BT [Abc. O]. Tuwtri] nostrum B. aveo] V^, Aa&eo ZTU 
Oz£y aö eo 0. Cotta] om. Y. ^utd] OB, qttod MGBV Oxf. tnitto] 
OB + f in initio HN. dixerim] Oxf. OB + , dixerimtu HL. 2/giieret] liceret H. 3 
tom] tttm B. a& twpL, ab /im BHV Oxf., ab hiU 0. Aoc] in hoc L. 
«t tt<] HL, et his B Oxf., «ttam IT, «t /um 0. anfepcm^n^ia«] Vj, antepo- 
funda Z 0x1 

II. jLuct7iti«] &aZ&iM C. oratione] orationem B. 9m] guti2 H, 4 
gt(o V,ü. «t^Zi}7i«] Z, ezoept suhlumen N. cancZerM] cadens BNG [Or.'s C]. 
^ti^m] 9tiO(2 H. nutu] YT^ inofu Oxf. 170 others, "a2. motu" V^. hatui] 
aut BH [Or.'s B^]. 8ol\ solus B. du&ztare] qui d. THBV tezt Vi- Qui] 5 
guid Oxf. U2, exoept quod N. am'mt«] animo HMV. «a«cZts] BM, ««dt« 0, 
saeculU others. inueterare] Z Oxf. TU. Quis] Qitod H B. putat] 
putet T. quaeve] quae uero C. gtiOTidam] eoneZam L [Or.'s 0]. 
opintom>] opinionee B, opinione H, optmonum Oxf. others. tfogii«] id^u« ü. 
confirmat] confirmant B. sanctitates] sanitates R. fi^c] non HO. «t 6 
praeeentcs] H, |)ra€s^nttam BDTCRV Oxf., et praesentiam B, eftam praesentiam 
TüOL. «aepe dt vim «tiam] saepe dii uim H, soep« divi suam Oxf. B, «a€p6 
divi aui lOtV, «a«p6 du K, suam saepe divi LOT, saepe divi ü, mam divinitotem 0. 
et apud] Oxf. 0*, est apud ÜB [Or.'s CE], et om. O^HV, rest. V^. hello] bellum V. 
J.] aut^m H, omIus C. Per«^ Persern HNCV. P.] PubUh'ti« B [Or.'s 
AB, Publius Or.'s 0], popilitu HI, Pompilius L. Fattm'i»] Vatienus BLB, 
«a<7€nh» H, lucienus I, ttooi^nt» HCV. cum] tn ILT, cum tn ü [EL of Dav.]. 
Fersen] Persem B. dt« captum] eaptum die Oxf. sencUuique mintiavis- 
set] senatui nunticuset BLO, sen. ntmtiauisset H, senatui nuntiavit et Oxf. TM, 
senatui denuntiavit U. Crofawi«<<M] Crotoniates H, Codro matres L cam] 



296 ' COLLATIONS OF EXOLISH MSS. 

om. H. Olyvipiae] Olimpiae BC [Or.'s C]. memoriae] memoria 

prodituni] traditum LT. tum aut] DavieSi aut tum V Ozf. BIHGBV, aut om. 

HLM. praesentes eue] esse praesentes U. eoegerunt] cogerent 0. 

7 m. Praedictiones] predieationes B of. § 162, transposes with praesefuiones 0. 
guo« sunt futurä] 0, quae sint Qzf. TOBIM, quae sunt HN, quae sunt sint L. 
dicuntur] dicunt B. [/aöuZamm, fahulosorum Aio.] r«ptu2tareia] Qzf . TOBHM, 
repudiaref N, Baiter. exempUs] om. Qxf. docfi] doctim B [efocCi tn Or.'s C], 
edocti 0. comprobo^tintM] B, cofmprobammus Ost UOHLMHGBV. C2aiidtt] 0, 
elodi Oxf. BK, ctodii HOB. privM—cum\ om. L. gut «ttam — inridens] om. H. 
aguam} quam B. After ut biherent Ozf. inaerts from § 10 cammemorare — 
Scipiane. populo Romano] p. R, BHO Oxf., rei puhUcae N» r. jp. V. amisit] 
ammisit B, amisfit H. Claudius] dodius B [Or.*8 0]« P. Claudius V, C2o. 
dtiw ü. con(2«mnatu«] condempnatus BO. fi'&i ijMe] «i&t Qzf. T. 

8 C] Oaium 0. F/amtm'um] flamnum B. Co^ltiM] CoaeUus B, Co^&'tfm H. 
Tranmenum] V, travitfum^n B, 2Va9isifn«nifffi H, Transimemnum M, Trtnmme- 
mium 0, TAr(Mim«mim B. <cn&tt] scripsit T. et «i cofifWre] L goes on 
§ 98 earum rerum quas — § 156 quae citm maxima, then retums to § 16 eterdm si 
dir^ 86 efferant aliquid, then again § 156 largitate—end of book. §§ 8—16 
rolumus nostra — illa conficiuntur are inserted in 1 103 aftor altissima ara reddatur 
bestiarum, then come a few words from ii 156 ea ferarumne — videtur, and then 
II 86 ex se perfectiores habere naturas — § 98 pulchritudinem, after which 1 103 — 
II 8. Cf. below § 16. etiam] om. H. reperiemur] reperirentur V. 

9 id est cultu deorum] om. L, uel cultu d. K. multo] om. HO. Atti Navii] 
attii naii H, ad tinavii Oxt, Antimanii N, actii nauii OBV. Navii Utuus] 
om. I, Nav. lucius L, Nav, litus N. quo] de quo 0. investigandam] 00^, in» 
uestigandum Qzt 0* others, ezcept inuestiganda N. suem] sues BO, suam L, 
Sit N, uvam Dayies in note. regiones] religiones Ozt BO, in regiones UfO. 
vineae] uineam UTO. tn ^« beUd] in iis heÜis MBBV, et in his beüa 0. 
peremma] perennia OBBV, peremia H, perhennia Ozf. nuZ2a cum virt] 

10 Schom., niiUi tari Ozl Z, exoept nttZto t<tri V. gerere] gere B. /ui<] 
fuerit B [Or.*B 0]. re pui)lica] p. R, B. devoverent] Ozf. BHM, <2etio- 
torent ILO. Sibyüinis] sibillinis B Ozf., n^bZimtf N, »t5t7im« 0, sybillinis E, 
sibylinis V. ^riMpicuf»] ^uWt»picum B [AauriMpicum Or.*B 0], arwrpicifm 
HCRV text Vj, et ^nurptcum 0. commemorare — £iCtptone] om. Oz£ eoit- 
finnentur] confintuintur EV text Vj. 

IV. Etruscorum] etruscorum et TBOBO, aetruscorum et H, Jietruseorum V. 
Jiaruspicum] [haur, Or.'s A], aur. BC [Or.'s 0], ar, B. Ti. Gracchus] to- 

grareus Oxf. Tl.] tiherius HCT, Ty. B. Qracchus] grackus B, ^/roc- 

cus y. con^tiZ] CO« M, quos BH, om. LNOO, eo< V Ozf., coss Vj. ereoret] 

reerearet Ozf. TOBHUDVET, text V|. rogatorum] MEV, rogatar BYj, reereator 

HN, ro^. reereator (with aZ written aboye reereator) 0, regrator L. mortutie 

Graec/iu«] graccus nwrtuus Oz£ guo« od soleret 0, gtioe adsoleret Ozf., gtiot 

absolueret N, od guo« «. C, guo« assoUret V. ifarufpice«] /laiir. B [Or.*s €]. 

11 tneennM] impeditus 0, impeditus incensus L. vero e^/o] e<70 tiero H, uero 
tnguit e/70 C. au«ptcato] auspicator N Ozf. TO. populi Romani] puh- 
Ucae rei N, R. p. 0. jus] om. Ozf. ac] hoc B. tn horiis] Lambi* 
nus, ortiM H, in horto C, in ortos V, ortos 0, Aorto« others. Scipionis] seipio- 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 297 

niu8 B, spittionis H. traruiret] transisset B, transiiaset V. auspicari] 

hauap. BB [Or.'s AC]. consules esse] quoa esset B, quos esse H, vos esse 

OtL, om. C, eos esse BV, tezt Vj. ad senatum^ ad sen. deferendam C, 

ad sen, retulerunt T. senattts] om. C. ut] is H, censuit ut 0. ab- 

dicarent] ahdicarant T, dbdiearent se 0. abdieaverunt Quae] LON, ahdica' 

ueruntque Ozf. BMBY, abdicanerunt 0, abdicaueruntque Quae V^. sciam an\ 

an om. H, scientia I, «cto an M. re publica religionem] r. p. religiones Oxf., re 

jp. religione B [Or.'s 0], rßt pubUcae religione C. »ummum] aitum T. punctum] 
puncto BLCT. religioiiem] maluere adds 0. et iniiiim«raM7ta] Cod. 12 

Glog., et om. Z Oxf. T. ex] in H. At] an B. * co?iva2e«cunt] con- 

valescant T. medicinae] H, medictna Ozf. TO others. In his — rerum 

futurarum in § 18 om. L. summa] conseimone adds C. innatum] renatum 

V, tezt Vj. et in animo — varium est] marg. only H. insculptum] in- 

scultum B [inscuptum Ox.'s A^, incultum B^], sculptum H. 

y. negat] negatur B. dixit] om. E. cepefimu«] cepinms Oxf. H 13 

[eoeperimus Or.*B A], coperimm 0. t^rrarum] rerum terrarum MV. t«r- 

rarum — tempestatibus om. L. terreret] BO, terret [Or.'s C] HK, terrererU V^. 14 

nivibus] niuis B, om. H. tum labibus] Janns Gulielmias, tum lapidibus 

BHHNBV 0x1 , tum lampadibus (corr. lapidibus) 0, cum lapidibus IL, in lapidibus 0. 
naturam hominum] Itom. nat. Oxf. naturam] natura B. iis] his V Oxf. 

ctiunnnata«] cinnanatas B, <mi crinitas H, cincamadas I, crinitas MBV, cicina£a« 
N, cinnato« C. e«M] om. 0. aeqv^abilitatem] inaequab, Oxt MBV, 15 

tezt Vj. (p<e] om. T. indicaret] indicat 0, iudicare V, tezt Vj, tndi- 

caret ipsa T. ea] after indicaret HY^« om. MCBY. ^i/mna<tum] gygna- 

sium Oxf. tndeae] uiderit HVi. rattcmem] om. H, after fTtodum 0. 

esse] om. 0. intellegat] om. T. et] om. TO. tantis motionibus] 

multis motionibus Oxf. motionibus] miutationibus H, motibus MGBV. atgue 
ta^itorum] om. T. 

VI. est] om, MNBV. repperisse] reperisse BHMBV, recepisse L, pepe- 16 

risse C. est certe] e«t igitur certe Oxf. td (^uod illud] iüud quod T, td 

quod H. re«] re B, after caelestes 0. eoe] eeee B, om. H, haec LG, hae 

TV Oxf. a 9tto] Cod. Glog., quo Z Oxf. homine — quam deum] om. L. 

dixeris] dixerim MBV. cieum] after this Z ' largitate — uidetur * from oh. 

Lzii 156, then * ex sese perfecttores (eh. zxin 86) — quae cum maxima* Lzn 156 
(C and V insert before ex sese the connective Interpolation constat aiutem quae 
gignit), then *Etenim si dt (here) — intellegat* or *quae ecferant aliquid* zxzin 
86, then * largitate ' or * Quid de uitibus * &o. § 156 to the end of the book. 
For L see § 8. In M there are marginal references shomng the true order. 
se put^t] putet se Oxf. desipientis] despicientis H. adrogantiae est] 

arroganti esse B, arrogantia est H. non] om. C. videas] videris U. 17 

illam et mzistelis] etiam mustellis illam H, eam et musteüis LV, eam et mustelis C. 
ergo] BN Oxf., uero VTELO, om. MBV. mundi] Oxf. omits the nezt seven 

words, giving instead * et tarnen ex ipsa hominum sollertia est esse aliquam ' (cor- 
reetly given below) aad then proceeds et magnitudinem. si tuum] situum 

H Oxf. immortalium] mortalium C. desipere] dissipare H. supera] 

superiora HN. etiam] om. H. urblbus] viribus U. sint] BM, sunt 

NOLGT. existimare] extimare B, acstimare H. ait] om. MCV. Socrates] 18 



298 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

quaerit adds 0. ipirabilem] ipiritabilem N, aee Servius on Vergil, Aen. m 

600 [and Or.*s readings in Tusc. i 40]. habeamua] Dat., habemtu TOBHILM 

GBV Ozf., Juiberemvs N. apparet] LUNO, appareat BH7 Oz£ iff^*] 

igne HN Ozf. ab aere eo] abareo (e written above second a) B, a^ iffne eo T. 

quem] quod H. spiritu] fpiritum Z Ozf. ducimtu] M, dicimua Qixl. othera. 

Vit. plurimi] HV^, plurimum Ozf. others. iit^ut] aut qui B, ot ^uod H. 

nihil omnium rerum] o, r, n. U. praestabiliua] praeatantitu N. pvl- 

chrius] puleriug B here. ne cogitari] Ozf. HO^, nee. e. BLO', negociari H. 

19 /ta«c] ^c HMBV, e Ozfi cognatio] cognitio THV [Or.'s V^], tezt V,. eoget\ 
Ozf. Z, except cogitet L. dicuntur a m«] a fn« dtcvntur T. a me] ameo B. 
dein] BO, deinde others. vimst'm horrere terra] h, t v, ü, horrere terra H. 
<2t«ce««u«] dicestus Ozf. «oZsttttt«] soUistictia L, 8o2«eictuiii Ozl, soUtitio MNR 
[Or.*8 V^], «oZtitti« C. soZst. brumugu«] br, ioUtitiisque T. co^fiUMCt] 

20 cognoscimiu B, om. H. conctn€nti6iis] continentibua BHCV, tezt V^. übe- 
rius] uberiis B. fusius] diffueiua N. profluens] profliau HN [Or.'s V]. 
conclusa autem aqna] coticIusus aut H, con<;Zu<am ante a^uani N, conelusa autem 
a qua 0. orationis ßunUne] after mcta 0. convicia] Davies, w'tia Z Ozf., 
vicia T, convitia Baiter, bo Monro in Hör. S. i 5. 11, 7. 29, bat see Gorssen n 
360. conclusa^] conelusa B [Or.^s C]. angtutiae] Ozf., bat ipsa tutatur 
below. se ipsa] ipsam N, seipsam C. SSeno] Zenon L. 

21 Vni. id melius] id, om. 0. After non utitur Ozf. om. nihil autem — 
utitur (eight words). similiter beatum] om. 0, deum idemqus hoc modo quic- 
quam beatum Ozf. enim haee meliora] haee meliora enim Ozf. ed] om. H. 

22 nee] non MC Ozf. eßcitur] BH, eßcietur OHCV Ozf. TU. sentientes} 
om. ü. non igitur] non ergo Ozf. caret sensu mundus] sensu earet H Ozf. 
pergit] et pergit Ozl quodque] et quod ÜT. est expers] expers sit TH. 
compotemque — animantes om. ü. num dubitares] non dubitarem V, non dubi' 
tares Tu. iibicinii] CR, tibieini Ozf. OBHILMinr, tt&icinis YiüT. Cur] 
Cum B. procreet] [Or.'s B in ras., jyrocrcat 0r.*8 E], procraeaet B. 

23 IX. atque initio —egere] om. K. oratton«] orationem B. p^ncü] 
Dav., phgsieis id est naturalibus Z Ozf. T. confirmare] O^G, con/Smuiri 
BlfTT.MNO*EV Ozt U. aZantur et gtia« crescant] BM, aZantur et erescant Ozf. 
UOL, aZufi^ur atgue crescunt Baiter. in se] quandam in se T. vtiit] Ozf., 
quandam uim BViü [Or.'s V*]. agitur] agetur Ozf. utitur] uertitur BUS. 

24 certo et] certo Ozf. vita remanet] in nohis adds T. insit] sit Y, tezt V^, 
est vel insit Ozf. esse ullum] BGBL, esse om. E, ullum esse others ü. noete 
et die] Ozf., die et nocte ILNVUT. eoncoquatur] Ozt, coquatur UHIY. 
ctfit»] Ozf., /iuit» HV^UT [Or.*s V*]. reliquiis] reliquis Ozf. [Or.'s A'E]. 
iis] his HBV, is V Ozf. [Or.*8 E]. quas] qua B, guem Ozf. inehuum in eo] 

25 i^ ^o ine. Cut habere in se] in se habere üT. tranat] trahat HNOTV 
Ozf. and (after omnia) V. autem maximas] quae maximo MCV, tezt T^ 
{maximo Or.'s C^. in terrena natura] in terrae n. H, interea n. L, in. «. 
terrena 0. perspici potest] p, perspici Ozf., percipi p. H. et Zoptcltim] 
ut Lepidum TT. coTi/Itctu] Ozf., c(m/ItM;tat«me H, coniietatione N [Gr. 's V^. 
at^ue tritu] BLO, om. H, at^ue ictu Ozf. HNCBV, tezt V^. fossione terram] 
exustione ferarum "E. fumare] refonnareR.firmareYttexiyy reealentem] 



GOLLATIONS OF ENOLISH MSS. 299 

BEHOB Qzf., recelUntem N, caltntem LO others. ßeri temp. hib.] hib. temp. 

fieri UT. C(mtineiwr\ HB, contineatur Ost UTOBIUfNOV (the order in C is 

caloris terrae contineatur cauemU). fif] C, »it BhtTiMNBY Oxf. 0. eon- 

tinei] eontineat ÜT Oxt Z, except continent H. artitu] arctius HCBV^ Ozt 

X. concipiat] concipit [0r.*8 A}] HV, text Vj. ipaa] terra V. in- 26 
ßxä] om. H. eä] ex HN, ea ex Vjü. admixtum] arräxtum B and amixto 
below. aqwu] tum aquae T Ozf. HNBYj, cum aquae V, tarnen aquae C. 
effuHo] Z, except effutioque H, «t «/fiaio with et erased, om. V^ Dayies. con- 
glaeiaret] conglutinaret I, congladaretur B. liqtufacta] liquaefacta V 
[Or.*8 V]. adiectis] om. C. fejJMCtmt] tepescit B. adventieitu] 
aduentius B [C of Orelli]. recaZescunt] calescunt XJ, concalescunt T. /lo- 27 
&«fufu« est] est habendus Ozf. üT. iis] kis BHV Ozf. ejfervMcunt] BM, 
eis effervescunt Ozf., fervescunt XJTOL, ahenis feruescunt H, aen«w feruescunt N. 
ffu6<2ttis] Ozf. M, subiectis HNO, 9u&iti> BL. et ipsa] ipsa V, 

XI. e«t] om. H. quae] ea quae 0, qttod V, text Vj. eontineat — 29 
tueatur] continet — tuetur FT. juncta\ conjuneta U. mentisl menti HN. 
<7«(7nMntttr] gignantur V. e terra] e»t terra H, ex terra V, text V^. ij^e- 
/Aoi^ijcdi'] egeminicon B [Or.'s 0], e^eTTumum H, eyefiopicQp M, egemonison 0, e/yeno- 
rnicon V, hegemonicon Vp egemonicon Ozf. [Or.'s AEV]. guogue] ^tio^tio B, 
guo Ozf. , quocunque N, aZigtio C. Ita] Itaque HC Ozf. [Or.*s V^. omniitm 
Optimum omniumque] omnium omniumque Optimum omniumqm Ozf. potestate 
dominatuque] p. donatuque B, text B^, potestateque dominatu K, dominatu et po* 
testate V. atque] et IL, ac N. parte] after t^/tur C. inest] est HV. 30 
/loec] hie TS. complexa] complexas Hü. perfectione] perfectionem ü. 
etiam] om. CV. iZie /error] fervor ille U. moftihorgue muZto] Ozf., 

4 

muUoque nobilior I, multoque mobilior LU, no&tZiorgve muZto MOBV. noster] 

nutrit H, nutritus C. nota no&i<] nobt« nota LCüT. rettTientvr] conti- 

nentur N. i^ztvr est^ est igitur UMÜ, est enim N. cum] Ozf. HLMO, 31 

quin B. mundum esse] esse mundum Ozf. et Zz&ero et puro BHM, et 

jmro et h'&ero IL Ozf., in/ro et 2i&ero N, 2t&ero et puro C, et h'&ero jpuro [Or.*8 E]. 
mobilissimo Ozf., no&. MNBV. exterTto — teneatur] extrinsecus ab aliquo hoc 

accipiat moueatur. Nam moueri necesse est multo ualentiva qui pellat atque 
motum efficiat quam quo ille teneatur H. [So Or.'s V in marg. extrinsecus }i0C ab 
aliquo accipiat neque.] 

XIL enim] nunc HV^ [Or.'s V^. duo] B, dvos Bü Ozl [Or.*s CV] and 32 

others. extemum] extremum N, etemum Ott, autem divinius] audiuU 

mus H, suum autem dicimus N. ex se sua] ex sua Ozf. iisque] hisque 

HV Ozf., hiis quia C. inteüegi poterit] inteUegi Ozf. in eo inesse] in 

eo esse H, inesse eo 0, by oorr. from in eo vim esse Ozf. uUa] illa MV, text 

V]. nUnoris sit] Cod. H of Moser, minor sit BMNOCBV Ozf., sit minor HILÜT, 

Sit minoris XJrsinas. After plturis esse Ozf. om. necesse est—pluris esse, 

qui est] M, qui esset BHO. est MO, esset BHÜ. omnem oporteret] oporteret 
omnem Oxt. ad deorum] ad eorum Oxt, Primo] HLO, prima BMV Ozf., 33 

primum B, text V,. gignantur] Oxt., gignantur LO Manntius. e terra] 

om. H, ex t. V, text Vj, a terra V, augendo] agendo B, text B^ rege- 34 

rentur] after appetitus ÜT. tun» — tum] tatnen — tarnen C, cum — tum Oxt. 



800 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS» 

Xm. gradus est et altissimus] est gradus et alt. BY^Ü, est om. MBV Ozf., 
gradus et alt, est C. natura bont] suj^a hominem Ozf. from below. sa- 

35 pientesque] sapientisque B [Or.'s BC]. ulld] Ozf. LM, nulla OBHTIT, iUa V, 
text Vj. extremum] aeternum C, so aetema for externa below. quae] 
cui HU. o&«£t^it] o&«<int B, obtigit MV, obsistit NBy^, opft^tt Ozf. [Or.'s 
V maxg.]. quendam] solitum adds H. omni] amnium G. «tiam 
ma^»] magis etiam ü. absolvi—perfici] esse absoluti — perfecti V^, ai«oIu(t 
—perfici U. oc] atgue etiam UT. possunt] possint H. omn«« na- 
turcui] omnis natura Ozf. et altissimum gradum] gradum et altissimum ü. 

36 est gradus] gradus Ozf. et praesit] et om. LMCBV, rest. V,, poMit for praesit 
Im. inscitius] inscientius HN. Qui] Quid C. After sit deterior 

37 Ozl om. mundi — deterior. insipiens] inscipiens B. est quicquam\ quic- 
quam Ozf. cui] quo OBHCRVÜ Ozf. quodque — eipletumque sit om. B. 
quodque] quod T. expletumque sit] sit atque expUtum H. 

XIV. Seite] Sic et H. gignit] gigni Ozl arandt] arandi causa Ozf. 

orftt« ««f] ««t om. B. nuZlo modo] in müh VTU Abc., in nuüo modo V|. 

38 sed est] BMO + i sed H. neque est] neque enim H, nee est V. non] om. 
H Ozf. insit in eo] in eo sit H, sit in eo CUT. Qui] qtUd 2 Ozf. id 
quod] BH, guod MOCV Ozf. est optimum] Optimum H. est autem] HO, 
au/em e»t BGB, est om. V. ment« et ratiojte melius] Optimum (oorr. melius) 
m. e. r. Ozf. in equo quam in eculeo] neq qm in eque Ozf. [nequaquam in 
eculeo Or.*s 7^]. eculeo] IL, equulo BHNV, «guuZeo MB, equLo 00. td m 

39 perfecto] BH, tu perfecto H. et ej^/tz^r] eßeitur Ozf. e«t er^o] esl 
4<;i£iir Ozf. 

XY. gtkze] gua H, guia N* mobilissima] mollissima B, fio&tUmma 

40 HLNBVU^, text V^U*. purissimaque] puraque U» ea quidem] equidem MR. 
et candor] Klotz, calor et eandor Ozf. BY}, ardor et eandor H, candor et ealor 
UTOO, candor MBVT. ttZZtitf] Ozf. 0, uüus BHLMGBVUT. /oceref] 
facere M. jpa«tu] partu Ozf. pastu aUquo possit permanere] aU pastu 
perm. pos, UT. necesse est] est om. M [oorr. fr. esset Or.*8 V]. tj/m] 
ignis B. od tTtctum] MBV, ad om. Ozf. BHILNO, atictum G. et] ettu B. 

41 continetur] eontineatur T. ^t^i] MN, atque BHIOLGBVUT Ozf. est] 
om. H. omnium] om. Ozf. BV, rest. V^. äuget] äuget et T. «eiuu- 
gue] «eTUiM Ozf. is] Ozf. HM, /lü BO [Or.'s B^OV^]. quaeque] quoquc 

42 HK. qui aether] Ozf, guia ether B [Or.*s Y^]. tr^ttur] BHMBY, 
enim others. in a^re aliorum] om. H. videtur] visum Ozf. id et] 
idemque MGBYU Ozt, idem BIO, id est H. ceUrrima] celeberrima Ozf. 
in aetliere] Ozf., in et/ierea B, mobilitate K. ii<] Ais BHMUT Ozf., hiis 0. 

43 XYI. incolant] incolunt H. After inteüegentiam Ozf. om. in siderünu — 
atque inteUegentiam. et aetheriam] M, et om. OHBU [Or.'s P], et eam C» 
oZan/ur] utantur LGU. omni] omnia B. amica varietati] a mdla uarie- 

44 täte H, amica uarietaiis N [am. varietate Or.'s F]. iaudandt»] Ozf. BHMO+, 
laudandus est fiaiter from bis Cod. A. sublime] in sublime Z Ozf. UT. 
circumque ferretur Ozf. B, circum quaque ferr. H, undique circumquaque ferr. O, 
circumquaque fertur H. sit] sie U. procurationß] procreaUone L [Or.'s 
B^]. enim] antem T. existimem] aestimem G, existimem esse B. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 301 

XVn. Restat] Sane restat VßV Ozf., Bestat iane N, text V^. ahducere] 45 

inducere Ozf. talem] tdU B. in omni\ Ozf. BO, in om. MV [Asc. 

snpersc. in Or.'s V], text "Sty respiciem] Z Oxf. UT, renpiens Urmnus. 46 

esse deos] deos Ozf. praestantem esse aU tuiUI dl, praest. nat, esse If. After 
nihil Sit melius Ozf. om. mundo — id sit melius. Nee dubium — id sit melitis] 

om. H. et rationem] et om. VIT. id] illud UT. his] iis Ozf. B, 

ts U, om. T. careat] caret H. mundum esse] om. H. iis] Ozf., 47 

hisYTS. 

Xviil. noli] voll Ozf. vos] nos HR Ozf., om. L. Conum tibi] cunum 

tibi B, zonum tibi I, comuniter H [gtMmum tiM Or.'s AV^]. cyliTidrum] 

chilindrum Ozf. HC, ehyl, V, text V^. pyramidem] pir. BGV Ozf. sphae- 

ram] speram BGV [Or.'s BE], text V^ [spheram Or.'s AC]. alias] om. 0. 

pra^stantes] Ozf. Z, except praestantis H. |7Zo&tu] //loti« HNO Ozt (r0at/>ay] 
speram CV, «p'^^^^^^''^ ^^^i- ctrcuft»] BHMCBV, anulus I, cireulis LNU, 

circtu Davies. xi^kXos] cic^tM BCO, eyclus RVHM, om. L. omn««] L, 

omnis BM Ozf., om. H. inter se] in se B, se om. H. «tnt tnt^r se] inter 

se sint VO. extremum] extremum quantum Ozf. guanfum idem a summa] 

UT*, om. T^BHIL. After quantum Ozf. om. idem — eruditum. haec] hoc 48 

MRVT7. nß] BHO, iin iie WT, anne C Ozf. [Or.'s V^ Bed. Abc.], et Madv. 

Opnsc. Ao. 2 p. 163. aequabilitatem] N, aequalitatem Ozf. others. mottis] 
motuum N. potest esse] Ozf. LMO, «n« om. BH. solet] assolet Ozf. ro- 
tundum] rotondum B, ruto7u2ii7n Baiter &om his Codd. AV and in i 66, and so 
Lachmann and Mnnro on Luor. n 402. aliarum] aliorum Ozf. quot] 

H Ozf., quid M, quod UBO. palato] Plato IL [Or.'s B^]. palatum] 49 

palatium HVj [Or.'s A*]. 

XIX. spatiis] spacium Ozf. continuo« conversiones duas] duas om. H 
[Or.'s F], eontinua conuersione sui MBVUT, text V^. conficiat] H, confeetat 
LBUT, conflectat (marg. ' al. confeetat ') 0, confecta MBV Ozf. rotundi] ro- 
tondi B. tenet] Ozf., continet N, after principatum G, optinet V [o&a'rkre Asc.]. 
eoE parti&u«] «o; om. V» eadem est aequabilitas] BO^, €a<f«m ««f om. H, o^gvo- 
M^tto« eadem est C, eaiZem £9t aequaUtas VO^. motitei tum r^ces^tu] om. B 
[Or.'s C]. modici — caloris] om. H. ctrcumitttö] B, circuitus others. 
V et LX et CCC] EV^, quinque defectibus et sexaginta et treeentorum B, quinque 
defectibus quum et sexaginta et treeentorum H, quinque defectibus est et sexaginta 
et tricentorum L, quinque defectibus et LX treeentorum N, quinque deflexionibus 
al, defectibus et sexaginta et treeentorum 0, quinque diebus et sexaginta et cce"'^^ 
et C, V defectibus et LX et CCC V, quinque et sexaginta et trecenti Cnjas, V 
et LX et treeentorum Ozf. conversionem — annuam] conuersione — annum N. 
8ol] om. L. tum] om. Ozf. ea] om. T. omnium quae] omniumque C 
[Or.'s V], omnia quae T. diicuntur] die. Ozf. V [Or.'s C'], text V^. ac] 50 
et V [hy corr. fr. ad Or.'s AB]. tum — tum] tamen—tamen 0, cum — tum T. 
aquilonia] HB, aquilenta Ozf. BMNO, aquilonaris I, aquilonalis LOVÜ. tum] 
HMCBV, aut BOILN, tum est Ozf. solstitit] solstitiis B. alantur auges- 
cantque et pubescant — adsequantur] aZuntur augescuntque et pubescunt — assequun- 
tur LT. oriuntur] oriantur C. 

XX. sunt] after admirabiles V. ratos] ratus B. Quod] Quid B. 51 
fum] quum H, om. Ozf., tarnen thronghout C. adeunt] Ursinas, abeunt Ozf. 



302 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

Z, ezeept habent 0. autem] ante C, om. Emesti. ne] non H, om. T. 

insütunt] insütit B [Or.'s C]. ex] et CV Ozf. annum] animum Ozf. 

52 definitam] diff. HVUT. Satumi] Ozf. HMO + , Satttmia B. «»aii'Air^tf«] 
FiCTum^ue BG [Or.'s C], phoenixque H, farumque MV, Phenonque B O^^^fainon- 
que y^. giMie a] gua « B. deZÜMC^ndo] (2«2tte<c«tu2o Oxf. HHBV, <2«2ti- 
eüeendo N. rur«um] Oxf., niTVUT» H [Or.'s V*]. ni^Z] om. B, non H. 
«a^cZorum] seclorum M, saectdorum others. «a<fem] ecudem MB. i«<f«m] 
At« B, Aüekm V. eßciat] Oxf. BOL, <2^ian£ur HU, eßcit M [eßeiatur Or.'s P]. 
j^ropttM] Umgius H. ^»a^^tfi'] /«tAon B [Or.'s C], phoeton H, Feton C Oxf., 
Phethon B, phaeton V, phaethon V^. duodecim] BL twioe, XU others. After 

53 conßcit Oxf. ipserts in gito curn« by error from above. Huic] hie H. IIu- 
p6eu] Pyrois BBV, ptroi« C Oxf. • quattuor et vigintt] BL, Uli et XX others. 
sex] VI Z. quem] quam vriÜx e superscr. Cü, quod T. kanc autem] 
autem kanc Cü. ea] ea quM C. ^TfXßwtt] stilbon Oxf. Z, exoept salbon H. 
vertente] fervente B [Or.'s C]. ^ciKr^^pof] Photphoros Z, ezeept fotforoe C, 
forforoB Oxf. Lucifir Ldtine dicitur] BMR, Latine Lucifer dieitur C, Latin« 
dicitur Lucifer V. «ubs^guitur] «eguitur ü. fi><pentf] HML, hetperoe 
Oxf. BCBY, ''E<rT6/x>f Baiter, L leaves blanks for all previons Greek names. 
orbis] oribus B. et Zon^itudinem] Umgitudinem 0x1 a&] a CBV [Or.'s 
OB]. intervaUo] intervalla Oxf. 

54 XXL in 8id«W&u«] in om. MCBV. ipsa] om. V Ozf., rest. Vi. eae 
stellae] aeae atellae B, /ia«c steüae C, Aae stellae V Oxf., stellae liae ü, stellae eae 
others. iTierrantes] errantes tJT^, text T^. cotidiana] Oxf., gtiotidiana 
HMV, cotidia quotidiana V, ac] atque Oxf. tujffmus] perfutus B. 

55 inerrantes] V, errantes H, quinque errantes N. jp«renne«] perhennes BO Oxf., 

56 peremnes B. incredibüigue] incredibili Oxf. vanito«] Oxf., tnannito« K, 
varietas L Dav. «menttta] BEL, ea mentita MCBV 0x1, «a ementita OVj, ea 
dementia ü. et /aZ«a] net /a/«a LO. ea] eunt Oxf. ÜMBV [Or.'s V^, 
aut N. veryantur] BH, uersatur LMOC Oxf. eae2e«tem] Z Oxf. TU, coe- 
lestemque 0, eaeZe^tem er^o L. od/n/rabifem] odmiradi^emgue Oxf. is} 

57 0, om. MCBV. ergo] igitur T. tit] om. H. tnve«ti^an(2ae] tni7. 
rei TS. duxero] duximus H, dixero NC. 

XXTT. Zeno] Zenon L. naturam ita] Oxf. BMCB, Tiaturain sie V, ita 

natural» others. definit] Otl. B, dißnit HMOCVUT, de/lniuit B. <2tca/] 

om. H. ignem esse] Oxf., eMe om. H, e^e ignem V. via] viam ü, last 

syll. erased in T. qwodque] quod Oxf. nostrarum] after ortium BV. 

58 sectam] secretam LN. «eguatur] seqtuintur B, «eguttur N. eomplextimo] 
eomplexus H [complexus voco Or.'s P], coÄ-cet] om. H, coheret I, cohercet 
Oxf. UVB [Or.'s EV']. eon«u2tna;] con^uZatrix B, et con«u2tnx C. qwu- 
que] BHILMN Oxf., before naturae C. continentur] continent V [Or.'s B^, 
continuantur V^. quas ipfids — actiones] om. H. ip/idt] hormas Z Oxf. 
eamque caiMam] eam eausamque Oxf. vel prudentia velj BO, om. MBV, vel 
QixL, aut prouidentia aut prudentia V]. vpovoia] pronaea I, pron ea Oxf., 
pronocha N, pronoea others. et] vt B, om. C. 

59 XXIII. etiam est] BV, est om. BC, etiam om. T, enim etiam H, e«t ettam 
others and Oxf. prope modum] Oxf., prope mundum B, prope in eodem H. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 303 

venUet] Oxf. OU, uetiisset B, uenis ac H, venis ut L. iitt] hü BHO Ozf., om. 

UV. iis] M, his BHV Oxf., is C, in his ÜO. extimescant] pertimescant 

L, exütimant N. defetigatione] B [Or.'s ABV], defatigatione HURV Oxf. 

[Or.*B CV^t defectione LOT, fatigatUme 0. fiumo^ammos] e«t mono^omo« H, Tzoit 
monomagos I, monagtoTWS N. d^os] om. ILT. comm«ntus] conti/ncdM I, com- 
mentatus MR. Mt] om. H. coUocati] collati B. a maioribua Oxf., 60 

a om. MGRV, rest. V^. erga] grati HN, om. T. Terentit] terenti Oxf. B 

[Or.'s BV], r«r. sit M. ip^a] ixto 0. inest] est BS,,- inesset 0. in^st 61 

mqjor] major inest Oxf. ipsa uis] Z Oxf. ÜT. The whole ut — deus seems 

to me spnrious. Vides — vides] Oxf. HO, uide — uide B, uides — uide H. 

Ligtutico] legustico V [Or.'s AB^V*], text Vj. Q.] Quinto V. Maximo] 

moximo B. Voluptatis] uoluntatis BI. Lub^n^tna«] Oxf., libidine HI, 

lilibitinae L, libertinae K, libentinae Vj. r«rum] quidem verum R. ej;i- 

stinia^] extimat B» «unt] «un< a 7n« UT. gi^o« vür] gut« T. 

XXIV. excellentes] excellentus Oxf. ac voZunfaf«] om. Oxf. Semela 62 
natum] Oxf., «em«Z ana^um B, Semele n. HLHVO', «em«^ enatum NO^. at^^iMt«*] 
Oxf., augustiae B. Xt^^rum] Oxf. BMO, om. HDTR Walker. mysteriisl 
BO, ministeriis Oxf. UOfCRV, text Vi. Libera — Libero] Libero — Libera N. 
Romultu] JRomtdum Oxf. TUZ, ezcept romolum B. ^mderu] H, quidam BM^NR 
Oxf., om. 0. eundem] om. NV. cum] enim R. rite di sunt] BO 
Oxf. , nee di sunt H, di om. M, nte sun< dii C, du rite <t<nt R, dii ritae sunt V. 
habiti] habitati Oxf. cum et optimi essent et aetemi] Oxf. 0^, cum optimi dtc. 

0^ [Or.'s C], cum optimo dtc. B, cum et optimi sint aetemi H, cum et optimi sint et 
€Let. N, et aetemi cum essent optimi 0. ex ratione] eratione B. magna] 63 

om. H, uana N. induti] H^lLN, tn(2ucti Oxf. BH'MOCV. vitam] uita B 

[Or.'s C]. referserunt] referunt LT. opp^^^^^^ ^> ^^pl^tkit H, oppleuit 

LONU, oppleuit sed Oxf. G, oppleuit scilicet RV. exsectum] exectum HRV, et 

seeutum L. Coe^^m] Celium CRV [caelium Or.'s V^], Celum Oxf. V^. Satur- 
num ipsum] ipsum Satumum Oxf. impias fabulas] Oxf. USO, impia fabulas 64 

B, impias filias H, impia fabula R [Or.'s C by oorr.]. caeUstem] HOL, cae- 

lestium Oxf. BMVi, caelestum GR. vacare] uocare N Oxf. After vacare 

voluerunt Oxf. om. ea |)arte — e«re voluerunt. ea] a U. egeret] ualeret 

nr, erased T. 

XXV. K/)^)^os] 0?-o TW)« B [orono» Or.'s 0, (wone» Or.'s B], ckronos Oxt CVj, 
crono« others. ^ui] gtiod VjlT. xp<>''0' ^^ ^^] ^^^> ^°^* ILNOVR. t(2 e«t] 
tdent Ozf. M, quod U. «aturaretur] «attireti^r L [Lactant. i 12]. in- 
saturabiliter] insatiabiliter Oxf. vinctuji] uictus HV, uictos N, text Vj. 
aute?»] est autem VUT. pater guem] BHOL, quem partemque M, guem partem C. 
et quidem ante optitnus] om. Oxf. omni&u«] hominibus XJ. magnas] 
maxirnas N. IfuTic] hanc B. «upra dtiri] praedixi LTü. «u&Ztme] 65 
Z, except suXlime C, see § 4. candens] cadens "BS, planius quam] 0, 
planiusque BLMNGRVUT, planius quem H Oxf., Plautusque I. t(ie7}«] id est 0. 
Ottt] om. N, cur G. eet] om. HVj. execrabor] Oxf. Z, except executor H. 
^tiod] giio 0x1 quicquid] quidquid B, gvitguit 0, et gtiic^m'd T. at<^ure<] 
augeres B. Jooe fulgente tonante] Oxf. BM, iouem fulgentem tonantem UTLH, 
jovem falgentem et tonantem 0, ioitem (üount fulgentem conantem N. enim] 
eum T. caeZo] melo BNG Oxf., modo H, in eaeto LOVinV, in meto M^ 



304 COLLATIONS OP ENGLISH MSS. 

text Vp fulgetüe tonante] M, /. et t. Ozf. BKCBV, fulgenUm et tonantem 

HOLUT. Euripides] Oxf., Eurippides B, Euri pedes H. fuaum] sunum 

H, fusstim L. . «errawi t«fi«ro] terra« tenero H, tenero terram early Edd. 

rtrcumt>ctu] ctrcuiTitVctum B, circvttu HLN, circunieetu B, circumiecto Oxf. V, 
tezt Vi. awipZect/fur] amplectatur V^ complectitur T. Hunc — eTbv^ 

om. H. 

66 XXVI. coniunx] Z, except conitix L. et] Probuß, et Z Oxf. effeminarunt'] 
Oxt BHMGBV, i'jfotfminau^runt I, effeminauerurU LNO [Or.*8 B]. autem eum} 
eum autem T. cTtinonigu«] iononique B. tn&uerunt] tn&uunt T. est eö] 
est om. B [0r.*8 C], esset eo H. moUiusI melius LN. altero] 20 Oxf. T, 
except alterum B, a/teri 0^. voZunt] uolumti« M Oxf. [Or.*8 V], lioh'mt» C. 
portunus] porluna Oxl, portu] H, porta BLOM Oxt jMziiZum] patt^Zum 
N. Diti] diei 0, C2i7i R. Dives] D. e«t C, dictus est B, dtVe« et 0. 
nXouTdw] pZuton Z Oxf., except plutos H. guia] gtia 0. recidunt] OVi, 
recidant Z Oxf. f^ra« e^] M Oxf.« terra sed B, («rr(u «^(2 H, terram sed TOL 
[Or.^8 CP, terris et Or.'8 S]. oriuntur} BHLMOV Oxf., ortantur others. 

• Proserpinam] Oxf. BMO + i Proserpina NH. gtiocf) quidem Hlf. Mt] 

7ia&«t N. ea em'm e<0 o™* B. üe/xre^iri;] persefone B Oxf., persephone 

othera. nomtnatur] nomtnantur B, nominata est H. nujpfam dicunf] C 

here. So Cod. Begia8 of Davies, for Baiter i8 wrong in statlng that it plaoes the 
words after nomen est, om. all others. volunt] uolunt deae filiam esse N. 

67 ahsconditamque'] que om. C. itidem immutatä] Oxf. B, itidem mutata MBV, 
idemtidem imm, N, immutatä itidenh C, inde mutata 0. ut"] om. U. Aiy- 
piifynip] clementer L, demeret N, demetera V^, demeter others. quasi T^ fiT^rrfp} 
quasi gemmentur L, qua>si gemeret N, quasi gemetera Vj, qtuisi gemeter others. 
vorteret] Heind., uerteret Z, except uertetur H. vel] uel quae HN. nuna- 
retur] mintiereturL. 

XXVII. haberent] habere H Oxt [Or.*8 V], haheret 0. Mt dtieftiiii] 

duetum est Oxf. dtictum] dictum B [Or.*8 C] NO. Zimtnt&i»] limitibus B, 

Zumtni&t» CV, text V^. ianiuie] ianae B [Or.'s C]. a Graecis] a Graeeis 

est NC, est a Graecis U. ea est] ea est est T. *E(rrta] /i^5tia Z, except 

hostia N, &e«t/a Oxt ad aras] et aras Oxf. quod] Oxf., guo^ IV. 

tnfttmaruin] uictima^rum HNViTJ. ft precatio] et procreatio N, et om. C. 

68 est] om. Oxf. AVc] Non B. vt di] 7ndü L. dueto] BHO, <2tu;tt 
M Oxf., dicti N [rluctu Or.'s FV^]. vescuntur] Oxt HMO, tiescurit B [Or.'s 
AFV^]. Jam] Nam LNT. Dianam^-putant] om. N. i^utant] uo- 
lunt C. ciiffi «ift exortus] eius ortus HN. oinnt&ttf] omxu aUis 
H. apparet] appareat V^T. «if] est UT. eamque Luciferam] eam 
quam lucifera T. nostros] nostras B [Or.'s C]. amnivaga] noeti- 
vaga Vj. venando] uagando HNVjU. numeraiur] Oxt, ntun^-efur [Or.'s 

69 V^] HLTU^ text U^, sideribus examinatur C. dtcta] dicta est HN, dtcto T. 
auteni] om. H. ti f7iatur(!«cunt] imaturescunt B, 7n' m. HO, dii m. L. 
non num(7t<am] HHO, non umquam B [Or.'8 CE]. aut ut plerumque] aut ple* 
rumque UT Probu8, aut ut plurimique 0. Timaewi] rimatus H, Thimeus V, 
Timeus Y^ Ephesiae] Oxt., efesiae B [Or.'s 0], effesiae [<p/j«8iatia« Or.'s A]. 
templum] templa HN. deflagravisse] BH, d«*«?» migrasse M, dfam migravisse 



COLLATIONS OF ENOLISH MS^. 305 

Ott,, deßagrauiuet OV, tezt Vi. abfuisset] HMO, affuisset LB, adfuiuit Oxt,, 

afinstet fiaiter. abf. domo] domo abf. ÜT. 

XXYm. fictos] Oxf,,ficticios H [Or.'s V], after deos C. nobü] om.HT. 70 

coniugiä] coniungia B. accepimus] HILO, accipimus BHMOBY Ozf. dt] 

LOÜT, om. BHMC Ort. caruerunt] caluerunt B [Or.'s O], solum] uero B, 

solam V, text Vj. etiam ut] HM Ozf., ut om. LOTB. Titanis] tirannU 0. 

ut cum] M Ozf., «t cum B, td eft HNUT, cum OL. yv<t2ttoKs] flirtiHtatis B 

[Or.*8 A^], scurilitatis HN, subtilitaHs L Ozf., inutiliUUis [Or.'s O^], vanitatis 
Aug. [/aciiitotü Or.'s E]. taincn ^m] Au taiii«n Oz£ Before j>oterun< 71 

inteüegit Ozf. inserts tnt«ZZipttn<ur v«Z. qitaletque sint] quaXes mmt BN, ^iia^ 

leaque sunt Ozf. OLHBT. ^liogue] quosque 0. Aoe eo«] Keil, hos deos 

Ozf. UZ, ezcept quos deos BOTO. «t veneran] ueneraris H, venerari MOV. 

^ra] pure HB. t?icorrupto] incorruptaque B. j^«ca6antur] praedieahant 72 
H, precabuntur 0. «tbi «ut Ztbm] ^Ztt «itt avt n'M «ut Zt&m T, yUit eortun 

auf «ut liberi sibi IL. j^afutt posteä] potuit postea B^postea patuit C. 

ex relegendo] ex reUgando B [Or.'s C], a relegendo Vj. ex reU — enim] ex 

religendo diligentes et ex intelligendo his enim Ozf. tamqiMm ex eligendo* 

elegantes] Dav., elegantes ex elegendo tamquam BTO, elegantes ex eligendo et 
tamquam H, ut eligentes ex eligendo tamquam a UMCVi, ut eligentes ex eligendo 
exque B, ut elegantes ex eligendo itemque Heind. diligendo diligentes] 

legendo delegendis BHTO, deligendo deligentes MCRVÜ. ex] et ex 0. vis 

legendi] laudis Ozf. eadem qua^] eademque OT. et religioso] BO, et in 

r. C, om. Ozf. [Or.'s V] BV, rest. V^. Ac] Ät ENV, text Vj. videor] 

Ozf. [Or.'s V^, uidetur BN [Or.'s V«]. 

XXIX. locus] locutus est Ozf. vexatu^] laxatus Ozf. vobis] nobis V. 73 

quieque] quidque B, quicquid H, quicquam V. Baiter retains quidque throughout. 
Zcpttt«] perlegitis Hü. irp^j^otav] jpronaeano« B, jmtam N, pronoeam BV, j>rt>- 

noran otbers. tWuct] ürsinus, induci id est prouidentiam Z. eo] ea B. 

i^uta] quodT, existumas] B, existimas Ozf. others. a& it«] om. R, 

ab his y Ozf. V. deam] om. Ozl Ariopagi] [Or.'s AS] HUICV, Arpagi 74 

B [Or.'s BCV], Arpai Ozf, Ateopagi R. d«e«««] ^£«t IN, <2tf«tt L. arbi- 

trato] B Ozf. 0, arbitratu HC, arbitratio IL, arbttror Wirr, arbitrio N, arMtrator 
B. Plene] HMO, PZari« B Ozf. ü. Tiatto] oratio HNB. tn tnru2«7u2t«] 

Ozf. ü, t7i om. IN. nolitote] Ozf., noüte HLN. m« hercle] me ercuU B 

[Or.'s 0, meercle A, mercuUu B^], ynehercule MCB [Or.'s B^EV], Hercule me Ozf. 
/roc] om. B Ozf. unum] om. Ozf. conventC unum — limatum] Kinder- 

▼ater, uno conuenit — limato ZUT. insultantem] insalutantem 



XXX. mujidum] administrari adds T. no«(rt fere] om. T. est 75 

autem] autem est Ozf. eaque] ea quae T. omnta pulcherrime gert] Ozf. 

[o. puUhrume g, Or.'s V], omn« ptiZcArum £^mt T. ea esse generata] Bonhier, 
esse omnia generata N, eam generatam 0, eam esse generatam üT Ozf. and others. 
ducitur] M, didtur HO, datur L, dr BO Ozf. negat] negant L. out qui] 76 

^ut €t H, aut quid V, text V^. tt«] his V Ozf. UT. eos] om. T. nttindt 

a<2mtnt«trattone] mundo T. profecto sit] BLMNBV Ozf., «tt profeeto HO. 

f«t] om. I. mettu«] LBHO, esse melius nOTV, meUu« e««« 0. dem] 

deos Ozf. UT Mai. id] uel B, om. 0, after cumque TU. tnantma] tnom- 

M. C. II. 20 



306 COLLATIONS ÜF ENGLISH MSS. 

mata M Qxf. U [Or.*B V^, in animata NGV, in anima Vj. natura] om. HT. 

77 Non est] novem B. deontm] om. MBV. ei vel] et vel H, ul vel ei T. 
qua] qui B. terrae] Ozf. BO, terraeque MGBVÜ. est autem] aut«in est 
Oxf. igitur] ergo 0. 7nu7u2t«m neeesse est regi] regt mundum est necesse 
Ozf. mundum neceste est] est om. M, neeesse est mundum V. est na- 
turae] n. est 0. ignorant] ignoreturT. eae] ea B [Or.*8 C], eo C, hae 
VTU. eoe modo] modo eae Ozf. sustinean^] sustinent T. co^itt] 
eoiieiB HTO. 

78 XXXL atqui] atque U. (2t st] diis et B. ttiocIo sunt] NC, modo «int 
Ozf. ÜO others. rem ^t^ftZicam] jje?* potestatem IL. oZi^vam] aliquem B. 

79 1« i/«] tn AM BV Ozf, before eadem sit in V. veritas] B0 + , werita C [virtus 
El. Bake]. utro&tgue] hie ibique HB, /loec utrobique V|U. stint] «tnt B. 
ai superis] B Ozf., a superis HMNCRV. d^^uere] dißuere T. in m<u?tmi<] 

80 in om. HUB. aufem] BO, autem esse OB Ozl, autem est others. eum] 
cum Ozf. videremus] uidemus CT. TTU'ntt a/gt/e] om. T. 

8) XXXII. ab ea] om. R. intellegi possit] p. i, ÜT. censent es$e] esse 

censent OV. «ne rattone] «ire rationem MT. in eorporibus — rationis 

om. U. mantu] m^aniie efficiat HBViU. enim] äutem B. nanctum- 

que] B [Or.'a AOV*], nactum [Or.'s E], nactumque HBV Ozf. [Or.*8 V»]. 
augerique] que om. B. ^n^at] eßngat Heind. from Cod. Glog. quicque] 

LH, quidqv£ B, cireumque H, quicquam 0. i^ossint] Ozf., possent H [Or.'s 

82 BCV^]. nomine] om. H, nomina Ozf. appeZ^nt] appeUant H. omnitim] 
omnia V^U. sint] sit B, sunt HU. naturam] natura BV,, in natura Kü. 
iis] B, Ms CRV. nt animaZ] aut animal B. ordo] odor B. 

83 XXXIII. a] om. B. et arte naturae] LViUT, et arte om. H, arte non N, 
et om. Ozf. others. ex] et ex UT. ipsaque] ipsa quoque T. exter- 
nisque] extremisque H, aeternisque N. ex^irationi&us] expirationibus HlQtV, 
aspirationibus TJWy et a^] etiler L, et om. CBVOzf. alitur et aether] 
ether alitur T. Ita] om. B [Or.'s C], item V,U. sustifientur] substitientur 
V, continentur T\3\ text U^. no&tseum vtdet Twbiscum audit] om. Ozf. MC, 
ubicumque uiuit ubicumque audit N, nobiseum uiuit n. audit B. nobiscum sonat, 
nobis consonat N. eorum] om. R Ozf. eo] ipso B. quacumque (2nd) 

84 M Ozf., qua BHLO, guoeungue C. cedere] eoncedere HN. ej^itMt] om. 
inserting habent after naturam HTQ. genera] after sint BV. inde] ex 
aere V. naturis his] UT, naturae situ L, ex 71. /lis N. sursus deonrus] 
sursum deorsum U Ozf. HLCBV, sursum et deorsum N. citro] citroque LNV. 

85 eommeanti&us] eoTTieantifru« BV. neeesse est] necessest B. eodem] eadem B. 
ad] aut B. aut quae] aut quaeque Ozt conformatioque] eonßrmatioque 
UHV, text Vi. ipse] ipsa B. ir^itur nihil] nihil igitur Heind. from Cod. 

86 Olog. mundum] natura jnondum H, natura mundum U. jwtest] post B. 
admi7iistrari] administrati Ozf. si gut] stguis BVU. pübertatem] uber- 
tatem HL, pubertates N. ea guoe] eague BO. ecferant] C, et /emnt B, 
conferant HNB, non eonferant U, /laec /erat ILOVT, nee ferant K Ozf., efferant 
Klotz and others. See Corssen i 155. iis] /»is BNBU. ecferantur] e/> 
ferantur Z Ozf., except afferantur L, ferantur T. 



••{ 



COLLATIONS OF ENQLISH MSS. 307 

* 

XXXIY. altor] actor HU, auctor I, tilitor LN. membra et] om. NC. 

nutricatur] nutrit N. possit] posaet R. iis] hii BTü. iü enim 

natuTu] hi$ natwris enim Ozf. effid Optimum pot."] Optimum effici pot, Oxf., 87 

eff, pot. opt, UT. corrigere] colUgere Ozf. faciet] MO, fadt BHXiG Ozf. 

non\ Ozf. M, om. BHLOT. potuerit] BH, |)oftitt MOOBVÜ Ozf. dende- 

ralnt] HMO, desiderauit B, deliherabit Ozf. pofuerint] OzL + , jM>tu£run£ VT, 

text Vj. ea fortuitane] ne om. V, rest. Vi, eane fortuita U. quo co- 

ItcLtrere] co quo herere B. ea and t//a om. T. quam illa — ne Tiatura] om. 

Ozf. perfecta] profecta IMNT7. sunt] om. U. ne] nee HVT. Quf] 

guid EV, text Vi. procul cursum] [cur in ras. Or.'s A], procursum B, procul 

ninum H, procul surstim Oz£ MNCBV, text V^. navigii] nauigium H, Tiaui- 

gium agi Ozf. MNCBV, text Vj. niot7^a<ur] numeat B. auf d^amptum 

auO NO, tieZ descriptum aut Ozf. ÜTBHILMCRV. complectatur] complectitur 

HVi. expertem] expertes B [Or.'a C]. Scythiam] scyathiam B. Po«"- 88 

<2oniu8] Fosnidonius BCV Ozf. [Or.'s BE]. C(>nr^r«i07i««] conuer$atione8 B, 

eueraionea N. ?n Zana] in om. B [Or.*s B^]. tarftana] Ozf., barbarie 

ILMBV, text V,. duhitet] dubitat T. 

XXXY. ^2] Ali Ozf. dubitant] dvhitabant B. et onuntur] et om. 

[Or.*s C]. aut] an VT. ac] an HV, text Vj. imitandii] mu- 

tandis LNR. ilt^ui] atque BOMRV Ozt /Iccium] ilcttum BCBV, text V„ 89 

Attium Davies and others. ante] autem C, antea Ozf. Argonautarum] 

argo nautarum Oz£, ergo nautarum N. e monte] ex alto MBV, ex monte V^ 

[et mofite Or.'s A^]. Tanta] tanto B. fremibunda] B Ozf. [Or.'s AC], 

tremebunda HN, fremebunda others. spir/tu] Priscian, »trepitu Z Ozf. 

voZvit] euoluit ZU. undas volvit] evolvit undas Ozl vertices vi] uer- 

tice sui H, uortiees ui CVy respergit] om. H. reßat] Priscian, profluit 

Z Ozf. ÜT. ita dum] interdum T. nimbum] om. C. dum quod] 

denique T. quod] quid H. «axum] saxis Ozf. auf] veZ Ozf. 

ictos] tillo8 H, octo« Bouhier. nisi] ni MBV. conct>f] BM, contitu L, 

conttnet NO (with 2nd n erased), consciet C, coneitet ü, coneitat V]. evertem] 

uerttns H. «peciw] speettu L, impetus N [Bed.]. «u&ter rodice«] «ii6 

terra dice« Ozf., «u& radios H[G]. undanti in] undantes ueniant BHLO, un- 

dantes inuehant I, undantfs iTiveAat ÜT, i^n^nte uenire MCRV Ozf., undanten 
tienire N, undant« ui (in) Vj. od] H, at BOOT [Or.'s AC], aut Ozf. T^LMBV, 

text Vj. erutt] BHILOVi, «rut Ozf. TMNCBV. iuvenibus visis] B0 + , 

iuuenia uiso OB, juvenis vitu Ozf. M. <ic incitati et] Heindorf, sie on 

Grasnre 0, «teiit inctti atque BHMRV Ozl, erased T, gieut mari atque I, sicut 
mati atque L, ticut citi atque N, alt sicut C. alia multa] after ad C. Sil- 

vani] BMO, «'{uatu H, ailua lU, Hluam tum in N, «tZuam V, text Vj. m«Zo] 

Ozf. BM, Tnolo H, tumulo I, ceZo N, erasure 0. contimilem] lUTOV, con- 90 

simile BMB Ozf., consilere "EL, consimile item C. cantum] cawtatum N [Bed.]. 

inantmum] in animo N [Bed.], animum- 0, in animum Ozf. R, inanium V, text 
Vj. motu«] om. R. et moderatorem] oc m. C Ozf. 

XXXYI. Sita] Sita est Ozf. animalt] Prohas Ozf., animabili BHIMOCRV, 91 
amabili L, amirabili N [admira&iZi Bed.]. «st enim] e«t est enim B, enim est C. 
aether] Al^iip ClaveL Mutuemur] metuemur BC. Pact<t7ius] pUicuvius 

OxL memoro] memores N, memoro inquit C. ^'*^'] öraii CR Baiter, 

20—2 



»308 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

see Munro on Lucr. vi 424. aetherä] Alßipa Clayel. Graiut] grauU 

Y, text y^. loquitur] loquatur U. docet] dieet K. OraivgeHa} 

gragiugena B, Gr. quid sit 0, Graitangena B. ütoc] isto Z 0x1 aperü 

92 ipio] aperitur H, aperit Uta Ozf., aperitjam ü, erased T. rebiuque] et rebui T. 
hi] hii Oxf. mota] moti K, morta ü. 

93 XXXVU. ego] M, igitur OT, er^o Oxf. [Or.*B V»]. non] om. IN [EedJ. 
fiuf^] BMO, miror HNT. existimat] BMO 0x1 ü^ existimet HViU^. cur] 
guur B [Or.*8 A]. ijmumerabiUs] Oxf. 0, inenumerabiles BMB. imtiM ^( 
tftptnti] undeviginti T by corr. 9tia2««2t50t] quatUbet U. coictonfvr] 
BN Oxf., coniciantur H, coi£ta?ttur I, coniiciantur CRV. £nnii] «nni B [Or.'s 

94 ACE], emi K. noit colo^r«] om. B. qualitate] quantitate 0x1 irotOTifTa\ 
poeta B [Or.'s 0], poetice tarn H, poetica TO, poetae cocta N, poetoteta CV, poetota 
Oxf., poeoteta UV^ [Or.'s ABB] and others. concurstu — ^non |N>t««t] om. L. 
atomon/m] athomorum Oxf. cur] guur (foor times) B [Or.'s A]. tir5>cm] 
urbe B. tto] ^ui ito 0. temere] caeli omatum L. temere — omofum] 
om. OxL effutiunt] BM, eßciunt [Or.'s E] HLVÜT, setUiunt NO, text Tj. 
ttumguam] nunc B. iulfnira&ztcm] a<2 mirabiUm B. omo^m] contffum N. 

95 semper] semB. omata] omatiB. üs omnibua] hU omnibus JTCOtLVW, 
omn. hiU C. dbundanil habundant 0x1 BHC [Or.'s BO*, habundet BÖ*], 
tt] hi UBV, /u'i Oxf. et OAiditione] atiditioneque opinione H, et auditione et 
opinionem C. a&dttt<] additis Oxf. nuötu/n] ntm^um MN, nitiUfium V, 
text V]. nu57um — cognovissent om. U [Or.'s C]. eituque] eius quem B, 
ejus T, et e;u« 0. cum] tum V Oxf. BV, om. TO. pulchritudinemque] et 
pulchritudinem U, et decorem L, decoremque T. tum] ventorumque tum U, 
tarnen, to end of section, C. etiam eß4:ientiam] om. ü. m] ftü B [Or.'s 
C^E]f ut H. opacoiset] occupcueet HI. tum cacZum — ^rarictatcm om. 0x1 
tu7n caelum totum] cum t. c. VU. ortu« — in omni om. G. ^uoe cum] 
Oxf. ü, cum /locc ergo C. 

96 XXXYIU. Aetnaeorum] aethnaeorum B, aethereorum I, ctAncorum MCV. 
agnosceret] cognosceret HIN. tum] tarnen G, cum Oxf. 2ucem] luee B. 

97 cottdiana] quotidiana BHBV 0x1 cum tam] Oxf. BO, tarn om. MBV. tnfer 
#e omnia eonexa] inter se conexa omnia G, omnia tnter te connexa Y. ||e- 
rantur nullo contilio] om. Oxf. H, gerantw n. oj^to LU (adding al. eonrilio), 
geruntur n. c. G. vtiiemu«] videamus ü. cum o^fmtra&iZi] BHMNGBY« 
admirabili cum IL. m'demu«] uideamus ZO Oxf. ann/rercaruu] oduer- 
sariat IL. cum «umma] tum «umma Oxf. [Or.'s V]. excellenti] Z, exeelUnte 
Heind. from Bentley on Hör. Od. i 25. 17. But see Wesenberg on Tnso. m 2. 

98 S referred to by Baiter. tubtilitate] aeubtilitate B. dicimui] diximua U. 
constitutat] conatituta Oxf. 

XXXIX. Ac] AB. principio] prinpio B. sede mundt] mundi ude ÜT. 
nutibus] notibus B, uicibus N. varietate] ueritate B. kue] hunc B^ 

huic L, adhuc G. perennitate$] BMV, perhennitates G, peremnitatei Klots 

retains, see xxi 55. altttudtne«] om. G. altttudtne«] (2nd) ceUiiudineB 

99 Davies if alteration is to be made. camporum] eamparum B. varia} 
uarie B. ve£ cicurum vet] uel cicurarum uel HN, et eieurwn vel T, et 
acurum L. pecudum] pecodum B. jam] om. T. Oi>eri6if«] om. Oxf. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 309 

potiemtts] Qzf. HM, potsiinm BLO, poantmus ü. ae litorum] (idüorum B, 100 

delietorum N, et littorum V. diaparid] dispersa LH. orarum] horarum 

0x1 U. (mI stixa nativis] Ozf. M, a4 saxa om. B, a<l «ox a sanatiuis E, od 

«oxa senativis 0, (ui aaxa «onaHut« L (i.e. ad saxosa nativis), appetens] 

amplecten» B. aUudit] C, eZudit Oxf. BHILMV, elludit N, 0^((2i£ ÜYi, cludit 

OB, eraaed T. Exin] T Oxf., Ex B [Or.'s V^], et in MV, text Vj, ExinAj U 101 

many Codd. of Moser. mari] After ßnitimus OB. finitimus] finitinuLS B. 

a«r] om. Oxf. BMV, rest. V^. tum fusus et] tum cursm H, concussus et TI, 

cum fusiu et V. «ub^itii«] t'n sublime TLCVi. annua«] animas Oxf. 

rolatttf] uolatum V. «pintu] Oxf. M, ^iritus BHOVUT, 8p«ci> L. 

XL. co^rcem] co/i«re«fM T Oxf. BLMNOB[Or.'B ACEV^], co^^fr^n« C. ora] 
M, Aora Ox£ BLO [Or.*8 O^V]. ordiTiato«] ordinatus L, determinatos BV, text V^. 
dtf/Sntiint] d//^mtint OUT. £] ex HV. ipsam] om. 0. dt«m] diemque B. 102 
in tnt€iTa2to] B, in om. Oxf. otheni. contrahit terram] Oxf. 0, contrahitur 

terra B, contrait terram L. tum degredieru] Oxf., tum digrediens UTHMBV, 103 

tarnen disgrediens C. tum] fuTic ÜT. t7i«i<f«7z:K] incudens B. ea/'] 

e«M BC, hae 0x1 VT, ceterae Vj. eodemque] eodem B. guanim] Oxf., 

gtforum MV, text Vj. «afp«] tum H, tum «a^pe V^üT. esse] nihil 104 

prudentius adds L. tfi^rran^tum] inhaerentium V, * aZ. inerrantium * Vj. 

maxima om. Oxf. votarum] BHOL, noto Oxf. MOBV, text Vj. 

XU. Arati eis] Oxf. BOLM, araneis H, eraticis N, Arateis Walker. tt«] 

ftt« T. memoria] memoriam B, memorie H. nuZZiu«] Oxf., nuUus T 105 

[Or.'s A^]. aretoe duae] Oxf., arcto edu« B, archtoe diuu H, arote diuie L, 

aratoe (2. 0, aretoae duae M, arthoe duae N [Bed.]. ^u] ü« B [Or.'s AOV], 

«i« Oxf. altera] alia LT. Cy?io«ura] om. L, dnosura Oxf. Cyno^ura] 106 

om. L, Cinosora 0. Hoc ßdunt] liac fidei H, /lanc .^m L. Phoenices] 

feniees BV, feraces I, foenices Vj. 

XLII. £t] «X LT. fit] /t LVT. admirabilior] mirabilior LT. 

v«2ttti rapide] rapido ueluti B. torru«] totu« H, tortu3 B. subter supe- 

raque] Oxf. MBV,, «u&ter «uprogu« BINCV, subterque H [Glog.], »u&tus supraque L. 
£iu«] Cutu« B. totius] treius L, totu« Oxf. sit] SchÖm., est Z Oxf. TU. ^07 

tum in primis] Manutius, tum om. Z Oxf. a^spicienda] BHOL, stupicienda 

[Or.'s V*] Oxf. ÜMCBVj, suscipiendaYJJ, est] om. OL. Pp«ttpum] o«tt- 

|mm H, obstipumqVjB V, obstipum Vj. a ter^tt] 0x1 BLOV^, arenti H, a 

teretri I, aetherei MC, e terett B, ter«ti V. reßexum] refligum H, r«ttu2irum L, 

refiexit V. ^i7^«] Oxf., figurae LG, y^ure U. pauZum] i^auZuZum T. 108 

subitoque reeondit] MBH, subito seseque recondit 0x1, subiteque recondit L, 
stibditoque r. 0, «u^itogue r«co?u2et 0. partim admiscetur in UTiam] partim 

admiscetur in una Oxf. UBHLMOC, parte ammiscentur in una N, partem admis- 
eentur in una B, partim miscetur in una V, parte admiscetur aL inmiseetur in 
una Vj. defessa ,velut] velut defessa Oxf. ma^rentis] mentis N, merentis 

V, mtentis T by corr. Engonasin] engonasiam 0x1 OBH, egonasiam ü, om. 

L, ENrONASIAM M, entonasiam 0, eugonosiam V, engonosim Vj. vocitanf] 

nonu'fiaitt H, uocant LV. extmio] exequio Oxf. fiUgore coroTia] fiUgora 

coranata B, fulgore Coronae B. Anguitenens] augur tenens C. Ophiu- 109 

c^Kin] ophuchum B, offugum L, Ophnin B, op/imcum V, text V^. Grai] Grau 

B, Gra«6i H, of. 91. atgu« <;u<] <yu« et T by corr. t(;rto] tor^/o B, toto 



310 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

pectara] Oxf., pectore HLMGB. Nepal] Nepum B [nepe 0r.*8 A^B^, nepii 

Or.'s C]. Septem trioties] [Or.'s CE], 8. trionem B, Septentriojiei Oxf. WJB 

[Or.*s ABV]. Arctophylaxl arctoßlax Oxf., aroto ^^ok B, ArekopMlax C, 

ArtJiophylax V. J?ootM] ^ofe« B (and ftott below), Boete$ CV, text Yj. 

temoni] Madvig, temane Ozf. 2 {tk. in CV). cuftuTictom] adttincfum H, ad- 

110 tuncto NTU. Dein quae] deniqtie ÜHORVt e2«tn qutuque Oxf. ^tc] 
^tnc ü. enim] et enim MCRV. £oo<i] om. B (reading Hute et enim 
suhter as verse). cui] CB, cuitis Oxf. BOY and others, cuius pedihut DaTies. 

XLin. demetata] demetita Y, text Y|. discriptionilnu] L, dücreptumihu$ 

B, (i^fcrtpttonifru« Oxf. others. soZi^rtia] soUrtia CY [Or.'s BE]. mrüef ] 
Oxf., inuissea BM [Or.*s ACY^]. mediae] Grotias, media Z Oxf. ü. guott^n«] 
quaties B. ^mmam] flamam LBY. o&ducttu] o&(2u<;fR< L, oMuctttt C. 
feretur] Oxf., tenetur H [Or.'s Y*]. Helieae] Elicae 0, If^Wc« Oxf. others. 
tii««ur] ttidetttr LIT (adding al, tuetur). Ät] Ae [ad Or.'s AY*]. eapra] 
Caput H, ca Oxf. cZara] claro BHMLY Oxf. U [Or.'s CY], clare 0. tva» 
gtia« secuntur] B, at^iM «e^iintur (as end of line) B, tumque sequutUw HY Oxf. U, 
cum^u« eeq. 0. Ho^dt] «(2i U, egi N, co^ti Y, text Yj. cuhu] cui B. 

111 comxtu] C [eonnixiu), conexus B OxfL U, eonnexus HLMOBYT. £itu] Cuius B. 
H^a<2a<] om. L, *TdBas Glavel. suerunt] feruntur HK, eonmeuervnt VFt. 
Ü€iv] hiene B [Or.'s C], hiin 0, Aytn BY Oxf. U [O^-'s ABY, hian Or.'s B]. 
enim] om. ü. Suculas] BO, SiccuUu L, Sueculas HMBY Oxf. [Or.'s Y]. 
ju5iic] »uct6i» B [Or.'s 0], sub N, «ui&t» OBYT. a suhiu eueTit] atubetsent H, 
€<««nt after imMlnu C. minorem] minoria T. S«j)te9ilricm«iii] Mjptem- 
tryonem B, septentrionis T. Cep/i«iM] zephetu H, cipheus 0. a e«r^o] 

C, ftfr^a Oxf. ÜTBILMOY, t^rt/« H, t«rra N, t«r^o R. ijw«] Davies, tjMa MB, 
ipsum Oxf. UTO others. Cynoeurae] Cyno9ura ÜBHLMOBY, cinontra OxL 
CasBiepia] B [Or.'s ABCP], Cassiepeta H, Casside pia LO, Carsiepia Oxf. HY, 
Cassiopeia C, Cassiopea B, caMopia Yj. Hanc] lfa«c MCY Oxf. [Or.'s Y*]. 
Aiidromede] Codd. Glog. Bed., Andromade T, Andromada HNY, Andromeda 
Oxf. others. fugiens] UTMNBY, ^tu2 fugiens B, fugies H, auf fugiens IL, 
aufugifins Oxf. 0, /i^u fugiens Klotz. o^p^cftim] ospec^u H. lu&om] 
tu^ar H [Ju!>a« O Heind.]. contin<;i£] conti (/it B [Or.'s G^E], conttfi|/ens C. 
fiü(ium] munduNi L, modum MY, text Y^. 

112 XLIV. mmma] BO Oxf. UT, summa afr Godd. BE of Baiter. propter] 
per T. genu LO 0x1 TU, genum B, genium H, ^^ni» Priscian. F^ivnita«] 
0, Virgilia H, paruas Virgilias L. 7n^« Fi<2es] in ^«m H, tmi« fidi* L. 
et ^vit^] leviter et Oxf. LMOCBY, €t om. BHIN. conuexa] OxL BY, coftnej» 
HILUOCBYi. Avis] tuis B. tofo] lata Oxt proj-ima e<t] Klotz, 
proximat Oxf. UBÜJIOCEY, proxima H, proximant N. ^^uartt] ilfiian B 

113 [Or.'s ABC]. caprtconitM] om. U. Hie] Oxf. UT, /iinü 0. ut] om. 
Z Oxf. UT. Scorpius] BHC, Scorpios others. plexum vi] VLO OxLyplexum 
in HKY, plexumque in B, text Y,, flexum vi Dav. • pefmis] IM, plumü HH 
[0 Bed.], pinnis others. Aquila] BHO, Aquilam MCBY Oxf. U [Or.'s Y]. 

11^ ardenti cum] ardentium B. o^Z/guo] od/tco EL [Or.'s C], aliquo H. JL^ptw] 
2upu« HY, text Y^. «u&se^uttur] BOMT Oxf., sequitur HNBY. Puc«] 

Pi>m HY [Or.'s P]. inlustri] BM, iUustris TLOY, text Y,. mofiaiOem] 

manentem HY, text Y,. oirptct««] aspiciens H, atpicie» totum io complete 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 311 

the veree R. Nepae] HO Oxf., Nempe BLV [nepe Or.'a AO], Nepam R, text Vi. 

cemes] Oxf. UO, cernens BEL. permuleet] promUerat Ozf. propterque] 

propier quam T. C^dit] Caedit Y, r«dt£ Oxf. tubiungere] suhmergere KRVU 
(by eorr.). Chelis] cetis Oxf. ÜBUHOORV, co«t« H, ««ctw N. hie] hinc U. 

j7orjf£n<] BM, porrigens Oxf. TULHOY, pungens K. ^ua] gui B. r(uta] 

au«ta B, usta HOLT, tiMto Oxf. ÜMCV, uita N, text Vi- tructdentiu] trunctt- 

lentus B, (lacunB) Untn» H. C6<7t^] Oxf. BM, teridit H, ca«c2tt V. infemu] 

BHO, inferni MNOR, eo; ift/V;na Oxf. e] BENOV^, de Oxf. others. Hydra] 

ydra Oxf. Cratera] crathera HR, cetera L [crc^era Or,*s V* Nonias]. 

tundit] Vi, tendit Z Oxf. Ante Canem] Oxf. BOM, anticanem HV^. Pro- 

eyon B, prochion ÜHOOV, prochyon Wf^ ex] et ü. cursanti&tu] con- 115 

cur«an£i&us RV [curstfantiöi» Bed. Heind.]. aut] at MRV Oxf. U, ac 0. 

alia quae] Oxf. BHO, guo« alia UKCRV. «int] sunt LU. posaunt] 

possint N. 

XLV. Aa«c solum] om. Oxf. fie excogitari] Oxf. 0, n« cogltari B [Or.'s C]. 
gu^i^i gtiodam] g'Uoc^aTn quasi 1TT[0]. circuTtidato] circumdata LV [Aac. 

Heind.]. natura] om. Oxf. j>er] i^er naturam Oxf. ad medium 

rapit et convertit] uertitur L. partibus] pubtLS Oxf. id] idem H[0]. 116 

Tnedinm] Oxf., medium et H [O Or.'s V^]. inflmum] Oxf., t/}/S/titum LN [Or.*s 

A^]. quo] OL, gwod B [Or/s B^C]. aequdbiliter] B, aequaliter VO [Or.*s C]. 

9u&{i?ni] Z Oxf. UT, sublimis Cod. B of Baiter. tarnen] tum C, non Oxf. 117 

tjwe fundit] effundit T. uinctt»] juTictus R, covjunctxLs ü. a^theria] BO^, 

aethera O^HMGV, aether RU, a£therea V^. 

XL VI. s€ et m'«i/] S0 et iu<5u N, «e om. 0, et se nt'oni RV. globata] Oxf., 

conglobata Cod. Glog. ^wragwe] figuras et MR, figuraque et Y,figura et Vj. 

«iMten/ant] sustentat B, sübtterUant V. /orin»] fartuna MR. natura] 118 

naturae BU [Or.*8 0]. flammeae quocirca terrae] om. B [Or.'s C]. Foiflam^ 

jneae, flajneae LV, flamineae U ; for quocirca, quo cuncta H. ii»] am Oxf. TüV 

[Or.*8 X]. ex] et ej: ü. aitae] aKtae HNTJ, allotae V^. refundunt] 

refundat BHLMOCRV Oxf. eadem] eodem V^. rurmm trahunt indidem] B, 
rursum trahat in diem H, rursum trafiunt in idem MLV Oxf. TU, r. t. i?ide 0, 
eursum trahunt in diem N, in idem trahunt rursum C, rursum trahat in Idiem R. 
aut] HOL, Mt BH Oxf. [Or.'s CEPV], nw CV^. jpauZum] MRV, paululum 

ÜTBHILNOC Oxt V^. astrorum] astonmi B. consumit] consumat Z Oxf. 

UT. nee remearet] nequ^ r, UT Emesti. exhausta] exausta B. re- 

Zin^ui] relinquit LU. renovatio] reuoeatio HVj Probus. oreretur] oriretur 
HLKCVU. maan'niegue] gue om. B [Or.'s C]. dmimtUimis] dissimilibus 119 

LN [O Bed.]. refrigeret] respigeret B [Or.'s CV^]. media] om. Oxf. 

incendat] incedat B. tts interieeta] is inteeta B, /li« interiecta K7 Oxf. ü. 

o&oedtant] obediebant H, o&edmnt Oxf. omnem] om. T. a& eogue] jETa- 

beoque B. ad/erat] auferat LU. gignendi] gignedi B. tnco2umitatem] 

incolom, B [Or.'s AC]. coagmeTitatio] Oxf. B, coaugm. HMOCV, coaugum. UT. 

»noret] commouet UTMRV^ [Med. Abc], commoueatur 0, commouetur V. Aorum] 
e^orum] Oxf. certo] eerto« B. 

XLVII. re&t«] om. LT. terrestres] terrestria LNT [Red.]. guid e«t] 120 

quidem B. non] om. B. t'i«] ?u« Oxf. jrtf^tinentur] Oxf. TBHOL, 



312 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

nutinent MV. aucum] tuccum BOB. alantur] dlufUur T [Or.'s P]. 

que] om. Ozf. trunci] om. H [0r.*8 P], trunehi L. sint] nmt T. 

eaUnibtui] coloribtu B. adminieuld] aminucula B, ad uincula N, amminicla 

OtL ita se] BOBV, se ita others, om. H. anijnantes] amantes B. 

caulibtu] Dav. Ootf., e. brarsicU B, c. brcuicU HN, costdu« brasicis I, c. broMtcw 
LCO, c. broisiciaque MBVUT. «t propter sati] HH , propter sali Oirt., sipportet 

$ati8 B, n oportet sati LG, st opportet et 'tici 0, st populati NV, text V^. stnt] 

121 «uTtt HN. Vtfro] om. B. vü] jus Ozf. ut] om. U. quaeque] 
quaque B. quaeque genere] genere quaeque Oxf. permaneat] Ozf. BHLO, 
j>tfrman«ant MORV. st^nt] om. Ozf. alias alias squama] aliae squama 
aUas Ozf., alias squama alias ÜT. ohductas\ obductus B. permarum] 
pinnarumB. postum] partum B[ pastus Ot,*b AB^. natura] aSter etum 
0, before large RV. gui ctitgu«] quieunque EMBV, gut om. 0. erat] 
eiset H, Mt T. capessendum] eapescendum BB. sup^rvo^^n^um] super- 
uaeuaneum B [Or.'s AB], «iipeT^octiiim ÜT. detinendam] Ozf. U, r«ttfi«Fu2am 

122 ILT. non necessarium] noncessarium B. pastus] partus Ozf. aZtarum 
ea est] aliarum ea est B, eorum alia T, eas aliorum et H, aliorum alias LO, aliorum 
eas et Ozf. MRV, alia se C. Thimiltfo«] humiliatas LOBV, humiliora T, humi- 

123 2tant 0. aZ^iora] altiores N. c^pnt] ctoni B, ct<7nt M, signi C. ut 
eanMU] ut cameUi BL [Or.*B ACTV^], ac cameli H. c2ata elephanto est] B, liato 
elephantis HMNOBV, data elephanti Ozf., datos €2^^an<«s I, dat€u el-ephantis LO, 
dato est elephanto Yy habebat] Ozf., habebant H, ^&ea< HB, Aabeant CY. 

XLYILL. alius] Ozf. HOL, alterius V^ aliis B. 5««ttü] HOL, escis Ozf. 

BMGBV, tezt V^, om. T. celeritatem] BHO, celeritas data est H, celeritas 

[Or.'s V^ Ozf. OV, tezt Vj. data est] data est etiam OtL [O Bed. Heind.]. 

atgiie soUertia] ad soUertiam Ozf. rete texunt] Ozf. BOM, retexunt H [Or.'s A*], 
recte texerunt L, rethe texunt [Or.'s B]. ut] BHO, om. LMCV Ozf. ex 

inopinato] B, tn ex opinato H, om. 0. Ptna] pinna H. ^andt&us] ^randtfriw 
didtur Ozf. cott] Oz£ BHM, contrahit LüTO. ptsctcuh'] j>{sctiZi MY, 

piscicli 0, tezt V^. Aiantem] hi autem B. tnnataverunt] Ozf. BO, tnna- 

tauetint HLMCBV17T [Or.'s B'V*]. * a st^'UtZIa] ILOT, squilla Ozf. M others 

ezoept sequilla H. ptna] 0, |7tnae Ozf. ÜLMC7, om. Baiter. morsu] 

124 Ozf. OHM, morsus B. dtsstmtZZtmts] dissimilibus U. natura ipsa] Walker, 
naiure ipse Ozf. BUfO, naturae HMBV, natura« tpsae IC7]TU. sint] Ozf. 
HOM, sunt B [Or.'s A'GB]. tts] his UV, hisqueOxt crocodiU] coeodriUi 
Ozf. fluviatilesque] fluuialesque VjU. nttt] nott B. anatum] MHOUT, 
anetum Ozf. BI. saepe] om. HT. j>rimuni] BOM, |>rtmo HLC Ozf. 
tts] BV, his Ozf. ü others. fotique] ortique H, fetique L. eas] eos B. 
9ui] tnOzf. 

XLIX. platalea] BHM, j>2atanea L, j^Zantalea N [Bed.], plantanea [platelea 
Or.'s 0]. advolantem] VBJJO, om. MB, ad eom i7o2ttntat«fn Ozf. [ad t7oZun- 

tatem Or.'s V^j. emersissent] mersissent Ozf. mordteus] mordtcis B» 

mordtcans L. in quod] Walker, id quod Z Ozf. UT. haec] om. HMOB. 

at^is] cttis B, cf. 112. easque] OOV Ozf., eas others, eagiM L. ealore] 

125 eolore B, ealor N. ita eligere] after tts C, ej; fcts el, T. ex tts] ex his 
Ozf. ü, om. T. moveri] movere T. cum] tum Ozf. aeeesserini] 
aeeesserunt HH [Or.'s P]. nanctus est ova] natos torua N, nactus Juerit V. 



COLLATIONS OF ENQLISH MSS. Sl3 

plen^giue] Ozl HO, plera B, pluraque quae C. quia] quivit B, uU Ott, BDOlOy, 
qui$ tum 0, text Y^. non mirari] nominari EN Ozf. trarumittant] 

(laotina) mutant H, trarumeant UTUST, trantmitiunt V. trianguli] triangula B. 
eßcere] tßeiunt LU^, text U*. formam\ forma B. /onn. trian^.] triang. 

form. ITT. a«r a& iis] oera &m K, a«r ah U Ozf. U. ««futm] sensum 

Ozf. U. gtt«m] ViU*, om. 0, qtmm Tü^O othen. • a puppt] appupi B. 

eaeque] 0, «a «gtie Ozf., ea a^que HHV {Or.'s V], eas B, esseque 0. q^ia] 

autem B. ipte] tjp«a C. ubi nitatur] HBO Ozf., cui innitatur H, eut 

ntto(ur NV^. ipse] ipsa C. fucce(2it] succeduntJTt. ex tis] om. C. 

odfui^runt] HO [Or.'s GEV^], adquirunt B [Or.'s ABFV^], (u^^guttur MGBV Ozf. 
[Or.'s V marg.], aequieuerunt W^. delitücant] [Or.'s ABO], delitescant 126 

Otf. BMORV, delirescant L. 

L. il^iie] Z Ozf., at guam Baiter. illa] ea NC. gutd ea] quam 

ea H, fUtf ea I, guocl ea BLMBY, ' al, quid ' mazg. M, om. C. vomitione] 

uoeitatione HN[0]. eanet] canis üV, canescunt OztL purgatione] Vj, 

puri/ante BHB, purgantee ILO, purgare Ozf. MNV, purgari purgare C, purgant ü, 
erased T. au<«m] M, om. HILNOVU. oZvo« t&e<] by corr. fr. alios ib., 

alvo sibes Ozf., aluo sibi B, alios ibes N. For t&e«, ibides H, t'M« MB, ^^8 V. 
caperentur] BL, carperentur HMOCV Ozf. ü, text V,. cum] LBO Ozf. , ut 

MBV, text Vi. capras] captas H, caprea» Y-JJ. dictamnu»] ditamu» H, 

diptomnuM Ozf. vocaretur] guo^e^r K, uocatur V^T. exeidere dicunt] 

die. exe, 0, after e corpore UT. j^et^rnryant] MH Ozf., perpungant B, purgant 127 

JJSOYiTO. iUa] iUamJi. vim — iTietum] Ozf., transpose GBV. d<;/eni2a£] 
Qzt BM, defendant HOCÜ, defendunt T. morvu] M, ci/rtu BHI^K, tncurvu 

morfu Ozf. aliaefugase] om. Ozf. «e] om.By. tutontur] L adds 

' TiTam JlfarttaZt« dejite timetur aper defendunt comua cerui, Inibeiles damae quid 
nisi praeda sumus ' (xm 94). atramentt] at tarnen L, om. T. insectantes] 

BOL, inseetatores H[0]. odoris] odorem U. i7itoZera6t2t] into2era&t7tc 0, 

intolerabüem T. /o^dtCate] feditate Y, faditatem T. 

LI. «Met omati»] om. e«. UT. <u2At2iito cura est] adh, est eura 0, est 

ewra xidJu Ozf., cura est adh. UT. a] om. UT. a terra] aterrae B, a 

terrae HOL [0 0r.*8 CP], alUu aut radicibus a terra aut UMGBY [alterae rad. aut 
stirp. Or.'s Y marg.], altae radicibus aut stirpibus a terra Ozf. uno] semine 

uno US. in] ut in Ozf., om. T [Or.'s P]. stirpe] forte B. in] etiam 128 

in U. mari] mare HOB. commiscendorum] comisc. B. mirae] inire 

HUT. saeptum] septum Oz£ cum] eum B. tu] his Ozf. U. sol- 

lertisque] sollertiisque B. iis] Ozf., ^i« U. easdem] om. UT. eoe] 

Aoe Y Ozf. UT. pauca gignunt] paucae gignuntur Ozf. iis] his OxL UT. 129 

procreaverunt] procreauerint MBY. aiunt] Z Ozf., aZunt all Baiter's mbs. 

genuerunt] genuerint Ozf. UTL, genuere B. 

Ln. crocodilos] 0, crocodillos BY, cocodrlüos H, corcodriolos N, croeodriUos C, 
corcodiüos Ozf. educantitr] edueuntur Ozf. cotwtruunt] Ozf. BO, con- 

^iunt N, coTutttuunt Y, text Y^. posaunt moUüffffn«] mollissime possunt Ozf. 

faciUime] facile UT. e] BGB, e:i; others. excuderunt] 0, exeluderunt B, 

exciderint HI, excuderint LT, extmnt C, excluserint Ozf., excluserunt UM othera. 
peitnie] Ozf. U, pinnü B. a «o^] BHM, «o2i ILOYU. puUt |)ennu2ü] Oz£ 



314 COLLATIONS OF ENQLISH MSS. 

130 ÜB^, pulli pinniUU B^MR, pullt pennieulii HN, pimU» puUi C. ad] Emesti, 
etiam ad Oxf. UZ, except et ad L. procuratione] proereaHone TL. dbwi' 
dantiam] hab. [Or.'e CEY^]. ohrtUam] obruptam H, ob uitam Q, obrutam 
terram U. tenuit] tenuerit LVUT. eßcit] facit T. agro$ ad u- 
rendum] BH, od serendum agros CBV. quasi] quanque Oxf. eof] ip«w 
N, om. CR. secum] om. CT. nmilium] om. LT, nmt/b'mum Oxf. M, et 

131 «mi2ium N, simiUimam G. ^»(Mattm] poesem T. 

Lni. tarn iucunda] tarn iocunda B%, tarn ioconda H, «t tarn tocuTuia Oxf. 
UMC, ft tarn iucunda B, «t iocunda V. iu denigi^] ü d^mgue Oxf., hi$ 

deniqiie HUT, iisdemque MOBT [Or.*8 ▲, isdemque Or.'s B], tezt Y^. £^«uu] 

132 eth, Oxf. CV [Or.*s V^H, text V,. multum] Z, cuZtt» multtan Oxf. «alino«] 

133 «aZina C, salinea B. ora] ^ora Oxfl 0, bora B. «tn quaeret] Oxf. UTZ, 
ezcept /ue for «tn C. moZitio] mollitio B. mutorum] DaT. from his 
'Elienfiis' so Cod. Glog. and ^, mutarum Z Oxf. Baiter. quis] om. Oxf. 
«ciZtcet] «oZum Oxf. est] om. Oxf. pra«£<;£] BHM Oxt, praestat 
LORU (by corr.), praeest N. ^4 'i^ B. in €o] OL, tn eo mundo Oxf, 
BHMBV, in mundo C, text Y^. sint] sin H, sunt COL. 

LIV. intellegetur] RYi, intelligitur others. «i erit] fuerit H, #tc «rit U. 

134 i)«r/Vcfto] profectio B [Or/s CE]. constructis] BOL, corufitutt« H, constrictis 
Oxf. HCB, ' aZ. constttutis ' Y^. atgtt« ab his extenuatur] BHOLM, atque ex- 
tenuatur ab iis Oxf. molitur] LO, moUitur 0x1 BHMRY, text Y^. acuti] 
BH, ocufo UTOY^, euti Oxf. ^«nuint] camni (canini) H, genuvrii I, gemini 

135 NC Oxf. gua«] quaeque Oxf. or€. I« Manntius, om Z Oxf. tonttUo«] 
tossillas BHLY, tosillas Oxf. MY^. d^tru^um] detritum uel detnuum L. 
ci5um] om. HT. accepit] om. T. eoe guae] HM, egu« B, ^6 quae UTC, 

136 «(K* om. LOY, ea eqvxie 0x1 ostium] ostrum B, /u^ttum BYU. «am quae 
ducta est spirita] eam quae dicta sit spiritus BC, eam quae ducta sit spiritu 
UTOHLYj, eam qua eduetus it spiritus Oxf., ea qua eductus tit spiritus MY, eaque 
eductus sit spiritus N, eam qua eductus sit spiritus B. eandemque] ecuUmque 
MCBY Oxf. qtu>dam quasi] quasi quodam UT. tegitur quodam] tegi» 
turque MBY, quodam om. C. operculo] aperculo B, e periculo L. eam] 
BHO, guam [Or.'s Y] Oxf. HY, text Y^. ne si quid] BHO» nisi quod si MY, 
nt«i quid si Oxf. C, n« si quid si Y^. incieliM«^] Oxf., incidiwent MOY, text Y]. 
dueant] B, adducant HLMCY Oxf. U {bj corr. fr. «d.), adducunt 0. cojutat] B, 
constant HLMOCR 0x1 recepit] L, recipit 0x1 U others. id mutori] 
id mutarifacile L, immutari facile UT. mutari et concoqui] mutarier eoneho 
qui Oxf. €t conc. jpos«.] poss, et conc. UT. «ague tum] eaque autem B, 
«ogu« tarnen C. relaxatur] relaxantur B. accepit] BHLY Oxf., ojceipit 
others. ut facile et calore] M 0x1, n« /ociZ« coZor^mH, ut/. «t calorem LO. 
«t terendo] Oxf. BHM, exterendo LOYT, et exteriendo N, text Y|. con^octa] 
Madvig, coacto UT^ILY^, cocta 0x1 BOT^ others. atgue] et C Oxf. 

LY. raritas] rarita BC. (MbimiZi«] ass^iduis MY, text Y^. vnoZZitudo] 

muUitudo H Oxf. Aaumrufutn] aur. B. tum se] om. H, tarnen se 0, 

and tomen for tum before in. in respiratu] Lambinus, in re spiritu B, se 

spiritu UHMCBY, spiritu se Oxf., tn «ptrttu 0, se in spiritu TIL, m in tpiritum V. 

137 autem alvo] BOM, aZvo autem Oxf., autem et aluo HIN, autem aUo I^ aZi;o om. 



CÜLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 315 

Davies and Baiter. secretiu] aecreta MV, text V^. d] Ozf. BHO, om. 

MBV, ex C. permanat] BHO Ozf., pernteat MBV, text V^. uaque ad] 

usque Oxf. appellant] U, appellantur HMCB Ozl ad iecur eique] Ozf. 

BM, iecori quae H, iecorique LQ. a] e B. dilapstu] lapsus T. secreta 

bilis] secretabilis Oxf. profunduntur] perfunduntur TU^, text U^. san- 

guinem] sanguine B. easdemque portas] easdemque partes CR, ecudem partes 

V, text Vj. eins uiae] uiae eiu$ Cü. jam concoctuaque] Madvig, j, 

coa^tusque UTZ, jamque coactm Ozf., j. coctusque Walker. reliquiae] reli- 138 

qui T. haud] aut B. dictu] MO, dictum Ozf. BHT, decori L. in- 

tucun<2(tati«] tntoc. ÜT Ozf. BC7, ioc. N, text V^. Nam quae] Namque HC. 

ipso ab] Ozf., ipsxim ab B, a& tp<o ÜTCV, ipso at V^. contagione] BLO, 

coagitatione HMGBV Ozf. U. pa}*<tf — cor(2i>] ozn. U. quadam] quoddam B. 
9uem] y, guam Ozf. others. illam cavam] c. t. UT. ex his] ex üs Ozf. 

diffunditur] infunditur LT, confunditur C. a<2 arh»] ad om. M. a<2 139 

omnem] ad om. B. corpore toto] toto corpore HNO. trocti et profecti] 

Edd. Ascens. and Basle, tractae et profectae Ozf. ÜTZ, except traetatae et per- 
fectae 0, tractae et perfecta^ H, and tracti «t profectae C. 

LVI. in£^U£^a£ur] inteUigantur H[0]. /iomznt&u«] ornnibm B. guae] 140 

YiotoriuB, gm Z Ozf. erectos] BHOL, recios MCBY Ozf. [Or.'s V]. con- 

stituit] B, constituerunt 0. co^n/tio7i«m] cognitione C, eogitationem B. 

ea; £«rra] £x^a terram H[0], exempla L antmantmm pertinet] pertinet 

animantium Ozf. U. /uw^/ayiti/T-] funguntur U. percipere] recipere MCBY, 141 
text Vj. «u&Zim«] Dav., tn sublime Z Oxt, UT. «t (^uod] Ozf. BHM, «o 

guod ILOV. fupera] Ozf. BHO, »uperiora MBVT Heind., text V^. secutae 

sunt^ sunt secutae Ozf., sequutae s, B^, consequutae s. B*H [O El. Bed.]. piM- 

tatus] gustus BILNO [Q Bed.]. debet] ILNO, deberet Ozf. BMCBV^, debent HV. 

esculentis] exailentis B. pofu^enti«] poculentis CBV. mt'nimo«] nimios 

Ozf. BHLOMNCB, minios V. oppu^fitö] apulsu B^, apulsvs B'. |)0««t7nu4] 

Ozf., possumus M. ut] om. B. avertunt] aduertunt HMB. aTnan- 

davit] BL, mandauit HO, amendauit [0r.*8 V^] MV, emendavit Ozf., ablegauit C. 

LVII. jjerwgwil prosegwt HLNüS text IT*. mem&rams] in membranis 142 

Ozf. c(mttnere7ttur] continerent U. gt/a] gua« B, gu/zm H. ^t/pu2a] 

Ozf., pupiJla HMKOBVTU, popula L [Or.'s B^C^]. po9smt] BMO, po^funt CH 

[Or.'s CB]. mollissiniae tactu] woUissima et actu B, maxtme toc^ H, molles 

tactu V. facta£ et] factaeque Ozf. piipttZa«] B Ozf., pupilku others. 

ad aperiendas] ad om. B [Or.'s 0]. T/wxi'wia] magna L Ozf. Afunffat^guö] 143 

Ozf., munitae MGBV. coniventi&u«] Ozf. M, conluentibus BH, confluentibus 

LNO. tit gut] Ozf. Z, except uf 0, qui B, gui ut U. utiliter] om. H[0]. 

ee exeeUis] Oxt., et om. BH [O 0r.*8 C]. saepiuntur] sapiunfL, sequuntur Ozf. 

obducta] indueta H, adducta V. a /ronte] [Or.'s B*], fronte Qixt, BHMBV, 

a capite fronte 0, fronde C. inferiore] interiori H, inferiori LNVj. Uniter- 
que] WalJcer, leuiterque Z Ozf. 'no^twguf ] BO, ruz^u« HLHCBV Ozf. UT Probus. 
ita locatus] BOM, itaque collocatus H, itaque locattts L Ozf. UT^, text T^, itaque 
qui diductus Prob. « somno] a somno B [Or.'s C], e sono N. tnirare] in- 144 

trart B. inhaereseeret] haer. B. futonditTui;] «£ tufanft Ozf. adiectae] 

additae N, audtto« C. ab iis] ab his Ozf. UZ. comeolos] cemeolos B, 



316 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

al. eomeoloi marg. B, eomeos HH [O El. Bed.]. cum flexihus] conflexüms 

HNV [Or.'s A]. quocirea et] quieirea B [quocirca Or.*B C]. $oni rf- 

145 feruntur] referuntur soni C, toni om. Qzf. UTO others. pervadere] euadere 
BC. inutilem] Qzf. OM, utilem B, inutiliter HN, inuHZe locum L. omnitgti«] 
Oxf. HM, omnis qui B, omnesque 0. 

LVin. tu] ^M BVüT Oxf. corporum etiavi] c. et Ozf. deeentiam] 

146 decefUia B, om. C. timiduiJigu«] tumidumque B. iiuitcatur] ituitcantur 
H[G]. varietas] uarUtates HL[0]. fuscum] fusum BT. 2«^«] Qzf. 
BOM, lene HLBY. et parte tangendi] UTHL in ras. 0*, om. B. For et partes 
et parte» 0^, et partim I, arte et MB Ozf. , et aperte V, et apte Vp 

147 LIX. jirtMient/am qui] prudentiarnque T. i« /ti«] Ozf., U om. TBCV, i« 
tuU HV^U. tpm] ijwiii« SU. dum] cum TU. <fu|mtarem] Ozl 
HOLM, spicuarem B [Or.'s 0], al. »pecuLarer marg. B. ve22em] V, ueUm Ozf. B 
others. iUa modo] modo iüa UT. iUa] iüam B. e^et] ease H Ozf. 
i^tdeZtcet] Ozf. BO, videbis H, uideliciet V, tezt V^, iudicamus videlieet Vahlen. 
eßaiatur] Ozf., conficiatur LU^ text U^, dicimus adds C. td^ue] ui^tie et 
UTO. rattone] rattOTiem H Ozf. definimus] dif. B, dt^. HCVUT. et 
quaUs] Sohöm., et om. 2. 9te]*nec U. gtioe] qua B. at^iie] et U. 

148 quamque] quam B. restira^mmtu] restringuimtu B, restringimut NCV [Or.'s 
CB]. Bocietate] sociate B. <2et7t7unt] disjunxit Ozf. a vtta tnmam 
et/era] aiitem uttam ^unuiTiam et feram H [eadem vitam humanam et feram O]. 

140 uM] NB, nisi Ozl TBHIIJlIOy. mocAtnata] after natura CUT. a] om. 

Ozf. in ore] inira B. fingü et terminat] LMO, ßngitur et terminatur H, 

/. e. terminatque 0. otgue sonos] guoe aonos BGB Ozf., «omw 0. cum] 

qui H. od dentes] Ozf. THO [Or.'s C], addentes B, et od derate« CV, et ati- 

4ente« B [(2ente« Or.'s A^V^B]. ad alias] alias U [Or.'s B]. plectri] 

plectro H[0], plerique N. tu] ^'s Ozf. TUBV [Or.'s X], 

150 LX. dedit] dederit attendite HU [dederit audite 0], dederit Vj. /ocilt«] 
Ozf., om. BHUIT. niUlo in rnotu] ntUla immotu B. adfingendum] ad 
om. Ozf. UIBUILMNOCBV, fingendumque V^. od scalpendum 0, ad «cuZpendicm 
HHV, oe »culpendum L, od om. OB, tezt V^. ac tibiarum] Ozf. OM, adtiarum 
B, ad tt&iarum HL. admotione digitorum] Ozf., odmottonem d. BIAO, ad 
motionem UT, om. N, admonitione d. V, tezt Yj^. o&teetattonts] o&2attont< B. 
neceMttatt«] necessitas U. tegumenta] tegimenta Ozf., tegmenta LM, arpti- 
menta 0. /^^H /<s^<< B. opt|/lcuin] opificis HB[0], opificibus Walker. 
|K>9«eiiiiM] B, possimus Ozf. HULMOOV, tezt V^. muros] om. Ozf. do- 
mtct'Zta] domieiUum Ozf. deZu&ra] saZu^ra L, delubrum Ozf. Aa^eremiw] 

151 hdbeamus C. qpen&ue] optbu« Ozf, td est manibus] om. L. ^eruitt] 
afferunt CBL, ferunt TV, tezt Vp ntnt efferunt Ozf. manu guoenta] manu et 
quanta N, manuque sita 0. conmmantur] co/uumentur U, connimmantur Ozf. 
[Or.'s BV]. volantibus] BC, uolatilibus others. quadripedum] B, ^tia- 
drupedum others [Or.'s B]. nos iu^a] et iuga H[0]. no« «a^acitate] 
no« om. B. arborum autem consectione] Ozf. M, arborum autem consectionan 
H, ar&. a confectionem B, arborumque ante confectionem C, ar&orum autem ctm- 
fectione LOV, tezt V,. materia] in arteria Ozf. calfaciendum] Ozf., 
cal^fieiendvm BC, coZe/actendum HILNVUT. tt^m] Ozf., t^ne HN. ad 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 317 

aedifieandum] 0, et ad Jied. B, et ad aed. C Ozf. UT. plvrimUque] pluris- 152 

mUque B, plurimis ÜT. item] om. T. avertimus] Ozf., cuhiertimus H. 

• 

LXI. tuque] om. Oxf. ah] ad B. yinth»] fontua B. praedic- 163 

taeqtu] ILOV, praedicata^eque Oxf. BHMNOB. acctpit] Ozf. T, aecepit LNOCU, 

accedit Davies. a& /i/« Ozf. MNCRV, a5 it« U, od Ai« B, <ui HT Dav., om. 

ILO. reliquaeque] et reliquae ü. exaUtit] consistit Ozf. T. par et 

similU] parum simul H, pars nmilU N [Bed.]. cedens] after ca«2e«£t5iM CTü. 

df &(?£ inteZ2«(7z] int, deb, UT. mm] om. ET, eum N. a^tgt^intio] aliquarUo 154 

H [Or.*8 P]. perarem] per ordinem H, 2?er horam Ozf. 

LXn. Principio ipse] Idem H[Q]. d^orum ^omtnumgu«] hominum H 

[0 Bed.]. ^ quaeque] quoniam H [(^i/om'am gua« G]. «a] onmia HT 

[Q Or.'s P]. parata] parate OxL aut ürbs utrorumque] at utrorumque 

urba Ozf. Leu^edaemonem Atheniennum] om. B. Lacedaemoniorumque] 

Lacedaemoniorumque quae Ozf. est] om. Ozf. conditas] ciuitates eon- 

ditas ILV, text Vj. eM«] om. H[0]. sint] sunt MRT, ^lint C. suTit 

in omni] sunt om. BH, hoc for a/nnt H [G Or.'s V]. mu72<2o deorum] deorum 

mundo Ozf. rationem soUertiamque] soUertiam rationemque Ozf. dim^tatt] 155 
Ozf. BM, dimetiti HVj, demetiti UTIV, demetati LO [Or.'s V], dimeditati sunt H. 
/acta e««e cat/^a] B, cat/«a /acto esse NITT, catf«a e^e /acto C, esse facta causa BV. 
iüdicandum est] itidicanda sunt LT. feta] fota B. guae cum] quantam 156 

tarne» N, gtiae sunt C, gtta« e«t BV. fundit] fundi LM [Or.*B V]. an] 

Jian B. (2tcam] dicamus N [Bed.]. gimrum] guorum CU. scientia] 

conscientia ILO. est et usus] esse usus H, usus est T. 

LXIII. possent] BH, potuerunt LTO, possunt VU Ozf. dixt] BHILNO, 157 

diximus Ozf. U others. ns soZis] B, solis Ozf. MBV, t7Zts If, solis iis TO, %is 

soZts H, solis his L. /uran/ur] fungantur H, fruuntur Vj. ex tis] ex ^« 

RV [Or.'s BE]. dicemus] dlcimus Ozf. Aomtnes] om. T. murum] 

N, munum Ozf. BILHCRV, furum H. coTt^funt] conduntur T. se(2 con- 

ju^um] et eonjungunt Ozf. /urtim] furtum B, frumento N, after <2zxi C. 

Zibere] liberam V. eas rerum copias] res eas H[G], ecu copias rerum C. 158 

comparatas] comparatas esse [G]HC, comparas Ozf. nisi] ni MR. et 

varietas] BIL, uarietasque Ozf. HNOB, et om. MV. tttcuruZus] iocundus BCV 

Ozf. U [Or.'s CE]. gustatus] gustatur B, ^ustus H[G]. quin] quod ST 

[Bed.]. ea] et U. &esttarum ettam causa] bestiarum eciam causa eciam 

C, etiam bestiarum causa U. afferunt] om. T. cultu hom, et curat, 

potuissent] hom. cur. pot. et cultu U, et cultu om. T, tarn] tanta T. tamque] 
est tamque Tu. significat aliud] a. s. TU. ^kmunum eommoditates] 

hominum om. H, commoditatem hominum G. &u5us] EMV^, 5o5us others. 159 

quorum ipsa] quarum ipsa Ozf. [Or.'s V], ipsa om. quorum after deelarant H[G]. 
od onus] before esse UT. se] om. VUT, rest. V,. extrahenda] trahenda 

Emesti, iis trahenda Moser. fissione] fossione HT, fixione M. aureo] 

Ozf., auido MRV, tezt V^. poetae] pote B. locuntur] C, loguuntur B. 

vis nulla umquam] mdlo uis umquam 0. funestum] fines tum B, funestvm 

est G. j7rtmast] prima sunt B, prima est others. fabricarier ensem et] 

Ozf. M, fabricari ferensemet B, fabricari ferro ensem et HN, fabricare e ferro 
ensem et ILT, fabricare effero ensem et 0, fabricare ensem ferre et G. ^ustare] 



318 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

gestare OB [Or.'s B^O (which has superac. al, tractare)]. vinetum domi- 

tumqiu] om. que Ozl, domitum uinctumque 0. iuvencumi iumentum B 

* [Or.*8 0]. e buhus] BMB, e bobui C, ex bobui V, ex bubus V^. ut] ut 

ex T. haberetur] putaretur UT. 

LXIV. est] esset H[G], est si LT [Or.'s B^. mulorum] muUorum Ozf. 

persequi] om. HT [persequar Or.'s B*], prosequi N. ftomtnum] ^omtnem 

160 Ozf. svni] essent H[0]. quidem] quid M, guid quidem C. putres- 
eeret] HILNOB, putesceret Ozf. BMV [Or.'s uss], ' a/. ^onitu in Puttdum 7e^it ne 
putisceret * marg. M. esse] om. Ozf. j^^nutt] generauit H[0]. tanto] 
om. Ozf. tfo«] ae B, ea Ozf., /eo^c C, hae V others. quidem] umqaam 

161 H[a]. ratione atque] om. H[GJ. quasdam] quosdam Ozf. puta- 
mus] putemus ÜT. re?ia7u2o] uenantes N [Bed.]. f i«] /t/< BYT.' exer- 
ceamur] eiciamur Ozf. et condocefactis ut elephantis] MO, om. ut Ozf., «t 
Condom;« /actis ut el. B, et docefactis ut el, [0]EL, et cum doctae factae sunt ut 
elephantis N [Bed.], ut condo€efax:ti sunt eUphantes C [et condocefacti sint el. 
Or.'s V]. earum] eorum C [0 Bed.], rerum Ozf. elieiamus] K, eligamus 
Ozf. ÜTO others. pereepimus] BM, percipimus CHV Ozf. U, percimus 0. 
cernes] BL, cernere HMNOBV Ozf. T, cemens [Or.'s V^ cerneres V*]. ^ecu- 
dttin] j^ecudum^ii« T. paxfu«] ^arfits Ozf. maritimos] maritimi HT, before 
curviM C. 

162 LXV. t7es£rum] nostrum B Ozf. /orto«se] om. V, before arripiet Edd. 
before Davies except Victorius. irridet] arridet Ozf. |>raedictio«ew] 
L, predicationem Ozf. BHMV, text Vj, praedicionem 0. con^nzuire] conßrmat 
Ozf. ^roridentia] M Ozf., prtidentia BHOL. consuli rebus] consultibus 
Ozf. cum — tum] Ozf. M, tarnen — tarnen C, tum— tum [Or.'s C] BHOICY, 

163 ^xt Yy in publicis] HLON, tu om. Ozf. B others. haruspices] auru- 
spices BV [haur, Or.'s 0], aruspices OB. provide/it] praeuident V [Manat. 
Booh.]. muZta oraclis declarantur] om. H. For oracUsj oracuUs MCBV Ozf. 
«omnü«] somnis B. muZtae] muZta B. ex] B, om. T others. igitur] 
et T. vis sive ars] ars siu^ uis B [Or.'s C]. sctentiam] seienHa B. 
alii cuiquam] HNB, alieui quam B, ab aliquo quam ILOT, aö aliquo alicui qimm 
U, a& alio alicui quam Ozf. MV, alio alicui quam 0. «i] om. HMB. a 

164 di' — singulis] om. Oxf. contuncta] iuncta B [Or.'s C]. <2e&e6ant] HT, 
debeant LO, debebunt others. deducere] ducere Ozf. tn ora] mora Ozf. 

LXYI.^ aZ)] ad Ozt consulere] colere LT. ea«] has .2 Ozf. ü. 

165 his] iis B. terras] terras incolunt U. coZuut] om. U. consulunt iis] 
NO, iUie con^uZunt H, cansulunt Ulis UBV^, im om. T Ozf. BILMOV^ partes] 
partis L, partem [G Bed.]. Asiam] Asiamque et H[G]. ut Rotnam — 
diligunt] om. IT. Spartam] sparttam B, spart/uim Ozl Pyrrhi] in 
Pyrrhi N [Bed.], pirri Ozt Coruncamum] Corruncanum BV, Coruncanum 
Ozf. Lutatium] LutoüiumCBV [Or.'s AB]. secuTido] om. T. Paullum] 

166 Paulum BCV Ozf. patrumre] Ozf., patrum TV^. moximegue] Ozf. BHO, 
nuixim>e MBV, text V^. IfoTnerum] Horatium Ozf. adiungeret] Ozf. 
HLBS, adiungerent UTBOVj, ascriberet uel adiungeret before discriminum C. 
gua^«] guafe B. a& t/«] et a6 /i/u 0, ab his U others. ext»] MB, in 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 319 

cetis B, in extü Ott. ÜTHMOCV, inertis IL, etiam extU Moser. advumemur] 

admonentur BVU. diuturmu] divinus T. eßceret] aßceret B. id] 167 

Heindorf, om. Z Oxf. refellendum] refellendus IL. cui quid] cum quid 

MB, (7Zit(2 quid C. prosperae] BHO, prospere ILMK Oxf. U. «emp^r] OT, 

Bemper eueniunt N, etieniunt semper CBV Oxf. U. philosophiae] philosopliorum 
T [Q Bed. Mars. Aac.]. 

LXVII. cirem] 2^Mf<;8 adds V [Or.*B P], utramque partem] utraque 168 

parte B. vo&ui] BOL, nobis H, quouis Oxf. UMC, cuiuw V,. dupuCar«] 

BHOL, disputari M Oxf. [Or.'s V*]. su/rui«] assumas N [Bed.]. t/&t] Oxf., 

om. ÜB. rhetori4;i8] rethorieis CV Oxf. potiiis )mc] huc potius Edd. 

before Dayies exoept Yict. Mala] Multum H[0]. et impia] et om. C[0]. 

fit] om. IL, Sit T. «ire] om. H. 



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